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The implications of the community school concept for the West Louisville School

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This thesis, having been approved by the
special Faculty Committee, is accepted by
the Committee on Graduate S tu dy o f the
University o f Wyoming,
in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirements
fo r the degree
.....
Chairman o f the Committee on Graduate Study.
Secretary.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
FOE THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
By
W illiam T. L y tle
T h e sis su b m itte d to th e C o lleg e o f E d u c a tio n and th e
Committee on G raduate Study a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f Wyoming,
in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d eg ree
o f M aster o f A r ts .
L aram ie, Wyoming
19^0
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UMI
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rV1 4)
Is
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f
» I
ii
TABLE OP CONTENTS
C hapter
I
II
III
IV
Page
INTEODUCTION
1
The Problem
Delimitation
Significance
Definitions
Summary
1
2
6
7
9
SURVEY OP INPOEMATION BELATING
TOTHE COMMUNITY
I n tr o d u c tio n
B e la te d S tu d ie s
A u th o ra tiv e S ta te m e n ts
D e s c rip tiv e L i t e r a t u r e
C onclusion
11
ll+
20
22
2J
COMMUNITY SITTING
28
I n tr o d u c tio n
Schools o f th e West L o u is v ille A rea
C hurches
M isc e lla n eo u s I n s t i t u t i o n s
O ther Community A gencies
Summary
28
29
J2
35
36
37
ANALYSIS OP THE WIST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ARIA
I n tr o d u c tio n
Community Score C ards
E d u c a tio n a l Background Q u e stio n n a ire
Summary
/ ‘L
V THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
38
3®
39
^7
k$
55
I n tr o d u c tio n
P h y s ic a l and D evelopm ental C h a r a c t e r is t ic s
School A p p ra is a l by Use o f th e M o rt-C o rn ell In stru m e n t
School P r a c t i c e Q u e stio n n a ire
Summary
VI
11
COMMUNITY BECIPTIVINESS TO THECOMMUNITY SCHOOL
PHILOSOPHY OP EDUCATION
I n tr o d u c tio n
I n d ic ia o f Need
In stru m e n t f o r D eterm in in g Community E e c e p tiv e n e ss
A p p lic a tio n o f th e Community School C r i t e r i a
Summary
116686
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55
56
60
Sk
73
75
81
100
iii
C hapter
VII
Page
IMPLICATIONS OP THE COMMUIITY SCHOOL COHCEPT
POE THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
IO 3
In tro d u c tio n .
Community S e ttin g
Community A n a ly s is
School A n a ly s is
Community R e c e p tiv e n e ss
C o nclusions
IO 3
103
lOH
10^
105
107
BIBLIOGRAPHY
109
APPSHDIX
Ilk
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iv
LIST OF TABLES
T able
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
V III
IX
X
XI
X II
X III
XIV
XV
XVI
Page
INSTITUTIONAL COMPOSITION OF COMMUNITIES IN THE WEST
LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ABM, 19t+0
...........................................
JO
SCHOOL CONSOLIDATION IN THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ABM
SINCE 1 9 3 5 ........................................................
31
EXISTING SCHOOLS, PUBLIC AND PAROCHIAL, IN THE WEST
LOUISVILLE SCHOOL A B M ......................................................................
33
CHURCHES IN THE WEST LOUISVILLE A B M .......................................
3I+
EVALUATING COMMITTEE AND ADVISOBS................................................
1+2
WIST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ARM SCOEES (D eriv ed from th e West
V ir g in ia Community Score S h eet) .....................................................
kj
WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ABM SCOEES (D eriv ed from th e Iowa
Community Score S h e e t ) ......................... ' ..........................................
1+5
GEAPH OBTAINED BY IMPOSING THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE
IOWA SCORE SHEET UPON THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE WEST
VIRGINIA SCOBE SHEET...........................................................................
1+6
SCORES OBTAINED FROM THE EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND QUESTION­
NAIRE ..............................................................................................................
50
DATA GATHERING DEVICES USED IN ANALYZING THE WEST LOUIS­
VILLE SCHOOL A B M ...................................................................................
51
ENROLLMENT OF DAVIESS COUNTY SCHOOLS BY GRADES.....................
58
ENROLLMENT, BY GRADES, IN THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL AS
TAKEN FROM THE ANNUAL REPORTS 1936-37 and 1939-1+0 . . . .
59
SCORE OBTAINED BY USE OF THE MORT-CORNELL GUIDE FOR SELF­
APPRAISAL OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS (Ma.jor D i v i s i o n s ) ......................
65
COMPLETE LIST OF SUBTEST TITLES TO BE FOUND IN THE SCHOOL
PRACTICE QUESTIONNAIRE................................................................................ 67
SCORES OBTAINED BY THE USE OF THE McCALL-EERRING SCHOOL
PRACTICE QUESTIONNAIRE .........................................................................
69
OBTAINED SCORES ON THE TWENTY-THREE ITEMS OF THE MORTCORNELL APPRAISAL INSTRUMENT...................................................................71
XVII OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS REPRESENTED IN THE WEST LOUISVILLE
SCHOOL................................................................................................................... 83
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T
T able
X 7III
Page
COMMUNITY EECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL
PHILOSOPHY: I OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS........................................
S5-a
XIX POSITIVE RESPONSES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE-INTERVIEW IN­
STRUMENT ................................................................................................
85-b
XX THE PROFESSIONAL GROUP RECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY
SCHOOL CONCEPT COMPARED WITH THE MEAN EEC1PTI71NESS OP
THE ENTIEE SAMPLING...........................................................................
XXI
gj
THE PAEM OWNER GEOUP EECEPTIVENESS COMPAEED WITH THE
MEAN EECEPTIVENESS OP THE ENTIRE SAMPLING..........................
gg
THE LABOR GROUP EECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL
CONCEPT COMPARED WITH THE MEAN EECEPTIVENESS OP THE
ENTIEE SAMPLING...................................................................................
S9
THE EELIEP GROUP EECEPTIVENESS COMPAEED WITH THE MEAN
EECEPTIVENESS OP THE ENTIEE SAMPLING...................................
90
THE MINE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP EECEPTIVENESS TO THE COM­
MUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT COMPARED WITH THE MEAN RECEPTIVENESS OP THE ENTIEE SAMFLING........................................... . . .
91
XXV THE BUSINESS GEOUP EECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY
SCHOOL CONCEPT COMPAEED WITH THE MEAN EECEPTIVENESS OP
THE ENTIRE SAMPLING...........................................................................
92
XXII
XXIII
XXIV
XXVI
THE PAEM TENANT GEOUP EECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMUNITY
SCHOOL CONCEPT COMPAEED WITH THE MEAN' EECEPTIVENESS OP
THE ENTIRE SAMPLING...........................................................................
93
COMPARISON OP EECEPTIVENESS OP RELIGIOUS GROUPS TO THE
COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT .............................................................
96
COMPARISON OF EECEPTIVENESS OP THREE GRADE GROUPS TO THE
COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT..................................................................
97
XXIX POSITIVE AGREEMENT OP THE PARENTS OP THE WEST LOUISVILLE
SCHOOL TO EACH OP THE THIRTY-FIVE QUESTIONS CONTAINED IN
THE QUESTIONNAIRE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE........................................
99
XXVII
XXVIII
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
G ra te fu l acknowledgment i s made to th o se who
a s s i s t e d i n g a th e r in g th e d a ta u sed in t h i s
s tu d y , and to D r. 0. C. S ch w ierin g , Dean of
th e C ollege of E d u c a tio n , U n iv e rs ity of Wyoming,
who d ir e c te d and c r i t i c i z e d t h i s stu d y .
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CHAPTER I
iit r o d u c t io i
The Problem
Out o f th e complex s t a t e o f modern e d u c a tio n a l id e a s , t h e o r ie s ,
and p r a c t i c e , a c l e a r p a t t e r n o f th o u g h t i s em erging w hich seek s to i d e n t i f y th e sch o o l more c lo s e ly w ith th e community; a movement o f th e
sc h o o ls "tow ard more o rg a n ic r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith th e community,
This
s tu d y i s th e r e s u l t o f an a tte m p t to d e te rm in e th e im p lic a tio n s o f t h i s
e d u c a tio n a l mode f o r th e West L o u is v ille (K entucky) S ch o o l.
The s tu d y
seeks to d e term in e th e d e s ir a b le changes w hich a d h eren c e to th e p h il o s ­
ophy m ight be e x p e c te d to b rin g a b o u t i n th e s c h o o l; what d e s ir a b le changes
m ight be a n t i c i p a t e d i n th e community; and f i n a l l y , w hether o r n o t s im ila r
changes m ight be e x p ec te d in a n ala g o u s sch o o l s i t u a t i o n s .
O bviously, th e answ er to such q u e s tio n s demands m easu rab le know­
led g e o f b o th th e sch o o l and t h a t p o r ti o n o f s o c ie ty w hich s u p p o rts and
makes u s e o f th e sc h o o l,
U ext, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to d e term in e th e f e a s i ­
b i l i t y o f th e a d o p tio n o f such p h ilo s o p h y by gauging a c c u r a te ly th e d i s ­
p o s i t i o n o f th e p e o p le o f th e community tow ard a d o p tio n o f , and ad h eren ce
to , th e g iv e n p h ilo s o p h y .
S p e c i f i c a l l y , th e n , th e stu d y see k s an answ er to th e s e q u e s tio n s ;
1.
What i s th e s t a t u s
o f th e West L o u i s v ille School
a t p r e s e n t a s m easured by v a rio u s d ev ice s?
2.
What
i s th e s t a t u s
o f th e West L o u is v ille School
a r e a a t p r e s e n t a s m easured by v a rio u s d e v ice s?
^Cook, Lloyd A ., " S o c ia l B ackgrounds o f E d u c a tio n ," Review o f Educa­
t i o n a l R esearch , 10; E e b ru a ry , 1940, p . 14.
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2
3.
How m ight th e u s e o f th e community sch o o l
p r i n c i p l e s in sch o o l p r a c t i c e improve "both,
th e sch o o l and th e community?
4.
How m ight o th e r sch o o ls make th e t r a n s i t i o n
to th e community sch o o l ty p e o f e d u catio n ?
D e lim ita tio n s
Such a problem a s th e one p re s e n te d in t h i s s tu d y m ust o f f e r
some s e r io u s l i m i t a t i o n s .
The f i r s t o f th e s e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s i s found
i n th e in a c c u ra c y o f even th e m ost modern schoo 1-m easurem ent in s tru m e n ts .
I t i s tr u e th a t much p ro g r e s s h a s been made tow ard o b je c tiv e measurem ent
o f s c h o o ls , and e s p e c ia ll y i s t h i s t r u e o f c e r t a i n p h a se s o f sch o o l e v a l­
u a tio n such a s sch o o l p la n t e v a lu a tio n , where th e work o f S tr a y e r and
E n g e lh a rd t *1 s ta n d s o u t.
One o f th e m ost r e c e n t and m ost a m b itio u s p r o j ­
e c ts o f e v a lu a tio n h a s been th e C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f Secondary School
S ta n d a rd s ,^
Good, B a r r, and S c a te s 4 m ention th e d i v i s i o n o f th e sch o o l
measurement in to two c a ta g o r ie s o r approaches*
f i r s t , m easurem ent th ro u g h
r a t i n g o f th e o b je c tiv e a s p e c ts o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n , in c lu d in g some o f i t s
a d m in is tr a tiv e p r o v is io n s and p r a c t i c e s ; and second, measurement o f th e
e d u c a tio n a l a tta in m e n t o f i t s p u p i l s .
2
3
4
F u rth e r p r a c t i c e in c lu d e s a p p r a i s a l
" "
S tra y e r-E n g e lh a rd t Score Card f o r School B u ild in g s , B ureau o f P u b lic a ­
ti o n s , Teachers* C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity .
(E x te n siv e m a te r ia l dev elo p ed from t h i s s tu d y i s too volum inous f o r
p ro p e r fo o tn o tin g . Ample r e f e r e n c e may be found in th e Readers*
G uide, and i n v a rio u s p u b l ic a ti o n s r e s u l t i n g from th e s t u d y .)
Good, C a rte r V ., B a rr, A. S . , and S c a te s , D ouglas S . , The M ethodology
o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese a rc h . lew York: D. A pple to n -C e n tu ry Company,
1936, pp. 471-472.
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3
o f te a c h e r e f f e c tiv e n e s s ;® a p p r a i s a l o f th e cu rricu lu m ;® d i r e c t t e s t i n g
o f outcomes i n c h ild r e n ;
7
and many o th e r t e s t i n g - a p p r a i s i n g - e v a lu a t in g
d e v ic e s .
The same th in g may be s a id o f sch o o l m easurem ent a s B a r r, B u rto n
and B rueckner s a id o f c u rric u lu m e v a lu a tio n ;
BThere i s now a r e s p e c ta b le body o f m a te r ia l i n
th e p h ilo s o p h y and s c ie n c e o f e d u c a tio n , i n th e p sy ch o lo g y
o f le a r n in g , co n ce rn in g th e n a tu re o f p e r s o n a l i t y , concern­
in g th e changing n a tu r e o f o u r s o c i a l , econom ic, and p o l­
i t i c a l o r d e r s . Prom th e s e m a te r ia ls we may d e riv e p r i n c i ­
p le s th a t i n tu r n become c r i t e r i a , in th e l i g h t o f w hich we
may e v a lu a te g iv e n c o u rs e s o f stu d y .
T his in v o lv e s two a c t s o f judgm ent, one i n s e t t i n g
up th e c r i t e r i a , and one i n a p p ly in g them to th e c o u rse o r
c u rric u lu m . T his s u b j e c t i v i t y sh o u ld d is c o u ra g e no one.
The u ltim a te d e te rm in a tio n o f v a l i d i t y i s alw ays and can
o n ly be an a c t o f judgm ent. The im p o rta n t th in g i s to have
tr a in e d and com petent ju d g e s u s in g w ell-know n te c h n iq u e s o f
e v a lu a tio n i n s e t t i n g up and a p p ly in g c r i t e r i a . ®
T his s ta te m e n t b r in g s o u t th e second d e lim itin g f a c t o r i n th e
sch o o l e v a lu a tio n ;
th e in e x p e r tn e s s o f th e e v a lu a to r s , a lth o u g h i t i s
hoped t h a t e r r o r s d e riv e d from t h i s so u rce may b e red u ced to a minimum.
q
E x a c tly th e same l i m i t a t i o n s m ust b e imposed upon th e second p h ase
o f th e s tu d y , th e community e v a lu a tio n s ;
f i r s t , in a d e q u a te c r i t e r i a by
which to e v a lu a te com m unities, and second, s c a r c i t y o f in d iv id u a ls com­
p e te n t to judge th e com m unities b y e x i s t i n g s ta n d a rd s .
5
B a r r, A. S . , B u rto n , W illiam H ., and B ru eck n er, Leo J . , S u p e rv is io n ,
New Yorks D. A p p le to n -C en tu ry Company, 1936, C h ap ters IX-X.
6 l b i d . , Chap. XI.
7
W rightsone, J . W., i s p ro b a b ly one o f th e le a d in g a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h i s
f i e l d . P or exam ples o f t h i s work Ohio S ta te U n iv e r s ity , Columbus,
Ohio, i s a ls o n o tew o rth y .
8 2e* s i i * . P* 5069
C hapter V c o n ta in s f u r t h e r d is c u s s io n o f th e m a te r ia ls and m ethods u s e d
in a tte m p tin g to s e c u re an a c c u r a te e s tim a te o f th e sc h o o l.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
T rue, th e r e i s no la c k o f c r i t e r i a f o r community s u rv e y s .1® I t
r a t h e r becomes a m a tte r o f s e l e c t i n g th o se su rv e y c r i t e r i a o r in s tru m e n ts
w hich may be m a n ip u la ted w ith in th e lim ite d scope o f t h i s s tu d y , and s t i l l
p o s s e s s a s c i e n t i f i c v a lu e f o r th e p u rp o se o f th e s tu d y .
Even so th e
chances o f e r r o r a r e in d eed much g r e a t e r i n community e v a lu a tio n th a n i n
sc h o o l e v a lu a tio n b ecau se o f th e v a s t co m p lex !ty o f th e modern community,
an d b e ca u se, i n a c e r t a i n sen se a t l e a s t , th e sch o o l i s a c o n tr o lle d i n ­
s t i t u t i o n , an a r t i f i c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n c o n s c io u s ly m oulded, w hereas th e cornm unity i s alm o st e n t i r e l y u n r e s t r a i n e d a s to fo rm a tio n .
11
On th e s e f i r s t two p h a se s o f th e s tu d y r e lia n c e h as b een p la c e d
i n in s tru m e n ts a lr e a d y d e v ise d and t e s t e d .
I f th e r e b e any new a s p e c t
i n th e s e two e v a lu a tio n s , th e newness l i e s i n th e d iv e r s io n o f th e s e in ­
stru m e n ts to new p u rp o s e s.
The t h i r d and f i n a l p h ase o f th e s tu d y , w hich seek s to d e term in e
th e " g o o d n e s s - o f - f it" o f th e community sch o o l co n cep t f o r th e West L o u is­
v i l l e S chool, h as in h e re n t i n i t fo u r p o s s ib le so u rc e s o f e r r o r w hich
m ight c o n c e iv a b ly te n d to v i t i a t e th e r e s u l t s in term s o f s c i e n t i f i c
know ledge.
The f i r s t o f th e s e f a c t o r s which m ust be reckoned w ith i s v a lid ­
i t y o f th e p r i n c i p l e s d e riv e d from th e community sch o o l c o n c e p t.
I n th e
f i n a l a n a ly s is , th e s e p r i n c i p l e s r e s t upon th e judgm ent o f a v e ry sm all
group o f men, and th e q u e s tio n m ight a r i s e a s to t h e i r soundness a s s c i ­
e n tif ic p rin c ip le s .
^ S e e f o r example J e s s e B. S e a rs , “School and Community S u rv ey s , 11 Review
o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , 9; December, 1939, p p . 508-513.
XI
See C hapter I ? f o r d e t a i l e d d e s c r ip t i o n o f th e e v a lu a tin g m a te r ia ls
and m ethods.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
Ih en , i n th e d e v is in g o f a n in s tru m e n t from th e p r i n c i p l e s , a
d e v ic e f o r t e s t i n g th e re c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e sch o o l and community to th e
1P
p r i n c i p l e s , one m ight n o t t r u l y r e p r e s e n t th e p r i n c i p l e s a s s t a t e d . ^
A nother so u rce o f p o s s ib le e r r o r l i e s i n th e u s e o f th e i n t e r ­
view i n g a th e r in g th e d a ta .
Most com petent r e s e a r c h s tu d e n ts adm it th e
l i m i t a t i o n s o f th e in te rv ie w a s a te c h n iq u e o f r e s e a r c h .
S tra n g ,
1%
in
a r e c e n t summary o f th e s a l i e n t f e a tu r e s o f th e in te rv ie w , c a l l s a t t e n ­
t i o n to ( 1 ) th e co m p lex ity o f th e in te rv ie w , ( 2 ) r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n t e r ­
view d a ta , (3 ) v a l i d i t y o f in te r v ie w d a ta , and (4 ) p s y c h o lo g ic a l lim ita^ tio n s o f th e in te rv ie w .
Whereas many o f th e s e f a c t o r s seem to be o b s ta ­
c le s i n th e way o f th e u s e o f th e in te rv ie w a s an e x a c t-s c ie n c e in s tru m e n t,
S tra n g concludes t h a t th e s e l i m i t a t i o n s need n o t cau se abandonment o f
th e te ch n iq u e
,fI f s k i l l f u l l y u s e d , th e in te rv ie w may be em­
plo y ed to o b ta in d e e p e r in s i g h t in to complex problem s
th a n i s p o s s ib le by means o f an y o th e r p r o c e d u r e .”
F in a lly , i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e t h i r d p h ase o f th e r e s e a r c h , th e
problem of a d eq u a te sam pling o f community o p in io n m ight in i t s e l f become
a m ajor q u e s tio n in r e s e a r c h .
As a d e fe n se a g a in s t q u e s tio n s a r i s i n g a s
to th e tru e n e s s o f th e sam pling, i t may be sim p ly s t a t e d th a t th e random
sam plings were made a s c a r e f u l l y a s p o s s i b le , b y s t r i c t l y a r b i t r a r y
m ethods.
12
E v e r e tt, Samuel, e d . , She Community S chool, A p p le to n -C en tu ry Company,
1938, C hapter X I, ”An A n a ly s is o f th e P ro g ra m s,” p p . 435-462,
13
S tra n g , R uth, "Methods o f R esearch i n E d u c a tio n ," Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R esearch , 9 ; C hapter 711, «Ihe I n te r v ie w ,” December, 1939, p p .
498-501.
14 I b i d . , p p . 500-501.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
C o n sid e rin g th e m agnitude o f th e t a s k , th e s tu d y o f a sch o o l
w ith a l l o f i t s r a m if i c a tio n s ; c o n s id e rin g th e number o f d a ta g a th e r in g
d e v ic e s u s e d , and th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f th e p e rso n o r p e rso n s g a th e r in g
th e d a ta ; and c o n s id e rin g th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a l c u l a t i o n e r r o r s , i t m ust
he s a id i n a l l f a i r n e s s t h a t r e s u l t s d e riv e d from th e s tu d y may n o t m eet
a l l o f th e re q u ire m e n ts o f e x a c tn e s s in r e s e a r c h , h u t w ith due re g a rd to
p o s s ib le e r r o r s , i t seems t h a t th e p u rp o se , r e s u l t s , and th e d i r e c t i o n
o f th e stu d y a r e fundam ental to s u c c e s s fu l o p e ra tio n o f e d u c a tio n a l in ­
s t i t u t i o n s o f to d a y .
S ig n ific a n c e
O bviously, i t i s im p o ssib le to ex p erim en t w ith a v a r i e t y o f edu­
c a ti o n a l p h ilo s o p h ie s by a p p ly in g them d i r e c t l y to an i n s t i t u t i o n so com­
p le x and so u n w ie ld ly a s a modern tw e lv e -g ra d e sc h o o l; much tim e and e f /
f o r t i s r e q u ir e d to d iv e r t such an o rg a n iz a tio n from i t s custom ary p ra c ­
tic e .
Even more d i f f i c u l t i s th e p ro d u c tio n o f a c o rre sp o n d in g change
i n p u b lic a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s .
E q u a lly obvious i s th e f u t i l i t y o f
a tte m p tin g to c o n ce iv e a mode, o r w orking p h ilo s o p h y f o r a s c h o o l, w ith ­
o u t r e f e r e n c e to th e com posite f a c t o r s o f th e sc h o o l.
i n s is t e n c e upon a d e f i n i t e , w orking p h ilo s o p h y . 15
Yet th e r e i s much
An a l t e r n a t i v e , th e n ,
to e x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith th e u n w ie ld ly sch o o l m ight be found in s e l e c t i n g
th e te n e t s o f one w e ll-fo u n d e d p h ilo so p h y , and d e te rm in in g b e fo re -h a n d
how w e ll th e s e t e n e t s w i l l f i t a g iv e n s i t u a t i o n .
A co n co m itan t o f t h i s
a l t e r n a t i v e in a c o u n try w hich sh o u ld be la r g e enough to accommodate a l l
ty p e s o f e d u c a tio n ; w hich t o l e r a t e s freedom o f th o u g h t; which en co u rag es
15
'
L a n g f it t, B. Emerson; C yr, f r a n k W.; Newsom, Ef. W illiam , The Sm all
High School a t Work, New York; The A m erican Book Company, 1936,
C hapter V, "The School B u ild s I t s P h ilo so p h y ," p p . 87-104.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
e x p e rim e n ta tio n ; and wkere l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e i n sch o o l m a tte rs i s a n e s ta b lis h e d t r a d i t i o n ,
i s a r b i t r a r y s e le c t io n i n th e m a tte r o f a p h i l ­
osophy.
The c u rre n c y o f th e term 11community-schoo 1 11 i n d ic a te s som ething
o f th e grow ing co n cern w ith th e c o n c e p t.
While a canvas o f th e l i t e r a ­
tu r e p e r ta in in g to community sc h o o ls would c o n s t i t u t e a s e p a r a te p ie c e o f
re s e a r c h , a c u rs o ry su rv ey r e v e a ls a s u s ta in e d i n t e r e s t i n th e c o n c e p t.
Cook makes th e s ta te m e n t t h a t ;
“A side from r e s e a r c h h e a r in g on (Use o f community
re s o u rc e s i n th e m ajor a s p e c ts o f th e community sch o o l
program ) e x p e rim e n ta l o r o th e r work i n th e f i e l d o f com­
m unity e d u c a tio n i s fra g m e n ta ry , in c o n c lu s iv e , and o f te n
s u b je c tiv e .
T his s ta te m e n t, and th e volume o f th e Review o f E d u c a tio n a l Re­
s e a rc h devoted to "The S o c ia l B ackgrounds o f E d u c a tio n "1® i n d ic a te th e
fundam ental c h a r a c te r o f th e p r o je c te d r e s e a r c h .
D e f in itio n s
There a p p e a rs to he l i t t l e n e c e s s ity f o r academ ic d e f i n i t i o n s
o f th e term s u s e d h e r e in , b ecau se th e g e n e r a l te rm in o lo g y conform s c lo s e ­
l y to th e s ta n d a rd u sag e o f e d u c a to rs .
Any d e v ia tio n from s ta n d a rd u sag e
i s c a r e f u l l y n o te d in th e a p p r o p r ia te s e c tio n o f th e stu d y .
T rue, th e term community sch o o l may o f f e r some d i f f i c u l t y o f in ­
te rp re ta tio n .
The community sch o o l co n cep t i s c o n sid e re d to h e th e p h i l ­
osophy ad h ered to b y v a rio u s e d u c a to rs , i n v a ry in g d e g re e s , which con­
c e iv e s e d u c a tio n a s a dynamic s o c ia l a c t i v i t y , a s opposed to e d u c a tio n
VV 1
"
-. . . - ... .........
.,
”,
W ahlquist, Jo h n T ., "The Dilemma o f A m erican E d u c a tio n ," The Educa­
t i o n a l Forum, 11; 390, May, 1938.
17
18
Oook, Lloyd A ., op. c i t . , p . 17.
Volume X, F e b ru a ry , 1940.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
8
a s a p a s s iv e t r a n s m i t t e r o f s o c ia l h e r i t a g e .
Cook say s o f th e commu­
n i t y schools
We may say th a t a sch o o l i s a community sch o o l
to th e e x te n t t h a t i t seek s to r e a l i z e o b je c tiv e s such
a s th e fo llo w in g : (a ) e d u c a te s y o u th f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n b a s ic a r e a s o f p e r s o n a l- s o c ia l l i v i n g - l i f e a c t i v i t i e s ,
m ajor problem s o f l i v i n g , e t c . ; (b ) d e m o cratize s p e r­
so n al and group c o n ta c ts in sch o o l and o u ts id e ; (c ) u s e s
community re s o u rc e s i n th e m ajo r a s p e c ts o f i t s program ;
(d) c o o p e ra te s w ith o th e r a g e n c ie s in im proving community
l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y a s i t a f f e c t s c h ild r e n ; and (e ) fu n c­
tio n s a s a s e r v ic e c e n te r f o r y o u th and a d u l t s . ^
This term i s a m p lifie d in
th e s ta te m e n ts o f members o f th e Com­
m itte e on th e Community S ch o o l, S o c ie ty f o r C urriculum S tudy, a s p u b lis h i
ed i n th e volume, The Community S ch o o l.
PO
The u s e o f th e term does n o t,
in i t s e sse n c e , c o n tem p late c e r t a i n n e g a tiv e c o n n o ta tio n s .
B a g le y ,2^
w ith p ro p e r c a u tio n , sums up th e n a tu r e o f opposing th e o r ie s o f educa­
t i o n , by p a i r i n g such o p p o s ite s a s " in d iv id u a l v e rs u s s o c ie t y ," " f r e e dom v e rs u s d i s c i p l i n e , " " i n t e r e s t v e rs u s e f f o r t , " " p la y v e rs u s w ork,"
and s im ila r term s.
Whereas th e community sch o o l p r o ta g o n is ts adm it
r e a d i l y to th e a p p lic a tio n o f c e r t a i n
v ig o ro u s d e n ia l t h a t e x c lu s io n o f
in h e r e n t in th e p la n .
o f th e term s to th e mode, th e r e i s
th e p a ir e d term from th e p h ilo s o p h y i s
Dewey and C h ild s , 22 f o r in s ta n c e , a s s e r t t h a t
" s o c ie ty cannot be opposed i n f a c t o r in id e a to in d iv id u a l."
Lewin 22
^ C o o k , op. c i t . , p . 1 ? .
20n
Op. c i t .
^■^Bagley, W illiam C ., "An E s s e n t i a l i s t * s P la tfo rm f o r th e Advancement
o f A m erican E d u c a tio n ," E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e rv is io n , 24; A p r i l , 1938, p . 244.
22 iC ilp a tric k , W illiam H ., E d ., The E d u c a tio n a l f r o n t i e r , lew York;
C entury C o ., 1933, p . 290.
23
The
Watson, Goodwin, "What a r e th e E f f e c ts o f a D em ocratic Atmosphere on
C h ild re n ? " P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n , 17; 336-342, May, 1940.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
lias dem o n strated re a s o n a b ly w e ll th a t freedom i s n o t in h e r e n tly opposed
to d i s c i p l i n e .
In d eed , th e b a s ic c o n te n tio n s o f th e community sch o o l
a d h e re n ts i s t h a t a d o p tio n o f th e community sch o o l p r i n c i p l e s w i l l p ro ­
mote and f a c i l i t a t e such o f th e opposing ite m s a s e f f o r t , d i s c i p l i n e ,
and work.
She d e f i n i t i o n o f th e community sch o o l c o n c e p t, th e n , sh o u ld n o t
be made i n o th e r th a n p o s i t i v e term s; i t would be u n f a i r , f o r exam ple,
to i n t e r p r e t Cook1s sta te m e n t t h a t 1 community sc h o o ls seek to democra­
t i z e p e rs o n a l and group c o n ta c t s , 1 to mean t h a t la c k o f d i s c i p l i n e m ust
in e v ita b ly fo llo w .
The term , community, a s u sed in t h i s s tu d y i s l i a b l e to e rro n e o u s
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a ls o .
Cook and Almack
04
d e fin e a community a s " ( a ) a pop­
u l a t i o n a g g re g a te , (b) in h a b itin g a c o n tig u o u s a r e a , (c ) p o s s e s s in g a
h e r ita g e o f common e x p e rie n c e , (d) h av in g a s e t o f b a s ic s e r v ic e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s , (e ) c o n sc io u s o f a f u n c tio n a l u n i t y , and ( f ) a b le to a c t i n a
c o rp o ra te c a p a c ity . 11 By a p p lic a tio n o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i t becomes a p p a r­
e n t th a t th e West L o u i s v ille School s e rv e s n o t one, b u t s e v e r a l communi­
tie s .
In p la c e o f community, th e n , th e term a r e a i s u s e d to in d ic a te
th e s p a t i a l in flu e n c e o f th e s c h o o l . 25
Summary
This s tu d y i s b ased upon th e h y p o th e s is t h a t th e sch o o l s e r v ic e
o f a g iv e n a r e a can be improved by a d o p tin g and a d h e rin g to th e p h i l o s «i
ophy o f e d u c a tio n which m ight be term ed th e community sch o o l p h ilo s o p h y .
24-
pc
Cook, Lloyd A. and Almack, Eonald B ., HThe Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f
2,870 T e a c h e rs ," E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e rv is io n , 25{
F eb ru ary , 1939, p . 107.
C hapter I I I d e fin e s t h i s a r e a in c o n c re te te rm s.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
10
In tu r n , t h i s h y p o th e s is r e s t s upon th e assu m p tio n s t h a t th e r e a r e meas­
u r a b le d e f ic ie n c ie s i n th e s o c ie t y w hich s u p p o rts th e sc h o o l; t h a t sim i­
l a r d e f ic ie n c ie s e x i s t i n th e sc h o o l, a s an i n s t i t u t i o n ; and t h a t i t i s
p o s s ib le to p re -d e te rm in e th e r e c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e community to th e com­
m unity school p h ilo so p h y .
I n v e s tig a tio n o f th e h y p o th e s is and th e s u p p o rtin g assu m p tio n s
r e q u ir e s a n a ly s is o f th e community, a n a ly s is o f th e sc h o o l, and a n a ly s is
o f p u b lic o p in io n i n term s o f th e community sch o o l p r i n c i p l e s .
A ll
th re e o f th e s e p h a se s o f th e s tu d y a r e l i a b l e to e r r o r s (a ) i n th e s e le c ­
t i o n o f v a lid c r i t e r i a , (b) a p p li c a t io n o f th e c r i t e r i a , and (c ) th e
more m echanical a s p e c ts o f c o m p u tatio n .
Every e f f o r t h as b een made to
v a lid a te th e s tu d y by c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and a p p l ic a tio n o f d a ta g a th e r in g
d e v ic e s .
Where re a so n a b le e r r o r may be a n t i c i p a t e d , l i m i t a t i o n s have been
imposed.
The fundam ental n a tu r e o f th e r e s e a r c h i s in d ic a te d by th e cu r­
re n c y o f th e community sch o o l c o n ce p t, and by th e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t e ­
m ents o f r e s e a r c h w o rk ers.
The m a te r i a ls , m ethods, and p u rp o se o f th e
e n t i r e p a p er i s d e f e n s ib le i n term s o f s c i e n t i f i c c r i t e r i a .
F in a lly , i t must be a d m itte d t h a t th e community sch o o l mode need
n o t be c o n sid e re d th e o n ly w orking p h ilo s o p h y o f sch o o l improvement.
It
i s n o t th e p u rp o se o f th e p a p e r to ex clu d e a l l o th e r mediums o f improve­
m ent.
There i s no c o n te n tio n t h a t th e community sch o o l p h ilo s o p h y em­
b ra c e s a l l t h a t i s good i n e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo s o p h y , n o r i s i t in te n d e d
t h a t th e co n cep t s u p p la n t a l l o th e r p r i n c i p l e s , d e riv e d from p a s t exper­
ie n c e .
I t i s r a t h e r presum ed t h a t such a c o n c e p t, ad h ered to , m ight le n d
new d i r e c t i o n to th e o p e ra tio n o f e s ta b lis h e d modes o f e d u c a tio n .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
CHAPTER I I
SURVEY OP INFOBMATIOI KEIATIMJ TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL
I n tr o d u c tio n
The p u rp o se o f t h i s c h a p te r i s to l o c a t e d e f i n i t i v e r e s e a r c h
p e r t a i n i n g to th e community sch o o l and to e n la rg e th e re fro m th e s t a t e ­
ment o f s ig n if ic a n c e , and th e d e f i n i t i o n o f th e community sch o o l con­
ta in e d in C h ap ter I .
The Community S chool, a s d e fin e d h y th e Committee
on th e Community School,^® i s an in n o v a tio n in te rm in o lo g y , "but th e
b a s ic fundam entals upon w hich th e co n cep t r e s t s a r e fu s io n s o f educa­
t i o n a l id e a s which have found e x p re s s io n th ro u g h o u t th e long h i s t o r y o f
e d u c a tio n .
The q u e s tio n a r i s e s a s to th e fram e o f re f e r e n c e from which
to rev iew th e r e s e a r c h h e a r in g upon th e community sc h o o l, and i t becomes
n e c e s s a ry to in q u ir e in to th e c o n cep t i t s e l f i n o rd e r to d eterm in e th e
d i r e c t i o n o f a s y s te m a tic a p p r a is a l o f th e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e .
One o f th e m ost c o n c is e s ta te m e n ts o f th e s e t t i n g o f th e problem
i s g iv e n by H opkins:
When someone in th e y e a r 2000 w r ite s th e h i s t o r y
o f A m erican e d u c a tio n f o r th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry , th e dec­
ade betw een th e World War and th e f i n a n c i a l and economic
c o lla p s e which h e ra ld e d th e g r e a t d e p re s s io n w i l l s ta n d
o u t a s one o f p e c u li a r im p o rtan ce. I t was i n th e s e y e a rs
t h a t th e g r e a t b a t t l e o f e d u c a tio n a l id e a s took p la c e .
The d e a th s t r u ggl e betw een two oppo sin g ty p e s o f
cu rric u lu m p r a c t i c e was fo u g h t and d e c id e d . On th e one
s id e was th e la r g e group o f e d u c a to rs who championed th e
s u b je c t c u rric u lu m ; on th e o th e r was th e sm all group o f
e d u c a to rs who ad v o cated th e e x p e rie n c e c u rric u lu m . A de­
c is i o n was re n d e re d i n 1929. The s o c ia l and economic
e v e n ts im m ediately fo llo w in g th e d e p re s s io n cau sed educa­
to r s t o s to p , lo o k , l i s t e n , th in k , and e v a lu a te th e p r a c ­
t i c e s o f th e p re c e d in g d ecad e. As a r e s u l t , th e s u b je c t
E v e r e tt, Samuel, _et a l . , op. c i t .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
12
c u rric u lu m w ith i t s b a s ic id e a s began to d e c li n e , and
th e e x p e rie n c e c u rric u lu m w ith i t s fundam ental p r i n c i ­
p le s began to in c re a s e .^ *
W hether H opkins’ s ta te m e n t be c o n sid e re d a s p u re f i c t i o n o r s c i ­
e n t i f i c f o r e c a s t , i t c o n ta in s th e elem ents from which two c a ta g o r ie s o f
e d u c a tio n a l th e o r ie s may be drawn.
Bagley,^® W o efel,2^ and many o th e r s
have a tte m p te d to draw such l i n e s a s d is t i n g u i s h th e p r o g r e s s iv e s from
th e c o n s e rv a tiv e s .
The community sch o o l c o n cep t i s d e f i n i t e l y a lig n e d
w ith th e p r o g r e s s iv e s , and th e t h e o r i s t s who em phasize such th in g s a s
i n t e r e s t , freedom , p e rs o n a l e x p e rie n c e , im m ediate g o a ls , and p a r t i c i p a ­
tio n ; y e t t h i s sim ple c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does n o t p r e s e n t a s a t i s f a c t o r y
b a s is upon which e d u c a tio n a l r e s e a r c h may be c l a s s i f i e d .
An h y p o th e tic a l l i f e - c y c l e o f th e community sch o o l co n cep t m ight
o f f e r an a d eq u a te medium th ro u g h w hich p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h c o u ld b e i s o ­
l a t e d and e v a lu a te d .
T h e o r e tic a l ly , such a c y c le m ight c o n ta in m ajor in ­
s ta n c e s o f sch o o ls which d ev elo p ed d i s t i n c t i v e program s; a n a ly s is o f th e
program s o f such sc h o o ls and c o a le s c e n c e o f th e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s , to form
p r i n c i p l e s ; c r i t i c a l i n v e s t ig a ti o n o f th e p r i n c i p l e s ; and f i n a l l y , a p p l i ­
c a tio n o f th e p r i n c i p l e s i n a n ala g o u s s i t u a t i o n s .
An ap p ro ach su ch a s
t h i s , how ever, must a w a it f u r t h e r re s e a rc h .
A rev iew o f e d u c a tio n a l r e s e a r c h b e a rin g on th e co n cep t m ight
be p a tte r n e d a f t e r th e m ajor d iv is io n s o f th e p r e s e n t stu d y ; re v ie w o f
community e v a lu a tio n ; rev iew o f sc h o o l e v a lu a tio n ; and rev iew o f e f f o r t s
27
H opkins, Samuel, et_ a l . , I n t e g r a tio n —'I t s Meaning and A p p lic a tio n ,
A p p leto n -O en tu ry , 1937, p . 197.
^®Bagley, W illiam C ., Op. c i t . , p p . 244-245.
29
W oefel, Norman, M oulders o f th e Am erican Mind, Columbia U n iv e r s ity
P r e s s , 1933.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
13
to determ ine s o c ia l s e n s i t i v i t y .
Such an o v er-v iew m ight in c lu d e a
v a s t hody o f m a te r ia l on sch o o l and community su rv e y s, "both from th e
s o c io lo g ic a l and th e e d u c a tio n a l s ta n d p o in t, and many s tu d ie s o f pub­
l i c a t t i t u d e s , o p in io n s and b e l i e f s .
I t i s d o u b tfu l i f i t would be
p o s s ib le to i d e n t i f y much o f th e m a te r ia l su rv ey ed w ith th e s in g le con­
c e p t;
th a t o f th e community sc h o o l.
W attenberg,
in an a n n o ta te d b ib lio g r a p h y , in th e A ppendix o f
She Community S chool, u s e s th e fo llo w in g h e ad in g s f o r sy ste m a tic c l a s ­
s i f i c a t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e work:
(a ) G eneral S ta te m e n ts; (b ) Surveys and
S urvey Techniques; (c ) G uides f o r th e Use o f Community R eso u rces; (d)
Use o f E x c u rsio n s; (e ) Examples o f School Use o f Community R eso u rces;
( f ) R u ral S chools; and (g ) Community C e n te rs .
A lthough a d m itte d ly an
o rg a n iz a tio n f o r co n v en ien ce, such a l i s t i n g o f f e r s much ad v an tag e i n
l o c a t in g r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h w ork.
S t i l l a n o th e r s y s te m a tic a p p r a is a l m ight b e made by u s in g th e
sub-heads o f Cook*s d e f i n i t i o n o f th e community school.® ^
The u s e o f
t h i s d e f i n i t i o n would e n ab le one to lo c a te r e s e a r c h u n d e r th e s e t o p i c a l
h e a d in g s:
(a ) e d u c a tio n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in b a s ic a r e a s o f l i v i n g ; (b )
d e m o c ra tiz a tio n o f p e rs o n a l and group c o n ta c ts ; (c ) sch o o l u s e o f com­
m unity re s o u rc e s ; (d) sch o o l u s e o f s o c ia l a g e n c ie s ; and (e) sc h o o ls a s
s e r v ic e c e n te r s .
A side from th e convenience o f such an ap p ro ach th e r e
i s th e a d d itio n a l ad v an tag e o f h av in g th e f i e l d o f p o s s ib le r e s e a r c h n a r­
rowed by th e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s ta te m e n t t h a t o n ly (c ) h as re c e iv e d c a r e f u l
gn
1
Op. c i t . , pp. 463-473.
31
T his stu d y , page 7 , f o r th e com plete d e f i n i t i o n .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
14
sy ste m a tic a t t e n t i o n from r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s .^
A d d itio n a l r e l a t e d ma­
t e r i a l m ight he found in (a ) a u t h o r i t a t i v e s ta te m e n ts o f re c o g n iz e d ed­
u c a tio n a l le a d e r s ; (h) a d e q u a te d e s c r i p ti o n s o f e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s
w hich m ight he term ed community s c h o o ls ; and (c ) work r e l a t e d a s to m eth­
ods employed.
R e la te d S tu d ie s
E d u c a tio n f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B a sic A reas o f L iv in g
O bviously, a lm o st a l l e d u c a tio n a l r e s e a r c h i s in te n d e d a s an a i d
to th e r e a l i z a t i o n o f th e o b je c t iv e o f b e t t e r l i v i n g , and an a r b i t r a r y
s e l e c t i o n must be made a s to th o se s tu d ie s w hich a p p e a r to be r e l a t e d .
One o f th e most v ig o ro u s a g e n c ie s in stu d y in g t h i s p h a se o f th e
community sch o o l i s th e S o c ie ty f o r C urriculum S tudy, from w hich th e Com­
m itte e on th e Community School was d r a w n .^
A nother l a r g e - s c a l e s tu d y
i s th e Ohio S ta te U n iv e r s ity a p p r a is a l o f th e program o f p ro g r e s s iv e ed­
u c a tio n .
T y le r, Taba, and o th e r s have a tte m p te d to d evelop new form s o f
e v a lu a tio n and a p p r a is a l by means o f which one may d eterm in e th e a c tu a l
r e s u l t s o f v a rio u s ty p e s o f e d u c a tio n , a s shown in th e in d i v i d u a l .0^
W rightstone h a s a ls o dev o ted much tim e to a s tu d y o f th e e f f e c t o f c e r ­
t a i n e d u c a tio n a l p r a c t i c e s . ^
The r e s u l t s o f th e s e b ro ad s tu d ie s can n o t be s u c c e s s f u lly sum­
m arized i n a s tu d y o f t h i s ty p e , and i t i s d o u b tfu l w hether th e r e s u l t s
1
...................---1
F T
......
r
n -
T
n
T his stu d y , page 7 , fo o tn o te 17.
S o c ie ty f o r C urriculum S tudy, George Peabody C o lle g e , N a s h v ille ,
T ennessee.
^ T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s E v a lu a tio n Program have ap p eared i n th e E d u c a tio n
R esearch B u l l e t i n s , o f Ohio S ta te U n iv e rs ity , and th e e n t i r e p ro ­
gram h as fu r n is h e d m a te r ia l f o r a sc o re o f m asters* and d o c to r s ’
th e s e s .
"^R eferen ce may be made to th e E d u c a tio n a l Index f o r com plete b i b l i o g ­
ra p h ie s o f Dr. W rig h tsto n e* s work.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
would add much, to a lo c a l s tu d y su ch a s t h i s .
More to th e p o i n t , how ever, i s Sm ith1s a n a ly s is o f r u r a l edu­
c a tio n in L o u is ia n a , com pleted in 1938, a s a d o c to r’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n a t
L o u isia n a S ta te U n iv e r s ity . 00
Sm ith a n a ly z e d tw elve sc h o o ls o f th e
s t a t e , in an a tte m p t to f in d in fo rm a tio n on te n to p ic s .
These to p ic s
w hich seemed c lo s e ly a l l i e d to th e q u e s tio n o f e d u c a tio n f o r p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n in b a s ic a r e a s o f l i v i n g were?
th e a d o p tio n o f th e c o u rse o f s tu d y
to th e needs o f th e community o r neighborhood in which th e sch o o l i s lo ­
cated;. and p r o v is io n s made i n r u r a l sch o o ls to a i d i n th e s o c i a l d ev elo p ­
ment o f th e c h ild r e n .
The tw elve sc h o o ls were examined b y th e a u th o r and e v id e n c e ,
such a s th e r e s u l t s o f in te r v ie w s , ex am in atio n o f sch o o l re c o rd s , and
o b s e rv a tio n s i n th e f i e l d , was accu m u lated .
These d a ta were c a r e f u l l y
com piled in to ta b le s d e p ic tin g a s n e a r ly a s p o s s ib le th e a c t u a l co n d i­
tio n s p r e v a ilin g in th e sc h o o ls th u s exam ined.
From th e s tu d y Sm ith drew th e c o n c lu s io n s t h a t ;
" A tte n tio n o f
th e sch o o l a u t h o r i t i e s h a s b een fo c u sed alm o st e n t i r e l y on th e academ ic
developm ent o f th e in d iv id u a l p u p i l ,
and "The em phasis seems to b e
more on t r a i n i n g th e in d iv id u a l c h i l d in s u b je c t m a tte r which w i l l q u a l i ­
f y him to clim b th e e d u c a tio n a l la d d e r to h ig h e r academ ic l e v e l s th a n to
develop in him a p p r e c ia tio n and u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e l i f e aro u n d h im .3®
In th e g e n e ra l c o n c lu s io n s , th e a u th o r co n clu d es t h a t th e aims o f th e
‘
'
Ti-'i— im m -i.n r-.
Birr
.1
.
i. .
i r
i
..
.1 1
11
n r - n — r nr 1 . m v rn~ 1
111 n i l
»i
.1.
-
1 ■- . 11 — r ' T
Sm ith, M arion B ush, A S o c io lo g ic a l A n a ly sis o f R u ral E d u c a tio n in
L o u isia n a , L o u isia n a S ta te U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , S tu d y Number 3 5 , 1938.
I b id ., p. 86.
3 8 I b i d . , p . 87.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
16
s c h o o ls , a s shown in th e c a r e f u l sam pling, i s l a r g e l y p e d a n tic and th e r e
i s l i t t l e o r no a d a p tio n to a c tu a l l o c a l n eed s.
The to n e o f th e summary
o f th e s o c ia l developm ent a n a ly s is i s somewhat s im i la r :
There seems to
he no r e a l e f f o r t to p ro v id e e f f e c t i v e s o c ia l t r a i n i n g , o r to o f f e r an
e f f e c t i v e scheme whereby th e p u p il s m ight g a in such
e x p e r ie n c e .* ^
D e m o cratiz a tio n o f P e rs o n a l and Group C o n ta cts
Democracy in e d u c a tio n and e d u c a tio n f o r dem ocracy a r e to p ic s so
f a m i l i a r th a t th e r e i s l i t t l e need to a p p ea l to a u t h o r i t y f o r confirma^t i o n o f th e im portance o f dem o cratic p r a c t i c e in s c h o o ls .
One o f th e
few s tu d ie s o f a n a c tu a l experim en t i n democracy i s t h a t o f Lewin and
L i p p i t t . 40
The in v e s t ig a to r s o b serv ed th e r e a c tio n s o f club boys and g i r l s
u n d e r d em o cratic c o n tr o l, u n d e r a u t o c r a t i c c o n t r o l, and u n d er a ty p e o f
c o n tr o l term ed " l a i s s e z - f a i r e . 11 The le a d e r s o f th e s e g ro u p s, and th e
g roups th em selv es, were c a r e f u l l y e q u ate d .
O bservers s e p a ra te d from th e
club group and unknown to them re c o rd e d s te n o g r a p h ie a lly a l l c o n v e r s a tio n ,
and k e p t com plete a c c o u n ts o f c h ild r e n a c t i v i t i e s .
tu r n supplem ented by moving p i c t u r e s .
These d a ta were in
Prom th e re c o rd s th u s o b ta in e d ,
r e s u l t s were c a r e f u l l y ta b u la te d and re c o rd e d , and th e fo llo w in g c o n clu ­
s io n s , a s r e p o rte d by W atson, were drawn:
D em ocratic p ro c e d u re i s n o t a "fa d " o f p ro g re s ­
s iv e e d u c a tio n ; i t i s th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l environm ent w hich
b e s t d ev elo p s f r i e n d l i n e s s , c o o p e ra tio n , i n i t i a t i v e , r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y , o b je c tiv e a t t i t u d e s , and th e e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s
upon which d em o cratic governm ent must depend. A u to cracy
may lo o k l i k e th e sim ple way o f " g e t tin g r e s u l t s " a t th e
moment, b u t th e ev id en ce i s in d is p u ta b le t h a t i t s e t s up
te n s io n s which f i n d e x p re s s io n in e i t h e r su b m issio n o r
39 0E. c i t . , C hapter V III , pp. 88-92.
^ R e p o r te d by Goodwin Watson, "What a re th e E f f e c ts o f D em ocratic A t­
mosphere on C h ild re n ? " P r o g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n , 17: 336-342, May,
1940.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
17
a tte m p ts a t d o m inatio n , in a c t s o f s u b se rv ie n c e o r a g g re s ­
s io n , and in s e l f - c e n t e r e d e f f o r t s to g e t a t t e n t i o n .
T his stu d y o f democracy seems to o f f e r v a l id a tio n o f th e p r i n c i ­
p le o f th e community sch o o l c o n c e p t, th a t th e e d u c a tiv e p ro c e s s sh o u ld
he d e m o c ra tic , and dem ocracy sh o u ld p r e v a i l in a l l sch o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
Use o f Community R esources in School Program s
An e n t i r e l i t e r a t u r e o f th e u s e o f community re s o u rc e s i n sc h o o ls
h a s developed w ith in re c e n t y e a r s .
The em phasis o f t h i s p h ase o f th e
s tu d y s h a l l he d ir e c te d tow ard ex am in atio n o f a few o f th e s tu d ie s d e a l­
in g d i r e c t l y w ith u s e o f re s o u rc e s ; methods u se d in l o c a tin g re s o u r c e s ;
and th e g e n e r a l su rv ey movement r e s u l t i n g from th e i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l r e ­
so u rc e s .
One o f th e o u ts ta n d in g exam ples o f th e u se o f th e l o c a l re s o u rc e s
i s found in B r e a t h i t t County, K entucky.
m ethods u sed u n d e r n in e h e a d in g s;
Gooch and K e lle r
4p
r e p o r t th e
c o n tr ib u tio n s to th e h i s t o r y o f B re a th ­
i t t County, g a th e re d by p u p il in te rv ie w s ; human r e s o u r c e s , d a ta se c u re d
by p u p il b io g r a p h ie s , in te r v ie w s , and o b s e rv a tio n ; p h y s ic a l r e s o u r c e s ,
o b ta in e d from th e U n iv e r s ity o f K entucky Experim ent S ta tio n ; o c c u p a tio n a l
f a c t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s ; p r e s e n t economic c o n d itio n s ; crim e and d e lin q u e n c y ,
d a ta assem bled from h ig h sch o o l s t o r i e s , in te r v ie w s , n ew spapers, and o b s e r­
v a tio n ; and o th e r m a te r ia ls from l o c a l p a p e r s .
These d a ta were a l l a s ­
sembled and from th e c o n c lu s io n s , th e v a rio u s re s o u rc e s were in c lu d e d a s
e d u c a tio n a l m a te r ia l in th e sch o o l program ; i n f a c t , th e v ery methods em-
41 0p. c i t . . p . 341.
42
Gooch, W. I . ; and K e lle r , P. J . , “B r e a t h i t t County, K entucky, R eveal­
in g and R ecording th e D ata, a P a c t-F in d in g Program , 11 O ccu p atio n s,
14; 1022-1057, Ju n e , 1936.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
18
p lo y e d in s e c u rin g d a ta were exam ples o f th e u se o f l o c a l re s o u rc e s .
Sm ith’ s s tu d y a ls o in d ic a te d th e n e c e s s ity o f u t i l i z i n g commu­
n i t y re s o u rc e s , h u t a s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a te r ia l, and a s a h a s is f o r sch o o l
p la n n in g . 43
The b u l l e t i n b y Sm ith and O 'D ell 44 o f f e r s an a d eq u a te b ib l io g ­
rap h y of school su rv e y s and th e somewhat l a r g e r stu d y o f Young4 5 c o v ers
th e f i e l d of s o c ia l su rv e y s much more a d e q u a te ly th a n i s p o s s ib le i n t h i s
stu d y .
S ears s t a t e s t h a t th e new a s p e c t o f su rv ey s l i e s n o t in th e lo c a ­
ti o n o f d a ta , b u t i n th e a n t i c i p a t e d u s e o f such d a ta in sch o o l and com­
m unity p la n n in g . 45
School C oop eratio n With O ther A gencies
Most o f th e l i t e r a t u r e d e a lin g w ith th e c o o p e ra tio n o f th e sch o o l
w ith o th e r a g e n c ie s in im proving community l i f e seems to be o f th e su rv e y
n a tu r e .
Cox and Cowen4^ s tu d ie d th e number o f o r g a n iz a tio n s e x i s t i n g in
sm all com m unities in Hew York and re p o rte d e ig h ty - th r e e d i f f e r e n t o rg a n i­
z a tio n s which were c o n sid e re d s tro n g .
E d u c a tio n a l, r e l i g i o u s , f r a t e r n a l ,
b u s in e s s , and s o c ia l o rg a n iz a tio n s l e d in th e a g e n c ie s which c o n tr ib u te d
to community l i f e and to th e d e s ir a b le s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f th e in d iv id u a l,
m
r -rr- .■n
Sm ith, 0 )3. c i t . , pp. 90-91.
44 Sm ith, Henry L .; and O 'D e ll, Edgar A ., B ib lio g ra p h y o f School Surveys
and o f H eferen ces on School S u rv ey s, B u l l e t i n , V ol. 1 4 ., In d ia n a
U n iv e r s ity , 1938.
45
Young, P a u lin e V ., S c i e n t i f i c S o c ia l Surveys and B esearch , Hew York;
P r e n tic e - H a ll, 1939.
45 S e a rs , J e s s e B ., "School and Community S u rv e y s," Beview o f E d u c a tio n a l
R ese arch , 9; 508-513, December, 1939.
47
Cox, Warren W. and Cowen, P h i l i p A ., E d u c a tio n a l Heeds o f P u p ils i n
Sm all High S c h o o ls, B u l l e t i n , U n iv e r s ity o f th e S ta te o f Hew York,
Ho. 969, 1931, p p. 13-14.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
19
4-8
A s im ila r s tu d y made i n C o n n e c tic u t *0 in d ic a te d t h a t i n n in e ty f o u r sm all com m unities more th a n s i x hundred community s o c i e t i e s f o r
c h ild r e n were found in a d d itio n to Sunday s c h o o ls .
They in c lu d e d C h ris­
t i a n E ndeavor, G ir l S c o u ts , Boy S c o u ts, G range, Y. W. C. A ., Y. M. C. A .,
4-H C lub, F a ir A s s o c ia tio n , A t h l e t i c A s s o c ia tio n , Music Club, Garden
Club, F if e 'a n d Drum C orps, F. F. A ., Hi-Y C lub, J u n io r Church C h o ir,
Bainbow G ir ls , Sea S c o u ts, M issio n P la y e rs and o th e r s .
A nother im p o rtan t p u b lic a ti o n r e l a t i n g to th e c o o p e ra tio n o f
sch o o l and community a g e n c ie s w hich m ight be c o n sid e re d s c i e n t i f i c , a t
l e a s t i n p o lic y fo rm a tio n , i s th e volume, S o c ia l S e rv ic e and th e S c h o o ls , 49
an E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission p u b lic a t io n .
The Commission re c o g n iz e s
th e sch o o l a s th e most im p o rta n t s o c ia l i n s t i t u t i o n i n th e community, b u t
m a in ta in s th a t b e fo re th e sc h o o l can f u l f i l l t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t m ust
re c o g n iz e , supplem ent, and c o o p e ra te w ith su ch a g e n c ie s a s a r e engaged
in l i b r a r y s e r v ic e , r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v ic e , and h e a lt h and w e lfa re s e r v ic e .
An is s u e o f th e J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l S o c io lo g y i s d ev o ted en­
t i r e l y to th e s tu d y o f c e r t a i n community a g e n c ie s and th e e f f e c t o f such
a g e n c ie s upon th e c h a r a c te r o f th e c h ild r e n , w ith s tro n g recom m endations
f o r e f f e c t i v e sch o o l r e c o g n itio n o f th e s e f o r c e s . ^
F u n c tio n s o f th e School a s a S o c ia l C en ter
Much o f th e p u b lis h e d m a te r ia l on th e fu n c tio n in g o f th e sch o o l
a s a s e r v ic e c e n te r te n d s tow ard d e s c r ip tio n o f such c e n te r s .
That th e
4g " "
~ v" ....................
" ".............. "
C o n n ecticu t S ta te D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , C h ild r e n 's S o c ie tie s and
T h e ir R e la tio n to P u b lic E d u c a tio n , Bureau o f F i e l d S e rv ic e , 1934,
p p . 3 -6 .
^ S o c ia l S e rv ic e s and th e S c h o o ls, E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission, 1939.
^^B orgeson, F. C ., e d . , "Community A gencies and C h a ra c te r G row th,"
J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n a l S o c io lo g y , 10: 385-448, March, 1937.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
20
co n cep t i s n o t new i s shewn by th e t i t l e o f th e te n th yearbook o f The
N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n , p u b lis h e d in 1911.®^G -lueck's s tu d y o f th e u se o f b u ild in g s , made in 1927, in d ic a te d a grow­
in g u se o f th e b u ild in g s by b o th a d u lts and n o n -sc h o o l y o u th , w ith r e c ­
r e a t i o n a l g roups making most u s e o f b u ild in g s and fa c ilitie s .® * *
One o f th e i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c lu sio n s drawn from S m ith 's a n a ly s is
o f r u r a l sc h o o ls i n L o u isia n a i s th a t l i t t l e u s e i s made o f th e sch o o l
a s a s o c ia l c e n te r :
There i s l i t t l e ev id en ce to su p p o rt th e id e a
th a t th e r u r a l sc h o o l, a s an e s ta b lis h e d i n s t i t u t i o n
f e e l s any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to th e community in w hich i t
i s lo c a te d , l o t a h ig h sch o o l r e p o r ts an y form o f com­
m unity a c t i v i t y f u n c tio n in g in th e sch o o l e x ce p t th e
P. T. A ., w hich, i n th e m ain, i s a sch o o l d e v ice f o r
s e c u rin g a i d f o r th e sch o o l from th e p a tr o n s , n o t a
scheme whereby th e sch o o l can a c t to a id th e community.
That th e sch o o l i s n o t re g a rd e d a s a community i n s t i ­
t u t i o n w ith an y o th e r f u n c tio n th an t h a t o f t r a i n i n g
yo u th in academ ic l i n e s i s ev id en ced by th e f a c t th a t
such a sm all p r o p o r tio n o f th e p a r e n ts o f sch o o l c h i l dren had v i s i t e d th e sch o o l d u rin g th e y e a r . 00
A review o f th e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to th e component p a r t s o f
th e d e f i n i t i o n o f th e community sc h o o l, as g iv e n by Cook, r e v e a ls a
p a u c ity o f s c i e n t i f i c a l l y developed s tu d ie s which b e a r d i r e c t l y on th e
v a rio u s to p ic s .
A u th o r ita tiv e S tatem en ts
C e rta in s ta te m e n ts o f e d u c a to rs who a re g e n e r a lly conceded to
be e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s have d i r e c t im p lic a tio n s f o r th e community sc h o o l
51
"The C ity School a s a Community C e n te r," T enth Yearbook, P a r t I ,
N a tio n a l S o c ie ty f o r th e Study o f E d u c a tio n , U n iv e rs ity o f
Chicago P r e s s , 1911.
5P
Grlueck, E lea n o r T ., E xtended Use o f School B u ild in g s , U. S. O ffic e o f
E d u catio n B u l l e t i n , 1927, l o . 5, 1927.
53
Sm ith, Op. c i t . , p p. 90-91.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
21
c o n ce p t.
C o n s id e ra tio n o f th e t e n e t , " a l l l i f e i s e d u c a tiv e ," "brings
in to view two opposing p h ilo s o p h ie s :
K ilp a tr ic k co n ten d s t h a t " th e
s c h o o l now coming in to "being i s and must in c r e a s in g ly he a p la c e where
a c tu a l l i v i n g goes on.
Only from and i n l i v i n g can one le a r n how to
l i v e b e tte r;" ® ^ H u tc h in s, tw elve y e a rs l a t e r , ask s "Must i t (th e sc h o o l)
do what th e fa m ily , th e s t a t e , th e Y. M. C. A ., and Boy S couts a lle g e
th e y a r e tr y in g to do?
tie
Can th e p u p ils le a r n n o th in g from l i f e ? "
C ut-
° s t a t e s t h a t "The sch o o l i s n o t an agency o f s o c ie ty i n th e sen se
t h a t i t should o r may f u n c tio n a s a s e p a ra te i n s t i t u t i o n .
an a s p e c t o f s o c ie ty .
immature m embers."
I t is ra th e r
I t i s s o c ie ty fu n c tio n in g a s e d u c a to r o f i t s own
Counts,®’'* h a s s a id v i r t u a l l y th e same th in g in in d i­
c a tin g t h a t "The m ajor o b je c t o f e d u c a tio n s in c e th e b e g in n in g o f tim e
has been th e in d u c tio n o f th e immature in d iv id u a l in to th e l i f e o f th e
g ro u p ."
O ther is s u e s , te n e t s and p r i n c i p l e s , f in d s im ila r e x p re s s io n s ;
p u b lic school system s sh o u ld be p r i m a r i ly concerned w ith community l i v i n g
and th e improvement o f th e s o c ia l o rd e r; o r i e n t a t i o n o f th e c u rric u lu m in
m ajor a re a s o f l i v i n g ; p u b lic e d u c a tio n sh o u ld be found on d e m o cratic p ro ­
c e s s e s ; and p u b lic sc h o o ls sh o u ld be concerned w ith b o th a d u lts and c h i l -
54K ilp a tr ic k , W illiam H ., E d u c a tio n f o r a Changing C i v i l i z a t i o n , The
MacMillan Company, 1926.
®®Hutehins, R obert M., "E d u catio n and S o c ia l Im provem ent", E d u c a tio n a l
R ecord, March, 1938, p . 392 (V ol. 1 9 ).
56
T u t t l e , H arold S . , A S o c ia l B a sis o f E d u c a tio n , Thomas Y. C row ell
Company, 1934, p . 335.
57
C ounts, Ceorge S ., The S o c ia l F o u n d atio n s o f E d u c a tio n , R e p o rt, Com­
m issio n on th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s , C h arles S c r ib n e r 's Sons, 1934,
p . 536.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
22
d re n .
These p r i n c i p l e s a r e th o u g h t "by Cox to be an o u tg ro w th o f th e
r e v o l t a g a in s t th e academ ic t r a d i t i o n o f th e A m erican School; 11in d e CO
f e n s ib le s ta n d a rd s o f academ ic a tta in m e n t . " 00
B runner g iv e s th e s e t t i n g
f o r t h i s r e v o l t in th e r e t u r n to th e c o n c e p tio n o f th e sch o o l a s a s o c i a l
in s titu tio n s
"The sch o o l i s p r im a r i ly a community i n s t i t u ­
t i o n , anchored in e v ita b l y to a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l e . I f
th e n , th e re i s an y p o s s i b i l i t y o f e f f e c t i n g s o c i a l
change th ro u g h e d u c a tio n a l p r o c e s s e s , th e p rim a ry op­
p o r t u n i t y i s w ith , o r a t l e a s t b e g in s w ith , th e lo c a l
community.
In d eed , a com plete canvas o f s ta te m e n ts w ith im p lic a tio n s f o r
t h i s s tu d y would le a d in to su ch a b e w ild e rin g number o f f i e l d s t h a t i t
would be im p o ssib le to d i s t i l l from th e m a te r ia l so accu m u lated much
more th a n th e g e n e r a liz a tio n s a lr e a d y s e t f o r t h by th e Committee on th e
Community School.
D e s c r ip tiv e L i te r a t u r e
A ll sc h o o ls have n o t c lu n g to th e academ ic; th e r e a re many ex­
am ples o f sc h o o ls w hich have ta k e n th e p o s i t i o n t h a t th e sch o o l sh o u ld
be a dynamic f a c t o r in c u l t u r a l developm ent.
The d e s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e w hich h as grown o u t o f th e se e x p e r i­
m ents in community sc h o o ls c o n s t i t u t e s a lm o st a s e p a r a te f i e l d o f educa­
t i o n a l w r itin g .
Whereas much o f t h i s d e s c r ip ti v e m a te r ia l i s u n c r i t i c a l ,
and u n s c i e n t i f i c , th e r e has b een some c a r e f u l e v a lu a tio n and a n a ly s is o f
a mode o f e d u c a tio n w hich to th o se in v o lv e d , a t l e a s t , seems to o f f e r a
r i c h e r , more m ean in g fu l e x is te n c e to th e p u p ils and to th e s o c ie t y from
which th e p u p ils a r e drawn,
——
—
—
,
Cox, P h il ip W. L ., "Must th e H igh School S urvive?" The E d u c a tio n a l
lorum , 2 , lovem ber, 1937, p . 27.
59
B ru n n er, Edmund de S ., " S o c ia l Trends and E d u c a tio n ," The E d u c a tio n a l
Forum, 2 , lovem ber, 1937, p . 16.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
23
Denmark o f f e r s one o f th e n o ta b le c a s e s o f a f u s io n o f id e a s in
e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo s o p h y .
H art c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to th e sch o o l p r a c t i c e
th e r e a s e a r ly a s 1927, in a hook w ith th e somewhat s i g n i f i c a n t t i t l e ,
L ig h t from th e H o rth . 6^
B eg tru p , Lund, and Marriche®^- f u r t h e r d e s c rib e d
th e e f f o r t s o f Denmark to g iv e s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p e rie n c e to i t s y o u th
th ro u g h f o lk s c h o o ls .
The s to r y , somewhat s i m i l a r , o f e d u c a tio n in Mexico i s to ld i n
th e a p p e ll a tio n ;
“The sc h o o l; th e house o f th e p e o p le .*1 Mexico o f f e r s
a f e r t i l e f i e l d o f o b s e r v a tio n o f th e ty p e o f sch o o l w hich ig n o re s th e
ti- a d itio n s o f e d u c a tio n a s i t e x i s t s i n th e U n ite d S ta te s .® ^
I n th e U n ite d S ta te s th e r e a r e many e x p erim en ts i n i n t e g r a t i o n
betw een th e sc h o o l and th e community.
One o f th e o ld e s t i s Penn S ch o o l,
on S t. Heleno I s la n d , South C a ro lin a , where f o r s e v e n ty y e a rs th e s c h o o l
h a s l i t e r a l l y g iv e n “e d u c a tio n in th e soil** and p ro v id e d a way o f l i f e
f o r th e n e g ro e s o f th e i s l a n d . ^
F o r n e a r ly a decade a community sc h o o l
h as fu n c tio n e d i n J e f f e r s o n County, K entucky, s e rv in g c h ild r e n and a d u lts
® °H art, Jo sep h K ., L ig h t from th e l o r t h , I . Y ., Henry H o lt, 1927,
61
B eg tru p , H olger; Lund, Hans; and M arric h e, P e te r ; The P o lk High
Schools o f Denmark, Oxford U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1929.
AO
The fo llo w in g a r t i c l e d e a ls w ith a s p e c ts o f th e M exican program ;
(a ) Cook, K a th e rin e , The House o f th e P e o p le . O ffic e o f
E d u c a tio n , B u l l e t i n , 1932, 11.
(b) Howerth, I . W. * “E d u c a tio n in M exico,** The E d u c a tio n a l
forum , 11; 173-180, J a n u a ry , 1938.
(c ) R am irez, R a f a e l, “E s ta b lis h in g th e 'P e o p le 's H ouses*, “
P r o g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n , F e b ru a ry , 1936.
(d) Sanchez, G eorge, M exico; A R ev o lu tio n b y E d u c a tio n ,
H. I . V ik in g -P re s s , 1936.
(e ) Zamora, C elso F lo r e s , “M exican R u ra l E d u c a tio n and Admin­
i s t r a t i o n , " P r o g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n , F e b ru a ry , 1936.
°C ooley, R o s a B ., "E d u catio n in th e S o i l ," P r o g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n ,
15; 448-455, December, 1938.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
24
a lik e .
64
A lla n H u ls iz e r a s s i s t e d i n c o n d u ctin g th e Georgetown s c h o o l,
in Southern D elaw are, on th e community p r i n c i p l e . ^
Mrs. M arie H arvey
and Dr. E lls w o rth C o llin g s d ev elo p ed th e same c o n c e p tio n o f e d u c a tio n
in community sc h o o ls in M iss o u ri.
Dr. Danny Dann, f o r more th a n tw elve
y e a r s , h a s made th e Quaker Grove S ch o o l, o f Hew J e r s e y , f e l t i n a l l th e
community.
In th e P a rk e r S ch o o l, G re e n v ille , S o u th C a ro lin a , a g ra d u a l
t r a n s i t i o n h a s ta k e n p la c e in seven y e a r s , p ro d u c in g an i n s t i t u t i o n con­
c ern ed p r im a r i ly w ith th e w e lfa re o f th e community.
She sch o o l h as de­
v elo p ed on th e assu m p tio n t h a t i t must d u p lic a te th e d em o cratic p ro c e ­
d u re s in o rd e r t h a t th e c h ild may l e a r n such p r a c t i c e . ^
The e n t i r e con­
t e n t s o f P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n f o r F e b ru a ry , 1932, a r e d ev o ted to exam­
p le s o f community sc h o o ls f u n c tio n in g among M exicans in th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
among In d ia n s , Eskimos and s e a - i s l a n d e r s . 67
The In d ia n F ie ld S e rv ic e , D epartm ent o f th e I n t e r i o r , h a s g iv e n
an i n t e r e s t i n g d e s c r ip ti o n o f th e s e community s c h o o ls , p a r t o f which
f u n c tio n u n d er th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e F ie ld S e rv ic e .
Under D u tie s , in an
announcement o f ex am in atio n s f o r T eachers in In d ia n Community and Board­
in g S ch o o ls, th e fo llo w in g d e s c r ip ti o n i s g iv e n :
Under g e n e ra l s u p e r v is io n to s e rv e a s te a c h e r i n
an In d ia n community o r h o a rd in g sc h o o l. Most o f th e se
54
C lapp, E l s ie R ip le y , "A R u ra l Community School i n K entucky11, P ro ­
g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n , 10: 123-128, March, 1933.
‘
® % u ls iz e r, A lla n , "Georgetown, An E xperim ent i n R u ral E d u c a tio n ,'1
P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n , 10: 150: 156, M arch, 1933.
66
° T ip p e tt, James S ., S chools f o r a Growing Democracy, H. I . , Ginn
and Co. , 1937.
67
P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n , F e b ru a ry , 1932.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
25
sch o o ls a re lo c a te d in i s o l a t e d r u r a l a re a s w ith meager
re s o u rc e s where th e la n d h as heen s e r i o u s ly d e p le te d h y
o v e rg ra z in g , r e c u r r in g d ro u g h ts , and im proper farm p ra c ­
tic e s .
The p rim a ry o b je c tiv e s o f In d ia n sc h o o ls a r e j To
g iv e s tu d e n ts an u n d e rs ta n d in g and a p p r e c ia tio n o f t h e i r
own t r i b a l l o r e , a r t , m usic, and community o r g a n iz a tio n ;
to te a c h s tu d e n ts th ro u g h t h e i r own p a r t i c i p a t i o n in sch o o l
and community governm ent to become c o n s tr u c tiv e c i t i z e n s
o f t h e i r com m unities; to a i d s tu d e n ts in a n a ly z in g th e
economic re s o u rc e s o f t h e i r r e s e r v a tio n and in p la n n in g
more e f f e c t i v e ways o f u t i l i z i n g th e s e re s o u rc e s f o r th e
improvement o f s ta n d a rd s o f l i v i n g ; to te a c h , th ro u g h a c ­
tu a l d e m o n stra tio n , i n t e l l i g e n t c o n s e rv a tio n o f n a t u r a l re ­
so u rc e s ; to g iv e s tu d e n ts f i r s t - h a n d e x p e rie n c e in l i v e ­
s to c k management, u s e o f n a tiv e m a te r ia ls in h o u sin g and
c lo th in g , i n s u b s is te n c e g a rd e n in g , c o o p e ra tiv e m a rk e tin g ,
farm m echanics, and w h atev er o th e r v o c a tio n a l s k i l l s a re
needed to e a rn a liv e lih o o d in th e re g io n ; to develop
b e t t e r h e a lt h h a b i t s , improved s a n i t a t i o n , and h ig h e r
s ta n d a rd s o f d i e t w ith a view to p r e v e n tio n o f trachom a,
tu b e r c u lo s i s , and i n f a n t d is e a s e s ; to g iv e s tu d e n ts an
u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e s o c ia l and economic w o rld im m ediately
about them and to a i d them in a c h ie v in g some m a ste ry o v er
t h e i r environm ent; and to s e rv e a s a community c e n te r in
m eeting th e s o c ia l and economic needs o f th e community. .
In d ia n S e rv ic e te a c h e rs a re e x p ec te d to be n o t
o n ly te a c h e rs in th e u s u a l se n se , b u t to be a c t i v e p a r t i ­
c ip a n ts in th e community in which th e y work and e x e r c is e
e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip . They must be c o n v e rsa n t w ith
problem s o f r u r a l economy and e ag e r to e le v a te and d ig n if y
ru ra l lif e .
In d ia n sc h o o ls do n o t fo llo w p r e s c r ib e d c o u rse s o f
stu d y . T eachers a r e e x p ec te d to f in d w ith in th e e n v iro n ­
ment much o f th e m a te r ia l f o r t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l program .
Emphasis i s p la c e d upon f r e e and spontaneous u se o f E n g lis h ,
upon group d is c u s s io n s , and o th e r in fo rm al p ro c e s s e s .
D eyoe's acco u n t o f community sc h o o ls in th e s t a t e o f M ichigan
develops in to an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n on Cook* s d e f i n i t i o n o f th e com­
m unity sch o o l.
Deyoe co n clu d es t h a t such a sch o o l i s one h a v in g th e f o l ­
low ing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ;
1.
C o o p erativ e p la n n in g o f lo n g -tim e program s
f o r community developm ent, w ith e d u c a tio n a l
i n s t i t u t i o n re n d e rin g s e r v ic e s o f c e n t r a l
im p o rtan ce.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
26
2.
Development o f f u n c tio n a l c u r r i c u l a t h a t
in v o lv e m ajor problem s and a re a s o f com­
m unity l i v i n g and p ro v id e f o r th e u t i l i ­
z a tio n o f community.
S.
Development o f th e sch o o l a s an e d u c a tio n ­
a l c e n te r in which f a c i l i t i e s a re p ro v id e d
f o r m eetin g e d u c a tio n a l needs o f th e a d u l t ,
a s w e ll a s th e c h ild .
A r e c e n t volume by Clapp^^ d e a ls w ith e x p e rim e n ts, co nducted in
two sch o o ls on th e e x te n s io n o f th e c u rric u lu m to in c lu d e s y s te m a tic
u t i l i z a t i o n o f community re s o u rc e s by p u p ils and th e u t i l i z a t i o n o f th e
sch o o l by a d u l t s .
The two sc h o o ls were th e B a lla r d Memorial S ch o o l, J e f ­
f e r s o n County, K entucky ( p r e v io u s ly m entioned) and th e sch o o l a t A rth u r d a le , West V ir g in ia .
John Dewey, in th e fo rew ard to th e book s a y s ;
A g r e a t d e a l i s now s a id a b o u t th e s o c i a l fu n c­
tio n o f th e s c h o o ls ; more i s s a id th a n done. In t h i s
book we have an a cc o u n t o f som ething a c t u a l l y done and
o f how i t was done. P erh ap s th e f i r s t le s s o n i t te a c h e s
u s i s th a t sc h o o ls f u n c tio n s o c i a l l y o n ly when th e y fu n c ­
tio n in a community f o r community p u rp o s e s, and communi­
t i e s a re l o c a l , p r e s e n t, and c lo s e b y , w h ile " s o c ie ty " a t
la r g e i s som ething v a g u ely in th e d i s t a n c e . ^
T his s tu d y o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e can n o t ta k e in to a cc o u n t th e
many re c o rd ed in s ta n c e s , e x c u rs io n s , and such ite m s.
I t would be an in ­
j u s t i c e , however, to ig n o re c e r t a i n p u b li c a tio n s , such a s y earb o o k s,
which make more d is c e rn a b le th e "movement o f th e sc h o o ls tow ard more o r­
g a n ic r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith th e com m unity.» A b r i e f , in co m p lete l i s t i n g o f
th e s e books and b u l l e t i n s shows p re o c c u p a tio n w ith th e b a s ic n o tio n ;
School and Community, a s e c tio n o f R eport o f th e R egents In q u iry ; Conf*
m unity R esources i n R ural S c h o o ls, Yearbook o f th e D epartm ent o f R u ra l
Deyoe, G. P . , "Community S chools i n A c tio n : A M ichigan A cco u n t", Pro
g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n , 16, November, 1939, p . 513.
S9 C lapp, E l s ie R ip le y , Community S chools in A c tio n , V iking P r e s s , 1939.
? 0 T.
I b.i,d . , p . v .............
ii-v m .
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27
E d u catio n ; th e F o u rte e n th Yearbook, D epartm ent o f S u p e rin te n d e n ts , The
S o c ia l S tu d ie s C urriculum ; E le v e n th Yearbook, D epartm ent o f E lem en tary
School P r in c i p a ls ; T w elfth Yearbook, D epartm ent o f S u p e rv is o rs and Di­
r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , Hewer I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r a c tic e s o f P ro m ise; and
th e o f f i c i a l r e p o r t , 1939, o f th e American E d u c a tio n a l R esearch A sso c i­
a t i o n on th e fo u n d a tio n s o f A m erican e d u c a tio n .
C onclusion
E xam ination o f th e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a ls an em erging c o n c e p t, w hich
i s n o t new i n i t s component p a r t s , b u t which ta k e n a s a whole i d e n t i f i e s
th e sch o o l more c lo s e ly w ith i t s community.
The r e s e a r c h b e a r in g d i r e c t ­
l y on t h i s c o n cep t i s m eagre, and a p p a r e n tly th e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f th e mode
r e l i e s upon a s y n th e s is o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e s ta te m e n t, and p r i n c i p l e s de­
riv e d from s u c c e s s fu l p r o je c t io n o f such p r a c t i c e in v a rio u s com m unities.
In th e examples o f th e community sch o o l a vague tre n d may be d i s ­
c ern ed which i s o f seco n d ary im p o rtan ce and which la c k s v e r i f i c a t i o n —•
th e s e sch o o ls e x i s t in th e m ain, f o r th e s o c i a l l y u n d e r p r iv ile g e d , th e
s o c ia l m i s f i t s , th e r e ta r d e d a r e a s , and th e u n a s s im ila te d r a c i a l g ro u p s.
Such u n v e r if ie d o b s e rv a tio n m ight le a d to an im p o rtan t assu m p tio n t h a t
in such a re a s and among such p eo p le th e t r a d i t i o n a l sch o o l h a s f i r s t b ro ­
ken down; no p ow erful s o c ia l im petus; no p le th o r a o f economic goods; no
e x cess o f r a c i a l stam in a; no e x p lo ita b le re s o u rc e s ; have pushed th e
h ollow s h e ll o f th e sch o o l fo rw a rd , and th e la g betw een s o c ie ty and th e
sch o o l has shown h e re f i r s t ; th e r e i s no s to re d -u p h e r ita g e to d i s s i p a t e ;
no achievem ent " in s p i t e o f th e s c h o o l."
Such a ssu m p tio n s, even u n v e r if ie d , le n d p u rp o se and d i r e c t i o n to
th e in v e s t ig a ti o n o f th e im p lic a tio n s o f th e community sch o o l co n cep t f o r
West L o u is v ille School.
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CHAPTER I I I
COMMOTITY SETTING
I n tr o d u c tio n
A h a s ty su rv e y o f th e a r e a se rv e d hy th e West L o u is v ille School
w i l l show th e complex n a tu re o f th e problem s c o n fro n tin g th e sc h o o l.
There i s no doubt t h a t a d e t a i l e d s o c io lo g ic a l su rv ey would r e v e a l v a l­
u a b le d a ta , and i t i s n o t im probable t h a t such a s tu d y would be o f much
s ig n if ic a n c e to th e sc h o o l.
L im ita tio n s m ust be p la c e d on th e p r e s e n t
s tu d y , however, le a v in g much to some o th e r in d iv id u a l o r group.
This
c h a p te r w i l l m erely se rv e to o u tli n e b r i e f l y th e s e t t i n g i n w hich th e
sch o o l must p erfo rm i t s f u n c tio n s .
By th e c r i t e r i a o f Cook and Almack: x i t becomes a p p a re n t t h a t th e
s e r v ic e a r e a o f th e sch o o l i s n o t a community.
In l i e u o f th e term Hcom-
m u n ity ,H a l l th e a r e a serv ed by th e sc h o o l, v a ry in g in th e amount o f s e r ­
v ic e re c e iv e d , w i l l be d e s ig n a te d a s th e West L o u is v ille School Ba re a « .
The term 11community 11 may th e n be re s e rv e d f o r th o se s m a lle r c e n te r s w hich
compose th e a r e a .
The West L o u is v ille School a r e a forms a rough t r i a n g l e in th e
so u th w este rn p o r tio n o f D aviess County, K entucky, c o n ta in in g ap p ro x im ate­
l y s i x t y - f i v e sq u are m ile s , a b o u t o n e -n in th o f th e e n t i r e co u n ty a r e a .
The t o t a l p o p u la tio n , b y th e 1940 c e n su s, i s a p p ro x im a te ly fo u r th o u san d ,
b u t a s subsequent d a ta w i l l r e v e a l, th e sch o o l a f f e c t s o n ly a sm all p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f t h i s p o p u la tio n .
S in ce i t i s beyond th e scope o f t h i s s tu d y
to in v e s t ig a te th e s o c io lo g ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e a r e a , a n a l y s is o f
th e v a rio u s i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l se rv e to show th e complex n a tu re o f th e
71
Cook, Lloyd A. and Almack, lo n a ld B ., Op. c i t . See page 8 o f t h i s
stu d y f o r th e com plete d e f i n i t i o n o f community.
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29
sch o o l problem .
W ithin th e a r e a a r e s i x c l e a r l y d e fin e d community c e n te r s ;
West
L o u i s v ille , p o p u la tio n 270, th e t h i r d l a r g e s t community in D av iess c o u n ty ,
exceeded by th e in c o rp o ra te d v i l l a g e o f W h ite s v ille , in th e e a s te r n end
o f th e co unty, w ith a p o p u la tio n o f 570, and b y th e c i t y o f Owensboro,
w ith a p o p u la tio n o f 3 0 ,1 1 2 ; C u r d s v ille , p o p u la tio n 150; Sorgho, p o p u la ­
t i o n 102; S t. J o se p h , p o p u la tio n 89; D elaw are, p o p u la tio n 70; and P a n th e r,
p o p u la tio n 68 .
There a r e f o u r l e s s c l e a r l y d e fin e d c e n te r s w hich r e t a i n
t h e i r i d e n t i t y a lm o st in name o n ly , o r b y v i r t u e o f a g e n e ra l s t o r e ;
E l­
b a , M o sle y v ille , Rome, and Windy Hollow.
L ocal d a ta r e v e a l t h a t a l l th e s e c e n te r s once perfo rm ed a much
more s i g n i f i c a n t s e r v ic e th a n t h a t perfo rm ed to d ay , a lth o u g h th e r e h as
been no marked change in p o p u la tio n s in c e th e 1930 c e n su s.
T able I .
S ch o o ls o f th e West L o u is v ille A rea
P erhaps th e h i s t o r y o f sch o o l c o n s o lid a tio n w i l l r e v e a l a s c l e a r ­
l y a s a n y th in g th e p r e s e n t need f o r i n t e g r a t i o n w ith in th e a r e a .
In 1935
th e r e were t h i r t e e n one o r two-room sc h o o ls which have s in c e been e i t h e r
e n t i r e l y o r p a r t i a l l y c o n s o lid a te d w ith West L o u i s v ille S ch o o l.
In some
in s ta n c e s th e p u p il p o p u la tio n was d iv id e d betw een two o r more c o n s o li­
d a te d s c h o o ls , a s w i l l be seen i n T able I I .
Many o f th e s e sc h o o ls were
in no sense a tta c h e d to a g iv e n community, s e rv in g r a t h e r a s s t r i c t l y
ru ra l in s titu tio n s .
I t h as been in d ic a te d t h a t th e r e a re two la r g e e lem en ta ry con­
s o lid a te d sc h o o ls i n th e a r e a .
B e sid e s th e s e two p u b lic sc h o o ls th e r e
a r e f iv e p a r o c h ia l e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls , one p a r o c h ia l g i r l s 1 academy and
j u n io r c o lle g e , and one one-room e lem en ta ry sc h o o l, w hich a p p a r e n tly m ust
a w a it c o n s tr u c tio n o f b e t t e r ro ad s b e fo re b e in g c o n s o lid a te d .
A nother com-
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30
SABLE I
INSTITUTIONAL COMPOSITION OP COMMUNITIES IN THE WEST
L0UISYILL1 SCHOOL AEEA, 1940
Community
Churches
♦Schools
S to re s
P o st O ffic e
One
Two
One
West L o u is v ille
None
C u rd s v ille
Three
♦One
Two
One
Sorgho
Three
♦One
Two
None
S t, Jo sep h
One
♦One
One
One
Delaware
One
None
One
One
P a n th e r
None
None
Two
None
Home
One
One
None
M o sle y v ille
None
None
Two
None
Windy Hollow
One
None
One
None
E lb a
None
None
One
None
♦One
*—P a ro c h ia l S chools
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31
W
IX
SCHOOL CONSOLIDATION IN THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
AEEA SINCE 1935
School
Maximum P u p il P o p u la tio n ,
1935
D ate o f C o n so lid a­
tio n
C u rd s v ille
36
1937
Delaware
18
1936
H all
12
1939
♦Haydentown
23
1937
♦♦Lick B ranch
13
1937
Myles
21
1937
♦ ♦ P anther
44
1938
20
1937
S h o rt Zion
18
1937
Smock
14
1937
♦Sorgho
27
1937
12
1938
16
1935
♦ P le a s a n t Grove
Union Grove
♦♦Wayne B ridge
♦—Most o f membership t r a n s f e r r e d to Sorgho C o n so lid a te d School.
♦♦—Most o f membership tr a n s f e r r e d to Snyder C o n so lid a te d S ch o o l.
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32
p l i e a t i n g f a c to r i s found i n th e f a c t t h a t many p u p i ls l i v i n g i n th e
lo o s e ly d e fin e d West L o u i s v ille a r e a f i n d i t c o n v e n ie n t o r d e s i r a b le to
a tte n d e i t h e r th e p u b lic D av iess County High School, in Owensboro, o r
one o f th e C a th o lic h ig h sc h o o ls m a in ta in e d i n Owensboro, S t. F ra n c is
Academy o r S t. Jo se p h Academy.
T his b r i e f summary o f th e sch o o l s i t u a t i o n in d ic a te s th e m u lti­
p l i c i t y o f in flu e n c e s e x i s t i n g i n th e g e n e r a l sch o o l a r e a .
(T ab le I I I )
Churches
Much th e same c o n d itio n s e x i s t a s to th e ch u rch es w ith in th e
a re a .
At p r e s e n t th e r e a re f i f t e e n a c ti v e c h u rc h e s, o f v a ry in g s i z e and
in f lu e n c e , n o t in c lu d in g th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l ch u rch a t Mount S t. Jo se p h
J u n io r C ollege and Academy.
Many o f th e ch u rch es a r e i d e n t i f i e d w ith
c e r t a i n com m unities, w h ile o th e r s a r e s t r i c t l y r u r a l , to o rem ote to be
in c lu d e d i n an y o f th e s m a lle r com m unities.
T able IV shows th e r e l a t i v e
s iz e o f th e c h u rc h m em bership, and th e d en o m in atio n .
The ap p ro x im ate mem­
b e rs h ip i s in no way a c r i t e r i o n o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l in flu e n c e o f th e
c h u rch , b ecau se i n many in s ta n c e s , a church w ith th re e hundred membership
cannot acco u n t f o r more th an s e v e n ty - f iv e a c t i v e members, w h ile r e t a i n i n g
on th e church r o l l s o v e r a lon g p e r io d many members who have l e f t th e com­
m u n ity , co unty, o r s t a t e .
Of th e f i f t e e n c h u rc h e s, s i x a r e B a p t i s t , f iv e
a re C a th o lic , two a r e M e th o d ist, one i s P r e s b y te r ia n , and one i s U nion.
A ll except one o f th e C a th o lic ch u rch es have r e s i d e n t p r i e s t s , w h ile on­
l y one o f th e rem ain in g c h u rc h e s , Sorgho B a p t i s t , h a s a r e s id e n t m in is te r .
A ll o f th e churches in c lu d e p u p ils o f th e sc h o o l among th e members, o r
s ta t e d a n o th e r way, n in e ty -tw o p e r c e n t o f th e West L o u is v ille School pu­
p i l p o p u la tio n h as membership in one o f th e f i f t e e n c h u rc h es.
S t . A lphon-
su s i s th e c l o s e s t to West L o u i s v ille and i s by f a r th e most i n f l u e n t i a l
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33
TABLE I I I
EXISTING- SCHOOLS, PUBLIC AMD PAROCHIAL, IN THE WEST
LOUISVILLE SCHOOL AREA
School
E n ro llm en t
Type
T each ers
C o n tro l
16
E lem entary
One
P u b lic
Snyder
17?
E lem en tary
E ive
P u b lic
Sorgho
285
E lem entary
N ine
P u b lic
♦ S t, Alphonsus
104
E lem en tary
P a r o c h ia l
• S t . E liz a b e th
54
E lem entary
P a r o c h ia l
• S t . M artin
85
E lem en tary
P a r o c h ia l
♦ S t. Mary Magdalene
68
E lem entary
P a r o c h ia l
♦ S t. R aphael
42
E lem entary
P a r o c h ia l
Secondary and Ju ­
n i o r C ollege
P a r o c h ia l
B la n fo rd
♦ ♦ S t. Jo sep h J u n io r C ol­
le g e and Academy
300
West L o u is v ille
341
Secondary and
E lem en tary
14
P u b lic
*— Teacher d a ta a r e incom plete
♦♦—Many a tte n d in g th e academy and ju n io r c o lle g e a re n o t from th e West
L o u is v ille a r e a .
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TABLE I ?
CHURCHES I I THE WEST LOUISVILLE AREA
«aaB»a»maa8«aBaaaBsaEsa8ararmii,.ar-a'iUL..acBiij :.asaa»8feSB»sB8«saEgss»sssasBBs«aaaBSBBSgE,u a i ^ s ^ s ggsgBaM acssaHazsgttsssxaettsasss^fl
Church
Membership
D e n o m in a tio n
B rushy Fork
150
B a p tis t
O u rd s v ille
100
B a p t is t
C u rd s v ille
100
M eth o d ist
C u rd s v ille ( S t. E liz a b e th )
200
C a th o lic
Cumberland
300
P r e s b y te r ia n
D elaware Creek
100
B a p tis t
Delaware
Mount Zion
lew Macedonia
50
200
Union
M eth o d ist
50
B a p t is t
P le a s a n t Grove
400
B a p t is t
Sorgho
300
B a p tis t
Sorgho ( S t. Mary M agdalene)
300
C a th o lic
S t. Alphonsus
500
C a th o lic
S t. M artin
350
C a th o lic
S t. R aphael
300
C a th o lic
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35
a s to number o f sch o o l p u p ils who a r e members o f th e ch u rch .
M isc e lla n eo u s I n s t i t u t i o n s
I n s t i t u t i o n a l s e r v ic e in th e a r e a i s g r a d u a lly d e c re a s in g , a s
in th e c ase o f l o c a l p o s t o f f i c e s .
m a ste rs and an o f f i c e ;
In 1934 th e fo llo w in g p la c e s had p o s t­
West L o u i s v ill e , Sorgho, C u rd s v ille , S t. J o se p h ,
D elaw are, Rome, P a n th e r, and E lb a.
By 1940 r u r a l r o u te s have alm ost sup­
p la n te d th e p o s t o f f i c e , le a v in g m a il s e r v ic e a t West L o u i s v ille , S t.
Jo se p h , D elaw are, and C u rd s v ille .
Much o f th e r u r a l m a il i s d e liv e r e d
d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y from lon g r u r a l r o u te s b e g in n in g in Owensboro,
U tic a , and S ta n le y .
In 1939 th e te le p h o n e exchanges, w ith r e s i d e n t o p e r a to r s , a t West
L o u i s v ille , Sorgho, and P a n th e r, were combined in to one d i a l sy stem , con­
n e c te d d i r e c t l y w ith th e l a r g e r Owensboro exchange.
She in d u s tr y o f th e a re a i s c o n c e n tra te d in s ix te e n sm all c o a l
m in es, which produce c o a l f o r Owensboro and th e lo c a l c o a l t r a d e .
Many
o f th e s e mines were once heavy c o a l p ro d u c e rs, sh ip p in g c o a l by b arg e on
G reen R iv e r, w hich form s th e w e ste rn boundary o f th e co u n ty .
However,
th e sm alln ess o f th e v e in , combined w ith p o o r q u a l i t y o f c o a l and d i f f i ­
c u l t c o a l c e i l i n g , has caused a g ra d u a l w ith d raw al o f a c t i v i t y u n t i l th e
s ix te e n mines employ n o t more th an n in e ty p e o p le , e x c lu d in g th e t r u c k e r s ,
o f c o u rs e , who h a u l th e c o a l to th e lo c a l tr a d e and to Owensboro.
C lark B ro th e rs T ile and B ric k f a c t o r y a t M o s le y v ille , s u p p lie s
work f o r te n o r tw elve men a t th e peak seaso n o f employment, b u t th e l a r ­
g e r , b e t t e r o rg a n iz e d Owensboro C lay P ro d u c ts Company, lo c a te d on th e edge
o f Owensboro, h a s g r a d u a lly come to su p p ly much o f th e m a te r ia l w hich i s
u s e d i n Owensboro c o n s tr u c tio n .
There a r e two g a ra g e s , one a t West L o u i s v i l l e , one a t Sorgho; no
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36
r e s ta u r a n ts ; no h o te ls ; and e x ce p t f o r th e meager sch o o l l i b r a r i e s ,
which a r e n o t open to th e p u b li c , no l i b r a r i e s .
G en eral g ro c e ry s to r e s
s t i l l e x i s t in a l l o f th e c e n te r s ; in f a c t , many o f th e c e n te r s , su ch a s
E lb a , D elaw are, M o s le y v ille , and Windy Hollow, e x i s t o n ly in th e s e s t o r e s .
Even th e s e , how ever, have f e l t th e c o m p e titio n o f th e l a r g e r Owensboro
s to r e s and m a rk e ts.
O ther Community A gencies
L a n g f i t t , Cyr, and Eewsom7^ s t a t e ;
" In o rd e r to f u l f i l l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s th e
most im p o rta n t s o c ia l i n s t i t u t i o n in th e community, th e
sch o o l must re c o g n iz e , supplem ent, and c o o p e ra te w ith
th e o th e r im p o rtan t community a g e n c ie s which c o n tr ib u te
to community w e lfa re and th e d e s ir a b le s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f
th e in d iv id u a l."
Such a g e n c ie s l i s t e d by th e se a u th o rs a r e ;
homes, c h u rc h e s,
c lu b s , r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n te r s , f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s , v a rio u s a g r i c u l t u r a l so­
c i e t i e s , p o l i t i c a l g ro u p s, p u b lic l i b r a r i e s , p a r e n t- te a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n ,
lo c a l governm ental a g e n c ie s , community s t o r e s , economic o r g a n iz a tio n s ,
new spapers, and r a d io .
Coxe and Cowen
f u r t h e r l i s t and a n a ly z e e ig h ty -
th re e such a g e n c ie s r e p o r te d a s " stro n g " o rg a n iz a tio n s by th e p r i n c i p a l s
o f f o r ty - f o u r sm all h ig h sch o o ls in Hew York.
Of th e group enum erated
by L a n g f it t, Cyr, and Hewsom, homes, c h u rc h es, p u b lic l i b r a r i e s , and Com
m unity s to r e s o f th e West L o u i s v ille a r e a have been c o n sid e re d in th e
p r e s e n t c h a p te r.
There a re no c lu b s , r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n te r s , f r a t e r n a l o r­
d e r s , p a r e n t- te a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , new spapers o r r a d io s in th e a r e a .
T rue, th e Owensboro new spapers, The Owensboro M essenger and The Owensboro
70
73
.......
L a n g f i t t , Emerson; Cyr, P ran k W.; and Hewsom, H. W illiam , The Sm all
High School a t Work, Hew York; The American Sook Company, 1936,
p p . 10 - 11 .
Coxe, Warren W., and Cowen, P h i l i p A ., E d u c a tio n a l Heeds o f P u p ils in
Sm all High S c h o o ls. U n iv e r s ity o f th e S ta te o f Hew York B u l l e t i n
Humber 959, 1 9 3 1 , Hew York S ta te D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , p p . 13-14.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
37
I n q u ir e r , w ith th e n e w s p a p e r-c o n tro lle d ra d io s t a t i o n ¥0141, e z e r t much
in flu e n c e in th e a r e a , out th e y a r e in no sen se p rim a ry a g e n ts o f th e
a re a.
I t i s a ls o tr u e t h a t th e farm B ureau, l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ,
and such o rg a n iz a tio n s a s th e American L egion, and th e K n ig h ts o f Colum­
bus e z e r t some in f lu e n c e , "but t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t p e c u li a r to> th e
a r e a , b e in g more o f an o u tg ro w th o f th e l a r g e r Owensboro and D av iess
County program s o f th e s e a g e n c ie s .
Summary
I t 3ms been th e p u rp o se o f t h i s c h a p te r to o u t lin e th e b ro ad
f i e l d from which th e q u a n tita tiv e a n a ly s is o f th e com m unities may be made.
This c h a p te r w i l l s e rv e a s a background f o r such a n a ly s is in C3iapter IT ,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
CHAPTBB 17
ANALYSIS OP THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ABM
In tr o d u c tio n
T h is c h a p te r i s d e v o ted to a r e c o g n itio n o f th e t h e s i s t h a t th e
community and th e sch o o l a r e i n e v i t a b l y r e l a t e d ; t h a t th e community o f
to d a y i s a p a r t i a l p ro d u c t o f th e community o f y e s te rd a y ; t h a t th e com­
m unity o f tomorrow w i l l he a p a r t i a l p ro d u c t o f th e sc h o o l o f to d a y ; and
t h a t th e sch o o l o f tomorrow w i l l he a p a r t i a l p ro d u c t o f th e community o f
to d a y ; Bobbins
74-
makes th e sta te m e n ts
"What th e community i s to d a y h as
g r e a t in flu e n c e i n d e te rm in in g th e sc h o o l; w h ile th e sch o o l does much
to make th e community o f th e f u t u r e . "
t a t i o n s to t h i s c o n c e p t, how ever;
Bobbins adds th e fo llo w in g lim i­
" In n e i t h e r c a s e i s i t tr u e t h a t l o c a l
76
c o n d itio n s a r e th e o n ly f o r c e s t h a t a r e o p e r a tiv e ." °
Cook, in re v ie w in g
th e r e s e a r c h dev o ted to th e s o c i a l backgrounds o f e d u c a tio n makes t h i s
76
s ta te m e n t , ' 0 "W ithin th e p a s t few y e a r s , sc h o o ls have moved tow ard more
o rg a n iz r e l a t i o n s h i p w ith t h e i r com m unities."
The c o n c e p tio n o f th e sch o o l a s a s o c ia l i n s t i t u t i o n h a s found a
p la c e in th e p h ilo s o p h y o f many e d u c a tio n a l l e a d e r s , such a s B rig g s ,
74
76
77
..................... ......................‘ .....................
'
77
.................................... ..
B obbins, C h a rle s L ., The Sm all Town and I t s S ch o o l, U n iv e r s ity o f Iowa
E x ten sio n B u l l e t i n , C o lle g e o f E d u c a tio n S e r ie s No. 33, 1934, p . 33.
Cook, Lloyd A ., " S o c ia l B ackgrounds o f E d u c a tio n ," Beview o f Educa­
t i o n a l B e se a rc h , F e b ru a ry , 1940, p . 14.
B rig g s , Thomas H ., The G reat In v e stm en t, H arvard U n iv e r s ity P r e s s ,
1930.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
39
K a r t,7® C ounts , 79 Ju d d ,®0 and o th e r s ,
T his c o n c e p tio n h as found a more
k i n e t i c e x p re s s io n in such s tu d ie s a s th a t b y C la rk and Seay,®-*- Zimmer­
man,®^ and Hamlin,®® s tu d ie s which seek an answ er to th e e f f e c tiv e n e s s
o f th e sc h o o ls i n e d u c a tio n a lly p ro d u ced changes in community p r a c t i c e .
Se&rs®^ s t a t e s t h a t ;
“D uring r e c e n t y e a rs th e r e h as heen a n in c r e a s in g
s o c ia l em phasis i n e d u c a tio n . C urriculum ch an g es, g u i­
dance and te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s , l i b r a r y developm ent, p la y ­
ground s u p e r v is io n , and even th e p h y s ic a l' f a c i l i t i e s o f
a sch o o l system —a l l r e f l e c t t h i s em phasis. There i s a
movement away from em phasis upon hooks and upon s u b je c t
m a tte r a s such . 11
Assuming t h a t th e r e i s a d e f i n i t e , m easu rab le r e l a t i o n s h i p b e ­
tw een sch o o l and community, any e v a lu a tio n o f th e sch o o l m ust i s o l a t e
and determ in e th e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
Community Score Cards
Two s t a t e s , West y i r g i n i a and Iowa, have made e x te n s iv e u s e o f
J
Q
'
—
' 1 J"
H a rt, Jo se p h K innon, A S o c ia l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f E d u c a tio n . Henry
H o lt and Company, 1939;
79
C ounts, George S ., The S o c ia l F o u n d atio n s o f E d u c a tio n . R ep o rt o f
th e Commission on th e S o c ia l S tu d ie s , P a r t IX, C h a rle s S c rib n e r* s
Sons, 1934.
80
Ju d d , C h arles H ., The P sychology o f S o c ia l I n s t i t u t io n s .
la n Company, 1926.
81
The MacMil­
C la rk , H aro ld P. and Seay, M aurice P . , “An E f f o r t to Extend th e Mea­
surem ent o f th e R e s u lts o f S ch o o lin g in to th e S o c ia l and Economic
P i e l d s , “ J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R esearch , 33s 685-691, May, 1940.
®^Zimmerman, C a rle C ., The Changing Community, H arper and B ro th e rs , 1938.
®®Hamlin, H. M., “M easurement o f th e E f f e c t o f School I n s t r u c t i o n Through
Changes i n Community P r a c t i c e , " J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h , 18;
315-317, November, 1928.
84
S e a rs , J e s s e B ., "School and Community S u rv e y s," Review o f E d u c a tio n a l
R esearch, 9; December, 1939, p . 510.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
40
community s c o re c a rd s to a n a ly z e th e q u a l i t y o f com m unities, and to im­
p ro v e th e s e com m unities “by re f e r e n c e to th e a n a ly s is .
West V irg in ia S heet
The West V irg in ia p r o j e c t s were begun i n 1917, w ith th r e e commu­
n itie s p a rtic ip a tin g .
At p r e s e n t more th a n th r e e h u n d red and f i f t y com­
m u n itie s make u s e o f th e s c o re card.®®
A. H. Eapking, e x te n s io n s o c io lo ­
g i s t , say s o f th e p r a c t i c e in West V irginia:® ®
"S eventeen y e a rs ago th e u s e o f a community s c o re
c a rd was a th e o ry . These y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e i n p ra c ­
t i c i n g t h i s th e o ry a s a means o f h e lp in g hundreds o f com­
m u n itie s a t t a i n more o f th e abundant l i f e i s c o n c lu s iv e
e vidence t h a t th e id e a i s fu n d a m e n ta lly so u n d ,— "
A p p a re n tly , th e u s e o f th e e v a lu a tin g s h e e ts , i n th e hands o f
com petent in d iv id u a ls g iv e s a r e s u l t w hich m ight be c o n sid e re d a s v a l i d
ev id en ce o f community v a lu e s .
Among th e p e o p le a v a il a b le f o r e v a lu a tio n
o f t h i s ty p e i t seemed t h a t th e l o c a l committeemen f o r th e A g r ic u ltu r a l
C o n serv atio n program o f th e f e d e r a l governm ent were w e ll q u a l i f i e d f o r
th e t a s k , i n view o f th e f a c t t h a t th e s e committeemen have a l l b een r e s i ­
d e n ts o f th e community f o r more th a n te n y e a r s , and a r e d e f i n i t e l y fam i­
l i a r w ith n o t o n ly th e la n d economy, s o i l p r a c t i c e , and community o rg an ­
i z a t i o n , b u t e v a lu a tin g p r a c t i c e s a s w e ll.
The f i v e committeemen r e s i ­
d e n t w ith in th e a r e a were a sk e d to c o n tr ib u te to th e s u rv e y .
A f te r a m eeting i n which th e s c o re c a rd s were d i s t r i b u t e d and th e
p u rp o se e x p la in e d , a t e n t a t i v e s c o re o f each community was o b ta in e d b y
Q C
'
" -r
'
'• 1
T -" --" ™ -
T ----"
, „ ~,T .
„r
n,-- T
rn~ i .
i
i .
T
i
r tii
. . i, if
.
i.
ii.
... ■
Eapking, A. H ., E d u c a tio n Through O rganized Community A c t i v i t i e s , C ir­
c u la r 307 (Second E d i t i o n ) , C o lleg e o f A g r ic u ltu r e , West V ir g in ia
U n iv e r s ity , Morgantown, W. V a., December, 1935.
8 6 I b i d . , p . 3.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
41
th e committeemen and. d iscu ssed , in a g e n e r a l m e etin g .
A f te r a n o th e r tw o-
week p e r io d , th e f i n a l e v a lu a tio n s o f each community were r e v is e d , check­
ed and summarized.
(S a b le V)
fh e s e t o t a l s f o r each community were th e n
combined, in to a g e n e ra l s c o re f o r th e e n t i r e a r e a .
or*
summary o f t h i s s c o r e . 0
S a b le 71 shows th e
She g e n e r a l item s i n w hich th e a r e a was found d e f i c i e n t were na­
tu r e a p p r e c ia tio n , h e a l t h , and community o r g a n iz a tio n .
She th r e e p h a se s
o f th e a r e a ad ju d g ed b e s t were r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , sc h o o l a c t i v i t i e s ,
and c i t i z e n s h i p .
Somorrow1s Community
A s im ila r in s tru m e n t f o r e v a lu a tin g com m unities i s th e s c o re s h e e t,
OQ
Tomorrow*s Community, p u b lis h e d b y Iowa S ta te C o lle g e . 00 S h is s c o re c a rd
h as n o t been i n u s e a s lo n g a s t h a t o f West T i r g in ia , b u t i t h a s b een p r e ­
p a re d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , w ith th e a s s i s t a n c e o f s o c i o l o g i s t s and le a d e r s in
community p la n n in g .
I n o rd e r to s e rv e a s a check on th e p re v io u s s tu d y , d i f f e r e n t in ­
d iv id u a ls were re q u e s te d to s c o re th e com m unities.
She f i f t y - f i v e mem­
b e rs o f th e ju n i o r and s e n io r c l a s s e s o f th e West L o u is v ille School w ere
a sk ed to e v a lu a te t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e com m unities, and a f t e r c a r e f u l weigh­
in g , a s to numbers from e a c h community, th e t o t a l s were com piled in to one
s c o re f o r th e a r e a .
g*Jf
' ~
'
~ 1~"'" ~...
"
'
.............
See A ppendix, T able I , f o r s k e le to n o u tlin e o f th e s c o re s h e e t. I n
p r a c t i c e , a committeeman e v a lu a te d one community ( in c lu d in g , i n a
few c a s e s , s m a lle r com m unities o r n e ig h b o rh o o d s), a s s ig n in g a s c o re
to each ite m . These ite m s c o r e s were added and th e t o t a l d iv id e d
b y f i v e , to g iv e th e mean s c o re f o r e ac h a r e a ite m . T h is mean ob­
ta in e d s c o re ig n o re s a l l f r a c t i o n s .
88
S ta c y , W. H ., Tomorrow* s Community, E x te n sio n C ir c u la r 251, Iowa S ta te
C o lleg e E x te n sio n S e rv ic e , Ames, Iowa, Septem ber, 1938.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
1+2
TABLE V
EVALUATING- COMMITTEE AND ADVISORS*
Community
I v a lu a t ed
Committeeman
Y ears in R esidence
i n Community
A
West L o u is v ille
S t. Raphael
32
B
Delaware
E lb a
27
C
P a n th e r
M o sle y v ille
Windy Hollow
12
D
C u rd s v ille
33
E
Sorgho
is
*— The a d v is o rs
were
1.
The
Home D em o n stratio n Agent-
2.
The
home hyg ien e te a c h e r , a r e g i s t e r e d n u rse .
3.
The
West L o u is v ille School p r i n c i p a l .
(T hese th r e e a d v is o r s have each been r e s i d e n t s o f th e county f o r more
th a n te n y e a r s .)
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S o ta l
WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL AEEA SCOE1S
(Derived from West V irginia Community Score
Card)
CVJ B u sin e ss
Farms
rH
la tu re
o
CTV Music
50
E e c re a tio n
CVJ
t- E d u catio n
Churches
u> Homes
H e alth
C itiz e n s h ip
rH
i—
i
CM
O rg a n iz a tio n
O
rH
tu
rH
•rl
CO
O
0) CO
CO CO
O
rH
♦rl
rH
•H
•H
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
44
The s c o re s a r e summarized i n Table 7 1 1 .89
The s c o re s o b ta in e d
from t h i s s c o r e - s h e e t seem to b e much h ig h e r th a n th e r e s u l t s from th e
West V irg in ia in s tru m e n t, b u t th e e x p la n a tio n m ight l i e i n two f a c to r s *
th e West V irg in ia s u b - to p ic s were d eterm in ed b y a b s o lu te num bers, ra n g in g
from 4 to 20 f o r each ite m , w h ile th e Iowa c a rd s were keyed i n term s o f
g ra d e s ; th e Iowa g ra d e k e y recommends;
A f o r p e r f e c t o r more th a n 95 p e r
c e n t o f a l l t h a t c o u ld be d e s ir e d ; B f o r good o r 86-95 p e r c e n t s a t i s f a c ­
to r y ; 0 f o r f a i r , 76-85 p e r c e n t s a t i s f a c t o r y , o r r e a d i l y im proved; D
f o r p o o r o r o n ly 50-75 p e r c e n t s a t i s f a c t o r y ; and B, t o t a l l y in a d e q u a te
o r l e s s th a n 50 p e r c e n t s a t i s f a c t o r y .
I t becomes a p p a re n t t h a t su ch a
g ra d in g s c a le p r e s e n ts th e same o b je c tio n a b le f e a tu r e s i n community s u r­
veys t h a t axe o f te n found i n sc h o o l work; e s p e c i a l l y would th e r e b e a
d i s p o s it io n among p u p ils to g ra d e h ig h e r th a n th e y p ro b a b ly would on a n
a b s o lu te s c a le .
T his d i s p o s i t i o n o f p u p ils to g ra d e h ig h e r i s th e second
f a c t o r i n th e u n ifo rm ly h ig h e r s c o re s o b ta in e d in th e u s e o f th e Iowa in ­
s tru m e n t, b u t s in c e a l l th e v a lu e s a r e r e l a t i v e , and n o t a b s o lu t e , t h i s
does n o t v i t i a t e th e u s e o f e i t h e r s h e e t.
T able V III shows, i n g ra p h ic
form th e b a s ic agreem ent a s to r e s u l t s .
There may be some q u e s tio n a s to th e com petence o f e le v e n th and
t w e lf th grade p u p ils in e s tim a tin g a c c u r a te ly th e q u a l i t i e s o f a commu­
n i t y , b u t such q u e s tio n s a s a r i s e f a i l to ta k e in to a cc o u n t th e f a c t t h a t
p u p ils o f t h i s age a r e p ro b a b ly more a c u te ly aw are o f h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n a l ,
and e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s w hich a r e p le a s in g o r d is p le a s in g to them, th a n
any o th e r age group i n th e community.
QQ "
"
~" " ~
~
""
See Appendix, T able I I , f o r com plete o u tlin e o f th e Iowa sc o re s h e e t.
The mean o b ta in e d s c o re r e p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l p u p il s c o re s on e ac h
ite m d iv id e d by th e number o f p u p ils . See th e same ta b le f o r num­
b e r s u se d a s s c o re m id p o in ts.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
rH
rH
Community
O rg a n iz a tio n
ct> C o n se rv a tio n
WIST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL ABM SCORES
(Derived from the Iowa Community Score S h e e ts)
60
CTl
60
v~0
V illa g e
S e rv ic e
60
in
rH
OJ
rH
Farm
In d u s try
Home
A c tiv itie s
cu
in
to R e c re a tio n
rH
H e a lth
R e lig io u s
L ife
rH
*JD
in
rH
60
cu E d u catio n
Government
in
rH
tn
r—
Vl U
o o
o
CO
O
(D CO
•H •rl
ca h
•rH
o
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
U6
<H >B
Q) ,Q
43 gJ
P
>
<H ©
O O
CQ CQ
oO p
CU'O
JjS 0)
9
© P
JD cq
CO CO
p
©©
©p
43 as
qD o
©p
•H
a)
© 43
©
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
©
p* o
47
E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d C J p e s t io n n a ir e
T h e t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m m u n ity i s t h e
E d u c a tio n a l B a ck g ro u n d Q u e s t io n n a ir e . 9 0
In d e s c r ib in g th e q u e s tio n ­
n a i r e M c O a ll a n d H e r r i n g r e p o r t ?
"An i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r l i e s
t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , n a m e ly , t h a t a b i l i t y t o l e a r n d e ­
p en d s n o t o n ly upon n a tiv e in t e llig e n c e , b u t a ls o upon
f a c t o r s i n p a r t c u l t u r a l . S u c h f a c t o r s a r e , f o r exam ­
p l e , h e a l t h , s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m ic s t a t u s , s c h o o l i n g o f
t h e f a m i l y a n d o f t h e c o m m u n ity , f a c i l i t i e s f o r e d u c a ­
t i o n i n t h e h om e a n d i n t h e c o m m u n ity o u t s i d e o f t h e
s c h o o l , a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e o f f a m i l y a n d com ­
m u n ity . The f u n c t i o n o f e a c h ite m i n t h e q u e s t io n n a ir e
i s t o h e l p a c c u m u la t e t h e e v i d e n c e w h ic h i n t e l l i g e n c e
t e s t s do n o t p r o v id e a s to t h e d e g r e e o f e d u c a b ilit y o f
th e c h ild .— "
" - — T h e s t a t i s t i c a l s u m m a r ie s f o r a s c h o o l g i v e
a p ic t u r e o f th e h e a lt h , a t t r a c t iv e n e s s , c u lt u r e , w e a lth ,
e d u c a t i o n , a n d e n t e r p r i s i n g n e s s o f t h e c o m m u n ity i t s e l f . "
A d e t a ile d d e s c r ip t io n o f th e t e s t d o e s n o t seem n e c e s s a r y , b u t
i t m ig h t b e w e l l t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n s t r u ­
m e n t a n d t h e m e t h o d s w h i c h a r e e m p lo y e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e " g o o d n e s s " o f a
c o m m u n ity .
U n d er te n t o p i c a l h e a d in g s o n e h u n d red f o r t y - f i v e q u e s t io n s
a r e a s k e d , w h ic h t h e p u p i l m i g h t a n s w e r b y e n c i r c l i n g a n a n s w e r c h o s e n
fr o m tw o o r m o r e p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s , a s i n Q u e s t i o n 6 3 , u n d e r P a r t G , S o ­
c i a l - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s o f Y o u r F a m ily :
0
63.
90
91
A b o u t how m any tim e s a y e a r do y o u g o to a d e n t is t ? 1
2 o r m ore
M c C a ll, W ill i a m A
t i o n n a i r e , H ew
m ade w ith f u l l
S c a te s , (o p . c
d a ta -g a th e r in g
. , a n d H e r r i n g , J o h n P . , E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d Q u es'
Y ork ; B a id la w B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 7 . U s e o f t h i s t e s t i s
k n o w le d g e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t m a d e b y G o o d , B a r r , a n d
i t . , p . 6 3 3 ) t h a t n o t a lw a y s d o " t h e n a m e s g i v e n t o
d e v ic e s a c c u r a t e l y i n d i c a t e w h a t t h e y m e a s u r e ."
S e e A p p e n d ix , T a b l e I I I , f o r m o r e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t e s t .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
48
o r a s th e f i r s t q u e s t i o n , P a r t A , Y ou r H e a lth s
1,
M ost
H a lf
S e ld o m
H ow s u c h o f t h e t i m e a r e y o u w e l l ?
O b v io u s ly , s u c h a sch em e i s l i a b l e t o e r r o r i n m any o f i t s a s ­
p e c t s , b u t e q u a l l y o b v i o u s i s t h e f a c t t h a t i f t h e p u p i l s o f a c o m m u n ity
r e p o r t t h a t t h e y h a v e m ade no v i s i t t o a d e n t i s t w it h in a y e a r , o r i f a
l a r g e n u m b er r e p o r t s t h a t t h e y a r e w e l l o n l y h a l f o f t h e t i m e , t h e r e i s
a d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e c o m m u n ity .
R esea rch w o rk ers, and so ­
c i a l w o rk ers in g e n e r a l, h a v e r e c o g n iz e d th e v a l i d i t y o f c e r t a in e x te r n a l
c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i n t e r n a l o r i n t r i n s i c g o o d n e s s o f co m m u n i­
t i e s . 92
The t e n h e a d in g s o r t o p ic a l d i v i s i o n s a r e s
A . Y o u r H e a l t h ; 33.
H e a l t h o f t h e F a m i ly ; 0 . Y o u r S c h o o l P l a n s ; D . S c h o o l i n g o f Y o u r F a m i ly ;
1 . S c h o o l i n g o f Y o u r C o m m u n ity ; F . Y o u r S t u d y H a b i t s a n d C o n d i t i o n s ; G .
S o c i a l E c o n o m ic S t a t u s o f Y o u r F a m i ly ; H . Y ou a n d O t h e r C h i l d r e n ; I . Y ou
a n d Y o u r P a r e n t s ; a n d J . Y ou a n d Y o u r C o m m u n ity .
To q u e s t i o n s u c h a p l a n
a s to u n f a ir n e s s t o c e r t a in i n d iv id u a ls , o r a s in c o m p le te in d e t a i l s , i s
m ere q u ib b lin g .
G iv e n t o o n e h u n d r e d s i x t y - e i g h t p u p i l s , t h e p u p i l p o p u ­
l a t i o n o f t h e u p p e r s i x g r a d e s o f W e st L o u i s v i l l e S c h o o l , ( a l l t h e p u p i l s
p r e s e n t on a c e r t a in d a y ) th e t e s t c e r t a i n ly b eco m es a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te
i n s t r u m e n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g c o m m u n ity l e v e l s o f c u l t u r e i n t h e a r e a s i n d i ­
ca ted .
T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e s c o r e d b y m e m b e rs o f t h e f a c u l t y , a n d
F o r v e r if ic a t io n o f t h is sta te m e n t s e e ;
1 . B a r r , B u r to n , an d B r u e c k n e r , S u p e r v is io n , p p . 5 6 9 -5 7 4 ;
2 . T h o r n d ik e , E d w a r d L . , Y o u r C i t y , H ew Y o r k s H a r c o u r t , B r a c e ,
a n d C om pany, 1 9 3 9 ;
3 . N e w e l l , B e r n i c e , “ T r e n d s i n C o m m u n ity S u r v e y s , ” E d u c a t i o n a l
M e th o d , 1 8 s O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 , p p . 7 - 1 2 ;
4 . S m it h , M a r io n B u s h , 0 £ . c i t . , p p . 9 4 - 9 6 .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
49
c h e c k e d b y a f o r m e r a s s i s t a n t o f (J. N . K e f a u v e r , w ho w o r k e d f o r a n u m b e r
o f y e a r s i n r e c h e c k in g t e s t s f o r b o th K e fa u v e r , a n d H. B . B r u n er .
Un­
f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s n o e s t a b l i s h e d n o rm o f t h e u p p e r s i x g r a d e s , n o r
i s th e r e a s e t o f t o p ic a l norm s f o r e a c h g r a d e .
In th e a b sen ce o f su ch
d a ta , th e s c o r e s h av e b een tr e a te d a s p e r c e n ta g e s o f p o s s i b il i t y .
T a b le
IX s h o w s t h e c o m p o s i t e r e s u l t s o f t h e s c o r e s t h u s t r e a t e d .
E v en w ith o u t r e f e r e n c e t o sta n d a r d n o rm s, i t b eco m es a p p a r e n t
f r o m t h i s t a b l e t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f b a l a n c e i n t h e c o m m u n ity l i f e ,
a d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n w h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e g o o d c o m m u n ity a n d t h e c o n d i ­
t i o n s e x i s t e n t i n t h e W e st L o u i s v i l l e a r e a .
T h i s h i a t u s s h o w s m o s t c l e a r l y i n t h e s c h o o l i n g o f t h e co m m u n i­
t y , in th e s o c ia l-e c o n o m ic c o n d it io n s o f th e fa m ily , an d in th e g e n e r a l
f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e c o m m u n ity s u c h a s r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l i b r a r i e s ,
a n d c i v i c a c t i v i t i e s o f th e p o p u la c e ,
l o u g h l y c o m b in in g t h e o t h e r s c o r e s ,
i t seem s th a t h e a lt h , s c h o o l p la n s , an d th e f a m ily r e la t io n s h ip s a r e th e
m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y p h a s e s o f c o m m u n ity l i f e .
O b v io u s ly t h e m o st s i g n i f i ­
c a n t i t e m s i n t h e m in d s o f t h e t e s t o r i g i n a t o r s i s t h e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p s t o w h ic h t h e y a s s i g n e d f o r t y - t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , p r a c t i c a l l y o n e - t h i r d
o f th e e n tir e t e s t .
I n v i e w o f t h e p r e d o m in a n c e o f f a r m i n g p e o p l e i n t h e
c o m m u n it y , i t i s n o a c c i d e n t t h a t t h i s t o p i c s h o w s t h e h i g h e s t p e r ­
ce n ta g e o f p o s s ib le sc o r e .
A t t h e sam e t im e , t h e s e c o n d m o st h e a v i l y -
w e ig h te d t o p i c , t h e s o c ia l- e c o n o m ic c o n d it io n s o f t h e f a m ily , sh o w s a r e l ­
a t i v e l y lo w s c o r e , t h u s r e v e a l i n g s o m e th in g o f t h e f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s o f
th e se r u r a l fa m ilie s .
S u m m ary
T h i s c h a p t e r r e c o r d s t h e a t t e m p t s t o a n a l y z e t h e W est L o u i s v i l l e
S ch o o l a r e a b y u s in g th r e e d a ta -g a th e r in g d e v ic e s .
(T a b le X)
In s p it e
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TABLE X
DATA-GATHERING- DEVICES USED I N ANALYZING THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL AEEA
. ......................................................
,
„ ,
In str u m e n t
V a lid it y o f In str u m e n t
E d u c a tio n T h rough O rga n - M o d if ic a t io n o f s h e e t i n
i z e d C o m m u n ity A c t i v i u s e i n W est V ir g in ia f o r
t i e s . C o m m u n ity S c o r e
tw e n ty -th r e e y e a r s .
S h e e t , W e st V i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1936*
T1
C
^
^
o
|o'
■o
o
o;
cd
s
3=
c
-oCD
—i
3
in
tn
S urveyors
Q u a lific a tio n s o f S u rveyor
1 . T en o r m o re y e a r s i n a r e a .
F iv e A g r ic u ltu r a l
C o n s e r v a tio n (F e d e r ­ 2 . F iv e o r m ore y e a r s a s
a l G o v e r n m e n t) Coram e m b e rs o f c o m m it t e e o n
m i t t e e m e n , w o r k in g
c o n s e r v s tio n .
w ith th e a u th o r .
3 . E x p e r i e n c e i n m a n ip u la ­
t in g su ch m a te r ia ls .
T o m o r r o w 's C o m m u n ity .
C o m m u n ity S c o r e S h e e t ,
Iow a S t a t e C o lle g e ,
1938-
C a r e fu lly c o n s tr u c te d
By ru ra l s o c io lo g is t s ,
and p a tte r n e d a f t e r th e
s u c c e s s f u l W e st V ir ­
g in ia in s tr u m e n t.
F i f t y - f i v e h ig h
sc h o o l p u p ils , ju ­
n io r s and s e n io r s ,
w o r k in g u n d e r t h e
d ir e c tio n o f th e
a u th o r.
E d u c a tio n a l B ack grou n d
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , W illia m
A . M c C a ll, a n d J o h n P .
H e r r i n g , L a id la w B r o t h e r s ,’ 1 9 ^ 7 -
W hereas t h i s in s t r u ­
m ent h a s n o t B een
c r i t i c a l l y e v a lu a te d ,
i t h a s B een c a r e fu lly
By r e c o g n iz e d w o rk ers in
t e s t s a n d m e a su r em e n ts.
O ne h u n d r e d s i x t y 1 . F a m ilia r it y w ith i n d i v i ­
e ig h t p u p il s , en ­
d u a l s o c ia l-e c o n o m ic
c o n d itio n s .
t i r e u p p er s ix grad ei i
T e s t s s c o r e d B y com ­
p eten t te a c h e r s.
-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1 . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c o m m u n ity .
2 . I n t i m a t e k n o w le d g e o f h om e
a n d c o m m u n ity .
3 . P r e lim in a r y t r a in in g in
c o m m u n ity e v a l u a t i o n .
52
o f m any l i m i t a t i o n s to th e u s e o f t h e in s t r u m e n ts , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e
r e s u l t s o b t a in e d m ig h t h e c o n s id e r e d v a l i d e n o u g h a n d r e l i a b l e e n o u g h t o
u s e a s a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n ity s c h o o l
c o n c e p t f o r t h e W e st L o u i s v i l l e S c h o o l .
T h e d a t a - g a t h e r i n g d e v i c e s m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d i n tw o c l a s s i f i c a ­
tio n s ;
t h e f i r s t t w o , c o m m u n ity c h e c k s h e e t s , a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h l a r g e r
a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n ity l i f e , s u c h a s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e x t e r n a l i n d i c i a , c o n ­
c r e t e e x a m p le s o f c o m m u n ity “ g o o d n e s s 1*; t h e t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t , a p u p i l
q u e s t io n n a ir e c o n c e r n s i t s e l f m ore w it h th e in d iv id u a l c r i t e r i a o f s u c h
g o o d n e s s , p u t s m o r e e m p h a s is o n m i n u t e a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n ity l i v i n g , a n d
t h i s c o m m in u te d a n a l y s i s i s sum m ed u p i n t o p e r c e n t a g e s o f p o s s i b l e e x c e l ­
l e n c e o f c o m m u n ity b a c k g r o u n d .
The ite m s i n e a c h in s tr u m e n t a r e o f t e n
n o t e x a c t l y c o m p a r a b le , s e r v i n g r a t h e r a s c o m p le m e n t s i n c o m p l e t i n g a
p i c t u r e o f t h e im p r o v a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e c o m m u n ity .
Som e o f t h e s e a s p e c t s
are;
A.
93
f r o m t h e C o m m u n ity s c o r e s h e e t s . ^ ®
1.
T h e r e i s a m a r k e d d e f i c i e n c y i n c o m m u n ity o r g a n ­
iz a tio n s . ( T ill; 46; 1)
2.
The v o t in g , e n fo r c e m e n t o f la w s , s o lu t io n o f
w e lf a r e p r o b le m s , (g o v e rn m en t o r c i v i c a c t i v i ­
t i e s ) i s d eem ed r e a s o n a b ly s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
( T i l l ; 4 6 ; 3 ) The a b se n c e o f a n y w e lfa r e a g en ­
c i e s m ig h t c a u s e d o u b t a b o u t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n .
3.
H e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f com ­
m u n ity l i f e a r e in a d e q u a t e . ( T i l l ; 4 6 ; 4 )
4.
C e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f h om e l i f e m ig h t b e im p r o v e d ;
e m p h a s is i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s o n s u c h t h i n g s a s
b u i l d i n g s , g r o u n d s , h om e e c o n o m y p r a c t i c e , a n d
H u m b ers i n p a r e n t h e s i s r e f e r t o t a b l e , p a g e , a n d c o lu m n o f t h i s s t u d y .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
53
o t h e r t h i n g s w h ic h a d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m ic l e v e l
m ig h t c h a n g e . ( V I I I ; 4 6 ; 5 )
5.
6.
B.
R e lig io u s l i f e and ch u rch es w ere sc o r e d th e
h i g h e s t o f a n y p h a s e o f c o m m u n ity l i f e .
(V I I I ; 4 6 ; 6 ) I t i s p o s s i b le t h a t s u c h h ig h
reg a rd fo r th e ch u rch and ch u rch a c t iv i t i e s
s p r in g s fro m t h e r a t h e r w id e ly o b s e r v e d r e ­
lu c t a n c e o f p e o p le to c r i t i c i z e th e c h u r c h .
9
A n o t h e r p h a s e o f c o m m u n ity l i f e c o n s i d e r e d t o
b e r e a s o n a b ly a d e q u a te w as th e e d u c a tio n a l
e q u ip m e n t a n d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .
( V I I I ; 4 6 ; 7 ) T h is i s a l o g i c a l c o n c lu s io n b e ­
ca u se o f th e p rep o n d era n ce o f e x te r n a l c r it e r ia ,
su ch a s b u ild in g s , tr a n s p o r ta tio n , te a c h e r s ta ­
t u s , u s e d i n j u d g i n g t h i s t o p i c . M ore c o m p l e t e
a n a l y s i s w i l l b e fo u n d i n C h a p te r V.
7.
R e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a n d p r o g r a m s n e e d m u ch
im p r o v e m e n t . ( V I I I ; 4 6 ; 8 )
8.
C o n s e r v a tio n , n a tu r e a p p r e c ia t io n , a w a r e n e ss o f
a d v a n ta g e o u s n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d in g s , a n d u t i l i z a ­
t io n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a l l in c lu d e d u n d er
t h e t o p i c s M a tu r e ( V I ; 4 3 ; 1 0 , W e st V i r g i n i a
S h e e t) an d C o n s e r v a tio n (V I I ; 4 5 ; 9 , Iow a S h e e t )
w ere s c o r e d in a m anner s u g g e s t in g th e n e e d o f
a n e m p h a s is o f l o c a l r e s o u r c e s .
9.
A l t h o u g h f a r m in g a n d l a n d e c o n o m y w e r e s c o r e d
lo w e r th a n m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d b y th e C o n s e r v a tio n
C o m m itte e m e n , ( V I I I ; 4 6 ; 1 0 ) t h e r e a r e i n d i c a ­
t i o n s t h a t t h i s i t e m i s r e a d i l y a m e n d a b le .
10.
E n t e r p r i s e , a n d l o c a l e f f o r t , i s n e e d e d i n a com ­
m u n ity d e v e lo p m e n t, o r a r e a - d e v e lo p m e n t p ro g ra m .
(V III; 46; 12)
F ro m t h e E d u c a t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ;
1.
In s p it e o f th e la c k o f c e r t a in h e a lt h a c t i v i t i e s
a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e h e a l t h o f t h e c o m m u n ity ,
a s sh o w n b y t h e s c h o o l s a m p l e , i s n o t c r i t i c a l l y
p o o r . (IX ; 5 0 ; 1 a n d 2 )
2.
The s c h o o l p la n s o f th e p u p ils and th e ed u ca ­
t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c o m m u n it ie s s e e m s t o
b e f a r b e l o w t h a t w h ic h m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d i n
o th e r p la c e s . (IX ; 5 0 ; 3 , 4 , a n d 5 )
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
54
3.
A su m m a ry o f s t u d y h a b i t s a n d c o n d i t i o n s ( w i t h
t h e m a j o r e m p h a s is o n p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d
a v a ila b le m a te r ia ls f o r stu d y ) in d ic a t e s th a t
t h e r e i s a s i t u a t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n ity w h ic h a p ­
p r o x im a te s a s i x t y p e r c e n t f u l f i l l m e n t o f th e
id e a l c o n d it io n . (IX ; 50; 6 )
4.
S o c ia l-e c o n o m ic c o n d it io n s o f th e f a m i l ie s a r e
r e v e a le d a s a p p r o x im a te ly f o r t y p e r c e n t o f th e
i d e a l c o n d it io n s . (IX ; 5 0; 7 )
5.
A su m m a ry o f t h e f a m i l y l i f e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e
h om e i s s t i l l a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f i n t e g r i t y i n
t h e e n t i r e a r e a . (IX ; 5 0 ; 9 )
6.
T h e f i n d i n g s o n c o m m u n ity " g o o d n e s s " s h o w s o n l y
a f o r t y p e r c e n t f u lf illm e n t o f th e id e a l.
(IX ; 5 0 ; 1 0 )
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
CHAPTER V
THE WEST LO U ISV ILLE SCHOOL
I n tr o d u c tio n
A c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e W e st L o u i s v i l l e S c h o o l i s a n e s s e n ­
t i a l p a r t o f t h is stu d y .
T h e r e a r e m a n y w a y s i n w h ic h a s c h o o l m i g h t h e
t h u s e v a l u a t e d , a n d t h e r e a r e m a n y a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e p r o b le m .
T h er e m ig h t
b e a g e n e r a l p ilin g - u p o f p h y s ic a l f a c t s a b o u t th e s c h o o l; f a c t s a b o u t
t h e a d m in is t r a t iv e o f f i c e r s , t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , b u i l d i n g s , c u r r ic u lu m ,
c o u r s e s o f stu d y , and s t i l l o th e r p h a se s o f th e s c h o o l.
M any r a t i n g
s c a le s , sta n d a r d t e s t s an d s e t s o f e v a lu a t iv e c r i t e r i a e x i s t f o r su c h e v a l u a t i o n , b u t t h e e m p h a s is i n t h i s s t u d y d e m a n d s t h a t a n y s u c h i n s t r u ­
m ent u s e d b e b r i e f and c o n c is e .
T h is c h a p t e r d e a l s w it h t h r e e a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l e v a lu a t i o n :
(1 )
c e r t a i n p h y s ic a l a n d d e v e lo p m e n ta l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e s c h o o l; ( 2 ) t h e
u s e o f A G u id e f o r S e l f - A p p r a i s a l o f S c h o o l S y s t e m s , M o r t - C o r n e l l ; 9 4 a n d
(3 )
u s e o f t h e S c h o o l P r a c t i c e Q u e s t io n n a ir e , M c C a ll-H e r r in g .
95
The f i r s t
p h a se i s in no s e n s e in te n d e d a s a c r i t i c a l s tu d y , b u t r a t h e r a d e lin e a ­
tio n o f th e s e t t in g .
The u s e o f t h e M o r t-C o r n e ll in s tr u m e n t sh o w s c e r t a i n
l e v e l s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v e lo p m e n t i n c la s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n , s p e c i a l s e r ­
v i c e s , e d u c a t io n a l l e a d e r s h i p , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , a n d b u s in e s s m anage­
m e n t, a l l o f w h ic h m ig h t b e te r m e d e x t e r n a l i n d i c i a o f s c h o o l g o o d n e s s ,
o r te n d in g to b e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a , a t l e a s t .
T he M c C a ll-H e r r in g d e v ic e
i s m o re o r l e s s a m ean s t o d e t e r m in e t h e i n t e r n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d u s e
m ade o f th e e x t e r n a l f a c i l i t i e s .
^ B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s * C o l l e g e , C o lu m b ia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 9 .
® ® L a id lo w B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 7 .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
56
P h y s i c a l a n d D e v e lo p m e n t a l, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
T he W est L o u i s v i l l e S c h o o l h a d i t s i n c i p i e n c y a s a p u r e l y l o c a l
i n s t i t u t i o n , g r o w in g f r o m a o n e - r o o m e i g h t - g r a d e s c h o o l i n t o a l o c a l
g r a d e -a n d -h ig h s c h o o l in 1 9 1 9 .
In t h a t y e a r a se v e n -r o o m b u ild in g w as
e r e c te d to h o u se th e e le m e n ta r y a n d s e c o n d a r y p u p il p o p u la tio n o f th e
c o m m u n ity o f W e s t L o u i s v i l l e .
The b u i l d i n g , e r e c t e d a t a c o s t o f $ 2 0 ,0 0 0
w a s f i n a n c e d i n p a r t b y t h e D a v i e s s C o u n ty b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d t h e r e ­
m a in d e r b y p o p u l a r s u b s c r i p t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n ity .
T h e e l e m e n t a r y p o r t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l r e m a in e d e n t i r e l y l o c a l u n ­
t i l 1 9 3 0 , b u t im m e d ia te ly a f t e r t h e o p e n in g o f t h e s e c o n d a r y d i v i s i o n ,
t h e s c h o o l b e g a n t o a c q u i r e p u p i l s f r o m t h e n e i g h b o r i n g c o m m u n it ie s s u c h
a s P a n th e r , S o rg h o , and C u r d s v ille .
T h ese p u p ils e it h e r b oa rd ed in th e
c o m m u n ity o r u s e d s u c h m e a n s o f p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a s w e r e a v a i l a b l e .
B y 1 9 2 5 t h e r e w a s a n e n r o llm e n t o f f o r t y - f i v e i n t h e u p p e r f o u r g r a d e s ,
( 9 , 1 0 , 1 1 , and 1 2 ) ta u g h t b y th r e e te a c h e r s (in c lu d in g th e p r in c ip a l) ,
a n d t h i r t y - e i g h t p u p i l s i n t h e l o w e r e i g h t g r a d e s , w i t h tw o f a c u l t y m e m b e r s .
T he s e c o n d a r y d e p a r tm e n t w as t h e l a s t t o b e e s t a b l is h e d i n t h e
c o u n t y , h a v i n g b e e n p r e c e d e d b y W h i t e s v i l l e H ig h S c h o o l , 1 9 1 2 ; U t i c a H ig h
S c h o o l , 1 9 1 3 ; a n d D a v i e s s C o u n ty H ig h S c h o o l , 1 9 1 6 .
The W h it e s v ille a n d
U t i c a s c h o o l s w e r e o u t g r o w t h s o f o n e - r o o m r u r a l s c h o o l s , a n d w e r e c o m b in e d
i n t o t w e l v e - g r a d e s c h o o l s , b u t t h e D a v i e s s C o u n ty H ig h S c h o o l w a s e s t a b ­
lis h e d a s a f o u r - y e a r h ig h s c h o o l o n ly .
P rom 1 9 1 9 u n t i l 1 9 2 8 t h e D a v i e s s
C o u n ty s c h o o l s y s t e m c o n s i s t e d o f t h e o n e f o u r - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l , t h r e e
t w e l v e - g r a d e s c h o o l s , a n d o n e - a n d tw o -r o o m e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , v a r y i n g
i n n u m b er fr o m n i n e t y t o e i g h t y - s i x .
E r e c tio n o f th e S n y d e r C o n s o lid a te d S c h o o l in 1 9 2 8 m ark ed t h e b e ­
g in n in g o f t h e c o n s o li d a t i o n m ovem en t i n th e c o u n t y , w it h t h e u s e o f b u s e s
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
57
to tr a n s p o r t c h ild r e n .
T h r u sto n C o n s o lid a te d S c h o o l f o llo w e d i n 1 9 2 9 ,
S u t h e r l a n d i n 1 9 3 1 , S t a n l e y a n d M a c eo i n 1 9 3 3 , S o r g h o a n d P h i l p o t i n
1 9 3 7 , w h e r e a s P a r r i s h A v e n u e , l o c a t e d a t t h e o u t s k i r t s o f O w e n sh o r o h a d
grow n in t o a fo u r - te a c h e r s c h o o l h y 1 9 3 7 .
( S e e T a b le X I f o r r e s u l t s o f
c o n s o lid a tio n to d a t e .)
T he f i r s t m ovem en t to w a r d c o n s o li d a t i o n a t W est L o u i s v i l l e d e v e l­
o p ed in 1 9 3 0 , w ith th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a b u s r o u te b e tw e e n P a n th e r an d
W e st L o u i s v i l l e .
A s e c o n d r o u t e , b e t w e e n D e la w a r e , C u r d s v i l l e , a n d W e st
L o u is v ille , w as e s t a b lis h e d in 1 9 3 1 , an d a th ir d r o u te b etw ee n S orgh o and
W e st L o u i s v i l l e w a s b e g u n i n 1 9 3 3 .
T h e se e a r l y b u s e s w ere u s e d m a in ly t o
tr a n s p o r t h ig h s c h o o l p u p ils an d n o t u n t i l 1 9 3 4 w as t h e r e a n a tte m p t t o
s ta n d a r d iz e th e b u s e s .
O f th e th r e e r o u te s , o n ly o n e , th e Sorgho r o u te ,
h ad g r a v e l o r su r fa c e d r o a d s.
T a b le X I I sh o w s t h e s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l j u s t p r i o r t o t h e c o n s t r u c ­
t i o n o f t h e n ew b u ild in g in 1 9 3 7 .
F o r th e s c h o o l y e a r , 1 9 3 S -1 9 3 7 , th e en ­
r o llm e n t w as f i f t y - o n e i n th e lo w e r s i x g r a d e s a n d o n e h u n d red n in e i n t h e
u p p e r s i x , w i t h tw o a n d f i v e t e a c h e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y .
D u r in g t h e su m m er o f
1 9 3 7 , a s a p a r t o f a c o u n ty b u ild in g p ro g ra m , a n ew s c h o o l w as e r e c t e d o u
t h e o ld s i t e a n d w as r e a d y f o r o c c u p a tio n b y O c to b e r , 1 9 3 7 .
C o n s tr u c te d a t a c o s t o f $ 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 , t h e b u ild in g c o n t a in s f i f t e e n
c l a s s r o o m s , a g y m n a s i u m - a n d i t o r iu m , s h o p - s p a c e , s t u d y h a l l , a n d c a f e t e r i a ,
b e s id e v a r io u s s e r v ic e f e a t u r e s .
W ith t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e n e w s c h o o l b u i l d ­
i n g , a c o n s o l i d a t i o n m o v e m e n t w a s b e g u n w h ic h h a s v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d t h e
o n e - r o o m s c h o o l s f r o m t h e a r e a n ow d e f i n e d a s t h e W e s t L o u i s v i l l e S c h o o l
a r e a .9 ®
960ne
T h is c o n s o l i d a t i o n o c c a s io n e d t h e g r o w th o f t h e s c h o o l t o t h e
s c h o o l , B l a n f o r d ( s e e C h a p t e r I I I ) r e m a in s t o b e c o n s o l i d a t e d , a n d
i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s w i l l b e d o n e b e f o r e t h e o p e n in g o f t h e s c h o o l
term in 1 9 4 0 .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE X I I
EHROLIM M T, BY ORADSS, IH THE WEST LO UISVILLE SCHOOL A S IAKEH FROM THE AIHUAL REPORTS
1 9 3 6 - 3 7 a n d 1 9 3 9 - UO
&RABES _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
^oys
3
1 9 3 6 -3 7
a ir ls
k
T o ta l
7
2
3
4
7
3
5
k
9
U
k
5
9
5
5
U
9
6
b
6
10
7
7
3
10
9
i
22
2
16
8 1 8
8
10
11
13L
11
10
12
7
4
8
21
17
15
12
21
7
30
17
7
2k
T o ta l
90
70~
l6 0
H um ber o f t e a c h e r s : L o w e r s i x g r a d e s , 2 ; u p p e r s i x g r a d e s , 5*
P e r c e n ta g e o f a tte n d a n c e : 87
P e r c e n ta g e o f p u p ils t r a n s p o r t e d : 3 6 .2
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H um ber o f T e a c h e r s : L o w e r s i x g r a d e s , 5 ; u p p e r s i x g r a d e s , 7*
P e r c e n t a g e o f a t t e n d a n c e : 9 0 .^ P e r c e n ta g e o f p u p ils tr a n sp o r te d : 8 5 -k
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p resen t s iz e .
( S e e f a b l e X I I , E n r o llm e n t , 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 )
A t p r e s e n t th e
f a c u l t y c o n s i s t s o f f i v e e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s , s e v e n f u l l - t i m e h ig h s c h o o l
t e a c h e r s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l ) a p a r t - t i m e m u s ic i n s t r u c t o r , a n d a
r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e , w h o c o n d u c t s c l a s s e s i n h om e h y g i e n e tw o d a y s a w e e k
d u r in g t h e s c h o o l y e a r ,
fh e sc h o o l i s serv ed by s ix b u se s, on e b u s s e r v ­
i n g e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m u n i t ie s ;
C u r d s v i l l e , S o r g h o , D e la w a r e , P a n ­
t h e r , W in d y H o ll o w , a n d S t . R a p h a e l n e i g h b o r h o o d ,
f h e r e m a in i n g co m m u n i­
t ie s and l o c a l i t i e s u s e one o r th e o th e r o f th e se b u se s.
S u c h i s t h e p r e s e n t i n s t i t u t i o n w h ic h i s t o b e e v a l u a t e d b y t h e
M o r t-C o r n e ll in s t r u m e n t , a n d t h e M c C a ll-H e r r in g q u e s t i o n n a ir e .
S c h o o l A p p r a is a l b y U se o f th e M o r t-C o r n e ll In s tr u m e n t
A s h a s b een p o in te d o u t, th e r e i s no la c k o f d e v ic e s f o r e v a lu a tin g
s c h o o ls o f to d a y .
T h e sa m e p r o b l e m s e x i s t i n e v a l u a t i n g , o r a p p r a i s i n g ,
a s c h o o l a s w i l l b e fo u n d i n a n y su c h p ro gra m ;
s e t tin g up c r it e r ia and
QW
a p p l y i n g t h e c r i t e r i a t o a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . 57f
I t w o u ld s e e m f o o l i s h t o a t t e m p t t o c o n s t r u c t a n i n s t r u m e n t t o a p ­
p r a is e a s c h o o l o r s c h o o l s y s te m , an d in so d o in g , ig n o r e th e p r e v io u s e f ­
f o r t s o f r e se a r c h s tu d e n ts , and e d u c a to r s.
W ith t h i s i n m in d , t h e p r o b le m
o f a d e q u a te c r i t e r i a b ecom es o n e o f s e l e c t i o n r a th e r th a n c o n s t r u c t io n .
O ne o f t h e m o s t d e t a i l e d a n d v a r i e g a t e d i n s t r u m e n t s w o u ld c e r t a i n l y b e
t h a t d e v e l o p e d b y t h e C o o p e r a t i v e S t u d y o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l S t a n d a r d s .® ®
T h i s i n s t r u m e n t w a s r e j e c t e d f o r tw o r e a s o n s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g a d e s i r e a n d
n e e d f o r eco n o m y o f t im e a n d e f f o r t ; t h e s e c o n d r e a s o n e x i s t s i n t h e f a c t
t h a t t h e e v a lu a t iv e c r i t e r i a a s d e v e lo p e d b y th e S tu d y a p p lie s o n ly to
07
98
'" J" ...""".... ~~ "
"
" " 1
B a r r , B u rto n , and B r a e c k n e r , o g . c i t . , p . 5 0 6 .
;1
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........ .
S ee fo o tn o te 3 , p a g e 2 , o f t h is stu d y .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
61
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls , w h erea s th e p r e s e n t s tu d y i s c o n cer n e d w ith b o th s e c ­
o n d a r y a n d e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l a r e a s .
S e v e r a l o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s , b o t h s e p a r a t e a n d c o m b in e d i n t o co m ­
p l e m e n t a r y d e v i c e s , w e r e r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e o f c u m b e r so m e r e s u l t s l i k e l y
t o o c c u r f r o m t h e u s e o f u n i n t e g r a t e d m e a s u r in g s c h e m e s .
The in s tr u m e n t b y M ort a n d C o r n e ll w as s e l e c t e d , th e n , f o r i t s
c o m p a c tn e ss a n d b a la n c e d q u a l i t i e s .
The a u th o r s s a y o f th e g u id e ;
T h is in s tr u m e n t i s d e s ig n e d to s e r v e a s a b a s is
f o r th e a p p r a is a l o f in d iv id u a l s e h o o l sy ste m s w ith r e ­
s p e c t t o t h e i r a d a p t io n to c u r r e n t e d u c a t io n a l n e e d s w h ic h
d i f f e r fr o m t h o s e o f p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f e c o n ­
o m ic a n d s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s o r o f im p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g
a r i s i n g fro m t h e p r o g r e s s o f e d u c a t io n a l s c i e n c e . I t i s
b u i l t u p o n a b r o a d s a m p l in g o f i t e m s o f s u c h n e e d s i n t h e
a r e a s o f c la s s r o o m in s t r u c t io n , s p e c ia l s e r v ic e s f o r in d i­
v id u a l p u p ils , e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip , p h y s ic a l f a c i l i t i e s ,
a n d b u s i n e s s m a n a g e m e n t. A p p l i e d t o a s c h o o l s y s t e m i t w i l l
r e v e a l a r e a s w h ic h a r e a d a p te d t o c u r r e n t n e e d s a s d e f in e d
a b o v e a n d a r e a s i n w h ic h t h e r e i s a l a g .
The m a n u al w i l l b r in g o u t th e t o t a l p ic t u r e o f th e
e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m a n d l e a d t h e w a y t o a m o re i n t e n s i v e
d ia g n o s t ic a n d r e m e d ia l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . "
In th e m a tte r o f th e a p p lic a t io n o f th e c r i t e r i a , th e a u th o r s
is s u e d a n o te o f c a u t io n a g a in s t t h e u s e o f t h e in s tr u m e n t b y o n e co n ­
n e c te d w ith th e s c h o o l.* "
^ f o r m e r m em b er o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e K e n t u c k y
D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , w ho s e r v e d t w e n t y y e a r s a s h e a d o f t h e V o c a t i o n ­
a l D iv is io n o f th e D e p a r tm e n t, g e n e r o u s ly c o n s e n te d to a p p r a is e th e
s c h o o l i n ter m s o f th e c r i t e r i a ,
F o llo w in g i n s t r u c t io n s a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e , th e s c o r e r s p e n t
n e a r l y t h r e e w e e k s i n m a k in g a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , i n t e r m s o f
" A G u id e f o r S e l f - A p p r a i s a l o f S c h o o l S y s t e m s , o p . c i t . , p a g e i i l ,
P r efa c e.
1 Q0 0 p .
c i t . , p . iv .
stu d y .
F or a d d itio n a l lim it a t io n s s e e fo o tn o te 90 o f t h is
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
62
th e c r ite r ia .
The u s e o f th e in t e r v ie w , c o u p le d w it h c a r e f u l o b s e r v a ­
t i o n a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r u s i n g t h e G u id e ,
g a v e s u f f ic ie n t m a te r ia l f o r f in a l s c o r in g .
A f te r d is c u s s io n w ith th e
p r in c ip a l and th e f a c u lt y , th e o r ig in a l s c o r e a s c r ib e d , fo u r h u n d red
t w e n ty - fiv e p o in t s , w as r e d u e e d b y s e v e n p o in t s .
T hat th e r e a r e c e r ta in
d is c r e p a n c ie s i s o b v io u s , a s i n th e s c o r in g o f S c h o o l P la n t P la n n in g
.
( T a b l e X V I, c o lu m n 1 8 t h i s s t u d y ; p a g e s 4 6 - 4 7 i n t h e G u id e ) i n w h i c h i t
w as ju d g e d t h a t a l l p o s s i b l e a d ju s tm e n ts h a d b e e n m a d e, a ju d g m en t d i f f i ­
c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e w i t h com m on s e n s e .
The in s tr u m e n t, h o w e v e r , c a n n o t b e
te r m e d a p r e c i s i o n in s t r u m e n t , a n d i n te r m s o f t h e c r i t e r i a , t h e ite m w as
sc o r e d a t one h un dred p e r c e n t.
T h e sa m e m i g h t b e s a i d o f S u p p l i e s a n d
E q u ip m e n t ( T a b l e X V I, c o lu m n 2 2 , t h i s p a p e r ; p a g e s 5 5 - 5 6 i n t h e G u id e )
a n a r e a i n w h ic h t h e r e w a s n o c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f a n y a d j u s t m e n t , a l t h o u g h
o n e m u s t c o n c e d e t h a t t h e r e a r e so m e s u p p l i e s a n d e q u ip m e n t .
R e g a r d l e s s o f t h i s , t h e r e i s m u ch g r o u n d f o r t h e b e l i e f t h a t
t h e s e tw o i t e m s , S c h o o l P l a n t , a n d S u p p l i e s , d o r e p r e s e n t t h e e x t r e m e s o f
a d j u s t m e n t s t o m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n a l d e m a n d s i n t h e W e st L o u i s v i l l e S c h o o l ,
The s c h o o l, th u s a p p r a is e d , w as fo u n d to b e s l i g h t l y a b o v e th e
a v e r a g e f o r s m a l l s c h o o l s y s t e m s ( s c h o o l s i n c o m m u n it ie s w i t h l e s s t h a n
5 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n . 3-®3')
The a u t h o r s o f t h e m a n u a l r e p o r t e d s c o r e s f o r f o r t y
s m a l l s c h o o l s y s t e m s i n D e la w a r e , N ew J e r s e y , P e n n s y l v a n i a , t h a t r a n g e d
fr o m a lo w o f 1 3 0 t o a h ig h o f 4 4 0 , w it h a n a p p r o x im a te a v e r a g e o f 3 0 0 .
I n P e n n s y lv a n ia , d u r in g 1 9 3 8 a n d 1 9 3 9 , f o r t y - e i g h t s c h o o ls w e r e a p p r a is e d ,
h a l f o f w h ic h w e r e s m a l l s c h o o l s .
T h ese s c h o o ls p r e s e n t e d a s l i g h t l y w id e r
r a n g e , fro m 8 2 t o 6 1 7 , w it h a n a v e r a g e o f 2 6 9 .
The s c o r e o f 4 1 8 o b ta in e d
i n t h e W e st L o u i s v i l l e a p p r a i s a l i s n o t t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a n i n d i c a t i o n
101L
oc. c it .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
63
o f s u p e r i o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s m a l l - s c h o o l n orm " b e c a u s e i t m u s t h e
rem em b ered t h a t m any f e a t u r e s o f th e s c h o o l ca n h e c l a s s i f i e d a s c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l a r g e r s y s t e m s ; s c h o o l s y s t e m s i n c o m m u n it ie s o f m o r e
th a n f i v e th o u sa n d p o p u la t io n .
S u c h i t e m s a s B u s i n e s s M a n a g e m e n t, P u p i l
R e c o r d s a n d A t te n d a n c e , a n d , i n f a c t , m o st a r e a s e v a lu a t e d h a v e a som ew h at
d u al a sp e c t.
The s c o r e s f o r t h e s e l a r g e r s y s t e m s , a s fo u n d i n t h e 1 9 3 8 -
1 9 3 9 P e n n s y lv a n ia s t u d i e s , r a n g e fro m 1 2 6 t o 8 3 8 , w it h a n a v e r a g e o f 4 2 4 .
S uch d i f f i c u l t y a s t h i s d u a l n a tu r e o f th e s c h o o l p r e s e n ts d o e s n o t in ­
v a lid a t e th e s tu d y , b e c a u se th e s tu d y i s b a se d on a n a b s o lu te v a lu e o f
1 , 0 0 0 a n d a s c o r e o f 4 1 8 i n d i c a t e s a n im p r o v a b le a r e a o f 5 7 2 p o i n t s .
T h e r e i s a l s o so m e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e p i c t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f
th e s c o r e s .
The s e c t i o n o f th e s tu d y d e v o te d to a p p r a is a l o f c la s s r o o m
in s t r u c t io n r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x im a te ly f o r t y p e r c e n t o f th e e n t ir e s c o r e ;
s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r in d iv id u a l p u p i l s , a p p r o x im a te ly t w e n t y - s ix p e r c e n t ;
e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip , tw e n ty -o n e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l; and p h y s ic a l fa ­
c i l i t i e s , ab ou t th ir te e n p er c e n t.
Thus a d ju stm e n ts o b se r v e d in r e la t io n
to p o s s i b l e a d ju s tm e n ts do n o t g iv e a n a d e q u a te c o n c e p t io n o f th e w e ig h t­
ed v a lu e o f th e s c o r e s
f o r e x a m p le , i n t h e M a t t e r o f S p e c i a l R o o m s , t h r e e
o b s e r v e d a d j u s tm e n t s , o u t o f a p o s s i b l e t e n , t im e s t h e a s s ig n e d w e ig h t
o f t h r e e , g iv e s a w e ig h te d s c o r e o f n in e , w h e r e a s a s im il a r s c o r e i n th e
C o u r se o f S tu d y , tim e s t h e w e ig h te d n u m b er, s e v e n , g i v e s a w e ig h te d s c o r e
o f t w e n t y - o n e , m o r e t h a n t w i c e t h e v a l u e i n t h e m a t t e r o f S p e c i a l R o o m s.
F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e s t u d y a r e o f f e r e d i n tw o f r a m e s
o f r e fere n c e;
p e r c e n ta g e t h e o b se r v e d o r o b ta in e d a d ju s tm e n ts a r e o f th e
p o s s ib le a d ju s tm e n ts ; an d th e r e l a t i v e v a lu e o f o b s e r v e d a d ju stm e n ts to
th e t o t a l p o s s ib le a d ju stm e n ts.
( S e e T a b le Y i n t h e A p p e n d ix , f o r p e r ­
ce n ta g e sc o r e s)
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64
T h e l a r g e s t im p r o v a b le a r e a s a r e t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m ,
in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s , and p u p il a c t iv i t y , in th a t o r d e r .
e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r im p r o v e m e n t a r e f o u n d i n :
The n e x t g r e a t­
p u p il r e c o r d s and a t t e n ­
d a n c e ; s u p e r v i s i o n a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ; s c h o o l- c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s ; a n d f i ­
n a l l y , t h e s c h o o l p l a n t a n d b u s i n e s s m a n a g e m e n t.
( S e e T a b le X I I I )
F or th e p u rp o se o f t h is stu d y a d e t a ile d r e p o r t on ea ch o f th e
t w e n ty -th r e e ite m s d o e s n o t a p p e a r to b e n e c e s s a r y .
O n ly t h o s e s u b - a r e a s
s h o w in g a l a g o f t h i r t y o r m o r e p o i n t s w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d .
C o n s id e r a tio n s
o f t h e s e a r e a s w i l l b e fo u n d i n t h e c o n c lu s io n s to t h i s c h a p te r .
S c h o o l P r a c t i c e ( Q u e s t io n n a ir e
T he s e c o n d in s tr u m e n t u s e d i n t h e s c h o o l e v a lu a t io n p h a s e o f th e
s t u d y i s t h e S c h o o l P r a c t i c e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b y M c C a ll a n d H e r r i n g , ^
3
one
o f t h e f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o m p r e h e n s iv e T e s t P r o g r a m , d e ­
v e l o p e d b y t h e sa m e a u t h o r s .
The a u th o r s s a y o f th e t e s t : ^
3
T he S c h o o l P r a c t i c e (Q u e s tio n n a ir e i s d e s ig n e d
t o m e a su r e t h e e x t e n t to w h ic h a s c h o o l h a s t h e c h a r ­
a c t e r i s t i c s o f d e m o c r a tic a c t i v i t y .
The q u e s t io n n a ir e i s a t e s t o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m ,
a n i n s t r u m e n t w i t h w h ic h t o e v a l u a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e s
w h ic h t h e s c h o o l m a k e s a c t u a l f o r t h e c h i l d . I t d o e s
n o t c o v e r a l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e s , b u t i t s a m p le s t h e s c h o o l 1s
c o n t r ib u t io n . The t i t l e s o f th e s u b - t e s t s a n d t h e q u e s­
t io n s t h e m s e lv e s r e p r e s e n t w a y s i n w h ic h a s c h o o l o u g h t t o
h e lp a c h i l d . T h ey c o m p r is e a n d im p ly t h e e le m e n ts o f a
c o n s is t e n t s c h o o l p rogram o f a c e r t a in ty p e . H ot e v e r y ­
t h in g w h ic h a s c h o o l o u g h t t o do f o r a c h i l d c a n b e in ­
c lu d e d i n th e t e s t , b u t a n e s s e n c e o f su c h t h in g s i s i d e n t i f i e d a n d i l l u s t r a t e d . I f we c o m p r is e , w it h in i t s
p r e v ie w , th e in te n d e d c o n s e q u e n c e s , i n t h e h a n d s o f sym p a-
102M
c C a ll, W i ll i a m A . , a n d H e r r i n g , J o h n P . , S c h o o l P r a c t i c e Q u e s t i o n ­
n a i r e , L a id lo w B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 7 .
^ SM a n u a l f o r T e a c h e r s , A C o m p r e h e n s iv e T e s t P r o g r a m , l a i d l o w B r o t h e r s ,
1937, p p. 4 -5 .
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66
t h e t i c te a c h e r s , a s w e ll a s th e e x te n s io n o f c o n te n t in
a d d itio n a l fo rm s, th e q u e s tio n n a ir e r i c h l y r e p r e s e n ts a
good c u rric u lu m , assum ing t h a t a c u rric u lu m o f d em o cratic
a c t i v i t y i s good.
The q u e s tio n n a ir e m easures th e th o ro u g h n ess w ith
w hich a sch o o l g ra s p s and u t i l i z e s th e im p lic a tio n s o f
democracy f o r e d u c a tio n . I t d is tin g u is h e s betw een a dem­
o c r a t i c sch o o l and a l l o t h e r s . A sch o o l w ith a h ig h e r
s c o re i s more e f f e c t i v e l y su p p o rtin g o u r in d ig e n o u s Amer­
ic a n p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e , w h ile one w ith a low er sco re
e i t h e r i s l e s s e f f i c i e n t o r i s w orking to some o th e r end.
The t e s t c o n s is ts o f one hundred f i v e q u e s tio n s w ith y e s o r no
an sw e rs.
These q u e s tio n s a r e d iv id e d in to tw en ty -o n e s u b - t e s t s , each
sub­
t e s t p u rp o r tin g to d i s t i n g u i s h some p h ase o f sc h o o l p r a c t i c e , su ch a s sub­
t e s t EC, q u e s tio n s 91 to 95, i n c l u s i v e , which see k s to f i n d th e p r a c t i c e
o f th e school i n re g a rd to th e u s e o f re c o rd s a s a te a c h in g - le a r n in g de­
v ic e .
The s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s in s tru m e n t was made on th e b a s is o f th e
a p p a re n t f i t n e s s o f th e t e s t f o r th e p u rp o se a t hand, and th e e x p e rie n c e
o f th e a u th o rs o f th e t e s t i s p e rh a p s th e o n ly o th e r i n d i c a tio n o f i t s
v a lid ity .
Hie t e s t s have been g iv e n to 20,000 p u p ils i n , and a ro u n d ,
Hew York, and th e s t a t i s t i c a l c a lc u la tio n s e s s e n t i a l to e s ta b lis h m e n t o f
r e l i a b i l i t y have been made by th e a u th o r s .
O ther t e s t s were g iv e n to
v a rio u s numbers o f c h ild r e n i n 'unnamed w e ste rn c i t i e s , and r e s u l t s w ere
c o n sid e re d s a t i s f a c t o r y .
W hile none o f t h i s im p lie s a g u a ra n te e o f com­
p l e t e e f f ic ie n c y , th e r e i s e v e ry in d ic a tio n o f re a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te r e s u l t s
from th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
T able X I? shows th e com plete l i s t o f s u b - t e s t
t i t l e s , w ith th e k e y to each s u b - t e s t .
The t e s t s were g iv e n to one hundred f i f t y - f o u r p u p i ls , g ra d e s
seven to tw e lv e, i n c l u s i v e .^ ®
I n d iv id u a l s c o r e s ran g ed from 16 to 94 o u t
•^^See fo o tn o te 90 o f t h i s s tu d y f o r p o s s ib le l i m i t a t i o n s to th e u s e o f
t h i s in s tru m e n t.
105
See Appendix f o r T e s t S ch ed u le, T able VI.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
67
TABLE X IY
COMPLETE LIST OP SUBTEST TITLES TO BE FCUHD
I I THE SCHOOL PRACTICE g S T J J D m iB E
Column
S u h te s t T i t l e s
Key Mark
1
P acin g S it u a tio n s
PS
2
L iv in g in th e Community
LC
3
D is c u s sin g S it u a tio n s
DS
4
F re e in g Speech and Thought
5
F re e in g A c t i v i t y
PA
6
D e a lin g w ith C o n f lic ts
DC
7
I n it ia ti n g A c tiv ity
IA
8
P la n n in g A c t i v i t y
PL
9
E v a lu a tin g A c t i v i t y
EY
10
U sing C o o p eratio n
CO
11
M o tiv a tio n
12
U sing Committees
CM
13
U sin g E x p e rts
XP
14
U sing Books
15
U sing Knowledge and S k i l l s
KS
16
U sing T ools and M a te ria ls
TM
17
U sing A rt
18
U sing T e s ts and E xperim ents
TX
19
U sing R ecords
RG
20
L iv in g D e m o c ra tic a lly
D
21
L iv in g H ap p ily
H
PST
M
B
A
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68
o f a p o s s ib le 105, w ith a mean o f 3 7 .6 8 ; m edian, 3 5 .1 5 ; and a q u a r t i l e
d e v ia tio n o f 9 .2 9 .
The o b ta in e d mean o f 37.68 com pares v e ry u n fa v o ra b ly
w ith th e means found i n c e r t a i n u rb a n c i t i e s , where th e means were r e ­
co rd ed a s 4 4 .3 , 4 7 .1 , 4 5 .3 , 4 8 .1 , 4 5 ,9 , and 4 7 .3 i n th e in te rm e d ia te
g ra d e s .
U n fo rtu n a te ly , norms f o r e n t i r e s c h o o ls , in c lu d in g a l l g ra d e s ,
have n o t been e s ta b lis h e d .
A gain, w ith o u t re f e r e n c e to s ta n d a rd s , i t i s
n o t d i f f i c u l t to e n v is io n a sch o o l which m ight improve upon an a p p ro x i­
m ate t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t s c o re o u t o f a p o s s ib le one hundred p e r c e n t
s c o re .
I n o n ly th r e e o f th e s u b - t e s t s does th e sc h o o l p r a c t i c e r i s e above
f i f t y p e r c e n t o f th e s ta n d a rd s e t b y th e a u th o rs o f th e t e s t ;
i n freedom
o f speech (F re e in g Speech and Thought, Column 4 , T ab le XV;*®® M o tiv a tio n
(Column 1 1 ); and in m a tte r s p e r t a i n i n g to m e n tal h y g ien e and c h ild hap­
p in e s s (Column 2 1 ).
On th e o th e r hand, s c o re s on fo u r o f th e s u b - t e s t s
f e l l a t tw e n ty -fiv e p e r c e n t, o r l e s s , o f th e p o s s ib le s c o re :
developm ent
o f i n i t i a t i v e in sch o o l a c t i v i t i e s (Column 7 ) ; u s e o f e x p e rts in f i e l d s
o th e r th a n e d u c a tio n (Column 1 3 ); u s e o f to o ls and m a te r ia ls i n sch o o l
work (Column 1 6 ); and th e c o l l e c t i o n , arran g em en t, and u s e o f re c o rd s a s
a p u p il a c t i v i t y (Column 1 9 ).
T his t e s t r e v e a ls , th e n , d e f ic i e n c ie s in s e v e r a l a s p e c ts o f th e
sch o o l program .
A m ech a n ic al a d ju stm e n t to th e c o n d itio n m ight b e made
b y c a t a g o r i c a l l y d i r e c t i n g th e sch o o l in to c o r r e c tin g th e answ ers o f th e
c r i t e r i a ; i t i s d o u b tfu l i f such a remedy would e v er r i s e above th e mech­
a n i c a l s ta g e , b ecau se a g u id in g p h ilo s o p h y i s e s s e n t i a l to such r e - d i r e c ­
t i o n o f sch o o l e f f o r t .
A ll column re f e r e n c e i n t h i s s e c tio n w il l be found i n Table XV.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T
A
B
L
EX
V
SC0B1 S OBTAINED BY THE USE
Column
S ub-test
i
PS
2
LC
3
DS
4
3
PST PA
6
DC
1
IA
or
S
PL
THE McCALL-ESBRING SCHOOL PBACIICE Q,UESTIOffiAIBE
10
CO
3
EY
P o ssib le Score
3
5
9
5
5
5
3
5 , 5
Obtained Score* 1.5 l.if 1.9 2.3 2.5 1.6 1*3 2.2 1.9
Percentage
29-0 2S.0 33.0 I15.0 51.0 31.0 25.0 H3.O 33.0
11
M
3 .... 5
2
2.6
l+o.o 52.0
12
CM
13
XP
5
1*7
31.0
3
llf
B
■5
•95 1 .8
20.0 35*0
15
KS
16
5
1.8
36.0
3
1.1
22.0
TM
1?
A
K
J
IS
l.lf
3S.0
1.6
32.0
TX
19
EC
20
D
21
H
3
1.3
25.0
5 ,
1 .6
31.0
5
, 3*
62^
1
100
90
SO
70
60
50
IfO
30
20 W S
10p
m
t*
■
1 i« «
i1 ■■
o y /m 1
m
P
m
m
WM
m
§
V fM t m
/i i/m
fm
W
/t
m
m mW/?//Mutt
ml
1
Wim
■mmi »mm
1 /lWMm Si
1
w M
i
W/M
Tmfrm
W M
The mean obtained score re p re s e n ts the t o ta l score of a l l p u p ils on each s u b -te s t, divided by the number of p u p ils te s te d .
A ll fig u re s a re rounded to one p lace.
70
Summary
A s tu d y o f th e West L o u i s v ille School r e v e a ls t h a t th e i n s t i ­
t u t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y young a s a c o n s o lid a te d sc h o o l.
The p r e s e n t form
o f th e school i s a r e s u l t , i n g e n e r a l, o f s u c c e s s iv e c o n s o lid a tio n s i n th e
co u n ty .
Such a n i n s t i t u t i o n c l e a r l y h a s n o t had tim e to a s s i m i l a t e th e
v a rio u s e d u c a tio n a l fu n c tio n s t h r u s t upon i t .
Use o f th e M o rt-C o rn e ll Guide f o r S e lf- A p p ra is a l o f School Sys­
tems r e v e a ls a d e f i n i t e la g betw een th e a c tu a l sch o o l p r a c t i c e and recom­
mended p r a c t i c e .
Some o f th e m ost s e r io u s d e f ic i e n c ie s a r e l i s t e d h r i e f l y j ^ ^
107
1.
The c u rric u lu m i s i n f l e x i b l e in su ch m a tte rs
a s th e u s e o f l o c a l m a te r i a ls , su p p lem en tary
m a t e r i a l s , and p u p il s e l f - a p p r a i s a l program s.
(1)
2.
The c u rric u lu m p ro v e s to b e lim it e d i n o f f e r ­
in g s o f a r t , p e r s o n a l e x p re s s io n , and an ade­
q u a te ly co n ceiv ed s o c i a l s c ie n c e program , (2 )
3.
In many
tw e lv e,
In some
c o u rse s
4.
I n th e f i e l d s o f le a r n in g , i n d ic a tio n s a r e
t h a t much o f th e em phasis i s on fo rm al sub­
j e c t m a tte r a s su ch . T his seems to b e tr u e
in m a th e m atics, s o c i a l s c ie n c e , and s c ie n c e .
(4 )
5.
E d u c a tio n a l a c c o u n tin g , in c lu d in g su ch item s
a s home back g ro u n d , h e a l t h r e c o r d s , re c o rd s
o f a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , and o th e r p e r t i ­
n e n t d a ta , i s r a t e d a s v e ry p o o r. (7 )
6.
A con co m itan t o f th e p o o r e d u c a tio n a l ac­
c o u n tin g i s a n e g le c t o f th e in d iv id u a l d i f ­
fe re n c e s among th e p u p ils o f th e sc h o o l. Yery
l i t t l e h as b een done tow ard in d iv id u a l cumu­
l a t i v e r e c o r d s . (10)
o f th e c o u rs e s , g ra d e s one th ro u g h
th e c o u rs e s o f s tu d y a r e in a d e q u a te .
a r e a s , i t m ight be s a id t h a t no
o f s tu d y e x i s t . (3)
A ll re f e r e n c e s a r e to T able XYI, and th e a p p r o p r ia te column i n th e
ta b le .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T
A
B
L
EX
V
I
OBTAINED SCORES ON THE TWENTY-THREE ITEMS 01 THE M0RT-CORNELL APPRAISAL INSTRUMENT*
Section
D ivision
Number
Adjustments x Weight
Score x Weight
II
B
1
3 0 i o JO
38 31
Column
31
2 ___I
M
A.
III
B
12. ia
pit 18 .18.
J±8
IV
B
la la 35
15. 3a ia
3.Q
55- la
ia .
10 11 12 11 Ilf
11
10
11
16
-151518
-15- -3018.
20
-30- _2L J2L
13.
21
22
11
100
80 |
This graph re p re se n ts
weighted obtained score
6o
of each item , in re ­
la tio n to weighted pos­
s ib le score.
m m zL
* ~ S ee Table IV, Appendix, fo r the score sh e et, which i s a ls o the Table of Contents of the Guide.
H
72
7.
The h e a l t h program o f th e sch o o l h as b een in ­
a d e q u a te . u n o rg a n iz e d , an d , i n m ost p h a se s ,
n o n - e x is te n t. (11)^®®
8.
The sc h o o l program i s n o t i n to u c h w ith such
f a c t o r s a s sh o u ld d eterm in e th e s o c i a l and
economic d i r e c t i o n o f th e sc h o o l. There i s
l i t t l e c o o p e ra tio n w ith l o c a l a g e n c ie s , p ro b ­
a b ly b e c a u se o f th e p a u c ity o f su ch a g e n c ie s
w hich a r e a c ti v e i n th e a r e a . Youth g ro u p s,
a d u l t g ro u p s, community p la y g ro u n d s, and l i ­
b r a r i e s , a r e o th e r p o i n ts o f c o n ta c t which have .
been ig n o re d . (17)
I t m ust n o t be concluded t h a t th e s e e ig h t a r e a s a r e th e o n ly ones
where improvement i s p o s s ib le , a s a g la n c e a t T able XVI, w i l l show.
These
e ig h t a r e a s , how ever, show a p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e in g im proved a lm o st th r e e
hundred f i f t y p o i n t s , and in th e s e s p e c if ic m a tte r s , th e r e i s no a p p a re n t
need f o r sh arp in c r e a s e s i n e x p e n d itu re .
The School P r a c tic e Q u e stio n n a ire r e v e a ls t h a t th e b e s t f e a tu r e s
o f th e program l i e i n p u p il freedom , p u p il i n t e r e s t , and p u p il h a p p in e ss
(T able XV, Columns 4 , 5, 8 , 11, and 2 1 ) . Poor p r a c t i c e l i e s i n a d h e r­
ence to fo rm al p r a c t i c e i n c la s s e s (Columns 1 and 2 ); f a i l u r e to s tim u la te
p u p il i n i t i a t i v e (Columns 6 and 7 ) ; an d , in g e n e r a l, f a i l u r e to u s e su ch
m a t e r i a l s , m ethods, and d e v ic e s a s a r e a v a il a b le (Columns 12, 13, 16, 1 8 ,
19, and 2 0 ).
I t p ro b a b ly c o u ld b e c l e a r l y d e m o n strated th a t a d i s t i n c t
advancem ent m ight be made w ith o u t a m a te r ia l in c re a s e i n e x p e n d itu re s .
108
109
I t i s g r a t i f y i n g to know t h a t r e c e n t l y th e D av iess County H e a lth De­
p a rtm e n t was re o rg a n iz e d , w ith a s u b s t a n t i a l in c r e a s e i n th e
b u d g et. See A ppendix, Table V III)
See A ppendix, T able VI f o r f u r t h e r in fo rm a tio n on th e u s e o f th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER VI
COMMUNITY RECEPTIVEl'IESS TO THE COMMUNITY
SCHOOL PHILOSOPHY OP EDUCATION
I n tr o d u c tio n
How s e n s i t i v e a r e th e p a r e n ts o f th e West L o u is v ille School
a r e a to th e community sch o o l p h ilo so p h y ?
T h is c h a p te r a tte m p ts to r e ­
c o rd th e degree o f r e c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e community, o r s t a t e d n e g a tiv e ly ,
th e d e g re e o f r e s i s t a n c e to be e x p ec te d i f th e community sch o o l p h i l ­
osophy were to be a d o p ted and im plem ented f o r e f f e c t i v e a p p l ic a ti o n .
In a d d itio n to c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f th e s tu d y , w hich
have been re c o g n iz e d in p re c e d in g c h a p te r s , t h i s d e te rm in in g o f community
re c e p tiv e n e s s to an id e a p r e s e n ts o th e r p ro b lem s.
I t is not p o s s ib le , as
y e t , to m easure su ch a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s in th e same way t h a t c e r t a i n phy­
s i c a l p r o p e r tie s o f m a tte r a r e d e te rm in e d .
The b e s t e f f o r t s in t h i s d i­
r e c t i o n a r e p ro b a b ly l i t t l e more th a n e s tim a te s o r g u e s s e s , th e v a l i d i t y
o f which depends upon th e d e g re e o f c a re u se d in m a n ip u la tin g th e v a r ia ­
b l e s , o u t o f which grow th e f a c t o r s upon which th e e s tim a te s a r e b a se d .
I t would seem, how ever, t h a t to deny th e e f f i c a c y o f su ch s tu d y would be
tantam ount to d i s c r e d i t i n g e a r l y f in d i n g s w ith th e te le s c o p e b e ca u se th e
in s tru m e n ts la c k e d th e p r e c i s i o n and scope o f modern d e v ic e s .
The ta s k i n t h i s c h a p te r , th e n i s :
th e f in d in g o f s u f f i c i e n t in ­
d i c i a o f need to w a rra n t th e s tu d y ; th e d e v is in g o r s e le c tin g an i n s t r u ­
ment f o r a c r i t i c a l su rv e y o f th e community re c e p tiv e n e s s to th e p h ilo s ­
ophy; a p p ly in g th e in s tru m e n t so d e v is e d o r s e le c te d ; and a n a ly z in g th e
r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from th e u s e o f th e in s tru m e n t so a p p lie d .
I n d i c i a o f Need
P a u l E. M ort, sp ea k in g b e fo re a sch o o l a d m in is tr a tio n c l i n i c ,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
made a s ta te m e n t "based upon th e ex ten d ed s tu d ie s o f a d a p t a b i l i t y made
u n d e r th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e s p e a k e r:
“P ro g re s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y come to
a sch o o l th ro u g h th e i n s i s t e n t demands o f th e community. b11® Dr. Mort
f u r t h e r e x p la in e d t h a t such demands m ust o f n e c e s s ity b e v o ic e d by some
group o r in d iv id u a l, and where no such se n tim e n t e x is t e d i t becomes n e c ­
e s s a r y " to r a i s e up a v o ic e among th e p e o p le .* 111
The E d u c a tio n P o l i c i e s
Commission o f f e r s a somewhat s i m il a r p r o p o s itio n ;
E d u c a tio n b e g in s w ith th e p e o p le and w i l l be what
th e y d e s ir e i t to b e . C oncern, th e n , m ust be w ith any
changes i n th e e d u c a tio n a l a t t i t u d e s o f th e p e o p le . T h e ir
e s tim a te o f th e w o rth o f e d u c a tio n te n d s to is s u e in law s
c o n tr o llin g s c h o o ls . A lth o u g h th e r e may b e a s u b s t a n t i a l
la g , e v e n tu a lly th e p e o p le w i l l e x p re ss t h e i r d e s ir e s i n
th e s e m a tte r s . 2
A nother p r o p o s itio n ( i n a s e r i e s o f f i v e ) i s s t a t e d th u s :
E d u c a tio n a l m ach in ery must keep i t s e l f a ttu n e d to
th e ta s k th e p e o p le want p e rfo rm ed . T his means k e e p in g a t ­
tuned to th e p o p u la tio n to b e se rv ed ; th e a p p r o p r ia te edu­
c a ti o n a l p u rp o se s o f d i f f e r e n t g ro u p s; and to th e demands
o f th e v a rio u s c u r r i c u l a . 113
S e y f e r t114 r e p o r ts a s tu d y o f th e f e e lin g o f p e o p le tow ard th e
s c h o o l, w ith th e s i g n i f i c a n t comme n t t h a t "To a s c e r t a i n what th e p u b lic
knows ab o u t i t s sc h o o ls i s u n d o u b te d ly im p o rta n t,
p o r ta n t
b u t i t i s f a r more im­
to d is c o v e r how th e p e o p le f e e l ab o u t th e s c h o o ls ," and m akes, i n
th e s ta te m e n t, a d i s t i n c t i o n betw een p u b lic knowledge o f sc h o o ls and p u b ^ ^ o r t , P a u l R ., A d d ress, School A d m in is tra to rs C lin ic , U n iv e r s ity o f
Wyoming, L aram ie, Wyoming, J u l y 19, 1940. A fte rn o o n S e s sio n .
111 I b id .
112
E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission R esearch Memorandum on E d u c a tio n in
th e D e p re ssio n , B u l l e t i n 28, 1937, S o c ia l S c ie n c e R esearch C o u n cil,
230 P a rk Avenue, Wew York. ( I t a l i c s i n th e o r i g i n a l ) p . 9.
l l 3 0p. c i t . , p . 10.
114
S e y f e r t, W arren C ., "What th e P u b lic Thinks o f I t s S c h o o ls ," The School
Review, 48; 417-427, J u n e , 1940.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75
l i e f e e lin g tow ard s c h o o ls .
S e y f e r t makes th e o b s e rv a tio n s
P u b lic o p in io n to d a y h as c o m p a ra tiv e ly few means
b y w hich i t may become a r t i c u l a t e and f o r t h i s re a so n i t
i s f r e q u e n tly m isju d g ed . School p e o p le th e m se lv e s, m ust,
t h e r e f o r e , a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r sounding community
a t t i t u d e s tow ard th e s c h o o ls ; and, i f p u b lic o p in io n i s to
be ta k e n in to a cc o u n t i n th e developm ent o f th e p u b lic r e ­
l a t i o n s program o f any sch o o l o r sch o o l sy stem , i t m ust be
lo c a l p u b lic o p in io n which i s made th e p o in t o f d e p a r t u r e .115
The e x is te n c e o f many s tu d ie s o f a t t i t u d e s , o p in io n s , and f e e li n g s
tow ard th e sc h o o ls le n d s a u t h o r i t y to an a tte m p t to e x p lo re t h i s a r e a o f
sch o o l r e l a t i o n s .
S e l l s and o th e r s endeavored to develop an in s tru m e n t
whereby p u b lic o p in io n m ight be e f f e c t i v e l y u se d in sc h o o l a c c r e d i t a t i o n . 11®
T his s tu d y o f b e s t - l i k e d and l e a s t - l i k e d f e a tu r e s o f th e sc h o o l d id n o t
p ro v e u s a b le a s a d e v ic e f o r a c c r e d i tin g s c h o o ls , b u t th e r e s u l t s were
h ig h ly g r a t i f y i n g , n e v e r th e le s s .
A rnold1-*-7 r e p o r ts a s tu d y o f c a r e f u l l y
e q u ate d groups o f p a r e n ts i n Lakewood, Ohio, and co n clu d es t h a t i t "may
be t r u e th a t th e sch o o l o f te n i s la g g in g b e h in d th e b e s t th o u g h t i n th e
com m unity."
T his b r i e f overview makes no p r e te n s e a t e x h a u s tin g th e f i e l d o f
th e r e l a t i o n o f th e sch o o l and th e community, b u t even such a c u rs o ry
s tu d y seems to d e fin e a u s e f u l a r e a f o r in v e s t ig a ti o n .
In stru m e n t f o r D eterm in in g Community E e c e p tiv e n e ss
S e y f e r t, i n th e p r e v io u s ly m entioned r e p o r t p o s e s th e problem o f
d e v is in g o r s e l e c t i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y in s tru m e n t f o r a p p r a is in g p u b lic o p in T T I“
I b i d . , p . 427
'
XX6
E e l l s , W alter C ., (See fo o tn o te 3 , page 2 , t h i s stu d y )
117
A rn o ld , D. L ., '‘P a re n ts and th e P u rp o ses o f th e S c h o o ls," E d u c a tio n a l
B esearch B u l l e t i n , 16: 156-160, Septem ber 15, 1937.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76
Ions
G eneral te c h n iq u e s f o r m easuring p u b lic o p in io n
have been n o ta b ly improved w ith in r e c e n t y e a r s , b u t e f ­
f o r t s to a p p ly th e s e te c h n iq u e s to e d u c a tio n a l a f f a i r s
a r e r e l a t i v e l y unknown. Hence th e to o l s w hich were u se d
in t h i s in v e s t i g a t i o n had to b e d eveloped f o r th e p u rp o se
and a r e s u b je c t to th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y t h a t
e x i s t u n d e r such c irc u m stan c es.-^ ®
C onclusions o f S tra n g p o in t to a u s e o f some form o f th e i n t e r ­
view , a s a d a ta - g a th e r in g d e v ic e ;
I f s k i l l f u l l y u s e d , th e in te rv ie w may a ls o be em­
p lo y e d to o b ta in a d e e p e r in s ig h t in to complex problem s
th a n i s p o s s ib le by means o f any o th e r p ro c e d u re . Thus,
th e in te r v ie w i s an e s s e n t i a l te c h n iq u e f o r a s c e r ta in in g
th e Hwhy** o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and th e s u b je c tiv e f a c to r s
p o s s ib le c a u s e s , and m eanings b e h in d o b je c tiv e f a c t o r s .
I t i s th e s e m eanings t h a t make e d u c a tio n a l r e s e a r c h s i g ­
n i f i c a n t and f u n c tio n a l.
P erh ap s one re a so n why e d u c a tio n a l r e s e a r c h h a s
been so p re p o n d e ra n tly concerned w ith mass i n v e s t ig a ti o n s
and end r e s u l t s i s t h a t re s e a r c h te c h n iq u e s f o r th e s tu d y
o f in d iv id u a ls and p ro c e s s e s have n o t been a d e q u a te ly de­
v elo p ed .
Choice o f th e in te rv ie w method was n o t made w ith o u t r e c o g n itio n
o f i t s l i m i t a t i o n s a s an e x a c t t o o l o f s c ie n c e , and th e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t
i n s p i t e o f th e a d v an ta g e s s e t f o r t h by S tra n g , o n ly a sm all p o r ti o n o f
r e s e a r c h w orkers ( f o u r p e r c e n t i n 1932) made u s e o f th e te c h n iq u e .
Ad­
m itti n g s tr in g e n t l i m i t a t i o n s b e ca u se o f c o m p lex ity , v a l i d i t y , and r e ­
l i a b i l i t y , i t seems t h a t some form o f p e rs o n a l c o n ta c t w ith th e p a r e n ts
i s e s s e n t i a l to th e stu d y .
118
119
Op. c i t . , p . 417. In c o n n e c tio n w ith t h i s p h ase o f th e s tu d y th e
te c h n iq u e s u s e d by W aller, P a rle y , and Todd m ight p ro v e u s e f u l .
(1) P a rle y , Belmont M., What to T e ll th e P eo p le About th e
P u b lic S c h o o ls.
(2 ) Todd, W. H ., What C itiz e n s Know About T h e ir S c h o o ls.
(3 ) W aller, J . P l i n t , Demands on th e S c h o o ls.
C o n trib u tio n s to E d u c a tio n , T eachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity .
(1929, 1927, and 1932, r e s p e c t i v e l y . )
S tra n g , E uth, ’’The I n te r v ie w ,'* .Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R esearch , 9;
498-501, December, 1939, p . 501.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
77
In form , th e p r e s e n t in te r v ie w d e v ic e l i e s betw een th e q u e s tio n ­
n a ir e - c o n t r o l l e d in te r v ie w ty p e and th e u n c o n d itio n e d re sp o n se ty p e .
She
p r i n c i p l e s o f th e community sch o o l a s d e fin e d by E v e r e tt120 were u s e d a s
th e b a s ic c o n ce p ts o f th e in te rv ie w .
These is s u e s fundam ental to th e e sta b lis h m e n t o f a community
sch o o l a r e l i s t e d h e re :
120
1.
A ll l i f e i s e d u c a tiv e v e rs u s e d u c a tio n i s g a in ed o n ly
in form al i n s t i t u t i o n s o f le a r n in g .
2.
E d u c a tio n r e q u ir e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n v e rsu s e d u c a tio n i s
a d e q u a te ly g a in e d th ro u g h stu d y in g ab o u t l i f e .
3.
A d u lts and c h ild r e n have fundam ental common p u rp o se s in
b o th work and p la y v e rs u s a d u l ts a r e p r im a r i ly concerned
w ith work and c h ild r e n w ith p la y .
4.
P u b lie - s c h o o l system s sh o u ld b e p r im a r i ly concerned w ith
th e improvement o f community l i v i n g and th e improvement
o f s o c i a l o rd e r v e rs u s sch o o l system s sh o u ld be p r im a r i l y
concerned w ith p a s s in g on th e c u l t u r a l h e r it a g e .
5.
The c u rric u lu m sh o u ld r e c e iv e i t s s o c ia l o r i e n t a t i o n
from m ajo r problem s and a r e a s o f community l i v i n g , v e r­
su s th e c u rric u lu m sh o u ld b e o r ie n te d i n r e l a t i o n to
tiie s p e c ia liz e d aim s o f academ ic s u b je c ts .
6.
P u b lic e d u c a tio n sh o u ld b e founded upon d em o cratic
p ro c e s s e s and i d e a l s v e rs u s th e b e l i e f t h a t most c h i l ­
d re n and most a d u lt s a r e in c a p a b le o f i n t e l l i g e n t l y
e i t h e r ru n n in g t h e i r own l i v e s o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n
common group e f f o r t s .
7.
P ro g re s s in e d u c a tio n and i n community l i v i n g b e s t
comes th ro u g h th e developm ent o f common co n cern s among
in d iv id u a ls and s o c i a l g ro u p s v e rs u s p ro g r e s s b e s t comes
th ro u g h th e developm ent o f c l e a r - c u t s o c ia l c l a s s e s and
v e s te d i n t e r e s t g roups w hich s t r u ggl e f o r s u r v iv a l and
dom inance.
8.
P u b lic sc h o o ls sh o u ld b e h e ld r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e edu­
c a tio n o f b o th c h ild r e n and a d u lts v e rs u s p u b lic sc h o o ls
sh o u ld o n ly be re s p o n s ib le f o r th e e d u c a tio n o f c h ild r e n .
E v e r e tt, e t a l . , op. c i t . , C h ap ter XI.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
78
9.
T e a c h e r-p re p a ra to ry i n s t i t u t i o n s sh o u ld p re p a re y o u th
and a d u lts to c a r r y on a community ty p e o f p u b lic edu­
c a ti o n v e rs u s such i n s t i t u t i o n s sh o u ld p re p a re y o u th and
a d u lts to p e r p e tu a te academ ic t r a d i t i o n s and p r a c tic e s *
I t i s re a so n a b le to assume t h a t by d iv id in g th e s e o p p o s ite s in to
enough q u e s tio n s w hich m ight b e answ ered “y e s" o r '’no'1, one c o u ld e v en tu ­
a l l y a r r i v e a t an e x a c t c o n c lu s io n a s to th e b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s ,
and s e n s itiv e n e s s o f th e p a r e n ts to th e p r o p o s itio n s .
F o r in s ta n c e , i f .
one were to d iv id e th e p r o p o s itio n A ll l i f e i s e d u c a tiv e , in to a number
o f q u e s tio n s and d iv id e th e o p p o s ite , E d u c a tio n i s g a in e d o n ly in fo rm al
i n s t i t u t i o n s o f le a r n in g , in to a l i k e number o f q u e s tio n s , th e answ ers
g iv e n to t h i s s e r i e s o f q u e s tio n s m ight g iv e an a c c u r a te e s tim a te o f an
in d iv id u a l* s e x a c t shade o f b e l i e f .
two
is s u e s were
te e n p o s i t i v e .
To t e s t t h i s a ssu m p tio n , th e f i r s t
d iv id e d in to t h i r t y q u e s tio n s each , f i f t e e n n e g a tiv e , f i f ­
These q u e s tio n s , s i x t y i n a l l , were red u ced to w r itin g and
u s e d a s th e b a s i s f o r a c o n tr o l le d in te rv ie w w ith f i v e p eo p le who were n o t
to b e in te rv ie w e d l a t e r , to d eterm in e t h e i r e f f i c a c y a s a m easure o f be­
lie f.
Many o f th e q u e s tio n s th u s u s e d seemed s u p e r flu o u s , and a f t e r th e
f i r s t t r i a l , th e q u e s tio n s w ere red u ced to te n f o r each p r o p o s itio n o r
p r i n c i p l e , f iv e p o s i t i v e , f i v e n e g a tiv e .
T his d i v is i o n n o t o n ly p e rm itte d
th e in te rv ie w e e s to e x p re ss b e l i e f s o r o p in io n s , b u t gave a shaded q u a l i t y
o f such b e l i e f s o r o p in io n s ; i t p e r m itte d an in d iv id u a l, f o r in s ta n c e to
e x p re ss a se v e n ty p e r c e n t o p in io n t h a t a l l l i f e i s e d u c a tiv e o r p u t in
th e n e g a tiv e , a t h i r t y p e r c e n t b e l i e f t h a t e d u c a tio n i s g a in ed o n ly in
fo rm al i n s t i t u t i o n s o f le a r n in g .
Again the questions were reduced to questionnaire form, and used
as the basis of interview^*discussions with an additional ten people, who
were not to be included in the final survey.
This second trial revealed
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79
a few u s e le s s q u e s tio n s and a few m isle a d in g q u e s tio n s .
She e n t i r e l i s t o f p r i n c i p l e s o r p r o p o s itio n s , n in e i n a l l , a s
l i s t e d "by E v e r e t t , w a s d iv id e d in to n in e ty q u e s tio n s , te n f o r each
i s s u e , f i v e f o r th e p o s i t i v e a ssu m p tio n , f i v e f o r th e n e g a tiv e .
These
q u e s tio n s were su b m itte d to th e members o f th e West L o u i s v ill e School
f a c u l t y , who were a sk e d to p a s s , n o t upon th e v a l i d i t y o f th e i s s u e s , b u t
upon how f a i r l y th e q u e s tio n s so s t a t e d re p re s e n te d th e is s u e s . •
S u g g e stio n s and d is c u s s io n l e d to th e r e d u c tio n o f th e l i s t o f
n in e ty to a l i s t o f e ig h ty -tw o ite m s .
E x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith t h i s l i s t r e ­
v e a le d t h a t such a l i s t m ight become cumbersome to th e in te r v ie w e r , and
n o t g a th e r any more d a ta th a n would th e u se o f o r a l q u e s tio n s which stemmed
from one c o re , o r b a s i c , q u e s tio n .
Upon t h i s assu m p tio n an e f f o r t was made
to red u ce th e number o f q u e s tio n s to b e u se d on th e form b y h a l f .
Throughout th e p r e lim in a r y s ta g e s o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e p re p a ra ­
t i o n , ev id en ce accum ulated t h a t th e l a s t is s u e , T e a c h e r-p re p a ra to ry i n s t i ­
tu t i o n s should p re p a re y o u th and a d u lts to c a r r y on a community ty p e o f
p u b lic e d u c a tio n , was n o t v i t a l to th e s tu d y f o r two re a s o n s ; b e l i e f in
community sc h o o lin g would in e v i t a b l y im ply a b e l i e f i n te a c h e r - p r e p a r a tio n
f o r such sc h o o lin g ; and th e community i s v e ry rem ote from any co n cern w ith
te a c h e r t r a i n i n g .
W ith t h i s e v id en c e a t hand, th e n i n th is s u e was removed
from c o n s id e r a tio n .
With th e f i n a l sc h e d u le red u ced to t h i r t y - f i v e ite m s, th e f i f t e e n
p e o p le w ith whom th e q u e s tio n s were o r i g i n a l l y t r i e d were in te rv ie w e d ,
b o th in te rv ie w e r and re sp o n d e n t u s in g th e ty p e d sch e d u le o f ite m s .
N ota­
tio n s on th e se in te rv ie w s form ed th e b a s is f o r th e f i n a l sch e d u le o f ite m s ,
121
Op. e x t . , C hapter XI.
"
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
and fu rn is h e d much v a lu a b le in fo rm a tio n to th e in te r v ie w e r .
A f te r f i n a l
r e v i s i o n , the sch e d u le o f ite m s , th u s ev o lv ed , was p r i n t e d f o r convenience
in t a b u la tin g r e s u l t s , w ith fo u r c o re q u e s tio n s to each o f th e f i r s t f i v e
o f th e is s u e s , and f i v e such q u e s tio n s f o r each o f th e l a s t th r ee . -^ 2
T h is arrangem ent p e rm itte d th e re c o rd in g o f f i v e shades o f b e l i e f
on each o f th e f i r s t f iv e is s u e s and s i x sh ad es o f b e l i e f on th e l a s t f i v e .
E xpressed c o n c r e te ly , i n p e rc e n ta g e s , on any one o f th e is s u e s , sa y th e
second, E d u c a tio n r e q u ir e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , an in d iv id u a l m ight e x p re ss an
e n t i r e l y n e g a tiv e b e l i e f , z ero p e r c e n t; a d i s t i n c t l y n e g a tiv e b e l i e f ,
tw e n ty -fiv e p e r c e n t; a n e u t r a l b e l i e f , f i f t y p e r c e n t; a d i s t i n c t l y p o s­
i t i v e b e l i e f , s e v e n ty - f iv e p e r c e n t; o r an e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e b e l i e f , one
hundred p e r c e n t.
I f one were to a g re e c o m p le te ly w ith th e a u th o rs o f The Command.ty
S ch o o l, o r to a c c e p t th e is s u e s w ith o u t e x c e p tio n , th e sch ed u le o f item s
c o n s i s t s o f tw enty q u e s tio n s to w hich th e answ er would b e “y e s 11 and f i f t e e n
q u e s tio n s to which th e answ er would be “n o ".
That t h i s , i s an e q u ita b le d i­
v i s i o n o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a tiv e answ ers i s open to q u e s tio n , a s i s , in d e e d ,
th e e n t i r e in s tru m e n t.
There a r e bound to b e d is c r e p a n c ie s and o v e r - la p ­
p in g s , inasmuch a s th e c o n s tr u c tio n o f such a d e v ic e and com plete v a l id a ­
t i o n o f i t would r e q u ir e a n enormous amount o f r e s e a r c h and e f f o r t , f a r
beyond th e scope o f t h i s p a p e r.
That i s n o t to say , how ever, t h i s , th e
p r e s e n t in s tru m e n t, developed w ith re a s o n a b le c a r e , a c c o rd in g to a c c e p te d
p r i n c i p l e s , h a s no v a lu e a s a means o f o b ta in in g q u a n t i t a t i v e d a ta on th e
r e c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e community to th e community sch o o l c o n cep t a s a mode
o f e d u c a tio n .
l2 2 See Appendix, Table V II, f o r com plete sc h e d u le .
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81
A p p lic atio n , o f th e Community School C r i t e r i a
P erh ap s th e a p p lic a ti o n o f th e in te rv ie w a f t e r a d eq u a te c r i t e r i a
have b een developed i s l i a b l e to even more s e r io u s e r r o r s th a n i s th e i s ­
o l a t i o n o f th e c r i t e r i a .
P u l l acco u n t h as b een ta k e n o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n co u n te re d in t h i s type o f r e s e a r c h .
Good, B a r r, and S c a te s o f f e r a
g e n e r a l method in th e fo llo w in g d e s c r i p ti v e p a ra g ra p h :
The in te rv ie w e r w i l l n o rm a lly have a s e t o f c a r e ­
f u l l y p re p a re d q u e s tio n s w hich he w i l l in tro d u c e in to th e
c o n v e rs a tio n a t a p p r o p r ia te p o in ts . He may v a ry such
q u e rie s to a d a p t them to in d iv id u a l c irc u m sta n c e ; he w i l l
u s u a l l y a m p lify q u e s tio n s by fo llo w in g up le a d s a s th e oc­
c a s io n may s u g g e s t, s in c e t h i s i s th e g r e a t o p p o rtu n ity o f
th e in te rv ie w . To a v o id a m e an in g less s e t o f m a te r ia l
when he h a s a l l h i s f a c t s g a th e re d , how ever, a l l o f th e
in te r v ie w e r 1s work m ust be done w ith a p la n . He must have
d e cid e d i n advance, o r b e fo re go in g v e ry f a r , j u s t what
in fo rm a tio n i s n e c e s s a ry to draw c o n c lu s io n s t h a t w i l l
s a t i s f y h i s p r i n c i p l e p u rp o se in making th e s tu d y . 126
C e r ta in s u g g e s tio n s b y S tr a n g ,124 Wrenn,125 B u rg e ,126 and o t h e r s ,
were s tu d ie d i n p r e p a r a tio n f o r th e in te rv ie w .
The n e x t c o n s id e r a tio n c e n te r s on th e problem o f ad eq u ate sam p lin g .
The c o m p lex ity o f th e West L o u i s v ille a r e a d id n o t p o in t to an a tte m p t to
sample th e o p in io n o f th e e n t i r e p o p u la tio n o f th e a r e a .
The s tu d y was,
th e r e f o r e , r e s t r i c t e d to p a tr o n s o f th e West L o u i s v il le School and th e
sam pling made i n th re e c a ta g o r ie s — o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s, r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s,
and groups e s ta b lis h e d on th e b a s is o f u p p er and low er g ra d e s .
D uring th e sch o o l y e a r o f 1939-1940, two h undred f o r t y - t h r e e fam1
Good, C a r te r V ., B a r r, A. S . , and S c a te s , Douglas E , , The M ethodology
o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , A p p leto n -G en tu ry Company, 1936, p p . 388-389.
l2 4 S tra n g , og. c i t .
l2 6 Wrenn, G ilb e r t C ., "The I n te r v ie w ,11 Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R ese arch , 9 :
201-204, 242-243, A p r il, 1939.
^ ^ B u rg e , L ofton Y ., “ In te rv ie w Technique a s a Means o f D ia g n o sin g ,”
J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h , 27: 422-429, F e b ru a ry , 1934.
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82
i l i e s were re p re s e n te d in th e sc h o o l.
A d i v i s io n o f th e s e f a m ilie s in to
s ta n d a rd o c c u p a tio n a l g roups would be a p u r e ly academ ic e x e r c is e .
in g ly , seven o c c u p a tio n a l groups were e s ta b lis h e d a s fo llo w s :
A ccord­
(1 ) farm
ow ners, (2 ) te n a n t fa rm e rs, (3 ) la b o r , s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d , (4 ) m in es,
m in ers and o p e r a to r s , (5) b u s in e s s , (6 ) p r o f e s s io n a l and s e m i-p ro fe s s io n ­
a l w o rk ers, and (7 ) r e l i e f , o r s e m i - r e l i e f g ro u p s.
These g ro u p in g s were
developed from th e sch o o l cen su s and sch o o l re c o rd s .
T able XVII shows
th e number o f f a m ilie s in e ac h g ro u p , and th e number o f com plete i n t e r ­
view s o b ta in e d w ith in each g ro u p .
These groups were n o t e s t a b l is h e d so
much w ith a mind to a s c e r t a i n th e group o p in io n , b u t r a t h e r a s a sam pling
d e v ic e .
Prom each group e v e ry t h i r d fa m ily was s e le c te d , a f t e r a rra n g e ­
ment i n a lp h a b e tic a l o rd e r.
The aim was to o b ta in sample d a ta from o n e-
t h i r d o f th e number o f f a m ilie s , and to b ase su b seq u en t c o n c lu s io n upon
th e s e d a ta .
S e y f e r t made u s e o f a much s m a lle r co m p arativ e sam ple i n th e
s tu d y o f th r e e com m unities i n a New England c i t y , and co ncluded t h a t su ch
sam pling was s u b s t a n t i a l l y v a l i d .
A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e in te rv ie w in g p ro c e s s m ight be en­
t i r e l y p o i n t l e s s , b u t a few o b s e r v a tio n s m ight be u s e f u l .
E v ery e f f o r t
was made to v i s i t each fa m ily f o r some p u rp o se o th e r th a n in te rv ie w in g
th e members.
12 7
The le n g th o f tim e s p e n t in in te rv ie w s v a r ie s from t h i r t y
Op. c i t . , p . 418.
The sample t a b le i s shown below .
:
T ab le I
S iz e o f Sample i n Each o f Three Communities I n v e s tig a te d
,
T o ta l A d u lt
Niimber i n
_______Community_____________________________P o p u la tio n _________ Sample_____
A
8 ,6 5 0
393
B
1 ,6 0 0
168
C
1 ,5 0 0
163
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
83
TABLE X V II
OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS REPRESENTED IN THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
O ccu p atio n al Group
Number o f
F a m ilie s
P e rc e n ta g e
o f T o ta l
Number o f
In te rv ie w s
O btained
P e rc e n ta g e
o f T o ta l
Parm Owners
74
3 0 .4
24
30
Parm T enants
46
1 9 .3
15
18 .8
Labor
32
1 3.1
11
1 3 .7
Mines
29
1 1 .8
9
1 1 .3
B u sin ess
17
7 .0
6
7 .5
P r o f e s s io n a l, SemiP r o f e s s io n a l
20
8 .2
7
8 .7
R e l i e f , S e m i-R e lie f
25
1 0.2
8
1 0 .0
TOTALS
243
100
80
100
m in u tes ( th e minimum f o r any ta b u la te d in te rv ie w ) to th r e e h o u rs , w ith in ­
te rv ie w s o f th e l a t t e r type g e n e r a lly e v o lv in g in to somewhat g e n e r a liz e d
d is c u s s io n s o f e d u c a tio n .
In a m a jo r ity o f c a s e s b o th f a t h e r and m other
were in te rv ie w e d j o i n t l y ; i n f a c t , t h i s p r a c t i c e was a d h ered to in a l l
c a s e s ex cep t in in te rv ie w in g th o s e f a m ilie s where one o r th e o th e r o f th e
p a r e n ts o r b o th o f th e p a r e n ts were dead, o r i n c a se s o f s e p a r a tio n i n
th e fa m ily .
The mean le n g th o f tim e o f a l l th e in te rv ie w s was one hour
and tw elve m in u te s, b u t t h i s c e n t r a l ten d en cy h as l i t t l e s ig n if ic a n c e to
s tu d y .
One p r a c t i c e among th e p a r e n t s , how ever, in d ic a t e s a c o n tin u in g
i n t e r e s t i n th e q u e s tio n s p o sed by th e in te rv ie w s —-more th a n one hundred
c a l l s , m essages, and p e r s o n a l c o n ta c ts re q u e s te d changes i n th e o r i g i n a l
re s p o n s e s , an in d i c a t i o n o f co n cern w ith th e m a tte r .
As a n a d d i t i o n a l p r e ­
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84
c a u tio n , and a s a m a tte r to t a c t , a lm o st a l l th e f a m ilie s re p re s e n te d
in th e sch o o l were v i s i t e d by some member o f th e f a c u l t y d u rin g th e y e a r ,
and sch o o l p o l i c y d is c u s s e d c a s u a lly , a lth o u g h th e r e was no i n t e n t i o n o f
re c o rd in g th e r e s u l t s o f th e d is c u s s io n s .
Many h e lp f u l s u g g e s tio n s were
made by p a tr o n s , and a f i l e o f l e t t e r s from p a tro n s i s a f u r t h e r c r i t e r ­
io n o f community i n t e r e s t in th e sc h o o l.
The r e s u l t s o f th e s e in te rv ie w s a re re c o rd e d i n term s o f p o s i t i v e
agreem ent w ith th e e ig h t i s s u e s , and i n p e rc e n ta g e o f t o t a l ag reem en t.
F or exam ple, farm owners re v e a le d a s ix ty -o n e and s i x - t e n t h s p e r c e n t r e ­
c e p tiv e n e s s to th e f i r s t is s u e o f th e community sch o o l c o n c e p t, t h a t a l l
l i f e i s e d u c a tiv e .
th e in te rv ie w s .
T able X 7 III shows in t a b u l a r form , th e r e s u l t s from
In th e p ro c e s s o f in te rv ie w in g , i t was made a p r a c t i c e
n o t to p la c e th e sch ed u le o f item s i n th e hands o f th e re s p o n d e n t, and
a s o f te n a s p o s s ib le , to u s e no sch e d u le a t a l l , b u t to ta k e c a r e f u l n o te s ,
a s u n o b tru s iv e ly a s p o s s ib le .
I n a few in s ta n c e s where g r e a t fra n k n e s s
and t a c t were r e q u ir e d , th e p ro c e d u re d e v ia te d somewhat.
Ho a tte m p t was
made, a t any tim e , to c o n ce a l th e p u rp o se and i n t e n t o f th e s tu d y , and
upon a few o c c a s io n s , r e s u l t s o f th e in te rv ie w s were w ith h e ld from f i n a l
ta b u la tio n by r e q u e s t.
Such r e q u e s ts combined w ith v a rio u s o th e r f a c t o r s ,
such a s obvious e v a s io n , i n t e r r u p t i o n s , and in co m p lete d a ta , red u ced th e
u s a b le in te rv ie w s from a p r o je c te d hundred to e ig h ty , th e number in c lu d e d
i n th e f i n a l c o u n t.
These d a ta re v e a l a t o t a l agreem ent w ith th e community sc h o o l con­
c e p t o f a p p ro x im a te ly s e v e n ty p e r c e n t.
Concern i s n o t , how ever, so much
w ith th e t o t a l agreem ent, b u t w ith th o s e is s u e s w hich m ight m eet r e s i s t ­
ance were th e y to be a d o p ted on th e p o s i t i v e s id e , and w ith th o se is s u e s
t h a t would c lo s e ly p a r a l l e l th e th in k in g o f th e p a tr o n s .
I r o n i c a l l y enough,
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE XVIII
COMMUNITY RECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PHILOSOPHY:
Occupational Group
OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS
Issues
♦Percentage of Receptiveness to Each of the Eight Issues
1
2
.3
k
_5L
Farm Owners
62
71
87
66
Farm Tenants
Us
63
67
Labor
71
63
Concept Number
Mines
I
..........
52.
.
.15. ..
6
7
8
62
52
68
91
70
58
58
57
72
79
63
89
63
6l
62
76
SU
71
S3
67
6U
60
60
69
67
.
Total
Business
71
63
79
67
71
U7
60
S3
68
Professional, Semi-Professional
93
97
97
72
86
5k
83
83
83
Relief, Semi-Relief
63
66
88
78
66
60
75
Mean Percentage of Receptiveness
of the Sampling
6k
69
86
6U
6k
58
72
78
SU
72
70
*— The exact wording of the issues may he found on page 77 of this study.
c<a
vji
i
85-K
TABLE XIX
P O S IT IV E EE SPOUSES TO THE Q U E S TIO U U A IE E -1N TE E V IIW INSTRUMENT*
Question Number
1
2
3
k
5
6
7
S
9
10
11
12
13
ik
15
16
17
IS
19
20
21
22
23
2k
25
26
27
23
29
30
31
32
33
3*+
35
Positive Answer^*
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Obtained Positive
Answers
U5
kS
78
35
56
75
33
5s
67
7U
55
SO
12
78
1+2
73
37
76
76
17
kk
73
3^
20
60
58
58
l+o
So
72
60
60
77
71
67
*— See com plete s c h e d u le , Tahle V I I i n th e A ppendix.
♦"'-These answ ers a r e p o s i t i v e i n term s o f agreem ent w ith th e t e n e t s o f
th e community sch o o l c o n ce p t.
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86
it is with the sixth tenet that the greatest difficulty is encountered,
the issue on democracy. ^-28
-j_s ’oelieved that the findings from this
area represent truly the sentiment and thinking of the sample.
The third
tenet met the highest percentage of approval, eighty-six per cent, with
the eighth issue second, finding an eighty-four per cent approval.
The
seventh and second tenets were third and fourth respectively in the per­
centage of positive agreement.
While it is not a major purpose of the study to analyze the var­
ious group reactions to the interview, it would seem imperative that any
program hased on this mode must take into account the resistance to he
met in certain groups, as well as the total resistance to each tenet.
The professional and semi-professional group, including doctors,
lawyers, school teachers, architects, ministers, and others, shows the
highest receptiveness to the entire concept, (XX)followed in order
by;
farm owners, (XXI); labor groups, including carpenters, garage mech­
anics, farm laborers, and workers in various fields, (XXII); relief work­
ers and those dependent on some form of relief, (XXIII); mine operators
and miners, (XXIV); business men, including grocery store operators,
operators of truck lines, and those engaged in banking, (XXI); and last,
farm tenants, or share-croppers, (XXVI).
It will be observed, however,
that the emphasis varies from group to group, as will be readily seen in
comparing the series of graphs on receptiveness of the various groups
to the community school concepts.
128Page 77 of this paper.
129
Table XVIII. It will be noted that all fractional percentages have
been rounded, to expedite recording.
nrvQ
This and subsequent references are to the series of tables numbered
XX to XXVI.
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TABLE XX
THE PROPESSIOHAL GROUP RECEPTIVEHESS TO THE COMMOTITT SCHOOL COHCEPT
COMPARED WITH THE MEAI RECEFTIVEHESS OP THE EITIEE SAMPLING
I s s u e Humber
P r o fe s s io n a l
72
Mean o f Sample
100
20
Legend:
Mean_______
P r o f e s s io n a l Group - - ----
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ss
TABLE XXI
THE FARM OWNER GROUP EECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUIITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
COMPARED WITH THE MEAN RECEPTIVENESS OF THE ENTIRE SAMPLING
Is s u e Number
Farm Owners
Mean of Sample
100
Legends
Mean__________
Farm Owner Group
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89
TABLE XXII
THE LABOR GROUP RECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
COMPARED WITH THE MEAN RECEPTI71N1SS OF THE ENTIRE SAMPLING
I s s u e Number
Mean of Sample
100
80
Legend:
Mean
Labor Group
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90
TABLE XXIII
THE BELIEF GROUP RECEPTIVENESS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
COMPARED WITH THE MIAN RECEPTIVENESS OF THE ENTIRE SAMPLING
Is s u e Number
Mean of Sample
100
Legend:
Mean_______
R e l ie f Group
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91
TABLE XXIV
THE MIBB OCCUPATIONAL GEOUP BECIPTIVENISS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL
CONCEPT COMPARED WITH THE MIAN EECEPTIVEN1SS OP TEE INTIBE SAMPLING
Is s u e 1 x11111)e r
Mine Group
Mean o f e n t i r e
Sample_____
100
80
Legend:
Mean_______
Mine O ccu p atio n al Group
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92
TABLE XXV
TEE BUSIMESS GEOUP BECIPTIVEKESS TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
COMPABED WITH THE MIAN EECEPTIYEN1SS OP THE ENTIBS SAMPLING
Is s u e Number
Mean o f E n tir e
Sample_____
100
Legend:
Mean_______
B u sin e ss Group
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93
TABLE m i
THE FARM TENANT GROUP RECEPTIVEEESS TO THE COMMUNITT SCHOOL CONCEPT
COMPARED WITH THE MEAN EECIPTIVSN1SS OE THE ENTIRE SAMPLING
Is s u e Number
Earm Tenant Grot p ^-8
Mean o f t o t a l
Sample
100
SO
Legend:
Mean_______
Earm Tenant Group - - - - -
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94
C e r ta in d if f e r e n c e s i n group r e c e p tiv e n e s s n o t re c o rd e d i n th e
c h a p te r c o n c lu s io n s a r e w orth o b se rv in g h e re .
Whereas th e p r o f e s s i o n a l
group r e c e p tiv e n e s s i s above th e mean i n a l l b u t two in s ta n c e s i t i s w ith
t e n e t s 1 , 2, 3, and 5 t h a t th e group i s most l i b e r a l .
f e e l s tro n g ly :
They a p p a r e n tly
t h a t a l l l i f e o f f e r s an o p p o rtu n ity f o r le a r n in g ; t h a t
t h i s le a r n in g r e q u ir e s a c t i v i t y on th e p a r t o f th e p u p i l s ; t h a t a d u l t s ,
a s w e ll a s c h ild r e n , need d i r e c t i n g ; and t h a t th e c u rric u lu m sh o u ld n o t
be so much concerned w ith t r a d i t i o n a l “b o o k -le a rn in g , “ b u t w ith th e m ajor
problem s o f th e community i t s e l f .
Q u ite th e r e v e rs e a p p e a rs to be tr u e
in th e c a se o f th e te n a n t f a n n e r s , who e x p re ss a f a i t h i n fo rm al le a r n ­
in g ; who b e lie v e t h a t p a s s iv e le a r n in g from books i s th e m ost e f f e c t i v e
le a r n in g ; and who b e lie v e t h a t th e work o f p a r e n ts and o f c h ild r e n sh o u ld
be f a r a p a r t .
I t i s i n th e p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s in e s s g ro u p s t h a t l e a s t f a i t h
i n th e a b i l i t y o f p e o p le to ru n t h e i r own a f f a i r s i s fo u n d , and i t i s
th e b u s in e s s group w hich b e lie v e s in th e s u r v iv a l o f a dom inant s o c i a l
c la s s .
The mine group a ls o a p p e a rs to be s k e p ti c a l o f a s o c ie ty i n w hich
th e r e i s no dom inant s o c ia l c l a s s , a n d th e y a r e n o t r e c e p tiv e to th e
n o tio n t h a t th e sc h o o ls sh o u ld b e concerned w ith th e e d u c a tio n o f a d u l t s .
S t i l l o th e r group d if f e r e n c e s may be see n on th e c h a r t s .
I t i s n o t im probable t h a t th e p rep o n d eran ce o f farm owners c au ses
t h a t group o p in io n to conform so c lo s e ly to th e norm, and c o n v e rs e ly , th e
sm all groups a r e a p t to d iv e rg e more w id ely from th e norm b ecau se o f th e
V V T "
"
r - - r - r - - Ir -
--
L
-
-
r
- -
-
- -
-
,
In s p i t e o f the a p p a re n t o v e rla p p in g in th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b u s in e s s
groups and mine ow ners, i t i s b e lie v e d t h a t th e re i s no c o n f l i c t
w h a tev e r, b e ca u se in a lm o st e v e ry in s ta n c e th e mine i s o p e ra te d
by th e owner who n o t o n ly works a t th e m ine, b u t i s i n many c a s e s
th e c h ie f m in er a s w e ll. T h is would seem to j u s t i f y th e s e p a r a te
c la s s ific a tio n .
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95
s l i g h t w eight i n form ing th e a v e ra g e .
Even so , i t must be a d m itte d , t h a t
th e r e s is ta n c e o r im petus o f th e group w i l l be in a p p ro x im a te ly th e same
p r o p o r tio n a s th e sam pling.
The r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s, u s e d p r i n c i p a l l y f o r a check on th e sam p lin g ,
were l i s t e d in two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , C a th o lie and n o n -C a th o lic .
C la s s ifi­
c a tio n o f th e f a m ilie s in th e o c c u p a tio n a l g roups re v e a le d fo rty -tw o nonC a th o lic f a m ilie s and t h i r t y - e i g h t C a th o lic f a m i l i e s . 13^
The f a c t t h a t
th e s e two groups su p p ly d a ta from which th e norm i s e s ta b li s h e d , a con­
d i t i o n n o te d i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e farm -ow ner group, i s p ro b a b ly th e
re a so n th e re a re no s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s i n th e g ro u p s. (T ab le XXVII)
In m c h th e same m anner, th e o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s were checked to
se e how w e ll th e y re p r e s e n te d th e g ra d e s w ith in th e sc h o o l.
The u p p er
s i x g ra d e s were c o n sid e re d a s a u n i t , and th e lo w er s i x a s a u n i t , where­
a s a s e p a ra te c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was e s ta b lis h e d f o r f a m ili e s re p re s e n te d i n
b o th u p p er and lo w er g ra d e s .
a s fo llo w s :
I t was found t h a t th e sam pling was d iv id e d
u p p e r s i x g ra d e s , t h i r t y - f o u r f a m ilie s ; lo w er s i x g ra d e s ,
tw e n ty -fiv e f a m ilie s ; and combined g ra d e s , tw enty f a m il ie s .
T his seems
to be an e n t i r e l y l o g i c a l d iv is io n , b ecau se o f th e wide sp re a d o f th e
h ig h sch o o l p u p il p o p u la tio n , and th e somewhat narrow ed a r e a from which
th e g rad e sch o o l p u p ils a r e drawn.
I f th e re be a s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e
i n t h i s group i t l i e s in th e d iv e rg e n c e o f o p in io n on th e f u n c tio n o f
th e sch o o l a s a community im proving agency (T ab le XXVIII, column 7 ) , and
th e p la c e o f th e school in an a d u lt e d u c a tio n program (T ab le XXVIII, c o l-
__________________________________________________________________
D ata f o r th e e n t i r e sch o o l r e v e a l th e fo llo w in g ;
lum ber o f C a th o lic f a m ili e s
lum ber o f n o n -C a th o lic f a m ilie s
T o ta l
116
137
343
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96
TABLE XXVII
COMPARISON 01 EECEPTITEi'IESS OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS
TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
Is s u e Number
P r o te s ta n t
C a th o lic
Mean
100
7^"
20
Legend:
Mean________
P r o te s ta n t - - - C a th o lic
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97
TABLE x m i l
COMFAEISON OP EECIPTIfENESS OP THESE GEAD1 GBGUFS
TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL CONCEPT*
Is s u e Number
Upper Grades
Lower Grades
100
Graph o f
P e rc e n ta g e o f
B ec e p tiv e n ess
20
Legend:
Upper Grades_______
Lower G rades - - - - Combined Upper and Lower G rad esv w w w v v
*—An a p p a re n t e r r o r m ight r e s u l t from th e e x c lu s io n , a s a s e p a ra te gro u p ,
th e f a m ilie s o f fo u r p u p ils who dropped o u t of sc h o o l.
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98
umn 8 ) .
The p a r e n ts o f p u p ils i n th e u p p e r g ra d e s b e lie v e in th e e f f i ­
cacy o f th e sch o o l f o r such p u rp o s e s, w hereas th e p a r e n ts o f p u p i ls i n
b o th u p p er and lo w er g ra d e s a r e n o t so r e c e p tiv e to th e id e a .
T his c h a p te r d is c u s s io n would be in co m p lete w ith o u t re f e r e n c e to
some o f th e re s p o n se s to in d iv id u a l q u e s tio n s .
Prom an a n a ly s is o f th e s e
re s p o n s e s , i t seems t h a t such in q u ir y m ight s e rv e a double p u rp o se— a
check n o t o n ly on th e p a r e n t r e c e p tiv e n e s s , b u t a ls o a check on th e in ­
strum ent i t s e l f .
As h as b een s t a t e d p r e v io u s ly , th e community sch o o l
co n cep t i s what m ight be term ed a • ' l e f t i s t 11 ten d en cy in e d u c a tio n , and
i s i d e n t i f i e d w ith what B ag ley c a l l s th e " l i b e r a l " o r " p ro g re s s iv e "
th o u g h t in th e s e r i e s o f p a ir e d t e r m s . E s s e n t i a l l y ,
th e n , th e p r e s ­
e n t in stru m e n t must fo llo w , i n i t s e sse n c e , th e p a t t e r n o f th e s e p a ir e d
te rm s.
The in s tru m e n t was d e v ise d aro u n d c o re q u e s tio n s b ased upon th e
e ig h t is s u e s and th e su b seq u en t en larg em en t o f th e s e is s u e s , w ith no in ­
t e n t i o n o f draw ing a d e l i b e r a t e l i n e betw een " p ro g re s s iv e " and "co n se rv a ­
tiv e " se n tim e n t.
T able XXIX g iv e s th e p o s i t i v e sc o re on each q u e s tio n ran k ed i n
o rd e r from h ig h e s t to lo w e st ag reem en t.
I f th e u p p er n in e q u e s tio n s
(ro u g h ly , th e u p p e r q u a r t i l e ) on t h i s ta b le be examined and compared w ith
th e low er n in e q u e s tio n s , a sh arp p a t t e r n o f th o u g h t comes in to fo c u s .
The h ig h e s t p o s i t i v e agreem ent i s concerned w ith ;
p a r e n t- p u p il e n te r ­
p r i s e ; th e home, church and neighborhood p a r t i n th e e d u c a tiv e p ro c e s s ;
b e t t e r t r a i n i n g f o r y o u th i n community modes o f l i v i n g ; community im prove­
m ent; s o lu tio n s to r e a l l i f e p ro b lem s; co n cern w ith dem ocracy; and in gen­
e r a l , an agreem ent w ith th e community sch o o l co n cep t to a v e ry h ig h d e g re e .
See page 8 o f t h i s stu d y .
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99
TABLE XX IX
POSITIVE AGBEEMENT OP THE PABENTS OP THE WIST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
TO EACH OP THE THIEIY-PIVE QUESTIONS CONTAINED IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
Q u estion Number
12
3
Ik
33
IS
19
6
10
16
22
30
3^
9
35
25
29
21
32
s
26
27
5
11
2
1
21
15
2S
17
k
23
7
2k
20
13
Score
SO
7S
78
77
76
76
75
Ik
73
73
72
71
67
67
6o
6o
60
60
5S
5S
58
56
55
46
>+5
44
42
40
37
35
3^
33
20
17
12
Bank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S
9
10
11
12
1?
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
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100
E xam ination o f th e q u e s tio n s in th e lo w er q u a r t i l e r e v e a ls an
a lm o st s t a r t l i n g c o n d itio n :
a s e re n e f a i t h t h a t i f th e sch o o l a d h e re s
to what th e community sch o o l a d v o c a te s would term an "academ ic” c u r r ic u ­
lum, th e r e s u l t s deemed good i n th e q u e s tio n s o f th e u p p e r q u a r t i l e w i l l
fo llo w .
An a m e lio ra tin g f a c t o r in t h i s s i t u a t i o n a s f a r a s th e a d o p tio n
o f th e community sch o o l co n cep t i s co n cern ed , i s th e f a c t th a t th e p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f agreem ent i s much h ig h e r i n th e u p p e r q u a r t i l e th a n i n th e
low er q u a r t i l e :
in o th e r w ords, th e r e was n o t a s in g le d is s e n tin g o p in ­
io n on Q u estion 12, th e q u e s tio n r e c e iv in g th e l a r g e s t p o s i t i v e v o te ,
w hereas th e re were tw elve o p in io n s t h a t "th e te a c h in g o f r e a d in g , a r i t h ­
m e tic , geography, s c ie n c e , s p e l l i n g , and w ritin g " i s n o t th e m ain p u r­
p o se o f th e sc h o o l.
I n th e l i g h t o f th e s e r e s u l t s , a n o th e r such in s tru m e n t, o r a r e ­
v is io n o f th e p r e s e n t in s tru m e n t, m ight c a l l f o r a more p e n e tr a ti n g q u e s­
tio n in g o f th e in n e r s t r u c t u r e o f th e mores and b e l i e f s su rro u n d in g pub­
l i c e d u c a tio n .
Summary
C e r ta in th o u g h t p o in ts tow ard a c lo s e r re f e r e n c e i n e d u c a tio n a l
p r a c t i c e to th e p rim a ry o r i g i n s o f e d u c a tio n i n th e p u b lic w i l l and p u r ­
p o se .
Any p r o je c te d r e - d i r e c t i o n o f e d u c a tio n a l p r a c t i c e must ta k e in to
a cc o u n t p u b lic s e n s itiv e n e s s to such d e p a r tu r e .
The r e c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e
p u b lic i s a q u a l i t y beyond o p in io n , a t t i t u d e s , o r knowledge o f q u e s tio n s
r e l a t i n g to th e s c h o o l; o p in io n s , a t t i t u d e s , and knowledge may b e d e riv e d
from th e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , w ith o u t any c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e r e s i s t ­
ance a proposed change would b r in g a b o u t.
I t i s t h i s r e c e p tiv e n e s s , in
t h i s c ase to th e community sch o o l c o n c e p t, t h a t th e p r e s e n t p h a se o f th e
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101
s tu d y seek s to m easure.
Any d e te rm in a tio n o f th e im p lic a tio n s o f th e
community school co n cep t f o r th e community would 'be in co m p lete and b a r ­
re n w ith o u t th e c o rre sp o n d in g m easurem ent o f community r e c e p tiv e n e s s .
In s p i t e o f i t s many l i m i t a t i o n s , th e in te rv ie w seems to o f f e r
th e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r u s e i n i s o l a t i n g and d e f in in g v a rio u s
shades o f p u b lic se n tim e n t and p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s .
Inasmuch a s th e in ­
te rv ie w r e q u ir e s g r e a t c a re b e fo re becoming a n in s tru m e n t o f s c ie n c e , a
sch ed u le o f q u e s tio n s to whieh answ ers were sought was d ev elo p ed , and i n
th e developm ent re a so n a b le c a r e was u se d to g u ard a g a in s t in d is c r im in a te
ite m s , o r item s n o t germane to th e p r o p o s itio n .
The s u b sta n c e o f th e
sch ed u le was d e riv e d from th e s ta te m e n ts o f th e is s u e s fundam ental to
th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a community sc h o o l, s ta te m e n ts o f p r i n c i p l e s w hich
th e p ro p o n e n ts o f th e concept f e e l would m a t e r i a l l y advance th e p r a c t i c e
o f e d u c a tio n .
Ih e se te n e t s were d iv id e d in to q u e s tio n s to w hich ,,y e s 11 o r Uno11
answ ers m ight be a s c r ib e d , w ith a view o f see k in g n o t o n ly p u b lic re a c ­
tio n to e x p re s s io n o f th e t e n e t s , b u t v a rio u s shades o r d e g re es o f t h a t
r e a c tio n .
Whereas an i n f i n i t e number o f such q u e s tio n s m ight a r r i v e a t
a p r e c is e degree o f p u b lic r e c e p tiv e n e s s , su ch comminution i s n o t f e a s i ­
b le in a lim it e d s tu d y and th e q u e s tio n s were a rra n g e d on th e b a s is o f
s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s o f each t e n e t .
A nother c o n s id e r a tio n i n th e u s e o f th e in te r v ie w , a s i n th e ap­
p l i c a t i o n o f most r e s e a r c h d e v ic e s , i s th e sam p lin g .
Sam pling o f commu­
n i t y re c e p tiv e n e s s was c o n fin e d to p a r e n ts o f c h ild r e n i n sc h o o l, and f u r ­
th e r r e s t r i c t e d to each t h i r d fa m ily drawn from a lp h a b e tic a l l i s t s e s ta b ­
l i s h e d from seven o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s.
As a ch eck in g d e v ic e , th e sample
th u s s e le c te d was d iv id e d in to C a th o lic and n o n -C a th o lic f a m ilie s , and
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
102
f a m ilie s r e p r e s e a te d i n (1) th e u p p e r g ra d e s o n ly ; (2 ) th e low er g ra d e s
o n ly ; and (3) b o th u p p e r and low er g ra d e s.
The e sta b lis h m e n t o f th e s e
two c a ta g o r ie s o f f a m ilie s r e v e a le d th e e q u ita b le sam pling o b ta in e d b y
r e s o r t i n g to th e o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p in g .
P re c a u tio n s to be remembered in th e p ro c e s s o f in te rv ie w in g were
c a r e f u l l y n o te d .
In te rv ie w s were conducted i n th e manner o f n a t u r a l con­
v e r s a tio n and d is c u s s io n , a s much a s p o s s ib le , w ith f l e x i b l e p ro c e d u re .
P r a c tic e in te rv ie w s were conducted b e fo re th e f i n a l d a ta were ev o lv ed .
The d a ta sec u re d from each in te rv ie w were re c o rd e d on p r i n t e d form s a s
soon a s p o s s ib le a f t e r th e d is c u s s io n .
C o m pilations o f th e s e d a ta l e d to s e v e r a l re a so n a b ly c l e a r con­
c lu s io n s !
th e community i s n o t, i n th e m ain, a v e rs e to a d o p tio n o f th e
community sch o o l p r i n c i p l e s ; c e r t a i n o f th e is s u e s such a s th e ones con­
c ern ed w ith p a r e n t- p u p il c o o p e ra tio n , and community improvement found
more fa v o r th a n th e te n e t s co ncerned w ith p u p il a c t i v i t y and freedom in
sch o o l and community.
There a p p e a rs to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e i n
th e re c e p tiv e n e s s o f th e C a th o lic and n o n -C a th o lic g ro u p s.
An a n a ly s is o f re sp o n se s to in d iv id u a l q u e s tio n s r e v e a ls a com­
m unity sen tim en t in fa v o r o f c e r t a i n th in g s commonly th o u g h t o f a s ema­
n a tin g from p r o g r e s s iv e e d u c a tio n ; on th e o th e r hand, th e r e i s a marked
f a i t h i n th e e f f i c a c y o f th e sch o o l in p ro d u c in g th e s e e n d - r e s u i ts , u s in g
f o r th e most p a r t , such m ethods, m a t e r i a ls , and p ro c e d u re s a s th e commu­
n i t y i s f a m ilia r w ith to d ay .
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CHAPTER VII
IMPLICATION OP THE COMMUIITY SCHOOL CONCEPT
POH THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
In tr o d u c tio n
T his s tu d y h as so ught to d eterm in e th e im p lic a tio n s o f th e com­
m unity sch o o l concept f o r th e West L o u is v ille S ch o o l.
T h is c o n c e p t, an
em ergent mode w herein th e sc h o o l fo re g o e s i t s s e p a ra te n e s s w ith th e com­
m u nity, i s becoming more s h a r p ly d e fin e d b y b e in g a d h ered to i n many r e ­
g io n s , n o ta b ly i n th o se a re a s w ith somewhat backward c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
It
i s th e thought o f th e stu d y t h a t th e a d o p tio n o f th e p h ilo s o p h y and e f f e c ­
t i v e im p lem en tatio n of such p h ilo s o p h y m ight improve b o th th e community
and th e sc h o o l.
In o rd e r to a s c e r t a i n th e v a l i d i t y o f such an a ssu m p tio n , i t be­
came n e c e s s a ry to in v e s t i g a t e ;
(1 ) th e community s e t t i n g o f th e sch o o l;
(2 ) th e community, by u se o f c e r t a i n d e v ic e s ; (3 ) th e sc h o o l, by means o f
somewhat s im ila r in s tru m e n ts ; and (4-) th e r e c e p tiv e a e s s o f th e community
to such changes a s th e a d o p tio n o f th e co n cep t m ight b r in g a b o u t.
Community S e ttin g
Local d a ta re v e a l t h a t th e sch o o l s e rv e s n o t one, b u t s e v e r a l
com m unities, in d i c a t i n g th e need f o r u s in g a more g e n e r a l term th a n com­
m unity in re fe re n c e to th e sc h o o l a r e a .
community.
A rea, th e n , i s u sed i n l i e u o f
I t i s a ls o a p p a re n t t h a t th e sch o o l a r e a i s i n a p e r io d o f
t r a n s i t i o n from r e lia n c e upon l o c a l community c u ltu r e to a g r e a t e r de­
pendence upon u rb a n c e n te r s and l a r g e r s o c ia l u n i t s .
There h a s been a
w idespread sch o o l c o n s o lid a tio n movement, b u t th e r e h a s n o t b een a s im ila r
movement among ch u rch es and o th e r i n s t i t u t i o n s .
As y e t no c e n te r h as de­
velo p ed which o f f e r s a s e t o f b a s ic i n s t i t u t i o n s th ro u g h which th e p e o p le
o f th e a re a m ight a t t a i n a f u n c tio n a l u n i t y and become a b le to a c t in a
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104
c o rp o ra te c a p a c ity .
The tre n d i s r a t h e r tow ard th e u s e o f Owensboro a s
th e s e r v ic e c e n te r .
Community A n a ly sis
A n a ly sis o f th e a r e a by th e u s e o f th re e in s tru m e n ts , th e West
V irg in ia community s c o re s h e e ts , th e Iowa community s c o re s h e e ts , and th e
E d u c a tio n a l Background Q u e s tio n n a ire , r e v e a ls c e r t a i n d e f ic ie n c ie s *
1.
In a d e q u ate community o r g a n iz a tio n s .
2.
l i t t l e o rg a n iz e d a t t e n t i o n to community h e a lt h .
3.
A f i e l d o f p o s s i b le improvement i n re g a rd to
p h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e homes.
4.
P oor r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and program s.
5.
In a d e q u ate a t t e n t i o n to a l l n a t u r a l re s o u rc e s .
6.
A d e f i n i t e need o f l o c a l e n t e r p r i s e and e f f o r t .
7.
R e l a tiv e ly low e d u c a tio n a l background o f th e
a d u lt p o p u la tio n o f th e a r e a .
8.
low so cia l-e c o n o m ic c o n d itio n s .
Some o f th e b e t t e r a s p e c ts o f th e a r e a are*
1.
Sound fa m ily l i f e a s a b a s ic i n s t i t u t i o n .
2.
A dequate sch o o l and church f a c i l i t i e s .
3.
An a p p a r e n tly h e a lth y n a tiv e s to c k which
shows a re a s o n a b ly h ig h h e a l t h s c o r e , in
s p i t e o f a la c k o f h e a lt h f a c i l i t i e s .
Sum m arization o f th e s e f in d in g s le a d s one to th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t
most o f th e c o n d itio n s c o n sid e re d e s s e n t i a l to goodness o f community l i f e
a r e p r e s e n t, b u t th e r e i s a la c k o f im p etu s, a la c k o f p la n n in g , a la c k
o f o rg a n iz a tio n f o r f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f a v a il a b le re s o u rc e s .
School A n a ly sis
The u s e o f two sch o o l a p p r a i s a l in s tru m e n ts , th e M o rt-C o rn e ll
Guide to th e S e lf- A p p ra is a l o f School System s, and th e M cG all-H erring
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105
School P r a c tic e Q u e s tio n n a ire , r e v e a ls s e v e r a l c o n c lu s io n s w hich m ight
be c o n sid e re d v a l i d in s p i t e o f many l i m i t a t i o n s to th e u s e o f such in ­
stru m e n ts;
1.
The sc h o o l h as n o t re c o g n iz e d th e s h i f t
o f em phasis i n th e c u rric u lu m from s u b je c t
m a tte r , a s such, to th e u s e o f s u b je c t mat­
t e r in o r i e n tin g th e c h il d in h i s c u lt u r e .
2.
There h a s been l i t t l e a tte m p t to re c o g n iz e
th e in d iv id u a l n a tu r e o f th e c h il d ,
3.
The sch o o l h a s m a in ta in e d a s e p a r a te n e s s , in
s p i t e o f th e re c o g n iz e d s o c ia l o r i g i n s o f
th e s c h o o l.
4.
In th e m ain, le a r n in g i n th e sch o o l seems to
be a p a s s iv e p r o c e s s ,
5.
A lthough th e p u p ils seem to have a c q u ire d a
re a s o n a b ly h ig h d egree o f freedom , and to
have d ev elo p ed an a b id in g i n t e r e s t in sch o o l
a c t i v i t i e s , th e s e th in g s have n o t been c a p i­
t a l i z e d and implem ented b y com prehensive u s e
o f a v a il a b l e methods and m a te r ia ls : i n b r i e f ,
le a r n in g h as b een th o u g h t o f a s a n end, n o t
a s a means to an end.
These f in d in g s le a d to th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t th e s t r u c tu r e o f th e
sch o o l i s a d e q u a te , and i n m ost in s ta n c e s th e f a c i l i t i e s f o r e f f e c t i v e
e d u c a tio n a re p r e s e n t, b u t th e c o n ce p ts w hich dom inate th e e d u c a tio n a l
program need r e - d i r e c t i n g and r e - v i t a l i z i n g .
Community H ecep tiv en ess
In an a tte m p t to a s c e r t a i n th e community r e c e p tiv e n e s s to a d e f­
i n i t e concept o f e d u c a tio n , a q u e s tio n n a ir e - in te r v ie w in s tru m e n t was de­
sig n ed and u sed a s th e b a s is o f a s e r i e s o f in te rv ie w s w ith a n a d eq u a te
sam pling o f th e p a r e n ts re p re s e n te d in th e West L o u is v ille S ch o o l.
A gain,
in s p i t e o f many s e r io u s l i m i t a t i o n s th e d a ta seem to b e v a lid enough to
s e rv e a s th e b a s is f o r some g e n e r a l iz a ti o n s .
These in te rv ie w s were b a se d
upon a schedule o f q u e s tio n s d e riv e d from th e s ta te m e n t o f th e n in e is s u e s
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106
v i t a l to th e e s ta b lis h m e n t and m ain ten an ce o f a community s c h o o l.
One
is s u e , r e l a t i n g to te a c h e r e d u c a tio n , was ex clu d ed b ecau se o f a p p a re n t
rem oteness from p a tr o n c o n s id e r a tio n .
R e a c tio n to th e rem ain in g e ig h t
is s u e s shows no marked a n tip a th y to th e p h ilo so p h y .
On th e whole th e re
was a s tro n g se n tim e n t i n fa v o r o f a mode o f e d u c a tio n (a ) which would
b r in g ab o u t a c lo s e r p a r e n t- p u p il r e l a t i o n ; (b ) w hich would re c o g n iz e
th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e sch o o l to co n cern i t s e l f w ith b o th c h ild r e n
and a d u l t s ; and (c ) th e developm ent o f common community c o n c e rn s.
S e n ti­
ment was n o t so pronounced on c e r t a i n o th e r is s u e s w hich m ight b e s a id to
p o in t to a c h ild c e n te re d s c h o o l, o r ie n te d i n a re a s o f community c u l t u r e .
The h ig h e s t p o t e n t i a l r e s i s t a n c e seemed to s p rin g from th e is s u e con­
c ern ed w ith dem ocracy.
W hether t h i s r e c e p tiv e n e s s i s i n t e r p r e t e d c o r­
r e c t l y o r n o t i s d i f f i c u l t to say .
I t m ight r e f l e c t th e community fa m il­
i a r i t y w ith th e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t a r i a n sc h o o l, o r i t m ight r e f l e c t p r e ­
v a i l i n g n a tio n a l s e n tim e n t.
C e r ta in ly th e re i s l e s s demand, from th e
p a r e n ts , f o r a sch o o l founded upon d em o cratic p ro c e s s e s and i d e a l s , th a n
f o r a sch o o l founded upon any o th e r t e n e t .
Among th e groups u se d a s som ething o f a sam pling d e v ic e , th e
p r o f e s s io n a l group p roved m ost r e c e p t iv e , and th e farm owner group seemed
to be second.
O ther groups showed v a rio u s r e a c tio n s w hich would n eces­
s a r i l y be ta k e n in to a cc o u n t in any program o f s o c ia l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which
p re c e d e d th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a community sc h o o l.
O ther c a ta g o r ie s , e s ta b lis h e d f o r sam pling r e a s o n s , show v e ry
l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t d e v ia tio n from th e mean.
An a n a ly s is o f th e re sp o n se s to in d iv id u a l q u e s tio n s r e v e a ls
c l e a r l y t h a t th e community i s d e s ir o u s o f c e r t a i n end r e s u l t s from educa­
t i o n a l e n te r p r is e ; r e s u l t s which th e community sch o o l a d h e re n ts c laim e x -
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107
e lu s i v e ly f o r th e community sch o o l; p a r e n t- p u p il e n t e r p r i s e , l a r g e r pu­
p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n in community l i f e , and s im ila r r e a l i z a t i o n s o f re c o g ­
n iz e d e d u c a tio n a l o b je c t iv e s .
At th e same tim e , i t i s th e group o p in io n
t h a t th e p r e s e n t sc h o o l p a t t e r n w i l l produce such r e s u l t s .
T h is would
seem to in d ic a te th e need f o r re fin e m e n t o f th e in s tru m e n t, an d p e rh a p s
th orough r e s e a r c h in to a c t u a l , n o t a lle g e d , r e s u l t s o f c e r t a i n e d u c a tio n ­
a l p r a c t i c e on th e c u ltu r e p a t t e r n o f com m unities; t h i s i s p ro b a b ly one
o f th e o ld e s t o f e d u c a tio n a l problem s and may be s t a t e d c o n c is e ly th u s ;
what e d u c a tio n a l p a t t e r n p ro d u ces th e maximum d e s ir e d r e s u l t s ?
An ex­
te n s iv e c o n tin u a tio n o f t h i s s tu d y m ight c o n c e iv a b ly throw l i g h t on th e
m a tte r , i f , a f t e r a l l c o n s id e r a tio n s , th e community sch o o l c o n ce p t be ad­
h e re d to i n th e West L o u i s v il le School.
C o n clu sio n s
Any s ta te m e n t o f th e im p lic a tio n s o f th e co n cep t f o r th e sc h o o l,
m u st, o f c o u rs e , ta k e in to c o n s id e r a tio n th e meaning o f th e p h ilo s o p h y to
th e sch o o l i f im plem ented i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y m anner.
T h is im p lem en tatio n
m ust a w ait f u r t h e r stu d y , b u t a l l recom m endations w i l l assume th e e f f e c ­
t i v e u s e o f th e c o n c e p ts.
The community sch o o l p h ilo s o p h y w ith i t s em phasis on th e educa­
t i v e a s p e c ts o f community l i f e , w ith in s is t e n c e upon p u p il a c t i v i t y in
community e n t e r p r i s e , and w ith th e demand f o r c o n s id e r a tio n o f community
l i f e and community im provem ent, m ight g iv e th e e n t i r e a r e a th e needed
le a d e r s h ip f o r e f f e c t i v e o r g a n iz a tio n o f community c u l t u r e .
T his le a d e r ­
s h ip by th e sc h o o l, u t i l i z i n g p u p il a c t i v i t y , would b ro ad en th e c u r r ic u ­
lum and a t th e same tim e dev elo p a n i n t e r p r e t i v e program th ro u g h th e pu­
p i l s w hich would p ro v id e a much needed bond betw een th e sch o o l and th e
s u p p o rtin g elem en ts o f th e p u b l ic .
Any change would have to be made s lo w ly ,
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108
p a r t i c u l a r l y in th e m a tte r o f dem ocracy, b ecau se o f th e a r e a e x p e rie n c e
w ith th e more o r l e s s a u t h o r i t a r i a n ty p e o f sc h o o l.
T his i s n o t to say , how ever, t h a t a l l o th e r d e v ic e s f o r sc h o o l
improvement sh o u ld he ig n o re d .
There i s ev id en ce t h a t many sc h o o ls have
in c o x p o ra te d v e ry l i t t l e o f th e community sch o o l p h ilo s o p h y in th e dom­
in a n t p r i n c i p l e s o f th e s c h o o l, and s t i l l a ch ie v e d h ig h ly a s an i n s t i t u ­
t io n ,
I t i s r a th e r in te n d e d t h a t t h i s co n cep t se rv e a s a g u id e to g iv e
d i r e c t i o n to t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n which i s n o t too hampe re d by t r a d i t i o n ;
which s e rv e s in an a r e a o f few e f f e c t i v e s o c ia l i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and w hich
has a rem arkable o p p o rtu n ity to become th e c o h esiv e elem ent i n a r e o r ­
g a n iz a tio n o f r u r a l community l i f e w ith in th e a r e a .
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109
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Cook, Lloyd A., "Social Backgrounds of Education," Review of Educational
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APPENDIX
T able I
II
III
IV
E d u c a tio n Through O rganized Community A c t i v i t i e s
Tomorrow's Community
E d u c a tio n a l Background Q u e stio n n a ire
A Guide f o r S e lf- A p p ra is a l o f School Systems
V P e rc e n ta g e S cores D eriv ed from th e M o rt-C o rn e ll Guide
VI
VII
V III
School P r a c tic e Q u e stio n n a ire
Q u e s tio n n a ire -In te rv ie w In stru m en t
D av iess County H e a lth Program
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115
TABLE I
EDUCATION THROUGH ORGANIZED COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES; THE MEAN SCORES
OBTAINED IN EVALUATING THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL AREA
Item _____________________ P o s s ib le Score
A.
O rg a n iz a tio n
1 . Community C ouncil
2 . Boundary L in es
3- Community M eetings
if. if-H Club
5- farm Women’ s Club
6 . C hurch-School Program
7- C o o p eratio n i n farm in g
S. County Cooperat io n
9- R e c re a tio n and S o c i a b ilit y
1 0 . Annual M eeting
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
20
5
15
5
5
10
10
10
10
10
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
19
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
1
1
3
7
7
5
3
if
3
2
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
C itiz e n s h ip
1 . E le c tio n s
2 . Government M a tte rs
3- Taxes
if. Law Enforcem ent
5- D eportm ent
6 . C itiz e n s h ip T ra in in g
7- T ra in in g f o r f u tu r e C i t i ­
zen sh ip
s. R eading
9- A d u lt E d u catio n
0
0
0
5
0
5
5
if
0
0
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
Community S p i r i t
1 . H is to ry
2 . Community C onsciousness
3* R u ral M indedness
u. Ownership o f Land
5* Team Work
6 . Premiums Won
7- Community G et-T ogeth er
S. f r i e n d l i n e s s
9- Noted Sons and D aug h ters
1 0 . Community B e a u tif u l
O btained Score
36
10
10
10
10
10
10
9
if
9
6
10
10
10
9
2
1
if
s
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
10.
Program o f Work
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
10
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
D.
H e alth
1. S a n ita tio n
2. A d u lt W elfare
3. C h ild W elfare
U. H e a lth P r o te c tio n
5 . P u b lic H e a lth and P r iv a te
P r a c tic e
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
52
20
20
20
20
7
2
5
1
20
J_
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
E.
Homes
1. Home Grounds
2. Houses
3. I n te r io r s
if. Poods
5 . C lo th in g
6. Home Management
7 . F in a n c ia l Management
g. E n te r ta in in g
9 . Home T ra in in g
10. Fam ily E e la tio n s h ip s
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
19
10
10
10
15
10
10
10
5
10
10
Churches
1. B u ild in g s and Equipment
2. Membership
3- M in is te r
If. O rg a n iz a tio n
5 . F in a n c es
6. C h r is tia n E d u c a tio n and
Evangelism
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
37
20
15
5
20
20
16
10
if
17
15
20
12
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
Schools
1. B u ild in g s and Grounds
2. School Equipment
3 . Program o f Study
if. Teacher S ta tu s
5 . Teacher A ttitu d e
5
if
if
7
5
l
2
2
3
if
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
F.
0
7if
10
10
10
10
10
9
6
7
7
6
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
6.
7.
S.
910.
Classroom Work
School Achievement
T eacher, School, Community
P u p il A c tiv ity
T r a n s p o rta tio n , J a n i t o r S e rv ic e
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
10
10
10
10
10
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
R e c re a tio n
1 . Grounds and Equipment
2 . O rg a n iz a tio n
3* A c t i v i t i e s
k . T ravel
5- Community M eetings
T o tal P o in ts P o s s ib le
65
20
20
20
20
20
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
2S
20
20
20
Uo
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
26
20
20
20
20
20
3
7
k
1
2
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
Parms
1. Land U t i l i z a t i o n
2. L iv e s to c k
3 . M achinery
3
13
10
0
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
H ature
1. A p p re c ia tio n
2. U n d erstan d in g
3 . C o n se rv a tio n
k . W ild L ife
5 . In flu e n c e
7
3
3
10
k
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
Music
1. Home Music
2. School Music
3 . Church Music
h . Community Music
7
6
5
5
_L
17
U2
3S
10
15
16
6
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
1+.
Farm stead
T o tal P o in ts P o s s ib le
10
100
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
L.
B u sin ess
Farm Income
Home I n d u s tr ie s
R ecords and In fo rm a tio n
C o o p erativ e B uying, S e llin g
B u sin e ss E n te r p r is e
T o ta l P o in ts P o s s ib le
T o ta l P o in ts Earned
1+1
20
10
20
30
20
1+
1+
1+
20
15
100
1+7
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119
TABLE I I
SKELETON OUTLIED OE THE TOMORROW'S COMMUNITY CHECK SHEETS
Government
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.
C itiz e n s h ip
P r o te c tiv e S e rv ic e s o f Government
A d m in is tra tio n o f Local Government
S o c ia l W elfare
P u b lic Improvements
Number o f Item s
to be E valuated*
5
10
9
6
12
T o ta l Numbero f Item s
Ul
CommunityScore
77
E d u catio n
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.
B u ild in g s , Grounds, and Equipment
School S t a f f and A d m in is tra tio n
E lem entary E d u c a tio n
Secondary E d u c a tio n
S chools a r e Concerned w ith A ll o f L ife
7
9
6
15
11
T o ta l Numbero f Item s
US
CommunityScore
73
R e lig io u s L ife
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Church B u ild in g s , Grounds, and Equipment
C o o p eratio n i n Church and Community Work
Church A d m in istra t io n
R e lig io u s Program
The M in is try
8
26
6
10
6
T o ta l Number of Item s
$6
Community Score
85
*— These s u b -to p ic s were sco red in term s o f g rad es A, B, C, D, o r 1 ,
by f i f t y - f i v e members o f th e ju n io r and s e n io r c la s s e s o f West
L o u is v ille School.
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1 20
Recreation
A.
B.
C.
D.
Community Recreation Facilities
Family Recreation
Community Activities
Leadership Training
lU
10
25
21
T o ta l Numbero f Item s
"JO
CommunityScore
6H
H e alth
A.
B.
C.
D.
1.
F.
&.
H e a lth O rg a n iz a tio n
S a n ita tio n
Food Supply
P r e n a ta l Care
I n f a n t and P re sc h o o l C hild Care
School H e a lth
H e alth Program s o f O rg a n iz a tio n s
g
8
5
1
3
8
_ 6_
T o ta l Humberof Item s
39
CommunityScore
52
Home A c t i v i t i e s
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
R ural A c t i v i t i e s
Town A c t i v i t i e s
Housing
Home L ife
Home and CommunityC o o p eratio n
15
10
17
7
3.
T o ta l Humberof Item s
52
CommunityScore
6l
Farm In d u s try
A.
B.
Farm B u sin e ss Management
F a m in g P r a c tic e
C.
Farm L abor
D.
1.
F.
Farm M arketing and P u rc h a s in g
T r a n s p o rta tio n
R e p re s e n ta tio n
7
9
2
T o ta l Humberof Item s
10
5
\
36
CommunityScore
8J
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Trade S e rv ic e
A.
B.
C.
D.
If
8
11
2.
Trade R e la tio n s
Employment
E f f i c i e n t S e rv ic e
Community H o s p i ta l ity
T o ta l Humbero f Item s
CommunityScore
J>2
72
C o n se rv a tio n
A.
B.
C.
D.
I.
P.
S o ils
Land Tenure
Human R esources
W ater
Wild L ife
Community T r a d itio n s
7
U
2
3
3
if
T o ta l Humber o f Item s
23
Community Score
60
Community O rg a n iz a tio n
A. Community Analysis
B. Community Plan
C. Community Organization
2). Community Program
E. Town-Country Cooperation
1. Relationships With Other Communities
G. Community Leadership
3
If
3
5
6
3
_6
T o ta l Humber of Item s
3^
Community Score
^8
T o ta l P o s s ib le Score
1 ,0 0 0
T o ta l O btained Score
(Mean)
683
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122
TABLE I I I
EDUCATIONAL BAOKG-ROUITD QUESTIQFLAIRE
Topic
T o ta l Score
Humber o f Q u estio n s O btained*
Your H e alth
Mean Score
O btained
10
1,02*4
6 .0 9
H e a lth o f Your Fam ily
6
675
*4.01
Your School F la n s
8
753
*4. *48
S cho o lin g o f Your Fam ily
8
395
2.35
S cho o lin g o f Your
Community
6
31*
2.05
Your Study H a b its and
C o n d itio n s
16
1,633
9 .7 2
Social-E conom ic Con­
d i t i o n s o f Your
Fam ily
27
1,730
1 0 .3
You and O ther C h ild re n
1*4
1,159
6 .9
You and Your P a re n ts
*+3
*4,872
2 9 .0
7
*487
2.9
You and Your Community
*— Stun o f a l l p u p il s c o re s .
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123
TABLE IV
CQHTEITS AND SC0E1 SHEET OP THE MQET-CORNELL INSTRUMENT
USED TO EVALUATE THE WEST LOUISVILLE SCHOOL
Classroom I n s t r u c t i o n
A.
B.
II.
C urriculum
F l e x i b i l i t y o f C urriculum
B re ad th o f C urriculum
C ourses o f Study
P u p il A c tiv ity
1. F ie ld s o f L e a rn in g
2. E x t r a c u r r ic u la r A c t i v i t i e s
3 . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a te ria ls
10
10
10
1+)
H ) ll x 7 =
3)
13
7
8
l)
U)l6 x
5)
W eight Score
7 “
77
112
S p e c ia l S e rv ic e s f o r In d iv id u a l P u p ils
A.
B.
III.
The
1.
2.
3*
Humber o f A djustm ents
P o s s ib le
Observed
P u p il R ecords and A tten d an ce
1. E d u c a tio n a l A cco u n tin g
2. Census and A tten d an ce
7
6
P r o v is io n f o r In d iv id u a l D iff e re n c e s
1. G uidance: E d u c a tio n a l and
V o c a tio n a l
7
2. The In d iv id u a l and th e Edu­
c a ti o n a l Program
10
3.
H e a lth S e rv ic e
9
l) 5 x 8 "
If)
1+0
3)
3) 7 x 6 l)
U2
E d u c a tio n a l L e a d ersh ip
A.
B.
S u p e rv isio n and School O rg a n iz a tio n
1.
P r o f e s s io n a liz a ti o n o f
P e rso n n e l
8
2. S u p e rv is io n o f I n s t r u c t i o n
8
3.
Grade and S u b je c t O rgani­
z a tio n
5
3)
U) 9 x 5 “
School A d m in is tra tio n and th e
Community.
1 . A d m in is tra tiv e P la n n in g
2. S ta tu s of C o n tro l
3* Scope o f School In flu e n c e
i n th e Community.
6
7
2)
5) 9 x 5 “
8
2)
1+5
2)
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1+5
IV.
P h y s ic a l F a c i l i t i e s and B u sin e ss Management
A.
B.
Hie
1.
2.
3-
School P la n t
School P la n t P la n n in g
The School S ite
School B u ild in g s
S p e c ia l Booms
B u sin e ss Management
1 . S u p p lie s and Equipment
2. F in a n c a il A cco u n tin g
5
5
10
10
7
7
5)
1)
6 ) 15 x 3 =
3)
0) 1+ x 3 =
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE 7
PERCENTAGE SCOEES DERIVED FROM THE MORT-CORNELL GUIDE
S e c tio n
D iv is io n
II
P o s s ib le
A djustm ent
O btained
Score
P e rc e n ta g e
100
20
III
126
TABLE VI
SCHOOL PRACTICE qplSTIOEEAIRE
T o ta l O btained
Topic_____________ ;_____________________ Score_________ Mean Score*
F acing S it u a tio n s
22b
1 .5
L iv in g in th e Community
219
l.U
D isc u ssin g S itu a tio n s
299
1*9
F re e in g Speech and Thought
3^7
2*3
F re e in g A c tiv ity
38 S
2 .5
D e a lin g w ith C o n f lic ts
233
1*6
I n i t i a t i n g A c tiv ity
195
1*3
P la n n in g A c tiv ity
335
2 .2
E v a lu a tin g A c tiv ity
296
1 .9
U sing C o o p eratio n
3^5
2 .0
M o tiv a tio n
1+06
2 .6
U sing Committees
260
1 .7
U sing E x p e rts
ll+O
1 .0
U sing Books
271
1 .8
U sing Knowledge and S k i l l s
28U
l.S
U sing Tools and M a te ria ls
170
1 .1
U sing A rt
217
1 .^
U sing T e s ts and E xperim ents
251
1 .6
U sing R ecords
195
1*3
L iv in g D e m o c ra tic a lly
2bl
1 .6
L iv in g H appily
U81
3*1
*—Mean Score o b ta in e d by d iv id in g t o t a l s c o re by th e number o f p u p il s
ta k in g th e t e s t , 15 U in t h i s in s ta n c e .
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127
TABLE ¥11
QUESTIOHHAIEE-IHTSBVIIW SCHEDULE
What P a re n ts B e lie v e
Do You B eliev e s
1.
2.
34.
E v e ry th in g a c h ild does h e lp s to e d u ca te him .............................
School i s th e o n ly , o r most im p o rta n t p la c e , f o r c h ild r e n
to l e a r n ...........................................................................................................
The home, ch u rch , and neighborhood p la y a la r g e p a r t in
e d u c a tin g c h ild r e n ...................................................................... ...............
The sch o o l should spend a l l o r most tim e w ith hooks, l e s ­
sons, c la s s e s , and s tu d y in g ..................................................................
Do You B e lie v e :
5*
6.
'7.
S.
Is s u e I
10
YES
10
YES
10
YES
HO
YES
HO
TES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
YES
YES
HO
HO
10
YES
HO
Is s u e I I
S tudying hooks i s th e h e s t way to le a r n to farm o r to keep
house o r e a rn a l i v i n g . — ....................................................................
The way to l e a r n democracy i s to ta k e p a r t in d em o cratic
l i v i n g ............................................ ...................................................................
C h ild re n can h e s t l e a r n c h a r a c te r , c i t i z e n s h i p , h o n e sty ,
and a p p r e c ia tio n o f good th in g s hy s tu d y ......................................
C h ild re n need p r a c t i c e which th ey would g e t from ru n n in g
t h e i r own sch o o l a f f a i r s ........................................................................
Do You B e lie v e :
YES
Issu e I I I
9- ■ P a re n ts should g iv e r e a l r e s p o n s i h i l i t i e s to c h ild r e n .........
10. Grown p e o p le and c h ild r e n should le a r n to work and p la y
to g e th e r ........................ ............................ ......................................................
1 1 . Most c h ild r e n a re too young to have a n y th in g to say ah o u t
ru n n in g th e farm , o r th e home, or th e s c h o o l.............................
1 2. The sch o o l sh o u ld encourage grown p e o p le and c h ild r e n to
p la n more work and p la y to g e th e r .......................................................
Do You B e lie v e Some o f th e Main P u rp o ses o f th e School a r e to
Teach: Is s u e IV
13Ik,
1516.
B eading, a r ith m e tic , geography, s c ie n c e , s p e l l i n g , and
w r iti n g ................................................................................. ..........................
C h ild re n to l i v e b e t t e r h e re in th e community...................... ..
The o ld , t r i e d s u b je c ts which have been ta u g h t many y e a rs
How to improve h e a lt h , l i v i n g c o n d itio n s and farm p ra c ­
t i c e , r e g a r d le s s o f th e s u b je c ts need to te a c h t h e s e .........
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128
Do You B e lie v e The Main B u sin e ss o f th e School I s :
17*
IS .
19.
20.
T ra in in g o f s c h o la rs who w i l l know t h e i r hooks and he
a h le to go to c o lle g e ............................................................................. YES
H elping meet th e p r e s e n t needs o f hoys and g i r l s in th e
community..........................................................................................................YSS
H elping c h ild r e n le a r n to he h e a lth y , to work to g e th e r ,
to p la y to g e th e r , to l i v e to g e th e r ................................................ YES
To te a c h E n g lis h , a lg e h r a , h i s t o r y , s c ie n c e , geography,
s p e ll in g , w r itin g , and mind t r a i n i n g ............................................ YES
Do You B e lie v e :
21.
22.
23.
24.
25*
28 .
29.
30.
The m a jo rity o f p eo p le can i n t e l l i g e n t l y ru n t h e i r own
a f f a i r s ...........................................................................................................
Most c h ild r e n and grown p e o p le should have an im p o rtan t
p a r t i n p la n n in g sch o o l and neighborhood p o l i c i e s
The te a c h e r s and le a d e r s should p la n sch o o l and c la s s
work w ith o u t h a v in g to t a l k i t o v er w ith p e o p le o u ts id e
th e s c h o o l
.............................................................................
T eachers should keep a b s o lu te ly s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e and
should have com plete a u t h o r i t y i n th e s c h o o l
.
A ll p e o p le e f f e c te d by th e school should have a sh a re
in p la n n in g i t ..................................
34.
35.
HO
HO
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
YES
HO
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
YES
HO
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
YES
HO
Is s u e VII
P la n n in g BY and JOE everyone in th e community
P aying c lo s e a t t e n t i o n to th e w ish es o f th e most i n f l u ­
e n t i a l f a m ilie s and g ro u p s..................................................................
P la n n in g a school to f i t farm in g — la b o r in g p e o p le
P la n n in g by school and community l e a d e r s , o f a sch o o l to
f i t a l l k in d s o f p e o p l e . . . . . .............................................................
A llow ing many p u p ils who have d i f f i c u l t y in le a r n in g to
q u it s c h o o l..................................................................................................
Do You B e lie v e Schools Should:
31.
32.
33*
HO
I s s u e VI
Do You B e lie v e th e B est School Can Be Had Through:
26.
27 .
Is s u e V
Is s u e V III
Try to h e lp grown p e o p le s o lv e a d u lt p ro b le m s .
Try to h e lp only c h ild r e n o f sch o o l a g e
Try to i n t e r e s t p a r e n ts i n im proving th e school and
............................................................................................
community
Leave community improvement to o th e r a g e n ts and in ­
s t i t u t i o n s . . . . ............................................................................................
Help o th e r a g e n c ie s and i n s t i t u t i o n s in making community
change s ..........................
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129
TABLE Y I I I
REPORT OP ESTABLISHMENT OP POLIr-TIME HEALTH DEPARTMENT
IN DAVIESS COUNTY, KENTUCKY*
A f u l l - t i m e , le g a l h e a lt h d ep artm en t m s s e t up f o r D av iess county
Wednesday "by th e County Board o f H e alth which w ill he conducted in coop­
e r a tio n w ith th e c i t y , county, s t a t e and f e d e r a l governm ents and th e
county h o ard o f e d u c a tio n . The a c ti o n was ta k en in a s p e c ia l m eetin g of
th e hoard fo llo w in g th e r e g u la r m onthly s e s s io n . D r. W. L. T y le r, c h a ir­
man, p re s id e d .
D r. V. A. S t i l e y , L o u i s v i lle , f i e l d d ir e c to r f o r th e S ta te H e a lth
D epartm ent, met w ith members o f th e D av iess county u n i t to a s s i s t in
te c h n ic a l f e a tu r e s of th e change. The new setu p c a l l s f o r a f u l l - t i m e
h e a lt h d i r e c t o r a t a s a la r y o f $3,000 a n n u a lly ; two n u rs e s a t $1,800 and
one a t $1,680 p e r y e a r; s a n it a r y in s p e c to r , $1,800 a n n u a lly ; n u isa n c e
in s p e c to r , $1,7^0 a n n u a lly ; c l e r k , $660 a n n u a lly and te c h n ic ia n a t $600
a y ear.
The b udget f o r th e d ep artm en t c a l l s f o r th e e x p e n d itu re o f $15,600
a y e a r . Of t h i s amount, $U,500 w i l l he fu r n is h e d by th e county; $2,000
by th e c i t y ; $1,000 by th e county b o ard of e d u c a tio n ; $2,800 by th e s t a t e ,
and $ 5 , 6 0 0 by th e f e d e r a l governm ent.
D r. T y le r Chairman
Dr. W. L. T y ler was e le c te d chairm an of th e b o ard u n d er th e new a r ­
rangem ent. 1 . R. E a ty , p r e s e n t s a n it a r y in s p e c to r and Mrs. Jan e R ich ard ­
son, p r e s e n t n u rs e , e le c te d n u rs e . No o th e r p o s itio n s were f i l l e d f o r
th e p r e s e n t. D r. Lee T y le r, p re s e n t h e a lt h o f f i c e r , was d i r e c te d to con­
tin u e in t h i s c a p a c ity u n t i l h i s s u c c e sso r i s s e le c te d and q u a l i f i e s .
D r. T y ler was n o t an a p p lic a n t f o r th e f u l l - t i m e p o s t. T his a c ti o n was
ta k e n on th e s u g g e s tio n o f D r. S ti le y a f t e r i t was started t h a t a county
h e a lt h o f f i c e r was n o t im m ed iately a v a il a b l e .
The employment o f a te c h n ic ia n and c le r k -s te n o g r a p h e r w i l l a w a it
th e a r r i v a l o f th e new h e a lt h o f f i c e r . A p p lic a n ts f o r th e s e p o s i t i o n s
m ust s u c c e s s f u lly p a s s an ex am in atio n p r e s c r ib e d by th e S ta te H e a lth De­
p a rtm e n t. O ther p o s itio n s w i l l be f i l l e d by th e county b o ard s u b je c t to
s t a t e r e g u la tio n s and th e a p p ro v a l o f th e s t a t e d ep artm en t.
I n C onform ity W ith S ta te Law
The f u l l - t i m e h e a lt h departm ent which i s in co n fo rm ity w ith th e
s t a t e law , was e s ta b lis h e d by a f i s c a l c o u rt r e s o lu t io n ad o p ted June h.
The r e s o lu tio n s ta t e d t h a t th e p u rp o se was to combat th e sp re a d in g o f
*—Erom th e f i l e s o f th e Owensboro M essenger, J u ly H, 19*+0, p . 1, c o l. 5*
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
130
d is e a s e , l e t t e r i n g th e s a n ita r y c o n d itio n s o f th e homes and sch o o ls o f
th e county, to m a in ta in p u b lic c l i n i c s f o r th e tre a tm e n t and c o n tr o l o f
trachom a and s o c ia l d is e a s e s , to conduct tu b e r c u lo s is d ia g n o s tic and
p re v e n tio n c l i n i c s , and g e n e ra l h e a lt h e d u c a tio n a l campaigns and o th e r
p h a se s of p u b lic h e a lt h work.
In th e p a s t th e h e a lt h d epartm ent h as been o p e ra tin g on a budget
o f $1+, 950 . w ith i t s p e rs o n n e l c o n s is tin g o f a p a r t- tim e h e a lt h o f f i c e r ,
a n u rs e , an o f f i c e s e c r e ta r y and a s a n it a r y in s p e c to r . I t had no le g a l
s t a t u s , how ever, u n d er th e Kentucky law .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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