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Curriculum survey of Orange Union High School

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CURRICULUM SURVEY OF OR&NGE UNION HIGH SCHOOL
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d t o
th e F a c u l ty o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n
U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a
In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t
o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D eg ree
M a s te r o f S c ie n c e in E d u c a tio n
by
R ic h a rd K. P a lm a ta ry
A u g u st 19^1
UMI Number: EP54278
All rights reserved
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o
T h u thesis, w rit te n under the direction of the
Cha ir ma n of the candidate’s Gui danc e C o m m i t t e e
a n d a p p r o v e d by all mem be rs of the C om m it te e ,
has been p r es e n te d to and a c ce p te d by the F ac u lty
of the S c h o o l of Ed ucati on of T h e U ni ve rsi ty of
Southe rn California in p a r tia l fu lfillme nt of the
requirements f o r the degree of M a s t e r of Science
in Education.
Date
* £ ^ . 1 .??.*
...........
G uidance C om m ittee
Paul Fisher
Chairman
0. R. Hull
Louis P. Thorpe
AM?.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I;
PAGE
THE PROBLEM
P u rp o se o f t h e s tu d y
..................................
1
........................
2
V a l i d a t i o n o f t h e s tu d y
A u t h o r i t a t i v e c r i t i c ism 4 . . . . . . . . . .
2
Im p o rta n c e o f th e s tu d y t o O range . . . . .
4
M ethod o f p r o c e d u r e • • . • • • . . • • • • .
5
L im ita tio n s . . .
.....................................
.............................
O r g a n iz a tio n o f s tu d y
II.
-RELATED LITERATURE
Summary
III.
6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
8
.....................................
13
THE GENERAL NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY AND SCHOOL
POPULATION
............................. . . . . . . . . . .
15
The g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f th e com m unity . . . . .
16
L o c a tio n an d s i z e o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l d i s ­
tric t
C lim a te
O c c u p a tio n s
.....................................
16
............................
. . . «
. . . . . . . . . .
P erm anency o f t h e p o p u la tio n
.
16
....................
C o m p o sitio n o f p o p u la tio n • • • . • • . .
16
.
17
19
G rowth I n s c h o o l p o p u la tio n • • • • . . ' • •
22
The g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f e d u c a tio n
...................
22
........................
-25
G e n e ra l l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
O c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e s o f p u p i l s
•• • » • •
25
P r o b a b i l i t y o f c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e ...............
26
Summary . . .................................
IV .
26
THE PRESENT CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION . ..........
29
P u rp o se o f th e c h a p t e r .................................
29
O r g a n iz a tio n o f t h e c h a p t e r
29
..................................
C r i t e r i a f o r c u r r ic u lu m e v a l u a t i o n
Modern p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n
. * . . .
. « • • • #
30
30
An a d e q u a te e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ram f o r a l l . .
32
A c o m p re h e n siv e p ro g ra m o f s o c i a l t r a i n i n g .
32
A r t i c u l a t i o n w ith lo w e r an d h i g h e r l e v e l s
.......................
o f e d u c a tio n
C o n tin u o u s , c o m p re h e n siv e g u id a n c e
U t i l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e a g e n c ie s
33
. . . .
33
. . . . . .
34
A dequacy o f t h e p e r s o n n e l o r g a n i z a t i o n
• •
S u p e r v is io n and p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th . . . .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m
The d a i l y s c h e d u le
35
35
. . . . . .
36
............................. . . . . .
36
The r e l a t i o n o f g u id a n c e t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
p ro g ram • • • • • • • • • • •
.....................
37
F a c u l ty r e l a t i o n s t o th e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m
37
M ethods an d c o n t e n t i n th e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s
E n g lis h c o n t e n t an d m ethod
♦
38
. . • « • • • •
38
C o n te n t an d m ethod i n la n g u a g e s . . . . . .
40
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
th e s o c ia l s c ie n c e s .
40
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
m a th e m a tic s . .
. ..
41
C o n te n t an d
m ethod in
n a t u r a l s c ie n c e
.. .
41
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
t h e c o m m e rc ia l
s tu d ie s
. . . . . . . .
. . .
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
a rt • • • • • • . . .
43
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
m u sic • • • • • • • •
43
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
th e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
hom em aking
C o n te n t an d
m ethod i n
p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n
.
44
. ♦ . . .
44
.
45
S tu d e n t a c t i v i t i e s an d g o v ern m en t • • • • • •
46
The a s s o c i a t e d s t u d e n t s • • • • • • • • • •
46
Summary •
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
V.
42
47
• • • • • • • • • •
47
ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECTS INTO DEPARTMENTS . . .
48
P u rp o se o f t h e c h a p t e r
48
The p r e s e n t d e p a r tm e n ta l o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . .
F a u l t y r e a s o n in g h a s d e c id e d o r g a n i z a t i o n .
48
48
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t o d e p a r t ­
m ents
49
. F u n d a m e n ta l p r o p o s a l f o r d e p a r tm e n ta l r e ­
o rg a n iz a tio n
I n s tr u c tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n
51
• • • • • « • •
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p ro p o s e d p l a n
. . .
51
52
vi
ch a pter
page
Summary • • .......................
V I.
53
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROG-RAM.............................
P re s e n t a d m in is tra tiv e p ro ced u res • • • • . .
P r e s e n t ty p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n
54
54
I n te r n a l a d m in is tra tio n •
55
The t e a c h i n g f o r c e .......................
57
T e s ts an d m easu rem en ts
The g u id a n c e p ro g ram
.............................
• • • • « . • • . . • •
G u id an ce i n O range H igh S c h o o l
A p r o p o s e d g u id a n c e p ro g ram
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r
V II.
. . . . . . .
54
. . . . . .
...................
• . • . • • . . • • •
60
61
62
63
66
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . .
67
Summary a n d c o n c lu s io n s • • » • • • • • • • •
68
R ecom m endations • . • » . . • • • • • . • • •
7°
C o n c lu s io n
74
BIBLIOGRAPHY
.
................................................................................
75
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
EAGE
Number o f P a r e n ts o f 590 H igh S c h o o l P u p ils
Who D e riv e d T h e i r L iv e lih o o d from V a rio u s
C la s s e s o f O c c u p a tio n s • • • • • • • • • • • •
II.
18
Number o f P u p ils R e s id e n t f o r V a rio u s P e r io d s
o f Time i n O range U nion H ig h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t
a s o f J u n e , 1940 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III.
R a c ia l D e r iv a t io n s o f 590 P u p i l s o f O range U nion
H ig h S c h o o l, J u n e , 1940
IV .
« • • • • • • • • • •
21
A v erag e D a ily A tte n d a n c e , O range U nion H igh
S c h o o l, 1 9 35-1936 t o 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 , I n c l u s i v e
V.
20
F re q u e n c y o f P u p ils *
. .
23
O c c u p a tio n a l C h o ic e s ,
O range U nion H igh S c h o o l, J u n e , 1940 . . . . .
27
CHAPTER X
THE PROBLEM
Mueh a t t e n t i o n h a s b een g iv e n r e c e n t l y t o t h e new
movement i n e d u c a tio n t o a d j u s t t h e s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m t o
t h e s tu d e n ts * n e e d s a n d a b i l i t i e s .
Many nam es h av e b ee n
g iv e n t o t h i s new movement su c h a s , t h e u n i t m eth o d , p r o ­
j e c t m e th o d , o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n m e th o d , b u t b a s i c a l l y , t h e y
s e e k t o a c h ie v e t h e same g o a l s .
T h is new movement e n d e a v o rs
t o g iv e t h e p u p i l s s o l u t i o n s t o t h e i r p r e s e n t p ro b lem s r a t h e r
th a n v o lu m in o u s am ounts o f s u b j e c t m a tte r *
The new c u r r i c u ­
lum i s d e s ig n e d t o g iv e t h e p u p i l c o n t a c t s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and
s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p ro b le m s a r i s i n g i n h i s s o c i a l , ec o n o m ic ,
and h y g e n ic l i f e .
In k e e p in g w ith t h i s new m ovem ent, t h e f o llo w in g
t h e s i s was d e v e lo p e d .
I.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The p ro b le m i s b e s t r e v e a l e d in t h e e x a m in a tio n o f
th e p u rp o se .
The p u rp o s e o f t h e s tu d y was t o s e c u r e o b j e c ­
t i v e d a t a on w h ich t o b a s e reco m m en d atio n s f o r t h e im p ro v e­
m ent o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f O range U nion H igh S ch o o l*
The
p ro b le m was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r m ain s e c t i o n s t o f a c i l i t a t e th e
s o lu tio n .
T h ese w e re :
( l ) The g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e com m unity an d s c h o o l
2
p o p u la tio n .
(2 ) The p r e s e n t c u r r ic u lu m o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e sc h o o l*
(3 ) The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t o d e p a r t m e n ts .
(4 ) The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e pro g ram i n t h e s c h o o l .
On t h e b a s i s o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , reco m m en d atio n s f o r a
p ro g ra m o f c o n tin u o u s c u r r ic u lu m g ro w th w ere m ade.
II.
VALIDATION OF THE STUDY
The im p o rta n c e o f t h i s s tu d y an d t h e r e a s o n s f o r
m aking su c h a s u r v e y h a v e b een b r i e f l y s e t f o r t h in t h e
f o llo w in g p a r a g r a p h s .
A u th o rita tiv e c r iti c is m .
A u th o r itie s in se c o n d a ry
e d u c a ti o n h o ld t h a t t h e p r e s e n t d ay c u r r ic u lu m o f f e r i n g s o f
th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls a r e in a d e q u a te f o r m e e tin g t h e n e e d s
o f t h e new s o c ia l- e c o n o m ic o r d e r t h a t i s d e v e lo p in g .
The
o ld c u r r ic u lu m was d e s ig n e d w ith t h e id e a o f p r e s e r v i n g th e
s ta tu s quo.
No a t t e n t i o n was g iv e n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
w o rld i n w hich p u p i l s l i v e i s a c h a n g in g w o r ld , d em anding a
f l e x i b l e ty p e o f e d u c a ti o n .
The p ro b lem s t h a t th e s c h o o l had
s o lv e d an d th e p a s s i n g down o f t h e s e s o l u t i o n s to t h e p u p i l
i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e o ld c u r r ic u lu m .
T h a t many o f t h e s e
p ro b le m s h a v e grown i n s i g n i f i c a n t o r no l o n g e r e x i s t h a s b e e n
g iv e n l i t t l e
o r no c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n many s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
K ilp a tr ic k s e ts f o r th t h i s id e a :
3
T h is o l d e r e d u c a tio n h a s p r o f e s s e d t o p r e p a r e f o r
a d u l t l i f e . ' I n s t e a d o f p r e p a r i n g f o r l i f e a s i t now i s ,
i t h a s c o n t r a r i w i s e to o o f t e n ta u g h t o n ly o u t - o f - d a t e
an d m e re ly c o n v e n tio n a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r . • . w h en e v er
g ro w in g c h a n g e loom s as l a r g e a s now, a d ju s tm e n t t o a
s t a t i c c o n d itio n Is d is s e r v ic e , n o t h e lp .
R a th e r m ust
we s e e k a d ju s tm e n t t o ch an g e i t s e l f .
E d u c a tio n f a c e s
th u s a p ro b le m , i n d e g r e e a t l e a s t , new t o t h e w o rld .
A c c o rd in g t o su c h o f t h e o l d e r l i m i t e d s t o c k o f p r e c i s e
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a s s h o u ld s u r v i v e from t h i s g e n e r a t i o n
t o t h e n e x t , t h e r e m ust be ad d e d c e r t a i n more g e n e r a l i z e d
m ethods an d a t t i t u d e s o f a t t a c k t h a t e s p e c i a l l y f i t f o r
t h e m e e tin g o f n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s , and a l l m ust be d i r e c t e d ,
a s n e a r l y a s we c a n f o r e s e e , i n c o n f o r m ity w ith t h e d e ­
mands o f t h e new s i t u a t i o n .
The f o llo w in g t h r e e c o u n ts c o n s t i t u t e an in d ic tm e n t
o f e d u c a tio n a s s e t f o r t h by B r ig g s :
(1 ) A u t h o r i t i e s h a v e made no w h o le - h e a r te d e f f o r t s t o
f o r m u la te f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls a c u r r ic u lu m w h ich
p ro m is e s t h e g r e a t e s t good t o t h e s u p p o r t i n g p u b l i c .
(2 ) T h e re h a s b e e n no s u f f i c i e n t e f f o r t made t o d e v e lo p
a p p r e c i a t i o n , on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s , o f th e
c u r r ic u lu m s u b j e c t s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s
w i l l c o n tin u e t h e s tu d y i n t h e same e i t h e r i n
c o l l e g e s , o r in d e p e n d e n t ly , a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l .
(3 ) T h ere h a s b ee n i n s u f f i c i e n t a c h ie v e m e n t, ev en in
th e s u b je c ts o f f e r e d .2
B a g le y ^ , F e a t h e r s t o n e ^ , a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t s *
R e se a rc h
**• W illia m H. K i l p a t r i c k , E d u c a tio n f o r a C h an g in g
C i v i l i z a t i o n (New Y ork: M a cm illan Company, 1 9 3 1 I , p p . 6 1 -6 2 .
2 Thomas H. B r ig g s , The G re a t I n v e s tm e n t (C am b rid g e:
H a rv a rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 ), p p . 1 1 9 -1 4 3 •
^ W illia m C. B a g le y , E d u c a tio n . C rim e , an d S o c i a l
P r o g r e s s (New Y o rk : M acM illan Company, 1 9 3 l ) , C h a p te r I .
4 W illia m B. F e a t h e r s t o n e , 11An I n t e g r a t e d C u rric u lu m
i n t h e S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l s , ” C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r l y o f S e c o n d a ry
E d u c a tio n . 8 :3 3 7 - 4 3 , J u n e , 1933*
4
c
C om m ittee on R e ce n t S o c i a l T ren d s , h a v e e a c h e x p r e s s e d
c ritic is m
o f t h e o f f e r i n g s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n *
Im p o rta n c e o f t h e s tu d y t o O ra n g e .
W ith in t h e p a s t
f i v e y e a r s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e com m unity h a s b e e n d e c id e d l y
c h a n g e d , b o th e c o n o m ic a lly a n d s o c i a l l y , r e s u l t i n g in a ch ange
in th e p u p il p o p u la tio n .
The d e c l i n e o f t h e c i t r u s m a r k e t,
th e p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r y o f t h e com m unity, and t h e r a p i d i n ­
c r e a s e o f th e M exican p o p u la tio n h a v e b ee n r e s p o n s i b l e .
i n f l u x o f M exican f a m i l i e s
The
h a s b r o u g h t new p ro b le m s f o r th e y
do n o t p o s s e s s t h e same s o c i a l a n d econom ic p ro b le m s t h a t
w ere p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s c h o o l by t h e o l d , e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s .
T hese new s o c i a l an d eco n o m ic c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c h o o l an d
com m unity h av e b e e n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a t te n d a n c e r e c o r d s o f
th e s c h o o l; many o f th e p u p i l s b e in g em ployed s e a s o n a l l y i n
th e h a r v e s t i n g o f t h e c i t r u s an d w a ln u t c r o p s .
W ith t h e d e c l i n e o f th e c i t r u s m a rk e t due t o new com­
p e t i t i o n b o th in A m erica an d f o r e i g n l a n d s , t h e new w o rld
c o n f l i c t In E u ro p e an d A s i a , and t h e w o rld w id e econom ic
d e p r e s s i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n o f th o s e d e p e n d e n t on t h e c i t r u s
i n d u s t r y no l o n g e r f i n d r e a d y , f i n a n c i a l b a c k in g f o r a c o l l e g e
c a re e r.
5 R e p o rt o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s ’ R e se a rc h C om m ittee on S o c i a l
T r e n d s , R e ce n t S o c i a l T re n d s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s (New Y o rk :
M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1 9 3 3 ), p p . I x x - l x x x .
5
A lth o u g h t h e ab o v e c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n t a k i n g p l a c e , no
p r o v i s i o n h a s b e e n made w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l t o d e v i a t e from
a p u r e ly c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c u r r ic u lu m .
F i n a l l y , r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n in
C a l i f o r n i a by s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s h a s seem ed im m in en t; t h e r e ­
f o r e , i t a p p e a re d w e ll tim e d f o r O range U nion H igh S c h o o l t o
a n t i c i p a t e t h e c h a n g e an d t o be w e ll on th e way to w a rd d e v e lo p ­
in g a c o n tin u o u s c u r r ic u lu m p ro g ra m , so a s t o m ore e f f i c i e n t l y
m eet t h e dem ands o f t h e new c h a r a c t e r o f t h e com m unity.
III.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
The p r o c e d u r e em ployed in th e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e
s u r v e y was d i v i d e d I n to f o u r s e c t i o n s t o b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e
t h e h a n d l in g o f th e n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s .
T h ese s e c t i o n s h av e
been a rra n g e d in l o g i c a l sequence as f o llo w s :
(1 ) A c a r e f u l s tu d y o f r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a ­
t u r e was made t o d e te r m in e t h e b e s t id e a s i n c u r r ic u lu m r e ­
v is io n .
(2 ) The c u r r ic u lu m o f f e r e d i n O range U nion H igh
S c h o o l was e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .
(3 ) S c h o o l and o t h e r p u b l i c r e c o r d s w ere exam ined
t o s e c u r e d a t a c o n c e r n in g p u p i l a b i l i t i e s an d a c h ie v e m e n ts ,
in c lu d in g i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o tie n ts , a g e -g ra d e f a c t s , te a c h e r
m arks an d o t h e r r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n .
(4 ) P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a tio n s w ere made when o b j e c t i v e
d a t a w ere u n a v a ila b le #
(5 )
H igh S ch o o l*
A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g iv e n t o 592 p u p i l s o f O range
T h is q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s ig n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e
t h e p u p ilk b a c k g ro u n d , d e s i r e s , n e e d s , an d a s p i r a t i o n s *
The
r e s u l t s h a v e b e e n t a b u l a t e d i n C h a p te r I I I *
L im ita tio n s .
Employm ent o f t h e abo v e te c h n iq u e s was
made u n d e r l i m i t a t i o n s , w h ich w ere q u i t e a p p a re n t*
The
r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e was fo u n d to d e a l , n o t i n p a r t i c u l a r s , b u t
in b ro ad g e n e r a l i t i e s .
The c u r r ic u lu m e v a l u a t i o n o f a d e f i n i t e ,
c o n c is e p ro g ram in l i g h t o f a b r o a d g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m c r i ­
t e r i a was a l i m i t a t i o n .
The c o m p a riso n o f th e c u r r ic u lu m
o f f e r e d b y o t h e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls w ith t h a t o f O range U nion
H igh S c h o o l c o u ld n o t s e r v e a s a c r i t e r i a , f o r i n no two
s c h o o ls a r e t h e p r o b le m s , t e a c h e r s , o r p u p i l p e r s o n n e l th e
same*
A n o th e r l i m i t a t i o n may b e fo u n d in t h a t p e r s o n a l
o b s e r v a t i o n s may h av e b e e n to o s u b j e c t i v e .
Too* p u p i l s 1
a n s w e rs t o th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may n o t h a v e b e e n a c c u r a t e b e ­
c a u s e o f p e r s o n a l re a s o n s *
IV .
ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
E ach c h a p t e r o f t h i s
s tu d y h a s en co m p assed a d i v i s i o n
o f t h e s u r v e y a s i n d i c a t e d i n th e t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s .
E ach
c h a p t e r h a s b e e n o r g a n iz e d t o c o n t a i n a s ta te m e n t o f t h e
s p e c i f i c n a t u r e and p u r p o s e o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e p ro b le m
7
u n d e r c o n s id e r a tio n , q u e s tio n s r e la v e n t to th e to p ic have been
r a i s e d , and d a t a t o a i d i n a n s w e rin g t h e s e q u e s tio n s h av e
b een p r e s e n t e d .
An e v a l u a t i o n o f th e d a t a , i n l i g h t o f q u e s ­
t i o n s r a i s e d , an d reco m m en d atio n s b a s e d on th e sam e, w h e re v e r
p o s s i b l e , h a v e b e e n made w i t h i n th e a p p r o p r i a t e c h a p t e r .
C h a p te r I I c o n t a i n s a d i s c u s s i o n o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e f o r
t h e p u rp o s e d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r .
C h a p te r I I I
h a s b e e n d e v o te d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f th e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f
t h e com m unity, an d s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .
On th e b a s i s o f th e
d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , an e x a m in a tio n o f th e p r e s e n t
c u r r ic u lu m o r g a n i z a t i o n o f O range U nion H ig h S c h o o l was made
and t h e r e s u l t s h a v e b een i n c o r p o r a t e d in C h a p te r IV .
C h a p te r V I s c o n c e rn e d w ith t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e b o d ie s
o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t o d e p a r tm e n ts .
C h a p te r VI h as b ee n
g iv e n to a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p ro g ra m .
C h a p te r V II was c o n s t r u c t e d t o p r e s e n t a p r o p o s e d p la n f o r
c o n tin u o u s c u r r ic u lu m d e v e lo p m e n t.
CHAPTER I I
RELATED LITERATURE
The p u rp o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t o re v ie w some o f
t h e p e r t i n e n t c o n t r i h u t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d o f th e new e d u c a ­
t i o n i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h t r e n d s , m e th o d s , p r i n c i p l e s ,
and c r i t e r i a o f t h e fo re m o s t a u t h o r i t i e s c o n c e r n e d w ith
c u r r ic u lu m w ork.
Many b o o k s , p a m p h le ts , t h e s e s , an d d i s s e r t a t i o n s ,
b o th p u b lis h e d and u n p u b lis h e d , h av e b een w r i t t e n on t h e
s u b j e c t o f c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n .
F o r t h e p u rp o s e o f t h i s
s t u d y , h o w e v e r, o n ly th e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was a p p l i c a b l e
t o t h i s s p e c i f i c p ro b lem was r e v ie w e d .
In 1 9 3 2 , t h e I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h o f
T e a c h e rs C o l le g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , c o m p le te d a s u r v e y o f
th e p u b l i c s c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s .
T h is w ork was
p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n t h a t th e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d f o r m e a su r­
in g th e e f f i c i e n c y o f s e c o n d a ry e d u c a tio n h a s b e e n a d o p te d
as a c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s t h e s i s .
The c r i t e r i a w ere a s f o llo w s
1.
A p r a c t i c a l p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n in harm ony
w ith p r e s e n t - d a y c i v i l i z a t i o n , m u st b e a d o p te d
a s a w o rk in g b a s i s .
2.
On t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s , an e d u c a t i o n a l
p ro g ra m a d e q u a te f o r t h e w h o le s c h o o l p o p u la tio n
m ust b e d e v e lo p e d .
3.
D ev elo p m en t o f a c o m p re h e n siv e p ro g ram o f s o c i a l
an d c i v i c t r a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y .
9
4*
S a t i s f a c t o r y a r t i c u l a t i o n w ith, lo w e r an d h i g h e r
s c h o o ls m ust h e s e c u r e d ,
5.
I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n t e r e s t s ,
and a p t i t u d e s m u st h e r e c o g n iz e d and p r o v i s i o n s
made f o r sam e.
6.
A c o n t in u o u s , c o m p re h e n siv e p ro g ra m o f g u id a n c e
m u st he p r o v id e d .
7♦
S e r v ic e a g e n c ie s o f t h e s c h o o l , s u c h a s t h e l i b r a r y
an d t h e c a f e t e r i a s , m ust h e u t i l i z e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l
p u rp o ses.
8.
Economy in a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m u st h e s e c u r e d hy g i v i n g
a t t e n t i o n t o optim um p l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n , optim um
e l a s s s i z e , optim um p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o and f a i l u r e s
an d t h e i r c a u s e s .
9*
An a d e q u a te p e r s o n n e l o r g a n i z a t i o n m ust he d e v e lo p e d .
10.
An e f f i c i e n t p ro g ram o f s u p e r v i s i o n an d p r o f e s s i o n a l
g ro w th m ust h e d e v e lo p e d .
T h is r e p o r t m a n if e s te d t h a t th e p ro b le m o f c u r r ic u lu m
r e v i s i o n i s n o t one o f p r e s c r i b i n g r u l e s f o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n
o f p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s , h u t one o f f i n d i n g a b a s i s i n o b j e c t i v e
d a ta f o r m aking reco m m en d a tio n s a s t o how th e s c h o o ls may
s tu d y and im prove t h e i r o f f e r i n g s in t h e l i g h t o f th e new
s o c ia l-e c o n o m ic a l o r d e r .
n a m e ly :
F o u r fu n d a m e n ta l p r o p o s a ls w ere m ade,
(1 ) T h a t a r e - e x a m in a tio n o f t h e c o n t e n t o f s u b j e c t
m a t t e r h e m ade;
(2 ) t h a t p r o v i s i o n f o r l o n g e r p e r io d s o f tim e
in b r o a d f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t s h e p r o v id e d in o r d e r t h a t t h e
R e p o rt o f t h e S u rv e y o f t h e S c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o ,
I l l i n o i s . V o l. 2 ~TNew Y ork: B u reau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs
C o l le g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 ), p p . 1 1 6 -7 2 .
10
e m p h a sis on s u b j e c t m a t t e r m ig h t h e s u b o r d i n a t e d , an d th u s
a llo w f o r more r e a l s tu d y and r e f l e c t i o n ;
(3 ) t h a t l e a r n i n g
be b a s e d on f a v o r a b le m i n d - s e t s , o r i n t e r e s t s , r a t h e r th a n
on much e x e r c i s i n g in m e m o riz a tio n ; an d (4 ) t h a t t h e em p h asis
on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s o f f a c t u a l know ledge b e s u b o r d i n a t e d i n
f a v o r o f t h e s tu d y an d p r a c t i c e o f t h e b r o a d e r o u tco m es o f
g ro w th a n d p u r p o s e , a t t i t u d e s , p o i n t s o f v ie w , e m o tio n a l
c o n t r o l , an d s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s .
Q
The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D ep a rtm en t o f E d u c a tio n p u b lis h e d
a r e p o r t o f a s u r v e y made by H i l l i n 1 9 3 1 .
C h a p te r V I I I h e l d
p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e in r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h i s s t u d y , i n t h a t t h e
q u e s t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a good c u r r ic u lu m an d th e a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e d a i l y s c h e d u le w ere c a r e f u l l y p r e s e n t e d .
H i l l made s i x s p e c i f i c
reco m m en d atio n s a s f o l l o w s :
donm ent o f s t r e s s on acad em ic s u b j e c t s ;
( l) aban­
(2 ) o r g a n i z a t i o n o f
c o n t e n t an d d i r e c t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s by t h e u n i t m eth o d ;
o f f e r i n g o f s m a ll c l a s s e s on a l t e r n a t e y e a r s , o n ly ;
tio n in g o f s tu d e n ts as to i n t e r e s t s ;
(3 )
(4 ) q u e s ­
(5 ) im provem ent o f s u p e r ­
v i s i o n o f s tu d y i n t h e l i b r a r y ; an d (6 ) t h e e x p a n s io n o f th e
s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s p ro g ram w ith l e s s e n e d e m p h a sis on i n t e r ­
s c h o l a s t i c a t h l e t i c s an d more i n t r a m u r a l games f o r b oys and g i r l s ?
2
I b i d . . V o l. 3 , p p . 6 7 -6 9 .
^ Andrew P . H i l l , S u rv e y o f th e P a lo A lto P u b lic S c h o o ls
(S a c ra m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a : S t a t e D ep a rtm en t o f E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 1 ),
p p . 1 9 0 -1 9 1 .
K i l p a t r i c k ^ i n h i s hook s e t s f o r t h t h e d u t i e s o f t h e
m odern s c h o o l , c o n te n d in g t h a t t h i s
ch an g e i n th e w o r ld .
is a p e rio d o f ra p id
T h is r a p i d ch a n g e r e q u i r e s t h a t p e o p le
em ploy i n t e l l i g e n t th o u g h t r a t h e r th a n h a b i t a lo n e t o g o v e rn
t h e i r a c tio n s .
H ence e d u c a ti o n m u st p r o v id e o p p o r t u n i t i e s
f o r t h e c h i l d t o d e v e lo p h i s a b i l i t y t o a p p ly know ledge t o t h e
s o l u t i o n o f new p ro b lem s a s h e e n c o u n te r s them*
T h is r e q u i r e s
g r a n t i n g g r e a t e r fre ed o m t o t h e c h i l d a s h e s e l e c t s a n d p u r ­
s u e s h i s w ork.
L ik e w is e , h e m ust b e p u t i n a p o s i t i o n w here
h e h a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , an d h e
m ust b e g iv e n an y g u id a n c e a n d a s s i s t a n c e n e e d e d i n c a r r y i n g
o u t th e s e r e s p o n s i b ilit ie s to a s a tis f a c to r y c o n c lu s io n s .
An a r t i c l e by Brown^ d e a l s w ith t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e new
e d u c a ti o n i n t h e f i e l d o f t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s .
He e n c o u ra g e s
g e t t i n g away from t h e o l d n a rro w i n f o r m a t i o n a l c u r r ic u lu m
and th e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one t h a t w i l l b e more f u n c t i o n a l .
The em p h a sis s h o u ld be upon a g e n u in e s tu d y o f man i n h i s
s o c ia l s e ttin g .
T h is s tu d y s h o u ld i n c l u d e :
(1 ) f a m i l y , home
an d s o c i a l l i f e ;
(2 ) r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s an d c u s to m s ;
(3 ) a r t s ,
c r a f t s an d m u s ic ; (4 ) econom ic l i f e an d w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s ;
(5 ) e d u c a ti o n an d i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s o f a p e o p le ;
Y ork:
^ W illia m H. K i l p a t r i c k , Remaking t h e C u rric u lu m
Newson an d Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , 128 p p .
(New
5 W illia m B. Brown, “New A pproach t o t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s ,
S o c i a l S t u d i e s , 2 7 :1 2 - 1 7 , a n u a r y , 1 9 3 6 .
12
(6 )
r e c r e a t i o n an d l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s ;
p o litic a l lif e ;
(7 ) g o v ern m en t an d
and (8 ) l i t e r a t u r e an d l i t e r a r y l i f e o f a
p e o p le .
The N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia ti o n ^ p ro v e d " b e n e f ic ia l
t o t h i s s tu d y i n t h a t i t e s t a b l i s h e d g o a ls f o r e d u c a tio n
b a s e d on m odem s o c i a l a n d econom ic c o n d i t i o n s .
A lth o u g h
t h e s e g o a l s w e re v ag u e i n g e n e r a l , th e y d i d i n d i c a t e t h e
t r e n d o f th o u g h t o f e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y .
Two v e r y s p e c i f i c m ethods o f c u r r ic u lu m e v a l u a t i o n
w ere exam in ed a n d h e r e d i s c u s s e d .
E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a ^ p r e ­
s e n t e d a e h e c k - l i s t ty p e o f c r i t e r i a w h ich w ere u s e d a s a
g u id e i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m a n a l y s i s o f O range U nion H igh S c h o o l.
E e l l s ^ s e t f o r t h a s y ste m f o r d e te r m in in g t h e s t a t u s o f a
s c h o o l.
is
He p r e s e n t s a g r a p h ic m e asu re a s t o wh’e t h e ’r a s c h o o l
“p r o g r e s s i v e 11 o r " r e a c t i o n a r y ” .
S p e a r s , i n h i s new b o o k , c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h e p o s i t i o n
o f se co n d ary e d u c a tio n .
He show s c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n t o b e a
t o p i c t h a t h a s m et w ith l i t t l e
s u c c e s s i n th e h an d s o f t h e
^ I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S o c i a l - Econom ic G o als f o r E d u c a tio n
(W a s h in g to n , D. C . : N a ti o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia ti o n o f th e
U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 4 0 ), 124 p p .
7 E v a lu a tiv e C r i t e r i a . A C o o p e r a tiv e S tu d y o f S eco n ­
d a r y S c h o o l S ta n d a r d s (WaunekaT W is c o n s in : G eorge B a n ta
P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 4 0 ) , 175 p p .
® W a lte r C. E e l l s , E d u c a tio n a l T e m p e r a tu r e s . A Co­
o p e r a t i v e S tu d y o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l S ta n d a r d s (W a s h in g to n . 0 . C. ) .
13
n a t i o n a l b o a rd o f e d u c a t i o n , n o r w ith th e s t a t e an d l o c a l
b o a r d s , an d now m ust be p la c e d i n t h e h an d s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l
o f t h e s c h o o l i f a n y th in g a lo n g su c h l i n e s i s t o b e accom ­
p l is h e d *
S p e a rs* rem a rk sh o w in g how econom ic an d s o c i a l
c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n i s a p r o p o s .
Tl?hile e d u c a to r s a d o p t l a b e l s , d e f i n e t i t l e s , c a l l
n am es, and p i t c h cam p s, t h e h ig h s c h o o l s t r e n g t h e n s i t s
h o l d in g p o w er and s h i e l d s an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g num ber o f
a d o l e s c e n t s w ith one h a n d , a s i t g r a s p s w ith th e o t h e r
f o r a r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n *
I t i s i n tim e s o f u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t h u m a n ity lo o k s t o a
p h ilo s o p h y f o r a g u id in g h a n d . I n boom tim e s p r a c t i c e
moves a h e a d , c l a t t e r an d b a n g , r e g a r d l e s s . 9
Summary.
D e s p ite t h e v o lu m in o u s am ount o f m a t e r i a l
t h a t h a s f lo o d e d th e e d u c a t i o n a l w o rld c o n c e r n in g th e “new
e d u c a t i o n ” an d t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t may be u s e d f o r e v a l u a t i n g
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m , no n e i s d e f i n i t e .
How t o e v a l u a t e
a s p e c i f i c c u r r ic u lu m i n te rm s o f a c r i t e r i a s t a t e d in v a g u e
g e n e r a l i t i e s , i s y e t to be d is c o v e re d .
The c r i t e r i a t h a t
a p p ro a c h e s d e f i n i t e n e s s i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t t h e
a u t h o r o f th e c r i t e r i a knows t h e e x a c t p h ilo s o p h y t h a t t h e
s c h o o l s h o u ld em b race an d a l s o t h e e x a c t know led g e t h a t s h o u ld
be t a u g h t .
I f t h i s i n f o r m a ti o n w ere a t h an d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
p ro b le m s w ould b e s o l v e d .
As y e t no one knows w hat o u g h t t o
b e t a u g h t and w h at o u g h t n o t t o be t a u g h t i n t h e s e c o n d a r y
9 H a ro ld S p e a r s , The E m erging H ig h - S c h o o l C u rric u lu m
(A m erican Book Company, 1 9 4 0 ), p . 1 .
14
s c h o o l.
The l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t e d I n t h i s c h a p t e r may h e h e l d
as r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f a l l th e l i t e r a t u r e in th e f i e l d o f c u r­
r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n .
I t i s g e n e r a l i n s c o p e r a t h e r th a n s p e c i f i c .
Y et s u c h w orks a r e v a l u a b l e f o r th e y do s e r v e a s a g u id e and
a r e im p o r ta n t I n t a k i n g a f o rw a r d s t e p .
CHAPTER I I I
THE GENERAL NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY
AND SCHOOL POPULATION
No one ty p e o f c u r r ic u lu m w i l l m eet t h e n e e d s o f e v e r y
com m unity.
I t was r e c o g n iz e d t h a t i f th e e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r ­
in g s o f t h e O range H ig h S c h o o l w ere t o h e c h a n g e d , t h e s e
c h a n g e s m ust he made c o m p a tib le t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s a s th e y
e x i s t i n O ra n g e .
The p u rp o s e t h e r e f o r e o f t h i s c h a p t e r h a s
been to p r e s e n t th e fin d in g s o f a su rv e y o f th e g e n e ra l n a tu r e
o f t h e com m unity an d s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .
p la c e d i n two g r o u p s :
The d a t a h a v e b e e n
(1 ) T hose r e l a t e d t o t h e com m unity
i n g e n e r a l ; an d (2 ) th o s e r e l a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e p u p i l s .
The f o llo w in g a s p e c t s h a v e b e e n g iv e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n u n d e r th e
f i r s t g r o u p in g , n a m e ly :
sch o o l d i s t r i c t ;
( l ) l o c a t i o n an d s i z e o f t h e h ig h
(2 ) c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ;
(3 ) o c c u p a ti o n s ;
(4 ) p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g g ro w th ; an d (5 ) com m unity l i f e .
U n d er t h e s e c o n d g r o u p in g o f d a t a t h e s e q u e s t i o n s h av e
b e e n c o n s id e r e d :
( l ) g e n e r a l c a p a c i t y f o r b e n e f i t t i n g by t h e
e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m ;
th e p u p i l s ;
e x p e rie n c e s ;
(2 ) s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s an d a p t i t u d e s o f
(3 ) t h e n a t u r e a n d s u c c e s s o f p r e v io u s e d u c a t i o n a l
(4 ) p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e ; an d (5 )
o c c u p a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s o f s tu d e n ts .
The c h a p t e r h a s b ee n
c o n c lu d e d w ith a summary o f t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d .
16
I.
THE GENERAL NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY
L o c a tio n a n d s i z e o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .
The
O range U nion H ig h S c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s made up o f f i v e e l e ­
m e n ta ry s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , O ra n g e , O liv e , V i l l a P a r k , E l
M odena, an d M od^eska Home*
The c i t y o f O range i s l o c a t e d
t h r e e m ile s n o r t h e a s t o f S a n ta A na, t h e O range c o u n ty s e a t ,
and h a s an e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f 9 ,0 0 0 .
O liv e i s a tow n
o f a p p r o x im a te ly t h r e e h u n d re d an d l i e s t h r e e m ile s n o rth * o f
O range*
V i l l a P a r k h a s a p o p u l a t i o n o f 285 a n d i s l o c a t e d
4 .5 m ile s n o r t h e a s t o f O ra n g e .
E l Modena h a s 650 i n h a b i t a n t s ,
m o s tly M e x ican , an d i s l o c a t e d s i x m ile s e a s t .
M odjeska Home,
w ith a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 0 0 , i s l o c a t e d i n t h e m o u n ta in s a b o u t
22 m il e s from O range i n an e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n .
C l im a te .
The c l i m a t e o f t h e d i s t r i c t i s m ild .
and snow seld o m v i s i t t h e v i c i n i t y *
F ro st
D u rin g t h e w i n t e r s e a s o n ,
t h e a v e r a g e d a l l y te m p e r a tu r e i s f i f t y - t w o d e g re e s , an d t h e
a v e r a g e summer d ay h a s a te m p e r a tu r e o f o n ly s e v e n ty - tw o d e ­
g rees.
The a v e r a g e r a i n f a l l i s s i x t e e n in c h e s an d g e n e r a l l y
o c c u r s d u r in g t h e two m id - w in te r m o n th s.
O c c u p a tio n s .
The c h i e f o c c u p a tio n s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s
o f t h i s a r e a w ere fo u n d t o b e th o s e i n , an d p a r t o f , t h e
o ra n g e g ro w in g i n d u s t r y an d ro p e m aking i n d u s t r y *
O range i s
l o c a t e d i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e V a le n c ia o ra n g e b e l t o f C a l i f o r n i a
w ith t h e r e s u l t i n g i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s .
The
ro p e -m a k in g i n d u s t r y , w ith two l a r g e f a c t o r i e s i n O ra n g e , i s
c a r r i e d on by t h e A naconda C o o p er Company an d t h e G re a t Wes­
t e r n C o rd ag e Company.
C e rta in d a ta r e l a t i v e to th e v a rio u s
o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e com m unity w ere g a t h e r e d
by m eans o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ich t h e s t u d e n t s a n s w e re d .
The
r e s u l t s , b a s e d on 590 r e p l i e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , h a v e b e e n
a r r a n g e d in T a b le I , p ag e 1 8 .
IS o th ers who w ere n o t t h e s o l e
s u p p o r t o f t h e f a m i l i e s , y e t w ere em ployed o u t s i d e t h e home
w ere n o t c o u n te d .
Any f a m ily r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l
by more t h a n one c h i l d was c o u n te d a s o n e .
Two h u n d re d an d
tw e n ty -o n e p u p i l s , 3 7 .5 p e r c e n t , o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l p o p u la ­
t i o n a n s w e rin g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , g av e some ^ a g r i c u l t u r a l a c ­
t i v i t y a s th e c a l l i n g o f t h e s u p p o r t i n g members o f th e f a m il y ;
s i x t y - f i v e p u p i l s , 11 p e r c e n t , nam ed one o f t h e b u s in e s s
o r c o m m e rc ia l f i e l d s ; one h u n d re d an d e i g h t e e n p u p i l s , 20
p e r c e n t, r e p o r te d t h e i r f a th e r s to be la b o r e r s ; tw e n ty -fo u r
p u p i l s , 4 . 1 p e r c e n t , w ere fo u n d t o b e c h i l d r e n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l
w o rk e rs ; one h u n d re d a n d t h i r t y - s i x p u p i l s , 2 3 .1 p e r c e n t ,
named t h e t r a d e s ; an d t w e n t y - s i x p u p i l s , 4 .3 p e r c e n t , f a i l e d
to answ er th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
P erm anency o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .
How lo n g e a c h o f t h e
h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s h a d b e e n a r e s i d e n t i n t h e d i s t r i c t was
d e te r m in e d i n o r d e r t o m e a su re t h e d e g r e e o f p erm an en cy o f
18
TABLE X
NUMBER OF PARENTS OF 590 HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS WHO DERIVED
THEIR LIVELIHOOD FROM VARIOUS CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS
O c c u p a tio n
Number
P e r c e n t o f T o ta l
A g ric u ltu re
221
3 7 .5
65
1 1 .0
118
2 0 .0
24
4 .1
136
2 3 .1
26
4 .3
590
1 0 0 .0
B u s in e s s an d C om m ercial
L ab o r
P ro fe s s io n a l
T ra d e s
No R eply
T o ta l
NOTES T h is t a b l e s h o u ld be r e a d a s f o llo w s s Two
h u n d re d an d tw e n ty -o n e p a r e n t s , o r 3 7 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
num ber c l a s s i f i e d a s t o o c c u p a tio n s f o llo w e d , w ere l i s t e d a s
a g r i c u l t u r a l w o rk e rs .
19
t h e p o p u la tio n *
p ag e 20*
T h ese d a t a h a v e b e e n a r r a n g e d i n T a b le I I ,
They i n d i c a t e t h a t th e r a t e o f c h a n g e o f t h e p op u ­
l a t i o n h a s b ee n r e l a t i v e l y s lo w ; i n o t h e r w o rd s , t h e r e h a s
b e e n a h ig h d e g re e o f perm anency*
Two h u n d re d and e i g h t y -
e i g h t o f t h e p u p i l s , 48* 8 1 p e r c e n t , h a d l i v e d i n t h e d i s ­
t r i c t o v e r t e n y e a r s ; one h u n d re d an d f o r t y - o n e p u p i l s ,
2 3 .8 9 p e r c e n t , h a d l i v e d t h e r e s i x to t e n y e a r s i n c l u s i v e ;
one h u n d re d an d e i g h t e e n p u p i l s , 20 p e r c e n t , h a d l i v e d t h e r e
one t o f i v e y e a r s i n c l u s i v e , w h ile b u t f o r t y - t h r e e p u p i l s ,
7 ,2 8 p e r c e n t , h a d r e s i d e d t h e r e l e s s th a n one y e a r .
E v id e n c e o f s u c h a h ig h d e g re e o f s o l i d a r i t y o f th e
p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t h a s made p o s s i b l e t h e f o r ­
m u la tio n o f reco m m en d a tio n s c o n c e r n in g c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n in
t h e O range U nion H igh S c h o o l w hich w i l l m eet t h e n e e d s o f
t h e p u p i l s and t h e com m unity.
C o m p o s itio n o f p o p u l a t i o n *
The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e popu­
l a t i o n o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t f o r J u n e , 1 9 4 0 , h a s b een
s e t down i n T a b le I I I , p ag e 2 1 .
By means o f th e a f o re -m e n -
t l o n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r a c i a l d e r i v a t i o n s o f t h e 590 p u p i l s
w ere d e te r m in e d .
In a l l c a s e s o f h y p h e n a te d p a r e n t a g e , c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n was made a c c o r d in g t o t h e f a t h e r ’ s r a c e .
The d a t a
r e v e a l e d t h a t 6 7 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e p u p i l s who a n sw e re d t h e
q u e s t i o n n a i r e w ere o f A m erican p a r e n t a g e .
P u p i l s o f German
d e r i v a t i o n came s e c o n d w ith 1 4 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e 5 9 0 .
P u p ils
20
TABLE I I
NUMBER OF PUPILS RESIDENT FOR VARIOUS PERIODS OF TIME IN
ORANGE UNION HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT AS OF JUNE, 1940
L e n g th o f r e s id e n c e
Number
P e r c e n t o f T o ta l
43
7 .2 8
One t o f i v e y e a r s i n c l u s i v e
118
2 0 .0 0
S ix t o t e n y e a r s i n c l u s i v e
141
2 3 .8 9
O ver t e n y e a r s
288
4 8 .8 1
T o ta l
590
9 9 .9 8
L ess th a n one y e a r
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u ld be r e a d a s f o llo w s : f o r t y t h r e e p u p i l s , o r 7 ,2 8 p e r c e n t , h a d r e s i d e d In t h e d i s t r i c t
f o r l e s s th a n one y e a r .
21
TABLE I I I
•RACIAL DERIVATIONS OF 590 PUPILS OF
ORANGE UNION HIGH SCHOOL, JUNE, 1940
Number
P e r c e n t o f T o ta l
4 00
6 7 .6
E n g lis h
2
.3
F re n c h
2
.3
German
86
1 4 .6
3
.5
97
1 6 .7
590
1 0 0 .0
N a tio n a lity
A m erican
Iris h
M exican
T o ta l
NOTE: T h is t a b l s s h o u ld h e r e a d a s f o l l o w s :
Four
h u n d r e d p u p i l s , o r 6 7 . 6 p e r c e n t , w ere o f A m erican d e r i v a '
tio n .
22
o f M e x ic a n p a r e n t a g e f o r m e d 1 6 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l .
T he
I r i s h m ade u p . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r w h i l e t h e
E n g lis h and F rench each c o n tr ib u te d
.3 p e r c e n t .
It
Is
n o t a b l e t h a t a l t h o u g h O r a n g e i s a n a g r a r i a n c o m m u n i ty , n o
J a p a n e s e o r C h in e se o r c o lo r e d p e o p le l i v e
in th e d i s t r i c t .
I n g e n e r a l I t was fo u n d t h a t t h e v a r i o u s r a c i a l e l e ­
m ents i n th e h ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w ere i n t e l l i g e n t an d e d u c a ­
tio n a lly p ro g re s s iv e .
The d e g r e e o f e n c o u ra g e m e n t w h ich a l l
th e r a c i a l g ro u p s h av e g iv e n th e h ig h s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s h a s
b ee n h i g h l y commended by t h o s e a u t h o r i t i e s .
G-rowth i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .
C o m p a ra tiv e c e n s u s d a t a
w ere n o t p r o c u r a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , b u t i t
was p o s s i b l e t o u s e t h e t o t a l a v e r a g e d a i l y a t te n d a n c e o f
t h e h ig h s c h o o l a s an in d e x t o p o p u l a t i o n g ro w th .
T h ese f i g u r e s
h a v e b e e n g iv e n I n T a b le IV , p ag e 2 3 , f o r a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d ,
from 19 35-1936 t o 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 i n c l u s i v e .
The m ost s i g n i f i c a n t
f a c t shown was t h e f a l l i n g a t te n d a n c e in t h e y e a r 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 .
T h is was p r o b a b ly due t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e o ra n g e c r o p s t o
show a p r o f i t an d t h e r e s u l t a n t l a y - o f f o f c r o p w o r k e r s .
A lso
c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s t h e demand f o r w o rk e rs i n
th e a i r c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s .
The g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n .
I n a c c o r d a n c e w ith
su c h a u t h o r i t i e s a s Dewey, K i l p a t r i c k an d o t h e r s , i t h a s b ee n
assum ed t h a t e d u c a ti o n i s p r i m a r i l y an i n d i v i d u a l m a t t e r .
23
TABLE IV
AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE, ORANGE UNION HIGH SCHOOL,
1 9 3 5 -1 9 3 6 TO 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 , INCLUSIVE
Y ea r
A. D•A.
Y e a r ly p e r c e n t
o f g a in
1935 -3 6
587
2 .7 2
1 9 3 6 -3 7
603
2 .9 8
1 9 3 7 -3 8
621
2 .9 8
1 9 3 8 -3 9
650
4 .8 2
19 3 9 -4 0
a " 648
G ain o v e r 1935
( - a a D e c re a s e )
61
a1 0 .4
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u ld b e r e a d a s f o l l o w s : D u rin g
t h e s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 5 -3 6 t h e A .D .A . was 5 8 7 ; d u r in g t h e
s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 6 -1 9 3 7 t h e A .D .A . was 6 0 3 , an i n c r e a s e o f
2 . 7 2 p e r c e n t o v e r t h e p r e c e d in g y e a r .
24
T h is p o i n t o f v ie w h a s o f t e n b e e n o b s c u r e b e c a u s e o f t h e
n e c e s s i t y f o r m ass e d u c a ti o n w h ich in v o lv e s d e a l i n g w ith
l a r g e g ro u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e so m e tim es s e l e c t e d g ro u p s
a n d so m e tim es n o t*
N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h ile t h e e x tre m e p o i n t o f
v ie w o f Rugg a n d Shum aker h a s n o t b e e n a c c e p te d in i t s
e n tire ty
b e c a u s e th e y seem t o h a v e l o s t s i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d
i s b u t one p a r t o f t h e w hole p i e t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s 1 ,
i t h a s b e e n r e c o g n iz e d t h a t an y th o ro u g h a t te m p t t o e v a l u a t e
a s c h o o l 's p ro g ram d ep en d s upon t h e a c q u i r i n g o f in f o r m a ti o n
c o n c e r n in g th e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s u p p o s e d t o b e t h e c h i e f
r e a s o n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n a n d m a in te n a n c e o f t h e s c h o o l a s one
o f s o c i e t y 's many I n s t i t u t i o n s .
The more v a r i e d an d c o m p le te
t h i s in f o r m a ti o n b eco m es, t h e m ore a d e q u a te i s t h e f o u n d a tio n
f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m .
One p r im a r y e le m e n t m ust be k e p t i n m in d , n a m e ly , t h a t
many o f t h e more I m p o r ta n t r e s u l t s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s
c a n n o t b e m e a su re d a t t h e p r e s e n t t im e .
E d u c a to r s h a v e d e v i s e d
ways t o m e asu re t h e g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , a c h ie v e m e n t i n mem­
o r i z i n g i n l i m i t e d , l o g i c a l l y o r g a n iz e d f i e l d s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r ,
p h y s i c a l g ro w th , an d c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s an d a p p r e c i a ­
t i o n s , i n some c a s e s , i n a m o st r e f i n e d s e n s e , an d i n o t h e r
c a se s b u t c ru d e ly .
The g ro w th o f t h e s p i r i t * o f c h a r a c t e r ,
3* H a ro ld Rugg an d Ann S eh u m ak er, The C h i ld - C e n te r e d
S c h o o l (Y o n k e rs-o n -H u d so n : W orld Book Company, 1928)",
pp. v ii; 325.
25
a n d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y , f o r e x a m p le , h a v e n o t
l e n t th e m s e lv e s r e a d i l y t o o b j e c t i v e , q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u re ­
m e n ts , an d y e t , t h e s e Im m e a su ra b le t h i n g s a r e t h e m ost im­
p o rta n t.
G e n e ra l l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y .
T hat th e le a r n in g c a p a c ity
d i f f e r s w ith t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a s lo n g b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d .
Many
a t t e m p t s h av e b e e n made t o s u i t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m t o
in d iv id u a l n ee d s.
a t te m p t t o do t h i s ;
T h e re a r e t h r e e ways in w h ich t h e s c h o o ls
( l ) b r o a d e n in g t h e c u r r ic u lu m ;
(2 ) a d j u s t ­
in g t h e am ount o f w ork r e q u i r e d o f th e p u p i l ; a n d (3 ) 'a d a p t i n g
t e a c h i n g m e th o d s.
I t h a s b e e n m a in ta in e d i n t h i s r e p o r t t h a t
t h e t h i r d p r o p o s i t i o n h o ld s th e m o st p r o m is e .
T h ere a r e e l e ­
m ents o f good i n t h e o t h e r tw o b u t th e y h a v e b e e n i n v a l i d a t e d
i n p r a c t i c e b e c a u s e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o i n t o f v ie w ,
in v o l v i n g l o g i c a l l y o r g a n iz e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r w h e th e r i t be
c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to th e l i f e
in te r e s ts o f th e c h ild o r n o t,
h as been th e r u l e .
O range U nion H igh S c h o o l h a s b e e n a t r a d i t i o n a l ty p e
s c h o o l i n e v e ry s e n s e o f t h e w o rd .
S u b je c t m a t t e r , m e th o d o lo g y ,
te a c h e r lo a d , e t c . , a re y e t to be b ro u g h t to d a t e .
Ho a c h ie v e ­
m ent t e s t s h a v e b e e n g iv e n n o r a n y I .Q . o r m e n ta l m a t u r i t y
t e s t s k e p t.
O c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e s o f p u p i l s .
s tu d e n t l i f e
A n o th e r a s p e c t o f
I m p o r ta n t t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m m ak er i s t h e p u p i l
26
c h o ic e o f o c c u p a t i o n s .
T a b le V, p ag e 2 7 , was made t o show
t h e ra n g e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e O range H igh S c h o o l
p u p ils .
No e f f o r t was made t o d e te r m in e s e c o n d c h o i c e s , th o u g h
i t p r o b a b ly w o u ld h a v e b e e n w e ll t o do s o .
F a n n in g p ro v e d
t o be t h e m o st p o p u la r c h o i c e , f o llo w e d c l o s e l y by n u r s i n g ,
m u s ic , a n d b u s i n e s s , w ith t e a c h i n g a n d e n g i n e e r i n g n e x t .
T w e n ty - fiv e p e r c e n t w ere u n d e c id e d a s t o t h e f u t u r e .
The
r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s in f o r m a ti o n i s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s
a s t a t e m e n t o f s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t w h ile i n s c h o o l an d t h e r e f o r e
c o n s t i t u t e s a b a s i s f o r w is e g u id a n c e an d t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n
o f c la s s a c t i v i t i e s .
I f a r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s b e e n made
a p p a r e n t t o t h e p u p i l b e tw e e n a s c h o o l a c t i v i t y o r p r o j e c t
an d a l i f e p u r p o s e o r a m b itio n , th e n th e s c h o o l l i f e h a s b e e n
a m e a n in g f u l one f o r t h e p u p i l .
P r o b a b ility o f c o lle g e e n tra n c e .
I n t h e c o m p ila tio n
o f c o l l e g e p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e s w ere c o n s id e r e d
as fo u r y e a r c o lle g e s .
Of t h e 590 h ig h s c h o o l p u p i l s a s k e d ,
two h u n d re d an d t w e n t y - e i g h t , 47 p e r c e n t , a n sw e re d i n t h e
a f f i r m a t i v e ; one h u n d re d an d n i n e t y - s i x p u p i l s , 33 p e r c e n t ,
i n t h e n e g a t i v e ; an d one h u n d re d an d tw e lv e p u p i l s , 20 p e r
c e n t , made no a n s w e r.
II.
SUMMARY
S u f f i c i e n t e v id e n c e h a s b een p r e s e n te d in t h i s
c h a p te r
27
TABLE V
FREQUENCY OF PUPILS' OCCUPATIONAL CHOICES
ORANGE UNION HIGH SCHOOL, JUNE, 1940
O c c u p a tio n
Number c h o o s in g
A c to r
A r t i s t (C o m m ercial)
A v ia to r
B e a u ty o p e r a t o r
B u s in e s s
C h e m ist
C oach
D ie titia n
D re s s d e s i g n e r
E n g in e e r
F a rm e r
Home m ak er
J o u rn a lis t
L a b o re r
L aw yer
M echanic ( A ir p la n e )
M e d ic a l d o c t o r
M u s ic ia n
Navy man
N u rse
S e c re ta ry
S e c r e t S e r v ic e
S c ie n tis t
S o c i a l S e r v ic e
T eacher
W rite r (T ra v e le r)
Undec id e d
4
24
8
16
32
4
12
8
4
28
52
25
10
8
8
20
5
36
8
40
16
4
4
8
28
32
146
T o ta l
590
P e r c e n t o f T o ta l
.6 ?
4 .0 5
1 .3 5
2*70
5 .0 4
.6 7
1 .9 3
1 .3 5
.6 7
4 .7 3
8 .7 8
4 .7 2
2 .6 0
1 .3 5
1 .3 5
3 .3 8
1 .2 4
6 .0 8
1 .3 5
6 .7 5
2 .7 0
.6 7
.6 7
1 .3 5
4 .7 3
5 .0 4
2 4 .7 4
NOTE: T h is t a b l e s h o u ld be r e a d a s f o l l o w s : F o u r
p u p i l s o r . 67 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e p u p i l s , c h o s e a c t i n g f o r an
o c c u p a tio n .
28
t o d e v e lo p an o v e rv ie w i n O ra n g e.
An a t te m p t h a s "been made
t o show w hat t h e p e o p le an d p u p i l s a r e l i k e , t h e i r i n t e r e s t s
an d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i r e s .
The h ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t was fo u n d t o be f a v o r a b ly
s i t u a t e d a s t o c l i m a t e , a t t i t u d e to w a rd e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s
a n d d e s i r e t o rem edy any u n f a v o r a b le s i t u a t i o n s .
The p u p i l s w ere fo u n d t o h a v e r e c e i v e d an ac ad e m ic
o r t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a ti o n r a t h e r th a n a f u n c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .
The i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u p i l s as t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o ic e s and
c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e w ere d e te r m in e d .
The n e x t c h a p t e r h a s a n a ly z e d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s
o f th e d i s t r i c t .
CHAPTER IV
THE PRESENT CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION
T h is c h a p t e r h a s e v a l u a t e d t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f t h e
O range U nion H ig h S c h o o l an d h a s u s e d a s i t s c r i t e r i a t h e "best
p o i n t s o f t e n c r i t e r i a , w ith reco m m en d atio n s f o r t h e im p ro v e­
m ent o f t h e c u rric u lu m *
I .
PURPOSE OF THE CHAPTER
S in c e t h e b e s t c u r r ic u lu m grow s o u t o f d a i l y p r a c t i c e ,
i t h a s n o t b e e n t h e p u rp o s e o f t h i s r e p o r t t o s p e c i f y a
d e f i n i t e c u r r ic u lu m .
An a tte m p t h a s b e e n made t o e v a l u a t e
c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s and t o o f f e r s u g g e s tio n s f o r im p ro v em en t.
The te rm c u r r ic u lu m h a s b e e n d e f i n e d a s m ean in g a l l
t h e f u n c t i o n s an d p h a s e s o f t h e s c h o o l .
II.
ORGANIZATION OF THE CHAPTER
T h is c h a p t e r h a s b e e n d iv id e d i n t o se v e n d i v i s i o n s ,
n a m e ly :
(l)
th e p u rp o se o f th e c h a p te r;
t i o n o f th e c h a p te r;
(3 ) c r i t e r i a
(4 ) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
(2) t h e o r g a n i z a ­
f o r c u rric u lu m e v a lu a tio n ;
o f th e p r e s e n t c u rric u lu m ;
c o n t e n t a n d m eth o d i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s ;
a c tiv itie s
tio n s
an d g o v e rn m e n t; an d (? )
f o r im p ro v e m e n t.
(5 )
(6) s t u d e n t
sum m ary a n d re c o m m e n d a ­
31
The n e e d s o f b oys an d g i r l s h a s b ee n d e te r m in e d by
s o c i e t y , t h e r e f o r e , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m odern s o c i e t y by
t h e boys and g i r l s i s n e c e s s a r y #
To do t h i s dem ands good
h e a l t h , s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s u c c e s s f u l home l i f e
an d r e c r e a t i o n a l an d a e s t h e t i c e n jo y m e n t.
To m eet t h e m odem
c h i l d ’ s n e e d s , e d u c a tio n m u st be f u n c t i o n a l an d f l e x i b l e .
No
r i g i d ty p e o f p ro g ram c a n l i v e i n a r a p i d l y c h a n g in g s o c i e t y .
No e d u c a t i o n a l p h ilo s o p h y i s so u n d w h ich d o es n o t a c ­
kno w led g e th e p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f c h i l d p e r s o n a l i t y
as th e o b je c tiv e o f a l l e d u c a tio n .
T h re e t h i n g s m ust be a c ­
c o m p lis h e d i f t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i s t o come a b o u t .
The C h icag o
S u rv e y r e p o r t s t a t e d t h a t i f o u r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls w ere t o
a c c o m p lis h t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , th e y m ust f o llo w a p ro g ram o f
th r e e p a r t s :
(1 ) D u rin g th e w h o le s e c o n d a r y p e r i o d p u p i l s , i n a
m an n er a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r l e v e l , m u st b e l e d
to u n d e r s ta n d a n d a p p r e c i a t e th o s e m a jo r p ro b le m s
o f o u r m odem w o rld c i v i l i z a t i o n w h ich a f f e c t
them a s i n d i v i d u a l s an d a s members o f a s o c i a l
g ro u p .
(2 ) P u p i l s , h a v in g a r r i v e d a t t h i s u n d e r s ta n d in g
an d a p p r e c i a t i o n , t o s t b e w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y d is p o s e d
t o s o lv e t h e s e p ro b le m s i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e m a n n er,
f o r t h e m u tu a l good o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i e t y .
(3 ) A l l t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s c h o o l m u st t r a i n in
ways an d m e an s, i n te c h n iq u e s w h ich w i l l e n a b le
p u p i l s to f a c e t h e p ro b le m s o f l i f e w ith c o n f i ­
d e n c e an d a s s u r a n c e . Such t r a i n i n g m u st n e c e s s a r i l y
r e c o g n iz e t h a t c o n d i t i o n s an d p ro b le m s a r e e v e r
c h a n g in g ; t h a t ways an d means m u st a c c o r d in g ly
c h a n g e , o r f a i l t o s e r v e t h e i r p u r p o s e .^
a _
R sp o y t o f t h e S u rv e y o f t h e S c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o .
I l l i n o i s . o p . c i t . . I l l , p . 160.
32
F i n a l l y , i n s o f a r a s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o do s o , t h e s c h o o l
m ust p r o v id e f o r i t s s t u d e n t s a s u f f i c i e n t body o f k n o w led g e ,
s k i l l s , an d a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l make p o s s i b l e a p o s i t i v e s h a r ­
in g i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e w ork o f t h e w o rld .
T h e r e f o r e , two
a s p e c t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f an e d u c a t i o n a l p h ilo s o p h y m u st be
k e p t i n m in d , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and t h e s o c i a l *
An a d e q u a te e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ram f o r a l l .
B e ca u se O range
U nion H igh S c h o o l d i s t r i c t h a s d e v e lo p e d a s a n a g r i c u l t u r a l
a r e a , t h e k in d o f e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m o f f e r e d by t h e h ig h
s c h o o l s h o u ld h a v e b e e n b u i l t , p r i m a r i l y , f o r an a g r i c u l t u r a l
s o c ie ty .
In a d d i t i o n , t h e l o c a l p ro g ram s h o u ld h a v e b e e n
b u i l t w ith an ack n o w led g em en t t h a t a m e a s u r a b le p r o p o r t i o n
o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l p a tr o n a g e was from a s e m i- w e a lth y , l e i s u r e
c l a s s , th e m a j o r i t y o f w h ich e x p e c te d t o e n t e r c o l l e g e .
A n o th e r
g ro u p w h ich s h o u ld h a v e b e e n r e c o g n iz e d i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m was
t h e g ro u p w hose p a r e n t s w ere i n commerce an d b u s i n e s s .
The c u r r ic u lu m s h o u ld h a v e e v o lv e d on t h e b a s i s o f
p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y m e e tin g t h e n e e d s o f f o u r ty p e s o f s t u ­
d e n t s , n a m e ly :
ty p e ;
( l) th e a g r a r ia n ty p e ;
(2 ) t h e i n d u s t r i a l
(3 ) t h e l e i s u r e - c l a s s t y p e ; an d (4 ) t h e b u s in e s s t y p e .
A c o m p re h e n s iv e p ro g ram o f s o c i a l t r a i n i n g .
The t h i r d
c r i t e r i o n w h ich h a s b e e n u s e d in v o lv e s t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e
p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f e a c h s t u d e n t i n an i l l i m i t a b l e f i e l d o f s e l f
d e te r m in e d l i f e a c t i v i t i e s .
The c u r r ic u lu m m u st p r e p a r e t h e
33
c h i l d f o r h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y a s a th o r o u g h ly i n t e g r a t e d
p e rs o n a lity .
How t h i s i n t e g r a t i n g , s o c i a l i z i n g p ro g ram may
become a r e a l i t y , h a s b e e n fo u n d t o be t h e c o r e p ro b le m in
any o t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l .
U n d er t h e recom ­
m ended p ro g ra m , w h ich h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r ,
s u g g e s tio n s h av e b e e n made a s t o how t h i s g o a l may b e a t t a i n e d #
A r t i c u l a t i o n w ith lo w e r a n d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n .
The h ig h s c h o o l h a s n o t b e e n w e ll a r t i c u l a t e d w ith t h e p r o ­
gram s o f t h e d i s t r i c t e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s .
a r e e i g h t e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s .
W ith in t h e d i s t r i c t
T h e re a r e two p u b l i c and one
p r i v a t e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o ls i n t h e c i t y o f O ra n g e .
In E l
Modena t h e r e a r e two g r a d e s c h o o l s , one f o r w h ite s an d one
f o r M e x ic a n s.
V i l l a P a r k , O liv e an d M o d jesk a Home e a c h h a s
one e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l .
T h is u n u s u a l num ber o f g ra d e s c h o o ls
w i t h i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t h a s made f o r p o o r a r t i c u l a ­
t i o n w ith t h e r e s u l t a n t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n p ro g ra m , g r a d i n g ,
g u id a n c e , an d c o n t e n t o f c o u r s e s .
L e ss o f a p ro b le m was fo u n d t o e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n t o
th e ju n io r c o lle g e s , c o lle g e s , and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
C o n tin u o u s . c o m p re h e n s iv e g u id a n c e .
C o n tin u o u s g u i ­
d an c e h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s tu d y a s m ean in g a l l t h e
d e v ic e s w h ich a r e a v a i l a b l e i n o r o u t o f t h e s c h o o l an d o f
w hich t h e s c h o o l s h o u ld t a k e a c c o u n t, t h a t may make p o s s i b l e
t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p u p i l ’s p e r s o n a l i t y .
34
Many a g e n c ie s h a v e becom e v a l u a b l e an d may b e u s e d to
s e t u p a f u n c t i o n i n g g u id a n c e p ro g ra m .
F i r s t o f a l l , th e
i n t e g r a t e # c u r r ic u lu m , a s recom m ended in t h i s s t u d y , i s b a s i ­
c a l l y a p ro g ram o f g u id a n c e *
The c h i l d , u n d e r t h e g u id a n c e
o f a f i n e t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r th a n a s u b j e c t m a t t e r
s p e c i a l i s t , i s e n jo y in g t h e f i n e s t ty p e o f g u id a n c e *
A ll o f
t h e s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g , s h o u ld b e u s e d
f o r g u id a n c e p u r p o s e s , n a m e ly :
(2 ) t h e s t u d e n t ^
(4 )
te s ts
re co rd s;
an d m e a su re m e n ts ;
and g roup c o u n s e lin g ;
in s titu tio n s
( l ) th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n ;
(3 ) t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p ro g ra m ;
(5 )
th e l i b r a r i e s ;
(
6 ) in d iv id u a l
(7 ) t h e hom e; a n d (8 ) v a r i o u s
o th e r
o f t h e c o m m u n i ty .
U n til re c e n tly l i t t l e
o r no g u id a n c e , i n t h e s e n s e
t h a t t h e w ord h a s b e e n u s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t , h a s b e e n g iv e n
i n t h e O range H igh S c h o o l,
The fo rm a l g u id a n c e w o rk , c o n ­
s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y o f a s h o r t t a l k w ith t h e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ,
h a s n o t p ro v e d a d e q u a te i n th e l i g h t o f t h e m odern d e f i n i t i o n
o f g u id a n c e .
U tiliz a tio n o f s e rv ic e a g e n c ie s .
By s e r v i c e a g e n c ie s
a r e m ean t t h e l i b r a r y , c a f e t e r i a , te x tb o o k d e p o s i t o r y a n d o t h e r
such b o d ie s .
The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p u p i l s by bu s c o n s t i t u t e s
a n o th e r s e r v ic e agency h o ld in g im p lic a tio n s f o r a f u n c tio n a l,
e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m , p a r t i c u l a r l y , s h o u ld t e a c h e r s s e r v e a s
d riv e rs .
35
The l i b r a r y h a s b e e n u s e d i n th e p a s t a s a s o u r c e o f
f r e e re a d in g m a te r ia l to be in je c t e d in to a f r e e re a d in g
p ro g ra m .
The l i b r a r y s h o u l d , h o w e v e r, be u s e d f o r r e f e r e n c e
w ork a s w e ll as a p la c e f o r s tu d y *
T h is c a n be a c c o m p lis h e d
by m aking t h e l i b r a r y f u n c t i o n i n t h e d a i l y p ro g ram o f e v e ry
p u p i l an d t e a c h e r .
The c a f e t e r i a h a s b een a d e q u a te an d h a s b e e n u s e d t o
a d v a n ta g e a s a g u id a n c e s o u r c e .
The s e l e c t i o n o f a d e q u a te
m e a ls an d t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g o f p r o p e r s o c i a l c o n d u c t h a v e b e e n
a d is tin c t c o n trib u tio n .
A dequacy o f t h e p e r s o n n e l o r g a n i z a t i o n .
W h ile t h e
c r i t e r i o n o f t h e p e r s o n n e l o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n g iv e n b r i e f
c o n s id e ra tio n h e re , i t c a r r ie s i t s c h ie f im p lic a tio n in r e ­
l a t i o n t o t h e g u id a n c e p ro g ram w h ich h a s b e e n e l a b o r a t e d in
C h a p te r Y I *
I t was fo u n d t h a t f o r s u c h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll
s c h o o l a s O ra n g e , many o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f p e r s o n n e l w ork
c o u ld be c a r r i e d on by f o u r o r f i v e p e r s o n s .
S u p e r v is io n an d p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w th .
I t h as been
a ssu m e d , f o r t h e p u rp o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s
s h o u ld be l e d by th e p r i n c i p a l to a s c i e n t i f i c p o i n t o f v iew ;
t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a w i l l i n g n e s s t o make o f t h e i r s c h o o l a
l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e s tu d y o f t h e p ro b le m s o f c h i l d l i f e a b o u t
them i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e m o st a d v a n c e d t h i n k i n g .
J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e a d o p tio n an d u s e o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a
36
h a s b e e n a tte m p te d i n th e p r e c e d in g c h a p t e r .
The v a l i d i t y
o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t o some e x t e n t by t h e i r
u s e i n t h e C h icag o S c h o o l S u rv e y , a s w e l l as by t h e i r u s e
by o t h e r a g e n c i e s .
IV .
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CURRICULUM
T h re e a s p e c t s o f t h e O range c u r r ic u lu m h a v e b e e n
ex am in ed an d e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s s tu d y an d h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d
in th is s e c tio n o f t h i s c h a p te r.
d a i l y s c h e d u le ;
The a s p e c t s w e re :
(1 ) t h e
(2 ) t h e p la c e o f g u id a n c e i n th e p ro g ra m ;
an d (3 ) t h e f a c u l t y 's r e l a t i o n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m .
The d a l l y s c h e d u l e .
S p e c ific c o n s id e r a tio n has been
g iv e n t o t h e d a i l y s c h e d u le i n C h a p te r V I.
I t h as been
th o u g h t a b a r e o u t l i n e o f t h e k in d o f d a i l y s c h e d u le i n o p e r a ­
t i o n i n O range w ould be s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e p u rp o s e o f t h i s
c h a p te r.
O range h a s o f f e r e d a s e v e n - p e r i o d s c h e d u le f o r many
y e a rs.
The f i r s t p e r i o d b e g in n in g a t 8 :0 5 o 'c l o c k h a s b e e n
one h o u r i n l e n g t h .
B etw een t h e h o u rs o f 9 :0 5 o 'c l o c k an d
12 n o o n , f o u r p e r i o d s o f 45 m in u te s w ith f i v e m in u te p a s s i n g
p e r io d s h a v e b e e n t h e o r d e r .
The lu n c h p e r i o d h a s b e e n 30
m in u te s lo n g an d t h e a f t e r n o o n c l a s s e s h a v e b eg u n a t 1 2 :3 5 .
The s i x t h an d s e v e n th p e r i o d s h a v e b e e n one h o u r e a c h .
On
a s se m b ly d a y s , a p e r i o d o f 30 m in u te s i s ad d e d t o t h e s c h o o l
37
d ay , a p r a c tic e v e ry d is f a v o r a b le to s tu d e n ts and te a c h e rs
a lik e .
The r e l a t i o n o f g u id a n c e to t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m .
G u idance h a s come t o h av e a b r o a d e r a s p e c t th a n was f o r m e r ly
th e c a s e a s h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d in g p a g e s .
The
te rm now i n v o lv e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f much more t h a n m e re ly g i v i n g
a d v ic e c o n c e r n in g v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s .
I n f a c t , g u id a n c e
h a s now b e e n c o n s id e r e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m .
G u id a n c e , t o o , h a s i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s .
The w hole
q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n c a r e f u l l y c o n s id e r e d i n C h a p te r VI o f t h i s
s tu d y ; o n ly c e r t a i n ite m s w h ich h a d im m e d ia te s i g n i f i c a n c e
have been tr e a t e d in t h i s c h a p te r .
I t was a c c e p te d a s a t r u t h t h a t g u id a n c e , t o b e r e a l l y
e f f e c t i v e , m ust be a n i n d i v i d u a l m a t t e r .
I t is tru e th a t
c e r t a i n r e s u l t s h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e i n d e a l i n g w ith g r o u p s ,
b u t i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , e f f e c t i v e g u id a n c e m ust h a v e b e e n
in d iv id u a l.
G u id an ce m ust f u n c t i o n i n t h e l i v e s o f p u p i l s e v e n
b e f o r e th e y e n t e r h ig h s c h o o l; h e r e i s w here t h e v a l u e o f
t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u ld h a v e b e e n fo u n d ,
a n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i s th e c h i e f r e a s o n f o r a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e t - u p in t h e O range d i s t r i c t .
F a c u l ty r e l a t i o n s t o th e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m .
The
h a p p in e s s an d c o n te n tm e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s , fro m th e s t a n d p o i n t
38
o f t h e i r s o c i a l and econom ic w e ll b e i n g , an d t h e am ount an d
k in d o f w ork th e y h av e b e e n a s s i g n e d , a s w e ll a s t h e b r e a d t h
o f u n d e r s ta n d in g in v o lv e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l v i s i o n , h a v e b e e n
a d ju d g e d a s h a v in g d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m .
As no f i g u r e s w ere a v a i l a b l e as t o t e a c h e r s 1 s a l a r i e s ,
no t a b l e c o u ld b e m ade; h o w e v e r, th e O range d i s t r i c t t e a e h e r s
h av e b e e n a d m i t t e d l y u n d e r - p a i d a s co m p ared t o t h e a v e ra g e
s a l a r y p a i d th r o u g h o u t C a l i f o r n i a .
V.
METHODS AND CONTENT IN THE VARIOUS SUBJECTS
The i n t r i n s i c a s p e c t s o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m , i n c l u d i n g
m ethod an d c o n t e n t i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s , h a v e b e e n d i s ­
c u s se d in t h i s c h a p te r .
E ach o f t h e e le v e n f i e l d s o f e d u ­
c a t i o n a l e f f o r t p r o v id e d f o r i n t h e O range H ig h S c h o o l w ere
s t u d i e d an d t h e m ethod e v a l u a t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f u n i f i e d ,
i n t e g r a t e d , c h i l d p e r s o n a l i t i e s w h ich h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d
a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e reco m m en d a tio n s f o r c u r r ic u lu m im p ro v e ­
m e n t.
E n g lis h c o n t e n t an d m e th o d .
The c o n t e n t o f t h e E n g lis h
c o u r s e s h a v e b e e n fo u n d t o be t r a d i t i o n a l .
P ro g re s s iv e p rac­
t i c e was o b s e rv e d i n t h e jo u r n a li s m c o u r s e b e c a u s e o f i t s
i n t r i n s i c te n d e n c y to w a rd f u n c t i o n a l i s m .
In g e n e r a l, l i t t l e
h a s b e e n done to w a rd t e a c h i n g t h i s s u b j e c t i n a p r o g r e s s i v e
39
m anner b e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s a r y o r r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
P u p i l i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n su b m erg ed i n t h e m o ra ss o f r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts .
C o lle g e r e q u ir e m e n ts h av e l i m i t e d t h e i n g e n u i t y o f
b o th t e a c h e r a n d p u p i l w ith r e g a r d t o c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e t e s t s .
I n t e a c h i n g gram m ar, p u n c t u a ti o n an d c o m p o s itio n , i t
was fo u n d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r s u c h e n d e a v o r was
d iv o r c e d from s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t .
I t s h o u ld p ro v e r a t h e r e a s y
t o ex p a n d t h i s n a rro w b a s i s o f t h e w ork t o t h e p la c e w here
c o m p o s itio n a s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h o u g h t , becom es t h e o b je e tiv e .5
O ra l E n g lis h h a s b e e n n e g l e c t e d i n t h e O range H igh
S c h o o l.
W r itt e n w ords a r e i n a u d i b l e t o o n e s e l f ; sp o k e n w ords
fu n c tio n .
Good o r a l u s a g e w o u ld seem t o c a r r y o v e r i n t o
w r i t t e n w o rk .
D ra m a tic s h a v e r e c e iv e d f a v o r a b l e a t t e n t i o n
and h av e r e c e i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c s t u d e n t s u p p o r t .
T h is f i e l d
o f E n g lis h h a s b e e n , p e r h a p s , th e m ost f u n c t i o n a l o f a l l t h e
E n g lis h f i e l d s .
The c o n c lu s io n o f t h i s s tu d y i s t h a t t h e c o m p o s itio n
w ork s h o u ld becom e m ore d e f i n i t e l y o r a l w ork an d s h o u ld
s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r w r i t t e n w ork an d th e r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s
s h o u ld b e b r o u g h t up t o d a t e .
5 B. B. W e e rs in g , “The O r g a n iz a tio n o f T h o u g h t a s a n
Aim i n T e a c h in g E n g lis h C o m p o s itio n ,“ ( u n p u b lis h e d M a ste r* s
t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1 9 3 1 ), PP. 1 0 6 -1 0 8 .
40
C o n te n t an d m ethod i n la n g u a g e s .
The la n g u a g e c l a s s e s
w ere fo u n d t o he p u r e ly t r a d i t i o n a l i n c o n t e n t and m e th o d .
A ll a t te m p ts t o c o n n e c t t h e la n g u a g e s t o m odem d ay l i f e w ere
fo u n d t o h e p u r e l y s u p e r f i c i a l .
The g r e a t p e r c e n ta g e o f t h e
s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e c l a s s e s w ere t h e r e o n ly t o m eet
c o l l e g e a n d u n i v e r s i t y r e q u ir e m e n ts .
In t h e la n g u a g e c l a s s e s
a s i n t h e E n g lis h c l a s s e s , t h e r e seem ed t o h e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
em p h a sis on gram m ar.
I t h a s h e e n recom m ended t h a t t h e la n g u a g e d e -e m p h a s iz e
th e w r i t t e n a s p e c t s o f th e la n g u a g e a n d p la c e t h e s t r e s s on
th e o r a l o r f u n c tio n a l ap p ro ac h .
I n t e r e s t , i t w ould seem ,
w ould r i s e w ith s p e a k in g a b i l i t y , r a t h e r t h a n w ith t e d i o u s ,
w ritte n a b i l i t y .
C o n te n t an d m ethod in t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .
The s o c i a l
s c i e n c e c l a s s e s , e c o n o m ic s, c i v i c s , an d h i s t o r y , w ere fo u n d
t o h e t r a d i t i o n a l in c o n t e n t an d m e th o d .
In c i v i c s an d e c o n ­
om ics t h e t e x t h o o k i s f o llo w e d c l o s e l y ; h o w e v e r, an a t te m p t
hy one o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e l a s t y e a r was fo u n d t o he s u c ­
c e s s f u l i n t h e m o d e rn iz in g o f t h e s e c o u r s e s .
The u s e o f
p a m p h le ts , n e w s p a p e r s , an d m a g a z in e s h a s n o t h e e n w e ll d e v e l ­
oped.
No a t te m p t t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e c o u r s e s h a s h ee n m ade,
n o r h a s t h e r e h e e n made an a t te m p t t o c o n n e c t t h e s e s t u d i e s
w ith t h e im m e d ia te n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l s .
No a tte m p t h a s h een made t o make t h e c o u r s e i n w o rld
41
a l i v i n g one p e r i o d .
The te x tb o o k h a s re m a in e d t h e b ack b o n e
o f t h e c o u r s e an d t h e c o n n e c tio n b etw e en c u r r e n t e v e n ts and
4
w o rld h i s t o r y b a c k g ro u n d f o r s u c h e v e n ts h a s n o t b e e n s t r e s s e d
t o a d v a n ta g e .
A m erican h i s t o r y h a s f o llo w e d w o rld h i s t o r y i n t h a t
i t h a s a l s o b e e n t a u g h t i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m a n n e r.
L ittle
h a s b e e n done t o c o n n e c t A m erican h i s t o r y w ith c u r r e n t e v e n ts
o r th e liv e s o f th e s tu d e n ts .
c o u r s e h as b e e n f a l l a c i o u s .
The p h ilo s o p h y b e h in d t h i s
I t h a s b e e n assum ed t h a t t h e
m a sse s o f h i s t o r i c in f o r m a ti o n w o u ld some t i m e , i n t h e f u t u r e ,
be o f b e n e f i t .
C o n te n t an d m ethod in m a th e m a tic s .
The p h ilo s o p h y
u n d e r l y i n g t h e m a th e m a tic s c o u r s e s h a s b e e n b a s e d on t h e t r a n s f e r - o f - tr a in in g th e o ry .
T hese c o u r s e s h a v e b e e n j u s t i f i e d on
t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t o r d e r l y t h i n k i n g in t h e f i e l d o f m a th e ­
m a tic s w ould d e v e lo p o r d e r l y t h i n k i n g i n o t h e r f i e l d s .
L ittle
h a s b e e n done in t h i s f i e l d t o a s s o c i a t e t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r
w ith l i f e s i t u a t i o n s .
The te x tb o o k s re m a in th e o n ly s o u r c e
o f p ro b le m s an d th e s t u d y in g e n e r a l h a s re m a in e d a h y p o th e ­
t i c a l one.
C o n te n t an d m eth o d in n a t u r a l s c i e n c e .
The s c i e n c e s
c o u r s e s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , h a v e b ee n f u n c t i o n a l ! z e d .
B io lo g y an d h o r t i c u l t u r e h a v e b ee n made I n t o a c t i v i t y c o u r s e s .
The o n ly c r i t i c i s m , an d an im p o r ta n t o n e , w ould b e t h a t th e
42
a c t i v i t i e s h ave been o f i n t e r e s t to th e te a c h e r r a t h e r th a n
th e p u p ils ,
The p u p i l s h a v e n o t d e v e lo p e d s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b ­
lem s ta k e n from t h e i r own e n v iro n m e n t.
P h y s ic s an d c h e m is tr y h a v e made a n h o n e s t a tte m p t to w a rd
t r a i n i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k in t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r own
p ro b le m s an d t o a p p ly p h y s i c a l an d c h e m ic a l te c h n iq u e s t o s u c h
p ro b le m s .
H ere a g a in t h e c o l l e g e an d u n i v e r s i t y r e q u ir e m e n ts
h a v e h i n d e r e d t h e s c o p e an d f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e s e c o u r s e s .
Too much o f t h e c o u r s e m ust f o llo w a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n a s p r e ­
s c r ib e d by th e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r le a r n in g .
C o n te n t an d m eth o d i n t h e c o m m e rc ia l s t u d i e s .
The
commerce c o u r s e s i n t h e O range H igh S c h o o l h a v e b e e n t r u l y
fu n c tio n a l!z e d .
I n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e c o u r s e s w ith th e o t h e r
c o u r s e s o f f e r e d h a s b e e n c a r r i e d on w ith a g r e a t d e a l o f
su ccess,
G re a t s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n show n.
book h a s b e e n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o u r s e a c t i v i t i e s .
The y e a r ­
C o s t, book­
k e e p in g , t y p i n g , m im e o g ra p h in g , an d a l l t h e o t h e r p h a s e s o f
t u r n i n g o u t a good y e a r - b o o k h a v e b een c a r r i e d on by th e
c o m m e rc ia l s t u d e n t s .
Such a c t i v i t i e s h a v e b ee n w e ll d e v e lo p e d
by t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r t h e g u id a n c e o f a v e r y c o m p e te n t g ro u p
o f commerce t e a c h e r s .
The c o m m e rc ia l w ork o f t h e s c h o o l d e p a rtm e n ts h a s b e e n
e f f i c i e n t l y h a n d le d by t h e s t u d e n t s .
The s t u d e n t s h av e f e l t
th e m s e lv e s t o be n e c e s s a r y p a r t s o f t h e s c h o o l a c t i v i t y an d
43
h a v e h e e n c o n s c io u s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
C o n te n t an d m ethod i n a r t .
The a r t c o u r s e s a s h a v e
h e e n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p a s t h a v e h ee n weak i n c o r r e l a t i o n w ith
th e o th e r a c t i v i t i e s o f th e s c h o o l.
L i t t l e o r no a r t h a s
h e e n in t r o d u c e d i n c o u r s e s t h a t c o u ld he o f g r e a t b e n e f i t i n
p ro m o tin g a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n .
More a r t w ork c o u ld h av e h e e n
done by t h e s t u d e n t s t o b e a u t i f y th e cam p u s, an n o u n ce a t h l e ­
tic
an d o t h e r c o - c u r r i c u l a r e v e n ts an d e n l i v e n s c h o o l p u b l i ­
c a tio n s .
L a n d s c a p in g o f t h e g r o u n d s , d a n c e d e c o r a t i o n s , y e a r ­
book c a r t o o n i n g a n d s t u d e n t a r t e x h i b i t s h av e b e e n s u g g e s te d
a s s ti m u lu s f o r th e a r t p ro g ra m .
C o n te n t a n d m ethod i n m u s ic .
The m usic c o u r s e s o f f e r e d
h a v e b e e n e x t e n s i v e , b u t , i n g e n e r a l , h a v e n o t b ee n w e ll m o ti­
v a te d .
I n c lu d e d in t h e m u sic c o u r s e s h a v e b e e n s i n g i n g ,
o r g a n , p i a n o , o r c h e s t r a , b a n d , an d t h e o r y w o rk .
Much tim e
h a s b e e n s p e n t s t a g i n g o p e r e t t a s an d foimaal r e c i t a l s .
r e a c tio n to th e s e a c t i v i t i e s has been p o o r.
S tu d e n t
The c h i e f com­
p l a i n t h a s b een t h a t t h e m u sic p r e s e n t e d was d e a d an d o u t ­
m oded.
Much i n d i v i d u a l w ork h a s b een g iv e n t o o rg a n s t u d e n t s .
The reco m m en d a tio n o f t h i s
re p o rt has c a lle d f o r le s s in d iv i­
d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , th u s g i v i n g more p u p i l s i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t e a d
o f a f a v o r e d few .
The o r c h e s t r a an d b an d h av e e n jo y e d e n t h u s i a s t i c
44
r e s p o n s e from t h e s c h o o l an d com m unity.
The b and t e a c h e r i s
a p e r s o n a b le young man an d h i s p e r s o n a l i t y h a s done much t o
c re a te in te r e s t.
He a l s o t e a c h e s b e g i n n e r s i n th e g r a d e
s c h o o l , th u s c o r r e l a t i n g t h e w ork a n d c o n t r i b u t i n g g r e a t l y
t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l m u sie p ro g ra m .
C o n te n t an d m eth o d i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t .
The c o u r s e s
i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t f i e l d s c o n s i s t i n g o f f o r g e , m ach in e
s h o p , wood s h o p , an d m e c h a n ic a l d ra w in g h a v e e n jo y e d g r e a t
success.
The m ach in e s h o p , b e c a u s e o f an e n e r g e t i c t e a c h e r ,
h a s become t h e b e s t e q u ip p e d s c h o o l m ach in e sh o p i n O range
c o u n ty .
The s t u d e n t s h av e b e e n e n c o u ra g e d t o b r i n g i n t h e i r
p ro b le m s an d e a c h s e m e s te r * s w ork h a s b e e n b u i l t a ro u n d su c h
p ro b le m s .
The s t u d e n t s h av e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n g a i n i n g d e ­
f e n s e p o s i t i o n s b e c a u s e o f th e t e c h n iq u e s th e y hav e l e a r n e d .
The f o r g e an d wood sh o p s h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l
c o u rse s.
The o n ly c r i t i c i s m
o f f e r e d i s t h a t th e c l a s s e s h a v e
b e e n u s e d a s a dum ping g ro u n d f o r th e m i s f i t s who c o u ld n o t
b e n e f i t by t h e ac ad e m ic w ork a s i t h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d .
The m e c h a n ic a l d ra w in g c l a s s e s h a v e b e e n a l i v e an d
v ig o ro u s .
Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s h av e e a r n e d s p e n d in g money
by b lu e p r i n t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d r a f t s m e n 's p la n s an d d o in g
o t h e r r e l a t e d w ork f o r l o c a l a r c h i t e c t s .
C o n te n t a n d m eth o d i n hom em aking.
The w ork i n hom e-
m aking h a s b ee n s u p e r v i s e d by t h e s t a t e a n d h a s b e e n w e ll
i n t e g r a t e d w ith t h e n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e com m unity.
The c o u r s e s s h o u ld "be "b ro ad en ed , h o w e v e r, an d made a v a i l a b l e
f o r a l a r g e r num ber o f s tu d e n ts *
T h is c o u r s e s h o u ld f u n c ­
t i o n f o r t h e b o y s a s w e ll a s f o r t h e g i r l s .
C o o k in g an d
p r a c t i c a l se w in g w ould p ro v e p r o f i t a b l e t o t h e b o y s .
C o n te n t an d m ethod i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .
Much r e ­
m ains t o be done t o make t h i s c o u r s e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n
a f r u i t f u l one.
The c l a s s e s w ere fo u n d t o b e c l a s s e s i n
a t h l e t i c te c h n iq u e s r a t h e r th a n t r u e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l
a c tiv itie s .
T h e re s h o u ld be e m p h asis on r e c r e a t i o n w ith
c a rry -o v e r v a lu e s .
H y g ien e s h o u ld be g iv e n t o t h e b o y s .
y e t t h e r e h av e b e e n no c l a s s e s i n h y g ie n e i n an y fo irn .
As
C o r­
r e c t i v e w ork f o r b o th b o y s an d g i r l s s h o u ld b e g iv e n a s
s h o u ld i n s t r u c t i o n i n p r o p e r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
T h e re
s h o u ld be s e t u p a f u n c t i o n i n g p ro g ram o f i n t r a - m u r a l s p o r t s
and d e -e m p h a s is o f i n t e r - s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t s .
A p ro g ram o f h e a l t h e d u c a ti o n i s g r e a t l y n e e d e d .
C l i n i c s e r v i c e an d home v i s i t a t i o n s h o u ld be c a r r i e d o n .
The f i n d i n g s o f th e W h ite House C o n fe re n c e on C h ild H e a lth
s h o u ld b e s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e O range H igh S c h o o l
p r o g ra m .0
6 W h ite H ouse C o n fe re n c e on C h ild H e a lth an d P r o t e c ­
t i o n , The S c h o o l H e a lth P ro g ram (New Y o rk : The C e n tu ry Com'
p a n y , 1 9 3 2 ), I I I , 400 p p .
47
e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e th a n many o f t h e fo rm a l c o u r s e s i n t h e
o f f e r e d c u r r ic u lu m .
The s t u d e n t g o v ern m e n t s h o u ld be o r g a n ­
i z e d a s a p a r t o f t h e new c u r r ic u lu m an d a l l i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s
f o r r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s s h o u ld be a s f u l l y d e v e lo p e d a s
p o s s ib le .
V II.
Summary o f t h e c h a p t e r .
SUMMARY
Ten c r i t e r i a w ere a d o p te d a s
a b a s i s o f e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f O range U nion H igh
S c h o o l.
C o n te n t an d m eth o d i n e a c h o f t h e f i e l d s o f s tu d y
have b ee n e v a l u a t e d an d s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s an d g o v ern m en t h av e
b ee n i n v e s t i g a t e d .
The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t c u r r i c u ­
lum h a s i n d i c a t e d th e n e e d f o r th e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e
c u r r ic u lu m .
Many f a v o r a b l e f e a t u r e s h av e b e e n n o t e d , e s p e c i a l l y
th e w ork i n th e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s a n d c o m m e rc ia l d e p a r tm e n ts .
C o n s id e r a b le a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n g iv e n t o t h e p h i l o s o ­
p h i c a l b a s i s o f c u r r ic u lu m b u i l d i n g , i t h a v in g b ee n assu m ed
t h a t t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a to r s d e te r m in e s t h e form o r ty p e
o f c u r r ic u lu m .
The v a l u e an d n e e d f o r a so u n d c o n tin u o u s and
f l e x i b l e g u id a n c e p ro g ram h a s b een s t r e s s e d .
The r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p o f a d a i l y s c h e d u le t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m a n d i t s a p p a r e n t
need has been s t r e s s e d .
The n e e d f o r a s t u d e n t g o v ern m en t
t h a t w ould be t r u l y a s t u d e n t e n t e r p r i s e h a s b een s t a t e d .
CHAPTER V
ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECTS INTO DEPARTMENTS
P u rp o s e o f t h e c h a p t e r .
T h is c h a p t e r h a s d i s c u s s e d
t h e s h o r t com ings o f th e p r e s e n t d e p a r t m e n ta l s e t - u p o f
s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n th e O range U nion H igh S c h o o l.
T h re e m ain d i v i s i o n s h av e b een c o n s id e r e d i n t h i s
c h a p te r #
(2 )
They a r e :
( l ) p r e s e n t d e p a r tm e n ta l o r g a n i z a t i o n ;
fu n d a m e n ta l p r o p o s a l f o r d e p a r t m e n ta l r e v i s i o n ; an d (3 )
summary o f th e c h a p t e r .
I.
THE PRESENT DEPARTMENTAL ORGANIZATION
F a u l t y r e a s o n in g h a s d e c id e d o r g a n i z a t i o n .
I t was
fo u n d t h a t d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n , te n d s t o d e f e a t t h e p u rp o s e
o f e d u c a tio n i f c a r r i e d t o t h e e x tr e m e .
D e p a rtm e n ts b a s e d
on r i g i d l y a r r a n g e d d i v i s i o n s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r re m a in i n a
d i s t i n c t a n d u n r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s o f a r as o t h e r d e p a r tm e n ts
h a v e b een c o n c e r n e d , th u s d e f e a t i n g i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e
s c h o o l.
The p h ilo s o p h y has b ee n d i s c a r d e d i n s p i r i t ;
its
c h i l d , d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r a lo n g r i g i d l i n e s ,
s t i l l e x is ts .
T e a c h in g , i n i t s b e g i n n in g , knew no d e p a r tm e n ts o f
k n o w le d g e .
The e x p e r t , t o ad d im p o rta n c e t o h i s f i e l d ,
i n s i s t e d on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n .
T h is
was done w ith o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r a c l e a r o v e rv ie w o f t h e
49
p u rp o s e o f e d u c a t i o n .
They d i d n o t c o n c e r n th e m s e lv e s w ith
t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e i r d e p a rtm e n ts w ere m ak in g ; r a t h e r , th e y
saw o n ly s u b j e c t m a t t e r d iv o r c e d from l i f e .
Q u ig le y b la m es t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s c h o o ls
f o r th e many f a i l u r e s .
The a c c e p ta n c e o f p a r t i a l l e a r n i n g i s t h e suprem e
cause o f sc h o o l f a i l u r e .
I n s t e a d o f lo o k in g upon e x ­
p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l a d ju s tm e n ts a s d e f i n i t e l y u n i f i e d o u t ­
com es i n c o r p o r a t i n g s p e c i f i c aim s t h a t a r e th e m s e lv e s
i n d e n t i f i e d i n te rm s o f p u p i l n e e d s a n d a b i l i t i e s , t h e
p r a c t i c e h a s b e e n t o a c c e p t th e s h e e r r o t e m e m o riz a tio n
o f m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . A tta in m e n t h a s b een r e ­
c e iv e d a s co m m en su rab le— b u t o n ly i n te rm s o f q u a n t i t y o f
s u b j e c t m a t t e r m e m o rized , a n d t h e s p e e d w ith w hich th e
f a c t o f f i x a t i o n h a s b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d . The n ew e r c o n ­
c e p t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n s i s t s t h a t th r o u g h
th e resp o n se o f th e in d iv id u a l l e a r n e r , r e a c tin g to
s t i m u l i , a f u n c t i o n a l ch an g e I s e f f e c t e d by w h ich a m odi­
f i c a t i o n o f g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r p erm an en cy t a k e s p la c e in
th e c o n d u c t c o n t r o l s b e lo n g in g t o th e l e a r n e r — i n h i s
h a b i t s , i d e a s , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a p p r e c i a t i o n s , o r w hat n o t .
The n e w e r p o i n t o f v ie w i n s i s t s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n ­
m ent i s f u n c t i o n a l a c h ie v e m e n t i n te rm s o f c h a n g e s in
h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s , u n d e rs ta n d in g s , a p p r e c ia tio n s , e t c . , .
t h a t b e lo n g p e c u l i a r l y t o th e i n d i v i d u a l b e in g e d u c a te d .
The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t o d e p a r t m e n ts .
O range
U nion H ig h S c h o o l h a s n o t b ro k e n w ith t r a d i t i o n s o f a r a s d e ­
p a r tm e n ts a r e c o n c e r n e d an d t h e a t t e n d a n t w e a k n e sse s o f d e p a r t
m ents a r e p r e s e n t .
C o n c lu s iv e e v id e n c e o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e
p h ilo s o p h y w h ich u n d e r l i e s s u c h a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s was fo u n d
i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s c h o o l o f f e r s more th a n s i x t y s e p a r a t e
1 Sam uel Q u ig le y , The I n t e g r a t i o n , o f T e a c h in g (Ann A r b o r ,
M ic h ig a n : Edw ards B r o t h e r s , I n c . , 193l ) , p p . 1 3 -1 3 .
50
c o u r s e s , each b e a rin g i t s
own l a b e l , c a r r y i n g i t s
own m a t e r i a l s ,
an d p o s s e s s i n g no d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u b s c r i b i n g t o
a ry a im b u t t h a t o f m a s te r y o f i t s e l f , i n an d f o r i t s e l f .
E le v e n d e p a r tm e n ts h av e b e e n m a in ta in e d in t h e O range
H ig h S c h o o l.
Many o f th e t e a c h e r s h av e w o rk ed i n two o r
more o f t h e d e p a rtm e n ts a t th e same tim e .
F o r e x a m p le , one
t e a c h e r t a u g h t f o u r c l a s s e s o f E n g lis h an d one c l a s s o f
p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a n o t h e r h a s t a u g h t m u sic a n d com m erce,
w h ile y e t a n o t h e r h a s t a u g h t L a t i n and E n g l i s h .
T h is c o n d i­
t i o n s h o u ld n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o t a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e a s i t te n d s
to w a rd t h e p o s s i b l e i n t e g r a t i o n o f c l a s s e s .
A n o th e r f a c t o r i n t h e O range s i t u a t i o n was t h a t - t e a c h e r s
w ere h i r e d a s s u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s r a t h e r th a n i n t e g r a t e d
p e rs o n a litie s .
L o c a l p r a c t i c e h as b e e n b a s e d upon an a s s u m p tio n t h a t
c e r t a i n d i v i s i o n s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r w ere m ore v a l u a b l e th a n
o th e rs .
S u b je c ts h a v in g u n if o rm f u n c t i o n a l v a lu e f o r a l l
s t u d e n t s w ere n o t s t r e s s e d .
S uch i n c o r r e c t e m p h a sis f i n d s i t s
b a s i s i n t h e L a t i n gram m ar s c h o o l w here th e c u r r ic u lu m e x i s t e d
f o r a s e l e c t e d g ro u p .
I n t h a t tim e t h e s e c o n d a r y p u p i l s w ere
o
h ig h ly s e l e c t e d an d e n jo y e d s i m i l a r l i f e f u n c t i o n s .
C o n te n t
and m eth o d s d e v e lo p e d f o r s u c h s e l e c t e d g ro u p s h a v e n o t b een
a d e q u a te f o r t h e u n s e l e c t e d m a sse s o f h ig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ,
2 Efepopt o f t h e S u rv e y o f t h e S c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o . I l l i n o i s .
51
II.
FUNDAMENTAL PROPOSAL FOR DEPARTMENTAL REORGANIZATION
I n t h i s r e p o r t t h e r e h a s “b een p r o p o s e d a b a s i c d e p a r t ­
m e n ta l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a i o n g f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s .
On t h e b a s i s
o f p l a n s p r o p o s e d by Watson-^, F e a t h e r s t o n e 2*’, an d W e e r s in g ^ ,
among o t h e r s , b r o a d f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t s h a v e b ee n s e l e c t e d
as th e d iv is io n s .
I t i s assu m ed t h a t e v e r y human b e i n g ’ s
l i f e s h o u l d c o n t a i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f e x p e r i e n c e a t e a c h age
l e v e l i n e a c h o f t h e f i e l d s nam ed.
t h a t have b e e n recommended a r e :
home l i f e ;
m e n t;
The s e v e n b a s i c f i e l d s
(l) h e a lth fu l liv in g ;
(3 ) s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;
(5 ) la n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a t u r e ;
(2 )
(4 ) man’ s n a t u r a l e n v i r o n ­
(6 ) p r a c t i c a l a r t s ; an d
(7 ) f i n e a r t s .
In s tr u c tio n a l o rg a n iz a tio n .
I t has been p ro p o sed to
a s s i g n e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s w h ic h t h e s c h o o l o f f e r s t o t h e
ab o v e m e n tio n e d f i e l d s r a t h e r t h a n t o t r a d i t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s . ^
The c o u r s e s s h o u l d be b r o a d e n e d ; t o o , t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e s s h o u l d
3 Goodwin W a tso n , ”A New S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l , ” P r o g r e s s i v e
E d u c a tio n . 8 :3 0 3 -1 0 , A p r i l , 1931.
*
^ W. B. F e a t h e r s t o n e , ”The P l a c e o f S u b j e c t s i n an
I n t e g r a t e d C u r r i c u l u m , ” C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r l y o f S e c o n d a ry Edu­
c a tio n . 9 :2 3 5 -4 6 , A p r i l , 1933.
5 F r e d e r i c k J . W e e r s in g , ”A T e n t a t i v e P l a n f o r R e o r g a n i­
z a t i o n o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , ” C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r l y
o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n . 9 : 1 5 7 - 6 6 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 4 .
^ Loc. c i t .
52
“b e p r o v i d e d o n ly i n c e r t a i n s p e c i a l c a s e s a s h a s b e e n d i s ­
cu ssed in o th e r p a r ts o f t h i s c h a p te r .
Each c o u r s e s h o u l d be t a u g h t a s i t c o n fo rm s w i t h t h e
c h i e f p u r p o s e o f t h a t f i e l d , r a t h e r t h a n as a s u b j e c t t o be
m a s t e r e d f o r i t s own s a k e .
I f s tu d e n ts a re in t e r e s t e d th e y le a r n r a p id ly ; t h e r e ­
f o r e , e a c h t e a c h e r s h o u l d be g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a r o u s i n g
p u p il i n t e r e s t s ,
The a r r a n g e m e n t o r s e q u e n c e o f t h e new c o u r s e s s h o u ld
be p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n c h r o n o l o g i c a l .
S tu d e n t i n t e r e s t
s h o u l d c r e a t e t h e tim e an d p l a c e f o r e a c h ite m i n a p a r t i c u ­
la r fie ld .
The c o n t e n t a n d m etho d o f e a c h c o u r s e s h o u l d b e d e ­
t e r m i n e d by t h e t e a c h e r w o rk in g w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d a
c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t c o m m itt e e , e v e r rem e m b erin g t h a t
te a c h e r p e r s o n a lity is th e b a s is o f s u c c e s s fu l te a c h in g .
W ith in e a c h c o u r s e maximum fre ed o m o f c h o i c e o f a c t i v i ­
t y c o n s i s t e n t w ith p u p il n e e d s , a b i l i t y , and i n t e r e s t s sh o u ld
be p r o v i d e d .
In g e n e r a l , t h e c o u r s e s s h o u l d b e e v e r b u i l d i n g
an d s h o u l d be c o m p r is e d o f a c t i v i t y l i s t s , p r o j e c t s , r e a d i n g s ,
e t c . , g e a r e d f o r t h e many l e v e l s o f i n t e r e s t a n d n e e d s o f
th e s tu d e n ts .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e proposed p l a n .
In o r d e r t o
i n i t i a t e t h i s p l a n , t h e b e l l s c h e d u l e o f O range U nion H igh
53
S c h o o l w o u ld , o f n e c e s s i t y , b e c h a n g e d .
The i r r e g u l a r day
o f s e v e n v a r i e d p e r i o d s s h o u l d become a r e g u l a r se v e n p e r i o d
d a y ; a l l p e r i o d s t o b e o f 55 m in u te l e n g t h w i t h a 55 m in u te
lu n ch p e r io d .
S in c e t h e r e w ould be s e v e n f i e l d s o f l e a r n ­
i n g , o n ly s e v e n p e r i o d s w ould be n e c e s s a r y .
No s t u d y p e r i o d s
w ould b e n e e d e d f o r e a c h p e r i o d w ould by i t s v e r y n a t u r e be
a la b o ra to ry p e rio d .
Such a s c h e d u l e w ould e l i m i n a t e home­
w ork , e x c e p t i n r a r e c a s e s *
Homework f o r c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y
s t u d e n t s , i f n e e d e d , c o u ld be g iv e n .
No marks o r g r a d e s s h o u l d b e g i v e n .
Reward w ould be
i n s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a jo b w e l l done b e c a u s e o f p e r s o n a l i n ­
te re st.
III.
SUMMRY
In t h i s c h a p te r c e r t a in b a s ic p r in c ip le s o f d e p a rt­
m e n ta l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d a n d d i s c u s s e d .
The
c h a n g e s s u g g e s t e d i n v o l v e a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y on t h e p a r t o f
t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s and a d e p a r t u r e from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l
d ep a rtm en t in f a v o r o f a f u n c tio n a l o r g a n iz a tio n .
S even
b ro a d f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t have been s u g g e s te d as th e b a s i s o f
t h e new p ro g ra m , and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s u c h a p ro g ra m h a v e
been c o n s id e re d .
The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r h a s b e e n w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y a s a
stu d y o f th e s t r i c t l y a d m in is tr a tiv e a s p e c ts o f th e c u rric u lu m ,
i n c l u d i n g an a n a l y s i s o f t h e g u id a n c e p r o g ra m .
CHAPTER V I
THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM
T h is c h a p t e r h a s h e e n w r i t t e n a s t h e r e p o r t o f an
a p p r a is a l o f th e p re s e n t a d m in is tra tio n p r a c t ic e s in th e
O range U nion H igh S c h o o l .
R ecom m endations f o r im pro vem ent
have been s u g g e s te d .
T h re e a s p e c t s h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d , n a m e ly :
a d m in istra tio n p ro ced u res;
(2 ) g u id a n c e p r o c e d u r e s ;
(1) p r e s e n t
(3 ) o t h e r
a s p e c t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; a n d (4 ) reco m m en d a tio n s f o r im p ro v e ­
m e n t, t h e s e h a v i n g b e e n i n d i c a t e d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t h e
body o f t h e t e x t .
I.
PRESENT ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES
P re s e n t ty p e o f o r g a n iz a tio n .
The Orange p u b l i c
s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d u n d e r a d u a l s y s te m made p o s ­
s i b l e by C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l la w .
The O range e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s
h a v e b ee n a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l ; e a c h
t y p e s c h o o l h a v i n g i t s own s c h o o l b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n .
T h is
d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s n o t made p o s s i b l e t h e m ost e f f e c t i v e
c o n t r o l o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g ra m .
Added t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n
have been th e f i v e g rad e sc h o o ls lo c a te d o u ts i d e th e c i t y o f
O ra n g e , y e t s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .
Each
o f t h e s e s c h o o l s h a v e h a d t h e i r own s c h o o l b o a r d s an d adm in­
is tra tio n s .
The a d v a n ta g e s o f a f u n c t i o n i n g j u n i o r h i g h
55
sc h o o l have n o t been r e a l i z e d b ecau se o f th e l a c k o f a r t i c u ­
l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s o f t h e g r a d e s c h o o l s .
The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n w o uld seem t o
lie
i n a f,s i x - s i x ,f p r o g ra m .
The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d
be c o n v e r t e d t o s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s a n d t h e h i g h s c h o o l s h o u l d
i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e v e n t h an d e i g h t h g r a d e s , t h u s becom in g a
s i x - y e a r h ig h sc h o o l.
Maximum e f f i c i e n c y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
w ould be a p p r o a c h e d .
In te rn a l a d m in istra tio n .
The d a i l y s c h e d u l e h a s b e e n
d i s c u s s e d an d reco m m en d a tio n s made i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r .
The o n e - h o u r a n d d o u b le l a b o r a t o r y p e r i o d s h a v e b e e n g i v e n
m in o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e new p ro g ra m .
H i l l has s a id :
The a s s u m p tio n t h a t t h e a r t s an d s c i e n c e s n e e d more
tim e t h a n t h e s o - c a l l e d a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s h a s n e v e r b ee n
Ju stifie d .
I t grows o u t o f a s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t E n g l i s h
and h i s t o r y a re n o t la b o r a t o r y - t y p e s u b j e c t s , s u i t e d to
i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h p ro b le m s a n d p r o j e c t s . Such a f a l s e
p h i l o s o p h y h a s a t e n d e n c y t o make t h e s e s u b j e c t s f o r m a l
an d s t i l t e d and somewhat e x t r a n e o u s t o t h e v i t a l l i f e
p ro b le m s o f t h e p u p i l s . 1
The c l e r i c a l work o f t h e s c h o o l o f f i c e h a s b e e n c a r r i e d
on q u i t e e f f i c i e n t l y by a s e c r e t a r y t o t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d a
f u l l - t i m e bookkeeper.
P u p i l s h a v e a s s i s t e d i n t h e o f f i c e an d
h a v e r e c e i v e d o f f i c e p r a c t i c e c r e d i t f o r s u c h work i n t h e i r
c o m m e rc ia l c o u r s e .
No f u n d a m e n ta l c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n recommended
Andrew P . H i l l , S u rv e y o f t h e P a lo A l t o P u b l i c S c h o o ls
( S a e r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a :
S a c r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t ­
i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 17 9.
56
as to th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f th e o f f ic e p e rs o n n e l.
The u s u a l o f f i c e r e c o r d s h a v e b e e n k e p t*
R e g istra tio n
h a s b e e n s u p e r v i s e d by t h e v i c e - r p i n c i p a l s ; t h e a t t e n d a n c e by
a f u ll- tim e a tte n d a n c e s e c re ta ry *
I n f o r m a t i o n f o r g u id a n c e
p u r p o s e s h a s n o t b ee n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y g a t h e r e d an d r e c o r d e d .
No t e a t s , I . Q * , m e n t a l m a t u r i t y , a c h i e v e m e n t , o r o t h e r s i m i l a r
m e a s u r in g d e v i c e s , h a v e b e e n g iv e n *
I t h a s b e e n recommended
t h a t a s y s te m o f I n d i v i d u a l g u id a n c e c a r d s b e e s t a b l i s h e d
and a l l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o a s u c c e s s f u l g u id a n c e p r o ­
gram e n t e r e d .
The s c h o o l h a s h a d a p r i n c i p a l , a boys* v i c e - p r i n c i p a l ,
and a g i r l s * v i c e - p r i n c i p a l .
The p r i n c i p a l h a s d e v o t e d h i s
tim e t o s u p e r v i s i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n *
The boys* v i c e -
p r in c ip a l has ta u g h t th r e e p e rio d s a day, e x e rc is e d g e n e ra l
s u p e r v i s i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a n d s e r v e d as
so le c o u n se lo r f o r th e boys.
The g i r l s * v i c e - p r i n c i p a l h a s
ta u g h t th re e c la s s e s a day, su p e rv ise d g ir ls *
a c t i v i t i e s , and
se rv e d as s o le c o u n se lo r f o r th e g i r l s .
S u p p l i e s a n d e q u ip m e n t h ave b e e n g iv e n a s needed*
Each
s p r i n g , t e a c h e r . r e q u i s i t i o n s h a v e b een c a l l e d f o r an d m a t e r i a l s
d e liv e r e d in th e f a l l .
to sta n d a rd p a t t e r n s .
T hese s u p p l i e s , h o w e v e r, m ust co n fo rm
B e cau se o f t h e v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f
a b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t s a n d n e e d s , t h e r e s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d a w ide
v a r i e t y o f s e t s o f m a t e r i a l s an d e q u ip m e n t r a t h e r t h a n many
d u p lic a te s of sta n d a rd v a r i e t i e s .
T h is a p p l i e s t o t e x t b o o k s
57
as w e ll as to o th e r m a te r ia l s ; i t i s d i f f i c u l t to v i t a l i z e
t e a c h i n g an d c r e a t e a r e a l p r o b le m s e t t i n g when a l l t h e
p u p i l s h a v e r e a d t h e same t h i n g .
The t e a c h i n g f o r c e .
The t e a c h i n g f o r c e o f t h e O range
U nion H ig h S c h o o l h a s b ee n one i n w hich t h e " o l d - s c h o o l ” o f
th o u g h t p r e v a i l e d .
O nly s e v e n o f t h e f a c u l t y h a v e b e e n
s c h o o l e d i n t h e new i d e a s a n d p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n .
V e ry
few o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e k e p t u p w i t h e d u c a t i o n by a t t e n d i n g
summer s c h o o l s o r t a k i n g o t h e r form s o f a d v a n c e d w o rk .
L ittle
e n c o u ra g e m e n t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th h a s b e e n g i v e n .
As t h e p e rm a n e n t t e n u r e law h a s n o t a p p l i e d t o s u c h
s m a l l s c h o o l s a s O ra n g e , t h e p ro b le m s i n v o l v e d t h e r e i n h a v e
n o t b ee n f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a t e a c h e r * s s t a y i n O ra n g e .
G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , o n ce a t e a c h e r h a s b e e n e n g a g e d , h e o r
sh e may s t a y i n d e f i n i t e l y , d e p e n d in g o f c o u r s e on t h e a t t i t u d e
to w a r d w ork a n d d e g r e e o f s k i l l i n t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
H ow ever, w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l boom i n S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a due
t o t h e d e f e n s e p ro g ra m an d t h e r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n p u p i l
p o p u l a t i o n , i t s h o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o r e t a i n good t e a c h e r s in
O ra n g e .
N ot o n ly w i l l t e a e h e r s s e e k s e c u r i t y i n s c h o o l s o f f e r ­
i n g t e n u r e , b u t t h e y w i l l e n d e a v o r t o b e t t e r th e m s e l v e s f i n ­
a n c i a l l y ; t h e O range p a y - s c a l e b e i n g among t h e l o w e s t i n
C a lifo rn ia .
Many o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e h a d e x p e r i e n c e s o t h e r t h a n
t e a c h i n g w h ich h a v e d o u b t l e s s s e r v e d t o make t h e i r t e a c h i n g
more v a l u a b l e *
a l l th e fa c u lty .
E x t e n s i v e t r a v e l h a s b e e n e n j o y e d by m ost
Two o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e t a u g h t i n c o l l e g e s .
Most a l l t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e b e l o n g e d t o community s o c i a l
o r s e r v i c e g ro u p s s u c h a s t h e A m erican L e g io n , N a t i o n a l G u a rd s ,
M asons, E l k s , R o t a r y , L i o n s , 2 0 -3 0 C lu b , a n d men*s an d women*s
c lu b s.
The t e a c h e r l o a d h a s b e e n s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h l i t t l e ,
i f an y , in c r e a s e e x p e c te d in th e f u t u r e .
In a stu d y re p o r te d
by G a r l e y and H and, t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s c one e r a i n g
c l a s s s i z e w ere m ade:
In g e n e r a l, te a c h e r s and a d m in is tr a to r s d e p lo re th e
n e c e s s i t y o f g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i n l a r g e c l a s s e s . A l­
th o u g h t h e num erous c l a s s s i z e e x p e r i m e n ts t h u s f a r
r e p o r t e d l e a d one t o s u s p e c t t h a t s t u d e n t s t a u g h t i n
l a r g e r g ro u p s h a v e n o t s u f f e r e d , as f a r a s a c q u i r i n g o f
i n f o r m a t i o n an d u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c o n c e r n e d , many e d u c a ­
t o r s h av e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , been u n w illi n g t o a c c e p t th e
fin d in g s.
T h is u n w i l l i n g n e s s may be p o s s i b l y due t o
t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n o r c u sto m i n t h e m a t t e r o f
c l a s s s i z e , b u t more p r i m a r i l y t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n e d u ­
c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y w h ic h w i l l n o t p e r m i t them t o a c c e p t
s c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s s u f f i c i e n t
e v i d e n c e o f t h e outcom e o f l a r g e o r s m a l l c l a s s i n s t r u c ­
t i o n . They c l a i m t h a t o n ly a p a r t i a l k n o w ledg e o f t h e
e f f e c t s o f l a r g e c l a s s i n s t r a c t i o n have th u s f a r been
secu red o b je c tiv e ly .2
C a r l e y a n d Hand m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r e i s a d a n g e r t h a t
t h e i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l may become l o s t i n t h e crow d w i t h a l l
th e consequences In v o lv e d in su ch a s i t u a t i o n .
2 Vena A. C a r l e y a n d H a r o l d C. H and, " C la s s S i z e i n t h e
A m eric an S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l , 11 B u l l e t i n o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f
S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 4 o : 1 3 4 - 1 3 8 . M a rc h , 19 34 .
59
In c o n s id e rin g th e v a rio u s a s p e c ts o f th e te a c h in g
fo rc e in r e la tio n to th e a d m in is tra tio n o f th e e d u c a tio n a l
p r o g ra m , a d i s c u s s i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n h a s b e e n p l a c e d l a s t *
I t i s c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e m ost i m p o r t a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f
t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l a r e s u p e r v i s i o n a n d t h e p r o m o tio n
o f p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th i n h i s f a c u l t y .
S u p e rv isio n has n in e
a re a s o f a c t i v i t y a c c o rd in g to S t u a r t and E ckenberg.
are:
( 1 ) s e l e c t i o n an d a s s ig n m e n t o f t e a c h e r s ;
(2 ) e d u c a t i o n
o f t h e s t a f f t o a m odern c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n ;
tio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r;
(3 ) s e l e c ­
(4 ) s e l e c t i o n o f b o o k s an d m a t e r i a l s ;
(5 ) th e s e c u rin g o f d e s ir a b le e d u c a tio n a l p ro d u c ts ;
p ro v e m e n t o f s t u d y ;
gram ;
They
(6 ) im­
(7 ) t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s p r o ­
(8 ) g u i d a n c e ; a n d ( 9 ) t h e r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m .^
I n m ak in g an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r v i s i o n p ro g ra m
i n O range U nion H igh S c h o o l t h e p o i n t o f v ie w h a s b e e n a d o p t e d
t h a t t h e new p ro g ra m o f c o n t i n u o u s c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t
w h ich h a s b e e n recommended c a r r i e s w i t h i n i t t r u e s u p e r v i s i o n ,
i . e . , te a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e b u ild in g o f th e c u rric u lu m ,
d a i l y , in- t h e c l a s s r o o m s , a s t h e p u p i l fs i n t e r e s t u n f o l d s
u n d e r w is e g u i d a n c e .
I n O ra n g e , l i t t l e
s y s te m a tic v i s i t a t i o n o f classro o m s
h a s b e e n c a r r i e d on d u r i n g t h e p a s t s i x y e a r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l
^ H e n o r t o f t h e S u rv e y o f t h e S c h o o ls o f C h ic a g o ,
I llin o is * op. c i t . , I I I .
60
■being a f ir m b e l i e v e r i n t e a c h e r in d e p e n d e n c e *
Much o f t h e
s u p e r v is io n , as s u g g e s te d abo v e, h a s been n e g l e c t e d .
two h a s b e e n g i v e n to o l i t t l e
I te m
a t t e n t i o n an d no p r o f e s s i o n a l
l i b r a r y h a s b e e n made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t e a c h e r s .
T h e re s h o u ld
be more f a c u l t y m e e tin g s t o d i s c u s s p r o f e s s i o n a l q u e s t i o n s ;
t h e r e s h o u l d be more r e s e a r c h work r e q u i r e d o f t h e t e a c h e r s
a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t; a n d abo ve a l l ,
more harm ony b e tw e e n t h e d e p a r t m e n ts *
Summer s c h o o l a t t e n ­
d an c e s h o u l d be s t r o n g l y u r g e d an d a p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th p l a n
d e v e lo p e d *
T e a ts a n d m e a s u r e m e n ts .
O range U nion H igh S c h o o l
h a s n e g l e c t e d t o u s e t e s t s an d m e a su re m e n ts t o a d v a n t a g e .
No a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s h a v e b e e n g iv e n i n t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s
an d no r e c o r d s k e p t as t o s t u d e n t a c c o m p lish m e n t*
M e n ta l
m a t u r i t y and I . Q . t e s t s h a v e n o t b e e n u s e d t o a d v a n t a g e .
Only one I . Q . t e s t h a s b e e n g iv e n w i t h i n t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s
an d t h e r e s u l t s w ere n o t made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t e a c h e r s .
The t e s t i n g p ro g ra m s h o u l d be a s e r i e s o f co m p reh en ­
s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s g i v e n p e r i o d i c a l l y by some one o t h e r t h a n
th e classro o m te a c h e r s .
poses:
They s h o u l d be g iv e n f o r two p u r ­
( 1 ) t o s a t i s f y c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s by
m aking t h e aw ard o f s c h o l a s t i c m arks on t h e b a s e s o f t h e
t e s t r e s u l t s ; a n d (2 ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f t e c h n i c a l ,
v o c a t i o n a l p r o f i c i e n c y o f a g iv e n s t u d e n t , i n so f a r a s t h e
61
h i g h s c h o o l may l e g i t i m a t e l y r e c o g n i z e v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n .
II.
THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM
The i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h ich h a s b e e n
e s t a b l i s h e d as a c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e o f th e p la n o f i n t e ­
g r a t e d e d u c a t i o n w hich t h i s r e p o r t h a s p r o p o s e d becomes
g u id a n c e , i . e . ,
t h e maximum d a i l y a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e p u p i l
to h i s e n v iro n m e n t.
Koos h a s c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o two m ain
ty p e s o f g u id a n c e , th e a d j u s t i v e and th e d i s t r i b u t i v e .
He
w arn ed a g a i n s t a t w o - f o l d m i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r e a l f u n c t i o n
o f g u i d a n c e , n a m e ly :
( 1 ) th e a s s o c ia tio n o f th e fu n c tio n
w i t h some s i n g l e a s p e c t o f l i f e ,
r a t h e r th a n w ith l i f e
in
i t s e n t i r e t y ; a n d (2 ) t h e e x p a n d in g o f t h e c o n c e p t a n d c o n ­
s i d e r i n g i t a s t h e w hole e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s .
An a c c e p t a b l e c o n c e p t o f g u id a n c e h a s two m ain p h a s e s :
(1 ) t h e d i s t r i b u t i v e a n d ( 2 ) t h e a d j u s t i v e .
In d i s ­
c h a r g i n g t h e f o r m e r p h a s e , we aim t o d i s t r i b u t e y o u th
a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s p o s s i b l e t o e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l
o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h a t i s , t o s u b j e c t s , c u r r i c u l a r an d
e x t r a - c u r r ic u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , sc h o o ls, h ig h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s ,
an d v o c a t i o n s .
I n t h e s e c o n d p h a s e we h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l
t o make t h e o p t i m a l a d j u s t m e n t t o e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a ­
t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . H u tso n h a s p u t i t w e l l w here h e
s a y s , “A d ju s tm e n t p e r t a i n s t o t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s by w h ich
t h e s c h o o l rem oves im p e d im e n ts t o t h e p u p i l f s optimum
p r o g r e s s i n e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s o r p r e ­
v e n t s t h e o r i g i n o f t h e im p e d im e n ts
11 The two p h a s e s
o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t a r e c o m p lim e n ta r y . They
a l s o b e a r r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s t o e a c h o t h e r , a s when
a recommended c h a n g e o f s u b j e c t s i n a p u p i l * s p ro g ra m
^ P e r c i v a l W. H u ts o n , “S e l e c t e d R e f e r e n c e on G u id a n c e , 11
S c h o o l R eview . S e p te m b e r , 1 9 3 3 .
62
d i s p e l s a m a la d j u s tm e n t o r when s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e p u p i l
t o b e t t e r p erfo rm an ce (th ro u g h a d j u s t i v e e f f o r t s o f
g u id a n c e w o r k e r s ) i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t f i e l d rem oves
an o b s t a c l e t o t h e p u p i l 1s a d m is s io n t o a p a r t i c u l a r
c u rric u la .5
Koos f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d t h e p o i n t o f d em o cracy i n g u i ­
d an ce*
He s a i d , “G u id an c e an d a r b i t r a r y c o m p u ls io n a r e i n ­
c o m p a ti b le *
G u id an ce i m p l i e s c o u n s e l , an d t h e o n l y co m pu l­
s i o n p o s s i b l e i n c o u n s e l i s t h e c o e r c i o n o f ju d g m e n t by
p e r t i n e n t f a c t s t h a t p o i n t t h e way t o a p r o p e r d e c i s i o n . 11^
T h is p o i n t o f v ie w h a s b e e n f o l l o w e d i n m aking a n e v a l u a t i o n
o f g u id a n c e i n O ra n g e .
G u id an ce i n O range H ig h S c h o o l *
The g u id a n c e p ro g ra m
has been p a r t o f th e d u tie s o f th e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l .
I t has
c o n s i s t e d o f p r o g r a m in g s t u d e n t s a n d a d v i s i n g a s t o v o c a t i o n a l
an d c o l l e g e c h o i c e s .
s c i e n t i f i c back g ro u n d .
H ow ever, t h i s g u id a n c e h a s n o t h a d a
S p o n so rsh ip o f s tu d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,
a form o f g u i d a n c e , h a s n o t b ee n p r o d u c t i v e .
A great deal
o f in fo rm a l c o u n s e lin g h as ta k e n p la c e as in d iv i d u a l te a c h e r s
h a v e become i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s .
T h e re i s much t h a t s h o u l d be done i n t h i s f i e l d .
A
s c i e n t i f i c an d w e l l s y s t e m a t i z e d g u id a n c e p ro g ra m m ust be
se t up.
5 L e o n a rd V. K oos, “The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f G u id a n c e , 11
J u n i o r ^S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C l e a r i n g H o u s e . 8 : 8 - 1 1 , S e p te m b e r ,
1933.
^ Loc. c i t .
63
A p r o p o s e d g u id a n c e p r o g r a m *
R ic c ia rd i^ has l i s t e d
e lev en c r i t e r i a o f p ro ced u re in c o u n s e lin g .
are:
T h ese c r i t e r i a
(1) r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s c h o o l p ro g ra m ;
c h ie f c o u n se lo r’s d u tie s ;
personnel reco rd s;
h isto rie s;
s y s te m ;
(2) s c o p e o f
(3) p h y s i c a l e q u ip m e n t;
(5 ) o r i e n t a t i o n o f new p u p i l s ;
(7 ) i n t e r v i e w s ;
(8) g ro u p g u i d a n c e ;
(4 ) p u p i l
(6 ) c a s e
(9 ) t h e p o i n t
(1 0 ) p la c e m e n t a n d f o l l o w - u p ; an d (1 1 ) r e s e a r c h .
He f u r t h e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t r,t h e more t h e c o u n s e l i n g
p ro g ra m becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l p ro g ra m ,
t h e more e f f e c t i v e i t b ec o m e s. 11 F o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
s u c h a p ro g ra m h e s u g g e s t e d a c h i e f c o u n s e l o r , t h e s c o p e o f
whose d u t i e s w ou ld i n c l u d e s e r v i c e t o t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , a n d
com m unity.
He s a y s :
In v a ria b ly th e te a c h e r s , th e p u p i l s , th e p a r e n t s , th e
s c h o o l an d t h e com munity a r e i n v o l v e d i n e v e r y m a jo r
c o n s id e r a tio n t h a t c o n fro n ts th e e x e c u tiv e c o u n s e lo r.
He m ust be p r e p a r e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o m eet e v e r y n e e d a s
t h e o c c a s i o n a r i s e s . He s h o u l d be a b l e s k i l l f u l l y t o
l e a d a l l c o n c e r n e d i n c o o p e r a t i v e e n d e a v o r —h e s h o u l d
i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f an d s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n community
a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d t o com m unity b e t t e r m e n t .
In a l l
m a tte rs d e a lin g w ith g u id a n c e , th e e x e c u tiv e c o u n s e lo r
s h o u l d be t h e e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r . ®
I n O range t h e p r i n c i p a l i s t h e l o g i c a l p e r s o n t o f u l ­
f i l l th e d u tie s o f c h ie f c o u n se lo r.
7 N i c h o l a s R i c c i a r d i , G uide t o C o u n s e l i n g i n t h e
S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ,
B u l l e t i n No. G -9 , 1 9 3 1 ) , p p . 3 8 - 4 8 .
® Loo, c i t .
P u p il p e rs o n n e l c a rd s have heen r e f e r r e d t o else w h e re
R e c o rd s s h o u l d h e b r i e f .
The c h i e f p u r p o s e o f t h e s e r e c o r d s
s h o u l d be t o " e n h a n c e t h e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e tw e e n t h e
c o u n s e l o r and t h e I n d i v i d u a l t o b e c o u n s e l e d ; t o g i v e t o t h e
c o u n s e l o r en o ug h p e r t i n e n t p e r s o n n e l d a t a t o e n a b l e him t o
w ork e f f i c i e n t l y . T h r e e
( l) p e rso n a l in fo rm a tio n ;
fo rm s o f d a t a s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e
(2 ) s c h o l a r s h i p r e c o r d ; a n d (3 )
r e s u lt s of sta n d a rd t e s t s .
I n r e g a r d t o c a s e h i s t o r i e s , he s u g g e s t e d t h e accumu­
l a t i o n o f a l l p o s s ib le d a ta c o n c e rn in g s tu d e n t e n v iro n m e n t,
a b i l i t i e s , s c h o la r s h ip , c i t i z e n s h i p , e x p e rie n c e s in g a i n f u l
em p lo y m en t, r e c r e a t i o n , h e a l t h , h a n d i c a p s a n d a d v a n t a g e s .
O range h a s n o t made s u c h s t u d i e s .
The i n t e r v i e w s , s a y s R i c c i a r d i , s h o u l d a i d e a c h p u p i l
i n t h r e e w ay s:
( l) to d e fin e h is g o a l;
(2 ) t o a n a l y z e a n d
i n t e r p r e t h i s g o a l i n te r m s o f a l i f e c a r e e r ; an d (3 ) t o
w ork o u t an a c c e p t a b l e a n d p r a c t i c a l p l a n f o r a t t a i n m e n t o f
th e g o a l.
The v a l u e o f p la c e m e n t a n d f o l l o w - u p i n a v o c a t i o n a l
s e n s e c a n n o t be t o o s t r o n g l y e m p h a s iz e d .
done i n t h i s r e s p e c t a t O ra n g e .
L i t t l e h as been
What h a s b e e n done i n t h i s
r e s p e c t h a s b e e n done by i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n
in d iv id u a l p u p ils .
9 R ic c ia rd i, lo c . c i t .
65
R ic cia rd i s ta te d th a t s c ie n ti f i c
r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be
em ployed t o w ork o u t d e f i n i t e ways an d means o f p r o d u c i n g
s e l f d e p e n d e n t c i t i z e n s , a n d t h a t s u c h an aim i s f u n d a m e n ta l
in c o u n s e lin g .
N o th in g h a s b e e n a c c o m p l is h e d i n O range a lo n g
t h i s l i n e e x c e p t i n an i n c i d e n t a l m ann er.
W atson h a s v i s u a l i z e d a l e s s f o n n a l a p p r o a c h t o g u i ­
d an c e m aking p o s s i b l e an i n t i m a t e an d f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e tw e e n c o u n s e l o r an d s t u d e n t .
W atson m a i n t a i n e d :
As a c o u n s e l o r , t h e t e a c h e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e
e n t i r e a d j u s t m e n t t h e c h i l d i s m a k in g . E ach t e a c h e r i s
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d o z e n o r t w e n t y - f i v e p u p i l s ; h e comes
t o know th e m ; he h e l p s them t o map o u t a p ro g ra m o f p r o ­
je c ts in th e v a rio u s f i e l d s of h e a l t h , p e rs o n a l r e l a t i o n s ,
s o c i a l o r d e r and t h e l i k e .
T h e n , a s p u p i l s m eet d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s , t h e y go t o t h e t e a c h e r who i s e x p e r t i n t h a t
f i e l d . The t e a c h e r do es n o t m eet c l a s s e s , b u t s i t s i n
a l a r g e o f f i c e w here p u p i l s may come by a p p o i n t m e n t —
i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n g r o u p s , as t h e y m ig h t v i s i t a d o c t o r
o r a l a w y e r i n a com m unity— t o r e p o r t w hat t h e y a r e
d o in g , to g e t s u g g e s tio n s , to ask q u e s tio n s t h a t w i l l
h e l p them w i t h t h e work t h e y a r e c a r r y i n g on.
The s t u d e n t e n t e r i n g h i g h s c h o o l s h o u l d be met by
h i s a d v i s o r ; t h e y s h o u l d t a l k o v e r w h at he h a s done
b e f o r e , map o u t a s e r i e s o f p r o j e c t s i n t h e v a r i o u s
f i e l d s o f t r u n k - l i n e e x p e r i e n c e . Some p r o j e c t s i n
t h e v a r i o u s f i e l d s w ould i n v o l v e w o rk in g i n g r o u p s ,
some w ould be i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t s . The s t u d e n t w ould
w ork by h i m s e l f a s much an d a s f a r a s h e c o u l d . What­
e v e r h e l p t e a c h e r s c o u l d g i v e , by way o f d i r e c t i o n ,
w ould b e p u t i n p r i n t — by t h e m ost e f f i c i e n t m ethod o f
co m m u n ic a tio n t h a t we h a v e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .
If d if­
f i c u l t i e s a r o s e , o r i f t h e work d i d n o t go w e l l , h e w ould
be g i v e n s u g g e s t i o n s an d be g u id e d b e y o n d t h a t p o i n t . 10
^ Goodwin W a tso n , ”A New S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l , ” P r o g r e s s i v e
E d u c a t i o n . 8 : 3 0 3 - 3 1 0 , A p r i l , 19 31 .
66
III.
SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
The m a j o r t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e b e e n :
(1 ) p re se n t g e n e ra l a d m in is tra tiv e p ro ced u res;
(2 ) g u id a n c e
i n i t s s e v e r a l a s p e c t s ; a n d (3 ) a p r o p o s e d g u id a n c e p ro g ra m .
The n e x t c h a p t e r h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a s a summary o f t h e f i n d ­
in g s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s u r v e y , an d a s a s t a t e m e n t o f
re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a p ro g ra m f o r c o n t i n u o u s
c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t.
CHAPTER V I I
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
T h is c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s s p e c i f i c re c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r
i n s t i t u t i n g a p ro g ra m o f c o n t i n u o u s c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t i n
O range U nion H igh S c h o o l#
T h ese re c o m m e n d a tio n s h a v e b e e n
b a s e d on a p r o g r e s s i v e p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g
su ch p r i n c i p l e s as th e s e :
1.
S c i e n t i f i c m etho ds o f e d u c a t i o n c a n e l i m i n a t e
much o f t h e e x i s t i n g c o n f u s i o n i n o u r c u r r e n t s o c i a l l i f e .
2#
The u l t i m a t e o b j e c t o f a l l e d u c a t i o n i s t h e
in te g ra tio n of p u p il p e r s o n a lity .
3*
The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l m ust a d e q u a t e l y s e r v e a l l
th e a d o le sc e n t p o p u la tio n .
4#
An e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d
b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y an d s o c i a l l y .
5#
E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y
f o r f u n c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s r a t h e r t h a n l o g i c a l l y f o r t h e m a s te r y
o f s u b je c t m a tte r.
6.
The s o c i a l a s p e c t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y
s h o u l d c u l t i v a t e a d e s i r e t o be o f c o n s t r u c t i v e , u n s e l f i s h
s e r v i c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u p i l .
7.
The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s c h o o l i s d e t e r m i n e d by
th e c u rric u lu m .
8.
No one c u r r i c u l u m p a t t e r n w i l l f i t t h e n e e d s o f
68
e v e r y com m unity.
9.
T eacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e b u ild in g o f th e
c u rric u lu m i s n e c e s s a r y .
10.
T e a c h e r p e r s o n a l i t i e s s h o u l d be one o f t h e
b ases o f c u rric u lu m c o n s tr u c tio n .
11.
The b e s t c u r r i c u l u m h a s i t s s o u r c e i n t h e d a i l y
classro o m .
12.
The c l a s s r o o m p ro g ra m s h o u l d be o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d
a c t i v i t i e s d e v e lo p e d from i n t e r e s t s s t i m u l a t e d by g u i d a n c e .
13*
C o n t i n u o u s , s y s t e m a t i z e d g u id a n c e m ust h av e a
p la c e in th e c u rric u lu m .
14.
The n e e d s o f p u p i l s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by a modern
s o c i e t y , n o t by an o l d o n e .
15.
I n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be i n d i v i d u a l .
16.
T h e re s h o u l d b e a m u tu a l l i k i n g an d r e s p e c t b e ­
tw een t e a c h e r s a n d p u p i l s .
17.
A s u f f i c i e n t m a s t e r y o f k n o w le d g e , s k i l l s , a n d
a t t i t u d e s t o make p o s s i b l e p u r p o s e f u l w ork s h o u l d be g i v e n .
I.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
A s e c o n d b a s i s f o r re co m m en d a tio n s f o r a p ro g ra m f o r
c o n t i n u o u s c u r r i c u l u m d e v e lo p m e n t h a s b e e n fo u n d i n t h e
s u r v e y o f t h e com m unity an d s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p r e s e n t
c u rric u lu m o r g a n iz a tio n , th e d e p a rtm e n ta l o r g a n iz a tio n o f
s u b j e c t m a t t e r , an d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
69
p ro g ra m .
1.
They a r e :
O range U nion H igh S c h o o l d i s t r i c t p o s s e s s e s many
a d v a n ta g e s i n s u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n p e rm a n e n c y .
2.
A .m od erate g ro w th may he e x p e c t e d i n t h e f u t u r e .
3.
The s u b j e c t m a t t e r d e p a r t m e n t s w ere fo u n d t o h e
i n a d e q u a t e t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f t h e c h a n g in g s o c i a l o r d e r .
4.
S ev en b r o a d f i e l d s o f human i n t e r e s t s h a v e b ee n
recommended a s a b a s i s f o r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n .
5.
The n e e d f o r t e a c h e r s o c i a l i z a t i o n h a s b e e n d i s ­
6.
An a d e q u a t e p ro g ra m o f g u id a n c e h a s b e e n c o n ­
cussed.
sid e re d .
7.
In d iv id u a l in s tr u c tio n in b ro ad , g e n e ra l courses
has been s t r e s s e d .
8.
C o n tin u o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e
needs has been ad v o c a te d .
. 9.
D i s c u s s i o n o f c u r r i c u l u m p ro b le m s by t h e f a c u l t y
h a s b e e n recom m ended.
10.
The f u n d a m e n ta l p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s
th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f c h i l d p e r s o n a l i t y .
11.
A u n i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m h a s n o t b e e n
p o s s i b l e i n Orange b e c a u s e o f m u l t i p l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l .
12.
The e x i s t i n g s c h e d u l e o f c l a s s e s s h o u l d be d i s ­
c o n tin u e d .
13.
-The o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l was fo u n d t o b e a d e q u a t e
f o r t h e new p r o g ra m .
14*
G u id an ce d a t a h av e n o t h e e n k e p t .
15.
The s u g g e s t i o n h a s b e e n made f o r t e a c h e r s t o
a t t e n d summer s c h o o l .
16.
C e rta in d e s ira b le a sp e c ts of su p e rv is io n o f
te a c h i n g have n o t been f u l l y d e v e lo p e d .
17*
The e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s w ere fo u n d t o
a f f o r d a w ide r a n g e o f e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e p u p i l s .
18.
I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t l e s s e m p h a sis be
p l a c e d on i n t e r - s c h o l a s t i c a t h l e t i c s an d more on i n t r a - m u r a l
a c tiv itie s.
19.
T ru e s u p e r v i s i o n h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n ­
h e r e n t i n t h e recommended p ro g ra m f o r c o n t i n u o u s c u r r i c u l u m
d e v e lo p m e n t.
II.
EEC OMMENDATIONS
The f o l l o w i n g re c o m m e n d a tio n s w ere made w i t h a c e r t a i n ­
t y t h a t s h o u l d t h e y be p u t i n t o e x e c u t i o n , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
p ro g ra m o f O range U nion H igh S c h o o l w ould be im p ro v e d ;
1.
A p ro g ra m o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s e r v i c e s h o u l d
be a d o p t e d , h a v i n g a s i t s g o a l t h e I n c u l c a t i n g o f t h e p r o ­
g r e s s i v e p o i n t o f v ie w i n t h e t e a c h e r s .
An a d e q u a t e u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l i d e a l s , p r o b le m s , a n d e f f e c t s upon e d u c a ­
t i o n sh o u ld be g iv e n .
The t r a d i t i o n a l p o i n t o f v ie w s h o u l d
be e x p o s e d a s t o i t s e r r o n e o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d .
71
T e a c h e r s who f a i l t o b e n e f i t b y s u c h a p ro g ra m s h o u l d n o t
be r e t a i n e d .
2.
T e a c h e r s c a n p r o f i t , i n l i g h t o f t h e ab ov e s t a t e ­
m e n ts , by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c u r r i c u l u m r e s e a r c h .
3.
Seven b r o a d f i e l d s o f human e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d
c o n s t i t u t e th e b a s i s f o r th e fu n d am e n ta l o r g a n iz a tio n o f
p u p il e x p e rie n c e s in th e sc h o o l as fo llo w s !
(2 ) home; (3 ) s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;
m e n t; (5 ) la n g u a g e and l i t e r a t u r e ;
(1 ) h e a lth ;
(4 ) t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n ­
(6 ) p r a c t i c a l a r t s ; an d
(7 ) f i n e a r t s .
4.
A p e rm a n e n t c u r r i c u l u m c o m m itte e s h o u l d be
a p p o in te d .
5*
The new pro g ram s h o u l d be p u t i n t o e f f e c t g r a d u ­
a l l y ; p ro b a b ly th e E n g lis h and s o c i a l s t u d i e s d ep a rtm e n ts
w ould b e t h e b e s t p l a c e s t o s t a r t .
6.
The p u p i l s h o u l d be e n r o l l e d i n c o u r s e s i n e a c h
o f t h e b a s i c f i e l d s e a c h s c h o o l d ay t h r o u g h o u t t h e h i g h
school c a re e r.
7*
C o u rs e c o n t e n t s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e
t e a c h e r , w o rk in g a s a te m p o r a r y member o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m
c o m m itt e e .
8.
T h ese c o u r s e s o f s t u d y s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f e x t e n s i v e
l i s t s o f s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r o j e c t s , p r o b le m s , a c t i v i t i e s ,
s p e c i a l m e th o d s , s o u r c e s o f d a t a , a n d m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d i n g
f o r c o n s t a n t r e v i s i o n an d g r o w th .
72
9.
A maximum fre e d o m o f c h o i c e o f c o u r s e s w i t h i n
b a s i c f i e l d s by e a c h s t u d e n t s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d ; t h i s c h o i c e
s h o u ld be c o m p a tib le w ith h i s s e lf - d e t e r m in e d i n t e r e s t s ,
t h e g r a d u a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t u p by t h e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t
o f E d u c a t i o n , an d h i s n e e d s , a b i l i t i e s , a n d a p t i t u d e s .
10.
D ouble l a b o r a t o r y p e r i o d s s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d ,
a l l c o u rse s b ein g c o n s id e re d la b o r a to r y c o u rs e s .
11.
G-rades o r m arks s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d ,
t h e s t u d e n t ’ s re w a r d b e i n g i n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f d o in g
f r e e l y t h e t h i n g h e w an ts t o d o .
I f c o lle g e c r e d i t is de­
s i r e d , t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o t a k e c o m p re h e n s iv e
e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d h i s m arks b a s e d t h e r e o n .
12.
S t a n d a r d i z e d a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s s h o u l d be g iv e n
p e r i o d i c a l l y by t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o m m itt e e .
C o lle g e e n tra n c e
c r e d i t s o r c e r t i f i c a t e s o f v o c a t i o n a l p r o f i c i e n c y s h o u l d be
a w a rd e d , a s t h e c a s e may b e , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e t e s t s .
Wo f a i l u r e s s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d an d e v e r y s t u d e n t s h o u l d be
g ra d u a te d a t th e end o f f o u r y e a rs o f h ig h sc h o o l e x p e r ie n c e .
13.
I t i s recommended t h a t g u id a n c e p r o c e d u r e be
b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s :
( 1 ) a p p o i n tm e n t o f a c h i e f
c o u n s e lo r to m a in ta in p e rs o n n e l r e c o rd s , in te rv ie w p u p i l s ,
r e n d e r p la c e m e n t an d f o l l o w - u p s e r v i c e , a n d c o o p e r a t e v /ith
t h e t e a c h e r - c o u n s e l o r s an d t h e com m unity;
(2 ) a p p o in tm e n t
o f t e a c h e r - c o u n s e l o r s , one f o r e v e r y t w e n t y - f i v e p u p i l s , on
th e b a s is of p u p il i n t e r e s t ;
(3 ) t h e s e t e a c h e r - c o u n s e l o r s
73
s h o u l d g u id e t h e i r g r o u p t h r o u g h t h e i r f o u r y e a r s o f h i g h
s c h o o l ; a n d (4 ) t h e t e c h n i q u e o f c o u n s e l i n g s h o u l d b e on t h e
b a s i s o f W a tso n ’ s s u g g e s t i o n s .
14.
S ta n d a r d iz a tio n o f te x tb o o k s and m a te r ia l s sh o u ld
b e a b o l i s h e d ; s t u d e n t n e e d s s h o u l d be t h e c r i t e r i a .
15*
I n t r a m u r a l s p o r t s s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d and t h e
s t r e s s on i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c a t h l e t i c s l e s s e n e d .
16.
The l i b r a r y s h o u l d b e d e v e lo p e d , n o t a s a s t u d y
h a l l , b u t as a r e s e r v o i r o f m a te r ia ls and a la b o r a to r y .
It
s h o u l d be b e t t e r e q u i p p e d .
17.
S tu d y h a l l p e r i o d s s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d .
The
s e v e n p e r i o d s o f t h e new p ro g ra m n e c e s s i t a t e no s u c h p e r i o d s .
18.
The a s s o c i a t e d s t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e b r o u g h t t o
r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r s t u d e n t g o v e r n m e n t, o v e r w h ich t h e f a c u l t y
sh o u ld e x e r c is e l e s s c o n t r o l .
19.
P r e s e n t C a l i f o r n i a D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e ­
m ents demand c r e d i t i n c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r
b e f o r e a p u p i l may g r a d u a t e .
T h ese r e q u i r e m e n t s n e e d n o t
fo rm a b a r r i e r i n t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d p l a n ; c h a n g e
in c o u rse c o n te n t does n o t n e c e s s i t a t e change in th e l a b e l .
20.
S a l a r i e s w ere f o u n d t o be low i n Orange w ith t h e
r e s u l t a n t movement o f good t e a c h e r s t o o t h e r , more r e m u n e r a t i v e ,
p o s itio n s in th e e d u c a tio n a l f i e l d .
T h e r e f o r e , an e f f o r t
s h o u l d be made t o i n c r e a s e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 1 s a l a r i e s i n
o rd e r to in c re a s e te a c h in g e f f ic ie n c y .
74
21,
B e c a u se o f many i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s i n c u r r i c u l u m
d e v e lo p m e n t, s u b j e c t i v e m ethods o f e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d c o n ­
t i n u e t o be u s e d ; b u t a s i n d i c a t e d by T r i l l i n g h a m , “i n c r e a s ­
i n g e f f o r t s h o u l d be made . . ... t o m easu re ou tcom es by means
o f t e s t i n g , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , an d r e s e a r c h . 11
C o n c lu sio n .
I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t h a s a.gain b e e n s t a t e d
t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e recommended p ro g ra m i s d e p e n d e n t upon
th e p e r s o n a lity of th e te a c h e r, p r im a r ily .
A w e ll i n t e g r a t e d
p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l open a v e n u e s o f s u c c e s s t o t h e p u p i l s o f
such a p e r s o n a lity .
Such t e a c h e r s h a v e a lw a y s b e e n w i t h u s ,
th o u g h t o o few i n number*
H a v in g r e c o g n i z e d t h e s h o r t - c o m i n g s
o f t h e o l d c o n t e n t s an d m ethods o f m e e tin g t h e n e e d s o f a
r a p i d l y c h a n g in g c i v i l i z a t i o n , we a r e w e l l on t h e way t o
m akin g t h i s b e t t e r k i n d o f t e a c h i n g a v a i l a b l e i n a l l s c h o o l s .
T h is new p ro g ra m o f e d u c a t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f s p i r i t ;
i t is
a s s im p le a s t h a t .
1 C l i n t o n C, T r i l l i n g h a m , “The O r g a n i z a t i o n an d Ad­
m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C u r r ic u lu m P r o g r a m s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c to r * s
d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n - C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1933), p . 2 2 9 .
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A.
BOOKS
B a g le y , W i llia m C*, E d u c a t i o n , C rim e , a n d S o c i a l P r o g r e s s *
New Y ork : M acM illan Company, 1931*
B r i g g s , Thomas H . , The G r e a t I n v e s t m e n t *
U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 930.
C a m b rid g e:
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C o u n t s , G eorge S . , S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n an d I n d u s t r i a l i s m *
C a m b rid g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929* 70 PP*
H i l l , Andrew P . , S u rv e y o f t h e P a l o A l t o P u b l i c S c h o o ls *
S a c r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a :
S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n .
K i l p a t r i c k , W illia m H . , E d u c a t i o n f o r a C h a n g in g C i v i l i z a t i o n .
New Y ork: M acM illan Company, 1931*
________ , Remaking t h e C u r r i c u l u m .
Company, 1 9 3 6 . 128 p p .
________ , The E d u c a t i o n a l F r o n t i e r .
Company, 193 3.
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Q u i g l e y , S a m u e l, The I n t e g r a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g *
M ic h ig a n : Edwards B r o t h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 3 1 .
Newson a n d
The C e n tu r y
Ann A r b o r ,
Rugg, H a r o l d , a n d Ann S ch u m ak er, The C h i l d - C e n t e r e d S c h o o l .
Y o n k e r s - o n -H u d s o n : W orld Book Company, 1928. 325 PP.
S p e a r s , H a r o l d , The E m erging H ig h - S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m *
Y ork: A m erican Book Company, 1940.
B.
New
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Brown, W illia m B . , "New A p p ro a ch t o t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s , "
S o c i a l - S t u d i e s . 2 7 :1 2 -1 7 , J a n u a ry , 1936.
C a r l e y , Vena A . , an d H a r o ld C. H and, " C l a s s S iz e i n t h e
A m erican S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l , " B u l l e t i n o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t
o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . 40:13%—1 3 8 . M arch, 193A.
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F e a t h e r s t o n e , W. B . , "An I n t e g r a t e d C u r r ic u lu m i n t h e S e c o n d a ry
S c h o o l s , "C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r l y o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n .
8 : 3 3 7 - 4 3 , J u n e , 1 93 3 .
________ , "The P l a c e o f S u b j e c t s i n an I n t e g r a t e d C u r r i c u l u m , "
C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r l y o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n . 9 : 2 3 5 - 4 6 , ~
A p r i l, 1933.
H u t s o n , P e r c i v a l W ., " S e l e c t e d R e f e r e n c e on G u i d a n c e ,” S c h o o l
R ev iew . S e p te m b e r , 1 9 3 3 .
K oos, L e o n a rd V . , "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f G u id a n c e ," J u n i o r S e n i o r H ig h S c h o o l C l e a r i n g H o u s e . 8 : 8 - 1 1 , S e p te m b e r ,
1933.
W a tso n , Goodwin, "A New S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l , " P r o g r e s s i v e Edu­
c a t i o n , 8 :3 0 3 -1 0 , A p r i l , 1931.
W e e r s in g , F r e d e r i c k J . , "A T e n t a t i v e P la n f o r R e o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l -C u r r i c u l u m , " C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r l y
o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n . 9 : 1 5 7 - 6 6 , J a n u a r y , 1 93 4.
C.
BULLETINS AND REPORTS
E e l l s , W a lte r C ., E d u c a tio n a l T e m p e ra tu re s. A C o o p e ra tiv e
S tu d y o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l S t a n d a r d s . W a s h in g to n , D. C.
E v a l u a t i v e C r i t e r i a . A C o o p e r a t i v e S tu d y o f S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l
S t a n d a r d s . Wauneka, W i s c o n s i n : G eorge B a n ta P u b l i s h i n g
Company, 1 9 4 0 . 175 p p .
I m p l i c a t i o n s o f S o c i a l Economic G o als f o r E d u c a t i o n . W ashing­
t o n , D .C .: N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s , 1 9 4 0 . 124 p p .
R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s R e s e a rc h C om m ittee on S o c i a l T r e n d s ,
R e c e n t S o c i a l T re n d s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . New Y o rk :
M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1933.
R e p o r t o f t h e S u rv e y o f t h e S c h o o ls o f C h i c a g o . I l l i n o i s . New
Y o rk : B u re a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olum b ia
U n iv e r s i t y , 1932.
R i c c i a r d i , N i c h o l a s , G uide t o C o u n s e l i n g i n t h e S e c o n d a ry
S c h o o l s , B u l l e t i n No. G -9 . S a c r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a :
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W hite House C o n f e r e n c e on C h i l d H e a l t h an d P r o t e c t i o n , The
S c h o o l H e a l t h P ro g ra m . New Y ork: The C e n tu r y Company,
1 9 3 2 . 400 p p .
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
T r i l l i n g h a m , C l i n t o n C . , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f C u r r ic u lu m P r o g r a m s ." U n p u b lis h e d D o c t o r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s ,
1 9 33 .
W e e r s in g , B. B . , “The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T h ou gh t a s an Aim i n
T e a c h in g E n g l i s h C o m p o s iti o n ." U n p u b lis h e d M a s t e r ’ s
t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s ,
1 9 31 .
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