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A study of mental factors and socio-economic background of seniors in high school

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This thesis, having been approved by the
special Faculty Committee, is accepted by
the Committee on Graduate Study o f the
University o f Wyoming,
in partial fu lfillm en t o f the requirements
.......
Chairman o f the Committee on Graduate Study.
..
Secretary.
Date
.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A STUDY OF MENTAL FACTORS AMD SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROU1D
OF SENIORS IN HIGH SCHOOL
by
Henry L. Reb.be, Jr.
Thesis submitted to the College of
Education and the Committee on Graduate
Study at the University of Wyoming in
partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Arts
Laramie, Wyoming
1940
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UMI Number: EP21118
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fhe writer wishes to acknowledge
his obligation to or. I. h, Kilzer,
Professor of ltd.uco.tio r ; 'Tniversity of
x y c a i n l o r xao ju ia'ii,cc yxvon xr O-X
^reparation of this tresis.
The writer is also grate fu.1 to
tue school acuoiiiistrotors of f.~e high
schools
in rarena County, Illinois,
<
v/iio o . i c e o .
ixi g n l a e r i h g
th e se
a u to .
II. L. h.
:h
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iii
TABLE OF CONTESTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
INTRODUCTION
.............................
.................
.
The Problem
Delimitation of the Problem ...............
Definition of Terms U s e d .................
The Significance and heed of the Study of
the Problem
..........
P r o c e d u r e .......................... .
II.
III.
IV.
6
6
8
......................
17
A STUDY OF MENIAL FACTORS OF HIGH-SCHOOL
SENIORS
...................
19
Instrument of m e a s u r e m e n t .................
Mental Factors
............................
P r o c e d u r e .................
Summary of Chapter
. . . . .
...........
19
20
21
34
A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF
HIGH-SCHOOL SENIORS
.................
35
Instrument of M e a s u r e m e n t .................
Socio-Economic Factors
....................
Findings
..........................
Summary of C h a p t e r ........................
V.
1
2
2
..............
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .
Summary of Chapter
1
35
36
36
42
A STUDY OF THE CORRELATIONS EXISTING BETWEEN
CERTAIN MENTAL FACTORS AID CERTAll
VECTORS OF SOCIO ECONOMIC BACKGROUND
...
46
Phases Considered . . . . .................
Findings
. . . . . . .
...................
Summary of C h a p t e r ........................
46
46
58
VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AID RECO IDATIONS
. .
S u m m a r y .................
Conclusions
.................
R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ............................
60
60
61
62
B I B L I O G R A P H Y .................
63
APPENDIX
65
.....................
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iv
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I,
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
PAGE
Lata Concerning Bureau County Sign Schools . .
Distribution of Raw Scores on Henmon-lelson
Tests of Mental Ability, Form A .......
4
23
Distribution of Mental A g e s ..................
Distribution
of
26
1 .0,.' s . . . . . . . . . . .
. 29
Distribution
of
Scores on Grade Dorm Levels
of General Intelligence ....................
32
Distribution of Raw Scores on Sims' SocioEconomic Score C a r d ..........
37
Distribution of Weighted Socio-Economic Scores
40
Distribution of Scores on Socio-Economic
L e v e l s .................................
43
Scores on Sims' Score Card for Socio-Economic.
72
S t a t u s .................................
Intelligence and Socio-Economic Scores . . . .
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81
V
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
I.
II.
III.
17.
7.
PAGE
Map of Bureau County, Illinois, Showing Loca­
tions of all Four-Year High Scnools . . . .
Frequency Polygon of Raw Scores on Henmon-Lelson Tests of Mental Ability, Form A . . . .
24
Frequency Polygon of Mental-Ages
..............
28
..................
31
Frequency Polygon of Scores on Grade Norm
level of I n t e l l i g e n c e ......................
33
Frequency Polygon of I.^.’s
71.. Frequency Polygon of Raw Scores on Sims'
Socio-Economic Score Card .................
711.
7III.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIY.
X7.
3
39
Frequency Polygon of Weighted Socio-Economic
S c o r e s ........................
41
Frequency Polygon of Scores on Socio-Economic
L e v e l s ..............................
44
Distribution and Relationship of Pup il ’s I.R.
and Education of P a r e n t s .................
47
Distribution and Relationship of Pupil's I.A.
and number of Boohs and Magazines in the
Home
........................
49
Distribution and Relationship of Pu p i l ’s I.R.
and Occupation of F a t h e r .................
51
Distribution and Relationship of Henmon-ilels o n ’s Raw Scores and Sims’ Raw Scores . . .
52
Distribution and Relationship of Mental Ages
and Si m s ’ Weighted Scores ..................
54
Distribution and Relationship of Pupil's I.CU
and Sims’ Weighted Scores .................
56
Distribution and Relationship of General In­
telligence Level and Socio-Economic level .
57
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vi
LIST OF FORMS
FOIMS
I.
II.
III.
IY.
FAGS
Socio-Economic Questionnaire
.
...............
66
Items on the Sims' Score Card for SocioEconomic Status
.................
68
Method for Computing the Total Score on Sims’
Score C a r d ...................................
69
Classification of Father's Occupation into
Proper Group
.
.............
70
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PXJ Vp X i J iQ
T
l
-iK jx ± .J Z L ii.
I1JTROD 'JCTIOH
The Problem.
Only a century ago a very small percent­
age of the children of secondary-school age in the United
States attended a secondary school.
During the last few
decades an ever-increasing percentage of such children has
attended that school.
Instead of having only the children
of the rich and of the professional people in the secondary
school, we now have to provide for the education of children
whose parents are in every wall of life.
There is a differ­
ence of opinion regarding the general intelligence of the
pupils in this new influx as compared with that of the pu­
pils with a higher socio-economic background.
The purpose
of the present study is to determine the relationship of the
socio-economic background to the general intelligence of the
high-school seniors of Bureau County, Illinois.
The present study deals with the following considera­
tions:
(1) determination of the general intelligence of the
high-school seniors; (2) determination of the socio-economic
background of the high-school seniors;
(3) determination of
the correlation between education of parents and general in­
telligence of the pupil;
(4) determination of the correla­
tion between occupation engaged in by the father ana general
intelligence of the pupil;
(5} determination of the correla­
tion between number of books and magazines in the home and
the general intelligence of the pupil;
(6) determination of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the correlation of the score on Sims' socio-economic score
card aia, the general intelligence of the pupil; and (7) de­
termination of tne need for a school record of the socio­
economic status as well as the pupil's 1.1. in order to get
a truer picture of him.
Delimitation of the Problem.
The present study includ­
es 41? of the 451 seniors in the 15 high schools of Bureau
County, Illinois.
The geographic location of the schools
included is shown on the mao in figure I.
Data concerning
the public aigh schools in this county are given in Table I.
The present writer admits that at least three standard­
ized tests of general intelligence should have been adminis­
tered ana the average of the two agreeing most closely for
each individual should hava been used as the measure of gen­
eral intelligence.
The administrators in the 15 high school
would not agree to give enough of the seniors'
time for more
than one test of this kind during tne spring•of the senior
year.
Hot all the material on the socio-economic question­
naire has been made, use of.
Only the 13 items needed to
fill out the Sims' score card have been used in the present
study because it covers too large a scope for one study.
Only those public schools in Bureau County, Illinois,
that graduated pupils from the twelfth grade in tne spring
of 1S40 nave been included in the present study.
Definition of Terms Used.
The following definitions or
characterizations of terms serve to make the present discus-
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3
FIGURE I
MnP OF BUREAU OOUUTT, I1LIIOIS,
S H O O T S LOCATIONS OF ALL FOUR-YEAR PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS
10
15
12
13
Seale; one inch equals six miles
Key
1 Buda
6 Manlius
11 Sneffield
2 Bureau Township
7 Mineral
12 Spring Valley
3 Depue
8 Heponset
13 Tislilwa
4 Lamoille
9 Ohio
14 Walnut
5 Malden
10 Princeton
15 Wyanet
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4
TABLE I
DATA COHGAADIL G BUHLAC CDUSTY HIGH SCHOOLS
School
1 Buda
Twp. H. S.
Humber of Pupils
Enrollment
High School Seniors Completing Tests
E3
E3
94
£6
4
4
190
41
40
4 Lamoille
Comm. H. S.
97
29
E9
5 Malden
Twp. H. S.
47
10
10
6 Manlius
Twp. H. S.
94
E6
E3
7 Mineral
Comm. H. S.
36
5
5
8 Heponset
Twp. E. S.
74
16
16
9 Ohio
Comm. E. S.
9E
E3
23
400
92
87
71
19
19
IE Spring Yalley
Hall Twp. E. S.
428
89
84
13 Tiskilwa
Twp. H. S.
134
19
17
14 Walnut
Comm. E. S.
1E7
33
27
15 fyanet
Comm. H. S.
96
E2
20
E006
451
427
2 Bureau Township
H. S.
3 Depue
10 Princeton
Twp. H. S.
11 Sheffield
Comm. Cons.
Total
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5
sion more readily understood:
1. Mental factors are raw scores, mental ages, I.Q,.Ts,
and grade percentile norms.
S. Mental age is determined by an individual’s perform­
ance upon certain standardized tests.
3. I
is mental age times 100 divided by chronologi­
cal age.
4. Grade percentile norm is determined from a standard­
ized scale given by Henmon-Eelson.
These norms
are based on testing in May and June.
5. General intelligence, according to Douglass,■*• is us ­
ed to indicate native ability, natural brightness,
or inborn capacity that determines the acquisi­
tion of intelligence or learning.
Intelligence,
according to the same author, is knowledge, skill,
information, and the like which are acquired.
6. General intelligence tests, often called simply in­
telligence tests, are designed to measure inborn
capacity to become intelligent,
i.e., to measure
general intelligence.
7. Socio-economic background is defined as the economic
resources and cultural iaeals of the home.
8. In the present study, a senior is a pupil who, after
the first semester of that school year, was ex-
. ^Douglass, Aubrey A.
Secondary Education.
Houghton Mifflin Co. ,' 19B'7 ,' p." £ U 2 .
Boston, Mass.:
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6
pected to graduate in the spring.
‘
The Significance and Heed of the Study of the Problem.
In many high schools too little attention is given to the
mental ability and the socio-economic background of the pu­
pils in spite of the fact that both of these factors are ex­
tremely important in any attempt to provide a complete pic­
ture of the individual pupil.
Some authorities believe that
a close relationship exists between these two factors.
Procedure.
The Henmon-Helson Tests of Mental Ability,
Form A, were administered by the writer.
They were given to
everyone of the 451 seniors in the 15 public high schools of
Bureau County, Illinois, during the middle two weeks of May,
1940.
At the time the mental tests were taken, each pupil
filled out a copy of the questionnaire here given as Form I.
After the data were gathered, the identity of the pupil was
kept secret by replacing the name with a case number.
4E7 of the 451 seniors the data, are complete.
For
Some of the
remaining £4 left their Henmon-Eelson Tests blank and the
others did not answer enough of the questions to justify the
inclusion of their papers.
sent writer.
All tests were given by the pre­
Consequently the results should be more accu­
rate than can be obtained 'when various persons administer
the tests.
The present writer took data from the questionnaire and
rated each pupil on the Si ms T socio-economic score card which
consists of £3 items calling for objective answers.
Statistical computations are made according to method
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7
and formula as given ty Garret . c
»
9
Garrett, Henry E.
Statistics in Psychology ana Education,
lew York, If. Y . : tongmans, ITreen and U o . , T9dW.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
During the last few decades intelligence tests have
been given in many public schools.
There has been a discus­
sion from the very first, as to whether general intelligence
is dependent upon heredity or environment.
The question is
not settled because we still have Terman favoring hereditarianism and Stoddard favoring environmentalism.
is still in the foreground.
This subject
The Thirty-ninth Yearbook of
the National Society for the Study of Education, which was
published in 1940, discussed the subject, Intelligence: Its
Nature and Nurture.
As far back as 1919, Book made a study of the level of
the general Intelligence of high-school seniors.
In his
study, he used the Indiana University Intelligence Scale,
Schedule D, worked out by S. L. Pressey.
The scores on this
examination were not interpreted in I.Q. scores or in percen­
tile rank, and so the results are not comparable with results
of other examinations.
Dowd*5 made a study of the level of general Intelligence
of high-school graduates.
The 913 persons used in his study
had already been graduated from high school.
These persons
were all of the known graduates of high school out of the
rZ
Dowd, C. E.
"Study of High-School Graduates with Reference
to Level of Intelligence," Journal of Educational Psy­
chology . 23:687-702, Dec., 1932.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
4,184 pupils tested in the sixth grade in Cincinnati.
His
observation was:
It is evident that the high school graduates are a
selected group from the point of view of intelligence
as measured by a group test administered in the sixth
grade.
This is shown first by the fact that the median
percentile rank of the group is 73.80 as contrasted with
45.87, the median percentile rank of the entire sixth
grade group tested in 1924.
It is also shown by the
fact that 47.9 per cent of this group made records com­
parable with those of the highest twenty-five per cent
of an unselected group, that 83.5 per cent did as well
as the upper fifty per cent of an unselected group, and
that only 16.5 per cent dropped as low as the lowest
fifty per cent of an unselected group.
Although the range of percentile ranks for the grad­
uate group was from below five to one hundred, low rat­
ings should be interpreted with caution.
Pupils with percentile ranks under twenty-five may
achieve graduation but the probability of this is
slight.
Only 1.9 per cent of the graduates made rat­
ings as low as this.
...
The mental ages (figured September 1, 1923, the time
of entrance into Grade VI) shows that the high school
graduates are a selected group from point of view of
mental maturity.
The median mental age, thirteen years,
2.8 months, is two years higher than the median chrono­
logical age of eleven years, 2.8 months.
Only 1.9 per
cent of the pupils had chronological ages above thir­
teen.
There is, however, a wide range of mental ages
from eight years to above eighteen years.
Overage pupils are much less likely to achieve grad­
uation than underage pupils or pupils at age for their
grade.
The trend in the public schools of today has been to
require general intelligence rating for each pupil.
This
increases the number of testers of general intelligence to
include a great number of educators.
It Is widely accepted
that the high-school pupils, especially the seniors, compose
a selected group which has a higher general intelligence than
the general population.
Much work has been done in determining the socio-eco-
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10
nomic background of various groups.
Sims' Score Card is the
instrument most isridely accepted as a measure of this charac­
teristic.
It is considered by authorities in the field to
be both a reliable and a valid measure.
Cuff4 made a study to evaluate the twenty-three items
on the Sims' Score Card as indexes of a pupil's intelligence
and achievement.
He found that each item had a positive cor­
relation with the total socio-economic background.
Various divisions of the socio-economic background have
been measured separately.
There have been many studies to
determine the relationship between parental occupation and
the general intelligence of the children.
school children in making this study.
Jordan6 used grade-
He concluded about the
I .Q,. scores:
Substantial differences in median scores appeared among the various occupations.
For example, the child­
ren of the professional group scored 105; while those
of mill workers and farmers scored 91 and 88, respec­
tively.
Again the children of traveling salesmen, in­
surance agents, merchants, bankers, lumbermen, plumbers,
and machinists scored in the neighborhood of 100; while
those of carpenters, clerks, stone cutters, blacksmiths,
and laborers scored in the neighborhood of 90.
Dexter,6 in studying this same problem of the relation-
4 Cuff, N. B.
"Vectors of Socio-Economic Status," Peabody
Journal of Education. 12:114-117, Nov., 1934.
^Jordan, A. M.
"Parental Occupations and Children's Intel­
ligence Scores," Journal of Applied Psychology. 17:103119, Apr., 1933.
^Dexter, Emily S.
"The Relation between Occupation of Par­
ent and Intelligence of Children," School and Society.
17:612-614, June 2, 1923.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11
ship betrween occupation of the father and the general intel­
ligence of the children, summarized by saying:
There is at least an element of truth in the saying,
"like father, like sons," even though no family rela­
tionships are here under consideration; and second, that
although for every calling, without exception, there
are individuals who rank very high as well as those who
rank very low on these general tests, still the central
tendencies for each group show a difference in intelli­
gence.
Pressey and Ralston? used children younger than the av­
erage senior in high school to determine the relationship
between parental occupation and the child's general intelli­
gence.
They say:
The paper reports an analysis, according to the oc­
cupation of the father, of results with a group scale
of intelligence from 548 unselected school children 1014 years of age.
All of the children of these ages for
whonr complete data were available in a city of 12,000
population were included.
It was found that: (1) Of
the children of professional men, 85$ made scores above
the median for the total group; of the children of ex­
ecutives (independent business men, foremen) 68$ rated
above the median for the total group; of the children
of artisans (unskilled workers) 41$ rated above the me­
dian and of the children of laborers only 39$ rated above the median.
(2) The groups over-lapped largely,
though not completely.
Both extremes of the distribu­
tion contained some members from each occupational
group; however, the artisan and laborer groups predom­
inate at the lower end of the distributions while the
professional and executive groups show a majority of
the high scores.
(3) Analysis by test shows these find­
ings to be constant for all four tests.
It is argued
from this that the findings have some general reliabil­
ity.
Another extensive study on the relationship between
----------
Pressey, S. L . , and Ralston, R.
"The Relation of General
Intelligence of School Children to the Occupation of
Their Fathers," Journal of Applied Psychology. 3:366373, Dec., 1919.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
parental occupation and the child*s general intelligence was
made by Haggerty and Hash.8
They came to the conclusion
that, "... it is here shown that such success in intelli­
gence tests is directly related to the occupations of the
fathers."
Canady9
made a study to determine the relation that ex­
isted between the general intelligence of Negro College pu­
pils and parental occupation.
He reports:
Our groups conform to the general picture, as re­
vealed by other studies among white students, in as­
signing higher average intelligence scores to the pro­
fessional and commercial groups and in showing that
shilled labor and unskilled labor groups fall at or
near the bottom of the scale.
There is, however, a
marked absence of perfect correspondence between paren­
tal occupation and intelligence of child.
More than
three-fourths (82 per cent) of the total number of stu­
dents that fell in the highest quintile in intelligence
scores came from occupational levels below the profes­
sional level, i.e., from parents who presumably, are
not in general of superior intelligence.
Certainly
these data indicate that the poor boy may "make good,"
and that the rich boy, despite the utmost favorable en­
vironment, may fail miserably.
Thirty and six-tenths
per cent from the professional group as compared with
56.7 per cent from the unskilled labor group have in­
telligence scores of less than 80, while 36.7 per cent
of the former and 10.6 per cent of the latter fell in
the highest quintile in intelligence test scores.
A quite different conclusion was reached in a similar
study of the relationship between parental occupation and
the child's general intelligence.
In summary, Reymert and
8Haggerty, M. E . , and Nash, H. B.
"Mental Capacity of Child­
ren and Parental Occupation," Journal of Educational Psy­
chology . 15:559-572, Dec., 1924.
9 Canady, H. Q-. "Intelligence of Negro College Students and
Parental Occupation," American Journal of Sociology. 42:
388-389, Nov., 1936.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13
Fringp-0 said,
"There is, in other words, practically no re­
lationship at Mooseheart between a child's intelligence and
the occupation of the deceased father."
In determining the relation between parental age and
the general intelligence of the children as secured on in­
telligence tests, Punke-*-^ concluded:
Accordingly, the study as it stands should be of
value in determining the relation of age of parent to
intelligence of offspring.
So far as it goes, the study
suggests that children of older parents tend to be more
intelligent, as intelligence is here measured, than do
children of younger parents.
It seems that what differ­
ence there is in this respect can be better explained
on sociological than on biological bases.
It is possible that different results might be se­
cured from similar studies made in other parts of the
country, where economic status of homes, educational
opportunity, age at marriage, and possibly diet are
different from those in the region here studied.
S t e c k e l ^ agreed with Punke, as he concluded about the
I.Q. score,
"In general, as shown by intelligence tests,
children born of very young parents are less intelligent
than children born of more mature parents."
The general intelligence of a child's mother and the
general intelligence of the child, even though the child was
living in a foster home, have a direct but slight relation-
10Reymert, M. L., and Fring, J.
"Children's Intelligence in
Relation to Occupation of Fat h e r ," American Journal of
Sociology. 41:351-354, Nov., 1935.
^ P u n k e , H. H.
"Age of Parent and Intelligence of Off­
spring," Elementary School Journal. 39:617-622, Apr.,
1939.
19
Steckel, M. L.
"Parental Age and Intelligence of Off­
spring," Journal of Educational Psychology. 22:2.12-220,
Mar., 1931.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14
ship, according to a recent study made by Snygg.1^
He con­
cluded:
There appears to be a slight correlation between the
Kuhlman or Stanford-Binet scores of children and the
Stanford-Binet scores of their mothers from whom they
have been separated in infancy.
The correlation is too
low to warrant the use of a mother’s I.Q,. in predicting
the future rating of her child reared in another home.
Predictions based upon consideration of both the moth­
e r ’s and child’s scores are less reliable than those
based upon the child’s score alone.
To determine what effect birth order had on intelli­
gence, Thurstone and Jenkins1^ made an extensive study.
In
summing up they said;
The present investigation seems to justify the con­
clusion that the mean Intelligence quotient increases
with birth order and that this effect is not limited to
a handicapping of' the first-born.
The effect seems to
be progressive at least as far as the eighth-born child.
The later born children seem to be brighter on the av­
erage than their earlier born siblings and the varia­
bility of test intelligence seems to increase with or­
der of birth.
Steckel-1-5 used a different method in determining the
answer to the same problem.
He made the following statement,
"The conclusion of this study is that on the average laterborn children have a higher intelligence quotient than ear­
lier-born;
13
that in general, intelligence, as measured by in-
Snygg, D.
"Relation between the Intelligence of Mothers
and of Their Children Living in Foster Homes," Pedagog­
ical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology. 52:
401-406, June, 1938.
•^Thurstone, L. L . , and Jenkins, R. L.
"Birth Order and In­
telligence," Journal of Educational Psychology. 20:641651, Dec., 1929.
1^
Steckel, M. L.
"Intelligence and Birth Order in Family,"
Journal of Social Psychology, 1:329-344, Aug., 1930.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
telligenee tests, Increases fairly uniformly with ordinal
number up to and including eighth-born children."
That Intelligence has a relationship to food is indi­
cated by Munroe^® in his summary of what he had learned from
an experiment.
He said:
A direct relationship was found to exist between
nourishment and mentality.
Where food was wholesome,
intelligence had thrived, and where, as a result of
poverty or slovenliness, food was inadequate and poorly
prepared, intelligence had declined.
Skeels and Fillmore^? made a study of children from un­
derprivileged homes.
They found the mental development of
these children to be considerably retarded as compared with
children in homes which had the privileges which would be
expected in the better homes.
They said:
These children came from uniformly poor background,
as indicated by low economic status, limited education
of parents, and conflict with the law.
The level of
intelligence of the children, one to 14 years of age,
is shown by a mean I.Q. of 88.5.
Children under eight
years of age are of a higher mental level than those
older.
The I.Q.'s of the older children decrease with
age to a greater extent than is found for unselected
children, suggesting the retarding effect of poor homes
on mental development.
For siblings of all ages a dif­
ference of three years stay in the home corresponds to
a significant difference between the I.Q.'s of groups
likewise decrease in a significant degree.
A study of elementary-school pupils to determine what
■^Munroe, J.
"Intelligence Is Affected by Food," Parents
Magazine. 4:22 and 61-62, June, 1929.
•^Skeels, M. M . , and Fillmore, E. A.
"Mental Development of
Children from Under Privileged Homes," Pedagogical Sem­
inary and Journal of Genetic Psychology. 50:427-439,
June, 1937.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
relationship existed between home environment and general
intelligence of the pupil was made by Sirkln.1®
He con­
cluded, "... correlation between social status and the in­
telligence score of pupils belonging to the same school
grade, i.e., having the same formal school training, is of
the order .40.
... The correlation between score and so­
cial status as well as that between score and age does not
diminish over a period of fourteen months."
In a similar study, Chauncey^-9 concluded,
"We may con­
clude that home status, as measured by the Sims' Score Card,
plays a less important part in determining mental level than
in determining school achievement."
The only bit of research that has been conducted exact­
ly on this problem was done by Flemming^O a few years ago.
She worked with 400 pupils in the seventh, eighth, and ninth
grades.
The pupils were grouped into three classes accord­
ing to I.Q. scores which the school had on record from the
time the pupils entered the seventh grade.
Sims' Socio-Eco­
nomic Test was then administered and comparisons were made.
IQ
Sirkin, M. /"Relation between Intelligence, Age, and Home
Environment of Elementary-School Children," School and
Society. 30:304-308, Aug. 31, 1929.
l9Chauncey, M. R.
"Relation between Intelligence, Age and
Home Environment of Elementary-School Pupils," Journal
of Educational Research. 20:88-90, Sept., 1929.
20
Flemming, Elizabeth.
The Socio-Economic Background of
High I . Q . and Low I.Q,. High School Students. Unpub­
lished Thesis, The George Washington University, Wash­
ington, D. C., 1935.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
She concluded:
It is apparent from these data that although pupils
may be sectioned into "X, Y, and Z ” groups on the basis
of the intellectual factor alone, there tend to be sig­
nificant differences between the socio-economic status
of the three groups.
Teachers should give these dif­
ferences in family background due consideration and
probably adapt their teaching techniques accordingly.
Associated with a certain level of intelligence are a
series of socio-economic factors which have played an
important role in shaping the personality of the child
and which must be recognized in planning an educational
program adapted to his needs, interests, and probable
future plans.
That such differences undoubtedly exist
is shown by this study.
Summary.
In condensing the related literature, the
following statements may be made:
Hlgh-school pupils are a select group that rates higher
on a general intelligence test than does an unselected group.
Sims1 Score Card is the most reliable and most valid
instrument yet devised for measuring so-called socio-econom­
ic status.
There seems to be a relationship between a child’s gen­
eral intelligence and the economic level of the father’s oc­
cupation.
However, the occupation of the father, deceased
for one year or more, bears practically no relationship to
the general intelligence of the child.
Children from older parents seem to have a higher I.Q.
than do children from younger parents.
General intelligence of the mother bears direct rela­
tionship on the general intelligence of the child.
Later-born children, seem to have a higher intelligence
quotient than earlier-born.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
A direct relationship seems to exist between home en­
vironment and general intelligence of the child.
However,
school achievement is more greatly influenced by home envir­
onment than is general intelligence.
There seems to be a positive relationship between socio­
economic status and intelligence but the correlation is not
high enough so that a prediction of one from the other could
be made.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER III
A STUDY OF MENTAL FACTORS OF HIGH-SCHOOL SENIORS
Instrument of Measurement.
The Henmon-Nelson Tests of
Mental Ability, Form A, were used to determine mental fac­
tors.
This particular set was chosen not because it was the
only good one on the market but because it was one of the
best on the market.
These tests are constructed and designed for use in
high-school grades.
There are 90 items arranged in order of
increasing difficulty.
The administration is comparatively
simple because the time limit for taking the tests is 30
minutes and scoring time is reduced to a minimum.
A self-
marking device is employed so that no scoring key is nec­
essary.
No direct method of determining the validity of a men­
tal test is possible but two indirect methods are employed.
First, care in construction of the individual items is es­
sential; and second, comparison with other tests trying to
measure the same thing is desirable.
Reliability can be de­
termined by giving two forms, or two parts of the same form,
and correlating results.
Reliability can also be determined
by comparing with other standardized tests.
The authors,21
in speaking of this comparative method of determining validpT
Henmon, V. A. 0., and Nelson, M. J. Henmon-Nelson Tests
of Mental Ability. T e a c h e r ^ Manual. Boston, Mass.:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1935, p. 1.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20
ity and reliability, say:
In one study where two forms of the Terman test and
two forms of the Henmon-Nelson test were administered
and the I.Q.'s averaged, the correlation was .93 for
one group of 144 junior high school pupils and .94 for
another group of 97 pupils in a junior high school.
In
another study pupils in the eighth grade were tested by
means of the Terman Group Test.
Pour years later the
179 pupils who were then in the twelfth grade were test­
ed by means of the Henmon-Nelson test.
The correlation
between the I.Q.'s as determined by the Terman test and
the percentile rankings on the Henmon-Nelson test was
.806.
Not only are the correlations between the HenmonNelson tests and other well-known group tests consis­
tently high, but where means and standard deviations
are reported the agreement with the Otis and Terman
tests Is quite marked.
...
The mental ages as determined by the Terman and Otis
tests for the 235 pupils reported above were averaged
in order to secure a more valid criterion than is given
by a single test.
The correlation obtained between
this average and the mental ages as determined by the
Henmon-Nelson tests was found to be .825+.014.
This
figure is higher than the correlation obtained between
the Henmon-Nelson test and either one of the above
tests and indicates the validity of the Henmon-Nelson
test, since the correlation rises as the validity of
the criterion improves.
Prom the authors' table showing reliability, the highest co­
efficient (.903) is for grade 12 so it should be more satis­
factory for use with seniors than any other group of highschool pupils.
Mental Pactors.
The raw scores on the Henmon-Nelson
Tests, the mental ages, the I.Q. scores, and the grade per­
centile norms have all been used as indications of mental
abilities.
All of the pupils in the present study have progressed
through the same twelfth grade in the public schools and so
have had a chance at somewhat similar formal education for
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
use on testing material.
Using this reasoning, the raw
score should be of some value.
Mental ages are not comparable when the cases vary ac­
cording to grade and age.
In the present study all the
cases are seniors and all cases have supposedly reached
their maximum mental age.
On this test mental ages may vary
from nine to 24 years.
The concept of mental age is not as useful in high
school as it is in the elementary school because there is no
general agreement as to the age when mental development
ceases.
Due to the fact that seniors are a select group and
have probably in most cases reached a slowing-up point in
mental growth, grade percentile norms are probably the most
reliable indication of mental ability.
Grade percentile
norms as given in the teacher's manual for the Henmon-Nelson
Tests have been used in the present study.
I.Q. scores are the most widely used basis for deter­
mining mental ability.
These scores are here based on the
assumption that mental age reaches its maximum at 16 chrono­
logical years.
Since everyone of the 42? pupils is 16 or
over, the I.Q. scores are directly in, line with the raw
scores.
Procedure.
given in Table X.
All original data used in this chapter are
This material was tabulated and mathe­
matical computations were made.
Three measures of central
tendency— mean, median, and mode— and three measures of
variability— standard deviation, quartile deviation, and
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
range— were calculated from raw scores, mental ages, I.Q.
scores, and grade percentile norms.
Standard errors were
found for the mean, median, standard deviation, and quartile
deviation.
Skewness of the distribution in all cases was
found.
The distribution of raw scores is given in Table II.
The mean is 61.87 with the standard error of this mean equal
to .58.
This
68 in 100 the
is interpreted as meaning that
the chances are
true mean will not vary from 61.87
more than
+.58, i.e., the true mean will fall between 61.29 and 62.45.
It is practically certain that the true mean lies within
three standard errors, i.e., between 60.13 and 63.61.
median is 62.62 with a standard error of .74.
The
The interpre­
tation of this is that the chances are 68 in 100 the true
median will fall between 61.88 and 63.36.
It is practically
certain that the true median will fall within three standard
errors, i.e., between 60.40 and 64.84.
The standard devia­
tion is 12.05
with
68 in 100 the
true standard deviation should
11.64 and 12.66.
a standard error of .41.
The chances are
lie between
It is practically certain that the true
standard deviation lies within 10.82 and 13.28.
The quartile
deviation is 7.24 with a standard error of .46.
The chances
are 68 in 100 the true quartile deviation lies between 6.78
and 7.70.
In practically all cases the true quartile devia­
tion will fall between 5.86 and 8.62.
frequency polygon of these data.
or skewness is -.19.
Figure II, gives the
The degree of displacement
This distribution is skewed negatively
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BISTELBUTIG li Of R a O SCORES GR HEOMOI-I MIS 0M TESTS
OF M&3STA3j ABILITY,
f
d
fd
o
fd^
cum
f
85-89
2
5
10
50
427
100
80-84
16
4
64
259
425
100
75-79
29
3
87
261
409
96
70-74
61
£
122
244
380
89
65-69
75
1
75
75
319
75
60-64
81
0
0
0
244
57
55-59
63
-1
-63
63
163
38
50-54
34
-2
-68
136
100
23
45-49
26
-3
-78
234
66
15
40—44
15
-4
-60
240
40
9
35-39
14
-5
-70
350
25
6
30-34
5
-6
-30
180
11
3
25-29
3
-7
-21
14-7
6
1
20-24
2
-8
-16
168
3
1
15-19
1
-9
-9
81
1
0
Total
427
-57
2488
Class
Interval
,
Per­
centile
Measures of:
Central Tendency:
Mean
= 61.87
Median r 62.62
Mode
Variability:
= 62
Standard deviation
-
Quartile deviation
Range r 17 - 86 or
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 Cj .0 5
7.2469
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
25
20
20
10
12
22
42
62
82
92
note:— This frequency polygon and all others in the present
thesis are constructed to fill the graph paper rather than
according to the rule that the height should not "be over
three-fourths the width.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
or to the left because the scores are slightly massed toward
the high end of the scale.
The distribution of mental ages is given in Table III.
The mean mental age is 17 years, 4.54 months, with a stand­
ard error of .92 months.
This is interpreted as meaning
that the chances are 68 in 100 the true mean will not vary
either way more than .92 months, i.e., the true mean would
fall between 17 years, 3.62 months and 17 years, 5.46 months.
It is practically certain that the true mean would fall with­
in three standard errors, i.e., between 17 years, 1.79 months
and 17 years, 7.29 months.
The median is 17 years, 2.66
months, with a standard error of 1.15 months.
This is inter­
preted as meaning that the chances are 68 in 100 the true
median will fall within one standard error on either side of
the calculated median, i.e., between 17 years, 1.51 months,
and 17 years, 3.81 months.
It is practically certain that
the true mean will fall between 16 years, 11.21 months, and
17 years, 6.11 months, i.e., within three standard errors.
The standard deviation is one year, 6.96 months with a stand­
ard error of .65 months.
This is interpreted as meaning that
the chances are 68 in 100 the true standard deviation will
fall between one year, 6.31 months, and one year, 7.61 months.
It is a practical certainty that the true standard deviation
will fall within one standard error, i.e., between one year,
5.01 months, and one year, 8.91 months.
tion is one year,
The quartile devia­
.22 months, with a standard error of .72.
This is Interpreted as meaning that the chances are 68 in 100
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE III
DISTRIBUTION OF RENTAL AGES
!c
,i
icr
Class
Interval
22- 6 to 22-T1
22- 0 to 22- 5
2T- 6 to 21-11
" 2 T T to 21- 5
to 20-11
20- 0 to 20- 6
19- o to 19-11
iy- 0 to 19- 5
IS- 6 to 18-11
"18-"’TI to IS- 5
17 - 6 to 17-11
17- 0 to 17- 5
16- 6 to 16-11
16- 6 to 16- 5
15- 6 to 15-11
15- 0 to 15- 5
14- 6 to 14-11
14- 0 to "14- 5'"
to I S - I T "
to 13- 5 .
12- 6 to 12 -IT" r
12 - 0 to 12- 5
[
UD O
I 1
*3
—1H
Total
f
2
0
1
1
1
26
16
20
41
28
32
9b
67
36
20
11
7
T3
4"..
2
I
cum
Per­
centile
d
fda
f
fd
221
1 242
loO
427
TT
iisO
0
0
425'
ID”
100
425
9
81
y
424
64
y9
8
5
99
423
T
" 49
T 7
422
99
0
156
936
93
396
80
400
5"
380 ..""89
4
80’ ’ 32U
360
3
123
369
84
2
75
112
319
56
62
32
32
2yi
UL
U
6T
0
0
259
67 "~~TET~'~
-I"
-67
22
~71T~
-2
-72
96
-3
180’ .60 .'".14""...
-60
g----4
-44
40
176
“7
"
-5
-35
” T75. T T
5
"~ZE"'
-6
-78 ' 468 ~
. — g— yj?
.. ~ ’
"x--2
.-28
r9'6.
o
-u
. -15
5
..
----9
162
-16
"sr
-10
.'-TO.. ’ '10U
T
■ '~o....
, 427
145
4329
Measures of Central Tendency:
Kean
z
17 y r . , 4.54 mo.
Median =
17 jr., 2.66
mo.
Mode
17 y r . , 2.50
mo.
-
Measures of Variability:
Standard deviation = 1 yr., 6.96 mo.
Kuartile deviation r 1 yr.,
.22 m o .
Range = 12-0 to £2-6 or 10 yr., 6 mo.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
the true quartile deviation will fall between 11.50 months
and one year,
.94 months.
It is a practical certainty the
true mean will fall between 10.06 months and one year, 2.38
months.
Figure III
gives the frequency polygon for this ma­
terial.
Skewness or the degree of displacement is .30.
The
distribution is skewed positively or to the right because
the scores are slightly massed toward the lower end of the
scale.
The distribution of I.Q. scores is given in Table IV.
The mean I.Q. is 108.75 with a standard deviation of 10.20.
The standard error of the mean is .49.
This is interpreted
as meaning that the chances are 68 in 100 the true mean will
fall between 108.07 and 109.43.
It is practically certain
that the true mean will fall within three standard errors on
either side of the calculated mean, i.e., between 107.28 and
110.22.
The median
error of .61.
This
of the I.Q.'s Is 107.81 with a standard
may be interpreted as meaning that the
chances are 68 in 100 the true median will fall between 107.20
and 108.42.
It Is practically certain that the true median
will fall between 105.98 and 109.64.
of 10.15 has a standard error of .35.
The standard deviation
This means that the
chances are 68 In 100 the true standard deviation will fall
between 9.80 and 10.50.
It is a practical certainty that the
true standard deviation will fall between 9.10 and 11.20.
The quartile deviation is 6.14 with a standard error of .39.
This means that the chances are 68 in 100 the true quartile
deviation should fall between 5.75 and 6.53.
In practically
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
28
FIGURE III
FREC.UiiUCY POLYGON Cl*' lAAJTAP AG-PS
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
£5
20
15
10
5
e
b
&
e
f
g
ii
i
j
k
Key
a
6
c
CL
e
f
Z
z
z
z
-
11
12
13
14
15
16
yr. ,
y r. ,
jr . ,
jr. ,
jr. ,
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
y r . , 8.5
mo.
m o .’
mo.
mo.
mo.
mo.
&
t> —~ 17 y r ., 8.5 mo
h. r 18 y r . , 8.5 mo
-i i
3 =
k a
1 r
19
20
21
22
yr.,
y r .,
y r .,
y r .,
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
mo
rno
mo
mo
Class
Interval
cum
f
Per­
centile
a
Xd
d
fd
140-144
2
7
14
98
427
100
loo — lo 9
1
6
6
36
425
100
130-154
c
*■4
5
10
50
424
99
1£5~1£9
26
4
104
416
423
99
120-124
36
3
108
324
396
93
115-119
50
£
100
£00
360
84
110-114
51
1
51
51
310
73
105-109
135
0
0
0
259
61
100-104
64
-1
-64
64
124
28
95- 99
24
-2
-48
96
60
14
90- 94
£0
-3
-60
180
36
8
85- 89
11
-4
-44
176
16
4
80- 84
3
-5
-15
75
5
1
75- 79
c0
>
£
-6
-12
72
C
C\
0
150
1838
427
Total
Measures of:
Central Tendency:
Mean
r 108.75
Variability;
Standard deviation ~ 10.20
Median = 107.81
Quartile deviation r
Mode
Range r 75 - 141 or
- 107
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6.14
66
30
all oases the true quartile deviation will fall between 4.97
and 7.31.
The frequency polygon is given in Figure IV.
degree of displacement or skewness is .28.
The
This distribution
is skewed positively or to the right because the scores tend
to be slightly massed toward the lower end of the scale.
The distribution of scores on the grade percentile norm
levels is given in Table V.
ard error of .13.
The mean is 7.00 with a stand­
This may be interpreted as meaning that
the chances are 68 in 100 the true mean will fall between
6.87 and 7.13.
It is practically certain that the true mean
will fall within three standard errors on either side of the
calculated mean, i.e., between 6.61 and 7.39.
7.52 with a standard error of .16.
The median is
This may be interpreted
as meaning that the chances are 68 in 100 the true median
will fall between 7.36 and 7.68.
It is practically certain
that the true median will fall between 7.04 and 8.00.
The
standard deviation is 2.77 with a standard error of .10.
This may be interpreted as meaning that the chances are 68
in 100 the true standard deviation will fall between 2.48
and 3.06.
The quartile deviation is 2.25 with a, standard
error of .11.
This may be interpreted as meaning that the
chances are 68 in 100 the true quartile deviation will fall
between 2.14 and 2.36.
It is a practical certainty that the
true quartile deviation will fall between 1.96 and 2.56.
The frequency polygon for this distribution is given in Fig­
ure V.
The degree of displacement or skewness is -.38.
distribution is skewed negatively or to the left with the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
This
FIGURE 1Y
FEl^'OFFCY PCLYGOL; OF I.Q,. r3
132
126
119
112
105
98
91
84
77
70
63
56
49
42
35,
21
14
72
82:
92
102
112
122
132
142
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
o & -
it) ‘•'•■'T..
X d X D Jjin
TT
\f
DISTRIBUTION OF SCORNS On GE 1CDM FORk
OF a m m x L ifteiiiu CDCiu
mm.LS
f
d
fd
fd£
cum
f
10-10.99
5?
4
228
912
42?
100
9- 9.S9
79
3
237
711
370
87
8- 8 . S9
4?
2
94
188
291
68
7- 7.99
64
1
64
64
244
57
6- 6.99
36
0
0
0
180
42
5- 5.99
42
-1
-42
-42
144
34
4- 4.99
20
-2
-40
80
102
£4
3- 3.99
35
-3
-105
315
82
19
2- 2.99
18
-4
-72
288
47
11
1- 1.99
24
-5
-120
600
29
7
5
-6
-30
180
5
1
214
3380
Class
Interval
0-
.99
Total
42?
P er­
centile
Measures of:
Central Tendency:
Mean
Variability:
=.7.00
Standard deviation z
2.77
Median = 7.52
Muartile deviation I
£.25
Mode
Range - 0 - 10 or
.50
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
76
68
64
60
56
52
48
44
40
36
32
28
24
20
16
12
.505
2.495
5.495'
8,495
11.495
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
scores massed toward the high end of the scale.
Summary.
For the raw scores on the Henmon-Nelson Tests
of Mental Ability, Form A, the mean is 61.87±.58; the median
is 62.62-1.74; the standard deviation is 12.051.41; the quarI
tile deviation is 7.24.1.46; and the range is from 17 to 86,
or 69 points.
In regard to mental ages, the mean is 17 years, 4.54
months!.92 months; the median is 17 years, 2.66 months±1.15
months;
the standard deviation is one year, 6.96 months!.65
months; the quartile deviation is one year,
.22 months!.72
months; and the range is from 12-0 to 22-6 or 10 years, six
months.
The mean of the I.Q. scores is 108.75!.49; the median
is 107.81!.61; the standard deviation is 10.15t.35; the
quartile deviation is 6.14±.39; and the range is from 75 to
»
141 or 66 points.
In working with grade percentile norms, the mean is 7.00!
.13; the median is 7.521.16; the standard deviation is 2.77 +
.10; and the quartile deviation is 2.25+.11 points.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IV
A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF HIGH-SCHOOL SENIORS
Instrument of Measurement.
The Sims' socio-economic
score card was used to determine socio-economic background.
This score card seems to he the most widely used rating
scale for socio-economic status.
The construction of this instrument was Sims' disserta­
tion for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
was ssientifically constructed and tested.
its validity and reliability the
author22
The score card
In speaking of
says:
The correlation between the two groups of siblings
for the questions used in the Score Card was found to
be .95.t.01. It was pointed out that the method used to
check the validity, the correlation of paired siblings,
was perhaps even better than the method ordinarily used.
Consequently, the reliability is not only very satis­
factory, but even high as compared with, let us say, the
average group intelligence test on the market.
In order to establish the value of the scale, it is
necessary to determine its validity as well as its
reliability.
If one could be satisfied that it meas­
ures exactly what it seems to measure, that is, whether
or not these items mentioned are possessed by the home
from which the child comes, the validity would have al­
ready been established, since a reliability coefficient
of .95 was found.
It has been assumed, however, that
these items are more or less significant of a more gen­
eral possession, that they are indicative of a certain
economic and cultural background, that the possession
of the items called for is socio-economic status.
Several writers have made and used variations of this score
card in attempting to measure home environment and backCO
fcC,Sims, Verner Martin.
The Measurement of Socio-Economic
Status. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publish­
ing Co., 1928, pp. 24-25.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
ground.
Socio-Economic Factors.
score card,
The raw score on the Sims1
the weighted score from the Sims' score card,
and the socio-economic level are used as measures of socio­
economic status.
Findings.
The mean, median, mode, standard deviation,
quartile deviation, and the range were found for each group
of data.
The distribution of raw scores on the Sims' score card
is given in Table VI.
ror of .63.
The mean is 34.10 with a standard er­
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances
are 68 in 100 the true mean will fall within one standard
error, i.e., between 33.47 and 34.73.
It is a pra.ctical
certainty that the true mean will fall within three standard
errors, i.e., between 32.21 and 35.99.
with a standard error of .79.
The median is 32.92
This is interpreted as mean­
ing that the chances are 68 in 100 the true median will fall
between 32.13 and 33.71.
It is a practical certainty that
the true median will fall between 30.55 and 35.29.
The
standard deviation is 13.00 with a standard error of .44.
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are 68 in
100 the true standard deviation will fall between 12.56 and
13.44.
It is a practical certainty that the true standard
deviation will fall between 11.68 and 14.32.
The quartile
deviation is 8.58 with a standard error of .49.
This is in­
terpreted as meaning that the chances are 68 in 100 the true
quartile deviation will fall between 8.09 and 9.07.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It is
37
r
p
’'o.
T
v
j
L
.■
U
i
J
VI
DISTRIBUTION 0 N Ri*:1 SOCxtiij0 On Sr1iS! SOCIO-ECCS 1OKIC
SCORE CilRD
f
d
fd
fd 2
cum
f
70-74
2
8
16
128
427
100
65-69
5
7
35
245
425
100
60-64
13
6
78
468
420
98
55-59
12
5
60
300
407
95
50-54
24
4
96
.384
395
93
45-49
29
3
87
261
371
87
40-44
47
£
94
188
342
80
35-39
59
1
59
59
295
69
30-34
71
0
0
236
55
25-29
63
-63
63
165
39
20-24
54
-108
216
102
24
15-19
26
-3
-78
234
48
11
10-14
16
-4
-64
256
c,t~
£56
5
5- 9
5
-5
-25
125
'6
1
0- 4
1
-6
-6
36
1
0
Total
427
181
2963
Class
Interval
-1
P er­
centile
Measures of:
Central Tendency:
Kean
r 34 .10
Median = 32 .92
Mode
1 32
Variability:
O t clX!.dC',rd devi at ion I 13.00
OLuartile deviation =
Range
I
3 - 73 or
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8.58
70
38
practically certain that the true quartile deviation will
fall "between 7.11 and 10.05.
The frequency polygon con­
structed from the data is given in Figure VI.
The skewness
or degree of displacement of the distribution is .27.
This
distribution is skewed positively or to the right, due to
the fact that the scores are slightly massed at the lower
end of the scale.
The distribution of weighted socio-economic scores is
given in Table VII.
of .24.
The mean is 14.95 with a standard error
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are
68 in 100 the true mean will fall within one standard error,
i.e., between 14.23 and 15.67.
standard error of .30.
The median is 14.34 with a
This is interpreted as meaning that
the chances are 68 in 100 the true median will fall between
14.04 and 14.64.
It is practically certain that the true
median will fall between 14.44 and 15.24.
ation is 4.95 with a standard error of .17.
The standard devi­
This is inter­
preted as meaning that the chances are 68 in 100 the true
standard deviation will fall between 4.44 and 5.46.
The
quartile deviation is 3.60 with a standard error of .19.
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are 68 in
100 the true quartile deviation will fall between 3.41 and
3.79.
It is practically certain that the true quartile devi­
ation will fall between 3.03 and 4.17.
The frequency polygon
for these data is given in Figure VII.
The degree of dis­
placement or skewness is .37.
This distribution is positive­
ly skewed or to the right, due to the fact that the scores
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
FIGURE VI
’G C
G iv >rur
FREQUENCY POLY&O.U C
G GG lu ~..xCGx^Oi U u -X,_/(.L'i.v- G 4ux.J
76
68
64
60
56
52.
48
44
40
36
32
2.8
£4
20
16
12
7
17
27
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
40
TIB EH VII
MISTRIBU110IT OF WEIGHTED S0CI0 -ECOIOFI c
soc}RES
f
d
fd
fd2
cum
f
30-32
6
6
36
216
427
100
£7-29
11
5
55
275
421
99
24 —c 6
20
4
80
320
410
96
£1-23
3O
3
105
315
390
91
18-20
48
2
96
192
355
83
15-17
89
1
89
89
307
72
12-14
102
0
0
0
218
51
9-11
70
-1
-70
70
116
27
6- 8
29
— Cj
-58
116
46
11
3- 5
15
-45
135
17
4
0- 2
2
-8
32
£
0
Total
427
£80
1760
C las s
Interval
-4
Per­
centile
Measures of:
Central Tendency:
Mean
Variability:
= 14.95
Standard deviation r
4.95
Median r 14.34
Qnartile deviation =
3.60
Mode
Range r 1.3 -31.7 or 30.4
: 13
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
114
108
102
96
90
84
78
7-2
66
60
54
48
42
36
30
24
18
18
4
10
lb
22
28
24
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
are slightly massed at the lower end of the scale.
The distribution of scores on socio-economic levels is
given in Table VIII.
of .07.
The mean is 6.13 with a standard error
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are
68 in 100 the true mean will fall between 6.06 and 6.20,
i.e., within one standard error below and one standard error
above the calculated mean.
It is practically certain that
the true mean will fall within three standard errors, i.e.,
between 5.92 and 6.34.
error .09.
The median is 6.30 with a standard
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances
are 68 in 100 the true median will fall between 6.21 and
6.39.
It is practically certain that the true median will
fall between 6.03 and 6.57.
with a standard error of .05.
The standard deviation is 1.46
This is interpreted as mean­
ing that the chances are 68 in 100 the true standard devi­
ation will fall between 1.41 and 1.51.
It is a practical
certainty that the true standard deviation will fall between
1.31 and 1.61.
The quartile deviation is .91 with a stand­
ard error of .06.
This is interpreted as meaning that the
chances are 68 in 100 the true quartile deviation will fall
between .85 and .97.
It is a practical certainty that the
true quartile deviation will fall between .73 and 1.09.
The frequency polygon of these data is given in Figure VIII.
The degree of displacement or skewness is -.35.
This dis­
tribution is skewed negatively or to the left, because the
scores are massed at the higher end of the scale.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
43
TiBLE VIII
DISTRIBUTION OF SCORES 01 SOCIO-ECONOMIC LEVELS
"Class
Interval
f
10-10.99
0
9
9- 9.99
d
6
fd
cum
f
fd
Pe r ­
centile
24
96
427
100
a*
<T »
•
CO
'3
54
162
421
99
7- 7.99
96
<0;
Cj
192
384
403
94
6- 6.99
134
1
134
134
307
72
5- 5.99
96
0
0
0
173
41
4- 4.99
43
-1
-43
4o
77
18
3- 3.99
19
-2
-38
76
34
8
2- 2.99
9
-3
-27
81
15
4
1- 1.99
5
-4
-20
80
6
1
0-
1
-5
-5
25
1
0
271
1081
1
CO
18
.99
Total
427
Measures of:
Central Tendency:
Mean
= 6.13
Median = 6.30
Mode
= 6.50
Variability:
Standard deviation = 1.46
Quartile deviation r
Range - 0 - 9
or
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.91
9
.i:xvt
'0-*-1 O 0
ri
O X..
xx
!
C/'
—'i.C“ 0 v
■•->
135
126
119
112
105
84
77
70
63
56
49
42
35
28
21
14
7
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45
Summary.
For the raw scores on the Sims* socio-econom­
ic score card, the mean is 34.101.63; the median is 32.92
±.79; the standard deviation 13.00±.44; the quartile devia­
tion is 8.581.49; and the range is from three to 73, or 70
points.
For the Sims’ weighted socio-economic scores, the mean
is 14.951.24; the median is 14.341.30; the standard devia­
tion is 4.951.17; the quartile deviation is 3.601.19; and
the range is from 1.3 to 31.7, or 30.4 points.
For the scores on the socio-economic levels, the mean
is 6.131.07; the median is 6.301.09; the standard deviation
is 1.461.05; the quartile deviation is .911.06; and the
range is 0 to 9, or 9 points.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
A STUDY OP THE CORRELATIONS EXISTING BETWEEN CERTAIN MENTAL
FAGTORS AND CERTAIN VECTORS OP SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND
Phases Considered*
A study is made of the relationship
existing between the following characteristics and posses­
sions:
1.
P u p i l ’s
I.Q. and
education of parents;
2.
Pupil's I.Q,. and number of books and magazines in
the home;
3.
Pupil's I.Q. and father's occupation;
4.
Pupil's I.Q. and Sims' weighted scores;
5. Sims' raw scores and Henmon-Nelson raw scores;
6. Sims' weighted scores and mental age; and
7. Socio-economic level and level of general intelli­
gence.
The education of parents, the number of books and mag­
azines, and the father's occupation were all given numerical
scores from the data presented in Table IX.
Findings.
The distribution and relationship of I.Q.
scores and education of the parents are given on the correla­
tion chart in Figure IX.
The mean for the education of the
parents is 4.18 points with a standard error of .18.
The
standard deviation is 3.65 with a standard error of .12.
The mean of the I.Q.'s is 108.75 and the standard deviation
of the I.Q.'s is 12.20.
The coefficient of correlation is
_.01 as computed by the product-moment method.
This is inter-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47
FIGURE IX
I>IS TRIBUTI OK AMD EELA TIC.,SHIP OF PUPIL'S 1.0
ALP EDUCATION OF PARENTS
X - Education of parents in weighted point
—1 N CO 'vf in to c— CO cn o ■H CO
o I
r-l 1-1 rH f
«S
O
140-144
£
>
tv-
135-139
1
1
2
130-134
1
1
125-129
7
5
3
6
5 26
120-124
7
10
10
4
115-119
28
13
2
110-114
cy
i—^ 105-109
II 100-104
!h
95- 99
28
13
6
4
5 36
1 50
3
3 51
68
32
21
L0
36
17
10
4 L35
1 64
17
7
90- 94
7
6
■85- 89
5
3
80- 84
2
75- 79
2
m
6
1.
2
20
1 n
1
3
2
Mean X = 4.18
Kean Y r 108,75
standard deviation X
3.65 points
Standard deviation Y I 10.20 points
r - -.01
P,
I .03
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
preted as meaning that there is a slightly negative relation­
ship between the I.Q. of the pupil and education of the par­
ents.
The probable error of the coefficient of correlation
is .03.
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are
50 in 100 the true coefficient of correlation will fall be­
tween -.04 and .02.
It is a practical certainty that the
true coefficient will fall within four probable errors, i.e.,
between -.13 and .11.
The distribution and relationship of a pupil's I.Q. and
the number of books and magazines in his home are given on
the chart in Figure X.
The mean of the scores for the num­
ber of books and magazines in the home is 7.08 with a stand­
ard error of .11.
The standard deviation of this distribu­
tion is 2.20 with a standard error of .08.
The mean of the
I.Q.'s is 108.75 and the standard deviation is 10.20.
The
■
coefficient of correlation between the I.Q. and the number
of books and magazines in the home is .03 as computed by the
product-moment method.
This is interpreted as meaning that
there is a slightly positive relationship between I.Q. and
number of books and magazines in the home.
The probable er­
ror of the coefficient of correlation is .03.
This is in­
terpreted as meaning that the chances are 50 in 100 the true
coefficient of correlation is between zero and .06.
It is
practically certain that the true coefficient of correlation
will fall within four probable errors, i.e., between -.09
and .15.
The distribution and relationship of I.Q. scores and the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
HOOnX X
D
DIST4I3uTI0.u 3-ii'i
.o_UjJ
L
L _
j j O O i .
o
U
il.
l I03b.Lt.Li’
13
m
to
r—i
o
135-139
1
1
L0 1
1 2 1
R
£< 1 KJ 3 15 6 3
1
•O 6 12
115-119-
5
110-114
1
«*•
105-109
5
11
2
«r>
7
6
e'­
en
90- 94
£
1
85- 89
i
100-104
95 - 99
1
c 1
80- 84
2
1
1
120-124
2
o
H
125-129
H0I30
ill
ie nor
to C- co cn o
i— I
f
140-144
130-134
&
M
II
O'S' UIjI I jX 8 1 .3,
—
fh
S i
o
C> 12 9 1
ci
3 1J c 2A, 6 2
&
4b XL 2£
1
1
51
L35
7
V 4? 17 3
6 20 5 1
5
7
7 3
29
£
0
11
6 15
■3
59
1
1
1
«r.
75- 79
c
04
24
3
<->
a
Mean Y = 108.75
M e a n X = 7.08
Stanaard deviation X =
£.£0 points
Standard deviation Y r 10.£0 points
r =
.0;
r .ju,p =
03
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
numerical score for the father's occupation are given on the
correlation chart in Figure XI.
The mean for the occupation­
al scores of the fathers is 3.55 with a standard error of
.11.
The standard deviation is 2.12 with a standard error
of .07.
The mean I.Q,. Is 109.30 and the standard deviation
is 10.45 as computed from 404 cases.
The coefficient of
correlation between I.Q. and occupation of father is .002 as
computed by the product-moment method.
tionship is practically negligible.
This means the rela­
The probable error of
the coefficient of correlation Is .03.
This is interpreted
as meaning that the chances are 50 in 100 the true coeffici­
ent of correlation will fall within one probable error, i.e.,
between _.03 and .03.
It is a practical certainty that the
true coefficient of correlation will fall within four pro­
bable errors, i.e., between _.12 and.12.
The distribution and relationship of the raw scores on
the Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Ability, Form A, and the
raw scores on Sims' socio-economic score card are given on
the correlation chart in Figure XII.
The mean of the socio­
economic raw scores is 34.10 with the standard error of this
mean equal to .63.
The mean of the general Intelligence raw
scores is 12.05 with a standard error of .58.
The coeffici­
ent of correlation computed by the product-moment method is
.01.
This is Interpreted as meaning that there is a slightly
positive relationship between the socio-economic raw scores
and the general intelligence raw scores.
of the coefficient is .03.
The probable error
This is Interpreted as meaning
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
XT
-On
Ceeuoation of father
in *x> c- CO
o i—i 03 CO
f
140-144
2
2
125-139
1
1
130-134
Ui
£
125-129
3
120-124
115-119
<y
H
II
J>H
2
12
i
7
££
7
1§
21
2
4
34
3
3
47
c-
4S
327
3
17
r?
110-114
11
7
26
2
&
105-109
30
12
74
6
5
15
10
33
1
95- 99
6
7
9
1
90- 94-
4
3
IS
85- R9
4
■2
4
80- 84
1
1
1
59
*>7
Ckj
a?
1
n
1
r?
a
C'
cCi
Cl
75- 79
Lj
/ / A/V^/°A/VV0
Ay
.0 clj', .i,
JS.
y .a;
«O * j
otandara G.evxaiion a -
a.12 points
Standard deviation Y = 10.45 ooints
X ;Xi.r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
85-89
1
80-84
2
1
1,
7
5 4 £
6 7 4
70-74
1 3
1 3
2 1,0 9 10
6 5 13 14 9 10
5
4 1
3
1
4 11 10 14 1 4 9
8
6
1
Cj
1
5jC
<£
1
3
4
1 3
1 4
55-59
1 c
1 14 LO 10
9
8
2 3
2
50-54
1
1
3 3 7 7
7 5 4 5
0
2
3
1
45-49
1
40-44
2
3
3
1 2
35-29
30-34
1
2. 1
2
1
X
2 1
1
25-29
1
3
1
a
75
«->
81
1
£6
1
IE
1 3 1
14
5
3
2
2
1
1
•X
63
34
1
15-19
29
1
2
1
2,0-24
-ii. —
3
70-74
3 2 16
2
65-69
f
£
2 2
2
1
65-69
60-64
1
75-79
1
c
cti
U
m
~C
0
m
i
—i
CD
25
1
C
o
e
c
CD
P5
II
1
55-59
CO
1
o
♦sj*
50-54
1
o
45-49
CO
35-39
LG
25-29
i
20-24
1
o
-eeOii.o:aic rtu/ sc or es
15-19
cr>
10-14
GGQ.
u1
61.87
.01
x
by
r. 1.08Y-52.71
yOJL
it S 0 *.'v.j
=
77
.93X+3Q.16
(est.O) = 8.13
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
that the chances are 50 in 100 the true coefficient of cor­
relation is between _.02 and .04.
It is a practical cer­
tainty that the true coefficient of correlation will fall
between _.ll and .13.
The equations for the regression
lines in both deviation form and score form are given in
Figure XII.
Estimates can be made more efficiently and
quickly than from the plotted regression lines.
When one
variable is known the probable value of the other is found
by substituting in the proper equation.
The probable er­
ror for the estimate of each of the variables is given in
Figure XII.
These are interpreted as meaning that the
chances are 50 in 100 the variable will fall within this
distance on either side of the calculated value of the vari­
able.
The distribution and relationship of the weighted socio­
economic scores and mental ages are given on the correlation
chart in Figure XIII.
The mean of the weighted socio-econom­
ic scores is 14.95 with a standard error of .24.
The mean
of the mental ages is 17 years, 4.54 months with a standard
error of .92 months.
The coefficient of correlation as com­
puted by the product-moment method is .01.
This is inter­
preted as meaning that there is a slightly positive relation­
ship between socio-economic weighted scores and mental ages.
The probable error of coefficient of correlation is .03.
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are 50 in
100 the true coefficient of correlation will fall between _.02
and .03.
It is practically certain that the true coefficient
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■■■ v ■
c; 0
N ID CO rH
rH
1 1 i 1
C
O
cr>
O CO
0
-i. 0
3
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55
of correlation will fall between -.11 and .13.
The distribution and relationship of weighted socio­
economic scores and I.Q. scores are given on the correlation
chart in Figure XIV.
The mean of the weighted socio-econom­
ic scores is 14.95 with a standard error of .24.
The mean
of the I.Q.'s is 108.75 with a standard error of .49.
The
coefficient of correlation between the weighted socio-econ­
omic scores and the I.Q.'s is .005.
ship is practically negligible.
This means the relation­
The probable error is .03.
This is interpreted as meaning that the chances are 50 in
100 the true coefficient of correlation will fall between
-.03 and .03.
It is practically certain that the true coef­
ficient of correlation will fall between -.12 and .12.
The
equations for the regression lines in both deviation form
and score form, as well as the probable error of the estimate
of each variable in score form, are given in Figure XIV.
The distribution and relationship of the ratings on
socio-economic levels and the ratings on the general intel­
ligence levels are given on the correlation chart in Figure
XV.
The mean of the ratings on the socio-economic levels is
6.13 with a standard error of .07.
The mean of the ratings
on the general intelligence levels is 7.00 with a standard
error of .13.
The coefficient of correlation as computed by
the product-moment method is .17.
This means that there is
a small, positive relationship between the ratings on the
socio-economic levels and the ratings on the general intel­
ligence levels.
The probable error of the coefficient of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
120-124
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Mean X z 6,12
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58
correlation is .03.
This is interpreted as meaning that
the chances are 50 in 100 the true coefficient of correla­
tion will fall within one probable error, i.e., between .14
and .20.
It is practically certain that the true coeffici­
ent of correlation will fall within four probable errors,
i.e., within .05 and .29.
The equations for the regression
lines in both deviation form and score form is given in Fig­
ure XV.
Estimates of either variable when the other vari­
able is known, can be found by substituting in the proper
equation.
The probable error for the estimate of each of
the variables is given in Figure XV.
These are interpreted
as meaning that the chances are 50 in 100 the true value of
the variable will fall within this distance on either side
of the calculated value of the variable.
Summary.
The correlation between mental factors and
factors of socio-economic background is practically negli­
gible.
The correlation between I.Q. of the pupil and education
of parents is _.01.±.03.
The correlation between I.Q. of pupil and the number of
books and magazines in the home is .031.03
The correlation between I.Q. of pupil and the father’s
occupation is .0021.03.
The correlation between raw score on the Henmon-Nelson
Tests of Mental Ability, Form A, and raw score on Sims’
score card is .011.03.
The correlation between mental age and weighted socio­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
economic score is .01±.03.
The correlation between I.Q. and weighted socio-econom­
ic score is .005±.03.
The correlation between rating on the socio-economic
levels and rating on the general intelligence levels is .1?
+ .03.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER VI
SllllutY, COi’CLUSIOl'S, AMD RSCOSOTSMDATIOKS
Summary.
This is a study of the mental factors and
socio-economic ■background of high-school seniors.
The pre­
sent study includes 427 of the 451 high-sehool seniors in
the public schools of Bureau County, Illinois.
The Henmon-
Kelson Tests of Mental Ability, form A, and the writer's
socio-economic questionnaire, from which data were taken to
fill out Sims' score card, were given to each senior during
the middle two weeks of May, 1S4Q.
In regard to mental factors, the mean of Kenrnon-Helson' s
raw scores is 61.87t.58 and the standard deviation is 12.051
.41; the mean of the mental ages is 17 y e a r s , 4.54 months±
.92 months and the standard deviation is 18.96 months£.65
months;
the mean of the 1.6,.'s is 108.75 -.49 and the stand­
ard deviation is 1G.2Q1.35; and the mean of the grade per­
centile norms is 7.001.13 and the standard deviation is 2.77
1.10 .
In working with socio-economic factors, the mean of the
Sims' raw scores is 34.101 .63 and the standard deviation is
13.001.44; the mean of the Sims' weighted scores is 14.951
.24 and the standard deviation is 4.951.19; and the mean of
the socio-economic norm levels is 6.131.07 and the standard
deviation is 1.461.05.
In determining the relationship between mental factors
and socio-economic 'background, the following coefficients of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
correlation are found:
1. The coefficient of correlation “between I.Q,, of pupil
and education of parents is -.011.03 (P.E.).
2. The coefficient of correlation “between I.Q,. of pupil
and number of boohs and magazines in the home is
.03*. 03 CP .Si.).
3. The coefficient of correlation between I.Cl. of pupil
and the fatner's occupation is .0021.03 (P.E.) .
4. The coefficient of correlation between Tlenmon-lfelsofl's raw score and Sims' raw score is .01*.03
(P.E.).
5. The coefficient of correlation between mental age
and weighted socio-economic score is .01 *.03
(P .11.) .
6. The coefficient of correlation between I.Q,. of pupil
and weighted socio-economic score is .0051.03
(P.E.) .
7. The coefficient of correlation between rating on the
socio-economic levels is .171.03 (P.E.).
Conclusions.
From the present study a few general
statements appear to be tenable.
The correlation between mental factors and socio-econom­
ic background as measured in the present study is so slight
that no use can be made of these measures in prediction.
Apparently in Bureau County,
Illinois, there is prac­
tically no relationship between the I.Q,. of a high-sehool
senior and the education of his parents, the occupation of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
62
his father, or the amount of readable material in the h o m e .
The socio-economic background of the high-school seniors
in Bureau County, Illinois, is somewhat higher than the norms
set up by Sims,
The general intelligence of the pupils in the present
study, as measured by one general intelligence test, is
slightly higher than the norms for high-school seniors as
set up by Henmon-ifelson.
Recommendations.
The following problems for further
study are suggested by the present study:
1. The relationship between socio-economic background
and school achievement of high-school pupils;
2. The relationship between general intelligence of the
pupil and yearly income of the father;
3. The relationship between school achievement of the
pupil and yearly income of the father;
4. The preparation of a socio-economic score card which
is suitable for guidance use in a school adminis­
trator's office;
5.
The relationship between school achievement
and hours
of employment while going to school; and
6.
The relationship between school achievement
ticipation in extra-curricular activities.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and par­
SELECTED REFERENCES
1. Canady, H. G-. "Intelligence of Negro College Students
and Parental Occupation," American Journal of Sociol­
o g y . 42:388-389, Nov., 1936.
2. Chauncey, M. R.
"Relation between Intelligence, Age and
Home Environment of Elementary-School Children," Jour
nal of Educational Research. 20:88-90, Sept., 1929.
3. Cuff, N. B.
"Vectors of Socio-Economic Status," Peabody
Journal of Education. 12:114-117, Nov., 1934.
4. Dexter, Emily S.
"The Relation between Occupation of
Parent and Intelligence of Children," School and Soci
e t y . 17:612-614, June 2, 1923.
5. Douglass, Aubrey A.
Secondary Education.
Houghton Mifflin Co., 1927, p. 202.
Boston, Mass.
6. Dowd, C. E.
"Study of High School Graduates with Refer­
ence to Level of Intelligence," Journal of Education­
al Psychology. 23:687-702, Dec., 1932.
7. Flemming, Elizabeth.
The Socio-Economic Background of
High I.Q,. and Low I .Q. High School Students. Unpub­
lished Thesis, The George Washington University, Wash
ington, D. C., 1935.
8. Garrett, Henry E.
Statistics in Psychology and Educa­
tion. New York, N. Y . : Longmans, Green and Co., 1938
9.
Haggerty, M. E., and Nash, H. B.
"Mental Capacity of
Children and Parental Occupation," Journal of Educa­
tional Psychology. 15:559-572, Dec., 1924.
10. Henmon, V. A. C., and Nelson, M. J. Henmon-Nelson Tests
of Mental Ability. Teacher1s Manual. Boston, Mass.:
11. Jordan, A. M.
"Parental Occupations and Children's In­
telligence Scores," Journal of Applied Psychology.
17:103-119, Apr., 1933.
12. Munroe, J.
"Intelligence Is Affected by Food," Parents
Magazine. 4:22 and 61-62, June, 1929.
13.
National Society for the Study of Education.
Intelli­
gence: Its Nature and Nurture. Part II. Bloomington,
111.: Public School Publishing Co., 1940.
14. Pressey, S. L . , and Ralston, R.
"The Relation of Gener-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
64
SELECTED REFERENCES (Cont.)
al Intelligence of School Children to the Occupation
of Their Fathers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 3:
366-373, Dec., 1919.
15. Punke, H. H.
"Age of Parent and Intelligence of Off­
spring," Elementary School Journal. 39:617-622, Apr.,
1939.
16. Reymert, M. L., and Fring, J.
"Children’s Intelligence
in Relation to Occupation of Father," American Jour­
nal of Sociology. 41:351-354, Nov., 1935.
17. Sims, Verner Martin.
The Measurement of Soclo-Economio
Status. Bloomington, 111.: Public School Publishing
Co., 1928.
18. Sirkin, M.
"Relation between Intelligence, Age, and
Home Environment of Elementary-School Children,"
School and Society. 30:304-308, Aug. 31, 1929.
19. Skeels, M. M . , and Fillmore, E. A.
"Mental Development
of Children from Under Privileged Homes," Pedagogi­
cal Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology. 50:
427-439, June, 1937.
20. Snygg, D.
"Relation between the Intelligence of Mothers
and of Their Children Living in Foster Homes," Peda­
gogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology.
52:401-406, June, 1938.
21. Stechel, M. L.
"Intelligence and Birth Order in Family,"
Journal of Social Psychology. 1:329-344, Aug., 1930.
22. ______________ . "Parental Age and Intelligence of Off­
spring," Journal of Educational Psychology. 22:212220, Mar., 1931.
23. Thurstone, L. L., and Jenkins, R. L.
"Birth Order and
Intelligence," Journal of Educational Psychology. 20:
641-651, Dec., 1929.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
AEHSBDIX
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
66
FORM I
SOCIO-ECONOMIC QUESTIONNAIRE
Encircle the correct answer and fill in the blanks provided.
Name:
Sex:
Male Female
Are. you living a.t home ttfith your parents?
Yes No
Are you living in the home of someone else, such as
a relative, adopted parent, guardian, etc.?
Yes No
Are you living in an institution, such as an orphan
asylum or a home for children?
Yes No
Are you rooming and boarding at the home of someone
else during the school year?
Yes No
If you have answered all of the above 4 questions
No, where do you live?_____________________________________
Is your home heated by a furnace in the basement?
Yes No
Have you a telephone in your home?
Yes No
Do you have a bathroom that is used by your family
alone?
Yes No
Do you have a bank account in your own name?
Yes No
Do you have your own room in which to study?
Yes No
Do you take private lessons in music?
Yes No
Do you take private lessons in dancing?
Yes No
Do you belong to any organization or club which takes
time from your studies and to which you pay dues? Yes No
Names;____________________________________ Dues:____________
Does your father (or the head of your h o m e ) b e l o n g to
any club or organization?
Yes No
Name:_______________________________________________________
Does your mother
belong to any club or organization? Yes No
Name:_______________________________________________________
Does your mother
regularly attend lecture courses? Yes No
Does your family attend concerts? NEVER OCCASIONALLY USUALLY
Where do you regularly spend your summers?
AT HOME AWAY
How often do you have dental work done?
NEVER
WHEN NEEDED
ONCE A YEAR
OFTENER
How many servants such as a cook, a housekeeper, a
chauffeur, or amaid do you have in your home?
NONE
ONE
PART TIME
ONE OR MORE ALL THE TIME
Does your family own an auto which is not a truck?
Yes No
NONE
ONE
TWO OR MORE
Make, Model, and Year of the best one:_________________ .
How many magazines are regularly taken in your home?
NONE
ONE
TWO
THREE OR MORE
Name of three:______________________________________________
How many rooms does your family occupy?
1
2
3
4
56
7
8
9
10
How many persons occuoy these rooms?
1
2
3
4
56
7
8
9
10
11
12
MORE
11
12
MORE
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
67
FORM I (Cont.)
Write your father's occupation on this line._________________
Does he own PART ALL NONE of his business?
Does he have any title, such as president, manager,
foreman, boss, etc.?
Yes No
If he does have a title write it on this line.___________
How many persons work for him?
NONE
1 to 5
6 to 10
MORE THAN 10
How many brothers have you living?______________dead?________
How many sisters have you living?_____________
dead?_____
How old is your real father?______________ real mother?
Are your parents divorced? Yes No
Separated?
Yes No
Do you have a step-father or mother? Yes No Which?_________
Number of step-brothers:____________ step-sisters?_____________
What child in order of birth are you?_________________________
How often does your mother go to church?_____________________
How often does your father go to church?
;
___________ .
How often do you go to church?________________________________
How often do you go to the picture show?______________________
What grade did your father complete in school?_______________
What grade did your mother complete in school?_______________
Do you have a job while you are going to school?
Yes No
Job:
Pay (if other than
for parents):
Number of hours per day:________
Are you going to go to college or business school?
Yes No
Name of college: (tentative)______________________________
What occupation do you plan on for a life work?_________ ■
What occupation do you plan on entering temporarily?________
What mode of transportation have you had to go to
high school?______________ ;
______________ __________________
Distance from your home to school: (one wav)
(Take the average distance while going to high school.)
Has either of your parents worked on W.P.A.?
Yes
No
Has your family been on relief any time while you
have been going to high school?
Yes
No
How much time have you missed from school due to_s ick­
ness? Average number of days per school year:__________
(Approximate for the time you have been in high school.)
What was your father's total income for 1939?________________
How many others in your family earned money in 1939?________
What was your family's total income for 1939?________________
About how many books are in your home? (A row of books three
feet long would not have more than 25 books in it.)
NONE
1-25
26-125
126-500
MORE
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68
FORM II
ITEMS ON THE SIMS' SCORE CARD FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
1 Have you a telephone in your home?
2 Is your home heated by a furnace in the "basement?
3 Do
you have a bathroom that is used by
4 Do
you have a bank account in your own name?
5 Did your father go
to college?
6 Did your mother go
to college?
7 Did
your father go
to high school?
8 Did
your mother go
to high school?
your family alone?
9 Does your mother regularly attend any lecture courses?
10 Do you have your own room in which to study?
11 Do
you take private lessons in music?
12 Do
you take private lessons in dancing?
13 Does your mother belong to any clubs or organizations?
14 Do you pay dues to any organizations or clubs?
15 Does your family attend concerts?
16 Where do you regularly spend your summers?
17 How often do you have dental work done?
18 How many servants such as a cook, a housekeeper, a chauf­
feur, or a maid, do you have in your home?
19 Does your family own an auto which is not a truck?
20 How many magazines are regularly taken in your home?
21 About how many books are in your home?
22 How many rooms does your family occupy?
occupy these rooms?
How many persons
23 What is your father's occupation?
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69
FORM III
METHOD FOR COMPUTING THE TOTAL SCORE ON SIMS' SCORE CARD23
Question 1 to 14: credit 3 for each "Yes," 0 for each "No."
Question 15: Never, 0; Occasionally, 3; Frequently, 3.
Question 16: At Home, 0; Away from Home, 3.
Question 17: Never, 0; When Needed, 0; Once a year, 3; Oftener, 3.
Question 18: None, 0; One Part Time, 3; One or More All the
Time, 4.
Question 19:
None, 0; One, 3;
Two or More, 4.
Question 20:
None, 0; One, 2;Two, 3; Three orMore, 4.
Question 21:
5; More,
None, 0; 1 to 25, 2; 26 to 125, 4;126 to 500,
6.
Question 22: The correspondences hetween room-person ratio
and units of credit are:
Credit
Ratio
0.0 to 0.50
0
0.51 to 1.00
3
4
1.01 to 1.50
5
1.51 to 2.00
2.01 and up
6
Question 23: The correspondences between class of occupa­
tions and unfits of credit are: Group I, credit 8; Group
II, 6; Group III, 4; Group IV, 2; Group V, 0.
A credit has now been assigned to each of the replies
to the 23 questions that have been answered.
Add these
credits, and divide this sum by the actual number of ques­
tions answered.
The quotient, carried to one decimal place
and the decimal neglected, is the score, the "socio-economic
status."
25I bld.. pp. 21-23.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
70
FORM IV
CLASSIFICATION OF FATHER'S OCCUPATION INTO PROPER GROUP24
Group I. Professional men, proprietors of large busi­
nesses, and higher executives.
Typical occupations are il­
lustrated:
Professional men like architects, artists, authors,
clergymen, college administrators, dentists, editors of
large papers, engineers (civil, electrical, mechanical), in­
ventors, journalists, lawyers, physicians, teachers (col­
lege) .
Important public officials, like senators, congressmen,
mayors, postmasters of large towns.
Important private officials, like higher executives of
large corporations.
Proprietors of businesses and managers employing more
than 10 men and owning part or all of their business, like
agents (insurance, real estate, railroad, steamship, etc.),
large buyers, clothiers, large contractors, hotel owners and
managers, manufacturers, merchants, publishers, etc.
Also bankers, brokers, inspectors (government and rail­
road, but not shop Inspectors).
Group II.
Commercial service, clerical service, large
land owners, managerial service of a lower order than in
Group I, and business proprietors employing from five to ten
men.
Accountants, bookkeepers, cashiers, commercial travel­
ers, large-scale farmers, high-school teachers, musicians,
buying and selling agents, (insurance, real estate, etc.),
working for someone else, proprietors of businesses (cloth­
iers, merchants, publishers, etc.) employing five to ten men,
managers of small corporations, assistants in governmental
employ, etc.
Group III. Artisan proprietors, petty officials, print­
ing trades employees, skilled laborers with some managerial
responsibility, shop owners and business proprietors employ­
ing one to five men.
Bakers, barbers, blacksmiths, cleaners and dyers, cob­
blers, machinists, plumbers, tailors, and other artisans own­
ing their own business; clerks in stores, farmers, foremen,
railroad conductors and engineers, shop inspectors, linotypers, detectives, mail clerks, police sergeants, fire cap­
tains, etc.
Group IV.
Skilled laborers (with exception of print­
ers) who work for someone else, building trades, transporta­
tion trades, manufacturing trades involving skilled labor,
^Ibid., p . 22.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71
FORM IV (Cont.)
personal service; and small shop owners doing their own work.
Bakers, blacksmiths, cabinet-makers, carpenters, chefs,
electricians, engineer's assistants, firemen, Janitors,
locksmiths, mailmen, policemen, tenants, tinsmiths, tanners,
sailors, switchmen, waiters, and small shop owners employing
no help.
Group V. Unskilled laborers, common laborers, helpers,
"hands,” peddlers, varied employment, venders, unemployed
fish peddlers, furnace tenders, night watchmen, suit pressers, messengers, and all common labor.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
72
TABLE IX
SCORES ON SIMS' SCORE CARD FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
5tuLent
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
1
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
8
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 3 3
3 0 3 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 3 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 0 3
3 3 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
1
5
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
1
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
0
3
3
3
0
3
4
0
4
3
3
4
4
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
0
4
4
0
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
0
2
2
3
4
0
4
4
3
4
4
2
4
4
4
2
1
4
4
2
4
4
5
4
5
4
4
4
2
5
2
2
4
4
4
5
4
5
4
4
4
2
2
2
4
5
4
5
4
0
2
4
4
4
2
4
3
4
5
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
3
4
4
3
5
6
5
3
6
4
6
5
6
5
5
4
4
5
3
5
4
6
4
4
3
6
4
4
4
5
3
3
0
5
4
6
5
4
4
4
5
4
4
5
6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
3
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
6
2
4
4
4
8
4
—
4
4
0
8
4
4
4
6
6
4
4
0
2
8
0
2
2
4
0
2
4
4
4
4
0
0
8
0
0
0
4
Total
Score
34
27
6
31
26
51
48
44
21
40
30
43
61
49
19
29
35
21
68
24
24
29
63
30
35
23
24
35
60
32
33
24
18
10
41
34
38
39
34
37
42
49
22
33
37
48
73
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Jtuient
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
2
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
4
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
7
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
6
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 ? 3 4
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 3 0 3
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
1
5
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
1
6
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
1
7
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
4
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
4
4
3
2
0
2
4
4
3
0
3
4
2
4
2
4
2
2
4
0
4
0
4
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
0
4
4
4
2
1
2
2
4
4
2
2
4
4
4
5
0
2
0
2
2
2
2
4
5
2
4
4
5
5
2
4
4
5
4
5
4
4
4
4
5
4
5
5
2
2
2
5
4
4
2
4
4
4
2
2
5
4
4
3
5
4
4
6
5
5
3
5
3
4
3
3
4
4
5
4
4
5
5
6
5
0
5
6
5
4
6
6
5
6
4
6
6
6
6
5
4
4
5
4
5
5
4
6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
3
0
2
4
4
0
—
2
0
4
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
—
4
2
0
0
4
6
4
—
0
4
4
4
4
4
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
—
4
4
4
Total
Score
27
21
34
26
22
24
35
27
57
35
16
26
20
22
11
21
12
34
44
15
27
38
53
43
23
11
33
40
36
39
30
60
27
48
42
49
46
43
28
39
23
36
32
27
13
42
47
45
74
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Stu­
dent
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
I?
00
00
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
5
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
3 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 3 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 3 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
1
5
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
1
6
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
1
7
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
1
8
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
3
3
0
3
4
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
4
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
4
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
2
0
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
3
4
4
4
2
4
2 2
Ig
2 5
5 4
4 5
5 3
2 4
5 6
4 6
4 5
4 4
5 5
4 5
4 5
4 4
2 5
4 4
2 5
4 4
5 5
2 5
6 5
5 6
4 5
2 4
2 3
5 5
4 4
6 5
4 5
4 5
4 6
5 5
2 5
2 5
4 5
4 3
4 3
4 5
4 4
4 4
2 5
4 5
4 3
4 4
4 4
5 5
4 6
4 4
4 3
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
3
4
4
0
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
4
8
0
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
6
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
8
4
4
4
0
4
Total
Score
27
28
16
43
27
52
40
35
25
48
27
47
34
27
42
23
26
64
42
56
25
41
27
19
33
33
40
28
50
34
56
29
28
25
36
33
29
31
31
36
35
10
40
40
51
39
22
27
75
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Stu­
dent
145
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
1
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
'3
2
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
6
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
7
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
8
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
0 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
1
5
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
P 3
k 0
1
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
1
9
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
0
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
2
0
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
2
1
5
4
2
5
2
5
4
2
5
6
2
5
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
4
5
4
2
5
2
4
5
5
0
2
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
4
2
6
6
5
4
4
2
6
4
2
2
5
4
5
6
4
4
5
5
6
5
4
5
6
3
4
6
6
5
4
6
4
3
5
5
3
5
5
3
4
5
4
6
5
5
5
6
5
5
4
4
5
6
6
6
4
5
5
6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
—
8
4
2
0
4
4
4
4
—
4
4
-
4
4
4
8
4
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
4
2
8
8
8
0
4
2
4
4
Total
Score
37
31
32
46
29
32
32
36
47
56
25
55
34
20
30
42
34
34
27
38
54
21
31
33
28
35
46
25
17
27
37
48
42
44
51
69
65
71
31
33
68
73
56
29
31
37
62
48
76
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Stu­
dent
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
1
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
2
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
4
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
5
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
8
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
3 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
1
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
1
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
1
7
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
0
0
4
3
4
0
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
3
0
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
4
0
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
0
4
0
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
2
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
4
3
2
1
2
4
2
2
4
5
2
5
5
4
4
4
4
5
4
6
5
2
2
2
4
4
4
2
5
4
2
2
4
2
4
5
2
4
5
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
2
4
2
6
2
2
2
4
6
3
3
4
6
4
6
6
5
4
4
3
5
3
6
5
4
4
6
4
6
4
6
6
5
3
3
4
6
6
4
5
5
5
5
4
5
4
5
5
5
3
6
4
3
4
2
3
0
6
4
4
4
8
4
6
0
0
0
2
4
0
2
8
8
2
4
4
4
4
-
4
4
4
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
2
2
4
0
4
4
0
4
4
0
4
2
0
2
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Total
Score
30
60
31
25
46
62
32
46
42
27
21
41
33
51
23
61
53
39
32
34
53
51
45
32
62
53
20
25
33
39
48
48
38
48
49
54
29
45
40
33
24
35
21
30
32
34
38
77
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Stu­
dent
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252 •
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
1
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
2
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
4
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
6
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
7
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
8
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
0 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 3 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 3 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 3 *Z
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
1
5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
5
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
1
6
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
1
7
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
1
8
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
3
4
3
0
3
4
3
4
3
4
3
3
4
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
4
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
4
0
4
2
4
3
3
4
3
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
4
2
1
5
5
2
2
2
4
2
5
4
4
0
6
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
4
4
5
2
5
4
5
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
4
2
2
4
2
2
5
4
4
5
4
4
2
4
2
2
6
5
6
5
5
5
5
6
3
4
3
3
3
3
6
5
3
5
4
4
5
5
5
6
5
6
5
6
6
3
3
5
5
4
5
5
6
4
5
5
5
4
5
6
5
0
6
2
3
6
4
4
4
-
4
2
2
4
4
—
0
4
4
0
4
2
4
0
4
4
4
4
8
4
4
—
4
4
0
4
4
-
2
0
2
4
2
4
4
2
2
4
6
4
2
4
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Total
Score
57
52
43
30
41
51
39
44
38
29
18
37
30
34
32
47
28
26
21
56
56
54
42
56
35
39
29
40
30
5
31
29
26
35
20
33
36
30
42
59
54
35
42
50
31
22
51
78
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Stu­
dent
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
.
1
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
8
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
n
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
0 3 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 3 0 0 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
1
5
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
1
6
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
1
7
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
1
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
9
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
4
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
4
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
2
0
3
4
2
3
4
3
3
4
2
0
2
0
0
4
2
2
4
0
4
3
0
4
3
2
4
0
4
3
0
0
4
0
0
2
4
2
4
0
2
3
2
3
4
0
0
0
3
2
1
2
4
5
2
2
2
2
2
0
2
4
2
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
0
5
0
4
6
0
4
4
0
0
2
2
2
2
6
2
4
2
0
2
4
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
3
5
4
5
4
5
5
5
3
5
4
4
4
4
3
5
4
4
6
3
3
5
4
5
4
6
4
3
3
3
6
5
5
4
4
5
5
3
3
3
4
5
6
4
3
6
4
2
5
6
0
—
0
4
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
—
0
0
4
4
0
2
2
0
2
0
—
0
0
0
0
—
6
0
6
0
4
4
0
0
0
4
6
4
2
0
2
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Total
Score
35
22
23
25
13
38
41
23
11
19
10
15
18
31
19
26
34
15
34
18
3
28
24
26
44
27
30
22
12
6
36
22
37
20
54
15
38
21
8
11
16
29
42
23
28
23
32
03 to O o t 1 o CO o
CO 1 o o 1 to CO ■SFo H< o CO CO CD "F CO H» o H* H* o CO CO o
CD 1 03 03 Ht 1
Ht 03 H« 03 o
H< o
1
X
3
CD
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
1
X
31
X
3
CO
to
to
to
to
H<
to
to
to
CO
H*
CO
to
CD
to
to
to
to
to to to to to
03
H* H* 'F H* H»
CO H o -o* CO CO CO H1CO
CO •sF o
CO
■sFCO CO H* CO CO CO o o o H> o H< CO CO H* o o H* 1X303 Ht to H* Ht 03 H* 03H* H< 03 03 03
CO O o •SF to to
o CO to '■sf* o o H* CO to to o ■0* o CO CO CO
H* CO CO H< Ht Ht 03H* 03CO CO H1nF H* 03CO H4 03
o CO o CO o CO CO CO to CO to CO CO
i—103to to to o to to o to to to to o to H1to o to to to to to to CO ■^1o CO CO CO to to
rH 03 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o CO o o o o o o o o CO o o o o o
i-1C-to o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o to to o o o CO CO to CO o o to o to o o CO o o o o CO CO to o o o CO
i
— 1to o o to o o to o to o o o o o o o o o to o o o o o o CO o o o o o CO o o CO o to o o o o CO o o o o o o CO
i
— 1too o to o to to to o o o o o to to to o o to o o to o CO o to o o o o CO o CO o CO to CO CO CO o o CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
to i
f-4—t o o o o to o to to to o o o to to o o o o to to o to o o o o to o o o o o CO o CO CO CO CO CO CO o CO o CO o CO to CO
H
OIH to o o o o to o to to to o o o to to o o to o o o o o to o to o CO to CO CO o o CO CO o o to CO CO to CO o CO CO o o to CO
*rn
-p
rJ
rl
trH CO o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
K
03 rH H o o to o o o o to o o o o o to o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o CO o o o o o o o o to CO o o o o
<3 rH O to o o to o o o to o o o o o to to o to to to to o o CO to CO o to to CO CO o CO CO CO CO CO to CO o o o o to o to CO o CO
0 3 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o to o o o o o o o o o o o o CO o o o CO o o o o CO o o o o o
CO o o o o o to o to to o o o o o o o o o o o o o o CO CO o CO o o to o o CO CO o CO CO to CO CO CO o CO CO o o o CO
o o o to o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o to o to o to o o o to o o CO o CO to o o to o o CO o o to o to
to o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o CO o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
ID o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o CO o o o o o CO o o o o o
o to o to o o o to to to o o o to o o o o o o o o to o o o o o o o o CO o to o CO o o o o o CO o o o o o o
to o to o to o to to to to o o to o to to to o to o to o to o CO CO o CO o to CO CO CO o CO CO CO to CO o CO o o to o o CO o CO
CO o o o o o o o o to o o o o to to to o to o to o to o o to o CO o to CO CO o CO to CO o CO o o CO o o CO CO to to o CO
1—1o o o o o o o o o to o o o o to o o o o to o to o o o o CO o o o o o CO CO o o to to to CO o CO CO CO o to o o
1p
£ G CO to to to D“CO 03o rH CO to •0*to to t>co 03 o rH CO to mFto co D" CO 03 o rH CO CO H* to to c-CO O) o rH 03 to H* to to o- CO 03
-P <u to to to to to to to to H* 'sFH* •0* H> ■o*H* to to to to to to to tO to to CO CD CO CO to to to to to CO£> o- c- 2> J> r- i> D- £> £>
02 r d to to to to to to totototo to toto to toto to to to to to to CO CO CO to to to CO to CO to CO CO CO CO to CO to to CO to CO to to CO to to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE
IX
(Cont
r—t 03 CO o to o rH H* 03 to H* o to H* 03 1X3 1—1CO co to 1X303 to 00 CO CO to o CD o- o CO CO t> 03 CO C“ CO Ht 03 CO nF CO 1—1H» 03 CD CO
«5 U rH CO CO CO to CO rH to CO rH rH to CO rH to 1—1CO CO CO to CO iH CO CO to CO CO to to 03•SFto to 03 to 03 to to 03 to 03
-P O
o O
c-i vj
80
TABLE IX (Cont.)
Stu­
dent
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
1
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
2
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3'
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
8
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Questions
1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 3 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
3. 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
3 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 3 0 3 3
3 3 0 3 0
3 3 0 3 3
0 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 3 0
3 0 0 3 3
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 3
0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 3
1
5
3
3
3
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
3
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
3
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
1
7
0
0
3
3
0
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
8
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
1
9
0
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
0
4
3
3
3
4
0
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
0
3
0
3
3
4
3
4
3
3
4
3
0
3
3
3
0
3
0
0
0
2
0
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
2
4
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
3
3
4
4
4
0
2
1
4
4
5
5
4
4
4
4
6
2
4
4
5
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
4
4
5
2
2
2
2
0
2
2
6
4
2
5
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
4
2
2
4
6
3
4
4
4
4
6
5
4
4
6
5
5
5
3
4
5
3
3
6
3
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
6
5
3
4
3
3
4
4
6
6
3
5
6
4
3
5
4
4
0
2
3
0
4
—
4
4
4
4
2
4
0
—
0
4
4
4
8
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
4
4
4
2
4
0
0
2
4
2
4
2
4
6
4
2
4
0
4
0
4
0
2
0
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Total
Score
36
51
36
61
41
31
40
49
61
34
28
38
36
51
40
38
27
44
34
38
36
24
40
25
17
33
24
17
23
14
42
31
27
35
40
50
49
57
37
22
38
16
19
18
35
22
18
10
81
TABLE X
INTELLIGENCE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC SCORES
Stu- Mental
dent Raw Score
1
77
2
73
3
72
71
4
71
5
70
6
7
70
8
69
9
68
10
65
65
ll
12
64
13
64
14
63
15
62
16
62
17
61
18
61
19
58
57
20
57
21
22
50
23
36
67
24
25
63
26
62
27
55
28
76
29
76
30
75
31
73
32
73
33
70
34
69
35
68
67
36
37
66
38
65
39
64
40
63
41
63
42
62
43
62
44
62
45
60
60
46
59
47
Mental I.Q,. Grade Norm
S.-E
Sims S.-E
Aere
Score
Hat ins.. Raw Score Score Level
19- 10
34
6
124
10
14.8
27
11.7
9
5
19- 2
120
9
1
6
2.6
18- 11
118
117
9
31
13.5
18- 8
6
117
9
26
11.3
5
18- 8
9
51
7
18- 6
116
22.2
9
7
48
20.9
18- 6
116
9
44
19.1
7
18- 4
115
9
21
9.1
4
18- 1
113
17- 5
17.4
109
8
40
6
17- 5
109
8
30
13.0
5
7
17- 4
18.7
7
108
43
7
17- 4
26.5
108
61
8
7
17- 3
49
7
21.3
108
107
7
19
4
17- 2
8.6
7
17- 2
107
29
12.6
5
7
17- 1
107
35
15.2
6
107
7
17- 1
4
21
9.1
6
68
9
16- 10
105
29.6
5
24
10.4
105
5
16- 9
5
105
24
10.4
5
16- 9
3
29
5
101
12.6
16- 2
27.4
14- 3
1
63
89
8
17- 10
8
30
13.0
5
111
7
17- 3
35
108
15.2
6
7
107
10.0
5
17- 2
23
24
104
5
10.4
5
16- 7
10
35
19- 8
15.2
6
123
10
60
19- 8
123
26.1
8
19- 6
32
13.9
6
122
10
9
19- 2
120
33
14.3
6
9
24
10.4
5
19- 2
120
9
4
18- 6
18
7.8
116
10
18- 4
115
9
4.3
2
9
7
41
18- 1
113
17.8
17- 10
8
34
111
14.8
6
38
16.5
6
8
17- 7
110
8
17- 5
109
39
17.0
6
7
34
17- 4
14.8
108
6
7
37
17- 3
16.1
6
108
7
17- 3
7
18.3
108
42
7
7
107
49
21.3
17- 2
7
4
107
22
9.6
17- 2
7
17- 2
107
33
14.3
6
37
6
16.1
6
17- 0
106
20.9
7
48
17- 0
6
106
27
11.7
6
106
5
16- 11
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
82
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu­ Mental
dent Raw Score
48
59
49
59
57
50
51
56
52
56
53
55
54
54
55
52
56
51
57
49
58
48
59
47
60
47
61
46
62
44
63
44
64
43
65
40
66
32
67
32
68
79
69
76
70
74
71
73
72
72
73
72
74
71
75
70
69
76
77
68
78
68
79
67
80
67
81
66
64
82
64
83
84
64
85
63
62
86
87
62
88
61
60
89
90
59
91
57
92
55
93
55
54
94
95
52
S.-E.
Mental I.Q. Grade Norm
Sims S.-E.
Aee
Ratine:
Raw Score Score Level
Score
9.1
106
6
21
4
16-11
34
16-11
106
6
6
14.8
5
11 .3
5
16- 9
105
26
4
104
5
22
9.6
16- 8
24
104
5
10.9
5
16- 8
104
5
35
6
16- 7
15.2
27
4
11.7
16- 6
103
5
57
4
102
8
16- 4
24.8
35
102
3
6
16- 3
15.2
101
16
16- 1
3
7.0
3
99
5
15-10
3
26
11.3
8.7
15- 9
98
3
20
4
15- 9
98
3
22
9.6
4
15- 8
98
3
11
4.8
2
9.1
15- 4
96
21
4
2
96
15- 4
2
12
5.5
3
94
34
15- 1
2
14.8
6
14- 8 ,
1
44
7
92
19.1
1
15
13-10
86
6.5
3
27
11.7
13-10
86
1
5
20- 1
10
38
126
16.5
6
19- 8
10
7
53
123
22.6
19- 4
10
18.7
7
43
121
120
9
19- 2
23
10.5
5
9
18-11
118
11
4.8
2
18-11
118
9
33
14.3
6
117
9
40
17.4
18- 8
6
116
36
15.7
18- 6
9
6
9
39
18- 4
115
17.0
6
9
30
18- 1
113
13.0
5
9
18- 1
113
60
26.1
8
27
11.7
111
8
5
17-10
17-10
8
48
20.9
7
111
17- 7
110
8
7
42
18.3
17- 4
7
108
49
7
21.3
7
17- 4
7
108
46
20.0
17- 4
7
18.7
7
108
43
17- 3
7
108
28
5
12.2
107
7
39
17- 2
17.0
6
107
7
17- 2
23
10.0
5
107
7
15.7
17-11
36
6
17- 0
6
32
13.9
106
6
27
11.7
5
106
6
16-11
5.9
5
13
105
3
16- 9
7
104
5
42
18.3
16- 7
7
5
47
104
20.4
16- 7
7
4
45
19.6
103
16- 6
27
11.7
5
4
102
16- 4
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
83
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu­ Mental
Mental I.Q. Grade Norm
S.-E.
Sims S.-E.
Score
Ratine
Raw Score Score Level
dent Raw Score Aee
34
96
87
1
14- 0
28
5
12.2
97
70
18- 6
9
116
7.0
16
3
98
64
17- 4
7
7
108
18.7
43
99
62
107
7
27
17- 2
11.7
5
7
100
17- 1
107
7
61
52
22.6
101
17- 1
61
107
7
40
17.4
6
57
102
5
105
16- 9
35
15.2
6
57
103
5
16- 9
105
25
10.9
5
104
51
20.9
7
16- 3
102
3
48
105
50
3
27
11.7
16- 2
101
5
39
106
14- 6
1
47
7
91
20.4
107
76
19- 8
123
10
34
6
14.8
74
27
11.7
108
19- 4
10
5
121
109
9
19- 2
7
73
120
42
18.3
110
69
9
18- 4
115
5
23
10.0
111
9
68
18- 1
5
113
26
11.3
9
112
68
64
8
18- 1
113
27.8
113
67
7
8
111
42
18.3
17-10
114
17- 7
7
66
110
8
56
24 •3
115
65
17- 5
109
8
25
10.9
5
7
65
17- 5
8
41
116
109
17.8
7
117
17- 4
27
11.7
64
5
108
7
118
17- 3
19
4
63
108
8.3
119
7
17- 2
107
62
33
14.3
6
60
17- 0
6
33
120
106
14.3
6
121
60
17- 0
6
17.4
40
6
106
17- 0
5
60
106
6
12.2
122
28
21.7
123
60
17- 0
7
106
6
50
59
124
6
34
16-11
106
14.8
6
7
57
5
125
16- 9
105
56
24.3
5
126
56
104
5
16- 8
29
12.6
127
55
5
5
104
28
12.2
16- 7
4
54
10.9
5
128
16- 6
103
25
15.7
129
43
15- 1
2
36
6
94
67
8
6
130
111
33
14.3
17-10
5
17- 7
8
29
12.6
131
66
110
7
107
13.5
31
6
62
17- 2
132
17- 0
13.5
60
6
31
6
133
106
15.7
5
6
134
36
56
16- 8
104
10
127
35
15.2
135
80
6
20- 3
2
79
10
10
4.3
136
20- 1
126
40
17.4
6
137
10
76
19- 8
123
17.4
10
40
6
75
19- 6
122
138
7
10
51
22.2
139
75
19- 6
122
9
17.0
6
39
140
72
18-11
118
9
4
9.6
22
141
70
18- 6
116
27
11.7
5
8
67
111
17-10
142
37
6
107
7
16.1
143
62
17- 2
13.5
6
31
6
106
16-11
144
59
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
84
TABLE X (Cont.)
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
<
C
D
H
Mental I.Q. Grade Norm
S.-E.
Sims S.-E.
Ratine:
Raw Score Score
Me
Score
105
5
13.9
16- 9
32
6
5
7
104
20.0
16- 7
46
29
16- 3
102
3
5
12.6
3
32
13.9
6
16- 3
102
97
13.9
2
15- 6
32
6
15.7
78
0
12- 6
36
6
47
7
20- 0
125
10
20.4
7
19- 8
123
10
56
20.3
19- 6
10
25
11.4
5
122
19- 4
10
55
23.9
7
121
19- 4
10
121
34
14.8
6
19- 2
120
9
8.7
20
4
9
13.0
5
18—11
118
30
17- 4
7
7
42
108
18.3
7
17- 4
108
34
14.8
6
6
34
16-11
14.4
6
106
27
105
5
11.7
16- 9
5
16- 9
105
5
38
17.3
6
5
7
104
54
23.5
16- 8
5
16- 7
104
21
9.1
4
16- 7
104
5
31
14.1
6
3
16- 3
102
33
14.3
6
15- 1
94
2
28
5
12.2
15- 1
94
2
35
15.2
6
20.0
7
15- 1
94
2
46
o
94
15- 1
25
10.9
5
14- 6
91
1
17
7.4
3
14- 5
27
11.7
90
1
5
14- 4
37
90
1
6
16.1
22- 6
141
10
48
20.9
7
141
10
7
22- 6
42
18.3
19.1
7
135
10
44
21- 8
132
10
51
7
21- 2
22.2
20- 5
128
10
69
30.0
9
20- 5
128
10
65
29.1
8
71
9
20- 5
128
10
30.9
127
20- 3
10
31
13.5
6
20- 3
127
10
33
14.3
6
127
9
20- 3
10
68
29.6
127
10
31.7
20- 3
73
9
127
10
7
20- 3
24.3
56
127
10
20- 3
29
12.6
5
10
31
20- 1
13.5
6
126
37
20- 1
126
10
6
16.1
19-10
124
10
62
27.0
8
124
10
20.9
48
8
19-10
30
13.0
5
10
19- 8
123
8
19- 4
121
10
60
26.1
10
19- 4
31
13.5
6
121
C
D
Stu- Mental
dent Raw Score
57
145
146
55
147
51
148
51
149
45
150
20
151
78
152
76
153
75
154
74
155
, 74
156
73
157
72
64
158
159
64
160
59
57
161
57
162
163
56
164
55
165
55
166
51
167
43
168
43
169
43
170
43
171
39
172
38
37
173
174
86
175
86
176
84
177
83
178
81
179
81
180
81
181
80
182
80
183
80
184
80
185
80
186
80
187
79
79
188
189
77
77
190
191
76
74
192
193
74
#
85
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu­ Mental
dent Raw Score
194
74
195
74
196
72
197
72
198
72
199
72
71
200
71
201
71
202
71
203
71
204
205
70
206
70
207
70
208
69
69
209
210
69
211
68
212
68
213
68
214
68
215
68
67
216
217
67
67
218
219
67
220
66
221
66
65
222
223
65
224
65
225
64
226
64
227
64
228
63
63
229
230
63
231
63
232
62
233
62
234
62
235
61
236
61
237
61
238
59
239
58
240
58
57
241
57
242
S.-E.
Mental I.Q. Grade Norm
Sims S.-E.
Score
Ratine
Raw Score Score Level
Asce
19- 4
121
25
10
10.9
5
19- 4
10
7
121
46
20.0
118
9
18-11
62
27.0
8
9
18-11
118
32
13.9
6
18-11
118
9
7
46
20.0
9
118
42
7
18-11
18.3
117
27
18- 8
9
11.7
5
117
9
21
18- 8
4
9.1
117
41
7
18- 8
9
17.8
117
9
18- 8
33
14.3
6
117
9
51
18- 8
7
22.2
18- 6
9
116
23
10.0
5
9
18- 6
61
116
26.5
8
18- 6
9
7
116
53
22.6
18- 4
115
9
39
17.0
6
115
9
18- 4
32
13.9
6
9
18-4
115
34
14.8
6
9
113
53
7
18- 1
22.6
9
51
7
18- 1
113
22.2
9
45
18- 1
7
113
20.5
9
18- 1
113
32
13.9
6
9
113
62
18- 1
27.0
8
17-10
111
8
7
53
22.6
17-10
111
8
8.7
4
20
17-10
111
25
8
10.9
5
17-10
111
8
6
33
14.3
110
17- 7
8
39
17.0
6
7
17- 7
110
8
48
20.9
17- 5
109
8
48
20.9
7
38
17- 5
109
8
16.5
6
109
17- 5
8
48
7
20.9
7
17- 4
108
49
7
21.3
7
54
17- 4
7
108
23.5
7
29
17- 4
108
5
12.6
7
17- 3
45
7
108
19.6
7
40
17- 3
108
17.4
6
7
33
17- 3
108
14.3
6
7
108
24
17- 3
10.4
5
107
17- 2
7
35
6
15.2
107
7
21
4
17- 2
9.1
107
7
30
17- 2
13.0
5
7
107
13.9
17- 1
32
6
7
34
17- 1
107
14.8
6
107
7
38
16.5
6
17- 1
57
24.8
8
106
6
16-11
7
105
52
16-10
6
22.6
18.7
7
43
105
6
16-10
5
30
13.0
5
105
16- 9
41
7
5
18.6
105
16- 9
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
86
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu­ Mental
dent Raw Score
57
245
244
57
57
245
246
56
247
55
248
54
249
54
250
53
251
50
252
50
49
253
254
46
255
44
256
40
257
36
258
36
259
27
260
17
261
81
71
262
263
70
264
68
265
66
266
60
267
57
268
55
269
55
270
53
271
52
51
272
50
273
274
45
275
45
40
276
277
39
278
38
279
22
280
80
281
78
282
78
283
73
284
73
285
72
286
72
287
72
288
72
71
289
71
290
71
291
S.-E.
Sims S.-E.
Mental I.Q. G-rade Norm
Score
Ratine: . Raw Score Score Level
. Ase
7
105
5
51
22.2
16- 9
5
39
17.0
105
6
16- 9
7
105
5
44
19.1
16- 9
104
5
6
38
16- 8
16.5
104
5
29
16- 7
12.6
5
4
18
4
103
8.2
16- 6
37
4
103
16.1
6
16- 6
4
30
5
103
13.0
16- 5
34
101
3
14.8
16- 2
6
101
3
32
13.9
6
16- 2
47
7
3
20.4
16- 1
101
28
5
15- 8
98
3
12.2
26
15- 4
96
2
5
11.3
4
14- 8
1
21
92
9.1
7
1
56
14- 3
89
24.3
7
14- 3
89
1
56
24.3
0
7
83
54
23.5
13- 4
75
0
7
42
18.3
12- 0
128
7
10
24.3
20- 5
56
9
35
117
18— 8
15.2
6
9
39
18- 6
116
17.0
6
9
29
18- 1
113
13.2
6
17- 7
110
8
40
17.4
6
6
17- 0
106
30
13.0
5
5
105
5
1
2.2
16- 9
5
13.5
104
31
6
16- 7
5
29
104
16- 7
13.2
6
4
26
5
103
11.8
16- 5
4
35
6
16- 4
102
15.2
8.7
20
4
102
3
16- 3
33
101
3
14.3
6
16- 2
15.7
97
15- 6
2
36
6
2
97
30
13.0
5
15- 6
7
1
14- 8
92
42
18.3
25.7
91
1
59
8
14- 6
90
54
14- 5
1
23.5
7
12-10
80
0
35
6
15.2
127
7
10
20- 3
42
18.3
21.7
125
10
50
7
20- 0
10
125
31
13.5
6
20- 0
9
4
19- 2
120
22
9.6
9
7
51
120
22.2
19- 2.
9
35
118
15.2
6
18-11
9
5
22
12.0
118
18-11
9
5
10.0
118
23
18-11
9
25
5
11.4
118
18-11
5.7
9
13
3
117
18- 8
117
9
38
16.5
6
18- 8
117
9
18- 8
41
17.8
7
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
87
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu­ Mental
dent Raw Score
71
292
293
70
294
69
295
68
296
68
297
' 68
298
68
299
67
67
300
301
67
67
302
67
303
304
67
67
305
306
66
307
66
308
66
309
66
310
65
311
65
65
312
313
65
314
65
315
64
316
64
317
64
318
63
319
63
320
63
321
63
322
62
323
62
324
61
325
61
60
326
327
60
328
60
329
60
60
330
331
59
332
59
333
58
334
57
57
335
57
336
337
56
338
55
339
55
340
53
S.-E.
Mental I.Q. G-rade Norm
Sims S.-E.
Asre
Ratine
Score
Raw Score Score Level
117
9
18- 8
23
5
10.0
9
116
11
2
18- 6
4.8
9
115
19
4
18- 4
8.3
9
10
18- 1
113
4.3
2
9
15
18- 1
113
6.5
3
9
4
113
18
7.8
18- 1
9
13.5
18- 1
113
31
6
17-10
19
111
8
4
8.3
17-10
111
8
26
5
11.8
17-10
34
111
8
14.8
6
17-10
8
111
15
6.5
3
34
111
8
17- 10
14.8
6
17- 10
111
8
18
4
7.8
17- 10
111
8
3
1.3
0
17- 7
110
8
28
12.2
5
17- 7
8
110
24
5
10.4
17- 7
110
8
26
5
11.3
110
19.1
7
17- 7
8
44
27
17- 5
109
11.7
8
5
8
17- 5
109
30
13.6
6
8
17- 5
109
4
22
9.6
17- 5
109
8
12
5.2
3
109
17- 5
8
1
6
2.6
7
17- 4
36
15.7
108
6
7
17- 4
108
22
10.0
5
7
37
17- 4
108
16.1
6
7
17- 3
108
20
8.7
4
7
17- 3
54
7
108
23.5
7
17- 3
108
15
6.5
3
17- 3
7
108
38
6
16.5
7
17- 2
107
9.1
21
4
7
17- 2
107
8
1
2.5
17- 1
107
7
11
4.8
2
7
17- 1
107
16
7.0
3
29
5
17- 0
106
6
12.6
17- 0
7
6
42
18.3
106
23
17- 0
6
10.0
5
106
6
28
5
17- 0
106
12.2
10.0
17- 0
6
23
5
106
6
16- IX
106
32
13.9
6
6
12
5.2
3
106
16-11
20
8.7
4
105
6
16- 10
5
105
23
10.4
5
16- 9
4
5
20
9.1
. 105
16- 9
5
9.1
4
105
21
16- 9
10.4
5
5
24
104
16- 8
19
4
8.3
104
5
16- 7
7
18.7
5
43
104
16- 7
34
6
4
14.8
103
16- 5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu- Mental
dent Ra.w Score
341
53
342
52
343
52
344
50
345
50
346
49
347
48
348
48
349
47
47
350
351
47
45
352
45
353
354
45
355
44
356
43
357
40
358
38
359
36
360
34
30
361
29
362
25
363
364
79
365
79
366
72
367
69
368
68
369
67
67
370
371
65
65
372
64
373
374
64
375
58
57
376
377
56
378
55
54
379
380
52
381
80
78
382
78
383
384
78
74
385
74
386
387
73
388
73
71
389
Mental I.Q. Grade Norm
S.-E.
Sims S.-E.
Raw Score Score Level
Score
Ratine
Aee
4
20
9.1
4
16- 5
103
4
6
1
16- 4
102
2.6
4
14
6.1
16- 4
102
3
4
19
16- 2
101
3
8.6
7
45
16- 2
101
3
19.6
3
31
13.5
101
6
16- 1
4
99
3
22
9.6
15-10
4
99
3
18
7.8
15-10
3
35
15- 9
98
15.2
6
15
6.5
3
15- 9
98
3
29
15- 9
98
3
13.2
6
97
10.0
23
5
15- 6
2
97
5
15- 6
2
28
12.2
97
2
13.9
32
6
15- 6
4
2
22
9.6
15- 4
96
18.7
7
94
2
43
15- 1
10
2
1
4.3
14- 8
92
7
1
20.0
14- 5
90
46
27
11.7
5
14- 3
89
1
87
1
30
13.0
5
14- 0
15.7
1
6
85
36
13- 8
4
1
85
22
9.6
13- 7
27
11.7
5
0
13- 2
82
39
17.0
6
10
126
20- 1
9
10
68
29.6
126
20- 1
11.7
27
5
9
118
18-11
18.7
7
9
43
18- 4
115
7
9
54
23.5
18- 1
113
39
17.0
6
8
17-10
111
5
8
28
12.2
17-10
111
34
8
14.8
6
17- 5
109
11.7
27
5
8
17- 5
109
7
14.3
6
33
17- 4
108
7
64
8
27.8
17- 4
108
7
41
18.6
6
105
16-10
10.4
5
24
5
105
16- 9
39
17.0
6
104
5
16- 8
5
5
28
12.2
104
16- 7
7
4
43
19.5
103
16- 6
15.7
6
4
36
102
16- 4
7
51
22.2
127
10
20- 3
15.7
6
10
36
125
20- 0
26.5
8
61
10
125
20- 0
7
41
17.8
10
125
20- 0
6
31
13.5
10
19- 4
121
6
40
17.4
10
19- 4
121
7
49
21.3
9
120
19- 2
26.5
8
9
61
120
19- 2
6
9
34
14.8
117
18- 8
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
89
TABLE X (Cont.)
Stu­ Mental
dent Raw Score
390
70
391
66
392
63
393
63
394
62
395
62
396
60
397
59
398
58
399
58
400
52
401
52
51
402
403
51
404
49
405
46
406
46
407
45
408
82
409
78
77
410
411
75
412
72
413
68
414
68
415
63
416
60
417
60
418
59
419
53
420
52
421
50
49
422
423
49
47
424
425
38
426
38
427
35
S.-E.
Sims S.-E.
Mental I. ft. Q-ra.de Norm
Raw Score Score Level
Ase
Ratins
Score
9
12.7
18- 6
28
5
116
17- 7
110
8
16.5
38
6
7
108
36
15.7
6
17- 3
7
17- 3
7
51
108
22.2
107
7
40
17.4
17- 2
6
107
17- 2
7
38
16.5
6
27
11.7
17- 0
6
5
106
19.1
44
7
16-11
106
6
105
34
14.8
6
16-10
6
105
38
16.5
16-10
6
6
15.7
4
36
16- 4
102
6
102
4
24
10.4
5
16- 4
3
40
17.4
16- 3
102
6
3
25
10.9
16- 3
102
5
17
101
3
7.4
16- 1
3
15- 8
98
3
33
6
14.3
15- 8
24
98
3
10.4
5
97
17
2
7.4
15- 6
3
130
10
23
10.0
5
20-10
20- 0
125
14
10
6.1
3
124
10
7
19-10
42
18.3
19- 6
122
31
10
13.5
6
18-11
9
27
11.7
118
5
35
18- 1
113
9
15.2
6
9
40
18- 1
113
17.4
6
17- 3
7
21.7
7
108
50
17- 0
49
7
106
6
21.3
57
17- 0
106
6
24.8
8
37
16.1
16-11
106
6
6
4
9.6
4
16- 5
103
22
4
16- 4
38
16.5
6
102
3
16
3
16- 2
101
7.2
4
19
8.3
16- 1
101
3
16- 1
101
3
18
7.8
4
35
15- 9
98
3
6
15.2
1
4
14- 5
90
22
9.6
1
7.8
4
14- 5
90
18
88
1
10
14- 1
4.3
2
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