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Supervisory status of the elementary school teaching principal in northern California

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SUPERVISORY STATUS OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
TEACHING PRINCIPAL IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA
A Thesis
Presented to
the Faculty of the School of Education
The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science in Education
hy
Myron Moskowitz
August 1941
UMI Number: EP54268
All rights reserved
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*
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UMI EP54268
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T h is thesis, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f th e ^ ^ ^ & J ~ * '
.
.
.
C h a ir m a n o f the ca n d id a te ’ s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e
a n d a p p r o v e d hy a l l m em bers o f the C o m m itte e ,
has been p resen ted to a n d acce p te d by the F a c u lt y
o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f T h e U n iv e r s it y o f
S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the
re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science
in E d u c a tio n .
D ate..A V ^n t..30.,..1941......
Dean
Guidance Committee
Irving R. Melho
Chairman
M. M. Thompson
D. Welty Lefever
MJ?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE P R O B L E M .............................
i
Introduction . . ........................
1
The p r o b l e m ..............
2
Statement of the problem
2
Definitions of terms used
. . . ..........
Supervision
.
2
.
Teaching principal . . ............ . . .
Delimitations
3
.......
4
Supervision................... * . . .
4
Teaching principals
4
Importance of the p r o b l e m
Procedure
.
........................
Organization of the problem
II.
2
•• • . . • • •
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE..............
Job analysis .
..................
.
5
10
14
16
16
The elementary school principalship in
California .
..........
17
Status of rural elementary school
principals in California ..............
18
A study of the duties performed by the
elementary school principals of
Washington County, Pennsylvania
.......
19
ill
CHAPTER
PAGE
Status of the elementary teaching prin­
cipal in the State of New Jersey
....
21
Possible supervisory functions of the
teaching principal in the elementary
s c h o o l ....... ................... .
III.
22
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING, CERTIFICATION, AND
EXPERIENCE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACH­
ING PRINCIPALS...........
.
Professional training
24
.
26
Total years ofcollegiate w o r k ........
26
Degrees held and date ofissuance . . . .
26
Total years of collegiate work and
degrees held
............. . . . . .
28
Certification ............
31
Total number of certificates or creden­
tials h e l d ........................
Type of certificate or credential held
.
31
33
Relation between the certificate or cre­
dential held and the dateof issuance .
Experience
......
35
...............
38
Length of educationalservice..........
38
Length and type of educational service
.
40
Positions held immediately prior to
present position
..................
43
iv
CHAPTER
PAGE
Grades taught by principals in schools
of varying grade r a n g e s ..............
S u m m a r y ............
IV.
45
48
SUPERVISION BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING
PRINCIPALS
.......
51
Supervisory activities of the elementary
school teaching principal
.............
51
Number and distribution of teachers under
supervision of teaching principals . . .
51
Attitude of teachers to supervision by
teaching principals
..............
52
Rank order of importance of supervisory
activities............
Grades visited most frequently.........
57
60
Grades that teaching principals feel
most competent to supervise.........
60
Grades that teaching principals feel
least competent to supervise.........
62
Time devoted to supervision.............
66
Time devoted to various duties.........
66
Total number of minutes devoted to
supervision
..................
69
Total number of minutes devoted to
various supervisory activities.......
70
V
CHAPTER
PAGE
Median number of minutes devoted to
each type of supervisory activity . * . .
73
Means employed to obtain time for
75
Humber of hours devoted to teaching. . . .
76
.
supervision . . . . . ..................
Distribution according to means em­
ployed to obtain time for supervision . .
Degree of departmentalization
78
.........
81
Rank order of means employed to obtain
time for supervision
Supervisory assistance
81
....
...........
85
Frequency of supervisory assistance. . . .
85
Policy of county rural supervisors rela­
tive to the number of supervisoryvisits
Supervisory problems
Summary
...
88
...............
90
.....................
V. FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
92
. .
96
F i n d i n g s ...... ........ ................
Conclusions
97
..............
Recommendations.....................
102
105
BIBLIOGRAPHY,........ ........... ............
108
APP E N D I X .................................. .
113
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
PAGE
I. Distribution and Per cent of* Responses
.......
13
II. Total Years of Collegiate W o r k .............
27
According to County
.......
III. Degrees Held and Date of Issuance
......
29
IV. Relation Between the Total Years of Col­
legiate Work and Degrees H e l d .........
.
30
V. Total Number of Certificates or Creden­
tials H e l d .............................
32
VI. Distribution of Elementary School Teach­
ing Principals According to the Type
of Certificate or Credential H e l d .......
34
VII. Relation Between the Certificate or Cre­
dential Held and Date of Issuance
.....
36
VIII. Length of Educational Service of Elemen­
tary School Teaching Principals
......
39
IX. Length and Type of Educational Service . . . .
41
X. Positions Held by Elementary School
Teaching Principals Immediately Prior
to Their Present Position
..............
44
XI. Grades Taught by Principals in Schools
of Varying Grade Ranges
.
.............
46
XII. Number and Distribution of Teachers Under
Supervision of Teaching Principals . . . . . .
53
vii
TABLE
PAGE
XIII* Percentage of Each Teaching Staff Having
Positive, Indifferent, and Negative
Attitudes Toward Supervision as Judged
by Elementary School Teaching Principals
55
XIV. Supervisory Activities Ranged In Order of
Importance by Elementary School Teach­
ing Principals
58
XV. Grades Visited Most Frequently
......
61
XVI. Distribution of Elementary School Teach­
ing Principals According to Grades They
Feel Most Competent to Supervise
....
63
XVII. Distribution of Elementary School Teach­
ing Principals According to Grades They
Feel Least Competent to Supervise . . . .
65
XVIII. Time Devoted to Various Duties During
the Typical School Day
.........
67
XIX. Total Number of Minutes Devoted to
Supervision in any Typical Week . . . . .
71
XX. Total Number of Minutes Devoted to Va­
rious Supervisory Activities in any
Typical Week
.........
........
72
XXI. Median Number of Minutes Devoted to
Each Type of Supervisory Activity
in any Typical W e e k .........
74
viii
TABLE
XXII.
PAGE
Number of Hours Devoted to Teaching in
any W e e k ...........................
XXIII.
Means Employed to Obtain Time for Super­
vision
XXIV.
77
................
79
Degree of Departmentalization in Elemen­
tary Schools under the Supervision of
Teaching Principals..................
XXV.
82
Means Employed to Obtain Time for Super­
vision Ranked in Order of Importance
by Elementary School Teaching Princi­
pals
XXVI.
...............................
84
Number of Supervisory Visits Made Yearly
by County Rural Supervisors and City or
District Superintendents of Schools . . .
87
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
It is accepted that supervision of instruction is es­
sential for the improvement of the learning situation.
Ex­
haustive studies have been made relative to the supervisory
duties of superintendents, supervisors, and principals.
They are unanimous in their assertion that no school is too
small or too poor for some sort of supervision.
Unfortu­
nately, however, research relative to the supervisory func­
tions of the principal has been limited to the supervising
and not to the teaching principal.
Authorities invariably
mention the fact that the teaching principal is confronted
with a difficult situation that can be handled only in a
limited fashion— and of necessity that situation must suffer
in reverse ratio to the amount of supervision furnished.
Comparatively speaking, it has only been within the
last decade that any real effort has been made to scientif­
ically analyze the supervisory responsibilities and oppor­
tunities of the teaching principal.
Feeling that there is
an evident need for such a survey, this subject was selected
for study.
2
I.
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the problem. The supervisory status of
the elementary school teaching principal in northern Cali­
fornia.
It is the purpose of this study to determine the
status of the teaching principal with regard to (1) the
professional training, certification, and experience of
elementary school teaching principals; (2) the supervisory
activities of the teaching principal; (3) the time devoted
to the supervision furnished; (4) the means employed by the
teaching principal to obtain time for supervision; (5) the
amount of supervisory assistance given the teaching princi­
pal; (6) supervisory problems as listed by elementary
school teaching principals.
II.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
Supervision. The term supervision has as many con­
cepts and meanings as there are people to interpret the
word.
Many administrators associate the term with some
specific technique— overlooking the fact that underlying
principles are the motivating or guiding factors rather
than mere techniques, inapplicable in all cases with the
same relative degree of efficiency.
In 1927, the interpretation of this term had an al­
together different significance than it has today.
0 TShea,
3
Superintendent of the New York City Schools, defined super­
vision as follows:
Supervision is essentially the improvement of the
work of teachers in service. It is- sometimes called
teacher building. It is undoubtedly the most important
function of superintendents and principals because if
the qualitj^ of service of teachers is improved, the oth­
er desirable results will inevitably follow.1
For the purpose of this study, the writer has accep­
ted the modern definition that:
Supervision is an expert technical service primarily
concerned with studying and bettering the conditions
that surround learning. (. . .) Everything in a
school system is designed ultimately for the purpose of
furthering learning. Supervision of instruction deals
with those things which primarily and rather directly
condition learning.£
Teaching principal. Theoretically, teaching of any
sort for any length of time would qualify an administrator
to be classed as a teaching principal.
Obviously, the prin­
cipal of a small school, with all-day teaching duties will
have less opportunity for supervision than one who teaches
an hour daily.
Believing that there are certain inherent
problems which confront only those principals who teach half
a day or more as contrasted to those who teach less than
1 W. J. 0*Shea, !fWhat Are the Progressive Steps of
the New York City Schools?” Educational Review, 74:100,
September, 1927.
2 Avril S. Barr, W. H. Burton, and L. J. Breuckner,
Supervision (New York: D. Applet on-Century Company, 1938),
P • 20.
half a day, the following definition of the term teaching
principal has been set up:
the principal must teach half
a day or more.
III.
DELIMITATIONS
The very generality of the terms supervision and
teaching principal calls for specific delimitation.
Supervision, according to the definition previously
mentioned, can cover any and all aspects of teaching since
they are all directed toward improving the learning situa­
tion.
The scope of this study has been limited to one
aspect of supervision, namely, the supervision of the
instructional personnel.
Teaching principals may be found in schools of all
sizes— two to fifteen-teacher schools or even more.
This
variance in the size of the school is paralleled by the
difference in training and certification.
To serve as a
further limitation, this investigation has been confined to
teaching principals in schools of six or more teachers in
eighteen counties north of Sacramento, California.
The School Code of the State of California states:
No person shall be employed as
of more than five teachers unless
valid teacherTs certificate and a
istration certificate of the same
principal of a school
he isthe holder of a
valid school admin­
grade as the school to
be administered.^
This requires the possession of a valid state admin­
istrative credential which in turn presupposes a -somewhat
similar background of training.
IV.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Authorities are agreed that the ultimate responsibil­
ity for supervision in any school rests upon the principal.
No distinction is made between the supervising and the
teaching principal, except in the degree to which one is
freed from teaching duties for the purpose of administration
and supervision.
During the last tm^enty years, there has been an ever
increasing number of studies made relative to the responsi­
bility of the principal for supervision.
With few excep­
tions— which will be discussed in Chapter II, lfRelated Lit­
erature,11— the research has been confined to the full time
supervisory principal.
Klopp, in his study of forty Los Angeles elementary
school principals in 1925,^ opened up a new problem when he
3 The School Code of California, 1939, Part III,
Chapter II, Article II, Sec. 5.430, p. *302.
4 W. J. Klopp, 11A Study of the Professional Activi­
ties of Elementary School Principals11 (unpublished Master1s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1925), 107 pp.
6
included four teaching principals in his investigations, but
was forced to group them separately in order to validate his
study of supervising principals.
Recognising the need for
increased time for supervision, the principals working with
.Klopp planned and executed a job analysis which resulted in
more time being devoted to actual supervision of instruction.
The point worthy of particular mention is the fact that
even the teaching principals were able to budget the time
that they were free from teaching so as to provide for an
increased per cent of time given to supervision.
This study
definitely validated the position of the teaching principal
as a supervisor.
Since 1925, a number of investigations have been
made to determine just what is the responsibility of the
principal as a supervisor.
In almost every case, these
studies revealed.that the principals themselves regarded
supervision as the primary and most important duty.
Flowers found, that on a questionnaire sent to 192
principals, 10? respondees ranked supervision as first in
importance. 5
However, not all principals provided for this
important task on a proportionate-time basis.
(A substan­
tiation of KloppT's study.)
^ I. V. Flowers, ,!The Duties of-the Elementary
School Principal,” Elementary School Journal, 27:414,
February 1927.
7
The Department of Superintendence, Eighth Yearbook,
1930, shows the results of eleven different studies to de­
termine the percentage of elementary principals* time given
to supervision and other duties. ^
Ideal distributions of
the elementary school principal*s school day were also
worked out by different authorities.
The ideal runs from
thirty-one per cent to fifty-one per cent of the principal!s
total time.^
The Los Angeles City Schools have weekly meetings of
beginning principals to discuss problems which they have en­
countered or may encounter.
The first topic discussed was
"Some Problems of the Teaching Principal,"®
Again, the Department of Superintendence, Eighth
Yearbook, makes the*following statement:
The principal of a small school will need a propor­
tionately smaller amount of time for supervision than
the principal in a larger school. If the teachers in
small schools are to receive amounts of supervision
approximately equal to teachers in large schools, the
total time needed for supervision in these schools will
be less. To free the principal of a six-teacher school,
® "The Superintendent Surveys Supervision," Eighth
Yearbook of the Department of Superintendence (Washington,
D. C.: Department of Superintendence, of the National Educa­
tion Association of the United States, 1930), 463 pp.
7 Doc* cit.
8 G. B. Hammond, "Los Angeles School for Principals,"
The Elementary Principal. Eleventh Yearbook, The California
Elementary School Principals* Association, May, 1939,
pp. 25-29.
8
for example, of all teaching responsibilities in order
that he may devote his time to supervision isf neither
wise nor economical. The amount of freedom that the
principal is given from teaching for supervision should
depend upon the number of teachers supervised. No
school system is so small or so poor that it cannot
afford some time for supervision.9
The above statement justifies the importance of the
teaching principal as supervisor of instruction— one whose
duty it is to improve the learning situation so as to bring
about the desired change in the child— the ultimate goal of
all supervision.
In the recent efforts to raise the professional stan­
dards of the elementary school principal as a supervisor,
special stress has been placed upon the full time supervis­
ing principal to the point that the teaching principal has
become the "forgotten man."
Many of the investigations that have been made recog­
nize the teaching principal as a problem; the statistical
data relative to the number of teaching principals have been
compiled into frequency tables and dismissed with brief com­
ment.
In no one survey have all the various aspects of the
supervisory status of the teaching principal been thoroughly
studied or considered as being worthy of special attention.
9 "The Superintendent Surveys Supervision," Eighth
Yearbook of the Department of Superintendence. op. cit.,
p. 59.
9
Using the results of these investigations to estab­
lish a definite trend toward recognizing the importance of
supervision as one of the responsibilities of the super­
vising principal, the question arises, to what extent is. the
teaching principal responsible for supervision?
The fact
that a principal teaches a full day does not necessarily
militate against him.
There are many devices other than
classroom visitation which may be employed by the teaching
principal with equally good results.
It is the purpose of
this study to show how these supervisory activities are be­
ing utilized in current practice.
Cubberley states:
The supervision of instruction, then, must be regard­
ed as the one supreme duty of a school principal, the
one for which he must find time by minimizing other
duties, and the one for which he must hold himself re­
sponsible whether the superintendent of schools or the
board of education does or does not. (. . .) The
prime test of the competency of an elementary school
principal is his ability to improve the instruction in
his school by helpful~~and constructive service to his
teachers in their work of instructing children; the
measure of his interest in such service is the means he
employs to find time to do such -work.10
It is with the means that the teaching principal em­
ploys to find time to do such supervision that this study is
also concerned.
In addition to this criterion of evaluating
the supervision by teaching principals, the following have
Ellwood P. Cubberley, The Principal and His School
(New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923), p. 452.
10
been selected:
the professional training, certification,
and experience of elementary school teaching principals; the
supervisory activities of the teaching principal; the time
devoted to the supervision furnished; the amount of super­
visory problems as listed by elementary school teaching
principals.
V.
PROCEDURE
A survey of all available literature on this subject
was made to determine whether this problem had been attacked
with the specific objectives stated and to ascertain the
points of similarity and difference.
These data are dis­
cussed in Chapter II, "Related Literature.tf
The questionnaire method was employed in selecting
the normative-survey technique.
Various questionnaires were
studied for suggestions as to organization and for pertinent
questions that might be applied to the inquiry blanks that
were sent out.
Letters were sent to twenty-five county superinten­
dents of schools north of Sacramento-^-** requesting copies of
their county directories with each teaching principal in
elementary schools of six or more teachers indicated with a
-*-■*- See Appendix, Letter to County Superintendents of
Schools requesting copies of schoo3_ directories.
11
check or by some other mark of identification.
It was
stipulated in the letter that in order to be classed as a
teaching principal, the administrator would have to teach
approximately one half a school day.
Directories were re­
ceived from twenty-five county superintendents.
Study of these directories disclosed the fact that
seven counties had no teaching principals in schools of six
or more teachers that were qualified to be included in this
survey.
These counties were:
Alpine, El Dorado, Glenn,
Lassen, Nevada, Sierra, and Trinity.
Five county superintendents were interviewed in order
to secure their personal reaction to such an investigation.
They were unanimous in their approval of the proposed re­
search.
This interview was mentioned in the letter of
transmittal^ as a justification for such a survey.
A combination questionnaire and check list1■ was com­
piled and distributed with letters of transmittal to eightysix principals who had been checked in the various director­
ies as being teaching principals according to the above
mentioned specifications.
The various directories had been
examined carefully to verify that no principal was included
1^ See Appendix, Letter of Transmittal to Accompany
Questionnaire to Elementary School Teaching Principals.
13 gee Appendix, 'Questionnaire to Elementary School
Teaching Principals.
12
who was in less than a six teacher school and that no
teaching principals of six or more teacher schools had been
omitted.
Responses were received from seventy-five principals.
Of this number, fifty-one were eligible cases.
The other
twenty-four cases were responses from full-time supervising
principals or from principals who taught less than half a
school day.
Responses were not received from eleven
eligible cases.
Table I shows the distribution and per
cent of responses according to the total number of eligible
principals in each county.
In order to secure adequacy and completeness of
response, personal calls were made to nearby counties in a
number of cases.
Because of the comprehensive supervisory set-up
available in the Sacramento City School System as well as
the Eureka City School System, it was decided that the
principals of these two cities should not be included in
this survey.
The questionnaire was so organized that the tabula­
tion of the data included- in the responses would come under
the following major headings or classifications:
qualifi­
cations of teaching principals to supervise instruction— experience, recent training, and certification; the time
devoted to supervision; types of supervisory activities;
13
TABLE I
DISTRIBUTION AND PEE CENT OF RESPONSES
ACCORDING TO COUNTY
County
Butte
Colusa
Delnorte
Humboldt
Lake
Mendocino
Modoc
Napa
Placer
Plumas
Sacramento
Shasta
Siskiyou
Sonoma
Sutter
Tehama
Yolo
Yuba
Totals
Number of
eligible
principals
9
3
1
3
3
1
1
2
4
2
13
4
1
8 ,
2
1
2
2
62
Number
of
responses
9
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
3
2
8
3
1
6
2
1
2
2
51
Per cent
of
responses
100
66*6
100
100
66 *6
100
100
100
75
100
61*5
75
100
75
100
100
100
100
82.25 Av
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: nine re­
sponses were received from nine teaching principals in Butte
County for a total of 100 per cent of the number of eligible
cases*
v
means employed to find time for supervision; and supervisory
assistance.
As a result of the vague wording of question twentythree of the questionnaire sent to elementary school teach­
ing principals, which resulted in equally vague and in many
cases invalid responses,
a supplementary inquiry blank
consisting of three questions^ v/as compiled with the as­
sistance and advice of the local city superintendent of
schools as well as the county rural supervisors.
This in­
quiry blank was sent to eighteen county rural supervisors
and three city superintendents of schools.
Returns were
received from fourteen rural supervisors and from three
district superintendents.
The responses to this question­
naire, together with the related implications of the origi­
nal inquiry blank, are discussed in Chapter IV of this
study.
VI.
ORGANIZATION OF THE PROBLEM
This study has been developed in the following man­
ner:
Chapter II is devoted to a survey of related liter­
ature with emphasis on similarities and differences.
See Appendix, Questionnaire to County Rural
Supervisors and*City Superintendents of Schools.
15
Chapters III and IV are devoted to an interpretation
of the questionnaire under the six major objectives listed
in the statement of the problem.
Chapter V is a summary of the findings and conclu­
sions of this survey with recommendations.
The Bibliography following Chapter V contains the
source material used in developing the thesis.
The Appendix which follows the Bibliography contains
the letters of transmittal and the questionnaire blanks.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The question of the supervisory status of the teach­
ing principal has been touched incidentally in the course
of various investigations.
Ho questionnaire studying the
supervisory status of principals in general could avoid ac­
cumulating data on the status of the teaching principal.
The trend, however, has been to limit all such sur­
veys to the supervising rather than the teaching principal.
Many factors may have been involved in such decisions.
First, the exact status of the full-time principal might not
have been clearly defined at the time such investigations
were made; then again, the number of variables involved in
one complete study of the status of the teaching principal
would have precluded such an analysis from questionnaires
designed to meet other specific objectives.
Job Analysis. In 1925, Klopp made a study of the
professional activities of elementary school principals.1
The device employed by Klopp to collect data was a diary
of the principals activities kept for one week.
1 W. J. Klopp, 11A Study of the Professional Activi­
ties of Elementary School Principals,1T (unpublished MasterTs
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1925), 107 pp.
17
In the course of compiling the data, it was necessary
to classify four teaching principals separately so as to
validate his findings relative to full-time principals.
The result of this study was that all principals involved
(including the teaching principals) realized the need for
devoting a greater per cent of their time to supervision.
They accordingly planned and executed a program to such an
end.
It is interesting to note that the teaching principals
were able to increase the per cent of time actually devoted
to supervision.
The elementary school principalshin in California.
Determined to completely survey the status of the elementary
school principalship in California, in 1953, the California
State Department of Education, in conjunction with the Cali­
fornia Elementary School Principals7 Association, sent a
comprehensive questionnaire to 2,255 principals in Califor­
nia.^
Of this number, 973 were employed in school districts
of four or fewer teachers and 1,282 in districts employing
five or more teachers.
Statistical data were arranged into tables which
clearly showed the classification of principals according
£ "The Elementary School Principalship in California,"
State of California. Department of Education Bulletin No. 19
(Sacramento: California State Princing Office, 1934), 136 pp.
18
to the amount of teaching done, i.e., the distribution of
part-time teaching principals according to the number of
clock hours of teaching; etc.
A summary shows that 51.35
per cent were non-teaching principals; 27.07 per cent were
part-time teaching principals; and 21.6 per cent were full­
time teachers.3
An exhaustive study was made of the various aspects
of elementary principalship.
Among the other factors analyzed
were the administrative and supervisory relationships of
principals and teachers.
One entire section of the question­
naire was devoted to supervisory activities.
However, for
reasons not given, the responses to this portion of the
questionnaire wrere not published.
With the exception of two tables devoted to the
number and per cent of full time and part time teaching prin­
cipals in each class reporting various staff relationships
according to A. D. A., no analysis is made of supervision as
such.
Status of rural elementary school principals in Cali­
fornia. In 1937, Cate made a survey of rural elementary
school principals.4
He took the position that the study by
3 Ibid.. p. 17.
4 J. Dwight Cate, t!Status of Rural Elementary School
Principals in California,” (unpublished MasterTs thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937),
118 pp.
19
the California State Department of Education in 1934 com­
pletely overlooked the status of the rural elementary prin­
cipal .
In setting up his investigation, Cate classified
supervision as consisting of classroom visitation.
Confer­
ences were not considered under the heading of supervision.
(CateTs table showing that no supervision was done by forty
principals in schools with six to eight teachers^ is open to
question under the interpretation of supervision set up in
this study.)
A distinct relationship is shown between the number
of teachers and time spent in supervision per day.
Of 175
principals .reporting, fifty spent no time supervising (ac­
cording to Cate!s definition of supervision).
He states:
Supervision rates highest of all functions. Teacher
conference is second in importance and is probably used
more in a rural school than is supervision. A teacher
can always find time after school when supervision is
impossible.^
Although supervision was rated first in importance
by rural principals, it was the function performed least.
A study of the duties performed by the elementary
school principals of Washington County. Pennsylvania.
Using the job analysis as the basis of his investigation,
5 Ibid.. p. 83.
® Tbid., p.-84.
20
Hill grouped the principals in Washington County, Pennsyl­
vania, by the amount of time they devoted to teaching.
used the following classifications:
He
full-time principal,
three-fourths time principal, half-time principal, onefourth time principal, and full-time teaching principal.?
Hill points out that teaching principals assigned to
teach one hundred per cent of the school day were actually
able to teach only sixty-five per cent of the school day
because of other duties listed under the headings of super­
vision, administration, clerical, community relationships,
and miscellaneous duties.
The following conclusions were
made:8
The full-time teaching principal teaches in actual
practice only sixty-five per cent of his time.
No teaching principal was able to do all the teach­
ing assigned to him.
His actual teaching time was from six
to thirty-five per cent lower than his assigned teaching
time.
A distinct tendency was noted to overestimate the
time actually devoted to teaching and supervision.
7 F. C. Hill, ffA Study of the Duties Performed by
the Elementary School Principals of Washington County, Penn­
sylvania, Based on Teaching Load," (unpublished MasterTs
thesis, Pennsylvania State College, Pennsylvania, 1937),
p. 17.
8 IBM.,
p.
93.
Status of the elementary teaching principal in the
State of New Jersey. The first attempt to really study the
status of the teaching principal as such (entirely excluding
the full-time supervising principal) was made by Rice in
1936 9
Rice defines the teaching principals as those who do
classroom teaching regardless of the amount of time con­
sumed.
data.
The questionnaire was used as a device to collect
These were sent to 250 teaching principals in New
Jersey excluding one-room schools.
the teaching principal was surveyed.
The entire status of
No special emphasis
was placed on supervision as such.
Certain conclusions were draym:l^
More than half the replies showed principals teaching
the entire day with no relief from teaching duties.
The crying need was for more time for supervision.
There was a difference in attitude on the part of
teachers in a teaching principal situation, i.e., the diffi­
culty of maintaining a correct professional attitude when
the principal is doing the same-thing as the teachers and
opens himself to a great deal of criticism if there is the
9 T. W. Rice, ,fStatus of the Elementary Teaching
Principal in the State of New Jersey,n National Elementary
Principal, 16:83-6, December, 1936.
1° Ibid.. pp. 84-85.
22
slightest indication of a flaw in his work.
Possible supervisory functions of the teaching prin­
cipal in the elementary school. The definite recognition of
the supervisory responsibility of the teaching principal was
emphasized by Sister Mary Clarke ?/hen she investigated the
plan of supervision of seventy-two teaching principals in
parochial schools throughout the United States.^
It was the object of this study to ascertain the time
devoted to supervision, the grades and subjects most fre­
quently supervised, enrollment of school, number of teachers,
and how the teaching principalis own class was managed
during her absence.
Sister Clarke was the first to stress the problem of
the means employed by teaching principals to secure time
from teaching for supervision.
A need for supervision was
recognized, but'unlike the results of HillTs study, measures
were taken to see that the learning situation did not suffer
by the absence of the principal.
The results of the investigation sho?/ed that super­
vision was more indirect— employing conferences, testing,
11 Sister Mary C. Clarke, t!A Study of Possible Super­
visory Functions of the Teaching Principal in the Elementary
School,n (unpublished Master!s thesis, Catholic University
of America, Washington, D. C., 1938), 51 pp.
23
supervision of plans, etc. 3-2
No study has been found dealing exclusively with the
supervisory status of the teaching principals in California.
The problem has been touched incidentally in the course of
various studies as to the general status of principals—
usually supervisory.
There are certain inherent supervisory problems which
are peculiar to the teaching principal.
With these problems
in mind, the question of the supervisory status of the
teaching principal in northern California will be attacked.
12 Tbid.. p. 47.
CHAPTER III
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING, CERTIFICATION, AND EXPERIENCE OF
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
The every-increasing efforts to raise the profession­
al standards of the elementary school principal culminated
in a joint study made by the California State Department of
Education and the California Elementary School Principals1
Association in 1934.
This study was discussed in Chapter II
TfReview of Related Literature*”
The early promiscuous issuance of county certificates
to elementary school teachers, which were in turn the basis
for the issuance of administrative credentials upon the com­
pletion of fifteen additional semester hours of college work
was eliminated in 1930 by the State Department of Education
when it required the bachelorTs degree as part of the pre­
requisites for an elementary school teaching credential*1
True enough, county certificates may still be issued,
but through the cooperation of county superintendents of
schools and county boards of education, this type of certi­
ficate is no longer being granted except in rare cases.
"Regulations Governing the Granting of State Teach­
ers1 Credentials and County Certificates in California,"
California State Department of Education Bulletin No. H-2
(Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1930), p. 44.
25
Another forward step was taken in September, 1936,
when the•California State Department of Education classified
the elementary administrative credentials under two major
types:
the Elementary -School Principal or Supervisor1s Cre­
dential, requiring eighteen semester hours of college work,
and the Elementary School Executives Credential, requiring
twenty-four semester hours of college work.**
In addition to
increasing the number of units required from fifteen to
eighteen and twenty-four, the State Department of Education
made specific demands as to the courses desired.
cluded:
These in­
administration and supervision of elementary schools
including field work; elementary school curriculum with em­
phasis on subject matter and methods; city school adminis­
tration; school finance and business administration; state
and county school administration; legal aspects of educa­
tion; tests and measurements; and electives in the fields of
sociology, psychology, and education with emphasis on philos­
ophy of education.
The above mentioned trend to improve the professions-1
standards of the elementhry school principalship was taken
into consideration in the evaluation of the supervisory
^ "Regulations Governing Granting of Credentials and
Certificates for Public School Service in California,"
State of California Department of Education Bulletin No. 12,
(Sacramento: California State Printing Office, -June, 193577
pp. 14-15.
26
status of the elementary school teaching principal.
I.
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Total Years of collegiate work. The distribution of
elementary school teaching principals according to the total
number of years of collegiate work is shown in Table II.
The median number of years of collegiate work for the fortyseven principals responding is 3.9.
Approximately fifty per cent of all principals re­
sponding had completed four years of collegiate work.
It is
interesting to note that thirty-three principals or 71.1 per
cent had completed four or more years.
Although representing
2.1 per cent, only one principal reported no college training.
Information relative to the number of summer sessions
attended by elementary school teaching principals since 1936
was not tabulated.
The average number of summer sessions
attended by the men was 2.5 while the average for the women
was 2.0.
Only two principals reported that they had not
attended a summer session since 1936.
Both were women.
Degrees held and date of issuance. With the excep­
tion of one principal who obtained both bachelor’s and
master’s degrees during the years 1905 to 1907, all of the
thirty-two principals reporting obtained their degrees
subsequent to the year 1926.
27
TABLE II
TOTAL YEARS OF COLLEGIATE WORK
Years of
collegiate
work
Number
of
principals
Per cent of
total number
of principals
0
1
2.1
1
0
0
2
7
14.9
3
6
12.8
4
23
48.9
5
9
19.1
6
1
2.1
47
3.9
99.9
Totals
Median number of years
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: one
principal reports having completed no collegiate work for a
total of 2.1 per cent.
28
The median year that the bachelor’s degree was ob­
tained was 1953; the median year the master’s was obtained
was 1938.
Table III shows all degrees held by the principals
responding.
In all five cases reporting master’s degrees,
the same were listed among those holding bachelor’s degrees.
Of the nineteen principals that failed to report, fourteen,
according to Table IV, have had less than four years of col­
lege work, and hence, were unable to qualify for the bache­
lor’s degree.
In view of the fact that the State Department of Edu­
cation demanded the bachelor’s degree as one of the pre­
requisites to obtain the elementary teaching credential, it
is easy to understand the preponderance of degrees obtained
subsequent to 1930.
Total years of collegiate work and degrees held.
Table IV shows the relation between the total years of col­
legiate work and the degrees held.
As was the case with
Table III, the five principals holding master’s degrees were
also listed among those holding bachelor’s degrees.
Of the forty-seven principals reporting, thirty-two,
or 68.1 per cent held bachelor’s degrees as a result of com­
pleting four or more years of collegiate work.
Master’s de­
grees are held by 10.6 per cent of the principals responding.
29
TABLE III
DEGREES HELD AND DATE OF ISSUANCE
Year issued
1905-1907
1908-1910
1911-1913
1914-1916
1917-1919
1920-1922
1923-1925
1926-1928
1929-1931
1932-1934
1935-1937
1938-1940
Totals
Medians
Bachelor1s
degree
Master’s
degree
1
1
10
8
8
4
32
1933
5
1938
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in the
years 1938-1940/ four principals obtained a bachelor.* s
degree and three principals obtained a master’s degree.
30
TABLE IV
RELATION BETWEEN THE TOTAL YEARS OF COLLEGIATE
WORK AND DEGREES HELD
Years of col­
legiate work
Number of
principals
0-
1
1
0
2
7
3
6
4
23
22
5
9
9
4
6
1
1
1
Totals
47
Per cent holding
each type of degree
32
5
Degree held
Bachelor’s
Mast er’s
68.1
10.6
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: one
principal had completed six years of collegiate work and
held both bachelor’s and master’s degrees*
51
It is particularly interesting to note that approxi­
mately 58.8 per cent of the fifty-one principals ?/ho have
responded for this study have received bachelor*s and mas­
ters degrees during the past ten years.
This is cpnclusive
evidence that the professional status of the elementary
school teaching principal has raised appreciably since the
inception of the various measures previously mentioned in
the introduction of this chapter.
II. CERTIFICATION
A knowledge of the type of certificate and the date
of its issuance contributes greatly to an understanding of
the supervisory training and background of the elementary
school teaching principal.
Any study of the amount of pro­
fessional training as an indication of the supervisory pre­
paration of the teaching principal is entirely invalid
unless considered in relation to the certification.
The
only alternate procedure to the above mentioned pairing of
professional training and certification is that of a detailed
study of the various educational courses completed.
The im­
practicability of such a study precludes further discussion.
Total number of certificates or credentials held.
The data presented in Table V clearly shows that elementary
school teaching principals, as a group, are interested in
acquiring certificates or credentials.
Seventeen out of
32
TABLE V
TOTAL NUMBER OF CERTIFICATES OR CREDENTIALS HELD
Total number of certificates
or credentials
Frequency
2
17
3
18
4
11
5
4
Total number of principals responding
50
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: seventeen
principals hold two certificates or credentials
35
fifty principals responding reported possessing the minimum
number of credentials— the administrative credential which
was issued upon the basic teaching certificate or credential.
It is indicative of either a desire for professional growth
or preparation for a higher position that eighteen principals
hold three credentials and that eleven hold four credentials.
The average number of certificates or credentials held by
the fifty principals responding is 5.04.
Type of certificate or credential held. The various
types of certificates and credentials listed in question
fourteen of the questionnaire sent to the elementary school
teaching principals, see Appendix, may be classified under
the different phases of progress in the certification of the
elementary principalship as stated in the introduction to
this chapter.
Of the nine principals reporting that they hold coun­
ty board certificates, see Table VI, all but three held ad­
ministrative credentials issued on the original county cer­
tificate.
The total number of credentials held, therefore,
by each of these six principals is two.
The other.three,
principals holding county certificates obtained.elementary
credentials in 1930 for a total of three certificates or
credentials for each.
54
TABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF CERTIFICATE
OR CREDENTIAL HELD
No. of prins.
holding each
type of cred.
Per cent of
number
responding
9
18
General elementary
47
94
Junior high
18
56
8
16
Administrative prior to 1956
57
74
Supervisory prior to 1956
11
22
Elementary school principals
and sup ervl sor1s
11
22
Elementary school executive’s
8
16
Other credentials*
4
8
Certificate or credential
County board
General secondary
Number of principals responding
50
* Other credentials includes the following: special
secondary in physical education, general secondary adminis­
trative, and junior college credential.
NOTE: included in this table are those certificates
and credentials checked but with no date of Issuance stated.
35
It would seem that the three elementary principals
obtaining the elementary credential in 1930 did so in order
to be blanketed in prior to the enforcement of the new regu­
lation by the State Department of Education, in 1930, re­
quiring the bachelor’s degree prior to the issuance of an
elementary school teaching credential.
not the case.
However, such was
Two of the three principals reported receiv­
ing a bachelor’s degree in that year.
Of a total of nineteen reporting that they held both
the elementary school principal’s and supervisor’s creden­
tial and the elementary school executive’s credential, only
three report holding both credentials.
Therefore, sixteen
of the fifty principals reporting, or thirty-two per cent,
have obtained either or both of the most recent type of ad­
ministrative credentials issued.
Relation between the certificate or credential held
and the date of issuance. One^of the most interesting as­
pects of certification as a factor in the status of the
elementary school teaching principal is revealed in Table
VII which shows the relation between the certificate or
credential held and the date of issuance.
As was shown in Table VI, page 34, the total number
of principals holding the general elementary credential is
forty-seven.
Only forty-one of these indicated the year in
TABLE ¥11
RELATION BETWEEN THE CERTIFICATE OR CREDENTIAL HELD AND DATE OF ISSUANCE
Year
issued
1894-1896
1897-1893
1900-1902
1903-1905
1906-1908
1909-1911
1912-1314
1915-1917
1318-1920
1921-1923
1924-1926
1927-1929
1930-1932
1933-1935
1936-1938
1939-1941
Totals
Medians
County
board
Gen.
elem.
cred.
1
2
Junior
high
cred.
Gen. Admin.
sec. nrior
cred. to 1936
Super.
prior
to 1936
Elem. sch.
prin. and
supervisor
Elem. 1Other
sch. i cred.*
exec.
1
1
1
3
1
'
7
1915
2
2
4
1
8
10
8
3
•4
6
3
2
2
41
17
1929.7 1932.3
2
1
4
7
1938.£
4
6
8 ^
10
2
1
2
2
2
3
30
9
1931.9 1930.3
—
5
6
11
1938.8
'
2
5
1
1
1
4
7
1939.4 1931.8
* Other credentials includes the following: Special Secondary in P.E.,
General Secondary Administrative, and Junior College Credential.
j
<>
37
which they received their credential.
All of the seven principals holding general secondary
credentials received them after they had already qualified
for the general elementary credential.
The number of junior high school credentials reported
may be in part explained by the fact that the teacher*s
colleges were encouraging a program of study which would re­
sult in the prospective teacher receiving both the elementary
and junior high school credentials.
Seven of the seventeen
principals reporting received the jptnior high school cre­
dential at the same time they received the general elemen­
tary credential.
Then, too, the sudden development of the junior high
school movement probably had a great effect upon the number
of principals receiving this type of credential.
As is always the case when a new regulation is about
to go into effect, probably a great part of the principals
receiving the administrative and supervisory credentials
during the years 1933 to 1935 did so to be blanketed in
before the new requirements became effective.
There has been a definite trend in the past decade
among the elementary school principals to increase the num­
ber of credentials they hold.
It is particularly encoura­
ging to note that no county certificates have been issued
subsequent to 1926.
38
It would appear from the median date for each type of
credential that a younger and more progressive group of
educators are entering into the field of elementary admin­
istration and supervision.
With the exception of the county
hoard certificate, practically all of the medians for the
various types of credentials fall within the period 19301940,
This, in itself, is sufficient testimony as to the
progress made in improving the professional status of the
elementary school teaching principal.
III.
EXPERIENCE
Length of educational service. It is interesting to
compare the data given in Table VIII with that presented by
the State Department of Education*- and by Cate.^
The study
made by Cate on the ”Status of Rural Elementary School
Principals in California” showed the median number of years
of educational service for both men and women to be 12.7.5
The joint study of the California Elementary School Prin­
cipals T Association and the California State Department of
3 ”The Elementary School Principalship in California,”
State of California. Department of Education Bulletin Ho. 19
(Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1954), pp.
24-25.
4 J. Dwight Cate, ”Status of Rural Elementary School
Principals in California,” (unpublished Master Vs thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937), pp.
37-43.
5 Ibid.■ P. 38.
39
TABLE VIII
LENGTH OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICE OF ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
Number of
years
3-5
6-8
9-11
12-14
15-17
18-20
21-23
24-26
27-29
30-32
33-35
36-38
39-41
42-44
45-47
Number of
principals
7
5
10
7
5
1
5
4
2
2
1
0
0
0
1
Total
Mean number of years
Median number of years
.
50
15.2
12.8
NOTE: This table should be readw as follo?/s: seven
principals have completed three to five years of educational
service.
40
Education showed the median number of years experience for
all types of principals to be 8,6.6
Cate*s study, however, parallels this in that both
limit the class of principals studies to those administering
schools of six or more teachers.
Table VIII shows the median number of years of edu­
cational service to be 12.8.
This compares favorably with
the median of 12.7 as quoted by Cate for the rural elemen­
tary school principals of California.
The difference of approximately two and a half years
between the median and mean as shown in Table VIII is easily
understood when one observes the range in the number of
years of educational service of forty-four years.
Ten
principals report having taught nine to eleven years.
Length and type of educational service. Any analysis
of the supervisory background of the elementary school teach­
ing principal of necessity must take into consideration the
amount of time that the principal has served in various
types of administrative and teaching positions.
An attempt
is made in Table IX to show the relation of the length of
educational service to the type of service performed.
This
table is limited to a comparison of the number of years de-
® State of California. Department of Education Bul­
letin No. 19.
.
cit.. p. 71.
o p
41
TABLE IX
LENGTH AND TYPE OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICE
Number
of years
Full-time
teacher
1-5
4-6
7-9
10-12
13-15
16-18
19-21
22-24
25-27
28-30
31-33
34—36
10
8
8
3
2
3
1
0
0
1
Principal
with parttime teaching
Full-time
teaching
principal
Principal
with no
teaching
8
6
5
2
16
8
3
4
0
1
%
—
—
—
—
i
JL.
2
1
2
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
_L
—
—
-
1
—
—
—
38
1
Totals
38
Medi an numb er
6.9
of years
24
5.5
4.6
—
—
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: ten
principals have served one to three years as a full-time
teacher; eight principals have served one to three years as
principal with part-time teaching; sixteen principals have
served one to three years as full-time teaching principals.
42
voted to the following types of educational servicer
full­
time teacher, principal with part-time teaching, full-time
teaching principal, principal with no teaching.
The median number of years of educational service for
the thirty-eight principals reporting full-time teaching ex­
perience is 6.9; twenty-four principals report experience as
principals with part-time teaching with a median number of
years of 5.5; thirty-eight principals report experience as
full-time teaching principals with a median of 4.6 years.
Only one principal had experience as a principal with no
teaching.
As was shown in Table VIII, page 39, only seven prin­
cipals had less than five years educational service.
The
validity of the section of Table IX showing the total number
of years served as full-time teacher is substantiated by a
note which was attached to question twelve of the inquiry
blank, see Appendix, requesting the principal not to include
years as a teaching principal in the total number of years
listed as a teacher.
It is enlightening to note that of the thirty-eight
principals responding to this phase of the questionnaire,
all but one had previously had experience as principals with
full-time or part-time teaching.
It is evident that the
median number of years experience as a full-time teacher
when added to the median number of years as either a princi-
43
pal with part-time teaching or as a full-time teaching prin­
cipal constitutes a reasonable background of experience for
supervision of instruction.
Lewis states that the prospective principal should
have had at least seven years of successful teaching exper­
ience to make a successful teaching principal and ten years
of successful experience to make a successful supervising
principal.?
As shown in Table VIII, page 39, the median number
of 12.8 years experience would appear to establish the experential background of the group of elementary school prin­
cipals reporting for this study.
Positions held immediately prior to present position.
From the data presented in Table X, it would appear that
twenty-nine of the forty-nine principals responding had ex­
perience which would prepare them to hold a position as an
elementary school teaching principal.
It is particularly
interesting to note that thirteen principals report having
been full-time teaching principals immediately prior to
their present position.
7 D. L. Lewis, "Administrative and Supervisory Duties
of Elementary Principals," American School Board Journal.
97:21-2, October, 1938.
44
TABLE X
POSITIONS HELD BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO THEIR PRESENT POSITION
Title of position
Teacher
Frequency
20
Teacher and vice principal
3
Vice principal
3
Full-time teaching principal
13
Principal
9
Rural supervisor
1
Total number of principals responding
49
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: twenty
elementary school teaching principals held positions as
teachers immediately prior to their acceptance of their
present position.
45
Although having no basis in fact, the inference may
be drawn that in the majority of cases, experience of some
type in the field of administration is usually required to
qualify for the elementary school teaching principalship.
Grades taught bv principals in schools of varying
grade ranges. Realizing that the grade or grades taught by
the elementary school teaching principal have a special sig­
nificance in interpreting the principals background to
supervise instruction from the point of view of subject
matter and instructional method, the principals have been
classified according to the grade taught in schools of
varying grade ranges.
An attempt was made in Table XI to indicate the women
principals by an underscore in order that an accounting might
be made according to sex, range of grades in school, and
grade taught.
Of fifty-one principals reporting, forty were men and
eleven were women.
Four of the eleven women teach the last
year of school or what is referred to as the terminal grade.
Seven women teach grades other than the terminal grade de­
pendent upon the range of grades in each school.
In schools with a grade range of kindergarten to
third grade, two women teach the second grade.
In schools
with a grade range of first to eighth grade, two women teach
46
TABLE XI
GRADES TAUGHT BY PRINCIPALS IN SCHOOLS
OF VMYING GRADE RANGES
Range in Grades Fre­
grades
taught quency Total
Kgtn-3
H1-L2*
L2-H2
1
1
Kgtn-6
L4-H4
5-6
L6-H6
1
1
1
Range in Grades Fre­
grades
taught quency Total
2
1-8
L3-H4
H4-H8
L5-H8
L6-H8
L7-H7
7-8
L8-H8
5
1
6
1
14
1-9
L6-H6
1
1
4-6
L5-H5
1
1
5-8
L8-H8
1
1
6-8
6-8
1
1
35
35
5
1,8
uu TT8
liu
Kgtn-8
1*4
1-6
Totals
Total
L8-H8
L8-H8
T P-.HP
1
4
5
L4-H4
1
1
2
5-6
L6-H6
L6-H6
1
1
4
2
16
16
2
1
1
Totals
31
51
* Underscore represents grades taught by women.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: in
elementary schools with a range of from the kindergarten to
the eighth grades, one woman and four men principals teach
the L8-H8 grades; in elementary schools with a range of
from the first to the eighth grades, two women principals
teach the L3-H4 grades and one man principal teaches the
H4-H8 grades.
47
the third to fourth grades.
Quite a contrasting picture is presented when the
grades taught by the forty men principals are studied.
In
only two cases do the men teach other than the terminal
grade.
Regardless of the range of grades in their school,
thirty-eight men principals report teaching the terminal
grade.
Various factors may have influenced the principals
choice of the terminal grade including:
the so-called added
prestige attached to the teacher of the highest grade in any
school as a definite contribution to the maintenance of
discipline; the fact that the higher grade children are
mature enough to carry on if the principal should be called
from the room; tradition; and other reasons which are not so
familiar.
Undoubtedly the exigencies of certain situations may
require the principal to teach the terminal grade.
the same reasons would not apply to all cases.
However,
It would
appear that the women are more progressive than the men in
that they do not limit themselves to the terminal grade but
are willing to teach other grades.
There has been much
educational research recently to discover the most diffi­
cult grade to teach.
Authorities differ on this subject.
Nevertheless, there is no good reason, other than conditions
peculiar to any one given situation, why the teaching prin-
48
cipal could not teach grades other than the last year in his
school.
This question is discussed in more detail at a
later point in this study.8
SUMMARY
The median number of years of collegiate work for
forty-seven elementary school teaching principals reporting
was 3.9.
Approximately half of all principals responding had
completed four years of collegiate work.
Of the fifty-one
principals responding in this study, 58.8 per cent have
received a degree in the past ten years.
Of forty-seven
principals, only two had failed to attend a summer session
since 1936•
Thirty-two principals, or 68.1 per cent, report
holding bachelor!s degrees.
Five of these thirty-two also
hold Master»s degrees.
Seventeen of the fifty principals responding hold two
credentials, eighteen hold three credentials, eleven hold
four credentials, and four hold five credentials.
County board certificates were held by nine principals.
The only other credential held by six of these principals
was the administrative credential issued upon the basic
8 See Chapter IV, page
49
teaching certificate— the county board certificate.
Three
of the above mentioned nine principals obtained a general
elementary credential also.
Sixteen of the fifty principals reporting, or thirtytwo per cent, have obtained administrative credentials of
the most recent type issued since 1936.
All the seven principals holding general secondary
credentials received them after they had already qualified
for the general elementary credential.
Ten principals received administrative and supervisory
credentials between the years 1933 and 1935.
The following are the median years of issuance for
each type of credential:
county board, 1915; general ele­
mentary, 1929.7; junior high, 1932.3; general secondary,
1938.9; administrative prior to 1936, 1931.9; supervisory
prior to 1936, 1930.3; elementary school principal and
supervisor’s, 1938.8; elementary school executive’s, 1939.4;
other credentials, 1931.8.
The median number of years of educational service
was 12.8 as compared with 12.7 in Cate’s study of rural
elementary school principals in California.9
The median number of years of educational service
for each of the following types of experience is as follows:
9 Cate, op. cit.. p. 38.
50
full-time teacher, 6.9; principal with part-time teaching,
5.5; full-time teaching principal, 4.6.
One principal re­
ported experience as a principal with no teaching.
Only
seven principals report less than five years educational
service.
Twenty-nine of forty-nine principals responding had
experience of a type other than teaching which would prepare
them to hold a position as an elementary school teaching
principal.
Thirteen principals reported being teaching princi­
pals in the position immediately prior to the one they then
held.
The last year of school, or terminal grade, was
taught by four out of the eleven women reporting.
Seven
women taught grades other than the terminal grade— dependent
upon the range of grades in each school.
Of forty men principals reporting, thirty-eight
taught terminal grades in schools of varying grade ranges.
CHAPTER IV
SUPERVISION BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
According to accepted practice, the principal has
become the person ultimately responsible for supervision in
his school.
As has been stated previously, there is no
distinction between the supervising and the teaching princi­
pal except in the degree to which one is freed from teach­
ing duties for the purpose of administration and supervision.
It is to the following aspects of supervision by ele­
mentary school teaching principals that this chapter has been
devoted:
supervisory activities of the elementary school
teaching principal; time devoted to supervision; means em­
ployed to obtain time for supervision; supervisory assistance
and special supervisory problems as listed by elementary
school teaching principals.
I. SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES OF THE ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPAL
Number and distribution of teachers under the super­
vision of teaching principals. One of the most significant
definitions of the terms used in this study has been that
which limited the investigation to those principals who
52
teach half a day or more in schools of six or more teachers.!
The results of the question requesting the number of
full-time and part-time teachers under the supervision of
teaching principals is shown in Table XII.
It would appear
that there is a specific range to the number of teachers
that come under the direct supervision of the teaching prin­
cipal.
This range extends from the school with five full-time
teachers with one part-time teacher to the school employing
fourteen full-time and three part-time teachers.
Although there is a great difference existing between
the smallest and the largest schools, the fundamental prob­
lem remains unchanged.
How is the principal who teaches
half a day or more to obtain time for supervision?
This
question is answered in some degree in this chapter in the
section dealing with supervisory assistance.
Attitude of teachers to supervision bv teaching prin­
cipals . It was not the purpose of this study to analyze the
various supervisory techniques used by teaching principals
with regard to the particular merits of each technique.
However, it goes without saying, that the degree to which
the principal himself fees that the attitude of his teachers
is positive, indifferent, or negative to supervision in-
! See Chapter 1, page 4.
TABLE XII
NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS UNDER
SUPERVISION OF TEACHING PRINCIPALS
Number of teachers
full time
part time
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
10
10
10
11
11
14
Totals
379
1
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
3
1
2 •
0
1
2
0
1
3
38
Total number
of principals
4
10
6
2
5
3
.2
2
3
1
2
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
51
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: four
teaching principals have five full-time and one part-time
teacher under their supervision.
54
fluences to a great measure the choice of the technique em­
ployed in supervision.
The teaching principals opinion of the attitude of
his teachers toward supervision is expressed in Tahle XIII
in terms of the percentage of each teaching staff having
positive, indifferent, and negative attitudes toward super­
vision.
Of fifty principals responding to this question,
twenty-five reported that all teachers on their staffs were
i
positive to supervision in the sense that they were cooper­
ative and welcomed constructive criticism.
Twenty-two principals, or forty-four per cent, re­
ported that thirty-two teachers were indifferent in their
attitudes toward supervision; thirteen principals, or twentysix per cent, reported seventeen teachers had negative at­
titudes toward supervision.
Fourteen principals report eleven to twenty per cent
of their teaching staffs are indifferent to supervision and
eight principals report the same percentage negative to
supervision.
Three principals report thirty-one to forty
per cent of their staffs are indifferent to supervision and
two principals report the same per cent negative.
The subjectiveness of the principal’s analysis of
the various teachers1 attitudes makes questionable the
validity of these responses.
Nevertheless, the fact remains
55
TABLE XIII
PERCENTAGE OF EACH TEACHING STAFF HAVING POSITIVE,
INDIFFERENT, AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD
SUPERVISION AS JUDGED BY ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
Percentage of
each teaching
staff
No. of principals reporting
teacher attitudes as:
positive indifferent negative
1-10
1
3
11-20'
14
8
21-50
4
31-40
3
41-50
1
51-60
1
61-70
6
71-90
6
81-30
8
91-100
Median per cents
Total no. of teachers in
each classification
Total no. of principals
in each classification
3
.2
25
17.64
14.88
298
32
17
50
22
13
90.5
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: one
principal reports that one to ten per cent of his teaching
staff has an indifferent attitude toward supervision; three
principals report that one to ten per cent of their teaching
staff has a'negative attitude toward supervision. Twentyfive principals report that their teaching staffs are ninetyone to one hundred per cent positive in their attitude
toward supervision.
that the principals feel that these teachers are either in­
different or negative to supervision and the degree and type
of their supervision are influenced accordingly.
Factors influencing the attitudes of the teachers are
too numerous to be listed in this study; however, a few may
be mentioned including the following: ,teachers who have
been on tenure for a long period of time have been offered
as reasons in two cases; some teachers feel that the teach­
ing principal is no better than they are and probably worse
in some respects— quite overlooking the professional train­
ing of the principal for his position; in several cases, the
problem of supervising olders has been mentioned.
One of the specific problems discovered by Rice in
his study of the elementary school teaching principal situa­
tion in the State of New Jersey2 was the difference in atti­
tude on the part of teachers in a teaching principal situa­
tion.
Rice states:
There is the difficulty of maintaining a correct pro­
fessional attitude when the principal is doing the same
thing as the teachers and opens himself to a great deal
of criticism if there is the slightest indication of a
flaw in his work.^
2 T. W. Rice, f,Status of the Elementary Teaching
Principal in the State of New Jersey,” National Elementary
Principal, 16:83-6, December, 1936.
^ Ibid.. pp. 84-5.
57
Recognition by the teachers of the status of the
teaching principal as a competent supervisor and adminis­
trator has progressed appreciably in the last decade.
The
problem still exists, however, in certain individual situa­
tions.
With the number of excellent teachers now available,
and in the course of training, and with the gradual elimina­
tion of all indifferent and negative teachers— it is assumed
that no principal will willing advocate the retention of a
teacher whose attitude is indifferent or negative— it is only
a question of time until the definite place of the principal
as a supervisor will be reflected by the attitudes of the
teachers.
Rank order of importance of supervisory activities.
Teaching principals were asked to rank in order of impor­
tance three supervisory activities from among the following
list as shown in Table XIV:
classroom visitation; directed
observation; group conference; cooperative work on lesson
plans; encouraging teachers to use self-supervision; dis­
tributing bulletins, handbooks, printed aids; administering
tests; and suggesting appropriate professional reading.
The following procedure was employed in handling the
data:
the rank of one received three points, the second
rank received two points, and the third rank received one
point.
The total number of principals reporting each rank
TABLE XIV
SUPERVISORY ACTIVITIES RANKED IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE BY
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING- PRINCIPALS
Supervisory activities
Rank
Weighti-
1
3
2
2
3
1
Sum of the products of
weight times frequency
Individual conference
Classroom visitation
Directed observation
Group conference
Cooperative work on lesson plans
Encouraging teachers to use self­
supervision
Distributing bulletins, handbooks,
printed aids
Administering tests
Suggesting appropriate professional
reading
24
9
6
2
0
14
9
5
6
3
2
7
5
15
7
102
52
33
33
13
0
4
1
9
1
0
0
1
2
1
5
3
0
0
2
2
Total number of principals responding
42
* The weight has been assigned on the following basis: activities ranked
first were given three points; activities ranked second— two points; activities
ranked third— one point.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: individual conference was
ranked first in importance by twenty-four principals for a score of seventy-two;
ranked second by fourteen principals for a score of twenty-eight"; ranked third
by two principals for a score of two. The total score for the three rankings is
one hundred two.
o\
00
59
were multiplied by the weight for the respective rank.
The
products for the three rankings were added together to give
the sum of the products of weight times frequency.
The
various supervisory activities were listed in rank order
according to the sums of the above-mentioned products of
weight times frequency.
Individual conference placed first by the wide margin
of almost twice as many points as the next activity listed
in rank order.
Classroom visitation placed second.
An interesting feature of Cate*s study was his
listing of teacher conference as being apart from super­
vision.^
It is evident that if the two had been combined,
there would have been such an overwhelming majority having
ranked supervision first in importance, that the other
activities would appear negligible in comparison.
No attempt was made by the writer to determine the
reasons for the large number of principals ranking indivi­
dual conference as first in importance.
However, from the
results of Table XXV, page 83, showing the rank order of
means employed to obtain time for supervision, it would
appear that at least half the principals are forced to do
their supervision before school, during the noon hour, or
^ J. Dwight Cate, ”Status of Rural Elementary School
Principals in California,” (unpublished Master!s thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937), p. 86.
60.
after school*
This would in a good many cases undoubtedly
force the principal to employ the device of individual conference during these times.
Grades visited most frequently. The responses of
fifty principals to this question are shown in Table XV.
All
but one principal indicated more than one grade as having
been visited most frequently.
In most of the cases, the
primary grades were indicated as a distinct unit.
The
failure of more principals to indicate the kindergarten as
being one of the grades most frequently visited may be ex­
plained by reference to Table XI, page 46, which shows that
only ten principals reported teaching in schools with a
grade range which would include the kindergarten.
The first grade was indicated as having been visited
most frequently by thirty-three principals, the second grade
by twenty-nine principals, and the third grade by twentyseven.
A pronounced decrease was evidenced in the number
of principals reporting the fourth grade as having been most
frequently visited.
As the higher grades were listed, the
number of principals reporting visits to the same decreased
until the point where only four principals reported visiting
the eighth grade most frequently.
Grades that teaching principals feel most competent
to supervise. As was the case with the question dealing
61
TABLE XV
GRADES VISITED MOST FREQUENTLY
Grades visited
most frequently*
All grades equally
Kindergarten
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Total number of principals responding
Frequency
4
5
33
29
27
18
15
12
10
4
50
* Forty-nine principals indicated more than one
grade.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: four
principals visit all grades equally; four principals visit
the eighth grade most frequently.
62
with the grades visited most frequently, see Table XV, page
61, forty-eight of the forty-nine principals responding in­
dicated more than one grade.
Although there was a tendency to pair the seventh and
eighth grades in the responses, the groupings in four cases
extended from the first to the eighth grades.
From the re­
turns to this question, it would appear that the principals
feel most competent to.supervise the upper or advanced grades
and that as the lower grades were listed, the number of prin­
cipals reporting such a degree of competency decreased to the
point where fourteen principals report that they feel most
competent to supervise the first and second grades.
The conclusion may be drawn that in view of the fact
that the principals usually teach the terminal grade as mras
shown in Table XI, page 46, it is natural for them to feel
most competent to supervise such grades.
A comparison of Table XV with Table XVI shows that
the grades visited most frequently were not the grades
listed by the principal as being those he felt most com­
petent to supervise.
Grades that teaching principals feel least competent
io supervise. A natural corollary to the preceding ques­
tions was that question requesting the principals to indi­
cate the grades they felt least competent to supervise.
As
63
TABLE XVI
DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING
PRINCIPALS ACCORDING TO GRADES THEY FEEL
MOST COMPETENT TO SUPERVISE
Grades*
rgarten
Frequency
5
1
14
Z
14
3
16
4
£4
5
31
6
39
7
39
8
39
Total number of principals responding
49
* Forty-eight principals indicated more than one
grade.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: thirtynine elementary school teaching principals feel most competent
to supervise the eighth grade.
64
was reported in Table XVII, thirty-seven principals listed
the first grade, thirty listed the second, twenty-two the
third.
As the higher grades were given, fewer principals
felt competent to supervise the same until the sixth
grade was reached.
All of the forty-four principals respon­
ding felt that they were competent to supervise the sixth,
seventh, and eighth grades.
Here, again, can the comparison be drawn between the
results of Table XVII and those of Tables XV and XVI.
It is
evidently common practice for the principal to visit most
frequently the grades he feels least competent to supervise.
The grades that are least frequently visited are the very
grades that the principals feel most competent to supervise.
Various reasons may be assigned to explain the above
mentioned practice.
One reason has been most frequently re­
ported In personal conferences with eight teaching princi­
pals.
They all felt that by visiting the primary grades,
they could achieve a knowledge of the philosophy, subject
matter, and methods employed in the primary grade level.
Obviously, the reason stated above, although existing
in common practice, is one which does not contribute to the
best learning situation in any school.
The very purpose of
classroom visitation is defeated by this type of visit.
65
• TABLE XVII
DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING
PRINCIPALS ACCORDING TO GRADES THEY FEEL
LEAST COMPETENT TO SUPERVISE
Grades*
Frequency
Kindergarten
17
1
37
2
30
3
22
4
6
5
1
6
0
7
0
8
0
Total number of principals responding
44
* Thirty-three principals indicated more than one
grade•
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: seven­
teen elementary school teaching principals feel least com­
petent to supervise the kindergarten.
66
II.
TIME DEVOTED TO SUPERVISION
Time devoted to various duties. Numerous studies
have been made relative to the time allotted by principals
to various duties.
Different classifications have been as­
signed to the many duties confronting the principal.
For
the purpose of this study, the duties of the elementary
school teaching principal have been arranged in the follow­
ing major divisions:
teaching, administration, supervision,
clerical duties, other duties.
Table XVIII shows the time that teaching principals
devote to the various duties as listed above.
The median
number of minutes devoted to teaching by forty-seven prin­
cipals was 271.6 or four hours and fifty-three minutes;
thirty-nine principals reported, the median number of minutes
for administration as sixty-three minutes or one hour and
three minutes; the median for supervision based on forty
responses was 45.5 minutes; thirty seven responses showed a
median for clerical duties of 49.8; time devoted to other
duties was listed by twenty-six principals with a median of
55.5 minutes.
On the basis of returns, it was determined that the
average length of the school day in the primary grades was
four hours and thirty minutes; the average length of the
school day in the intermediate and advanced grades was five
67
TABLE XVIII
TIME DEVOTED TO VARIOUS DUTIES DURING THE TYPICAL SCHOOL DAY
No. of
minutes
0-29
30-59
60-89
90-119
120-149
150-179
180-209
210-239
240-269
270-299
300-329
330-359
360-389
Totals
Medians
Teach­
ing
—
—
—
2
1
10
2
8
7
9
6
2
47
271.6
(4:53)
Adminis­
tration
Super­
vision
Clerical
Other
duties
12
15
8
2
1
7
17
11
1
1
11
10
4
1
—
—
—
—
2
—
—
—
—
_
—
—
_
—
—
—
—
—
_
_
—
—
_
—
—
—
—
-
-
-
40
45.5
37
49.8
26
35.5
7
11
13
3
4
1
39
63
(1:03)
—
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: twelve
principals report devoting zero to twenty-nine minutes to
supervision during the typical school day.
68
hours and thirty minutes.
A comparison of the time devoted
to teaching as shomrn in Table XVIII with the average length
of school day of five hours and thirty minutes, shows that
approximately thirty principals report teaching less than
five hours daily.
From the distribution of principals allotting their
time to administration and supervision, it is evident that
the majority of principals are regularly devoting small por­
tions of their day to either or both of the above mentioned
functions.
Eighteen principals report devoting thirty to
sixty minutes to administration; twenty-seven principals re­
port the same amount of time devoted daily to supervision.
In view of the very high median number of minutes
devoted to teaching, the number of minutes allotted to each
of the other functions, with the exception of supervision,
appears to be excessive.
Granting that the time the princi­
pal is freed from teaching varies greatly with the indivi­
dual case, (from the minimum of half a day teaching to the
extreme case of the full-time teaching principal) the amount
of time devoted to supervision should vary in proportion to
the amount of time free from teaching.
A recommendation by the Department of Superintendence,
Eighth Yearbook, states that thirty-one to fifty-one per
cent of the principals time should be apportioned to super­
69
vision.^
According to the investigator, thirty-one to fifty-
one per cent of the time other than that devoted to teaching
should be given over to supervision— the smaller the amount
of free time, the greater the proportion of it that should
be used in supervision.
A substantiation of this point of view may be ob­
tained from Klopp7s study6 in which various duties were con­
solidated, delegated, or eliminated so as to provide a
greater percentage of time for actual supervision.
England,
in the Fifth Yearbook of the California Elementary School
Principals1 Association, suggests various time-saving de*7
vices.'
His recommendations along with others that have
been recently published, will result in a greater percentage
of the principals time being freed for supervision.
Total number of minutes devoted to supervision. The
total number of minutes devoted to supervision in any typical
5 77The Superintendent Surveys Supervision,17 Eighth
Yearbook of the Department of Sunerintendence (Washington,
D. C.: Department of Superintendence of the National Educa­
tion Association of the United States, 1930), p. 25.
6 W. J. Klopp, T,A Study of the Professional Activi­
ties of Elementary School Principals,77 (unpublished Master !s
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,
1925), 107 pp.
^ E. G. England, 77Supervisory Devices of a Teaching
Principal,77 The Elementary Principal. Fifth Yearbook, The
California Elementary School Principals1 Association, May,
1933, pp. 57-59.
70
week is shown in Table XIX.
Forty-four principals report
supervising from thirty to six hundred thirty minutes with
the median being two hundred thirty-four minutes or three
hours and fifty-four minutes.
A teaching principal having anywhere near the median
number of minutes mentioned above free for supervision in
any given week, should be able to plan some sort of super­
visory program! that will work with a fair degree of effi­
ciency in his limited set-up.
A broader knowledge of the
various supervisory techniques available will better fit
the average teaching principal to plan and execute such a
program.
Total number of minutes devoted to various supervi­
sory activities. In Table XX, the various supervisory ac­
tivities are ranked in order of the total number of minutes
devoted to them in any typical week.
It is not surprising
to find individual conference listed as first choice by such
a wide difference.
As was previously pointed out, Table
XXV, page 84, shows that supervision before school, during
the noon hour, and after school was the most popular device
employed to obtain time for supervision.
It is therefore
natural that a greater amount of time devoted to this spe­
cific device is listed by teaching principals as it comes
during the time that they are free from teaching duties*
71
TABLE XIX
TOTAL NUMBER OF MINUTES DEVOTED TO
SUPERVISION IN ANY TYPICAL WEEK
Total number of minutes
0-59
60-119
120-179
180-239
240-299
300-359
360-419
420-479
480-539
540-599
600-659
Total
Median number of minutes
Frequency
4
5
3
11
4
7
5
2
1
1
1
44
234.0
(3r 54)
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: four
principals report devoting zero to fifty-nine minutes to
supervision in any typical week.
TABLE XX
TOTAL
number
OF minutes devoted to various
ACTIVITIES IN ANY TYPICAL ?/EEK
supervisory
Total no* of
mins* devoted
240 to each type
of activity
Supervisory activities
SO
Minutes
60
90
120
Individual conference
Classroom visitation
Group conference
Directed observation
Cooperative work on lesson plans
Administering tests
Encouraging teachers to use self­
supervision
Distributing bulletins, handbooks,
printed aids
Suggesting appropriate professional
reading
10
8
16
5
5
8
8
10
11
7
6
6
9
4
12
1
—
•
—
420
—
— •
—
—
150
Total number of principals responding
5
5
5
3
13
6
—
—
2
2
—
1
1
3
—
1
1
—
—
3030
2250
1410
990
960
690
510
40
73
Classroom visitation ranks second in importance with
a total of 2,250 minutes or 25.7 per cent less than indivi­
dual conference— the difference being that classroom visita­
tion must of necessity take place during teaching .hours.
Group conference was evidently placed third in im­
portance because of the ease in reaching the largest number
of teachers in the minimum amount of time— particularly on
questions of school policy and on such questions as curri­
culum revision, philosophy of education, and educational
methods.
Median number of minutes devoted to each type of
supervisory activity. A change is found in the rank order
of importance of the various supervisory activities when the
results of Table XX are compared with those of Table XXI.
The medians of the various activities as given in Table XX
are as follows:
individual conference, 63.5; classroom
visitation, 51.5; directed observation, 43.4; cooperative
work on lesson plans, 43.0; group conference, 28.1; admin­
istering tests, 28.1; encouraging teachers to use self­
supervision, 21.7; distributing bulletins, handbooks,
printed aids, 16.25; suggesting appropriate professional
reading, 15.0.
Table XX shows group conference as holding third
place as opposed to fifth place in Table XXI.
This may be
TABLE XXI
MEDIAN NUMBER OF MINUTES DEVOTED TO EACH TYPE OF SUPERVISORY
ACTIVITY IN ANY TYPICAL WEEK
Supervisory activities
Individual conference
Classroom visitation
Directed observation
Cooperative work on lesson plans
Group conference
Administering tests
Encouraging teachers to use selfsunervision
Distributing bulletins, handbooks,
printed aids
Suggesting appropriate professional
reading
Total number of principals responding
Frequency
Total no.
of minutes
Median no.
of minutes
37
30
16
15
30
15
3030
2250
990
960
1410
690
63.5
51.5
43.4
43.0
28.1
28.1
13
510
21.7
13
420
16.25
5
150
15.0
40
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: five principals devote 150
minutes to suggesting appropriate professional reading to their teachers in any
typical week; the median time devoted to this type of activity by the five
principals is 15 minutes.
^2
75
explained by the manner in which the total number of prin­
cipals responding were distributed in the various time
intervals as listed on Table XX.
The medians, as given above, definitely show that the
majority of principals are aware of their responsibility as
a supervisor of instruction.
III.
MEANS EMPLOYED TO OBTAIN TIME FOR SUPERVISION
Although discussed incidentally in various articles
published in educational magazines, other than in the pre­
viously mentioned study by Clarke,® no definite attempt was
made to analyze the various procedures employed by teaching
principals to free themselves for supervision.
Inasmuch as
even the principal doing the smallest amount of supervision
holds himself responsible for the supervisory set-up of his
school, and in many cases appears perturbed about what he
considers the apparent insufficiency of time devoted to the
performance of such a task, it is fitting that one phase of
this study be devoted to the means employed to obtain time
for supervision.
® Sister Mary C. Clarke, ,lA Study of Possible Super­
visory Functions of the Teaching Principal in the Elementary
School,” (unpublished Master’s thesis, Catholic University
of America, Washington, D. C., 1938), p. 2.
76
Number of hours devoted to teaching. Any attempt to
break down the time devoted to any particular duty of the
teaching principal must automatically consider the amount
of time that the principal has free from teaching.
Table
XKII shows the distribution according to the number of hours
devoted to teaching in any week.
In response to the question, TTIf less than a full-time
teacher, how many clock hours per week Is your teaching
schedule?” fifty-one principals indicated from ten hours a
week to full-time teaching.
The term full-time teaching, for the purpose of this
portion of the investigation, will need special definition.
The previously mentioned average length of school day of
five hours and thirty minutes
q
totals approximately twenty-
eight hours weekly; this agrees favorably with the presump­
tion of the study by the California State Department of
Education that the average school week is thirty hours.
Of fifty-one principals responding, twenty-nine re­
port that they teach full time.
These probably indicated a
preference for supervision before school, during the noon
hour and'after school.
^ See page 66.
10 H«i>he Elementary School Principalship in California,”
State of California. Department of Education Bulletin No. 19,
(Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1934), p. 17.
77
TABLE XXII
NUMBER OF HOURS DEVOTED TO TEACHING
IN ANY WEEK
Number of hours teaching
Frequency
Full-time
25
29
1
1
1
5
1
1
8
1
2
1
24
21
20
18
17
15
14
12
10
Total
51
NOTE: This table should be read as follows:
given week, eight principals teach fifteen hours.
in any
Twenty-two principals state that they teach from ten
to twenty-five hours weekly.
The estimate of ten hours is
acceptable on the basis of two principals reporting teach­
ing in schools with a grade range of kindergarten to third
g r a d e . I n view of the difficulty of assigning a value to
the term "full-time," no attempt was made to establish a
median number of hours of actual teaching.
From the evidence presented, it is safe to conclude
that 41.2 per cent of all principals responding teach less
than a full week.
This, although not in perfect agreement
with Table XIX, page 71, which shows thirty principals
teaching less than five hours daily, is close enough to sup­
port the above mentioned conclusion.
Distribution according to means emuloved to obtain
time for sunervision. Included in the forty-one principals
reporting in Table XXIII that they supervise before school,
during the noon hour, and after school, of necessity must
fall twenty-nine principals who state that they teach full
time.
Assigning the class to work by itself is an all too
easy device to employ, and that it is often utilized is shown
by thirty-seven of forty-six principals indicating this means
H
See Table XI, page 46.
79
TABLE XXIII
MEANS EMPLOYED TO OBTAIN TIME FOR SUPERVISION
Means employed to
obtain time for supervision
Frequency
Supervision before school, during
noon hour, after school
41
Assigning class to work by itself
37
Using primary teachers in the
afternoon
28
Departmentalization
15
Exchanging classes with teacher
14
Doubling classes
12
Using a substitute teacher to take
principal’s class
10
Total number of principals responding
46
NOTE: Included in the frequency column of this table
are those activities which were listed in rank order as well
as those activities which were checked without a ranking.
80
of obtaining time for supervision.
Although it is well to
build self-reliance on the part of the class, nevertheless
the ideal learning situation must suffer in proportion to
the amount of time a teacher is away from his class.
Using primary teachers in the afternoon when they are
free from their own teaching duties is a device that appears
to be gaining popularity.
It is an acknowledged fact that
in certain situations, the only means of broadening and enrichening the curriculum for the child is by the use of pri­
mary teachers.
Even more use would probably be made of this
device if any research definitely would show that grades
other than the primary are the most difficult to teach.
Twenty-eight principals employ this means of obtaining time
for supervision.
Departmentalization has been mentioned in fifteen
instances.
This will be discussed in more detail in Table
XXIV, Degree of Departmentalization.
The various other means employed to obtain time for
supervision were mentioned with the following frequency:
exchanging classes with teacher, fourteen; doubling classes,
twelve; using a substitute teacher to take the principals
class, ten.
Included in the frequencies were those activi­
ties which were listed in rank order as well as those that
were checked but given no ranking.
81
Degree of departmentalization* Table XXIV shows that
thirty-one principals, or sixty-two per cent, state that
there is no departmentalization in their school.
Four prin­
cipals report that they have departmentalization in grades
five to eight only for. music, art, and shop.
The other
fifteen principals have not shown the subjects that are
departmentalized in the grades indicated.
The difference in the number of principals reporting
departmentalization in Table XXIII, page 79, (fifteen) and
the number reporting departmentalization in Table XXIV
(nineteen), may be in part explained by the fact that four
of the latter have evidently not listed departmentalization
as a means to obtain time for supervision but rather as a
device to improve the instructional situation.
It would appear from the above mentioned data that
departmentalization does not have the support of the major­
ity of teaching principals as a means to obtain time for
supervision.
It is not desired to elaborate upon the value
of departmentalization as a means to release the principal.
Table XXIV shows the status of departmentalization in schools
under the supervision of elementary school teaching principals.
Rank order of means employed to obtain time for
supervision. Teaching principals were asked to rank in
order of importance three means employed to obtain time for
82
TABLE XXIV
DEGREE OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF TEACHING PRINCIPALS
Range of grades
in school
Grades and subjects
departmentalized
4-6
5-6
4-8
5-8
5-8— music,
art, shop
6-8— music,
1-8
art, shop
6-8
1-8
7-8
1-8
1-8
8
No departmentalization
Kindergarten-6
Kind ergart en-6
1-8
1-8
1-8
Total number of principals responding
Frequency
1
1
1
1
1
3
8
2
1
31
50
NOTE: This table should be read as followst one
principal reports departmentalization in grades four to six
in a school with a grade range of kindergarten to sixth.
83
supervision.
The results are shown in Table XXV.
following procedure was used in handling the data:
The
the rank
of one received three points, the second rank received two
points, and the third rank received one point.
The total
number of principals reporting each rank was multiplied by
the weight for the respective rank.
The products for the
three rankings were added together to give the sum of the
products of weight times frequency.
The various means em­
ployed to obtain time for supervision were listed in rank
order according to the sums of the above mentioned products
of weight times frequency.
The high ranking of the first three means:
super­
vision before school, during the noon hour, and after
school; assigning the class to work by itself; and using
primary teachers in the afternoon;12 may be in part ex­
plained by the fact that twenty-nine principals report full­
time teaching.
It is obvious that the first two methods
require the least amount of alteration of the schedule of
the teaching staff.
In view of some of the special super­
visory problems listed in part V of this chapter, these
means may be in a way considered the line of least resis­
tance .
12 See Table XXI, page 74.
TABLE XXV
MEANS EMPLOYED TO OBTAIN TIME FOR SUPERVISION RANKED IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE
BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPALS
leans employed to obtain
time for supervision
Rank
Weight*
Supervision before school,
during noon hour, after school
Assigning class to work by itself
Using primary teachers in the afternoon
Departmentalization
Exchanging classes with teacher
Using a substitute teacher to
take the principalis class
Doubling classes
Total number of principals responding
1
3
2
2
3
1
15
11
8
8
15
2
10
■8
12
6
4
3
2
0
2
1
6
2
O'
2
4
Sum of the products
of weight times fre­
quency
73
64
54
20
18
12
6
43
* The weight has been assigned on the following basis: devices ranked
first were given three points; devices ranked second— two points; devices ranked
third— one point.
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: doubling classes as a means to
obtain time for supervision was ranked first by no principals for a score of zero;
ranked second by one principal for a score of two; ranked third by four principals
for a score of four. The total score for the three rankings is six.
85
The use of primary teachers in the afternoon, although
affording the principal an opportunity to observe the work
of the intermediate and advanced grades, limits such obser­
vation to a time when the primary grades are dismissed.
The
principal is also handicapped in not being able to observe
the work of the primary teachers.
Exchanging classes with other teachers has been indi­
cated in several cases as a device for administering tests.
This device, when used for the above mentioned purpose, has
a high value.
However, the idea of a principal attempting
to measure the progress of a class through the medium of ex­
changing with the teacher is open to question.
No valid
picture of the work of any class can be obtained through this
procedure.
Such a program pre-supposes minimum essentials in
subject matter and sequency equally familiar to both admin­
istrator and teacher.
It is believed that the majority of
principals employ this device as a means to administer a
testing program.
IV.
SUPERVISORY ASSISTANCE
Frequency of supervisory assistance. No study of the
supervisory status of the elementary school teaching princi­
pal would be complete without an investigation of the amount
and type of supervisory assistance received.
Question
twenty-three of the inquiry blank sent to the principals re-
86
quested them to indicate the frequency of visits of the
county supervisor or district superintendent.
Table XXVI
shows the response of forty-seven principals to this ques­
tion.
The median number of visits yearly by supervisors or
superintendents is 8.9.
This, however, does not present the
true picture of the supervisory set-up for there is a range
from six principals reporting no visits to six principals
reporting receiving forty to eighty visits from district
superintendents of schools.
The large number of principals stating that they re­
ceived zero to five visits yearly caused a doubt as to the
validity of this part of the questionnaire.
Therefore, a
second questionnaire^ was compiled which was sent to
eighteen county rural supervisors and three district super­
intendents of schools.
Responses were received from fourteen
rural supervisors and three district superintendents.
A cross check of the number of supervisory visits as
indicated by the principals with the number of visits sched­
uled by the rural supervisors revealed a very high agreement.
All but one principal working under a district super­
intendent of schools reported receiving more than twenty
See Appendix, 'Questionnaire to County Rural Super­
visors and City Superintendents of Schools.
87
TABLE XXVI
NUMBER OF SUPERVISORY VISITS MADE YEARLY BY
COUNTY RURAL SUPERVISORS AND CITY OR
DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS
Number of visits
Frequency
0
6
1-5
6
6-10
17
11-15
1
16-20
7
21-25
2
26-30
1
31-35
1
36 and over
6
Total
Median
47
8.9
NOTE: This table should be read as follows: six
principals report receiving no supervisory visits from
county rural supervisors or city and district superinten­
dents of schools.
88
supervisory visits yearly.
Six principals state that they
receive forty to eighty visits yearly by their district
superintendents.
Opposed to this condition, there are four­
teen principals who report that they receive six or less
visits from county rural supervisors.
The above data points to the conclusion that princi­
pals under city superintendents rely to a great extent upon
supervisory assistance.
Two principals report the city
superintendent performing all the supervision.
Although
supervisory assistance of this type is of inestimable value,
the principal should not feel entirely relieved of his res­
ponsibility for the guidance and supervision of instruction
in his school.
The attempt by various principals to secure time for
supervision and their feeling of insufficiency is explained
somewhat by the fewness of the supervisory visits that they
receive from some county rural supervisors.
This, however,
is as much their fault as that of anyone else.
On this
point, a discussion of the policy of county rural supervisors
relative to the supervision of schools with six or more
teachers is enlightening.
Policy of county rural supervisors relative to the
number of supervisory visits. Eighteen supervisors responded
to the question, !,Please state any policy that you may have
89
relative to supervising schools with six or more teachers
and a teaching principal."
All of the responses indicated
that the supervisors and city superintendents worked through
the principals.
Six supervisors stated that they visited on
request from the principal only.
The above information when compared with the number
of supervisory visits reported by the principals indicates
that either the principal feels quite competent to handle
the supervision in his own school, or that the principal
lacks an understanding of the policy of the rural super­
visor relative to supervision.
Two supervisors report monthly conferences with the
principals of their counties.
It is felt that this device,
if employed by all county rural supervisors as well as city
and district superintendents, would result in a greater
understanding of the status of the supervisor as a staff
officer at the service of the principal and capable of
saving him much time and effort if properly utilized.
A way
of defining and coordinating the supervisory work of the
elementary school teaching principal with that of the super­
visor is essential if the principal is to understand and
make use of the supervisor according to the above mentioned
policy.
V.
SUPERVISORY PROBLEMS
In an effort to ascertain if anj^ major problem was
overlooked, question twenty-four was placed in the inquiry
blank.
It reads as follows:
TTAre there any supervisory
problems which you feel are peculiar to you as a teaching
principal at the present time?
Will you please state one
or more of these problems?”
From a study of the problems listed as being peculiar
to individual situations, it was determined that all aspects
were covered in the investigation.
The most common state­
ment that more time was needed was indicated by seven prin­
cipals.
The majority of them felt that they needed more
time for supervision of the primary grades.
This problem
can be handled to a certain extent by the previously des­
cribed organization, delegation, and elimination of various
duties.
The one prerequisite to this procedure would be
that of a thorough study and analysis of the duties of the
individual teaching principal.
If sufficient time is still
unavailable, reference should be made to the county rural
supervisor who is always on call.
Teaching principals, in
order to obtain more than the minimum amount of supervisory
assistance, must make a request for the same.
A problem mentioned by two teaching principals was
that of supervising teachers on tenure and teachers older
91
than themselves.
It is unfortunate that such a problem should
exist and it is one of the best justifications for the estab­
lishment of a minimum number of years of experience as a pre­
requisite for an administrative and supervisory credential.
It has not been the intention in this study to solve
each individual problem presented, but to interpret them in
relation to the various phases of supervision already dis­
cussed.
The above mentioned problem is one that may be
handled by making use of the supervisory assistance of the
county rural supervisor or the city and district superinten­
dent.
Two principals report that primary teachers used in
the principalis room during the afternoon need to realize
the importance of freeing the principal for supervision.
This problem was discussed previously.!^
As the practice of
using primary teachers becomes more, common, and the trend
seems to point in this direction, such problems will become
of minor importance.
,fCounty supervisors attempt to inform teachers on
subjects, thereby conflicting teacherTs programs to the ex­
tent that since supervisors are above in rank, they should
be listened to.!T
!4 See page 80.
92
The preceding statement was made by a teaching prin­
cipal who listed it among the supervisory problems peculiar
to his situation.
This situation is clearly one of mis­
understanding of the functions of the principal or of the
supervisor.
A rapport should be established between this
principal and the supervisor so that the fullest and best
use might be made of the supervisory assistance offered the
principal.
Several problems which are not listed are those which
deal with administration rather than supervision including
sudden increases in enrollment and the problem of bus
transportation.
As listed above, there is no problem described by the
teaching principal as being peculiar, to his situation that
has not been covered by the various phases of this study.
SUMMARY
The range in the number of teachers under the super­
vision of elementary school teaching principals is from five
full-time and one part-time teacher to fourteen full-time
and three part-time teachers.
The judgment of the teaching principal as to whether
the attitudes of his teachers are positive, indifferent,
or negative determines the degree and type of his super­
vision.
Twenty-two principals, or forty-four per cent of
93
the number responding, reported teachers with indifferent
attitudes; thirteen principals, or twenty-six per cent, re­
ported teachers with negative attitudes toward supervision.
When ranked according to order of importance by fortytwo teaching principals, individual conference placed first;
classroom visitation, second; directed observation, third;
group conference, fourth.
The primary grades were reported as being visited
most frequently by the majority of principals responding.
Thirty-nine of the forty-nine principals responding
felt most competent to supervise the sixth to eighth grades.
As was the case with the grades visited most frequent­
ly, the primary grades were also the grades that the majority
of principals felt least competent to supervise.
'No principals reported the sixth to eighth grades
among those visited most frequently although they had indi­
cated in a majority of cases that these were the grades they
felt most competent to supervise.
The average length of school day was reported as four
hours thirty minutes for the primary grades and five hours
thirty minutes for the intermediate and advanced grades.
Thirty of forty-seven principals responding report that
they teach less than five hours daily.
The median number of minutes devoted to supervision
in any typical week is 234 minutes or three hours fifty-four
minutes.
94
When ranked according to the total number of minutes
devoted to various supervisory activities in any given week,
individual conference placed first; classroom visitation,
second; group conference, third; directed observation, fourth.
Individual conference received 25.7 per cent more time than
classroom visitation.
Ranking according to the median number of minutes
devoted to various supervisory activities in any given week
placed individual conference first with a median of 63.5;
classroom visitation second with 51.5; directed, observation
third with 43.4; cooperative work on lesson plans fourth
with 43.0; group conference fifth with 28.1.
Twenty-nine principals report that they are full-time
teachers.
This accounts for the fact that forty-one report
that they supervise before school, during the noon hour, and
after school.
Supervision before school, during the noon hour, and
after school was ranked first in importance.
Assigning the
class to work by itself received second rank, and using
primary teachers in the afternoon placed third.
The median number of visits yearly by supervisors or
superintendents is 8.9.
There is a range of from six prin­
cipals reporting no supervisory assistance to six principals
receiving forty to eighty visits from city or district
superint endents.
95
It is the policy of all the supervisors to work
through the principal.
call.
They state that they supervise on
Six supervisors visited only on request from the
principal.
All of the supervisory problems listed as being
peculiar to individual situations were covered in the
questionnaire sent to the elementary school teaching prin­
cipals.
A number of principals show by the special problems
given that there is a lack of understanding of the respon­
sibility of.the teaching principal for supervision as well
as the function of the rural supervisor in rendering super­
visory assistance.
CHAPTER V
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study, as developed in the pre­
ceding chapters, was to determine the status of the teach­
ing principal in northern California with regard to:
1.
The professional training, certification, and
experience of elementary school teaching principals.
2.
The supervisory activities of the teaching prin­
3.
Time devoted to the supervision furnished.
4.
The means employed by the teaching principal to
cipal.
obtain time for supervision.
5.
The amount of supervisory assistance given the
teaching principal.
6.
Supervisory problems as listed by the elementary
school teaching principal.
The data used in this survey were taken from inquiry
blanks sent to elementary school teaching principals who
taught half a day or more in schools of six or more teach­
ers.
Questionnaires were sent to sixty-two eligible prin­
cipals; replies were received from fifty-one, or 82.3 per
cent.
97
A second inquiry blank was sent to eighteen county
rural supervisors and three city superintendents of schools.
Responses were received from fourteen rural supervisors and
three district superintendents.
It is the purpose of this final chapter to review the
findings of the investigation, to present conclusions based
on these findings, and to offer recommendations which should
be of value to elementary school teaching principals as well
as to county superintendents, county rural supervisors,
city and district superintendents of schools, and others who
are interested in this field.
The findings of this survey
are listed in the order of their mention in the preceding
chapters of this study.
FINDINGS
Professional training, certification, and experience
of elementary school teaching principals. Data related to
this topic are to be found in Chapter III of this study,
pages 24 to 50*
1.
They show that:
The median number of years of collegiate work for
forty-seven elementary school teaching principals reporting
was 3.9, but that 58.8 per cent of the fifty-one principals
included in the study hold a degree which was obtained with­
in the past ten years.
98
2.
Seventeen of the fifty principals responding hold
two credentials, eighteen hold three credentials, eleven
hold four credentials, and four hold five credentials.
3.
County hoard certificates were held by nine prin­
cipals, three of whom subsequently obtained general elemen­
tary credentials.
4.
Sixteen of fifty principals responding, or thirty-
two per cent, have obtained administrative credentials of
the newer type issued since 1936.
5.
Ten principals received administrative and super­
visory credentials between the years 1933 and 1935.
6.
The following are the median years of issuance
for each type of credential:
county board, 1915; general
elementary, 1929.7; junior high, 1932.3; general secondary,
1938.9; administrative prior to 1936, 1931.9; supervisory
prior to 1936, 1930.3; elementary school principal and
supervisor’s, 1938.8; elementary school executive’s, 1939.4;
other credentials, 1931.8.
7.
The median number of years of educational service
was 12.8 as compared with 12.7 in Cate’s study of rural
elementary school principals of California.
8.
The median number of years of educational service
for each of the following types of experience is as follows:
full-time teacher, 6.9; principal with part-time teaching,
5.5; full-time teaching principal, 4.6.
99
9.
Twentyr-nine of forty-nine principals had exper­
ience of a type other than teaching which would prepare them
to hold a position as an elementary school teaching principal.
10.
Thirteen principals reported being teaching prin­
cipals in the position immediately prior to the one they then
held.
11.
The last year of school, or terminal grade, was
taught by four of the eleven women principals reporting.
The terminal grade was taught by thirty-eight of the forty
men principals responding.
Supervision by elementary school teaching principals.
The results of the findings related to this subject are to
be found in Chapter IV of this study, pages 51 to 95.
They
show that:
1.
The range in the number of teachers under the
supervision of elementary school teaching principals is from
five full-time and one part-time teacher to fourteen full­
time and three part-time teachers.
2.
The judgment of the teaching principal as to
whether the attitudes of his teachers are positive, indif­
ferent, or negative determines the degree and type of his
supervision.
Twenty-two principals, or forty-four per cent
of the number responding, reported teachers with indifferent
attitudes; thirteen principals, or twenty-six per cent, re-
100
ported teachers with negative attitudes toward supervision,
3.
Individual conference as a supervisory activity
was ranked first in importance by forty-two teaching prin­
cipals.
Classroom visitation placed second and directed
observation third.
4.
When ranked according to the total number of min­
utes devoted to various supervisory activities in any given
week, individual conference placed first; classroom visita­
tion second; group conference third; directed observation
fourth.
Individual conference received 25.7 per cent more
time than classroom visitation.
5.
Ranking according to the median number of minutes
devoted to various supervisory activities in any given week
placed individual conference first with a median of 63.5;
classroom visitation second ?/ith 51.5; directed observation
third with 43.4; cooperative work on lesson plans fourth
with 43.0; group conference fifth with 28.1.
6.
The primary grades were reported as being visited
most frequently by the majority of principals responding.
7.
Thirty-nine of the forty-nine principals report­
ing felt most competent to supervise the sixth to eighth
grades.
8.
As was the case with the grades visited most
frequently, the primary grades were also the grades that the
majority felt least competent to supervise.
101
9.
Ho principals reported the sixth to eighth grades
among those visited most frequently although they had indi­
cated in a majority of cases that these were the grades they
felt most competent to supervise,
10.
The average length of school day was reported as
four hours thirty minutes for the primary grades and five
hours thirty minutes for the intermediate and advanced
grades.
Thirty of forty-seven principals state that they
teach less than five hours daily.
11
The median number of minutes devoted to super­
vision in any typical week is two hundred thirty-four min­
utes or three hours fifty-four minutes.
12.
Twenty-nine principals report that they are full­
time teachers.
13.
Forty-three principals ranked the means employed
to obtain time for supervision in the following order of im­
portance:
supervision before school, during the noon hour,
after school, first; assigning class to work by itself,
second; using primary teachers in the afternoon, third;
departmentalization, fourth; exchanging classes with teacher,
fifth; using a substitute teacher to take the principal’s
class, sixth; doubling classes, seventh.
14.
The median number of visits yearly by super­
visors or superintendents is 8.9.
There is a range of from
six principals reporting no supervisory assistance to six
102
principals receiving forty to eighty supervisory visits from
city or district superintendents of schools.
15.
It is the policy of all the supervisors to work
through the principal.
call.
They state that they supervise on .
Six supervisors visited only on request from the
principal.
16*
All of the supervisory problems listed as being
peculiar to individual situations were covered in the ques­
tionnaire sent to the elementary school teaching principals.
CONCLUSIONS
1.
Elementary school teaching principals, as a class,
are not so well trained as they might be.
Although 71*1 per
cent have completed four or more years of college work, only
58.8 per cent of fifty-one principals responding hold degrees.
2.
The professional status of the teaching principal
has improved greatly in the past ten years as is evidenced
by the number that obtained degrees and credentials during
that period as well as the attendance of all principals but
two in summer sessions since 1936.
3.
The fact that a younger and better trained group
of administrators are entering the field as elementary
school teaching principals is evidenced by the comparison of
the median number of years of educational service with the
thirty-two per cent of the principals reporting receiving
105
administrative credentials subsequent to 1936*
4.
As a group, elementary school teaching principals
are interested in acquiring more than the minimum number of
credentials.
5.
A comparison of the median number of years of
educational service, as revealed by this study, with the
median number of years of educational service throughout the
state, and also as quoted by authorities, shows that the
elementary teaching principals in northern California have
an adequate experential background to supervise instruction.
6.
Terminal grades are taught by a higher percentage
of men than women.
Women appear more progressive in that
they do not feel as bound by tradition to teach the terminal
grade.
7.
A comparatively high number of teaching principals
report teachers with attitudes that are indifferent or nega­
tive to supervision.
The degree and type of supervision
furnished by the principal is influenced accordingly*
8.
Because of the large number of principals report­
ing full-time teaching as well as the number with but a
small amount of time free from teaching, the most popular
supervisory activities were those that could be performed
at times other than when the principal was performing his
regular teaching duties.
104
9.
Elementary school teaching principals, as a class,
visit the primary grades most frequently and feel least com­
petent to supervise these grades.
The grades that the prin­
cipals feel most competent to supervise are the sixth, through
eighth grades and these grades are not given among the list
of those visited most frequently.
The assurance of the teach­
ing principals that they are most capable to supervise these
grades is substantiated by the fact that these are the grades
they teach and with which they are thoroughly familiar.
10.
The majority of principals included in this sur­
vey are burdened by too great an amount of teaching duties
to capably perform their function as a supervisor of instruc­
tion.
11.
Elementary school teaching principals, as a
group, are not fully utilizing the various means to obtain
time for supervision.
The median number of minutes devoted
to supervision could probably be increased if a job analysis
were performed and if an attempt were made to put into
practice some of the means employed by various principals to
obtain time for supervision.
12.
As was indicated by the median number of minutes
devoted to supervision in any given week, teaching princi­
pals are aware of their responsibility as supervisors of
instruction and as a group are attempting to perform such
functions.
105
13*
An evident misunderstanding exists among the
elementary school teaching principals of the function and
policy of the county rural supervisor.
14*
Although county rural supervisors attempt to
maintain a schedule of visits to the schools of the various
teaching principals, they all report that they are on call
and work through the principal.
15.
Elementary school teaching principals working
under the direction of district and city superintendents of
schools receive four to eight times as much supervisory
assistance as those principals working in conjunction with
the county rural supervisor.
16.
All the problems listed by the various princi­
pals as being peculiar to their individual situation were
common to the group as a whole or to other individual cases
reporting.
RECOMMENDATIONS
On the basis of the foregoing findings and conclu­
sions, the following recommendations are made:
1.
That additional professional training in the
philosophy, methods, and subject matter of the primary grades
be made mandatory as part of the requirements for an ele­
mentary administrative credential.
106
2.
That a program of coordination he established by
the various county superintendents for the purpose of fos­
tering a better understanding of the functions and policies
of the county rural supervisor in relation to the teaching
principal.
3.
That the elementary school teaching principal
prepare a yearly supervisory program which will enable him
to utilize to the fullest extent the supervisory assistance
of the county rural supervisor.
4.
That the county rural supervisor realize the ul­
timate authority of the elementary school teaching principal
for the administration and supervision of his school.
The
supervisor should be a staff officer.
5.
That all principals have some free time from
teaching during the school day for carrying out the other
duties of their office.
6.
That a thorough job analysis be performed by each
teaching principal for the purpose of consolidating, dele­
gating, or eliminating various duties so as to afford more
time for supervision.
7.
That a thorough study be made by each principal
of the minimum amount of time needed for supervision so as
to determine the feasibility of employing the various means
to obtain time for supervision.
8.
That the teaching principal be required by law
to perform a minimum amount of supervision weekly.
107
9.
That a minimum of three or more years of success­
ful teaching be made a prerequisite to the issuance of an
administrative credential.
10.
That schools be consolidated when feasible and
placed under the administration and supervision of district
or city superintendents of schools.
11.
That further study of the supervisory status of
%
the elementary school teaching principal in central and
southern California be undertaken.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y
A. BOOKS
Almack, John C., Research and Thesis Writing. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930. 310 pp.
Ayer, Fred C., and Arvil S. Barr, The Organization of Super-*
vision. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1928.
386 pp.
Barr, Arvil S., W. H. Burton, and X. J. Breuckner, Super­
vision. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1938.
981 pp.
Crawford, C. C., The Technique of Research in Education.
Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 1928.
320 pp.
Crouch, Roy Asa, The Status of the Elementary School Prin­
cipal. University of Missouri, 1926. 77 pp.
Cubberley, Ellwood P., The Principal and His School. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1923. 571 pp.
Good, C. V., Arvil S. Barr, and D. E. Scates, The Methodol­
ogy of Educational Research. New York: D. AppletonCentury Company, 1936. 863 pp.
Koos, Leonard V., The ^Questionnaire in Education. Ndw York:
The Macmillan Company, 1928. 178 pp.
School Code of California- Sacramento: California State
Printing Office, Department of Education, 1939. 755 pp.
B.
PERIODICAL ARTICLES
Abbott,. Robert B., lfHow the Elementary School Principal May
Stimulate the Educational Program Through Books, Supplies,
and Equipment,” California Journal of Elementary Educa­
tion. 7:169-173, February, 1939.
Danielson, Eva, ”Problems of Supervision Confronting Elemen­
tary Principals Today,” California Journal of Elementary
Education. 6:50-3, August, 1937.
Dickson, B. L., ”The Principals View of Supervision,” Na­
tional Elementary Principal. 16:210-11, June, 1937.
110
Heffernan, Helen, “Supervision Appropriate for Progressive
Schools,” Gallfornia Journal of Elementary Education.
6:21-5, August 1937.
.Lewis, D. L., “Administrative and Supervisory Duties of Ele­
mentary Principals,” American School Board Journal* 97:
21-2, October, 1938.
O ’Shea, W. J., “What are the Progressive Steps of the New
York City Schools?” Educational Review. 74:99-103,
Sept ember, 1927.
Rice, T. W., “Status of the Elementary Teaching Principal in
the State of New Jersey,” National Elementary Principal,
16:83-6, December 1936.
Rose, G. E., “Purposeful Supervision in Small Schools,”
American School Board Journal. 97:18, September, 1938.
C.
EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS AND BULLETINS
England, E. G., and others, “Supervision and the Teaching
Principal,” The Elementary Principal. Fifth Yearbook,
The California Elementary School Principals1 Association,
1933. pp. 48-61.
Hammond, G. B., “Los Angeles School for Principals,” The
Elementary Principal. Eleventh Yearbook, The California
Elementary School Principals1 Association, 1939. pp. 2529.
“Regulations Governing Granting of Credentials and Certifi­
cates for Public School Service in California,” Califor­
nia State Department of Education Bulletin No* 12.
Sacramento: California State Printing Office, June, 1935.
69 pp.
“Regulations Governing the Granting of State Teachers’ Cre­
dentials and County Certificates in California,” Cali­
fornia State Department of Education Bulletin No. H-2,
Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1930.
67 pp.
“Supervision,” The Elementary Principal. Fifth Yearbook, The
California Elementary School Principals1 Association,
1933. 118 pp.
Ill
"The Elementary Principal as Supervisor in the Modern
School,0 The Elementary Principal. Eleventh Yearbook,
The California Elementary School Principals1 Associa­
tion, 1939. 168 pp.
"The Elementary School Principalship in California,11 State
of California. Department of Education Bulletin Ho. 19.
Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1934.
136 pp.
1!The Superintendent Surveys Supervision,11 Eighth Yearbook of
the Department of Superintendence. Washington, D. C.:
Department of Superintendence of the National Education
Association of the United States, 19.30. 463 pp.
D.
UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Andreen, Earl Philip, 11Administrative Guides for Elementary
School Principals.11 Unpublished Master 1s thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1933.
150 pp.
Aspen, Harriette Marian, 13The Status of the Elementary
School Principal in California.11 Unpublished Master's
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1954. 91 pp.
Cate, J. Dwight, 11Status of Rural Elementary School Princi­
pals In California.11 Unpublished Master's thesis, The
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937.
118 pp.
Clarke, Sister Mary Cyril, "A Study of Possible Supervisory
Functions of the Teaching Principal in the Elementary
School.11 Unpublished Master's thesis, Catholic Univer­
sity of America, Washington, D. C., 1938. 51 pp.
Hill, F. C., "A Study of the Duties Performed by the Ele­
mentary School Principals of Washington County, Pennsyl­
vania, Based on Teaching Load." Unpublished Master's
thesis, Pennsylvania State College, 1937. 100 pp.
Kelly, Florence M., "An Analysis of the Work of an Elemen­
tary School Principal in Assisting the Beginning Teach­
er." Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of
Southern California, Los Angeles, 1928. 91 pp.
112
Klopp, W. J., 11A Study of the Professional Activities of
Elementary School Principals .tf Unpublished Master Ts
thesis, The University of Southern California, Los
Angeles, 1925. 107 pp.
APP'BND
I X
THE SUPERVISORY STATUS OP THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING PRINCIPAL
1. What isyour official title?
_________________ Sex: M
P_____
2. What isthe present total enrollment ofyour school?_______ _____
3. Range of grades? (Encircle the first and last grades taught in
your school.)
Kgtn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4. How many full-time teachers are employed in your school? (Include
full-time special teachers.)_____
5. How many part-time teachers are employed in your school?________
6. What is the length of the school day in clock hours?
Primary grades___________ Intermediate and advanced grades______
7* Are you
a full-time teacher?______ _________
Yes__ No_____
8. If lessthan a full-time teacher,how many clock
hours per week
is your teaching schedule?______ ______ _______________________
9. Please encircle the grades that you teach. (L7 equals.low seventh
grade or the first half of the seventh year. H7 equais high
seventh grade or the last half of the seventh year.)
Kgtn LI HI L2 H2 L3 H3 L4 H4 L5 H5 L6 H6 L7 H7 LB H8
10. Which grades, if any, are departmentalized in your school?______
11. What subjects do you teach? (Please list)______________________
12. Please indicate below the number of years experience that you
have had in the designated positions:
____________Position______________ _________ No. of Years
a. Teacher (Do not include years as a
~
teaching principal.)
:.
____________
b. Principal with part-time teaching___:___________ _______
c. Full-time teaching principal________ :_______ ___________
d. Principal with no teaching
____ :__________________
13. What position did you hold just before entering your present
position?______________________________ _____ ________________
1U* Certification: Please indicate below all California Certificates
or Credentials held:
Check ( ) if
Year Received Still in Force
County Board (Upon examination)
General Elementary Credential
Junior High Credential
General Secondary Credential
Administrative Credential prior to
1936
Supervisory Credential prior to
1936
Elementary School Principals and
Supervisor’s Credential
Elementary School Executive’s Cred
Ail others (Please list on the
other side of this page.)
•
♦
•
♦
•
•
♦
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
♦
•
15- Professional training:
Degree :Summer Sessions
:Number of
Kind of Institution
:Years Attended and Date:Since 1936
High School
T
:
Teachers College or College:
University
:
Graduate Work
:
»
*
•
♦
4
4
*
16. Estimate in hours and minutes the average amount of time which
you devote to the following duties during the typical school day
(Supervision includes those activities listed in question #17•)
Teaching_________________
Supervision_________ ______ _
Administration______________ _
Clerical_______ __________
Other Duties__________________
17* Supervisory Activities:
:List by number in:Encircle the average
:rank order the
:number of minutes deActivity
:three activities :voted to each type of
:you consider most supervisory activity
:important in
:in any typical week
:supervision_____ :_______ ___________
A. Classroom visitation
:
30 60 90 120
B. Directed observation
:
(Demonstration teaching, :
observing work of a reg- :
i
30 60 90 120
ular classroom teacher, :
intervisitation)
:
•
•
•
•
116
17. Supervisory Activities (Continued):
Activity
List by number in
rank order the
three activities
you consider most
important in
supervision
Encircle the average
number of minutes de­
voted to each type of
supervisory activity
in any typical week
C. Individual conference
D. Group conferences
E. Encouraging teachers to
use self-supervision,
(self-improvement outlines)
F. Distributing bulletins,
handbooks, printed aids
Gr• Administering Tests
H. Cooperative work on
lesson plans
I. Suggesting appropriate
professional reading
J. Others (Please list on
reverse side of page)
30
30
60
60
90
90
120
120
30
60
90
120
30
60
90
l£o
30
60
90
120
30
60
90
120
30
60
90
120
30
60
90
120
18. Means employed to obtain time for Supervision:
Means employed to obtain
time for supervision
Please check ( )
the devices that
you use in secur­
ing time from your
teaching duties
for supervision
Please list in
rank order the
three devices
that you use
most frequent­
ly
Assigning class to work by itself
Doubling classes
Exchanging classes with teacher
Using a substitute teacher to
take your class
Using primary teachers in the
afternoon
Departmentali zat ion
Supervision before school, during
noon hour, after school
Others (Please list on reverse
side of page)
19. Please encircle the grade or grades you visit most frequently:
Kgtn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
117
20* Please encircle the grade or grades you Teel most competent
to supervise:
Kgtn 1 2 3 4 - 5 6 7 8
21. Please encircle the grade or grades you feel least competent
to supervise:
Kgtn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
22* What do you feel is the attitude of your teachers to super­
vision by a teaching principal? Please indicate the number
of teachers in each of the following categories:
i.e.,
Positive--(Cooperates, welcomes constructive criticism)
Negative--(Dislikes supervision, antagonistic)
Indifferent— (Doesn’t care, not interested in cooperating)
No. of Teachers
Positive
Negative
Indifferent
23* Indicate the frequency of the visits of the following in the
months listed below:
Sept Oct Nov:Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr:May June
County Supervisor
District Superintendent
•
•
•
•
0
0
9
9
24. Are there any supervisory problems which you feel are peculiar
to you as a teaching principal at the present time? Will you
please state one or more of these problems on the bottom of this
page?
Do you wish a copy of the findings of this study?
Please return this inquiry blank to:
M. Moskowitz
Bte. 3, Box 18
Oroville, California
Yes
No ‘
SUPERVISORY STATUS OF THE ELEMENTARY SGHOOL
TEACHING PRINCIPAL
Please keep the following points in mind in answering the
questions given below:
a.
b.
c.
These questions apply only to teaching principals in
schools of six or more teachers.
For the purpose of this investigation, a teaching
principal is defined as one who teaches half a day
or more. (This time may be averaged over a week
period if desired.)
Principals in schools of six or more teachers are
required by state law to have credentials which pre­
suppose a minimum background in the principles of
administration and supervision.
1.
Please list any schedule that you may have relative to
the number of supervisory visits made yearly to schools
of six or more teachers with a teaching principal.
2.
Please state any policy that you may have relative to
supervising schools with six or more teachers and a
teaching principal. (On call, scheduled visits, working
through principal, etc.)
3.
If you were setting up educational prerequisites for the
position of teaching principal in addition to those re­
quired by state law, (see attached bulletin), are there
any specific requirements that you would demand? If so,
please state below.
Bo you wish a copy of the findings of this study?
Yes
No
Please return this Inquiry blank to:*
M. Moskowitz
Route 3, Box 18
Oroville, Calif.
REGULATIONS OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
GOVERNING THE GRANTING OF CREDENTIALS FOR PUBLIC
SCHOOL SERVICE
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EXECUTIVE
An applicant for the administration credential must
submit:
A.
A certificate from a physician licensed to practice
medicine and surgery that the applicant is physical­
ly and mentally fit to engage in school service.
B.
Verification of a general teaching credential, cer­
tificate, or life diploma.
C.
Verification of two years of thoroughly successful
teaching experience.
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS:
In addition to the above general requirements, applicants
for an administration credential must meet the following
specific requirements listed under the particular credential
for which application is made:
D.
Possession of a valid general elementary credential.
E.
Submission of a recommendation from the school or
department of education of a university or college
approved by the State Board of Education for offer­
ing training and recommending for the general ele­
mentary credential.
F.
Completion of twenty-four semester hours of work
beyond all requirements for the general elementary
credential in courses completed concurrently'with
or subsequent to teaching experience including the
following:
1.
2.
S.
Administration and supervision of elementary
schools including field work.
Elementary school curriculum with emphasis on
subject matter and methods.
City school administration.
120
4.
School finance and business administration.
5.
6.
7.
8.
State and comity school administration.
Legal aspects of education.
Tests and measurements.
Electives in sociology, psychology, and edu­
cation with emphasis on philosophy of educa­
tion.
AUTHORIZATION FOR SERVICE:
This credential authorises the holder to administer ele­
mentary school education as superintendent of an elementary
school district, or as principal or supervisor of an elemen­
taryschool serving either under a board of education or a
superintendent of schools.
Route 3, Box 18
Oroville, California
October IS, 1940
Name of Principal, Title
Name of School
City, State
Dear Mr*_______ :
Your cooperation is sought to determine the super­
visory status of the elementary school teaching principal.
Many investigations have been made, but they have been
limited almost entirely to the supervising and not the
teaching principal. Five county superintendents of schools,
with whom this survey was discussed, were unanimous in their
agreement as to the justification for such an investigation.
The type of response desired has been simplified as
much as possible to save your time. The responses will be
kept entirely confidential. Your help in answering this
questionnaire will be appreciated.
No doubt you will be interested in learning the
results of this study. Will you kindly return the inquiry
blank at your earliest convenience though you may not answer
it in its entirety?
Sincerely yours,
M. Moskowitz
Route 3, Box 18
Oroville, California
January 20, 1941
Name of Supervisor, Title
Name of School System
City, State
Dear Mrs._____
In the course of a survey of the supervisory status
of the elementary school teaching principal, information
relative to certain functions of the county rural super­
visor and the city superintendent of schools is essential.
In view of the time factor involved in answering any
questionnaire, the number of questions has been kept down
to the minimum. The responses will be kept entirely con­
fidential.
No doubt you will be interested in learning the
results of this study. Will you kindly return the inquiry
blank at your earliest convenience though you may not answer
it in its entirety?
Sincerely yours,
M. Moskowitz
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