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THE LIFE AND WORKS OF WILLIAM LILY, THE GRAMMARIAN

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THE UNIVERSITY OP CHICAGO
THE LIFE AID WORKS OF WILLIAM LILY, THE.GRAMMARIAN
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO
THE FACULTY OF THE DIVISION OP THE HUMANITIES
IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OP
DOCTOR OP PHILOSOPHY
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE
AND LITERATURE
BY
VINCENT JOSEPH FLYNN
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
AUGUST, 1939
'
TABLE OF C0HTE3TTS
Chapter
I,
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII,
VIII.
IX.
X.
Page
inns D A T E S ............
2
O X F O R D ........... . ................. -
13 .
JERUSALEM
................
21
............
23
RHODES
R O M E ............
46
LQHDOH
...........
67
ST. PAUL'S
......................
77
TUB AHTIBOSSIG OH
..........
98
GRAMMATICAL WRITINGS
.
..........
CHARACTER AMD RKPUTATI0H
BIBLIOGRAPHY
108
............
........................
il
.
146
1
ACMOWLEDGMEBT
I should like to acknowledge here the help of the many
persons who have aided me in writing this dissertation, and to
thank t hem for their kindness.
I have received-assistance from
so many scholars, both in America and abroad, that it would em­
barrass me to try to recall my particular debts.
However, I
cannot let this opportunity pass without recording m y gratitude
to ray friend and teacher, the late Charles Read Baskervill, who
suggested the topic to me, and guided me in the early stages of
my work.
To have been permitted to know such a man, and to study
with such a scholar, I shall always account a double privilege.
To Professor R. S, Crane, who saw the dissertation to its com­
pletion, I am likewise grateful; to Dean R. P. MeKeon, and to
Professors C. H. Beeson and R. L. IIliman, for reading the section
on grammar, I am indebted for expert advice of ^prious sorts; to
Professor Evelyn May Albright I am especially thankful, for a
careful reading of the main part of the work, and for many acute
suggestions.
Finally, to His Excellency, the host Reverend
Austin Bowling, late Archbishop of St. Paul, and to his successor,
the Most Reverend John Gregory Hurray, a student priest returns
thanks to his superiors, the patrons of his studies; as Bishop
Langton sent Richard Pace to Padua and Bologna, as Archbishop
Warbam sent Richard Croke to Louvain, Leipzig, and Paris, they
sent him to Chicago,
iii
INTRODUCTORY
The main outlines of the life of William Lily* the
Grammarian, are clear enough; they have been available for some
years, competently sketched by Lupton in the Dictionary of
national biography*
But, as in the life records of men much more
famous than Lily, a great many details necessary for a satisfacto­
ry portrait of the learned master of St. Paul’s have been shrouded
in obscurity.
This study will not provide all of the desired
information; but it will set forth some new biographical material
which will help to fill in the picture, and it will discuss Lily's
writings, especially his grammatical works, more fully than has
ever been done before.
It will justify only minor changes in the
conclusions of lupton;
it will supplement rather than challenge
his pioneer work; but—-it is hoped— both the changes and the
additions are of sufficient importance to Interest students of
the English Renaissance.
I have aimed chiefly at two things:
(1) to place Lily's work as a grammarian in the general setting
of contemporary European scholars!tip— a subject which Lupton did
not attempt;
£2) to place Lily against the background of his times
and contemporaries in a manner that will Increase our understand­
ing of both background and subject,
neither of these aims will
be treated separately; both will be found running together
throughout this essay.
1
CHAPTER I
THE DATES
The first, and in itself probably the least profitable,
of the problems that call for attention is the -question of Lily's
dates.
We know approximately, but not certainly, wlien he was
born, and this unsatisfactory bit of data is itself dependent upon
another equally unsatisfactory— a likely but uncertain date for
his death.
In the present state of our knowledge we can arrive
at nothing better than probability.
Fortunately, nothing of
importance In Lily's biography depends for its solution upon
exactness in these dates; and we have to deal with a difference
of only a few months at either end of his life.
Our chief source of information
for Lily's life Isthe
short sketch (less than five hundred w o r d s )
left us by his son
George,'*’ This has the merit of authority, but it has the faults
of Its author and of his times.
It is quite correct, so far as
we can tell; we have no reason for doubting any of Its statements.
But it is frankly a eulogy; instead of a sober marshalling of
facts we have the majestic (and at times ponderous) periods of
the Renaissance biography,
Where we wish an uncolored but detailed
account we find the elegant vagueness of a tombstone inscription,
2
How George tells us in the Kloria where his father was
born— at Odiham, a town in the diocese of linton, Hampshire, not
far from Basingstoke; it is still in existence today.
the date— well, round numbers would do.
But as to
He died in his
fifties;
and this was about the tirae that Rhodes
had surrendered
tothe
3
Turks,
That was close enough for the purposes of a thumbnail
sketch,
^Ad Paulum IoviuBi Eplscopuaa Hucer. ¥irorum aliquot in
Britannia, qui nostro secuio"eruditlone. ~ ''doVtrlmclarl.
meBKarabilesque fuerunt. Blogia.1 ’i^r Seorglum Li llum Britannum
exarata, printed with the Descriptio Brltayiiae. Seotiae.
Hyberaiae• et Orchadum. ex libro Pauli iovil,
epiacopi Wucer....
7Venice," 1543), fols. 4fc-5$.
'
^
2 Fol. 47,
®Elogia,
. fol. 48.
rt... .quinquagenarius
interiit,,.,
g
3
Touching this point, however, there are other pieces of
evidence; for the most part they are concerned directly with the
date of L i l y ’s death, but give certain indications from which we
can work back to the date of his birth.
The most important item
is a n epitaph, likewise written by his son, now extant only in
copies.
The three most reliable of these copies say that he
died February 25, 1522, at the age of 54; one copy omits the
”February 2 5 ”; another gives the date simply as 1522, the age as
52,
It will be seen that tlie best way of attacking tills problem
is to try first to establish the date of Lily's death.
Evidently the Grammarian was burled beside his wife in
pardon churchyard at St, Paul's; and when the cloister there was
destroyed,
George Lily had the brass, or tablet, from their tomb
set up on the wall of the cathedral by the north door with an
additional Inscription.
Holland’s account is as follows:
By the great Horth noore [sic] heere [sic] unto the
Diall is a xaemorlall for William Lily Scho'oTe-master of
Patties School©, in a bras so plate fixed on the Wall, as
followeth;
GYlielrao Lilio Paulinae Scholae olim Praeceptori
prirnario
Agnetae Conjugi, In sacratissimo hujus Tempii
coemiterio, hine a tergo nunc destructo consepultis.
Georgius
Lilius hujus Ecclesiae Canonicus Parentum memoriae pie
consulens Tabellam hanc ab amicis eonseruatam hie reponendam
curauit.
Obi.it ills G» L, anno. Dora. 1522.
V. Galend. Hart.
ulxlt annos '^'iT^
*"""
Weever, except for differences in printing, gives the same text;
4
so does William Pugdale;
there is no great variation in John
S t r y p e ’s version (except tint he lias "1522.
3
Calend,Mart. Vlxit
Sepultus est In Paulini tempi! vestibulo, ad Agnetis conlugls
l atus, sub eius anni inltiuxn, quo paulo antea Tthodos Insula a
Solymano Turcarum principe expugnata fuerat." Here, as in other
short Latin quotations throughout this study, I have silentlyexpanded an occasional contraction, although I. have tried to
preserve the original spelling and punctuation,
^\T. H. Lupton, A life of John Colet (2nd e d . ; London, 1909)
p. 171, n. 2, queries, "by Protector Somersot in 1549?”
fOl.
^Monuxaenta sepulchraria Sancti Pauli
Gg.
3
Ancient funeral monuments
(London, 1614),
{London, 1631), p. 369.
"The history of St. P a u l ’s cathedral in London
1658), p.“ 5 ^
(London,
-*4
An. 54," leaving out "V"),^
Only Payne Fisher, of all the im­
portant chroniclers, introduces important differences.
He lias
the same wording as the others, prefixed by the not uncommon
letters M. S. (Memoriae Sacrum) the whole set out in inscription
style; but he cuts, off two years from Lily's life,
adds a line not found in the other texts.
lies ides, he
Here is how his notice
appears s
M, S,
Gulielmi Lillii Seholae Paulinae ollm
Praeceptorls Primarlj;
Et Agnetis Con.jugls Ips lus
In Sacratlasimo hujus Tempi1 Cnemlterlo
(Hlrie a te"rgo nunc destructoT
C onsepultorum.
Georgius Llllius hujus Ecclesiae Canonicus,
Parent a m Memoriae pie consulsos,
Tabellam Kane (ab amicis conservat'am)
Etic' Keponendani Curavlt.~
Obl'it'Anno Doa."~ 1 5 2 ^ "aetat is suae 52.
„
GravlssiMa tunc p'
e'ste per Londinura grassante.
That ”52” is not a mere misprint is indicated by the fact that
Fisher repeats the number:
"He dyed March the 5th. 1522.
in
the 52, Year of 'his Age....”®
The weight of numbers is against Fisher.
There is like-
wise the weight of authority; he is generally believed unreliable.
Apart from this consideration, he probably never saw the inscriptions he reproduces, but collected them from second-hand
5
sources.
Finally, the case for his untrustworthiness is
strengthened by the fact that he has certainly made one error in
the article.
Continuing the account, be declares,
"His Wife Agnes
dyed the 8 th, of April following of the same Contagious
Distemper .’*6
But Agnes surely preceded her husband to the grave,
^A survey of the cities of London and Westminster (London.
1720), BkT'YIT* P V T 6 5 T
— ------- — --- ------ ----------p
“The tombes, monuments and sepulchral inscriptions, lately
visible in St. Paul's Caihe&ral (London, 16Q4), p.r 99.
3 lbid.. p. 1 0 1 .
4
See Dictionary of national biography, art.
"Fisher,
Payne."
®Most of the inscriptions were, of course, destroyed In
the fire of 1666,
%he tombes, p. 101.
4
as George tells us;
1
we have her epitaph from Lily's pen.
2
If we throw out, then, the evidence of Fisher, the testi­
mony of the epitaph is February 25, 1522/23 for Lily's death; and
a date earlier than February 25, 1463/9 for his birth.
As we have
seen, the Slogla is disposed to a liberal attitude in the matter
of Lily's birthday; but it is in perfect harmony with the epitaph
on the question of the date of his death.
The Blogia links up the
decease of its subject w ith an event with which everyone was fa­
miliar, the news of which must liave reached England only a short
time before Lily underwent his operation;
Rhodes fell in
3
December, 1522,
and shortly afterwards Lily died, near the be4
ginning of the year, reckoned either new or old style.
"hsiogia, fols. 47v-48.
2 B, M. MS Marl., 540, fol. 58v .
^Sttore Rossi, II sovrano militare ordine Gerosollmltano
di Malta {Rome, 1932), pp* 21-22 {a revised but abbreviated
version of the author's Rlassunto atorlco del s. m. ordine di
San Giovanni {Rome, 1929))i "L'^asedio Idl RodiJ duro sei
’
me's'i.** * il Gran Maestro capitolo il 13 dicembre [1522)...* II
24 dicembre le prime milizie turche entrarono nella citta; 11 26
Solimano vi fece solennemente ingresso e no 11 a notte sul 2 gennaio
il Gran Maestro con 1 superstiti Cavalier! ed alcune migliaia di
profughe greci fece vela per Candia e per 1*Italia, Termini cosi
il dominlo do 11' Ordine a Rodl . . . . 11
^T3-e language of the Blog la is uon-co.:anittal, except that
it definitely states that Lily was buried at the beginning of the
year, a little before which Rhodes was captured;
"....
quinquagenarins interiit, cum magno eluluai suoraip desiderio,
quibus dum ulxit gratissimus extitit:
Sepultus est in Paulini
tempii uestibulo, ad Agnetis coniugis latus, Sub eius anni
initium, quo paulb antea Rhodos insula a Solymano Turcaruia principe
expugnata fuerat,"v- Fol. 48.
But it is clear from all the chroni­
clers that the siege began in June, 1522, and ended the following
December.
Hence George Lily m y Lave had either style in mind,
although the language of the epitaph, quoting February 25, 1522,
makes it clear that In this last Instance he was using old style,
as was customary during his lifetime.
It is Instructive of the
usage of the times, however, to find George in another place using
the new.
In his Chronic on {Venice, 1548) ,fol. 119 , he places the
taking of Rhodes v,viii Calend. Januarli 1523," which would of
coarse be December 25, 1522.
This same date, 1523, is probably
not a misprint; at least It appears in the only other edition I
have examined, that of Frankfort, 1565, fol* '70 •
6
After the evidence of the Elogla and the epitaph, there
Is to be considered the testimony of Lily*s will; but that, too,
presents difficulties.
Briefly, it makes out that Lily wao dead
by March 9, 1522-23, a date, of course, satisfactory enough} but
It suggests that he was alive on the previous February 30 [sic].
The original of the will is no longer extant, and the Act Books go
back only as far as 1526} but there are two copies of the will at
Somerset House.
The second is a hasty and poorer copy of the
first, but adds the attestation of witnesses} besides It has a
codicil, or rather a nuncupative addition— an interpretation of
the will by the witnesses— possibly added after Lily *s death.
The text of the first is as follows*
In del nomine amen. I William Lyly being In hole mynde
make my testament In this wise, ffurst I bequeth my souls to
almighty god and my body to be buried wt my wyfe in Pardon
Churohyarde. yf it may be conuenlently orells before Powlys
Crosse with my Children. All my goodes I will be solde to
the moost best behove and profits of my ehildern and the money
that shal surmount of the same be kept for bringing vp of my
ehildern. All ny bokes I will be kept for suche of my sonnes
as intends to kepe their lernyng.
I will my elder doughter
Denyse haue to hlr mariage xl Marces
my wyfes best gowne
furred with Palaber and the yonger“Iargaret asmoch yf it
fortune either of theym to dye"or they be marled she that Is
left alyve to haue both partes. All the tother parte of my
goodes to be distributed bltwTxt my iiij sonnes by equal!
poreions Also I bequeth to the bretherhede of our Lady light
. .in saint faithes Church ij newe torches. And also I will that
a trentall be songe for me and my wife in the parisho Church
after my departing and v masses of the v woundes to be songe
for me at the Savey and all suehe money as ye entende to make
a dyner at the day of my buriall to be distributed amonge
poure people that bath moost nede therof. Also I bequeth to
Edward John xx s. Also I will Jone Jones dwelling w € maister
Cosyn haue asmoche that is to sey xx s and beside that a
paire of shirtes and vj napkyns of my wifes bequest. And of
tills m y last wTTle I make myn executours sievyn Mason
vyntener of London and William Borman sumtyme seruant to
maister John Colet Deane of powlys either of them to haue v
marces sterling for thexecutlng and fulfilling of my salde
wTlle requlryng theym both that they will soo ordre all
thlnges that it may be to the saluation of ay soule and ay
wyfes soule and to the comforte of my Childern. Also I will
thaTT"myn eldest sonne haue all my londes. And if they faile
to remayne to myn eldest doughter. yf they faile to roroayne
to the eldest of ay susters Childern. And also that sum
devout and sad prest synge masse daily for me and my wyfes
in saint faithes Church during- the space of a yore and t o l m u e
x marces for his wages. William Lyly manu propria. Anno
DomTni~lillimp qulngentos imo xxij°. Secundo die Septembris•
Probatum fuit testamentum suprascriptl defunct! Coraip
prefat is CoBmissarljs in ecclesla Cathedral! Diuini Pauli
Londoners is Tx° die mens Is MarFiJ Anno bomlni Hill is©
7
quingentesimo xxlj°»
luramento
c»
e,^
The second copy is substantially (and almost literally)
O
the same as the firstj
but after the phrase "secundo die
Septembris" there is the following addition:
Being present in the house of the said William Lyly xxv°
februari .1 anno a thousands fyve hundred xxij at" the de H u e rye
of the originall testament writen w his owne hande Malstres
Morys Blrchinshawe Andrew© Smyth and John Rightwise.
A Codycell of the said William Lylly made the xxxth day
of ffebruary anno mvxxij.
Mem. where in his testament he gave
and bequethid vnto his doughter Denys Lylly xl marces in redy
money to hir mariage his mynde was tint if she were ordered
and ruled by them that he putt in trust then she to haue
twenty marces in money. Then being present maister Maurice
Blrchinshawe John Rightwise and Margaret Mason.
Probatum fuit testamentum. suprascrlpti defuncti vna cum
Codicillo eiusdera Coram p re fat is Commissaries in ecclesia
Cathedral! diuini PauTT Londonensis xxj° die mensis MaTj
Anno Domini Millirao quingentesimo xxiij° luramento c.
According to the above, what apparently happened is this:4
Lily made his will on September 2, 1522.
dead.^
His wife was already
On March 25 following, Lily "delivered" the will (i.e.,
in the presence of witnesses he declared the holograph to be his
will and deed), and the witnesses affixed their signatures to the
instrument.
The odd circumstance of two dates for probation of
1
Somerset House, Wills proved in the prerogative court of
Canterbury, Bodfelde 4; printed in Albert Peuillerat, John Lyly
(Cambridge, 1910), p. 505.
2
The second transcription also makes provision for in­
cluding Agnes in the Masses to be sung at the Savoy; after the
words "for me" we have 3 ere "and my wyfe." See Peuillerat, p.
505, n.2.
2
Somerset House, bills proved in the prerogative court of
Canterbury, Bodfelde 8 ; printed in Peuillerat, p. 506.~
A
"For the interpretation of the two wills I am greatly
indebted to Sir Michael McDonnell, late Chief Justice for
Palestine, who has studied the case and given me the benefit of
his advice*
5 Cf. B.M.
MS liarl.,540, fol. 58V :
"Me luce octava mensis sextilis adorta est,
Me luce undeeima sustulit atra lues."
Agnes Lily died, then, on August 11.
8
the will can he explained as follows:
on March 9 Lily's heirs
evidently filed for probate a copy of the will as first written.
e
But if it was admitted to probate the admission was improper,
since the execution of the will was not witnessed.
Whereupon
the original (or another copy of it) was presented to the court,
bearing the signatures of the witnesses.
As for the codicil, It*
is in all probability a mere oral declaration of the testator’s
will which it was possible to prove by the testimony of
witnesses .1
It was executed after delivery of the will, not by
the testator but by the witnesses.
"the xxxth day of February.”
The text gives the date as
But then as new, February had
either 28 or 29 days.
There are several possible explanations.
It has been
suggested to me that it might have been a lapse for March. 2—
that the scribe (whoever he was) forgot for the moment the number
of days In February.
But I am Inclined to think rather that he
wrote xxx for xxv— an error more likely than the other.
Whatever is meant by "the xxxth day of February," the
evidence of the will is clear:
that Lily was alive on February
25, and that he was dead before March 9,
This is substantial
2
agreement with the epitaph and the Elogia.
But there is another
document, of quite respectable antecedents, in entire disagree­
ment.
In the archives of the Mercers’ Company in London there Is
a record of the appointment of a successor to Lily In the office
of highmaster on December 10, 1522.
In a book wrongly entitled
"Acts of court 1513-1622"— really minutes of business transacted
by the Mercers’ Company in behalf of St. Paul’s School— we have
the following entry:
^Sir Michael McDonnell sends me his interpretation of the
codicil as follows:
"It will be observed that the codicil did
not revoke the testamentory bequest of forty marks, but provided
for an additional bequest of twenty marks - no less than half as
much again, if she [Lily’s daughter DenysJ were ’ordered and ruled
by them that he putt in trust.’"
Peuillerat, p. 504, gives the day as "3° martil 1522.
13 K, 8 ," taken from MS Harl. 5805, fol. 146. But the authority
for this date is late— early seventeenth century— and for this
reason cannot be adjudged equal to that of the epitaph, or of
Bale (see below p. 10, and nn. 2, 3.),
9
10 December. 1522* fol. 22d,
And after dyner among thesayd assemble was liad in
commonycacyon the dethe of W Lyle late hygh Mr. of the said
Scole whos Soule god pardon And for asmoche acordyng to the
lawdeable Custom which© hath© been used by the lyfe tyme of
Mr. John Collett founder of the said Scole and now lately
dean of pawlys whos Soule god assoyle and in fulfylling the
Testament * last will of the sayd Mr Collett for tie Bllecyon
of another Mr Concluded in whyche Elleccyon was named the
persones folowyng:
Mr* Ryghtewa
Clementt Eryngton prest
John Blounte
w Hytyngale
John Barkby
Suters for the Rometh
of the hygh master
And for asmoche as the sayd Company before wryten [four alder­
men, three wardens, two surveyors, eleven assistants of the
Mercers Company] be not Expertt in the syence of the latten
Tong they wyllyng that thes persons fo'lowyng shuld haue the
Examynaeyon of the forsayd Sueters and they to Ellect suche
an able person as they shall seme most Conuenyentt to occupy©
the sayd rome of the hygh Master whyche Elleccyon by thes
lerned men herafter named rem&yneth in hr. Ryghtwys and after
unto so conformed by the foresaid assemble.
Mr.
■ Mr.
Mr.
hr.
W®
Garratt
Curlews
Grok
I."orman.,
Gonell
This item, mentioned by Lupton in his article in the 33110,
in clear opposition to the evidence we have already surveyed,
defies a satisfactory explanation.
The date may be simply a
mistake! or perhaps it is a record of a meeting Antedated— one
actually held after the death of Lily, but for some reason or
other written down as talcing place earlier.
One other entry from the St* Paul's Accounts gives us a
range of dates, but too wide to settle the matterj it makes Lily
alive Michaelmas
(September 29} 1522, and dead before Michaelmas
1523.
St. Paul’s School’s Accounts
Vol. 1513-1549
[Entry from accounts for the year from Michaelmas 1521 to
Michaelmas 1522]•
For this information, and for the transcript, I am
indebted to the kindly interest of Mrs. Laetitia StewartMackenzie.
10
Item first payd William Lylly upper Maister
of the Scole for his wagis every quarter
vijii x v v i i j ® and for his lyvery gowne
xxvj® v i l ^
S u m for the yere
xxxlj
xiij
[Entry from accounts for
d
illj
the year from Michaelmas 1522 to
Michaelmas 1523]•
In primis payd
unto Mr. Lylle and
Maister
Ryghtows hy^he
Maisters of Poules
Soole for n
s
their Sellary wagis for one hole yere
xxxi
vj
that ys to saye from Mighellmas Anno xvc xxijei
unto MIghelmas Anno xv® xxlljtl after x i j H x v j
vllj^ every Quarter S u r a m a l
4
vilj
Evidently Lily drew wages after September 29, 1522; but
his successor was already getting a salary a year after that date.
So the date December 10,
1522 cannot be a mistake for 1523*
error Is somewhere else;
possibly It
The
should have been March 10*
If the meeting was held later, but on the tenth of the month, the
date of the year would of course have to be 1525*
the item certainly
impossible.
But all that
shows Is that the date December
10,
1522 Is
It might have been a regular date for business
meetings, on this occasion postponed*
One other witness appears for the date In February.
In
the notes which John Bale collected for his biographical diction­
ary, there is one on Lily for which. Edward Braynewode is given
as authority.
It ends thus?
Londlnl obl.1t 25* die Februarl.1 hora die! 4* A. D* 1522*
etatls sue 54.^ Bdwardus Braynewode,
This, it will be noted, gives the time with greater precision
than any other source*
In the hope of finding a more complete
account I have searched, but in vain, for Braynewode ‘a writings.
Concerning the man himself, there is a short biographical not©
In Bale*
Mr. Montague Rhodes James says that he was apparently
1
Mrs. Stewart-Mackenzie has also furnished this transcript,
2
John Bale, Index Britannia© scrlptorum, ed, Reginald
Lane Poole {"Anecdote Oxoniensia* Med •& Moti." Series, Part Q fl;
Oxford, 1902), p* 153* See below, n* 5*
5Scrlptog m. lllustrlum Maidrls B r l t a m l e ... .Catalogue
(Basle, 1557) , i, ’/’iSs ""'^wiardus' iJraynevuode, cluls I&hdinensis
ac scrlba, honesta natus famllia, praeter studia patrlarum legum,
La t inarum literarum eognltionem ha bens, colie git sui temporis,
Vlrorum lllustrlum res gestas Lib* 1, Ioannes Skeltonua
ppeta laureatus. ~i^nS’
ii^'i^ip^em' obi jt anno Domini! 1556, post
11
a bookseller, and points out that Bale often quotes him.^
The nett result of all this is that Lily very probably
died on February 25, 1522/23, and that at the time lie was fiftyfour years old*
1468/9*
This means that he was born before February 25,
A document recently come to light enables us to be some­
what more precise.
On the back flyleaf of "Ledger A" of the
College records at Magdalen, Oxford, there is a list of certain
students, with their ages on specified dates (apparently the
dates of admission); L i l y ’s name is among them. . There is no
Christian name given, but, from the other evidence of his being
at Magdalen (see below, p * 13) it would seem hardly doubtful that
this is the future grammarian.
The list is headed "In Vigilia
O
Sanctl
Jacobi," (i.e., July 24) and includes thirty names, dis­
tributed under the years 1484 to 1487, inclusive.
The notice for
Lily (under 1486) reads thus:
"Lylly— xvi;j Annorum in Festo
•T
omnium sanctorum ultimo preterito."
This would make Lily seven­
teen years old on November 1, 1485; and it would push the date of
his birth back at least as far as November 1, 1468.
L i l y ’s dates may now with some assurance be written down
as ante November 1, 1468— February 25, 1522/23.
But the second
date is not absolutely certain, and the first is computed from
the second.
uarias Gardiner!& allorum. Papicolaruia molestationes graues.
[It may be worth noting, as illustrative of the way
chroniclers work, that Thomas fanner takes o/er this account
literally, but spells the name "Draynwode." Cf. Dibllotheoa
Brltannlca— Hlbernlca, art.
"Brayrmode, EdwardusTRl
In the Index, p. 68, Bale lias this:
Edwardus Braynewode,
amator sue patrie, eollegit,
Sul tempori3 res gestas,
li.l. ’Ioannes Skeltonus
poeta laureatus.’
Atque nonnulla alia.
Claruit A.I). 1549,
[Poole has a
note to this, to the effect that he died In 1556, with a reference
to the Index, II, ix. 50.3
fee elusdem Edward! Bibliotheca.
[This is Bale's way of
indicating his source],
■^Cf. Vulgar ia, by william Horman.... reprinted, with an
introduction by Montague Rhodes James...". (London. 1926")'/ p. xx'v.
n. 2\ Two of the points raentloiied by" Bale are repeated In a
contemporary reference, where Braynewode Is described as a "court
letter-writer and citizen of London." See John G. Nichols,
"notices of the contemporaries and successors of Holbein,"
Archaelogla, XXXIX (1863), 25.
2
Here, as in the notice following, I am expanding the MS
contractions.
3
At the right of this, in a much later hand, Is the
inexplicable not©:
"18 anno domlni 1485,"
It is possible that
Anthony a Wood raade this addition, for he was once in possession
of the MS, bat it is not likely; in hlsf A t h e m e Oxonleases
(London, 1813), I, cols. 32-33, he states that Lily was elected
one of the demies in 1486, at the age of 18 years.
Late as it is,
and anonymous, this note cannot be considered without further
support.
Professor E. A. Lowe of Oxford has been kind enough to
endorse this view of the matter.
CSiiiPTER II
OXFORD
We have not a scrap of inforjr>atIon as to where Lily re­
ceived liis first schoolingj nor do we know what public school he
attended,
if a n y •
It >-as been plausibly conjectured that he was
a pupil at Winchester, but of this there is no p r o o f U n t i l he
is found In Magdalen, eighteen uears of a^e, we 1are no certain
knowledge of M s
life.
And tfo earliest statement we have that
Lily entered that college, or even cane up to Oxford, appears in
the A11■enae Oxonlense 5 --1wo hundred years after the event•
Wood,
ihov/ever, Is in no doubt about the matter; It cannot he assumed
that i e made the assertion without evidence*
’
What this evidence
was we do not know? but it was proba!>ly i e came vrl icli induced
;iloxam, tl-e historian of ma^dalen, to Include Lily 's name in his
p
Ko.his ter of fagudalen men.
Prom the preface to Ids continuation
of bloxam's work, kacray indicates that toe .ame appeared in one
of three batell-books in the college library.1. At present these
4
volumes caimot be found;
out It may be accepted with confidence
that ’
w ood and floxam were n .t Loth mistaken.
anc since nothing
is known to either scholar of any other Lily at Oxford cmriny
^Michael P. J. LoDonnell, The history of bt. i?aal?s
School {London, 1909), p. C9.
It is worthy of note that Grocyn,
i.is godfather, had been a Winchester boy.
But it is altogether
possible that Lily attended .a m a l e n Grammar Sch.ool (see below,
pp. 17-18).
O
‘"John Rouse Moxara, a register of the presidents» fellows,
demies ... .and other raenb-ers of Saint "hary hayiTalen Collo '0 ....
r rffS"6eiSSi'!rj“ toford and. London," l F / 3 7 ^ ^ 1 ^ ' " "
^Villlam Dunn Lacray, A register of the members of St.
.:ary bagdalen College, Oxford (L.S .; London, 1894)","i^ “ix-xi
^At least they Lave eluded the palnstakin™ search of
hr. G . R. Driver, the present librarian, and of fir. I. Denholm7ou.nu, xf: o Is -•akin, a new catalo.pie of the college muniments.
14
the last years of t' e fifteenth centary wo ’.ay likewise ayree tliat
the Lily who was at Magdalen on July 24, I486 was the Lillian Lily
Wood
and
;loxam identify with the rramarian.
note
that the date in Ledger A
It ’s worthy of
agrees with the one
:ivon uy ',;ood,
July 24 was proba ly the date of his admission; at least
that is what one would naturally s up nose •^
here he
ie 'ins to
emerge from the shadows and to Late his place in the society of
scholars with, vvl-oia I is name was ever aftorvvards to h© associated#
Y.e know nothing about I is ancestry, not even t: o na-os oi M s
g
parents: but
an Lily was born chore were oonnec- lions with
William Grocyn, who be- aine the child ’s godfather.^
mean
of course L at his family
that vhen Lily wont up to oxford
Id
was one of some consequence, and
e was not eo.ain - wholly among
3trariuors; oven if he knew no one else in tre
father was there to receive him.
This wn
.n iversi L./, his
;od-
Perhaps .ho was because Grocyn
was Header In Divinity at iaudalen that Idly wan sent to this
bliss, in a note on the pointi. his edition of Wood, I,
col. 32,
points out that this does notpreclude the possibility
of L i l y ’s ha via, been studying for s onetime-— evoa two years— -be­
fore his election as a member of f e college.
2
Feuillerat has traced t; e genealo ;y of the family down
into the
first part of lio seventeenth cent ury, ;ut ho ;>e :ins
with William and Hynes.
See John Lyly (dainbr.ld, ;o, 1910), table
facing; p. 3.
I 1ave triod to find evidence for> a ft-pory su : "estea
to j.ie by hr. Jo.iof farx n -,ic Vatican Liurar,,, t.- a t there mi; ,ht
be a connection i.etwaen the Lilys and t o well known Gigli family
of Lucca, two of vf ass '.-embers, it will be rememberedf wore
successively archbishops of horcester.
But i nave been unable to
show any relationship, and on the o h o r 'and h e ...a so Lily occurs
in English records much earlier than t o fifteenth century.
g
See kontagu Burrows, hlna.ore’s catalogues h hroeyn’s
books, followed by a memoir of" Clr'ocyn '('^Oxford'historicalfoeioty.
Collectanea. Second series, etc".,r; Oxford, 1890), p. 32b.
-.ere
Burrows also prints "The Aceount-s of 'i’Jiomas kinacre ac executor
of iiilliasn droc/n”; under the sub-heading ’’Expensa nor hojaam
Linacr-urn pro Gulielmo G r o d n o ian def-mefco," we read:
’’item to
w . Lyly, Minister] G r o c y n ’s godson, for hys
equost...#v s . ,f;
see p. 379 for drocyn’s will, ihe first it era of which provides
for L i l y ’s five shilling, after arrang.in... lor t. o payment of
debts and masses to ’O offered for -is soil.
9
15
college.'*’
A name with vf icb Lily *s was to be even more closely
associated is I. at or Cohn Colet, w o was likewise at Oxford while
Lily was there.
Probably he too was at Magdalen; hut we caimot
p
be sure*
It is j.ot anlikol,, that Lily knew ? in before -and; but
evidence ell-sr way is lacking.
however, if it were necessary*
there was Crocyn who could easily '-ave introduced ti e two young
st'idents .
’
wood says tint j.ily "took, as il seems, one decree in the
arts• "
Tl.e basis for this statement is unknown, i I the next
certain fats in L i l y 1s life 'sakes j t quite likely that he took no
Another possible reason nay be seen in the conditions for
c’ oos.l.n ; demies, as laid down in the .-ounder’s statutes; see the
quotation in Bloxam, I, iii:
"....we would have th e election of
them 1'the demies] •. ..in the form which fallows; namely, in the
first instance, from the parishes and pi; cos in which the pos­
sessions of our 0 oiler;© flourish; and next, out of the counties
in which any possessions of our Collejo lie....1' [..ere liloxam
is translating from a section of t .u slat ifces gaoled in Richard
o.i audler, The life of 'd1111am Laynfleto, {London, IL 11), p. 193. ]
Low the College ':m\ possession of t e ole. Augualinian ->riory at
flolborne in hampshire; Vaynefiete had got permission from the Pope
to suppress this as well as other monastic- inn t it at iona t.nd to
convert their revenues to the use of -is new c olio .ye. Cl* Chandler,
pp. 176-79; li.
Vllson, .Magdalen college (London, 1899), pp.
45-46; Fourth report of If e historical utss. coxim., p. 4 be;
]last in, s Kasbciall, The universities of Europe in t’e middle ape s ,
ed. I.
. Powicks and" a .
o
^
^Anthony a Wood, Athena© Oxonienses (Loudon, 11.13), J,
col. 22, says that Colet went up to Oxford aoout 1483.
Lupton,
A life of John Oolet (2d ed. ; Lonu,. r , 1909 ), p . 2 7, declares : "That
it was to Oxford that Colet vent is beyond question.
. .<1 iI is
again disappointin; to be left without any certain knowledge of
tie colie/.;© or hall at vh id: he entered.
magdaien, t;..o , newly
founded by William of Waynflete, is commonly s' pposed to Lave been
the one; out this Is after all only a .matter of conjecture."
ere
Lupton explains in a footnote
(I) that this oonjeci t:ce res os
chiefly on tue state;,sent of Wood (Athena©, i, 22), t at Colot "whs
sent t o . .. .the University of Oxon,“abo •t 1483, at which line one
or more of bis sirname mure jf Z, far/ Lagdalen College,"
Lupton
continuesi
"To this noblo foundation, completed but o h hL ^ urs
before his own birth, volot mi; hi naturally be attracted; bn l on
the other ’
•and, his name Is not to bo found on ana of its exrant
registers."
3
On the other Land, there is no reason for deferring the
acquaintance until the days vr-en the two humanists -v/ere in Italy,
Cf. Samuel hnlght, The life of Dr. John Colet (London, 1724),
p . 24:
"William L l l T y T e r e f&riTome) 1'irsFTell under Lis
"(Colet fs ) not ice... • ' The statement is repeated in British
biography, art,
"Lilly, William," 1, 363.
16
more •
I have recently found a manuscript account book of the
Confraternity of the Blessed Trinity and St, Thomas of Canterbury
in Home, which lists Lily as one of those admitted to membership
Loveraber 4, 1 4 9 0 Before that date he had made a pilgrimage to
2
Jerusalem arid he had been in Rhodes for a short time;
so that at
the very latest he must have left the University in the spring of
1490,
It is not possible to say precisely the minimum time
necessary to obtain the B. A, in Lily's age; the data that are
quoted by students of the history of the University are vague,
and either too early or too late.
However, everything points to
a period of about eight years for the L. A,, and from three to
five for the li. A,3
If this Is true, and If Lily got his one
^Collegio Venerabile Inglese MS 17, fol, 80v :
ta
1490
Die iiij
Ilovembr ris recepti fuerunt in confratras eiusdem
hospitalls honorandus vir d, David V/illlam Decretorum Doctor
Serenlsslmi domlni Regis Anglie orator et d, Lillelraus ffel,
artium magister dV Thomas Lynacre et U . l H e l m s LTlly et iuratl
sunt ut moris est et unusqulsque solvet unum Sucatum auri de
camera.
*”
gEIogla, fol. 47;
[v.illiam Lily] mira peregrinandi
cupiditate, Ingenuus puer Lierosoliiuara usque pietatis studio
poruagatus, mox inde rediens, Khodi aliquandiu literarum causa
substitit, ibique latina© pari ter,
graecae linguae rudimenta
perdidicit."
rr
Andre?/ Clark, Register of t ,e university of Oxford
(Oxford, 1887), II, Part I,' p.""13: ’’’burIn::Tlafy’s^'reT/;n "£t' is not
altogether clear what was the time required by the University for
degrees; but, so far as can be gathered from the degree records
it generally was three years from admission to the University for
3, A., and four years from admission to B. A, for h. A.
“But by the ’new statutes’ of tic beginning of Llizabeth's
reign, it was fixed at four years (I.e., sixteen terms) from
matriculation for B. A., and three years (i.e., twelve terms) from
B. A. for M. A." Cf. also Lupton, Colet, p. 39;
"....thus making
the whole period of study for the degree of Master of Arts close
upon eight years" (seven and three-fourths, as he counts up the
terns); Hew English dictionary, art.
"Determination, 4," quoting
the Statutes of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, c.xxiv for the
year 1517;
"Bacealaurel artium, comploto prius post gradum
baccalaureatus et deterrrdnation.es triermio... ,ad gradum magistratus
promo veantur" ? H» C. Maxwell Lyte, A his tor?/ of the university of
Oxford from the earliest times to the year 1530 (London and Hew
V’
o rK,nTSS6), p, 20(5;
h¥he course of" teaching which they [the
'determiners,1 i.e., candidates for the baccalaureate3 had gone
through cannot, unfortunately, be described with any certainty";
pp. 205-06:
"In the third year of his residence at the University,
the student of the liberal arts was allowed to become a 'general
s o p h i s t e r . A s such he was required to attend the logical
'variations' that were held 'in the parvlse' for at least a year,
17
degree,^ he was graduated evident 1,, in If c ...iniiaum time or a
trifle jaore— that is, of course, on the supposition that he did
not enter until ,!'.)ve ber 1, I486*
nut this would not he s u p r i s ­
ing in a ooy who was no doubt even then s' owiri. signs of the
scholarship that was later to
-n- e
ita famous •
It is q •:ibe {joss 1 ole, in fact more than likely, that Lily
went up to Magdalen some time before the vigil of hi. vanes, July24, 1486.
This was I’e date on vg ich he was "sworn in," already
oast seventeen
ears of age;
2
hot It was not uncommon for hoys to
’disputing, arguing and responding: ‘ on sophisms.... .
After performing
is exercise in the par vise for the pre­
scribed period, t: © sophlster was admitted ’to respond to the
question.’ Ue became a ’questionist, ’ though without ceasin., to
he a sophister. ’ ....If ■•ovevor na sad already spent four whole
.ears in the study of lioeral arts, 3 e ml-hi very soon afterwards
nroceed to the ceremony of 'determination, * by vduich the degree
of vac; elor of Arts was ordinarily obtainable"; n. 211?
"bike
his representative in two nineteenth century, the Oxford scholar
of t.'-e middle ages generally left the
diversity as soon as he
ad obtained the degree of .-acnelor of Arts.
Jf, ;owever, he
desired to proceed to the big}.or degree of aster, it was neces­
sary that iie should pursue : is studies there for three years
longer.... By a statute passed In 1451, it, was ordained that all
candidates for b e degree of aster* of vrts should study the seven
liberal arts and Li o Li ree philosophies for twenty-one terms,
or seven gears. A n el :hth year of study was req ired of tl ose who
’-ad not unOorgoae the ordeal of determination." Rashdall, III,
153, in 11s t i n ; tie cl ief requirements for -eyrees from the
thirteenth to t; ;e fifteenth centuries, u f s down "four years ’
st .idy" for the g.A.
^The degree registers for Lily ’a time are wanting.
Ta n n e r ’s iioliotheca dritannica-Uibornica (London, 174o), p. 481,
denies that Lily got ids degree: "Sed'nallo honestatus gradu
academiae valedixit•"
£ can find no source for this statement,
nor any echo; but I brink the explanation lies close at land.
On
t c same page of Tanner, just above t: e notice of t o uravjj/iarian,
is b e account of .ids son leorge.
..none Li e line appears t
"Acaderaiae valedixit nullo o m a t u s gradu...."
It seeus to be a
clear case >f unconscious repetition.
n
Apparently a boy could not be "sworn in"— i.e., take the
oath, of admission— until he was at least sixteen gears of age.
C f . fill lam Dunn ilacray, A register of the mem,vers of St. i'ary
i)ag;dalen College, Oxford "(IT'JsTV" Lond'on7~’Th34T7' 'IV X^W/^A~ere~he
'-.as the following: entry?
"Aleyn, Nicholas• Sworn in, July 24, 1484, as being:
then 10 years old, although admitted, as noted by Bloxaia. [A
re ister. "The Demies," (Oxford and London, 1873), I, 3 . J probably
Tnl3537"
Cf. bloxam, I, ii, quoting Chandler, p. 156;
"At the
admission of Desales on the doth of Aulj, eighteen, vb>.o had
attained to their sixteenth year, were sworn;
and all these had
oeen of the College before, in commons within the oat), or
statutes."
10
enter much younger than that.
The statutes provided for- two
classes of students, the fellows and the '’derates"; the follows
were to be at least b.n. v! en they entered, while the demies
cor.Id be as young as twelve.
It will l-e worth v/hile to quote the
bounder at some length:
he enact, ordain, and v/ill, that I! ere be in orr aforo• said College to all future times, by G o d ’s favour, over and
atovo the number of forty fcholars and fellows aforosaid,
other thirty poor Scholars, commonly called Leiaies, adorned
with pood moral characters, and well-conditioned, able and
likely to study ami to make real proficiency, completely
instructed In reading and plain cl’
.ant, and v.bo }-.ave arrived
at their twelfth year; and wo allow then .11 the;/ iuve not
possessions to the annual val -o cf five marts, to ro..xain
there until Ire twenty-fifty year ox their a y e , if it should
so so era expedient to the Pres ident, Vice - Pres ident, arid three
b e a n o : and we would have the election....in the lorn which
follows j namely, in the first instance, from the parishes and
places in which tho possessions of our College flourish; and
next, out of uhc counties in v .io. any possessions of our
College lie..• ..moreover, because a weal,, f oxmdation does ;.n.t
mock hue supcrstr .cturo, as experience teaches, and also,
inasmuch as v^e have understood tint certain of our thirty
Scholars vave lately beon in fcl e haeit of fc. rnin;: aside at
too early a period to study Logic and Hophistry, before they
have been sufficiently instructed in Grammar, which is de­
monstrably the mother and foundation of all tie sciences, we
also enact, ordain, and will, that no one of then be venceforth admitted to Sophistry and Logie, or olner science,
•inless u:e be first found fit and. competent thereto in tlxe
judgements of the President and u,aster-Informer in Grammar,
and one of th.e beaus of our College aforesaid:
a. d we further­
more enact, that at two coi.xmaxid of tie said Px*esitl.ent, with,
the advice of iv e others aforesaid, two or three of tuo said
thirty at least shall apply themselves, and devote their
labours, to the egstorics of C r a m oar, and to verses, and the
of or arts of huuxa .ity, for such space of iluo, that they not
only be of advantage to themselves,
.1 oiay be able, and 3 ave
power, to instruct and. inform others also, and "nave shill and
competency for that purpose
Concerning.; this decree Hashdall coiuients as follows:
Waynflete.,..was as wisely solicito :.s as t c f ounder of t, e
oldest public school Lhykehan] for ti e proper Kraxamalieal
preparation of his scholars.
.Out r,l« scheme y/as to provide
for grammar and arts within bhc save institution.
Lit will
be recalled tint WykBh&ifi. bud separate institutions, 'Winchester
and hew College, for ...Is yraiumar and his arts students, just
as Henry VI Jtad Kton and !:lag’s for his* 3 The forty fellows
were to be at least h.A. on their a Amission to their pro­
bationary year, and were to proceed to degrees in theology or
'translated evil o voted in bloxam, I, iii-iv; cf, also
Chandler, PP. 156, 1G2, 3.90-93, 200.
19
(with special leave) in law or .medicine, Hut a younger body
of thirty foundationers— called demies (nedll comrimnarll)
from their receiving half a fellow’s commons— were a d M s s i b l e
at tlie early are of twelve, and were kept at school under the
grammar-master (informator ) of tie college until considered
by the pro side at and Piaster fit to outer upon the university
course in arts.
It ioay be wise to stress t a fact that bore we are in the
realm of conjectural V>ut still not groundless conjecture.
And if
Lily was actually at the Magdalen wrauumar School it is possible to
point to his teacher, John Anwykyll, infornator ca. 1481-07,
2
Furthermore, Lily no doubt received instruction from John Stan5
bridge, Anwykyll fs ush.er, who succeeded Lira in 1430*
how much
Lily was indebted to either of these men can never be accurately
determined! but in a later chapter I suall try to
an estimate as possible,
ive as careful
Rashdall .has s o m e interesting remarks
on the influence of the whole group:
The approaching Renaissance was heralded in Eu/ iand by a
humble movement of purely indigenous growth in favour of an
increased attention to Latin grammar.
The movement Lad already
begun at liow College, under the sclsolarly harden Chandler,
and the Magdalen College Schoolmasters, Stanbridgo and
Whittington (the first a Mew College nan), authors of the first
Latin grammars which drove Donatus and Alexander tie Viliedieu
out of English school-rooms, did s o u t h i n g to promote Its
progress!
while tie !•oadrnastership of the sane school formed
the first preferment of a patron of iumard.su no less illustri­
ous than Cardinal Vtolsey, Magdalen College— fee college of
Grocyn (who received his earliest education at Lew College)
and possibly of Colet, the temporary abode of Erasmus— was
essentially the homo or the Classical Renaissance in
Oxford,,..-
^Ti.e universities. III, 230,
g
See The Vulgaris of holm Stanbrldge and the Vulgaris. of
Hobort LhlttlntonT" ne<i7^eaTrTce~ Vbal't^r^hT"!-^ T • S,'Mi 'Oxforii, ‘
1^32), p. xvii; also .Ewald. Flugel, Keueri. ;llsches Lesebuch (Hallo
a. S., 1895), p. 521,
5
Ibid., pp. xvi-xx,
If we may assume, as I think we uay,
that the informator of i3,e grammar school proper taught In the
College, or at least was consulted about the grasriar taught there,
^The univeralties, III, 230-31,
20
In a footnote l-e explains further:
The new :.othod scene to ave been originated by the first
headmaster, Cohn Anwykyll, who tau;;; i it to M s usher and
successor, -Tol.n staribryge or Stanbridge, and to Robert
Yihltfciivjton, eacl • of v/toia wrote numerous s Iriplified gramrtjars;
probably also to Joi n holte, author of Lac Puerorum (1497),
dedicated to Cardinal fort on.
(R, Chandler, M i l lain
Viaynfletej pp. 255, 254; J. R. hloxum, yagdalon College
Rq & x s Y q t ? ili* 7-25)
[See foster '-.ats
Schools' to 16(30, pp. 235-42. j It was at, 7a dalen too that"
Colet learned the uethod vn ich he embodied In his ’eight
parts of speech' which lie dedicated to t> e first Vi L. roaster
of his school at S. Paul's, the famous Lily, a pupil of
Whittinton,
to whose Syniaxls holsey wrote a prefatory
epistle (J. K. ■!
-loxa~a,' haydaTen r ollege Register, i. 2),
With this exceptional interest in Latin, and the unusual
opportunities for sMdvIn,.; it, and especially in view of Lily's
later career,
it is natural to think of Lin as largely devoting
himself to this study,
upon; and we nust
hut we :.ave no positive evidence to go
aware of thinking: of Lily only as a ngram­
ma ri an, " in any narrow sense.
ho came to be called by this title,
largely because various grammatical writings, some of which he
composed, some of which he had a share in composin-;, became the
basis for tJ e standard urajmnar in .ingland.
Furt5-ermore, we must
remember that years of trainin^ abroad intervened— he may or may
not have showed a penchant for gra-at/iar w.,ile at Oxford,
on the
other band, it is only natural to tl Ini: of him as be in;; one of
Li to two or three boys chosen to devoto themselves especially to
'•the mysteries of draramar and to verses, axid to other arts of
humanity*"
In any case, armed v/lth M s
,’.A., most liJrely in the
spring of 1490, he set sail for Jerusalem.
Ibid.,
p. 230, n. 3. There are several inaccuracies in
this n ote; lone
date of Lac Paerorura is not ;:nown (see below chap.
ix, P» 116, and
n. 4 }; it 5s not at all certain that Colet went
bo Magdalen (see Rashdall , III, 231, n, 2); there is no ‘evidence
that Lily was ever a pupil of Whittinton.,
CHAPTER III
JERUSALEM
Vie are all but certain, then, that it was In the spring of
1490 that Lily donned pilgrim’s weeds and travelled to the Holy
Land,
’
be know nothin;.; of the details of the tripi-only the
motives, as told by his son.
First be was possessed of a "marvelO
ons liking for travelling"; but it was "religious devotion" that
turned Lis steps to Jerusalem.
ere for t.,e first time we catch
a glimpse of one side of Lily's character,
that was typical of the northern humanist.
the deep seriousness
For Lily, as for men
like Lore and Erasmus and Fisher and Colet, humanism did not at
all mean a shifting of emphasis from the spiritual to the earthly,
nor did it imply a conflict between the human and the divine.
In
giving freedom to the human spirit it must not debase that spirit}
in exalting the tea ;ty of life it must not exclude the beauty of
life eternal— *that would be like abolishing the sun because one
had very satisfactory lamps.
For Lily the classics were no mere
exercises in skillful word-play; no preacher was more serious
about t.-'.e contents of his sermon than the Erasmian humanist about
3
the substance of his writings.
A few years later, Lily and More
Perhaps they were not greatly different from those of
John Tiptoft’s pilgrimage in 1458, excellently described by Miss
R. J. Mitchell in Lor biography, John Tiptoft (London and Mew
York, 1958), chap. iii, pp. 23-4o.
The usual route was through
the Motherlands and hermany to Venice, where the pilgrims ordina­
rily embarked for the sea voyage.
Under favorable conditions the
journey consumed about one month each way (John Tiptoft, p. 40}
cf. also the bibliography, pp. 198-99).
2
Cf. supra, p. 16, n, 2.
3
*
Cf. Alphonse Koersch, "Erasme," ha revue catholic;no des
idees et des faits. XV (Kay 3, 1935), p. 55
[*Au XVie slecle, 1 ’human is no du Sud a, avant tout, des
preoccupations esth^tiques, artistiques et litteraires,
II a,
avant tout, le culte de la forme et de la beaute.
L ’human!ame du Hord a des preoccupations ethiquea, morales
et religieuses.
Ses tendances sont surtout d ’ordre pratique,
Et tout d ’abord, c ’est un humanisms chr^tien."
And on p. 7:
21
22
v/ould vie with each other in translating Creek epigrams; b -t I'- ey
wcr.ild- never oe sufficiently s op]list Lcaied to love Creek only for
F e st^le.
>oa ty.
T: ey believed in Creek wisdom, clot' -ed in Creciau
To despxae t c iTrst t. op t o ’ I t stupid;
from the second they oexieved
m ;ratefM.
to t -.rn aside
tortain people, under
the guise of plot./, affected to scorn t o uelleac loveliness;
others, especially in t; e Louth, would prostitute t.'.-at loveliness
In the vain debauc: er,/ of in.oir fruitless dreams:
pa, an license
aiid pagan Irreli Ion were what they took from oagan autiqxlt./,
iy.it Lily,
liko ike best of ids type, v. .mid never '/■•erit t e hard
words of Ascham 5 ' e would live for ./cars a ion
t e Italian human­
ists, some of i eoi, no doubt, unbalanced and erratic:
would not become an "Ifcallanate ih*-. lislunan.!|
iceronian; but
for M m
■•©
. o would become a
e would also remain. a .1 risti&n.
were to him the storohou.se of human wisdom; w o
of the divine.
n:L
The classics
i le the treasury
The Creek philosophers and poets v/oixlci interpret
the book of nature; the Christian Fathers would explain
to him the took of nature »s lou,
blatu and Aristotle, Aeschylus
and Sophocles and Euripides, would show ' in ' ov, far t :e unaided
human ..Ink could
~o In its
and Jre;.ory ti e Treat,
search for truth; Jerome and Aa ■.us Line
.asil and Cyril arc f e tv/o Cregories of
tf a Kast would teach J lia, under t'. e
•luance oi' t e v;],urc' , how
uiiich furtl-or t: e pilgrim could travel v;.tti t o assistance of
revelation.
Mo thing is known abort Lily's stay
'n Jerusalem, except
that it was short— M s son said that © left soon after his
1
arrival.
Sir Michael McDonnell, t o Mat - rlan of St. Paul's,
.has looked about Jerusalem for traces of M s
visit,; u-.-t it Is
3lardly surprising tint nothin ; came to light to reward hiis search.
ttVous le voyez, erasme est un ruoraliste.
II moralise
to it on apprenant le latlri on sous eouleur d 'apprendrc lc latin &
la jeunesse.
II a 1 'humanism© agissant.
II est reupli de bonnes
Intentions et d'excellentes id&es• Et ces id^os, II les seme, il
les repand, 11 les prodlguo, 11 les jette & pleines mains, non
settlement dans ses Collo;raes, mais aussi dans sea Adages, dans les
milliers de lettres qui nous restcnt de lui, et, d'une facon
;;en6rale, dans 3es Merits, tons ses ecrits, j compris son7
Uouvean Testament."
See below, chap. Iv, p. 23. Tiptoft and M s companions
remained in Palestine from June 19 until July 5 (John Tiptoft,
pp. 40, 47); pilgrimages which included the dangerous journey to
hoant Sinai took at least a month longer
(ibid., p. 46.).
CjlAWLJi IV
RjtiOi-ES
After M s
short stay in Jerusalem, Lily went to Rhodes,
vii ore be remained for a certain undetermined le..ig;t; of time:
M,»,tmo.x inde redlens, Rhodi allquandiu llterarura. causa subs 1st it,
ibique latinae pari ter,
graecae linguae rudlmouta perdidlcit."^
V.e can easily imagine w <at George Lily means by
b o x
:
ordinarily
a pilgrim would 1 s.ve no reason for statin. Ion er than a few d a y s ,
or at most few weeks, In the holy Places,
Cut allquandiu Imre is
a tantalizing word, especially In connection with v/iiat follows,
be should Pave thought t1 at lily ;ad "thoro-.gMy learned" the
"rudiments" oi! hat In at; magdalen; and we could
ave acceptod with­
out surprise an assertion that me had also picked up some of I: e
elements of
'reek.
At least *t Is fairly certain ^ at
u 1 ad the
opportunity:
Cornelio Vitelli, an Italian sc' olar, was
"praelector"
at hew College from afoul, 147:• to 1409 j on t}.e
strength of a statement 'y Polydorl Vergil that Cornelio was teach
Ing "fonae literae" d T i n g this time, confined with another which
indicates t m t
Polydore inel.-ded Creek as well as Latin in "bonae
literae," it has been inferred that Vitelli was the first teacher
3
of Grealc at Oxford,
Erasj?ms and George Lily 3ay tliat Groeyn .had
•hsiogla, fol, 47.
9
‘The word Is used of him by Jolm Lelanu, Coinmentarii de
scrlptorlbus Hritannicls (Oxford, 1709), p. 456-57^
*
s
Polydorl Vergllil Drbinatxs Anglicanae hlstoriae librl
vlgintiseptem(
leVT^7oT7~^P«~~C 17-IS, quoted in the latest and
best discussion of the origin of the teaching of Greek in England,
"Greek visitors to England," by Howard L. Gray, in the Haskins
anniversary essays (boston and 1ew Xork, 1929), no, 101-02, and rm
75/T6.
See also Burrows, Memoir of Groeyn, passim, and Walter F.
Schirmer, Per engllsche EruESSnSiS'snms"' (Lelpzi/V and London, 1931),
p. 79 and n. 97, p, 173,
23
24
made a 1<©<;in«irt
with Greek before he v,-e.it to Italy in 1430.^
Kven too r h Vitelli should deserve the words of Allen, that he
o
was an ’’adventurer of no Merit,”** Grocyn might wall have got a
fair bit of Creek from ’dra; he could have been working with him
*z
for ’’thirteen years or wore” art e ’1 h
indeed lave been teachin";, ’’however imperfectly,” d rln • part of if at time*
taunt
And
If he
it uo anyone, we should think If-.at 'c would have been eager
« o teach
it to no one more if an his hrl-Lt yoari:; rods on*
Grocynfs
famous "loci-ires" on Green d d not oh course hake place . util his
return to Oxford in 1421 5
ml if, as Erasmus and foorgo Lily tell
•■a, tie foundation for vie Greek learn in-, v.G ieh he 'nr fee tec! in
Italc was laid in his days as professor of theology at hew College,
it wo! ild seem most li.kt ly t] at the aspiring doiny at ha;cialen lad
some early profit of t’e work*
f-owover, heor-f;e hily vug 1 ave hr own for a fact 11 at his
fat: er was kept to his Latin by Grocyn and 1 !s •■■'astores and an to
tie Latin, like all if e 3nui.ani;vlc of r;h; hue, and like
en Jons 011
after him, George lad undoubtedly an exalted notion as to -hat
lie rndiitohta of ti e Ian. ;ua. ;c si ould Include,
'fat f’ 0 Oxford
evidently he felt
.A., far fror- ii;r:lyii\y a t3 -orou.uh knowledge of
Latin, (1id not , ...arauteo a :asfcry of even the 1> ndaMcntalo.
It
merely prepared one for tl eu. v;j ether if c student was as apt as
the senior Lily or not.
Italy*
And of course if e fhurh in
mr.si core in
'whatever hocr-e fs opinion in !, c ..uaite;v and vf stover his
fat’ or ’s sguipeunt, he cn„s v at I o latter vo t to khodos "causa
literarun,”
til wry s. ould anyone go to n odes to study Creek and
Latin?
There were indeed otter votive 5 for visiting the island*
13l>a;u, p. 101, and '’arrows, p. 337, qn.cto Erasmus and Lily
to th e point,
"ipse Grocinus... .nonne primum in Anglia Qraeca©
linguae rudixnonta didicit?
Post in Italiarn profeetus audivit
summios viros sod interim lucro fitit ilia prius a quallbus cimque
didicisse.”
Desiderll Erasmi Hotorodaml opera omnia, ed* J. Le
Clere (Leyden, 1703-06), III, 3V9, And Lily, in t'-'O sketch of his
fa t h e r ’s <yidfal’
>er included In the Elogia, salu that Grocyn "prima
graeca© et latinae linguae nr-idimsnta ’in Tirit amnia haus.it saox
aolidiorom eisdom oporan sub Per,i©trio falchondile
Politiano
praecept or iff *s in italia impendit. ... ” (Venice, 1548), fol. 48.
O
S. Alloa, The ape of Erasmus (Oxford, 1914), p. 127,
2>
Gray, ;o, 101,
College,
Grocyn and Vitelli wore both at i.ew
25
One can imagine a young ; u m n n i M piously .n&klng a pilgrimage to
t: r sce'-.e of so ."tucIi departed
Panaetlus, v. ose writin
lone of
with
ti e birti glace
'lor;/:
if t'e Stoic
are the s >u»c© of muck of Ciceroj the
olon a:id of Posidonius b o philosopher ami < !s dorian,
•otl
of v'om Cicoro fad studied; of Apollonius
the teacher
of grammar and rhetoric; of Aeschines, who set himself up to rival
:euosthonos.
Dr one can conceive
-if d
ost any ..onterner >r tfo
fifteenth century rejoicln, at t; o c- ance to visit
nights of ft. John, w h o vcre I eu M
e famous
possession of if c island.
As a matter of fact, for t e two i-.undred ,years preceding its fall
In 1522, Hi:ode3 su,; ested little else to Europe t .an the roly
H i l a r y Order of ft. John tlie 1apt 1st of Jerusalem— if■© ini Its
of Rhodes, as b oy vcre usually li on culled, anc
(after they loft
Rhodes), the cni. Lts of ialta, from the place where If ey eventually
settled.
The inights vero ti e iastern bulwark: against the parran
Turk; b oir color!ul ■ istory was recounted a: d i d e M J c e d
V;estern princely court.
The order took Its
Land after the conquest M
In every
/rigbc in t c uoly
-Te ruse lorn in 1099.
An o m r - o M hospice
for "Latins,” under if e cl.1recti on of t- « Benedictines, was the
seat of tie new comnauiilg, v;j<icli apparently .gr-i.v. out
Benedictine foundation.
V e old
Instead oi an order w.- ose c- icf duty,
apart from the opus eel, wan t o euro of
>11 ;ri..ic, t’c->e ca ie into
being a company of non at onco roll --.lous and mi.Litary, recruited
from the
-cr»t families of one ..sat— tkeg .list :>e ..o le- o,:— to
defend the Christian
Ing'doiu ul Jerusalem.
been under if e ifltroaa e of St. .To3:n the
fou ;• t under his banner and took M s
organisation
h;e oln , os tel had
aybiob;
the h>nI ;Ms
name for t oir order,
the
;rew In strength ami influence; It s:ared the
victories an a t:e defeats of t c '..'Lri.s tlan forces for a i .ust two
centuries.
\.ith the fall of aero iu 12 Jl the .uiivhls fell, only
to recover and find t. refuge on h e
'Mo
A' Chorus.
under ti e dastership of Fra Jean de Villiors.
Th.'.s was
no and his suc­
cessors labored for the rehabilitation of b> c Order:
Folco De villaret, brand
aster from 1305 to 1319, who saw that
the future of tie ani- Tits lay nowhere If
ۥ fleet t at he hud
;;t on b o
sea.
:n 1308
-ah’ ered topeb or, aided ’y id o ships of
enoa, harseillos, and Cyprus, captured the
o' e Turks, arid I c->
it v;as
• 1 his
o ,ed h u
j
'sland of Abodes from
I h M r new homo.
They
strengthened h e i r oos:’.t,i.on by gradually tubing over tic sover­
eignty of nine neigh-borin, • is land a; b eir wealth was Increased by
26
the gift of the goods of the suppressed Templars.
Then began
the.tr rise in power, until it r e a d ed a position well described
by II hossi:
un altro fatt.^ Merita *hl ossuro rllov&to; l ’Ort! <:.<.■, cl e
eh he ancle in Terrasanta ed a Cipro dlrxitl sovrani, con
l'acqaisto di Rod! diventa vcramente uno citato autonomo con
proprie lo gi, un ©sere ito, c;a fora a maritfIma tale de
uguarliare la Carina, dello Hepubbliche d ’Italia, inferiore
solo a quella della Serexxissima, possiede isole vaste e
popolate sc un argplo t ratio di v.are di con t no alio cos to
dell ’Asia Minor©, tiene presidii nella stessa Anatolia, a
Smlrne e poi a San Pietro, bat to moneta, tratta ocn sovrani, N
conclude treuue con ^11 infedell, . on ricor.ooce ultra a'utorita
cle quella del Ponteficej il posses so di Rod! sviluppa nel
xu&ssiino g ratio le funzioiii mllltari e sovran© dell'Ordine
cavalleresco e g;li confcrisoe un ocso non iu-7 fferc-'to
nell'equillbrio politico del kediterraneo,^
This ia the background. oi' t. e Rhodes tl .at blip visited in
1490, then at tie "eight of Vor glory.
T1 o island ;ov;er had
weathered the s.Logo of 14 ..0, and t o next year liahorjef II, the
bets noire of the knights, opportunely died,
bo longer need they
lie in terror of the astute and terrible Sultan.
They even look
part in the s t r > I p between Mahomet ’c tw-.- sons, hayouiu (liajazet)
and 3-jeiu (Gem, Pjeu, Ziaiivi), for the !r f a k e r ' s
throne.
V;e have
no record jf the bni its ? writing no©;is on t:e merits of tin bis-
2
pule, as the benighted heathen, brothers wore said to .have done;''
it would seen that tusy confined th ulr act Lvitios to political
uurioeuvrin,.
when th© ronantic Gjem was driven from his home by
his i.©r© realistic brot!.or, he- so : hi and
dotal nod hospitality In
T3.ua Grand has tor, Pierre D ’Aiknisson ( 476-1503) , v-as
Rhodes •
.1
quick to sec the advantage of bavin,;; suck ; grecivus hostage; lie
sheltered him for seven years, when the Pope tool: over the re­
sponsibility (1403).
In 1400 ti e e' ief it©: . of business (ap5
pa rent ly, at least— It *s given the most space in hosio,
the
standard contemporary
istorian. of t" e Order) was merely the
negotiations between the Pope and D'Aubusson on the one hand, and
^"Ettcrs Rossi, 11 sovrano .tilitare ordine Gerosolnitano 31
Malta (Rome, 1932), pp. 15-16.
~~~
2
hTouvelle biographic /general© , art.
Maiurl, Rodl (Rom©, 1922), p. 22.
3
f*Djem."; Amadeo
Iacoao jioslo, D o l l ’lstorla della sacra r-eligio.ue et ill,
ma militia di San Giovanni Gierosol"imltanor (Rome/ 15941, I.
413-415.
27
D'Aubusson and the Sultan ha ye z id on tno other, concernin': the
/
return of C-jein.
The Grand hasten >ad offered to act as inter-
wediary between the Pope and the Sultan, and embassies had been
from
time t o t i m e arriving f r o m the Sublime Porte to treat o f the
recalcitrant fugitive*
At t! e same time the Sultan of Egypt vms
miring bis bid for t •e royal pawn, offer-iny to enter into a league
v.'itb the Christian princes against Hayezid,^*
position of the Order was an enviable one;
All in all, the
the Pope was pro­
pitious, the Turks were not causing, trouble, business nas good—
not only after the death of Gjem in 1495, but even before, when
be was in the power of the Knifhtsj II Ross5 sums up the situ­
ation as follows;
J3ayazid libe.ro dalle compotiziono del fratello ron
molesto I'Ordine, stipulo anzi con esso una tre;;ua e ,:li
douo la prezicsa reliquia del hraccio di ban Giovanni.
I
Tur-c1 i erano a 11 ora occupnti e eonuol idaro :!1 loro bominto
nella parte meridionale dell'Anatolia (Caramania) e
asplravano a conquisture la biria, la Palesiiixa e I'Lgitto;
co:?> jx?r qwalohe doceruio I’o-I:* fu sicu.rn c iranu ilia. 5’otto
11 naglstero di fra Pietro D'Aubusson, che fn creato
Cardinals nei 1495, e del snoi successor!, b 'AiaLoise o del
C n.rrot to, I'OrCiuc ra.j.uiunse 1*apogee del la potoroa; Rodi
ricca di commerci, splcndida di monument 1 aveva assunto la
fisionoiiiia di uollczi.a o d ;,rii.K-i.<szzu e e n-.mox o-g. i sc ..pis< o
:1 sv.ol v'sitaiori .2
it was at the beginniitg of Li.is ..oluen a;je for ti-.c proud
and splendid island state that •,ily paid m s
visit co anodes,
hue i.tj found on.ers tnere oesiues the .^jl, uls,
' o native popu­
lation was oi course ureekj according: to a modern a undent ui cbe
subject tt.ey not along with tne Latins as well as could bo ex­
pected j but tiaey woulu * ave liked their foreign masters
uei)iuei*sivip in the Order had been open to their sons;
f o r this
privilege m d
eeert rci'i-sed in 1478. *■
otter if
a petition
71 ore was oven a
separate bishop i'or each element in the coifiaunib^ j Vertot points
out t’-'Ut the nomination of both prelates was at Tho disposal of
1 rbid.J p. 115,
^11 sovrano militara ordine, p. 20,
ur. Guy Sorntri-Plcenardi, Xtineralro cl 'un ch.ova H e r de
Saint Jean de Jerusalem dans I'ile de Rhodes (Lille, ~l§dlfT7
~ ~ ---- *—
p 7 T 2 ~ -----
27
D'Aubusson and tbe Sultan m ye s.id on the oiler, concerning the
return of Gjem.
Tbe brand Master !ad offered to act as inter-
modiary between the Pope aiid tbe Sultan, and embassies had been
from time to time arriving .from ID e Sublime Porte to treat of the
recalcitrant fugitive.
At the same ti;,ie the Sultan of Egypt was
making his bid for t e royal pawn, offerlug to enter into a league
v.lth the Christian princes against Hayezid,^
uositlon of the Order was an onviablo one;
All in all, the
tbe Pope was pro­
pitious, tine Turks were not causing, trouble, business was good—
not only after the death of ajem in 1495, hut even before, when
‘e was in ti e power of the Kni htsj II Rossi sums up the situ­
ation as follows;
Eayazid libero dalle ccmpotiaione del fratello men
molesto l*Ordine, stipulo ansi con esso urn tregua e gli
ttouo la preaiosa reliquia del u-raceio di oau Giovanni,
I
Tar-ch i cra.no a 11 era occupnti ;• consol id arc :;X loro doninio
nella parte meridionale dell'Anatolia (Caramania) e
aspiravano a conqnistare la biria, la Palestina e I'E,gitto;
cos:-, per cpualc•-e docvrnio Pod! fn nicmra o tramp "111a. Potto
il magistero di fra Pietro D'Aubusson, che fu create
Card inale nel I*idh, e del suoi success ori, h 'AJuboise e del
Carrot to, l'Ordinc ragglrnse 1*apogee della poter.aa j Jlodi
ricca di commerci, splcndida di monument! aveva ass;into la
fIsionoiiJLa di uolieuua o i,.i gra.iuesszu c. a ancoi Og.^1 si..place
:l suoi v'sitafori.2
It vi/as at the beginning of Li.is ..oloon u p for the proud
and splendid island since that
hly
paid i-ig visit to nhoues,
hue 1-u found oui.ers Ij.ere resides f e
ips.
i.u. native popu­
lation was oi coarse ureek; according: to a modern student of the
subject the,, got along with the batius as well as could bo ex­
pected; but i: Oj world ] ii.7c liked their foreign tnsters hotter if
hioiiiuership In the Order mad boon open to their sous;
for this privilege rad veer, refused .Lu liV’o.
a petition
T] ere was even a
separate bishop for each ele.ve.ut in the coiaauuity j Vertot points
out that the norainet5on of both prelates was at the Disposal of
Xr- id., p. 115.
^11 sovrano milltare ordine, p. 20.
UF. Gny S omr:i- Picena rd i , Itinera ire d 'un chevalier do
Saint Jean de Jerusalem dans I'ile de RJ-toc’es (nillo, 1^00),
p. i2s.
28
fch'O brand Master. 1
Revert'idea a t. ore aes-s to i.ave been a fair
degree o f peace and ]-ar/aony between the two peoples, especially
vf-en there was question of defendin'".; the island against attack—
alt.hongh we must bear in rind t' at tho records of Rhodes that we
read are chiefly those kept :y the dominant venter in the
Pa r Lne r a jjip .
Vsith s cr. a history, and s-;ck a crese’-t ;lor,v, there was
S'jff ic lent reason for anyone with a fondness for travel to
Rhodesj hot there
a to
3a still some uncertainty as to v-fy one s} ould
■0 t-ere specific; lly to study Latin and brock— to er-e is no real
evidence of a
r-.uf;. clcunical center tiers.
’
The q-estion
puzzled Fuller:
In his ret ;.m -'fro.o Jerusalem.] n eta,..nd jI a odes and
studied Greek; w M c h vrill seem strange to some, Rhodes not
being: Rhodes in that Age (except casually some grbafc Critick
was Sf a r e } son
oil .orv. iae to find I.In;,act in .Q;lc..-'>n~~ircck''
(sowred with long continuance) is as impossible, as to draw
good Line out of a vessel of Vinegar.
..once ..e
L .j \Ox.i.o
Fuller sapplies the "hence" that seoms justified vy what we know
of the facts in the case, and mokes Lily leave Rhodes for Rome
precisely because :e could not acquire in t; e island iortreas l.no
Greek that his soul craved; hut bvere is no basis for iris con­
clusion in George Lily's account.
Meatus Rhenanus suggests an
advantage to be derived from a stay in Rhodes other than ti;e
actual learnin ; of the ureeir lan/vage— t; e c auee to see at first
hand the life and customs of tie modern Greeks
(presumably a help
to a thorough 'anderataudin;. of t:.-e ancients),
m
dedicatory
tie epistle
to his edition ox the Pro/,Fionasta oi .•ore and Lilj he
speaks thus to kiilioald firkheiraer:
Postrer.10 si hoc quoqo* scire enpis, Guil. Lllius, uori
sodalis, cum quo verteudis Graecis epigramssativiis iara ollni
c-ollusit, quae I’rogyrnasaatun tiuilo s,.nt inscripta,
Britannus e s t , vir omnifariam doctus, nonmodo Graecoa
autores, sed 6 eius nationis mores vernaculos (Hornestic os uotos
ViGbensj h
t]. in .insula. Ilhodo fucrlt "lipnot anvos e o.vmora tus ,
is nunc ludrnn litersrlum, quern Londini Coiotus lnstituit, ms.gna
^Reno Aubert de vertot, uistolre ces coevaliors
hospitallers de S . Jean de Jerusalem tnouv, feci,j~l*aris’7 IVVo-80),
III, 282.
‘
.3
"'Thomas fuller, The vlstory o f n c wort, lea of fngland
(London, 1362), Part II, p. 11.
29
cum laude exercet.^
Somewhat later Morant, in the article on Lily which he
wrote for the Glonranhia Britannlca, gives a plaueible reason for
the stay at fOiodos:
MAt I\is return from thence [Jerusalem], lie
studied some time at Rhodes j where, after the taking of Constant!nople, several learned men had taken refuge."
hood repeats this
statement; in support of the point, oliss refers to the Biographfa
3
Britannlca— evidently the sole source of his information.
Low
there were undoubtedly a good deal of travel to tin Hast by the
Englishmen of Lil y ’s day, to the different seats of ancient cul­
ture; but it is difficult to show that Rhodes was one of the
plaees especially soug'it out.
It is not mentioned, for example,
in a contemporary list of cities and countries often visited bystudents.
Thomas barton quotes this list, in discussing the growth
in
the interest
in Greek that came about in Ik land as the result
of
the introduction of humanism.
Sometimes, he says, this
interest
was more feigned than real— it was often no more than a pose, as
may be gathered from Alexander' Barclay’s description of the
pseudo-s cholar:
Another boasteth himself '
•ath bene
In Greece at scholes, and many other land©;
But if that he were apposed well, I wen©
,
The Greek©s letters he scant doth understand,
A youth would profit more by staying home and applying himself
seriously to his books;
"hiasilea© apud Jo, Frobenium raense L'-eeembri an, JhCXIII,
The Epistle, however, is dated 1518.
It is quoted, with slight
textual variations, in Briefwechsel des Beatus Khenarrus, ed.
Adalbert ilorawltz and liari'^arifelder '('Leipzig, life'&)y p * 104.
2 Philip Morant (1700-1770), art., fiLilly, Gilliam."
[Vol.
V (1760), p. 2969.3
In a footnote {[G 3) be pays his respects to
Fuller;
"if Dr. T. Puller had considered this, he world not have
expressed so groat a wonder at our author's studying there, as he
doth in the followin;; words...•"
<■£
Anthony a Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, ed. Philip H i s s
{London, 1013), I, col. 33, and n. 9.
4
A history of English poetry (London., 1871), III, 338.
He is quoting the 1570 edition of Barclay, fol, 185a.
30
.jut thou, vayne boaster, if thou wilt take in band
To study cunning;, and ydelnes despise,
Tli1 royalne of i n l a n d <i ,Lt for thee suffice: —
In England is sufficient discipline,
^
And noble non endowed wit1' science, ecc.
Hoi; Englishmen must
follow this i'ad of going; abroad--no matter
where— and they are often none the better for it;
One runneth to Almayne, another into Fraunce,
To Paris, Padway, Lombard j , or Spayne;
Another to honony, Rome, or Orleaunce,
To Cayns, to Thonlous, Atl ens, or Colayne;
And at the lastgreturneth hone agayne,
Lore ijuiorount.
It may indeed be argued that Barclay was not trying to
.give an exhaustive catalogue of the shrines of scholarly devotion;
but on the other >and, if Rhodes really was a center of classical
learning, lie might easily have mentioned it.
The point is that
apparently nobody living in L i l y ’s day mentions Rhodes as a place
to study.
The re.-aark so casually thrown in by do rant— that after
t’:o fall of Constantinople "several learned men. had taken refuge"
there— seems to a band alone.
At least I can find no earlier
statement of the fact— if it be a fact— nor any evidence upon
wnich to base such an assertion.
Order and of t’e island,
The standard historians of the
both contemporary and modern, make no
reference to these scholars; and I am informed by those most
likely to know that a search anon-; the remaining: documents in the
archives at Malta would be al ost certainly barren of results.
Pur the m o r e , vf e
one tries to estimate the general state of intel­
lectual life In fifteenth and sixteenth cent'try Rhodes, he finds
it difficult Indeed to show any noteworthy huraanistic culture.
Perhaps the best way to attempt this vd.ll be to 1 ist the chief
litterateurs whose ua. ns :avo been linked with Renaissance Rhodes,
1Ibld.
2
Warton, p. 330; Barclay, fol, 54a. barton declares
(ibid,) that the "prevaillag' practice of going abroad for In­
struction. ...certainly proved of no snail detriment to our
Ik; -lish schools and universities"— a view wrick seems strangely
shortsighted*
"Yet," be continues, "this practice was en­
couraged by some of our bishops, who liaci received their education
in English universities." We then gives Instancess
Richard Pace,
sent by gsishop Lang ton of Winchester to Padua and Bologna; and
Richard Croke, maintained by Warham in Louvain, Leipzig, and Paris,
for twelve yearsJ
and to say a word about their achlever.ients•
conmon knowledge t m t
It is a m t t e r of
ioany of the records were lost when the
Knights loft Rhodes in 1523; and it is quite probable that I have
overlooked some men worthy of notice,
but a fairly careful surrey
has revealed surprisingly few names, and those mostly of Western­
ers, usually casual visitors to the islandj not once have I found
mention of an exile from Constantinople,
We may begin with the famous Oiriaco d•Ancona (1391-1452),
the great collector of antiquities, with a wide if uneven classical
culture.
In the second quarter of the fifteenth century he made
half a dozen trips throughout most of the known near East, and it
is only natural to suppose that he stopped some tiiao or other at
Rhodes.
But
If ho did stop, his stay there
was
not important
enough to be noted by the author of the article concerning him in
the Enclclopedla Italians,^ lie composed seven volumes of commen­
taries, interesting to an antiquarian; only a few quires of these
re vain*
Then there was Criatoforo Buondelnonti, v;l o flourished
about the same time,
horn at
lore rice of an illustrious family,
■e went to Rhodes to studv Greek— accordin- to the Enciclopedia
2
Italians— and reasalned there for a period of eight years, between
v
If e years 1410 and 1420,
’
n--i
i-■- ■
i
mi i
ii
-
An early, hut apparently capable, student
of iiuoncelmontl belaeves that he merely used Rhodes as a base for
his numerous and prolonged voyages throughout the Aegean.5'
;-uondelmontI ‘s claim to fume Is a description, with a map, of the
islands vhleh he had visited; the Descrlptio Jnsulae Gandiae,
1417, was dedicated to riccolJ> Hiccoli, and the Liber Insularum
Archlpelagi (in other codices the Descript io Ins-alarum Marls
Acgael, e t c . ) was offered with due !-omage to Cardinal Virginio
Orsini.
The maps are very important j Professor Robert o Alxuagia,
in the article in the Enclclopedla itallana, says of them!
ft....
esse eonstituiscono il primo fondaruonto della cartograpliia delle
■^Art., "Cirlaeo d ’Ancona." X, 438.
^Art., ’hluondelmonti, Cristoforo.f* VIII, 117.
Gabriel R. L. De Sinner, ed,, GhrIstoph, ;iondelmont1i
I-’lorentil. librum Insularum Archipelaf:i^(Le'ipg3q; alid"1io"rTinr' Tb24 ),
p. 20: ’ . .. octo illos annos quos" PJiodi degit, de qnibas supra
dlxi, non esse acciplendos de eommoratione ibi deinceps unoque
tenore facta; Rhodus, ut videtur, potius locus erat, in quem e
singulis itineribus semper redibat."
32
sol© grec::e e furono poreiS moltissime volte oopiate o imitate•”
De S inner,
owever, wi.il© recognizing; the vul :,e of f ■©
work for geograp} y, and while praising t.: e .mps as aecnrate, is
no mere flatterer of j-is subject.
slips in history:
inscitlaeque."^
!|In
i-e finds
in duondeliuonti many
.Istoria mirao erat i-;norantiae et
ilia knowledge .£ I e Latin authors, as appears
from his quotations, is satisfactory, b .it 're fails even so much
as to name a Greek classici
HIn Veterum Anctoroii latinorura
lection©
pro teraporibus illis sails est versatus; . ...sed e Graecis
t— r
nullum laudat nominetenus l i ' o r u i a * M s Latin style leaves .much
to Le desired, marred as
iu is
op Italian constructions and barba­
risms, of which "numeras est le.Mo in sin. ;alis voeitus aeque
*7
atque in vorborum oomposit.lone• M‘ Du I what is most surprisin... of
all, and is unnoticed :;y Professor Alraagia, is tho uncomplimentary
u< inrrs De Dinner :as seen fit to say about i is Greeks
Qraecao linguae tautilia et aliqualis erat ipsi peritia;
et quidem non r : r aecam illam venustarn melioria aevi linguaia
caliot, sed ineomtum isthoe t ea temporis i d M i a , Corayo
dtiApQuiTri egens, idioraa barbarun fere, quod infeliciter
Graecus quidam, sex abhinc sunt anni, popular!bus suis esse
homerI, Plndari, aliorunque -rftv 'TToL.vvjc lingua,.;. probar©
conabatur*— buanquara ne hoc quidem idioraa be no novit
handelmontius....multas voces quidera auditu compre- endorat,
sine interior© graeci sormonis cognitione.
If 1a .
11' of what De dinner alleges is true, we can hardly be
justified in quotin,, buondelmonti as a great humanistJ
another name of sorie importance connected with li.hod.os is
5
u.iat of Benvenuto Sangiorgio, historian of th,e unferrato
.starchesi; in his day ho was esteemed a very luuiu.ed .-.an,
ne
Joined the Knights of St. Joan in 1480, and was present at the
siege of tdiodes in trat year.1' hut so far as is known, that was
t: e beginning and end nl' ids traffic with t o
humanistic sweetness and
1Ibid. , p. 21.
island, anct now much
liuht V e bro gg t wit}: M m
2 11jId., p. 22.
on bis one
5 lb id., p. 23.
4 Ibid., pp. 24-26.
^Corayo" in the quocatIon probably
means the Sreek edition of Strabo by D. Corayus (Paris, 1815).
G0f. Bosio, I, 343.
&The best account of ■ im is that of Joseph Vernazza, pre­
fixed to the Turin edition of his Cronica (17(30).
edition was printed at Casale, in 1G39j •
(The first
33
visit is a matter of
5rave doubt•
Sabba da Gastiglione
(1480-
1554), a cousin of the Daldassare dear- to all lovers of
politesse* la a nu.cn better example of v.l at we are seeking#^- A
talented young man, a lover of letters (especially of Petrarch,
P
‘5
his favorite poet)," and of all things artistic, a frequenter of
the best society in hilan and Pavia, possessed of an undeniable
zest for antiquity, he spent tiree years
a member oi' the order.
(1505-1308) in Rhodes as
Undoubted!,/ his presence added considerable
lustre to the local literary world; all ti;© more so because,
apparently, his
11 pvt burned alone.
..e found life with the prosaic
soldiers unbearable:
they were sadly lacking in reyard, for the
things he cherished.
Three letters of his are extant, written to
his friend La Marchesa di Mantova Isabella Gonzaga (the sister of
Beatrice d ‘Este, wife of Ludovico M o r o ), begging her to use ner
influence to free him from his misery.
The first, undated, asks
her to obtain permission for him to spend all his time in arohaeo4
logical research;
the second, December G, 1505, in.e very day
after his profession,’"' expresses his </,**©&t desire to luavo
Rhodes 5w the shard, April 17, 1507, finds him still there, but
resentful of the attitude of his brethren, who regard. Ids work as
7
savoring 01 heresy and idolatry.
A humanist, undoubtedly {though
be wrote little );0 but by U.at very token a witness to the lack of
humanism in Rhodes*
PileIfo Is of course a na: &
to conjure with In the realm
of Italian humanism; the son, Gian-Mario (or niammario), as well
as the father, Francesco, left his mark on Italian letters.
The
The chief study on Sabba da Gastigliojie Is t:at of
Pasolini-Zanelll, in Uxi cavalier© a Rod! ed an plttore del secolo
XVI (Treviso, 1893),
—— —
>»
—— — —
2 Ibid. , p. 8*
gIbid., pp. 98-100.
^'Pasolinl-haaelli, pp. 22-24.
vIbid., p. DO.
broid. , pp. 24-25.
7Ibid. , p. 24.
q
“'His chief work is his Rlcordl (first printed edition
1S46 - according to Dr. Qiulio HeTchenbach, "Castiglione, Sabba
d a , M Enclclopedla ibaliana, App. 1, p. 386),
Pasolini-Zonelli
(p. 76) describes it thu s : tf[I Ricordij souo nn& ricca minera di
notizie del seoolo XVI, se da un canto oi aervirono per la vita
del loro autore, ci respecchiano dall ’altra il Hovlraento storico,
letterario ed artlstico d'allora,”
34
name Mario FileIfo occurs in one of the standard historians of the
siege of 1480, in circumstances sufficiently lively to fit the
character of Francesco's half-Greek off spring.
At the instigation
of Misaeo Paleoloyo, the Turkish admiral, a olot had been hatched
a",a Inst the life of the Grand .'aster, the famous Pierre D f
Aubusson, by two members of the
garrison, one a deserter from
Dalmatia, the other a dubious character from Epirus,
As a matter
of fact the latter, Pizio by name, was chosen as co-cospirator by
the Dalmatian Giano, because of > is intimacy with f3>e secretary
of the Grand Master, none other than Mario Filelfo.
Filelfo, for
his part, had fallen into disgrace by reason of a recent sedition
in which he was apparently Duplicated.
Pizio went to filelfo and
urged him to seek revenue for his "violata amlcizia," by poison­
ing I)'Aubusson.
Filelfo ”che era mi nomo onesto per indole e per
i profound stufii ai quail si era dedicate,!! discovered the plot
to D ’Aubusson, who had Pizio hanged am! blano beheaded, and then
X
received Filelfo rack into his arms.
In a footnote
(p. 107} Poet >r hizzi declares:
ME
certaincnto Giaramarie Filelfo, note umanista del *400, nato -..el
1426 dal celebre Francesco Filelfo.*’
adduces is emphasis of assertion.
but the only evidence be
It is not improbable that, the
waiidariug, restless son of Francesco stayed for a period in
Rhodes} but if he was there at all, it is certain that he did not
2
remain long; In 1476 he was in Ancona,
and in 1480 he died at
3
Mantua.
Certainly his presence would have contributed much to
raise the tone of the intellectual life of tlo community; but it
is quit© possible that it was merely a rtmiesabo
j±
Leo humanist
who saved t e life of D ’Aubusson in 1480,
To tie fraternity of literati in FI.odes, Er.viand con­
tributed ter share.
Warton notes that there is a translation of
^Henricus Pantaleone, Militants ordlnis lohannitarnm,
Rhodiorum aat Melitensium equitum,’ *erv,m memoratiilium.... (Basle ,
15811 xn Le Guerre ul Rada, i‘elaz iona cu aiversl autori sui due
grandl assed'l' d'i""Kodi
tradGt'te^Tn'f"Ttallano
dal latino e efaT’Trancese antico "daT iTott. Enanuele F.'li'izzi
p/urin, 1934 ), pp. 107-100,
p
Cf, Vittorio Rossi, II Quattrocento ("storia letteraria
cl*Italia”; Milan, 1933), p. 45; m e l 1471 si poso ad Ancona e vi
res to por cinque anni. ... "
~h
i
m
—
^
I
T
Mli
r
r
.
n
—i
»
» ■
—i r
m
i
n ifiwmimwiTi^m 11n—i
ni
««i
'
—.
n i
m
T
i
ii
m
i
i
i
m«
i
«
i
n
—f
f
i
i
n
u
r
t
*-y— »g
.
3
■w— W
n
—H
«
|
1 —
.
rI
I
iimi
i
i
m
w
w
i
—
Cf. L. Agostinelle e G. Benadduci, Blographia e
blbllographla di Ciovan fiario Filelfo (Tolenti n o 18"99) J p. 27;
35
Vegetius in the uodlelan, made at Rhodes, ’’die 25 Octobris, 1459,
I
per Johannem Newton."
From the name we should imagine that
hewton was an Englishman— altti ough we cannot he sure that Newton
was the translator’s name; newt on rd 'it have been "sorely the
copyist.
The translation, which occupies fols. 1H2-22G, has at
the end the words:
"Scriptus Rhodo per Johannem nerton die 25
O
Octobris 1459."*' But two ascription is complicated my t !-a fact
that the catalogues ueution two other naiues:
rives as first part of the entry,
C o x e ’s catalor<ue
11Vo get ii de re mill tar i libri
septem iussu Thamae Berkeley militis, e Latino In Anglicum
nermonem traducti per Joh.? fsic] Clifton1’; while the old catalogue
.-lerely records a theory:
’’Vegetius, de re nilitari, translated as
is supposed by John Lydgate."
was undoubtedly an Engl ishman.
Whoever ho was, the translator
itit all that this proves is that
ne was an Englishman who knew Latin, and that he was— p r o b a b l y interested in the theory of warfare•
We
are on firmer ground wit]'- John Cains (or Kay) the
Elder, so-called to distinguish him from the Cambridge physician.
We know that he flourished about 1480, for
3
dedicated a poem to
Edward W
(whose humble "poete lawreate" he styles ’ imself) about
4
the unsuccessful siege of Rhodes by Mohammed II in that year,
Torr says that it is merely a translation of the work of
Caoursin.0
Wheti- er It is or ’s not, it :ives but meagre evidence
3u.illau.nie Favre, Melanges d ’histoire
1, lob.
lltteralro (Geneva, 185G),
b a r t o n , III, 108, n. 3. Wart on gives the reference as
MS La-id K. 53, ad calc., w rich is i. >e correct number for tl.o old
Laud catalogue of 1607; in the modern catalogue it is listed under
Laud Misc. 416, See Jlenricus Coxe, Catalog! codicuia inanuscr 1 ptorum
glbllotheeae hodloianae partis secundae fasciculus primus iOxford,
1153}, p.' 306,
2
For consulting the manuscript and sending me this in‘ormation I an indebted to Mr. J. M. hyllie of Oxford.
* Of. Dictionary of national olography. a r t . "Caius, John*
4
Printed In London, 1506, without the publisher's name.
5
•J
I
'
■’•ulielmus
Oaorsinus (Caorsin, Caoursin), vice-chancellor
of the i.nights for two forty years preceding ’
his death In 1501,
author ol ti e Obsidlonls lihodiae urbis descrlptlo (Venice, 1480),
Cf. Houvelle dlc'Fibnn'alre'‘de 'biographie, art. '’Daourain. Guillaume”;
Cecil Torr, Rhodes In modern t i m e s (Cambridge, 1037), 90s
"The
contemporary English and French and-Merman narratives of the
siege by Jofm Kay and Mary du Puis and Bernhard von Breydenbach
36
that its author was a humanist.
The same may he said of
Caoursin himself, and of another who 5.3 conveniently treated with
him— Thomas Guichard, who succeeded Bartolomeo Politiano as vicechancellor of the Order In 1523, and died soon after, aged 25 or
26.* Somrai-Picenardi calls Caoursin and 'iuichard "las plus
r y.
2
celebros” of if e Latins at ‘L odes in tfoir time.
But while they
were no doubt cultivated, as well as able,
ion, one can hardly
think of them as humanists in any very serious sense.
Picenardi himself says of Caoursin,
As Sommi-
"sa piano ne traitait-elie
que des sujets qui la [ 1 »ordre] concernalent."
Torr mentions
an incident which supports the belief that C a ours in was a ”learned”
mans
after .Marcus Fontanus, the Latin archbishop of Rhodes, had
been sent to Rome to deliver a speech of congratulation on beJialf
of the Anights to Alexander VI on his election in 1493, he printed
tic manuscript with a dedication to the vice-chance1lor, ”by
whom. he had been indoctriated in learning and by whose advice he
had \one to study in the University of P a r i s , B u t
nevertheless
Torr thinks he has sufficiently praised Caoursin. when he concludes:
are all paraphrased without acknowledgement from this work of
Caoursin*s.” historians are. grateful to Caoursin clxiefly for
codifying the statues of the Order.
Revised, and approved In
1493, his code was published at Venice in 149b with the title
Stabiliraenta. Torr, p. 98, declares:
“This code is t^e most
valuable and t.!e most accessible commentary on medieval Rhodes:
but hitherto it has been strangely neglected.” See also infra,
n, 46.
*For both Caoursin and hr 5chard see f . Fviy Soocai-PIcgnardi,
Itineraire d Jun chevalier de Saint-Jean de Jerusalem dans l'ile
de Rhodes' (Lilie"," T S O O ). 'pp'."'W5-3Q. 'It" will "be suFfTclenF here
to say that Guichard was a religious— his order unknown— and a
doctor of laws.
Fontanus, a contemporary historian of the Knights,
refers to an oration delivered by 'juiciiard, as xopresentative of
the Order, before Pope Clement VII (1523-34)? see Pe bello Jiliodlo
l:lbr5. tres,
d e m e n t i VTI p ent, max. dedlcati. authors lacobo
Forrba.no hruqenai jurisconsalto, iudlce ap.pellatlomun sacrae
noTjiTis^que'’mTritTae hi'eros'oIi'Trrtitanae £ populi Rhodil"
' (Romae 'in
aedibus P. Mlnutii Calul, 1524;, 1 1 f ol.
Somrai-Picenardi,
p. 130, says that this is ”u n document important pour l'histoire
de 1 ‘Ordre.” Torr, p. 100, agrees with this Judgment?
bis statements, no far us t -ey go, are of if e highest authority..,.”
As for Fontanus, Torr (p. 101) remarks that Davenant evidently
studied his history carefully for his own drama T c siege of Rhodes.
^Itlneraire. pp. 128-29.
37
!*Kis learning was respectable..».lie quotes Aristotle.... and also
1tower and Vergil,n and adds tl at lie had some -.nowlodge oi' Greek
and Roman history*^
So far every luminary mentioned has been & 'westerner; but
Rhodes* we must reiaenber, was not a western island:
and its
original inhabitants likewise boasted a certain amount oi* culture.
The situation as far as they were concerned has likewise been
summed up by Soinmi-Pieenard i:
Le s jjelles-Lettres c ompte re nt a us si f i l l us tre s
representants parmi les Grecs de Rhodes; nous citerons
Antoine Colesina et Georges halloas, aout le premier assists
au siege de 1522, et qui nous ont laisse In description de ce
raSnorable evenement; et, en partlculier, Georges Paleonetti,
auteur du "Lachrimoso Lamentsto del Oran ..aestro di Rodi",
petit poeme en huitains, qui etalt tres re panel u et tres
populalre ati XVI© siecle et qui a fete reliaprime/ piasters fois;
Emmanuel Georgillas, d'origine stradiote, qui ecrivit en vers
1c siege de 1480, m poeme sur Belisaire ot .Tustinien, et un
autre sur la pest© qui desola Rhodes depuis ie raois d'octobre
1498 jusqu*a fete de I ’annee suivante.2
Perhaps the most famous of the Italian 'humanists whose
names may be linked with. Rhodes are Guarino Veronese and bilippo
Callimacho Esperlente#
Professor Sabbadini mentions that Guarino
stopped off at the island on his way back from Constantinople to
•K
Italy in 1409;
but he has nothing further to say about the visit,
to which there seems to bo no reason to attach any great importance.
Of that offer ardent student of t' e past, Callimachus
usually called), with whom Lily m y
(as he was
.•.ave had s o u t h i n g to do,
more shall be said in the next chapter; fore it will be enough to
remark that he belonged to a brilliant set of Roman wits vmo
exemplified some of the best and some of the worst features of the
1Ibld., pp. 99-100.
O
P. 127# Torr, p. 103, calls l:o last named e x p o s i t i o n
"tho chief xuedieval poem of Rhodes•" It Is edited oy hill-eIra
Wagner in Medieval Greek texts, ("The philological society *s extra
volume, I t m Z T S n
London, 1070), pp. 171-90,
Torr mentions an­
other poet of the siege of 1522 (p» 102) J "There are said to be
two accounts of this last siege in Greek, one xg George Colybas
and the other by Eleutberios a Rhodian#" bo -.cations too another
genre tliat flourished in medieval Rhodes, that of lyric poetry
(p. 102):
’’Many of the Greek love songs of Rhodes Uavo survived,
and more than u hundred of these are contained in one manuse-ript#M
This manuscript, which has been edited by Wagner under the title
l/t y^/3-»T*,s -t-m* lyL-ir-n*, is preserved in the British Museum, Addit.
8241.— Ibid., n. 1.
3
In the Enciclopedla Italians, art. "Guarino Veronese":
38
Italian Renaissance*
After getting into trouble in Rome, he
travelled widely; and arson; tie many places l.o visited was Rhodes•
A lata biographer narrates toe facts succinctly:
Pour lui {Callimachus] il out le bonheur d»eehapper, &
do so sauvor en Paloyiie, apres avoir erre Ion .-'-temps en
divers ©ndroits,& avoir parcouru tout© la (Jrece, les Isles
de Ch y p r e & de Rhode* 1 'Bgypce, les l3a.ca d® la her iigoe, la
IViruce & une partie de la hacedoine.l
All this wander i n • auout took place niter liidjt but we
are i ;norant as to vA en exactly, and for Ion.., and to w? at purpose
t
j.UyiuivO
O .... 0
in j*
S j.uGQ,
C
i..ii.i. ! ..O *
Bo far as I have been a ole to observe, there v.ore no oilier
ircat scholars from the -..est who bad nuch to do with Rhodes in
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries:
and certainly the ones I
have mentioned have yiven slight reason to ssko us think''of the
island as a center of humanism
• rin
tliat period.
TitIs does not
mean, however, that the :.night a eschewed t; e intellectual life al­
together,
After all, these proud warriors came from the best
families of fur ope, families W ich produced great scholars and
"noble ecdesiastes" ss well as military heroes, Tneir- very nobility
must have insured some fair mot.sure of instruction.
As one ;;oes
2
over the list of tie irarkl busters,
or roads the roll oi the
Kni ;bts present at t :o si eye of 1480, be sees family names that
have meant much in the his I or,* of Europe, and espec ially of
3
Italy*
Towards the end of t.-.e fourteenth century, for example,
there was the
.rand has ter >>ra Francesco Carraciolo,
his Is the
name 'of a prominent Neapolitan family, presumably the family which
produced two or three minor literary fluures in the sixteenth
century— among them llanfrancesco Carracciolo, who appears under
"A Costantinopli {.Guarino] rim&se cinque anni {1403*08) © dopo
brevi jfermate nel viarr.rio c*i rltorno a Scio e a Rodi, rimpatrio
nel 1409,"
1
/
•Jean haul r leer on, Femolres pour servir a 1 thlstoli>e des
hommes illustres dans la republique "cuss' 'i'e'li't'res '('liaris,
Vl7'l99;------ ---- ------------ ------------^To be found in several places; conveniently in E, Rossi,
II sovrano mllitare ordixie, pp. 75-78,
5Gliven in hoslo, I, 332-35.
39
his own na.u.e in Sanazzaro’s Arcadia.
preceded D'Aubusson in office
Fra uattista orsini, who
(146Y-7C), of course bears a main©
as familiar in Italy as Adams in America.
Among those who helped
drive back the invader in 14oO uosio .'lenliuns u
-ember of the
Dorro.;:Oo ftuiily, Pietro (Padovano), to \A om Uazr.uchelli refers
as
h
"scrifctorc antico dellc fa-rJLglia della sea pabria":
left in .manuscript "ana storia de r a M M l s
Pataviniis.>w
he
Icon
from such families mint Invo %->een more or Took recently educated;
h e ti e evidence does aui indicate auy great de -pee oi s--n o l s r s M p
or of literary attalre*cnt r-no;v t’ on.
:.envcnutc Ba-rgiorgio is
found in f osio’s list lor t e struggle of 34-80, hut ■e Ip the
only one of those recorded who was enough of a literary figure to
find mention in any one of the standard his lories of Italian
3
literature.
This is not the first time in at ait attempt Das been made
to estimate tic cultural life of tie An.I its.
In 1241 a book was
published at Daples contain in., notices of ioembers of the Order,
not only at Rhodes but over;.vf: .ore, vl o ‘•-ere fa-’oua for t. cir
services to literature and the fine arts; the names ran from the
earliest days of t;e
.ni lits until the nineteenth century.
Apparently the author, M m s o l f a member of tho Order, did M
e
lost
to cull from tie ranks of ti.e doughty fighters every warrior who
■^Cf. V. Rossi, II quattrocento, p, 507, M A u b u s s o n was of
French lineage:
Enrico Pantaleone, xf -o published a history of ifne
Order at dasle in 1581, the Dllitarls ordlnidis Johannitarum,
Khodloruia, ant Melltensium equitum, re rum aemorabllium... ,s pe aks
tbus of him"(in "the translation of
'oTT: "XW »Avbiisson
etait] francese di Alvergna, nato da r.obilissiini genitori...,
Egli aveva passata la sua puerizia sotto Sigismondo imperatore,
amentias into nolle placidc fu.se, dlmodochb era assai versato nelin
Belle Letter© e conoscluto da molti cultori di Storia antica,"
p
■'Giovanni viaria hazzuchslli, Dll scrlttori d 'Italia
(brescia, 1753-63), II, 1804,
Be is t e 'only 'one inliosTo’""
mentioned by Mazzuchelli; but It must not be forgotten that the
latter mot only as far as the letter i, .M in tho bio.graphical
dictionary ho planned to publish, (Other sections are extant3ri manuscript.)
3
V. loss I, II quattrocento; G. Toffanin, il cinquecento
("Storia lottoraria™!11 t a l i c ; hila-i, 1929) do not treat any of
them; Sangtorgio Is noted in Girolamo Tiraboscr.i, Storia della
letteratnra itallana (Florence, 1809), VI, 749.
^Guglielmo Villarosa, Notizle di alcunl cavalier! del
sacro ordlne Gerosolimitano illastri per lettere e per belle artl
"(Maple s , 1841),' pp . 308-9 .
40
had expressed his sot1! in any medium of art; but among iiosiofs
heroes of 1480 he claims for cultural honors only one man,
1
Sangiorgio— of whom, incidentally, he niaitos two persons.
He does
raatlon d r e e
or fo r other names of some slight fame belonging to
the fifteenth century, anon:; them Andrea di -''.andIda di Benevento
3
and 5’lorio Hove re 11a,
.out whether they rad any connection with
2
Rhodes he does not say.
A similar effort has boon recently made to draw up a list
of fni ;hbs notable for something besides their military and ad4
ministrative achievements.
This list is :ore exclusive than
Villarosa's, bein/ limited in throe w a y s :
the author discusses
only ten men, litterateurs« who wrote In Italian,
'nevertheless
it is instructive to find that the earliest name mentioned is
that of the famous Cardinal Pietro
for bologna and prior for
:embo (1470-1547), co.tfflnendatore
5
angary in 1514,
But if his imminence
ever visited Rhodes, t) e a thor of his biographical notice in the
Unciclooedla Italians did not thinh it of sufficient importance
to mention.
There are a good many references in '.os.to and d o
other
historians of the Order to this or that learned man— learned in
law, or theolo ;y, or enginoerin
occasionally, in letters.
or the languages, or even,
Bosio speaks of Caoursin as "[un]
huomo verldico, dotto, I eloquente” (Vol. I, p. 391); at the
flowering forth of the ; oly Thorn In tho hnibhts’ church on Good
Friday, 145Y, there were present the notables of the Order, among
them Giovanni Capponl, "cavaliero, e Pottor di Leggi" (Vol. I, p.
197)5 when the general ch apter of 1462 convened, the .prior of the
church of St. John the
antist, Fra i'ichele del Castellaccio,
"aletto vescovo di Paso [in Cyprus], fatta un* elegante orations'*
(Vol. I, p. 220),
Among tno Greeks Ih ore wore
.on of anility,
some of t) era schooled in the liberal arts— -at least they could
1
Ho distinguishes between ’*Benvenuto Sangiorgio" and
"tionaventura ban Giorgio"; boslo Isas only tire former name, both
in the 1480 list and in tie general Index.
2 Ibid., pp. 75-78.
g Ibid. . p. 292.
4
Adriano V/eiss di Valbranca, *1 d i e d piu Illustri
cavalier! di Malta scrlttori italianl," Rlvlsta del colleglo
araldico, X (1912), 114-10,
5Il)ld,. p. 114.
41
produce poetry.
Men of this type were often sent on embassies
whore the languages presented a difficulty to the Latins.
Such a
one was "un Papas so greco chiamato Dimetrio Noiaosili-ea," who went
on a mission to the Turks a out tlie time of the chapter of 1462.
At the council called by b*Aubusson to plan for
1.’ e defense of
the Island in 1480 representatives of every class on t'>e island
v/ere present;
"E vi furono aneo molti cittadini rodioti d e 1 piu
prudent i , e principal!,& alcunl Greci huomini d ’ingegno" (Vol.
p. 331).
1,
The records sneak: uf other t'reeks besides the Rhodians
among the allies of the m i g h t s :
Fontanus tells of a -lan from
Epirus, skilled In tho toivues of the •..‘reeks, t1*e T-irka, and the
Italians, who deserted because of an insult received at the hands
(literally) of a Greek prefect.
The author, who was appellate
judge in Rhodes and witnessed what he described, recognised tliat
this was a real loss:
Epirota quidam qui per patentom ruinam murorun a noils ad
h o 3 1es trangfugerat, quod qu:idam Graecao ■re 1111s praefectus
faciem 111! depalmasset, homo cuius acre ingenium& linguae
graecao turcaicae ac Italiae usus apud nos In obseuro, magno
nostro damno inter hostes illuxit.l
To bo auro, some of tho westerners mastered t: e Greek,
Vertot,
for example, speaks of two of them who were appointed to carry on
negotiations for ire capit wla tion of 1323:
"La roilyion cieputa a
Goldman le Chevalier Antoine de hrolee, dit Passim,
Robert
Perrucey, Jugs de Rhodes, qui parloient tous deux avec facilite
2
le Creo vulgaire.
It must Lave been rare indeed— I have
happened upon no instances of it— tliat a bnigrt learned i urkish;
the parleys must have been held eitner in the 'Tree viEL.aire," or
by means of interpreters.
We are not surprised to find en ;inoers among soldiers, nor
churoknen respectably educated in a reli Ions order,-
As an example
of tho first wo nay mention a German artillery expert w; o, with
two other deserters, fled to Mahomet and was used to
by the latter in the siege of 1480;
-;ood purpose
f?Le trolsiemo do ses renegats
etolt un ingenieur ullemu oi, appolle Georges frapan,
soutane.Bent
Haltre-Georges, bon Geometre, qui exceiloit sur-toufc dans la
1
Jacobus Fontanus,.
2Histoire, III, 357.
De bello Kh o d l o . (Rome, 1524), II,
42
eondultefc le service de l'artillerie.1*!
In. ti e case of the
ecclesiastics, we have the word of Fontanus that the two hi shops
of Rhodes at the time of its last siege were the very patterns of
episcopal fitness.
The Grand faster, Ira Filippo Villinrs de 1*
Isle Adan, had asked the bishop of the Greeks, as well as other
loaders of tho natives, to speak to the people about tho situation
they were all confronting.
Fontanus quotes the bishop's oration,
preceded by an enthusiastic tribute:
Viros prlmoros prudent lore sere znaqm <;,<.ra x'eu vault
iLiladamus], qui suimno studio ut uulgo feliciter opinata
eontingere possent, proeurare non eessabaut.
inter quos
Frater Clemens Pont I fox Graecorum cl&rus abstinent la,
ingenio, nec non graeca facundia merito connumcrandas est,
qui C-raeeos suos ex uetere fortune oliiu stapenda orbi,
anlnrum adhuc rotxnentes oratlo ne qnam appositisslma ad
obsidionem fortiter strenueque tolerandom est cohortatus est
loco publico.
As a ratter oi’ fact, tie harangue was not at all unworthy
of the high traditions of Rhodian oratoryj it can still stand the
test of reading.
The bishop appeals to the patriotic pride of
}uls flock, and shows them bow ancient are t e bonds of friendship
that bind the Latins to the Rhodians,
he knows bin Latin, authors—
at least enough to quote Livy0 and Cato.4
He refers feelingly to
Tiberius and Gioero as lovers of ireek culture, to Cassius'
education at Rhodes, and to other examples of tie bestern love for
the East.
A
crafty speech, one wight be tempted to say, delivered
by the spokesman of t’e frightened Latins when tley needed the
help of the despised nativesj but a reading of tb.o text does not
•••ive one that impress ion*
Earlier in bis narrative Fontanus quotes the address of
the Latin bishop, with an introduction equally flattering:
Ad oirne egregium audendum<& faciendum inflammanerat
Leonardus balestrinus ligur Archie pis c opus Latlnorum, vir
sumwa doctrina sacrarurt littorarum, & me-noria prope monstrosa,
qua Cl rum, ac iiithridatem uel aequat uel 3 aperat, in dicendo
sen tent iis acutus, <6 crebor, uerbis ornatus atquc efficax,
cuius luculentissiman orationeu, quaa 3n pharo diui Ioannis
ad equites habuit, subicio.
1 fbid,,
III, 83,
2De bello Rhodio. II, fols.
3 Ibid.,
r'-""1-1
fol, I)*.
O
4IbId., fol. D^v.
T
i
.
.
,
™
.
,
*
!
,
,n'*«.rr»- .
11
i
lH
i1 .-..iujnu.^
I)„v. D„.
^
^
u
°De bello Rhodio, I, fol. Cg,
Vertot, III, 282, adds his
word of c oinmenda 11 o n :
L ’ar che veque Latin e.xceJlolt dans la
parole; c'etoit un des plus ^loquents predicateurs de son siecle.”
43
ue refers to tho valor of King David-*- and holds up for imitation
such Roman generals as i'arius and Scipio Ai'ricanus.
hut he is
politic enourii to extol tho heroes of the Greeks, Xerxes and
Alexander— these and other worthies, both Latin and brook, taken
g
from the fourth nook of Julius Frontinus, as Fontanus points out,
bne can easily believe t’ at the mere mention of such names con­
tributed powerfully to arouse t’-w warlike spirits of t-e atidience,
and to unite them for the defense of tie island.
besides those rofore: ces to war. ,;oi.sd
of t’o gentler arts no /hub
t e question.
,r one or anooner
Li bosio an u u a h i doe ameni; Ic u b •lag
it is the first of a scries or 3*e;-.ilations made at
a go;ioral chapter held in 14G1; it provides for instruction in
Latin and run "in :
"(ho si dep .11 .ualsho .
lowo
lotto, il quale
le :;;a o;;nl gioruo a Ci.eriei I.sxo] dell LLabito, & inss.qnl loro le
— —
g
letter© Latino, o qli or-saaestri nel canto."
This oi' course is
interesting, but if is difficult to say precisely what it moans:
V-g have no way of Luov/irxq; whet’ er t; o regulation was enforced, nor
by tne wordim;; of the text, Low much Latin was meant to be read.
Torr remarks that more learning- was expocted or the vice-chancellor
than of his principal— presuiaably because the lorcoer discharged
t: o roal duties of the office;
A distinction is drawn in the Statutes that the
Chancellor should te:c:v Lon to read and write, and that the
Vice-Chancellor should be a learned and capable man:
but
many of the Chancellors happened to be deeply read, Andrea
d ’Amaral for instance Ictovim; Pliny as wo 11 as other .o©n Icnow
their ora names.2
~*~3tabi 1 linenta» "de faluliuis, xxxvi, xxxvii, xl.
[ Para­
Graph xxxvl reads:
"’
Sfcatuiiaus vt cancellariua vinun doctian. et
idonenm] vicecancellarium habeat.. , Paragraph xxxvii:
"....
nullus posslt ess© canoeliarius nisi sciat ie g e r e & scribere....”
I am quoting from the uritish ((useurn copy of tho Jim edition
(Reger de Kemnat) of 1496]•
2
4
Fontanus.*
•
Vc
bello iihodlo. x, fol. Cg .
3
2Ibid., xl, C4V .
I, 215,
It is of interest to find this emphasis on sing­
ing; the sa:se requirement for entrance oo LagdalOii as a
we
!'iive already r.cted (cf. supra, chap, il., p. 18).
^Rhodes, p. 97.
44
A piece of negative evidence is furnished by Giraldus'
history of contemporary poets*
The scope of the book is wide—
the author apparently included every bard of his day who had im­
pressed him, no matter whore hie lived and sung,
Giraldus
flourished after the fall of Rhodes, but his notices go back to
its halcyon days:
he mentions William Lily, for example.
He does
not overlook Rhodes; but it is eloquent of his opinion of Rhodian
belles-lettres that the single reference he makes to the island Is
a note on an unimportant book written about the siege by one
1
Aemilianus Cymbraicus•
We must be careful about rejecting tho word of George Lily;
but it would seem that Le was
none too exact when Le said that his
father thoroughly learned therudiments of Latin and
Rhodes,
ho doubt, as Heatus Rbenanus
says,
Greek at
he embraced the
opportunity to learn what he could of the >abits and customs of
the Greek natives; and he may
have been lucky enough to chance
upon a stray scholar who helped him a good deal with both Greek
and Latin.
He would Lave had an opportunity to see the Greek
liturgy, and to realize some of the splendor of Greek Christi­
anity; his being with Greeks may have moved him to take an interest
in the Greek Fathers, and it may have fired him to read the classic
literature of the people he was visiting.
jecture, however plausible.
Hut all this is con­
What wo are sure of is that there
was ample reason for Lily's visit to the Island besides the one
given by his son— only a pedant would have passed up the c! an.ee
to see Rhodes of the Krti-lits in t> o day of her glory.
The conclusion to which t’ e evidence points is clear:
Rhodes was not a center of Intellectual life when Lily came to
visit the romantic old fortress.
nor men of letters.
be either?
The kni hts were not scholars,
And after all, why should one expect them to
They were primarily soldiers and crusaders.
That
learning t'-ey possessed must Lave been considered an accident
ratrer than an essential of tl oir character.
Of the learned
Greeks about whom Llorant speaks we have found no further trace.
Is it too much to say that they probably never had existence
except in Korant *s mind?
V*e should naturally expect to find
Greek scholare in Rhodes after 1453; the island was the refuge of
1
Lilius Gregorius Giraldus, De poetis nostrorum temporum
(1545), ed. Karl Lotke (.Berlin, 1894), p. «5o.
45
harassed
Christians fleeing from the urat1 of the persecutor.i
The learned mast have come, v;e should think, as well as the un­
learned— there are times yj’en t’ c pen must give wa^ to the sword.
In the face of our
want
jx further evidence
I
think we are
justified in suspectin', that with ; orant the expectation was
father to the statement.
At any rate, if there is real authority
for his remark, it is difficult to get at; tJ e documents left at
Rhodes in 1523 >nay have held the secret— hut they were lost to
the compilers of the
'ibllotheca hr 1tannlca as well as to our­
And the histories of Rhodes ard of the .;ai .lots speak-
selves,
quit e naturally— first of all about t' in gs military and
political, and only secondarily and incidentally about anytliing
else.
1
Boslo, I, 323, quotes a letter of t: e brand r aster to
the Pope, the King of ilaples, and t’e king of trance, telling of
the arrival of the Turks in 1480, and as kin-.; for help.
This is
how he characterizes Rhodes:
"Combattuta, &assediata 4 la di
Rodi, capo, fortesza, ornamenfco& honore d e l l ’ordine nostro, e
commune refugio, rlcettacolo, e casa d l 1 Christian! in Oriente
(itiaTics mihej," FonC'anus'V v/ho was in Rhodes' from 1521 t'o 15^3,
speaks in a similar vein (De bello Rhodio, Liber II, fol. k,.v):
"... .eloquentisimus uir F. Thomas Guichardus in oratlone sua pro
Rhodils, aerumnosae Graeciae protectlo, peregrinantium diuersorium,
naufragorum portus, raiserorum asylum, languidorum xenodochiua."
But I have found no panegyrist of the Island refer to It as a
"re fug hum doctorum. "
CHAPTER V
ROHE
Whatever Lily did in Rhodes, we ray assure ourselves that
1
his visit there was not a long onej
and we find ilia next in
2
Rome, certainly by Hoveuiber 4, 1490,
There he attended the
lectures of Poraponius Laetus and Joannes Sulpitius;
”..*•Roraae
denique inter f'oellcissima eiixs saeculi ingenia Sulpitium, atque
Pomponium doeentes audiuit, excultoque adxairabili foelicitate ad
omnia huraanitatis studia in -enio, post annos aliuuot in patriam
3
reuersus..«•
Moth in.;: more is known about Lily's stay in Italy, and we
are left to speculation to fill in the picture.
George mentions
no other city than Rome; but it would be strange if Lily left
Italy without visiting Florence, wren the Academy of Lorenzo was
at its heights
where
Hermolaus barbarus,
della Mirandola.
e might have net Ficino, Crlstoforo Landino,
Polltian, and that ’’great lord, of Italy,” Pico
he would have been delighted, we may be sure, to
spend a while at hapies, and to become acquainted with the
Neapolitan Academy:
v/lth the poets Pontano and Sannazaro i e would
surely have bad much in conation.
And it is not likely that lie
would neglect the opportunity to see Venice, where the East that
1
Thomas W a r t o n , A history of English poetry (London,
1871), III, 338, states that Lily stayed at Rhodes five years.
The earliest authority for this date Is Thomas Tanner, Blbliotheea
Britannlco-Hlbernica (London, 1748), p. 481j but Tanner gives no ”*
source for his information, which is inexplicable in the light of
t e dates we have for L i l y ’s Oxford career and } Is trip to Rome*
George Lily's allquamdiu (cf. above, chap. iv, p. 1 ) is indeed
vague, but in any case It could not ’
me stretched to five years—
hardly to five months, considering the other evidence we possess
for his fat h e r ’s chronology.
p
This was the date of his admission to the Confraternity
of the holy Trinity and St. Thomas of Canterbury. Cf. above, chap.
ii, p. 16,and n. 1.
5Elogla. fol. 47 <
46
47
'
m
I
he now knew mingled hor culture with that of his native West;
whore he could meet such a lover of letters as Aldus Manufcius.
|
There is not a single piece of evidence that Lily did visit
Florence, or Haples, or Venice; but we must keep in mind that Lily
was not a mere friendless wanderer*
Grocyn had preceded him in
Italy, and had stayed for a year in Florence, studying with
,
Llnacre *s old friends, Politian and Chalcondylas.
And Linacre
was in Italy for the whole period of L i l y ’s stays
It may be not
without significance that they were both admitted to roemhership
in the confraternity for English travellers on the same day*1
Colet was there, too:
he is listed among the members accepted on.
p
Lay 3, 1493, just six months later than Lily and Linacre.
Lily
|
I
| m y have bad little or nothing to do with either Colet or Linacre
|
f before they all came to Italy; but it is certain at least that
; the godson of Grocyn would not lack for any help the other two
could provide.
Besides, Lily could have been sure of a welcome
at Florence and in Venice; no doubt Grocyn furnished him with
;
letters to Lorenzo and to Aldus Lanutius,
;
have felt quite at home in Italy:
In fact, Lily must
he was among people from his
own circle at home, and he must have had the entree to the host
i
company the country could provide.
Fascinating as It is thus to let the fancy roam, we must
keep In mind that it provides evidence which, no matter how
plausible, lacks the quality of documented proof.
We may foe
morally certain that Lily moved in the company of the best minds in
the Italy of the 1 4 9 0 's.
But the only Italians Jeorge Lily mentions
are Poraponius Laetus and Sulpitius •
both were held in high esteem
I by thoir contemporaries for their scholarly attainments:
Laetus
| as an arcmeologlst and as a somewhat bizarre leader in the cult of
|
antiquity, Sulpitius, so fax* as we can tell from 'his works— there
' is little else to go by— as a writer of grammatical tracts and
f commentator on the classics*
They both probably exerted consider-
| a’
Jl© influence on the young Lily who listened to their lectures;
the nature of that influence may be estimated from a brief review
of their lives.
Joannes Sulpitius Verulanus Is usually known simply as
Sulpitius, sometimes spelled Sulpicio, or Sulpitio, or
■^See above, ciiap. ii, p. 16, and n. 1.
2Coll. Ven. Ing.
(Rome), MS
17, fol. 81.
47
he now knew mingled her culture with that of M s
native West;
w' ere he could meet sack a lover of lot tors as aldus Kanutlus.
There is not a single piece of evidence that Lily did visit
Florence, or Laples, or Venice; but we must keep in :;ind that Lily
was not a mare friendless wanderer.
Grocyn iad preceded ■ 1m in
Italy, and had staged for a year in Florence, studying, with
Linacre’s old friends, Politian and Chalcondylas.
And Linacre
was in Italy for the w) ole period of L i l y ’s stay:
It may he not
without significance that trey were both admitted to membership
in the confraternity for Ln .iisb travellers on the sane day .1
Colet was there, too:
the members accepted on
2
Lay 3, 1493, just six months later t: an Lily and Linacre.
Lily
my
he is listed anon-
have hah little or nothing to do with either Colet or Linacre
before they all cume to Italy; but it is certain at least that
tl e godson of Grocyn would ,.ot lack for any
could provide.
elp the other two
Besides, Lily could have been sure of a welcome
at Florence and in Venice; no doubt Grocyn furnished ' ira with
letters to Lorenzo and to Aldus ilanutius.
have felt quite at Loras in Italy:
In fact, Lily must
he was amorm people from his
own circle at Lome, and be must have iad ti e entree to the Lost
company the country could provide.
Fascinating as it is thus to let the fancy roam, wo must
keep in mind that it provides evidence which, no matter how
plausible, lacks the quality of documented proof.
We may be
morally certain that Lily moved in the company of the best minds in
tie Italy of tho 149 0 ’s.
Hut the only Italians
are Pomponlus Laetus cltKl i.-bbXp-itius.
ieor.ge .Lily mentions
Loth were 1eld in high esteem
g, ti oir contemporaries .for their sci olarly attainments:
Laetus
as an archaeologist and as a somewhat bizarre leader in the cult of
antiquity, Sulpitius, so far as wo can tell from M s
works— there
is little else to ,;o by— as a writer oi vransaaMcal tracts and
commentator on tie classics.
They both probably exerted consider­
able influence on the young Lily who listened
t ’o nat ure of that inf I1-.once may be
to their lectures;
estimated from abrief
review
of their lives.
Joannes Sulpitius Verulanus is usually known s imply as
Sulpitius, some tiroes spelled Sulpicio, or Sulpitio, or
1
See above, chap. ii, p. 16, and n. 1.
2Coll. Yen, Ing.
(Rome), MS
17, fol. 81.
48
Sulpizio.-*-
The agnomen Verulanus proclaims the fact th.at he came
2
from Verulum (Italian, Voroli), in tie Roman Oampayna.
The dates
of his birth and death are uncertain, but we know fairly well the
period of his activity.
The earliest dated book of his which has
3
yet been recorded is of the year 1475,
and we have pood evidence
that lie was alive towards t e end of t! e pontificate of innocent
A
VIII (1484-92)." Besides his works on yraiiniar, which were widely
used for al ost a hundred years, lie wrote a short poor,; on mannors
for children, the well-known Stans puer ad mens a m ,*'* As editor
Sulpitius brought out Vegetius, I,’pitorn Institntorun rei
militarls;
if we can trust Gesner, he likewise aaw to the publi­
cation of two other snail treatises on the sane subject, that of
v1
Aelianus {in Greek), and that of Frontinus,' feith the help of
See the notices in Joarmis Alberti Fabricii..,.
Rlbllothoca Latina mediae et infimae aetatis (Hamburg, 174b), VI,
604; Pierre Bayle, Diotionnalre historique et critique (0niQ ed.;
Basle, 1741), IV, 505^04'; Conrad' Gesner, BibiT6~th.eca universalis
(Tiguri, 1545), fol. 457.
2
In a sixteenth-century French translation of Sulpitius1
Pe aorlbus we find to-e amusing' but not inexplicable state..?ont that
the author was "Jean Sulpice do £. Alban dit Vorulanus•!i Q,noted
In Bay 1g , Supplement au diet Iona ire (Geneva, 1722), p. 253.
^The he arte grammatics otiusculmn compondiosmn (Porusia,
1475), dain 157l4G.
F. Pollati, %Ji ova m i Sulpicio da Veroli,
primo editor© di Vitruvio,” Atfci del II corr;ros s lonale di studl
roraani, III (1931), 382, note's” "an e'dltibh of l^^TT^ut' does" riot’
give the name of the work; I have not seen it listed elsowl.ere.
^See Bayle, Dlctionnalre, _7, 303, u. (a ). Lily ;;eard him
after hovember 4, 145T5’.
”
5The Stans puer be Ion. s to a t pc of didactic vorse which
was not uncommon in the Biddle A ;es and fh-.rin the Renaissance,
and of which more will be. said in discussing Lily's contribution
Lo the type (see below, citap. v i i )• For the moment it will ue
s.-iffie lent to say that Sulpitius *s poem was printed all over
Europe during the first part of the sixteenth century— at least
three times by Yfynkyn de horde (in 1515, 1516, and 151b) while
Lily was headmaster at St. Paul's.
Pi
There is a cony in the British ;'usecm carin ' t 3 date
1487.
7
Blbiloti eca uni■~err.alis, fol. 45V.
Be says m a t the three
cai.ie out in one volume; but the only copy of the Vegetius I know
of (that in the British Museum) is without its companion works•
All three of them escaped the nets of Lain, Copinger, and
Rolehlirt;. Gesner likewise speaks of certain PraeIndia grammatics
possibly by Sulpitius, of which I find no trace*:
rtiiuno Tsuipitlum]
49
Pomponlus Laetus ho got out the editio princeps of Vitruvius,
De architectura (Horn, c« 1486).
lie wrote a commentary on L ucan’s
Phar3alla about which Bayle was indulgent enough to say, WI1
n 'eta.it pas rnauvais pour ce teras-la”J another on .paintilian.
As
a matter of course, like a pood humanist, Do composed a Latin
poem now and then to insert at appropriate intervals in his /tram2
matleal compositions,
or, in a spirit of mutual helpfulness, to
introduce the work of some brother scholar.
JJe was a teacher of
;cra*nmar, first at the University of Perugia, 1470-75, and then in
4
Rome, where he won fame as a commentator on Virgil.
hie was
nrobably a member of the famous Homan Academy; but whether he was
or not he enjoyed the company of several members of that stimu5
latino; society.
He had connections in high places: the De octo
eundem esse re or cuius extant carmina de moribus, impressa
Coloniae apud GymniouniJ& Praeludia Grammatics, impressa Parisijs
In 4 . n Bayle, Dlctionnalre, IV, 303, takes this without quali­
fication, Larousee, Grand dlctionnalre universal, art.,
"Sulpizlo,” attributes to him a' commentary "on the" De officiis of
Cicero likewise unidentified.
In ti o Blbllotheca naalonale at
Naples there is a manuscript (V. E. 65 [2] 8°) entitled ln~Senece
tragoedlas per Sulpltlum enarratio: but 1 am not sure tnlt"”'tl.e
author Is Verulanus.
1
See Pellati, pp. 382-86, who proves ti e rlg.h quality of
Sulpitius * work as editor.
2For example, in the De octo partibus orationis libellus
ntillsshmus [s. 1, d. 3, Vat. Stamp, Ross’ 844 (l) 4U , fol. ayv lie
lias a dozen lines informing ti'.e student what he may look forward
to in the ensuing pages, and strongly recommending it; and in the
De versuum scanslone....ad Cyprianum Omagltaa [s. 1. d . ] , Vat.
Stamp." Ross B44 ('£), fol." Aj/V there are" eighteen lines to the
reader; fol, Ag of the sar-.o work bears four verses to !!r.ii Cyprians ";
and fol.
concludes with seven linos of farewell to t: e reader
\v'<:o -as perservered to the end.
®Cf. Vat, Urb. Lat, MS 662, fol. lv— six yerses, one of
four Introductory poems to the Cantalycii ad illuatrlssiraum
prlnclpem Guidum tirbinl ducem In luv'eriails satyraa interpretatio.
The authors of the other eulogies were Pomponlus Laetus, Petrus
harsus, and Augustinus Almadianus Viterbiensls.
4
Pellati, p. 383. Arnoldo Della Torre, Paolo j.Iarsl da
Poselna (Rocca S. Casciano, 1903), p. 38, says be was In Rome from
liVS until 1475 or Inter.
5
Michele Maylender, Storia della accadeaie d ’Italia
(Bologna, 1929) IV, 325, includes him in Lis list; but Della
Torre, p. 119, does not mention him.
One of the best known
members of the Academy, Battista Platina, who got into trouble
with Paul II, but who was made head of the Vatican Library by
Sixtus IV, wrote an epigram for the Graramatlcls Compendium.
50
is dedicated to Falcone de ‘ Sinibaldi, Tre as arer-General under
Innocent VIII, highly praised by the contemporary historian
n
Sigisraondo d e ‘Conti;
the De cornponendis & o m a n d i s epiatolis,
printed with the De octo, is offered to "Philippum Cfentilem
O
pelvicinum patricium genuensem1':
the De scanalone & syllabarum
quantitate epitome tyronlbiis, part of the volume De vers man
-T- r j
scansions...., is inscribed "ad ornatissimum adolescentem
Alexandrinum P h a m e s ium, " a pupil of Pomponlus Laetus, and
4
destined to reign as pope, under the name of Paul III (1534-49),
"’here is an undated grammar, place arid printer unknown (Hain
15,141), which was composed for the "Ampliss imo longeque
Reverendo patri et domino Angelo pontificl Tiburtino, et in agro
pice no vice legato dignissiiao,” while another groat family is laid
under compliment with the De carmlnls et syllabarum ratlone« Ad
D, loannew daptistam de Robere: fIlium frafcrls R. Qardlnalis
Agennensis
(Hain*15,16D:
the Vegetius is dedicated to another
member of the same house, Cardinal Raffaello Hiario Sansoni, who
figured in the Pazzi conspiracy, grandnephew of Sixtus IV, later
Camerlengo of fc'ne Church.
Ever in the tradition of grammar Ians,
Sulpitius was not above a literary quarrel;
In the work dedicated
to Alexander F a m e s © be finishes wit]- a blast against an enemy;
"Io.
Salpitii in Kestorem recrImlnatio.”
It may not be es­
pecially significant, but It is interesting, to reflect that his
English pupil later on distinguished himself in the same sphere*
0
Sulpitius also had a share in the revival of the classical
7
drama in Rome,
In the dedication of his edition of Vitruvius to
(Haplea, 1591), fol* 7*
XFol. ay. See above, p. 49, n. 2; and Sigismondi d e ‘
Conti da Foligno, ho storlc de suol tempi dal 1475 al 1510 ( R o m ,
1383^ II, 41, who Is cmoied in Ludwig Pastor^ The history~ of the
popes, trans. F. I. Antrobus, 4th ed.; (London ancf'ivbV"'Louis'",’1923)
, 323.
2Fol. i6v.
3See above, p. 49, n* 2.
4Fol. E^,
5Fol. % n i V .
/*
In his satire tie AntIbossicon (London: Pynson, 1521)—
see below, chap. vlii; and in his verses against Skelton— see be­
low chap. vl3» pp. 91-92.
7
See F. Pintor, Rappresentazione romanc di Seneca e Plauto
nel Rinasclmento (Perugia, 1906), pp.' '5-i'Sj' 'Ale33andro d ‘Ancona,
^riginTlfeT^’tejflEro itaiiano (2nd ed,; Turin, 1891), II, 63, and
n. 2; Bayie, pTctionnaire,' IV, 303, and n.
(A).
51
Cardinal Raffaello Rlario Sansone he says that he, Sulpitius, was
the first to teach the youth of Rome the ancient tragedy, somei
thing which had not been witnessed there for .'any centuries*
From another source we learn that
e produced Se n e c a ’s ilippolytus
in the Campo di Fieri in the spring of I486.
2
In this connection
v;e may note the interest Lily later showed in spectacles,and the
activities of the schoolboys of St. Paul's in dramatic entertain­
ments#3
The other teacher of his father mentioned by George Lily
was Julius Pomponlus Laetus
(Giulio Pomponio Leto), an illegiti­
mate son of the Manseverini of Salerno, who was born in the
village of Teggiano in the Gilento, and died in 1498.
4
About
^Text reproduced in d'Ancona, II, 68, n, 2. as follows:
”Tu enira pr.Imus Tragoediae quam nos juventuteu exereitandi gratia
et agere et eantare primi hoc aevo docuimus, nam eius actionem jam
mult is saeculis Roma non vide rat, in medio foro pulpitum ad quiriq.ie pedum altitudinew erectum pulchorrime exornastl:
eam&emque,
postquara in iiadriani hole, dlvo Innocentio speetante, est acta,
rarsus intra tuos penates, tamquam in media Circi cavea, toto
consessu umbra culls tecto, adwisso populo et pluribus tui ordiuis
spectatorlbus honorifice excepisti,
Tu etiam primus picturatae
scenae faciem, quum Pomponiani Comoediam agerent, nostro saeculo
ostendlstl. Uuare a te quoquo Theatrun novum tota Urfcs magnis
vofcis expectat.”
Tiayle, XV, 305. n. (A), gives essentially the same, but
reads excitandl for exereltarK.il, and eius modi for eius.
2
See Vittorio Hossi, 11 quattrocento. "Storia Letteraria
d ’Italia”j (hilan, 1933), p. 530 (where the typesetter prints
1468 for 1486) and Pint or, lo c . ci t .
3when Charles V cam© to England in 1521 it was Lily who
composed the verses for the pageant of welcome with which he was
greeted;
see below, chap. vii, pp. 85-37 . For an account of a
play In which the scholars of St. Paul's participated, see bo low,
chap# vii, p. 80, and n. 5.
^Under t] e article, ”Leto, Pomponio," XX, 976, in the
Enc1c1opedla Ita1iana, Sabbadini erroneously ^ives 1497 for the
date of hie death.. This mistake goes back to Isidoro Car ini,
La ”Difesa” dl Pomponio Leto pabblicata et illustrata (Bergamo,
13541, p. 15,' and n . "4, where he quotes''as™iIs" source Vat. Lat.
hS 3920.
But this is very weak evidence:
the MS is a poorly
written anonymous list of men prominent for one thing or another
about the time of Pomponlusj it gives no sources, and has errors
that can be proved such, as In the elates of Pontlanus and of
Leonardus Lrvmo Aretinus.
(With the date for the latter Sabbadini
himself disagrees in the article he wrote on him for the
Enciclopediaj. Della Torre, pp. 57-53, and run. 1-2, sets forth
evidence, all but conclusive, for June 9, 1498; this date is
accepted by Vladimiro Tabu,;,bln, lull! Poraponiu Let. Erlt ice shoe
izledovanie (St. Petersburg, 1914)’-p. 192: .
■wD"iem mortis eius "
52
1450 he caws to Rome to sit at t'>e feet of Laurentius Valla, tren
at the height of his fame; and after t; e letter’s death in 1457
pomponius continued to study with his successor, Pietro Oddo da
?;ontopoli.
I've ) ear of him next in 1465, living a life of re­
publican simplicity in his poor little cottage on the banks of
the Tiber, recognised as head of a band of enthusiastic students
of antiquity who called themselves the Roman Academy,’*"
In 1466
Paul II called him from his obscurity to give him tr e chair of
eloquence in tre bniversity.
bis reputation increased, and the
society of which be was the moving spirit flour is! ed.
The •:embers
discussed questions of art and literature, of philosophy and
archaeology, and became ardent devotees of i’ e cu.lt )i ancient
Rome,
They celebrated the twenty-first of April as the birthday
of the Eternal City; they dated their writings ab urbe condita;
they substituted classical names for f •ose t. ey lad received in
baptism:
hare'Antonio Oocclo was called f.abellicus; Farino
leneaiano, Olaueus; hartoloctrneo oacchi, Platlna.
The leader of
Lbe group, as we learn from an inscription in 'the Catacomb of
Callisi’
us and Priscilla, was glorified vf th tie title of Pontifex
axiiuus; In the same place one of t: e ;-embers, a re phew of
Cardinal Domenico Capranica, is written down ’’s&cordos acbadeniae
o
romanae •
In everythin; they affected an unbounded admiration
co.moscimus porfecte; est quintus Idus Iunii sub vesper&m anno
allies imo quadragontesimo nonagesimo octavo.” (For the translation
i’-'oia the Russian I am indebted to the Rev. Dr. Teodosio T* lialuscjnskyj, 3. S. b. d . , spiritual director of the pontifical seminary
2. F. Giosafat, Romo)•
The question Is not discussed in the
volumes tdiai Enbughln completed before M s tragic death of what
was to have been the definitive work on the man, 0 lulio Pomponio
Leto (2 vols.; R o m , 1209, drottaferrata, 1910 [text]', ana
'o-ottaforrata, 1012 [note]).
■^Vlio hail the chief scare in organizing Lho new society is
•-.certain, Rebastia.no Ciaupi, :3Ibliographia critlca delle aotiche
reclproct e corrisuondoiice....dell’Italia colla Russia, colla
ToXonia r~^3~aItrT~ffarFi ’se F t e n t r l o n a l l . . ' (FI ore lice 7 181517, p. 26
says that Callimachus Tse e below, pp. 53-54, 57-58 and n. 3; 60-63.
"....fondo insieme con Pomponio Leto quell'Academia....” The
historian of the Italian academies is not so definite:
Michele
Kaylender, Storla dalle accaclemie d 1Italia (Pologna, 1920), IV,
323, says;
ff7.Y. circa 11 1464 Pomponio''Leto. . . .aveva .in Roma
intorno a sb raccolto multi soggetti eruditi, i quali fonnarono
u n *Accadomla....”
2
Sec Vittorio Rossi, 11 quattrocento ("Storia letteraria
d *Italia"; filar., 1935), p. 3lS; and p.
nn. 5-7, for
bibliography.
53
for the virtues and the c us toias and the literature of ancient
Rome— undiscriminating, inclined to the fantastic and the ri­
diculous, as such enthusiasms usually are.
Laetus was re-appointed to his chair for t-ie following
year, but for some unknown reason failed to receive the customary
salary; in disgust hie quit Rome for Venice.
Shortly afterwards,
in February, 146d, the holy City was shocked, by the charge of a
plot to assassinate the Pope, to rid. Rome of the "domination of
priests," and to "restore tne city to her former greatness."
Four members of the Academia Pomponiana, so the Pope was told,
were the ringleaders in the conspiracy— Claucus, Petrejus,
Callimachus, and Platina.
The first three made good t'iiOir escape,
hut Platina, together with several minor figures, was locked up in
St. Angelo's and afterwards examined under torture.
Pomponlus was
likewise accused; tie authorities at Venice (whither he had fled)
consented to his extradition, and he entered the
on harcli 6.
ole of i.adrian
besides the conspiracy against the person of the
rope, there were charges against the humanists of immorality and
irreligion:
that they despised Christianity and led loose lives,
it is difficult to know the amount of truth in either accusation.
As to ti:.e conspiracy, there is small reason to regard the charge
as well founded;
the alleged plot 3eeus to have been no more than
murmur in. ;.s of certain papal employees who rad lost their posts,
magnified by rumor to the proportions of a revolt.
Platiua and
other members of the Academy had suffered from the act of Paul in
abolishing tl <e College of Aboreviators in 1464.
They bad paid for
their places in the College, and wi-ert they were deprived of them
’ ad said some very caustic things about justice at tie Vatican.
Platlna fad been mad enough to suggest that the matter might be
brought before a general council.
For such indiscreet words he
ad spent four norths in prison, and when be was released ho
failed to get back his old position.
It is easy to see low he
and Lis friends might write and talk wildly of a change of governmeat in Rome; but that they were foolish enough actually to plan
the overthrow of the Papacy is hardly possible— they were not the
kind to go that far.
accused persons
In their separate defenses the different
rake almost no mention of the conspiracy; and
although an investigation of the whole affair was undertaken by
Oardinal irarbo at the behest of the Pope, the records of the find­
ings have been lost; until they are found we shall never be certain
54
how much of the political conspiracy was a fact, and bow much
baseless rumors
out-of-the-way young men always get themselves
talked about, and the Academicians were certainly unconventional;
besides, the Pope’s mind at tie time was open to suspicion because
of the dangerous atmosphere in widen be lived-— he was acutely
aware of the hostility of the ex-Abbre viat ors, of more than one
powerful Italian prince {especially Ferdinand of haples), and of
the various bands of Ghibellines in
and abo ,t Home.
Jn regard to the alleged imorslit-y and the infidelity of
h e fraternity, it is likewise bal'd to yet at the facts,
A charge
of unnatural vice had been made against pomponlus, bat he denied
tJ e accusation in his Pefens io.
There Is certa inly some ground
for believing t ;e charges against t.-e faith and t;.-e morals of the
1
society;
but, on the other hand, the Academicians were precisely
t’ e sort of people upon whom the s ispicion of heresy and vice
would fall most easily— if they were learned and possessed of a
love of literary excellence, tl>ey were likewise fanatical and con­
ceited, the very type anyone, especially a matter-of-fact person
like Paul II, would be
:lad to suspect of almost anything.
Recent
scholars prefer to see little more in the alleged paganization of
the Academy than a literary affectation; one of these mentions the
unlikelihood of tie re being anythin; seriously wrong about a
society, one of whose members was Bishop Oampano, and whose pro-
lector was Cardinal Bessarion.
2
In any case, when the investi­
gation was over, and Laetus and Platina had .iade their submission
(both conveniently tl rowing tl o blame for the bad reputation of
the Academy on Callii.mcl.us, w> o was beyond tie hope’s reach), the
two heroes were given their liuerty, sometime before Ray, 1469.
hut tie society, which .nad been suppressed by Paul, held no more
insetinps until the next pope, Sixtus IV, was seated in his chair.
Rejoicing in his freedom, Laetus
now took up the. study of
Greek under Theodore Gaza, who was in Rome from 1467 to 1473.
Somewhat later he led the rtiove;;sent in Rome for the revival of
1
See the account of Pastor, IV, 36-65, who takes a more
serious view of tie natter than later writers, e.g. Vittorio de
Rossi, pp. 313-318; Maylender, IV, 320-327, Zabughin, Giulio
Pomponio Leto, Vol. I. Other references are given in Rossi, II
quattrocento, p. 396, n. 7.
2De Rossi, p. 315.
55
Plautus and Terence.
On June 24, 1472, Laetus went to Moscow
with the party which accompanied Sofia Paleologa, fiancee of the
Grand Duke Ivan III.
In the spring of 1473 he was ana In hack in
Rome, recalled to his chair in the Sapienza, which he retained
until his death.
ret irnirv: in 1483.
In 1479 he went to Dormany with a papal legation,
iie had been commissioned by Sixtus to bring
back manuscripts for the Vatican,
out apparently his mission was
fruitless.
his contemporaries admired him for his unlimited enthusi­
asm for antiquity, and f or his immense erudition.
criticism discriminates:
But i.-iodem
according to Sabbadini, his learning,
though great, was chaotic, "infeconda no tufcta lecittiroaMj he
wrote a compendium of tl e lives of the Roman and
.yzantine emper­
ors, and uroduced commentaries on several of f e classics, the
best of which was on Virgil; the rest of his work is
"filologlcamento scarso"; his grammar is "on puerile e rairabolante
irip&sto di Varrono e Prisciana”j In his ^any editions of texts he
showed no .knowledge of sound critical principles, and ween he had
the priceless manuscript of t’e bedici Virgil in his Lands lie
defaced it with silly variant readings; in tlie field of archae­
ology Lo revised and a a; -merited the anonymous Curiosum and the De
m, -istratibus of Piocchi, unblushingly putting them out under 3iis
own name; he changed evidence and quoted non-existent authors.
A harsh judgment, but coinin' from an undoubted authority, speaking
3
from first-hand knowledge of the texts.
It was v/ith these
to study in 1490,
.sn and with f cir circle that Lily came
After the storu of 1408-69 had blown over,
Pomponlus cad. re-established himself In a Louse on tie
v: .arc
.ulrinal,
c lived with hio ancient inscriptions, 3iis statues, h.is
'cooks and his manuscripts .
Jr. lb is b ouse, or in the garden which
surrounded it, stocked with rara and curious animals, Pompouius
Students acted t: e plays, under his direction; see above,
p. 51, and n. 1. Rossi (p. 530) says f a t "hell'aprile del 1468,
probabilmento i Pomponianl recltarono sul Gampldoglio 1 ♦Lpidioua di
Plauto."
(The date 1468 is a misprint for 1486).
^Enciclopedia Italians, art.
"Leto, Pomponio."
See also Sabbadini *s study of the scholarship of Pomponlus
in the aiornale storico LK (1912), 104-86; Zabughin, Vol. II; and
other references in Rossi, p. 397, n, 14.
56
met his friends— anon,;: them Sulpitius, and another grammarian,
Hieolaus Perottus, destined to become an archbishop;^ hartino
Filetico, teacher of' rhetoric; Antonio Volseo da Piperno, commen­
tator on Propertius and on Ovid's Sleroides; Paolo tarsi da Pescina,
who began to lecture at zi q Sapienza in 1460.
Those men 3 pent
their lives in editin'- the classics— in establishing texts and .in
gathering the material for commentaries*
Their success was but
modest, judged by modern critical standards; but it was pioneer
work, and much of it of permanent value•
Of the Academicians and
their scholarly achievements Professor Rossi hao a fine siumnary:
T,Tra i quali non b forse il Leto 11 piu fine e accurato
filoloyo, sa certo il pift fecondo; c.hfe aneho a lui 11 vole re
far troppo tolse di far sempre lone (14)* Tuttavia qv.alla
scuola diede in complesso buoni frutti n e l l ’archeoloyla nell*
epigrafia nella critica © n e l l 'interpretaslone del testi
classic!. A formare 1 quali e a purgarll dalle ylosse e
dayli error! del copisti quei dotti traevano partito da on*
oculatr. valutas lone dell 'aut ore voles za e dell ’antichi t& doi
j:ianoscritti e da pas lent i raffrontl, rnentre le tlpografi©
li diffondevano, emendati, in oyni parte d'Suropa,
I
comment! non pure dilucidava.no il senso delle ope re; ea
rilevavano con fatieosa analisl I'elegnnza la propriety le
differenze delle parole, il ritmo dei period! e il metro del
versi e illustravano coll 'aiuto del irionumenti le allusion!
alle istituzioni a alia topoqrafia a e l l ’antica Roam.2
Under Sixtus TV {1471-34) the Academy resumed its meetings,
and rose triumphantly In reputation and influence:
long before it
went down in the general ruin of 1527 it could point to such,
members as Paulas Jovius, Pietro i’emho, and Raldassare Castigllone.
The earliest gathering of which we have record, after the Diaspora,
was hold on April 20, 1483, cud is remarkable for more if an one
reason.
The occasion was the celebration of the birthday of
Rome; and from the nature of tie affair there can be little room
for suspicion of unorthodoxy In the proceedings •
Solemn high
Lass, celebrated by Demetrius Lucenstts, librarian of the Vatican,
was followed by a discourse pronounced by Paolo itarsi; then a
banquet was served, at which six bishops were present, besides a
number of learned and no le young men, who recited poetry ap­
propriate to the day.
An iten of importance to the later historian
^See below, chap. ix, p. 113. In 1490 the grammar of
Perottus was one of the popular texts of Europe*
% 1 qxiattrocento, pp. 318-19.
57
was the public reading of the Prlvileglnm, b y
which the Emperor,
Frederick III, granted to the society the right to give the decree
of doctor uisd to crown p o e t s B e s i d e s
the ecclesiastical approval
which is indicated by this account, it is of interest to the
student of Lily to loarn about the privilege accorded to the
Academy by the Emperor; for it makes clearer a state"©at nade by
John bale about the young English traveller.
laureatus Rome erat,” says Bale, and ’e
"iiio LLllius] poeta
gives his autljority,
eminently satisfactory, HEx Gulhelmo IJorman,"
On the next pane
he repeats what lie has said, additing Sulpitius’ name:
Sulpitio praeside, lauream poeticaiii suscepit.. . .11
’’....Rome
This is an
indication of the esteem in which Lily was ’-eld by Sulpitius, and,
wa must also believe, by the Academy in general.
And It is likely
sat the honor was conferred at just such a gathering as tiie one
Jacopo da Vdlterra describes.
If Lily was crowned poet laureate by his teacher, ho must
(one would think) Lave written some poetry? but of this early fruit
of his Muce none has certainly come down to us.
Le rave., however,
two if.art poems, wnich may be provisionally attributed to him.
The -an who proves they are not Lily's will '
■ave taken little from
his glory; if they arc indeed by the future schoolmaster they tlxrow
a ray of light— dim but genuine— on tl© life he was leading; in
Rome.
The poems are at the Vatican in a manuscript containing,
3
for the most part, various writings by the Callimachus- who was
1
Jacobus Volaterranus, Diarium Romanum, in Ludovico
Mura tori, Re rum Itallcarum scriptores (Mllaii'g“"lVK5-5i), XXIII,
185:
In Exquiliis" [.IJaylender, p. 323.... cerlmonla] • Also quo Jed
in Maylender, p. 323.
There is a very good representation of the
crowning of a poet in a fresco by finturicphio in tiie Capitular
Library in Siena; the poet happens to be Aeneas Sylvius
ficcolomini, later Pope Pius II. The painting Is reproduced in
Jacob Burckhardt, The civilisation of the renaissance in Italy,
trans. S. G. -C. bidSTeinore (Vienna:
’T^mTdonf 'Press7 n.'d’lT*
plato bo. 223.
2
Index hrltanniae scriptorum. ... » ed. Reginald Lane Pools
(Oxford, 1 9 0 2 J, p. 132.
Cf, p. 133.
Lorman was closely associated
with Lily after the latter’s return to Lu .land; see below, c)«.ap,
vili, passim.
3
Callimachus, or Callimaco bsperiente, was the r;a.-:e most
often vised by Filippo g-uonaccorsi, born of a noble lam.ily at San
limigiano in 1437. ue was a student of Pomponius, one of tibose
who i olped found the Academy. Regarded as one of the leaders in.
the "plot'1 against Paul II, he fled from. Rome, and while be was
safely out of reach of the Pontiff, his friends Pomponlus and
58
involved in the "conspiracy” of 1468; they are ascribed to
"Lyliiis” in the text, which runs as follows;
I.yllus ad Fanniam
Ellia deltibero leporeai missura poetae
Palcher aut septem marc© diebus eris
Hon cpus est nostro~fieri te raunere pulcrara
In toto cum sTt pulcrius orbe nihil
Etque nephas"~tam parva tnas si tempora formae
OpFentur cupio quam for© perpetuam
"~
Flngit tamen leporem vultus prestare decores
Sed dedYt ille deTs M e dab It Inhumeras*
Platina neatly laid all the blar© on Mm. for his "drunken dreamsw
(see Pastor, IV, 54), lie arrived in Poland In 1470, whore he was
befriended by Archbishop (Jrefjory Sanochi of Feopoli, and the
letter’s relative Pannia, to whom the first of the p o e m Is
addressed,
lie helped to educate the sons of Ming Casimlr IV, who
was ]-tostlie to Pope Paul; he was later secretary to Casimlr, and
councillor to his successor, Jan dlbracbt,
He represented Poland
in 'lany diplomatic missions;
at Constantinople in 1475 or 1476,
Rome and Venice in 1477; was orator at tie court of the emperor
in 1406; the same year M was at Venice to get support for a
treaty of peace with t? e Turks, which he concluded at
Constantinople in 1417 for a period of two years.
In Juno and
July, 1490, :,e was at t’-e congress in Rome called by Pope Innocent
to form a league against the Turk; there ;e at first supported an
alliance between tie Papacy and Poland, but later, seeing- that a
common front a:'a Inst the infidel was imcossiole to achieve, and
wishing to sorvo the interests of Poland, he tried to keep up
friendly relations with the Aultan,
’
•e died 'ioveminsr 1, 1416,
and was burled v.-'th great honor In Cracow, although he was accused
1/ some of wieldin'; tyrannical -nowor in t -e country of his adoptxon.
Ifis principal literary works are the At t lie, (Treviso,
14-.9); t’e historic do his quae a Ven.et.is tentata sunt, Persis ac
Tartaris contra T-urcos^mo’
TOndls' TJageiiau,
ror;^ Vladislao sen clade Varnensi (Augusta, 1519); a body of poems,
which, can be read in A. S. Miodonski, Philippi Caillmaohi et
G-rogorll Sanocei carrainum inedltorna cor<^[larl^"‘Tc“rac1o^'"i*901),
J5S Riccardi 1226, Laurensiana 89, Vatican 2869, 5156, Vatican
barb, Lat. 2031,
Epistles and orations are found in the last
named codex.
59
Lylius in luvidum
Usa coronatls semper victura capellis
1:1on metuas linguae murmura seva inalae
Hon ITe livor iners non q uod terit omnia tempus
Mon roare eon flamma debilitare valent
'quid, i’uris insane nimium linguara que malignam
In magni exerces CarmTna Callymachj
Mil agis o cor yd on vivent hec Carmina vivent
Cunque suo vivot Carmine fanniola
Desine vel doeto sinon vis parcere vati
Invide jam sileas invido parce tibi.i
The question obviously is, whether the Lylius who wrote
the poems
(we have no reason to doubt the ascription in the manu­
script ) is William Lily or someone else.
The poems themselves
give no evidence; and we are left to a consideration of the manu­
script and its provenience, together with the general probabilities
of the case.
The codex is In the neat handwriting of Lattanzio Tedaldi
o
(c. 1452-post 1516), of the not inconsequential Tedaldi of
Florence.
Lattanzio was a ,,government official, at the time of his
death presidinu. over the vicariate of Rad da, a few miles northeast
of Siena.,
his family v/ere no strangers to letters:
father :ad ,-aiown harsllio Ficino, and ids son,
service of Giovanni de hedici delle bands Mere,
liis own
ivh ;■ was in the
5
was the author of
several works, among them a Discorso aopra h. d © 1 hedici.
Lattanzio himself is said to have been a lover of poetry, and a
4
student of "fisiea" and of astrology, ' ho was in correspondence
with some of the most distinguished :..en of his day:
of a letter of hds written to Pope Leo
survived until that date.'-
it is because
in 151C tiuat we know he
VJhen his wife died, Lattanzio,
^Vat. Larh. Lat. 13 2031, xxx. 104, fols. Y8v-'79.
I have
expanded the contractions in the
manuscript. Dr. Josef ilarx of
the Vatican Library has been kind enough to check ray transcription
of the text,
o
An account of his life 3s given in Seoast3.no Ciampx,
dotiale de R e c o i l XV e gVI sol i 1 Italia Polonla e Russia
(Florence', l'63$),' pp. 1'1-tc.
“
5 Ibid., pp. 1*7-18.
4
In a sermon in the vernacular preaci ed on tie occasion
of the funeral of Lattanzio's wife; It is included In the codex,
beginning with fol. 184, and quoted by Ciampi, Hotizle, p. 13.
®Ciampi, iiobizie, p. 13.
60
according to a contemporary account, "in letter© peritissimo,"
•I
wrote the epitaph;
and :.'f this :rJlght 5© set down to piety pure
and simple, tie composition of an epitaph for Boccaccio, and the
erection of his statue in marble, must argue a love for the
humanities; as for his proficiency in this particular genre, it
can i>e judged by the pilgrim to Certaldo, the villa e to the north.
west of Sienna v/here the epitaph that Lattanzio composed nay still
2
be read on Boccaccio's tomb*
The manuscript itself is a volume of a hundred and eighty
odd loaves, about the sine of a largo quarto,0
It is divided
roughly into two parts, the first a trifle Ion er if a-, t o other*
This first section is taken up with poeiiis, almost all of thorn by
Callimachus.
The second part is in the nature of a miscellany:
it contains letters of Callimachus to Lattai.zio, to harsilio
Ficlno, and to Thorns Port inarum; an exchange of corres pondenoe
between Lattanzio and Bishop l-iatthaeus Drevirius, vice-chancellor
of Poland, a few ot!or letters of Lattanzio, among them the one
to Cope Leo X and another to Julian de'Hedici; the epitaph of
Boccaccio, and another for Lattanzio's father, Francesco; a homily
of Callimachus on the beatitudes; an Italian translation of a part
of Pliny the Elder made by Piero Cresencio; "Papino da Certaldo
opinion© Intorno alie peccbie esposafca da Lattanzio Tedaldi";
Aristotle's De ardmallbus t translated ’
ey Theodore baza into
Italian; and, last of all, the funeral sermon for Lattanzio *s
v/ife*
It is worthy of note that the two poems
4
by
'Lylius
are
^Augustino di figlio, lluovo dlalogo delle devozlonl del
Sacro Monte della V e m a (Florence, 1568)', pp, i'55-56. (quoted" by
Clampl, Ilotizie, pV lBT«
O
“
IT
In the MS fol. 131 ; rejjrodueed in Clampi, iiotlzle, p. 12
3
The contents of the MS are summed up, though not quite
accurately, by Ciarapl, .otlzle, pp. 11-16; the cataloguer of the
old Barberini Library, Pieralls1, whose catalogue (in manuscript)
is still the only guide we have to the magnificent Barberinl
collection, gives a good enough description of the codex until lie
gets to fol. 91; whereupon his account becomes sketchy, leaving
out altogether a good many items, notably those between fol. 94
and fol, 141— from the beginning of the second section down to
the homily of Callimachus•
^Pieralisi (cf . supra, p. 21, n. 3 )
suspects that two
other poems, both anonymous, one immediately preceding, the other
immediately following: the two ascribed to "Lylius" are by the
same author.
61
in the first section, embedded in ?;hat is otherwise almost en­
tirely the work of Callimachus.
Evidently, at least in the mind
of Lattanzio, they were copied down there because of some con­
nection between their author and Callimachus; at any rate because
they dealt with subjects very near to Callimachus ' heart*
But
what evidence is there that "Lylius" is William. Lily?
The strongest reason Is that we can produce no other
person of tie name with a more likely claim.
side, moreover,
On the positive
It can be urged that Lily, although bo may never
have met Callimachus, was intimate with Callimachus1 Roman friends,
and must at least have r.eartl much about him.
Among those of Te&aldi's contemporaries whose names have
coma down to us, tie only likely competitor seems to be Lilio
1
Gregorio Gyraldi, who was sometimes called by his first name
2
lie certainly was the most prominent Italian of the period
who bore the name "Lilio." We can scarcely doubt that he was
capable of producing the lew verses in the Calliioacbus manuscript.
alone.
But there seems to be no connection between Gyraldus and the
Roman Academy.
If such could be established, Gyraldus would have
at least as good
a c laIra as Lily to the authorship; probably a
much better one.
But Callimachus died in 1496, and Gyraldus*
Roman period did not begin until the pontificate of Leo X
1
Born at Ferrara in 1479;
in early life found at Laples,
h ere lie enjoyed the friendship of Pontanus, Sannazzaro, and other
l o o m e d men.
Later the guest of Alberto Pico and of Gian
Francesco Pico, prince of Hirandola.
In 1507 he was in Milan,
studying Greek with Demetrius Chalcondylas; afterwards he went to
kodena, where he was the teacher of Ereole (later Cardinal)
Rangoni.
fears afterwards 3'© travelled to Rone with Rangord,
and was welcoraed by Pope Leo X, who gave 1.isf-lodgings In the
Vatican,
lie was apparently in favor with Adrian VI and Clement
VII, but he became nothing more exalted in the ecclesiastical
world than a protonotary apostolic.
lie lost his library in the
sack of Rowe In 1527; whereupon he returned to the hospitality of
Gian Francesco Pico; lie died in the city of Lis birth, in 1552.
he was highly esteemed for his vast learnings
Alciato, the famous
teacher of jurisprudence, calls him the Varro of his age.
Of his
works the most popular In his day was the De dlls gentium, which
was written to fill up the gaps in Boccaccio's De p'onea'Ionla
deorum.
o
For example, Gynthlus loannes Baptista Gyraldus, evi­
dently a klnsinan, in the epistle dedicatory to Lilli Greg. Gyraldi
Ferrariensis ope rum quae extant omnium, (Bas ileae,” 1080"), Ti," f ol7
2, "re'fers to him as LilTus' noster . r The epistle is dated 1555.
And In the pe poetis (see above, chap* iv, p.44,and below, p. 63,
n, 2) he calls"himself " L U l u s , "
62
{1513-21) — although It Is nob Improbable that ho visited Rome
roach before that.
On the other hand, positive evidence that Gyraldus had
nothlnr; to do v/ith the Academy may be adduced from his book on
contemporary poets,^
The work is in the form of short biographical
sketches; and it contains no article on Pomponlus— a strange over­
sight if Gyraldus had known the Society,
Th.ere are four casual
references to Pomponlus, but none is indicative of personal
acquaintance with him:
one is in an article on William Lily,
and is manifestly borrowed from George L i l y ’s account;
Is in the notice of Petrus Hontopolitanus:
2
another
,r....qui Roiaae illis
temporibus prol'essus est, quibus Pomponlus Laetus adLuc -iuvenis
clarescere coepit.,,,”
Sigismundus Fulglnas v/as counted among
4
the literati ^tempore Poraponii et jplatinae,tt and Gurius
Lancilotus Pasius was accused by certain envious persons of steallug from Pomponlus ’ works,*■
There are only a few other references
to members of tne Academy, and not one of them su0peats any sort
of intimacy with them, either collectively or Individually,
The
f?
article ou Callimachus is a pretty good example of this;
indeed
it Is in itself good evidence that Gyraldus knew comparatively
little about Callimachus— it contains at least one serious error
of fact:
the mistaken story about the !!sad death” of
Do poet is nos troruai tempo r u m , in Vol. II of the collected
edition (see*"above,'’"p*"r d'l, n. 2); "and in hotke (soo above, chap.
iv, p. 44, n, 1).
\'otke, pp. Gl-2•
^Lotko, p. 19.
A
K
Wotke, p. 24.
»iotke, p. 95,
^De poetis, II, cola. 532-33;
Philippo Callinacho
Htb.ru.sGo oppido nato non nihil nominis suo tempore attulit
elsgiarun. liber; quid am &eius liber Atylam commandant, sed parum
hie mihl Atylas est cognitus.
Alia PtlarTs crips it; nam cum
versaretur cairn rege Pannonum, eorum hlstoriam contra Turcas
executus est.
Hie cum caeteris academia© viris literatis a
Paulo Pont if ice II, quod sibi nomina iiranutarent, adflictus demum
ad barbaros transfugit a quibus honorific© susceptua diu perraansit,
iniquo tandem delatus a pud ami cum occult© delltuit, apud queia &
moeror© decessit, Quod cum Alberto regi innotuisset, eum
jaagnifico sepulchro aereo Cracovlao turaulari curavit.
Leg! quod
recordor, librum Herolco carmine conscriptum de regibus
Pannoniae. Wotke, pp. 21-22,
63
Callimachus;1 and *t is admittedly based on second-hand infor­
mation.
But this is not the usual manner of Gyraldus in referring
to his fiends:
on the contrary, his manner with them is easy and
2
familiar, much, as in the oratorical dialogues of Cicero.
In
other words, when Gyraldus is writing a . w t his friends he lets
us know that they are his friends.
The conclusion to which we
are forced is that what evidence there 3 a supports tio view that
Gyraldus was not intimate with the Academicians; and consequently
that he is not the author of the wL y l i uspoeris •
V1-;at 11 en about Lily?
how did be come to write these
verses, as it seems likely Ice did?
.ere we are driven to specu­
It is quite possible that I c never met Callimachus, who
lation.
was travelling, about almost continually while Lily was in Italy;
bat on the ether hand the possibility of their meotin ; is r ot
to be denied.
Callimachus was in home during the summer of 1400;
Lily was there at least by : overier 4.
Callimachus rimy have re­
mained until that date; Lily ‘
may have been there earlier.
Or
they might have met at Venice, where Callimachus freq-ently went
on diplomatic missions.
It is of coarse passible that after 1408
Callimachus was no longer on speaki.u , terms with the friends who
had saved themselves by placing the blame for the "conspiracy11
on him; but it is more likely that, if Platina and Pomponlus were
really sincere In what t' ey said about him, they managed to justi­
fy their action wl en the atmosphere cleared, and that cordial
relations were once more resumed.
But if Lily never met
Callimachus, he might well have . eard much a boot him from the
Academicians In Rome; and, casting about for subjects on which to
exercise his genius, he raignt indeed have chosen to sing of the
departed hero and the persecution to which he had been subjected,
Callimachus appears hardly as a noble figure, no matter what
interpretation we put upon the account of the "conspiracy"; but
1
Cf. Enciclopedia Italians, art.
2
"Buonaccorsl, Filippo."
The two sections of the book are called "dialogues" by
their author; both are dedicated to Cardinal Ercole Rangoni, and
iiave as int e r lo cut o re s Alexander Rang one, Julius Sadoietus, and
Giraldus (here called' "Lilius!!) himself.
Speaking to Sadoietus
about the latter *s brother James he employs no formality;
fratrem tuma, lull, laeooum Sadoletum..,.,f {Wotke, p. 15); and
when he refers to .a friend 'e calls him such;
n..,.apud amicum
me urn Augustuia Mustium.... " {Wotke, p, 21),
64
Lily would no doubt be told by the brethren of the society that
he was a true example of injured innocence.
been these compositions,
Indeed, it ray 'have
or others like them, which led the
Academy to make him one of its members; such verses showed not
only poetic talent, but a proper view of the importance of
humanists and of the baseness of their enemies.
George Lily is as unsat is factory concerning the length of
his father's stay in Italy as in Rhodes:
patriaa reuersus...•"
"post armos aliquot in
however, there is reason to think that he
regained about five years; at least there are two pieces of evi­
dence which coin t to 1495 as the ,*ear of his departure*
-tad there
is no support whatever for any other date*
On hay 24, 1492, a certain "William Lilye" was presented
to the benefice of -.olcot in the diocese of Lincoln*
2
Lupton
thought that this was the grammarian, but admitted the possi­
bility of its being sou©one else; he referred to an epitaph in
the old St. Faith's beneath St. haul's, wl;leh indicated the
3
existence of another William Lily as late as 1490*
The manu­
script which contains the record of Lily's admission to the
Confraternity of St. Thomas and the blessed Trinity, however,
gives additional reason for believing that it was he who received
t} e bexiefice.
The point is miat the John Kendall, Prior of the
hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Knglaad, was likewise one of
the brethren of the Confraternity:
lie is mentioned in the records
every year from 1486 to 1491 as one of the two officials known as
4
camerarli* It is clear that ho was a person of considerable
1Elo£ia, fol. 47.
2
According to Tishop 'White Kennett!s Collections of bio­
graphical iiiemoranda, now in the British Museum, PS Lansdowne 979,
18, fol. 32:
1523
Remains of Villiam Lilye Faster of Pauls School who died
5, Cal. March* 1522*3*
1492. 24, Maij. Prater Joh.es lendale
Prior Hos, pitalis S. Johls Jerus, in Angl, presontnt William
Lilye Scholare.u ad eccl, de Poleote dioc* Line, vac, per mort*
Dni Rici Cole ult. Rect.
®J. II. Lupton, A life of John Colet (2d ed.; London, 1909),
p. 170 and n. 1.
4Fols. 80-81.
65
influence:
from 1486 to 1488 he is described as "turcopolarius,"
and from 1489 as prior of the Knights for England,
How
Lily
might
Lave met him In Rhodes; or he might lave previously known h i m in
England; or at least he might .have -ad friends in common with
him.
But in any case le was In Rome at the same time Kendall
was, staying in the same hostel; it seems altogether natural to
find the influential knight getting a living for a young man who
seemed worthy of help#
And It would seem plausible to believe
that Kendall procured the benefice for Lily while they were both
together in Rome; a supposition with which George Lily's "annos
aliquot" is in entire harmony.
Lily gave up ti e living, in 1495;
1
and it might have been that it was ..©cause .e was returning to
England, or Lad already returned, and had no further need of It,
2
There is likewise a statement by Rale which supports the
date 1495:
he says that Lily taught school twenty-eight
Lansdowne ’IS 979,
18, fol, 32,
Immediately following
the entry of Lily's appointment:
1495. 6, Hov. Johes Kendalo rrior ilosp. S Johis Jerus, in Angl.
presentat Pom RIearduin Niohol ad eccl, de bolcote per resign,
Lilli Lilye clerici ult. Rect.-- (This would seem to Indicate
that Lily had taken minor orders.)
In the LS Rennet notes that
the originals of both items on Lily are at m c k d e n , t] e seat of
an episcopal manor for the diocese of Lincoln, where some of the
diocesan Registers are kept; see Andrew Clark, Lincoln diocese
documents, 1450-1544 (E.E.T.S.; London, 1914), passim.
o
This is perhaps ..he place to notice a remark of r.
J. A. Gee, The life and works of Thomas Lupsot {liew La von. 192ts),
p. 33:
"At Rome he I Lily] atlendecl tie Tectiiros of Sulpitius
Verulanus and Pomponlus Laetus; at Venice, those of Egnatlus."
I can find no evidence that Lily was in Venice with Sgnatius;
.r. Gee is repeat in.*; an error of most present day writers who
touch upon Lily in mistaking Lillian for his son George.
I sus­
pect that the source of tie trouble is to be found in John L.
Johnson, The life of T h o m s Linacre (London, 1835), p, 153, and n.
There Johnson refers to a letter "In the Rritish i-iusetaa (Cotton KS
Hero
vl. fol. 160 [new foliation 167]) sent from Venice to
Thomas Starkey, and signed "G. Lllius," containing a line which
reads as follows:
"Interim vero Egnatlo meo diligentissimo, ut
soleo, aureiii prebeo, nonnumque Faustiun grece Interpretantem
audio,..."
But the sender was Georgius, not Gullelmus Lllius,
as a reading of the letter clearly shows.
Besides, Egnafcius
(ca. 1473-1553— according to Professor Emilio Sant ini in the
Bnclclopedla Italians, art. CIpelli, Giambattista [detto Egnazlo],
X, "306) Was hardly "bid enough to do much lecturing whe n Lily
Senior was in Italy,
66
would put back the 'beginning of his teaching
career to the first months of 1495.
Bale gives as his authority
the Edward Braynewode who furnished him with an exact hour for
2
L i l y ’s death.
It is unfortunate that we have no means of check'
ing Braynewode fs contributions to gale's great work; but the
very definiteness of his statements is in itself an argument for
years.^
This
their reliability.
Taken together with the evidence concerning
the benefice, the item giving
the precise number of years Lily
gives great probability to the year 1495 for
his return from Italy and the taking up of the work for which he
had so thoroughly prepared himself.
spent In teaching
^ Index, p. 1 3 3 s
tt,...Scholasque xxviij tenuit.”
2
See above, chap. i, p. 10, and nn, 2-3; p. 11, and n. 1.
CHAPTER VI
LQNDOH
Lily did. immediately upon his return to Bn.:1and is
not at all clear; George chooses to pass over this period in his
father’s life as of little importance (at least ie is va-jue about
the details):
"post annps aliquot in patriam reuersus, facilem
mis cluibus elegant ioris disciplinae uiaia ostendit.”^ The next
step is definite enough:
"quern loarmes noletus, honesto stipendio,
& ornatissimis aedibus auctum, nouae scholae suae Londini prirnuu
praeceptorem delegit*..."2 But Lily i;iust '<ave been bacx in England
some twelve or fifteen years before going to the new St. Pau l ’s;
ai.ci we have precious little to say about his activities during
What
that period.
Presumably Lily taught school; at any rate that Is the
most likely interpretation of George’s elegant words, and it agrees
with the statement in Bale.w In one of the innumerable short and
inaccurate notices of Lily that .Lave appeared in different bio­
graphical works in England since the days of Bale, it is said that
Li© kept a "private grammar school.’'" There is no authority for
this statement; but it is not at all unlikely. Anthony a Wood
says that he taught grammar, poetry, and rhetoric, "with good
success."*" It sight well indeed have been at t! o old ft. Paul’s —
the Cathedral grammar school— which had existed along; with the
i
r
Cathedral certainly sine© the first quarter of the twelfth century,
and possibly from the time when the building was erected
(ca, 886).
6
Additional evidence that Lily taught at St. Paul’s
1El 0 £ia, fol. 47.
2 IblcU
sSee above, chap, v, pp. 65, 66, and n, 1.
4
The general biographical dictionary (new ed., revised
and enlarged by Alexander Chalmers:
London, 1815), art. "Lily,
William.B
5Anthony *
a Wood, Athonae Oxonienses, ed. Hbdlin Bliss
(London, 1813), Vol. I, col. ”537 ™
'
.
,
^A. k. Leach, "St. Pau l ’s school before Colet," Archaeologia, LXII (1910), 192-93.
*
67
68
before Colet chose him to head. 1 is new institution comes from
George Lily.
After recording His appointment to the headmaster-
ship, George continues, "quo in munere annis quindecem ita so
axercuit...."
How if Lily died :.n February 1522/3, this would
mean that lie began to teach at St.
ranl's near the beginning of
1507/8, about the time that Colet began to put up the buildings.
Hut of course one must not take George too literally; from his
want of exactness in other matters we should think lie meant to
oe no more precise than if he had said "about fifteen years#"
And even if he had been at t. e old school before Colet began his
new foundation it would only have oeen for a year or so, if we
are to believe what George says•
before this Lily was probably
teaching somewhere else, perhaps at the house of some great man;
Cardinal Lorton, for example, who lived until 1500,
Chalmers asserts,
school";
Or, a s ,
e may indeed have tau nt a "private grammar
but we lack the evidence to support such a statement.
Lily may have returned to Kn land in 1495; but it is
possible that he delayed some
u?ars longer.
At any rate re was
back in London oy about 1501, the date assi uied by the best
2
scholars for his early companionship with Thomas Lore•
Proben at
In 1518
asle published the Progymnasmata of fore and Lily,
consisting of translations from the '..reek Anthology,
but we know
t: at some at least of t) ese translations were made very earl,, in
3
4
ore's life; and t’-e evidence points to 1501,
Mere Lily begins
•j
Colet says that he began in 1508; see the "Praefatiuncula"
of Colet's Look of evidences among the Lercers1 Company's muni­
ments, quoted by Leach, ibid., p. 230; cf, also p, 202,
o
See Sir Thomas
ore, Selections from his English works
and from the lives by Erasmus and "Loper, ecT. 7g £. and .1, u,
Allen (Oxford, 1924;, p, xii; K. t. Chajnbers, Thomas fore (London
and few "fork, 1935), pp. 20, 89-90.
Z
So says Erasmus; see Opus eplstolarum. Des. Erased
Roterodami, recognitum per P, sT etif."'.;!f.^Airen" t0xfor 3T T 906- — )
VoT." "lV',( 1922)' p. 240 and vol. -I,"'p. ‘4'48V n. 1 . p. 212, Lo. 1093;
cf. Thomas Stapleton, Tres Tbomae (Cologne, 1612), I, 158.
George
Lily's account of the friendly rivalry of Lily and ore in turning
Greek into English, is as follows: "in uertendis autem graecis
aliquot epigrammatibus, cum Thoaa boro, adolescens contendlt...."
Elogla, fol. 47V.
^Or s h o r t l y after.
In a letter to John bolt, written
not long after Lovem.ber 12, 1501, More say s : "I am giving up
Latin, and taking to Greek.
Grocyn is my teacher?
(Quoted in
C}iambers, p. 81).
69
to take his place in the circle of brilliant men who had evoked
the admiration of Erasmus on his first trip to England,'1' and about
whom he afterwards wrote?
"Sunt enim Londini quinque aut sex
utraque lingua exacte docti? quales opinor ne Italia quidem Ipsa
o
impraes©iitiarum habet*"~ A letter written by ?Iore about a year
previously to Colet, who is in the country, mentions tne same
names?
the letter concludes,
Meantime, J. pass my time with Grocyn,
who is, as you know, in your absence the guide of my l i f e 1
(Colet and Grocyn are apparently More's confessors)?
'with Linacre,
the guide of ay studies’ (More Is apparently still .hard at Greek)?
3
'and with our friend Lily, my dearest friend,’
Besides b’e translations from the Greek, another fruit of
the intimacy of Bore and Lily was a translation by t o letter of
an Italian work into English for the sake of Lis young friend,.
After speakin , of the epigra-s, George continues?
"in cuius
‘Writing from England to his former pupil, Robert Fisher,
wl o was studying law in Italy, Erasmus says:
"And I have met
with so much kindness sod so m uch learning, not hackneyed and
trivial, out deep, exact, ancient, Latin and Greek, that I am not
.hankering so much after Italy, except Just for the sake of seeing
it. When I hear my Colet, J seem to be listening to Plato i’imself.
In Grocyn, who does not wonder at that perfect compass of all
knowledge? M a t Is more acute, more profound, more keen than the
judgement of Linacre? that did nature ever create milder, sweeter
or happier M a n the genius of Thomas More?
But why should I run
t' rough the whole list?"— Dec, 5, 1499 (Allen, 1, 273-74, Vo* 118),
translated in Chambers, pp. 74-5,
The "whole list" mi :ht Lave in­
cluded Lily— unless (an improbable supposition) ho was not yet
■one from Italy,
2
Allen, I, 415 (Ep, 18b, to Servatias Ro -,erus). In a* 13
Allen remarks:
"Grocin, Linacre,
ore, (cf. Up. 118) and Lily
were certainly of this band? the nun.or- nay perhaps Le completed
by Latimer and Tuns tall, since Sip. 207. 22n. gives ground for
supposin ; that trey had returned to En. land, by 1506.
Uolet cannot
bo lnci-.n'ed, for I c knew little I.:ree:-c; c. Up. 108, Gdn.
It Is
noticeable that even after visiting Cambridge {Apr,,6) and with his
previous experience of Oxford (Epp. 105-17) Erasmus ,.:ives the pre­
eminence to London? cf. Ep. 195. 4-8." Ti e letter, vvnioh was sent
from London, is conjecturally dated bg Allen "1505 fin," Certainty
i:a th-o date Is impossible, but Allen cannot oe far out of the way;
see his discussion in a note preceding the letter, p, 414,
^Dated October 23, and la probably of the year 1504? see
Stapleton, II, 163? Chambers, op, 80-89? Lupton, p, 145, and n. 1,
1 quote Chambers1 translation and comments, pp. 88-9,
The Latin
text runs thus:
"Interea cum Groclno, Linacro, & Lilio nostro
tempus transigam, altero (tut tu scis) solo (dum tu abes) vitae
meae magistroj altero studiorum praceptore? tertio charissimo
rerun mearum socIo...."
70
[Mojfl gratlaxa Spirits I Uetrusci ecuitis 11be Alum Laud illepido
arguiaento ad talorum iactiun deductas sortes inlerpretanto.u, ex
lietrusca lingua in rritannicam, perlucunda ad} ibita sormonis
gratia, ccnuertit."
We do not know exactly v:'on this trans­
lation was made, nor wkon it was first prblisl ed, if at all? nor
are we certain M a t
Lily's text las come down to us.
A trans­
lation does survive j but there is no indication v;j ose work it is.
In the
rltish Museum there is a copy of The ■.ook of Fortune....
First written in Italian, after translated into in. lish, act! ^ow
newly compared and much amended (London:
Flos'*--or, 1680),
Bat
there is extant one copy of an edition still earlier, a folio of
2
1618, now in Sion College Library.
brunet lists ciix O'1A. 1/X OXi U iti e original at Lroscia, 11 LG; and i. inks that ono n.nlluhod at
Vicenza, without dato, is the first, and fiat it appeared before
3
1474.
Mr, C, Fairfax. Murray, In M s catalogue of early French
books, shows the titlo-pa :e in facsimile of a French version of
4
about 150.),
brunot gives two others:
ono for 1L20 (s.l. ),
another for 1583 (Lyons); the .odleiaa has a copy, formerly belong­
in' to Francis Douce, published "A Paris, Chez Charles borestro,
sur lo Pont-nouf, vis k vis la Samaritaine,
xxxiv Ls3 c j,;f
The
British huseom Oatalogue, besides i o ed'tlon of hyons for 1583,
lists auoi’ or for lbs save city (1560), two editions for Paris
(1559 and 1637); and a Dutch translation orinted at Lettcrdan in
1610,
"ithoui soekiir: further, we nay Ms sure that the Look
enjoyed a fair vogue t h r o a g h o M t*.
sidera'-'.lc length of time,
Ac
ood part
>i buropc i'or a con-
r. Keod points out, a hook of this
typo, be long i n ; to the class of popular indoor names, was just the
sort ono would expect to have disappear t: rough use; and as a re­
cult we must believe that most of the early editions have been
lost.5
■Gloria, fol. 47v .
o
"In the introduction to rnve L..gllsk wo^ks of h hr Moraas
bore (London and Yew York, 1931- -~Tf C,"X(>#
5Jacqueo-C'..’ai’ies
65), V, 494.
;rimot, "ar.nol de llbralre
(Paris, 1860-
% o e hugh. w. Davies, Catalogue of u collection of early
French books Ln M e library of'' c’.' Fairfax' Murray (S "vols.;" London,
ToioT.
*
71
Although there is no evidence in the extant English
versions, I am Inclined to believe that here we have Lily's trans­
lation, the more important because, except for the will and his
1
short syntax, the Ru d iraenta graramatices, we rave no other writing
of L i l y ’s in English,
hr, Reed apparently overlooked the fact
that Lily did make a translation, for, after mentioning the French
edition o f ca. 1500, he goes on, "An English translation must have
followed soon, and to it Lore appears to have contributed prefao
lory verses,”
Now t>ese verses fill seven pages in the beautiful
reprint of Uastell's 1557 edition of L o r e ’s works w ieh Mr. Reed
is helping to edit.
They begin with the heading:
meters in english written by master Thomas
"Certain
ora in hys youth for
the boko of Fortune, and caused them to be printed in the
begynnyng of that boke,"
These "metres" do not appear in the Sion
College copy, but from this circumstance it would seem that they
did appear in the first edition.
And what would be more natural
tian for Lore to respond to his friend’s kindness in making the
translation, by writing- something to set them off when they were
published?
Perhaps Lily's text was discarded, and another put in
its stead; without doubt the text was at least once "much
amended"; but it would seem more likely that nothing further was
ever done to it— “there would be no particular point in starting;
afresh, unless the translation at 'and was thoroughly bad; and we
have no reason to think that Lily, even In ’ is youth, would write
English wholly unacceptable.
The work itself is of no great importance; it is simply a
fortune tolling parlor game for i e tired Renaissance man of t! e
court or of affairs, or more particularly perhaps for tr-e women
members of Ills house’ old.
In t--e I rench edition of Serestre,
there is a c.<.rious preface In verse, warning toe reader not to
take the game too seriously; Lore, in bis turn, after pitting an
apologia in the mouth of Fortune, and then giving, bis own counsel
that she is a fickle jade, ends with the sly remark that the
things in the hook are as true as "the iudjementes of Astronomy©,"
For a description of the hook I can do no bettor than, to quote the
words of Professor Reed:
The Book of Fortune is an ingenious and amusing game or
pastime.
Its French title, Le livre de passetemps de la
1
See below, chap, ix, pp, 118-39,
72
fortune des dez, indicates more clearly that it is a dicegame.
In ti e four corners of a title-page containing a woodcut of Fortune's wheel are twenty questions, to any one of
which the inquirer may find his answer.
The questions are of
a kind familiar in fortune-telling hooks: whether iliy life
shall be fortunate or not?
if thy sovereign lady love thee?
if thy wife be good or 'bad? The writer, by way of experiment,
selected this last question and was instructed to consult King
Colkin, one of twenty kings represented by wood-cuts in the
following pages,
Colkin sent the inquirer to his philosopher,
Pythagoras.
Each or L e twenty philosophers has a page to
himself, and on these are shown all the combinations possible
of a single throw of three dice, fifty-six in all.
The throw
being six, foui and two, there was found under h a t combination
an instruction, nGo to liars, to the spirit Po." Again, turn­
ing over tie leaves of tie book, one found the planets and
Lie signs of ti c oodlac each with a full-pajo circle divided
into sectors like a clock-facej and in one of t ;esc was found
the spirit Po, who directed the inquirer to h e twentyfourth verso of the Astronomer haor.
haer was found to be
one of twenty astronomers, all mysteriously named, Tolo,
Pircu, Hoca, Alchi, etc., a wood-cut of each of them appearing
on 5.is pa jo.
The astronomers provide tie a gv;ers to the
questions in quatrains or verses, fifty-six In number, and
the answer to the writer's question was as follows:
She is good honest and virtuous,
bow caughtest thou such a spouse?
Thou art not worthy her to have
Keeping her a beast and slave.
But it was not only Greek t} at
together:
ore and bily studied
with * is beloved companion Lore likewise weighed the
question of enter i n . the clerical state,
heavily on the advice of M s
2
bo doubt r.ore leaned
older friend; at ti e time they wore
reading Greek together and trying to decide their vocations -’ore
3
was about twenty-three and Lily ten years older.
And it is
X I, 17.
o
Stapleton, II, 161:
"Meditabatur [hare] adoloscons
sacerdotium cum suo Lilio." This ] as been taken by Lupton to mean
ik at both were thinking of becoming priests.
Gplet, pp. 147, 17071; 'u
art,
"Lily, william,” Gut it could also mean that there
was question only of Lore 's entering the priesthood.
This Is
difficult to determine, as the Latin of Stapleton could bear either
interpretation; moreover, one should expect Lily, almost as much
as ore, to think of tie priesthood; Lily, far from leaving Italy
an "Itallanate Englishman,M of the type v/Lich was later to arouse
the indignation of Aschara, was always a profoundly religious man.
Earlier in life lie must have taken minor orders, when he received
the benefice of iiolcot {see above, ciiap. v, p. 64, n. 2: p. 65, n.l.
^Chambers, p. 49, lias established More's birthday, "with
fair certainty," as February 6, 1478.
75
natural that Lily should attract the orilliant son of sir John
Lore:
Lily had had all the advantages craved by the young
humanists of England,
tie had travelled, to the East and to Italy,
he had studied under famous foreigners, possibly he bad learned
modern Greek from men id -ose mother ton rue it was.
Lily and ho re
were both deeply religious, both convinced that tie interests of
Christianity could best be served by restoring to the Western
Church the connection that she had largely lost with the riclu
heritage of the East,
ks Professor Chambers says, "The study of
Greek and the Ideal of I c priesthood go band in hand in hore ’s
friendship with Lily.
They are both parts of one aim:
X
restoration of Theology."
the
Of the small body of Latin verse left by Lily, two other
pieces, besides the Eplgrammafca, <uay with confidence be ascribed
to the period before Lily became master of St. Paul’s.
The first
is an epitaph for the u.ueen, who died in February, 1505; no doubt
the lines were written shortly after.
The second was written
when Philip the Fair, on his way to 5pain, was driven into
Weymouth harbor by a s torsi on January 15, 1505/6; it happened
that t.be same storm had blown down the brass eagle which served
as a weatlier vane on tne steeple of St. Paul *s in London.
To the
inward eye of Lily tl-.is seemed a favorable omen, because it landed
on a sign, which chanced also to be an eagle, gracing the es­
tablishment of a bookbinder at t' e east end of t: e Cathedral, and
because of tie coincidence t at Philip’s arms likewise bore the
image of an oa.-le,
This so. posted to Lily the pretty conceit t'.at
Philip could find In En--;land ti'.e safety ho desired.J
1
Thomas Lore, p. 78.
It would seem ti.ac this aspect of
t:e natter has not "Seen fully weighed by Miss Mary Beth Stewart
in her recent article, "William Lilg *s contribution to classical
study," The classical .journal, XXXIII (1938), 217, where she makes
the following remarkable statement:
"Both .'ore ar.d Lily took the
minor orders of the Church, but proceeded no further because their
new love of Greek iiiado them prefer life In London or a university
to\rn to that of an obscure parish,"
O
■y
George Lily, fol. 49 : Sed & in carmine mire foelix,
atque candidus, Philippum Maximlliani Caesaris filium, ui teapestatis, dum ex Flandria Kispaniam peteret, disiecta classe, in
Cornubici litoris portum appulsum, elegantissimis aliquot
v.crslbus celebrauit, cum, & eodem turbinae sublata ex Paul ini
tempi! f&stigio aenea magnl ponder is aquila, quae facile motu
snirantium uentorum regionem indicare solet, ad tabernam librariom
proximam in depictae aqullae tabulaia impeteret, quo ueluti
prodigio, lam turn non sine diuinl numinis potentia,. ex tarn graui
74
About 1499 More took up his residence in the Charterhouse,
where he remained for four years, following his law studies, and
living as nearly as he could the life of h e
Carthusians, though
he never became a member of t, e order— he was simply a long-time
guest.
It Mas been stated, and t; e statement has been repeated,
M a t Lily was there with i lin; and though this may ne true, I can
find no authority on which to base the assertion,
bupton declares
that "Lily, contemplating the priesthood, was, or had been,
lodging, with More in the Charterhouse,
In a footnote
(1),
however, he says that this is an inference made by Seebohmj in
the place referred to we read:-
"Compelled to seek safety in
seclusion, More shut himself up in his lodgings near the Charter­
house with William Lilly,.......More seems to have shared with
him the Intention of becoming a monk or priest,"
2
Stapleton and Roper as sources for Lis statement;
Seebohm gives
3
but Roper says
nothing at all about Lily, and Stapleton inert ions k irn only in
connection w ith tl e subject of entering the priesthood,
"Meditabatur adolescens sacerdotium cum suo I.illo,
Rellgionis
etiam propositum ardenter deslderans, Minoritarutn institutum
arripere eogitabat,"
Apparently it was because :ore and Lily
were intimate at the time, that Seebohm somehow got the notion
naufragio, Philippo regi, qri pro insigne aquilair, gerebat, optatam
in Britannia salutem contigisse ostendit,
1Colet.,, p. 147.
2
Frederick
. Seebohm, The Oxford reformers (3rd. ed.;
London, 1S87), p. 146,
It rill be noted t. at Seebohm rakes
another slip:
he says that .'ore lived near t3?e Charterhouse,
while 3 j1 s authority, V.illiam Roper, Life of Sir Thomas More
(London, 1882), pp. 5-6, states that It was in the monastery:
"After which time [the period during, which More was reader of
Furnlvall’s Inn] he gave himself up to devotion and prayer in the
Charterhouse of London, religiously living there without vow about
four years, until lie resorted to the house of one Maister Colte
a ,gentleman of Essex.,,."
3
Tres g n o m e (ed, 15 >8), p. 18; (ed. 1612), p. 161; Hoper,
(ed. 1822)' pp. 5-6^ ed, Elsie Vaughan Hitchcock ("E. E« T. S . "
London, 1935), p. 6; cf. llicholas Harpsfield, Tlie life and death
of Sir Thomas Moore, ed. II, V, Vitchcock, with 'introduction and-"
notes by R. W. Chambers (*E. S. T. S." London, 1932), pp. 310-11
(Votes 17/11-15).
"It :1s evident hov'evor, that Roper and Ilarpsfield regard More's sojourn with the Carthusians as quite a differ­
ent thing [from being a paying-guest], and t’at lore was admitted
to their inner life,"
On the other band, "there is no proof that he [More] was
ever an oblate, for in those days the rule which limits visits or
75
that they lived in the sane house.
The mistake has been copied
by others betides Lupton, among them Hiss E.
1
valuable study of M o r e ’s circle.
G. Routh, in iter
Although Lily must have received the tonsure when he
accepted the benefice of I'olcot, this would of course be no bar
to later marriage j a step which. ho took before he be came ' eadmaster of St. Pau l ’s, probably within the year preceding August
11j 1505.
The ground for this date, as well as for nosi, of the
other details we know about L i l y ’s married life, is to be found in
the epitaph for his wife which Lily composed, only a short time
before his own death:
Epitaphium Hagnetis Lilii
G. Lilli coniugis.
Haguea Lie iaoeo conituc oliia Gulielmi
Lilii cognomen cui tribuere sui.
Septera ter denos aetas rasa viderat annos,
bis septem vixi tres quoque iuncta viro.
Mater ©ram felix ter quinque prolej puellae
sex fuerant numero, cetera turba mares.
Me luce octava mensis sextiles adorta eat,
me lace undecima sustulit atra lues,
Actorna ut patoat lector mlki mimera lucls
Authorem lucis supplies raente roga.^
We are ignorant of the family name of Agnes, but we know that she
lived seventeen years after her marriage, and t at s' e died of the
plague.
Her husband tells us tb at she became ill on August 8, and
that her death occurred three days later.
The year lie does not
mentions but from the words of George Lily wo may take 1522 as
the date most likely:
it could not : ave been later, ’ sea m e by
the following August Lily himself was dead; it could have been
earlier, but if it was George ml ; f have been expected to give
some indication of t«.e intervening time,
This would put back the
date oi tj.o /..arrlago to some Lliae prior ho August 11, 1505*
fifteen children were born to the Lllys, six girls and nine boys.
According to George, tie married life of his parents <ad been one
il
retreats to ten da;s was not in force
(Dorn Lawrence Hendricks,
The London G?artorhouse» London, 1859, p. 05} •
^Sir Thomas ;.ore a, d hie friends , 1477«*35 (London, 1934),
pp. 24, 20,
Li. Lari. IB 540, fol, 53v . I have freely emended the
text, punctuated, and modernized it; ti e :-"S in very badly written,
John ‘V.'eever, Ancient funeral monuments (London, 1631)
3CO-VO,
76
of peace and affection.^
The epitaph gives no further light on
the domestic life of the couple; it is tantalizingly simple ancl
matter-of-fact.
George declares that when his fat’er died he was
almost entirely bereft of his children; but, although he .had lost
P
many of them, there were at least s.,.x who survived M m . "
another vers ion, which Las been of soon help in supply in,,., new
read in-:s •
^Continuing the account of his father, George says;
"Ad
postremum, desaeuiente Londini peato, coniuge, qua cum amahill
semper eoncordia sanctisslme uixerat, absotmpta,& numerooa slmul
sobole, quara ex e&dem ad decimam quantum nsq.'o prolem susccporat,
pene orbatus»...interiit," (Fols. 47v-48)»
o
Those whose ruua.es we know are the following;
George,
v/i o uecame a priest, after studying at kagdaleii, and was chaplain
to Cardinal Pole and canon of Canterbury, dying in 1559; Peter*
the father of John Lyiy, tho dramatist; r.l&rgaret, vLho married a
man named Fisher (no more
s known about him), and becavte the
mother of two children, kargaret and Anna; Dlonyaia, who .married
twicei first, John Rightwise, surmaster of Gt. Paul's from 1517
until the death of his father-in-law, when 1 o succeeded to the
v.eadzoastership, from whicn office be was removed for neglect in
1031, about a year before his death; ho was a composer of plays
and interludes} secondly, James Jacob, another master* at St.
Paul's, by whom she Lad three children, iBarbara, Scholastics,
and Polydorej according to t; e antiquary M l l i a m Cole (','. Vi, MS
Add it* 5814, Vol. xiil, fol. 150) all the manuscripts of tlie play
Dido, ascribed by hood, to Hightwise, give ti e impression list It
was Dionysia who was t’ o real aur-hor— an assertion v-} ich it Is
impossible to chock, since the manuscripts have been lost.
(See
below, chap, vii , p. 80 and n. 5. Of the two rei.ialning children,
we know nothing, not even the names. See Al' ert Feulllerat,
John J M L (Cambridge, 1910), genealogical table, facing p. 5.
The sons are mentioned In. Lily's will*
Cl;AFTER VII
HEADMASTER OF ST. PAUL*S
It is not known for certain when Lily was . iven the po­
sition which he was to hold motII his death..
As we have seen
above* George says that his father was in office fifteen ;,ears,^
If he was active until lust before the time of his death (as we
have every reason to suppose)* this would mean if at to took up
liis new duties most probably in January or February, 1507/8,
hut we know t-at holet did not be, ,In tl e erection of ]iis school
buildings until about t1:at tinej and i at t oso wore not completed
for some years— ti o school-house itself in 1510* the ma s t e r ’s
house In 1512,
2
It Is not impftssiole chat Lily received his ap­
point aent before Oolet
.oved a hand in the matter— either before
t’-'o legal foundation or lb e beginning, of work on the
-uildin.;;s•
hut on tlie other ;and he would '•ardly be thou ht of as high Piaster
either before the buildings were put up, or beforo ’o had begun
to teach,
A few years ago Leach argued for 1510 as too year of
^Chap, vi* p, 68.
2
Leach has described the ' uildin-; of tl-e school
Archaeolo.gla, LKII (1910), n, 202;
"In the hereers ’ Records...*
t- e" wl ole story is told ;oy Colet himself in the introduction to a
book e hah ruade contain in;.; copies of all L o documents relating
to the foundation of t’e school, *..” Or p. 250 'he gives a
transcript of this section, from the "Praefaciuncula Johannis
Collet in i-ujus Libri Coutenta" of Colet ’s book of evidences;
in the yore of oure lorde ;od A thousand fyve Jiundred and
eight [I, John Colet] beganne to edifyo in the Estende of the
Clxurchyerd of Paulis a scole house of stone for cl ilderrt tlteryn
to be tawght free to the nowmbre of an hundred fyfty and three,,,.
And also bielded a mansion adjoyning to the saide scole at the
northslde for th;e maisters to dwell yn.
And in the yere of
our lord athousand fyve hundreth and
twelff aecomplisshed and fynysshed t1 o sa;..« scole and moms ion in
every poynt,” Lead' continues (p, 202):
"a minute of tf e Court
of t’-e hereers, on 17th August, 1 510, copied in the book, gives
greater exactness,” Then he quotes from the document, which he
ias transcribed on p, 235;
"The dean and chapter,” it says, "had
sealed a deed of estate by
which they (the Mercers) should receive
possession of the ground whereupon tlie scbool-houso is_ builded
and the schoolmaster's Louse shall bo builded. ”
77
78
appointment, while Sir hichael McDonnell held lor 1509.**'
.doth
based tr'elr positions on tho date at t5.e end of a letter from
Colet to Lily which preceded l~ e text of t; e elementary grammar
O
o n which they collaborated
>nt it see "is to r.e t’at such evi­
ls inconclusive.
V-;ith printin'; still in its infancy, and accu­
racy not t;e first c ons ide rat ion, we should not oe surprised at
carelessness in tic date o f a p r e f a t o r y epistle.
Of c■.e four
editions of this book whic’ 7. ">ave seen, two of the epistles bear
r5
dales which support Leach, two uphold McLonne!!,*'
It ’s unlikely
I-at the printers concerned themselves much about what mist .have
appeared to teen a very minor matter indeedj no .latter what the
dates may be in tec ' alf dozen other extant editions of the
grammar, it would seen unsafe to base an argument; on their
a it.hority.
It would oeon likely
teat hj.Iy was chosen by holet for
the position of headmaster as soon as :e conceived t o Idea of
found i nu a schoolj
there was hardly a question of pic kin;; the
host nan among several candidates,
Lily was his friend; Ve was
t' e natural man l>r the job— yotmr-;, wit}, no particular path
narked out for him (unlike fore, for example, whose father bad
chosen the law for his son), of excellent character, and ”Ut b the
besfc trainin' that a schoolmaster could !-ave.
And vf-other
In t1_e columns of t : e London T imes, July 7, p. 4; July
9, p. 27; July 14, p. 22; .-.-uly 80, p. T", all In the year 1909;
see also h e letter of r . h., Gardiner in U e Issue >f July 80, p.
4. Leae]j signs himself r-ierely ,!A Corres p o m ’e n t ,K but bis Identity
is clear to anyone reading ; is article, nSt, Paul's School before
Colet," In Arc] •aeolo;
.,ia La 11 (1910), 191-238,
o
Colet's part was the accidence, which he called the
Aedltlo; Lily's, the syntax known as the Hudinenta grammatioes; both
were In English.
see below, chan, ix, p. 118-31,
3Tbe two epistles dated 1509 are found in the edition of
Peter Treveria, London, 1929, and in that of fartin Caesar,
Antwerp, 1535} both editions of the
rammar are in tue form known
as "ftolsey’s grammar" (see below, chap, ix, pp. 128-31.
Copies of both are in the British Museum.
The epistles dated
1510 are in the edition of ftynkyn de horde, 1534, British IJaseuraj
and in the edition of 1527 (without place or printer) represented
l)j t h e copy in the library of Peterborough Cathedral,
(I have
not seen the original, but it is reprinted by s. Inch in tlie
Shakespeare Jahrbuch XLIV (1908), '65-117; XL¥ (1909), 51-100.)
Lily was teach La . a private school, or hold lit;: -lassos in tho old
ft, Paul's, or doing anythin/, else, ive should expect tJ at as a
natter of course Colet did ask him. to take over tk e duties of
;oauffifxstei* as soon, as there would, be duties bo oe taken over.
This nay Lave boon when tic s chool -building was finished, in the
Am .ust of 1510, or it may Pave been earlier— the building mi -Jvt
lave
been used before it was completed.
George to . ive us anythin
And it would be unlike
more than round m m o e r s --although it
is possible t at be did intend to bo accurate 'ere, in which case
1e would be dating from the appoint' ;ent, not from tie actual
beginning of classes,
Whatever tho answer to this question, it is certain ti at
Lily was ti a hirst headmaster,
If vas >ere that te found ’do life
work, bore that he improved the reputation he had made for so­
briety and learning? it was ' ore that ’e composed ids grammatical
treatises.
Details
of his life for this period are as scanty as
for any old or? but a few befj.nibe facts emerge for our guidance.
;o was well-paid, receiving. a salary of one mark (13s,
4d,) a
week,^ about a t3tird of t e salary then oaid to the Lord Chancel­
lor; in addition, he was xiveo. a "levery uorne of illj n o d e s ”
2
a n d bo was proviaed with a very
ood house to IIvo In,
besides
3
Lily, there was a surmaster and a chaplain.
According: to the
statutes, Lily bad to give an account of bis stewardship every
year at Candlemas; the records speak of these assises, which do
not fall on the same day every year,
Although Lily was always
See ti e Statues of St. 2Ja u l ’s School, of which there are
two DS copies, both in C o l e t fs jand, one in the possession of the
Dercers * Company, the other in the ;-ritish Luseum (Addit, £274};
the latter Is reprinted in Lupton, Colet, pp, 271-84, S e e also
Lupton’s comment, p, 177, and n, 1,
2
Ibid., and see another description of it in the Rutland
papers, od, ftilliaiu Jer-dan (Camden Society, ho, Xhlj London,
184«2), g. 87,
It was one of the houses set apart for t:e enter­
tainment of the emperor and hiis retinue when lie visited London in
1522; "'iaister Lylly, scole m i s t e r ; i hall, ilij chambers, iiij
fetuerbeddes, i kecliin, and other necessaries," Even this house,
however, must have been taxed to accommodate t;o seventeen
Lilys— if they were ever alivo all at the same time,
3
Rightwise was the s u n m s t c r from 1517 until Lily's death,
when 'e succeeded his father-in-law; •a 'ad followed Jiaurice
Lirchinshaw, who was one of tb e witnesses to L i l y ’s will (see
above, chap, i, p, V), and who himself had supplanted Thomas Percy
in 1515.
(See the Acts o f court, 1513-1622, fol. 18, at the
ihercers ’ Company.)
80
given a clean bill'*' by the Dean and the forcers in solemn assembly,
the 8awe cannot be always said for his assistant.
In 1520
Rightwise was evidently accused of negligence, and Lily was asked
his opinion.
2
he stood nobly oy Inis future son-in-law, and got
him off; but the charge was renewed the following year, and the
surraaater received his warning.''
It speaks well for his ability
that in spite
of his carelessness be was elected to succeed Lily,
A
even against serious competition.* On the oilier ' and, Riglitwlse,
besides being
L i l y ’s son-in-law, had the advantage of a statute
made by Colet
to help him obtain tl.e place;
"Yf tho vnder ,-Iaister
be in litterature and in honest lyff acordyng tnarme the high
IJaisters Rome vacant let ! yn be cbosyn before a nother. ,|3
The
As an example of t"> o approval v/' ieh was .regularly given
Lily we m y quote tl:e record in tlie Acts of court for ; ov. 13,
1513, fol. 18;
’’And at the day a b ovesa'lf'1 :ai's"ter William Lylly
tl'-e high Scholemaister was callid forthe
before Maister deane,
Wardeyns , and assistentys and was examined of his toehiavour and
diligence and was right well a lowed and approved and was dysrayssed
with all favour and honour And admytted incontynent agayne to
contynue in Lis Rome of high Daistership. " For this and t o two
following transcriptions I havo to thank frs. S tewart -Ta ckenz ie •
^Acts of court, fol. 21 (Dec. 17, 1520);
w ....And by the
said assemble was deraanndyd of h e Ily faster whet’er ti e Stir
faster dyd his dote and kept the dayes of teching unto the
cliyldem sons t’
°e desses of aster Dene (.Colet fad died th.e je>. r
before] or not.
unto the wicbo hr. Lylly by master answered and
saitli Us at he doyth his dili ens as now :e fnow1th not, ti:©
contrary, And thero uppon ti e said Sur r. was ca 11yd in, And
by the said assymble was sbayd for U a t 1e dyd hys data he is
wordy to have thankys and desyerd hym to so to contynew.”
3Ibid., fol. 22 (bee. 19, 1521);
’’And after d/ner done
the sayd iiygh faster was cauled up before tfc sa^d as so., bio and
tfer to him was shewed bowe they f.ad unders tondyn.g that the Surre
faister dyd not kepe nor Intend the Chyldren at hys owers as he
should doo but ever lyghtly was absentt from the sayd Scole whyche
thyng the sayd Rygh Dais ter cold not denye. Wheropon. the Surre
Dais iter was before tfora caulled and to hya shewed as ys aforesayd
ha there as a trespace reiaytted hym to tlie correccyon of the sayd
assemble wheropon. to hym warnyng geven if at yf he were found
defective agen tbon he to be resioved and a new to be in hys Rome,'1
4
See above, crap, i, p. y.
3<uotedin Lupton, pp. 273-74. For t c, life of Rlgbfcwise
see t: e article by Lupton in MSB.
It m y be noted that he took
an interest in dramatics : according to Anthony h food, Athenae
Oxortlenses (1813), I, 35, ho was ti e anti :or of a tragedy, M d o ,
"M;;lch was acted by M s scholars before Cardinal 3.olsey— although
Colo (see above, chap, vi, p. 76, n*2, credits the play, on tlie
authority of the manuscripts, to M s wife,
brewer, Letters and
81
burden of proof was apparently on the "lerned men” who elected the
Master for the honest merchants.
Colet likewise decreed that the faster at the beginning of
his career be "hoolo in body"; but that If lie became incurably ill
or too old to teach he was to be cared for; he must be given fi­
ll
'Reasonable levyng of x
or other Wyse as it shall seme convenient
so that the olde malater after his longe labour in noo wyse be
left destitute.”
His holidays were not to exceed thirty days in
the year; but it is puzzling to b9 told that these could be taken
all together or at different times, though he might be away only
once;
"His absence shalbe but onys In the yore and not abous
4-4
xxx
O
dayes which® he shall tab® coniunctim or dluiaim.
If a master may bo judged by his pupils, Lily will not
suffer from the scrutiny— he turned out a lumber of students who
later proved themselves men of considera ble ability*
The list in­
cludes names familiar to everyone acquainted with ti e sixteenth
century;
John Clement, husband of More *s adopted daughter, ap­
pointed by bolsey to Corpus Christi, Cambridge,
to be "reader in
humanity,” later President of tlie Royal College of Physicians;
Thomas Lupset, writer and translator, who succeeded Clement at
corpus Christ!, and who helped More, Erasmus and Linacre to prepare
papers, Henry VIII, Vol. IV, Part•II, PP. 1604-06, gives an account
of a play about Luther— not D-do— acted by . a -oys of Paul’s under
Rightwise, November 10, 1527, at Greenwich.
The -text of neither
play lias come down to us.
Lupton seemingly has confused the two
pieces— i. e», he has given to Dido the date of the Luther play,
See Notes and queries, 2nd series, II, <1856), 24, 78, For Rightwise"' plays’"see" also E . iC. Chambers, The aiedieval stag® (Oxford,
1903), II, 190, 215, 219, who mentions1 the' fact that tlie boys of
Pau l ’s certainly acted the Hiorraio before bolsey in 1528, and
possibly the Menaaclirai before him in 1527 (p, 196), Chambers sup­
plies references to brewer, Vol. IV, p, 3563; H. F. and R. Brown,
Catalogrue of Venetian papers (London, 1864-1900), IV (3), 208, 225;
Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and lllustro f'amelles of
Lancastro & Yorke', od. Sir henry Ell'is (London, 1809). p. r‘
/3&;"
George" Cavendish, Tlie life of Cardinal Wolsey, ed. S. h. Singer,
(2nd, ed.; London, 18‘
27), I, 136, 201; J. P'. Collier, Tlie history
of English dramatic poetry to the time of Shakespeare (new' ed.;
London, 13*79)," I, 104.
'
*
”
"^Lupton, p. 273.
2
'
Ibid.
Professor Evelyn day Albright su gcsts that be
might "have" "a" thirty-day vacation, or shorter holidays (with only
one absence).”
.. ..
82
their works for the press; Edward forth, first baron of that name,
father of the translator of Plutarch, member of henry VIII ’s privy
council; Anthony Denny,
P., likewise a member of the privy
council; William Paget, adroit enough to maintain hiis position in
the council under Henry, "Queen Jane" and Mary; John Leland, the
father of English antiquaries;
John Aynesworth, priest, graduate
of St, J ohn’s , Cambridge, executed in 1538 for opposing h enry’s
divorce; Thomas Off ley, Master of bercliant Taylors’ Company,
sheriff and mayor of London, knighted in 155'/; Robert Purs glove,
the last prior of tlie Alignstlnian monastery at Guisborough, York,
afterwards bishop of full, founder of grammar schools at Tide swell
and Guis borough.
To tcese we may probably add Thomas Nightingale,
who was taught by Lily, but possibly before tho re-founding of St,
Paul’s; about him little is known, except that . e was the author
of Latin verse, including a poem on the death of Lily and one on
tho death of Colet; male calls him nvir lepidus et poeta.”
It has
been conjectured that Jerome Dudley, the son of Edmund, and Sir
Nicholas .aeo n likewise were among Lil y ’s pupils.*
It was wliilo he was at St. Paul’s that .Lily did most of his
literary work,
besides the grammatical tracts there were epitaphs
2
3
for his wife,
for Colet, who died in 1519, and for Milliam A t ­
water, Bishop of Lincoln (d. 1521).
These, together with a few
other short compositions, Lave been preserved in t’-e sarae >■■'& which
4
contains the epitaph of Agnes.
There are two delightful poems
addressed to Polydore Vergil, one thanking him for a present of
fish., the other accompanying a iiew Y e a r ’s present.1'
It is
*By Sir Michael McDonnell in The history of St, P a u l ’s
school (London, 1909), p. 85*
o
See above, chap. vi, p. V 5.
3
doth in prose and In verse; texts in Lolland, Dugdale,
Payne Fisher, and (of tie verso form alone) In Karl, 540, fol, 57,
and (in fIS) on the first leaf of if v Lambeth A n tiboss icon (see
below, p. -% and n, 4 ). Both are reproduced T n Lupton, pp. 237-38,
^M. L . MS Lari., 540, fol, 57. See above, chap, vi, p. V5,
and n. 2, Tlie MS is described in ti e catalogue as ”a book in
quarto, containing many of tho historical collections of Mr, John
Stow, and for the greater part, written by his own. 1 and.”
5
Both, in Marl, 540, fol. 58.
Oil P. 106,
Lupton has printed t- e first,
83
impossible to assign a date to them; they nay even have been
written before Lily came to St. Paul’s,
but it is worth noting
in this connection that in 1522 Lily and Vergil were neighbors:
tlie Rutland papers, which describe Lil y ’s dwelling, likewise give
“ r-.r
. .r ■
:
-
-
an account of the house of ’’Poloderus in Panics Church Yarde.”
Evidently there was a very kindly feeling between the two men; a
feeling which was reflected in Vergil's reference to Lily in bis
hist;cry:
after calling rim, in the phrase of iiorace, a man of
character and of unspotted life, be so far lost himself in admi­
ration as to say that Lily was the first lkurlIsL.:aau to loach
letters in England,
2
T’ en there is a short poem on the Geven Wise hen of Greece,
of no particular importance |u and t h e r e are a few anonymous pieces
in the sane
KS, which may or may not be by Lily— ‘although it Is
natural to think of them all as coming from the same author*
A
somewhat longer composition, of twenty-eight lines, is addressed
to Cardinal holsey, Primate of bn .lard, and legate of tho -Oly
4
See; the title s l o w s t l at it was acr written before 1518,
It
praises Vu>lsoy to the skies, and voices the .jious hope that he
may become Pope,
There are a few scattered pieces:
a s.)it of
laudatory verse prefixed to -o rman’s Vulgaria,
- v) ich Pynaon
published In 1519;' an introductory quatrain, to keep company with
.
similar verses by Linacre and More, in tho former's Progymnasaata
qranmatiees vulgaria (London:
Hastell, n,d , ) in wr.ich Lily nobly
“i“ “
Q
defends tv o ohysician a veinst a charge of plagiarism*
In another
See above, p. 7;
2
Polydori Vergilli lirbinatis A y l i c a e historiae librl
vlglnt iaepVem’1Tj'^aalo. 157(1)7*'' P«" 618:
ftvi"r, ’integer vita© scalerisque p u r u s ’, postquam in Italia aliquot per annos, perfectis
U t e r i s ope ram dederat, domum reverstts, Angle ruin prisms apud suos,
sas docuit,,,."
Bloxain, "The denies,” I, 22, .iakos the statement
even more sweeping , by leaving out" "‘
Anglorum" and "apud suos,"
3Iiarl. 540, fol. 50,
^"Ad Revereruiura [In] Christo patrera Tuoxnaia cardinalem
Sboracensis arcblepiscopum Aug,lie primates. ct Apostolicae Sodis
logatum, ” Karl. 540, fols. 58v-59.
It was in 1510 that he was
made legatus a later©,
—!
■
>u
l
l
'
<
l
I
l
l
l
i
a
i
H
H
*
—I
I
^
W
.
W
I
W
I
— M—
I
% o w available In Lillian iJorman, Vulgaris, ed.
Janes ("Roxburgh Club"; London, 1926), p. 2.
'. 1?,
k'Phe unique copy is in the liritish Museum; L i l y ’s quatrain
is reproduced in Sir L'illiam Osier, Thomas Linacre (Cambridge,
34
graromar bj Linacre, the Rndimenta -;rar;a;iatices (London;
Pynson,
n. d . ), Lily and Richard nirt contribute epigrams; L i l y ’s is ad­
dressed to Princess Mary, nAd s e r e n i s s i m m Mariam Cornublae
Walllaeque principeni,n to w hom Linacre was tutor at tie tiine.^
Lily must have been considered rat! or good at if at sort of thing;
his pen was often employed, like ti e pens of 1 is friends in Italy,
in dashing off these introductory pieces.
Another epigram of this
fcyne is tho tetrastichon he composed for Colet *s Aeditlo, in which
he tells the student who wishes to taste i; e cup of good Latin
that Colet will show h i m the way#
2
Another s’ ort poem which shows L i l y ’s connection with the
circle of European humanists— it introduces a new name into the
list, of those associated v?lt3i -im— is one w ■ich celebrates a paint­
ing of Erasmus and Peter 'Hies, w ich tho two friends had sent to
3
More#
Chambers has described tl e circumstances which led to tho
incident, and the subsequent fate of the diptych8
It was whilst
ore war. at Calais Li at Lrasmus and Giles
sent him the diptych with: ti oir two protraits, painted by the
great Flemish raster ^aentin Metsys,
Instead of placing their
names on t’ e portraits, Metsys had cunningly recorded their
identity by showing t' c task upon vf ich Erasmus was engaged,
and by showing files holding a letter addressed to him in
bore's 1 and writ Ing,
Tlie painter, says hore, -ad, proved himself a skilful forger, and ’e asks for the letter back, that
' e may put It !g, the side of t:o picture and thus double the
:<arvol. More sent verses of thanks to Erasmus and lilosj the
foar of war haunts him; wju.t a vast price posterity will place
1908), Plate IX.
It refers to an earlier grammar, v.g-ich is *bvido.jLly the lost gramviar prepared by Linacre for St. Paul's school,
but rejected by Colet.” See Samuel Knisfit’s Life of Colot (London,
1724), jjp, 135-39; and Opus epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterodami#
ed, P. S. et ii. h. Allen, (Oxxorif,
), "T," S W .
Sega^TIngnEhe
date of tlHs edition, Foster vat son, The English grammar sch.ooIs
to 1660 (Cambridge, 1908), p. 245, queries ”1525?
^Osler gives L i l y ’s text on Plate IX* A copy of the book
Is In the hritish Museum.
The text Is likewise printed, with
faint praise, by John h, Johnson, The life of Thqjaas Linacre
(London, 1835), pp. 234-35.
’’William tiily, a scholar of "no mean
reputation, recommended them [the Rudiment a j also in the following
epigram, of which the motive is oiitTFlo’
d "to greater praise than
the execution.”
^The text appeared in all the extant editions of the Colet118-131) it may also be read
in the reprint of the vrainioar- in the Sim no s pe are Jahr buch, Vol.
hLIV (1908), p. 65.
Lily grammar (see below, chap. ix, pp.
3Jlarl. 540, fols. 5?V-58,
85
on these fragile panels, if the are wi Ich is to come have any
care for the arts, if hateful Mars do not grind ilinerva to
powder.
Mars lias been kind, and the portraits, thoug;h they
have suffered divorce, survive? the Erasmus is in Romo, the
,
Giles at bongfor-d Castle in the keeping of tho Earl of Radnor*
There is one other poem in liarleian 540 which merits our
attention, "Ad Caroltun* 5» G e m a n i Inperatorein," but it will be
more appropriately treated in connection with anotlior group.
This
Is a series of poems written by Lily for the pageants with which
the emperor Charles the fifth was greeted when ho came to London
in the summer of 1522 to confirm an alliance made with Henry against Francis I.
2
In his chronicle ball has described the royal
entry, and has given the texts of the poe.ns spoken at each of six
3
stations where the pageants were erected*
Recently, however, tlie
late Professor C* R. baskervill discovered in the uuntington Libra­
ry another copy of these verses, printed in pamphlet form, to­
gether with, an English translation in rime royal, a Latin motto
used as an ornamental inscription, and an introduction and con4
elusion, all anonymous.
It had been known that Lily wrote verses
for the occasions
two records
in tho manuscript minutes of the
court of aldertsien for 1522 make .mention of it.u
besides, George
^Thomas More, p, 153.
2
The royal procession entered the city on June 6,
g
The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of
Lancastre Yorko (1518)» "fb Is ,' 9'4~99v. Inhere11were 'elf0t" "piageants,
but Hall gives no verses for t’ e third and the fifth.
4
Tlie pamphlet lias been reprinted, tilth a very Illuminating
introduction by Professor Maskervill, under the title, "William
Lily’s vorse for t’e entry of Cl’arles 7 into London,n in Tlie
Huntington library bulletin, IX (1938),
The original printer was
Pyhs on;"' the ’original
Of the tryiuaphe and the verses that
Charles themperour & tlie nos
'iq^^T^n?Ctanilr’***
henry tKe»wYlIJ» w e r e " ' s a ' l ' u w i t i h p i a T s : T O r ' L o n d o n ^''
I quote from Baskervill’s Introduction, p. 3s
"Tlie first,
dated May 28, 1522, reads, "Item to send© to Master Lyly for the
Speekes for the pageantes." Again, on .November 18, 1522, the court
of aldermen, after agreeing that Sir Thomas More should have ten
pounds toward a gown of velvet for Ids "proposicion,n added,
Item that Master lylly for1 ids labour 1 diligence that he
toke in devysyng of verses £ other maters/ for the pageant within
_
this Citie at the Comyng in of The mperours grace shall hau©~
v Ti.
So that he bryng in to
this Court a Copie of all the sane to thentent that they may be
enfcred for a president herafter &c.
The copy of L i l y ’s verses to Be delivered to the aldermen for a
86
Lily considered it of enough Importance to set down;
"Carolum
item Quintum Caesarem, ab Henrico Octauo re go magnificent iss iae
hospitio exceptum,& eeleberrimo spectaeulormi apparatu Londini
urban intrantem, panagyrico carmine, & luculenta oration© k. puero
in foro pronunciata laudauit."'*'
However, until Hr. Baskorvill
found the Huntington pamphlet, it was not known that the verses
in Hall were by Lily, for hall gave no author.
How in regard to the "Ad Carolina. 5. Germ&ni Inperatorem."
Another version of this saliiation Is given in tlx© aunting ton
pamphlet, but it does not appear in Hall.
In the Of the tryumphs
and the verses this poem comes first, and, as hr* ijaskervill
points out, it is the only one of the poems in the pamphlet to
bear a title or heading in Latin, "and tlie only one which the
translator does not connect with any location or pageant."
title runs as follows:
Gull. Lilii Acclamation*
2
The
"Diva Carolo Imper&tori semper augusto
Mr. Baskervill thought it might have
been a separate address given upon soano other occasion in con­
nection with the celebration, or per Imps the oration given by the
•Z
boy "in foro," of which George Lily spoke,1 But as a matter of
fact there is reason for believing that the poem was printed in
1521 by Pynson, the publisher of the pamphletJ if this is true,
it must have been written with no thought of the reception in mind.
In the Lambeth copy of Lily's Ant fboss icon (1521) t liere are four
leaves preceding the text proper which do not appear in any one
4
of tie other known copies.
Tlieso leaves are taken up with Lily's
precedent 1ms not survived in, the city archives.
It does not ap­
pear what the "other matters" for the pageants may have been." In
a footnote (1) tlie reference is given as Repertory Book IV, fols.
120, 155.
^Elogia, fol. 47V .
2 P. 4.
•Z
P. 5(
"Tlie 'Acdamatlo1 is somewhat more general In
character than the other poems and was probably written to serve
as one of the separate addresses whieh were characteristic of such
occasions, though neither Hell nor the author of tlie manuscript
account [Corpus Christ! College BIS 298, £ 8, pp. 152-42] mentions
such a feature for 1522....Tho 'Acclamatio' might appropriately
have been spoken at the entrance to the city but more likely it
was the oration which George Lily mentions as delivered by a boy
'in foro' that is, presumably In Cheap Ward."
4
See below, chap. viii, for an account of this book.
The
copy at Lambeth has been described by S, R. Maitland, A list of
some of the early printed books in the archiepiscopal library at
Lambeth (London, lS&3), pp.
^Ts"'Vopj,'''' oddly enough,' 'is
87
Qui mihl dlscipulas
the Latin motto, together with the "Acclao
matio," and a copy of the address to Philip the Fair#
The text
of the "Acclamatio” is that of the Huntington pamphlet, not that
of the disreputable Karleian 540#t>
Perhaps Lily had written it
when Charles cam® to tho throne (1519), and Pynson found it apt
to his purpose when he m s
printing the pamphlet.
On the other
hand, It is quite possible, as Baskervlll Implies, that the poem
was written expressly for the visit of Charles} that the four
leaves at the beginning of the Lambeth Antiboss loon were not
printed at the same time as the Antiboasicon proper, but were In­
serted later by the binder.
This question, whether the Lambeth
copy includes an insertion, or whether the other copies have lost
a gathering, cannot he settled b y examining the signatures (see
below, chap* viii, p. 98, n. 2); I have tad no opportunity to
weigh the other evidence.
At ail events, whatever may be the
truth of the ratter, it is likely enough that the verse was recited,
either by the boy Min fore,*1 or by someone else at a different
stage of the proceedings— as Baskervlll suggests.
A more significant type Is represented by L i l y *s Monlta
oaedlgoglca. or Carmen ad dlsclpulos de moribus.
This is a poem
in elegiac complete, eighty-four lines In length, full of precepts
and advice for the student of St. Paul's.
It begins by telling
tho boy to rise early, to go to the chapel and say his prayers,
wash his hands and face, comb his hair, see that his clothes are
clean, and get to school on time.
Then follows a series of m i ­
nute directions for his conduct in the schoolroom, interspersed
with a few general saws of common wisdom.
The poem belongs to
the class of sapiential writings popular in the Middle Ages and
4
Renaissance throughout Europe}
but It Is different enough from
not included in Pollard and Redgrave's Short-title catalogue,
which mentions three other copies (No. 15,6'Q6). A flf’th copy is
in tho Biblioth'bque National© In Paris.
^See below, pp. 87*91.
g
See above, chap. vi, p. 73, and n. 2.
is on fols.
s
The ''Acclamatio^
Baskervlll has printed this text for comparison, p. 6,
4
A typical Renaissance collection may be seen In a volume
now in the Biblioteca Vittorio Emmanuels in Rome (12, 30. D, 24}
which contains the Carmen luvenlle Sulpltli Vsrulanl (Lily's
teacher— see above, chap. v. pp. 47-51 j de moribus in raensa (Rom©
88
any
earlier
similar composition that I have examined to make Its
originality indeed striking.**"
In some respects it is like the
short poems of exhortation printed in the school books of the
Renaissance, many of which owe their inspiration to such medieval
sapiential writings as the Dlstichs of Cato; hut a comparison of
Lily's vers© with these other pieces shows an independence of
thinking, and a directness of appeal in Lily lacking in his com­
peers*2
Lily's is no grandiose effort to win the applause of the
learned who might chance upon his lines; but a simple, detailed
list of precepts for his pupils, by a roan with class room experi­
ence,
He tells them that they must sit where he places them; that
they will he advanced as they progress in their studies.
to have their paper and Ink and pens ready for work;
They are
they ar© to
take dictation accurately, and not on casual scraps of paper, but
in note books for the purpose.
They are to review often what they
have learned; to turn It ovar in their minds; to ask questions if
they do not fully understands
[n.d.]}, the Disticha Catonls. the Dicta saplentum. and the Instltutio puerills of Marcus Antonius Muretus. See also Tlie babees
book,r Aristotle's A. B.C., Stans puer ad mens am. The boko of nurture
by John Russell, "ilie' horn o f 'curtas'ye
btnersi In ISnn'lish..
French, and Latin, collected and edited by f« J. F u m i v a l l , Banners
and meals in olden time (”E. E, ?. S . w; London, 1868), with a
valuable Introduction/ C f . also the introduction by Professor
Edith Rickert in her edition of The babees» book (London, 1908).
For the medieval English texts alone consult John E. Wells, A
manual of the writings In middle English (Hew haven, 1916, and
Supplements, T 9 1 8 - )", 'ahap* vii,
Lupton has quite properly dis­
missed as groundless the charge of Hearne that Lily took the
Carmen de moribus from Leland the Elder,
See DUD, art. "Lily,
Iftlliam,r Vol. Yf, p. 1145; Notes and emeries, 7Y aeries. II
(1880), 441.
‘
^"Even Sulpitius ’ poem is quite different from Lily's, Tlie
poem by the same name in Furnlvall’s collection is ascribed (in
some of tlie texts) to John Lydgate, and is accepted as his toy
Lydgate’s editor, H. II. MaeCracken, The minor poems of John Lydgate
(!,E. E. T. S,
London and Hew York,” ’Part; "f, "1916), p. xxvtij; It
is printed in Part II, (London, 1934), pp. 739-744.
MacCracken
(I, xxvlij) says that a French version may have been Lydgate's
original.
There is no resemblance between Sulpitius' poem and
this, sufficient to indicate borrowing; nor between Lydgate's and
L i l y ’s.
For the Stans puer see also W. G . Hazlltt, Remains of tho
early popular poetry of England (London, 1866), III, &3-S, fV,'
$66-367; an3 the same w r i t e r ' s Schools, school-books and school­
masters (2d ed,; lew York, 1905J, p p . 4 3 - i 4 ,
2
I have collected a few of these poems, the titles of which
I have listed in an appendix to this chapter*
89
Qui dub it at, qui saepo rogat, me a dicta tenebit,
Is qui nil dubltat, nil capifc inde boni,
A boy must not lose heart, because a tiling is difficult t
HU
tam difficile est, quod non solertia uincat,
Inuigila, et parts est gloria militiae.
In speech, he must not be too garrulous; lie is to speak with, a
low voice during study-hour, but in clear tones when reciting.
And when he does recite, lie must know his lesson to the letter—
he
lie should refrain from prompting
o is not to use his book,
others when they are answering. Always, M s speech Is to he
neither too fast nor too slows
Est medium ulrtus quod tenuisse iuuat,
then he speaks, be is expected to speak Latin, and
,ood Latin; he
must flee barbarous Latininty as a sailor shuns the rocks•
If a student asks another for help, it should be kindly
given; the boy thus teaching another will Instruct himself,
L i l y ’s
pupils are not to follow the teachings of dull and ignorant pseudogrammarians, of who m none is so stupid that he has not a following.
If anyone wishes to learn pure Latin, he ought to study the
ancients— Terence, Virgil, Cicero,
Some boys spend, choir time
,n trifles, instead of the
study
ofvirtue; others vex their neighbors with their hands
and
foot;
still others think It clover to coast of their ancestry;
their example should not be imitated.
It is wise to avoid buying and selling, giving and ex­
changing; It is not for a sehool-boy to make profit of another’s
loss .
Insuper et nummos, irritaraenta malorum,
Mitte alljs, pu.erum nil nisi pura decent.
Students are to .have nothing to do with lying, stealing,
quarrelling— not even with loud and boisterous horseplay; tlie arms
of Mars are not for them,
A child must keep a watch over his
tongue, which is the door to.life and to death.
To impute ill to
others is- a great crime, or to swear by G o d ’s name,
boys are ex­
pected to take care of their books and other belongings; and. to
bring their books with them wi.cn they go to their lessons and re­
turn.
Finally, and in sura, they are to flee every harmful thing,
anything that will breed dissension.
The Carmen, de moribus was notably popular, with masters if
90
not with boys, for a Ions time,
3econ quotes with ;:reat approval
tlie line, ffP u g r um nil nisi pura d e c e n t . T l i e
text must .have ap­
peared in the early editions of the Colet-Lily grammar; but the
earliest extant copy is in the sat^e volume which contains the
O
Antibossicon in the Lambeth, copy (1521).
hardly any subsequent
edition omits it.
tJos ides, it was sometimes published separately;
copies have survived of Catonla disticha moral la. et Lilli monita
oaedago :lca, ed. John Stirling,
London, 1738).
(2nd. ed.j London, 1754; 3rd. ed.,
Translations of tho Carmen likewise appeared*
ti ere was The fairest fairing for a schoole-bred soimo.,, .The
a ohoole-inas ters precepts, or Lillies lesson to his schollera....
Translated b y Iohn Penlcethman (London, 1626);
"Lilli© Lis admo­
nition to his scholars," pp. 39-41 in Youths behaviour, by Francis
Hawkins (10th impression; London, 1872); and at the end of a volume
entitled, Dionysius Cato, his moral precepts by J. fc. (Edinburgh,
1700), there is an interesting version, with a marked Scottish
flavor; in the Bodleian in are is a manuscript (Rawl, 986) from the
beginning of tlie seventeenth century containing excerpts from the
sapiential writings of different authors, including (fol. 16) a
verse translation of tho Lonlta naedigoglca (all except the last
sixteen lines); the translator was Nicholas Dudson, a fellow of
All Souls * College, who died in 1619.
But L i l y ’s poem was to re­
ceive a far greater tribute than that of mere translation; it was
parodied by at least two people.
In the commonplace book of
Samuel conduit, 0. A., of Lincoln College, Oxford, (d. 1632), a
book which later became the property of one Abednsgo Seller, the
tenth item is "Gullelmi Lilii ad suos discipulos ...onita paedagocica
%
inversa, seu carmen de moribus anti-Lllianum.f,° Tlie tore of it may
bo caught from the third and fourth, lines, directed a.minst early
rising:
Mane piper lee turn, dulceinque ample cfcere somnua:
Mollibus in plurals are veneranda jacet.
^The oat.eol3.lsm of Tliomas Lecon, S. T. P. ...with, other
pieces, e37‘7ol'sn"Ayi^'"*r,^ ^ ^ r Society”;'l^blrYifge?' 'lB4£y,n P*~ 3B3.
2
The earliest extant copy of the Colet-Lily grammar (1527)
'3as the text, (pp. 75-77).
SBodl. Rawl, MS D U O
(10), fols. 153-154.
91
This, unhappily, was never published; but there is a broadside in
the British Museum, with the fetching title, ■■fai lalhi hlllense
burlesque redditum.
(There is no date, place, or publisl.er, but
t.ne Cataloguer guesses 163CI;
For sany readers unis version will
have a n appeal lacking in the other*
The first lines of Lily’s
poem reads
<4ul miiil discipulus puer es, cup is atque doeeri,
iiuc ades, haec anirao conc-ipe dicta tuo.
The parodist begins with gusto;
Uui nxlhi Combibulus puer es, cupis at quo jocarl,
hue adesi Irnec :iianibU8 pocula sutae tuisi
A manuscript text of this appears in L. b* MS Acid.
106*
Small
wonder that the English youth., forced to confront Li l y ’s noom
every time they opened their graassiars, took this sweet revenge
when they had learned L i l y ’s prosody!
That Lily could write controversial verse
In a Lone fierce
enough to please the most fire-eat In;, taste of t; © time is aoundantly evident from his Antlbosaicon; but there is a smaller
piece of ti e same genre which may be considered first*
In Har-
lelau 540 (fol* 57v ) we nave the following attack on John Skelton;
lillj G. SndecasillabI in scrieltonuiu
oitis carsulna calmrniiantem
quid no scheltone fronts sic aperta
Cernisl vlpereo potens^ veneno
quid versus tratina meos iniqua
libras, dicore vera nuncc licebit
doctrine tibl cium pararo famam
Et doctus fieri studes poeta
doctrinam nee Labes nec os poeta
Evidently Skelton had taken it upon himself to criticise soma of
L i l y ’s work;
4
perhaps it was t u e verses '.ily b a d written for the
^MS Carnls*
4
^Read patens?
men.
Bale, S criptorum lllustrlum, p. 652, ,1 ves the first line
of t'- e verse in which Skelton" luicT attacked Lily;
“Urgeor Iicpulsus
tibi, Lilli, retundere,” Wood, Athenae, I, 52, says that this
piece was ’’written in verse and very carping, " but Dyce, Tho po­
etical works of John Skelton: principal!:/ according to
dltibn o F t h o Rev.''''Algxa5Her' ll'yce T1'!
^ s¥on and ctn'ciiineLl, '1656),
I,1 xlix-i, and ri. 4 {xllx) think’
s it likely that Wood "was ac­
quainted with it only through Bale.” Fallen, Worthies (1062),
Part II, p. 257, gives his translation, precedecT ’
by tITc follow! if ;
observations
’’Arid this I will do for b. Lilly, (though often
beaten for his sake) endeavour to translate his answer*w
92
pageant of 1522, although we have no means whatever of knowing—
the date of composition is entirely a -matter of conjecture.
this seemingly did not end lily's apologia.
But
Bale lists among
Lily's works an Apologetlcum ad loanneri Skeltonum.
This cannot
have been the composition In Harley 540, because, according to
hale, tie Apologeticum had 128 verses; besides, the incipits are
different:
that of the longer piece, as given by !>al©, Is:
"Siccine viperao pergis me Skeltone versu."^
that both the attack
6
It Is unfortunate
and the r e p l y have been lost; one or both
might have shed considerable light on the relations between the
3
two men a/id the occasion of the quarrel.
We have tried to find out when Lily died; the date most
probaole seems to be February 25, 1522/3.^
Certainty in this
matter seems impossible; but the caus© of bis death can, I think,
be stated without fear of error:
he died of ti e plague,
George
L i l y ’s account is as follows:
Ad postreifium, deaaeuienti LondinI peste, con luge, qua cum
amabili semper eoneordia sanetiss
ulxerat, absumpta, &
numerosa siiaul sobole, quaxa ex eadem ad dec imam quint am usque
prolem suseeperat, penh orbatus, ex uerrucula, quae dlu antea
coxae adnata, temere scalpendo, recrudescentibus postea doloribus, ad ingentem strumam venos, arteriasquae implicantem,
malign^ concreuerat, multum uexatus, ex chirurgla medius ali­
quot facilem eius morbl curationem sl'bi promittent ibus, licet
plerisque id omnino disstxadentibus, & Linacro inprimis eertissimum uitae periculum ei praedicente, seeari uoluit, unde, &
septimo post die quinquagenarlus interlit, cum magao ciulum
suorum desiderio, qulbus clusu uixit gratissimus extitit,5
Understood literally, this tells us simply that while a
plague was raging in London, Lily died following an operation, for
^ Index, p. 132.
William Horniar: Is
the information about the poem.
iven as authority for
2
Bale, Index, p. 253, says that there were 64 verses in
S kelton’s shorter poem, the Carmen inueotiuum, beginning "Urgeor
tibl."
3
Sir Michael McDonnell, The history of St. Paul's school
(London, 1909), p. 72, suggests another very good reason for a
lack of sympathy between Lily and Skelton:
"The high ma s t e r ’s
hostility was perhaps due to tlie fact that Skelton had disapproved
of the study of Greek, which was being pursued at Oxford."
4
See above, chap. I, passim.
SElo£ia, fols. 47v-48.
93
a verrucula (a tumor, boil, or swelling of some sort) on the coxa
(the ordinary word for hip).
But Pits states categorically that
disease which took him off was the plague}* he was, J believe,
the first to say so, and bo was followed by later writers, in~
eluding Anthony at lood. 2 At first this seemed to ne an error,
based on a hasty reading of George Lily's interminable Latin
sentence? but it has been pointed oat to me that in all probauility Pits was right*
All the symptoms point to tlie bubonic
4
plague.
This disease, as was learned late in the last century,
tlie
is caused by bacilli carried by the parasites of rodents.
parasites
These
{mosquitoes or similar insects) convey the bacilli to
human beings. Tlie bacilli then pass to tlie nearest group of lym­
phatic glands, multiply, proceed thence out into the blood stream
and .into the other lymphatic /.lands, caasin: a swelling in the
parts in which they settle,
How it is significant that the lymph
nodes most often attacked are those behind the ears, in the armf“
pits and in the groin.0 In fact, the word "bubonic" itself sug­
gests this latter regions from the late Latin bubo, meaning pre­
cisely the groin, or a swelling of the groin.
It might b© ob­
jected th-at George Lily said that tlxo swelling was on the coxa,
the usual term for hip, not on the inguen; hut it may be observed
*John Pits, Relatiomm historicoruro de rebus angllcls,
Part III, de lllustriBus Angliae s'cripiorlbus (Lo*nf >n, ICi^'JT p .
WT,
2
Bale does not mention tlie cause of Lily's death.
~
®My guide in this subject is Dr, Richard E. Seaman, dis­
tinguished service professor in medicine at the University of
Minnesota, who i-as furnished the references 1 quote.
4
See a modern discussion of the disease by Or. A. L.
Carrion in Nelson loose-leaf medicine, (How York [ca. 1931]), Vol.
II, chap. xjocvi, PP. 125-129, 129A-129Z, 130, 130iT^l30H. See also
P. P. Uilson, The plaque in Shakespeare*s London (Oxford, 1927),
See Nathaniel Hodges, Lolmologia: or, an historical
account of the p l a m e of London" In Y d o S 'Thondon, 1672).
1 quote
from”the ti’ird edition"(London,' 172 1) p. 110;
"bo come now in
Course to speak of Buboes, which wore hard and painful Tumours,
with Inflammation ancPGal).ering upon the Glands, behind the Ears,
Arm-Pits, or Groin."| ibid., p. 117:
"The Places, and fanner of
their Eruption, was very uncertain? sometimes one would appear in
the right Axilla, and another on tho contrary Bide of the Groin,”
94
that the word coxa was used in the sixteenth century, as it is
used in the twentieth* for tlie whole region, both front and back,
w1 ich we usually distinguish as hip and groin.
That it was the
Inguen and not the hip which George Lily meant is evident from
the context?
he says that there was a huge swelling which impli­
cated the veins and arteries ? but tliere are no arteries in the
hip, whereas i.. e groin has several, and t'- ese are verg close to
tho lymph nodes.
What apparently happened is tills:
Lily rashly opened a
bubo on the groin, which thereupon became highly inflamed, in­
volving the surrounding vessels.
lie was suffering much, and some
physicians advised re-opening the swelling.
Others, including
Linacre, opposed the operation, but Lily, no doubt in great pain,
and impatient of waiting, submitted to the knife.
This was one
of the remedies used in the pla/jue of 1665:
We do not wait for tho Suppuration of a nuboe until if
creaks of it self, when the Pain and other Symptoms continue
very severe without Remission? besides, there would in doing
so be Danger of wasting the Spirits too much, and letting the
morbisick Matter retreat, besides t;>e Smalness of the Orfice,
which when they open themselves, is seldom large enough to
give due Vent; we therefore open them by Incision, or to pre­
vent Mortification, by a potential Cautery; and for tho same
purpose it hath also been many Times found reasonable to mix
the milder Causticks v;ith Digestives.1
^hoimologia, p. 193.
APPENDIX
Renaissance Hortatory Verse
1*
1
Ioarmes iiimaelius puero literarum studioso.
edisc© libens....n
"Haec
(Eight linesj in praise oi' i:c grammar, with
caustie references to competing editions),
77RI loca celsa,..."
(Six lines on the folly of trying to fly in the literary element
with feeble graijssafcieal wings).
Both on the title-page of Erasmi
Roterodaml libellus de constructlone (Leipzig!
1515).
Melchior Lottherus,
A copy in the Bodleian.
2.
Hermanns Tulichus studioso literarum puero.
vitate placet....77
!,Si bre-
(Fourteen lines, the message similar to that
of the "Haec ©disc© linens,...*7}.
In tlie above, fol. B j, and on
t}ie title-page of Absolut is siarus de ooto partiua oratlonls don8tractlone libellus
(Leipzig!
Melchior Lottherus, 1518).
Munich,
universitats-J3ibliothek.
3.
Alardus Aer-is fcelredamus studiosae pubi,
"ilunc turgidos inoptulis
Lacera libros glosseraatis."
And over a hundred lines mors in the same rapid metre; advice to
o
the teacher as well as the student on how to teach and to study—
the chief point of which seems to be the eschewing of Gothic bar­
barisms.
Printed in Libellus de constructlone octo oratlonls
partlum, ad codlcera Geramnicim plurlbus locis restltutus.
addita Isagoge rhetorices
(Lovanii:
Cul
Theodorieus Martinus Alusten-
sis, 1516), fol. Q-v {following the commentary of Madrianus ^3arland its on the Isagoge).
4.
Bodleian.
Laus doctrinae.
"Est ornamenturt....71
on the advantages of learning).
(Twelve lines
In Oulielmi Lllll....de ganerlbus
nominum (Antverpieae apud ioannem Grinltum, 1538), fol. A ^ v ,
British Museum.
5.
In Laudew boni praeceptoris•
(Eleven lines, in above, fol.
)•
"Qui natos generant,...”
A good teacher does more i'or
a boy than a pa rent j bad teachers are a cursej a child can attain
t o no art. ’without a master.
"^See above, chap, vii, p. 88, and n. 2.
95
96
6.
Ad pubem Anglicanum.
dozen lines)*
1549), A^V *
”Qui sins grammatica.•.."
(A
In Brevis 3iiaa institutio (London? Reginald Wolf,
No on© can hope to master the other arts before he
has got his grammar, the essentials of which he will find in this
book.
Bodleian.
7.
verba....”
Exhortatio ad pueros ex Gregorio Naxienzeno*
(Eight lines).
"Turpia
Boys should close their ears to evil
speech, and pass on only edifying thoughts to their fellows.
A shorte introduction of grammar (London:
E iliV *
Bodleian.
8. Puer ad eoudisolpulos suos,
In
R, Wolf, 1549), fol.
"Inprimis pueris....”
which a boy undertakes to advise his fellow students.
In
This and the
poem by Gregory Naxianzen are in the Brevlssima institutio (Paris:
Prelum Ascensianum, 1557), p. 125.
Bodleian, and Cambridge Univ.
The ”Puer ad conaiscipulos suos” is likewise in the Br@v3.3sim
institutio (R. Wolf, 1549), fol. Kg.
9.
In Ignavos Christianos.
Bodleian.
"Plinius oxnne sibi,...”
Pliny, a mere pagan, thought all his time wasted which was not
spent with his books.
You, a Christian, when yon neglect your
studies, what are you doing worthy of Christ's teaching?
lines).
(Eight
In above, fol. Kg.
10.
Carmen Sapphicum.
”Ut sacer Christo puer...,”
(A
dozen lines, in above, fol, KgV , exhorting the boy to study virtue
and learaing, in order to make himself worthy of the love of God,
11.
Magister disclpulos ad studla lltterarum eohortans•
f,Vos ad se pueri prliais....”
(A dozen lines, written with a deep
but restrained religious devotion, asking the child to heed God's
call to come to Him; and pointing out that in order to do this the
boy should learn his lessons:
Sed tamen ut Bominum possis cognoscere Christum,
Imgenuas artes discite parue puer.
In the ilrevissim institutio (London;
R. wolf, 1567), fol. HgV .
Bodleian.
12.
Praecepta paedagogica excerpta ex Erasmi colloquiis,
”Puorum ingeniuia decent ingenul mores.”
(Two pages, small 8°).
ment:
With English translation.
General hits of advice on a boy's deport­
speaking, taking off one's cap in the presence of elders,
posture, "making a leg."
In Exact rules of grammar (London:
Streater, 1656), fols. Ng-NgV .
On fol.
J.
there is a woodcut rep­
resenting boys gathering fruit from a tree; below, the legend:
97
"Radix docfcrlnae amara, fructus dulcis."
A similar cut, usually
with the motto, is found in almost every English edition of the
gracuar (A short introduction and .revissixaa institutio [see be­
low, chap. Ix, pp. 137-45]} printed during the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries• "The 'motto is said to be from Aristotle;
see P. boa; ;er, T3 e schoole of vertue, in F. J. Furnivall, Manners
and meals In. oluen time (Loudon, 1868), p. 340.
The copy of the
Exact rules which formerly belonged to King George II is now in
Magdalen College Library,
Eighteen verses of Lily's Carmen de
moribus_ arc likewise orinted in this volume.
13.
Libellus ad s budIosam iuventutem,
"Hactenus erudij
{Six lines in which tl o revised grarmviar tells the boy that
many have used him in the old form, that now he is better, and a
sine qua non for one who wishes to learn Latin),
In De octo par-
tiuro oratlonls syntaxls libellus, P. Kras no F.oterodamo inscriptus;
nuper regalia a l i a u o t & exemplis locupletatus,& illustratus in usum
-
,| ||r <n
- -L-J
... -
—
—
.. .
.
L. .
..... .
.
■
-W .
— ... ■ -
scholarum. per h. Wlnandum Crucium (Coloniae Agrippinae:
loannera Gyianieum;
14.
noua..,."
1595), fol.
........ ...... ....
apud
British Museum.
Syncero T.ectorI, loannos Stallaeus Nouiomagus.
"bee
(Fifty-two lines, In above, fols. GgV-G^v, largely de­
voted to extolling ; the new edition, and explaining
tv o
changes j
it is interesting to see that the author says that Lily wrote the
grammar, Erasmus corrected its
correxit Erasmus . ")
"Lllius hanc primum scripsit,
ChAPTKR VIII
THE AATILQS8IC0B
In the j&ar 1521 there appeared from h e
press of Richard
Pynson a carious quarto, with tie puExlin... title, A IltOSSICOli
printed across t' e first pa,.:e in throe rows of imgc riLLb.RS.
was the author of a part of this astonlshln,
Lily
prodaction} to ex-
aoiine if is to .make the acquaintance of two ;ore of his friends
and one of his ©ne.oies.
Actually there were two AntibQS3icori.s,
with separate sets of signatures, out at least sometimes bound to—
getlier;
2
Lily, however, had no share in h e composition of the
second work— its opening section was merely addressed to him.
The
first Anti tossicon bore nothin; on Its title-page beyond tbs one
mysterious word, although, after an Introduction, the ihller title
appear©d,
Qullolml Lilli In Aenfgraata Loss! Antlbossieon Prlmrom.
The second, however, carried a full sLate:.out of its contsnts on
h e t itlo-page:
Antiboss Icon dull,
Lpistola Aldrisi;] ad bormanum.
hopraanuin.
kormani ad ■miieltimm Llliuan.
Epl3fcola protouatls ad eundem
Apologetlcon tor-raani ad nrotouatem blfarium.
Although
S.
R. Maitland, A list of sortie of h o early printed hooks
In the archlepiscopal llbrTibTinriiimfj^
418, fives an account of ft e quarrelJ but ] e Is not altogether
accurate.
2
Only two separate copies ■>£ t..o first Antiboss icon aro
laiowns one in the dodlelan, the other in St. Jolni1a , Cambridge;
only two copies of lube second AntluossIcon alone i one in the
i-'niverslty Library, CambrIdge, ti*e o'ther at guariteh’a.
(See
bernard ..qiaritch, A catalogue of rare and valuable early schoolbooks [ho. 464], Loncion7 19558, pp. 18-19); and "four copies of the
two bound together; one each at h o British ;usema, the i3iblioth&que Rationale, b o huntington library, and Lambeth Palace,
The
Lambeth copy is unique in having four loaves containing some of
L i l y ’s poetry.
(Of. supra, chap, vli, p. $2, n.,,3j p. 86, and n.
4.) The collation of thxs copy is ac , b-f*4; a-f‘ , g8 , h4 ; that of
the other copies Is the sane, except for tie first gathering; of
Part I, which 'as only four loaves and which bears no signatures
at all— showing that the l . h., b. Vi., odleian, St. John's, and
huntington copies have lost the four-ieai section, found only in
tho Lambeth Item— or b at ti o last, named has acquired. a gathering
printed separately.
98
99
t'i,o second Is quite a different book from t- e first, and not
merely Part Two of a sin ;lo publication, it is a continuation of
t!o first; together tko two sections represent one side of a
grammarians' w a r — a mighty war, no doubt, in the ©yes of the op­
ponents, fit less terrify in : tban amusing today.
The struggle
was hardly a fair one, at least from t> o point or view of numbers;
a.nl apparently, too, from the point of view of tb o calibre
combatants.
If was Robert b/hlttinton
.M tie
against Lily and Lilllau
lon'ian and Robert Aldrich; and, unfortunately for vhit tint on, we
have only the caiorify report
M
t? c affair.
Apparently the tro ■ lo be an vi en bhitbxnton^ attacked
horman and Lily In a set of verses v/ '.ch he affixed, to the door
of ft. Paul's Cathedral, si ;ned only with tie name "bossus,"
In
1519 norniar had published } is yulgaria, preceded ny Lily's com­
mendatory poem,
how, says 'Ily, V/hitt inton Is envious of the
praise tie book las been reeeivin
and of L o fact tiat Lily's
lines found a place In it; he ceglns to carp, not only with his
ton-rue, out with bad versos.
In 1520 bhlttinton's own Vul.;aria
appeared! and, as ;,.iss br ibe ' us sue .ested,^ M i s nay
avo g iven
impetus to bornan to have Pynsou nuullsh the reply that ho and
3
4
lily and 1- oir friend Aldrich had prepared on Li at occasion, "
Vvhittinton was •>. A, •.•ag&alen Coiler,-a, Oxford , aj/J laure­
ate In grammar in 1513,
he published a n erics of grammatical
tracts, 1512-19, and Made some translations fro.u Cicero and Seneca,
See tie edition of his Vul;;arla M
1«e oatrice Unite ("b. b* T.
5,"; London, 1932), pp, xxi-xxxvlij and the sane writer's article,
:>An early TUior ■;raiiirjarian, " hodern language review, >>' (1935),
344-347,
o
Vulgaris, p, xxviii.
^Robert Aldrich or Aldrxd.. ;o, educated at bton, and Ling 's
College, Cambridge! :. A., 1512; . . A. and schoolmaster of fton,
1515; corresponded with and worked .for Lrasirias; provost of M o n ,
1536; bishop of Carlisle, 1537; signed act if fix artiileo, 1539;
died, 1556/
^Adrien haillet, Jngcrnens Cos 5 a vans {Paris, 1722), Vol.
M I , Fart II, clap, v, p. SST, s a y in at Aldrisius moved the other
two to writes
"Le premier qui so leva contra lui IVbibtintonj fut
Jean [which, haillet insists (p. 332), is the correct first name]
Aldrisius qui anlraa LuIIlaume dorian and luillaurae Lilias,!! The
same statement is repeated in t- c article on ; o m a u in the DtiH—
on v/biit grounds I do not know.
100
The title of t e work Is s oxiev/; nt confused by the fact
ibat not only have we two Antiboss:Icons, out fho first one Is ititself composed of three separate pieces, each one called by Its
author an Antiboss icon.
however,
7t v/ill help to keep t: e natter clear,
if we renenoer that t- e first three Antiboasicons were
I:,; Lily, the other was by hori.ian-, and h a t
this last was followed
In the sane 'volume by certain other pieces*^
The text is preceded by a fnll-nngs cut, showing a nsar
baited by a half-doson dogs,
Lily ■o ins with an address to the
<2
reader, ostensibly spoken : y "Asbolus ugri jentlrcusn—-s’ owlng, how
Lily is .going to carry out t! e nollr1 of If o illns trat ion— in v.Licl
be explains the meaning of the odd title.
Lour
lllings' ate there
Is a .:osse or fountain head , in the s.- ape of a wear’s bead, m u c h
frequented ey the people;
popularly the fountain is called ” ossa1
and t- e water gushing out through Its open mouth makes mor© noise
tb an a crowd of gabbling vomer.
in love with
A
Pssus.*
A certain iiad follow :as fallen
.ossa, and in Lia madness, has c l a m e d his name to
Tlie infatuation is quite undorstandaolej the pair are
extreiiely well matched,
hxcept for W o
accident of life, sossus
is no better than hossas
Aufer de nosso tant uni discrInina uitae,
lam me 1 lor bosaa non erit ille sua, (Fol. fa,J).
Compare !• e two point by point— fossa is an inert mass, bos sua a
useless weights
fossa ut iners moles, sie hossus inutilo ponaus,
.ossa Las nothin
in her Lead,
botli heads are of marble.
doss us nothin
(Ibid. )
In i Is M a r t ;
indeed,
neither understands anythin; in hunan
fas' Ion; neither Las any judgment, Lot]: are overwhelmed In a
■^Compare titles a: eve,
p. 98*
2
The name of one of Ac toon's dogs, who slew their master
after hi ana bad chau'ed M m Into a stag.
Of, O v i d , iietaraornhose s ,
,;k, III.
&
‘■'It ad been set up by the executors o* t ve will of
Richard Whittington, the famous rmyor of London; see John Stow, A
survey of the city of London (15bb)t ou, 0, L. lags ford (Oxford,
Ti5oST,' i , s c ia T ™
“
A.
According to this, Samuel Lysops, T- o model mere ant of
t' o middle ages (London, 1:360), pp. 52-53, and. n., is wrong in
saying that Lily and Uorxnan applied the ''tame to vVbittinton.
100
The title of t e work is sanew’ at confused by ike fact
t]':at not only have we two Ant lb osslc ona , out the llrst one Is ititself composed of t}sree separate pieces, each one called by its
author an Anti boss Icon,
It will help to keep ti e ratter clear,
however, If we rev/ember that W o first f r e e Antibosaicons were
by Lily, W c o W or was by iiorman, and if at this last was followed
in the sane volume by certain other pieces*^"
The text is preceded by a xall-paqe cut, showlnq a i;oar
baited uy a half-dozen do;;s •
Lily oo ins vul tb an address to the
o
reader, ostensibly spoken i.y "Asbolus A^ripentinus,r»-s!•o w i n - Low
Lily Is .jolxi'j to carry out W o
not if of t* o illus fcrat ion— in which
he explains the ueaniii : of tlie odd title*
Hear billinys' ate there
is a -osse or fountain head, in the s! ape of a b e a r ’s read, much
frequented by tie people;
s popularly the fountain is called " .‘ossa;f
and t. e water fushiny out through. its open mouth makes mare noise
than a crowd of ^abbliixy women,
A certain mad fellow has fallen
in love with -ossa, and in his madness, lias chanted his -name to
4
bossus.
The infatuation is quite undors laudable j the pair are
extra:.® ly well matched*
Except for too accident of life, bossus
is no '.setter than bossa;
Aufer de Los so tantuxa discrixaina uitae,
lam. me li or boss a non erit ille sua, (Pol* fa^.])*
Compare the two point by point— -bossa is an inert mass, bossus a
useless weights
bossa ut iners moles, sic bossus inutile pondua* (Ibid.)
..ossa has nothin; in her Load,
both Leads are of nartlo,
bossus nothin
.In his heart; indeed,
telther understands anythin
in human
fas: ion; neither has any tudymout, both are overwhelm3d in a
1
Compare titles a ;-ove,
p* 98*
2
The ua;,ie of ono of A c t e o n ’a dogs, v/ho slew their master
after Liana lad char bed him Into a stay*
Cf* Ovid, lietaiaorolioses,
bk, H I .
~
g
It '
■ad been set up by the executors oi too will of
Richard Whittington, W o famous v.isl'j o t o f London; see .John Stow, A
survey of the city of London (1593)* od. C. L. Linusford (Oxf orcT,
H5ool, I, 208V"
~
"
4
According to this, Samuel hysons, The model merchant of
t: e middle ages (London, 18(30), pp* 52-53, and n . , is wrong* in
saying that Lily and 1!orman applied W o name to Vliittinton*
101
brutish stupor?
All anini fossae, tantunden cordis el altri.
harmoreumque caput ussus, ut ' U p crit.
Vt more humano iiih.il taoe, sic nil sap it ille.
ludicium noutri cst.
;rutas utrinue stvoop,
;tol. Ia..v l)
As a. matter
01 fact, in. s oac respects
ossa is superior— the pure
rater that cosies from tor mouth is cleans in - and tealfc' fuls the
filth from tho mouth of toasus defiles overdone, y o i m ; or old, v/Lo
comes in touch. with it:
kanque latex purus hossao peruanal au ore,
quo sordes purgaL, ncmbraque sana fouot,
Kuomit at bossus sordes, qui bus imbuit orones,
lit puerum simplex inficit ingen ium, u'ol. {
3)
Evidently Lily was not a nan to trifle vnthj
After a few more lines
byAsbolus, tic arxuiert is
turned
ovor to seven other doya, each
of »' on delivers himself of an eni~
pram, from four to eiuht lines
In length,^
ichnobaies
that overt rlace ’ ^ortuoen Its
hiar.hue, points out
The first, for
example,
proper nonr.t ros it y~-Eth.iopia, hairy apes; Thessaly, centaurs; If>e
Strophades, the harpy, etc.
frits in ’u s
pro-hiced Lossesi2
Then Lily define his Antiuossicon sroper, which is di­
vided into three parts;
e Laves t' o pley from +f -e do b and ad5
dresses ; orman in his ov/n. name.
ne tolls a.-oat too callin' ’ up
of the verses, s', -red only with a nom de nluiae;
Se h-ossum appellat ficto coynoriiine, uerum
Colons, stultitiae con.sc ins ipse suae, (hoi, iAq] )*
The cause is envy of Jiorman and Lily:
.,on te ^ormane latet, tua quod vul ,aria nuper
Laudauit paucis nostra faiuoena sonls.
jnuidet banc lauden tifi quidam Larbarus Lsspos,
Inuidet et nostrum carmen habere locum,
Kec tanturn lingua, qua nil petulantius una,
Vo rum etiam numerls carp it ufcrunque alls,
huric for 11.-us Pauli figit sua murmura sacris,
Ebria nunc inter pocula nannlt atrox,
j/'ol* Ay)
1The names of all tie do us employed, by Lily, vitii »ut few
exceptions, are taken from Ovid,
2Fol. Ay.
Primuirt.
Fol, A„»
(lulielmi Lilli In Aeniumata hossl AntibossIcon
Ad lull, iiorraanum.
108
Lily 1m s
relegated the infamous verses to the place where they
belong# but will
judge
-ive a sample of them in order to let tho reader
the bracings of this
ass for himself.
Tlie sample is six lines of a dialogue between
two charac­
ters, fiavlus and Maevius,"^ discussing tlie matter of tho Vulgarla
and
Lily's verses for it, Lily then proceeds
to
for
a scoundrel and a bad Latinist, who does not
lash at whittinton
know the meaning
of tlie words he uses, and is strangely weak in his prosody.
He
begs Iiorman to pay no attention to him.
After this outburst, which takes up (in addition to the
quotation from Vihittinton) an even hundred lines, tho cut is re­
peated and the dogs resume their epigrams® tical attack,
Spartanus begins with a dialogue explaining the cut.
belampus
lie asks
bossus why the dogs torment him, and is told that if is because he
is accustomed to injuring scholars, altkough they have done nothing
to merit his wrath; ho does it out of love for M s
mistress:
Cur agitat te turba canum? Soleo quia doctos
Laedere, Quid docti comma ruere? Lib11.
Ergo cur laedls ? Dominae compulsus amore,
Qua mihi non ulla est dulcior.
Inuidlae
Inuidia ipsa suo sese giadio necat. Ergo
Tu simili fato ne moriare, caue,
(Fol, b^).
Seven others vent their spleen on poor bossus, including Lycisoa
Galcydensis, who says that both Oxford and Cambridge laughed at
Ms
book when they saw it; by las I'enalius, who observes that the
work is like its author, and Pterelas Threicius, who asks Bossus
why no learned -can
1as shown She book any approval, .If, as Bossus
claims, it t s a sc’ olarly oiece of work,
Appare hl.y tie piece
alluded to is hb.it tint on* s Vulgaris, although, it is possible that
Lily
;oant one of Lis grammatical traet3«
The second Antiboss Icon by Lily is twice as long as the
first, to which it is similar in style and contents.
of six linos of Bossus, Lily here
Cut instead
Ives us eighteen, taken in
pairs for easier treat:.® it in the comment which immediately follows•
Lily begins with t; e conceit tl at the ancient poets, like . amor,
Orpheus, and Amp};ion, were indeed marvelous men; out tliat Bossus
is
even more to be wondered at— he merits more
praise J
blame than they
Then lie quotes Bossus, who has likened Lily to a dog
1_
Bavius and b.aevius were two mediocre poets, contemporaries
of Virgil and b'orace, to whom they were hostile.
Cf. Virgil,
Eclogue III, 1, 90.
103
baying at him in the night (the bear now calls himself ArctonJ):
Bossus
Hoctu Batte lates, dignam te elngis in Arc ton
.....
Hanc frustra spolies. lumine Batte latrans (Fol. b^v).
It takes Lily exactly fifty-eight lines to deal with these two.
There is much more of this, quotation and comment, not all
equally interesting.
One's curiosity, however, is not seldom
awakened by the scraps Lily gives us from his opponent's text.
Tills is true, for example, of two lines which point to a previous
passage at arms In which Vhittinton says that he left his lo­
quacious foe speechless s
Bossus
To prius elinguem beat Aretos, ecce M l i n g u e m
Lingua loquax Fabium lassitet usque tua. (Fol. CgV.)•
Bat in his reply Lily perversely sheds no fartho r light on the
matter*
In the next quotation Whitt inton has made a more serious
charge— Lily has been bereft of friends by his flow of foul speech?
Hen miser inopie re pet is mendicus aiaicos
Tefce inopem fecit eopia spurca fcui.
(Fol. CgV).
Lily angrily hurls back the charge, and bids him look to himselfs
Obscoenis tua uerba notant ms morlbus esse.
Mores mltte meos, inspice Bosse tuos,
(Fol. Cg),
Evidently iSfnittinton had Issued a reply to the first Antibossioon. which brought forth the second; for the next quotation
disputes the correctness of the word Bossicon, which Lily had
coined.
Boss Icon unde capls• nimis o tu grecule furve
Siceins greca sapIs qui mala torta paris.
{Fol. c„).
Lily defends the word as made "more pelasno,” and continues the
attack.
Tlie next blast from Vvhitt inton compares Lily to Lucilius,
-who Is hold up as a pattern of nastiness; even ti e names of Lilius
and Lucilius are similar:
Sorde fluis calamis: linguax Lucilius alfcor
U. C. si deraas, lilius exit iners.
(Fol. C g V )•
Her© Lily scores; it is easy for him to defend the great satirist;
and as for changing names, if you dissect Bossus you get bos and
sus, or if you substitute a few letters you have Bavins.
Pressing
104
his adva.; tLa. :&, Lily quo tea two -arc lines, ixi vh ink Cessna asks
'•ira to repent of his wriLiny, a;id finishes bis st.ln in ■ reply M
tarnin
the v;ords L>nco on
olv a.itboip ...
ilaee poonitefc, tedet, ^isorotque, yudobeuo, piyotquo j
Torta et nota tuae nt ;ula uraiamatleae*
This ends the second Anti nos s icon, v/bie]
is followed Im­
mediately by tlie cut of if a baited bear, and no .fewer than
oifhteen epi: mams by as
:a:iy different Coys.
Lou con (Lappadox
concludes with some If-in;-: v/; Ich indicates that oily :.i:l it not ••avo
been toe author of b: is particular piece:
j ou
;ay
>e able to
frifliten children, fossus, with scar Mrrlblo prov/lin
mit Lily
is no child*
Sic siiffi.il adiutao tenobris, ofc uoco, puellos
Petorrere notes, L I L 1 V
S M u d puar- est,
(Pol* d„).
The saiae conclusion is su .osted by L M n.a.ne of t! e last dop in
the pack, Stic fee Liehfoldieas is •
Peri sou some
.-t all of f ose
pretty pieces were written by different hr Lends of Lily for their
aims e:nent.
The t- ird Antiboss icon is Ion er f an I .e second by half,
"J.ly's second blast was apparently answered; t o untror still
c ose to use a pen-name j
TiLHTIliS ad p u m a m lam ooe rapid iste libellus
Liuoris solili isuR/aira dii*a uoiaens.
Cuius si rouitos fuerit uir auico quis author,
Ipse quideia bossus qui prius author erat*
(LLol. d^)*
ios s'is 1 as falsely accused .-ily oi If roaLenin
laurel
sacred to Apollo by scribblin
•qnotes the passages ami replies.
Mo
and violutlu ;tie
wild verses.
oss-is offers to cleanse L i l y ’s
lips; oily t :inks s or.ioono o.iyht to no t e, like for
is accused of layin
Lily
ossus.
Ml,;,
snares for the laurel;
Oossus
Innoc'ie Lauro latitantes tend ere tricas :
Te nollGiri, at siyno belle. parare date.
(col. c.5;.
He replies t; at raf er .
:e "a t r y i n t o iron i' o laurel from the
snares of
ossus;
Lilias
Innocuao Lauro non quaere tend©re tricas :
bed hauruiii tricas solvere uuaoro tuls,
(iol. o0 ).
105
And w.' eu tf;o latter wants UoLionLLfy h o
od, v.ith himself, a eour,
laurel, saereti to the
at is Indeed
too r.iuc3
;i
Id-11 us
51 quid dudes,
inqais, cua lnuro dlcito norm.a
Tu no etlas iuurus nornno dieins erls?
Ltrurita pro fhoebo poni iolera rc H c e L l t.
Ardor enl:,i fhoebo eat lota blcatu duo,
Te uero In Lauriira transferri, -irsunquo vooarl
AEqiialem Piioebo, quis tolerarc potest?
{ Pols• e4-e4v)«
asides, t o laurel Is I, e insi :uia of conquerors in battle, nut
on ooota (fol. e^v).
doss us tells J,Il;y to
he uiL: o r a warrior or a poets war
Is swoot to .oin vn o never sen a
drttie.
fly tf Iriks
oosns is
fit for neither (fol. r^v),
v;n strife continues, o i e f l y a criti
cisu of uhittlnlon !s verse•
At lonqtk
ossns revealc Id at re is
indeed Lhittinton, at \f leh ;;ily shouts I do surprise:
are you
raally :
hilttlni.on3 i o sc’ oolnasler, if e leur-sod doctor w' o makes
laws oi' Tarnar- so erroneous L i n i;or leaxro nockin': tut barbarism
from if . 0 ■?
Tu ue llle aeyreylus doctor, ludique ma uls ter,
A us us qui loqes condo re ;ra:.rnelica3 :
Tan ruiltls patrxam luplieuisti errori.nis; uu ian
Addiacanfc pueri nil nisi uaroariem?
(Fol. f «->v)•
.w
Lily ends as •o be par., corrcciin
ills final flin.
us made
' Is opponent’s errors j
is t.his— *11 bosses ivill s f ;.dy the a: -endations Lily
e nap some day boeouo a ;:rau::mdari (fol. f^v).
Hie
IV Ird Antiboss loon closes vhth t- roc more opiuruns s .krilar to the
A k e r s j if o last scot Iron Lylaetor Illensfs tolls
ulthouyk
o so-
k oo : Ido under an alias, o’ o en....o
osa m
Ih-at
e e' oso 1as
Ivqu ; 1zi away— bo called '"i;uself a near, a pseudonym w-Iek was
no concealment,
-ecuo.se v.hit tint on. fas to e face a a
.a.;Its of tuat
.uiqontie '-/east:
Possum to Ipso uocas, Possum popnlus uocat ursuui.
Tu faclom oi mores cues -abet ot 'SUr , babes.
(Fol, f4 )•
ounce ue Is salted Like a boar:
Krua ursus populo ut nlaudonte a- ;itutur, ot uryent,
cine stimuli, Inde faces, saxa, flayolla, canes,
hie tu ludibri is d-ui a ItaTbs os so, farlaq :e,
Rident, air, oruliexq uir.po, paella, p -or.
(hoi. fd }•
A list of f ujouru;,i:xcal errors, fol lowed by a colophon
*vlu
t. o pu Ids* or and cate, ends Ail , h? pnrt of this reuarka'ulo
106
composition,
Tho second part .of if e AntIbossIcon does not Immediately
concern .is fere, since Lily Lad no rand in its composition; out for
the safe of tfe lih.t it will throw on the quarrel I sirail sumKBriae
briefly its contents.
It Las a t *tie pa :e, which' lists four pieces;
AHTIUOSSIto:: (lull, noriuani ad Gulielmum r,ilium,
Epistola AIdrisij ad hormanum.
EpIstola Protouatis ad ©midem ilormanum.
Apologeticon llormanl ad protouatem bifarium,
Tlie cut is repeated on the next paqe and :1s followed by
the first item, with the 1.oadiiv: "Gull. Hormanus Cae s aris burdens is
hull, Lilio, S, L,
Tills is in the nature of an .introduction
to the fourtli piece, the Apologeticon, although it may have been
written without thought of vhat was to follow.
In it Lorasan thanks
Lily for defendinr; 'dm, alludes to hliittinton’s pointed criticism
of the Vuiqarla,^ and t; on belabors RL.ittinton on ’-is own account
for soino two hundred and fifty lines,
from the lltle-paqe we
should t-'ink that tho letter of Aldrich came next, but actually
the second place is occupied by that of Y.hittlnton, apparently in
response to the broadside from j;oi’inan immediately preceding,
i’eadin.y of t)>e reply is?
The
"Robertl bMfclnioni laureati contra Gull,
Lomiani inuectiuas lit eras res pons iua,"
Like the 'selections in
the first book, Y-.Tiittintonfs part is printed in black letters.
Tills is only thirty-four lines Ion", out is followed by four short
epigrams — two of them on ilorman's book— not mentioned in the table
of contents.
Then cones the Epistle of Aldrich, encourayinq iior-
uan in his battle with v.bittintonj it was .probably written Mi H e
Morman was compos in : ti.>e Ion. :er section which follows
Tlie Epistle
beqins:
SUscipies R o m a n s fcui breue carmen amici.
Quo nostrae mentis paucula si.-.ina leqes.
Quae faeis In hossum to carmine ulqna;
sed illo
Sunt Ind.ifpia nimisi qui niliil arte ualet,
(Fol, bg ),
The cut is a-ain repeated, a.id t •-en we pet the reply proper of
German, divided into two parts• 'Tho title
the tone of t'e piece;
,f tho first indicates
APOLOGETIC I GtlLIELLI UOHfhhl CAES ARIS-
dURLLLSTh CfLTRA RpduRTI •.'JlITTItTOLl HiOTOVA? IP ALGLIA L IliOIVILEM
IfDOGTALQUL CRILItATlOILd, PARS PRIOR (Fol, c).
This first part,
\huOD me a slqnificas uulqarla, eandido Lili
Public!tua dossum dilacerare schediss
(Pol, a0 ).
107
almost 750 linos, Is all ; orxan’s,
.e.L tee
Pars posterior, '* after
an Introclac wlo-i in vorso, ass.urios if o i or.. re. a
SV*C'O'•i -■fOr.’i£tal cl i>•
i-1*.i.}*XCOXX, xH • . .ca
>r:>ae dialogue be-
lines from t; e latter!s work
are printed {in flack letter), w lif a critic ism immediately
following.
The Is a ua-'e is no v;. it nor o qcutlo tkan tkat of Lily
or Aldrlck*
The work cones to au cod w:‘uf a brief epi.yra;.: ;,in opera
V
vi ilttintoniana, " a colophon (fol. K. ) s imilur to tho one at tie
Osd of Part :, and nuoV or eat o f i e
oar a f dope, v/ltf tie
not to underneat} :
In .Jos sum.
put prior e:i; e ferlt, o.iser oese ferxt, nr tor ipse
T-o
1c m ; moil to t..i miser oryo peris* U !ol*
„xv.
In truth if o vf ole composition is
find*
one if at
Its tone la litter, and ti e f a u n a -e of a s
too much. for modern stomachs,
kith out the Inveeti
kuelton and ti e Ant 1 nossicon we should :-avo 'ad no
y ).
> V Q R T O t to
* -*
Cl
uiqti i t’r.t U
»—
V
.
a a in s t
:a s Oil to O*7c?«•*
:t Ci..OS0
pect the sterner strain In tie schoolmaster v/hoin folet
ciiose for
i is noral as well as his intellectual qualities;
In
.• e f r i e r id o f
"ore; In ti o wan if o in : i s will tko ’ Jit ..ore of t;1■c
i
poor m an o f akin a vuin d i s p l a y , ^ All k at wo cc i s a y i s that
z e qentle
vo do not know
t e canons
fully the qreatneas of f i s
provoeat U ij and t' a t
f controversy in Lily's day wort? not tf-t sam e a s
are in ours*
‘I
*Seo above, chap, i, n, 6.
th e y
_JIJ,X
LL It!
i course ly his
ih.l^ is :c i.z
tor ay; so
tir!i"uJ.s}.,o(3 iron others
’Jranmarian#
,1m ■ .-'I. - n '. v.R j _
.rKnaialleel v/r'.ila.;e that '..illlan
'
.e , f-rd -roi. r.ri,/ alv.-uy<«
31 he, dis-
of r 1c wane by the forbiddiiv; title of
Tain fa:., In. -osorn us a y e , 's un,s loadin',
t e word : uunt vf at
•t cl1ti to the breeds and
If tod a;;
the Romans, and in­
deed to f :e learned, of r, rono Ion.. afte e the ti*"« <■>!: •'•ily, i‘ore
could he •■•o . neat oh jcct j.on to u pul.yin; it to tie 3-i oolmaster of
ft.
;ra: .
■ -ax-" was u a s-.-L’y of lit­
m u l ' s , before modern fines
erature as well as of fan puuue; the rTao.iaioaa was not
.icrely
concerned with accidence, s„r\fai:, and sroaad, , - t vitb almost the
sane
T>an n of subjects m a t
arc Lone,'
Included
hilolopy iftitn in lus ; a h
hioI,.s:lvo
scs.se.
a.-er tho
aue of
fill,/ was v 3ei olar
wit]- the widest interestc, loosed up to by his contemporaries as
a prod lay
.f ur..i.-ersal 3earn lit ;because :
•e was a teacher dissat­
isfied vi th
h ;s -rratrrar- texts
e true
:ov. ones, oy .'.ira.seIf and
in collabo -ittion v/itL at least ono other ureat cchola]*.
As it
ehancod, one of these texts was to hi fly thouuht of in at It was
adopted by
olsey nor his new school at Ipswich, and "lor all the
other schools -\f Kn?-;iatul,"
A . ocen p -arn la ter .ore of trie word
was added to the little oook L a i
t-0 appealed
to
olsey, and the
v;' ole ViSs revised a .1 •..ol 1s’.ed under t: o s..bn ority oi t.‘.-o dead
-ai-ninal’s royal
schools#
n u m o r as t o
in'hn !
pa.ver lor
n: 'lind
Oth.or editions, re van.ped aod roarran-red, si ortened anu
aw ; .c; tod, i /.flowed t.-is on...— cut,
:/mw _>f ib;em ■h./xsrinn radically
fro.’", the pra.o;par -roscrlieu by ..onry V.-: 1
.1»
camza
creator, ml course, as
from
the date, oh
;;ra: 1iar way
oh l-h).].
tin
t. o editions nob farther and
0 oir pro to typo; out
00 easily woo
/he eiii'eronces ae-
-n hr.
farti or
still f- o linos of nenry’s
.iris town or .crdsworth's edition
y ac accident of • istory, which no ;■ t
-onjust, the compilation be cane popularly ’enov/n as
avo boon more
fily's framiar.
A sd If w a n -.'bly one step f n.rt.ner to call Lily l< a ’hirammarian# ”
Lily was indeed a
raun-arbn; in oi o ol. sense of the form;
fnf It was not for fM.s t at succeed in.' enerao.ona have called
108
109
him Grammarian*
It was the most natural thins ~n the world for
one whose name was inseparably associated with the official, au­
thorized grammar to be called the Grammarian.
But it is imfortu-
nate that this circumstance slio-ald s u r e s t to the world that this
particular grammarian m s
and constructions.
nothing better than a dealer in forms
And it is doubly unfortunate that even tho
elect are sometlinos led astray— as t’o author of our best study
of Lily ’s famous grandson was evidently led astray e-en he wrote
v/ith remarkable lad: of understending oh tho Renaissance minds
La reunion de ces trois mots [grammaire, poesie, et rhe­
toric] surprend aujourd'hui; a la fin du XV® sieclo, elle
ofca.it tout m t u r e l l e • Pour ies pionlers de 1 'humanism©, le
verjus avait autant de savour que le fruit atr, et la grannnaips ,
avoc son cortege de declinaisons et de conjugasions, apparaissait comae 1 ’unique guide vers la "parfaite lifctcraturo."
Parc© q u ’en elle on voyait le moyen de dovenir -de “grans
clercs,” on la confondait facilement avec 1 ’essence de la
beauto, et elle enthousiasmait•1
This, of course, is what we expect (and usually yet) from
the dilettante, untroubled by fine distinctions ; but it is sur­
prising from the pen of a man who was to spend ti e next twenty
years of his lif© largely in the none too poetical task of prepar­
ing critical texts— v/ith what enthusiasm I am unable to state.
There is no more evidence that Lily confused tho essence of beauty
with fc3?e paradigms of grammar than that a learned editor does so
today; and as for i a pioneers of Irox.ianism— though the pedants
among them were no doubt as pedantical as the pedants of any age,
it is hardly the noble thin/: to scorn them for insisting on a n ac­
quaintance with grammar (in either sense) as tho foundation for
further learning.
In the riddle ages grammar was considered the
first of the seven liberal arts for precisely this reason; Reichling
quotes an interesting definition which expresses the common view.
2
Vihen the word begins to be restricted to the study of accidence,
sr^tax, and prosody, grammar is still considered fundamental— dozons of textbooks in the sixteenth century (and much later )carry neat
little versos inculcating this truth, to strengthen the faith of
■^Albert Feuillerat, John Lyly (Cambridge, 1910), p. u.
The first ten pages of this book are devoted to V.illiam Lily.
o
Das doctrlnaie doe Alexander de Villa-Dol. ed. Dietrich
RoIchling (,%onumenta Crermaniae Paedagogica"; Berlin, 1093), XII,
H i , .and n. 1.
110
any doubt in/' sludoxit.
And we can scarcely uou-ol c at
rat wooslc! lose i/aticoce with
ileuille™
>no of ’ i s 'crtuder.ts who v/ishod to
feed his soal on h o fruit r.rar of • illia..: Ihakespoare before sipt- b ver jus of English /grammar.
Be this as it :.a,. , it is as I a h a ..inhao a at
■mown; and all h e
Lip is
king's historians, and all V e kind's librari­
ans, y/ill never be a :'Ie tj give Lira a not] er soubriquet.
And no
waiter how carefully h- c exact authorship of t o famous
;ra,.-saar
is worked out, and f o parts Justin ass" nod to h e i r proper and
only begetters, f1e v/orw v,111 always be called "Lily's Cirainaar."
T t was Lily's iraw.av w boh P.].akespearc s L idled, Lily's G-ravouar
for which fuller was beaten, Lily 's bra 'war vh ich George borrow
soont t: ree „ ears
It should
e/oniniriw.
-ot he v/ifc:.out interest to examine Ike composi-
tion and to trece the ! istory of tho text that was to be the basis
of /os I of t: c Latin instruction g iven in Kn 'land for three and a
alf centuries; It is a subject which ’.as not been investigated in
any thorou.ghg/oin ■ fashion.
'J I a .
■e been for some tine collecting
material for a study of the wattor vh ledi, T hope, w ill have some
measure of finality about It; but tils Is o-viously a work which
will require tine *
In tho raeanwblle, < owever, It is possible to
present a s'onar; account wkic’ , though incomplete, vill be fuller
1
See, for example, t c title-pa o of Krasnii noterodami
libellus de constructlone octo partlua orationis (1 1rassburg s
felcbior Lottborus, 1515"), "wiVicli ¥ o p e a t s , / or " oocl i>easure, the
following bit of advice, already .Ivon ..n prose?
Si loca celsa notes ilrsato scandere pressu
kaxima foellcis ;loria patris erit,
fed puer i n f o r m s uolitans super aetbera oonnis
Flebilis aequoros plscikus osca fuit.
Corruit inualido fundatun roboro tectum;
fon cunt ante suos alta pctonda dies.
(fere, as In other quotations of Latin titles and verse, } have
silently expanded an occasional abbreviation; spelling and punc­
tuation. I -:ave tried not to change), A cory ef th:is is in tho
'■odleian. later editions of "Lily's hra-nar" wore io aupear in
■'.Vi :lavG for two hundred voars bearin a cut show in/ hjys g a h o r i n g
fruit from a tree, with tie line beneath;
Radix doetrinae araara.
fructus dulcis,
There .Is an Interesting; specimen' in IWilliam
VZTyJT' Exact rules of grammar (London;
J. ftreater, 165b).
Lagcialcn has the only copy known.
The in©a Is represented graph­
ically in illustrations )f the "Tower -of Knowledge” such as that
■ I v o n i n t h e Margarita •philosophies of Gregorius Reisc3s (d. 1123).
iraranar is at the baso, upon vA Id" rest V c o h or studies of tl e
trlvluiu and the quadriviura, topped by noilosopliy and ikeology»
fee Georgs A. Plimpton, The education of Shakespoare (London and
lev/ York, id33), pp. 3-5.
Ill
than any which has appeared heretofore.
It will oo easier to -understand, t o significance of Lily's
corf hr h o Latin iGachin • of t o
is first briefly sum: (ariaod,^
iduie Ares aod Larly Renaissance
it will h e n re soon t at Lily's
cram*tar was no isolated phenomenon, :-ul that it ca .o as a result
of f e current universal interest -n classical literature and lan;uaye, and that apart frora h e Revival it cannot -e explained at
all.
The sta.-.dard ■rai™ars oi' t c carl,,
:>L ion aria a L. irisolae,
middle
a
icfiie A cs were h ose
D ooa n.s, v o ran; :: in ionic a cost i
.0
tie 1 o-trth century, put foyeie.cr two separate texts, Li e
ho partil.us oration is ar" minor, ami I o Ars
rauraas ica.
iarly ti ese were ku >v*n as too Ars minor ash tie Ars
ialor.
•
’anilLoth
are small books:
ti e lorncr is an '-le. icntary .anual which treats
p
i c ourts of speed in twelve pa ;es oi t e ooiern edition;
it is
La catechetical form, a.in was hesl nod no Vo co,emitted. to .
•e -lory,
ft e Ars usalor 1s t> re© Limes as lou ;j it
;ivos a sor.ievf at fuller
treatment of tee sane ualerlal, and 'as, besides, short sections on
words, sounds, prosody, f.L cures, and ori errors in speech; ...t is
not in question and ansv/cr form.
Kxcept for t e section ca lied
tLe'^arbarlsims," It was not so much used as t e s orter work.^
Almost two hundred ^ oars after t. e appearance
>f bona bus 1 :;ravci'Uirs,
ifiscianns of Caesarea composed his olanorafe treatise, Institutlonnia .qraKimatlcarum libri fVIll, a work which fills up two vol­
umes in ti e edition of foil.
Vo
encofortl.: ti o Ins tl tut tones vau to
t. e nrlrieloal font of medieval Lae irvLy-~u Ivin
nee only tic
^Unfortunately h o ; istory of Latin yramioar teach in:; Is
yot oo eo written; whatever is said ampin f- c su.jnet le oasod.
upon the all too scanty know led.;o vf >.c’■ rill he ours until many
more texts have been studied In L e way tout uoicLliif ’as studied
Alexander de Villa hoi (cf. a >ove, p. 109, n. 2).
"aoinrich foil, ed. , frannaticl Lailnl (Loiool
'liicf j,
IV, 35.0-60*
3
Accordinn to Louie I. facto-;;, The arte course at medieval
nn Ivors It 5.0. 3 with special ref c m m c o to grammar and rhetoric
(d!aiipahjn, fllTnoIs^Ti/oTo"), p. 33. Loo also" ' arlos Thurot,
.oflcos et oxfcraits do divers .oamisorlts latlns pour scrvlr a
I'hlstolre Lies doctrines gramniatlcalgs au noyen £ ; s ( Notices ot
extralts des manuserlts do la bibllotbeque Imperiale"; Paris,
18CL), Toxaa XXII, Part iff, p. 94 and n, 4.
112
exhaustive treatment of rra.ix.iar rules to be '
•ad, but also in­
cluding enough classical quotations to mare up a respectable antiiolo.qy of Latin literature; t:e Ars minor coatinuob to be the
ooic for beginners, I o ars malor ior those one step furti.er ad­
vanced..
hith the rise ol ..ehclastic ism ’ra. enr :■Iwhy takes on a
different aspect: 1. e lan. ,uaye Is ''st.-.died .hi a lo leal rather
I un a literary fas; ion.f<^ lev; ';ra;.warhans appear, coiuorniii , to
t e new m o d e . of those i, o iirst In Importance was Alexander de
Villa her ti:;d t e second
nor a, s.: o i-octrinaie, w icr appoureo. j.n ildd,
treatment of accineuce, syntax, and prosody, cased on friseian,
..vrani *s treatise, Lho ..recisnns, written i.r. ibln, is similar In
nature; its naive cones fro fa a section on creek derivations, hliat
v.is txin.uis^es these v.oi*ks from t ose o f • onamis ami Priscian, i-e~
bides t- ofr ncholastlc c. aracter, Is f eir form— i’OtJ■ were written
in verse, for ease In no, ionizing * 'I op did -ot compete with tlie
j-.ps
.inor, nor probably to any great extent with, t c Ars malor,
for t:ey were considerably l o n e r than either— the Doctrinal©,
~or example, is written in 2(345 linos of leonine iexameters. much
loss did they displace tie friscian, wi.ic:, continued to te tiro
quarry v»i ence
nest grammar was hewn. d h as texts to ue mastered
after t: c rudiriicuts v.ore acquired from Lonatus, they enjoyed al­
most a monopoly until near tve end of w e fifteenth. century; 5eiore 12 VO t'doy were alrea. y f a subject of commentaries, and the
printed editions continue on al ost to 160b.
I.hen fme reaction to Scholastic’:,.: set in wit., the Renais­
sance, there was an. ai. .oat inevitable w .vain, away from the viedieval grammarians. V: e most influent ia.1 oi V eir early critics was
tie ;uuaaist Loren?, o Valla (1407-bV), whose £ lo;ant iae 1in qua o
most
;o mo
back
to
ti e pure La Unity of floor 0 and Virgil.
The Ble*
vantlae,
—».w«— 1
9 as its title suw.ests,9 is nos a j..nnn.l ..raimiur,
9 but a
series of observations on grammar, style, and literary criticism.
1
Chiarles n. haskins, The Renaissance oi ere tv/elfm cen• (Cambridge, Pass., 192V), p. ISTI
o
‘-'As a rule tie humanist critics— quite u n c r itically~
lamped together under this headin'' all or most of tic changes that
'ad occurred in t’ o lanrruape since the end of the classical period,
113
The formal g r a s m r s of the humanists, however, wore not long in
coming#
The first of these, and probably tlie ramb widely used,
was txio Rudlroenta qrammatices of Nicolaus Perot was, finished by
1468 and printed in 1473; it is the earliest of the " M o d e m ”
Latin grammars•
Eraanrus describes Its author as probably "tlie
most careful of recent grammarians•"
Shortly after the appearance
of Perottus5 work the grammatical writings or Joannes ,
‘ialpitius
Verulanus
(see above, chap, v, pp# 47-51) were published, and like­
wise began to enjoy a considerable vo/Tue.
bazlitt considered him
tho most important oi' the early humanist grammarians:
be says
that Sulpitius "is perhaps to be viewed as the leader of the move­
ment for spreading, not only in Franco, ’
out in ifr .land, a fuller
and more scholarly acquaintance with the laws of g r a i m n a r , a n d
adds that his "philological labours....were long extremely popular
and successful, and [that] a very large number- of copies muse have
been in English hands during the reign of noxiry the .Seventh and
his 3on#M
There were other grammars similar In kind; out those
of Perottus and Sulpitius seem to have been the favorites#
As one
might expect, the new grammarians were none too restrained In de­
nouncing their predecessors; frequently the word "barbarousn finds
4
a place in their strictures.
By the and of the fifteenth century
Opera omnia» ed. J. Clericus (Leyden, 1703), I, 521 G :
"Inter re cent iores~Tgrammatlcos Latinos] baud multum video discriminis, nisi quod Nicolaus Perottus vidotur or.inium diligenbissimus,
citra superstitionea tamen." See also Cardinal Giovanni Corcati,
For la cronoloqla della vita e degli acritti di Nlccolo Pcrotti,
amlve'sc’ovo "a l ( H p o H i ^
t i pubblTcatl pop cura degXi
™crittori' cleiTa biblToteca Vaticana"? Roros, 1925), pp. 59-60; and
C, Trabalza, Storla della grammatics italiana (1903), np* 53, 63,
130 (cited by Mercatl, p. 09, n T T H
g
w. C. Jtaalitt, Schools, school-books and schoolmasters,
2d od,
(New York, 1900), p. 40,
5 Ibxd., p. 41.
co?nmondatory epistle prefixed to Perottus * Rudiments
oraHBnatlces, fol. ajv— at least in this edition of Christopher
Paris is1 (Venice, 1493), a copy of 'which' Is in tho Library oi' Con;-res a — speaks of the "Alexandrl darbari careen i n e p t q u o d a vora
prisca grammatlea prorsus alienum [est]." And w! on J.nbonio hanclnolll published, c. 1491, 1:1s Spica quatuor voluminum (a poem
on declensions, genders, preterites, and supines)> a friend wrote
to hi m in this fashion;
"Abeat iar.i barbarus Alexander ot barbaram
cum sua barbarie repetac patriam." I;; his Opera (Venice, 14981504), as quoted by Charles Thurot, p. 492 and n. 4. C f . also
below, p. 115.
114
Alexander and hvrard were pretty well driven o .it oi Italy, al­
though they persisted al ;oot a hundred years on the other side of
tho Alps.
And it should be noted that the ",ort: c m humanists were
at first wind euoa, 1h to try to rehabilitate tee olu texts; SlnAius
of Deventer, for exannle, put oil a new edition of Alexander in
148B, accompanies oy a common Larg of h
.ini, ;md 'n 1507 nor :anuns
Torrentius, from hie sa e school, produced another.
A s everybody knows, h e Konaissa- co cane to An: land
Italy,
from
hart of tho cargo of now ideas to reach h e scores of
r i tain was rh o . ra.niaoical doctrine
t.' e bunanis to ,
enow;}: *s m o w n about if o early history
.-.31gland, nut apparently the first text
valla produced, by an b n ;J..ls];niaii was
oj.
Ac
Little
.new .;ovo;;ient in
-used on tlie principles of
h.at of John Anwykyll (Anwyxcll,
Annaquil, Anniquil),^ tho Compendium fcotfus .;ra:matlcs ox
Lanrcr.tio Valla, berylo, et Pcrotto, compiled at tho request of
O
Archbishop William Fatten of '.<8„nflete (1447-80).*’ wnvgykyll (see
above, chap, 11, pp. 19-20) was tho first InToruator o.L the fa.
dalon Grammar befool (1481-87).
in
Rashdall refers to tho stirring
;ra:rniatic8l circles of xA leli Anwykyll was m e
of the early fig­
ures as "a humble movement of purely indigenous growth, in favor
of aa increased attention to grammar” and su,.s b a t it "had al­
ready beyua at hew hollo go, under V e scholarly 'warden Chandler"
....(Coe above, chap. ii, p. IS).
Perhaps the increased attention
to ■-ra.renar was of native ori ;ln, hut the very title of Anvpdcyll's
Look nur :osts its connection v/ith Italy.
V-o arc quite in the dark
The variations hi npellin are iver by womann, V a m 1ay.e.a, Universltati Aberdonensi.. . .sacra saecularla qr.arta ccncclabraturae. . . «iaest .raiamaticus hatlnus hongs parvula \hr 1 aw;ae,
lU06)7"p7 T sT.
’
‘
2
JCi aw Is hi error v.'en c says .,3 at if la .ra..marwas cowposof at ti e inr. bi-ation vf Arc1 bishop barban; see A. f. ' haw,
11T e earliest Latin grammars in Lnyllsh," Transactions of tlie
bibliographical society. V (lthJo-1900, published 1901), Cl. 'ihe
edition of 1480, a copy of which is In ti o ’ritlsh buseum, has
profixed to it two laudatory poems, tie work of the court poet
j-eter Carmelianus, the second of which Is as follows:
Elnsdem in reuercncii lomini lullelni episcopi vintonic
■Laudes; carmen
To julieIni pater, mult am celoberrime qui nunc
hccleslc presul vIntonions Is ades
Farm canet,
tantos et to celebrab.lt ad annos
I>um fuerlt
stabili firisus In axe Polus
Hoc opus auetor enim to persuadente ioannes.
Edidit. unde tihi labia perennis erit.
(Fol. a^v . }
Tr.ls poor is interest In: r or t e history of too rraairiar, inasmuch
115
as to Anwykyll *o napllor ilxej wo
ave
uj
facts abo i,
vlth other sc: olars, o'lher
at -o .c vrabroad,
at 5a :dalenj^ -ait It cannot
be- do a -ted it at ti e.n ,11s
was c Imply part •■>£ that
.is relations
colors ’c tarns
none
an
sent
cneral tlssauisi'actlon w It: lie :.edloval
texts vPhieh be;-an with Valla.
;b:v,yk./ll *s
tu
ear dutifully ac­
knowledges .its so. rces as ‘f pleads s re as >n .on existence;
bo-
ca -se t: e treatises af PoroLt n a. d Valla I.ore too Ion : I ore was
need of a wore compendious treat, .cut*
in tno 14x0 edition 3'ins as
Caraeliani poete in
V o clrsi
r
f o two poors
follov/s *
oporis c.oimtontia I.loileia Car .en
Vos tererl iuuenes vestrun celebrate ioanrom
qui dene vos docait verba latino loqui
Parbara one fuerat p rins. est ntic facia latl.na
Li nrraa, breui spacio quan didicisse licet
Van: cue valla dabat.
vol quo procopta perottus
Vox a niinis, parous oontinefc isle 11 or, (Pol. a^v* )
Vote t o adjective
;arbarat j.a..illiar from L,. c altaonn on medieval
Latin by continental 3av!mnists.
Vow early this pra'.mi- was printed J do not kn jw; d- .aw
(o. 51) refers to It as aopearin
found xio copy earlier than 14b3.
edition is this;
first In 1481;
2
nob
,buf fas
Tie full title ,<r t o 14JU
Compendium totius qravTnatlco ex vari.js antorluns.
o orum inte rpre t at ion-q conscriptum totius barbariei dostructoriuia.
& la tine lin/vue orrtanentom non minus praeceptorikus quam pueris
.lecessarlum.
The qratM.iar 's in Latin, rartl,; verso, a n
5
partly prose.’"'
as It connects Waynflete w itl; the Vaqtialcn rrammar movement— the
fLilian who persuaded Anvvykyll to compose if o Compendium, if e
was ''presul'1 of Winchester at tfo tine, oust ;ave boen William
Patten.
1
Whatever la luxown about 3 is life :as coon collected
(mostly frost Chandlerfa Life of Paynflete) :q, J. s. loxan and
priiited In };is A register of b e presideiits., fellows, denies....
a., d other :Q. .dorr, of St. Par;; i,a. ;ualen Colioqe
o ;tnstractors
in ]raima.rrrS Oxford and. Loudon, IB’/S)"ill,
2
li. cordon vuff, fifteenth century ibi.qlisii cooks
~
1
1
1
[Oxford,
nr/), p. v.
2>
Poster Watson, The bnplish grammar sc: ools to 1C00; 1. elr
curriculum and practice (Cambri&je',' xbb'd), ”.*"’233, mistakenly ineludes t3;is awonq the earliest vernacular •:rai«naars, A few Ln.plish
words and phrases, it is true, are scattered t; rou ;h the text; but
not eriou-, to make, in the aq ;re--;ate, a dozen linos. in this error
1 .1
116
l;1irst a rale is stated and explained, in proso, and 1/ en repeated
in verse.
It is instructive to observe C m i t: o ace of verse pop­
ularized by tee medieval grsuasarians was continued by ^sany of
their Renaissance successors;
notably by hancinelli (see abo\re,
p. 113, n, 4), Bespauterius,^ Stanbrldge (see below, p. 126), and
Lily himself, as we s’-all see later,
Another Medieval device,
that of question and answer, is kept by Anwyityli, Lily, and hear-
brid;e,
besides Anwyicyll, via ua,, have boen Lily's teacher, the
chief Eji;;lish writers of .orarnnar texts who liamed lately preceded
him wore John holt and John stanbridpe,
Holt, who scorns to hove
L q o i ; a tutor In the household. of cardinal :
.orton,
2
produced a
small ,qrarnaar In Knqlish called Lac puororum, a book which for
"simplicity and helpfulness to the be pinner Is superior to the fjraasaars
%
vJiicb superseded it." Vie are uncertain an to the date of Its compon
sifcion; in all probability it appeared not later titan 1500,*' ivhat-
lie follows Shaw (p, 51), vho was quite imderslaudably led astray,
"hound with the same Look [tie Compendium], w he says, "is the
Vulyaria quedam abs Terencio in Anylicai:; lin.nua traduct." He then
assumes that Anwykyll was the author of these Vulyaria ; but actu­
ally we have no indication Vvhatevor as to v/ho AYd t7"o wop’:'. It
must Lave been on the basis of Anwykyll’s supposed authorship of
the Vulgar la— not of the C grapenalux-i-- tbat thaw describes h i m as a
pioneer in tho use of r’rarpoars In the vernacular*
"4>espauterius, or Ian van Pauterei. (d, 1520), a teacher at
Herto:;enbosch, had been a student at tho famous Louvain school
known as the LI H u m or Lis, Shortly after the turn of tho century'
he undertook to write a series of yrammaticcl poems to replace the
work of Alexander.
It may be likewise noted that tho humanist
luarino ;:ad used the Doetrlnale at his school In Ferrara {TTmrot,
p. 492).
Cf • Bemlcio sabbadini, La scitola e qli studl di Guarino
Vo rone sc (Catania, 1896), pp, 30-47 (for tho vA 'olo cunFicinrnn’oT"
i" e sc. ool at i ' e m r a ), and t o Bnciclopodla Italians , art,
"Guarino Veronese" Coy Sabbadini), itWlT,’ 27*-2 ?.™r
“**
2
If I au ri.pl•t in interpreting two lines in the dedicatory
poor: (to Horton):
"Ediderar.; (hoc libolluia] celebri Lard the pie
nrosui in aula, J.'lyna volens pueris coi.moda ferre tais."
holt wad
uesu a probationer at haydalen in 1490, later us''nr, uiviu;; place
to John Lowell in 1495. See Bloxam, "Instructors Isa urauuar,"
XII, II, and n.
**Watson, p. 235.
"^Anthony a Wood is apparently rospons Ible for the date
often ...iveu, without qualification, 1497 (e.£. by Hastings RaslxialL,
She universities of Europe in the middle ages*, cd . F. h. Powicke
and A. 8. Emiien t6x£ord, 1936J, III, 14, n.|; but it is to be ob­
served ihat hood, says (Athenae Qxonienses, ed. Philip Bliss I.London,
1813] I, 15) "about 14577" ib.e has Is for datirr; ik e book 1500 or
before is the circumstance that Cardinal : orton, to whom It was
11?
ever tlie dale, however,
rariinar In ilnvllshh
its autl or was voi if o , i r s t o write a
Tho Loner ex' m a t achieve -e-nt apparently
elou :a no ,To3«n L t a n b r M r e , Aru ykyll *
nanor ant successor at
<5 was a Line/ eater
en, ana v/as
urobably appointed directly by hynflete, as Lie
iredocessor,
La :La Ion (14i.b~9Lj.
Ltanbrif'
presumably, Led L'ee.n similarly ctosen.
It is all
a.;t certain
L at lo bad taut! i
. olt— tl ey '.era ;.otk atu_.LaJ.cia to oti cr.
was eulte natural,
vhorofore, H a t
lowed i;ls ouster's
example and writ toe. ■ is ..rarsnr in the vernac­
li esLelc.L, shoulr
"t
ave fol­
ular.
Of ti e :;ranra t i e d eritiuus
oj
; Lanliridno t■uro are
extant various editions on his Aecidoutia, H i d as a flcat;ec: isu 7n. ,:m lisl. on 1/ e
Voca on la, a Latin-Eu list
If o L & t m
-&vts
at son describes
o
or Latin speech;** oi4 the
'let 1onary; of V e Vul a ria, vf leL vives
of IJn, ;lir.L sentences as voll as of words ; a-L of the
dim, es, fa i , tic nature of vd let is inf 'catod
ti tle, the
uu alternative
madus conparatiounui cun. ver;.is ananalls.
There are
likewise t! ree oil er . T a n n r s 5 closely related to ouch offer,
v/i:icli .lave i'eeu associated vd.tf .1 o
are
)f I.tnnbrid :e-~tbo Por-
yula, tho hoxu .e parvula, god tLe iarvulor cu Institutio ox StanJ>rlr,lana collections>
Except for Aelfrie »s
fish translation
of frlsciau in in o tent;-, center;, - t c fervaln .is t a first Larin
dedicated, died in that year.
Lee L. ... n aoLern, ,:il:.o;aas Lore
(Loudon and Jew dork, 1 9 3 5 ) , p. ul; r, L, anci i » , ^11 en, fir
m o n a s .'ore, selections from his .-.ayllsh v.ums and from the lives
h,; L'rasnas and Tioper 'ToxTor'fT' 1 0 2 4 ) , p. xil.
Tue"'eainlxes t' "extant
edition, now in the ritisf :l.sc l
Is conjocturally dated 1510
in tho I'Hosin catalogue.
L a r n h a f o u , LnIvers 1 tati ^ ■.cr<ionona:l, p. '5, inows u.ono
since I e tenth ue .tury : of t..u fo ;.r crainn-iLsns, iuiv;y;:yll,
Ltanbi'idpe, Lily, -.hit tint on, all except t, e first "wrote their
;raiit.-3afc.icnl 1handbooks in their vernacular ton ;ae, Lein,;; the first
•on to do so, since .u s bop Aelfrie had ira.nsla ted Priscianas !
Latin jvsxiimv into Kn. .l.ish in tie last „ car3 m t c tenth century,1'
It ;:ay be noted, however, t'at on another score fari'ha. e.u »s state.nut is far from accurate;
Lily wrote nosl of " la -rammntlcal
virus In Latin, and Ltunbrld :o at least ono of inis — the Partes
"rarrcnat.ice, a n Imperfect cory oi w let Is In it e rli.lsh Lose an,
is Tii Latin, verse,
I ] ave not examined fhittinton.
'*ia Vul--aria
is, of course, In Latin and An ;lis3’j
cut It woo. Id see.o from the
footed titles
and descriptions of hisnor - tint .oat of It Is in
Latin, fee t-c Iritis]
usouni Caftilo vc under vpli, tirton, and
:Iss catrice
ti Ifce, "An early 'I’u or r<,, : .;■- ‘a u L 1 . odcrn ia;i ,ua e
rovlow /•IX (1935), 344-47,
Li', also .alaua, - , 553; ~"rr, o t! or
any of tf o ">1*1 ;cci:leval f \ riters .»f '-r'araraers ’..rote In ;.rt lisf
:u n.neortain.,f
2 P. 236.
118
■rar.xmar in Enlis};.
Accord in.; to its eO -.lor we can v ith fair cer­
tainty attribute t. o a:,triors'.ip
ptanbrid ;e, a.m usnPpi
. 0
;u ertlp a f o r w a r d s
t e .ear 1481.-*■
H
a°
tubvo, m
to
v.aa revised and au,;:vicr;fceu
‘'anur-L U -<c vxmoli., a,... xmnnHt iron •„ o press
"J
1 1
u' fveoaoro Kood
i,!'
-tJ ^'"e '-'-tlo ponye parvula.
bln p; rru 1 orim insf 1its tarn, .,.3 a revised and au.pieni.ed o H H o . u u H o
3
T-Poae j v n , a i ‘s arc iuporUvb. ij,
son Iran the fact H a l
at least one
no H e r
rea­
ave b e e n used
;f „ cm
:v 'jxl* 'ai 1 ° eo;Lp03ition or fro aost ole .eninup -n
texts • ~
: is several
" M l * *s fraiv’-tar"
VI or one s e e m s
_ra;v:iar 1 at toon s m u
nnulj.su Sci.ools
1
of '’HI.;, 's prfunmH i-e rrohaH.,_,
a r m
.ev.v Ibb; arr revs.; steel ir;
or over three •unvrod ..canij bn.
.ran one of several on.er
g .u, ,t j a v c
t e
earn H e
o rb. -bfc also
rarmafical ooniaianors.
*.trst of all
in r-.inu f e accidence l.u cole,, tuth e. o s ^ t a x by
uily, ootn j.n nn.pLisn, puL.lior.od together .in one small volume,
later adopted ;.-y bardinal .else..
rood be alludin;; to a very v
vmmnm
,t. ... .1... sub revised
no is voftio, especially
century*
on f o
.r
G ;.y
v, tvitL . rGat iikali.
01-t but ver.f pithy syntax In .bat in,
.rasats— a nook r i b . 1na an oror.-oni,inert, j or tr roo-nuarters or a
city ;,iuch less probability one spoaxiir. of "Pll-»s
murnuar'- ..mppt vu.sf to si :nij.y certain bavin verses m
Ho
J.iy on
rules lor i.e. ponders oi nouns and t".0 conjugation of verbs.
Tbepe U re© treatises uero used in f o
fiat ultimately passed under blip's
of I-© loi.ir briefly.
aa»ig,
a m p l i a t i o n of if c uimmiar
uruc.
i srlHll describe each
I ..
a ’?Tiiarin /?rilJ*ui;en* lig— jMdils folils liuri. cuisclam Ai.mlici
o^ounfcH. saecuio gulnto iec iiao L;:pls oxcuisi ouao ir
'
j S ^ m p m p ^ l ^ s e r v k a u r IE rlan^E nm rTr'^TTsr.— rt-^ rrrr 1
-xost cortamly ur:urcod before the bonne oarvula. althnn b
same year,
“-- -— *---— —
in
PP. 4, 15.
„
_ UbilP'3lm 1 rad o r , ed., Ifcrvuloi’um institutio ox v f . d m i H m
collect none (Erlanyer., 1912), K H T .
*----“-------Jaass.
^
-.«£
4
Soe below, pp. 125-86.
119
i,
Colot *s Aedltio and L i l y ’s Rudlaenta i.rai;ima11 ee s
This was apparently tio first oi tie series?
the earliest
known-edition is that of 1527, hut Colet’s part hears a letter of
dedication to tily, dated in norne editions 1509^ and in others
1510.2
Cardinal basquet ; as described a manuscript school-book
covin:; from tho cloister school of Canterbury in the latter half
of
t,e
of
school-bay to another, and was possibly used by youny Heyinald
.-IfteenLh century? it was ■anued clown from one -one rat ion
hole lony before he th outlet of busyinq. himself with tho affairs
of th e niplity.
Ion
The codex contains a dictionary, a 3id kvrard’s
poem; but it likewise includes pra.,ors, reli ;ious instruction;,
aha! rules for t: o . aiuiers and cla lly life or a .conk,
3
uolot's
Tamicar follows in V o sa ® tradition; correct hat In is dear to
tho roan *s heart, but .uoocl ■minors and pood u.oc h I s ar-o dearer,
i-irat of all come t" c articles oi' admission to t};e new school}^
fchen comes Colet *s little catechism:
next , the articles of faith;
a short explanation of the seven sacraments? a few words on char­
ity, subdivided into t•e love of bod, U: e love of one’s own self,
tee love of o n e ’s neighbor; resolutions concern in.; the reception
of t o sacrai.-ionts of penance and the Eucharist--”If 1 fall to
spline I shal an one ryso ay.ayne by penaimce and pure confessyon. •.•
■^For example, in the edition of Peter Trevoris, London,
1520, and f a t of artin Caesar, A.n twerp, 1535, both in tl o form
inown as ’’holsey’s grammar '* (see below, pp. 128-31). A copy of
each ‘.3 in the tritish ’’u se tun.
p
“'For example, in the edition if oynkyri de horde, 1534, a
copy of which is in tfe bullish hnseuin; and in the edition of
1527 (s. 1. et typ.), represented by the unique copy in the li­
brary of Peterborough Cathedral.
This last :as been reprinted by
b. black in the Shakespeare JahrbucI■, XLIV (1900), 65-117; XLV
=1909), 51-100.
3
Francis A. vasquet, "The Canterbury claustral sc; ool in
t. e fifteenth century,” The old hn;,llsh bible and other essays
:London, 1597), pp. 200-65.
4
The text o.t these articles j-s pi veil in J. . /upion’s
A. life of John Colet (2d ed . ; London, 1909), pp. 265-92, together
v.ith bios I of the" reli pious material t!mt follows; in the Shakespeare
Jahrbuch reprint it is all found in Vol. XL1V (190..:), pp. 66-72.
120
As often as I afal recoyue :iy lord In sacrament,
si;.id/ dispose
s;all with al
;e to pure clonnes and deuoc^on"; resolutions con­
cern ii: : sickness and deati.j forty-nine nrocepts of livlno: the
/•.postlos 1 dreed, t e
Cord's eraser and f e
a.
‘.1 ..ar;-,; two prayers
presumably composed by Colet idusoif , ti e first fe/innin r, Sancta
farla, uirqo,& mater lesu, 1 o second i; e Oratiuncula ad puerura.
losvxa fcholae praesidem, still said at
l. Paul's.^
Kext v/o ] ave
Caleb's lot tor to ).is first ’1 i n.r.ster, v.urtby ox' quoIin : In its
outiret_, :
Colet. suo Lilio Salutexn
itccipe, optima ac litoratlssiroo Dili, libelloiu punrills
institutionis, in quo qaiden cade..:, quae fuernnt ab alijs
tradita, rat'one ol online paulo (ni fallor) comraodiore diyessirnus,
Idque fee irons, ut elements /raiumatices et felicius
Influe rent in puerorura aninos et tonacius inhaererent*
Tuim
or it, qul primus Ks huius nouae Pauli achelae praeceptor, his
rudiment is dill .outer oxer core puoros nostros, dolnceps ad
.'.ialora profocturos. liihil enir-i aeque irdlol cord I ost in praesenti quaia ut paruull Christi quasi pluriiaum up; id te proficiant
cure literatura, turn '’onls ..oildis, ad quod si e alter is, et
IifVLi puerorum praeaide---. ti; 1 tuo studio demereheris et me
plane felieer: reddideris.
Vale ex aodibus meis, Galen, Aoqa.
An,
2
Immediately afterwards cones t.:o preface to f o took, as owi:i
not only how and w’y Co lot composed i.is /rai.xnar, tut likewise
tie tender solicitude
o ■oro for ’ is ,,oun : -.noils * welfare,
'n e
piece breat es t e uentlenoss a: d o a r ’b c 1.nolle 11/ of id o author's
saintly llfo:
A 1„.tell prohene to tie boko
Al fe It ■uni hauo wry ter and haue made certu/nu Introducc/ons in to latyn specie, called Donatos and Accideris, in
lat„n ton ue ami in en.-;lysc3:e, in n u n plenty f at. It s; olde
se .e to suffuse, "dot neuort olosso i or the louo and tu; sole
f a t I haue vnxo f c now set ole if Ponies, and to the c! lldrou
ol I e Ra o, scuv;' at x fa ...e also comp;.; led xf t; o mater, and of
tie viii partes of uranner : aue ado if :1a 1/tel boko, not
thynkyn :e t at .. coude say on/ t f / u o be tar f a r oath ue sayd
before, bub I toke t’ lc bosynes, liauyrr e qreto pleas ire to
show© t e test/many ■!' ■iy ood inyndo vnto the sc1 ole.
In
wfici e 1/tel v:arko /f on,/ uowe tfyn. ;es be of . o, It Is a lonely
H a t I -'.auc .ut, tcso nrrbos In a more ole re orfre, and ! aue
nude fi or a l/tol :;ore easy to jOn:;o w/tbes f a n (metf/nketli)
f ey v.sre uefoije.
Iud0/n0 i] at no tf/npfe ;j x j >„e to softe,
nor to fa.ni/l/!'r for 1/tcl chyldron, spec/ally lern/n/e a tonrue
vnto t)tern all straunqe.
In vliche 1/tel woke I 3 aue lefte
1
Cf, 7,up ton, Colet, p, 2/0, n, 1
^6: -akes peare Jalirbucli, XLIY, 73,
121
many tbynres out of oo^pose, consyderyn,.: t o tondornos and
snail capacyfca of 1/tel nyndes! And i. at h an© spoken, also,
I haue affyrcied It none otherv/yse, -ut as 1.1 happeth raoost
coni/nly In latyn tongue.
lor many be the excepcyons, and
barde It :1s ony thynge generally to as so re in a specie' e.oo
varyotis • I prayo pod all may be to his honour, and lo the
crudicyon and profyt of chyldron, my countrc -on Londoners
spocyally, wlioiae dygestytv:© this lytol werko I i ad alv/ays
before rqyn eyen, consyderynpe more what was for tl ea than to
shewo ony /jrete connyn ;e, wyllyiig Lo speko tl,.o thynges ofton
before spoken in sucko aatner as gladli yange bogynners and
tender vryttes myght take and conceyue.
hherfore I ora/e you
al 1/tel babys, al lytol chyldren, 1©m e
ladly this lytol
treatyso, arid eorarrtende it d/lygently vnto your neraoryes•
frustyriue of this begynnynge 12-tat yo s al procode a;id grov/e
to parfyt lyteratorc, ant come at t
last to he grete
clarkos. And lyfte vp poor 1/tel v/kyie : amiss for ne, v/hiche
prayeth for yon to pod.
T o whom be ail honour and imperyal
maioste and glory.
A:uer.l
Prolog! finis
All of fc'-is takes up eleven octavo races,
in the edition
of 1527j tl .on we c onto to tl o accidence proper, "An introduce/on
of t o
par ties of spekyng, for children and yonge be/j/nners, in
to latyn specie."
ft requires forty-nine pa-os to audre this in­
troduction, which eocls piously with er. "Amen" and an epilo<aie
pointin , the way to fort' or advaeceoent in t: e language of home—
tli© orthodox Renaissance doctrine of reading the classics and
•-Taking their usage one *s guide.
For redyng of good bokes, diligent informacyon of taught
maysbers, studyous aduertencc ancT takynge heae of lerners,
heryny eloquent -ten speko, and finally seasy j.sicj imitacyon
wi tli ton ,ae and peane, ^ore auayleth shortly to get© t.he true
eloquent specie, than all the tradicious, rule 3 , and preceptes
of ma/sters.^
Explicit Coleti aeditio
It ias been pointed out k at t- e b 1
.tie c' osen by Colet,
Aeditio, comes from bonabus--tho Ars minor was s onetimes called
the Edltio prima Donat 1,a.-id tie Ars maior, the udltlo secunda.
Lr. black thinks t •at tl e relationship between the Ars minor and
t’.© Aeditio was a very close one j
Dio Irammatik sclbat schliesst sick eriy an die ars minor des
Donat an, der h. 178 aucn ausdrucklich o r w & m t wird, ™aTe
v/iehtigsten beuerungen sind Fortlassung der katoch©tisc.b©n
Fragen, stark© Knrzungen und Verminderung: das neispielrasbadals,
•^Shakespeare Jahrbucb. XLIV, 73-74.
^ letd., 55
122
u’
o ersichtlicher Prack dor Porad.l/'qaeii*^
1 aist confess i:p.l i cannot see t Is connection; almost the only
IMillar.' ty between t;e two texts
(beyond fc'. e inevitable likenesses
oo -jo round in any two yra.-,miars) ’a t. o iso o.i a rev; examples in
common.
one oil. ft io ink that after t e catechetical questions
were done away witf, tic exa vplcs considerably curtailed, tie de­
clensions co d con,ju laflonc set
run to yet her in one coniusin
ut in yaradiyns instead of belay
mass, h e r e would, be little rosesi-
;-lance ootween tie old gu; the new.
mamp e d to conviction
and id is punoosifIon. would ve
yooa oxai-.iination of •>. o
rrom t-Ci evidence of toe two texts alone,
show Li at
•o1 of 'ad aver no 3
ars minor before him as
a ..oval.
yaunrs:
indeed,
11 wo..;lb no dii'f'cult to
. o do -no f o l d
e wrote; at least
ad t- e
e declines n few words
as examples— such as mas a, ...it, ,1s ter, follx— v.-.'>lob •a.J boon v In y lay;
in ■ is ears s inee :e
ad f irs t
et the?: in t'.o ire minor— and ibo ro
see: n lo i ave been no yood reason nor M m
ous help,
do 1. more
snob
an obvi­
But tils is a kind of imlebtodness a bo'it w" Ich few
yrarmnarlans would bo likely to scruple — o vo r;,• comp-Mor
ele<";on t-ary
ramnar boyar vutl Dona Las.
iaw)ices are many and frjf'.u octal.
;f a new
on the other band ike dif-
AcsJUos - e abamionln
of toe
catechetical method and t e prihtiny of ioivus in paradi; pis , M a r e
ore many hi IToro vices irx details, s cl as M g
order of t o
.arts
of speech, fc:e lenytf ox f o two touts (the aeditio Is over twice
o
Ion. as h e
Ars minor), tie division m. bolot of nouns
'nto
sir;.stantives unci adjectives ia ciis tine lion v: lei' does rot appear
in bonatus)•
And as for l’
>c examples, it 's incorrect to describe
t on as ’’considerably shortened ami lessened.,f
in B otb texts
sample verba are conjuyated, sample nouns a. u pronouns are de­
clined; ad ;erba, crepes ItIons, in M r joe M one and conjunctions are
listed with U l u s Irat ions ■f
foreuee In i:a
I Mr
so,
b c?’o is no • rent dif-
elsploljnaterlal ay if is sort offered i e reader
of ti ese two books, c lifer bn amount
m
in Bind.
respect colet far surpasses vonakus, v;l e.n le
..ut In another
vivos elementary ex­
planations .--f points la on .0 '.' ranted .y tie toucher of St,
Jerome.
This Is In line wlib tl o chief d.iffcreueo Between ti e two
•ra::raaru, a difference in .e if od n.;d In toxn.inolo;,y.
part of speeds tic Ars minor proceeds
1 lbld., p. 82
1 or each
in t- c f ollowlr.:: orders
125
definition, enumeration ■>; accida.u,s, discussion
u. one1' accident?
for f e verb, mu!i, and
ran o u r , if o ir.fleeI;ions hollow.
section. on t■ e noun,
oxfrnple, :uvplus as follow® j
’
The
.o:;.ion quid. est?
bars o rati onxs ciia cas.i fovna; a si real :,po->
rie coi.a.-iuaiterve 2 1 au.fleans.
iomiux uuot aeeldunt? ho".
...uae?
.ualitas coiaparatip ■onus nixne-pus fbxirn eas :s, •.utalitas jioailviim in quo est?
And
20 an uibll v.e
not t o definition ••>. casus, ai'lor \v>io.
cone
t. « ■’colour;ions .
'':l° Aeditio '.an aaaid or sort oh approach.
simple,
"a I^tel
ore oas„
to ot. or o j.x re i1'.’00 ,
tic proporilos
words u w o
to yen, wykLos,"
..ore
\h e Ian ua, w
.3 nothin: said uoo.t
L o bliherent
parts
m
c -.o q
l ho more
.o i m '-
accidents , tut
are explained in
Likely 1) oe nqdrsLauded. oh a o’. lid.
treat. :-ouL or t e norm v e t
t
is a l ­
noupuro uolel's
at of d o n a t u a :
A uovmo is i. o .uane >i a tkynye llct 's and • ay be seen,
folte,
erde, or vnderoLanclc, As t o ea o oi o:j ande in
la L
..s .j..± 1 v . U
a -OlI.* .s. ov.-sis , . o .a .... ... 1
;;oodnes xs""ibrii tas .
„.*
,
.
.
.
j
,
L
..
.
A ep'uiSy on A' novmes
.ovrues, or t,e ua.ns o h thjn, ;os, souse Po s a distant pries,
some be adiectyues:
A rovvuc subslantyuo k; t at stamietl bp
hyiu solfe, and lokcfcb p.oI tor an oilier v/orde to bo iopned visith
iiyilU
A nov.no adioctpno ' . . at can nut sLnn.de "p, 1 ,jasolfo, but
lakoih to be iopned with another word, as .-onus, fulcher;
whan. 1 say in la tin .-onus; pood, or pule’ o r ;
fayre, f€
lokotb to toll vd at ’s
ood. o or at *s fir/re, and t.' ere fore
it nust be iopnod with an ofcl er norde, as a ;ood e' ilde:
■on..is puer, A fay re v.'omn: mulch ra foemlna. And a nov.n©
adiectyuo, eyih cr .It bath th:re terninacIons, as ;onus, •-ona,
bonuu, or ellos it is declyned witl" t ro artpcles:
liaec,
hoc,' as hie, ;a e c , et 1 oc foe 11x71 ~
After bolot's Aeditio co ies t. e
.
’ullolfe.l bilij rudimenfca,
w ich bears one lieadirip,, "To make latyn*"
iauiois little s.yntax
to
s
i,e
no tourned In to iai.1 n
lake out ii e v e r h e . ' 1
pa -os.
fami liar,
' eve an en ply ss.be
•. s; al re? erso it fcv/yos or ».•rice and
T ?.0 n ole Li in
.occupies only tl-irteen
Lily's Carmen he norlbas .is nrlntod next, hollov;ed by
t..-ree four-line hai.In poens, sin; in
sci ool
"w.- an
Tnc hirst line of the
ihe -M'aises oh tie qre&fc
caster, by John .Hi huv/ise, h c . x n i
•^Sjiakespeare Jalirbuc.h, 1LIV, 75.
‘
/omamas
(In other
114
oditioms spoiled Vernan;as ), a :d Kiev ard Pin::;onus♦
b o volume ends
v/.Lt- the ureeu alphabet, in contemporary covuinontajr'fas! .ion, and
fears f a araiayln uly incomplete colophon Venumuancur opmblnljl In
cymiberlo Sancti fanll,
rope scdolan.
As a final i,o nd
Li o hook
rvproi :cos a. e ro,/al c oat oi a n .s.
'fee Rudiment a '.a a s p i U v p
of volet,
:w L
•>©.;! as r i b
uucr
o w e s vorb 1
shorter a ol per'.ups even
t o crovleu o o n
to b o
accidence
..ore oio...oabary,
to iruv; "a..; euvlfosuo'' c d c
..L
fab bn;
i e sL.tl.oot b; first to look out ive verb, \v let- is J.ofinod lor
h i m and class ti led as ;bi.:er ,fpri olpal"
aro
s
v/e
if ou.
bb c n b s e .
eve doflaitioijs
la likewise isolated am! descrl bed,
t u
a :.d on impersonal verbs;,
concords'' ol
stantive,
m. ^ e relative,
on b, c bnterro, natives,
‘i’.ie to j Is ■v;v introduced to the ’’three
bra-umax— -rules for t s avr-ee o. i of vert.- and s u b ­
of adjective aun s t os bast;; ‘v o , ami
or relative and ante­
bren under' tr-e be ad in,y "eyucrs rules ion :;ynv to tie first
c o n c o r d s ” v/e are
riven. a discuss ion vf all in ree concords,
/rest of t- e text is tauen up with
cases.”
'under tfis h e a u i u
'.eut n i t1:© c i o f
us ©a
’’The
wo 'uvc fc" e simplest _.-oss idle ctateto
:enitivo and. native;
under the a c ­
v/e arc told u at
"the &ccusatyuo ease answersth bo t] is enostyon v;.e.oY or
:■x io bh after iv o v e r b ”; m u
oxcepc,,'oris ”— verm; ..aviu,
1 .at to f i is rule
lustrated,
eoo> onus
told
v r
at? and
t ere are "d:> uors
tj o su.jj case ai Lor t„ o n as oeiors,
verbs bavin/.. if e uenitlvo after t ,©! , b e
fj .on, v/e are
1";©
nrowle< e oi. if-e oblique
cusative and a ;lat).vo v,e yvb somethin, 1'viler:
JaL.Ivg, or tic ablative,
n e c* iei rules for t e esc
n
o o aula. Live, il­
as are all t o r.flee, d t L uell-cwosen e x a m p l e s •
v
1 Li a i ev; state cubs on
vii.lcl. Lily treats
b.m«.soa vhtf
fie
propos ic/ons,'' In
placo vf, ore, and motion bo or from a place;
life all L o qravoiarlana
1 oca Live ease, r' :i.eb
u
text
relative at : i e &■;tecode.ut, followed,
b,/ s orb notes on b e ease
i i.reL
.'ir-ectiona
Ivon tor find la ; b e / rinc.bpal ver , oidur vd loo the
ject «jX m o sentence
cedent.
or
o.f 1 is dap, fe :-i>;:es no mention of ti e
«... misLafcs
second declo.u:;ion,
-fr t e psnitlvo s,.lri;ular of the
or L, a ablative plural oj, the if ird.“
Ibis idvdlotenba nraoTva.tices Is vot eart.' cularly well put topdier;
t-ur-e 's rsm-.-.o ne-odloss repetition, a d
„.;cfc
-a a lack of
order In L/m) arran .e'vent, rxvrt --u"' v.e led ..■■ay oori^aps oe l-la>ncd
'pen
^uoi.ie pravinax's iIucl>/.di.u ■ some e 1. .htoontli-cer.tury editions
of "Tjilp >s dravL.m.r1!) s^aLc L u rule so as bo Ineiuue t:.e ablative
sinuular of tie tfird, fourth and fifth declensions*
125
the
put ut
printers
ness,
as t1c
croal •.erit of
liter© are no verses to he
s
er.orited, a- : for examples t: ore
are no difficult sentences from th 0 classics*
staie'-'iestfc that needs it :• as
ianlioity avid clear­
i.owever, every
•ts illustration, made up no doubt
•'ron Luo first brief phrase or- sentence that ca :o into
eaa,
*s
lor instance, under t o first concord v;e are told that
'two sabstantyues sinyuler vr/1 haue an adiectyue plurel, as
Verrrillus et Terentius sunt docti."
The sources of t e Kudiraenta ;
mine only in part.
ave boon a. lo to deter­
The I'tie is id o s a, >e as f a t employed by
perottus and by bulpitius f r yraiouars h at were olouem.ar/ only
in conrpr’;ison with tie tones of Prlseian.
lacl: says 11 at the
book is a much si ortenod translation oi Lily's Llbellus,^ arid
t'at it Is similar to I1 e bon, ;e parvtila, vf- Ich nay therefore be
__
^
considered a source.
As a .satter -w fact it .as resemblances to
all (free of t c Pervula prove, and— apart from I, o question of
dates— Lily ui l.t
1
ave wad© use of any or all of fci-or.i.
ductory natter on all
1
The intro­
our if In on Is r.ruo?’. h c sa oj hily states
in declarative iora vb at cones at: a question and answer in the
rervala series;
latin
"<-3:a..
j.
'aue a:.1 an ;lyssbe to :-e touruod in to
sbal reverse It twycs or thries ami loko out the vorbe,"
hen, after directions for reco. oiiain ; h e
verb:
‘h r
h e r e be
nore verbes i- an one In the reason, the first hi h e principal
/or0 0 , so it ;.>© none xnfinltyu© iaodo, * etc.
The Pervula urouD
,ave aluost t; c same words, each siiybtly different, preceded by
a question.
The bonuc parvula puts it thus:
"that shalt thou
do, whan thou hast an englyss-e to nako hi latyn?
:i shal roherse
\hee abo'/e, p, 124,
2
Absolutlssimus de octo orationis partium libellus, a
short syntax in Latin, fee below, "pp, 131-34, Si© title varied,
hut t seldom contained h e word Abs olutls 3 Ictus ; J i was often
calico fie Lihellus or b 0 De octo .lor id c sate of brevity,
3
*■aLV, L>2: "Der von Lily verfasste syntaktische Toil stellt
oinv; stark yelriirzte auszuyllth 0 hoersetzu.no des von Lily verfbssten,
von Krasnus uherarbeiteton Ah a olutlssimus dar, wic or in 1C.,
Jahrhundort raeist^als An]iany iur iornahieiiro desIcLeincn nonat
bodnickt wurde • Almlich wie dieses ho chi© in Lilys 1s t unri ■.;ons
scion die von barnha.;on don btanhrldye sivjosc!-richon© ,011 e
Par villa aufyebaut, die ctexaiach als -nolle for den s yn tialtfcls'c],en
Tell nit in befcract.t kamnen durfte• f*
126
■:-7n oa/:lysaho ones, twyes or b> ryes , and ioke out my prynoypal
vorhe."1
It soens likely that
,11/ used t o Pervnla, w: id; alone
oi' t' c series las 1, o l: roe concords set out touether, as Lily
■us lii-.Ci,;*
semble
j.n ul.her instances L.;-e lan uk e
.oo s rather to re­
sore closely V. at ol one oi v-e others;
su e rirso cart,
for example, is In some ways .more like the Institutlo parvulorum;
i.n msc.issi.i'
i: o case u
i.e rola tJvo L e order "n the ftudlmenla
d .idlers f r o m w a t oi a l l t. e otners, m e
.More closely
to m at j± u
par Villa t; an to l< .at oi i;
t, o Ian. nayo approximates
o .instltatlo o apvi-1o rai;i and L’,o Lonne
e Pervula.
null -.Oi. no oi ■VQ&.U 'a Ip to us.
\l-.at wc in on oi' l’e dates
v.ertarnly ike Pervula and the
composed before M l y v.roto, and possibly the
Jjg&S.
;
.is 1520 (cl.
iloru;:.
The earliest known edition. h" tie latter
Jrader, p, J); hut t 'ere is no reason why It could
not Lave been !.n existence fiftoee ,n u n
oarlior.
As
or the
itufUxerrfca, we are un.-.artain as to m.en M l y nut It to;;etkor, altnouyh all tv e evidence points to an early cate.
cribes to his "early copy" the date 1512 or I n l Z . 2
be far from riuht.
Plimpton as­
This
cannot
K.hatever oily took 1 roxa t; e • ua-’orId;;o yra.;i .ars, It must
not ne lost sr'i t oi' f a t
e .cade important c; -an. :os In inis sources.
T:-e JiSEEiia. abd t; o yonye pervala. after explalnin ; t' o rules in
.bn-:lisp prose, put them into Latin verse ior oenorlzinp,
(It will
be recalled t! ut Auwykyll did tie same t in.,, except that Ids
prose was Latin.)
Lily ias done away v/itli tee verses.
Stltutio parvaloruia
The In-
as a ;'ood many lorn: examples from the clas­
sics! t: & Rudlsnen tti, like t•-e Pervtila a.-id Lon^e parvnla, x.as short
and simple ones.
Lily has abandoned t e catechetical method, al-
tjiouxh ve keeps t- e sDersoml tone— ’
''I shall re-erse It."
u
xcll,. !;.i.l,y lias s .unpllflacl t.- o r;ra •x.aar!
but
1 o boos no t assume, as
Duff (to. oVo)
Ives h o s e words as tv e Inc 1pit of a cony
h
oiaujrua .e fs foe a 'la. Actually w e took o Is boscrlbdiu ■ (now
In
the Pepysian Library > Is not the Vocalmla, but another edition
?r t ® /uQAi;e parvnla. hitherto u n r e c o r d e d
buff I as been followed
xn i.'is error oy the .Short-title catalogue (bo. 23, 177),9 and by
%J
(u-OO •(
-V
I
*<
.
O k?
Tr-Trn-*,r.,n..i
n., .hn.. «
i
■.,-oorr.o a . id imp bon, Inc eoucation of 2.: a.cespearo (London
and bow York, 1933), p. 87.
‘ — --------— ---
127
did his predecessors, l1-et t n at'v'ev.t knows vf el, a verb is; be
tolls M m ,
and illustrates 1 is a tatcueubs vith examples e a s i l y
"Vi'urstood. And \v en
o sets ho t o dative' case,
o±ore
riles tor its use, ,e ■ Ives t e bcp sooe elementary idea
t'e words _•:ica n :
>i vb at
''The daty ue ease unsvere Lb to L is -.yiostyoii:
wh.osic ? or to vb -at ? so it a L include no iionyiv ;e,, as
Asscntlor tiul,
;ivhi;~
A
;r©uove ihyn e to
.e ;
.1.3
to
a ;ro© to the :
:.oios tnt..
Dr. blac’ !s o L er state..*;.-.t, b1-at t e iti.iuirao..ta is a
translation, thouph much si orteued, of t e Libellus, sue ..a to ;.jo
wholly lack in
support,
There are, oi c >urse, a low exnroscions
and a lev/ examples v; j en ant nan co :p join . t-e two texts would
1'iud I;.- oas lor to reneat than not,
nut hue differences aiKJ so
'rent and tie similarities so fov id.at no one, .t venture to sa^,
iron a mere comparison ol' the ..exts, would suspect identity oi
authorship,
T--e arrangemen t and ti e vb olo ;jethod oi' approach are
different,
instead of t; e crude plan ol' t: e midl.nenta--pre1 lial-
nary notions, the concords, and tie oblique cases— we rave
ere a
neater, more compact, more orderly treat.-.sent vi’ fc: e diiierent
parts ol speech, dop,inning vf.lh tine verb and ending with the pre­
position,
Substantially it is tie. order of fonatus, rorottus, and
hulpitius,
The method ol' t e ifadlmcnta is simpler, deni piled for
students who actually do not .now C(o rudiments.
is reflected in tl o ian .ua, e o...ployed:
begins ti u s :
the hibellus, for example,
’’umno u e rbum antecodit nor-ine tiuus a..e«Uis se
pat lent is eiusde..- rruaori, & personae, n t-.
Ti to verb
Its enaracwcr
Is not uoflueu,
n o doleo, ''u -aucios • "
or m o uorainativo j one re are x.o ufpoc-
tions for f indii:■ c Ithc-r j m .I- in
is said &• ;ut t o first concord,
although t o tl in.;: itself ..s .. ere,
no...pare b is succinct, packed
stylo with ti c u.ore diffuse, elementary lan/.uage of f-.e Kudimenta.
The section on tie nominative case reads as follows;
Somtyme the nomynaiyue case alter f- o verbe or after ti e
sygne of the vorbe, as in reasons interrogatyues, optatiues,
and in reasons hauyiipe it or there, with sue he other before
t1 e verbe, as thu s : Cometht tic Icyn/o? or dothe the kynpe
coins? venit no rex? hov.e or let vs go;
barns, '.chore
slaiiueth a uun in the ..ore; flat qufdam apm. ostium. .it is
my brother;
Kst frater meus.2
Obviously the two texts were composed for different .varies of
students,
1
mo hnov. tl at
lily was responsible
Shaheapenro Jahrb'.'ch, XLV, 3h,
l
o r both;
P
E
L'hld,, p, 5V
hut to say
128
that either is a translation oh ti o other is readin,similarities .
into the little books that are not there.
The qrartaar of Colot and hily was
iven a new lease on
life by t: C brace of uardi. .al ..olscy, who admired it to such an
extent that he took it over for the use of his scholars at Ipswich
tlie title of one ol t) e t wo copies In ti c iritisii huseum in as
follows:
Rudimenta
'ranm a ii cas_ et
?ocendi uethodxxs, non tain sc: olae
(l-ypsuichianae pcr reuerend 1ssir.mn,
hboracensein.
P.
Thoiaara Gardinaleia -
feliclter Institutae, guari omnibus allls tot ins
Annlie scholia prescripts.
it’t V olsey t'id
boudoir.:
oro t sv
Peter Treueris , 1529. 4°.^
ve t’ e hook a r<-w t'tl'-1 and
the nnproval of h 's hi h on're; 'e added s n c
prcfat n y uatorl&l
not unworthy t] c former Info m a t or of "a da leu '’ra> riar Gehool.
First comes an introductory "orse
‘r. Latin, Ah loctoren.
2
Tv sn we
pet tl e inevitable preface, directed to td c ■a a tern of Ipswich
befool, in which 1 Is huinence points o ’t i’at a sc' ool In ,-soless
with-out teachers, two oi' whom have beer appointed to loach ...orals
and literature to the youth- y- their rharpe, ti o Lope of the
c omnonwe al th.; that to enable t. or to porfor:.' th.eli
'tiles " o
's
nrovidln,; textbooks, and a treatise cn o' e met’-od retd t eery of
teach Inr;, as well.
Tk is .Is followed by a tv,a**pa ~e° discuss lore of
t'!'o question, "quo o^dlte puerl in '••osbrun yymnas u.tr. shh.iesi
docendi. 3 I?,, quique anthores elisdem 1sic 3 nreleq-ondi. B
are
’loxt we
'Iven specific directions for toaclin . f c- cl 1 t classes into
which t! e
;s are divided; t h o ^ ;;h c oraprcl. 0
0 3
:lve, those directions
;ave i e no t-ifc of brevity-— they occupy only if roe payee,
In tho
^Tbe title of the other In t! e ruiuc, Put the edition Is
different; the second book cane from the press 'A. .artin daesar
at A ;twerp, in 1535.
O
‘Mafcsoiida re ark (p. 250) uhat to is qua: mar :fis founded
on holct's” is of coarse Inadequate nod jbus lead l.aq. Tbe sane m y
be said oh a s tatauent by ibiller fs Mortal n-nxy, lu p o ” -y/lyn,
in Kcclosia restaurafca, ed. «T. G. Robertson (Oanbrid.ye, 1849), I,
74, T,WiTero~ u-olsoy Is :7;.. to cave cou^r i'uuteu to, 'A.Ilia:.: 1 1 .. he
batxn qra-v jar, w."icb was issued wit’ owry V I I I ’s approval and
imposed upon all schools by Ldward V.t *s ‘injunctions! of 1547." —
A. F, Pollard, bolsey (London und „ew .hork, 1929.1, p. 33V, u. 5.
ViOlsey*s con.trIbutIons were not retained In fc: e editions of 1540
and after.
3
Ln the. quarto edition.
129
Treveris edition the text of the graneiar, identical at least in
order with that of the 1527 edition, follows iramedlately5 but in
the Antwerp copy we have justice done to the original compilers
in the form of another title-page, be-arin ; the familiar loannls
Coleti Tbeologl. ollra decani flvl Pauli, aeditio, una cum. quibusdam J. hlli.i Grammatlces rudimenta, inserted between the new and
the old material*
sections,
besides
The Antwerp copy likewise added two other
"be fominibus Heteroelitie" and "Regulae VorsifIcales,!i
the n-reek and the Latin vocabulary#
There is one point of considerable interest in tl o history.
of the Lolsey grammar which is not, unfortunately, altogether
clear.
Apparently the significance of the title escaped Luptonj
at least be does not neat ion It.
v.e arc told that the book was
prescribed for use in all the schools of Lujland:
"....non taia
seholae d y p s u l c h i a m e .... ins titutae, quam armiibus aliis to tins
Anglie sc3:olis prescripta#"
viatson observes that it "was intended
not only for Ipswich, and its masters, but as a model for the
organised education of ’British youth#’
But the lan.70a -e of
the title implies much more tv.an this— it was "prescribed," not
merely offered as a model tl-afc might be followed at the teacher’s
choice.
It would be extremely interesting to know precisely what
tills means.
Fuller says that -enry had determined as early as
2
1519 to introduce uniformity into the teaching of grammar;
but
he offers no evidence.
However, lie docs refer to a r e -illation on
this subject adopted by the Convocation of March,
8, 1550:
Octavo die Marfcii (sess, L U X ) de reformation© scholarum
grammatlealiura actum fuit: quia "multiplex et varius in
scholis grammaticalibus modus est docendi gramma ticara, visum
fuit necessarium, quod una et eadera edatnr formula auctorltate
Irnjus saerae synodi, in quallbet et singula schola grammatical!
per Cant, provincial usitanda et edocenda,— -In David Vilkins,
Concilia (London, 1737), III, 725-26.
when we consider the date of what Is probably the first edition—
June 4, 1529 (that of the preface is August 1, 1528)— we can
senso t: o connections
obviously there was a movement on foot so
regularize instruction, and "Wolsey*s grammar" was chosen as a
text.
But v/e are ignorant oi further details 5 and it Is unlikely
*P.
250.
2 Thomas Fullor, An appeal of in.lured innocence (London,
1659), p. 455.
130
that ti e i'alli:! , .dancollow , ad nncl time to spend on ouch :-uattors
as yranniar,
to a ’ sa 1 tor l olsoy,
rr,hln s ivor-o eonia
y ddn fh n &
t at Treveris was udlo to disnlay !d o book, m th Id o <.a eLi/iai 's
papal Ic.ate, ■"ar.pep'io, vs.r ope:-:in
ar.vo on. Ldw tillc-pa ;o, h n
Ho
trial of the 'hLn.d'c
rooaed; :'Ic cat: recalled
o
inso t', c o m ;
fne xluncror and rrasois wore
s l,:',iltancou3lu
al or I
pi/caln' tdo re ace a'
"which erected iVolsey *s
How
;n dal;, id c cocrt woo cro-
arriane,
Ga A r a l — t;-e
forei ;npolicy, ,,J" ’It e mi H y
C. un-
cel lor was ruined ; ’a -a a is? led ’ Is vaster at i•one ana ad road,
•In ictober ■o was dopr *vod
■ on I1 , O '1 1e was v:‘Id in a
a m n s t o n i or treason a
Thus a little
do wrote. t■-3 preface
2
a<I ;,oen dissolved,
d t o seals
?.lr. ■;;; Lee.
an at; or
ear Iron t,■o •"'ay v- on be pd. >nlu tin
s ertly aide wards
'o ,
.ore t‘an two , ears from
an a; nod din sc ool at IpswJ eh
olaey was no
bid he
1 ■■ dap on v’ Ich
nve L ’•oo to see to !t Id at Ids
M; seems m i t e
•rannar was adopted ay all ado schools of Ida land?
m l I k e l y , dot?- from tfo scare'ty of oyta/1 conies,
3
n:’d iron tie
shortness o ; !d e I fmo ho tween f e iirst edition an d ’’i° death— a
■>r-r 1o '
I vf-en, we nay presume, 1 e daci
om
to thirid o.bori Id an tie
Lai ini ly of hr -;li?b ycnth.
Yhatover do id o troth ---v id a ••initor, v deoaoo after
not.
no; 1 .in tent
and
all
‘'•an
an official
olsey
ra w a r ras appointed to ’■eplreo !' at
ot; o r s , 5ny ’onry i n v 1 a look
anod In >-f rl nn i ‘c- one
olr.ey dad adopted., wit1' a nr-r.Caco id le1 ‘’eclared in j'v ■!?-
torns
1 o ro^'al cn.na
iiwi Jand, “ Mhis was a
’•••pi-lid/]
d f-at
'.I do
pica!
V8S Im'ftH.On "f!■OW:
a‘
.or! ora. Ins i vcl;/ G:m''dh.cyci
"lor •n.ay’m ;
\ ’i h
f.
O VOW' 'v
as
arson says, aft or
f'PSPOt '’! ' G f: •'oynl
i'aprenarw m i io of •"eciivol;; id an do; I- o :in:r'.e m
a ;idioriuaoive
*
•
hooks fra pui .11 .:• arm pnlvato :,r.e,'11'
iIn ddir, connection, noo,
d'atson •oinls one n a.u t e a ■i. 'vrnceci
ra iOai' n
K. d. v.i-ui.'ibers, Ti oi.sas ore ^r.ondoii an>o
. ,
urfw
cv
n v ceded
vor:-., 11)35),
252,
2
Jaicos daii'fijier, Dictionary
n-f.'L 'on.al. ’ dodro',d:y, art,
"dolsey, dlioiaas," pats this in Die early sururier of 1330,
it riusL De rouieiibereti, hov;ever, t: at ol all -oots it is
textbooks which are least likely to survive:
ore t- an any others
they run the risk of heir.:; "litorally thumbed oat oi' existence,"
% e e iielow, p, 137.
260.
Of, p, 252,
131
tie issuance of tic akf orised ..oe.'.: oi Cora ..on Prayer, vl ich ap­
peared : irst in 1510, will a orci'acc vl ..el. "ave reasons for its
compilation r,.
‘.'uilr.r to s' m o
I\e . :or c:r:poa'n
li: .:ra r*n«r.)
Put
‘t 'a intor a tin • tv p.bid ini 5 cations x: nut1 oriacd
eo'tjonn
tr:
_ar.ru "'C fora
bi tie
c.uy
rm- i '• syuurmd.
■•no \
idea u'.u .not orl :inato v:'t' i'.o vnbarpy Pavrli- v
so rxci and accomplished so little;
\lto initiated
Li it did .it is Ironic in
tJ o
extra o it at t *e, ?f all "la •:rojeots,sl-mld dive tees fee
one
to ue carried or
1i,
;ool successfully after 1 in dealt*
Ilbellnu de eons true tlor-c* octo .oarilrr jr-il lonis
The- Llbellus is a syntax in La Iin, v.bieh lakes up about
bwen t'j leaves in tie beautiful yu.artos, \..it) ^
marplus u.:^ t !cir larye
rial, v ten were
1
1.
:onerous
oL considered too . ine
i or ,nrc .a>ai.j:£2 'S .y I; o tost ^r in tiny douses in. sixteeutl'i—eo..bary
tunvoce*
•. o tiiocjiors.' ■up ai .« o ooox .i.s
to ^eto-rviir.o:
m
a preface s„, eolol to ~.
uoo.n c.1...o ’em or
first edition, wllci. is-
s red l ro.... L. u x..ress of rynson u. iillo, see os in sau f a t w d e t
v.roto it; a
roal
any editions w Icn suosuy ;.e_.tly appeared on
t:.e doaiinout
ora m o
v, icn apyoareo
ni
m e n u s : ..u.. a
s onto on. t o oci .oxcus
t.:U facer jues, .,-u. s
..e L ; u, at
;iu. u. .u.
ac
ole t f or.
.i loi-.., sn.n j.n
v.rouo I, o
of
at ■
.viol's re-
anc.oti ..t over to i,rssen; j.or erienbat.' on;
t] as if o la.eter emended it m
;oiu. . .ms . o. u derails
,rolaco oy brasrms
clan in
:
t.'. in. s»
n. u e ur:ju, xu'te, v.e ;..u„ •ix0
. ..thoat
ti
at u, .u
tie v,.v_.v; accoptod Ly so: olarn i,oo.ay#
Poe uloellus ua., ...j-nxed ni
noli.
minus a
y m r : .o nix
over aurope, iii a Multitude ox edit cons , t ix n.t:ar t e end of the
sixteenth cent.ny »
sulBiaj.co
' o
op. loo
n
nlo.Peu,;:, ..re:p;onuiy
o L.Itlo ;ui‘ies, in©
t a '..ext never*— In natters of 1:upoi-taiice— in any of
p
a-'C o'aniiied*'"
e re aeon ..or t c p c y rlr.ro.ty of
jUOxi
u r.. . . f O
;
>.u n
Ui '.' 1'
'S
i:li. :0
uii
L
O•
..
lltrsn'-ies
f
i.ai■-■, ait’Lo n li r.j;.o ;.n i.. l y-eat ;o. dino..t&l li­
braries ylneln; Inn f ,e Vatican, t. e vibliotj^cue "ationalo, and
Ilia iia t i.Oiia1 -.;i t/11 o Iirek o i
ienna; stlii list it under tl o nane
of -rasnios.
...at 1 ' assured :ty Jro'ossor .Llpl.onse R o o r s c ' o n e
of toe editors of l : e . fblloypapblca Bely l e a * t?iat tie nro.feot
onee entort^iucd ;..1‘ m e 1-n.iny too y.-...
anoa.j I t looks oi'
ILrasmuK far b een def ini te ly abandoned,
u
2
-ranyin.
sa
I have collected notices of almost two hundred editions,
in time from 1:113 to 159b, and. in space from Venice to
152
tie book is not barf* to see. w 3; one nonpar03 It, with other avail-
a- le texts ox’ t o
tine,
as
as already noon no^ed {see aoovo, 0#
nsacvi t e e'io.-iyntary sta, ;ei
12V)» 0; .3 took v.as for 1 ocs v»x 0 i xu
At would xx> xa.px to xif, x
:il.l
ircrsuar.
fat ft k o
: a tort a;., fun .uxr xl.., if
xl.leiLcJ... ri.x/Ior axf ..vul :•■ outer
..A .Axrv/fi .s a u ■ ti. •Auino;
1 uii l.c .
era.,.-nm
uc.xnriee, no questions
examples, Y. It; oaf ela o x a h
var.:,ex to
..nxf j o ' . M
i; ■
.a s L
.0 1 3
On. xxal* tX’;ii.,;t.a :,
..o xo.i tf to u,-„ uoifiuinc ;; ;. rear, op V- •«
.1 an
i11 bo I law .
n;
('xouaf 'ox;: from v o classics. Alto-
us a
secovf f;fa-.e at’ iio
*
.0.. . xl «. ■;x t pi c ..-uex 01
to caste a xea:
c f or it oust .ave
1 ire 1
.A ail vo
ave
u
\.„t ,c.ao'.. L;; fiat t. o In torn-
oa
i f: , .-.
. x v x -A^ of
, u ■.v i .■«; xn.li i,o ■ xumiUin
tve priisu,.:, uv'Xa As uvlu._, n., A
’cx-up od
;H.uy ! lu .s."
s Lance
;
ALc
ii a I
a:.:
I
0
. rusi.nic
o .ul.Lne
b. 0
v .nt
o t t e r xxa...plus, expressed
I:or,3b ,
;xu
red
h
1 3
on
I
..eon
.f a r e
,
:-i.ou ■ c . i r - o r
j
set
i or- L
■n x i
■10 0 s *— J10
Its
x l s
.
xv
ore;-:. f u u u l
xx....ujx.
x;
a 00 00;,x>a:o'!
xori
i
v A.
■;
f.Ac:.., .n:u;l A.r
an
: Is d As co sr,lor., oi
ax entire Lp
.
u.s viluio
rO; ,/Ooi. x, •.
'A.'.ii'm v
.. rerf. ’
-q- Just A:.
a.;f: u . v; .In .erso. luj. xox*’,.
iulseent
no
of n o
/a ipr.ftu;
if n ’S
; o ; ■ io.’
a inx-fA
et
‘x.
!,
i.e.lr's
nfvxen 11 .0 •■or;.vo u.l
;ox;ve, xp ..tor,
e tinn spates tie il.reo cxxeords 3 8.uf
.a
dif-
e dexAvns ea.xl, u. id so purs, foe l.n (n,r»
so’jal vo'i'In ivlo five ci.assea— autivx,
le ;.,or;e;n ,
utcd
a x.1.1 y
t c s o tlx;:;
v;o ri. .rt. ujpicct ;.Aip i ;• foiiuiv.
1.
suf-
.or ra^ >'r ftn xuiIbu nas )
x: ■Lus
alt
3t
1
.... fj.lvAi.Lue, i-erndov.s, .■•fivnxjll, an.'. ur..,'Oif O:-
in;.,;.
t
rfl_.
.ore exactly ' if l-j
ts 1 Ikoru. s c,
L:loulj.ro was, in oiscouaiuv
.
1
.
u.-.d.
ill
point,
ave already pivon sore
t ; o,.c ;rug l.nenta.
I o n ,
ore oiearl;,
AmperfoclA
ixaportant
vf A. a
a.11
dot it .... ixlu
see. t likely yiioa, ,h l.el ti As la..;via; e roj.'ors •:.■.■• fefxAlx|
I l> r o s u o n s l
oUt-
next 3u; taxes
yx.joo,
a;es a line re. 1-
t: e active veil;, vx Act ire
0racoivf A,-.!.
; ave rot noarl,, fevered If o ifiold.
xveooa naps
Inf., art. " ixlx, ,illian'1) tl'.at .oily las feei; accused
a writer
iTTl:0 ;..ontM y review (an error 1 or t e .nlvorsal_ vafax In c , vlicn
iit 3 been, c lo vorl;; traced as tlx; 3 xurco
f f:-e utaLo ent by Tics
fertrude o a triers of ir e inlvers it.y of C M e a o Libraries), I (1747)
go, oi takiit over t.e r.-l.>olias fro!.; a voit; v.A tio a similar title
U Leonieeuur Onnibonus.
..0 U.s co 'r.-urod if e tv.o urri fou.nd 0
roscr iular.cc: ntatever; be t> inlcs that t."c cf.arxe arises from the
ilnilarit^' cxi titles» T«.ls is unite likely; one eoald oasily
.point to xaxp T s m a r s ulil titles exactly l e sane.
Oi;;nia ueroa activa uolunt ante so uoruimtivoiii usl
J*0
divides into six species; Id oso
o treats
"n
r-der.
In the first
species, tie simpliela, he lists all those verbs, no nailer what
t eir conjuration, v-l;ich lake tho accusative.
spoeel
c I audios in like fashion.
Porohtua be las similarly, Ini
k
g
Tie o t er parts of
active vert,
o diode seven s series of
Anvykyll das k.cx sane -dlvIs i n ,
proIliainary rods cuss lor. a .,>ul t c concords.
SjStGKiatlc troa.. ,o. I,,
at
.
•U
10:iponlus
a cjlloelion ;k ...;.ro
\ovolj
.nils id o
1nea ao
r- loss
■,n~
ora;anlaed notes.-1'
Those are id a
use.
.ran. ao:■■lane
do c'oo,'u I o did use ‘
men,
h.ly v.on Id be :jog t likely to
.In 'a, a I at v-cauld ’'G difficult
for us accurately ic trace— a. tun all, !o lob studied with
Sulpitxus, an:;, Pomponius, and probably w 1id Anv.yk/11.
reason to believe I'
•a I
none oi' t o
e seed,
co.osc. loasly or
ddore Is
inconscloasly,
introductory material of rulpltins &..d Perot bus o n
tie concords;
out 1 is aoproaeh Is entirely new, h e
divisions of
Id o subject are q d ie different, a h. t o s.f.stance is more ocoporaical in f o r m
A table
vf contents i.d.11 Line !f o plan of or­
ganisation of i1© dibcllns clearer:
he 0onstruetlone Verbi
dojiiinatluus ante uerbum
donltiuus post uerbum
natiuus nos f uerbuan
Accusatiuus nos I uerbu.s
Ablatiuus nost uorbun
lemndia, yerundiua nor.iina, ouplna, de p&riiclpiis,
de nominibus uerballbus
De C ons t rue 11one .borrdnls
Genitiuus
.os., nomen
Datiuus pool, ;ionion
Accusatiuus post uoi.-jen
Ablatiuus post nomen
Pronotainuia C ons tract :lo
Aduerbiorum Cons true tlo
uocatiuuin ac;entexu: & pos t so accusatiuum patienter:.
Cf, a ova, p.
127.
n
See tlio fnclelopodla Italiana, art* Thoto, Porynonlo, *'
for Lao severe iudanent of Sabbadiul upon his yra-'oaar.
134
Prepos 111onu:i 0 onstr u a t io
Do C ons true t Ion© (•on:' ime t .iornun
‘He Construct ion©
hiefc.bod ;f
V c verl>*
V
i ’ly
1u be r *in r;i ,1on*\m
blbolltis? ■iav, bo soon in 1 '-o section on
o
by o i . r v ' t b s I I. o ^orclnatlvo of I’e a;;ont
■)r ■>.f if e person veeelv Pi ■, V e act *on precedes every verb: and
adds V at ‘L n.qreos wit’: f f a v e r b
explains and qualifies I f M
in nmnbor and case.
.e thou
state--out vf tb four aprondicos a i'd
two exeoot *opn“~t1 o ipnoraonnIs and it o tm'1ni tive accusative.
?! o’- ’ e lists, classifies aim discusses
V c
ve'bs t.
o
• take after
then toe qenitive, f o d n t v e , uccusnt *r e , a >d a’.-lafive »
finis’ in
too vert v e treats
followed by another in V; o
t,’ c a. lativo.
of if one cases
A fter
in v!* led: a noun Is
■ouillvo, t". e da five,
tko accusative,
The of: er r-crts of speech reco •ve, of c -irso, Lbo
sinnler treatment if at t e ‘v iiai ;ie deoanbs,
fo doubt ..any Itig Lh s c o s
oi' s iallar't •, or oven ibont Ity,
oi' Ian oaeo could no ;u ovr. • otv/een Ifil-f a of oar.lf*r
7b e example quoted above
(p.
132)
's a case
rcno .iblances, 1 a > convinced, are relatively
ever use
Lily nade oi' t e works
inclearness and brevwtv,
of otnern,
7j; point*
irartuariaas•
fit tl ©so
miinportantj v/h.at~
• ecerts inly Improved,
upon a rep of Vis predecessors with
w’ on
wo are acquainted.
lii.
De penerl'OiB noj.ilmua ao u crborian prae ter it Is
et suplnia rerulae
’
Quite independent
of tl o Frudlnenta aod f- o b lfelins are
two sr*ort Latin pram..iaI leal coons on accidence vff eb. Lily ap~
1
parently des.lqned as part of a cormLcte series.
As wo Dave al­
ready noted,
:in cfoosln
verse for
Is nedb.ru M l ; was followiuy
not only tbo tradition of bvrard euf Alerardcr, out likewise the
practice of some of t o cost respected of tp o iruianist yramr.mrians
1
f ;is Is t'-o baforeneo to ’-0 drawn frcw t; n lan I .Lino of
the Propria guas -narlbua (see below, p. 136.)
bunt unae deficient yonore, udieciiua notanda,
De o u l d m atquo all,is alibi tibi uowtio f let,
Tnus hoeertson comments: ,(I£x Doc loco appapst /.ilium de nominibus
trt-poK A L'Toc$ ant s crips is se 'quae noncluo, prod leri.it, aut hauuisse
in anino ut scribe rot, morto tanon prasuontom rum absolmisse.f*
o
"dee above, p. 116.
135
The poems ,-my ’--avo boon hirst yuriis: cd ;rj tboiosolves,
but Lie earliest ed ILion
now in the hritis!
cess or at f t.
;
ave noeii a lo
~
i'inO
Is
I at, of 1535,
use mi, i-evlsed and an Tiented. by ally's suc­
a 1 ' s , " hi con-bi-lav -lorn hi -hLwlso, v-It:s a vo­
cabulary contributed c. t o
'b_
L
latter,
ho
title i-ons as follows:
1!,.!1 dRAhl.jitlci o l noetae exinij,
olivn cigtyerat-oris, -n
hmlinae scholae
■onorhm.s nomi.nun, A c vor’ilotn-un pr-aetorlt is
el cunifilr: Re yulae puoris apprlrae utiles.
Onus Hecop;nltum &
adauctun ciua tojalnmn ac lerborum Intorpre taxiont.ls, ner Joannem
Rltulssl Scholae faulxnae praeceptoris.
In Rapa, Anno M .D X X V ,
dense lunlo.
earlier edition, althou. .1>
jColoo’!on] Anfcuorplae
Tills would sa .vest an
i, is nos si- lo I-.at hi ;htv/ine cade his
revisions of an unpublished text.
The -xmtis1 buseoj.i Catalogue
lists another edition, s* 1. d ,, v;:.t]. <ce query 1520?, hot the
da ijQ h.US t he too early, as Ally was still flourishin . as neadrnaster in 1520,
The title
>v f e nook is
the sa.,e in ooth
editIons.
A third edition, finely Printed, appeared in 1532; conies
of it cun ce seen today in t' e princi pal libraries oi' iiurope.
The title Sj
a now editor a.u now ;iatorial, and ti.e absence
ovib
0-i t e former editor's vocai.-ularys
(jVnlilh.i LxLli, oLii-' SuoQLAK
h,uhIhAh apnd hondlnum moderator i s , de hat lnor.ua nnr.iinuia yeneriutis,
de uerborum praeterltis& suolnls, re.yulao non xalnus utiles, quai;
compendlosae, cum annotationibns THOthul t i n .l.RTS.h.I Kboracensis.
dbldud access it de noninlbns heteroclltls, de uerbis defectiuis,
ac denruin de nersibus paiije.1alls, auctar.lnm ueutiquar, noenltenduia,
per e and era 'h di.TAh II)
I. b O J -O O i:O il j
i t -I
.1 0
i.
obth, appositis unique annotationibus.
h i.O V. ,
xh . t"l
,
/1.* :. .!. .
O-i. 0 , / 1- . 0 . ,
... * ),
One. I . . h i ,
Ji
.1
i n . : , qV :'e b b '..
-Ibby,
■
■X
The new editor, a scholar of distinction, had been master
ol ■a. 't.alsn - m m i ’ ■-c ool tl.hXiCO .L52(5.
ho explains why ; o ^muertanes to
’-aci n a m e d t •--o earlier text,
]n tie epistle dedicatory
-at o'.it a now edition— errors
jwin : no doubt to t o premature
death oi' oily, who had left his wort unfinis: o b , and
i j one nastc o^. ...:o u.t--filters v.no
hook from b c . lor
as ...... were * anut -•. en t o
:u its . n d h o r L
;et it on tno stalls.
1-6 Y*.13 >~U& to V 0wlilG Jlit/ L.'.’O WOIO. \V.Lu.‘.
<
iXOCl
nvin .
: also
tiOIli’ VOhXCh' tjiiy
sosides
ilxil iiOI*
-C j,O pc S L' Ltt> i>..-C; :;ODk Vm'.il utl-lO (t 0 ]‘
vlU06 £tS ml:8
S lyS.Tid.ciI'd. tiCC J-d’criOO
’ W l O.
■ iA.uOiltiS iOX'
syii LctX Hi
L*j.
Tabula de scheiimtibus ox Tetrus ••oselianas 1'or versIficat 1 on•
133
The tout proper .is divided into five seiwhnns,
on tie .jenders '>x nouns, lo .,11;, ‘s lie plac
h..wt j,
-e.jorales proorioriui.
oi' whir1'' V e i irst lino is m o well-known Propria quae inorl.jus
fcribuuntnr niascala dleas.
do: ertson
.
0.
-.. .ola toons, in dree':,
13
Latin, and webrow, av,e ,
or in ted on over-,/ :.a e
.ooeaU; n o
text and co-i-soniai’/ n e a p / scventeon folios,
''h'ls Is
a pa ;e and a half to she reader servhw
vorsos;
‘oil owed Ly
as an iatroaucLion
0 0
tie
:\caL section; it ends with hoar ire eh verses iron h;:eownis»
Bset-kon. ,1 Is dowerts o n !3 nnci.i on the ketoroolltes, with
his own annotations, coveriu.. ten folios.
the opcniiny vorse is;
wuae genus aat flexurc uariano, nuaecasaruo nouato,
II v/as enviously written to natch 'Lily's 1v o woerrs, the second
cn
01
,-cn ...a :c-o -p naif .
' u- o
this is cev'd; or lo h o g v,e iepitw s
s ivipic verbs a f h e
As
s..pine' It
opt'-s i d h
in pixse: fcl vwrfoetuoi l/cr.oit in aul.
Like m.o ut. or two pieces id
as its
.1
jiunenlnry, t..e vdwcle taking
up a oi-ifle over fifteen folios.
war I IV, '..LudCotlj Oi.ti.tick a. ..ppc.ndlx, in a wowd: s orter
vui-se dviid.oO on dofocnlve vsrhn, with, a tow notes— all by
Roltn-ivSo.i,
'd
o text occupies only two and . half leaves,
liext we yet an oh. or address to h o
hall' in lonytr, cochin
resile: •, a pane and a
with an appropriate lino (in Creek c:a^~
actors) fron iixocritus.
kart v
cops
w- it
so olarly tone;
if we .ins v<.t,. two lines fron. Calliriaci us, line’,wise in Creek.
The section is entitled C 0 .0 ;.endtun uersificatlonls , aul £_T/x&AonA
Like warts
prose,
11 a-.d !V, -j;
1
e h e vow'd of Robertson, and, tho'uyh
it I as I e inevitable acsoa: any in _. no tea. it;
’ 3
in
over seven­
teen folios lone.
:>ut h e w w
Latin
3
was not fated to ,e as nopula: as slip's
/rifa.xj evidently
on t. c waec,
ho
a iLirly
0 .0
w
;oo of Ls tin
to...s 1 ve :n arch
;ra' irsr
have
'n worse vcas
c-o nr.on only
five o h or ;wp; 'w l o editions, t. r latest fro.r Colo no *n 1355.
hut oust of if i- text was
h icorp orated in h o Ins fcltut 1o cO'-upeiviia -
r-la, .h 'w1' v-G s’nil icxl eonnt/'cr,
: ’ tivc
ad no opportunity to: r n n w r e h e
text vw d' o i k ^ r
the hoctrlnale or ti o irociseius; out it should surprise no one to
find If at oily '’orrowod ir 1'fii..
:*
.(Ol
t
0
= of at '
I0 3 contemporaries
would: expect; that is precisely how Etanhridyc worked.^
^As Grader demonstrates, ny. 13-20.
133
The text prop:.'.-:- .S divided
;exiaej?3 oi nouns, -c
on a. e
Into five seat 'nas ,
d.l . *s liepulao
a,at j,
<o piraloo ^roopforuti,
i s ir.o v/oli-known. Propria, fmae morlnus
or wi’j.oo f e first lino
dcf erts on 1a n
tribauntnr i,iascalu fleas.
oleLa. ons , in
Latin, and fobncY;, are nrinbed on over,/
,a.o
te.xt and coaiftontary jcclx; scve-.icon folios,
onci,
onieabd n o
f ■ In "s
versos:
'jllo-.vod. by
as ao intrtxiuclioi z o i -e
a pu ;e a.id a I all to tic roader servo;
next secd.Lon; no ends wit.;. Poop ..-rooK verses iron 'a eonnis,
Section
il is Robertson's
iio zwii anno 16 ti ons, covoriii.
on too fcteroclites, wit?;
!il c oporip. •• verse is;
ten .folios ,
nuae ponus aat flexas: uariar.t, j:uaoc annuo nouato.
J.L v,as e n v i o u s l y v.Txi be.'; to n a t e ’: ,A .Lj *s ' vo ooeii’s } if o s e c o n d
o.„ e-._i.elj o.£i :os up ..‘non ..
ox' v,
oils
:ic dev-''tea i-a !; e •■•reterj.t1 s
a triple veins a .o ti. o s- .nine; it ■
\f f.f
As in prese tl norfootnn for.vat In avi,
ijj_.ij.e i>-v; .j i._.c.ii xvvo j.iiccOi; ; .
o,s
...o
.,_v._r;;oa* y _. e ~!:'';de ^ .
■f 3a ‘
up a mrli'le over lifted" idlios.
rart :v, :.:o-.:vk-.i,j.j o ■ o. o.i.cc o;.v; .ijjcn.iix, to a iron snorter
voj.'so n o a d i u
Ro..wruso.i«
oil ..ofocoiVG verbs, v. Ltd a row ■notes— all dp
’n o tcxv, occupier, "'nit tv-o arc'
Palf loaves,
text v;e pet an o f or address to dr. veade' •, n tare and a
icali in icii.'jtj:, cru...r
n .^n. an evproprlufc 1 in:; (in dpeelt s' in'5—
actors ) Iron fi.-cocri bus,
leri ; -co;n
t c s ■■-. nlar-ly tone:
ov.'o lines iroi;. Caliino.c.'.us, linoo Iso in Cvoeiz,
is no om; w .t,
Tlio section is entitled (Pxp,ending. uersfflcationls, aul i T t \ a A o n A
Lxne Parts ;I a n
;V, i;
jc v e v.-orir. :,f Rc'-ertson, and, i;Pa.p;h in
prose, i t
‘ uy, t e ^riev 1 ba..,lo accnrir anpin ; notes• it ’3 over seven­
teen folios lor;;-.
i-ut ifc re-tv' n a s
aali.ni sjrisaxj
on
ov.^e.eetlp
i; c v.a.cc.;.
five
otter
du.s ..ost
a
;p;;;vipc
-p
c
not
t vo
fs-Led
to
.c as
ops.lar as
■■■.; "’v: o i.' as tin
re nfiT
l a i r l j ta:de...y i r-_- ; sure!
c o .lII o ns:. t o
text vac
latest
incorrcoi-f' 1 od
isvc
:n
*s
voree
e -~n nr-on
frcne C 0 J.0 ie
ir: f e
Instil-tlo
v'an
snl—
IftgR,
eo^aendip-
»
■
"«
■I
"
.-'-.
'
.
'
!
.■
.
r l a , ■P-e1' v-g s’all y-.c.xt eons i-’cr*,
■ •avc
ii.ci r;o opnortnni.ip tr r e m r r o ti r- text v:*.~v ei.t-nr
;C ; octr-inale op ta o ::ro cl saras * a,..t ...t sfcn.ld snmri.se .no one to
1 xjK.. o'as ally ■'orrov'Cd i'ror; b >t .
'’aat ’
n; at i is c02iterapor&ries
wonli: expoctj tf'al is precisoly i'on atanbrldpc v/orl-ed,1
1
As 'trader de. ionstrates, no. 10-20,
153
The tor/; proper ,-.s divided info five s ect'one .
on tie .;enders -n nouns, la .f.Ij *s ^e, ,ulao
'Vet J,
:c..Hirales prorrlorunj
or tff.V t’e first lino is t* o well-known Propria quae morions
trlbuuntur laascula tlieas.
foieriso;;*a an ■,ola Lions , in drecf:.,
Latin, aval Iseorew, are nrin bed on ovoly
text; and co.-noniury
jceury seventeen folios.
a pane twkl a } all' to tie reader serv.ln
next section;
:.a. e
-oncath o'c versos;
nil) is
'ollowed v
as a.n .uitroo-.icLion to too
it ends v;it3, four Creek verses frow -jheorinia.
Sectxon
-I is donertson *s noeu on tic roteroclites, ivltf
Lis own annotations, eoveriu , ten folios.
The oponinp verse
s:
,.uae perms ant flexuir. ua.r-larm, ciuaocuMtjuo nouato.
it v/as o n v l o m i y v;ril ten to match L i l y ’s 4v.o noerps, the second
oi. v.f.cf .;ianes
y
lari ...1,
This ...s devoted
of i, c a triple verbs a d tic s..pine* it
Lo t o preterites
•eyf’n vf th
As lit preso.nfcl ^ r f o c i u n Ihrnat in avl.
Lilie o c
ol -e:i* two pieces
i 'as Its .nnitnenfarp,
tie
"
‘ -3.0 tcdcinp
np a trifle over fifteen folios,
rari :V, uodostl;/ entitled or. ■ppc:,d 1x, is a neck V o r t e r
m-so
uoakoc
Ro forts on.
on .Infective versa, with a few notes— all by
ff.o text occupies only tv?o and .
:
. half leaves.
text v;e yet an o f or address to k.c reader, a pare and a
half in lenrt.e, erdir : r 'in an appropriate line (in dreek c’a”~
actors) frcw freocritus»
if ,;o;;ins s h i
iarf v . coos op k
s •; olarly tone:
two lines fron. Callim o h u s , likewise in Creek.
The section is entitled Cor.-pend.liun uei-sificatlonis, aui £.7~ / Y a A o n A
Lire farts
X and
iV, ! i. > a tl e work of Robertson, and, twouyh in
prose, it las tie inevitable) a c c enranyIn p. not e s . Tfc
'3 over seven­
teen folios Ion;;.
rut if c wenr was not fated to :
.e as popular as oil;. *s
Latin syntax; evide :fly Lao vo pro of Latin
j'awr'
'n versa war
0-0 upon only
five o f or syy.Tulc editions, tic latest I'rc't. Colo pio *r 1555,
on toe v/aro.
& fairly or to. ..si no r a r d
•Jut; west of if a fcnxt was
ria, :i ' f
' fare
incorporated :ln tf e Inst3totio conpendia-
ve f a l l next considcr.
'J 1 is vo ’ ad no opportunely to conacre
tic text vf.tk o W r
if e foetrirale or If o wrooisiruis; out 1.1 a3 ould surprise no one to
find that 'Lily '•■orrov.od I'rou
Vf ,
•f;,t
"3 vf at, its c ont emporar ies
would expect j that :•s precisely how Stan'bridpo worked.^
-j
As firader demonstrates, no, 18-20.
137
iv.
The final form of Lfe yraniinar
As we have already seen, a novo eui. was on foot b..riny tie
lifeline of Cardinal
olsev
.oil'iif. was to coj/ig of t M s
to re ntlariae i' e teach inlor somo t h a e | duo
of
rauutar .J
154b a now
text made its appearance, eased on t e K m ’Itio-rudLmonta, the
Elbellus, and t:.e be .;cno rib as nominam; IL
-000 a preface v; Lch
made Its use Mandatory In the teac’ I11..; of Latin In England,
tenry the VIII..,.to all ac;•oole;m is to r s an.1 bcao5 err. n:
gramme r within this M s realm groet^nyo.... to id -o intent
that herafter they iEnglish e M l dren] may 'be wore readily
and easily at to in niio mid;, mcnt.03 oi the lai;„TW toun„o, with­
out the yre&be .I.yideraunce, vd icl’ •cretoforo hath, 'aan,
through the dlucrsitie of Tamnors and teach ,11 :cs: v;e will
an: corfflAannde, and otrei Lily c' arye al you eel'ooleroa1s Le rs
and teachers of ramer M.tbin this our realm©, and otiler our
dominions, an ye intend Lo nuoydo o n displeasure, a id fane
our fauonr, to teache a-d loarue y o u* ac olurs this oa, ,1;/S3he
Introduction bore ons u.i n ., and a - latyne
rau;cr sunoxed to
the sane, and none of: or, vf I M wo haue caused i or- our ease,
an;] your scholars spedy prefer. m t hryefely a,v plaguely to
be coiapyled and seih. J'orth. .havIe :ofc to apply year so' olars
In lernynye and. .odly education.
This was followed ay u:a add moss to L a ,a .' ..rs of fa-,I lies,
Me
sc‘ oolitwsters, and the ”teed or Labes" of
parently by the printer.
..land, written ap­
It explains nuoh oi' td-.o rIstory of the
-oak.
To the re de r....Ami as Lis malestg purpose tl. to o stably s’o ''is people i:u
one consent a id arnony of pare and tru rely;,ion: so his
tender yoodnes toward the youth and ckyldhode of l.-is realms,
entenuetL to .haue It bra . f t vp vnder one a ! salute and vnlforoe
sorte of lernynye.
for* his males t'.e consider/ig; t* e ;roat o 'comb ranee and confusion of ti e yon ; and tender wittes, by
reason of the diuersity of nrayxner rules a n d lo n e in. y.r,.
(For fere t of ore euory maister hud i.Is rammer, and ouory
scholo dyuers toachynyes, and ckaungyng of maisters and 3 e-bole a
dyd nany tyraes vtterl,, d nil and vndo ;ood wyttes) hath ap­
pointed. cerfcein lernod -en ucfco for svrehe a r rpone, to conplle one bryef, plaine, and vnifor.uo grammer, vb icf oroly (al
other set a p a r t ) for tie more spodynesso, uuu lesse trouble
of yang wittes, bis by'hnos hath, commanded all so.l•olor.iaystors
and teacl ers o f grammer, witi in i1 Is his realms, and rid er
his dominions, to teacho tf oir scholera.. • .And somevf at to
declare vnto you the condition av.d quail tie of this grammar,
ye shall vnderstand, that the VTJI partos of spec;’, a n d tho
Construction of the sace, h e n o t 'ere set forth in oaglysshe
at large, Ijut compondyously and briefoly for M o weak© capacitie of yon,;.; and tender wyttes.
And tl'erforo if anytlymy
serneth ’ oro to want in ti is en ;lys'e Introduccions, „ o sball
■^See above, pp. 128-31.
130
valorsf aside, it, was lcl‘t o \x, of •urpose, urf s. all be supplied
In tbe lat^n riles nadc I'or u c su;..o intent, v.f.iehe cb./ldren
shalbe an to to I a m o , v" at
L e y stall >auo con.ye tout
vnderstaaclyn.; by L e s e bonnier rudioiontes
Too oar-Hosl
noon edition
aoine euarto on velluu: ..on in; T c
proper Is preceded ’p, one
;i t e now tent lo too ’ andr ’tlsb uoe.oo,
'alb oriir; (f o*ir leaves)
b e alpLa -et e-d a ‘esteohis 5' in,
o lf ialir. a-u
differs eons iderabl;/ Iron Colot 's eatecbisns
T o
raninar
taken up v.TtL
n list,
It
in-u sections on
sbnr’ty ana I’ e seven sacea ie: Is unc xofl o ;t, as well as tie
bratlunenla ad Quorum lesmn; L ewprecentes of lyvynpo " are trans­
ferred, crue: altered, but v:\ ti a Latin, tra,:s 1c lion, t „> b >.> :>ody
oi H e
oook, under id o title '''.fxlly lessons for fLylGren'1j tbe
ton eo-iKiananonus :.:c ii.o new orators rro \ •o in b cl.v stead.
tact all d ;at is left ■r: u- e "nr .alter, V <*
all
In
ary, t o creed,
I g C 0 :icsaaGxiouts, t o s e.-t.-ar,. s.. i, o Co; wneKliienls in. .aftfew 22:
oY-40, t o
.oldon r ile*’ (fro;.;
al 11 et V : 12), a verso from
lanes Is 17- and L o two rev prayers — all in dot1
.on. llab except tbe tvo vorsos from ill.,
w. l.lsf- alone ,
As
text,
of er- a
1
I
Latin and
utf’oi., v1 :
1 c]. appear in
0
oth pra faces In clcato, b o r o are two parts I :jtbe new
one an elementary ..anual
or -e inners, In
,orc conplete treatise lo 'Latin,
bn I is , t’-o
cue1' section " as Its
own t1 tie , altba:)., f tbe two were cowwonly or In ted’
and. bound to­
ot'er i ro ; Tool t;c :r lory act va’lod 1:1s lory,
Tie .an-;1Isb part Is a H o d An Introduction of fro f,y. ft
Part os of a jflcl'tSj a.T T o
ons tree ..Ion, if t o
sotto fortoo by f- e conannclenent if our
CLV
ont
sa .o, c
mllod and
;rac:l.ous sovorayne
V o t L p r e f a c e s are roorinted In tbe fnafosnea re Jabrbucli
(1U0.J), op, d5-dG,
p
Lupfcon, foies and queries, VI series, 'II (1 GO), 4dl, says,
■’takl:u; also Into ac count b o alterations in too religious rudi.eats prefixed, we ci i fairly call Lee c-a.nuar, in. Lj Ik Its
sec :>r;d scape Iberinniny; e. 1540], an important document of state,
load,/ connected v;l if L o boforo£>t:loi!." nut wiui*e is no Lai no in
L o !,reli ions rub li:ienls'? o.i lie 1540 edition vf i d c yalf Lu said
io savor -x tf.c Ho for at ion, excoet ••ossibl,, Lie e/uu iorat Ion of
L
coevm.andemon.ts, vf :lc:f is L.
ef
x.rc llsf i.-rotesfca;jtla)L,
cut wflcf cm'uil.’ 'arG.lvv at t at tl.c;o ' ave boon uistinctlve——the
j-KU'-i'orin 1‘oen.f today In fatlolic
1 Ins was not fetor: ;ined unt il
f e Council of Treest. and, so far as wo can tell frosra tbe fraye
a t
: . o c e v n
went of tin 151c edition I at survives, Lforo was c.otbln.; partic­
ularly Protestant about T a t issues
as & -.natter ol b act T ore is
.lozhln
jf a rsli ;ious nat,;.ne on tbe four loaves at barf.-oth except
139
lorde t~ e 3cinr;,
Ti'. consists ol' an accidence, based on Colet *s
Aeditio. and a syntax based on lilies •rudimonta and his 'Gxdo 11ns ;
----- — ’
“
--- -— 5;—
—
it includes !,ilo,fs famous G a r ien no
orinns«
Tie Latin section f ollov/s, v.itd a in tin i'n. t ..odesily
disclai.-ifl all pretense at corupiotouoRs , \ • lie soldi,/ vindioat ian
its tl. 3: authority;
insbitutlo donipend.iar.ia "-otlis
raiinai.ioae,
.,aaa Kt hruditlsslraus atc.ic Idem. U l u s iris3 Irons box nos tor-
00
nomine euul.parl lu3 3.lt, .it non alia qnan liaec ana our totan
Annllam puerts praele;
■-:cret-ur«
tta colopton m m s :
Qfficina Thcnae dortteleti Typls tmpros.
^tendum Loinm.
A n n o
It is to
Verbl incarnatl.
tout Ini, i-lx
Gum hrivile; ;lo Ad Impri-
* r. J t »
noted that v. n uale 0: t u n s tlt u lio la 1540,
both on tic 1:1 Lle~otv :e and in
h o colon: or..
-.xL. ... at
oi‘A ji in­
troduction is 1542* vb■lie t e
little cate cl Iso- 1as still another
date* 1 5 4 3 .
The situation
's not alto'other olear»
troduction* uatod 1542* syeo’u u'lce
Latin part,
hue
iin :1c tvo prefaces) oi' the
but ve > ave a coup 0 >' t 0 ...atin carl
a ted .1,49.
shat t'. e L n p l i a ’: port was li k e w i s e
in p r i n t bp 1540,
nov;ever* this conclusion Is ..of i n e s c apable:
e v e n t:o a p h A n I n t r o d a c t i o n * ..,ein a ; 00k x o r be. :
inners* naturally
preceded I c I n s t i t u t l o c o n t e n d i a r i a in .ice, and is f o r this
reason bound up before Its basin counterpart In t ; 'nse-iri cony
v/e ave 11 s c u s s i n
as roll as in all sobsepuent volumes, never(1 e l o s s it need not 5are been written first, the tvo sections
s h o w a remarkable similarity; t ooaten ifj indeed I o n
er than t'-e
Jin.
t r e a t i s e , hut not so nuel Ion. er as one v., .1;
no led by
tiie p r e f a c e s to be l i e v e , i>.s a metier -v. fact the suspicion pre­
s e n t s itself id at b o t h were rot In t. o orif inal plan — -t, at vn.icbe v e r p a r t was c o m p o s e d 1 irst, h.. was
ce-a or Ions an an aftertiiou;jlit that the o t h e r w a s d r a w n up, auu t!at p u i t e c l e a r l y o n the
b a s i s of the one already c o m p l e t e d .
or.ee it may well he that
the Ins titutlo c oirinendlarla was pin U s ! ed : Irst: and t: at d e n it
was f e l t t o o difficult f o r t e n d e r wits, An Introduction was p r o ­
v i d e d as core suitable.
This
0 1
' c.v'-.roo
.n ;lish In­
would
indi c a t e
This position Is, I ti Ink, stren.jtbened ?n the evidouco
a prayer to which, any Chrlstl"-'' ,.tl.I ■■ vb oleheartodly l ave sub­
scribed.
“hsec abovo* chap. vii, pp. 87-91, 95-97.
140
oi' the
rla.
me
7]:g
other remain Inn copy oh t- e 1540 Institutlo compendlatook is in t e lloraxy
the- ''rclioiinary oa;:as
at Lambeth
appears the device ov
yooisly painted in try
hand.'1 Low f
likely' supposition that we oavo
is ..irhness;
Coaid
err
t. a corresooroiin
On one of
•"looo
Grard,
"or—
is has
led to t-o altoyet) or
t. e eo.y
ado o"oyv3?ily lor
oa o "n Lie
aseun copy is blank.
*t not he that if e .‘.nstitutlo sompendiaria was first printed
in 1540,
hot;.in
if o x irst
copy of v c oh hi Ion
would please
ear old
entry more,
; nil was : sadl,; ready for
hertbelet could net r e a d
d u ction dated 1540
arcs of onward.,
reasonably
t?
L ai \u-eu i o
t
.alter
my?
f l c threeIn any
,ivo fira t; o first h o o k
)h d o it*s o
II Joes
Ivor Co ^ o
e could wait.
e to
-say some day i uni
nut uni'I
suppose
,
win ;
h at did
ovocL the appropriate fain ■ would
that
Paiaco.
copy o f An Intro­
y
y>, likewise reurin ; the
J. relieve that wo ;.iay cot u n ­
uitin section. v;as pu ;Iisbed,
i'It.' or :enry himself or t.:e compilers decided if al evert the pre­
cocious brain of y oun;, auvvard.
hr. ,IIsb Introduction*
would
do well
in any case, that
to be ;iawith an
l e latter
part as well
as t; o for.=ier was intended for the use of the prince is indicated
hy line 231 of An i n t rodaction:
road,
lfJoannes
whereas
is m y propre name,'* i ore we have K d u a r d u s .
halliard
as described, the
Institutlo comperxdlaria in his
catalogue of I e library at Lanbeth,^
to all the schoolmasters
It be,;ins wi th an address
of the realm:
yistris; and another to the reader.
by a definition oi
"n fact
Totius nilyliae Lnaima-
Then comes ijdward *s device.
Tiio text was divided Into four
divisions,
in later editions we
.nequal sections,
orecoded
rammer a •<.*. a s calc. :ent of its divisions, vf Ich
II not
in exact wordin
wo uack to Priseian.
The four parts ‘Day he schematized as follows;
Cf. S. R. haitland, A list of some of the early p rinted
hooks In the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth TLondon, 1343), '
ppT’
^SBS-1?, who""" ;Tves a detailed description of the pa ye on vh ich
the i(Illumination" occurs;
!L flank, as it regards printing; but
n..'-arly covered uy
illumln.at ion, consistin' o. a frame almost
5 l/2 Inc'-es hi h ’>y ah cut 4 Inches in width, contain in ; a circle
of about 2 inches diameter, with large golden rays Issuing from
its circumference.
In the interior of fa is circle arc tho Prince
of b a l e s ’s feathers passiny t: rough a coronet, a?;d with th eir
label and motto beneath.
The ground of this interior is party
r;or palo azure and ulos, and in the space on i -a dexter sine is
a golden F, while in tho correspond.I:;p space on t1 o oih.cr side is
a similar h»if
list, pp. 207, 3U5-92.
141
I, De Ortho;:raphla.
(Hst recto scribe ndf ratioj
De I i t e r i s .
])q syllabaram f is tlnctionlnui«
De ortl -a poo l a ,
(Kat emendate roctovio lonua ;ul r a t i o . ,'
De 3 0 atettfclari.ua yanebis.
Tills ;.aier'Lal, v; It:'
In !•]•© cole I-Li 1„
undos
..puni,
n : uv:
m or, 1 u u..m
■.• ■s _ ■' bu ..unlove 1 in
r.*r i tar;
orl ;in,
II# De Ixbvmolo.l a .
Do re no d a r n
:tica;iin. ;S““ tae sa- n: two
at
''etymolonyu las tv/o
.oaninps ucrre ir, the woitil
Forme nleitro Uj modern -orntt;:
A# The study vb.icb Is concerned o d d
Invest I jil ’u ; tho
oriuins ox words;
b. Tbe study v;’ .'.cl: ’s concerned with
!/. o InflecLions
01 words j
ratio coynoscendl casnina
dl s c / d n l u n ; ilu't is no s a y #
accidence.
tlo word will be used. iu
t; e s e c j n
In id is took
sense,
de
compiler-
elndit imrts of s p e e d .
treaiuievit of -.ender;
Under f e noun wo
rhct and
considerable addition.
at ’least c ue
’•or i d > e be roc I I d s we
find Kouertson *s yuae y c n n s .
In pr&osonti
tne preterites •>h I o simple
!’or
t e verb re :a ve
(dub
•/aria 1-.Ions}, on
verbs j f ..•liov.ed
Ho-oertson *e verses on I f -o teteclive verbs
prose c o n s c a e
ton-.
et a
■L curns out to ;o Lily's
P rooria# v;ldi a nrcse
Lily's p oem As
ons tlrouyL ID u
one
■ an. os
is also sone otf er material,
(with
In t o to>t , )
ve ‘u 1 v as
There
nred aid. de­
rived from t.- e A e dltlo-r no itn n t a . ^
III, Syntaxis.
be Uonstrucfione octo part Dun orationis.
but first wo are riven a fen n o d s
c o n c o r d s ;i in
'lenara!, waken
a d d
t: e '’three
ore’-' inn-is T7d i-.;oda.
After tf is coiies t! o d„ r,tao: proper, v h .ioh '.ears cor tain
resemblances to t e
.ieellus.
tie so oil on c loros with
eipbt napes De flyuris— a c c o r d iiv to ;ard the verbal
figures are from Petrus
'noellpms,
"tho neither tbe
"^1 Iciiov; cf no basis d fact iuu- I o s'ntcedl;
f U.oc 'ary
Betli i’tev;art in "billl&m blip's contribution uo classical study,"
Tne classical Journal, VXXIII \193u), 22!J: u hll0 h iviclos I is Be
upamaaI.lea into four '..ain 1•...ad s , ul vblei. only o'; o fii'st two are
cferinltQly known to be enbiroly Lily's owrx work....If
142
dori nit ions, nor
sure \ f I
.1
o cxa/uplcs, uvc
Lis, a i. ~ o II yxes
ntirul;/ isle j ti e
xl cons truev Ion v/ere
ocrrov.’ol fro... ...mrd ."isurlno , a IcnTxed nh.slcia.n and
friend rl
IV, de iron :f la.
"’ 1
lirct b r a m so by uo ortron, i>i?2 since
o
ru-.«i ejila.rged,'*"
fix only utfro Luov/n editions o.r i, e
Lj Is a »a(,e a m
a quartc ..re le-io rcce.Llj
. r m iav In exactly
L:„ if o poasees Ion el
.tuarlLel
two octavos, an trclitutio coiipondiarla i‘or fold,
~
,
4
and iui .Liitrc1*C !'i.Ou -arc
.-:.Lu in.>.m. n u o .rrtwoj..:. m u i r s t ,
/ill V/ere
'.Lulls’'Od by
n-ptbol^t,
Tne next ex.tan I edition caprlod a 1 J.JLTci>cnt title, tho
! ".tin r at tbo
vo'eh
’ran'urr- res to :oar l .o'- t o
u f.'.sr section,
ave its na o L > II o vb olo .•ool:, Lies. ;]j tie separate title-
repo for- T o
Tn tin ;'nrl v.->a retained
„ e vork v’u nit l.lj ] t' i-.i i
troduction of
O' -1 :u)sl »; li.s career;
nr,, n,~.;n ;o
atteyno t ob.aov-'lodyo ,?y y
pi' a If L o:n T a t
tat:’ 'n t jnfuo,
A;. hoolnl ILiS,
Li carries a
The
refaco v.ritton in i :.c name
ol ;L o te- -x-ar ol.'1 -in , uruol line t o one
plf ces
onteado to
‘ ia 'nierto, s e n T v e s Ir- only ore Ira rest of four
loaves nov; at ta.xoLLH
..o .Lions f a t
A Sb orte In­
hvrmar, ro ..orally to Lo used In ti c Lynr;es Lalostlcs
donlnlortu, L x : ’I n
. so;:, tl i;d
:n t ‘i ^’o vis ion 'ad e“ an--3d
: In H u
L o printer was Ke; Inald .oil.
.
’ertelet 'e; its 'runic
learnlii . of Lrai.mar,. . , boca
free: then until t
A second preface re-
v:orris, ,!To or; ori every nan to the
1 a,vili&r to every
nineteenth ccd'eif'
at safari! y.re lace, or •. c v
or; it
’
user >i the hook
na? ado; set? as the
tv si/Ty, irT-dly ever' Jeft
>-it of
a;i od.I Mon.,
"hlohn .a h , 1 1 : if o yi’eface to an edition or ;; e na -aaj’
vh.lch appenreci ;irst aho ;t 1V32; I yuotc i r x ; f a erif-icn of
Lonilon, 1752,
rol, A„v, see nelow, o,144*
tj
2 Ihid.
»Z
See l - e m u m
earlier, A eatalu.uo ol' m e ; a.-' vale a die
early sc oolbooks ILo* 464] (London, 1 J 5 2 ;, yn, 4a>-^"1, h. -e title-*
rare oi u.;o Insfcitatlo connendiarlo is reeroLacod, j'rll sire,
1LL5),
•
Sydney iv, C,
tie/
illerj, The
-~<-itv;ell
-a .•■' !.hh:.
™
!
.
;
‘"'See deacrinf.on I ; iLiiLlaro1, nr, 426-421,
143
The hook CO;; vJnuorl to Go ;,r In tod, k,- ,; k .;-.it, it
ould
see:,;;, very frequently1 ), until 1574, w -on L c ;Irsf ,.>.- the fa. .11lar octavos i-pooo.v><in,
...no'* >_ ,i ;os nvo found 'n t»•is edition.,"'
vo/Iuh was qv.tiitod ■-~j rrancis .-lo-vor ;or vloivar) ’’to r .om vas
■ranted lor life t. ? !prlvlleye! ■or print Inq t
In, 1573,,F°
hut iiouor .men l .arud :
..OS.V - '-'2:i ti.O j.0 II0 V/XU ; a,. ‘_S 'u.kxs
assigns, ’ v.v.o ,iai i •xm a
ur_:.S WO C,.lri IV' C . ■
■■■aci m e o m ,
^ ‘f-•■’• , ‘ ?q ‘-'”o''r
and fortune.
.,i \i m l c s.joa ,e m
In e: e fanes
a:
■:; . every
Laton, i or ,-ar./ y,.aiu „
.ru,;-■;..e ,i.-_J .Is
tree
1
yo.r,
'
_
.
„m r
1
^
Of* a.
->0 ,.
0
rh f at d;rky.
G1..0 V .-.... ...; ;■,:
^rei;X::,iir
~0
axiJi.Ou Lo ;.C
,.0
.ale
lldtod
L .a U
^
'(9
o. xf,oU conies
it ,
-■. .. V ■.■■.
: ffo
,;. ..y.ioXX 1 a VO OOO’l
vn .■,a r ... ill ui■o too
...-j:
j Di/ ■
, ..ea.-s
ivOL i.v', „ .x;
ti’O
.rnlve .uilv 'al recoquil.J.oii
T o .;r:jun ■iron:;
xollowsd bj o. one
,1
:..uard V, for
.xooj. ,.ii.,;ajc tl. ^.'or
o; o com:mnds n.;. tye.,-!’ ;<c ;nrtcd x'a!>:. .
appronallon lacviur;
,
tin
ol Its unique position.
1
Ionliioj out
....,uxHi X....Uiii.LJ.j .
Lily «s ara.o.^xr oo..oxmed
dt
\,. , r-o,i ' 1 ; a m
ml.
j( ; O. ,
.lie COI'taliil^
enormous circuiaLion
:ra'lxr
m s pc a m , s.ui
m
coiituries iolioniu,,. ..iixa.exA'o o.,.at. ; a .
Oaiixc'..
:0
i-’roxi
... ;o -nt .as ,.;v,n- L o w ,.ale ox
al'cost a ]uiiui’ed dx^xcrojiit on.,.lX'.itiu w ,I
■,;;ade 8 . t;;OVO«
t oO six
t ,x■j-cij.*1t _j tm
~. > . *V :V
a..,u
t m y.a;y rd .I. .o,u; t o rook onyy, od r rlr .Ins
fatson points
A
u ■undreii ramus,
...... , ••.. ..
W'i,..,r
Ueu.
..ri val, ..; .‘
..-.to cu..;'-,
o&r-iy ro.n^
VS iua .iC t
-
<v
o ra„i,nv,
oc^x’.or
i‘0 :>ca tea
nr v,ur. occloj laen '.cal
t c ianons .v..cio3 las bioui o' Idvx c.riorsod
tie Injunction ■;., _.;in
nd.-.yerd, ,.nl . one
n
i ...04 -d it era tod t: e
erdorsdnent InArtieio 79,'"’ an ..atcju v . u n v y
rr_.s “cstaniist-es
I 'are found ;iu e. syrror.. 11. ,i:..jd
r ;o .vu; .. A
Inadxa;; ..nropean iirrarios, ana a ion lessor- rues) only seven, editions,
uvree ta‘ them continental, .■envfee;; t- one a x.-i.. a a.: i3V-x, A cony
of t o 1.74 edition re .i.u tlio ooioiuu.
.Lupt-on (IL.l) is ninlda.iiit vc-on o re n>r- 3 ,.,.■era Ijv l;n-(t
the work was issued,,, ,in tit a n - u
l'tia,':i
... .hrur ,.nact
t:-e fresr title dates Iron tin edition of
^.vatson,
ar,s,
4 T'-hi,
°o, fur,
^'ihat tie law was oaf oread Is In.'.icated
tin presence
x.n t.-ro opisco^oal articles nl visits-.tlon
.a-a; iio.us r once ruin ;
ore rse of t‘e .yramiazy frov-1. n o Lino of C r a m e r dorm t,o t’at of
iisiiop Juxon (1140). fee Vats 0 2 1 , yp, 2l>h-259,
144
tie udli m i s a 4 . 0 1 1
...'
our* ov.ri dacs.’*^
dicl not
(14 4. 4
4
;s v41d o 4
.e :res..nee} i e m to
14 ,io’
., do ovorlooiroo
jppocltiot;
u I i If.
several 4iai4r: ion
yuopulp
. ad.e upor It,
1 e lest ir i .4b, v. o„ i. 4 4 1 v.a.s i;4.reduced 4 4 e s v.
.On>S dG -!
. r ■'■ -‘--_c *s
. 4-sL read 4. ,
4'P 4 is tiro
c44c.I&Iip
. aa
ov;ovcr>. n o
. 4.1rtr i.vyvoft,
;-SUf 4iinu4-.orlixd
.11^ 4
still :d o
,.ver. i\: Lev d o
,B u..j. u..ai
:4 .■I t ; a:1.1, one
t e rook
i.
■
u d ! ft
'O
'4
.
id;
.TFQt
G.it
’Is ;4 e e .
edition it, 1
In 1754,
.!;4.b *
4.d 4 4 ^ ,
Its ..-arS ./Or
1
;...se .4'
4
4
,v Oi.tn^ns sppear :,.u tie text,
t c. ‘resbar prot'opsons, -nr:-24 a vied
: ’ :r i‘ n 1 is b- 1±t\,u ,
s c t o n i s , to I.lei ols , l.o
"v/as c. plopcd 4, 4 o 4 otic;;oilers, ri^ ,xt, pa to. itOCo 1 Jo' J.4r.[Liup
Lilf *s 'Jrar.uiiar o- t e Latin o ti vo, to
Ivo a oorrcui edition of
it, purred sf ,.. o .iiioon.o; errors v. I 4 :ad crept
all i4u
~o
ion.icp.
T; c. preface tnlch a n t.rote on 4 4 s occasion is one of
the principal ss.reos 4 r
14 -c
our :r.ov.I..a.e
.... 4 u
/.rout 1758 4 c
....tile e,
a tu.tot. . 0
Tie Is
te '
. .a ■/.s
o
'd o '
0 .4
cat's before ... e
tisir, too, ti
..-o . ;. a t . , r u .ar,
;s, a
.... , •.. ,.0 :,.;
:: ..'a 4L it,
in a c s u r u r
Jlc^e
■•
, a
4.
..
9
o ,.
^
!.J
ox - o
-. ■ a
0
■4.
.....
'•J .)
.‘4
sil
*.
:■0 •
v!
»v
-n
.- ,
t..'
^p , p 4 .
•f. 4 —
'-j . e.‘ s ’ are
iU/,t,0 --"I. ■
'..a. ^
1.
^ ^
_
........ s r
.
.is
orcsv/opr , tie
*• W - . .
V
^
...
^.X.
of
4 ccilsc..uta
. rt-..-.x.- ..
a 14,
*
I
sac _ 1 in. .ed. ,. 1 .er
sitt dcr.olae
<4aAae,c iiurra,. ,
.4--.,
4
i
...e e..ntlir
u
'
t
a
...:.
1 . . .asters..ip, s p e a k s
— ^. t
J 9.
‘ffohn r.icloln, iitorarp anecdote^
^iurto-i, b'otos
art,
cv.' o ad at
.ris co/in.r
4
titiij-au
4 ._ to-•
e r - il'a i .r.
p t . 4 -4
1.
a 4. j t . .;Is i ■: poured jr.st
;ol, u ., rcclti. ,.jd . jV ■„ a
tca.j
! a V ■s •#
deri'Ort
sc
«...;.c.e. ...t
ll- t ...
4" e 44.1., rui:;; us ..ollov.s:
i'cso iiistitutae,
v f
•» far'd „
s "s. >-v.
atoi .-I a i~e 4
.4 sole 4 s
txcor. a I tiariiiC
145 4,
;;i
y/ota ear v-. c&c I— .
0
less ;•'vous ,.r.4 n
tie auspices
sue in t. e ■rat...nr,
no 1 v.-as 'trussfoe.eu a.id appropriated'* cy i.Lot
re taiued. art i
. 4 * ■■at'-feb.n 4
Ai
of
rati .ar.
A lev nr. rs 4, tor t ■r. or r s. no vua
to
. 1st 0 1 - 7
'’T.llc’, \•1111 a r . ~
t '-' v ' " ' , -44'
.-
(T.ora-c-, 4 4 2 } ,
■ •;,
V, 520,
, i it, aud -V...
145
w ith feel in . >X t;' o Ct^st
'real laul'hy.-s ;
i ‘ ' -iJ
( „■
■'- * • J i •
tabetis, .p.v-r't, brarrrria tiers Jh'-oiln:: a 5. ■ oloi. o, t,
Lilio, r. arasno ,L»i -isua acaolae nostrao ezuoritahrn. olte,
Ot la Q U h ;il'a/'j VU tC o r : V : h : 1 1 1 : f at,:..],... •
: .■ .a aPa.aL,
rocadeote t. v.'orasvorti: 1.7.P, I-yrinas JJ b rrov 1 tv. •s ’and ;ta
pridoi.. -uu oxa.iiiL-ore ...ianissiao, ad ace aratioris no ynibri risciplinac cze
r & 1 &po ivm, zncoaott
a r:u t no . , a oosentientibus Pwocupatorli.'a aoatria, ■ olnal } h i 1\ i r'vr. r
praefauloiiaa oaasuah apaoacrcj oo pot is 3 Iziuii! oeooillo, ut
1 iroronr ootloiorrr- ueneficih'., obsolescoriiri ,
]&:.i ac props vstustafco obrute., intra roe sallcv - rrrichru at o!'1 :1 viono orlnuin ot o Ile.it io aurpuw.-. no a roll rlosc vindiceuos.
’■* V ' - ^ i o n ,
t, l.a , '-h . :■■■>■>i- <ar.l:i3,
,.r:
scroloea
of
nro not for; otter., ever
all •
a share
.hint,
: 11^ s a ,P
jrls.bro
in cozra!lin
or- walls j
rerlizd
■i.1. i. <.
, os ir:z, < hailj-
ttoipb .It is still tie only aaltorl.ud
Dr.
,iab .aj,
ra.: n r
Kynastor :rt' z a r c t a lobby rotcy
t at
o : at
bui
n
sv.-a:; sony. zi
..J . ..
,a a ' s
re. ■- ai> t. c„-
h p l h o o — d von
.a ........ land.
.o z , <11
blip's
..ra;.r,.ar»
be.-e
(PLAPMH
XL
a indead too :ruck to say if at a complete nj ctur©
e.'/ier/'os from oar study of \, at H u e
ueminr
oily
r -k !
is works j
passable likeness,
as loft M
.at wo ca n,
piety,
» M i n k , round oat a
j.ireI -,f all 'o v s a rell .ions
ad not] In ;; laid.' e r lr p: • on so co ild at
folot would
I a facts v-on-
wr.e as 'ead
aril.,
r"
u,
M i we are told .-t. dls son t M
an; if v»o
nay rate no sore t'hai
uc' >ol a .as; lu.ck.ln
Lr
'i lack; ) is pllyr.un.6 ye
to Jorusalori "rietafis studio1*;^ o.;'on : is re-.-ra Is- ,, > loud \ c
discussed v. '
ore iso
a sd in sis v: '.11 v.o rcMl
v Ife a ;d
lorn;elf,
i'Csiuos a
1
priesthood;-'
'a L 'e loft sort s for :as 30 a f or M g
TL s v. ill M s s
as a provision '..tic,i iMicaros
etas toits r:nr a uf vrstc, a real u M effective o arl
ty tov.arils i s poor:
’ c rep n s M
is 'sirs Lo lait M o ,,oncy M o
mi ft o M o i M s o pap .lor- a -JInner soon M e day
distribute It atari
rell .Ions a
L r ..nr. 1 rood,, •
u.
1
is burial and
T esc indications of flit’s
oral toil, so aro supported ■ s t- c evidence of many
-1
of "•:is contemporariesi
Mamin
?
yiertion of e ierlri ' it
usually, rr on t- cj pay Ir.Mute to M s
4
, tfoy Likewise express t cir esteem for J:Is character. ~
As to M.:i f a : i M
I M e re
or little ,
little wo know afoof : Is attitudelo. art a e
credit,
deorye tolls
:i e r t i o n i n
1 ;1
I
at, like M e
}Jo o v , is Lo his
in, or lived > appily
•I
ard folily to; :oMer— "cuu a n a l 11 semper eoneordla sanc11sa iono,™
‘’'on A pics .led
•
it
..Lo .,-a^ or a r
or .'us fa id v.role tf Q epltapu— fut , apart- fror.
i f o </■ Ildr-eu,
o
oe 11;.; ee
.riMin . abort
rl s
domestic
- *n'
ax ia ips
Here
is a fare trad it ion r ad oily M b a respect for
, n,
1See above, crap. 111, P, 21
2}
chap, 11, p. 16, n.
2Sec above , o' an. vi, r , 7 2 and n, 2,
°Seo a rove, c' ap.
1, p. 6,
“See nolow, pp. 148-51.
^Sce above, c. ap. vi, p . 76»n.l, H e l d . , p, 75.
146
147
music; it occurs In a =:arraacrlpt history j:-' I’ o offley family,
T
In speaking of Sir Thooias Off ley,"* aiiurv;arris lord sy or of
London, the account nvocoods as follow3 j
T h l a 71 onus was c.o
l . so d m w os. : o nun >ut twelve
years ot a, o t and, ,,. boca: 10 a ood -ram'.a-dan under r. J.illio
and understood t e 'a i;in 7,.ui iia porl’l;ly; at 7 't.>ca to o tad a
sweet voice ’ e was y._t lo learn orlcK-son anon,the choris­
ters >i‘ r a d ' s ;
for h at lour, ou r. .hlll^ .: nvv lull well
tt at t; o tnov/led m 1., .-us lo tas a tel- It y. a i irtLeraooo to
all arts
as ice mentis nodicina uoste (sic) f ;-r LI is a ;reat
help to oronane Lation and jud. y;ont.;I Lave bee-.i una ;le to
fhoover •c was,
learn
ifIslaauscript.
author y
ocaver, to loft it uncertain; m ot or L
or l insolf who considered music a
judgment .°
he
fevort oless
was iflv.
olp to gronurto lation and
-.t :n onlf ■ot s ayrlse no to lira a
.Lm-er.■ tin ' ty specu­
friend or . ore partial to music; a .a
..
late as o
in i o non-; life
vhel m- it
I c ;n r t
is
jf the
Lilys Lnai; it, dxd In ll.c •ousehold of o c lord o' ancelior*
1’..o one unlovely trait
evidence roes,
4
iuolton" a m
Is v e i
y;'
ly
in 7 la olaratiot’, z o i ar as the
appears
in.
la invectives a alnst
t
vii i t t i n t o n . T i m la.yuyy Indeed '.a stron ;j one
ooald vh.Sii h a t
-ilj :.ad s own >ore
e-oar wroii a patiently and
Lo
ui a L.rlatian disposition to
suffer fools
lad If «
of Lils fault we 'iwy o n l y say L.ai wo d... not h y v
xSee a cove, chap. vii, p. 82,
p
.'uotcd :ni J n a o ^ ' u'n:r, T ore; vatun n
Ad.
iS -.4, 481)
Imputes
In er formation
h o fall extent
llcanorun (h
V, 642.
'^Lapi.on in r’li!3, art.,
<1 e opinion, to Lily,
*’7,11,", : :lllian,!i 1 astily
[ I t .Ink)
’^Seo a !-ovo, c1 an. vii, pp. 91-92.
s
*'See a ’.-ove, f.ap, viii, pass la. A si ran > cLary:, ;,uui.c i>y
i;ai.iiiel ni ;Lt in The life of hr. h r u olofc (1 V 2 4 ), L -at both
7 olet and h l y v;ore unduly severe v.-.itL h eir pupils, a el urge •••used
upon an erroneous Interpre tat Ion of a passage I.u lirascai;;, Las oeen
exploded o-j Lupton, Colet, pp. 280-64 , and .oi-o I .lly In hie The
lives of dolian Vitrier, warder of tie .'rare is car convent at sin,
daer, and Jo3;n Colet, dean .-x ft. haul's, Lontfon '(London., luho),
S«•--. P.
:
•
r
ph... sa
r-i-v ,.
/o
v accusation
,o /-I/Miftnf
ru>
V. f\' ‘ avj
'/*\/"!m viVi Ci
r*f‘
ipn.
The
appears
In
o h er modern
acco
aits r\
of"P
Lilyj see for example, .ary ;ot]i f tewart, "fillia., ;J1„ !s contriiation t o classical study,'1 T e classical .lournal, XXXIII (January,
1958), 217-226, an article vf icn repeals -nost u' h e old errors
conceKiin,: ills life and adds sonc • ave never seen before.
14:8
Li e ] itc^ar-;', c cnvo: ■L Lours or toe if'©
of bis :;Tio’#a nos, rob r at
permitted expression:.; ;.rt, s e l d o m ii-ob
fe
pearareo.
ave i:o couLo? .oo.tjar,; a.ccoout or
t jo’g Is totf-.i,
.d v nrcis} v.i In]
scribes
oir ra^/ .ir.fo print today,
■ ovrrer,
fly's
ao on r a v i n
personal aj>
n f t p i m c o u to
.as ■-e ./,.. r-rro(!Ui'Ov; sove?-nl L b..es
iDip I on. d e ­
it t
I n I f is e I r : r e p rose lod
o; x - i
1 a - ' d oorti ,
on a
book noarin. a Ills or IP c c o v e r , to v-\- j.cl ■ Is lefv .land
points.
,olov. s I o Inscription '.ora, ■.
oif i. ,leo, aotatia r.uao 53, 1510. 1 a ove is a si ielb !carlo, a. obevron
between ti-roo H i p boabs.
Pi vis ray lave been labou from ti e
lost painrlpp p.' lily, v-o ie. . ir
.a oIpg anon ..laood netweeri trose a ''omr r oar forvlus In t o >1 1 1tic oa:.p;,aotti:a;-iioase1 a t Pori>anbury, aac It , an served. In t ru lo so. pest
to c idealiijcci _I .nre -.»f ,11;. , .on. plnoea in a c taxnod. ;lass
window In t o iall of 'Purist rbnre-b, Oxford,*^
..it is oo: oas^
to t inn ot anti one
.<r L i l y ’s contempo­
raries v. o enjoyed, a P, n:;r repo, tuition p r v loar o m y .
evidence
u' any jxrrs jva.l f r .e f-3. In
loot on at least
o tv;eo:i 1
r -’C3 separate o c e a n 'oris brasnus
a <id brasrms j*
'alb .-ooipllneiit
to •■orva ■„Ins Uo'erus,
a bitty,
probably a' o'o
y c r. :b pi 1 5 0 P , 'v a r s m n su. n o ot t .e-»e a^e present
to .London li ve
o- r.'.r v"
oast.'
•:r f o-i? .
One
'■*.tto.
no
3
Lo t’:o oil cr'o
I Lair can :ar-eH
r n letter-
>e >
.w o
• PlPo
■ vb on, i e i. fats, even
o.f to oca v.as cortu ini / .-.11 i,
irtttxp;
ost con.ven.Io11i.l, soo-.t in .
in ■cbouoll, Tie iilstory
op It, .-’arl ’s sc] ool (London., iOOn), >.ci i p, PU, vp ore ot ,roars
:r 8 lo.pen.cE7 !rL, rainai'ils sculpait,” I 'ore .in a e )i,,J p P e iritis],
•o.souic, noscriboci tl-’s P, i reo .iun. Oiiono ' ao, Catalo.
o-~ t.be c^::i-aved -rltlsl portrolLs
i oo.c in P
do part: eo-.t 'of prints and
draj^nHs‘* l H n ^ o ^
u£^se:a:: TLoii.dcs:, 191L3,), i.-.1, oi;
’b--ped 32;
r n r F & l f - l o i j m 7 ~ ^ e to r . , In fur rod -own, restirv.; look on
".odostai
ofype i In.
Coar-sel;, o,r .mvod,
. ode-’o; lorjre.on on,
Ei'»
r a v o r : Alton,J! jb-'-idoe.tiy o**Dono'’;btte sec s no reason to consider
Lbe portrait t, o vvovk of „•:dv/ards• A ti ird copy is to o>e seen at
f- e Poab of an articlo L1;, Lnptou, ’-'Tro :roat scin.-ols of .1; land,
bo, VII,
ft. P a d ' s sefoolf* in tNj Illo.strated ,,o.n.Pon n e w s , 104
v e t - m a r y 10, 1 J 0 4 ;, 1V0-75,
art, "L.lly, i illiam, ” II, 1144.
I've date 1510 is
an error For 1520,
uvoiytt -ad recoMnondod a list oi ioar.nod on
ose tjortra.i ca . o c oiifviderod wort1 ./ of i'anbji ; in aeon's bouso,
arid named .til;/ ax'tei’ i.da’iiuxd fpenser,
fee t' e Diary ox' Jotn
Cvel.yn, o d , . •. -eatloy ;pnncon, lbb;' >. ;rj, 233-4.
rz
TDere is no recoi'd of any conresnoridon :c ooto/een t.-.e;n,
“Sec above, chap, vl, p. 69 and nn, 1-3, It rill no ra~
callocl P.at v/i lie 'illy vras lx; ituly no i-at n e w cror -on noot
laureate j see above, clap,
v, p» 57, and n. 2,
149
Lo Ho ;er wentrord, in if: c autumn of 1513, tnasnus see a :.s of a
servant aoy in .Lis Household Lo w on .e mid Laavhi, --.ovo Hu tin
Li an the youngster coaid havo acquired In L x-oe
school, not except in:; Lily's,
ears at any
fbortlj ai’terwards , in if o preface
Lo Lily's yrannar, iv lob he ■ ah revised, M-amus speaos
L; L, a
master or ht. .aol's as "vir utriusque literaturae Laud vulyariier
2
peritus, ot recto instifcusn&ae pubis artifex, ’
Jn Lj.o same
preface, incidentally, we aro told brut after v o revision was
'■lade oily was too . odost t > a lion- t o •u;ok Lo Lo
Oilseed andor
Lis naiJiS— a compliment all Li e
from a
ore we leone e v.iin
an
seldom accused of indIscriminate praise.
Another o;h if ose best, tju.ul 1; led to jud ,e L. nllj 's ..er-its
was tie fumanis t and d.]plomat, ; Lehard :,ace.
at
hr Ihlv he pu./.fished
lisle a small volume, De frnctu qnl ex doefcrln. a oorelpltair.
T! e epiotlo dedicatory, addressed to holot, coa.:e'i;s b o
fyundin
a/>d support in
t’otn for
in .e school at tit. .-aul 'a, a,: for ohoosluq
a 3 uifcar.>lo i/aster for 1 e Lo„.a,
lent character, a -0 . of such
j ily is
u
:reut l e a r n in
have driven all barbariy,.. o n; of rn .la ot
c
..av of h o
orfc excel­
if a I
t see.i to
.■
c
.1
t > uvc
'ntroducod
r-r
to ■ is
ulivc hand c o la... ua o .,f i•o.ne,
oatus id.onanus, like wise
ship;
The northern :un-a'ist,
ad a Lh. L opi. hn. ox .Ely's scholar-
bo calls him ’’vir omnifarlar; foetus, " 4
seen, some years after oily returned from
.as v/e
a--'© already
Laly — probably in L c
fall of 1504— -fore Loser LLed Lira as ids h v ,/.’iJ.Ai:h. a
most inti-f
rate friend,'' At t >e tine^ ore was In h.is milfie two .Lies and
■^See Opus eoisfcolarura Pes, Eras/isi Roteradami. re c opal turn
per h, d. et f , ,' A T l o n "(Oxford, 1906 ), I, 535 (hp, 2V7)i,
2The libellny do cons true t lone octo parti,am oratlonls?
see above, chap, ix, p. 131* The oarliest edition in v/];ich t?\©
preface of Erasmus app a red (so far as is known ) ic m o of 1515,
®Pp» 13-14;
'hiabc::t enim j.if o students at ft. ’Lai's]
prae ceptorem, cuius vita, ..ioresqne aunt prohatioa Imi, Vania praeLrroa ; •''"'clit,
’n., at
’--usa pene omni barbaric, (in qua uostri olim
adolesccntes aolebare fere aotaten canni/aero, cL Ion isslmo
toupore, it nib 1 1 -.oni discerent, larorarc) politioroai latinitatom,
atone ipsaia iiomanam linnuan, In .■■■ritaunia r/osti’a : introdanisse
videatur,"
^In fv.o dedicatory e p i s t l e , Lo
Illii/aid. firlhci.'.::-r, of an
edition of the Pro/gi/inasinafa o„ lore an.O. lily (soo a ovo, chap,
vi, p , © a u d n, 3 ) v/hich Ificna.nas 'ot w..t at ao;lc h- li.fi,
a
‘''See a ovo, chap, vi, p. G8 and n, 3,
150
Lily tor; yours
j .Is
rosier;
M. II Is ln..oros l.lc . bo h :.cyj Isl.
us
he ;;rew older loro kept his re .yard f or if o compaM.on of his earli­
er clays.
Very little else ' as cone down. to as ah-vn.t M o
a'-'in b e t v / O G r t i e
two men.; but towards t: c end M
calls him his friend } speaks favorably of M s
and indicates that he sees him*'*'
Tko
relalion-
I l l 6 * ore still
knowlobne
M
Italian,
oar followinu# fore rece ived
frora :-,rasmus and Poter JIloa a diptych wit )1 t eir two portraits;
O
Illy cojnpo303 an epiqrar. for tf e occasion.
Onco h e n .o nas oc­
casion to write to Colot j lore praises M e
school1';
a:vl ey implication the m a t e r ,
l o a d ’s "excellent
holy,ini's '-/err-il, the
historian, likewise applauds Lily for his uprl : M lifo a.M scholar­
ly attainments:
"Vir,
’intoper vitae scoleriscue nurus,* nostquam
„4
In Italia aliquot per annoo, perfect!;: literla operam dederat,...
svo i-avo already noted, of courso, t: o witness of uorann and. Aldrich
In t o Aiitioossicon,
Tharo Is extant ho express tribute to ^Lily
njiannrau.
from Linacre; but no know M a t il.o two v/oro to: .other in Home,°
that Lily coxitributod an cpi.qram to Linacre hs pi'anriur, ^ and that
Linacre attended Lily upon Lis deathbed. '
It is hardly an u n ­
warranted inference io see Lore a nalnai respect nah esteem.
After ally's dealt;, at .Least one of his friends <lid for
him wiiat Lily had more than once done for others— he wrote an
eoi/'raiTi extollin: M e
virtues of M o
deceased,
,t .1.3 pleasant to
record Diat this poem, " In ..ortem -Julie lmi Lilil elegiae," was
■^In a letter to Lrasmus, printed in M o opus cpisuolarmn,
I, did, up. 499; spoanin. j... a certain piece of Italian ‘ore
naps:
''ham eqo nequiul lcr;ere, hoc nil his ostor, qujroquarn probe
calleat Italice.!l
j
^See aLovo, chap, vii, pp. 54, 55 and n.
1*
rz
Accordinq to Thomas Stapleton, Trcs 13‘
comae (Cologne,
I,
1012),
1GG•
4 iolydorx v i r M l l i Urbinatls ,k,.-.lioa historla h acle,
1570), L lb. h/VI, p.’(al*). It will ->e recalled "II a t ^ ’ily 5ad ad­
dressed Vsrqil in two abort sots of versos (see a ove, chap. vii,
C-3y _iJhU i3# U 9 i.7* .'Hj cfLiC-;, -.r #
c.
^Soe above, crap. viil*
GSee above, cb.ap. :l:l, *> 10, arid r* 1*
ri
Sco above, o'/up, vii, pp. 35-bi.
°See above, chap. vii, pp. 92, 94.
Ill
from t o
i)on
of L i s
former slucent,
i n o n a s
. . . l mt,ln :ale»
1
A second.
poem In ''is praise v;as co nosed m; am. .1 cm idr.er a Indent, Coen
Gorstu lo, \vi o also invoked 3I.e .use to support .lip in M e affair
2
of ;oosus;~’ -sit Vi is difiioult lo loll v/hol: or td is M L of nmnape
was offered, to Lily do for© Lis deal1* ov- later-»“ 0.ocro is oothi a;.
conclusive In LI o w ordin
He
su .e Is trne of verses pp. -Oi.-H
Riyhtv/ise, his son-In-law aod successor at ft. Paul’s;'' and of
Mo
epi;ora;.iS by Ricfai'd Vernamus
(or Vernanus), a t ird oup.il of
,ily, pieces vf ich Y:ore sometimes printed -V tf 1 o vranmar,
Paulino of Lily*s day
4
A
;etter known to fame u an any of t ase,
Poland tie antiquary, lias left a. s' ort encomium of Colet in H I M
If
e incidentally pays 3 onor bo 3 is i muter mas ter. ^
It is ciis appoint *n.
Lila
lo find no
.-f i n i o m n t l o n an out a .a
.ore z' an I use f ra,jmontary
yH\ occupied !; o
PI ly in H o Intelloerual life of Ida da,.;
mMMou
:old n.
mb vi ai v.o Lave dis­
covered is ouoppf at least to ensure our- promt rcrmeei .or one
schoolmaster of Paul’s.
For1 a on
e wan laokin • In I at M y h
dayree of clarity vf ieh saints possess; M L
at lease ' e was funda­
mentally a pood and just man, respected P., 1, esc
rarios d ose opinions we today value :.osl.
L .rarmaar,” as 'e understood H e
and letters— lil„
:f M s
canooupo-
And in tie realm of
e realm of scholarship
takes 3.is place in H e
rracious comparty of M e
noblest minds of Pis ape, in Enpland a.ul upon t.. e Continent,
2
See Robert
, dardinor, Admission re;-labors of : p . Paul’s
3ci epl {London, l-ib4}, p, 19,
2
Ibid., v/j ere
L e text o.;.' L e tv;o ooo s ...a./ oe read,
3
Printed in Auiuht fs Colet, p,
A yenister of the pros Ideal 3,' 'TeTTows ,
oFlIalnt Par:/ 'faydalon pollens* '(’"The
1 873TT°T7~^M aii^in”’m m y oiMf o o a M y
372; M h n Rouse .loxan,
demies... ,and other members
d e m i e s O x f o r d and London,
editions of .,ily »a prammar.
A
LSo g Gardiner, p. Id, for the texts.
°See r-upton, Colet, p. 23d and
. 3; p. fid a m. ... I.
,I !
'
.J -i. .
The works one. ici’atod in V i s
tio x i ve classes:
1,
General— •ir-eludin . o v e r ^ t M n . used in claps, i-iii,
v-viii, x, except ..anuscripts,
PJ:odes~incl ;dinn everythin- u;od in crap, iv, except
it-eus t: at 'are already occui’red In d e previous
section,
The Crarmar— Inol dine over;t’ in.. ".sod In ci ap, ix.
L i l y ’s other pu' lis] ed works.
Manuscripts used t t o uybout t e •’issertation*
2,
3,
4,
5,
i.
Allen,
i. o.
General:
A yro, John (ed,),
with
ChapLars 1 - 1 d ,
The a. :e of Eras-rais,
Annana, Alessandro d 1#
Turin, lojl.
V-hlll, X
Oxford, 1014#
Ori ,iv;i del teatro Italiano.
2d ed,
The cutoc’-isv. u' 'rL or.ms decor;, P.,
P,,,,,
pieces,
” harder d o c i e t y " j da,..LrId, m , lo-i4,
other
i-aillei, /.drier.,
ale,
ui'lio ;rapk.y arc divided in­
Juyo.doos ucs scvans.
Vol. 11, AnsCerda. , 1Y25,
o’ , iii/e;:. rltanuiae,
itcu
Ko loald ha ue t’o o l e .
’’Anscdota oxouiensa,
.ed,
ed, series, hert 0"; Oxford,
1302.
,
Scriptoria.; i l l n s t r h m haioris
mitanuie,,, •o a t u l o y u s ,
...aslo, i~i /.,
■askorvill, C.. u. 'L.illia:. hill's Verse i’o” C c uLr.y of Charles
V into Lou.din,u f’e uetin Con litrary alio tin, Id
(ldoo),
XTKD
Ha,, lo, fisrre. Vic Lion.uaire istori.yuo et cri lie lie. (I ed.
Oasle, 1741.
.
Su]rpl(3. ent au Jlctiomaire.
leneva. 1722,
•dloxar, Joan Rouse,
A rc ;lster ex' t' e presidents, hollows, denies
,...and other r:.ohers of ha ini, ary Capdalon Voile; 3.
"T? e demies.11 Oxford and Loudon, 1273.
drawer, J. S., J, Oairdaor, a ;J. h. . Orodie. Calendar of letters
and oarers, loreiun and domestic, of t o roe n eh "enry
VIII, "21 voIs• London, 1862-1002.
.ritish h-iop'raphy.
Vol. I,
Article, "hill,/, ;Illian,(f
132
153
,srowrt,
F. and R« Calendar of state :apors and manuscripts re­
lating to Knglish affairs, in t;e archives and. collections
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hrhvard C o r d o n ,
1917.
Fifteenth
irLclc,
", iilacp , Tho. .uts.!l
ce-tnry un lls'r. '
■ ooks.
)xi ord,
[Lily, William,]
Lrasial Roterodami libelluu de construction©
octo paruturn oralionia (ftruss!./urn; helchior hottherus,
1515).
fuller, Thomas•
An appeal of injured Innocence.
.jOndnn, 16;-9.
dasqtiet, Irancis a.
“The ...anterbur,.. Claustral l a ool hi t' a
fifteenth couiury,’’ Toe old An. iisl. 1! le a it ot' or
essays,
London, IbJV,
n a hr,
dilhelm (ed.),
Parvulorum insfcltutio ox A tan, ri ciana
collection©,
Arlan; eu, 1 9 1 2 .
askins, . arles . • The Kenaissar.ee to if e twelfth cerkur./*
Cambridge# cass., 1927,
dazlltt, 1 . -J. Scr-ools, sc' ool-Looks are s c jolnas'ters ,
: ov; dork, 1902,
::e-~lyn, Peter.
Acclesia restaura la,
dambridye, 1849•
.Filter,
Foil, Lcinrxcli (ed.),
rramiafcici Latiui.
1855, 1850, Id64,
onto,
iiulio
.onponio,
2d e d .
by J. . . n-.>=ertson,
nls,
Grammaticao rudiments.
T-.rT,
Loipzi
Venice, 1484,
Cup ton, J ,
“L i l y ’s yrarmar,'1 . otes a aI queries, 71 series, ii,
pp, 441-42, and op, 461-02,
adan,
iale oner,
Oxford nooks.
ancinelli, Antonio,
(Jiain 10577).
hiehols, John.
Oxford, 1912,
Kplca voltunlnun yuattuor, 1401.
Literary anecdotes,
vol. v,
is. 1. d.j
.o-.don, 1812,
daetow, Louis J, The arts course at ti.c ..edievai uni vers i txos
with special ?*eferenc© to raeriar e.,v. rhetoric.
dLai.ipaljn,
Illinois, 1910.
Pa-rotfcus, Kioolaus,
Rudimenta yranmatices.
Venice, 1493,
rlirapton, deoryo A,
'Di© education of Shakespeare.
London, 1933,
162
Pollard j, a . I-.
..olsey,
London, 1929,
Pollard, n. v,,, and
5. u. kedqrave (comps. }. A sbort-title cata­
logue ol printed in Ln land, L cot la'id, Ire.La .d, a. .d ot.'
Lo 'lisL kooks printed abroad, 14 v u -1 l -;Gj.
,o »;on , 192b.
I’oicMiiv;, Dietrich (ed,).
as doctriualo ;ea
ier.a.-.der de
Villa-Dei,
''Gonumeuta ;e m a n i a o oaode "o-'ica";
-crlin,
1093.
Poise1 , Greuorius.
,:aiv;arita philosophica.
;cidelbor , 1490.
Sabbadinl, Komi :io. La scuola o 11 studl t:
Veronese, Catania, loOC,
-uurD'o
Gu..rirl
•d-.aw, A. b.
"Ti o earliest ja>.tin .'rui-mars ir? bn dlisr,0 'trans­
actions el tte .niblio ;,raoJ ical sucietp v ildJo-lOuJ,
published, 1901),
Dlanbrid.qo, Jo? n,
.ua-tuor partes
i,.■
b 23,1 Vo),
.
i/ocabala.
ranmaticaG,
Loudon, :u. c;,
{;
Gordon, 1505.
23,10: ).
Varnha'O-:, Ge-rrann* Ge daobus .toliis Ilnri c.L.c G
Pi iici ad’ruc
i.pnoti exeunte saeculo quirxto decimo t,,pis ercusi quae
in jffliseo nritannico asservantur.
,fPro era; ru sum nrorektoratswechsel"j
Grlanqen, 190b,
. Oliver;;ituii ;G;eruoneusI,.. .Gacra saeeiluria quarta
eoroelaeruturae.,. • Ines t Grammaticus Lulinus loupe
parvula, Erlanpea, 1906,
:; eallo,;,
.
. , ed,
'-iary ol Go-n Evelyn,
box,-:on,
1 0 0
b,
editions oi Lily's p r a m a t i c a l writ in; ;s
A,
Jeidii.ietita gTO'.naGloss
loannis Goleti Tbeoloui, oliia decani ditil Pauli, aeditio, una crut
.paibuadasi dr, Lilij .irarnmiices rudimentis, ..,.dited oy
S. ilacb, "G-akespeares Late in' ;rai-xmati’-c,M O' a';esnoare
Jabrbucl, XLIV (1903), 05-117; 1T.V >1909;, Gel-100,
ouilelnl Lilii An :li redlra.uia.
4°,
Kawl. 200),
I.London:
Prnsori] n. d, (Louieian
Grillolmi nilii n,.pli radlmenta.
jLondon:
rynsson] n.d,
Gniversity, Plimpton Collection, Go. 475.5,
{Columbia
Rudiments ::ra;u/iatices (..olse^'s edition),
tu.’dLuer.ta :;ra.uma.Uices ot uoceudi a t onus, non L,a;n CcGolae
lypsuicltianae per Reuerendissimuia,
0. Chornm Oardlnalem
Lboracensom.
bsliciter inatltutae, qua;; omnibus alijs
tot Ius An liao set oils praescripta.
Loudon:
Peter
Treuerls, 152 j . (C, g , ... 40. 0. 39),
163
6*
Libellaa <le cons Irac fcione a d o part lira orationis
Lilellus de constracbione octo partium ortiionis.
10X3*
{ 'odlelan 4°. 0, 23. A r t . -‘3,)
d*
Londons
P/nson,
De rreuoribiis nomirum
luilel-.lL 1,1111 n ’urriuntiel et poGtae cxLoij, Pinlintu* I o':olae olirri
nioderatorls, do iGneribus
aairrani, ae v o r f o m n praeteritis
ot snp inis reoalae puoris apprime utiles.
Op as recopaituia
6c adauctouo -.urn .rr.nviiis.un ac veri'muc Interprota: met *a , per
Ioannem Rituissusi fcfolae Pavllnae oraecoptori*
Antuoru,
1525.
{ .
.
. 747G),
ixlielad .51111, ollvo hololue caulinae ap.,2 .borlinuix -ocoratoris,
de tjatinorian oooiinum ,qonerious, le ocrbomxi praeteritis
& s'uplnis, re ulae non ixlmis .illlos, quam compcndiosae,
cun annotatxonibus iLoraae Robertson! EVoracensls.
.:ulbus
accessifc de noxtinijus hetcroclitis, do uoreis dofectluis,
ad derm: a de uorsifus pan. ;endls, pop eiindex: Thopian
Kobertsonuin, appositis ubique annotatlonlbus.
a sic,
1532.
( . . 525. d. 12).
D.
"Lily fs Uraumar"
Art .Introduction ol tle ey h t partes ol specie, and if o const m e t ion
o.i‘ 13 g saito, coiipilod and sette lorf- e 1-y tic comundeivjonfc
of our cost iracious soverayne lorde td. o t i n - L o n d o n ;
nortfelet, 1542,
last!tutlo coinpendiaria totiaa praxxiaticae, quam et eruditiss Ic tus
atque id on lllus triss i m s rex roster hoc nomine euulpari
Iussit, ;ii non alia quam haoc una per to tax As H a x puoris
prao le go re tur. London;
.
r'ortholot, 1540,
A s1 orte introduction of .:rai:i;:ax‘, .'or tie brynqynpe up of all
those t3:at ontende to atteyne tie knov/lodqe of ti o latino
tonpue.
London;
lolf, 1545,
(frap.)
A s’ orte introduction of vrasiniar, x or tie bryiia'ynG up of all those
that entendo to atteyne lie nov/led ve oi t;lo La tire toirjuo.
London;
As si ns xl : . a lOY/ar, 1574.
I/ictituLio cocipendiaria tooius
ra; viaticae, n u n ot erudi tie sinus
atque idea 111 astrissI ctus rex ..oster loc nomine cuul pari
iussit, \i non alia quam laec ana rer tot an mi ;lia>r; rruerxa
praeleqeretur,
Land "in; Asxi ns if 1,
lowar, 1574.
A s orte introduction ox .rx: ..or, i or L c nr,/n q go up of all ti ose
if .at entende to uttoyno 1. e- L.cowled c :•.1 t e pa tine tori,pus.
loud on;
1755.
Institutio compendiaria totius qrammaticae, -quacl et cruditissI ctus
atque xl.eo ilias iris sinus rox roster hoc vvuiine euul.qarl
iussit, ul non alia qua.i i.asc Luis per totac. -in liau puoris
praeleporetur,
London:
1755.
.1 shorte introduction of .;raxxx.i-, or if e br,yn.::,ync up of all those
f at entende to atteyno b; o knowlexlqe of b;c Latino tonyue.
London;
1795.
104
Institutio conponularla cooing .moniaiicae , •y.ian ot eruditlsslrius
at quo i(3o:.i il’
lustr:' scleras rex .outer toe uoutnu eiu.il url
iussit, ot non alia euan haec ana -or ioi.o;: 0; ii.aospuoris
praelc, ;urc i ,.r. toooon
Ut Jb,
Inbiuontu praoii.iatloes a cbVAanno •
. o x g oo x c x x oeolesiao ‘ . ouoil
in nfuux sc olt-.o ab tore Institutae,
■VA.U-j .•■■ju-, bonbon;
;rcV u
urra;, lb- b,
iv.
Antiboss icon,
bplyrars.xita,
%btb
LI1„ 's
bon-bon;
..ondou;
or
o' jIs' ed yjorirs
V'/nsou, 1521,
lynsoa, L
\i )»
ft. :'oouao
o on ) pro p.nnas;:!B. La,
Aatholouy.
basic, It 10,
v.
Or it Is::
,ranslaiot too.. i <: .-rooO
.'Hmiscripis
Viseum i:arloitiH OS 540, rols. 57-50",
nolle: ■-ic Venerai) .
1lo- innleso, o'one,
an lor, Joseph*
b
1.0.0x013 valori An llca..un:,.?r*
U;,baton 0 olio,.,3 , '■•xforn,
0 Led per . ,
ore o r e 7 boirpariy, London,
Acts
,
ft.
IV, Vol. 00 ,
{ : fu :.
0 04, 4ul) V .
'O' court, 1513-1002.
Va-il's i o'- o l a e e o o n o s ,
lol5-io4o»
bocisrsot .ouse.
) Ills provod in t o proro- atlv; c uri ol bauiorbury, bodfolde 4, b»
S.ilpltlus, Joannes.
: ;u\talycil ub Illastrissia-ni pri.oui.pcu.i Guidun
Urb5.nl duce : lr: luvonalis satyraa intorpretat‘.o, Vatican
’Jrb. bat. £ 602.
”™~
i
In Senece tra.poob.La::: per xl'oltl-nri eraiTrt,‘o,
.A.ol j ott-eca nanlonalo.
. . 05 | : ' j 3"'*
Vatican barber.L il Lutiui
b 0.51, zxx. 105,
. bio.
16
v
-. •
uples,
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