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"CHILDREN'S GAMES" (1560) BY PEITER BRUEGEL THE ELDER: A FOLKLORISTIC INVESTIGATION (FLEMISH)

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
"CHILDREN'S G A M E S ’* (1SSG) B Y P I E T E R B R U E G E L
T H E EIDER: A F O L K L G R I S T I G I N V E S T I G A T E OS
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO
T H E F A C U L T Y OF T H E D I V I S I O N OF T H E H U MANITIES
IN C A N D I D A C Y FOR TirOS D E G R E E OF
• M A S T E R OF ARTS
D E P A R T M E N T OF G E R M A N I C LANGUAGES
A ND L I T E R A T U R E
BY
J E A H N E T T E M. A. MILIS
CHICAGO,
ILLINOIS
DECEMBER,
1940
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
INTR O D U C T I O N
Pieter* B r u e g e l the E l d e r (c a . 1525-1569)
of Antwerp
(later, Brussels) was an artist w h o w i t h penetration, or i g i n a l i t y
a n d o f t e n h u m o r d e p i c t e d the p e a s a n t a n d s m a l l - t o w n life of the
Ne t h e r l a n d s o f h i a d a y i n n u m e r o u s drawings, engravings, a nd
paintings.
he was a n adept at i n c l u d i n g In one c omposition a p r o ­
f u s i o n of detail, e.g., in h is “F l e m i s h Proverbs," n ow In Berlin,
h is "Battle b e t w e e n Carnival a n d Lent," in Vienna, and his "C h i l ­
d r e n ’s Games" In the " K u n s t historlsehes Museum" i n Vienna.
Folk­
lo r i s t s h a v e fou n d a s t u d y o f B r u e g e l ’s works, e s p e c i a l l y the three
g e n r e paintings m e n t i o n e d above, to be v e r y profitable.
The m o r e
c l o s e l y these p a i ntings are studied, the m o r e e v i d e n t it becomes
t h a t B r u e g e l was a k e e n observer of the customs o f his d a y and
t hat he r e c o r d e d w h a t h e saw, a c c u r a t e l y — to che m i n u t e s t detail.
Dr. Karl M a i d i n g h a s w r i t t e n a n art i c l e on the p a i n t i n g
" C h i l d r e n ’s G a m a s " :
"Das S p l e l b i l d P i e t e r Bruegels," in Hauafcelne
z ur G e s c h i c h t e . V b l k e r k u n d e a n d kyth.enku.nde il.Malbband),
pp. 58-74.
1957,
however, M a i d i n g (who h i m s e l f calls h i s art i c l e "eine
k n a p p e Arbeit*') has left u n t o u c h e d m u c h o f the f o l k l o r i s t i c a n d
l i t e r a r y back g r o u n d o f the painting.
T h e p r e s e n t e s s a y attempts
to give a m o r e compl e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of e v e r y game p l ayed I n the
p i c t u r e a n d to cite the c o n t e m p o r a r y terms a p p l i e d to It.
In the s e a r c h for c o n t e m p o r a r y terms, s p e c i a l attention
has b e e n given to the 215 games l i sted b y Rabe l a i s
tw e n t y - s e c o n d chapter o f his C-argantua.
p u r p o s e w as
(1555} I n the
The text u s e d f o r this
0euvre3 d e R a b e l a i s . Vol. I, edited b y Esmangart and
Eloi J o h a n n e a u (1825).
The list of games a nd a c c o m p a n y i n g notes
are to b e f o u n d o n pp. 395-443.
In m o s t cases, page references to
E s m a n g a r t a n d E» J o h a n n e a u f or R a b e l a i s ’ terms w i l l n o t be given
t h r o u g h o u t this d i s c u ssion;
the r e ader will Instead,
In e a c h case,
b e r e f e r r e d to T a b l e 1 w h i c h contains all of the terms taken from
1
F r a n c o i s Rabelais, La Vie de Oa g g a n t a a et d e P a n t a g r u e l .
Oeuvres d e R a b e l a i s , eds. E s m angart a nd E l o i Joharmea\i (Edition
V a r iorum; Paris, 1823), Vol. 1, B o o k I, chap. x x l l , pp. 393-443.
(This b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be cit e d as "Esmangart and
Johan­
neau, Rabelais.")
ii
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Rabelais, n u m b e r e d a c c o r d i n g fco the o r d e r in w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r i n
the e d i t i o n named above.
A c c o r d i n g fco h e l n r i c h R a u s c h i n b i s d i s s e r t a t i o n "Das
S p i e l v e r z j i c h n i s s im £5.
ung*
{Oarganfcua)"
Kapifcel v o n Fischarfcs
( U n i v e r s i t y of S t r a s s b u r g ,
F i s c h a r t u s e d at l east 162 o f Rabelais*
k l i t t e r u n g ” ).
1908),^ pag e 43,
2 1 5 n ames of games i n
w r i t i n g his l i s t of 6 2 9 forms o f a m u s e m e n t
term given i n the 1575,
’Gescfaichfckiifcfcer-
(this i n c l u d e s e v e r y
1582, an d 1 5 9 0 e d i tions of the "Gesehicht-
R a u s c h expla i n s that m a n y o f F i s c h a r t *s terms
w h i c h correspond in s o u n d o r l i t e r a l m e a n i n g to R a b e l a i s ’ terms
c a n n o t b e consi d e r e d as the Ge r m a n eq u i v a l e n t s of the F r e n c h
games named,
glelchg&ltig,
oder nicht.
~For as R a u s c h says
(p. xiii):
"Fischarfc ist ss
ob er d i e enthlehnfcoxi S p i e l © r i c h t i g wiedergibfc
Xian ist die. h a u p t s a c h o © i n mSgliehsfc usnfangreiches ,
m S g l i c h s t bunfces i m d u n k l a r e s Ge w i r r v o n F h r a s e n siifzusfcellen."
An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n {1653) o f R a b e l a i s ’ list of games,
w h i c h X used, seems i n m o s t esses fco be a s e r i o u s a t t e m p t to iziv©
g
the name of the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t o f the F r e n c h gam©.
The
D u t c h translation b y Gallitalo, a c c o r d i n g to C o c k and Teirlinck,
3
gives o n l y the names of games k n o w n i n the N e t h e rlands at that
time (1682).
G. R e g i s ’ t r a n s l a t i o n ( 1 8 3 2 1"4 gives o n l y the n ames
a c t u a l l y used i n Gorman; h© does n o t i n d u l g e i n the "toll© sorts p i e l e p e i ” of F i s c h a r t ’s.
The games shown in the p i c t u r e w ill be d i s c u s s e d i n the
o r d e r n u m b e r e d - - b e g i n n i n g in the l o w e r left h a n d corner.
"^This d i s s e r t at ion w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be c ited as ’'Rausch.
p
The Works of Mr. F r a n c i s Rabelais Ifcrans. S i r Th o m a s
Drquhart, 1653 3 (2 v o l s . L a n d o n i P r i v a t e l y prin t e d fo r th©
Navarre S o c i e t y Limi t e d [1221]), Vol. I, pp. 63-66.
There ar e
217 terms given here.
(This b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b© cited as
"Engl i s h R a b e l a i s . ")
A. D e G o c k o n Is. Teir l i n c k , K i n d e r s p e l & K i n d e r l u s t in
Z u i d - N e d e r l a n d ( "Koninklijk© V l a a m s c h e A c a d e m i e V oor Ta a l - &
L e t t e r k u n d © , ^ " S e r i e s 6, 29-*-~®; Ghent, 1902-1908), Vol. X, pp. 4856.
Gfillit&la’s list, given her©, c o n tains 1 5 4 names of games.
(This w o r k will h e n c e f o r t h be cited as "Gock en Teirlinck.")
4
F rancois Rabelais, C-argantua u n d P a n t a g r u e l , ed. and
trans. Gottlob R e g i s (2 vols., n o t e s in Vol. Il'-i'; '■Leipzig, 18321839), Vol. X, B o o k X, chap. xxii, pp. 68-70; Vol. XI~i, pp. 98110.
Tills list has 214 names of games.
(This w o r k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h
b y cited as "Regis.")
^Sa e Rausch,
p. 41, f o r c o m p l e t e citation.
iii
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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1.)
In tli© lower left band c o r n e r o f t he p icture two girls
are playing, w I t b knucklebones, a gams n ow g e n e r a l l y k n o w n in
G e r m a n y as "Fsngsteine"
o r “D a s B t s i n c h e n s p i e l . "
In tbe B r i t ­
i s h Isles it i s called "F I v e s t o n e s , " "B u c k l e - b o n e s , " "Chucks," o r
CL
" J a c k y s t e a u n s , a n d I n tbe
United States,"Jacks."
In p l a y i n g this game, the k n u c k l e b o n e s of sheep w h i c h
h a v e been b o i l e d I n soda, scraped, e nd so m e t i m e s colored b r o w n b y
A
b o i l i n g w i t h o n i o n skins
are used;
t h e y m a y b e t»©plac©& b y beans
o r orange peelings s t r u n g on threads,
s m o o t h pebbles,
buckeyes, nuts, fruitpits o r oth e r small o b j e c t s . 0
seashslls,
Usually a
m a r b l e or small ball Is u s e d in a d d i t i o n to t h© knucklebones, b u t
often, as o n the p ieture, an e x t r a kn u c k l e b o n e takes the place of
the ball.
H o m a t t e r what the m a t e r i a l of t he small objects used,
t h e i r n u mber seems m o s t oft e n to b e five, hence,
the -anglish n a m e
“P l v e s t o n e s . "
The game is u s u a l l y p l a y e d b y g i r l s , t w o i n number, a l ­
t h o u g h m o r e sometimes
join In.
The o b j e c t of the game is to p e r ­
f o r m a m o r e o r less c o m p l i c a t e d rou t i n e of mo v e m e n t s w i t h the
f i v e s m a l l objects.
One of the simpler routines,
t h o u g h typical
F r a n z M a gnus BShsie, gautscfaea K l n d e r l i e d u n d K l n d e r s p i e l
(Leipzig, 1897), p. 603, Mo. 468.
(This b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b o
cited as "B&hme.")
^ J o h a n n Chris. OutsMuths, S p i e l © z a r Obuna: u n d E r h d l u n g
d e s Kflrpers u n d G eiates (8th e d . ; Leipzig, 1393), p. 167.
(This
b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b e cited as " S u t s M u t h s . ")
%
Alice B e r t h a Gomme, T he T r a d i t i o n a l Games of E n g l a n d ,
Sco t l a n d , a nd I r e l a n d , 2 vols"! (" Dictionary of B r i t i s h Folk-Lore,"
F e p t I ; London, 1894-1898), Vol. I, pp. 122,239, 69 and 25S.
(This w o r k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b© cited as "G a m m e .iS)
^Eduard K & c k u n d h e i n r i c h Sohnr e y , P e s t e und S p i e l © d es
deutscfaen L a n dvolks (3d © d . ; Berlin, 1925), p. 349.
''Elisabeth Lemke, "Daa F a n g s t e i n c h a n s p l e l , " Zeitsefarift
d e s Verelns f & r V o l k a k u n d e . Vol. X VI (1906), pp. 46 f.
T he names
of thirty - f i v e d i f f e r e n t objects c o m m o n l y U 3 © d are given here.
(Z e i t s c h r i f t d ea V erein3 f & r V o lkskund© w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b© a b b r e ­
v iated, Z . d . V . f .V . ; Z e i t s c h r i f t f dr V o l k a k u n d e (after 1929), as
zfv. i
K & c k u n d Sohnrey, Fes t e und S p i e l © . p.
348.
1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
1. )
(except that It ia p e r f o r m e d toy a boy), is d e s c r i b e d toy A. B.
Gome
u n d e r the h e a d i n g o f nPiv©3tones" s
lie h a d f i v e square pieces o f til© o r stone about the size
of dice.
h e took all five piec©3 i n the p a l m of the h a n d
first, then threw t h e m u p and caxight t h e m o n t h e b a c k of the
hand, and then f r o m the b a c k of the h a n d i n t o the palm.
Four
o f the stones were then thrown o n the ground; the f i f t h was
t h rown up, one stone b e i n g p i c k e d u p f r o m the ground, and the
d e s c e n d i n g f i f t h s t o n e caught i n the same hand; the oth e r
three pieces w e r e n e x t picked u p in turn.
Then two were
p i c k e d u p in the same m a n n e r twice, then one, then three,
t hen a ll f o u r at once, the f i f t h stone b e i n g thrown u p and
caught w i t h e a c h movement.
All five were then t h rown u p a nd
caught o n the b a c k of the hand, a n d t h e n t h r o w n f r o m the b a c k
and caught i n the palm.
«i:hen he d r o p p e d one, h e p i e k e d it u p
b e t w e e n his o u t s t r e t c h e d fingers while the o t h e r stones r e ­
m a i n e d o n the b a c k of t he hand; then h e tossed a nd caught it
likewise.
'Then after throwing u p the five stones a nd c a t c h ­
i n g them on the b a c k of the hand and the reverse, a l l fi ve
b e i n g kept i n the palm, one was thrown up, and a n o t h e r d e ­
p o s i t e d on the g r ound b e f o r e the d e s c e n d i n g stone was caught.
This w as d o n © to the three others in turn.
Then w i t h two at
a time twice, t h e n one and three, then a l l f o u r together,
then f r o m the p a l m to the back of the h a n d and ag a i n to the
palm.
This co m p l e t e d one game.
If m i s t a k e s were made, a n ­
ot h e r p l a y e r t o o k the stones.
Mark3 w e r e tak e n f o r s u c c e s s ­
f ul play.
This b o y called the game " D a b s . !71
2
More co m p l i c a t e d r o u t i n e s are d e s c r i b e d b y £. Lemke
and
3
b y J o s e f Mfiller.
The l a t t e r includes one f o r m o f the game
p l ayed in L a u b a e h (-Bunsr tick j in w h i c h five s m a l l stones are u s e d
to p e r f o r m eight e e n fea t s of Incr e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y followed b y
4
the same ei.crhteen In r everse order.
B & c h series of m o v e m e n t s
h a s a n a m e a nd so m e t i m e s
includes touching, knocking,
scrat c h i n g
or r u b b i n g the s u r f a c e b e i n g p l a y e d u p o n o r the c o m p a n i o n player.
T h e s e nam e s d e s c r i b e (to the initiate}
e.g.,
"Pinks,
the a c t i o n to be performed,
Ones, half-twos. Twos, Threes, Fours,
Upsets,
Creeps
Clicks, So clicks, L i t t l e m a i d s , B ig maids, First everlastings,
c
Second
e v erlastings, Th i r d everlastings,
^“A. B.
Longs, Shorts";
or
Gonsme, Vol. 1, pp. 122 f.
O
IS. Lemke, "Das Fangsteinctoenspiel,n Z . d . V . f .V . . Vol. XVI
(1906), pp. 46-66.
3
Josef liSflller, "Das P&n g s t e l n c h a n s p i e l in d e n Kheinlanden,
Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X X V I X I (1918), pp. 26-41.
4 l b i d . , p. 34.
^ L e m k e . Z . d . V . f . V ... Vol. XVI
(1906), p. 47.
6I b i d ., p. 63.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
,
3
1 *}
n One tr»vo tin's a four*, S c a t t e r o n e , S c a t t e r two, S c a t t e r three,
S c a t t e r Tour, Cracks, Deafs, Scissors, Lads, Lassies, G h i r s t y paw
L a y t h e eggs in one, L a y in two, L a y in three, L ay in four, Put
the cows i n the byre, M i l k t h e cows, Put the cows out of the b y r e
S k i m the milk. S w e e p the floor; U p the stair, J>own" the stair,
P e c k a n d dab. S k i p s . ”
1
I believe that H & i d i n g
p
is correct in his
s u p p o s i t i o n that B ruegel has i l l u s t r a t e d one o f these s p e c i f i c
p a r t s of the r o u t i n e of the game, p r o b a b l y one d e s c r i b e d b y
Mfiller, vis.,
“f i e r t c h e n , n in. w h i c h after on© k n u c k l e b o n e has
b e e n t h rown up, e a c h of the others in turn 13 p l a c e d to the left
3
of the player, before the one in the a ir i s caught.
T he g a m e la g e n e r a l l y played. o n some s m o o t h sur f a c e s u c h
as a table, a stairway,
or the threshold of a door,
4
on the s i d e w a l k or o v e n on an apron.
i n the s t r e e t
ishen & p l a y e r m a k e s an e r r o r i n the r o u t i n e — and even
t o u c h i n g o no of the o t h e r stones, n o t to be p i c k e d up at a p a r t i e
u l a r time, m a y b e c ounted as a n e r r o r “ -she m u s t stop,
c o m p a n i o n starts the routine.
take,
when the second girl
and h e r
mak e s a m i s ­
the f i r s t on© takes u p the r o u t i n e a t the point w h e r e she
i a d stopped.
'The one w h o completes a ll of the presc r i b e d zrxove5
nients first, w i n s the game.
B r u e g e l ’s girl player la u s i n g five k n u c k l e b o n e s b u t
seems
to h a v e m o r e in her apron.
W h e t h e r the s e extra ones are
u s e d in the f o r m of the gam© that B ruegel is portraying, X c a n n o t
say, f o r I have fo u n d n o r o u t i n e d e s c r i b e d i n which, m o r e t h a n
f i v e objects are used.
Lemke d o e s m a k e m e n t i o n of r e w a r d i n g the
w i n n e r w i t h a knucklebone.
to have m o r e than five bones.
E a c h p l ayer would,
therefore, h a v e
If that is the s y s t e m these girls
^ I b i d ., a n example f r o m Scotland, t r a n s l a t e d into E n g l i s h
O
K &rl Balding, KB as S p i e l b i l d P i e t e r Bruegels,*1 B a u s t e i n e
z u r geschlchte, Vttlkerkunde und M y t h e n k u n d e (Berlin, 1937, 1. iialb
band), p . :59 .
(This article w i l l h o n c e f o r t h be cited as
11Balding. ” 5.
SJo». &&ller, Z . d . y . f . V . . Vol. XXVIII
T his e xample Is f r o m Pfischeld (i s s t e r w a l d ).
(1918), p. 33.
^Lemke, Z . d . V . f .V . . Vol. X VI (l U G G ), p. 6 5 : " Bei M a g d e b u r g
. . . . .
Auf d e r a u s g e b r s i t e t e n Sohflrze s p i e l t sichs b e s s e r als
a u f d © m Tisch. n
^ I b i d . . p. 66, n. 1.
^ I b l d . . p. 60.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4
1 .)
have b e e n using, t he g i r l n o w h a v i n g h e r turn m u s t h a v e b e e n quite
successful, f o r s h e seems to have a n apr o n f u l l of k n u c k l e b o n e s .
The other girl h as h e r k n u c klebones in a s m a l l b a sket a t h e r side
and is w a t c h i n g c l o s e l y a nd a w a i t i n g h e r turn to play.
This game seems t o be of v e r y ancient,
even prehistoric,
origin.
Lemke states that knucklebones, a p p a r e n t l y u s e d as playl
things, have been fou n d in prehistoric g r aves in K i e v
a nd Gamme
(quoting Kinahan, Fol k - l o r e J o u r n a l , ii,
266) says that stones,
d o u btless u s e d to p l a y "Jacksfconss," have been f o u n d i n '’crannogs*'
2
o r lake dw e l l i n g s i n a h o l e n e a r the fireplace.
The Greeks k n e w this game well as " p e n t e l i t b a ” (five
stones).
mans,
Lemke quotes Pollux* d e s c r i p t i o n of the game.
ac c o r d i n g fco Junius, called it "Tali.1*4
The R o ­
Many representa­
t i o n s of this game have b e e n found o n G r e e k w a l l p a i n t i n g s and
vases.
There i s o n e f i gure o f a girl w i t h k n u c k l e b o n e s on the
b a c k of h e r hand, who s e p o s i t i o n is v e r y similar t o that of
Bruegel*s sirl player.
7
lingerie
gives an e a r l y l i t e r a r y re f e r e n c e to the game
f r o m the anonymous p o e m "das h&selein"
a b e n t e u e r , II, 21, 89-91).
(von d a r Hagen, Oesamaifc-
Here a girl e n u m e r a t e s h er several
possessions, w h i c h she i s k e e p i n g locked \ip in a cupboard.
^E. Lemke,
(1896), p. 184.
Among
"Graltes X i n d e r s p i e l z e u g , " & . d . V . f .V . . Vol. V
2
Gomme, Vol. 1, p. 128.
® Lemke, & , d . ¥ . f . V . . Vol. X VI (1906), p. 48.
4
Badrianus Junius, Nomenclator o c t o l i n g u i s , o m n i u m r e r u m
p r o p r i a n o mine confcinena. ed. Hermann Germberg (Genevai Jakob
Stoer, 1619), chap. xxxiv, D e Lusoriis, pp. 256 f.
(The first or
1 567 ed i t i o n w as not available.
The "Homenclafcor" of 1619 will
h e n c e f o r t h be cited as "Junius, stomenelafcor ( 1 6 1 9 ) . ” ); see also
A. F. v. Pa u l y and G e o r g aissowa, R e a l - E n c y c l o p & d l e d e r C l a a s i s c h e n
Alterfcumswissenachaffc (18 vols. in l9, i n c . ; S t uttgart, 18941939), Vol. II, col. 1793, und e r “astragalos."
^Leiake, Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X VI (1906), p. 48.
ducti o n s of Gre e k d r a w i n g s are given here.
Thr e e r e p r o ­
6ThIs d r a w i n g (Lemke. X . d . V . f . V .. Vol. XVI [1906], p. 49}
Is taken f r o m a w a l l p a i n t i n g at He r c u l a n e u m and Is s u p p o s e d fco
r e p r e s e n t one o f Hiobe*s daughters.
The Attic o r i g i n a l of this
s k e t c h h as been d a t e d at 425 - 4 2 0 3 . C.
7
Ign&z V. hingerle, Das Deuts c h e K l n d e r s p i e l ira M i t t e l alfcer (Innsbruck, 1873), p. 18.
(This b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be
cited as "lingerie.")
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5
i.i
h e r fcrsasuras are ten p e b b l e s u s e d to p l a y " F a n g s t e i n c h e n s p i e l " :
herre, I ch. b a n i n m £ m © s chi*in
beslozssen d r i u p f u n t vingerl£n,
Und zehen bikkel stein©.^
2
later refe r e n c e s to this game are m a d e b y R a b e l a i s :
mar t r e s , "
i!Aux
"Aux pingrea"s a n d p o s s i b l y .his "A la bille" r e f e r s t o
the same game.
T hese t h r e e t erms which. f o l l o w one another,
translated b y Regis
(1832),
ana b y C l a udius O a l l i t a i o
25
at
b y the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t o r (1653),'
(1682),
&
Rabelais, r e s p e c t i v e l y as follows:
" K n S e h e l n s , " (English)
vogel t j © vet";
"Au x m & r t r e s , "
(C a r m a n )
"Kfidelna," "At i v o r y ball s , "
”A la bille,"
"Van k l o o t s c hieten."
the B u t c h t r a n s l a t o r of
"At b a l an d h u c k l e b o n e s ,:: (Dutch)
M&rfcertje*5; "Aux pin g r e s , "
are
"Van*t
"Van
" S c h u s s e r l , ” "At the billiards,"
(See T a b l e 1, Kos. 62, 63, a n d 64.)
Far-
the r a l o n g i n his list R a b e l a i s also h a s "Aux c a i l l e t a u x , "
wiaich
the editors beli e v e refers to "petits c&illoux"
(See
Table 1, Ho. 99.)
(pebbles).
Oallit&lo, besides t r a n s l a t i n g Rabelais*
terms
f o r this game, adds tea D u t c h expressions which. C o c k and T e i r l i n c k
assure u s r e f e r to "Fangsteincixenspiel" s "V a n * t blk k e l e n " and
" V a n ’fc k o o ten."^
Josef Ssfiller, Z . d . V . f .V . . Vol. AX.VTXX (1918), p. 27, b e ­
lieves that this M i d d l e h i g h German n a m e of the gam© is d e r i v e d
f r o m the v e r b " b i k k e n , " to chop, and that "bikkel" or "bickel"
m e a n s a p iece c h o p p e d o r b r o k e n off of a larger stone.
£
E s m&ngart and IS. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s , p. 407 a n d p. 411,
nn. 59 and 80.
^Regis, Vol.
I, p. 69, and Vol. IX ~ 1 , p. 102.
E n g l i a h R a b e l a i s . Vol.
&Coe k on Teirlinck,
X, chap. xx.il, p. 64.
Vol. I, p. 51, Nos. 61, 82, and 63.
^ E s m a n g a r t a n d B. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s . B o o k I, chap. xxii,
p. 416 and p. 418, n. 81.
7
Coc k en Teirlinck, Vol. I, p. 51, $ 0 . 47, and p. 54,
ilV'O. I l l .
..
8
J o h a n n a if. P. Brost, Bet H e d e r l a n d s c h B i n d e r s p e l voo r de
Z e v e n t l e n d e B e a w (Dissertation, Leiden, 1914), p. IOO.
(This
w o r k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b e c i t e d as "Brost.")
B r e s t b e l i e v e s that
"kooten" refers to a d i e © game.
K n u c k l e b o n e s wer e used f o r
" F a n gsteinchenspiel" and in d i c e games as well.
(See M&Ller,
Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X X V I I I L1918], pp. 29 f. f o r th© names a n d a s ­
s igned values of th© f o u r sides of a k n u c k l e b o n e . ) Lemke (Z . d . V .
f ♦V . . Vol. V (1S95 ], p. 184) reminds us that "kxiSchelm" and
Bwurfeln" are b o t h u s e d in r e f e r r i n g to d i e © games.
It la, t h e r e -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
6
Pischart
1
in his
“G e s ehichtklitterung" includes two of
tiie terms u s e d b y B s b e l a i s
(given above):
KMar*tresn and
“Pingres."
fie a l s o has "Funfften s t e i n " ^ and t be Dutch. e x p r e s s i o n "Hilt3
^
e c k e n a .u
T h e l a t t e r term Fischart p r o b a b l y borrowed f r o m Junius
w h o u n d e r "'Tali11 gives the G e rman (H I . =Hlinanice), D u t c h (3. =
Selgice), F r e n c h ( 0 . = G a l l i c e ) , I t a l i a n (Xt.=Itallca), a n d S p a n i s h
(H. hiiisp&nlce) c o n t e m p o r a r y terms:
WA1. Knoden.
b l e k e l e n oft p i c k o l e n oft hllfceken i n o v i b u a .
Taloni.
ii. C o r n ! c o l e s . ”
3. K o t e n i n b u b u s ,
S. Talons.
It.
s
I n bis notes
Hoffm a n n v o n P a l l e r s l e b e n
on tbe p o e m "Bon b e g h i n s e l v a n a l i e n spelen"
some of t he abo v e terms as follows:
(c a ., 1400) explains
Knflchleinspiel, mhd. bickelspiel* bless w e n n es m i t
K n 8 c h l e i n v on R i n d v i e h gesplelt wurde: cotan, m e t o o t e n speleni
m i t K n S c h l e i n von. Se-faafen: hilten, h i e l t e n , bickelen, pickelen.
D e n g l & c k l i c h e n W u r f nannts m a n c o t e d ie stooft ocier e u l s c o t e ,
d e n unglfiLcklichen, cote d i e schij't.
P l a n t i n ’s Thesaurus:
fiilte d a e r d e jonge m e y s k e n s m e d e spelen.
C ertain l eu d e
q u o y louent lea ieune fIlies avec d e s osselets et ana petite
boulle, Talus.
T h e s e v a r i e d r e f e r e n c e s to "Fangsfcelnchenspiel" d u r i n g
the s i x t e e n t h cen t u r y i n d i c a t e that this game m u s t have b e e n as
p o p u l a r and w i d e s p r e a d I n B r u e g e l ’s d a y as it Is now.
Judging
b y the v e r y extensive d a t a o n this game given b y Cock ana T e i r fore, a p p a r e n t that ’’Pangstelncb.enspiel" and d i c e games w h e n
pl a y e d w i t h knucklebones, are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a nd that some terms
. m a y a p p l y to b o t h t he games o f skill and tho s e of chance.
Johann Piseharfcs, S e a c h i e h t k l l t t e r u n g (O&rgantua), ed.
/i. A l s l e b e n ("lieudrucke D e u t s e h e r Lltteraturarerke, ” pp. 6 5 - 7 6 j
Halle, 1891), p. £61.
(The German, English, and D u t c h t r a n s l a ­
tions o f R a b e l a i s (mentioned above] will h e n c e f o r t h b e quoted
o n l y in T a b l e 1; F i s c h a r t ’s r e n d i t i o n of R a b e l a i s ’terms w i llbe
given i n t he text w h e n t h e y are of s pecial importance.
Otherwise
t h e y w i l l be found o n l y i n Tab l e 1.
^ I b i d .. p. £66.
4
^ I b i d . . p. 268.
Junius, l o m e a c l a t o r (1619), pp. £56 f.
5
H o f f m a n n von Pallersleben, Horae B e l g i c a e . P a r t VI,
A l t n l e d e r l & n d l s c h e Behaubflhne (Breslau, 1838), p. 174.
(This
b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h b e q u o t e d as f*H.v.Pallersleben, Hor a e B e l g l cae.H )
°Thls sentence a g a i n seems to pertain m o r e to a d i c e game
th a n to " F a n g s t e i n c h e n s p i e l . a
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
linckp
1
Lemke,
2
and M&ller,
3'
nFangsteinciiensplel” m u s t be k n o w n
to the children or e v e r y h a mlet and b o r o u g h i n Europe, a nd in
e a c h w i t h a distinct terminology.
It is a l s o k n o w n to the other
A
c o ntinents &s well.
ftewe11
de s c r i b e s a similar game called
"Gtadama" or "Japanese jacks," w h i c h is p l a y e d about Boston.
This game is of J a p a n e s e origin, but it resembles the a ncient
game o f "Five-stones" s o c l o s e l y that N e well concludes:
T he r e can be n o d o u b t that the two forms o f this a m u s e ­
m e n t a r e branches of the same root; a nd w e thus h a v e a n e x a m ­
ple of a game which, h a v i n g p r e served its e s s ential c h a r a c ­
ter istics f o r thousands o f years, has f a i r l y c ircumnavigated
the globe, so that the two currents of tradition, w e s t w a r d
and eastward, f r o m E u r o p e and Asia, have m et in America.
2.)
T h r o u g h the open d o o r w a y In a b u i l d i n g to the left of the
girls p l a y i n g "Fa n g s t e i n c h e n s p i e l , " one can see two girls b u s y
w i t h t h e i r dolls.
One seems to be d r e s s i n g h er d o l l a nd the ot h e r
m a y b e m a k i n g a r&g-doll, f o r the figure she is holding, d o e s n o t
seem to have a w e l l d e f i n e d head.
G o c k and T e i r l i n c k m e n t i o n the
w e l l k n o w n f a c t that y o u n g girls.take a special de l i g h t i n m a k i n g
dolls o f scraps o f cloth; t h e y m a k e and remake them, dr e s s and
5
undress them.
On a shelf beyond the girls a re some things w h i c h
p r o b a b l y b e l o n g to them also, a small c r a d l e and a doll d r e s s e d
in black.
It Seems that girls have played w i t h dol l s f r o m t i m e i m ­
me m o r i a l .
Lamke gives s e v e r a l examples of d o l l s h a v i n g b e e n fo u n d
i n prei-istoric graves.
B8hme says that p l a y i n g w i t h dol l s is
t he m o s t n a t u r a l and m o s t p o p u l a r pastime w i t h girls and that
7
there is evidence that it w a s common a m o n g a ll ear l y peoples..
■^Gock en Teirlinck, Vol.
Ill, pp. 148-85.
2 Lemke, 2 . d . V . f . V . . Vol. XVI
Vol. X V I I (1907), pp. 85-91.
SM l l e r ,
(1906), pp. 46-66; also
Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X X VIII
(1918),
pp. 26-41.
4
W i l l i a m Wells Newell, Games and Songs o f Ameri c a n C h i l ­
d r e n (New York, 1911), pp. 192 f.
(This book w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be
cited as "Newell.")
-Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. IV, p. 67, u n d e r "Na&pende
spelen: Isioederke spelen."
6Lemke, Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. V (1895), p. 186.
"^SShrne, p. 418,
Ho. 4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
B
.)
2
The doll, as a plaything, Bd o e k e ,s or Mt o c k e , B is m e n t i o n e d f r e ­
q u e n t l y b y the M i d d l e High. (Jarman p o e t s ;■*" “d o c k s ” is still u s e d
o
i n the s o u t h e r n part of Germany.
“P u p p e , “ the m o d e r n G e r m a n
w o r d f o r doll, derived, f r o m the L a t i n "puppa," reached G e r m a n y b y
3
w a y of Prance.
4
lingerie
has co l l e c t e d a n u m b e r of e a r l y - r e f e r e n c e s to
dolls, a m o n g w h i c h are the following:
1) er w a e n e t d a ze B e r n e sin,
m i t kinden^ s p i l e n d e r t o cken
u nd swaz s:? h a o e n t in i r laden,
d az or d az iSze d u r c h s^n hunt
und i n n ^ c h t-r&ge i r priseyaden.
(A. v. Kemenaten, “V i r ginal" £ 1 2 4 0 j, D e u t s c h e s iieldenbuch,
V, 203, 11. 9-13.3
2) D az feint sprach* liebez veterlfia, n u heiz s i r g e w i n n e n
lain shr£n v o l l e n tockon, swe n n i c h zuo m i n e r m u o m e n v&r
von hinneni&
Q
(wolfram v» S s c h e nb&ch,
f i t u r e l 1 lea. 1270] Loed . , K.
Lachajann], VI, 91.)
Z i n g e r l e p o i n t s out that G o i l s r v o n Saisers'oerg and
F i s c h a r t (both A l s a t i a n s ) are a m o n g the earliest G e r m a n w r i t e r s
to u s e a f o r m of “P a p g e ” ins t e a d of ”t o c k e . ,! his exam p l e s are:
1} In d er k i n d h e i t lerestu sie ein s c h e l l e n d e n t z l i n dsatzan,
d u l e r e s t sie sp8tw£Srtli red e n -and unnfttze d i n g reden,
f l u o c h e n u n d schv/eren und lerest sie u f f b u p p e n h a f f e r t i g
seln.
(G. v. K&isersberg, Szeeis iS trass burg, 1516], 85v , col. a.)
Al w i n Schultz, D as h o f i s c h e L e b e n znr Z e i t d e r M i n n e s i n g e r
(Leipzig, 1889), Vol. I, pp. 152 f .; Zingerle, p. 19, n. 1, gives
the Old h i g h G e rman forms, "tocha, tohcha, doccha."
F r i e d r i c h Kluge, Stymolog.laeh.es Wtirtsrbuch d e r d e u t s c h e n
S p r a c h e (Berlin, 1934), p. 108, has und e r rtd o c k e ,iY D e r site, iia
Sudd'eu13chl&nd a l l e i n tlbliche A u s d r u c k 1’dr Fuppe."
“D o c k e ” is
still u s e d in Switzerland, also (Fri e d r i c h Seiler, D i e Sntwicfelung
d e r d e u t s c h e n K u i t u r i m S p i e g e l de3 d e u t s c h e n hehnworts (hall©
a.d.S., 1921), Part II j p. 208, und e r " P u p p e . u BShra©, p. 418,
states that “t o c k e ” is u s e d in Thuringia.
S B8hma, p. 418, So. 4.
4
Z i n g e r l © , pp. 19-22; featfchl&s Lexer, M i t t e L h o c h d e u t a c h e s
H a n d w S r t e r b u c h (3 vols.; Leipzig, 1872-1878), Vol. 11, col. 1455,
gives numer o u s r e f e r e n c e s to “t o c k e . ”
&
In b o t h of the s e q u o t a t i o n s r e f e r e n c e is m a d e to a s p e ­
cial p l a c e i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n k e e p t h e i r dol l s a nd oth e r toys:
“laden" a n d “s h r l n . ” B r u e g e l has r e p r e s e n t e d s u c h a “l a d e n ” f o r
u s
.
A
L i n g e r i e (pp. 19 f. ) b e l i e v e s t h a t W o l f r a m v on S s c h a n o & c h
m e n t i o n s d o l l s oftsner than a n y other p o e t of his time b e c a u s e h o
p r o b a b l y e n j o y e d w a t c h i n g h is own little d a u g h t e r p l a y i n g w i t h dolls.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
2.)
2) S I © he t t e n alls geziert, gebutzt,
G l elchwie © I n K i n d d i e B u p p e n mutzt,
A u f f da s d i e L'eut s i c h d r a n vergaffen.
(J. Fischart, "Der 3 a ? M s s e r S e c t e n und K u t t e p s t r e i t " [1577],
I n H e i n r i c h K u r a ed. , P i a c h s r t *a sfcgm-.tliefaB Pi etatun g e n . I,
104, 11. 137 ff . }
Z i n g e r l s ' s s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y cuotation is p r o b a b l y the
m o s t Interesting:
Deni F r a u e n v o l k k l e b e t eine s o n d e rliche 2 u n e l g u n g gegen de n
K i n d e r n an.
Da s si ©hat m a n a n d e n e n k l e i n e n TSchterlein,
welc h e , obwol sie n o c h nit wissen, ob sie StMgdlein seind,
n o c h v i e l mind e r , w & r u m b sie solcfee 3©ind, dannocii i n ibren
K i n d e r s p i e l e n aus Lumpen zusam-mengeaiachte D o c k e n h e n u m ’
otrEgen
wiegen, ein f & t s c h e l n und versorgen; d a h i n - g e g e n d i e K n a b e n
m i t Hfiusle bauen, Sfcackenroiten, D e g e n un d Bixen, auch.
A l t & r l e i n m a c h e n besefaSftigt seind.
(Aren© S o e ’s p. 323 (Dillingen, 1693].}
Jefarhan states that the e x p r e s s i o n s "Toekenkfichen, To c k a n
l&den," a n d "Tockenzloaaer,st w a r e u s e d i n A u g s b u r g as lat e as tbe
s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d that girls there often p l a y e d w i t h dolls
u n t i l t h e y bec a m e brides.
2
Kiliaen,
a n e a r l y D u t c h lexicographer, tran s l a t e s "dock©
as "poppe," w h i c h seems to h a v e bee n a d o p t e d b y tbe Dutch.
G alom
I n 1626, p u b l i s h e d an e a r l y D u t c h poem e n t i t l e d "Sirmebeelden. ’*
A p art o f this p o e m w h i c h refers to dolls, has tbe s u b t i t l e "Van
poppes p e l . "
A n o t h e r © a r l y D u t c h author, J a c o b Cats, writes:
hot
he t
Hot
net
m e i s j e speelt m e t p o p p e g o e t
k n e g t j e toond eon h o o g e r most,
m e i s j e d o s t d e w i e g e n gasn
^
k n e g t j © laat d o n trom m e l slaan.
3. }
xhe s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y q u o tation f r o m Dill i n g e n ,
above, I n c l u d e s a r e f e r e n c e to boys'
altars,
"Altfirlein m a c h o n . "
is&lding
given
playing with make-believe
5
b e l i e v e s that there Is s u c h
■^Karl Webrhan, Ki n d e r lie d un d K I n d e r s p i e l (" Bandb&cher
zu r V o l k s k u n d o , *' Vol. IV; Leipzig, 1909;, p. S3.
2
Co r n e l i u s Killanus, B t y m o l o g i c u m T e u t o n ! c a e Ling u a e
(Antwerp, 1599), p. 89. (The f i r s t e d i t i o n of this b o o k was p u b ­
lished In 1574.
The e d i t i o n I u s e d vflll h e n c e f o r t h be cited as
"Kiliaen 11599]."}
® C o e k en Teirlinck,
col. 4.
1625.
Vol.
I, p. 45.
^Jacob C a t s ,B u w e l y c k CAmsterdam, 1779), " K l n d e r a p e l , "
Th e f i r s t e d i t i o n of Cats's H u w e l y c k
was p u b l i s h e d in
S
Maiding, p. 59.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
3. )
a n altar* o n th© u p p e r shelf b e h i n d the girls.
The objects on
thi s shelf, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a candle, are s c a r c e l y d i s t i n ­
guishable; a s m a l l pict u r e and s e v e r a l o ther articles a r e h a n g i n g
on the wal l above the shelf.
A l t h o u g h one cannot be c e r t a i n w hat
the things i n this corner r e present, the general a r r a n g e m e n t of
t h e s h e l f and o f the artic l e s on it, resembles that o f the d e ­
s c r i p t i o n of a m a k e - b e l i e v e a l t a r cited b y Cock and Teirlinck:
BOp s e n itloin plan k j e d a i aan d e n m u u r v a s t g em&akt was, pri jkten
tussc h e a twee tinnen k a n delaartjes, es n tinnen kelk, en e e a dito
’hoogwaardig* ; d & t
If Bruegel
was
hot autaer.'1^
d i d n o t i n t e n d to r e present an i m a g i n a r y altar
here, ho p r o b a b l y m e a n t to picture m e r e l y & r e p o s i t o r y of m i s c e l ­
laneous
treasures of th e sort children l i k e to collect.
4. )
In the second s t o r y of the b u i l d i n g to th e left w e see
s e v e r a l children a m u s i n g t hemselves i n various ways.
is l o o k i n g out o f the window,
f r o n t o f his face.
he
the c h i l d r e n below
him
A boy, who
Is h o l d i n g a large-sized m a s k i n
p r o b a b l y h o p e s b y this means to f r i g h t e n
in the 3treet. T h e m a s k has d i s l o d g e d his
hat, w h i c h has f a l l e n o n t o the r o o f below.
A s mall r o u n d - f a c e d
b o y just able to see o v e r the w i n d o w sill is s t a n d i n g b e s i d e the
m a s k e d one i n the window.
This m a s k is s i m i l a r to the ones u s e d b y grown ups i n
S h r o v e t i d e and o t h e r fe3tivi.ties in m a n y parts of G e r m a n y and
o t h e r E u r o p e a n countries d u r i n g th e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h centurles.*"
In B r uegel*s painting,
‘'The Bat t l e betw e e n C a r n i v a l and
l e n t , 11 seve r a l m a s k s like this one are to b e seen in the left
f o r e g r o u n d near the figure r e p r e s e n t i n g Carnival.
Another six­
t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a m a s k can be s e e n on the print
■^Cock en Teirlinck,
Vol. I¥, p. QQ.
O
B.
h o f f m a n n - K r a y e r u n d h arms B & c h t o l d - S t & u b l l , li&ndwbrterbucfa ae 3 d e u t s c h e n Aberrslaubena (Berlin an d Leipzig, 1927-1937),
Vol. V, cols. 1744-1852, under "Masks, Maskereien'*; Kftck u n d
Sohnrey, F este u n d S c i e l e , p. 72; Otto F r e i h e r r v o n E e l n a b e r g Bflrlngsfeld, P&3 f e s t i i c h e J a h r (2d ©d.; Leipzig, 1898), pp. 6164* G e o r g Hfising, D i e d e u t s c h e n B o c h g e z e i t e n (Vienna, 1927),
pp. 35 and 39.
® M a x J. F r i e d Hinder, Pie t e r Bruegel (Berlin, 1921), p. 78;
Virgil Barker, Pieter Bruegfel the Elder, a S t u d y of his Pa i n t i n g s
(He® "fork, 1926), p. 14.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11
4. )
“S p e l e n d e A p o n 4*
(ca. 1580) b y P. v. d. Borciifc.
This urfclafc p i c ­
tu r e s a l&rg© n u m b e r
or
apes engaged. in various pastissos, and
of thess is ft-eayiag &
tsask w i t h «iilch is© is f r i g h t e n i n g throe
on©
others.
si© is r i d i n g a ^hobbyhorse*4 and. is w a v i n g a b u ndle o f
twigs a t th& ones b e is chasing.
Habel&Is inclu d e s 3,n Isia list o f gasss t wo expressions
w M o b Esaianstar'fe and S. J o h a n n e a u fcbink m a y refer to a n at tempt to
fri.shfcen soKsone wifeis a masks
”A la baboo.,” and 51im tana’
o ry.
{Far tb© translations o f these terms b y Hcgis,
"allitalo, a nd t b e
E n g l i s h translator o f * S s r g a o t a e , * sc© fable 1, Sos. & & and 141).
3
A c c o r d i n g to Rausch,
t he “A la & a b o « “ of B a o e l a i s is t u r n e d I n t o
*1?©r 3 & b a & e » B b y Fischart* a nd ,laa tenab r y * into ’'fajMbai,9
S s a a c h m e n t i o n s two s i m i l a r gam e s k a o s a fco hiss
4,<3©isehterlean
a n d ‘'Qschpenscriterles. t!
Junius (lives the f o l l o w i n g s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y expressions
f o r m a s k ’under ".Larva/’j
,!A1. BufczenarjfcllfciSfc, Boekon&nfcli fczfc,
Schonperfe* B. t e a a n a a n s i c h t «
ft4
feascara.
Sal. Maem©.
'
lfe.a.1. Mascara.
'
II.
B r e s t d i s c u s s ep;s tbe e a r l y u s © of m a s k s b y c h i l d r e n a a a e ?
the t e n s **?a©3»bakke8. ft'J’
5.)
In th© r o o m b e h i n d the m e e k e d b o y w o aee a girl swinging,
a s s i s t e d b y a boy.
C o c k a nd T e i r l i n c k
i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of
”Hc h t 9 Sciiosisjclap©l©nM also I n c l u d e a picture
s w i n g i n g a lady I n an upstairs room.
a rafter.
(1636} of a isan
T h © r o p e s are f a s t e n e d to
T h e y state that In cep tain d i s t r i c t s o f im H a n d ,
in
m o d e m tiass, the m o s t ap p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f or a s w i n g Is c o n s i d ­
e r e d to be “in the b a r n a b o v e the t h r e s h i n g f l o o r . 61
Befcfc claims that a m o n g m a n y p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s s w i n g i n g
was s e r i o u s l y p r a c t i c e d as a religious rite.
A m o n g the L e t t i s h
pe a sants* it was b e l i e v e d that the h i g h e r o n © r o s e i n s w i n g i n g
1
~!>rosfc r e produces this pri n t (fig. 3* In h er diss©rfc&fcion.
2
asasimg&rfc and Ev Johannes au, E a b e l a i s . pp. 4 08 a nd 427.
SEausch, pp. 11 and 26.
^4
Jimiua*
lioa&nclafcor (ISIS), p. 254.
®Go c k en Teirlinck, ¥ol.
3
Lroafc*. p. 123.
XV* pp. 153-228.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
5 .)
\
the taller th© f l a x would grow.
however, Bruegel's chil d r e n are
p r o b a b l y not p e r f o r m i n g a s p r i n g rite, but m e r e l y e n j o y i n g a
s p r i n g (or summer) pastime.
S w i n g i n g w a s c o mmon a m o n g the G r e e k a nd R o m a n children.
In G e r m a n y it w a s f o r m e r l y c a l l e d “achoc®1 or !,3Chocke.
2
Zingerle
gives several e x a m p l e s f r o m M i d d l e h i g h G e r m a n literature i n
w h i c h s w i n g i n g Is called;
s c h o c k e r J t e n , tt and,
"schocken,** "fif s c h o c k e n v a r n , ” "uf d em
"uf d e m sells r f t e n . 5'^
R a b e l a i s lists s w i n g i n g
b a o u l e . ® ^ (See T a b l e 1, hos.
eludes Rabelais*
&3
nA
la brandalle" and
"A
la
1 56 and 189.)
F i s c h a r t s i m p l y in0
terms as "Dar b r & n d e l l e ” and"D e s s b&cule-. ”
Junius, u n d e r ” Oscillum, ” has; **A1. RItzen. B. f o u t e r e n (Flandria
•7
u n d S r a b . ) schongelen, scl-oppsn (xiollsnd). G. Baculer, b a l l o c h e r . M
0
GoiBHie d i s c u s s e s this pas t i m e u n d e r "Kerritot or the
v
swing, M and D r os t,
u n d e r nS choruses len. "
C o c k and T e I r l I n c k X0
give the words t o a large n u m b e r of songs used to a c c o m p a n y
swinging.
.)
6
A h e a v y p l a n k or s t a n d p r o b a b l y u s e d as a w o r k table is
f a s t e n e d to the w a l l at the r i g h t of the doorway.
of dif f e r e n t ages,
Four children
g rouped about this stand, are a m u s i n g t h e m ­
selves i n various ways.
A r a t h e r large b o y seated on the plank,
is p l a y i n g w i t h a s p i n n i n g t o y o f the sort that C o c k a nd fair21
llnek descr i b e tinder "Drilnoot*1;
Three holes are b o r e d in a
nut,
side.
one at the top, on© at the bottom, and the third in the
A spindle, w h i c h is thi n n e r i n the middle,
and to w h i c h a
s t r i n g has been tied. Is t h r u s t through- t h e h o l e s In th© top and
Xiienry Sett, The -Games of Children, their Origin and
history (London, 1929*7"^ pp. 60"f .
2Z i n gerle, p.
•ft
42.
5Ibid.
4Xbld.
S s m a n g a r t and E. Jolmaneau, R a b e l a i s , pp.
451 and 459.
Q
Rausch,
r?
pp. 50 a n d 38.
Junius, Nomenclator (1619), p. 255.
Q
Gommo, Vol.
I, p. 369.
10O o c k © n Teirlinck,
Vol.
9
Drost, p. 132.
IV, pp. 168-226.
X1r b i d . , Vol. VI, pp. 199 f.j K l l i a e n (1599) gives
"Drill©, d r i l l e k e n , dril-not," p. 97.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
6 .
j
bo t t o m of th© nut.
The string is then d r a w n thro u g h th© side
h o l e and r o l l e d about the 3plndle.
The nut is the n lowered b y
m e a n s or the 3 t r i n g arid i f jerked b a c k at the p r o p e r time (before
the s t r i n g is e n t i r e l y unwound),
the string will r e w i n d itself.
Mea n w h i l e the spindle (in a h o r i z o n t a l position) is t u r n ­
i n g and if there are little flywheels a t t a c h e d to it (as in the
picture)* t h e y w i l l whirl about l ike the arms o f a windmill.
Drost
3.
dis c u s s e s this to y u n d e r "SootiB.olentje* (nut-mi 11) and has
sketches of Bruegel's "Koot m o l e n t j e K and two s i m i l a r ones* w hich
she h a s c o p i e d fro m two other c o n t e m p o r a r y paintings.
S h e notes
that in a l l of these representations o f this toy, th e spindle is
held upri g h t and skill in w h i r l i n g the "mill-wheels" r a t h e r than
in l e t t i n g th© n u t travel up and down the string* s e e m s to be the
g
i m p o r t a n t thing.
G o c k and T e i r l i n c k
o t h e r v a r i a t i o n s of t h e i r "Driinoot":
In th © " E o s m e u l e n ” type,
d e s c r i b e and s k e t c h two
"toujour" and "Rosmsulen. ”
which has an apple or p o t a t o on the
s p i n d l e instead of the flywheels,
the nu t is h e l d i n on© hand
(with the spin d l e erect) and the string or wire is w o r k e d w i t h
th© other.
T h a t Is e x a c t l y w h a t B r u e g e l ’s b o y appe a r s to be d o ­
i n g a l t h o u g h the 3pindle i n his t o y has flywheels on it, not a n
appl© or potato.
used,
It seems evident, then,
that w h e n flywheels are
the toy can b e operated either way, w i t h the spin d l e held
u p r i g h t or in a h o r i z o n t a l position.
the spindle*
?*ith & pot a t o on on© end of
th© to y w o u l d n o t operate w i t h the sx>indle In a
h o r i z o n t a l position.
Th© "Drilnoot" w h i c h is allowed to tr a v e l up and dow n th©
s t r i n g is s i m i l a r i n principle to th© ”y o - y o , M u s e d b y children
here.
Sebs t e r d e s c r i b e s th© " y o - y o ” as follows:
A sph e r i c a l top
a t t a c h e d to th e operator's finger b y a cord lo o p e d a r o u n d its
g r o o v e d middle.
B y r u n n i n g the top up a n d d o w n the cord, It may,
•3
be m a d © to assume various d i v e r t i n g m o t i o n s an d p o s i t i o n s .
7 .
)
Behind the stand Is a b o y b l o w i n g a o & p b u b b l e s .
no t see wha t k i n d
of a p i p © or tubs h e Is using,
On© c a n ­
but i n hi s r i g h t
hand he h a s a peculiar u t e n s i l upon w h i c h h e seems to b© h o l d i n g
1
D r o s t , pp. 116 f.
2
Coc k en Teirlinck, Vol.
VI* p. 201.
3
W e b s t e r ' s hew i n t e rnational D i c t i o n a r y of th© E n g l i s h
La n g u a g e (2d ed», u n a b r i d g e d ), 1939.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7 -)
a bubble.
Drost
1
u n d e r "Bellen blazon" says that Boost sixteenth,
c e n t u r y re p r e s e n t a t i o n s or soap b u b b l e blo w e r s show the child
h o l d i n g in h is h a n d a small round b o w l on a s t e m or u p r i g h t h a n ­
dle.
This b o w l contains the soap water.
(c a . 1580}
also . **
Borekt's
"Spelende hpen"
shows a n a pe h o l d i n g a b u b b l e on one of these d e v i c e s
C o c k and T e i r l i n c k ^ d e s c r i b e this pastime' u n d e r the h e a d ­
i n g "iZeepbel," a nd give some t w enty oth e r n a m e s for it, used in
d i f f e r e n t dis t r i c t s o f Holland.
A m o n g these are Gats'sA. (1625)
“Bobbels bl&zsn" a n d C a l o m ,s (1626) " B o b b e l e n . " BShx&e gives
Ammon's** term,
"Blatern blas©n"
(1657).
8 .)
llhe b o y w h o is b l o w i n g bub b l e s as w e l l a 3 the b o y on his
r i g h t w h o is p l a y i n g w i t h & bird, are w e a r i n g tall c o n e - shaped
hats w h i c h s e e m to be m a d e of twigs o r reeds.
tills i m p r o v i s e d h a t on his b a r e head,
One is w e a r i n g
the other, over his cloth
hat.
C o c k a nd T e i r l i n c k d e s c r i b e and i l l u s t r a t e s u c h a r e e d hat
u n d e r "Hoed v a n b i e z o n " ; 0
Fi r s t a ring, t h e size o f one's h e a d
is m a d e of a thin os i e r twigj rushes a re w o u n d about this r i n g
a nd then long reeds are a t t a c h e d to it and t i e d t o g e t h e r at the
top.
peak.
iis an ornament, & b u n c h o f m e a d o w flowers is p l a c e d on the
Bruegel's
"Blnsenh&te"
answer this d e s c r i p t i o n in eve r y
d e t a i l e x cept that they, l a c k the fl o w e r s on the peak.
9. j
T he h o y w h o is w e a r i n g b o t h h i s o r d i n a r y hat and the
p e a k e d reed, hat is p l a y i n g w i t h a b i r d on the table b e f o r e him.
T h e b i r d seems quite tame a n d i 3 not b e i n g h e l d b y a n y v i s i b l e
means.
however, the r e is so m e t h i n g l y i n g near the boy's h a n d
w h i c h m i g h t b e a l i ttle h arness of th© kind C o c k en T e i r l i n c k
"^Drost, pp.
1 44 f.
*^Drost, fig. 3.
•5
Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. V, pp.
233 f f .
p . -432, Mo. 35.
J. L. Afnmenn (the s p e l l i n g u s e d b y C o c k a n d Teirlinck,
Vol. 1, p. 43)., and Conrad M e y e r u s e d m u c h m a t e r i a l f r o m Gats's
B o u w e l i e k (1625) in their "Michtige h i n d e r s p i e l s ” t26 gamesJ,
Zurich, 1657.
6 0ock
7
e n Teirllnek, Vol. VI, p. 182.
Balding*s G e r m a n name f o r the s e hats, p. 61.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15
9 .)
describe.
Shis harness Is f a s t e n e d a r o u n d the b i r d ’s b o d y u n d e r
Its wi n g s a nd attached to a l o n g string.
in his
Geller von Kaiserberg
"Gra n a t a p f e l ” (1511) tells about boys p l a y i n g w i t h b i r d s :
’’sSfenn a i n knab a i n spetz l i n gefacfat, so b l n n d t er es a n ainen
faden,
ettwen ains arms lang oder z w a y e r oder dreyer, u n d lasst
d a s spetz l i n fll e g e n u n d b ehellt d e n f a d e n I n d e r hands so f leiigt
d a s s p e t z l i n auff u n d maynt, ss w 8 l h i n w e g fllegen, so ze&cht d e r
k n a b d e n faden z u im, so f e l t d a s spetzlin h e r w l d e r a h .'1
i£alsersberg, D as b u c h G r a n a t a p f e l .trans. J. D i s m a p
(G. v.
tAugsburgs
h. Gtst&r, 15XG],
"Die g aistllch® S p i n n e r i n , ” S e r m o n V, col. 10. j
3
G o c k and t e i r l i n c k di s c u s s va r i o u s met h o d s of c a t c h i n g
bir d s u s e d b y boys a n d give a list o f the kinds of bir d s m o s t
o ft e n c a ught a nd tamed.
starling, magpie,
cpob
T h e y ares sparrow, titmouse, blackbird,
a nd va r i o u s kinds of finch.
B r u e g e l ’s
tame b i r d seems to be some k i n d of finch, p erhaps a " S t i e g l i t s ”
(Garduelis c&rduelis, th i s t l e finch) or "Bluthfinfling*' (Garduelis
c&nnabina, r e d p o l l l i n net).^
C & l o m in his M3 i n n e b e e l d e n w (1626), Incl u d e s HVan m e e s s e n
v an g e n "
(c a t c h i n s titmice),
, 5
sparrows).
and "Van m o s s e n te l e e r e n ” (tr a i n i n g
R abel a i s has aA mo n t e m o n t e 1 ’e s e h e l e t t e , M w h i c h be s i d e s
b e i n g a k i n d o f game in w h i c h a small c h i l d is bo u n c e d f r o m foot,
to knee, t o shoulders, m a y a l s o m e a n a trick w h i c h Is sometimes
taught sparrows, i.e.,
a r a c k f o r pack saddles
to h o p f r o m one f i n g e r to another, as on
{ne c h © l e t t e B ).
0
Re g i s has tran s l a t e d
^Goek ©n Teirlinck, Vol. VI, p. 77.
g>
Zingerle, p. 14, quotes this p a s s a g e and several others,
w h i c h Indicate that the c a t c h i n g a nd t a m i n g of birds was common,
a m o n g the Germans as e a r l y as the time of the poem " R u o d l i e b ”
(c&. 1030).
In this p o e m some t w e n t y - f i v e lines a re devoted to a
d e s c r i p t i o n of tamed bir d s (starlings and magpies) w h i c h have b e e n
t a ught to speak.
In F r i e d r i c h B o i l e r ’s (1882) e d i t i o n of
•‘E u o d l i e b , ** this pas s a g e Is i n IX, 11. 2-28.
In M o r i z h e y n e ’s
(1897) t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o G e r m a n it Is i n "BruchstdeR" XI, 11. 3-29.
S C o c k e n Teirlinck, Vol. VI, pp. 87-79.
A
B r ehms T l e r l e b e n (4th. ©d. j Otto zur Btr&ssen; La5.pzlg
and Vienna, 1913), 9, IV, u n d e r " S p e r l i n g s v o g e l : F i a k e n , ” ’*Bluthfinfling,"
pp. 414 ff . , ’’Stieglitz, B pp. 423 f f .
5
Gock en Teirlinck, Vol.
0
I, p. 46.
B s m a n g a r t ©t E* Johanneau, R a b e l a i s » Vol.
I, p. 439,
n. 158.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
9. }
this Into
2.
*!S t e i g aufs Leiterlein, s t e i g e , n
lator h a s i t as
and the E n g l i s h tr&ns
"it elimtoe tfa© l a d d e r B i l l i e . ”^ (See Tabl© 1,
So. 192.)
.}
10
A b r i c k o n a l eather t h o n g or r o p e ia t i e d to the h e a v y
outer support or the stand.
rialding believes that some c h i l d has
t i e d u p the brick, pret e n d i n g that it is a d o g or h o r s e .*5
'This I
possible; I have r o u n d n o t h i n g t o co n f i r m o r r e fute this s u p p o s i ­
tion.
11.}
On this side of the stand, w i t h h e r b a c k toward us, is a
4
chi l d h o l d i n g u p a s p i n n i n g t o y w h i c h C o c k a n d T e i r l i n c k
call a
nT e e r l i n g 3 tbp,}e. ”
This is a simple f o r m of top c o nsisting of a
f o u r or six-sided, p r i s m (each side of w h i c h is n a m e d or numbered)
w i t h a p ointed p e g thrust t h r o u g h the center.
U p o n this p e g the
p r i s m ro t a t e s w h e n spun w i t h the thumb and m i d d l e finger.
Which­
e v e r side i s u p when i t stops, d e n o t e s the score o f the spinner.
BShme calls this a ’'Spielkreisel** or ’’T o r i ” and states
that child r e n i n Th u r i n g i a p l a y for nuts at Christmas time w i t h
s u c h a t o p .*5
The one on B r u e g e l fs picture answers
the desc r i p t i o n s
g i v e n b y Cock and T e i r i l n c k and B S h m e e x cept that the p e g seems
l o n g e r — m o r e like a h a n d l e — a nd no letters or n u m b e r s are v i s i b l e
on th© sides of the top.
.}
12
A b o y w i t h a squirt gun is p e e r i n g out o f a n o p e n i n g in
the wall w h i c h extends b e y o n d the building.
he la s h o o t i n g wa t e r
a t a b i r d p e r c h e d o n a stand in f r o n t of a little bird house.
Cock a n d Tei r l i n c k
descr i b e a h o m e m a d e squirt g un s u c h
as the b oy Is p r o b a b l y using, u n d e r BMet Klnde r s p u i t je,fs
A hol­
l ow cylin d e r of eldarwood w i t h a p i s t o n o r stamper. In It; a k n o b
w i t h s m a l l hol e s
(usually five) In it Is f a s t e n e d a t the f a r end.
W a t e r is d r a w n u p Into the tube b y m e a n s o f the p i s t o n a n d is
^Regls,
Vol. I I ~^ s p. 109.
^Maiding, p. 61.
^Engl i s h R a b e l a i s . p.
66
.
^ G o c k en Teirlinck, Vol. V, p. 206.
BShme, p. 643, »o. 554.
®Co e k en Teirilnck, Vol. V, pp. 248 f.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
12, )
then .forced out at w i l l t h r o u g h th© openings i n the stopper.
x
w
u n d e r “Spritzbftohse," says that an o r d i n a r y p o p - g u n can
BShme,
b © u s e d i n the same way.
If th© b a r r e l o f th© g u n is t i g h t l y
c l osed w i t h a c o r k w h i c h has a h o l e i n its center, a s t r e a m of
w a t e r c an be shot a c o n s i d e r a b l e distance.
Drost
2
names
UB roppenschieter"
“b uys®,"
(Latin)
"spat" as a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t e r m f o r
(pop-gun).
" Tubus.”
K i l i a e n gives "Spat" as the D u t c h
Und e r "Tubus, T u b u l u s , t! h© h a s "buise;
buisken; pijpe; spat; spuites roer; r o e r - p i j p e " ; also, “w a t e r b u i s e ; w a t e r-busse;
fontein-pijpe; f o n t e i n - o u i s e ; got©."
Drost
b e l i e v e s that "spuyte," the old e r f o r m " s p o e y t e , 51 a nd “pijp" m a y
r e f e r to a b l o w p i p e or squirt gun.
Historiael"
S h e quotes the "Spieghel
115 1 5 j, to i l l u s t r a t e "pljp":
"Dat he quam . . . .
d a e r esa clorc (s c h o o l j o n g e n 5 en© p i p e d r o u c h s e l v e r l j n . . .
Daersaen wat e r m e d e scoot . . . . .n
13. )
T he b i r d at w h i c h the b o y is a i m i n g is s i t t i n g on a p e r c h
i n front o f a b i r d house.
a "vogelkruk"s
a
3 tick
Cock a n d T e i r l i n c k
call s u c h a perch,
s o m e two to f o u r d e c i m e t e r s l o n g w i t h a
l i ttle cross piece of wood, the w h o l e r e s e m b l i n g a crutch.
&
lingerie
quotes several M i d d l e M l g h G erman passa g e s
w h i c h r e f e r to bird h o u s e s for tam e d birds.'
1
) ^Swer e l a e s vog e l haete,
d o r m l t aange d u r das jar
sxnen w i l l e n t a e t e ^
d e m so It or under-.vilen auo d e a v o g a l h u s se h o n
u n d gaebe i m guote apise
(Keldhart v . R e u e n t h a l
. 32 f f .)
tea, 1236 3 ted.
Si. Baupt, 1858], p. 84,
11
2)
1 BShm©,
ijVonne m a n d e n v o g e l (Hsher) a l s o jungen vae h t u nd
in zeuht in a i n e m vogslhaua, s & lornt er r e d e n u n d
p. 622, So.
497.
2 Drost,
pp.
121 ff.
sS y n o n y m ! a
L a t i n o - f e u t o n i e a (Ex St y m o l o g i c o 0. Klli&ni
B e p r o m p t a . ) (La t i n -Dutch d i c t i o n a r y of the s e v e n t e e n t h century),
©da., E. S p a n o g h © a n d J. V e r c o u l l l s (“A n t w e r p a c h e B i b l i o p h i l e n , ” .
V o 1. XVI, A to E x u 11889]; Vol. X V III, F to P y x tl892]j Vol. XXII,
(it o X 11902 J| Ghent, 1889-1902}.
In Vol. XXII, p. 184, u n d e r
“Tubus."
(This w o r k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h bo cited as "Killten, Antw e r p s e h © B i b l i o p h i l e n , “ XVI, X V I I I or XXII.)
4 Brost,
6
pp. 121 ff.
Singerl®, pp.
12
5C o e k a n Teirlinck, Vol. VI, p. 77.
f.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
13. )
k l a f f © t d u r c h d e n tag,
. . . . .
(Konrad v. M e g e n b e r g "Such d e r M a t u r ”
Pfeiffer, p. 199, 1 1 . 14-16.)
i.1350], ed. Franz
The bird on th© picture is not d i s tinct e n o u g h f o r on © to
de t e r m i n e wha t k i n d it is, but it is p r o b a b l y on© of the kinds
n amed a b o v e in Bio. 9.
14.)
A large n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n are p l a y i n g games in th e w i d e
street w h i c h m akes up th© f o r e g r o u n d of th© picture.
f o u r c h i l d r e n are m a r c h i n g s i n g l e file.
To th© left
T h e y are p r o b a b l y isnitat
i n g a c h r i s t e n i n g procession, f o r th© f i r s t one 3 s c a r r y i n g a
bundle a b o u t th© s hape and size o f a y o u n g baby.
The f i r s t two
children have their skirts th r o w n over their heads; the o t h e r two
are .searing cap©-like garments w h i c h r e a c h f r o m the h e a d to th©
w a i s t i n on© case, and a l m o s t to th© ankles In the other.
These
i
~
-£
capes a c c o r d i n g to K a i d i n g
are c a l x a d "hoi k e n ’* and are s i m i l a r
t o ones w o r n b y aome of th© w o m e n on Bruegel's
‘'Battle b e t w e e n
C a r n i v a l an d L e n t .
M a n y supers t i t i o u s b e l i e f s surround a c h r i s t e n i n g a m o n g
th © German peasants; i n m a n y local i t i e s a p r escribed course m u s t
4
be followed.
Sartori
d i s c u s s e s some of th© c h r i s t e n i n g cust o m s
pr e v a l e n t i n various d i stricts,
e.g., th © child m u s t b© t a k e n to
c h u r c h b y w a y of th© w i d e m a i n street, n e v e r b y a garden p a t h o r
byway; t h © p a r t y m u s t m a r c h i n s i n g l e f i l s (Qi*a a e m a p 3 c h )— as is
the case in our p i c t u r e ;
c e r t a i n colors m u s t be w o r n to w a r d of f
evil spirits; th© sponsors, w h o v a r y in number, always p l a y a
pro m i n e n t parti
t h e y m u s t b r i n g c e r t a i n gifts--the third girl i n
^Balding, p. 61,
J. and VS. Grimm, D e u t s c h e s YSSrterbuch (16 vols. in 29
inc.; Leipzig, ,,1854-1959} , Vol. IV, col. 1731, gives wiioiken,
manfcel&rtiger u b e r w u r f , . . . .
l &nge hoicken, d i e w a r e s g e k n & u f t
f o r n e n n i © d e r bis auf d i e f & a a .”
It is also e x p l a i n e d that
"hoiken" w a r © w o r n in F r a n c © d u r i n g th© m i d d l e of th© f o u r t e e n t h
century, f i r s t o n l y b y women, l ater also b y men; t h e y reached
G e r m a n y b y w a y of the Motherlands.
Priedllnder, F I © t e r B r u e g e l . F lat© XIIXI.
Th© w o m e n i n
the background, t o the right, are w e a r i n g b l a c k " h o i k e n . 15
T a u l Sartori, S i t t e u n d B r a n c h (3 vols., *'Handbfich©r zap
Y o l k s k u n d © , 1* V; Leipzig, 1910), Vol. I, pp. 33-3S.
(This w o r k
w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be q u o t e d as " S a r t o r i , S i t t e u n d B r a u e h . w }
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19
14. }
tii© picture Is carrying s o m e t h i n g I n h er h a n d — a nd p e r f o r m c e r ­
t a i n rites.
In m a n y cases, the presence o f the parents, o r o f
the m o t h e r Is n o t required a t the ceremony.
Spaiaer^ says, "Auf
dera Werte z u r K i r c h © trfigt gewBhnlich d i e H e b a m m e das g e g e n alle
Ge f a h r e n vfrllig m i t ei n e m T u c h iiberdeckte K i n d . "
a l s o observed i n t he picture.
This c u s t o m Is
It i s evi d e n t that the f o u r c h i l ­
d r e n I n tills g r o u p are i m i t a t i n g w i t h d u e f o r m a l i t y a n u mber o f
c h r i s t e n i n g customs they h a v e observed.
15. }
In the foregound,
to th© right of the christening p r o c e s ­
sion, is a gro u p of three children,
‘'hobbyhorse” or “stick h o r s e ”
one of w h o m is r i d i n g a
(Dutch “s t o k k e p a a r d ” o r
11at ok-
p&ardje” ) .
L@ h a s a s w i t c h in his l e f t h a n d a n d his cap seems
■4:
to be p u lled d o w n o v e r h i s face.
l a y s s e e m to enjoy this pa s t i m e
5
e v e n t h o u g h a p l a i n stick, a broomstick, or f i r e poker,
must
serve as the horse;
often, however, as i n th© picture, the sti c k
h a s . a h o r s e ’s h e a d of wood.
A real m a n e and rei n s are sometimes
added, and a w h i p or s w i t c h of some kind Is a l w a y s present.
Almost e v e r y s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y pi c t u r e w h i c h shows s m a l l
c hild r e n playing, d e p i c t s a ch i l d r i d i n g a “h o b b y h o r s e ” of some
sort.'
D r o s t Includes i n h er dissertation, copies of three e a r l y
^ Ado If S pacer, D i e d e u t a c h e V o l k a k a n d e (2 vola.j Berlin,
1934-1955), Vol. IX, p. 50, u n d e r ‘‘K lndtaUfe. “
(This w o r k w i l l
h e n c e f o r t h be c i t e d as “D e u t s c h e V o l k a k u n d e . ” )
2
J. Strutt, Sports a n d Pastimes of E n g l a n d (London, 1833),
p. 224, de s c r i b e s a “h o b b y-horse^ a s the f i g u r e of a h o r s e u s e d
i n a Eo r r l a - d a n e e .
(This b o o k will h e n c e f o r t h be quoted as
“S t r u t t . ” ) W e b s t e r ’s M ew I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y (1939) gives
t h e above e x p l a nation of h o b b y h o r s e 1* a n d also t h © followings
A stick, often w i t h the h e a d o r figure o f a horse, on w h i c h boys
m a k e believe to ride.
^Cock e n Teirlinck, Vol. IV, pp. 21-24.
A
One wo n d e r s wh e t h e r h is cap is p u l l e d over his f a c e to
t aka th© place o f a mask.
In t he d i s c u s s i o n of f,&ask*' (see Mo. 4
above), a h o b b y h o r s e r i d e r w e a r i n g a m a s k w as noted.
Samuel
S inger, AufaStze u n d Vortr&gei
D e u t a c h e K i n d e r s p i e l e (Tubingen,
1912), pp. 1 a nd 21, d i s c u s s e s the u s © of a m a s k i n games in
w h i c h a d e m o n Is represented.
&0 o c k en Teirlinck, Vol. IV, pp. 21-24.
S
Drost, pp. 114 f . S e v e r a l e a r l y D u t c h and F l e m i s h terms
f o r s u c h a w h i p are given.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20
1 5 . )
prints, e a c h o f w h i c h h a s so m e o n e r i d i n g a " h o b b y h o r s e . "
Bruegel*s
"St. Jorls ke r m i s "
On
a b o y and. a g i r l are r i d i n g on one
hor3©.
R i d i n g on " s t i c k , h o r s e s ” was so common that it v a s u s e d
b y M i d d l e H i g h Serrcan p o e t s to c h a r a c t e r i z e ear l y c h i l d h o o d :
m l r hat e l n w i p genade w i d e r seit,
d o r i ch g e d i e n e t h an salt st&etekeit,
sit d e r s tunde, daz I c h u f m i m e stabe Creit).
Schultz
&
iHartman v o n Guv/e 11200], ed. F.v.d.
I, p. 328, 60, I, 4.)
Hagen, Minnesinger,
gives a q u o t a t i o n f r o m U l r i c h v o n Lichtensteins
"so tump
daz i c h d ie gerten reit" {Ulrich v. Lichtenstein, Prauendienafc
11255], ed. R. L a c hmann, p. 5, 1. 23), a nd a n o t h e r f r o m Hugo
v o n frlmbergs
Rite e ln grS' m a n u f u n d abe
slit b l e i n e n k l n d e n U f e l n e m stabe,
Und s p i l t e gerade und unger a d e
O nd g i e n g e m l t i n ze w a z z e r b a d e
urxd hiilfe i n roachen h i u s e l £ n
Und b d n d e zwei k l e l n i u sniuseiin
An eln w e g e l i n init In,
Sc> s p r S c h e wip: "Sent w l e tuBasen s in
D e p a l t e m a n hat! . . . ."
(Hugo v. I’rimberg, P e r R e n n e r i1347 3, ed. G . Ehrisraann,
vol. l, p. Ill, II. 2693-2701.)
M a r t i n L u t h e r (1527) a l s o refers to this p astime as Hd e r kne b l i n
*>
posstsoken."
In the p o e m n H-uwelyck" b y the D u t c h p o e t J a c o b Oats
(1577-1660) u n d e r nK i n d e r s p e l fl we finds
Het k i n d d a b op oen s t o k j e ryd,
Hn m et e e n s t o k e e a stokje smyt
Meynt d&t* et d r y f t e e n m o e d i g peert
« el d u y z e n t fransche k r o o n e n weert.
Masp I email t d i e h e t w e l b e z l e t
g
D i e v i n t een h o u t en anfiers niet.
i
Drost, figs. 3, 7, S; fig. 7 shows a basket f u l l of h o b ­
byhorses b e i n g d i s p l a y e d b y a street me r c h a n t .
J. Scholble, D i e
gufce alte Zeifc ("Das 'dosfcer,n Vol. "71s Stuttgart, 1847), p. 560,
m e n t i o n s a picture of V e i t K o n r a d S c h w a r z o n a h o b b y h o r s e a t the
age of one (1543); Seh e l b l ® , p. 563, r e f e r s us also to “PetrarchM.
T r o s t s p i e g e l 15 (1572) f o r a n o t h e r picture of a hobbyhorse.
%>rost, fig.
2
.
^Zingerle, pp.
22
f.
^Alarin Schultz, D a s hdfische L e b e n . Vol. X, p. 154.
J. Bolt©, " Z e u g n i s s © zur Gesch i e h t e un s e r e r K i n d e r s p i e l e , i!
Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X I X (1909), p. 385, Ho. 6 .
J.
Gats,
I m w e l y c k ; "XlnderspeX," col.
6
.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
15.)
R & b e l s i s has "Au ballay"
Isee Table 1, 3?io. 146) w h i c h
1
3
3
Pi s c h & r t trans l a t e d as “D e s s Beaems."
BQ h m e
and R o c h h o l z
both
cite F ischart's
"das F f e r d l i n w o l b e r e i t ” in their d i s c u s s i o n s of
" S t e c k e n p f e r d w but R a u s c h
identifies this as the n a m e o f a m o r e
c o m p l i c a t e d game, w h i c h is also shown o n Br u e g e l ' s pi c t u r e and
wi l l be d i s c u s s e d lat e r
(Ro.
21
).
P r o b a b l y the l argest number o f hobbyhorses ever assembled.,
w a s present at a peace c e l e b r a t i o n w h i c h t o o k place in ijSuremberg,
Ju n e 22, 1650.
On that day,
1,476 boys w i t h their h o r s e s g a t h ­
er e d b e f o r e the home of Piccolomini, D u k e of Amalfi, a nd were
later given c o m memorative s i lver pieces, w h i c h w e r e r e c t a n g u l a r
and p i c t u r e d on one side & b oy on his h o b b y h o r s e a nd b o r e on the
other the inscription,
"Vi.vat Fe r d i n & n d u s III, Rom.
Imp. vivat."
16. )
2 « a r the r i d e r of the h o b b y h o r s e is a little girl w h o Is
b e a t i n g a d r u m a nd b l o w i n g a horn simultaneously.
On a c o p y o f
an e n g r a v i n g 0 b y Van d e r Verne (1589-1662), a p a rade led b y a
7
yo u n g d T u m m ® r and a f l u t i s t i s p ictured*
*>c.belhle has r e p rinted
a picture f r o m Cats*
" H o u w e l y k ” (1628), w h i c h a l s o h a s a b o y
d r u m m e r le a d i n g a parade.
D r o s t * s fig.
7 shows a n u m b e r of c h i l ­
d r e n ' s d r u m s on d i s p l a y f o r sale.
Rabelais has nA la corn ©'8 (see Table 1, Ho. 71), w h i c h
9.
8
F i s c h a r t re n d e r s b y “Dos. hornlins'1' and Gallitalo by "Van d e n
g
t o e t h o orn."
F i s c h a r t a l s o has "ssaxrn I c h m e i n Bbrnlein plas,"
w h l e k R a u s c h classifies as the title of a f o l k s o n g . ^
^Rausch, p. 40.
^Bdhme, p. 417.
3
Braes t L. RcehhoXz, Al e m a n n i s c h e s K i nder lied und. K i n d e r spiel ana d e r Sch w e i z (Leipzig, 1857), p. 466. (This b o o k will
h e n c e f o r t h be cited as "Rochholz.")
^Rausch, p. 4 5 1 on p. 55, u n d e r wRoss m a c h e n , " Rochholz*
e r r o r Is discussed.
5
Bofeme, £>» 418, a n d Rochholz, p. 466, site this incident.
Scheibls, D i e gate alte £ e i t (”S aa K l o ster," VI), p. 569, has a
r e p r o d u c t i o n o f b o t h aides o f t he coin.
£2
If©wall,
fig.
frontispiece.
7 Scheiblo, D i e gate alte Z e l t ("Das K l o a t e r , ” VI), p. 1108,
2 C| s ee p. 5 70 f o r remarks.
^Haasch,
1G *
R eusch,
p. xv.
^ G o c k &n Teirlinck, Vol.
1, p. 52.
p. 78.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
17. }
The third chi l d in the group w i t h the r i d e r of the h o b b y ­
ho r s e is s t i r r i n g about in some h u m a n ex c r e m e n t (judging b y the
p r o x i m i t y of the child's chamber stool to the left) w i t h a stick.
S h e is e i t h e r d o i n g this m e r e l y f r o m childish cur i o s i t y or she
i ntends to use the sti c k i n p l a y i n g some s u c h trick
(possibly on
the rider of the st i c k horse, w h o s e eyes seem to be covered) as
that n a m e d b y Rabelais,
”A la barb© d ' o r i b u s *1 (see T a b l e 1,
So. 30), and d i s c u s s e d b y R a u s c h u n d e r Tisciiart*s e q u i v a l e n t E,Des
b & r b e d o r i b u s . i!
bailie my
egh
R a b e l a i s ’ terms,
nA tcuchemerde" a nd ,lA Gui l l e m i n
l a n c e , " s e e m t o indicate a similar pastime.
2
(See
Table 1, Sos. 119 and 155.)
IS..)
F a r t h e r to the right i n the f o r e g r o u n d are two boys r o l l ­
i ng large hoops.
E a c h o n e Is guiding hia h o o p w i t h a s t i c k h e l d
i n his r i g h t h a n d w h i l e In his left hand he has a bun, w h i c h he
is eating.
It see m s l i k e l y that the b o y to the left h as removed
«5
h is h o o p f r o m the c a s k just behind him.
Gut souths
calls this
p a s t i m e "Tonnenband t r e i b e n ” (driving or r o l l i n g a b a r r e l hoop).
Drost
d i s c u s s e s the h o o p under " H o e p e l e n ” % she gives
K i l i a e n ’s terms
"hoep, hoepe, hoepel*’ a n d " r e e p e n . ’1
The hoops
u s e d in the Ne t h e r l a n d s before the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y were usu a l l y
o f w o o d (Iron ones w e r e k n o w n to the Greeks and Romans**}.
quotes v ondol
She
(1587-1S79), w h o mentions the ’’r i n c k e l e n d e n h o e p ,!:
Of dreef, g e v o l g h t van eenen arackren troep,
S e n r i n e k e l e n d e h hoep
D© s t r a t e n door; . . . . .
Tiila w as a h o o p t o w h i c h small m e t a l objects had b e e n f a s t e n e d so
t h a t a t i n k l i n g s o u n d w as produ c e d as the wheel turned.°
T he
~^Jbid. » p. 19.
^ I b i d . , pp. 24 a n d 30.
3
GutsMuths, p. 232; J. Lewalter und G e o r g Schliiger,
D e u t s c h e s K i n d e r l i e d und Ki n d e r a o i e l (Kassel, 1911), p. 235, No.
936, a l s o sta t e that a nP & 3 a r a i f ” is c o m m o n l y u s e d f o r h o o p r o l l ­
ing.
(This book will h e n c e f o r t h be cited as " L e w a l t e r - S c h l S g e r . ”}
^Drost, pp. 135-37.
SBhme, p. 420, So. 7.
Th© Gre e k t e r m f o r p l a y i n g w i t h
h o o p s w as nK r ike Iasi a ” f r o m ,fk r i k a s K ; rIt r o c b o s n (L. troehus) was
a l s o used.
s
he i n r i c h iiandelmann, Volks-und K i nder-aplel© a u 3 S c h l e s w l g fcolstein (Kiel, 1874), p. 101, u n d e r " T r d n d e i b a n d *5 says;
“Man hat
sle (die R eifen) auch m i t ’K l b t e r k r a m , ’ d. h. a n g e h e f t e t e n
Schellaa. ** (This b o o k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be eited as ’'Haridelmann. **}
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23
1 8 . )
h o o p t o the right i n Bruegel*s
hoep.H
picture see m s to be a ,frlna k e l e n d
C o c k and T e i r l i n c k exp l a i n that h o o p r o l l i n g contests were
oft e n h e l d , 1 that coins of a small val u e w e r e given a s p r izes
a nd that these prizes were f r e q u e n t l y f a s t e n e d on the i n side of
the h o o p w h e r e t h e y h e n c e f o r t h te s t i f i e d to the skill o f t h e i r
2
owner.
A c c o r d i n g to a law o f i^Srdlingen (1426),
pe r m i t t e d to play,
<rFssrl&ufen,
c h i l d r e n were
Kegeln, Radtrelben,
R u k oder
S chn e i d , Schneilkilgelcben, T o p f spiel K a nd "Bafen z u s c h l a g e n . ”^
On the other hand, D r o s t finds a B o r t r e e h t law (1456) f o r b i d d i n g
c hildren to r u n hoops o n the s t r e e t . ^
A nd a g a i n in 1485, the
same c i t y issues an ordinance against this pastime:
lopen b y d e r straten m i t hupan, r o e p e n d ©
“nyet en
•p o o r t s y larxtsy. ' 54
Drost
b e l i e v e s the last t wo words to be the b a t t l e cries of the contend5
i ng groups o f players.
A i n g e r l e ^ q u otes t e l l e r v o n E a l s ersberg,
l&aeis (3.516), on
l!R©iffcrsiben’1: ”Als die kint, d i e die r a i f treiben, d i e schl&gen
fiir u nd f $ r u f f d a n r e i f lait ein e m stackers.”
R a b e l a i s f "Au c a r c l e ” prob a b l y refers to a n o t h e r k i n d of
7
h o o p game in w h i c h a p e r s o n steps t h r o u g h a hoop,
b ut some of
his translators ob v i o u s l y t o o k it for the o r d i n a r y r o l l i n g o f
hoops
(see Table 1, iio. 106).
‘'Kleidungsb&chlain” (1550):
V e i t Sc h w a r z m e n t i o n s h o o p s in the
“S o was d i e s s m e i n F r e u d w e a n i c h
aus d e r B c h u l .kam oder h i n t e r d ie & c h u l ging.
klukern,
tsiit ¥5gal,
triblen,
Burnaussen, r a i f f t r e i b e n und d e r g l e i c h e n F r e u d e n m e e r .
i,S
•
•
•
•
19. }
T o the right of th© h o o p r o l l e r s is a child b l o w i n g u p a
"^Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. V, pp. 217 f . T h e c o n t e s t s d e ­
t e r m i n e d w h o could r o l l his hoop t he fastest, t he longest, or
alo n g the n a r rowest path.
Drost, p. 136, also gives "rojEaele" end “t r o c h u s , ” s i x ­
te e n t h c e n t u r y terms w h i c h a p p l i e d to a t i n k l i n g h o o p arid also to.
a h u m m i n g top.
s
Scheible, D i e state alte 5eit (”i)aa K l o s t s r , ’* VI), p. 561.
^Droafc, p. 135.
^ibid.
^Zingsrl®, p. 25..
7
xs-smangart a n d E. J o M n n e & u , R a b e l a i s . Vol. I, p. 418 and
p. 419, n. 8 7 1 B 8 hme, p. 420, Mo. 8 , calls this wR a l f springers. ”
8
Scheible, D i e crate alte Aelt
pp. 5 60 f .
(wD & s K l o s t e r , ” VI),
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24
19 . )
p i g ox* cow bladder.
This child is w e a r i n g slippers
(CJei*m&n "Pan-
t o f f e l n " ), w h i c h s e e m m u c h too long, and a peculiar cr own of
1
p a p e r a r o u n d h is c l o t h cap.
Habarlandt
draws o ur at t e n t i o n to
a s i m i l a r headdress on the "Zuckerbficker 11 on .Bruegel's "Battle
b e t w e e n Carni v a l a n d L e n t . ”
Drost
quotes a f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y D u t c h poem,
"Spieghel
d e r B o n d e n , " which, de s c r i b e s some c h i l d r e n b l o w i n g u p a bladder.
Z i n g e r l e ° quotes f>e5.1er v o n Kaisersberg:
ttfenn m a n e i n suw matsget, so n e m e n d y e b 8 sen fenaben die
b l a t t e r u n d hla s e n t sie u ff u n d thun drei oder f i e r erbsen
d a r y n und m a e h e n ein geritatpel, u n n d ist y n e n d y e b l a t t e r
l i eber d a n n s w o s e i t e n speck.
((?•. v. iLai3 ersberg, B r & a a m l i n , trans. J. Pauli, Vol. II,
p. 51.)
Cats4
(1625) gives a si m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p l e a s u r e taken
b y c h i l d r e n in b l o w i n g up an ox bladder.
20a.)
.
In the ext r e m e low e r r i g h t h a n d corne? a girl is s t a n d i n g
b e h i n d a h e a v y beam, w h i c h she is u s i n g as a counter.
S h e seems
to b e p l a y i n g " s t o r e , ” f o r she has a p a i r of scales and a p a p e r
s h a p e d like a scoop on th© counter to either side of her.
S h e Is
s c r a p i n g a b r i c k a nd p r o b a b l y s a v i n g th© loose particles f o r h e r
s t o c k In trade.
EC
G o c k a nd T e i r l i n c k d e s c r i b e this pa s t i m e un d e r "Sfinkel
h o u d e n " : a girls*
o p e n window.
game, u s u a l l y p l a y e d at a table or th r o u g h an
A b a l a n c e is m a d e o f s o m e h o l l o w e d out turnips,
two w o o d e n o r c l a y bowls, a straight s t i c k and some cord.
s t o n e s are used as weights.
store a r e :
Sma l l
Th© articles u s u a l l y sold i n this
p o w d e r sug a r (clay or c rushed plaster),
(lumps of lime),
or
loaf sugar
s u g a r ca n d y (pieces o f bricks), b l a c k lead
Lfor
st o v e bl a c k i n g ] (charcoal), saf f r o n (scrapings of bricks), wheat
f l o u r (floor sand or grit),
tidbits
(sorrel stems) and buns
(of
^"Arthur iiaberlandt, "Das F a s e h i n g s b i l d des P e t e r Bruegel
d. A," ZfV. (&.F.), Vol. ¥ (1935), p. 242:
’* . . . . d e r z u k u n f t s f r o h e W I c h t v o n Z u c k e r b S c k e r n e b e a i h r ist K & n i g m i t a e i n e m g o IdIg
he m a l t e n Papier -reif
^Drost, p. 74.
^Zingerle, p. 49.
J. Gats, h u w e i v c k :
'B
" K i n d e r s p e l , " cols. 4 a nd S.
C o c k en Teirlinck, Vol.
IV, pp.
40 ff.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
2 0 a .)
mud).
Tiio children p a y f o r their p u rchases w i t h c r o c k e r y shards,
w h i c h v a r y i a v alue a c c o r d i n g to t heir s i z e and th© d e s i g n s on
them.
l i n g e r i e 1 quotes a d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e f r o m Seiler vo n
Kaiseraberg:
D a d i e kint g e f e t t e r l i n mit einander, d a asachen si© saffron
u n d das ist geforbts t m r t z , das i s t siiaawurz, das 1 st ymber,
und 1 st als usz e i n e m zi e g e l geriben u n d i s t zieglmel, und
xnachen hdsslin, u n d kochen, u n d w e n n es n a c h t wilrt, so 1 st os
als nfit un d stossen es als u»u>»
(Hf. v. Kaiseraberg, Von den 15 S t a f f e l n . Brflsamlin. trans.
J« Faull [1517], Vol. XII.)
Fisch&rt lists "Kraxa aussle g e n , " an d a l s o ,lWi e v i e l dess
krauts us b ©in h e l l e r ? ” b o t h of w h i c h R a u s c h believes r e f e r to
O
g
the "V'erkaufe spiel" of children..*’ B 5 h m e 'has a r hyme w h i c h the
ch i l d r e n of S a l z b u r g re c i t e w h i l e p l a y i n g " K a u f m a n r u !S
2 0 b.
)
A b rick c o n s p i c u o u s l y p r o p p e d up a g a i n s t th e "counter" of
the ’'‘storekeeper" m a y r e p r e s e n t s o m e t h i n g in the store
door, .ox* something for
3 ale
in th© store)
(perhaps a
o r It m a y b e l o n g to some
other g a m e .
21
■i
Dea r the girl “storekeeper" five boys are play i n g th©
D u t c h gam e "bok-sta-vast"
(buck-st&nd-firstly ) . 4
One is seated on
the h e a v y bea m w i t h th© h e a d of a second boy, w h o is stooping,
r e s t i n g on his arms? a t h i r d boy, als o bend i n g over, has his arms
a bout th© waist of the second boy, thus f o r m i n g the Mb o k ” j a f o u r t h
bo y is s i t t i n g astride the b a c k of the f i r s t b o y w h o is s t o o p i n g
and the f i f t h b o y is p r e c a r i o u s l y s e a t e d on the h i n d m o s t boy.
§
Drost
believes that this is a f o r m of th© gam© in w h i c h the p l a y ­
ers ar© grou p e d in two sides,
other, the riders.
one side f o r m i n g the Mb o k , ” the
tlh© f irst one o f the riders
jiaaaxJS over th©
b acks o f the stooping boys, trying to seat h i m s e l f a s f a r to th©
f r o n t as possible, so as to leave r o o m f o r the others o n his side,
w h o in like manner jump and seat themselves.
1
lingerie, p® 4S.
2
Sons of th© riders
Rausch, p. 64.
^ B 8 hme, p. 118, 53o. 532j Rocfahols, p. 423, ho.
cusses this p&st i m © u n d e r "CSav&tberXen, Rappli-gfi.*'
4.
St
Drost, pp. 41-46.
Drost, p. 44.
39, d i s ­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21 „ }
Is p e r m i t t e d to touch, the g r o u n d b e f o r e the last on© Is s e ated
a n d calls,
M 8 ok, bok, s ta v a s t J "
At this p o i n t I n s o m e variations
of* the game, the h i n d m o s t rider holds u p a n u m b e r of* ringers and
calls out,
"hoeveel h o rens sta a n er o p ? !! (how m a n y horns a re up?)
If* the " b o k ” guesses corr*ectly, the game starts o v e r w i t h the
rid@r3 now forming the Mbok*j if not, the game is played over
a g a i n as before.
S he second ri d e r i n t he p i c t u r e see m s to be
h o l d i n g u p all of h i a fin g e r s and a s k i n g th© question.
•Teirlinck*' u n d e r "Baale-springen"
C o c k and
( l e a p i n g u p o n a don k e y ) describe
a f o r m of this gam© in w h i c h e a c h r i d e r m u s t clap thr e e times as
s o o n as h e is seated, and no g u e s s i n g is done.
In a n o t h e r typ©
2
there a r e no sides; e a c h p l a y e r I n t u r n jumps u p o n the b a c k of a
s t o o p i n g boy, h o l d s u p a n u mber o f f i n g e r s a n d asks the "esel" to
guess.
This quest i o n is put In various v/ays--Cock and T e i r l i n c k
give s e v e n variants.
On© f o r m of t h © q u e s t i o n is,
m e s , lapel, f o rket of kuip?"
p o s i t i o n of the fingers.
the h o l l o w side up.
“ihaser, scheer,
The s e words e a c h d e s c r i b e a c ertain
" L e p e l 11 in d i c a t e s a c u p p e d h a n d w i t h
i b e l i e v e this d e s c r i b e s
th© p o s i t i o n o f the
r i d e r ’s h a n d I n th© p i c t u r e b e tter t h a n t o s a y h e is h o l d i n g u p
f i v e fingers, for In that case he w o u l d be h o l d i n g h is fingers
a p a r t to r e p r e s e n t th© n u m b e r five.
4
5
Drost
states that Kili&en
gives ten names f o r this game;
" k o c k o c k h e e r k e n rijd*
i c k wel, b o c k o v e r h a g h e spelen,
bocken
spelen, b o c k e n sebten, b o c k - h o r e n spelen, b l i c k s p e l s pelen, peer*"Gock ©n Teirlinck,
Vol. I, pp.
2S4~5GS.
I b i d .. a n o t h e r f o r m of the gam© Is called "darnels darnel©. ”
h e r © t h© gue s s e r m u s t choos© one of s e v e r a l f o r m s of p u n i s h m e n t
If ha g u e s s e s wrong.
It is p o s s i b l e too, that t h i s b o y is u s i n g t h © ancient
s y s t e m of d i g i t a l n o t a t i o n giv e n in I l l u s t r a t i o n s b y Facl u o l o
(P>acIoli, Paceioli) In his treat i s e on m a t h e m a t i c s "Sums de
a r i t h m e t i c a l (1494).
A v o ntinus (1532) also treats this subject
a nd a f e w of his i l l u s t r a t i o n s ar© g i v e n I n T he E n c y c l o p e d i a
A m e r i c a n a (Hew f o r k and Chicago, 1938), Vol. XI, p. 221.
however,
n o n © of the p o s itions s h o w n resem b l e c l o s e l y that of th© b o y ’s
h a n d i n th© picture.
(I d i d not have access t o t h© compl e t e
t r e a t i s e of Facioli or Avehtinus.)
%>rost,
p. 41.
D r o s t u s e d a 1777 edi t i o n of K i l i a e n ’s litymologicum.
Th© 1 5 9 9 e d i t i o n a l s o has the a&es© n a m e s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n o f
’’M i e a r e d i g i t ! s . H
(Th© f i r s t e d i t i o n Is of 1574.)
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
2 1 .)
d e k e n w e l bereydt, k i e v e l k a v e l spelen, p i c k oil© oft .graef,1' and
”v i n g h e r ~ s p e l s p e l e n . ”
g a m e as f o l l o w s :
Under the first of these he d e s c r i b e s the
"Micar© d i g i t i s :
Ludus p u e r o r u m c o m p u e r o b —
s tpuc t i a oeulis d i u i n a t quot alter, ipaius tergo icsidens, dig l t o s
erectoa
hebsat."
'This d e s c r i b e s t he game " b o k - s t a - v a s t ” as p l ayed
i n the N etherlands d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h century, I-rost points out
that "Micars digit i s " is the L a t i n name of a related game known
t o d a y a m o n g t he Itali a n s as "Morra" and f o r m e r l y p l a y e d b y the
Eg yptians,
"reeks, a nd Romans.
In this
game two p arsons e x tend
a cer t a i n n u m b e r of fin g e r s a nd s i m u l t aneously guess the s u m of
t h e f i n g e r s held out.
This is p u r e l y a g u e s s i n g game, w hereas
**3ok-sta-vsst?! Is & c o m b i n a t i o n of j umping and guessing.
however,
a game si m i l a r to "Sok-sta-vast" was k n o w n to the Romans, f or
Pe t r o n i u s (c a . 50 A.I>. } puts the w o r d s "i3u.cca b u c c a quot s u n t
hie?"
(Buck, buck,. £? ] h ow m a n y
[fingers] are there?) I n t o the
m o u t h of a y o u n g slave, w h o In a p l a y f u l mood, u p o n b e i n g Invited,
jumps u p o n bis m a s t e r ’s back,
out this question.^
O
u t m l u s und e r
„
slaps h i m on the s h o u l d e r a nd calls
"Micar© d i g i t i s ” givess
”A1. D i e F i n g e r
h e r f & r werffen, u n d s c h n e l l e n 15 L”znorra" j as well as th© D u t c h
"Pe e r t g e n w o l b e r e y t , 5' !ip l c k olye oft© grsef" and nG o c k c o c k rij
w e l 11 [three names f or "3ok-s ta-vas t !i3 .
T h e "Gheval fondu*
of R a b e l a i s
(the same as B & h m e ’s 0 "Baa
lange R o s s ” ) (see Table 1, Ho. 152) is a simpler f o r m of t h e game
in w h i c h a n u m b e r o f s t o o p i n g boys f o r m a horse.
T h e i r comrades
leap u p o n their b a c k s a n d are then borne about b y this
"long
ho r s © . "
A c c o r d i n g t o K s m a n g a r t and H. Johanneeu, R a b e l a i s ’
4
5
"Picquarome"
and "A la pi card I a f! sometimes r e f e r to games in
w h i c h one or se v e r a l b o y s f o r m a h o r s e and bear a n o t h e r b o y about.
(Be© T a b l e 1,
M
o b
.
118 a n d
6 .
)
his ,lA
1©
mourre"
Ho. 36) is p r o b a b l y the game ”Micare digitis"
(see Tabl© 1,
["aaorra" 3 .
xP e t r o n i u s , T he S a t l r l c o n . ed. S. T. Sage (New .
‘fork, 1929),
sec. 64. 12.
C
Junius, H o a e a c l a t o r (1619), p. 254, m a k e s a d i s t i n c t i o n
b e t w e e n th© L a t i n “M I c a r e digitis** and the D u t c h "Peertgen w e l
bereyt."
SB 8 hme, p. 591, So. 438.
p. 50,
^Bsmangart and £. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s . Vol.
b I b i d . . p. 395, n.
I, p. 4 2 2 , n . 97.
9.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
28
21
'
'
Pischart nam e s this game s i x times:
1
twice as "Pferdlin
w o l bepeit," and once e a c h as "FIngerschnellen, " ’’P i c k Olyet
offte g r a e f ," "Cock cock e y wil , " and "Hhat d e r Finger."
He also
h a s “D e s s gego s s s n e n G a u l s ” and "Eoassachen," w h i c h are the same
as tii© nCh©val f o n & u
or Rabelais,
g
explained above.
RocbJaols
2
belie v e s that F i s c h s r t rs "Eselin beschlagea" a l s o r e fers to
"Pferdlin w ol bereit" because i n S w i t z e r l a n d the q u e s t i o n asked
i 3 : !,#±11 d e r Schcd.ed d as Eoss beschlagen:
w i e v i e l K&gel Etias er
h aben?"
(See table 1, £4o. 76.)
BShiae^ u n d e r "Fingers ahl errathen" gives s everal rhymes
and songs w h i c h a re u s e d in p l a y i n g various for m s ofthis game.
22.)
A n o t h e r g r o u p o f boys is u s i n g the h e a v y b e a m i n w h a t
Balding^* calls "hobaln."
S t r u t t i n discussing,
t he bear w i t h h a m m e r and block"
"Baste, or buffet
(similar to " h o b e l n " ) says, t h e y
"are r a t h e r appendages to other games than games b y themselves,
b e i n g punish m e n t s f o r failures,
t h a t ought to h a v e b e e n avoided."
I n "hobeln," as w e see in the picture, several boys seise a c o m ­
p a n i o n ’s f e e t a nd others grasp h i m b y the anas and then b u m p h i m
7
Balding
u p and d o w n on something, the large b e a m in this case.
gives the how G e rman terms "Bofkanten" and "foe k e n , #f and Handel0
^
mann
adds “Stfitteeraen" for S c h l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n and "if/egga spalta"
9
as u s e d b y th© Swiss.
R o c h h o l z ’ d e s cribes “P a s ileilklotzen" in
w h i c h one b o y is m a d e to kneel d o w n a nd bend over w h i l e several
o t hers b u m p him w i t h another boy.
E s m angart and E. J o h a n n e a u 1^
also m e n t i o n a s i m i l a r c u s t o m p r a c t i s e d i n some parts of Franc©
(Saintonge):
A p e rson is seized b y the h e a d and feet and r o u g h l y
s h aken as a p u n i s h m e n t for h a v i n g d r u n k (some wine) w i t h o u t h a v ­
i n g set out a plant i n th© vineyard.
This custom, t h e y believe.
Is a survival of a n old Bacchus cult and is called "A la b a c u l e *5
(swing or see-aaw).
^Ttauseh, pp.
p.
In some par t s of t h e
‘
U nited S t a t e s boys in-
45 f .
29 and 55.
8
I b i d . , pp.
®Hochholz, p. 434.
^S&hme, pp. 633 f »
5
iiaidlng, p. 63.
K&cfc u n d Sohnrey, Fes t e und S p l e l e .
370, d e s c r i b e "Bobeln" as it is d o n e In Eas t e r n Styrla.
6 Strutt,
p.
Q
Bandelmann,
387.
Balding,
p. 63.
Q
p . 43.
Rochholz, p. 457,
7
Bo.. 85.
^ E s m a n g a r t a n d E. J o h a n n e & u Rabelais, Vol.
I, p. 439.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29
2 2 .)
f l ict u p o n one of their comrades a p u n i s h m e n t s u c h as is shown on
the p i c t u r e and. cal l it “d i n g b umping.
23. )
To the r i g h t of the h e a v y beam- tw o boys are k n e e l i n g in
the
3
&n d (?) an d p l a y i n g ”M u m b l e t y - p e g . "
Sewell
d e s c r i b e s the
m o d e r n game as p l a y e d in Amer i c a as fallows;
A k n i f e is c ast to the earth, o n a piece of turf, w i t h
t h e point d o w n w a r d s , a n d m u s t r e m a i n s t i c k i n g there; t here
are several s u c c e s s i v e p o s i t i o n s of throwing, as. follows;
( 1 ) the knife is h e l d i n the palm, f i r s t of the r i g h t an d
a f t e r w a r d s of the left hand, p o i n t outward, a n d t h r o w n so as
to r e v o l v e towards th e player; (2 ) it is r e s t e d s u c c e s s i v e l y
on the r i g h t and l eft fist, w i t h the p o i n t upper m o s t , an d
th r o w n sideways; (3) the k n i f e is p r e s s e d w i t h t h e p oint r e s t ­
i n g o n e a c h f i n g e r a n d t humb of b o t h hands in succession, and
cast outwards; a f t e r t h a t it is h e l d b y the point, and flipped
(4) f r o m the breast, nose, and e a c h eye; (5) f r o m e a c h ear,
c r o s s i n g arms a n d taking h o l d of the o p p o s i t e e a r w i t h the
free hand; (a) over the h e a d backwards.
If the k n i f e d o e s n ’t “s t i c k , ” the n e x t p l a y e r t akes hia
turn;
the f i r s t to c o n clude the series wins.
The w i n n e r is a l ­
l o w e d to d r i v e a p e g into the g r o u n d w i t h t hroe b l o w s of the
k nife, w h i c h the o t h e r m u s t extract w i t h hia teeth, w h e n c e the
name,
’’Mumbletypeg. ”
A n o t h e r t itle is “S t i c k - k n i f o. !!
T h e p l a y e r in the p i c t u r e seems to b e h o l d i n g the knife
b l a d e b e t w e e n hia teeth, a p o s i t i o n w h i c h Ne w e l l has n o t m e n t i o n e d
i n the game as p l a y e d I n America.
he is a b o u t t o g rasp the handle
4
e n d t hrow or toss th© k n i f e into the ground*
h & i d i n g * calls this
*■
6
g a m e "Spltzelrr* a n d Spai&er states that s u c h k n i f e games are often
a c c o m p a n i e d b y the r e c i t a l o f certain rhymes.
It is p o s s i b l e
t hat the MR u e k o d e r S c k n e i d 1* of th© N S r d l i n g e r nS p i © l g e s e t z tJ
(1426) refers to this game.
(See ho. IS above.)
1
Dr. S t u a r t G a l l a c h e r of M i c h i g a n S t a t e College, East
Lansing, Michigan, has s een this f o r m of p u n i s h m e n t inf l i c t e d b y
b o y s u p o n a comrade a r o u n d S a l t L ake City, uteh, and says it Is
t here k n o w n as " d i n g b u m p l n g . "
Newell,
p. 189,
ho. 147.
A N e w E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r y , ed. S i r J ames A. a. M u r r a y
(10 vols. in 13, Oxford, 1893-1933), Vol. VI “2 , p. 782; -suitablet he-peg, also M u mblepeg, e r r o n e o u s l y m e m b l e d e p e g , m u m b l e t y - p e g ,
m u m b l e - t © - p e g ; f r o m mumble, to b ite or che w w i t h too t h l e s s gums,
or w i t h o u t siaking m u c h u s e of th© teeth.
4
Maiding, p. 63.
D e n t a c n e V o i k s k u n d e . Vol. I, p. 341.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
30
24. )
Behind the boy s tossing the k nife w e see some bricks
w h i c h have b e e n placed on top of e a c h o t h e r to encl o s e a c i r cular
space.
The b u i lders of this w a l l have a v a i l e d themselves of co n ­
s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l l ying n e a r the sand, bu t are themselves n o ­
w h e r e to be seen, and their w o r k has a l r e a d y been p a r t l y demolished.
Drost'*' says that in F l a nders children con s t r u c t s u c h w alls
in m a k i n g wells,
"siiaterputten rs&ken. "
Doc k and T e i r l i n c k under
"huizekes bouwen" d e s cribe houses built in san d a n d add that in
Brussels to - d a y the c h i ldren like to b u i l d houses w h e r e a street
is b e i n g p a v e d so they can us e the p a v i n g stones and. gravel heaps
l y i n g about.
T h e y call these houses,
‘‘k e t j e s 1' (huts).
iiandel-
m & n n ^ d i s c u s s e s a s i m i l a r d i v e r s i o n of the c h i l d r e n on the hortfe
F r i s i a n Islands:
t h e y m a r k off recta n g l e s in the sand and pla y
that these are barns in w h i c h t h e y h o u s e their horses, cows, and
3
(different kinds of shells).
BShaie
a lso d e s c r i b e s various
sheep
b u i l d i n g activ i t i e s of children ar o u n d a san d pile.
.Hugo von T r l m b e r g m e n t i o n s b u i l d i n g as one of the games
(for the c o m plete qu o t a t i o n see No.
pl a y s w i t h children:
15 above) w h i c h an old m a n
“Und hfilfe in m a c h e u hiusel'in.u (h. v.
Trimberg, D e r R e n n e r , ed. 0. Ehrismsrm,
I, p. Ill,
1. £69?.)
25a » j
J u s t be h i n d the ‘’t i n k l i n g h o o p n two boy s a r e s i t t i n g
astr i d e a l a r g e barrel,
one at eac h end, f a c i n g e a c h other.
are h o l d i n g fast w i t h their hands in th© b u n g h o l e
They
(which, seems
u n u s u a l l y large) and a p p a r e n t l y are r o c k i n g f r o m side to side,
4
e ach one p u s h i n g w h e n his foot reaches the ground.
25 b. )
Anot h e r ba r r e l s t a n d i n g on ©nd is n e a r by.
A little
s^irl, who. has her face n ear the b u n g hole,
is e i t h e r s m e lling the
5
inside of the ba r r e l or m a k i n g n o i s e s into it.
1
3
Drost,
p.
131.
aSiisio, p.
42?,
2
iiandelm&nn, p. 98, ho.
134.
Ho. 21.
R i c h a r d iiflrmerkopf, “F a s s e l p u t s o h e n , n Oberdautache k e i t s c h r i f t fflr y o l k s k u n d e , Vol. V (1931), pp. 21-27, dis c u s s e s
MF a s s e l r e i t e n , H w h i c h is a custom in m a n y parts of Germany.
It,
however, consists in sliding off of a large barrel, and is part
of a c e r e m o n y to promote fertility.
This'is an adult activity,
b u t It Is concei v a b l e that t hese b oys are I m i t a t i n g fox.iXs ox® St.
si m i l a r ceremony.
'"'Oallitalo (Cock ©n Teirlinck, Vol.
I, pp.
48-56, No. 89)
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2 6 . )
The three children to the left of the b a r r e l in the c e n ­
ter foreground are p l a y i n g a game w h i c h Drost'*' calls "kakkestoel©m e i e n ” and classes w i t h the imi t a t i n g games, w h i l e Cock and T e i r linck
2
p l a c e it w i t h the swfinging games and disc u s s it under the
general h e a d i n g "Jezuken in
’t K s p e l l e k e n ” ;
tw o large children
take eac h o t h e r ’s hands, the r i g h t h and of the one in the left
h a n d of the other, an d a s m a l l e r child sits on t h e i r clasped
hands.
The larger ones then giv e t heir f r e e h ands to the one b e ­
in g carried,
the "Jezuken" on his little chair or " k a k s t o e l t j o , “
and s wing h i m hack and forth.
Som e t i m e s t h e y w a l k about w i t h the
“e n g e l k e n 1* (little angel, as the small child is sometimes called)
and sing a short song.
Cock and T e i r l i n c k give a large number of
names for this g ame and m a n y of the a c c o m p a n y i n g rhymes.
In some
cases the hands are d r o p p e d w h e n certain w ords in the r h y m e are
reached,
or the c hild is b o u n c e d up and down.
3
R a u s c h b e l ieves that F i s c h a r t ’s *'Trag den Kma.ben" refers
to the game ,Jii&b£hiifele1* in w h i c h two c h i ldren c a r r y a third one
singing,
tt3&b&hdfele,
achiss Ins Pffinnele.” This r hyme as well as
m a n y of the D u t c h ones qu oted b y C o c k and T e i r l i n c k
seem to j u s ­
ti f y jtiaiding’s^ su p p o s i t i o n t hat t h e s e three c h i l d r e n are to be
associated w i t h the c h i l d ’s chamber stool In the f o r e g r o u n d of
the picture.
The children m a y have u s e d the s tool In their game,
or B r u e g e l m a y have p l a c e d them n e a r It b e c a u s e t h e words of the
ac c o m panying s o n g r efer to t e a ching a small c h i l d the u s e of a
chamber stool (the seat formed b y the c l a s p e d hands of the two
larger children).
In the games "Tttpf©verkaufen!! and "Srtickenspiel"
each
child in turn is carried b y two of his p l a ymates In a similar w a y
d u r i n g one phase of the game.
qu i r e d to p l a y these games.
however, m o r e than three are r e ­
has "van versch© ton" (the f r e s h barrel?), w h i c h could p o s s i b l y
r e f e r to our 25a or 25b.
however, C o c k and T e i r l i n c k d o not
h a z a r d a guess as to the nature o f this game.
■*"Drost, p. 118.
*Z
‘‘"Rausch, p. 56.
5
Balding, p. 63.
^Cock en Teirlinck, Vol.
A
Cock en Teirlinck, Vol.
IV, pp. 317-27.
IV, pp.
317-27.
6
Sa m u e l Singer, Aufsfitze un d Vorbr&gei D e u t s c h e K i n d e r aoiele (1912), p. 15.
’
'
‘
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
26. }
2
S&tme
g;ive3 & rhyme e n t i t l e d ."TSnnch©n-Trsgen” w h i c h is
s o m etimes s u n g w i t h this game.
and t h e rhyme
U3©d
2
Zilrich o r . gives
‘*Sfisseli t r a g e ”
i n Bern, Switzerland.
27. )
T o t he rig h t of* the w a l l s everal c h i l d r e n are p l a y i n g a
v a r i a t i o n of* "Blind© Kuh" ("blind cow," t h© B n g l i s h wB l i n d - m a n ’s
s
B u f f ” [ b u f f l o w , stroke J), a p o p u l a r a nd w i d e s p r e a d scam© kno w n
4r
S
to the Greeks as "myia c h a l k © ” (brass fly).
B&hme
describes
t h© G r e e k game as follows;
b lin d f o l d e d ;
The ©yes of on© in the group are
a ll of t he others f r olic about th© b l i n d f o l d e d on©
n o i s i l y w h i l e he chants,
Mc halken m y i a n b h e r & s o u
a brass fly); the others reply,
(ies, you a r e chasing,
"Thoraseis, all*
but n o t catching.)
(1
a m chasing
o u lepsei&i"
M e anwhile,
they poke
a nd p u l l at the blindfolded o ne a nd tease h i m u n t i l he catches
on© of them, w ho m u s t then take o v e r his role.
T h © German
"Blind© £ u h ” di f f e r s slightly f r o m tha G r e e k in that th© b l i n d ­
f o l d e d o ne is led i n t o a circle of p l a y e r s or is m e r e l y lad about
o.; someone w h o chants a set d i a l o g u e w i t h him.
Tills u s u a l l y b e ­
gins w i t h "Blind© Kuh, icb ffthre dich. ■'* *Nifo d e n n h i n ? K etc.
BS h m e prints s e v e n versions o f this d i a l o g u e u s e d i n various
pr o v i n c e s of G e r m a n y . 0
the ’’b l i n d
cob"
T o w a r d the end of this i n t r o d u c t o r y chant
is told to s e e k something,
usually a
3 ii>oon.^
w h o e v e r is gra s p e d Is the " s p o o n ” a n d m u s t t h e n b© ”i t ” f o r the
n e x t time.
This
gam© has evidently b e e n w e l l k n o w n i n G e r m a n y f o r
centuries, f or e v e n Gtfrid of w e i s s e n b u r g seems to h a v e it in
Bern
^B&hxne, p. 624, Ho. 602.
2
Gertrude Z-Sricher, kinder lied und K i n d e r s p i e l irn K a nton
(Zurich, 1902), p. 36, h o . 228.
* Hew E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . Vol. I, p. 1166.
buff; obsolete
e x c e p t in B l i n d Man's B u f f (perh. a. OF. b u f e , & blow; of. buffet).
4.Tunius, S o m e n c l s t o p (1619), p. 266, u n d e r " M y i n d a ” ; P o l —
l u x (c a . 180 A . D . ) Q a a m s a t i c o n . ed. S. B e t h © (1931), o. 181, IX,
123.
^B$bm©» pp. 627 f., So. 511.
°Ibld.
7
Gock en Teirlinck, Vol. 1 , p. 116, print sev e r a l forms
of this i n t r o d u c t o r y d i a l o g u e u s e d in th© D u t c h v e r s i o n of th©
game c a lled "Blindenj&nrietje“ ; these s p e a k of l o o k i n g f or needles,
p i n s and biaman flesh.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2 7 . }
m i n d 'flhea in bis
"Evangel!enbuch"
(c a . S7O A.D.), he r e fers to
tho s e who s c o r n the Lord t h u s :
fhiu o u g u n s i e imo buntun,
tfeaz in zi spi'le funt u n . ^
Zingerle
s
gives other e a r l y r eferences to b l i n d f o l d i n g
games f r o m A l t s w e r t (c a . 1458}
(1455-1510).
(1544),
a nd f r o m O e i l e r v o n S& i s e r s b e r g
i. Camerarius i n h is "‘Gesprfich ftber Leibesfibongon”
calls the same game "Gaecua m u s c u l u s " (little blind,
mouse).
Junius
(1511-1575),
in his no m e n c l a t o r u n d e r the name
"SSyinda1* (the G r e e k term f o r several b l i n d f o l d i n g games, p r o b a b l y
(according to F o u r n i e r ] connected w i t h the G r e e k verb eauorto
clo s e ) gives t h e s i x teenth c e n t u r y F l e m i s h names; "T* blindeke,
*
5
7
suyckerao emken* a nd "haegercour. ” D r o s t
dis­
t ’ blindeaspel,
cusses the o r i g i n of "auyckernoesken" and Mh a e g e r c o u r . " S h e a sg
soclates the f o r m e r w i t h S i n g e r ’s
t h e o r y that m a n y b l i n d - f o l d i n g
games are a s u r v i v a l of an old d e m o n cult.
b l i n d f o l d e d one m a y ,
S h e belie v e s that the
in p r i mitive times, have re p r e s e n t e d s o m e ­
thi n g o r s omeone to be b u r n e d as a sacrifice. (This m a y account
9
f o r t he w a r n i n g "Es breant,"' w h i c h the children call out when
the blindf o l d e d o n e is in d a n g e r of b u m p i n g into something.)
~*|{*)
Drost
a l s o p o i n t s out that in the G r e e k “Myin&a," the p e r s o n
^Gtfrid v o n &e i s 3 e n b u r g , Svamte 11e n b a s h « ed. J o h a n n Kelle
(Regensburg, 1S56), p. 279, IV, 19. 75.
■*>
Zingerle, p. 44.
g,
.........
4>Zwei spilfcen b l i n d e r ml u s e n "
B a l g l c a e . Vol. VI, p. 190, Sio. 43).
(is. v. P&lleraleben,
horae
^OutsMuths, p. 327.
&
Edouard Fournier, h i s t o i r e dea Jouets at des J e u x ct* E n ­
f a n t 3 (Paris, 1889), p. 133; the G r e e k word m e a n i n g to close o n e ’s
ey e s Is “m yeiv," (E n g l i a h - O r e e k D j c t l o n a r y . 3. 0. sioodhouse
(London, 1910].)
5
7
^unlus, Ivoiaencl&tor (1619), p. 265.
Drost, pp. 7 f.
^ S a m u e l Singer, ".Deutsche Kindersplele, et JS.d.V.f. V. .
Vol. X I I I (1903), pp. 49-64 and 167-79.
Q
GutsMuths, p. 327.
10Drost, pp. 7 a nd 9.
J u n i u s ’ e x p l a nation of "Myinda" is;
”Ubi obstructis p i l e o t&eniava luminibus, f u g ientes tantisper ©xqulrit, pulsatua interim, h u m d e p r e h e n d e r i t eliquem. ” This, a c ­
cor d i n g t o D r o s t (p. 9), is th© c o urse of the G r e e k game “Cimlke
m y i a ” ; " M y i n d a ” inclu d e s g u e s s i n g the n a m e of the p e rson caught.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
2 7 . )
caught b y tii© b lindfolded one must be Identified and adds that
b o t h forms o f the tr&aae (with and wi t h o u t g u e s s i n g the n a m e of the
one caught; were kno w n i n the hetherlands d u ring the si x t e e n t h
century.
Rabelais has i n h is list of games five terms w h i c h are
e i t h e r a f o r m of " B l i n d - m a n 1s B u f f ” o r some game similar to its
"A la m o u s q u o , " "A la m o u sche,"
and "A Colin raaillard."
and 168. )
“Au chapifou," "A colin bride,"
(See Table 1, i'ios.
88
, 169, 165, 165,
i-’ischart has the terras "der b l i n d e n Ku." a n d "Plinden
iilua8 , ” which n o doubt refer to "Blind© Kuh.
of his w h i c h m a y refer to t he asm© game are;
Kfiusslin," "Kline m u s e t t o c k e n ,n and
So. 170.)
Other expressions
"lias X e i s s l l n
"M o u s c h a r t . "
(Bee Table 1,
In Frischlin's ^Qiaenclator (1586) this game Is called
«T.1
...— -
,
IJ-
"Blintermausen.*
Cock a nd T e i rlinck give an extensive list of D u t c h term 3
f o r "Blind© Kuh" under "Blindsaiannet j e , "
Somme gives the n t a » p -
o u 3 E n g l i s h t e r m s , - and F o u r n i e r writes an i n t e r e s t i n g account of
" G o l i n - M a i l l & r d , u the F r e n c h equivalent of "Blind© Kuh."
I n a swee p i n g and all-in c l u s i v e statement,
Singer,
shows h o w wides p r e a d
"Slinde Kuh" is and b y w h a t v a r i e d names it i s . k n o w n . 0
S i n g e r maintains
that this g a m e Is a survival cf an e a r l y
d e m o n cult (as m e n t i o n e d above) and that a m a s k e d m a n r e p r e s e n t e d
t he a n i m a l-like demon.
he says,
"It seems that the m a s k was not
p r o v i d e d w i t h openings for the eyes, e i ther m e r e l y to make the
c a t c h i n g more difficult,
or to avoid the *©vil e y e T of th© demon,
7
even, i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " Later, other m ethods of b l i n d f o l d i n g
■^Rausch, pp. 47 and 50.
S ee R a u s c h also f o r a d i s c u s s i o n
of F ischart's "Chapifon S a r r e a e kopff," p. 31; "M i r e m u s 1 ©," p. 34;
a nd "Kline jausettaken," p. 25.
The last nam e d is doubtless a
r e n d i t i o n of R a b e l a i s ’ "Cligne musso t t e , " which. Ssm a h g a r t a nd
E. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s (Vol. I, p. 425) Ident i f y as the Greek
" Apodidrascinda7* (hid© and seek).
2 J.
cbap.
Bolte, Z . d . V . f . V . , Vol. X I X
Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. I, pp. 118-23.
/I
Gosuse, Vol. I, p. 38.
B
E. Fournier, Hl 3 toir© d ea Jouets et des d e u x d i n f a n t s ,
vii.
° S . Singer,
p.
1
(1909), p. 388.
Aufsfitze und Vortr&ge;
Deutsche Kindersnlale.
.
7
Ibid .
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
27- )
p r o b a b l y became common, T o r as Bett says:
hood,
"-ishen everyone w o r e a
th© s i m p l e s t w a y o f b l i n d f o l d i n g a p e r s o n was t o r e v e r s e
bi s hoo d so as to c over hia face. “
England,
a m o n g o ther names,
For
this reason the game :!n
is a l s o c a l l e d ffhoodz>an. b l i n d - I n
e a r l y French, too, it was k n o w n as
" d h a p i f o u , ,f f o o l w i t h the cap.
In B r u e g e l *a p i c t u r e th© c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g "‘fillride liuh1’
d i d not us e a h o o d or cap t o b lindfold, but a cloth of s ome sort,
p e r h a p s an apron.
1 a g r e e w i t h D r o s t tha t we h a v e h ere a f o r m of
the game in w h i c h not o n l y one p e r s o n is b l i n d f o l d e d but t w o ’"'
{.both girls).
S i n g e r m e n t i o n s a v a r i a t i o n in which,
"not o n l y
the on© d o i n g the catching, but also the one to be caught, is
WA
5
s
7
blindfolded. *'
S5hcae, Ou t souths
an d Ziirlcher e ach d e s c r i b e
s u c h a v a r i a t i o n of the g a m e c a l l e d “Jakob, s o b l s t d u ? n
In the
p i c t u r e t w o r o g u i s h boys are t r y i n g to hin d e r the escape of on©
of t h e b l i n d f o l d e d girls and the o t h e r one I 3 g r o p i n g about w i t h
h a n d s outstretched.
f a c e covered a l s o
6
A s m a l l e r child in the f ront either h a s its
and la u n c o n s c i o u s l y s t e p p i n g Into th© p a t h of
t h e ona w h o is “i t 12 or it m e r e l y has its cap r a t h e r far d o w n on
its fac e and Is trying to prevent the ”b l l n d e Kuh" f r o m c a t c h i n g
the f l e e i n g one.
? « o other boys are p e e r i n g ar o u n d the corner
and are p r o b a b l y t e a s i n g t h e b l i n d folded ones w i t h m o c k i n g r e ­
marks .
23 • )
To the right of the “B l i n d © Kah" g r o u p are a b o y and a
^■iienry Befet, The G ames of Children.
h i s t o r y , p. 4.
^Outs&uths, p. 327.
^Drost,
T heir
Origin a n d
p. 3.
^Tn his “D e u t s c h e K.inderspieleM in Z.d. V . f .V . . Vol. X XII
(1903), p. SO, S i n g e r says:
wU«d eine ganas m o d e r n © Abart ist es,
w e n n a u s s e r dern f & n g e n d e n a u c h d a s z u f a n g e n d e K i n d geblendet
wird'*; but in his 1312 r e v i s i o n of the a r t i c l e i n AufsM-tze u n d
V o p t r f e e .“ p. 2, he d o u b t s w h e t h e r this e l e m e n t is to b© r e g arded
as a later d e v e l o p m e n t and cites a s i m i l a r v e r y e a r l y e x a m p l e i n
w h i c h the p u r s u e r and p u r s u e d art c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n a Ilk© mann e r ,
i n t h i 3 case, b y b e a r i n g a "51 robb&sciie 1 “ (bundle of straw).
° B 6 hiKO, p. 519.
0 <?u.tsEguths, p. 330.
rj
Zfirlcirier, K l n d e r l i a d und K i n d e r s p i e l i m K a n t o p
*3o« 990®
Q
8
erng
OutsMuths, p. 331, m e n t i o n s & game in w h i c h several
b l i n d f o l d e d c h i ldren are so u g h t b y the one w h o Is wIfe.“ E a c h has
a s m a l l bell, however, and all r e m a i n within a closed circle.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
2 8 . j
girl d e e p l y eng r o s s e d in a guess i n g game, the B u t c h "Even of
X
"
" 2
3
or "Faer of o n p a a r f " the German "Gerad oder U n g e r a d , i!
oneven"
tiie E n g l i s h a nd A m e r i c a n ” Gdd or ISven.u^
Teirlinck
Acc o r d i n g to Cock and
the game is played as followss
t wo children (either
boys or girls) play; one of them holds one or s number o f marbles,
nuts, acorns, buttons, beans, pennies or other 3mall objects in
his closed hand, w h i c h h e h o l d s out;
the other guesses w h e t h e r the
number o f objects is even or odd; if he guesses correctly, he
gets a l l of t he objects;
child.
if not, he must give one to the other
In a n o t h e r f o r m of the game,
"ioovsel &f, E o o v e e l b i j , u
the n u m b e r of marbles must be guessed.
Xf the correct n u m b e r is
given, the g u e s s e r gets all of the m arbles in the other person*s
hand;
if not, he m u s t give h i m the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the n u m b e r
7
gue s s e d a nd the a c t u a l n u mber held.
T h e c h i l d r e n in the picture could b© pla y i n g e i t h e r of
the s e games, f or the b o y is a p p a r e n t l y ex t e n d i n g his left h a n d
t i g h t l y closed a nd the girl seems to be i n t e n t on guessing.
has a b a g full of m arbles
(or o t h e r counters).
S he
The b o y is w e a r ­
ing o ne o f the p e c u l i a r p a p e r h e a dbands like that of the b oy
b l o w i n g u p the b ladder
(No. 19, above).
T h e Greeks and R o mans k n e w this game, f o r it is m e n t i o n e d
b y Aristotle, Aristophanes,
Plato,
c a lle d
w om ans,
x t
5,«.Saj£ws,
^■Jlrosfe, pp.
uns
j
Jp•
and Ovid.a
The Greeks
x m p u r.
IVJ pp. 77 ff.
tvO® 650*
Ooim&e, Vol. 1 ± 9 p* 14| JHewell, p* 147, ivo* 91*
5Cock en Teirlinck, Vol.
6
ra tr
108 f.
2 Cock en Teirlinck, Vol.
4
horace,
l b i d . . Vol.
XV, pp. 77 ff.
IV, pp. 7 9 f.
^This f o r m of the gam© is called ”hul Gul" in the united
S t a t e s (Sewell, p. 147, ilo. 92).
A related game Is that given b y
id&ndelmann (p. 35, n * ) in w h i c h on© must guess under w h i c h f i n ­
ger a n ut is hidden.
Me a l s o gives a n u m b e r of rhymes used in
p l a y i n g various f o r m s of this game (pp. 35 f.).
£
S s m a n g & r t and B. Joh&nneau, R a b e l a i s . Vol. I, p. 409,
n. 57.
a
GutsMuths, p. 381.
10
Es m a n g & r t and E. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s . Vol.
1, p. 409,
n. 57.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
' 37
28 . j
This game was also k n o w n to th© M i d d l e h i g h German poets.
Hugo v on T r i m b e r g (1347) m e n t i o n s it a l o n g w i t h s everal o t h e r
games
(for complete quotation see ho.
15, above) w h i c h an old m a n
is pl a y i n g w i t h childrens
”Und spilte gerade u n d u n g e r a d e . ”
(B. v. Trimberg, P e r R e n n e r , ©d. 0. Siirismann, p. Ill, 1. 2695.)
Odd o r Even** was played so m u c h (probably as a gambling
game) in the fourt e e n t h c e n t u r y tiiafc it was d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y to
pass laws a gainst it.
The c i t y of L e i d e n in 1397 forbade various
d i c e and card games as well as f,e f f e n ends oneffen" and “cruus
ende aiunt te w e r p e n 1' (to toss
"cross or coin"
(the side w i t h a n
in s c r iption on it], our "heads or tails'*) in th© c i t y and w i t h i n
half a mil© of th© city."1'
"odd or E v e n ” la closel y - r e l a t e d to the D u t c h game "Kruis
2
of ffiunt"
(m e n t i o n e d in the 1397 law), t he German "Bchrift oder
3
4
happen,
tli© H o m a n ‘‘Caput aut n a v i s , 11 and tiae isn^lisJb. "heads
a nd Tails."
This is u s u a l l y p l a y e d by t o s s i n g a coin into t he
air and guess i n g w h i c h side w i l l be u p % however,
on th© back or in the p a l m of the hand, also.
it can be p l ayed
But, as Dro s t
points out, this game is played m o r e b y a d u l t s . 0
it is not a typi
e ai children's game, as all of the oth e r games on Bruegel's p i c ­
ture are.
Rabel a i s names b o t h of these g a m e s :
,fA cro i x ou p i l e . ”
(See Table 1, Mas.
"A pair ou non" and
60 and 61.)
Fischart, a c c o r d i n g to R&uach, has five d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s ­
sions w h i c h ref e r to this earn© or t o one that is c losely related
7
to it.
fee translates Rabelais' terms into “Grad Oder u n g r a d ”
and "Kreutz o d e r p l l t t l i n . ”
In a d d i t i o n he has "hausen oder h o p —
p e n , " nhoi oder v e i l ” a n d "iiacht oder t a g , ” w h i c h h © p r e s u m a b l y
8
bases on terms found in Junius under " O s t r a c i n d a . T h e
simi­
l a rity of these five games m e n t i o n e d b y Fisch a r t is evident in
t h e ex p l a n a t i o n C o c k and T e i r l i n c k gives
Men werpt ©enige ssuntstukken osahoog e n laat raden ’kop
of l e t t e r ’ ; m e e s t a l echter h o a d t m e n ze i n d© hend en la&t
ra d o n !p a a r of onpaar. * Sams w e r p t m e n d © mats oaihoog © n
■^iioffiaarm v. Fallsrsleben,
rt
Bora© Belpgicae. ¥ol.
<1
Drost, p.
108.
0G»tm©* Vol.
w
Rausch, pp.
B&lus©, p. 655, Mo,
VI, p. 173
yj
550.
Ibid.
I, p. 200.
Boosts* p. 108.
g
46 f.
Junius, Womens la t or (1619), p. 255.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38
2 8 . }
me n raadt; 'hoi (opening; n e a r boven)
of bol.'"^
T hi s quotation does not r e f e r to c o m p l e t e games but r a t h e r to d e ­
vices u s e d in starting; a game i n w h i c h it is n e c e s s a r y to d e c i d e
w h i c h ''side” w i l l b egin a c e r t a i n p a r t o f the r o u t i n e o f th©
game
.
Prisclilin, a c o n t e m p o r a r y of Fischart,
B v e n ” as f o l l o w s i
"Ludus Nucum:
explains “ Odd or
gerad o der u n g e r a d m i t Nilsson. "2
Mo d e r n forms of th© game are d i s c u s s e d by GutsMuths
(p. 381), R o c hholz
(p. 424). an d L e w a l t e r - S c h l & g e r
(p. 248,
No. 975).
23. )
To the right of the two who are p l a y i n g "Odd or Sven,"
s i x b o y s are h a v i n g & kin d of “t u g of w a r ” to w h i c h k a i d i n g re 3
fe r s as “R e i t e r k a m p f ."
D r o s t calls i t "touwtrekken" (ropepulling.
T h e r e are three boys on e a c h sides
two of these f o r m a
horse, w i t h one s t a n d i n g a n d the second b e n d i n g o v e r and g r a s p i n g
the f irst o n e ’s b e l t or waist;
of the second,
the third is sea t e d on the b a c k
like a h o r s e b a c k rider.
Th e two groups p u l l in
opposite d i r e c t i o n s w h i l e the riders t r y to u n h o r s e e a c h o ther
b y m e a n s of a r o p ©
hold.
(or strap) tied in a loop w h i c h t h e y b o t h
Th© object of the game, as s h o w n i n t h © picture, m a y a lso
be to pull the opposing group across a line d e t e r m i n e d b y the t w o
stones l y i n g b e t w e e n the two parties.
“D a s Sselreiten" o f Ver-
n a l e k e n and D r a n k y diff e r s o n l y s l i g h t l y f r o m this
“t o u w t r e k k e n ”
i n a s m u c h as the two “iSsel" r u n about w i t h their riders, w h o try
to u n h o r s e one anot h e r b y vari o u s means.
i n this process.**
CJallitalo’s (1682)
The "Ksel" m a y assist
"Van over de s tean te t r e k k e n ”^ m a y
^Gock e n Teirlinck, Vol.
Ill, p.
109.
2J. Solte, Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X I X (1909), p. 388.
S
A
balding, p. 84.
TJrost, p. 146.
3
Th. V e r n a l e k e n un d F r a . 3ranky, S p i & l e u n d R eims d e r
K i n d e r i n Oesterreich (Vienna, 1S76), p. 42, No, 8.
S Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. 1, p.
52, No. 81.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
39
2 9 .)
x
r arer to t his or a simi l a r game.
G a l o m ’s (1626)
g
Cock and T e i r l i n c k
identify
“T r e c k e n t e g e n e e n ,! w i t h the last phase of
"B r u g g e s p e l 11 (London Bridge),
in w h i c h two groups of children w i t h
arms l i n k e d about e a c h o t h e r ’s waists h a v e a "tug of w a r . ”
Cu t s M u t h s
d e s c r i b e s several games s i m i l a r to "tousrtrekksn"
under ”2 i e h - o d e r Zer r s p i e l e . "
One is the Creek “Cielkystinda, ” a
g y m n a s t i c e x e r c i s e in w h i c h two rows, of child r e n fac e e a c h o t h e r
and e ach c h i l d tries to p u l l the one s t a n d i n g opposite him, o v e r
to h i s side.
30. )
T o the r ight of the ”S e i t e r k a m p f g r o u p s i x boys are p lay4
i n g wha t c orresponds to the m o d e r n German “iiamc.slsprung,11 similar
Cj
~
to th© m o r e co m m o n ”B o c k s p r u n g , ” i n the Un i t e d States, “l e a p f r o g . ”
In the l a t t e r a n u m b e r of b oys stand in a straight line behind
one a n o t h e r w i t h t h e i r h a n d s on t h e i r k nees and t h e i r heads b e n t
d o w n w h i l e o t h e r boys lea p over t h e m in turn, p l a c i n g their h ands
on the b a c k s of the s t o o p i n g ones as t h e y d o so.
As soon as a
b o y ha s le a p e d over e v e r y o n e in t h e line, he a l s o bends ove r and
thus c o n tinues th© line.
fthen the s t o o p i n g boys s tand b e h i n d one
a n o t h e r w i t h t h e i r heads straight forward, th e gam© is called
“B o c k s p r u n g . 11
-rfhen th e ones b e n d i n g over stand in lin e sideways,
as In the picture, it Is called “hsmaielsprung.**
In this f o r m of
the game the others w h o a r e leaping, m ust sp r e a d their logs f a r t h e r
a part as t h e y l e a p — a m o r e d i f f i c u l t feat.
\ >post (pp. 146 f .) b e l i e v e s t hat s e v e r a l early references
t o “p l a y i n g s t i c k ” r e f e r t o a gam© p i c t u r e d by d *Allem&gna (Sports
at jeux A * a d d r e s s © , p. 343), In w h i c h two c h i l d r e n s i t t i n g on e i ­
t her aid © o f a s tone w i t h t h e i r feet p r o p p e d a g a i n s t It, are h o l d ­
i n g a s t i c k h o r i z o n t a l l y b e t w e e n the m and tr y i n g to pul l each
o t h e r over the 3tone.
She a s s o c i a t e s this game w i t h th© expression
”s©lc tract d e n s t o c k , ” w h i c h occ u r s in **S©n beg h i n s e l v a n a l ien
s p e l e n ” ( f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y h u t c h poem).
Mans S achs (1536) has
,4d s s stocks s p i e l e n ” and C h r i s t o p h vo n D o h n a (ca. 1618) mentions
wdas s t o c k spielon" (Bolt©, Z . d . V . f .V . » Vol. X I X 11909], pp. 388
and 390).
Rabel a i s has ”Au court "baston” and F i s chart HD e s kurtzen steckens.”
(Rausch, p. 25.)
(See T a b l e 1, No. 128.)
It
seems d o u b t f u l to m e w h e t h e r th.es© terms al l refer to this gam©
f o r t here ar e jseny games in w h i c h a short s t i c k is used but in
wh3„ck n o p u l l i n g or t u g g i n g is dune.
2G o c k e n Teirlinck,
Vol.
^OutsMuths, pp. 521-26.
I, p.
46, Mo. 18.
^BShme, p. 531, Mo. 437.
5 I b i d . . p. 590, Mo. 435.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
40
30. )
,
D r o s t i n h ap d i s c u s s i o n of "Maas j e - o v e r , "
the D u t c h
equivalent or "Bocks prong, *' says that the s i x t e e n t h ce n t u r y D u t c h
name o r the gaxne is not known, hut that the game is shown not
only i n 3 r u e g e l ’s p a i n t i n g but also in Borc h t ' s "Spelsnde A p e n ”
g
3
(ca. 1580).
Cal o m (1626) calls it "over r u c h s p r i n g e n . "
Ammon
(1657) has
"Boekstehen.
CJallitalo (1682) has "van steentje
veerder," w h i c h Cock and 'Teirlinck e x p l a i n as a f o r m of ”D I j k s k e sprinigen" (ditch jumping),5 a variant or " M a a s j e - o v e r ."
Xn "van
steentje v e e r d e r , ” only one p e rson stoops over; a stone placed
b e hind h i m marks the spot f r o m w h i c h the ones lea p i n g m u s t
off"; art e r all have jumped over him, he mov e s forward
the stone)
"take
(away r r o m
so that the leap bec o m e s more d i f f i c u l t e a c h time.
If
anyone fails, he m u s t then be the one to bend over.
H e u s c b believes that R a b e l a i s ’ "Au p a s s a v a n t " 0 refers to
y
a f o r m o f "Bockspringerles," as well as "A croque teste,"
which
is a call to the boys who are b e n d i n g over, r e m i n d i n g t h e m to
keep their h e a d s down.
(See Table 1, Nos.
203 and 210.)
Q
I t h i n k it is l i k e l y that G & l l i t a l o ’s "Van soute-moute"
also refers to this game for the m o d e r n F r e n c h name f o r it is
*.
^
Q
"Saute-snoutonK or " jouer a coupe-tete. '*
Rochholz di s c u s s e s this
game und e r "Gallium, G e s ellschaftssprung, Sackstefaen."
gives "Leap-frog,"
F l y . " 11
2. 3
Ga m m e
" A e c r o s h a y , " . "Loup the Bullocks," a nd "Spanish
31. )
To t he right of the f e n c e some twelve c h i l d r e n are p l a y ­
i ng a game I n w h i c h p r o b a b l y t en (only nine are visible) are
seated on the ground in two rows f a c i n g one another; the other
■^Dpost, p. 39.
^ X b i d . . fig. 3.
^ X b i d . B p. 40.
^BShme, p. 590, Ko. 436.
BiShme also states that since
siapoleon enjoyed watch i n g his soldiers p l a y this game a nd is r e ­
ported to h a v e taken part In it himself, it is also called
"li&poleonsprung. "
6 Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. 1, pp. 287 ff.
6
7
Rausch, p. 41.
I b i d . , p. 42.
®Cock e n Teirlinck, Vol. I, p. 55, Mo. 148.
9
in
Ibid., p. 285.
R o c h h o l s , p. 454, So. 77.
11Goxnma, Vol.
I, pp.
327 f.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
31. )
t w o are t r y i n g to w a l k or leap f r o m one end of the space left b e ­
tween t he rows, to the other, while the s e ated ones are k i c k i n g
at t h e m a nd t r y i n g to trip them.
D r o s t can find n o r e f e r e n c e to this game in ea r l y Dutch,
wor k s a n d m e r e l y w onders w h e t h e r t h e point of the g a m e is to leap
so h i g h that a f a l l d u e to the o u t s t r e t c h e d legs w i l l be a v o i d e d . 3"
M a i d i n g calls it "eine b e r e i t s s e l t a n e S o n d e r a r t d es
laufensi"
In "Gassenlaufen"
’Ctassen-
(“r u n n i n g the g a n t l e t ” ) the players
st a n d i n t wo rows and slap som e o n e t r y i n g to pass t h r o u g h b e t w e e n
the rows.*3
iiandelmann d e s c r i b e s
"Spitzruthenlaufen" i n w h i c h the
h i t t i n g is d o n e w i t h t h e hands or w i t h a " F l u i s p a a c i c . I n S w i t ­
z e r l a n d this is called "dureh die &5tttsche g e h e n ” or " d urch d e n
Knflttellswald.
It is u s e d in p u n i s h i n g the losers i n t w o games
d e s c r i b e d b y Kochholzs
Ab t v o n St.
l oopen,"
"Das T o d t e n h e e r In d e r ted ■-sche" and
nD e r
fallen."
C o c k and T e i r l i n c k a l s o m e n t i o n "door d © s u i t s r o e d e n
0
'
as the l a s t pha s e of "Bruggespel" (liondon Bridge), In
s ome places.
After the c h i l d r e n have been placed i n two groups,
b e h i n d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e leaders,
above) is held.
"a t ug o f .war"
(see Mo. 2S,
T he side that l o s e s m u s t "run the gantlet."
Or,
the s i d e that has t he least children In it, m u s t u n d e r g o this p\xnisriment w i t h o u t the "t u g of w a r "
J
"wie bier, n a d e keas, min s t
In get a l is (engelea of d u i v e l a ) m o s t d o o r d e
*spitsroie. '"
It is possible that B r u e g e l ’s group I l l u s t r a t e s this last
phase of "Bruggespel," w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o G o c k a nd T e i r l i n c k ’s
7
d i s c u s s i o n of it w a s and Is v e r y widespread.
So mention, however,
Is made of the children s i t t i n g d o w n to inflict the p u n i s h m e n t of
t he " s p i t s r o e d o . "
It a l s o seems u n u s u a l that only t w o are r u n n i n g
b e t w e e n t h e rows of children, a l t h o u g h it Is p o s s i b l e that only
t wo have c h o s e n the a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h puts t h e m on one side say
themselves.
^Drost,
3
pp. 45 f .
^Maiding,
p. 64.
iiandelHiann, pp. 43 f.
^Eochholz, pp. 4 3 8 f f •, Kos. 60 and 62.
5lbid.
° G o c k en Teirlinck, Vol.
I, pp. 2 36 and *243.
^ G o c k en Teirlinck, pp. 234-46.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
3*iS. • ]
On the grass p l o t .enclosed b y the fence thr e e boys are
p r a c t i s i n g gymnastic exercises.
T he one sitting on the ground,
n ea r e s t the entra n c e has his legs crossed and is h o l d i n g his left
f o o t i n his right hand a nd his right foot in his l e f t hand,
n& i d i n g calls this a "Knoten" and says it is s i m i l a r to the A u s ­
trian "hutschpf e r d s p i e l e n . G u h s & u t h s
calls this f o r m of e x e r ­
cise !1h e s e n l a a f e n R and explains it thus r
d. i. im Sitzen d i e Seine kreuzen, m l t der r. hand die
gross© Zehe des 1. Fusses, m it d e r 1. Band d i e gross© Behe
des r. Fusses erfassen u n d ' a u f 3olche $©is© f ortgesetzt
1Surzelb&ume * ( ?haubursi.* in d e r Bchsreiz) sc h i e s s e n . ^
32b. }
Be hind the b o y s i t t i n g on the grass is a b o y s t a n d i n g on
ills heed.
his fiands are placed on the ground f ar apart, his feet
ere u p a nd h e i3 t r ying t o straighten out h is legs.
this
r'0p het hoofd s t a a n “
D r o s t calls
and quotes £ i l i a e n fs Latin d e f i n i t i o n
given under the F l e m i s h MB i l i e - b i l i e n , " a l s o sp e l l e d "bielebill'en."
"Ferre," w h i c h stands for “pereboosa, " is also given b y
Klli&en.
This name is b a s e d on the a p pearance of the one s t a n d ­
i ng on Lis head, f o r his arms resemble t he roots of a tree, his
trunk,
the tr u n k of the tree, and his legs, the branches.
Xn
Flanders it is called "pereboora staan" and "op d a m k o p s t a a n . w4
In a p o e m b y J a c o b von der B e yden (1332) r e p r i n t e d by
Bolte
&
w e read;
D o r t sa i n d zwean Buban uaagekehrt,
D i e p&ss gen Berg, d er K o p f f zur era,
Po llen Jetzt stuff deriB&nden
gehn.
Bol t e
gives a nother q u o t a t i o n from A u g s b u r g (1717):
"Die S e i l -
tfinaap st e l l e n sieh b i s w e i l e n auf den K o p f wie die kl e i n e n Buben,
w & n n sie eln
*B i r n b M u m l a i n 5 maciien."
f-7
as the F r e n c h “fair© d e p o i r l e r , 8
Bolts says this is the same
and D r o s t
S
gives the F r e n c h
"le m o n d e renverse," wle p oirier fourchu," and "le enene fourche."
9
Drost
also cites 8trut t * s 14sojaersault° or “s o m e r s e t , ’1 w h i c h
1
Balding, p. 47.
^I)rost9 pp. 46 f„
5J.
2
n-utswuths, p.
537.
^Xoid,
Bolte, Z . a . V . r . V . . Vol. X I X (1909), p. 398.
6 l b i d . , p. 383.
7 loid.
S r o s t , p.
^Ibid.
47.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
'
43
32b. }
S t r u t t d efines as "lespins? and t u r n i n g w i t h the heels o v e r the
1
~"
h e a d i n the a i r . ’1
1 t h i n k there is a slight d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n
what S t r u t t has i n m i n d and “Op het h o o f d 3tan," and that the
m o d e r n E n g l i s h t e r m f o r wh&t this b o y is d o i n g is "h e a d s t a n d . "
32c. )
X think that "somaaau.ltn could a p p l y to the third boy
b e t t e r than to the second, unless he is t r y i n g to imitate the
second b o y in a " h e a d s t a n d . fl
D r o s t calls the f o r m i n w h i c h one
turns over,
"Kopje d u i k e i e n , " and gives K l l i a e n ' s terms "tuyxnelen,"
£
" s t e r t e - b o l l e n , " and "sol ouer bol" j also the F r e n c h "culbuter."
35 h m e
3
-
has "furzelbaam" and rfochholz,
-4
"Burzelbaum oder hauburzi."
R a b e l a i s ’ terms "Au cfcsane forchu" and !,&u p o i r i e r ” (see
&
Table 1, Ros. 151 a nd 103) r e f e r to stand i n g on o n e ’s h e a d
and
pe r h a p s
to "somersaults," also, for Regis translates "au chesne
f o r c h u ’1 into "Burzelbaum" (somersault).
R a u s c h says
that
F i s c h a r t ’s "Auf f t e l l e r n m i t handen g&hn" is “S h n l i c h d e m Kunst3 t d c k ’a u f d e m Kopf stehen. ’8,0
also, means
G a l l i t a l o ’s "Van beuijtelen,
"tumbling," a general t e r m f o r gymnastic stunts of
this kind.
3 3a and b . )
Three boys are si t t i n g astride the ra i l i n g of the fence
a r o u n d the grass plot a n d pre t e n d that t h e y are r i ding horseback.
T wo of them have sticks, w h i c h they are flourishing.
All are
p r o b a b l y m o v i n g f o r w a r d al o n g the rai l i n g and imagining that
their horses.are t r a v e l l i n g forward.
1
Strutt, p. 229.
A f o u r t h boy, farther back,
2
Drost, p. 47.
®iS8hme, p. 425, i\o. 18.
^Rochholz, p. 455, Mo. 78.
s
e
Eausch, p. 43, states that F i s c h a r t ’s "Bieranbaum
schutteln" corresponds t o R a b e l a i s ’ "Au p o i r i e r , ” w h i c h he believes
to be the same as *‘a u chdne fourchu" or "Kopfstehen. " Drost,
p. 11, n. 3, d i s a g r e e s w i t h R a u s c h a nd gives "Biaronbaum schfitteln"
as synonymous w i t h "Chytrinda" (see Mo. 53) I believe that "Au
Poirier" m i g h t ref e r to s t a n d i n g on o n e ’s head (although it lacks
the "fourchu" LforkJ element (see 32bJ) and also to "Chytrinda"
but that "Bierenb&um schutteln" refers only to "Ohytrinda" ("Rupf © n rf), Bolte (Z . d . V . f . V . Vol. X I X [1909 ], p. 383, n. 1) also a s s o ­
ciates "dierenbaum s c h d t t e l n ” w i t h "Ghytrinda" ($o. 38).
&Hausch, p. 75.
7 C o c k en Teirlinck,
Vol. I, p. 55, ho. 141.
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44
33a and. b. )
Is c l i m b i n g u p on the f e n c e to join the r i d e r s
(or perhaps m e r e l y
to get i n s i d e the e n c l o s e d s p a c e . )
34.)
A g r o u p of children, f o r m i n g a procession,
a r o u n d the corner o f the fence,
are c o m i n g
accompanied b y a woman
(one of
the two a d ults o n the pictu r e ) . It seems to be a b r i d a l proce s s i o n
f o r the cen t r a l figure, a girl d r e s s e d in black,^ Is w e a r i n g a
o
*'
”
3
crown
a n d has h e r h a i r l oosely f l o w i n g ,over h e r shoulders — Just
as the b r ides are r e p r e s e n t e d I n t wo o t h e r paintings b y Bruegels
A
”A Village w e d d i n g ” a n d “wedding F e a s t . ”
S he child to the
" b r i d e ’s" r i g h t m a y r e p r e s e n t the groom, o r t he ones to e i ther
side of h e r m a y be h e r " p a r e n t s ” o r " s p o n s o r s . ”
S a r t o r i i n d i s c u s s i n g the w e d d i n g customs o f va r i o u s G e r ­
m a n i c pe o p l e s tells, u n d e r MD e r Z ug z ur K i r c h e , ” o f n u m e r o u s p r e ­
cautions d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y to ward off evil f r o m the bride on her
w a y to the ceremony.
ge s c b l o s s e n gahen,
A m o n g these arei
"der Z u g m u s s stets
son s t brlngt es d e m Jungen P& a r e Ungl'S.ck.
Auch
m u s s d i eses imrner v o n L e a t e n umgeb.en sein. . . . d e m i t I h m b5se
Q e i s t e r n i c h t s a n h a b e n k 5 r m e n = ,:° fh© w o m a n in tha p a r t y seems to
7
be t r y i n g to pre v e n t a b r e a k In the p r o c e s s i o n
as it r o u n d s the
*1
Ida v. R e i n s b e r g u nd Otto Freiherr1 v. Relnsberg-lXirlngsfeld,
h o c h a e i t s b u c h (Leipzig, 1871), p. 228, say, "In Friesland
w a r es G ewohnhei t , d ie Hoch z e i t s k l e l d e r schwars und v on so d & u e r h;-ft em S t a f f © zu nehmen, d a s s s i© b e l m T o d a s f a l l e des e i n e n G a tten
d e m ftberlebenden als T r a u e r k l e i d e r d i e n e n k o n n t e n . "
g
P a u l Sartori, S l t t e u n d B r a a c h , Vol. I, pp. 7 8 f., In
d i s c u s s i n g G e r m a n b r ides s a y s : "Das Bauptstftck ihr e r A u s r d s t u n g
1st d i e K r o n e v o n Flittern, Perlen, Sciauels, S&ndern, Oold--und
S i l b e r d r a h t u. dgl."
3
Ernst Samter, Qeburt. rlochzelt u nd T od (Leipzig and B e r ­
lin, 1911), pp. 123 and"" 128 isays t
31 swell en f i n d e t d a s Lbs e n v o n
K n o t e n u n d H h n l i c h e n B i n g e n s o h o n bel d e r hoc hz a it stutt."
And,
Bei d e r E n t b i n d u n g u nd Mochzsit 1st d e r Ge d & n k © oinaj; S y m p a t h l e w i r k u n g d es Auf l S s e n s d e r Knoten, d es hasres und d es Bffnens der
S e h l S s s e r sehr k l a r . ”
4
V i r g i l Barker, Pieter B r u e g e l t he Elder, a S t u d y of His
P a i n t i n g s „ p. lO.
° f b i d . , p. 42.
6 Paul Sartori, S i t t e u nd B r a n c h . Vol. I, p. 83.
17
S h e m a y also b e g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t the b r i d e ’s tu r n i n g
© r o u n d o r looking backward.
Samter, G e b u r t . Hoch z a i t u n d T o d .
Vol. XXII, pp. 147-50, di s c u s s e s at l e n g t h KB a s Verbot d es Oms e h e n s , ” as a p p l i e d to w e d d i n g s a n d christenings.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45
3 4 .)
c o r n e r or p e r h a p s she is d i r e c t i n g the gro u p away f r o m the b l i n d ­
f o l d e d b o y n e a r them, w h o is groping a b o u t w i t h a large stick.
T w o small girls w i t h a b a s k e t (containing flowers?)
the b r i d a l procession.
are leading
Four of the girls in this gro u p have their
skirts t h r o w n over their heads as i n the siT a u f zxig.
S o a s e r . in a brief d i s c u s s i o n o f B p u s e s I ’ s n Jlinderspicl.
2
b i l d ” r e g a r d s this p r o c e s s i o n o f children as a "h a i b r a u t ” group.
'
T h e leM a i b r a u t n d i d h a v e a p r o m i n e n t p a r t in s p r i n g festivities.
The " B a n d w S r t e r b u e h d e s d e u t s c h e n A b e r g l & u b e n s 11 gives the f o l l o w ­
ing on " M u i b r a u t ” :
M i r faaben v i e l l e i e h t bei d e n vielfi.lti.gen Fr&hl i n a s b r i u c h e n d i e m i m i s c h e D a r s t e l l u n g e i n e r himmlischen oder
dfiisonischen nochzeit, d ie bis z u m sytctoliachen S e i l a ^ e r als
F r u c h t b a r k e i t s z a u b e r getrieben werden k a n n .
#le sehr a b e r n o c h religiSses Oeffthl an d e n M a i b r a u t b r d a c h e n
b e t e i l i g t 1st, bewei s e n d ie Brautpf&ds, d i e m a n am himaielf a h r t s t a g e m it 3 1 u m e n u nd Orfin v on T S r a u Ttir logt oder straut,
z u g l e i c h ©ine E r i r m e r u n g a n das S i n h o l e n d o r Maibraut u n d ©in©
h u l d i g u n g an d e n Auferstandenen.*'
Also, H e i n s b e r g - D & r i n g s f e l d says;
©in© M a i b r a u t anzuputzoa,
"Die Sitte,
ainen MaikB n i g oder
.jslche n o c h in Holland herrscht, w o zu
Jrfingsten d i e F f i n g s t b l u m © herumgeht, iat in d o n s & d liehen
4
h i e d e r l a n d e n jetzt u n b e k a n n t . "
However, sin c e B r u e g e l ’s " b ride” i n this p r o c e s s i o n r e s e m ­
bles so c l o s e l y his pai n t i n g s o f actual brides, and since the
bri d e does n o t wear a w r eath of flowers, and green twigs are not
carried b y the o t h e r s
cession)
(as is u s u a l l y th© case in a "Maibraut" p r o -
~~I b e l i e v e that these chil d r e n are m e r e l y i m i t a t i n g a
w e d d i n g p r o c e s s i o n t h e y have seen, and ar© not carr y i n g out a
symbo l i c a l spring ceremony.
SsEangart and Joiaanneau0 believe that Rabelais’ 11A pln■^•h&idinsr, p. 65, suggests this.
‘‘“’
D e u t s c h e V o l k s k u n d e . Vol. II, p. 225.
3
S. H o f f m a n n - K r a y e r u nd Banns Bachtcld-StSubli, B a n d w B r t e r b u c h des d e u t s c h e n Aberglaubens (Berlin and Leipzig, 19271937), Vol. I, cols. 1 5 3 3 f.
^Reinsberg-Dtlringsfelci, D a s f e a t l i c h e J a h r . p. 179.
s
S a r t o r i » S i t t e u n d Br au ch.„ Vol. Ill, pp. 179 and 204,
under "&albrautpaar."
Cd
S s B & n g a r t and E. Joh&nneau, R a b e l a i s . Vol. I, pp. 417
a nd 419..
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46
54. )
poffipet,s m a y r e f e r to a game i n w h i c h girls dress one of their
n u m b e r like a bride.
(See T able 1, Iso. 104.)
m a y be correct b u t none of Rabelais*
This s u p p o s i t i o n
translators
(quoted in
Table 1} have indicated that ”A pinpompet" refers to a n i m i t a t i o n
of a wedding.
35.)
To the right of the bridal p r o c e s s i o n a b o y 13 hold i n g
the b l a d e of a knife on a kettle lying overturned on the grounds he
m a y be t a p p i n g o n the k e t t l e .
A se c o n d bo y w i t h h i s cap over tods
fac e is w a l k i n g a b o u t w i t h a long s t i c k in his hand.
Obviously
hi s object is to guess the l o c ation of the kettle a n d hit it w i t h
the h e a v y stick.
.Drost'*' says that the game p i c t u r e d h e r e is r e ­
lated to "Blind ei s l a & n “ in w h i c h a b l i n d f o l d e d pe r s o n m u s t t r y
to hit an e g g that is h a n g i n g on a cord or l y i n g on the ground.
S h e d o u b t s that it was a c h i l d r e n ’s game in the Nether l a n d s d u r i n g
the M i d d l e Ages and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d believes, instead, tha t
it was played m o s t l y b y adults at c h u r c h f e s t i v a l s
at other j o l l y gatherings.
Later,
she thinks,
(Kimsesse) a n d
children,
tation of their elders, b e g a n to p l a y "Blind el s l a a n . M
in imi - '
Gock and
Teirlinck
glv© “Blindei alaan" as th© general h e a d i n g and
n31indepot
(blendepot) spelen" as a subtitle.
In "Blindepot
s p e l e n ” a c r o c k e r y pot is h u n g u p on a cord and the b l i n d f o l d e d
players i n turn t r y to hit it w i t h a s tick a n d b r e a k it to pieces.
S e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of this game as played in "enoany i n
m o d e r n times s e e m to corr e s p o n d m o r e clos e l y w i t h t h e game as
3
p l a y e d in our p i c t u r e t han the D u t c h v e r s i o n s given above.
In
B S h m e ’s "Topfschlagen'*
4k
a bl i n d f o l d e d p e r s o n tries to h i t a crock
h u n g on & s take t w e n t y steps distant.
he mus t hold the s tick u p ­
right an d not grop© about on the ground w i t h itj he is a l l o w e d to
strike three h e a v y blosrs.
L & e h one in the group is g i v e n his
*Dpost, p. 149.
2Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. IV, pp. 148-51.
3
R o c h h o l z , p. 446, Mo. 69, rtG s s c h i r r - o d e r T o p f s c h l a g e n ” ;
OutsMuths, p. 335, "Das Topfschla.gen"; iiandelxaann, p. 20, ho. 15,
”fiahn-oder T o p f s e h l a g e n . rt K d c k and Sohnrey, F e s t e u n d 5 p ^e ie <>
p. 75, discuss “h a h n e n s c h l a g e n ” as a part of IJFas tnachtadl e n s t a g ”
festivity.
^BShme, p. 632, Mo. 521.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47
55. }
turn end. a p r i z e is awarded, the one w h o breaks the crock.
BBhme
adds that tnis w a s f o r m e r l y a S u n d a y pastime of peasant youth.
S o m e t i m e s a live c o c k w as p l a c e d tinder the crock, and the p &3time
w a s t h e n k n o w n as "Hahnenscbl&gen. "
A n e a r l y r e f erence to this game is m a d e in t he "NiJrdlinger
S p i e l g e s e t z ” (1426) cited above.
(See No. 18.)
h e r e it is listed
as “iiafen z u a c b l a g e a . "
Rabelais*
"An. casse pot" refers e i t h e r to the game i l l u s ­
t r ated b y d r u e g e l or to the f o r a (described above) in w h i c h a
c r o c k e r y p ot is h u n g f r o m t he ceiling.
(See Tab l e 1, Ho. 124. )
Rausch.” b e l i e v e s that F i s c h a r t ’s " B r i e h d e n M a f e n ’1 corresponds to
" A u casse p o t ” and that F i s c h a r t ’s "Teller im K u b e l atsehlagen"
g
and “T e l l e r v o n d e r sfcangen s c h l a g e n n apply to the g a m e ”Top f s c h l s g e n ” as p l a y e d at G e r m a n 'fairs
(Jah.rm2.rkte).
5 6 .;
To the right of the “X o p f s c h l & g e n ” game is a b o y w a l k i n g
on l o w stilts w h i l e at the c o r n e r of the large b u i l d i n g is a n o t h e r
b o y on v e r y h i g h stilts.
A l i ttle girl near them seems to be
t h r o w i n g u p h e r hands i n wonderment.
S h e is one of th© t wo c h i l ­
d r e n i n t he p icture w h o d o n ot seem to be a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d in a
same o r some d e f i n i t e f o r m of amusement.
(The other is the v e r y
small b o y p e e r i n g over the wind o w s i l l n e a r th© m a s k e d b o y . )
ever,
how­
she m a y be w a v i n g h e r arms in i m i tation of a b i r d f l y i n g
for, u p o n c l o s e obse r v a t i o n , s h e d o e s n ’t s e e m to be l o o k i n g d i ­
r e c t l y a t the b o y on stilts w h o is nearest to her.
S t i l t s s e e m to be of v e r y ancient origin;
c a lled them “K a l o b a d r i a ,“ t he Romans,
“g r a l l a e . n
the Greeks
In Medi e v a l
Ne t h e r l a n d s t h e y w e r e k n o w n as “s t e l t e ” and "soiiaefcse."
3
t he s e Ihiteh. terms were a l s o u s e d f o r “crutch.")
(Both of
4
lingerie
gives an e a r l y Z u r i c h r e f erence
(1349) to
stilts;
Unf err v o n d e r F r o s c h o u w — u n d t w ie dar h i n d e r d e r sVolff b a c h abrinnt, st e l z e t h e r b s t z e i t i m aolden b a c h e i n knab,
W a l t e r v o n W fl genempt, d e r sah. ein Schfili i m Sach, das
^Rausch, p. 24.
pp.
2X b i d ., p. 64.
*%>rost gives all of the s e terms under "op ste l t e n loopen,"
143 f.
4
Ziztgerle, p. 48.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36. }
s chupfft er iuit d er s t B l t z e n . . . .
(Bch. Ballinger, V o n
d e n Ti,%rarineren u n d d e r S t a d t Zfirieh Il574j[ I, B o o k VII,
Chap. 19. )
C & l o m (1626) has "Op stelten gaen."
Jacob Gats (1577-
1660) in h i 3 p oexc K u w e l y c k says under " K i n d e r s p e l " :
D e Kinders die op stelten gaan
Zyn r-egte b © o l d e n v a n d e waanj
V y soeke m e e s t al h o oger s ehyn
Ala vry in r e c h t e wa&rheid zyn.*
B o l t e has s everal other seventeenth, c entury rofer e n e e s to
stilts:
l) f r o m Kinderaplel,
oder Bp j e g e l d i e s e r Z e i t e n (1632):
"Die Kinder, a o stuff Sfcelzen gebn, Sc h r e i t e n wreit, k S n n e n nieht
3
still s t e h n . 51
2) f r o m Comenius, dchola i u d u s , ralt d e r V a r d e u t s c h ung
Jakob Kedinarers
(1659):
"item i n c edendo super gralias
(auf ste l z e n gehende) g r essuaque d i v a r i c & n d o . u<^
G e o r g Se y bold's
Officina s c h o l astics
3) f r o m Joh.
(1687): "Das S t e l z e n g e h e n
(incessus grallatorlus), d a s ie auf d en S t e l t z e n g e hend w e i t ©
S chr i t t e thun, d u n c k t m i c h e in g e f & h r l i c h Sp i e l zu seyn, w e l l sie
m it F a llen s i c h leic h t l i c h v o r l e t z e n k 6 n n e n . !t
Stilts w e r e p r o b a b l y originally used b y adults i n crossing
6
s w a m p y stretches
and b y herdsmen, to enlarge their r a n g e of v i 7
a 1 o n . iiock ba t t l e s on stilts were sometimes f o u g h t u p o n f estive
n
occasions.
Later, children b e g a n to u s e them in I m i t a t i o n o f
these v a r i e d adult a c tivities on stilts.
37.)
T o the right of the b o y o n low stilts eight b o y s are
p l a y i n g w h a t Fisch a r t calls
"irfitlin, faStlin d u r c h die b e i r u ”^
^Cock en Teirlinck, Vol.
^J.
Gats,
iluwelvck:
I, p. 46,
"Kinder a pel, "
Wo. 17.
col.
8.
5J. Bolte, Z . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X I X (1309), p. 398.
4 Ibid.. . p. 395.
V
Bandelmann, p. 85.
^ I b i d . , p.
Q
404.
^Droat, p. 144.
Drost, p. 144.
Q
Rausch, pp. 68 f.
In a footnote H a u s c h adds the e x p r e s ­
sions S,des J u n g f r & u w u r f f s d u r c h d i e Bein'* (Fischart, chap. xxvi,
p. £74, Alsle b e n ©d. ) and "Blindmeuss und rrftt1I n s p i l e r " (Fischart,
p. 16, A l s l e b e n e d . ) as names f o r this game.
1 b e l i e v e that the
f i r s t e x p r e s s i o n has n o t h i n g to d o w i t h our game and that th©
s e cond term consists of the names of two games combined: " B l i n d iseuss" or "Blind© Kuh" (see JSo. 27 above) a nd our game w i t h its
f u l l name shortened to "felitlinspi 1. "
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
37. j
x
R a u s c h says that h e k n e w this game as "SehwfilwSles."
She point
of the gam© was to throw a kno t t e d h a n d k e r c h i e f or o n e ’s cap as
f a r as poss i b l e through, the legs of a b o y stand i n g w i t h f e e t far
apart.
T h a t is what the boys i n the pi c t u r e are d o i n g s the one
through w h o s o legs the caps are being thrown, is b l i n d f o l d e d —
that is, his w h o l e face is covered b y his cap.
CfUtsMuths
2
under "Lauf, Mona,
lauf I " de s c r i b e s this game
as b e i n g p l a y e d w i t h kno t t e d cloths c a lled "i-lunapsficke.“
As soon
as the *'ilump a&cke*! have all been thrown, the b o y s shout,
”Lauf,
S o n d I “ a n d the blindfolded one walks forward, unt i l he steps on
one of th© cloths.
Then he
removes the blindfold f r o m his eyes;
a ll of the b o y s except th© one who s e c l o t h has b e e n stepped on
(called th© "Mondkalb"
imoon c a l f ])p i c k up their cloths and chase
the ni30on c&lf ** to a certain goal m e a n w h i l e h i t t i n g h i m w i t h
their cloths.
The next time h e is "der neue M o nd."
f/cimae d e ­
scribes a g a m e called " C o c k - s t r i d e , ” w h i c h corresponds clo s e l y to
"Lauf, Mond, l a u f . ”
however,
th© b o y s u se the i r caps, a nd h i t
w i t h their h a n d s the one who s e sap is p i cked u p b y the b l i n d f o l d e d
one.
P r o b a b l y the game d r u e g e l depicts, ends in one of the s e two
ways .
T o the extreme right five children s e e m to be p u l l i n g the
hair of a c o m panion w h o is yelling in pain.
iialding suggests
that this ”K u p f e n ” ia the punishment inflicted u p o n the one who
has
’'stolen” all the goods in the game ”S t o f fverkauf en. **4
A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y is F i s c h a r t Ts "harlin z u p f f e n , n w h i c h
Rausch
5
expla i n s as "ein bekanrstes Spielvergnftgen, d as die K i n d e r
heu t e n o c h
’hfirelezupfe* n e n n a n , "
This m a y be the game w h i c h
G e i l e r v o n K a i s e r a b e r g de s c r i b e s in his
Bvangelibucht
.Hast d u n i © gesehen, das die b u o b e n in d er schuol w a tten
etwan mit ©im, si© w e l i e n i m drei o d o r v i e r h&r u s s z i e h e n u n d
jtuss ©r sie nit enpflnden, u n d wen ©s d a n gilt, so m & c h e n sie
d a s h o r z u o s a m e n u n d w o n e r aietoen wil, so schleebt er i n vor
a n © in b&ckon, u nd d e r s t r o i c h thuot i m so wee, daz er d e r
bar nit ©npfindet usszeaiohen.
(C*. v. Kaisersberg, K v a n g e l i b u c h 11522], cited b y lingerie,
pp. 47 f.J
1Xbld.
2G u t s M u t h s , p. 533.
3GtaBune, Vol. I, p. 73.
4
Raiding-, p. 66.
He a l s o states hers that i n M e c k l e n b u r g
& boy's h a i r is p u lled w h e n ho h a s not beh a v e d properly.
The
process is ac c o m p a n i e d b y a chant "Hummel-hummel hiring.
c
Rausch, pp. 59 f.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58. )
R a b e l a i s ’ "A la t i r e l i t a n t a i n e ” m a y re f e r to this game
f or K s m angurt and J o h a n n e a u s a y nc© d o i t etre a n jeu a se
ti r a i l l e r l ’u n l ’a u t r e . ”1
(See T a b l e 1, So. 68) Regl3 explains
his t r a n s l a t i o n or this term, " Z i p f e l z u p f s n s ,w as •"OeseX i s c h a f t s 2
spi e l Bsit B u p f e n 'and Z a u s s n . ”
F i s e h a r t 13 w21pffelzetoezupffan,tt° w h i c h R a u s c h explains
m e r e l y as a p o p u l a r a l l i t e r a t i v e p l a y on words, could p o s s i b l y
r e f e r to this same, as also h i s p r o v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n MD e n
g r i n d i g e n 3&ach b e r o p f f e n . ”
Bolte
prints a p o r t i o n of the p o e m " Egerer Fronleichn&xa-
s p i e l u (c a . 1480) in w h i c h the J e w s a re p l a y i n g w i t h Jesus a gam©
called "puczpirn"
{ " B u t z b i r n e n " ), th© Gre e k “G h y t r i n d a , ” F i s c h a r t ’
s
*3ierenbuuffi s c h & t t e l n , '' Rabelais* ”A u p o i r i e r . ”
A l t h o u g h it a p ­
p ea r s that in this game t he one
to b e t o r mented m u s t sit d o w n i n
the mid s t or his tormentors w i t h one p e r s o n to p rotect him,
the
s p i r i t of th© ?aE9 as p l a y e d In the p o e m seems t o be that o f m e r ­
ciless d e l i g h t i n the s u f f e r i n g in f l i c t e d u p o n a n o t h e r (just as
i n th© picture)
a nd th© f i g u r e o f “p i c k i n g p e a r s 3 (with sa r c a s t i c
r e m a r k s as to their flavor) c o u l d a p p l y v e r y w e l l t o S x m e g e l ’a
group also.
irrischlin in h is K o m e n c l a t o r (1586)
explains the
Gre e k "Ghytrinda** as “Dess Rflpf flins oder Bfirenschiittelins. ”
Jolt© adds to this the D u t c h terms
given b y Junius s “S i e r k e n a o e t ,
pruymen eoten.”
59. )
Just b e h i n d the g r o u p en g a g e d in p u l l i n g the boy ' s hair,
a b o y is extended a l o n g the l e n g t h o f a large tree t r u n k l y i n g o n
the ground.
lie has a p e c u l i a r l o n g - h a n d l e d im p l e m e n t (resembling
a
golf club) w i t h w h i e h he seems to b e s t r i k i n g at aom© insects
w h i c h h a v e been a t t racted b y t he sap of the r e c e n t l y cut tree.
H a a a c h ^ gives F i s c h a r t * s “D e r Braunen s c h r o t e r ” (the b r o w n
■^Esm&ngart and E. J o h a n n s an, R a b e l a i s . p.
412, n. 64.
‘■'Regis. Vol. 11"^, p. 103.
^Rausch, p. 82.
^ I b i d , . p.
88.
6 «I. B o l t © , B.d.V.f . V . . Vol. X X X
-I b i d . . p.
3S3, n. 1.
^ lb i d .. p. 388.
(1909), pp. 383 f.
S e e Ho. 32c, above.
^Rausch, p. 27.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
39.}
beetle) as a correct tr a n s l a t i o n of Rabelais*
"A escarbot le b p a n . "
(See Table 1, Mo. 148.) be d o e s n ’t k n o w anyth i n g about a game so
"named but q u otes F i s c h a r t (C-argaatua. chap. xiv, p. 197,
A l s l e b e n ed. ) :
wL.ieff g e m
nacii d e n Schrotorn, Meik&fern u n d
f u r n e m l i c h d e n F a r f a l i i s c h o n B a u m f a l t e r n (unnd P a p ilonischen
Butterfligen)
. . . . .n
This m a y r e f e r to a custom boys had o f
catc h i n g bugs a nd butter f l i e s w h i c h were later tied to a thread
•
X
2
a n d p e r m i t t e d t o f l y a c ertain distance*
Rochholz
di s c u s s e s
nL&ubkfifer und Hirschkiif e r ” arid gives se v e r a l rhymes w h i c h child r e n s a y to and about various beetles a nd bugs.
B&hme
discusses
the M&;aiklLf er, ” whose appea r a n c e is h e r a l d e d as a sign of spring,
and p r ints a large n u m b e r of ”K£f e r l i e d e b e n . "
40. )
hear the tree t r u n k is a small child c a r r y i n g a v e r y
large cake, w h i c h corresponds
d e s c r i b e d b y hfifler:4
in shape to a f o r m of “K n a u f g e b a e k ”
B© i n etara 48 cm. langea d i c k e s l e bildbrot
m i t d e n z s e i typischen,
xcittiersn Verbreitung. iS
o b e r e n bezw.
u nteren Enfiufen und m i t cier
iiSfler’s ”sflnnerstHdtcfaen i atensencae 1 ”°
looks v e r y m u c h like the one in the picture except that the l a tter
lacks the "Bretzel,** ”.H&kenkreutz” and other d ecorations s h o w n on
the former.
S u c h a "retenaeiume 1" was sent to a child b y his
s ponsor o n All Souls* D a y . ^
B r u e g e l ’s picture obviously repre s e n t s
a w a r m s p r i n g or s u mmer day, so if this ,!Semmel" is b e i n g tak e n
to someone as a gift, it m u s t be for s o m e other f e s t i v e occasion.
This child is the only one in the picture w h o is w e a r i n g
w o o d e n shoes.
he also has a crown of pap e r like the ones m e n ­
tioned in Nos. 19. and 28, above.
^Drost, pp.
151 f.
There is a strange s i m i l a r i t y
^Rochholz, p. 453, No.
338hme, p. 424, No. IS and pp.
^Max
91.
155-78.
lidfler. ”K n a u f g e b & c k e „i:i Z . d . V . f . V .. Vol.
A ll
(1902),
p. 439.
pp.
SJi6fler,'^Schneckengebftcke,” % . d . V . f . V . a Vol. XIII
390-98, fig. 1.
(1903),
6Ibid.
^S a e Sartori, S i t t e u n d B r a n c h . Vol. Ill, pp. 113, 128,
137, 157, 189, and 215 for refe r e n c e s to various kinds of cakes
baked f o r cer t a i n holidays.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
52
40. }
in t h e s e three "crowned" f igures but I have not b e e n able to de terrain© what connection, If any, there is b e t w e e n these.
They may
r e p r e s e n t the “drei K 5 n i g e . ”
41.)
Just b e h i n d the b o y on the tree tru n k seven or eight boys
are p l a y i n g a game in w h i c h one of them, w h o is blindfolded, is
st a n d i n g in t he center of the gro u p ho l d i n g a s t i c k to w h i c h a
d a r k object is a t t a c h e d b y means o f a cord.
The d a n g l i n g object
is p r o b a b l y w h a t i s k n o w n in G e r m a n y as a " l l u m p s s c k , n w h i c h is
u s e d i n gases o f v arious k i n d s . 1
O u t sMuths d e s c r i b e s the “Plump-
s a c k 1' u s e d i n games d u r i n g th© last c e n t u r y (a s imilar on© was
p r o b a b l y u s e d i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) ;
■■dm einen Plumps a s k (ein K n b t a l } zu fertlgen, w i r d d a s
T a s c h e n t u c h z u s s m m e n g e d r e h t O d e r in d e r feiitte d e s s e l b e n e i n
K n o t e n gakn&pft u n d ea da.na.ch z u s a m a a n g a l a g t , ao dess b o i d e
B n d e n m i t e i n e r band f e s t g e h a l t e n w e r d e n k & m e n .
M a n aeirpe
d arauf, dass n i e a a n d ei n e n S t e i n i n desa K n o t e n versteckt.*^
If w h a t the b o y h a 3 on t h© sti c k i s not a ,fP l u m p s a c k , M t h e n it
c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a cap, a shoe or a pie c e of wood.
I h a v e fou n d no r e f e r e n c e to a ny gams played w i t h a
MP l u m p s a c k ,n cap, shoe or piece o f w o o d that co r r e s p o n d s to w b e t
the boys seem to be d o i n g in t he picture.
T h © boys in fr o n t of
the one w i t h th© stick are f l e e i n g I n haste wb.il© two of the three
b e hind h i m ars t r y i n g to pull at the d a r k object.
D r o s t 0 m e n t i o n s this gro u p b ut can n e i t h e r name n o r d e ­
sc r i b e the game.
however,
she comp a r e s it t o a game she h a s seen
r e p r e s e n t e d in a picture in t he M u s e u m of f o l k l o r e In Antwerp.
In this p i c t u r e the game is c a lled " h r o o i k e n - b i j t B ; the s t i c k is
h e l d b y & m a n and some c h i l d r e n a r e trying to bite into th© p i e c e
of w o o d (1) h a n g i n g on the rope.
D r o s t a l s o m e n t i o n s a gam©
c a l l e d "Scbwirrholz
or “b u l l - r o a r e r ” in w h i c h a pie c e of w o o d
is w h i r l e d r a p i d l y a r o u n d so
obser v e s that the w o o d
to cause a h u m m i n g noise.
She
(?) is not b e i n g w h i r l e d in B r u e g e l ’s p i c ­
ture, m e r e l y h e l d up.
42. )
T o th© rig h t of th© b o y on the h i g h stilts a t th© c o rner
of th© house,
three b o y s are p l a y i n g a gam© w i t h nuts w h i c h D r o s t
■WtsMutha,
pp. 60, 847,
®Drost, pp.
145 f.
281, and 555.
^ I b l d . . p. 146, n.
gI b i d , . p. 60.
1.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
4 2 .;
x
calls “hoopkena s c h i e t e n . ”
Three nuts, balls,
stones, o r other
small objects are placed close t o g e t h e r w i t h a f o u r t h on top;
ea c h player h as h i s own h e a p so constructed.
The object of the
game is t o kno c k down one o f the heaps b y throw i n g at i t f r o m a
set distance.
Th© p l ayer w h o hits someone's h e a p of nuts is a l ­
lowed to k e e p the n u t s scattered; if h e m isses, h© m u s t give u p
some of h i s nuts.
D r o s t di s c u s s e s Kiliaen's terms for this games
“h o o p k e n s se t t e a , ” “p e e r d e k e n s e h l e t e n B and “v e lden oft v e llen
2
met notsn.”
Rabelais refers to this game as “A u c h a s t e l e t ” ; his "A la
rengee** is a s i m i l a r game i n w h i c h t he nuts a r e placed in a line
i nstead of i n heaps.
did not,
(See Tab l e 1, £.‘os. 135 &nd 136.)
Fischart
in this instance, pat t e r n his term a f t e r Rabelais*
gave the German n a m e o f the game,
.
but
"kussenspickon.
Bol t e * s coll e c t i o n of references to games incl u d e s various
s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y n a m e s f or this game: ”m i t iiussen oder h & u fflein
4
5
v on M u s s e n , ” and “m it iiussen faSklen oder it&uflen.**
One s e v e n ­
t e e n t h ce n t u r y poem d e s c r i b e s the game as follows:
Die m i t d en Mdsserx d o r t e n spielen,
E in grossen ii&uff en. b a l d omsielan.
Elner setzt auff, der and e r zielt,
D e r dritt ivirfft zax, d er vierdt verspielt,
Etlieh stehn still, d ie an d r e lauffen,
D l e s e lachen, und jene rauffen.
Also geht es a u c h auff d er w e l t ;
Siner steht auff, d e r an d e r f&llt,
Einer baut auff e in Schlos, ein Stadt,
D e r ander d e x 2C k t , wie er jhr schadt.^
•7
A n eight e e n t h c entury t e r m f o r it is *'&£iss©spiel. “
B B h m e ^ di s c u s s e s this game u n d e r “Mussspiel:
1
Drost,
p. 99.
2
tiSckeln oder
Ibid.
Rausch, p. 74.
R a u s c h a l s o gives M a r t i n - L i e n h s r t * s
uh&flis" a nd “Bockhftfel.“
(w drfcerbuch d e r ^ l a & a a i a c h e n Mundarfcen.
Vol. 1, p. 309 and p. 308.
Bolte, jj.d.y.f.V. . Vol. X I X (1909), p. 394, f r o m a n
a n o n y m o u s translation of C o m o n i u s , Frankfurt, 1Q73.
I b i d . , p.
404, f r o m Fhilo
(Bartholomfius Anhorn),
1675.
SI b i d . . p.
398,
f r o m “S p i e g e l d i e s e r Eeiten," 1632.
^ I b i d ., p.
409,
f r o m “Z e i t v e r t r e i b , ”Fran k f u r t ,
8 B&hme, p.
603,
Mo.
467.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1757.
54
42. )
Enipsen,
,
iifiufe I n , S c b l S s s c h e n ” ; Rochholz
has “S c h l S s s l e i n ” ; Gock
p
^
and Teirlinck,
"Sasr d e n torre (fcoron) w e p p a n ” ; Gomme,
“C a s t l e s ”
and " P a l p ” (played w i t h cherry stones).
43. )
In front of the large build i n g two boys are d o i n g h o r i ­
z o n t a l bar exercises on what seems to be a h e a v y and w e l l c o n ­
structed b i t c h i n g rack.
and legs.
One is h a n g i n g f r o m the r a c k b y his arms
A large p o u c h he is w e a r i n g b y a strap across his
shoulders has f a llen a l most to the ground.
The other b o y is
&
circling the bar? h e is d o i n g w h a t Jahn
calls a ”Pe 1 gauf s e h w u n g !t
or th© c l o s e l y r elated “Bauefafelge. *'
44. }
In the d o o r w a y a girl is ba l a n c i n g & b r o o m w i t h a l o n g
h a n d l e on one or two fingers of h er right hand.
45. i
A number of c h i l d r e n are seated on the steps of the p o r c h
in front of the house.
T h e y are w a t c h i n g w i t h interest a girl
w h o is carrying a f a i r l y large b o y on h e r back.
This m u s t b e a
*7
certain phase of some f o r m o f “hid© anti S e e k , " 0 or “V e r s t o p p e r t ^ e ”
^
as the D u t c h call it.
B y counting off in some manner,
on© child
becomes “i t ” 5 this child faces a wall ( h e n c eforth the “base")
cover i n g its eyes w i t h its hands or forearm?
the one who is “i t ” recites a rhyme,
the others hide while
then starts to s e a r c h f o r
the h i d d e n ones? as s o o n as someone is located,
b e t w e e n the d i s c o v e r e d one and the one w ho is
w h o e v e r gets there first, wins.
a race to the base
“it" ensues and
(if the d i s c o v e r e d one wins, h©
^■Rochholz, p. 422.
2 Cock en Teirlinck, Vol. V, pp. 106 f f .
5
Soatsie, Vol. I, p. 60, and Vol. II, p. 36.
%?his boy m a y be p r e p a r i n g to do R o c h h o l z * “B o c k s e h i n d e n ”
(p. 457, ho. 85) In w h i c h the b o d y is su s p e n d e d f r o m some s upport
b y mea n s of the legs a l o n e (like a s laughtered r am w h e n It Is
b e i n g skinned).
Carl K u l e r » D i e D e u t s c h e T u r ^kunst n a c h J. L. Jahn und
Srnat ISlselen (Danzig, 1840), und e r “Ubun^en a m R e c k , ” p. 155,
flo. 35 and p. 156, No. 37.
°Goirime, Vol. I, pp. 211-14.
^ G o c k en Teirlinck, Vol.
I, pp. 140-57.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4 5 . )
is ”f r e e !,s If not, he is "spied.")
have b e e n d i s c o v e r e d
W h e n all of t h e h i d d e n ones
(or have come i n ''fres*'), the game is over .
This is Cock and T e i r l i n c k ’s~ e x p l a n a t i o n of the s i m p l e s t f o r m of
the game.
The r e are n u m e r o u s variations,
and m o r e than one h u n ­
d r e d a n d f i f t y h u t c h n a m e s for this game are riven b y C o c k and
2
'
'
3
Teirlinck.
In a r e l a t e d g a m © , "Peerd-in-ae lucht I ''' th© pl a y e r s
are d i v i d e d into t w o sides.
The p l a y e r s on s i d e A close their
eyes w h i l e the players of side 3 r u n a nd hide.
Then side A starts
searching for
the concealed o n e s ; w h e n one of t h e m is found, all
of aid© A a nd
the d i s c o v e r e d one r a c e f o r the base; if the o ne
w ho h a s b e e n discovered,
catches one of group A, that p e r s o n must
c a r r y h i ® on his b a c k t o the base and is therefore the " p e e r d ” or
hors©.
Se e k "
It is
game w e
p o s s i b l e that this Is the phase of tns "hide and
see in B r u e g e l ’s picture.
however,
the ones
who
® r© w a t c h i n g the !tp e e r d M a nd rider d o n ot s e e m to h a v e just a r ­
r i v e d at the base, b r e a t h l e s s f r o m a race.
"Versteckens”
Outsouths u n d e r
a n d H o c h h o l z under "-S&gelstein"
sta t e that the
f o l l o w i n g v a r i a t i o n Is s o m etimes a d d e d to the s i m p l e s t t y p e of
th© gam©:
if t h © o n e w h o Is searching,
c&tehes t h© one d i s c o v e r e d
before he roaches the base, the l a tter m u s t c a r r y the one w h o is
" I t ” to the base and t h e n take Tip the s e arch in his place.
Xt Is
l i kely that this Is w h a t we see in the picture a n d that the ones
w h o are seated on the steps have a l r e a d y been
" s p i e d ” b y the on©
who Is " i t , ” or h a v e r e a c h e d the base b e fore h e has, a n d h a v e d e ­
clared t hemselves "free. **
5
7
I>rost
gives Kiliaer.1s
terms f o r the D u t c h "Verstoppertj©
"borgh-spel, piep-muis, s c h u y l - w i n c k e l - s p e l , k o p p e corat wfc den
hoecke" and. the Ore o k n a m e "Apodidrascinda. “
J u nius has:
"Schuyl-
vrinctegen, schuylhoecxke, d u y c k e r k e n ; F l & n d r l s . Cop p en coat s?t d e n
8
ho©eke| 3 r u b » i t e m , pi jpt oft I c k en s o e c k u n i e t . "
The f o l l o w i n g terms f r o m R a b e l a i s refer to "hid© arid Seek"
“A la eutte c a c h e , ” MA cli n e laucette,11 nA u b o u r r y b o u r r y zu"
1 X b i d . . p.
® I b i d . , pp.
140.
155 ff.
. ^Rochholz, p.
£l b i d . . pp.
4OutsMuths, pp.
403, ho. 21.
^Ki listen (1777 ©d.
148-54.
538 f.
^Drost, p. 3.
[first e d : 1574]).
®Junius, ivomenclator (1619), p. 252.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45. )
(doubtful),
1, Kos.
,!A la m i g n e xr.igne b o e u f , ” and "A defendo."
200, loG. 78, ISO, and 186.)
(See Table
"A la mig n e migrve b o e u f ” is
the beginning: of & song w h i c h children sing when t h e y count off
to see w h o w i l l hide and w h o will seek,^ and nA defen d o " is the
call of a n yone d e m a n d i n g a respite while pla y i n g "udde and S e e k ”
or a n y oth e r r u n n i n g games
Je a ' e a defends, inon corps at m o n sang;
Celui qui m e touche est un s e r p e n t . 2
F i s c h a r t gives the German n a m e of this games "Vsrbergens,"
w e l l as h i s v e r s i o n of three of Junius® termsi
aus d e m w i n e k e l e i n , ”
e n c h n i c h t . “°
”iianlein R om m s
and uiJ£ elf ft oder i c h such.
(See fa b l e 1 f or F i s c h a r t *s use of Rabelais*
& 0 3 . 78, 130, ISO,
called
"Schulwinkel”
as
terms:
186, and 2 0 0 .)
In Veit C o nrad Schwarz®s "3 i l a e r b u c h ” (1550) this game is
7
“ekketi E e k . ,f
A m o n g several other references to this game
B ol t e has:
”A p o d i d r a a e i n d a ” (Gomenius, 1 6 3 1 } j ’’hfidewinckel
(varstechan
Li J) (Docemius*
t ranslation of Comenius, 1656)5 and
"dess V e r s t e c k e n s ” ( S i m o n ’s t ranslation of Gomenius, 165S)s and
“d e s s V e r t s r g e n s und Versteckens'*1 (Anon,
, 8
translation of Comenius,
lo7b).
D i s c u s s i o n s o f this game are given b y handelmanns
"V'ersteck,pp.
81 f .; BSfcme: "Verstecken u n d B u chan (Anschlagen,
Finkenstein, Susrgelstein, Clung j ” (pp. 5 61 f.,
<io. 371 ) ; R o c h h o l z :
"Anschlagigs, B l i n z i m u a M (p. 404, Mo. 22).
46. )
F a r t h e r to the left,
between the f e n c e a nd the t wo arches
on the left side of th© large b u i l d i n g is a b o y w i t h a p e c u l i a r
"
Q
kind of rattler, called in G e rman a " K l a p p e r ” or ,!K & t s e h e . ”
.
S u c h rattlers, a c c o r d i n g to Kfick and Sohnrey, s e r e f o r m e r l y used
in m a n y parts of Europe and can still be f o u n d in B a v a r i a and
other places.
T
T h e y were u s e d in place of the c h u r c h bells, w h i c h
E s m &ng&rt and E. Johanne&u, R a b e l a i s . Vol. 1., pp. 432 f.
^IMd.,
Vol.
I, p. 438.
^Rausch, p. 55.
4 I b l d . . p. 48. ' & I b i d . , p. 47.
5 Ibid.
*7
J. Scheible, D i e gute alte Z e i t (”D a s Kloster'* VI) p. 551.
S J. Bolt©, E . d . V . f . Vol. X I X (1 S 0 9 ) , p. 394.
9
K & c k und. Bohnrey, Feste und S p i e l © , p. 114.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46. }
w e r e supp o s e d to have
Mgone t o R o me," f r o m the e v e n i n g of* M a t m d y
T h u r s d & y u n t i l the S a t u r d a y before B a a t e r Sun d a y .
ber o f the older b o y s
A certain n u m ­
in the congr e g a t i o n w o u l d march, a r o u n d t o w n
w i t h rattl e r s to a n n o u n c e c h urch services d u r i n g this p e r i o d and
lat e r return d e m a n d i n g gifts of coins, eggs or bacon f o r the s e r v ­
ices t h e y h ad p e r f o rmed.^
B r u e g e l ’s ’’Klaape r j u n g e " is prob a b l y
just r a t t l i n g f or f u n In i m i tation of t he older boys h e has seen
us i n g this noisemakex*.
In B r u e g e l ’s p a i n t i n g
Ft
B a ttle b e t w e e n Carni v a l and Lent"
2
fo u r children w i t h s u c h Lenten r&ttlera are stand i n g b e h i n d the
thin w o m a n who p e r s o n i f i e s Lent.
3
hro3t
d i s c u s s e s play rattlers b r i e f l y under “Ramuselaar
on r a t a l . ”
S he r e m a r k s that they were a l s o u s e d b y p r i m i t i v e
p e o p l e to d r i v e off evil spirits.
47. }
T o the left of the "Klapperjunare” two boys e a c h with, a
" w i n d m o l e n t j e ” (windmill}, are h a v i n g a "steekspel" (mock combat
4:
The s i m p l e s t "windjuolsntje” is made as fellows?
w i t h sticks).
a small stick is f a s t e n e d h o r i z o n t a l l y to the top of ano t h e r
stick;
the 3inall st i c k turns and h a s a p a d d l e - l i k e e x t e n s i o n at
either end.
The s e e x t e n s i o n s c a t c h the w i n d w h e n the child runs,
and the "mi1 1 ” turns.
D r o s t has a s k e t c h of this s i m p l e 11w i n d -
siolentje," w h i c h Is t he kind w e see in the picture, as w e l l as
5
d r a w i n g s of thr e e m o r e co m p l i c a t e d kinds.
S c h e i b l e ^ h a s a sketch of a f o u r - w i n g e d ”/iindmfihle,!t w h i c h
he says is s i m i l a r to one p i c t u r e d In "PetrarchS T r o s t s p i e g e l ”
(1572).
There a small b o y Is gal l o p i n g about, on his hobb y h o r s e
w i t h a "windmill" in his hand.
An e l a borate s e v e n-winded “wind7
m i l l " is shown on a n e n g r a v i n g b y v a n V e n n © (1589-1662),
and
an o t h e r f o u r - w i n g e d on© o n a print that S c h e i b l e r e p r o d u c e s (proba b l y b y van Venne also)*
T
-Ibid.
8
2
V i r g i l Barker, Pieter Br u e g e l the E l d e r , p. 13.
SDrost, p. 129.
4 X b l d . . p. 124.
5 I b i d . . p. 116, figs.
fig.
1-4.
6Scheible, D i e gate site Z e l t (nD &s Sloster" VI), p. 563.
7
Newell, frontispiece.
8
Scheible, D i e trate alte 3eit ("Das flloster” VI), p. 1106,
2 0.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
------------------------------
47.)
■5 8
|
Ra b e l a i s \names tiiia b o y i n bis list of amuse m e n t s as "Au
m o l i n s t 1’ (see T able 1, iio. 185) % O a l o m (1626) ha s “v a n molantJes.
J. Cats
(1577-1660) has a v e r s e on it in his "Kindepspel":
det k ind d a t d a a r e e n m o o l t J e n beeftI
Siefc hoe ha t over strate sareeft,
Tot; d a b !t eens een ko e l e n wind
Tot d a b *t eens ©en lixch jen vint
Tot ci&t *t een s ter d e g s n wa&yt
8 0 0 d a t d e a o o l e n oramedraay t . ^
Rochholz
d i s c u s s e s the !ta i n d m & h l e " in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
" S t e e k e n p f erd , **■ B&hme, u n d e r "windfahne.
48. )
F a r t h e r to th© left three children are p l a y i n g on a s andpile.
One of tnem, a s m a l l child, is s t i r r i n g about in the sand
and p r o b a b l y d i g g i n g a t u n n e l or b u i l d i n g s o m e t h i n g (see Mo. 24,
a b o v e ).
49.)
T h e other two c h i l d r e n s e e m to be c o n t e n d i n g f o r a h i g h
p o s i t i o n on the sandpila and are p r o b a b l y c-laving the D u t c h same
"De b e r g is mijn"'' (German;
Castle,**^ the Fr>ench:
The
0 x1©
"hurgspiel,"
English;
"King o ’ the
" I ’assaut d © la butte" or ”le roi d e t r S n e . " } 8
s t a n d i n g on to p is t h e " k i n g " 5 while d e f e n d i n g his p o s i ­
tion, h e calls out,
"De b e r g is mi;jn.”
W h o e v e r succeeds i n d r i v -
i n g h i m down, becomes "king", in his place.
bShme gives a d i a ­
logue w h i c h is sp o k e n with, t h i s gam© in Westphalia;
A.
3.
A.
B.
Q S & r g mini
»io lange is he din?
Bflt ode r morgen.
S e h e r herab, lat d e r m i v&r sorgen.
D r o s t has a s o n g w h i c h sh e b e l i e v e s w a s sung to this gam© i n the
s e v e n t e e n t h century;
^"Gock en Teirlinck, Vol. I, p. 45, ho.
O
J. Gats, huvgelvcte; " K i n d e r s p e l ,” col.
1.
IO.
Rochholz, pp. 466 f . , 23o. 93.
^Bdhme,
8
B 6 hme,
*7
Oomme,
pp. 43 0 f ., So. 29.
^Drost, p. 14.
p. 580, iio. 413.
Vol.
o
X, pp. 300 f.
8
Drost,
p. 15.
in
I b i d . . p. 14.
BBhjne, p. 580.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49. )
iiooge b e r g mijn,
doe l a n g zel Ik or op zijn?
S e v e n Jaar en een dag:
•,
Ikke d e r op en jlj d e r af.
A n ear l y s e v e n t e e n t h e e n t u p y d e s c r i p t i o n of th© game Is giv e n b y
iieyden (1632) :
D e r K n a b sehreyt aussi Ich b in d u r ckhard
Und s t a b allhie, m e i n F e i n d erwurt.
D i e a n d e r n lauffen so l a n g umb,
B i s s e i n e r a u c h 3 0 b a c h n a u f f kurnb.
Micht a n d e r s t gebt es in der 'sJelt,
D a e i n e r stebt, d e r ander ffillts
J e d e r v e r w a h r t ssinen M i 3 t h a u f f © n ,
g
Kompt e i n 3tS.rkerer, so m u s s er lauf fen.
O a l l l t a l o ’s {1682)
"Man, man, ik ben opje b l o c k h u y s i r e f e r s
to
a re l a t e d game c a lled " M adam ik koai op a b l o o t h a s t e e l . ”4
50. )
B e y o n d the sandp i l e three small girls a re p l a y i n g a game
i n which, they w h i r l a b o u t and then sit d o w n r a p i d l y so that t h e i r
f u l l skirts c u f f u p i n a wide circle about them.
C o c k a nd T e l r 5
”
•
lin c k
call this "Aalon en blaalen," also "Ballon-doen" or "B all o n spelen."
Gossk®
d e s c r i b e s the same srara© u n d e r
r?
^
‘T u r n ,” a nd H o l l a n d as
”La cage a poulets."
Drost
o
Cheeses,
thinks G a l l i -
Broat, p. 14.
B a l d i n g {p. 67 and p. 74, n. 64) gives
C o c k and T e i r l i n c k !s rhy m e (Vol. VIII, p. 281) w h i c h is only
3 l l g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m this version, as b e i n g a m o n g their list
of u n i d e n t i f i e d " A u s z & h l r e i m e . *. C o c k and Teirlinck, however,
a l s o give this almost identical f o r m in th e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the
g ame f!Madam, Ik kora op a bloot k a s t o e l ” (Vol. I, p. 109), a game
sim i l a r to "De b e r g Is m i j n . ”
2 J. Bolte, D . d . V . f . V . . Vol. A i k (1909), p. 398.
A picture
o n p. 397, also shows this game b e i n g played w i t h one b o y on the
v e r y top of a h e a p of sand or m a nure and two bays a s s a i l i n g him,
one f r o m e i ther side.
3
C o c k en Teirlinck, Vol. I, p. 55, Mo. 145.
4 I b i d .. Vol. I, pp.
108 ff.
S C o c k en Teirlinck, Vol* I, p. 207 f.
Goaaae, Vol.
II, p. 311.
*7
i£. Holland, Ri m e s et J s u x de I ’Knfance (laris, 1883),
p. 157, >.fo. 44.
This game w h e n played b y t wo groups of girls
takes on the a p p e a r a n c e o f a dance.
8
Drost, p. 32.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60
5 0 . )
t a l o ’s (1682)
s1Van d r a i j e n w i j ” m a y r e f e r to tills pastime.
61. )
Three boys have taken off ti/oir c l o t h i n g an d are e n j o y i n g
a s-.'ilm in the stream to the loft.
wings
One o f the swimmers ha s wa t e r -
(probably m a d © of ox or p i g bladd e r s ) .
A f o u r t h b o y is u n ­
d r e s s i n g on the o p p o s i t e s ide of the w a t e r f a r t h e r away.
S w i m m i n g has d o u b t l e s s b e e n one of th© m o s t p o p u l a r s u m ­
m e r pastimes
(especially w i t h boys) f o r centuries.
a u g o von
T r i a d e r g refers t o it in the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y as "ze wazze r b a d e
(gehen)."
(dee Ko« 16, above, f o r c o m p l e t e quo t a t i o n f r o m
ii. v. T r i m b e r g ’s Der R e n n e r . )
In 1508, b e r a a n n v o n Bus c h © in a
p o e m a b o u t Cologne, n a m e s s w i m m i n g as on© of the f o r m s of e x e r ­
cise pra c t i s e d b y its y o u n g people:
Aut altos a aaas © t f l u m i n a r a u c a n a t a t u
Exuperant . . . . . T
R o l l s n h a g e n (1595) d e s c r i b e s the s w i m m i n g of his day:
Vile jung g e s e l l e n su r sorranerszeit
A m wa s s s r u n d isriesen s u c h e n freud,
W i e auf d e n s c h u l e n di e s t u d e n t o n
Baden und tauchen g l e i c h d e n enten,
„
S c h w i m m e n kfinstlich w i e gens u n d schwanen.
C a l o m a lso m e n tions s w i m m i n g In his list o f children*s amuse m e n t s
(1823):
"Van s w e m m e n . >s® .
52.)
Near the w ater a small b o y has chosen a l a r g e tree u p o n
w h i c h to try his skill in climbing.
R a u s c h believes that Fischart*s
!th a s p e l n !‘ m a y refer to c l i m b i n g poles or trees:
" ’isaspeln* bes&gt
w o h l das allgameIne K l e ttern d e r Buben a u f SKume u n d an S t a n g e n
hinauf, sie es h eut© n o c h a u f d e n Jahrmlirkten d b l l c h 1 s t . fi4
The
D e u t s c h e s v*5rterbuch gives a similar m e a n i n g s h a g p e l n : 5b.) i n t r a n s i t l v . d r e h e n d e bewe g u n g e n w i e d e r h & s p e l n d © m&chenj so mit
d e n hfinden: “m a n hi e n g b i s z w e i l n unsersa d u r s t g u r g elen s u oberst
©ins thurns ©in grosz c a m e l s o i l an, da s bis u f f d i © erd reichet,
a
5
a n dem s e l b e n h a s p e l t er n i t b e i d e n hSn d e n h i n a u f . !1 (Garg. 183 .)
V.
Bolte,
E . d . V . f . V . . Vol. X I X
(1909), p. 385.
2 l b l d . . p. 389.
°Cock en Teirlinck,
Vol.
I, p. 47, So.
35.
^Rausch, p. 61.
^Deutsches wflrterbuch. Vol.
IV, col. 845.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
552 . }
It seems then,
that c l i m b i n g u p s o m e t h i n g s m a l l in diameter,
of­
ten in a sp i r a l course, was a c o m m o n t r i c k o f entertainers, but
B r u e g e l ’s b o y h a s p i c k e d a tree w h o s e
trunk is much, too thick,
he m a y be i m i t a t i n g a c l i m b i n g stunt he has see n or h e m a y be
m e r e l y climbing f o r fun, since m o s t s m a l l c h i l d r e n e n j o y climbing.
53. >
Just to the left o f the large b u i l d i n g seve r a l girls are
s i t t i n g on the ground in a. s t r a i g h t row, one b e h i n d the other.
T h e first g i r l seems to b e s m a l l e r than the others.
A tall gir l
is h o l d i n g one e n d of a c l o t h (perhaps a n apron) over th e row of
girls; one o f the g i r l s in the r o w seems to be h o l d i n g the o t h e r
end.
Two boy s w i t h m i s c h i e v o u s expres s i o n s o n their f a c e s are
s i t t i n g w i t h t heir b seks towards t h e r o w of girls.
l ieve that t h e y are taking p a r t i n the girl3*
ing a l l t hey can to h i n d e r the game.
I d o not b e ­
game but r a t h e r d o ­
T h e y are p r o b a b l y teas i n g
the girls b y i m i t a t i n g t h e m and m i g h t be called ^tiaidelsehiaeeker.
T h e girls m a y be p l a y i n g some f o r m of an o l d game c a l l e d "Koder
o M o d e r w o 1st k i n d k e n b l i e w e n ? ” w h i c h is d e s c r i b e d in a le t t e r
t o t h e Srrimai b r o t h e r s (c a . 1820) i
Da s S l t e a t e d e r Gesellschaft, d a s d i e Mu t t e r vorstellt,
setzt sie b a u f d e n Boden und n i m m t da s ^ d n g s t e (Kind) auf
d e n Sehoos, v o n d a an set s e n s i c h a l l e Clbrigen vor e l n ander
b i n in e i n e r l&ngen S.eih©, auf d e n 3oaen, zvtey An d e r e f a s s e n
e in seisses T u e h an z w e y Tnde and gehh d i e R e i h o n t l a n g bis
zur Kuttsr, w a b e y sie das T u c h fiber d i e K Spfe d e r S I t z e n d e n
w a g t r a g e n u n d bsstfindig sageri!
S c h o p k e n verkaupen, S c h o p k e n
verkaupen.
This d e s c r i p t i o n seems to fi t the game the girls are p l a y ­
i n g e x c e p t that the small child is at the b e g i n n i n g of the line
i n s t e a d of s e c o n d f r o m the end, and the girl who is h o l d i n g the
r i g h t side of the c l o t h seems to be s i t t i n g in the line instead
of w a l k i n g b e s i d e it.
Perhaps the boys w h o are i n t e r f e r i n g hav e
p u s h e d he r out of h e r r e g u l a r place.
T h e e x p l a n a t i o n of the game
in
the letter continuess The girls w i t h the c l o t h t r y to b u y a
lamb
(the y o u ngest child)
f r o m the mother, b u t she answers w i t h a
■^Rausch, p. 7, says that in A l s a c e girls w h o take part in
boys* games are ca l l e d "Bfiweschmeeker," and boys who enter g i r l s ’
games a r e '‘Kaidelschmecker. "
g
K. Schulte-Kemrci nghausan, ,fiSestfSlische Kind e r s p i e l e aus
d e m hachl&ss d e r Brfider G r i m m , ” Z f V . (M.F. ), Vol. IT (1931),
pp. 147 f.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
62
53. )
refusal and v arious excuses.
Then t h e y b a r g a i n T or one of the
other “l a m b s ” a n d are allowed to take i t away, w r a p p e d in the
cloth.
In a l i k e m a nner t h e y "buy” a n d take a w a y e a c h of the
girls in turn.
Then t h e y again t r y t o get t he smallest ehild.
The m o t h e r answers,
"lek h e b ’
o s ju g i s t e r n enfe glewen i c k hebbe
j u k e h r g i s t e r n e st giewen Ick k & n n juk alls B a g e k e l t
geiweni
The girls a n s w e r a c c o r d i n g to a cer t a i n for m u l a but often i m p r o ­
v i s e a nd add to it a t will.
Finally, t he last child is also giv e n
to the t w o girls and is hidden; t h e n a l l the others
ten L & m a e r ” ) start to sing,
("die verkauf-
"Q Kodei* 0 isoder w o ist KIndken
blle w e n , dat h e f t d e 3 c h l a n g e n und d i e ut s e n (KrSten) u p f r e t t e n . ”
T h e m o t h e r t h e n rises and searches f o r t he small child.
As s o o n
g
as it is fo u n d t h e game Is ended.
3
Cock a nd T e i r l i n c k d e s c r i b e a game v e r y s imilar to this
called “isik-nik-nere-geniktl"
here the t wo c h i l d r e n w ho are s t a n d ­
ing, hold a stick, ins t e a d o f a cloth, a n d touch e a c h one of the
players s a y i n g "Mik"? w h e n t h e y r e a c h t he small child, t h e y say,
"nero," and f o r the mother,
"genlkt."
As e a c h child Is taken out
o f the line, it is tickled b y the two cond*aeting It; I f it laughs,
It is "sen d u v e l ” (a devil), if it can ref r a i n f r o m laughing, it
Is "een engel"
(an angel).
The m o t h e r a nd child n o w h i d e , the
"angels" and “devils'* s e a r c h for them.
of the cnild,
"baguetten"
T he side that gets hold
punishes the others b y m a k i n g them r u n t h r o u g h the
(run the gantlet).
In some for m s of this gam© there is only one girl to ca r r y
on the c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the “m other" a nd to take a w a y the chil4.
It Is possible that in Bruegel*s picture,
d r e n one at a time.
t h e y a re
p l a y i n g some s u c h f o r m of the game.
The "mother" is v a r iously .known as “M u t t e r Hose," “Mutter
5
Marie," "Frau Ros," "Frau k a b n e w i n k e l . "
hand e l m a n n discusses
this game und e r "Frau R os e n 51 a nd gives a l o n g conversation used
In S c h l e s w i g - E o l s t e i n , 0 Rochholz has "Die F r a u R o s a ” and gives a
gave one
The m o t h e r ' s answer Is, "I gave one just
just d a y b e f o r e yesterday, I cannot give
%iehulte-hemininghaus©n, Z f V . , (h.F. ), Vol.
pp . 147 f .
3
Gock en Teirlinck, Vol. X, p. 158.
^BShme, pp.
539-44.
yesterday, 1
one every day."
II (1931),
^Ibid.
b !iandelffiann, pp. 56 f f ., Mo. 80.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
5 3* J
x
Swiss f o r m of the dialogue,
Z & r i c h e r also h a s n& * F r o u R o s e ” and
“Frau Holla.
Mannhardt
collected a lar g e nuaj.ber of v a r i a t i o n s of this
game in Germany, Flanders, S w e d e n and a m o n g the Slavs, i n a n e n ­
d e a v o r to prove that it was a rem n a n t of a pri m i t i v e r e l igious
rite.
He r e a c h e d the conc l u s i o n that ffFrau H o s e ’* r e p r e s e n t e d a
goddess to w h o m w o m e n addressed themselves w h e n p r a y i n g f o r o f f ­
spring.
The struggle at the e nd o f the g a m e , •he interpreted as
the contest b e t w e e n the souls of the depar t e d a nd the living.
4
Singer
c o n t i n u e d th© s t u d y of the m y t h o l o g i c a l a nd r e l igious s i g ­
n if i c a n c e of this game.
54.)
B e y o n d the "Frau R o s e ” group two b o y s are p l a y i n g w i t h
s o m e lar g e w h i t e balls.
One o f the boys see-m3 to be about to
thr o w or roll a ball toward a w a l l i n s u c h a m a n n e r that it w i l l
r e b o u n d and e i ther h it the balls a l r e a d y lyi n g on the ground, or
c o m e close to them.
this game.
"
I can find no d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h e x a c t l y fits
T he f o l l o w i n g games resemble this one, but e a c h v a r i e s
g
f r o m it in some respect.
Cock and T e i r l i n c k fs " m u u r k e - b o t s e n ”
is p l a y e d a c c o r d i n g to the p l a n s u g gested above,
but only small
objects such as marbles, nuts, and buttons are m e ntioned.
If the
second boy's m a r b l e hits the first b o y ’s, as It rebo u n d s f r o m the
wall,
the one w h o s e marble is hit, m u s t give u p o ne or m o r e of
his.
If there is o n l y the d i s t a n c e of a span b e t w e e n the marbles,
t
'j
the second b o y sins some ad v a n t a g e also.
B & h m e ’s
"A n s c h l a g e n "
7
•
Is similar to " m u u r k e - b o t s e n . ” S t r u t t
has t wo sketches of f o u r ­
t e e n t h ce n t u r y b o w l i n g I n w h i c h ninepins are n o t used, but Instead,
^ R o c h h o l z , pp. 436 f ., Ho. 57.
O $
Z&v ichor, Kinder lied u nd Jiinderspiel i m K a n ton Born,
pp- 126 f ., 2sos. 975 and 976.
;
‘
n
v sr<. M&nnhardt, "KInderreim© und Kinders pi ele aua Mfihrea,K
K e i t s c h r i f t fftr d i e ffiythologie. Vol. IV (1859), pp. 354 ff.;
G e r m a n i s c h e M y t h a n . pp. 273-321, "Frau Rose, G-dde, 3$1®. “
4
5. Singer, A u f s M t ze und Vortr&aret D e u t s c h e K i n d e r a p i e l o ,
pp. 11 ff.
•
6 Coek e n Teirlinck, Vol.
^BShm©, p. 602, Iso. 463.
V, p. 117.
^Btrutt, p.
267.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
54. )
large balls
(like the ones i n B r u e g e l ’s picture)
the ground.
are rolled. e.long
however, here one b a l l is r o l l e d d i r e c t l y to w a r d
a n o t h e r an d is n o t f i r s t b o u n c e d a g a i n s t a wall.
55. )
In f ront o f the two b o y s m e n t i o n e d above
(In ao, 54) a
c h i l d w i t h his h e a d ben t d o w n is e i t h e r s i t t i n g or s q u a t t i n g n e a r
t h e wall.
There is a p o s s i b i l i t y that t h e two boys are b o u n c i n g
t h e b a l l s n o t o n the w a l l out o n this c h i l d ’s head, w h i c h seems
to be padded.
If this child Is n o t a part of the game d e s c r i b e d
in ho. 54, he or s h e is e i t h e r h a v i n g a bowel m o v e m e n t or u r i n a t ing.
(Sixteenth c e n t u r y artists f r e q u e n t l y o v e r s t e p p e d the bounds
of what is c o n s i d e r e d p r o p e r t o - d a y . )
56.)
On the s m o o t h p aved s u r f a c e of the ope n p o r c h w i t h the
p i l l a r s and p o i n t e d ar c h e s
(on the left side of the large b u i l d ­
ing) a number of b o y s are s p i n n i n g top3»
B r u e g e l has h e r e i l l u s ­
trated three d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f tops, just as in his painting,
jl
*'B a t t l e b e t w e e n C a r n i v a l and Lent."
The top f a r t h e s t a w a y is
t all and slender a n d Is b e i n g d r i v e n b y a single strand whip.
( P robably two boys a r e s p i n n i n g this t y p e — one b o y Is only p a r t l y
visible.)
To
the left a b o y is w h i p p i n g a t h i c k e r t o p w i t h a
d o u b l e strand
whip. T w o
boys to the r i g h t are s p i n n i n g
pear-
s h a p e d tops:
one b o y w i t h a cord In hi s h a n d is w a t c h i n g his t o p
spin,
w hile the
second b o y w i t h a top in his uplifted right h a n d
Is about to hur l his top- to the f loor so as to set it in motion.
T h e f i r s t two
k i n d s of tops m e n t i o n e d above are classed b v D r o s t
f?
^ p»
u n d e r “d r i j f t o l 54 (driven top) a n d th© t h i r d one is a ”prIktol"
or "werptol"^ (thrown top).
on w h i c h they r o t a t e . &
B o t h kinds h a v e a.met a l l i c p o i n t u p ­
The ’’d r i j f t o l ” is c y l i n d r i c a l on top a n d
c o n i c a l on the bottom, w i t h & groove b e t w e e n the t w o p a r t s . 0
It
Is set In m o t i o n either w i t h the f i n g e r s or It Is i>lac©& on the
7
gr o u n d a n d w h i p p e d Into action.
It i s k e p t i n m o t i o n a,s l o n g as
1
Barker, P i e t e r B r u e g e l , p. 12.
^Ibid.
5 l b i d . . p.
^Cocte e n
145.
Teirlinck, Vol.
2
Drost, p.
140.
V, p s 149.
° I b l d . . p. 150.
7 l b i d . » pp. 166-68.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.
5 6 . }
p o s s i b l e or d r i v e n to a c ertain g o a l b y m e a n s of a whip, w h i c h
consists of one o r s e v e r a l cords f a s t e n e d to a 3tiek»^
The
"priktol," p r o b a b l y a l a t e r development, is p e a r - s h a p e d and has
o n its s o m ewhat r o u n d e d top, a s mall kno b
ca l l e d (in D u t c h )
a "non.”
("knopje") soraetlines
Cock and T e i r l i n c k d e s c r i b e in d e ­
tai l ho w to w ind a cord about this k i n d of top an d how, forcibly,
2>
to rele a s e the top so as to set i t i n motion.
The r'priktol!* is
u sed in v a r i o u s ways;
to h i t anot h e r top p l a c e d i n the center o f
a circle or to d i s p l a c e a s p i n n i n g top, m a r b l e s
or coins* “
The
b o y to the r i g h t seems to be aiming a t the s p i n n i n g top w i t h his
"p r i k t o l . " S
Tops are of v e r y ancient origins
S c h l i e m a n n f o u n d clay
tops in e x c a v a t i n g the third stratum of Troys tops f o u n d i n Pomp ei i are n o w to be see n i n the M u s e u m of Naples.
T h e top vs&s
k n o w n to the Gr e e k s as "strom-bost! or " s t r o b i l i s ”
8
R o m a n s as " t r o c i n a ” o r "turbo."
and to the
A m o n g the "Distichs o f G a t o ” w h i c h wars t ranslated into
G e r m a n b y s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t authors d u r i n g the Mi d d l e Ages, we
Q
find the f o l l o w i n g admonition;
"Tro c h o lude, aleas fuss."
1G
Z i n g e r 1©
gives us a t ranslation of this i n t o M i d d l e h i g h German;
Z u o s p i l d i r einen d o p begad©,
v o n arurfslspil d i r komt schade(D e r D e u t s c h e C a t o * ed. F. Zarn c k e
11852], f r o m a f o u r ­
t e e n t h c e n t u r y version, p. 165.)
1
3
I b i d . , p. 156.
2
Drost, p. 140.
Goc k e n Teirlinck, Vol. V, pp.
160 f.j a s k e t c h is also
given.
^ D r o s t , p.
141.
C*
Coc k e h Teirlinck, Vol. V, pp. 165 an d 167, h a v e prints
of e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the "werptol" and the "dr y f t o l . "(1719.
^ G o c k © n Teirlinck,Vol.V, pp. 158 f . T h e y add that in m o r e
recent times the s p i n n i n g of tops nag bee n common in Egypt, Asia
Minor, China, Burma, Siam, Korea and a m o n g the Gjlbwaya of Morth
America.
7
Siehrhan, D e u t s c h e s Kinder 11 ad und K i n d e r s p i e l , p. 65.
® K i l i a e n (1599), p. 555 u nder "top, dol. ’* In the "Antw e r p s c h e B i b l i o p b i l e n " edit i o n of K i l i a e n ’s s y n o n y m s under "Troeho
lttdere" (Vol. X XIX, p. 181), we fin d that "troch.ua" m a y also refer
to a h o o p (draei-rad, boepelspel).
Q
Gock en Teirlinck,
Vol. V, p. 157.
1O
Zlngerle, p. 27.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
5 6. }
Vi r g i l d e v o t e s six lines or bis A e n e i d (VII, 378} to a d e s c r i p t i o n
of the spinning o f tops.
D r y d e n ’s t ranslation of this pass a g e
reads as follows s
As y o u n g striplings w h i p the top f o r sport,
On the s m o o t h pavement of an e m p t y court;
fiie w o o d e n engine wiiirls and flies about,
Ad m i r e d w i t h clamours of the b e a r d l e s s rout,
T h e y l a s h aloud, e a c h o t h e r t h e y provoke,
A n d lend t heir little souls at ® v * r y stroke.
Mid d l e hisjh German poets r e f e r r e d to t h e t o p as " t o p f n
o
and m e n t i o n e d the w h i p w i t h w hich the top saa driven.
Wolfram
von Esch e n b s c h w r i t e s :
h i e heIt d i u gelsalj^dort d e r topf:
iatz kint in um'ae fcriben.
(U . v. hschenbaeh, P a r a i v a l
1 1 9 2 6 j, 150, 16.}
Lea. 1 2 1 0 j, ed. K. L a c h m a n n
In the anonymous p o e m "Von d e m iibelen sseibe” (written I n ‘
T irol,
c a , 1 m 4Q) a m i s t r e a t e d hu sb a n d compares h i m s e l f to a top that Is
b eing la s h e d a b o u t !
as gewan n i e toiofe
v o r geiseln sol h e n umbeaw&ne,
als sit mich. §ne rsxnen d a n c
niit slegen umb und urnbe treip
W
/*»
,
(Von d e m U b e l e n W i b e . ad. M o r i s h&upt 11871], p. 53,
.
11. 692 ff.) = (l>ie bbse Frau, Z w q ± A l t d a u t s c h e S c h w & i k e .
ed.
S. S c h r B d e r
1 1 9 1 9 J, p. 34, 11. 6 9 2 f f .}
It I s said that E l i s a b e t h of T h u r i n g i a (1207-1231)
gave toys to
the children w h o m she befriended:
Allerhand© kinderspil,
Kr(ia®ln, fingerl^Tne vll.
Di gersachet w a r d e n
Von glase unde ouch us s rden
Unde a n d e r c l e lnode gnuc.
(D l a t l s k a . ed. C. G. G r a f f
heilige Elisabeth"
11826], I, S o o k 3, IX,
[ea. 1300], pp. 38 9 f .)
m e a n s tops.
The “’N B r d l i n g e r Splelgesets**
game p e rmitted to the c h i ldren
SchwarK
Gonna©, Vol.
(see wo.
_
la, p. ,301.
her© ''kruseln11
(1426) m e n t i o n e d tops as a
18, above)
(1550) speaks of the "iiurrtsusse11
1
"Die
2
and V eit
3
(hornet),
w h i c h is the
lingerie, p. 27.
S3c heible, Die rate sit e halt (f!l)as K l o s t e r , " VI), p. 560.
(The entire q u o t a t i o n is given a bove In No. 18).
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout permission.
67
56.
),
same as a "Brummkreiael" (humming-top).
Junius h as " T urbo” . .
. . MA1. Topffj B. Top, tol, nonnej Gal, Toupio, sabot, t r o m p e ;
It. Trotolo, pirlo; tiisp, Trompo, peonc a . "
t ion or J u n i u s
F l e m i n g ’s t r a n s l a ­
(1585) has "a top, g ig or n u n . 1*6
K l l i a e n ^ under
" T u r b o , ” h as "top, toppe, dop, doppes drol, v e t .t tol, holl.
s i e s m b .. dol; katerol, fland.
. . . .
drij f - t o p ,
L o u a n .“
o r i e n t , kosel, d s u s o l 3 s a x , nonne
Under " T r o c h u s ” he lists m o s t of the
same terms given above with, the a d d i t i o n of "torneel,
v e t , vvorptol;
s a x , ro m m e l © v e t ” ; u n d e r "Trochus o b t u a i o r '1 he h as "nonne, d r i j f H
^
top, L o u a n " ; u n d e r "Trochua missilis,
h e has "ljs-dop, i j s - t o p . ,<c>
Rabelais has
"Au ronflart,
"A l a t r u m p ©
14
and nAu m o y n e ,"*3 w h i c h
ref e r to d i f f e r e n t kinds of tops (see T a b l e 1, was.
140).
"Au p i r e v o l l e t ” (&o. 129 in Table
1
138, 139, f-nr>
) sometimes refers to
a top that can b e m a d e to leap f r o m the pavement or fl o o r to o n e ’a
7
h a n d without ceasing to spin.
llsc-hart has six d i f f e r e n t e x ­
p r e s s i o n s f o r topsi "Sber d as k r e i s s l e , ” "Den klos u n d tox>f w e r fen, H " T o p f s t e c h e n , !! " K l o s z s t e c h e n , " "barnsus"
(also ’’h u r r n a u s s " )
and
"h&bergalss z i e h e n 11^ besides three e x p r e ssions p a t t e r n e d a f ­
ter
the three terms used b y Rabelais i n r e f e r r i n g t o tops.
T ab l e 1, Xos.
138,
(Sea
133, and 140.)
An I n t e r e s t i n g s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e s c r i p t i o n of the
gam© is given b y Jacob Cats {1577-1660) J
■^Rausch, p. 70, expla i n s that "ijurn&uss” and " h a b e r g a i s s ”
r e f e r to "Brunamkrelsel. ** Bolt© (A . d . V . f . ¥ .« Vol. XIX 119091,
p. 339) has a v e r s © w h i c h d e s c r i b e s this kind of top (1632);
hiIff Oott, w le sehreyt d ie kabergelssI
WIe bru x m e t sie, dass, wers nieht weiss,
Maynet, es s e y ©in rfunderthier.
2
Junius,
^oiEonclator (1619), p. 257.
sJunius,
itoiaenclator. trans. into .English b y J o h n illgins
(London; 1585), p. 297.
4
iCiliaen, An t w e r p a c h a B l b l i o p h i l e n , Vol. X X I I (1902),
p. 187.
5 Ibld.
^Fsaiangart and X. Johunneau, R a b e l a i s . Vol. I, p. 428,
state that ”Au moine" d o e s not a l w a y s r e f e r to the top.
Rausch,
p. 26, r e f u t e s their statement.
7
La m a n g & r t and -s.. Johanaeau, R a b e l a i s . Vol. 1, p. 425.
8
Rausch, pp. 70 and 72.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
lie tol draeyt lu s t l g op ae vloer,
Se geesselt met een v l n n l g s n o s r
JSn hoe det lemant h a r d e r slaat,
eioe dat h y beter omrne gaat:
M a a r leat de sweep een w e l n i s af
S o valt h y neder i n he t stof
iSn doet voort&sn niet eens k e e r
M aer Is een blok voor i mmer m e e r . 1
57. )
i
i
In the se c o n d s t o r y of* the large h ouse a small child Is
h o l d i n g a s t i c k out of the window; a l o n g paper* o r cloth s t r e a m e r
is f l u t t e r i n g f r o m the stick.
This c h i l d is p r o bably i m i tating
s o m e t h i n g he has seen--perhaps he is “f i s h i n g , " or he m a y be
m e r e l y w a t c n i n g the p a p e r wav© a b o ut-In the breeze.
58.)
To
the right of this chi Id is a s e c o n d
we see a l a r g e r
wi n d o w in w h i c h
b o y w h o is h o l d i n g a ba s k e t a n d
(?) out of the window.
a pair of shoes
A second basket seems to b e suspended o n
a cord or w i r e w h i c h r uns alonj? the wall.
In iiruesal’s “Battle
o
b e t w e e n C a r n i v a l and Lent*1 & ba s k e t is l i k e w i s e h u n g out •of a
window.
h a b e r l a n d t comments on this briefly:
“das s k ein h u g der
b e t r i e b s & m e n b &u a 1 iehke1t dieses Volkes v e r g e s s e n sei-— es h&ngt
bei d e r Bod e n l u k e s i n K o r b . ”® w h e t h e r the bask e t s on these two
- p i c tures hav e the same significance,
I c a n n o t say.
f o r m of am u s e m e n t in w h i c h a ba s k e t is used.
I kno w of no
Shis b o y m a y be
merely^ p l a y i n g a joke on someone b y h a n g i n g that p e r s o n ’s shoes
a n d other b e l o n g i n g s i n the basket,
out of the window.
59. )
Three sq u a r e pieces of p a p e r are c o n s p i c u o u s l y pla c e d
above the d o o r w a y of the large h ouse and & simi l a r paper is
f a s t e n e d to the s e c o n d story w a l l of the h o u s e to the left.
T hese
p apers see m to h a v e marks or d r a w i n g s on t h e m r a t h e r than an y
1
J. Cats, b u w e l y c k : i5K l n d e r s p e l n col. 5.
Other s e v e n ­
t e e n t h eent'ary r e f e r e n c e s to the top are to be f o u n d in Bolt®,
a . d . V . f .V . , Vol. XXJi. ( 1 9 0 9 j, pp. oSS, 394, 395, an d 3S9.
Fo r d i s c u s s i o n s of the top as u s e d I n m o d e r n times see:
GutsMuths, p. 230, "Dor K r a i s e ! ” ; SBhsse,- p. 643, Ho. 554, MT o r l e n ,!
and p. 419, Ho. 6, " K r e i s o l t r e i b e n ” ; Rochholz, p. 419, ho. 37,
“K r e i s c I s e n l a g a n ” ; an d Somme, vol. II, pp. 299-303, “Tops."
“*3fV. , (is!,P. } Vol. V (1933), o p p o s i t e p.
244.
3
M
A r t h u r baberlandt, ,rD a s F&sehinsisblld de a Peter B r u e g e l
a. A . ” Z f V .. (J8.F. ) Vol. V (1933), p. 244.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
o9
59. )
w r i t i n g or print.
(In Bruegel's “Battle b e t w e e n C&x-niv&l and
1
Lent”
there are seve r a l pieces of p a p e r like these f a s t e n e d to
the second s t o r y of almost every house in view.)
T w o larger r e c ­
t a n g u l a r sheets of p a p e r w h i c h seem to h a v e w r i t i n g on t h e m ar e
p l a c e d lower on the
It i s p o s s i b l e
w a l l of the large building, n ear the doorway.
that there Is a n a n n o u n c e m e n t or a d v e r t i s e m e n t of
some sort on these tw o papers, bu t what the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the
‘ s m a l l e r pieces is, X do not know.
60.)
T o the right of the l arge b u i l d i n g f o u r
a n old
boys a r e p l a y i n g
f o r m of “ten pins, ninepins" or ’b o w l i n g . "
Fiv e w o o d e n
pins are s t a n d i n g in a straight r o w next to the wall,
two m o r e
a r e l ying on the ground and the p i n s e t t e r m a y h a v e a n o t h e r in his
Lands three boys, a snort distance f r o m the pins,
t a k i n g turns, t h r o w i n g (overhand)
are a p p a r e n t l y
a small b a l l at the pins in
order to k n o c k d o w n as m a n y as possible.
2
Drost
d i s c u s s e s the e a r l y f orms of this game ’under
"Kegelen.n
(ca.
Sh e d r a w s o u r a t tention to the p rint of V a n d o r liorcht
1580), w h i c h shows n i n e pins I n a circle w i t h a l a r g e r o r
“K i n g ” pi n in the c e n t e r . 0
here the b all la about to b e ro l l e d
toward the pins w i t h an u n d e r h a n d throw.
However,
in the same
picture, a n o t h e r f o r m of the game w h i c h r e s embles 3 r u e g e l *s r e p ­
r e s e n t a t i o n of the game even mor e c l o s e l y is to be seen.
S i x p ins
are p l a c e d n e x t to a wall, the four play e r s h a v e a t t i t u d e s v e r y
s i m i l a r to t h o s e i n Bruegel's picture, and one player seems to be
throwing at the pins overhand.
he d o e s no t hav e a b a l l in his
hand but s o m e t h i n g that resembles a pin,
b y the wall.
like the ones s t a n d i n g -
S t r u t t ^ in his d i s c u s s i o n of " K a y l e s ” (which he
says gave origin to the mo d e r n game o f ninepins)
reprints two
fourteenth, c e n t u r y r e presentations of this game,
in e a c h of w h i c h
a ”elub or c u d g e l ” is b e i n g thrown at the p i n s s e t in a straight
row.
T h e pins were also sometimes p l a c e d in t hree row s of three
each, w i t h the " K i n g ” pin in the center.
Thus, w e see that pins
of various numbers w e r e set in different formations,
that s e v e r a l
^■Friedlfinder, Pieter B r u e g e l . Plate XLIII.
2B r o s t ,
A.
pp. 88 ff.
Strutt, p. 271.
5 I b l d . , fig. 3.
i>rost, p. 89.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6 0 . )
kinds o f m i s s i l e s were used, and that, in some forms o f th© game,
an o v e r h a n d throw was used,
in others an underhand.
33hm© states that he b e l i e v e s
m a n origin, f o r the w o r d "Kegel,"
m e a n t " F f a h l ” (peg).
"Kegelsplel" to b e of Ger-
Old h i g h German,
"chegil,"
h© algo gives a M i d d l e h i g h G e r m a n r e f e r e n c e
to the g a m e :
S a a r spileti w e l l © d e r kegel
D e r sol gen t£f d en plas,
d & vlndet o r rnangen v&r sazj
(H&diger d e r hunthover,
"Ber Bchl& g e l , "
lea. 1290] ed.
F. .V. d. hagen, Gesammtabenteuer, II, -49, 11.
1184 ff.)
"Kesteln*1 w as a nother o n e o f t h e permitted, sames l i s t e d i n
the "ivBrdlinger S p i e l g e s e t s 53
the other hand,
(1423).
(See ho. 18, above.)
On
this game se e m s to have b e e n prohi b i t e d i n England
d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h century:
L oggats ia the ancient n a m e o f a p l a y or game, w h i c h is
one o f the u n l a w f u l games enum e r a t e d in the t h i r t y - t h i r d
s tatute o f h e n r y VIII:
it is the same w h i c h is n o w c a lled
k i t t l e pins, in w h i c h the boys often m a k e u s e
of b o n e s i n ­
st e a d of w o o d e n pins, t h r o w i n g at t h e m w i t h a n o t h e r b o n ©
In­
stead of b o w l i n g . 2
R a b e l a i s in his list r e f e r s to b o w l i n g as "itux gullies."
(See T a b l e 1, ho. 114.)
Galom's
“K i n d e r w e r c k "
(1626) states that
the B u t c h gam© o f n i n e p i n s o r i g i n a t e d in France.
Q.uiilxen" the gem© is de s c r i b e d as
inder "Van
follows:
Kegen q u i l l l e n in een orden,
Beffens een gopaeret worden,
All© gelden a y w e l vsel,
g
M a e r de kon i n c k ’t m e e s t e deel.
3olte
A
lists a n u mber o f s i x t e e n t h a nd s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y
r e f e r e n c e s to “Ke g e l . "
Amo n g these, it Is i n t e r e s t i n g to hot©
that the " C o n i s ” of Gomenius
5
f i v e succ e s s i v e translators
(1631) is i d e n t i f i e d w i t h "Kegel" b y
; the 1359 e d i t i o n has "aut lacta t l o
globi ad d e i i c i e n d u m eonos (das w e r f f e n d e r k u g e l d i e k e g e l zu
^Scheible, D i e gate alte Kelt ( "Das iiloster, ” VI), p. 560.
p
S trutt, p. 272, q u o t i n g £>ir Thomas Banmer.
® G o c k ©n Telrlinck,
Vol.
Ill, p. 198.
4J. dolt©-, 2».d.V.f.V . . Vol. X IX
(1909), pp. 381-414.
v I b l d ., pp. 3 S4 f.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71
6 0 .)
f e l l e n } ” an d the 1 6 8 8 edit i o n bas Mvel iaetantes gl o b u m ad conos
(schiebend d i e Kugel n a e h de n Kegeln)."
in bis h n g y c l o p e d i a
hut Job* G e o r g S e y b o l d
(16S7) has n o Latin term Tor this game, a l ­
though. b e gives tbe L atin equivalent for al m o s t e v e r y other game
be m e n t i o n s .
be m e r e l y has ”d i © b a g e l aazwierffen (zura Kesrelspiel).*1^
D i s c u s s i o n s of tbe m o d e r n forms o f tbis gam© are given
by: Cock and f e i r l l n c k (Vol.
Ill, pp. 1SS-99}, GutsMuths
(pp. 185 ff.} and B ohme (pp. 48 5 f f .)
61. }
T o tbe right of the bowlers two boys, e ach w i t h a short
s t i c k in bis r ight hand, are c o n t e n d i n g w i t h on© another.
One
b o y seems to be s h i e l d i n g a s mall bole d u g In the ground.
balding
O
b e l i e v e s tbis to be "Xallek© s l a g e n " 1’ or tb e G e r m a n n?or3check,
Kiggelschlagen, Meggern, Triebelspiel. R
D r o s t des c r i b e s tbe
e a r l y D u t c h form of "lorschek*’ as follows:
on© hollows out a
small pit in tbe ground, over w h i c h one lays a stick that has a
s h a r p point at either* end and is ten or f i f t e e n centimeters
(4 to 6 inches)
long,
s h o s v e p be g i n s the game (a ), places a lon g
s tick u n d e r tbis small one, b y m e a n s of w h i c h h e tosses the small
s t i c k or ”a n g e 2 u s !! u p and toward bis com p a n i o n (i3), wh o tries to
c a t c h It.
If 3 succeeds in c a t ching the peg, b e then throws it
f r o m the p l a c e w here be is s t a n d i n g at the l o n g e r s t i c k w h i c h A
h a 3 placed on the pit.
If ii d o e s n ’t c a t c h tbe "angelus," be
throws It f r o m the place w h e r e it fell.
In e i t h e r case, if 3
hits tbe o ther s t i c k (^ w e r p s t o k " }, h e takes A ’s place.
If 3
d o e s n ’t hit the stick, there are various other alternatives to be
carried out.
This d e s c r i p t i o n agrees w i t h what we see in tbe
pict u r e in some r e s p e c t s but the Mw e r p s t o k ” is n o t laid across
the pit.
A d e s c r i p t i o n of tbe A m e r i c a n f o r m of this game agrees
w i t h the game p i c t u r e d b e t t e r than a n y B u t c h -or G e r m a n d i s c u s s i o n
2)
I have read.
Ne w e l l
calls tbe gam© ‘’Cat*1 and des c r i b e s It as
2
i b i d . , p. 404.
O o m eniua in bis Janus, aurea liagaarim
r e s erata ev i d e n t l y chose " c o n u a 15 as tbe t r a n s l a t i o n for " K e g e l , ”
even though, at least as f a r as I have been able to ascertain,
the Ho m a n s d i d n o t p l a y a gam© o f " G o n i .!!
2 0ock a n Teirlinck,
Vol. Ill, pp. 56 ff.
**B5hme, pp. 61S f., No, 492,
Newell,
p. 186, Mo,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
142,
72
61. }
follows:
Tii© " c a t ” Is a little billet of wood, about f o u r inches
long, a nd po i n t e d at the ends, w h i c h is to be s t ruck w i t h a
light stick.
A player stands at a little d i s t a n c e a nd e n ­
d eavors to thr o w this m i s s i l e into a hole or circle p r e v i ­
ously made.
.Another stands o v e r the circle, and de f e n d s it
w i t h hla s t i c k . If the cat falls in the circle, the b a t t e r
is out.
If, on the other hand, It fal l s out of the circle,
h e has the right o f m a k i n g a stroke.
P l a c i n g the cat w i t h i n
the circle, he h i t s It on one end -with his bat; and, as it
b o u n d s upwards, endeavors to strike It as f a r a w a y as p o s s i ­
ble.
If the cat I 3 caught, h e is out; otherwise, he is e n ­
titled to score a number, p r o p o r t i o n e d to the d i s t a n c e w h i c h
the cat has b e e n struck, estimated i n jumps or footlengtha.
S e w e l l adds that this game is n o w played In hindostan,
as w e l l as
In Italy a n d G e r m a n y . ”
Upon close s c r u t i n y one can see s o m e t h i n g that looks like
a small ball on the ground near the pit.
If there a c t u a l l y is a
b a l l there,
be d i f f e r e n t f r o m the
the game would, of necessity,
one d e s c r i b e d above.
It w o u l d p r o b a b l y be s o m ethins like the
m o d e r n i c e - h o c k e y game In w h i c h one side tries to place a b a l l or
d i s k (called the "puck") i n a certain goal w h i l e the o t h e r side.
strives to p r e v e n t this.
However, in h o c k e y a h o o k e d stick called
o
t h e " h o c k e y ” is u s e d a nd a n u m b e r of people u s u a l l y play.
JSamang&rt and E. J o h anne&u d e s c r i b e R a b e l a i s ? "A la t r u y e ” as follows:
"a chasser une b o u l e dans un t r o u avec u ns sort© d e cross© ou
■2
p e d u m nominee ricoche."
(See T a b l e 1, iso. 107.)
This d e s c r i p t i o n
seems to a p p l y p a r t l y to h o c k e y a nd p a r t l y to a v e r y w e l l kn o w n
A
&
old G e r m a n game, "Sauball o d e r Moronj&gen. **
Regis
seems to
h a v e a c c e p t e d this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "A la t r u y e ” for h e t r a n s ­
lates **A la truye" as "Eur S a u , M w h i c h h e e x p l a i n s as follows:
"Man spielt ©s suf siiesen; eina K u g e l muss salt e l n e r KrfLcke oder
si n e m Er u m m s t a b in sin E o c h ae a t o s s e n w a r d e n . 11
In Bfthme’s d e ­
s c r i p t i o n of "MBckeles Oder Mickeies," a S w a b i a n f o r m of " S a u b a l l , "
R a b e l a i s * "A 1 * a r c h e r t r u , n w h i c h the E n g l i s h tran s l a t o r
h a s rendered as "stick a nd h o l e , 51 m a y r e f e r to this game.
(See
Tab l e 1, No. 89) "Ee h a t o n n e t “ and "la jeu d a c h a t ” are the m o d e m
F r e n c h terms.
(See Srost, p. 91.)
2
(5-osme, Vol. I, p. 215.
3
Esmangart and E. Johanne&u, R a b e l a i s , pp. 418 f ., n. 88.
pp. 612 f ., iso. 483; Ro c h h o l z , pp. 395 ff., So.
14, "Moor-um, . . . . Murmelis, B o h n i s l o c h ” ; Gowune, Vol. II,
pp. 209 f ., "Sow In the K i r k . ”
is, Vol. 11^, p. 104.
^B8hme, p. 613.
J
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61. )
& number* of boys s tand in a circle, e a c h bas a pit w h i c h he
g uards w i t h & small s tick and a b o y in the center tries to drive
a ball,
the
"Mfiekel,” into one o f t h e pits.
If the d r i v e r s u c ­
ceeds, the b o y into whose pit the w£5Bckel” is driven, becomes the
next
"MSekel-Scblfiger."
F I s c h a r t called thi3 game "Fudum, der
M o r ist im K a s s e l . A l t h o u g h we d o not h a v e a n u m b e r of boys
s t a n d i n g in a circle,
in the picture, B r u egel*s two boy s m a y be
p l a y i n g a si m p l e f o r m of “S a u b a l l . ”
62. )
F a r t h e r d o w n the street a n u m b e r of boys are grouped about
some little pits d u g i n the street.'
‘"here are f o u r of these
h o l e s (perhaps m o r e that cannot be seen) in a s t r a i g h t row.
A
b o y at thi s end is a b o u t to throw a ball into on e of the holes
and the others are w a t c h i n g closely*
This s eems to be the e a r l y
D u t c h same w h i c h D r o s t calls " p e t j e b e l l ” and d i s c u s s e s under
2
“h e g e n p e t t e n " (nine holes).
her d e s c r i p t i o n of ’'petjehall” is;
A n u m b e r of h o l e s are d u g in the ground,
one fo r e ach player.
F r o m a certain d i s t a n c e one of the play e r s throws a b a l l int o on©
of the pits.
T h e owner of tbe hol e
(“p u t j e ” ) i nto w h i c h the b a l l
rolls, m u s t p ick up the ball q u i c k l y and throw it at o n © of his
companions, w h o ar e n o w r u n n i n g away.
If h e hits someone,
s tone i s p l a c e d I n the pit o f the one wh o was struck.
m isses, a stone Is placed I n his own “p u t j e . ”
Coc k and Teirllnek,
w h o d i s c u s s the same game under "Futtekenbslleken, "*
point,
a small
If he
add., at .this
that h e w h o is first to get & certain n u m b e r o f stones in
his pit, is subject to a p r e s c r i b e d puni s h m e n t
or some s u c h penalty).
X
Wehrh&n,
In BtShme’s
(running the gantlet
v e r s i o n of the game,
s'Lochball
p. 61.
o_
D r o s t , pp. 61 f ., co n s i d e r s "petjeball" c l o s e l y rela t e d
to “Sfine-holes, ** in w h i c h nine h o l e s in a certain f o r m a t i o n are
d u g in the ground; e a c h h o l e has a c o n t a i n v a l u e (as a goal), the
one in the m i d d l e co u n t s the most.
" N i n e - h o l e s ” seems (in E n g ­
land) t o be a n o u t g r o w t h of ”N I n e - p i n s , " for S t r u t t (pp. 274 f .)
.says:
"Nine-holes, . . . .
p r o b a b l y revived a bout 1730, as a aucc e d a n e o m f o r skittles, w h e n the m a g i s t r a t e s ca u s e d the skittle
grounds In a n d n e a r London to be leveled, and. the frames removed,
hence som a s a y the gam© of n i n e - h o l e s w a s called '’Bubble the j u s ­
t ice," on til© s u p p o s i t i o n that it could not be set a side b y the
justices, b e c a u s e n o s u c h p a s t i m e was nested in the p r o h i b i t o r y
statutes.**
3 C o c k en Teirllnek, Vol. Ill, pp. 116-26.
^B6hme, pp. 611 f . , rla. 482.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
6 1 . )
(LSchliballen, Sfceoklsgptoll^s}” , the first a tone p l a c e d in a pit
is called "die F r a u , 18 the f o l l o w i n g ones,
"die Kinder"; the loser
here, m u s t c lean out all the pits w h i l e his p l aymates are b e a t i n g
him with knotted handkerchiefs
("Plumpsficke").
This
game ia s o m e ­
times p l a y e d w i t h caps laid o n the ground in p l a c e o f the pits
and is t hen k n o w n as " M & t s e n - o d e r K a p p e n b a l l . C o c k a n d T eirl i n c k 2 b e l i e v e that G a l o m ’s (1626)
"Ter Kuyl-spel" refers to
"Salleken in d e n h o e d " (K a p p e n b & l l ).
The f o l l o w i n g quo t a t i o n f r o m H ugo vo n Trim.be rg (1347)
m i g h t refer to this game.s
Si li-rent h i e r e n t e als d i u k i n t ^
d i u grttebelJn grabent an d e r strasens
(H. v. frimberg, D e r R e n n e r , sd. G. hhrismann,
II,
11. 11 , 4 2 5 f.)
however, it is f a i r l y certain that "grdebelxn" r e f e r s to "Grfibii,"
a m a r b l e "£.ie i n w h i c h eac h p l a y e r tries to throw a h a n d f u l of
m a r b l e s into a pit d u g I n the street.
4
F I s c h a r t * s “dss Spfibeleins.”
3
The same is true of
63. )
In the m i d d l e of the street farther down, s i x c h i l d r e n
ar e plsying a lively game.
Two of the m are h o l d i n g o n t o a rope,
two of the others see m to b e teas i n g the one at this end o f the
r o p e and the others are b e i n g chased a w a y b y the one at
o ther end o f the rope.
the
T h i s seems to b e som e for m of the Ge r m a n
game "BMrentreiber" or "Teufel a n d e r K e t t e . " ^
In the l a t t e r the
" T e u f e l ” has h o l d of one e n d o f a r ope w h i l e his he l p e r has h old
of the o ther end.
T h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n r u n about t e a s i n g a n d h i t ­
ting the "devil," wh o is n o t permitted to d e f e n d himself.
ever,
How­
the h e l p e r tries to prot e c t him, a n d I f he catches one of
the tormentors,
that child m u s t then b© th® helper, w hile the
~*T b i d « , pp. 609 f., No. 478; R o c h h o l a
u n d e r " K a p p e n s p i e l , M p. 3SS, ho. 7, and u nder
p. 3 9 8 j No. 15; V ern&leken a n d Br&nky, S o i e l e
in Oesterreicfa, d e s c r i b e it as " K i n d l i n g , ” p.
calls it "Ball an d Sonnets," Vol. I, p. 14.
2C o c k en Teirllnek,
d i s c u s s e s this game
" S t o c k l e g r d e b l i g s , !i
und E e l m e d e r Kinder
9, ho. 10; Somme
Vol. Ill, p. 125.
3Hochholz, p. 422.
5S»hffie, pp. 597 f., Mo.
4I b i d .
450.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75
S 3. )
o r i g i n a l p r o t e c t o r b e c o m e s the "devil.**
this gam e are g iven b y R a c hholz
(p. 445, M o . 6 7 J, G u t3Muths
(pp. 272 f . ) an d Gonzme ( Vol. I, pp;
"Badger the Bear,"
S i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s of
12 f . , 98, and 145 f. u n d e r
" Doncaster Cherries" an d ,eF r o g i n the Middle").
This game is a l ater d e v e l o p m e n t of the game k n o w n to
the Cr e e k s as "Chytrinda" and d e f i n e d b y Junius:
anu3 sedet vellicatur,
" G u m qui m e d i -
pungitur aut f e r i t u r a cireumcu r s a n t i b u s
d o n e e ab ©o p r e h e n s u s quispia eiua v i c e s subit.
3. B i e r k e n s o s t
vel pruymen eaten.”
I n his d e s c r i p t i o n there is n o p r o t e e t o r
f o r the one b e i n g teased.
(See d i s c u s s i o n of " r u c z b i r n , “ .game
No. 38, above.)
Drost
2
b e l i e v e s that C a l o m ’s
(1626) "Twee a e n een k o r t 14
r e f e r s to "Teufel an d e r Kette," a n d that P i 3 c h a r t * 3
schdtteln"
"Bierenbaum
(which R & u s e h has e r r o n e o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h "Au
p o i r i e r , " s t a n d i n g on o n e ’s head) is the game "Gfaytrinda1'' o r
"B i e r k e n s o e t ."^
64. )
A boy is trying to w a l k u p a s t e e p cellar d o o r b y the
“
4
5
s ide of the building.
B a l d i n g says
that A l l e m & g n ©
also p i c ­
tures
"i/ian&laufen," thu s giving us a n o t h e r s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x ­
a mple of this d i f f i c u l t pastime.
65. )
F a r t h e r d o w n the street n e a r th© h ouse two boys are d o w n
on the ground p o m m e l i n g one another.
t h e m b y pouring, some w a t e r u p o n
A w o m a n is trying to s top
f r o m a n e a r b y window.
B offmann v o n P & l l e r s l e b e n in his notes on the f o u r t e e n t h
c e n t u r y D u t c h p o e m "Beghinael" comments on the w o r d
as follows:
"Rlngen, swei ra n g e s m i t einander,
"worstelen"
bis e i n e r z u
B o d e n fl’el o d e r u n t e r l a g — w a r so l n u r b e i S i r a e s s e a ods r s o n s t i g e n
A n l S s s e n xiblich, w e n n d i e j u n g e n S u r s c h e a vers chi ed e n e r B o r f g e xaeinden ihre Krltfte z e i g e n w o l lten."
This r e f e r s to wrestling,
and p o s s i b l y B r u e g e l ’s b o y s are i m i t a t i n g some w r e s t l e r s t hey
1
O
Junius, M o m e n c l a t o r <*1519), p. 253.
Drost, p. 13.
3
4
XbicU o p« IX* n. 3*
imiding, p* 71.
S
B. R. Allemagne, histoire des Jouets. S p o r t s et jeux
d ’adresae. R e c r e a t i o n s et P a s s e - t e m p a . I d i d no t have access to
this book.
B. v. Fstllerslebon,
horae Belsrlcae„ Vol.
VI, p. 178.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76
65. )
h ave see n at a fair o r “Ki r m e s s . "
ever,
It is eve n mor e likely, how-
that t h e y are s e t t l i n g some d i f f e r e n c e of opinion or are
t r y i n g to see w h o is stronger.
S c h u l t z says,
I!S c h l £ g e r e l e n w e r d e n u a t e r de n K n a b e n woh l
aucii eln Bauptvergnfigan ausgeasacht liaben.
Chronicles
he quotes a Latin
"aecidit ut in ludo, qui v o c a t a r puerorum,
cui Ipse
(siiicinannus c a n o n i c u s ) intorer&t, p u e r qui d a m consul o a t u s K o r e r e tur. “
This s t r u g g l e seems to have b e e n f a t a l for s o m e o n e but,
In general, b o y s ’ t u s s l i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r was p r o b a b l y co-sxaon
a n d I n n o c e n t enough.
Luther
(1524) in a d d r e s s i n g the c o u n e i l m e n
of G e r m a n cities wrotes
Sleyn m e y n u n g 1st, das m a n d i e k n a b e n d e s t a g e y n stund
o dder zwo l&sse zu so l c h e schule gehen . . . . .
3 r i n g e n sie
d o c h sonst viol z e h e n m a l so viel seyt z u mi t K e u l i e h e n
schiessen, bal l spielen, lauffen und raismelln.2
BBiraae e x p l a i n s “R a m m e l n ’* thuss
"Das g o g e n a n n t e
’S a a ^ e l n ’ oder
S a l g e n d e r K n a b e n m i t e i n e n d e r ist d e r e r s t e Versuch, d i e Kraft
g e s e n s e ! t i g z u m o s s e n ; w o n u r eln paar k l e i n e Kerle steiian, so
gehts b a l d e.n d i e s © h a r m l o s e Keekers!, inn
w i r d ’ fiber d e n anderns
sehen,
’w e r Kerr
es 1st das pr i m i t l v s t e X ampfspiel.
.}
66
On the r i s h t h a n d side of the 3 t reat two b o y s ar e u s i n g
th© w a l l of a b u i l d i n g I n p l a y i n g a game w h i c h In D u t c h is called
"Bp&nbotten."
A coin Is t h r o w n a g a i n s t a w a l l In s u c h a way
that it bounces back;
like manner,
a se c o n d player t h e n throws his coin In a
tryIng to hit the f irst c o i n or get as close t o It
as possible.
T h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n th e coins is m e a s u r e d with,
the hand, a span b e i n g as fa r as one c a n reach, w i t h o n e ’s f i n g e r s
s tr e t c h e d out.
Guram©0 u n d e r “b a n g e r 1* h a s & s k e t c h of a h a n d
s p a n n i n g th© d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t w o coins.
In B r u e g e l ’s p i c t u r e
It looks as t h o u g h a short m e a s u r i n g s t i c k w e r e b e i n g u s e d i n ­
stead. of the hand.
G o c k and Tairllnck*3 d i s c u s s this gam © u n der
■^Alwin Schultz, D a s hSfia c h e L a b a n . Vol. I, p.
155.
2J. Bolt©, & . d . V . f . V . , Vol. X I X (1909), p. 385, f r o m
Luth e r s »srke" W e i marer Ausgab©, XV, 47, 1.
^BShme, p. 425,
50oimne, Vol.
ho.
I, p.
18.
4Dro s t , p. 110.
17.
° G o c k en Teirllnek, Vol.
v, pp.
117-22.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
77
65.
"Tikkelen m e © cerisen,” one form of "Muurks-botsen"
a b o v e ), which, is p r i m a r i l y a m a rble game.
or lead and b uttons are sometimes used.
Q
game und e r 11Ansc h l e g e n (A n p l U t z o n ).!!
(see wo. 54,
however, coins,
pieces
Bfihma d i s c u s s e s this
S e v e r a l refer e n c e s to games s imilar to '’S p a n b o t t e n 1' are
to be found in e a r l y D u t c h literature.
" E elan” in the f o u r t e e n t h
c e n t u r y poem uB e g h l n s & l 13 is explained b y it. von P & l l e r s i e b e n as
follows!
Hm i t ©inem S t e i n Oder b l e i e m e n >Surf acheib© n a c h einem
in d er Erde b e f e s t i g t e n Zie l e werfon,
was bei Kill sen *de cad
3
4
'stecstenen* h e l s s t . M
Drost
agrees
s c h i e t e n ’ u nd in F l a n d e r n
w i t h £L v. P&llersleben, but Oock and Teirl l n e k ^ think "keian"
m a y re f e r to the same game as "keil e n , ,f skip p i n g stones on the
water.
R a b e l a i s ’ “Au p a l e t ” (see Table 1, iSo. Ill) refers to a
game similar to "Spanbotfcen.M
Bore, a coin or d i s k to b© used as
a
goal is placed on the ground, not t h r o w n against a wall, as i n
Q
7 ~
"Spanbotten. "
R a u s c h b e l i e v e s that F i s c h & r t ’s "Des P l a t t l i n s ”
corresponds to R a b e l a i s * MAu p a l e t ," and is the same game w h i c h
h e k n o w s as <flfennjeles"
or "Blelttels.5’
R a b e l a i s ’ **Au fr a n c d u
q u a r r e a u ” (see T a b l e 1, ko. 59) is & game in w h i c h a coin is
A
th rown into squares on the ground.
9
Dr o s t
states that a m o n g the games forbidden b y various
e a r l y D u t c h statutes,
tioned.
p l a y i n g . w i t h pen n i e s was f r e q u e n t l y m e n ­
In 1567 a l aw of the Bague prohibited the pl a y i n g w i t h
”lesrpenr.ilngen 'ande muyeren. ’11(p i t c h i n g pennies at the walls).
67.)
Just b e h i n d the b o y s throwing coins or disks at the wall,
i
games?
Oock en Teirllnek,
Vol. 7, p.
121, under " P l s l e n . ”
35htrie, p. 60S, Mo, 463.
His JSos. 434 a nd 465 are related
“H U b b e l n und 3 p e n g o l n ” and "is'arfspiel m i t Bohrren.”
°B. v. P a l lersleben,
/,
Drost, p. 52.
A
7
8
Horae B e l g i c a e . Vol. VI, p.
177.
£r
O o c k e n Teirllnek, Vol.
X, p. 33.
Bsrc&ngart a nd E. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s , Vol. I, p. 419.
Rausch, p. 9.
Bsmangart and S. Johanneau, R a b e l a i s . Vol.
I, p.
^Drost, p. H O .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
409.
78
67.)
is a b o y w ho is arousing himself b y t w i r l i n g his h at about on a
stick.
.)
68
F a r t h e r d o w n the street four c h i l d r e n are m a r c h i n g in &
procession.
E a c h is h o l d i n g a stick or staff of some sort up r i g h t
b e f o r e him.
S p e a e r d e s cribes this gro u p as !'ain K inderzug,
faei
d e m d i e b e i d e n e r s t e n o i n © P a p i e r l a t e r n e s u f h o h e n S t e c k e n tragen,
wie es n o o h heut-e bei d e n n i s d e r d e u t s c h e n L & t e r n s n u m z & g e n d er
K i nder & b i i c h 1st, d i e dabei uaentwegfc i hr hied
Sonne, Mond u n d Sterne*
singsn."^
'Laterne,
Latems,
It is d i f f i c u l t to d e c i d e what
th© papers on t h e first two sticks repr e s e n t .
lanterns as S p a m e r suggests, f o r Sarta r i ,
T h e y m a y b © paper
in d i s c u s s i n g p r o c e s ­
sions in w h i c h lighted lanterns are carried, aayss
"Jetst
vielfach. p a p ierene Lampions, sonst ausgeh&ialte Rftben, Gurken oder
Kdrbisse,
in die, Geslcfater oder sonst i g e F i g u r e n (Sonne, *uond u n d
S t e r n e } © i n g e s c h n i t t e n sind*'; and,
n Oft b e g i n n e n d i e s © Lafcernanum-
zfige schon End© A u gust o d e r gar bald n a e h J o h a n n i ”
T£
has two
L a t e r n e n l i e a e p aus liibeck,
(June 24).
which he in­
t rod u c e s w i t h the r e m a r k "Wean i m Sp&tsoromer, besonders gegen
S e p t e m b e r fain d ie A b end© lange werden, z i e h e n d i e K i n d e r ei n z e l n
und s c h a a r e n w e i s © m i t bunten Fapisr lafcernen d u r c h d i© Strassers
u nd s i n g e n f o l g e n d © L i e d c h e n . ”
One o f th e s e 3ongs isi
Sonne,
ond und Sterne,
I c h gefa’ m i t raeinep Laterne,
M ei n © Lsterne ist httbscfa und fein,
D r u m geh* i c h mit ihr g&nz a l l e i n . ^
69. )
S i x c h i l d r e n in a r o w are c o ming out i n t o the street f r o m
b e h i n d th© large b u i l d i n g to the left.
E a c h Is h o l d i n g onto the
skirt or coat of th© one ahe a d of him.
D r o s t 0 believes this to
be a s inging game c&ll«<3c_w Hans J e s j o k k e n . ”
^D e u t s c h e V o l k a k u n d e . Vol.
II, p. 225.
^Sartori, Sitte und B r a u c h . Vol.
°38hme, p. 359,
S h e quotes a p o e m b y
Ill, p. 269, n.
22.
Ho. 1359.
A
Ibid.
U& r t i n s f e s t ©."
S e e also p. 432, Ko. 33,
'‘urfiZils;© m i t L a t e r n s n am
Drost, pp. 23 ff.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79
69. )
S a m u e l G o stef {1619) , which. speaks of c h i l d r e n h o l d i n g on to one
1
a n o t h e r a nd i m i t a t i n g t h e n i g h t of t h© birds.
diShm© under
"iilnten-Aahinwen” gives a vers©
” hir s c h l a , hirsenla Linberni & a l d n
w h i c h is sung b y the c-.ildren as t h e y m a r c h about.
v e r s e is completed,
end of the line.
the child at the h e a d
Each tiiae the
or the line goes to the
C o c k and T e i r l l n e k *s* s i n g i n g game wne R &ttes-
fceert” is similar to ‘'nlnten-AnhSngen" e x c e p t that at a given
s i g n a l each child l o o s e n s his h o l d on the one ahead of h i m and
f ac e s in the opposite direction,
thus t u r n i n g the h e a d of the
line i n t o t he tail and v i e © versa.
IlSck and S o h n r e y
describe
still another similar g&me called. f'*Iaafelssohwans, “ w h i c h is
p l a y e d i n Sieben b & r g e n .
The one at the h e a d of the r ow is the
" T e u f e l a k o p f ,u t h© on© at the end, the " i a u f e l s s o h s a n z .“
The
“T e u f e l s k o p f M must c a t c h the "Tsufeissch.vanz” oefore a certain
v e r s e has b e e n s u n g three times.
If he falls to do this, h e m u s t
go to the end o f the line; if he catches th© HT e u f e i s s c h s s n s , fl
t h a t child is out of t he game.
Rabelais*
**A la queue a u l o u p !l (see Table 1, No.
153) m a y
r e f e r to a gaase like B p o s t ’s “ia&nsje s j o kken," f o r Regis' explains
his t r a n s l a t i o n of R a b e l a i s ’ torsi, ifSchlEnge.ls,,s as '
“asnrsc h e i a l i c h eine Art K e t t e n - T & n a .K
70. }
In th© d o o r w a y to the right of t h e street a large girl
and a s maller cnxld are f a c i n g on© another.
s t r e t c h e d out.
S o t h have their- arms
T h e y ars p r o b a b l y s i n g i n g some song or r e c i t i n g
a r h y m e w h i c h is .accompanied b y motions.
71. j
Farther d o w n the street t o t he left sev e r a l c h i l d r e n are
r u n n i n g b e hind one another and w a v i n g the i r arms about;
the leader
has jumped u p on a stand n e x t to the h o u s e and the rest are f o l ­
lo w i n g
him.
T h e y are p r o b a b l y p l a y i n g what is n o w k n o w n as
*•13
“F o l l o w m y L e a d e r , ” the German “Gfinssmarsch," w h i c h Lew&lter and
S c h l & g e r d e s c r i b e as followss
■^hBhane, p. 507, tio. 266.
2
Cock en Teirllnek,
Vol. a.1, p. 11.
*v
4
hftok und Sohnrey, Fes t e und S p i e l © , p. 356.
1
5
wegls. Vol. II , p. 109.
Somme, Vol. I, p. 131.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
71.)
D i e J u ngen st e l l e n s i c k in langer Reihe hint ere inander
auf . An d i e B p itze koxnmt d e r b e a t e Lfiufer, w e l c h e r den
m i t s p i e l e n d e n K i n d e r n alle m B g l i c h e n Sprttnge u n d Bewe g u n g e n
voraacht, d ie die s e nac h a h m e n mfissen.
Es geht zunfichst im
langsamen Schritt, d a n n immer schneller.
Grfiben w a r d e n
ftbersprungen, a uf A n h B h e n w i r d hinaufgeklettert, w&hrend
3tets n a c h G&nseart h i n t e r e i n a n d e r gelaufen w a r d e n muss.
Derjenige, wel c h e r a m llings ten aushS.lt, w i r d b e i m n & c h s t e n
^
!G S n s e m a r s c h 5 Anfilbrers die
Schw S c h l i n g e w a r d e n verspottet.
72.)
Two children n e a r the ’’F o l l o w m y L e a d e r g r o u p
n i n g toward the houses.
are r u n ­
T h e y m a y be p laying a game of1 their own,
or t h e y m a y be r u n n i n g to join s everal child r e n seated on a bench.
The latter s e e m to be t r y i n g to crowd one of their n u mber off of
the bench.
Rabelais has two expressions for this game:
"A la
b o u t t e foyre*1 a nd "A b o u t e hors'* (see Table 1, Nos. 83 and 86).
F i s e h a r t has
’’Klbs trucken."
Rochholz
d i s c u s s e s this game b r i e f l y u n d e r "K&s drilcken”
4
and B a i d i n g
quotes K o p p (Alpenlflndische B a u e r n a p i e l e . p. 30) as
c al l i n g it "Presswurstmachen" and "Butters t r i e z l m a c h n . 11
73. )
S t i l l f a r t h e r d o w n the street a n u mber of girls are s i t ­
t ing b y the wall of a h o u s e to the right.
T h e y are w a t c h i n g two
girls w h o are s t a n d i n g b e fore them, a nd w h o are a p p a r e n t l y c a r r y ­
ing on a d i a l o g u e w i t h them or d e m o n s t r a t i n g something.
This
looks like some f o r m of Cock and T e i r l i n c k ’s^ " S t o m - e n - a m b a e h t "
in w h i c h two children s i l e n t l y go t h r o u g h the m o t i o n s of some
trade a nd have t he others guess w h a t k i n d of w o r k t h e y are p a n ­
tomiming.
The d e m o n s t r a t i o n is u s u a l l y p r e c e d e d b y a short dia-
logue s u c h as the f o l l o w i n g given b y L e w a l t e r and Schl&gers
As Potschimber, Potschamber.
Bs fJas g i b t ’s f&r ' n Bamber? (Bandwerk)
A; ‘
id'as Gutes, w as GutesJ
B: M a c h t ’s m a l alle her.
£a repre s e n t s the ones w h o are pantomiming, B, t he ones w h o
are to .guess. ]
R a b e l a i s Includes this game i n his list as ”A u x mesti e r s , "
■^Lewalter-SchlSger, p. 238.
a s imilar d e s c r i p t i o n of this game.
2Rausch,
p. 67.
BBhme, p.
554, Mo. 362, gives
3R o c h h o l z , p. 456, Ko. 83.
^Maiding, p. 72.
3Cock en Teirlinck, Vol.
bLewalter-Schl&ger,
p.
240, So.
IV, pp. 7-10.
956.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
fcSI
73. )
(see Table 1, No. 178) and R a u s c h
believes that F i c c k & r t ’s “D as
iiandwerck ausachreien" i3 a t r a n s l a t i o n of !,A u x sisetiers," but:
that F I s c h a r t was, at the same time, f a m i l i a r -with the Alsat i a n
e q u i v a l e n t of the game,
!iband,w e r k e r l e s , ” aiid that his aB e s d e i t e n s
on r o d e n 11 ("deuten ohne reden")
also refers to this game.^
doe the *s mother’ r e f e r r e d to this gam© in 1 7 3 6 in a letter
to h e r grandc h i l d r e n in iSeimar J
i ch e u o h allerlei B pieies
"Sena i c h b ei o u c h mfire, lernte
VSerelverkauf eh, Tuchdiebes, £;otzschixn-
per, Potzschemper''' and. n o o h v i e l e a r d o r s . !l
V e r n a l e k e n a nd S r e n k y
di s c u s s this game u n d e r “b andwerks-
oder S c h l a m p a m p e n s p i e l **5 H o l l a n d has it u n d e r aLes «aetiers. ,f°
74. )
B e y o n d the group of girls a b oy is c a r r y i n g a sma l l chi l d
on h is shoulders.
In D u t c h this is called !,iCoatje-kalvetje
dragon.
75.)
A group of beys f ar d o w n the street Is playing a game in
w h i c h on© of t h e m is h o l d ins: a b r o o m a nd the rest are s t a n d i n g
b e h i n d on© a n o t h e r w i t h their legs f a r apart.
balding
8
calls
this '’Fu c h s in d* Luc k a tr®ibn" and refers us to Kopp, / q p e n Igndi3c.be B a u e r n s p l e l e , pp. 28 and 50.
I d o not h a v e access to
K o p p ’s book, but the va r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f
(V a r n a l e k e n a nd Branky, p. 72, So. 25),
B © i n “ (Lewaltor a nd Sehl&ger, p. 240,
MF u e h s In's L o c h ”
"Fuchs h e r a u s auf e i a s s
No. 955),
and others that.
I h a v e r e a d d o not d e s c r i b e a n y £ ormatIon s u c h as that seen on
t he picture.
T he chief characteristics of ”Fuchs i n ’s Doah" are
the h o p p i n g about o n one l e g and the use of MPlump3Hcke. tr
It looks as t h o u g h the b o y w i t h the b r o o m Is abo u t to p u s h
1
Rausch, pp. 32 f .
2
I b i d . , p. 62.
17
^Lswalter - S c h l E g e r (p. 404) b e l i e v e that these words are
related, to th© " K a h r r e i m f o r m e l ” that b e gins ’’Schiasber wiia h i m birn.
^38hai©, p. 669.
&
Vsrnalelcen u nd Branky, B s i e l e u n d H e i m © d e r K i n d e r in
Q e s t e r r e i c h . p. 98, Mo. 22.
^Holland, Rimes et Jeux. de D ’S n f a n c e . pp.
^ C o c k an Teirllnek, Vol.
IV, pp. 327 f .
149 £.,
Ho. 21.
®balding, p. 72
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
82
75. )
it; b e t w e e n his o w n leg3 end toward cte row or boys, a h o in t u r n
will p r o b a b l y stove it b a c kwards b etween th e i r legs.
a gam© s o m e t h i n g like this, played w i t h
s.
large ball.
I have s e e n
however,
the pla y e r s were d i v i d e d into t wo groups and the a i m of the g a m e ...
w as to see w h i c h g r o u p could f i n i s h a c e r t a i n r o u t i n e first.
This
process w as r e p e a t e d u n t i l the one w ho s t a r t e d at the beginning
of the line, w as a g a i n at t-ha head of the line.
76. )
A sma l l g r o u p of p e o p l e are stan d i n g about a d o o r w a y f a r ­
ther back, to the right.
One cannot tell w i t h a ny d e g r e e of c e r ­
t a i n t y just w h a t t h e y are doing, e x cept that t h e y s e e m t o be e n ­
g a g e d in conversation.
A p e r s o n w i t h a b r o o m or s t i c k is a p p r o a c h ­
i n g them.
77. )
F a r d o w n the street several people are s t a n d i n g about a
bonfire, w h i l e a p e r s o n to the right is b r i n g i n g a large armful of
b r u s h w o o d to the f i r e and a sm a l l f i g u r e is a p p r o a c h i n g f r o m the
o t h e r side.
'This fire seems to indicate that some special h o l i d a y
is b e i n g celebrated, f o r bonfires w e r e an i m p ortant part of the
s u mmer s o l s t i e e a n d other c e l e brations in m a n y parts of Burope.
Brooms,
bundles of fcwlsrs and old casks were b u r n e d and various
X
c eremonies a n d supers t i t i o n s centered about the fires
‘'In frans.
F i a n d a r n v a r b r a n n t e m a n i m J o h a r m i s f e u e r eine mfinnlich© Strohpuppe,
g
s u f Pet r i (June
9) aine *>efblich©.”
This b u r n i n g of a straw
3
fi gure w a s s y m b o l i c a l of the conquest of w i nter or of death.
Bonf i r e s were b u i l t to celebrate v arious s p r i n g a nd summer h o l i ­
da y s so that the one i n B r u e g e l ’s pic t u r e does n ot enable us to
d e c i d e w h a t s p e c i a l d a y (if any)
is b e i n g cele b r a t e d b y the c h i l ­
dren, w h o s e e m to have taken p o s s e s s i o n of the town or at least
of the two s treets and s urrounding t e r r i t o r y shown.
B o r c h t ’a
“S p e l e n d e a p e n ” (ca. 1 5 8 0 a l s o pictures a b o n f i r e amo n g the
n u m e r o u s d i v e r s i o n s portrayed.
^Sartori, Sltfce und 3 r a u c h . Vol. XXI, pp.
225 ff.
p
Ibid., p. 237, n. 5.
R e i n a b e r g - D & r i n g s f e l d , D as f e s tliche
J a h r . d i s c u s s e s t he 'Mohazvnisfeuer,•” pp. 231-238.
3 *
\
K u c k u n d ^otnpey, ? e s t e und S p l e l e . p. 82.
•
4
Drost, fig. 3.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S3
78. j
Beyond the bonf i r e one can distinguish. t w o t i n y figures
f a c i n g one a n o t h e r in the street.
suggests)
It is possible
(as haiding^
that they are playing "holasGhneiden" or "Fingerz±ehen,-W
but one can s c a r c e l y see them wel l e n o u g h to decide.
^"Itaiding, p. 72.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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