A CRITICAL STUDY OP THE FICTION OF F. MARION CRAWFORD A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of English University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts by Vera Anne Smith June 19^1 UMI Number: EP44162 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Dissertation Publishing UMI EP44162 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 T h i s thesis, w r i t t e n by VERA ANNE SMITH u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f h .S ’P. F a c u l t y C o m m it te e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l it s m e m b e r s , has been presented to a n d accepted by the C o u n c i l on G r a d u a t e S t u d y a n d Research in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f MASTER OP ARTS Secretary D ate J Faculty Committee Chairman TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................... PAGE v I. FRANCIS MARION CRAWFORD ........................ 1 His literary period . ................... .■ .■ 1 His early life 3 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ............. His career as a n o v e l i s t .................... II. ACLASSIFICATION OF THE N O V E L S ................. 8 12 Classification according to national 'back ground ................................... Cosmopolitan and National novels ............ The Series n o v e l s ........................... Characters common to the Series novels 39 39 ............................. 41 Minor classifications....................... 43 Novelettes ............................... 45 CRAWFORD *S LITERARY C R E E D ...................... 47 Definition of a n o v e l ....................... 49 The purpose-novel........................... 49 The “Pocket-stage” ................... 51 Historical romance . ....................... 52 Romanticism..................... IV. 35 ... Mystery novels III. 15 53 AN ANALYSIS OF THE N O V E L S ...................... 57 Plot s t r u c t u r e ............................. 57 ili CHAPTER PAGE Coincidence............................... 61 Concluding n o t e s ......................... 66 C h a r a c t e r s ............. 72 H e r o e s ................................... 75 H e r o i n e s ................................. 80 ............................... 85 Minor c h a r a c t e r s ......................... 84 Setting..................................... 96 Villains Style ................. D i a l o g u e ............................. Mystery 100 101 ....................................104 The Supern a t u r a l ............................ 105 R e l i g i o n ....................................107 Footnotes....................................108 Carelessness V. ............................. Ill THE NOVELETTES AND SHORT-STORIES................ 116 The n o v e l e t t e s ................................116 Characteristics of the best o n e s ............ 117 The poor novelettes.......................... 124 The short-stories.............................. 128 VI. C O N C L U S I O N ........... 156 His p o p u l a r i t y ................................156 The changes in c r i t i c i s m ...................... 159 The bases for his popularity and his future iv CHAPTER PAGE r a n k ................................... l4l ............ 143 His faults Summaryof the study BIBLIOGRAPHY . .................. .................................. 146 149 INTRODUCTION It is to be the purpose of this thesis to study the fiction of F. Marion Crawford and from this study to deter mine the value of the novels, novelettes, and short-stories to American Literature and the;merit of. the author as a novelist and literary artist. The burst of romantic writing just at the turn of the century has not been dealt with in any detail and is barely mentioned in most histories of American Literature. As one of the important representatives of this romanticism and as one of the most popular novelists of that day, Crawford has been rudely neglected. A single chapter has been devoted to him by such men as E. P. Harkins in Famous Authors and Frederic Taber Cooper in Some Ameri can Story Tellers. During the years 1882 to 1909 numerous articles on Crawford or his novels and reviews of the novels appeared in the magazines, but neither a complete study of the novelist nor a biography exists. All of Crawford's fiction has been studied with the single exception of a play Francesca da Rimini, which was produced by Sarah Bernhardt in Paris in 1902. Twelve copies of the play were published in that year by The Macmillan Company, but none is available for use at this time. To pursue the study of Crawford, this thesis will be presented in six chapters. The first will give biographical data on Crawford, and the second, "The Classification of the Vi Novels,” will classify the novels (including the short novels or novelettes), according to background, subject matter, and the method of presentation. The third chapter, “Crawford’s Literary Creed,” will discuss the author’s views on the novel and novel writing as these views are found in his monograph The Novel: What It Is.. Chapter four, “An Analysis of the Novels,” will analyze the full length novels on the bases of plot structure, character portrayal, and background and will summarize their characteristic points of construction. The fifth chapter, ’’The Novelettes and Short-Stories,” will in dicate the resemblance of these shorter works to the full length novels and will point out the characteristics peculiar to them. Chapter six, or “Conclusion,” on the basis of the findings of the preceding chapters, will attempt to estimate Crawford’s merit as a novelist and to ascertain the value of the author’s fiction to American Literature. CHAPTER I FRANCIS MARION CRAWFORD American Literature did not come into her own until after the Civil War. Fred Lewis Pattee in his A History of American Literature Since 1870 says: We have divided the literary history of the century into three periods, denominating them as the Knicker bocker Period, the New England Period, and the National Period, and we have made the last to begin shortly after the close of the Civil War with those new forces and new ideals and broadened views that grew out of that mighty struggle. The field . . . is an important one: it is our first really national period, all-American, autochthonic. It was not until after the war that our writers ceased to imitate and looked to their own land for material and inspiration.^ The period occupying the years from 1870 to about 1910 described by Mr. Pattee is the literary period to which Francis Marion Crawford, of whose fiction this thesis makes a critical study, certainly belongs. His first novel appear ed in 1882 and his last in 1909, the year of his death. The "new forces, new ideals and broadened viewsn of which Mr. Pattee speaks were not apparent in Crawford’s novels. These stories embodied, rather, the old forces of the drama, the old ideas of chivalry and the romance of polite society, and 1 Fred Lewis Pattee, A History of American Literature Since 1870. Preface. the broadened views not of an emancipated America but of all the countries in the world from the time of Zoroaster in Persia to the twentieth century in New York and Boston. American Realism did begin at this time, but the popularity of books in the romantic tradition still persisted. This romanticism, especially that which sought its atmosphere in distant lands, was ably championed by Marion Crawford commencing in the late eighties, a time when Ver non L. Parrington assures us "American taste was still ro mantic."2 According to Russell Blankenship: The nineties saw the flowering of our second great age of romantic fiction. By the beginnings of the eighties some of the English writers were in conscious rebellion against the rising schools of realism and naturalism. This revolt was led by Robert Louis Stevenson, whose romantic life and winning personality, coupled with a charming literary style, very deftly concealed the ex tensive thinness of his work. In America the call was joyously answered by many writers from 1890-1905.3 Blankenship further says that "there are three romancers of the period who deserve slightly more than casual notice," and he mentions Francis Marion Crawford, Mary Johnston,vand Winston Churchill.4 Francis Marion Crawford, whom the Dictionary of 2 Vernon L. Parrington, The Beginnings of Critical Realism in America, p. 337. 3 Russell Blankenship, American Literature, p. 544. 4 IMsL* > P* 547 • American Biography describes as "novelist, historian,”5 was horn on August 2, 1854 in Bagni di Lucca in the region of Tuscany in.Italy. His father was the American sculptor and Thorwaldsen pupil, Thomas Crawford, whose American works include the statue of Beethoven in the Boston Music Hall, the equestrian statue of Washington at Richmond, Virginia, and the figure of Armed Liberty on top of the Capitol at Washington D. C.6 He had long resided in Italy with his wife Louisa Cutler Ward, a sister of Julia Ward Howe. Of their four children Marion was the youngest. When but two years old he was sent to live with relatives in Borderstown, Hew Jersey, but the next year when his father died, Marion returned to Italy where his mother con tinued to reside. He passed the remainder of his boyhood here under the spell of the ancient Roman culture, but under the tutorage of a French governess. 1. F. Harkins records the novelist’s own remarks about his early introduction to French: "Most of my boyhood,” he said, to an interviewer, when he was in this country on his first lecture tour, "was spent under the directions of a French governess. Not only did I learn her language from her, but all my studies, geography, arithmetic, and so forth, were 5 ££•» Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. IV, p. 519. 6 _Cf., Maud Howe Elliott, My_ Cousin, F. Marion Crawford, p. 8. 4 taught me in French, and I learned to write it with great readiness, as a mere boy, because it was the lan guage of my daily tasks. The consequence is that to this day I write French with-the ease of English.”7 When twelve years old Marion was sent to school at St. Paul’s School in Concord, New Hampshire. His sister, Mary Crawford Fraser, later recalled his return from America. At the age of fifteen Marion came back to us in Rome, a great boy more than six feet tall, superbly proportioned, and radiating life and strength.8 His education continued as cosmopolitan as before. Fred Lewis Pattee writes that: . . . during the following ten years he was successively student of mathematics and Creek at Rome; student with a tutor at Hatfield Broadoak, Essex, England; matricu lant at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he pursued courses in German, Swedish, and Spanish; and attendant upon lectures at Karlsruhe and Heidelberg. As a result he became fluent in most of the languages of Europe in cluding the Turkish and the Russian, and later learned to converse in most of the Eastern languages. At twentytwo he was at the University of Rome specializing in the study of Sanskrit in which he became intensely interest ed, and it was to perfect himself in this language at its fountain head that in 1879, borrowing the money to pay his expenses, he went to India.9 As might be expected during his stay in Essex and at Cambridge, it was not the great business of the British Empire nor the practical character of the Englishman that 7 E. F. Harkins, Famous Authors (Men), p. 171. 8 Mary Crawford Fraser, "Notes of a Romantic Life” Collier’s . 45:22,(April 23, 1910.) 9 Dictionary of American Biography. Vol. IV, p. 519. 5 impressed Crawford, Put rather the romantic loneliness of the countrysides and the strange secludedness of the inhabi tants. His. sister recalls this attitude: Before going to Cambridge he spent some time with a tu tor in Essex, and he grew to love very dearly the re mote English country with its hoary traditions and kindly, honest atmosphere. The life in Essex furnished the material for one of his early novels, The Tale of a Lonely Parish. We were talking about it once, and I remember he said: "England is the most romantic country in the world. Anything could happen in those lonely old country houses lost in a dip of the moors, miles away from the beaten roads! The fierce privacy with which the Englishmen surround themselves makes them absolutely independent within their own domains. No Eastern despot has finer opportunities for autocracy than the ordinary English s q u i r e . • Romance, however, was not all that appealed to the young Crawford. He was not devoid of a sense of humor, nor was he above playing college pranks. Even these, as illustrated by one related by his sister, were carried off in his usual "grand manner." At Cambridge he did not earn the reputation of an ardent student, but he enjoyed himself immensely. That term "immense” was one which was constantly being ap plied to him by his compeers, and at last he thought he might as well show people what it meant. He hunted round for the biggest trotting horse he could find, had a towering dog-cart built, dressed himself in checks a foot square and of outrageous colors, and, thus equipped, paraded the dignified university town, to the scandal of the authorities and the delight of his fellows. He had a clock, a French gimcrack exactly imitating a watch, and, having instructed his tailor to make a pocket large enough to hold it, he attached it to a big dog-chain, 10 Eraser, loc. eit. the links of which dangled ostentatiously across his waistcoat. One day in the train a facetious stranger, glancing at this ornament, asked him the time. When Marion pulled out a watch two inches thick and as hig round as a mushmelon, the joker blanched. He thought he was shut in with a maniac and rushed from the. car riage at the next stop.11 Always wherever he studied, his ability for master ing-foreign languages was his greatest asset. After learn ing German at Cambridge, he studied at Karlsruhe and Heidel berg.12 When he was twenty-two years old, Crawford returned once more to Rome. According to his sister1s account, his return was due to financial reverses in the family.1® She also maintains that his interest in Sanskrit was incited by a grammar book for that language which had formerly belonged to her and which Crawford unknowingly took along with him' on a trip.14 This interest led him to attend lectures at the University of Rome for two years. period, he left for India. At the end of this Mrs. Fraser says: Some time after that, early in 1879, Marion went to India with a learned and entertaining man. Dr. d'Acunha, an Indian pundit with a Portuguese n a m e . 1 ® 11 Ibid., p. 23. 12 Harkins, op. cit., p. 172. . 13 Fraser, op. cit., p. 23 (Most accounts merely state that he returned to Rome to study Sanskrit). Mr. E. F. Harkins maintains that Crawford went to India at the suggestion of one of the professors at the University of Rome who led him to think that he could pursue his study of Sanskrit there and returning secure a professorship.16 Whatever the circumstances, Crawford "borrowed money to go to India and once there undertook the editorship of the Indian Herald at Allahabad. He remained in India two years and edited the paper at Allahabad for eighteen months of this time. According to Yan ?/yck Brooks editing a paper was not all that he accomplished in India. He had joined the Catholic church in India, and, tigerhunting there and playing polo, he had studied the Zend-Avesta with a Parsee priest and developed his gift as a linguist. He kept his diary in Urdu, and in time he spoke sixteen languages, five or six of which he knew already.1? Yery little is known about his conversion to Catholicism. The only comment upon it is that of his cousin, Maud Howe Elliott, who writes: The fact was inevitable, given his temperament and early environment. He was no bigot, and while to him the road to Rome led on to ultimate beatitudes, he was tolerant of those who strove to attain to perfection by another path.1® Upon returning once more to Rome, he found-himself 16 Cf. Harkins, op. cit., p. 173. 17 Yan Wyck Brooks, "Writers of the Eighties," The Saturday Review of Literature. 22:3,(June 8, 1940.) 18 Yan Wyck Brooks, op. cit. p. 3. unoccupied and soon sailed for America. Here he lived most of the time with either his aunt, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, or his uncle, Samuel Ward. First he studied more Sanskrit at . Harvard, hut at length he branched out and tried his hand at various things. Brooks enumerates his ambitions and writes: He thought of entering politics, he longed to be an opera-singer, he saw himself already a conquering hero. Handsome, arrogant, clever and young, the centre of an adoring circle of aunts and cousins, he seemed to be universally informed and gifted. He drew, he modeled, he studied singing with George Henschel, who led the new orchestra in Boston; and he was already a journa list with an excellent training. So he feegan to write for the press, on any and every subject, from Buddhism to politics and railroads.19 Just at this point in his life with crossroads leading out \ into all directions, his career as a novelist began. In May of 1882 at a dinner party in New York he chanced to re late the story of a diamond-merchant whom he had met in the Simla Mountains of India. The tale was such a captivating one and Crawford told it so well that his uncle, Samuel Ward, encouraged him to write it up in novel form. The cousin, Maud Elliott, in her biography states that George Brett recalled the dinner afterward and said: Mr. Ward, Crawford, and I dined together at the Brevoort House, and at that time Crawford told us the story of 19 Maud Howe Elliott, o£. cit., p. 127. Mr. Jacobs. Crawford was greatly disturbed because be did not know wbat to do, bad failed in several things, singing in tbe opera, teaching Sanskrit, carrying on of the India paper. There was a discussion as to what Crawford should do. I said, "There is no question what you should do,— write out that story."20 Mrs. Elliott continues in her own words: Uncle Sam always claimed the credit of having advised Marion to write the book about Mr. Jacobs, the diamond merchant at Simla. One thing is certain— Marion*s destiny was fixed that night when he, Uncle Sam and the young Brett, now the head of the Macmillan Company, dined together at the old Brevoort House, at Fifth Ave nue and Eighth Street.21 Crawford began it that night-, and in the course of less than six weeks he had finished his first novel. In a very short while Mr. Isaacs (the story of Mr. Jacobs) appeared, an in stant success. Dr . Claudius was immediately begun and pub lished the following year. Then came A Roman Singer, which appeared first as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly at the invitation of Thomas Bailey Aldrich and was published as a novel in 1884. Most of this year Crawford spent in Constan tinople, and here he married Elizabeth Berdan, daughter of General Berdan. The following year he settled at "Villa Crawford" at Sorrento, Italy. In this picturesque home com manding a view of the Bay of Naples and the Isles of the Sirens, he lived until August 9, 1909. 20 Maud Howe Elliott, Ibid., p . 128. 0 £. During the years cit., p. 127. / 10 1882 to 1909 he published forty-four novels, a collection of short stories, a play, a critical volume The Novel— What It Is, and four historical works. This tremendous volume of writing meant that he was always exceedingly busy as well as sufficiently wealthy. In addition to his writing, he visited America almost year ly and made numerous lecture tours. He sometimes came in his own yacht of which he was captain and master mariner. There was no limit to his industry in ferreting out exact information for use in his novels. For example, he learned every process for the making of Venetian glass for Marietta. a Maid of Venice and even became a silversmith to the extent of making and executing his own designs for Marzio’s Cruci fix.22 His sister testifies that he actually went to Prague and learned Bohemian before writing The Witch of Prague. Of the Bohemian language, she says: It was the seventeenth language he had acquired. I do not know how many were added to the list afterward. Slav and Scandinavian, Persian and Arabic, Latin and Teutonic tongues— he possessed them all, and I remember his telling me gravely that any one ought to be able to learn a new language in six weeks 1 He had a remarkably wide interest in cities and coun tries and in the people, language, and occupations peculiar to them. This interest was at the same time instigated and 22 Cf. Fraser, op. cit. p. 24. 23 Fraser, loo. cit. 11 compensated by a life unusually full of travel and excitement, while his conscientious industry as a writer brought him the fame and fortune he desired. His sister is witness to the complete satisfaction of her brother’s life. Everything was Marion’s— success, honor, the affectionate companionship of a devoted wife who read every line he wrote with the keenest interest and true literary acumen;, brave sons and beautiful daughters, who worshipped their father; but nothing in this world had any real hold upon him. He was quite detached; he worked to the very end, in order that his dear ones might not miss any of the comforts and luxuries with which he had always surrounded them.24 24 Fraser, loc. cit. CHAPTER II A CLASSIFICATION OF THE NOVELS In addition to his histories and short stories, Marion Crawford wrote forty-four novels.-*- These consti tute a large volume of work for the reader to comprehend at one time. They may be grasped as a whole more readily and appreciated more satisfactorily if the novels are first made to fall into some kind of classification. Of the sev eral classifications possible, that according to background or setting is the most obvious. There is no necessity for much labor and careful analysis here, for the novels seem naturally to group themselves according to their various national backgrounds. For instance, seventeen novels group themselves voluntarily through having Italy as their setting. In the same way a single volume with a unique background, such as India, always tends to stand alone. Italy and India are only two of twelve different national backgrounds util ized by this cosmopolitan author. "Cosmopolitan" is a word constantly applied to 1 Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. IV, p. 519. The Dictionary of American Biography lists fortysix, including in that list Uncanny Tales, a volume of short stories, and Constantinople, which is an extended essay on that city and an essay which contains no element of narrative within its seventy-eight pages. 13 Crawford and to his novels. Frederic Taber Cooper took issue with this and pointed out the necessity for accurate ly defining the word. How it is quite true that, if one runs over the entire series of novels, which altogether must, count up to about two score, it is rather surprising to find what a long list of widely separated cities and countries he has successively used as a setting for his stories. And critics, with one eye solely for this bare fact, and not for the reason behind it, have repeatedly spoken of him as the most cosmopolitan of all contem porary writers. Whether this is the right word or not depends upon the precise meaning which the word "cosmo politan” conjures up in our minds. If it means to us no more than that the novelist has one year written a story of British India, another year of Constantinople, and a third year of New York, then let us grant at once that Mr. Crawford has qualified as a cosmopolite. But, if the word signifies to you, as it does to the present writer, that the novelist by preference and instinct, goes away from home for his material; that, although he has a rich store of material born of his two years mak ing, namely to take your material at close hand even if need be from your own town, your own street, your own backyard, he roams far afield, choosing indifferently any old corner of the wide, wide world from themere perverse love of being away from home; then Mr.Crawford is emphatically not a cosmopolitan— he is simply a man who has chanced to have had a succession of different homes in widely scattered portions of the globe.2 The distinction that Cooper made is a very fine one, for Crawford does not belong to that class of persons who have been (everywhere and so designate themselves as Cosmopolitans, but he does belong with that smaller group-which has lived ^ Frederic Taber Cooper Forum, 41:488-89,(May, 1909.1 "Marion Crawford," The 14 in a variety of countries, staying long enough in each to learn the language, become familiar with the customs, and, to a certain extent, absorb the outlook and point of view peculiar to the place. A writer for The Edinburgh Review expressed approximately this same opinion in an article when he wrote: But Mr. Crawford can write books which give us the sense of being transplanted absolutely into a foreign society where every gesture and action and motive is somehow subtly different from what it would be among English speakers, though we should be puzzledto define the point of distinction. And again his English people are other than his Americans, yet the difference is never emphasized. If he veve able to producethis effect in dealing with Englishmen, Americans, and Ital ians, it would be sufficiently remarkable, yet the less so because Italy is his native country, and an American whose home is in Italy must necessarily see a good deal of English society. But the very best of all his books Cigarette-Maker’s Romance] introduces neither Eng lishman, American, nor Italian, but deals with a little colony of Russians living and working in a German town.3 This characteristic of Crawford’s was apparent even in his short stories. Fred Lewis Pattee remarked on this: The life and training of Crawford gave him a viewpoint which was singularly different from that held by the short story writers who were so bravely exploiting provincial little neighborhoods in all remote nooks and corners of the land. His training had given him an outlook more cosmopolitan than even that of Henry James.4 Anonymous, "The Novels of Mr. Marion Crawford," The Living Age. 32: 452,(August 25, 1906.) (quoted from The Edinburgh Review) 4 Pattee, A History of American Literature Since 1870. p. 390. 15 This cosmopolitan outlook resulted practically in the selection of some twelve distinct national settings for the novels. Some of these are represented by only a single novel such as India by Mr. Isaacs, early Arabia by Khaled~. Spain by In The Palace Of The King. Persia by Zoroaster. Bohemia by The Witch of Prague. and the Venetian Republic by Marietta, a Maid of Venice. Via Cruois stands alone as having no distinct background, except its historical one, of course, which is that of the Second Crusade. In it French, Normans, and English people journey across Europe to the Holy City, Jerusalem. Constantinople. There are two novels laid in One represents the early city, Arethusa. while Paul Patoff explores the modern capital. Germany is the scene for Griefenstein and The Cigarette-Maker*s Ro mance. England is also the setting for two novels, A Tale of A Lonely Parish and The Undesirable Governess. There are twelve American novels, most of which take place in New York. The trilogy which begins with Fair Margaret has a vague background in New York although the characters tra vel a great part of the time about Paris', Versailles, and London. Although New York is the American city by far the most popular with the author, Bar Harbour, Maine5 is repre sented by Love In Idleness. Boston by An American Politician. 5 "Bar Harbour" is the spelling that Crawford used in the story, Love In Idleness, although the publishers changed the spelling when it was used as a sub-title to "Bar Harbor.” and a Connecticut country farm by The Little City of Hope♦ Italy, however, is the country most beloved to Marion Craw ford, and the action of twenty, or just about half of his novels, takes place somewhere in this southern country. Rome itself is the scene of more than a dozen novels. smaller cities are; represented too. The The action of Marietta takes place in Venice, and Strade11a commences there before moving to Rome. Although some of the scenes in Corleone are laid in Rome, most of them are at Messina in Sicily. The action of Adam Johnstone *s Son, a story of English peo ple, occurs at Amalfi in Campania, and that of The Children of The King, as well as of With The Immortals, at Sorrento. Even the tiny village of Subiaco southeast of Rome is the scene for almost all of Casa Braccio Volume I. Whosoever Shall Offend moves from Naples to Rome, Florence, Milan Monte Carlo, Paris, and London before returning again to Naples. A clearer idea of the classification of the novels according to their background may be gained by consulting Table I on page 17. In the majority of his novels, Marion Crawford de voted considerable attention and frequently many pages to describing and re-creating the scene he had so well in mind in order that it might actually appear before the eyes of the reader. There is such an abundance of accurate, speci fic knowledge of places and things in all of these descrip- 17 TABLE I CLASSIFICATION OF THE NOVEIS ACCORDING TO THEIR BACKGROUND Itaiy Rome 1884 A Roman Singer 1884 To Leeward 1885 Marzio1s Crucifix 1887- Saraoinesoa 1889 Sant* Ilario 1892 Don Orsino 1S92 Pietro Ghisleri 1895 Casa Bracoio, Volume I (in part) and .Volume II (in toto) 1895 Taouisara 1896 Corleone (and at Messina, Sicily) 1902 Cecilia Heart of Rome 1906 A Lady of Rome 1909 The White Sister 1909 Stradella (and at Venice, Italy) Venice 1901 Marietta 1909 Stradella (and at Rome, Italy) Sorrento 1888 With The Immortals - 1892 The Children of the King 18 TABLE I (continued) CLASSIFICATION OF THE NOVELS ACCORDING TO THEIR BACKGROUND Subiaco 1895 Casa Braccio, Volume I (and at Rome, Italy] Amalfi in Compania 1895 Adam Johnstone’s Son Messina, Sicily 1896 Corleone (and at Rome) Naples 1904 Whosoever!Shall Offend (and at Rome, Florence, Milan, Monte Carlo, Paris, and London) America New York, New York 1888 Dr. Claudius 189B The Three Fates 1893 Marion Darohe 1894 Katherine Lauderdale 1895 The Ralstons Stories of New Yorkers abroad 1897 A Rose of Yesterday, at Lucerne, Switzer land 1905 Fair Margaret, at Versailles and Paris 1908 The Primadonna, at London 1908 The Diva’s Ruby, at London (Chapter I at a little village in central Asia) Boston, Massachusetts 1884 An American Politician Bar Harbor, Maine 1894 Love In Idleness 19 TABLE I (continued} CLASSIFICATION OF THE NOVELS ACCORDING TO THEIR BACK($OUND Connecticut 1907 3 M Little City of Hope England 1886 A Tale of a Lonely Parish 1909 The Undesirable Governess Germany . 1889 Griefenstein 1890 The Cigarette-Maker1s Romance India 188S Mr. Isaacs Constantinople 1887 Paul Patoff 1907 Arethusa (early Constantinople) Arabia 1891 Khaled Spain 1900 In the Palace of the King Persia 1885 Zoroaster Bohemia 1891 The Witch of Prague En route from France to Jerusalem 1898 Via Crucis tions and re-creations that the reader immediately believes as he reads and so allows his imagination to absorb wholly and unconditionally the series of foreign scenes that pass in rapid review. The opening sentences of Saracinesca give us the real Rome of 1865. In the year 1865 Rome was still in a great measure its old self. It had not then acquired that modern air which is now beginning to pervade it. The Corso had not been widened and whitewashed; the Villa Aldobrandini had not been cut through to make the Via Nationale; the south wing of the Plazzo Colonna still looked upon a narrow lane through which men hesitated to pass after dark; the Tiber’s course had not been corrected below the Farnesina; the Farnesina itself was but just under repair; the iron bridge at the Ripetta was not dreamed of; and the Prati di Castello were still, as their name implies, a series of waste meadows. . . . In those days also were to be seen the great coaches of the cardinals, with their gorgeous footmen and magnificent black horses, the huge red umbrellas lying upon the top, while from the open windows the stately princes of the Church from time to time returned the salutations of the pedestrians in the street. And often in the afternoon there was heard the tramp of horses as a de tachment of the noble guard trotted down the Corso on their chargers, escorting the Holy Father himself, while all who met him dropped upon one knee and uncovered their heads to receive the benediction of the mild-eyed old man with the beautiful features, the head of the Church and the State.6 The picturesque inhabitants of the city appear a few pages further on. Dr. Johnson would have liked the Romans— for in general they are good lovers and good haters, whatever faults they may have. The patriarchial system, which was all but universal twenty years ago, and is only now 6 F. Marion Crawford, Saracinesca (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1887) pp. 1-2. 21 beginning to yield to more modern institutions of life, tends to foster the passions of love and hate. Where father and mother sit at the head and foot of the table, their sons with their wives and their children each in his or her own place, often to the number of twenty souls— all living under one roof, one name, and one bond of family unity— there is likely to be a great similarity of feeling upon all questions of family pride, especially among people who discuss everything with vehemence, from European politics to the family cook. They may bicker and squabble among themselves, — and they frequently do,— but in their outward rela tion with the world, they act as one individual, and the enemy of one is the enemy of all; for the pride of race and name is very great.” This brief description of an aristocratic Roman family comes to life not only in the Saracinesca trilogy but also in the other novels such as Pietro Ghisleri, Casa Bracoio, Corleone, and A Lady of Rome, and the old Rome has disappeared completely only in Cecilia whose sub-title ex plains that it is "A Story of Modern Rome,” In Marietta, A Maid of Venice, the charm of Venice is introduced less obviously than the scenes of the Roman novels. One catches just a glimpse of this most distinc tive of cities now and then. For example, when the youth ful glass-blower and hero of the story, Zorzi, starts out to deliver a message, the reader is permitted to see Venice at night. The June night was dark and warm as Zorzi pushed off from the steps before his master's horse and guided 7 Ibid., p. 10. 22 his skiff through the canal, scarcely moving the single oar, as the rising tide took his boat silently along. Again and again the words said themselves, the far-off voices said them, the lapping water took them up and repeated them, the breeze whispered them quickly as it passed, the oar pronounced them a s it creaked softly in the crutch rowlock, the stars spelled out the sentences in the sky, the lights of Venice wrote them in the wa ter in broken reflections.8 It was not far now. With infinite caution he thread ed the dark canals, thanking fortune for the faint star light that showed him the turnings. Here and there a small oil lamp burned before the image of a saint; from a narrow lane on one side, the light streamed across the water, and with it came sounds of ringing glasses, and the tinkling of a lute, and laughing voices; then it was dark again as his skiff shot by, and he made haste, for he wished not to be seen.9 In these passages the thread of the story is never wholly submerged in the description. Venice is the ever-present background for the entire story although the author never interrupts his tale to allude to it in any way. The law of the Venetian Republic is an important obstacle to the work ing out of the plot, but even the discussion of it is inci dental. A few of the results of these laws imposed by the Supreme Council occur to Marietta who, betrothed to a Vene tian she neither knows nor loves, muses: It would have been much easier to submit if she had been betrothed to a foreigner, a Roman, or a Florentine. She had been told that Romans were all wicked and 8 F-. Marion Crawford, Marietta (Hew York: The Mac millan Company, 1901) pp. 21-22. 9 Ibia.. PP* 23-2& 23 gloomy, and that Florentines were all wicked and gay. That was what Nella had heard. But in a sense they were free, for they probably did what was good in their own eyes, as wicked people often do. Life in Venice was to be lived by rule, and everything that tasted of free dom was repressed by law. If it pleased women to wear long trains the council forbade them; if they took refuge in long sleeves, thrown back over their shoulders, a law was passed which set a measure and a pattern for all sleeves that might ever be worn. If a few rich men in. dulged their fancy in the decoration of their gondolas, now that riding was out of fashion, the Council immedi ately determined that gondolas should be black and that they should only be gilt and adorned inside.10 In this way government so influential at the time exerts an equal influence in the novel and comes into the plot as a natural obstacle, not as mere historical background forci bly injected. Although London forms the background for several novels, it exercises no influence and is barely mentioned in the narratives about Americans in London, who behave ex actly as they would have in New York or elsewhere. Marion Crawford wrote only two novels which may be called English novels. The Undesirable Governess is very short and is con cerned only with the plot, not the setting. Although the village of Billingsfield, which is its locale, is never properly located on our mental English map, still A Tale of Lonely Parish is essentially an English tale. The lone liness suggested in the title and characteristic of small 10 ILid.> P. 139 24 English, villages, together with the British traits of re serve and fixity make up for what is lacking in physical description of the countryside. Mrs. Ambrose, the vicar's wife, and her drawing-room as the author delineates them in the following portion of a paragraph are typical of the author's method of creating atmosphere. She stood in the front drawing-room, that is to say in the most impressive chamber of that fortress which ' is.an Englishman's house. It.was a-formal room,.ar ranged by a fixed rule and the order of it was main tained inflexibly; no event could be imagined of such .terrible power as to have caused the displacement of one of those chairs, of one of those ornaments upon the chimney-piece, of one of those engravings upon the walls. The walls.were papered with one shade of green, the furniture was covered with material of another shade of green and the well-spread carpet exhibited still a third variety of the same colour. Mrs. Am brose's sense of order did not extend to the simplest forms of artistic harmony, but when it had an opportun ity of impressing itself upon inanimate objects which were liable to be moved, washed or dusted, its effects were formidable indeed. She worshiped neatness and cleanliness; she left the question of taste to others. And now she stood in the keep of her stronghold, the impersonation of moral rectitude and of practical housekeeping.il Although Billingsfield never emerges from the gener al class of small English villages, its intimate and iso lated society is well depicted. So quiet was the life of the villagers that the news that the Juxon estate was out of Chancery and soon to be reopened by a new squire led to 11 F. Marion Crawford, A Tale of a Lonely Parish (New York: Macmillan and Company, 1886) pp. 40-4TI 9 85 unpredicted excitement. It is not known exactly how the thing first became known, but there was soon no doubt whatever that it was true. Thomas Reid, the sexton, who remembered that the old'squire died forty years ago come Michaelmas, and had been buried in a "wonderful heavy" coffin, Thomas Reid, the stern censor of the vicar's sermons, a melan cholic and sober man, so far lost his head over the news as to ask Mr. Ambrose’s leave to ring the bells, Mr. Abraham Roosey having promised beer for the ringers. Even to the vicar’s enlightened mind it seemed fitting that there should be some festivity over so great an event and the bells were accordingly rung during one whole, afternoon.12 In contrast to this English novel, Griefenstein de- • picts the German countryside and the medieval traditions of the great families while the traits of the German people are not so marked in the delineation of the characters. The quietness, the Calm and the cheery friendship of Billingsfield are entirely absent from the German countryside. Here is a different kind of loneliness. The quiet deepens into a depressing silence, the calm is replaced by passions only temporarily subdued, and the cheery friendship is ex changed for rigid family ties and more serious, adult at tachments. The background is unusually appropriate, for it is as melancholy and oppressive as the theme of the story. It is in all particulars a proper set for a play of hatred and revenge. The Swabian Black Forest is literally black, save where the winter snow is heavy on the. branches of the 12 Ibid., p. 49. 26 huge trees and lies in drifts beneath them, covering the soft carpet of fir needles to the depth of many feet. The landscape is extremely melancholy and in many parts is absolutely monotonous. At intervals of several miles the rock juts suddenly out of the forest, generally at places where the Nagold, more a torrent than a river, makes a sharp bend. Many of these steep and stony promontories are crowned by ancient strongholds, chiefly in ruins, though a very few are still in repair and are inhabited by their owners. The name of Griefenstein will not be found on any map of the district, but those who know that wild and unfre quented 'country will recognize the spot. The tumbling • stream turns upon itself at a sharp angle, swirling • . round the base of a precipitous and wedge-like cliff. So steep are the sides that they who chose the summit for a fortress saw no need of building any protection, save one gigantic wall which bestrides the wedge of rock, thus cutting off a triangular platform, between the massive bulwark and the two precipices that met at the apex of the figure. This single fortification is a solid piece of masonry, enormously thick and of great height; its two extremities being surmounted by pointed towers, connected by a covered walk along the top of the wall, which, even at that height, is fully six feet wide and nearly a hundred in length. This was the ram part behind which the Griefensteins had dwelt in se curity through many, generations, in the stormy days of the robber barons.1 3 Even young Grief*s days at the University in Schwarzburg, although they are happy and contented days— even these, are shadowed with the dark and somber hues of his own forest home. The swift river that ran between overhanging build ings,. and beneath old bridges that were carved with armorial bearings and decorated with the rare ironwork of cunning smiths, famous long ago, bore in its breast the legends of his own forest home, and was impersonated 13 F. Marion Crawford, Griefenstein (Hew York: The Macmillan Company, 1889) pp. 6-7. 27 in many a verse he had learned to sing with his com rades. The shady nooks and corners, the turns in the crooked streets, the dark archways of old inns, the swinging signs with their rich deep colour and Gothic characters, the protecting balconies, glazed with round bulls’ eyes of blown glass set in heavy lead, .the mar vellously wrought weathercocks of iron and gold on the corners of the houses, every outward detail of the time-honoured and time-mellowed town spoke to his heart in accents he not only understood but loved.^ The infinite variety of Crawford’s scenes is well illustrated by the contrast between his background of Ger many and that of Spain. As one expects of Spanish tales, there is a great deal of colour in In The Palace Of The King. Even through a misty November afternoon, the re turning Spanish troops make a gay entrance as they enter the palace gates seeking their king, Philip of Spain. At first the high-pitched clarions had sent their call to the window, but now the shrill trumpets made rich harmonies to the melody, and the deep brass horns gave the marching time to the rest, in short full blasts that set the whole air shaking as with little peals of thunder. Below, the mounted officers gave orders, ex changed short phrases, cantered to their places, and came back again to make some final arrangement a mo- ment later— their splendid gold-inlaid corslets and the rich caparisons of their horses looking like great pieces of jewelry that moved hither and thither in the thin grey mist, while the dark red and yellow uniforms of the household guards surrounded the square on three sides with broad bands of colour. There is an artistic consistency in the way in which Cravirford returns again and again to the' colour of each 14 Ifria.. p. 74. 15 P. Marion Crawford, In The Palace of the King (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1900) p . 13. 28 scene. Just as the German forests meant darkness and shad ow to him, so Spain means colour, light, and shining jewels. The following paragraph is typical of many. It forms a portion of the description of the great throne room of Philip of Spain. Seen from the high gallery above the arch of the great entrance the hall was a golden cauldron full of rich hues that intermingled in streams, and made slow eddies with deep shadows, and then little waves of light that turned upon themselves, as the colours thrown into the dyeing vat slowly seethe and mix together in rivulets of dark blue and crimson, and of splendid pur ple that seems to turn to black in places and then is suddenly shot through with flashes of golden and opal escent light. Here and there also a silvery gleam flashed in the darker surface, like a pearl in wine, for a few of the court ladies were dressed all in white, with silver and many pearls, and diamonds that shed little rays of their own.^6 As Mary Crawford Fraser has already related, Marion Crawford actually went to Prague and learned the Bohemian language before he wrote The Witch of P r a g u e 7 Some of the mysterious power behind this great city that he felt pene trates the pages of the novel and is symbolic of the .occult ’ gifts of the witch heroine, Unorna. The silence of this populous city is suggestive of hidden activities, of intrigues, and of plots as yet unfathomed. Here the novelist openly de scribes the capital city, its weather, its seasons, the 16 Ifrid., p. 96. 17 Cf. p. 11. 29 throngs in its streets. Winter in Prague is but one long, melancholy dream, broken sometimes at noon by an hour of sunshine, by an intermittent visitation of reality, by the shock and glare of a little broad daylight. . . . And yet these same dusky streets are thronged with a moving multi tude, are traversed ever by ceaseless streams of men and women, flowing onward, silently, swiftly, eagerly. The very beggars do not speak above a whisper, the very dogs are dumb. The stillness of all voices leaves noth ing for the perception of the hearing save the dull tread of many thousand feet and the rough- rattle of an occasional carriage. „ . . And yet Prague is a great city, the capital of the Bohemian crownland, the centre of a not unimportant nation, the focus in which are concentrated the hottest, if not the brightest, rays from the fire of regeneration kindled within the last half century by the Slavonic race. ■ There is an ardent furnace of life hidden beneath the crust of ashes: there is a wonderful language behind that national silence.18 Here is an absolute contrast to colourful Spain. The consistent dull, monotonous grey of the winter and the eversilence of the streets become almost too oppressive. The definiteness of physical description, the casual use of foreign names -noticed in the scenes of Rome contribute to the reality of Prague.' The- snow lay heavily on all the rolling moorland about Prague, covering everything up to the ^.tes of the black city, and within, all things were as hard and dark and frozen as ever. The sun was still sun, no doubt, high above the mist and the gloom which he had no power to pierce, but no man could say that he had seen him in that month. At long intervals, indeed, a faint rose- 18 F. Marion Crawford. The Witch of Prague (New York: Macmillan and Company, 1890) pp. 27-29. 30 coloured glow touched the high walls of the Hradschin. and transfigured for an instant the short spires of the unfinished cathedral, hundreds of feet above the ice- bound river and the sepulchral capital; sometimes, in the dim afternoons, a little gold filtered through the heavy air and tinged the snow steeples of the Teyn Kirche, and yellowed the stately tower of the town hall; but that was all, so far as the moving throngs of silent beings that filled the streets could see.19 The scenes of Griefenstein, In the Palace of the King, and The Witch of Prague are highly romantic, but that of Zoroaster is the most fantastic, Persia is represented in all the luxury, extravagance and lavish detail that is included even now in the connotation of the word, Persia. The historical background is important to the story, and Darius* ascent to the throne and the death of Daniel, the prophet, are accurately related. appealed to. The senses are continually- All the stage props necessary to a Persian banquet scene are present in the opening paragraph— golden goblets, precious jade, rare fruits and flowers and spices, and overlooking the great banquet hall a vast statue of the former king. On his head the head-dress of thrice royal supremacy, in his right hand, and his left the sceptre of power and the winged ?/heel of immortality and life, beneath his feet the bowed necks of prostrate captives;— so sat the kingly presence of great Nebuchadnezzar, as waiting to see what should come to pass upon his son; and the per fume of the flowers and the fruits and the rich wine 19 I b i d . . P. 160. 31 came up to his mighty nostrils, and he seemed to smile there in the evening sunlight, half in satisfaction, half in scorn.20 Most important of all, perhaps, in the background of Zoroaster is the deeply religious atmosphere which pervades all its pages. The religion is not Christianity, but a pagan mysticism that controls the figures in the story and throws a mantel of unreality over the deeds of the tale. The most spiritual figure is Zoroaster, and his deeds are more magic than miracle, as the following illustrates. When the brazier was gone, and the coals were scat tered out upon the pavement, and the priests had trod den out the fire with their leathern shoes, Zoroaster went to the black marble altar, and faced the east, looking toward the stone mortar at the end.. He laid his long, thin hands upon the flat surface and drew them slowly together; and, in the sight of the priests a light sprang up softly between his fingers; gradual ly at first, then higher and higher, till it stood like a blazing spear-head in the midst, emitting a calm, white effulgence that darkened the lamps over head and shed an unearthly whiteness on Zoroaster’s white face. And upon the place which had been the scene of such frenzy and fury and drunkenness, there descended a ' peace as holy and calm as the quiet flame that burned without fuel upon the black marble stone in the midst.21 By contrast with his novels of foreign setting, * Marion Crawford’s American novels are, for the most part, O A F. Marion Crawford, Zoroaster (New York: Macmillan and Company, 1885) pp. 1-S. ^ Ibid., pp. 221-23. 32 lacking in atmosphere or background. These novels are shorter and so devote less space to pure description. They might be called "lighter” novels, that is, more pure narra tive with less attention paid to the influences such as history, law, religion and so on. Also many of the so- called American novels take place outside of America— in Europe or en route East from New York. Katherine Lauder dale and its sequel The Ralstons both have their settings in New York and are obviously American novels. Just as A Tale of a Lonely Parish was definitely English although there was little of the English landscape described and still less of England, the country, mentioned, so these novels are American because the people think, talk, and act like Americans and not because American government or customs, as such, ever intrude. The very short novel, Marion Darche, is one of the few in which an American city is significant. In this New York society is openly describ ed and even-contrasted with European. Among the many peculiarities which contribute to make New York unlike other cities is the construction of what may be called its social map. . . . What calls itself society everywhere else calls itself society in New York also, but whereas in European cities one instinctively speaks of the social scale, one familiar with New York people will be much more inclined to speak of the social map. . . . In London or Paris, for instance, ambitious persons are spoken of as climbing, in New York it would be more correct to speak of them as migrating or attempting to migrate from one social field into the next. It is impossible to imagine 33 fields real or metaphysical yielding more different growths under the same sky.22 Other than as a social map New York, itself, does not enter into the story. There is one pathetic attempt to introduce the reader to the feeling of spring in New York. The windows of the library were open, and a soft, southeasterly breeze was blowing up from the square bringing a breath of coming summer from the park leaves. Those who love New York, even to the smell of its mud, know the strange charm of its days and evenings in late spring. Like the charm of woman, the charm of great cities can never be explained by those who feel it to those who do not.23 With this half-hearted attempt to romanticize the great American city, Crawford stops. In An American Politician, as in Marion Darche, the locale, which in this case is Boston, is unobtrusive. By way of introduction, however, the author characterizes Mrs. Sam Wyndham as a typical Boston aristocrat and in this manner imparts a good deal about Boston people and Boston society, fragments like the following -are informing. Nevertheless, Mrs. Sam Wyndham held a position in Boston which Boston acknowledged, and which Boston insisted that foreigners such as New Yorkers, Phila delphians and the like, should acknowledge also in that spirit of reverence which is justly due to a descent on both sides from several signers of the Declaration of Independence, and to the wife of one 22 P. Marion Crawford, Marion Darche (New York: Mac millan and Company, 1893) pp. 1-2. 23 Ibid., p. 186. 34 of the ruling financial spirits of the aristocratic .part of Boston business. For the rest, Mrs. Sam led a life very much like the lives of many rich .Americans, • She went abroad frequent ly, wandered about the continent with her husband, went to Egypt and Algiers, stayed in-England, where she hada good many friends, avoided her countrymen and country women when away from home, and did her duty in the so cial state to which she was called in Boston. She read the books of the period, and generally pronounced them ridiculous; she believed in her husband’s politics, and aristocratically approved the way in which he abstained from putting theory into practice, from voting, and in a general way from dirtying his fingers with anything so corrupt as government, or so despicable as elections; she understood. Boston business to some extent, and called it finance, but she despised the New York stock market and denounced its doings as gambling. She made fine distinctions, but she was a woman of sense, and was generally more likely to be right than wrong when she had.a definite opinion or expressed a definite dislike. Her religious views were simple and unobtrusive, and never changed.24 It can be said that Crawford’s novels may be classi fied according to national background very successfully, for in each novel, the nationality of the characters is very definite. With the exception of some American novels, the country or city and its attendant climate, geography, customs, language and laws exerts a potent influence upon the story. In some of the novels, the historical background is important as well. The influence of these different backgrounds tends naturally to group the Roman or Italian, F. Marion Crawford, An American Politician (New York: Macmillan and Company, 1884) pp. 8-9. 35 the New York or American novels and also to isolate those stories which singly represent a country. A second method of classification for the novels has "been suggested by W. P. Trent in an article entitled "Mr. Crawford’s Novels." This method is still based primarily on background, but it makes an additional distinction. Mr. Trent explains it in this way: Still it would seem that nearly all his novels can be grouped as either cosmopolitan or national. Under the first head will come those in which the characters, of various nationalities, change their habitat according to their own or the author’s convenience, such as Paul Patoff, or in which a majority of the characters are foreign to the country they are residing in throughout the course of-the narrative, such as Mr. Isaacs. Un der the second head will come those in which a majority of the characters are inhabitants of the country in which the scene is laid, such as Saracinesca, Griefen stein, and Marion Darche. By consulting Table II on pages 36 to 38, one may see how a tabulation of such a classification results, of all the novels only twelve are cosmopolitan, while the re maining thirty-one are national. This division merely" segregates a dozen of those novels whose backgrounds vary or whose characters are not inhabitants of the country in which the story takes place and reclasses them according to both national background and the nationality of the characters. The grouping of the national novels is the 25 w. P. Trent, "Mr. Crawford’s Novels," The Sewanee Review, S :242,(February 1894.) 36 TABLE II CLASSIFICATION OF -COSMOPOLITAN AM) NATIONAL NOVELS Cosmopolitan Italy English people at Rome 1884 To Leeward English people at Amalfi in Compania 1895 Adam Johnstone's Son English people at Sorrento 1888 With The Immortals France American people at Paris and Versailles 1905 Fair Margaret England American people at London 1908 The Primadorma 1908 The Diva's Ruby America A Swede, long resident in Germany, at New York 1883 Dr. Claudius Germany Russian people in Germany 1890 The Cigarette-Maker*s Romance Bohemia Arabs, Jews, and other foreigners at Prague 1891 The Witch of Prague India English people in India 1882 Mr. Isaacs Constantinople , A Russian and other foreigners at Constantinople 1889 Paul Patoff 37 TABLE II (continued) CLASSIFICATION OF COSMOPOLITAN AND NATIONAL NOVELS Switzerland American people at Lucerne 1897 A Rose of Yesterday En route to Jerusalem English, French and Norman peoples en route to Jerusalem 1895 Via Crucis National Italy 1884 A Roman Singer 1885 Marzio1s Crucifix 1887 Saracinesca 1889 Sant * ilar io 1892 Don Orsino 1893 The Children of the King 1892 Pietro Glhisleri 1895 Taquisara 1895 Casa Braccio 1896 Corleone 1901 Marietta 1902 Cecilia 1903 Heart of Rome 1904 .Whosoever Shall Offend 1906 X' Lady of Rome 1909 The White Sister 1909 Stradella America 1884 1892 1893 1894 1894 1894 1907 An American Politician The Three Fates Marion Darche Katherine Lauderdale Love In Idleness The Ralstons The Little' "City of Hope 1886 1909 A Tale of a Lonely Parish The Undesirable Governess 1889 Griefenstein England Germany TABLE II (continued) CLASSIFICATION OF COSMOPOLITAN AND NATIONAL NOVELS Spain 1900 In The Palace of the King Constantinople 1907 Arethusa Arabia 1891 Khaled 1885 Zoroaster Persia 39 same as in the first classification in Table- I.26 The value of recognizing this classification lies in distin guishing between such novels as To Leeward which is a story of English people at Rome and such volumes as Saracinesca whose characters are natives of Rome. About half of Crawford’s novels fall into a third classification which comprises the serial novels. These series include two trilogies, the most famous of which is the Saracinesca trilogy, Saracinesca (1887), Sant’ Ilario (1889), and Don Orsino (1892). The other trilogy is Ameri can and, in reality, is a three volume novel rather than a true trilogy. It includes Fair Margaret (1905), The Prima- donna (1905), and The Diva's Ruby (1908). The popular Saracinesca trilogy was later extended, and at length almost all the Roman novels— all but Cecilia, Heart of Rome, and Whosoever Shall Offend— -retained at least one of the characters from this original series. Some, such as Pietro Ghisleri, have only a few minor char acters.as Spicca, the melancholy duelist, and San Giacinto, the giant relative of the Saracinesca. Others actually have some of the members of this Roman family as characters. For example, in Corleone (1896) both Ippolito Saracinesca and Don Orsino take part as well as San G-iacinto and the old Saracinesca enemy, Ugo Del Ferice. Ippolito Saracines ca, one of the younger sons and a Catholic priest, is the 26 Cf., Table I, pp. 17-19. 40 sole link between A Lady of Rome (1906) and The White Sis ter (1909) and the Saracinesca books. These last two nov els were written much later than the trilogy and have no connection other than their general Roman background and this single minor character. Of the Roman books, there are nine novels which are related by having at least one common character. In addition to the Fair Margaret trilogy, there is a second American series of two, Katherine Lauderdale (1893) and the sequel, The Ralstons (1894). Many authors have written numerous series novels, and not a few, like Marion Crawford, have introduced a favorite character into many otherwise unrelated novels. There would be nothing remark able about Crawford's Roman and American series were it not for his curious manner of bringing into the American series a character from the Roman group and vice versa,. Paul Griggs, the journalist, and 'Walter Crowdie, the. painter, appeared first as active characters in Katherine Lauderdale, and, other than their respective occupations, very little was known about them. In Casa Braccio, a Roman story pub lished the following year, Paul Griggs was again introduced, but at an earlier point in his career. In this story he loved a girl who was half English and half Italian. Al though the girl died, she lived long enough to give birth to their illegitimate son whom they named Walter Crowdie. 41 This father and son also appeared in the Lauderdale sequel, The Ralstons. Strangely:enough Katherine LauderdaleTs sister, Mrs. Charlotte Slayback, who figured in both Kath erine Lauderdale and The Ralstons, reappeared with a daughter in Corleone , an Italian novel of a still later date which dealt mainly with the Saracinesca family and with no other American characters. Mrs. Slayback and her daugh ter are very minor characters in all these novels. The versatile Paul Griggs, however, reappeared as an important character in several other novels. He was first heard from as the raconteur of CrawfordTs first novel, Mr. Isaacs (1882), again as the story-teller of Paul Patoff (1887), and finally as a friend of the great soprano in The Primadonna and The DivaTs Ruby, the last volumes of the American trilogy. Such an intricate relationship as between the Italian and American novels is rare. Table III on page 42 attempts to clarify this relationship. There is still another group of novels which forms a separate and fourth classification, the mystery novels. None of these is a mystery novel in the sense of a detec tive novel. The term is used here to indicate a large class of novels in which some mysterious circumstance or event is important to the construction of the plot. Un der this general head of mystery novels, about four smal ler groups may be distinguished: those in which a murder 42 TABLE III THE SERIES NOVELS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS The Italian Novels Saracinesca Sant1 Ilario Don Orsino Pietro Ghisleri /O / yd? Corleone Taquisara The White Sister Casa Braccio Constantinople and England India Paul Patoff (as raconteur) Mr. Isaacs (as raconteur) f-------------------f TJ £0 C H £» I— 1 c+ CD Q hS H - O 09 09 0> H O s j S CD o & SO hS M O c+ ft CD C+ CD CO £0 £0 fV o The American Novels Fair Margaret The PrimadonnaT The D i v a ^ R u b y , Katherine Lauderdale The Ralstons 43 occurs-, those dealing with secret formulas, letters, or treasures, those involving mysterious or confused identity, and those which deal with the supernatural. In the first group there are more than one would ex pect to find in the romantic hooks of an author like Craw ford, for murder is usually occasion for tragedy. There are twelve novels in which a murder figures or is at least suspected or plotted. Jour novels, all Italian, involve secret formulas, letters, or treasures, and there are six whose plots are constructed around mysterious or confused identity of one of the characters. with the supernatural. Five other novels deal These will he analyzed more care fully in a later chapter, hut Table IV on page 44 lists the.groups of novels just mentioned. Several minor classifications may still be indicated, hut they are based on points of construction of of literary creed and so will be discussed more fully in later chapters. These groups, however, should he mentioned here. On the whole, Marion Crawford’s novels are distinguished for their narrative technique, for their swiftly moving plots. The three novels which haye very little plot are naturally grouped by themselves. These are With The Immortals (1888), The Little City of Hope (1907), and The Three Fates (1892). For .this same emphasis on plot construction, those novels which stress any other point and so depart from the author’s 44 TABLE IT CLASSIFICATION OF MYSTERY NOVEIS I Novels in which a murder figures 1884 1887 IS®2 1892 1895 1895 1895 1896 1900 1904 1908 1909 To Leeward Paul Pato?f The Children of The King Pietro Ghisleri Casa Braceio Taquisara Volume I The Ralstons Corleone in The' Palace of The King Whosoever Shall Offend The Primadonna Stradella II Novels involving secret formulas, letters or treasures 1892 1901 1903 1906 Pietro Ghisleri Marietta Heart of Rome A Lady of Rome III Novels constructed around a problem of mysterious or confused identity ' 1883 1889 1889 1895 1907 1909 Dr, Claudius Santf Ilario G-riefenstein Adam Johnstonefs Son Arethusa The Undesirable Governess IV Novels dealing with the supernatural 1882 1888 1891 1891 1902 Mr, Isaacs With The Immortals The Witch of Prague Khaled Cecilia .professed ereed form another distinct group. This group includes one which is almost a "purpose” novel, An . American Politician (1884), one moral novel, The Little City of Hope (1907), and one novel which emphasizes character develop ment over plot, The Three Fates. The last separate group comprises the short novels and novelettes which are ten in number and which include: Zoroaster (1885), Marzio*s Cruci fix (1885), The Cigarette-Maker’s Romance (1890), Khaled (1891), Marion Darche (1893), Love In Idleness (1894), A Rose of Yesterday (1897), The Little City of Hope (1907), Arethusa (1907), and The Undesirable Governess (1909). Hereafter in this thesis, all reference to the novels will be to the full length novels only and will exclude these last ten, which will be considered separately in Chapter V. To summarize the classification of the novels two major divisions are possible. The most obvious and most in clusive of these is that according to national background. It shows at the same time the wide range of settings used by.Marion Crawford and the great number of novels whose scenes are laid in Italy. The second classification is based upon the first and serves to separate the Cosmopoli tan novels from the National ones, or to distinguish those novels whose characters are natives of the scene from those novels in which the characters are merely visiting the country depicted. The other classifications deal with small groups of novels. The third distinguishes the series novels and points out a few strange inter-relationships. The fourth picks out the mystery novels and groups them ac cording to the type of mystery involved. The fifth men tioned several points of structure which claim a few novels as examples. And the last one lists those works of fiction which are not long enough to be real novels, but are in reality novelettes and hereafter will not be included under the general term, novel. The value of such classifications lies in the fact that they break up the very large number of Crawford’s novels into groups small enough to bear more careful analy sis on points of structure to be discussed in a later chap ter. A scarcely less important result is that such divi sions discover interesting facts, such as the relatively large number of novels whose setting is Italy, or the in terest shown by the author in the mystery element of novel plots. The tables resulting from these classifications have a value of their own in that they give, measurable and comparable information that may be more fully grasped in a hasty glance. CHAPTER III CRAWFORD *S LITERARY CREED Fortunately for those who read the Crawford novels, the author wrote a monograph to explain just what his in tentions were in writing the movels. This small book of just over one hundred pages, entitled The Hovel: What It Is, was published in 1893, eleven years after Crawford’s initial publication of Mr. Isaacs and sixteen years before his death. It might, therefore, be supposed that his lit erary creed as avowed early in his career might have under gone serious changes, but, as it happened, the fundamental ideas which he professed in the monograph in 1893 were just as scrupulously carried out in the publication of his last novels. From about 1870 until after 1909, the year of Marion Crawford's death, there were such conflicting and antagonis tic schools of thought that it is not surprising Crawford took a definite stand and allied himself with the pure ro manticists-. Contending with this romantic school was one group that wrote to teach a moral in novels such as Rev. E. P. Roe’s Barriers Burned Away (187B). The problem or pur pose novelist opposed the romanticists and clamored for the truth, unembellished and absolute. Hamlin Garland's Grum bling Idols (1894) and Frank Norris* The Responsibilities of the Novelist (1903) contended that America was starving for truth in fiction.1 One of the early purpose novels was Margaretta W. DelandTs John Ward, Preacher (1888) which dealt with the redemption of the soul. Realism and truth were paramount in William Dean Howells’ The Quality of Mercy (1892) and The Traveler From Altruria (1894). Howells, during the last quarter of his life, bitterly opposed the romanticism of such authors as Crawford. In 1896 Stephen Crane, who championed the naturalism movement, published Maggie, a Girl of the Streets, a true but brutal story of a social problem. At the turn of the century, Frank Norris powerfully depicted the industrial problem in The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1902). In triumphant opposition were the romances— some historical and others purely fictional— of Paul Leicester Ford, Mary Johnston, Winston Churchill, Charles Major, Booth Tarkington, Silas Weir Mitchell, Fran cis Marion Crawford, and many others. The opposition of these romances was triumphant because, in spite of the boast of the realists that they had what the readers craved, book sales proved that romance was the popular form. During the eighties it was the pure romance and after 1900 it was the historical romance that dominated. 2 Cf., Fred Lewis Pattee, American Literature Since 1870, pp. 396-97. 2 Ibid., p. 403. 49 Remembering this final, popular triumph of romanti cism and keeping in mind the fact that the Dean of American Letters, William Dean Howells, was championing the cause of realism, The Hovel: What It Is becomes more significant. In this small critique, the author immediately sets about defining a novel as an "intellectual, artistic luxury."3 This definition is one . . . which can be made to include a good deal, but which is, in reality, a closer one than it appears to be at first sight. No one, I think, will deny that it covers three essentials of the novel as it should be, of a story or romance, which in itself and in the manner of telling it shall appeal to the intellect, shall satisfy the requirements of art, and shall be a luxury, in that It can be of no use to a man when he is at work, but may conduce to peace of mind and de lectation during his hours of idleness.4 From this definition he proceeds to the purpose of the novel and then from this to the annihilation of such a thing as a purpose-novel. Probably no one denies that the first object of the novel Is to amuse and interest the reader. But it is often said that the novel should instruct as well as afford amusement, and the "novel-with-a-purpose" is the realization of this idea. . . . The purpose-novel, then, proposes to serve two masters, besides procuring a reasonable amount of bread and butter for its writer and publisher. It proposes to escape from my defini tion of the novel in general and make itself an "in tellectual moral lesson" Instead of an "intellectual artistic luxury." It constitutes a violation of the unwritten contract tacitly existing between writer and 3 F. Marion Crawford, The Novel: What It Is, p. 8. 4 Ibid., p. 11. 50 reader.5 Again he denounces the purpose novel and declares; . . . it has no right to tell us what its writer thinks about the relations of labour and capital, nor to set up what-the author conceives to be a nice, original, easy scheme of salvation, any more than it has a right to take for its theme the relative merits of the "brown tick car" and the "storage system," temperance, vivi section, or the "Ideal Man" of Confucius, lessons, lectures, discussions, sermons, and didactics generally belong to institutions set apart for especial purposes and carefully avoided after a certain age, by the majority of those who wish to be amused.6 Over and over Crawford insists that the real novel is a play; a purpose-novel, then, is a miracle-play, for "nothing short of a miracle could put a purpose-novel on boards."7 It is clear that his credo included no place for the novel whose goal was to teach, to reason, or to argue. Ethics, problems of sociology, of international relations • — not one of these can justify the existence of a novel. These, he maintains, are topics for essays, for lectures, and for treatises. Novelists are neither preachers, pro fessors, nor business men. They are only public amusers.8 The novel, then, is to amuse or entertain the public. is it to accomplish this? 8 Ihid., pp. 8-10. 6 Ibid*> PP- 16-17. 7 Ibid., p. 27. 8 , P* 22. What must it do? How Crawford gives 51 explicit instructions. It must deal chiefly with love; for in that passion all men and women are most generally interested, either for its present reality, or for memories that soften the coldly vivid recollection of an active past, and shed a tender light in the dark places of tygone struggles, or because the hope of it brightens and gladdens the path of future dreams. The perfect novel must be clean and sweet, for it must tell its tale to all mankind, to saint and sinner, pure and defiled, Just and unjust, It must have the magic to fascinate and the power to hold, its reader from first to last. Its realism must be real, of three dimensions, not flat and photographic; its ro mance must be of the human heart and truly human, that is, of the earth as we all have found it; its idealism must be transcendent, not measured to man’s mind, but proportioned to man's soul. Its religion must be of such grand and universal span as to hold all worthy re ligions in itself.9 Perhaps that is, after all, the best ansvrer to the ques tion, "What is a novel?" It is, or ought to be, a pocket-stage. Scenery, light, shade, the actors them selves, are made of words, and nothing but words, more or less cleverly put together. A play is good in pro portion as it represents the more dramatic, passionate, romantic, or humorous sides of real life. A novel is excellent according to the degree in which it produces the illusions of a good play— but it must not be for gotten that the play is the thing, and that illusion is eminently necessary to success.10 The metaphor of the pocket-stage proved to be a clev er one and has been quoted by almost every literary critic who ever considered Marion Crawford. It is exceptionally apropos of his own novels, which, on the whole, are singu larly lacking in expository discussion and which proceed with 9 Ibid., p. 43. 10 Ibid., p. 49. 52 direct narration. ideal novel. A pure romance, then, is Crawfordrs To the historical romance, Crawford grants a separate place. The historical setting has probably been selected, Crawford thinks, because it is of special interest to the author.1-*- Very practically he states: The average novelist likes to make use of historical facts principally because he knows that his critics cannot impugn the possibility of the situation he uses, while the latter are so strong in themselves as to bear the burden of the writer’s faults with compara tive ease, if his talents are not remarkable.12 In addition to this, the fact that an a priori impression of interest exists in the reader’s mind favors an author’s sensational treatment. There is, however, one very impor tant proviso in the case of the historical novel and that It must be good. The ordinary story may be bad from an artistic point of view, and may nevertheless succeed as a literary speculation, but in treating of history, where the personages are great and the events are of stupendous import, the distance which separates the sublime from the ridiculous is even less . . . On the whole, therefore, the historical novel is always likely to prove more dangerous to the writer than to the read er, since, when it fails to be a great book, it will in all likelihood be an absurd one.1 3 ’ This last danger may explain why Crawford’s histori cal novels are limited to only two, Via Crucis and In The 11 Ibid., p. 68. 12 Ibid,, P. 71. 13 I M d ., pp. 71-73. 53 Palace Of The King. Many of the other novels are based on historical facts, but these two are the only ones which attempt to utilize actual important historical characters who, if not superbly treated, might become ridiculous and so make the novel absurd. Crawfordfs whole treatment of the controversy between the realists and the romanticists is light and rather scorn ful. He speaks of it as an issue since Plato’s day and as one not likely to be settled ever. He accepts the defini tions that the realist is he who shows man as he is and that the romanticist is he who shows man as he should be.l^ On the basis of these definitions, he identifies himself with the romanticists and says: For my part, I believe that more good can be done by showing men what they may be, ought to be, or can be, than by describing their greatest weaknesses with the highest art.15 Then he questions: Why must a novel-writer be either a "realist” or a "ro manticist”? And, if the latter, why "romanticist” any more than "realist”? Why should a good novel not com bine romance and- reality in just proportions? Is there any reason to suppose that one element must necessarily shut out the other? Both are included in everyday life, which would be a very dull affair without something of the one, and would be decidedly incoherent without something of the other. Art, if it is ”to create and foster agreeable illusions,” as Hapoleon is believed to 14 15la *> P. 76. 15 Ibid*> P* 77* 54 have said of it, should represent the real, but in such a way as to make it seem more agreeable and interesting than it actually is.16 After about eighty pages of not very profound analy sis of just-what the novel is, Crawford makes several per tinent observations concerning the qualities of a good novel. One of these is that "the foundation of good fiction and good poetry seems to be ethic rather than aesthetic."1? He explains this by saying that all appeals to taste may be nullified by changes in fashion while that "which speaks to a man as man, independently of his fashions, his habits, and his tastes, must live and find a hearing with humanity so long as humanity is human.”1® "Sentiment heightens the value of works of fiction as sentimentality lowers it. 'Sentimentality is to sentiment as sensuality is to passion,” Crawford w r o t e . H e attempts further to prove this by insisting for this reason the Ger man nation, which is sentimental rather than romantic, pro duces great plays but not great novels. observation was worthwhile. Here the mere How often he slipped, if he ever did, from the romantic group of writers into the senti- 16 IMA., p. 45. 17 Ibicl., p. 86. 18 Loc. oit. 19 Ibid., p. 95. 55 mental group will be interesting to ascertain. As a conclusion to this monograph, Marion Crawford advises the author to turn his attention from the outward distinctions of race, of creed, and of age in order that he may concentrate his ability in truthfully portraying man’s heart which is eternally unchanged. To conclude, he writes: Sentiment, sentimentality, taste, fashion, daily speech, acquired science, and transmitted tradition cleanse, soil, model, or deface the changing shell of mutable mortality, and nothing which appeals to that shell alone can have permanent life; but the prime impulses of the heart are, broadly speaking, the same in all ages and almost in all races. The brave man’s beats as strongly in battle to day, the coward’s stands as.suddenly still in the face of danger, boys and. girls still play with love, men and women still suffer for love, and the old still warn youth and manhood against love’s snares— all that and much more comes from the depths not reached by civiliza tion nor changed by fashions. Those deep waters the real novel must fathom, bringing up such treasures as lie far below and out of sight— out of reach of the in dividual in most cases— until the art of the story-teller makes him feel that they are or might be his. Caesar commanded his legionaries to strike at the face. Humani ty, the novelist’s master bids him strike only at the heart.2® The Hovel: What It Is_ is not and does not pretend to be a technical discussion of what constitutes a novel; it merely states a few relatively simple facts that Marion Craw ford deemed essential to a good novel: that its sole object must be to amuse, not to teach, to argue, or to explain; that it must deal primarily with love, mankind’s most common 2® Ibid., p. 95. interest; that it must-be realistic enough to be coherent and romantic enough to depict life and love as enjoyable and interesting; and that it must appeal to the feelings of man.rs heart because among changing opinions, theories, and customs the heart of man is alone unchanged. the necessary qualities of a novel. These were To what extent they characterize his own novels and how conscientious Crawford was in following his creed will appear in the succeeding. chapter. CHAPTER IT AH ANALYSIS OE THE NOVELS In the preceding chapter which reviewed the quali ties Marion Crawford considered paramount in the construc tion of a'good novel, no mention was made of such things as character development, philosophies, or social and politi cal influences. novelist. These were not to he the problems of the What we are accustomed to speak of as the signi ficance of a novel, its fourth dimension— this is entirely lacking in the Crawford novels. Marion Crawford was a sto ry teller; consequently the emphasis in all the novels is upon plot. Seven of the best novels have been chosen for the purpose of plot analysis. These— M r . Isaacs (1882), Saracinesca (1887), Pietro Ghisleri (1892), Marietta (1901), Cecilia (1902), The White Sister (1908), and Stradella (1908)— which include the first and last novels published, will be discussed from the point of view of plot structure in order that one may recognize that general pattern ac cording to which these excellent stories were told. It will' be remembered that Crawford applied the meta phor of the ’’pocket stage” to the novel, and it may well be that he had in mind some of the first rules of the stage when he began to tell his stories, for in almost every in stance and certainly in the case of the seven novels select ed, the time, the place, and the characters are given at the outset. All of these seven novels set the scene within the first five pages. The opening sentences of Saracinesca Cecilia give both the place and the time as in the for mer which begins, "In the year 1865 Rome was still in a great measure its old self." In The White Sister the scene is not set.until page five whereas Angela, the heroine, is introduced on page two. The order of introduction may be considered reversed here, for in the other novels the scene is given first. duced. Next, one of the main characters is intro Several pages further on a second main character is brought in, and finally the plot commences. All of these things are accomplished within the first fifty pages of the seven novels, within the first twenty-five pages of six of them, and withingthe first ten pages of two of them. The following table shows the consistent order of these begin nings and the quite regular spacing between the events. TABLE 7 PAGE OCCURRENCE OF PLOT FEATURES Novel M r . Isaacs Saracinesca Pietro Ghisleri Marietta Cecilia The White Sister Stradella ‘ r" .... . Introduction of' Scene first second plot character character p. 4 P. 7 P. 40 p. 46 p. 1 p. 14 p. *16 p. 21 p.l p. 3 p. 10 p. 9 P. 3 p. 3 p. 6 p. 7 p. 1 p. 3 p. 27 p. 24 p.5 p . 2 p . 5 p. 14 p. 1_____ p. 2____ p. 10______p. 12 -L- J— .J. ML— .I -1.1.J_L .1 In Mr. Isaacs there is an unusual number of pages between the introduction of Mr. Isaacs on page seven and that of the heroine, Katherine Westonhaugh, on page forty because of the details of Mr. Isaacs’ interesting early life as he relates them to the narrator of the novel. When these relations are over, however, it may be noted that the heroine is introduced immediately and that the plot com mences only six pages later. In Saracinesca more time elapses before the characters are introduced than in any of the other novels. This is the result of a long introduc tory discussion of the Roman society of 1865. Still the scene is set, Corona, the Duchessa d ’Astardente, and Gio vanni Saracinesca are introduced, and the plot is underway within the first twenty-one pages. In Cecilia there are two important characters, Lamberto Lamberti and Guido d ’Este described in detail by contrasting their characters. description begins on page three. This The conversation between the two friends serves to relate indirectly their characters their friendship for each other, and the peculiar circum stances in Guido d ’Este’s life which constitute the sub-plot In this way the pages intervening between page three and page twenty-seven, where Cecilia is introduced, are not idle ones. In general, it is a legitimate statement to say that Crawford’s novels in the beginning, usually for the first twenty-five pages, follow a definite pattern, by which they 60 set the scene (usually both time and place), introduce one important character, describing him as to both his physical appearance and his character, introduce a second important player in the same manner, and actually start the main plot. After the plot really begins, Crawford’s story telling technique is very similarly applied in all novels. Pietro G-hisleri is constructed more according to the rules that literature insists upon for a fine play, that is, it •has a definite turning point approximately midway in the story (page 191), reaches a final climax on page 413 when Ghisleri tells Laura that he loves her, and concludes six teen pages later after they have been married. The other six best novels are constantly built up to a single climax with no turning point clearly defined. The more compli cated plots have several crises, but the goal of the main plot is never reached until the end. In Saracinesca the goal is attained or the climax reached on page 415, while thirty-five more pages are used to settle the rather in volved minor plot and to dispose of the undesirable char acters. ' Guido’s forgiveness and consent to the marriage of Cecilia and Lamberti mark the climax on page 416 of Cecilia, which concludes on page 421. In the four other novels, ho?/ever, in Mr. Isaacs, Marietta, The White Sister, and Stradella, the climax is not attained until the last page of the novel. In Marietta, the entire story may be said to be built up to the last word "son” which old Peroviero used to address Zorzi, thereby showing his con sent to Zorzi’s marriage with his daughter Marietta. The plan of structure which calls for a suspense sustained un til the very last page and word is definitely a story telling device applied to a novel. important implication. It carries with it one It always implies a novel which is all story and which is, therefore, finished whenever the story is completed. There are no morals to be drawn, no conflicting forces to be reconciled after the story con cludes. Sach event, each character, and each conversation has been important only in leading up to the climax of the story; hence this climax is not only the climax of the plot, but also the conclusion of the story and the end of the novel. From a novel built entirely around the story plot, one weakness may naturally and easily result. lar weakness is known as coincidence. This particu In one sense all plots are series of coincidences; the fact that the hero and the heroine ever meet may be called a coincidence. Such an occurrence is perfectly acceptable because it would not be thought unusual if it happened in real life. When, however, the plot depends in some measure upon a coincidence which cannot be conceived of in the reader’s mind as ever happening or as happening only once in a thousand possible 62 times, the reader, then, is justified in thinking that the story is overdrawn; thus the plot, in losing its probabili ty, loses also its reality. Although all of Crawford1s stories are extraordinary and although the plots -of many are certainly not likely ever to take place in the lives of any of us, yet they are, for the most part, possible. The reader is willing to imagine withCrawford that at that time and under those circumstances suchevents and sults might have occurred. such re In several of the novels, how ever, portions of the plots depend upon coincidences whose probability is not convincing. One of the weakest of these is that one which occurs in Marietta. Beroviero leaves for a journey which is to take at least two months. While he is gone, his villainous son, Giovanni, attempts to steal the formulas which hold the secret of the great glassblower’s art. But they have been well hidden, and Giovanni searches in vain. At length he determines to spade up the garden in the hope of finding the formulas buried there. Then without any explanation, Beroviero returns from his journey many weeks sooner than he had expected and, of course, surprises his son in the act of directing the servants to spade up the entire garden.1 The glass-blower’s discovery of his son’s villainy is important to the course of the plot, 1 Of., 31. Marion Crawford, Marietta, pp. 351-53 63 yet the author never attempts an explanation of this im probable coincidence. A similar incident occurs in Corle one , Volume II, when Corona Saracinesca travels all the way’down from Rome on the continent to Messina in Sicily and arrives just a half hour before the death of the man whom she sought to interview, just in time to hear him make an all-important confession and disclosure. 2 * It seems impossible that a journey of such length and uncertainty would be so perfectly timed. Among all the novels there are many coincidences which are not so grave as these two because they are not so important to the plot. G-hisleri’s chance consultation of the medical book which Adele had formerly used leads up to the uncovering of Adele*s crime in Pietro Ghisleri. The fact that the Saracinesca and d ’Astardente estates are adjacent is a convenient coinci dence in Saracinesca. But coincidences such as these seem sufficiently probable, and as they are harmless aids to the author, they are forgiven him by the reader. The one inexcusable fault in plot structure is that of an actual mistake. Although such faults are not proof of poor writing, they are certainly proof of careless re reading and revision. An actual mistake in plot occurs in Cecilia, a book which in interest and originality excels 2 Of., P. Marion Crav^ford, Corleone, Volume II, p . 351. 64 many of Crawford’s other novels. This mistake occurs quite early in the hook in the following manner: Cecilia and her mother are paying a call at the palace of Princess Anatolie. Several other callers are present, and in the course of the conversation Cecilia mentions that she has been studying philosophy at the Sorbonne during the past winter. Guido d ’Este also comes to call on the Princess that afternoon. His appearance at the palace and his introduction to Cecilia are described, and there the thread of the general discussion is resumed. The conversation turns next upon the remodeling of the old Roman palace purchased by Cecilia and her mother. At length upon the Princess’ suggestion Guido takes Cecilia for a stroll in the garden. As they talk Guido refers to Cecilia’s knowledge of philosophy and of Nietzche.3 Cecilia was a newcomer to Rome and was so young that she had yet to attend her first party; conse quently it is impossible that Guido should have known of her philosophic studies. The plot assumes that he was pres ent when she told her friends about her studies, but as a matter of fact Guido had not yet arrived, and no further mention of these studies was made after he joined the party. A mistake of this kind is a somewhat serious fault because it testifies to an inexcusable carelessness; however it is 3 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, Cecilia, pp. 30-40. 65 not so serious a mistake as it would be if it had affected the course of the plot. But even such careless mistakes, if they occur in any number, should be condemned. Fortun ately this one is the sole example in all of Crawford's novels and stories. With the exceptions of the several improbable coin cidences and the one mistake in plot sequence, Marion Craw ford's plot structures are excellent. The most obvious characteristic of the plots is that they are all based on love stories. As is the case of many plays, the outcome may often be guessed almost from the beginning, but this does not defeat the interest in the story. Events follow each other quickly. No long discussions of irrelevant material interrupt. There are numerous lengthy conversa tions in a majority of the novels, but these are always for the purpose of furthering the plot. In most of the books the most nabural sequence for telling a story is scrupu lously followed. First the time and place are given; then one of the important characters is introduced. The situa tion is revealed and minor characters are presented in an indirect manner. A second important character is usually made to appear shortly after the introduction of the first. As soon as these necessities of plot— scene, main charac ters, and situation— have been properly taken care of, the plot begins. The story moves fast as one would expect it 66 to with minor crises and sub-plots providing suspense and a certain amount of surprise at intervals. The tale moves in a direct line to a definite climax, after which it is shortly concluded. In the better novels the climax is ouite near the end, and in some cases it is actually the end or last page of the story. The latter is true of Mr. Isaacs, Marietta, The White Sister, and Stradella. This tendency of Crawford’s partially or entirely to omit the conclusions from his stories developed an unusual charac teristic , that of notes which occur at the end of the novels. In not a single case does the note add anything to the tale. It would seem that the stories ended too abruptly and that the author for this reason sought to ease them down by this awkward method. There are no less than eight novels which are concluded in this way.^ The ending of To Leeward tells incidentally what happens to each of the characters who survive the heroine whose death ends the story. The note to Saracinesca promises a sequel. Its opening sentence and the resume which follows are typical of these concluding notes. And so the curtain falls upon the first act. Gio vanni and Corona are happily married. Del Ferice is safe across the frontier among his friends in Naples, 4 The eight novels are: To Leeward (1884), Saracines ca (1887), Don Orsino (1892), The Children of the King (1892), Katherine Lauderdale (1893), The Ralstons (1893), Adam Johns tone’s Son (1895), Via Crucis (1898). 67 and Donna Tullia is waiting still for news of him, in the last days of Lent, in the year 1866. To carry on the tale from this point would be to enter upon a new series of events more interesting, perhaps, than those herein detailed, and of like importance in the history of the Saracinesca family, but forming by their very nature a distinct narrative— a second act to the drama, if it may be so called. I am content if in the fore going pages I have so far acquainted the reader with those characters which hereafter will play more impor tant parts, as to enable them to comprehend the story of their subsequent lives, and In some measure to judge their future by their past, regarding them as acquaint ances, if not sympathetic, yet worthy of some atten tion. * The second paragraph of the note explains alittle of the political background of the novel. The note on Don Orsino states: "This is what I know of young Orsino Saracinescafs life up to the present time." It proceeds, then, to speculate as to what may happen to Don Orsino and finally gives the reason for depicting the very early years of this young man. I If anyone cares to ask why I have thought it worth the trouble to describe his early years so minutely, I answer that the young man of the Transition Period interests me. Perhaps I am singular in that. Orsino Saracinesca is a fair type, I think, of his class at his age. I have done my best to be just to him.6 The note to The Children of the King is very like the others; it begins', "So I have told my tale" and con tinues to tell what happened to the other characters of 5 F. Marion Crawford, Saracinesca p. 449. 6 F. Marion Crawford, Don Orsino p. 448. 68 the story and to reason as to the justice of Ruggiero’s murder and suicide. A very long note concluding Katherine Lauderdale raises various possibilities as to what may yet take place and promises a sequel to settle these possibili ties. The note to The Ralstons, Katherine Lauderdale’s sequel, is also quite long; it adds nothing to the story, however, merely commenting upon Katherine Lauderdale Ral ston’s character and upon the events which have taken place in her unusual life. was never written. is a short one. The note also promises a sequel which The conclusion to Adam Johnstone’s Son It might be called a bit of light philoso phy, but actually it says nothing. It has quite obviously been added because the story itself ends so abruptly. Of all the eight, perhaps the only worthy note is that of Via Crucis, for it finishes the history of the crusade. Its Biblical style and rhythm seem to round out the setting and to give it that sense of completeness so necessary to a long novel. The note concludes with the following short paragraph: Moreover, and last of all, he had learned and under stood that the cause of God lies not buried among stones in any city, not even in the most holy city of all; for the place of Christ’s suffering is in men’s sinful hearts, and the glory of his resurrection is the saving of a soul from death to everlasting life, in refresh ment and light and peace.7 7 F. Marion Crawford, Via Crucis, p. 396. With, this last note to Via Crucis as the sole excep tion, it may be. said that the notes at the conclusions of the novels are unnecessary and awkward. In the cases of Don Orsino, Katherine Xauderdale, The Ralstonst The Chil dren of The King, To Leeward, and Adam Johnstone’s Son, the notes are an attempt to cover up a too abrupt ending. These abrupt and possibly unsatisfactory endings, however, are the exception to the regular pattern of Crawford’s novels. These six novels may be considered decidedly in ferior to most of Crawford’s work. There are three more novels whose endings are weak, not because of repetitive notes at the conclusion, but because of the faulty structure within the story itself. The first of these three novels is Paul Patoff. The theme of the book centers about Paul’s finding his brother Alex ander who has been lost. Paul must solve this mystery in order to clear his own name. Another incentive is provided in that he wishes to marry Hermione Carvel, but he hesitates to do this until he has proved his own innocence. At length, about three-fourths of the way to the end of the book, Paul does find Alexander and is able to prove that he had no knowledge of his brother’s capture. The story should be complete here, but unfortunately a new problem begins, for Hermione begins to fall in love with Alexander. The author is obliged to convict him of a cowardice before the story 70 may end happily for Paul at last. This anti-climax is un forgivable. The close of In The Palace of the King is anticlimactic too, but to a far less serious degree. The real climax of the story occurs on page 326 when Don John comes to life after having been thought dead. The tale proceeds from here to the expected conclusion in which all things are set right again. After all the important characters have been carefully accounted for, the author allows the story to slide down by telling the reader the unfavorable reactions of two very minor villainous characters. And finally the last paragraph commits the unpardonable sin of suggesting new events that are never to be told about the hero and of disclosing the fact of the heroine’s pre mature death. This anti-climactic paragraph reads as follows: It may be, too, that Don John’s splendid destiny was measured on that night and cut off beforehand, though his most daring fights were not yet fought nor his greatest victories won. To tell more here would be to tell too much, and much, too, that is well told elsewhere. But this is true, that he loved Dolores with all his heart; that the marriage remained a court secret; and that she bore him one fair daughter, and died, and the child grew up under another reign, a holy nun, and was abbess of the convent of Las Huelgas whither Dolores was to have gone on the morning after that most eventful night.8 8 F. Marion Crawford, In The Palace of The King, p. 367. 71 The unpleasant effect of these closing sentences is obvious. If Don John’s greatest deeds are yet to be accomplished and if Dolores* life with Don John is to be so .short, the climax of their marriage a few pages before loses its significance, and the struggles that lead up to it seem to have been in vain. The close of An American Politician parallels that of In The Palace of The King. The climax of the story oc curs when Joe Thorn tells John Harrington that she loves him. The last chapter commences with this sentence, "John Harrington and Joe Thorn were married in the autumn of that year, and six months later John was elected to the senate.’*9 This one sentence concludes both the major and the minor plots, but the author continues the tale further by creating an important occasion at which John is to speak. To tell how effective the speech was and end the book thus might have been satisfactory, but Crawford, instead, finishes by relating the speech itself, and the speech is twenty-one pages long and an unforgivable bore. Whatever fire John Harrington ever had, whatever charm was Joe Thorn’s, what-, ever interest there was in the lives of these two— these things are hopelessly lost in those twenty-one pages. To summarize, then, it may be said that Crawford’s 9 F. Marion Crawford, An American Politician, p. 334. 72 novels always center around a love story and a definite plan of plot structure; a pattern very similar in the be ginning to that of a play. The scene, including the time and the place, is given first and followed closely by the introduction of one of the important characters, the presen tation of a second important character, and the initial event of the main plot. All these occur in rapid succes sion, in the good novels well within the first fifty pages. From its beginning the plot moves swiftly with no discus sions or irrelevant developments to hinder it up to a final climax, which after the fashion of many short stories and oral tales is frequently the very last page of the story and is always close to the end of the novel. The overuse of coincidence in several cases, the actual mistake in Cecilia, the conclusions appearing in the form of notes at the end, and the faulty anti-climactic ending of a few of the novels— all these have been indicated. Some of the stylistic characteristics which help to make the plots of Crawford’s novels move so swiftly and to preserve such intense interest will be discussed later. Though plot structure was Marion Crawford’s main concern, characters were necessary to the progress of the plot if subservient to it. For this reason, the characters in his novels are nearly all type characters, the types that must be in order to produce a perfect plot; consequent- 73 ly the important characters are nearly always three— a hero, a heroine, and a villain, or a heroine and two hero-type suitors. The hero always seems to he one of four kinds, the dark, contemplative or moody man, the pragmatic, more active and aggressive man, the lighter, less intellectual soldier, or the mystical, polished foreigner. The first type is, by far, the most popular with Crawford, Almost all the heroes of the Italian novels are of this first group. Saracinesca is representative. Ciovanni The author envisions him in the following description: Don Giovanni Saracinesca was neither very tall nor remarkably handsome, though in the matter of his beauty opinion varied greatly. He was very dark— almost as dark for a man as the Duchessa was for a woman. He was strongly built, but very lean, and his features stood out in bold and sharp relief from the setting of his dark black hair and pointed beard. His nose was per haps a little large for his face, and the unusual brilliancy of his eyes gave him an expression of rest less energy; there was something noble in the shaping of his high square forehead and in the turn of his sinewy throat.10 It is characteristic of Crawfordfs descriptions that special attention is always given to the eyes. are tall and lean with rather long noses. The heroes They are always sophisticated, with a singular attraction for women. are serious, philosophical. They Pietro Ghisleri is probably the most attractive of them all. 10 F. Marion Crawford, Saracinesca, p. 16. 74 He had seen and enjoyed much, if he had suffered much also and his face bore the traces of past pleasure and of past pain, though he was not more than two and thirty years of age. It was a strong face, too, and not without signs of superior intelligence and resolu tion. The keen blue eyes had that trick of fixing themselves in conversation which belongs to the comba tive temperaments. . . . To adopt the simple style of his passport, he might be described as six feet high, eyes blue, hair and moustache brown, nose long, mouth normal, chin prominent, face somewhat bony,— particular sign, a scar on the left temple, l G-uido d ’Este— . . . a rather dark young man with deep-set grey eyes that often looked black, a thoughtful face, a grave mouth that could smile suddenly and almost strangely, with a child’s sweet frankness, and yet with a look that was tender and human— the smile of a man who understands the meaning of life and yet does not des pise it . . .12 — represents the more philosophic but less active of this type, and is, therefore, the only one of them who fails to win the heroine of the story. To this same type belong also such heroes as John Ralston of Katherine Lauderdale and The Ralstons. Stradella of the novel by that name, Giovanni Serveri of The White Sister, Paul Griggs as described in Casa Braccio, George Wood of The Three Fates, Marino Malipieri of The Heart of Rome, and Paul Patoff in the book by that name. To thetsecond classification belong those heroes who 11 F. Marion Crawford, Pietro Ghisleri, p. 12. 12 F. Marion Crawford, Cecilia, p. 3. 75 are distinguished by their ambition, their energy, and their aggressiveness. As has been already suggested, their atti tudes are pragmatic in contrast to the hedonistic or cynical views of the dark heroes of the first class. Illustrative of this second group is John Short, one of the important male characters in A Tale of A Lonely Parish. John Short was eighteen years of age, neither parti cularly good-looking nor by any means the reverse. He had what bankers call a lucky face; that is to say, he had a certain look of energetic good will in his fea tures. . . . In complexion he was fair, and healthy to look at . . . his eyes were honest but generally thoughtful; his frame was sturdy and already inclined rather to strength than to graceful proportion; his head matched his body well, being broad and well-shaped with plenty of prominence over the brows and plenty of fulness above the temples. He had a way of standing as though it would not be easy to move him, and a way of expressing his opinion which seemed to challenge contradiction.13 Fearlessly energetic in the same manner are Don Orsino in Don Orsino and Corleone, Brook Johnstone in Adam Johnstone’s Son. John Harrington in An American Politician, and Zorzi in Marietta. Older men exhibiting these same forceful characteristics are Mr. Juxon in A Tale of A Lone1Z Parish, Dr. Claudius in the book of that name, and Rufus Van Torp in The Diva’s Ruby. The third group includes those men who are of the active, military type. One of these is Lamberto Lamberti 13 F. Marion Crawford, A Tale of A Lonely Parish, pp. 7-8. 76 who won Cecilia away from the melancholy Guido d ’Este. Lamberto was: . . . squarely built, of average height, a man of action at every point, with bold blue eyes that could be pierc ing, a rugged Roman head, prominent at the brows, short reddish hair and pointed beard, great jaw and cheek bones, a tanned and freckled skin.1 4 How similar is the description of Baldassare del Castiglione in A Lady of Rome I He was a square-shouldered man of thirty or a little less, with short and thick brown hair and a rather heavy moustache, such as is often affected by cavalry men; his healthy, sunburnt face made his rather hard eyes look very blue, and the well-shaped aquiline nose of the martial type, with the solid square jaw, con veyed the impression that he was a born fighting man, easily aroused and soon dangerous, somewhat lawless and violent by nature, but brave and straightforward .-*-5 Don John of In The Palace of The Ring, young Grief of Griefenstein, and Gilbert Ward of Yia Crucis are similarly de scribed and unquestionably belong to the same class of Craw ford’s heroes. The last group is the smallest, having only two re presentatives, Mr. Isaacs and Constantine Logotheti of Fair Margaret. The Primadonna, and The Diva’s Ruby. Although Mr. Isaacs is a Persian and Logotheti a Greek., the similari ties between them are apparent at once to any reader. Both are well-proportioned, lithe men; both are masters of sev- 14 F. Marion Crawford, Cecilia, pi 3. 15 F. Marion Crawford, A Lady of Rome, p. 14. 77 eral languages; both are clever financiers, possessing ex travagant tastes in jewels and ornaments of all kinds; both are accustomed to surround themselves with luxury in the way of numerous .satin pillows and soft-footed servants; both have a predilection for making surprise gifts of great value to the women they are courting; both may be distin guished immediately by their elaborate manners and smoothly courteous speech. In Fair Margaret Logotheti is presented to the reader through the eyes of Margaret Dunne. She glanced at him furtiveljr and saw that he was a very dark man of rather long features; that his eyes were almond-shaped, like those of many orientals; that he had a heavy jaw and a large mouth with lips that were broad rather than thick, and hardly at all concealed by a small black moustache which was trained to lie very flat to his face, and turned up at the ends; that his short hair was worn brush fashion, without a part ing; that he had olive brown hands with strong fingers, on one of which he wore an enormous turquoise ring.16 Mr. Isaacsf presentation is far more detailed and interest ing. Isaacs was a man of more than medium stature, though he would never be spoken of as tall. An easy grace marked his movements at all times, whether deliberate or vehement, . . . This infinitely supple and swiftlymoving figure was but the pedestal, as it were, for the noble face and nobler brain to which it owed its life and majestic bearing. A long oval face of a wondrous transparent olive tint, and of a decidedly oriental type. A prominent brow and arched but delicate eye brows fitly surmounted a nose smoothly aquiline, but with the broad well-set nostrils that bespeak active F. Marion Crawford, Fair Margaret, p. 36. 78 courage. His mouth, often smiling, never laughed, and the lips, though closely meeting, were not thin and writhing and cunning, as one so often sees in eastern faces, but rather inclined to a generous Greek fulness. . . . I have spoken of his graceful figure and perfect Iranian features, but I hardly noticed either at our first meeting. I was enthralled and fascinated by his eyes. . . . They were dark and of remarkable size; when half closed they were long and almond-shaped; when sud denly opened in anger or surprise they had the round ness and bold keenness of the eagle1s sight. There was a depth of life and vital light in them that told of the pent up forces of a hundred generations of Persian might.I7 The main difference in the two men lies in a certain refine ment of taste and gentility of manner which is inherent in Mr. Isaacs, but totally absent from the well-meaning but vulgar Constantine Logotheti. The reason for the more con crete and consequently more vivid description of Isaacs is the fact that Crawford knew him— really a Mr. Jacobs--while Logotheti probably represents a general type of Greek whom Crawford met in Constantinople. There are, then, four distinct types of heroes which are in order of their popularity with the author: the dark, intellectual but rather melancholy man who is found in each of the Italian novels; the capable, pragmatic man of deeds who is eminently successful; the less intellectual but forceful type of man, always associated with the army; and the aesthetic foreigner of Southern Europe or Asia. F. Marion Crawford, Mr. Isaacs, pp. 10-11. The behavior of each type of hero is consistent with the au thor’s initial description of him. As all the novels are love stories, the heroes are best compared according to their merits as lovers. The heroes of the first type are primarily gentlemen who, in most cases, help to make their way to the lady of their desires by fighting and winning a duel. They are nearly always pursued by another woman, but they remain indifferent to all but the heroine with whom they are passionately eloquent. The second type is distin guished by his unselfish generosity toward the woman he loves and by his unbelievable patience and tenacity in spite of unsurmountable difficulties. The third type usually suffers in the silence of an undeclared passion which must remain a secret as a matter of honour because the lady is either already married or loved by a friend. At length, however, he blurts out his love in the spontane ous sincerity usually attributed to a soldier. The fourth type is the one who fascinates women and behaves toward them in a thoroughly masculine and domineering way. All types are represented as strong and courageous, faithful and sincere. The dominant characteristic of all of Craw ford’s heroes is their gentlemanliness, which they neither lose nor forget even for an instant. Maria Louise de la Ramee, who wrote under the pen name of Ouida, said of Crawford: '"He is always a gentleman, and he is at his best 80 when writing of gentlemen in the society which he knows so well."18 The heroines, like the heroes, easily fall into types hut, unlike them, the heroines are very much alike. The single method of classifying them is based upon general, quite obvious qualifications, not involving differences in philosophy or in fine traits of character as was the case with the heroes. One method of classifying the heroines would be ac cording to whether or not they are pleasant, likeable women, but this is not possible with Crawford’s heroines, for with but two exceptions, they are all genteel, kindly, and very likeable. Unorna of The Witch of Prague and Leo nora of To Leeward are the only ones who fail to show any of the characteristics that make the other women pleasant and charming. From the rest of the group, these two, Unorna, the cruel, and Leonora, the faithless, must be excluded and marked as being unrepresentative of Crawford’s heroines. Having excluded the two unattractive heroines, the others are observed to belong quite definitely to one of two groups. The young, unsophisticated girls make up one 18 Ouida, "Italian Novels of Marion Crawford,” The Nineteenth Century, 249:721, (November, 1897). 81 group, and the older women who have been in society several years and who know well how to deal with men comprise the other. This method of classifying the heroines, according to age and sophistication, seems the only possible one as well as the perfectly obvious one, for in all other re spects they are much alike. There is little emphasis and little distinction among them as to physical appearance. Some are dark; others are fair. Most of them are tall and graceful, and all, of course, are attractive with beauti ful eyes. Just as the most notable characteristic of the heroes was that they were all gentlemen, so the heroines are remarkable for their poise and stateliness. proud, gentle, and wise. They are None is ever foolish, unkind, or untrue. To the first class of heroines, the young, unsophis ticated girls, twenty-three belong. 1. 2. 5. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. They are listed below: Katherine Lauderdale of Katherine Lauderdale Angela Chiarmonte of The White Sister Joe Thorn of An American Politician Dolores de Mendoza of In The Palace of The King Ortensia of Stradella Marietta Veroviero of Marietta Veronica Serra of Taquisara Regina Spaletta of Whosoever Shall Offend Constance Fearing of The Three Fates Mamie Trimm of,The Three Fates Margaret Dunne of Fair Margaret Hilda Sigmundskon of G-riefenstein Cecilia Palladio of Cecilia Clare Bowring of Adam JohnstoneTs Son Faustina Montevarchi of Sant* Tlario Beatrix Stoke of Via Cruels Katherine Westonhough of Mr. Isaacs 82 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Sister Maria Addolorata of Casa Braccio,Volume I Gloria Dalrymple of Casa Braccio, Volume II Vittoria Corleone of Corleone Beatrice do Mola of The Children of The Kins Hermione Carvel of Paul Patoff Hedwig di Lira of A Roman Singer The first eight of these are worthy of special mentionbe cause each one under the stress of a crisis displays unusual courage. These women, who are wholly good, would be exceed ingly dull if it were not for the amazing energy and initia tive which make them human. All of these twenty-three women with the exception of the last five (that is, numbers one through eighteen), show strength of character enough to make them individuals. The last five women on the list fail to exhibit any ititiative and so fail really to live as people. The second group is less than half as large. Kath erine Lauderdale and Margaret Dunne reappear in this list in later novels as older, more aggressive women. Margaret Dunne, incidentally, is the only unmarried woman in this group. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Corona Saracinesca of Saracinesca and Sant1 Ilario Laura Carlyon of Pietro GhlslerT" Maria Montalto of A Lady of Rome Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine of Via Crucis Donna Maria Aranjuez of Don Orsino Katherine Lauderdale Ralston of TheRalstons Grace Fearing of The Three gates Margaret Dunne of The Primadonna and The Diva1s Ruby Mrs. Mary Goddard of A Tale of A LonelyParish Countess Margaret of Dr. Claudius 83 In these more experienced women, self-assurance is not so singular a quality. Their courage is not the reckless hero ism displayed by the first eighteen of the first group, but is the patient endurance of older, wiser women. Their wis dom and their understanding of all the fine undercurrents of social gossip and conduct make them very human. All of the women show admirable womanly stamina, and the first five— Corona Saracinesca, Laura Carlyon, Maria Montalto, Queen Eleanor and Maria Aranjuez— are exceptionally intelli gent women capable of shaping not only their own destinies, but those of their husbands and lovers as well. Of Crawford’s heroes and heroines, it may be said that they are too consistent, the heroes too consistently courageous and gentlemanly and the heroines too consistent ly sweet and gracious. They never sink, even for an instant, from this greater height. And because they do not sink, they do not rise, but seem rather to maintain such a serene level of perfection that even perfection loses its significance. In much the same way that all the heroes and heroines are always good, all the villains are consistently bad* They possess no redeeming virtues. They are always cowards; they are selfish, ungrateful, and evil-minded. Of the thirty-four full length novels, five (such as Mr. Isaacs) really do not have a villain. In the remaining twenty-nine volumes, there are twenty male villains and nine female ones. The men, such as Del Ferice in Saracinesca. Monte- varchi in Sant* Ilario. King Philip II of Spain in In The Palace Of The King, Silas B. Barker in Dr. Claudius are despicable. Before the end of the tales, they are miserable, groveling cowards and not worth the reader’s scorn. women villains are more finely developed. The They are more cunning and usually— temporarily, at least— more successful. Donna Adele Savelli in Pietro Ghisleri is the only young one. The other eight are older women, whose crimes are mercenary. gossip. They are often jealous and are given to malicibus In four instances their crimes are very similar; they steal, or in some way defraud an innocent young ward or near relative of her rightful inheritance. This is true in Taguisara, The White Sister, The Heart of Rome, and The Three Fates. As is often the case of purely plot novels, some of the best, most human characters are minor ones who are in troduced into the plot for their character and not for any deeds of theirs which would promote the plot. acter is the elder Saracinesca. Such a char The fierce old Prince is supposed to be an elder Giovanni, the same man that Giovanni will be in another thirty years or so, and yet the Prince seems more real than his son. He loves to argue and can quickly work himself into a rage in an argument with his son, who usually remains exasperatingly calm. The instant 85 he realizes that he has said too much or gone too far, he busies himself with some trivial occupation, lowers his voice, and continues to speak but with calmness and compo sure. These childish displays of violence make the vigor ous old man rather lovable. Above all else he loves his son,- Giovanni, but he differs with him constantly. Prince Saracinesca is handsome and imposing, bold and blunt of speech, inspiring admiration and sincere affection in those who know him. An interesting character has been created in M r . Isaacs in the person of Paul Griggs, the narrator. His person and character emerge indirectly from his own re flections and observations upon the characters of the sto ry. The reader is amused by his constant self-condemnation. As a journalist he has a broad knowledge and so is able to listen intelligently to the strange discussions of the won derful Mr. Isaacs. Griggs1 own musings about his unusual companion illuminate his own personality, as when he com ments : He (Isaacs) was probably in love, my acquaintance of two days. He saw in me a plain person, who could not possibly be a rival, having some knowledge of the world, and he was in need of a confident, like a schoolgirl.19 F. Marion Crawford, Mr. Isaacs, p. 55. There is always something faintly humorous about Griggs as in the instance when he winds wool for Miss Westonhough while Isaacs is away. This ludicrous picture shifts on the next .page to one which shoves Griggs, the solitary bache lor, to be a romanticist, a real friend to Isaacs, and a tender consoler for Miss Westonhough. She asks abruptly where Isaacs has gone, and Griggs replies: "He is gone to do a very noble deed. He is gone to save the life of a man he never saw."20 Griggs is the narrator of the tale, the. simple person who makes the events of the plot coher ent, the author-appointed go-between for the leading char acters, and at the same time he is a likeable fellow, more alive than any other in the novel except Mr. Isaacs, him self. Arisa, the slave girl in Marietta, is one of the most colorful characters in any of the novels. Her posi tion is so fantastic that it is almost absurd, and yet she herself remains always alluring, consistently traitorous to Contarini and just as consistently faithful to Aristarchi. -The mere fact that she never relaxes the part she plays makes her situation seem an actuality. Arisa is, of course, beautiful, so beautiful that all who see her are agreed that none has ever surpassed her. 20 Ibid., p . E5 The strange part she plays is this. Although she loves the giant Greek captain, Aristarchi, she is Contarini’s slave — or rather, he is hers. He keeps her in a secret apart ment in the house of the Agnus Dei. There Arisa lives in the luxurious leisure attributed to Eastern women, half sitting, half lying among the silken cushions of a low divan, ready to receive her master at any hour. The scenes which take place between the master and his slave are as near to being sensual as any in Crawford’s work. Contarini greets her first by kissing the arching instep of her foot, which after Eastern fashion is uncovered. At last the young man’s head rested against her shoulder among the cushions. The Georgian woman opened her eyes slowly and glanced down at his face, while her hand stroked and smoothed his hair, and he could not see the strange smile on her wonderful lips. For she knew that he could not see it, and she let it come and go as it would, half in pity and half in s c o r n . 21 And this is the part she plays. While she kisses him and smooths his hair, she is scheming for him to get more money in order that she may have it eventually.. Contarini is a weakling and has no ambition but to please her; so all the wealth that he can obtain he turns into jewels and gifts for Arisa. These and all that she can steal from him she carefully stores away or passes on to Aristarchi whom she 21 F. Marion Crawford, Marietta, pp. 42-43. meets eacli night as soon as Contarini falls asleep. For she of the soft hands, the gentle voice, and beautiful body is wholly absorbed in the rough Greek. The fascination that this remarkable woman exerts over the reader is worthy of note, for it illustrates Crawford’s ability to picture the bizarre. Two other colorful characters are the Bravi in Stradella. Trombin, the shorter of the two, is very fair with pink cheeks and a turned-up nose. His companion, Gambar- della, is exceptionally dark with bushy eyebrows and a waxed moustache. Concerning his most noticeable feature, the author says: ”His unusually long and melancholy nose curved downwards over his thin lips like a vulture’s beak as if trying to peck at his chin.”22 Physically and tem peramentally unlike, these two are inseparable companions. They travelled a good deal, always together, and their friends knew that they met with frequent and sud den changes of fortune. Their clothes were shabby now, yet scarcely six months ago they had been seen strol ling arm in arm in Florence, in the Piazza della Signoria, arrayed in silks and satins and fine linen. Only their weapons were never replaced in prosperity by handsomer swords with gilded hilts, nor exchanged in adversity for others of less perfect balance and temper.23 The fact that they are Bravi means that they offer 22 F. Marion Crawford, Stradella, p. 66. 23 Ibid., p. 67. 89 their services to those who can pay well for having desired goods stolen, missing friends and relatives located, or troublesome enemies and relatives disposed of. Their cut throat profession is scarcely in harmony with their most characteristic traits— their fine distinctions of honour, their inordinate love of music, and their curious humor. As an example of the latter, a piece of conversation is repeated here. "Venice is a dull place, compared with what it used to be," Trombin admitted, and he raised his right fore arm, turning it till he could examine the threadbare elbow of his coat in the glare of the candles. "Anoth er week will do it," he added, after a careful examina tion. "I never sit down, if I can help it," said Gambardella mournfully. "It is a strange fact," answered Trombin thoughtful ly, "that only those nations that wear breeches sit upon chairs; the others squat on their heels, though they have no breeches to save. This is a most contra dictory world. "24= Their partnership was well worked out, for Gambardella, who was far-sighted, planned their business and solved the intricate tangles in which they were frequently involved, while Trombin, whose soft-heartedness and shyness with women made him unreliable at times, acted as spokesman for the two. The Bravi are as■colorful and unusual a pair as one can find and are illustrative of Crawford’s concern 24 Ibid., p. 68. 90 in later books for clever, minor characters. The one major character, whose development as a char acter was seriously probed by Crawford, was George Wood, the hero and only important male actor in The Three Fates. This novel was classified before as being the only novel in which .character development superseded plot .^ The tale itself is divided obviously into three parts corresponding to George Wood’s three love affairs and to his three stages of devel opment. Maria Louise de la Ramee says of The Three Fates: . There is little movement in it, no incident of any note, its interest lies entirely in the development of character and in the evolution of feeling, but these are so treated that they suffice to hold the reader’s charm ed attention, and the story of the man whose hesitations and tergiversations made the subject of it is one that may be read again and again with sympathy and curiosity by those who can appreciate psychological problems. The persons in it are such as we may have known today or may know tomorrow; and the working of their minds and inclinations is traced with a masterly skill, and is as a psychologist’s diagram of the nervous system.26 The authoress may be exaggerating to some extent, but, never theless, psycho-analysis on the part of Crawford is quite evident. When the novel opens, George Wood is an obvious social misfit in New York society. His mother, who is now dead, had had social position, and his father, who is now a broken old man, had been a very successful business man un til he was defrauded of all his wealth by a business associ 25 Cf., p. 45. (Chapter II) 26 Ouida, op. cit., pp. 723-24, 91 ate. The son of these two found himself unable to partake of the social privileges inherited from his mother and at the same time just as unable to be the business man that his father desired him to be. The reason for this latter state lay not so much in his distaste for all money matters as in his belief in his own abilities as a literary critic.' At this time he is engaged in doing numerous book reviews for several New York newspapers and magazines, whereby he certainly is not amassing a fortune, but is at least paying his own expenses. The first portion of the story (pages 1-189), is absorbed by his courtship of Constance Fearing. To him she is the perfect woman. She answers all his boyish longing for sympathy, for admiration of himself, for beauty and an impeccable standard in woman. It is for her that he writes a novel and so discovers his own talent, for her sake that his attitudes toward society mellow and become more charitable. But poor Constance Fearing tries so desperate ly to be honest with herself that she misjudges her own feelings and refuses to marry him, only to realize immedi ately that she really loves him. George is a very different man. After this first episode He is now a successful au thor; his views are broader; his prejudices are fewer and less bitter; and his blind worship of an ideal woman is over. The second phase of his life begins almost immediately, though not at first as a love affair. This time it concerns Mamie Trimm, the only daughter of one of his mother’s wealthy relatives. Mamie is younger, not beautiful, but very companionable and sincerely and deeply in love with George. He is unaware of her attachment.for him until he seems already involved. Gradually it becomes pleasant to him, even desirable, and he feels so sure of Mamie, so con fident that he really knows her that he overestimates his fondness for her and fancies himself in love. Again the affair is abruptly broken off, this time by Mamie’s mother, who has been scheming for the fortune which George is to inherit. The end of this second part is almost the end of the novel, for only thirty-two more pages remain in the book. Yet these last pages are a distinct third part. This remaining action takes place three years later. George has inherited the fortune for which Mamie Trimm’s mother as pired. judices. He has rid himself of the last of his social pre He has found his place in the world and has made his mark in his chosen vocation. And now he has met his third fate, his last, Grace Fearing. This older sister of Constance Fearing represents real friendship, truth, honesty — all George’s old ideals— and she is exactly suited to his tastes, his temperament, and his aspirations. The Three Fates is in every way a very different book from the rest of the Crawford stories. The careful and almost exclusive interest in character development is singular; the narrative 93 is completed and rounded out more fully than in the majori ty of the other novels. The Italian authoress writing under the pen name of Ouida made the following serious accusation of Crawford’s characters: He has also another fault which is visible in nearly all his works, and is a grave one. He forgets at times the attributes which he has given to his chief char acters. Thus Giovanni Saracinesea is described as a man of strong, noble, and reticent nature, and of in tellect so superior that his wife tells him he will be very great some day; and he resembles precisely one of those men who become great leaders of other men. But in the sequel (where he is called Sant’ Ilario), all this changes, and he behaves like an idiot, and of his great qualities we hear no more and certainly see nothing. And when we still follow his fortunes in the subsequent sequel of Don Orsino, he has sunk into com plete self-effacement, so complete that he allows his son to be the associate and debtor of that very Del Ferice whose utter baseness and vileness he knows so well, and who tried in the famous duel to murder him by foul play.27 This accusation was based on fact as Ouida pointed out in her illustrations. The fallacy lies in the fact that the glowing descriptions of SaracineseaTs capabilities were al most always given as CoronaTs, his young wife’s, personal views, which are somewhat exaggerated. Saracinesea does not live up to all the reader’s early hopes, but he becomes, rather, increasingly like his father, unreasonably jealous of those he loves, generous but conservative in public life, and unaware, as are the other members of the aristocracy, of the changing social conditions. 27 Ibid., pp. 727-S8. What Ouida fails to 94 give Crawford credit for is the consistent baseness of Del Ferice in the entire Saracinesea series. Don Orsino as representative of the new ambitious generation of Roman aristocracy, Ippolito as the very wise and gentle young priest, Spicca as the melancholy and mysterious duelist, San Giacinto as the casual, powerful giant, his devoted wife Flavia as the fun-loving, genuine woman, the old Prince Saracinesea as the fiery head of his family, and Corona as the calm and wise lady whose queenly beauty is never equaled in Rome— all these Italian characters appear and reappear, some a great many times and always consistently themselves. Paul Griggs who appears in no less than eight novels (two of which he relates), changes character only very slightly and according to his age. Even such minor persons as Wal ter Crowdie and Charlotte Slayback, who appear in several different novels, retain their original qualities. It may be said that in consideration of the great number of char acters who reappear often in the novels, these are created and recreated by Crawford with remarkable consistency.28 The generalization about Marion Crawford1s charac ters may be made, then, that most of themrrare type charac ters. If they are heroes, they may be classified in one of four classes; if they are heroines, they may be divided into 28 Of., Table III, p. 42. (Chapter II) two distinct types; if they are villains, they are all wholly evil people without any redeeming Qualities. Al though they all attain some individuality, the heroes and heroines are deplorably fine and good, and the villains are hopelessly ignoble-and false, for they carry out Crawford's theory that the heroes and heroines should show man as he should be, not as he is.29 The villains presumably, then, represent man as he should not be, and this they do most faithfully. In the same way they follow Crawford’s idea that the novel is really a pocket-stage, in which the im portant thing is for.the play— the action of the play— to go on.30 The characters' function is to speak their parts and perform their tasks, to dramatize the plot and not to become real individuals. This fact, however, does not pre vent several characters, such as the old Prince Saracinesea (Saracinesea), Paul Griggs (Mr. Isaacs), and George Wood (The Three Fates), from attaining distinct individuality; nor does it rule out the especially colorful personages as Arisa (Marietta), and the Bravi (Stradella). That the characters do acquire and retain individualities is shown by their reappearing in many instances in different novels with these same abilities and qualities. 29 £f., p. 53, (Chapter III). 30 ££• > P* (Chapter III). And if Crawford's 96 characters are not remarkable, yet they are what Crawford wanted them to be— adequate perpetrators of the plot. Just as every play has plot, characters, and setting, so do Crawford’s novels have these and in the same relation ship. The plot is of primary importance. The sole func tion of the characters is to enact the plot. Very little time is taken by this author to discuss the characters and their thoughts. When this is absolutely necessary, an ex pository paragraph or two may be inserted, but whenever possible characters are revealed through conversation or by means of the action itself. By this same method the settings of novels a-re frequently described in the beginning in a di rect manner, but more vividly and throughout the novels in an indirect manner, that is, by a general diffusion through out the plot of the time, the place, and the customs. In time the novels do not vary greatly. A few of them rely on early historical background, and for these dates are clearly indicated. The story of Via Crucis begins in 1145, that of Marietta in 1470. The early part of the reign of King Philip II of Spain, or 1556 to about 1565 is the time of In The Palace of The King. for Stradella. 1870 is the date given The majority of the novels take place in the latter part of the nineteenth century. Definite years are revealed in several: Casa Braccio Volume I, 1844; Volume II, 1861 and 1864; Saracinesea, 1865; Sant* Ilarlo, 1867; Mr. Isaacs, 1879; Don Orsino, 1887. The last twenty years of the century are suggested for The White Sister, Heart of Rome, An American Politician, Griefenstein, The Witch of Prague, and A Tale Of A .Lonely Parish. The story of modern Rome, Cecilia, the American trilogy, Fair Margaret, The Primadonna, and A Diva *s Ruby, are definitely shown as tak ing place in the twentieth century. As these were published in 1902 and 1905, 1908, and 1908 respectively, their dates of publication may be assumed to be approximately correct. As for the remaining fourteen novels, whose publication dates range from 1884 to 1906, their time is only vaguely suggested as being contemporary. The place of the novels has been discussed rather fully in Chapter II of this thesis under the consideration of classifying them according to their settings. rz. 1 Table I so classifies them, and from this table one learns that the settings of the novels (excluding, as always in this chap ter, the novelettes and short stories) include seven differ ent cities in Italy as well as two in America and cities in the countries of England, Germany, India, Turkey, Spain, and Bohemia. In addition, the crusade depicted in Via Crucis journeys from France across the continent to Jerusalem, and the travels of the primadonna of the American trilogy or 31 See especially pp. 16-34 (Chapter II). 98 Fair Margaret series take her to London, Versailles, and Paris. Marion Crawford’s ability to recreate these numerous cities and countries has also been discussed in the second chapter of this thesis and will not necessitate repetition here. The most important thing about the set ting of the novels is their variety. Such a large variety of backgrounds would mean disaster for many authors, but Marion Crawford had not merely been to the places he de scribed; he had lived there. He worked as a journalist in India as did Paul Griggs, and also like him he met a "Mr. Isaacs.” Like George Wood of The Three Fates, Crawford had met Boston society, and like him again he had tried to write magazine articles and reviews before skyrocketing to fame on a first novel. He had actually attended an English and a German university before he wrote A Tale Of A Lonely Parish and Griefenstein. Concerning this last novel, Mrs. Elliott, his cousin, writes: The picture of Germany after the Franco-Prussian war in his novel Griefenstein could have been drawn only by a man who had lived the life of a German stu dent at the moment when the whole world was intoxicat ed by the wine of victory, who had enjoyed the gay student life with its changing hours of study and feasting, of poetry and song that mingled with the clash of steel. Today this novel seems prophetic; it shows so clearly the influences that swept the German people into the world war.33 32 Cf., pp. 17-19. (Chapter II). 33 Maud Howe Elliott, My Cousin, F. Marion Crawford, p. 40. 99 Not more than five or six years before Crawford wrote A Roman Singer he himself had hoped to become one day a great singer. Mrs. Elliott comments on this also; . . . He had a splendid voice, a fine dramatic delivery, but a faulty ear. While in Boston, Crawford studied with George Henschel and strove with all his might to correct this defect. In the beginning Henschel believed that he might succeed, but finally told his pupil that he could not hope to make a professional career. This was a great disappointment to Crawford. In his novel A Roman Singer he pictures the triumph of Nino the hero which he himself had hoped to achieve.34 His sister testifies to his passion for exact, experienced knowledge when she writes; He was so scrupulous that he would not write about any subject of which he had not personally and practi cally mastered the details. . . . For Marietta, A Maid Of Venice, he went into every process of Venetian glasswork on the spot; . . . To write The Witch Of Prague he went and lived in that city and learned B o h e m i a n . 3t> His long residence in Italy and his love for its picturesque coast towns account for his realistic pictures of it in the twenty-three novels and stories which have their setting somewhere in Italy. His intimate knowledge about these various settings, the application of his personal ex periences and the illustration by specific and concrete de tails— it is these that make the widely different backgrounds 34 rbifl-. PP» 89-90. 33 Mary Crawford Fraser, "Notes of a Romantic Life," Collier*s, 45:24. (April 23, 1910) 100 of his novels follow each other with equal realism and equal effect. In conclusion, then, there are two remarkable things about the setting of Marion Crawford’s novels. The more unusual of these is the variety of locations used; the more telling of the two is the realistic and accurately detailed way in which they are depicted. In addition to the sis— plot, character, and obvious divisions for novel analy setting— there is a fourth element, the manner of presenting these three, or the stylistic char acteristics of the author. Crawford’s interest lay in tell ing a good story, not in forging a new method of narrative. Frederic Taber Cooper remarks about this. The natural consequence of this attitude is that Mr. Crawford, while possessing an excellent technique in fiction cannot be said to have added to it any new or striking methods. In the history of technique, he . could not be cited, in the way that Henry James, let us say, or Emile Zola must be cited, over and over again, as the inventor of a peculiar manner, the found er of a new school.' Mr. Crawford remained from first to last as he wished to remain, wholly free from mannerisms; and one of the qualities which give to his books an unconscious charm is the simplicity of style and method,.which may be compared to that rare good taste in dress which does not call attention to itself.36 This ’’simplicity of style and method” is probably, as Cooper suggests, the author’s most important characteristic. It is 36 Frederic Taber Cooper, ’’Marion Crawford,” The Forum 41:488-89, (May, 1909). 101 not necessary to comment on this in any detail, for pages 57-61 of this chapter have explained the simplicity and directness of his plot construction. The extreme simplici ty of his character drawing has been pointed out as a poss ible defect of the novels. The heroes and heroines are too wholly good and the villains are too hopelessly bad. rzn The most simple, entertaining narrative possible was Crawford’s goal, and he attained it in most instances. The method of narration is always the most direct possible and subtle changes in character are complexities unknown to Crawford’s novels. This extreme simplicity, however, does not prohibit the author from showing some characteristics of style, the most noticeable of which is the use of clever dialogue. The ability to converse well was a conscious social asset then, and Crawford’s pocket-stage actors were especially endowed with this ability. Maud Elliott writes: On re-reading Crawford’s novels a quarter of a cen tury after the last one was written, I sometimes rebel at the length of the conversations. Compared to the staccato dialogue of the moderns, they seem spun out. The fact is, that in those days people talked that way. Conversation was an art. We had time to exchange our thoughts clothed in decent language, not as today in a sort of naked code of dots and dashes.38 The following repartee is typical of many found in 27 _Cf., p. 83, (Chapter IV). 28 Maud Howe Elliott, 0 £. cit., p. 187. 102 the novels. To the modern ear it sounds very artificial, and yet the habit of saying one thing for mere politeness while thinking the opposite is still just as fashionable as ever. This piece of polite conversation occurs in Saraci- nesca. "Yes; we were speaking of you, Don Giovanni," said Donna Tullia, with some scorn. "Does it strike you that you were exceedingly rude in not letting me know that you were going out of town when you had promised to dance with me at the Valdorno ball?" She curled her small lips and showed her sharp white teeth. Giovanni was a man of the world, however, and was equal to the occasion. "I apologize most humbly," he said. "It was indeed very rude; but in the urgency of the case, I forgot all other engagements. I really beg your pardon. Will you honour me with a dance this evening?" "I have every dance engaged," answered Madame Mayer, coldly staring at him. "I am very sorry," said Giovanni, inwardly thanking heaven for his good fortune, and wishing she would go away. "Wait a moment," said Donna Tullia, judging that she had produced the desired effect upon him. "Let me look, I believe I have one waltz left. Let me see. Yes, the one before the last— you can have it if you like." "Thank you," murmured Giovanni, greatly annoyed, will remember."39 "I In many of the novels the conversation is less stilt ed than it is in Saracinesea, whose story takes place in 1865. cance. Its artificiality here does not hinder its signifi Some of the long conversations seem awkward, and yet 39 F. Marion Crawford, Saracinesea, pp. 130-31. 103 the individual speeches are not so long as to be improbable. In The Ralstons, eleven pages are consumed by a conversa tion between Mr. and Mrs. Lauderdale in which the husband manages skillfully to avoid answering an accusing question.40 Not only does he save himself, but he counters with an ac cusation against his daughter'. Although Mr. Lauderdale speaks in a formal manner to his wife, it seems in keeping with his selfish and tyrannical disposition. This dialogue is unusually clever in the way in which Mr. Lauderdale is shown to elude the question put to him. Some of the conversations recorded in the novels are so realistic that bits of them remain with one. these, though not humorous, do make one smile. Many of For example there is the old Prince Saracinesea’s subtle pleading with Corona in behalf of his son. His impatience for Giovanni’s happiness would not allow him to wait until Giovanni should speak himself.4^ Or there is Marietta’s reasoning with her father to allow her to marry Zorzi and her very feminine plans for eluding the promise of her betrothal to Contarini .42 40 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, The Ralstons, pp^ 168-77. 41 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, Saracinesea, ppi 311-19. 42 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, Marietta, pp. 369-86. .104 Dialogue has frequently been inserted in novels to increase and prolong suspense, to re-impress a scene alrea dy described, or to aid in the delineation, but Crawford deftly forces his puppets to converse so that in almost every instance their conversation promotes the plot. Dia logue abounds and still the plot progresses rapidly. The characters speak as the actors of a well-rehearsed play do. Only the essential things are said; mere words are conserv ed and there is no waste. In much the same way that postponing the climax un til the end is a characteristic of short stories and oral tales, the element of mystery is also characteristic of them. As Crawford applied the first to his novels, he like wise employed the latter. One does not mean by this that his novels are mystery stories in the sense of detective stories. The reader never has the least concern about the mystery, but there is some element of mystery in almost all of the novels. There are twelve novels in which an actual murder or a plotted one figures. Four novels are concerned with the mystery of stolen or lost formulas, letters, or 4 treasures, and four others involve mysterious identity. ° These facts, however, do not attest to Marion Crawford’s 43 Cf., Table IV, p. 44 (Chapter II), which classi fies the novelettes and short stories as well as the novels. 105 zest? for unraveling mysteries, but rather to the lengths to which he would go to create complications which would hinder the satisfactory conclusion of the love story and so enrich the plot. What really is distinctly characteristic of Crawford is the aura of the supernatural which surrounds four of the novels. Four out of a possible thirty-four full length novels is a very small proportion, but the fact that the supernatural events, regardless of how fantastic they seem, are always related with the greatest seriousness" and are always given as facts— this makes it distinctly a Crawford characteristic. The one plot-less novel With The Immortals is a pure fantasy. Van Wyck Brooks hints that it may be an outgrowth of some of the table discussions at the author’s own parties. One of his romances, With The Immortals, suggested the conversation at the dinner-parties, which ranged over literature, politics, and art from the days of Pliny and Horace to those of King Humbert. The English man in the story had bought a villa like his own, a half-ruined castle on the cliffs, and he invented an electrical device that produced an immense eruption under the sea. This suddenly caused the reappearance of seven or eight immortals, Caesar, Leonardo, Pascal, Heine, Chopin, and two or three others, who emerged from the mist after the storm and wandered about the grounds and joined in the conversation at the castle.44 The Leonardo whom Mr. Brooks mentioned is, of course, Leonar do da Vinci, and the two he did not mention are Chevalier 44 Yan Wyck Brooks, "Writers of The Eighties,” The Saturday Review of Literature, 22:3-4. (June 8, 19401 Bayard and Dr. Samuel Johnson. In the discussions, which in form remind one of Plato’s Dialogues, such topics as government, love, religion, humour, and the after life are discussed. The conversation here again is handled with skill, and the hook is charming and not at all dull. The. whole idea is fantastic, although the author never admits this, and this unbelievable situation is recorded as a matter of fact. Witch Of Prague. M r . Isaacs, and Cecilia the situation is normal and only a character or two are connect ed with the supernatural. The Witch Of Prague is a novel greatly inferior to Crawford’s usual standard. Unorna, the witch, is endowed with the power of hypnotizing anyone whom she pleases. Until she falls in love with the wanderer, her great enterprize has been that of keeping alive, under a spell, a very old man, by which means she and a physician are trying to solve the problem of everlasting life and youth. Both M r . Isaacs and Cecilia are representative of Marion Crawford’s best writing, and the supernatural plays an important part in each of t h e s e . I n Mr. Isaacs all the persons and events are perfectly normal except for one man. This one is the remarkable Ram Lai, the Buddhist, who is an ’’adept” by profession. Appearing suddenly in 107 unexpected places and vanishing just as suddenly back into space several minutes later, Ram Lai, wrapped always in grey, makes a strange figure against the colorful but es sentially natural background of the novel. So great becomes the reader*s belief in Ram Lai, that he is not surprised at the conclusion of the tale when Isaacs, grieved and stunned by the suddenness of Katherine Westonhaugh*s death, is van ished away by his friend to seek the happiness of pure spirituality. Perhaps Cecilia presents the most interesting aspect of the supernatural. According to the story Cecilia and Lamberto Lamberti have the experience of dreaming the same dream about each other. In the dream they are lovers, while in actual life they are only casual acquaintances. This re markable phenomenon, Crawford treats as if it were unusual but not at all impossible. And so completely does the read er adopt Crawford’s viewpoint that the conclusion, in which Cecilia and Lamberti meet and plight their troth just as they have done so often in dreams, seems quite natural. Whenever the mystic and supernatural enter into his novels, the author treats them with a passive reverence that is at the same time odd and very charming. Because his Italian novels were his most popular, Marion Crawford is usually thought of as a distinctly Catho lic novelist. As a matter of fact, although he himself was 108 a converted Catholic, only half of the full length novels have a Catholic setting.46 All of these are Italian novels, except the two historical ones Via Crucis and In The Palace Of The King. In the other novels, no specific religion is indicated, and in none is the subject of theology or of Catholicism ever discussed. Maria Louise de la Ramee re marks ; His priests, by the way, are always excellently drawn, from the humble village vicar to the learned and imposing cardinal. He has penetrated alike their interiors and their characters with that skill which is only born of sympathy, and it is, therefore, per haps only natural that he has not the faintest con ception of the motives and views of the socialist and republican whom he dreads and hates. Although the authoress here has hinted that Crawford1s Catholicism may have prejudiced him against the revolutiona ry class in Italy, it is obvious that it actually aided him as a novelist, for this very prejudice was shared by all the Italians whom he wrote about, and without it he could not have understood and sympathized with them so thoroughly; whereas political and social revolutions had no bearing on the "stories” he wished to tell. An obvious and distinctive characteristic of Marion Crawford’s style is his desire to footnote or in some way to document his statements. Some of these are in the notes 46 Cf., p. 7, (Chapter I). Ouida, ojo. cit., p. 7E0. 109 at the close of the novels. This is true of Stradella, Marietta. and The Heart Of Rome. The note on the first of these is not very accurate and reads as follows: I shall tell no more, but leave the singer and his young wife to their happiness. If anyone would know the end that followed years afterwards, he will find it in the chronicles that are in almost every great libra ry. I shall only say that while those two lived they loved, as few have, and that Stradella*s fame was great er when he breathed his last than it had ever been be fore; and in Italy he is not forgotten yet.48 The note on Marietta is more accurate and reflects some of the author’s keen interest in these old, semi-historical tales. The story of Zorzi Ballarin and Marietta Beroviero is not mere fiction, and is told in several ways. The most common account of the circumstances assumes that Zorzi actually stole the secrets which Angelo Beroviero had received from Paolo Godi, and thereby forced Angelo to give him his daughter in marriage; but the learned Comm. C. A. Levi, director of the museum in Murano, where many works of Beroviero and Ballarin are preserv ed, has established the letter’s reputation for honor able dealing with regard to the precious secrets, in a pamphlet entitled '*L’Arte del Vetro in Murano,” pub lished in Venice, in 1895, to which I refer the curious reader . . .49 The note at the close of The Heart of Rome disclaims any historical basis for the characters and plot used, but. it traces the true history of several cases of the lost wa ter and of hidden statues unearthed in Rome which stimulated 48 F. Marion Crawford, Stradella, p. 415. 4® F. Marion Crawford, Marietta, p. 458. 110 the author to imagine the situation in this particular novel.50 Footnotes occur at the bottom of numerous pages in With The Immortals and in To Leeward. In the former, the notes give the source consulted for the conversation which Crawford created for the ghosts of such men as Caesar, Heine, Leonardo da Vinci, Pascal, and others. These notes also give the sources of some of the philosophical ideas that are mentioned. It is, however, the footnotes which occur unexpectedly and perhaps singly in one novel which make Crawford’s documentation unusual. Notes such as these occur in Dr. Claudius, A Lady Of Rome, The Children of The King, and Stradella. Some are purely explanatory as is one in The Children of The King which explains what kind of craft a "felucca* is.5l Others are for the sake of clear ness as one in A Lady Of Rome which reads: Note--The '^Piedmont Lancers," to which Castiglione belonged, are purely imaginary, and are by no means meant for the "Piedmont Regimant," which would be more rightly classed with the Dragoons.52 Still other notes are actually informational as the one in Stradella which follows here: For Trombin’s view of Christina’s character and Monaldeschi*s murder, I am indebted to the admirable 50 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, The Heart of Rome 51 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, The Children of The King, p. 49. 52 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, A Lady of Rome, p. 383. Ill and trustworthy work of Baron de Bildt, a distinguished Swedish diplomatist, entitled Christine de Swede et le Cardinal Azzolino (Paris, 1899J7 The writer points out the singular ignorance of the truth about Monaldeschi displayed by Browning and the elder D u m a s . 53 This strange desire of Crawford’s to document these purely romantic tales is probably a reflection of his in terest in history, in social history and in customs, which he evidenced in his four non-fiction tfolum.es: Ave Roma Immortalis; studies from the chronicles of Rome, Constantino ple , Salve Venetia; gleanings from Venetian History, and The Rulers of The South; Sicily, Calabria, Malta. These volumes, although not real histories, are based on facts and on information gained firsthand. His sister, Mary Fraser, maintains that the writing of history was his ultimate as piration. Yet it was a mere accident of expediency that he be came a novel writer at all. His heart was in for higher things. He always looked forward to the day when he should be able to close the book of romance and devote himself to the one study which he considered worth pur suing, that of h i s t o r y . 54 This is hardly believable of so natural a story-teller, but it does account for his peculiar stylistic characteristic of footnoting. Although it can scarcely be called a stylistic char acteristic, the great and perhaps only defect in his style 53 f. Marion Crawford, Stradella, p. 255. ^ Mary Fraser, ojd . cit., p. 24. 112 is his carelessness. His extensive travels and his fertile imagination furnished him with infinite materials for sto ries. He possessed a native talent for weaving plots, pro longing suspense— in short, for telling stories; consequent ly careful craftsmanship was no concern of his. source came his greatest weakness. From this In no case is it a lack of skill, but it is mere carelessness. .Evidences of it show themselves in many ways. One of the most frequent in occurrence is the unnecessary repetition of a word or phrase. Saracinesea on the whole is a well-constructed novel, but even here are examples of this carelessness. For instance, on page 61 in line four the statement is made, "The picnic was noisy, and Giovanni was in a bad humour." On the same page, the opening sentence of the second paragraph is, "Giovanni was in a bad humour that day," and on the follow ing page in line three one reads, "He was in a thoroughly bad humour . . . ”55 Repetition may often be used, of course, for a valuable effect, but here it is merely care less. Very frequently if more care had been taken, awkward sentences and situations could have been avoided. Such things as the very awkward introduction of Paul Griggs in The Ralstons are so noticeably bad as to spoil the spell of the story for several pages. Griggs is introduced in the 55 Cf., F. Marion Crawford, Saracinesea, pp. 61-62. 113 following manner: Paul Griggs, the author, and Walter Crowdie, the artist, came forward into the bright light. Crowdie has been already described. Griggs was a lean, strong, grey haired, plain-featured man of fifty . . . 56 Griggs* description would have been all right had Crawford not preceded it with that unfortunate sentence, "Crowdie has been already described." Even its word order is awkward. Perhaps the most stupid piece of awkwardness occurs in Sant’ Ilario. in the paragraph which follows here in part: Before describing the events which close this part of my story, it is as well to say that Faustina has made her last appearance for the present. From the point of view which would have been taken by most of her-acquaintances, her marriage to Gouache was a highly improbable event. If anyone desires an apology for being left in uncertainty as to her fate, I can only answer that I am writing the history of the Saracinesea and not of anyone else.5? Surely careful revision would have detected and eliminated such tactless opposition to the reader’s curiosity. In summarizing this analysis of the novels according to the topics which have been considered, plot structure, characters, settings, and stylistic characteristics, one finds that the important points which Crawford set forth in his book The Novel: What It Is have been closely adhered to 56 F. Marion Crawford, The Ralstons part II, p. 38. F. Marion Crawford, Sant’ Ilario p. 422. 114 and that they do characterize his novels. The sole object of the novels is to amuse and entertain. With the exception of With The Immortals, which has no plot, all are love sto ries. They deal with romantic adventures which do not fail to depict life and love as enjoyable and interesting. they appeal only to the reader's heart.58 And In almost all of these long novels— in all except The Three Fates, which em phasizes character development, and With The Immortals, in which no plot is attempted— the one important thing is the plot structure. Crawford's plots move swiftly, carried a- long almost wholly by dialogue and action in a rather defi nite pattern to a climax which preceded the end of the tale by only a few pages. The characters, heroes, heroines, and villains, are type characters, each kind sharing common qualities. George Wood of the character novel The Three Fates and several minor characters merit special notice. Variety is the keynote to the settings of the novels. En hanced by concrete details and drawn from experienced knowl edge, many of them are surprisingly effective. Crawford's stylistic characteristics are notably his use of dialogue, his fondness for mystery and the supernatural, and his passion for documentation. The essential defect in his style is his carelessness. The typical Crawford novel, al 58 Cf., questions raised on p. 56 (Chapter III). though it may not evidence as careful craftsmanship as one would like, can be depended upon to provide a colorful back ground, a little mystery--or even a bit .of the supernatural, — a courageous, gentlemanly hero, a charming heroine, a despicable villain,-all of which will be so combined as to furnish the reader with several hours of excellent narra tive. It will not teach him, it will not make him more aware of the life around him, nor will it even stimulate his thinking; but it will amuse and entertain him, and, per haps, it may exact from him a little admiration of the au thor’s ability to tell a story. CHAPTER V THE NOVELETTES AND SHORT-STORIES Although the main volume of Crawford’s writing con sists of the thirty-four full-length novels, discussed in Chapter IV of this thesis, there are in addition ten short novels or novelettes and one volume of short-stories. The novelettes in structure closely resemble the novels and should, therefore, be dealt with first. They are distin guished for their simple narrative and their brevity. This simplicity of style was mentioned before1 and was illustra ted by Crawford’s simple plan for the plots of the novels. The same simple, direct procedure is followed in the short novels. The place and the time (when it is not contempora ry), are indicated at the beginning, at least one and often two main characters are introduced, and the plot begins— all within the first thirty pages. In the case of Khaled: A Tale Of Arabia setting, main characters, and plot have all been defined in the first three pages. As the stories proceed, their simplicity is increasingly evident. .Com plications of the piot, crises, and minor characters exist in a minimum amount. The dialogue is shorter and more concise than it is in the novels. ^ QL* > P* 100, (Chapter IV). From this simplicity of 117 style and construction, the second characteristic, brevity, results. The average novelette is two hundred and fifty- two pages in length. Love In Idleness, covering one hun dred and eighty-six pages, is the shortest; Arethusa, covering three hundred and fifty-five, is the longest.2 Of the ten novelettes, five are well-constructed and interesting, while the other five are Crawford’s weakest sto ries. The best novelettes are the following: Marzio*s Cruci fix (1885), Zoroaster (1885), A Cigarette-Maker’s Romance (1890), Khaled (1891), and Arethusa (1907). These five have one important quality, that is, at mosphere, a quality not found in the novels. Clayton Hamilton has said: It is commonly supposed that what is called ’’atmosphere” in a description is dependent upon the setting forth of a multiplicity of details; but this popular conception is a fallacy. "Atmosphere” is dependent rather upon a strict selection of details pervaded by a common quali ty, a rigorous rejection of all other details that are dissonant in mood, and an arrangement of those selected with a viexv to exhibiting their common quality as the pervading spirit of the scene.^ In the novelettes, which are shorter than novels and which must be less detailed, the selection of details is neces- 2 Although the number of pages would seem to indicate that Arethusa is a novel, its structure forces its classifi cation as a novelette. s Clayton Hamilton, A Manual of th£ Art of Fiction, p. 117. 118 sarily more important'; In the novels the backgrounds or settings were often very real, effective. Mere setting is expanded in the novelettes to include atmosphere. Whereas setting is comparable to the backdrop in a stage play, that necessary background against which, or in front of which the actual play takes place, atmosphere is that which surrounds each character and each action of the play. It is apparent in the language of the narrator and in the dialogue of the actors. For example, Zoroaster opens with the following sentences: The hall of the banquets was made ready for the feast in the palace of Babylon. That night Belshazzar the king would drink wine with a thousand of his lords, and be merry before them; and everything was made ready. From end to end of the mighty nave, the tables of wood,.overlaid with gold and silver, stood spfead with those things which the heart of man can desire; with cups of gold and of glass and of jade; with great dish es heaped high with rare fruits and rarer flowers; and over all, the last purple rays of the great southern sun came floating through the open colonnades of the porch, glancing on the polished marbles, tingeing with a softer hue the smooth red plaster of the walls, and lingering lovingly on the golden features and the redgold draperies of the vast statue that sat on high and overlooked the scene.4 The dialogue, commencing a few pages further on, adopts the same sentence rhythms which are comparable to those found in Isaiah. The young Zoroaster speaks: "Say, 0 Daniel, prophet and priest of the Lord, why does the golden image seem to smile to-day? Are the 4 F. Marion Crawford, Zoroaster, p. 1. 119 times accomplished of the vision which thou sawest in Shushan, in the palace, and is the dead king glad? I think his face was never so gentle before to look upon, — surely he rejoices at the feast, and the countenance of his image is gladdened.5 The basic Biblical rhythm continues throughout the entire story to the final paragraph which reads: And he took the bodies of Zoroaster the high priest, and of Mehushta the queen, and of the little Syrian maid, and he buried them with fine spices and fine lin en, and in plates of pure gold, together in a tomb over against the palace, hewn in the rock of the mountain.6 In Marzio’s Crucifix the atmosphere is that of a silver-smith’s shop. The reader is made to hear the rapping of the hammers and to smell the wax and pitch and "the curi ous indefineable odour exhaled from steel tools in constant use, supplemented by the fumes of Marzio’s pipe.1’’'’ Maud Howe Elliott comments on the realness of Marzio’s studio as Crawford depicted it: Marzio’s Crucifix is to Crawford’s novels what Silas Marner is to George Eliot’s. It bites into the memory as acid on copper plate. The book has dramatic quality, the time covered is only a few days, the characters are alive. The scenes in Marzio*s Crucifix are as careful ly chiselled as the chalice on which the apprentice, Giambattista, is at work. Only a man who has sat at that bench, worked the pedal, used the tiny chisels stuck by hundreds in pots of sand, modelled the strong smelling red wax. could have created the atmosphere of Marzio’s studio.° 5 Ibid., p. 5. 6 Ibid., p. 290. ^ F. Marion Crawford,Marzio’sCrucifix, pp. 4-5. 8 Maud HoweElliott, M£ Cousin, F. MarionCrawfofd, p. 229. ISO Marzio’s shop and the crucifix that he fashions for his masterpiece are the basis for and the conclusion of the plot; they are the links between the characters and the means of binding closely together the characters and the events of the plot. The Italian authoress Ouida was aware of the artistry of this novelette when she wrote: That side of Italian life which is given in Marzio’s Crucifix, for instance, is drawn with an accuracy not to be surpassed. The whole of this story indeed is admirable in its construction and execution. There is not a page one would wish cancelled, and nothing could be added which would increase its excellence,9 Just as the silver-smith’s trade provided a distinct atmosphere for Marzio’s Crucifix, so does the manufacture of cigarettes for A Cigarette-Maker’s Romance. The story of the several Russians, the Polish girl, and one Slav, who earn their scant living by manufacturing hand-made cigar ettes in the dingy backroom of the ’’Famous Cigarette Manu factory of Christian Fischelowitz, from South Russia,” re flects in every instance the pervading influence of the cigarette shop and the curious affinity of these so close ly associated in a foreign country. The story begins in this shop under circumstances emphasizing the social dif ferences which exist among the employees; it ends in the same shop, but in a very different situation, a fact which 9 Ouida, ’’Italian Novels of Marion Crawford,” The Nineteenth Century, 249:719, (November, 1897). 1S1 illustrates how strong the ties of mutual labor and poverty can be. The atmosphere of Khaled: A Tale Of Arabia, like that of any fairy tale, is wholly imaginary, and unbelievable from its opening sentence, "Khaled stood in the third heaven, which is the heaven of precious stones, and of Asrael, the angel of Death,”10 to its equally fantastic conclusion. To maintain this Eastern atmosphere, Crawford has employed Eastern terms even in writing Khaled*s description of Zehovah, the heroine. One daughter only has been born to him in his old age, of such marvellous .beauty that even the Black Eyed Virgins enclosed in the fruit of the tree Sedrat, who wait for the coming of the faithful, would seem but mortal women beside her. Her eyes are as the deep water in the wells of Zobeideh when it is night and the stars are reflected therein. Her hair is finer than silk, red with henna, and abundant as the foliage of the young cypress tree. Her face is as fair as the kernels of young almonds, and her mouth is sweeter than the mellow date and more fragrant than "God mingled with ambergris.11 As descriptions such as this, which appeal to the senses, abound in the Arabian tale, so do vivid similes like the following: Now indeed the quarrel which had been begun by the blow struck in the dark spread suddenly to great dimen sions, for the words spoken were caught up as grains of 10 F. Marion Crawford, Khaled: A Tale Of Arabia, p. 1. 11 Ibid., p. 3. 122 19 sand by the wind and blown into all men’s e a r s . & Arethusa, because it is longer and the tale more com plex, does not produce so striking a single effect as do’the other novelettes just mentioned; however the very time and place, 1376 and Constantinople, do lift it immediately out of the realm of the ordinary. Carl Zeno, an adventurous young Venetian gentleman, and Arethusa, the mysterious slave girl whom he purchased for a friend and then fell in love with, are the only important characters and ones who blend in with the ancient city and the fourteenth century to create an atmosphere. The hero and heroine, the minor characters selected from the strange races which inhabit Constantinople, and the events, such as the buying and selling of Arethusa and the locking up of Omobono, the timid secretary, in the strong-box by the Tartar giant— these persons and events color the atmosphere which gradually emerges from the pages of the story as one of ancient superstitions and hostilities and of strange, almost barbarous customs. Even the delica cies which they eat, baked peacock and rose-leaf preserve, seem in keeping with this atmosphere. What detract from it are the dialogue and the choice of words used to tell the story, for they are, for the most part, colorless and quite modern American. The words of the unfinished song— The waters are blue as the eyes of the Emperor’s daughter, ^ Ibid., p. 211. 123 In the crystal pools of her eyes there are salt tears. The water is both salt and fresh. Over the water to my love, this night, over the water.^3 which serve as a signal for the conspirators in the story, are fitting, but the modern words and ideas carelessly brought in by Crawford destroy the mood of the plot and the place. An example of the latter, introduced as the authorfs opinion, follows: With every woman, to love a man is to feel that she must positively know just where he is going as soon as he is out'of her sight. If it were possible, he should never leave the house without a ticket-of-leave and a policeman followed by a detective to watch both.14 With such exceptions as this last, Arethusa express es a certain atmosphere. As Clayton Hamilton has suggested should be done, all materials out of harmony with the de sired effect have been eliminated from Marzio1s Crucifix. Zoroaster, A Cigarette-Maker*s Romance, and Khaled. In all five novelettes the plot is a series of closely related events. So close is the relationship of these events and so stable is the maintenance of the atmospheric effect that the whole attains to a sense of completeness, rather than to a sense of finish or end, at its conclusion. The brevi ty of the story and the simplicity of the narrative are also factors which determine this desirable effect.. F. Marion Crawford, Arethusa, p. 185. 14 Ibid., p. 197. In each instance— Marzio’s peace of mind and his completion of the wonderful crucifix, Zoroaster’s fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy, the cigarette-maker’s realization of his dream, Khaled*s winning of a human soul, and the Venetian’s con summation of his hopes for Arethusa and for Venice— the conclusion is not the end of the plot, but the completion of a circle commenced in the opening pages* Atmosphere and a sense of completeness are the dis tinguishing qualities of the successful novelettes. The full length novels are too long and too complex ever to at tain these qualities which are peculiar only to short works. The other five novelettes, A Little City of Hope (1907), A Rose of Yesterday (1897), Love In Idleness (1894), Marion Darche (1893) and The Undesirable Governess (1909) do not attain these characteristics and are, therefore, inferior. If it is true that a well-constructed novelette de mands a more careful selection of details, the reverse is probably true, that when the selection is carelessly made the novelette will fail. The careless craftsmanship of Crawford mentioned in the preceding chapter as responsible for the defects in the novels is also responsible for the poor quality of these five novelettes. Love In Idleness is an impossible love story, im possible because the heroine is unattractive. Fanny Tre- hearne’s tactless and unfeminine manner is disclosed in her 125 first conversation with the hero, poor Louis Lawrence, who begins: "I thought you might have somebody stopping with you." "No. Nobody but you. Why do you say stopping in stead of staying? I don’t like it.” "Then I won’t say it again,” answered Lawrence meekly. "Can you drive?" "Oh— well— yes,” replied the young man, rather doubt fully, and looking at the smart little turn-out. Fanny Trehearne fixed her cool grey eyes on his face with a critical expression. "Can you ride?” she asked, pursuing her examination. ”0h yes,— that is— to some extent. I ’m not exactly a circus rider,' you know— but I can get. on.” "Most people can do that. The important thing is not to come off. What can you do anyway? Areyou a good man in a boat? You see I ’ve only met you in society. I ’ve never seen you do anything.”15 In chapter four of this thesis, clever dialogue was named as one of Crawford's pleasing characteristics,-*-6 but in these five novelettes his careless and hurried writing has led him into producing some very awkward and often im possible bits of conversation. for instance, the following is In The LittleCity of Hope, supposed to be part of a conversational speech by a thirteen year old boy to his 1 5 F. Marion Crawford, Love In Idleness, pp. 19-20. 16 Cf., pp. 101-4. (Chapter 17}. 126 father. ’’I'd like to know how!” cried the boy in a tone of protest. ’’You could do sums and you grew up to be a great mathematician and inventor. But what’s the good of a geographician, anyway?”17 What boy of thirteen would use the word ’’geographician”? The boy’s vocabulary is as large as his father's and his practical wisdom is much greater. The story is an uncon vincing Christmas story, in which impossible obstacles are overcome so that Christmas Day may be happy. A Rose of Yesterday begins with the story of a young girl’s imaginary love for her guardian who is thirty-five years older than she and then turns to the involved tale of this same man’s constant but secret love for a married woman. Neither story is at all convincing, and the change from one to another destroys any unity the book might have had. Unity is also lacking in Marion Darche, which attempts to relate two love stories, that of Mrs. Darche and Harry Brett and that of Dolly Maylands and Russell Vanbrugh. Al though the last two are the more interesting couple, most of the plot revolves around the complicated affairs in Mrs. Darche's life. The Undesirable Governess is the impossible story of Ellen Scott who disguises herself as an ugly, even crippled 17 F. Marion Crawford, The Little City of Hope, p. 42, 127 girl in order to attain the position as governess in the household of her lover’s family. The romantic dispositions of the father and several sons make it necessary for the governess of the younger sisters, to be as physically un desirable as possible. The scheme is successful for a time and Ellen wins the affection of lady Jane, the mother, but a second problem arises when the family discovers sat the same time Ellen’s engagement to the eldest son and the mysterious circumstances of her birth. on a doorstep!) (She had been left In the last chapter, however, it is miracu lously revealed that this "undesirable governess’* is really the heiress to one of England’s largest estates. To summarize the characteristics of Crawford’s novel ettes it may be said that in the better ones— in Marzio’s Crucifix, Zoroaster, A Cigarette-Maker’s Romance, Khaled, and Arethusa— the author has achieved a worthy artistic effect by using the most simple narrative and by excluding all details except those which are consistent with the mood of the tale. Of the other five novelettes, it need only be said that they represent the least artistic of all the au thor’s work because they have been artificially composed and carelessly constructed. Clayton Hamilton, in character izing the novelette, said: The novelette deals with fewer characters and incidents than the novel; it usually limits itself to a stricter economy of time and place; it presents a less extensive 128 view of life, with (most frequently) a more intensive art.18 Applying this statement to Crawford’s worthy novelettes proves its truth, for these stories of less extent are written with a more intense, more careful design. Each scene and event, every conversation, all descriptive words point in one direction, toward a single artistic effect. In addition to the novelettes, Marion Crawford wrote seven short stories, which have been collected into one volume entitled Uncanny Tales, or Wandering Ghosts.19 Be cause of their great simplicity of narrative and their singleness of effect, they are the closest literary rela tives of the novelettes and logically should be discussed in this chapter. All of the "Uncanny Tales" contain some thing of the supernatural and horrible. Of this type of tale Edgar Allan Poe was a master and of its artistic possibilities an earnest defender. In the essay Twice-Told Tales he wrote: The tale proper, in our opinion, affords unquestionably the fairest field for the exercise of the loftiest talent, which can be afforded by the wide domains of mere prose. fie allude to the short prose narrative, requiring from Clayton Hamilton, o£. cit., p. 173. Uncanny Tales was the title to the volume published in Britain. The Macmillan edition published in New York was titled Wandering Ghosts. 129 a half-hour to one or two hours in its perusal. The ordinary novel is objectionable, from its length, for reasons already stated in substance. As it cannot be read at one sitting, it deprives itself, of course, of the immense force derivable from totality. . . . A skillful literary artist has constructed a tale. If wise, he has not fashioned his thoughts to accommo date his incidents; but having conceived, with delib erate care, a certain unique or single effect to be wrought out, he then invents such incidents--he then combines such events as may best aid him in establish ing this preconceived effect. If his very initial sentence tends not to the outbringing of this effect, then he has failed in his first step. In the whole composition there should be no word written, of which the tendency, direct or indirect, is not to the one pre-established design. It may be added here, par parenthese, that the author who aims at the purely beautiful in a prose tale is laboring at great disadvantage. For Beauty can be better treated in the poem. Not so with terror, or passion, or horror, or a multitude of such other points.20 Even such a modern writer as Clayton Hamilton saw the importance of the singleness of effect that Poe emphasized, when he wrote and italicized the following aim of a shortstory: The aim of a short-story is to produce a single narra tive effect with the greatest economy of means that is consistent with the utmost emphasis.21 Although Crawford did not express— at least not in writing— any so well-thought-out or so artistic a purpose for his short-stories, it is evident that he planned each 20 Edgar Allan Poe, '’Twice-Told Tales,” Graham’s Magazine. 20:298-99, May, 1842. 2-*- Clayton Hamilton, ojd . cit., p. 177. 130 compact tale with care and with a technique very like Poe's. The stories are, for horror tales, exceptionally well done. They are from twenty-three to sixty-eight pages long, a fact which indicates not only a .brevity .of words and pages hut a singleness of purpose and a simplicity of narrative as well. Of the seven tales, two, The Dead Smile and The Doll's Ghost, are related by the author omniscient. The other five are told in the first person, and one of these The Screaming Skull is a monologue. The single point of view in these five and especially the monologue form are effective in add ing to the authority of the horror and of the supernatural occurrences. The three most effective tales, the monologue The Screaming Skull, Man Overboard 122 and The Upper Berth23 abide by the rules set forth by Poe to a surprising degree. To illustrate, one might consider the structure of The Screaming Skull, which begins with the short, yet de scriptive sentence, "I have often heard it scream."24 From this arresting statement, the old sailor continues his tale, or his half of the conversation with his friend. The mono logue covers a period of several hours during a windy night 22 This tale was published singly by the Macmillan Company in 1903 at New York and at London. 2*5 This tale was first published by P. B. Putnam’s Sons in 1894 in Volume I of Antonym Library. 24 F. Marion Crawford, Uncanny Tales, p. 43. 151 in a house close to the sea. Alarming incidents occur dur ing these hours and are related through the colorful lan guage of the badly frightened sailor, until at length he bids good-night to his friend, saying, "Good-night, again, and don’t dream about that thing if you can."25 The mono logue ends here, but the story is concluded by a single paragraph taken from a newspaper telling the circumstances of the mysterious death several weeks later of this retir ed sea captain. From the opening sentence to the last noth ing is told but the actual story of "the screaming skull"; no word occurs that does not, at least indirectly, contri bute to the narrative proper or to the mood of the tale. In somewhat the same manner Man Overboard! begins by the narrator's recalling, "Yes, I have heard ’man over board! ’ a good many times since I was a boy, and once or twice I have seen the man go."2® This story, however, lacks suspense because the narrator knows the ending; where as the captain who is telling about the screaming skull is experiencing some of its horrors at the very time of his narration. The Upper Berth doesn’t commence as quickly as the the others. In the beginning the narrator remarks on the 25 Ibid., p. 94. 26 Ibid., p. 99. 132 stupidity of the conversation that evening, describes the men who were present and one, Brisbane, in particular. And then: "It is a very singular thing," said Brisbane. Everybody stopped talking. Brisbane’s voice was not loud, but possessed a peculiar quality of penetrating general conversation, and cutting it like a knife. Everybody listened. Brisbane, perceiving that he had attracted their general attention, lit his cigar with great equanimity. "It is very singular," he continued, "that thing about ghosts. People are always asking whether anybody has seen a ghost. I have."27 So the story is at last begun by.Brisbane about the ghost that inhabited the upper berth of state-room 105 aboard the Kamtschatka. Brisbane’s description of this strange sleep er is quite clear and definite for so unearthly a thing. It was something ghostly, horrible beyond words, and it moved in my grip. It was like the body of a man long drowned, and yet it moved, and had the strength of ten men living; but I gripped it with all my might— the slippery, oozy, horrible thing— the dead white eyes seemed to stare at me out of the dusk; the putrid odour of rank sea-water was about it, and its shiny hair hung in foul wet curls over its dead face. I wrestled with the dead thing; it thrust itself upon me, so that I, at last, cried aloud and fell, and left my hold.28 In the story it is the daylight, sane atmosphere and the abundance of realistic details that make the existence of this ghost sleeper seem possible. 27 Ibid., pp. 201-202. 28 Ibid., P« 225. 133 Several characteristics of Marion Crawford’s writing which were apparent in the novels and in the novelettes are also obvious in these few short-stories. The supernatural is the most important characteristic here, for all seven tales are highly supernatural. Crawford’s interest in the sea and his working knowledge as a sailor are again em ployed in four of the stories. One of the author’s numerous documentary notes follows The Screaming Skull and reads: Note.— Students of ghost lore and haunted houses will find the foundation of the foregoing story in the legends about a skull which is still preserved in the farmhouse called Bettiscomb Manor, situated, I believe, on the Dorsetshire coast.29 And again one finds evidence of Crawford's carelessness, al though the short-stories seem to have been more carefully planned than many of the longer works. The carelessness here is evidenced by the unnecessary repetition of the same simile in two stories. In The Dead Smile the following sen tence occurs: Sir Hugo’s face seemed, at best, to be made of fine parchment drawn skin-tight over a wooden mask, in which two eyes were sunk out of sight, and peered from far within through crevices under the slanting, wrinkled lids, alive and watchful like two toads in their holes, side by side and exactly alike.30 The following two sentences appear on successive pages of The Screaming Skull. 29 Ibid., p. 96. 20 Ibid., p. 3. 154 Luke was a red-headed man with a pale face when he was young, and he was never stout; in middle age he turned a sandy grey, and after his son died he grew thinner and thinner, till his head looked like a skull with parchment stretched over it very tight, and his eyes had a sort of glare that was very disagreeable to look at.31 I'm not nervous or imaginative, but I can quite believe he might have sent a sensitive woman into hysterics— his head looked so much like a skull in parchment.32 Although the novelettes and short-stories represent only about one fourth of Marion CrawfordTs fiction— eleven volumes out of a total forty-five, they represent, in some respects, his best writing. And paradoxically, the five unsatisfactory novelettes are his weakest stories. The others, Marzio'_s Crucifix, Zoroaster, A Cigarette-Maker's Romance, Khaled, and Arethusa, illustrate Crawford’s story telling ability quite as ?/ell as do the best of the full length novels, and in addition they show a certain compact ness and a kind of concise vividness not evident in the long novels. The careful selection of their details pro duces a new quality in Crawford's writing, atmosphere. The compactness and the atmosphere of the novelettes make them complete stories, each of which produces a definite artistic effect. To attain this effect Crawford was necessarily a more careful craftsman when writing these novelettes than 51 Ibid., p. 48. 32 ibid.» P* 49. 135 when writing the long novels. The single artistic effect which Poe advocated Crawford attained in four of the six "uncanny tales." These stories too have been carefully composed, and in them each event, each paragraph, and some times each word has been thoughtfully chosen to heighten the desired tone and mood of the tale. From this it would seem that the careful craftsmanship forced upon Crawford by these shorter works should have proved that his field was short fiction, and yet the weak novelettes indicate that these when carelessly done are the worst failures. The careless novels still retain the benefits of the author’s narrative talent. The novelettes do not have this to lean upon. Much the same conclusion, then, must be drawn in regard to these short works as was done in regard to the novels. When not marred or wholly destroyed by careless ness, the novelettes and the short-stories are interesting tales, containing effects of atmosphere in the novelettes and of horror in the short-stories that are long remember ed. As in the novels, character is not important; plot is what attracts and then holds the reader’s interest. One quality they have which separates them' from the novels, the quality of atmosphere produced by a consistent tone of mood throughout the tale, evident in each event, each setting, and each character, at the same time controlling the plot and emerging from it to tie, or weave, together the begin ning and end of each tale. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION Thirty-two years is but a fragment in the history of American Literature, far too short a period in which to de termine the place of a single.author. Marion Crawford died on April 9, 1909, and since that date his influence upon literature, his popularity with the reading public, and his interest to the critics have steadily diminished. Litera ture in general has turned its back upon the fiction that strove only to entertain, tending more and more to face realism and its accompanying interest in the social studies. When the stream of novels and novelettes, which had appeared for twenty-seven years at the rate of more than one and onehalf stories a year, ceased abruptly, the interest the read ing public had had in them and their author disappeared. Because Crawford has not been followed by any notable au thors who have tried to imitate his works or to uphold his creed, the critics have ceased to mention him, except in instances where his period or the entire group of romantics is studied. The numerous reviews of his novels and the many maga zine articles, such as those by Ouida, Frederic Taber Cooper, and W. P. Trent, which appeared from 1882 until about 1912, testify to his popularity during those years. E. F. Harkins 137 in a volume of sketches on American literary figures, pub lished in 1901, wrote of Crawford: He is easily the best known of the American authors who make their homes abroad.1 Mr. Crawford has frequently been called "a born novelist,” and we have yet to find a critic who, judg ing him by all that he has done, is inclined to deny him the right to that high title. His dialogue is vivid, his problems, as a rule, logically worked out, his dramatic situations strong and timely.2 Frederic Taber Cooper, who published an article in The Forum a month after Crawford's death and who included him in his volume Some American Story Tellers, published in 1911, was possibly the first to attempt to speak serious ly of his real merit. In the latter volume, he asserted; Whatever position may be assigned to him now or here after in English letters, it must be conceded that he was first, last, and always a prince of story tellers, whose title was inborn and not acquired.3 What place will be ultimately assigned to Mr. Craw ford in the history of fiction it is somewhat early to predict. Excepting as a conservative force, it is doubtful whether he has influenced the formal develop ment of the modern novel in any important degree. It has sometimes been claimed that Mr. Crawford was in a measure responsible for the modern spread of cos mopolitanism in fiction, but at best it must have been a remote influence, since his was of that rare and per fect. kind that few others possess the skill to imitate.4 1 1. F. Harkins, Famous Authors (Men), p. 169. 2 Ibid., p. 181. 3 Frederic Taber Cooper, Some American Story Tellers, p. 2. 4 Ibid.• PP- 22-25. 138 Four years later Fred Lewis Pattee wrote a limited, but rather complete history, A History of American Litera ture Since 1870, in which he devoted about seven pages to Marion Crawford and his fiction. Pattee, for the first time writing as one who is looking back on the period and is see ing the author in that period, is especially impressed by Crawford's cosmopolitanism and says: No other American novelist has ever covered so much territory. He wins us first with his worldliness, his vast knowledge of the surface of life in all lands. He is full of cosmopolitan comparisons, wisdom from everywhere, modern instances from Stamboul and Allahabad and Rome. To read him is like walking through foreign scenes with a fully informed guide, a marvelous guide, indeed, a patrician, a polished man of the world. He has told his stories well; he holds his reader's interest to. the end. Slight though his stories may often be-in development, they are ingenious always in construction and they are cumulative in interest. He has undoubted dramatic power, sparkling dialogue, thrust and parry, whole novels like Saracinesca, for instance, that might be transferred to the stage with scarcely an alteration.5 Pattee closes his otherwise careful analysis with the follow ing compliment: He stands undoubtedly as the most brilliant of the American writers of fiction, the most cosmopolitan, the most entertaining. His galaxy of Roman novels, especial ly the Saracinesca group, bids fair to outlive many novels that contain deeper studies of human life and that are more inspired products of literary art.6 5 Fred Lewis Pattee, A History of American Literature Since 1870, pp. 390-92. 6 Ibid., p. 393. 139 In 1930, a decade and a half after the publication of Pattee’s history, Vernon Farrington’s history of the Be ginnings of Critical Realism In America was published. This period is said to cover the years 1860-1920, but the author states: American taste was still romantic, and from his villa at Florence,” F. Marion Crawford regularly sent forth heavy romances that were regarded as contributions to our literature.8 The interval of fifteen years between this and the statements of Pattee seems to have tempered considerably the enthusiasm for Crawford. In addition to the reference quoted above, Parrington mentions The Novel: What It l£ as a "retort court eous to Howells’ contention that plot is childish and a sto ry ends well that ends faithfully.”9 He is, however, not fair to Crawford’s novels in that the only one he mentions is An American Politician which he analyzes and finds absurd, as it certainly is.10 Because it is one of the three or four actually poor novels of all that Crawford wrote, Mr. Parrington should have acknowledged this fact and have indi cated that the other novels were different in theme and, for ^ Crawford’s villa was at Sorrento. There is no in dication that he ever lived in or near Florence. 8 Vernon L. Parrington, Main Currents In American Thought, Volume III ”The Beginnings of Critical Realism In America,” p. 237. 9 Hoc. cit. 10 Ibid*» PP* 171-72. 140 the most part, better constructed. Russell Blankenship, studying Crawford as one of the three American romantics of the late nineteenth century, reaffirms the merits which Pattee and others had commended and indicates clearly his place in that period of American Literature. Writing books that accorded with his theory of litera ture, he stressed vivid color, action, adventure, artificial plot, and unusual characters.' . . . So clearly did Crawford state his creed, and so intelli gently did he construct his novels according to that creed, that he became the most capable champion of the American romantics, just as Howells was the acknowl edged leader of the realists. Crawford wrote a large number of novels in a rather short life, but in all his books he is entertaining, and in some he reaches a high degree of narrative skill. As a novelist Crawford excels only in plot movement. He tells a story well, so very well that the reader overlooks the flagrant use of time-honored melodramatic devices, the inability to create convincing characters, and the many artificial props used to sustain suspense.11 The comments of these several American literary his torians have furnished the only criticism of Marion Crawford since his death. In June of 1940, however, there appeared as a preview of Mew England: Indian Summer, which was about to be published, an article by the. author Van Wyck Brooks in which an excellent sketch and criticism of Crawford is included. The most telling part of the article follows. 11 Russell Blankenship, American Literature, pp. 547-48. 141 He [Crawford] was an improvisator, a story-teller, natu ral, nonchalant, easy, and the art of the novel was al ways the least of his cares. Personally brilliant, he was anything but a brilliant writer, and problems of technique and social problems, which occupied the minds of James and Howells, were far from his intellectually simple world. His fresh, brisk style was in no way distinguished, and his characterizations were general and somewhat blurred. His people were puppets in what he called a "pocket theatre,” and one scarcely recalled their traits when the curtain fell. But his narrative gift was astonishing, and his interest in life was eager and inexhaustible, wide, and observant. Add to this versatility, which was truly astounding, his lucidity, his energy, his dash, and the zest and masculine charm that informed his writing, and one understood the vogue of Marion Crawford, with his tone of a clever, accom plished man of the world.12 There is no disagreement regarding Crawford’s story telling skill nor the interest in first-hand knowledge of strange, foreign cities which the novels arouse. These were the bases for his popularity during his life and these will probably be the bases for his place in future American lit erary histories. When one comprehends the variety in time, in scene, and in plot to be found in Crawford’s stories, one can understand more easily the popularity or vogue that he enjoyed for more than thirty years. An article in The American Review of Reviews for May, 1909 makes the follow ing statements: Before he had passed his fortieth year, eighteen of his novels had been published, and at the time of his 12 Yan Wyck Brooks, ’’Writers of The Eighties,” The Saturday Review of Literature, 22:4, (June, 1940.) 142 death, after twenty-seven years of writing, there was a list of forty titles accredited to him in the pub lisher’s catalogues. Of these woyks it is stated that 2,000,000 copies have been sold.10 Only twelve years after the publication of M r . Isaacs, in 1894, W. P. Trent wrote: If he was disappointed in not finding one of his novels in the list of ten best American books compiled not long since from votes given by the readers of a well-known literary weekly (a list which admitted General Wallace’s Ben Hur, but had no room for Cooper’s hast of The Mohicans), he has recently been consoled by learning from the pages of one of the monthlies that at least five of his novels are in constant demand at the public libraries and that he ranks fifteenth in popularity among all novelists, living or dead, who are known to the readers that patronize those institu tions .14 The fact that at least two of his works were published in French is attested by a footnote to this same article which reads: Nevertheless the French Adademy awarded the author a medal for it rZoroaster] and for Marzio’s Crucifix, the French versions of which were both from Mr. Crawford’s facile pen. The popularity of the Crawford stories is proved further by the fact that four of the ’’pocket-stages” actu ally were produced upon the stage. Concerning Crawford’s 1^ Marion Crawford, ’The Novelist,” The American Review of Reviews, 39:636> (May, 1909.) 14 W. P. Trent, ”M r ..Crawford’s Novels,” The Sewanee Review, 2:240, (February; 1894.) 1^ Ibid., p. 255 (footnote). 143 dramatic ability, the Encyclopaedia Britannica states: **lt was but natural, therefore, that A Cigarette-Maker’s Romance should be effective upon the stage . . .**16 Of the other dramatizations, Mrs. Elliott writes: Crawford was haunted by the desire to write plays, or to have his novels dramatized. Dr. Claudius was produced in New York, where it held the stage only one week. In The Palace of The King, Crawford’s most successful play, was produced by Viola Allen and had a long run. . . . The most popular cinema adaptation of his stories is probably The White Sister. From time to time the dramatic movie appears upon the screen, vastly changed, however, and not to its profit from the story Crawford tells.I? The novels, the novelettes, the short-stories— all are easy to read. . They are true to the creed; they only entertain. None contains anything to challenge the reader’s beliefs, his theories, or his knowledge. None imparts a single new idea. The faults in Crawford’s fiction are many. obvious is a fault in technique. The most The author is careless. Careless inaccuracies of plot, careless repetitions of phrases, and careless and abrupt conclusions occur through out all the works. But in this not to be expected of one who wrote as much and was as busy as Marion Crawford? Charles D. Lanier gives the following amazing information? 16 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume VI, p. 649. 17 Maud Howe Elliott, 0 £. cit., pp. 278-79. 144 The Chronicler of the Saracinesca told me recently that in twenty-five working days, broken only by Sundays, he' had completed a story of over 150,000 words, and that in his own manuscript. This gives the enormous average of 6,000 words per day . . .1° Maud Howe Elliott speaks of his extraordinary energy and says: His working hours were from nine till noon, then a brief respite, a light lunch, and at it again till the daily stint of five thousand words was done.10 Norman Douglas, who was admittedly influenced by Crawford’s financial success, adds some details of how he spent his time when he wasn’t writing. He cruised about in summer, lectured three months in America, his native country, and passed a few days every year in London discussing business with his pub lisher, Macmillan.20 Had Crawford been less ambitious, less prolific and more discriminating, he would undoubtedly have been a bet ter writer. Fred Lewis Pattee makes the following indictment against him. His works are without deep emotion, without tenderness, without altruism, without the higher reaches of imagi nation. He has no social or moral purpose as Howells had. He sees the body, but not the soul, society rather than life in its deeper currents, a society mar velously complex in its requirements and its accouter ments, its conventions and traditions, but he looks lit tle below the superficial, the temporal, the merely worldly. . . . He writes of the human spectacle and is content if he brings amusement for the present moment. . . . He wrote rapidly and easily, and his Style is 1Q Charles D. Lanier, **F. Marion Crawford, Novelist,** The Review of Reviews, 6:712. 19 Maud Howe Elliott, 0£. cit., p. 160. 20 Norman Douglas, Looking Back, p. 402. 145 clear and natural, but it is also without distinction. His pictures are vividly drawn and his stories are ex ceedingly readable— journalistic excellencies, but there is nothing of inspiration about them, no breath of genius, no touch of literature in the stricter sense of that word.21 These weaknesses which Pattee indicates may be accounted for by pointing out a weakness in Crawford’s creed. In the monograph The Novel: What It Is, Crawford openly op poses the inclusion of social or moral purposes and stress es the importance of the plot. The novel, he insists, should resemble a pocket-stage whose sole purpose is to en tertain.22 The over-stress upon plot brings in several accompanying defects. incidence. 23 One of these is the overuse of co Another is the secondary place accorded the characters, who necessarily become mere types, not living as individuals but coming to life occasionally to move the plot along.24 A third fault resulting from Crawford’s ab sorbing interest in plot is the reader’s feeling (expressed by Mr. Pattee), that he is seeing only the surface, the outside of society and of life; he sees the pictures clear ly, he is actually witness to the happenings and events, 21 Fred Lewis Pattee, op. cit., p. 393. 22 cf., Marion Crawford, The Novel: What It Is, pp. 43-49. 23 Cf., p. 61, (Chapter IV). 24: £f. , p. 72, (Chapter IV). 146 but lie never understands the great emotions and the larger causes beneath that make the pictures and underlie the events. ■From the forty-five volumes of fiction, the shortstories, novelettes, and novels that Marion Crawford produced--from this immense store come tales that move swiftly toward a great and dramatic climax; tales that are mysteri ous as well as mystical and unearthly; tales that are sheer love-stories; tales that deal with huge spectacles of soci ety, such as the Roman aristocracy after i860 in the Saracinesca trilogy, or the peoples of the Second Crusade in Via Crucis, or the nobility of the court of Philip II of Spain in In The Palace of The King; tales that are tiny scenes, compact and complete as Marzio1s Crucifix, Zoro aster, and A Cigarette-Maker1s Romance; tales that range in time from the days of Daniel the prophet to the year of the author's death and that stretch in place from Persia and Constantinople across Europe and the Atlantic Ocean to New York and Boston. All these are to be found in the fiction of.F. Marion Crawford. Although Crawford's popularity has declined rapidly since his death in 1909* it does not seem probable that his name will ever be entirely unknown. Just as the popular magazines publish stories which appeal to those who read only for entertainment, so there must be novels which may be read easily and for the same purpose. That Crawford’s stories, or the best of them may always be found among these may well be. It seems likely that a few of the short-stories will hold a permanent and worthy place in the field of horror stories. The Screaming Skull, Man Overboard and The Upper Berth, as tales of sheer horror, are excellent The last one was recently included under proper classifica tion in the volume The Rise of Realism, published in 1933.25 A study of the short novels or novelettes in Ameri can fiction would necessitate the inclusion of the more artistic Crawford novelettes, such as Marzio’s Crucifix, Zoroaster, and A Cigarette-Maker’s Romance. These three are such delicate stories and such true pictures of their re spective countries and eras, that they may stand out more significantly after a longer passage of time. Likewise several of the novels, Saracinesca, Mariet ta, Pietro Ghisleri, and Stradella, as representative of the Italian series, and M r . Isaacs, the unbelievable story of India, may be significant in American Literature as novels whose greatest assets were their foreign setting and their skillful narrative. It has been the purpose of this thesis to ascertain the merit of F. Marion Crawford as an author and the place 25 Cf., Louis Wann, editor, The Rise of Realism. 148 of his fiction in American literature. It is hoped that Crawford’s merit has been established as that of a story teller, whose ambition was to be the kind of author that he actually was* one who told a variety of entertaining sto ries in a skillful manner. It is hoped further that the place of Crawford’s fiction has been determined as that re presentative of the popular, light romanticism evident at the turn of the century and representative of the public taste for literature which was essentially genteel and polished and not only decidedly non-American but foreign in atmosphere. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY I. PRIMARY SOURCES--THE WORKS OP P. MARION CRAWFORD A. NOVELS M r . Isaacs. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1882. D r . Claudius. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1883* A Roman Singer. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, X8S41— To Leeward. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1884. An American Politician. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1885* A Tale of A Lonely Parish. IH8FT------ ------ New York: Macmillan and Co., Paul Patoff. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1887 Saracinesca. London: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1887 . With The Immortals. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1888. Griefenstein. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1889* Sant * Ilario. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1889 . The Witch of Prague. The Three Pates. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1891 . New York: Macmillan and Co., 1892. The Children of The King. 1892 . New York: Macmillan and Co., Don Orsino. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1892. Pietro Ghisleri. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1892. Casa Braccio. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1894. Katherine Lauderdale♦ New York: Macmillan and Co., 1894. 151 The Ralstons. Rev York: Macmillan and Co., 1895* Adam Johnstone»s Son. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1895* Taquisara. Corleone. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1895* 2 vols. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1896 . Via Crucis. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1898 . In The Palace of The King. 1900 . New York: The Macmillan Co., Marietta. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1901. Cecilia. New York: The Heart of Rome. The Macmillan Company, 1902. New Whosoever Shall Offend. 1904. Fair Margaret. York: TheMacmillan Company, 1905* New York: The Macmillan Company, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1905* A Lady of Rome. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1906 . The Primadonna. Stradella. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1908. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909* The White Sister. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909* B. NOVELETTES Zoroaster. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1885 . Marzio»s Crucifix. New York: Macmillan and Co., I8 8 7 . A Cigarette-Maker's Romance. New York: Macmillan and Co., Khaled. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1891 . Marlon Darche. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1893Love in Idleness. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1893* 152 A Rose of Yesterday. ~1B97- New York: The Macmillan Company, Arethusa. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1907* The Little City of Hope. 1907. New York: The Macmillan Company, The Undesirable Governess. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909• C. SHORT-STORIES Wandering Ghosts (British title, Uncanny Tales). The Macmillan Company, 1911• D. The Novel: What It ]Cs. New York: CRITICISM New York: Macmillan and Co., 1893* E . ESSAY Constantinople♦ New York: Charles Scribner*s Sons, 1895 . F . HISTORY Ave Roma Immortalis. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1898 . 153 II. SECONDARY SOURCES A. BOOKS Blankenship, Russell, American Literature. Holt and Company, 1931. pp. 543-52. New York: Henry Cooper, Frederic Taber, Some American Story Tellers. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1911. pp. 1-26. Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. IV. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1930. pp. 519-20. Douglas, Norman, Looking Back. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1933. pp. 370-410. Elliott, Maud Howe, My Cousin, F. Marion Crawford. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1934. 312 pp. Encyclopaedia Britannica, fourteenth edition, Vol. VI. York: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1929. New Hamilton, Clayton, A Manual of The Art of Fiction. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1926. pp. 1-225. Harkins, E. F . , Famous Authors (Men), and Co., 1901. pp. 169-83. Boston: L. C. Page Farrington, Vernon L . , The Beginnings of Critical Realism in America. Vol. Ill, M a m Currents in American Literature. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1930. pp. 171-72; 237-39. Pattee, Fred Lewis, A History of American Literature Since 1870. New York: The Century Company, 1915. pp. 381-93. Perry, Bliss, A Study of Prose Fiction. Mifflin Company, 1920. 397 pp. New York: Houghton, Stevenson, Robert Louis, "A Gossip On Romance,** Essays. R. L. Phelps, editor. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906. _______, "On Some Technical Elements of Style In Literature," Essays of Travel And In The Art of Writing. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1923. 154 Trent, W. P., et. al., Later National Literature. Part II, Vol. IV, The Cambridge History of American Literature. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1921. Wann, Louis, editor, The Rise of Realism 1860-1888. Vol. Ill, American Literature: A Period Anthology. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1923. pp. 797-99. B. PERIODICALS Brett, George P., "P. Marion Crawford: Novelist and Histo rian,” The Outlook. XII (April 24, 1909), 915-17. Brooks, Van Wyck, "Writers of The Eighties," The Saturday Review of Literature, XXII (June 8, 1940), 3-4. Cooper, Frederic Taber, "Marion Crawford," The Forum, YT.T (May, 1909), 488-91. Fraser, Mary Crawford, "Notes of A Romantic Life," Collier's XLV (April 23, 1910), 22-24. Lanier, Charles D. , "F. Marion Crawford, Novelist," The Review of Reviews, VI (January, 1893), 712-15. "Marion Crawford, The Novelist," The American Review of Reviews, XXXIX (May, 1909), 636-37. "The Novels of Mr. Marion Crawford," The Living Age, XXXII (August 25, 1906), 451-65. Ouida (Maria Louise de la Ramee), "Italian Novels of Marion Crawford," The Nineteenth Century, CCXLIX (November. 1897), 719-33. Poe, Edgar Allan,. "Twice-Told Tales," Graham’s Magazine, XX (May, 1842), 297-99. Trent, W. P., "Mr. Crawford's Novels," The Sewanee Review. II (February, 1894), 239-56.