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SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY, SYRACUSE, NEW YORK

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University Microfilms
300 North Zeeb Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
A Xerox Education Company
13-3221
LD3907
.B3
Naffer, Pred C
1940
Syracuse occupational survey,
.11"
Syracuse, New York...
New York, 194-0
vi,cl3,293 typewritten leaves,
tables (2 fold.) diar;rs. ,f o m s . -29cn.
Pinal document (Pu.D.) - New York
university, School of education, 1940.
B ibliography p.c292=-293.
A60455
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann A rbor, M ichigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N H A S B EE N M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
P i o A l D octj’ssti'^
Accepted,Date.-§EZ_i§.
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
FRED C. KAFFER
Submitted In partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Education In the School of Education of
New York Uhlverslty
1940
P L E A S E NOTE:
Some pages may have
in d istin ct
print.
F i l m e d as r e c e i v e d .
U niversity
M i c r o f i l m s , A Xerox Educati on Company
TABLE OP CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
I. PROBLEM OP THE SURVEY
Problem Stated
Analysis of Objectives
Scope of the Survey
Review of Some Existing Similar Studies
Reasons for Making Survey
Facts About Syracuse Pertinent to the
Probl em
Historical Sketch of Establishment and
Progress of Vocational Education in
Syracuse
A Narrative-Descriptive Account of
Methods and Procedures
II. OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS
Occupational Statistics Showing Trends
in Male Occupations
Occupational Statistics Showing Trends
in Female Occupations
III.
1
3
3
4
4
7
8
11
17
23
49
55
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS (Continued) 58
Unemployment in Syracuse, 1937, as Shown
by Federal Unemployment Census Report
Employment Census
Educational Requirements
IV. SCHOOL ENROLLMENT INTERRELATION TO
PROBLEMS PERTINENT TO EMPLOYMENT
62
70
78
105
Analysis of School Enrollment
105
School Enrollment Data
109
Analysis of Issuance of Work Certificates 116
V.
THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND VOCATIONS
Sources of Employment of the Various
Occupations
General Comments by Some Syracuse Em­
ployers on Requirements of Formal
Education to Vocations of Youth
VI.
129
131
158
THE PUPIL AND CHOICE OF VOCATIONS
163
Follow Up Information Regarding Blod­
gett Vocational High School Graduates
166
A60 455
ill
Chapter
VII.
VIII.
Page
TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS IN RELATION TO
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
169
Vocational Education and Changing
Conditions
173
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDA­
TIONS
175
Conclusions
Recommendations
179
182
APPENDIX I
185
APPENDIX II
204
LIST OP TABLES
TABLE
Page
I.
II*
Trends in Distribution by Sexes in Syracuse,
New York, General Divisions of Occupations
45
Trends in Distribution by Sexes in Syracuse,
New York, General Divisions of Occupations
46
Trends in Distribution by Sexes in Syracuse,
New York, General Divisions of Occupations
47
Occupational Trends in Syracuse, New York As
Shown by 1910-1920-1930 Census Statistics
in Selected Occupations, Male
50
Occupational Trends in Syracuse, New York As
Shown by 1910-1920-1930 Census Statistics
in Selected Occupations, Female
56
Distribution of Gainfully Employed People Ten
Years of Age and Over 1910-192-1930 and
Calculated 1941
59
Probable Number of Gainful Workers in TwentyFive Types of Occupations
61
Distribution of Totally Unemployed, Emergency
Workers, and Partially Unemployed (Male) Un­
employment Census, 1937
63
Distribution of Totally Unemployed Emergency
Workers, and Partially Unemployed (Female)
Unemployment Census, 1937, Syracuse
64
Distribution of Totally Unemployed, Emergency
Workers, and Partially Unemployed (Male, Fe­
male), Unemployment Census, 1937, Syracuse
65
Totally Unemployed Males, United States
Unemployment Census, 1937, Syracuse, By Age
Groupings
67
Totally Unemployed Females, United States
Unemployment Census, 1937, Syracuse, By Age
Groupings
68
Totally Unemployed Males, Females, United
States Unemployment Census, 1937, Syracuse,
By Age Groupings
69
Percentage Comparison Totally Unemployed
United States and Syracuse
70
#>
III*
IV*
V*
VI.
VII*
e
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
V
Table
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
Page
Survey of Fruit and Produce Companies in
Syracuse, New York
71
Syracuse Occupational Survey General Summary
of Occupations for Which High School Training
May be Offered
73
Minimum Formal Qualifications Required of Ap­
plicants for Professional Types of Occupa*
tlons and Availability of Employees
79
Minimum Formal Qualifications Required of Ap­
plicants for Proprietors, Managers and Offi­
cials, Types of Occupations and Availability
of Employees
81
Minimum Formal Qualifications Required of Ap­
plicants for Clerks and Kindred Workers Types
of Occupations and Availability of Employees
83
Minimum Formal Qualifications Required of Ap­
plicants for Skilled Workers Types of Occupa­
tions and Availability of Employees
90
Minimum Formal Qualifications Required of Ap­
plicants for Semi-Skilled Workers Types of
Occupations and Availability of Employees
95
Minimum Formal Qualifications Required of Ap­
plicants for Servant Class Types of Occupa­
tions and Availability of Employees
102
Tabulation of Statistical Data Relative to
School Enrollments, Personnel and Costs
Syracuse, New York
108
Number of Certificates Issued to Girls With­
drawing from Schools Annually by Months from
July 1934 to and Including June 1939
117
Nuntoer of Certificates Issued to Boys With­
drawing from School Annually by Months from
July 1934 to and Including June 1939
118
Number of Certificates Issued to Boys and
Girls Withdrawing from School Annually by
Months from Jjjtly 1934 to and Including June
1939
119
Distributton by Scholastic Accomplishment
(Last Grade Completed) Girls 16 and 17 Years
of Age First Regular Certificate Only
121
Distribution by Scholastic Accomplishment
(Last Grade Completed) Boys 16 and 17 Years
of Age First Regular Certificate Only
121
Vi
Table
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.
XXXV.
XXXVI.
Page
Distribution by Scholastic Accomplishment (Last
Grade Completed) Boys and Girls 16 and 17 Years
of Age First Regular Certificate Only
122
Distribution by Occupation or Industry Entered
Girls 16 and 17 Years of Age First Regular Cer­
tificate Only
123
Distribution by Occupations or Industry Entered
Boys 16 and 17 Years of Age First Regular Cer­
tificate Only
124
Distribution by Occupations or Industry Entered
Boys and Girls 16 and 17 Years of Age First
Regular Certificate Only
125
Statements of Twelve School Administrators Con­
cerning Their Schools' CurrIciilums Primarily
for Meeting Student Needs for Entrance into
Vocations
130
Pupil Preference for Vocations First, Second and
Third Choices of 1,129 Boys Prior to any Formal
or Informal Occupational Guidance and Infor­
mation Spring Term 1939
164
Pupil Preference for Vocations First, Second and
Third Choices of 850 Girls Prior to any Formal
or Informal Occupational Guidance and Information
Spring Term 1939
165
Employment Record Graduates <£ Industrial De­
partment June 1938 Blodgett Vocational High school
168
LIST OF CHARTS
Changes in Occupational Pattern of New York
State
Population and Nuiriber of People 10 Years of
Age and Over Gainfully Employed Syracuse
1010-20-30
Changes In Occupational Pattern of Syracuse
Based on Census ^igures 1910-20-30
Occupational Distribution for Syracuse 1930
TPercentage Distribution Gainfully Employed
Males, Females 1930, by Major Occupations
Age Distribution of People Engaged in Gain­
ful Occupations
Fluctuations in Total Enrollment
Fluctuations in Occupational Distribution
by Years of 1,696 Work Certificates
Fluctuation by Years in Numbers of Certifi­
cates Issued and Grade Completed
CHAPTER I
PROBLEM OF THE SURVEY
This is a local survey of vocational activities, pur­
suits, and training needs of men and women for the purpose
of determining a vocational education program in the city of
Syracuse.
It is a result of a joint report by Dr. Harry P.
Smith, Director of Research, and Mr. Donald M. Kidd, Director
of Vocational Education, both of the Syracuse Public School
System, and submitted by them to the superintendent of
schools.
The title of this joint report is, "Suggestions
Relating to the Congestion of Blodgett Vocational High
School and the Vocational Education Needs in Syracuse, New
York."
Never in the history of the development of educational
experiences on the secondary level have the problems of re­
organization or readjustment of curriculum content compelled
such wide attention and such careful study as in the past
decade•
Conflicts or lack of proper relationships existing
among the controlling factors of governmental, educational,
social, and economic functions and activities of this country
may provide the chief reason for educational readjustment.
Repeated contacts with the public, and especially contacts
with businessmen and industrial executives make apparent the
2
need for the establishment of a closer relationship anfl under­
standing between the users of the product of the schools and
those who are responsible for the curriculum and training of
the product*
Until the educator can justify his program and, through
the demonstration of its utility value, sell his product to
the community the school is not and will not be a satisfactory
functional unit in the industrial, business, and social life
of the community*
Any survey of educational program Involves an analysis
of all the conditions relative to and affecting the problems
for which it is conducted*
In this present survey, the find­
ings considered pertinent and certain descriptive materials
are assembled and tabulated in suitable form and presented by
the survey director*
Their disposition Is left to the con­
trolling authorities, the superintendent of schools and the
Syracuse Board of Education*
At the outset, Mr* Donald M* Kidd placed the facilities
and records of his office at the disposal of the director*
The National Youth Administration supplied the field workers
and much clerical help during the preparation of the survey*
The local school officers and officials offered criticism in
the collection, preparation, and presentation of the data*
The findings of the survey would not have been possible
without the cooperation and assistance of the Syracuse Chamber
of Commerce, the Industrial Bureau, and the Manufacturers1
Association*
3
PROBLEM STATED
This study alms to survey the occupational opportuni­
ties In Syracuse for both men and women, as, (1) an Intelligent
basis In formulating a more adaptable and more adequate program
of trade and Industrial education at the secondary level, and
(2) as a means to secure helpful data in connection with pupil
counseling and guidance*
ANALYSIS OP OBJECTIVES
1.
To determine with sufficient accuracy the absorption
capacity of the industrial, business, professional, and personalservlce fields of occupation as it relates to men and women in
the city of Syracuse*
2*
To analyze carefully the requirements in terms of
education necessary to industrial, business, and personalservice types of occupations in Syracuse*
3*
To study the present training facilities, (outside
of formal education), public, private, and commercial (day,
evening, extension, part-time, cooperative, and apprentice
plans), in effect in Syracuse*
4*
To study and summarize the findings and results of:
(a) Other similar surveys
(b) Vocational programs in other cities
(c) Vocational ambitions and education desires of boys
and girls enrolled In Blodgett Vocational High
School
(d) Educational and occupational pursuits of boys and
' girls graduated from Syracuse High Schools, 193438, Inclusive
(e) The records of the attendance department, relative
to enrollments and dropouts; also issuance of
work permits
4
SCOPE OP THE SURVEY
This survey Includes:
1.
Manufacturing Industries
2.
Distributive Occupations
3.
Building Trades
4.
Clerical Occupations
5.
Transportation and Conxnunicatlon
6.
Miscellaneous
REVIEW OP SOME EXISTING SIMILAR STUDIES
This section of the report is a review of several
occupational surveys which have a bearing, to a greater or
lesser degree, upon the present study.
An attempt will be
made to show that the various types of data and their analyses
considered significant in other studies appears in comparable
form in the present survey and in some cases appears in greater
detail.
One of the primary reasons for making this study was to
collect accurate occupational information for guidance pur­
poses.
If, at first glance, it seems that too much data is
presented in too much detail, it must be borne in mind that
many of the counselors working in our schools today have had
little, if any, actual experience in the seventy categories
or fields of occupations investigated in this research.
It is
hoped that this study will broaden their background and give
them a clear, true picture of the Syracuse occupational field
as it exists at the present time.
5
None of the studies reviewed attempted to present an
occupational census such as is found in Appendix II of this
study.
Most of the researchers were content to study only a
few selected fields of endeavor in a given community and at
no time did any study specifically state that a deliberate
attempt was made to include all of the businesses or indus­
tries operating in a given eatagory or field of occupation*
On the other hand, in the Syracuse study an honest attempt
was made to Include all of the occupations existant in the
city and to contact and study one hundred per cent of the bus­
inesses or industries operating in each eatagory or field of
occupation*
The degree of success attained in this aim of one
hundred per cent replies is reflected in the fact that over
four-fifths or eighty and three-tenths per cent of all the
businesses and industries known to exist in Syracuse, appear
in this study*
1
Of the many studies reviewed, only the Atlanta Study
offers comparable data regarding the educational requirements
of candidates for entrance into the various types of occupa­
tions*
Most studies list only general qualifications applic­
able to any type of occupation, while the rest do not attempt
to secure any educational requirements for specific occupa­
tions*
An example of this latter type of study is the Amster-
2
dam, New York, survey*
1*
2*
Occupational Outlook for Georgl'a Youth. National Youth
Administration or Georgia/Atlanta, Georgia, Vol. V,
1929. pp* 197-234*
Survey of Occupations and Training Needs of Amsterdam,
toew York, bureau of Industrial and technical Education,
State department of Education, Albany, New York, 1939*
3
Like the Toledo, Ohio, survey this study includes data
on pupil withdrawals from school with work certificates for a
4
five year period# The Canton, Ohio, survey contains work
certificate data for only a two year period.
This would seem
to be too short a time to indicate trends# Although such re5
ports as the New Rochelle, New York, study and the Alliance,
6
Ohio, study did not consider the federal census reports to trace
any trends in the various fields of occupations, the Syracuse
study analyzes the census figures in detail and presents charts
showing the occupational patterns of Syracuse, New York State
and the United States, both individually and in comparison
with one another#
The Syracuse survey did not attempt to collect any data
on prevailing wage scales or payrolls.
Representatives of the
various cooperating agencies were unanimous in their opinion
that, due to a unique local condition, it would be best for the
final outcome of the survey not to attempt to collect wage or
payroll data in any type or form#
From the foregoing, it is seen that with the exception
of the presentation of wages and payroll data the Syracuse
report equals, and in many respects exceeds the presentation,
analysis and Interpretation of the kind of data required in any
complete study of the occupational picture of any city of com­
parable size#
$#
4#
5.
6#
E. o# teartlow. Vocational” Survey, Boys and Men, Board of
Education, T o T e l i b r ^ ^ T ^ • pp7 B W 8 T
H* W. Benedict, Canton Occupational Survey. Board of Ed­
ucation, Canton, Ohio, 1§3&# pp. 146-149,
G# K# Wagar, Occupational Survey, New Rochelle, N. Y.,
New Rochelle" iPubiic Schools, New kochelle, New York,
1939#
E# B# Studebaker, Industrial Survey of Alliance, Alliance
Board of Education, Alliance, Ohio,'!&&&•
7
REASONS FOR MAKING SURVEYThe primary reason for thl3 present survey, as stated
in Chapter I, is to meet certain recommendations of a report
to the superintendent of schools of Syracuse.
The report is
entitled, "Suggestions Relating to the Congestion of Blodgett
Vocational High School and the Vocational Education Needs in
1
Syracuse, New York.”
It states:
"The suggestions herein
contained are attributable to the following facts:
"1#
2*
Blodgett Vocational High School is congested
because of the apparent need of, and demand
for, vocational education*
The Apprentice Training School which refused
admittance during thl3 school year to more
than 200 young people is congested for a
similar reason*
The demand for vocational education arises
from the following conditions:
1* The compulsory school age has been raised
to 16 years (17 years by Board action In
the local community) • It Is probable
that in the near future all unemployed
youth under 18 years of age will be re­
quired to attend full time schools*
2* Sentiment is crystallizing for technical
and semi-professional education on the
13th and 14th year levels In public school
systems*
3* Industry no longer is able to train appren­
tices systematically. With immigration
restricted the skilled labor shortage must
be supplied from groups of young people
trained at public expense.
To determine the action necessary under these
conditions three essential steps are necessary:
1. School surveys to determine present facilities
in Syracuse both physical and educational*
2. A vocational survey to determine occupations
in Syracuse, number employed in each, and
Yl
Undated-.mimeographed report, sfgned by Ur. Harry P. Smith,
director ofResearch, Syracuse Public Schools, and
Donald M* Kidd, Director of Vocational Education, Syra­
cuse Public Schools.
8
level of training required for each type of
occupation*
3# Special studies involving the George-Dean Act
and its effect, the Smith-Hughes Law, tempor­
ary adjustments desirable, and permanent sol­
utions involving physical equipment and
personnel*"
PACTS ABOUT SYRACUSE PERTINEHT TO THE PROBLEM
It is helpful to a fuller understanding of the data
presented, if a brief description of the city is given*
Cer­
tain fact 3 relative to the population and industrial status
as here given are significant in this survey and in the program
of secondary education in Syracuse,
Information from reliable sources shows Syracuse as hav-
8
ing an actual population in 1930 of 209,326 and an estimated
9
population in 1938 of 223,609, The population of Syracuse was
82,2% native white at the time of the 1930 census*
With re­
strictions of immigration, this proportion is naturally grow­
ing as the census of 1920 showed 80,4% native white*
The
major groups of foreign born are Italians, Germans, Jews and
10
Poles •
Industrially, Syracuse ranks high,
larly known as the "Salt City."
Syracuse wa3 popu­
It now has an international
reputation as a manufacturing city of wide diversity of in11
dustry.
According to the Census of Manufacturers for 1935,
Syracuse has 342 manufacturing establishments and their aggre­
gate production for that year was $78,372,672*
FI
fifteenth Census' of 'the tMited 'States, Vol. I. 1930*
-----
9.
Chamber of Commerce Bulletin,-Syracuse Hub of the Empire
State.
10* Fifteenth Census of_ the United States, op. cit., p. 258*
11* Biennial Census'of Manufacturers. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of the Census,' Washington, D. C., September 23,
1937* p* 7.
12
In 1930, industry employed 67,181 males and 23,878
females, supplying world markets with a wide variety of
products, chief of which are:
air conditioning machinery,
air-cooled engines, tool steel, automobile glass, differen­
tials and transmissions, tin cans and can-making machinery,
roller bearings, soda ash and by products, fine wax candles,
farm machinery, china ware, mincemeat, shoes, typewriters,
electrical appliances and hardware, electrical washing machines,
steam clothes-pres sing machines, ladies* handbags, cash carry­
ing and conveying equipment, foundry and machine shop products,
boilers, radiators, and furniture*
Syracuse is an ideal residential city.
In 1938, there
were 27,120 owner-occupied living units and 37,755 rental
13
units* The apartment houses numbered over one hundred and
there were fourteen hotels with a total of 2,500 rooms*
Located In the geographical center of the state, Syra­
cuse is but an overnight ride from Chicago, Pittsburgh, Phil­
adelphia, Washington, New York, Boston, and Montreal.
Syracuse
is served by the New York Central and the Delaware, Lackawanna
and Western Railroads.
There are 165 motor express lines oper­
ating out of Syracuse, giving store-door delivery to the greater
part of New York State*
Syracuse is on the New York State
Barge Canal, the waterway that links the Great Lakes with the
Port of New York.
The American Airlines make scheduled daily stops at the
municipally owned Syracuse airport handling both passengers and
12* Flf1teenth cen3U3 of the tfnited' States, op* cit., p. 1115.
13* Chamber of Commerce Bulletin,' op* oiT*
10
air express*
In addition there are six passenger bus lines
operating betveen Syracuse and nearby points whose routes put
them in the interurban class*
One, the Central Greyhound Lines,
which is a part of a transcontinental system, makes Syracuse a
division point having erected a large m o d e m garage here for
bus storage and service*
These advantages coupled with others
make Syracuse the logical headquarters city from which to sell
and distribute merchandise, as well as establish factory
branches, sales office, and warehouses*
Syracuse is justly proud of its approved educational
facilities*
The school system of greater Syracuse includes
fifty-two public schools, of which six are senior high, six
junior high, one apprentice training, one continuation school,
two open air, one normal, also ten evening schools and sixteen
parochial schools*
In the public schools there are 32,700
pupils and 1,363 teachers*
There are also several private
schools*
Syracuse University, twenty-third in size among 638
colleges and universities in the TJhlted States, consists of
eighteen colleges and eight schools, including graduate schools
of law and medicine*
The officers and teachers number 713 and
there is an undergraduate enrollment of 5,882*
It is said that
the students, faculty, and employees who are brought here as
temporary and permanent residents, add as much as $6,500,000
annually to local trade channels*
The Public Library and its eight branches, the Museum
of Art, the 161 city parks, totalling 968,696 acres, two public
11
golf courses and eight country clubs and golf courses offer
the adequate opportunity for recreational, cultural, and social
activity*
HISTORICAL SKETCH OP ESTABLISHMENT AND
PROGRESS.OP VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN SYRACUSE
An examination of the reports and records of the Board
of Education from the time that School District Number 5 in the
village of Syracuse was organized on January 26, 1839, up to
the present reveals the following facts regarding the estab­
lishment and progress of vocational education in Syracuse.
The first record of any vocational subjects being taught in
Syracuse appears in the following quotation:
"Mechanical Drawing studied and practiced with
special reference to mechanical principles, and
the drafting of machinery*
"Great efforts will be made to develop this
course and make it useful ."-L4
In 1878, the teaching of sewing was started in the
school houses of the several wards of the city as an experi­
ment in industrial education.
Some two or three thousand
girls received some instruction in the rudiments of this
branch of education during the previous winter*
It was not until 1886 that serious thought was given
to the idea of having all boys receive some vocational educa­
tion before they left school*
In the 1886 report of the Board
of Education of Syracuse, the following quotation appeared:
"Are we not giving too exclusive attention to
purely intellectual culture and neglecting these
subjects that are to occupy, in the business
14* Tlbie Syracuse Board of Education Report for 1870-71.
x45.
12
pursuits of life, so much of the time and the
interests of the majority of the pupils in our
schools?........... ...
...It is certainly a wise thing for hoys
who are to give their attention through the active
portion of their lives to a particular calling,
to spend a portion, at least, of their formative
period, in becoming familiar with the principles
and practical application of such business as they
are likely to follow. Early habits in business
make the best business men, and give the surest
prospect of success. By connecting literary and
industrial education both may be made more practical
and useful.”1®
In 1891, manual training as a branch of public school
work in Syracuse began to receive attention.
In 1892, an
appropriation of $5,000 for the establishment of manual train­
ing was asked of the Common Council.
The request was denied.
It remained for Professor 0. C. Kenyon, teacher of physics in
the high school, to organize the first manual training pro­
gram in Syracuse.
The unused attice of the high school build­
ing had been appropriated for the classroom drawing of plans.
Carpentry and joining, wood turning, pattern making, filing
and fitting in brass and iron as well as some machine shop
practice was also done.
Only those who ranked high in regular work were permitted
to enter the class.
This work in manual training was extra
for both teacher and pupils.
Previous to August 1, 1895,
Professor Kenyon*s work had not received official recognition
by the Board.
At this time, fifty dollars wa3 appropriated*
The Solvay Circle of King*s Daughters, having learned of
Professor Kenyon*s work and believing in its efficiency, placed
$500 at the disposal of the professor.
This aided him in pro­
moting his work and placing it on a firmer basis.
15. frhe Thl.'rt'v'-lEilgibitb! Annual Report' of the Board of Education.
Syracuse, jfTY., 1886. pp. 26-27.
13
By 1896, cooking and sewing had become recognized
courses of study for girls*
Previous to this year, all the
manual training instruction had been given in the high school.
The completion of Porter School in 1887 offered the first
opportunity of introducing manual training into the grammar
grades.
Cooking and sewing for the girls and sloyd for the
boys were now installed as a regular part of the grammar
school course.
This work began in the sixth year, one hour
per week each being given to cooking and sewing, and two
hours per week to sloyd.
In the 1898 report, appeared the following quotation:
"At Porter School sloyd, cookery and sewing were
handled by skillful teachers and the pupils of
the sixth, seventh and eighth years were in­
structed with regularity throughout the year. The
beneficial results cannot be ascertained by any
outside or ordinary standards of measurement • The
Interest of the pupils and the effect In Individual
cases have been very noticeable and the principal
and regular teachers of the school speak of it In
high terms. -The coming year will further test Its
efficiency.
A modified commercial and business course was inau­
gurated in 1899 In the old Irving School building.
Some
changes were made In the building proper to provide more
suitable classrooms.
The first faculty consisted of a
principal and two teachers.
courses was five months.
The length of time for the
The next year, 1900, the time was
extended to occupy the entire school year.
This was done
to Increase the scope and value of the Instruction offered.
Before the school was formally opened to the public, its
name was changed to the Public Commercial School.
16. T&e Fiftieth Annual Report of the Board of Educa tion,
Syracuse, ifew ¥ork, 1898. p. 36.
14
By 1900, exactly eight years after Common Council had
refused to appropriate any monies for manual training, they
were passing expenditures of $1519.50*
At this time, cooking
classes enrolling 320 names were being held in three kitchens.
Five schools were sending pupils to these centers.
Many
classes being too large to be accommodated were sent in two
divisions, alternating each week.
To alleviate this over­
crowding, a new teacher was hired and a new kitchen was
equipped to be ready for occupancy for the year 1900-1901.
From 1896 to 1900, 450 girls received ins time tion in
sewing in nine of the senior schools.
One two hour lesson
was given each week for one year.
In September 1903, the name of the Public Commercial
School was changed to Business High School to Technical High
School.
The enrollment grew from 224 in 1903-04 to 592 in
1909-10.
In 1910, the Vocational High School Commission, Mr.
Giles H. Stillwell, President, was formed to determine the
advisability of constructing a vocational high school.
The
inception of this Commission may be found in the following
extract of an address by President T. Aaron Levy to the Board
of Education at the meeting held February 7, 1910:
nIn a single decade, industrial education has be­
come the supreme educational issue. An industrial
age is demanding a system that does not lead away
from the shop. The coming generation will have
industrial training as a fundamental subject of
the school system, coordinated with brain culture.
Educated workers and not alone trained leaders will
be its gospel.
.
.....I suggest that a committee of citizens, repre­
senting the school interests as well as the com­
munity at large, be named without delay to investi­
gate immediately the entire technical high school
problem in Syracuse, including its cost, location,
15
adaptability to night schools, gymnasium and
play ground, in connection therewith, courses of
study and equipment*n '
After much study, the committee recommended, among
other things, that a vocational high school be established
in Syracuse and that a suitable building be erected in a
central locality, the building to provide for the accommo­
dation of at least one thousand students and that sufficient
grounds be secured to allow for addition when needed*
Blodgett Vocational High School first opened its doors
in September 1918*
At the end of the first week, 1,015
students were enrolled in either the industrial or commercial
course*
These courses were the two main ones offered.
By
September, 1923, the school had grown to such a size that cm
Annex was opened at the Y. M. C* A* in which eight teachers
taught commercial subjects to 250 students*
In September
1927, the Annex was moved to the old Putnam School building*
The popularity and demand for vocational education kept in­
creasing until over 2,200 students were housed in a building
which was originally built for one thousand*
In the meantime
the enrollment at the Annex had grown to over 350*
Restrictions placed upon students who were allowed to
enter Blodgett Vocational High School and a redlstrlctlng
plan that was put into operation in September, 1939, has de­
creased the school population of Blodgett Vocational High
School to 1,589 students as of February 1, 1940*
17. Report of the Vocational High School Commission of
Syracuse to the Board of Education, Syracuse, 1910*
p. 16.
16
Other academic high schools have added the teaching
of commercial courses to their curricula so the Annex was
abandoned In September 1938*
It Is safe to say that If all
the students In Syracuse who wanted to come to Blodgett
Vocational High School and study the vocational work were
allowed to enter, the school would have to be at least three
times its present size,
Mr, Levy’s philosophy of industrial
training coordinated with brain culture is still one of the
leading objectives of Blodgett Vocational High School and
from the evidence at hand there Is no present need to either
change or modify that objective.
The Apprentice Training School was formed at a meeting
of Employers* Union officials April 28, 1925,
The school be­
came an actuality in September 1926 and was an immediate suc­
cess,
For the first two years, classes were held in Blodgett
Vocational High School,
Thirty-eight apprentices received
training in machine shop practice and related subjects and
ten apprentices received training in stone cutting and related
subjects.
In 1927, the apprentice training program was moved
to its present building at Wallace Street,
The present total
enrollment of the Apprentice Training School is 380 students,
110 of these being registered in the Apprentice Training Div­
ision and the remaining 270 students enrolled In the Indus­
trial High School division.
The aviation department of the
school was started in September 1931,
By 1935, this depart­
ment had grown to such a size that it necessitated its re­
moval to a rented hangar at the Syracuse Municipal Airport,
17
In 1937, the city provided the aviation school ten thousand
square feet of floor space in the municipally owned hangar.
The school received a Federal approval as an aircraft repair
station.
At the time of submission of this report, 28,7$ of the
public secondary enrollment grades 9-12, are now pursuing
some type of vocational work.
This report and a continuous research study of voca­
tional opportunities and educational requirements in Syracuse
should provide a basis for long-term planning, regulating and
adjusting public vocational educational policies,
A NARRATIVE-DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF METHODS AND PROCEDURES
To settle the questions of policies and to limit the
scope of the survey as well as to enlist cooperation of the
various agencies in Syracuse, joint meetings were held with
officials of the National Youth Administration, the New York
State Unemployment Service, the Manufacturers Association
and the supervisor of vocational education for the City of
Syracuse,
Several such meetings were held and when general
agreement was reached as to the actual scope of the survey
and the best methods to employ to secure data, then the sur­
vey actually got under way.
The next step was to make a list of the names and ad­
dresses of the various firms under the seventy general types
of businesses found in Syracuse,
These lists were compiled
by (1) referring to the classified section of ttie telephone
book, (2) the Syracuse Directory, and (3) from lists obtained
18
from the Chamber of Commerce*
Prom these master lists, three by five Inch file cards
were made*
Field workers were given these file cards*
The
progress of each section of the survey could be checked by
counting the number of file cards turned in and referring
to the master list to find out those yet incomplete*
Step number three was the training of the field workers.
This was done under the supervision of Dr. Colleen Smith of
the National Youth Admlnlstration and the author of the study*
Each field worker was given a portfolio containing a letter
of introduction signed by the superintendent of schools, a
copy of the letter sent by the secretary of the Manufacturers*
Association to its members, and the necessary questionnaire
forms, pencils, etc.
Each occupational classification was surveyed individ­
ually.
For example, all the field workers worked on the
manufacturing and mechanical industries at one time and fin­
ished it up*
Then the barber shops and beauty parlors were
surveyed and completed*
This was done for two reasons, first
to get needed information on several types of industries as
soon as possible and secondly, to simplify the clerical work
in the office entailed in tabulating the returns and in check­
ing the records to see that all of the places of business were
contacted*
As a next step, each section of the survey was tabulated
separately and a final summary sheet was made from the separ­
ate tabulations.
Businesses such as food stores, neighborhood
19
dry goods stores, etc., were contacted by mail.
Approximate­
ly 35$ of the total number In each classification of the re­
turns came in.
A follow-up was made by sending from one to
three postcards.
This brought in another 10$.
To secure
further replies, the following procedure was developed:
As step number five, young people on the local Nation­
al Youth Administration program were picked for follow-up
work.
Those were selected who showed exceptional ability as
evidenced by battery of objective tests and their high school
records.
These people were given special training by Dr.
Smith and the author.
Their job was to contact people who
had been sent letters containing the questionnaire blanks
and who had received follow-up cards but did not reply to
them.
It was these people who brought in the rest of the
data to make the exceptionally high percentages of returns
ranging from 65$ to 100$ found on the summary sheets of most
of the separate sections.
After the various types of occupations were known to
exist as determined by our occupational survey, the next step
was to ascertain the educational requirements for each of
these occupations.
the author.
This was done by personal visitation by
Having previously received returns from the
various plants and businesses visited, by studying these re­
turns before making the actual visitation, the author was
able to learn exactly what types of occupations actually ex­
isted in the particular plant to be visited.
In most cases,
the author made an appointment ahead of time with either the
plant manager or the personnel director.
No written notes
20
were kept during the actual conference, but Immediately upon
returning to his car, the Investigator wrote down as accurate­
ly as possible everything that he could remember.
It was felt
that if notes were kept in the presence of the person being
interviewed, he would not talk as freely as he did when he
thought he was Just expressing his views on the educational
requirements for employees in his particular plant.
In order to find out whether the schools were actually
training people to fill Jobs that existed, the following pro­
cedure was taken:
From the survey, a list of occupations
were made that high school people could fill or for which
modification could be made in secondary education program to
provide the necessary training if It were not already being
offered.
As a further check in order to make sure that we were
not interesting ourselves in those occupations for which a
large reservoir of trained unemployed people already existed,
a check with the local office of the New York State Unemploy­
ment Service was made.
In the majority of cases, if people
are unemployed, they file with the Social Security Division
to obtain unemployment benefits.
When they file, a complete
record of their training, experience, etc., Is made.
By
counting the number of cards filed under a particular occupa­
tional heading, a fairly accurate picture of the number of
people actually unemployed in Syracuse for that particular
occupational classification is given.
In this way, those
occupations which the survey figures indicate might be fertile
21
fields for the training of youth, were checked to ascertain
if a large trained labor reservoir already existed and was
waiting to take those jobs which might appear.
A list of those occupations was made for which trained
people are required and practically no labor reservoir exists.
With this list in hand, the principals of the schools and
certain members of their faculty were consulted to ascertain
whether or not their schools provided conscious, though not
necessarily specific, training for these fields.
In reality
this phase of the study consisted in determining whether or
not the curriculum, its aims, content and procedures, were
consciously aimed at vocational or at least pre-vocational
training for the approximate 50% that drop out before gradua­
tion.
Also whether or not the graduates were educated con­
sciously with their immediate employment in view.
It must be
borne in mind that only 56% of the high school graduates
continue to college or some other educational institution.
The 1910, 1920 and 1930 census was analyzed for past
trends.
The survey just completed gives the picture as it
exists today.
A look to the future was made by studying the
report of the National Resources Committee.
Copies of the various forms and letters sent out or
used during the survey appear in the attached appendix.
The final organization and statistical tabulations,
with sufficient informational and graphic interpretations
to warrant logical conclusions and judgments in terms of
vocational educational planning for boys and girls as a
22
material contribution to the total educational program are
here recorded.
The survey terminated with the submission of a master
copy of this report for acceptance by the administrative
staff and the controlling authorities on August 7, 1940.
CHAPTER II
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS
It Is doubtful whether the occupational pursuits of
man have changed as rapidly during any previous similar per­
iod as they have during the past thirty years.
The automobile,
the airplane, and the radio, along with other inventions and
scientific developments, have all been contributing factors to
this rapid change.
These technological changes, along with almost unbe­
lievably rapid transportation and world wide communication,
have broadened the scope of occupational fields and increased
the need for more scientific and technical training.
This
expansion also calls far a wider variety of skilled and semi­
skilled occupations in industrial establishments and an in­
crease in the number of different occupations In the distribu­
tive field.
This section of the report is an analysis of the occupa­
tional statistics.
The data, on which this analysis is based,
have been secured from the volumes of the 1910, 1920, and 1930
United States Census Reports, devoted to occupations•
The
numbers given In the various classifications of employment
are those of the gainful workers, ten years of age and over,
In these vatious groups •
It should be remembered that the
United States census enumerates a person as a ”gainful worker”
in an occupation, If he customarily makes his living In this
24
type of work.
The enumeration, therefore, does not necessarily
signify that he is actually employed at the time of the census.
He may be unemployed just then, but he is still included as a
worker of this classification.
The findings and calculations here tabulated are inter­
preted in view of an educational adjustment, with emphasis
placed on the vocational aspects relating to occupations of
men and women in Syracuse.
To better meet these afore-mentioned technological
changes and to reorganize or adjust educational practices to
the demand of business, industry, and society, necessitates
a continuous process of research in the occupational fields
that are related, or can be adapted, to the policies and
practices of education.
In this report, emphasis is given to such occupations
as are adaptable to the student body of our secondary schools,
as well as giving consideration to such occupations as the
secondary education program may be adjusted or adapted in
order to produce a more usable product.
Since only about 56$ of our secondary graduates In
Syracuse go to college, it can be assumed that the majority
of our high school enrollees are, or should be, preparing
for entrance into some occupational field In the Syracuse area
at the completion of, or during their high school, training
period.
This means that the local program of secondary educa­
tion should be patterned after local business, service, and
industrial activities.
25
To enable the reader to observe trends and occupa­
tional relationships, the survey offers a series of six
charts.
These charts are placed In progressive order to
present the occupational pattern of Syracuse.
Interpretations have been placed on the page opposite
each chart, pointing out some of their more significant
characteristics•
26
CHART I
CHANGES IN OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN
OF NEW YORK STATE
27
CHART I
•
CHANGES IN OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN
OP NEW YORK STATE
This chart shows the Increase In occupational-groups
in New York State during two ten year periods.
It is
evident that clerical, have had a phenomenal gain, Increasing
68# from. 1910 to 1920, and 35.2# from 1920 to 1930.
Cleri­
cal also showed the,,greatest numerical gain from 1910 to 1930,
Trade showed a 9.9# increase from 1910 to 1920 and a 41.8#
Increase from 1920 to 1930.
The most stable of the general divisions were manu­
facturing and, mechanical, domestic and personal service and
transportation and communication.
Public service experienced
a steady gain.
Over the twenty year period, the public service, trade
and manufacturing and mechanical pursuits typified the employ­
ment growth while extraction of minerals and agriculture
showed slight decreases.
The total gainful employment in Syrf
cuse increased opportunately 12.4# from 1910 to 1920 and
22.6# from 1920 to 1930.
28
CHART I
B -C H A N G E S IN OCCUPATIONAL-5
PATTERN OF NEW YORK STATE
BAS Eft ON U.S. CENSUS FIGURES
1910
1920
753.160
CLERICAL— 33L056
DOMESTIC +
TJS894
PERSONAL S E R V IC E ^ '
PROFESSIONAL
SERVICE
ZZH 5 °
556766
446071
m
286764
117.727
100.374
PUBLIC SERVICE67436
(N.E.C.)*
TRADE-
545359
TRANSPORTATIONSgSB
COMMUNICATION
403.556
MANUFACTURING.
MECHANICAL
U9UZS-
L757.108
i
EXTRACTION
OF MINERALS 12&S
AGRICULTURE—376.657
850123
599534
=507031
m
1.667374
314.774
TOTALS
4.00*884
4,103.204
♦(N.E.C.)NOT ELSEWHERE C L A S S IF IE D ^ ^ =
1939^=SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY!
5,523,337
1940
^JvSTtr
29
CHART 2
POPULATION AND NUMBER OP PEOPLE
, TEN. YEARS \OF AGE AND. OVER GAINFULLY EMPLOYED
SYRACUSE 1910-20-30
30
CHART 2
POPULATION AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
TEN YEARS .OF AGE AND..OVER GAINFULLY EMPLOYED
SYRACUSE 1910-20-30
Of the total population In Syracuse ten years of age
and over, 55.2$ were employed in 1910.
Approximately two-
thirds of the employment was held-by males.
By 1920, the
population had increased approximately 23.3$; the proportion
gainfully employed remained approximately the same; the amount
of male employment decreased 0.1$, while female employment
decreased 0.4$.
By 1930, the total population had gained another 24.2$
ove# the 1920 level; the proportion of gainfully employed had
decreased to 50.9$; male employment, decreased 4.0$ while fe­
male employment showed an Increase of 0.2$.
For the twenty year period from-1910 to 1930, the popula­
tion ten years of age and over showed an increase of 53.2$ while
male employment showed a lose of 4.1$ and female employment a
loss of 0.2$.
The number of persons ten years of age and over and not
employed increased steadily during the two decades from 44.8$
of the total in 1910 to 48.1$ in 1930*
Increase in school
attendance and decrease of child labor probably accounted for
the greater percentage not employed up until 1930.
31
CHART 2
P O P U LA TIO N AND NUMBER OF
PEOPLE 10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER
GAINFULLY EMPLOYED —
SYRACUSE 1910-20-30
NUMBER OFPERSONS
200.000
180.000
160.000
I □
P o p u la tio n Q
|wOT EMPLOYEO
v o m e n io a in f u l
MEN
J WORKERS
140.00048.1%
120.000-
45.3*/.
100. 0004-4-8%
8 0 .0 0 0 FtBEJ
60.000
I
40.000-
I
I
I
■
I
■
I
I
I
2 0.000-
TOTAL POPULATION*NOT EMPLOYED-------EMPLOYED WOMEN—
EMPLOYED MEN-------
1010
114.693-100%
51,484-44.8%
15.733-13.7%
4 7 .4 7 6 -4 1 .5 %
I
1
1920
1930
141.279-100% 175.433 • 100%
6 3.9 74-45.3% 84.394-48.1%
18.759-13.3% 2 3 .8 7 8 - 13.5%
58846-41.47*67.181- 37.4V*
*10 YEARS OF A6E AND O V E R ----------SOURCE-U.S. CENSUS. OCC. STATISTIC S.1910-VOL17,1920-VOL.BT,
19JO -V O L .H — SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY 1938 - 4 0
.
32
CHARTS
CHANGES IN OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN
OP SYRACUSE
33
CHART 3
CHANGES IN OCCUPATIONAL PATTERN
OP SYRACUSE
This chart shows the increase in occupational groups
in Syracuse during two ten year periods*
It is evident that
clerical have had a phenomenal gain, increasing 61,5% from
1910 to 1920, and 27# frorii 1920 to 1930*
Trade showed a
15*5# increase from 1910 to 1920 and a 50*5# increase from
1920 to 1930*
Trade also showed the greatest numerical gain
from 1910 to 1930*
The most stable of the general divisions
were manufacturing and mechanical, public service, and pro­
fessional service*
Transportation and communication exper­
ienced a steady increase*
Over the twenty year period the trade and clerical
pursuits typified the employment growth while manufacturing
and mechanical occupations have shown a slight decrease
(5*5#)*
The to tal gainful employment in Syracuse inc re.ased
approximately 18# from 1910 to 1920, and 17*8# from 1920 to
1930*
34
mr&RT a
CHANGES IN OCCUPATIONAL
PATTERN OF S Y R A C U S E ^
BASE D
ONCENSUS FIGURES 1 9 1 0 - 2 0 - 3 0
1910
1920
1910
11.654-
10.222
5.682
CLERICAL
DOMESTIC A N D
r t 0 4.
PERSONAL SERVICE
= $ 2 0 1 -----------
PROFESSIONAL SERVICrjpJ
PUBLIC. SERVICE— 1.002
(M.E.Q6
=10527
15.906
9.164-a
TRADE
TRANSPORTATION—
AND COMMUNICATION 5‘6.7S
N
MANUFACTURING
AND
MECHANICAL
9aaka:
\
TOTALS
61.209
7 7.305
91.050
♦ N.E.C.-NOT ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED’
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY 1 9 3 9 - 4 - 0 - =
_________________________________________ P b W l r l V t V .
35
CHART 4
OCCEFPATE ONAL DISTRIBXJTI OH
FOR SYRACUSE — 1930
36
CHART 4
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRI BUTE ON
FOR SYRACUSE — 1930
This chart shows the distribution of all gainful
workers in Syracuse, in certain occupational groups*
Of
the total employment of 90,493, manufacturing and mechanical
occupations employs the largest group of workers (37*9$)
more than trade and clerical occupations combined*
Trans­
portation and communication have an unusually high percentage*
Among the male group, manufacturing and mechanical
occupations represent nearly one-half (45.2$) of the workers^
by far the largest classification*
another 19*7$*
Trade positions absorb
In the female group, domestic and personal
service and clerical occupations claim 54$ of the employed
females in these two classifications alone*
Next in importance
rank the manufacturing and mechanical occupations, then comes
the trade occupations*
Female workers have a greater propor­
tion of their total numbers than males in the professional
and clerical divisions*
37
CHART 4
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION—EE
E — FOR SYRACUSE-19 JO
TOTAL-MALE+FEMALE 100%:
MANUFACTURING+ MECHANICAL37.9%
C$D
TRANSPORTATION* COMM. &.Q7. 17.5?
TRADE
PUBLIC SERVICE IN.E.C.)* 2.3 7.
DOMESTIC + PERSONAL SERVICE 11.2%
CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS
12.6%
PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS 9.1%
100%
TOTAL-MALE ONLYMANUFACTURING+MECHANICAL 45.2%
TRANSPORTATION* COMM.
11.07.
TRADE19.7 %
PUBLIC SERVICE (N.E.C.)* 3.1%
DOMESTIC+ PERSONAL SERVICE 5.7%
CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS
PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS 6.7%
100%
TOTAL FEMALE ONLY
MANUFACTURING+MECHANICAL 16.3%
TRANSPORTATION * COMM.
2 .4 7 .
11.3%
TRADEPUBLIC SERVICE (N.E.C.)*
0.2%
DOMESTIC*PERSONAL SERVICE26.9%
CLERICAL OCCUPATIONS
26.9%
PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS 16.0%
15.906
10.222
11.654
6 ,3 0 6
30,434
13.202
4.495
6.415
6.4 29
•N .E .C .) N O T E L S E W H E R E
CLASSIFIED
SOURCE: U.S. CENSU8, OCCUPATIONAL STATISTICS. 19SO.VOL I g |
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY I S S 9 -4 -0
A
38
CHART 5
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
GAINFULLY EMPLOYED MALES AND FEMALES
. 1930 .
■
-
39
CHART 5
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
GAINFULLY EMPLOYED MALES AND FEMALES
1930
This chart shows the way that Syracuse compares with
New York State and the Uhlted States in percentage distribu­
tion of gainfully employed males sal females in 1930 In the
several occupational classifications.
The manufacturing and
mechanical types of occupations embrace 37.9$ of the gain­
fully employed people of Syracuse iftilie for New York State
this percentage is 35.8# and for the Uhlted States it is
38*1#*
The clerical jobs give employment to 12.6# of the
gainfully employed people of Syracuse while for the State
the percentage is 14.4# and 10.8# for the Uhlted States.
Trade and Communication and Domestic and Personal Service
types of occupation are the only classifications wherein the
percentage distribution for Syracuse is smaller than the per­
centage distribution for the State and the State percentage
is smaller than the percentage for the United States.
The percentages for the remaining classifications are
fairly constant for Syracuse, the State and the Nation.
40
CHART 5
= - P E R C E N T A G E D IS T R IB U T IO N -^
GAINrULLY EMPLOYED MALES,-------- F EMALES -1 9 JO,
BY MAJOR OCCUPATIONS. U.S., N.Y. STATE, SYRACUSE
OCCUPATIONAL
U.S.
N.Y. STATE SYRACUSE
-— C LA S S IFIC A TIO N S --------- = 1 9 3 0 = — - - = 1 9 3 0 = ------= 1 9 3 0 = ----
MANUFACTURING AND
MECHANICAL
14.110.652
3 8 .1 %
/
3 4 .3 3 7
3 5 .8 %
3 7 .9 %
8501123
t
%
\
>
16.5%
6.081.4-67
TRADE
1.866.374
1 5 .9 0 6
16.3%
17.5%
r
4 .0 2 5 .3 2 4
CLERICAL
1 0 .8 %
DOMESTIC
AND
PERSONAL
SERVICE
*
d
\
755.160
14.4%
>
11.654
1 2 .6 %
4.952.451
6 9 1 .0 4 7
13.4%
13.2 %
1 0 .2 2 2
11.2%
TRANSPORTATION
AND
COMMUNICATION
PROFESSIONAL
PUBLIC
SERVICE
— T O T A L -------------------------
3.84 3 .14 7
507.031
7.973
10.3%
9 .2 %
8 .6 %
3.25S .884
4 4 6 .0 7 1
8 .3 0 6
8 .8 %
8 .7 %
9 .1 %
8 5 6 .2 0 5
117.727
2 .3 %
2 .2 %
2 .0 9 5
2.3 •/•
37 123 130— 5 Z41 533------- 8 0 4 9 3 -----
41
CHART 6
AGE DISTRIBUTION OP PEOPLE
ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATION
; SYRACUSE 1920-1930 ,
42
CHART 6
. AGE DISTRIBUTION OP PEOPLE
ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS
SYRACUSE 1920-1930
This chart shows the number and percentage of workers
In different age brackets in Syracuse.
In the low bracket
10-13 Tears, both males and females gainfully employed de­
creased from 1920 to 1930*
a similar trend*
Brackets 14-15 and 16-17 showed
In each of these youth divisions, the males
exceeded the females in number*
Reduction of child labor
and increased attendance In school accounted for the decrease
In extremely young workers*
In the older brackets, 18-65, and over each group
showed an Increase over 1920*
It Is readily apparent that
females have been displacing males, or increasing faster
■v
-
than males in the more productive employment classes•
In
the group 18-19 years of age, males increased 13 workers while
females were gaining 325 workers.
Of those workers, 20-24
years of age, females took 75# of the gain otrer a ten year
period*
In the groups 25-44 and 45-64, males were the
greater gainers*
43
CHART 6
E-AGE DISTRIBUTION OF PE O P LE -S
ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPATIONS
SYRACUSE -1 9 E 0 - 1 0 9 0
rrrTTTIFDS
21
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MALE 16 •90
1920 0
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12*
16!
&
6!
10* * *
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FEMALE
1920 D 6!
1930 ■
III
£224
£9711
SOURCE: U.S. CENSUS, OCCUPATIONAL STATISTICS VOL JS'E 0 -3 (
=ZZ
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY I9 3 9 -4 -0 '
44
As an aid in arriving at an answer to the question,
"In comparing the 1930 percentages of distribution between
the two sexes, with those of 1910 and 1920, what trends do
we observe in this distribution?" the following study was
made.
Table III, showing the 1930 census date, indicates
that 73,6% of all the gainful workers in Syracuse were male,
and 26.2% were female.
If these percentage distributions
are compared with those of 1910 and 1920 (Table I and Table
II), we find that the male workers kept practically their
same total percentage from 1910 to 1920 but lost 1.9$ from
1920 to 1930.
The female workers lost ground from 1910 to
1920.in percentage distribution {0,6%) but metre than made
up for this loss from 1920 to 1930 with a 1.9$ Increase due
mainly to the increased number of female workers in the gen­
eral field of Distribution and Service Occupations.
The percentage distribution for 1930 between male
and female workers in the Production Industries group is
66,6% male and 11.2$ female.
r
The trend in this field, as
shown by comparison with the 1910 and 1920 percentages, has
been steadily upward for the sale workers with a correspond­
ing downward trend for the female worker distribution.
In the Distribution and Service Industries group, the
male workers, as of 1930, have a percentage distribution of
\
64.4$ while the female percentage distribution is 35.6$.
Here the trend has been the reverse to that in the Production
group.
\
The comparison with the 1910 and 1920 census data
45
TABLE I
TRENDS IN DISTRIBUTION BY SEXES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
GENERAL DIVISIONS OP OCCUPATIONS
1910 United States Census
Occupations
All Occupations
Agriculture, Forestry,
and Pishing
Extraction Minerals
Manufacturing and
Mechanical Industries
Total Production
Inclustries
Transportation ana
Communication
Trade
Public Service (Not
: Elsewhere Classif1 ed)
Professional Service
Domestic and Personal
Servl ce
Clerical Occupations
Total DistrlbutionService Industries
Number of Workers
Per Cent of Total
Male Female Total
Male Female
47.476 15.755 65.209
75.1
24.9
455
157
96.2
98.7
3.8
1.3
24.944
4.910 29.854
83.6
16.4
25.517
4.929 50.446
83.9
16.1
5,586
7,486
286
1,678
5,672
9,164
94.9
81.7
5.1
18.3
999
2,245
9
1,690
1,008
5,955
99.1
57.2
.9
42.8
2,646
5.199
4,658
2.485
7,504
5.682
36.3
56.3
63.7
43.7
21,959 10,804 52,765
66.8
33.2
418
155
17
2
46
TABLE II
TRENDS IN DISTRIBUTION BY SEXES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
GENERAL DIVISIONS OP OCCUPATIONS
1920 United States Census
Occupations
All Occupations
Agriculture, Forestry,
and Pishing
Extraction Minerals
Manufacturing and
Mechanical Industries
Total Production
Industries
Transportation and
C ommunicat Ion
Trade
Public Service (Not
Elsewhere Classified)
Professional Service
Domestic and Personal
Service
Clerical Occupations
Total DlstributionService Industries
Number of Workers
Per Cent of Total
Male Female Total
Male Pemale
58,546 18,759 77.305
75.7
24.3
398
34
98.3
100.0
1.7
0.0
31,464
4,882 36,346
86.5
13.5
31,889
4,889 36,778
86.7
13.3
6,281
8,546
578 6,859
2,041 10,587
91.6
80.6
8.4
19.4
1,466
3,051
30
2,150
1,496
5,201
98.0
58.6
2.0
41.4
2,760
4,553
4,457
4.614
7,217
9,167
38.2
49.7
61.8
50.3
26,657 13,870 40,527
65.7
34.3
391
34
7
0
47
TABLE III
TREEDS IN DISTRIBUTION BY SEXES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
GENERAL DIVISIONS OP OCCUPATIONS
1930 United States Census
Occupations
All Occupations
Agriculture, Forestry,
and Pishing
Extraction Minerals
Manufacturing and
Mechanical Industries
Total Production
Industries
Transportation and
Communication
Trade
Public Service (Not
Elsewhere Classified)
Professional Service
Domestic and Personal
Service
Clerical Occupations
Total DistrlbutlonService Industries
Number of Workers
Male female total
67,181 23.878 91,059
Per Cent of Total’
Male Eemale
73.8
26.2
537
29
97.8
100.0
2.2
0.0
30,436
3,901 34,337
88.6
11.4
30,990
3,913 34,903
88.6
11.2
7,397
13,202
576 7,973
2,704 15,906
92.7
83.1
7.3
16.9
525
29
12
0
2,057
4,495
38
3,811
2,095
8,306
98.2
54.2
1.8
45.8
3,807
5,233
6,415 10,222
6.421 11.654
37.3
44.8
62.7
55.2
36.191 19,965 56,156
64.4
35.6
48
shows a steady downward percentage for males and a correspond­
ing upward trend for females.
A study of the separate occupational divisions reveals
that in only one of the nine major divisions is found a per­
centage distribution between the two sexes in favor of the
female workers.
division.
This is in the Domestic and Personal Service
The percentage of females in this division for the
three census years are 63.7$ for 1910, 61.8$ for 1920, and
62.7$ for 1930; first a downward tendency than an upward one*
The next best showing for the Syracuse female workers
in this matter of sex distribution is found in the Clerical
or Office Occupations, although the 1910 census shows that
56.3$ of these occupations were filled by males and only
43.7$ held by females; by 1920 the percentage distribution
for females in this classification had advanced to 50.3$
and by 1930 the female percentage had gained to 55.2$.
Of
the three census years, this is the best showing for the
women.
Commencing with 1910, there is a steady trend in
favor of a larger percentage distribution in favor of the
women.
The 1930 census reveals that the female workers have
45.8$ of the Professional Service positions.
The trend in
this division was slightly downward for the female percent­
age from 1910 to 1920 but very much upward from 1920 to
1930.
The greatly increased number of girls entering the
nursing and teaching professions probably explains the 4.4$
jump from 1920 to 1930 in the female distribution percentage
49
in this Professional Service division*
The female workers make their fourth best showing
in the Trade division with a 16.9$ distribution.
a 2.5$ decline from the 1930 percentage.
This is
The 1920 percent­
age, however, is a 1.1$ increase over the 1910 distribution.
The 1930 census shows the 11.4$ of the Syracuse gain­
ful workers in the Mechanical and Manufacturing Industries
division are female workers.
The trend here is definitely
downward with a 13.5$ distribution for 1920 and a 16.4$
distribution in 1910.
The other occupations divisions are predominately
male, with the 1930 female distribution all 7.3$ or less,
with no female workers at all in the Extraction of Minerals
division.
OCCUPATIONAL STATISTICS SHOWING
TRENDS IN MALE OCCUPATIONS
Table IV gives a list of selected male occupations
found In Syracuse.
On the whole, the list includes only
the skilled and semi-skilled types of work.
For purposes
of comparison, however, the group of tinskilled laborers In
manufacturing is listed.
It will be noticed too that skilled
occupations requiring college training are Included with those
which do not require such type of education, and that employer
or management types of occupations are In the list along with
the employee types.
All of these should appear in the list,
if only for purposes of comparison; and in so far as the
50
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AS SHOWN BY 1 91 0 - 1920-1930 CENSUS STATISTICS
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54
material in this survey is used for the purposes of vocational
guidance, all the classifications in the list definitely have
a place*
For all the occupations appearing in Table IV, the
number of Syracuse male workers is given as of the 1910,
1920, and 1950 Halted States census reports*
These nunfcers
are shown in the first three columns of the table*
The numbers in the last three columns show for each
census year the number of male workers of each occupation,
per ten thousand male workers*
Instead of showing percentages
or the number in each occupation per one hundred total male
workers, it was thought advisable to show the number of workers
per ten thousand.
This has been done chiefly to avoid fractions*
For example, referring to Table IV, the number of bakers per
ten thousand in 1910 is given as fifty-seven*
This could
have been shown in percentage form as .36^, meaning that the
270 bakers in Syracuse, as of the 1910 census, constituted
*36$ of the total male workers in Syracuse*
The first, how­
ever, seemed the preferable method*
These numbers of workers per ten thousand male workers
have been worked out by dividing the total number of male
workers for the particular census in question, into the number
of workers for that census in each occupation*
A study of these numbers per ten thousand total male
workers for the three census years of 1910, 1920, and 1930
will reveal the trends over this twenty year period in the
various occupational classifications*
For example, the
55
third classification on the list is that of blacksmiths,
forgemen and hammermen.
In this case, a steady downward
trend is observed, with seventy-one of these workers per
ten thousand in 1910, forty-four in 1920, and thirty-six in
1930*
The reverse tendency is noticed in the classification
of electricians and electrical engineers with the numbers of
eighty-five, eighty-seven and ninety per ten thousand male
total respectively for 1910, 1920, and 1930.
OCCUPATIONAL STATISTICS SHOWING
TRENDS IN FEMALE OCCUPATIONS
Table V gives a list of selected female occupations*
As in the case of the list of selected male occupations
(Table IV), this list of selected female occupations is con­
fined to the skilled and semi-skilled types of work*
Table V, like Table IV which is devoted to selected
nmle occupations, gives the number of Syracuse workers for
each of the occupational classifications on the list, for
each of the three census years 1910, 1920, and 1930*
Table V also gives the number of workers of each oc­
cupation per ten thousand total female workers for each of
the census years.
Just as in the case of the male workers,
these numbers may be used to note the trends in the various
occupational classifications*
56
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K
CHAPTER III
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND TRENDS (Continued)
To ascertain the changes In number of gainfully em­
ployed people In Syracuse In the major census classifications
and to aid in calculating the probable number of people that
might be employed in these same classifications in 1941,
Table VI was prepared.
The statistics used in preparing this
table were taken from the 1910, 1920, and 1930 federal census.
The calculated figures for 1941 are also based on federal cen­
sus figures and are an average annual increase or decrease
over twenty years.
It Is admitted that the reliability of the calculated
probable number of gainful workers for 1941 is low, since sub­
normal employment conditions and continued technological and
economic changes take place very rapidly.
Considering the probability for 1941 on the basis of
the past thirty-one years, all other things being equal, the
numbers distributed among the major occupational classifica­
tions may be calculated from the formula.
1930 empl_.^- 1919 empl. x no# of yrs# ^ 1930 empl#
no. for "Y” years.
For example (see Table VI for totals):
the clerical
types of occupations In 1910 engaged 5,682, and In 1930,
59
TABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OP GAINFULLY EMPLOYED PEOPLE
TEN YEARS OP AGE AND OVER 1910-20-30 AND CALCULATED 1941
(BASED ON UNITED STATES CENSUS FIGURES)
Classification
Manufacturing and Mechanical
Industries
1910
1920
1930
29,854 36,346 34,337
Calculated
1941
31,872*
Trade
9,164 10,587 15,906
Transportation and
Coramunica tion
5,672
6,859
7,973
9,238
Clerical
5,682
9,167 11,654
14,938
Domestic and Personal
Service
7,304
7,217 10,222
11,862
Professional Service
3,933
5,201
8,306
10,711
Public Service
1,008
1,496
2,095
2,692
592
432
566
Agriculture, Fishing and
Extraction of Minerals
Note:
19,614
552*
Figures marked with an asterisk (*) have a decreasing
trend*
60
11,654.
To determine the probability for 1941:
11 >654 -^5J.6§2. X 11 / 11,654 s 14,938
Fourteen thousand nine hundred and thirty-ei&t will
be the employment capacity in the clerical types of occupations
for 1941.
When the classification shows a declining trend, a slight­
ly different interpolation must be made.
For example:
the
agricultural, fishing and
extraction of mineral types ofoccupa­
tions in 1910 engaged 529
and in 1930, 566.
To determine the
probability for 1941:
1930 empl. - jm o
empl. - 1 9 3 q empl. x no_ of ^
■ n o . for WY H years.
Five hundred and fifty-two will be the employment capa­
city in the agricultural, fishing and extraction of mineral
types of occupations for 1941.
Table VII shows the results of these same calculations
for Syracuse in twenty-seven occupations listed in Tables IV
and V.
These particular occupations were selected because of
their adaptability to public secondary education.
61
TABLE VII .
PROBABLE NUMBER OP GAINFUL WORKERS IN
TWENTY-FIVE TYPES OP OCCUPATIONS
SYRACUSE, 1941
Occupation
Calculated
Probable Number
1941
Bakers
Blacksmiths, forgemen
Carpenters
Electricians
Filers, polishers, buffers, grinders
Machinists, millwrights, tool and die makers
Mechanics
Painters, vamishers, glazers, etc*
Plumbers, gas and steam fitters
Tailors and tailoresses
Tinsmiths, sheet metal workers
Potteries
Shoe factories
Chauffeurs, truck drivers
"Clerks* in stores
Insurance agents
Real estate agents
Salesmen
Draftsmen
Barbers and hairdressers
Janitors and sextons
Servant s
Waiters and waitresses
Agents, collectors and creditmen
Bookkeepers and cashiers
Stenographers
Clerks, except clerks in stores
589
196*
1,931
779
508
4,393
2,287
1,688
579
622*
349
302*
257*
3,528
2,402
1,188
810
6,294
488
673
1,007
6,806
1,254
596
3,426
3,450
7,182
Note:
Numbers marked with an asterisk (*) show those occupa­
tions having a declining trend from year to year*
62
UNEMPLOYMENT IN SYRACUSE, 1937, AS SHOWN
BY FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT CENSUS REPORT
1
A study of the 1937 Federal Unemployment Census
reports reveals that 9,145 Syracuse people with occupational
classification were unemployed.
Of this number, 7,092
(77,6$) were males; the remaining 2,053 (22,4$) were females.
Table VIII shows that of the 7,092 totally unemployed
males, 3,686 or 52$ were from the manufacturing or mechanical
types of occupations; 810 or 11.4$ were from trade and 740
or 10.4$ were from transportation.
Table IX reveals that of the 2,053 totally unemployed
females, 661 or 32.2$ were from the manufacturing and mechan­
ical types of occupations, 496 dr 24.2$ from domestic and
personal service types of occupations and 359 or 17.5$ from
trade•
A study of Table X, which is a composite of Table
VIII and Table IX, brings to light the fact that of the
total 9,145 unemployed, 4,347 or 47.4$ come from the manu­
facturing and mechanical types of occupations.
The next
largest group, 1,169 or 12.8$ come from trade and the third
largest group, 856 or 9.4$ come from the domestic and personal
service types of occupations.
2
A further study of the Unemployment Census report
re­
veals that 42$ of all the unemployed male workers throughout
the United States were registered and classified as unskilled.
The 1930 federal census classified 27$ of all male workers as
1.
2.
John D. Biggers, Administrator, "Final Report on Total and
Partial Unemployment", Census of Unemployment. Vol. II,
Uhited States Printing Office, Washington, b. C., 1938.
Ibid.
63
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66
unskilled.
A logical conclusion that can he drawn from these
statistics is that a much higher proportion of the unskilled
and less secure class of workers are the first to feel the
effects of industrial and economic changes.
In a press release bearing a July 27, 1938, date line
and entitled, "Pinal Report for the United States on the Oc­
cupational Distribution of Persons Who Registered as Totally
Unemployed or as Emergency Workers," Mr. John D. BIggers,
the administrator of the census, made the following signifi­
cant statement:
"This evidence of a very high ratio of unemploy­
ment among the unskilled emphasizes a real
national problem. If, as is indicated, ths
developments in industry call for workmen of
higher skills, the obvious demand is to give
more attention to proper vocational training
so that the nation may be able to utilize
more easily these unemployed workmen."
Table XI reveals that 2,881 or 28$ of all the unem­
ployed in Syracuse are under twenty-five years of age.
Of
these 2,881 unemployed, 1,895 or 24.4$ are males and 731 or
9.4$ are females.
Of the 2,881 total, 867 or 30$, were
classified as new workers.
By new workers is meant those
people who could not be given an occupational classification
because of the fact that they never had a job or that they
were seeking to reenter the labor market after a period of
nongainful activity, such as housework in their own home.
For purposes of comparison, Table XIV was compiled
to show the percentage classifications of totally unemployed
In the United States and In Syracuse.
The highest percentage
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70
TABLE XIV
PERCENTAGE COMPARISON TOTALLY UNEMPLOYED
UNITED STATES AND SYRACUSE
United States
Syracuse
Iftiskilled
37.4$
Unskilled
22.6$
Semi-skilled
19.9$
Semi-skilled
26.2$
Skilled
16.6$
Skilled
19.0$
Clerical
8.4$
Clerical
19.0$
All others
13.2$
All others
17.1$
in the United States was classified as unskilled, whereas the
highest percentage in Syracuse was in the semi-skilled group*
The apparent discrepancy in the totals of totally
unemployed, Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI, XII, XIII, may be
accounted for by pointing out that Tables VIII, IX, and X
do not include the new workers group of which there are
1,165.
EMPLOYMENT CENSUS
Detailed data on the employment census are filed in a
separate volume, Appendix II.
These data cover a survey of
seventy catagories, each of which is divided into from two
to 231 sub-headings with an average of 23.6$.
There, again,
each is broken down into males and females.
The data cover a total of 55,174 people who are actually
engaged in gainful occupations in the city of Syracuse.
As
71
pointed out in Chapter I, these data are not subjective judg­
ment but are taken from actual objective records.
These data
of the seventy divisions or catagories of occupations include
from sixty-five to one hundred per cent of the employers in
each division or category.
turns is 80.3^.
The sum total average of the re­
This means that the data of this survey
covers 80.3$ of all the employers in seventy listed catagories
of occupations in Syracuse.
The following one table illustrates the seventy tables
found in Appendix II:
TABLE XV
SURVEY- OP
FRUIT AND PRODUCE COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Banana messengers
Bookkeepers
Buyers
Carpenters
Chauffeurs and truck drivers
Clerks - office
Clerks - retail sales
Collectors
Executives
Janitors
Laborers
Managers
Salesmen
Stenographers
Store demonstrators
Warehousemen
Watchmen
Totals
Number of workers
Males Females Total
1
2
8
1
28
6
16
2
12
1
41
1
13
0
0
1
2
0
5
0
0
0
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
_0
1
7
8
1
28
12
17
2
12
1
41
1
13
2
1
1
__2
135-
15
150
72
Following each of the seventy tables is a summary
statement similar to the following:
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 23 out of a total of 29 or 79$
of the fruit and produce companies in Syra­
cuse.
There is a total of 17 occupations
listed.
Occupations for which training might be provided in
part or in whole by the public schools, were selected from
the total of sub-headings of 'the seventy listed occupation
divisions or catagories.
The total number of sub-divisions
under these catagories actually listed by employers is
1,652.
The investigator studied these different listed oc­
cupations with the view of determining which might, with
the present school facilities, or with relatively inexpen­
sive additions or modifications, provide training for them.
In this study, he was guided by both his own opinion and by
those of his co-workers.
Table XVI lists these occupations and the number of
males and females now employed under sixty-five to one
hundred per cent of employers of these occupational groups.
73
TABLE XVI
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
GENERAL SUMMARY OP OCCUPATIONS
FOR WHICH HIGH SCHOOL TRAINING
MAY BE OFFERED
Occupations
Accountants
Acetylene burners
Advertising
All-round operators
Alteration hands
Artists
Assemblers
Attendants - gas station
Auditors
Bakers
Bill posters
Body and fendermen
Book binders
Bookkeepers
Brick layers
Business machines
Addressograph operators
Billing machine operators
Bookkeeping machine operators
Comptometer operators
Ediphone operators
Elliott Fisher operators
Dictaphone operators
Multigraph operators
Office machine operators
Punch card operators
Tabulating machine operators
Bus boys
Bus girls
Buyers
Cabinet makers
Cafeteria
Car and bus cleaners
Carriers-mail
Carpenters
Chefs
Cigar stand
Cleaning women and janitresses
Clerks-admitting
Clerks-bill
Clerks-chief
Clerks-credit
Number of workers
llales Eemales Total
268
2
16
21
11
49
1,495
62
13
243
8
33
30
365
23
60
0
17
207
149
2
851
0
0
1
0
0
112
553
0
328
2
33
228
160
51
2,346
62
13
244
8
33
142
918
23
1
4
9
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
12
44
0
76
2
7
24
187
232
55
3
0
0
13
2
8
8
0
32
54
2
1
34
2
2
1
14
0
38
72
0
8
0
0
0
4
0
209
6
3
2
22
9
4
41
55
2
1
36
2
2
1
26
44
38
148
2
15
24
187
232
59
3
209
6
16
4
30
74
TABLE XVI (continued)
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
GENERAL SUMMARY OP OCCUPATIONS
FOR WHICH HIGH SCHOOL TRAINING
MAY BE OFFERED
Occupations
Clerks-desk and room
Clerks-factory
Clerks-night
Clerks-mailing
Clerks-office
Clerks-part time
Clerks-post office
Clerks-post office substitutes
Clerks-sales
Clerks-soda fountain
C1erks-shipping
Clerks-stockroom and stores
Collectors
Construction and maintenance
Cooks
Coremakers
Cosmetic girls
Crane operators
Decorators-pottery
Dental assistants
Designers-floral
Dietary
Dishwashers
Display designers
Draftsmen
Electricians
Elevator operators
Express and baggagehandlers
Errand and delivery boys and messengers
Fini shers-pottery
Fini shers-photograph
Finishers-wood
Firemen-muni cipal
Firemen and engineers-stationery
First aid
Fitters-clothes
Foremen
Freight checkers
Furniture repair
Gardners
Glazers
Grinders
Number of workers
Males Females Total
53
361
1
19
903
144
148
29
1,761
68
527
408
50
441
201
73
0
4
64
0
18
2
157
11
143
275
92
147
76
40
0
86
265
355
3
5
113
5
7
4
33
6
9
126
0
3
1,041
152
6
1
1,691
26
49
90
2
2
103
23
10
0
266
39
9
30
15
0
1
0
24
0
1
23
2
0
0
0
13
22
1
0
0
0
0
0
62
487
1
22
1,944
296
154
30
3,452
94
576
498
52
443
304
96
10
4
330
39
27
32
172
11
144
275
116
147
77
63
2
86
265
355
16
27
114
5
7
4
33
6
75
TABLE XVI (continued)
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
GENERAL SUMMARY OP OCCUPATIONS
FOR WHICH HIGH SCHOOL TRAINING
MAY BE OFFERED
Occupations
Hammermen
Hand sewers
Heat treaters and annealers
Host and Hostesses
Housekeepers
Hous emen
Inspectors-food
Inspectors-manufactured parts
Interviewers
Janitors and porters
Kiln workers-pottery
Laboratory assistants
Laborers and helpers
Laundry workers
Leather pasting and turning
Leather table workers
Leather trimmers
Lettering and design
Linemen
Lobby boys
Machine operators
Machinist-all round
Maids
Managing operators-beauty parlor
Manicurists
Masons
Matrons
Mechanics
Mechanic s-dental
Mechanics-garage
Messengers
Metal men
Metal plating
Millwright
Molders-hand
Molders-machine
Neon glass blowers
Nurse8
Nurses-otudents
Office boys
Operators-street cars and bus
Optometrists
NEW YORK U N IV ER SITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
*
LIBRARY
©
Number of workers
Males Females Total
107
0
78
3
0
39
0
609
24
470
115
0
2,776
51
0
11
0
5
54
2
2,939
739
0
6
0
91
0
345
51
367
26
1
61
88
178
230
5
0
0
4
256
29
0
197
0
9
40
0
24
131
17
0
13
3
143
317
100
532
50
0
0
0
552
0
152
111
6
0
9
0
2
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
313
334
0
0
0
107
197
78
12
40
39
24
740
41
470
128
3
2,919
368
100
543
50
5
54
2
3,491
739
05 2
117
6
91
9
345
53
367
26
1
82
88
178
230
5
313
334
4
256
29
76
TABLE XVI (continued)
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
GENERAL SUMMARY OP OCCUPATIONS
FOR WHICH HIGH SCHOOL TRAINING
MAY BE OFFERED
Occupations
Packers
Painter s-hand
PaInters-spray
Paint mixers
Pattern makers-metal
Pattern makers-wood
Photographers
Pin setters
Plant employees-dairy
Plasterers
Plumbers
Polishing and buffers
Power sewing machine operators
Pressers-hand
Pressers and cleaners
Pricing goods
Printers-genera1
Patrolmen
Receptionists
Repairmen
Repair shops-trolley
Reporters
Roofing
Route salesmen
Salesmen-outside
Secretaries
Seamstresses
Service men
Sheet metal worker
Shoe factory workers
Sign painters
Solderers
Stenographers
Tailors
Teachers
Telegraph operators
Telephone operators
Tellers-bank
Timekeepers
Tool design
Tool and die makers
Tray and kitchen girls
Nuniber of workers
Males female s “ToiaT
96
65
86
2
11
81
5
88
122
1
94
312
48
89
71
7
165
120
1
134
30
57
72
134
2,197
18
0
267
248
324
42
32
195
133
240
23
32
99
1
13
455
0
108
204
0
65
3
89
0
2
0
11
0
81
0
5
0
88
123
1
0
1
0
94
0
312
588
636
0
89
21
92
41
34
8
173
0
120
42
43
0
134
0
30
7
64
0
72
135
1
132 2,329
303
321
19
19
0
267
0
248
101
425
0
42
7
39
1,690 1,885
0
133
1,123 1,363
25
48
170
202
9
108
10
11
0
13
0
455
60
60
77
TABLE XVI (continued)
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
GENERAL SUMMARY OP OCCUPATIONS
FOR WHICH HIGH SCHOOL TRAINING
MAY BE OFFERED
Occupations
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Typists
Ticket agents
Upholsterers
Waiters and waitresses
Ward service-hospital
Warehousemen
Waremaker-pottery
Watchmen
Watchman-crossing
Welders
Wood workers-mlllhand
Window trimmers
Yardmen
Cashiers
Countermen
Machine and tool repair
Set-up men
Totals
frumber of workers
Males Females ■"Krar
2,188
0
18
65
273
41
202
124
135
42
156
172
11
68
56
155
79
37
30,211
0
28
0
4
454
59
2
80
1
0
12
0
1
0
205
44
0
0
2,188
28
18
69
727
100
204
204
136
42
168
172
12
68
261
199
79
37
14,674 44,885
78
EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
This part of the survey contains data relative to
the educational requirements for 191 occupations of major
and minor types from the entire city*
These occupations are grouped into seven standard
catagories:
professional^ proprietors, managers and offi­
cials; clerical and kindred workers; unskilled workers and
servants*
Those classifications are taken from the Bureau
of Census standards*
In the following table, educational requirements in­
dicate the minimum formal and special requirements that a
prospective employee must meet prior to employment*
These
requirements represent, frherever possible, a composite of
at least ten judgments of personnel directors, employment
managers, office managers, manufacturing executives, plant
superintendents and foremen*
79
TABLE XVII
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR PROFESSIONAL TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS
AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F r Formal
S = Special
Occupations
Educational requirements
______________________________________________
0 « Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Artist
F; High school required
S: Technical training required
0: Experience required
No
Chemist
F: College
S: Major in chemistry
0: None
No
Chiropodist
F: College required
S: Technical training required
0 : None
Yes
Colorist,
Photo Studio
F: High school required
S: None
0: Experience preferred
Yes
Developer,
Photo
F: High school required
S: None
0: Photographic interest
No
Dietician
Fs College
S: Technical dietetic training
required
0: None
No
Draftsman
F: High school
S: Trailing required
0 : Must know drafts
Yes
Engineer,
General
F: College
S: Technical course in engineering
0: None
Engineer,
Chief
Fs College
S: Technical course in engineering
0s None
No
Engineer,
Mechanical
and Power
Fs College preferred
Ss Technical course in engineering
0s Experience is required
No
Engineer,
Assistant
Student
Fs College
Ss Technical course in engineering
0s None
No
Yes
86
TABLE XVII (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OP APPLICANTS FOR PROFESSIONAL TYPES OP OCCUPATIONS
AND AVAILABILITY OP EMPLOYEES
P s Formal
Occupations
S - Special
s
Educational requirements
0 s -Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Newspaper
Work
F: High school required, college
preferred.
Ss Journalistic training required.
0; Half of the employers require
experience, others require none.
No
Nurse
F: High school required, one year
college preferred.
S: Completion of formal nursing
school.
0: Registered nurses preferred,
experience required.
Yes
Photo­
grapher
F: High school required.
S; Completion of photographic
course preferred.
0: Must be experienced.
No
Teacher
F; Four years of college
S; 18 semester hours in Education
0: Require experience of all
teachers except "Cadets”.
Technician
Laboratory
F: Four years of college
S; Technical laboratory training
required.
0: Laboratory experience preferred
Technician
Medical
P: College
S: Must be a medical doctor
0 : 3 to 5 years experience preferred
No
No
Yes
81
TABLE XVIII
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR PROPRIETORS, MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS,
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
pgPomj.
S • Special___
0 »
—— — —
Difficulty
Occupations
Educational Requirements
In obtaining
_____________________________ __________________ _____ workers
Butcher
F: Must be literate, no other
requirements
Ss Trained on the job
0: 2 to 4 years experienced required
Yes
Conductor,
R. R.
F: High school
S: Position secured b y promotion
0; None
No
Credit
Manager
F: High school required, college
preferred
S: Business school training pre­
ferred accounting, credit and
collection, etc.
0 : 3 to 5 years experience required.
Druggist
F: High school and college of
pharmacy
S: Special pharmaceutical training.
Must pass State Examination.
0: 2 to 4 years experience required
Embalmer
F: High school
S: Special training embalming
0 : 2 years apprenticeship or
equivalent experience.
No
No
No
F: High school
S: Special training In funeral
direction
Os 2 to 3 years experience is re­
quired
No
Optician and
Optometrist
Fs High school required, college pre­
ferred.
Ss Apprenticeship training
Os 2 to 3 years experience required.
No
Radio
Station
Worker
Fs High school required, college
preferred.
Ss Technical training required of
engineers•
Os None
Yes
Funeral
Director
82
TABLE XVTII (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR PROPRIETORS, MANAGERS AND OFFICIALS,
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
S s Special
Occupations
Roadmaster
R. R.
Educational Requirements
F
S
0
Superintendent F
Plant
S
0
Yardmaster
R. R.
F
S
0
0 ■ Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Grammar school
Positions obtained b y means of
promotion.
None
No
High school required, college
Preferred
Position usually obtained through
promotion.
5 to 10 years experience
No
Grammar
Position obtained b y means of
promotion only.
None
No
83
TABLE XIX
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABIH TY OF EMPLOYEES
F ■ Formal
Occupations
Accountant
S * Special
Educational Requirements
F: High school, college business
administration training pre­
ferred,
S: Business training, accounting
required
Os 3 to 6 years experience essen­
tial
Adjuster,
Merchandise
F: None
S: None
0: None
Advertising
Man
F: High school
Ss Special training in advertising
and psychology,
0* Experiences required; companies
usually train workers.
0 a Other
Difficulty
In obtaining
workers
No
No
No
Fs High school required, college
graduation with Business AdminSs Training given by company on job
Oi 3 to 5 years experience In selling
helpful.
No
Attendant,
Service
Station
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
0 ; Previous experience preferred
No
Auditor
Fs High school required, college
preferred.
Ss Business training required, es­
pecially accounting, bookkeeping
and auditing.
Os 3 to 5 years experience required.
Agent,
Insurance
Bookkeeper
Business
Machine
Operator
Fs High school required
Ss Business training In bookkeeping
required
Os 1 to 3 years experience required
Fs High school required
Ss Business machine operation
Os Ability to operate machine effi­
ciently.
No
No
Yes
84
TABLE XIX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
Occupations
Special
Educational Requirements
0 s Other
MfflwKy"
in obtaining
workers
Cashier
F: High school
S: Business training required,
commercial course*
Os 2 to 4 years experience required
No
Cashier
Wrapper
F: High school
S: None
0: Trained by company
No
Fs High school required, college
preferred
Ss Law school or specialtraining
of legal nature
Os Company trains worker on job
No
Fs High school
Ss Business training
Os Experience of 2 or 3 years
preferred
Yes
Fs High school required.
Ss Business school orequivalent
Os 1 to 2 years experience preferred
No
Claim
Adjuster
Clerks
Clerk,
Billing
Clerk,
Chief
Fs High school required
Ss Business college preferred
Os Experience required, job usually
attained by promotion
Clerk,
File
Fs High school required
Ss Business college or commercial
course In filing
Os 1 to 2 years experience preferred
No
Clerk,
Junior
Fs High school required
Ss Clerical training preferred
Os 1 to 2 years experience required
No
Clerk,
Interest
Accounting
Fs High school required
Ss None
Os Experience required
No
No
85
TABLE XIX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
Occupations
S = Special
Educational Requirements
0 s Other
Difficulty
In obtaining
workers
F : High school required, college
preferred
S: Business college training
preferred
0 : 1 to 2 years experience required
No
Clerk,
Order
F: High school required
S: Business training preferred
0 : 1 to 2 years experience required
No
Clerk,
Receiving
F: High school required
S: None
0 : 1 to 2 years experience required
No
Clerk,
Sales
F: High school required
S: None
Os Previous experience considered
most important
Yes
Clerk,
Shipping
F: High school required
S: Business training preferred
0 : 6 months to 1 year experience
important
No
F: High school required
S: None
0 : 1 year experience preferred
No
Clerk,
Office
Clerk,
Stock
F: High school required, college
preferred
S:
Most
establishments require
Clerk,
business training
Miscellaneous
0: Some establishments require
previous experience
Comptometer
Operator
F: High school required
S: Business course, comptometer
operation
Os Proficiency in operating comp­
tometer machine
No
No
86
TABLE XIX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYERS
F r Formal
S : Special
0 Z Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Occupations
Educational Requirements
Credit
Investigator
F: High school required; college
training in business administra­
tion preferred
S: Business training preferred
Os Experience preferred
No
Demonstrator
Fs High school required
S: None
Os Previous experience preferred
No
Designer,
Floral
F: High school required
S: Floral training preferred
Os 2 to 5 years experience required;
vorker must have talent for work
No
Display
Man
Fs High school required
Ss Art training preferred
Os Previous experience essential
No
Inspector
Fs High school required, college
preferred
Ss Training required by most firms
No
Mechanic,
Dental
Fs High school required
Ss Dental school or laboratory
training
Os 10 years apprenticeship
No
Messenger
Fs High school required
Ss None
Os None
No
Fs High school required
Ss Training in mimeograph operation
Os 1 year experience
No
Fs High school required
Ss Training in multigraph operation
most important
Os 1 year experience
No
Mimeograph
Operator
Multigraph
Operator
87
TABLE XIX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYERS
F • Formal
Occupations
S a Special
Educational Requirements
0 s Other
TaTfltouKy
in obtaining
workers
Office
Boy
F: High school required
S: None
0: Experience preferred
No
Photograph
Printer
Apprentice
F: High school required
S: None
0; Experience or training in photo
printing
No
F: High school required
S: None
0 : 2 to 4 years experience
No
Fs High school required by half;
college required by others
S: Business training important
0: Previous experiences considered
especially valuable
No
Fs High school required
Ss Several require a business course
Os 1 to 2 years experience required
No
Proof
Reader
Purchasing
Agent
Receptionist
Salesmen
Salesmen,
Hanufactur-
Salesmen,
Service
Fs High school required, college
education preferred
Ss Sales training, either on job or
in school
Os 1 to 3 years experience required*
Classes, sales meetings, factory
training
Yes
Fs High school required, college
preferred
Ss Sales training on job or in school
Os 1 to 3 years experience required*
Classes, sales meetings, factory
training
Yes
Fs High school required, college
preferred
Ss Sales instruction usually by
company
Os 2 to 3 years experience required
Factory training in some instances
Yes
88
TABLE XIX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYERS
F m Formal
Occupations
Salesmen,
Retail
S ■ Special
Educational requirements
F: High school required
S: Trained on job
0 : 1 to 2 years experience required.
Classes, sales meetings, factory
training
Salesmen,
Insurance
F: High school required, college
preferred
S: Training in salesmanship very
beneficial
0: Previous selling experience con­
sidered valuable
SecretaryPrivate
Fs High school required
S: Business training secretarial
necessary
0 : 2 to 3 years previous experience
required
Soda
Dispenser
Fi High school preferred, grammar
school required
S: None
0 : 2 months experience required
Stenographer
F: High school required
S: Business training, stenographic
required
0: Half of employers require 1 to 2
years previous experience
0 • Other
'TaTficuW
in obtaining
workers
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Female
No
Male
Yes
Storeman
F: High school preferred
S: None
0: None
No
Switchboard
Operator
F: High school required
S: Business training preferred.
Trained on job
0: Experience preferred
No
r
3$
TABLE XIX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOBCLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYERS
F s Formal
Occupations
Technician
Dental
Telephone
Operator
Teller,
Bank
Timekeeper
Typist
Underwriter
S = Special
Educational requirements
F: High school required
S: Technical training in dentistry
required
0 : 5 to 6 years previous experience
or apprenticeship required
F: High school required
S: None
0 : 1 to 2 years previous experience
considered necessary
F: High school required
S: Business training in Banking
valuable. A. I. B. courses
0: Job usually secured through pro­
motion
0 s Other
Difficulty
In obtaining
workers
No
No
No
F: High school required
S: None
0: Experience preferred
No
F: High school required
S: Business training, typing
proficiency
0: Previous experience preferred
No
F: High school required
S: Business training preferred
(insurance)
0: 5 to 10 years previous experience
in insurance field
No
90
TABLE XX
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
Formal
Occupations
Adjuster,
Claim
Blacksmith
Compositor
Special
Educational requirements
F: High school required, college
graduates preferred
S: Legal training
0: 1 to 3 years experience pre­
ferred. Trained on Job by
company in many cases
F: None
S: None
0; 4 years apprenticeship or equiv­
alent experience
F: No formal requirements, high
school preferred.
S: Blue print reading
0: 4 years apprenticeship or
equivalent experience.
Core Maker
F: Grammar school required
S: None
0 : 4 years apprenticeship or
equivalent experience
Electrician
F: High school graduates preferred
S: Courses in electrical theory
0: 4 years apprenticeship or
equivalent experience
Fireman
F: High school preferred, but not
required
S: Must meet physical qualifications
0: Experience preferred
Forelady
Foreman
Fs High school preferred
S: None
0: 2 to 3 years experience in a
supervisory capacity
F: High school required
S: None
0s 5 years experience in a
supervisory capacity
Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers___
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
91
TABLE XX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
p - Formal
Occupations
Linotype
Operator
a ■ Special
Educational requirements
F: High school required
S : None
0: 6 years apprenticeship. Must
pass course of printing
lessons put out by I.T.U.
0 * Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
No
Machine
Hand
F: High school preferred
S: None
Os 1 year experience
No
Machinist
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
S s None
Os 4 years apprenticeship in
Machine work
Yes
Maintenance
Man
Fs High school required
Ss Engineering training preferred
Os 5 to 10 years experience
No
Fs Higjh school preferred, but not
required
Ss None
Os 2 to 4 years apprenticeship or
experience In auto work
Yes
Mechanic,
Automobile
Ignition
Fs None
Ss Electrical theory
Os 4 years experience required
Yes
Mechanic,
General
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss Mechanical training
Os 4 years apprenticeship or
equivalent
Yes
Metal
Worker,
Auto
Fs Grammar school required
Ss Mechanical training in auto body
and fender work
Os 2 to 3 years of metal work
experience
Yes
Mechanlo,
Automobile
92
TABLE XX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F * Formal
Occupations
S g Special
Educational requirements
0 * Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
FS High school preferred
S: Nine
0 : 3 to 4 years apprenticeship or
experience
Yes
F: High school required
S: 6 months technical training in
monotype operation
Os 2 to 4 years apprenticeship or
experience
No
Moulder
Fs Grammar school required
Ss None
Os 4 years apprenticeship or
equivalent experience
Yes
Painter
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 4 to 5 years apprenticeship
No
Fs None
Ss None
Os 2 to 3 years experience in line
No
Pattern
Maker
Fs High school required
Ss Technical training in Mechanical
engineering
Os 3 to 5 years experience required
No
Plumber
Fs Grammar school required
Ss None
Os 3 to 5 years apprenticeship in
plumbing
No
Pressmen
Fs High school required
SS None
OS 5 years apprenticeship
No
Printer
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss Instruction in printing
Os 4 to 5 years apprenticeship
course
Yes
Millwright
Monotype
Operator
Paper
Hanger
93
TABLE XX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
s Formal
Occupations
Special
Educational requirements
Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Radio
Serviceman
Fs High school preferred
Ss 2 years technical training in
radio servicing
Os 2 to 5 years experience required
Refinisher
Woodwork
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
Os 2 to 5 years experience required
Repairman,
Automobile
Fs High school preferred
Ss Mechanical training, automotive
repair
Os 1 to 3 years experience
Roofer
Fs None
Ss None
Os 3 years experience required
No
Sheet
Metal
Worker
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
Os 4 to 5 years apprenticeship or
experience in sheet metal
Yes
Fs None
Ss None
Os 2 years experience preferred
No
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
Os 3 to 5 years experience as
bushelman
Yes
Shoe
Repairer
Tailor
No
Yes
No
94
TABLE XX (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F
8
Formal
S - Special
Occupations
Tool
Maker
Upholsterer
Educational requirements
F:
St
0 :
High school required
Technical engineering preferred
4 years apprenticeship require­
ment plus experience
F:
High school preferred, grammar
school required
Training in upholstery pre­
ferred
4 to 5 years experience required
Yes
Grammar school required
None
3 years apprenticeship or ex­
perience in woodwork
Yes
S:
Os
Wood
Worker
0 ■ other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Fs
S:
Os
Yes
95
TABLE XXI
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
Occupations
S s Special
Educational requirements
0 = Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Ft High school preferred but not
required
S: None
Os 1 to 3 years experience
No
Barber
Ft High school preferred
S: Completion of barber college
required
0: 1 to 3 years experience. Must
have license
No
Beautician
F: High school preferred
Ss Beauty course
0 : 1 to 3 years experience
No
Beauty
Shop
Operator
Fs High school required
Ss Completion of beauty course
Os Previous experience preferred
No
Book
Binder
Fs None
S s None
Os 6 months to 3 years training
No
Bottler
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 2 to 3 years work with bottling
machines
No
Broom and
Mop Maker
Ft None
Ss None
Os Experience preferred
No
Bundle
Wrapper
Ft High school preferred, but not
required
Ss None
Os 1 month experience required
Bus Driver
Fs High school required
Ss Fair knowledge of mechanics
Os Several months apprenticeship or
training required
Baker
No
No
96
TABLE XXI (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F = Formal
Occupations
Cab Driver
CabinetMaker
Candy
Maker
Misc.
Chauffeurs
Cleaner
(Laundry &
Dry Cleaning
S s Special
Educational requirements
Ft Grammar school required
Ss Driving ability and knowledge or
city
Os None
0 a Other
’D i T T i c u W
in obtaining
workers
No
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss Manual training
Os 4 to 5 years apprenticeship or
equivalent experience
Yes
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
Os 2 to 4 years experience required
Yes
Fs None
Ss None
OS Driving ability required
No
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred*
Ss Training in chemistry helpful
Os 2 years experience
Yes
FS High school preferred
Clothing
Manufacturers Ss None
Misc*
OS 6 months experience to
No
1
year
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 3 to 5 years experience
No
Cutter,
Cloth
FS High school preferred
Ss None
OS 2 to 3 years experience
No
Delivery
Boy
FS Grammar school required
Ss None
Os Knowledge of city
No
Cooks
97
TABLE XXI (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
S a Special
Educational requirements
Occupations
F:
Dept• Store
Worker, Misc. S:
Os
High school required, college
preferred
None
Trained on job by supervisor
0 s Other
difficulty
in obtaining
workers
No
Fitters
(clothes)
F: High school preferred
S: None
Os 1 to 2 years apprenticeship or
experience
Yes
Hostess
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 1 year experience as waitress
No
Laundry
Workers,
Misc.
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
0: 3 to 4 months experience
Door Man»
Theatre
Fs High school required
Ss None
Os Training on the job
No
Driver,
Ambulance
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss Driving ability and knowledge
of city
Os None
No
Dyeman
Fs High school preferred
Ss Chemical training
Os 5 years training
No
Feeder,
Printing
Press
Fs None
Ss None
Os 6 months to 3 years experience
No
Folding
Machine
Operator
Fs None
Ss None
Os Trained on job by supervisor
No
Yes
98
TABLE XXI (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F = Formal
Occupations
S ■ Special
Educational requirements
_________________
0 = other
Eifficul-ky
in obtaining
workers
Folder,
Laundry
F: 8 th grade
S: None
0: Trained on job by supervisor
No
Folder,
Paper
F: Grammar school
S: None
0: Trained on job
No
Eat Cleaner
F: None
S: None
0 : 1 to 5 years experience
No
Hatter
Fs High school preferred
S: None
0 : 1 years experience required
No
Helper,
Dental
Laboratory
Fs High school required
Ss Physics course in high school
Os None
No
Helper,
Furniture &
Household
Fs None
Ss None
Os None
No
Helper,
Machinist
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os None
No
Helper,
Mechanic
Fs None
Ss None
Os Previous experience preferred
No
Helper,
Mechanic
(auto)
Fs High school preferred but not
required
Ss None
Os Previous experience considered
beneficial to promotion
NO
Helper,
Plumber
Fs Grammar school required
Ss None
Os None
No
99
TABLE XXI (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
Formal
Occupations
s » Special
Educational requirements
0 « Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Helper,
Printer
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred.
Ss None
Os None
No
Helper,
Roofer
Fs None
Ss None
Os None
No
Helper,
Sheet Metal
Worker
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 6 to 12 months experienced pre­
ferred
No
Helper,
Shoe
Repairer
Fs None
Ss None
Os None
No
Fs High school preferred
House Keeper Ss Hotel training preferred
& House MotherOs Previous experience
No
Hostess
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 1 year experience as waitress
No
Laundry
Operator
(Machine)
Fs Grammar school required
Ss None
Os 6 months experience
No
Laundry
Workers,
Misc.
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
Os 3 to 4 months experience
Lubricator
(Service
Station)
Fs High school preferred
Ss Instruction in auto servicing
Os 1 year experience preferred
No
Mould
Operator
Fs None
S: None
Os 1 years apprenticeship or
experience
No
Yes
100
TABLE XXI (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
Occupations
S g Special
Educational requirements
Night
Watchman
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
S: None
0 : 1 years experience preferred
Orderly
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os Special instruction by hospital
officials.
Packer
Fs High school preferred, but not
required
Ss None
Os 1 to 2 months training
0 = Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
No
No
No
Power
Machine
Operator
Fs High school preferred, grammar
school required
Ss None
Os 3 to 9 months experience with
power machine
Yes
Manicurist
Fs High school required
Ss Beauty course
Os 1 year experience preferred
No
Seamstress &
Alterer
Fs High school preferred
Ss None
Os 2 to 4 years experience In
needlework
Yes
Shoe Factory
Worker,
Misc.
Fs Grammar school required
S: None
Os Trained on job by supervisor
No
Spotter,
Dry Cleaiing
& Laundry
Fs High school preferred
Ss Technical training required
Os 1 to 5 years experience in
cleaning work
No
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss Ability to operate and maintain
automobile
Os 1 year previous experience con­
sidered beneficial
No
Truck
Driver
101
TABLE XXI (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SEMI-SKILLED WORKERS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F = Formal
Special
Other
'Difficulty
Occupations
Educational requirements
In obtaining
workers
Usher
F: High school preferred
S: None
0: Trained on job
No
Washer ,
Laundry
F: Grammar school required
S: None
0: Previous experience considered
essential
No
Welder
F: High school preferred, but
grammar school acceptable
S: None
Os Previous experience required
2 years
Yes
Worker*
Semi-skilled
Industrial
Fs Grammar school
S: None
0: Previous experience required
Yes
102
TABLE XXII
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SERVANT CLASS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
Educational requirements
Occupations
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Bus boy
Grammar school required
S: None
0; One-third of employers require
experience
Dishwasher
Fs None
Ss None
0: None
No
Elevator
Operator
Fs High school preferred
S: None
Os Trained on job
No
Hotel
Worker,
Mi sc*
Fs None
Ss None
Os None
No
Janitor
Fs Grammar school preferred
Ss None
0: Experience preferred
NO
Maid and
Servant
Fs Grammar school preferred
Ss None
Os Domestic training preferred
Yes
Maid,
Beauty
Shop
Fs None
Ss None
Os None
No
Porter
Fs Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss None
Os 6 months to 1 year training or
experience preferred
Yes
Fs
F:
Restaurant
Workers Misc. S:
Os
Grammar school required, high
school preferred
None
Previous experience preferred
No
Yes
103
TABLE XXII (continued)
MINIMUM FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS
REQUIRED OF APPLICANTS FOR SERVANT CLASS
TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS AND AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYEES
F s Formal
Occupations
Special
Educational requirements
Waiters and
Waitresses
F: Grammar school required, high
school preferred
Ss Training in table serving
Os 3 to 6 months experience re­
quired
Warehouseman
Fs High school preferred but not
required
Ss None
Os Previous experience beneficial
Yard Man
Fs None
S: None
Os None
0 = Other
Difficulty
in obtaining
workers
Yes
No
No
CHAPTER IV
SCHOOL ENROLLMENT INTERRELATION TO
PROBLEMS PERTINENT TO EMPLOYMENT
There has been a decided shift in the age population of
the United States; also a shift in the ratio of rural popula­
tion to urban population.
The trend from rural to city life
is a direct indication of a greater interest in industrial
and business pursuits than in agricultural activities.
Tien,
too, the general opinion that opportunities for employment
and economic security were better in industry has contri­
buted to the shift.
ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
In the past seventy-five years, the number of children
(under sixteen years of age) compared to the number of adults
(over twenty years of age) has changed from four adults to
every five children to four adults to every two children.
According to the Research Division of the National
Education Association:
"Restricted immigration has drastically cur­
tailed replenishment of our population from
foreign countries. A declining birth-rate
has so affected our rate of natural increase
that there are actually not enough children
to replace the older population. With the
blocking of the only two sources of popula­
tion, the nation faces stabilization or de­
cline of its numbers. " 1
Tl
Research Division of1 National Education Association,
"Population Trends and Their Educational Implications",
Research Bulletin of the National Education Association,
Vol. XVI, So. T, January, T958V p. T.-----------------
105
A little more than fifty years ago, 71.4$ of the
nation's population lived in rural areas and 28*6$ in the
cities.
In 1950, these percentages had changed to 56.2$ of
the population living in the cities and only 43.8$ living in
2
rural areas.
The shift in the age population ratio and the shift in
population from the rural areas to cities, plus the normal
population growth, have created many problems which are a
definite challenge to educational policies and practices.
Then, too, the compulsory school attendance legislation has
tended to intensify and multiply the problems.
With the above facts as a background, it might be well
to consider, in general, the growth of the Syracuse school
system and the problems accompanying this growth over a per­
iod of the past twenty years.
The major problems involved
were those of housing and equipping, financing, and cur­
riculum expansion.
With the exception of Blodgett Voca­
tional High School, the housing and equipping problem has
ceased to exist, in so far as curriculum adjustment or ex­
pansion for Syracuse schools is concerned.
Financing and
curriculum expansion, organization, and adjustment will never
cease to be a problem in a modern progressive school system.
Research statistics released by the National Education
Association indicate that during the period 1914 to 1930,
the enrollment in elementary education throughout the United
States has Increased more than twenty-five per cent and the
enrollment in secondary education has Increased as much as 261$.
2«
Ibid., p . 13.
106
Some of the reasons advanced for this spectacular
expansion of secondary education are worthy of much study
and thought by all school people.
The National Education
Association Research Division has this to say:
"For the United States the proportion engaged in
extractive industries declined steadily from over
45$ in 1880 to just under 25$ in 1950. At the
same time, the proportion engaged in the distri­
butive and service trades increased from 34$ to
over 47$. The number employed in the latter oc­
cupational group in 1930 was almost a third
greater than the number of all gainfully employed
persons in 1880. There was less change in the
proportion of persons engaged in manufacturing
and mechanical industries during the same period,
from 20$ in 1880 to 29$ in 1930. Furthermore,
during the decade 1920-1930, the proportion en­
gaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries
actually declined, while the proportion in trade,
professional, and service occupations rose sharply.
These figures reflect the transformation of our
economic system from one organized almost ex­
clusively around the direct exploitation of natural
resources to one in which considerable stress is
placed on mechanical, managerial, professional and
service functions • Employment opportunities seem
to be, to an increasing extent, in the factory,
store, school, hospital and office
ThlB shifting of the occupation pattern of a people
brings about a decline of old habits and institutions and
the rise of new ones.
Such adjustments Inevitably create
problems for general and vocational education.
"The declining employment of young people is re­
flected here (the secondary school). Urbaniza­
tion and the specialization and standardization
of industrial processes have, for the most part,
forced youth to choose among gainful employment
in a routine occupation, continual attendance at
school or idleness•
As recent trends have; been toward .the elimination
of the first of these possibilities, the choice
now lies between schools and ldlesness for many
young people of high school age.— —
"51
Ibid., pp.
2 0 -2 2
.
107
— — In 1870, one In five hundred of the popula­
tion was In high school; by 1930 the secondary
schools were enrolling one In twenty-two of the
population. In 1900 , 3*3 per cent of the public
school enrollment was In secondary schools;
thirty years later that per cent had Increased
to 17,1, and, by 1934, to 21,4 per cent. The
federal office of Education estimates that in
1936 secondary schools enrolled 65 per cent or
nearly two-thirds of all children fourteen to
seventeen years of age.--Further growth in high school enrollment is
expected as the employable age and vocational
training requirements cure raised. By about
1938, recent losses in the elementary enrollment
should begin to affect enrollments at the ninthgrade level, but total high-school enrollments
will not become stationary or begin to decline
for some time.”4
During this same sixteen year period (1914-1930),
the Syracuse school enrollment showed about the same per­
centage increases in both elementary and secondary enroll­
ment as did the United States,
There occurred in Syracuse
elementary enrollment an increase of 33.4$ and in secondary
education, an increase of 284,7$.
From 1930 to 1936, en­
rollment in elementary education, nation-wide, fell off
4.2$ as compared with a loss of 6,5$ in Syracuse,
However,
there was an increase in secondary enrollment of 32.1$ in
Syracuse as compared with 21.4$ increase in the United States.
Syracuse's secondary school enrollment, according to Table
XXIII, shows an Increase of 57,8$ in 1939 over 1929.
In 1914, the Syracuse school system consisted of
thirty-six elementary and three secondary schools, with a
total enrollment of 20,107,
Today, there are fifty-two
public schools, of which six are junior high schools, six
senior high schools, one apprentice training, one continuation
Tl
Ibid., p. 35
108
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109
school, two open air, and one normal school.
There Is a
total enrollment of 32,700 pupils and 1,365 teachers.
SCHOOL ENROLLMENT DATA
Enrollment In secondary education, grades 9 to 12
Inclusive, as shown from extractions of data obtained from
the superintendent of schools office, reveals some signifi­
cant facts.
The January and June graduating classes for the three
years 1937-1938-1939, were chosen for the study.
Data con­
cerning these three classes were followed through for the
four years in which they would normally be enrolled.
The tabulations for each class will be listed separ­
ately, and a discussion of the data and general summary will
appear at the end of the chapter.
JANUARY 1937 GRADUATING CLASS
Grade
9p
9p
10g
llg
12
No.
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
actually graduated
Year
Jan.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Jan.
1933
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
No.
1,650
1,340
1,001
890
658
421
Loss
No.
Per Cent
from 9^ - 9^
from 9z - 10f
from 10^ - Ilf
from 11 - 12^
310
339
23.1#
33.8#
12.4#
35.3#
Number of 9^ registrants
Number of actual graduates
111
232
Jan. 1933
Jan. 1937
Loss
# Loss
1,650
421
1,229
74.4#
110
JUNE 1937 GRADUATING CLASS
Grade
9p
9^
10p
lip
12®
No*
Year
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
actually graduated
Loss
Gain
Loss
Loss
Loss
from
from
from
from
9p 9®010p11 -
92
10p
lip
12
Number of 91 registrants
Number of actual graduates
Sept,
Feb,
Feb.
Feb,
Feb.
JunS
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1937
No.
1,295
1,588
1,226
1,050
1,061
1,016
No.
Per Cent
293
362
176
11
22.6#
29.5#
14.7#
1.9#
Sept. 1933
June 1937
1,295
1,016
Loss
# Loss
279
21.6#
JANUARY 1938 GRADUATING CLASS
Grade
9p
9p
10p
lip
12®
No,
Year
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
actually graduated
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
from 9p from 9p from 10p from 11® -
92
10p
lip
12^
Number of 91 registrants
Number of actual graduates
Jan.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Jan.
1934
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
No.
1,531
1,217
1,085
904
696
539
No.
Per Cent
314
132
181
208
25.8#
12.1#
20.0#
29.8#
Jan. 1934
Jan. 1938
Loss
# Loss
1,531
539
992
64*5$
Ill
JUNE 1938 GRADUATING CLASS
Grade
9p
9^
lo£
11~
12
No.
Year
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
actually graduated
Loss
Gain
Loss
Loss
Gain
from
from
from
from
9^ 9^_10^11 -
92
10^
11^
12
Number of 9^ registrants
Number of actual graduates
Sept.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
June
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1938
No.
1*446
1,497
1,286
1,059
1,154
1,091
No.
Per Cent
51
211
227
95
3.5#
14 .1#
17.6#
9.0#
Sept. 1934
June 1958
Loss
# LOSS
1,446
1,091
355
24.6#
JANUARY 1939 GRADUATING CLASS
Grade
9^ registrants
9^ registrants
10p registrants
lip registrants
12*5 registrants
No. actually graduated
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
from
from
from
from
9| 9 010^11 -
92
10~
ll£
12
Number of 91 registrants
Number of actual graduates
Year
Jan.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Jan.
No.
1935
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1,491
1,190
1,111
886
791
599
No.
Per Cent
301
79
225
95
25.2#
6.7#
25.5#
12.2#
Jan. 1935
Jan. 1939
Loss
# Loss
1,491
599
892
59.8#
112
JUNE 1939 GRADUATING CLASS
Year
Grade
91
92
102
ll2
122
No*
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Sept.
Feb.
Feb .
Feb.
Feb.
June
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
registrants
actually graduated
No.
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1939
1,670
1,628
1,389
1,189
1,257
1,228
Loss
No.
Per cent
from 91 - 92
from 92 - 102
from 102 - ll2
from ll2 - 122
42
239
200
68
2.5$
14.7$
14.4$
5.8$
Sept. 1935
June 1939
Number of 9^ registrants
Number of actual graduates
Loss
$ Loss
1,670
1,228
442
24.6$
SUMMARY
AVERAGE MORTALITY FOR EACH GRADE SECTION SHOWN
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
from
from
from
from
9^- 92
92- 10~
102- ll2
ll2- 122
11.2$
18.5$
17.4$
13.5$
MORTALITY OF EACH CLASS STUDIED
(Grades 91 - 122 inclusive)
Jan.
June
Jan.
June
Jan.
June
1937
1937
1938
1938
1939
1939
Graduating
Graduating
Graduating
Graduating
Graduating
Graduating
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Class
Average loss for all classes
74.4$
21.6$
64.5$
24.6$
59.8$
24.6$
44.9$
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
Loss
113
The greatest loss for any one year Is 18*5$.
occurs at the end of the tenth year.
This
Some of the high
school principals have advanced the reasons for this:
1.
Many of the boys and girls have reached the
age where they are no longer required by law to attend
school.
2.
Many of these students leave school to look for
3.
A larger percentage leave school "because they
work.
do not like school."
Practically half of the students (44.9$) who enter
the ninth grade, earn a high school diploma.
It would seem
that a well-planned program of vocational education could
reduce this mortality by making school life so attractive
that the students would not want to leave.
At the same
time, the students would be receiving training which, when
they finally graduate, would better fit them to obtain em­
ployment and help them make progress in their chosen occupa­
tions.
It might seem that undue stress is being placed upon
the final acquisition of a high school diploma.
Many con­
ferences with personnel directors and employment managers
have brought out this fact.
When young people are being
interviewed relative to getting a job and they have to admit
that they have had some high school work but have never com­
pleted the course and graduated, two reasons, both of them
bad, come into the mind of the employment manager.
Either
114
the person has been "too dumb" or else "too lazy"*
Other­
wise, he would have stayed In school and finished his
course.
Whether these conclusions are right or wrong
usually makes very little difference because the person
seeking employment never gets the chance to explain why he
did not finish high school*
He is advised that no employ­
ment openings exict at that time*
An analysis of the statistics in the Summary, page
112, shows that the January graduating classes have the high­
est percentage of mortality*
This picture is not quite ac­
curate because some of this percentage loss is due to stu­
dents being advised to take certain regents examinations,
after having studied the subject on short time or without
having formally studied the subject in school*
If these
people are unsuccessful in passing the examinations, they
usually register for the course the following term.
A study
of the data here presented shows two instances where June
graduating classes actually show gains in enrollment instead
of the expected loss*
Taking the average of both January
and June graduating class mortalities we get an accurate
picture of the condition as it exists.
Chart 7 shows the enrollment in grades 9-12 inclu­
sive, from September 1935 to September 1939*
The enroll­
ment figures here shown are those taken after the first
month of school*
Figures giving the attendance at the end
of the first day were available but it was felt that by the
end of the first month the school population had become
115
CHART 7
FLUCTUATIONS IN TOTAL
ENROLLMENT
GRADES 9-12 IN CL SEPT 19?5-'39
9.8005
9.7003
9,600=
9.623
9.500=
9400=
9,300=
9.224
9.180
9,100]
9,000=
=SEFT.1935=SEPT.1936=SEPn93?=SEPT.1938=SEPT.1939=
{SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY 1 9 3 9 -'4 0 :
116
stabilized, so that these statistics would be more reliable.
That the high school population In Syracuse Is still
slowly increasing.
The February 1940 high school enrollment
Is 1,5% larger than the September 1959 enrollment.
The con-
elusion to be drawn is that, to date, the decrease In elemen­
tary school enrollment has not made itself felt in our high
schools•
ANALYSIS OF ISSUANCE OF WORK CERTIFICATES
An analysis was made of the Issuance of work certifi­
cates to determine what has actually become of the boys and
girls who have dropped out of school during the period of
secondary education.
In presenting the statistics on work certificate
withdrawals, the group classification set by the New York
State Education Department for monthly reports of local de­
partments of child accounting was used with this one excep­
tion.
The three state classifications of Outside Delivery
for Stores, Telegraph Messengers and other Outside Delivery
were combined and presented in this report under the heading
Messenger and Delivery Work.
The total number of legitimately authorized certifi­
cates issued to girls leaving school for a five year period
from July 1934 to June 1939 was 1,065, as shown in Table
XXIV.
The total number of certificates issued to boys dur­
ing the same five year period was 1,398, outlined in Table
XXV.
Table XXVI shows the largest number of certificates
117
TABLE XXIV
NUMBER OP CERTIFICATES ISSUED TO
GIRLS WITHDRAWING EROM SCHOOLS ANNUALLY BY MONTHS
FROM JULY 1934 TO AND INCLUDING JUNE 1939
Month
1334
1935
School Year
1935 1936 1937
1936 1937 1938
1938
1939
Total
July, 1934
June, 1939
July
0
3
5
11
12
31
August
1
2
5
10
11
29
September
23
45
25
41
27
161
October
41
44
30
46
18
179
November
15
19
20
26
20
100
December
14
11
30
13
14
82
January
11
22
19
10
16
78
February
20
22
12
21
9
84
March
13
17
16
19
17
82
April
9
18
29
23
12
91
14
18
20
17
13
82
June
__9
__9
25
__9
14
66
Totals
170
230
236
246
183
1,065
May
118
TABLE XXV
NUMBER OP CERTIFICATES ISSUED TO
BOYS WITHDRAWING FROM SCHOOL ANNUALLY BY MONTHS
FROM JULY 1934 TO AND INCLUDING JUNE 1939
Month
1934
1935
School Year
1935 1936 1937
1936 1937 1938
1938
1939
Total
July, 1934
June, 1939
July
2
5
29
37
32
105
August
8
4
17
20
105
154
September
16
29
37
47
51
180
October
12
30
41
42
27
152
November
11
14
30
30
13
98
December
8
16
33
18
21
96
13
13
26
18
11
81
February
5
12
15
13
7
52
March
8
24
16
26
20
94
April
14
19
34
10
26
103
May
14
34
37
33
33
151
June
10
24
35
15
53
132
121
224
350
309
389
1,398
January
Total
119
TABLE XXVI
NUMBER OP CERTIFICATES ISSUED TO
BOYS AND GIRLS WITHDRAWING FROM SCHOOL ANNUALLY BY MONTHS
FROM JULY 1934 TO AND INCLUDING JUNE 1939
Month
1934
1935
Sohool Year
1935 1936 1937
1936 1937 1938
1938
1939
Total
July, 1934
June, 1939
July-
2
8
34
48
44
136
August
9
6
22
30
116
183
September
39
74
62
88
78
341
October
53
74
71
88
45
331
November
26
33
50
56
33
198
December
22
27
63
31
35
178
January
24
35
45
28
27
159
February
25
34
27
34
16
136
March
21
41
32
45
37
176
April
23
37
63
33
38
194
May
28
52
57
50
46
233
June
19
53
60
24
57
198
291
454
586
555
572
2,463
Totals
120
Issued during the sohool year 1936-37, or 586*
The greatest
number In any one month of this period was seventy-one for
October, 1936*
However, the popular month over the five
year period was September, when 341 of the total 2,436 work
certificates were Issued*
Table XXIX
shows the scholastic accomplishment of
1.696 certificates Issued*
Of these, the greatest number,
625, were Issued during the calendar year of 1937*
Of this
625 total, 174 or 27*8$ dropped out after completing the
eighth grade*
Another 155 or 24.8$ received work certifi­
cates after completing the ninth grade requirements.
The larg­
est total over the three year period shows 427 or 25$ of the
1.696 having left school at the completion of the ninth grade
requirements •
Table XXXII shows the occupational distribution of the
1.696 certificates issued for employment purposes.
Of the
total issued for the three year period, the greatest number,
314, were permitted to work In mercantile occupations.
The
next largest number, 254, were permitted to remain at home
as domestics*
A further breakdown of these data reveals that of
the total of 1,696 certificates Issued, 1,022 went to boys
and the remaining 674 were issued to girls.
Table XXX
shows that of the total of 674 Issued to girls, the greatest
number 243 or 36*1$ were permitted to work In their own homes
as domestics*
The next largest number of girls, 135, or
20.1$ were permitted to work In mercantile occupations.
121
TABLE XXVII
DISTRIBUTION BY SCHOLASTIC ACCOMPLISHMENT
(LAST GRADE COMPLETED) GIRLS 16 AND 17 YEARS OP AGE
FIRST REGULAR CERTIFICATE ONLY
Grade
Completed
Special
Sixth and less
Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
Tenth
Eleventh
Twelfth
Totals
Total
Jan. 1937 Per cent
1936'.
T939~
~ T S S 7 --Jan.-Dee* Jan.-Dec. Jan.-Dee. Dec. 1939 of total
3
17
21
71
72
41
19
24
2
15
27
41
55
31
18
10
3
16
25
39
54
34
16
20
8
48
73
151
181
106
53
54
1.1
7.2
10.8
22.4
26.9
15.7
7.9
8.0
268
199
207
674
100.0
TABLE XXVIII
DISTRIBUTION BY SCHOLASTIC ACCOMPLISHMENT
(LAST GRADE COMPLETED) BOYS 16 AND 17 YEARS OF AGE
FIRST REGULAR CERTIFICATE ONLY
Grade
Completed
Total
Jan. 1937 Per cent
— ■■1939
1937
’ 1936
Jan.-Dec. Jan.—Doc . Jan.-Dec. Dec. 1939 of total
Special
Sixth and less
Seventh
Eighth
Ninth
Tenth
Eleventh
Twelfth
7
31
41
103
83
55
27
10
10
24
35
67
93
85
36
16
6
15
25
58
70
69
41
15
23
70
101
228
246
209
104
41
2.3
6.9
9.9
22.3
24.0
20.5
10.1
4.0
Totals
357
366
299
1,022
100.0
122
TABLE XXIX
DISTRIBUTION BY SCHOLASTIC ACCOMPLISHMENT
(LAST GRADE COMPLETED) BOYS AND GIRLS 16 AND 17 YEARS OF AGE
FIRST REGULAR CERTIFICATE ONLY
Grade
Completed
Total
Jan. 1937 Per cent
1039
1938
"“ 1537
Jan.-Dec. Jan.-Dec. Jan.-Dec. Dec« 1939 of total
Special
10
12
9
31
1.8
Sixth and less
48
39
31
118
6.9
Seventh
62
62
50
174
10.5
Eighth
174
108
97
379
22.3
Ninth
155
148
124
427
25.0
Tenth
96
116
103
315
18.6
Eleventh
46
54
57
157
9.3
Twelfth
54
26
35
95
5.6
625
565
506
1,696
100*0
Totals
123
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•SiS c
to o £
O
2
1
to *
O
® t>> O
&
tt)to «H
to « to 4*
to
o
to >
to<H to
•H
<1-1 torl a
Vi to to O
o
an «
•k
to
to
a
0
a
43
u
to
a>
A
43
0
1
0
«H
43
to
to
a
0
0
UN
CVJ
VO
■d"
UN
to
a
3
<0
to
0
*4
to
rl
43
a
to
a a
<d
0
to
&
t
o
43
•»«rl
to to
H >3
to to
43 3
0 to
a»4
0
to
to
id
•to
to
0
rl
u
to
0
43
0
.to
«n
to
rH
43
0
tr*
126
Table XXXI shows that of the total of 1,022 certificates Issued to boys, the greatest number, 217 or 21.2$
were permitted to work at Messenger and Delivery Work while
the next largest group, 210 or 20*3$, were permitted to
work as Caddies*
Graphical. Interpretations of Table XXIX and XXXII are
shown In Charts 8 and 9.
They show the fluctuations in
numbers by years, educational accomplishment, and occupation­
al distribution.
Work certificates data showing Distribution By Occupa­
tions or Industry Entered and Distribution By Scholastic
Accomplishment are presented for only a three year period.
Prior to 1937, the State Attendance Department did not re­
quire data in this form, hence none was suitable for inclusion
in this report.
This is not too serious since it is the
opinion of the attendance personnel that the percentage loss
is fairly constant and there has been no noticeable change
in demands either prior to or subsequent to 1937.
127
CHART 8
FLUCTUATION IN OCCUPATIONAL
DISTRIBUTION BY YEARS OF 1696
s — WORK CERTIFICATES— —
AGRICULTUREC
i
HOTELS AND .
RESTAURANTS
i
HF6. ft MECH.
MESSENGER AND
DELIVERY -------MERCANTILEDOMESTIC
„
(OWN HOMES)'
CADDIES
//////i
DOMESTICOFFICE WORK-
LEGENDS
1 1937
UZZZ22 1936
1939
OTHER S.
(MISC.)
Q
1939:
25
50
75
100 125 150
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL fillAVgV=
lftd .0
128
CHART 9
S -F L U C T U A T IO N BY YEARS I N - 3
NUMBERS OF CERTIFICATES
ISSUED AND GRADE COMPLETED
SPECIAL
SIXTH
SEVENTH
EIGHTH
NINTH
I
TENTH
I
1
E L E V E N T H /////////////
I
0
25
LE G E N D S.
[= 1 1 9 3 7
////////11936
1939
3
Y/////A
m
TWELFTH
i
50
r s i o o i g i s o i z *
CHAPTER V
THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND VOCATIONS
Table XXXIII gives a list of forty-five occupations
for which trained people are required and practically no
labor reservoir exists.
This table also gives the state­
ments of twelve school administrators concerning their
school*s curriculums, primarily for meeting student needs
for entrance into vocations.
It will be noted that two-thirds of the schools offer
general courses in salesmanship but only one-third offer
specific training In service salesmanship and only one-sixth
in insurance selling.
Specific sales training in specialized
fields is highly desirable.
It was found that specialized training for law stenog­
raphers and insurance stenographers is also highly desirable
as employment opportunities are open to people having this
specialized training.
In spite of the fact that all but two
of the schools offer stenographic training, none of them offers
any training in the specialized fields.
Training courses for the specialized fields in both
the sales and office type jobs could be set up In the high
schools without disturbing their present programs.
130
TABLE XXXIII
STATEMENTS OP TWELVE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS CONCERNING
THEIR SCHOOLS* CURRICULUMS PRIMARILY FOR MEETING
STUDENT NEEDS FOR ENTRANCE INTO VOCATIONS
Vocations
Nurse
Radio station worker
Business machine operator
Clerks
Clerks, sales
Clerks, miscellaneous
Salesmen
Salesmen, manufacturing
Salesmen, service
Salesmen, retail
Salesmen, insurance
Secretary, private
Soda dispenser
Stenographer-male
Oarpen ter
Compositor
Electrician
Machinist
Mechanic, automobile
Mechanic , general
Millwright
Printer
Refinisher, woodwork
Sheet metal worker
Tailor
Tool maker
Upholsterer
Wood worker
Cabine t-maker
Candy maker, miscellaneous
Cleaner, miscellaneous
Cleaner (laundry and dry cleaning)
Fitters (clothes)
Laundry workers, miscellaneous
Power machine operator
Seamstress and alterer
Welder
Worker, semi-skilled industrial
Main and servant
Porter
Restaurant workers, miscellaneous
Waiters and waitresses
Draftsman
Mechanic, automobile ignition
Molder, hand
No# of
"Yes"
6
1
3
9
8
7
8
0
4
7
2
9
0
10
5
3
5
4
4
1
1
5
8
2
1
3
1
7
4
0
0
0
3
1
1
7
2
3
6
0
3
5
7
4
2
Per cent
of total
50.0
8.3
25.0
75.0
66.6
58.3
66.6
0.0
33.3
58.3
16.6
75.0
0.0
83.3
41.6
25.0
41.6
33.3
33.3
8.3
8.3
41.6
66.6
16.6
8.3
25.0
8.3
58.3
33.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
25.0
8.3
8.3
58.3
16.6
25.0
50.0
0.0
25.0
41.6
58.3
33.3
16.6
131
Looking at the picture as a whole, It Is noted that
training is being offered for less than one^third (31.8$)
of the forty-five vocations listed as offering the most
fertile fields for occupations in Syracuse at the present
time.
The twelve schools visited to secure data for this
section of the survey were Apprentice Training School, Blod­
gett Vocational High School, Central High School, Eastwood
High School, North High School, Nottingham High School,
Valley High School, Evening High School, Continuation School,
Central City Business Institute, Powelson Institute and
the National Youth Administration.
SOURCES OP EMPLOYMENT OP THE VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS
This division is placed in the report for the use of
those who are interested in knowing where various types of
occupations are found in Syracuse.
The same organization of
occupations as used in Chapter III is utilized.
This list of the sources of employment is by no means
exhaustive.
The employing establishments were obtained
from the files of the survey.
Such a list of employment
sources should prove extremely valuable from a guidance
standpoint.
Valuable as they may be to both employers and school
men, the detailed data on employment classifications or
catagorles are of major value only in terms of the sources
of employment• This study, therefore, includes the actual
132
study of the subsequent listing of the allocation of each
specific type of employment to employer source.
By way of
illustration, it is of importance to know what type of
business, Industry or profession uses a "sheet metal
worker".
The following listing of sources of occupations
shows sheet metal workers are used in Machinery Manufactur­
ing, Miscellaneous Supplies, Motor Vehicle Dealers, Railroads,
Sign Shop, Tinsmith Shops.
Another example, the listing shows
an "Upholsterer" is used in Bed and Bed Accessories, Manu­
facturing, Cabinet Making Shops, Department Stores, Motor
Vehicle Dealers, Upholstery and Furniture Repair Shops.
A thoroughgoing vocational education program would
include then the consistent practice of a teacher of say,
sheet metal or of upholstery of conferring with and probably
actually observing the wok under the employer of sheet metal
or upholstery workers in each of the agencies involved.
133
PROFESSIONAL PERSONS:
Artist
Advertising Company
Amusements
Department Stores
Engraving Shops
Newspapers
Sign Shops
Chemist
Bottling Companies
Chemist
Disinfectant & Antiseptic
Manufacturi ng
Governmental Agencies
Patent Medicine
Manufaeturing
Chiropodist
Barber Shops
Shoe Stores
Colorist (Photo Studio)
Photographic Studios
Developer, Photo
Photographic Studios
Designer, Furniture Mfg.
Cabinet Making Shops
Dietician
Hospitals
Restaurants and Cafes
Draftsman
Architects
Building Contractors
Cabinet Making Shops
Department Stores
Electrical Equipment
Governmental Agencies
Machinery Manufacturing
Engineer, General
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus
Collection Agencies
Amusements
Bakeries & Caterers
Building Contractors
Concrete, Brick & Paving, Con­
struction Materials
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Electrical Equipment
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Fuel & Ice Dealers
General & Fire Insurance
Governmental Agencie s
Hospital s
Hotels
Laundries
Lumber Mills
Machinery, Equipment &
Supplies
Meat Packers
Miscellaneous Supplies
Plumbers
Radio Broadcasting
Refrigeration, Healing 3k Cooling
Appliance Mfg.
Restaurants & Cafes
Telephone & Telegraph
Trucking
Engineer, Chief
Bakeries & Caterers
Governmental Agehcle s
Manufacturing
Welding Shops
Engineer, Hospital
Hospitals
Engineer, Mechanical & Power
Bakeries & Caterers
Building Contractors
Governmental Agencies
134
Engineer, Assistant Student
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Governmental Agencies
Laundries
Lumber Mills
Restaurants & Cafes
Welding Shops
Spotter, Photo studio
Photographic Studios
Statistician
General & Fire Insurance
Hardware Stores
Banks
Medical Director
Teacher
Hospitals
Life Insurance
Musician
Amusements
Hotels
Restaurants
Duplicating, Addressing, Mailing
& Mailing List Service
Governmental Agencies
Music & Dancing Studios
Technician, Laboratory
Hospitals
Newspaper Worker, Miscellaneous
Advertising Companies
Newspapers
Printing & Publishing
Shops
Nurse
Department Stores
Governmental Agencies
Hospitals
Manufac turlng
Photographer
Blue Printing Companies
Department Stores
Engraving Shops
Newspapers
Photographic Studios
Printer, Photo Studio
Photographic Studio
Retoucher, Photo Studio
Photographic Studios
Sketcher
Sign Shops
Technician, Medical, Miscellaneous
Governmental Agencies
Hospitals
135
PROPRIETORS, MANAGERS, AND OFFICIALS:
Butcher
Grocery Stores
Meat Packers
Restaurants & Cafes
Conductor, R. R»
Funeral Director
Funeral Directors, Embalmers
Manager
Accessories, Other Apparel
Stores
R. R. Companies
Accessories, Tire & Battery
Dealers
Credit Manager
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus,
Collection Agencies
Accessories, Tire &
Advertising Companies
Battery Dealers
Amusements
Banks
Automobile Radiator Shops
Bed & Bed Accessories
Automobile Storage Garages
Manufac turing
Banks
Department Stores
Bicycle Shops
Dry Goods
Bottling Companies
Electrical Supplies
Building Contractors
Farm Implements Dealers
Cabinet Making Shops
Farm Supplies
Chemical Products Mfg.
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Cleaning, I>yeing & Pressing
Hardware Stores
Concrete, Brick & Paving,
Household Implements Mfg.
Construction Material Mfg.
Jewelry Stores
Confectioners
Lumber Mills
Confections Manufacturing
Men's Furnishings Stores
Custom Tailors
Newspapers
Dairy Products Stores & Milk
Patent Medicine Mfg.
Dealers
Radio Dealers
Department Stores
Tobacco Products
Disinfectant & Antiseptic Bfg«
Dress Manufacturing
Druggist
Dry Goods & General Merchandise
Stores
Department Stores
Drugs
Drugs
Drug Stores
Drug Stores
Electrical Goods
Hospitals
Electrical Supply Stores
Lunch Counters & Refreshment Fertilizer Manufacturing
Stands
Filling Stations
Patent Medicine Manufacturing Finance Corporations
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Embalmer
Funeral Directors, Embalmers
Furniture Manufac turing
Funeral Director, Embalmers
Furniture Stores
Furriers & Ehr Shops
Executives & Assistant. R.R.
General & Fire Insurance
General Repair Garages
R. R. Companies
136
Manager (continued)
Governmental Agencies
Groceries
Grocery Stores
Hay,Grain, & Peed Stores
Hotels
Household Appliance & Radio
Jewelry Stores
Laundries
Leather Belting Mfg.
Life Insurance
Lumber Mills
Lumber & Building-Mat erials Dealers
Lunch Counters & Re­
freshment Stands
Machinery, Equipment &
Supplies
Meat Packers
Men's Furnishings Stores
Miscellaneous Clothing Mfg.
Miscellaneous Furnishings
Accessories Mfg.
Paint, Glass, & Wall Paper
Stores
Patent Medicine Mfg.
Petroleum & Products
Photographic Studios
Printing & Publishing Shops
Publishing House Agencies
Radio Broadcasting
Radio Repair Shops
Real Estate
Refined Oil Products
Restaurants & Cafes
Sign Shops
Shoe Stores
Stove Manufacturing
Telephone & Telegraph
Tinsmith shops
Trucking
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stores
Welding Shops
Women's Ready-To-Wear Shops
. Woodeni Products Manufactur­
ing
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Optician & Optometrist
Department Stores
Jewelry Stores
Optical Goods
Opticians
Prescrlptlonist
Drug Stores
Drugs
Radio Station Worker, Miscellaneous
Airport
Radio Broadcasting
Roadmaster, R. R.
R. R. Companies
Salesman, Broker
Groceries
Jewelry Stores
Stocks & Bonds, Investments
Superintendent
Architects
Bicycle Shops
Bottling Companies
Building Contractors
Cabinet Making Shops
Concrete, Brick, Paving, &
Construction Material
Confection Manufacturing
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Department Stores
Drugs
Electrical Supply Stores
Farm Supplies
Fertilizer Manufacturing
General & Life Insurance
Governmental Agencies
Grocery Stores
Hospitals
Laundries
Life Insurance Agencies
Lumber Mills
Machinery, Equipment & Supplies
Mattress Renovating & Repaid
Shops
Meat Packers
Men's Furnishings Stores
Miscellaneous Furnishing
Accessories Mfg.
Miscellaneous Supplies
Paint, Glass & Wall Paper
Stores
137
Superintendent (continued)
Paint Manufacturing
Paper Box Manufacturing
Photographic Studios
Printing & Publishing Shops
Radio Dealers
Railroad Car Repair
Real Estate
Refined Oil Products
Shoe Manufacturing
Sign Shops
Telephone
Tinsmith Shops
Trucking
Train, Dispatcher, R. R.
R. R. Companies
Yardmaster, R. R.
R. R. Companies
138
CLERKS AND KINDRED WORKERS:
Accountant
Attendent, Service Station
Accountants (Professional
Accessories, Tire & Battery
Service)
Dealers
Amusements (Theaters)
Auto Top & Body Repair Shops
Banks
Filling Stations
Candy & Confectionery
Petroleum & Products
Stores
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Auditor
Finance Corporations
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Confections Manufacturing
Governmental Agencies
Department Stores
Insurance Agencies
Disinfectant & Antiseptic
Meat Packers
Manufacturing
Men's Furnishings Stores
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Furniture
Governmental Agencies
Accessories Mfg.
Insurance
Miscellaneous Paper Manufac­ Jewelry Stores
turing
Manufac turing
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Men's Furnishings Stores
Paper Box Manufacturing
Petroleum & Products
Petroleum & Products
Printing & Publishing Shops
Shoe Manufacturers
Real Estate
Tinsmith Shops
Sign Shops
Stock & Bonds, & Investments
Adjuster, Merchandise
Bookers
Department Stores
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stores Theaters
Advertising Man
Amusements
Bottling Companies
Department Stores
Dry Goods & General Mdse.
Stores
Egg & Poultry Dealers
Men’s Furnishings Stores
Stock & Bonds, & Investment
Women's Ready-To-Wear Stores
Agent, Insurance
General & Fire Insurance
Agencies
Life Insurance
Agents, Transportation
Airlines
Bus Lines
Trucking
Bookkeeper
Accessories, Other Apparel
Accessories, Tire & Battery
Dealers
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus
Advertising Companies
Amusements
Automobile Storage Garage
Automotive
Banks
Barber & Beauty Shops
Battery & Ignition Repaid
Beds & Bed Accessories
Bicycle Shops
Book Stores
Bottling Companies
Building Contractors
Cabinet Making Shops
Chemical Products Mfg.
Cleaning, Dyeing & Pressing
Clothing & Furnishings
Confectioners
139
Bookkeeper (continued)
Confections Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Supplies
Concrete, Brick, Building Mater­
ial Manufac tu ri ng
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Custom Tailors
Newspapers
Dairy Products Stores & Milk Opticians
Dealers
Paint Manufacturing
Depar traent Stor e s
Paint, Wall Paper, Glass Stores
Disinfeptant & Antiseptic Mfg.Patent Medicine Mfg.
Drugs
Petroleum & Products
Dry Goods
Photographic Studios
Electrical Supplies Stores
Plumbers
Farm Implements Dealers
Printing & Publishing Shops
Farm Supplies
Publishing House Agencies
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Radio Broadcasting
Filling Stations
Radio Dealers
Finance Corporations
Radio Repair
Florists
Real Estate
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Restaurants & Cafes
Funeral Directors, Embalmers, Shoe Manufacturing
& Crematories
Shoe Stores
Furniture Stores
Sign Shops
General Repair Garage
Stationery Supplies Mfg.
Governmental Agencies
Stock, Bonds & Investments
Groceries
Stove Manufacturing
Grocery Stores
Tinsmith Shops
Tire Repair Shops
Hardware Stores
Hat Manufacturing
Tobacco Pro diets
Hay, Grain, & Feed Stores
Trucking
Hospitals
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stores
Woolen Mills
Hotels
Household Appliance & Radio
Stores
Business Machine Operator
Household Implements Manu­
facturing
Amusements
Insurance Agencies
Blue Printing Companle s
Book Stores
Jewelry Stores
Laundries
Department Stores
Locksmith & Gunsmith
Disinfectant & Antiseptic
Lumber & Building Material
Manufacturlng
Dealers
Drugs & Sundries
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Lumber Mills
Machinery Equipment & SuppliesFood Mfg., Miscellaneous
General & Fire Insurance
Manufacturing
Maps
Governmental Agencies
Mattress Renovating & Repair Household Implement Mfg.
Jewelry Shops
Shop
Petroleum & Products
Meat Packers
Men's Furnishings Stores
Printing & Publishing Shops
Miscellaneous Clothing Mfg.
Tool Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Furniture
Accessories Mfg.
Candler (egg)
Warehouses
Dairy Products
Wholesalers
Cashier
Amusement Establishments
Bank
Loan & Finance Companies
Service Establishments
Retail Stares
Cashier & Wrapper
Department Stores
Checkers, Photo Studio
Photographic Studios
Hotels
Clerk, File
Advertising companies
Amusements
Banks
Dry Goods & General Merchandise
Stores
Finance Corporations
Furniture Stores
General & Fire Insurance
General Transportation
Hospitals
Household Implements Mfg.
Miscellaneous Clothing Mfg.
Shoe Manufacturing
Stocks & Bonds, Investmerfcs
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stores
Clerk, Interest Accounting
Governmental Agencies
Clerk, Junior
Claim Adjuster
Governmental Agencies
General & Fire Insurance
Insurance Agencies
Life Insurance
Clerk, Office
Employed by all business concerns
Cleric Billing
Clerk, Order
Amusements
Dental Laboratory
Dress Manufacturing
Drugs
Dry Goods
Groceries
Lumber Mills
Machinery Equipment &
Supplies
Miscellaneous Mfg.
Optical Goods Mfg.
Radio Dealers
Tinswmith Shops
Clerk»Chief
Bicycle Shops
Dry Goods
Governmental Agencies
Railroad
Dress Manufacturing
Dry Goods
Lumber Mills
Printing & Publishing Shops
Stove Manufacturing
Tool Manufacturf. ng
Venetian Blinds Manufacturing
Clerk, Receiving
Automotive
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Department Stores
Drugs
Furriers & Fur Shops
Groceries
Life Insurance
Men’s Furnishings Steve
Variety, 5-10-1,00 Stores
141
Clerk, Sales
Retail Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Clerk, Senior
Governmental Agencies
Drugs
Electrical Supply Stores
Grocery Stores
Meat Packers
Patent Medicine Manufacturing
Petroleum & Products
Variety
Clerk, Shipping
Retail Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Manufacturing Concerns
Correspondent, Sales
Farm Supplies
Insurance Agencies
Publishing House Agencies
Clerk, Rate
Credit Investigator
Fertilizer Mills
Trucking
Clerk, Stock
Retail Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Manufacturing Concerns
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus,
Collection Agencie s
Department Stores
Filling Stations
Finance Corporations
Furniture Stores
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Radio Appliance & Radio Stores
Collector
Decorator, Window
Amusements
Banks
Sign Shops
Credit Exchange
Dairy Products Stores &
Demonstrator
Milk Dealers
Department Stores
Food Manufacturing Miscellaneous
Dry Goods & General Merchan­ Paint, Glass & Wall Paper Stores
dise Stores
Toilet Articles Manufacturing
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Furniture Stores
Designer, Floral
Hardware Stores
Jewelry Stores
Floris t
Life Insurance Agencies
Lumber & Building Material Display Man
Dealers
Men*s Furnishings Stores
Department Stores
Motor Vehicle Dealers
M e n ^ Furnishings Stores
Newspapers
Printing & Publishing Shops Drapery Mian
Real Estate
Tire Repair Shops
Furniture Stores
Comptometer Operator
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Estimator
Building Contractors
Lumber Mills
Paint, Glass & Wall Paper Stores
Plumbers
Examiner
Insurance Agencies
Inspector
Amusements
Banks
Bottling Companies
Clothing & Furnishings
Cotton Mills
Department Stores
Dress Manufacturing
General & Fire Insurance
Governmental Agencies
Laundries
Life Insurance
Manufacturing
Paper Box Manufacturing
Railroad Car Repair
Multigraph Operator
Advertising Companies
Duplicating, Addressing
Mailing & Mailing List Service
Grocery Stores
Miscellaneous Furnishings
Accessories Manufacturing
Newspapers
Patent Medicine
Manufacturf, ng
Stocks & Bonds, Investments
Office Boy
Usually employed by all bus­
iness establishments
Printer Apprentice
Photographic Studios
Investigator
Proof Reader
General & IFire Insurance
Manager, Collection
Department Stores
Newspapers
Printing & Publishing Shops
Accessories, Tire & Battery
Dealers
Purchasing Agent
Department Stores
Bed & Bed Accessories
Jewelry Stores
Manuf ac turf ng
Women’s Ready-To-Wear Stores
Clothing & Furnishings
Cotton & Textile
Mechanic , Dental
Machinery Manufacturing
Dental Laboratories
Department Stores
Governmental Agencies
Life Insurance
Messenger
Plumbers
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus,
Wood Preserving
Collection Agencies
Receptionist
Advertising Companies
Banks
Educational Establishments
Dentist
Department Stores
Groceries
Opt!clans
Optical Goods
Photographic Studios
Printing & Publishing Shops
Radio Broadcasting
Telephone & Telegraph
Mimeograph Operator
Report Compositor
Duplicating, Addressing, Mail- Adjustment & Credit Bureaus
ing, & Mailing List Service
Collection Agencis
145
Sale smen
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Technician, Dental
Dental Laboratory
Dentist
Telegraph Operator
Secretary
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Soda Clerk
Confections Manufacturing
Department Stores
Drug Stores
Lunch Counters & Refresh­
ment Stands
Restaurants & Cafes
Tobacco Products
Variety
Solicitor
Banks
Railroads
Stocks & Bonds, Investments
Telephone & Telegraph
Telephone Operator
Department Stores
Hospitals
Hotels
Newspapers
Railroads
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Teller
Banks
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus
Collection Agencies
Timekeeper
Automobile Top & Body
Repair Shops
Contractors
Mattress Renovating &
Governmental Agencies
Repair Shops
Manufacturing
Newspapers
Tinsmith Shops
Trucking
Stenographer
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Storeman
Governmental Agencies
Printing & Publishing Shops
Szp*g&
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Wholesale Establi shments
Underwrit er
General & Fire Insurance
Window Trimmer
Switchboard Operator
Hospitals
Hotels
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Department Stores
Dry Goods, General Merchandise
Stores
Men *s Furnishing Stores
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stores
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stores
144
SKILLED
Adjuster
Caster
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus
Printing & Publishing
Department Stores
Finance Corporations
Compositor
Insurance Agencies
Mattress Renovating & Re­
Printing & Publishing Shops
pair Shops
Core Maker
Blacksmith
Foundries
Automobile Top & Body Re­
pair Shops
Detective
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Governmental Agencies
Department Stores
Municipal Police Department
Railroads
Welding
Electrician
Buyer
Battery & Ignition Repair
Shops
Department Stores
Furniture Stores
Bed & Bed Accessories
Hardward Stores
Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Clothing
Building Contractors
Manufac turilng
Department Stores
Patent Medicine Manufactur­
Electrical Equipment
ing
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stores Governmental Agenc ies
Laundries
Wood Preserving
Manufacturing Concerns
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Carpenter
Newspapers
Railroads
Automobile Top & Body Re­
Real Estate
pair Shops
Refrigeration, Cooling &
Bed & Bed Accessories,
Heating Appliance
Manufac turing
Manufac turing
Building Contractors
Sign Shops
Cabinet Making Shops
Theatres
Concrete, Brick & Paving,
& Construction Materials
Engraver
Fertilizer Manufactuxlng
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Engraving Shops
Governmental Agencies
Jewelry Stores
Laundries
Newspapers
Newspapers
Stationery Supplies
Sign Shops
Tinsmith Shops
Erector
Watch, Clock & Jewelry
Repair
Sign Shops
145
Etcher
Machine Hand
Engraving Shops
Printing & Publishing Shops
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Clothing & Furnishings
Printing & Publishing Shops
Fireman
Machinist
Bakeries & Caterers
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Cleaning, Dyeing & Pressing
Confectlens Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Governmental Agencies
Hospitals
Hotels
Laundries
Forelady
Clothing & Furnishings
Confections Manufacturing
Dress Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Foreman
Building Industries
Manufacturing
Mechanical Industries
Interior Decorator
Department Stores
Furniture Stores
Jeweler
Jewelry Shops
Automotive
Bed & Bed Accessories Manu­
facturing
Cabinet Making Shops
Chemical Products Manufacturing
Concrete, Brick & Paving,
Construction Material
Cotton & Textile Machinery
Manufacturing
Dress Manufacturing
Electrical Shops
Farm Implements Dealers
Filling Stations
Governmental Agencies
Hay, Grain & Feed Stores
Machinery Equipment & Supplies
Miscellaneous Manufacturing
Newspapers
Patent Medicine Manufacturing
Railroads
Welding Shops
Wood Preserving
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Maintenance Man
Food Manufacturing, Miscellan­
eous
Radio Broadcasting
Real Estate
Shirt Manufacturing
Telephone & Telegraph
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Linotype Operator
Air Conditioning Man
Printing & Publishing Shops
newspapers
Locksmith
Governmental Agencies
Locksmith & Gunsmith Shops
Manufacturing of Certain Types
Plumbers
146
Mechanica Automobile
Automobile Radiator Shops
Automobile Storage Garages
Automobile Top & Body Re­
pair Shops
Battery & Ignition Repair
Shops
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Filling Stations
Fuel & Ice Dealers
General Repair Garages
Laundries
Miscellaneous Supplies
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Other Automotive Shops
Sign Shops
Trucking
Used-car Dealers
Mechanic, Electrical
Battery & Ignition Repair
Shops
Electrical Equipment
Manufacturing
General Repair Garages
Mechanic, General
Manufacturers
Mechanical Industries
Mechanic, Linoleum
Department Stores
Furni ture Sto re s
Mechanic, Refrlgera tion
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Department Stores
Paint Manufacturing
Welding Shops
Metal Worker, Automobile
Automobile Top & Body Re­
pair Shops
Battery & Ignition Repair
Shops
Manuf ac ttiring
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Millwright
Manufacturing - all Kinds
Monotype Operator
Newspapers
Printing & Publishing Shops
Motor Man, Electrical
Electric Supply Stores
Molder
Costtime & Emblem Manufacturing
Foundries
Manufacturing
Railroads
Railroad Car Repair
Welding Shops
Neon Glass Worker
Sign Shops
Paper Hanger
Building Contractors
Miscellaneous Furnishings
Manufacturing, Miscellaneous
Painter
Amus ement s
Automobile Top & Body
Repair Shops
Battery & Ignition Repair Shops
Building Contractors
Cabinet Making Shops
Costume & Emblem Manufacturing
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Governmental Agencies
Hotels
Miscellaneous Furnishings
Accessories Manufacturing
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Paint, Glass & Wall Paper Stores
147
Painter (continued)
Plumbers
Real Estate
Sign Shops
Used-car Dealers
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stores
Venetian Blinds
Welding Shops
Pattern Maker
Dress Manufacturing
Farm Implement Dealers
Miscellaneous Clothing
Manufacturing
Sign Shops
Welding Shops
Pilot. Airplane
Air Lines
Airplane Rebuilding
Companle s
Printer
Adjustment & Credit Bureaus
Collection Agencies
Building Contractors
Farm Supplies
Governmental Agencies
Laundries
Newspapers
Paper Box Manufacturing
Printing & Publishing Shops
Stationery Supplies
Printer. Lithograph
Printing & Publishing Shops
Radio Serviceman
Accessories, Tire & Batfery
Dealers
Furniture Stores
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Radio Repair Shops
Used-car Dealers
Plasterer
Refinisher
Building Contractors
Governmental Agencies
Paint, Glass & Wall Paper
Stores
Pluafcer
Building Contractors
Manuf actur lng
Plumbers
Railroads
Real Estate
Cabinet Making Shops
Department Stores
Furniture Stores
Upholstery & Furniture Repair
Shops
Repairman. Automobile
Automobile Radiator Shops
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Retreader
Pressman
Filling Stations
Advertising Companies
Tire Repair Shops
Farm Supplies
Newspapers
Roofer
Printing & Publishing Shops
Stationery Supplies
Building Contractors
Governmental Agencies
Pressman. Cylinder
Lumber & Building Material
Dealers
Printing & Publishing Shops
Miscellaneous Supplies
Tinsmith Shops
148
Sheet Metal Worker
Machinery Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Supplies
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Railroads
Sign Shops
Tinsmith Shops
Shoe Repairer
Department Stores
Shoe Repair Shops & Shoe
Shine Parlors
Transfer Man
Printing & Publishing Shops
Upholsterer
Bed & Bed Accessories Manu­
facturing
Cabinet Making Shops
Department Stores
Furniture Manufacturing
Furniture Stores
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Upholstery & Furniture
Repair Shops
Sign Artist
Watch Maker
Advertising Companies
Department Stores
Sign Shops
Steam Fitters
Manufacturing
Governmental Agencies
Plumbers
Stone Man
Printing & Publishing
Shops
Tailor
Cleaning, Dyeing & Pressing
Customs Tailors
Department Stores
Men*s Furnishings Stores
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Tinsmith
Roofers
Welding Shops
Tool Maker
Manufac turing
Accessories, Other Apparel
Stores
Department Stores
Jewelry Stores
Wood Worker
Automobile Top & Body
Repair Shops
Cabinet Making Shops
Farm Implement Dealers
Furniture Manuf ac turing
Governmental Agencies
Laundries
Manufacturing
Venetian Blinds
Wood Preserving
149
SEMI-SKILLED
Apprentice Embalmer
Funeral Directors, Embal­
mer s Sc Crematories
Apprentlce Machinist
Machinery, Equipment &
Supplies
Tinsmith Shops
Apprentice Mattress Maker
Baker
Bakeries & Caterers
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Confections Manufacturing
Restaurants & Cafeterias
Barber
Barber Shops
Barber & Beauty Shops
Beauty Parlors
Mattress Renovating & Repair Beautician
Shops
Women *s Ready-To-Wear Shops
Apprentice Metal Worker
Beauty Shop Operator
Sign Shops
Tinsmith Shops
Barber & Beauty Shops
Beauty Parlors
Apprentice Molder
Department Stores
Manufac tur ing
Tinsmith Shops
Apprentice Pressman
Printing & Publishing
Shops
Apprentlc e Welder
Bed Manufacturing, Miscellaneous
Bed & Bed Accessories
Manufacturing
Bill Poster
Slgi Shops
Bindery Girl
Welding Shops
Automobile Workers, Mis­
cellaneous
Accessories, Tire & Battery
Dealers
Automobile Radiator Shops
Automobile Storage Garages
Automobile Top & Body
Repairs
Battery & Ignition Repair
Shops
General Repair Garages
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Trucking
Mattress Renovating & Repair
Bookbinder
Printing & Publishing Shops
Bottler
Bottling Companies
Dairy Products Stores & Milk
Dealers
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Brew Worker
Brewery
150
Broom & Mop Maker
Household Implements Manu­
facturing
Checker
Cleaning, Dyeing Sc Pressing
Laundries
Restaurants & Cafes
Bundle Wrapper
Chicken Dresser
Paper Box Manufacturing
Women's Ready-To-Wear Store
Bus Driver
Bus Lines
Governmental Agencies
Cab Driver
Egg & Poultry Dealers
Cleaner (Laundry & Dry Cleaning)
Cleaning, Dyeing & Pressing
Department Stores
Dress Manufacturing
Hospitals
Laundries
Automobile Storage Garages
Clothing Manufacturing, Miscellaneous
Cabinet Man
Automobile Top & Body Re­
pair Shops
Cabinet Making Shops
Furniture Manufacturing
Furniture Stores
Governmental Agencies
Lumber Mills
Upholstery & Furniture Re­
pair Stores
Candy Maker, Miscellaneous
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Confections Manufacturing
Food Manufacturing, Mis­
cellaneous
Candy Wrapper
Candy & Confections Stores
Cellarman
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Chauffeur
Building Contractors
Florists
Funeral Directors, Embalmers
& Crematories
Meat Packers
Dress Manufacturing
Miscellaneous Clothing Manu­
facturing
Shirt Manufacturing
Cook
Bakeries & Caterers
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Confections Manufac turing
Department Stores
Governmental Agencies
Hospitals
Hotels
Ltti&ch Counters, Refreshment
Stands
Restaurants & Cafes
Cutter
Advertising Companies
Clothing & Furnishings
Department Stores
Dress Manufacturing
Furniture Manufac turing
Mattress Renovating Sc Repair
Shops
Miscellaneous Clothing Manu­
facturing
Miscellaneous Supplies
Shirt Manufacturing
Work Clothing Manufacturing
151
Delivery Boy
Retail Establishments
Service Establishments
Department Stores, Miscellaneous
Department Stores
Miscellaneous Furniture
Accessories Manufactur­
ing
Finisher (continued)
Machinery, Equipment as Supplies
Miscellaneous Clothing Manu­
facturing
Stationery Supplies
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Fitter
Department Stores
Furriers as Fur Shops
Shoe Manufacturing
Doorman
Floor Walker
Theaters
Driver, Ambulance
Funeral Directos, Embalmers & Hospitals
Driver, Salesman
Department Stares
Hat Manufacturing
Men*s Furnishing Stores
Paper Box Manufacturing
Stationery Supplies
Variety, 5-10-1,00 Stores
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stares
Cleaning, Dyeing 8s Pressing Folding Machine Operator
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Candy 5c Confectionery Stores
Fruit Stores & Vegetable
Paper Box Manufacturing
Printing as Publishing Shops
Markets
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Folder
Groceries
Laundries
Dress Manufacturing
Laundries
Dyeman
Shoe Repair & Shoe Shine
Pariors
Folder, Hand
Printing 8s Publishing Shops
Embroiderer
Fur Finishing
Department Stores
Furriers as Fur Shops
Hemstitching, Embroidering
& Buttonholing Shops
Work Clothing Manufacturing Furrier
Feeder
Printing & Publishing Shops
Finisher
Department Stores
Furriers 8s Fur S M p s
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stores
Gin Man
Mattress Renovating & Repair
Building Contractors
Shops
Cabinet Making Shops
Cleaning, Dyeing as Pressing
Hat Cleaner
Dress Manufacturing
Furniture Manufacturing
Alteration 8c Repair Shops
Hospitals
Shoe Repair & Shine Parlors
Laundries
(Including Hat Cleaning)
152
Hat Cleaner (continued)
Women’s Ready-To-Wear
Helper, Engineer
Laundries
Meat Packers
Railroads
Helper, Roofer
Tinsmith Shops
Helper, Sheet Metal Worker
Tinsmith Shops
Welding Shops
Helper, Shoe Repairer
Helper, Dental Laboratory
Dental Laboratories
Helper, Furniture & Household
Furniture Stores
Shoe Repair Shops & Shoe
Shine Parlors
Housekeeper & Housemother
Hospitals
Hotels
Helper, Machinist
Manufacturing & Mechanical
Dress Manufacturing
Welding Shops
Helper, Mechanlc
Accessories, Tire & Battery
Dealers
Meat Packers
Welding Shops
Helper, Mechanic (Automobile)
Battery & Ignition Repair
Shops
General Repair Garages
Other Automotive Shops
Hostess
Department Stores
Funeral Directors, Embalmers
& Crematories
Hotels
Restaurants & Cafes
Ice Cream Maker
Confections Manufacturing
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Job Pressman
Printing & Publishing Shops
Lather
Helper, Neon Sign
Sign Shops
Helper, Plumber
Plumber
Helper, Printer
Printing & Publishing Shops
Paint, Glass & Wall Paper
Stores
Laundry Worker
Cleaning, Dyeing, & Pressing
Laundry Worker, Miscellaneous
Governmental Agencies
153
Laundry Worker, Miscellaneous
(continued)
Hotels
Hospitals
Laundrie s
Lubricator
Automobile Top & Body Re­
pair Shops
Filling Stations
General Repair Garages
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Nl^btt Watchman (continued)
Manufac turing
Men’s Furnishing Stores
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Newspapers
Railroads
Shirt Manufac turing
Theaters
Tinsmith Shops
Trucking
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stores
Women’s Ready-To-Wear Stores
Orderly
Manicurist
Hospitals
Barber Shops
Barber & Beauty Shops
Mattress Finisher
Mattress Renovating &
Repair Shops
Meat Cutter
Grocery Stores
Meat Markets
Meat Packer
Meat Packers
Mold Operator
Automotive
Tire Repair Shops
Night Watchman
Bakeries & Caterers
Building Contractors
Concrete, Brick & Paving,
Construction Material
Department Stores
Electrical Equipment
Electrical Plating Firms
Farm Supplies
Government Agencies
Laundries
Lumber Mills
Packer
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Cleaning, Dyeing, & Pressing
Confections Manufacturing
Department Stores
Dress Manufacturing
Drugs
Farm Implement Manufacturing
Manufacturing, Miscellaneous
Meat Packer
Shoe Manufacturing
Venetian Blinds Manufacturing
Paper Manufacturing, Miscellaneous
Paper Box Manufacturing
Stationery Supplies
Parker (Automobile)
Automobile Storage Garage
Pastuerizer
Confections Manufacturing
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Patent Medicine Manufac turing
^iacellaneous
Patent Medicine Manufacturing
154
Power Machine Operator
Production Man
Beds & Bed Accessories ManuManufacturing
facturing
Real Estate
Bottling Companies
Concrete, Construction, BrickRepalr Man
& Paving Materials
Disinfectant & Antiseptic
Automobile Top & Body Repair
Shops
Manufac turi ng
Dress Manufacturing
Bicycle Shops
Hemstitching, Embroidering
Commercial Gases
& Buttonholing Shops
Electrical Equipment
Household Implement Manu­
Motor Vehicle Dealers
facturing
Tool Manufacturing
Machinery Equipment &
Used-car Dealers
Supplies
Manufacturing & Mechanical
Rug Cutter
Miscellaneous Clothing Manu­
Department Stores
facturing
Miscellaneous Furniture Ac­
Radio Dealers
cessories Manufacturing
Seamstress
Optical Goods
Paper Box Manufacturing
Alteration & Repair Shops
Stationery Supplies
Wooden Products Manufactur­
Costumes & Emblem Manufacturing
Custom Tailors
ing
Department Stores
Wood Preserving
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Funeral Directors, Embalmers,
& Crematories
Governmental Agencies
Preparer. Millinery
Hemstitching, Embroidering,
Accessories, Other Apparel
& Buttonholing shops
Hospital s
Stores
Laundries
Mattress Renovating & Repair
Press Feeder
Shops
Printing & Publishing Shops
Men’s Furnishings Stores
Miscellaneous Supplies
Upholstery & Furniture
Presser
Repair Shops
Cleaning, Dyeing & Pressing
Venetian Blinds Manufac turing
Women’s Ready-To-Wear Stores
Shops
Clothing & Furnishings
Service Man
Department Stores
Hospitals
Laundries
Accessories, Tire, & Battery
Dealers
Men’s Furnishing Stores
Miscellaneous Clotihing
Automobile Top & Body Repair
Shops
Manufacturing
Shoe Repair & Shoe Shine Par­ Bottling Companies
Farm Implement Dealers
lors (including Hat Clean­
Furniture Stores
ing)
155
Service Man (continued)
Machinery, Equipment &
Supplies
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Real Estate
Sign Shops
Tire Repair Shops
Tobacco Products
Venetian Blinds Manuf acturing
Worker
Venetian Blind Manufacturing
Vulcanizer
Tire Repair Shops
Wagon Driver
Shoe Flnisher
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Shoe Manufacturing
Shoe Repair Shops &
Shoe Shine Parlors
Shoe Manufacturing, Mis­
cellaneous
Washer
Hospitals
Laundries
Welder
Shoe Manufacturing
Spotter (Laundry & Dry Cleaniss)
Automobile Radiator Shops
Fuel & Ice Dealers
Machinery Manufacturing
Tinsmith Shops
Cleaning Dyeing & Pressing
Wrapper
Tire Repair Man
Tire Repair Shops
Trimmer
Hemstitching, Embroidering
& Buttonholing Shops
Miscellaneous Clothing Man­
ufacturing
Work Clothing Manufacturing
Truck Driver
Retail Establishments
Wholesale Establishments
Manufacturing & Mechanical
Indus trie s
Personal Service
Public Service
Usher
Theaters
Bakeries & Caterers
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Confections Manufacturing
Department Stores
Laundrie s
Men*s Furnishing Stores
156
SERVANT CLASS
Bus Boy
Restaurants & Cafeterias
Porter
Employed Generally by all
Business Groups
Dishwasher
Porter (Service Statlon)
Hotels
Lunch Counters, Refreshment
Stands
Restaurants & Cafes
Tobacco Products
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stapes
Automobile & Body Repair
General Repair Garages
Motor Vehicle Dealers
Filling Stations
Tire Repair Shops
Used-car Dealers
Elevator Operators
Waitress
Amusements
Automobile Storage Garages
Banks
Building Contractors
Department Stores
Furniture Stores
Hospitals
Hotels
Laundries
Manufac turi ng
Men*s Furnishing Stores
Railroads
Real Estate
Women*s Ready-To-Wear Stores
Hotel Worker, Miscellaneous
Hotels
Maid
Employed Generally by all
Business Groups
Janitor
Employed Generally by all
Business Groups
Candy & Confectionery Stores
Department Stores
Drug Stores
Hotels
Lunch Counters & Refreshment
Stands
Railroads
Restaurants & Cafes
Variety, 5-10-1.00 Stores
157
OTHER LABORERS
Bottle Washer
Confections Manufacturing
Dairy Products Stores &
Milk Dealers
Helper, Transportation
Trucking
Labor, Laundry
Hospitals
Laundri es
Loader
Grocery Stores
Freight & Express Houses
Sewer Mian
Plumbers
Shine Boy
Barber Shops
Barber & Beauty Shops
Cleaning, Dyeing &
Pressing
Shoe Repair Shops, &
Shoe Shine Parlors
Stove Worker, Miscellan­
eous
Refregleratlon, Cooling,
& Heating Appliance
Manufacturing
Starcher
Laundries
Ware hous eman
Accessories, Tire & Bat­
tery Dealers
Bottling Companies
Warehouseman (continued)
Department Stores
Electrical Supply Stores
Electrical Equipment
Grocery Stores
Laundries
Miscellaneous Manufacturing
Paint, Glass & Wall Paper
Stores
Patent Medicine Manufacturing
Petroleum & Products
Railroads
Refrigeration, Heating & Cooling
Appliance Manufacturing
Shoe Stores
Trucking
Yard Man
Fuel & Ice
Hotels
Governmental Agencies
Lumber Mills
Manufacturing
158
GENERAL COMMENTS BY SOME SYRACUSE EMPLOYERS ON
REQUIREMENTS OP FORMAL EDUCATION TO VOCATIONS OP YOUTH
The followirg comments were gleaned from conversation
held by both the investigator and field workers with Syracuse
employees.
Through personal contact and interview there was
demonstrated considerable interest and willingness to cooper­
ate, especially among the larger business houses and'in­
dustries.
There is a general feeling among some industrialists
and business executives that some sort of an adjustment In
the city*s educational policies is needed but that it is the
job of the school people themselves to effect this adjustment.
A typical comment made by a business executive is as follows:
"Cut out some of the frillsHand give a more
basic training. Teach students how to meet
people and give instruction in how to meet
people, what constitutes good personal work
habits, etc.”
Another comment in practically the same view went
as follows:
"High school education absolutely essential in
about 95^ of jobs here (public utility). I
wish high school graduates could be given
some idea of just how a business is run; how
to apply for a job; how to get their name on
the payroll, etc."
Other employers felt that education of the secondary
level as a whole, Is excellent as basic, but that it need
be supplemented or followed with special training In prepar­
ation for specific employment; that the tendency toward
education for the professions and Tnhite collar jobs is growing
* later questioning Revealed that by "frills", he meant
foreign language*
159
all out of proportion to the possible absorption and away
from the trades and probable sources of absorption.
In this
connection, several employers specifically recommended the
addition of two additional years of high school after gradua­
tion for intensive study and specialisation.
The following are quotations made by business and
industrial executives, the names of whom are on file in
the survey office:
"Teach these youths to work with people and
their specific training will come much easier."
"Youths of today must realize that executives
sitting behind glass top desks arrived there by
hard work, not by pull or appointment early."
"We would be interested in knowing if the youths
who are graduab ed from a vocational school are
more quickly employed than youths graduated from
the regular academic high school.-— - Our duty
to our older employees makes it impossible to
hire younger men in these slack times."
"Youths of today must seek a job by personal
application with a spirit of determination."
"Develop initiative in the youths of today."
"Revive the art of Tool Making as tool makers
are just not to be had."
"Don*t ask how a thing is to be done, do it your
own way, it may be better and your enqployer will
appreciate your initiative."
"Youths must be taught the value of hard work."
"Teach the youth to work with his hands as well
as his mind."
"Why is it that so many youths are afraid to
pitch in and do a good dayfs work?"
"Youths must be taught to find a pleasure in
hard work •"
160
"Our firm has trained the youths in a specific
trade only to have them leave, because It hurt
their hands too much."
"I am sitting behind the Presidents desk, because
when my hands bled from hard work I didn*t stop."
"Teach the youths to think first of doing a good
job, this being his paramount consideration hours
and wages will adjust themselves."
"If youths applying for jobs would be more mindful
of assuring the employer that they were capable
of doing a good job rather than questioning their
hours and wages to such an extent, I am certain
youths would find jobs more quickly."
"We want the man who wants to get ahead and who
Is willing to work for it."
"Business needs youth who have been trained to
know what Is expected of them in dealing with
their superiors and co-workers."
"The youths we need in our employ should be well
trained in proper work habits, have an aptitude
for the work and a desire to work."
"Youth has felt in the past that possessing a
school diploma meant everything, but the realiza­
tion is coming to them that this is only one
phase of the development. They must have the
desire to work, good working habits, and a
spirit of cooperation."
"Tell the youth to do a job to the best of his
ability with an eye to the job above him."
"If he Is half way up the block before the noon
whistle stops blowing, he is out permanently;
perhaps not today, but in the very near future."
"Teach fundamental work habits."
"If youth has training along the mechanical line,
we find this experience easily transferable."
"There Is a noticeable lack of ability In young
men to do good old fashioned arithmetic.”
"Better work habits and ability to adjust oneself
to a job should be stressed in training youth."
161
"Trained workers with general mechanical knowledge,
good work habits, and ability to cooperate are
in demand."
Upon discussing the problems of education and voca­
tional training with mapy employers, the viewpoint expressed
seemed to imply that the trend in the employment situation
as it relates to young workers or those seeking their first
job is due partially
to (1) Inadequate training or prepara­
tion; (2) activities and influences of labor groups; (3)
seniority lists; (4) lack of or improper knowledge of jobs
and job requirements; (5) the need for developing good habits
of reliability, punctuality, industriousness, cooperative­
ness and a sincerity of purpose.
The employer wants and can use the product of secondary
education if and when the individual understands himself or
herself and has an understanding of the requirements of industry
and business and can speak intelligently of his or her functional
qualities and abilities as they relate to industry and business.
The employer is interested in a prospective employee *s
capability of becoming an asset to the organization rather
than shrinking into a liability.
The employer considers his
investment in an employee as one of profit returning.
It is obvious from employer reactions and comments that
people with specialized vocational training have a better
chance of being employed.
The outlet for placement in jobs
at the time of contact was very small.
When the manufacturing
and mechanical types of industries were surveyed, 114 concerns
162
from the total of 303 contacted, reported that they expected
to hire only 915 new employees In the Immediate future.
However, under normal conditions of business and of employ­
ment, the sources seem to indicate a general upturn of
business and of employment which will create a shortage
of trained people in many lines of endeavor.
CHAPTER VI
THE PUPIL AND CHOICE OP VOCATIONS
The data for this section of the report were gathered
In all the English classes In Blodgett Vocational High School.
A specially printed slip was given each student on which to
record his or her first, second, and third choice of a future
vocation.
No previous occupational guidance, either formal or
informal, was given so the choices made represents the
student*s own selection.
It must be pointed out that the
eleventh and twelfth year choices,especially the twelfth
year, may be colored by previous formal study and research
in the fields of occupation.
Intensive work in occupations
correlated with English is done in these classes.
However,
the ninth and tenth year choices are devoid of any direct,
organised school influence.
A comparison of pupil choices with the list of voca­
tions which at present offer most fertile field of local oc­
cupation is shown in Table XXXXV and Table XXXV.
The former
table shows that the boy1a choices are not so badly out of
line.
At the present time, machinists are in great demand and
21.3$ of the boys gave this occupation as either first, second
or third choice.
Approximately 18$ of the boys gave draftsmen
as either the first, second or third choice and it, too, offers
great occupational possibilities.
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■
PUPIL PREFERENCE FOR VOCATIONS
FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CHOICES OF &50 GIRLS
FORMAL OR INFORMAL OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE AND
SPRING TERM 1939
PRIOR TO ANY
INFORMATION
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166-ise-
—
The commercial types of occupations were the first
choice of 66*5$ of the girls while sales received only 1.4$
first choice.
Here is a choice for some intelligent oc­
cupational guidance to bring before these girls the opportun­
ities present in the various sales types of occupations and
the over-supply of trained female workers for the commercial
or office jobs.
Only 7.9$ of the girls made beauty culture either
their first, second, or third vocational choice.
Here is
another field which should be brought to their attention.
Nursing is a good occupational choice and 21.4$ made this
either their first, second, or third choice.
FOLLOW UP INFORMATION REGARDING
BLODGETT VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
It was the desire of the writer, with the approval
of the principal, to make this section of the report a cooper­
ative enterprise between the building teachers arid*1the survey
office.
Any teacher who volunteered was to be given a certain
class to study.
Before this project had hardly gotten under­
way, one teacher asked permission to assume full responsibility
for studying approximately, 1,500 graduates of the school,
both male and female.
She is making the study as a Master’s
Thesis project under the direction of the School of Education,
Syracuse University, with the cooperation of the survey office.
However, before permission was granted, the study of
two classes had progressed to such a point that it was decided
■
167
to finish them.
The study of the June 1936 class made by
Margaret McClusky, was written up in such detail that a
copy of the full report is included in the appendix of this
study.
It was found that of the 150 graduates studied, 36.7$
pursued the Industrial Course while in school, 58$ the com­
mercial course and the remaining 5.3$ college preparatory.
Of the 145 graduates who answered the question, 56*6$ stated
^
they were now engaged in the kind of work the school advised
them to take up when their program was mapped out.
An analysis of the employment status of the 150 grad­
uates reveals that 86$ are employed, 8$ unemployed, 2.7$
attending schools of higher education and 3.3$ are married
and not working.
The 129 graduates (86$) that are actually
employed are scattered among a total of sixty-four different
local firms.
The June 1938 graduates of the Industrial Department
studied by James H. Shaw, head of the Industrial Department
of the school, reveals the following, according to Table
XXXVI.
Of the total of 100 letters sent out, 78 replies were
received plus two letters returned from the postoffice be­
cause of incorrect addresses.
An analysis of the 78 replies
shows that 80$ of the graduates are employed, 5$ unemployed
and 12.5$ are attending institutions of higher learning.
The
sixty-four graduates (80$) of this class are working in fortyfive different local ooncerns.
Table XXXVI is a list of the
concerns involved and the number of graduates employed by
each concern.
/
168
TABLE XXXVI
EMPLOYMENT RECORD
GRADUATES OP INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT JUNE 1938
BLODGETT VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Qf
Name of Employing Company______ Graduates Employed
American Legion
Auto Express Terminal
Baker
Bartender (Father’s place)
Beaver Mach* & Die
Brown Mfg. Co*
Candymaker
Car Van Engravers
Crucible Steel Co*
D.L.& W. Railroad
Douglas Aircraft Corp.
Eckels'Nye Steel Co*
E» C* Stearns
P* R. Seifert Machine
Gas Station Attendants
Hoffman Packing Co*
Housing Project, Plasterer
Iroquois Publishing Co*
Killian Mfg* Co*
Nettleton Shoe Co*
Onondaga Pottery
Owen Dyneto Corp*
Paragon Plaster Co*
Pass & Seymour
Photographer
Picker X-Ray Corp.
Pierce Butler Radiator
Pocketbook Factory
Radio Service
Rollway Bearing Co.
Salina Chevrolet Refinisher
Resnick Pocketbook Co*
Sanderson Bros. Steel Co*
7-Up Bottling Co*
Solvay Process Co*
State Fair Grounds, landscape
Store Clerks
Syracuse Industrial Club
Syracuse Trust Co*
Syracuse Twist Drill
Theatre Usher
Tires & Accessories, sales
U* S. Hoffman Co.
Works for father, carpenter
Total
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
11
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
60
CHAPTER VII
TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS IN
RELATION TO VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
In this survey of Syracuse, the present occupational
complexion of the city has been examined in several ways to
serve as a guide to a program of vocational education*
The
past history of occupations in the city has also been studied
to discover certain trends in the various occupational class­
ifications*
All of this should be helpful in planning both
long and short term programs of vocational education.
We are living in the so-called power age; an age
when conditions are changing rapidly*
It is a time of
scientific research, of invention and constant technological
development*
As a result, occupations are changing at an
increasing tempo*
New occupations are being created as old
ones go into disuse*
This fact seems to suggest the ad­
visability of supplementing this report of the present and
past with a brief glance into the future to see if there are
any guide posts to steer us in the formulation of educational
programs*
Obsolescence of machinery, because of invention,
has been one of the difficult problems of industry in this
power efra*
Scanning the future for some clues as to the com­
ing occupational developments through invention may help to
prevent capital obsolescence in connection with our future
vocational education programs*
170
In this connection It
should
be helpful to examine
the report of the President's National Resources Committee
1
made In June 1937. This report on "Technological Trends
and National Policy Including the Social Implications of
New Inventions" was the work of a special sub-committee
consisting of John C. Merriam, Edward C. Elliott and William
P. Ogburn, Chairman.
In transmitting the report to the President, the Nat­
ional Resources Committee speaks of the report as "the first
major attempt to show the kinds of new inventions which may
affect living and working conditions in America in the next
ten to twenty-five years.
It Indicates some of the problems
which the adoption and use of these inventions will inevitably
2
bring in their train."
The report points out that It takes about twenty-five
years for an invention to be perfected and developed to
the point to the point of wide public use; therefore. It is
3
possible to anticipate its social effects years ahead.
The significance of technology for economic and social
life may be shown by considering certain developments of
the twentieth century.
The turn of the century has seen the
beginnings of several of our largest industries, based upon
inventions then relatively new.
For example, in 1900 there were only about a million
telephones in use.
Today, it is the third largest public
utility in the United States, with an Investment of nearly
2.
3.
National Resources Committee, "Technological Trends and
National Policy", United States Government Printing
Office, June 1937.
Ibid., p. v.
Ibid., p. 3.
171
$5,000,000,000 and giving employment to hundreds of thousands.
Its importance to special industries, such as newspapers, has
been of inestimable value.
It has been of aid in safety, in
transportation, in fighting fires and crime.
The automobile was just coming Into use in 1900,
Now
there Is approximately one automobile to every five persons
in the United States.
effect on cities.
The automobile has had a profbund
It has created a new unit of population
neither city, town, nor village, for which there Is yet no
name, but which is often referred to as a metropolitan area.
Some metropolitan areas have many hundreds of different gov­
ernmental units when one or at least a few would make many
economies and produce efficiencies impossible in snail units.
There were no moving-picture shows in 1900.
Today
this industry in the United States draws every ten days
patrons equivalent in number to the whole population.
In the beginning of the present century, the airplane
was not taken seriously.
wrote in 1903:
Simon Newcomb, dean of science,
"May not our mechanicians be ultimately forced
to admit that aerial flight Is one of that great class of
problems with which man can never hope to cope and give up
4
all attempts to grapple with It?"
The part that airplanes are playing today in the
second great world war, that of aiding in the total destruction
of whole cities in a matter of minutes, is bringing about
changes that effect every living thing on this earth,
pTlT
,
172
The development of radio, and of rayon, the chemist
treating a lump of coal and making it yield colors more
beautiful than royal purple and perfumes more delicate than
attar of roses*
All these, and more, are but a few of the
inventions that have had a profound effect on our economic
and social life*
To forecast the probable future the more significant
inventions in the fields of agriculture, mining, transporta­
tion, communication, the construction industries, power
production, the metallurgical and chemical industries, and
the electrical manufacturers are covered.
Of all these
inventions, the report indicates thirteen which may come into
wide use in the near future:
mechanical cotton pickers, air
conditioning equipment, plastic, photo-electric cell, arti­
ficial cotton and woolen-like fibres made from cellulose,
synthetic rubber, prefabricated houses, television, facsimile
transmission, automobile trailer, gasoline produced from coal,
steep flight aircraft and tray agriculture.
The committee
recommended further studies be made of these inventions be­
cause of the significant social influences they will exert.
The development of air conditioning equipment should
be of special interest to Syracusans since Syracuse is the
home of one of the largest manufacturers ef this type of
equipment*
This company*s exhibit at the New York World*s
Pair has drawn favorable comment from all who have seen it*
Also, their development of small air conditioning units for
use in offices and in small homes promises great changes in
our future home building construction.
175
Since Syracuse is primarily a manufacturing city, it
should be vitally interested in the development of the photo­
electric cell or electric eye and in the televox or electric
ear.
The report indicates that these inventions should re­
sult in a great reduction of monotonous jobs and in a greater
demand for electricians, inspectors and skilled mechanics in
place of operatives.
The community should also be interested in the report*s
statement that there are four outstanding characteristics
in the trends of manufacturing today.
These are:
"(1) toward
continuous processes, (2) automatic operation, (3) use of
5
registering devices, and (4) of controlling devices.**
The
photo-electric cell or the televox may be used in the latter
two of these to advantage.
This brief examination of a few of the high spots of
the National Resources Committee*s Report bearing on our
problem, should prove helpful in arriving at a long-visioned
vocational program for Syracuse.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND CHANGING CONDITIONS
6
A report on changing economic and social conditions and
their effect upon vocational education was published in 1934
by the United States Department of the Interior.
The seven major points of this report are the following:
**Pirst: Most people must work in order to live.
Second: In order to work successfully, they must
keep up-to-date in their occupational
equipment.
Third: So rapid and extensive are the changes in
occupations and the corresponding changes
5.
i b i d . , p."J5’4 ':--------------------------------
6.
Vocational Education and Changing Conditions. United States
Department of the Interior, Office of Education, Washing­
ton, D.C., Vocational Education Bulletin, No. 174, 1934.
p. 8.
174
In the equipment workers need, that the
procession of demands on them seems to
he continually passing by while they
stand still.
Fourth: If workers do not keep up with the pro­
cession they meet with lowered wage,
reduced employment, and loss of oc­
cupation; and the further they lag
behind, the sooner they join the un­
employable group or become a part of
the social scrap heap.
Fifth:
The only agency we know which can help
them keep up to date with the occupational
equipment in skill and knowledge they need,
is some form of vocational training.
Sixth:
Only an adequate system of public vocation­
al education will meet the needs of pros­
pective and of employed workers in die
various occupations.
Seventh: All the trends in the conditions effecting
the matter emphasize the interstate and
national character of the problems of
vocational education in the States.”
The ultimate responsibility for doing anything about
vocational education rests with each community.
It is hoped,
therefore, that the recommendations found at the end of this
report will result in the establishment of an adequate program
of vocational education for Syracuse.
CHAPTER VIII
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Since the changing concept of the major objective
of secondary education tends toward the more practical aspect,
many studies have recently been made and man y more are now
in the process of being made for the purpose of more adequately
meeting the training needs of the majority of the secondary
school population.
Locally, we find little opportunity for
jobs or employment, which is the ultimate goal of education,
especially vocational, to the younger groups.
Chart 6
shows the proportion of shift from 9.0% of all the male and
female workers gainfully employed in Syracuse between the
ages of ten and nineteen inclusive in 1920 to 6.0% in 1930
and probably less than 2% for the current year 1940.
The
types of occupation showing the greatest numbers employed
at these ages are clerical (stores and offices), messenger
and manufacturing types of occupations.
The occupational distribution of Syracuse, see Charts
4 and 5, shows that the manufacturing and mechanical types
of occupations take the top positions with trade second,
clerical third; domestic and personal service fourth, trans­
portation and communication and so on.
It seems logical,
then, that our vocational education program should place
emphasis around such occupational fields as offer the great­
est opportunities for employment.
176
The Industrial prominence of and activity in Syracuse
should also be considered in policy form.
There should be and it is recommended that a contin­
uous flow of up-to-date occupational information and statis­
tical data be made available to the schools as a source for
making intelligent vocational choices.
This information should be interpreted to prospective
education students by some one who is capable of determining
the Individuals capability for taking training and functioning
in the occupation of his tentative choice.
Significant con­
clusions are drawn and recommendations are continuously implied
in presentation or interpretation of these collected and com­
piled data.
An outline for the collection of occupational infor1
mation given by Bartlow in his study is hereby reproduced.
This outline is suggestive of the type of information that
should be on file for the use of guidance counselors and
teachers of occupations.
OCCUPATION STUDIED
I.
Nature of work
A - Type of performance (technical, skilled, semi­
skilled, labor, clerical, etc.)
B - Types of establishments in which this occupation
ii found.
II.
Duties and responsibilities of the worker
III.
1.
Educational and physical requirements
A - Age
B - Sex
C - Health
D - Scholastic accomplishment
E - Special training_________
Bartlow, E. 0.' Vocational Purvey. Boy* s and Men1a
Occupations. Toledo, Olilo, ‘Board or Elducatlori,
Toledo, Ohio, June 30, 1939. pg. 175-176.
177
IV.
Educational and physical requirements
A - Public schools
1 - day
2 - evening
3 - extension
4 - apprentice training
B - Private schools
C - Commercial institutions
V.
Wages and hours
A - Minimum
B - Maximum
C * Work seasonal, regular, Irregular
VI.
Occupational health hazards
VII.
Local opportunities
A - Numbers engaged in the occupation in Syracuse,
according to best softrces of information.
B - Possibilities of employment
C - Experience required (if any)
D - Opportunities for advancement In the occupation
(promotional)
E - Importance and trend of occupation
VIII.
Occupational organizations active locally
IX.
Related occupations
X.
Bibliography of information and other sources of aid,
such as:
A - Photographs, cuts, slides
B - Motion picture films
C - Demonstration and materials available
Tables VI and VII, pages 59 and 61 respectively, show
where emphasis might be placed if and when an adjustment of
the vocational program is considered.
A total gain of 9.0$
calculated increase in employment (males and females), 1941
over 1930 is shown in Table VI.
Chapter IV carries many significant implications.
The
tremendous increase in secondary school enrollments from 1919
to 1939 as compared to the decrease in elementary enrollments
1929 to 1939, as shown in Table XXIII, warrants consideration
of emphasis on secondary education.
178
In spite of this increase and in spite of unemployment
conditions, the enormous consistent loss (average 44.9$)
through drop outs, failures, etc* in secondary education is
quite indicative of maladjustment, which prompted statistical
data found on pages 109 through 113*
Chapter VI is devoted to interpretation of pupil re­
action expressed*
In studying the pupil (hoys and girls)
Interests and desires vocationally of the Blodgett Vocational
High School enrollees, we find that the preference for voca­
tions expressed by boys is not so far out of line with the
list of occupations (see page 165) which, at present, offers
the most fertile field of local occupation.
On the other
hand, the vocational choices expressed by girls is badly out
of step with present local occupational conditions.
Approx­
imately two-thirds (66*5$) of the girls express a first
choice preference for the commercial or office type of jobs.
Only 1*4$ selected sales as the first choice for a vocation.
These facts show the need for vocational guidance.
The study of two classes of Blodgett Vocational High
School graduates shows that at the time the data were col­
lected 83$ were employed, 6*5$ unemployed, 7*6$ attending
schools of higher learning, and the remaining 2.9$ are mar­
ried and not working*
In view of this brief summarization of the recorded
findings with noted implications for vocational education as
a means of specially preparing for functional activities in
a specific field, emphasis was placed on, and limited to, the
179
major fields of purposes to which secondary vocational educa­
tion Is adaptable —
a type of vocational education which
will adequately fit the needs and requirements of local condi­
tions , all of which Implies the establishment of a program of
selection, guidance including the supplying of current occupa­
tional information and advise and assistance into at least
the first job during or following preparation together with
supervision for adjustment to the job and progression in the
field*
The guidance and placement function is the back bone
of any vocational education program.
The program of activi­
ties constitutes the preparation for placement of the person
selected or admitted*
CONCLUSIONS
Formal education is one agency responsible for giving
the individual pupil information regarding occupations, and
affording him opportunity for making wise and inteL ligent
occupational or vocational choices, and providing training
along these lines*
It is therefore only reasonable to
expect that this educational program results from analyses of
of local conditions, educational needs and requirements*
The
occupational Information suggested in the summary should pro­
vide a valuable bases for both curriculum reorganization; for
guidance officers and teachers, and for pupil and parent
decisions.
Only through the accumulation, compilation and
intelligent use of such Information can the learner benefit*
180
Syracuse with its many industries, business and service
enterprises and with its variety of marketable products and
the expanse of its market, and with excellent facilities for
trade, transportation, and communication, should provide:
(1) a broad and varied program of vocational education com­
mensurate with its occupational activities; (2) emphasis upon
the semi-skilled and skilled types of occupations in the metal
and in the building trades; (3) Increased offerings for the
commercial, distributive and service types of occupations*
Vocational training for girls should be offered for:
(1) retail and wholesale selling and merchandising; (2) house­
keeping, maid and service as is related to hotels, restaurants,
cafeterias and tea rooms; (3) clerical occupations and spec­
ialized commercial office practice, office machine operation
and business practices;(4) domestic service (home management,
child care and family nursing); (5) dressmaking, design and
alterations (factory sewing power machine unit as a part of
clothing); (6) cosmetology; (7) laundry and dry cleaning ser­
vice (commercial and home laundries); (8) training in the field
of semi-skilled factory operations in assembly, wrapping and
packing departments of electrical, manufacturing industries,
candle Industries, potteries, and automobile accessories man­
ufacturing*
It would seem reasonable to establish a mechan­
ical unit set-up for the purpose of secondary operatives in
a variety of minor manipulative operations on; a semi-skilled
performance basis*
181
To the Syracuse Board of Education and Superintendent
of Schools and his staff, the constructive values issuing
from this survey should be valuable as a basis both for in*
tensive and extensive analysis of the vocational needs of
boys and girls*
From this survey, students can have a know­
ledge of the occupational pursuits, the educational opportun­
ities and the advisability of pursuing the types of education
from which the greatest good (utility value) is likely to come.
Future results of the survey should include; (1) gaining
of confidence in the educational system; (2) supplying of a
motivating interest in the schools; (3) increasing more regu­
larity in school attendance, and (4) effect a higher degree
of scholastic accomplishment.
For the employer and the community, (1) a program of
more adequate vocational education; (2) a knowledge that the
schools now have better bases for understanding the educational
qualifications and requirements in terms of specific functional
ability of the performer to function on certain types of Jobs
and at specific levels; (3) improved confidence and morale in
terms of security through the training and employing of youth,
thus effecting at least partial adjustment in our education,
social, occupational and economic status.
It seems therefore that there is much evidence of needs
and value and that there will be outcomes from such an analysis.
Howeverfintangible certaln results may be, the influence will
be significant and should be felt over a long period of time.
182
RECOMMENDATIONS
In the light of the foregoing accumulation, compilation
and Interpretation of tabulated data Incorporated in the body
of this report, It would seem advisable for the superintendent
of schools and the Board of Education and the supervisor of
vocational education to take cognizance of this survey report
as a basis of considering the following suggestions and re­
commendations:
(1) That no radical changes from the present
offering be made, but that continued effort be made to build
the vocational departments in the several schools to a full
functional capacity.
That up to date equipment for vocation­
al training now idle because of lack of funds for a well
trained teacher be put to use by convincing the Board of Ed­
ucation, and perhaps necessarily the citizens, that non-use
of such floor space and equipment may be poor economy.
The offerings in any vocational education program
should be determined on the basis of the demands from business
and industry and in the light of training requirements and
opportunities for absorbing the product of such training.
This would require a continuous detailed research in the var­
ious fields, especially into the metal trades, building trades
and also the clerical and merchandising occupations.
It seems feasible and advisable that courses in mer­
chandising and retail selling be expanded beyond the present
scope.
eration.
The foods industries seem to offer a case for consid­
Aeronautics seem to be very popular from the pupil
choice and there is immediate need for a trained air force.
183
The opportunities in this field are extremely limited locally,
but this does not necessarily imply a revision of this phase.
The vocational progrtim should not be static but should
become more flexible as the years go by so that it may serve
a wide variety of conditions, purposes and individual dif­
ferences and the community requirements such as: (1) the
average pupil who would avoid school unless permitted to enter
Vocational; (2) the person who has fallen short of 9th grade
requirements and whose economic status is forcing him into
work and who should be given an opportunity to take short time
preparation for specific employment; (3) the "exceptional case"
pupil wishing to return to full-time day school for vocational
training for rehabilitation after having left at the completion
of the 8th grade*
Provision should also be made for the Inclusion of vo­
cational education opportunities beyond four years of formal
education or its equivalent for graduation*
Such plans should
include specialization opportunities supplementing formal edu­
cation on the graduation level which will in part conform to
the request for part time d a y and evening classes*
Provision
should also be made for vocational courses for boys and girls
who do not wish to complete three or four years df formal
education for graduation*
Because of the apparent large de­
mand for vocational education, it may be pertinent to raise
the question of the advisability of reorganizing all or some
of the vocational education in the city with the view of
obtaining federal aid for it*
184
It Is recommended that a special study be made to
ascertain what changes In our present vocational education
program must be made and the expenditure Involved to make
these changes*
It Is also recommended that this study Include
an estimate of the amount of federal aid the city could expect
to receive annually.
It Is further recommended that any teacher of any voca­
tional subject should consider It a part of the preparation of
his job to keep abreast with the present changes and demands
not In general but In specific employment situations.
APPENDIX I
A FOLLOW-UP SURVEY
OF THE JUNE 1936 CLASS
OF THE BLODGETT VOCATIONAL
HIGH SCHOOL
186
The Regents Inquiry Into the Character and Cost of
Public Education of the State of New York says:
"The schools
of New York State were not designed to meet the needs of all
kinds of youth.
Now that only one-fifth of those In high school
do, as a matter of fact, go to college, the time has come to
make over the high schools so that they will also be useful to
the four-fifths who finish their formal schooling when they
leave the secondary school.
The school program should be
planned from the bottom up, fully to meet the needs of youth
who will have to live and work in America today and tomorrow
without further formal training."
In order to make the oncoming graduates of the secondary
school, year by year, increasingly better qualified to fit into
the economic conditions into which they are going, there must
be a continual check-up of the efficiency of courses offered
in schools to keep in step with an ever-changing economic
structure.
One of the most practical ways of checking the
adequacy of the work being done in school is to make a survey
of a specific class of graduates of three or four years stand­
ing.
The lapse of this period of time from the date of grad­
uation will cause experience to condition their thinking; and
still the time will not be so long that answers will be out­
moded.
From these graduates, one may secure by the question­
naire method what the inherent weaknesses and strength of the
school are.
A corollary would be the securing of information
which might aid in the placement of the graduates and on-coming
graduates in positions.
187
E.
G. Williamson, coordinator of Student Personnel
Services at the University of Minnesota in his book, "How
to Counsel Students", 1939, says:
essential*
"A follow-up program is
The effects of guidance are impossible to measure
unless one knows something of the fate of the product*
It is
not enough that results be obtained, but they should be used
to Improve the services of the schools.
They should effect
guidance procedures and curricula."
Such a follow-up survey has been attempted.
As a
basis of analysis, the class which entered the Blodgett
Vocational High School, Syracuse, New York, in September 1932
and was graduated in June 1936 was taken for study.
PROBLEM
1.
To evaluate from the point of view of the graduate the
adequacy of the training that was given in Blodgett
Vocational High School.
(1) To ascertain If the graduate were doing the kind of
work the school had advised Him to take up, when it
mapped out his program.
(2) To find out subjects in high school which have proved
most useful outside of school.
(3) To find out what training graduate feels lack of.
(4) To find out the training the graduate feels should
be added to the high school curriculum to keep abreast
of current conditions in industrial and commercial
fields•
188
(5) To find out the relation, If any, between extra­
curricular activities and job-getting*
(6) To find out what one factor more than any other
built up the student*s confidence and initiative*
II* To secure a cross-section of the kinds of work that a
graduate of Blodgett Vocational High School might be likely
to engage in*
III*To indicate what the current local outlook is for marketing
of initial skills*
IV# To provide a check-up of the graduates who are out of work*
There was no inclusion in this problem of the social
aspects of the graduate needs, for the reaeon that this was so
largely colored by the economic#
HISTORY OF THE CLASS OP JUNE 1936
No* entering in Sept* 1932
308
No# in class in Sept# 1933
403
No* leaving school before 1936
135
No* listed as probable graduates in June 1936
268
No* failing to be graduated
18
No# actually graduated
250
Method of Investigation
The following questionnaire was sent to 230 graduates
of the 250 actually graduated:
Graduate of June 1936:
Will you kindly answer thefollowingquestions
return it to me immediately*
Weare
doingthis
and
to be of
189
further service to you and to help oncoming graduates with
Information gained from your experience*
1*
Name of graduate _____________________
2*
Course taken In school
Industrial
Commercial
College Preparatory
3*
Did you engage in any extra-curricular activities while
In school?
4*
Yes or no ___
HVhat was it that kept you from securing first job you
applied for? ________________________________________
5*
How did you obtain first job's _______________________
Through school
Through person or agency outside of school
Through entirely your own efforts
6*
How long did you hold first job? ________
7*
Why did you leave? _________________________________________
8*
How many jobs have you held 3lnce graduation? ________
9.
How many of these jobs did the school help you to
secure? __________
10* Are you employed at present?
11* If unemployed —
Yes or no
the reason _______________________
12* Where are you employed? _____________________________
13* Kind of work ________________________________________
.14* Is there a possible position, where you now work, open
for a June 1940 graduate of Vocational High School?
Name of position____________________________________
15* Are you doing the kind of work that you were advised
you were fitted for while in high school?
Yes or no
190
16* What subjects taken In high school have you found most
useful In your work?
___________________
17* After four years of experience, what subjects would you
take that you did not take were you to return to high
school?
18* What subjects would you advise being taught in high
school that were not taught when you were in school?
19. What, in high school, helped most to give you confi­
dence in looking for a job? _______________
Sincerely yours,
Margaret McClusky
No. answering questionnaire
150
No. of questionnaires returned to dead
letter office
No. falling to answer
37
43
RESULTS OP INVESTIGATION
Results based on the 150 graduates who answered
questionnaire•
No. of
graduates who pursued industrial course
55
No. of
graduates who pursued commercial course
87
No. of
graduates who pursued college prepara­
tory course
8
191
I*
Evaluation of training at Blodgett Vocational High
from point
of view ofthe
graduate*
School
Onehundredforty-
five answered this question.
(1) Is graduate now engaged In kind of work school advised
him to take up when It helped him to map out his program.
Yes
No
82
63
(2) Subjects taken In high school found to be most valuable
to graduates outside of school.
One hundred and forty-
one answered this question.
Industrial
Course
All shop work
Chemistry
Commercial
College
Preparatory
10
1
3
English
14
10
1
Public Speaking
10
5
2
4
1
20
1
Bookkeeping
8
1
Office Practice
4
Drafting
4
Mathematics
7
Vocational Technical
Electricity
2
Machine Shop
2
Typing
Com. Arithmetic
Shorthand
Business Training
4
11
1
192
Industrial
Course
Commercial
Office Machines
1
Home Economics
6
Representation
2
Salesmanship
2
College
Preparatory
(3) Subjects graduates did not take but might have taken
while in high school, and which In the light of
four years of experience they wish they had taken.
One hundred thirty-three answered this question.
Industrial
Course
Business Law
5
Shorthand
5
Typing
Commercial
College
Preparatory
4
14
Chemistry
3
4
Public Speaking
5
9
Machine Shop
3
3
Trigonometry
1
Economics
2
Vocational Technical
Electricity
1
Health
2
3
Languages
2
14
Physics
2
Advanced Drafting
1
Advanced Mechanical
Drawing
1
1
3
1
1
193
Industrial
Course
Commercial
General Shop Work
1
3
Art
1
4
Electricity
-1
All advanced shop
2
Salesmanship
1
2
College
Preparatory
1
Design
3
Physical Geography
1
Hetailing
4
Office Machines
8
Accounting
4
Bookkeeping
3
Geometry
2
Algebra
1
General Mathematics
3
2
(4) Subjects graduates feel would be a benefit if added
to curriculum.
One hundred and one answered this
question.
Industrial
Commercial
College
Preparatory
6
2
Bus. Management
3
Laboratory Equipment
1
Psychology
3
Manners & Etiquette
4
Aviation
5
1
Adv. Public Speaking
3
3
Telescope work
1
Dye Making
1
2
194
Industrial
Course
Commercial
Adv. Hygiene
8
4
Character analysis
1
Shop management
1
Metallurgy
3
Auto driving
4
Job training
1
Colls ge
Preparatory
3
XX
Adv. gomemaklng
4
Adv. Office Machines
15
Latin
1
Office Orientation
3
Cooking for boys
2
Safety first course
2
Adv. Business English
2
Credit Bureau work
8
1
Handicraft
Principles of Business
1
(5) How was first job obtained.
One hundred and forty-eight
answered this question
Through school
Own efforts
40
Person or agency
outside of school
52
56
(6) What kept you from securing the first job you applied
for?
Ninety-eight answered this question.
Inexperience
51
Youth
16
Harshness of voice
1
195
Religion
10
Nationality
15
No "pull"-
1
Lack of driver*s license
1
Bashfulness
3
(7) Why did graduate leave first job?
One hundred and
six answered this question.
Long hours
7
Decline in Business
39
Business closed up
12
Better job
21
Dislike of work
11
Seasoned, occupation
4
Not steady work
2
Unpleasant environment
3
Poor pay
7
(8) Connection between extra-curricular activities in
high school and later employment*
One hundred and
forty-nine answered this question.
No, employed
128
No, unemployed
21 - 5 married - 4 In college
normal s 12
Engaged in extra­
curricular activities
68
15
Not engaged In extra­
curricular activities
60
6
(9) What in high school gave you confidence in yourself
In matter of job-getting?
answered this question*
One hundred and seven
196
Good training
10
Participation in athletics
4
Friendship of teachers
23
Course in salesmanship
4
Instruction in English
9
Instruction in Drafting
1
Public Speaking
23
Possession of a diploma
12
Working in school offices
7
Mechanical ability
2
Instruction in typing
2
Shop work
3
Extra-curricular activities
6
Being member of school traffic
squad
1
Graduates evaluation of training at Blodgett Vocational
High School may he found also in the following pertinent
remarks attached as voluntary addenda to questionnaire:
Industrial student:
"Participation in athletics at V, H. S.
made me have a sense of fair play, ability to mix with others
and recognition of value of good health."
Industrial:
"Instead of specializing in any particular course
I would diversify my education."
College Preparatory:
"I would make Public Speaking a compulsory
subject.?
Commercial:
"Although I am not a typist, I found that it was
handy to have a knowledge of typing when applying for a job."
197
Commercial:
"From knowledge of business I now possess I
would say 'Have less theoretical knowledge taugjht In
Vocational and more subjects dealing with everyday life."*
Commercial:
"Have more Business English and less Julius
Caesar•"
Commercial:
"My reasons for having a Safety First Course
taught In Vocational are:
1* The large numbers of high school pupils who are finding
jobs In factories do not realize the danger there.
2. In five months at the Halcomb Steel Co., there have
been two deaths, ten major injuries, 100 or more minor
Injuries.
5. Half of new students In factories have taken commercial
or college preparatory courses, but could not find jobs
In fields In which they trained.
Their knowledge of
machinery hazards is limited."
Commercial:
"I regret that I didn't take more college prepara­
tory subjects
along with my commercial course."
Industrial:
"I
would make the Health course compulsory."
Industrial:
"I
would make typing a required subject In the
industrial
II.
as well as In the commercial courses."
Cross-section of type of work in which graduates are em­
ployed:
Clerk
One hundred and thirty-three answered this.
shipping
4
filing
3
abstract
1
billing
4
time
4
198
Clerk
bank
2
drug
1
Registered apprentice pharmacist
1
Operator In manufacture of
potassium carbonate
1
Bookkeeper
12
Private secretary
5
Baggage agent
1
Stenographer
20
Stock man
6
Pressman
3
Restaurant
5
Floor girl in store
1
Office boy
3
Factory worker
8
Automatic screw machine operator
1
Wood pattern worker
1
Kiln operator
1
Inspector
1
General office worker
4
Route supervisor-baker
1
Attending college
3
Attending normal school
1
Machine operator
4
Landscaper
1
Cashier
1
Annealer
1
Contractor
1
199
Mechanic
1
Packing meat
1
Shearsman
1
Gunsmith
1
Saleslady
8
Salesman
6
Apprentice tool maker
2
Elevator operator
2
Designer
1
Dressmaker
1
Electric motor repair man
1
Hospital attendant
1
Assft* Foreman-rolling mill
1
Office machine operator
2
Meat cutter
1
Finisher of cuttings
1
Index of current local outlook for• initial marketable skills
The following local firms have given employment to
June 1936 graduates of Blodgett Vocational High School:
One hundred and twenty-nine answered this question*
* s more than one June 1936 graduate employed hy firm.
Sherwin Williams Co.
^-Central N. Y. Power Corp.
^Prosperity Co*
^Greyhound Bus Lines of N.
•WFirst Trust & Deposit Co*
*Rollway Bearing Co.
Jewish Community Center
*Solvay Process Co#
Red Cross Pharmacy
Y, Inc#
Vlasco Candy Co*
General Pressed Metal Corp#
Spencer Folding Box Co*
200
G. C. Murphy 5 and 10
■apass and Seymour
U. S. Dept, of Agriculture
*Stone Bros. Pattern Works
Swift Packing Co.
*Frazer and Jones
Brown, Lip, Chapin
Porter Cable Machine Co.
Syracuse Transit Co.
Crouse Hinds Co.
Deferred Payment Plan Inc.
Yates Hotel
White and Shinaman, Lawyers
Western Auto Co.
Society for Correct Food
Preparation
Associated Laundries of America, Inc.
Loan Service Corporation
L.P. Fox C. P. A.
■ttOnondaga Pottery
*Julius Remlck, Inc.
^Mohican Stores
Y. W. C. A.
*Halcomb Steel Co.
#Herald Jovirnal
*Easy Washing Machine Corp.
Bell Aircraft Corp.
Davis & Reder, Inc.
McCarthy*a Restaurant
Community Stores Inc.
Sanitary Products & Paper
Inc.
*L. W. Singer Co.
^Precision Dye Casting Co.
Rudolph Bros. Inc.
Caldwell and Ward Brass Co.
Dey Bros.
Syracuse Chilled Plow Inc.
M. H. Salmon Electric Co.
N. Y. A.
Syracuse Psychopathic Hospital
John C. Larkin, Auditor
Kelley Baking Co.
I. W. Addis Co.
Edison General Electrical
Appliance Co., Inc.
^Continental Can Co.
£• A. Nolan
F. B. Tompkins & Associates,
Advertising
Acme Fast Freight Inc.
E. W. Edwards & Son
Syracuse Trust Co.
Weston*s Drug Store
*Kj*esge?s 5 and 10
Syracuse Title and Guaranty Co.
201
Possible openings for June 1940 graduates of Blodgett
Vocational High School— from tips given by June 1936 graduates
working in the following firms:
Prosperity Co., Inc. —
stenographer, apprentice in machine shop
Deferred Paymenit Plan Inc. —
Onondaga Pottery —
general office worker
liners
Solvay Process Co. —
Machine shop
Syracuse Trust Co. —
operator
Messenger, stenographer, machine
L. W. Singer Co. — temporary position in September —
and billing clerks
Kresge’s —
photographer
Syracuse Title and Guaranty Co. —
IV.
filing
stenographer
Check-up on graduates of June 1936 class who are unemployed.
150 answered this question.
129 are employed
5 are married, not working
4 are in college or normal school
12 actually unemployed
Of 12 unemployed, 9 may secure work.
The following three
would appreciate notification of existence of jobs:
Name
Course
Vera Child
Reason for
Unemployment
Commercial Inexperience
224 Stlnard Ave.
Louise Petrosino
11
Decline in Business 319 Hatch St.
Chas. Schemel
"
Unable to find work 210 Merrlman Ave.
FINDINGS
1.
Two-thirds of the June 1936 graduates of the Blodgett
Vocational High School are engaged in the type of work that
the school had advised them to train for.
202
2.
English, Public Speaking and Mathematics, in order named,
were voted by graduates of the Industrial, Commercial and
College Preparatory courses, as the subjects taken in high
school which were found most valuable outside of the school.
5.
Graduates of the Industrial course voted English, all shop
work, Mathematics, in order named, as most valuable to them
in work.
4.
Graduates of the Commercial course voted typing, shorthand,
English, in order named, as most valuable to them in work.
5.
Industrial graduates gave the largest vote to typing as
the subject they did not take in high school, but in the light
of business experience wish that they had taken.
6.
Commercial graduates voted language as the subject that
they did not take in high school, but wish that they had taken.
7.
Graduates of the College Preparatory course voted the study
of office machines as the subject that they wished that they
had taken in high school.
8.
Graduates of the industrial, commercial and college prepara­
tory courses alike voted Psychology and advanced Public Speaking
as the subjects that they felt would be a benefit, if added to
the curriculum.
&•
Graduates of the industrial courses voted Advanced courses
in Hygiene as the subject that they felt would be a benefit,
if added to the curriculum.
10. Graduates of the commercial courses voted a course in ad­
vanced office machines as the subject they felt
benefit, if added to the curriculum.
would
he of
203
11* Graduates were almost equally divided as to means by
which their first jobs were secured— through school, through
own efforts, through person or agency outside of school*
12* Listed in order of occurrence these factors kept graduates
from securing first job applied for:
inexperience, youth,
nationality, religion.
13* Graduates left first job held for following major reasons,
listed in order of occurrence:
decline in business, securing
of better job, closing down of business, dislike of type of
work*
14* Of total number of graduates employed, there is an almost
equal division between those engaged in extra-curricular activi­
ties in school and those not engaged in extra-curricular activi­
ties*
15* The four major factors which gave graduates the greatest
confidence in looking for a job, listed in order of occurrence
are:
friendship of teachers, Public Speaking, possession of
a diploma, good training*
16* The four fields of work which have supplied graduates with
the greatest number of positions, listed in order of occurrence
are:
stenographer, clerk, bookkeeper, factory work, and
saleslady*
17* There are at present possibilities for positions for June
1940 graduates of Blodgett Vocational High School with eight
Syracuse firms*
18* Of the 150 graduates who answered the questionnaire, 129
are actually employed, 12 actually unemployed, five married and
not working, 4 pursuing higher education*
C O P Y
September 20, 193S
Dear Member:
The local Board of Education is studying the problem
of the overcrowding of the Vocational High School and the
Apprentice Training School.
They state it will be necessary to make a survey
through the local business establishments to determine the
training needs before they can attempt to formulate a re­
vised curriculum to meet the future requirements of the
local employers.
Our Board of Directors approve this plan of the Depart­
ment of Education and recommend to our members that they,
through their employment offices, extend their cooperation
to the representative of the Department of Education who
will shortly call upon them for the purpose of securing in­
formation, relating simply to types of jobs and the sex of
the workers normally employed.
Your assistance will greatly benefit the Department of
Education in rendering this essential service to the com­
munity.
Yours very truly,
(Signed)
John W. Howe, Secretary
Manufacturers Association
of Syracuse, New York
S e p te m b e r 5 ,
1939
To All Employers and Business Concerns
In Syracuse:
The messenger presenting this blank is an
authorized representative of the Board of Education.
Will you kindly give him the information asked for
on the blank?
This information will be used as a part of an
Occupational Survey being sponsored by the Board of
Education in conjunction with the Mayor’s Committee
for the Study of Vocational Education; the New York
State Employment Service, and the National Youth
Administration.
Any and all information given will be held in
the strictest confidence and only summaries of the
findings will be made public.
Thank you for your kind cooperation.
Very respectfully,
(Signed)
G. Carl A1verson
BOARD OF EDUCATION
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
130 West Genesee Street
Syracuse, N. Y.
RL ALVERSON
FRED C. KAFFER
inperintendent
Director
November 11, 1939
Mr. George Tapner
804 S. West Street
Syracuse, New York
Dear Sir:
The Board of Education in cooperation with the
Mayor’s Committee for the study of vocational educa­
tion, the National Youth Administration, and the
Manufacturers Association, Is making an Occupational
Survey of the City of Syracuse.
Will you kindly fill out the inclosed Informa­
tion blank and mail it back at your earliest conven­
ience? Your kind cooperation in this matter is needed
to make this survey a success.
Thanking you, I am
Very truly yours,
FCK:NL
Inc *
Pred C. Kaffer, Director
Syracuse Occupational
Survey
SYRACUSE OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
TO ALL FIELD WORKERS
The cards which you have are the names and
addresses of business concerns who have already
been mailed an explanatory letter, some informa­
tion blanks, and a stamped self-addressed envelope.
To date, these firms have failed to send in the de­
sired Information.
Will you please contact these firms and get
either the information personally or the promise of
a definite mailing date.
If possible, try to get
the information yourself.
Fred C. Kaffer
1-17-40
OCCUPATIONAL SURVSt
Board of Education
Syracuse, N. Y. 1939
Businesa or Products Manufactured
Name of Organization
'
______
Person Interviewed
'
Person in Charge
Title
TYPES OF JOBS
MALE
Male Employees_____
Female Employ ees__
Date____________ By_
___
Checked_______
Title
District
Entered'____
EMPLOYEES
FEMALE.
Total
OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY
Board of Education
Syracuse, N. Y. 1939
Information to Field Workers
PROBLEM
This study aims to survey the occupational opportunities
in Syracuse for "both young men and women, 1. As an intelligent basis in formulating a more adaptable
and more adequate program of trade and industrial
education at the secondary level*
2 1 As a means to secure helpful data in connection with
pupil counseling and guidance.
OBJECTIVES 1. To determine with sufficient accuracy the absorption
capacity of the industrial* business, professional and
personal service fields of occupation as it relates to
men and women in the city of Syracuse*
2. To analyze carefully the requirements in terms of
education, necessary to industrial, business and per­
sonal service types of occupations.
3* To study the present training facilities, (outside of
formal education) public, private and commercial (day,
evening, extension, part-time, cooperative and appren­
tice plans), in effect in Syracuse.
4-. To study and summarize the findings and results of suen
studies:
(a) Other similar surveys
(b) Vocational programs in other cities
(c) Vocational ambitions and educational desires of
boys and girls enrolled in secondary education in
Syracuse
(d) Educational and occupational pursuits of boys and
girls graduated from Syracuse High Schools, 193^4—
3£>, inclusive
(e) The records of the attendance department, relative
to enrollments and dropouts; also issuance of work
permits
^REPARA­
TION
As a preparatory step, the names and addresses of most
businesses have been typed on 3 x 5 file cards and
these have been filed in the office of the director.-
ASSIGNMENT
Each field worker will be assigned a street or a
section and will be given the names and addresses of ;
the businesses falling within the assigned section.
These addresses will act as a guide in.obtaining the
required information from all business concerns
located within the assigned boundaries.
SUPPLIES
Field workers will be supplied with:
1* Information blanks
2. Pencil and clips
3. Daily report sheet
M-. A folder in which to carry this material*
2.
PROCEDURE• The field worker will start with the first address and
proceed systematically through the street or seotion.
Tq Obtain a Completed Census:
1. Ask for the Manager or Personnel Director
2t Tell him you are making this study for the Syracuse
Board of Education
3» If possible, sit down with the manager and immediately
fill in all information requested
If possible you, (the field worker) should personally
fill in the information blank, but if the manager or a
clerk does the writing, make certain that all information
is legible. If not, proper corrections.should be made
before leaving the place of business.
If you have any reason to believe that you have
ceived complete information as to the number of
female employees, make a clear notation to this
at the bottom of the information blank, with an
as to the number of employees not listed.
not re­
male and
effect
estimate
In the case of a small business concern such as a
doctor’s office, you do not need to see the doctor, as
you may more easily obtain the information from a
secretary or some other employee. In such cases, be
certain to enter the name of the person supplying the
information on the line marked "person interviewed".
Make out a separate blank for each place visited, even
if the owner is the only person employed there.
If there are too many "Types of Jobs" for one sheet use
as many additional sheets as may be required.
If no one present can properly supply the required in­
formation, do not leave the blank, but arrange to return
at a time when you can see the proper person.
In the case of a large firm where it will take
to complete the blank and the person in charge
understands what is desired, you may leave the
blank and arrange to return at a definite time
up. DO NOT ALLOW THEM TO MAIL OR SEND IT IN.
return for it.
some time
thoroughly
information
to pick it
You must
REFUSAL
If for any reason you meet with a refusal, fill out the t
top of the blank, with the firm name, address, type of
business, an estimate of the number of employees and the
name of the manager. Then write the word "Refused" in
the middle of the sheet.
COMMENTS
Be sure to make all comments and notations on the inform­
ation blanks.
3.
COMMENTS
(cont)
Fox instance: In the case of return calls, note the day
on which you made your first call, day and time when
you should return and, if possible, the manager's name*
Other notations such as "Refused", "Duplicate of
".
"Can't locate", "Moved to 'such and such' an address11, "
should also be entered on the information blank.
NEW FIRMS
One of the most important parts of your work is to find
"New Firms". (Those for whom we have no record in the
Directors File, but are within the boundaries of your
street or section).
The director's file does not contain the names of all
firms. The care which you take in locating new firms
will result in complete and valid study.
The procedure in taking the information from a "New
Firm" is exactly the same as one which appears on your
list.
If you cannot locate a responsible person at a "New
Firm" record the name, address, type of business on an
information blank. Also note the best time to return
for securing the information.
REPORTING
APPENDIX II
SURVEYS OF
OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS
205
SURVEY OP
ACCOUNTANTS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
NumOber of workers'
Males Females Total
Occupations
Accountants
6V
0
67
Accountants-junior
6
0
6
Clerks-office
3
0
3
Secretaries
0
9
9
Stenographers
0
28
28
Typists
jO
_2
__2
Totals
76
39
115
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented repre­
sents returns from 53 out of a total of
64, or 83$ of employers of accountants*
There is a total of 6 occupations
listed*
206
SURVEY OP
ADVERTISING AND SIGN CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Accountants
Attorneys
Bill posters
Bookkeepers
Cabinet makers
Clerks-office
Commercial artists
Construction labor
Copyrighter
Display designers
Electricians
Executives
Jobbers
Lettering and design
Managers
Managers-assistants
Neon glass blowers
Owner-operators
Painters
Paint ers-spray
Salesmen
Secretaries
Sign Painters
Sign painters-apprentlces
Silk screen operators
Stenographers
Tinsmiths
Window trimmers
3
1
8
7
2
0
18
7
3
5
3
3
2
5
8
3
5
2
20
5
8
0
32
8
3
9
3
__ 1
0
0
0
6
0
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
13
0
0
3
1
8
13
2
4
18
7
4
5
3
3
2
5
8
3
5
2
20
5
8
6
32
8
3
22
3
1
Totals
174
30
204
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents re­
turns from 34 out of a total of 46 or 74$ of
the advertising and sign concerns in Syracuse*
There is a total of 28 occupations listed*
207
SURVEY OP
ARCHITECTS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Architects-
26
0
26
Bookkeepers
0
1
1
Draftsmen
8
1
9
Secretaries
0
7
7
Stenographers
_0
_4
__4
Totals
34
13
47
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented re­
presents returns from 20 out of a
total or 100^ of the employers of
architects.
There is a total of 5 occupa­
tions listed.
208
SURVEY OP
ATTORNEYS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Auditors
Bookkeepers
Claim agents
Clerks-confidential
Clerks-file
C1 erks -deputy
Court attendants
Engineers
Investigators
Judges
Lawyers
Law clerks
Librarians
Marshals
Office boys
Process servers
Real estate
Salesmen
Special agents
St enographers
Secretaries
Telephone switchboard operators
1
2
5
2
0
2
4
2
3
10
575
40
0
6
3
2
1
2
1
7
1
__ 0
0
17
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
194
76
__5
1
19
5
2
1
2
4
2
3
10
576
40
2
8
3
2
1
2
1
201
77
__5
Totals
669
298
967
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 576 out of a total of 606 or 95$ of employers
of attorneys.
There is a total of 22 occupations listed.
209
SURVEY OF
AUTO SALES CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Accountants
Body and fender men
Bookkeepers
Car distributors
Car washers
Chauffeurs
Cashiers
Clerks-general office
Clerks-parts
Clerks-3 tock
Collectors
Comptometer operators
Electricians
Engineers and maintenance
Errand boy
Executives
Field and credit men
Manage rs-branch
Managers-busines s
Manager s-district
Managers-divisional used car
Managers-new car
Managers-office
Manager s-organizati on
Managers-parts and accessories
Managers-3ales
Managers-service
Managers-truck
Managers-used car
Managers-zone
Managers-zone assistants
Mechanics
Mechanics-helper
New car for delivery
Parts and accessories mer­
chandise representative
Radio repair
Salesmen
Service sales
Shop foremen
Spray painters
Number of worker's
Males females fotaT
5
26
9
1
16
1
3
7
15
23
1
0
2
1
1
5
25
1
1
4
2
10
7
1
4
3
14
1
9
1
2
193
3
2
0
0
24
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
26
33
1
16
1
3
14
15
23
1
1
2
1
1
7
25
1
1
4
2
10
7
1
4
3
14
1
9
1
2
193
3
2
5
1
191
9
11
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
1
191
9
11
18
210
Occupations
SURVEY OP
AUTO SALES CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Number of workers
Males Females ‘TobaT
Stenographers
Telephone switchboard operator
Upholstery and trim
Watchmen
Greasers
Janitors
Totals
2
0
1
7
16
10
119
5
0
0
0
__ 0
789
5
1
7
16
10
670
119
789
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 35 out of a total of 42 or 83/o of the auto
sales concerns in Syracuse#
There is a total of 46 occupations listed#
211
SURVEY OP
BAKERIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Pemales Total
Occupations
Bakers
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Clerks-bill
Clerks-office
Clerks-retail sales
Clerks-shipping and receiving
Comptometer operators
Confectioners
Decorators
Delivery boys
Janitors
Laborers and helpers
Managers-assistants
Managers-office
Manager s-plant
Mechanics
Mechanics-garage
Packers
Salesmen
Stationary engineers
Stenographers
Supervisors-sales
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Warehousemen
223
2
3
2
5
40
29
1
1
1
1
5
66
3
6
4
13
6
2
63
3
0
18
173
2
24
4
1
0
3
31
0
1
0
3
0
1
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
4
0
0
0
247
6
4
2
8
71
29
2
1
4
1
6
80
3
6
4
13
6
2
65
3
4
18
173
2
1 bakery reported:
Workers
100
20
120
Totals
772
108
880
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 48 out of a total of 72 or 67$ of the bakeries
in Syracuse.
There is a total of 26 occupations listed#
212
SURVEY' OP
BANKS AND BRANCHES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Numb er of workers
Males IFemales Total
Accounting clerks
Analysis
Auditing
Block department
Bookkeepers
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Collection department
Comptometer
Credit department
Credit men
Custodian safe deposit boxes
Department heads
Draft department
Elevator operators
Engineers
Executives
Firemen
Floormen
Inspectors
Janitors
Janltors-part time
Loan department men
Managers
Mechanics
Messengers
Mortgage department
New Business
Real estate
Secretaries
Stenographers
Telephone operators
Tellers
Tellers-junior
Transit department
Trust department
Utility
Watchmen
135
2
3
3
57
0
137
6
0
0
6
2
13
1
10
3
49
4
7
10
17
11
6
4
5
17
2
3
5
0
0
0
97
0
0
2
2
11
40
0
0
0
34
21
47
1
7
2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
123
8
2
4
2
0
0
__ 0
175
2
3
3
91
21
184
7
7
2
6
2
14
1
10
3
49
4
7
11
17
11
6
4
5
17
2
3
5
5
123
8
99
4
2
2
2
11
Totals
630
298
928
213
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 8 banks and 13 branches of 100% of the banks
in Syracuse.
There is a total of 38 occupations listed.
214
SURVEY OP
BEAUTY PARLORS AND BARBER SHOPS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females tfotal
All-round operators
21
Faciallsts
1
Finger waving
0
Hair cutting
12
Hair dying
0
Hair stylists
5
Harper method work
0
Helpers
0
Instructors
0
Janitress
0
Maids
0
Make-up artists
0
Managers
1
Managing operators
6
Manicurists
0
Nurse bath department
0
Permanent wavers
1
Receptionists
0
Scalp treatments
0
Secretaries
0
Student s
5
Swedish mas sue
1
BARBERS
Apprentice barbers
3
Barbers
221
Manicurists
0
Owner managers
126
Porters
1
207
6
2
1
1
1
1
8
7
1
4
1
7
111
5
1
3
1
1
1
92
1
228
7
2
13
1
6
1
8
7
1
4
1
8
117
5
1
4
1
1
1
97
1
0
1
1
0
0
3
222
1
126
1
Totals
465
869
404
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 348 out of a total of 351 or 99%
of the beauty parlors and barber shops in
Syracuse,
There Is a total of 27 occupations listed.
215
SURVEY OP
BOWLING ALLEYS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Male Female Total
Occupations
Bartenders
3
7
3
Checkroom
0
3
3
Elevator operators
1
0
1
Foul men
6
e
6
Instructress
0
l
1
10
l
11
Managers-general
2
0
2
Mechanics
1
0
1
88
0
88
Porters
6
0
6
Secretaries
0
2
2
Watchmen
1
_0
JL
118
7
125
Managers-floor
Pin setters
Totals
SUMMARY
The dgta herewith presented repre­
sents returns from 4 out of a total of
6 or 67% of the bowling alleys in Syracuse.
There is a total of 12 occupations
listed.
216
SURVEY" OP
BUILDERS SUPPLIES AND CONTRACTORS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Acetylene burners
Applicators
Bookkeepers
Brick layers
Carpenters
Cement finishers
Clerks-office
Clerks-shipping and receiving
Clerks-stock
Consulting engineers
C ontract or s-general
Crane operators
Estimators
Executives
Foremen
Janitors
Laborers and helpers
Managers
Managers-assistants
Masons
Mechanics
Metal men
Mill hands
Millwright
Owner-operators
Engineers
Painters
Plasterers
Roofing
Salesmen
Secretaries
Shovel operators
Stenographers
Sup erlntendents-fi eld
Super int endent s-general
Superintendents-mill
Supervisors-field
Timekeepers
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Watchmen
Yardmen
Totals
Number of workers
Males Females Total
2
75
9
23
206
5
12
2
2
2
67
4
1
16
6
1
284
9
1
91
5
1
16
1
4
3
11
1
8
92
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
37
7
__6
1,018
0
0
5
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
9
0
16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
_0
38
2
75
14
23
206
5
14
2
2
2
67
4
1
16
6
1
284
9
1
91
5
1
16
1
4
3
11
1
8
98
9
1
17
1
1
1
2
1
37
7
__6
1,056
217
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 198 out of a total of 264 or
75% of the builders supply houses and con­
tractors in Syracuse.
There is a total of 41 occupations listed.
218
SURVEY- OP
CHURCHES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
foonbeg of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Cantors
Case workers
Chauffeurs
Choir directors
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Director religious education
Firemen
Housekeepers
Janitors
Missionaries
Nursery attendants
Organists
Part time employees
Pastors
Pastors-assistants
Pianists
Recreational leaders
Secretaries
Singers
Solicitors
Teachers-law
Teachers-nun
0
1
0
1
8
0
1
0
1
0
63
0
0
19
14
60
13
0
2
2
14
1
7
0
1
0
3
0
2
14
1
2
0
6
0
3
1
31
5
1
3
4
2
14
17
0
12
70
1
1
3
1
10
14
2
2
1
6
63
3
1
50
19
61
16
4
2
16
31
1
19
70
N. E. C .
__ 0
__ 1
__ 1
Totals
207
193
400
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 85 out of a total of 130 or 65$ of the churches
in Syracuse.
There is a total of 25 occupations listed.
219
SURVEY- OP
CIGAR STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Pemales ‘
.Total
Sales clerks
47
J7
54
Totals
47
7
54
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented
represent returns from 34 out of a
total of 45 or 76^ of the cigar stores
in Syracuse.
There is only one occupation listed.
220
SURVEY OP
COLLECTION AND FINANCE AGENCIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
i ■i r- r i Ii■ ii
Occupations
i
r
"
■■n " ' n i "» dumber 'of*workers
Males Females Total
Adjusters
Adjusters-insurance
Auditors
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Clerks-office
Collectors
Courthouse workers
Credit men
Department heads
Executives
Investigators-inside
Investigators-outside
Janitors
Maintenance
Managers-as si stants
Managers-collection
Managers-credit
Office hoy
Operators-bookkeeping machine
Operators-dictaphone machines
Operators-Elliot Pisher
Operators-telephone
Salesmen
Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists
Manager s-branch
Totals
1
7
2
1
2
1
21
1
4
3
4
3
11
1
1
14
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
27
0
0
0
11
9
15
0
0
0
2
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
1
5
0
18
42
13
1
1
7
2
12
11
16
21
1
4
5
4
28
11
1
1
14
3
1
1
2
2
1
5
25
18
42
13
28
134
146
280
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 35 out of a total of 37 or 96$ of the collection
and finance agencies in Syracuse.
There is a total of 28 occupations listed.
221
SURVEY OP
CONFECTIONERS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males females TcrEaT
Occupations
Advertising
Bakers
Bookkeepers
Candy Makers
Clerks-part time
Clerks-retail
Clerks-Soda Fountain
Cooks
Dishwashers
Helpers
Ice Cream Makers
Managers
Managers-Assistants
Owners-Operators
Salesmen
Stockmen
Truckdrivers
Waiters and waitresses
Totals
1
1
0
1
1
31
37
4
2
1
1
2
1
4
6
1
4
5
0
0
1
0
3
20
19
1
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
__9
1
1
1
1
4
51
56
5
2
3
1
3
1
4
6
1
4
14
103
59
162
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 54 out of a total of 79 or 68$
of the confectioners in Syracuse,
There is a total of 18 occupations listed.
222
SURVEY- OP
DAIRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
kales Females Total
Occupations
Blacksmiths
Bookkeepers
Butt ermaker s
Cashiers
Cheese makers
C1erks-office
Clerks-retail sales
Clerks-shipping
Collectors and solicitors
Engineers-stationery
Farm inspectors
Foreman
Ice cream maker
Ice cream worker
Malnt ainanc e
Manager s-plant
Managers-office
Managers-plant assistants
Managers-sales
Managers-sales assistants
Mechanics-garage
Milk technicians
Plant employees
Route drivers
Stenographers
Sup erintendent-plant
Superintendent-route
Telephone operators
Wagon makers
1
11
1
1
3
6
3
5
14
6
1
16
2
3
1
7
2
3
3
1
8
0
122
236
2
2
1
0
__ 1
0
7
0
3
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
8
0
0
1
__ 0
1
18
1
4
3
13
3
5
14
6
1
16
2
3
1
7
3
3
3
1
8
2
123
236
10
2
1
1
__ 1
Totals
462
30
492
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 13 out of a total of 17 or 76$
of the dairies in Syracuse.
There is a total of 29 occupations listed.
223
SURVEY OP
DENTAL SUPPLY CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
0
2
2
Buyers
0
1
1
Clerks-office
1
0
1
Cle rks-shipping
2
0
2
Executives
4
0
4
43
2
45
Messengers
7
0
7
Packing and finishing
2
0
2
Plaster boys
1
0
1
Salesmen
6
0
6
Secretaries
0
4
4
Stenographers
0
4
4
66
13
79
Me chani cs-dental
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 14 out of a total of 14 or 100$
of the dental supply concerns In Syracuse.
There is a total of 12 occupations listed.
224
SURVEY- OF
DEPARTMENT, DRY GOODS AND SHOE STROES, MEN AND WOMENS WEAR
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Advertising
Alteration bands
Artists
Bookkeepers
Bookkeeping machine operators
Buyers
Cashiers
Clerks-audit
Clerks-office
Clerks-soda
Clerks-retail sales
Clerks-retail sales part time
C2e rks-stock
Collection
Credit
Customer service
Elevator operators
Errand boys
Executives
Fitters
Floor managers and department heads
Furniture finishers
Furriers
Janitors, porters and cleaners
Knitting instructress
Maintenance
Managers
Managers-assistants
Matrons
Owner-operators
Personnel
Pressera
Pricing goods
Servicemen
Shipping and receiving
Statistical department
Stenographers
Store detectives
Supply department
Telephone operators
Timekeepers
Truck drivers
War ehous emen
Watchmen
Window trimmers
Totals
Number of workers
Males Females Total
11
11
28
11
0
60
3
11
5
2
374
25
48
11
8
2
14
1
27
5
33
6
9
57
0
31
56
12
0
26
0
6
7
4
73
0
1
3
1
0
0
2
4
5
10
1,003
17
149
2
11
7
70
79
2
36
3
1271
112
67
0
22
2
19
0
7
22
29
0
7
17
1
0
6
0
8
7
2
3
34
0
42
4
75
0
0
18
10
0
1
0
1
3,166
28
160
30
22
7
130
82
13
41
5
1645
137
115
11
30
4
33
1
34
27
62
6
16
74
1
31
62
12
8
33
2
9
41
4
115
4
76
3
1
18
10
2
5
5
11
4,169
225
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 145 out of a total of 162 or 90j& of
the department, dry goods shoe stores, mens' and
womens' wear stores in Syracuse.
There is a total of 45 occupations listed#
226
SURVEY OP
DRUGS AND CHEMICAL CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Buyers
Cashiers
Chemists
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Clerks-retail sales
Clerks-soda fountain
Clerks-stock
Cooks
Cosmetic girls
Errand boys
Elevator operators
Machinists
Maintenance
Managers
Managers-as sistantsManagers-credit
Managers-department
PackersPharmacists
Porters
Pricers
Salesmen
Shipping and receiving
St enograph er s
Truck drivers
Waitresses
Warehousemen
Window trimmers
Miscellaneous N.E.C.
Totals
Number of workers
Males Females Total!
0
1
1
5
0
0
39
27
5
0
0
2
1
1
1
7
1
1
3
3
18
8
2
20
2
1
4
0
12
1
13
7
0
0
0
3
8
8
0
0
1
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
9
0
0
__6
7
1
1
5
3
8
47
27
5
1
10
2
1
1
1
7
1
1
5
3
18
8
2
20
2
8
4
9
12
1
19
179
61
240
227
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 20 out of a total of 22 or 90$>
of the drugs and chemical concerns in
Syracuse,
There is a total of 31 occupations
listed.
228
SURVEY OP
DRY CLEANING, TAILORS AND LAUNDRIES
IN SYRACUSE, HEW YORK
Numbers 'of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Addressograph operators
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Clerks-office
Clerks-retail sales
Counter girls
Dry cleaners and pressers
Dyers
Engineers-stationary
Errand boys
Factory superintendents
Forelady
Garage mechanics
Hand sewers
Hatters
Janitors
Laundry workers
Managers-general
Managers-office
Markers amd checkers
Routemen
Route supervisors
Seamstresses
Spotters
St enogr apher s
Tailors
Telephone operators
Truck drivers
Washers
0
2
0
2
21
0
65
0
9
1
1
0
2
0
2
3
21
2
1
6
36
1
0
11
0
97
0
23
__9
1
13
1
34
18
29
16
2
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
216
0
1
9
0
0
11
0
6
0
1
0
__2
1
15
1
36
39
29
81
2
9
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
237
2
2
15
36
1
11
11
6
97
1
23
11
Totals
315
362
677
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 146 out of a total of 217 or 67# of the dry
cleaning, tailors and laundries in Syracuse,
There Is a total of 29 occupations listed.
229
SURVEY OP
ELECTRICAL STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number o'f workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Armature winders
Armature winders apprentices
Bookkeepers
Bookkeeping machine operators
Clerks-office
Clerks-retail
Clerks-stock
Delivery boys
Ediphone operators
Electricians
Electricians-helpers
Engineers
Executives
Foremen
Installers
Lighting specialists
Managers-office
Managers-sales promotional
Managers-store
Salesmen
Secretaries
Service-electrical
Shipping and receiving
Stenographers
Telephone switchboard operators
Truck drivers
Typists
Warehous emen
8
4
4
0
17
45
2
1
0
19
2
2
10
2
2
1
8
2
2
48
0
9
10
5
0
2
0
2
0
0
5
1
6
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
15
3
0
4
0
237
Totals
“
8
4
9
1
23
46
2
1
2
19
2
2
10
2
2
1
8
2
2
48
5
9
10
20
3
2
4
2
213
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 33 out of a total of 36 or 92$ of the electri­
cal stores in Syracuse.
There is a total of 28 occupations listed.
230
SURVEY OP
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Pemales "ToTaT
Bookkeepers
0
3
3
Clerks-office
1
15
16
24
17
41
Managers
7
1
8
Placement
2
0
2
Secretaries
0
4
4
St enographers
JL
_5
_6
Totals
35
45
80
Interviewers
SUMMARY
The date herewith presented re­
presents returns from 9 out of a
total of 10 or 90$ of the employment
agencies of Syracuse.
There Is a total of 7 occupa­
tions listed.
231
SURVEY OP
FLOORING CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Bookkeepers
0
2
2
Executives
3
0
3
Helpers
4
0
4
23
0
23
7
0
7
Stenographers
_0
2
2
Totals
37
4
41
Layers
Salesmen
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented re­
presents returns from 8 out of a total
of 11 or 73$> of the flooring concerns
in Syracuse,
There is a total of 6 occupations
listed.
232
SURVEY OF
FLORISTS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
itfales Females fotal
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Chauffeurs and truckdrivers
Clerks-retail sales
Clerks-stock
Designers-floral
Errand boys
Gardeners
Greenhouse workers
Managers
Owners-operators
Salesmen
Stenographers
2
6
2
3
18
1
4
9
4
3
1
JD
6
0
13
0
9
0
0
0
0
1
0
_1
8
6
15
3
27
1
4
9
4
4
1
1
Totals
53
30
83
SUMMARY
The date hereMth presented represents returns
from 24 out of a total of 36 or 67^ of the florists
in Syracuse.
There is a total of 12 occupations listed*
233
SURVEY OF
FOOD PRODUCTS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Clerks-billing
Clerks-office
Clerks-Shipping and receiving
Clerks-Stock
Demonstrator
Laborers
Managers-district
Managers-district assistants
Managers-sales
Salesmen
Secretaries
Stenographers
Telephone operators
Managers-office
0
0
0
7
3
1
0
17
4
2
3
78
0
0
0
_1
2
1
1
7
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
6
1
8
1
-2
2
1
1
14
3
1
3
17
4
2
3
84
1
8
1
JL
Totals
53
30
83
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 11 out of a total of 15 or 73% of the food pro­
ducts concerns In Syracuse*
There is a total of 16 occupations listed*
234
SURVEY OF
FRUIT AND PRODUCE COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number
Males
Occupations
Banana messengers
Bookkeepers
Buyers
Carpenters
Chauffeurs and truck drivers
Clerks-office
Clerks-retail sales
Collectors
Executives
Janitors
Laborers
Managers
Salesmen
Stenographers
Store demonstrators
Warehousemen
Watchmen
Totals
worxers
Total
1
2
8
1
28
6
16
2
12
1
41
13
0
0
0
1
_2
0
5
0
0
0
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
1
0
JD
1
7
8
1
28
12
17
2
12
1
41
13
2
2
1
1
_2
135
15
150
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 23 out of a total of 29 or 79$ of the fruit and
produce companies in Syracuse.
There is a total of 17 occupations listed.
235
SURVET OF
FUEL COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Numb er of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Auditors
Bookkeepers
Clerks-office
Clerks-shipping
Executives
Foremen
Heating engineers
Laborers and helpers
Maintenance
Managers-office
Managers-yard
Salesmen
Servicemen
Stenographers
Truck drivers
Watchmen
Weighmasters
Yardmen
Yard superintendent
2
0
13
3
15
3
4
65
1
4
2
20
1
0
124
1
11
10
__4
■
Totals
283
53
0
22
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
19
0
0
0
0
0
2
22
25
3
15
3
4
65
1
4
2
20
1
19
124
1
11
10
__4
336
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 62 out of a total of 89 or 70$
of the fuel companies in Syracuse.
There is a total of 19 occupations
listed.
236
SURVEY OP
FURNITURE STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Advertising men
Assistant managers
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Cleaning women
Collectors
Credit men
Elevator boys
Executives
Furniture finishers
Hostesses
Janitors
Office clerks
Outside slaesmen
Owner-managers
retail selling clerks
Servicemen furniture stores
Sewers
Shipping and receiving
Stenographers
Stock clerks
Stove repair
Truck drivers
Upholsterers
Warehousemen
1
2
7
0
0
27
7
1
11
10
0
4
4
13
5
33
22
0
16
0
1
4
20
36
__9
0
0
7
4
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
18
1
0
1
0
12
0
23
0
0
0
0
_0
1
2
14
4
5
27
7
1
11
10
1
4
22
14
5
34
22
12
16
23
1
4
20
36
__9
Totals
233
72
305
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents re­
turns from 24 out of a total of 24 or 100^ of
the furniture stores In Syracuse •
There Is a total of 25 occupations listed.
237
SURVEY OF
GARAGES AND GAS STATIONS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of Workers
Males Females
Total
Attendants-part time
Auto electric and carburator
Body and fender men
Bookkeepers
Brake service
Car washers
Cashiers
C3e rks-office
Clerks-shipping and stock
Errand boy
Foremen
Gas station attendants
Glazers
Janitors
Laborers and helpers
Lubrication men
Machinists
Managers
Managers-assistants
Managers-office
Manager s-shop
Mechanics-garage
Mechanics-gas station
Paint shops
Radiator service
Radio service
Salesmen
Secretaries
Shock absorber service
Spray painters
Stenographers
Sup erint endent-piant
Telephone operators
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Upholstery men
Watchmen
Welders
Managers-sales
6
6
33
8
4
9
0
3
7
1
4
62
4
1
23
5
2
21
1
3
7
209
11
6
1
2
44
0
2
11
1
1
1
178
6
3
1
__3
Totals
690
0
0
0
25
0
0
1
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
19
0
5
0
0
0
0
__ 0
58
6
6
33
33
4
9
1
10
7
1
4
62
4
1
23
5
2
21
1
3
7
209
11
6
1
2
44
1
2
11
20
1
6
178
6
3
1
__3
748
238
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents re­
turns from 166 out of a total of 234 or 1\% of
the garages and gas stations in Syracuse.
There is a total of 38 occupations listed.
239
SURVEY OF
GRINDING, CUTLERY AND LOCKSMITHS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number o£ workers
Females 'T'otal
Males
Grinders
6
0
6
Locksmiths
4
0
4
Stenographers
0
1
JL
10
1
11
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented re­
presents returns from 7 out of a
total of 8 or 88$ of the grinding,
cutlery and locksmiths In Syracuse,
There Is a total of 3 occupa­
tions listed.
240
SURVEY- OP
GROCERY STORES AND MEAT MARKETS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Accountants
Advertising
Bookkeepers
Butchers
Buyers
Cashiers
Checkers
Clerks-office
Clerks-part time
Clerks-receiving and shipping
Clerks-sales
Clerks-stock
Comptometer operators
Managers-office
Managers-3ales
Managers-store
Managers-traffic
Owner-operators
Porters and cleaners
Sausage makers
Sign painters
Stenographers
Supervisors
Telephone operators
Truck drivers
Typists
Warehousemen
3
3
10
171
8
11
4
1
98
14
650
7
0
3
2
85
2
82
3
4
2
0
4
0
73
0
__30
__ 1
3
3
32
171
10
31
4
18
135
14
791
7
34
3
2
85
2
95
7
4
2
9
4
1
73
4
__31
Totals
1270
305
1575
0
0
22
0
2
20
0
17
37
0
141
0
34
0
0
0
0
13
4
0
0
9
0
1
0
4
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 416 out of a total of 636 or 65$ of the grocery
stores and meat markets in Syracuse,
There is a total of 27 occupations listed.
241
SURVEY1 OP
HARDWARE AND TINSMITH STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Tot’al
Occupations
Body and fender
Bookkeepers
Buyers
Cashiers
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Clerks-price
Clerks-retail sales
Clerks-stock
Credit men
Collectors
Floor layers
Furniture repair
Janitors
Laborers
Managers
Owner-managers
Painters
Pltimbers
Plumber 3-help ers
Receiving and shipping
Sale smen-outside
Servicemen
Sheet metal workers (tin smiths)
Stenographers
Stove repair men
Switchboard operators
Truck drivers
Warehousemen
4
11
3
1
0
7
1
62
7
1
2
2
1
1
8
12
8
2
5
1
15
15
6
51
4
3
0
14
__8
0
3
1
1
1
10
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
2
0
J)
4
14
4
2
1
17
1
68
7
1
2
2
1
1
8
12
8
2
5
1
15
15
6
51
11
3
2
14
__8
Totals
255
31
286
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from
35 out of a total of 48 or 73$ of the hardware and tin­
smith stores in Syracuse*
There Is a total of 29 occupations listed.
242
SURVEY OP
HOSPITALS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Accountants
Ambulance drivers and chauffeurs
Ambulance attendants
Assistant laboratory director
Assistant physicians
Attendants
Bookkeepers
Bookkeepers-assistant
Cashiers
Chaplains
Chief engineers
Chief engineers-assistants
Chefs
Clerks-admitting
Clerks-office
Cooks
Department supervisors
Dietary
Elevator operators
Firemen
Housekeepers
House mothers
Internes
Janitors
Kitchen helpers
Laborers
Laboratory technicians
Laboratory technicians-assistants
Laundry
Maids
Maintenance and repairs
Nurses-county
Nurses-general duty
Nurses-students
Occupational therapists
Operating room attendants
Orderlies
Pathologists
Pharmacists
Physic-therapists
Record librarians
Record librarians-assistants
Reentgenologi st s
ifumher of workers
Males Females tfotal
0
9
2
1
2
0
2
0
0
4
7
19
5
0
5
7
0
2
12
6
24
0
15
6
19
7
6
1
14
0
42
0
0
0
0
1
19
1
1
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
0
0
16
13
5
3
0
0
9
0
6
15
7
69
30
2
0
70
13
0
0
21
2
13
1
60
17
0
1
294
334
1
0
3
0
3
1
4
3
0
3
9
2
1
2
16
15
5
3
4
7
19
5
6
20
14
69
32
14
6
94
13
15
6
40
9
19
2
74
17
42
1
294
334
1
1
22
1
4
1
4
3
1
243
SURVEY OF
HOSPITALS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Wles
Occupations
er "of workers
Females "Total
Seamstresses
Secretaries-medical
Science instructors
Social service directors
Stenographers
Storekeepers
Superintendents-hospital
Superint endent s-a3 sI stant s
Sup erint endent s-nigh t
Superintendents-night assistants
Superintendents-nurs es
Telephone operators
Tray and kitchen girls
X-ray technicians
Waiters and waitresses
Ward Service
0
0
0
1
0
2
3
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
3
__2
8
3
10
3
11
1
5
5
1
1
5
22
60
5
17
__ 1
8
3
10
4
11
3
8
5
1
1
5
24
60
6
20
__3
Totals
293
1,226
1,519
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from 10
out of a total of 11 or 91$ of the hospitals in Syracuse.
There is a total of 59 occupations listed.
244
SURVEY OP
HOTELS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Auditing - accounting
Bakers
Bartenders
Bell boys
Bus boys
Bus girls
Cashiers
Chefs
Cigar Stand
Cleaiing women
Clerks - desk room
Clerks - receiving
Coffeemen
Directors - resident
Directors - assistant
Dishwashers
Doormen
Electricians
Elevator operators
Engineers
Executives
Pood checkers
Class girls
Hat check girls
Housekeepers
Housemen
Ice men
Inspectresses
Janitor - porter
Laundry
Linen - ladies uniforms
Lobby boy
Maids
Maintenance
Managers
Managers - advertising
Managers - assistants
Managers - catering
Managers - credit
Masseurs
Night hostesses:
Oyster men
dumber of workers
Males Females Total
4
16
24
75
20
0
4
42
3
0
53
1
1
0
0
33
5
9
27
7
7
0
0
00
0
39
2
0
46
7
0
2
0
31
23
2
4
1
1
2
0
2
9
0
0
0
0
3
11
3
0
19
9
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
14
14
10
34
0
0
3
0
38
5
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
13
16
24
75
20
3
15
45
3
19
62
1
1
1
1
34
5
9
27
7
8
14
14
10
34
39
2
3
46
45
5
2
129
31
23
2
4
1
2
2
1
2
245
SURVEY OP
HOTELS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Number of1 workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Pantry girls
Physical directors Y.M.C.A.
Printers
Promotion magazine
Purchasing agents
Salad girls
Seamstresses
Secretaries
Stationary engineers and firemen
St enogr apher s
Stewards
Stores
Supervisors Y.M.C.A.
Supply men
Telephone switchboard operators
Timekeepers
Upholsterers
Valet service
Vegetable women
Waiters - Head
Waiters and waitresses
Window washers
Unclassified
Totals
0
3
4
0
2
0
0
9
33
6
5
2
2
6
0
3
1
3
0
2
56
3
35
4
0
0
1
0
2
3
13
0
9
0
0
0
0
8
0
2
0
6
0
56
0
35
4
3
4
1
2
2
3
22
33
15
5
2
2
6
8
3
3
3
6
2
112
3
__70
668
446
1114
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 32 out of a total of 36 or 89$ of the hotels
in Syracuse.
There is a total of 65 occupations listed.
246
SURVEY OP
INSURANCE COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Addressograph operators
Agency organizers
Attorneys
Auditors
Bondmen
Bookkeepers
Bookkeeping machine operators
Cashiers
Claim adjusters
Claim secretaries
Clerks-office
Clerks-stamp
Collection
Department heads
Dictaphone operators
Engineers
Inland marine experts
Inspectors
Managers
Managers-a8slstant
Messengers
Policy writers
Presidents
Printing
Salesmen-auto
Sal esmen-gener al
Salesmen-llfe
Secretaries
Shipping department
Special agents
State agents
St enographers
Statisticians
Superintendents
Superlntendents-assistant
Supervisors
Surveying agents
Telephone switchboard operators
Treasurers
Underwriters
Not elsewhere classified
0
1
10
14
•1
9
1
9
54
0
34
0
1
11
1
17
1
20
60
6
2
3
5
12
3
193
254
0
2
44
6
0
0
3
5
12
1
0
2
14
40
6
0
0
2
1
37
4
20
1
4
167
19
0
3
12
0
0
0
2
0
0
12
0
0
0
0
3
50
0
0
0
194
1
0
1
0
4
4
0
19
__ 0
6
1
10
16
2
46
5
29
55
4
201
19
1
14
13
17
1
20
62
6
2
15
5
12
3
193
257
50
2
44
6
194
1
3
6
12
5
4
2
33
40
Totals
851
566
1417
247
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 138 out of a total of 152 or 91#
of the insurance companies in Syracuse*
There is a total of 41 occupations listed.
248
SURVEY OP
INVESTMENT COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Adjusters
Board Boys
Bookkeepers
Bookkeeping machine operators
Cashiers
Clerks-office
Collectors
Customers* men
Executives
Investment brokers
Managers
Owner-operators
Runners
Sales
Secretaries
St enographers
Supervisors
Telegraph operators
Telephone operators
Traders
Underwriters of Investment Bonds
1
2
4
0
0
1
2
6
6
16
8
6
1
69
1
1
1
1
0
3
__ 1
0
0
6
1
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
13
17
0
0
1
0
JL
1
2
10
1
2
3
2
6
6
16
8
7
1
72
14
18
1
1
1
3
__2
Totals
130
47
177
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 38 out of a total of 43 or 88$ of the investment
companies in Syracuse*
There is a total of 21 occupations listed*
249
SURVEY OP
JEWELRY STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Collectors
Clerks-office
Clerks-sales
Clerks-stock
Diamond setting and jewelry repair
Executives
Maintenance
Managers
Manager s-credi t
Optometrists
Porters
Radio repair service
St enogr apher s
Watchmaker and repair
Totals
0
0
10
0
58
4
6
2
2
8
4
4
2
1
0
56
8
5
0
12
11
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
8
5
10
12
69
8
6
2
2
8
4
4
2
1
14
56
157
52
189
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 42 out of a total of 46 or 91% of the jewelry
stores in Syracuse*
There is a total of 16 occupations listed*
250
SURVEY OP
LEATHER STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
0
2
2
Chauffeurs and truck drivers
1
0
1
Clerks-retail sales
1
1
2
Foremen
2
0
2
Laborer
2
1
3
_3
__0
J5
9
4
13
Managers
Total
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 4 out of a total of 5 or 80$ of the leather
stores In Syracuse.
There is a total of six occupations listed.
251
SURVEY OP
LIQUOR STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
3
3
6
Clerks-office
1
0
1
49
3
52
Managers
3
0
3
Office machine operators
0
2
2
Stenographers
0
4
4
Telephone operators
0
1
1
Truck drivers
9
0
9
Warehousemen
30
-2
30
Totals
95
13
108
Clerks-sales
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 30 out of a total of 46 or 65%
of the liquor stores In Syracuse.
There is a total of 9 occupations listed.
252
SURVEY OF
MACHINERY CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females 'fotal
Occupations
Artists
Bookkeepers
Clerks-office
Clerks-stock
Engineer-sales
Lithographer
Machinery repair-maintenance
Manag er-branch
Manager-office
Painters
Punch card operators
Salesmen
Secretaries
Stenographers
Telephone operators
Tool makers
Totals
1
1
9
2
4
2
4
4
5
2
0
45
0
1
0
20
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
17
1
__ 0
1
3
11
2
4
2
4
4
5
2
1
45
2
18
1
21
100
25
125
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 30 out of a total of 34 or 88$ of the machinery
concerns In Syracuse.
There Is a total of 16 occupations listed.
253
SURVEY OP
THE MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
" 1' ' L1 "
Occupations
.......
Accountants
Advertising managers
Adjusters - typewriters
Aligners - typewriters
Apprentices
Artists
Assemblers
Assorters
Auto wreckers
Awning maker
Bailers
Bearing babbiting
Bill collectors
Billing machine operators
Blacksmiths
Boiler makers
Boiler repairman
Book binders
Bookkeepers
Bookkeeping machine operators
Bottlers
Brewmasters
Bricklayers
Broommakers
Business machine serviceman
Button hole makers
Cabinet makers
Cafeteria
Candle makers-hand
Candle makers-machine
Candy makers
Carpenters
Cashiers
Chemists
Cigar-makers
Clerks-Agricultural
Clerks-Factory
Clerks-Sales
Clerks-Office
Clerks-Stock
Coffee Roaster
Compositor
~~r 1 dumber of worker's "
Males Females Total
37
1
39
90
34
10
1495
1
2
2
3
2
20
7
10
10
3
30
108
8
36
4
8
22
20
0
44
7
18
19
20
21
2
11
5
1
359
20
240
240
1
11
3
0
0
0
1
1
851
0
0
0
0
0
1
10
0
0
0
112
143
14
0
0
0
5
0
25
0
8
0
0
20
0
0
0
0
0
126
10
458
12
0
0
40
1
39
90
35
11
2346
1
2
2
3
2
21
17
10
10
3
142
251
22
36
4
8
27
20
25
44
15
18
19
40
21
2
11
5
1
485
30
698
252
1
11
254
SURVET OP
THE MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Occupations
Comptometer instructors
Comptometer operators
Construction and maintenance
Conveyer installation
Coopers
Core makers
Corrugators-paper box
Crane operators
Crea3ers-paper box
Credit managers
Cutters-cloth
Cutters-leather
Cutters-paper
Decorators-candle
Decorators-pottery
De c orat ors-wood
Demonstrators
Department heads
Dictaphone operators
Die press operators
Draftsmen
Electric refrigeration service
Electrician
Elevator operators
Elevator servicemen
Engineering
Engine tester
Engravers
Errand Boy
Estimators-job
Executives
Exterminators
Experimental
Factory superintendents
Farm machinery servicemen
Finishers-book
Finishers-pottery
Fini shers-wo od
Fire alarm and police call systemInstallation Service
Firemen
Number of workers
Males Females Total
2
0
111
2
13
73
18
35
2
3
33
30
13
0
64
1
0
63
1
3
118
2
69
12
18
197
9
4
14
4
170
3
6
42
4
4
40
69
2
14
2
0
0
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
16
266
0
13
3
20
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
5
0
0
1
0
0
23
0
4
14
113
2
13
96
18
35
2
3
33
30
14
16
330
1
13
66
21
3
118
2
69
12
18
198
9
4
15
4
175
3
6
43
4
4
63
69
11
48
0
0
11
48
255
SURVEY- OP
THE MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Occupations
First aid
Fitters-clothing
Fitters-funnel
Fitters-wood
Flap cutters-paper box
Folders-paper box
Foremen
Forwarders
Furnace Installation
Furnace men
Furniture repairing
Garage mechanics
Gas furnace operators
Gaugers
Glass blowers
Glazers
Gunsmiths
Hammermen
Hand clay press operators
Hand sewers
Harness makers
Heat treaters and annealer
Ice cream makers
Ice manufacturing machine operators
Ice storage and processing
Ingot cleaners
Inspectors-food
Inspectors-manufactured parts
Janitor
Japan
Kettle men-brewery
Kiln workers-pottery
Laboratory men
Laborers and helpers
Ladlemen
Leather table workers
Leather pasting and turning
Leather trimmers
Lithography
Lumber sorters
Lumber treaters
Machine operators
Number of workers
Males Females tfotal
3
0
1
2
2
0
314
6
16
12
3
9
11
1
1
29
1
107
7
0
7
78
1
36
11
2
0
571
54
47
4
115
28
1,708
3
11
0
0
16
1
1
2,931
13
5
0
0
0
30
91
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
197
0
0
0
10
0
0
24
127
2
26
0
13
6
90
0
532
100
50
17
0
0
552
16
5
1
2
2
30
405
6
16
12
3
9
11
1
1
29
1
107
21
197
7
78
1
46
11
2
24
698
56
73
4
128
34
1,798
3
543
100
50
33
1
1
3,483
256
SURVEY- OF
THE MANUFACTURING AMD MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Occupations
Machine and Tool repair
Machinista-all round
Marble setters
Mattress makers
Meat cutters
Mechanics
Melters-iron
Metallurgists
Metal plating
Metal scrapers
Metal spinners
Milk coolers
Milk machine repair
Milk pasteurizing
Millwright
Holders-hand
Molders-machine
Mold making-pottery
Office managers
Oil heater-install and service
Packers
Paint er s-hand
Painters-spray
Paint mixers
Paper rulers
Pattern makers-metal
Pattern makers-wood
Pharmacists
Physical examiners
Picklers-steel
Plumbers
Polishers and buffers
Pottery designers
Pottery dippers
Power sewing machine operators
Pr e ssmen-cylinder
Pressmen-cylinder cutting
Pr e ssmen-planten
Pressers-hand machine
Printers-general
Purchasing
Receptionists
Number of workers
Males Females Total
79
714
5
1
14
100
11
1
51
8
3
5
3
2
87
178
230
9
29
6
89
21
52
2
2
11
81
2
1
12
27
303
1
18
45
7
2
1
89
57
27
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
108
0
3
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
588
0
0
0
0
2
0
5
79
714
5
1
14
100
11
1
72
8
3
5
3
2
87
178
230
9
30
6
197
21
55
2
3
11
81
2
1
12
27
303
1
26
633
7
2
1
89
59
27
6
257
SURVEY OP
THE MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Occupations
Riggers
Roll heads
Roll stock-paper box
Roughers
Route salesmen
Rug finishers
Rug washers
Rug weavers
Safety
Sales engineers
Salesmen
Sales managers
Sander of filler on castings
Seamers-knitting
Secretaries
Set-up men
Shear men
Sheet metal workers
Shipping and receiving
Shoe factory workers
Silk warpers
Slitters-paper box
Slotters-paper box
Snagging castings
Solderers
Spring makers
Stationary engineers
Steam boiler repair
Steam fitters
Stenographers
Sterotypers
Straighteners
Structural Iron workers
Supervisors-sales route
Tailors
Taping machine-paper box
Telephone operators
Template layout
Testing of .raw castings
Tile setters
Time study
Number of workers
Males Females total
5
27
3
119
70
0
1
1
4
9
601
21
4
0
1
37
8
181
244
324
3
6
2
6
32
7
48
1
13
111
4
51
24
10
36
3
0
7
3
5
21
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
83
0
0
8
33
0
0
0
4
101
0
0
0
0
7
2
0
0
0
458
0
8
0
0
0
7
25
0
0
0
0
5
27
3
119
70
1
•
1
1
4
9
684
21
4
8
34
37
8
181
248
425
3
6
2
6
39
9
48
1
13
569
4
59
24
10
36
10
25
7
3
5
21
258
SURVEY OP
THE MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Number of workers ‘‘
Males Females TotaT
Occupations
Tobacco Sorters
Tool design
Tool and die makers
Tractor experts
Traffic managers
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Type makers
Upholsterers
Warehousemen
Ware makers-pottery
Watchmen
Wax bleachers
Weighers
Welders
Western union operators
Window trimmers
Wire fence erectors
Wood workers-general
Wood workers-mill hands
Wool brushers
Wool winders
Yardmen
Unclassifled-mon productive
4
13
433
5
1
302
4
22
99
124
85
11
14
154
0
3
3
7
156
3
0
51
22
16,444
Totals
1
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
0
80
1
0
0
12
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
5,669
5
13
433
5
1
302
8
26
99
204
86
11
14
166
1
3
3
7
156
3
2
51
22
22,113
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from 303
out of a total of 320 or 94$ of the firms In Syracuse,
There is a total of 231 occupations listed.
259
SURVEY OP
MEAT DEALERS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of~workers
Males fc’emales Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Butchers
Cashiers
Chauffeurs and truck drivers
Clerks-office
Department heads
Egg candlers
Engine ers-plant
Ham boners
Ham wrappers
Helpers and laborers
Manage rs -c redi t
Managers-office
Managers -plant
Meat boners
Sales-retail
Salesmen
Sausage makers
Shipping and receiving
Smokers
Stenographers
Telephone operators
War ehous emen
8
15
2
34
18
8
0
1
4
8
17
1
5
1
8
13
53
16
7
13
6
0
__3
2
0
0
0
8
0
3
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
43
0
1
0
2
__ 0
10
15
2
34
26
8
3
1
4
10
17
2
5
1
8
14
53
59
7
14
6
2
__3
Totals
241
63
304
SUMMERY
The data herewith presented represents returns from 8
out of a total of 10 or 80$ of the meat dealers in Syracuse*
There is a total of 23 occupations listed*
260
SURVEY OP
MISCELLANEOUS OCCUPATIONS
NOT ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total'
Occupations
Adjusters
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Clerks-r6tail sales
Clerks-shipping
Doll repair
Engineers
Executives
Laborers and helpers
Managers
Piano tuners
Receptionists
Salesmen
Secretaries
Sewing teachers
Stenographers
Telephone operators
Truck drivers
Watchmen
1
0
0
0
2
3
1
0
1
2
1
13
10
0
25
0
0
0
0
4
_2
0
3
1
4
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
4
5
1
8
1
0
_0
1
3
1
4
4
4
1
1
1
2
1
13
10
1
29
5
1
8
1
4
__2
Totals
65
32
97
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 15 out of a total of 18 or 83$
of the concerns in Syracuse not elsewhere
classified.
There is a total of 21 occupations listed.
261
SURVEY OP
MONUMENTAL COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Clerks-office
0
2
2
Salesmen
6
0
6
Stenographers
0
1
1
Stone cutters
8
0
8
Truck drivers
J3
-2
_3
Totals
17
3
20
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 5 out of a total of 7 or 1\%
of the monumental companies In Syracuse,
There is a total of 5 occupations
listed.
262
SURVEY OF
NOVELTY DEALERS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
0
2
2
Clerks-retail sales
2
7
9
Clerks-retail sales (part time)
0
1
1
Clerks-stock
2
0
2
Helpers
1
0
1
Mechanics
2
0
2
Salesmen
3
0
3
Managers
_Q
__1
1
Totals
10
11
21
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from 5
out of a total of 6 or 83# of the novelty dealers in Syracuse,
There is a total of 8 occupations listed.
263
SURVEY OP
OFFICE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
1
2
3
Clerks-office
3
2
5
Clerks-retail sales
5
0
5
Clerks-stock
2
0
2
Embossing operators
0
2
2
Furniture finishers
1
0
1
17
0
17
Mechanics
2
0
2
Photograph department
1
0
1
Repairmen.
18
0
18
Salesmen
61
0
61
0
4
4
10
0
10
Stenographers
2
11
13
Truck drivers
__ 1
__ 0
__ 1
Totals
124
21
145
Managers
Secretaries
Servicemen
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 27 out of a total of 30 or 90% of the office
equipment and supplies houses in Syracuse,
There is a total of 15 occupations listed.
264
SURVEY OP
OPTOMETRISTS AND OPTICIANS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
dumber of workers
Males Females "TolaT
All around shop men
9
0
9
Bookkeepers
0
3
3
Cleaning women
0
1
1
Edging
2
0
2
Errand boys
3
0
3
Opticians
19
0
19
Optometrists
25
0
25
Photograph finishers
0
2
2
Receptionists
0
4
4
Retail sales
3
0
3
Salesmen
2
0
2
Secretaries
0
23
23
__7
__ 0
7
70
33
103
Surface grinding
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 34 out of a total of 39 or 87$ of the
opticians and optometrists in Syracuse,
There is a total of 13 occupations listed.
265
SURVEY OP
OSTEOPATHS, CHIROPRACTORS, CHIROPODISTS,
MASSEURS AND PHYSIOTHERAPISTS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number ot workers
Males Females TSSST
Occupations
Chiropodists
Chiropractors
Dieticians
Laboratory assistants
Masseurs
Nurses
Osteopaths
Physiotherapists
4
2
6
18
3
21
0
0
1
0
1
1
3
3
0
1
9
9
31
3
34
5
0
5
Stenographers
0
0
_0
Totals
59
Receptionists
Secretaries
12
12
6
6
_2
_2
41
100
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 61 out of a total of 66 or 92$ of the osteopaths,
chiropractors, chiropodists, masseurs and physiother­
apists in Syracuse*
There is a total of 11 occupations listed*
266
SURVEY OP
PAINT AND WALL PAPER CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
2
5
7
Cashiers
2
1
3
15
1
16
Clerks-shipping
6
0
6
Executives
3
0
3
Managers-branch
6
0
6
Managers-eredit
1
0
1
Oumer-operators
2
0
2
Painters and paper hangers
5
0
5
Salesmen
9
0
9
Secretaries
1
1
2
Stenographers
0
7
7
Truck drivers
J3
_0
5
Totals
55
15
70
Clerks-retail sales
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 14 out of a total of 19 or 74# of the paint
and wallpaper companies in Syracuse*
There is a total of 13 occupations listed.
267
SURVEY OP
PAPER COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
2
2
4
10
0
10
Collectors
0
1
1
Executives
4
0
4
Paper balers
1
0
1
Paper graders
0
2
2
36
0
36
0
4
4
12
0
12
Stenographers
2
14
16
Truck drivers
_5
_0
__5
Totals
72
23
95
Clerks-retail sales
Salesmen
Secretaries
Shipping and receiving
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 11 out of a total of 12 or 92$ of the paper
companies in Syracuse.
There is a total of 11 occupations listed.
i
268
SURVEY OP
PAWN SHOPS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
2
Clerks-retail sales
17
Totals
17
2
Bookkeepers
2
IS
0
lo
Occupations
19
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 9 out of a total of 9 or 100% of the pawn shops
In Syracuse,
There is a total of two occupations listed.
«
269
SURVEY OP
PET SHOPS
IN SYRACUSE’, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
1
1
2
Clerks-retail sales
4
5
9
Managers
1
0
1
Porters
1
0
1
Stenographers
0
1
1
Truck drivers
2
0
2
Warehousemen
2
_0
_2
11
7
18
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 5 out of a total of 6 or 100% of the pet shops
in Syracuse,
There is a total of seven occupations listed.
270
SURVEY OP
PLATING CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Pemales I’otal
Occupations
Bookkeepers
0
3
3
Platers-metal
10
0
10
Polishing
JL
-2
-2
Totals
19
3
22
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 3 out of a total of 4 or 75^ of the plating
concerns in Syracuse.
There is a total of 3 occupations listed.
271
QTTOirPV A P
PLUMBING AND HEATING
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
2
4
6
Clerks-offIce
3
4
7
Helpers
6
0
6
Office managers
1
0
1
Pipe cutters
1
0
1
84
0
84
Plumbers-apprentices
4
0
4
Sales-clerks
3
0
3
Shipping and receiving
1
0
1
Steam fitters
7
0
7
Stenographers
0
6
6
Tinsmiths
1
0
1
Truck drivers
2
_0
__2
115
14
129
Plumbers
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 64 out of a total of 88 or 73$ of the plumbing
and heating firms in Syracuse.
There is a total of 13 occupations listed.
272
SURVEY OP
POOL AND BILLIARD PARLORS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Attendants
16
0
16
Janitors
_6
_0
_6
Totals
22
0
22
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 13 out of a total of 17 or
76$ of the pool and billiard parlors in
Syracuse.
There is a total of 2 occupations
listed.
275
SURVEY OP
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Addressograph operators
Advertising
Apprentices
Artists
Auditors
Bindery workers
Bookkeepers
Carriers
Circ illation
Cashiers
Clerks-mailing
Clerks-office
Clerks-retail
Clerks-shipping
Collectors
Compositors
Cutting machine operators
Editors
Executives
Feeders
Floor men
Folder operators
Foremen
Helpers
Janitors
Layout men
Linotype operators
One man job printers
Maintenance
Managers
Managers-office
Photographers
Pressmen
Printers
Proof readers
Receptionists
Reporters
Salesmen
Stenographers
Sterotypers
Superintendents
Number of workers
Males Females Total
0
2
16
2
2
7
4
2
1
2
19
14
14
8
5
26
4
5
6
9
1
1
7
4
4
1
17
15
17
23
0
5
67
80
0
0
57
76
0
10
1
1
0
0
0
0
10
20
1
0
0
3
25
4
3
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
2
2
0
0
6
2
1
7
8
32
0
0
1
2
16
2
2
17
24
3
1
2
22
39
18
11
6
26
4
5
7
10
1
1
7
5
4
1
18
15
17
25
2
5
67
86
2
1
64
84
32
10
1
274
SURVEY OP
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Number of workers
Males females ToTST
Occupations
4
1
7
0
0
0
4
1
7
1 daily newspaper reported:
Inside help
Outside help
Plant help
20
130
270
69
0
__5
89
130
275
Totals
966
211
1,177
Supervisors-circulation
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Type setters
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 66 out of a total of 95 or 69$ of the printing
and publishing concerns in Syracuse.
There is a total of 48 occupations listed.
275
SURVEY OP
PUBLIC SERVICE
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Accident investigators
Accountants
Addressograph operators
Attendants-court
Auditors
Billing machine operators
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Carriers-mail
Carriers-substitute
Chemists
Chief-deputy police
Chief-fire
Chief-police
Cleaning women
Clerks-assistant bertillion
Clerks-bertillion
Clerks-office
Clerks-post office
Clerks-post office substitutes
Clerks-statlstical
Collectors
Collectors-internal revenue
Detectives
Display designers
Draftsmen
Electricians
Elevator operators
Engineers
Pire captains and lieutenants
PIre deparinnent-bureau heads
Firemen-munieipal
Firemen and engineers
Pire and police alarm mechanics
Foremen
For emen-as sistants
Guards
Home lighting
Home service
Inspectors
Inspectors,-police, captains,
lieutenants and sargeants
Instrument men
Number of workers
Males Females Total
17
4
1
4
5
4
4
2
187
32
1
2
1
1
0
2
1
184
148
29
1
7
2
12
6
16
162
5
17
64
14
7
265
18
62
1
3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0 '
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
80
0
0
186
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
5
0
17
4
1
4
3
4
7
2
187
32
1
2
1
1
80
2
1
370
154
30
1
7
2
12
6
16
162
5
17
64
14
7
265
18
62
1
3
4
5
3
28
2
0
0
28
2
276
SURVEY OP
PUBLIC SERVICE
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Occupations
Janitors
Laborers and helpers
Linemen
Maids
Maintenance
Matrons
Mechanics
Mechani cs-garage
Mechanics-master
Messengers-special delivery
Meter readers
Meter repairs
Motorcycle police
Nurses
Patrolmen
Pipe fitters
Plain clothes men
Police women
Prowl car police
Radio engineers
Radio operators
Radio repairs
Receiving tellers
Salesmen
Secretaries
Service men
Splicers-cable
Stationery engineers
Stenographers
Superintendents
Superintendents-assistants
Supervisors
Supervisors-assistants
Surgeons
Switchboard operators
Tabulating machine operators
Telephone operators
Traffice police
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Number of workers
Males females 'i’otal
73
83
38
0
167
0
128
23
6
20
20
17
17
0
99
24
29
0
44
1
6
1
2
29
0
53
4
6
1
2
2
56
6
2
16
12
7
21
24
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
3
0
10
0
0
0
62
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
20
0
0
73
83
38
2
167
1
128
23
6
20
20
17
17
2
99
24
29
2
44
1
6
1
5
29
10
53
4
6
63
2
2
56
6
2
16
26
27
21
24
277
SURVEY OP
PUBLIC SERVICE
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Number of workers
Males Pemales Total
Occupations
Turnkeys
Typists
Watchmen
Comptometer operators
Clerks-stock
6
0
7
0
12
0
5
0
1
0
6
5
7
1
12
1,363
Teachers
Not elsewhere classified
Totals
8
__4
12
2,394
412
2,806
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from 10
out of a total of 11 or 91^ of the public services in Syracuse*
There is a total of 88 occupations listed*
278
SURVEY OP
RADIO STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Male's Females 'i'ota'I
Occupations
Bookkeepers
9
2
11
19
1
20
Clerks-shipping
4
0
4
Clerks-stores
3
0
3
Draftsmen
1
0
1
Engineers
2
0
2
Executives
3
0
3
Foremen
1
0
1
Inspectors
5
0
5
Machine operators
8
0
8
Machinists
2
0
2
Maintenance and construction
1
0
1
Metallurgists
1
0
1
Owner-managers
15
0
15
Servicemen-radio
46
0
46
Stenographers
2
8
10
Truck drivers
1
0
1
Watchmen
__2
0
2
Totals
125
11
136
Clerks-retail sales
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from 27
out of a total of 30 or 90# of the radio stores in Syracuse.
There is a total of 18 occupations listed.
279
SURVEY OP
REAL ESTATE AGENCIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Pemales ' TbVaT
Occupations
Accountants
1
0
1
Attorneys
1
0
1
Bookkeepers
3
9
12
30
0
30
Cleaning women
0
17
17
Clerks-office
3
6
9
Elevator operators
9
3
12
Executives
16
0
16
Janitors
22
0
22
Laborers
13
0
13
4
0
4
10
1
11
1
1
2
Owner-operators
19
0
19
Salesmen
84
20
104
Secretaries
0
6
6
Stenographers
1
19
20
Telephone operators
0
_3
__3
217
85
302
Building maintenance
Managers-bullding
Managers-office
Managers-sales
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 59 out of a total of 80 or 74# of the real estate
agencies In Syracuse*
There Is a total of 18 occupations listed.
280
SURVEY OP
RESTAURANTS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bakers
Bartenders
Bookkeepers
Bus boys
Bus girls
Cashiers
Chef
Cleaning women
Clerks-retail sales
Clerk3-soda fountain
Clerks-stock
Cooks
Counter men
Dish washer
Doughnut maker
Hat check girl
Helpers-kitchen
Helpers-part time
Hostesses
Managers
Managers-assistants
Multigraph operators
Musicians
Porters and janitors
Salad girls
Stenographers
Walters and waitresses
Not elsewhere classified
Totals
-
19
229
2
44
0
5
41
0
3
2
3
190
155
118
1
0
35
3
1
25
3
0
5
61
0
0
209
1
0
4
0
38
17
4
1
9
4
0
84
15
49
0
4
27
7
6
0
2
2
0
0
1
1
363
20
229
6
44
38
22
45
1
12
6
3
274
170
167
1
4
62
10
7
25
5
2
5
61
1
1
572
3
1
4
1,157
640
1,797
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 213 out of a total of 316 or 67^ of the restaur­
ants in Syracuse*
There is a total of 28 occupations listed*
281
SURVEY OF
ROOFING CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
dumber of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
Carpenters
Contractors
Foremen
Helpers
Insulators
Managers-office
Painters
Roofers
Roofers-apprentices
Salesmen
Sheet metal apprentices
Sheet metal mechanics
Shinglers
SIders
Stenographers
Truck drivers
Weather stripping men
Yardmen
2
4
3
2
1
3
1
2
57
7
21
7
5
1
7
0
7
2
__ 1
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
__ 0
8
4
3
2
1
3
1
2
57
7
21
7
5
1
7
5
7
2
__ 1
Totals
133
11
144
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 14 out of a total of 18 or 78^ of the roofing
concerns in Syracuse.
There Is a total of 19 occupations listed.
282
SURVEY OP
SHOE SHINING AND REPAIRING
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Clerks-retail sales
3
0
3
Cashiers
0
1
1
Hatters
5
0
5
Shoe repair
79
0
79
Shoe repair-part time
22
0
22
8
_0
__8
117
1
118
Shoe shiner
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 51 out of a total of 77 or 66^ of the shoe shin­
ing and repairing establishments in Syracuse.
There is a total of 6 occupations listed.
283
SURVEY OP
SPORTING GOODS STORES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
1
2
3
Clerks-office
0
2
2
Clerks-retail sales
4
0
4
Managers
3
0
3
Owner-operators
3
0
3
Power sewing machine operators
0
3
3
Repairmen
3
0
3
Salesmen
7
0
7
Shipping and receiving
2
0
2
Stenographers
JL
J5
__4
Totals
24
10
34
SUMMARY
The date herewith presented represents returns
from 7 out of a total of 7 or 100% of the sporting
goods stores in Syracuse,
There is a total of 10 occupations listed*
284
SURVEY OP
STUDIOS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
dumber of workers
Mai es Females ’ToliaT
Occupations
26
0
26
Bookkeepers
0
3
3
Cleaning women
0
1
1
Clerks-shipping
2
0
2
Clerks-retail
7
4
11
Dance teachers
0
7
7
Errand boys
1
0
1
Handwriting experts
1
0
1
Janitors
1
0
1
Managers
4
3
7
Music teachers
2
3
5
Photo printers
6
10
16
Photographers
24
4
28
Piano players
1
10
11
Receptionists
0
3
3
Salesmen
9
0
9
Secretaries
0
2
2
Stenographers
_0
J5
5
Totals
84
55
139
Artists
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 36 out of a total of 48 or 75$ of the studios
in Syracuse,
There is a total of 18 occupations listed.
285
SURVEY OP
SUPPLY COMPANIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
0
2
2
Clerks-stock
3
0
3
Managers
2
0
2
Salesmen
8
0
8
Servicemen
1
0
1
Stenographers
_0
_3
3
Totals
14
5
19
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 5 out of a total of 7 or 71^ of the supply
companies in Syracuse.
There is a total of 6 occupations listed.
286
SURVEY OP
THEATERS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Advertising
Bill poster
Cashier
Chief of service
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Engineers-s ta tionary
Janitors
Managers
Managers-assistants
Managers-district
Matrons
Porters
Projectionists
Sales-candy and popcorn
Secretaries
Sign artists
Stagehands
Ticket takers
Ushers
Ushers-part time
1
1
1
2
0
1
5
21
15
6
1
0
2
44
4
0
2
11
12
65
__2
0
0
25
0
9
C
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
8
2
0
0
1
0
_0
1
1
26
2
9
1
5
21
15
6
1
5
2
44
- 12
2
2
11
13
65
__2
Totals
196
50
246
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 18 out of a total of 25 or 72$ of the theaters
in Syracuse,
There is a total of 21 occupations listed.
287
SURVEY OP
TIRE SHOPS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Nhmber of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Adjusters
1
0
1
Bookkeepers
4
0
4
26
0
26
5
0
5
RepaIrmen-vulcani zing
16
0
16
Salesmen
15
0
15
Secretaries
1
1
2
Servicemen
36
0
36
Shipping and receiving
3
0
3
Stenographers
1
6
7
Truck drivers
_2
__0
_2
110
7
117
Clerks-retail sales
Managers-office
Totals
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns
from 24 out of a total of 32 or 75$ of the tire shops
in Syracuse.
There Is a total of 11 occupations listed.
288
SURVEY OP
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Occupations
Accountants
Bookkeepers
Bookkeeping machine operators
Cable splicers
Car and bus cleaners
Car inspectors
Cashier and payroll
Claims agent
Cleaning women
Clerks-billing
Clerks-chief
Clerks-factory
Clerks-office
Comptometer operators
Conductor and brakemen
DIrectors-program
Directors-program assistants
DIrectors-publicity
Dispatchers
Electricians
Engineers-chief
Engineer and firemen
Engineering
Executives
Express and baggage handlers
Foremen
Freight checkers
Furniture packers
Janitors
Laborers and helpers
Linemen
Machinists
Managers
Manage r s-c oramercial
Mechanics
Mechanics-garage
Messengers
Operators-street car and bus
Operators-terminal
Orchestra
Painters
Presidents
dumber of Workers
Males Females Total
3
19
0
2
24
68
2
7
0
11
2
2
206
0
250
3
0
3
9
2
3
185
27
9
147
10
5
2
3
286
16
20
13
3
5
78
30
256
3
10
2
1
14
18
3
0
0
0
1
0
2
2
2
0
59
3
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
37
3
2
24
68
3
7
2
13
4
2
265
3
250
3
2
3
Q
2
3
185
27
9
147
10
5
2
5
286
16
20
15
3
5
78
30
256
3
10
2
1
289
SURVEY OP
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION CONCERNS
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
(continued)
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Radio announcers
Repair shops-trolley
Salesmen
Secretaries
Signal men
Stenographers
Sub-station attendants
Superintendents
Supervisors
Telegraph operators
Telegraph repeaters
Telephone operators
Ticket agents
Track repairmen
Truck drivers and chauffeurs
Watchmen
Watchmen-crossing
Welders
Wire chiefs
Yard and station master
Not elsewhere classified
Totals
14
30
29
4
20
5
4
4
78
22
8
6
18
111
698
2
42
1
6
11
0
0
0
7
0
40
0
0
9
25
0
22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
30
29
11
20
45
4
4
87
47
8
28
18
111
698
2
42
1
6
11
44
__6
50
2,884
219
3,103
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents returns from
116 out of a total of 166 or 70$ of the transportation and
communication companies in Syracuse*
There is a total of 63 occupations listed*
290
SURVEY OF
UNDERTAKERS AND CEMETARIES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Bookkeepers
1
2
3
Chauffeurs
19
0
19
Collection
1
0
1
Embaimers
44
3
47
Embalmers-apprentice
11
0
11
Funeral directors
23
1
24
6
1
7
11
0
11
Housekeepers
0
2
2
Housemen
1
0
1
Managers
2
0
2
Night clerks
1
0
1
Stenographers
1
3
4
Sup erintendents
__ 1
__ 0
__ 1
Totals
122
12
134
Helpers
Helpers-part time
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 56 out of a total of 51 or 76$
of the undertakers and cemetarles in
Syracuse,
There Is a total of 14 occupations listed*
291
SURVEY OP
WAREHOUSES
IN SYRACUSE, NEW YORK
Number of workers
Males Females Total
Occupations
Advertising
Bakery girls
Bookkeepers
Celery trimmers
Checkers
Cleaning women
Clerks-office
Clerks-stock
Dairy men
Egg candlers
Englneers-Statlonary
Foremen
Helpers-part time
Laborers
Managers
Salesmen
Steam fitters
Stenographers
Superint endent s
Temperature men
Truck drivers
1
0
2
0
2
0
6
1
1
0
5
7
5
101
2
2
2
1
2
2
55
0
2
5
12
0
1
1
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
__ 0
1
2
7
12
2
1
7
1
1
5
5
7
5
101
2
2
2
8
2
2
55
Totals
175
55
206
SUMMARY
The data herewith presented represents
returns from 8 out of a total of 9 or 89$ of
the warehouses in Syracuse*
There is a total of 21 occupations
listed.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bartlow, E. O*, Vocational Survey, Boys and Men, Board of
Education, Toledo, Ohio, 1939
Benedict, H. W., Canton Occupational Survey, Board of Educa­
tion, Canton, Ohio, 193S.
Bibliography on Trends in Business Occupation, National
Business Education, 4:53-4, May 1936,
Biennial Census of Manufacturers, Department of Commerce,
Bureau of the Census, Washington, D. C., September 1937.
Biggers, John D., Administrator, "Final Report on Total
and Partial Unemployment,1' Census of Unemployment, Vol.
II, United States Printing 6ffice,""Washington, D. C.,
1938.
Coxe, W. W., Recons true ting Education Through Research,
Official Report, American Educational Biesearch Asso'eiation, 1936.
Elementary School Journal, 38; 647-9, May 1938.
Ellingson, M., "How Much Do Occupations Change?"Education­
al Research, B 15:216-19, N. 1936.
Farrell, M. S., "Newark Makes an Occupational Survey",
Journal of Business Education, 11:9-10, D. 1935.
Fifteenth Census of the United States, Vol. I, 1930.
Fiftieth Annual Report of the Board of Education, Syracuse,
- k; y;t T m r .
K----------------------------Gooch, W. L., "Rhode Island*s Census of Occupations",
Occupations, 15:111-22, N. 1936
Hoppock, R., and Spiegler, S., "Job Satisfaction; Researches
of 1935-37", Occupations, 16:636-43, April
1938
Kimball, B. F., "Changes in the Occupational Pattern of
New York State", Educational Research Studies No. 2, 190 P
University of the State of New York, 1937
Laird, A. M., and Durrant, J. E., Occupational Survey of a
Small City, Sch (El. ed. and Sec. ecf.J, 27:355-61, ApriT 1939
National Resources Committee, "Technological Trends and
National Policy," United States Government Printing Office,
June 1937
295
Occupational Outlook for Georgia Youth, National Youth Adminisirationof Georgia, Atlanta,' Georgia, Vol • V, 1929
Problems and Attitudes of American Youth, American Council
on ilducat fori, Youth Commission
Report of the Vocational High School Commission of Syracuse
to trie~“Board of Education, Syracuse, T91C
Research Division of National Education Association, "Popula­
tion Trends and Their Educational Implications", Research
Bulletin of the National Education Association, Vol* XVI,
Recktenwald, Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 26:
26:239-40, August l937r^
Schauffer, M. C., "Occupational Studies in Federal, State,
and. Private Agencies, Occupations, 16:732-6, May 1938
Studebaker, B. 3., Industrial Survey of Alliance, Alliance
Board of Education, Alliance, oEro/ToSS'.
Survey of Occupations and Training Needs of Amsterdam, New
York/"Bureau of Industrial and TeclmI^aT~Educatldh, State
Department of Education, Albany, N. Y.
The Syracuse Board of Education Report for 1870-71
Syracuse Hub of the Empire State, Chamber of Commerce Bulletin
Thirty-Eidath Annual Report of the Board of Education, Syra* cuse, N. Y*, 1886
Undated Mimeographed Report, signed by Dr. Harry P. Smith,
and Donald S. Kidd, Syracuse Public Schools
Vocational Education and Changing Conditions, United States
Dep*t• of the Interior, 'Office of Education, Washington,
D. C., Vocational Education Bulletin, No. 174, 1934
NEW YORK U NIVER SITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
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