close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN CHINA

код для вставкиСкачать
INFORMATION TO USERS
This dissertation was produced from a microfilm copy of the original document.
While the most advanced technological means to photograph and reproduce this
document have been used, the quality is heavily dependent upon the quality of
the original submitted.
The following explanation of techniques is provided to help you understand
markings or patterns which may appear on this reproduction.
1.
The sign or "target" for pages apparently lacking from the document
photographed is "Missing Page(s)". If it was possible to obtain the
missing page(s) or section, they are spliced into the film along with
adjacent pages. This may have necessitated cutting thru an image and
duplicating adjacent pages to insure you complete continuity.
2.
When an image on the film is obliterated with a large round black
mark, it is an indication that the photographer suspected that the
copy
may have moved during exposure and thus cause a blurred
image. You will find a good image of the page in the adjacent frame.
3.
When a map, drawing or chart, etc., was part of the material being
p h o tographed
the
photographer
followed
a
definite
method
in
"sectioning" the material. It is customary to begin photoing at the
upper left hand corner of a large sheet and to continue photoing from
left to
right in equal sections with a small overlap. If necessary,
sectioning is continued again — beginning below the first row and
continuing on until complete.
4.
The majority of users indicate that the textual content is of greatest
value,
however, a somewhat higher quality reproduction could be
made from
dissertation.
"photographs" if essential to the understanding of the
Silver prints
of
"photographs"
may
be
ordered
at
additional charge by writing the Order Department, giving the catalog
number, title, author and specific pages you wish reproduced.
University Microfilms
300 North Zeeb Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
A Xerox Education Company
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
LD3907
.E3
1940
•T2
T3-34^ 0
Taai, V/ai King.
Adolescent education in China...
New York, 1939.
iv,171 typewritten leaves,
tables,
diagrs.
29cm.
Thesis(Ph.D.) - New York university,
School of education, 1940.
"Selected bibliography1': p.164-171.
A50574
Xerox University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS RE C E IV E D .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
PL E A S E NOT E:
So m e pages m a y hav e
ind istin ct pri nt.
F i l med as re ceived.
U n i v e r s i t y Mi c r o f i l m s , A X e r o x Edu c a t i o n C o m pany
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CONTEKTS
Page
Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Statement of the Problem ............. ......
Scope of the P r o b l e m ........................
Significance and Setting of the P ro b l e m .......
Procedure
...................................
Chapter II
1
1
5
9
ADOLESCENT EDUCATION, PRINCIPLES AND PROPOSED
CRITERIA APPLICABLE IN CHINA
Definition of the term Adolescence .. ......... 11
Characteristics of Adolescence ............. 12
Problems of Adolescence .................... 15
Determination of Objectives ................. 15
Derivation of Criteria ..................... 18
Chapter III
OLD CONCEPTION OF ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN CHINA
Historical Data
........................ 21
Education as Recorded in theLi Chi ........ 21
Confucian Classics in Education
....... 26
S um m a r y ........... ........................
52
Chapter IV
FORGES WHICH MOLDED THE ADOLESCENT IN OLD CHINA
Influence of the Classics and other Books .... 5^
Curriculum
..........................
54
The Classics t;
..................
55
.............................56
Other Books
Influence of Folklore, Proverbs, Stories
and Edicts ....................
59
Folklore ........................
59
Proverbs .................................4C
Stories ......
41
Sacred Ediots ..........................
42
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Page
Influence of Home,Clan and Village Life .....
44
The Home ...............................
44
The Clan ............................... 45
The Village Life ..........................46
Influence of Customs, Ceremonies, Festivals
andTheatricals ................ 47
Customs ............................
47
Ceremonies.... ........................... 48
Festivals .............................
48
Theatricals... ........................... 49
Apprentice Training ....... .
50
Summary ...................................
51
Chapter V
AH EVALUATION OF ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN OLD CHINA
Primary Aim of the Old Education ............
Effects of the Old Education ...............
Strength of the Old Education ..........
Defects of the Old Education
..........
Illiteracy .............................
Individual Differences Ignored ........
Chapter VI
52
55
55
54
55
56
FIRST ATTEMPTS TO SUPPLEMENT THE OLD EDUCATION
58
China's Contacts with the West ...........
Military and Political Events ............ 59
Beginnings of Reform in Education............. 60
Pioneer Schools in Modern Subjects ....... 6l
New and Old Together ................... 62
Christian Pioneer Schools ...............
65
Informal Training Continued .................. 64
Summary .........................
64
Chapter VII
ADOLESCENT EDUCATION BY TRIAL AND ERROR UNDER
MODERN SYSTEMS, 1905 - 1928
Education in Changing China ................. 66
Modern Education under the Empire, 1905-1911 •• 69
.................. *.................69
Aims
Curriculum of Upper Primary and of Middle
Schools ...................... 71
Vocational Training ...................... 75
Lack of Trained Teachers .................. 76
Discipline ............................
77
ii
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Page
Revolution of 1911 .............................77
Political and Military Turmoil .......... 79
Education under the Republic, 1912 - 1922 ...
79
Aims
..................................
79
School System .............................79
Curriculum of the Upper Primary and of the
Middle School .......... *...82
Vocational ^raining
......................85
Defects .................................. 86
New Educational System, 1922
87
Objectives
............................. 87
School System .....
88
Curriculum of Junior and of Senior Middle
School
................... 90
Vocational Training
.................... 92
Quality of Teaching
.................... 92
95
Discipline .............................
Appraisal of Educational Efforts, 1905 “ 1928 .. 95
Chapter VIII
ADOLESCENT EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST
GOVERNMENT, 1928 - 1957
A New National Government ................... 97
Political Pressure and Education ............ 98
National Educational Conference, 1928
98
Aims ..................................
99
Educational System, 1928
Curriculum in the Junior and in the Senior
Middle School ................ 102
Vocational Schools
..................... 105
Normal Schools
........................ 107
Number and Distribution of Secondary
Schools ...................... 107
Financial Support for Secondary Schools ... 108
Appraisal of the Educational Program .......... 109
Chapter IX
100
GUIDANCE TO VITALIZE ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN
CHINA'S SCHOOLS
Need for Guidance Program
.................
Meaning of the term Guidance
..............
Scope of Guidance Work .....................
Principles of Guidance
....................
Introducing Guidance in Secondary Education
in China .....................
The Initial Plan
......................
Participation of the Entire Staff ......
Summary
....
115
115
114
116
117
119
122
124
iii
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Chapter X
GUIDANCE AND ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN CHINA
Foundations for Guidance Service ........
The Guidance Records ........... ........
Record Forms ...... ,,, „.
-•
Types of Information ...............
Value of Records ....................
Student Problems ............ ...........
Common Factors in Student Problems
Common Types of Problems - ..........
Guidance and the Vocational Situation ....
Techniques in Personal Counseling ......
The Interview ......................
Purpose and Method .............
Qualifications of the Interviewer
Environment
.... .
Technique in the Interview ......
Results of the Interview .......
The Case Study
....................
Results from the Case Study ....
The Daily Schedule .................
Forms of the Daily Schedule .....
Value to the Counselor ..........
Observation ........................
Questionnaires and Letters ..........
Group Guidance .........................
Methods of Group Guidance .
......
Responsibility for Guidance .............
Teachers and Guidance Training .....
Pioneer Guidance Leaders ...... .
Guidance Idea in China ....... .........
In the Direction of the Goal ...........
Summary ........................... .
Chapter XI
Page
125
126
127
128
129
150
151
152
154
156
156
157
157
159
159
l4l
l4l
145
145
144
145
146
147
148
148
151
152
155
154
155
156
CONCLUSION
.158
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
.164
iv
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM A17D ITS SCOPE
Statement of the Problem
This study of a phase of education in China is designed to
institute a program of adolescent education with emphasis on person­
ality development.
It will introduce the guidance aspect of education
which has hitherto had little recognition in Chinese education, as
is revealed by an investigation of adolescent education, both as it
was carried on under the old-style education and under the modern sys­
tems introduced into China since the beginnings of the twentieth cen­
tury.
Any practical plan for vitalizing present-day education for
adolescents must operate within the framework of the educational sys­
tem, as prescribed by the National Government.
In order to be effec­
tive, the guidance service must be adapted to the needs and conditions
in the secondary schools in China.
Scope of the Problem
This study will consider education under conditions of peace
and a free government in China.
In any country, so-called wartime ed­
ucation is never more than a temporary expedient.
Since July, 1957* China has been the victim of ruthless in-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
vasion, which has interrupted all normal life in the country, and has
made impossible educational work in those areas occupied for the time
being by the invaders.
In many instances, schools have migrated from
the occupied areas into free China and there are continuing their work.
During this period of military aggression, it ha3 been the
definite policy of the National Government of China to encourage edu­
cation in every way possible, and to urge schools to continue regular
work to the best of their ability.
All educational plans look to the
future.
There was held in i.Iarch, 1939> at Chungking, the war-time capital,
the Third National Educational Conference.
In addressing the nation's
educational leaders gathered at this conference, General Chiang Kaishek discussed the point of wartime education versus peacetime edu­
cation.
Ke declared that war should not be cited as a valid reason for
throwing overboard the peacetime educational system, scholastic require­
ments and relevant laws and orders.
Rather "we must use extraordinary
methods in attaining the original educational objectives and demonstrate
an unusual spirit in enlarging the scope and consequently the result
of education.
7fe must not discard what is basic and essential because of
1
temporary demands."
This statement represents the point of view of those
responsible for education in China.
1. China Information Committee, Chungking, China. News Release, March 9,
1959. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek addresses the nation's educators,
March 4, 1959*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Significance and Retting of the problem
Down through the ages, education has played an important
role in Chinese life.
For many centuries, literary scholarship had
exceptional prestige, ana the scholar occupied the highest place in
Chinese society.
But for centuries the content and methods of educa­
tion remained unchanged.
For the last seven hundred years, there had
prevailed in China a uniform rigid civil service examination system
which assured the preservation and transmission of the culture of the
nation.
3ut by the prescription of the contents of education and the
rigid requirement of a thorough knowledge of the Chinese classics for
candidacy for the government offices, the country was given a ruling
class which was steeped in the traditional ideas intended to maintain
the status quo.
Even after China's contact with the '.Vest on a large scale in
the nineteenth century, there was still great hesitancy to change ed­
ucation, in 3pite of the very narrow groove followed in the oldfashioned studies.
For a generation after 1862 when the first school
along modern lines was established in Peking, the main stream of edu­
cational thought and practice in the country flowed on as before, with
only a few slight modifications on the surface.
But this old-style education which persisted in China down
to the opening of the twentieth century had grave weaknesses, and was
inadequate to cope with conditions in the modern world.
Modern educational programs in China date from 1902 when there
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4
were begun attempts to introduce the educational ideas and practices
of the West through an organized system of public schools - a totally
new undertaking for China.
steadily changing.
Since then, education has been slowly but
There was much hurried borrowing of educational
plans and methods, and the taking over of foreign ideas and institu­
tions without careful consideration of their suitability and worth
for the people of China.
But there was great hope that the new education
would be “the god of salvation" for the country.
Heedless to say, the
results have been in large part very disappointing.
In the early years of the new educational movement, school
organization, curriculum and methods were copied almost en bloc from
Japan, who in turn had copied from Germany.
After the overthrow of the
Manchu monarchy and the establishment of the Republic of China in lpll>
American influence became dominant in educational affairs and contin­
ued so for at least two decades.
However, the new education failed to
meet the needs of the Chinese people.
And this was probably inevitable.
As Honroe pointed out after a careful study of education in China in
1921, "Neither objectives nor organization, neither methods nor con­
tent of curriculum, have been satisfactorily determined; nor can they
be determined without prolonged experimentation."
In 3pite of many military and political disturbances, exper­
imentation in education continued in China.
1.
However, there also con-
Paul Monroe, A Report on Education in China, p. 7*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5
tinued to be great dissatisfaction with the results of the educational
efforts.
Perhaps the defects in secondary education were the most
serious.
At the time of Monroe's survey, he had found the middle schools
to be the weakest link in the educational system.*
This unfortunate
situation continued in spite of several changes in the educational pro­
gram between 1922 and 1957*
o
ment.
Secondary education showed little improve-
For the adolescent in China, neither the ancient nor the
modern programs of education gave adequate attention to the person­
ality of the individual student.
In the old-style education, the neces­
sity to conform to the requirements of a rigid civil service examination
left very slight room for individual initiative on the part of either
teacher or pupil.
However, in the old conservative China, there was
an element of individualism in the education.
This was largely due to
the special feature in the old education which provided a real personal
relationship between the teacher and the pupil.
A boy went to school
to a tutor and sometimes lived for years with him.
The intimate rela­
tionship thus established was conducive not only to thorough scholarship
but also to the transmission of certain cultural elements which marked
the Chinese gentleman.
In this teacher-pupll relationship there was
also the possibility of the teacher getting to know the pupil so well
1. P. C. Chang, Education for Modernization in China, p. 2.
2. League of Nations' Mission of Educational Experts, Reorganization of
Education in China, pp. 105-115.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as to be able to guide him in his personal conduct as well as in his
intellectual activities.
Education in ancient China laid emphasis upon
the intimate knowledge that the tutor had of his pupil.
in the Li Chi
For example,
or Record of Rites, this observation is recorded:
In learning there are four causes of failure, which those
who teach should understand. A student's learning may fail
bacause of learning too much, or because of learning too
little; it may fail because the study is too easy, or because
difficulty stops effort. In these four aspects, students'
minds are not alike. If the teacher knows the differing
minds, he will be able to help them where they fail. For that
is teaching - to develop capacity and to save from failure....
When the superior man knows how to approach students who
find learning difficult, and those who find it easy, and knows
those who are going right and those who are going wrong, then
he can give comprehensive instruction and is qualified to be
a teacher.... For £his reason, in selecting teachers, care
must be exercised.
The psychological wisdom here set forth is just as important in modern
education as it was for ancient China.
In the various attempts since 1905 to establish modern edu­
cational ideas and practices in China, the most serious weakness has
been the mechanical character of the educational process.
In general,
throughout the schools, the personal el ment between teacher and pupil
has been lacking.
At no point in the educational system is this per­
sonal element more important than in dealing with adolescents, who are
chiefly in the secondary schools.
1. The various sections of the Li Chi or Record of Rites vary greatly
as to date of origin. Scholars are not agreed on the question of
dates, but there is no doubt some parts are pre-Confucian (sixth
century B.C.). See F. C. M. Wei, Confucian Values Today. Unpub­
lished thesis, University of London, 1955* pp. 80-81.
2. Li Chi, section Hsueh Chi C'x -Jj) •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
The various curricula adopted since 1905 have been rigid and
overloaded, with too much emphasis on subject matter at the expense of
the personality of the individual student.
In addition, there have
not been enough schools to meet the needs of students, nor enough
teachers to staff properly the existing schools.
Often teachers had
so little training that they merely carried out the school regulations
in a mechanical fashion, without realizing what the real purpose should
be.
The pupils were simply put through the mill.
Contact between
1
teachers and pupils was very slight.
In 1928 the Nationalist Government at Nanking inaugurated a
national plan of education which was dominated by the political aim
of unification of all of China.
To this end, a rigid curriculum dis­
regarding local conditions and individual needs was prescribed, in or­
der to inculcate definite attitudes and to spread a definite nation­
alist loyalty.
This program has allowed very little opportunity for
2
individual development.
Moreover, the social, economic and political changes taking
place so rapidly in China have brought many perplexities to the young
1. See Chen Yi-ling,
Years (In Chinese
History of Modern
a National System
History of Education in China for the last Thirty
-i- 7
T. E. Hsiao, The
Education in China; Y. X. Chu, Some Problems of
of Education in China; Monroe, op. cit.
2. See K. T'. Z. Tyau, Two Years of Nationalist China;
Education in China.
nang Shih-chieh,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
minds.
Particularly has the change of culture from the old to the new
1
With the family and the community often representing
been serious.
the old, and the school and contemporary literature representing the
new, the adolescent has often found adjustment difficult.
Educational surveys and investigations, as well as numerous
individual educators, have pointed out that the modern educational
programs have not been meeting the needs of Chinese life, nor have they
succeeded in transmitting the best elements of the Chinese cultural
heritage.
2
Cn completing the work in secondary school, many adolescents
find themselves ill-equipped for life and maladjusted to the social
environment.
Without doubt, the schools have failed to meet the needs
of the individual.
In order to provide more adequate education for
the adolescent, the present program needs to be vitalized, so as to
fit the practical realities of life.^
The secondary schools need to be so organized as to enable
principals and teachers to know each pupil intimately, to understand
his background, his personal problems and needs, his likes and dis­
likes, his hopes and aspirations.
In order to do this, a guidance program as a part of the
regular school work is necessary.
In such a program, the teachers,
1. See P. C. Chang, China at the Crossroads.
2. See Monroe, op. cit.; League of Nations' Mission of Educational
Experts, op. cit.; T'a Shuan-chin, Summary of Proceedings and Reso­
lutions of Conferences of the Chinese National Educational Asso­
ciations (In Chinese fy ).
1911-1929.
5. See Ministry of Education, Educational Code (In Chinese
Si
^
Kay> ^58.
«
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
principals and expert guidance workers would all have a part as counselors
for individuals and groups.
By this means, the mechanical character of
education for adolescents can be overcome, and methods can be adapted
to
the needs of the individual.
For the adolescent, there is need for a program in the schools
that will improve the quality of education, that will emphasize the de­
velopment of the whole personality of the students, that will vitalize
education through intelligent guidance based on the conditions of life
in China.
Such a plan will marshall all forces in the school to develop
to the fullest extent each individual student, so as to enable him to
make a contribution as a creative individual.
Procedure
In making this study, the author examined carefully printed
materials in Chinese and in English on education in China.
From the
historical data in the Chinese classics and the critical studies of
the old-style education, the outstanding defects and the chief strength
of the old education were noted.
In investigating the modern systems prevailing since 1905*
the author examined official documents, such as the decrees issued by
the Imperial government up to 1911.. the laws dealing with education is­
sued by the several governments since the establishment of the Republic
in 1911, and the publications of the Ministry of Education.
From this
information the general inflexibility of the modern educational systems
and the overloaded character of the curricula were apparent.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
In order to get a different point of view on China’s education,
critical surveys made by foreign specialists who on several occasions
investigated the modern educational efforts in China, were studied.
These
’iVestern educators pointed out many defects, but particularly emphasized
the weakness of secondary education and its failure to meet the problems
of the students.
In addition, the author had interviews with educators, both
Chinese and Western, who had experience in educational work in China
and were well informed on the educational program of recent years.
Host
of them were emphatic about the unsatisfactory character of adolescent
education, and urged the need for study of the problem.
From first-hand experience with adolescent education, both in
teaching and administration, the author had gained much information on
the failure of the educational program to meet the realities of life
for adolescent youth.
In order to plan a more adequate program for adolescent educa­
tion in China, an examination was made of materials on the principles and
objectives of secondary education, with special attention to the selection
of objectives useful in an educational program in China.
From these se­
lected objectives were derived criteria by which to measure the program of
adolescent education now in operation.
The final step in the study was to plan a guidance service that
would emphasize personality development in adolescent education and would
overcome in part, at least, the deficiencies now so pressing for attention.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER II
ADOLESCENT EDUCATION, PRINCIPLES AND PROPOSED CRITERIA APPLICABLE IN CHINA
Definition of the Term Adolescence
In examining education for adolescents, it is necessary first of
all to determine as definitely as possible the meaning of the term ado­
lescence.
There is no unanimity of opinion in this matter among special­
ists in the subject.
Some consider physiological maturity, others chron­
ological age, as the basic factor.^" In fact, the definition of the term
is difficult.
It is generally recognized, however, that "there is a per­
iod of several years in the life of every human being when he is no
2
longer a child, nor is he yet a mature adult."
It is the "teen age"
although the length of that period varies considerably.
Cox and Duff have defined adolescence as "a period of growing up.
The boy becomes during a period of five or six years a young man.
girl becomes a woman.
The
Puberty is accompanied by many rather obvious
phenomena, such as rapid increase in height and weight, changes in fa­
cial contour, a physical gawkiness due to uneven growth of bones, tendons
and muscles, and the development of primary aex organs and secondary char­
acteristics.
There is the change of pitch and rapidity of the voice,
more marked in boys than in girls.
Adjustment must be made to all these
changes."^
1. Roy A. Burkhart, Understanding Youth, p. 512. E. S. Conklin, Principles of Adolescent Psychology, p. 1.
5. P. W. L. Cox and J.C. Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher, p. 21.
11
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
Some writers prefer to designate by adolescence the period between
the development of sexual maturity and the achievement of adulthood.
again the dividing lines are very indefinite.
But
However, in the present
study, we shall consider adolescence as beginning at puberty and extend1
ing over six to eight years.
Characteristics of Adolescence
The question of mental growth during adolescenoe has been little
studied.
Although there is little dependable data on this point, appar­
ently mental growth during adolescence does not differ from that of other
2
and Long
years preceding and following.
CoxA,believe. that changes in mental traits
at this period are largely dependent on previous experiences.^
In adolescent years, the behavior patterns are not yet fully in­
tegrated, which explains the inconsistencies frequently observed in the
b
conduct of adolescents. During these years, however, some general psy­
chological characteristics are discernible.
"With childhood past and
adulthood not yet attained, the adolescent is but midway in the course
of the development of this personality integration.
Some degree of in­
tegration has been established but much more is needed before the poise
and consistency of maturity appear.
To this imperfection of integration
or synthesis much of the erratic, impulsive and inconsistent conduct of
5
adolescence is attributable.
l.Airkhart, op. cit., p. 52; T. H. Briggs, Secondary Education, p. 158.
2/ Burkhart, op. cit., p. 55*
p . P. W. L. Cox and F. E. Long, Principles of Secondary Education, p. 119.
/ k . Conklin, op. cit., p. 8 .
5. Briggs, op. cit., p. 146.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
Emotional reactions change in both quality and range from those
of earlier years.
Youth brings with it the capacity for higher and more
complex feelings, such as reverence, admiration, gratitude, grief, joy,
contempt, aesthetic feelings and sentiments of moral approval and disap1
proval.
The emotional characteristics of youth should be a special con­
cern of those engaged in secondary education, particularly teachers, in
order to aid the students in achieving the proper balance of the emotional
2
life.
In addition, the social characteristics of adolescents should
have special attention.
The adolescent often will wish to break away
from his usual environment and make new contacts.
needs often bring misunderstanding and conflict.
New desires and new
In general, however,
whatever may be the characteristics of adolescent grov/th, the wise
teacher must make continuous adaptations to the biological, emotional
5
and social needs of these students.
Problems of Adolescence
Broadly, the age of adolescence corresponds with the period of
secondary education.
Due to varying circumstances, some adolescents are
found in the upper elementary grades and also some in colleges.
In China,
the secondary education program normally begins with pupils of twelve to
thirteen and extends over six years.
The problems of adolescent education,
1. Frederick Tracy, Psychology of Adolescence, p. 88; Cox and Long, 0£.
cit., p. 121.
2. Cox and Long, op. cit., p. 119.
5. Ibid., p. 125-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14
then, are primarily the task of those responsible for the secondary school
program.
In dealing with the adolescent age group, one must remember that
their partially integrated personalities often make them misunderstood.
To
avoid conflicts, understanding and sympathy are essential.
In the home there frequently occurs rebellion against parental re­
straint.
Social changes, such as those occurring in China in recent decades,
widen the gap between the two generations, and much unhappiness often re­
sults.
Parents and teachers need to work together in solving many of these
problems, for on some occasions the same difficulties occur in school as
at home.
The adolescent may resent any authority exercised by the teacher.
In China, some of the dissatisfaction of adolescents with school
is due to uninteresting curricula that seem remote from daily life and
interests, and fail to provide properly for individual differences.
A serious problem of secondary education in China is that of school
authority in conflict with youth's idea of independence and self-expression.
This question of discipline of Chinese youth has been a major problem for
nearly two decades.
On some occasions it has reached such proportions of
disorder as to bring all school work to a standstill.
Any program for
1
adolescent education in China must recognize this situation.
Other phases of adolescent life often bringing problems in the
schools are the emotional and social attitudes, which too frequently do
not receive helpful attention.
1.
See League of Nations' Kission of Educational Experts, Reorganization
of Education in China, p. 114.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
In addition to the home and the school, society presents problems
to youth.
Kany of these are matters of social barriers, feelings of in­
feriority, and especially boy and girl relationships.
Chinese youth suf­
fer from the perplexing problems of an old conservative society now in
various stages of transition toward modern customs and ideas.
For youth,
the situation has been greatly aggravated by the rapidly changing political,
economic, social and international conditions that have often brought un­
certainty and insecurity.
Determination of Jbjectives
In view of the general characteristics of adolescence and of the
common types of problems confronting youth, the question of determining
objectives of adolescent education becomes important.
American experts
in secondary education have worked on this subject for many years.
'.That
have been some of their recommendations?
In their Principles of Secondary Education, Cox and Long center
their attention on the growth of the individual adolescent.
Everything
that is done in the school should be based on helping the adolescent to
proper growth and right development.
To fulfill this purpose, adolescent
education must function to social needs, must use methods conforming to
the law of- learning, must be adapted to varying levels and types of in­
telligence and aptitudes of the potential pupil population, must provide
specific practice in applying concepts and modes of behavior that insure
transfer of such traits to new situations, must base procedures on the
interplay of the biological, social and emotional characteristics of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
adolescents, and must assure self-respect, hapniness and frequent success
1
of the pupils.
In 1955 a committee of the National Education Association on
the Social and Economic Goals of America set up the following objectives
of secondary education: Hereditary strength, physical security, mental
security, an active flexible personality, participation in an evolving
2
culturey suitable occupation, and freedom and fair play.
This committee placed much emphasis on equality of opportunity "equal chance to attain to one's fullest possible development, accepting
duties, responsibilities and service in proportion to abilities, com­
pensation in proportion to services rendered, and the general diffusion
among the people of the knowledge, the ethics, the idealism and the
spirit which as nearly as possible shall make this equality actual and
3
effective.
A recent evaluation of secondary education by the Committee for
4
advocated the fol­
the Cooperative Study of Secondary School Standards
lowing objectives:
1. As its principal goal, education should seek per­
sonal character.
2 . Education is primarily for self-development.
The
1. See Cox and Long, op. cit., pp. 59-150.
2 . National Education Association, Committee on Social and Economic Goals
of America, Report, 1935, P* 1*
5 . Ibid.. pp. 14-15
4. Committee for the Cooperative Study of Secondary School §tanda*ds, How
to Evaluate a Secondary Schoolj M . -L. Altatetter, "Philosophy of Education of Two Hundred Secondary Schools," in Educational Aminlstration
and Supervision. Vol. 25 (sept.$957), pp. 409-425.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
curriculum should primarily provide for the development of the
individuality of each pupil.
5. Pupils should be taught how to think, not what to
think.
4. Education should emphasize practical values.
5. Education should chiefly prepare for the social and
civic activities in a democratic society.
After examining and comparing these various principles and ob­
jectives, it is clear that since conditions of life in America are very
different in many particulars from those in China, some modifications
must be made in any practical application of them to adolescent educa­
tion in China.
In the judgment of educators, foreign and Chinese, who have had
experience with the problems of education in China, the following objec­
tives have a practical application in adolescent education:
1. Achieving personal character.
During adolescence, the formation of character is of first im­
portance, since so much in adult years depends on this basis.
2 . Meeting the needs of individual differences within
a national educational program of secondary education.
The welfare and development of the individual are a primary con­
cern of those responsible for adolescent education.
Due to the charac­
ter of the national school program in China, emphasis on individual
development is difficult.
5.
of learning.
Using methods of teaching that conform to the lav/s
The role of the classroom teacher in overcoming difficulties of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
a rigid crowded curriculum is very important.
A skillful teacher by
suiting the presentation of subject matter to the ability of the mem­
bers of a class may arouse interest and understanding even when the cur­
riculum is far from ideal.
A. Transmitting the cultural heritage of the people.
To fulfill this purpose, education must be the creation of the
Chinese people,
and must have its roots in the soil of China.
5. Flexibility of program to meet the changing needs of
the community and of society.
In China, an influx of foreign cultures has brought a state of
confusion.
The new is rapidly replacing the old.
Education must recog­
nize these conditions and provide for meeting them.
6 . Emphasis on the development of the whole personality
which is capable of self-discipline and youthful participation
in a democratic society.
As personality includes the total results of all the native and
acquired factors as manifested in the unique physical and mental traits
and processes of the individual,^ an important task in determining ef­
fective adolescent education is to understand how the processes of per­
sonality growth operate and by what methods the personality of the in­
dividual student may be developed.
This calls for guidance and counseling.
Derivation of Criteria
From the analysis of the objectives for secondary education in
1.
F. E. Howard and F. L. Patry, Mental Health, Its Principles and
Practice, p. 19-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19
America recommended by groups of educational experts, and with a know­
ledge of conditions in Chinese society, principles and objectives for
adolescent education in China have been formulated.
From these objec­
tives, criteria are derived by which to determine whether or not the
objectives are realized in the program of adolescent education now in
operation.
The criteria include the following:
1. Does the program seek to achieve character education?
2. Does the program provide for individual differences?
5- Is the method of teaching effective in arousing the
interest and curiosity of the students to investigate problems
and arrive at their own conclusions?
4. Does the educational program perform the function of
transmitting the culture of the people?
5. Is the program flexible so as to fit the changing
needs of society?
6 . Does it provide for guidance that will emphasize
the development of the whole personality of the student?
In applying these criteria, it is necessary to evaluate Chinese
education, old and new, and then to propose ways of overcoming defects
in the present program.
First, one must analyze the elements in the social and cultural
forces of old China as factors in education, and determine their useful­
ness, if any, in the training of modern youth.
Second, one must examine the educational programs for adolescent
years under the modern organized school systems since 1905*
It is im-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20
portant to see why these efforts have brought such disappointing results.
The next step is to determine by what procedures the deficien­
cies in adolescent education may be overcome.
This calls for a practical
guidance program which will provide counseling both for the indiviual
student and for student groups.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER III
OLD CONCEPTION OF ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN CHINA
Historical Data
In ancient China there was a period in the life of an individual
which was considered to be of special significance for the purpose of
education, a period when the individual ceased to be a child and yet was
not quite a grown-up person, not a full-fledged member of the community.
Education as Recorded in the Li Chi
The Li Chi or Record of Rites contains a detailed account of the
ritual employed at the Chou court and in feudal society.
In addition,
there are sections on the history, politics, social conditions and edu­
cation in the era of the Chou dynasty (B.C. 1122-255).
In a section of the Li Chi embodying early teachings, there is
mention
ofthe boy going out at the age of ten and commencing to engage
in occupation outside the house and the girl at the age of ten no long­
er going out of the house.
The boy or the girl reaching the age of ten
was no longer treated as a child, and the young man at twenty became of
1
age whereas the girl married at the age of twenty.
So it seems that
the Chinese in ancient times gave special treatment to those ranging in
age from ten to twenty, which coresponds roughly with what modern edu­
cators call adolescence.
P *W
1. See the Li Chi, section Nei-tse ($7 jH'J/fjin). Also, Kuo, Chinese System
of Public Education, pp. 19-20.
21
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
What kind of education did the youth in China receive during the
centuries prior to the introduction of modern education, which was com­
paratively of very recent time?
What was the old conception of adolescent
education in China in those days?
These questions are not easy to answer
because there was no definite conception of adolescence as the modern world
understands it.
But from the meagre information available, it is pos­
sible to get an idea of the old conception of the Chinese in regard to
the education of the youth between the age of ten and the age of twenty.
First, the educational institutions of early times must be con­
sidered,
What were the earliest educational institutions in China?
In
the ancient records there are mentioned such institutions as the Upper
Hsiang (-t
on the right hand side of the palace and the lower
Hsiang (*T*
on the left hand side; the Higher Ksueh (
of the palace and the Lower Hsueh ('JH q£.) behind the palace.
in front
These
terms suggest the idea of educational institutions, since the names are
now used for schools and colleges.
However, closer investigations have
shown that these were really places for the care of the aged men at the
expense of the State, a policy that dates back to very early times.
The practice of paying respect to the aged by the government had
more than just sentimental reasons.
There was an educational value also,
for the aged men represented the accumulated experience of the community.
They were the symbols of wisdom.
1.
.
They served as couselors to the rulers
of Chinese Education (In Chinese - r f
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
and as teachers of the young.
The ceremonies of showing respect to
these representatives of the older generation were bound to have in­
fluence upon the youth of adolescent age.
In addition to the good influence which the old and experienced
men might exert on the young, there was also some beginnings of more
1
formal education in the teaching of music, arithmetic and calligraphy.
The ancient records contain no distinct mention of the education
of the ordinary young people, for the government was mainly concerned
with the education of the ruling class.
As might be expected of peo­
ple in the earlier stages of cultural development, the mass of the pop­
ulation received their education in the home and the community.
By the close of the 'Chou period (Third century B.C.) the records
of the feudal states mention a school called Shu ("?£■) in every hamlet,
the Lu (j^) of twenty-five families; a school called Shang Chiao
in every village, the Yang
Hsu (
50° familes; a schcol called Ksia
in every district of 2500 families; and a higher school
called Yu ftsiang (
J^-) in every district of 12,500 families.
3oys
from eight to fourteen received training in these schools in ceremon- .
ials
archery
charioteering (-fdif*)} calligraphy, music
2
and ar ithme ti c .
Before adolescence, boys and girls were trained together in the
home.
They were taught to respect older people and to behave as young-
1. ’
A'ang, op. cit., p. 5^ •
2. Kuo, op. cit., pp. 17-18.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
er people should always behave in China - with deference to their elders.
As soon asadolescence was approaching, the boys and girls were separated,
as indicated in the following description:
At si:: years of age the child is taught the numbers and
the names of the points of the compass. At seven years of age
the boys and the girls do not sit on the same mat; they do not
eat together. At eight years of age children 3hould follow the
older persons in entering and going out of the gate of the house,
in sitting upon the mat, and in drinking and eating. They begin
to be taught to show deference, that is, to give precedence, to
others.
At nine years the youth is taught to distinguish days....
At ten years f!- youth goes out and commences to engage in oc­
cupations outside'the house. They dwell for a certain time away
from home to study writing and mathematics. For their clothing,
they do not wear silk. In the performance of ceremonial rites and
in ike usages of the school, the master commences and the children
follow his movements. In the morning and in the evening they
study the practices and habits of children of ten years. They ask
questions of those who are older; they trace characters on tablets
of bamboo and learn to pronounce them.
At thirteen years of age they study m-.-'fc; they read aloud
songs in ver3e. They dance the dance 'Che' C \ } j . '.Yhen they have
completed fifteen years, they dance the dance Siang' (',j£ ).
They learn archery and charioteering.
At twenty years the young man becomes of age.
to study the rituals.
fie commences
However, the education of the girls was confined entirely to the
home, as shown in the following record:
The girl at the age of ten no longer goes out of the
house; as soon as she reaches this age, she remains at home. The
instructress teaches her to be polite and modest, to listen and
obey. The girl occupies herself with roping the hemp and silk
and in weaving. She learn3 to do the -work of women, such as the
making of clothing. She supervises the family sacrifices, she
brings the wine, the extracted juice3, the baskets and earthen
vessels, the maaerated plants, and the minced meats. In the
1. See the Li Chi, section Hei-tse
«*).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
performance of rites, she helps to place the objects to be of­
fered. At fifteen years of age she pins^up her hair (if she is
betrothed); at twenty years she marries.
The training described in the previous paragraphs was for the
purpose of preparing the boys for government service,
a small part of the population.
30
it reached only
Cf course only the family with wealth
could afford "an instructress" to teach the girls "to be polite and
modest, to listen and obey."
From these glimpses of the ancient education for youth, it appears
that on the whole it was practical in nature, with emphasis on the per­
petuation of the culture of the time.
The training was largely by imi­
tating the older experienced people in doing the necessary things in the
daily activities of life.
3ook learning did not have any important role
to play, ilor were the young taught much to understand the meaning and
significance of what they learned to do by imitation.
young man commences to study the ceremonials."
"At twenty the
He participated in them
when much younger, but it was only when he became of age, that he studied
their meaning.
It is not to be expected, of course, that education in those an­
cient dayswould connote the same
thing as it doe3 in modern times.
That ancient government was concerned not so much with the instruction
and preparation of the young for life as with the shaping of the public
mind with regard to public affairs and with the maintaining of the moral
1. See the Li Chi, section Kei-tse (
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
standards for the stability of society and the perpetuation of the
culture.
It was social education rather than individual,
^et it would
inevitably have some effect on the adolescents of that age.
Participation in the ceremonials was of great educational value
for the young, as it iniated them into the great social institutions
which embodied the culture of the people.
Music was considered to have
significant influence in molding attitudes and sentiments of the young
to make them good members of the community.
Archery and oharioteering
constituted a kind of military training, for war was of frequent occur­
rence.
The chariot was also the means of transportation for the
"gentleman" class.
The adolescent boy, aspiring to join that class,
would have to acquire the ability to drive a chariot.
Arithmetic
and calligraphy were essential in the training of the youth for gov­
ernment service.
Obviously, this ancient education was closely relat­
ed to the life of the nation in ancient times.1
, The Oonfucian Classics in Education
Another factor of great influence in the old-style education
was the Confucian classical teachings.
However, before considering
the Confucian influence in education, it is important to remember that
Confucianism has not been the only school of thought in the long history
of the intellectual development of the Chinese.
For about three hundred years following the time of Confucius
(B.C. 551-478), the central authority of government had broken down
1. See the Lj Chi, section Ming T'ang Wei ( (3^
).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
and the country had been plunged into a state of incessant civil wars
and political chaos.
There arose many rival schools of political-
ethical philosophy, each offered as a remedy for the evils of the time.
In the struggle for supremacy, for a time Confucianism which repre­
sented the traditional culture of the people, was entirely out of
favor.
Under the dictatorial first emperor of the Chin (
(B.C. 255 - 209), it was persecuted severely.
)
dynasty
In the year 215 B.C.,
all the books cherished by the scholars were consigned to the fire in
the capital city by Imperial order.
The following year, the emperor,
in order to silence the Confucian scholars to his regime, had four hun­
dred and sixty of them buried alive in a large pit.
Temporarily fate was against the school of thought which was
destined to shape the minds of Chinese millions for two thousand years
afterwards, and to be the greatest social force in the most populous
country of the world.
However, the Chin dynasty had a brief existence.
In less than
a century, Confuciani sm had not only regained favor but had become so
influential that in B.C. 155 the Confucian classics were established
as state orthodoxy by Imperial order.
Confucius was recognized and
honored as the teacher of the nation.
Until very recent years the
Confucian teachings remained supreme in Chinese thinking.
As represented in the Confucian classics, China had a culture
which though highly developed and noble in many ways was yet compar­
atively simple and fixed in character.
*t was with the transmission
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of this culture that education, according to the Confucian school,
1
was primarily concerned.
Although one finds in the teaching of the Confucian school lit­
tle that has direct bearing on what today would be called adolescent
education, indirectly it had much to do in influencing the education
of the adolescent and in forming the conception as to what end the
adolescent was being educated.
The classics emphasize the unshakeable faith in education as
the means of developing the latent power in the individual. Secause of
the belief that the individual and society are inseparable, emphasis in
education, according to the Confucian classics, is moral and social.
In keeping with the aim of education - the transmission and perpetua­
tion of a definite culture - all educational processes had a definite
objective and all educational forces were directed towards that goal.
As the central idea in its philosophy is .the harmonious developd
ment of the indivjyaal, which implies not only the external harmony with
one's fellow men in society but also the internal harmony of one's feel­
ings and emotions, attention is given to the importance of shaping and
directing the emotional side of life - a phase which is so much neglected
in modern education in China.
Especially in the spiritual cultivation
of the individual, the Confucian classics places emphasis on the need
to be watchful over one’s self in solitude.
This was called reverence".
1. Hu Shih, The History of Chinese Philosophy (in Chinese - ' - r
,\*£
V p p . 69-122.
)& }
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29
The educated man should ever be assiduous in the cultivation of rev­
erence, not only towards the gods and towards men, but also towards the
self and towards the duties of every day life.
It is by emotional con­
trol of himself that the educated man is able tc keep his presence of
mind and hold his own in any unexpected situation in which a man, with­
out such emotional cutivation, would be swept off his feet.
This self1
mastery was the hall-mark of the educated man in old China.
It is a
quality needing attention in the education of the adolescent in China
today.
Still another factor influencing the old adolescent education
was the civil service examination system.
During the centuries since
the early Han dynasty (B.C. 206 - 220 A. D.) when the Confucian clas­
sics were established as state orthodoxy, a thorough knowledge of the
Confucian classics was required as the standard by the government to
select candidates for offices.
Candidates were recommended by the
local officials, and virtuous conduct according to classical teachings
was taken into consideration as good ground for recommendation.
The method was later changed to make the examination system
the sole basis for the selection of men for the civil service.
It
was considered that examinations provided a more objective standard.
The personal element would not come in.
abuses would be eliminated.
Personal caprice and other
However, the personal character of the
1. Hu Shih, op. cit.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
candidate ceased to receive enough consideration, whereas tinder the
former plan it was an important criterion.
The examination method was
considered to be more democratic, as the examinations were open to all
regardless of social and economic status. It became a possibility for
a mere peasant boy to pass all the examinations and eventually become
a high official.
1
tious youth.
This method served as a great impetus to every ambi-
Candidates for these examinations received their training large­
ly under tutors in private schools.
tor as early as the age of seven.
he could finish in a few months.
The boy was sent to a private tu­
First, he was taught primers which
Then he was given the classics - the
Four Books and the Five Classics of the Confucian school, which dealt
with subjects far above his head.
Every day the boy was assigned a
passage from the book, the length being determined according to his
ability to memorize in one day.
The following morning, the boy must
go to the tutor's desk, give him the book, turn his back to the desk,
and repeat the assigned pages aloud from memory.
Thus he learned one
passage after another until the whole book was memorized.
Ke was given
a period of time to review the entire book and then was required to re-
2
peat it from cover to cover from memory.
After the boy had learned a sufficient number of the written
characters, he was started in composition.
At first he worked on only
the introductory sentence of the essay, then the whole introductory
paragraph, then another part, until he was able to write the whole essay
in the "eight-legged" form.
Then, as a full-fledged young scholar, he
1. Chang Tung-yuan, The History of Chinese Education (In Chinese
2. Ibid.
S
£.
). P P . ^ 5 - « 2 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
was ready to participate in the competitive literary examination in the
district.
By this time he v/ould probably be about sixteen or eighteen
years of age, having had about ten years of intensive training.*
The next step was to pass from the private school to the Shu
Yuan or academy where the young man would hear lectures and hand in to
the lecturer essays for correction.
A Shu Yuan was supported by private funds or by the local com­
munity.
Students who attended the Shu Yuan usually went to a private tu­
tor at the same time.
As a rule it was the private school that gave the
boy his necessary training.
The Shu Yuan gave him opportunity to come
into contact and to compete in literary contests with more mature schol­
ars and thus to prepare him better for the examinations in which he would
participate later.
From the very beginning of his training the boy was given lessons
in poetics by his tutor.
In his first yean he was taught to write coup­
lets, then poems which were required in the literary examinations.
Of
course he had to practice the art of calligraphy, which in itself was
a great achievement.
The private tutor had a special relationship to the student.
He was concerned not only with the future success or failure of his pupil
in the competitive examinations, but also in his general conduct and mor­
al character.
It was the duty of the tutor, therefore, to spare no
effort in exerting the best influence upon the youth under his care,
both in his daily contact with him and in his lectures on the classics.
1. Chang Tung-yuan, op. cit.. pp. 20-25.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
The personal relationship between teacher and pupil in China was one
of the greatest influences in the education of the adolescent up to
the time the youth received his first literary degree or passed out
of the hands of the tutor by giving up study to enter some other occu­
pation about the age of twenty.
Cf course, many boys gave up study
earlier, due to various circumstances.
For his work as a teacher, the tutor received an annual fee,
large or small according to his reputation as a teacher and according
to the means of the boy's family.
There were government supported institutions also in the later
centuries of the examination system.
Under the Manchu dynasty (1644-
19H) there were the national academy ( ^ 9 in Peking and also other
schools (JJ§
near the imperial palaces.
In addition, there were
schools in the districts into which each province was divided for ad­
ministrative purposes.
However, little teaching was done in these in­
stitutions, so their educational influence is of little consideration
so far as adolescents were concerned.
Summary
Such then was the education provided in old China.
Whether in
remote antiquity when education was less a matter of book knowledge but
more a training through participation in public ceremonials and the
learning of useful arts in institutions under government auspices, or
whether in later ages with Confucianism as state orthodoxy and educa­
tion almost totally a knowledge of the classics, the young were edu­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
55
cated to be government officials.
They were expected to be deeply
steeped in the culture of the nation and to have a thorough knowledge
of the social and political institutions of the country, the mainte­
nance of which alone would insure cultural continuity and social sta­
bility.
The adolescent boy whether studying with a tutor in prepar­
ation for public office or at home learning to work on the farm or in
the shop was expected to inherit a culture hoary with age.
There was in the country a cultural atmosphere, subtle and om­
nipresent, in which not only the students of the classics moved and
had their being, but which every adolescent boy and girl under what­
ever circumstances breathed consciously or unconsciously.
In fact,
the real education in the olden days in China was not so much from
studying books as through social and cultural forces.
Next, these forces functioning to mold the adolescent will be
examined in greater detail.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IV
FORCES '.7KICH 'MOLDED TFE ADCLESCEKT IN OLD CHIKA
Influence o f the Classics and Other Bocks
First in order among the forces.molding the adolescent in an­
cient times must stand the classics and other texts.
As already noted,
the boy in old China began to study at about the age of seven with a
tutor.
77as
From the days of established orthodoxy (B.C. 155), the tutor
invariably a Confucian scholar.
Having had his own training in the
classics, the teacher tended to follow slavishly the same methods and
materials by which he himself had been taught.
Curriculum
As a rule the boy 77as given first such primers as the San Tzu
Ching (— % % % .) or Three-character Classic and. the Ch’ien Tzu Wen
(“] " X . ) or Thousand-character Essay, with which he would be occupied
for a half year or more.
Then he -was initiated into the classics them­
selves, talcing them usually in the order of the Ta KsUeh
great,^earning, the Chung Yung (*=)*
Lun YU
or
or Doctrine of the,Mean, the
or Analects, and the Mens Tzu (Jj.
) or Discourses
of Mencius. This collection taken together was known as the Four Books.
Then followed the Shih Ching < 1 4 &
Ching (
)
or Classic of Poetry, the Shu
f if:> or Classic of History, the I Chine
or
54
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Classic of Changes, the Li Chi
or Record of P.ites, and the
gl?V-.fo'jdj. (
or Spring and Autumn Annals. These were known
ae the Five Classics.
The Spring and Autumn Annals were as a rule read
together with the commentary of Iso
The Classics
Let us examine briefly the nature and contents of this liter­
ature and its influence on the adolescents brought up on it.
The Four Books and the Five Classics contain the ethical and
political teachings of the Confucian school, embodying the most im­
portant elements in the ancient culture of the Chinese people.
In
century,
he judgment of a leading Sinologist of the -Vest in the nineteenth^
James Legge, translator of the classics into English and the first pro­
fessor of Chinese at Oxford University, "The plan, of competitive exam­
inations, and the selection for civil offices only from those who have
been successful candidates...have obtained for more than twelve cen­
turies.
The classical works are the textbooks.
*t is from them almost
exclusively that the themes proposed to determine the knowledge and ability of the students are chosen.
The whole of the magistracy of
China is thus versed in all that is recorded of the sage, and in the
ancient literature which he preserved.
Kis thoughts are familiar to
every man in authority, and his character is more or less reproduced
1
in him."
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
56
Although this i3 a strong statement, Legge was not exaggerating
the influence of the classics on the officials.
These teachings were
drilled into the students during the entire period of their adolescent
years.
Of course, many of the boys who started did not finish their
classical training.
However, they came under the influence of the
teachings, for "the official civilians of China, numerous as they are,
are but a fraction of the students, and the students or those who make
literature a profession, are again but a fraction of those -who attend
school for a longer or shorter period."
However, since a great many of the boys did not continue their
studies long enough to complete all the classics, for these the primers
and the popular texts counted for more.
Cthg-r. Books
First, the San Tzu Ching
or Three-character Classic.
It is so called because all of its sentences are of three characters
each.
This primer written by V/ang Yin-lin (1277-1367) contains 1068
words, of which there are 534 different characters.
For many centur­
ies it was the first book taught to the boys all over the country.
For many it became the sum total of their literary knowledge.
In his well-known book, The Middle Kingdom, S. Sells 7/illiams
describes this primer in the following words:
"The horn-book begins
with the nature of man and the necessity and modes of education, and
it is noticeable that the first sentence.. .which a Chinese learns at
1. Legge, op. cit., p. 94.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57
school contains one of the mo3t disputed doctrines in the ancient
1
heathen world."
This first sentence, however, was the key-note of
Confucian moral philosophy.
Although it may seem strange that the
young boy should begin his study with a disputable metaphysical doc­
trine, yet it was necessary for him to get that into his head if he ivas
to accept the Confucian orthodox teaching.
The opening lines of the primer are as follows:
Lien at their birth are by nature ethically good.
Though alike in this, in practice they widely diversify.
If not educated, the natural character grows worse.
A course of education is made valuable by close attention.
"The importance of filial and fraternal duties are then inculcated by
precepts and examples," continues Williams, "to which succeeds a syn­
opsis of the various branches of learning in an ascending series under
various heads of numbers.... Its influence has been perhaps as great
as the Classics during the last four dynasties...."^Another influential text was the Ch’ien Tzu Wen (—f o r
Thousand-character Essay. This primer consisted of exactly one thous­
and characters, no two being alike in form or meaning.
It is unique in
the Chinese language and its like does not exist in any other,
^ainly
for the purpose of teaching the boy as many of the characters in the
written language as possible in the shortest time in sentences making
interesting sense and containing some of the terse sayings in proverb
form, this was usually the second book learned by Chinese boys.
1. S. W. Williams, The Middle Kingdom, Vol. 1, pp. 527-529.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58
Here
Eire a
few sample sentences from this primer:
The woman aims at chastity and purity.
The man learns to be skillful and good.
Correct your faults when you know them.
Forget not what you have acquired.
Refrain from gossiping about others' short comings.
Do not rely too much on your own excellences.
How much could the young minds assimilate from such bocks as
these, one may ask.
Most of the ideas were surely beyond the compre­
hension of the bey of seven or eight, and few of them were adapted to
the understanding of adolescents.
so easily memorized.
But the sentences are in rhymes and
In later years the meaning may become plain.
In the old system of education, it was only in a later stage in the
boy's course that the tutor explained the meaning of what had been
memorized in earlier years.
Since the text was already familiar, the
explanation was more easily given.
For influence on the development of character, no bock was
more important than the Hsiao Ksueh (/&
^r) or Juvenile Instructor,
a book compiled during the Ming dynasty (I568-I6A5 ) by Ch'iu ChUn
(1420-1495).
This handbook contains detailed directions for the
behavior of youth, dealing particularly with duties toward others.
Included in the book are also moral maxims, famous sayings of great
men of the past and an abundance of historical illustrations.
phrase "men of oldn
The
appears on nearly every page.
Moral principles were taught largely by reference to his­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
torical characters and concrete illustrations from the lives of the
great.
Even such legendary names as Yao, Shim and YU, or Xing Wen and
King Wu, and many others are found frequently in the classics.
Nearly
the whole of Book V and the greater parts of Book VI and Book IX of
the Analects or Sayings of Confucius, which is the most influential
of all the classics, consists of moral teachings by concrste examples
cited from history.
Great characters in history are held up as illus­
trations of virtue for the imitation of the young.
Confucian ethics,
indeed, might be described as a system of imitation.
It has been much
more the power of these concrete illustrations rather than abstract
principles of morality that influenced the adolescent minds.
Influence of Folklore, Proverbs, Stories and Edicts.
Folklore
There were, however, educational influences touching the young
that were less of a formal nature than the memorizing of the classics.
For instance, the widespread effects of folklore and proverbs, stories
and sacred edicts.
Of the cultural atmosphere which the Chinese ado­
lescent breathed, folklore was certainly an important element.
Like other peoples of the world, the Chinese have numerous
legends about the heavenly bodies, the gods in the local temples and
shrines, and heroes of the village and the town.
these well-known tales is this:
An example of one of
The dark spots in the moon represent a
man trying all the time to saw down a tree.
would mean the end of all the world.
The moment he succeeds
But the bird, a swallow, comes to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4o
steal his rice from the basket.
labor in order to save his food.
gether again.
He has to stop his ill-intentioned
In the meantime the tree grows to­
So his sawing never accomplishes its aim.
But the swallow
is the savior of the world, so when he comes to make his nest in the eaves
of the house, he must be well treated.
Such old tales as this the young heard, often repeated.
Of course
they might not believe the tales if they really thought about them, but
many did no questioning and were unconsciously influenced by the senti­
ments in the stories.
Proverbs
Proverbs have a subtle power everywhere, but in no country have
they flourished more abundantly than in China.
One writer has defined
a proverb as "the fruit of the longest experience expressed in the few1
est words."
Proverbs have influence in a special way on unreflective
minds because of familiarity to the ear, of general acceptance by the
people, and the volume of experience often represented.
Down through
the ages, the masses in China have been guided by folk wisdom, which
naturally persists longest in isolated communities where books and edu­
cated men are few.
In fact, proverbs in China often acquired the sanc­
tity of unwritten law.
"Reverence for the proverb has been an important
factor in molding the mind3 and actions of the Chinese.
It has quietly
and invisibly shaped the beliefs and lives and destinies of each suc-
1. A. H. Smith, Proverbs and Common Sayings from the Chinese, p. 11
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
ceeding generation and has contributed not a little to the solidarity
1
of Chinese thought."
Proverbs are constantly used in ordinary conversation and in pub­
lic speeches, and of course are much more widely known than any other
form
of literature. They "are literally in xhe mouth of every one from
the Emperor upon the
throne to the old women grinding at the mill....
An ignorant Chinese woman who knows not even the simplest character will
quote an adaptation of a passage from the Book of Changes as naturally
2
Emperor."Perhaps the collection
of proverbs known as the Fam­
as the
ilyInstructions
(
%>]J ) compiled by Chu Fai-lu (1617-1680) has
been as popular as any book with adolescents of recent generations.
It
is a collection of only thirty couplets of different lengths and rhymes,
applying to e ve ry day life in the family.
Here are a few examples:
It is before it rains that you must provide yourself v/ith a
shelter.
Bo not wait till you are athirst for sinking a well.
If harmony reigns in your family, you will be happy, though
you may not have wherewith to live.
If you pay in due time when you owe to the government, you will
be joyous, though you have nothing left in your bag.
One can easily understand the influence of such proverbs, heard every­
where and all the time, on the minds of the young.
Stories
Youth everywhere takes delight in stories.
Of the many collec-
1. H. K. Hart, Seven Hundred Chinese Proverbs, p. xxvii.
2. Smith, op. cit., p. 8.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
tiona popular with adolescents, one widely read was the Liao Chia Chih Yi
both on account of its style and its interesting stories
about spirits and the underworld, weird ghosts and goblins, and brave
knights and beautiful ladies.
tue and censure vice.
The tales were intended to glorify vir­
A selection of these stories has been translated
into English by the late Professor Herbert Giles of Cambridge University,
under the title Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio.
Running like a thread through these stories is the ancient Chin­
ese idea of retributive justice, later amplified and supplemented by
the Buddhist doctrine of Karma (
They embody many of the pop­
ular religious ideas of the people.
Sacred Edicts
Cf this same general type of public influence were the sacred
edicts, on which government lecturers spoke to the country folk in the
village market places, especially in winter.
In the style of the village
story teller, the lecturer sent out by the government explained to the
villagers the moral and political principles underlying the Chinese so­
cial structure.
These lectures were always plentifully illustrated
with classical and historical anecdotes, but the edicts that served as
the basis for the talks were written by Emperor K'ang Ksi (Jf[<
) in
1670 and annotated by his son and successor, Yung Cheng (j'jj it) in
1724.
It was the opinion of the French Sinologist, L. Y/eiger, that
"among the numerous writings published for the improvement and instruc­
tion of the people by their rulers, none had been more influential
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45
than the Sheng YU
or Sacred Commands.”
This royal advice consisted of the following terse statements:
Pay just regard to filial and fraternal duties, in order
to give due importance to the relations of life.
Respect kindred, in order to display the excellence of
harmony.
Let concord abound among those who dwell in the same
neighborhood, in order to prevent litigations.
Give the chief place to husbandry and the culture of the
mulberry, that adequate supplies of food and raiment be secured.
Esteem economy, that money be not lavishly wasted.
Magnify academical learning, in order to direct the
scholar's progress.
Degrade strange religions, in order to exalt the ortho­
dox doctrines.
Explain the laws, in order to warn the ignorant and
obstinate.
Illustrate the principles of a polite and yielding car­
riage, in order to improve manners.
Attend to the essential employments, in order to give
unvarying determination to the will of the people.
Instruct the youth, in order to restrain them from evil.
Suppress all false accusing, in order to secure protec­
tion to the innocent.
Warn those who hide deserters that they may not be in­
volved in their downfall.
Complete the payment of taxes, in order to prevent fre­
quent urging.
1. L. Weiger, Moral Tenets and Customs in China, p. 16.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Unite the pao ('jzfc.) and chia (
in order to extir­
pate robbery and theft. (The pao and the chia were divisions
of a neighborhood).
1
Settle animosities that lives may be duly valued.
One finds in these statements the general type of political
and moral education presented to the Chinese.
As the lecturers trav­
eled about to instruct the people, they told interesting stories il­
lustrating the principles.
The youth who heard these over and over
must inevitably have been influenced to some extent through this kind
of education.
Influence of Home. Clan and Village Life.
Home
Perhaps the greatest influence on adolescent life was that of
the home, the clan and the village life.
Nothing was more powerful in
molding the character and shaping the life of the adolescent in old
China than the family life in the home.
The simplicity of life, the
habit of frugality, the cheerful contentment, the environment of in­
dustry and patient persistence, the enduring faith in "the good earth"
and the regularity and stability of the social order which nothing short
of a revolution could disturb - all these went to form the attitudes of
the young towards life, and to make them Chinese in the best sense of the
word.
1. 3. 'II. Williams, The Middle Kingdom, Vol. 1, p.667.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45
In the home, everybody except the feeble and the aged had hia
or her occupation.
The father with austere authority as head of the family
was busy from morning till night, setting thus a good example for the
whole family.
The mother was untiringly attending to her household
duties, watching carefully over the welfare of her family.
The friend­
liness to the neighbors and the hospitality to strangers, the polite words
spoken with appropriate significance on various occasions, and the good
manners exhibited all the time, had their educational value and inevi­
tably influenced the young. 7/hen a caller came to the house, it was the
young boy, if the caller be a man, and the young girl, if the caller be
a woman, who was to offer the guest a cup of tea and see that the guest
was entertained until the father or mother appeared.
Proper words must
be used to answer certain questions and the proper thing must be done
on every occasion.
It was a part of the child's education.
The Gian
The clan in China was the large family that had been multiply­
ing and living together for many generations.
The center of the clan
was the ancestral temple which served as the place of ancestor-worship
and as the hall where clan business was transacted.
closely organized social unit.
The clan was a
Its authority was vested in the elders
who laid down the rules and made them known by posting them up in the
ancestral hall.
Various punishments were attached to the breaking of
these rules, which in the old days were strictly enforced.
For a very
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
serious offence, the punishment might be expulsion from the clan, which
was locked upon as a great disgrace.
an outcast.
Such a person became practically
He would be forever cut off from all his blood ties and
considered a disgrace both to immediate kin and to more distant relatives.
It was in the clan that the young first learned their personal obliga­
tions and what was involved in membership in a social organization of
many members.
The Village Life
The village was very similar in its control over the villagers
to the clan over its members.
ganization.
But the village was a more voluntary or­
One might move with his family from one village to another,
unless the village was a "closed" village, consisting entirely of members
of one clan.
The authority in the village was exercised by the gentry,
being the men recognized by public opinion in the community, duo to their
age or special ability or distinction.
a place in this privileged group.
A retired official always found
A literary man or a school master was
given recognition on account of his knowledge, real or imagined.
Such communities were nearly always small and homegenous.
The
gentry constituted the law-making body and the tribunal of the village.
They championed the village tradition and kept everybody in his proper
place.
Young people who grew up in this sort of community life were
bound to feel their roots were there.
and stability unknown in a modern city.
There was a sense of solidarity
As a social force in the mold­
ing of the adolescent, the village influence was marked.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47
Influence of Customs, Ceremonies, Festivals and Theatricals
Customs
Still other influences playing a part in adolescent education
were the customs, ceremonies, festivals and theatricals.
while in seme ways simple was not monotonous.
Chinese life
It was made interesting
by the variegated customs and colorful ceremonies whaich arc characteris­
tic of its long history and ancient civilization.
The observation, for
instance, of the old lunar hew Tear was a custom nation-wide and deeprooted.
"-embers of the family and often of the cion felt under deep
obligation to return home for a grand reunion, to pay respects to an­
cestors, to greet the elier3 of the clan,
holiday.
everybody ceased work for a
The daily routine of life came to a standstil'
Shops were
closed scad market-places deserted, all ordinary sights and sounds were
absent,
hew Tears was the season for enjoyment, for exchange of calls
and greetings, and for the welcoming of a now year.
Down through the centuries it has been the custom for the Chinese
to celebrate everything of significance in life.
The birth of a child,
the betrothal of a son or daughter, a marriage, or the anniversary of
the birthday of an old person.
Usually such occasions were accompanied
by feasting of friends, gay decorations in the house and the burning of
many firc-crackero. V/hatever the occasion, there was always a 3olemn
ceremony, semi-religious and semi-civil, to impress the young that this
wa3 no ordinary event.
The significance wa3 seldom explained; it wa3
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
understood.
The appeal was to the emotions rather than to the intel­
lect, and so was likely to make an impression on the life of the adoles­
cent participating ir. the celebrations.
Ceremonies
A ceremony of particular significance in the family and even in
the clan was the funeral or the anniversary of the death of an older
member of the family,
ho speech was made, a3 in modern society.
Those
who took part in the ceremony went through the ritual and carefully
concealed their feelings.
found in all ceremonies.
Moderateness is a Chinese characteristic,
There is the exercise of self-restraint, which
so often has made Chinese ceremonies such deep Chinese puzzles to an
outsider.
But to the youth brought up in such an atmosphere, there wa3
a significance which had meaning.
Festivals
Some of the festivals widely o1-'served included the Lantern
Festival on the fifteenth day of the first month of the lunar year,
marking the end of the Hew Year season, the Ching Ming or Spring fes­
tival, when it was the custom to visit the ancestral tombs, the Dragon
Boat festival with its boat races in mid-summer, the feast of the hun­
gry ghosts, which was a Buddhist introduction, on the fifteenth day of
the seventh month, the Harvest festival on the moon's birthday in mid­
autumn, falling on the fifteenth of the eighth month, which was cele­
brated by the sending and receiving of moon cake3 , and the winding up
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
of the old year
just a week before its end, with the sending off
of the kitchen god, the Prince of the Oven, to heaven on his alleged
mission to report to the supreme god on the general conduct of the fam­
ily during the past year.
These festivals appealed to the young who generation after gen­
eration took part in them and were influenced by them.
Silently but
surely social customs and religious festivals played their part in
shaping the Chinese mind.
Theatricals
The old theatricals represent another of the social forces in­
fluencing the youth of Chinese society.
was very popular with all ages.
This kind of informal drama
Theatrical shows were usually combined
with village fairs on the feast day of some village god, and were the
occasion for much fun for the young people of the village.
While in
theory the plays were for the entertainment of the gods, they really
contained much from history for the instruction of the people.
Great
sentiments were represented on the stage, and incidentally also good
manners were taught from it.
Somewhat similar to the village plays was the influence of the
village 3tory teller, an ancient feature of Chinese life.
'While he
was primarily offering entertainment, yet his tales drawn from legend
or the history of the distant past 3erved as a kind of living book of
history for the people.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
Apprsntice Training
Another factor of importance in adolescent training in old
China wa3 the system of apprenticeship carried on under members of the
various guilds.
This provided what in modern education would be termed
vocational education.
It was the method through which skill in handi­
crafts was transmitted from one generation of artisans to another.
IIany boys served as apprentices in various kinds of shops, ac­
cording to the trade each boy was to learn,
^he term of "learning by
doing" varied but r/as usually three years, after which the apprentice
was required to serve his master for one or two years longer, during
which he received food and lodging and sometimes a small allowance but
no wages.
The apprentice was not only required to learn the skill of
his trade but also the tradition and special moral code belonging to it.
Also, he was expected to learn to be a polite and self-denying indi­
vidual, as well as a thoughtful and patient tradesman.
V/hen a boy had
served his apprenticeship well, he left his master not only with skill
as a workman, but also with the manners and the moral standards practiced
in his trade.
Furthermore, during his years of service, the apprentice par­
ticipated in all the activities in the home and the community, conse­
quently the same social and cultural forces had their influence on him
as on the boys who spent a longer time with a tutor and learned more
along classical and literary lines.
This accounts for much of the so­
cial and cultural homogeneity of the Chinese people as a whole.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
Summary
For adolescents in the old China, there was first of all the
formal education to be attained through long study of the classics.
This was the path followed by boys who expected to seek public office,
to become a part of the ruling class.
However, only a very small
part of the youth of the country was able to follow this line of edu­
cation.
For economic or other reasons, many of those who began with
the study of primers went no further in formal study.
But training of an informal character played an important part
in the education of all adolescents, and served to prepare them to fill
their places in the society of the time.
Among the influences of this
type, operating on a vast population for many centuries, were the home,
clan and village life, the folklore, proverbs and legendary tales, and
the customs, ceremonies and festivals handed on from generation to gen­
eration.
Consciously ar.iunconsciously, adolescents were molded by these
influences surrounding them.
Another type of education in the old China was the apprentice
system, providing training in handicrafts under members of the guilds.
In this system, boys not only learned the skill needed in the trades
but also the moral codes and manners practiced therein.
As vocatioanl
education, this was practical and thorough.
While this informal education of the traditional type was far
from ideal for the development of the individual, it was, on the other
hand, the basic factor in perpetuating the Chinese culture.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
AN EVALUATION CF ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IK OLD CHINA
Primary Aim of the Old Education
In the previous chapters there has been given a brief sur­
vey of the general type of adolescent education available in China
over the period of many centuries preceding the introduction of any
modern form of education into the country.
Tlhether it is seen as
conceived in the classics or as it was in operation in the ancient
institutions under the government or in the educational practices
among the people, the aim of the education of the adolescent was
primarily for the purpose of producing a ruling class steeped in the
spirit of the culture of the country and jealous to maintain its so­
cial and political institutions.
Owing to the nature of the ancient records surviving, one
finds little that deals with the education of the adolescent among
the masses of the people.
The glimpses of Chinese society from time
to time seem to reveal that forces at work were all conducive to main­
tain the stability of society and the continuance of culture.
tion was fundamentally a conservative force.
Educa­
To this end were bent
all the social, cultural and religious forces in the community, not
only to influence the candidates in training for public offices but
52
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
also the apprentices in the shops of the different trades and the boys
and girls in their homes.
To some extent, all adolescents in the coun­
try came under the influence of the customs, ceremonies, folklore, fes­
tivals and theatricals of everyday life.
The most powerful agency for
education was society itself as it operated in home, clan and village.
Effects of the Old Education
Strength of the Old Education
In general, the results were what might be expected.
Not only
was there produced a ruling class that championed the traditions and
guarded them in every way possible, but also the effect was to produce
a people contented and happy so long as the government was able to main­
tain order and peace.
Indeed, the classical education in China with its
moral and political emphasis had produced in its long history not a few
of those high-minded and public-spirited scholars whose sole aim in
life was "the maintenance of human life, that all along the rich valleys
■with their million homesteads, the husbandman may reap the harvest he
has sown in fields unstained by blood, that he may cherish wife and
child and be nurtured by them in age, and pass duly honored to the
tomb; that worthy officers be found to serve just and benevolent kings;
that war may die away; that crime may be repressed, not by punishment,
but by the example of virtue; in a word, that peaceful industry and
happy family life undisturbed by civil wan, official corruption, royal
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
avarice, and military ambition, may be the lot of one-third of the
1
human race.11
In no nation of the world has there been found a people more
cheerful, more contented, more willing to bear their lot, hard as it
might be at times, than the Chinese.
No civilization has had such
persistent continuity and no society such stability, until very re­
cent times, as that of China.
So much may be said on the credit side
of the old education.
Defects of the Old Education
But the price paid for this cultural solidarity was costly in
terms of individual development.
People were molded into membership
in a community rather than as individual personalities.
Etiquette
and ceremonies, customs and manners, social and religious practices all had their share in shaping the life of the adolescent, not according
to his individual needs and aspirations, but according to fixed pat­
terns determined by social forces quite beyond the comprehension of
the young.
In fact, the value of the individual was not one of the
considerations in the minds of those concerned with the welfare of
the people.
Of course, in ancient days in China, life was comparatively
simple and problems less complicated than in the modern world.
had no cast^system such as that found in India.
China
Class distinctions
1. L. T. Hobhouse, iv'orals in Evolution, p. 542.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
v/ere vague and class divsions very elastic.
Four occupations were
recognized as being respectable - the scholar, the farmer, the arti­
san, the merchant.
But the son of an official or a scholar might
slip back to the farm.
A peasant boy, if he had unusual ability,
might pass brilliant examinations which would open up a political
career for him.
The artisan’s life was always open to those who pre­
ferred it and were able to go through the apprenticeship.
lowed commercial interests.
Some fol­
But by and large, the future of an
adolescent boy was determined more by his family tradition and his
social circumstances than by his
07m
inclination and preference.
The young man married about the age of twenty.
for a man as for a woman was inconceivable.
the family.
Single life
The wife was chosen by
To marry and bring up children was one of the most im­
portant duties owed by the individual to the family.
Y/hile undoubt­
edly there were problems for some during the adolescent years, yet
there were not so many of these in a stereotyped society where all
were ejected to live a stereotyped life.
This old education had its
definite aim, and all the influences of society contributed toward
the reaching of that end.
Illiteracy
A serious defect also was the ultra-practical character of
the education.
Literacy, for instance, must be useful.
It has often
been difficult to understand why in a country with an age-long empha­
sis on learning there should prevail such appalling illiteracy as
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
56
has prevailed in China.
This can be explained in part by the fact
that the main occupation for the people as a whole has been working
the soil, "the good earth," and no formal education was considered
necessary for people so engaged.
The ability to read and write
seemed to have no practical value in their lives.
When a people’s
interests were confined almost exclusively to a small village, the
members of which remain there all the time, the need of writing as
a means of communication was hardly felt.
magazines or new bocks to be read.
There were no newspapers,
Ethical instruction was handed on
from generation to generation chiefly through home and village in­
fluences.
Education did not need to take a literary form, and the
practical-minded Chinese in the old days did not fsel that literacy
was necessarily a mark of an educated man.
However, for these people,
the world shrunk to the limits of the local community, which in the
long run had disastrous results forthe'whole country.
Individual Differences Ignored
The years of life now recognized as the period of adolescence
were in old China regarded as important not for the sake of the de­
velopment of the individual with all his peculiarities, special tal­
ents, and characteristic problems and difficulties, but for the pur­
pose of molding the individual during this plastic period into a
fixed pattern.
Individual differences were considered as corners to
be knocked off or rounded out, not as potentialities to be encour­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57
aged and developed.
While it is true that in adolescent education of this old type,
individual differences were not completely ignored for everybody, since
much of the formal education was based on the relation between the
teacher and his individual pupils, yet none the less, the fact remains
that the individual personality was to be shaped into membership in
the family, the clan and the community rather than to be developed
as a personality.
In a word, individual differences were recognized
only in the process of education, not in its aim.
And why not?
fall into line.
Society was a closed system, culture 7/as only to
The individual person was not expected to males any
new contribution or to help in developing the social and cultural life.
This kind of system, however, can operate only so long as so­
ciety remair.3 static and the culture unchanged.
'.Then China came into
contact with new forces and new ideas, adaptation to new circumstances
became an urgent necessity.
lio longer was it enough to be merely a
member of a static society with a fixed stereotyped culture.
dividual had to be developed a3 an individual.
The in­
Ke had to learn not
only how to fit into a community which might change very little, but
also how to adjust himself to a world constantly and violently chang­
ing.
In such a situation, the old education failed.
A new education
became, therefore, an urgent need of China in a modern world.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER VI
FIRST ATTEMPTS TO SUPPLEMENT THE OLD EDUCATION
As has been already noted, the main purpose of the old edu­
cation in China which had continued through the ages down to the end
of the nineteenth century had been the preservation and perpetuation
of the Chinese culture.
This education was the creation of the Chinese.
It owed nothing to foreign systems and methods.
Undoubtedly the co­
herence of the vast population of China has been due to the general
acceptance of the basic ethical and social teachings found in the
classics.
While the Chinese culture 'was not entirely static during the
many centuries of its history, and showed several times amazing ca­
pacity to absorb invaders of various degrees of civilization, yet from
the establishment of Confucianism as the orthodox teaching of the state
(B.C. 155), there was fundamentally a single aim in all formal educa­
tion, politics and religion.
The government fully utilized its authority.
Both through em­
phasis on the classics and later from the seventh century to the twen­
tieth through an extensive system of competitive examinations for pub­
lic office, the government was able to select men for the public ser­
vice who were steeped in the teachings underlying the social institu-
58.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
tions and regulating the daily life of the people.
So long as China
remained isolated, this Confucian influence was sufficient to maintain
the stability of society.
China*s Contacts 'with the '.Test
military and Political Svents
This equilibrium in Chinese society was upset, however, in the
nineteenth century when China came into contact with the West on a
large scale.
As a result of aggression and disastrous military exper­
iences with European nations, the Imperial government finally bacame
convinced that the old Chinese learning was out of date and that the
oldest people in the world must investigate and become familiar with
the knowledge held by other peoples.
the West.
In short, China must learn from
It was evident that if China was to survive, she must learn
modern scientific warfare, as practiced by the Western nations.
So
young Chinese were sent abroad to study military and naval sciences to learn how to build arsenals, manufacture weapons of warfare, con­
struct a navy and organize a modern army.
Within the country, some
steps were taken to start industries, principally to supply military
needs.
meanwhile, a bold attempt at reform was made in 1898.
fluenced by scholar-reformer3 such as K'ang Yu-wei
Liang Ch!i-ch*ao
J
In­
and
the young Emperor, Kuang-hsii
•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
who unfortunately was under the control of the old Empress Dowager,
Tz'u Hsi
tried to reform the whole governmental system on
plans based on Confucian lines but with many ideas be -'owed from the
West.
This was after the defeat of China in the Sino-Japanese ’
War of
1894-95.
The idea began to spread in China that Japan's strength in
the war -/as due to her Westernization.
Although this reform movement in China met with frustration
because the forces of reaction led by the Empress Dowager were too
strong, yet the tide had turned.
The year 1900 saw the tragic Boxer
Uprising, the flight of the Imperial Court from Peking, the capture of
the capital by the allied troops of eight 7/estern powers, and the impo­
sition on China of a humiliating treaty of peace.
3y this time, even
the' 3hrewd old Empress realized that changes must be made.
Chinese
1
officialdom could no longer resist reform.
Beginnings of Reform in Education
In response to a memorial in 1901 from two of the leading
viceroys, Chang Chih-tung
of Wuchang and Liu Kuen-yih
of Nanking, the Imperial government approved plans to reform the edu­
cational system.
In December of that year, an Imperial edict abolished
the use of the "eight-legged" essays in the civil service examinations
and substituted practical essays on political and historical topics.
But this was not enough.
But the reformers really won a victory when
in 1905 another edict abolished entirely the old examination system.
1. See X. S. Latourette, The Chinese, their History and Culture, vol. I ,
chap. 12.
■'
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
In 1905 a- plan recommended by Chang Chih-tung (J^Lt-^JJand Chang Peihsi
was adopted, providing for a commission to draw up a
detailed scheme for a system of national public education.
Thus was
brought to an end, officially, the old regime of education which China
1
had followed for so many centuries.
Pioneer Schools in Modern Subjects
However, at the opening of the twentieth century, China was
not totally without knowledge of modern education.
A few attempts on
government responsibility had been made at various kinds of modern
schools.
In 1862, after the experiences of the so-called Second Opium
'War (1856-1860) and the establishing for the first time of a Foreign
Office (Tsung-li Yamen
W
> a foreign language
school had been started in Peking to train official Chinese interpreters
needed in carrying on relations with foreign nations.
Shortly there­
after, other foreign language schools were started in Shanghai, Canton
and Wuchang.
Some progressive officials saw the need to study the
technical and scientific writings of the 'West in order to learn the
secrets of their superior power.
This point of view also eventually
brought about the founding of schools to train military and naval
officers and skilled mechanics.
1. See Education in China, edited by T. Y. Teng and T. T. Lew, chap. 1;
Chen Yi-'ling, History of Education in China for the Last Thirty
Years (In Chinese )•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
These institutions were signs that some of the statesmen in
China in the latter part of the nineteenth century were seeing the neces­
sity of learning foreign languages in order to deal with the Western
nations, and to understand their science and technical methods in or­
der to build a modern navy and a modern army.
But in these pioneer
attempts at a new kind of education, the leaders were still clinging
fondly to the old classical learning with its moral and social em­
phasis.
So their motto was, "Chinese culture in spirit but Western
learning for practical purposes." ( < f %
&
&
£
$
rp
).
These moderate reformers felt that the study of the classics alone did
not supply the leadership and the knowledge needed in the new day.
Some kind of new education must be introduced to supplement the old,
but not entirely to supplant it.
Hew and Old Together
During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, new schools
were set up to meet particular special needs, but at the same time the
old education went on as before.
These special schools admitted stu­
dents who had had the preliminary education in the classics in an oldstyle school.
Students were admitted to the new training schools at
the age of thirteen or fourteen, and were given courses requiring from
four to eight years to complete.
Obviously the total number of stu­
dents in these few schools was small.
However, the important posi­
tions in the government assigned to the graduates indicated to the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ambitious youth of the day that a new avenue to political success had
been opened.
Faith in the old learning was shaken. The new schools,
than
however, were too few and too narrowly specialized to be anything more^
examples of some kinds of 7/estern learning.
Christian Pioneer Schools
For several decades preceding 1900 there had been in several
parts of China a few schools on modern lines for general education.
But the official Chinese ’
world showed no interest in them.
These
small pioneer schools in most instances had been founded and were main­
tained by various Christian missions. These schools offered instruction
in modern subjects, such as mathematics, history of foreign lands,
geography, foreign language (usually English), some science, as well
as instruction in the Christian religion.
The demand created by the
government for men with modern training made the mission schools pop­
ular with the Chinese who had a progressive outlook.
To the Christian schools must be given credit for the intro­
duction of modern general education in China.
Also, the Christian
schools were the pioneers in offering formal education to girls, the
first attempt of this kind being a school for girls at Ningpo in 1844.
The Christians emphasized that girls should share in education, and
gradually established schools for them in the centers where Christian
1
activities were carried on.
So far as the Chinese government was concerned, there was no
1. See Education in China, edited by Teng and Lew, chap. 9-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
place for women in public service, the civil service examinations were
not open to them, and therefore women needed no formal education.
iVhen the twentieth century dawned, the country was totally without
provision for the intellectual training of women, save for a mere
handful of mission schools.
Informal draining Continued
It goes without saying that these few new schools during this
period did not affect to any large extent the education of the adoles­
cent in.the country as a whole.
on in the same old fashion.
For the mass of the people, China went
The boys of the less priviledged families -
which included most of the population - might attend an old-style pri­
vate school long enough to learn to read and write, but the rest of
their education was obtained on the farm or in the shop or store.
Girls were taught the ceremonials at home, and how to be good
wives, good daughters-in-law and good mothers.
the only education needed by females,
This was considered
not yet did any one seem to be
concerned about illiteracy or untrained minds.
Siiim ary
Both boys and girls continued to breathe in the old Chinese
culturejfrom the home, the -community and the social institutions - with
all the colorful rituals and ceremonies, the age-long customs and tra­
ditions, the classical sayings that had gone into everyday currency,
and the interesting stories told from generation to generation.
For
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the people as a whole, it was still these influences rather than
any formal teaching that went to mold the mind and direct the heart
of the adolescent.
During this transitional period when modern edu­
cation Y7as first being introduced in China, it was still the social
environment rather than the school that was the really powerful edu­
cational agency.
Nevertheless, for the few - those few who were destined to
fill the ranks of the ruling class eventually, the introduction of
the new schools was a disturbing element.
Classical studies and lit­
erary examinations were proving inadequate to meet the new needs and
they soon came to be looked upon as antiquated.
A new day had'cone.
The time was ripe for a sweeping change in Chinese education.
Officially this change was effected by an Imperial edict issued in
1905* calling for a comprehensive system of education along modern
lines.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER VII
ADOLESCENT EDUCATION BY TRIAL AND ERROR UNDER MODERN SYSTEMS, 1905-1928.
Education in Changing China
The quarter century following 1905 saw stupendous changes in
China.
In some respects, the oldest nation in the world was trans­
formed into the youngest.
place.
In education, a complete revolution took
First, there was the change under the old Imperial government
from the old-style educational scheme tc a modern system inaugurated
in 1905*
out in
Then in less than a decade, the political revolution broke
1911,
followed by the over-throw of the age-long monarchy and
the setting up of a republic.
Again, certain educational changes were
necessitated to accord with the new political spirit of the time.
The World War occurred from 1914 to 1918, and at its close,
some efforts were made to rebuild the shattered civilization of many
countries.
ever before.
For a time democracy seemed to have a better chance than
During these same years, two successive attempts to re­
store the monarchy in China were frustrated.
The Chinese, too, were
under the illusion that democracy was to be the order of the new day.
After 1912, China locked to the United States for' the best
model in education as well as in government.
Inspired by the enthu­
siasm of the students of education who had returned from study in
66
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
America, and under their leadership, a movement for a new educational
system, based partly on experimental education, was launched about the
year 1920.
Influential American educators, such as Professor John
to
Dewey and Professor Paul Monroe, were invited to come to China dis­
cuss education, tc study the school system and make recommendations
for improvements.
This was the third change.
A few years later, the Nationalist Party led by General Chiang
Kai-shek succeeded in overthrowing the numerous war lords whose private
armies and private wars had become the curse of most of China, and in
1927 established a new National Government in Nanking.
This was to lead
to another major change in the educational system.
Each new development in political affairs brought changes in
education - changes in the aims of education, changes in the organiza­
tion of the school system, in curriculum, in methods of instruction,
in discipline and in special emphases.
Because the changes came in
such rapid succession, the schools had too short a time to make the
necessary adjustments from one plan.to another.
The teachers barely
became acquainted with the school aims ana curriculum when a change
would take place.
The students were bewildered.
But a complete change in education for conservative China with
her long history, her immense population, and her cultural background
so different from that of the rest of the world, was naturally not
to be effected over night.
A period of mere surface modernization,
marked by imitation, adaptation, trial and error, was inevitable.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
In a brief survey of these changes, it will be seen that al­
though a statement of aims was made, revised and made anew, education
continued to fail in its purpose, thus leaving the young adolescent too
often disappointed, dissatisfied and even disgusted.
While curricula
changes could be enforced without great difficulty, the serious weakness
in the changes was the fact that they were not made according to a
well-thought-out philosophy of education, nor were they thorough-going
enough to meet the needs of the students.
Furthermore, throughout this period of trial and error, there
’
was a lack of correlation between changes in aims and the changes in
curricula, a discrepancy between the supply of trained teachers for new
subjects and the curriculum modifications, and a widespread sense of
futility to meet by education the crying social needs of the country.
These needs, even when recognized by the leaders in education, could
not be adequately met by education alone.
However, in spite of the many shortcomings and obvious weak­
nesses, modern education steadily gained ground in China.
More schools
were opened from year to year, larger numbers of pupils enrolled, and
more efforts were made to rejuvenate old China through education.
It has been an heroic fight.
3efore
1905
the adolescent in
China had been chiefly influenced by the social and cultural forces
v/hich were a part of the deep-rooted old civilization.
For a quarter
of a century after 1903 the old civilization was fast crumbling away.
Particularly in the large cities, the adolescents were left to the
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
69
schools almost entirely for their education, bacauae the old social
and cultural forces had in many ways ceased to function.
Unfor­
tunately, the schools were not equal to the task before them.
modern Education under the Empire, 1905-1911.
China's new era in education officially began with the promul­
gation of a modern system of schools in 1905*
The plan 'was comprehen­
sive, although it made no provision for the education of women.
As
1
shown in Figure I, it covered education from the kindergarten to the
graduate school.
The system was modeled chiefly after that of ^apsn,
which in turn had been copied from Germany.
To put this elaborate plan
into actual practice presented enormous difficulties - everything from
providing school buildings, equipment and textbooks, to educating and
training in modern methods a v,st corps of teachers needed for the new
schools.
Two years after the establishment of this school system, it
was enlarged to provide elementary schools and normal schools for girls.
This marks the first recognition by the government of any kind of edu­
cational opportunities for girls.
In the same year, provision was made
for half-day schools for poor children.
Aims
The aims set forth for the new schools included loyalty to the
1. See p. 70.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
70
1
Figure I
Educational System Adopted in 1905-
1. S. 0. Liao, Middle School Education in China, National Association
for the Advancement of Education in China, Vol. 2, Bulletin 12, p.2.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited without permission.
emperor, reverence for Confucius, devotion to public welfare, admi­
1
ration for bravery, and practical application of knowledge.
Certainly the force of tradition is very evident in this state­
ment of aims.
Curriculum of Upper Primary and middle School
From the diagram showing the school system, one sees that the
adolescent period falls within the upper primary school and the middle
school.
First, the upper primary curriculum will be examined.
As originally adopted in 190J>, the upper primary school course
covered four years, and provided for instruction in the Confucian clas­
sics, Chinese language, Chinese history, geography, science, morals,
2
drawing and physical training.
This program required thirty-six
hours per week of class work during the entire four years.
Twelve
hours each week were given to Confucian classics - which is an indi­
cation of the influence of tradition on attempts to introduce modern
education,
next to the classics, Chinese language was the heaviest
subject, occupying eight hours per week.
It is clear that the empha­
sis in this program was on literary studies.
In 1910 some revisions -were made in the school system and
also in the curricula.
1.
2
.
So far as the upper primary course was concern-
Education in China, edited by Teng and Lew, chap. 1, p. 7; Shu Ksinch'eng, Source Book in the History of Chinese Education (in Chinese -
iSee table,'
vf
p.
72.
|
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
UPPER PRIMARY CURRICULUM IK THE EDUCATICKAL SYSTEM OF 19C'5.
Subjects
Hours per week
1 st
Confucian classics
year
2 nd
year
prd. year
4th year
12
12
12
Chinese language
8
8
8
8
Chinese history
2
2
2
2
12
Arithmetic
5
5
P
5
Geography
2
2
2
2
2
Science
2
2
2
Morals
2
2
2
2
Drawing
2
2
2
2
Physical training
5
5
5
5
56
56
56
56
Total
Ch'en Ch'ingfrchi, History of Chinese Education, vol. 2, p. 592.
(In Chinese -
s f
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
73
ed, there was no improvement.
The load per week continued very heavy,
1
thirty-six hours, and there was too much emphasis on memory work.
After nine years of elementary school came five years of sec­
ondary cr middle school.
As officially stated in 1903> the purpose of
the middle school was "to provide more advanced general education so
that the students after graduation, if they do not enter government ser­
vice, may engage in business pursuits, or be prepared for the college
or higher technical schools," and its outcome should be "the gradual
development of industry and commerce, the increase of national strength,
and the fact that those graduates who do seek an advanced education at
least should not remain shallow in intelligence or unbalanced in judg2
ner.t
On the basis of this statement, middle schools were to train
for government service, or prepare for higher education, or give a
general education so that the citizens might be intelligent.
This edu­
cation was open only to boys.
What kind of curriculum was to provide this training?
During
the entire five years, the course required thirty-six hours per week
of class work.
The program included Confucian classics, Chinese litera­
ture, foreign language, history, geography, nature study, mathematics,
morals, drawing, and physicaltraining.
During the last two years,
physics and chemistry were required, and in the last year, government
and economics.^
r
f
1.Ch’en Ch'ing-chi, History of Chinese Education, Vol. 2, p. 644.
2. Education in China, edited by Teng and Lew, chap. 4, p . 10.
3- See table, p. 74.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
l
riDDLS SCHOOL CURRICULUM III TK;e education IAL SYSTEIC OF 1903
Subjects
Hours per week
1 st
year
2 nd
year
3 rd
year
4th yr.
5th
Chinese classics
9
9
9
9
9
Chinese literature
4
4
5
3.'
3
Foreign language
e
s
8
6
6
History
5
2
2
2
2
geography
2
3
2
2
2
nature study
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
1
1
1
liathenati cs
4
Horals
l
Physics and chemistry
4
4
1
4
Government and economics
5
Drawing
l
1
1
1
Physical training
2
2
2
2
2
36
36
36
36
36
Total
1. Oh'en Ch'ing-chi, History of Chinese Education, Vol. 2, pp. 593-94.
(In Chines®
^
^
£ _
>•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
As in the upper primary school, again the chief place was given
to Confucian classics and Chinese literature, which required more than
a third of the student*s time.
Foreign language, usually English, was
the next heaviest subject, requiring eight hours a week throughout the
first three years and six hours a week during the last two years.
Vocational Training
In addition to the middle school curriculum, there was provis­
ion for some vocational education, which was a very important problem
for adolescents.
At the middle school level, the vocational schools
had a two-year preparatory course and three years of vocational train­
ing in commerce, or industry, or navigation, or agriculture.
There
were also trade schools offering short courses for poor students v/ho
could not afford to attend the regular vocational schools.
The great weakness of the vocational schools was that their
courses tended to be more theoretical than practical.
In 1910 the
I.'inistry of Education resorted that the students in the vocational
1
schools paid little attention to the practical side of their training.
This difficulty was partly due to the poor teaching in these schools.
The teacher3 were not qualified for their work.
Commerce, industries
and agriculture on a scientific basis had not been developed in China,
consequently the teachers of these subjects were often without any
experience of actual work in laboratory or elsewhere.
Too often they had
only theoretical knowledge gained from short courses taken in Japan.
1.
Chen Yi-ling, history of Education in China (In C
%
«f
p*
121
h
i
n
•
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
e
LIBRARY
•
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
e
'f
16
It would hardly be possible for such teachers to make the subjects of
practical value to the boys in the schools.
Consequently, many of the
graduates of these schools were misfits in economic life and looked
1
upon their education as worthless.
To those interested in adolescent
education, this was a serious situation.
Lack of Trained Teachers
No problem of the new school system was more fundamental than
that of properly trained teachers.
In the upper primary and middle
schools, the lack of teachers was serious.
As late as 1909> at least
a third of the middle school teachers had had no modern education at
all.
Less than a third had any teacher training at all, and of these,
2
many had had a short course of only a few months.
The situation was very unsatisfactory when there were in the
same school teachers who had some modern ideas of education working side
by side with teachers who had never been under any modern educational
influence.
Left to themselves, the old-fashioned teachers had been able
to teach the classics and exert whatever influence they could upon the
boys by personal contact.
problem of discipline.
The boys respected them and there was no
But in the modern schools, these teachers of the
old type were out of their natural element.
The leadership was as a
rule in the hands of the younger teachers who had had some sort of
1. Chuang Yui and Ho Sheng-nai, Education in China for the Last Thirtyfive Years (in Chinese £ . ^ \3Q
^
p. 4 3 .
2. Educational Yearbook, (In Chinese jjp
i
A£& ), P •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
77
modern education.
Needless to say, the two groups did not always har­
monize so as to make the school a wholesome place for the adolescent boy.
Discipline
The matter of discipline in the schools was mo 3t unfortunate.
In the old education, discipline was entirely a personal relation be­
tween the boy and his teacher.
But in the modern educational system,
discipline was made a function of the government, and very arbitrary
power was exercised.
school.
An "overseer of students" 'was appointed for each
Rules were posted in the school rooms.
was a corresponding penalty.
For every offense there
There were rules for the classroom, rules
1
for the playground, rules for the dormitory, and rules for examinations.
Naturally, the students resented being watched, and they came to regard
the "overseer" as an enemy, and the school authorities as antagonistic
to the interests of the students.
The personal touch which had been the
strength of the old Chinese education and the gift of the Chinese teach­
er was lost in this unwise attempt of the modern school to copy the
type of school discipline practiced in some other countries.
quired many years for China to recover from this influence.
It re­
Many student
difficulties of later years were tracable to this "dictator" method of
discipline.
As a factor in adolescent education, it was most unfor­
tunate .
Revolution of 1911
For a half century the consciousness had been slowing growing
1.
Ch'en Ch'ing-chi, History of Education in China, Vol. 2, p. 606 .
(In Chinese
\g£J
^
g ).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
78
in China - at least among the educated, if not among the masses of the
people - that something must be done to save the'country from complete
disintegration or partition by aggressive foreign powers.
After 1900
this consciousness spread more widely and gathered force.
The Boxer
debacle in 1900 drove home to the thinking Chinese the seriousness of the
situation in ’which the country found itself.
Reorganization of the ar­
my and navy, and the introduction of modern industry and modern educa­
tion failed to produce the expected results.
The failure of the country to make rapid progress was charged
against the corrupt Kanchu regime which was unwilling to make the rad­
ical changes necessary to save the country.
The people became impa­
tient and restless, and secret revolutionary propaganda spread rapidly.
The revolutionary leaders came largely from South China and were under
the leadership of Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
Meantime, the defeat of Russia by
Japan in 1904-5 demonstrated to the Chinese what political reforms
could accomplish, even in an Asiatic nation.
The Manchus were held
responsible for China's backward state; therefore, this obstacle must
be removed.
The time was ripe for a revolution which broke out in 1911.
Within a few months, the Manchu dynasty was overthrown and early in
1912 a new government was set up at Nanking.
This marked the first
step in the political organization of the Republic of China.
The new
leaders faced the overwhelming task of building a democracy of a 'Western
type.
Old China's unity was the unity of a civilization tather than
that of a political system.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Political and Military Turmoil
The enterprise of changing China politically brought on a
period of many disturbances.
For nearly two decades the country was
harassed by political factions, contending war lords and finally wide­
spread civil v/ar, all of which greatly retarded educational develop­
ments.
Hot until the Nationalist Party set up a new government at
Nanking in 1927 was there any sign that the national unification of
China was even within sight.
Education under the Republic, 1912-1922.
However, in the midst of all this turmoil, education was re­
ceiving some attention and making some progress.
The next step is to
examine the first attempt of the Republic to provide public education
and see in particular what was offered for adolescent youth.
Aims
In organizing a new educational system in 1912, the government
of the ^epublic declared the aim to be "special emphasis on moral edu­
cation which is to be supplemented by industrial, military and aesthetic
education, in order to provide well-balanced character."^
This edu­
cation was expected to put China on the road toward politi^c&l democ­
racy.
School System
2
The school system adopted at that time, as shown in Figure II,
1. King Chu, "Education," in Symposium on Chinese Culture, p. 24j.
2. See p. 80.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
Figure II
Educational System Adopted in 1912.
%7*£>
19
it
17
lt>
Scfv
If
Sell
M
Id
12.
10
1.
Paul Monroe, A Report on Education in China, p. 42.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
was much simplified and the whole course shortened over that of
1 9 0 J.
The length of the educational ladder was reduced from twenty-one to
eighteen years.
The lower primary course covered four years, admit­
ting pupils at the age of six, and it was followed by the upper primary
course of three years, graduating the pupil normally at the age of thir­
teen.
The middle school course was four years, being a year shorter
than in the previous system.
Middle school students normally entered
at the age of thirteen and completed the course at the age of seventeen.
The university had a preparatory division of three years and an upper
division, the university proper, also of three years.
At the upper primary level were the elementary vocational schools,
and at the middle school level, the secondary vocational schools and the
normal schools -with a course of five years.
The higher normal school
and the professional colleges were four years above the middle school
level.
Co-education was provided in the lower primary school.
There were
upper primary and middle schools, as well as normal and higher normal
schools for girls.
This offered better opportunities than ever before
for the education of women.
the country from
1512
to
This system was in force in mo 3 t parts of
1922.
In this educational framework, what was provided for adolescent
education?
The adolescent period covered the last year or two of the
upper primary school, the four years in the middle school and the first
year of the university preparatory course.
As a matter of fact, many
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
boys and girls
school.
were fourteen or over V7hen they finished the primary
Since the greater part of the adolescent years came in the mid­
dle school period, just what was the aim of these schools?
According
to the official regulations, the purpose of the middle Bchools was to
complete general education, and to produce strong and well-equipped
1
citizens of the state.
Curriculum of the Upper Primary and Kiddle School
Toward attaining this objective, what kind of curriculum was
provided in the upper primary and in the middle school in this first
attempt at public education under the Republic?
The upper primary
course required thirty-two hours of class work in the first year and
thirty-four hours in each of the second and third years.
The subjects
included Confucian classics, Chinese language and history, ethics,
arithmetic, natural science, geography, drawing, music, manual work,
physical education, and in the last two years, foreign language, house2
hold arts for girls and agriculture for boys.
The middle school course included Chinese language and liter­
ature, foreign language, ethics, history, mathematics, geography, biol­
ogy, drawing, music, manual work, physics and chemistry, government
and economics, physical education, and for the girls, home economics
and gardening.
5
This curriculum was very heavy, requiring from tbirty-
1. Education in China, edited by Teng and Lew, chap.
2. See table, p. 85*
See table,
3.
4, p. 4.
p. 84.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
85
1
UBPER PRIMARY CURRICULUM IK
HE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF 1912.
Hours per week
Subjects
1 st
Confucian classics
Chinese language
year
2 nd
year
Jrd year
5
5
5
10
S
8
Chinese history
1
Ethics
2
Arithmetic
4
Natural science
2
Geography
1
1
1
2
'
2
4
4
2
1
2
1
Drawing
2
2
2
Music
2
2
2
Manual v/ork
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
5
5
52
54
3b
Foreign language
Agriculture
Household arts
(Boys)
(Girls)
Physical education
Total
1. Cheng Tsung-hai, Elementary Education in China, in National Association
for the Advancement of Education in China, Bulletin, Vol. 2 , No. 14,
p. 14.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
84
1
Middle School Curriculum in the Educational System of 1912.
Hours per week
Subjects
Ethics
1st year
2nd year
3rd year
4th year
1
l
l
1
5
Chinese language
7
7
5
Foreigh language
7
8
8
8
History
2
2
2
2
Geography
2
2
2
2
Mathematics
5
5
5
4
Nature study
5
5
2
-
Physics and chemistry
-
-
4
4
Civics and economics
-
-
-
2
^rawing
1
1
1
2
Handwork
1
1
1
1
Music
1'
1
1
1
Physical education
5
5
5
5
55
54
55
55
Total
1. See S. C. Liao, Middle School Education in China, in National Association
for the Advancement of Education in China, Bulletin, Vol. 2, $o. 12, p. 8.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited without permission.
three to thirty-five hours per week of class work.
The most striking
change was the omission entirely of the ancient classics.
This was
moving a long way from the old education of Chinese youth, and one may
question the wisdom of so sharp a break with the culture of the past.
Vocational draining
From the standpoint of adolescent education, the problem of
vocational training continued to be very unsatisfactory.
In 1912,
the Minister of Education, Dr. Ts'ai YUan-pei, a Hanlin scholar and
also well-trained in modern education, pointed out the importance of
proper vocational education for Chinese youth.
"Vocational education
which is related to the livelihood of the people," said Dr. Ts'ai,
"is the main part of education in general.
Some educators even want
to go so far as to transform the common branches of knowledge into
acquisition of skill, such as planting, gardening, cooking and needle­
work.
As the natural resources of China have not yet been opened,
and the industries are in a state of infancy, our people are sadly
facing the problem of unemployment, and the nation is confronting
the problem of poverty.
It is therefore the urgent need of today
to emphasize the utilization aspect of education.*^
The work in the vocational schools continued to be too theo­
retical.
1.
The students failed to acquire practical skill.
The basic
King Chu, "Education," in Symposium on Chinese Culture, p. 248.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
trouble was lack of adequate training for teachers in vocational
subjects.
More intelligent attention was given this whole phase of
education after the National Association of Vocational Education was
formed in 1917*
More stress was placed on the kind of training that
would meet the needs in the local communities.
1
vocational schools increased rapidly.
Also, the number of
Defects
from the standpoint of adolescent education,the educational
program carried on from 1912 to 1922 had many defects, even though
it was an Improvement over the preceding system.
In the judgment of
Dr. Paul Monroe who studied China's school system in 1921, the middle
2
schools wereethe weakest link in the system.
In the first place, the curriculum was overloaded and too
standardized, and often did not at all meet community needs.
Especially
unsatisfactory was the work in the sciences, where much of the work
had to be done in English due to lack of materials in Chinese.
Be­
sides laboratory work was extremely meager and of poor quality, due
both to lack of laboratory facilities and incompetent teachers.^
Teachers were too few and often poorly prepared for their work.
They tended to become slaves to a syllabus which in many subjects
1. See Huang Yen-pei, Vocational Education in China, in National As­
sociation for the Advancement of Education in China, Bulletin,
Vol. 2, No 1.
2. P. C. Chang, Education for Modernization in China, p. 2.
5. Paul Monroe, A Report on Education in China, p. 20. See also,
G. R. Twiss, Science and Education in China.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
87
served as a text.
The teacher lectured and the student took notes.
The emphasis was primarily on learning from books.
more important than the student.
The subject was
There was much memory work, tending
to follow the tradition of the old-time study of the classics.
1
students took no active part in classroom work.
The
Fortunately for China1s youth, efforts were made to improve
both the contents and the methods of education.
Some progressive
young educators, one of whom was Dr. Hu Shih, invited Dr. John Dewey
to come to China for discussions and conferences on educational pro­
blems.
Professor Dewey's visit aroused great enthusiasm and his
ideas became an important factor in bringing about changes in edu­
cation in China.
Likewise, the recommendations of Professor Monroe
received serious attention in connection with the revision of the
educational program.
Hew Sducational System. 1922.
A decade of trial of the educational system of 1912 brought
forth much dissatisfaction and criticism.
After much discussion
and -the recommendations of several national conferences of Chinese
educators, the Ministry of Education announced a new educational
system on November 1, 1922, which involved a radical revision of
some aspects of the school program.
Objectives
The objectives of the new school system were stated as fol­
1. Monroe, op. cit., p. 21.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88
lows:
1. To adapt itself to a changed and changing society.
2. To promote the spirit of democracy.
5. To develop individuality.
A. To take into special consideration the economic status of
the average citizen.
5. To adjust education to the needs of life.
6. To facilitate the spread of universal education.
1
7. To make itself flexible enough to allow for local variations.
When the new system was promulgated, these objectives were looked
upon as proposed solutions to very important educational problems.
These standards served as the basis of China's educational program
until the Nationalist Party came into power in 1928.
School System
The new system, as shown in Figure III,
2
provided for six
years in primary school and six years in middle school.
The latter
was divided into a junior middle of three years and a senior middle
of three years.
There were also vocational and normal schools at
the middle school level.
Above the middle school came higher edu­
cation of various types covering from four to six years.
The main
divisions of the system were planned to correspond in general with the
child's physical and mental development.
Thus the secondary schools
parallelled the age of adolescence.
1. 0. W, Luh, China's New System of Education, in National Associa­
tion for the Advancement of Education in China, Bulletin, Vol. 2,
2. See p. 89.
No. 8.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
89
Figure III
Educational System Adopted in 1922.
-17
-lb
-II
LJJ L li
1. King Chu, "Education," in Symposium on Chinese Culture, p. 245,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
In order to make some provision for individual differences
and provide some elasticity in the middle school curricula, elective
courses were offered in both junior and senior middle schools.
Grad­
uation was based on credit points.
Curriculum of junior and of senior middle school
The junior middle school curriculum attempted to make pro­
vision for individual needs by permitting elective courses amounting
to sixteen credits out of a total of 180 credits required for grad­
uation.
Special provision was made for students not planning to enter
senior middle school to take vocational courses instead of foreign
language.
The courses required of all junior middle school stu­
dents were Chinese language, history, geography, civics, mathematics,
general science, art and physical education.*
In the senior middle school curriculum, there was greater
flexibility in courses and requirements.
In all of these schools
of whatever type, there were certain common requirements amounting
to 45 per cent of the total credits, and the number of free electives
was limited to 20 per cent of the total points for graduation.
The
plan for the senior middle school included a literary-social science
course and a mathematics-natural science course. A total of 150
credits was required in each course for graduation.
The common
requirements in the two courses included Chinese language, foreign
language, social problems, history of culture, philosophy of life,
1. See table, p. 91*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
91
1
Curriculum of Junior Middle School in the Educational Plan of 1922.
Subjects
Credits
Social sciences
Citizenship
6
History
8
Geography
8
Languages and literature
National language
Foreign language
52
56
Mathematics
50
Nature study
16
Arts
Dravring
Manual arts
12
Music
Physical education
Physiology and hygiene
Physical exercise
1.
k
12
See W. Tchishin Tao on education in China in the Educational Yearbook of
the International Institute, edited by I. L. Kandel, 1924, p. 119.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
general science and physical education.
Vocational Training
During these years, the outstanding emphasis in secondary
education was on vocational training.
There was a conscious desire
on the part of educators to fit the students for life.
Practical
training was to be stressed and it should occupy at least as much
time as theoretical work.
This step was quite important as a means
to improve the teaching of vocational subjects.
The plan also
specified study of the basic sciences needed in the actual prac­
tice of the vocation.
With the adoption of the new system of edu­
cation in 1922, the leaders in vocational education were hopeful
"that from now on vocational education could be accorded a more
important place in the life of the nation.a2
Quality of teaching
After 1922 there were marked improvements in the teaching
in the middle schools.
Tests and measurements were introduced and
some attempts were made at experimental education.
There was more
laboratory work in the natural sciences and more discussion in the
classroom.
troduced.
Better methods in the teaching of languages were in­
On the whole, there was a more enthusiastic and adven­
turous spirit in educational work than under any of the previous
efforts in modern education.
1. See tables, pp. 95 and 94.
2. Huang Yen-pei, op. cit.. p. 1J.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
95
1
Senior Middle School Curriculum in the Educational ^lan of 1922.
Arts and Social Sciences |roup
Subjects
Credits
General requirements
National language
16
Foreign language
16
Philosophy of life
4
Social problems
6
History of civilization
6
General principles of science
6
Physical education
10
Group requirements - Prescribed
Special Chinese literature
8
Beginner's psychology
5
Beginner's logic
5
Social science
4 (or more)
Natural science or mathematics
6 (or more)
Group requirements - electives
32 (or more)
Pure electives
30 (or more)
Total
150
1. See W. Tchishin Tao on education in China in the Educational Yearbook of
the International Institute, edited by I. L. Kandel, 1924, p. 120.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
94
l
Senior Middle School Curriculum in the Educational Plan of 1922.
Mathematics and Natural Sciences group
Subjects
Credits
General requirements
National language
16
Foreign language
16
Philosophy of life
4
Social problems
6
History of civilization
6
6
General principles of science
Physical education
10
Group requirements - prescribed
Trigonometry
5
Senior geometry
6
Senior algebra
6
Analytic geometry
5
Mechanical drawing
Physics, chemistry, biology (any two of
the three subjects with 6 credits each)
4
_
12
Group requirements - electives
25 (or more)
Pure electives
25
Total
151
1. See W. Tchishin Tao on education in China in the Educational Yearbook of
the International Institute, edited by I. L. Kandel, 1924, p. 120.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Discipline
Attention was also given to efforts to improve school dis­
cipline, which had unfortunately been carried out in a very mechan­
ical and impersonal manner since 1905, and often with very disastrous
results.
A forward step was taken in this matter.
Students were en­
couraged to organize self-government associations and to participate
in extra-curricular activities.
However, few teachers were able to help and direct the stu­
dents wisely in these attempts, and the results were often unfortu­
nate.
The traditional respect for the teacher had almost totally
disappeared.
Student strikes became frequent and there developed a
widespread mood of rebellion in student groups.
This was certainly
in part due to the political chaos and military disturbances prevail­
ing in many parts of the country.
Youth was almost hopelessly at
sea, yet not at all inclined to take counsel from teachers or school
officials.
Appraisal of Educational Efforts, 1905-1928.
Before examining the general reorganization of education be­
gun by the Nationalist Government in 1928, a brief appraisal of the
educational changes during the quarter century between 1905 and 1928
is needed.
In the first place, there had been too much hurried borrow­
ing of educational systems and methods from other countries, first
from Japan and then from America, with too little consideration to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
96
the actual conditions in China or the real needs of the Chinese people.
Besides, no system was given long enough trial to test out its merits
and demerits thoroughly.
Educational aims were revised to suit changes
in political conditions.
Hew official statements regarding education
too often became mere dead letters.
program existed only on paper.
Too much of China's educational
This was particularly true in regard
to properly trained teachers for middle schools, where adolescent
youth needed competent teachers and guides.
Because so many teachers
were inadequately trained, much of the classroom work was a deadly
routine, no matter what the officially proclaimed aims of the edu­
cational system or the curriculum set up to carry out those aims.
How the student would fit into the society of the time was a ques­
tion receiving too little attention from those responsible for
education.
Too often the school seemed to be regarded more or less
as a magic box.
Good products were expected to come out of it, no
matter what went on inside the box.
But a quarter of a century is a brief span of time in the
long history of China.
necessary.
The period of trial and error may have been
Perhaps Professor Monroe's judgment was correct when he
stated in regard to China's education: "Neither objectives nor or­
ganization, neither method nor content of curriculum, have been
satisfactorily determined; nor can they be determined without pro­
longed experimentation."
1. Monroe, op. cit., p. 7
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER VIII
ADOLESCENT EDUCATION UNDER THE NATIONALIST GOVERNMENT, 1928-1957•
A New National Government
Following the establishment of a new national government
at Nanking in 1927* there began a new era in China's political organ­
ization.
The Nationalists under the leadership of General Chiang
Kai-shek were able to bring a measure of political unification to
the country and to begin some constructive work for the Chinese
people.
The new government was controlled by the National People's
Party, the Kuomintang
which had originally been a secret
revolutionary group founded by the Father of the Republic, Dr. Sun
Yat-sen.
The program of the Nationalists was embodied in Dr. Sun's
San Min Chu I
or Three Principles of the People.*
These
three principles laid emphasis on the people's independence (na­
tionalism), the people's rule (democracy) and the economic welfare
of the people (livelihood).
Due to military disturbances, political upheavals, lack of
school funds, and misdirected student disorders and strikes, by
1927 regular school work had come to a standstill in a large part
1.
Sun Yat-sen, San Min Chu I, the Three Principles of the People.
Translated into English by Frank W. Price.
97
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
of China.
The entire educational structure, both public and private,
was threatened with collapse.
Political Pressure and Education
The new government soon gave attention to education.
The
Nationalists were determined to bring all schools, private as well
as public, into conformity with the new political order.
Such a
situation always carries with it the danger of education becoming
too much the mere tool of the party in power.
Due to a variety
of circumstances, both national and international, the educational
program in China after 1928 was definitely influenced by political
ideology.
A Ministry of Education was established at Nanking, and en­
ergetic efforts were given to developing a centralized educational
system - a fourth general change in education since 1905-
All pri­
vate schools, most of which were Christian mission enterprises, were
required to register with the Ministry of Education and conform to
government regulations, and they have henceforth been considered
an integral part of the educational system.
National Educational Conference, 1928.
In May, 1928, there was held at Nanking a national educa­
tional conference under the leadership of the Minister of Education,
for the consideration of educational policy and program.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
This conference declared that the educational aims of China
should be in accord with the Three Principles of the People, and
adopted the following educational policies:
1. To promote nationalism, education shall seek to instill
into the minds of youth a national spirit, to keep alive the old
cultural traditions, to raise the general level of moral integrity an
and physical vigor, to spread modern scientific knowledge and to
cultivate aesthetic tastes.
2. To attain democracy, education shall seek to inculcate
such civic virtues as law abidingness and loyalty, to teach organ­
izing ability and a spirit of service and cooperation, to dissem­
inate political knowledge, to interpret the true meaning of liberty
and equality.
5. To realize social justice, education shall seek to de­
velop the habits of manual labor and productive skill, to teach
application of science to everyday life and to enlighten the peo­
ple on the interdependence and harmony of economic interests of
various classes.*
The educational leaders believed these policies would over­
come the imported, foreign characteristics so prominent in the
modern educational endeavors in China, and would provide a more
1.
M. T. Z. Tyau, Two Years of Nationalist China, pp. 224-225.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
definitely Chinese educational program.
instrument for changing society.
Education was to be the
The stupendous task before the
government was to put the program into practice.
.
Educational System, 1928.
The general framework of the new educational system differed
only slightly from that of 1922, as can be seen in comparing Figure
1
2
iV"-:tWith. Figure III. But control of all phases of education is
very highly centralized.
Any modification in a school program can
be made only when approved by the Ministry of Education.
This is
usually a very slow and complicated process.
In the field of elementary and secondary education, the gener­
al plan of organization followed the pattern of 1922 in arranging
for six years of elementary and six years of secondary instruction.
The latter was divided into three years of junior middle school and
three years of senior middle school.
The secondary schools were
designed "to serve as the continuation of fundamental training in
order to develop both the body and the mind of the nation's youth
and to train up good and useful citizens."^
In secondary education, the Ministry urged the need both for
a greater number of middle schools and for improvement in the qual­
ity of school work.
One of the first steps was a plan to standard-
1. See p. 101.
2. §ee p. 8 9 .
5. Tze-hsiung Kuo, Secondary Education in China, p. 24
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
101
Figure IV
Educational System Adopted in 1928.
-M
J
■a-3
-A*
<y u
_c D
-*/
■a o
d
C o Il<£C|(2
"fecKhica.!
ScKooj
5W)Ot~
£
4
£
j-
o_
z: o
o
_x
coH
"j 0
i_
o
f*
0
o
M;a<w«
A. - C
S c k ool
o u
Z lCn
-n
-i*
-/7
-jfc
-\H
TZTb^i ior-
M i d a l<£
"13
Soho6)
~ix
H ic fh ^ r T V i r m r y
S chool
-10
-9
ovoev-
rima.r
-7
I'ndcrcj&rTCL^
1. King Chu, "Education,H in Symposium on Chinese Culture, p. 251.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
102
ize the curricula to be required in all the middle schools through­
out the country, thus setting up uniform requirements.
The credit system for courses, which had been in use tinder
the 1922 plan, was replaced by uniform examinations for graduation
from junior middle and from senior middle schools.
were also discontinued.
Elective courses
The uniform examinations were the respon­
sibility of the provincial or municipal educational authorities, and
not of the teachers and principals in the schools.
One purpose in
this measure was to raise the standards of instruction in all the
secondary schools to a common level.^
Curriculum in the junior and in the senior middle school
The purpose of the junior middle school was to lay a broad
foundation of general education.
To this end, the prescribed course
of study included civics, national language, English, mathematics,
history, geography, botany, zoology, chemistry, drawing, music, aan-
2
ual work, hygiene and physical education.
This program required
thirty-five hours of class work per week.
In the senior middle Bchool, the general course of study
included civics, Chinese, English, mathematics# biology, chemistry,
physics, Chinese and foreign history, Chinese and foreign geography,
logic, drawing, music, hygiene, physical education, military train­
ing for boys and practioal nursing for girls.^
This program re-
1. For a brief description of the educational system under the Na­
tionalist government, see Wang Shih-chieh, Education in China.
Dr. Wang was Minister of Education, 1955"1958.
2. Kuo, op. cit., p. 24. See table, p. 105*
5. Ibid. See table, p. 104.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
105
Curriculum of Junior Middle School required by Nationalist Government
Hours of class work
Subjects
First year
Second year
Third year
Civics
4
4
2
Physical education
6
6
6
Hygiene
2
2
2
National language
12
12
12
English
10
10
10
10
10
Mathematics
Botany
Zoology
Chemistry
Physics
History
Goegraphy
Manual work
Drawing
(The hours given in this table are the totals of two semesters each year)
1. See Chai-hsuan Chuang on education in China in the Educational Yearbook of
the International Institute, edited by I. L. Kandel, 19 6 p» 210.
^,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
104
Curriculum of Senior Middle Schoo]jrequired by Nationalist Government.
Hours of class work
Subjects
First year
Civics
Physical education
Hygiene
Military training
Chinese
English
Mathematics
(Nursing, Girls(
4
4
2
6
10
10
8
Second year
4
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
12
8
Chemistry
-
13
-
-
3
2
Chinese history
6
-
Chinese geography
4
Foreign geography
-
3
2
Logic
-
-
Drawing
2
2
4
2
Music
10
10
6
10
Physics
Foreign history
Third year
■
12
-
4
-
4
2
4
2
(The hours given in the table are the totals of two semesters each year).
1.
See Chai-hsuan Chuang on education in China in the Educational Yearbook of
the International Institute, edited by I. E. Kandel, 1936, p. 210.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
105
quired thirty-four hours of class work per week.
When these courses of study were actually made the school
program, it was quickly discovered that in both junior and senior
middle schools, the schedule of work was too heavy - too heavy even
for the ablest pupils.
The long hours required for class work left
too little time for preparation and practically none for recreation.
The League of Nations' educational experts were very critical con1
ceming the heavy program in the middle schools.
After much crit­
icism and discussion, a new schedule was put into effect in 1936,
by which the junior middle school program was reduced from thirtyfive to thirty-one hours per week, and the senior middle program
2
from thirty-four to thirty.
It was the opinion of the Ministry
of Education that the reduced programs would permit some time for the
free development of the individual students.^
Vocational Schools
Parallel to the general middle schools were vocational and
normal schools.
Since these schools were at the secondary level,
a large part of the students were of the adolescent age group.
The Nationalist government has given special attention to
vocational education.
Since only a very small percentage of middle
school students were able to go to college, there was great need
1.
League of Nations' Mission of Educational Experts, Reorganization
of Education in China, p. 110.
2. Chinese Yearbook, 1936-57* P • 471.
5. Ibid.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
106
for practical training.
Dr. Sun's emphasis on the "livelihood of
the people" aided the Nationalists in their efforts to provide vo­
cational training for a larger share of the youth of middle school
age.
The courses in vocational schools were of several types,
such as scientific agriculture, industrial and commercial subjects,
and home economics for girls.
In order to avoid merely theoretical
courses in these schools, the time given to practical work was re­
quired to be equal to the amount given to classroom instruction '
in both general subjects and vocational theory subjects.
To provide vocational education better in quality and also
to increase the number of vocational schools in the various provinces,
the Ministry of Education directed that 55 per cent of the funds
available in each province or special municipality for secondary
education should be devoted to vocational schools.
In addition,
some attempt was made to suit courses to local needs. ^
However,
in 195^-55, the total number of vocational schools was only 570,
2
a number most inadequate to meet the needs of the youth of China.
Still, the situation was gradually
only 262 vocational schools.
improving, for in 1952 there were
Perhaps the greatest weakness in the
1. Kuo, op. cit., p. 26.
2. H. C. Tao on education in China in Educational Yearbook, 1958* p.208.
5. Wang. op. cit.. p. 8.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
107
vocational educational program has been the lack of competent teach­
ers who have had practical experience.^
Normal Schools
Due to the great need for elementary and rural teachers, nor­
mal schools were an urgent need.
By the educational law of 1952, a
three-year normal course was offered for graduates of junior middle
schools, and a one-year course for graduates of senior middle schools.
In addition there were rural normal courses of four years to which
graduates of primary schools were admitted.
2
The Nationalist government does not permit the establishment
of private normal schools.
Provinces and special municipalities
are responsible for the support of
charged.
In 1952 the
this type
total number of normal
of school.Nofeesare
schoolsofallkinds was
874 with 99*297 students.^
Number and Distribution of Secondary Schools
Although the number of secondary schools is still appalling­
ly inadequate, nevertheless, since the establishment of the Republic
in 1912, there has been an encouraging increase in the number of these
schools - when one recalls the chaotic conditions existing in China
during much of this time.
In 1912 the middle schools numbered only
1. League of Nations'
Mission, op. cit.. p. 107.
2. Wang, op. cit.. p. 8.
5. Ibid.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
108
373* with an enrollment of about 52,000.
Two decades later, in
1932, the number of schools had increased about five times, the
number of students eight times, and the expenditure of funds thir-
2
teen times.
The number of general middle schools in 1932-33 had
increased to about 1900 with about 410,000 students?
In addition,
there were the vocational and normal schools at secondary level.
Of the many serious- educational problems in China, one has been
the uneven geographical distribution of the secondary schools through­
out the various provinces. As might be expected, educational facilwere
ities 4 /4 much better in the areas along the eastern coast where
conditions had been more modernized and there had been greater de­
mand for modern education.
However, the population of China is predominantly rural.
There is need for secondary schools suitable to rural conditions
of life.
The necessity for adolescent youth to go to urban areas
to attend secondary school creates many problems, not the least of which
is the unfitting of these adolescents for life in their rural areas
where their leadership is sorely needed.
Financial Support for Secondary Schools
Funds for secondary education must be provided by the in-
1. Tang Liang-li, Foundations of Modern China, p. 71*
2. Wang, op. cit,,-p. 15.
3. Tang, op. cit.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
109
dividual provinces and special municipalities, consequently the
ability and efficiency of provincial governments have been an im­
portant factor in the maintenance of education.
Economio conditions
vary from province to province, and this enters into the problem of
providing school funds.
for education
In
any case, the amount of money available
at all levels has been very small and is likely to re­
main very inadequate for years to come.
The estimate of funds for
educational purposes in 1951 was fifteen cents, Chinese currency,
1
per capita of population.
Among the provinces, Kwangtung in which Canton is located,
had in 1952 the largest
number of secondary
§7,000,000, Chinese currency, for
secondary
schools
andprovided
education, the largest
amount of any
province.
northwest had
only $500,000 for secondary schools.2
In contrast, the province of Shensi in the
This very uneven distribution added to the inadequate num­
ber of schools in the whole country for adolescents means that
only a small fraction of the youth can attend any kind of school.
Appraisal of the Educational Program
In any attempt at appraisal of the educational program for
adolescents, as provided in the Nationalist system since 1928, one
must consider the brief
period of its existence and
1. Purcell, Problems of Education in China,
2. Wang, op. cit., p. 11.
thedisruption
p. 212.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Fu rther reproduction prohibited without permission.
110
of educational plans in 1937*
In 1921 when Monroe investigated the Chinese educational
system, he had found the secondary schools to be the weakest link
in the system.*
Again in 1931 when the League of Nations' Mission
of Educational Experts from Europe studied Chinese education, the
secondary schools were criticized severely.
"It is unanimously
recognized," says their report, "that the secondary school consti­
tutes the weak point of the national education - and yet it is pre­
cisely about this point that the whole educational system pivots....
It serves as a link between the fundamental interests of primary
2
education and the specialized interests of higher education."
The League experts also repeated the familiar criticism that
secondary education was too much an imitation of foreign programs
and methods and did not have an essentially Chinese character.
It
was the opinion of these experts that the program of secondary edu­
cation should be determined by the actual requirements of Chinese
culture and the needs of the people.
The education to be effective
must be in cloee contact with the realities of life.''*
points of view many Chinese educators agree.
With these
The difficulty has
been in getting the right theories actually put into practice in the
schools.
While there has been a considerable increase in the number
1. P. C. Chang, Education for Modernization in China, p. 2.
2. League of Nations' Mission, op. cit., p. 98.
3. Ibid.. p. 103.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
Ill
of students attending secondary schools, yet the supply of any kind
of schools for adolescents in large areas of China is very inade­
quate.
It was the judgment of the League experts that although more
schools were badly needed, yet the urgent need was to improve the
quality of secondary education.
They pointed out such defects as
the followingi "its formalism, its remoteness from the interests of
practical work, its reliance on talk and text books (and, occasion­
ally talk from textbooks), its tendency to cram the memory instead
of exciting the curiosity, its neglect of the inductive and experi­
mental aspects of thought and knowledge, its failure to devote suf­
ficient attention fe the cultivation of initiative and a sense of
responsibility in students."*
Obviously this is a serious indict­
ment of the education offered to adolescents.
Such teaching could
not possibly prepare adolescents to understand the life of the so­
ciety to which they belong.
On the basis of these criticisms by Western educators, as well
as measured by the criteria presented in Chapter II of this study, it
is evident that the program of secondary education cannot meet the
needs of adolescent youth.
In addition to the poor quality of teach­
ing, the middle schools are to uniform in type and do not have suf­
ficient variety of subject matter to meet different needs.
Perhaps
in a country as large as China, with such great diversity in condi­
tions of life, a uniform system of secondary education is unwise,
1.
League of Nations' Mission, op. cit., p. 108.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
112
although there are strong arguments in its favor, from the stand­
point of national unification.
It would seem wiser to prescribe a
uniform cultural element for the whole country but allow for local
differentiation.
If the object of secondary education is to develop integrated
personality in individual adolescents, or, as the League experts say,
"to create healthy, alert and active minded human beings, interested
in the world around them and prepared to play their part in it," the
present rigid uniform program for adolescents in China is not satis­
factory.
In order to improve the quality of the education for adoles­
cents and place emphasis on the development of the total personality
of each student, a program to vitalize education through an intelli­
gent and practical guidance plan is needed.
Attention will next be directed to that possibility.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I X
GUIDANCE TO VITALIZE ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN CHINA'S SCHOOLS
Need for Guidance Program
Since in China the prescribed educational program of the Na­
tional Government is of such a rigid and uniform type, as shown in the
preceding chapter, there is need, as a remedial measure in the situation,
for a guidance program in the schools, incorder to vitalize education
for the adolescent and make possible emphasis on the development of
the personality of the individual.
It is necessary that this program
operate within the framework of the government's educational regulations.
In 1956 the Ministry of Education recognized that there was
need for guidance work in the secondary
schools and
took
inary steps toward introducing it.
purpose was
to add inbreaking
The
someprelim
down the barriers between teachers and students^and to put emphasis on
teaching students rather than on teaching subject matter, which has
been so much the prevailing practice.
Due to disturbed conditions,
little has yet been accomplished in introducing
guidance
in the schools.
Meaning of the term "guidance."
Because the guidance movement in education is comparatively new,
there is sometimes confusion regarding the meaning of the term guidance.
As explained by one specialist in the subject, guidance "means something
more than to assist, to lead, to direct, to steer.
It means to indicate,
115
________
j
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
114
to point out, to show the way.n^
To guide a person implies giving
help of a personal nature, such as assisting a person to solve pro­
blems that confront him or helping him to decide how he can best
accomplish his purpose.
Guidance is not something done to an in­
dividual . *t is a process by which there is built up in him the will
and ability to do something for himself.
This process is gradual in
its operation and involves placing upon the individual only as much
responsibility as he can assume with promise of success.
Guidance is a type of personnel work.
*t presupposes that
the one doing the guiding is wiser and more experienced than the one
being guided.
Obviously it requires on the part of the guidance work­
er in a secondary school a genuine and intelligent interest in youth.
It involves sympathetic understanding of the student's interests, aptitudes, needs and abilities.
2
Scope of Guidance Work
The guidance worker is concerned with all the school activ­
ities pertaining to the student's individual development, such as
aiding him to become adjusted to his environment.
volves both appraisal and adjustment.
This process in­
In the process of appraisal,
the guidance worker endeavors to understand the individual, and to as­
certain his ability, interests and needs.
Then comes adjustment -
1. A. J. Jones, Principles of Guidance, p. 52.
2. National Education Association, Department of Secondary School
Principals, Bulletin, No. 64, p. 205.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the process of developing the ability and interests of the adolescent.
This i s ^ o simple task.
To be really effective, it requires
continuous attantion from the entire school staff concerned with the
development of students throughout their school course, bacause gui­
dance should be concerned with every phase of an individual's growth.
When a student first enters secondary school, he finds it nec­
essary to make adjustments to his school environment, to his teachers
and fellow students.
Meantime, the counselor must seek to know him
and to understand him.
of personalities.
There are new problems of studies, of activities,
Eventually comes the problem of what one wants to do
in life - the problem of choosing a vocation or profession.
This is
usually difficult and the adolescent needs guidance in order to reach
a wise decision.
quick learners.
Also, there is the matter of guiding the slow and the
If slow in his school work, the student needs encour­
agement, direction in planning his work and using his time to the best
advantage.
The bright student, on the other hand, will do his work
quickly, and so will need guidance in using his leisure to good advan­
tage.
Since guidance should be concerned with the whole personality
of the individual in his complete experience, the school can best help
the adolescent to respond successfully to his total environment when
the guidance workers and the teachers have a sympathetic understanding
1.
R. M. Strang, Counseling Technics in College and Secondary School,
pp. 3-4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
116
of his interests, aptitudes and abilities, and make "a con$sious ef­
fort to help him to develop them for the satisfaction of his needs,
the discharge of his duties and obligations, and the enjoyment of
1
his opportunities
Principles of guidance
Real guidance aims to help the adolescents to help themselves.
One essential factor in this process is to have available detailed
information about each student.. The school needs cumulative records
concerning each individual, and should use all means to obtain as complete
information as possible.
Then the intelligent use of this informa­
tion by the guidance worker and the teachers is of the utmost importance if good results are to be obtained.
2
In order to be fully effective, the guidance program must be
such that the whole school is permeated with the guidance spirit.
While guidance is not synonomous with education, yet it is a very
essential part of education and should be very closely linked with
all the activities of the school.
In administering a guidance program, the emphasis is, of
course, on the individual.
It must be remembered that each individual
is different in some respects from every other individual.
Whether it
1. National Education Association, Sept. of Secondary School Prin­
cipals, Bulletin. No. 64, p. 199.
2. R. M. Strang, Personal development and Guidance in College and
Secondary School, p. J2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
117
be a matter of arousing an adolescent's interests, or of adjusting
personality conflicts, the aim is to aid in solving the problems of
the individual.
Since the needs of adolescents are continually changing, as
pointed out in Chapter II, a workable guidance program must be flex­
ible enough to meet these changing conditions and circumstances.
This
is particularly important in China where changes are so rapid and so
devastating.
While in China the government regulations do not permit
a school to make modifications in the curriculum to meet the needs of
students, yet something can be accomplished by utilizing creative ex­
periments in class activities and extra-curricular activities to bring
out readjustment to new conditions.^- Whatever be the methods and pro­
gram, the important point is that guidance is only a means to an end,
and that end is the development of the whole personality of the indi­
vidual .
Introducing Guidance in Secondary Education in China
If there is to be guidance for adolescents in the secondary
schools, by what methods shall it be provided?
As the guidance idea is very new in China, the question at
once arises whether at the very introduction of guidance work in the
schools, it should be established through an official order of the
Ministry of Education, and applicable, in theory at least, to all
1. Strang, Personal Development and Guidance, p. 7-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
schools at once.
Or, would it be wiser to begin with an experiment
in a few private schools, with the approval of the educational au­
thorities?
Although the Ministry of Education has taken initial steps
towards guidance in the secondary schools, very little can be accom­
plished at present.
Of course it would be very impractical to attempt
such a step for all secondary schools at once, since there are only a
few guidance workers who have had training and experience, and are fit­
ted to undertake this special type of work.
A practical procedure would be to undertake guidance for ado­
lescents as an educational experiment in a few private schools of var­
ious sizes and types.
So long as the guidance program works within the
framework of the prescribed curriculum, there should be no difficulties
with government authorities.
By trying out guidance work in a few
schools representative of the various types of secondary education, it
would have a good chance to stand on its own merits and to demonstrate
that the guidance principle in education is applicable in all kinds of
schools.
Once the plan has proved helpful in a few schools, there will
be a demand for guidance in other schools.
After its value has been
demonstrated, the idea is likely to become contagious and spread to
different parts of the country.1
1. Discussion of this idea is found in Cox and Duff, Guidance by the
Classroom Teacher, pp. 205-211.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
119
The Initial Plan
What, then, should be the initial plan for guidance admin­
istration?
In the first place, the central guidance organization
should be in the individual secondary school.
In the beginning, it is
advisable that the school utilize its own regular staff as guidance
personnel.
called for.
By such a procedure, no increase in the budget will be
Finances sire an extremely important item in educational
plans in China.
The organization, by all means, should be as simple as possi­
ble.
Simplicity is a virtue to be cultivated in education in China.
As the work progresses and new needs arise, the organization can be
revised.
While the school principal is, by reason of his position, the
person ultimately responsible for the guidance program in a school, a
person with special training and experience should have charge of car­
rying out the guidance work.
This guidance director should have asso­
ciated with him a committee on guidance consisting of the dean of boys
and the dean of girls, and a few of the ablest teachers in the school.
This committee will be responsible for devising the various guidance
activities and seeing that they are properly carried out, for coor­
dinating different parts of the program, and for studying its worth
to adolescents, as time goes on and effects can be seen.
Also, the
members of this committee would be leaders in explaining the guidance
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
120
idea to students and parents and others of tl:e community.
In par­
ticular, the students should be well informed as to how guidance may
be beneficial to them.
This plan would be somewhat as represented in the diagram
below.*
PRINCIPAL
GUIDANCE
COMMITTEE
Classroom
Teacher
Home Room
Sponsor
STUDENTS
1. See Jones, Principles of Guidance, p. 404.
Reproduced with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
121
In a large school where there are more activities and more
student organizations already developed, a more elaborate plan may
be needed.
Such a scheme as that shown in the diagram below might
be useful.
PRINCIPAL
GUIDANCE
COMMITTEE
SPECIAL ASSISTANTS IN GUIDANCE PROGRAM
CLASSROOM
TEACHERS
STUDENTS
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
122
Here the student association adviser, the club advisers, the class
advisers, the school physician or school nurse, should be included in
the guidance committee, as special assistants.
Since they stand in
special relation to the students and are in closer contact with them
in their out-of-class life, these advisers should be particularly
valuable in the guidance work.
Participation of Entire Staff
In the guidance work of a school, the entire school staff
should have a part.
If possible, an experienced guidance worker
should be in charge of the program and be responsible for supervising
the work in general.
As the work develops, it may be necessary that the school
program be adapted from time to time to make possible certain activities
which are an essential part of the guidance work.
This, of course,
requires the cooperation and action of the principal.
For the guidance program to be really helpful, all the teachers
in the school should participate directly in the work.
The class room
teachers have opportunities to arouse the interest of adolescents in
such matters as vocational information through their presentation of
the academic subjects being studies.
This provides a beginning in
vocational guidance.
A teacheirJs wise use of teaching materials and timely sugges­
tions about reading matter may give direction to an adolescent’s think-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
121
In a large school where there are more activities and more
student organizations already developed, a more elaborate plan may
be needed.
Such a scheme as that shown in the diagram below might
be useful.
GUIDANCE
COMMITTEE
JIAL ASSISTANTS HI GUIDANCE PROGRAM
ASSOCIATION*
ADVISER
j
ADVISER
CLASS
ADVISER
D68T0R
OR NURSE
j
CLASSROOM
TEACHERS
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
124
Summary
Due to the inflexibility of the prescribed educational pro­
gram in China and its lack of attention to individual needs and in­
terests, guidance service for adolescents is necessary in order to
provide for the development of the personality of the individual stu­
dent.
To be effective, guidance must be based on genuine interest in
and sympathetic tinderstanding of students.
In addition, the counselor
should be skilled in the techniques of guidance work.
With a really good guidance service, the guidance spirit per­
meates the entire school.
The school staff centers attention on the
individual and bn meeting changing conditions and circumstances in
the life of each student.
guidance
An initial attempt to introduce„for adolescents in the schools
of China should be an experiment in a few schools of various types,
and the undertaking should be very patiently and carefully worked
out.
It should be carried on through a simple organisation within
the local school rather than through direction from some national
administrative organization.
While it is important that a trained guidance worker have
general supervision of the program, the program can only be worth
while to the students when all the members of the school staff have
the guidance point of view in their work.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
School of Education
Recording
Office
Members of the Faculty;
The final oral examination for T^al King Taai
will be held in 29 Students Bldg, a.t 2*00 P.M*
0n
Thursday, August 10, 1939,
The followingcommission will
be in charge of the examination.
Professor
Professor
Professor
Professor
Professor
S* L»
P# V*
E« R*
M* M«
Brian
Hamilton, chairman
West
Gabler
Hussey
/
Tomlinsen''
All members of the faculty are invited to be present
H.
G. AP.NSDORF
Registrar
tyD
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER X
GUIDANCE AND ADOLESCENT EDUCATION IN CHINA
Foundations for a Guidance Service
The first essential to a successful guidance program in a
school is interest and intelligent understanding on the part of the
administrative head of the school as to the nature and value of such a
program.
He should be the natural leader and should be able to con­
vince all the teachers in the school of the desirability of guidance
and be able to enlist their full cooperation in working out a prac-
1
tical plan and putting it into operation.
Without the interest
and support of the teachers, no guidance program in a school can be
2
effective.
As an initial step in introducing guidance in a school, it
is important that all the teachers be well informed concerning the
functions and values of guidance work.
The principal should see that
good literature on the subject is available!^ the teachers, and that
opportunities are provided for thorough discussion of possible pro­
grams.
No program should be adopted until it meets the approval of
the teachers, since in guidance work, so much depends upon their in-
1. R. D. Allen, Organization and Supervision of Guidance in Public
Education, p. 119.
2. R. M. Strang, The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work, pp. 50-64.
125
|
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
terest and cooperation.
This would be a most vital factor in an in­
itial attempt at guidance in China.
As already pointed out, in introducing guidance work in a
school, it is advisable to have a guidance committee made up of the
principal, an experienced guidance worker, the dean of boys, the dean
of girls, and several of the ablest teachers representing various de­
partments of instruction.*- If there be in the school advisers of clubs
and other extra-curricular organizations, such advisers, of course,
should be included on the guidance committee.
Another important point is to have the students fully under­
stand the meaning and purpose of guidance in the school program, and
so obtain their cooperation in the plan.
Care should be taken not to
arouse the suspicion of the students that guidance might in any way
interfere with their freedom or 3elf-expression.
The Guidance Records
When a guidance program has been determined upon, the next
step is to begin collecting data for each student in the school, as a
basis for studying the needs and understanding the problems of each
individual as they arise from time to time.
This information should in general follow a uniform form.
In
America, the American Council cumulative record is much in favor, as
it is considered the best concrete-item type of record.
However, such
1. Strang, op. cit., pp. 56-57*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a complicated record is decidedly impractical in China, being both
too costly to install and to maintain.
to serve the purpose in China's schools.
A much simpler form is needed
For the use of those con­
cerned with the guidance work, probably a simple form such as the fol­
lowing will be most satisfactory.
Record Form
Name of student
Address
Kame of father
Name of mother
Occupation of father
Occupation of mother
Brothers and sisters
Special interests
Dislikes
Strong points
Problems of the individual
Areas in which the individual needs help
Points in which the individual is making improvement
In gathering information for guidance work, the following points
should be kept in mind:
There should be data on every student. (Not only problem cases).
The records should contain items of significance in the de­
velopment of personality.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
128
The records should show the trends in the individual's de­
velopment .
The records should be concise and vivid, so that they can
be easily understood.
The records should be convenient to file and should involve
a minimum of clerical work.
The records should be available for the use of those who
need them in guidance work.
This kind of cumulative record should be valuable for guidance
work with adolescents in China, as it requires little technical know­
ledge and can be expanded from very simple beginnings,
ft includes
specific and detailed information in terms of the on-going activity
of the individual, and shows desirable trends in the student's de­
velopment.
It presents a picture of the present status of the student.
However, psychological skill in observation and interpretation of be­
havior is highly important as a qualification of those responsible
for making such judgments.
Types of Information
The general types of information helpful in reaching an under­
standing of the adolescent student include the following:
Family background, such as education of the parents, occu­
pations, economic status, social activities and home attitudes towards
the children.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
129
Home environment, such as number of children in the family,
relatives in the household, and neighborhood surroundings.
Condition of health, including the reports from the nurse or
doctor.
The student'8 academic record from elementary school, and
any results of intelligence and other tests given on entering mid­
dle school.
Social characteristics, as observed in relations with others.
Recreational interests.
Of the above information, some will be obtained from the pre­
vious school records, some from the student himself when he registers,
some from former teachers, and some from personal interviews with the
student.
In addition, those responsible for guidance work will be
alert to observe the student in and out of the class room, and espe­
cially in his social activities.
In some cases, it may be desirable
to seek information from parents or others who have known the student
over a period of years.*
Value of Records
For the guidance worker, such a record aids in understanding
an adolescent's behavior, needs and abilities, as well as to indicate
1. Strang, op. cit., pp. 297-518.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
150
hia state of development.
Obviously, the counselor can give most
effective help when he knows the background, interests and capacities
of the individual needing guidance.
Since the best evaluation of a counselor s work can be made
on the basis of the student's growth in personality and his adjust­
ment to new situations, it is partly through a study of the records
that the counselor may determine to what extent his work is functioning
in the lives of the students - which is the true measure of the value
of any counseling work.
Good judgment should be used a3 to the availability of this
cumulated data to different members of the school staff.
be various degrees of accessibility.
There should
Certain records should be avail­
able to the officials of the school, others to parents and teachers,
still others to committees, and a few confidential items should be kept
in the hands of a single person.
Information should not be disclosed
if it may lead to a betrayal of a student's confidence.
Student Problems
There are some problems that confront practically every ado­
lescent in "the course of his school years.
It is the responsibility
of the guidance worker to assist the adolescent in reaching a sat­
isfactory solution of these problems.
1. R. M. Strang, Counseling Technics in College and Secondary School,
p. 17.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
151
Common Factors in Student Problems
Some common factors involved in a considerable share of stu­
dent problems and their solution include technique of study, intel­
ligent use of time and social adjustments.1
In adolescent years, acquiring good techniques of study are
very important.
In China, few students in elementary school have had
any training in how.to study.
Often a student needs individual gui­
dance in this matter if he he to succeed with his school course.
Di­
rections given to groups or references to reading on the subject may
not be helpful in all cases.
The counselor should make sure that
each individual has the right kind of guidance in this matter, and
that it is continued until satisfactory results are obtained.
Equally important for many adolescents is their use of time
throughout the day.
Careful planning means not only an economy of time,
which is very important in China's secondary schools where the curric­
ulum is heavy and the time-table crowded, but it also provides train­
ing in regular and orderly habits which may mean much in later life.
It is the mark of an educated person to be able to plan his time so
as to have leisure for things other than the daily routine.
Chinese
adolescents are much in need of this training.
Another factor common in adolescent problems is social ad­
justment.
Guidance work is not confined to helping the adolescent
1. Strang, The Role of the ^eacher in Personnel Work, pp. 163-68.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
152
achieve academic success alone.
Every student when he enters a school
must make adjustments to his social environment.
Sometimes the ad­
justments are easily made, other times, very slowly and painfully.
In many cases, the boy or girl enters middle school just at the be­
ginning of the adolescent period.
At this time probably more than at
any other, wise guidance is needed.
Common Types of Problems
A serious type of problem in the secondary schools of China
is that of withdrawal of students before the completion of the course.
The number of withdrawals is very high, sometimes being as much as
sixty per cent of a class during the six years of middle school.
While
some students leave for economic reasons, since they must become wage
earners, others simply find school uninteresting, become dissatisfied
with their work and want to leave.
failure in their work.
matter.
H
Still others withdraw because of
For most adolescents, failure is no slight
is particularly serious in China where "face" plays so
important a part in life.
The wise counselor will give early atten­
tion to students failing in their work and aid them in making whatever
adjustments are possible.
These cases of withdrawal of adolescents from school for one
cause or another are a challenge to the guidance worker. To allow a
pupil to drop out without careful study and direction is indefensible.
Every effort should be made to prevent the student from action that
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
155
may mean a serious turning point for the future.
In some cases, it
may be wise for a student to withdraw, but the guidance worker should
help the student to consider all sides of the question, especially
the consequences for the future of his own life, before he makes a
decision.
The natural time for the student to leave school is at the
end of the course.
During the last year of middle school, the coun­
selor should explore fully with each student the question of plans
for the future.
Uusally there are only two routes open - for the
youth to go to work or to continue his education.
Whether he should
choose the one or the other depends in large measure upon his finan­
cial circumstances.
Other factors are his ability and interests,
with which the counselor should be familiar.
force him to go to work.
Economic demands may
After all, in China, twelve years at school
is a privilege open to only a small number.
In such a case, the ado­
lescent may need guidance as to possible kinds of employment and for
what he is best fitted.
Guidance of this kind is much needed in
Chinese schools.
The few students expecting to contimue their studies in col­
lege or technical school also need direction from the counselor.
The
problem of the particular school of higher education that will mmet
the needs of the individual student is not simple.
To study at the
least expensive institution may prove most costly in the end, because
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
154
of low standards of work or limited offering of courses.
Besides,
there are many bars to admission, such as entrance examinations,
ability to use English adequately, and personal health.
Cn all of
these matters, adolescents need wise guidance if they are to be prop­
erly prepared for the next stage of their education.
It is neither necessary nor desirable that guidance work should
stop when the adolescent leaves the secondary school.
Whenever possible,
follow-up work should be done, both to aid the former student and to
check up on the effectiveness of the guidance work done while he was
in secondary school.
Guidance and the Vocational Situation
In China, the present transitional si^fe of civilization from the old to the new in so many phases of life - makes the mat­
ter of choice of a vocation very complex to those adolescents not com­
pelled by economic circumstances to take any work available in order
to add to the family income.
Guidance that will provide vocational information and direction
is especially needed in China.
Adolescents not ofaly need guidance in
choosing an occupation, but also in preparing for it, entering upon
it and making progress in it.
In actual practice, this is very dif­
ficult.
Vocational schools at the senior middle school level are still
very few and are often very inefficient.
The teachers in them lack
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
155
practical experience and the courses are mere theory and book infor­
mation.
Junior middle school graduates seeking vocational training
need careful guidance about courses and schools, if they are to make
a
satisfactory choice.
Another task for the guidance worker is to keep adolescents
informed about opportunities in various fields for trained workers,
and also to note temporary demands that may soon pass.
China has had
sad experience in large numbers of students preparing for certain types
of government service, and then having the supply far exceed the de­
mand.
It is such situations that the competent counselor will advise
students about, and perhaps save them from such experiences.
In order to give timely guidance in vocational matters, the
guidance worker must have at his command reliable information con­
cerning needs in various lines of work and also the opportunities
for obtaining good training in preparation for the work.
A practical form of vocational direction is to arrange for
students to visit stores, banks, offices, factories, hospitals, wel­
fare agencies, and other institutions, to see how work is actually
carried on and to learn from people doing the work something about
the problems in different fields.
But there is another important side to the choice of an occu­
pation.
it is essential that the student be guided to know himself,
his interests, his aptitudes, and his ability in various directions,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
For instance, there will be in China for many years to come a great
need for men and women trained in medicine.
highly specialized profession.
high order.
However, medicine is a
It requires certain abilities of a
In addition, it is very costly financially.
All these
factors must be examined when an adolescent in secondary school
considers studying medicine.
The guidance worker should encourage students to investigate
occupations for themselves whenever possible.
He should also plan
for speakers representing different occupations to talk to groups
of students.
All these means will aid students to solve some of
their vocational problems.
Techni(|ue8 in Personal Counseling.
In order to carry on personal counseling for adolescents suc­
cessfully, certain techniques are essential.
Among these are the
use of interviews, case studies, the student’s daily schedule, ob­
servation and questionnaires and letters.
The Interview
Perhaps first in importance is the interview.
An interview
has been defined as a visit for the purpose of. obtaining particulars
respecting a person or his opinions and attitudes.
When the conversa­
tion, therefore, is purposeful and when at least one of the party in
the interview tries to find out what is in the mind of the other, the
conversation in this way becomes an interview.
1. See Strang, Counseling Technics in College and Secondary School .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited without permission.
137
Purpose and Method
In general, the purpose of the interview in guidance work
should be to promote a feeling of confidence.
There should be a de­
sire on the part of the counselor to make some kind of impression
through the interview.
During the interview, the interviewer should
secure information concerning the individual for the purpose of guidance
in counseling.
Furthermore, the purpose should be to inform or to in­
struct or to motivate.
The individual should be helped to reach his
own decision and choice.
In interviewing students, the interviewer should be friendly
and at the same time be able to diagnose and use guidance in an intel­
ligent way.
In this country, many colleges use this method in select­
ing candidates for enrollment.
In some schools, personnel workers
interview all students early in the tern, so that information needed
for guidance work may be obtained and the student helped in starting
his year.
Qualifications of the Interviewer
In an interview, a most important factor is the interviewer.
There is no scientific list of the characteristics of a successful
interviewer.
There are no definite criteria.
Yet a:s a fact finder,
interpreter and therapist, the kind of person conducting the interview
is very important.
If the interviewer is an experienced person, he
will use all the resources of psychology, sociology, philosophy and
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
158
1
religion.
But a person without experience may work at the case either
superficially or in an improper manner.
It is a great challenge to a
counselor to be able to offer real guidance to the students in solv­
ing 'their problems.
The interviewer must have the right kind of emotional char­
acteristics.
facts.
He must be objective and have a determination to face
£e must be impersonal, unbiased and unemotional toward all
facts and situations presented.
confidence and create ease.
Eis manner of speech should inspire
He should exhibit good common sense
and poise. and at the same time act with persistence, precision and
force.
In regard to mental characteristics, the interviewer must have
a logical habit of thought, the ability to appreciate motives, and
sufficient knowledge of psychology and facts about common problems
to give understanding.
He must be keen to grasp difficulties.
As to physical characteristics, good health is very important.
If a person is nervous, he is hard to work with.
matic, he is also hard to work with.
If he is too phleg­
A pleasant voice and good ap­
pearance are helpful. If the interviewer has a reputation for fair­
ness, a sympathetic understanding and an ability to give constructive
help, he will be a successful counselor.
For a couselor or interviewer, integrity is very important.
1. R. A. Burkhart, Guiding Individual Growth, p. 50.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Environment
If an interview is to be successful, it is wise to make some
preparation for it.
Before the interview, the counselor should take
time to prepare the room in regard to light, heat and appearance.
When everything is well prepared, it puts the student more at ease.
The right atmosphere with quiet understanding is established, so that
the student has a sense of security and trust.
The choice of time and place is important for the interview.
The time, both to the counselor and the student concerned, should be
when they are least fatigued, when the attention of each is least ab­
sorbed, and when there is least hurry, worry and nervous tension.
In
general, it is desirable that the interview take place in the office
where the student is removed from the situations in which he is in­
volved.
The office should have privacy and quietness.
Technique in the Interview
In the technique of interviewing, one of the first steps is
to gain rapport.
*f the interview is sought by the student,, the prob­
lem of rapport is lessened.
Still there is need for establishing con­
fidence in the counselors sincerity and ability.
Rapport implies
the existence of mutual responsiveness, so that each-member of a group
reacts spontaneously and sympathetically to the sentiments and atti­
tudes of the others.
If the interviewer's reputation is known to be
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
just and honest* and his personality kind and straightforward, it is
easy to establish rapport.
The recognition of a point of interest and responsibility in
working out a solution will help to establish rapport.
An objective
attitude which gives the student the impression that the interviewer
is anxious to understand his point of view will help to the same pur­
pose.
Through the initial conversational leads of the interviewer,
such as showing a knowledge of the student's previous achievement or of
his interests, rapport will be established quickly.
l3r a casual
reference to some personal experience may develop a tie of identifi­
cation.
It is important that the interviewer observe all the social
graces and conventialities which produce the desired atmosphere.
The councelor needs to be keenly sensitive to the motive of "face
saving" if in China, because only after a person s sense of security
has been regained, can it be hoped to deal satisfactorily with him.
Control of an interview requires skill.
When the conversa­
tion drifts away, the counselor may ask a question or two to bring
the student back to the original idea.
A statement somewhat like the
following may help: "Could you say more about what you said a moment
ago?
You know I was interested in it."
to cut the student off bluntly.
It should be remembered not
Many will want to share their bur­
dens by confiding in someone who understands, by talking it out.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
141
The counselor must be an alert listener.
things hard for the student to express.
Sometimes there are
The counselor must then come
to the rescue with required expression, at the same time preserving
his poise and sympathetic attitude.
When an interview comes to an end,
there should always be agreement upon the next step or plan.
The best
technique is to break off at a time when the interview is still fresh.
The student has important things to say, and he himself may propose
another talk.
Results of the Interview
Since the aim in the interview is to find out what the real
trouble is, an effective interview has really begun when the problem
is located, the difficulty found.
But the counselor then goes on.
When the problem has been defined, the first step in treatment is to
go into the cuaee, to find the tap root.1 It is essential that the
student have a genuine interest in working out a problem.
the possible solutions of a given problem?
What are
These may be in terms
of action, ways of looking at an issue, or things to be avoided.
After all solutions are listed, the next step is selection of the one
that is best.
Finally, there comes the task of making the solution
work - a program of action which may test all the student's resources.
The Case Study
2
Another method of guidance is found in the case study.
A case
1. Burkhart, op. cit., pp. 116-119.
2. Cox and Duff, Guidance by the Classroom Teacher, pp. 175-78.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
142
study is one of the most satisfactory methods in studying the individual.
This type of study consists of information about the individual’s abil­
ity, interests, achievements and needs.
the case study method.
But there are limitations in
The instruments may not be adequate or accurate,
and the process is rather expensive.
The Case Record and Its Analysis
Since a case study is a comprehensive study of the individual
for the purpose of helping him, it involves analysis, with the use of the
very best tools for the purpose.
A case study should include an examination of the following:
Major area of adjustment - physiological development, in­
tellectual development, adjustment with father and mother, relation­
ship with brothers and sisters, adjustment to home life in general, sex
ideas and love affairs.
General emotional life - fears, symptoms of nervousness
and tendency to show temper.
Area of status in the community - treatment of friends, re­
action to authority, technique of evasion, and opportunity for com­
parison.
The analysis provides the facts.
Then the facts must be put
together according to relationship patterns.
hypothesis and diagnosis.
From these are obtained
Furthermore, the diagnosis is the attempted
conclusion to a kind of result.
Out of the diagnosis there
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
143
should arise some kind of treatment.
Almost immediately there should be
follow-up work. Understanding the case study contributes to the under­
standing of the individual.
Results from the Case Study
After collecting the facts, we have to find out whether the data
are adequate for reaching a solution of the problem.
The counselor must
find out if other people are involved and whether their cooperation can
be secured, and what experiences may be helpful in deciding whether cir­
cumstances are favorable for the working, out of a solution.
The physical
factors must be taken into consideration - the home, neighborhood and
school - must be taken into consideration.
In some cases, the cooper­
ation of family and friends may be helpful in arriving at a satisfactory
solution of the problem.
Other factors that the guidance worker must
study are the sex development, emotional adjustment and social behavior
of the student.
In additional to all the facts bearing on the case,
the insight and understanding of the counselor is important in reaching
a solution of the problem.
,
The Daily Schedule
Another technique used by some guidance workers in dealing
1
with secondary school students is the daily schedule. It gives the
adviser an opportunity to see the whole picture of the student's day.
However, in order to have the students use a daily schedule,
1.
Strang, Role of the Teacher in Personal Work, pp. 383-591
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
it is necessary to get the interest and cooperation of the individual.
With this in mind, the counselor may offer advice about a good form of
schedule, one that will give a sufficient amount of detail.
a student does not want to keep any such record.
Sometimes
In such a case, it is
better not to insist.
Forms of Daily Schedule
The daily schedule may follow various patterns.
used is the diary record.
One frequently
This contains the detailed consecutive ac­
counts of the student,'s activities and experiences throughout the day.
The students in China have developed this diary habit very
much,
beginning from the fifth grade, the children keep diaries.
Even
in summer time, pupils are required to hand in their diaries after va­
cation.
The result is that students have cultivated this practice.
What is the value of this kind of record?
To the guidance
worker, the diary presents a picture of the student's work and play,
and may be enlightening concerning his interests and desires.
Another common type of schedule is that of block form9.
day is divided into thirty or sixty minute blocks.
the student lists his activities.
fhe
In these blocks,
This form has the advantage of
reminding the student of accounting for every period of the day.
On
the other hand, there is the disadvantage of much bulkineas, especially
when there is much shifting of activities during the day.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
145
A simple device is the summarized record.
provided for common types of activities.
writes at the end of the day
in each activity.
an
In this, space is
In each space, the student
estimate of the amount of time spent
This form hae much chance for inaccuracy.
Further­
more, it omits the details of daily living which give the most in­
sight into the student's daily habits and actions.
But there are inaccurracies in all forms of the daily schedule.
There is a desire on the part of the student to make a good impres­
sion.
Sometimes he may not recall correctly the time spent in each
activity.
ideas.
Also, there may be a conscious attempt to give misleading
The daily schedule will not be useful in guidance work unless
the interest, cooperation and confidence of the students are obtained.
So the students have a very important part in this technique.
Value to the Counselor
£rom the standpoint of the counselor, the student's daily
schedule provides a picture of the daily routine, such as study, so­
cial relations, use of leisure time, and extra-curricular activities.
Such a picture is often helpful in guidance work.
In addition to ito value in individual guidance, the daily
schedule may be helpful in group problems.
It may furnish a basis
for planning extra-curricular activity for the group as a whole.
it may be the basis for changes in the daily program.
°r
On the whole,
this idea is well suited to the temperament of the Chinese adolescents.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Observation
Techniques of working with the individual in guidance by in­
terview, case study and daily schedule have already been discussed.
Another method is the study of personality by observation.
Symonds says there is nothing that can be known or studied
1
The idea of obser­
that does not first have to come under observation.
vation was at first a suggestion from the pre-school field, where ob­
servation was often limited to one narrow aspect of the behavior of
the individual.
In guidance work with adolescents, there are certain essentials
that the observer should remember.
In the first place, it is important
that he have efficient sense organs, for most observations are visual.
Then the observer should be alert, free from prejudice, be able to
perceive accurately and have capacity to make fine distinctions.
For aid in guidance work, observations may be made in study
halls and classes, in social situations and public meetings, and dur­
ing interviews.
The observer may discover habits of work under study
hall conditions.
In the class room, the observer may note the kinds
of questions the student asks, his attitude towards the teacher and
the members of the class, and his general attention to the subject of
study.
In social situations, the observer may see the student's ease
or lack of ease in meeting others, especially strangers, and sometimes
his reactions to a group.
1. P. K. Symonds, Diagnosing Personality and Conduct, p. 2J.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
147
However, there are certain difficulties connected with obser­
vation.
The student being observed may be influenced by factors entire­
ly outside the observer's knowledge.
lack accuracy.
Observations under many conditions
Often there can be little control of the situation, and
the student may be conscious of being observed, which is very likely to
make for poor results.
Questionnaires and Letters
Another possible method in counseling adolescents is through
the use of questionnaires and letters.
For some occasions in coun­
seling, data supplied from questionnaires and letters may be helpful.
When used, the questionnaire should be as short as is consistent with
its purpose.
The questions should be simply and clearly worded and
require definite answers.
Chinese educators sometimes use question­
naires to collect information concerning students, but on the whole,
the method is weak, and is not to be recommended in guidance work.
Letter writing as a method of counseling may be helpful. Chin­
ese students often are fond of writing letters seeking advice from those
who have had experience in life.
popular teachers and leaders.
individual counseling.
This is especially true in regard to
Of course it adds much to the work in
Letters spontaneously written to teachers in
whom students have confidence have much importance as a source of infor­
mation for the counselor.
Personal letters provide opportunities for
counseling on specific problems that disturb an adolescent.
*t affords
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
148
a chance to give constructive comments on questions, and sometimes to
establish enduring friendships.
These various techniques in guidance work - interviews, case
studies, students? daily schedules, observations, and questionnaires
and leters - are designed primarily to apply to individual counseling,
and have been examined from that point of view.
Group Guidance
While there is no such thing, strictly speaking, as group
guidance, yet certain kinds of guidance can be undertaken with groups
or classes.
*t is not essentially a different method of guidance, but
aims to guide the individual as a member of a group.
In group guidance,
conferences should be provided, so that the individuals can discuss
common problems and prepare themselves for a certain amount of self­
guidance.
In this way it can be constructive.
Since the method of individual guidance alone is likely to be
very expensive when provided for a very large number of students, it
is advisable and perhaps absolutely necessary in China that some kinds
of guidance be given in groups.
This is due partly to the enormous
task of providing special guidance workers in sufficient numbers, and
also to lack of sufficient school funds.
Methods in Group Work
Some kinds of problems in guidance work can be handled effec­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
149
tively by the group method through the use of orientation courses, dis­
cussion groups, class room interest and inspiration, studentsconferences,
extra-curricular activities and school assemblies.
Orientation courses, if wisely planned, may provide opportunity
for close contact between students and advisers, and also provide for
exchange of much useful information.
Discussion of problems in an informal way may provide a desirable
form of student activity and may help to build up school morale,
it
also provides practice and experience for adolescents in socializing
their individual opinions, in developing tolerant attitudes toward the
opinions of others, and in learning how to approach problems in a
scientific manner.
The purpose is to provide opportunity for the so­
cialization of individual experience.
Special groups having a common
interest may organize to study some problem of interest to them.
Such
questions as rural reconstruction in China, the New Life movement, and
international relations
sure examples
struction and discussion.
of subjects useful for group in­
The guidance worker can on occasion utilize
these for developing the students' ideas and guiding their thinking
along helpful lines.
One of the best opportunities for group guidance is in the
hands of the classroom teacher who can in the course of regular class
work provide very helpful guidance.
Certain subjects in the curricu­
lum may arouse students1 interests in trades or professions for life
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
150
work.
For instance, through his study of biology, a student may become
interested in medicine and public health; of chemistry and physics, in
engineering and industry; of geography, in transportation.
tary reading may be suggested in biographies.
Supplemen­
Nothing fires the imagi­
nation of adolescents more than the biography of a great physician, an
eminent engineer, a famous teacher or a successful business man.
Y/ith the heavy required program in the middle schools in China,
there is very little time for the kind of group activities just men­
tioned.
However, it is sometimes possible at holiday seasons or vaca­
tions, to arrange for student conferences where groups from different
schools may meet together and examine some of the vital problems con­
fronting them.
Such meetings provide opportunities for group guidance.
Some extra-curricular activities may serve the same purpose.
A dramatic club, a music group, a science club, and similar small groups
popular with many Chinese students, usually have club advisers, who may
find ways of counseling through their relations with the clubs.
So­
cial gatherings and athletic meets are likely to offer occasions for
guidance in cooperation.
Another occasion that should be utilized at least to some ex­
tent for group guidance in secondary schools is the required school
assembly, held weekly, according to government regulations.
In a well-
planned program for these assemblies throughout the year, there could
be given, for example, much valuable guidance along the lines ofvoca­
tions and professions.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
151
However, the whole matter of guidance in connection with
adolescent groups calls for the best of judgment, as well as skill
in techniques.
Group activities are generally organized for spe­
cific student purposes.
The wise adviser will stimulate the in­
terests and uncover latent potentialities of members of the group,
but will not encroach upon student leadership.
The adviser should
always keep in mind the ideal of enrichening the lives of the stu­
dents through the group programs and other group activities.
Responsibility for Guidance
Since guidance is not something that can be separated from
the general life of the school, nor something that can be located
in some particular part of the school, being in fact a part of all
phases of the educational process, some part in guidance work
should be the responsibility of every teacher and administrator
in the school.
If such an end is eventually to be achieved, if under the
present educational organization in China, guidance is' to be a means
by which to improve the educational program for adolescents, it is
necessary that the guidance idea take root not only among the teach­
ers and administrators already in the schools, but also among those
responsible for the training of teachers for the secondary schools.
Effective guidance work with adolescents requires special
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
152
skill, for it deals with developing personalities in an important
period of life.
Unless the counselors are aware of the types of
problems involved and sure equipped to handle these wisely, gui­
dance will not accomplish its purpose.
Teachers and Guidance Training
If, therefore, guidance is eventually to become a part of
adolescent education throughout China, there will be needed many
trained leaders for the work.
Trained guidance workers are quite
as important in adolescent education as are trained teachers of
science or other subjects.
A practical step in this direction would be the gradual
introduction of courses on guidance in the teacher training insti­
tutions throughTout the country.
Also, that these;:institutions
would emphasize the vital importance of intelligent guidance in
the lives of adolescents, and the responsibility of every teacher
to be acquainted with guidance principles and methods, to under­
stand the guidance point of view, and to participate in guidance
work, no matter what his specific assignment in a school might be.
The establishing of such a training program for those in
the professional schools preparing to teach will of course require
careful thought and planning, and under no consideration should it
be merely another importation from abroad.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
155
For teachers already in service, it would be desirable that
the teacher training institutions provide in summer schools for in­
troductory courses in guidance work, in order that experienced
teachers may have opportunity to prepare themselves for intelligent
participation in a guidance program in adolescent education.
Such
short courses for teachers in service should include principles of
guidance, techniques of guidance work and guidance problems in China.
In this way, experienced teachers will be able to gain an understand­
ing of the fundamentals of guidance and its place in education.
Pioneer Guidance Leaders
While such formal training programs in the professional
schools are being planned and put into operation, pioneer work
by the small number of teachers and administrators who already
have had training abroad can be carried on in an experimental way
in a small number of schools, as has been proposed in Chapter IX.
Not only may these pioneer efforts eventually serve as demonstra­
tion schools in guidance work for adolescents, but they may also
serve as inspiration centers for arousing interest among parents
and teachers for the extension of guidance work to other schools.
Furthermore, these early leaders in guidance can find op­
portunities to promote guidance work by means of informal group
conferences, personal contacts, lectures, study groups, and arti­
cles on guidance for the educational journals.
Perhaps translations
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
of some practical materials on guidance from foreign languages may
be helpful.
Gradually the value of guidance work in adolescent
education will become known, and its place in the schools will
eventually be recognized as an essential part of education.
Guidance- Idea in China
While the idea of organized guidance work is new in China,
there is some background for the idea of emphasizing the personal
element in the relation of teacher and student in the traditional
personal relationship of the boy and his tutor in the old-style edu­
cation .
In modern times, those acquainted with private schools con­
nected with Christian organizations know of the emphasis on infor­
mal counseling, both of individuals and of groups, in these schools.
Very recently the Ministry of Education has taken some pre­
liminary steps concerning a program of guidance on a national scale.
Even if conditions in China were normal, this proposal in its pres­
ent form is very impractical.
It has in it the same deadly element
of uniformity and centralized direction as already prevails in other
phases of the school system.
In addition, it calls for a great
number of trained and experienced guidance workers, which China does
not have.
It is the writer's judgment that guidance should be gradually
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
•I5g
b\dIt into the schools of China on a basis of experiments begin­
ning.': in a few schools. Slowly a program that really meets condi­
tions of life in China can be evolved. Uo other kind of program,
no matter how perfect in theory, will accomplish the desired improve­
ments in adolescent education.
In the Direction of the Goal
When capable teachers have an intelligent understanding of
the guidance point of view, they will then recognize that their aim
in teaching adolescents is the attaining of worth while objectives such objectives of secondary education as achieving character edu­
cation, of providing for individual differences, of arousing the
student to new interests and undertakings through stimulating meth­
ods in presenting subject matter of courses, of stressing the trans­
mission of the best elements in China's culture to the youth of the
country, of preparing adolescents in their school life to meet the
changing needs of society, and of emphasizing the development of the
whole personality so that the adolescent will become capable of selfdiscipline and youthful participation in a democratic society.
In striving to reach such a goal in adolescent education,
it is essential that the guidance spirit permeate' the whole school,
and that all members of the staff feel that the wise counseling of
adolescents is both a duty and an opportunity to be shared by all.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
156
Summary
In introducing guidance work in a school, one of the first
essentials is interest and understanding on the part of administra­
tors and teachers and students of the purpose and value of guidance
in adolescent education.
In putting a guidance program into operation, there is need
ofr preparing a record of each student, giving essential information
on his home background and environment, his previous school record,
his interests and problems if known, and significant facts concerning
his personality.
As guidance is an essential part of the educational process,
all members of the school staff should have some responsibility for
guidance work, and therefore, should understand such techniques as
interviewing, the use of case studies, of the student's daily sched­
ule, and of careful obervation, in the effective counseling of ado­
lescents .
Some kinds of guidance can be carried on through groups or
classes by such means as orientation courses, discussion groups,
classroom inspiration, extra-curricular activities, school assembly
and student conferences.
Group guidance calls for both skill and
good judgment on the part of the adviser.
That guidance may be the means by which to improve the edu­
cational program for adolescents in China, it is necessary that the
guidance idea take root among those engaged in secondary education
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and also those responsible for the training of prospective teachers
for the secondary schools.
Effective guidance work with adolescents calls for special
skill, therefore it is necessary that teachers and prospective teach­
ers have training in the principles and techniques of guidance work,
in order that they may understand the guidance point of view and
that their work in the secondary schools may accomplish the desired
purpose.
An initial attempt to introduce guidance for adolescents in
China can be best carried on as an experiment in a few schools,
where methods and procedures may be tried, results examined and mod­
ifications made in the work, until eventually a program that really
meets conditions of life in China will be evolved.
No other kind
of program can adequately meet the desired objectives in adolescent
education, as outlined in Chapter II.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER XI
CONCLUSION
This study of adolescent education in China, both in the
old-style education which prevailed for many centuries, and in the
modern educational systems attempted since I905, has led to the con­
clusion that the development of individual personality has not been
sufficiently emphasized.
Under the old regime, both the formal educational agencies
and the social forces influencing youth had for their main purpose
the perpetuation of culture and the stability of society.
For the
last Beven hundred years, the necessity to conform to government
requirements in a very rigid literary examination for any public
office was so great that there was little opportunity for individual
initiative in the education of youth.
As a result, adolescents were molded to the fixed patterns
of the social structure which prevailed, basically unchanged, for so
many centuries.
In such a system, the ability and interests of Chin­
ese youth had slight chance to develop freely.
However, for the comparatively small number of boys who en­
gaged in the study of the classics under tutors, there was usually a
personal element in the instruction, since the tutor was expected to
use
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
159
have an intimate knowledge of his pupil and be able to guide him
in his personal conduct as well as in his study of the classics.
From the standpoint of the adolescent, this was, perhaps, the most
vital factor to be found in the old education.
To the dismay of the conservative Chinese, proud of hiB long
cultural heritage, a new day came.
China's door was forced open to
international trade and international intercourse, and the country
came into contact with the West on a large scale.
imperative.
Changes became
It was no longer sufficient to mold youth, generation
after generation according to the age-long patterns. China had to
face the stupendous task of adjusting herself to a new world.
One
phase of the changing situation was registered in the educational
revolution beginning in the early years of the twentieth century.
The attempts between 1905 and 1928 to establish a modern
educational system in China failed in large part to meet the con­
ditions of life and the needs of the people.
The ideas and methods
of the new education were too largely importations, first from Japan
and later from America, and little attention was given to their
adaptability to China's needs.
In 1928 when the Nationalist Government at Nanking announced
a new educational system with new educational aims, there was a def­
inite emphasis on education to meet the problems of the Chinese peo­
ple.
In some respects, however, the educational program became too
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
much the tool of the party in power.
tion to political matters.
There has been too much atten­
Adolescents have been regimented and in­
doctrinated to the end that they should become loyal citizens of the
state rather than individual creative members of society.
In all the attempts at modern education in China, a very ser­
ious weakness in the secondary schools has been the mechanical char­
acter of the educational process.
A uniform and overloaded curricu­
lum has disregarded local conditions and individual needs.
In general,
the personal element between teacher and student has been lacking.
There has been too much emphasis on subject matter at the expense of
the personality of the adolescent.
The result has been wide-spread maladjustment of youth to ac­
tual conditions of life. Education has failed to provide the needed
integration of personality.
In order to provide more adequate education for the adoles­
cent in China, the present program should be vitalized so as to
more nearly meet the practical realities of life.
The secondary
schools should be so organized as to enable administrators and
teachers to know each student intimately - to understand his back­
ground and his personal problems and needs - with the aim of aiding
him, first, to discover his potential capacities and interests, and
second to develop them.
To accomplish this, guidance service as a
part of the regular school program is proposed.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
161
Since guidance is an essential part of the educational
process, some part in the guidance work should be the responsibil­
ity of every teacher and administrator in the school.
However, if guidance is to be the means by which to improve
the educational program for adolescents in China, the guidance idea
must take root not only among administrators and teachers already
in the schools but also among those responsible for training teach­
ers for the secondary schools.
Inasmuch as effective guidance work with adolescents calls
for special skill, since it deals with developing personalities in
an important period of life, it is necessary that teachers and pros­
pective teachers have training in the principles and techniques of
guidance, in order that their work with adolescents may accomplish
the desired purpose.
This type of training should be provided in
the teacher training institutions, both in the academic year and in
summer sessions.
Thus, teachers in service as well as those prepar­
ing to teach would have an opportunity to gain an understanding of
the guidance point of view.
An initial attempt to introduce guidance work for adoles­
cents in China can best be carried on as an experiment in a few
schools where those who already have been trained abroad may do
pioneer work in developing a guidance program that will meet con­
ditions of life in China, and such is the only kind of guidance
that will be really effective in adolescent education.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
Eventually the schools carrying on these pioneer efforts
may serve as demonstrations centers in guidance work, as well as
inspiration centers for arousing interest among other teachers
and parents for the extension of guidance work to other schools.
Also, these early leaders in guidance can promote the guidance idea
by such means as informal group conferences, lectures, study groups,
and articles on guidance for the educational journals.
Gradully
the value of guidance in adolescent education will become known
and its place in the schools eventually recognized as an essential
part of education.
It is the writer's judgment that guidance should be grad­
ually built into the schools of China, on the basis of experiments
begun in a few schools, where an effective program can be worked
out in actual practice. Such a plan, rather than a centralized
organization with a uniform program based chiefly on theory and
applying to all the schools, should more nearly meet the problems
of adolescents by overcoming some of the outstanding weaknesses
in the' present educational program.
When competent teachers have an understanding of the gui­
dance point of view, they will work toward the attainment of
worth while objectives in adolescent education.
Some of these
desired objectives are the achieving of character education, the
recognition of individual differences, the arousing ofthe student's
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
165
interests through stimulating presentation of class material, the
stressing of transmission of the best elements in China's culture,
the preparing of adolescents in their school life to meet the changing
needs of society, and the emphasizing of the development of an in­
tegrated personality in each student.
In striving to reach such a goal in adolescent education, it
is essential that the guidance spirit permeate the whole school, and
that all members of the staff feel that the wise counseling of ado­
lescents is both a duty and an opportunity to be shared by all.
If this can be accomplished, the adolescents in China will
be prepared to meet not only the ordinary situations but also the
crises of life.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allen, R. D.
Organization and Supervision of Guidance in Public
Education. New York, Inor, 195^.
Altstetter, M. L.
"Guidance Service in Two Hundred Secondary
Schools," Occupations, Vol. 16 (March, 1958),
pp. 515-520.
Altstetter, M. L.
"Philosophy of Education of Two Hundred Second­
ary Schools," Educational Administration and
Supervision, Vol. 25 (Sept., 1957), pp. 409-25.
American Association of School Administrators. Youth Education
Today. Sixteenth Yearbook. Washington, 1958.
Arlitt, A. H.
Adolescent P sychology. New York, American, 1955*
Ayscough, Florence.
Chinese Women Yesterday and Today. Boston,
Houghton, 1957*
Bredon, Juliet. The Moon Year. A Record of Chinese Customs and
Festivals. Shanghai, Selly & Walsh, 1927*
Briggs, Thomas H.
Secondary Education. New York, Macmillan, 1955*
Burkhart, Roy A.
Guiding Individual Growth. Cincinnati, Abingdon,
1957.
Burkhart, Roy A.
Understanding Youth. Cincinnati, Abingdon, 1958.
Chang, Peng-chun.
China at the Crossroads.
Chang, Peng-chun.
Education for Modernization in China. New York,
Teachers College, 1925*
Chang Tung Yuan.
Ch'en Ch'ing-chi.
London, Evans, 1956.
The History of Chinese Education. (In Chinese ’^
). Shanghai, 1956.
The History of Chinese Education. (In Chinese fcpnij
)• 2 vols. Shanghai,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
165
Chen Yi-ling.
History of Education in China for the Last Thirty
Cheng, Tsung-hai.
Chiang, Monlin.
Elementary Education in China, in National Asso­
ciation for the Advancement of Education in China,
Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 14. Peking, 1925.
A Study in Chinese Principles of Education.
hai, Commercial Press, 1924.
China, Ministry of Education.
Shang-
Collected Documents on Education on
Education after. 1912. (In Chinese -
)•
^
Chinese Cyclopedia of Education.
(In Chinese Jff
Shanghai, 1928-50.
%)% ( p ) •
» '
Chinese Yearbook, 1956-57. Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1957=>
Ch'iu ChUn (Compiler).
A Manual of Chinese Quotations, Being a
Translation of the Ch’eng YU K'ao, edited
by Sir J. H. S. Lockhart. Hongkong, 1905*
Chu, King.
"Education," in Symposium on Chinese Culture. Shanghai,
China Institute of Pacific Relations, 1951*
Chu, King.
The Reorganization of the Middle School Curriculum, in
National Association for the Advancement of Education in
China, Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 15. Peking, 1925*
Chu, You-kuang.
Some Problems of a National System of Education in
China. Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1922.
Chuang, Chai-hsuan.
Tendencies toward a Democratic System of Edu­
cation in China. Shanghai, Commercial Press,
1922.
Chuang Yui and Ho Sheng-nai. Education in China for the Last Thirty
Five Years. (In Chinese
2. if T
Conklin, E. S.
ft
Principles of Adolescent Psychology.
Holt, 1955.
ShanShai' 1951*
New York,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
166
Cox, Philip W. L. and Duff, J. C.
Guidance by the Classroom Teacher.
New York, Prentice-Hall, 1958.
Cox, Philip W. L. and Long, P. E.
Principles of Secondary Education.
New York, Health, 1952.
Crawford, Albert B.
Cressy, Earl H.
Dewey, John.
"Educational Personnel Work," Personnel Journal,
Vol. 10 (April, 1952), PP. 405-410.
Middle School Standards. East China Studies in
Education, No. 5. Shanghai, 1929.
Democracy and Education. New York, Macmillan, 1916.
Djung, Lu-dsai.
Douglass, Harl R.
A History of Democratic Education in Modern China.
Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1954.
Secondary Education for Youth in Modern America.
Y/ashington, American Council on Education, 1957*
Education in China. Papers Contributed by the Members of Committees
of the Society for the Study of International
Education. Edited by T. Y. Teng and T. T. Lew.
Peking, Society for the Study of International
Education, 1925*
Educational Yearbook. (In Chinese '•’r
Shanghai, 1954.
Fretwell, E. K.
FSng yu-lan.
'Jy
• 5 vols.
Extra-curricular Activities in the Secondary School.
New York, Houghton, 1951.
The History of Chinese Philosophy. (In Chinese ©
)• Shanghai, 1954.
. Galt, K . S . 'The Development of Chinese Educational Theory.
Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1929.
Galt, H . S . "Oriental and Occidental Elements in China’s Modern Educational System," Chinese Social and Political Science
Review, Vols. 12-13 (July, 1928-Jan., 1929), pp. 405425, 627-647, 12-29.
Giles, Herbert A.
Historic China and Other Sketches. London, T. De
La Rue & Co., 1882.
Giles, Herbert A. (Translator).
Strange Stories from a Chinese Stu­
dio . 2 vols. London, T. De La Rue
& Co;, 1880.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
167
Hart, Henry K* (Compiler and Translator). Seven Hundred Chinese
Proverbs . Palo Alto, Calif., Stanford Press, 1937*
Kolecsbe, Arthur K.
The Chinese Revolution.
University Press, 1950,
Bellingaorth, Leta S.
Psychology of the Adolescent. Pea York,
Appleton, 1928.
Howard, Prank S. and Patry, F. 1>*
Hsiao, Theodore En-ch’eng.
Batt, Leonard S.
Cambridge, Harvard
cental Health. Its Principles
and Practice. He® York, Harper,
1935.
The History of Modern Education in Chin a .
Peiping, Peking University Press, 1932 *
Stan Yat-sen. His Political and Social Ideals.
(Los Angeles, University of Southern California
Press, 1953).
Hu Shih.
The Chinese Renaissance. Chicago, University of Chicago
Press, 1934.
Hu Shih.
The History of Chinese Philosophy.
drf ^
. Shanghai, 1923.
^ %ffijl
(Ir« Chinese -
\§j
Huang Yer.-pei. yocatioml Education in China, in Rational Associa­
tion for the Advancement of Education in China,
Bulletin, Vol. 2, Ho. 1. Peking, 1923•
Hughes, S» P.
Jacks, L. P.
The Invasion of China by the Western fforld. London,
31ack, 1957.“”
Education of the whole Man. London, University o f
London Press, 1931■
Jones, Arthur J . Principles of guidance. 2nd ed. Ho® York,
kacaillan, 1 9 5 ~
Keller, Franklin J. and Viteles, U , 3 .
King, Harry S.
Vocational Guidance through­
out the World. i?©« York,
Horton, 1937*
The Educational Syetost of China as Leontiy Beoen~
3trugtod'.‘"u. S. Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1911,
Ho. 15. Washington, 1911.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Kuo., Mei.
Contemporary China and Her Education. (In Chinese
* I# ^
£ 4 L ^ '
Shanghai, 1954.
, Kuo, Ping V/en.
Kuo, Tze-hsiung.
The Chinese System of Public Education. New York,
Teachers College, 1914.
Secondary Education in China. Council on Inter­
national Affairs, Information Bulletin, Vol. 4,
No. 2, May, 1957* Nanking, China.
Latourette, Kenneth S.
The Chinese, their History and Culture.
New York, Macmillan, 195^-
Latourette, Kenneth S. A History of Christian Misaiona in China.
New York, Macmillan, 1929*
League of Nations' Mi|?ionogfEgduc^tional S^gerts.^^T^e R|organizational Institute of Intellectual Cooperation,
1952.
Legge, James.
Liao, S. G.
The Chinese Classics. 5 vols. London, Trubner, 1861in
1872.
Middle School Education in China, ^National Association
for the Advancement of Education in China, Bulletin,
Vol. 2, No. 42. Peking, 1925.
Liao Shih-cheng. Secondary Education in China.
^
Liu, K. S.
(In Chinese-
Shanshai* 1950.
Tendencies in Present Day Chinese Education, in National
Association for the Advancement of Education in China,
Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4. Peking, 1925.
Lloyd-Jones, Esther.
"Personnel Administration," Journal of High­
er Education, Vol. 5 (March, 1954), pp. 141-47.
Lloyd-Jones, Esther and Smith, Margaret R. A Student Personnel Pro­
gram for Higher Education. New York, Harper, 1958•
Luh, C. W.
China's New System of Education, in National Association
for the Advancement of Education in China, Bulletin,
Vol. 2, No. 8. Peking, 1925.
McKown, Harry C.
Character Education. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1955.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
169
Monroe, Paul.
China, a Nation in Evolution. New York, Macmillan, 1928
Monroe, paul. A Report on Education in China. New York, Institute of
International Education, J ri. ser., Bulletin 4, 1922.
National Education Association, Committee on Social-Economic Goals
of America. Implications of Social-Economic Goals for
America. Washington, 1957*
National Education Association, Department of Secondary School Prin­
cipals. Functions of Secondary Education. Bulletin, No. 64.
Washington, 1937*
National Education Association, Department of Secondary School: Prin­
cipals. Issues of Secondary Education. Bulletin, No. 59*
Washington, 1936•
National Education Association, Educational Policies Commission. Tha.
Unique Function of Education in a Democracy. Washington, 1937
National Society for the Study of Education, Committee on Guidance.
Guidance in Educational Institutions. Thirty-seventh
Yearbook. Bloomington, 111., 1938.
Paterson, Donald G.
Student Guidance Techniques. New York, McGrawHill, 1938.
Prescott, Daniel A.
Emotion and the Educative Process. Washington,
American Council on Education, 1938.
Purcell,
Victor. Problems of Chinese Education. London,K.
Shu Hsin-ch'eng.
Paul,
1936.
The New Education in China, (in Chinese 4NL i f j & i
) • Shanghai, 1926.
\$J
Shu Hsin-ch'eng. Source Book in the History of Chinese Education.
(in Chinese - cf f
^
W 7~W \
4 vols. Shanghai, 1928.
Smith,
Arthur H. Proverbs and Common Savings from the Chinese. New
and rey. ed. Shanghai, American Presbyterian Mis­
sion ^ress, 1902.
Smuts, Adriaan J.
The Education of Adolescents in South Africa.
Cape Town, Juta & Co., 1938.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
170
Straffer, L. F.
The Psychology of Adjustment. New York, Houghton,
1956.
Strang, Ruth M.
Behavior and Background of Students in College and
and Secondary School. New York. Harper, 1957*
Strang, Ruth M.
Counseling Technics in College and Secondary School.
New York, Harper, 1957*
Strang, Ruth M.
Personal Development and Guidance in College and
Secondary School^ New York, Happer, 1954.
Strang, Ruth M.
The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work.
York, Teachers College, 1955.
Sun Yat-sen.
New
San Min Chu I, The Three Principles of the People.
Translated into English by Frank W. Price. Shanghai,
China Institute of Pacific Relations, 1927*
Symonds, P . M .
Diagnosing Personality and Condust. New York, Cen­
tury, 1952.
Symonds, P . M .
"A Plea for the Integration of School Guidance Ac­
tivities," in Teachers College Record. Vol. 58 (May#
1957)» pp. 686-710.
T'a Hsuan-chin and others.
T'ang Leang-li.
Tawney, R. H.
Summary of Proceedings and Resolutions
of Conferences of the Chinese National
Educational Association. 1911-1929.
J jn Chinese ty p ify
-jk ^ ^
). Shanghai, 1955.
Reconstruction in China. Shanghai, China United
Press, 1955.
Land and labour in China. New York, Harcourt, 1952.
Thom, Douglas A.
Normal Youth and Its Everyday Problems. Hew York,
Appleton, 1952.
Thorndike, E. L.
The Psychology of Wants, Interests and Attitudes.
New York, Appleton-Century, 1955.
Ting Tze-ping. Educational Annals for the Last Seventy Years in
ss^,"95?:in9se
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
171
Tracy, Frederick.
Psychology of Adolescence.
New York, Health, 1922.
Tsai, Yuan-pei. The Development of Chinese Education. London, East
& West, 1924.
• Tsang, Chiu-sam.
Twiss, G. R«
Nationalism in School Education in China. Hong­
kong, South China Morning Post, 1955*
Science and Education in China. Shanghai, Commercial
Press, 1925.
Tyau, Min-ch'ien T. Z.
Wang Fang-chai.
Outline History of Chinese Education, (in Chinese Shanghai, 1950.
Wang Shih-chieh.
Education in China. Shanghai, United Press, 1955.
Webster, James B.
Wieger, L.
Two Years of Nationalist China. Shanghai,
Kelly & Walsh, 1950.
Interests of Chinese Students.
sity of Shanghai, 1952 •
Shanghai, Univer­
Moral Tenets and Customs in China. Texts in Chinese,
translated and annotated by L. Davrout. Ko-Kien-fu,
China, Catholic Mission Press, 1915*
Williams, S. Wells.
The Middle Kingdom. Rev. ed. 2 vols.
Scribner, 1895.
Williamson, E. G. andj . Q.
Yin, Chiling.
Yin Hsi-sen.
New York,
Student Personnel Work. New
York, McGraw-Hill, 1957*
Reconstruction of Modern Education Organization in
China. Shanghai, Commercial Press, 1924.
History of Educational Ideas.
$
M
(In Chinese - v f r (g®
Sh£mghai' 1 9 5 7 *
NCW YORK UNIVERSITY
.SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
o
LIBRARY
®
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
6 795 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа