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THE PROPOSED ARMENIAN REFORMS OF 1913-1914

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
THE PROPOSED ARMENIAN REFORMS OF 1913-1914
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO
THE FACULTY OF' THE DIVISION OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
IN CANDIDACY FOR TI1E DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY
BY
THERESA A. HOLTSCHLAG
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
DECEMBER, 1940
TABLE OF CONTENTS
VtLQO
IMTRODUCTIOH
1
Assnenian Territory in tho Nineteenth Gentury
position or tho Arssoiiian In the Turkish Empire
EstahlisimiGnt of a Rat:l oiial church and its influonce on Aasaonian Lir©
Change in Armenian Eolations after* tho Crimean War
The Cultural Revival of Armenia and Xta influence
Tho Aasaenian iJational Constitution or 1863
Rtisso-Tur&ish War oT 1877
Turkish Reaction to European .interference
Tho Annonian Revolutionary Activities
Tho Revolt and. Masaacro of 1908 at Adana
Failure of Attempts at Refona by tho Young Turks
Chapter
I. TIIE ATTITODBS OP TIIE FOUR GREAT POWERS III THE
FiEFGRM QUESTION
IS
Russian Viev/a
Genaan Views
British views
prorich views
II. TURKISH ACTIVITIES III TIIE REFORM QUESTION ....
21
Turkish Distrust of Russian intentions
Porte*s Realisation or Hood for Reforms
Soparatisto Movor.»nts Put Down in 1912-1913
Complaint or Turco-Aarenenion Officials or Russian
Agitators
Ottoanan Request for British officials
Tho conditions or tho British Refusal of officials
Ti^o Dosii^e of tho Grand Vizier to Soo the
Reforsos carried tiirough by Engliah, Gorman* mad
French officials
III. THE ACTIVITIES Op H I E POWERS TO FIND A BASIS FOR
TIIS RI5P0RM SCHEME
Britiall and French Schejno
Russian ideas in tho Matter
Gorman Desire to Have it Disc\is3ed fcjy All
powaro
The Russian Message to the Triple Alliance
Sir Edward Grey's Suggestion
Th© First Mooting or tho Delegates or tho Triple
Entente at Constantinople
Divergence or Opinion Between England and Russia
on British Officials
French sussootion or a nigh carmoisQianer
-ii-
SI
CHAPTER
IV. TIIE RUSSIAN AVAIJT-PRGJIST, THE TURKISH REFORM
SCHEIE, OTHER SUGGESTIOEIS AHD HRGOTIATIOJS3 ....
Pago
39
Hussion SChCHa© Writton up by- Mondolsfcnm In
Juno, 1913
Hussion scliomo Built on Plvo previously suggoafcod sch&maa
Turkish Schain© Announced on July 1, 1913
On July 5 Both Reform schsmos introduced
Objections to fcbo Hussion schera©
Goma Objections
British, objections
Fronch Objections
Husalan Response to Objections
V. FAILURE OF THE COMMISSION, FURTHER SUGGESTIONS
AND HEOOTIATIOMS
57
Failure of tho coonisalon after Ei£ht Meetings
Purthor Demands by Turlcay for Foreign Officials
Demands of tho Arssonian patriarch
Russo-Gorxaan Dlsasfoomoiit
Italian Stagnation
Six Points of tlio Huaso-Gormaii Ccaraproealso
VI. TURKISH OBJECTIONS AM) G 0OUTER PRQPOSAlfJ
66
Turkish Refusal to Accept tho slst points
Counter proposal by Turkay an October 29, 1913
How Russo-Goxroan proposal of November 7, and
Ottoman AccoptancG
Russian Further Demand of a sixt©on-point pro­
gram
Turlclah Discoveries leading to Further Distrust
of Huasla
powers* Attoinpt at ReconoIllation Botwoon tho
Two
Armenian Appeal for British Support in December,
19X3
Russian Alazm of Further Troublo in Armenia
VII. MOKE QMS:NORI3 ASD FURTHER BFIIAIROA
83
Grand vlJ3i©i» Refuses to Accept tho sixteen
points
Continued Disagreement between Turlcey and
Russia on. Certain points
Request by Gorman Ambassador to Return tho
Question to tho six Powers
Secret Agreement Reached on February a, 1914
VIII. CANDIDATES CHOSEN, PROVISIONS OF REFOIM SCIiEME
ABIKHJHCED
Turkish Government Roquest for Delegates
suggestions of various powox's
Russian insistence that Her choice BO Accoptod
by tho Entente poworo
Turkish Demand for Swiss Delegates
-lii-
92
Chapter
German suggestion, of a Norwegian Delegate as
an Alternative
Five Delegates Aro Chosen
Porte»e Choice of Two of Them
Porte*e Refusal on March 29 to Hand over the
Secret Agreement
On July 9, 1914 Agreement Given to the inspectorsGeneral
Provisions of tho Agrooxooxit Aro Announcocl
Beglanlns of the world war
Tho Jtfow Aisaenlan Republic
BIBLIOGRAPHY
~Iv~
INTRODUCTION
Tli© Armenian plateau was exposed to incessant Invasions,
owing to tho Tact that it was the converging point of the princi­
pal roads loading towards tho heart of Asia, it v/aa the zuain
route from east to west, and it was tho key position between tlx©
Caspian sea, the Blade sea, tho Persian Gulf, and tho Mediterran­
ean. It was constantly traversed Iny Modes, Persians,(Tartars,
Assyrians, Mongols, Greeks, Itonans, Parfchians, Arabs, soljuk
Turks, ottosoon Turk3, ana. other conquerors.1
The Armenians of the nineteenth century wero divided be­
tween tho Ottoman, the Russian, and the Persian empires, unlike
other minorities in the ottcxaan isupire, the Armenians vrero not
grouped in a nucleus of a compact ranjorifcy, but were scattered
all over the Fjapiro, two thousand Armenians living in Constanti­
nople alono. Even in the six vilayets, known as Arsnenian, thoy
wero in the minority, living Interspersed among tho Turks and tho
Kurds.2
travelers in Turkey wore agreed that tho Armenians had
groat raontal capacity and possessed financial talent of a high
order, bixt they wore equally impressed by their cowardice and
servility.3 Sir William Ramsay, a scotch accheolosiat, who
3-Kevork Asian, Armenia and, the Armenians, trans, iyCrabitos
(Mew York: Macaalllan Co., lGigO), pp. 6,
sir Edwin pears,
Turkey and Its people. (London: Ltethuon & Co., 1912), p. 1
%illiain L. Longer, The Diplomacy of imperialism 18901902 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, I9^d), i, 147; Count Leon
"SsErorog, The Turkish problem, trans, by v/inifred Stephens
(London; CJmfctb and Winctus, 1919), p. 169.
S. Monroe, Turkey and the Turks,(London: a. Boll,
1908), p. 88; Pears, Turkey and its PooploT p. 284.
-1-
resided among thero. for twelve years, at the ond of tho nineteenth,
century, said that tho Armenians permitted the Turks "to.how thorn
down like trees,11 and if thoy "had shown a spark of hax*olara, thoy
might taave saved laany lives."1
Tho Armenians actod aa middlo DQIX in Kurdish ccaunaaroe,
When Tho sublime porte wanted to opproaa the Armenians, it found
willing hands among; tho Turks who had boon exploited fay tho Armeni­
ans, and who paid them back in plunder, pillage, and raasaacro.2
Until 1856 they \foro taoan as the "Loyal Nation."^ Tiioy
placed their talents at tho service of their Turkish joasters, hold
the highest positions of state, and became rich and influential.^
They were the leading bankers, merchants, lawyers, journalists,
and doctors; in fact, they had practically monopolized the busi­
ness activities of the ottoman Empire***
The Armenians accepted Ghri31ianity at an early period.
Their king WAS baptized in £74 A. D., and his subjects adopted
tho new religion "en laasso."®
This brought about a "National
Church" to which the Armeniano clun^ with great seal because thoy
considered it tho bulwark of tho liberties of tho nation aa well
as tho surest safeguard of their national existence
The Gatholicos, who was at the head of the Armenian or
^Monroe, Turkey and the Turks, p. 89.
sIbid.,
p. 103.
30strorog,
The Turkish problem, p. 46.
-ibid.
5Arnold J. Tqynbea and Kenneth P. Kirkwood, Turkey
(London: Ernest Domi, 192G), p. 145; Langer, The Diplomacy of
iciperialiam, p. 148.
6Buxton
Noel and Harold Noel, Travel and politics in
Armenia, with an introduction qy Viscount Sryco "and "a \TdntribuT^iah on Armenian History and Culture by Arain Raffi (Hew York:
Maciaillan Co., 1914), p. 171.
7
Ibid., p. 176; Asian. Armenia and the Armenians, p. 54.
-3-
Gregorian church, resided IKL Russia and was represented in Turkey
by tho patriarch at Constantinople. The patriarch had triple
authority (religious), scholastic, and Jurisdictional, ovor tho
roligioua community callod "nations" or "millets.""*' These nillots proved to bo a constant source of trouble to the Ottoasan
government, for instead of promoting Ottoman nationalisation, tho
"millets" encouraged separate coaumunal life.s
While in tho cities the wealthy classes held influential
positions, the Christian sufojoats in tho outlying districts had
to pay a capitation tax v&aich Moslems were not compelled to do.
in tho six Armenian vllayoto in Eastern Anatolia tho feudal dues
were heavy; tho christians wore likely to be condemned to death
or havo their property confiscated at siuall provocation.
Up to
tho nineteenth century they had to wear a prescribed dross and
they could not bear arias.®
Because of these persecutions the
Armenians emigrated far and wide going to the cities where thoy
lod a more nearly normal and quiet existence.
They also emi­
grated to all the neighboring countries.^ With the lapse of time
and as a consequence of tills policy of migration, Armenia "became
merely "a geographic expression.115
As a result of tho Treaty of Hutchuk Kainardji of 1774,
Russia exorcised in Turkey the right of intervention for the pro­
tection of Orthodox christians. The Turka declared that Russia
3-Ibid.9 P. 102j Andre H. Mandelatorn, r*a society doo
Hations et lea puissances devant le problem 'Xrrad'iiion (Paris: A.
redone;
, p. 3.
Spears,
Turkey and Its people, p. 144.
^Mandelstam, I*a soclot<£ do a Nations, p. 4$ Asian, Armenia
and tho Armenians, p. 1UV; lj6ol, travel ana* Politics in Armenia^'
p. 46. ~
.
^Ibld.. pp. 177-181; Asian, Arraenia and the Armenians. p.155.
50otrorog, Tho Turlciah problem, p» 169.
lost ao opportunity to Interfere In Gttosaaii internal affairs.**•
The Crimean v/ar of 1856 marked tho beginning of & now
period in '.Cureo-Armenian relations.
assisted Ruaaia.
a few Armenian retools
c one©q uontly tho Turkish amy in retreat from
tlio Russians devastated Amenian taiTitory and comraittod atrocio
ties.Turkish oppression continued? for tho Ottoman govermaont
had neither an adoquato foro© nox* a sufficiently firm hand to
suppress the Terrora. Tho Kurds realising this toolc advantage of
tho situat1on.S
At this time the Armenians wore o^perioncinc; a cultural
revival or intellectual renaissance. The Armenians who had
etudied abroad brought back to Constantinople the ideas of dem­
ocracy. ^
xn 1Q57 a Econic in Eastern Anatolia first preached re­
sistance to oppression, but tho Armenians of Constantinople were
out of sympatic with thia noveiaont and hired an assassin to kill
him; the atteaapt failed and in 1869 this rr.onk was elected patri­
arch at Constantinople.5 This brought the question to the luiHiodiato foreground.
In 1363 the Gttozaan government granted the Armenians a
national constitution with a National Assembly at Constantinople
consisting of one hundred forty members of whom one hundred
twenty v/ere elected directly by tho people. This Assembly
brought the complaints of tho Armenians to the attention of
Europe. Europe saw that while tho Armenians lived in peace and
•**£jeisal pasha, :.io:r.orles of a Turkish statesman* .19151919 (uow York: George n. Doran company, 1922)'V *r>* "s^l.
eMandelatam,
sUoel,
I.a Soclete des Hatlons. p. 34.
Travel and politics in Armenia, pp. 41-42.
^Monroe, Turkey and tho Turka. p. 192.
led a tolearblo oriistonco in the cities, yet in the distant
provinces thoy wero belng exploited, especially by the Kurdish
boys and. the cirois3ian emigres, who had come In from RUG a la after
the Crimean war.1
In contradiction or tho provisions of tho Constitution of
1863 tho Sultan continued his persecutions of the Christians until
it resulted in popular uprisings.
Russia as special protector of
tho Orthodox Christians used this ao an excuse for starting the
Kusso-Turkiah v/ar of 1877-1876 in which Russia was tho victor,
in tho Treaty of sail Stofa.no which ended tho war, Article XVI
promised the Armenians an amelioration of their lot and rofonuo
which wore to. bo put into effect viiile Russia occupied the terri­
tory.
Since Great Britain feared the growing lnfluonce of
Russia near her Asiatic territory she concluded with tho Porto
a secret agreement known as the Cyprus convention in which Great
lipitain was Given the island of Cyprus as a base in tho u>lan to
protect the' christians, she would not accept the Tx*eaty of San
Stefano.
Consequently a Congress of tho Groat powers was called
In Berlin in 187Q. When tho Armenian ecclesiastical authorities
heard that the Treaty of San stefano was to bo revised, thoy sent
a delegation to Berlin to plead for autonomy. Because It feared
that tho other "nations" in the ottoman Empire would raalso similar
demands, the Congress of Berlin refused this request; bat Article
XLI of tho Treaty of Berlin stipulated that, without delay,
Turkey was to make new reforms to 3ult the local needs of tho
provinces and to guarantee to tho Amaonlans their security
^Andro N. MondeIstain, Lo Sort do 1'Braplre Ottoman (Paris:
payot et Clo., 1917), p. 191; Ma'ndek'atam, l^a socl6td dos Nations.
p. 34$ lloel, Travel and politics in Armenia, p. 214.
-6-
against tho Kurds and circisaians. Tho porta was to roako peri­
odical reports or the measures talcon to tho povraro which wero to
superintend its application*
However, this rornalnod a doad lottor,.
Abdul Bamid IX "bococjo mors frantic as the complainta of
til© Armenians spread throughout Europo.
HO believed that the
Armenians woro instigating tho population to revolutions and wore
encouraging foreign
interference.3.
instead of mailing reforsaa, ho
proceeded to uproot tho AKnenlana by encouraging the Kurds to
dispossess
tboni
of their lands*
13y
xaassacx»os of AMsienians reinain~
ing In theao districts, tho sultan doterained to ©nd the Anaenlan
*>
question.2
As oarly as 1880 tho powers again protested and Insisted
that Turkey carry out a program or reforms for her christian sub­
jects*®
m order to secure economic concessions and groator
Influoneo in tho ottceaan Empire, Gonaany
favor with, tho Tuples*
vvaa
trying to curry
Thorofor© in 1883 Blsmarclc persuaded tho
Powers to drop tho Armenian qiieatlon, bacauso ho said that Eu­
rope could not afford to go to war on account of th© Armenian
reform questions bosldos tho result of constant prodding of tho
Sultan would only load to a fooling of revenge toward tlio Armeni­
ans and to further oppression on tho part of tho sultan.^
^Longer, Tho DiplcBiiac3r of XmporlallSKi, p. 1595 K. S.
papas1ans patrlotTssi perverted.(Boston: Baiklr press, 1934),
p. 21. Taken from a.' varondlan, History of tho pashnaretgoutuaa 9
p. 302.
%ianger, The Diplomacy of imperialisms p. 203; x?ool?
yravol and politics In Aroenia, p. '3M>£s Mandelatain. La sooioto
doa mtlons, p. 35.
slbld«
a
p. 36.
4<D1q Groase Polltlk dor Europ&1aohon Kiabinotto, 1871-
19149 od. Johannas LODSi"u3» cited hereafter a'a G-Jp. (33orllnt
Deutsche verlassgjeseliachaft f&r polltlk und Gosciiichto, 1927),
IX , 199, 200% Ho« 2183 and footnote.
Tho Armenians saw that thoy had notains ir,oro to ©Jipoct.
from the British, ao thoy began to spoak or revolt. in the lato
oijghtlos tho "youn& intellectuals" who had imbibed Russian nihil­
ist-terrorist idoas combined to f'orsa soorot sociotios Icnowi as
tho Dashnagtaoutino (Dashnag) and th© Hontchak bands, tlio lattor
of which were tho more radical.1
One of tho revolutionist a told
Dr. Haialin, the founder of Robert College, that the Kontchak
bands laould
watch their opportunity to kill tho Tories and Koorda, sot
firo to thoir village and then make their oacapo into tho
mountains. Tho enraged Mosloms v/ill then rise and foil
upon tho defenseless Armenians and slaughter t hoia with suoh
bax»barity that Russia v/ill ontor in tho nam© of humanity
and christian civilisation and take possession.2
This is exactly what happened, for serious troubles
started in 1890 and continued through 1897.^ To tho Kontchak
hands it isattored not that they Tver© shedding innocent blood to
achieve their ends.4 Their committoo informed tho grand vizier
in 1894 that if their demands woro not JDOt, there would be a gen­
eral uprising in tho umpire with a threat to tho liveu of tho
Turks and to foreigners in Constantinople -5 Tho bands also
Deutsche verlogsgesellachaft fiir politik und aeschichto, 1927),
IX, 199, 200, no. 218J5 and footnote.
3-Langer, The Dinloisaoy of Imperialism. p. 156.
^papers Relating to tho Foreign Relations of the united
g-tatos, wIW™FEo"Annual liosaage 'of tho p'resi<lbht, 1t,3^ismi"€t'eS'"",Eo
Cangrosa Doc. 21, 1395 (Y/asliin^tan: Government printing Office,
1896), 54th Contrass, prt. II, p. 1416.
^Accounts and papers, British state papers—-Turkey, No. 3,
cited hereafter as B. A.& P. (London: 1896), XI.VII', Si'l'44* 52.
SB, 81, 114, Kos.
36, S7, 72, 91, 95, 63, 158.
'Ibid., XLVIII, 169, 171, Ho. 214, Annex 1, and pp. 190,
199, 200, iio. 242; Foroipp. Isolations of tho U. S.« p. 1299, Ho.
669 j mclosure 2j Documents'Diplomatigues, A'i^airos Arm^nlonnes,
Pro lots do Reforanos sans' l*Bmpiro ottoman, ld^-is^ (pariat
Imprimerio National©, 1897),p. 95, No. 86.
5B.
A. Si P., XLVIII, 106, 107, HO. 127.
—8—
attempted feo bring tha Kurdo into the movement. Therefore tho
Sultan, to' satisfy tho iiurdish chiefs and to keep fcheru frosi join­
ing tho revolutionists, organized the liaxaidlo Regimenta.-1rj?ho
Armenians staged demonstrations* and started uprisings
by attacking the Kurds and Turks.*3 This led to "Turkish reprisals,
and maseacros of tho ArEieniana all over tlio Empix^e at vfoich tho
European outcry became loud and lusty, Looanov, tho Russian
foreign minister, claimed that tho encouragement tsiven tl3© Armen­
ian revolutionists at London vsaa tit the bottom of the whole
trouble•
T'no Sultan declaxied that there were 110 raaauacroo, but
that It was a revolution which he bad put do?m. A coiauisaion of
tho Eatonto powora which was forjaed bo study tho question, worked
out a project mid proaonto& it to the rorte. At tho aaiao tiso ,
Russia, who \ms also righting the nihilist jnovesienta » restrained
England In tho inform project. For ttxla reason, tho Kofoasa proj­
ect or 1895 waa conaidorably moderated. Tlio >*orto acquiesced to
tlio plan, but the echoiao was not applied.s
Finally tho powers
decidod that nothing could bo don© -until the Revolution subsided
and the porto rahould introduco refoz'sas au its own accord. Hi©
revolutionaries aaw that, they wore not involving tho powers whoso
interest they had exploited*®
Likewise tho Turkish valia vtevo
advised by the Ottccri^u government to dis continue reprisals be­
cause they Tslohod to have no further European interference in
•ha. A. & P., XLVIII, IS, J7o. 12 Enclosure; Langer, The
Diplaniacv of impor1allsin. p. ISO.
8I.bld«,
p. 160; papaaian, Patriotiaia Perverted, pp. 22, 34.
SG.
p.. X, 76, 91-94, 181-102, 183-184, lloa. 2436, JJ446,
2517, 2518J B. A. U P.. XLVII, No. 1, p. 121, No. 140.
Bangor, The Diplomacy of itnoerialiam. p. 161-163.
5B- A. & p., XLVII, Ho. 2, p. 175, Ho. SS6, and Ho. 3,
p. 8, No. IB; hanger, The Diplomacy of liaj.jax'ialiem, p. 340.
-9-
their internal affairs aid ao in .1897 interoat in the question
subsided with nothing Ixavirv^ boon dono to alleviate tlio lot of
tho Armenians. *Djomal paalia, an influential Turkish loader, said that
both sides vied VJ!fch each other in
thinkinG
out every passible
form or fcorturo, but since tlio Armenians were in the minority the
Turks and iiurds got tho upper hand,s
This situation created in­
tense hatred among tho three "natione."^
Tho Yomit3 Turks who came to power in 1908 had the corp­
oration of the Dashnan; Society. This secret society saw timt
Russia, in asking for a free Armenia, vjished to anneal this terri­
tory. Since the Armenians had not alv/ayo fared so well under
Russian rule thoy preferred to ror.iain Ottoman if thoy were given
an assuranco of life, honor, and property.^ Tho Young Turk con­
stitution of 1908 yave them great hopes.
All were supposed to
work for tLse unity of the Ottoman Empire, but tho Slavs, Arabs,
and Armenians, instead of trying to fuse, their nationalities in
an Ottoman State, used tho occasion to strengthen and intensify
their own national life.^ The Youn^ Turks v/oro sincere in their
reform program, but the sovoKcosnt at Constantinople lacked proatlge ana power. The wholo Empire was in a state of anarchy and
the provincial officials vsore poorly chosen.®
1Xbid*
'^Djeraal Pasha, Memories of a Turkish Gtatosraan, j>. 247.
sIbid.,
p. 246.
*
"4bid.. pp. 24B, 249; A Sarrou. I*a Jeune-Turquie et la
Revolution (parisj Borser-Irovrault, 1912), pp. l'JX-213.
Sjiiandelat&m, Le Kort de 1» Empire Ottoman, p. 21.
^Djenml rasha, Kosiorios of a Turkish Statesman, p. 25Gj
Osfcrorog, The Turkish Problem, pp« 109-*ill.
-10-
As a result of tho chaotic conditions after tlio Young
Turks came Into power, tho Amonians, taking advantage of tlio
equality pro nantod to thorn in the now Constitution, began to
opeale of a free Armenia.
A young ambitioua vicar in Adana,
Jiuschoy Kfxondi, who was a loader of tho Honteloaii bands, arciod tho
Armenians and stated, that "ao tho Arrooniana aro armed at last,
they no longer fear a x^opotition of tho maaaacre of 1894," and
that if anytiling; happened to aa Armenian, "ton Turks v;ill pay for
it with thoir lives."1 Tho ArsGniaiis, in armsa marchod on Ersino.
The TusSclsh officials becasie frightened and ordered a rising "on
masse" in those districte to prevent tho Anuonian attacks on the
Turks. Tho result wac tho "Sicilian Vospora" of 1900 in which
there woro tvjonty thousand victims, both Armenian and Turks. The
blamo, however, for tiie raassacro should roat equally with tho
Armenian loader and tho inefficient Turkish provincial officials
To tho accusation of the Russians that tho loaders of tho mas­
sacres v/oro not puniohodp Bjoraal pasha, Governor of Adana in 1909,
answered that ho had seventeen of tho loaders, same of v&iom. v/oro
members of the noblest families In Turkey, put to death at Erslno.
ijo concluded that had iduschoy Effen&l not succeeded in escaping
to Alexandretta, tie (Djomal pasha) "would have had him hangod
*K
opposite the Mufti of tho Kasa of Baejce."0
loiter in 1909, at the instigation of the Oamralfctoo of
Union and irogross, tho Turkish cabinet decided to send a conirnls-
sion of Inquiry consisting of a cholnaan, tv;o Turks, and two
—Djemal pasha, Memories of a Turkish Statooxaan. p. 258.
^•orelf^n Relations of tho United States,. Dec. 1909,
p. 567, File lio. 10044/14-7; Djocjal pasha, Memories of a Turkish
Statesman, P- 258-259,
3lbld.,
p. 262.
-11-
Armonlons to settle tho agrarian question In Kaotern Anatolia.
Tho Chamber or Deputies maintained that this cobaltto© would en­
croach upou the constitutional authority or tho governor general,
and therefor© nothing v/ao done.1
Tho Arnonians interpreted this
failure to settle the question or their usurped landa aa evidence
of "bad faith" on the part or tho Yo*mc Turks,3
and again tho
Armenians turned to Buropo to obtain an amelioration of liieir lot.
^xhid» p p•<
»
British Documents on tho Orl/tina or the V/ar« 189B-1914,
od. by G. ?- aooch and Harold Tomporlcy, cited hereartor as Brit,
Doe. {London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1936), Vol. X,
"Flrt 1, P- 513 Enclosure in Ho. 567.
CHAPTER X
TITR Al'TITUDE OP TICS FOUB POWERS T.tt THE
AKWESIAH vlDEETIOM
Russian Attitude
This nogleet on tho part of tho Turkish Empire to Improve
tho conditions of ti» Arsvianlans continued to [^±vo Russia an excuse
for intex^ferlns in tho affairs of Turkey.
Russia*a ambitions v/ith
regard to the Black Sea and the Bosporus load "beon no secret to
Turkey nor to tho rest of the world#
Aa early aa tlio beginning
of 1912 the Russian govermaant made It known to tlio Armenian
catholicoo that, because of tlio atato of political affairs, the
occasion had arisen to demand reforms, and that it would appoint
a coE2jr,lttoe In Paris to that end.-*-
Tho catholicos of Etsohrai-
adzin, lUisaia, sent to zjoghos Nubar paalia^
and to tho cabinets
of Buropo a request for administrative autonomy for Turkish
Armenia and begged £br support for this plan.
This waa considered
by Turkey as nothing but a stop toward tho Russian policy which
alrued at annexation of Armenia.S in August 1912, viion the Otto­
man govonuaont waa passing through one of its moat difficult
crises,*^ the Armenian patriarch waa sending note after note to
Ig. p.. XXXVIII, 3, no. 15,282.
^Boghoo Nubar pasha, son of tho Egyptian diplomat of
Armenian descent, represented himself as the man who waa told by
the Armenian catholicoa and the Patriarch Grmanian to consult the
Powers on tho question.
^joxaal Paaha, Memorloa of a Turkish statesman, ?5. 264.
^Thore was a war with Italy, tlio Albanian revolt, tho
Balkan statos had forcsed an alliance ocainst Turkey, Syria waa doraonding rofoias, and officers wore promoting anarchy in tho array.
-12-
-13FCLIG Subline porto doir.aridIiis reforms.**•
in IJovembor 1912 G-lern, the Russian ambassador at Con­
stantinople, pointed out to tho Turfelah Miniates? of intorior that
nothing had boon aocoraplIsihed aim© 1B95 to Ircprove tlio lot of tho
Armenian populafcxcsij that. conditions had become vorso from day to
day; that tho reforms must bo supervised by Russian or JSuropean
officials; and that if tho desired calming ©ffoots wepo not pro­
duced through reforms, Hussla might find It necessary to enter
tho region vrith hor troops.s
At tho ©nd of 1918, Glers took tho initiative In behalf
of tho Russian government in tho quoation of Armenian rofonas.
JIG API-^roaohod his British and French colleagues concoming the
necessity for establishing a certain guarantee and control for
the application of reforms according to Article LXI of fcho Treaty
of Berlin.3
According to aioru, neither the Russians nor tho Aasnonians val shed anything bat reforms for tho Ameniarj population.
Russia v/ould occupy tho Armenian territory only in caao tlio re­
forms woro not carried out. The Decrees of Reform of 1895, which
tho sultan Imd adopted under pressure, had roiaained a dead lottor,
and tho usurpation of Armenian lands by tho Kurds had been facili­
tated by tho Turkish sovernxfient.
All complaints of tho Armenian
laasses had boon unheeded by the Turkish ^ovornmont. Therefor©
tho Armenian xaaasoe Imd demanded rofoxsss under Russian control or
Russian occupation. Tho oatholicos of tho Armenian nation voiced
his sentiment to the Bussian Czar •when ho said: "Ancient
^•Ibld. t p» 2G3.
gIbid.i
Mandelatarn, Lo Sort de I'l&ipire Ottoman. p. 207.
3Ibld.,
p. 209.
-14-
protector of Christian poopla In. the Orient
toko undo2? your pro­
tectIon in tho nasio of tho Lord the unhappy Arroenian people of
the Turkish Empire."1
• Sazonov, tho Hussion Foroitsa Minister, maintained to Groy,
tho British foreign, secretary, that the Russian government iiad
done everything to keep tho Armenians loyal to tho Ottoman govern­
ment, and to prevent an open iizsurreotlon.s This would
appear
1
logical sinco Russia alco had a niijaed population to control; be­
sides Russian territory horderod Armenia and repercussions would
naturally ho felt in Ruaaia.
Russia must mice It clear to the leader of tlx© Armenian
reform movement that her attitude must not ho so interpreted as
to appear that she were encouraging tho Anaonlano to revolt. This
would ho xaoat inopportune for Russia and would xaeroly DOX»VQ the
T-urics as a pretext to keep down the Arrcienians oy arscjod farce.s
In Dooeitiber 1915} c-iors announced that Russia roust ho
prepared far all eventualities and must ho in a position to inter­
fere rapidly before further developments v/ould corns about in Eu­
rope which would rob her of tho opportunity.- Therefore Saaonov
reminded the Ministers of War and Marine that after Turkey had
sottlod tho Balkan troubles she would be in a position to release
Ibid., p. 207•
syb3,d., p. SQ9 from Russian Orange Book, Ho. 7j j)or
}
Diplomatisoher sclxrift3\rechael iawolskla 1911-1914, od. Friedrich
'c'i'tfo<i hereaTte^as atiove. lavrol'pki t Berlin; Doutsclio
Verlagsseaellschaft ftir politik und Gesohichte, 19134), ixx, 165,
NO. 894.
^Bonckondorffa Diplomat1aoher Schrlftswechaol, od. 13. von
Siebert, cited hereafter as sieport-Bcnckondorff (Berlin: Walter
de Gruytor & Co., 1928), XXI* 228, No. 1002. Giers to Sazonov—
Doc. 14, 1913.
^Die Intornationalon Beslehungen ici Zoitaltor des uaueri**
allamuB. od. Otto Kootsch. oited hereafter as i'.13.g.l. ISeries X.
Berlin1 Reidar- Bobbing G. I5-B.lt., 1934), X, 7, Ho. 9. Glers to
saaonov.
-15-
tho Anatolian. division for duty In Eastern Anatolia, and by the
middle or 1914 tho Turkish Black SQQ fleet would, be stronger than,
tho Russian so that Turkey would bo In advaraoo of Russia, capable
of more x*apid transport of troops and coastal defense
aonaan Attitude
T'hQ Geraon government v/aa vory apprehensive or tho Integ­
erst which Russia showed In Armenian refosras In 1913. It roared
that Russia might move .into Amenla since she vma massing troops
in the Caucasusiiyrla,
tho
If Russia raovod into Armenia, and Franco into
Gorsaaa .^ovomasnt could not be in&lfforontAlthough.
Gerssaay waa anxioua to support Turxcey in her vjork of consolida­
tion, .Ja^ow, tho 3oKaan Foreign Minister, insisted that Gonnany
siuat have her share if it caxn© to a partition ol' Turlcoy. Lich~
novrslsy, tho Gorman arabansador at London,, approached
Ir Edward
Grey ccacsrains tlio roport vAiioh had reached Germany—-that Eng­
land, Prance, and Russia bad divided Asia Minor, including Armenia.,
Into tlrroo aonon of influence, sir Edward Grey responded:
wThls
report had toon snatched out of tho air," and aasorted that no
auch transactions had taken place.®
Gornany and Russia woro at variance in thoir mtorprotation of tho precedent sot during tho nineteenth contrary, in view
of tho fact that she waa a signatory to the Treaty of Berlin and
that she now had extended interests in Asiatic Turkey, Germany
could not porvolt tlio Triple Entente to handle tha Armenian roforsao alone.& iiowevoz1, the cabinet of St. isefcorobULa?£ called tho
^Ibld.
2G. P.* XXXVIII, 11. Mo. 15.317* Brit, DOC., X, part I,
424, Ho. TETST
3G.
P., XXXVII, 55, Ho. 15,517. Von Jagow to Llchnowsky,
May SI, 1913; Sie"boz't—Bonckondorff, p. 59, Ho* 857.
~G. P.. XXXVIII« 55, llo. 15,282.
attout1on ol" the Britioh and French gov0rn1aar.its to tho events or
1895 wlxon tha thro© Entente r-ov;ora coiiaborabod in tsakin^ a roforra. aohomo which they forced the Porto to accox^t. St. Peters­
burg concluded that tills a^roerjont gavo to tho throe iov/orc tho
solo
to participato .Ln tho roforn: question-"**
\Juu^onlioiia, tho Gorinnn anoascador at Conotantinoplo,
maintained that Germany Kiust chanso her attitude toivarda tho
Armenians.
Up to that 11;.10 r Germany had looked upon the jnaaaucroo
of tlx© Albanians only in the light of tho extortionist methods of
the commercial oloiiicnt.
She had ro&ai'ded the Ansonians as tho
"Jew of tho Orient" % hat hoq forgot that in Anatolia, they v/ore
cultivators or tha soil who had tlio good qualities of hoaltlay
famora, who had. unjustly boon deprived of their lands, and who
woro fighting for home, language, and religion.
Gerrnny mu3t
avoid tho radical element and xnuot get the confidoncc of the mer­
chants and farmers. This could he accomplished in two ways:
first, by a real &uaranto© to tho Arraaniana of life, honor, prop­
erty, and religions aocond, by a proportional representation in
local affairs and "by education of the Arsaonian population.
in
his opinion Turlaoy should dravt up a aot of roforiaa with a guar­
antee of enforoeiaont under Gexsnan official supervision.
uormany
should establish a school in Anatolia, although oho could not
compoto with tho French schoolc already established.53
If tho abovo suggestion TOI'O carried out, T/angonhoirj. be­
lieved that it would be greatly to G-orraan interest and v/ould
"Docvgneata Diplcsaatiquoa Francais, 1871-1014, od. Alfred
costes, cited hereafter aa P. P. F. (series 111, parias imoriiaerie Natlonalo, 1935), VI, 65S, Ho. 568.
P» « XXXVIII, 11, Ho. 15,287. Wansonhoim to IjothtaaiinHollwag, Fob. 24, 1Q13.
-17-
prevont tho dlaintogration or Turkey.
There waa no doubt tliat
Germany v/aa essentially concerned about extending her carmaerolal
interest In tho Hoar Bast. TO this end. she was building tho
Berlin-Bagdad railroad through tori*Itcry partly populated by
Armenians.
owing to tho retarded union of Germany, tho other
Groat powers woro Tar In advaneo In tholr commercial and colonial
enterprises.
xt was wangenholm*s opinion that if Gorcsany could
gain the confidence or tho Arxionian population in the methods jnontloned above, she -would bo In a position to assert her alalia in
the year Baat -Erith tho Armenian oloiaont to support lior in caao
Turkey woro dismembered.2
DTorino 1913 tho German presa chanced
its attitude and expressed its good-will and interest in the Ar­
menians.
British. Attitude
Sir Edward Grey, tho secretary for Foreign Affairs, was
convinced that a strict neutrality of tho powers would preclude
any danger of unrest in Armenia. no said that owing to tho ostoaaivo Gensan intoroata in Asia Minor tlio Gensan sovemcisnfc waa
alao interested in preventing tho reopening of tho Asiatic ques­
tion.5
Both governments docidodly dosired that the Turkish
Empire in Asia should bo Icept intact. However, sasonov bolioved
that all actions of England at this time were dominated by ono
paramount anxiety, nainoly:
not to draw upon herself the wrath, of
the Moslem world* honce her seeming indifferenco towards tbo
fate of the Christians living in the Turkish Empire.4
-*-Jbld.
5arit.
4Baron
2ibid..
DOC., X, Part X, 4S2, Ho. 5SS-
von Siobort, Entente Dlploeaacy and tlie world.
1909-1914, ed. George Abol Sclireinor, cited ueroaftor as siobert»
linttonco^Dlplomacy (Hew York: Knickerbocker press, 1921), p. S68.
Saaonov to Osar on his return from a journey abroad.
-18-
Slr Edward informed Saaonov tliat the Canaan approhenoion
of any move in Ansenia waa vory strong.
Britain roared that this
attitude on tho part or Gerrsany \uould reoult in an unfavorable
reaction to tho aettlenjont of other important quoatIons of the
day.-1,
Britain herself did not trast Russian motives, fox* she
said tliat she must take a strong stand on tho quoation of rofoaass
bocauao of public opinion. !Io on© would believe in Russian re­
forms In Ansenia, "especially when tho rocont exploits of a
Russian consul who had boon touring tho country in tho capacity
of an AS0^*1 provocateur are revealed.Britain would not per­
mit herself to lose 3l£$it of the reform question, since tho
British governiaont did not wish to bo taken unaware should a gen­
eral scramble tako placo.^
French Attitudo
Finance believed that tho time for Arzaoniau refoma was
not opportune since several questions, such aa tho financial con­
trol of Turkey, woro not yet settled, she stated that if tho
three Powers ahould start a reform niovoaient in Constantinople tlio
program would scarcely have begun when all Europe would have boon
informed and the 'rrlplo Alllanco would, have insisted upon a hand
in tho affairs.-
The French government ma anxious to Icoop tho
Armenian refom question. in the hands of the triple Entente with
Britain talcing tho lead, and tried to convince the Russians tliat
tho Ottoman govorrmiont foared the meddling of Russia in tlio
xBrit.
DOC*, X, Part I, p. 452, Ho. 564.
^T,bid«» p. 450, minutes to No. 507, written by L. Mallet
of tho London Foreign Offloe at tlio cloao of tho docuiaont to Grey
from tho British embassy in St. Petersburg.
gBrlt.
Doc.» X, Part I, 425, No. 477.
%). D. P.» VI, 696, Ho. 599, and 716, HO. 618. Carabon,
the prerch ambassador at London,to plchon, J«ay 23, 1913.
-19affairs or a neighboring province
M. Regnault, who had boon sent; to tho Ottoxaan Empire to
study tho roli£ioua question, gave tlio following rej>ort to tho
French foreign office. Franc© could not permit Turkey to reiaain
insolvent«
It seemed impossible to isako Russia lindoretand that
Prance could not tolerate tha ruination of Turkey because of hor
financial interest there. It was essential for French interests
that turkey be kept alive and that Turkish opinion did not turn
against Franco. Tho latter jauat ti*y to flatter the Turks and to
demonstrate to them the reason for their defeat» to essalt their
courage and to show theni that they have been the victims or Ger­
man exploitation.3
During the summer of 1913, the French foreign office be­
gan to feel that it had been slighted, it insinuated that neither
the British nor tho Russians liad hositatod to enter into particu­
lar conversations -with Geruiany on their interest in Asia Minor
without consulting Prance. After Anglo-Turkish ne^otiatiana had
been finished, Gorcmv-Turiclsh. conversations started in view of
giving Germany compensation for assent to concessions given to
Britain, prance should talce tho same liberty for herself which
her friends and allies had attributed to themselves.*5
All tho Great powers mistrusted Russian motives in Turkoy.
The military authorities in Russia wore working for the downfall
of Turkey to got control- of tlio Black Sea, v»hile the government
maintained that it v/ished to work for the integrity of Turkey?
Britain wished to delay action fearing a repercussion in tier
Indian territory in tho form of a religious wars Genaany,
"Ibid,,m. 694, 716, NOB. 599, 618.
2Ibid.,
VII, 0> Mo. -6.
SIbid.,.VI,
724, 758, WOS. 621, 651.
-20-
niotlvatod by ilea? azabitlon for commercial expansion, vvaa vjorking
for Turkish interests, tout claimed her share in case of dlsiaeiabormeant; Franco wished to procrastinate because her financial Inter­
ests were at stake ahould Turkey be divided, beaidea she vrao
Jealous of Gennan Interests and aas trying to koep Goreiany out of
the Hear East. All of this waa at the expense of suffering humanity
in Armenia.
CHAPTER II
TURKISH ACTIVITIES 211 TIIE REFORM QUESTION
Turkey also mistrusted tho Russian intentions In Armenia,
for Turkish officials believed that Russia imd laid plans which,
she was not ready to oxposo yet. The Turkish ambassador in Russia
did not consider tho Armenian situation dangerOLIO, but ho declared
that Russia, if it suited her, had it v/lthin her powei> to croate
disorder frora the Caucasus.1
The Turkish govermaoiit, realizing tliat reforms woro essen­
tial, was willing to yield on some points as a xnasult of its
experience in European Turkey, but was opposed to foreign control.
The Turkish govermaent in 1912 and 1913 was using ibrco to keep
dawn separatist movements, punishing agitators. The aajjsmittee of
Union and progress which controlled the government favorod a
rational decentralisation, but tho provincea had vsi shed to carry
It too far.® The Young Turka wore absolutely convinced that the
policy of Russia waa alone responsible ffc»r tlie enanvity which had
developed during the middle of tha nineteenth century between tlio
Turkish and Armenian elejaente,^ Thoy claimed that Russia waa
setting race a^jainat race in the Ottoman l&apire to further her
own interest. V/'haaever the Armenian question cro£>ped up there
was alvaays a Ruselan question behind it.XG. P..
XXXVXII, 5, HO. 15,884.
aXbld..
p. 26, Uo. IS,295.
®Djeraal pasha., Memories of a Turkish 5tatoorean. p. 841.
4Ibld..
p. 98.
-21-
la tbo middle of 1913, the Young Turks suggestod to tbo
leaders of the !Daslmas that they should co6porate in a program of
reforms. Since the i'3allcaxi wara woro dosing, the ottoman qovoviiEient would then bo able to subdue tbo Kurds moro easily. The
leaders of this organisation answered, "&n tbo Groat powers are
intervening in this isattei*, v*3 can no longer stand aside.11-*•
Those conciliatory rsovos of Turkey were offset by further
Russian intrigues. In March 19153 riellklan Effendi, a prominent
Armenian official in Asia Minor, conxplainod to wangenheiia. that
Russian agitators ware trying to atir up dissatisfaction oinong
the Aroaoaiano and that their activitloa had boon tripled recently.
He* and also Aknounie, an influential member of the Armenian com­
mittee, stated that the work of reform should co£P©rn all the
Great powers and not only Russia; but if the poworo failed to act,
they would be compelled to accept Russian aid. The Armenians were
afraid that at the close of the Balkan trouble new massacres
would occur.
They based Hi.is conclusion on letters of prominent
Kurds which, had beon intercepted.2
The Russian agitators were successful with a certain ele­
ment of the Armenian population.
In April 1913, it vms rumored
that there had been a ship with three hundred on board before
Ale:irandretta in the service of the independent Armenian party.s
It v/as said that liusslan propaganda had partly won over the Kurds
to the separatist movement; and timt Russia vraa endeavoring to
keep the Kurds and Amoalana apart, liiereby instigating massacres
so that Russia Kight havo a reason for interfering,
v/ansenheiio
stated tlaat ho did not know how many of these rumors were true,
1Xbld.,
p. 275.
gfl. P., XXXVIII, 15, No. .15,288.
sIbid..
p. 19, Ho. 15,292.
-23-
but whatever activitloa tho Russian government onterod into, wore
directed by tho greedy Hussion lower offioiala .-1To get thia reform movainoiit started* Tewfil: paslrn, the
Turkish ambassador in London, at tho request of the Ottoman govern­
ment, aaiced the British, government in April, 1913 Tor English of­
ficials to supervise tho execution or tho new law of vilayets.
Since pence would, soon reign again, Turkey did not v&sh to loa©
any time in putting the new regulations into execution in Eastern
Anatolia in tho Armenian vilayeta of Van, Bitlis. Mar-iourot-ulAzis* Diarbekir and also in Brserum, Sivas and Tr©bizand which
lxad a aianller Arraanlan minority -2
Tho Turks considered the organisation of tho gendarmerie
noat urgent in order to prevent further disorders which raiQht
occiir in spring after the snow melted. In consequence the Turkish,
government had asked for on English caraiiandant for each oorpa.
Turkey alao aslaad that far each Incpector-general of tho provinces
be added a British inspector of gendarmerie, of Justice, of agri­
culture, of forest and public vrorks, and two Englishmen in tho
central administration of tiio ]<iinister of Interior as adviser and
inspector-general. Theso men were to bo English specialists recosaEien&od by the British govoraaoat \7lth. a stipulation ao to sala­
ries desired for ooeh.s
Britain considered this an important political proposal,
for it would afford her an opportunity to do something for the
Armenians; besides she would lose prestige if she permitted
another nation to do this. Upon giving it more serious considera­
tion, Sir Edward Grey observed that the officials doxnaxxded were
only for the Armenian vilayets. This would load the British
3-Ibid., p. 23, JMo. 15,294.
2|jrit.
Doc.. X, Fart I, 427, Ho. 479.
^ibld.
-24-
goverament into difficulties! with other nations, especially
Russia*
Grey fmggoatod to tho Porte that, since the Ottoman. code
was largely built on the llapoleonic code, Turlcoy might as]c Franco
for inspectors for ^notice, POP Inspectors OR forestry, Turkey
mlapply to Germany or Russia.
The British Eovoraiiont pre­
ferred to furnish the inspector for public works because of tho
advantage it would &iv© fco Britain, and it promised also inspect­
ors for the 0en&ariaarl©.
Britain thought it unnoceaaary to have
an inspector-general in the Department of interior.-1
A few weeks
latex*, the port© through Tewfik paaha asado another request foi»
more officials of the British government for a third sector,
south of the othex* two sectors.2
Sir Arthur iiicolcon, tho permanent undorsocretary of the
British foreign office, informed Tevifik pauha that tho Hussion
government ahould be advised of these requests which Turkey had
raid© of tho British government since the territory in question
bordered Russia. Towfik Paoha consented to this, "but at tix> same
time mado it clear that tho Ottoman government did aot desire
Russian participation.s The Turkish request for English offi­
cials in© t vilth a great deal of opposition in Rustsia who feared
unduo British influence.
Sasoiiov asked that tho matter be i^eld
in abeyance and that the whole queation be treated by the ambas­
sadors of tho thrao Powers at Gone tuntiiioxile, which ®a done
later.4
At Sa2onov*s request Benckendorff, tho Russian ambassador
^•Ibld. » P- 430, Ho. 430.
%bid.9
£>•
slbid.
P* 433, Ho. 433.
*
432, No- 4S3, May IS, 1913.
-Ibid.9 PP. 433, 435, Hos. 484, 486 J B
xfO. 568.
—25—
in London, approached hio Fi-encli colloa£uo > Paul Cambon, on the
question or sending English officials to Turitey, intiraatlng that
the Russian foreign office was suapleloua of the ateps tokon by
Tewfik pa alia in London. IIo boliovod that the Britioil military
officers would not take the intoroots of the Armenians to heart
and that tbo Armenian population \voaid reproach tho &&. Peters­
burg cabinet with having loos seal for their co-x'eligioniata in
Armenia than the London cabinet. It v/as tho opinion of Sasonov
mid Giora tlmt this nova had boon instigated by Gerraauy v/ltli Gor­
man interesta in mind.1 Cambon pointed out to Bexiekondorff that
If Britain refused on bloc all tho doiaands of tho Sublimo Porto
in carrying out its reconstruction programs, the Ottoman govomment would turn to Germany for instructors.2
Britain would than
yield her predominance in tho Ottoscaan J&apire, which would v/orJc to
the detriment of herself, Franco, and Russia. The French ambas­
sador maintained that aopo Immediate protoctivo luoasures were
needed then.®
However, when Berlin was apprised of the grand vizier*&
request for English officials, Germany complained that if English
officers were to havo charge of E&etem and northern Anatolia ,
Germany should be glvon tho saxao privilege in viestarn Anatolia.
Y/angonhoim was instructed to inform the grand vizier of the above
and to state that Germany was not opposed to English officers
Grey promised Towflk Pacha that tho British Qovorranent
would male© an effort to secure acene English officers to tindertako
the duty of organising tho gendarmerie in tho vilayets inhabited
3-Ibld., p. 694, No. 599, May 23, 1913.
SD*
D. P., VI# pp. 694, 716, Hoa. 599, 637.
gIbld.
4G.
P., XXXVIII, 52, Hoa. 15,300, 15,501.
—26—
by tho Armenians and an inapoctor-soneZ'al fox-* the Ministry of
interior -
He also stated that Britain wo'.M be> ploasod to ox-
change vieaa on the xaattor of reforms Tor Asia Minor in London
ratter than in 0onstantinoplo, whovo ifc -would attract too laucli
attontion.^Britain was erased to discover how lmcoirvpvoraloln^ Saacmov
y/ae oa this question of British, officials in Turkey -
She was
aston."Ishod fcliat RussiansIt any apprehension as to fcho dalsgati on
of fctio solo charge of tho gendarmerie to the British officers.
Britain consoutad to a Joint meeting of tho throo asiba ci aadora of
tho Entente in Constantinople, declaring that olio could not re­
fuse all officials, for, if she did and if mssaeraa should
occur, tho ontiro blame would rest -oa tho British govornKtonfc .s
BunninQ counter to Russia's viows, Britain and Freiice be­
lieved that the British and French inspectors in Asia Minor would
givo to tho Triple Entonto some guarantee which would not cast
any sliadov? on Russian interesta.s
since Russia did not vslah to
bo oxpollod from ropreaontation in tho reform inau<£>, sh# replied
that tho Armenians had approached b.or government with a request
for amiormti on to Ruasia.
However, Rucsia would not eonaidor
annexation, hut ahe had prcEaisod tho Armenians effective refamna.
Therefore, Russia could not play "aocond fiddle" in the matter.
If no effectivo refortns wore soon accomplished and snafcijacrea
occurred Russia v/oald not :asl:e the mistake of reraainlns paaaivo.^
^Ibid. » p. 696, So-. 599j Brit. Doc.. X, Part 1, 436,
No. 4.89—491.
gXbid*» p. 4SQ, f-Jo. 492. Minutes added lx> tho document
by Sir Arthur SSicolaon on ?£ay S4, 1913.
Srbid., p. 458, footnote to Ho. 493% p. D. F., VI, 717,
Ilo. GIG •
^Brlt. Doc., X, Part 2, pp. 433, 441, Hoa* 492, 494.
-27-
Eusslei through her ambassador at London called Britain's
attention to tho importance to Russia of the Arxnonleua reforms In
viov/ of the interior situation of the Caucasus, and the interest
of Russia In tho neighboring regions. If troublea arose on the
border, Russia could not bo Indifferent. The Armenians could be
pacified and a general conflagration could be avoided only If tho
reforms were guaranteed by Russia or by tho Entente. Russia
claimed that autonomy for tho Armenian vilayets would not mean
the eventual amputation of that province frcci Turkey (as It did
in Macedonia) since tho Armenians were everywhere in the minority.
Furthermore, Constantinople v«ia a more desirable place to discuss
reforms ainoo the ambassadors there were better instructed on
affairs of tho Hear East, and were in direct contact with the
Porte, with tho Armenians, and vzith tho £$eneral situation.
Turkoy would not turn to Germany if it could be shown her that it
•was to her advantage to cooperate with Russia.3Tho grand vizier, Mahraoud shevkot, who v/as still attempt­
ing to keep his neighbor to the north frora interfering in ber
internal affairs, assured Germany that only through harmony be­
tween Britain and Germany could anything bo accomplishod and that
neither Qersmny nor Great Britain alone could save tho Gttanan
Empire. He wished to exclude all other cowers In tlio now program
except Franco In her capacity as rofonaer la tho Department of
Finance. According to this plan (Jeisaany should reconstruct tho
array and tho Turkish educational Institution; while Turkey re­
served for Britain the revision of the gendarmerie In Asia Minor
and tho Department of justice and tho Interior, and for France
tho reorganization of the Empire on the financial sido.^
^P. D. P. , V I , 7 1 8 , H O . 6 1 9 .
giMd.,
p. 716, Mo. 618.
—23—
Yfangenhoiia tried to work up a scbeia© similar to tho ono roontlonod.
by tho grand vlzlor.^
Tho ports informed London that the fields of public in­
structIon and tho axsny woro to fall to Goreiany.2
)?&rhnp& it was
this fact vdiicli caused Grey to notify Russia that a policy for
tho who!© of Asia Minos* could not bo dravra up without Gonsany and
that Gerraan interests xauat bo considered.3
Great Britain, in spite of Russian opposition, still xsaintainod that all© must not rofuso to furnish all officials demanded,
for tho process of drawing up reforms ral&ht bo lengthy and
troubles might occur in the Armenian vilayeta. Therefore she
promised to aend to Turkey tv/o inspectors of gondarinorlo for oach
of tho provinces and ono inspector for tho Ministry of the interior.
Tho rest she refused because of tlio rosontinont of other Pernors
Gersoaoy stated that Britain was talcing on herself a groat
moral responsibility which might lead her into trouble with
Russia. She believed that, although tho Russian government might
have wished to maintain tho integrity of tho Ottoman Empire, tho
unlawful popular current in Russia was trying to forco tho gov­
ernment *o hand.®
Howovor, Germany must have been more interested
in restraining; British influence in fche Hear East and in Icoeping
Great Britain and Russia apart.
Since English officers in Eastern Anatolia v/ero still
unacceptable to Russia, tlio French ambassador at Constantinople
askod his government to question Turlcoy why, if the Ottoman
3-3. P., XXXVIII, 37, 39, Hos. 15,307, 15,310.
2Ibid.,
5Brit.
p. 49, No. 15,313.
Doc., X, Part I, 442, No. 495, May SO, 1913.
4Ibld.,
p. 442, No. 490; G« P.» XXXVIII, 50, Ho. 15,314.
5Ibid..
p. 52, No. 15,316.
-29-
government wished to rolnfcsrco the gendamiorio in tlio Empire, it
did not apply to tho French General oauraan at Constantinople who
waa in chargc of an international body of gendarmerie. 'j?hon ho
could take tho necessary measures and in this way, it would not
croato difficulties between Britain and Russia.
As to tho finan­
cial officers which the Ottoanan ewowimont had asked for, he
suggested that France should accept the proposal but retard its
execution. Tho success of the mission would dapond upon a previ­
ous 3tatou©nt of tha functions and duties of these officials.3Tito pronch government did not take action on this suggestion un­
til moro stubborn resistance was encountered a few raonths latest.
Judging froxa appearances Russia had worked with Abdul
naniid II in the suppression of tho Arxaenians for ten years previ­
ous to the Young Turk laovoxaont, but in 1908 Russia reversed this
policy and was working through tlio Armenian catholic03 for tho
freedom of tho Armenians.
Russian moves at tills time made Turkey
suspicious of hor motives. iionco Turkey tried to lceop out Russian
influence; but realising tho nood for refoms she appealed to
Groat Britain, Germany, and Franco for officials, each nation*s
officers to serve in different departments of hor govei^nmont.
Britain, in the spirit of tho Cyprus convention, waa willing to
furnish sarao of the desired officials; however, she net with seri­
ous opposition from Russia vaho did not wish to relegate hor Influ­
ence to another power* France, because of hor alliance with
Britain and hor dislilco for anytiling Gonnan, favored British offi­
cials, whereas Germany, jealous of British interests, wished to
extend hor own influonco in mxrkoy. The Armenians wore being
pullod both ways, part of them siding with Russia in hope of
D. F., VII, 3, HO. S.
-30-
gaining lndcpon&onc© and anofchox* soction misfcx-uatins Rusaieua
saotlvos, but villiIns to accept lxoi> aid If assistance from no
othor source was forfcheosnlng.
CHAPTER III
ACTIVITIES OF TIQil PGWEBS TO PI1?D A B&&IS
FOR T2IE KEFOEM SCIUSFaS
Tho British and French foreign offices suss©s^oca that tho
scheme of reforaiB drawn up by tlio Entente* powers in 189S too used
as a base for tho new program. Tills idea was to bo brought to the
attention of the other powers.
Grey* naciely:
Two alternatives occurred to
to laavo sasonov, tho jiueeian Minister of Foreign
Affairs, in consultation with Turkey, draw up a 3chomo of reform
for the Armenian vilayets art! present it to the oix powers togothor with pi^opoaed reforms for all of Asiatic Turkey; or to
have saaonov propose that a comprehenoivo scheme of reforms for
Asiatic Turkey be discussed by all the powers, preferably by the
ambassadors at conatantinople•2
Sasonov requested Benckendorff to thank Grey for his pro­
posal. He said that the first proposition was Impractical, but
that Russia would ask tho ambassadors at Constantinople to estab­
lish a reform program based on the project of 1895, which would,
however, havo to be changed to conform to the new exigencies.**
Russia wished tho axabaaaadors of the Entente at Constantlnopl© to
cojao to a complete accord on the reform program before presenting
it to the other powers and the porte for their approval.^
3-D. D. F.. VI, 747-748, llo. 641; Brit. Doc. « X, part I,
442, Ho* "435.
Slbid., May 28, 1913.
gIbid.,
p. 443, Ho. 497; P. D. F.» VII, 13, No. 7.
4Ibid.
-31-
-•S5£~
Ilowevcr, tho London and Berlin foroign offlooa agreed that tho
question of roforma should IXJ token up by all powers Instead of
Just one or two.*
Grey told tho Goratsan ainb&saaclor that ho viaf) In agreement
with tho Goraan government that Turkey must "bo kept intact5 hut
ho had no :Idoa how tho question should bo taken up- whether through
tho &ovornruonto directly in eon;J*aactlon with Turkey, or through
spheres of influence v&\®j>6 each of tho ar&at powsrs -would bo al>loted A corta?JEI districts
Tho German ambassador called his atten­
tion to tho dan^orn of ar>horoa of influence which v/ould load to
disiiioKhororiont of tho Turl'ioh Bmplra-8 Grey expressed his willing­
ness to dineusa xvlth Germany the Gei'inari ttphores of interest.
Odors said that Russia also wanted to consult with Germany 011
each others KOJIOS of Interoat ^srhll© Bouipard, tho French ambassa­
dor at OonDtantinoplo, wished Germany to come to a similar cirg?ao~
sient with Franco.*^
Sine© Germany wished to take the Isad, Jagow, the German
foreign minister, requested Liehnowaky, tho German ambassador at
X.-ondon, to brlng up the question of Armenian i^foras and have it
discussed at a conference of the ambassadors in London.-
At this
point tbo Auatro-Hungarion .foroign minister became interested and
inquired of tho porto whether a monopoly was to be given, to
Britain* He, too, suggeotod spheres of influence In which Britain,
Russia, Franco, and Gexsnany night be interested.5
•^Ibld., p. 32, Ho. 30.
gG.
P., XXXVIII, 65, Ko. 15,3J24.
5Ibid.,
p. 73, Ho. 15,344.
4Ibid.,
p. 63, Ho. 15,320.
sBrlt.
Doc., X, Part I, 447, Ho, 503.
-33-
Tho Italian foreign miniator wonted to imow what tho
Gorman motive was In having tho Armenian quoation discussed at
London aintso it would open up tho entire Asiatic question and
might load to unfortunate consequences
Berlin v/as well awaro
or the reaction which, might reault from each, discussion, "but
Gennany considered it bettor to tako up tho question beforehand,
since Huaaia and tho Entente wlshod to settle the imtter without
consulting the powers of tlio Triple Alliance.2
Since Britain mated Russia to tako the initiative in
this jnatter, London indicated to St. Petersburg the necessity of
addressing a circular iiaaodiately oa the question of proposed
reforms for Armenia to all fivo capitals before the other Powers
might do so.^
Thereupon Grey decided to withdraw his offer of I2ngliah
officials to "Turkey, on the grounds that ono or two powers had
elaborated a program and therefore it would be better to await
its outcome. However, his offer of British assistance still held
good in case massacres were anticipated. Turkey urged Great
Britain to coBperate with the Ottoman government in lending offi­
cials, although she belioved that order was being maintained by
the regular Turkish troops.^
But Oermany expressed her gratitude
to Britain for refusing tho large list of civil officers which
Turkey had requested, for it would have lead to distrust on tho
part.of Genaany.s
3-S. P., XXXVIII, 64, HO. 15,321.
gIbld.,
p. 64, No. 15,322.
*^12rit. _Doc., X, Pai»t I, 446, No. 501, Juno S, 1913; D. D.
P., VII, 35, No. 32.
4Brit.
SG.
Eoc., x, Part I, 447, No. 502.
P., XXXVIII, 65, NO. 15,324.
At too aoKio time Jagott had Vfeui&'onhQlm inquire of fcho ginrnd
viisior how ho felt about having; Germany bring up tho Armenian
question at London. Tlio grand visior was much perturbed becauee
Germany isanted to take tho Initiative in the njatter.
Gexsaany of becoming antl-Mohamsiodan and pro-Armenian.
He accused
The grand
vislor vsas now convinced that Germany's interest lay only in
keeping Russia frcro. gotting control or Armenia. He thought that
Russia 3ho«ld introduce tho proposition, then it could bo said
that Russia was responsible Tor instituting troubleo as an excuse
for intervention.3-
Germany decided not to take tho initial stop
in the question at London, honco it informed Turkey that govinany
was ready to acquiesce althou&h alio still.felt that it would bo
bettor for Germany rathor than Russia to take tho initiative In
the matter.
Simultaneously, Sir Edward Grey requested tlio British
ambassador at conatantlnoplo to got in touch with hio Russian
and French colleagues concerning the refora discusalona v/liilo
Russia israa aenling the circular to the three sovormnonto of tho
Triplo
Alliance.2
Grey, at Ku3sia*s entreaty, su££*ested that
discussions should be hold in Constantinople, a more suitable
placois besides a whole summer would pass before any discussion
v/ould take placo at London. Germany conaented to tho useeking of
tho ambassadors in Conatantlnoplo in answer to Russia*o circular
requesting it; but she insisted that a representative of tho
Porte must be present and that Turkish sovereignty must be
1XMd.,
2Brit.
SG.
p. 68, HO. 15,529, Jlino 7, 1915.
Doc., x, Part I, 44G, No- 504.
P., XXXVI11, pp. 66, 67, Nos. 15,325, 15,387.
-35-
respected.•3Russia would not agree to Turkish representation at tho
conference, for this would tend to destroy the effect!von© aa of
the reforms and would cause alarm among the Annonlans, who feared
that Turkey would sabotage all programs of reform left to her.2
Tho British foreign office -would not moot the Germaxi and Austrian
proposal with a blank refusal.
Moreover, Britain thought that
no scheme of reform would bo accepted by Turkey unless It had
the cooperation and approval of all Pov/ero. Grey suggested that
a plan should bo dravna up and then a consultation should be hold
with Turkey. Turkey could also work tip a plan which migjht be in­
corporated partly, "but which would not necessarily bind tlio pow­
ers to accept it in its entirety.*^ prance saw no reason to
Oppose the presence of a Turkish delegate.4
Y/angenheizn suggested putting tho matter off as long as
possible.
This would give G-oraiany time and opportunity to send
consuls to Eastern Anatolia to get first hand information. He
also advised that tho matter be dlsciiosed by the dragomen of tho
embassies so that he (wangenhoirci) would not be compelled to coiao
in direct conflict with triers and a v/ay would be left open for
further discussion-
He feared that RUBAla would stir up trouble
in tho border provinces if tho plan failed*
v/angeiahelci inti-
imtod that he would be quite reticent in discussing tho reforms.
He Imera that Britain discomod tho danger in the refaun raoveExont.
P.. XXXVII1* 70, No. 15,331; D. D. P., VII, 105,
HO. 102.
Sibid,. pp. 93, 10Q, uos. 86, 105? G. P., XXXVIII, 76,
77, Hos. 15,035, £5,33ej Brit. Poo., X, Part I, 449, 451,
Nos. 507, 509.
s_Ibid.»
pp. 450, 451, 453, Jloa. 508, 610, 512.
%>. D. F., VII, 199, HO. 185.
-36-
Britain did not wish to conio in conflict with tho Turkish and
Russian govorniziGnta, but e-xpeotod Germany to oppose tho Hussian
ideas since Britain did not laftsh to corao in tho opon. wanfgenhBim
was not going to laake tho mistalee 'bf pulling tho chestnuts out of
tho .fire for Britain.ni
Germany held out for soma time on tho idea of' having a
Turkish delegate present at tho conferencefi but finally acqui­
esced vzhen she saw tliat Russia stood firmly on the opposite
point.2
On June 9, 1913 the British and French ambassadors at
Constantinople assijsnod Uo iir. Fitsraaurico, first draromn or the
British embassy and &. d© St. Qu©ntin, second secretary of the
French embassy at Constantinople3 the task of meeting; \s/ith M,
Mandolstam, the first dragoman of the Russian embassy, to discuss
the project already drawn up by tho mission dologato.
It v.us
decidod to aubnlt the program to tho three powers of tho Triple
Alllanco.3
While tho project VJUS being discussed, Britain announced
that she vras sending British officials to command the gendarmerie
in the seven vilayets of Eastern and northern Anatolia. These
appointments were to be considered provisional and wex-e made
pending the completion of a reform scheme for tho Turkish •Empire
Tho Russian gavermflont positively rofuaed to listen to this pro­
posal.
It opined that the xaaasure would serve merely as a pretext
1q.
P., XXXVIII, 73, Ho. 15,534.
gIbid.,
76, No. 15,555; Mandelstaci, Le Sort do 1'Empire
OttQBuan» p. 216.
^0. P. F., VII, 62, Ho. 55.
4Ibid..
Ho. 513.
p. 245, No. 227; Brit. Doc.. X, Part X, 453,
-37-
to Turkey for not going further1 into tho reform question.
Grey bacaiae thoroughly vexed at Russia's attitude, since
Sasonov had consented to tho appointment of a few British offi­
cers, tho British tried to hold him accountable for his integrity*
Tho responsibility for disorders which might occur would fall on
Great Britain if she refused all aid to Turkey.
Besides Sir
Edward Grey maintained that only two of tlio seven vilayets really
bordered Russian territory. He telioved
that Sasonov was 3incore
in his reform program, but that tho local and military authori­
ties who were dictating to him -were not. The3© officials, ho
feared, wore waiting for disorders in tho Armenian vilayets to
give Russia an excuse for intervention.s
The British government asked the eonsant of the Russian
government to tho employment of officials of a small neutral
Power, as tho only alternative to British officials.0
Russia
would not consent to officers of a minor power until tho scheme
of reforms had been completed. After Sasonov had been pushed by
the British ambassador, ho replied that he would thinJc about it
and there the matter rested.- The Turkish government complained
that Great Britain had sacrificed the Ottoman Empire for Russian
ambitions.5
Prance in tho meantime had suggested that the Sultan
should appoint a High Commissioner who would bo provided with tho
necessary powers to watch over the territory and who, undor proper
3-Ibid.» pp. 461, 462, Mos. 519, 520$ Stievo, lav/olski,
III, 104, Ho• 9291 D. P. P.. VII, 151, Ho- 140.
gTbld..
p. 387, No. 349;
No. 531 and minutes*
5.1bid. . pp. 473, 481,
482,
POP- > X, Part :r., 469-470,
485, NOs* 536, 541, 542, 544.
4Ibid.
^Djenal pasha, Memories of a Turkish statesman, p, 271.
-saroaponsibllity, would laaintaln order la tho Armenian vilayots
while rofoisas were being discussed at Constantinople. This was
In no way to affect tho program to be adopted. Franco feared that
dlsordora might arise In tho Anaonian vilayets ninco tho Turkish
array was about to bo donobi112od.-TThe German government favored tho Idoa of a ni£>h cossaisslonor provided lie were an Ottoman subjcctj2
the British govom-
mont was ready to discuss tho French plan;s and tho Italian gov­
ernment was favorable to tho designation of such an official for
tho Armenian vilayeta.4 However, a little lator Franco withdrew
her suggestion of a Hi&h Commissioner for Armenia at th© roquoot
of Russia.^
Russia supported lay Franco wished to uso tho 1895 program
aa a basis for refowas.
Great Britain wavered between her entente
partnerd and Germany, she mn afraid that Russia would {^ain too
much power, but at the saiao time die did not wish to cotae in di­
rect conflict with Russia, nor did alio wish Germany to gain
ascendancy in the Turkish i&aplro.
Gormany insisted that she
would not be relegated to the background in the Hoar East.
noth­
ing had been decided upon by tho summer of 1915 except t!iat the
meetings were to bo held in Constantinople and that tho problem
was to bo assigned to the dragomen of tho embassies instead of to
the ambassadors.
3-D. p. F. « VII, 140, Ho. 131, Juno 16, 1913; Brit. Boo.,
X, Part r;'4^0,UJJHo. 516.
Sibld., p. 474, Ho. 537.
5Ibld.,
4P.
p. 401, No. 541.
D> F.. VII, 204, No. 191.
5lbid.
. p.
242, No. 222, June 28, 1913,
CHAPTER XV
. THE RUSSIAN AVAifl-PKGJET, TIES TORILISH RiSFOKM SCHEME ? AKD
THE OBJECTIONS OF THE POWERS
The Russian project
As tiie Russian draft v/aa ready to be presented to tho
ambassadore, Grey suggested to tho Russian government that the
project should not "bo offered aa ono upon which tho thro© powers
of th© Entente had agreed, sine© it mlj^bit cauao complications and
misunderstandings, and mi£ht provolco rival suggestions.
Tlio
British government advised tlmt Glers should himself present th©
draft project for general dlac usaion to th© assembled ambassa­
dors.3-
At the request of the British government France forwarded
a similar note to Russia,
On June 30, 1913 the Marquis Pallavicinl, tho Austrian
ambassador and dean of the ambassadors at Constantinople, as­
sembled tho meeting to diocusa tho "Mandolstain Avant-projet
It was agreed at this conference that the proposal should be re­
ferred to a Cosmaittee of secretaries and dragomen of tho various
embassies. At the same gathering it was announced that Turkey
was preparing a proposal which was soon to bo communicated to the
embassies officially with a request for its support.2
The Russian (Mandelatarn) draft scheme was based on tlio
following:
•*•0. D. P«» VII, 185, Ho. 171.
gIbid..
pp. 247, 256, Hoa. 229, 237; Brit. Doc.. X,
part I, 467, No. 529.
—39—
-40—
1. The project of administrative rofonas in fctio Armenian
provinces draTO up "by the British, French, and Russian govern­
menta in March-April 1895.
2. Tho Docroo of Reforms In Armenia issued by tho Sultan
on October 20, 1895.
3. The Draft of the vilayet law, revised by tho intomatlonal Goramission for the European Provinces of Turkey of 1880.
4. Tho Gttanan I»aw on the vllayet3 of 1913.
5. Orders and aegotlatioas vdlth regard to Syria
Tho avent-pro.let russe was divided into twenty-two sec­
tions, as follows:
1. One province was to bo formed from the six vilayets of
Erzoriua, Van, Bit11a, Diarbelcir, Kharput, arm Slvas, except­
ing certain frontier districts inhabited largely by tho Kurds.
2. The governor-general (vail) of tho Armenian province
was to be a Christian Ottoman subject, or preferably a j2uropoaa, appointed Xrj the pulton for five years and approved by
the Powers*
3. The £OVQ2Xiar-general was to be the head of the execu­
tive in the Armenian province. He would have full authority
to appoint and replace all tho administrative officers v/1thout exception, also naming judges. The police force and the
gendarmerie vrould be under his jurisdiction. Tho military
forces -were to be at his disposal if It was necessary to
keep order.
4. The Administrative Council of the vilayets, and the
sandjales (districts) were to consist of six cumbers, of nhjoza
three would bo Moslems and three Christians. They wore to
assist the governor-general in the province. Th© adialnistratlve divisions of tho province were to be arranged in such
a -vvay that, from the ethnographical point of view, homogene­
ous groups wore to be farmed aa nearly as possible.
5. The Provincial Assembly would bo composed of Mohamme­
dans and Christians In equal numbers, elected by a secret
ballot in the cazas (departments) by the electoral colleges
to be formed there.
6. The Provincial Assembly tsas to be elected for five
yeax»s, and meet once a year for a regular slttins of two
months. The sitting might be extended by the governorgeneral.
"Stfondelstaci, I>o sort de 1» Empire Ottoman, p. 218
41-
7. Tho Provincial Assembly would bo tho legislative
authority oaa matters of* provincial Interest. Tho Icrna
passed vrero to be sent to the Sultan for his sanction or
veto# which would have to bs given in two months. After
tho expiration of this period, silence of • the Turkish gov­
ernment mis to bo taken as consent*
8. Tho Mutessarif was to bo tho president of tho Admin­
istrative Council of tho sandjaks it was to consist of the
administrative heads of tho sandjak, tho spiritual heads of
tho religious societies, arid six members (three Mohammedans
and throe Christians) were to bo olooted by tho administra­
tive council of the kassas.
9. Boundaries of each nahio (commune) were to bo fi&ed
In such a way that as far as possible villages inhabited by
one nationality were to form one cocanuno. Each commune was
to be administered by a mudir, assisted by a council elected
by the people and composed of a minimum of four and a maxi­
mum of eight members. The council would choose from its
number tho mudlr and his assistant* Tlie mudlr was to be a
member of the national group which ethnologlcally forma a
majority, tho assistant was to belong to tho othor group.
In the communos where the population was iniaied, the minority
was to be represented proportionally to its numbers, pro­
vided that it comprised not loss than twenty-five houses.
10. in each commune there was to be a justice of peace,
appointed by the governor-general and of tho same religion
aa the majority of the commune. A long list of duties and
privileges of tho justices of the various subdivisions was
dram up, as -well as the duties of tho various courts.
11. The administrative officials arid judges of the prov­
ince were to bo selected in equal numbers from the Mohammedan
and Christian population.
12. The corps of police and gjendassaorie wore to be re­
cruited equally from tho Mohammedan "and the Christian popu­
lation of the province- Tho organization and command of
these forces was to be in the hands of tlio European officers
in tho Turkish service.
13. Recruits were to perform their military service yln
time of peace in their native provinces. Tlio ox-IIamidie
regiments (Kurdish light cavalry) wore to be disbanded.
14. Only domiciled inhabitants were to have the electoral
franchise and wore to bo eligible for election.
15. Ho Mohadjvis1might settle within tho boundaries of
tho Armenian province.
16. All laws, orders, regulations, official circulars,
announcements, individual petitions, requests, and all docu­
ments addressed to the judicial or administrative authorities
2-The Mohadjvis wore the Mohammedan immigrants from tho
Macedonian Province which was lost by Turkey In tho Balkan wars.
-42-
wero to be in tho throe languages of tho province {Turkish,
A«nenian, and. Kurdish). Requests and petitions might bo mde
in tiao language chosen by tho parties concerned.
17. Each "nation" in the province was to havo tho right
to eatabliah and maintain private schools of all kinds. They
might rale© taxos fee? tho benefit of these schools among
their own nationals. Teaching, in thoaa schools v/as to be
given in tho national language, "out Turkish v/as to bo compul­
sory in all private schools. Tho supervision of these
schools would be in the hands of tho governor-general.1
IS. A special commission composed of delegates of ths
Ottoman govorniaent and of the powers was to elaborate tlio
Organic Statute of tho province and v/aa to malco special regu­
lations for the benefit of the Armenians residing outside
tho province, particularly in Glllcsla.
19. The rights and privileges of the Armenian nation
dorived from tho Fundamental Decree of 1Q68 iooued by the
Sultan wore to be recognised ao inviolable.
20. Special regulations in the spirit of the above prin­
ciples were to bo issued for the benefit of Armenians resid­
ing outside the province, particularly in Cillcla.
SI. A special commission, consisting of representatives
of the Gttccaan governs*)nt and tho Great powers v/as to draw
up a decree for tho special regulations referred to in the
above article.
22. The Great powers would see that all these regulations
were carried out.1
Turkish Reform Scheme
On July 1, before the first meeting of tho Arsaenian com­
mission which was to consider tho project described abovo -Bras
summoned, tiao Porto informed tho Russian government that a memo­
randum setting fox'th tho proposed Turkish reforms was being sent
to the Powers. Tho ambassadors of the Entente bolioved that tlio
Turlcish initiative had been inspired by Germany, who intended it
to run counter to the collective action of Europe which Russia
had wished to promote.2
•V&andelatazn,
sort do 1'Empire Ottoman, pp. 218-223;
Brit. Doc., X, Part 1, 455-460; D. D. P., VXfT"SS9'-19g, No. 176.
"Ibid., p. 247, HO* 229.
—43—
Tbo aaia points or tho Turfclsh aldo-iaoinoiro were as
FOLLOWS;
1. Tho Empire was to be divided into six sectors of gen­
eral inspection. The two Smportant sectors of Eastern Ana­
tolia inhabited "by an Armenian minority were to have foreign
inspectors who would have under their supervision special
foreign and Ottoman inspectors for gendarmerie, justice,
public works, and agricultur©.
2. Advisers would bo engaged for certain departments.
To this end the cabinet of Mabmoud Shevicet pasha already
had been in correspondence with foreign governments.
3m The number of members of the Financial coaamission v/aa
to be increased and their powers were to be extended to the
elaboration of a budget and to tho supervision of the strict
application of the laws and financial regulations 4« The inspectors-general, after consultins the vails or
govemora-genox'al, would recommend changea to tho porte.
They would have the right to revoke or transfer any official
as a disciplinary measure.
5. The foreign officials of the dopartrsents of justice,
gendaraerio, public ivories, and agriculture were to bo under
direct surveillance of tho inspectors-general.
6. The inspector of finance was to bo directly under the
Minister of Finance.
7. A general council was to raake tho decision In all
affairs of local interest, the budgets of the vilayets were
to bo separated, and the duties of the officials enlarged.
8. A tribunal of justice to compromise tho differences
between tho inhabitants had been established, tho judiciary
tribunals had been reorganised into fifteon sandjaka (dis­
tricts) and one hundred oasas (departments) in Anatolia.
9« A simple method of tax collection was to be sug­
gested by the inspectors-general. They would also verify
new appropriations for the budget of the state and out out
useless expenses,
10. The inspectors-general were to study ways of exploitins the forests and mines, assure progress in agriculture
and encourage industry; in fact they were to undertake every­
thing which would contribute to the intellectual and economic
good of the state.
11. A corps of inspectors of gendarmerie under tho super­
vision of soman pasha had been sent into each Vilayet to
study on the place the number of gendarmerie necessary to
rcalntain order. On tho result of this investigation a
«44"
dcclalon would bo readied on tlio latter point.-*At tho first mooting tlio Russian, British, and. French
delegates insiatod upon tolring tha Kuaalan project aa a basi0 for
discussion, while tho German, Austrian, and Italian representa­
tives# dotoxHiinod to fill In tho gaps of the Turkish aehome with,
points from tho project of 1895 and froaa tho Russian plan, wished
to considor tho Porte » s project.s
Tho i&eetlnss disbanded and tho
quostSon in strife -was loft Jinaottlod. Tho grand vial©a? oxproaaad his wlllinsnesa to coiiply with tho European control coiasaiasion for tho Anroonlan vilayets In an"accoptablo fornun®
Tho British ambassador informed London that lie would
notify hie colleague*a at Constantinople that ho could not go "be­
yond tho scope of tho Russian proposal, lis and £/iora accused
Qorsmny of trying to croat© friction botwesn Britain and Russia.~
Whereupon Grey advised him (tho British ambassador- at Constanti­
nople) that the Turlcish schsnie should ho discussed also, and
ccfiXKimiicatod. this mossage to Russia.5 Consequently on July B»
"both projects v/ero introduced for discussion in tho Armenian
C ADMISSION.6
Suggested project of tho Triple Alliance
On July 23, a protocol was presented "by tho dblogataa of
tho Triple AXlianco which ma to aorvc as a compromise between
1g«
P« » XXXVIII, 82, Ho. 15,341; Brit, Doc.» X, part X,
474, HO.
gp« D* F> > VII, 292, HO. 270J Q» P., XXXVIII, 8S, HO* 15»340^IHID.
P. F«« VII, 210, Ho- 289; Brit* Doc., X, Part I, 471,
No. 533.
51hid., 479, 2fo. 539s D> P» F« * VII, SOLO, NO. 289.
%. P., XXXVIII, 98, Nos. 15,550, 15,351.
-45-
th© far reaching Russian project and tho ineffective Turkish plan.
This scheme, which took tho Turkish plan aa a basis and supple­
mented it with, points from tho Russian proposal, stressed tho fol­
lowing provisions;
1. European control of the reform program
2. Technical advisors fac* tho administrative council
of tho vilayets
3- Duty of tho vails to call tho provincial assembly
whoa a two-thirds iaajority demanded It
4. Duties of the Provincial Assembly and the adminis­
trative council of the sandjoka and casas to bo drawn up
according to tho provisions of tho project elaborated by
tho European cormaisslon of 1830
5* Keorganisation of the police and sendarsoerle under
forei^i specialists
6. Abolition of tbo Kurdish light cavalry
7. Withholding the franchise freed nomad Kurds, which
would toe) an incentive to them to became settled.
8.- The equality of the three languages (Turkish, Armen­
ian, and Kurdish)
9. Freedom in establishment of schools for all national
elements
10. Acknowledgement of tho rights and privileges of tho
Armenian tenet
11. A speedy eottleiaont of the agrarian question3*
Germany urged the Porte to accept these modifications.
In August, Germany withdrew har opposition to regional
military service for the Armenians after a few prosalnent Armenians
warned Germany that if she persisted in her opposition, she would
earn their hatred In Cillcla.
in that case Germany would havo to
reckon with Armenian hostility instead of support in her struggle
for economic preponderance.2
1rbld»,
gBrit.
p. 125, 126, HO. 15,375.
Doc., x, Part I, 516, No. 567.
..46—
There seezaod to "bo a division or opinion in tho Goriaan
foreign office as to ttussia * a motives. Wangonheim and. scans indi­
viduals in th© foreign ofrice insisted tlmt Russia, in asking for
autonoaay for Armenia, wished to attach tho Armenian province to
Ruasia.1 Tho Gorman ambassador at St. petersburs a^ other mem­
bers believed that Hussia was not ready at that tirae to annex
new territory, but that alio was usin^ tho Armenian vilayets ao a
key to the Bosporus and the Black Soa. In order that Russia
night develop the resources v/hioh she load and strengthen hor
position, sloe would havo to figuro on a period of peace.2 Th©
latter statement is probably raore nearly correct, if vro may judge
by sasonov*s words to tho Tsar in December, 1913 when he stated
that Russia must encourage railroad construction to the Turkish
border aril xaust discourage the same raoveraent in tho Ottceaan
Empire so that vlien the proper tija© arrived, Russia would be in
a better position to stxdteo.3
Gemtany believed that Sassonov -oaa honest in tho matter of
Armenian refoaaaa, but tint not all Russians were equally so.4
However, Sasonov did not give Geiaaany the benefit of the doubt,
lie stated to tlio British foreign office that Germany's opposi­
tion to the reforms was merely a movo to sow dissension bofcv/een
Britain and Russia.
Tho British ccsu^ent to this remark v/as that
doubtless sasonov waa sincere, but why should Sasonov not give
Germany credit for honesty also.®
3-G. P., XXXVIIX, 108, 122, Nos. 15,361, 15,372.
8Ibld.,
80, 133, Bos. 15,339, 15,378*
sStievo,
4Prlt.
Xswolaki, HI, 374-382, No. 1157.
Doc., X, Part I, 487, Eo. 546.
5Xbld,,
p. 4Q2, no. 542.
-47Gorman Objections
Germany, assorting tlicit the Russian proposal for an
autonomous Armenian provinco would be tho beginning of tho parti­
tion or the Ottoman E'rapiro,^ taaintainod that if tho Armenians
wero given a especial privileged position, the other "nations"
would also demand it which, would "bo a atop farther to the dismeuaborsont of the Ottoman Empire.2
A reform program initiated lay
the porto to bo carried oa throughout the entire Empire vjould be
a solution to the problem.^
Germany declared that to include all of tho vilayets in
ono province would
maltes
it so largo otyln;^ to tho absence of prop­
er facilities for traaajjortatioii that ono region would be cut off
from another. 5,'nls would also load to anarchy and to strife be­
tween tho military and civil authorities. FurtherEiore, part of
tills territory was located v/hero tho branch lines of tho Gerxaan
Bagdad Railroad was situated. This would moan that the people in
this locality would gravitate to Russia and hone© Gorman interest
would suffer-4
Russia argued that to include tho six vilayeta into ono
provinco would oncourago econoray in the administration and it
would usalce tho choico of valia easier by lessening tho number.
Besides it would better tho material position of tho valis and
give thorn more prestige and authorlty.s
*®*Ibld., pp. 470, 474, Nos. 532, 537; Mandolstam, Le Sort
do 1'Bnipiro 'Ottoraan. p, 226; p.. P.. F.. VII, 204, 290, NosT~SB£7~
268; G» P.. XXXVIII, 104, 118, nos. 15,359, 15,362.
PP- 78* 91, Nos. 15,337. 15.347s Brit. Doc.. X,
part I, 472, 487, Nos* 535, 546.
SG.
P., XXXVIIX, 78, Ho. 18,337.
"Ibid., p. 89, No. 15,347.
5Ibid.,
p. 89, Ho. 15,347, July 3, 1913.
—40—
Gexroany claimed that now sinco tho ports was willing to
accept foreign officialo, the Russian argument, that Turkey* a
trouble was not duo fco a lack or good la-era "but incompetent offi­
cials s had no baaia.**•
Bon ides Armenia would bo bound only loosely
to the Ottoman Empire If, as Ruaoia wished, tho governors-,general
would have a right to appoint and remove officers and Judges in
that section.^
This program* in c-eman opinion, fax5 exceeded that of
1895. To spare Russian oenaitiveneas Germany suggested that it
nrl[£it bo said that a new factor load been introduced; namely, that
T-uricey had already sot hor now project in motion and that she
must be si von an opportunity to work it out*
if tho port© should
fall, it -would then bo time for the rowero to step in.s
However, the Russian gover-mnant claimed the benefits of
priority since she would, not accept half measures in the prov­
ince a on her border and sinco tho Turkish plan had not taken root«Sasonov insisted that thei*e must Ixs European control, Christian
govoraora, and a council which would participate in tho local
administration;^ but Russia vme v/illingj to give friendly consid­
eration to any modifications which Goxraony laisht sufs^est.
Later,
tho Turkish scheme was rejected by Russia and pressure v/as put on
the porte to accept tho Russian proposal*
Sazanov said that it
\m.& "as impossible to amalgaEiat© them as fire and
1Itald»,
bid.
water,"6
p. 86, Ho. 15,344.
Slhid., p. 95, Ho. 15,547.
^Ibld., p. 97, Ho. 15,549; Brit. Doc., X, Part x, 472,
Ho. 535.
^Zb.id.a p. 494, No. 554; Benckendorffa piplomatlocher
Schriftav/echael. p. 102, Ho. 960.
~
£3
Brit. Doc,, X, Part I, 494, Ho. 544.
—49«
Russia had flirted with
Italy
to
get
her aupport Tor the
Kussian project against the other members of tho Triple Aliiawee;
btifc when Giors aaw that hla plan was railing, he tried to put the
blama Tor th© failure oil Germany.
Likewise the British ambassa­
dor at CConstantinople sought to put the blame on tho members of
tho Triple Alliance in caso the plan, did not carry.2
wangenheim
contended, 11* the rofonas wore not pixt through, tho Triple Alli­
ance could not talaa the responsibility 5 and
therefore
Germany
must urge the Porte to advance her own program with tho Powers
who were willing to worls: with hor.*3
Germany was ©speclolly desirous of furthering her own
Interest ill Asia Minor*
Consequently, six© obtained the promise
or the (grand vizlor, Prince said Halim, that ho would not make
any decision without consulting Berlin.^
Although Germany con­
stantly asserted that she wished to maintain the integrity of the
Ottoman Empire, nevertheless, she repeatedly spoke of her sphere
or Influence and vi& ahed to have it recognised by the Powers.5
Finally Germany suggested a
Commission of Control, sit­
ting permanently at Constantinople, to consist of Turkish dolegates and delegates from the Powers in. equal numbera„
This
eaoimlsalon whose members were to travel from time to time through
tho Arsaenian vilayets and superintend the execution of tho re­
forms, was to hear the coaplalnts and give information and
instructions to the valla and the Inspectors-general. The Gersma
foreign office believed that tills would, work better1 than the
P.3 XXXVIII, 107, NO. 15,361*
^Ibld.a p. 107, Ho. 15,361.
SXbid.,
p. 117> No. 15,368, July 22, 1913.
4Xbld..
p. 101, llo. 15,356.
5IMd.,
p. 120, Ho. 15,371.
-50-
Ruesian project.^ The British atabasoador at Berlin, commending
Germany for acting ao oponly in the csatter, was pleased at tills
Idea.2
Britlab. Objections
The British foreign omoo from the vei'y beginning ms
opposed to tho Russian draft.
Grey agreed vrith Jagow that auton­
omy In these rxpovinces tsoiild be "tantamount" fco the eventual
partition of the Asiatic provinces which Britain could not toler­
ate because of Its effect upon India.*3
She also felt that the
Armenian vilayeta united into one provinco v/oulcL xaako it too un­
wieldy.
Dxirlng the time that Lovfther served aa tho ambassador and
Fitsanaurico as tho firat dragoman, the British embassy at Con­
stantinople did not conceal it3 antipathy for the lonag Turks and
Gorssany because she supported Turkey. While Grey was doing every­
thing in his power to reconcile the diverse opinions between Ger­
many and Buasla, the British embassy at Constantinople, owing to
its open hostility to the Younn; Turks in power, was trying to
influence London against the Young Turks. This, no doubt, was
the cause of
enheim*a remark couiniunloatod to tho Berlin office
on July 4, 1913, "it strides mo so strange that pitsraauric©*s
standpoint on the Russian project does not harraonise with the
declaration of Sir Edward arey to the Gorman foreign office."4
Before tlie project was completed Lowther v/as rex^laced by
Mallet who tried to jaaintain friendly relations v&th the Young
-*-~Ibld.» pp. 94, IIS, Hos, 15,347, 15,867; Brit. Doc.. x,
Part I, 498/ 502, lloa. 557, 562.
%bid., p. 487, No. 546.
3Xbid.,
p. 472, HO» 535.
^O. P., XXXVTII, 88, No. 15,546.
-51—
Turks.
The OttOKjan government was ploaaed also when Fitsmaurice
was removed, and an a result moro friendly relations between tlao
two gov omnian13 were e a t ablished.
Tho Briti ah orabaasy at 0 onatantinople inforiued the London
foreign erfico that tho Armenians would bo disappointed if they
did not receive special privileges undor Russia.
Their (British)
chief objection to the Turkish scheme lay mosfcly in tho fact that
the inspectors-gonoral in the provinces were to be appoiatsd by
Turkey2 and that the powera of thoao foreign, officials were too
limited-
In case of dispute between the two factions tho deci­
sion was to reat with tho council of
Min:lstex»s.3
The British
ambassador declared that tho Turkish plan was meant to forestall
the Russian schoiao arid that this raovo vrae guided by the Goruian
ambassador.
The roinutes inscribed at tho end of thic docxsaoafc
insinuated that thoy (in London) doubted if the Armenians wei^e a a
rjrixious to be under Kuasian control aa Russia would have had tho
v/ox\ld believe, because the iiuasian Arsaeniaias had ;aot always been
happy, and therefor© tho Turkish Armenians would, no doubt, have
preferred remaining under Turkish rule with the ziocosesary guar­
antees.The British and French ^ovemments thought the Russian
project wont too far, for Turkey a3 woll aa some of the European
powaro would not consent to such extended authority for the
inspectors-general.
in the opinion of tho British foreign office
^•5atorroich-Unaama Auaaenpolitik von dor Bosniachon
liiriae 19Q8 bis sum Krio^sauabru'cii 193.4. 'hereafter cited aa O*U-A*s
ect.n' Ludwig Bl'ttrior (v/ien?' (ieaterreiclier Bundesvorlag ftta» unterricht, V/isaenscliaft und Kunst, 1930), Vol. VII, 998, Ho. 9506.
gBrit.
Doc..
gIbid.,
x , Part I, 475, Ho. 538.
p. 471, Ho. 543.
4Ibid.,
p. 479, **o. 540.
-52-
tho vilayet system was iuloquato and it informed tho British
ambassador at Conatoutinoplo that ho should do all to strengthen
Turkey and to disturb as little as possible the frarnework or tho
Ottoman Empire.
Tlao British goverwnent hoped to get Sasianav to
accept those vie ws.
The British believed that if Russia refused completely to
discuss the Turkish draft, there -would bo a deadlock.
if Russia
gave in, then Britain could approach Gerioany and inquire in which
respects tho Russian proposal went too far, and then ascertain
how Tar Russia was prepared to go.32
In spite or Britain'a advice, Russia constantly appealed
to tho British government for support of her project.*^
Tho
British farei(p.i office advisod Russia that it was in favor of
having the Turkish proposal discussed along with the Kusslan
project.-
Grey informed Sazonov that two things were osjsontial
for the success of the plan.
First, there must lx> unanimity
among th& powors -which could not he if Hussia insisted on talcing
hex11 scheme as a whole; therefore he suggested that some of tho
Ottoiaan plan should ho included, the more tho hotter.
Second,
the achomo must he accepted by tho Porto without coercion.5
Ger­
many and prance agreed with Britain on tho two above mentioned
points.6
But still the British ©anbassy at Constantin oplo on
^-Ibid.9 P- 4B9, No. 548.
sIbid.
PP• 494, 499, Hos. 554, 553.
^Ibld.* P- 486, No. 545.
9
4Ibid.
*
P* 479, Mo. 540; D. D. p.. vxx,
HOS. 289, 349.
5Brit,
Doc., X, Part X, 488, Ho. 547; G. P., XXXVIII*
110, JtJo* 15,363.
Qprit. DOC.•» x, Part X, 490, Ho- 550.
-53-
July 12, 1913 opposed, tho London viewpoint. They admitted that
Russia had changed hep ideas in recant yeara on tho Armenian
question, but that Gonoany* s interest in Armenia was only a few
wales old# They stator! that Genaany was merely trying to curry
favor with Turkey, and by thwarting tho Russian plan, Gesraany was
trying to put Britain in an attitude of opposition towards Russia.^
Pi^nch Objections
The Turkish government made appeals for a fortnight to
the French goverrasont to support tho Turlcish project. Tho powers
had promised during the previous peaoo negotiations to give Turkey
their raoral and material support to repair tho ovil of tli© war and
to aBGuro tho progress and development of the Turkish Empire«
Therefore on July 1, tho TurJcisli government appealed to tho French
Hepublic to intervene in bo half of tho Ottoman Empire.s
The French observations on tho Kuasian projoct v/ero sliailar to those of Gorraany and Britain. Sinco Albania and Husaia
isrero adjacent and Russia wao an asylum for tho Armenian catholi-•
cos, France thought tliat thoso circtaaetarcos would oxoz'cise a
dangerous attraction to tho Christian population of an autonomous
Araenia -which might load to the partition of tho Ottaiaan Empire.®
If such occurred, Germany would insist aa having her aliaro. Then
tho Husaian government would bo the first to regret the "impru­
dent initiative" which would provoke parallel pretensions.Russia constantly restated that she too wlBhed to main­
tain the integrity of the Ottcanon Empire, which was able to be
^IbM., 493, Ho. 553.
%>. D. P., VII, 252, Ho. 232.
glbid.,
4Ibid.
pp. 368, 381, Hoa. 331, 345.
dono only toy pacifying tho countries which Imd "undergone the
vexations of a defective administration."-1, However, this does
not agree with Gier's rsraarilc of July 11, 1913 that tho jmlntenaiice of the integrity of tho OttCEoan Empire lay in Ruealan hands5
that if the di3nnora"benr»nt was still distant it could come at any
moment and Ruosia vras not preimrod for its and that the Armenian
reforms vrore not intended to check tho general breakdown of
Turkey.2
Russia reiterated that she had plenty of land in tho
Caucasus and did not vvish to attach Armenia because tho restless
element. Instead of lending strength, i<rc>uld he a source of weak­
ness to the Hus3ian J2mnire.3 She claimed that ah© did not need
to seek an excuse for intervention. All 3he nooded to do was to
lot matters take their otm course sine© the Armenians bad asked
to bo put under Russian control and were just milting for a
"wink" frcsa Russia to start a revolution..'4
The French foreign office also felt that, ov/in£5 to the
lack of means of communication, such a province would be too
large.
Besides tho refoinn program completely excluded the Armen­
ians living in other sections of Anatolia, prance suggested that
it might be well to have one governor-genera! a Christian, and
tho other a Moslem to suit tho needs of the Turks and Kurds vrho
were in tho majority in these districts.^ The establishment of
a ptarely elective body in Armenia seemed premature to tho x?rejich
1lMd.,
Vila 361, JJo. 345; Brit* Doc., x, Part 1, 482,
Ho. 542.
®Stiovo, Xsv/olski, XII, 201, Ho. 95.
®3rit. Doc., IX, 977, Ho. 1228; G. P., XXXVIII, 97,
NO. 15,349, July &, 1913.
-Ibid., p. 112, Ho. 15,366.
5P.
P. F., VII, 193, Ho. 185.
-55-
govemxaent ainoe the country via,s still in a atato of rudiiaontary
civilisation.
Truly fx'eo olact IOJIG v/oiild provoke disorder and
£lve riao to anarchy.1
Moreover, the Fro noli ambassador at Berlin could not see
tliat tills projoe b waa based on that of 1835 > Tor1, that or 1895
said nothing about reducing Armenia to one or two provinces., it
had nevor jsuggoGted a christian or Earopeaa governor at tho head,
sinco according to tho statistics taken in 1893-1897 tho Chris­
tians wore in the minority -Russia on tho contrary maintained
tliat the union or tho six vilayets into one province closely fol~
lowed tho program laid do™n in the Decree of* 1895.
Therefore she
ins la tod that breaking it up into tv/o sectors was one step back­
ward fro:n the original program.^
To these French objections fciuoala answared tliat she t«s
v/illin£ to accept tho two provinces in Eastern .Anatolia, but with
a guarantee that roformo would bo assured "qy a Chrietian ^ovomorgenoral agreed upon by tho Powers.
Sasonov api>oared to havo bo-
como disgusted v/ith his allies, for, ho said in the presence of*
tho French and British ambassadors at at. Peteraburg during the
middle of August, "Vihy this name of Triple Entente, if it is nec©saary to be undoratood txj sis, and to what good ia It to have
thro© to consult together if one acts only through s i x . T h e
French auibaosador felt this reproach everywhere in Russia—in th©
prose, salons, and everywhere where public opinion w&a OKpressed,
The FZ'onch foreign office saw that it v/as still a question
of aetting tho Triple Exitento against the Triple Alliance instead
^•Ibid.
gXbld.,
VII, 368, No. 331.
5Stievo,
4i>.
isvrolaki, m, 201, Ho. 95.
D. P.. VIII, 117, Ho. 99.
-56of trying to reconcile thorn.
Tho pronch foreign minister con­
cluded that It was bottox- £or thro© Pov»rB to discuss tho icatter
with three adversaria© than for flvo to discuao tho question with
on© power.3- France finally au&geated It would bo "boat to havo a
"contro-projot" rand© cy the ambassadors at Constantinople; on©
•which would be acceptable to all powers at tho onset.2
^Ibld.» 117, minutes to 99.
2Ibid.
a
VII, S68, NO. 331.
CHAPTER V
FAII.UR8 OF THE COMMISSION,. OHIBR SiitXSESS'XOllS,
AMD HEGOTIATIQMS
"prom July 3 to July So* 1913 tlao Armenian commission hold,
oight Eiootings to consider tlie poforas. sinco it failed to accaniplish anything, tho acsnmission disbanded and decided that the
conti'ol or tho Armenian rofoma was not to bo nmdo through tho
ccfraizittoo, hut in a diplcamtic roannor throu^i the ambassadors.The morabera of the Triple Alliance suggested that it vsould 00 aoro
advisable that tho Turkish reform project shoiild bo scrutinised,
parts taken out, and supplements made, to Milch Russia j>x»oxnisod a
reply in a few days.8
1
Gorcaany censured Russia fox* tho failure of the camnission
bocauso she would not consider the Turkish plan. Russia claimed
that if sho had receded, her proatiQ© would have sufi'ored still
mora than it had after tho Adrianoplo question.s Tho aiuhaasadora
of* tho Triple Entente at Constantinople "blamed Gersnany for* tho
failure. They contended that tho ports would have accepted tho
Bussian scheme if it iiad not "been ouppoi'ted "by the powers of the
Triple Alliance who thought that Russia was trying to ra&ke for
hersolf a sphere of influence which would eventually load to tlio
3-Bgit, Doc*, X, Part 1, 504, Ho. 567.
gG.
F., XXXVIII, HI, NO. 15,364.
^^Brlt. Poo., X, part X, 504, No* 567. During the Second
Balkan Y/ar Turkey recaptured Adrianople from Bulgaria. Russia
opposed Turkish retention of this area, but had to yield to the
pressure exerted toy the other Great powers who outwardly were
supporting Turkey. Consequently Turkey retained her control of
Adrianople.
-57-
-53partitlon or tho Ottoman Empire.1
After tho coEiniasion had failed, and after Britain had
refused to land officers to tho Ottoraan Empire, Turkey sought to
obtain from other small Pcnvora officers for har refoasa program.
She approached Belgium and Sweden on this problem of official©
in August 1915, but Russia tried to discourage this. Glers told
tho Swedish minister that Turkey was not sincere in hoi* rofoscra.
movement, that nothing would cocao of it, and that it would bo
inopportune for Sweden to participate in the Turkish reform plan,
Tho Swedish minister then consulted pallavlcinl, tho Austrian
ambassador, who insisted that tho Porto was serious and really
realised the need of reforms. The Austrian ambassador argued
that these words of Giers demonstrated the Russian attitude and
her desire to maintain the present disturbed condition in Ar­
menia.2 Sweden preferred not to become involved in this quootion
which did not specifically concern her.
About tho same timo, the Serbian ministex* at Rome, seem­
ingly on hla own initiative, suggested that since Turkey was un­
able to defend liersoIf a alio should bo neutralised and put under
tlie guarantee of the six Groat powers-
in tills way, ho main­
tained, Turkey could savo xnoney on military operations. Italy
replied that tills was an entirely now idea. The Triple Alliance
saw in this move a part of the Russian plan to further weaken
Turkey from a military stand-point®—which Germany would not
tolerate«
Mgr. Djevahirdjan, the "locum tenons" of tho Armenian
patriarch, went in person to tho representatives of tho Great
3-Ibid., p. 509, Ho. 504.
g0.
U. A., VII, 27, HO. 8183.
®Ibid., p. 133, Ho. 8381. Merey, minister at Roane, to
Austrian Foreign Office, Aug* 14, 1913.
-59-
powera, giving; tlie views of tlio Council of tlio Arraenian community
and asking for tlaoir support. Tlio conditions which, ho said the
Armenian population considered indispensable in creating a last­
ing ardor of affairs in Armenia were:
1. xt was necessary that tho six vilayets should bo
united under the head or one gpvernor-senoral.
2. Thia govomor-ganoral was to be a European and
inspire confidence of tho powers or if ho wero not a Euro­
pean, tho powers were to assent to his nomination.
3. His decisions were not to depend upon the Sublime
Porto, and ho xvaa to have full power to name oil officials
and judges.
4. There \sao to bo equality in tho number of represent­
atives and of public officials, being equail;/ divided
Moslem and Christian*
5. The now administration was to be placed under v. woll
organised Euroi>oan control.
Tho French ambassador at Constantinople replied thus to the Armen­
ian representative:
uhy presemt demands whose rejection is aoourod, why not
concontrata your efforts on a scheme which is likely to
succeed; which, while not creating a perfect regime, will
procure at least a sensible amelioration of the present lot
of tho Armenian populationv This entirely oriental policy
of asking for the impossible* in the vague hope of getting
something* is not in keeping; with tho actual situation, wo
do not today wish to create any disturbances and then enun­
ciate a one purely theoretical, program, out wo have a better
means—to realise certain practical refoxroa which vd.ll
alleviate tlio lot of tho unhappy Armenians and prepare a
now conquest of disorder and oppression, why not adhere to
these rofoaaa instead of maintaining sane vague nariifesta­
tions which will give the impression that you do not really
hopo for any results.
In the deiuands which you havo formulated there are two
in tills category. They treat of the representation of nonmuaouliaans in the public offices and tho organisation of a
European control in tho adninistration of tlie Armenian
vilayet.2
To this the "locuia tonens" responded that thay had sulanitted to
tho Powers the desires of tho "Nation" and it v/aa in their power
•4). D. F». VIII, 152, Annex to 1S4.
2Ibid.,
pp. 151, 152, Ho- 124.
-60-
fco name tho "procedure" which they judged suitable.•*-
Tho French
ambassador concluded tliat this response from tho high©31 authority
of tho Amonian nation Indicated, to what o^tont tho Armenians
were atill unqualified to manage their own interests. it ms a
good proof of the "stoxMlity" to which some reforms based an tho
action of an elective assembly In the Armenian vilayets would "bo
subjected.2
In the meantime, oonfextern©© contizmed between the Ger­
man and Kuasian embassies in their attonipt to dray/ up a plan
which would be acceptable to both powers, and to which the Otto­
man Empire might agree. Yib.ll© tho discussions were in progress,
both Wangenheim and Oiers caw:© to Bocipard, the French ambassador
at Constantinople, for his support. Warigenheim believed that
Bttssla had a governor-goneim! in mind who was a Russian*
Should
a Russian aone of Influence be established by installing a
Husslan 50vemoa-'-gQnoral in Greater Armenia, then Gonaany would
establish a similar aono in Looser Armenia, and tho other powers
Including Italy, who was interested in Adalia, would demand
similar privileges. This would moan that the Turlcish Empire
would pass out of existence.
pean war»
xt would also mean a general Euro­
But YJangenheixa was sure that tho Porte would refuse
to accopt a Russian official which would settle that liaatter*^
If Russia had had a definite' candidate in mind,, Glors novor men­
tioned him to his British and French colleagues.
Twice# on September 5, Glers interviewed Bompard to state
that unless something were dono, a revolution would result-
no
mentioned the five points which the Armenian "nation" demanded.^
3-Xbid.
Sibld.
SG.
P- , XXXVIII, 120, HO. 15,571.
4P.
D. P., VIII, 163, 164, Ho. 135.
-61-
Sasonov*s pressure, said Giers, waa duo fco tlio Tact that ho was
exposed to the insistent solicitations of the Cathollcos of
EtsofcHnias-.in, and ho (sazonov) felt himself accountable for tho
wishes of tho Annonian population.^
Baeipard informed Glors of
his response to tho "locum, t0«ens."
Franco admitted that a gov­
ernment vliioh included tho five points would bo excellent for
Armenia, but unacceptable fco Turkey.5
Giers replied that it waa a system which tho Annonian
"nation" had decided upon and to which they adhered despairingly•
Whether thoy v/ero mistaken or not, Qiora would not specify.
m
trying to prevent an Imminent explosion, Russia insisted that tho
Armenians must bo glvon iamsodlate satisfaction.
in hi3 report to i-'curl 3, Boctpard stated that ho was doubt­
ful of tho motives of Russia.
Ho load an occasion to road a ooaix-
municatlon of Easonov in which tho latter stated;
Turkey in Asia will not ho able to maintain herself for
long* After tlao energy of tho Young: Turks is spent the
ottoman Incapacity for organisation will load to partition
which tho "nations" are preparing. Tho host solution would
bo that achieved in Europe—the establishment of small atatoa
corresponding to tho nationality--Armenians, Syrians3 and
Arabians."5
B<»apard addod that there would certainly bo indirect conflicts
because, for each autonomous nation, there would be a European
protector.
A direct conflict would bo inevitable if it bocome a
matter of fixing limits of these acmes.Since Hussia feared tliat if she wore too uncompromising,
the leadership in the reforia question would fall to Germany, she,
therefore, in early autumn, consented to tho creation of two
provinces at tho liead of which were to be Christian governors
1Ibld.,
VII, 368, 1JO. 331.
glbid.
^D. I>» P., VIII, 181, 182, Iio. 144.
4Ibid.
-62-
ohoson by tlao Sultan v/1th tho consout of tho powera.-*•
But she
inslstod that tho provinces must not too so divided that thoy
would b© so heavily populated by Uohacarjodans aa to put tho Armen­
ians in a smaller minority-8
At this point tho negotiations "broke down. Russia wanted
tho line draxm Tram. east to weat and Gersnany and Turkey frcaa
north to south. Germany maintained tliat the east to vrest line
would create a northoiti province © at1rely bordering Husola v/iiloli
ml^ht become a Russian sphere or influenco.®
France stated that
this idea of Russia was absurd, but bocauoo or her alliance with
Hussia she could say nothing.
Britain 3ldod with Russia, while
Italy and Austria vrero with aoriBany.^
The question came to a deadlock, ao Italy docldod to In­
fuse new interest, she surgested that tlao Armenian rofossas
might bo carried through"! on the following throe points, namely;
1. The a^rooroont of the £>ortc to a European conti»ol or
tho refoiras.
2. The reorganisation of the police and gondorniorlo In
the Armenian vilayets under i*oreign control.
3. Dismissal of the o^-Jiamidlo Light Cavalry.^
GerKJ&ny stood firm that she must reconcile tho two proj­
ects. Tlie Italian proposal was not accoptablo to ioor.
points
such as the legal use of the throe languages, freedom in estab­
lishing schools, and the agrarian, question, she believed, must
bo considered. The Armenians would be greatly disappointed i£
thoso wore not accepted and if tho above polnto were not carried
P.j XXXVIII, 125, J?o, 15,373.
Slbid., p. 137, No. 15,582.
SIbld.,
^Ibid.
p. 138, HO. IS,383.
Slbid., p. 124, Ho, 15,374.
-63-
out* they would "bo driven into tlio arms of Russia-
Frosn th©
hiatorioal standpoint, Russia, bocauso she bordered Armenian ter­
ritory and Germany, becauaa or tho concessions and capital in­
vested in Anatolia, were most interested in the Armenian quootion.
Therefor© Gownany would not permit Italy to dlctato to liar in
this inattor since Italian interests in tho roi'oita question vsroro
negligible.*** Besides It was not clear to Goxraany if Turkey tod as
yot accepted the idea of a Christian governor-general chosen by
th© Sultan with the consent of tho powers*
(Jlers, at Basonov'a request, insisted that tho governorsgeneral vjoro to bo appointed with European consont and v/ero to bo
empowered to place all officials in tho Albionlan provincoa.
Tho
grand vialer continued to argue tliat this interfered v/lth Turlclsh
sovereignty, but lio was willing to recognise tho pore/era* ri£$it to
seo that the reforms wore being carried out.
sinco Huaaia and
Turkoy could not agpes, Gorraany, late in August, urged tho Trucks
to coin© to an agroeisont directly with tho Armenians.®
The sug­
gestion wao not approved. 8inco tho Armenians refxiesed to act? with­
out Russian consent*
Tho German and Ruoolan governments thought that It v/ould
be wiser to have tho arabaaaadoro discuss tho projecta with each
other rather than through the delofjates as had been done up to
this tlrjG»s
As a result of tho direct contact hotwoen tho two
ambassadors a compromise on tho six following polnto was x^oachod:
1. Tho Porto -was to aslc tho powers to reooEsaond tv/o In­
spectors—general for the two sectians3 of Eastern Anatolia,
•with vuhani tho j^owora wore to conclude contractc to aorvo
3-Ibid.,
p. 135, HO. 15,380.
^Ibid., pp. 136, 137, Ho. 15,381.
5G.
P., XXXVIII, PP. 143, 145, 146, Nos. 15,386, 15,3B9,
and 15,39$*'D. D» P., VIII, 259, Annex to 191; Brit. Doc-, X,
part I, 517,~HoT~Sg3-
-64-
for i'ivo yearn and whoso succooaora were to be appointed In
a siniilar Eanner.
2. These inspectors were to havo a limited right or ap­
pointing and an unrestricted rl^ht or diaiaiaalns officials
in their spheres.
3. There waa to bo an elective council coaposed of Hos­
iers and Christiana in equal misnbora.
4. The officials in each section wore to bo Moslems and
Christians in equal numbers.
5. Th© ambassadors at Constantinople and tho consols or
tho powers v;ero to control tlio application or tlio reforms.
6. The Porto wo to agreo with th© Power's regarding the
othor reforsis to be applied in tho two sectors.
Tho othor Groat Power*a accepted tho si:-i-point project.'3
They affirmed that, to satisfy the Armenians, tho Turkish govern­
ment had to recoQilze a Buropean guarantee or control.*5
But
Groat Britain reared that tho Turkish cabin©t would not accopt so
far reaching a acherao even though tho grand vizier, Said Hallm
pasha, would acquiesce, sinco in British opinion said HalIra ..-aaha
was not influential .with the Youn^ Turk Cabinet
Tho CrOKatm and tlie iiuasian ambassadors admitted tlmt tho
chief point then \sas to get tlie coneent of the grand visier.
Doth thought it wise to delay bringing up point aix because it
would laatorially extend tho authority of the powers in Turkish
internal affairs.5
At this point Austria-Hungary because more concerned,, for
although ahe had no opecial interest in the Armenian question and
would abido by any decision Germany and Russia might make, alio
3-Ibld. g Q. P., XXXVIIIa 145, No. 15,538.
%>. D. F., VIII, 300, HO. 240*
3Brit.
Doc., X, part I, 145, NO. 15,388; G. P., XXXVI1X,
145? NO. 15,588.
4Brit.,
___
Doc., X, part I, 517, Ho. 568.
p. p., VXI'X, 259, 2FO. 191; C-. P., XXXVIII* 14G 9 HO.
-65-
novorfchelesa requested that when it cariio to asking for a choice
of officials for Turkey, 3ho should bo consulted.
Besides she
wished to have one inajjector-goaora1 Ghoaon from tlao Au3troIlungarian Monarchy.3To tlmt oenaany i^oplied that an official of tlie Groat
powers would not be conalderod for tlio position, of InapootorBritain had offered, tv/o officials in tho spring, but
general.
had to withhold thorn toecauao of Huasioa opposition. Therefore
Germany thouj^ht that the choice would have to fall on a minor
neutral power.^
Tho c amniisslon, which had "boon formed to settle fcho Ar­
menian refoxra quootion, failed to accomplish anything, and tho
powers of tho Triple Entente (©specially Ruasia) and tho ;-ov?era
of tho Triple Alliance blamed each other for its fail-are. There­
fore Turkey decided to find officials to carry through her own
reform program, a solution to which tho Triple Alliance agreed,
but which v/as not satisfactory to tho Triplo Bntent©.
suggested
Q
Italy then
modified three-point lirocjrati to which Germany objected
because it did not include the main points at iaaue.
A "six-
point" Ruaso-Oersnan agroeiaent v/aa reached during tlie latter part
of July between Giere and Wansenhelm, and it wao presented to tho
Porte for ita approval.
-Ibid, j pp. 147, 148, ilos. 15,391, 1£>,392.
^Ibid., p. 148, HO.
15,393.
CHAPTER VI
TURKISH OBJECTIONS AND COUUTISR PROPOSALS
Tho grand viaier rejected point one of the Russo-Gemaan
project because ho believed tliat the inform question ahould bo
based 011 a political and not aa administrative policy.
la a con­
flict between the Great pov/era and. the Porte, the powers v/ould
stand behind, the inspeotors-ijenoral and in this way Europe would
constantly b0 Intex'vening in Turkish internal affairs. Thie right
or interference would be especially advantageous to Russia, he
remarked, "who would
in sheep*s clothing into Anaenla so that
she could later houae as a wolf."-*- To ssive Asmenia special privi­
leges would be the beginning of partition-
The idea of the Parte
was that tho inspectors-general irsust bo Turkish officials and
liable to dismissal by the porte.
wholly a Turkish problem.
After all tho reforms woro
Tlie Pov/era had a ri&ht to ooo the re-
foxins carried out, but not to introduce them. "For tho first time
in Turkish history," said tho grand vizier» "did tho Porte give
honoafc consent to work with Europe, instead of giving us help
tlie powex»a have refused us officials."
The grand viaier raado it
cloax' to Y/an^onhelm and Giera that if the European government a
out of jealousy for one another wore refusing them officials,
Turkey would carry through her own reforran and would 4501 offi­
cials from wherever she could.2
To tho French ambassador the grand visier assado an appeal
1Ibid.
a
pp. 150» 151, Ho. 15,396.
2Ibld,
-66-
-67-
for officials to help administer the co untry:
We ask for offloors of gendarmerie from one power,(Tie
saidj then another Power raakos objections so as to prevent
tlmt Power from sending them.. And why? They wish us to
resort to strangers, and that it be imposed upon uo. Tlie
refoxraa which thoy are advocating are not good, and villi
have no xoerit in th© eyas of the pooplo unless th© Ottoman
Sovorrcaenfc talces tho initiative. r*?hey do not admit that tho
question concerns us, they elaborate programs v&thout our
Imowledge, they do not even consult us, and v/hen we ^ive our
opinion, will not even consider it. what happened to our
project of last June? Whatever ominatea from tins Porte is
worth nothing. It is not like this that they tfill secure
the pacification of Armenia, it only invites trouble and an­
archy* x ai-i in no mood to accept it. If tho program win
ever be carried into effect which is now being px*eased. it
will be -under the supervision of another grand vizier.X
u'hon Siers \sas told mat tho grand vinsier had said, he
cosiijaentod: "The grand viaier does aofc wish my pi^ogr&ia. today, he
will COE33 to it, he or another, it is not ixaportant—who-"2
9?he grand vizier, acting under instructIon. of the Young
Turle cabinet, began, to put his threat into execution. Since
Great Britain had refused officials, turkey sought hoi1 own offi­
cials. 2le offered the appointment to Sir Hichard Crawford and
Mr* Robert Graves, two En&lishiaea, who were completing their worle
in the finance and customs reorganisation of the Turkish Empire*
Tho powers of these gentlemen were to be the sarae as the governor
general had had in Macedonia.®
Mr. Graves inferred from wiiat tlie
tho Turlsish ^sinister of Interior had told him that thoso appoint­
ments were suggested by tho Gerjjmn ambassador. In London it was
said Ifeat it was not difficult to see that this novo by tlao Ger­
man ambassador Tfas zaeant to produce friction between Britain and
Hussia and at tlie same time
1D.
trto
water down the most important
£>. F.» VIII, pp. S75, 376, No• 296, Oct. 9, 1915.
%.bid.
SG«
P*. XXXVIII, 156, Ho. IS,401; Drit. Doc.,, X, part I,
518, Ho- 569.
-68-
foaturo of tlio rofonu aclieiED «"
Besides, the Porte was to ask
til© powera to recoionand two inspectors-general, vahich ma differ­
ent from tho porto offering this post directly to two British
officials temporarily lout to Turloey. What was raoro, Britain
feared that tho two important possible future vacancies brought
about by feis change in the financial commission might be .filled,
by Germans.3 Yet, when the grand vlaior mentioned to "<'rangesheila
that ho had requested tr*o British officials, tho ambassador 'was
displeased.
Grey would not agree to arrangeinenta of thia kind bain®
settled botv/oon tb© British and th© Porto Independently while re­
forms v/ere being discussod arnons tho powers.®
But Sir Richard
Crawford was anxious to accept tho post because there v/ero eco­
nomic and financial questions involved. The British ambassador
at Canctantinoplo sxipported Crawford sinco Turkey had complete
con.fidonee in him.^ Whereupon Grey responded -feat if TurJrey wore
willing to appoint him under tlie conditions of tho six-point
Ruaso-Gerrnan njgreeinonh
?
Britain, might consider it, but ho feared
that this would put hor in. aravc oxnbarrasrarnent to have a British
official at the head of a commission to advise Turkey about hor
own reform scheme»^
A snonth later Colonel Hawkea wished to ob­
tain Britain*e approval of his acceptance to an appointment
offered him by the ottoiaan government as chief of the committee
of inspection of gendarasarie for the Armenian vilayets,*3
•^Ibid.
Minutes inscribed on the document above at London.
slbid«
5BPlt.
Doc., X, Part I, 520* Ho. 573.
4Ibid.,
p. 622, No. 573.
6Xbid.,
p. 524, Ho. 577.
5Xbid.,
p. 5253, No. 574.
-69-
Tho British aiabaaaador at Coristontinoplo at Grey's re­
quest spoke to Giors x*osardine these appointments. Glers morely
said, "If these appointments In qtiestlon are to be or a perjaanent
nature, they simply would not DO recogaiaed and I ahall inform
th© grand vizior far thwith." Consequently tlao British govormaerifc
did not take any action on thoso requests by liej? officials.3At tho ©rid of October, Sasonov vialtod Berlin to discuss
this question and several othora with tlio Gorman foreign office.
Sazoncrv expressed his joy ovor the hearty cooperation between
Criers and Wangenheim at Constantinople. He,too, thought that the
port© should not bo ooorced,s
but sinco Geraaan advice had more
wei£$it with tho ports, it was then Germany's responsibility to
induce Turlaoy to acqulosoo and to U30 her influence -c/lth^ her
alliesGermany
He received tlio assurance of tho Gettaan govox^iment tiiat
wan doing all in her power to urge Ottoman acceptance.
Germany appeared confident tliat Turkey would yield, but stipu­
lated that the choice of methods vhich alio thought boat fco achieve
this end, would have to bo left to Gorinaay. Sasonov tarred haste
in tho completion of tho rofors-is since there were sure to bo out­
breaks with the melting of the
snow.3
After saaonov*a visit to Berlin tho French ambassador at
Constantinoplo observed that his German colleague had shown groat
aeal and lixat he had gone each day to Xenikeul to urge tho grand
visier to accept the proposal- lie believed tlmt this change in
attitude was duo to some steps of Sasonov while lie wao in Berlin,
which might mean that political advantages would result in an
lltold,, p. 328, NO* 586.
%. P., XXXVIII, 154, NO, 15,400, Oct. S4, 1913.
g33rlt.
Doc.a X, Part I, 542, No. 578.
4Ibid.. p. 521, Ho. 572; G. P., XXXVIII, pp. 153, 154,
Nos. 15,598, 15,400.
-70-
entente between Gexnoany and Russia. Ho also thought tlmt tills
diaposltlon to corporate had. boon liaposod. on V/axigenhelm
tho
Gornan government in Ita designs on tho ration or Adana and that
Genaony did not wiah Russia to bo alozio in patronising tlio cause
or Armenia.3- Franco was not alarmed at WaE&enh©lra*a enthusiasm,
for alie knew that the Genean ambassador at GonstantInople in conjunction with his Russian eollea&ue had boon charged to rind a
basis rox» roforna.
Similarly, It seomed to Y/angonholm tiiat Criers wan becom­
ing more conciliatory from day to day. &iers was ^ailing to dis­
cuss a plan v/lth tho Porto whereby Turkey would Imvo tho power to
dismiss tho inspector's, no "bcQ.iovod tliat Russia was working to
got herself out of tho Situation, tliat France was lately jauch
loss Interested, that England was silent, and that Italy and
Austria asked no more than that Turkish Integrity be roc:poctod.
wangonhoim therefore oonoludod that tho Porto sensed that it did
not risk much in not complying mS. th Russian wishes.2 YJhile Bazonov was in Berlin, ho told Bethniaiin—Hollwae that ho would Instruct
Glez^a noithor to coerce nor to put moro pressure on tho rorto than
his Geranan colioague would.•
Tills may account far- the change of
attitude on tlio part or Glers.
On October 29, 1913, tho Grand Vlsler„ complying with tlio
doiiiands or tho Committee of Union and Progress declined to accopt
the sis: points. Tho Porto objected to tho Intervention or tho
Powers, but ma willing to accopt tho assistance or forolgti offi­
cials.5
Glers therefore suggested that the Porto choose ono
1D.
D. F., VIII, 375, Ho. 296.
gG.
P., XXXVIII, 153, Ho. 15,399.
gffrit.
Doc., X, Part I, 527, onclosure In Ho. 581.
-71-
inapootor»-general out of t hrao dolog^fcoD nomad I?/ the powara.
Tho Porto. however*inado a covintor proposal to trio affect that
1. Th© Twlclah inspectors-general v>ox->s each bo bax'o an.
advisor claooen from whatever nation th© powers would stig30iit. Th© TEsandatoa of tho advisers vraro to laat for five
years and could toe renewed once and not tivlco.
2, Tiao advisors woro to affirm tho prograra of general
reforsaa and v/oro to provide over the consulas!on on inspection
and reforms.
5. Tlio advisora wox*o to give tho1r opinions on tlio point®
In question in th© coram!soIon* a reporter to tho inapectore-*
YENORAL.
4. Tlio inspectors-^eneral wore to put in force the de­
cisions of fchea© ©esaailsslaaa 9 referring bhmi to tlie proper
departments.
5. in case of divergence of opinion botxeeen tlao inspect­
ors-.general and tlx© ad-vi^ers* fch» asattea? accompanied bsr an
explanation was to bo put before tho gisand vlsler. Ho was
to refer It to tho council of Ministers for a aolutian.
Thia proposal and© no mention of a European inaijoctorgeneral.
nothing mis aald aa to how the adviaer was to '00 ohoaon,
no provision via a made for tho onforcoiaont of hici views, and tho
powers conferred on the adviser v/ore shadowy.
Gloro said ho was
certain that sasonov wold not accept this plan-
G onGOQ•,uuntly
on noveiiiber 7„ Wan goohoin and Colors discussed &nothozj proposal
with tho grand vlsler ao follows*
1. The Sublime Porto wao to ask tho powers to rocouBwond
tv/o advisers to aaolot two inapoctorc-^oneral v/hieh tlio
^-ovGiunnorit was to placo at the head of (a) E^aemstUj, Trobisond, Sivas and (b) van, Bitlis, Kharpout, and 2>iarbeLclr.
The Sublime porto v/an to raalc© a contract v/lth the advisors
for ten years to bo renewed v/hon the contract oscplred.
2. Tlio Sublime Porte was to xrooogfrXze tho right of tlio
inapectora-isener&l and their advisers to appoint and dismiss
all officials and judges In their sectors.
3. matmictiona to bo ijivon to tlio inapoctora-gsneral
were to bo elaborated by the port© after an agrooaeat with
tho ambassadors at ConstantInople.
4„ All powera granted the inspectors-,general -were to
bo ojzorci s&d in compliance with tho advisers. An act
"**£!•»
XXX'VIXI, 157* Ho. 15,402-
-72-
coaxaitted by the inspector-general was not to bo valid unleaa
sanctioned by tho adviser. in caae or disputes between tho
inspectors-general and the advisors tho matter TOE to bo taken
to the Forte viiicb. -was to ;rake a decision after a conference
with tho ambassadors at Constantlnoplo.
5. in tho two sectors of Eastern Anatolia there •ssas to
bo an elective asseiably of Jioslesas and Christians in equal
numbers.
G. Tho aaiE© principle of equality wao to bo applied to
the division of all officials in the two sectors.3point 1 was the only cane accepted at first by the grand
visier.
On November 18, 1913, loo consented to the provision that
foreign advisers wore to be roconiraonded by all the Poxvers and
that no administrative decision W&G to be taken by tho inspectorsgeneral without previous agreonsnt of the advisers, in case of
divergence of viows that of the adviser me to prevail if no
agreement \sere reached within a month.8
Both ambassadors saw
that they would probably have to raalte still further concessions
to got tho Porte to accept, but they were attemptins to set all
they possibly could without coercion.*^
The British government believed that the plan of having
European advisers instead of governors-general would prenerve the
Ottoman external appearance v/h.ich would wor-Ic as long as the ad­
visers were to be given sufficient powers to ma&e their advice
and control effective.^ The Turks
were
especially sensitive
about the outward appearance of their government.
Wangenheim advised Berlin that it was teat not to doiaand
more of tho port© at that time, but to have advisers sent into
3-lbld., p. 158, sio. 15,404*
2Ibid.,
p. 159, Ho. 15.405} Brit. Doc., x, Fart X, 629,
Ilo. 583„
Si>.
D. P.» VIJ.I, 600, Ho. 473; G. P., 3CCAVIII, 159,
No. 15,40"57~
4
Brit. Doc., x, Part 1, 5S0, t?o. 584.
-73-
the province to obtain vdmtovor information they could, and
having obtained this knowledge In a par's tiias} to li&vo thopx
return to tho ambassadors with suggestive roporfcs„
no requested
tho ooman foreign office to aslc Husaia not to coeroo the Port©
too strenuously, but to re3ervo tho right to return to tho ques­
tion after a year's lapse and to work with tho o:-rporicn.cc gained
lay the advisers.1 Therefore waaagenhoim suggested that a program
eonsi ating of the following five articles bo suggested to the
RUSSIAN FJOVOMIUORIT.
Article I
Each inspector-general was to bo asaistod by a European
adviser* with special privileges for a. period of ten yoaru.
Article ix
Tho adviser was to second all iiisxjecfciana and reforuna
suggested by tho inspect or-general. lie waa to have iiiuaediato
autiiorifcy over the inspectors and was to preside over the com­
mission for inspection and reformsArticlo ill
The adviser wao to orxaraine ana &ivo his personal opinion
of the reporta of tho various inspectors and isaa to transmit thorn
to the inspect or-general.
Article XV
Tho inapector-genoral ma to put in force the decisions
of the ooamaisoion which Imd boon suggested by the advisor. Tiion
the problems were to bo referred to their respective departments
for nocesaary instructions.
Articlo v
in caao of a divergence of opinion betwo011 the inspoctorgenoral and the adviser tho quootlon, accompanied by an explanation
XXXVIII, 159, Ho. 15,405
-74-
was to bo taken to tho grand vlslor. Tho council or Ministers
waa to docido tho solution and report on it.1
On liovamber 30, tho Gorman Foreign Office advisod Wangenhelia that it shared his opinion and that it would ask tho Gorman
ambassador at at. Petersburg to support this plan.
But bofor©
V/ansonhoim had obtained this approval, alora had changed hia
mind and again had returned to tho six-point Husso-Geriuan program
of September.®
Those rapid changea caused confusion asione tho ambassa­
dors and resulted in more visits of tho French, British* and
Russian ambassadors to pallavicinl. Giers told pallavlcini that
ho was convinced that Germany's plan waa to
lay
hor hands on part
of Anatolia in apito of the friendship vtiilah. she asanifostod
toward Turkey. Booipard ©stressed tho aatae view a few days later,
pallavicinl reckoned that Gorsaany by hor friendliness towards
Grooco must have changed her policy towards Turkey„
iio doubt,
the Kaiser vriLshed to aoo bia sister and tho Greako In power at
Constantinople in preference to Russia.0 Ho thought that if Ger­
many planned to set a colony In Asia Minor, she -was doomed to
disappointment because Britain and Russia, the two groat Moslem,
powers, would not tolerate thlo. He foresaw that when tho
scramblo for tho Ottcxaan poaooaalona started, the v/holo of Europe
would bo Involved in a war which Austria-Hungary wished to avoid.4
Ho discuasod this matter with wangonlioixu.
Later Hallot, tho British ambassador, told pallavicinl
vary confidentially that tho GOnmn govoraiment at lierlln had
3-Ibld.* p. 161, Anlago in No. 15,405.
g0rit»
s0.
£>oc., x, X3art I, 589, no, 533.
u. A., VII, 392, Ho. 8772.
^Ijbid., p. 23, ITo. 8181, August 2, 191S.
-75-
declarod that tho partition or Turkey was iimainont and that ho
had soea a Gorioan sap in colors which marked out tto spheres or
influonco for each nation. Wangenhelm did, in Tact, infona pollavicini that Berlin felt very peooiraiatic about tlio Turkish situa­
tion. However, V/angenhoim himself boiioved tliat Turkey was fa«
from dead. Ho attributed Berlin*a attitude to prossuro from the
Gorman banks,3- "oat ho waa confident tliat Germany would do all in
hor power to maintain Turkish territorial integrity.
A row days later Giers tried to settle the question with
tho grand viaior alone. on iiovomber 25, ho prosontod to hiia a
program or sixteen points which he had said would bo tho iadniajitasi
that tho powers- would accept.®
He included within thoso points
the five points of tho Russo-Gorraan agreement (tho siKth point
had never "been discussed with tiio port©), plus tlio modifications
which woro coado to it on llovorober 7, and tho changes accepted by
the Porto on Novoraber 18.3 in addition ho added tlia rollowing
points talc on I'rQEt tiio original riuosiaa draft on Juno 1913. Til©
legislative and financial duties of the General Assembly were to
bo osjtendod as provided for by the projoct of 1QGO drawn up by
tho European Commission,
nocruita who wore natives of tho prov­
ince wore to perform their military service in peace-time in
their own provinces. Tiio regiments of Kurdish light cavalry (o:rnaraidio) wore to bo disbanded. The laws, doci'oos, and official
opinions were to bo published in each sector in tho local language.
Bach person ims to have a right to uao his own language bafor©
1IMd,»
p. 630* HO. 9068 -
gg.
p., XXXVIII, 164, Ho» 15,408. Wangohhelm waa aston­
ished because he know nothing of this new plan. Yet aiors in­
formed tho British ambassador that this fresh scheiao had boon
drawn up by wangpnheira, the grand vislor, and hliaself. (Brit.
I)oc., X t part I, 537, enclosure in Mo. 584*)
"^Discussed above on pp. 64, 71, 72, and 73.
-70-
tlio tribunals. Tho jud^jmouta of tlio court were to be given in
Turkish and were to bo drawn up with a translation In tho lan­
guage of the party concerned if possible. Each "nation" was to
havo tho ri £jit to levy special taxes for tlio needs of its schools These woro to be in tho form of additional contlsaas. The adviser
was to pxi©£Jldo over the commission which was to havo eharge of
tho settlement of tho agrarian conflicts and \?ere to restore to
tho Arouonians tin© lands of which tlaey had boon illegally dis­
possessed. Tho Department of Justice i?ao to too reorganised**1The next day, Hovember £6, Dismal Boy, tiio moot influen­
tial member of tho ccsTxiittee of union and Progress, dined at tho
German embassy. He was not in agreement
th the gjpond vlslor*s
conciliatory attitude on tho iuaaenian reform question, ills impreoalon was that tho demands of the ^ov/ers wore an infringement
on the sovereign rights of Turkey, if tho inspectors-goneral or
the raore hidden advioesra -were forced ux:>on Turkey, tho population
would be opposed to them and the project v/ould txs ctooraed to fail­
ure. Affairs had changed since tho reform Movement had started
in yusSeey.
until a short time a&o ho had believed .that Hussia's
intentions in the reform siovoxsont were sineore, especially airsce
Germany had joined with Russia. But since then ho had learned
through •TurJslsh. spies tliat the Russian ©jabassy had boon in corrospondonco with tho enemies of tho
committee
of Union and progress.
Correspondence between the foes inside and the plotters outside
of the Enplre was ira.de possible through the Russian embassy, lie
maintained tliat Giers* friendliness towards the ccs22r.lttee was
hypocrisy, and that the time far
f1not
touching a Christian head
and sacrificing tlio Turk is gooo."2
3 »Brlt„, poo., x» Part I, pp. 532, 535, Enclosure in
Ho. 584; G. P., XXXVIII, DP" 106-168, Anlage in Ho. 15,408.
gXbld.,
pp. 164, 165, Ho, 15,408.
-77-
Wangenheini ondoavorod to carnbat the audden awakened dis­
trust of Huaoia which Turkey had a^ain aaauiaod as ahown try D,1eiaal
Bey's romarlcs by pointing out to the grand visier ajid to tho comraittee that it waa fortunate fox* Turkey that she had to deal with
all Powers (scaae or which wore friendly) instead of having to deal
with Russia alone.1
Mallet had also noted the strong feeling
vmich. had developed against Russia dxaring tho latter pai>t of lovombej? (1915). Tho prosa had severely condemned Russia and caa.de it
appear tliat tho ?ov/ore wer© willing to abandon Turkey to Russia,
in other words it ms Christian Europe QQaliiat lalaniara.^
The British govermvient exproysecl to tho Ottoman govern­
ment ita ro^rot tliat tho rofom program TOD iaalcin^5 no pposress.
It triod to convince Turkey that the Amenlaiis would bo loyal sixbjecta if they vraro given a guarantee or life t honor, and property
under European control.
Britain argued tliat tho Armenians had no
longer any faith in purely Turkish reforms.3
Tho grand vizier,
who ma Inclined to be uor-e conciliatory than other i'urlcish offi­
cials, promised to do hia beat to get the compromise reforro.
THROUGH.
To the Entente Grey su&seatod tliat tho three powers COEBO
to on agreement and one after another push the problem verbally
with tlie Port©.
He be'lioved tliat 'pressure -could inevitably have
to bo ©sorted to ££ot Ttirltey to accept a reform program agreeable
to the Powers.
Britain, however, did not v/iah to toko the load
for fear of losing hoi* predominance in Turkey and in dread of a
grave commotion in ISgypt and India which slight resuit.aBr.tt.
But ho
Doc.j p. 534, Ho. 586.
3lbld.
"Brit. Doc., Xr Part 1, 534, I'lo. 580 and minutes.
-78-
warned that tlie Entonto Powers must coni1ine thomaolvos to stops
which would malso £*urthor transac11ona possible. C-iors inrosanod
Grey tliat Ruaaia would too careful not to ran into a ""blind alloy"
and to make it possible ror tlio Gexsaan government to retreat.To Gonaany Grey said that ho ravorod coming to an agrooiaent xvlfch
Turkey on all formal quoations In ordor tliat a speedy settlement
slight bo riado oad, In principle, an. efficient European control
would bo oatabU oliod.2
At tho beginning of December, Glora, after a conversation
with tho grand via lor, reported to Pallavicinl tliat ho v/ao hope­
ful of an oarly solution. Giera conplalnod to him that he was
getting little support from WangenhQira, and tliat vvangonhelui was
giving Auatr1a-Hunwary Information wliioh waa not authentic, both
on tho question or Armenia sad or the Goruiaa array rofoma in
Turkey.3
On Bocetnbor 3 , tho grand vlsior askod VJangenholra*s advice
as to how ho \sas to 0st himself out or hia difficult position on
tho quoatlon of Armenian reforms botwoon his party and the powors.
v/ongenhoira told hia. that ho could explain to his party that at
tho recent poaco Conference tho powers had premised to support
Turkey in consolidating her Asiatic provinces. Tho .-.arte Imd ar­
ranged a rofoKi progrsun which callod for foreign asaistance.
xt
would now bo logical to aolc tho European governments for suitable
advisors to tho inspoctora-gonoral. xn hor application to tiio
Potiers, Turicsy could state tho obligations or both inspoctoragenoral and advisors. VlmiQonhoixa believed that tho porto could
grant approoclraateXy aXX tho privilegea asked Tor In tlie Joint
3-Stiovo, Jswolaki, III, 334, llo« 1158#
%. P., XXXVIII, 169, No. 15,410, Doc. G, 1913.
50.
U. A., VII, 633, Ho. 9069.
-79-
proposal of Giers aixl himself.3Simultaneous!!^ tho proaidont of tiio Lay council of tho
of tho Albanian patriarchate appealed to Mailot in wliicli he opO
posed tho porto1 o proposal'2' which did not give tli© Armenians any
guarantee of their security. Ho concluded by naying tliat tho
British "alone of all Pawera still retained Turkey'a confidence
and -would aasurodly bo listened to if they spoke."®
During tho ontiro month of Docamber, wan^onheim, encour­
aged hy Berlin, attempted to convince the Porto that it must
yield to European control on tho Arssenian refers question. Ho
attempted to dojaonstrate to the Turks how this problem was linked
with the German cailitary mlsaion to
Jf Russia planned a
coup d»etat "before tlie Anaonian quoationa were settled, G-erzasny
would have to side with Russia.
Whoroaa, if tho Armenian, ques­
tion were settled it VJOuld "take off some of tho sharp edge" in
the quarrel over tho military jaisaiari.'Qn Deoexator 25, tho ^?and viKier proaiised Glero and
W&ngonheiEi that he would raotee an oral or written application to
tho powers asking that they suggest on inspoetor-general for oach
sector1 of Eastern Anatolia, enumerating in detail the privileges
and dutioa of these two hi&£i officials. He? at thia tiino, pre­
ferred an Inspector-general to cn advisor because of tlio lack of
an acceptable method of settling differences of opinion which
might arioe toetvaeon the inspector-general mid tho adviser.
As
Boca aa tho Powera could designate tho dolo^atoa, tlio porto would
^•G. P., XXXVIII, 16Gp Ho. 15,409.
%)iooussed on p. 71 of thia paper.
sBrlt.
40.
Ho* lb j43il#
Doo«, X, Part I, 538, precis included in Ho. 534.
A. U., VII, 670, Ho. 9111s G. P.» XXXVIII, 170,
-aoannounco that It waa willing to saalco a contract for ton years
with tlioiii.
Russia demanded tliat in case of the resignation or
tho inspector-general, another should bo appointed by the same
(memo) joint ofxlcials.
Russia put sreat emphaaio on tho v/or»d
"rierae" since it would bo a guarantee to tho Armenians that tho
Basse procedure adopted in tho first rioniination. would foe raaintainod in tho future. Tusisoy rejected the phrase "au laerao coacoura dos puisaanooe11 saying it isoont nothing eino© none had been
chosen before. Russia remained obdurate and after oorae dayo, tho
Goriaan and lie Iti £3h arabaasadoro pera isaded tlK3 ©rand vi&iex* to ac­
cept Russia** wording.3*
On December 29, tho Turkiah Council consented to this
proposition-
Giers then insisted that ths aisteen points of his
program be accepted, but the grand visier said tliat ho should
abido toy hia doalaion ao to v/hat ho (tho £grand vlr,ier) thought
boafc.^
Britain was doubtful whether two foreign inspectors-
general could accomplish much in ouch scattered area, but tho val­
ue of the proposal lay in the satisfaction to the Assstenians who
wished European control.^ Germany appeared to have boon satis­
fied. with tho settlement, but Russia was not reconciled to this
plan because she felt that aho had had to give in on nearly every
pointAt the same time the Turkish ^overrcnent proclaimed tliat
the Turkish troops which were to Imvs boon demobilised at tho boginning of 1914 were to bo retained until April aa a precaution­
ary zaoaouro against di31urbanco3 which might develop after tho
•iibia.. p. 171, No* 15,412s Brit, Doc.. x, Part I, 539,
Ho- 687*
%>» ». P., VIII, S68, Ho. 688S G- P., XSXVIII, 171, X72a
SO* 15,4335:
SBrit.
Doc,, x, Part I, 543, no- 590.
-81-
snow molted.-**
Moamahilo, Russia advised tho European govomraento
of tlie threatening actuation in .ftraortas. wher© opera proparatioas
wore b©5.n2 raade for em Arssonian raaaaaore. Tlio German government
promised to look Into tho iaattor.s
Tiio outcome of tlio investigation, "based oil inforiaatian
rocolvod on January 17, 1914 from tlie Gomia vico-cansa! at Brsorusa, disclosed tliat the Kuesiaix statement was greatly e:mg£erated#
A Youn.£ Turlc Club had bad a contest fox* revolver* shooting and an
ignorant Anaenian interpreted it as aa indication of practice for
xaasoacros.
The vice-coneul1 a opinion was that conditions would
undoubtedly rojnain unchanged until a decision v/ould bo taodo in tiio
Armenian reforsu project.^
Sometime previotis to the above mentioned inveatIgatlon, a
Catholic bishop load reported:
liuraors of Armenian trouble aro unfounded axid are only
meant to injure tho Armenians. Tiio situation doe a not nood
to too handled at tlio peace GonforoncG. Such steps have boon
token only lay nations having a selfish interest in Amsnian
affairs*~
The French vice-consul at; Erserum roportod to tlio French
ambassador at Gonstantinople that there was no fear of trouble,
but tho bolatod negotiations of tho refom led to dissatisfaction
in the vilayet3 -
Ho announced that tho Russian consul had not
stated any definite facts of aliosod trouble, novertholoss Giers
had solaed tho occasion to insist on tho pox'to the urgency of
reforms.®
10.
U. A., VII, 70S, Ho. 9156.
8I.
D» Z. I . , I, p. 20, Uo. 17.
P., XXXVIII, 177, Ho. 15,421r
4Ibid.,
p. 28, No. 15,296»
^Likewise tho French and British ambassadors signified
that they wore using the same opportunity to get action from tho
Porto- p. p. F., IX, 124, Ho, 107.
-82-
Turkey rejected tho "six-point" Rusao-nlorxaan agreojaonfc
"bocaiiss it was an infringement or hor sovereign rights-
m order
to put her ovzn reform program into foic®, alio offerod the two
posts of Inspectors-goneral to two Englishmen? "but G-roy refused
to sanction those appointmenta becauso of Bussian objections.
Turkey appealed also to Franco for assistance in hor reform pro­
gram, but out of deference to Russia Fmnoa tool: no action on
this request#
Tiiorefore Turkey suggested Gnafchax> plan which ms
to employ advisers instead or inspoctors-general in tho two Ar­
menian vilayets vjhich bordered Kusaia. several other plans isere
suggested and rejected, tho la at or which v/as a sixtsen-point
progiram drawn up by o-iers.
At vian^onheim*s entreaty, tho porto,
on December 25, consented to apply to the Powers £av a list of
noriiinees from \siiieh to choose tho inspectors-general, promising
to state in detail the privileges and dutioo or these two offi­
cials -
A few days later Giers insisted again on his siatteon-
point program and spoke of the threatening situation in ErKexuau.
—a statement ishich tho other povrers said wac greatly exaggerated.
CHAPTER VII
MORE Q.OE£'rXOKS AiiD FURTHER D13I4AHDS
On January 5, 1914, tho grand vision, extremely agitated,
caia© to v/angonheiin becaun© aiors, who waa being goaded toy tlie
Russian £Qvei*mnfmfc, had requested tliat tlio "aixtooa points" "bo
included in the Turkish note to fch© powers.
r£tie
&rand visior
isaow that tlioso prlnc iploa were unacceptable. to tlio Turkish cabi­
net since they vrore an encroachment on hoi» sovereign rights.1
VJ ilhelraatraaae oc^^unicatod with Dotanin^ street about tho
nov/ request which Giors had nado and expressed ita ourpria© that
tho question was bx^ought up again uiien It appeared to have boon
oattied,
aernaany claiined that fiiew t by overstepping hia dor/iojido^
would throw tho entire plan into discard.53
The Turkish arabaaaador at St* Petersburg at tho roquoat
of tho grand visior told sasanov that Turkey wished to riniah tho
Armenian negotiations provided that Ruaoia would wave hor requests
for equal representation in tho general council, that Ruasia
would not insist on the right of tho general council to establish
taxes £o,t» church and. school purposes, and that Turlcey would not
ho compellod to dJ.sband the ©x-Hamldi© light cavalry rosimonta*s
Early in .January tiio Annonian patriarch enproaned tho
following desires to Giors\
1G.
P«» XXXVIII, 172, J*o« 15,414.
glbid.
V
°D. P. F«, VII, 70, Ho* S6.
••33*
—84—
1. Tho Armenians v/i ahed equal representation in tiio ^onoral council.
if this were impossible,.Aruienia would accept a
3:2 ration <three Lioaleia to two Christian representatives) in the
general councils of Sivaa, Kharput, and Diarbelcir, and oqual rep­
resentation for Van, Bitlis, and Erserum.
2. They wanted oqual distribution of officers of police
and gendarmerio.
But tliat for other offices they wanted approxi­
mate equality of distribution.
S. They aoon wantod a change in the administx'ative divi­
sions of tho vilayets in which the Artoenian population would not
bo tom apart.
4» They v/iahed the Armenian population to receive a pro­
portional share of the taxes paid for school purposes.
5. Tho Armenian patriarch wished neither a Swiss nov a
Belgian delegate to be named as an inspoctor-^eneral, but pre­
ferred Dutch, Danish^, Norwegian, or Swedish candidates.^
To points two and four Russia agreed,, but sho insisted
that point three should be worked out by the inspectors-general
so tliat the reform question saigbt not be delayed any longoz*.2
Swedish candidates were unacceptable to Russia.$ As to point
one, the Russian government hold out far equal representation in
tho General council and Assembly until the next census would be
taken*^
After repeated urging fresit St. Petersburg, tho grand
visier consented to the principle of tho 3;s proportion in repre­
sentation for Sivas, Kharput and Biarbe2clr. The Tur&ioh govern­
ment "®as to employ the census list from the last election for tho
. B« Z. I., I, 6S, Ko. 71.
SI>.
gIbid.,
D. F., XX, 181, Ho. 156.
VjP., XXXVIIIa 176, Iio. 15,419.
p. 44, ITo* 49.
-85-
Mussulman population:; tho non-Liuaaulmans were to too roj>reaented
according to the llot of their ov/n. parishes,
should arise, tho
if differenees
inapee t or-general was to adopt a plan xaore suit­
able to tho threo abov© mentioned vilayet a*
The seventh vilayet,
Trobisond, sometimes Imown aa an Armenian vilayet, -was not con­
sidered
further because of the very small Armenian minority.
a'hia compromise was the moat that Giers could obtain and there­
fore he accepted tho provision.
The Arsnenion. jmtriarch decided
to abide by the Russian decision so that the reform quo at ion
raight
be settled without further delay. 3Sasonov, howover, would not accept Giers' eomproKtiGe and
stood rirsnly on the matter or equal representation as desired by
tho Armenian patriarch in June, 1913.
Gerraony threatened that if
Ruaaia did not coiao to an agreorient with Turkey, she would put
the jsattor in the hands or the powers again, with the probable
result tliat prance and especially Great Britain would concede
saoro to Turicey than Gexsaacy had. s
To keep the loadorahip of
the
reform question in Russian hands„ Criers implored St. Petersburg
to accept the above ccEapraniso. 3
But sasonov was certain that if
Russia were to turn to tha powers they would return to the origi­
nal Huaoian proposal of J Line s 1913.Furthermore, the £5rand viaier would not yield#
He re­
fused to accept additional coinproiaisea which he knew tho 'Turkish
Cabinet would not approve.
He bogged Russia to reconsider tho
proposition before long since lie, tho &ranci viaier, v/ao ^:ivon tho
blaoe for the delay in tho negotiation. ^
Since Go man patience was at an end, Vi'angehhe im, during
S-X. B» Z. I» , I,
a
Ibid.9
5Ibid.
p.
119s No. 135.
119, Ho. 135*
gIbid.,
p. ISO, Wo.
4
Ibid.,
p.
145.
1513 Ho. 163.
-86tho middlo of January, requested that tlio Armenian proposition
bo
returaod to the hands of the six ambassadors.
Giora
refused
to comply, explaining to tiio French ambassador that ho vaa.3 sus­
picious of an Austro-Geasaan intrigue
of
reforma
to retard tlio esfcabllshjaent
Giers was to have gone on a furlough "before tho
middle of January 9 but poatpxaned it Ijscauso of tiio threatening
sStmtion on tho AxriBeniau quoatlon.2
In the raeantlxne,
tlio Frorich fsovemiaent decided to with­
hold tlio promised financial
assistance to Turkey until she would
demonstrate a reasonable attitude on tiio problems of the day, in­
cluding tiio Aasaenian quoatlon. &
Till a ac t ion
VJQ.a
taken aa a result
of tho report of tlio French ambassador at o onstantinopl© to Paris
in which he stated that tlio Aimanlan negotiations had irsaclo defi­
nite steps in &rrear, that the council of Ministers in tho otto­
man Bmpix*© had rejected tho principle of ©quality of representation,
and that they had refused to
to colloct
authorise tho Armenian ccennmnities
taxes destined for tho ttpkoep of tho national achoola*
Furthermore, the Russian govoi»nnionfc liad withhold its assent to
certain concessions mode 137 its ambaosador at Constantinople (a
fact -which was to bo kept confidential).
Russia also persisted ,
in her demand for regional military service and in the opinion
that tlio ibreign of floors designated by tho powers should not only
have tho right of inspection, but direct administration of
tho
Anaonian vilayets.*^
At the same time, Towfik pasha, Turkish ambassador at
London, stating that Giers had raised thi^eo now conditions, asked
X;p.
P. F«» XX, 10S, Ho, 91.
sIbld.;
Go
3Stievo,
p»
y
XXXVIII, 176, So. 15,419.
xswolalcl , IV, 32, Ho. 1234.
%>. D. F. , IX, 70, NO. 56.
-07-
for British support'for tho mipprosalon of tho Russian demands,
Ho naznod those conditions aa oqual representation in the Gonoral
0ouncil and Assembly of tho two vilayets, the right of tho Anaon­
ian population to sharo in tho ta>:oo for school purposes, and tho
disbanding of the ©JK-Iiaciidio' cavalry.-*-
Tho British ambassador at
Constantinople, soaking fco nullify l'ov/fik•a xjloa, informed Groy
that tiio porto would liavo accepted those points a long fclmo ago
if it had not boon supported in hor resistance by outside influ­
ence*2 HG ativlaod that Britain roiaain firm in supporting Russia.
Tiio British govoz^anient did not xvL;±i to drive Turkey too far, eonsequently th© requests of toth zaon vvero left unheeded.
It appeared to the Austrian and Germn amb&snadox-q at St.
Petersburg tliat Russia waa again dSEionstrating hor "ovil mood"
toraar&s Turkey. sasonov previously had ahowi himaolf quit© con­
ciliators', hut in January, 1914 ho remarked to pourtalos, tho
Goriaan ambassador at St* potorsburg# that the most influential
isan in Turkegr, Bnvox* pasha, was unreliable and that tho Turkish
cabinet in which murderera had a seat jaust bo dealt with sovorely.
He also complained that Gloria waa rjivon little support at Constan­
tinople. This ro&ark (greatly surprised tiio Gercaan ambassador,
for his govorzraasnt had constantly reported to him concerning tho
unceasing efforts which V/angexTheiia waa putting forth to got tho
Porto to accept tho comprcaaise.^
By tho middle of January two of tho threo points in dis­
pute wore settled# but no agrooiu&nt had been reached on tiio ques­
tion of oqual rojarosontatioai for tho siac Aisseni&n vilayets in tho
-Brit. Poo,, X, Part I', 540, Ho. 588..
p p» 541, JstOo 539a
gO.
u. A.. VII, 73S» no. 9202,
-88-
Assembly.! Turlcoy acquioaced in the proposition. o£ a school tax
in accordance with tlio Russian demand©.
On the question of th©
eac-Kaciidio light ca\!ralry tlio two governments compi"»ociiced.
In­
stead of disbanding, it waa decided to traasfoiw these regisaentG
into a cavalry reserve and to diaassa. thorn except in caao or mobl11nation and maneuvers. They "«ore to bo placed uador orders of
th© cosamander of the airay corps, and trere obligated to aerve £ov
ono year in tho array.
Regional military service waa decided upon
for tho ontiro Empire.s
Gulteovieh, secretary o f tiio Russian embassy* •was put In
charge or tho Aaraaonian question when on Jarruazy 19 Giers wont on
a rurlough.s
negotiations continued back and forth, neither side wish­
ing to yield-
Gulkevich waa vary anxious to have tho que atIon
sottlod and constantly urged his govorraaont to qLvq in. The Arlaenian patriarch, maintaining that practically all of tho demands
of the Armenian population had boon raot and v*ere guaranteed, waa
also urging; acceptance.
Both reared that instead of granting
more concessions tlio port© would go back on its well-taoant incli­
nations and nothing more isould bo accaanplialiod. Tho French ambassador also became apprehonsive because
Gornnny was openly criticising tho cabinet or St. Petersburg Tor
its unccmproiaialxi% stand. Tho French and British anbaasadoro
h}* P. n XXXVIII, 176, Ho. IS,4205 D. D. P.. XX, 258,
Ho. 302; Brit. Doc., X, Part I, 540, Ho. 5QB.
2l*p:ld.,
p. 543, Ho* G90; P. P. F» » XX, 105, Ho. 01,
^Giora amaaedod in departing only because tho telegram
rrcaiL st. Petersburg urging his preaenco at Gonstontlnoplo vreis
undecipherable. D. 1>. P., IX, 291, Hcu £335 G+ P., XXXVIII, 177,
Ho. 15,422.
4I.
B. Z.» I.g I, 177, HO* 190.
-89-
regretted tho position v^iich tho nusslon ^vernraent mo taking.
They surmised that tho i'orto would oocuro tiio approval of tiio am~
"baasadors of tho Triple Alllanco for tho Turkish project and
would proceed to put It Into force. Thoreforo they were asking
thoir govorranonta to put preaoure on tho Russian government to
accept tho Turkish vlowporlnt.3Pinally on Pebruary 8, 1914,an a&reoment was reached
whereby* until tho next ooaauo was taken under tlio guidance of
the inBKOctors-genora1, tliere was to be equal reproeoutatlon for
Van, Bit11B, and la ease the oonsuo were not completed hi a year,
In Erseruin alao»s la the other vllayeta tbe principle of propor­
tionality would decide tho number of oach to be elected In which
Moslems y/ero to b© chosen according to the lists made in tiia last
election and non~Moolejaa according to their parish lists.^ Aa
vacancies occurred in the department of police and gendarmerieP
they also «ero to "bo flllod in oqual nurobora of Moslems mid Chris­
tiana.- The entire draft aa it vsraa finally accepted is £±ven in
detail in the nest chapter.
The German foreign office remarked that It vsas doubtful
whether Russia was thankful for aersaan co5poration0
Germany was
of tho opinion that the rapid settlement;, due to Gullcevich*a
"flexibility" towards Turkey and the decided stand which bo took
at St. Petersburg, tsfould not have boon accomplished load Glors boon
officially in charge.5
1D.
p. F., XX, 284, 5397, Noa. 225, S40.
%'urlxey did not nXah. to see equal representation in Br20rum bocauao of the largo fanatic Moslem population there.
3p» D. F-* IX, 297, HO. S40j G. P». XXXVIII, 179, Ho.
15,425.
4Ibid.,
p. 178, No. 15,423.
sIbid«,
p. 179, Ho. 15,485.
-90-
On th© othor hand Gullcovich said tliat "ao far aa Gorra&oy
is concerned, alio played a doable rolo5 first, sho tried to ooli­
vineo tlio seorto that sbo aavod the Ottoman. government from moro
radical reforms and second, alio triod to win tho sympathy or tiio
Armenians which was or groat importance to hor because of 0111cla.T1
Therefore ho ooncludad tliat Gon-lany v/as lacking in can­
dour, tiiat lior support of Russia was merely a bluff, and tliat in
reality alio was tiio loyal counselor or tlio Turk.2*
Tho K'asslan reprosontativ© at Constantinople onkod tlie
grand vial or to keep tho agroomont of February 8, 1914 confiden­
tial until tho lnapectors~£2enoral nliould bo chosen.
Kills was
dono for a two fold purpose, first, because it would prevent tls©
initialing of tho agreement by tlio Gorman representative and
second, it would Indicate that it was an obligation of Turkey to
Russia alone-
Tho grand vialor, complying, promised to send an
official ccratmmicatlon to tho powers stating that a aotfclomont
bad boon reached. Tho Russian ropresontativo zaoroXy told ills col­
leagues tlxat Russia and Turkey bad cocao to an asrooraoiifc on tiio
note to be sent to tiio porto.®
Both tlio Armenians and Turks
pressed thoir thanks to tlio Russian goverraaont for Its support.®
Vilioii Glors insisted on bis sixfceon-polnt program it put
tiio grand vislor in a difficult position as regards tho Turkish
cabinet. Tlio throe points to which tho Tuii-ca objected woi'oi
ecjual representation in tho General council and Assembly of tbo
two vilayets, tbo right of the Armenian population to sharo In
tiio taxes for school purposes, and tho disbanding of tho
3-1. P. Z- £•». I, 200, Ho. 2105 Mandolatam, &o Sort do
l^Emplro. p. 239.
%!» B. Z. 1.» I, 190, Ho. 205; Stlovo, iswolakl,, TV, 48,
fjo. 1261.
5Ibid.,
pp. 48, 49, Hos. 1261, 1262.
-91©x-nami&io cavalry-
Genaany threatened. that 1£ Russia did not
aoo2x caiio to eaxg- agrooiaont vd th Turkey oca tho disputed, points,
th© entire question. would bo rotusnod to tiio Groat povioro.
Fin­
ally on fotjz^uax'y 3, 1914 tholr dixToroncos wore adjusted end aa
asrooiaoafc was iaa&<3.
Tiio naxt step v/as to aecuro delojuntos satis­
factory to tooth Turkey and the Great Pov/oro.
C2IAi*28R VXIl
ciiasmt, mspami SCSA&SS ABUC&»CUI>
Mi ©av3& aa THO ond a£ 3.013^ JL-USOHOV roquootod lisvoXskjr
to oak Bogftoa tlatoar paaha, tho A&zmian reproaoafcatlvo in parla»
ir ho liad dorinito candidatea in reimi Tea? inapaoto rc-^oocral ros?
tho Aaaoalaa aectara-
Buss4a doolred as ca£3didato« dolo^-tea
frosa isonmsfk, BoActual, os? Hollands*' but tlio Aaaamlon patriarch
pro^orrod Dutch to Belgian ©andldafcoa beoauao oi* tho rapraaohoo
dlrootod against tho Bol^lano la tho jjalgian ccttgo. Doghoa Halms?
Kiato tsf©nt to tho Wkigcw la soareh or aultattLo dola^atoc for thoao
*2*
posit.&G8W+°
On Polj^ixx^y 14 $ 13X4
„ tho gisand vlslor applied to tiio
arataaaadospo at Constantinople to .furalala tho aissntos or candidates
j?or tho two Asevonioa aootora an ISaatom Aaatolla*4 sasoaov ad­
vised tho <>?ov»o3?» that all ahould take pas»t in ciaoo32.no tho dolo~*
jjp.tocus
At tho Qoxm tic© i*0 roqwootod th® Hussion assbaaoodoro at
Pa^lB and London to ask itor aa agrooraont: or tho Entonto FOBOPQ on
tho candidatea to bo c&oaon bo^os1© yrooontias thoa to tho Porto *0
Tho Brlfeleih ^ovossaraant ata^ootod. Dutch oan&ldafcoa* tho
Froneh gpro&mxmtot two sior«ioglan?,? the oonssan govararaant olthor
^Tho duost-lcai had not boon entirely oottlad until Fob, Q»
3.914.
%ti®vo» ' louolakl, XV, 439, Bo, 1X9&.
•MM.IWlHM nw«X«««Kr *
aS.
B« K» I m 2 , p- 1G5, no* 177*
XXXVIST.» 182, HO. 15,426.
°X« ?j. g,. 2., I, 069» no. 834*
Gl?iid.»
p. 324, Uo. 384.
-92-
7a bid.
a
p. 200, Ho. £84.
-93—
Dutch, Swlao, Bel^on, ilorwogian, or Swedish; tho iU'tftenians, in
order to conform to Husaissa wishes, suggested General do Guise
and MM. Questonait and Konry, vice-aovemor of tho Belgian Congo;-*while Russia also suggested General do Guiao and Honi"y, and two
from Motherlands, tVaatenohte, Chief of coGLonial adrninistrafcion in
tho Dutch liidios and Doisnan, secretary of the Minister of war.53
Huania wished to bo asmirred of candidates who would
guarantee tliat they would proceed according to Russian intentions
and interests.®
Sasoaov rocsinded tho French goveaaaiueint several
tiroes tlmt it should desist from further atop3 la the matter ot
choosing candidates until it received further J.tx£oruatioil frcaa
Russia since she expected Franco to approve the Busaian named
dolegates.^
xt appeared to isvolsky that til's new govomraont at
Paris was continuing the same program aa ito prodecesaoro except,
on aomo questions v/hlch chiefly did not concern px*ance (such au
the queation of foreign Candidatec for the Ais-ionian sectors), th©
ner/ Parench government eixhibited a stubborn and potty
spirit.6
The French foreign office persisted in recoiamonding tho
two Norwegian candidates, Mr. IIoff, aacretary of the iloinje&ian
jjiniotry of War, and Mr. Roiiaero, adviser to the liorwegian osca"oaaay at paria*
France desired to oosm to an agreoinont on thia
question with Britain, to save further €«almrmsaiueat •.
She wanted
to loiovr whether each power was to pronont two delegates as tho
-^Stievo, iav;olal;i, IV, 49, ifo. 1262*
gG.
P.* XXXVIII, 1S2, m. 15,4S6,
®Stievo, iawols!ci> X V } 62? Wo. 1S81.
^1. B. Z. I., I, 269, HO. 324.
5.In tho new French cahinot Doumerguo had succeeded Piohon
aa Minister of x^oreign Affairs.
6St±©ve,
lawolaki. IV, 67, No. 1291*
••94—
Port© dealrod, or whether th© powers of tl» Triple Alliance and
the Triple Entente, each, wore to name two candidates.3Russia would accept neither Eoiiaors nor tho proposal that
each power was to choose two dolomites, slnco in this way tho
porto might choose candidates undesirable to Russia,
isvolalsy
suggested that the powers give the porto a choice of four or five
candidates upon whom all powers toad agreed.
Rusala could present
a list of names and to this could bo addod only tho names of such
candidates suggested ty Germany vf&o would ho acceptable to Russia.
After this the slate could he ^ivon to tlie Porte.2
Late in February, tho Turicish Miiilstor of Interior complalnod to v/aneonheim that rtuasia v/as holding up tlie designation
of candidates because she claimed the right of naming them and
that she was transacting agroecsonts with xalaor powers for candi­
dates who would guarantee tliat thoy would act according to
Russian interests.3 Turkey cannot tolerate this.'1
lie also said
that Russian agents were stirring; up tlio Turkish population
against reforms.^
1X.
B. Z. X., I, 336, Ho. 333.
S j T b i d . , X 9 362, Ho. 360.
^iStiev©, Xawolslcl, XV, 77, No. 81; G. ?., XXXVIII, 184,
Ilo. 16,428.
^Xbld. There must have been an element of truth in tho
last statement since on &ar. 4, 1914 Saaoaov telegraphed to Giers:
"now do you looJt upon tho Kurdish activities in Bitllo in connootion with the development of the Amenian rofonas? Do you not
consider it expedient to attempt to influence the Kurds through
Abdul Resale Bedir Khan who apparently has connections in Bitllo
and van?" Abdul Resak Bedir Khan had been an organiser of tho
Kurdish maveiaont. He had been released from an Ottoman prison in
1910. no moved to Russia vhore he prepared tho Kurdish inourrectlon on tho Turkish Persian border. (DJetaal pasha, MemQries of
a Turkish Statesraan. p. 276 and footnote; I. B. Z. X., II, 23,
!50. 51.)
—95—
Wan^enhoiri rocomrnondod. that tho practical tiling to
would, to©
to oall
ma
acibaooadoz's*
0CCXT03?0J\CQ
at
do
Conatantinople,
name five delegates, and let th.© Pos*t© choose two out or this
number.^
The Oennan foreign office, acting
vice, callod
an
Wangonheiiu*a
ad­
this Esattex* to tho attention of Grey and informed
him or I'urJsoy o groat rear relative to Russian doaigna.
Grey
agreed that it might be vcLae to call this ambassador* union,33
but later ( impelled t^r Ruaaia) reverood liia opinion on th© pre­
text tliat the choice v/ao railing on satisfactory Dutch candidates,
hence it would, not necessitate an ambassadors* ooioTeronco.^
2?ho Austrian ambassador, as dean
a£
tho ambassadors at
C onutantinoplo , requested an ambassadors' coiifQi'onco an tlio ques­
tion or choosing inspectors-general for tho two Armenian aectors^
Oiers replied that tho am.toasaad.oro in I'urlcey i^oro in no position
to select suitable candidates and that the "Russian goversEaant ms
earnestly searching £or candidates and would soon iaavo completed
Tor the approval
tli© Porte-
ot
tho Groat powers the list to
to
presented to
Giei^ felt certain that if* Rusala did not hasten to
couao rorvrard with a complete list, th© leading role might slip
£rora hor hands^ since Austria * a initiative was on the authority
or tho Ti'ip.lo Alliance.5
A Tow days 2a.t©r St. Petersburg inforaaod Box\lin, Paris,
and London tliat It had chosen two Bel&ian candidates.
1G.
At paiia
P., XXXVIIX, 184, Ho.. 15,428.
%bid»,
p.
185, Ho. 15,429.
sIbld.a
pp. 186, 187, Ho. 1S,4S2.
~lhid.» p. 186, No. 15,451; Stieve, Xsyrolalei. XV* 71,
!fo. 1292; X. S» Z. X.» I, 441, No. 457.
pallavlolni said tliat the Austrian cabinet (because of
pressure exerted by nilmo pasha, ottocaan osabasoador at Vienna)
had requested this ambassador*s union.
-96-
and London, Russia aakod for support; at Berlin aho aslced If tho
Candidatoa were satlafaetoiy. Sho plod for iiuaiedlato actlaa in
obtaining approval bocau.se> th© grand, viaier had advised haste.3France consentod to tho two candidates and stisgosted that
tho other two "be chosen by France in conjunction with Great Brit­
ain, but this tirae she did not mention tho two Norwegian candi­
datea-s
m answer to thia th© Russian £sovormaeiit and tho Armenian
repreoontativo announced to tho powers tliat thoy had decided oa
two Dutch candidatea and asked that, at tho porte*s request, tho
four names 'to ruaiaed to Turkey -3
The grand vlsier emphatically impressed on wangonhoiitt tho
fact that he liad not aalsed for hurried action. Ho said tliat it
waa merely a triolfi on tho part of Huaoia mid Hubar Pasha to have
oortain candidates of tholr choice aolooted. Tho porto still did
not wish Belgian delegates^ and asked seraai^ to inaiat on Swiss
delegates, vfaich alio did.5
Britain did not have ar$r particular deairos In tho mattor»
But einco aha "understood that both Turlcoy and Armenia were
opposed to Belgian derogates, ah© inquired if Swlas delegates?6
lsrhcsi Germany load suggested, were not acceptable to Rusala.^ Tlio
grand vizier had also put in his objection to tho Belgian
1Ibid., II, pp» 3, 15, Hos» 2* 20„ £. p., XXXVIII. 186,
HO- 15,43^
%tieve, lawolaki, IV# 72, No. 71.
Si. B. Z. I.> II, 21, HO* 29.
^tjuapka and Arastenlana objected to Belgian candidates bocause thoy would feel that thoy wore being; compared to negroes
since tho Belgian delegates* had served In tlie Belgian Congo.
5g.
P., XXXVIII, 186, 187, MO. 15,432.
®SwiGs delegates were in doroand because of their adminis­
trative ability and colonial estperienceo in siigjeria and Abbysinia.
7I.
B. a. I.> XI, 23, No. 33.
-97-
delegates and had requested fiwias candldateo.
Giera v/ao confi­
dent that this resulted frozn German initiative since Gersnany, no
doubt, had certain Swiss delegates in zalnd vfaom alio wished to
have clioaon. He reecaamondod another Butch dole^to to cancol the
possibility of a Swiss candidate.^It was
finally
decided to name a Norwegian; delegate vtfiom
Geznony suggested oinoe a Siviso delegate was unacceptable to
Russia. A list containing the names of* the five aorainooo, two
Dutch, two Belgian* an:l one Horwegian, i®a sent to tho Porte.2
On April 2, the Porte ehose Mr. Wostonenk, chief of tho colonial
administration in the Dutch indies, and Mr. Hoff, goaoral secre­
tary of the Horwegian Ministry of VIar.s
llalil Bey, the president of the 0ounc3.1 or state, told
Yjancjenheira. at a dinner, that ths Triple Entente -was stronger
than tho Triple Alliance since Gersnany could not secure tho can­
didates which Turkey vriahed.
Therefore he said that Turlsey would
ho compelled to corae to an understanding with Russia and her
allies. The Gortaan forei£pi office conc3.uded that this EusaianTurkiali "honeymoon5' msuld not be of long duration since Russia
would not have tho patience to carry through such a policy*^
Tho Austrian amb&aaador thought that the Turco-Ruasian "flirta­
tion" -war, merely intended to get Goraany to show hov/ far Turkey
could depend on Geiraan help.^
On April 1?3 Meaara. Vfoatoiienl; and noff started on their
journey to Constantinople "by way of Paria.
in spealtia^ to the
candidatea in paria, Isvolsljy aad Dr. savriyev, sua Axraenian
-*-Xbid.
SIbid.,
^Xbid., y. 1SG, Ho. 161.
p. 236, HO. 227.
4G.
P.» XXXVIII, pp. 1QS, 189, Mo. 15,454.
50.
U. A., VII, 1051, Ho. 9577.
-98-
delosat©, obtained th© impression that tho newly appointed in­
spect ars-fseneral did now quite understand the role they wore to
play as an organ of European control, and that they wcxvo to x*ely
montly upcm Uuasla.
xsvolelry recommended that tho two inspectors-
g&aeral "bo properly Instructed Irj tho Russian embassy upon their
arrival In Constantinople3-
At tho beginning or May, pr. savriyov,
who had by this time returned to Constantinople, believed the two
inspeetora-gieneral understood by then what port they were to ful­
fill as delegates of the Powers and had uocured their promise to
do all in their power to cax*ry out this pole-~
On May 29, the grand viaior did not wiah to release to
the inspocstora-genoral the note of February 8, 1914 which had
been agreed upon, until after adjournment of parilament a month
hence because ho feared a personal attack fro© same of the depu­
ties-
Giera thought that this waa an oxctise on the part of the
grand visior to withhold the contents of the note until after tho
inspectors-general had left Constantinople, »o he urged the Rus­
sian government to insist on its publication.3
On Juno 9, Dr* Savrijov convoyed to tho Russian repre­
sentative a coramim1caticm v/hich contained tho instructiona of the
Tuxfeiah government to the two foreign inspectors-general. This
did not agreo -saith the original note given by aiers in February.
Since the differences -were of aach great importance, ho insisted
that the grand viaier be compelled to release the original agree­
ment.^
3-stlevoa iswolalcij XV, 95, Ho. 1Q7; I. B. Z. I., XX, 310,
Ho. 3X9.
gXbid.,
IX, 368, Ho, 576.
SIbid.,
XII, SOS, No. 219.
"Ibid., p. 284, Ho. 325,
-99-
Th© grand vizier* still bogged for -time and assured Busaia
tiaat tho odjouramont would cacao in two weeks tliue.
But ho prom­
ised to &lve a definite anstaor by July 2, since ho wished first
to set tho consent of tho ministers »3On July 9, 1914 Mr. Hoff sailed from Constantinople for
Trebiaood-
He carried with him the Turco-Russian agreement and
he received eleven assistants, three Moslems, throe Armenians
•who were on the patriarch*a list, two French gendarmes, mid three
Norwegian secretaries. Sine© there waa no roQidence In van, he
•was to roiaain for several montha in Bitlis from where it was in­
tended that ho should cosmiiunicato with tho Russian embassy.
Mr.
V/eatenenk, v/ho ccuso to Constantinople later, pomaiaod a while
longer for further instructions»s
The Tareo-Ruooian agreoisent of February 8, 1914 xsiilch. ma
to servo as a guide fes? tho future activities of the Inspect01^3general contained the following provisions:
1. fwo foreign inspectore were to be put in charge of
tho provinces foxtaed in pastern Anatolia^ Monsieur A. was
to have the vilayets of ErsseruEi, Ti^obiaond, and Sivas, and
Monsieur B. the vilayets of Van, Bitlis, Kharpout and Diarbekir.
2. The inspectora wore to supervise the civil adminis­
tration and tho administration of Justice, the police and
the gonaaraaori© of the two districts, if tho police force
was insufficient to maintain order, military forces were
to bo at the disposal of the inspectors if required, to
enable him to carry out the duties of his office.
3. if necessary the inspectors might dLamioo officiala
who proved unsuitable through inefficiency or misbehavior
and bring to justice officials v&io have been guilty of
crises. o?hey were to have the risht to propose tho higher
officials for appointment by tho sultan, m cases of dis­
missal they were to send an iujasediate telegraphic report
to Constantinople with a summary of their reasons which
was to bo forwarded within a week. In Important cases which
required lEsnediate action the inspectors were to have tho
•*-Tbid., XV, 44, Uo. 37.
2Xbid.,
p. 147, HO. 149
"lOO*
right to suspend judicial officora, who could not be dis­
missed, an condition that they immediately referred tho
matter to tho Department of Just2.ee*
4. Should any action for which th© vuli had made hlmsolf responsible call for energetic measures, the inspectors
were to inform, tho Minister of Interior I?j telegram. The
latter tsfae to bring the case immediately to tho notice of
the cabinet, which was to corae to a decision within four
days after tho rocoipt of tho tolegroan.
5* Agricultural disputes were to bo decided under th©
personal supervision of tho inspector.
6- After tho appolntmont of the inspectors, detailed
memoranda were to bo drawn. up with the coSperatlon of the
inspectors on tho subject of their duties and rights. in
case the post of inspector-general was to beccsao vacant
during a period of ton years, the Sublime Porto was to avail
itself of the benavolent asslstanco of the Great powers in
making tho new appointment*
7. Laws, edicts» and public proclamations were to be in
tho language of each district respectively, in ao far as
the inspectors-general might deem it possible* each party
xtaa to be granted tho right to use its own language before
a court of justicea or an administrative authority. Judg­
ment was to be given la the Turkish language, accosnpanied»
whoa possible, by a translation in tho language of the party
concerned.
8* The contribution to tho school*s budget of tho vilayet,
payable by the different native elementa, vtan to bo fixed in
accordance vd. th tho rate of tho school tax originally in
force. The imperial government was to place ao difficulties
in the way of tho religious orders sharing In the jsalntonanco of their schools.
9. in peaco time, every ottoman was to perform his mili­
tary service within tho military inspectorate in which his
house is situated, until further notice tho sublime Porte
was to detail continuants of the military forces from all
parte of the Empire for eorvice in the outlying districts of
Yemen, Asolr, and Hodjd in proportion to the population of
these regions. Moreover, it wan to consign to tho navy,
recruits from all parts of the Empire.
10. The ox-Moaaidie regiments were to be converted into
cavalry reserves. Their arras vrere to remain in the military
depots and were to be issued only in case of mobillsat1on
and maneuvers. They were to be under control of the Corps
Commander in wSiose district they isrere. In peace time* regi­
mentaX squadron and platoon cowraandors ware to bo oolected
frcxi officers on tho active list of tho imperial Ottoman
Army. The men of these regiments wore to perform one year's
military service. They wore to bring to the regiment their
own horses and complete aadd2ei"y equipment. Every man, with­
out distinction of race or faith, might bo drafted into the
aforesaid regiments, in case of war and during maneuvers
thoy were to be subject to the same disciplinary regulations
-101-
ao tho regular troops.
11. *phe authority of the lnspQotors-genei»al of tho vila­
yets was to bo In accordance isith the t>rovlsIons of th© Act:
of March 15, 1329 (1913).
12. A conaufl was to bo taken undor th© clirootion of th©
Inspectors at tho earliest opportunity (not later than a
year bonce if possible), In order to ascertain tho exact
conditions as to religion, nationality, and lanfomge in tho
two districts, until then tiio olooted laeiabora of tho Gen­
eral council and tho coKsaittoos of tho vilayets of van and
Bitlis waro to consist of equal nurabero of Uohar.ixcodana and
non-MahaizsEOdans. in th© vilayet of Ersorus the Koxnbors of
tho General council were to bo oloctod on tho earn© basis as
those of th© other two vilayets, In th© ovont that tho final
census waa not completed within a year. in tho vilayets of
Sivas, Kharput ? and piarbelsir members we?o to bo elected tomediately in proportion to the population- To facilitate
the attainjsjent of these moaauroa until the new ceasuo had
boon taken, the number of Mohammedan electors ma to be fixed
according to the old lists, and the number of non-Mohararaodans
according to the parish lists. Meanwhile should laaterial
difficulties have prevented th© adoption of this provisional
system of election, tiio inspectors-genoral were to have fcixo
authority to propose for tiio vilayets of sivas, Kharput, and
Diarbeltir a division of tho ©loctorato for tho general coun­
cils which jai^it be more suitable t o the needs and conditions
of tho vilayets in question, at that tisio. Ha all vilayets
in milch, tho General councils were to bo elected by propor­
tional suffrage, the minority of the population were to be
accorded representation on the committees.
13. The saembers of tho Adrainistrativo Council woro, as
thoretofore, to consist of Moha^aiaedmis and non-Hoiiainnvodmis
in equal numbers*.
14. it was loft to tho discretion of tho inspeotorsgeneral to undertake recruiting for the police and gendarm­
erie in the districts in a similar ratio. The principle of
proportionality was also to be observed as far as possible
in filling tiio other official posts.^
This px'ojoct differed considerably from tho first Russian
proposal*
it had abandoned tho idea of one autonomous Arsnenlan
province placed undo2? the nearly absolute authority of a foreign
inspector-general and it was based upon tine general plan of reor­
ganization applicable to the entire Erapiro.
it more nearly ap­
proached tlio Turkish project, which the Porto iiad elaborated
^-Mandelstara, X»e Sort do 1'Empire ottoman* p. HO;
g_...P.. Jg., XX, pp. 4Go-^(jV, Brit. Doc., x, Part I, pp. 545, S4G,
no. 591.
—103—
during the provlous summer and. -which, -was advocated iy tho Triplo
Allianco.
Germany believed that this oottleioent gave hor a distinct
advantage sine© it provided a raoro certain osisteaco to tho Ar­
menian population In hor econoiuic sozi& of interest. Vjan£enheixa
opined that it was a diplomatic victory for Turkey isecauue of tho
threatening internal altmtioa of tho Ottoman jstaplro and hacuuao
of the undying distrust which Russia showed towards tiio Young
Turlcs*
Russia asserted that the document of February 8, 1014
had groat signiflca«c© fcr lier*
since Turkey had promised Russia
to send a note to the powers * the outstanding: role or Russia in
Armenian affairs \mo recognized and in a way satisfied Article
XVI of the Treaty of San stofano, which had not been accepted
previously*
Russia averpad that the Eastern Christians "will
hold the naise of the Russian Monarch dear in their hearts."
She
maintained that "when the Husoian historical dentin;/' will lead
to Constantinople in the unavoidaliL© struggle ror control of Con­
stantinople th© two hundred thousand Armenian inhabitants there
v/iil support ua«nS
The other Great Powers had no direct interest in tiio
Armenian question-
Thoy had ntatod that they would abide *qy any
agreoraent which imssia and Gonaany would reach with Turkey.»
Therefore they expressed no opinion on the .final decisions, ex­
cept that they were pleased that a sottlosaent had Tjoon made.,
The consonauB of opinion anions the roprosontativea or
the Triple Entente In Constantinople was that tho Armenians were
satisfied vsrlth the reform progress* but regretted that the applixxxviixt xao, so. is,425.
21
. B. Z. I.« x, 199, 200., Ho. 810.
-103-
cation of tlio reforms had not boon put definitely under European
control*
They believed, however, that the European inspectors
would give thorn a sufficient guarantee of life, honor, and prop­
erty.3- The patriarch resumed his regular relations with tho
government and in a few weeks tin© concluded an electoral accord
with the CanjKsitto© of union and Progress. According to this
unetoratanding tho Amenions wore to ho represented in the next
parliament by sixteen deputioo.
it was hoped that this atxuos-
phero of conciliation would be favorable to the loyal application
of tho reforms.
Moslem opinion v/as divided. The nationalists, of tshom
tho Tasvirl-efkier waa tho organ, condemned tho
11 unjust
interven­
tion" of Burope in tho internal affairs of Turkey using Chris­
tianity as an expedient. Th© moro moderate element, which was
not anxious to see European control, -was pleased that tho contro­
versy ivhich had troubled tho relations between Tur3-:oy and the
powers whose cooperation. they deemed necessary, had terminated in
an honorable way. The Tanin interpreted its sentiment vjith this
brief coraisent, "We hope that the fimncial support of Europe will
not bo in defauLt for a long time.*'®
However, before tlio two inspectors-generol were definitely
located in the seats of their respective provinces, tho world war
had started. Tho Ottoman Empire perceived that it was better not
to attempt reform? during such a hasardous period. Hence Turkey
considered it unnecessary fc® pi>oXon£; the mandates of tho two in­
spectors. she Informed tho Dashnag that the program of rofonns
•erould be postponed until the war should couso to a close.®
Because of certain disclosures of treasonable activities,
3-D. D. F.
. IX, 467, 468, Ho. 362.
sDJen3al
gIbid.
Paslia, Memories of a Turkish statesman, p. 276.
-104-
the Younq Turks wore confident that tlio Armonlan population on
their border was dar^oroua to tho security of the ottcaaan Empire.
C onsoquontly tho Ottoman government issued a decree Tor tho de­
portation of oil Armenians to Mesopotamia, \/hero they vtetxn to
z*©maln until tho war mc over. Tho suffering or tho AnoonIon
population during this period or misi*ation s?as intenses about six
hundred thousand Armenians were aaid to have perished on this
Journey, either as a result of hunger, distress, or murder,
Djoxaal pasha said that tho crimes ccaimitted by tho Amon­
isma during their uprising against tho iuirds and Turks In 19X7
"did not In any way fall short of tho Turkish acta in cruelty and
treachery."2- K© added that tho spectacle of tho Turks flooing
from Dl&rbelcir, Ersex'usi, and Ersondjan hofore tho Russians and
tho horrora and outrages carnalttod by tho Artisanlana created a
lamentable impression. "But these unfortunato wretches vaare only
Mohaimaodans5 so thero -was no German or American missionary avail­
able to send reports or reel callod upon to devote his eloquence
to describing their woea."
Tho number of tho Turks and Kurds whom tho Armenians
killed in circumstances of tho greatest cruelty isas alleged to
have exceeded one and one-hair millions. Praia
tho
official diaxy
of tho Second Russian Garrison Artillery Eogijsont in Eraerum of
1917 we ^et an idea o£ tho cruel behavior o£ tho Anaonlana toward
the Kurds and Turks. The Russian Lieutenant-c;olone1, Tverdo&hlorov wrotes
Xt Is a coeamotnly recognised fact that tho Armenians can­
not stand the Turkoj in spit© of this they havo always man­
aged to pose as niartyro and to convince tho world tliat on
account of their hi&h state of civilisation and their faith
they have boon tho object of tho moot ghastly cruelties,
The Russians, "eiLio have been in closest touch with tho Amion-»
lans Liavo a. different coneoptical of the manner in which this
•^Ibid,, p. 280.
—105-
nation understands civilisation and morality. They havo
learned to know thorn as miserly, avaricious, parasitical,
only able to exIat lay preying on others . . . . < I have
often hoard, frcca Husaian soldlero such, exproaalona aa, 'Tho
Turks have used tiio Armeniana badly, but tlioy should havo
done it in quit© a different way and loft none of thom
alivo *.3Djoiiial pasha atatod that tho way \vaa alisaya opon to tho
Armenians who wi^iod to bo Arsnonians and not ottasiana, to aettl©
in the Repxiblic of tho Armenian Caucasus. But the Armenians iauat
never bollev© tliat Turkey would over consent to Erzorusa, BitIis,
Van, Dlarbeklr, and Manurot-ul-Asis becoming a part of the soviet
Republic Anaanla. K© concluded by saying that v/hon tho Armenians
had given up this dream, ishen they would refrain froan any activi­
ties -which might throw suspicion on their loyalty, and when they
would live in "honorable" friendship with their Turkish and Kurd­
ish compatriots, then vk>uld they find peace and happiness in tho
Turkish Republic-2
•^Ibid., p. 231, extract taken frata the Official Diary of
tho second Rusoian Garrison Artillery Regiment in Erseruin in
December, 1917.
8Xbid*,
p. S00.
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