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An economic analysis of United States-Japanese commodity trade for 1930-1938

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AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF UNITED STATES-JAPANESE
COMMODITY TRADE FROM 1950 TO 1938
A T h e s is
P r e s e n te d t o
t h e F a c u lt y o f t h e C o lle g e o f Commerce
The U n iv e r s i t y o f S o u th ern C a l i f o r n ia
In P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t
o f t h e R eq u irem en ts f o r t h e D egree
M a ster o f B u s in e s s A d m in is tr a tio n
hy
Kazuo A r a i
Decem ber 1941
UMI Number EP43158
All rights reserved
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T h i s thesis w r i tt e n by
KAZUO A R A I
undei the dire ct ion of h i s . F a c u l t y C o m m i t t e e ,
and i p p r o v e d by i l l its m e m b e r s
has be e n
Presented tc a n d accept ed by the C o u n c il on
Gra d ua te S t u d y and R e s e a r c h in partial fulfill­
m e n t of the
r e q u i r e m e n t s foi the d e g r e e
Dean
Secretary
n„,, F eb ru ar y .1 942
F acu lty C om m ittee
Chairman
of
table of contents
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED,
The p rob lem
II
I
i
S ta te m en t o f t h e p rob lem
1
Im p ortan ce o f t h e s tu d y
2
D e f i n i t i o n s o f ter m s u sed
2
O r g a n iz a tio n and r e v ie w o f t h e p a p er
5
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED
STATES-JAPANESE TRADE FROM1854 TO 1989
4
S ig n in g o f com m ercial t r e a t i e s
4
O pening th e c o u n tr y
4
S ig n in g o f t r e a t i e s
V
T r e a ty r e v i s i o n
11
The U n ite d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e tr a d e
from 1854 t o 1989
17
D evelopm ent o f f o r e i g n tr a d e o f
Japan and t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
17
P la c e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i n
t h e f o r e i g n t r a d e o f Japan
19
P la c e o f Japan in th e f o r e i g n
tr a d e o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s
19
P r i n c i p a l co m m o d ities e x p o r te d
t o th e U n ite d S t a t e s from Japan
84
iii
CHAPTER
PAGE
P r i n c i p a l com m od ities im p orted
from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s b y Japan
III
31
FOREIGN TRADE POLICIES OF JAPAN
AND THE UNITED STATES
35
F o r e ig n t r a d e p o l i c y o f Japan
35
T r a d i t io n a l f r e e exch an ge p o l i c y
o f Japan,
35
Abandonment o f h e r t r a d i t i o n a l
f r e e exch an ge p o l i c y
37
F o r e ig n t r a d e p o l i c y o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s
42
M o d ifie d m u l t i l a t e r a l tr a d e
p o l i c y o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
42
P r in c ip a l e v e n ts a f f e c t in g
fo r e ig n tra d e
46
Trade r e g u la t i o n s b etw e en th e
U n ite d S t a t e s and Japan
52
A greem en ts on J a p a n 's e x p o r ts
52
C o tto n r u g s
52
C otton p i e c e g o o d s
53
P e n c ils
53
V e lv e te e n and co rd u ro y
54
C o tto n s o c k s and s t o c k in g s
54
E x p o r ts t o A m erica un der v o lu n t a r y
c o n t r o l in Japan
55
iv
CHAPTER
XV.
PAGE
Canned and f r o z e n tu n a f i s h
55
P o tte r ie s
55
M atches
56
UNITED -STATES JAPANESE COMMODITY
TRADE EROM 1 9 5 0 TO ±938
57
P o s i t i o n o f Japan and t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s in e a c h o t h e r ' s tr a d e
Custom s d u t i e s in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
57
67
P r i n c i p a l c o m m o d itie s im ported i n t o
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s from Japan
Custom s d u t i e s in Japan
75
86
P r i n c i p a l co m m od ities im ported i n t o
Japan from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
93
Raw s i l k e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s from Japan
98
Raw c o tt o n e x p o r ts t o Japan from
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
105
Trade o f t h e tw o c o u n t r ie s e x c l u s i v e
Y.
o f raw c o t t o n and raw s i l k
112
S e a s o n a l movement o f t h e tr a d e
114
B a la n c e o f t r a d e
i!6
SUMMARIES .‘AND CONCLUSIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
125
130
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I-
J a p a n ese E x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and
O ther C o u n tr ie s ,
II.
1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 9
J a p a n ese Im p orts from th e U n ite d S t a t e s and
O ther C o u n tr ie s , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 9
III.
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s F o r e ig n
Trade w ith A s ia ,
IF .
1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 9
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F o r e ig n Trade o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s , 1 9 1 3 , 1917. 1 9 2 0 , and 1929
F,
U n ite d S t a t e s E x p o r ts t o Japan and O ther
C o u n tr ie s ,
FI,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
U n ite d S t a t e s Im ports from Japan and O ther
C o u n tr ie s , 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
F II
J a p a n ese Im p orts from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and
O ther C o u n tr ie s , 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
F ill-
J a p a n ese E x p o rts t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and
O ther C o u n tr ie s , 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
JXr
Com parison o f U n ite d S t a t e s Trade w it h Japan
and S o u th A m erica, 1930 and 1938
X.
I n c r e a s e in th e R a te s o f D uty o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s s i n c e 1915
XI
F re e and D u t ia b le Im ports i n t o t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s from Japan, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
X II.
P r i n c i p a l Im p orts f o r C onsum ption in th e
TABLE
PAGE
U n ite d S t a t e s o f D u tia b le Item s from
Japan, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
XXII,
79
P r i n c i p a l Im p orts f o r Consum ption in t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s o f D u ty -F r ee Item s from
Japan, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
XI¥<
P r i n c ip a l Im ports i n t o Japan from t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s ,
XT,
XYI
XVII,
84
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
World M arkets f o r J ap an ese S i l k ,
94
1930<rl938
U n ite d S t a t e s Im ports o f Raw S i l k ,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
99
102
E x p o r ts from Japan t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ? Raw
S i l k and a l l O ther C om m odities Shown
S e p a r a t e ly ,
XYIII
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
C o tton P r o d u c tio n o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s , 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
XIX,
104
106
E x p o r ts from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o Japan: Raw
C o tto n and a l l O ther C om m odities Shown
S e p a r a t e ly , 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
XX,
XXI
Raw C o tto n Im p orts o f Japan, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
109
U n ite d S t a t e s E x p o rts o f Raw C otton ,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
XXII
108
111
Trade o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and Japan
E x c lu s iv e o f Raw C o tto n and Raw
S ilk ,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
113
vi
TABLE
m ix ,
PAGE
U n ite d S t a t e s Commodity Trade w ith
Japan, 1 9 1 1 -1 9 2 9
x x iy »
U n ite d S t a t e s Commodity Trade w it h
Japan, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
xxr.
121
Commodity Trade B a la n c e o f Japan,
1 9 2 0 -1 9 3 8
XCTI
120
122
U n ite d S t a t e s Trade w ith A s ia ,
1 930 and 1938
124
VI1
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1
PAGE
S e a s o n a l Movement o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s la p a n e s e Trade, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
115
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
The J a p a n ese n a t io n , w ith t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e
T r e a ty o f P e a c e , A m ity and Commerce b etw een th e Shogun and
Commodore P e r r y i n 1854, abandoned h e r t r a d i t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n
p o l i c y and opened h er door t o f o r e i g n pow ers.
S c a n tily
b l e s s e d w ith n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e J a p a n ese p e o p le h a v e ,
s i n c e th e n , d e c id e d t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e t h e i r c o u n tr y b y b r in g ­
in g raw m a t e r i a ls from abroad and c o n v e r t in g them i n t o
m a n u fa ctu red g o o d s t h a t may f i n d t h e i r m arket a l l o v e r th e
w o rld .
B e in g com plem entary in t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , tr a d e b e ­
tw een t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and Japan h a s shown a trem en d ou s
in c r e a s e ,
and Japan h a s em a n cip a ted i t s e l f from a f o r g o t t e n
em pire in t h e Far E a st t o one o f t h e g r e a t e s t t r a d in g
c o u n t r ie s i n th e w o rld i n a rem ark ab ly s h o r t p e r io d .
I.
THE PROBLEM
S ta te m e n t o f t h e p ro b lem .
In t h e n in e y e a r p e r io d
1930 t o 1 9 3 8 , t h e U n ite d S t a te a -J a p a n e s e t r a d e was t h e
w o r ld 's se c o n d l a r g e s t tr a d e ,
o n ly n e x t t o t h a t b etw e en th e
U n ite d S t a t e s and G reat B r it a i n ,
H ence, i t i s t h e p u rp o se o f t h e f o l lo w in g p a g e s '1 )
t o p r e s e n t t h e h i s t o r i c a l d evelop m en t o f tr a d e b e tw e en t h e
tw o c o u n t r i e s t (Z) t o d i s c u s s f o r e i g n tr a d e p o l i c i e s o f
c o u n t r i e s ; and (3 ) t o a n a ly z e th e comm odity tr a d e in t h e
p e r io d 1930 t o 1 9 3 8 .
Im p ortan ce o f t h e s t u d y .
Japan o c c u p ie d seco n d
p l a c e among f o r e i g n c o u n t r ie s a s a m arket f o r e x p o r ts from
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s In t h e n in e y e a r p e r io d .
Empire p u rch ased more from t h i s c o u n tr y ,
O nly t h e B r i t i s h
Japan a l s o ranked
se co n d a s a so u r c e o f im p o r ts i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
Canada s u p p lie d h e r in g r e a t e r v a lu e ,
o n ly
The U n ite d S t a t e s h a s
b een t h e m ost im p o r ta n t so u r c e o f Japan *s im p o r ts a s w e l l a s
h e r l a r g e s t e x p o r t m ark et.
F u rth erm ore, tr a d e b etw e en th e
tw o c o u n t r ie s i s com plem entary in n a tu r e , r e s u l t i n g in
m utu al b e n e f i t s , b e c a u se o f th e v a s t n a t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s in
t h e i r p r o d u c ts ,
II,
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
T h is p ap er d e a l s w ith commodity tr a d e or im p o r ts and
e x p o r t s o f m erch a n d ise b etw een t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and Japan,
e x c lu d in g ite m s su ch a s p r e c io u s m e ta l t r a n s a c t i o n s ,
ocean
and r a il r o a d f r e i g h t p aym en ts, m arine in s u r a n c e prem ium s,
i n t e r e s t and d iv id e n d paym ents, p u r c h a se s and s a l e s o f s e c u r ­
itie s ,
r e m it t a n c e s , t o u r i s t s ’ e x p e n d itu r e s , b a n k e r s' and
b r o k e r s ’ co m m issio n s, e t c ,
3
III,
ORGANIZATION AND RE7IEW OF THE PAPER
In C hapter El, h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s o f J a p a n 's abandon­
ment o f h er s e c l u s i o n p o l i c y and th e d evelop m en t o f t r a d e
b etw een th e tw o c o u n t r ie s w i l l be d is c u s s e d
F o r e ig n t r a d e
p o l i c i e s o f Japan and t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , p r i n c i p a l e v e n t s
a f f e c t i n g f o r e i g n t r a d e in r e c e n t y e a r s and tr a d e r e g u la ­
t i o n s b etw een t h e tw o c o u n t r ie s w i l l be d is c u s s e d in C hapter
III
C h ap ter IT w i l l d e a l w ith econ om ic a n a l y s i s o f th e
comm odity t r a d e in t h e p e r io d 1930 t o 1 9 3 8 , and sum m aries
and c o n c lu s io n s w i l l be p r e s e n te d in t h e f i n a l c h a p te r
CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF
THE UNITED STATES JAPANESE TRADE
FROM 1 8 5 4 TO 1929
Japan Las made r a p id p r o g r e s s , s i n e e sh e abandoned in
1 8 5 4 h e r s e c l u s i o n p o l i c y w h ich had b een m a in ta in e d f o r o v e r
tw o c e n t u r ie s .
I n t h i s c h a p te r
a h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y w i l l be
made a b o u t J a p a n ’ s e n tr a n c e i n t o f o r e i g n commerce and th e
d evelop m en t o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e tr a d e ,
A,
SIGNING OF COMMERCIAL TREATIES
O pening t h e c o u n tr y .
Owing t o th e S p a n is h m is s io n a r y
p r o p a g a tio n s w h ich app eared t o t h e J a p a n ese a s s u b v e r s iv e
a c tiv itie s ,
t h e Tokugawa S h ogu n ate a d v o c a te d t h e p o l i c y o f
n a t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n and t h e e x p u ls io n o f f o r e i g n e r s ,
At t h a t
tim e t h e i n t e r c o u r s e w it h f o r e i g n n a t io n s was b e l i e v e d t o be
d a n g ero u s f o r t h e n a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e ,
No f o r e i g n e r s , t h e r e ­
f o r e , w ith t h e e x c e p t io n o f p e a c e f u l D utch m erch an ts who
w ere p e r m itte d t o co n d u ct b u s in e s s in th e I s la n d o f D eshim a,
o f f t h e p o r t o f N agasak i,
c o u ld have com m unication o f i n t e r ­
c o u r se w ith t h e Ja p a n ese n a t i o n , 1
Any a ttem p t on t h e p a r t
l
C arl Crow, He Opened t h e Door o f Ja p a n . (New York,
L ondon: Harper and B r o th e r s P u b lis h e r s ,~ T 9 3 9 } p , 91
5
o f t h e J a p a n ese t o go abroad was a l s o p r o h i b it e d ,
Thus t h e
I s la n d Umpire was S e p t in co m p lete i s o l a t i o n f o r o v e r two
c e n tu r ie s .
D u ring th e p e r io d o f J a p a n 's perm anent p e a c e and
s e c l u s i o n , t h e t r a n s - P a c i f i c t r a d e o r ig in a t e d in 1565 began
t o d e v e lo p ,
The P ar E a st o f f e r e d th e lu r e o f a h i g h l y
d e v e lo p e d c i v i l i z a t i o n and o f e x o t i c s p i c e s and s i l k s t o
2
a d v e n tu r o u s European and Am erican m erch a n ts.
i n t h o s e d a y s,
t h e A m erican m erchant m arine was r e l a t i v e l y im p o r ta n t, b e in g
se co n d in number o n ly t o t h a t o f E ngland in t h e Far E a s t,
Am erican w h a le r s w ere num erous in t h e N orth ern P a c i f i c ,
and
in s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s t h e y w ere sh ip w reck ed o f f t h e J ap an ese
3
I s la n d s ,
The grow in g com m ercial i n t e r e s t s o f t h e u n it e d
S t a t e s w ith t h e O rien t and t h e d evelop m en t o f A m e r ic a 's
w h ale f i s h e r i e s in th e P a c i f i c made t h e U n ite d S t a t e s d e s i r ­
o u s o f o p e n in g com m ercial r e l a t i o n s w ith Japan,
In h i s
an n u a l a d d r e ss t o C on gress on December 6, 1 8 5 2 , P r e s id e n t
H il l a r d F illm o r e d e c la r e d a s f o llo w s :
Our s e t t le m e n t s o n t h e s h o r e s o f t h e P a c i f i c have
a lr e a d y g iv e n a g r e a t e x t e n s i o n , and In some r e s p e c t s
a new d i r e c t i o n , t o our commerce i n t h a t o cean ,
A
2
1 . CL M ears, M aritim e Trade o f W estern U n ite d S t a t e s ,
(San F r a n c is c o : S ta n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ), p f 2757“^
3
K enneth S, L a t o r e t t e , The D evelopm ent o f Jap an ,
(Nev/ York: M acm illan Company, 1 9 2 6 ), pp, 1 0 7 -8 ,
6
d i r e c t and r a p i d l y i n c r e a s in g in t e r c o u r s e h a s sp ru n g
up w it h e a s t e r n A sia*
The w a te r s o f t h e n o r th e r n
P a c i f i c , even i n t o t h e A r c t ic Sea,, have o f l a t e y e a r s
b een fr e q u e n te d b y our whalemen* The a p p l i c a t i o n o f
ste a m t o th e g e n e r a l p u r p o se s o f n a v ig a t io n i s becom­
in g d a i l y more common, and makes i t d e s i r a b l e t o
o b t a in f u e l and o th e r n e c e s s a r y s u p p l ie s a t co n v en ­
i e n t p o i n t s on t h e r o u t e b etw een A s ia and our P a c i f i c
sh o re s*
Our u n fo r tu n a te countrym en who from tim e t o
tim e s u f f e r sh ip w r e c k on t h e c o a s t s o f t h e e a s t e r n
se a s are e n t i t le d t o p r o te c tio n ,
B e s id e s t h e s e
s p e c i f ic o b j e c t s , th e g e n e r a l p r o s p e r ity o f our S ta te s
in th e P a c i f i c r e q u ir e s t h a t an a tte m p t sh o u ld be made
t o open t h e o p p o s it e r e g io n s o f A s ia t o a m u tu a lly
b e n e f i c i a l in t e r c o u r s e ,
Xt i s o b v io u s t h a t t h i s a t ­
tem p t c o u ld b e made b y h o pow er t o s o g r e a t a d v a n ta g e
a s b y t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , w hose c o n s t i t u t i o n a l sy ste m
e x c lu d e s e v e r y id e a o f d i s t a n t c o l o n i a l d e p e n d e n c ie s ,
I have a c c o r d in g ly b een l e d t o o r d e r an a p p r o p r ia te
n a v a l f o r c e t o Japan, un der t h e command o f a d i s ­
c r e e t and i n t e l l i g e n t o f f i c e r o f t h e h ig h e s t rank
known t o our s e r v i c e .
He i s in s t r u c t e d t o en d ea v o r
t o o b t a in from t h e governm ent o f t h a t c o u n tr y some
r e l a x a t i o n o f t h e i n h o s p it a b le and a n t i - s o c i a l s y s te m
w h ich i t h as p u rsu ed f o r ab ou t two c e n tu r ie s *
He h a s
b een d i r e c t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , t o r e m o n s tr a te in t h e
s t r o n g e s t la n g u a g e a g a i n s t t h e c r u e l tr e a tm e n t t o
w hich our sh ip w r ec k e d m a r in e r s h ave o f t e n b e e n su b ­
j e c t e d and t o i n s i s t t h a t t h e y s h a l l be t r e a t e d w ith
hum anity* He i s i n s t r u c t e d , how ever, a t t h e same tim e
t o g iv e t h a t governm ent t h e a m p le st a s s u r a n c e s t h a t
t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a r e su ch and su ch
o n ly , a s I have i n d i c a t e d , .an d t h a t t h e e x p e d it io n
i s f r i e n d l y and p e a c e f u l, 4
The m is s io n was e n t r u s t e d t o Commodore P e r r y b y th e
P r e s id e n t in 1852.
P e r r y , w ith h i s squadron o f f i v e steam ­
e r s and s i x s a i l i n g v e s s e l s a r r iv e d o f f Uraga on J u ly 8 ,
1 8 5 5 , and s i x d ays l a t e r he d e l iv e r e d t h e l e t t e r from th e
4
P. C* J o n e s , E x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y in Jap an *
Haven: Y a le U n iv e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 1 pp. 7 - 8 .
(Hew
7
P r e s id e n t t o t h e Emperor,
A nnouncing l i i s i n t e n t i o n t o
r e t u r n e a r l y in t h e f o l lo w in g y e a r f o r th e r e p ly . P e r r y
s a i l e d f o r t h e Luchu I s la n d s ,
On F eb ru a ry 1 2 , 1854, he
r e tu r n e d t o Yedo Bay w it h a d d i t i o n a l s h ip s ,
The t r a d i t i o n a l
n a t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n p o l i c y o f Japan t h u s came t o a c l o s e and
t h e c o u n tr y was opened t o f o r e i g n t r a d e in 1854, when t h e
T r e a ty o f P e a c e ,
A m ity and Commerce was co n c lu d e d b etw een
6
t h e Shogun and P e r r y on March 31
S ig n in g o f t r e a t i e s .
T h is t r e a t y was t h e f i r s t form ­
a l agreem en t e v e r made b etw een Japan and an o c c i d e n t a l s t a t e .
I t p r o v id e d f o r p e r p e t u a l p e a c e b etw e en t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
and Japan, opened th e p o r t s o f Shim oda and H akodate t o
Am erican s h ip s , and made a rran gem en ts f o r p ro p er tr e a tm e n t
7
o f sh ip w reck ed s a i l o r s ,
The t r e a t y in c lu d e d a m o st-fa v o r e d n a t io n c la u s e w h ic h r e c i p r o c a l l y s e c u r e d t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
and Japan a n y f u t u r e p r i v i l e g e s g r a n te d t o o th e r n a t i o n s , b u t
i t made o n ly s l i g h t p r o v i s i o n f o r t r a d e and none f o r t h e
P r e s id e n t F i l l m o r e ^ l e t t e r t o t h e Emperor was
c a r e f u l l y d r a f t e d b y S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e D a n ie l W ebster and
h i s s u c c e s s o r S e c r e t a r y E v e r e t t * S e i j i H is h id a , Japan Among
t h e G reat P o w er s. (London % Hew York, T oronto; Longmans,
G reen and Company, 1940} p., 59.
Jc H, G ubbins, The P r o g r e s s o f Jap an .
C laren don P r e s s , 1 9 1 1 1 pp, 2 2 8 - 2 3 1 '
7
(O xford;
A r t i c l e s T I: t l l r IF , and Y o f t h e T r e a ty .
8
perm anent r e s i d e n c e o f U n ite d S t a t e s c i t i z e n s ,
In th e f o l lo w in g Septem ber, a d d i t io n a l r e g u la t i o n s
w ere a g r e e d upon and in F eb ru ary, 1855. t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n s o f
9
t h e t r e a t y w ere exch an ged ,
As so o n a s t h e t r e a t y b etw e en Commodore P e r r y and t h e
S h o g u n a te had b e e n s ig n e d i n 1854, t h e r e was a r u s h o f o th e r
n a t io n s t o o b t a in s i m i l a r t e r m s , R e a r A dm iral S i r James
8
A r t i c l e s ¥11 and IX o f t h e T rea ty ,
9 T h ese d e a l in g s w it h f o r e i g n n a t io n s c r e a te d t h e
m ost in t e n s e e x c ite m e n t th r o u g h o u t t h e im p ir e
I t was
charged a g a in s t t h e Shogun t h a t in m aking t r e a t i e s w ith
f o r e i g n n a t io n s , he had tr a n s c e n d e d t h e pow ers t h a t r i g h t l y
b e lo n g e d t o him 1n. He was o n ly t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e un der th e
Emperor
I t w a s / p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e ! t h a t th e t r e a t i e s
made by t h e S h ogu n ate and n o t r a t i f i e d b y t h e Emperor!
sh o u ld b e r e g a r d e d b y t h e J a p a n ese a s l e g i t i m a t e and b in d in g .
Thus t h e q u e s t io n o f t h e l e g a l i t y o f t h e t r e a t i e s w h ich t h e
Shogun had made i n t e r e s t e d n o t o n ly t h e J a p a n ese t h e m s e lv e s ,
b u t a l s o th e f o r e i g n e r s w hose p r i v i l e g e s under t h e s e t r e a t i e s
w ere a t s t a k e .
T here is * h ow ever, no doubt t h a t Commodore
P e r r y , a s w e l l a s a l l t h e su b se q u e n t n e g o t i a t o r s , b e l ie v e d
t h a t in m aking t r e a t i e s w ith t h e Shogun, t h e y w ere d e a lin g
w ith a u t h o r it y ,
C* F, B r in k le y , "A H is t o r y o f t h e Jap an ese
P e o p le , ” The E n c y c lo p e d ia B r it a n n l c a , (New York, London,
1 9 1 5 ) , pp, 6 6 6 -6 7 3 .
I n i 8 6 0 , t h e 1 4 th Shogun, Tokugawa
Iy e m o c h i, s e n t t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a d ip lo m a tic m is s io n
f o r t h e f i r s t tim e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Japan f o r t h e p u rp o se
o f e x c h a n g in g r a t i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e T r e a ty i n W ash ington.
P r in c e Tokugawa I y e s a t o , " F r ie n d sh ip B etw een Am erica and
J a p a n ," Osaka M a in ic h i and .T okio N i c h i - N i c h i, A m erica and
Japan in A m ity and T ra d e,
(O saka: The S e ih a n p r i n t i n g
Company. 1 9 3 7 1 : p.
10
H is h ld a ,
0£.
p it-
p. 61,
9
S tir lin g ,
commanding t h e B r i t i s h sq uad ron , came t o N a g a sa k i
and demanded t h e c o n c lu s io n o f a c o n v e n tio n f o r o p e n in g
J a p a n ese p o r t s t o E n g lis h s h i p s ,
1 5 , 1854.
A dm iral P o n t i a t i n e ,
I t was s ig n e d on O ctober
commanding t h e R u ssia n squad­
ro n , n e g o t ia t e d a t r e a t y r e l a t i n g t o S a g h a lie n I s la n d and t h e
o p e n in g o f J a p a n ese p o r t s t o R u ssia n s h ip s ,
s ig n e d a t Shimoda in F eb ru ary, 18 5 5 ,
The t r e a t y was
The N e th e r la n d s , a l ­
th o u g h e n j o y in g a m onopoly o f tr a d e a t N agasak i,
co n clu d ed
t h e i r f i r s t fo r m a l t r e a t y in January, 1855,
On A ugust 4 , 1 8 5 5 , Townsend H a r r is was a p p o in te d
11
U n ite d S t a t e s C on su l G e n e r a l f o r Japan,
on t h e j o i n t recom 12
m en d a tion o f Commodore P e r r y and W. H. Seward,
A lth o u g h
o f f i c i a l l y o n ly a c o n s u la r o f f i c e r ,
he was ttc lo t h e d b y h i s
13
governm ent w it h d ip lo m a t ic p o w e r s. n
H a r r is had two aim s
t o a c c o m p lish ; f i r s t , ,
t o d e l i v e r a l e t t e r from t h e P r e s id e n t
t o t h e Shogun; and, s e c o n d ly , t o s e c u r e a w id e r agreem en t
th a n t h e T r e a ty o f 1854,
He a r r iv e d a t Shimoda on A ugust 21,
14
1856,
and su c c e e d e d in c o n c lu d in g a c o n v e n tio n r e g u la t i n g
X*L H a r r is ' J o u r n a l, pp. 1 2 -1 3 ,
12
Ib id *
p, 15,
13
J. W. F o s t e r , A m erican D ip lom acy in t h e O r ie n t ,
(B o sto n , New York, 1 9 0 3 ). p, 174,
14
H a r r is , op , e i t *v pp* 1 9 9 -2 0 0 *
He was b ro u g h t b y
t h e w a r sh ip San J a c in t o , Commodore A rm strong in command,
t h e in t e r c o u r s e o f U n ite d S t a t e s c i t i z e n s w ith Japan, on June 17.
15
1857
T h is opened t h e p o r t o f N a g a sa k i t o A m erican s h ip s f o r
p r o v i s i o n s and r e p a ir s , p r o v id e d f o r t h e perm anent r e s id e n c e o f
A m erican s a t Shimoda and H akodate and f o r th e a p p oin tm en t o f an
16
A m erican T ic e C on su l a t t h e l a t t e r p o r t ,
and se c u r e d t h e p r iv 17
i l e g e s o f e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y t o A m erican s m c r im in a l e a s e s .
H a r r is a g a in su c c e e d e d in c o n c lu d in g t h e T r e a ty o f A m ity
and Commerce, w h ic h was s ig n e d on h oard t h e U n ite d S t a t e s war18
s h ip F ow h attan on J u ly £9, 1 8 5 8 ,
The c h i e f p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s
t r e a t y w ere t h e o p e n in g o f f r e s h p o r t s f o r t h e tr a d e and r e s id e n c e
19
o f A m erican s,
t h e ap p oin tm en t o f U n ite d S t a t e s d ip lo m a t ic and
20
c o n s u la r o f f i c i a l s in t h e T r e a ty p o r t s ,
t h e e x t e n s io n o f e x tr a -
21
t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s t o c o v e r c i v i l a s w e l l a s c r im in a l c a s e s ,
2£
and t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f t a r i f f s .
I t i s a l s o n o te w o r th y t h a t
^
H a r r is 1 J o u r n a l, A u gust £6, 18 5 6 , p,
16 I b i d .
A ugust 27. 18 5 6 , p . 210.
^
I b id .
^
G ubbins,
19
Septem ber x. 1 8 5 6 , pp. 2 1 9 -2 2 0 .
0 £«
c i t ♦, p,
57,
A r t i c l e I I I o f t h e T r e a ty .
20 A r t i c l e I
21
A r t i c l e ¥1
££
Crow,
£09,
0£.
c i t ♦ , p,
£48,
11
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s p le d g e d i t s e l f t o a c t a s m ed ia to r in any
d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t m ight a r i s e b etw een Japan and a European
23
Power
and t h a t t h e t r e a t y c o n ta in e d a c la u s e p r o v id in g f o r
i t s r e v i s i o n a f t e r J u ly 4 , 1 8 7 2 , sh o u ld e i t h e r o f t h e two
24
c o n t r a c t in g Pow ers d e s i r e t h i s .
T r e a ty r e v i s i o n .
The s p i r i t o f n a t io n a lis m and
p a t r i o t i s m , w h ich had b e e n grow in g s i n c e th e o p e n in g o f t h e
c o u n tr y and th e R e s t o r a t io n o f t h e Emperor t o th r o n e ,
ex­
p r e s s e d i t s e l f in demand f o r e q u a l i t y w ith f o r e i g n c o u n t r ie s .
The q u e s t io n o f t r e a t y r e v i s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , became th e l e a d ­
in g f e a t u r e o f Japan *s f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s i n th e p e r io d b e ­
tw een 1 872 and 1894.
The p r i n c i p a l p o in t s a t i s s u e b etw een
Japan and th e U n ite d S t a t e s a s w e l l a s o th e r t r e a t y n a t i o n s
w ere co n cern ed w ith t a r i f f autonom y and e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y .
26
The s p e c i f i c d u t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e T r e a ty
dropped b e lo w th e f i g u r e s s t i p u l a t e d a s t h e v a lu e o f t h e
a r t i c l e s in c r e a s e d .
25
84
The J a p a n ese G overnm ent, n a t u r a l l y .
A r t i c l e I I o f t h e T r e a ty .
A r t i c l e m i.
25
P ayson I . T r e a t, Japan and th e U n ite d S t a t e s 18551921* (San F r a n c is c o : S ta n fo r d U n iv e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 ),
pi 116.
The t r e a t y - e s t a b l i s h e d t a r i f f m eant t h a t th e
J a p a n ese Government was bound n o t t o im pose h e a v ie r d u t i e s
th a n t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e t r e a t y , and t h e r a t e s c o u ld
n o t be changed w ith o u t t h e c o n se n t o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s .
25
12
d e s i r e d t o r e g a in t h e r i g h t t o f i x i t s own t a r i f f .
Some o f
t h e g r e a t com m ercial p o w er s, how ever, w ish ed t o r e t a i n t h e
a d v a n ta g e c r e a te d b y t h e c o n v e n t io n a l t a r i f f
As m ig h t be
e x p e c te d , t h e y w ere l o a t h t o a g r e e t o any t r e a t y r e v i s i o n
w h ich w ould r e s t o r e t a r i f f autonom y t o t h e J a p a n ese,
A more s e r i o u s im pairm ent a r o s e from t h e e x tr a t e r r i*
27
t o r i a l r ig h t s o f fo r e ig n e r s ,
I f e x tr a te r r ito r ia lity
was
a p r i v i l e g e e n jo y e d b y n a t i o n a l s o f t h e t r e a t y p o w ers, th e n
i t c a r r ie d w ith i t d u t i e s a s w e l l
I f f o r e i g n e r s w ere n o t
s u b j e c t t o J a p a n ese la w and p r o c ed u r e f o r o f f e n c e s com m itted
in Japan, th e n t h e d u ty r e p o se d upon t h e f o r e i g n pow ers t o
s e e t h a t t h e i r n a t i o n a l s w ere a d e q u a te ly p u n ish e d f o r su ch
o ffen ce s,
T h is w ould r e q u ir e t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a d e q u a te
j u d i c i a l sy s te m s i n Japan, w ith c o u r ts f o r th e t r i a l o f o f ­
f e n d e r s , w ith o f f i c e r s t o e x e c u t e t h e d e c r e e s o f t h e c o u r t s ,
and w ith j a i l s f o r t h e d e t e n t io n o f c r im in a ls ,
In t h e m ean w h ile,
ch a n g es o f a l l h in d s w ere i n t r o ­
duced t o Japan s i n c e t h e M e ij i R e s t o r a t io n in 1 8 6 8 ,
was a b o lis h e d i n 1871
F eu d al-
and n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s under a s t r o n g
c e n t r a l governm ent became p o s s i b l e ,
A n a t i o n a l army and
27
E x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y meant t h a t when an A m erican
v i o l a t e d t h e la w s o f Jap an , he was b rou gh t t o t r i a l n o t
b e f o r e a J a p a n ese ju d g e, b u t in th e n e a r e s t c o n s u la r c o u r t ;
and t h a t when a J a p a n ese com m itted o f f e n c e s a g a in s t an
A m erican, he was t r i e d by t h e J ap an ese a u t h o r i t i e s and
p u n ish e d a c c o r d in g t o J a p a n ese la w s ,
15
navy w ere commenced t o t a k e t h e p la c e o f t h e f e u d a l l e v i e s ,
The la w o f 1872 l a i d t h e fo u n d a tio n s f o r a sy s te m w h ic h o f f e r ­
ed t h e o p p o r t u n it ie s o f e d u c a tio n t o ev er y b o d y in t h e Umpire,
An a tte m p t w as, t h e r e f o r e , made t o s e c u r e r e v i s i o n b y Japan,
b u t a lt h o u g h I t a l y was w i l l i n g t o r e l i n q u i s h e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l ­
i t y , t h e o th e r pow ers who had more n a t i o n a l s r e s i d i n g in
Japan, p ersu a d ed h e r t o draw b ack .
The J a p a n ese r e a l i z e d t h a t
t h e r e lin q u is h m e n t o f e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y c o u ld n o t be o b t a in ­
ed u n t i l f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s had b een made i n j u d i c i a l r efo rm ,
b u t t h e y saw n o r e a so n why t h e pow ers sh o u ld o b j e c t t o r e v i s 28
in g t h e c o n v e n t io n a l t a r i f f
The m a tte r was f i r s t d i s c u s s ­
ed w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , and a t r e a t y was s ig n e d a t Wash­
in g to n ,
J u ly 25, 1 8 7 8 , under w h ich th e U n ite d S t a t e s r e c o g ­
n iz e d t h e r i g h t o f Japan t o r e g u la t e h e r t a r i f f and c o a s t in g
t r a d e , and in r e tu r n Japan a g r e e d t o open tw o a d d i t i o n a l
29
p o r t s and a b o l i s h e x p o r t d u t i e s ,
S in c e th e n Japan h as made f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s ,
t h e C o n s t it u t io n was p rom u lgated ,
P a r lia m e n t was o r g a n iz e d ,
C i v i l and c r im in a l la w s w ere c o d i f i e d ,
w ere r e o r g a n iz e d ,
Tn 1890
and c o u r ts o f j u s t i c e
An e d u c a tio n sy ste m was im proved on th e
28
P ayson J, T r e a t, The Far F a s t , (New York and Condon
H arper and B r o th e r s P u b li s h e r s , 19 2H]" p< 2 7 4 ,
29
L oc, C it,
14
w e s te r n m odel
F i n a l l y , when Japan won v i c t o r y in h e r s t r u g ­
g l e w ith C hina, sh e su c c e e d e d in c o n c lu d in g a new t r e a t y w ith
G reat B r i t a i n i n 1894*
The T r e a ty s t i p u l a t e d t o c e a s e c o n s u l­
a r j u r i s d i c t i o n in f i v e y e a r s ,
in 1899, and i f e s t a b l i s h e d a
c o n v e n t io n a l t a r i f f f o r c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s , w it h d u t i e s r a n g in g
30
from f i v e t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t ad valo rem .
The se co n d t r e a t y
was s ig n e d w it h t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in th e same y e a r and, a c ­
c o r d in g t o i t s e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y , no t a r i f f c o n c e s s io n s w ere
31
e n a c te d .
Germany and F ran ce demanded and r e c e i v e d t a r i f f
c o n c e s s io n s , b u t a l l t h e t r e a t y pow ers e n jo y e d t h e p r i v i l e g e s
o f t h e c o n v e n t io n a l t a r i f f s un der t h e m o st- f a v o r e d - n a t io n
38
c la u s e ,
The n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e new t r e a t i e s c o n tin u e d
th ro u g h o u t fo u r y e a r s a f t e r 1894,
When Japan came o u t v i c t o r i o u s in t h e B u sso -J a p a n e se
War, Japan w ish ed t o a b r o g a te any and a l l t r e a t i e s w h ich
c o n ta in e d r e f e r e n c e s t o th e p a s t c o n d it io n o f i n f e r i o r i t y
and t o r e p la c e them by t r e a t i e s w h ich r e c o g n iz e d t h e p e r f e c t
and a b s o lu t e s o c i a l
p o l i t i c a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e q u a l i t y o f
The r a t e f i r e d was s o lo w t h a t Japan c o u ld n o t
f in a n c e t h e R u sso -J a p a n e se Yfar w it h t h e t a r i f f r e v e n u e ;
t h e r e f o r e , sh e w as c o m p e lle d t o r e l y upon t h e im p ort d u t i e s
on t h e raw m a t e r i a ls and e v e n on t h e n e c e s s i t i e s su c h a s
r i c e , p e tr o le u m and f l o u r .
A lth o u g h J a p a n ese i n d u s t r i e s
w ere i n an e a r l y s t a g e o f d e v e lo p m en t, sh e c o u ld n o t im prove
h er i n f a n t i n d u s t r i e s b y means o f p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s . I b i d .
p, 278 and T ak ah ash i, P u b lic F in a n ce (T o k io ). p , 1 7 2 ,
31
c it.
p.
T r e a t,
133,
Japan and t h e U n ite d S t a t e s 1 8 5 3 -1 9 2 1 ,
32 L oc. o i t .
op,
15
Japan.
Japan tu r n e d f i r s t o f a l l t o t h e u n it e d S t a t e s t o
c o n c lu d e t h e t r e a t y w h ich c o n ta in e d no ele m en t o r s u g g e s t io n
o f in fe r io r ity .
A s a t i s f a c t o r y t r e a t y w ith t h e u n it e d S t a t e s
m ight s e r v e a s a m odel f o r t h e t r e a t i e s t o he n e g o t i a t e d w it h
E uropean P ow ers.
At t h e same tim e ,
i t .was an a d v a n ta g e t o
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o be th e f i r s t t o c o n c lu d e su ch a t r e a t y ,
b e c a u se i t w ould b e a fo r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t
t h e f o r e i g n n a t io n m o st e l o s e l y and i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d
w ith Japan c o u ld d e l i v e r no im p r o p r ie ty in n e g o t i a t i n g upon
a b a s i s o f a b s o lu t e and r e c i p r o c a l e q u a l i t y ,
The t r e a t y
n e g o t i a t e d w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in 1894 would e x p ir e in
1911
However, b y an amendment t o th e t r e a t y ,
p r o lo n g e d u n t i l 1 9 1 2 .
i t s l i f e was
The A m erican Government was q u i t e
w i l l i n g t o w a iv e t h e a d d i t i o n a l y e a r t o w h ich i t was e n t i t l e d ,
and t h e new t r e a t y w h ich c o n ta in e d no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e condi33
t i o n o f i n f e r i o r i t y was c o n c lu d e d on F eb ru ary 21 1911.
The m u tu al f r i e n d s h i p b etw een t h e two c o u n t r ie s was s t a t e d
in t h e pream ble o f t h e T r e a ty o f Commerce and N a v ig a t io n a s
fo llo w s :
The P r e s id e n t o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m erica and
H is M a je sty t h e Emperor o f Japan, b e in g d e s ir o u s t o
s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s o f a m ity and good u n d ersta n d in g w h ich h a p p ily e x i s t b etw een t h e two n a t i o n s , and
rz%
E d i t o r i a l Comment, "The New T r e a ty o f Commerce and
N a v ig a t io n w it h J a p a n ," A m erican J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l
Law, Y o l 5 (New York: Baker, Y o o r h is and Company. 1911^,
p. 4 4 5 .
16
■ b e lie v in g t h a t t h e f i x a t i o n in a manner c l e a r and
p o s i t i v e o f t h e r u l e s w h ic h a r e h e r e a f t e r t o g o v ern
t h e com m ercial in t e r c o u r s e b e tw e en t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e
c o u n t r ie s w i l l c o n t r ib u t e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i s
m ost d e s i r a b l e r e s u l t * h ave r e s o l v e d t o c o n c lu d e a
t r e a t y o f commerce and n a v ig a t io n f o r t h a t p u rp o se ,
n
S in c e t h e A m erican t r e a t y c o n ta in e d no c o n v e n t io n a l
ta r iff
th e o n ly change w h ieh Japan d e s ir e d was t h e e lim in a ­
t i o n o f t h e l a s t p a ra g ra p h o f A r t i c l e I I o f t h e t r e a t y o f
1894 w h ich r e a d s a s f o l lo w s :
I t i s , how ever, u n d e r sto o d t h a t t h e s t i p u l a t i o n s
c o n ta in e d in t h i s and t h e p r e c e d in g a r t i c l e do n o t in
any way a f f e c t t h e la w s , o r d in a n c e s and r e g u l a t i o n s
w it h r eg a r d t o t r a d e , t h e im m ig r a tio n o f l a b o r e r s ,
p o l i c e and p u b l i c s e c u r i t y w h ieh a r e i n f o r c e o r w h ich
a f t e r b e e n a c te d i n e i t h e r o f t h e tw o cou n ­
i t s la n g u a g e ,
i f n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w ith a b s o l u t e
e q u a l i t y , h a s b een in t e r p r e t e d in su ch a way a s t o s t r a i n
t h e o th e r w is e f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s o f t h e tw o c o u n t r i e s ,
The
W ashington a d m in is t r a t io n g r a n te d t h i s d e s i r e , and t h e
c la u s e was o m itte d ,
Japan, t h e r e f o r e ,
s u c c e e d e d in s e q u ir -
In g an e q u a l f o o t i n g w it h t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
A r tic le I o f
t h e T r e a ty p r o v id e d f o r t h e m ost -fa v o r e d - n a t Ion tr e a tm e n t,
In J u ly ,
1939, how ever
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s gave fo r m a l n o t i c e
t o Japan o f r e n u n c ia t io n o f t h e T r e a ty , and th e a b o l i t i o n
34
Supplem ent t o t h e A m erican J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i c
Law, Yolume 5 , 1911 (Few York: B a k er. Y o o r h is and company,
1 9 1 1 ), p, 1 0 0 ,
35
B d i t o r i a l Comment,
0£ ,
c l t p,
445,
17
o f t h e T r e a ty t o o k I t s e f f e c t in December
B.
THE UNITED STATES JAPANESE TRADE
FROBC 1854 TO 1929
D evelopm ent o f f o r e i g n t r a d e o f Japan and t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s , As Japan i s a sm a ll, m ou n tain ou s i s l a n d w it h p oor
37
s o il,
h er econ om ic d ev elo p m en t m ust depend in l a r g e p a r t
upon t h e grow th o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and f o r e i g n tr a d e ,
In b o th
t h e s e r e s p e c t s sh e h a s shown r a th e r rem ark ab le p r o g r e s s ,
But b etw een 1 8 5 4 and 1 8 6 8 , t h e f o r e i g n t r a d e o f Japan was
36
A r t i c l e XVTI o f th e T r e a ty s t i p u l a t e s , "The p r e s e n t
t r e a t y s h a l l e n t e r i n t o o p e r a tio n on t h e 1 7 th o f J u ly , 1911!
and s h a l l rem ain in f o r c e tw e lv e y e a r s or u n t i l t h e e x p ir a ­
t i o n o f s i x m onths from t h e d a te on w h ich e i t h e r o f t h e
c o n t r a c t in g p a r t i e s s h a l l have g iv e n n o t i c e t o t h e o th e r o f
i t s i n t e n t i o n t o te r m in a te th e t r e a t y *
In c a s e n e i t h e r o f t h e c o n t r a c t in g p a r t i e s s h a l l
have g iv e n n o t i c e t o t h e o th e r s i x m onths b e f o r e t h e e x p ir a ­
t i o n o f th e s a id p e r io d o f tw e lv e y e a r s o f i t s i n t e n t i o n t o
t e r m in a t e t h e t r e a t y , i t s h a l l c o n tin u e t o b e o p e r a t iv e u n t i l
t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f s i x m onths from th e d a te on w h ich e i t h e r
p a r t y s h a l l have g iv e n su ch n o t i c e ♦" Supplem ent, op, c i t „
p, 1 0 5 ,
37
The t o t a l a r e a o f Japan , in c lu d in g c o l o n i e s , i s
6 8 1 .0 0 0 sq u a re k i l o m e t r e s o r ,2 6 0 ,4 6 1 sq u a r e m i l e s , o f w h ich
t h a t o f Japan p r o p e r I s com puted a t 3 8 2 ,3 0 0 sq u a re k i l o ­
m e tr e s o r 1 4 7 ,4 1 6 sq u a r e m i le s .
D ata ta k e n from J a p a n ese
C ensus 1 9 3 0 .
The a r e a o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i s a p p r o x im a te ly
3 .5 0 0 .0 0 0 sq u are m i l e s ,
Klimm S . H a ll. I n tr o d u c to r y Economic
G eography.
(New York: H areourtj B race and Company, 1037 \ ,
p, 2 8 3 .
18
n e g l i g i b l e i n amount.
In 188G t h e t o t a l v a lu e o f t h e im p o r ts and e x p o r ts o f
Japan was o n ly Y 6 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,
In 1900 i t
in c r e a s e d t o
Y 4 8 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; i n 1913 t o T U 3 6 8 * 0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; in 1918 t o
Y 3 ,6 3 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; in 1920 t o Y 4 ,2 7 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 and in 1929 t o
39
Y 4 ,3 6 4 ,8 5 8 ,0 0 0 .
The t o t a l im p o rts and e x p o r ts o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s l i k e w i s e showed a g r e a t I n c r e a s e ,
In 19 0 0
t h e y am ounted t o $ 2 ,2 4 4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; in 1913 t o $ 4 ,2 7 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ;
in 1918 t o $ 8 ,8 6 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; i n 1920 t o # 1 3 ,5 0 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 and In
1929 t o # 8 ,5 4 2 ,7 1 0 ,0 0 0 .
I t can be s e e n from t h e s e f i g u r e s
t h a t Japan *s t o t a l volum e o f f o r e i g n t r a d e was v e r y s m a ll a s
compared w it h t h a t o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , b e in g ab ou t onet e n t h in 1 9 0 0 , o n e - s i x t h in 1913, o n e - f i f t h In 1 9 1 8 , one-
38
The t o t a l v a lu e o f Japan*s f o r e i g n tr a d e i n 1868
was Y27,GQQ,G0Q, P r io r t o 1 8 9 8 , th e v a lu e o f im p orted
g o o d s was t h e a c t u a l c o s t a t t h e p la c e o f p u r c h a s e , s o t h a t
an a d d i t io n o f 15 p e r c e n t m ust be made t o t h e im port
f i g u r e s o f e a ch y e a r t o c o v e r f r e i g h t , in s u r a n c e , and o th e r
c h a r g e s , in c u r r e d up t o t h e tim e o f t h e i r a r r i v a l a t t h e
d e s t i n a t i o n , in o rd er t o make an a p p r o x im a te ly c o r r e c t
e s t im a t e o f t h e c o s t o f im ported good s t o Japan. I s o s h i
A sa h i, The Econom ic S tr e n g th o f Japan > (T ok io: H oku seid o
P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 7 , P* 173 and Yukimasa H a t t o r i , The F o r e ig n
Commerce o f Japan S in c e t h e R e s t o r a t io n , 1869- 1900.
(B a ltim o r e r The John's Hopki'ns P r e s s , 19041“ p . S'.
39
T a b le s T and Cl
40
S t a t i s t i c a l A b s tr a c t o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 2 0 .
(W ash ington, D. CTT p , 397.
19
s i x t h in 1 9 BO, and o n © -fo u r th in 1929,
e x p a n s io n was g r e a t e r
But i t s r a t e o f
In 1920 and 1 9 2 9 , t h e t o t a l f o r e i g n
tr a d e o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s was 5 .5 tim e s and 3 .8 t im e s a s
la r g e a s t h a t in 1900 r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h ile t h a t o f Japan was
8 . 8 t im e s and 9 .0 t im e s a s la r g e ,
P la c e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in t h e f o r e i g n t r a d e o f
Japan,
Prom 1900 t o 1929 ab ou t 30 t o 40 p e r c e n t o f J a p a n f s
e x p o r t tr a d e was w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , w h ile h e r im p o r ts
from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , w h ich from 1900 t o 1913 i n c l u s i v e
am ounted t o 17 p er c e n t o f h er t o t a l im p o r ts,
in c r e a s e d f o r
41
t h e y e a r s 1921 t o 1929 i n c l u s i v e t o 29 p e r c e n t
D u rin g
t h e p e r io d o f t h e U rea t War, th e a v e r a g e p e r c e n ta g e o f
A m erica*s sh a r e i n t h e t o t a l f o r e i g n t r a d e o f Japan amounted
t o 28 p e r c e n t.
R o u g h ly s p e a k in g , th e n ,
somewhat l e s s th a n
o n e - t h ir d o f Japan *s f o r e i g n tr a d e was w ith th e U n ite d
S ta te s,
and t h e l a t t e r e n jo y e d f i r s t p la c e w ith r e s p e c t t o
volum e o f tr a d e among t h e n a t io n s w it h w h ich Japan tr a d e d ,
China o c c u p ie d seco n d p l a c e , b u t sh e e n jo y e d l e s s th a n 20
p e r c e n t o f Jap an f s e x p o r ts and abou t 10 p e r c e n t o f h er
42
im p o r ts f o r t h e y e a r s 1921 t o 1929,
P la c e o f Japan i n t h e f o r e i g n tr a d e o f t h e U n ite d
41
T a b le s
^
t
and XI
T a b le s T and I I
20
TABLE I
JAPANESE EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES
AND OTHER COUNTRIES.
1 900-1929*
(I n th o u sa n d s o f Yen: 1900----- 100)
A verage
T o ta l
J ap an ese
e x p o r ts
1 9 0 0 -1 9 0 9
1 910
1911
1912
1913
A verage
4 5 8 ,4 2 8
4 4 7 ,4 3 3
5 2 6 ,9 8 1
6 3 2 ,4 6 0
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3
224
219
258
309
187
1 4 3 ,7 0 2
1 4 2 ,7 2 5
1 6 8 ,7 0 8
1 8 4 ,4 7 3
278
271
320
350
221
31
32
32
29
30
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
A verage
5 9 1 ,1 0 1
7 0 8 ,3 0 6
1 ,1 2 7 ,4 6 8
1 ,6 0 3 ,0 0 5
1 ,9 6 2 ,1 0 0
2 ,0 9 8 ,8 7 2
1 ,9 4 8 ,3 9 5
1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 0
289
346
552
784
960
1 ,0 2 7
953
660
1 9 6 ,5 3 9
2 0 4 ,1 4 1
3 4 0 ,2 4 4
4 7 8 ,5 3 7
5 3 0 ,1 2 9
8 2 8 ,0 9 7
5 6 5 ,0 1 7
373
388
647
910
1 ,0 0 8
1 ,5 7 5
1 ,0 7 5
817
33
29
30
30
27
39
29
31
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
A verage
1 ,2 5 2 ,8 3 7
1 ,6 3 7 ,4 5 1
1 ,4 4 7 ,7 5 0
1 ,8 0 7 ,0 3 4
2 ,3 0 5 ,5 8 9
2 ,0 0 4 ,7 2 7
1 ,9 9 2 ,3 1 7
1 ,9 7 1 ,9 5 5
2 ,1 4 8 ,6 1 8
1 9 2 1 -1 9 2 9
612
800
707
883
1 ,1 2 7
980
974
964
1 ,0 5 0
900
4 9 6 ,2 8 4
7 3 2 ,3 7 7
6 0 5 ,6 1 9
7 4 4 ,9 2 6
1 ,0 0 6 ,2 5 3
8 6 0 ,8 8 1
8 3 3 ,8 0 4
8 2 6 ,1 4 1
9 1 4 ,1 0 2
960
1 ,4 1 7
1 ,1 7 2
1 ,4 4 1
1 ,9 4 7
1 ,6 6 5
1 ,6 1 3
1 ,5 9 8
1,, 768
1 ,5 0 9
40
45
42
41
44
43
42
42
43
42
Y ear
In d e x
number
161
Jap an ese
e x p o r ts
t o U. S .
In d e x
number
195
P e r c e n ta g e
of to ta l
e x p o r ts
29
*D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The F in a n c ia l and Economic
A nnual o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r in t in g O f f i c e , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The A nnual R eturn o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T ok io: D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F i n a n c e o f Japan, The M onthly Rep o r t o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f l e e , T $ 2 i- i9 3 1 )
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 2 1 1951 (T o k io : K enkyusha P r e s s )
21
TABLE I (continued)
JAPMESE EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES
AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1900-1929*
(I n th o u sa n d s o f Ten: 19 0 0 — 100)
J a p a n ese
e x p o r ts
t o China
A verage 1 9 0 0 -1 9 0 9
In d ex
number
163
P e r c e n ta g e
of to ta l
e x p o r ts
6
2 5 ,7 8 1
2 3 ,8 2 4
2 9 ,7 9 2
3 2 ,8 7 0
228
211
264
291
188
6
5
6
5
6
27
21
17
20
18
21
21
21
3 3 ,0 8 6
6 8 ,4 9 4
1 0 2 ,6 5 8
2 0 2 ,6 4 6
1 4 2 ,8 6 6
1 1 1 ,4 5 3
9 7 ,7 9 7
293
608
910
1 ,7 9 9
1 ,2 6 8
989
865
978
6
7
9
13
7
5
5
9
23
20
19
19
20
21
17
19
16
19
3 2 ,7 7 2
5 4 ,4 3 8
4 0 ,4 1 0
6 1 ,0 4 4
5 9. 716
5 9 ,4 9 4
6 4 ,9 3 0
5 8 ,9 0 4
6 3 ,1 8 3
290
481
357
540
428
526
574
521
559
475
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
number
215
P e r c e n ta g e
of to ta l
e x p o r ts
21
J ap an ese
e x p o r ts
t o U. K.
1910
9 0 ,0 3 7
1911
8 8 ,1 5 3
1 1 4 ,8 2 4
1912
1 5 4 ,6 6 0
1913
A verage 1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3
280
276
360
485
254
20
20
24
24
21
1914
1 6 2 ,3 7 1
1915
1 4 1 ,1 2 3
1 9 2 ,7 1 3
1916
1917
3 1 8 ,3 8 1
3 5 9 ,1 5 9
1918
1919
4 4 7 ,0 4 9
1920
4 1 0 ,2 7 0
A verage 1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 0
509
449
602
998
JL 126
1 ,4 0 3
1 ,2 8 1
848
2 8 7 ,2 2 7
1921
3 3 3 ,5 2 0
1922
1923
2 7 2 ,1 9 1
1924
3 4 8 ,3 9 9
4 6 8 ,4 3 9
1925
1926
4 2 1 ,8 6 1
1927
3 3 4 ,1 8 4
1928
3 7 3 ,1 4 2
1929
3 4 6 ,6 5 2
A verage 1 9 2 1 -1 9 2 9
893
L, 037
846
1 ,0 8 3
1 ,4 5 7
1 ,3 1 2
1 ,0 3 9
1 ,1 6 0
1 ,0 7 8
1 .1 0 1
Y ear
In d ex
*D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Jap an , The F in a n c ia l and Econom ic
A nnual o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The A nnual R eturn o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 0 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The M onthly R eport o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Ill’s 1 - 1 9 3 1 t
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 2 1 1931 (T o k io : Kenkyusha P r e s s )
22
TABLE II
JAPANESE IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES
AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 9 *
(I n th o u sa n d s o f Yen: 1900— -1 0 0 )
Y ear
T o ta l
J ap an ese
im p o r ts .
In d ex
number
Ja p a n ese
im p o rts
from U .S .
number
P e r c e n ta g e
o f to ta l
e x p o r ts
104
17
In d e x
A verage
1 9 0 0 -1 9 0 9
130
1910
1911
1912
1913
A verage
4 6 4 ,2 3 3
5 1 3 ,8 0 5
6 1 8 ,9 9 2
7 2 9 ,4 3 1
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3
162
179
215
254
151
5 4 ,6 9 9
8 1 ,2 5 0
1 2 7 ,0 1 5
1 2 2 ,4 0 8
87
129
202
195
118
12
16
21
17
17
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
A verage
5 9 5 ,7 3 5
5 3 2 ,4 4 9
7 5 6 ,4 2 7
1 ,0 3 5 ,8 1 1
1 ,6 6 8 ,1 4 3
2 ,1 7 3 ,4 5 9
2 ,3 3 6 ,1 7 5
1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 0
207
185
263
361
581
757
814
392
9 6 ,7 7 1
1 0 2 ,5 3 4
2 0 4 ,0 7 8
3 5 9 ,7 0 5
6 2 6 ,2 0 5
7 6 6 ,3 8 7
8 3 7 .1 7 7
58
163
325
573
999
1 ,2 2 2
1 ,3 2 9
572
16
19
27
35
37
35
36
28
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
A verage.
X,6 1 4 ,1 5 4
1 ,8 9 0 ,3 0 8
1 ,9 8 2 ,2 3 0
2 ,4 5 3 ,4 0 2
2 ,5 7 2 ,6 5 7
2 ,3 7 7 ,4 8 4
2 ,1 7 9 ,1 5 3
2 ,1 9 6 ,3 1 4
2 ,2 1 6 ,2 4 0
1 9 2 1 -1 9 2 9
563
660
692
856
898
830
760
766
773
656
5 7 4 ,4 0 1
5 9 6 ,1 6 9
5 1 1 ,9 7 7
6 7 0 ,9 9 3
6 6 4 ,9 9 2
6 8 0 ,1 8 6
6 7 3 ,6 8 6
6 2 5 ,5 0 3
6 5 4 ,0 5 5
914
948
814
1 ,0 6 7
1 ,0 5 8
1 ,0 8 2
1 ,0 7 2
995
1 ,0 4 0
999
36
32
26
27
26
29
31
28
30
29
*D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Jap an , The F in a n c ia l and Economic
A nnual o f Japan (T o k io ; D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 0 6 -1 9 2 0 )
Departm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The Annual R etu rn o f t h e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The M onthly R ep ort o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 1 -1 9 3 1 ;
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Jap an a Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 2 1 1931 (T o k io : K enkyusha P r e s s )
TABLE II (continued)
JAPANESE IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES
AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 9 *
(I n th o u sa n d s o f Yen: 1900-----1 00)
J a p a n ese
In d ex
im p o r ts
from C hina number
A verage 1 9 0 0 -1 9 0 9
155
Y ear
1910
6 8 ,5 7 0
6 2 ,0 0 0
1911
1912
5 4 ,8 0 7
1913
6 1 ,2 2 3
A verage 1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3
P e r c e n ta g e
o f to ta l
im p o r ts
13
J ap an ese In d ex
im p o r ts
from U. K. number
115
P e r c e n ta g e
of to ta l
im p o r ts
22
228
200
182
204
169
15
12
9
8
12
9 4 ,7 0 1
1 1 1 ,1 6 7
1 1 6 ,1 4 7
1 2 2 ,7 3 7
132
155
162
178
126
20
22
19
17
21
1914
194
5 8 ,3 0 6
1915
286
8 5 ,8 4 8
1 0 8 ,6 3 9
362
1916
1917
444
1 3 3 ,2 7 1
1918
2 8 1 ,7 0 9
940
3 2 2 ,1 0 1 1 ,0 7 5
1919
727
1920
2 1 8 ,0 8 9
A verage 1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 0
550
10
16
14
13
17
15
9
14
9 2 ,3 0 2
5 8 ,0 8 4
8 1 ,7 3 2
6 3 ,3 0 4
6 6 ,0 6 7
1 2 7 ,5 4 1
2 3 2 ,2 1 5
128
81
114
88
92
178
322
124
15
11
11
6
4
6
10
9
637
621
682
792
716
798
753
782
700
720
12
10
10
10
8
10
10
11
9
10
1 8 4 ,3 0 7
2 3 2 ,3 1 0
2 3 7 ,1 3 4
3 1 2 ,7 5 1
2 2 7 ,2 9 2
1 7 0 ,2 7 4
1 5 3 ,2 7 2
1 6 4 ,8 4 0
1 5 3 ,0 5 1
257
324
331
436
317
238
214
230
213
284
11
12
12
13
9
7
7
8
7
10
1 9 1 ,6 7 8
1921
1922
1 8 6 ,3 4 4
2 0 4 ,6 7 9
1923
1924
2 3 7 ,5 5 2
1925
2 1 4 ,6 5 8
2 3 9 ,4 1 0
1926
2 2 6 ,0 3 4
1927
1928
2 3 4 ,5 4 7
1929
2 0 9 ,9 7 5
A verage 1 9 2 1 -1 9 2 9
♦D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Jap an , The F in a n c ia l and Econom ic
Annual o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent- P r in t in g O f f i c e , 1 9 0 6 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The Annual R eturn o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : D epartm ent P r i n t i n g O f f ic e ,~ T 9 0 6 -1 9 2 0 )
D epartm ent o f F in a n c e o f Japan, The M onthly R eport o f th e
F o r e ig n Trade o f Japan (T o k io : Departm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , T 9 2 1 -1 9 3 1 )
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear B ook , 1 9 2 1 1931 (T ok io: K enkyusha P r e s s )
24
S ta te s.
The im p o r ts i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s from Japan,
w h ieh w ere 4 . 6 p e r c e n t o f h e r t o t a l im p o r ts from 1900 t o
1913 i n c l u s i v e , in c r e a s e d t o 9 . 4 p e r c e n t f o r t h e y e a r s 1920
43
t o 1930,
The e x p o r ts t o Japan from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s f o r
t h e p e r io d 1900 t o 1913 a c c o u n te d f o r o n ly 2 p e r c e n t, b u t
t h e y in c r e a s e d t o 5>8 p e r c e n t f o r t h e y e a r s 19 2 0 t o 1 9 3 0 ,
44
J a p a n ’ s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n in t h e f o r e i g n t r a d e o f
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s w as, how ever,
w ould i n d i c a t e ,
g r e a t e r th a n t h e s e f i g u r e s
In t h e f i s c a l y e a r e n d in g June 3 0 , 1914,
Japan o c c u p ie d s i x t h p la c e i n r e s p e c t t o t h e t o t a l f o r e i g n
tr a d e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
com ing a f t e r G reat B r i t a i n ,
Germany, Canada, F ran ce, and Cuba a f t e r th e o rd er named,
45
In 1918 Japan o c c u p ie d f o u r t h p la c e in th e t o t a l f o r e i g n
t r a d e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , r a n k in g a f t e r G reat B r it a i n ,
Canada, and F ra n cej w h ile sh e ranked t h ir d in t h e im port
and f i f t h
In t h e e x p o r t t r a d e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
But in
1930 sh e o c c u p ie d t h i r d p la c e i n th e t o t a l f o r e i g n tr a d e o f
46
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , com ing a f t e r Canada and G reat B r it a in ,
P r i n c i p a l com m od ities e x p o r te d t o t h e u n it e d S t a t e s
from Japan.
The v a r i e t i e s o f J a p a n ese m erch a n d ise e x p o r te d
43 T a b le I I I
44
T a b le t i l
45 T a b le IV.
46 T a b le IV.
25
TABLE III
DISTRIBUTION OF U* S* FOREIGN TRADE WITH ASIA
1 9 0 0 -1 9 3 0 *
(I n th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s )
Average
E x p o rts from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
P e r c e n ta g e I n t o P e r c e n ta g e I n t o P e r c e n ta g e
of to ta l
of to ta l
of to ta l
e x p o r ts
C hina
e x p o r ts
A s ia
e x p o r ts
Japan
2
2
5
1 9 0 0 -1 9 0 9
1910
1911
1912
1913
Average
6 0 ,8 6 1
8 5 ,4 2 2
1 1 7 ,4 6 1
1 1 5 ,0 5 6
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3
3
4
5
5
5
2 1 ,9 5 9
3 6 ,7 2 1
5 3 ,3 7 8
5 7 ,7 4 1
I
2
2
2
2
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
Average
1 1 3 ,4 2 5
1 1 4 ,4 7 0
2 7 8 ,6 1 0
3 8 0 ,2 4 9
4 4 7 ,4 2 9
7 0 1 ,1 6 7
7 7 1 ,9 5 4
1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 0
5
4
6
6
8
9
9
7
5 1 ,2 0 5
4 1 ,5 1 7
7 4 ,4 7 0
1 3 0 ,4 2 7
2 6 7 ,6 4 1
3 6 6 ,3 6 4
3 7 7 ,9 6 2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
3
2 4 ,6 9 8
1 6 ,4 0 2
2 5 ,1 3 1
3 7 ,1 9 5
4 3 ,3 7 6
1 1 8 ,2 7 4 U )
1 5 2 ,8 7 5
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1 9 2 0 -2 1
1 9 2 1 -2 2
1 9 2 2 -2 3
1 9 2 3 -2 4
1 9 2 4 -2 5
1 9 2 5 -2 6
1 9 2 6 -2 7
1 9 2 7 -2 8
1 9 2 8 -2 9
1 9 2 9 -3 0
Average
6 3 3 ,3 4 0
4 8 0 ,8 5 6
4 3 6 ,8 7 2
5 6 2 ,5 9 9
4 5 7 ,6 0 9
5 3 7 ,5 5 3
5 8 6 ,7 9 7
5 6 7 ,8 3 7
6 8 5 ,5 2 5
5 6 6 ,1 1 7
1 9 2 0 -1 9 3 0
10
13
11
13
9
11
12
12
13
12
13
1 8 9 ,1 8 2
2 4 8 ,7 1 6
2 1 2 ,9 7 4
2 8 3 ,2 9 6
2 1 8 ,6 0 3
2 5 4 ,4 8 0
2 6 7 ,4 0 1
2 5 2 ,9 5 5
2 9 1 ,8 3 3
2 2 9 ,5 7 8
3
7
5
7
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
1 3 8 ,4 5 5
1 0 0 ,8 5 3
9 6 ,8 5 2
1 2 4 ,4 2 7
8 9 ,0 0 9
1 0 3 ,4 0 0
1 0 1 ,9 9 8
9 4 ,4 0 5
1 7 2 ,1 1 9 (2 )
1 3 5 ,3 5 4 (2 )
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
Y ear
In to
1 6 ,3 2 0
1 9 ,2 8 7
2 4 ,3 6 1
2 1 ,3 2 6
1
1
1
1
1
*11) A m erica n -C h in ese tr a d e f o r 1919 and 1920 in c lu d e s
tr a d e w ith K w antung-L eased T e r r it o r y .
(2 ) F ig u r e s in c lu d e China^ Hongkong and Kwantung,
U S< D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and
N a v ig a t io n o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s and th e S t a t i s t i c a l A b s tr a c t o f
th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
26
TABLE I I I (c o n tin u e d )
DISTRIBUTION Of U- S,. FOREIGN TRADE WITH ASIA
1 9 0 0 -1 9 3 0
( I n th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s )
A verage
Im p o rts i n t o t h e t /n it e d S t a t e s
P e r c e n ta g e From P e r c e n ta g e From P e r c e n ta g e
of to ta l
of to ta l
of to ta l
A s ia
im p o r ts
Japan im p o r ts
C hina
im p o r ts
2
5
1 9 0 0 -1 9 0 9
15
1910
1911
1912
1913
A verage
1 9 3 ,1 5 5
2 1 3 ,4 4 9
2 2 5 ,4 6 8
2 7 6 ,4 9 4
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3
12
14
14
15
15
6 6 ,3 9 8
7 8 ,5 2 7
8 0 ,6 0 7
9 1 ,6 3 3
4
5
5
5
5
2 9 ,9 9 0
3 4 ,2 2 7
2 9 ,5 7 3
3 9 ,0 1 0
2
2
2
2
2
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
A verage
2 8 6 ,9 5 2
2 4 7 ,7 7 0
4 3 7 ,1 8 1
6 1 5 ,2 1 7
8 2 6 ,1 9 3
± ,0 4 1 ,4 4 4
1 ,2 8 3 ,8 0 1
1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 0
15
15
20
23
28
27
24
22
1 0 7 ,3 5 5
9 8 ,8 8 2
1 4 7 ,6 4 4
2 0 8 ,1 2 7
2 8 4 ,9 4 5
4 0 9 ,8 5 3
4 1 4 ,5 6 5
6
5
7
8
10
11
8
8
3 9 ,3 8 2
4 0 ,1 5 6
7 1 ,6 5 5
1 0 5 ,9 0 5
1 1 6 ,6 4 4
1 7 0 ,1 7 7
2 0 4 ,2 2 2
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
3
1 9 2 0 -2 1
1 9 2 1 -2 2
1 9 2 2 -2 3
1 9 2 3 -2 4
1 9 2 4 -2 5
1 9 2 5 -2 6
1 9 2 6 -2 7
1 9 2 7 -2 8
1 9 2 8 -2 9
1 9 2 9 -3 0
A verage
9 0 9 ,8 4 9
7 0 4 ,5 5 6
9 9 6 ,7 7 2
994*794
± ,0 4 8 ,1 1 5
1 ,4 8 8 ,6 5 5
1 ,-3 1 5 ,0 6 4
1 ,2 1 5 ,4 8 8
1 ,2 2 3 ,0 4 6
1 ,0 9 6 ,5 1 0
1 9 2 0 -1 9 3 0
25
27
26
28
27
33
31
29
29
28
28
2 5 3 ,2 1 8
3 0 7 ,5 1 5
3 7 2 ,4 6 4
3 2 5 ,3 4 2
3 4 2 ,3 7 9
4 0 5 ,6 4 6
4 1 8 ,1 8 3
3 9 0 ,8 4 4
3 9 9 ,4 8 3
3 6 6 ,2 1 4
7
12
10
9
9
9
10
9
9
10
9
± 1 3 ,1 8 6
1 0 9 ,4 1 1
1 6 9 ,6 1 9
1 5 7 ,8 8 2
1 4 7 ,3 0 7
1 4 9 ,9 6 3
1 6 1 ,8 1 4
1 3 8 ,0 1 1
1 7 1 ,1 6 4
1 5 3 ,9 3 4
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
From
*C u A m erica n -C h in ese tr a d e f o r 1919 and L920 in c lu d e s
t r a d e w it h K w antung-Leased T erritory/-.
(2) F ig u r e s in c lu d e C h in a, Hongkong and Kwantung,
U. S . D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Comm erce and N a v ig a ­
t i o n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and th e S t a t i s t i c a l A b s tr a c t o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s .
'
TABLE IT
DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES
1 9 1 3 , 1 9 1 7 ; 1 9 2 0 , and 1929*
(I n th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s )
U n ite d Kingdom
Germany
Canada
F ran ce
Cuba
Japan
N e th e r la n d s
E a st I n d ie s
U n ite d Kingdom
Canada
F ran ce
Japan
Cuba
E a st I n d ie s
I ta ly
M exico
U, S. P e r c e n t .
U< S . P e r c e n t.
im p o rts o f t o t a l Rank e x p o r ts o f t o t a l Rank
from
U .S . imp
in to
U .S . exp
J u ly
1913 -----June 3 0 ,
i
5 9 4 ,2 7 1
2 5 .1
<r *1
2 9 3 ,6 6 i
I S .5
1 8 9 ,9 1 9
1 0 .0
2
3 4 4 ,7 9 4
1 4 .6
1 6 0 ,6 8 9
3
8 .5
3 4 4 ,7 1 6
3
1 4 .6
1 4 1 ,4 4 6
7 ,5
4
1 5 9 ,8 1 8
6 .8
4
1 3 1 ,3 0 3
6 .9
5
6 8 ,8 8 4
2 .9
7
1 0 7 ,3 5 5
5 .7
7
5 1 ,2 0 5
2 .2
9
3 6 ,2 9 4
10
1 .9
1 1 2 ,2 1 5
4 .8
5
1 5 ,6 2 5
1 1 1 ,9 0 3
5 .9
10
6
.7
J u ly 1 , 1917 -----June 3 0 ,
1 9 0 ,0 8 2
6 .5
5 1 ,9 9 5 ,8 6 3
3 3 .7
1
4 3 4 ,2 5 4
1 4 r7
1
7 7 8 ,4 9 0
1 3 .2
3
7 5 ,6 3 8
7
8 8 3 ,7 3 9
1 4 .9
2
2 .6
3
2 6 7 ,6 4 1
2 8 4 ,9 4 5
9 .7
4 .5
5
2 6 4 ,0 2 4
9 .0
4
4 .0
6
2 3 5 ,4 6 9
1 0 .1
2
2 9 6 ,6 0 6
5 2 ,2 9 2
1 .0
8
3 0 ,0 1 4
8
4
1 .0
4 7 7 ,8 9 8
8 .1
1 4 0 ,6 5 9
4 .8
1 0 7 ,0 7 7
1 .8
6
7
P ercent o f
T o ta l
U .S . tr a d e t o t a l U .S . Rank
tr a d e w ith
w ith
1914
20. S
1
8 8 ? ,9 3 3
1 2 .3
5 3 4 ,7 1 3
2
1 1 .5
3
5 0 5 ,4 0 6
7 1
4
3 0 1 ,2 6 5
4 .9
5
2 0 0 ,1 8 8
4 .0
6
1 5 5 ,5 6 1
3 .3
7
1 4 8 ,5 0 9
3 .3
8
1 2 7 ,5 2 8
1918
2 0 .1
2 ,1 8 5 ,9 4 5
1
1 ,2 1 2 ,7 4 4
1 3 .9
2
9 5 9 ,3 7 2
8 .8
3
5 5 2 ,5 8 6
7 1
4
4 9 9 ,4 9 3
6 .5
5
3 4 8 ,8 9 9
5 .5
6
4 .6
5 0 7 ,9 1 3
7
3 .3
2 4 7 ,7 3 6
8
S, Department of Commerce, Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United
States and the Statistical Abstract of the United States.
to
->3
TABLE 17 (continued)
DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES,
1 9 1 3 , 1 9 1 7 , 1 9 2 0 , and 1929*
(I n th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s )
U n ite d Kingdom
Canada
Cuba
F ran ce
Japan
Canada
U n ite d Kingdom
Japan
Germany
Cuba
U, S. P e r c e n t .
U, S, P e r c e n t c
im p o r ts o f t o t a l Rank e x p o r ts o f t o t a l Rank
in to
from
U .S . imp
U .S . exp
1 9 2 0 , C alen d ar y e a r
1 ,8 2 5 ,0 3 0
2 2 .2
3 1 3 ,8 4 7
9 ,7
1
9 7 1 ,8 5 4
1 1 .8
6 1 1 ,7 8 8
2
2
1 1 .6
7 2 1 ,6 9 6
1 3 ,7
1
5 1 5 ,0 8 3
6 .3
4
6 7 6 ,1 9 3
8 .2
1 6 5 ,6 5 5
3 .8
5
3
4 1 5 .6 5 6
4
4 .3
7 .9
3 7 7 ,9 6 3
5
J u ly 1 , 1929— -Ju n e> 3 o .
1 7 .4
4 7 5 ,1 1 3
1 2 .3
3
8 1 7 ,0 2 7
1
1
7 8 4 ,3 9 9
2 8 0 ,8 4 7
7 .3
2
1 6 ,7
3 9 9 ,4 8 3
1 0 .4
2
4 .9
2 2 9 ,5 7 8
4
2 2 4 ,3 7 9
4
3 6 3 ,1 8 8
3
5 .8
11
1 5 0 .0 5 5
3 .9
5
1 1 5 ,7 2 5
2 .5
5
s
P ercent o f
T o ta l
U .S , tr a d e t o t a l U,.S. Rank
tr a d e w it h
w ith
2 ,3 3 8 ,8 7 7
1 ,5 8 2 ,6 4 2
1 ,2 3 6 ,7 7 9
8 4 1 ,8 4 8
7 9 3 ,6 1 7
1930
1 ,2 9 2 ,1 4 6
1 ,0 6 5 ,2 4 6
6 2 9 ,0 6 1
5 8 7 ,5 6 7
2 6 5 ,7 8 0
1 6 .0
1 1 .8
1 0 .0
5 .7
6 .2
I
2
3
5
4
1 5 .1
1 2 .5
7 .4
6 .9
3 .1
1
2
3
4
5
*U, S Department of Commerce, Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United
States and the Statistical Abstract of the United States,
29
t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s numbered more th a n tw o hundred and f i f t y .
The p r i n c i p a l com m od ities w ere, how ever,
number— raw s i l k ,
te a ,
m a n u fa ctu re, p o r c e l a in ,
s i l k fa b r ic s ,
f i v e t o sev en in
str a w b r a id s f o r h a t
cop p er, and m a ttin g .
The t o t a l
amount o f e x p o r ts o f t h e s e s e v e n a r t i c l e s in 1913 was 1 1 5 5 ,
9 0 3 ,0 0 0 .
c o m p r isin g 8 4 .5 p e r c e n t o f J a p a n 's t o t a l e x p o r ts
t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ; i n 1918 i t amounted t o 1 3 6 7 ,1 5 2 ,0 0 0 ,
a c c o u n tin g f o r 70 p e r c e n t o f J a p a n 's t o t a l e x p o r ts t o t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s , w h ile t h e t o t a l amount o f e x p o r ts o f t h e f i v e
a r t i c l e s e x c lu d in g cop p er and m a ttin g in 1929 was 1 7 9 4 ,0 6 2 ,0 0 0
47
o r 8 6 .9 p e r c e n t,
4mong th e s e v e n co m m o d ities, raw s i l k
a c c o u n te d f o r 1 1 8 8 ,9 1 7 ,0 0 0 o r 6 2 .8 p e r c e n t o f h e r e x p o r ts
t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i n 1 9 1 3 , 1 3 7 0 ,3 5 7 ,0 0 0 o r 61 • l p e r c e n t
in 1 9 1 8 , and 1 7 5 5 ,3 7 8 ,0 0 0 or 8 2 .6 p e r c e n t in 1929,
E x p o r ts o f t e a amounted t o 1 8 ,8 4 7 ,0 0 0 or 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f
t o t a l J a p a n ese e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in 1 9 1 3 ,
1 2 5 ,0 5 6 ,0 0 0 or 3 .6 p er c e n t in 1 9 1 8 , w h ile in 1929 t h e y
dropped t o 1 8 ,1 2 5 ,0 0 0 or 0 .9 p e r c e n t
The U n ite d S t a t e s
h a s lo n g s u p p lie d t h e l a r g e s t m arket f o r J a p a n ese raw. s i l k
47
U n ite d S t a t e s Departm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n
Commerce and N a v ig a tio n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 1 3 , l 9 l 8 ,
and l92£T,
(B ureau o f F o r e ig n and DomesTic Commerce,
W a sh in g ton 3 B, C ,‘
48
hoc, c i t ,
hoc. c i t .
30
and t e a ,
D u rin g t h e p e r io d 1900 t o 1913 and th e p e r io d 1914
t o 1 9 1 8 , 6 9 .0 p e r c e n t and 84*9 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l Japan­
e s e e x p o r ts o f raw s i l k were t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s r e s p e c t i v e ­
ly .
and froia 1923 t o 1929 i n c l u s i v e , 9 2 .6 p e r c e n t w ere ex 50
p o r te d t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
D u ring t h e f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f
t h e p re-w a r p e r io d ,
87 ~1 p e r c e n t o f J a p a n ese e x p o r ts o f t e a
e n te r e d t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ; d u r in g t h e war p e r io d 1914 t o
1918. t h e p e r c e n ta g e was 8 4 .6 p e r c e n t, w h ile d u rin g t h e
p e r io d 1923 t o 1929, 8 0 .5 p e r c e n t was e x p o r te d t o t h e
51
U n ite d S t a t e s ,
L et u s tu r n now t o t h e r e l a t i v e im p ortan ce t o t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s o f t h e im p o r ts from Japan o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s ,
D u ring t h e p r e-w a r p e r io d ,
1900 t o 1913 i n c l u s i v e ,
Japan
s u p p lie d 5 6 .7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l im p o r ts o f raw s i l k i n t o
52
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
In t h e e a s e o f t e a , Japan s u p p lie d
4 5 .6 p e r c e n t;
o f p o r c e l a in , 1 0 .6 p e r c e n t: o f s i l k f a b r i c s ,
1 2 .6 p e r c e n t;
o f b r a id s f o r h a t m a n u fa ctu re, 2 4 .9 and o f
53
c o p p er, 4 . 0 p e r c e n t .
For t h e war p e r io d , 1914 t o 19 1 8 , t h e s e p e r c e n ta g e s
showed a g r e a t i n c r e a s e ,
Japan s u p p lie d 7 6 .7 p e r c e n t o f
I b i d . , 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 9 ,
in c lu s iv e .
51
hoc» c i t ,
52
53
I b id .
hoc,
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3 , i n c l u s i v e ,
c it,
31
t h e raw s i l k im p orted i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and 4 1 .4 p e r
54
c e n t o f t h e t e a im p orted ,
J a p a n ese m ats and m a ttin g
r e p r e s e n t e d 7 5 .0 p e r c e n t:
cop p er 4 . 3 p e r e e n t;
and p o r c e 55
lain wares 35.7 per cent of American imports of the articles,
Japan s u p p lie d 24c 7 p e r e e n t o f U n ite d S t a t e s im p o r ts o f s i l k
56
f a b r i c s , and 5 7 .0 p er c e n t o f t h e b r a id s im p orted ,
D u ring t h e p e r io d 1923 t o 1929, t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f
U n ite d S t a t e s im p o rts o f raw s i l k from Japan in c r e a s e d t o
57
8 2 .3 p e r c e n t,
In t h e c a s e o f s i l k f a b r i c s , t h e p e r c e n t ­
a g e a l s o in c r e a s e d tr e m e n d o u sly , a c c o u n tin g f o r 8 6 .6 p e r
58
c e n t,
Japan s u p p lie d 3 7 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o r c e l a in w a res
im p orted i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , and 2 2 .4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a
59
im p o rted ,
On t h e o th e r hand, b e c a u se o f th e i n d u s t r i a l
d ev elo p m en t,
sh e s u p p lie d a lm o st no copper t o t h e U n ite d
60
S t a t e s d u r in g t h e same p e r io d .
P r i n c i p a l co m m o d ities im p orted from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
b y Japan.
55
56
57
The p r i n c i p a l co m m o d ities im p orted from t h e U n ite d
I b id .
1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 8 , i n c l u s i v e
I b id .
1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 8 , i n c l u s i v e
L oc. c r t ,
I b id .
1 9 2 3 -1 9 2 9 ,
L oc. c i t ,
l° c< o lt.
^
L oc, c i t .
in c lu s iv e ,
32
S t a t e s b y Japan w ere c o t t o n , k e r o se n e o i l ,
flo u r
s o l e le a t h e r ,
e r s , e n g in e s ,
p la te s ,
lo c o m o t iv e s , r a ilw a y c a r s ,
ste e l r a ils ,
ir o n and s t e e l ,
w h eat, w heat
Ir o n n a i l s ,
stea m b o i l ­
and v a r io u s k in d s o f
su ch a s ir o n b a r s and r o d s,
ir o n and s t e e l
e tc ,
D u ring t h e p e r io d 1900 t o 1913 i n c l u s i v e ,
th e U n ite d
S t a t e s s u p p lie d 2 4 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l J ap an ese Im p orts
an
o f c o t t o n and 6 9 ,.i p er c e n t o f t h e k e r o s e n e o i l
im p orted .
For w heat f l o u r t h e p e r c e n ta g e was 94*7 p e r c e n t; f o r s o l e
le a t h e r 7 6 .7 p er c e n t;
f o r s t e e l r a i l s 4 0 .9 p e r c e n t; and
62
f o r ir o n n a i l s 47*1 p e r c e n t,
The U n ite d S t a t e s s u p p lie d
3 0 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e lo c o m o t iv e s , r a ilw a y c a r s ,
steam b o i l ­
e r s and e n g in e s ; 4 4 .3 p e r c e n t o f t h e ir o n and s t e e l p ip e s
and t u b e s ; 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e ir o n and s t e e l p l a t e s and
s h e e t s ; and 3 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e ir o n b a r s and r o d s im p orted
63
i n t o Japan,
D u rin g t h e war p e r io d 1914 t o 1918 i n c l u s i v e ,
th e r e
was a s i g n i f i c a n t in c r e a s e in ir o n and s t e e l g ood s im ported
i n t o Japan from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , b u t a l e s s marked change
61
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Year
B ook, 19Q0-rl 9 1 5 .
(T o k io : K enkyusha P r e s s )
62
L oc, c i t ,
63
Loc, c i t .
33
m s n o t i c e a b l e in t h e o th e r p r i n c i p a l com m od ities im p orted ,
D u ring t h e p e r io d 19E3 t o 1929 i n c l u s i v e ,
64
t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s s u p p lie d 4 2 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l J a p an ese im p o r ts
o f c o tto n ,
5 5 .8 p e r c e n t o f t h e k e r o se n e o i l im p o rted , and
65
7 6 .1 p e r c e n t o f t h e woodim p orted .
The U n ite d S t a t e s
s u p p lie d 4 9 .7 p er c e n t
t h e ir o n ,
o f th e s o le le a th e r .
3 5 .8 p e r c e n t o f
66
and 4 8 .4 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e tr o le u m im p o rted .
T u rn in g t o t h e c o m p o sitio n o f Am erican e x p o r ts t o
Japan, d u r in g 1900 t o 191 3 i n c l u s i v e ,
1 7 .1 p e r c e n t,
and s o l e l e a t h e r
c o tto n r e p r e se n te d
ir o n n a i l s ,
ir o n and s t e e l
p ip e s , tu b e s ,
to g e th e r .
lo c o m o t iv e s , e n g in e s , and r a ilw a y c a r r ia g e s
67
9 . 2 p e r c e n t Thus t h e s e e ig h t co m m o d ities
a c c o u n te d f o r 7 8 .6 p er
c e n t o f t h e e x p o r t tr a d e o f th e U n ite d
S t a t e s w ith Japan,
A f t e r th e o u tb r e a k o f t h e war in 1914, and th e c o n s e ­
qu en t sto p p a g e o f ir o n and s t e e l im p o r ts from E ngland and
Germany, t h e r e was an enormous in c r e a s e i n su c h im p o r ts from
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
In 1917.
ir o n and s t e e l g ood s r e p r e s e n te d
more th a n 50 p er c e n t o f a l l t h e A m erican e x p o r ts t o Japan,
64
I b id .
1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 8 i n c l u s i v e ,
I b id .
1 9 2 3 -1 9 2 9 i n c l u s i v e ,
I b id .
1 9 2 3 -1 9 2 9 i n c l u s i v e ,
67 I b i d .,
1 9 0 0 -1 9 1 3 i n c l u s i v e ,
65
66
w h ile c o tt o n r e p r e s e n t e d 2 3 .4 p e r c e n t
1929 i n c l u s i v e ,
68
D u rin g 1923 t o
c o tt o n r e p r e s e n t e d 43 p e r c e n t and wood 1 1 .2
p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l J a p a n ese im p o r ts from t h e u n it e d
69
S ta te s,
K erosen e o i l le a t h e r , and ir o n r e p r e s e n t e d
a b o u t 8 . 2 p er c e n t o f a l l th e A m erican e x p o r ts t o Japan
70
d u r in g t h e same p e r io d .
68
69
I b id .
1917,
I b id .
1 9 2 3 -1 9 2 9 i n c l u s i v e .
CHAPTER III
FOREIGN TRADE POLICIES OF JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES
F o r e ig n tr a d e p o l i c i e s o f Japan and th e U n it e d - S t a t e s
w ere b a s e d upon f r e e ex ch a n g e and e q u a l i t y o f tr e a tm e n t,
but
t h e y have u n dergon e d r a s t i c ch an ges s i n c e th e c o l l a p s e o f
i n t e r n a t i o n a l m on etary e q u ilib r iu m r e g i s t e r e d b y t h e d e p r e ­
c i a t i o n o f s t e r l i n g in 1931,
T h ese c h a n g e s, a s w e l l a s
v a r io u s tr a d e r e g u l a t i o n s b etw een t h e tw o c o u n t r ie s , w i l l
b e d i s c u s s e d in t h i s c h a p te r ,
A,
FOREIGN TRADE POLICY OF JAPAN
T r a d i t io n a l f r e e exch an ge p o l i c y o f Japan. S c a n t i l y
b l e s s e d w ith n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , 1 r e s t r i c t e d in t h e i r
A cco rd in g t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n made by th e M its u ­
b i s h i Econom ic R e se a r c h B ureau i n T o k io , th e d e g r e e o f s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y in raw m a t e r i a ls o f Japan i s a s f o llo w s ;
A
M a te r ia ls a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p o r t ,•
s i l v e r . s u lp h u r , a r s e n i c , raw s i l k , f i s h - o i i ,
camphor, p ep p er m in t, v e g e t a b l e - o i L r a y o n .
B— - M a t e r ia ls n e a r ly a d e q u a te t o m eet d o m e stic demand,f e r r o w - a l l b y s , s t e e l , b ism u th , g r a p h it e , gypsum,
c l a y , k a o l i n e , s i l i c a - s a n d , lim e s t o n e , f l u o r i t e
o r c r y o l i t e , a l u n i t e , n i t r o g e n , ir o n p y r i t e ,
l e a t h e r , lu m b er, c o a l , l u b r i c a t i n g o i l . a s p h a lt ,
C
M a te r ia ls in a d e q u a te t o m eet d o m e s tic demand and
p a r t i a l l y d ep en d en t on f o r e i g n s o u r c e s ,p i g - i r o n , co p p er, chromium, so d a , b a r y t e s , p u lp ,
p a r a f f in , h id e s .
D
M a t e r ia ls in a d e q u a te t o m eet d o m e stic demand and
m o s t ly d e p e n d en t on f o r e i g n s o u r c e s ,ir o n o r e , s c r a p - i r o n , le a d , z i n e , t i n , m anganese,
t u n g s t e n , molybdenum, s a l t , b r i s t l e s , a n im a l f a t s ,
s h e l l s o f m o llu s c s , j u t e , f l a x , hemp.
36
e m ig r a tio n t o many s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d com m u n ities o f t h e
w o rld , t h e Jap an ese have lo n g s i n c e d e c id e d t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e
t h e i r c o u n tr y b y b r in g m a t e r i a ls from abroad; i n v e s t i n g
t h e i r abundant, w i l l i n g la b o r i n t o them and c o n v e r t in g them
i n t o t h e good s t h a t f i n d t h e i r m arket a l l o v e r t h e w o r ld ,
C o n se q u en tly ,
J ap an ’ s t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y in f o r e i g n tr a d e
2
h a s b een d i c t a t e d b y t h e p r i n c i p l e o f f r e e exch an ge and
t h e u n c o n d it io n a l m a in ten a n ce o f m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t io n t r e a t 3
m ent.
As w i l l b e d is c u s s e d in C hapter IT, th e g r e a t e r p a r t
E
M a te r ia ls f o r w h ieh th e c o u n tr y depends a lm o st
e n t i r e l y on f o r e i g n s o u r c e s ,*
n i c k e l, a n tim on y, q u i c k s i l v e r , p la tin u m ,
aluminum , m ica, a s b e s t o s , m a g n e s ite , p h o sp h a te s,
k a l i , n i t r a t e s , w o o l, p u lp , s h e l l a c and r e s i n ,
raw c o t t o n , p e tr o le u m .
M it s u b is h i Econom ic R e se a r c h B ureau, J a p a n ese Trade and
I n d u s t r y , P r e s e n t and F u tu r e . (London r M acm illan and
Company, Ltd1936"!. PP~ 7 5 -7 9 ,
g
F re e exch an ge means t h a t a lth o u g h d u t i e s a r e l e v i e d
upon g o o d s im p orted from ab ro a d , no governm ent p e r m is s io n i s
r e q u ir e d t o im p o r ta tio n ,
On t h e o th e r hand, under t h e f r e e
tr a d e sy s te m g o o d s a r e a d m itte d f r e e o f d u ty ,
•z
** The fo r m u la tio n o f t h e m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t io n c la u s e
recommended b y th e Econom ic Com mittee o f t h e League o f
H a tio n s s t i p u l a t e s t h a t t h e im p o rts from e i t h e r c o n t r a c t in g
pow er ns h a l l in no e a s e b e s u b j e c t e d
t o any d u t i e s ,
t a x e s or c h a r g e s o th e r o r high er,, or t o any r u l e s and form ­
a l i t i e s o th e r or more burdensom e, th a n t h o s e t o w h ich th e
l i k e p r o d u c ts h a v in g t h e i r o r i g i n in an y t h i r d c o u n tr y a r e
or may h e r e a f t e r b e s u b je c te d ^ ” L eague o f n a t i o n s , Recom­
m en d a tio n s o f t h e Econom ic Committee R e la t in g t o T a r i f f
P o l i c y and t h e Most - F a v o r e d -N a tio n a l C la u s e , f19537 X I.B ,
wf:
i i ---------
---------------- ------
37
o f t h e p r o d u c ts o f a l l c o u n t r ie s ,
ir r e s p e c tiv e o f t h e ir
t r e a t y r e l a t i o n s h i p w it h Japan, p a id t h e same r a t e o f d u t i e s
u n tiJ t h e r e v i s i o n o f th e custom s t a r i f f in 1937
That Japan h a s t r i e d t o red u ce tr a d e b a r r ie r s i s s e e n
from t h e f a c t t h a t sh e was t h e f i r s t o f s e v e n te e n c o u n t r ie s
w h ich had r a t i f i e d b y 1929 t h e i n t e r n a t io n a l C on ven tion o f
19 2 7 f o r t h e A b o li t i o n o f Im port and E xport P r o h ib it i o n s and
R e s tr ic tio n s ,
She a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d in th e World Econom ic
C o n fe r e n c e s o f 1927 and 1 9 3 3 , and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l m eet­
in g s ,
o f f i c i a l and n o n - o f f i e i a l ,
a lth o u g h n o th in g rem ark ab le
came o u t o f t h e s e m e e tin g s ,
Abandonment o f h e r t r a d i t i o n a l f r e e exch an ge p o l i c y ,
At t h e f i r s t o n s e t o f in te r w a r d e p r e s s io n , t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
th e g r e a t e s t c r e d i t o r c o u n tr y in t h e w o rld , r a is e d i t s t a r ­
i f f t o p r o t e c t h e r d o m e s tic i n d u s t r i e s ,
The Fordney-McCumber
t a r i f f o f 1922 was f o llo w e d in 1924 b y a d r a s t i c im m ig ra tio n
R e s t r i c t i o n A ct. w h ich cooped up th e s u r p lu s p o p u la t io n o f
Europe and A s ia and l e d im m e d ia te ly t o an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f
b o th a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l p r o t e c t i o n in t h o s e c o u n t­
r ie s ,
O ctob er
When t h e se co n d in te r w a r d e p r e s s io n o c c u r r e d i n
1 9 2 9 , t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a g a in r a is e d i t s t a r i f f b y
e n a c t in g t h e H aw ley-Sm oot t a r i f f i n 1930.
G reat B r it a i n
a l s o changed from a f r e e t r a d e o r g a n iz a t io n , t h e c e n tr e o f a
w orld t r a d in g sy s te m , t o a h ig h ly d e v e lo p e d p r o t e c t i o n i s t i n
a rem a rk ab ly s h o r t p e r io d o f tim e from 1931 t o 1932,
T h is
r e v e r s a l o f B r i t i s h p o l i c y was a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n t h e w id e ­
sp rea d a d o p tio n o f exch ange c o n tr o lj
th e r a i s i n g o f t a r i f f s ,
and t h e a d o p tio n o f q u o ta s and r e g u la t e d n a t i o n a l .economic
4
sy ste m ,
The League o f N a tio n s h a s a d m itted , in t h e f o llo w -
4
The f o l lo w in g l i s t o f c o u n t r i e s w here exch an ge
c o n t r o l was in f o r c e p r io r t o t h e o u tb re a k o f t h e Second
G rea t War i s a rran ged c h r o n o lo g ic a lly :
B e fo r e 1931' B u lg a r ia * P o r tu g a l* Turkey
1931 B r a z il* S p a in , Germany, H ungary, C h ile ,
Uruguay, C olom bia, G reece, C z e c h o s lo v a k ia ,
B o l i v i a , Y u g o sla v ia ! L a t v ia , A u s t r ia ,
A r g e n tin a , N ic a r a g u a , Denmark, E s to n ia
1932: C o sta R ic a , Rumania, Japan, P aragu ay
1933: M exico
1934; H onduras, I t a l y , Cuba
1 935: D a n z ig , L ith u a n ia , Hong Kong
1936: I r a n , P o la n d , V e n e zu ela
1938: C h in a, A f g h a n is ta n , New Z ealan d ,
In a d d i t io n , exch an ge c o n t r o l was im posed t e m p o r a r ily In
t h e f o l lo w in g c o u n t r i e s : Ir a n (F eb ru a ry , 1930-M ay, 1 9 3 3 ),
U n ite d Kingdom (S ep tem b er, 1931-M arch, 1 9 3 2 ). F in la n d
(O cto b er-D ecem b er, 1 9 3 1 ) , New Z ealan d ( J a n u a ry -J u n e , 1 9 3 2 ),
E cuador (May, 1 9 3 2 -O cto b er, 1935 and J u ly , 1 9 3 6 -J u ly , 1937>
U n ite d S t a t e s (M arch-Novem ber, 1 9 3 4 ), .E l S a lv a d o r (A ugust O cto b er , 1 9 3 3 ), Cuba (J u n e - J u ly , 1 9 3 4 ), China (S ep tem b er,
1 9 3 4 -Novem ber. 1 9 3 5 ). B elg iu m and Luxembourg (M arch -A p ril,
1 9 3 5 ),
In fo r m a l or v o lu n t a r y exch an ge r e s t r i c t i o n s h ave b een
u sed f o r s h o r t e r or lo n g e r p e r io d s in A u s t r a li a , Canada,
F r a n c e , Norway, t h e N e th e r la n d s , S ou th A f r ic a , Sw eden, and
S w itz e r la n d *
J. B. C o n d lif f e , The Re c o n s t r u c t i o n "o f World
Trade (New York: W, W, N orton and company. In c,
ISI'OT
p £32.
4 -a
Canada, H o lla n d , B elg iu m , and S w itz e r la n d r a is e d
th e ir t a r if f s ,
Ib id * , p, 186,
4 -b
The l i s t o f c o u n t r ie s w here qu ota sy s te m s have
b e e n a d o p ted I s a s f o l lo w s :
B e fo r e 1931: A u s t r ia , C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , Hungary, and
L ith u a n ia .
39
in g w ord s, t h a t d e c i s i o n s o f 1 9 3 1 -1 9 3 2 marked t h e end o f a
f r e e tr a d e e r a n o t o n l y f o r G reat B r i t a i n i t s e l f ,
hut fo r
t h e r e s t o f t h e w o rld .
Some o f t h e c o u n t r ie s co n cern ed may, how ever,
p le a d t h a t t h e y w ere f o r c e d t o a d o p t exch ange c o n t r o l
and c l e a r i n g s in co n seq u en ce o f r e s t r i c t i o n s im posed
b y o th e r c o u n tr ie s , on im p o r tsj some have fou n d th a t,,
d e s p i t e t h e d e v a lu a t io n o f t h e i r c u r r e n c ie s , t h e y
w ere u n a b le t o a b o l i s h t h e i r exch an ge r e s t r i c t i o n s *
So lo n g a s many im p o rta n t c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in
E u rop e, m a in ta in exch an ge c o n t r o l or c l e a r i n g s , o r
b o t h t h e s e s y s te m s , i t w i l l o b v io u s ly be d i f f i c u l t
1931; B elg iu m , F ra n ce , I r a n , S p a in , T urkey
1932: G h ile , E ir e , Germany, G reece, N e th e r ­
la n d s , P olan d ,, Rumania, S w itz e r la n d
1933: B u lg a r ia , G reece, N e th e r la n d s I n d i e s
1934: B r i t i s h C o lo n ie s , I n d ia , L a tv ia
1935: I t a l y
1936: Y u g o s la v ia
1937: Japan , Manchoukuo
1938; A f g h a n is t a n , New Z ealan d,
P a r t i a l u s e h a s b een made o f q u o ta s a l s o in A lb a n ia ,
A u s t r a l i a , B r a z i l , Cuba, E s t o n ia , Norway, P eru , P o r t u g a l
Sweden, and t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
I b i d . , p. 213;
4 —c
The c o u n tr y f o r w hose r e g u la t e d n a t i o n a l econom ic
p o l i c i e s m ost v i r t u e h a s been c la im e d i s Germany. H aving
b een f r e e d o f r e p a r a t io n paym ents b y t h e Lausanne C o n feren ce
in J u ly , 1 9 3 2 , and o f t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f h er f o r e i g n o b l i ­
g a t i o n s b y h e r own u n i l a t e r a l m oratorium d e c la r e d in Ju n e,
1 9 3 3 j Germany p r o c e e d e d t o f in a n c e a v a s t program o f rearm a­
ment and p u b lic w orks by c r e d i t e x p a n s io n o f v a r io u s t y p e s ,
b u t m o s tly by th e is s u a n c e o f s h o r t - t e r m b i l l s ,
Care was,
how ever, ta k e n n o t t o i n f l a t e u n d u ly t h e c u r r e n c y i s s u e s
t h a t s e r v e d a s in s tr u m e n ts o f i n d i v i d u a l p u r c h a s in g power,
P r o f i t s were l i m i t e d , w ages and p r i c e s w ere n o t p e r m itte d
t o r i s e and when o c c a s i o n a l comm odity s h o r t a g e s a p p ea r e d ,
r a t i o n in g and im proved d i s t r i b u t i o n w ere o rgan ized *
I n d iv ­
id u a l c i t i z e n s w ere n o t a llo w e d t o en gage in im p ort o r e x ­
p o r t t r a n s a c t i o n s , or ev en t o pay d eb t s e r v i c e s or t o t r a v e l ,
and c a p i t a l was n o t a llo w e d t o e s c a p e from t h e n a t i o n a l
economy, in ways t h a t may weaken t h e S t a t e ’ s c o n t r o l o f
econ om ic r e s o u r c e s .
I b i d . pp. 2 5 1 -2 5 5 .
40
i f n o t im p o s s ib le , f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e r s , w hose t r a d e
must l a r g e l y b e w ith t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , t o adop t a
c o m p lete f r e e sy s te m .
The g e n e r a l n etw ork o f e x ­
change c o n t r o l s , c l e a r i n g s , q u o ta s and p r o h i b i t i o n s
can n ot t h e r e f o r e be abandoned a s lo n g a s no a c t i o n
can be ta k e n on a s u f f i c i e n t l y w id e s c a l e t o e n a b le
t h e c o u n t r ie s co n cern ed t o overcom e th e e x i s t i n g
o b s ta c le s .
The d i f f i c u l t y h as b een a c c e n t u a t e d by
t h e te n d e n c y t o s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y w h ich h a s d e v e lo p e d
in many c o u n t r ie s o f Europe and w h ich h a s had s p e c i a l ­
l y f a r - r e a c h in g e f f e c t s on th e eco n o m ies o f t h e Cen­
t r a l and E a s te r n European c o u n t r ie s ,
F u r th e r , th o u g h
i t must be r e c o g n iz e d t h a t t h e U n ite d Kingdom t a r i f f
h a s n o t p r e v e n te d a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l in c r e a s e in im­
p o r t s t o t h e B r i t i s h m ark et, th e abandonment b y th e
U n ite d Kingdom o f t h e sy s te m o f f r e e t r a d e and t h e
in t r o d u c t io n o f p r o t e c t i o n h ave u n d o u b te d ly i n f l u ­
en ced u n fa v o r a b ly t h e b a la n c e o f paym ents o f t h e
European and A s i a t i c c o u n t r ie s w h ich i n th e p a s t d e ­
pended l a r g e l y on f r e e e n t r y i n t o t h a t m arket
Thus n in e t e e n t h c e n tu r y c o n c e p ts o f m onetary
s ta b ility ,
o f i n t e r n a t io n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c o o p e r a tio n ,
and o f th e r e l a t i o n s b etw een p o l i t i c s and e co n o m ic s, w ere
r e v e a le d a s no lo n g e r o p e r a t iv e o r a d eq u a te.
As a c o n se q u en ce ,
Japan a d op ted exch an ge c o n t r o l t o
m eet t h e w orld econ om ic s i t u a t i o n in 1932,
P r e v e n t io n o f t h e F l i g h t o f C a p it a l
on J u ly i ,
The A ct f o r
w h ich came i n t o f o r c e
v e s t e d t h e Government w ith th e r i g h t ,
when
n e c e s s a r y , t o p la c e a ban or l i m i t a t i o n on t r a n s a c t i o n s o f
f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y ; f o r e i g n exch an ge; r e m it ta n c e s t o f o r e i g n
c o u n t r ie s ; d e p o s it t r a n s a c t io n s and lo a n s in f o r e i g n cur-
5
League o f E a t io n s , R eport o f th e Com m ittee f o r
t h e S tu d y o f th e P rob lem o f Raw M a te r ia ls '. (G eneva, 1 9 3 7 ).
p. 2 5 .
41
r e n c y . t r a n s a c t i o n s o f b on d s and o th e r c r e d i t s i n f o r e i g n
c u r r e n c y d e n o m in a tio n s, and a l s o g i v in g c r e d i t s t o r e s i d e n t s
6
in f o r e i g n c o u n t r ie s .
Cn v ie w o f th e f a c t t h a t i t seem ed im p o s s ib le t o p r o ­
t e c t t h e econom ic l i f e
o f a n a t io n un der t h e above m en tion ed
A ct. t h e Government su b m itte d t o th e D ie t in t h e 6 4 th s e s s i o n
a b ili
f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f f o r e i g n ex ch a n g e.
E xchange C o n tr o l la w p a s s e d th e D ie t on Hay 1
The F o r e ig n
19 5 3 , and th e
A ct f o r P r e v e n tio n o f t h e F l i g h t o f C a p it a l was a b r o g a ted ,
The p r i n c ip a l o b j e c t o f t h e Law was t o e n la r g e t h e sc o p e o f
t h e p r e v io u s A ct and t o p r e v e n t c o m p le te ly t h e f l i g h t o f
c a p i t a l and s p e c u l a t i v e d e a l in g s in f o r e i g n exch an ge and t o
7
c h eck abnorm al f l u c t u a t i o n s in t h e yen ex ch a n g e,
S e v e r a l amendments have b een made in t h e Law s i n c e i t s
p r o m u lg a tio n , b u t o r d in a r y com m ercial t r a n s a c t i o n s w ere v e r y
l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by i t .
S in c e th e o u tb r e a k o f t h e S in o -
J a p a n ese War in 1937, how ever, th e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v id in g
f o r am ple m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s and f o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n sio n
program c o m p elled Japan t o p la c e th e im p o r ts and e x p o r ts o f
t h e J a p a n ese Empire un der s t r i c t Government c o n t r o l a s from
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Year
Book 1 9 5 5 . (T ok io: K enkyushariP ress) p, 351,
7
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan , Japan Year
Book 1959^ 40. (T ok io: K enkyusha P r e s s ) , p . 509,
42
Septem ber,
1937,
F urtherm ore, t h e s i n g l e t a r i f f sy s te m was
abandoned on A p r il I,
1937, when a d o u b le t a r i f f sy ste m was
a p p lie d on 577 a r t i c l e s ,
w it h h ig h e r r a t e s l e v i e d on good s
from c o u n t r ie s w h ich had n o t n e g o t i a t e d com m ercial a g r e e ­
m ents w ith Japan,
In a d d it io n ,
C om m odities s i n c e January.
due t o th e M o b iliz a t io n o f
L938, c e r t a i n new i n d u s t r i e s
m a n u fa ctu rin g a r t i c l e s t o s e r v e a s s u b s t i t u t e s f o r th o s e
t h e s u p p ly o f w h ich came t o be r e s t r i c t e d has r i s e n .
T h is
would c r e a t e a te n d e n c y t o mahe i t somewhat im p r a c tic a b le
t o r e tu r n t o f r e e exch an ge, when th e p r e s e n t war i s a t an
end i
B.
FOREIGN TRADE POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES
M o d ifie d m u l t i l a t e r a l t r a d e p o l i c y o f t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s . The b a s i s o f A m erican s f o r e i g n t r a d e p o l i c y i s t h e
p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f tr e a tm e n t
The Am erican sy s te m
r e s t s upon t h e p r e m ise t h a t m u l t i l a t e r a l tr a d e and paym ents,
f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f tr e a tm e n t and
o r i g i n a t i n g i n p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and i n i t i a t i v e ,
p r o v id e
t h e sy ste m m ost c a lc u l a t e d t o expand t h e w o r ld * s r e a l incom e
and so im prove th e r e a l sta n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h e p e o p le s
o f th e w o rld .
I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e c l a s s i c a l econom ic con ­
c e p t io n o f t h e b e n e f i t s from i n t e r n a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n
43
o f t h e w o r ld ’ s r e s o u r c e s and I t s o b v e r s e , t h e m utual econom ic
in te r d e p e n d e n c e o f n a t i o n - s t a t e s ,®
As was m en tio n ed in t h e p r e v io u s s e c t i o n ,
t h e c r i s i s o f 1 9 2 0 -1 9 2 1 .
how ever,
in
t h e tr a d e p o l i c y o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
changed t o h ig h p r o t e c t io n is m .
At t h e seco n d o n s e t o f p o s t ­
war d e p r e s s io n , t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a g a in r a i s e d i t s t a r i f f
by
e n a c t in g t h e H aw ley-Sm oot t a r i f f i n 1 9 3 0 ,
S in c e t h e p a s s in g
9
o f t h e Trade A greem en ts A ct i n 1954,
how ever, t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s h a s t r i e d t o r e d u c e i t s h ig h p r o t e c t i v e w a l l e r e c t e d
by t h e H awley-Sm oot t a r i f f ,
n e g o tia te d in f i v e y e a r s , ^
and tw e n ty -o n e a g reem en ts w ere
S e c r e t a r y H u ll d e c la r e d in h i s
m essage on M aritim e Day and F o r e ig n Trade Week, 1937. a s
fo llo w s :
Eo c o u n tr y to d a y p o s s e s s e s w it h in i t s own f r o n ­
t i e r s s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s , in ter m s o f e i t h e r
n a t u r a l endowment o f human wisdom and s k i l l * f o r i t s
p o p u la t io n t o b e p r o sp e r o u s and c o n te n te d w ith o u t a
l a r g e m easure o f econ om ic and c u l t u r a l in t e r c o u r s e
w ith th e r e s t o f t h e w orld .
C o u n tr ie s may a tte m p t t o make t h e m s e lv e s s e l f
s u f f i c i e n t — e i t h e r s i n g l y or in g r o u p s— b y s h u t t i n g
th e m s e lv e s up w it h in t h e i r b o r d e r s ! by f o r e g o in g
m u tu a lly b e n e f i c i a l exch ange o f good s and s e r v i c e s
w ith o th e r c o u n t r i e s ; b y r e f u s i n g t o le a r n from t h e
8
H. J
T a sc a , World T rad in g S y s te m s , p. 141
9
The U n ite d S t a t e s abandoned i t s t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e
column autonom ous t a r i f f sy s te m b y th e Trade A greem ents A ct
o f 1934c H, T, T a sc a , The R e c ip r o c a l Trade P o l i c y o f th e
U n ite d S t a t e s . ( P h ila d e lp h ia , 1938} p, 7
^ Raymond I e s l i e R u e ll, "The H u ll Trade Program and t h e
A m erican S y ste m , n World A f f a i r s P am p h lets (March, I 9 3 9 } ,E o .2 ,
A
A
XJL
e x p e r ie n c e o f o t h e r s and t o c o n t r ib u t e t h e i r own
e x p e r ie n c e t o t h e t r e a s u r e h o u se o f c u lt u r e and
p r o g r e s s common t o a l l mankind,
But
su c h a
in t h e
le v e ls
even t h e l a r g e s t o f n a t i o n s , em barking upon
c o u r s e , ca n n o t e s c a p e p a y in g a h ig h p e n a l t y form o f lo w e re d l i v i n g sta n d a r d s and lo w e re d
o f c u ltu r a l e x is te n c e fo r i t s c it iz e n s ,
U n le s s a n a t io n i s c o n te n t t o s in k i n t o a b j e c t
d e g r e d a tio n , t h e econom ic and s p i r i t u a l im p o v e r is h ­
ment, w h ich i s t h e i n e v i t a b l e accom panim ent o f
n a t i o n a l s e l f co n ta in m en t and i s o l a t i o n , so o n e r or
l a t e r le a d s t o grow ing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among i t s
p e o p le , t o d o m e stic s t r i f e , and f r e q u e n t ly d o m e stic
governm ent
O nly by a d e te r m in a tio n t o l i v e a t p e a c e ,
w it h in and w it h o u t , o n ly b y d e a lin g w ith e a ch o th e r
f a i r l y and r e a s o n a b ly in a l l o f t h e numerous w o rth ­
w h ile i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , can t h e n a t io n s
o f t h e w o r ld e n r ic h and e n n o b le t h e l i v e s Of t h e i r
c itiz e n s .
The m ost b a s i c among t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e th o s e
w h ich co m p rise th e exch an ge o f good s among n a t io n s ,
Today t h i s p r o c e s s o f m u tu a lly b e n e f i c i a l t r a d e i s
o b s t r u c t e d by a m u ltitu d e o f b a r r ie r s e x p r e s s iv e o f
t h e s e a r c h by i n d iv i d u a l n a t io n s o r g rou p s o f n a t io n s
f o r means t o in s u r e v a r y in g d e g r e e s o f n a t i o n a l i s o ­
l a t i o n and s e l f co n ta in m en t
To b e s u r e , in r e c e n t y e a r s much h as b een done t o
b r in g down t h e s e e x c e s s i v e b a r r ie r s and t o p la c e
econ om ic r e l a t i o n s among n a t io n s upon a b a s i s o f
f a i r - d e a l i n g and o f e q u a l i t y o f tr e a tm e n t.
We, in
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , have worked w ith v ig o r and d e t e r ­
m in a tio n , th r o u g h our t r a d e agreem en ts program , t o
a t t a i n t h e s e v i t a l o b j e c t i v e s , 11
S e c r e t a r y H u ll* s r e c i p r o c a l t r a d e t r e a t y program ,
how ever, b egan w ith t h e i n i t i a l h a n d ica p o f n e g o t i a t i n g
11
Hews ite m in t h e Hew York T im es, May 23, 1937
from t h e p r e p o s te r o u s
L e v els o f t h e a lr e a d y h ig h t a r i f f
f t g o t under way s lo w ly and in th e f a c e o f o p p o s it io n from
v e sted in te r e s ts ,
n e g o t ia t e d ,
B e fo r e t h e f i r s t agreem en t c o u ld be
f u r t h e r b a r r ie r s had b een added t o t h e t a r i f f
by t h e d e p r e c ia t io n o f t h e d o l l a r and th e im p o s it io n o f
e x t r a d u t i e s a s a sa fe g u a r d a g a in s t im port c o m p e titio n w it h
th e i n d u s t r i e s t o w h ich h ig h e r w a g e -r a te s had b een g r a n te d
under th e H a tio n a l I n d u s t r i a l R ecovery,
P erh ap s t h e m ost s e r io u s h a n d ica p o f a l l w as p r e ­
s e n te d b y th e d e la y s and d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t en su ed in n e g o ­
t i a t i n g t h e agreem ent w ith G reat B r it a i n ,
H in dered b y th e
p r o t e c t i o n i s t p s y c h o lo g y t h a t had come t o dom in ate t h e
form er c e n te r o f w o rld t r a d e , a s w e ll a s by p r e f e r e n t i a l
com m itm ents a t t h e Ottawa C on feren ce in
L932, and t h e b i ­
l a t e r a l t r e a t i e s n e g o t ia t e d w ith S c a n d in a v ia n and S ou th
A m erican c o u n t r ie s in s u c c e e d in g y e a r s , t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f
th e A n glo-A m erican t r e a t y dragged on t i l l
1938 and, when
f i n a l l y c o n clu d ed , t h e agreem ent was o f L im ited sc o p e ,
A f t e r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f th e A n glo-A m erican a g r e e ­
ment
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s 1 r e c ip r o c a l tr a d e t r e a t y program
b a sed upon m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m was b a rred by t h e grow in g t e n s i o n
12
o f in te r -n a tio n a l r e la t io n s ,
F urtherm ore, b i l a t e r a l i s m ,
12
.T B. C o n d lif f e d e f i n e s b i l a t e r a l i s m a s f o llo w s :
I t i s a tr a d e p o l i c y t o s e t t l e im p o rts and e x p o r ts b etw een
p a i r s o f c o u n t r ie s by paym ents in and ou t o f a c c o u n ts opened
46
p u rsu ed by Germany and o th e r c o u n t r ie s , h as h in d e re d t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s t o e x te n d h er m u l t i l a t e r a l t r a d e p o l i c y t o
c o n t r a c t in g c o u n t r ie s ,
Ct h a s a l s o s e r i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d
t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s e c o u n t r ie s t o o f f e r r e c i p r o c a l c o n c e s ­
s i o n s t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
W ith t h e o u tb re a k o f war in
E urope, t h e a tte m p t o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s t o r e s t o r e w orld
t r a d e on m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m came t o nau ght,
c,
p r in c ip a l
w rm rs
a ffe c t in g fo reig n trade
P r in c ip a l e v e n ts w h ich have a f f e c t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l
commerce w i l l be summarized b e lo w .
t h e m ost e v e n t f u l y ea r,
S in c e t h e y e a r 1939 was
i t w i l l be added, t o o ,
in t h e n a t io n a l banks o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r ie s ,
There i s
abundant e v id e n c e o f a s tr o n g tr e n d tow ard s b i l a t e r a l i s m .
T h is tr e n d h a s b een m easured f o r f i v e c o u n t r i e s — B elgiu m ,
G reat B r i t a i n , t h e N e th e r la n d s , Germany, and Sweden— b y A,
H irschnian. U s in g t h e fo rm u la o f sta n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , he h as
c a lc u l a t e d i n d i c e s o f b i l a t e r a l i s m .
Tn h i s in d e x a f i g u r e
o f 100 w ould r e p r e s e n t a c o m p lete a b sen ce o f b i l a t e r a l
t e n d e n c ie s * w h ile a f i g u r e o f z e r o w ould r e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t
b i l a t e r a l b a la n c in g o f im p o r ts and e x p o r ts w ith ea ch p a r ­
t i c u l a r c o u n tr y ,
INDICES OF BILATERALISM
G reat B r i t a i n Germany N e th e r la n d s B elgiu m Sweden
2 2 .3
2 5 .6
2 5 .2
2 3 .7
25*8
1929
2 7 .3
2 2 .3
25*0
2 6 .1
2 6 .9
1930
3 1 .0
2 5 .3
24*9
2 9 .0
3 1 .6
1931
2 4 .8
2 8 .5
2 8 .3
2 9 .1
2 4 .3
1932
2 3 .2
2 4 .9
2 6 .7
2 8 .9
2 4 .3
1933
2 8 .8
2 0 .8
2 2 .6
2 4 .1
2 2 .8
1934
2 2 .6
2 1 .2
2 2 .8
2 2 .5
1 8 .0
1935
2 3 .0
1 9 .2
1 9 .2
1 7 .8
2 2 .8
1936
2 0 .8
1 8 .2
2 1 .2
1 7 .5
„
2 1 .5
1 937
Taken from E tude s t a t i s t iq u e su r l a te n d a n c e du
commerce e x t e r i e u r v e r s l t e q u i l i b r e e t l e b i l a t e r a lT im e .
47
1987 (Feb
F in a n c ia l p a n ic ,
R a t io n a lis m o f in d u s tr y
sta r ted ,
1929 (O ct
W all S t r e e t p a n ic ,
?7orld d e p r e s s io n b e g in s ,
1950 (Jan .
Gold e x p o r t embargo r a is e d in Japan, f o llo w e d
by a p e r io d o f d e f l a t i o n ,
1930 (June
The U n ite d S t a t e s s t a r t s a h ig h p r o t e c t i v e
ta r iff
1931 (S e p t
The M anchurian A f f a i r
G reat B r i t a i n g o e s o f f g o ld ,
(Nov.
G reat B r i t a i n e n f o r c e s t h e Abnormal Im porta­
t i o n A ct
(Dec,
1932 {Jan.
(Feb
Japan g o e s o f f g o ld a g a in ,
The S h an gh ai A f f a i r o c c u r s ,
The U nion o f Sou th A f r ic a im p o ses d is c r im in ­
a t i n g d u t i e s on Jap an ese g o o d s.
(Mar,
M anchuria d e c la r e s in d ep en d en ce,
Japan le a v e s t h e League o f N a tio n s ,
12-a
There a r e fo u r main r e a s o n s why t h i s tr e n d t o
b i l a t e r a l i s m h as b e e n e c o n o m ic a lly d is a d v a n ta g e o u s in r e c e n t
y ea rst
I t d e s t r o y s th e e f f e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a ­
t i o n t h a t i s b a sed upon p r i c e com p arison s in a w orld m arket,
e li m i n a t e s t h e t r i a n g u l a r tr a d e t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y
paym ents f o r p a s t in d e b te d n e ss* d i r e c t s tr a d e i n t o p o l i t i c a l ­
l y r a t h e r th a n e c o n o m ic a lly a d v a n ta g eo u s c h a n n e ls , and r e n ­
d e r s t h i s tr a d e more e r r a t i c s in c e th e b i l a t e r a l b a r g a in s
on w h ich i t depends may be a b r u p tly te r m in a te d f o r p o l i t i c a l
rea so n s.
48
3
i Apr
The Tmport D u t ie s A ct e n fo r c e d i n G reat B r i t a i n ,
( J u ly )
The Ottawa C o n fer en ce ,
r e s u l t i n g in h ig h e r
d u t i e s on J ap an ese g ood s th r o u g h o u t t h e
B r i t i s h Empire,
1933 (Aug,
The World Econom ic C o n feren ce ends in f a i l u r e ,
( June}
The E ndo-Japanese Trade C o n feren ce b e g in s ,
(B ee,
The U n ite d S t a t e s r e s t r i c t s im p o r ts o f J a p a n ese
g ood s,
(Dec,
Japan becom es t h e w o r ld » s p r e m ie r e x p o r te r o f
co tto n t i s s u e s ,
in th e p la c e h i t h e r t o
o c c u p ie d b y G reat B r it a i n ,
Japan a l s o k e e p s
th e p r e m ie r p o s i t i o n in 1939,
1934 (Apr
The Trade D e fe n c e Act e n a c te d .
Quota on J a p a n ese good s in B r i t i s h crown
c o lo n ie s
D is c r im in a t in g d u t i e s on Ja p a n ese good s in
B r i t i s h West A f r ic a ,
(Ju n e)
The t r a d e c o n fe r e n c e w ith th e N e th e r la n d s
Endies b e g i n s ( b a s ic s e t t le m e n t r ea c h e d in
A p r il
1935 iJ u ly )
1937 ^
Egypt im p o ses d is c r im in a t in g d u t i e s on
J a p a n ese g o o d s,
Japan in v o k e s t h e Trade D efen ce A ct a g a i n s t
Canada*s d i s c r im i n a t i o n in r e s p e c t o f
Ja p a n ese g o o d s,
49
(S e p t
G reat B r it a i n ann oun ces a t Geneva h er w i l l i n g ­
n e s s t o con d u ct i n q u i r i e s on s u p p l i e s o f raw
m a t e r ia ls .
(O ct
I t a l y e n t e r s E th io p ia .
(D ec.
The tr a d e d is p u t e w ith Canada s e t t l e d .
1936 (Feb.
(Ju n e)
The F eb ru ary £ 6 th In c id e n t o c c u r s in T ok io,
The Trade D e fe n c e la w in v o k ed a g a in s t
A u s t r a l i a ' s d is c r im in a t io n in r e s p e c t o f
Jap an ese g o o d s
(Aug.
C i v i l war in S p a in b r e a k s o u t
(S e p t ■ F ran ce g o e s o f f g o ld .
(Nov..
Japan s i g n s t h e A n ti-C o m in ter n P a c t w it h
Germany,
(Dec,
1937 (Jan ,
The tr a d e d is p u t e w ith A u s t r a li a s e t t l e d .
Japan t i g h t e n s up c o n t r o l o f f o r e i g n exch an ge
(J u ly )
The S in o -J a p a n e s e War o c c u r s,
(S e p t,
F o r e ig n t r a d e p la c e d under governm ent c o n t r o l
f o r t h e f i r s t tim e in h i s t o r y , m arking a
t u r n in g p o i n t in J a p a n 's f o r e i g n tr a d e
p o lic y ,
New c a p i t a l i s s u e s p la c e d under governm ent
c o n t r o l in Japan,
(Nov. ■
I t a l y .Joins t h e A n ti-C o m in ter n P a ct
(Dec, >
F a l l o f N anking.
Japan becom es t h e p rem ier p r o d u ce r o f rayon
yarn in th e w o r ld ,
50
1 938 (Jan , ■
The M o b iliz a t io n o f C om m odities announced in
Japan,
(Mar, *
Germany a n n e x e s A u s tr ia ,
(May)
The N a t io n a l G en era l M o b iliz a tio n A ct becom es
e f f e c t i v e i n Japan,
(Aug, >
(S e p t
The Chungkufeng A f f a i r w ith S o v ie t R u s s ia ,
* E uropean c r i s i s o v er S z e e h o -S lo v a k ia .
(O ct, >
F a l l o f Canton and Hankow,
(Nov, *
Japan c e a s e s f u r t h e r c o o p e r a tio n w ith
th e
le a g u e o f N a tio n s ,
1959 ( Jan, *
P rem ier F
Konoye r e s i g n s and a new c a b in e t i s
form ed by B aron K
Hiranumt;
The Bank o f England s h i f t s £ 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ( g o l d »
t o t h e - B r i t i s h E xchange E q u a liz a t io n Fund,
Hungary r e c o g n i z e s Manchoukuo,
(Mar, *
S u rren d er o f M adrid,
Japan*s a n n e x a tio n o f t h e se v e n S p r a t ly is la n d s
in t h e S ou th China Sea,
(Apr ■
The U n ite d S t a t e s Government o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g ­
n i z e s t h e F ran co reg im e,
Japan and t h e U .S .S .R , s i g n a f i s h i n g t r e a t y .
I t a l y o c c u p ie s A lb a n ia ,
An open m i l i t a r y a s w e l l a s a p o l i t i c a l
a l l i a n c e b etw een Germany and I t a l y announced,
S p ain w ith d raw s from t h e League o f N a tio n s ,
52
1939 (Apr •
Germany and I t a l y s i g n a 1 0 -y e a r m i l i t a r y
a llia n c e .
*J u ly )
The U n ite d S t a t e s g i v e s form al n o t i c e t o Japan
o f r e n u n c ia t io n o f t h e 1911 com m ercial t r e a t y
w ith t h a t c o u n tr y .
Germany and Japan s i g n a tr a d e t r e a t y .
(May)
B u sso -J a p a n e se c r a s h on t h e M anchoukuo-Outer
M on golia b o r d e r
<vAug, *
The J ap an ese c a b in e t r e s i g n s and i s su c c e e d e d
b y G en era l Nobuyuki Abe,
Germany se n d s t r o o p s i n t o P olan d .
E ngland d e c la r e s war a g a in s t Germany,
Canada d e c la r e s war.
An a r m i s t i c e o f t h e R u sso -J a p a n e se in c id e n t
s ig n e d .
S o v i e t t r o o p s c r o s s th e P o l i s h b o r d e r
The cam paign in P o la n d ends.
Panama C o n feren ce o f Am erican F o r e ig n M in is t e r s
h e ld .
The U- S, S e n a te ,
63 t o 3 0 , p a s s e s t h e A d m in is­
t r a t i o n ^ N e u tr a lity b i l l
(Nov, »■
P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt e s t a b l i s h e s a combat a r e a ,
B r i t a i n and F ran ce announce c r e a t io n o f th e
A l l i e d Supreme Economic C o u n c il
I t a l y and Japan p r o t e s t t o B r i t a i n a g a in s t t h e
b lo c k a d e on German e x p o r ts ,
52
1939 (Nov,
The S o v ie t U nion n o t i f i e s F in la n d o f s e v e r a n c e
o f d ip lo m a t ic r e l a t i o n s ,
D.
TRADE REGULATIONS BETWEEN THE
UNITED STATES AND JAPAN
1
C otton r u g s ,
AGREEMENTS ON JAPAN'S EXPORTS
An u n o f f i c i a l g e n tle m e n 's agreem ent on
c o t t o n ru g im p o rts from Japan was co n clu d ed b etw een t h e tw o
c o u n t r ie s and was p u t i n t o e f f e c t on June i
1954) w h ile a
J a p a n ese U nion o f C o tto n Rug E x p o r te r s' A s s o c ia t i o n f o r th e
U n ite d S t a t e s was form ed w ith t h e o b j e c t o f e n f o r c in g an
e x a m in a tio n o f goo d s h a n d le d by members o f t h e U nion, a l lo t *
in g e x p o r t q u o ta s among members, i s s u i n g e x p o r t c e r t i f i c a t e s ,
and f i x i n g a minimum e x p o r t p r ic e ,
The e x p o r t q u o ta s a g r e e d upon w ere a s follow s*:
a:
C o tton c h e n i l l e r u g s ( a f t e r June 1,
1936):
6 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re
y a r d s p e r y e a r ; i n c a s e th e q u a n t it y o f e x p o r ts d u r in g th e
p e r io d May i l - 3 1 e x c e e d s 9 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re y a r d s , t h e q u a n t it y
s o e x c e e d in g sh o u ld be d e d u cted from t h e q u o ta f o r t h e y e a r
b:
H it - a n d -m is s r a g r u g s: 3 ,2 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re y a r d s,
O th ers:
4 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 sq u are y a rd s,
T h ese q u o ta s o f c h e n i l l e r u g s and o f h it - a n d - m is s r u g s
have b een in c r e a s e d b y 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 sq u are y a rd s and 5 1 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re
13
y a r d s r e s p e c t i v e l y in t h e 19 3 6 agreem ent,
1 rr
T ok io A s s o c ia t i o n f o r L ib e r t y o f T ra d in g , B u l l e t i n
1 9 5 7 , No. 8 , p, 49.
53
C o tto n p i e c e g o o d s ,
At th e c o n fe r e n c e h e ld in Osaka,
t h e C o tton T e x t i l e U n d e rsta n d in g was s ig n e d on Janu ary 24,
1937
Emport q u o ta s o f t h e c o t t o n p ie c e g o od s w ere f i x e d a s
fo llo w s ;
For th e y e a r 1937 th e b a s i c q u ota s h a l l be 155 m i l l i o n
sq u a re y a r d s and f o r t h e y e a r 1938 t h e b a s i c q u o ta be 100
m i l l i o n sq u a re y a rd s w ith th e f o l lo w in g p r o v is o : The J ap an ese
in d u s t r y i s p r i v i l e g e d t o t r a n s f e r n o t more th a n o n e - f o u r t h
o f t h e 1938 a p p o rtio n m en t t o t h e 1957 q u o ta , bu t in 1 9 3 8 ,
sh ip m en ts must be d im in is h e d b e lo w t h e b a s i c q u ota b y su ch
amount a s t h e 1937 sh ip m en ts a r e in c r e a s e d ab ove th e l a t t e r
14
y e a r ' s b a s i c q u o ta ,
P e n c ils ,
In A p r il
1934. an u n o f f i c i a l g e n tle m e n 's
agreem ent was rea ch ed b y t h e tw o govern m en ts, under w h ich
Japan c o n t r a c t e d t o l i m i t e x p o r ts o f p e n c i l s t o th e u n it e d
S t a t e s w it h in 1 3 5 ,0 0 0 g r o s s p e r y e a r ,
2 5 ,0 0 0 g r o s s p e r m onth,
and ,4 5 ,0 0 0 g r o s s e v e r y t h r e e m onths,
The agreem en t was p u t
i n t o f o r c e on May
a,
1934.
But
ow ing t o t h e d r a s t i c d e ­
c r e a s e o f J a p a n 's p e n c i l e x p o r ts , th e two c o u n t r ie s r ea ch ed
an a g reem en t t o ta k e away any m easu res r e s t r i c t i n g t h e
freed om o f t r a d e o f p e n c i l s , a s f a r a s c ir c u m s ta n c e s w ould
15
a llo w .
14
I b i d ,,
15 I b i d ,
p
50.
p.
51
54
Y e lv e te e n and c o r d u r o y .
B etw een t h e Union o f Jap an ese
■Velveteen Im p o rters o f Few York and t h e Japan C otton Yarn and
P ie c e Goods E x p o r t e r s 1 A s s o c ia t i o n f o r A m erica in Osaka, an
a greem en t was c o n c lu d e d on December 19.
e f f e c t i n March, 1937
L936 and was pu t i n t o
Main p o in t s o f t h i s agreem ent w ere a s
fo llo w s :
a:
The J ap an ese e x p o r te r s s h a l l u n d e r ta k e a v o lu n t a r y con­
t r o l o f th e e x p o r t o f v e lv e t e e n and co rd u ro y t o th e U n ite d
S ta te s,
b;
The q u ota p e r y e a r s h a l l be E ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 sq u are y a r d s f o r
16
v e lv e t e e n and 7 0 0 ,0 0 0 sq u a re y a rd s f o r co rd u ro y .
C otton s o c k s and s t o c k i n g s . An agreem en t was co n clu d ed
b etw een th e Japan K n itte d Goods E x p o r t e r s 1 A s s o c ia t i o n and t h e
F e d e r a tio n o f A m erican M a n u fa ctu rers A s s o c ia t io n ,
Main
p o in t s w ere a s f o llo w s :
a:
The agreem en t c o v e r s a l l - c o t t o n ,
m ix tu r e t i s s u e s ,
b:
a ll-r a y o n ,
c o tto n -r a y o n -
and h ig h c l a s s c o tt o n s o c k s and s t o c k in g s ,
The q u a n t it y o f sh ip m en t from Japan s h a l l be 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
d o zen s a y e a r
c:
The term s h a l l be t h r e e y e a r s ( January i .
31
1939'
16
I b i d * . p,
60.
1937-D ecem ber
55
Cl
EXPORTS TO AHERIGA UNDER YGLUNTART CONTROL IN JAPAN
Canned and f r o z e n tu n a f i s h .
In 1934, t h e Am erican
Government r a i s e d th e d u ty on canned tu n a f i s h t o 50 p e r
c e n t ad v a lo rem and f u r t h e r th r e a te n e d t o p r o h i b it i t s
im p o r ta tio n a l t o g e t h e r
In ord er t o m eet t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,
a v o lu n t a r y q u o ta p la n was a tte m p te d in Japan and, a t th e
same tim e , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f b o th th e canned and fr o z e n
tu n a f i s h I n d u s t r ie s w ere s e n t t o th e U n ite d S t a t e s w it h
t h e v ie w o f w ork in g o u t a comprom ise w ith th e A m erican
in te r e s ts ,
U n fo r t u n a t e ly , t h e y c o u ld n o t r e a c h an a g r e e ­
m ent. and s in c e th e n , th e atm osp h ere in th e U n ite d S t a t e s
h a s become more u n fa v o r a b le t o Jap an ese e x p o r te r s ,
J a p a n ese e x p o r t e r s a r e , t h e r e f o r e ,
The
c o n t in u in g t h e i r e f f o r t s
t b a p p ea se t h e A m erican f e e l i n g by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e e x p o r ts
17
v o l u n t a r i ly ,
P o tte r ie s ,
The Japan F e d e r a tio n o f E x p o r t e r s 1
A s s o c ia t i o n s o f P o t t e r i e s p u t in t o f o r c e a r e g u la t i o n in
November.
L935, f o r t h e minimum e x p o r t p r i c e o f soup p l a t e s
f o r e x p o r ta t io n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , and a l s o p r o v id e d f o r
a r e g u la t i o n f o r e x p o r t c o n t r o l o f c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c p l a t e s
f o r t h e u se o f h o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s in t h i s co u n tr y ,
17
I b id .
p
61
Ibid.
p, 63,
18
to
56
M a tch es,.
The E x p o r t e r s ’ A s s o c ia t i o n o f M atches f o r
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s was o r g a n iz e d under th e a u s p ic e s o f th e
M in is t r y o f Commerce and I n d u s tr y o f ja p a n in January.
1934,
and t h i s o r g a n iz a t io n began t o c o n t r o l b o th th e q u a n t it y and
t h e p r i c e o f th e e x p o r ts ,
little
1934,
The A s s o c ia t i o n ,
how ever,
had
power a g a in s t o u t s i d e r s u n t i l t h e M in is t r y in A ugust
o rd ered t h a t e v e r y e x p o r te r o f m atch es t o A m erica,
i r r e s p e c t i v e o f w h eth er he was a member o f th e A s s o c ia t io n
or n o t,
sh o u ld be bound on and a f t e r A ugust 10 by th e r e g u ­
l a t i o n o f t h e A s s o c ia t i o n a s r e g a r d s t h e g e n e r a l e x p o r t r u l e ,
19
ex p o r t q u a n t it y , e x p o r t p r i c e , and e x p o r t a g en cy .
19
Ibid.
p, 65,
CHAPTER TV
UNITED STATES JAPANESE COMMODITY TRADE PROM 1930 TO 1938
T h is c h a p te r d e a ls w ith th e im p o r ta n c e, t r a d e b a l ­
a n c e s , and s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e
com m odity t r a d e , p r in c ip a l com m od ities t r a n s a c t e d b etw een
t h e two c o u n t r ie s ,
e tc ,
in t h e n in e y e a r p e r io d 1930 t o
1938.
P o s i t i o n o f Japan and t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in ea ch
o t h e r »s t r a d e ,
D u ring t h e p e r io d 1930 t o 1938, Japan ranked
seco n d among f o r e i g n c o u n t r ie s a s a m arket f o r e x p o r ts from
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a s w e l l a s a so u r c e o f im p o rts i n t o t h i s
co u n tr y ,
Only th e B r i t i s h Empire p u rch a sed from t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s in g r e a t e r v a lu e th a n Japan, and o n ly Canada s u p p lie d
h er w ith im p o rts o f g r e a t e r v a lu e d u r in g th e same p e r io d .
The amount o f A m erica*s e x p o r ts t o Japan in
L938 e q u a lle d
more th a n t w o - t h ir d s o f t h e amount e x p o r te d t o e n t i r e S o u th
A m erica o r more th a n B r a z i l
A r g e n tin a , and Y en e zu ela . t h e
t h r e e p r i n c i p a l S ou th A m erican p u r c h a s e r s ,
combined,
The
amount o f h er im p o r ts a c c o u n te d f o r more th a n h a l f t h a t from
a l l t h e S ou th Am erican c o u n t r ie s .
The p e r c e n ta g e o f A m erica f
t o t a l e x p o r ts g o in g t o Japan in c r e a s e d from 4 . 3 p er c e n t in
1930 t o VrV p e r c e n t in 1 9 3 8 , b u t t h a t o f h er im p o rts com ing
from t h a t c o u n tr y f e l l from 9 r l p er c e n t in 1930 t o 6 .5 p e r
c e n t i n 1938,
TABLE V
UNITED STATES EXPORTS TO JAPAN .AND OTHER COUNTRIES1;
1930-1938
(In thousands of dollars)
T o ta l
In d ex
e x p o r ts
number
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
To
U n ite d
Kingdom
In d ex
number
100
3 ,8 4 3 ,2 0 0
100
7 4 7 ,^ 4 5
2 ,4 2 4 ,3 0 0
63
4 7 2 ,6 8 9
63
1 ,6 1 1 ,0 0 0
42
39
2 9 3 ,7 7 2
1 ,3 0 2 ,2 0 0
34
3 1 1 ,7 3 1
42
1 ,2 7 2 ,5 0 0
33
4 1 3 ,0 0 1
55
1 ,3 5 4 ,9 0 0
35
4 2 8 ,9 1 7
57
1 ,4 5 0 ,6 0 0
38
463 ,,784
62
1 ,9 7 6 ,0 0 0
51
5 6 4 ,8 4 7
76
3 ,0 9 4 ,4 0 0
70
81
5 2 0 ,8 7 8
A verage p e r c e n ta g e o f t o t a l e x p o r ts
P er ce n t,
of to ta l
e x p o r ts
19
20
18
24
32
32
32
29
17
25
To
Canada
5 8 4 ,4 0 7
3 8 3 ,1 4 7
2 3 2 ,2 6 2
2 1 0 ,6 5 1
2 9 1 ,7 7 5
3 0 8 ,5 0 9
3 6 8 ,1 2 7
4 8 9 ,9 9 7
467 767
In d ex
number
100
66
40
36
50
53
63
84
80
P ercent
o f to ta :
e x p o r ts
15
16
14
.16
23
23
25
25
15
19
*U* S. D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce Y ear B ook, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 5 8
(U, S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e )
01
00
TABLE V (continued)
UNITED STATES EXPORTS TO JAPAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES.
19 3 0 -1 9 3 8 *
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
To
Japan
In d ex
o*
CD
4
a
1
Y ear
100
1 6 4 ,5 7 0
1 5 5 ,7 1 5
95
82
1 3 4 ,9 2 1
87
1 4 3 ,4 3 5
128
2 1 0 ,4 8 0
2 0 3 ,2 8 3
124
124
2 0 4 ,3 4 8
175
2 8 8 ,5 5 8
2 3 9 ,6 6 2
146
A verage p e r c e n ta g e
P ercent
of
to .’ 1 e x p .
4
6
8
11
17
15
14
15
8
11
To
In d ex
2 3 8 ,7 1 0
1 4 8 ,9 7 9
1 1 4 ,4 0 3
1 2 1 ,7 1 0
1 4 3 ,8 5 7
1 1 8 ,0 3 1
1 6 7 ,3 4 3
1 1 0 ,7 1 3
1 3 3 ,8 7 2
100
62
48
51
60
49
70
67
56
P e r c e n t,
of
F rance number t o ' l e x p .
6
6
7
9
11
9
12
8
4
8
TO
In d ex
P ercent
of
Germany number t o ’ l e x p .
3 1 1 ,2 7 2
1 8 8 ,5 2 0
1 4 0 ,9 6 8
1 4 0 ,0 2 4
1 4 6 ,7 5 1
9 6 ,9 0 1
9 3 ,5 7 0
1 1 3 ,5 0 6
1 0 7 ,1 3 0
100
61
45
45
47
31
30
36
34
8
8
9
11
12
7
6
6
3
8
*U, S< D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce Y ear Book, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 5 8
(U. S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e )
a U. S. D epartm ent o f Commerce, Trade o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s w ith Japan
(W ash in gton , D. C
1939) p. 2.
ui
to
TABLE VI
UNITED STATES IMPORTS FROM JAPAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1950-1938*
(In thousands of dollars)
T o ta l
In d ex
Prom
In d ex
Y ear
im p o r ts
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
number
Canada
number
3 ,0 6 0 ,9 0 0
100
3 4 9 ,6 6 1
100
2 ,0 9 0 ,6 0 0
68
2 5 8 ,1 3 9
74
1 ,3 2 2 ,8 0 0
43
1 4 9 ,6 9 8
43
1 ,1 3 2 ,8 0 0
37
1 8 5 ,4 0 9
53
32
9 8 7 ,1 0 0
2 1 5 ,5 1 0
62
J.,2 1 5 ,2 0 0
40
2 5 1 ,2 8 5
72
47
1 ,4 3 0 ,8 0 0
3 2 7 ,6 4 6
94
1 ,8 2 1 ,3 0 0
60
3 5 2 ,5 9 9
101
73
1 ,9 4 9 ,6 0 0
64
2 5 6 ,6 4 7
A verage p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l im p o r ts
In d ex
P ercent
of
aFrom
t o * l imp . Japan number
11
12
11
16
22
21
23
19
13
17
2 7 9 ,0 4 0
2 0 6 ,3 4 9
1 3 4 ,0 1 1
1 2 8 ,4 1 8
1 1 9 ,2 5 2
1 5 2 ,9 0 2
1 7 1 ,7 4 4
2 0 4 ,2 0 1
1 2 6 ,7 6 2
100
74
48
46
43
55
62
73
45
P e r c e n t,
of
t b ’ l im p.
9
10
10
11
12
13
12
11
7
11
*U, S, D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce T ear B ook, 1 9 5 0 -1 9 5 8
(U, S, Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e )
aU S, D epartm ent o f Commerce, Trade o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s w ith Japan
(W ashington, D, Q,
1939) p 2,
o>
o
TABLE 71 (continued)
UNITED STATES IMPORTS EROM JAPAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8 *
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
from
U n ite d
Kingdom
In d ex
P e r c e n t,
of
number JfcPjlfcSELr.
1 3 9 ,6 9 3
100
5
60
8 3 ,7 3 9
4
5 3 ,3 1 8
4
38
1 1 1 ,2 1 8
10
80
1 1 6 ,9 7 7
12
84
1 4 7 ,5 8 8
106
12
1 8 3 ,0 8 8
131
13
150
2 0 9 ,3 8 6
12
6
1 1 8 ,3 6 6
85
A verage p e r c e n ta g e
9
from
M exico
1 2 6 ,0 7 9
1 0 4 ,2 3 3
6 3 ,4 0 5
3 0 ,7 1 6
9 2 ,4 0 8
1 3 0 ,5 2 3
1 3 0 ,4 9 5
1 3 9 ,8 3 4
4 2 ,4 8 3
In d e x '
number
100
83
50
24
73
104
104
111
34
P ercent
of
t o 1I imp .
Prom
In d ex
Cuba
number
4
5
5
3
9
11
9
8
2
6
1 1 6 ,0 5 1
8 9 ,2 9 2
2 8 ,9 9 6
5 8 ,4 9 9
8 1 ,0 9 4
1 0 1 ,5 3 4
1 2 1 ,8 9 9
1 5 0 ,1 5 8
1 0 5 ,4 4 4
100
77
25
50
70
87
105
129
91
*U- S. Departm ent o f Commerce, f o r e i g n Commerce Y ear B ook, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 5 8
(U, S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e )
P ercent
of
t o * l im p.
4
4
2
5
8
8
9
8
5
6
TABLE 711
JAPANESE IMPORTS FROM UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1930-1938*
(In thousands of Ten)
T o ta l
In d ex
im p o r ts
number
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
From
U n ite d
S ta te s
In d ex
number
100
1 ,5 4 6 ,0 7 0 100
4 4 2 ,8 8 1
80
77
1 ,2 3 5 ,6 7 5
3 4 2 ,2 8 9
93
5 0 9 ,8 7 3
115
1 ,4 3 1 ,4 6 1
1 ,9 1 7 ,2 1 9 124
6 2 0 ,7 7 8
140
7 6 9 ,3 5 9
174
2 ,2 8 2 ,6 0 1 148
2 ,4 7 2 ,2 3 5 147
183
8 0 9 ,6 4 4
191
2 ,7 6 3 ,6 8 1 179
8 4 7 ,4 9 0
287
3 ,7 8 3 ,1 7 7 245 jl ,2 6 9 ,5 4 2
2 ,6 6 3 ,4 4 0 172
9 1 5 ,3 5 3
207
A verage p e r c e n ta g e o f t o t a l im p o r ts
P e r c e n t , From
of
B r itis h
t o ’ l im p. In d ia
29
28
36
32
34
33
31
34
34
32
1 8 0 ,4 0 5
1 3 3 ,1 6 5
1 1 6 ,8 6 5
2 0 4 ,7 3 7
2 8 9 ,6 7 2
3 0 5 ,6 4 6
3 7 2 ,0 0 9
4 4 9 ,4 8 6
1 7 2 ,2 3 0
In d ex
number
100
74
65
113
161
169
206
249
95
P er ce n t,
of
t o * l im p.
12
11
8
11
13
12
13
12
6
11
* F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
(T ok io: K enkyusha P r e s s )
Kokumin News P aper Company, Kokumin Y ear Book, 1941 (T o k io : Kyodo
P r e s s Co,
Ltd,
1940)
TABLE VII (continued)
JAPANESE IMPORTS FROM UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES.
1930-1938*
(In thousands of Ten)
P ercent
From
of
Manchoukuo number t o f l imp . China
From
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
In d ex
2 5 ,9 9 9
100
1 4 7 ,8 9 7
569
1 6 4 ,2 1 1
632
1 9 1 ,0 0 5
735
2 0 5 ,5 6 7
791
2 4 9 ,0 7 1
958
x , 304
3 3 9 ,1 1 6
A verage p e r c e n ta g e
2
8
7
8
7
7
13
7
1 6 1 ,6 6 6
1 4 5 ,6 9 7
1 0 2 ,7 4 6
1 1 3 ,3 5 7
1 1 9 ,5 7 3
1 3 3 ,8 1 7
1 5 4 ,8 3 8
1 4 3 ,6 3 6
1 6 4 ,6 1 1
In d e x
P ercent
From
In d ex
of
number t o ’ l imp. Germany number
100
10
1 0 6 ,1 8 3
100
90
12
7 3 ,2 4 4
69
64
7
7 1 ,7 4 2
68
70
9 5 ,7 9 7
90
6
74
5
1 0 9 ,5 8 3
103
83
5
1 2 0 ,8 1 7
114
96
6
1 1 5 ,5 0 0
109
89
4
1 7 6 ,3 6 3
166
102
171 169
161
6
7
P ercent
of
t o f i im p.
7
6
5
5
5
5
4
5
6
5
* F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t io n o f Japan, Japan Y ear Boole, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 5 8
(T o k io : K enkyusha P r e s s )
Kokumin News P aper Company, Kokumin Y ear B ook, 1941 (T ok io: Kyodo
P r e s s Co,
Ltd,
1940)
a>
03
TABLE VIII
JAPANESE EXPORTS TO UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES,
1930-1938*
{In thousands of Yen)
T o ta l
In d ex
im p o r ts
number
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
To
U n ite d
S ta te s
In d ex
number
1 ,4 6 9 ,8 5 2 100
5 0 6 ,1 1 2
100
1 ,1 4 6 ,9 8 1
78
4 2 5 ,3 3 0
84
1 ,4 0 9 ,9 9 2
96
4 4 5 ,1 4 7
88
97
4 9 2 ,2 3 7
1 ,8 6 1 ,0 4 6 127
2 ,1 7 1 ,9 2 4 148
79
3 9 8 ,9 2 8
2 ,4 9 9 ,0 7 2 170
5 3 5 ,5 1 5
106
117
2 ,6 9 2 ,9 7 6 183
5 9 4 ,2 5 1
3 ,1 7 5 ,4 1 8 216
6 3 9 ,4 2 8
126
2 ,6 8 9 ,6 7 7 183
84
4 2 5 ,1 2 3
A verage p e r c e n ta g e o f t o t a l e x p o r ts
P ercent
of
t o ’ l exp.
Kwantung
L eased
T e r r it o r y
In d ex
number
34
37
32
27
18
21
22
20
16
25
8 6 ,8 1 4
6 5 ,5 4 1
1 2 0 ,5 8 4
2 2 1 ,0 6 8
2 9 5 ,8 6 8
3 0 0 ,2 6 9
3 4 7 ,1 6 5
3 9 5 ,9 1 6
5 3 6 ,3 1 7
100
76
139
255
341
346
400
456
618
P ercent
of
t o ’ l imp
6
6
9
12
14
12
13
12
20
11
* E o reig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t io n o f Japan, Japan Y ear Book, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 9
(T o k io : Kenkyusha P r e s s )
Kokumin News P aper Company, Kokumin Y ear Book, 1941 (T ok io: Kyodo P r e s s
Co,
L td,
1940)
o>
TABLE VIII (continued)
JAPANESE EXPORTS TO UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES.
1930-1958*
{ I n thousands of Yen)
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
To
B r itis h
I n d ia
In d ex
number
1 2 9 ,2 6 2
100
1 1 0 ,3 6 7
85
1 9 2 ,4 9 2
149
2 0 5 ,1 5 4
159
200
2 5 8 ,2 2 0
2 7 5 ,6 3 7
213
200
2 5 9 ,1 0 8
2 9 9 ,3 6 7
232
1 8 8 ,0 4 0
145
A verage p e r c e n ta g e
P ercent
of
t o f i exp.
9
10
14
11
12
11
10
9
7
10
To
In d ex
China
number
2 6 0 ,8 2 5
1 5 5 ,7 5 0
1 2 9 ,4 7 8
1 0 8 ,2 5 3
1 1 7 ,0 6 2
1 4 8 ,7 8 8
1 5 9 ,6 9 1
1 7 9 ,2 5 1
3 1 2 ,9 0 0
100
60
50
42
45
57
61
69
20
P ercent
To
in d e x
of
t o f i e x p . Manchoukuo number
18
14
9
6
5
6
6
6
12
8
2 5 ,9 4 7
8 2 ,0 7 1
107 151
1 2 6 ,0 4 5
1 5 0 ,8 5 9
2 1 6 ,0 9 2
316 f 322
P ercent
of
to * l ex£.
100
316
413
486
581
833
i., 219
2
4
5
5
6
7
12
6
^ F oreign A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Jap an , Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 5 0 -1 9 3 9 (T ok io;
Kenkyusha P r e s s )
Kokumin News P aper Company. Kokumin Y ear B ook, 1941 (T o k io ; Kyodo P r e s s
Co,
Ltd.
1940)
o>
U!
TABLE IX
COMPARISON OF UNITED STATES TRADE WITH JAPAN AND SOUTH AMERICA
1930 and 1938*
iln thousands of dollars)
1930
1938
C o u n tr ie s
E x p o rts
Im p orts
E x p o rts
Im p o rts
Japan
1 6 4 ,5 7 0
2 7 9 ,0 4 0
2 3 9 ,6 6 2
1 2 6 ,7 6 2
S ou th A m erica
3 3 7 ,5 0 9
4 3 3 ,5 1 8
2 9 9 ,7 1 4
2 6 2 ,6 1 3
B r a z il
A r g e n tin a
V e n e z u e la
C olom bia
C h ile
P eru
O th ers
5 3 ,8 0 9
1 2 9 ,8 6 2
3 2 ,9 6 7
2 5 ,1 3 0
4 6 ,3 7 4
1 5 ,7 2 0
3 3 .6 4 7
1 3 0 ,8 5 4
7 1 ,8 9 1
3 6 ,8 6 8
9 7 ,1 3 9
547815
2 1 ,2 8 4
2 0 .6 6 9
6 1 ,9 5 7
8 6 ,7 9 3
5 2 ,2 7 8
4 0 ,8 6 2
2 4 ,6 0 3
1 6 ,8 9 2
1 6 .3 2 9
9 7 ,9 3 3
4 0 ,7 0 9
2 0 ,0 3 2
4 9 ,3 9 8
2 8 ,2 6 8
1 2 ,3 1 8
1 3 .9 5 5
* U n ite d S t a t e s D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and
N a v ig a tio n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1930 and 1958 (W ash in gton, D. C V
o>
o>
67
The U n ite d S t a t e s h a s b e e n th e m ost im p o rta n t so u r c e
o f .Japan*s im p o rts and f o r a lo n g tim e h a s b een h er l a r g e s t
e x p o rt m arket,
B eca u se o f in c r e a s e d p u r c h a s e s b y Japan o f a
number o f U n ite d S t a t e s p r o d u c ts , p r i n c i p a l l y raw c o tto n ,
p e tr o le u m , and unm anufactured and se m i-m a n u fa ctu red m e t a ls ,
th e p r o p o r tio n o f t h a t c o u n t r y 's t o t a l im p o r ts r o s e from
2 8*7 in 1930 t o 34*4 i n 19 3 8 ,
On th e o th e r hand, t h e p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f e x p o r ts from Japan t o th e U n ite d S t a t e s f e l l from
34*4 in 1930 t o 15*8 in 1938 b e c a u se o f th e S in o -J a p a n e se
War,
Customs d u t i e s in th e U n ite d S t a t e s . The p o s t war
t a r i f f s o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s had b een autonom ous, s i n g l e ­
column t a r i f f s , ' 1'
They w ere l e g i s l a t e d d i r e c t l y by C on gress
e x c e p t a s m inor a d ju stm e n ts w ere made by t h e T a r i f f Com­
m is s io n under t h e c o s t e q u a l i z a t i o n form u la l a i d down by
C on gress in th e T a r i f f A c ts o f 1922 and 1 9 3 0 .
Thus t h e y
w ere d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f many o th e r c o u n t r ie s w hich
2
had d o u b le o r t r i p l e colum n t a r i f f s ,
A
The o n ly e x c e p t io n was t h e p r e f e r e n t i a l tr e a tm e n t on
Cuban p r o d u c ts am ounting t o ab ou t 20 p e r c e n t,
2
Of t h e t o t a l o f 43 c o u n t r ie s t a b u la t e d b y th e U n ite d
S t a t e s T a r i f f C om m ission, 27 c o u n t r ie s had la w s on J u ly 1 ,
19 3 4 , em powering t h e e x e c u t iv e t o change t a r i f f r a t e s w ith o u t
r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e and 12 more p e n d in g a p p r o v a l o f
th e l e g i s l a t u r e .
U. S . T a r i f f C om m ission, R e g u la tio n o f
T a r i f f s in F o r e ig n C o u n tr ie s b y A d m in is t r a tiv e A c t io n ,"
(W ashington" 1 9 3 4 ). pp 4 1 -4 5 ,
68
Combined w it h a s i n g l e column t a r i f f sy ste m was t h e
g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f g i v i n g and a s k in g m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t io n
tr e a tm e n t
On A p r il L 1933, t h e u n it e d S ta te d had n e g o ­
t i a t e d t r e a t i e s and a g r e e m e n ts c o n t a in in g t h e c o n d it io n a l
form w it h f o u r t e e n c o u n t r ie s in c lu d in g G reat B r it a in ,
Japan,
B elg iu m , and A r g e n tin a , and th e u n c o n d it io n a l form w ith
3
t w e n t y - n in e c o u n t r i e s f
When t h e f i r s t p o s t war d e p r e s s io n to o k p la c e ,
ever,
how­
an e v a s io n o f t h e m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t io n p r i n c i p l e was
en co u ra g ed b e c a u se o f th e a c u te t r a d e and c u r r e n c y d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s in many c o u n t r ie s a s w e l l a s in t h e u n ite d S t a t e s ,
In a d d it io n , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f im p e r ia l p r e fe r e n c e t o
B r i t i s h d om in ion s w idened t h e sp h e re w it h in w h ich t h e m ost-
3
The m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t io n c la u s e i s a p le d g e o f non­
d is c r im in a t io n or a p le d g e o f tr e a tm e n t e q u a l l y fa v o r a b le
w ith t h a t e x te n d ed t o a t h i r d c o u n tr y .
I t may ta k e e i t h e r
o f two form s,
The u n c o n d it io n a l form p r o m ise s t h a t th e
o th e r c o n t r a c t in g p a r t y s h a l l be accorded, s im u lt a n e o u s ly
and u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y , w ith o u t r e q u e s t and w ith o u t com pensa­
t i o n , any c o n c e s s io n s e x te n d e d t o a t h ir d co u n tr y ,
The
c o n d i t i o n a l form p r o m ise s t h a t when su ch a c o n c e s s io n h as
b een g r a n te d t h e t h ir d c o u n tr y in r e tu r n f o r an e q u iv a le n t
t h a t c o n c e s s io n w i l l be a c co r d e d t h e o th e r c o n t r a c t in g
p a r t y o n ly f o r an e q u iv a le n t c o n c e s s io n in e x c h a n g e t S ee
C hapter I I I and a l s o W illia m W. Lockwood, J r w^ The F o r e ig n
Trade P o l i c y o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s * (Hew York? .American
C o u n c il I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 3 6 ), p. 25,
69
f a v o r e d - n a t io n p r i n c i p l e was i n o p e r a t i v e ,
Faced w ith t h i s
s i t u a t i o n , many p e o p le l e d by G eorge N, P eek a d v o c a te d
s c r a p p in g t h e m o s t - f a v o r e d - n a t io n p r i n c i p l e and la u n c h in g
4
a program o f b a r g a in in g f o r p r e f e r e n t i a l c o n c e s s io n ,
S in c e ,
how ever,
e x p e r ie n c e had shown t h a t p r e f e r e n t i a l
b a r g a in in g ten d e d t o r e s u l t in b i l a t e r a l b a la n c in g o f t r a d e ,
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s m a in ta in e d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f
tr e a tm e n t,
s a id ,
A s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e F r a n c is B. S ayre
in an a p p e a l t o A m erican b u s in e s s men:
The p o l i c y o f p r e f e r e n t i a l b a r g a in in g means t h e
s h i f t i n g and a d ju stm e n ts o f t h e c u r r e n ts o f w orld
t r a d e , n o t in r e s p o n s e t o t h e o p e r a tio n o f fu n d a ­
m e n ta l econ om ic la w s o f s u p p ly and demand, b u t in
a c c o r d a n c e w it h t h e . a r b i t r a r y and p o l i t i c a l d e c i ­
s i o n s o f p u b lic o f f i c i a l s ,
I t means t h e p l a c in g o f
t h e econ om ic l i f e o f e v e r y n a t io n a t th e
m ercy o f
t h e b a r g a in s and
p o l i t i c a l m a n ip u la tio n s
made,some­
tim e s by i t s own
o f f i c i a l s and som etim es
b y th o s e
o f o th e r n a t i o n s
o v e r whom i t h as no c o n t r o l
It
means th e s t r a i g h t - j a c k e t i n g o f w o rld tr a d e and a
grow in g econ om ic n a t io n a lis m w it h m ounting c o s t s
t o d o m e stic consum ers and a d e c r e a s e d sta n d a r d o f
liv in g .5
The p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f tr e a tm e n t was t h u s w e l l
s u i t e d t o th e n e e d s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s a t t h a t tim e ,
But
t h e h ig h autonom ous t a r i f f w a ll e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e A ct o f
4
T estim on y o f P eek in C auses o f th e l o s s o f E xp ort
Trade a n d .t h e Means o f .R ecovery] {H ea rin g s beforeH The Com­
m it t e e on A g r ic u lt u r e and F o r e s t r y , U. S, S e n a te , ? 4 th Con­
g r e s s , 1 s t S e s s io n j W ash in gton , 1935, *
5
A d d ress by F r a n c is B. S a y re b e f o r e th e N a t io n a l
C o n v en tio n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s J u n io r Chamber o f Commerce
a t Colum bia, O hio, June £8, 1935,
70
L93Q w ith o u t r eg a r d t o o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w ith o th e r c o u n t r ie s
was n o t s u i t e d t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l econom ic s i t u a t i o n ,
c o n seq u en ce,
In
f o r th e p u rp ose o f r e d u c in g t a r i f f s , t h e Admin­
is tr a tio n h i l l
w h ich to o k th e form o f an amendment t o th e
T a r i f f A ct o f 1930, was approved on March 29, 1934, by th e
House and on June 4 by th e S e n a te and, w ith t h e a d d it io n o f
s e v e r a l m inor amendments, t h e b i l l became a la w on June 12,
1 9 3 4 .6
F iv e y e a r s a f t e r t h e Trade A greem ents Act went i n t o
e ffe c t,
r e c i p r o c a l t r a d e a g r ee m e n ts had b een n e g o t i a t e d w ith
tw e n ty -o n e c o u n t r ie s in c lu d in g Canada, F ran ce, F in la n d . K ing­
dom o f t h e N e th e r la n d s , B r a z il,
S w itz e r la n d ,
B elg iu m , Sweden, Colom bia,
Cuba, H onduras, N ica ra g u a ,
U n fo r tu n a te ly ,
ed w ith Japani
G uatem ala, and H a it i
a t r a d e agreem ent h as n o t b een c o n c lu d ­
A lth o u g h th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n made by t h e U n ited
S t a t e s T a r i f f Com m ission r e v e a le d t h a t ou t o f a t o t a l o f
$ *11 9 ,2 5 2 ,000 p u rc h a sed from Japan in 1934 o n ly $ 9 , 713, 756 o r
Q
8 * 1 p e r c e n t w ere s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o m p e t it iv e ,
t h e e x p a n sio n
o f J a p a n ese tr a d e s i n e e 1 9 3 1 h a s a r o u se d f e a r and h o s t i l i t y
6
P u b lic No. 316.
7
8
Lockwood, op,
73rd C on gress
c i t . . p, 33,
The J a p a n ese Chamber o f Commerce, A m erica n -J a p a n ese
Trade and T r e a ty A b r o g a tio n . (San F r a n c is c o r The Jap an ese
'Chamber o f Commerce, 1939} p, 9,
71
on t h e p a r t o f A m erican b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s ,
t h o s e who have b een a f f e c t e d ,
fe c te d .
p a r tic u la r ly
or th o u g h t t h e y m ight be a f ­
by in c r e a s in g sh ip m en ts o f cheap Jap an ese good s t o
th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
The te n d e n c y o f su ch sh ip m en ts t o in c r e a s e
r a p i d l y in a fe w c o m p e titiv e l i n e s l e d t o s tr o n g p r e s s u r e
upon t h e a d m in is t r a t io n t o r a i s e t h e d u t i e s upon Jap an ese
g o o d s,
e s p e c i a l l y upon c o t t o n t e x t i l e s ,
I t was a l s o u sed
e f f e c t i v e l y t o r a l l y o p p o s it io n t o t h e tr a d e agreem ent p r o ­
gram a s a w h o le,
In co n se q u en ce ,
Japan c o u ld n o t n e g o t i a t e
a tr a d e agreem ent w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
and sh e h as b een
p la c e d in an u n fa v o r a b le p o s i t i o n a s compared w ith t h e
c o u n t r ie s w h ich c o n c lu d e d r e c i p r o c a l tr a d e a g reem en ts w ith
t h i s co u n try ,
I t w i l l be w e l l t o d i s c u s s h e r e , b r i e f l y ,
th e e f f e c t
o f a t a r i f f upon A m erican consum ers and Ja p a n ese e x p o r te r s
Cf t h e comm odity in q u e s t io n s t i l l c o n tin u e d t o be im ported
and t h e d o m e s tic p r ic e w ere r a is e d b y th e f u l l amount o f th e
d u ty.
J a p a n ese e x p o r te r s c o u ld s t i i j
g e t a s good a p r i c e f o r
t h e i r e x p o r ts a s t h e y r e c e i v e d b e f o r e t h e d u ty was im posed
They w ould c o n tin u e t o e x p o r t a s b e f o r e , and th e w h ole b u r ­
den o f t h e d u ty w ould be b orn e by A m erican consum ers,
However
i t i s a p p a re n t t h a t h ig h d u t i e s c u r t a ij
e x p o r ts t o a g r e a t e x t e n t ,
Jap an ese
r e s u l t i n g in L o sses t o Jap an ese
e x p o r te r s
F urtherm ore,
i t i s now Known t h a t a d u ty seld o m d o e s,
72
e x c e p t p erh a p s te m p o r a r ily ,
f u l l amount
r a i s e t h e d o m e stic p r i c e b y i t s
I t r a i s e s i t somewhat,
and t h e p r i c e r e c e iv e d
by J a p a n ese e x p o r te r s w i l l be t h e p r ic e t o w h ic h i t i s r a is e d
l e s s t h e f u l l amount o f t h e d u ty : t h a t i s ,
ers,
J a p a n ese e x p o r t­
i f t h e y w ould e n t e r th e A m erican m arket o v e r th e d u ty,
must s e l l a t a somewhat lo w e r p r i c e th a n b e f o r e ,
Hence,
th e
burden o f th e d u ty i s b orne i n p a r t b y A m erican consum ers
and in p a r t by J a p a n ese e x p o r t e r s <
En .just what p r o p o r tio n
t h i s burden i s sh a red depend s upon a number o f f a c t o r s — t h e
A m erican and J ap an ese o u tp u t and consu m ption a s w e l l a s t h e
A m erican and J ap an ese e l a s t i c i t i e s o f su p p ly and demand—
w h ich f a c t o r s v a r y g r e a t l y w ith d i f f e r e n t co m m o d ities.
In
some c a s e s t h e d u ty w i l l r a i s e t h e Am erican p r i c e su n sta n t i a l l y , and J a p a n ese e x p o r t e r s w i l l be l i t t l e
by i t
in c o n v e n ie n c e d
In o th e r c a s e s , t h e A m erican p r ic e w ilj be r a is e d
but l i t t l e ,
T ab le X shows t h e com p arison o f t h e r a t e s o f d u ty
upon tw e n ty com m od ities under t h e T a r i f f A c ts o f 1 9 1 3 , 1 9 2 2 ,
and 1 9 3 0 ,
The r a t e s f o r 1922 marked a d i s t i n c t advance
above t h o s e f o r 1913 and t h e r a t e s f o r 1930 a n o th e r d i s t i n c t
advan ce above t h o s e f o r 1922,
C om putations o f e q u iv a le n t
ad v a lo rem w ere b a se d on im p o r ts from Japan, when t h e s e w ere
s e g r e g a t e d i n o th e r c a s e s t h e y w ere b a sed on t h e t o t a l
im p o r ts o f t h e ite m in q u e s t io n ,
I t was, how ever
computed t h a t o n ly f i v e p e r c e n t o f
TABUS X
■INCREASE IN RATES OF DUTY OF UNITED STATES SINCE 1913*
D u tie s in A ct o f
C om m odities
E arthenw are
U n d ecorated
D e c o r a ted
C h in a, p o r c e la in
U n d ecorated
D e co r a ted
Canned clam s
L i l y b u lb s
Mushrooms
D r ie d b ea n s
D r ie d p e a s
C o tto n f l o o r
c o v e r in g
1913
1922
35
40
45
50
50
55
F ree
$5 p e r 1 ,0 0 0
2 i 0 p e r lb
5 /1 2 # p e r lb
1 /6 0 p e r lb ,
1930
E q u iv a le n t
ad v a lo rem
in A ct o f
1930
100 p e r doz, & 45
100 p e r doz, & 50
62
67
100 p e r doz. & 60
60
70
100 p e r doz, & 70
F ree
35
| 2 p e r 1 ,0 0 0
$6 p e r 1 ,0 0 0
60
45
i 3 /4 0 p e r l b
30 p e r l b .
i 3 /4 0 p e r lb .
10 p e r lb ,
76
86
35
10
60
71
48
35
35
Broad s i l k
45
55
S i l k w e a r in g
app arel
50
60
"H it & M iss" 75
C h e n ille
40
O ther
35
55
30 in c h e s w id e, 60
65
75
40
35
55
60
65
*U, S< D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v ig a tio n o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 1 5 , 1 9 3 2 , and 1950 (W ashington: U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t ­
in g O f f i c e )
aThe f i g u r e s i n t h i s column w ere computed from t h e f i g u r e s f o r im p o r ts,
q u a n t it y , and v a lu e g iv e n i n th e M onthly Summary o f F o r e ig n Commerce o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s , P a r t 1, Ja n u a ry , 1 9 5 1 ,
TABLE X (continued)
INCREASE IN RATES OF DUTY OF UNITED STATES SINCE 1913*
_
.
D u t ie s xn A c t o f
oosm ocu/Gies
1913
1922
35
60
15
20
15
20
25
35
40
50
D o l l s and t o y s o f
c e llu lo id
40
60
T ooth b r u sh e s
40
60
F ree
F ree
I m it a t io n p e a r l
M a t e r ia ls f o r h a t s
N ot b le a c h e d
B lea c h e d
H a ts, b o n n e ts, e t c
N ot b lo c k e d
B lo ck ed
C o tto n w ip in g r a g s
1930
E q u iv a le n t
v a lo rem
A ct o f
ln 1930
V alu e > i 0 p er in ,
60
V a l J -1 0 , J 0 p e r in , & 60'
V a l 1 - 5 0 , 10 p er in . & 40
V a l - 50 60
I r id e s e n t
V al
100. 90
V a l > 10#. 60
15
25
60
15
25
N ot b le a c h e d 25:
B le a c h e d 2 5 0 ‘ n e r d o z . & 25
N ot sew ed #3*50 & 50
Sewed #4 & 60 p e r doz,
H aving m ovable p a r t s .
10 & 60
N ot h a v in g m ovable p a r t s ,
10 & 50
P a r t s o f d o l l s and t o y s ,
10 & 60
B ru sh es 20 & 50
H an d les 10 & 50
30 p e r lb ,
JL10
*U. S, Departm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v ig a t io n o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s , 1913, 1922. and 1930 (W ashington: ^United S p a te s Government P r in t *
in g O f f ic e )
75
t h e t o t a l im p o rts from Japan h a s b een a f f e c t e d b y t h e T a r i f f
A ct o f 1930,
9
D u t ie s on th e ite m s o f m ajor im p o rta n ce r e ­
m ained unchanged, and a p p r o x im a te ly 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e im p o rts
was a d m itte d f r e e o f d u ty a s b e f o r e i n 19 3 0 ,
P r i n c i p a l co m m o d ities im ported i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
from J a p a n ,
The A m erican t a r i f f to d a y i s b o th com p reh en sive
and s e v e r e ,
I t c o v e r s a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f co m m o d ities and
f a l l s h e a v i l y upon a number o f them , n o t o n ly m a n u fa ctu re s,
b u t a l s o raw m a t e r i a ls ,
However, upon f u r t h e r e x a m in a tio n
o f p r i n c i p a l co m m o d ities im ported from Japan, we f i n d t h a t
o n ly o n e - t h ir d o f im port v a lu e s a r e d u t ia b le ite m s and twot h i r d s a r e on th e f r e e l i s t ,
T ab le XI shows t h e v a lu e o f d u ty f r e e and d u t i a b l e
im p o r ts from Japan in t h e p e r io d 1930 t o
L938,
The p e r c e n t ­
a g e o f t h e v a lu e o f t o t a l im p o r ts from Japan r e p r e s e n te d by
d u ty f r e e g ood s was a p p r o x im a te ly 85 p e r c e n t from 1930 t o
1 9 3 2 , b u t i t d e c r e a s e d t o 79*75 p e r c e n t i n 1933,
c e n t in 1934,
7 0 .8 7 p e r c e n t in 1935,
and 61*60 p e r c e n t in 1937,
71*29 p e r
67*12 p e r c e n t i n 1936,
The p e r c e n ta g e showed a s l i g h t
in c r e a s e in th e f o l lo w in g y e a r , a c c o u n tin g f o r 70*97 p e r c e n t
The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r th e d e c l i n e i s t h e g r e a t f a l i
t h e d o l l a r p r i c e o f raw s i l k ,
9
T rade,
in
a s w i l l be d is c u s s e d in t h e
G. W right, The A m erican T a r i f f and O r ie n t a l
(C h icago: U n i v e r s i t y o f C h icago £ 're ss, 1 9 3 1 V, p , 8 2 ,
TABLE XI
FREE AND DUTIABLE IMPORTS INTO UNITED STATES FROM JAPAN,
1930-1938*
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
Y ear
Crude m a t e r i a ls
F ree
D u tia b le
2 2 6 ,5 7 3
1 6 7 ,0 3 8
1 1 0 ,2 0 9
9 5 ,9 5 8
7 6 ,2 1 4
9 6 ,8 7 9
1 0 2 ,2 4 3
1 1 0 ,6 4 0
8 8 ,6 2 7
1 ,8 2 2
1 .1 0 6
656
607
761
800
± ,0 0 5
1 ,4 9 9
1 ,0 8 5
Sem i-m anufa e t u r e s
F ree
D u tia b le
1930
4 ,8 5 9
4 ,9 2 3
1931
1 ,8 7 3
2 ,6 3 3
1932
1 ,3 1 8
1 ,5 2 5
1933
3 ,0 9 1
2 ,3 9 9
1934
3 ,5 6 9
3 ,3 4 7
1935
6 ,0 0 7
4 ,5 2 5
1936
8 ,2 1 9
9 ,5 6 8
1937
9 ,0 6 2
3 ,3 5 6
1938
3 ,8 4 1
1 ,4 6 6
A verage p e r c e n ta g e
Crude f o o d s t u f f s
F ree D u tia b le
4 ,9 7 2
3 ,9 5 0
2 ,5 2 1
2 ,3 4 3
3 ,0 3 4
3 ,0 7 4
2 ,8 3 0
4 ,8 2 7
2 ,6 4 2
2 ,5 3 9
1 ,4 0 1
200
285
390
593
631
± ,5 3 4
573
F in is h e d m a n u fa ctu res
F ree
D u tia b le 1 ,8 6 9
1 ,5 5 8
985
± ,0 0 8
1 ,4 9 1
1 ,3 2 2
1 ,1 5 2
1 ,3 2 6
682
2 4 ,6 5 0
2 1 ,4 3 4
1 2 ,6 1 6
1 6 ,9 1 3
2 4 ,1 0 1
2 9 ,4 1 5
3 8 ,3 2 3
4 9 ,8 2 5
2 5 ,5 2 7
M fred f o o d s t u f f s
F ree D u tia b le
299
20
12
14
7
19
58
33
4
6 ,5 3 3
5 ,3 3 6
3 ,9 6 9
5 ,8 0 0
5 ,0 4 8
8 ,7 6 3
8 ,5 4 4
1 2 ,9 8 3
7 .7 5 9
T o ta l
F ree
D u tia b le
2 3 8 ,5 7 2
1 7 4 ,4 3 9
1 1 5 ,0 4 5
1 0 2 ,4 1 4
8 4 ,0 9 3
1 0 7 ,3 0 1
1 1 5 ,7 8 6
1 2 0 ,1 8 2
9 3 ,4 2 1
4 0 ,4 6 7
3 1 ,9 1 0
1 8 ,9 6 6
2 6 ,0 0 4
3 3 ,8 6 9
4 4 ,0 9 7
5 6 ,7 2 2
7 4 ,9 0 4
3 8 ,2 1 2
P ercent
o f fre e
im p o r ts
8 5 .5 0
8 4 .5 4
8 5 .8 5
7 9 .7 5
7 1 .2 9
7 0 .8 7
67 12
6 1 .6 0
7 0 .9 7
7 5 .2 8
*U, S . Departm ent o f Commerce* F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v ig a tio n o f
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 5 0 -1 9 5 8 (W ashington* D, C“"T
77
s e c t i o n "Raw s i l k e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s from .Japan*"
A lth o u g h t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f f r e e good s from Japan h a s shown a
d e c l i n i n g te n d e n c y s i n c e 1 9 3 3 , i t i s v e r y h ig h a s compared
w ith 4.4*6 p e r c e n t from G reat B r it a i n ,
3 3 .8 p e r c e n t from
F ra n ce, 39*9 p er c e n t from Germany, and 1 4 .4 p e r c e n t from
10
I ta ly .
W ith r e s p e c t t o t h e in d iv i d u a l d u t i a b l e good s im ported
i n t o t h i s c o u n tr y . T a b le X II
o f im p o r ts f o r con su m p tion ,
c o n s i s t i n g o f f i f t y - o n e ite m s
shows t h a t t h e y f a l l in a g r e a t
number o f t a r i f f and s t a t i s t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ,
and few o f
t h e ite m s ta k e n i n d i v i d u a l l y amount t o any c o n s id e r a b le p r o ­
p o r t io n o f t h e t o t a l v a lu e o f d u t ia b le im p o r ts from Japan.
Ho t a b l e o f l im i t e d le n g t h can f u r n i s h enough o f th e d u t i a b l e
im p o r ts t o a c c o u n t f o r a n y th in g a p p ro a c h in g t h e i r t o t a l
v a lu e , b u t t h e ite m s shown in t h e t a b l e a c c o u n t f o r a p p r o x i­
m a te ly 53 p e r c e n t and 47 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v a lu e o f
d u t i a b l e im p o r ts from Japan in 1930 and 1 9 3 8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y
The a r t i c l e s w hich e x c e e d e d $ 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 in 1938 w i l l be sum­
m a rized b e lo w .
Tuna f i s h ,
in o i l :
4 ,8 7 2 ,0 0 0 lb s *
v a lu e d a t $ 9 6 0 ,0 0 0 .
The
r a t e o f d u ty : 45> per c e n t ad valorem .
Crab m eat,
sa u c e ,
and p a s t e : 5 ,9 7 4 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
$ 2 ,2 1 3 ,0 0 0 . The r a t e o f du ty:
v a lu e d a t
15 p e r c e n t ad v a lo rem .
10
The J a p a n ese Chamber o f Commerce, 0£.
c i t . , p.
9,
78
L i ly b u lb s :
8 1 ,0 9 8 ,0 0 0 , v a lu e d a t $ 5 8 5 ,0 0 0 .
Tbe r a t e o f
du ty: 0*6 c e n t s e a ch .
T o t a l c o t t o n c lo t h : 5 ,7 8 8 ,0 0 0 lb s *
v a lu e d a t $ 1 ,6 8 5 ,0 0 0 ,
The r a t e o f du ty: 34 p e r c e n t ad v a lo re m .
C o tto n r a g s ,
in c lu d in g w ip in g r a g s , e x c e p t f o r p ap er m aking:
1 8 ,4 0 5 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
v a lu e d a t $ 1 ,0 4 9 ,0 0 0 .
The r a t e o f d u ty;
3 c e n t s p e r pound.
S i l k woven f a b r i c s o v e r 30 in c h e s w id e, n o t J a c q u a r d -f ig u r e s ,
b le a c h e d , p r in t e d ,
a t $ 2 ,3 1 3 ,0 0 0 ,
B r a id s , p l a i t s ,
or p i e c e dyed;
jl,
0 3 4 ,0 0 0 l b s .
v a lu e d
The r a t e o f d u ty : 55 p e r c e n t ad v a lo re m .
e t c ..
o f hemp,
c o n t a in in g s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t
b u t n o t c h i e f v a lu e o f rayon: 3 6 0 ,6 5 7 ,0 0 0 y a r d s, v a lu e d
a t $ 5 6 8 ,0 0 0 .
The r a t e o f du ty: 24 c e n ts p e r pound A. R.
P ap er i m i t a t i o n panama h a t s , b le a c h e d ,
s t a in e d :
dyed,
4 ,1 6 3 ,0 0 0 v a lu e d a t $ 7 9 7 ,0 0 0 .
c o lo r e d ,
or
The r a t e o f d u ty:
2 ^ 1 /1 2 c e n t s e a c h and 25 p e r c e n t ad v a lo rem .
C hina and p o r c e l a in w are, ta b le w a r e , k itc h e n w a r e ,
d e c o r a te d , e t c ,
2 ,7 2 1 ,0 0 0 d o z e n s,
The r a t e o f du ty:
e tc ,,
v a lu e d a t $ 1 ,5 1 1 ,0 0 0 .
10 c e n t s p e r d ozen and 70 p e r c e n t ad
v a lo re m .
M enthol
3 4 6 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
v a lu e d a t $ 8 2 7 ,0 0 0
The r a t e o f
d u ty: 50 c e n ts p er pound,
I t w i l j be n o te d from t h e t a b l e t h a t t h e v a lu e s o f
some co m m o d ities h ave d e c lin e d w h ile t h e q u a n t i t i e s have
in c r e a s e d ,
Q u a n t it a t iv e d a ta on t h e im p o r ts o f some
table
79
X II
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
OF DUTIABLE ITEMS FROM JAPAN, 1 9 5 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
P resen t
R a te s
of
Duty
Tuna f l a i l ,
In o i l
Crab m ea t,
sau ce,
e tc ,
and p a s t e
H e r r in g o i l
193 1
Quan­
v a lu e
t ity
1932
Quan­
v a lu e
tit y
1933
Quan­
V a lu e
tity
193 4
Quan­
V alue
t ity
1935
Quan­
V alu e
t it y
1936
Quan­
V a lu e
t ity
Quan­
tity
193 7
V a lu e
1938
Quan­
V alu e
t it y
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
45#
(1 )
(1 )
649
127
5 ,5 7 5
697
1 4 ,2 1 9
1 ,9 5 0
7 ,5 6 8
1 ,2 0 4
7 .1 1 3
1 ,1 5 8
5 ,8 6 6
1 ,0 0 7
9 ,8 0 2
1 ,9 1 3
4 ,8 7 2
960
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
15#
9 ,4 9 1
4 ,1 8 8
9 ,3 6 1
3 ,7 4 8
5 ,5 4 5
1 ,9 8 8
6 ,9 4 3
2 ,0 5 7
5 ,2 3 2
1 ,7 4 7
8 ,7 8 3
3 ,0 7 0
7 ,3 0 5
2 ,5 6 8
8 ,1 0 3
2 ,9 0 9
5 ,9 7 4
2 ,2 1 3
(1 )
(1)
2 ,6 9 3
930
1 ,0 4 7
68
698
42
(1 )
(1 )
<u
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(2)
(2)
4
1
314
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
B r i s t l e s , s o r te d ,
prepared
19 3 0
Quan­
v a lu e
tity
5 / g a l . 4 3)4 i b .R .A .
b u n ch ed , o r
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
3 / lb .
130
306
278
449
224
318
331
741
285
917
3 38
1 ,0 8 8
508
1 ,4 7 2
372
1 ,0 6 3
96
S o yb ean o i l
c a k e and m eal
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
3 /1 0 / lb .
3 ,3 4 9
57
5 ,3 6 8
59
3 ,7 1 8
31
7 .1 5 4
60
6 ,2 4 6
60
6 ,2 2 8
82
5 ,0 7 9
66
7 ,4 9 6
97
5 ,3 8 4
76
L in s e e d o i l
c a k e and m eal
< 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , )
3/10)5 l b .
7 ,1 1 7
1 2 4 1 3 ,4 6 0
143
1 6 ,0 9 6
141
2 4 ,3 0 0
256 1 7 , 5 H
224
1 0 ,1 4 2
126
$1 ,.2 5 g a l,
(X)
(1 )
(1)
(1 )
(1 )
(1)
5
4
247
205
127
107
1 32
112
144
126
111
101
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1)
2 ,3 2 1
331
1 ,3 0 6
300
879
180
941
202
872
202
880
1 69
S t i l l w in e s — r i c e w in e
( 1 ,0 0 0 g a l , )
R ubber s o l e d f o o t w e a r w it h
f a b r ic u p p ers
Rubber t o y s ,
b a llo o n s
( 1 ,0 0 0 p a i r s )
3 5 # cn
A m erican s e l l i n g p r i c e
1 8 1 1 5 ,4 8 4
134 1 8 ,5 7 6
1 79 3 0 ,9 2 5
I n c lu d in g t o y
30#
Camphor, n a t u r a l,
Camphor, n a t u r a l,
R a p ese e d ( c o l z a )
d e n a tu r e d
(1 )
340
73
65
161
263
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
1/ p er lb .
1 ,0 5 8
419
1 ,9 6 4
700
1 ,7 9 9
513
1 ,9 8 9
411
2 ,6 6 3
646
1 ,5 4 2
422
(1 )
r e fin e d
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
5 / p er lb .
1 ,0 3 1
557
1 ,1 9 1
573
1 ,0 3 4
358
1 ,5 9 9
479
1 ,4 2 5
570
1 ,2 5 6
499
-
1 ,1 1 4
569
242
117
225
71
119
47
241
84
3 ,7 3 8
1 ,2 6 8
476
7 ,6 0 0
374
229
8 ,1 6 4
o il
136
137
crude
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
67
(1 )
(1 )
-
not
( 1 ,0 0 0 g a l )
6 / g a l..* k i t I b .R .A .
S au ces, n o t s p e c ia lly
p r o v id e d f o r
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . >
35#
L i l y b u lb s
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
0 . 6 / each
A g a r -a g a r
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
25#
T o ta l c o tto n c lo t h
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . J
34#
C o tto n " h i t and m iss" r a g r u g s
( 1 .0 0 0 s q .y d s , )
75#
8 ,5 3 8
1 5 ,4 8 9
398
203
(1 )
8 ,5 0 5
243
8 ,5 2 8
5 8 9 1 3 ,9 6 6
355
1 5 ,6 9 2
466
303
184
628
770
106
57
3 ,5 8 3
433
600
1 110 1 5 ,0 0 8
305
119
(1 )
479
187
(4)
6 ,7 1 8
3 7 8 1 6 ,8 8 6
5 ,1 3 3
2 ,2 0 9
430 2 0 ,4 0 0
162
165
464
156
451
1 .1 1 6
78
7 ,2 8 7
363
5 ,5 2 9
3 ,9 8 9
259
3 ,7 5 0
273
5 ,0 0 3
624
1 .7 2 8 1 2 ,4 0 3
379
3 ,1 0 0
128
1 02
43
279
9 ,0 9 3
309
7 ,9 6 0
507 2 3 ,4 6 4
585
2 1 ,0 9 8
525
274
696
416
588
333
3 ,4 5 6 1 9 ,0 1 5
5 ,5 1 3
5 ,7 2 2
1 ,6 8 5
262
1 ,3 6 6
106
227
407 1 8 ,8 5 9
973
275
2 ,9 5 1
TABLE X II ( c o n t in u e d )
80
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
o f d u t i a b l e ite m s from J a p a n , 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( i n $ 1 ,0 0 0 )
P resen t
R a te s
of
D uty
C o tto n c a r p e t s , c a r p e t i n g s , m ats
and r u g s , e x c e p t " h i t and m iss"
r a g r u g s and c h e n i l l e r u g s
(] .,0 0 0 s q . y d s . )
C o tto n r a g s , I n c lu d in g w ip in g
r a g e , e x c e p t f o r p a p e r -m a k in g
(] .,0 0 0 l b s . )
Wool w e a r in g a p p a r e l, n o t e s p e c ­
i a l l y p r o v id e d f o r , n o t k n i t
o r c r o c h e t e d , v a lu e d n o t o v e r
$ 4 p e r pound
(I 1 ,000 l b s . )
S i l k w oven f a b r i c s ( e x c e p t p i l e )
o v e r 3 0 I n c h e s w id e , n o t J a c q u a r d f ig u r e d , a l l s i l k , in th e g ra y
I 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . i
S i l k w oven f a b r i c s ( e x c e p t p i l e )
o v e r 3 0 I n c h e s w id e , n o t Ja c q u a r d f i g u r e d , b le a c h e d , p r i n t e d , o r
ie o e -d y e d
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
t w e a r in g a p p a r e l, n o t k n i t
o r c r o c h e t e d , o t h e r th a n m en 's
s h i r t s , n o t e m b ro id e r e d o r o f l a c e
£
(1 )
3 ,9 9 5
536
5 ,6 4 6
3 0 4 1 5 ,3 9 9
45 9
1 7 ,1 6 1
1 ,8 5 0
365
470
1 5 ,1 8 3
669
1 1 ,4 5 1
60
4
137
26
47
12
55#
7 $1
3
1 ,8 5 3
1 ,1 0 6
965
55#
93
4
308
435
903
33i« l b . 4 4 5 #
(1 )
(num ber)
3 ,0 0 1
90#
24^ l b . A .R.
15#
15#
e a c h 4 25#
(1 )
(1 )
4 0 ,6 1 6
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
9
5 4 ,7 3 3
2 ,3 2 0
255
2 6 ,5 9 2
504
4 ,8 5 6
871
4 ,3 6 4
1 ,0 8 2 2 4 ,6 3 0
1 .1 8 4
2 9 ,5 8 3
Quan­
t it y
V a lu e
Quan­
tity
394
l„ 601
300
1 ,7 2 9 1 8 ,4 0 5
1 ,0 4 9
V alu e
31
37
17
21
5
8
(5)
1 ,1 8 9
1 ,2 8 7
706
632
l,0 2 4
944
967
865
107
96
628
746
233
280
(1 )
(1 )
200
312
307
570
513
945
274
484
1; 133
2 ,3 4 6
1 ,0 2 4
2 ,2 1 2
<D
261
62
644
605
375
1 ,0 7 2
254
1 ,1 8 2
379
897
249
311
11 1
363
163
(num ber)
5 ,7 9 2
362
59
(1 )
7 4 ,0 7 9
V alu e
30
(num ber)
1 ,5 9 6
(1 )
2 ,9 1 8
Quan­
tity
26
227
(1 )
694
7 1 2 2 4 ,4 6 3
V a lu e
37
302
(1 )
Quan­
t it y
28
(1 )
(1 )
V a lu e
33
119
(1 )
25#
35#
300
Quan­
t ity
32
317
(1 )
10#
3i lb .
(1 )
V a lu e
12
394
577
65#
60#
M a n u fa c tu r e s o f p a p e r , n o t
s p e c i a l l y p r o v id e d f o r
(1 )
804
(1 0 0 0 d o z e n s )
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
Quan­
t it y
8 ,9 9 7
S i l k h a n d k e r c h i e f s , and w oven m u ff­
l e r s , and hemmed o r h e m s t itc h e d ,
o t h e r t h a n e m b ro id e r e d
D r ie d b e a n s
V a lu e
3 ,5 4 0
4o#
B r a id s , p l a i t s , e t c . , o f hemp,
c o n ta in in g s u b s t a n t ia l p a r t b u t
( 1 ,0 0 0 y d s . )
n o t c h i e f v a l u e o f r ayon
B r a id s , p l a i t s , e t c . , o f s tr a w ,
n o t b le a c h e d , d y e d , c o lo r e d ,
o r sta in e d
( 1 ,0 0 0 y d s . )
B r a id s , p l a i t s , e t c . . o f m a n ila
hemp, n o t b le a ch ed ^ d y e d , o r
c o l o r e d , o r s ta in e d .
( 1 ,0 0 0 y d s . )
P a p e r i m i t a t i o n panama h a t s ,
b l e a c h e d , d y e d , c o lo r e d , o r s t a i n e d
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
M a n u fa c tu r e s o f wood o r b a r k , n o t
e ls e w h e r e s p e c i f i e d
.
M a n u fa c tu r e s o f p a p i e r mkahi, n o t
s p e c i a l l y p r o v id e d f o r
Quan­
tity
35#
( 1 ,0 0 0 s q . y d s . )
e m b ro id e r e d
1931
Quan­
'V a lu e
tit y
3j* l b .
C o tto n c h e n i l l e m a n u fa c tu r e s
Rayon w e a r in g a p p a r e l,
1930
Quan­
V a lu e
tity
548
871
(num ber)
6 ,7 3 7
140
517
201
760
254
330
1 04
3 42
(num ber)
7 .7 4 6
511
(num ber)
5 ,6 9 6
268
124
308
413
689
848
223
3 0 1 5 0 5 ,2 4 0
833 3 6 2 ,1 8 5
532 3 7 6 ,9 8 6
4 4 4 3 2 0 ,6 8 2
4 7 2 3 6 0 ,6 5 7
568
181
8 7 ,0 7 8
212
7 8 ,3 5 9
1 4 7 1 3 0 ,2 6 2
271 1 2 1 ,0 0 1
322
219
(1 )
( 1 ) 1 9 4 ,2 0 9
189
(1 )
(1 )
9 1 ,4 4 7
175
(1 )
(1 )
2 6 ,6 5 4
40
3 8 ,2 7 1
94
1 4 ,9 5 2
33
1 6 ,3 2 1
28
1 5 ,5 6 1
32
5,555
11
(1 )
7 ,0 6 8
66 7
5 ,7 4 6
802
3 ,5 6 2
630
4 ,5 2 2
776
6 ,3 9 4
1 ,2 3 3
4 ,1 6 3
797
265
(1 )
(6 )
537
22
66
(1 )
(1 )
661
147
1 ,5 4 3
26
94
1 ,8 8 7
267
483
1 ,2 4 0
1 ,3 1 7
17 9
208
123
81
36
102
1 ,9 7 1
34
275
8 ,0 0 6
150
304
1 ,7 9 5
44
372
8 4 ,5 2 2
(1 )
(1 )
1 07
1 5 ,2 3 4
477
571
47
1 ,0 6 9
27
297
TABLE X I I ( c o n tin u e d )
81
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
OF DUTIABLE ITEMS FROM JAPAN, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
P resen t
R a te s
of
Dut.v
JL221
195?
AS35,
1 93 8
Quan­
V alu e
t it y
Quan­
tit y
V a lu e
Quan­
tit y
V a lu e
1932.
Quan­
V a lu e
tity
Quan­
t ity
V a lu e
Quan­
tity
V a lu e
Quan­
tity
V alu e
1937
1936
Quan­
V a lu e QuanV a lu e
tity
. J4JSL.
4; 164
2 (6 2 8
3 ,3 5 8
i,M 8
3 ,7 1 8
829
+ ,5 1 3
1 ,2 1 6
4 ,8 4 4
2 ,0 0 4
4 ,3 1 8
1 ,8 1 8
4 ,4 4 3
2 ,0 5 2
5 ,2 6 9
2 ,7 7 1
2 ,7 2 1
1 ,5 1 1
(1 )
(1 )
1 ,3 4 4
321
<1 >
184
1 ,8 2 3
268
3 ,6 0 4
587
4 ,7 3 3
613
3 ,2 1 8
439
4 ,3 4 3
519
3 ,2 2 8
308
1 ,0 2 2
526
1 ,2 4 9
314
2 ,0 0 7
619
2 ,6 6 7
1 ,0 4 3
3 ,3 5 0
l ,,260
3 ,1 6 3
1 136
3 ,4 3 8
l, 189
1 ,4 4 5
457
803
449
563
I 85
58 4
210
769
35*
847
364
965
4o4
1 ,1 3 4
484
704
271
JL23Q.
C h in a and p o r c e l a i n w a r e s
t a b le w a r e , k itc h e n w a r e , e t c ,
d e c o r a te d , e tc ,
( 1 ,0 0 0 d o z e n s )
IQt d z ♦ 7 0 $
C h in a and p o r c e l a i n w a r e , e x c e p t
c h e m ic a l p o r c e l a i n and s to n e w a r e ,
e l e c t r i c a l and s a n i t a r y ,
d e c o r a te d
( 1 ,0 0 0 d o z e n s )
70$
E a r th e n w a r e , c r o c k e r y , and s t o n e ­
w are.
t a b le w a r e , e t c . , d o m e s t ic
o r h o u s e h o ld w a r e , d e c o r a t e d
(1 ,0 0 0 d o z e n s )
1 0 |t dz ♦ 50$
1 ,6 0 3
1 ,0 0 7
E a r th e n w a r e , c r o c k e r y , and s t o n e ­
w are ( o t h e r th a n t a b l e , t o i l e t ,
e tc ,
and s a n i t a r y w are)
(1 , 0 0 0 d o z e n s )
1 0 ^ d z * 50$
(1 )
(1 )
-125JL
P r e c io u s and s e m l- p r e o lo u s s t o n e s
( o t h e r th a n d ia m o n d s, p e a r l s , and
e m e r a ld s ), c u t b u t n o t s e t
10$
(1 )
404
138
63
18
11
8
14
5
O th er m e t a l m a n u fa c tu r e s , n o t p l a t e d
w i t h p la tin u m , g o l d , o r s i l v e r ,
n o t s p e c i a l l y p r o v id e d f o r
45$
(1 )
92
84
15 6
282
308
304
382
141
S ilv e r -p la te d ta b le , k itc h e n , e tc ,
u t e n s i l s and h o l lo w o r f la t w a r e
50$
(1 )
26
79
202
402
336
170
72
10
I n c a n d e s c e n t e l e c t r i c la m p s, c a r b o n
f il a m e n t , m in ia t u r e
I n c a n d e s c e n t e l e c t r i c la m p s, m e t a l
f i l a m e n t , m in ia t u r e
M enth ol
T o o th b r u s h e s h a v in g h a n d le s o r
b a c k s o f c e l l u l o s e compounds
C h em ical e le m e n t s , com pounds,
m ix t u r e s , and s a l t s , n o t
s p e c i a l l y p r o v id e d f o r . n o t
c o n t a in i n g a l c o h o l
(1,000)
(1 , 0 0 0 )
<1 ,0 0 0 l b s . J
(1 ,000)
< 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . J
30$
1 3 ,2 0 1
459
136
2
155
3
85
1
24
(7 )
1 1 3 ,2 6 9
1 ,1 3 8
9 7 ,2 7 4
465
6 7 ,2 2 0
352
7 2 ,1 6 3
4 3 2 1 1 7 ,2 5 3
6 5 3 1 0 0 ,0 5 0
536
5 5 ,8 9 0
299
26 4
546
400
797
238
566
278
6T5
417
981
346
827
1 1 ,6 1 0
18 2
1 0 ,4 4 9
25*
8 ,5 9 2
194
9 ,3 5 3
217 1 0 ,8 1 8
280
7 ,9 1 8
99
154
93
237
(3 )
20$
2 8 ,7 9 8
747
4 7 ,5 1 8
660
50 ^ l b .
36 3
872
260
697
1 ,0 8 5
455
8 ,7 8 5
247
52
94
2$ e a c h 4 5 0 $
25$
<X>
(1 )
1 5 ,1 9 3
(1 )
(1 )
247
(1 )
(3 )
(2)
93
1
17
1
(3 )
( 2)
34
30
(3 )
(2)
17
10
(3 )
(2)
8
TABLE X I I ( c o n t i n u e d )
82
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
OF DUTIABLE ITEMS FROM JAPAN, 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
P resen t
R a te s
of
D u ty
Quan­
t it y
V a lu e
Quan­
t ity
V a lu e
T o y s and p a r t s , n o t s p e c i a l l y
p r o v id e d f o r , o f c h in a ,
p o r e e la in , p a r ia n , b is q u e ,
e a r th e n w a r e , and s to n e w a r e
70$
(1 )
156
T o y s and p a r t s , n o t s p e c i a l l y
p r o v id e d f o r , e x c e p t c e l l u l o s e
co m p ou n d s, and c h i n a , p o r c e ­
la in , e tc ,
10$
(1 )
259
Combs o f c e l l u l o s e com p ounds,
v a lu e d a t # 4 .5 o r l e s s p e r
gross
M a tc h e s , h a v in g a s t a i n e d ,
o r c o l o r e d ste m
S m o k ers' a r t i c l e s ,
p r o v id e d f o r
(1 , 0 0 0 )
1$ e a c h + 25$
Quan­
t ity
V a lu e
Quan­
t ity
246
(8 )
V a lu e
Quan­
tity
V a lu e
Quan­
t it y
V a lu e
Quan­
t it y
V a lu e
140
228
166
154
40 0
818
750
749
Quant it y
V a lu e
Quan­
t ity
161
V a lu e
51
987
370
(1 )
<D
2 ,7 6 7
65
8 ,7 3 0
142
1 3 ,9 0 1
206
1 6 ,9 3 9
265
1 9 ,0 9 4
271
17„462
253
9 ,9 8 5
170
2 ,6 5 2
52
(1 )
(1 )
8
1
147
24
2 ,5 9 9
396
1 ,3 8 7
222
96
15
74
11
11
2
6
1
dyed,
(1 ,0 0 0 g r o s s b x s)
40$
n o t s p e c ia lly
140
164
123
192
241
214
230
233
81
T o t a l o f a b o v e I te m s
2 1 ,5 7 1
2 0 ,2 3 6
1 3 ,1 3 7
1 8 ,0 7 2
2 3 ,5 8 6
2 8 ,3 6 8
2 7 ,8 1 5
3 3 ,2 6 1
1 8 ,0 3 9
T o t a l o f d u t i a b l e im p o r t s i n t o
t h e U n it e d S t a t e s from J a p a n
4 0 ,4 6 7
3 1 ,9 1 0
1 8 ,9 6 6
2 6 ,0 0 4
3 3 ,8 6 9
4 4 ,0 9 7
5 6 ,7 3 2
7 4 ,9 0 4
3 8 ,2 1 2
(1 )
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
(5 )
(6 )
(7 )
(8 )
60$
No c o m p a r a b le s t a t i s t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
L e s s t h a n 500
U n it o f q u a n t i t y o m it t e d
C o tto n f l o o r c o v e r in g s
S i l k f a b r i c s ( e x c e p t p i l e ) o v e r 3 0 i n c h e s w id e , n o t J a q u a r d - f lg u r e d
T o t a l wood and m a n u f a c t u r e s
O th e r la m p s t h a n c a r b o n f i l a m e n t
D o l l s and p a r t s # 2 4 6 ,0 0 0 ;
o t h e r t o y s # 5 4 2 ,0 0 0
B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n and D o m e s tic Commerce, U. S , D e p a r tm en t o f Commerce,
F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v i g a t io n o f t h e ( I n it e d S t a t e s . 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 8
(W a s h in g to n , D, CTT"
83
co m m o d ities a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e and f o r a g r e a t e r number o f
them t h e q u a n t it y s t a t i s t i c s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u se o f
ch a n g es in t h e c h a r a c te r or grade o f th e good s making up t h e
g iv e n ite m s ,
T a b le X I I I shows t h e q u a n t it y and v a lu e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l
d u ty f r e e g o o d s im p orted i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s from Japan in
t h e n in e y e a r p e r io d .
The t a b l e c o n s i s t s o f t w e n ty - th r e e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f im p o r ts f o r consu m ption, and t h e commodi­
t i e s shown in t h e t a b l e a c c o u n te d f o r o v e r 97 p e r c e n t o f
a l l d u ty f r e e im p o r ts from Japan i n 1930 and 1 9 3 8 ,
good s c o n s i s t ,
T hese
in t h e m ain, e i t h e r o f m a t e r i a ls u sed by
Am erican i n d u s t r i e s or o f com m od ities n o t p rod u ced in th e
U n ite d S t a t e s ,
and t h e b u lk o f t h e s e co m m o d ities i s com ple­
m en tary t o , r a t h e r th a n c o m p e t it iv e w ith , d o m e s tic p rod u c­
tio n ,
The a r t i c l e s w h ich e x ce ed ed $ 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 in 1938 w i l l be
sum m arized b e lo w .
Mink f u r s ,
u n d r esse d ;
5 9 7 ,0 0 0 , v a lu e d a t $ 7 3 7 ,0 0 0 ,
F is h sc r a p and f i s h m eal
1 8 ,0 0 0 t o n s , v a lu e d a t $ 6 4 6 ,0 0 0 ,
Tea, e x c e p t P aragu ay t e a , p l a n t s , and w a ste :
1 7 ,0 8 6 ,0 0 0 l b s .
v a lu e d a t $ 2 ,0 5 4 ,0 0 0 .
Pyrethrum . or i n s e c t f lo w e r s :
1 0 ,8 9 6 ,0 0 0 lb s „ .
v a lu e d a t
$ 1 , 781., 0 0 0 ,
Raw s i l k ;
5 1 ,3 1 6 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
P e r ilia o i l
v a lu e d a t $ 8 3 ,6 4 4 ,0 0 0 .
1 5 ,2 3 7 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
v a lu e d a t $ 8 5 6 ,0 0 0 ,
The rem ain d er o f t h e v a lu e o f d u ty f r e e im p o r ts from
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
OF DUTY-FREE ITEMS FROM JAPAN, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
'
1930
Quan­
V a lu e
tity
19 3 1
QuanV a lu e
tlt y
< 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
6 ,4 4 9
6 ,8 1 2
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
473
633
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
34
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
5
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
........
19:52
Quan­
V a lu e
t it y
1933
Quan­
V a lu e
t it y
1934
QuanV a lu e
t lt y
1 93 5
v '■ m jis s
QuanV a lu e QQaaa- ''"Value
tlty
tlty
V alue-
530
4 ,2 9 5
271
4 ,4 9 7
179
5 ,7 3 3
396
5 ,6 8 8
365
276
359
236
126
478
319
457
401
594
4o4
332
8
68
20
141
18
96
15
130
9
62
10
i
48
13
64
30
93
3
11
2
11
6
22
14
70
16
417
615
697
663
918
754
849
614
882
955
1 ,0 1 0
980
660
960
737
132
159
75
45
148
69
124
82
16 1
121
233
119
72
40
26
24
17
1
9
8
13
18
11
3
288
24
611
34
931
27
711
33
1,,0 0 2
646
571
(1 , 000)
(1 )
(1 )
22
16
< 1 ,0 0 0 t o n s )
(1 )
(1 )
27
940
13
(1 )
(1 )
4 , 676
(num ber)
4 ,1 0 8
(3 )
274
275
1
3
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
2 0 .9 4 6
3 ,,897
2 1 ,4 1 7
3 ,1 4 3
2 4 ,5 9 4
1 967
2 4 ,8 8 1
1 ,8 9 8
2 2 ,3 6 9
2 ,2 8 6
2 1 ,8 4 8
2 ,3 2 6
1 8 ,7 0 4
2 ,1 5 5
2 ,0 5 4
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
8 ,2 2 4
1 ,2 8 1
3 ,8 7 2
453
1 1 ,0 6 2
1 ,2 0 7
9 ,0 6 6
i,3 7 3
1 0 ,0 9 4
1 ,9 8 6
1 5 ,2 0 4
2 ,0 0 1
9 ,9 3 4
796
1 ,7 8 1
25
3
1 ,2 5 4
498
602
156
1 ,2 6 3
354
1 ,9 7 4
616
3 ,1 7 0
1 ,0 8 8
2 ,6 3 6
1 136
276
1 ,8 2 4
226
2 ,1 3 7
171
2 ,4 6 3
14 6
2 ,7 5 4
130
1 ,9 0 4
106
2 ,8 6 2
180
3 ,6 4 5
258
176
1 ,6 2 8
184
1 ,6 9 4
109
1 ,3 4 9
84
1 ,1 1 3
124
1131
202
i . 188
188
85
3 ,3 5 9
141
976
18
3 ,1 2 9
69
1 ,4 4 9
53
238
15
1 9 ,7 9 0
827
21
(2 )
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . 1
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . >
(1 )
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . 1
4 ,7 6 0
(1 )
232
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , )
1 ,9 1 5
19
5 ,1 4 2
68
9 ,1 0 3
71
8 ,3 2 7
1 1 4 1 3 ,0 2 4
211
9 ,6 7 8
128
1 0 ,1 1 8
191
66
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
5 9 ,9 1 8
2 2 1 ,4 6 8
6 9 .5 2 6
1 6 3 ,0 7 0
6 9 ,1 3 7
1 0 6 ,1 8 8
6 0 ,2 1 3
9 1 ,6 5 9 . 54,->989
6 9 ,8 4 7
6 3 ,7 6 9
9 0 ,0 3 9
5 5 ,6 8 5
9 4 ,9 6 7
53,644
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , J
2 ,6 8 4
684
2 ,3 8 1
246
2 ,0 1 2
72
1 ,5 2 6
173
2 ,1 0 2
281
2 .5 0 9
638
79
78
1 ,5 3 2
85
TABLE X I I I ( c o n t i n u e d )
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES
OF DUTY FREE ITEMS FROM JAPAN, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n $ 1 ,0 0 0 )
1930
QttanV a lu e
tlty
R ags f o r p a p e r s t o c k
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . i
4 0 ,5 2 4
720
P e r illa o i l
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
7 ,0 1 0
676
Ammonium s u l p h a t e
( 1 ,0 0 0 t o n s )
P la tin u m i n g o t s , b g r s , s h e e t s , o r
p l a t e s , n o t l e s s th a n 1 / 8 I n c h
th ic k
N it r o g e n o u s f e r t i l i z e r m a te r ia l.,
o t h e r t h a n ammonium, c a lc iu m ,
sa d iu m g u a n o , d r i e d b lo o d , and
u r e a ( i n c l u d i n g h o o f m eal, c a s t o r
b e a n pom ace)
3 2 ,6 9 7
507
2 5 ,6 6 5
367
6 ,1 1 0
333
8 ,6 1 3
10
352
1
3
1933
QuanV a lu e
t lty
1
Quantlty
1
9
Quantlty
3
5
1
V a lu e
199
5 9 ,8 8 3
453
4 2 ,1 8 3
2 ,6 0 5
9
3
Quantlty
3 8 ,9 5 8
153
27 5
9
297
273
1 6 ,1 0 9
851
1 6 ,6 6 7
1 ,1 1 8
16
249
45
842
32
625
23
3
63
67
16
433
8
214
10
52
8
168
200
7
201
9
182
4
56
3 6 ,1 5 1
9
3
4
V a lu e
6
1
9
3
7
V a lu e
Quantlty
7 2 ,3 6 4
789
3 6 ,4 4 1
2 ,0 6 3
123
V a lu e
1938"
QuanV a lu e
t lt y
7 7 .7 1 2
948
1 4 ,7 2 2
116
1 6 ,2 3 3
889
1 5 ,2 3 7
856
12
274
282
9
282
(3 )
3
123
7
200
(3 )
2
19
i pom ace
(3)
<6)
T o t a l o f f r e e I m p o r ts I n t o t h e U n it e d
S t a t e s fro m J a p a n
(1 )
(2)
(3 )
(4 )
1932
QuanV a lu e
tlty
83
S u b sta n ce u sed c h i e f l y f o r f e r t i l i z e r ,
n o t e ls e w h e r e s p e c i f i e d
T o ta l o f above ite m s
1931
QuanV a lu e
tlty
No c o m p a ra b le s t a t i s t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
See a ls 6 d u t ia b le l i s t t a b le f o r r a p e see d o i l
n o t d en a tu red
L e s s th a n 1 , 0 0 0 t o n s
T o t a l r e p r e s e n t s o n l y t h e v a l u e o f i t e m s f o r w h ic h s t a t i s t i c s
a re a v a ila b le
B u re a u o f F o r e ig n and D o m e s tic Commerce, U. S . D e p a r tm en t o f Commerce,
F o r e ig n Commerce a n d N a v i g a t io n o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s . 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
(W a sh ln g ton T T X C71----------------------------------------------------------------
2 3 1 ,6 5 5
1 7 1 ,9 2 6
1 1 2 ,8 5 2
100,076
8 1 ,2 2 9
1 0 2 ,5 1 3
1 0 6 ,8 0 0
1 1 4 ,8 2 7
9 0 ,8 6 6
2 3 8 ,5 7 2
1 7 4 ,4 3 9
1 1 5 ,0 4 5
1 0 2 ,4 1 4
8 4 ,0 9 3
107 301
1 1 5 ,7 8 6
1 2 0 ,1 8 2
9 3 ,4 2 1
86
Japan i s a c c o u n te d f o r m a in ly by cru de moss and seaw eed ,
c e r t a i n unm anufactured w oods, unm anufactured cork ,
or dead o i l ,
c re o so te
works o f a r t o v e r a hundred y e a r s o ld , U n ite d
S t a t e s p r o d u c ts r e tu r n e d ,
and im p o rts e n te r e d under s p e c i a l
p r o v i s i o n s , su c h a s h o u se h o ld e f f e c t s o f p e r s o n s e n t e r in g
th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
Customs d u t i e s in Jap an .
I t was in 1859, a t t h e tim e
when t h e T r e a t i e s o f F iv e Pow ers had b een
co n clu d ed w it h t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s , G reat B r i t a i n , H ollan d , F ra n ce, and R u s s ia ,
t h a t c u sto m -h o u se s w ere f o r t h e f i r s t tim e e s t a b l i s h e d and
cu stom s d u t i e s l e v i e d a t a few open p o r t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e
11
p u rp o se ,
The s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e cu stom s t a r i f f
d eterm in ed b y t h e T r e a t i e s w ere:
l
The d u t i e s w ere c o n v e n t io n a l
S.
( a ) E xp ort d u t i e s w ere 5 p e r c e n t ad
v alorem ,
(b ) L ow est im port d u t i e s were 5 p e r c e n t and h ig h e s t
w ere 35 p e r c e n t,
H a lf - r e f in e d and r e f in e d m a t e r i a ls
w ere h ig h e r th a n raw m a t e r ia ls o r f o o d s t u f f s , and
d a i l y n e c e s s i t i e s w ere lo w e r th a n lu x u r io u s g o o d s,
A r t i c l e s n o t In t h e l i s t o f cu stom s d u t i e s w ere
ta x e d 20 p e r c e n t,
IS
11
S. Ota, T a r i f f P o l i c y . (T ok io: Ganshodo, 1926}
p , 116,
(T ok io:
H. Tsumura, T a r i f f and Com m ercial P o l i c y in Ja p a n .
Commercial C o lie g e o f i o k i o , 1 9 2 6 }, pp. l E l ^ E S .
87
The c o u n t r ie s which, w ere p a r t i e s in t h e t r e a t y fo r c e d
Japan t o d e c r e a s e th e r a t e s b e c a u se o f t h e d e la y in v o lv e d in
o p en in g t h e p o r t s and t h e m a rk ets.
T h is d e la y on t h e p a r t o f
Japan was t h e r e s u l t o f in c o m p le te n e s s o f h e r i n t e r n a l g o v ­
ernm ent,
In 1 8 6 4 , t h e r e f o r e , new t r e a t i e s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d
by t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , G reat B r it a i n and F ran ce,
l
15
E x cep t several! a r t i c l e s o f p r o h i b i t i o n and n o n - d u t ie s ,
b o th e x p o r ts and im p o r ts were 5 p e r c e n t ad valorem ,
2,
The sta n d a rd p r i c e im posed on im p orted good s depended on
t h e m arket p r i c e a t t h e p o r t o f e x p o r ts .
At t h i s tim e th e sy ste m o f t a r i f f was a lm o st in t h e
c o n d it io n o f n o n - d u t ie s , w h ieh m ight be c a l l e d f r e e tr a d e ,
14
T h is c o n d it io n d e e p ly s t im u la t e d t h e e x p o r t and im port
p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f Japan,
The r e v is e d com m ercial t r e a t i e s w ith G reat B r i t a i n ,
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
C taly. R u ss ia , Denmark, Germany. S w it z e r ­
la n d , Norway, Sweden, B elgiu m , F ran ce,
came i n t o e f f e c t from J u ly 17
1899.
H o lla n d , S p a in ,
e tc ,
The s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s
o f t h e c o n v e n t io n a l t a r i f f n ew ly co n clu d ed w ith t h e s e
c o u n t r ie s were:
x
The e x p o r t d u t i e s w ere e n t i r e l y a b o lis h e d ,
13
Ota,
14
0£.
c lt,
pp
1 2 0 -1 2 2 .
Kc S h id e h a r a , Japan and T a r i f f P o l i c y , (T ok io: The
M in is t r y o f F o r e ig n A f f a i r s o f Japan, 1 9 2 5 ) p 46.
88
2,
The c o n v e n t io n a l t a r i f f sy s te m , in s t e a d o f t h e s t a t u t o r y
t a r i f f sy s te m , was c r e a te d
3.
Ad v a lo rem d u t i e s w ere a d o p ted ,
In t h i s s t a g e c o n v e n t io n a l custom s d u t i e s and ad
v a lo rem d u t i e s were a p p lie d ,
and t h e sta n d a rd o f v a lu e u sed
in e v a lu a t in g im p o rts was t h a t o f t h r e e or f i v e y e a r s p r e ­
v io u s .
As a r e s u l t ,
t h e r e was a c t u a l l y no e f f i c i e n c y a s a
p r o te c tiv e t a r i f f .
In 1904 a s p e c i a l s u r t a x was im posed on th e custom s
d u t i e s a s w e l l a s on t h e o t h e r t a x e s in o rd er t o p r o v id e t h e
e x tr a o r d in a r y fund in c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e R u sso -J a p a n e se War,
h u t so o n a f t e r th e r e s t o r a t i o n o f p e a c e t h e e n t i r e custom s
t a r i f f was r e v i s e d
In 1910 t h e I m p e r ia l T a r i f f R e v is io n B i l l p a s se d t h e
Im p er ia l D ie t,
and i t to o k e f f e c t J u ly 17. 1911,
and rem ained
15
in o p e r a tio n w ith v a r io u s amendments u n t i l 1926,
The
s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e 1911 t a r i f f w ere:
i
It was t o o b ta in a s u b s t a n t i a l in c r e a s e in r e v e n u e s from
im port d u t i e s and t o p r o v id e a d eq u a te p r o t e c t i o n f o r
J a p a n ese i n d u s t r i e s ,
2,
In showed i n c r e a s e s in r a t e s o f d u ty ,
c h i e f l y in th e
c a s e o f f a b r i c s and o th e r m anu factu red a r t i c l e s w h ich
Japan had come t o p rod u ce In la r g e q u a n t i t i e s ,
15
XL S. S e n a te , 7 1 s t Congress*, 1 s t s e s s i o n , T a r i f f s in
C e r ta in F o r e ig n C o u n t r ie s . (W ashington: H S f Government
P r i n t i n g O f f ic e , 1 9 2 9 ), p, 19,
89
3,
The a v e r a g e r a t e o f in c r e a s e in t a r i f f r a t e s m s s m a lle r
th a n t h a t o f European c o u n t r ie s t h a t a lr e a d y had e s ta b 16
-Lished th e p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f
In 1916 l e g i s l a t i o n was e n a c te d t o i n c r e a s e t h e r a t e s
o f d u ty on go o d s w h ich had come t o be produced in Japan s i n c e
t h e o u tb rea k o f t h e G reat War, a s a means o f p r o t e c t i n g and
17
s t i m u l a t i n g d o m e stic commerce
I n im p o rta n t p a r t i a l r e ­
v i s i o n o f t h e Jap an ese t a r i f f was made by t h e law o f J u ly £7
192G, w h ich r a is e d t h e r a t e s o f d u ty on v a r io u s d y es and
c h e m ic a ls and on m e ta l and wood w orking m ach in ery by about
18
30 p er c e n t
B e s id e s t h u s g r a n tin g a d d it io n a l p r o t e c t i o n
f o r c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s d e v e lo p e d d u rin g th e War, t h e 1911
t a r i f f law p r o v id e d s u r t a x e s up t o 100 p er c e n t o f t h e c u s ­
tom s d u t i e s ,
s u b j e c t t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by a com m ittee on
dumping, on good s im p orted or s o ld a t u n r e a so n a b ly Low
p r i c e s p l a c in g i n d u s t r i e s o f im p ortan ce t o th e c o u n tr y i n
19
im m inent danger,
About f o r t y ite m s o f raw m a t e r ia ls o f
im p o rta n ce t o c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s c o n s id e r e d e s s e n t i a l w ere
p la c e d on t h e f r e e
lis t,
16
L oc. c i t .
17
I b id ,
p
20,
I b id .
p
20,
18
19
A r t i c l e ¥ - 2 o f t h e . J ap an ese Customs T a r i f f Law
o r i g i n a l l y p rom u lgated in 1910 and r e v is e d i n 1926 and 1927
90
To m eet t h e f l u c t u a t i o n in p r i c e s a law w h ich went
i n t o e f f e c t June A, 1921
changed a c o n s id e r a b le number o f
r a t e s from s p e c i f i c t o ad v a lo rem d u t i e s :
i t a l s o changed th e
b a s i s f o r t h e a ss e s sm e n t o f a l l ad v a lo rem d u t i e s from th e
v a lu e o f th e g o o d s a t th e tim e o f a r r i v a l a t th e p o r t o f
d e s t i n a t i o n t o t h e v a lu e a t t h e tim e o f im p o r ta tio n ,
th a t is ,
custom s c le a r a n c e ,
In March,
L922. i n c r e a s e s b etw een 50 and 100 p e r c e n t
in t h e r a t e s o f d u ty on copper
b a r s, p l a t e s and s h e e t s ,
b ra ss,
and b ron ze i n g o t s .
w ir e s , p ip e s and tu b e s ,
and sc r a p
f o r r e m a n u fa c tu r in g were e s t a b l i s h e d ,
Under t h e la w No.
p rom u lgated on J u ly 31
24, known a s t h e lu x u r y t a r i f f
1924,
100 p e r c e n t ad v a lo rem im port
d u ty was im posed f o r th e tim e b e in g on abou t 120 k in d s o f
21
good s w hich were d e s ig n a te d a s l u x u r i e s ,
The custom s t a r i f f p r a c t i c a l l y
L eft in t h e sh ape a s
r e v i s e d in 1910, o n ly p a r t i a l a l t e r a t i o n b e in g made now and
th e n , r e c e iv e d a th o r o u g h r e m o d e llin g in 1926, i n v ie w o f
t h e marked econ om ic change b o th a t home and abroad a f t e r t h e
War and e s p e c i a l l y o f th e p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e t h e w o rld o v e r
to. r a i s e p r o t e c t i v e b a r r ie r s ,
The new t a r i f f h as a f f e c t e d
20
A r t i c l e TJ o f t h e J a p a n ese Customs T a r i f f Law,
21
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Year
Book, 1 9 5 1 , fT ok io: Kenkyusha P r e s s ) , p, 440,
91
t h e r a t e s o f Im port d u t i e s on a m a j o r it y o f 647 a r t i c l e s
enum erated in t h e form er t a r i f f s c h e d u le ,
The p r i n c i p l e
f o llo w e d in th e r e v i s i o n was t h e a d o p tio n o f s p e c i f i c d u ty
in s t e a d o f ad v a lo rem d u ty in m ost o f th e d u t ia b le g o o d s;
t h e l i f t i n g or l e s s e n i n g o f d u ty on a r t i c l e s o f d a i l y n e c e s ­
s i t y and on raw m a t e r i a ls w hereby t o p r o t e c t and' n u r tu r e
22
f u r t h e r d evelop m en t o f im p o rta n t d o m e stic i n d u s t r i e s ,
Changes in d u ty r a t e s t h a t a f f e c t e d im p o rta n t Am erican
e x p o r ts were t h e la r g e i n c r e a s e s on w heat and w heat f lo u r ,
b a r le y ,
corn m e a l3 corn s t a r c h , and con d en sed m ilk ,
A num­
b e r o f in c r e a s e s w ere made in th e c h e m ic a l and p h a r m a c e u tic a l
g ro u p s and, o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o Am erican e x p o r te r s ,
compound d y e s, v a r n is h e s ,
sh o e p o l i s h e s ,
and v a r io u s p a i n t s ,
The in c r e a s e s p r o v id e d in t h e t e x t i l e s c h e d u le s a f f e c t e d
p r i n c i p a l l y c o tt o n and w o o len p i e c e good s w ith a number o f
sh a rp i n c r e a s e s in th e r a t e s on f i n i s h e d g ood s,
F in is h e d
m e ta l p r o d u c ts l i k e w i s e came in f o r r a is e d r a t e s , w ith
c o n s id e r a b le in c r e a s e s on m ech a n ics' t o o l s ,
b o lts ,
n u ts , and th e
and r a d ia t o r s
lik e ,
on
and on n a i l s ,
a s v /elj a s on c a s t - i r o n s t o v e s
O ther in c r e a s e s o f s p e c i a l im p ortan ce t o
Am erican tr a d e embraced ite m s in th e m ach in ery s c h e d u le ,
22
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan,
B ook, 1 9 2 8 ,
fT ok io: K enkyusha P re ss}., p, 200,
Japan Year
92
su ch a s L ocom otives, road m ach inery,
loom s and s p in n in g
m a ch in es, v a r io u s p r e p a r a to r y and f i n i s h e d m a ch in es, e n g in e s ,
pumps, and w ood-w orking m ach inery,
In t h e e l e c t r i c a l group, t h e r a t e on r a d io r e c e i v in g
s e t s was d o u b led ,
im posed on m e te r s ,
and t h e l i k e ,
and s u b s t a n t i a l l y I n c r e a s e d r a t e s w ere
d ry b a t t e r i e s ,
dynamos, m o to rs,
c o n v e r te r s
and on c e r t a i n i n s u l a t e d w ir e s ,
O ther in c r e a s e s a f f e c t e d —ru b b er b o o ts and sh o e s ,
p ap er and p ap er m a n u fa c tu r e s, and c e r t a i n c u ts o f p in e ,
fir s ,
and ced a r lum ber
The custom s t a r i f f r e c e iv e d v a r io u s ch a n g es i n 1936,
when ch an ges in t h e r a t e s on 9 6 4 o f t h e 1*610 ite m s l i s t e d
in
th e t a r i f f s c h e d u le w ere a d op ted b y t h e T a r i f f I n q u ir y Com­
m is s io n on December 22 and th e b i l l s t o p u t them i n t o e f f e c t
from A p r il i ,
1937, w ere p r e s e n te d and p a s se d a t t h e s e s s i o n
o f th e D ie t , ^
By t h e amendments, th e r a t e s on 692 ite m s w ere i n ­
c r e a se d and 62 ite m s h i t h e r t o f r e e o f d u ty became d u t ia b le
g o o d s,
Of th e 646 ite m s w h ich rem ained u n a f f e c t e d by t h e
r e v is io n ,
go o d s,
534 w ere d u t ia b le go o d s and 112 w ere d u ty f r e e
The a v e r a g e r a t e on d u t i a b l e g o o d s became 21 p e r c e n t,
compared w ith t h e o ld r a t e o f 20 p er c e n t,
F urtherm ore, a
23
T r a n s - P a c i f i c , Jan u ary 7, 1937, p
12,
93
d o u b le t a r i f f
sy ste m was a p p lie d t o 577 a r t i c l e s , w ith h ig h e r
r a t e s im posed upon good s im ported from c o u n t r ie s w h ich had n o t
n e g o t ia t e d com m ercial a g reem en ts w ith Japan.
P r i n c i p a l com m od ities im p orted i n t o Japan from t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s .
T ab le XIV, c o n s i s t i n g o f 34 ite m s,
shows
about 79 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l im p o r ts i n t o Japan from t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s in t h e p e r io d 1930 t o 1938 i n c l u s i v e ,
The
a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s t h a t th e t o t a l im port v a lu e o f t h e ite m s
h a s shown a sh arp advan ce s i n c e 1934.
Raw c o t t o n c o n s t i t u t e s t h e l a r g e s t p a r t o f im p o rts
and r e p r e s e n t s ab ou t 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l im port tr a d e
in t h e p e r io d ,
As w i l j be d is c u s s e d l a t e r ,
t h e p r o d u c tio n
o f raw c o tt o n
i n Japan i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t compared t o t h e
e x t e n t o f th e
c o t t o n s p in n in g in d u s t r y ; t h e r e f o r e ,
th e r e ­
m arkable d evelop m en t o f th e in d u s t r y r e s u l t e d in a s t e a d y
e x p a n s io n in t h e v a lu e o f raw c o t t o n im p o rts from t h e u n ite d
S t a t e s and o th e r c o u n t r ie s .
The p e r c e n ta g e o f raw c o tt o n
im p o rts t o t h e t o t a l im port v a lu e was t h e l a r g e s t in
am ounting t o 64 p e r c e n t,
L932,
but s i n c e t h e o u tb re a k o f t h e S in o -
J a p a n ese War t h e im port v a lu e o f t h e commodity h a s sh o rn a
sh arp d e c l i n e , a c c o u n tin g f o r $ 6 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 and $ 5 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 or
2 1 .5 p er c e n t and 2 1 -7 p er c e n t,
r e s p e c tiv e ly ,
o f t h e to ta J
im port tr a d e in 1937 and 1938.
S in c e t h e p r o d u c tio n o f ir o n o r e s in Japan s a t i s f i e s
o n ly 20 p er c e n t o f h er to ta 3 demand, t h e y a r e im p orted from
TABLE XIV
94
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS INTO JAPAN FROM THE UNITED STATES, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
U n it e
R a te s o r
1930
T 35I
1535
1533
1535
1535
193S
1937
193 5
of
D u ty I n
Q uanV a lu e
QuanV a lu e
Quan- V a lu e
QuanV a lu e
Quan- V a lu e
QuanV a lu e
QuanV a lu e
QuanV a lu e
QnanV alu e
Q u a n t it y ___________1 9 4 0 ____________ t l t y ______________ t l t y _______________t l t y _____________ t l t y _______________t l t .v _____________ t l t y ______________ t l t y _______________t l t y ______________ t l t y ____________
C a t t le h id e s
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
F ree
4 ,9 2 6
68 5
6 ,2 1 0
497
9 ,5 8 1
488
8 ,8 9 7
584
1 2 ,7 3 9
9 46
9 ,9 2 4
901
3 ,3 6 7
298
1 1 ,9 0 2
(.,8 3 6
2 3 ,1 1 3
2 ,4 3 5
C a lf and k i p s k i n s
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , 1
F ree
711
142
1 ,8 4 3
213
4 ,4 7 0
315
2 ,9 7 1
294
5 ,3 0 7
582
5 ,0 0 9
622
2 ,6 6 5
457
3 ,1 3 6
736
1 ,0 2 0
179
Y 1..35 P e r 1 0 0 k i n 3 5 ,2 5 9
1 ,0 0 5
2 3 ,9 7 8
356
3 0 ,9 6 2
351
9 ,1 6 5
85
133
126
42
41
-
2
12
9
45
1
132
2
154
3
173
4
935
139
1 ,4 0 2
103
1 .5 7 4
52
486
R ic e f l o u r , m ea l
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . 1
and b r o k e n r l o e
Wheat
( 1 ,0 0 0 b u s h e l s )
1 2 .5 0 p e r 100 k in
6 ,4 0 3
6 ,4 8 3
1 ,8 2 0
904
218
117
664
353
4 ,4 0 1
2 ,3 5 2
W heat f l o u r
( 1 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s )
Y 4 .3 0 p e r 1 0 0 k i n
68
354
49
150
5
16
1
4
4
12
1 0 3 ,8 0 0
848
8 0 ,7 3 7
1 :3 5 1
4 ,9 7 7
41
250
2
5 ,3 1 6
26
90
1 ,0 6 2
102
818
110
618
106
678
101
8 26
1 13
2 ,9 4 0
788
6 ,1 9 1
1 ,1 2 6
9 ,4 0 5
1 ,8 7 8
7 ,0 3 1
2 ,8 0 9
9 ,6 1 8
3 ,2 9 6
6 ,8 6 2
i,9 5 5
698
289
1 ,1 7 0 8 5 ,3 5 5
950
8 6 ,6 9 9
9 0 6 1 1 2 ,1 7 8
792
9 8 ,4 6 5
704
8 8 ,2 1 0
462
6 1 ,6 9 0
530
5 2 ,4 0 0
(num ber)
R ubber t i r e c a s i n g s
R e s in (gum and wood)
L ea f to b a c c o , b r ig h t f lu e - c u r e d
( 1 ,0 0 0
500 lb .b b l 1
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , J
<1 , 0 0 0 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
Raw c o t t o n
L o g s and hewn t im b e r ( c e d a r )
( 1 ,0 0 0 m . f t , )
Saw ed tim b e r ,
( 1 ,0 0 0 m .f t )
D o u g la s f i r
B o a r d s , p l a n k s , and s c a n t l i n g s ,
r o u g h and d r e s s e d , D o u g la s f i r
H em lock
S u l p h i t e wood p u lp
Y 4 .7 2 p e r 1 0 0 k i n
( 1 ,0 0 0 m .f t , )
(1 ,0 0 0 m . f t . )
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . >
F ree
5
20
( 2)
(2)
4
5 ,8 9 9
2 ,2 2 1
1 1 ,0 5 3
3 ,0 5 6
Free
469
6 5 ,5 7 8
914
7 9 ,7 4 0
Free
111
2 ,3 5 6
114
2 ,0 7 4
34
550
36
556
45
695
45
677
34
518
14
371
4
1 35
F ree to
Y 6 .9 0 p e r c u b i c m etr e 1 7 1
2 ,8 2 4
207
2 ,5 5 1
178
1 ,5 4 6
174
1 ,6 2 7
1 35
1 627
164
1 ,9 7 1
158
1 ,8 5 1
158
2 ,5 5 5
27
426
924
64
808
36
317
26
260
16
20 6
16
202
18
359
16
299
3
62
Ad v a lo r e m 3 5 5 $
Free to
Y 6 .9 0 p e r c u b i c m etr e
63
F ree to
Y 6 .9 0 p e r c u b ic m etr e
48
852
45
4
188
22
2 ,9 2 6
3 ,2 3 3
3 ,6 0 6
Y 0 .2 2 p e r 1 0 0 k i n
(1 )
719
20
251
11
129
8
119
7
111
6
67
3
59
152
21
i.,0 6 5
45
J -,959
91
5 ,1 5 4
120
6 ,7 8 4
103
6 ,9 9 1
155
1 1 ,5 9 6
60
5 ,5 8 5
3 ,5 1 8
4 ,8 7 7
4 ,8 9 5
5 ,5 3 3
5 ,5 0 5
6 ,6 9 3
7 ,9 4 4
1 0 ,4 8 3
1 1 ,7 8 1
1 0 ,3 8 1
1 4 ,1 9 4
1 5 ,9 9 5
2 2 ,1 0 3
2 1 ,3 7 2
2 9 ,8 5 8
1 ,0 1 1
2 ,3 5 8
1 ,0 9 3
3 ,6 8 3
1 ,0 5 8
7 .7 1 3
1
180
320
i
P e tr o le u m cr u d e
( 1 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s )
G a s o l in e , n a p h th a , and o t h e r
f in is h e d l i g h t p ro d u cts
( 1 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s )
(1 )
1 ,0 6 7
4 ,0 1 8
1 ,2 5 8
4 ,1 8 5
987
2 ,6 8 6
967
2 ,1 2 8
1 ,0 7 9
2 ,6 5 0
699
1„ 649
K erosen e
( 1 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s )
(1 )
1 ,0 7 4
3 ,9 9 7
370
1 ,4 1 3
978
1 ,7 5 8
265
511
375
809
31
62
-
95
TABLE XIV (C o n tin u e d )
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS INTO JAPAN FROM THE UNITED STATES, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
'1
U n it s
of
Q u a n t it y
Gas and f u e l o i l
<1 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s )
L u b r ic a t in g o i l
( 1 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s )
R a te s o f
D u ty In
1940
U)
Y8 . 3 0 - 1 7 1 .2 0
per k ilo lit r e
1930
QuanV a lu e
tlty
1931
QuanV a lu e
t lt y
1932
QuanV a lu e
t lt y
5 ,6 9 4
5 ,4 3 7
2 ,5 5 3
4 ,5 9 7
4 ,5 9 5
2 ,3 7 7
1933
QuanV a lu e
t lt y
1934
QuanV alu e
t lty
1935
QuanV a lu e
tlty
5 ,1 8 1
7 ,9 1 7
7 ,2 9 7
5 ,1 2 9
4 ,4 3 0
5 ,6 8 2
1936
QuanV a lu e
tlty
1937
QuanV a lu e
tlt y
1938
QuanV alu e
t lt y
4 ,9 9 0
6 ,3 0 8
5 ,2 9 7
5 ,5 4 3
7 .1 3 9
6 ,6 7 5
1 ,8 6 7
231
2 ,5 4 5
183
1 ,5 4 4
162
1 ,3 8 0
254
2 ,0 1 7
201
1 ,5 3 2
216
1 ,6 0 6
331
4 ,0 9 4
223
I r o n and e t e e l s c r a p
( 1 ,0 0 0 t o n s )
F ree
168
2 ,9 4 6
48
843
164
1 ,3 2 5
548
4 ,7 3 9
1 ,1 6 8
1 2 ,4 2 8
1 ,0 6 5
1 0 ,8 4 4
1 ,0 1 0
1 1 ,8 9 7
1 ,8 7 3
3 7 ,4 1 8
1 ,3 6 6
2 1 ,6 8 5
W ire r o d s
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , )
1 1 .3 0 p e r
100 k in
3 2 ,0 1 7
5 65
3 5 ,2 8 4
547
2 3 ,5 6 5
342
3 0 ,8 6 4
458
4 1 ,0 3 8
547
3 0 ,7 4 4
492
3 6 ,3 3 4
610
6 8 ,0 1 2
1 ,5 5 4
2 4 ,0 5 2
551
S t e e l s h e e t s , b la c k
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , i
Y h .4 0 -Y 3 .8 4
p e r 1 0 0 k in
1 7 ,9 0 9
671
5 ,5 7 7
219
i , 776
80
1 ,4 0 4
38
7 .1 3 7
222
3 ,3 3 2
127
1 ,8 0 7
81
2 9 ,9 9 5
1 ,4 1 1
2 ,4 6 1
121
T in p l a t e
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
I B .94 p er
1 00 k in
9 1 ,9 3 0
4 ,7 3 4
4 0 ,3 8 3
!,, 611
1 5 ,8 0 9
580
5 3 ,6 3 3
1 ,9 2 5
9 0 ,0 8 2
3 ,6 2 8
4 8 ,0 2 7
t ,8 6 9
4 0 ,3 3 0
1 ,6 8 1
4 2 ,1 1 5
2 ,1 1 1
2 8 ,6 6 9
1 ,6 4 9
W elded b l a c k p ip e
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
1 5 ,0 6 1
505
9 ,6 6 2
306
3 ,9 7 2
139
956
25
3 ,3 2 4
80
1 ,2 7 9
31
116
4
6 ,4 0 3
245
-
516
7 ,8 8 0
1 ,1 1 6
3 ,1 7 7
463
356
52
1 ,4 6 9
249
1 ,4 5 9
203
8 ,2 6 6 1 0 6 ,2 6 5
7 ,8 8 8
7 9 ,8 5 2
17 997 2 1 7 ,8 8 0
3 1 ,8 1 3
Aluminum I n g o t s ,
a llo y
R e f in e d c o p p e r .
b ars
s c r a p and
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
I n g o t s and
B r a s s and b r o n z e ,
o ld
L ead,
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . >
s c r a p and
In p i g s , b a r s ,
( 1 .0 0 0 l b s . >
e tc .
A u to m o b ile p a s s e n g e r c a r s
and c h a s s i s
M otor t r u c k s , b u s e s and
c h a s s is
A uto p a r t s . f o r
r e p la c e m e n t
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s . )
F ree
Y 1 7 .7 0 p e r
100 k in
182
u
754
311
32
1 ,2 9 4
96
3 ,4 9 9
278
5 ,3 1 6
i n g o t Y 7 .0 0
b a r Y 1 5 .0 0
p e r 100 k in
3 ,1 8 7
351
188
18
448
34
2 8 ,1 5 8
Y 7 .0 0 p e r
100 k i n
1 ,6 7 7
141
2 ,4 7 2
132
3 ,6 8 8
124
5 ,0 6 1
205
1 2 ,8 4 4
616
8 ,7 6 6
408
8 ,8 4 2
495
1 1 ,8 6 3
930
1 ,2 4 7
83
Y 0 .4 0 p e r
100 k in
i , 5 8 9 1 1 3 ,7 6 9
7 ,9 2 3 1 4 5 ,6 8 9
3 1 ,3 0 6
1 ,2 9 3
3 4 ,6 0 2
973
4 0 ,4 3 9
826
4 2 ,4 7 2
758
8 ,9 0 8
215
1.0,648
364
1 7 .2 5 7
603
1 4 ,6 4 0
712
6 0 ,4 0 6
2 ,1 0 0
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
Ad v a lo re m
70#
5
2 ,5 9 5
5
2 ,6 9 2
3
1 ,4 3 7
4
i,5 6 4
10
4 ,6 3 8
19
9 ,0 1 5
8
3 ,5 6 1
6
2 ,8 9 2
2
678
( 1 ,0 0 0 )
Ad v a lo re m
70#
2
1 ,4 7 6
4
l.,6 6 1
3
965
4
1 ,2 3 9
10
3 ,1 3 9
9
2 ,6 0 1
6
2 ,1 7 0
10
3 ,5 4 1
6
1 ,8 9 6
Y 1 5 4 .1 5 Y 11..80 p e r
100 k in
1 ,3 0 8
1 ,1 9 7
470
476
1 ,2 0 2
1 ,1 9 5
972
1 ,0 2 7
2 ,7 1 0
TABLE XIV (C o n tin u e d )
PRINCIPAL IMPORTS INTO JAPAN FROM THE UNITED STATES, 1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
( I n # 1 ,0 0 0 )
1
U n it s
of
Q u a n t it y
A uto p a r t s f o r a s s e m b ly
R a tes o f
D u ty i n
19 4 0
\ 1930
QuanV a lu e
t lt y
Y 1 5 4 .1 5 - 2 1 1 ,8 0 p e r
100 k in
1931
Q uanV a lu e
t it y
Ad v a lo r e m 2 0 $
25
917
5
P h o s p h a te r o c k
( 1 ,0 0 0 t o n s )
2 2 8 .8 9 p e r k i n
287
1 ,0 5 2
p o t a s s l c f e r t i l i z e r m a t e r ia l
( 1 ,0 0 0 t o n s )
11
484
(2 )
193 3
QuanV a lu e
tity
1934
QuanV a lu e
t lty
i,5 5 5
2 ,0 3 7
4 ,0 8 8
2 ,7 8 8
2 ,4 5 7
( 1 ,0 0 0 t o n s )
S u lp h a t e o f ammonia
1932
QuanV a lu e
t it y
193 5
QuanV a lu e
tity
15
341
220
830
143
520
157
486
214
881
23
1 ,0 4 6
1
40
17
600
20
752
1937
Quan- V a lu e
tlty
1938
Quan- V a lu e
t lt y
557
1 ,0 4 9
896
3 ,6 5 7
14
135
1936
QuanV a lu e
t ity
345
63
222
953
282
1 177
278
1 .1 5 4
15 9
664
45
1 ,3 8 8
54
1 ,8 8 9
56
2 ,0 8 9
31
1 ,2 2 2
1 ,5 3 8
T o t a l o f a b ove ite m s
1 2 4 ,7 5 1
1 2 5 .7 3 9
1 1 4 ,1 3 4
1 2 4 ,9 6 5
1 8 9 ,1 3 6
1 7 5 ,8 4 3
1 6 3 ,5 0 1
1 9 4 ,4 7 8
1 6 4 ,2 7 6
T o t a l o f I m p o r ts i n t o Jap an
from t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
1 6 4 ,5 7 0
1 5 5 ,7 1 5
1 3 4 ,9 2 1
1 4 3 ,4 3 5
2 1 0 ,4 8 0
2 0 3 ,2 8 3
2 0 4 ,3 4 8
2 8 8 ,5 5 8
2 3 9 ,6 6 2
( 1 ) The r a t e s o f d u ty on m in e r a l o i l s a r e fro m 1 6 . 7 5 t o Y 71..20
per k ilo lit r e
( 2 ) No c o m p a ra b le o l a s s i f i e a t i o n
B u reau o f F o r e ig n and D o m e s tic Commerce, U, S . D epartm en t o f
Commerce. F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v ig a t io n o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ,
1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 8 (W a sh in g to n , D. C7T“
J a p a n e s e M in is t r y o f F in a n c e , The Im p ort T a r i f f o f J a p a n 1 9 4 0
(T o k io : Toa P r i n t i n g Company, L td .] 1 9 4 1 )
97
t h e S t r a i t s S e t t le m e n t s and China in la r g e q u a n t i t i e s
a d d it io n t o t h e s e o r e s ,
fo r e .
In
sc r a p i s now in g r e a t demand: t h e r e ­
t h e v a lu e o f ir o n and s t e e l sc r a p im p o r ts in c r e a s e d in
1957 and 1 9 5 8 , am ounting t o $ 5 7 ,4 1 8 ,0 0 0 and $ 2 1 ,6 8 5 ,0 0 0 , r e ­
sp e c tiv e ly .
Im p orts o f f e r t i l i z e r m a t e r ia ls have shown a r e v i v a l
s i n c e 1931, h u t th e in c r e a s e was f a r l e s s th a n in raw c o tt o n
and ir o n sc r a p .
T h is i s l a r g e l y due t o th e d evelop m en t o f th e
f e r t i l i z e r I n d u s tr y in Japan, w h ich Led t o a d im in u tio n in
im p o rts o f s u lp h a te o f ammonia.
The im port v a lu e in 1938
a c c o u n te d f o r $ 1 ,2 2 2 ,0 0 0 .
The home y i e l d o f g a s o l i n e o i l i s a b le t o s a t i s f y l e s s
th a n 50 p er c e n t o f th e home con su m p tion , and a la r g e p a r t o f
d o m e stic r e q u ir e m e n ts m ust he im ported ,
h y f a r t h e m ost im p o rta n t s u p p l ie r ,
I n d ie s and B r i t i s h N orth B orneo.
The U n ite d S t a t e s i s
fo llo w e d hy t h e D utch E a st
The v a lu e o f o i j
im p o rts
in c r e a s e d a n n u a lly and in 1935 amounted t o $ 1 1 ,7 8 1 ,0 0 0 or 366
p e r c e n t o f t h e v a lu e in 1 9 3 0 , and in 1958 amounted t o $ 2 9 ,8 5 8 ,•
000 or 253 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a lu e in 1935.
The a r t i c l e s o th e r th a n t h o s e m en tion ed ab ove, w h ich
amounted t o $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 or more in 1938, w iij he sum marized
below *
C a t t le h id e s :
2 3 ,1 1 3 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
r a t e o f d u ty:
fr e e ,
v a lu e d a t $ 2 ,4 3 5 ,0 0 0 .
The
98
S u lp h it e wood p u lp :
6 0 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
v a lu e d a t $ 5 ,5 8 5 ,0 0 0 ,
The
r a t e o f duty: Y 0 .2 2 p e r k in ,
G a s o lin e ,
n ap h th a, and o th e r f i n i s h e d
1 ,0 5 8 ,0 0 0
b a r r e ls ,
l i g h t p r o d u c ts
v a lu e d a t $ 7 ,7 1 3 ,0 0 0 -
The r a t e o f
(duty: Y 6 .7 5 -Y 7 1 ,2 0 p e r k i l o l i t r e ,
Gas and f u e l o i l
5 ,2 9 7 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s , v a lu e d a t $ 6 ,6 7 5 ,0 0 0 .
The r a t e o f d u ty: Y 6 .T 5 -Y 7 1 .2 0 p e r k i l o l i t r e ,
L u b r ic a tin g o i l .
2 2 3 ,0 0 0 b a r r e l s ,
v a lu e d a t f l r 7 5 4 ,0 0 0 ,
The r a t e o f du ty: Y 8 .3 0 -Y 7 1 .2 0 p e r k i l o l i t r e .
T in p l a t e :
2 8 ,6 6 9 ,0 0 0 lb s ,,
v a lu e d a t $ 1 ,6 4 9 ,0 0 0 -
The r a t e
o f du ty: Y 0 .9 4 p e r 100 k in ,
R e fin e d cop p er,
in g o t s ,
a t $ 2 1 ,8 1 3 ,0 0 0 -
and b a r s:
2 1 7 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
The r a t e o f d u ty:
v a lu e d
in g o t Y 7 .0 0 and b a r
Y 1 5 .0 0 , p e r 100 k in ,
Lead, in p i g s , b a r s ,
$ 2 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0
e tc ,
6 0 ,4 0 6 ,0 0 0 l b s ,
v a lu e d a t
The r a t e o f du ty: Y 0 .4 0 . p e r 100 k in ,
Motor t r u c k s , b u s e s , and c h a s s is :
The r a t e o f duty:
6 ,0 0 0 v a lu e d a t $ 1 ,8 9 6 ,0 0 0
70 p er c e n t,
M otor p a r t s f o r r e p la c e m e n ts: $ 2 ,7 1 0 ,0 0 0 -
The r a t e o f du ty:
Y ll.8 0 -Y 1 5 4 .v l5 p e r 100 k in ,
Raw s i l k e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s from Jap an .
Japan i s t h e w o r ld 's l e a d in g p ro d u cer o f raw s i l k .
24
Of t h e
Raw s i l k was im p o rted from China and Annam b e f o r e
t h e o p e n in g o f th e co u n tr y ,
The im p o r ta tio n o f f o r e i g n s i l k
s t im u la t e d home p r o d u c tio n , b u t a ch eck was im posed t o th e
TABLE X?
WORLD MARKETS FOR JAPANESE SILK,
1930-1938*
(In thousands of dollars)
C o u n tr ie s
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
U n ite d S t a t e s 3 9 8 ,7 1 5 3 4 2 ,4 7 9 3 6 0 ,1 4 8 3 5 5 ,8 0 5 2 3 9 ,5 6 8 3 2 8 ,9 1 0 3 3 3 ,9 4 9 3 2 5 ,2 2 5 2 9 7 ,8 8 2
(9 5 .5 5 4 ( 9 6 .3 7 ) (9 4 .1 9 ) ( 9 1 ,0 2 ) ( 8 3 .5 3 ) ( 8 4 .9 8 ) ( 8 5 .0 2 ) ( 7 9 .8 8 ) ( 8 1 .8 1 )
G reat B r it a i n
2 ,9 1 4
9 ,2 5 7 1 4 ,6 5 4 1 4 ,2 3 7 2 1 ,4 5 0 2 3 ,6 2 8 3 1 ,4 3 0 2 6 ,1 7 5
6 ,1 6 1
F ran ce
8 ,0 4 0
1 ,8 7 9
7 ,1 0 7 1 5 ,3 7 8 2 0 ,3 3 3 2 3 ,7 6 4 2 1 ,7 7 2 2 6 ,1 1 1 2 4 ,6 3 1
A u s t r a li a
4 ,0 1 7
4 ,2 5 2
2 ,7 8 3
1 ,9 2 8
3 ,1 6 5
3 ,2 9 7
5 ,2 3 1
8 ,1 3 2
6 ,4 6 1
Canada
411
727
3 ,5 5 8
2 ,5 9 5
I 164
208
70
823
278
------......
B r i t i s h I n d ia
8 ,4 6 0
5 ,5 3 4
3 ,8 7 2
1 ,5 2 0
T o t a l w ith
o th e r s
4 1 7 ,2 8 2 3 5 5 ,3 9 3 3 8 2 ,3 6 6 3 9 0 ,9 0 1 2 8 6 .7 9 3 3 8 7 .0 3 2 3 9 2 ,8 0 9 4 0 7 .1 1 8 3 6 4 ,1 2 4
* F ig u r e s from 1930 t o 1934 w ere ta k e n from
Japan Y ear B ook, 1956 (T ok io: Kenkyusha P r e s s ) , p.
F ig u r e s from 1935 t o 1938 w ere ta k e n from
Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 5 9 -4 0 (T ok io: Kenkyusha P r e s s )
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t io n o f Japan.
492.
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan,
p 289.
100
w o r ld ’ s s i l k s u p p ly f o r t h e t e n y e a r p e r io d 19£9 t o 19 3 8 , i n ­
c lu s iv e ,
a p p r o x im a te ly 70 p e r c e n t o r ig i n a t e d i n Japan and SO
p er c e n t in C h in a, ^
Of Jap an ’ s t o t a l raw s i l k e x p o r t volum e,
e s t im a t e d a t o v er 70 p e r c e n t o f h er t o t a l ou tp u t
O ft
th e
U n ite d S t a t e s a lo n e a c co u n ted f o r 80 t o 96 p e r c e n t d u r in g
th e p e r io d 1930 t o 19 3 8 ,
In 1930, e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s amounted t o ¥ 3 9 8 ,7 1 5 ,0 0 0 o r 9 5 .6 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
v a lu e o f Ja p a n ’ s raw s i l k e x p o r t s ,
The p e r c e n ta g e r o s e t o
9 6 .4 p e r c e n t in 1931, h u t i t d e c r e a s e d t o 8 3 .5 p e r c e n t,
v a lu e d a t ¥ 2 3 9 ,5 6 8 ,0 0 0 , i n 1954,
I t r o s e a g a in t o 8 4 .9 8 p e r
c e n t i n 1955 and t o 8 5 .0 2 p e r c e n t in 1936, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
hu t i t d e c r e a s e d t o 7 9 .9 p e r c e n t i n 1937,
In 19 3 8 , how ever,
i t showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e , a c c o u n tin g f o r 8 1 .8 p er c e n t
d evelop m en t o f t h e in d u s tr y , when an o r d in a n c e p r o h i b it i n g
t h e u s e o f l u x u r i e s was i s s u e d d u rin g th e ¥ed o P e r io d .
Ju st
b e f o r e t h e o p e n in g o f th e c o u n tr y , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s i l k in d u s ­
t r y o f Japan was q u it e i n s i g n i f i c a n t , hu t i t h as made g r e a t
s t r i d e s s i n c e th e o p e n in g o f Yokohama t o f o r e i g n tr a d e in
1 8 5 9 , W ith t h e M e ij i R e s t o r a t io n i n 1 8 6 8 , came th e e n c o u r ­
agement. o f home i n d u s t r i e s , t h e f i r s t o f w h ich t o a r r e s t th e
a t t e n t i o n o f th e governm ent a u t h o r i t i e s was th e s i l k in d u s ­
t r y , and e v e r s i n c e s p e c i a l e f f o r t s have h een made tow ard
d e v e lo p in g t h i s n a t i o n a l in d u s t r y . Y osoburo T a k ek o sh ii The
Econom ic A s p e c ts o f t h e H is t o r y o f t h e C i v i l i z a t i o n o f Jap an ,
V ol T.
(Hew 'York: The" M acm illan Company. 1 9 3 0 }, p p 7& L 4-3l5,
25
Computed from t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n made by t h e S i l k
B ureau o f t h e A g r ic u lt u r e and F o r e s t r y M in is tr y ,
F o r e ig n
A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 , op. c i t . .p, 427,
O ft
M it s u b is h i Econom ic R e se a rc h B u reau , J a p a n ese Trade
and I n d u s t r y , P r e s e n t and F u tu r e . (London: M acm illan and
Company. L td .
1 9 5 6 ). p, 265"
101
The im p ortan ce o f Jap an ese raw s i l k i s n o t c o n fin e d t o
Japan, b u t e x te n d s t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
As i s shown in
T a b le X7I; t h e U n ite d S t a t e s im p orted a p p r o x im a te ly 90 p e r
c e n t o f h er t o t a l raw s i l k r e q u ir e m e n ts from Japan in th e
p e r io d 1930 t o 1938 i n c l u s i v e ,
On t h e o th e r hand., t h e im­
p o r t o f C h in ese raw s i l k a c co u n ted f o r o n ly 6 .3 p e r c e n t and
t h a t o f I t a l i a n raw s i l k f o r 3 .2 p e r c e n t in th e same p e r io d ,
In o th e r w ords, a lm o st a l i o f th e s i l k w h ich p r o v id e s t h e raw
m a t e r i a ls f o r s i l k go o d s u sed in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s comes from
Japan,
No o th e r n a t io n in th e w o rld h a s th e n a t u r a l f a c i l i ­
t i e s or t h e t r a in e d w ork ers t o p rod u ce s i l k in su ch volum e
and w it h su ch economy.
The im p ortan ce o f raw s i l k t o th e
A m erican p r o d u c e r s and w ork ers i s no Less th a n t o t h e con­
sumer
Lockwood w r it e s :
The p r e c i s e sc o p e o f s i l k m an u factu re i s im p o s s ib le
t o a s c e r t a i n , ow ing t o t h e b lu r r in g o f t h e l i n e s b e ­
tw een s i l k , rayon * c o t t o n and w ool In t h e t e x t i l e
in d u s tr ie s ,
* S ilk m a n u fa c tu r e s,
a s d e f in e d by t h e
c e n su s, c o v e r .m o s t o f t h e o u tp u t o f s i l k good s o t h e r
th a n k n itw e a r ,
In 1935 t h e r e w ere 658 fir m s in t h i s
c e n su s c a te g o r y , m ost o f them lo c a t e d in Few J e r s e y
and P e n n s y lv a n ia ,
They em ployed 5 5 ,5 9 0 w o r k e r s, p a id
w ages am ounting t o $ 4 0 .5 m i l l i o n and tu rn ed ou t
p r o d u c ts v a lu e d a t $ 1 4 9 m i l l i o n . 27
T h is g r e a t in d u s tr y in t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i s v e r y
l a r g e l y depen d en t upon Japan f o r i t s b a s i c raw m a t e r i a ls .
as
W illia m W. Lockwood, Jr
B o y c o t t rr Far E a s t e r n . S u r v e y , Y ol
p, 248,
E c o n o m ic s o f a S i l k
YI
(November 5, 1957^
TABLE XVI
UNITED STATES IMPORTS OF RAW SILK,
1930-1938*
(Unit: $ 1,000 and 1,000 lbs, >
Year
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
T o t a l im p o r ts
Q uantity- V a lu e
7 3 , 733
8 3 ,8 5 3
7 4 ,0 5 3
6 7 ,2 4 5
5 6 ,3 7 9
6 7 ,6 7 5
6 0 ,3 6 3
5 7 ,8 0 4
5 5 ,1 8 2
2 6 2 ,9 1 3
1 9 1 ,2 9 0
1 1 3 ,8 8 2
1 0 2 ,5 3 6
7 1 ,7 6 4
9 5 ,7 9 7
1 0 2 ,3 5 1
1 0 6 ,5 8 5
8 8 ,8 1 1
T o t a l 5 9 6 ,2 8 7 1 1 3 5 ,9 2 9
A veragei 6 6 ,2 5 4 1 2 6 ,2 1 4
P e r c e n ta g e
From Japan
Q uantity- V alu e
5 9 , 918
6 9 ,5 2 6
6 9 ,1 3 7
6 0 ,2 1 5
5 4 ,9 8 9
6 3 ,7 6 9
5 5 ,6 8 5
5 3 ,9 1 5
5 1 ,3 1 6
From C hina
Q u a n tity V alu e
From I t a l y
Q u a n tity V alu e
2 2 1 ,4 6 8
1 6 3 ,0 7 0
1 0 6 ,1 8 8
9 1 ,6 5 9
6 9 ,8 4 7
9 0 ,0 3 9
9 4 ,9 6 7
9 9 ,5 7 3
8 3 ,6 4 4
9 ,8 7 4
9 ,8 4 1
2 ,5 3 0
3 ,7 6 9
1 ,1 0 3
3 ,4 8 5
2 ,4 6 7
2 ,7 3 5
1 ,5 6 8
2 8 ,9 4 2
1 8 ,5 6 4
3 ,5 3 0
5 ,8 7 4
1 ,5 9 0
5 ,1 3 8
4 ,0 8 7
5 ,0 6 8
2 ,1 4 3
3 ,7 1 1
3 ,9 8 8
2 ,0 8 7
3 ,0 6 7
113
411
2 ,1 6 4
1 ,1 5 1
2 ,2 7 6
1 1 ,5 5 8
8 ,4 9 7
3 ,6 8 7
4 ,7 6 9
147
604
3 ,2 2 3
1 ,9 3 9
2 ,9 8 8
5 3 8 ,4 6 8 1 0 2 0 ,4 5 5
5 9 ,8 3 0 1 1 3 ,3 8 4
9 0 .3 0 $
8 9 .8 3 $
3 7 ,3 7 2
4 ,1 5 2
6 .2 6 $
7 4 ,9 3 6
8 ,3 2 6
6 .6 0 $
1 8 ,9 6 8
2 ,1 0 8
3 ,1 8 $
3 7 ,4 1 2
4 ,1 5 7
3 .2 9 $
*U S. D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v ig a tio n o f t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 5 0 -1 9 5 8 (W ashington, D. C V
102
103
U n f o r t u n a t e ly , how ever, t h e U n ite d S t a t e s Government is s u e d ,
on A ugust l ,
1941, t h e f r e e z i n g a c t o f raw s i l k in t h e
c o u n tr y , e f f e c t i v e from 1 2 :0 0 P.M. o f A ugust 2 , and o rd ered
s i l k m a n u fa ctu rin g com p anies t o s to p t h e i r fu m c tio n s ,
In
c o n se q u e n c e , 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 o u t o f 1 7 5 ,0 0 0 em p lo y ee s fa c e d unem­
p lo y m en t, and i t became im p o s s ib le t o s e c u r e s i l k in quant i*
©Q
t i e s s u f f i c i e n t t o p rodu ce s i l k co m m o d itie s,
T u rn in g t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e t r a d e , we f i n d
t h a t raw s i l k o c c u p ie s t h e m ost im p o rta n t p la c e i n J a p a n ese
e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , a lth o u g h i t s im p o rta n ce i s on
t h e d e c l i n e in r e c e n t y e a r s on a c c o u n t o f t h e s e v e r e f a l l in
29
t h e p r i c e o f raw s i l k .
T ab le XVII g i v e s g e n e r a l im p o r ts
News ite m in t h e N i c h i b e i (San F r a n c is c o ) , A ugust
3 , 1941,
29
Raw s i l k was q u oted in 1920 a t Y 4 ,3 6 0 p e r b a le o f
15' kan , t h e h i g h e s t p r ic e in t h e h i s t o r y o f J a p a n 's s i l k
b u s i n e s s < In 1 9 3 1 , t h e p r i c e f e l l t o 13 p e r c e n t . o f t h a t o f
1920* I t r e g a in e d a l i t t l e i n 1933 b u t f e l l t o i t s lo w e s t
i n 1934«
I t seem ed t o be sh ow in g an upward te n d e n c y from t h e
f o l lo w in g y e a r , b u t i t went down a g a in in 1 9 3 8 . D e t a i l s a r e
shown in t h e f o l lo w in g t a b l e .
RAW SILK PRICE AT YOKOHAMA SPOT MARKET
1920
Y 4 ,3 6 0
1934
Y537
1930
775
1935
674
1931
583
1936
775
1932
702
1937
830
1933
766
1938
750
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c i a t i o n o f Japan, 1 9 3 9 -4 0 , op. c i t .
P, 4 2 9 .
104
TABLE XVII
EXPORTS PROM JAPAN TO UNITED STATES: RAW SILK
AND ALL OTHER COMMODITIES SHOWN SEPARATELY
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8 *
Y ear
T o t a l v a lu e
of a ll
com m od ities
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
506
425
445
492
399
536
594
639
425
Raw s i l k
Q u a n tity V alu e
454
540
513
438
434
467
428
380
393
400
344
360
356
244
329
334
325
298
V a lu e o f
P e r c e n ta g e
com m od ities o f raw s i l k
o th e r th a n e x p o r ts t o
raw s i l k
t o t a l e x p o r ts
106
81
85
136
155
207
260
314
127
7 9 ,1
8 0 .9
8 0 .9
7 2 .3
6 1 ,4
6 1 .4
5 6 .2
5 0 .9
7 0 ,1
* U n it: Y l , 0 0 0 ,0 0 0 and ± ,0 0 0 p i c u l s ,
F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear B ook,
1 9 5 1 -1 9 4 0 (T o k io : K enkyusha P r e s s )
105
I n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s from Japan and t h e p e r c e n ta g e o f h er
raw s i l k im p o r ts t o h er t o t a l im p o r ts,
In 1 9 3 0 , raw s i l k
a c c o u n te d f o r 7 9 .1 p e r c e n t o f Japan*s t o t a l e x p o r ts t o th e
U n ite d S t a t e s ,
The p e r c e n ta g e r o s e t o 8 0 .8 p e r c e n t i n 1931,
h u t i t d e c r e a s e d t o 7 2 .3 p e r c e n t i n 1933 and t o 6 1 .4 p e r
c e n t in 1934,
I t showed a g r e a t d e c l i n e in 1936 and 1937,
am oun tin g t o 5 6 .2 p e r c e n t and 5 0 .9 p e r c e n t . r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
The p e r c e n ta g e , how ever, r o s e t o 7 0 .1 p e r c e n t in 1 9 3 8 ,
t h e v a lu e o f raw s i l k e x p o r ts ,
As t o
i t was t h e lo w e s t in 1934,
am oun tin g t o Y244 m i l l i o n , a s compared w ith Y400 m i l l i o n in
1 9 3 0 , t h e h ig h e s t f i g u r e in t h e n in e y e a r p e r io d ,
Tt showed
an in c r e a s e i n 1935 and 1936 b u t d e c lin e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n
1 9 3 7 and 1 9 3 8 .
Raw c o tt o n e x p o r ts t o Japan from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
For w e l l o v e r a hundred y e a r s t h e U n ite d S t a t e s h a s b e e n t h e
w o r ld * s g r e a t e s t p ro d u cer o f c o t t o n .
ab ou t 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o rld c o t t o n ,
She u sed t o s u p p ly
A lth o u g h th e im p o rt­
a n c e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a s t h e p ro d u cer o f c o t t o n h a s d e ­
c li n e d in r e c e n t y e a r s ,
sh e s t i l l f u r n is h e s a p p r o x im a te ly
40 t o 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e w orld con su m p tion , a s i s shown in
T a b le X7IXL
On t h e o t h e r hand, a lm o st no c o tt o n i s grown i n Japan
30
e x c e p t in Chosen a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e .
Raw c o t t o n , t h e r e -
30
p , 236,
M it s u b is h i Econom ic R e se a rc h B ureau, o p . c i t . a
TABLE XVIII
COTTON PRODUCTION OF UNITED STATES,
1930-1938*
(In thousands of piculs)
C o u n tr ie s
A verage
1 9 2 5 -2 6
to
1 9 2 9 -3 0
Am erican
F o r e ig n
1 5 ,2 6 8
1 1 ,4 5 2
1 3 ,9 3 2 1 7 ,0 9 7 1 3 ,0 0 3 1 3 ,0 4 7 9 ,6 3 6 1 0 ,6 3 8 1 2 ,3 9 9 1 8 ,9 4 6 1 1 ,9 4 3
1 2 ,2 9 8 1 0 ,7 2 3 1 1 ,3 5 7 1 3 ,8 4 3 1 4 ,2 0 4 1 6 ,1 1 2 1 9 ,0 7 1 19 f 704 1 7 .0 5 7
T o ta l
26 r720
2 6 ,2 3 0 2 7 ,8 2 0 2 4 ,3 6 0 2 6 ,8 9 0 2 3 ,8 4 0 2 6 .7 5 0 3 1 ,4 7 0 3 8 ,6 5 0 2 9 ,0 0 0
P ercent
A m erican 57 14$
53c 11$ 6 1 ,4 6 $ 5 3 .3 8 $ 4 8 .5 2 $ 4 0 .4 2 $ 3 9 ,7 7 $ 39,,4 0 $ 4 9 .0 2 $ 41 18$
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
90T
*U, S, D epartm ent o f A g r ic u lt u r e , A g r ic u lt u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1940 (W ashington:
U- S, Government P r in t in g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 0 ), p 111
107
f o r e , h a s lo n g b een t h e m ost im p o rta n t ite m in t h e U n ite d
S t a t e s e x p o r t t r a d e w it h Japan,
T a b le XIX show s t h a t t h e v a lu e o f raw c o t t o n e x p o r ts
am ounted t o 4 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v a lu e o f a l l commodi­
t i e s e x p o r te d from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o Japan i n 1 9 3 0 .
The
p e r c e n ta g e r ea c h e d t h e p eak i n 1 9 3 2 , when i t amounted t o
6 3 .7 p e r c e n t,
S in c e t h e n , h ow ever, i t h as g r a d u a lly d e ­
c r e a s e d , a c c o u n tin g f o r 6 0 .8 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 3 3 , 3 3 .3 p e r c e n t
i n 1 9 3 4 , 4 8 .5 p e r c e n t in 1955 and 4 5 .1 p e r c e n t in 1 9 3 6 ,
On a c c o u n t o f t h e in c r e a s e i n t h e v a lu e o f t o t a l e x p o r ts and
t h e d e c r e a s e i n t h a t o f raw c o t t o n e x p o r ts , t h e p e r c e n ta g e
showed a trem en d ou s d e c li n e i n 1937 and 1 9 3 8 , am oun tin g t o
o n ly 2 1 .5 p e r c e n t and 2 1 .7 p e r c e n t, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
Japan, how ever,
d o e s n o t g e t i t s s u p p l ie s o f raw
c o t t o n e n t i r e l y from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s .
T ab le XX shows t h a t
o th e r im p o r ta n t s o u r c e s o f im p o r ts o f t h i s com m odity a r e
B r i t i s h I n d ia ,
C hina, and E gyp t,
Up t o 1 9 3 0 , I n d ia n c o t t o n
31
was im p orted in f a r g r e a t e r volum e th a n A m erican,
b u t on
a c c o u n t o f t h e p o o r crop o f I n d ia n c o tt o n i n 1 9 3 2 , im p o rts
o f A m erican c o t t o n in t h a t y e a r in c r e a s e d t o 9 ,1 0 1 ,7 0 0
p i c u l s from 5 ,3 2 1 ,0 0 0 p i c u l s in 1931,
The r e l a t i v e im p o rt­
a n ce o f A m erican raw c o tt o n , how ever, h as d e c lin e d s i n c e
31
St U yehara, The I n d u s tr y and Trade o f Ja p a n .
(Londonj P, S . K ing and Son, 1 9 2 6 ), p, 129,
108
TABLE XIX
EXPORTS FROM UNITED STATES TO JAPAN: RAW COTTON
AND ALL OTHER COMMODITIES SHOWN SEPARATELY1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8 *
(U n it: m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s and m i l l i o n s o f pounds)
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
i
T o t a l v a lu e
of a ll
com m od ities
165
156
135
143
210
203
204
289
240
Raw c o t t o n
Q u a n tity Y alu e
470
914
1 ,1 7 8
950
906
792
704
462
530
66
80
86
87
112
98
88
62
52
Y alu e o f
co m m o d ities
o th e r th a n
raw c o t t o n
P e r c e n ta g e
o f raw c o tto n
e x p o r ts t o
t o t a l e x p o r ts
99
76
49
56
98
105
116
227
188
4 0 .0
5 1 .3
63*7
6 0 .8
5 3 .3
4 8 .3
4 3 .1
2 1 .5
21 7
*Ur Sc Departm ent o f Commercet F o r e ig n Commerce and
N a v ig a t io n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s (W ash in gton , D. C ) “
109
TABLE XX
RAW COTTON IMPORTS OF JAPAN,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8 *
(I n th o u sa n d s o f p i c u l s )
C o u n tr ie s
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
I n d ia
Egypt
C hina
O th ers
3 ,8 8 3 .5 5 ,3 2 1 .0 9 ,1 0 1 .7 7 ,4 3 4 .9 6 ,4 8 6 .7
(40.5758) (47.69% ) (71.44% ) (59.53% ) (47.86% )
4 ,7 2 5 .4 4 ,8 0 8 .3 2 ,7 3 9 .8 3 ,9 7 7 .3 5 ,7 9 2 .4
2 8 7 .2
3 3 0 .4
2 8 0 .5
5 4 9 .6
1 8 2 .6
7 1 3 .2
5 3 1 .6
7 0 2 .8
5 6 9 .1
3 3 0 .6
7 2 .2
2 2 7 .5
3 9 5 .5
7 8 .8
36 7
T o ta l
9 ,5 7 3 .2 1 1 ,1 5 6 .8 12 f 7 4 0 .2 12 ,4 8 9 .2 1 3 ,5 5 4 .9
Am erica'
1935
1936
1937
1938
I n d ia
E gypt
C hina
O th ers
5 ,7 5 8 .4
(46.88% )
5 ,2 1 1 .0
5 3 6 .9
4 2 7 ,4
3 4 9 .9
5 ,9 2 8 .7
(38.98% )
6 ,7 1 6 .9
4 4 5 .5
4 6 3 .9
1 ,6 4 6 ,1
4 ,2 2 3 .9
(30.69% )
7 ,0 1 6 .2
6 7 0 .4
4 0 0 .8
1 ,4 5 3 .5
3 ,2 4 9 .0
(34.64% )
3 ,0 9 6 .1
4 0 4 ,7
1 ,4 3 2 .4
1 ,1 9 6 .3
T o ta l
1 2 ,2 8 3 ,7
1 5 ,2 1 1 .2
1 3 ,7 6 4 .9
9 ,3 7 8 .5
C o u n tr ie s
A m erica
^ F oreign A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear
Boole, 1 9 4 0 -4 1 (T ok io: K enkyusha P r e s s , 1 9 4 1 ), p, 526.
110
t h a t y e a r,
In 1 9 3 3 , Ja p a n ’ s im p o rts o f A m erican c o t t o n
d e c r e a s e d t o 7 ,4 3 4 ,9 0 0 p i c u l s , w h ile t h o s e o f In d ia n c o t t o n
in c r e a s e d t o 3 ,9 7 7 ,3 0 0 p i c u l s ,
The p o s i t i o n o f A m erican
c o t t o n and I n d ia n c o t t o n was r e v e r s e d i n 1 9 3 6 , when t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s s u p p lie d Japan 5 ,9 2 8 ,7 0 0 p i c u l s and B r i t i s h
I n d ia 6 ,7 1 6 * 9 0 0 p ic u ls *
In 1 9 3 8 , how ever, th e p o s i t i o n was
a g a in r e v e r s e d , when im p o r ts o f A m erican c o tt o n amounted t o
3 ,2 4 9 ,0 0 0 p i c u l s and t h o s e o f In d ia n c o tt o n t o 3 ,0 9 6 ,1 0 0
p ic u ls *
As t o m a rk ets f o r A m erican raw c o tt o n , T a b le XJX
show s t h a t from 1931 t o 1936 th e U n ite d S t a t e s foun d I t s
b e s t cu stom er in Japan, b u t i n 1937 sh e l o s t f i r s t p la c e t o
E n glan d , b e c a u se o f ch a n g in g r e q u ir e m e n ts d u rin g t h e S in o J a p a n ese c o n f l i c t and b e c a u se o f Jap an ’ s n e c e s s i t y t o r e ­
s t r i c t h er im p o rts t o m a in ta in ap p roxim ate e q u a l i t y b etw een
h e r e x p o r ts and im p o r ts,
In 1 9 3 8 , how ever.
s t o o d a t t h e to p o f t h e l i s t
Japan a g a in
o f p u r c h a s e r s o f A m erican
c o t t o n , and from 1930 t o 1938 i n c l u s i v e , on a v e r a g e ,
sh e
ranked f i r s t among them , a b s o r b in g a p p r o x im a te ly o n e - f o u r t h
o f t o t a l raw c o t t o n e x p o r ts o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
T h ese f i g u r e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t , when i t
i s r e a liz e d
t h a t c o t t o n i s A m e rica ’ s le a d in g a g r i c u l t u r a l in d u s t r y and
a l s o t h e one m ost d ep en d en t upon a f o r e i g n m arket,
’’norm al-
l y s e n d in g abroad more th a n h a l f o f i t s t o t a l o u tp u t,
nto
32
M. S. P a r le y , ’’A m erica ’ s S ta k e in t h e Far E a st
T r a d e ,” Par E a s te r n S u r v e y , V o l 7*
( J u ly 29, 1 9 3 6 ], p . 166*
Ill
TABLE XXI
UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF RAW COTTON,
(U n it; # 1 ,0 0 0 and 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , >
xeai*
T o t a l e x p o r ts ____________To Japan_________ To U n ite d Kingdom
'IT&lue
Y a lu e
Y alu e
Q u a n tity
Q u a n tity
Q u a n tity
1950
1951
1952
1955
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
5 ,5 0 4 ,5 9 4
5 ,5 1 9 ,4 2 8
4 ,5 9 8 ,4 4 5
4 ,5 0 9 ,2 8 9
2 ,9 8 1 ,6 2 9
5 ,0 5 8 ,7 7 8
2 ,8 1 5 ,0 9 0
5 ,0 0 5 ,9 9 2
2 ,2 6 1 ,0 5 5
4 7 2 ,5 8 4
4 6 8 ,5 1 6
3 1 4 ,7 6 5
9 1 2 ,2 5 4
5 3 4 ,3 5 2 X ,1 7 0 ,6 4 1
9 4 7 ,9 4 3
3 8 5 ,5 5 1
9 0 5 ,8 6 0
3 6 1 ,2 6 4
7 9 1 ,9 9 3
3 8 0 ,0 2 8
7 0 3 ,9 1 8
3 5 2 ,3 3 7
4 6 2 ,1 0 7
3 5 6 ,5 8 6
2 2 1 ,4 6 0
5 2 9 ,8 3 6
6 5 ,5 7 8
7 9 ,5 8 7
8 5 ,3 5 5
8 6 ,5 3 4
1 1 2 ,1 0 8
9 8 ,4 6 5
8 8 ,2 1 0
6 1 ,6 9 0
5 2 ,4 5 0
5 6 7 ,3 9 4
4 1 7 ,3 0 8
7 1 1 ,7 6 8
7 3 8 ,6 8 3
4 4 5 ,5 6 6
6 1 0 ,1 2 8
6 3 4 ,0 8 7
7 8 6 ,8 2 0
4 1 6 ,8 1 7
8 1 ,3 5 3
3 6 ,5 1 6
5 0 ,6 2 8
6 6 ,2 5 3
5 3 ,3 8 4
7 4 ,4 5 7
7 8 ,4 1 6
8 9 ,1 3 5
4 0 ,0 3 7
T o t a l 2 9 ,8 5 2 ,0 8 0 3 ,1 7 8 ,9 2 7 6 ,8 9 3 ,0 6 8
3 5 3 ,2 1 4
7 6 5 ,8 9 6
A verage 5 ,5 1 6 ,8 9 8
P e r c e n ta g e
2 3 ,0 9 $
7 2 9 ,9 2 7
8 1 ,1 0 3
2 2 .9 6 $
5 ,3 2 8 ,5 7 1
5 9 2 ,0 6 3
1 7 .8 5 $
5 7 0 ,1 7 9
6 3 ,3 5 3
1 7 ,9 4 $
To Germany_________
To F ran ce
Q u a n tity
Y a lu e
Q u a n tity
Y alu e
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
8 6 4 ,1 1 1
7 0 4 ,5 5 2
9 0 6 ,7 1 0
8 6 8 ,6 0 3
3 8 6 ,5 9 1
3 0 9 ,6 5 4
3 5 9 ,9 1 0
4 2 0 ,3 7 5
1 7 1 ,0 0 0
1 2 2 ,4 4 5
6 3 ,1 9 8
6 6 ,3 8 1
7 6 ,6 7 4
4 4 ,4 1 6
3 8 ,1 1 1
4 5 ,1 2 4
4 9 ,5 4 2
1 6 ,8 1 9
4 8 5 ,7 6 5
2 3 0 ,4 8 2
4 3 2 ,4 2 9
4 4 9 ,6 3 8
2 2 4 ,3 2 4
3 0 9 ,0 5 0
3 7 7 ,4 1 0
3 8 6 ,6 7 9
2 3 8 ,9 9 7
7 0 ,3 3 0
2 3 ,0 9 8
3 2 ,3 6 4
4 0 ,7 0 4
27 j 152
3 8 ,0 7 7
4 7 ,3 2 1
4 3 ,7 7 3
2 3 ,6 2 6
4 ,9 9 1 ,5 0 6
T o ta l
5 5 4 ,6 1 2
A verage
P e r c e n ta g e 16 72$
5 2 2 ,7 1 0
5 8 ,0 7 9
1 6 ,4 4 $
3 ,1 3 4 ,7 7 4
3 4 8 ,3 0 8
1 0 .5 0 $
3 4 6 ,4 4 5
3 8 ,4 9 4
1 0 .9 0 $
*U, S . D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and N a v ig a ­
t i o n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 5 0 -1 9 5 8 (W ash in gton, D. C ,T
112
That Japan may become an e v en more p r o f i t a b l e m arket f o r
A m erican c o tt o n i s e v id e n t from p a s t r e q u ir e m e n ts and from
t h e r a p i d l y d e v e lo p in g c o t t o n in d u s t r y o f Japan,
33
M a t e r ia l­
i z a t i o n o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l demand i s d ep en d en t upon t h e grow th
o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s im port t r a d e w ith Japan and upon th e
m a in ten a n ce o f p a s t harm onious tr a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etw een
t h e two c o u n t r ie s ,
Trade o f t h e tw o c o u n t r ie s e x c l u s i v e o f raw c o tt o n
and raw s i l k .
As T a b le 3XEI show s, t h e t o t a l v a lu e o f
U n ite d S t a t e s a n n u a l e x p o r ts t o Japan, e x c l u s i v e o f raw
c o t t o n , h a s r e g u l a r l y e x c e e d e d t h e v a lu e o f U n ite d S t a t e s
im p o r ts from Japan e x c l u s i v e o f raw s i l k ,
The a g g r e g a te
d o l l a r v a lu e o f U n ite d S t a t e s a n n u a l e x p o r ts t o Japan o th e r
th a n raw c o t t o n d e c lin e d s t e a d i l y from 1930 t o 1 9 3 2 , r o s e
m ark ed ly a f t e r t h e l a t t e r y e a r , and d e c lin e d s h a r p ly in
1938,
The v a lu e o f Japan *s a n n u a l e x p o r ts t o t h e U n ite d
33
•Hie im p o rta n ce o f t h e c o tt o n in d u s t r y i n Japan
i s s e e n from th e f a c t t h a t c o t t o n y a r n s occu p y 2 4 .1 p e r
c e n t o f th e t o t a l p r o d u c ts o f t h e t e x t i l e in d u s t r y and
c o t t o n yarn s p in n in g and w e a v in g b r a n c h e s a c c o u n t f o r 12
p e r c e n t and 17 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e t o t a l num­
b e r o f o p e r a t iv e s engaged in t h e t e x t i l e in d u s t r y ,
Japan
i s a l s o th e w o r ld * s le a d in g e x p o r te r o f c o t t o n p i e c e .
g o o d s , h a v in g su p e r s e d e d G reat B r i t a i n in 1933 and 1 9 3 8 ,
B ureau o f F o r e ig n and D o m e stic Commerce, U n ite d S t a t e s
D epartm ent o f Commerce, "Japan*s E x p o r ts D e c lin e d in
1 9 3 8 ," Commerce R e p o r t, A p r il 1 5 , 1 9 3 9 , Ho, 15«
113
TABLE XXII
TKAD1 OF UNITED STATES AND JAPAN
EXCLUSIVE OF RAW COTTON AND RAW SILK.
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8 *
(I n m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s )
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
T o t a l v a lu e o f im p o r ts
i n t o U .S . from Japan
e x c lu d in g raw s i l k
58
43
28
36
49
61
78
95
48
T o t a l v a lu e o f e x p o r ts
from U .S . t o Japan
e x c lu d in g raw c o t t o n
99
76
49
56
98
105
116
227
188
*U, S t D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and
N a v ig a t io n o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1 9 5 0 -1 9 5 8 (W a sh in g to n ;
U, S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e )
114
S t a t e s o t h e r th a n raw s i l k f o llo w e d t h e same g e n e r a l c o u r s e ,
A l a r g e p a r t o f th e d e c r e a s e in th e d o l l a r v a lu e o f su ch
im p o rts b etw een 1931 and 1932 may have b een due t o t h e f a l l
in t h e d o l l a r p r i c e s o f t h e g o o d s i n c i d e n t a l t o th e d e p r e ­
c i a t i o n o f t h e Yen.
S in c e 19 3 2 , u n it e d S t a t e s im p o r ts
from Japan e x c l u s i v e o f raw s i l k have n o t in c r e a s e d n e a r ly
a s much a s J a p a n 's p u r c h a s e s o f U n ite d S t a t e s g o o d s e x c l u s ­
i v e o f raw c o t t o n ,
B oth f i g u r e s , how ever, dropped s u b s ta n ­
t i a l l y in 1 9 3 8 ,
S e a s o n a l movement o f t h e t r a d e ,
The c h a r t on t h e
n e x t page shows t h e s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s J a p a n ese tr a d e d u r in g t h e n in e y e a r p e r io d .
I t r e v e a ls
t h a t t h e amount o f U n ite d S t a t e s e x p o r ts t o Japan e x c e e d s
t h a t o f U n ite d S t a t e s im p o r ts from t h a t c o u n tr y , r e s u l t i n g
in f a v o r a b le b a la n c e s t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s e x c e p t i n Aug­
u st,
The s e a s o n a l movement o f A m e r ic a 's e x p o r ts h a s m inor
p ea k s i n Jan u ary and March, b u t i t d e c l i n e s s t e a d i l y from
A p r il t o A u gust,
However,
it
shows a sh arp r i s e t h e r e a f t e r
and r e a c h e s i t s p ea k in Decem ber.
The movement" o f U n ite d S t a t e s im p o r ts from Japan
shows a g r a d u a l d e c li n e from January t o May, b u t i t r i s e s
s t e a d i l y t h e r e a f t e r and r e a c h e s i t s p eak i n O ctob er,
t h e l a s t tw o m onth s, how ever,
In
i t shows a n o th e r d e c l i n e ,
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t t h e s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s o f e x p o r ts
and im p o r ts b etw een th e tw o c o u n t r ie s a r e n o t a n a lo g o u s ,
115
In , i i f OQQ
+
+
+
£1123
+f
STo. 6101, U n iv e rsity B o o k sto r
-1-9-S8
c
Angele:
116
The December p eak i n U n ite d S t a t e s e x p o r ts l a g s tw o m onths
b e h in d t h e O ctob er p eak in Ja p a n ese e x p o r ts .
The May tr o u g h
i n U n ite d S t a t e s im p o r ts f o l lo w s t h e A ugust tr o u g h in
J a p a n ese im p ortsc
T h is d is c r e p a n c y i n d i c a t e s an uneconom ic
s h ip p in g c o n d i t i o n 3 r e q u ir in g many f r e i g h t e r s t o t r a v e l
o n ly p a r t i a l l y lo a d e d on r e tu r n t r i p s ,
The r e s u l t i n g w a ste
ca n n o t b e much a m e lio r a te d , how ever, s i n c e i t a r i s e s p rim ar­
i l y from th e o r g a n ic c y c l e s in t h e grow th o f s i l k and c o tto n ,
B a la n c e o f t r a d e ,
D u ring t h e p e r io d 1911 t o 1931,
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s im p o r ts from Japan e x ce ed ed in v a lu e t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s e x p o r ts t o Japan,
The comm odity t r a d e b e ­
tw een t h e tw o c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e f o r e , r e s u l t e d in d e b it b a l ­
a n c e s f o r t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and c r e d i t b a la n c e s f o r Japan,
S in c e 1 9 3 2 , how ever, t h e b a la n c e o f tr a d e b etw een t h e
35
U n ite d S t a t e s and Japan h a s b een r e v e r s e d ,
The change i n Japan *s b a la n c e on comm odity a c c o u n t
in i t s t r a d e w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s h a s b een accom p an ied b y
an o p p o s it e change in t h e s t a t u s o f J a p a n 's b a la n c e o f corn56
m odxty t r a d e w ith a l l o th e r c o u n t r ie s ta k e n a s a group,
For many y e a r s p r io r t o 1932, Japan n o r m a lly had s u b s ta n ­
t i a l d e b i t b a la n c e s in i t s t o t a l tr a d e w ith c o u n t r ie s o th e r
34
*
See T a b le X X III,
S ee T a b le XXIV.
36 S ee T a b le XXV.
117
than, t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
She em ployed h e r c r e d i t b a la n c e s on
m erch a n d ise a c c o u n t in tr a d e w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s t o o f f ­
s e t a p a r t o f t h e d e b i t b a la n c e s r e s u l t i n g from h e r tr a d e
w ith o th e r c o u n t r ie s ,
S in c e 1932, t h e ap p earan ce o f d e b it
b a la n c e s in J a p a n 's comm odity tr a d e w ith t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
h as been,
in p a r t , o f f s e t b y th e d evelop m en t o f c r e d i t
b a la n c e s f o r Japan in h e r tr a d e w ith t h e r e s t o f t h e w o rld ,
3
The c h i e f f a c t o r s c o n t r ib u t in g t o t h e r e v e r s a l o f
J a p a n 's tr a d e b a la n c e s w ith th e U n ite d S t a t e s and w it h a l l
o t h e r c o u n t r ie s com bined, w ere (1 ) t h e f a l l i n e x p o r ts o f
38
raw s i l k ;
(2 ) t h e e x p a n sio n o f J a p a n 's e x p o r ts o f eommodi37
38
See T a b le XXV,
The q u a n t it y o f raw s i l k e x p o r te d from Japan t o
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s d u r in g 1930 t o 1938 i n c l u s i v e , d id n o t
u n d erg o an y s e r i o u s c h a n g e, b u t t h e v a lu e o f raw s i l k e x ­
p o r t s t o th e U n ite d S t a t e s from Japan^howed a trem en d ou s
d e c l i n e , a s i s in d ic a t e d i n t h e f o l lo w in g t a b l e ,
JAPAN'S RAW SILK EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES
q u a n t it y
T ear
V alue
Exchange
( 1 ,0 0 0 l b s , >
( # 1 ,0 0 0 )
r a te
59*918
1930
2 2 1 ,4 6 8
4 9 .3 9
{100}
(1 0 0 )
(1 0 0 )
6 9 ,5 2 6
1931
1 6 3 ,0 7 0
4 8 .8 5
1932
6 9 ,1 3 7
1 0 6 ,1 8 8
2 8 .1 1
1933
9 1 ,6 5 9
6 0 ,2 1 3
2 5 .6 5
1 934
5 4 ,9 8 9
6 9 ,8 4 7
2 9 .7 2
1935
6 3 ,7 6 9
9 0 ,0 3 9
2 8 .6 4
1 936
9 4 ,9 6 7
5 5 ,6 8 5
2 8 .9 6
1 937
5 3 ,9 1 5
9 9 ,5 7 3
2 8 .7 2
1 938
5 1 ,3 1 6
8 3 ,6 4 4
2 8 .5 0
( 3 7 .7 7 )
( 8 5 .6 4 )
( 5 7 .8 2 )
S o u r c e : U. S . Departm ent►o f Commerce, F o r e ig n
Commerce and N a v ig a tio n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
(W ashington,
D, gVJ
118
t i e s f o r w h ich m a rk ets have b een fou n d c h i e f l y in c o u n t r ie s
39
o th e r th a n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ;
and ( 3 ) t h e f a c t t h a t much
o f t h e e x p a n s io n o f Japan*s e x p o r ts in r e c e n t y e a r s h a s b e e n
in p r o d u c ts made from m a t e r i a ls o f w h ich th e u n it e d S t a t e s
40
i s an im p o rta n t s u p p l ie r .
The m ost im p o rta n t c a u se , how­
ever.
o f th e change in th e U n ite d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e tr a d e
b a la n c e s i n c e t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e d e p r e s s io n was t h e d e ­
c l i n e i n t h e v a lu e o f goods im p o rted i n t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
from Japan.
In ter m s o f d o l l a r s , t h e Jap an ese g o o d s com ing
t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s h ave f a l l e n e v e r y y e a r s i n c e 1932 a s a
r e s u l t o f t h e d e p r e c ia t io n o f J a p a n ese c u r re n c y .
On a c co u n t
o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l amount o f Jap an f s e x ­
p o r t s t o t h e U n ite d S t a t e s d u r in g 1930 t o 1938 i n c l u s i v e ,
amounted t o o n ly 6 5 .3 0 p e r c e n t o f t h a t d u r in g 1920 t o
41
1929,
Chi t h e o t h e r hand, t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l amount o f
J a p a n 's im p o r ts from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a c co u n ted f o r
1 1 1 .7 6 p e r c e n t ,
39
The p e r c e n ta g e o f J a p a n 's e x p o r ts t o c o u n t r ie s
o t h e r t h a n .t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in c r e a s e d from 58 p e r c e n t
d u r in g 1921 t o 1929 t o 75 p e r c e n t d u r in g 1930 t o 1 9 3 8 ,
Computed from T a b le s I and V II <
40
J a p a n 's im p o r ts o f c o t t o n , h ea v y o i l , and ir o n
from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , f o r exam p le, a c co u n ted f o r ab ou t
50 p e r c e n t , 70 p e r c e n t , and 40 p e r c e n t o f h e r t o t a l
im p o r ts o f t h e s e g o o d s d u r in g t h e p e r io d 1930 t o 1 9 3 8 ,
Computed from U, S, D epartm ent o f Commerce, 0]>. c i t .,
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8 ,
4 1 S ee T a b le XXV,
4 2 S ee T a b le XXV,
119
The U n ite d S t a t e s m a in ten a n ce o f a f a v o r a b le b a la n c e
o f t r a d e in t h e Far F a s t i s l a r g e l y d ep en d en t on Japan,
In
1 9 3 8 , Japan, C hina, and B r i t i s h I n d ia w ere t h e m ain c o u n t r ie s
43
w it h w h ich t h e U n ite d S t a t e s m a in ta in e d a f a v o r a b le b a la n c e ,
The m argin o f C hina and B r i t i s h I n d ia w ere, how ever, n e g l i ­
g i b l e , a s compared w ith t h a t o f Japan,
43
See Table XXVI
ISO
TABLE XJCIII
UNITED STATES COMMODITY TRADE WITH JAPAN,
1 9 1 1 -1 9 2 9 *
^In th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s )
Y ear
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
19 22
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
E xp orts from U^ S,
t o Japan
V alu e
P e r c e n ta g e o f
Uf .S .- J a p tr a d e
4 4 ,1 0 4
5 7 ,5 2 0
6 2 ,5 0 0
4 1 ,7 5 1
4 5 ,7 3 2
1 0 9 ,1 5 6
1 8 6 ,3 4 0
2 7 3 ,7 7 5
3 6 6 ,3 6 4
3 7 7 ,9 4 2
2 3 5 ,4 2 4
2 1 8 ,4 0 3
2 6 4 ,2 2 8
2 5 3 ,0 0 9
2 2 9 ,6 4 2
2 6 0 ,7 5 4
2 5 7 ,5 7 0
2 8 8 ,1 5 8
2 5 9 ,1 2 7
36
40
39
28
30
37
42
48
47
48
48
38
43
43
37
39
39
43
38
Im p orts i n t o U, S,
from Japan
V alu e
P e r c e n ta g e o f
U .S . <•Jap tr a d e
7 8 ,0 2 3
8 7 ,4 1 8
9 8 ,9 3 6
1 0 5 ,6 9 6
1 0 8 ,3 1 5
1 8 2 ,0 9 1
2 5 3 ,6 7 0
3 0 1 ,9 4 3
4 0 9 ,8 5 3
4 1 4 ,5 7 9
2 5 1 ,2 6 8
3 5 4 ,2 9 8
3 4 6 ,9 4 0
3 4 0 ,0 9 5
3 8 4 ,1 5 6
4 0 0 ,6 9 3
4 0 2 ,1 0 5
3 8 4 ,4 5 0
4 3 1 ,8 7 3
64
60
61
72
70
63
58
52
53
52
52
62
57
57
63
61
61
57
62
*U, S* D epartm ent o f Commerce, Trade o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
w ith Japan (W ash in gton, D. C : U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g
O f f ic e , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 4 and Trade o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s w ith Japan
(W ash in gton, D, C
U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e ,
1939) p 2.
TABLE XXIV
UNITED STATES COMMODITY TRADE WITH JAPAN,
1930-1938*
^In thousands of dollars)
E x p o rts from V- 3 .
Im p orts i n t o U. S.
t o Japan____________________ from Japan_________
V alu e P e r c e n ta g e o f
V alu e P e r c e n ta g e o f
U .S . -Jap tr a d e
U .S .-J a p . t r a d e
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
193 V
1938
1 6 4 ,5 7 0
1 5 5 ,7 1 5
1 3 4 ,9 2 1
1 4 3 ,4 3 5
2 1 0 ,4 8 0
2 0 3 ,2 8 3
2 0 4 ,3 4 8
2 8 8 ,5 5 8
2 3 9 ,6 6 2
37
43
50
53
64
57
54
59
65
2 7 9 ,0 4 0
2 0 6 ,3 4 9
1 3 4 ,0 1 1
1 2 8 ,4 1 8
1 1 9 ,2 5 2
1 5 2 ,9 0 2
171 744
2 0 4 ,2 0 1
1 2 6 ,7 6 2
63
57
50
47
36
43
46
41
35
^
f
e x p o r ts 4 . ;
t
uapom s
-1 1 4 ,4 7 0
- 5 0 ,6 3 4
-j910
+ 1 5 ,0 1 7
+• 9 1 ,2 2 8
+ 5 0 ,3 8 1
+ 3 2 ,6 0 4
+ 8 4 ,3 5 7
+ 1 1 2 ,9 0 0
Exchange
r a te
4 9 .3 9
4 8 .8 5
2 8 .1 1
2 5 .6 5
2 9 ,7 2
2 8 .6 4
2 8 .9 6
2 8 .7 2
2 8 .5 0
*U- S . D epartm ent o f Commerce, Trade o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s w ith Japan
(W ash in gton; U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939) p , 2 ,
F e d e r a l R e se rv e B anks, F e d e r a l R e se rv e B u l l e t i n ,
121
TABLE XXV
COMMODITY TRADE BALANCE OF JAPAN,
1920-1938*
(In thousands of Yen)
Trade w it h U, S,
Y ear
E x p o rts
5 6 5 ,0 1 7
1920
1921
4 9 6 ,2 8 4
1922
7 3 2 ,3 7 7
1923
6 0 5 ,6 1 9
1924
7 4 4 ,9 2 6
1925
1 ,0 0 6 ,2 5 3
1926
8 6 0 ,8 8 1
1927
8 3 3 ,8 0 4
1928
8 2 6 ,1 4 1
1929
9 1 4 ,1 0 2
A verage
1 9 2 0 - 1929 7 5 8 ,5 4 0
100
Index: n o ,
Im p orts
E xcess o f
e x p o r ts 4
im p o r ts -
8 3 7 ,1 7 7
5 7 4 ,4 0 1
5 9 6 ,1 6 9
5 1 1 ,9 7 7
6 7 0 ,9 9 3
6 6 4 ,9 9 2
6 8 0 ,1 8 6
6 7 3 ,6 8 6
6 2 5 ,5 0 3
6 5 4 ,0 5 5
2 7 2 ,1 6 0
7 8 ,1 1 7
1 3 6 ,2 0 8
9 3 ,6 4 2
7 3 ,9 3 3
3 4 1 ,2 6 1
1 8 0 ,6 9 5
1 6 0 ,1 1 8
2 0 0 ,6 3 8
- 2 6 0 ,0 4 7
6 4 8 ,9 1 4
100
Trade w it h a l l o th e r
c o u n t r ie s .
E x c e ss o f
E x p o rts
Im p orts
e x p o r ts 4
im p o r ts 1 ,3 8 3 ,3 7 8
7 5 6 ,5 5 3
9 0 5 ,0 7 4
8 4 2 ,1 3 1
± ,0 6 2 ,1 0 8
1 ,2 9 9 ,3 3 6
1 1 4 3 ,8 4 6
1 ,1 5 8 ,5 1 3
1 ,1 4 5 ,8 1 4
1 ,2 3 4 ,5 1 6
1 ,4 9 8 ,9 9 8
1 ,0 3 9 ,7 5 3
1 ,2 9 4 ,1 3 9
1 ,4 7 0 ,2 5 3
1 ,7 8 2 ,4 0 9
1 ,9 0 7 ,6 6 5
1 ,6 9 7 ,2 9 8
1 ,5 0 5 ,4 6 7
1 ,5 7 0 ,8 1 1
1 ,5 6 2 ,1 8 5
± ,0 9 3 ,1 2 7
100
± ,5 3 2 ,8 9 8
100
1 1 5 ,6 2 0
2 8 3 ,2 0 0
3 8 9 ,0 6 5
6 2 8 ,1 2 2
7 2 0 ,3 0 1
6 0 8 ,3 2 9
5 5 3 ,4 5 2
3 4 6 ,9 5 4
4 2 4 ,9 9 7
3 2 7 .6 6 9
* F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t i o n o f Japan, Japan Y ear Book, 1 9 2 1 -1 9 4 0 (T ok io:
K enkyusha P r e s s )
122
TABLE XX? (continued)
COMMODITY TRADE BALANCE OF JAPAN,
1 920-1 9 3 8 *
(I n th o u sa n d s o f Yen)
Trade w ith XL S,
Y ear
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
A verage
1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 8
In d e x no
E x p o rts
Im p orts
5 0 6 ,1 1 2
4 2 5 ,3 3 0
4 4 5 ,1 4 7
4 9 2 ,2 3 7
3 9 8 ,9 2 8
5 3 5 ,5 1 5
5 9 4 ,2 5 1
6 3 9 ,4 2 8
4 2 5 ,1 2 3
4 4 2 ,8 8 1
3 4 2 ,2 8 9
5 0 9 ,6 7 3
6 2 0 ,7 7 8
7 6 9 ,3 5 9
8 0 9 ,6 4 4
8 4 7 ,4 9 0
1 ,2 6 9 ,5 4 2
9 1 5 ,3 5 3
4 9 5 ,7 8 6
6 5 .3 6
7 2 5 ,2 4 5
i l l 76
E x c e ss o f
e x p o r ts +
im p o rts
6 3 ,2 3 1
8 3 ,0 4 1
6 4 ,7 2 6
- 1 2 8 ,5 4 1
3 7 0 ,4 3 1
2 7 4 ,1 2 9
- 2 5 3 ,2 3 9
6 3 0 ,1 1 4
4 9 0 ,2 3 0
4-f
Trade w ith a l l o th e r
c o u n t r ie s
E xcess o f
e x p o r ts '
Im p orts
E x p o rts
im p o r ts
9 6 3 ,7 4 0
7 2 1 ,6 5 1
9 6 4 ,8 4 5
l , 3 6 8 ,8 0 9
1 ,7 7 2 ,9 9 6
1 ,9 6 3 ,5 5 7
2 ,0 9 8 ,7 2 5
2 ,5 3 5 ,9 9 0
2 ,2 6 4 ,5 5 4
1 ,1 0 3 ,1 8 9
8 9 3 ,3 8 6
9 2 1 ,5 8 8
1 ,2 9 6 ,4 4 1
1 ,5 1 3 ,2 4 2
1 ,6 6 2 ,5 9 1
1 ,9 1 6 ,1 9 1
2 ,5 1 3 ,6 3 5
l r7 4 8 ,0 8 7
1 ,6 2 8 ,3 1 9
1 4 8 .9 6
1 ,5 0 7 ,5 9 4
9 8 .3 5
4*
+
44444-
1 3 9 ,4 4 9
1 7 1 ,7 3 5
4 3 ,2 5 7
7 2 ,3 6 8
2 5 9 ,7 5 4
3 0 0 ,9 6 6
1 8 2 ,5 3 4
2 2 ,3 5 5
5 1 6 ,4 6 7
231
* F o r e ig n A f f a i r s A s s o c ia t io n o f Japan, Japan Y ear B ook, 1 9 2 1 -1 9 4 0 (T ok io:
Kenkyusha P r e s s )
124
TABLE XXVT
UNITED STATES TRADE WITH ASIA,
1930 and 1938*
(In th o u sa n d s o f d o l l a r s )
C o u n tr ie s
1938
E x p o r ts
Im p orts
Aden
Ir a n
Ir a q
P a le s tin e
A ra b ia
S y r ia
Turkey
B r i t i s h I n d ia
B r i t i s h M alaya
Burma
C eylon
D utch E a st I n d ie s
F ren ch In d o c h in a
P h ilip p in e s
Siam
China
Hong Kong
Kwantung
Japan
O th ers
T o ta l
304
9 ,1 1 8
2 ,7 4 2
3 ,1 6 6
4 ,1 7 1
2 ,6 7 6
1 3 ,1 9 5
3 3 ,3 7 7
8 ,7 9 1
2 ,3 1 6
1 ,3 3 9
2 7 ,4 8 3
3 ,1 1 7
8 6 ,2 9 7
3 ,2 5 7
3 4 ,4 6 4
2 1 ,0 2 5
1 6 ,9 0 9
2 3 8 ,7 6 7
2 ,3 4 8
5 1 4 ,8 5 9
230
x , 377
1 ,6 8 7
438
688
X , 755
2 ,3 7 5
2 3 ,2 9 3
1 1 1 ,6 9 9
37
1 5 ,9 8 5
6 7 ,3 2 8
7 ,1 3 3
8 9 ,7 2 4
123
2 0 ,8 5 8
2 ,3 7 0
204
9 3 ,4 2 1
3 ,8 5 4
4 4 4 ,5 7 9
1930
E x p o rts
Im p orts
225
2 ,7 4 3
1 ,0 0 3
1 ,3 7 0
336
2 ,4 1 4
4 ,3 8 5
4 5 ,1 9 5
9 ,6 0 1
1 ,7 4 2
5 ,7 9 7
3 ,7 6 5
165
66
X , 791
1 1 ,6 3 8
1 0 4 ,1 4 8
1 4 4 ,0 3 2
x , 796
1 6 ,8 8 5
1 ,5 4 9
6 4 ,9 3 5
2 ,3 6 5
8 9 ,6 0 5
1 6 ,9 8 7
6 ,4 0 4
1 6 4 ,5 7 0
1 4 ,2 6 6
4 4 6 ,6 3 4
2 0 ,7 0 7
3 3 ,4 5 3
219
1 0 9 ,3 9 0
400
1 0 1 ,4 6 4
9 ,0 0 2
2 ,8 0 9
2 7 9 ,0 4 0
2 6 ,8 6 7
8 5 6 ,4 9 5
*U, S.. D epartm ent o f Commerce, F o r e ig n Commerce and
N a v ig a t io n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , 1950 and 1958 (W ashington:
U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f ic e )
CHAPTER ¥
SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSIONS
S in c e t h e open d oor p o l i c y m s e s t a b l i s h e d in Japan
w ith t h e v i s i t o f Commodore B e rr y i n 1855 and t h e c o n c lu s io n
o f a U n ite d S t a t e s - J a p a n e s e t r e a t y o f a m ity tw o y e a r s l a t e r .
Japan h a s em an cip ated i t s e l f from a m y s te r io u s i s l a n d c o u n tr y
t o one o f t h e g r e a t e s t t r a d in g n a t io n s in th e w o r ld r
As a
c o n se q u en ce , t h e im p o rta n ce o f tr a d e b etw e en t h e u n it e d
S t a t e s and Japan h a s in c r e a s e d , b o th on an a b s o lu t e and a
r e la t iv e b a s is ,
U n ite d S t a t e s p r o d u c e r s have found an e v e r -
i n c r e a s i n g m arket in Japan, a s e v id e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t
e x p o r ts t o Japan In 1938 w ere more th a n 550 p e r c e n t o f
t h o s e in 1914 or more th a n t w o - t h ir d s o f t h e amount e x p o r te d
t o a l l o f t h e S ou th A m erican c o u n t r ie s ,
The r e l a t i v e im­
p o r ta n c e o f e x p o r t tr a d e w it h Japan h a s in c r e a s e d a lm o st a s
r a p id ly ,
Japan a b so rb ed o n ly 2 p er c e n t o f A m erican e x p o r t
tr a d e i n 1 9 1 4 , w h ile sh e p u rc h a sed 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l
e x p o r ts from t h e U n ite d S t a t e s i n 1 9 5 8 .
On t h e o th e r hand,
t h e g ro w th o f U n ite d S t a t e s im p o r ts from Japan h a s f l u c t u ­
a te d w id e ly , bu t A m erican im p o r ts from Japan In 1938 amounted
t o more th a n 150 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e in 1914 or more th a n oneh a l f o f t h o s e from a l l o f t h e S o u th A m erican c o u n t r ie s .
126
The A m erica n -J a p a n ese t r a d e i s com plem entary i n
n a tu r e ,
A com p arison o f t h e g e o g r a p h ic a l p o s i t i o n s o f
t h e tw o c o u n t r i e s , t h e n a tu r e o f t h e s e c o u n t r ie s , t h e i r
a r e a s and to p o g r a p h y , e tc * ,
w i l l c o n v in c e anyone o f t h e
v a s t n a t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o d u c ts o f th e c o u n t r ie s ,
C o n se q u e n tly , th e p e r c e n ta g e o f f r e e g o o d s from Japan i s
u s u a l l y a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t, w h ile t h e a v e r a g e f o r European
f r e e g o o d s i s 38*2 p e r c e n t.
The tw o l e a d in g ite m s in t h e t r a d e a r e c o t t o n and
s ilk .
As t h e c o tt o n in d u s t r y p r o g r e s s e d in th e I s la n d
E m pire, A m erican raw c o t t o n , upon w h ich sh e b u i l t h er g r e a t
in d u s tr y , h a s in c r e a s e d b y l e a p s and bounds,
In t h e n in e
y e a r p e r io d under s tu d y , Japan h a s ta k e n more A m erican raw
c o t t o n th a n an y o th e r n a t io n ,
On t h e o th e r hand, Japan
h a s e x p o r te d a v a s t amount o f h er s i l k , am ounting t o abou t
90 p e r c e n t o f A m erican con su m p tion ,
The A m erica n -J a p a n ese
tr a d e in t h e s e com m od ities e x e m p l i f ie s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l
d i v i s i o n o f la b o r p r o f i t i n g b o th n a t io n s .
D u rin g t h e p e r io d 1911 t o 1931,
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s
m a in ta in e d an u n fa v o r a b le b a la n c e o f tr a d e w it h Japan, b u t
in 1932 t h e b a la n c e o f t r a d e s h i f t e d and became f a v o r a b le
f o r t h e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
The m ain ten an ce o f a fa v o r a b le
b a la n c e o f tr a d e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s in t h e Far E a s t h as
127
b e e n l a r g e l y d ep en d en t on Japan.
In 19 3 8 , o f t h e e ig h t
m ajor A s i a t i c c o u n t r i e s i n U n ite d S t a t e s e x p o r t t r a d e
( e x p o r t s o v e r #10 m i l l i o n ) ,
T urkey, B r i t i s h I n d i a , China,
Hong Kong, Kwantung, and Japan w ere th e c o u n t r ie s w ith
w h ich t h e U n ite d S t a t e s m a in ta in e d a f a v o r a b le b a la n c e o f
tra d e.
However, t h e t o t a l amount o f u n it e d S t a t e s e x p o r ts
t o t h e f i v e c o u n t r ie s and d i s t r i c t s m en tion ed a b o v e , e x c e p t
Japan, am ounted t o l e s s th a n h a l f t h a t o f h e r e x p o r ts t o
Japan.
The U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m erica, t h e le a d e r In t h e
W estern H em isphere, and t h e Im p ire o f Japan, t h e g r e a t e s t
n a t io n in t h e O r ie n t,
have lo n g e n jo y ed an in t im a t e f r i e n d ­
s h ip th r o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e ,
U n fo r t u n a t e ly , how ever,
t h e r e h a s b een some i r r e s p o n s i b l e t a l k o f a p o s s i b l e war
b etw een t h e tw o c o u n t r ie s s i n c e th e o u tb re a k o f th e S in o J a p a n ese war.
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t war h as become su ch a
t e r r i b l e t h in g and i s su ch a p oor a g e n c y o f s e t t l i n g d i s ­
p u te s t h a t ,
from an econ om ic p o in t o f v ie w , b o th n a t io n s
w i l l l o s e much more th a n t h e y w i l l g a in ,
In o th e r w ord s,
t h e r e s u l t i n g c o s t s , b o th t o th e v i c t o r and t o t h e d e fe a te d
c o u n tr y , a r e s o stu p e n d o u s t h a t n o th in g w i l l be a b le t o
com pensate f o r th e econ om ic d r a in w h ich a war un der p r e s e n t
w o rld c o n d it io n s would b r in g a b o u t.
188
The U n ite d S t a t e s and Japan have no fu n d am en tal
c a u se f o r war or d i f f e r e n c e s , w h ich s h o u ld n o t be e a s i l y
s e t t l e d a t t h e c o u n c i l t a b l e , w here men o f p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r
and b road-m ind ed c o n s id e r a t io n f o r t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h e
o th e r s i d e en d ea v o r t o r e a c h an a m ic a b le agreem en t.
There
a r e prob lem s in r e l a t i o n t o t h e f r e e z i n g o f A m erican and
J a p a n ese a s s e t s i n b o th c o u n t r ie s and J a p a n ese in f lu e n c e
in t h e P h i li p p i n e I s la n d s ,
But a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e
p rob lem s w ou ld i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w good s ta te s m a n s h ip b y b o th
p a r tie s ,
I t w ould b e p o o r sta te s m a n s h ip on b o th s i d e s ,
if
a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n w ere n o t found f o r t h e s e p rob lem s,
A lth o u g h t h e outcom e o f t h e tw o g r e a t e s t w ars in
h i s t o r y i s u n c e r t a in , t h e new p o s t-w a r econ om ic w orld t h a t
we s h a l l have t o f a c e I f and when an a r m i s t i c e comes w i l l be
a w o rld o f d i s l o c a t i o n , a w o rld o f g r e a t econ om ic b l o c s , and
a w o r ld o f c o n t r o l l e d economy.
In su ch a w o r ld ,
I n te r n a ­
t i o n a l t r a d e must n o t o n ly be a llo w e d , b u t i t must be e n co u r­
aged f o r t h e p u rp o se o f econ om ic d ev elo p m en t,
I t i s th e
d u ty o f t h e tw o g r e a t , proud, and f r i e n d l y p e o p le t o c le a r
c h a n n e ls o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e b y e li m in a t i n g tr a d e b a r r ie r s
su ch a s f r e e z i n g a c t s , t a r i f f s , q u o ta s , and a l l s o r t s o f o th e r
im port b a r r ie r s ,
I t h in k , t h e r e f o r e , w ith a b s o lu t e c o n fid e n c e
t h a t an a m ic a b le s o l u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be found and t h e
w o r ld ’ s se c o n d l a r g e s t tr a d e w i l l be resum ed in t h e n ea r
fu tu r e ,
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