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The land grant *policy of colonial Virginia, 1607–1774

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223 LAED GEAS2 POLICY
OF C0L02JIA1 VIRGINIA
L 6 0 7 -I7 7 4
A D is s e rta tio n . Presented to th e
Graduate F a c u lty o f the U n iv e rs ity o f V ir g in ia
in Candidacy f o r the .Degree o f D octor o f Philosophy*
Manning C u ries V oorhis
3*A * M»A*
V/
'
t
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I
UMI Number: DP15070
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BALTIMC
u
FREFAT02Y 2fOTE
T h is study does n o t include th e “S o rth ern ixecJc" o f V irg in ia
a f t e r 1669.
T h is g re a t reg io n between the Happohaanock and the
Patomae was g ran ted by C harles I to Lord Culpepper and o th ers
in 1649, b ut th e p ro p rie to rs d id n ot exercise the r ig h t to d is ­
pose o f the land u n t il 1674*
Meanwhile the governors o f V irg in ia
continued to g ra n t land in the “S o rth e m Seek” and these t i t l e s
were subsequently confirm ed by the p ro p rie to rs .
The "S orthem
Heck" came in to the hands o f the P a irfa x fa m ily which re ta in e d
eontroL over th e land and qui tre a ts in th a t reg io n u n t il the
B e vo lu tio n *
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3J15LE OP CQSTESIS
I*
The London C
o
m
p
a
n
y
*
.
I
I I * The H ead rig h t System ***.*• • * * • • * • • • « • * 3 0
I I I .P ro s tra te d Ssfornu * . . .
*87
17* Spotswood [Takes Up the Task* • * • » * * * • LOS
7*
Piedmont and tbs Valley.*****•*..♦.*129
m4
71* 1748«i7gSi* *..*...*. ....
.... * .166
Appendix I * . . • * • • * * * * * .* ♦ * * * * * * * * * * • 182
Appendix I I . * * - . * * * , . • • « • * • • • • * * * . * . . . 20 §
B ib lio g ra p h y * * . . * • * . * *.* * • • • • • • • * « * * . 204-
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CEfiPTEB X
The London Company
The London Company is q u ite p ro p e rly classed w ith th e
group o f m e rc an tile a s s o c ia tio n s th a t c a rrie d E n g lish commerce
from th e A rc tic Sea to the spice is la n d s o f the E a s t.
There
i s , however, one b as ic d is tin c tio n "which sets t ie V ir g in ia
e n te rp ris e a p a rt.
U n lik e the East In d ia , L evan t, Muscovy
and s im ila r contemporary m e rc a n tile v e n tu re s , which sought
to tap the a lre a d y e s ta b lis h e d tra d e o f c iv iliz e d o r sem ic iv iliz e d p eo p les, the V ir g in ia a s s o c ia tio n proposed to
exploit a region Those resources were .practically unknown.
The hope o f quick p r o f it s fio m gold and s ilv e r o r through
discovery o f a- short ro u te to the South Sea was prom inent in
the minds o f most o f the e a rly prom oters.
However, th e re were
some among the le a d e rs who reco g nized from the o u ts e t th a t the
f i r s t o b je c tiv e was a s tro n g settlem en t, which would become a
source o f raw m a te ria ls , a m arket f o r goods, and a refu g e fo r
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the alarm ing number o f paupers in England. In any event i t
^Tlova B rita n n ia , in T ra c ts and o th e r Papers r e la tin g to th e
Colonies in H o rth Am erica. P e te r jfo ree , ecL {4 v o ls .
Washington 1 8 3 5 -1 8 4 6 ), I , 1 2 -2 0 ; Works o f Captain J o h n & a ith .
Edward A rb e r, e d . , ( Birmingham, E n g ..1 8 8 4 7 ,p p. 3 6 0 ,4 4 2 ,4 4 5 ,5 0 4 )
"A True D e c la ra tio n o f V ir g in ia ” In Eorce, T ra c ts , I * 2 2 -2 5 ;
P .A . Bruce, Economic H is to ry o f V irg in ia in th e Seventeenth
C entury. ( 2. v o ls . H .Y . 1896) I , 4 9 -6 0 .
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was ev id e n t th a t any venture on t e r r it o r y claim ed by %>ain
and in h a b ite d by h o s tile In d ia n s would need more stren g th
than th a t a ffo rd e d by a simpHe tra d in g p o s t,
v?hen ready
w ealth did n o t m a te r ia liz e , the company began a s e rie s o f
experim ents to r a is e crops o f concentrated v a lu e , and the
m e rc a n tile coup any n e c e s s a rily became, fo r the tim e b ein g ,
a c o lo n iz a tio n s o c ie ty .
The in te r n a l fa c tio n s o f the London
Conrpsny have sometimes b eai c la s s ifie d as th e co u rt p a rty and
the p a rlia m e n ta ry p a rty .
One might also d e fin e these groups,
though perhaps w ith le s s p re c is e d iv is io n , as th e m e rc a n tile ,
and th e c o lo n iz a tio n p a r ty .
The form er fa c tio n was le d by
S ir Thomas Saythe, the g re a t merchant governor o f th e 2ast
In d ia Company, and Ihe l a t t e r by th e more im a g in a tiv e andi d e a l i s t !
S ir Edwin Sandys, son o f an Archbishop o f Y o rk .
The d is tin c tio n
is n o t a b s o lu te , b u t is based on tendency, methods, and u ltim a te
m o tiv e s , fo r a l l agreed ihs t the company must show some immediate
promise in o rd e r to a t t r a c t s u ffic ie n t fin a n c ia l baching.
From th e p o l i t i c a l standpoint the management o f the V irg in ia
venture -passed in 1609 from the d ire c t c o n tro l o f th e k in g and
i
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a sm all group o f as s o c ia te s in to the hands o f th e g en e ra l body
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o f s to c k -h o ld e rs .
the company, which K ing James so thoroughly d is lik e d , saw f i t to
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assign some degree o f s e lf d eterm in atio n to th e people in
j
F in a lly t h is "dem ocratic" a d m in is tra tio n o f
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V ir g in ia .
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Along w ith th is grow th o f popular c o n tro l th ere
was a corresponding emphasis o f tie
c o lo n iza tio n over the
p u re ly e x p lo itiv e o r m e rc a n tile vie w p o in t.
Each o f the th ree
successive c h a rte rs o f the company g iv es more a tte n tio n to
s e ttle r s and la n d .
T hat o f 1606 assigned th e " f i r s t co lon y",
which he cane knownas the London Company,
a tr a c t o f Land- one
hundred m ile s square to be chosen between the 54th and 41st
degrees n o rth la t it u d e , or approxim ately between Cape Fear
and Long Is la n d .
General o ve rsig h t o f the u nd ertakin g was
in the hands o f a superior co u n cil appointed by the K ing.
The more d e ta ile d execu tio n o f the p ro je c t was under the
jo in t d ire c tio n o f a c o u n c il in England- and one in V ir g in ia ,
both chosen by the
company. In re g a rd to any d is trib u tio n
o f lan d th a t m ight
be made, the oceapany’ s co u ncil in
England
was empowered to determ ine the assignm ents, but the p aten ts
f o r the lan d were 1d be issued by the k in g .
The f i r s t c h a rte r
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g ives no suggestion as to the basis o f land d is tr ib u tio n . The
shares o f sto ck, which sold fb r 12 pounds 10 s h illin g s , assured
the h o ld e r o f a p ro p o rtio n o f m y d iv is io n of p r o fits o r assets
3
in c lu d in g la n d , ^ h at prom ises were made to those who f i r s t
2 C h arter o f 1506, in S ta tu te s a t Large«W.W. Egning, ea."{13 v o ls .
S i chmond, 1 8 1 9 -1 8 2 3 ), I . $7 e t seq. The c h a rters o f th e company
are als o pub lished in Brown, G enesis. H azara, S t lt h , Poore and
Thorpe.
3 B i l l o f ad ven ture, in BruCe, op. c i t . , I , 502. Also found in
A. Brown. Genesis o f th e u n ite o "S ta te s (2 v o ls .. Boston 1 8 9 1 ),
I , 471.
.
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ventured to V irg in ia we do n o t know ,' "but from la t e r p ra c tic e
i t is reasonably c le a r th ey understood t h a t , fo llo w in g a
p e rio d o f s e rv ic e to the company, th e re would be an a llo tm e n t
o f lan d by which the s e t tle r would re c e iv e the same amount
allow ed fo r each share of sto ck.
A fte r the f i r s t two sears o f disappointm ents which were
not a lle v ia te d by squabbles among the governing co u n c il in
V ir g in ia • th e prom oters determ ined on a more vigorous e f f o r t .
A co n siderably en larged group secured a c h a rte r which p ro vid ed
fo r a v a s tly g re a te r t e r r i t o r y , abandonment o f the su p erio r
co u n c il appointed by the E in g ,. c e n tr a liz a tio n o f a u th o rity
in the co u n c il o f the company i n England, and the s u b s titu tio n
o f a p o w erfu l governor fo r the tu rb u le n t p re s id e n t and c o u n c il
which had fo rm e rly conducted lo c a l a f f a ir s in V ir g in ia .
T h is
c h a rte r, more s p e c ific t h e n -th e ..fir s t, in d ic a te d th a t the
d is tr ib u tio n o f la n d should be made by m a jo rity vote o f the
stockholders ora b asis o f the snount of investm ent o r o th e r
serv ice rendered to the u n d e rta k in g .
empowered to assign land under i t s
The company was
corporate s e a l in s te a d o f
under the g re a t s e a l o f Ir e la n d , as p ro vided in the c h a rte r
o f 1606.
4 C harter o f 1609, Eening, S ta tu te s . I , 8 0 -8 9 .
ITote 2 a n te .
See also
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Along with, th is re ju v e n a tio n o f th e company, Alderman
Johnson, an in f lu e n t ia l s u b s c rib e r, issued under the t i t l e ,
Nora B rita n n ia , an o p tim is tic account o f the new lan d in
an e f f o r t to a ttr a c t ad ven turers o f money,as w e ll as p e r­
sonal adventurers o r p la n te rs , as a c tu a l s e ttle rs -w e re
commonly c a lle d *
In t h is pamphlet emphasis is p laced on
the f e r t i l i t y o f the land and die value o f a w e ll-p e o p le d
colony to th e tra d e o f the realm *
Regarding more- seductive ric h e s , the author is m erely
suggestive in sa yin g , "we do not mention -here the mines o f
g o ld and s ilv e r shieh may b e fo u n d .*•"
The language o f the
prospectus becomes a r t f i i l l y vagus as to when in v e s to rs and
s e ttle r s may expect a dividend o f th e w ea lth o f t h is lu x u ria n t
la n d , but i t i s im p lie d t h a t such a d iv is io n should take p ie c e
a t the end o f seven y e ars and th a t every man and c h ild over
tw elve who had gone to Y lrg L n ia'a n d who had served h is term
o f seven years fo r the company should tte n re c e iv e a t r a c t
o f land — 50 acres a t f i r s t but la t e r to be in creased to a
much la rg e r amount. In v e s to rs were le d to expect a similar
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amount fb r each share o f stock whi ch th ey owned. The re ­
o rg a n iz a tio n and p u b lic appeals did n o t b rin g fo r th as much
support as expected, b u t the new e f fo r t enabled the company
to send rein fo rcem en ts o f men and supplies which a rriv e d
5 "Nova B rita n n ia " For ce, Tracts-, I , nos. 6 and 7;
G enesis, p . 253 et^ seq*
Brown,
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i l l V ir g in ia ju s t i s tim e t o h a lt the abandonment o f the
settlem en t by th e fe u th o su rvived the h o r r ib le s ta rv a tio n
6
tim e .
The f i n a l c h a rte r o f t ie
eompaiy, th a t o f 26 12 , p la ce d
c o n tro llin g a it h a r it y i s a l l m a tte rs o f im portance d ir e c tly
in the hands ct th e g e n eral bocy o f stockholders and in creased
th e ju d ic ia l powers o f th e company co n siderably, p ro v id in g
th a t i t m ight punish those who c a rrie d back to Hhgland
" scandalous” re p o rts o f a f f a ir s i n V ir g in ia as -s e ll as those
who re fu s e d to go to the colony according to t h e ir in d e n tu re s .
T h is c h a rte r was supplem entary to tte -t of 1609, thus i t says
n othing about lan d except to add acme is la n d s to the sphere
o f o p e ra tio n s - a concession iM o h was prom ptly sold to a
s u b s id ia ry group o f sto ckh o ld ers known as th e Somers Is la n d
7
o r th e Bermuda Company.
A ll the c h a rte rs s ta te th a t the land is h e ld o f th e King
"as o f our manor o f East Greenwich . . . in fre e and common
soecage.n
Fee sim ple t i t l e s c o n fe rrin g absolute ownership
were unknown to E n g lis h la w , a l l land—h o ld e rs le g a lly being
ten an ts o f th e k in g ,u ltim a te ly w ith some fe e o r nom inal
o b lig a tio n due fr a a each te n a n t to h is immediate la n d lo rd .
6 . C. M* Andrews, The C o lo n ia l P erio d o f American H is to ry {3 v o ls .
Hew Haven 1934} I , 1 0 8 -1 1 0 .
7 . C h arter o f 1 6 1 2 , H ening, S ta tu te s . I , 9 8 -1 1 0 .
n o te 2 a n te .
See a ls o
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Eree and common soccage te n u re i n seventeenth cen tu ry
England g e n e ra lly re q u ire d o n ly f e a l t y and a fix e d re n t
ra th e r than m ilit a r y or m e n ia l s e rv ic e , and was thus
b e tte r adapted to modern conditions than -Here th e so re
8
p ers o n a l forms o f tenure su rvivin g ffccm fe u d a l la v .
The c h a rte rs s tip u la te d , no fe e f o r th e h in g o th e r than a
f if th
o f sny gold and s ilv e r , end a f if t e e n t h o f any
copper th a t s ig h t be m ined.
However, in s u b le ttin g the
la n d , the London Company re q u ire d ,, except in c e rta in
classes o f p a te n ts , a " fe e rorfc" or q u itre n t o f two s h illin g s
9
the hundred a c re s , e s ta b lis h in g a precedent fo llo w e d w ith
10
some v a r ia tio n in subsequent ro y a l a id p ro p rie ta ry c o lo n ie s .
E xcepting th e c u itre rrt aud s la s tin g in flu e n c e on th e th e o ry
o f our lan d la v , soccage ten u re had l i t t l e
p ra c tic a l, e f f e c t ,
fo r th e lan d could be so ld acd in h e rite d w ith o u t fe e or
hindrance and was n o t s u b je c t.to complex ru le s o f esch eat,
•nor lia b le to come under the S in g ’ s w ardship in case o f
i
in h e rita n c e by m inors or widows.
v
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8 . E . P o llo e k and E.
M a itla n d , H is to ry o f S h g lish Law.
{2nd E d itio n ,} I , . 2 8 2 -2 9 1 , 2 2 3 , S 55-355f Andrews,
\ C o lo n ia l P e rio d . I , 8 6 .
9 . Land P a te n ts , V irg in ia S tate Land O ffic e , I , passim .
16 * B everley W. Bond, The Q uit-R ent System in th e Janerican
C olonies (Hew Haven, 1919 } , passim .
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l a d escrib in g the fo u n d atio n o f th e V ir g in !a lan d system
th e discussion has n e c e s s a rily d r if t e d in to a b s tra c tio n s
which m ight w e ll seen l i t t l e
re la te d to a c tu a l co n d itio n s
during the f i r s t years o f the V ir g in ia colony*
H ere, p r io r
^
to 1613 a t the e a r lie s t , no one had any p riv a te r ig h ts in
la n d , and th e people were in fa c t servants su b ject to the
a r b it r a r y a u th o r ity o f the ccmpany1s ag ents, g e n e ra lly
fo rb id d en to re tu rn to Sag la n d o r to send home "scandalous*
re p o rts o f t h e ir p lig h t*
The immediate concern o f these men
was b are s u rv iv a l r a th e r then fu tu re p r o f it s .
T h e ir hard­
ships were m ain ly th e in f lic t io n s o f n a tu re ra th e r than hersh
m asters, but i t is also tru e th a t the la eh cf p riv a te owner­
ship o f land caused a w a s te fu l in d iffe re n c e among them.
There
was n o t, o f course, any communistic th e o ry u n d e rly in g the
p r o je c t, fo r w ith a few exceptions th e p ro p rie to rs o f th e
colony remained in . In la n d , and th e g re a t m a jo rity o f th e
s e ttle r s were fo r th e tim e being sim ply c o n tra c t la b o re rs .The co n sid eratio n s o ffe re d the s e t t le r s in lie u o f wages were
tra n s p o rta tio n from England, flood, c lo th in g , v a rio u s s u p p lies
11
and th e prom ise o f land a t.th e end o f t h e ir s e rv ic e *
However,
the f a ilu r e o f the company to p ro vid e adequate su p p lies from
England caused the v e ry l i f e
of each man to depend on th e produce
H . As rem arked p re v io u s ly we do n o t know th e exact term s on
which th e e a rly c o lo n is ts -w e re sent o u t, but frcm Nova B r it annia *
p u b lished in 1609, we g e t some id ea o f th e under standing £ eW een
the company and the em igrants. Promises to them were n o t
a lto g e th e r f u l f i l l e d . The s u p p lies sent out were in s u f f ic ie n t •
and th e p e rio d o f service o f some o f th e men was prolonged,
w h ile a t th e same tim e th e a llo tm e n t o f lan d among the s e ttle r s
was delayed*
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o f the group as a w hole.
T h is in tu rn made an a u to c ra tic
r u le o f th e colony necessary* w ith th e r e s u lt th a t th e
thoroughly c a p it a lis t ic ven tu re s u ffe re d scare o f the c h a ra c te r­
i s t i c disadvantages o f ccsEnmism.
Captain John S n ith wrote
th a t "when our people were fe d out o f. th e common s to re and
lab o red J o in tly to g e th e r, g lad was he [who] co u ld s lip fre e .
h is la b o r , o r slumber over h is ta s k , h e.eared not how *-*♦"
12
The f i r s t allow ance o f an y p riv a te use o f len d took
p la c e a t some tin e between 1611 and 1614 when "th re e acres
o f c le a r ground” were a llo t t e d to a few o f th e company’ s
y
la b o re rs on a fix e d re n ta l b a s is , re q u irin g an n u ally a
month’ s s e rv ic e to the colony and payment o f two and a h a lf
15
b a rre ls o f corn on th e e a r to th e common s to re *
T h is modest but
12.* T ravels and Works o f C aptain John S a ith . Edward ir b e r , ed»,
(2 v o ls ** Edinburgh, 1 9 1 0 ), I I , 516*
15* The date o f th e beginning o f the te n a n t-fa rm p o lic y is not
beyond question*
Balph E a rn e r-in t h is "True Disco rse" ( Va>
Mag* o f H is t* and B io g *. 1 2 , 1 7 ; a ls o in Samuel P archas. H is
P ilg rim s * I ¥ * 1768 e t s e q .} s ta te s c le a r ly th a t Dale made these
a llo tm e n ts * T h is would e s ta b lid i th e d ate as 1 6 1 4 , f o r Earner
w rote in th a t y e a r and r e fe r s to D ale’ s te n a n t farm ers as i f i t
were a recent in n o v a tio n , and Dele did not begin h is second
a d m in is tra tio n u n t i l 1614* am ith (T ra v e ls and Yorks. I I , 5 1 6 ,)
confirm s H arser. However- the w rite r s ' o f' "A B r ie f D e c la ra tio n ”
(Jo u rn als o f th e Souse o f Burgesses o f V ir g in ia * 1 6 1 9 -1 7 9 2 , v o l . I )
assigns th is event to Gates’ r u le 1611-1614* P ro fesso r Andrews
( C o lo n ia l P e rio d , I , 124) g iv e s the d ate as 1613-1614 end says
th a t Dale made 'the th re e -a c re a llo tm e n ts . However, he s ta te s
elsew here ( ib id * * I , 1 0 4 , n o te 2} the fa e t th a t D ale’ s second
p e rio d as governor d id n o t b eg in u n t i l 1614* H arser g ives th e
most r e lia b le evidence, being s e c re ta ry o f the colony end w ritin g
n ea res t to the ev e n t. I t appears, th e re fo re , th a t the date
1614 is c o rre c t*
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Im portant concession was a llo w e d , smith r e la te s , to the
men o f the o ld settlem en t - meaning, presum ably, the few
s u rv iv o rs o f th e o r ig in a l s e ttle r s *
However, th e arrange­
ment war he d w e ll, and according to S n ith , one o f these semiindependent farm ers produced about ten tim es more corn than
14
did one o f the company’ s la b o re rs *
The system was extended
u n t il by 1616 th e re were S I farm ers o r ten an ts out o f a t o t a l
p o p u la tio n o f S51, the rem ainder being m a in ly the company’ s
15
se rv a n ts , who worked "the common gardens".
Before long some
o f these ten an ts acq uired n o t o n ly in d en tu red servants but
also w ives, by reim bursing the company fo r the cost o f
16"
b rin g in g the people to V ir g in ia *
These th re e -a c re farms
seem in s ig n ific a n t in comparison w ith la t e r standards, but th ey
were as much as s man could tend w ith spade and hoe, even w ith
the h elp o f one o r two in d en tu red se rvan ts.
Along w ith the
'
growth o f the ten an t farm s, tobacco emerged frcaa the host o f
crop experim ents as the most prom ising p ro du ct*
on a sm all s c a le , i t
P lan ted even
s ta rte d th e grower on the way to becoming
a prosperous p la n te r*
14
S a ith , T rav els and Works.
I I , 516*
15 L e tte r o f John B o lfe to the S a ri o f Warwick, H is to r ic a l
m anuscripts Commission, E ig h th Beport I I , no* 208*
16
V irg in ia
Company Records. I , .515 , 550.
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11
Bat w h ile the in d iv id u a l fo rtu n e s o f some o f the p la n te rs
began to show sons s lig h t prom ise, the company in England, in
s p ite o f lo t t e r ie s and stock sales campaigns, was co n s ta n tly
on th e verge o f fin a n c ia l co lla p se*
To f o r e s t a ll th is and to
keep a re p le n is h in g supply o f s e ttle r s on the way to V ir g in ia ,
the management in 1617 began to fin s nee the u nd ertakin g p a r tly
^
by g ra n ts o f land to p eo p le, who, w ith a few excep tio n s,
rem ained in England.
These ra th e r la rg e g ra n ts were made
e ith e r on the basis o f s e rv ic e s to the company o r on co n d itio n
o f s e ttlin g a cert: in number o f people on the tr a c t granted.
In o th e r words, the company paid some o f i t s fin a n c ia l, o b lig a tio n s
in la n d , and made g ran ts to those who would undertake to a s s is t
in the tas k which kep t the cospany, s tre a s u ry co n s ta n tly depleted the rep lenish m ent o f the colony "w ith good m u ltitu d e s o f p e o p le .”
T y p ic a l o f the g ra n ts fc r se rv ic e s to the company a re : 2000 acres
to S ir Thomas S n ith , who had long ac te d as tre a s u re r o r c h ie f
o f f ic e r o f the o rg a n iz a tio n ; 2000 acres
to the " w e ll deserving
S ir Edwin Sandys” ; to C aptain Each, 500 acres " fo r h is care in
tra n s p o rtin g people to V ir g in ia ,” to Captain D aniel Tucker the
r ig h t to 15 shares o f land fo r his s e rv ic e as Vice id ra ira l and
17
the use o f h is pinnace in the Colony*
17 V irg in ia Company RecoTds. I , 213-214 , 380 , 427, '469-4S 7,
4 9 7 , 6&4; '±11, 60 , 634. •
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12
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The g ra n ts made in c o n s id e ra tio n ^ o f tra n s p o rtin g people
to V irg in ia and s e ttlin g tiiem on the lan d were more numerous
and g e n e ra lly o f g re e te r s iz e than those o f the f i r s t c la s s .
The more im p ortan t o f these g re a ts were allow ed to groups
of in v e s to rs in the London Company who asso ciated them selves
on a -jo in t-s to c k basis to p la n t separate co lo n ies in V irg in ia
j
to be operated fo r t h e ir own p r o f it .
Ju s t as the company,
despairing o f fin a n c in g i t s ta s k , had determ ined to s u b -le t
I
p a rt o f the undertaking to o th e rs ; lik e w is e vario us groups
o f the more e n th u s ia s tic sto ckh o ld ers, seeing l i t t l e
immediete
hone o f p r o f it through the h ig h ly in v o lv ed p aren t eomnany,
1
-■
•.
| organized sep arate ven tu res aid re c e iv e d from th e company the
j
j
rig h t to s e ttle aid e z p lo it c e r ta in t r a c t s o f lan d in V ir g in ia .
G en erally the promoters proposed to rem ain in England and
c o n tro l th e ir " p a rtic u la r p la n ta tio n s ". o r "hundreds’’ through
stockholders* m eetings end o f f ic ia ls in England and V ir g in ia
18
in im ita tio n o f th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f the London Company#
Settlem ent s made by the se a s s o c ia tio n s were sometimes c a lle d
"hundreds” , a p p a re n tly because they were allow ed a c e rta in
amount o f independent p o lit ic a l a u th o rity and, th e re fo re ,
might be compared to th e E n g lid i county su b d ivisio n c a lle d
by th a t name*
18* V irg in ia Company He cor ds* I , 550; IV , 506.
P aten t fo r B erkeley Hundred, i b i d . . I l l , 15 0-1 54 .
*
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13
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A lto g e th e r th ere were a t le a s t fo r ty -fo u r - perhaps more p aten ts issued by the London Compeny fo r p a r tic u la r p la n ta tio n s
or hundreds, o n ly a few became anything more than peper p ro je c ts .
However, se v e ra l o f th ese as so c ia tio n s were v e ry a c tiv e and
made s u b s ta n tia l c o n trib u tio n s to tie p o p u la tio n during the
la s t fiv e years o f the London Company’ s e x is te n c e .
Hundred may serve as an illu s t r a t io n .
B erkeley
The o r ig in a l p ate n t
c re a tin g the s o c ie ty i s r e a lly a co n trac t between the London
Company and S ir W illia m Throckmorton, R ichard B erkeley, John
a n ith o f N ib le y , and S ir George Y e a rd le y , a l l members o f the
London Company, the last-n am ed .being the company’ s re c e n tly
appointed governor in V ir g in ia .
This group was granted 100
acres o f lend fo r each share o f sto ck in th e London Compeny,
w ith th e understanding thEt an a d d itio n a l 100 acres per share
would be given, them when the f i r s t t r a c t was s e ttle d .
The
land dividend on stock was no s p e c ia l concession but was
allow ed to any sto ckh o ld er.
In a d d itio n , fo r th e n ext seven
ye a rs , th ey were to be grant ed 50 acres w ith o u t fe e re n t fo r
each person brought to V irg in ia a t th e ir expense, who should
rem ain th e re fo r th re e years o r u n t i l d e a th .. They were also
given 1 ,5 0 0 acres fa r the support o f a church and school.
The "hundred” was n o t su b ject to the London Company’ s tra d e
re g u la tio n s , was not to be tax ed 'w ith o u t i t s consent, nor
re q u ire d to make any c o n trib u tio n to the colony as a whole
except fo r defense; and, i t was allow ed to make laws fo r lo c a l
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14
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governm oit so lo n g as th ey were n o t in c o n flic t w ith th e
19
law s o f England.
The B erkeley Hundred group s e t about t h is business a t
once, ra is e d money, bought s u p p lie s , c o n tra c te d fo r farm ers
and la b o re rs , stew ards and o v e rse ers, a clergym an, a surgeon,
and w ith in a few months sent out th e M arg aret from B r is to l
w ith t h ir t y - f iv e men.
men and women, and
The n ex t y e a r th ey sen t out f i f t y - s i x
b e fo re the d is s o lu tio n o f the London Company,
th e y despatched two more vessels to t h e ir p la n ta tio n above
Jamestown.
Most o f the se^people were to serve the co rp o ra tio n
from th re e to seven y e a rs , a f t e r th ic h th ey were to be allow ed
from 30 to 50 a c re s , (the amount p ro b ab ly depending upon
q u a lity and len g th o f s e rv ic e ) to be h e ld and passed by in ­
h e rita n c e , but fo r which th ey were to pay an annual re n t of
tw elve pence an a c re .
Some ^were from th e s ta rt^ ten an t farm ers
who p aid about o n e -h a lf of t h e ir crops to the p ro p rie to rs .
B erkeley Hundred was thus a f a i r l y f a it h f u l m in ia tu re o f. the
20
p a re n t company.
As s ta te d , the land allow ed to promoters
depended on the number o f people whom th ey sent to th e colony.
19 I b i d . . H I , 1 3 0 -1 3 4 .
20 H is to r ic a l M anuscripts Commission, F if t h B eno rt. I , 340-341;
V irg in ia Company He cords. I I I . 197-199 , 2 1 1 , 393-394.
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15
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The owners, In 16 36 , so ld a t r a e t o f ©000 ac re s, a p p aren tly
21 1
t h e ir e n tire p ro p e rty in V ir g in ia .
O ther ventures s im ila r to B erkeley Hundred and which
a c tu a lly re s u lte d in se ttle m e n ts in V irg in ia were M a rtin ’ s
Hundred, a s o c ie ty which o btain ed a t r a c t o f ^000 acres and
brought two hundred and f i f t y people to the colony; Smith1s ,
la t e r c a lle d Southampton Hundred, which in clu d ed 80,000 acres;
A rch er’ s Hope on the York H ir e r ; Bar grave’ s P la n ta tio n ;
M a rtin ’ s Brandon; B ennett’ s ^eloome; Leone’ s Hundred, la t e r
c a lle d Is le o f "Sight P la n ta tio n ; T ru elo ve’ s P la n ta tio n ; and
22
P e rc y ’ s ,o r F lo w erd ieu ,Hundred* , I t was under one o f these
-
" p a r tic u la r p la n ta tio n " p a t a its th a t the P ilg rim s , financed
by London m erchants, s a ile d fb r V ir g in ia , but by accident
23
s e ttle d a t Plym outh.
The s ta tu s o f these g ran ts a f t e r the d is s o lu tio n o f the
London Company is an in te re s tin g problem fo r which th e re is
no p re c is e answer.
I t ha s'-so me tim es been convenient to assume
21 P a te n t Books, V ir g in ia S tate Land O ffic e , 1 , 410.
H e re a fte r c ite d as "P a te n ts ."
22 " T it le s and E states"
i b i d . . I . 2 4 8 -2 5 1 , 3 4 7 ,
and B log. I I , 52 , V I I I ,
S tate P apers. C o lo n ia l.
in V irg L n is Company He cords. IV . 551-558*
414, 562 , 588; IV , 506; Va. Mag, o f H is t,
40 1; Brown, H ep u b lic. p gjab's Calendar o f
1574-1660, pp 213-214.
23 V irg in ia Company Records. I , 2 2 1 ,2 2 8 ,2 4 9 ,3 0 3 .
Andrews, C o lo n ia l P e rio d i . 2 7 2 , n ote 1 .
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16
th a t the r ig h ts o f -these subordinate a s so c ia tio n s exp ired
w ith the London Company.
However, th a t does n o t appear to
be tr u e , fo r as la t e as 1636 the owners o f B erkeley Hundred
sold 8 ,0 00 acres to a group o f Londoners and the s a le was
24
confirm ed by p aten t in V ir g in ia .
In 1642 the in s tru c tio n s
o f Governor B erkeley show th a t the P riv y Council s t i l l con­
sid ered the land
2 ±edits
o f the hundreds and p a r tic u la r
25
p la n ta tio n s as v a lid , eva. though th e y had n o t been e x e rc is e d .
The exp lan atio n o f the disappearance o f these s o c ie tie s is
thus not cue to n u llif ic a t io n o f th e ir land t i t l e s , but ra th e r
to the fa c t th a t th e ventures-w ere n o t prom ising investm ents,
p a r t ic u la r ly a f t e r t h e ir Independence .in m atters o f tra d e and
government was destroyed by the assucrotion o f ro y a l c o n tro l
26
over the colony.
B erkeley Hundred, as has been shorn,
intend ed m a in ly to o p erate a 'la rg e p la n ta tio n w ith a number
o f attach ed ten an t farm s, but the agreem ents w ith the ten an ts
were b e tte r s u ite d to s r e la t iv e ly w e ll-p o p u la te d land such as
England, and the prom oters could not expect to h o ld people under
i 24 P a te n ts , 1 , 41 0.
t
25 In s tru c tio n s to B e rk e le y , 1642, In Va. Mas:, o f H is t.-a n d Biog.
Z l, 54- 57. •—
— ■
—
■“ --------*
.
..
2 6 . The asso ciates o f Southampton-Hundred said in 1635 th a t
th ey had spent & 6000 on th e ir ven tu re and now had n o th in g to
show fo r i t except some- e a ttle .. T h e ir expenditure was la r g e ly
made in sending, servant s and ten an ts to V irg in ia and t h e ir
r e c e ip ts , i f any, were pro bably v e ry s n a il,
j Andrews, C o lon ial P e rio d s I , 13L.
Bruce, Economic H is to ry .
X , 508.
i
!
!!
I
|
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such terras where u n in h a b ite d land was abundant*
I t would
be in te re s tin g to know what happened to the ten an ts o f
these a s s o c ia tio n s .
In the case o f B e rk e le y Hundred th e re
i s preserved a l i s t o f s e t t le r s in which th e re is in s e rte d
onposite the names o f about fiv e -s ix th s o f the people the
27
word "dead” o r "s la y n e ".
Loubtless most o f the s u rv iv in g
ten an ts f i n a l l y be case independent landowners.
Meanwhile
the id le land o f the p a r tic u la r p la n ta tio n s and hundreds,
except in v e iy few in s ta n c e s , be case absorbed in to the
crown lan ds and were g ran ted to in d iv id u a l p la n te rs , sim ply
because th e o rig in a l p ro p rie to rs did not see f i t to a s s e rt
th e ir rig h ts *
I t also appears lha t very few o f those who
re c e iv e d lan d from the company as a rew ard fo r se rv ices
cane in to a c tu a l possession o f i t
23
to have surveys made*
cr even, took the tro u b le
The g ra n ts o f land made d ir e c tly by th e London Company in
Sogland were m a in ly u n re a liz e d assignm ents, b ut th ey aided in sup­
p o rtin g the colony a t a time when i t s permanance was n o t y e t assured*
27 . Y irg in ia Company Be cords. I , 197-192*
|
28* I b i d . . IV * 551-558*
5
i
■‘
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The a llo tm e n t o f 50 acres fb r each man im ported by th e asso­
c ia tio n helped m a in ta in the p o p u la tio n , and e s ta b lis h e d a
precedent f o r the ”h e a d rig h t” which was the b asis f o r the
lan d system o f seventeenth cen tu ry V ir g in ia , and the model
fo r se veral o f the la t e r ro y a l c o lo n ie s ,
A fte r the severe, but honest and e f f ic ie n t r u le , o f
Dale ended in A p r il 1616, V irg in ia was subjected to th e
greed and mismanagement o f A r g a li.
The clamor a g a in s t M s
a d m in is tra tio n was so g en eral t i n t the company determ ined
n o t o n ly to remove the governor bat to a lt e r th e very b a s is
o f the government i t s e l f by a llo w in g th e colony a popular
re p re s e n ta tiv e assembly*
The new p la n o f 1618 was t r u ly
the Magna Carta fo r V ir g in ia , re p res en tin g th e lib e r a l views
o f the fa c tio n le d by S ir Edwin Sandys 'who was soon to be
e le c te d tre a s u re r or c M e f o f fic e r o f the company.
The new
p o lic y was a trium ph o f the c o lo n iz a tio n over the p u re ly
e x p lo ita tiv e v ie w p o in t.
I t envisioned a colony o f landowners
and la b o re rs e q u a lly en fra n c h is e d , w ith endowed c o lle g e s ,
h o s p ita ls , and in n s fo r the re c e p tio n o f the new s e ttle r s *
To rounp o ut a s ta b le s o c ie ty , the company soon sent m aids,
29
"young and uncorrupt to make w ives to the in h a b ita n ts ..^
^
29 The "new p la n ” is o u tlin e d in the company’ s in s tru c tio n s to
Governor Y e s rd le y , (V irg in ia Company Records. I l l , 9 9 -1 0 8 ).
when these in s tru c tio n s were prep ared , S ir Thomas S n ith was
s t i l l tre a s u re r o f the company, but the g re a t program re s
e v id e n tly the work o f Sanays. (Andrews, C o lo n ia l P e rio d . I . 180)
There i s , however, no evidence th a t sm ith or o th e rs o f conser­
v a tiv e lea n in g s opposed the new p o lic y . I t is not m ain tain ed
th a t th e re were sh a rp ly d e fin e d p rogressive a id co n servative
fa c tio n s . Sanays, E e rra r and t h e ir fo llo w in g were c e r ta in ly
in te re s te d in seeing a re tu r n on th e ir in vestm en t, b u t b e lie v e d
th a t t ie b e s t means to th a t end was through f i r s t securing
contentm ent and p ro s p e rity in V ir g in ia .
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The extending o f p a r t ia l self-governm ent to t i e c o lo n is ts
has been very p ro p e rly regarded as a m a tte r o f f i r s t im portance
in t ie h is to ry o f democratic in s t it u t io n s , but i t is l i k e l y
V
th a t tbs g re a te r p e r t c f the c o lo n is ts re jo ic e d most because
o f the g en eral em ancipation from s e rv ic e to the comp any and
the prospect o f an imme d ia te d is tr ib u tio n o f s u b s ta n tia l
landholdings#
These p ro v is io n s , along w ith o th er good news,
are embodied in the commission and in s tru c tio n s which
Governor Tear ale y brought to V irg in ia in the spring o f 1619#
The p ro visio n s re g a rd in g lan d assignm aits,- though p a r t ly of
tem porary a p p lic a tio n , e s tab lis h e d the b asis fo r the V irg in ia
land system and, th e re fo re ,' should be examined in some d e t a il.
The ru le s aimed a t c la s s ific a tio n o f a l l people who should
claim la n d , whether V ir g in ia s e ttle r s o r in v e s to rs , and out­
lin e d th e conditions fo r each category according to i t s m e rit.
.
_
SO
In summary tbs assignm aits were as fo llo w s :
SO The snsmary is based alm ost e n tir e ly on the. coup any’ s
in s tru c tio n s to Y eard ley ( V irg in ia Company Records. I I I . 9 9 -1 0 8 ),
b u t some d e ta ils have been, in c o rp o ra ted from subsequent records
o f th e company# I b i d . . I I I , 314, 56 1-3 62 , "Orders and C o n s titu tio n s ",
F o rce , op. c i t . . i S L 2 2 . The e la b o ra te in s tru c tio n s to Y e ard ley
make no re fe re n c e to any e a r lie r g ra n ts o f la n d to p la n te rs in
V irg in ia # However, Bruce (Economic H is to ry . I . 221#) s ta te s
p o s itiv e ly th a t th e re were some p aten ts issued by Y e a rd le y *s
predecessors# E ls co n ten tio n i s based e n t ir e ly on a p e t it io n
addressed on J u ly 5 1 , 1619, to the f i r s t House cf Burgesses#
j The p e titio n e r s o f C harles C ity Hundred asked th a t "grounds as
! h e re to fo re had bean g ra n te d by patent to the a n c ie n t p la n te rs | by form er Governors, tia t had from the Company re c e iv e d
Commission so to doe, m i^ht n o t now a f t e r so muche la b o r endeoste and so many years h a b ita tio n be taken away from them ".
( C o lo n ia l Becoras of V ir g in ia . S tate Senate Docum ent,Extra,1874,p# 15,
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- sc 1 * A ll who came to V irg in ia a t t h e ir otbh
expense p r io r to A p r il 1616 (a n c ie n t
p la n te rs ) ana
have rem ained th e re
fo r th ree ye ars — — --------------------- — — 100 acres w ithout
q u itre n t
Z» A ll who were brought to V ir g in ia a t the
company’ s charge hefor e A p r il, 1516
(a n c ie n t p la n te rs ) 31 - — — ---------— 100 acres w ithout
q u itre n t
3* Those who case to V ir g in ia a t th e ir
own expense since A p r il, 1 5 1 6 -----— - 50 a c re s , one
s h illin g annual
q u itre n t*
T h is w r ite r has come across a d d itio n a l support f o r Bruce’ s
co n ten tio n in the w i l l , recorded in England, o f a Captain
Bobert Sm alley who in 1517 l e f t a house end "grounds” a t
Bermuda Hundred* ( Va» Mag* o f H is t* and B lo g ** H I , 17 5 *)
These reco rd s seem to prove c o n c lu s iv e ly t i n t th e re were
p a te n ts issued by the governors i n V ir g in ia a t le a s t p r io r
to 1617* Bruce surmises th a t th e re must have been v e ry few
o f these p a te n ts issued b efh re .1613* T h is b e lie f is b ased
on the fa c t th a t the v e ry complete lan d system s e t up in
1519jp ro v id e s fo r a l l classes o f lan d claim an ts in V ir g in ia
and England, y e t i t makes n o t the le a s t allow ance fo r any
e a r lie r lan d assignments to in d iv id u a l p la n te rs * M oreover,
i t seems in c re d ib le th a t such an im p ortan t departure in
p o lic y should have been o ver-looked” by contaaporary w r ite r s
who were g e n e ra lly anxious to put the bounty o f the company
and the advantages o f V irg in ia in the b es t p o s s ib le lig h t .
F in a lly , th e re is the f a c t th a t 1he reco rd s in th e V irg in ia
Land O ffic e , seem ingly complete in o th e r re s p e c ts , show no
p a te n ts p r io r to 1619* At any r a t e one must in e v ita b ly
conclude t h a t , except f o r the tenant farm p o lic y described
in th is ch a p te r, th e re w as, b e fo re 1619, so co n siderable
d e v ia tio n from the p la n o f g e n eral s e rv ic e to th e ccsspany*
3 1 * The in s tru c tio n s to Y eardley In d ic a te th a t those people
in th e above class had f i r s t to complete t h e ir p e rio d o f
s e rv ic e to th e cccpany b e fb re re c e iv in g th e ir ' lan d * However,
Y e a rd le y ’ s p ro clam atio n appears to fr e e everyone who a rriv e d
b efo re A p r il, 16 16 , from fu rth e r s e rv ic e . Jo u rn al o f the
House o f Burgesses* 1619-1659, p . 36*
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21
4* Those brought to V irg in ia a t th e
Company’ s charge sin ce A p r il, 1616,
th e re a fte r to he ten an ts f o r seven
years on the company’ s la n d ,
g iv in g h a lf o f t h e ir produce to
the organization?—-------------lease o f in d e fin ite
acreage
5 . To th e h o ld e r o f each p aid -u p share
o f 12 pounds 10 s h illin g s
-----— — 100 acres w ith ou t
q u itre n t,
6 , To p aid -u p shareholders, fo r each
person brought in to the colony—— 50 acres w ith o u t
q u itre n t
. {The p r iv ile g e c f land-ow nership under
t h is arrangement was lim ite d t o .
200 acres unless one owned 50 o r more
shares o f stock)
7# To any person, not a- s to c k h o ld e r, fo r
b rin g in g h im self infc o the colony and ■
each person trta g h t in a t h is charge
w ith in seven years— — ------- — --------— -5 0 aeres w ith ore
s h illin g annual
q u itre n t fo r each
50 acres
In 1619 th e re were about 109 s u rv iv in g "a n c ie n t
p la n te rs " - those who came over b e fo re A p r il, 1616 who were e n title d to 100 acres each*
A v e ry few o f
these were members o f the o r ig in a l e x p e d itio n who had
22
somehow managed to escape s ta rv a tio n and disease*
It
is probable th a t most o f the "a n c ie n t p la n te rs " were a lre a d y
te n a n ts , but some o f t e a were s t i l l h eld in s e rv ic e under
32 A bstracts o f V irg in ia Land P a te n ts and G rants. H e ll si*
Hugent, e d *, (Richmond, 1934)., 1,-2 X 71 11 - 222X7,
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S3
" c ru e l lews" a d m itte d ly 'beyond th e ir tim e .
The V irg in ia
s e ttle r s e n title d to an immediate g r s it o f lan d were l i t t l e
more than a te n th o f the t o t a l p o p u la tio n o f some one
34
thousand p eo p le,
However, most o f the o th e rs and the
la t e r a r r iv a ls d urin g the company’ s r u le were share-crop
ten an ts ra th e r then c o n tra c t is borers as fo rm e rly .
But
though the company la r g e ly abandoned in d en tu red s e rv itu d e ,
th is form o f lab o r was g ra d u a lly adopted by the ten an ts
and the landowners.
Out o f ap p ro xim ately 800 people sent
o ut by the company in 1619, the m a jo rity were to be fo r
seven' years ten an ts on the company’ s la n d , but o f the
rem ainder 90 were wives fo r the te n a n ts , and 150 were boys
m a in ly to be a p p re n tic e d or in d en tu red to the ten an t farm ers
fo r a p e rio d o f y e a rs .
In the same year the p ro p rie to rs o f
the hundreds and the p a r ti e u la r p la n ta tio n s sent out n e a rly
400 people most o f whom were pro bably ind en tured se rv a n ts ,
fo r each o f wfrom as we have seen, the prom oters were allow ed
! 33 V ir g in ia Company Reccr ds. I , 350, 541-542;
I ^ o ttm a l o f th e House o f Burgesses. 1619-1659, p . 36 ,
|
34 T h is p ro p o rtio n is a rough estim ate based on 109 an cien t
p la n te rs mentioned above aid a p o p u la tio n th a t flu c tu a te d some­
where between a t o t a l o f 800 and 2£00 people during 1619-1622.
(Brown, G enesis. I I , 782. .Andrews, C o lo n ia l P e rio d . 1 . 1 3 9 .)
In 1619 th e re were some people in V irg in ia besides the ancient
p la n te rs who were e n title d to land. (London Company stockholders
who had come over a t th e ir own expense) but these were n o t
s u f f ic ie n t ly numerous to make any~great a lte r a tio n in the e s tim a te .
(C f . summary o f people sen t out 1619-1620, V ir g in ia Company
Records. I , 313, and the l i s t o f " T it le s and E s ta te s ",
i b i d . , IV , 551-558, te k in g in to account the fa c t th a t the l i s t
Slade up in 1 6 2 5 .)
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55
f i f t y seres o f land#
I t is pxobsble tS st tlas cojnmny expected th a t tbs
p r iv ile g e o f ta k in g tip lend Ss r im p o rta tio n of Ind en tured
servsnt s sou Id bo e x ercise d m ain ly by the owners o f hundreds
end p a r tic u la r p la n ta tL o n s , b ut as shown In th e foregoing
c la s s ific a tio n the r ir & t was open to a l l , and a few o f the
an c ie n t p la s te rs and otbe xs who now beceme lan d owners, in
soise way reim bursed the scape ny fb r th e cost of b rin g in g
over ind en tured servant s and increased t h e ir a llo tm e n t o f
36
lend by f i f t y acres fb r each e e rv s a t.
Thus the in d iv id u a l
p la n te rs in V irg in ia began 9 in a a ite ll r a y , to use tbs
system o f in d en tu red se rv itu d e which th e company had la r g e ly
abandoned, end, as th is fo ra o f la b o r proved p r o fita b le in
the heads o f p riv a te m asters, so the eccosrpesying. ‘b iesd rig kt"
fo r land became in time the basis o f the len d system o f Y ir g in I
As has been in d ie s te d , ihe in s tru c tio n s to Y e a rd le y '
r'
"
•_
provided Ib r e ” d iv ld ® 5” o f land 3br e l l shareholders as
w e ll so fo r the an c ie n t p la n te rs in V ir g in ia .. r u t w ith a
fe e exceptions the in d iv id u a l English stockholders did s o t
i
requ est o r re c e iv e th e ir p o rtio n s o f lend before the
c
*
(
I 35 I b i d . . ! . 515, The company did n o t e n t ir e ly abandon the
|- use
in d en tu red sex vents m3, re ta in e d a number of boys
| fo r the company's r p u b lic ” work* The ^Muster o f In h a b ita n ts
|
1024-1625” J *C . H otton {O rig in s ! L is t c f Ssflggents i*>
i
-^raerica. 16 00-1700, How 3fcrk, 1874, p p IT 0 1 -2 o ^ ,) in d ic a te s
: th a t ovax a th ir d o f the people ware tbes indentured
se rv an ts. Of the rem ainder th e ra f e r i t y were te n a n t farm ers.
5-3 T ir f ln ie CoEtoeay P ic a rd s . 1 , 515,3505 IV , 551-558#
P a te n ts , 19 1619-16*43. basalg*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
- 24 d is s o lu tio n o f th e company*
A p p arently th e y were on th e
whole u n w illin g to pay e ven the sm all survey charge to
re c e iv e t i t l e
to a w ilderness t r a c t w hich was p r a c t ic a lly
w orthless m il ess one was prepared to em igrate to V ir g in ia
o r to go to the expense o f developing th e p ro p e rty by an
agent*
Most o f those who favored an absentee management
ven tu re u n ite d t h e ir shares in the hundred and p a r tic u la r
■ p la n ta tio n p ro je c ts , uhi ch were formed in in c re a s in g
numbers a f t e r 1619; and n e a rly a l l o f the o th e rs showed
no d is p o s itio n to make the f ir the r commitments necessary
37
to r e a liz e th e ir land dividends.
The g re a te r p a r t of the land p a te n ts issued by the
company’ s governors to V irg in ia s e t t le r s were issued a f t e r
w yatt re p laced Y eard ley in 1621, but th e re i s every reason
to b e lie v e th a t the p la n te rs e n t it le d to lan d took possession
58
o f t h e ir tr a c ts soon a f t e r Y eard ley’ s p ro clam ation in 1619*
-■
-
Governor W yatt was accompanied to V irg in ia in 1621 by V illie m
Claiborne,w ho made most of 1he surveys fo r the p a te n ts
I
j
37 This is in d ic a te d by comparison o f the vario us l i s t o f
stockholders in V irg in ia Company Be cords w ith th e ’’L is t o f
T it le s and E s ta tes” Ib id ,. lY , 551-558* The r e la t iv e ly few
shareholders who re carved ’ land were m a in ly in* V ir g in ia ,
though Governor Y e a rd le y took cere o f the s e le c tio n of
la n d fo r a few E n g lish shareholders.
Ib id * . 1 , 2 7 3 -2 7 4 , 308; 111, 249.
38 "A E e la tio n from M r. John R p lfe n In S a ith , T ra v e l s and
Works. I I , 542.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 25 39
issued "by the company,
and although, many o f th e p la n te rs
had l i k e l y be®. in a c tu a l possession since 1619, y e t th ey
were compelled to aw ait the surveyor’ s a r r iv a l b e fo re t h e ir
land could be given the p re c is e d e s c rip tio n necessary fo r
a p a te n t*
The p la n te rs were to
sceb
e x te n t r e s tr ic te d by
Y e a rd le y *s in s tru c tio n s in the s e le c tio n o f t h e ir p lo ts .
Before Y e a rd le y ’ s a r r iv a l the s e t t le r s had been e s ta b lis h e d
in s e v e ra l groups along the n o rth bank o f th e James from
Zecoughtan a t th e mouth o f the r iv e r to Henrico o n ly ten
40
m ile s from th e f a l l s .
The company in s tru c te d Y e a rd le y
to la y o f f fo u r boroughs along th is e ig h ty -m ile r iv e r
fro n t and to re s e rv e w ith in the se p re c in c ts v a rio u s tr a c ts
fo r the company’ s tenant fa rm e rs , fo r the support o f the
o ffic e r s o f th e colony and the borough m a g is tra te s , to
m a in ta in th e c le rg y , and to endow a c o lle g e .
These
re s e rv a tio n s occupied g reat s tre tc h e s o f the r iv e r fro n t
and tbs p la n te rs were n o t allow ed to s e le c t t h e ir lan d
39 Records o f the V irg in ia
1619-1643,. passim .
|
Company. I l l , 477; P a te n ts I ,
40 These s e ttle m a its were g e n e ra lly c a lle d hundreds,
e v id e n tly a n tic ip a tin g the form ation o f separate t e r r it o r ie s
fo r lo c a l government. The company used th is d esig n atio n
fo r i t s sep arate settlem ent s some years befo re i t was a p p lie d
to the co lo n ies o f the jo in t stock a s s o c ia tio n s .
i
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41
o u ts id e the borough in which th e y liv e d .
The governor w ith
the aid. o f the c o u n c il decided any land disputes among th e
p la n te rs , and th e co u n cil a u th o rize d the governor to sign
th e in d iv id u a l land p a te n ts .
I t was in ten d ed th a t the
p a te n ts should he confirm ed and reco rd ed by the company
42
in England, tu t a p p a re itly th a t was never done.
In 1625 Governor V'yatt prepared a l i s t o f p aten ts whichN
g ives a summary view o f the land d is trib u tio n s made by the
|
London Company.
O utside o f the
s p e cial re s e rv a tio n s men-
I tio n e d above and the a llo t mart s to hundreds and p a r tic u la r
*
| p la n ta tio n s , th e re were 184 p a te n ts issued to in d iv id u a l
i
p la n te rs *
Over th re e -fo u rth s o f-th e men re c e iv e d 200 acres
o r le s s , th e most common gremt being the ,100-acre allow ance
o f the an e ie n t p la n te r .
201 and 600 a c re s .
About o n e -s ix th re ce ived between
Four out o f the 184 p la n te rs had over
600 and le s s than 1 ,0 00 a c re s , and fo u r owned over 1,000
a c re s , the la rg e s t p riv a te ly -o w n e d p la n ta tio n being the
42
3 ,7 0 0 -a c re g ra n t to Governor Y e a rd le y . About f o u r - f if t h s
4 1 T ir g L n ia Company He cords. I I I . 9 9 -1 0 8 ;
IV , 551-558.
|
! 42 I b i d . . 1 1 1 . 361-362; P a te n ts , I , 1619-1645.- -passim.
\
I
.
- s V ir g in ia Company Be car as.
IV , 551-558.
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-
- 27 -
o f the male p o p u la tio n re c e iv e d no land a t a l l from
44
the company,
v
/
The land g ra n ts made under the London Company
in d ic a te to acme e x te n t the s o c ia l and economic s ta tu s
o f the p io neers o f V irg in ia *
E a rly p o p u la tio n fig u re s
are a t best rought e s tim a te s , h it i f we accept 1 ,2 4 0 as
a reasonable e s tim a te o f the t o t a l in 1624, in c lu d in g
■women, i t
appears th a t o n ly about one-seventh re c e iv e d
assignments o f lan d from the company*
Therefore the
rem ainder were c h ie fly people seat out a t the espense
o f the company o r o th e rs to . work out t h e ir board end
passage e ith e r as tenant farm ers o r as indentured
se rv a n ts , w ith - as we have a lre a d y seen- the ten an t
45
farm ers predom inating.
I t is tru e th a t s considerable
44 T his es tim ate is based on 184 pa te n ts to in d iv id u a ls
and a p o p u la tio n o f about 1,2 0 0 o f whom 950 were m ales.
P o p u latio n estim ates are from : Andrews, C o lo n ial P e rio d ,
I I , 159; Brown, G enesis. I I , 782; Brown, R e p u b lic , 661-627;
| and Hot to n , Emigrant s . p p .-2 0 1 -2 6 5 f V ir g in ia Mag* o f H is t.
! SB& Biog.- V I I , 366*
1
I
|
|
|
i
j
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j
j
45 The p ro p o rtio n is based on th e numbers o f p a te n ts as
compared w ith the p o p u la tio n , in c lu d in g women, in d ic a te d
in sources c ite d in the i r e ceding fo o tn o te * I t may be
o b je c te d th a t the e ir cuss t sue es o f the em ig ratio n o f .the
women were so p e c u lia r and vario us th a t th ey should not
p ro p e rly be in clu d ed in tie categ o ry o f servants o r
persons im ported by o th e rs * However, th ere were
o n ly
some 280 women in the colony in 1624. (see note 44 above).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
number o f those e n title d to land had n o t had o p p o rtu n ity
46 .
to ex e rc is e th e ir rig h ts p r io r to 1624, but t h is i s
p ro bably more than o ffs e t by the obvious fa c t th a t a
g re a t p a rt o f those who re c e iv e d lan d had n o t come to
V irg in ia a t th e ir own expense.
But even i f as many as
six-seven th s o f the people were sent o u t from England
under ten an t o r lab o r c o n tra c ts , one should n o t h a s tily
assign them to th e low est s o c ia l ca teg o ry,
Among o th er
circum stances one should make allow ance fo r th e fa c t th a t
p r io r to 1619 th e re was no immediate inducement to cause
em igrants to pay th e ir own passage sin ce everyone had to
serve th e company fo r a p e rio d o f y e ars.
M oreover, i t is
probable th a t , even a fte r 1619, some im m igrants* irre s p e c tiv e
o f th e ir means, p re fe re d to accept the a s sis tan ce and
s e c u rity o ffe re d by the ten an t farm er o r servan t s ta tu s
ra th e r than a tte m p t, a t tbs o u ts e t, an independent venture
in to a w ild snd unknown la n d .
There were c e r ta in ly pauper's
and vagabonds in considerable numbers among those e a rly '
47
•
j s e ttle r s in V ir g in ia , b ut i t cannot be assumed th a t the
I
i
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|
j
j
I
I
46 S c attered among the p a ta it records f o r th e ‘ years
fo llo w in g the d is s o lu tio n o f the company one o c c a s io n a lly
fin d s a p a te n t issued to an an cient p la n te r , snd many o th e r
p a te n ts are doubtless to people who came over b efo re 1 6 2 4 ,'
though the documents do n o t in d ic a te th a t f a c t . P a te n ts ,
I , 1619- 1645, passim .
47 in d rew s, C o lo n ia l P e rio d , I . 135-156}
Economic History. I . 689-601.
Bruce,
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
I
- 29 people who co n tracted th e ir s e rv ices were g e n e ra lly
o f th is c la s s .
i
J
i
]
In d en tu red s e rv itu d e was but an
ad a p ta tio n o f a p p re n tic e s h ip 7then common in England,
and sinee the ve n tu re to Y ir$ .n ia o ffe re d a promise
fo r the fu tu re i t would have appealed to the am b itio u s ,
ra th e r than to ihe most ^ lif t le s s p o rtio n o f the working
c la s s ,
The ten an t farm er c o n tra c ts , p re v a le n t in the
\
la s t years of the company, were c e r ta in ly n o t onerous o r
degrading, snd such arrangem ents were customary in Sag le n d . 7
In December, 1624, land g ra n ts under th e London
Company ceased.
The company, near fin a n c ia l co lla p se and
d is tra c te d by nd em o eratical” s t r i f e , had, by the K in g ’ s
o rd e rs , been under in v e s tig a tio n fo r over a year w ith
the o b je c t o f p la c in g the o rg a n iz a tio n once more under
ro y a l c o n tro l.
Since stockholders re fu s ed to accept a
cu rta ilm e n t o f th e ir powers, th e ir- c h a rte r was withdrawn
by
w arranto proceedings, and in 1626 the colony was
48
fo rm a lly in c o ip o ra te d in to the ro y a l demesne.
quo
j
\
|
V ir g in ia Company Becords. I Y , 379 , 4 9 0-4 97 ;
Andrews, on. c it » . 165-1 78 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
The H eadrighi System
The tr a n s itio n o f V ir g in ia from th e company’ s ru le
to th e c o n tro l o f th e Grown has g e a e ra lly been tre a te d
from th e p o l i t i c a l stan d p o in t*
i
There were, to be su re,
fundam ental p o lit ic a l iss u e s a t sta k e , and t h e ir s o lu tio n
was a m a tte r o f prim e consequence to th e fu tu re o f
democratic in s titu tio n s in America*
|
when the c o lo n is ts
learn ed th a t some change was im pending, th e y , o r a t any
I ra te th e le a d e rs among them, were c le a r ly anxious to p re ­
serve the rig h ts o f t h e ir re c e n tly e s ta b lis h e d assembly*
t
W ith th e v is io n o f an a s p irin g despot menacing p a rlia m e n ta ry
i
j
!
in s titu tio n s loom ing la rg e b e fo re them , h is to ria n s have
tended to p o rtra y the V irg in ia n s ’ a ttitu d e toward the tr a n s itio n as s o lic itu d e fo r lib e r t y *
th is v ie w p o in t, i t
As a consequence o f
is t & s i fc r g rs a te c th a t th e re was among
the c o lo n is ts a strong sentim ent in fa v o r o f th e London
1'
Company and opposed to th e k in g ’ s assumption o f c o n tro l.
|
I
i
,
1 . P ro fesso r Andrews, f o r exam ple, says th a t, "sentim ent in
th e assembly and p ro b a b ly in the colony a t la rg e ra n o f f i c i a l l y
in fa v o r o f the company," though he a d a its th a t th e re were
"not a few among the p la n te rs who disapproved."
C o lo n ia l
P e rio d « I , 190*
••
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- SI I f , h o o v e r , one views th is question from th e
standpoint o f i t s im m ediate in flu e n c e upon the personal
fo rtu n e s o f the p eo p le, we see the p ic tu re in q u ite
d iffe r e n t to n e s .
Those V irg in ia is who h e ld shares in
th e London Company o r who owned land by p a te n ts under
it s
s e a l, w ere, as we have seen, o n ly about o n e - f if t h o f
2
the male p o p u la tio n . T h is m in o rity , whose p ro p e rty was
endangered by the d is s o lu tio n o f the company, was the
a r tic u la te p o rtio n o f the community and i t i s th e
testim ony o f these people which has l e f t an exaggerated
im pression o f the sentim ent -fav o rin g the regim e o f the
London Company.
C e rta in ly tbs se p ro p e rty owners, 2e ss
5
than two hundred people a lto g e th e r, ' p re fe rre d the p resen t '
s e c u rity o f th e ir e s ta te s to the cap rice o f a p rin c e .
Likew ise when i t becaae c le a r th a t the company must go,
these sen were zealous to continue- th e ir re p re s e n ta tiv e 4
assembly on g o ie rs l p rin c ip le s o f " p u b lic u t i l i t i e " , b a t we may also co n jectu re th a t th ey were moved no l i t t l e
by th e p e r fe c tly norm al desir e to p ro te c t t h e ir p ro p e rty .
2 , The p ro p o rtio n was p ro b ab ly less th an o n e - f if t h , fo r
W yatt said in 1626 th a t many o f the landowners were dead
o r had gone to Bogle nd* Calendar o f S ta te P apers. C o lo n ia l
S e rie s . 1574-1660, p . 8 0 .
3 . V ir g in ia Company Records.
IV , 551-558.
4 * Jo u rn al of. the House o f Burgesses. 1619-1659, p .27 ;
Hening. s ta tu te s . I . 1^4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32 However, th e g re a t m a jo rity o f tbs people were
n e ith e r landowners n o r sh areh o ld ers, hut tenants o r
servan ts o f the ccerosny o r i t s s u b s id ia ry a s s o c ia tio n s ,
5
the hundreds and p a r tic u la r p la n ta tio n s * These people
were indebted e ith e r fo r h a lf o f th e ir crops o r t h e ir
e n tire services u n t i l th e ir c o n trac ts were discharged*
6
There was no inducemarfc to f u l f i l l these engagements*
in y prospect which o ffe re d even the p o s s ib ility o f
n u llif y in g the r ig h ts o f th e ir la n d lo rd s o r m asters must
s u re ly have aroused hope and inw ard r e jo ic in g among the
mass o f the humbler s o rt, comparable o n ly to the re c e p tio n
o f Y eard ley*s "em ancipation" p fo c ia im a tio n o f 1619*
Doubtless these people a ls o were in te re s te d in seeing
th e ir assembly r e ta in s d , fo r th e y also were v o te rs , but
i t was n ot in the le a s t c le a r th a t the change to a ro y a l
5* The p ro p o rtio n of the landow ners, ten an ts and servant's
is discussed in the preeeec&ng ch apter* •
6* The company*s servants were promised a supply o f g ra in ,
a cow, a house, snd sane c lo th in g . However, the la s t o f
the company's servants had besa lib e r a te d from th e ir
c o n trac ts b efore 1624, though i t is n o t known w hether th ey
re c e iv e d these g i f t s . The share crop ten an ts were promised
n o th in g a t the d o s e o f th e ir engagements, fo r i t was
expected th a t th ey would renew th e ir le a s e s .
V irg in ia Company He car ds« 1 , 4 1 -4 2 ; 11 1, 314.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
- - 33 7
colony would d estroy lie
assanbly.
J t is d if f i c u l t to
escape the conclusion t i n t the g re a t m a jo rity of the
^
people were w illin g enough to r is k the fu tu re course o f
p o lit ic s in re tu rn f o r the p o s s ib ilit y o f im m ediately
becoming landowners snd sole p ro p rie to rs o f t h e ir
^
valu ab le tobacco crop s.
"Shat, indeed, f i n a ll y happened to these ten an ts
and servants?
We nay s a fe ly assume th a t those indentured
to in d iv id u a l p la n te rs completed th e ir terms cf s e rv ic e ,
fo r th e ir co n trac ts were p u re ly p r iv a te a f f a ir s .
However,
the people o f th is d a ss were n o t a la rg e p ro p o rtio n o f
the p o p u la tio n .
E v id o itly the la rg e s t s in g le cla ss o f
people consisted o f share-erop te n a n ts o f th e company.
As i t
turned o u t, the co ip o ra te p ro p e rly o f the company
was in general assumed by the c o lo n ia l government, end,
in th e o ry , one might assume the t the se people sim ply
continued to pay a h a lf o f th e ir crops to th e government
u n t i l th e ir seven-year leases e ^ ir e d , a fte r which th ey
8
were fre e to renew t h e ir leases or do as th ey lik e d . In
p ra c tic e , how ever, i t is im probable th a t th ey continued
to g ive u p, even fo r th is lim ite d tim e , h a lf o f th e ir crops.
The c o lle c tio n o f these dues was a -m a tte r o f p u b lic ra th e r
than p riv a te concern and in the confusion o f the tr a n s itio n i t
I
i s l ik e ly th a t the ten an ts n eg lected th e ir o b lig a tio n s .
7 . In f a c t , Governor W yatt continued in o ffic e along w ith
most o f the form er c o u n c illo rs . There was never any in d i­
c a tio n th a t the kin g in ta id e d to destroy the assembly.
8 . Y irg in ie Company Records. I l l ,
314.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The b es t clue to the d is p o sa l o f these people is found
in tbs o rd e r o f the G eneral Court in January o f 1627,
T h is s ta te s th a t the leases snd in d en tu res o f a g re a t
many people were about to e x p ire and, since these people
were e n t it le d to no land under the p re v a ilin g r u le s ,
some p ro v is io n should be made fo r them or e ls e th ey would
sim ply " s e ttle and seat th em selves*** in no such convenient
o rd er whereby to be a stre n g th to th e colony*"
I t was
agreed th a t they should be allow ed to lease la n d , paying
9
the government a pound of tobacco fo r each acre*
Although these terms were ex tre m e ly le n ie n t as compared
w ith the h a lf erou demand o f die comp any, o n ly s ix ty
10
people appear to have taken advantage o f the o ffe r *
The language o f the General Court’ s o rd er suggests th a t
i t s le n ie n c y was in ten d ed to p reven t these people from
sim ply " ta k in g to the woods", but t h a t , a p p a re n tly , is
3ust what most o f them aid in s p ite o f the p re c a u tio n o r e ls e th ey h ire d out as la b o re rs , bought la n d , o r in
9 * 7a« Mag* o f H is t* and ' H o g *. 7* 157.
10 . P a te n ts , 7 ir $ .n ia S ta te Land O ffic e , I , 78 e t* seq*.
Some o f the lea se s allo w ed paymeit in corn* The farms
were g e n e ra lly somewhere between f i f t y and one hundred
acres and were leesed for p erio d s o f ten to tw enty-one .
years*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 55 vario u s o th e r ways 1)603116 absorbed in to th e general
lo t o f p la n te rs .
I t is probable th a t the considerable
number o f ten an ts and s e rv a it s o f the hundreds and
p a r tic u la r p la n ta tio n s d r ifte d away even more r e p id ly
than aid those o f th e company, but as to th is we have
no d ire c t evidence excep t the general in a c t iv it y o f these
as so c ia tio n s a f t e r the f a l l o f the company. As p o in te d
out in the preceding c h a p te r, the promoters o f these
p la n ta tio n s stopped th e ir e ffo r ts n o t because t h e ir la n d
t i t l e s were in v a lid a te d , but because th e ir u n d ertakin g s,
a lre a d y a g re a t l i a b i l i t y , o ffe re d no hope o f p r o f it .
The servents in d en tu red 'to the in d iv id u a l p la n te rs ,
e v id e n tly a are 11 p a rt o f the t o ta l p o p u la tio n , were re ­
q u ire d to serve th e ir m asters u n t i l th e ir tim e e x p ire d ,
fo r t h e ir agreements were p u re ly ,p riv a te co n tracts u n a ffe c te d
by the d is s o lu tio n of the company*
These people and the
landowning m in o rity were- the o n ly classes whose fo rtu n e s '
were n o t enhanced by the j-in g ’ s assumption o f the colony*
ivhen Charles I , r e fe r r in g Id the la te London Company,
said th a t i t was not h is infcQ3t i on "to impeach the p a r tic u la r
in te r e s t o f any p riv a te p la n te r or adventurer nor a lt e r the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36 same otherw ise than should h e necessary fo r the good o f
11
the p u b lic ” ,.
p re c is e ly .
he s ta te d the fu tu re p o lic y q u ite
The London Company a s a co rp o rate body was
d estro yed , i t s r i ^ r t s and p ro p e rty re v e rtin g to the
Crown, h ut o th e r than th a t every jr iv a t e p ro p e rty r ig h t
on the p la n te rs and every in d iv id u a l claim o f th e
company’ s in v e s to rs rem ained v a L id *
In e f f e c t th is meant
th a t th e land o f the company in V ir g in ia was now ro y a l
demesne (th e re were no assets in England worth m entio nin g ) ,
th a t th e h o ld ers o f the company’ s land grants were confirm ed
in t h e ir possessions, and th a t u re s e rc is e d land r ig h ts
allow ed to p la n te rs aid in v e s to rs would he reco g n ized *
Even the land r ig h ts o f the jo in t —stock a s s o c ia tio n s c rea ted
by th e comp any’ s u a ta it s were re g a rd ed as v a lid and by
12
repeated in s tru c tio n s h e ld open fo r th e ir c la im .
In th e
colony a ls o the p r in c ip le o f a minimum disturbance o f th e s ta tu s
quo w as
m aintained.
11* Va. Mag* o f H is t, and B log. V I I , 547* See a ls o i b i d . . XV, 134.
The V ir g in ia Company requ ested C harles I to guarantee tbs
p riv a te p ro p e rty r ig h ts o f the in v e s to rs and p la n te rs .
1 V irg in ia Company Records. 1 7 , 547*
12* L e tte r o f the Governor and C ouncil to the P riv y C o u n cil,
1625^ 7 a . Mag, o f H is t, aid B lo g ., I I , 52* In s tru c tio n s
to ’fiy a tt, 1639 snd’ to lJ e r k e lc y , 1642', I b i d . . X I, 5 4 -5 7 ; I I , 235.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37 The vario u s re s e rv a tio n s o f land made by the company were
fo r a tim e m ain tain ed , in c lu d in g th e ten an t farm s*
come
o f the land set aside f o r th e support o f th e governor was
re ta in e d as a p e rq u is ite o f th a t o ffic e as la te as Spotswood's a d m in is tra tio n ,
and th e re was a t r a c t k e p t by
13
th e s e c re ta ry 's o ffic e as la te as 1755*
In another
curious way the customs o f th e London Company su rvived *
The a llo tm e n ts o f land under th e company were fo r obvious
reasons c a lle d d iv id e n d s, and th is term continued to be
a p p lie d throughout the seventeenth century to any tr a c t o f
land secured by p a te n t*
Although th e Z in g assured the form er company's stock­
holders" o f t h e ir r ig h t to ta k e up th e p o rtio n s o f land a t
the ra te o f one hundred acres a sh a re, a p r iv ile g e which
was never revoked and was re p e a te d ly confirm ed by in s tru c tio n s
u n t il as la te as 1642, th e re are extrem ely few cases o f the
exercise o f th is r ig h t *
Unquestionably most o f the stocks
h olders o f the London Company never Intended to come to V ir g in ia *
$hy d id they n o t s e ll t h e ir land r ig h ts to em igrants
I *3 * The O f f ic ia l L e tte rs o f A lexander Spotswoody. L ie u te n a n t
i governor o f the oology o f V ir g in ia . 1 9 l6 -1 7 2 £ , k*A« Brock* ecf»*
(2 v o Is * ,&ichmond, l88z-t88J>) ,1 1 , U>5; Hening, S ta tu te s , V I,
510; Lease o f g o vern o r's la n d , P a t e n t s ,I,149*
14* In s tru c tio n s to 3 y a tt, 1639, and to B e rk e ly 1642, 7a * Mag*
o f H is t* & 3 io g ** X I.5 2 -5 5 ,11*285: governor and co u n cil to
j the P riv y Council (d a te u n c e rta in ), ib id * * X 7 II* 113.144:
P riv y Council to.G overnor and C o u n cil, Ju ly 2 2 ,1 6 3 4 ,i b i d . ,
71 11 ,15 8; P a te n ts ,I,72* k law was passed in V ir g in ia d e c la rin g
th a t outstanding land claim s a a s t be s e ttle d by 1651, b ut th a t
could n o t have destroyed r ig h ts confirm ed by the Z in g 's pro-*
e ia a a tio n , Sening, S ta tu te s * 1*351*
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and people in th e colony?
The p er share valu e would n o t
have been above a few s h illin g s a t b e s t, y e t even so i t
would seem th a t th e shares would have been c o lle c te d
and sold by b ro kers and merchants* 'Bhat preven ted th is
is n o t c le a r , but a p p a re n tly th e shares, th ic h bore the
names o f the h older^ were n o t t r a n s fe r a b le a f t e r the
company was disbanded.
The lan d d is tr ib u tio n ru le s e s ta b lis h e d by the London
Company, having been designed by o ffic e r s snd stockholders
o f a m e rc a n tile c o rp o ra tio n , embrace the p r in c ip le th a t
the lan d was sim ply one o f the several assets which m ight
be a llo t t e d as dividends a t co n v o iie n t in te r v a ls .
As i t
happened th e re was o n ly one g en eral d ividend d eclared th a t o f 16 19 .
However, the ru le s o f th is a llo tm e n t pro­
vided fo r a second d is tr ib u tio n which was to take p lace
a u to m a tic a lly .
Each person, whether p la n te r o r in v e s to r;
who re c e iv e d lan d under the comp any was to have an
a d d itio n a l p o rtio n eq u al to h is o r ig in a l assignment when­
ever he had brought h is f ir s t tr a c t under some degree o f
* - 15
c u ltiv a tio n *
T J n til 1632, the p a te n ts contained t h is pro­
v is io n , and fo r some years a f t e r th a t date the* wording m ight
e a s ily have been construed to make th is concession* As a
m a tte r o f fa c t the second p o rtio n s o f lan d were never assigned,
15. In s tru c tio n s to Y e a rd le y , Nov. 1 8 , 1618, V irg in ia Company
Becords. I l l , 9 9 -1 0 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 39 •
probably because the claimants uere eo- outnumbered by
subsequent s e ttle r s th a t tie y could n o t nehe th e ir
in te re s ts p r e v a il*
There- is als o some reason to b e lie v e
that t i e p ro v is io n ues construed to ap p ly o n ly to those
v&o had a r ig h t to lend p r io r to the d is s o lu tio n o f the
IS
canpany*
The fo reg o in g in s tan ce s a rc perhaps in te re s tin g as
shoeing the s t r ic t re g a rd Ib r p riv a te r ig h ts uhich aoooapenied the d e s tru c tio n o f t is London Company, but as
in flu e n c e s upon the la t e r le n d p o lic y th ey are o f tra n s ito r y
im portance*
There isere, houever, th re e h e rita g e s from th e
London Company -M c b became the b asis o f the V irg in ia le n d
system and rh ic h have had g re e t in flu e n c e -o n the land p o lic ie s
in o th e r co lo n ies*
These ~ere the establishm ent o f the N
/-
governor snd co u n c il sc the agent s ib r g ra n tin g le n d ; th e
ee& Sright
end q u itre n t s*
The source o f euth o r .ity S?r g re e tin g len d p a te n ts ,
and the c o n tro l o f the s g e its by
the p aten ts trere issued
uere from the o u ts e t m a tte rs o f prim e im portance*
Id * T y p ic a l In stan ces c f tie se second d ividend p ro v is io n s
■B ill be found in P a te n ts , I ,
1 ,2 4 ,3 1 ,4 9 ,7 1 ,7 4 ,8 1 ,1 0 4 ,1 2 4 ,1 5 8 .
In e l l o f these cases the p aten ts usre issued to people sho
csne over, p r io r to 1624*
'
*.
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~ 4© The f i r s t c h a rte r ello-sed th e London Company to determ ine
th e assignment o f su b d ivisio n s o f le n d , but re q u ire d ta c t
17
these g r s its be confirm ed by the qtove.o
The Is. te r chc.rters
f^sve t'm conocny the rir-h t to aesign lend slbhout the K in g 's
‘ 13
in te rfe re n c e *
^JT1CC3»? il$ULS X !*.•--*! Xtg es "c have seen, th e
stockholders in th e ir q u a rte rly m eetings mode a number o f
g ran ts to in d iv id u a ls end a s s o c ia tio n s , end e l so declared
a g en ercl d iv id e n d , o f le n d *
The cospeny ooErjissioned t i e
governor snd h is o d vlso ry co u n c il in V ir g in ia to c a rry c u t
the d iv is io n o f loud eeeordiBs to the ru le s uhi oh "chey
e s ta b lis h e d *
P a te n ts .s e re ac co rd in g ly iss u e d , signed by
the governor in the presence o f 'the members o f th e co u n c il
and u it h t h e ir sop r u ra l*
These ce te n ts cere to be confinced
19
by the company, but th is ~as n ever done*
Then th e .company nss d isso lved the lan d be cose th e
p erso n al demesne c f the King end "subject to h is c o n tro l as
co m p letely as any o f the cross, e s ta te s in Tsglond* Bbuever,
the Kins and h is council a t f i r s t sim ply assessed-the pc’ser
to dispose o f land w ith o u t _nsking any r e a l change in th e
agency fo r g r s i tin g i t or the ru le s under z h l oh the g ran ts
sere made. .The tr a n s itio n tssb accomplished u i.th a E is tu re
o f compromise, expediency, end convenient am biguity q u ite
17*
C h arter o f 1GCS, Honing, ,rta t u to r .
I , 57*
13*
Cher tens o f 1COS and 1C1 2 , Henlng*. d te tu te s , I„ BO-89.
98-110*
‘
19* In s tru c tio n s to Y e a rd le y , Hov* X Sth, 1619, V lr r -in is Cospsny
Heoordg* 1X1, 9 9 -1 0 8 ; P a te n ts , X , •passim*
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 41 ty p ic a l o f the development o f E n g lis h 'in s titu tio n s *
At f i r s t the hing d e c la re d , in e f f e c t , th a t th e r ig h ts o f
p la n te rs and in v e s to rs in land would continue as th e y
e x is te a under the company*s r u le s , tu t no s p e c ific p ro 20
v is io n was made fo r execution o f th e prom ise.
svhile th e
h in g *s in v e s tig a tin g commission was in the co lon y, the
governor and co u n cil continued to issu e p a te n ts , hut
where la rg e tra c ts were concerned th ey consulted the
21
commissioners.
In August, 1624, W yatt was in s tru c te d
to govern "as f u l l y and amply as any governor and co u n c il
re s id e n t th ere a t any tim e w ith in the space o f f iv e y e a rs ."
Nothing was said about issu in g land p a te n ts and none were
22
signed a f t e r January, 1625.
When Y e ard ley re p laced
Wyatt in the spring o f 1626, he was given no s p e c ific
a u th o rity to resume th e issue .of lan d p a te n ts *
Governor
Y eard ley sim ply gave a broad in te r p r e ta tio n to th e terms
o f h is commission and proceeded to sign p a te n ts " w ith the 20* P roclam ation o f Charles I . 1625, 7a* Mag* o f B is t.a Blog.
7 1 1 , 1 2 2-1 24 ; Order of the P riv y C o u n cil, 1625,
ib id * . XT. 134.
2 1 . Eening, S ta tu te s . I ,
552.
22* 7 a . Mag, o f H is t. & B iog. 7 1 1 , 129; V irg in ia Company
Records. 1 7 , 501; P a to its , T , 4 7 , 49.
J
i
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
consent o f the C ouncil o f S ta te ."
Between Y eard ley*s
death in 1627 and Harvey’ s a r r iv a l* th e e le c te d p re s id e n ts
o f th e c o u n c il, John West and Itr. John P o tt, served
su ccessively as in te rim -executives.
These men were n o t
commissioned governors, t u t th ey s ig ie d p a te n ts w ith th e
consent o f the c o u n c il, each s ty lin g h im s e lf "Governor
and C aptain G eneral o f V ir g in ia ."
Whatever a u th o rity
th ey had f o r iss u in g p a tg its must be deducted from th e
24
in d e fin ite language o f Y eard ley *s commission.
In 1630 Harvey assumed o ffic e as a r e g u la r ly appointed
governor, b ut w ith no more s p e c ific a u th o rity concerning
lan d p a te n ts than h is predecessor-s.
H is e a r lie r in s tru c tio n s
m e re ly -s ta te th a t the hing had promised to renew and confirm
under the G reat S eal o f England 1he lands and p riv ile g e s a lre a d y
g ra n te d .
However, th e re were no .orders to guide fu tu re p o lic y ,
and Harvey sim ply continued
to sign p ate n ts according
2 3 . 7 a . Mag, o f H is t. & B io g ..
P a te n ts * I , 49 e t se q .'~~
i
| 2 4 . P a te n ts ,
I , 7 1 -1 0 4 .
| 2 5 . P a te n ts ,
I , 104 et_ seq.
I I , 293; X I I I ,
to precedent
2 9 8 -2 9 9 , 2 * 1 ,
'
i
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
121;
.
i
|
- 43
F in a lly in 1654 he re c e iv e d the f i r s t -p o s itiv e in d ic a tio n
o f in te n tio n from the home government in an in s tru c tio n
which s te te d th a t the governor and co u n c il were to dispose
| o f lan ds according to the ru le s adopted by the London
26
Company*
Thus the P r iv y Council au th o rize d a system
th a t was a lre a d y w e ll entrenched in V irg in ia custom*
It
can n o t, o f course, be shown th a t tbe p ra c tic e in V irg in ia
was c o n tra ry to the d esires of the E n g lish Government, but
i t is conceivable that i f
the governors and t h e ir c o u n c illo rs
had been a t the o u ts et more h e s ita n t in assuming power, t ie
r e s u lt m ight have been a c lo s e r dependence on S nglish
a u th o rity by assignment o f the r ig h t to issue p a te n ts to
the governor a lo n e , w ithout re fe re n c e to the c o u n c il.
The
g en eral f a ilu r e o f the P riv y Council to system atize the land
system throughout the seventeenth cen tu ry l e f t the in f lu e n t ia l
y
V irg in ia n s la r g e ly fr e e to shape the m a tte r to s u it them selves.
A t f i r s t th ey d id n o t presume to encroach upon the unquestioned
r ig h t o f the crown to determ ine the ru le s fo r securing the
h ln g Ts la n d , b ut g ra d u a lly the p la n te rs d r ifte d in to an easy
assumption o f lib e r t ie s in in te rp re tin g and d is to rtin g the
| lan d re g u la tio n s *
Ij
■
,
.
Vihen a t tlB
■'
close o f th e century the E nglish
.
♦
] 25* P a te n ts , I , 104 e t sea*
!
2 6 . P riv y Council to E ervey J u ly 2 2 , 1 6 3 4 , Va* Meg, o f H is t,
& B io g .» V I I I , 158; X V II, 113-114• Also in C&.1 . S tate Papers.
1574-1660, pp. 1 8 4-1 85 . See also P a te n ts , L^lTss.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
!
_ 44 a u th o ritie s f i n a l l y determ ined to reform , the system, th e y
found th a t the "V irg in ia c o u n c il had grown so independent
in t h is m a tte r th a t the attem p t was re se n te d as an in tru s io n
upon the lib e r t ie s o f the colony.
The adoption o f the land ru le s o f th e London Company,
except fb r the cases o f tem porary s ig n ific a n c e p re v io u s ly
discussed,-m eant the establishm ent o f th e h esd rig h t as the
b asis fo r g ran tin g la n d .
This ex p ed ie n t, adopted by th e
company when i t s tre a s u ry was too d e p le te d to send out
s u ffic ie n t c o lo n is ts , allow ed f i f t y acres o f land to anyone
who should b rin g or pay the cost of b rin g in g a s e t t le r in to
the colony. 51 f t y acres was a ls o g ran ted to esch im m igrant
who p eid h is own tra n s p o rta tio n c ia rg e s ,-e n d a s im ila r
i
allowance was made fo r each member o f his fa m ily . ' The
■•
grant o f f i f t y acres of land to those im p o rtin g people was
n ot alone a s u ffic ie n t recompense to make th e p ra c tic e
p r o fita b le , th e re fo re the immigzaiLt was p laced under c o n tra c t
o r in d en tu re to work f o r a number o f years fo r the man who
I
|
p aid the cost o f h is passage.
T ilth la b o r in g re a t demand
in V irg in ia and abundant in England, in d en tu red s e rv itu d e
i
was a p r a c tic a l method o f fin a n c in g the rem oval o f the
surplus p o p u la tio n o f England to the v a s t w ild ern ess a w a itin g
|
development.
The p ra c tic e was m u tu a lly b e n e fic ia l to the
j
mother country and the colony, to th e servant and to th e
j
I
p la n te r .
Now-a-days the re s e ttle m e n t o f these people would
be promoted by government subsidy, b ut such an id e a was beyond
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i th e thought o f S tu a rt England, and, In d eed , th e taxpayers
sere sc arce ly w illin g to support the bare e s s e n tia ls o f
goverrment.
The London Company had been, unable to fin an ce
adequately the c o lo n iz a tio n o f V ir g in ia , but the ta s k was
als o w e ll beyond the k in g ’ s re so u rce s.
Thus the governoisit
could do no mare than continue the company’ s device o f a llo w in g
a bounty o f la n d to im p orters o f p e o p le , le a v in g t i e immigrant
to repay the r e s t o f h is passage in la b o r.
i
|
-
To understand the h ea d lig h t system i t i s necessary to
know something o f the ex ten t o f in d m tu re d s e rv itu d e . I t
has been estim ated th a t over th re e -fo u rth s o f th e em igrants
to V irg in ia in th e seventeenth cen tu ry cams in to th e colony
27
as in d en tu red s e rv a n ts .
This.seems a f a i r ap p ro xim atio n , but
we cannot know anywhere near the ex ac t p ro p o rtio n .
The la n d
p aten t records should, indeed, o f f e r p o s itiv e evidence on t h is
m a tte r, fo r th e re was a land allow ance fo r a l l em igrants and
the reco rd s appear to d is ttn g u id i between those who cams in a t
th e ir own cost aid those im ported as se rv a n ts .
I f one were to
r e ly upon th is evidence he would conclude th a t p r a c t ic a lly a l l
the a r r iv a ls in the seventeenth cen tu ry were in d en tu red se r­
va n ts , fo r although one o c c a s io n a lly fin d s an in s tan ce o f a mmi
re c e iv in g land f o r coming in p erso n, such cases are r e la t iv e ly
ra re a t the beginning o f the cen tu ry and alm ost disappear b efo re 1700
i
i
■
27 . Andrews, C o lo n ia l P e rio d . I , 20 7 ; Thomas J . W ertenbaker,
The P la n te rs o f C o lo n ia l V irg in ia (P rin c e to n , 1 9 2 2 ), p . 8 1 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
46
-
However, one cannot depend upon the p a te n ts fo r an yth ing
more than the suggestion t i n t in d en tu red s e rv itu d e was
|
i
!
j
I
|
|
j
w id e ly p re v a le n t. Aside from the fa c t th a t the h ead rig h t
•
l i s t s co n tain many ir r e g u la r e n tr ie s , th e re is the fa c t
th a t h e e d rig h ts fo r la n d , or " rig h ts " as th ey were commonly
28
c a lle d , were tra n s fe ra b le *
Thus a man who came to
i 7 ir $ .n ia a t his-ow n expense w ith , l e t us say, a w ife and
| two c h ild re n , would be e n title d to two hundred acres o f
. | la n d , but in s te a d o f te k in g up fo re s t land on the f r o n t ie r ,
| the em igrant m ight buy o r lease some lan d in the more
5
| s e ttle d p a rts o f the country* He would th en , or sometime
i
~
la t e r , s e ll h is h es d rig h ts to -another person w ith the
re s u lt t h a t , when these r ig h ts were f i n a l l y used to claim
t
j la n d , the independent em igrant and h is fa m ily would, be
i named in the p a te n t records a s i f th e y had been im ported
|
j as servants o f th e man who a c tu a lly re c e iv e d th e la n d .
i
i
[ I t is e n t ir e ly reasonable • to suppose th a t the inexp erien ced
j
| imnigra n t would g e n e ra lly p re fe r to pay t h e . d iffe re n c e between
| the. value „of M s w ild ern e ss lan d r ig h ts and the cost o f land
I
|
j
I
28* In tiie e a r ly p a rt o f the cen tu ry th e p aten ts show
whether o r n o t the r ig h ts were tra n s fe rre d from th e o r ig in a l
owner, but th a t fo rm a lity was soon abandoned. See P a te n tS j
I , 74 fo r an in stan ce o f tr a n s fe r o f h ead rig h ts in 1628.
j
1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 47 in a le s s fo rb id d in g p a rt o f the conn t r y purchased from
29
e a r lie r s e t t le r s .
A stu d y o f th e names appended to
th e p ate n ts as h ead rig h ts b etu eo i 1525 and 1637 shows
th a t sale o f these r ig h ts "by th e o r ig in a l owners was
fre q u en t p ra c tic e .
Out o f 2 ,5 7 5 p eo ple lis t e d as halving
been im ported by o th e rs , 556 a re known to have en tered
the colony a t t h e ir own ccet and 245 o th e rs a re b e lie v e d
to belong in th is c la s s , though th e ir sta tu s i s u n c e rta in .
The w r ite r concludes th a t a t le a s t 675 o ut o f th e 2,6 75
came to V irg in ia in d ep en d en tly and th a t , the rem aining
2 ,0 0 0
were m a in ly in d en tu red , se rv an ts, though some o f them
were w ives and c h ild re n brought - in by heads o f fa m ilie s ,
30
and a v e ry fe u were s la v e s .
In a g e n e ra l way these
fig u re s confirm the th re e -fo u rth s e s tim a te o f th e pro­
p o rtio n o f indentured servants among th e im m igrants.
S e cre tary R ich ard Kemp probably~exaggerated when he s a id ,
2 9 . The exten t o f th e s a le o f h ead rig h ts by 1he o r ig in a l
owners cannot be known w ith any degree o f accuracy,, but
th e re are many in d ic a tio n s th a t th is was common p ra c tic e .
H icholsqn to Board o f T rad e, Aug. 2 0 , 1698, C a l. S ta te
Papers. C o lo n ia l. 1 6 9 7 -1 6 9 8 , p . 389; E ening, S ta tu te s IY ,
557—558; Robert B e v e rly , The H is to ry o f V ir g in ia , ’( f i r s t
e d itio n 1705; re p r in te d , Richmond, 1 8 5 5 ), p p. 2 2 5-2 27 .
See, fo r exam ple, th e . p aten t to John and George M ott f o r
15 ,6 5 0 acres which in p a r t is granted on 26 Hegro h ead rig h t
assigned by C o l. W arner; P a te n ts , 7 1 , 329.
3 0 . W illia m G. Stanard, e d ito r o f th e 7a. Mag, o f H is t,
and B io g .. A p r il 1901, T i l l , 44.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
"O f hundreds o f people who a r r iv e in the colony yearlyscarce any h ut a re "brought in as merchandise to make
31
sale o f."
The more c a r e fu lly considered re p o rt o f
Governor B erkeley in 1671 s ta te s th a t th e re were 6,000
52
servants in a t o t a l p o p u la tio n o f 4 0 ,0 0 0 .
Shen we
consider th a t these neopie were absorbed in to the
p o p u la tio n a f t e r an in d e n tu re , gene r a l l y o f fiv e y e a rs ,
S3
we must a t any r a te conclude th a t th e g re a t m a jo rity o f
immigrants o f th a t p e rio d were s e rv an ts.
The g re a t preponderance o f servan ts suggests th a t
/th e
crown lends were la r g e ly -patented by s m in o rity o f
V.
^
the p eo p le, aid th a t aich servants became p ro p e rty owners
o n ly through the purchase o f land o r h eadrig hts fo r lan d
from the more prosperous m i n o r it y ./ I n some degree th is
was c e r ta in ly tru e b u t one cannot be sure o f th e p ro p o rtio n s ,
/it
is c le a r th a t the s e rv a n t, tsfoen fre e d from h is in d e n tu re ,
was not given land by the c o l o n y . / it has sometimes been
/
assumed th a t such allow ance to servants was made a f t e r 1679,
sim ply because in th a t y e a r such g ra n ts were re q u ire d by a
standing in s tru c tio n from the P riv y Council to V ir g in ia
3 1 . H ichard Kemp to S ecretary ~indebank, A p r il 6 , 1638,
C g l. S tate P apers. C o l.. 1574-1660, p . 268.
32.
Eening,. S ta tu te s . 1 1 , 511-517.
35. The terms v a rie d somewhat but f iv e years was u s u a l.
Eening, S ta tu te s , I , 2 5 7 -4 1 1 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 49 34
governors.
In p ra c tic e me in s tru c tio n s o f th e hone
government reg ard in g lend can. g e n e ra lly he considered
as a symptom o f an ailm en t ra th e r than i t s cu re. /"The
n ea res t the colony cams to g ra n tin g lan d to fre e d
servants was in the law c f 1905 which was vetoed in
England, and was never put in fo rc e *
T h is proposal
attem pted to s a tis fy the l e t t e r o f the in s tru c tio n s by
a llo w in g f i f t y acres to fre e d .s e rv a n ts In s te a d o f to
those who im ported them, h ut in p ra c tic e the p ro v is io n
would doubtless have changed n o th in g , fo r a clause was
in s e rte d which "allow ed" the servant to assign h is land
35 /
r ig h t .
The in s tru c tio n s from the P riv y Council were
more generous, s ta tin g th a t th e re should be an allow ance
i
o f f i f t y acres to the servaxt ‘* e n fr e e and an immediate
55
grant o f a lih e amount to the im p o rter o f the s e rv a n t.
34. P ro fesso r James B a lla g h , "??hite S ervitu de in th e Colony
o f V ir g in ia ," John Hopkins U n iv e rs ity S tu d ies . S eries 13,
n o s *, 6 -7 .p .8 5 , says th a t servant's were allow ed lan d w h e n -fre e ,
c itin g as evidence the f a c t th a t Howard was in s tru c te d to do
th is in 1690. The in s tru c tio n was, however, o r ig in a lly issued
to Governor Culpeper In 1679 and was repeated w ith s lig h t
v a ria tio n s u n t il 1738. Boyal In s tru c tio n s to B r itis h C o lo n ia l
Governors. 1670-1776, c o lla te d ana e d ited ' by~leonard
Labaree (2 v o ls ., New Y o rk , 1 9 3 5 ), I I , 572-573.
There a re no p a te n ts on re co rd in the lan d o ffic e showing th a t >/
the in s tru c tio n was ever f u l f i l l e d .
3 5 . ’ E ening, S ta tu te s . H I . 304-306.
36.
Boyal In s tru c tio n s to C o lo n ial Governors. I I ,
572-573.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 50 For obvious reasons the in te re s ts o f th e governing c liq u e
o f g re a t landowners and land sp ecu lators were best served
by the o n ly la s t named allo w an ce,
The people a t la rg e were
c e r ta in ly unaware o f any c o n tra ry o rd e rs , and i t is p ro bable
th a t the members o f the burgesses were not aware o f the
intend ed la n d allow ance & r se rv an ts*
G overnors1 in s tru c tio n s
were seldom tn o m o u ts id e the c o u n c il, and even th a t body
heard o n ly such p a rt o f th e o rd ers as the executive chose
to re v e a l*
Throughout the seventeenth c e n tu ry th e re seems to have
b eai no c le a r understen ding on the p a rt o f th e home govern­
ment re g a rd in g th e o p e ra tio n o f the lan d system in V ir g in ia .
T h is confusion is p a r t ic u la r ly evid en t in th e mat t e r o f th e
id e n t it y o f r e c ip ie n ts o f lan d under th e h ead rig h t system.
I t was always c le a r ly understood in England and in V ir g in ia
th a t a fr e e immigrant: re c e iv e d f i f t y
acres f o r h im s e lf and
each member o f h is f s u lly ; but i t appears th a t th e im pression
g ra d u a lly fbrmed in England th a t t h is was the essence o f th e
V ir g in ia land systea, whereas th e re w ere,, in f a c t , v e ry few
p a te n ts issu ed d ir e c t ly t o independent im m igrants*
As we
have seen, these p eo p le w ere in the m in o rity among the new­
comers and th ey o fte n sold th e ir land r ig h ts to o th e rs .
The
language used by th e home government also suggests a vague­
ness a s to whether the servants themselves o r th e ir m asters
re c e iv e d g ra n ts o f lan d under 'the h ead rig h t system.
the E n g lish o f f ic ia ls
-
Thus
fa ile d to understand the b asis on which
most o f the lan d was g ran ted in the seventeenth
ce n tu ry .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51 In the p e rio d im m ediately a f t e r th e d is s o lu tio n o f th e
London Company th ere •was ap p aren tly a common comprehen­
sio n o f th e m a tter in England and V ir g in ia .
-The land ro le s
o f the company,, as has "been shown, allow ed f i f t y acres to
the im p o rter o f a s e rv a n t, h at made no p ro v is io n f o r the
servan t when f r e e .
For some years governors were m erely
in s tru c te d to continue the ru le s o f the " la te company*" But
one soon suspects th a t most o f th e authors o f these convenient
adm onitions had fo rg o tte n , i f indeed they ever knew. what
th e lan d re g u la tio n s o f the " la te company" w ere,
k v a ria ­
tio n begins in 1639 w ith »yat-t* s commission which gives
him and the co u ncil power to g ran t land to ad ven turers and
p la n te rs "according to the orders o f the. la te company.. ♦
and lik e w is e 50 acres to every person tra n s p o rte d t h i t h e r . . .
37
u n t il otherw ise determ ined by H is i2 a je s ty ."
L id the
P riv y C ouncil mean th a t both the servant and h is m aster
were to be allow ed land?
'
I f so , the in te n tio n is obscur­
ed in the maze o f language in B erkeley’ s .commission o f 1642.
3 7 . 7 a * Mag, o f H is t . & B lo g .. X I, 5 4 -5 7 . 'The u n d e rlin in g in
th is and the fo llo w in g q u o tatio n s is by th is w r ite r to
emphasize th e confusing use o f th e p re p o s itio n s to and f o r .
U s u a lly th e V irg in ia n s said th a t the land was- g ran ts a" f o r ”
each person tra n s p o rte d " talcing th a t to mean th a t Laud rs s
granted to the im p o rter o f the people in co n sid eratio n o f
payment o f the tra n s p o rta tio n charges o f the s e rv a n ts . 3o‘
s ig n ific a n c e can be attach ed to th e use o f the passive voice
in the word "im p o rted ", f o r th a t expression was understood toin c lu d e both servan ts and people paying t h e ir own passage.
The la t t e r were commonly s a id to have im ported them selves. •
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
r.o
T h is
3 ts te e :
"You s h e ll hsvs povor .«» to assign such
h ro po rtion s o f Lend to o i l adventurers sud P la n te rs as
have beeti u s e fu l h e rc -to -fo re in the H ie eases, c ith e r
fo r the adventurers
o ?
.coney, T ra n s p o rta tio n o f peopLo
th ith e r according to th e orders o f the la te coacsny and
since sllosrsd I j H is M ulesty ♦*« and LiMevise f i f t y
acres fo r every person transported th ith e r sines sLidsnsssr
1630, and
continue the same course to a l l persons
t? n s s to rie d th ith e r u n t il i t s h e ll otherw ise he determ ined
I t•- V
:?
e
A * * * .?
*e«t'7»
**
«
r.'ffl,.
- * - w - t ‘w G>
?he V irg in ia n s vsre s ^ s l l j in d e fin ite about th is
Is p :,rt? n t M e ''te r, gcrhnpc tht'cuph In te n tio n rr.th s r then
loose expression*
In an agrscr>ont o f IC51 Trite the
eo am stlo n ers o f the 'MoriTvouxoelth government i t use conceded
"That the p r iv ile g e o f having f i f t y acres fo r ©very person
•
t i?
transported :.•<•::• :ho colony shall «♦. ccstiena ~s foraarls*,**
I t scald ©sem that they secured ooa£ir»?.tlon of the prevailing
cue tea of aliovTing land only to the ie^erter of servants, yet
the lasguoge could not offend anyone in Jug land -oho m ight care
to assume s more charitable version of the system *
33* Va* Man, o f h is t * t.
3 l o n * ->
1 1 ,2 3 0 ,
3 3 * le n l.n g , s t e t a t a s * I , ZO4 *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
55
jvhan, in 1675, V ir g in ia agents were sent to England to
secure a c h a rte r fo r H ie colony from Charles I I , th ey
w ere, among other th in g s , to secure p ro v is io n ” f o r the
usual allowance of f i f t y acres jfor each person im p o rted .”
The c h a rte r rece ived s ta te d ”Thst fear th e encouragement
o f such o f our su b jects as s h a ll * * * go to dw ell in the
said p la n ta tio n .. . There shaall he assigned . . . to^ every
person so coming to d w e ll f i f t y acres o f lan d according
40
as hath been used end allow ed since the f i r s t p la n ta tio n .”
Erom th is wording i t
appears u n lik e ly th a t C harles and
M s ad visers had any c le a r n o tio n as to what ”hath been
used and a lio wad since the f ir s t - p la n t a t io n ” and thus
there-w as n o t what law yers c a ll a "m eeting cf th e minds” .
However, fo r years th e r e a fte r the pream ble to V ir g in ia
lan d p aten ts re fe rs to t h is c h a rte r and p la in ly s ta te s
th a t the c h a rte r g rs ite d " f i f t y acres o f land f o r ev ery
-
person im ported in to th is h is M a je s ty ’ s Colony o f V ir g in ia .”
In alm ost every instan ce the document th en proceeds to make
a g ran t c f land to a man who appears to be e ith e r the im p orter
o f the servants whose names are lis t e d , o r e ls e the purchaser
41
o f r ig h ts from, someone who has sworn th a t he im ported the people* .
40* I b i d , . I I ,
532.
41* I b i d . . I I . , 418; P a to its , V I - IX , passim .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• 54
I f th e re was ever any doubt about what the ch a rter
o f 1676 was intend ed to mean, i t was d is p e lle d th ree years
la t e r by the In s tru c tio n frcm th e P riv y Council which
s a id : " A ll servants th a t s h e ll come o r be tra n s p o rte d in to
said colony s h a ll serve th e ir mast er s fo r the tens p res crib e d
by lew o f the colony
S very person th a t s h a ll c a rry o r
tra n s p o rt servan ts th ith e r s h a ll 2>r every person so c a rrie d
and tra n s p o rte d have set out to him , upon the lan din g and
employment o f said servaat , f i f t y acres o f lan d • • • !The
said servant s h a ll a t the a id o f said term have lik e w is e
4E
f i f t y acres o f lan d *"
This was rep eated w ith minor
v a ria tio n s as a standing in s tru c tio n to V ir g in ia governors
1/7
u n til. 1758, but i t had no p r a c tic a l e ffe c t f o r , as we s h a ll
see, Spotswood was the o n ly governor who made any serious
^
e f f o r t to en fo rce the o rd e r and he did n o t succeed in p ro 45
•
"
v id in g land fo r fre e d servant s .-J When Robert B everley ;
wrote h is h i s to ry .of V irg in ia in 1704, one would assume
th a t such a prom inent V irg in ia statesman and lan d sp ecu lato r
might have g iven seme in te re s tin g in fo rm atio n about th e land
system* - However h is account was addressed m ain ly to h is
|
E nglish read ers and does n o t appear to aim a t a r e a lis t ic
p o rtra y a l o f the h ead rig h t system as i t was g e n e ra lly ap p lie d *
42* In s tru c tio n s to G overnors,
E.
la b a re e , e d ,, 1 1 , 572-67 5.
43* E xecutive Jo u rn als o f the Council o f C o lo n ia l V ir g in ia .
H. S . kc Ilw a in e , e 5*r,
v o ls * JkichmonS',
liX , 550*
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55
He says:
ttA rig h t i s a t i t l e
which anyone hath by ro y a l
c h a rte r to f i f t y acres o f la n d , in c c o s id e ra tio n o f h is
p erso nal tra n s p o rta tio n in to th a t co u ntry to s e t tle and
rem ain th e re ; by t h is r u le a ls o , a man th a t removes h is
fa m ily i s e n t it le d to the same number o f acres fo r h is
44
w ife and each o f h is c h ild re n *”
P o s s ib ly B everley
was n o t consciously e v a s iv e , but s u re ly he does not make
it
s u ffic ie n tly c le a r t i a t in the above he r e fe r s o n ly to
peo ple who paid th e ir own passage, and th a t servants received
no land whatsoever from ifce government*
One can b e lie v e th a t an. u n in te n tio n a l mi sunder standing
reg ard in g the h eadrig ht might have grown up between the
colony and th e home government, but i t is more d if f ic u lt
to account fb r the defian ce o f the t in g ’ s o rd ers by the
governors ana c o u n c illo rs *
The answer i s to be found .
p a r t ly in the fa c t tfaa t the home government was not
equipped to g ive close and in te llig e n t a tte n tio n to c o lo n ia l
a f f a ir s *
M a tte rs o f tra d e and revenue were th e prim e con- .
s i d e ra tio n , and the lend; system was, u n fo rtu n a te ly , d is­
missed w ith o n ly g en eral d ire c tio n s *
Since th e iHfeglish
o f f ic ia ls fa ile d to keep inform ed reg ard in g the 'execution
o f th e ir lan d o rd ers , the governors found i t expedient to
accommodate those in V irg L n ia who w anted t h e ir ve rs io n of
the land system continued*
In th eo ry a V irg in ia governor
served o n ly the k in g , but even in p u re ly executive m a tters
he was compelled to have ihe support o f h is c o u n c il*
44*Beverley"# H is to ry o f V irg in ia .. p *2 2 5 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
By f l a t t e r y , lu c r a tiv e o ffic e s , end every device o f
p atro n ag e, the execu tives sougrt command e v e r th e ir
a d v is e rs , y e t i t was often expedient to g ive way to the
w i l l o f these r ic h and pow erful men. whenever i t
be done w ithout to o g re a t r is k o r s a c r ific e .
could
In any
contest w ith a new governor, these men had the advantage
o f lo c a l knowledge aid e x p e rie n c e , Sbr th e c o u n c illo rs
w e re ,in p r a c t ic e ,lif e ap p o in tees, whereas a f t e r B erkeley
the governors were fre q u e n tly changed. /T h e members o f
the co u n cil were o f ta i in te r r e la te d through b ir t h o r
m a rria g e .
A lto g e th e r they represen ted an a llia n c e o f the
most p o w erfu l fa m ilie s o f the colony, and some o f them had
in f lu e n t ia l connections in England.
The c liq u e , which to
a g re a t e x ten t governed 'V irg in ia between the re s to ra tio n
and the end o f the c e n tu ry , was .perhaps the n e a re s t approach
to an a ris to c ra c y e v e r seen in E n g lish Am erica.
Throughout
most o f the seventeenth ce n tu ry execu tive and c o u n c il worked
in a harmony based p a r t ly on an exchange o f fav o rs in fu rth e rin g
th e ir m utual in te r e s ts .
In m a tte rs p e rta in in g to la n d , fo r
example, 'B e rk e le y could r e a d ily e m p a th ize w ith th e views o f
the co u n cil fo r he also had a considerable e s ta te in V ir g in ia ^ /
F o llo w in g B erkeley’ s long a d m in is tra tio n , t ie executives
who fo llo w ed in ra p id succession u n t il the end of th e century
were e ith e r com plaisant to the lan d system as th e y found i t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 57 45
o r were in power too d io rt a tin e to attem pt any re fo rm .
The p o l i t i c a l s itu a tio n goes f a r toward e x p la in in g the
c o rru p tio n o f the headright system as a whole* /In the
p a r tic u la r n a tte r o f the f a ilu r e to a llo w lan d to fre e d
se rv an ts, one can r e a d ily see th a t t h is would not fa v o r
the in te re s ts c f these takin g up la rg e tra c ts o f ^Lsnd
by p ate n t*
In most instan ces these people so ld a p a rt
o f t h e ir land in sm all p lo ts .
I f fre e d servants were
to be g iven land by the government, i t would decrease
the demand fo r land by p riv a te purchase*
M oreover, the
fre e g i f t o f lan d to servants would tend to d e p re ciate
tobacco p ric e s by increasin g p ro d u c tio n , and to ra is e
la b o r costs by decreasing th e number o f .those w illin g to
h ir e out on a wage cr share-crop b a s is -*/"
I t must ag ain be p o in te d out t in t the blame fo r th e
f a ilu r e to p ro vide land f t r
fre e d servan ts should be
p laced upon the few ?&o knew o f the P riv y Counci I t s
in ­
s tru c tio n s ra th e r than upon the p la n te rs a t la rg e .
In d iv id u a l p la n te rs o f t ® , made gmerous arrangem ents w ith
t h e ir s e rv a n ts , agreeing to purchase a t r a c t o f lan d fo r
them a t the e x p ira tio n o f th e ir s e rv ic e in a d d itio n to
g iv in g them a s ip p ly o f g rain and c lo th in g .
!
One gets the
45* There were nine execu tives bet we®. 1676 and 1692* Andros
became governor in the la t te r year and remained u n t il 1698,
but in s te a d o f try in g to reform abuses in the lan d system he
sought to conceal th is s itu a tio n -fro ra th e home government.
See, fo r exam ple, Andros to the Board o f T rad e, J u ly , 1697,
Cgl* S tate P apers. A* &
1697-1698, p . 529* One e x c e lle n t
though n o t e n t ir e ly uhbiase’d account o f la t e seventeenth
cen tu ry p o lit ic a l co n d itio n s is found in "The P resent S tate o f
the Government o f "Virginia" by Commissary James B la ir , Edward
C h ilto n and Henry H a rtw e ll., p u b lish ed in ( k l* S tate Papers,
A* & W *I*.. 1697—1698* n* 64.6 «+ son .
—— '
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
im press!or. from Bruce th a t th is was f a i r l y common, "but
the in s tan ce s c ite d are too few to a r r iv e a t any p o s itiv e
conclusion*
Bruce als o c ite s a few in stan ces o f m asters
who gave t h e ir la b o re rs land w h ile th e y mere s t i l l in
46
s e rv ic e *
Such in stan ces were p ro b ab ly r a r e , and, a f t e r
1713, a servant was p ro h ib ite d by law from owning lan d
47
during h is in d e n tu re *
The reco rd s do not p e rm it any
d e fin ite conclusion reg ard in g g if t s o f lan d frcm m asters
to servan ts*
in exam ination o f a number o f recorded
in d en tu res would g ive saas suggestion, b u t a p p a re n tly
most o f the se rvan ts had no in d iv id u a l co n trac ts and
were bound o n ly by the gen eral term s p re s c rib e d by law
and custom*
The author o f Leah and R achel, in p a rt a
handbook fo r p ro s p e c tiv e emigrant servants p u b lish ed in
England, warns the read ers th a t th ey are l ik e l y to be
deceived by clauses in th e ir co n tracts prom ising lan d
"according to the custom o f the Country*" The eu th or
r e fe r s to the in d e n tu re s made by agents in- England who
le d the p ro s p e c tiv e servant s to b e lie v e th a t th e govern­
ment would a llo w f i f t y
acres o f la n d *
Servants are advised
to make no commitments u n t il th ey a r r iv e in V ir g in !a fo r
then th e y m ight be a b le to choose t h e ir m asters and make 46 * Bruce, Economic H is to ry . I I , 4 5 -4 6 ; Indrews , ( C o lo n ia l
P e rio d .1 * 209} says th a t i t was customary f o r m asters to
p ro vid e land fc r th e ir fre e d se rv an ts. Much o f h is in fo r ­
m ation on m a tte rs o f tin s n a tu re i s dra^n from Bruce, but
in th is in stan ce he g ives no re fe re n c e .
47.
Hening,
Sts tu t e s IV . 4 6 -4 9 *
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59
agreements uhi ch should, ssoig o th e r th in g s , p ro vid e fo r
49
a g i f t o f land from 1he m aster a t the end o f the in d en tu re*
Anyone fa m ilia r '.n th the c ir cunstsrc es o f the tra n s p o rta tio n
o f these people may w e ll question th e ir a b ilit y to choose
t h e ir m asters and d ic ta te ths term s o f t h e ir in d en tu res.
V ir g in ia Im p a r tia lly Bsamined, pub lished in 1549, was
in ten d ed to be a guide Ib r em igrants o f s u ffic ie n t means
to pay th e ir own passage and se t up a p la n ta tio n .
The
a u th o r, who had liv e d in V ir g in ia * recommends th a t these
p ro s p e c tiv e p la n te rs encourage th e ir servants by g iv in g
them t h ir t y ac re s o f land at- the end o f th e ir tim e*
.
.
49
suggests th a t such agreements were n o t customary.
This
Evenvthough the government gave th e .fre e d servant no
la n d , th e re was, o f course, no le g a l o bstacle to prevent
him frcan buying land from patent h o ld ers o r he m ight buy
h e s d rig h ts or perhaps e v e n tu a lly ac cu ire them by im porting
50
servan ts fo r h is own p la n ta tio n .
During the p e rio d o f
4 8 . John Hammond, "Leah and Rachel" in Porce. . T ra c ts . 111. 4 -1 1 .
49* 'W illism B u llo c k , V irg in ia Im p a r tia lly Examined. (London,
1549} ppL* 1 4 -1 8 , 61* An in d ic a tio n o f th e number o f people
seduced in to coming to V irg in ia by " s p ir its " i s found in
C e l. S ta te P apers. C o l.. 1574-1660, p . 511.
50* The im p o rta tio n o f a servant cost about L 10 during the
m id dle o f the 17th C entury. G al. S tate Papers. C o l., 15741660, p . 511. B u llo c k , o n . c i t . . p p . 1 4 -2 0 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in d en tu re th ere were o fte n wa^s by which
eccumulate a l i t t l e
9
servant could
money, aid i t was customary fo r m asters
to supply men le a v in g t h e ir se rv ice w ith g ra in and a double
o u t f it o f c lo th in g ,
P reau eutly th e y were g iven a gun, which
51
in i t s e l f would be s?orth f a r more than f i f t y acres o f la n d .
P rofessor "erten b a ke r concludes from exam ination o f a number
o f in stan ces between 1655-1553 th a t about h a lf the fre e d
y"
servants o f th l s p e rio d f i n a ll y became landowners; and,
o f course, a g re a t p a rt o f the rem ainder succumbed .to the
"seasoning” process which s t i l l took o f f a g re a t p a rt o f
the im m igrants*
The q u itre rt r o l l o f 1704 made i t p o s s ib le
fo r P ro fesso r V'ertehbaker to examine a fa r g re a te r number
o f in stan ces and the r e s u lt suggests a s tr ik in g change in
the second h a lf o f the seventeenth century.
Cut o f l^SS
names lis t e d among the h ead rig h ts between 1571-1674, o n ly
57 are found snong the landowners on the o u itre n t r o l l of
1704.
risking vario u s allow ances, kertenhaker concludes th a t
o n ly about fiv e o r s ix percent o f the servants o f the l e t t e r
52
p a rt o f the seventeenth c e itu ry became independent landowners.
51. Hammond, RLeah end Rachel” p . l l .
B e v e rle y , o p .e it* p . 221.
E xecutive Journals o f the Council* I I I , 110.
52.
rtertenbaker, P la n te rs * pp. 7 8 , 9 7 -9 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- SI One nay o b je c t th a t the q u itre n t s o ils were n o to rio u s ly
in com plete, and thus the re tho d beh in d th is
ccmelusion
55
tends to m inim ize the number o f form er servant landowners.
Even, so i t must s t i l l appear th a t th ey were not a la rg e p a rt
o f the p ro p e rty owners a t the close o f the ce n tu ry .
T his
mi Tit be exp lain e a in p a r t by a d e c lin e in the q u a lity o f
the ind en tured im m igrants, who were described in 1699 as
"the worser s o rt o f people o f Europe."
Many o f these
people sim ply moved on to w ild ern ess lands w ith o u t even a
prospect o f t i t l e , fo r preem ption rig h ts were never recognized
in c o lo n ia l V ir g in ia .
>/
Governor Spotswooa said th a t the
fro n tiersm en were "m ostly fre e d 's e rv a n ts o f loose m o re ls."
The f a ilu r e o f most o f these, peo ple to appear on the q u itre n t
r o l l o f 1704 m ight als o be in p a r t exp lain ed by the fa c t th a t
in
the l a t t e r p a rt o f the cen tu ry fre e d servants in considerable [
numbers moved to n o rth C aro lin a because they found i t e a s ie r to
\
secure land than in V irg in ia where th e d e s ira b le lo c a tio n s were
55 '
so la r g e ly engrossed by in the hands o f a. few. p eo p le.
\
55. Even though, the qui t r a it r o l l o f 1704 was more c a r e fu lly
compiled thsn fo rm e rly , we cannot put too much confidence
in i t as a complete l i s t c f p ro p erty owners,
W ithout an ex­
tre m e ly e la b o ra te study we ceo. o n ly guess a t 'th e e x ten t o f the
evasions,
54,
C a l, S tate Papers, A. & ™ .I.. 1659, p .261.
55. Heport o f Edward Bandolph, Aug. 51 , 1696, ib id . , 1696-1697.
p p. 89—9 0 . P ro fesso r Aertenbatoer is in c lin e d to d ep re ciate the
engrossment of. land as -fee cause fo r the em ig ratio n from V irg in ia
and the r e la t iv e ly slow growth in p o p u la tio n in the la s t q u a rte r
o f the 17th Century. He develops the th e s is th a t th is was
m a in ly due to the depression in tobacco p ric e s re s u ltin g frcm
th e N a vig atio n Acts and to ihe in tro d u c tio n of Negro s la v e s .
P la n te rs , passim.
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I
J
The process o f p a t eatin g land under the h ea d rig h t
system, was reaso n ab ly sim ple*
According to law a person
who im ported servants o r who had im ported h im s e lf went to
any county c o u rt o r b e fo re tie
governor and co u n c il and
swore th a t he had b ro u ^ it in to the co lo n y a c e rta in ncaaber
o f people whose names were g Lveu
The c le rk o f the co u rt
th en issued a c e r t if ic a t e which a u th o riz e d any commissi oned
surveyor to la y o f f f i f t y acres o f la n d f o r each im ported
p e r sen.
Except fo r o ccasio nal r e s t r ic t io n s to p reserve
peace w ith th e In d ia n s , the o m e r o f th ese c e r tific a te s
m ight s e le c t any land n o t a lre a d y a p p ro p ria te d .
When the
su rveyor had completed h is work'and re c e iv e d h is fe e , th e
p la t was taken, to th e o ffic e , o f th e s e c re ta ry o f th e colony,
along w ith the h ead rig h t c e r t if ic a t e s .
The s e c re ta ry ’ s
c le rk s prepared a p a t a it lo c a tin g the land and lis t in g th e
names o f the people Im p orted , aid th is
document was tu rn ed
over to th e governor to be signed by him in th e presence
56
o f the c o u n c il.
56* E ening , S ta tu te s . I , 1 2 5 , 1 7 3 , 197 , 2 7 4 , 44 4; I I , p . 95.
B e v e rle y , o n. e i t . * p p. 2 2 5-2 27 } C a l. S ta te Papers. A . & W .I..
p p. 8 9 , 1 7 2 , 188. A fte r 1715 the governor was a u th o rize d to
sign o rd in a ry p a te n ts o u ts id e o f th e presence o f th e c o u n c il.
E xecu tive Journals o f the C o u n cil. I l l , 401.
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Sack was the p res crib e d prodecure, but in p ra c tic e tk e re
•were some im portant v a r ia tio n s .
The m aster o f th e ship b rin g in g
in servants or the merchant managing th e ir disposal g e n e ra lly
•oroved the im p o rta tio n o f the oeople and received the h eadright
57
c e r t if ic a te s .
He m ight a c tu a lly tak e up a tr a c t o f la n d as
a sp e cu la tio n o r he m ight s e l l the r ig h ts to be used fo r th a t
purpose by another person.
?or e ra s p le one ship owner,
C aptain Adam Thoroughgood, chose to e s ta b lis h a p la n ta tio n and
in d u lg e in a b it o f land s p e c u la tio n .
In two of the vario us
n a te n ts which he received he got 11,250 a Gres fo r the im p o rtatio n
58
o f 225 se rv an ts.
We may be sure th a t Captain Thoroughgood
assigned most o f
these servants'-to o th er p la n te rs who p a id
i
!
th e ir .tra n s p o rta tio n charges.
The m asters o f these people
would n o t, o f course, be e n title d by law to any land fo r th e ir
im p o rta tio n sin ce C aptain Thoroughgocd had a lre a d y received a
p a te n t on te s t b a s is , but in " p ra c tic e these p ls n te rs o fte n
proved the im p o rta tio n c f th e ir servan ts as i f th a t had never
been done b e fo re and re c e iv e d f i f t y acres fo r each.
I
This
d u p lic a tio n was made e a s ie r by the fa c t th a t the h eadrights
;
were is shed In each o f
|i
any co n so lid ated
the several counties w ith ou t check upon
l i s t . The r e p e titio n o f the -headrights m ight
i
have been apparent when the c e r tific a te s were produced a t the
57. I b i d . . I l l , 535.
58. P a te n ts , I , 179-4 77 , Pa t o ft s o f g re a t tra c ts by ship
owners were n o t uncommon. C aptain D aniel J e n n ife r on one
occasion took up 38,710 acres in eleven tr a c ts . P a te n ts ,
7 1 , 3 8 8 , et_ see.
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64 s e c re ta ry *s o f f ic e , "but th e c le rk s th e re showed no in te r e s t
59
in a close s c ru tin y o f the l i s t s presented to them*
In another ve ry common v a r ia tio n o f the system, th e
.
merchant o r ship-m aster m ight prove the la n d r ig h ts fo r
h is e n tir e cargo o f s e rv a rts and s e l l these c e r t if ic a te s to
anyone d e s irin g to take up la n d .
Thus, fo r in s ta n c e , when
the p a te n t to P h ilip Ludw ell and B ichard TJhitehead fo r
20.000 acres in d ic a te s th a t th e y had im ported 400 p eo p le,
50
we can be reason ably sure th a t th e y did n o t b rin g t h is e n tir e
regim ent o f la b o re rs to t h e ir p la n ta tio n s ,- but had sim ply
purchased rig h ts fo r land from those conducting the im p o rta tio n
o f s e rv an ts,
".hen th e m erchant--shipper "s o ld ” th e servants
to p la n te rs , a p p a re n tly nothing was said to in d ic a te th a t he
had a lre a d y proved the h ead rig h ts due fo r the p eo p le; th u s ,
the same servants, who were the instrum ents fo r securing the
20.000 acres fo r Ludw ell and ’th iteh esd , had th e ir names used
again to sectire p aten ts fo r f i f t y acres and upward f o r t h e ir
vario us m asters.
Of course, th e re was n othing c o n fin in g the
purchase o f h ead rig h ts to .such w ealthy men as Ludw ell and
"Whitehead, and i t is ap p ero it th a t a g re a t p a rt o f the sm all
p ate n ts were issued to people who had bought land r ig h ts
59, "P resen t S tate o f V ir g in ia ," in G al, S tate P apers, A.& W .I.
1697-1698, pp* 545-647;' Spotswood to Board o f Tracie,'- Feb. 1 1 ,
1713, i b i d , » 1712-1714 p , 154; Sqotswood L e tte r s , I I , 1 3 6 , 60, P a te n ts , V I, 467.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■without employing s e rv a n ts .
In the e a rly p a rt o f the cen tu ry
the reco rd s show whether c r not the r ig h ts have "been tra n s ­
fe r r e d , but th a t fbrm was soon s ban done a end the p a te n ts
'
read as though the re c e iv e r o f the land were th e o r ig in a l
im p o rter o f the servan ts*
lie can th e re fo re o n ly accept
the co&tenpory statem ents showing th a t the sale cf h ea d rig h ts
among p riv a te in d iv id u a ls was common p ra c tic e , e s p e c ia lly
in the la t e r p a rt o f the seventeenth century and th a t
j
!
I
f i n a ll y the cle rk s o f the s e c re ta ry ’ s o ffic e became brokers
61
fo r the exchange o f these c e r t if ic a t e s .'
* •
The h ea d lig h t system was designed to a llo w every man
as much land as he could use, as in d ic a te d by th e number
o f la b o re rs which he m aintain ed on h is p la n ta tio n .
I t was
e s p e c ia lly intended to prevent people Tran h old in g g re a t
tr a c ts o f w ild ern ess land fo r sp ecu lative purposes.
Yet as
we have a lre a d y seen, the system a c tu a lly developed
was in
g re a t p a rt sim ply a method cf g iv in g the lan d o f the colony
in the f i r s t inston ce to those who bought up h e a d rig h ts .
j
|
j
!
61. Nicholson to the Board o f Trade, Q ^l. S tate Papers. A.fc Tv
1697-1698, p . 389; Eening, S ta tu te s . IV ? 557-558*
O ccasio nally the tra n s fe r o f iig h t s from th e ’im p o rters o f
Negroes to those ta k in g up land is in d ic a te d by e g en eral
statem ent in the p a te n t, but th is was a p p a re n tly done to .
avoid copying a long l i s t o f nsmes. See fo r exam ple, P aten ts
7 1 , 329-330.
.
.
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- 66
The process, even as m o d ifie d , helped serve the purpose
o f b rin g in g people to V ir g in ia , but i t fa ile d to m a in ta in
the intended p ro p o rtio n in the assignment o f la n d .
As the
century progressed th e re -sere s t i l l fu rth e r d is to rtio n s
o f the syston.
i
The issue o f h ead rig h t c e r tific a te s became
|
I
|
more and more a m a tte r o f ro u tin e fo rm a lity conducted by
{
tt
!
The grant o f lan d uas c le a r ly intended to be based upon
|
in to V irg in ia *
the c le rk s o f the counties and o f th e s e c re ta ry *s o f f ic e ,
the em ig ratio n o f r h it e s e t t le r s from the B r itis h Is le s
The c h a rte r o f Charles 1 1 ,. fo r example,
c le a r ly lim it s the basis o f land g ra n ts to the king * s
su b jects*
Houever, b e fo re the m iddle o f the century one
observes Negroes lis t e d among the h ea d rig h ts , and by 1700
most p a te n ts fo r tr a c ts o f any great s ize have a l i s t o f
slaves among the k e a d rig h ts .
Sometimes the curious names
o f the Negroes are given in s' sc a rc e ly le g ib le s c ro ~ l,
6B
but o fte n sinroly th e number is s ta te d .
Another ir r e g u la r it y
ra s the allow ance o f land to people fo r each tim e th ey returned
|
to V irg in ia from abroad.
A tte n tio n has fre q u e n tly 'b e e n c e lle d
|
j
ji-
to t h is p ra c tic e uhich i s im portant as on in d ic a tio n of the la x
a ttitu d e toward the land system ra th e r than as. a means o f exten siv e fra u d .
j 52. Land fo r im p o rta tio n o f Negroes uas given a t le a s t as
j e a rly as 133S. Conr ay Robinson* s "Notes on Council Records",
Ya. Mag, o f H is t. & 31 e g *, U V y 13 1 -IS A . There are a few
Negroes in the h ea d rig h ts o f the raid-cen tury (P a te n ts , I I I passim)
but th ey are n o t lis t e d in g re a t numbers u n t il the lo s t th ree
decades. P a te n ts , 71 , 7 1 1 , V I I I .
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67
F o r ©sample, C harles E lv e rs ’ pa te a t f o r 100 acres i s granted
to him "by v ir tu e o f h is statem ent th a t he had im ported him­
s e lf tw ic e.
Sarah La's? was g iven 300 acres because, as the
63
p a te n t fra n k ly s ta te s , she im ported John Good s is tim es .
D iv e rs and Good -were p ro b ab ly s a ilo r s .
The w r ite r has n o t
seen an in stan ce where people o f prominence descended, to
such p e tty tech n iq u e.
Sometimes, p u re ly f ic t it io u s names
were used to assemble a h ead rig h t l i s t .
5br example Gov­
e rn o r H icholson r e la te s , perhaps w ith some exag g eration , th a t
a man once o ffe re d fo r h ea d rig h ts the names o f seme cf the
p r in c ip a l gentlemen o f the county o f E m it, but th e c le r k ,
being a n a tiv e o f t h a t p a rt o f-E n g la n d , re je c te d th e l i s t as
64
e n t ir e ly too p rep o stero us. ‘ P robably th e same c le rk chuckled
when in another in s tan ce he w ro te in th e l i s t ( if h ead rig h ts
65
the name John Doe.
We cannot know the p re c is e ext o at o f th e
use o f im proper o r f ic t it io u s names, but contemporary testim ony
in d ic a te s th a t the p ra c tic e was n o to rio u s .
A p p arently th e most
ex te n s iv e abuse was in the re p e a te d use o f e d in g le in d iv id u a l*
name ra th e r than in the pure in v e rt io n o f names.
fra u d was more o r le s s an op®, secret in V ir g in ia .
T h is k in d o f
To be sure
the government was cheated and the people a t la rg e were in ju re d
but those making the tra n s ac tio n s d id not deceive each o th e r.
63. I b i d . . IX , 33 3 , 349.
64. C a l. S tate P apers. A. & W., I . . 1697-1698, p p . 389-390.
6 5 . P a te n ts , IX , 198.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
68
-
The a ttitu d e tow ard the land ru le s was somewhat comparable
to l i e p re v a ilin g d is re g a rd fo r our la t e p ro h ib itio n la w ,
fo r th e re was e v id m tly l i t t l e
sense o f g u ilt and no lo s s
66
o f standing r e s u ltin g from circum vention o f the re g u la tio n s *
Ho doubt the p io n e ers thought th a t th e y deserved a l l the lan d
th ey wanted in a country th ey had co lo n ized *
It
should be
recognized th a t since the h ea arig tit system did n o t p ro vid e
f o r new land fo r th e in crease in n a tiv e -b o rn p o p u la tio n ,
th e re must e v e n tu a lly have beaa some m o d ific a tio n to make
up t h is d e fic ie n c y *
However, th e re was an abundance o f
land in p riv a te hands A irin g the seventeenth cen tu ry even
though i t was very u nevenly d is trib u te d , and th e re was no
r e a l n e c e s s ity fo r the d is to r tio n o f the systaa.
The ir r e g u la r procedure i n g ra a tin g land and th e pressure
o f th e demand fo r new land f i n a l l y re s u lte d in th e o u trig h t
sale o f h e a d rlg h ts by the c le rk s of the s e c re ta ry ’ s o ffic e *
Ju st when th is p ra c tic e began is n o t c le a r , but a t some tim e
b efo re 1692 the c le rk s s ta rte d a c o s tin g fe e s o f from one to
f iv e s h illin g s fo r each f if t y - a c r e r ig h t .Which th ey issued*
VI
66* G al. S tate Papers* A* & W* I * . 1696-1697, pp. 645-647 , 589-590
tb id * . 1712-1714, p * 136; Soot stop d L e tte r s* I I , 170* I t i s
evident th a t the b u lk o f the people ta k in g up la n d were n o t
g u ilty o f any d e lib e ra te fra u d . A t any ra te ” the com plaints
a g a in s t th e c o rru p tio n of the system were m a in ly d ire c te d a g a in st
those who took up la rg e tra c ts o f la n d . The c le rk s o f th e county
c o u rts , and p a r t ic u la r ly those o f the s e c re ta ry ’ s o f f ic e , p er­
formed these tra n s a c tio n s p robably w ith a minimum o f disturbance
to th e ir c lie n ts . The s e c re ta rie s seldom understood o r attend ed
to t h e ir A rtie s in d e t a il, tu t' p r a c t ic a lly farmed the o f fic e out
to u n d e rlin g s . On various occasions b lan ket le g is la tio n was
passed to le g a liz e a l l outstanding p aten ts irre s p e c tiv e o f
ir r e g u la r it ie s and d efL cien cie s in the h e a d rig h t re e o rd s due to
"carelessness aid. f ir e s " . H ening, S ta tu te s . I I , 245; I I I , 3 0 7-5 15 ,
524; Y , 41 7.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 69 The p a te n ts re s u ltin g from these rig h ts were in every resp ect
s im ila r to the h e a d lig h t p a te n ts , lis t in g in the re g u la r fo m
th e people im ported even though th e re was not the ^ L ig h tes t
p reten ce th a t anyone had been brought in to the co u n try.
One
s c a rc e ly knows whether to re g a rd t h i s p ra c tic e as the payment
o f a fe e or a " fr ie n d ly p resen t" to the accomodating c le rk s .
The charge was n o t uniform nor is i t
was open to a l l .
d e a r th a t th e p r iv ile g e
In 1697 i t was re ve aled to the Board o f
Trade th a t th e h ead rig h ts were being sold in considerable
q u a n titie s and th a t "The Government connived" a t th is " th in k in g
i t a v e ry pardonable crime th a t the K in g ’ s lan d should be given
67
away to p eo p le who had no r ig h t .t o i t . "
The Board o f Trade
w rote arcin g N ich o lson , then 'g o ^ rn o r o f M aryland, to r e la te
what he knew o f the p ra c tic e from h is e xp erien ce as governor
o f V ir g in ia in 1690-1692,
He r e p lie d th a t during h is adm inis­
tr a tio n he had "heard" th a t the s a le o f r ig h ts was "common
p r a c tic e ,"
N icholson w rite s as though theBe were p riv a te
68
tra n s a c tio n s conducted by the c le rk s .
Since one cannot d is ­
tin g u is h the p a te n ts issued on t h is basis,- the f u l l e x te n t
o f the p ra c tic e cannot be determ ined.
I t is c le a r , however,
th a t a g re a t p a rt o f whet rem ained o f th e o r ig in a l conception
o f the h ead rig h t system was d es tro y ed .
In o rd er to g ive a summary view o f th e tra n s a c tio n s o f
j
th a t p o rtio n o f th e people who to o k up la n d by p a te n t the
fo llo w in g c la s s ific a tio n o f the' acreage in 1832 has been p rep ared ,
67* C&l. S tate P ap ers, A. £ W* I , , 1697-1698, pp. 645-647,
68* Ib id * . 1697-1698. p , 389. p p. 645-647.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 70 -
I
I
In the colum n on th e r ig h t the acreage in the land holdings
o f 1 ,3 4 5 people ta k e n flo ra the q u itr e n t r o l l o f 1704 has been
s im ila r ly c la s s ifie d to show something o f the re la tio n s h ip
between s iz e o f the tr a c t s o f land 1hen owned, whether by
o aten t or p riv a te purchase, as compered w ith th e s iz e o f
69
tr a c ts g ranted by p atent#
P a te n ts
P at a rt s
1619-1643
1643-1666
22$
18$
1 0 0 -4 0 0
44
400
- 1000
1000 - 3000
Acres
0
- 100
Over 3000
P a te n ts
1666-1695
Land
Average o f Ownership
P aten t s
1619-1695 1704
18$
J.6^y'
25$
39
36
40
46
22
31-
28
27
19
10
18
13
14
8
2£
2?
<
4
2f
In th e fig u re s above we can see some suggestion o f the subd iv is io n o f la rg e r g ra n ts by s a le o f land to fre e d servants and
o th e rs , and by a llo tm e n t among the c h ild re n o f deceased p a te n t
holders*
TShereas, a t o t a l average o f 56$ o f th e p eo ple p aten ted
le s s th an 400 a c re s , 71$ owned under th a t amount in 1705.
In
the la rg e r p a te n ts th e s itu a tio n is re v e rs e d , showing th a t these
people had disposed o f p a rt o f t h e ir la n d .
Throughout the
c e n tu ry , 2 7 $ o f the people to o k up between 400* and 1 ,0 0 0 a c re s ,
y e t o n ly 19 $ claim ed ownership o f th a t amount in 1704; o f the
t
17$ who p aten ted over 1 ,0 0 0 a c re s ,-b e fb re 1704, o n ly 10$ re ta in e d
tr a c ts o f th a t s iz e *
In re g a rd to the su b d iv is io n o f p a te n ts ,
6 9 . The p a te n ts were s e le c te d at random from the in d ic e s to the
P a te n ts V o l. I - 12* At le a s t s ir hundred were used to determ ine
th e percentages in each p e rio d . The q u itre n t r o l l o f 1704 is
p ub lished in vrertenbaker, P la n te rs . Appendix, pp. 18 3-2 47 . The
1 ,3 4 5 landowners were taken in about equal p ro p o rtio n s from each
o f the tw enty-one co u nties then e x is tin g o u ts id e o f the N orthern
Keck*,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i
\
|
- 71 -
j
i
| i t is c e rta in 132a t t ie se fig u re s g r e a tly u n d erstate the
s itu a tio n , fo r i t must be reco g nized th a t th e y rep resen t
i(
p ro p o rtio n s o f people in th e vario u s acreage c a teg o ries
and n o t th e t o t a l amount o f lan d in v o lv e d * M oreover, th e
1
I sa2e o f p aten ted land was a continuous process vfeich is
j
| m inim ized by s e le c tio n o f a iy s in g le year f o r comparison*
| The o n ly method which would 3iow an yth in g n ear the f u l l
I
| e x te n t o f t h is process would be to cospare the number o f
people owning la n d by o rig in a l p atent in 1704 w ith th e t o t a l
number o f landowners shown on th e quitrent; r o l l cf th a t year*
W ithout a tte m p tin g 1hi s n e a rly im p ossib le ta s k , one can be
sure th a t the r e s u lt w ould show t h a t a f a r g re a te r p a rt of
\/
the people had re c e iv e d th e ir lan d by -Durchase from the f i r s t
70
p aten t h o ld e rs than is suggested by 1he fig u re s above*
|
As a more fe a s ib le method o f suggesting th e e x te n t to
which th e land passed through the hands o f m iddle-raen, th e w r ite r has noted a l l p a t mt s during the c o lo n ia l p erio d fo r over
^000 ac re s*
T h is l i s t by no means in clu d es a l l th e lan d taken
up fo r s p e c u la tiv e purposes, fo r o fte n g re a t lan dh o ld ers took
up d e s ira b le acreage in much ana H e r tra c ts *
r
j
70* The w r it e r reco g n izes the f a c t th a t th e q u itre n t r o l l
was u n lik e ly to show the h i l l e x te n t o f the very la rg e la n d ­
h o ld in g s , but th is is in some degree o ffs e t by the evasions
o f the f a r more numerous a js .ll p ro p e rly owners*
5
I
I1
!
I
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 72 71
However, l a aasssry the fig u re s ere suggestive*
Iftaaber o f people pe te n tin g
o ver 5,000 sores
P e rio d
Acreage p a ten tee in
tr a c ts o f over 5,000
a c re s
1619-1643
6
40 ,800
1643-1655
4
-
2655-1666
16
105,680
1666-1679
27
564,860
1679-1685
11
68,871
1989-1695
4
49,650
1635-1706
13
3 6,850
116,207
"785,4 g& o r 1 ,1 3 4
square s ile e
{A fte r 1670 tbs f i,p r e s do n o t la c la d e .p a ten ts in She N o rth e rn
Hedc" between the BepfpohanQoofc and the Potosaao Hi v e rs *)
A llo w in g fo r the
fa c t t & t s e v e ra l peo ple re c e iv e d over
5,000 acres in so re th an one o f th e above p e rio d s , th e re were
74 people — counting the £e«. p a rtn e r ships as in d iv id u a ls l/
between 1619 and 1706 who re c e iv e d as average o f 1 0 ,5 3 5 acres
each*
That these people engrossed an area whlel1 in e s in g le
M ode would be about t h ir t y - f iv e s ile s sqtiere isay not sees
p e r t i c u le r ly d ig re s s iv e even though I t re p res en ts o n ly s
fr a c tio n - l e t u s say o n e -fo u rth - o f th e t o t a l enount o f la n d
acquired fo r p e c u la tio n *
Bo’sever, these sp e c u la tiv e tr a c ts
were u s u a lly se lec ted w e ll In a d v ic e o f s e ttle m e n t, and thus
th ey g e n e ra lly inclu d ed the b e s t land convenient to r iv e r
tra n s p o rta tio n *
Poor sec ssrsfcy lan ds were u s u a lly avoided,.
being u n f it fo r tobacco c u ltiv a tio n end, since th e re was so
r e s t r ic t io n as to th e s iz e or shape o f the t r a c t s , tbey71* The l i s t o f p aten ts w ith re fe re n c e s is s e t fo rth in f u l l
In the Appendix I o f tfcie wurfc*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i/'
i
!
- 73 -
o fte n occupied s e v e ra l m ile s o f tie b es t ground along th e
r iv e r fro n ts *
I t m ight seem th a t anyone d e s irin g lan d could
have passed beyond th ese g re a t re s e rv a tio n s to take up a
farm in the w ild e rn e s s .
vented th is *
There were two fe c to rs which pre­
Except during the e a r ly years o f th e seventeenth
ce n tu ry , th e re was always a l i m i t beyond which s e ttle m e n t was
not le g a lly allow ed to proceed.
There was, m oreover, constant
danger from the In d ia n s e v a i w ith in the borders o f t h is fr o n tie r
lin e *
This r e s tr ic te d fr o n tie r p o lic y was due p a r t ly to orders
from England th a t the governors keep th e p o p u la tio n as compact
as p o s s ib le , and p a r t ly to the n e c e s s ity o f p re s e rv in g peace
w ith the In d ia n s .
The c o lo n ia l government never recognized
th e In d ia n ’ s t i t l e
to the la n d , y e t i t was found exp ed ient to
72
m a in ta in boundary lin e agreements w ith the tr ib e s *
Throughout
the l a t t e r p a rt o f the seventeenth cen tu ry the s e ttle r s were
anxious to proceed in to the t e r r it o r y south o f th e HLackwater
R iv e r end in to the neck between the Paraurikey and the M attoponi
R iv e rs ,
3y repeated la w s 'a id execu tive o rd e rs , the oeople were
73
kept out o f these a re a s .
Thus,the h o ld in g -o f the lan d fo r
72, Bruce ^Economic H is to ry , p p . 48 7 -5 0 0 ) g iv es a b r ie f account
o f In d ia n la n d and fr o n tie r lin e re g u la tio n s * The most s ig ­
n ific a n t o rd ers are found in 1he E xecutive Jo u rn als o f th e C ouncil
and in Hening*
73. Hening, S ta tu te s * 1 . 5 9 6 ,4 6 6 -4 6 8 ; 1 7 , 4 6 5 , 7 a , Hag, o f H is t,
and 3 io g . X IY , 2 8 9 -2 9 6 . In d iv id u a ls were forbidcfen to buy la n d
from In d ia n s except under the su p s*vision o f th e courts u n t i l
1690 when t h is was forbidden a lto g e th e r, A p p arently th e re was •
n o t exten sive abuse in th is re sp ec t during th e seventeenth
c e n tu ry , . H ening. S ta tu te s . I . 467-468-: E xecutive Journals o f '
the C o u n cil, I , 135’. --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 74 -
i
s p e c u la tiv e purposes caused a shortage o f d e s ira b le tr a c ts ,
and consequently many o f the p o o rer people l e f t th e colony
y
74
and s e ttle d where th e y could g e t good lan d on e a s ie r term s.
In a l l except a v e iy few o f the e a r lie s t p a te n ts th e re
Y
were two co n d itio n s w hich should have discouraged the p ra c tic e
o f h oldin g lan d fo r s p e c u la tiv e purposes.
These clauses
re q u ire d th a t land be "seated and p lanted" w ith in th ree years
a f t e r the date o f the p a te n t, and th a t th e re be p a id a y e a r ly
q u itre n t o f two s h illin g s the hundred a c re s .
Throughout the
seventeenth c e n tu ry the r e tir e m e n t th a t lan d be occupied and
c u ltiv a te d was p r a c t ic a lly a dead l e t t e r . I f one a b s o lu te ly
ignored h is lan d and n eg lected to p ro te c t h is t i t l e when i t
was brought in to q u e s tio n , then, in d eed , he ran th e r is k o f
lo s in g h is p ro p e rly .
The law allow ed anyone to ta k e up such
land by Droving to the governor and co u ncil th a t the claim was
‘ 75
d eserted .
do n o t have s u ffic ie n t records to in d ic a te the
c o u n c il’ s p o lic y in the seventeenth c e n tu ry , but i f we may judge
by the case re p o rts o f the. g en eral co u rt in the e a r ly p a r t o f
the n ext c e n tu ry , e v e iy conceivable doubt was construed in fa v o r
76
o f th e o r ig in a l p aten t h o ld e r.
Search o f the p a te n t records
| has f a ile d to re v e a l an in stan ce o f the f o r f e i t and re g ra n t o f la n d
j fo r want o f c u ltiv a tio n ,, in a case where the owner defended h is
r ig h ts .
In any e v a it , the law fi>r many years allow ed th e f i r s t
74 , Ca>l. S tate P a p e rs , A . fe W. I , , 1696-1697, pp, 8 9 -9 0 , 607.
7 5 , Hening, S ta tu te s . 1 , 29 1 , 468.
76, V ir g in ia C o lo n ia l D ecisions: The Beports o f S ir John Randolph
and Edward B arr a da1 1 . 1728-1741-’ B .T . B arto n, e d ,,
(2 v o ls ., Boston, 1909) W h ittin g to n Y. Bandolph, 1 1 , 359,560,B 45.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p a te n t b o ld er to take up land elsewhere w ithout the n e c e s s ity
o f producing new h ea d rig b ts *
The in s ig n ific a n c e o f the
se atin g and p la n tin g clause i s in d ic a te d by th e fe e t th a t i t
was n o t g iven le g a l d e fin itio n u n t i l 1666*
I t was then d eter­
mined th a t seatin g consisted o f b u ild in g a house a id "keeping
a stock" fo r one whole year upon the land and p la n tin g con­
s is te d o f c u ltiv a tin g one a c re *
I f w ith in th re e years o f the
date o f the p a te n t, e ith e r one o f th ese co n d itio n s was f u l­
f ille d
fo r o n ly one y e a r, the patent h o ld er was secure ag a in st
any one who subsequently attem pted to ta k e h is land on th e
77
c la im th a t i t had n ot been "seated and p la n te d ."
Sometimes
g en eral le g is la tio n was passed p ro lo ng ing th e tim e lim it fo r
f u l f i l l i n g these moderate 'c o n d itio n s , as in 1676 when a seven78
year extension was g ran ted a f t e r the In d ia n disturbances.
F re q u e n tly p aten t h o ld ers would c le a r a b i t o f lend a id do some
p la n tin g 'o n the o r ig in a l g ran t which th e y would consider as
f u lf illm e n t o f th e requirem ents f o r adjacent tra c ts subsequently
aco uired*
In 1692, a law was uassed which should have p u t a
79
stop to th a t p ra c tic e *
A lto g e th e r the contemporary evidence
shows th a t the requirem ent th a t a p e rt o f th e land be p u t to
some use was o fte n met in a sketchy manner i f a t a l l *
The con­
d itio n in the p a te n ts was in ts id e d to have constant a p p lic a tio n ,
b u t, as has been seen, a man could n e g le c t h is lan d in d e f in it e ly
a f t e r he had b u ilt a cabin end tu rn ed loose a few hogs*
That, g re a t
77* Sealing, S ta tu te s . I I , 244* Is the seventeenth cen tu ry the
amount o f improvement re q u ire d bore no r e la tio n to the s ize o f
the tr a c t * .
7 8 . I b id * . 1 1 , 597-398
79* iS d d *. I l l * 101.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76 . tr a c ts o f land were fie ld w ithout use is oonfinaed by a con­
tem porary d e s c rip tio n : " V irg in ia lodks o utw ardly l i k e a w ild
d e s e rt, the h ig h lan d s overgrow n-w ith tre e s and the low lands
sunk in swamp and w ater «*« H ot a hundredth p a r t o f th e ground
is cle ared o f tre e s and n o t a fo o t o f swamp d ra in e d ."
The q u itre n t demanded by the London Company should have
discouraged prolonged holding o f la n d fo r s p e c u la tiv e purposes,
b u t th is p ro v is io n was alm ost as lo o s e ly enforced as the
se a tin g and p la n tin g c la u s e .
The company had n o t e s ta b lis h e d
any system fo r c o lle c tin g the fe e , and the ro y a l government
n eg lected to p ro vid e fo r i t u n t i l 3636 when John Hawley was
81
appointed tre a s u re r fo r th is fo n d .
I f Hawley a c tu a lly came
to V ir g in ia , i t is u n lik e ly th a t he c o lle c te d enough to pay
h is own s a la ry .
Three years la t e r m o th e r man p e titio n e d the
King fo r the "farm " of the V irg in ia q u itre n ts f o r fo u rte e n y e a rs .
82
but h is o ffe r was r e je c te d .. In . 1640 a method o f c o lle c tio n was
e s ta b lis h e d by la w , but the proceeds were so in s ig n ific a n t th a t
83
th e y were fo r th e time being l e f t in the hands o f th e Assembly.
8 0 . C e l. S ta te P apers. A«. & W. I . . 1696-1697, p . 644.
8 1 . I b i d . . 15 7 4 -1 6 6 0 , p . 2 4 . Vs. Mag. o f H is t. & B ioa. 1 2 , 4 3 .
Q8* IM d « « 2 m » 378.
8 3 . Hening, S ta tu te s . I , 228, 2 8 0 , 3 0 6 , 351.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
• 77 A fte r the R e s to ra tio n , Berkeley was in s tru c te d to "no lon ger
fo rb e a r" , and the re a f t e r progress wds Bade toward g e ttin g a
84
m a jo rity o f the landowners on tbs r e n t - r o ll.
T h is fe e "was
n o t a g re a t burden on lan d .u n d er c u ltiv a tio n , fo r payment
•was made in tobacco a t a r a t e which o fte n cut th e tax in
h a lf .
Widespread evasiL on cannot be a ttr ib u te d to o b je c tio n
on the grounds tin t the revenue was taken out o f the co u ntry,
fo r none o f the proceeds was sent to England in the seventeenth
85
c e n tu ry .
Some of the more th o u g h tfu l people may have d is­
lik e d the f a c t th a t the fund was soon taken frcm the c o n tro l
o f the Assembly and p laced in the hands o f th e governor and
c o u n c il, but a lto g e th e r the main obstacle was the in d iffe re n c e
o f the s h e r iffs in c o lle c tin g
the fe e , to g e th e r w ith the
n a tu ra l re lu c ta n c e of the people to pay any sum however s n a il.
O ccasional pressure o f th e governors upon th e s h e r iffs grad­
u a lly induced most p la n ta tio n owners to pay a t le a s t the g re a te r
p a rt o f th e ir dues, fb r the s h e r if f was empowered to seize
86
goods i f the q u itre n t was re fu s e d .
T h is power was, however,
-
o f no a v a il a g a in s t those who h eld unused la n d , fo r the s h e r iff
.
could a p t s e iz e the la n d i t s e l f , aid since th e owner g e n e ra lly
liv e d o u ts id e h is county, he could a t most m erely re p o rt the
|
s itu a tio n to the governor and c o u n c il fb r t h e ir d is p o sa l.
i
)
|
I
8 4 . In s tru c tio n s to B e rk eley , Culpeper and JTicholsoh, 7a . Mag, o f
H is t, and B io g ., I I I , 1 9 ; I I , 555. The in s tru c tio n s suggest th a t an im p o rtan t co n sid e ra tio n in re q u irin g s t r ic t e r c o lle c tio n
o f the q u itre n ts was to preven t engrossment o f la n d .
8 5 . G a l. S tate Papers. A. & W. I . . 1714-1715, p . 240.
86 . Hening, S ta tu te s . I ,
351.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 78 There appears to he o n ly one instan c e o f pro se cut I on o f an
absentee landowner on t h is ground.
T h is was begun in 1692
by Governor H ie h o i son in o rd er to make an example o f one
o f the c h ie f o ffe n d e rs , b u t b efo re the case was fin is h e d
M eh o lso n was tra n s fe rre d elsew here and the whole s e tte r was
87
ad ju s ted out o f c o tr t*
A t the d o s e o f th e cen tu ry i t was
re p o rte d th a t the c h ie f d if f i c u l t y in c o lle c tin g q u itre n ts
came fr e e the g re a t lan d h o ld ers who "so overawed” th e s h e r iffs
88
th a t th e y accepted whatever amount these people chose to pay.
Since th e re was no o ther t a r on land in V ir g in ia u n t il 1755,.
absentee owners o f u n c u ltiv a te d lan d throughout th e seventeenth
cen tu ry were g e n e ra lly a t no considerable expense in m a in ta in in g
t h e ir t i t l e s o th e r than die o rig in a l cost o f securing th e ir
p a te n ts end surveys*
A t the close o f the seventeenth c e n tu ry , the abuses o f
the V irg in ia la n d systea ^ as re v e a le d to the Board o f Trade
in p o s itiv e language*
The p ro te s ts began d ir e c tly a f t e r
Edward Bandolph’ s v i s i t to V ir g in ia in 1697*
The s p e c ific -
purpose whi eh brought the Surveyor-Gene r a l o f th e Customs
to V irg in ia i s n o t known, but the p r e v a ilin g tone o f the
correspondence o f th e Board o f T rad e in d ic a te s d is s a tis fa c tio n
w ith th e a d m in is tra tio n o f .Andros*
I t is probable th a t Randolph
whose previous c a re e r was so la r g e ly occupied w ith sto nay in ­
v e s tig a tio n s in the c o lo n ie s , was sent on a m ission o f general-.
87* GgjU S tate Papers, A* & 1 *1 ** E xecutive Jo u rn als of th e
C o u n c il, 1 , 26 0.
88* Henry H a rtw e ll to Sm. P o p p le, Sept * IS , 1697. Ca>l* S tate
-----------------P apers* A* & V* I * . 16 96-1697, p * 606.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 79
o b s erva tio n .
On the way to V irg in ia he stopped in M aryland
where he doubtless heard ITieholson* s account, o f id s b r ie f
experiences in try in g to re fo rm the q u itre n t and th e lan d
89
system in V ir g in ia .
In h is re p o rt to the Board o f T rad e, Bandolph discussed
th e depressed circum stances o f V irg in ia a t the close o f the
seventeenth c e n tu ry .
He remarks on the slow growth in pop­
u la tio n in s p ite o f "th e v a s t q u a n titie s o f servan ts and others"
seat t h it h e r .
T his he a ttr ib u te s p a r t ly to the r e s tr ic tio n s
on tobacco p la n tin g , but he emphasizes the land system as the
c h ie f detrim ent to V ir g in ia Ts growth.
In developing th is
co n te n tio n , he w ro te:
. . . servan ts are n o t so w illin g to. go th e re as
fo rm e rly , because Hie members o f C ouncil and o th e rs
who make an in te r e s t in the government have from tim e
to tim e procured g ra n ts o f very la rg e tr a c ts o f la n d ,
so th a t fo r many years th e re has been no waste land
to be taken up by those who bring w ith them se rv an ts,
o r by servan ts who have served th e ir tim e . But the
land has been taken up a id engrossed beforehand, vhereby
such people are forced to h ir e and pay r e n t f o r lands
o r go to th e utmost bounds o f th e Colony f o r lan d exposed
to danger, and ( t ills i s ] o fte n the occasion o f a war* w ith
th e In d ian s .
•
.
-
^
A fte r d escrib in g th e system o f ta k in g up la n d , Bandolph
r e la te s th a t the pa t o r t h o ld ers were:
(1 ) to pay th e K in g an annual re n t o f one s h illin g fo r every
f i f t y ac re s; but they n ever pay a penny o f q u itre n t to the
King fo r i t , by ^fei ch in s tric tn e s s o f law th e ir lan d is
fo r f e it e d . (2 ) They are to seat such la n d w ith in th ree ye ars,
otherw ise i t is d es erte d . By s e a tin g land I s meant th a t they
b u ild a house upon and keq> a good stock cf hogs and c a ttle ,
and servan ts to take, care o f -them and to improve end p la n t
the la n d . B at in s te a d th e re o f, th ey cut down a few tre e s
8 9 . I b i d . . 1696-1697. n o. 8 8 -9 0 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80 and make th e re o f a h u t, covering i t -with the h ark , and tu rn
two o r th re e hoggs in to the woods by i t .
Or e ls e th e y a re
to c le a r one acre of t l a t land and p la n t and ten d i t fo r one
y e a r. But th ey f e l l tw enty or t h ir t y tre e s and p u t a l i t t l e
In d ia n corn in to the ground aaong them as th ey l i e and some­
tim es make a beginning to serve i t , but take no care o f th e ir
crop , nor make any fa r th e r use o f th e la n d . I f such len d l i e
f a r up in the country upon the f r o n t ie r s , th ey a re re q u ire d
by law to keep fo ur ab le bodied men w e ll armed; but the law
is n ever observed. These g ran ts are procured upon such
easy terms and v e ry o fte n upon fa ls e c e r t if ic a te s o f r ig h ts .
Many hold tw enty o r t h ir t y thousand ac re s o f la n d a p ie c e ,
v e ry la r g e ly surveyed, w ith ou t paying one penny o f q u itre n t
fo r i t .
In many p a ta it s the re is double th e q u a n tity o f
lan d expressed in the p a te n t, whereby some hundred thousand
acres o f la n d a re taken up but not p la n te d , which d riv e s
away the in h a b ita n ts and servan ts, brought up o n ly to
p la n tin g , to seek th e ir fo rtu n e s in C aro lin a and o th e r p ie c e s ,
which depopulates the Country and p reven ts the making o f many
thousand hogs heads o f tobacco, to the g re a t d im in u tio n
o f the revenue.
For p resen t remedy - it is proposed (1 ) That a survey
be fo rth w ith ordered o f such lands in every county of
V ir g in ia . (2 ) That a demand- be made in f u l l fo r a l l a rre a rs
o f q u itre n ts dne ib r th ese la n d s , and th a t the elaim ers
th e re o f be compelled by law to pay them. The S h e r iff o f
K ing’ s and Qqeen’ s County ib o u t fo u r y e a rs since made a
re tu rn th a t th e re were 38,000 acres o f lan d in h is county
taken up by p a te n t, fo r which he co u ld re c e iv e no q u itr e n t,
th e re being noth in g on the land to d is tr a in , and the persons
who claim ed the sane liv in g _ in o th er c o u n tie s . {3 ) That
s t r ic t o rd ers be g iven th a t grant s h e re a fte r s h a ll be made
upon mare c e rta in terms , end n o t above 500 acres g ran ted
to one man. Such r e s tr ic tio n is a t t h is tim e v e ry r e q u is ite ,
fo r in seme p a rts o f the countiy (such as Pamunkey Heck and
the south side o f Janes B iv e r) where th e In d ian s in h a b ite d ,
these lan ds were fo r se v e ra l years fo rb id d en to be tak en up;
b u t, th e In d ia n s being reduced to sm all numbers, th e
Burgesses have addressed the Governor to g ra n t away these
la n d s . The King has g rm te d 20,000 acres o f th a t lau d to
the C ollege in V ir g in ia , i& ic h w i l l soon be s e ttle d m d
p la n te d , i f g re a t q u a n titie s are not a lre a d y g ran ted away
to persons who have long aimed a t i t , though th ey have some
thousand acres o f land more than th ey know what to do w ith .
The advantages o f a due re g u la tio n both to the K ing end to
the in h a b ita n ts are as fo llo w s . (1 ) The com pelling the
owners o f such v a s t t r a c t s o f lan d to pay th e ir q u itre a t's
w i l l ra is e a g re a t sum of money, o r , upon t h e ir r e fu s a l, '
some hundred thousand a c re s o f unimproved lend w i l l re v e rt,
to the Crown and in v it e home those who fo r want o f la n d
l e f t V ir g in ia , and eacourage more to come from p ro p r ie ta r ie s
and o th e r p laces to make th e ir s e ttle m e n t, being w e ll
assured o f th e ir t i t l e sad to hold o f the Crom o n ly . (2 ) The
g ra n tin g away such land in p a rc e ls n o t exceeding 500 acres
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r 81 ;
to one man w i l l m ig h tily in c re as e the number o f p la n te rs ,
who through n e c e s s ity i s i l l s e a t them selves in a f a r
n ea rer neighborhood than fb rm e rly a id th ereb y be the
b e tte r enabled to secure th e ir co u n try, fa m ilie s and
p la n ta tio n s from s p o il and ra p in e ; and many thousand
hogsheads o f tobacco more than fo rm e rly - s i l l be made
in the Colony* (3 ) The tr a d e , d ip p in g and n a v ig a tio n
o f England w i l l be encouraged and tbs customs on tobacco
y e a rly increased * Colonel N ich o lson , L ieutenant-G o vern or
o f "V irg in ia , was v e ry sensible of the damage and in ju s tic e
done to the Crown by th e ir using and conniving a t such
unw arrantable p ra c tic e s in g ra n tin g away the S in g ’ s lan d s ,
and was reso lved to refo rm them by suing some o f the
cla im ers fo r a rre a rs o f q u itre n ts ; but fin d in g th a t the
Council and many o f the Burgesses, among o th e rs , were
concerned, and being u n c e rta in o f h is co n tin u in g in the
Government, he o rd ered to begin w ith Laurence Smyth,
who was seised by many thousand acres o f lan d in d iffe r e n t
c o u n tie s , and fo r one p a r tic u la r t r a c t o f la n d was in ­
debted £80 fo r a rre a rs o f q u it re n ts , which sum a f t e r the
cause was r ip e fb r judgment, was compounded fo r le s s
than one h a lf* 89
By th e tim e th is re p o rt was re a d by the Board o f Trad e, Randolph
was in England and was soon answering fu r th e r in q u ir ie s , fo r the
o f f ic ia ls were e v id o itly su rp ris e d and k e e n ly in te re s te d a t the
s itu a tio n which he" disclosed.
The more s ig n ific a n t questions
.
which the Lords o f Trade a id P la n ta tio n s wanted answered, and
Bandolph’ s r e p lie s , were th ere
"Shat p ro p o rtio n o f p aten ted lan d * * . i s now c u ltiv a te d * ** ?
.
. . . a t a moderate com putation about 500,000 acres are granted /
by p aten ts o f which n o t above 40,000 acres are c u ltiv a te d .• •
sShy have n o t the prosecutions begun in C olonel N ich o lson ’ s
tim e been continued since?
Colonel N icholson was
d ire c te d prosecutions
w ith Colonel Laurence
but the Governor case
fo r a sm all m a tte r*
the f i r s t Governor o f V ir g in ia who
fb r a rre a rs o f q u itre n ts , beginning
Smith. The case was ready fo r t r i a l
to Soglana and the case was compounded
89* Cal* S tate Papers* A* & W *I*. 1696-1697, pp. 88-90*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i
• 82 -
•
v?ho has a u th o r ity i n U rg L n ia to compound fo r th e S in g ’ s
q u itre n ts ?
No one in V irg in ia has a u th o rity to compound f o r th e
S in g ’ s q u itr e a ts , b u t i t was done in the case o f C olonel
azdtiu
Save any p a rc e ls o f lan d been seized fo r th e S in g ’ s use
f o r isa n t o f p la n tin g o r f a ilu r e to pay qui tre a ts ?
S a a ii p a rc e ls o f la n d are g ran t ed away every Court fo r
n o t "being p la n te d o r seated according to la n , b u t no
land has a t any U se be s i se ized to th e S in g ’ s use fo r
n o t p aying o f c p itr m t s .
Are negro servant s in c lu d e d in the persons 'sho, i f
im p o rted , make r r ig h t s f to g ra n t o f land?0
Negro servants g iv e a r ig h t to land to those who im p o rt
them; but the p ra c tic e being g a ie r a l, -to the advantage o f
c e rta in persons, no n o tic e is taken o f i t .
Have you ever known o f an y fa ls e c e r tific a te s o f r ig h ts ,
and how have the p a r tie s g u ilt y th e re o f been punished?
I-h a v e heard o f many fa ls e c e r t if ic a t e s o f r ig h ts ; the
p ra c tic e is cosraon "but l i t t l e re g a rd e d , being c f no
p re ju d ic e to any p r iv a te person*
E x p la in your p ro p o s a l th a t no more than 500 acres should
be g ranted to one m an**..
Hy o b je c t* * * i s to prevent fu rth e r engrossing o f la n d to
th e p re ju d ic e o f o th e rs who a re fo rc e d to le a v e the
C ountry fo r want o f la n d * Never th e le s s i t w i l l h in d e r
no person from ta k in g up g re a te r p a rc e ls o f lan d i f he
produce c e r t if ic a te s o f lig h t s le g a lly o b tain ed * I t i s
a b s o lu te ly necessary f o r a law to be passed i n f l i c t i n g •
severe p e n a ltie s on those who produce o r alios? fa ls e
c e r t if ic a te s *
I f your methods be fo llo w e d , in what county should a
beginning be made?
my proposals w ere adopted, I answer th a t th e members
o f th e c o u n c il have la rg e tr a c ts o f lan d in most- o f the
c o u n tie s , fo r which .they are i n g re a t a rre a rs o f q u itre n t*
I t is ad visab le to make a beginning w ith some o f them and
to empower a person u n in te re s te d in th e country to demand
the a rre a rs due th e K in g * •
90* The questions and answers are combined fro m 'tw o separate
ca p ers , the Board o f Trade’ s in q u ir ie s , and Bandolph’ s * re p ly .
Ib id * ,1 6 9 6 -1 5 9 7 * p p . 1 7 2 -1 8 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
83 W ith in a few months a f t e r Bandolph’ s xego r t was subm itted,
V
th re e Y irg Ln ian s * Commissary B la ir , Henry H a rtw e ll and Edward
C h ilto n - went to England and p resen ted a le n g th y exposure o f
V ir g in ia a f f a ir s e n t it le d "The F re s a it S ta te o f th e Government
in the Colony o f Y ir g in ia .”
C o u n cillo rs B la ir and H a rtw e ll
and form er A tto rn ey G en eral C h ilto n were anxious to d is c re d it
the e n tir e a d m in is tra tio n o f Governor Jndros and h is c liq u e
in Y ir g in ia .
They were moved to do th i s perhaps p a r tly fo r
p erso nal reason s, hat th e ir account unquestionably uncovered
a number o f e v ils .
In re g a rd to the land system th e y s a id :
The method s e ttle d by the King in the f i r s t
se atin g o f the country was to a llo t 50 acres o f land
to everyone who should adventure in to the co u n try. Bad
th is been observed i t had b eoi a la s tin g encouragement
t o . adventurers to come, u n t i l the whole country was
peopled. But, a s m atter s have been managed, t ie lan d
has gone frcm. the King and the co u ntry i s v e ry i l l
p eo ples. The fL r s t great abuse o f th is arose from the
ignorance and knavery o f surveyors, who o fte n gave out
d ra fts o f surveys w ith o u t evsi coming on th e le n d .
They gave th e ir d e s c rip tio n by some n a tu ra l bounds and
were sure ,to a llo w la rg e measure, th a t so the person fb r
whom th ey surveyed should en joy much la rg e r tra c ts than
th e y p a id cuitrenfc s f b r . Then a l l Courts were v e ry la v is h
in a llo w in g c e r t if ic a te s f b r r ig h ts , fo r a m aster c f a
ship cm e unto any co u rt and swore th a t he had im ported
h im s e lf and so many seamen' aid passengers a t d iv ers tim es
in to tee c o u n try , and t h a t he never elsewhere made .use o f
th e s e 'r ig h ts , he p re s e n tly obtained an o rd er f o r so many
r ig h ts ( i . e . so many tim es f i f t y acres o f la n d ) and these
r ig h ts he would s e l l fb r a ana 11 m a tte r* Perhaps the same
seamen a t another Court swore th a t th e y he’d adventured
them selves so many tim es in to the co u ntry and had not
elsewhere proved t h e ir rig h t % th e re upon th ey too
o b tain ed an o rd e r fb r so many r ig h ts . Likew ise the m asters
who bought the servan ts thus im ported would a t another
Court make o ath th a t th ey had bought so many persons who '
had ventured them selves in to the c o u n try, and obtained so
many r ig h t s . Thus th e land s t i l l went away, and th e adventurers
who ifeuaained in the count r y had the le a s t share o f i t *
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Again g re a t lib e r t ie s were used in is s u in g c e r t if ic a te s
fo r r ig h ts by the county c le rk s and e s p e c ia lly by those
o f th e S e cre tary’ s o f f ic e * which w as, and s t i l l i s , a
constant m in t o f those r ig h ts , w here th ey may be pur­
chased a t from one s h illin g to f iv e s h illin g s p er r ig h t .
The Government connived a t the se th in g s , th in k in g i t
a very pardonable crim e th e t the King’ s la n d should be
given away to people who la d no r i g i t to i t , sin ce in
th is way the land was taken u p , and the King had so much
more q u itre n t paid to him , whereas la n d net taken up pa id
nothing.. But th e y did n o t consider th a t the sm all p r o f it
o f q u itre n ts does n o t b alan ce the g re a t damage o f le a v in g
the country w ith o u t in h a b ita n ts , which i s th e r e s u lt o f
t h e ir m ethod, ib r the King and Kingdom o f England g ain
near two hundred tim es as much by one o rd in a ry p la n te r as
the King would have got by th e q u itre n t o f th e f i f t y acres
which he should havelhad* T his may be worked o u t th u s .
A usual crop o f tobacoo fo r one head i s 2 ,0 0 0 lb s * , which
a t 6d* p er lb * { t ie present duty to England) amounts to
4 50* Suppose th is 2 ,0 0 0 lb s * o f tobacco to be p u t in to
th re e hogsheads, end th e re i s 6s* o f Y ir g in ia duty to the
King b y the two s h illin g s p e r hogshead d u ty . Then th e
fr e ig h t o f th is a t 4 8 per- to n earns to 4 6 , which i s
cosmonly p a id in ihglandj. making in a l l 4 56 6 s *o d *,
besides the in crease o f ships" and seamen and the m u ltitu d e s
m ain tain ed by m anufacture 'o f tobacco in In g la n d , end of
E n g lish goods sold to the p la n te r* To fin d o u t on th e
o th e r hand how many a c re s i t w il l re q u ire to make 456 6s*od*
o u t o f q u itre n t s , q u itre a t tobacco is sold cranramiibus mmi s
a t 5s* per hundred, sad tak in g 24 lb s * o f tobacco as re n t
fo r every hundred a c re s , a t tbs t r a te 456 6s* ocL, t i l l
purchase 2 2 ,5 2 0 lb s * o f tobacco, which is th e q u itre n t o f
9 3 ,8 3 5 acres o f la n d . Hence one masts la b o r i s e q u iv a le n t
to 1he q u itre n t o f near a hundred thousand a c re s a? la n d ,
which was the q u a n tity a llo t t e d f o r two thousand men.
M oreover, the q u itre n t s would n o t have been lo s t , but would
have been p a id a t l a s t , vhen the co u n try came to be p eo pled .
Everyone who tskes out a p a te n t f b r any t r a c t o f th e K ing’ s
lan d i s by t ie patent o b lig e d to [goQtwo th in g s , v iz . to
seat o r p la n t upon i t w ith in th re e y e a rs , o therw ise i t
lap ses to the K in g , and to pay q u itre n t of one s h illin g
fo r every f i f t y acres p e r annum. Seating i s rekoned th e
b u ild in g o f a house and k e y in g a stock one whole y e a r;
i t m a tte rs n o t how s n a il the house i s , a hog-house serves
the tu rn * P la n tin g , hie law reckons to be the p la n tin g
and tending one acre o f ground, no m a tte r how b a d ly *
E ith e r o f these w ith in th re e years o f th e date o f ‘the p aten t
saves the whole t r a c t ,- be i t never so la r g e , and t h is is th e
cause t h a t, though a l l th e good lan d in the co u ntry i s taken
u p , th e re is v e ry l i t t l e improvement in i t . Land which is
n e ith e r seated nor p la n te d -a fte r th re e years lap ses to the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 85 S la g , ana i s c a lle d la p s e d -la n d ; b u t i t never comes
in to the K ingr s bands, being due by lo c a l law to th e
f i r s t who p e titio n s the G eneral Court fo r i t . 91
Taking advantage o f the presence in Bogland o f th e au th ors
o f t h i s r e p o r t, the Board o f Trade sought fu rth e r in fo rm a tio n .
B s rtw e ll was asked why none o f the c o u n c illo rs had ever been
prosecuted fb r v io la tin g the lan d la w s .
He r e p lie d ,
nC o u n c illo rs csn n o t he a rre s te d by common w r it l i k e o th e r
m e n ...
I know no means to b rin g t h e ir cause b e fo re a county
c o u rt*
But in the General Court the s e c re ta ry w rite s the
defendant a summons v ia the s h e r if f. I f the Gentleman does
92
n o t ap p ear, the a c tio n ceases*”
Edward C h ilto n was c a lle d
b efo re the board and he confirm ed the g is t o f the foregoing
'
95
com plaints ag ain st the abused in the lan d system.
Meanwhile
B la ir who was in Sfeglahd, o s te n s ib ly on c o lle g e b u sin ess, was
94
a p p a re n tly denouncing the Andros regim e g e n e ra lly *
The Board o f Trade wrote the governor fo r h is v e rs io n o f
the m a tte r.
Andros shows a la c k o f frankness in h is re p ly , he
dism isses the whole m a tte r by saying: " • ..la n d s have always
been g ran ted here by p a t s it upon r i ^ t s
persons * * * and
fo r th e im p o rta tio n o f
none have had any lan ds g ran ted here but on
producing such r ig h ts according to Custom and A ncient p r iv ile g e s
confirm ed by the C h arter*
I do n o t th e re fo re knew any remedy fb r
91* I b i d * . 1696—1697, p p . 645-647.
92. I
1696- 1697, p . 609*
9 3 . Ib i d * . 1 6 9 6 -1 6 9 7 , p * 615. ,
94* There is seme reason to b e lie v e tin t B la ir managed the re ­
moval o f every governor v&o thw arted h is w i l l during h is more
than f i f t y years in V ir g in ia . Leonidas Dodson, Alexander
Spotswood (P h ila d e lp h ia , 1 9 3 2 ), p . 27 5.
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•
what is p a s t,
86
-
t M s being a m a tte r o f p ro p e rty , n o r do I
p re c e iv e (due care being tak en fo r demanding and re c e iv in g
th e c u itre n ts ) th a t any p a r ti c u la r dissadvsntage accrues
95
from the la rg e tr a c ts now h e ld .”
Andros had been governor
fo r f iv e years when he w ro te t h is , aid i t is in c o n c e iv a b le
th a t he did n o t know th a t h e a d lig h ts b earing f i c t i t io u s
names were being sold in the o f f ic e o n ly a few steps from h is
own.
A s im ila r in q u ir y d ire c te d to form er Governor Nicholson
re v e a le d th e tru e s itu a tio n , f c r he fra n k ly s ta te d th a t he had
been aware th a t f ic t it io u s names were used and r ig h ts were
being so ld during h is term in 1 6 9 0 -9 2 .
He recommended a vigorous
96
c o lle c tio n o f the a iit r e a t s as the best s o lu tio n fo r the problem .
The Board o f Trade e v id a it ly decided to g ive Andros one more
chance and on February 1 , 1 6 9 7 , w rote him o f what th ey a lre a d y
had discovered and asked fo r a f u l l and e x p lic it re p o rt ” in th is
m a tte r o f g re a t im p o rtan ce.” - T is y p a r tic u la r ly re q u ire d him to
g iv e in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g the com plaint th a t c o u n c illo rs were
fre e from s p it ” f o r any cause w hatever” .
Andros f a ile d to make
the reouested re p o rt, sim ply denying in the course o f a b r ie f
97
n ote th a t c o u n c illo rs were exempt from la w - s u it s.
The Board o f Trade soon determ ined to remove Andros and
tra n s fe r N icholson to V ir g in ia to take charge o f a general
reform program which in c lu d e d a sew p la n fo r the lan d system*
9 5 . C al* S tate -rspers.
9 6 . Ib id . , 1697-1698, p . 38 9. •
1696—Io 9 7 , p* 529.
-
9 7 . I b i d . . 16 96-1697, p p . 3 3 4 , 529.
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- 87
CHAPTER I H
Frustrated Reform
Colonel H icholson a rriv e d i n Y ir g in ia armed w ith
in s tru c tio n s to c a rry out a p o lit ic a l reform on 8 wide
fr o n t.
As i f
sym bolizing th e end o f th e o ld regim e,
Jamestown had, a c c id e n ta lly , beai alm ost t o t a lly destroyed •
by f i r e , and Nicholson moved the seat o f government to
M id d le P la n ta tio n .
The new execu tive was an a d m in is tra to r
o f more than average a b i li t y .
In his* p reviou s service in
Y irg in ia and M aryland, he had shown h is in te r e s t in e f f ic ie n t
in n o v a tio n s , and had proved th a t he had no h es ita n c y in
ch allen g in g in f lu e n t ia l people who m ight attem p t to block
re fo rm .
His ta s k in V irg in ia in vo lved an a tta c k on the
entrenched p o s itio n o f th e ’p o w erfu l c liq u e represented by
the c o u n c il.
The governor was a man o f v io le n t tem per, and,
according to h is a d v e rs a rie s , he could be extrem ely rude end
u n p leasan t.
Bit the c o u n c illo rs were s c a rc e ly a d o c ile lo t
when crossed, and before long Nicholson was cfYP»p7»vning o f the
o b stin acy o f "these m ig hty Sons", th ese "parveaues" o f the
c o u n c il.
1* C&U S tate P apers. A . & g . I . . 1704-1705, n o s . 226.247 and
page 9 1 .
:
•
*
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- 83 In re g a rd to the land s itu a tio n , B ieholson n e c e s s a rily
proceeded w ith cau tio n and m oderation*
Be knew th a t i t would
have been unwise fo r him to atte m p t too much in th is d ire c tio n
a t the
sshb
tim e th a t he was sewering patronage and lu c ra tiv e
o ffic e s from the c o u n c illo rs .
M oreover, h is in s tru c tio n s gave
him no a u th o rity to impose a new lan d system, but mere Ly out­
lin e d a basis fo r working out some new p la n w ith th e advice o f
the c o u n c il and, i t i s im port s it to n o te , th e Assembly.
The
Board o f Trade proposed th a t the system o f a llo w in g lan d fo r
sim ply importing people be abandoned, and th a t i t be re p laced
by a method a llo w in g g rants in p ro p o rtio n to th e a b i li t y o f
the p aten t h o ld e r to put th e ground under c u ltiv a tio n * . The
acreage was to be determ ined by th e number o f la b o re rs a c tu a lly
m ain tain ed on the p la n ta tio n .
I t was suggested th a t a hundred
acres be given to each p la n te r ■sho proposed to s e ttle on new
la n d and an a d d itio n a l hundred aeres fo r e v e ry ^ la b o rin g person”
whom he would guarantee to e s ta b lis h on the t r a c t .
I f , a fte r
th re e y e a rs , th e p aten t h o ld er f a ile d to employ h is quota o f
people on the g ra n t, he was to p a y , in s te a d o f the usual two
s h illin g s q u itr e n t, ten S h illin g s a n n u a lly f o r each hundred
acres in excess o f h is la b o re rs .
Should th e p la n te r n o t pay
th is f in e , i t was proposed t i n t h is t r a c t be reduced in pro­
p o rtio n to the number o f w orkers a c tu a lly employed. .lik e w is e ,
i f anyone in creased h is la b o r fb rc e , he was to have h is p la n t­
a tio n in c re as ed by one hundred acres fo r each a d d itio n a l
worker o f tith a b le ag e, whether a member o f his. fa m ily , a h ire d
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- 89 2
hand, s e rv a n t, o r s la v e *
These reconmsendatlons show th a t th e Board o f Trade had
e t la s t grasped the shortcom ings o f th e V ir g in ia lan d system,
and the g en eral p r in c ip le o f th e ir s o lu tio n was sound*
For
n e a rly ten years the c o u n c il, said to a le s s e x te n t the
burgesses, evaded the p ro p o sal w ith q uibb les and ing en iou s
a lte r n a tiv e s , u n t il a t la s t the T h g lish o f f i c ia ls were fo rce d
to s h if t t h e ir a tta c h upon the p ro b la s *
There w ere, to be
s u re , some aspects o f th e plan which needed m o d ific a tio n , y e t
the co u n c il in g en eral was n o t disposed to suggest adjustm ents,
but sought ra th e r to avoid o r d estro y th e e n tir e conception.
Then H ieh o lso n , soon a f t e r h is a r r iv a l, reve aled the p la n
o f the Board o f Trade to th e c o u n c il, th e members a p p a re n tly
3
showed no in c lin a tio n to discuss i t *
The governor d id not
urge the m a tte r th e n , but sought to c o rre c t some outstan ding
abuses in the e x is tin g le n d system by e x e c u tiv e o rd er w ith o u t,
in some in s ta n c e s , co n su ltin g the c o u n c il*
The in s tra c tio n s re q u ire d the governor to make an in v e s tig a tio n
o f the s e c re ta ry ’ s o ffic e *
There he found- th a t h ea d rig h ts were
s t i l l b ein g so ld by the clerks and th a t th e y were a la s being
issued f o r the im p o rta tio n o f Hegroes.
He ordered the l e t t e r
u ra c tic e stopped, i t being c le a r ly c o n tra ry to o rd ers reg ard in g
4the h ead rig h t system* The m a tte r o f the i l l e g a l s a le o f r ig h ts
was taken b efo re the c o u n c il in 1699 and i t was agreed th a t byp u b lic o rd e r,fo r th e tim e b ein g , the s a le s should continue*
2 . Boyal In s tru c tio n s to B r it i ^ i C o lo n ia l Governors.!* ? * Lsbaree,
e d *, (2 v o Is * , Hew Y0 2 & , 1 9 3 5 ), I I , 588-589.
3 . E xecutive J o u rn a l, I , 400*
4 . Q&l, S ta te P ap ers. A* & .W *I*^1699* pp* 1 4 8 , 3 1 1 .
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- 90 -
j
j
|
Since th is was now a m a tte r o f reven u e, the sale o f these
r ig h ts was made a duty o f th e re c e iv e r'g e n e ra l*s o f f ic e .
F ive s h illin g s o aid in c o in was set as the p ric e fo r each
5
r ig h t fb r f i f t y a c re s * This arrangem ent, in tro d u ced as a
tem porary compromise, was continued u n t il 1774.
It
did
n o t, however, im m ed iately re p la c e th e h ead rig h t which in
some form e x is te d as an a l t a* n a tiv e fcasis f o r claim in g lan d
throughout th e c o lo n ia l p e rio d .
tre a s u ry r ig h ts grew slo w ly *
A t f i r s t the use o f
In 1699, h ead rig h ts were p re­
sented to secure about f o u r - f if t h s o f the p a te n ts issu ed .
Between 1700 and 1706 acme th re e -fo u rth s o f th e people o ffe re d
these c e r tific a te s *
By 1715 hie tre a s u ry and h ead rig h ts were
used in about equal p ro p o rtio n s .
D uring 1718, fo r reasons
which w i l l appear l a t e r , the h ead rig h ts suddenly dropped to
about one-seventh o f the t o t a l , and between 1725 and 1726 o n ly
o n e -te n th o f the o a te n ts were issued on the o ld b a s is , the
6
r e s t being f iv e s i i l l i n g tre a s u ry r i g i t g ra n ts .
Soon a f t e r ­
ward the h ead rig h t was p r a c tic e !ly fo rg o tte n .
Tire revenue produced by the sa le o f tre a s u ry r ig h ts was
used under the c o n tro l o f t i e
governor and co u n cil f o r the
7
gen eral expenses o f the government.
T h is was perhaps a fa c to r
Sxecnrtlve J o u rn al* I , 4 3 7 . Payment in coin i s in d ic a te d in
C a l. S tate Papers* A. & W. I * . 1728-1729, p . 476.
6* These p ro p o rtio n s were .deteaained by exam ining a t le a s t f i f t y
p a te n ts in each p e rio d taken o on seeu tively from volumes n in e
through tw elve o f the p aten t books.
7* C ouncil to Board o f T ra d e , Aug. 30, 1706, E r it is h T ra n s c rip ts ,
C .0 . 5 j 1315; Spotswood L e tte rs * I I , 335; Gooch to Board o f Trade,
Va. Mag, o f H is t. & B lo g *. I l l , 121* The proceeds from the sale
o f r ig h ts were never la r g e . They amounted to an average o f £84
between 1709 and 17 17 , had ris e n to £699 in 1728 and f e l l to £350
in 1773, when l i t t l e new land was b eing p aten ted . Dodson,
A T
_____
J _^
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]
i
I
i
- 9 i which caused N icholson to agree, to the arrangem ent, fo r the
tre a s u ry was more than u s u a lly low a t the tim e .
At any r a te ,
we may be sure th a t the governor in ta id e d th e o rd er as a
stop-gap pending the development o f a system in c o rp o ra tin g
8
the id e a s o? the Board o f T rad e*
Since the co u n c il made no
c o n s tru c tiv e suggestions toward th is end, the governor used
h is independent a u th o rity to r e s t r ic t the s iz e o f tr a c ts taken
up by p a te n t*
3y orders to the courty surveyors and by re fu s a l
to sign c e rta in p a te n ts , he attem pted to en fo rce in some measure
the basic p rin c ip le o f the new p la n .
Nicholson was indeed in
a d i f f i c u l t s itu a tio n , fo r h e re to fo re p e te n ts had been issued
w ith the express consent o f the c o u n c il and th a t body had, in
g e n e ra l, c o n tro lle d the lan d s itu a tio n *. T h erefo re the gover­
nor had to f e e l h is way c a u tio n s ly to avo id a complete s ta le ­
mate in h is a d m in is tra tio n *
I t is n o t c e rta in th a t he ever
o
re v e a le d the Board o f T ra d e 's land proposals verb atim ,
and
throughout he appears to Save aimed a t a compromise m th o u t
b rin g in g th e in c re a s in g ly tense re la tio n s w ith h is co u n cil to
an opai breach.
The Board o f Trade soon added to h is ombarrass-
8 * The Boprd o f Trade’ s p la n mentions no co n sid eratio n fo r taking
up lan d o th e r than the req u .irea.ait th a t the ground be used a id
q u itre n ts p a id . The old in s tiu e tlo n s re g a rd in g th e h eadrig ht
were a ls o g iven N ich o lso n ; th u s I t was perhaps* intend ed th a t
the h e a d rig h t should rem ain a co n sid eratio n w ith the new p lan
sim ply r e s t r ic t in g the s iz e of 1he t r a c t s . In any ev en t, the
Board continued the h e a d ii^ it ins tiu c tio n s u n t il 17S8. In s tru c tio n s
to Governors*I I * 572-573; C al* S tate Papers* A. & W .I.* 1700* p . S.
9 . N icholson was given the usual p r iv ile g e o f re v e a lin g o n ly as
much o f M s in s tru c tio n s a s he Judged p rudent. I t is obvious
th a t he to ld the c o u n c il the g is t of the lan d p ro p o sals, but
perhaps n o t the d e ta ils . Oik o f the com plaints brought a g a in st
th e governor was th a t he concealed h is in s tru c tio n s . C a l. S tate
P apers, 16 9 7 -9 8 , p . 4 2 ; I b i d .* 1704-1705, p . 247.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
meat by making i t s p la n , or
mandatory*
sob s
v a r ia tio n o f i t , p r a c tic a lly
But the o rd er s t i l l la c k e d the fo re e o f a command
10
in the K ing’ s name,
'
and the n e a re s t M e h o ls on came to com­
p lia n c e was to order th a t no, surveys fo r over one thousand
acres o f new lan d be made w ithout h is a p p ro v a l.
T his was
intended to prevent e x c e s s iv e ly la rg e g ran ts and to enable
the governor to judge whether o r not the p aten tee claim ed
11
to p u t th e land in to a c tu a l use.
In t h is u n c e rta in s itu a tio n
the a p p lic a tio n fo r p a te n ts dropped sh a rp ly d esp ite the clam or
fo r la n d , and g ra n ts fo r very la r g e t r a c t s were no lo n g er
iss u e d .
In 1702, fo r exam ple, th ere were o n lv fo u r oate n ts
12
fa r over one thousand a c re s . .
There is reason to b e lie v e
J
th a t Nicholson was u sin g h is power to w ith h o ld p a t ants in
IS
order to command support fa r h is s d a in is tra tio n .
I f so,
he m isjudged the tem per of h is a d v e rs a rie s .
A feu o f the .g re a t landowners sought to circum vent th e
g o vern o r's re g u la tio n s in a p a r t ic u la r ly tra n s p a re n t manner.
The in te r e s t in new la n d a t th a t time was m a in ly d ire c te d to
the area south o f the Slackw ater R iv e r.
For many years people
had had th e ir eyes on th is ;re g io n , b ut were kep t out by In d ia n
t r e a t ie s ,' law s, and e x ec u tiv e o rd e rs .
In 1701 both c o u n c il and
« 1700, p p . 7 -8 ; E xecutive J o u rn a l. I I , 95.
1 1 . Nicholson to 3oard of T rad e, O ct. 22 , 1705, B r itis h T ra n s c rip ts ,
C .0 . 5 , 1315.
1 2 . C a l. S tate Papers. A. & 'g . I . . 1702, p . 592.
13* Nicholson signed o n ly s ix p a ts it s fo r over 5 ,0 0 0 a c re s . Four
o f the re c ip ie n ts were M llia m - B yrd, le w is B a rw e ll, Edward H i l l ,
and Ralph vVon&eley; P a te n ts , IX , 21 6, 2 0 8 -2 1 1 , 2 2 , 612.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
burgesses p e titio n e d the governor to open up th is t e r r it o r y .
I t is s ig n ific a n t th a t the burgesses q u a lifie d t h e ir p e titio n
by ashing th a t no more than fo u r hundred acres be allow ed
"per person"*
I t is not c e rta in whether the burgesses intend ed
th is allow ance fo r each f a n ily , o r fo r every in d iv id u a l, b u t i t
is c le a r th a t th ey did n o t want th is re g io n turned over to the
14
uncurbed e x p lo ita tio n o f lan d s p e cu la to rs.
Governor N ich o lson ,
w ith some m is g iv in g s , consented to opening up th e ares p ro vided
people would s e ttle th e re in groups s u f f ic ie n t ly strong to
defend them selves ag a in s t the In d ia n s ,
He also seems to have
g iven in s tru c tio n s to the surveyors which r e s tr ic te d the s iz e
15
o f t r a c t s , but these o rd ers have .not been discovered*
November 2 0 , 17 02 ,was s e t'a s Ihe day -shen the surveyors’
boohs in the counties south o f the Janes R iv e r -e r e to be
opened to re c e iv e e it r ie s fo r land in the new t e r r it o r y *
A n tic ip a tin g t h is , many people - p ro s p e c tiv e s e ttle r s and
sp e c u la to rs , ric h aid poor a lik e - had exp lo red the la n d ,
seeking out the best lo c a tio n s , fo r the f i r s t reco rd on the'
surveyor’ s book gave p r io r claim to a p a te n t*
These pre­
lim in a rie s , were e n tir e ly u nreg ulated and as a r e s u lt th e re
were many c o n flic tin g cla im s w hich were not s e ttle d f o r s e v e ra l
ye ars*
The re co rd o f these d ispu tes enables us to re c o n s tru c t
th e scene th a t took p la c e on e n try day a t th e house o f surveyor
Swann o f Surry County*
14* C a l, S tate Papers* A* £ 1 * 1 * 1701,p p .51 9,5 54 ; Report o f
R eceiver G eneral Byrd, O ct. 2 1 , 1705, B r itis h T ra n s c rip ts , P .R .O *
C.O. 5 , 1515.
1 5 . N icholson’ s enemies on th e co u n c il charged him w ith g iv in g
p riv a te o rd ers to the su rveyo rs. CsX. S ta te P apers. A & W .X .*1704-1705
p . 247.
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94
Long b efo re dam on Sovasber 20,
. a number o f people
were c o lle c te d about th e bouse o f H r* Swam*
Some o f them
bad e v id e n tly spent the n ig h t th e re to in su re making th e f i r s t
e n try fo r the la n d o f th e ir c h o ic e .
In th e m orning th ey were
su rp ris e d to fin d the surveyor* s bouse lo cked ; then in some
■Ray Ssazrn l e t them know th a t th ey must w a it u n t il la t e r to
tra n s a c t t h e ir business*
These car c m stances were re la te d in
16
a m em orial to the g over n o r.
r'rom o th e r sources we le a rn
what was going on in s id e the house* :
Closeted w ith Swann were
s e v e ra l p eo p le, m a in ly o f th e saae fa m ily , who were g iv in g
t h e ir e n trie s f o r huge tr a c ts o f la n d as fa s t as th e surveyor
co u ld p ie c e them in h is book.
One" o f th ese men en tered f iv e
la rg e tr a c t s in h is own name, and a number- o f o th e rs were made
by another person said to be h is ag en t*
appear in the name o f h is so n -in —law *
S everal e n trie s also
In making th is record
w ith a su rveyo r, i t was re q u ire d th a t the acreage d esired be
s ta te d and th a t th e lo c a tio n o f th e land be described as
c le a r ly as p o s s ib le *
Ilin e o f th ese e n trie s ,w ith o u t s ta tin g
17
acreag e, gave o n ly n a tu ra l fe a tu re s bounding th e tra c ts *
16* T h is m em orial is attach ed to a re p o rt o f W illia m Byrd,
December 2 4 , 1705, B r itis h T ra n s c rip ts ,
C *0* 5 , 1515.
17* H ieholson to Board o f T ra d e , J u ly , 1705, C al* S tate P apers.
A. & & *!*.* 1702*1705, p . 589; Same, O ct* 2 2 , 1705, B r itis n
T ra n s c rip ts , P .2 * 0 * , C.O* 5 , 1515; lio t t to same, Dec* 2 4 , 1 7 0 5 ,,
w ith copy o f th e e n try book o f surveyor Swann, B r itis h T ra n s c rip ts ,
? *H *G *, C.O* 5 , 1515* I t is n o t c e r ta in th a t th e people were
a c tu a lly in Beam ’ s house w h ile o th e rs were o u ts id e , but th e e n try
book shows beyond question th a t th e y were given p r io r it y *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Hhen a c tu a lly p aten ted the acreage would have to be d isclo sed ,
but a p p a re n tly th ese people hoped t o h o ld th e lan d sim ply by
the su rveyo r’ s reco rd u n t il a more auspicious tim e f o r apply­
ing fo r p a te n ts .
T h is in c id e n t i s n o t, o f course, o ffe re d as an illu s t r a t io n
o f usual p ra c tic e s .
At le a s t two o f th e c o u n c illo rs were
prom inent in denouncing the business, and none o f them aopears
18
to have made any defense o f i t *
The in c id e n t is o f some
im portance in th a t i t caused Governor Nicholson to in v a lid a te
the ir r e g u la r e n trie s made w ife Ssaua and to issue a g en eral
o rd er recru irin g surveyors to r e fe r to the governor fu tu re
. 1 9
e n trie s fo r over one thousand acres*
T h is a r b itr a r y pro­
cedure was a fa c to r in u n itin g and stren g th en in g th e group
opposed to the governor and in seme degree i t prepared th e
way fo r h is ra ao va l*
During h is six years in o f f ic e , Nicholson
signed r e la t iv e ly few p aten t s o f o ver one thousand a c re s , end
o n ly s ix fo r above fiv e thousand*
Hone o f the p a te n ts issued
20
during h is a d m in is tra tio n s p e c ify any new o b lig a tio n .
xy
The'
A
g re a t buUc o f the p a te n ts th e n ,.a s throughout the c o lo n ia l p e rio d ,
were fo r sm all tr a c ts g ran ted to people e s ta b lis h in g farms o r
adding to t h e ir p la n ta tio n s .
T h is fe e t should n o t be lo s t s ig h t
o f amid th e t e r r i t o r i a l l y la rg e but n u m e ric a lly sm all o p eratio n s
o f th e lan d speculators*
J
IS * Jenni ngs to B* o f T » , Oct* 2 2 , 1703, end W illia m ly r d to same,
Oct* 2 1 , 17 03 , B r itis h T ra n s c rip ts , C*0* 5 , IS IS *
19* N icholson to 3 . o f T * , Dec* 9 , 1702, B r itis h T ra n s c rip ts ,
0*0* 5 , 1315*
20* P a te n ts , I X , 2 0 8 -2 1 1 , 2 1 6 ,2 1 7 ,2 1 8 ,2 2 2 ,6 1 2 *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
96 As another approach to refo rm in g th e la n d system T7i eholson
attem pted to s to p .th e issue o f im proper h ea d rig h t c e r t if ic a te s .
As we have seen, he forbade t h e ir issue to th e im p orters o f
Negroes*
lU rin g h is f i r s t ye ar in o ffic e he a ls o o rd ered , w ith
the consent o f the c o u n c il, -that " in ord er to p reven t fraud "
anyone in te n d in g to ta k e up land on im p o rta tio n r ig h ts should
f i r s t p resen t th e c e r t if ic a te s f o r exam ination by th e G eneral
C ourt*
T h is was intend ed to p ro vid e a s p e c ia l in v e s tig a tio n
fo r c e r t if ie s te s a lre a d y issued and was not re c u ire d fo r
21
h esd rig h ts issued subsequently*
I t is c le a r th a t the o rd er
did n o t b rin g an end to the w r itin g o f im proper c e r t if ic a t e s ,
22
but i t pro bably discouraged the p ra c tic e .
'Hie p u b lic sale
o f tre a s u ry r ig h ts a t a low p ric e must have done more than
any re g u la tio n to improve th e s itu a tio n *
Since th e re had
fo rm e rly been no a lte r n a tiv e to the h ead rig h t method end since
the demand fo r new land had exceeded the im m ig ratio n o f p eo p le,
th e re has been pressure to cause the issue o f h ea d rig h t
c e r tific a te s by any d e v ic e .
However, i f the re g u la tio n s
re q u irin g p aten ted tr a c ts to be put under c u ltiv a tio n had been
en fo rced , th ere would have been no reasonable demand fo r
a d d itio n a l la n d ,
i
2 1 * E xecutive J o u rn a l. I , 45 7.
2 2 * One continues to se.e p a te n ts issued on c e r t if ic a te s o f people
who have m erely crossed the ocean s e v e ra l tim e s , and in 1705 and
1710 th e land law s contained clauses v a lid a tin g a l l . o utstan ding
p a te n ts re g a rd le s s o f d e fic ie n c ie s in the reco rd s o f the rig h ts
upon which th e y were issu ed * H ening, S ta tu te s , 1^1, 30 4,5 24 ;
. P a te n ts , I X , 333, 349*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
- 97 "Unable to e s te b li^ i th e Board o f Trade’ s le n d system.
e ith e r by fo rc e o r p ersu asio n , N icholson concentrated h is
e ffo r ts on improving the c o lle c t!o n o f q n itrs n ts as a means
to the g e n e ra l o b je c tiv e .
Ercm th e f i r s t the governor had
b e lie v e d th a t th is was the best s o lu tio n fo r the e n tir e m a tte r,
f o r , as he s a id , c o lle c tio n o f th e a rre a rs in q u itre a ts would
cause people to surrender t t e i r surplus lan d end to p a tm t
in the fu tu re o n ly such amounts as th ey could use o r dispose
23
o f q u ic k ly .
The id e a was, o f co u rse, sound, and from th e
p o lit ic a l standpoint had much to recommend i t .
I t in v o lv ed
no new p o lic y to be debated w ith the c o u n c illo rs , re q u irin g
sim ply the enforcement o f an a d m itte d , even though fre q u e n tly
evaded, o b lig a tio n .
As a f i r s t step the method o f disposing o f the o u itre n t
tobacco im proved.
H e re to fo re the tobacco re c e iv e d in each
county by the s h e r iffs had been s o ld p r iv a te ly by the
re c e iv e r-g e n e ra l, who was, c u rio u s ly enough, also the a u d ito r
o f the accounts*
The p ra c tic e was c o n tra ry to standing o rd ers
p ro vid in g f o r p u b lic a u c tio n , h it i t had been l e f t u n d istu rb ed .
G e n e ra lly th e tobacco was s o ld to c o u n c illo rs and o th e r in ­
f lu e n t ia l p eo p le a t a p ric e which allo w ed them to dispose o f
24
i t in Bagland s t a co n sid erab le p r o f it *
N icholson proposed
th a t sale o f t h is tobacco be made a t au ctio n "openly by in c h
o f c a n d le ", and, since th is was m erely in keeping w ith standing
25
o rd e rs , the c o u n c il consented*
A t the same tim e th e governor
2 3 , C el* S tate Papers* A. & « . ! . «, 1697-1698, p . 5 8 9 2 4 * H a rtw e ll to Board o f Trade, Sept* 1 3 , 1697, G al. S tate P apers.
A* & W .I* . 1696-1697, p . 606? Nicholson to Board oT T rad e, I b i d . .
1697-1698, p . 389; E xecutive J o u rn a l* I , 3 8 9 .
25, Ib id ., H i 8 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 98 appointed th re e o f th e c o u n c il to draw up a p la n fo r securing
an exact r e n t - r o l l , lis t in g a l l p ro p e rty owners said th e ir
26
acreag e.
T h is committee e v id e n tly d id n oth in g about the
m a tte r and the governor turned to R eceiver-G en eral B yrd,
re q u irin g Mm to h o ld the s h e r iffs to s t r ic t account in
c o lle c tin g th e fees and sp rin g a complete l i s t o f p ro p e rty
owners,
T h is approach was n o t p a r t ic u la r ly su cce ssfu l.
In 1705 Byrd re p o rte d " I have considered those papers g iv ei
me by your e x c e lle n c y r ela tin g to th e p e rfe c t r e n t - r o l l .
N otw ithstanding I have according to your rep eated d irre c tio n s ,
used my utmost d ilig e n c e in g iv in g charge to s h e r iffs and
ta k in g oaths to r o l ls I am s t i l l s e n s ib le th e re is v e ry great
abuse th e re in ."
The go?emor- continued to urge the m atter and
f i n a l l y Byrd issued orders 'Shich produced the co nsolidated
27
r e n t - r o ll o f 1704.
S t i l l u n s a tis fie d , N icholson in s tru c te d
the re c e iv e r-g e n e ra l to pro duee a p la n f o r b rin g in g the evaders
to account.*
Byrd suggested th a t every p ro p e rty owner be
re q u ire d to s ta te under oath th e acreage o f h is land a id th a t
th e s h e r if f be o ffe re d a s p e c ia l rew ard fo r b rin g in g new lan d
on the r e n t - r o l l .
I t was ag re e d , p ro bably on th e governor’ s
m o tio n , th a t th e s h e r if f might beep th e f i r s t y e a r’ s r e n t co l­
le c te d on a l l lan d h e ld seven o r more years w ith o u t payment o f
28
q u itr e n t.
2 5 . I b i d . . IX , 6 .
2 7 . I b i d . « 1 1 , 379* N erten b eker, P la n te rs , p . 52 .
2 8 . E xecu tive J o u rn a l. 1 1 , 4 0 1 . This allow ance to th e s h e riffs
was made in i7&5"bn " a ll land p a te n te d over two y e a rs . Nicholson
l e f t V irg in ia in th a t year and th e o rd e rs were net rep eated .
I b i d . . I l l , 51 .
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These measures increased th e q uit re n t revenue c o n s id e ra b ly .
In 1695 the tobacco tu rn ed in fo r q u it re n t -was sold fo r £975;
'
29
in 1700 £ 1 ,7 5 0 ; in 1702 £ 1 ,7 9 5 ; in 1705, £ 1 ,8 4 1 .
Bo* much
o f th is in c re as e in the ve iu e of th e re c e ip ts was due to the
change in s e llin g the tcfoacco at p u b lic a u e tio n , and how much
o f i t re s u lte d from an increase in the acreage on which the
fe e was p a id , is not c le a r .
The q u it ie n t-ro .Il. o f 1704 I s
e v id e n tly more complete than any previous re tu rn , but even
so, th e re were o n ly severrteoi land h o ldin gs o f over 5,000
30
acres lis t e d .
The problem o f fo rc in g payment when th e re
were no goods on the land was s t i l l n o t solved.
In 1705,
s h o rtly b efo re h is ro a o v a l, Richolson was planning to have
th e a tto rn e y general b rin g su it ag ain st these absentee
51
la n d h o ld e rs .
By 1704 th e in e v ita b le breach between Richolson and a t
32
le a s t h a lf o f h is co u n c il was com plete.
S is o f the members
29* Oal» S ta te P apers. A. & W .I.. 1702-1703, p . 5 9 1; B everley
IS. Bond, ik e Q uit-B ent System in the American C olonies (Kew
Haven, 1919T, p 7 " " 2 3 5 T ~ ----------------------------------------- :----------- '
5 0 . Q u itre n t B o ll o f 17 0 4 , published in W ertenbaker, P la n te rs .
Appendix, p p. 1 8 3-2 47 .
31* E xecutive J o u rn a l, I I - , 455.
32 . The -sig n e rs w ere: Matthew Page, J . L ig h tfo o t, Benjamin
H a rris o n , Jemes B la ir , P h ilip L u a w e ll, and Bobert C a rte r.
B obert B everley d id not sign the memorial but R icholson sa id
he was th e le a d e r o f h is opponents end th a t B la ir was alm ost
as a c tiv e . B la ir was a t odds w ith the governor on church and
c o lle g e m a tte rs . H arriso n was thw arted by the governor In
h is attem p t to take up g rea t tr a c ts o f the HLackwater la n d s .
B la ir and In d w e ll were H a rris o n ’ s so n s-in -lav :. . Other o f H arriso n ’ s
r e la tiv e s were a c tiv e in Blackw ater len d sp ecu latio n s and also
in underm ining the re p u ta tio n ,o f the governor. The in te re s tin g
m em orial is p rin te d in f u l l in the V ir g in ia Magazine o f H is to ry
and B iography. I l l , 2 7 3 -2 8 5 .' I t I s condensed w ith R ich o lson ’ s'
comments in C a l. S tate Papers. A. & W .I.. 1704-1705, pp. 246-248.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 100 wrote a m em orial to the Board o f T rad e charging Mm w ith e v e ry
conceivable p u b lic end p riv a te v ic e .
'The au th o rs in s in u a te
th a t d e lic a c y fb rb ad e them to m ention p a rt o f the more
s c u rrilo u s b eh av io r o f th e g o verno r, le a v in g one to wonder what
v ic e th ey could have overlooked.
Much o f th e m em orial i s taken
up w ith in d e fin ite accusations a g a in s t N icholson’ s p erso nal
h a b its *
Ee was said to be g u ilt y o f "gross immcr a l i t i e s end
lewd p r a n k s " r a s h and profane sw earin g ,” and o f making a l l
manner o f v ile re fe re n c e s to gentlemen and th e ir la d ie s *
He
was e larg e d w ith s tin tin g h is ta b le in p riv a te y e t fe a s tin g
on p u b lic oc ca si ons , and w ith making remarks about the
c o u n c illo rs " r e fle c tin g upon them as i f
e s ta te s by ch e atin g the p eo ple*”
they had g o t th e ir
Summarising th e ind ictm ent
a g a in s t th e governor’ s p u b lic c h a ra c te r, th e charges were
th a t Nicholson was attem p tin g to r u le w ith ou t the consent o f
the co u n cil and th a t he was tr y in g to c o n tro l the patronage
through independent appointment o f o f f i c i a l s .
In reg ard to
land p o lic y , the c o u n c illo rs said th a t th e governor had made
lim ita tio n s c o n tra ry to law and custom and w ith o u t t h e ir a d v ic e .
Ee did t h is , th e y charged, 'through p riv a te o rd ers to surveyors
and c le rk s .
M oreover, th e y com plained th a t th e B leckw ater lands
were f i r s t thrown open by p u b lic proclam ation and then clo sed
by the governor w ith no n o tic e to th e c o u n c il.
These statem ents regard ing the land s itu a tio n were g e n e ra lly
tr u e , but we must make ample allowance in ju d g in g th e m em orial
as a whole,
One must a t le a s t conclude th a t N icholson became
ta c tle s s and u n p leasan t, even though most o f th e charges are to o
general to be convincing*
O utside o f the statem ents about land
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 101re g u la tio n s , 1here i s o n ly one s p e c ific in c id e n t m entioned.
s
In th is case the governor is said to have taken th e a tto rn e y
g en eral by 1he c o lla r fo r re fu s in g to prosecute a case.
fvhen the w hole m a tte r was p ut to a t e s t in th e House of
Burgesses, the governor was g iven a tw enty-seven to eig hteen
33
vote o f su p po rt.
Although the c o u n c illo rs devoted ooms id e ra b le space i n th e ir memorial to N ich o lson ’ s abuse o f
th e Assembly, th e governor in f a c t had no unusual d if f ic u lt ie s
w ith th a t body,
whatever th e ju s tic e o f th e m a tte r, the
Board o f Trade reco g nized th a t N ich o lson ’ s lo s s o f support
in in f lu e n t ia l q u a rters had blocked h is a d m in is tra tio n .
A
m ild e r and more congenial e x e c u tiv e , C olonel Edward N o tt,
a rriv e d in August 1705, and N icholson re tu rn e d to England
f o r assignment to o th e r c o lo n ia l s e rv ic e .
Colonel N o tt was i n . la rg L n ia l i t t l e more than a year
b efo re h is death, and thus s c a rc e ly had tim e to become fa m ilia r
w ith lo c a l problem s.
He was g iven th e same in s tru c tio n s as
had been given N icholson re g a rd in g the la n d proposals o f th e
Board o f T rad e, but he a p p a re n tly was n o t eager to press the
34 ...
m a tte r. ' The c o u n c il and burgesses had done nothing con­
s tru c tiv e re g a rd in g the land s itu a tio n fo r over fiv e y e a rs , y e t
w ith in th re e months th e y presen ted N o tt w ith an e la b o ra te lan d
b i l l which th ey hoped to s u b s titu te fo r th e Board o f T rad e’ s p la n .
The b i l l p ro vid ed fo r the e x is tin g h ea d rig h t and the f iv e - s h illin g
tre a s u ry r ig h t as basis f o r patent s .
However, the wording o f the
33.
Jo u rn al o f th e House o f Burgesses. 1 7 G 2 /3 -i7 1 2 , p . 22CEY.
34.
In s tru c tio n s to C o lo n ia l Governors. I I ,
588-589.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i
i
- 102 h ea d rig h t clause was changed to conform more n e a rly to the
E n g lish id e a o f th e m a tte r*
T h e re a fte r th e rig h ts were to
be allow ed to the servan t or fr e e im m igrant o n ly , but fu rth e r
on in th e b i l l th e re was a saving clause which provided th a t
nthe persons im ported" m ight assign th e ir f if t y - a c r e rig h ts
to o th e rs in the presence o f two w itnesses*
I t w i l l be re ­
c a lle d th a t the unenforced standing in s tru c tio n s frcm the
P riv y C ouncil re q u ire d a g ran t o f f i f t y acres to th e servant,
a t the e x p ira tio n o f h is in d e n tu re , and an immediate g rant
o f a s im ila r amount to th e im p o rte r o f the servan t*
Regarding lim ita tio n s on th e size and use o f tr a c ts , the
b i l l proposed th a t anyone be allow ed to take up as much as
500 acres in one t r a c t , but th a t those having more than fiv e
servants or slaves should be p e rm itte d to take up g re a te r
amounts.
Such p eo p le were to be allow ed two hundred a d d itio n a l
acres fo r each o f - t h e ir servan ts o r slaves above^the number
o f fiv e *
G rants were lim ite d to 4 ,0 0 0 acres in one p a te n t
but th e re was no r e s t r ic t io n on the number o f p ate n ts allow ed
to an in d iv id u a l*
It
should be observed th a t the b i l l did n o t
co n tain the Board o f Traders s tip u la tio n th a t th e e x te n t o f
the lan d be d eteim in ed by the number o f la b o re rs a c tu a lly used
on the t r a c t , y e t th e acreage allow ance was about double th a t
o f the E n g lish p ro p o sal*
M oreover, th e p la n suggested by th e
Board contem plated p erso nal occupation by the owners*’ In re g a rd
to t h is , the V irg in ia s u b s titu te re q u ire d o n ly th a t w ith in
th re e years a tw elve by tw elve wooden "house" be b u ilt and th a t,
irre s p e c tiv e of the s iz e o f 1he g ra n t, one acre be c u ltiv a te d *
T h e re a fte r the lan d was secured to the p a te n t-b o ld e r forever^
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 105 whereas the B ag lish p la n re q u ire d th a t th e lan d he kep t
co n tin u o u sly in some degree o f c u ltiv a tio n .
T his m a tte r
was g iven a s lig h t ly b e t t e r appearance by the p ro v is io n
th a t those who were proved to have n eg lected the "s e a tin g
and p la n tin g " requirem ent were to lose th e ir land w ith o u t
the form er p r iv ile g e o f takin g up a l ik e amount elsew here.
Such s u its were to be prosecuted b efo re the General Court
by in d iv id u a ls d es irin g to take the land from the u a te n t35
h o ld e r.
T h is is th e substance o f the b i l l o f 1705 sent to the
Board o f Trade w ith th e hope t h a t i t w ould'be approved and
thus put an end to the attem pt to refo rm the land system.
The e la b o ra te wording o f th e document p u ts the b es t possible
face upon the m a tte r, but when the p r in c ip a l requirem ents
a re set' beside the v a rio u s p ro v is io n s , th e b i l l becomes a
tra v e s ty upon the Board o f Trade’ s id e a , fo r taken a lto g e th e r
i t p ro vid ed fo r no s u b s ta n tia l change in th e e x is tin g system.
W ithout comment Governor n o tt forwarded the b i l l to
England fo r re v ie w , no doubt hoping to be re lie v e d o f an
em barrassing rem onstrance so e a r ly in h is c a re e r.
Something
o f the new e x e c u tiv e ’ s complacence is shown on th e occasion
o f h is re q u e st fo r the c o u n c il’ s advice reg ard in g a p aten t o f
17*600 acres embodying hone o f the- new c o n d itio n s , n a tiv e o r
o th e rw is e .
The c o u n c illo rs to ld him th a t th e y understood th a t
the la n d in question was m o stly b a rre n ; on t h e ir m o tio n , th e
governor signed the p a te n t w ithout: ftrrth e r ad o .''
However,
th e members .o f th e Board o f Trade were n o t disposed to surrended
w ith o u t a s tru g g le *
They stu d ied the V ir g in ia b i l l , and, aware
3 5 . H ening, S ta tu te s . I l l , -304-312*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
j5
i
- 104 -
■
o f i t s u ltim a te v a c u ity , tie y began a debate by correspondence
w ith the V ir g in ia c o u n c il whL c£l la s te d , fo r n e a rly f iv e y e a rs .
I t would serve no purpose to re p o rt in d e t a il t h is
see-saw
o f le t t e r s , but a few o f the h ig h -lig h ts illu s t r a t e th e tre n d
|
o f the argument.
B e & re re c e iv in g the law o f 1705,, th e Board
i
|
j
wrote N o tt making th e ir lo n g -fo re s ta lle d p la n p r a c t ic a lly
m andatory.
In consequence, shear t l y b e fo re h is death in 1706,
57
the governor stopped signing p a te n ts .
A fte r N o tt’ s death
the e x e c u tiv e o ffic e f e l l t o a V irg in ia n , Edward Jen in g s,
J
who was the p re s id e n t o f 1he council#
Jenings and th a t body
took th e a ttitu d e th a t th e in s tru c tio n s were m erely su ggestive,
y e t th ey did n o t d are to anorbve p a te n ts end none -sere signed
u n t i l a f t e r Spotswood’ s a r r iv a l in 1710#
Meanwhile th e
Board had re c e iv e d the law o f 1705., and wrote o b je c tin g th a t
the p la n did n o t g uarantee land -to fre e d servants and o th e r
immigrsnts., and th a t the r e s tr ic tio n s on in d iv id u a l a llo tm e n ts
were inadeq u ate.
They a ls o suggested th a t th e b i l l be amended
to re q u ire c u ltiv a tio n w ith in th re e years o f a t le a s t th ree
acres in every f i f t y #
Tha c o u n c illo rs agreed to a l t e r the b i l l
to g iv e a secure r ig h t to land to the im m igrants o n ly a id not
!
to the im p orters o f servarfcs, fb r, in any case., as th e y in d ic a te d ,
tre a s u ry rig h ts would be m a in ly used since few people were
coming in to the colony#
a.s
to the s iz e o f g ra n ts , th ey m ain tain ed
57 . Jenings to th e Board o f Trade., Aug. SO, 1705, B r itis h
T ra n s c rip ts , P .S .0 « , C .0# 5 , 1315..
3 8 . Col# S tate P apers. A. & H .I# . 1706-1708. pp. 65; 205# N o tt
signed h is la s t p a te n t oune lO , 1 7 0 6 , and Spotswood*s f i r s t
p aten t was issued Bec# 1 2 , 1710. P a te n ts , close o f IS and X , I *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
|
- 106 -
|
th a t no man would p a te n t more lan d than he could u se.
Y e t,
w ith no sense o f in c o n s is te n c y , th ey -sere soon w ritin g th a t
no one would accept land w ith th e req u irem en t fo r c u ltiv a tio n
39
o f th ree acres in f i f t y *
The members o f th e Board were
d o u b tfu l about the p o lic y o f s e llin g r ig h t s , and th e co u ncil
answered by p o in tin g out th a t the h eadrig ht system was not
abandoned*
The c o u n c illo rs hoped to in te r e s t th e Board when
th e y suggested th a t the allow ance o f la rg e tr a c ts would improve
the q u itre n ts sin ce, according to them, these g ran ts took in
both good lan d aid bad and brought the e n tir e tr a c t on th e
r e n t - r o l l , whereas the poor land was avoided when sm all tr a c ts
were selected *
Jenings re p e a te d ly urged a speedy d ecisio n on
.
40
the law o f 1705, fo r there were many p a te n ts a w a itin g s ig n a tu re .
In 1707 G eneral Bobert H unter was sent out as governor,
w ith the Board o f Trad e’ s o r ig in a l p la n as h is in s tru c tio n s
re g a rd in g la n d ,
.But Hunter was captured by a Hrench p riv a te e r
and th ereby exchanging the prospect o f a quarrelsome tim e in
41
V ir g in ia fo r a sojourn on p arole in P a ris ,
Tn the same year
th e Board w rote Jenings th a t the b i l l o f 1705 was disapproved
by the P riv y C ouncil aid th a t g rc n ts o f lan d could thus be mede
42
o n ly according to the in s tru c tio n s .
Je n in g s , f a llin g tack on
a te c h n ic a lity , re p lie d th a t he must w a it f o r n o tic e o f th is
43
in th e H u g ’ s name b e fb re takin g fu rth e r steps,
59* E xecutive J o u rn a l. I H , 1 0 7 , 193* The substance o f th e Board
o f Trade’ s o b je c tio n s in th is in s tan ce i s gathered from th e above
e n trie s in the Jo urnals*
-0 * Col-* S ta te P ap ers. A. & ?/*!*« 1706-1708, pp. 207-209 , 479.
4 1 . I b i d . * 17 08-1709. p . 19S: In s tru c tio n s to Boval Governors. 1 1 ,
588-589.
4 2 . Ib id .,* 1 7 0 6 -1 7 0 8 p p . 405.
4 3 . I b i d . , 1706-1708, p . 766.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Meanwhile the " s t r ik e ” o f the c o u n c il in re fu s in g to is s u e
p a te n ts under the new co n dition s was, in e f f e c t , more apparent than
r e a l, fo r a c tu a lly many people were e n te rin g lan d on the
surveyors* books, m d t h is gave them a p r io r r ig h t w ith o u t
the le a s t prospect o f being asksd to pay q u itre n ts .
In t h is
44
re s p e c t, such a T ig h t had advantages over a p a te n t.
In 1708 the c o u n c il sent a le n g th y m em orial to the Board
o f T rad e, askin g th a t the r e s t r a in t a g a in st the issu e o f
p a te n ts be removed.
Most o f th e arguments had been presented
se ve ra l tim es b e fo re and none o f them i s p a r t ic u la r ly convincing.
F or exam ple, i t was s ta te d th a t a l l th e va lu a b le la n d had
a lre a d y been taken up, im plying th a t th e re s t must be g ranted
45
.
._
an v e ry easy te rn s .
The members o f th e Board o f Trad e, a fte r
ten years o f s tru g g le , re co g n ized th e ir cause as hopeless fo r
the tim e being and in 1709 w ithdrew th e ir p lan e n t ir e ly , but
in doing so, th ey asked th e t the P riv y Council re q u ire th a t
th re e ac re s in every f i f t y g rm te d be p ut under c u ltiv a tio n
46
w ith in th re e y e a rs .
The Board probably- appended t h is re ­
commendation somewhat as a p a rtin g memento o f th e e n tir e a f f a i r ,
| b ut to t h e ir s u rp ris e the c o u n c illo rs were s t i l l n o t s a tis fie d ,
j They continued to re fu s e to sign p a te n ts w ith t h is re q u ire m e n t,
though i t i s apparent th a t the people a t la rg e were n o t inform ed
4 4 . Spotswood re q u ire d those who made e n trie s a f t e r I lo t t ?s .death
to p a te n t th e ir lan d under the terms o f the laws o f 1710 and
17 1 5 . He asked and a p p a re n tly re c e iv e d perm ission to allo w p a te n ts
fo r e a r lie r e n trie s under the co n d itio n s o f the o ld law s. This
le n ie n c y was shown in o rd er to " q u ie t th e people” • C& l. S tate Papers.
A. & J 7 . I , . 17 22-1714, p p . 220 , 2 5 4 ,
“
! 4=5, C e l. S ta te P apers. A. &
1708-1709, p . -1 5 9 ,
I 4 5 . A c ts -o f th e P riv y Council.. C o lo n ial S e rie s . IF. L . G ra n t, ^et a l..,
! 0|314v-i<«»c (ft im Vb '
\ ffrtV
*r
■«
- «■" '
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 107 th a t th is c o n d itio n was the o n ly o b stacle to the is s u in g o f
th e ir g ra n ts .
Of coarse, no one would' have -welcomed the
in tro d u c tio n o f such a clause in h is p a te n t, but i t
seems
obvious th a t a s e t t le r ta k in g up th e usual sm all t r a c t would
have had no strenuous o b je c tio n to c le a rin g one a c re in f i f t y
during th re e successive ye a rs .
I t was n o t customary to remove
the stumps fo r the f i r s t p la n tin g o f la n d , and b esid es, th ere
was e v e ry in d ic a tio n th a t the requirem ent would be given the
u su al in d iffe r e n t enforcem ent.
However, the co u n c il -wrote a
| s e rie s o f rem onstrances to the Boerd o f T rad e, em phasizing the
argument th a t the p eo p le would move to N o rth C aro lin a ra th e r
than take up V ir g in ia land under such c o n d itio n s.
There seems
to be seme ju s tic e in th is c o n ten tio n , fo r th e colony to the
south was s t i l l a weak settlem ent and the p ro p rie to rs , in order
47
to a t t r a c t s e t t le r s , were o ffe rin g land on v e ry lib e r a l term s.
However, fo r the p ast ten years the c o u n c illo rs had opposed a
p la n fo r fre e g ran ts to anyone who would liv e on the le n d ;
consequently, the members o f th e Board were n o t convinced by
the com plaint a g a in s t th is moderate c u ltiv a tio n requirem ent.
S u re ly , th e y , re p lie d , i t is n o t unreasonable to re q u ire a man
| to p la n t one acre in each o f the th re e years allo w e d , " fo r when
l
}
.
*
| a person ta k e s up la n d , i t must be e ith e r to improve i t or i t
i
48
is a d etrim en t to the colony in p rev en tin g o th ers from s e a tin g ."
But the co u n c il would have.none o f t h is , and the im b ro g lio con-tin u e d u n t il 3potswoodTs a r r iv a l.
4 7 . I b i d . . 1708-1709, p.. 479; Executive J o u rn a l. I l l , 193-194.
In 1722 Spotswood in d ic a te d th a t th e N o rth C a ro lin a p ro p rie to rs ,
in t h e ir a n x ie ty to secure s e ttle r s , g ran ted lan d a t o n e -fifth
th e V ir g in ia tre a s u ry rig h t: p ric e 'a n d w ith a q u itre n t o f o n ly
h a lf the V irg in ia r a t e ; Cfel. S tate P apers. A. & 'g . I . . 1711-1712,
p . 284.
4 8 . I b i d . . 1710-1711, p . 17.
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108
CHAPTER IV
Spotswood Takes Up th e Task, .
L ie u te n a n t ColoneL Alexander Spotswood was w e ll q u a lifie d
to cope w ith the d i f f i c u l t s itu a tio n which s.w aited him .
He
was a man o f q u ick precept io n and tenacious in th e extrem e.
From the f i r s t t h is v e te ra n o f Blenheim showed a d is p o s itio n
to m a in ta in the upper hand, y e t h is coabativeness was tempered
w ith p o lit ic a l wisdom, and, except whan h is s e lf-c o n tr o l
d eserted him , he co u ld m uster a fo rce o f argument d if f ic u lt
to evade.
E ffic ie n c y and o rd e r were th e very essence c£
Spots«ood*s n a tu re , and i t was tfcereSbr-e in e v ita b le th a t he
should attem p t a g e n e ra l overhauling o f V irg in ia a d m in is tra tio n .
Sometimes the g o v e rn o rs refo rm s descend to p e tty d e ta ils , and
one fe e ls th a t h is achievem arts would have been g re a te r had
he n o t encouraged re s is ta n c e by attem pting too much*
H icbolson’ s
d if f ic u lt ie s had been m a in ly w ith the c o u n c il, whereas Spotswood,
perhaps u n avo io ab ly, aroused a t tim es a strong o p p o s itio n in th e
burgesses, and thus Then h is re la tio n s w ith th e co u n c il became
a c u te , h is opponents were able to draw some degree o f support
from th e popular assembly.
At f i r s t , however,’ the new governor*s •
c o u n c il was reasonably co o p e ra tiv e.
T h is is in p a rt exp lain ed
by 1he fa e t th a t during the f i r s t year th re e vacancies due to
dsath o r re s ig n a tio n were f i l l e d by t i e P riv y Council on
Spotswood’ s n om ination, and two years la t e r h a lf cf the tw elve
members were men o f h is s e le c tio n .
Y e t, as we s h a ll see, these
new c o u n c illo rs by no means became h i s henchmai, f o r th ey could
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- 109 n o t be removed b y th e g o vern o r, and In p ra c tic e th e y were not
v I
in any danger o f c is n i ssal by any power*
Spotswood’ s e n e rg e tic a d m in is tra tio n touched a broad
range o f problems a ris in g in p a rt from th e war w ith Stance
and S pain, b a t the su b ject o f land and q u itre a ts occupied
an im portant p la ce in tie g a ie ra l theme*
i t the o u ts e t t h is ,
as the governor s a id , was the most urgent issue to be s e ttle d .
Spotswood a rriv e d in June, and the G eneral Assembly was
scheduled to meet in November*
Meanwhile no p a te n ts were
signed and the p eo ple, hearing rumors th a t v e ry hard term s
were to -b e imposed, were uneasy.
The governor prepared a
p ro clam atio n to s e t t le th e ir minds by informing them th a t
the th re e -a c re in f i f t y c u ltiv a tio n in s tru c tio n was th e o n ly
new req u irem en t.
The c o u n c il in seme way persuaded Spotswood
to w itiih o ld p u b lic a tio n o f t h is u n t i l a f t e r th e Assembly was
2
in session.
A p p aren tly th is was a shrewd manoeuver in ten d ed
to secure the re tu rn o f re p re s e n ta tiv e s determ ined to oppose
any in n o vatio n s in th e lan d system.
At any r a t e , when th e
burgesses m et, th ey presen ted a p e titio n to th e governor askin g
j
i{
th a t p a te n ts be issued on th e o ld b a s is *
Spotswood t r ie d to
i
1* For a g en eral view o f t h is a d m in is tra tio n the w r ite r .r e lie s
upon Leonidas Dodson’ s Alexander Spotswood (U n iv e rs ity o f P a.
P ress, 1 9 3 2 .)
2 . G al. S ta te P ap ers. A. & W .I* . 1710-1711, pp. 2 3 6 -2 3 7 . T h e c o u n c illo rs a t f i r s t t r ie d to m a in te in th a t the law o f 1705
was n o t r e je c te d , using Jen in g ’ s o ld argument th a t n o tic e o f t h is d ec is io n o f th e P riv y Council., had been re c e iv e d o n ly by
o rd in a ry l e t t e r and n o t under the s e a l o f th e P riv y C o u ncil.
Spotswood put an end to th is q u ib b le a t once and hastened to
secure an o rd er la c k in g none o f th e le g a l trim m ings.
E xecutive J o u rn a l. I l l , 2 5 0 , 288.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
q u ie t t h e ir apprehensions b y s ta tin g th e exact n a tu re o f the
new " s e a tin g and p la n tin g " requirem ent and by assuring them
th a t the o n ly purpose o f th e crown was to w ith h o ld g ra n ts o f
t r a c ts la r g e r than the p aten tee co u ld c u ltiv a te #
He made i t
c le a r th a t h is in s tru c tio n s in th is re s p e c t were m andatory,
and a f t e r "much s tru g g le w ith C ouncil and Burgesses," th e
law o f 1710 was passed w ith le s s o p p o sitio n than th e governor
3
had expected* • T h is a c t p ro vid ed th a t anyone who d id n o t
" s e a t and p la n t" h is land o r who f a ile d to pay q u itre n ts f o r
th re e ye ars m ight lo se h is land and th e v a lu e o f the r ig h ts
upon which Hie p a te n t was based*
Such f o r f e it u r e was to be
enforced by anyone d es irin g ttie. lan d and making p ro o f b efo re
th e g e n e ra l Court o f tbs n e g le c t o f th e o r ig in a l p a te n t h o ld e r.
E v id e n tly as a c o n s o la tio n , the law gave landowners a p e rp e tu a l
o n e-year p r io r it y in the r ig h t to p a te n t any "low lands" ad jac en t
to t h e ir p ro p e rty and a s im ila r preem ption r ig h t to any la n d in
t h e ir possession in excess o f acreage s ta te d in th e p a te n t*
These concessions, which continued u n t i l th e R e v o lu tio n , were
o f co n sid erab le im portanee*
The surveyors had been n o to rio u s ly
g en ero u s-in th e ir allowanc e s , and th ere were between th e p a te n t
h o ld in g s g re a t q u a n titie s o f lan d v a lu a b le a t le a s t f o r pasturage
and cro p s o th e r than tobacco*
The owner o f " th e adjacent h ig h
lands" could now regard such land as p r a c t ic a lly h is .own, fo r
an other person atte m p tin g to p a ts it i t must make p ro o f b efo re
3* Ib id * * 1710-1711, p p . 31 6-5 17 , '414s The O f f ic ia l L e tte r s o f
A lexander Spotswood* 1710-1722T B .A .B roc£7 ed!* (2 v o ls .,
Richmond, 1 8 8 2 -1 8 8 5 ), I , 61-62* Hare a f t e r c ite d as " L e tte r s " .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
i l l -
•witnesses th a t he had served n o tic e o f h is in te n tio n upon the
'4
neighboring 1 an downer.
The seatin g end p la n tin g clause o f th e law cf 1710 seems
innocuous, fo r the same p ro v is io n had e x is te d in n e a rly a l l
p a te n ts since the tin e o f th e London Company.
E verything
depended, o f course, upon th e m ealin g given those words.
Spotswood e v id e n tly p re fe rre d to l e t t h is m a tte r re s t e n tir e ly
upon the t h r e e - a c r e - in - f if t y in s tru c tio n .
In fo rw ard ing th e
law to the Board o f Trade, he p o in ted out th a t i t was in d e fin ite
in th is respect and s ta te d , " I see no reason why E.M . should be
bound up by law s here e ith e r, in the method o f g ran tin g le n d or
the c o n d itio n s upon which i t is -o b ta in e d ,
i t b eing c e rta in ly
most -ju s t th a t H. M. in s tru c tio n s should be the o n ly law In
those cases.”
The governor sim ply issued a proclam ation
s ta tin g th a t h is. in s tru c tio n s re q u ire d th a t th re e acres in
every f i f t y be brought under c u ltiv a tio n .
T h e re a fte r, u n t il
the close o f th e C o lo n ia l p e rio d , th is c o n d itio n was in s e rte d
in a l l p a te n ts .
The proclam ation a ls o announced th a t hence­
fo r th anyone proposing to. ta k e up more than fo u r hundred acres
must f i r s t secure D e m is s io n b v p e t it io n to the governor who
5
would determ ine the m atter with th e ad vice o f the c o u n c il.
4# Hening, S ta tu te s ,
III,
523-532; Broch, L e tte r s ,
5 . G a l. S ta te Papers, A» & W. I . , - 1701-1711, p . 408.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I I , p . 20.
-
132
-
^&otswood s a id t h a t lie made t h is requirem ent in o rd e r to
assure h im s e lf o f th e a b i l i t y o f the p aten tee to use the
6
amount o f lo a d req u ested *
F o r 12a e f i r s t fiv e years the
governor seems to have been r a th e r cautious in g iv in g
peami ssion fo r la rg e g ra ft s , b u t a fte rw a rd s he b eease
7
much more le n ie n t*
The requirem ent o f th e consent o f
the governor and c o u n c il f o r grant s above 400 acres con­
tin u e d u n t i l th e Hev o lu tio n , but the o r ig in a l purpose
o f th e ru le was la r g e ly fo rg o tte n *
Spotswood was pleased w ith h is accomplishment in
securing the law o f 1710, since he was q u ite w illin g to
l e t the im portant d e fin itio n o f the a e t r e s t upon ord ers
8
in th e K in g ’ s name*
However, th e Board o f Trade showed
no such eagerness to e x ercise the p re ro g a tiv e , sad d ire c te d
the governor -to secure a d d itio n a l le g is la tio n which would
make the la n d ^rstem r e s t more com pletely on V irg in ia law *
The governor re g re tte d the n ecessity o f reopening th e e n tir e
d iscussion, but he proceeded to th e ta s k , and, a f t e r a re p u ls e
9
in th e session o f 1712, he was o ffe re d , i n th e fo llo w in g y e a r,
a b i l l conceding a s much as could be expected*
10
1715
The law o f
'
co n tain s a quitrenfc fo r f e it u r e clause w ith a re v is e d
wording which the governor assumed would make th e p ro v is io n
re tro a c tiv e *
T h is was made as in c lu s iv e as p o s s ib le , f o r
6* Brock., L e tte r s , I I , 69 .
7* See l i s t o f p a te n ts and co u n c il o rd ers fo r land in Appendix I
8* C al* S ta te P apers, A* & 1 *1 * * 1710 -17 11 , p* 4 1 4 .
9 . Ib id .* 1711-1712, p . 8 5 ; 1712-1714* p * 155; J o u rn a ls o f the
Bouse o f Burgesses* 1712-1726, p . 2 9 , BroekJ L e tte r s * I , H I *
10* H eaing, S ta tu te s * IV , 57-42*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 113 the governor seems t o have a n tic ip a te d th a t th e G eneral
Court would h o ld th a t the q u it r e it clause o f 1710 r e fe r re d
11
o n ly to p a te n ts subsequent t> t h a t date*
"S e a tin g and
p la n tin g " was given an e la b o ra te d e fin itio n p ro v id in g f o r
s e v e ra l a lte rn a tiv e s .
The f i r s t o f th ese was the long
re s is te d re q u ire m e it th a t th re e a c re s in f i f t y be cleared
and p la n te d w ith in th re e years.
The governor*s in s tru c tio n s
a ls o s a id t h a t , " In the fu tu re due regard i s to be taken
12
as to th e p r o fita b le end the u n p ro fita b le a c re s ."
Ju st
what was intend ed by th a t is n o t c le a r , b u t th e c o u n c illo rs ,
13
who fram ed a g re a t p a rt o f t ie A c t o f 1713,
took i t to mean
th a t the t h r e e - a c r e - in - f if t y c u ltiv a tio n was re q u ire d o n ly .
fo r the a ra b le p o rtio n o f the tr a c t .
They, th e re fo re , in ­
se rte d a clause re q u irin g surveyors to e s tim a te th e p ro p o rtio n
o f a ra b le ground, and d e fin e d o th e r ty p e s o f improvement
which co u ld be s u b s titu te d to prove the use o f the rem ainder
o f the t r a c t .
For every th re e a c re s o f marsh d rained aid
c le a re d , f i f t y acres were to b e h e ld .
Land could also be
re ta in e d by keep in g stock on i t a t the r a te o f th ree heads
o f c a t t le o r s ir sheep o r g o ats fb r each f i f t y a c re s .
If
the e n tir e t r a c t was judged "u n p la n ta b le w ith o u t manuring
and im p ro vin g ’ , the p aten t h o ld e r could e r e c t a s ix te e n by
tw enty house and keep sto ck in the above p ro p o rtio n s u n t il
th e re q u ire d amomt o f p la n tin g d io u ld be done.
11 .
12.
ed.
13.
Shen any o f
B rock, L e tte rs . I I , 81 .
Boyal In s tru c tio n s to B r it is h C o lo n ia l G overnors, L.Y/. Laberee,
(¥ v b i s . 7 f T e r "'^ 5 5 9 .
-----------Jo u rn als at the Bouse o f Burgesses. 1712-1726, p . 65.
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114
th ese Improvements had been made in any p a r t o f the t r a c t ,
the p a te n t was secure ftr e v e r ag a in st o th e r p e titio n e r s as
lo n g as the q u itre n f s were paid*.
I f the Improvements were
o n ly p a r t i a l l y com pleted ora could b e com pelled to f o r f e i t
o n ly in p ro p o rtio n to h is n e g le c t, and in t h is case th e
person b rin g in g s u it to secure -fte land would be com pelled
to accep t such p a rt o f the t r a c t a s the p a te n t h o ld e r should
d esig nate*
The o rig in a l c o n s id e ra tio n fear th e issue o f
p a te n ts was not s ta te d in the la w , b u t i t was understood
th a t the h e a d rig h t and tre a s u ry rig h t should continue as
b e fo re *
The law had many obvious loo ph o les*
In d ee d , pro­
se cu tio n fa r v io la tio n , o f .th e .p r in c ip a l p ro visio n s was l e f t
to be conducted by p r iv a te In d iv id u a ls b e fo re a co u rt which
was in c lin e d to a llo w every p o s s ib le advantage to the o r ig in a l
p a te n t h o ld e r*
However, th e a c t appeared to be a t le a s t a
step in th e lig h t d ir e c tio n and. th e Board o f Trade, accepted
•14
the b i l l in d e s p a ir o f g e ttin g an y th in g b e tte r*
Ind eed, i t
I s u n lik e ly th a t the law o f 1713 would have passed w ith o u t the
re ce n t changes in th e member d iip o f th e c o u n c il a id th e enact­
ment o f a measure in the sera session which gave th e governor
an o p p o rtu n ity to humor a number o f th e burgesses w ith a p p o in t-
14* E xecutive J o u rn a l* 1 H , 305-330^ Brock, le t t e r s * I I ,
1 1 , 1 4 , 1 5 , 2 1 , 2 2 , The a c t p ro v id e d th a t i t should not go
in to o p e ra tio n u n t i l I714» I t was confirm ed in England in '
1716* W illia m Byr d appeared b efb re the Board o f Trade to
urge ap p ro va l* Jo u rn al o f 1&e Board o f T rad e* 1715-1718, p , 137,
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- 115 15
zaent as tobacco In s p e c to rs .
W hile manoeuverlng th e passage "of the land a c t*
Spotswood was undertaking an in v e s tig a tio n o f th e system,
fo r th e issue o f h eadligh t c e r t if ic a t e s .
A pparently what­
ever improvement Nicholson had made in t h is m a tte r was
p a r t ly undone during th e in te rlu d e under Jenings, and th e
governor was soon com plaining ag ain st the system as i f
16
i t s shortcomings had never b e a i exposed, b e fo re .
By a
p ro clam atio n re a d and posted in each church and courthouse
in th e la n d , everyone owning h ead rig h t c e r tific a te s m s re ­
q u ire d to tu rn them in a t h is county seat to be forwarded
to the s e c re ta ry ’ s o ffic e .fo r exam inatio n by the governor
and c o u n c il.
In fu tu r e , county c le rk s were to re tu rn every
s ix months a l i s t o f a l l people whose im p o rta tio n was p ro ved.
Comparison o f these l i s t s was to be made in th e s e c re ta ry ’ s
o f fic e to d etect d u p lic a tio n o f names sent in from the se ve ra l
c o u n tie s , and whenever an in d iv id u a l's name was used as a
h ea d rig h t to sects?e a p a te n t, th is was to be noted by a check­
mark on th e co n so lid ated l i s t .
T h is sim ple expedient which had
been needed fo r n e a rly a c e n tu ry was th e o n ly sure method o f
p rev en tin g a p r in c ip a l abuse.
The exam ination of the rig h ts
1 5 . H o iin g , S ta tu te s , IV r 4 5 6 -4 5 7 ; G a l. S tate Pap ers, A . & W .I.
1 7 12-1714, Ho* 530j Brock. . L e tte r s . X . 49* The tobacco in ­
spectors were p a id 4295 a y e a r.
Spotswood fra n k ly s ta te d to
th e Board o f Trade the p o lit ic a l' v a lu e o f th is p atro n ag e. In
1714 tw enty-seven o f the burgesses and the c le rk o f the house
were tobacco in s p e c to rs a m a jo rity o f th e membership. 7a.
Mag, o f H is t. & B log. I I , 2WL5; Dodson, Spotswood, p p. 5 4 -5 5 .
1 6 * G a l. S tate P apers. A. & W » I.. 1712-1714, p . 156;
L e tte r s . I I , 1 7 0 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Brock,
116 proved too g re a t a ta s k fa r the co u n o il as a whole,, and
th e n a tte r was tu rn ed over to Byrd and Ludw ell who made
some c a n c e lla tio n s .
The most comon f a u lt seems to have
been th e f a ilu r e to m ention on the c e r tific a te s th e names
17
o f any people im ported. . Soon a f t e r th is in q u iry the
number o f h ea d rig h ts used to secure lan d d eclin ed v e ry
s h a rp ly .
Whereas about h a lf o f the p aten ts were issued
on these rig h ts in 1715, o n ly one-seventh o f those o f 1718
were secured in th is manner.
Between 1735 end 1741, th ere
IS
are o n ly two in stan ces o f the use of im p o rtatio n r ig h ts .
In 1774 a man who had purchased a number o f im p o rta tio n
r ig h ts had to apply to ihe a tto rn e y g en eral f o r c o n firm a tio n
o f the fa c t th a t c e r t if ic a te s o f th is .kind were s t i l l a le g a l
19
basis fo r iss u in g p a te n ts .
Spotsvsood was in c lin e d to
a ttr ib u te the d e c lin e in h ea d rig h ts to the check l i s t system
which he had in tro d u c ed , b u t o bvio u sly th is could n o t be
SO
the e n tire cause o f such a g re a t change.
The tru e ex p la n a tio n
1 7 . Hening, S ta tu te s . IV , 557-558; E xecutive J o u rn a l. I l l ,
305, 330, 336, 3 4 4 -3 4 5 ,•5 9 5 .
18 . These p ro p o rtio n s are obtained by exam ination o f f i f t y p a te n t
o f 1715 taken a t random, and an equal number issued in 1718.
P a te n ts , X . The w r ite r scanned a l l the p aten ts between 1735
and 1741 fo r th is end o th e r purposes. P a te n ts , V o l. X V I-X IX .
19. E xecutive Jo u rn al o f th e C o u n c il, May £ 4 , June 1 6 -1 7 , 1774,
(p h o to s tats in the U n iv e rs ity o f V irg in ia L ib ra ry .)
20* C al« S tate P apers, A. & J . I . . 1712-1714, p . 156.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
117 i s not e v id m t.
Indentured s e rv itu d e and a l l im m igration
from England d eclin ed ra p id ly in the eig h te en th c e n tu ry ,
21
but i t did not cease a lto g e th e r,
The County Court
records continue to show a number o f people p ro ving th e ir
im m ig ratio n , y e t th e p aten ts do not show e corresponding
22
number o f h ead rig h t cla im s.
The most p la u s ib le e x p la n a tio n
the w r it e r can o ffe r is
tha t im m igrants g e n e ra lly found i t
ad visab le to buy th e good lan d o f the sp ecu lators ra th e r
than p aten t poor land e ^ o s e d to In d ia n a tta c k s *
At the
same tim e th e sp ecu lators a p p a re n tly found i t cheaper to
buy tre a s u ry r ig h ts in W illiam s burg than to c o lle c t headr ig h t c e r tific a te s in sm all lo ts from, the vario u s co u n ties.
F or'exam ple, two fa m ilie s coming in to Augusta County proved
t h e ir im m ig ratio n from Ir e la n d , y e t one bought lan d in the
21* Negro slaves in in c re as in g numbers in p a rt replaced- the
ind en tured servan ts, Even daring a p erio d o f low tobacco
p ric e s , 1699-1708, Negroes were being im ported a t the ra te
o f n e a rly a thousand a y e a r, and in 1708 over a t h ir d o f the
tith a b le s were Negroes. At th e same tim e so few w h ite ser­
vants were coming in to the colony " th a t-th e y s c a rc e ly deserve
n o tic e " . Cal* State Papers. A. & W .I* . 1708-1709. p . 1 5 5 .'
B a lla g a makes o n ly th e general statem ent th a t se rv itu d e
d eclin ed durin g the period 1726-1788* "W hite S ervitu d e in
th e Colony o f V ir g in ia " , John Hopkins S tu d ies. X I I I « Nos.
6-7 (1895; 65.
22* In Orange County 357 people proved th e ir im p o rta tio n
durin g the two decades fo ile d ir g 1736. W illia m v.* S c o tt,
A H is to ry o f Orange County, V ir g in ia . (Richmond, 1 9 0 7 ),
a b s tra c ts of county re co rd s in Appendix A, pp. 22 5-2 29 .
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- 118 25
Borden t r a c t and Hie e th e r s e ttle d in B everley Manor.
Governor Spotsupod also in tro d u ced a p r a c tic a l reform
in the procedure fear is s u in g tre a s u ry r ig h ts .
H e re to fo re
th ey had been ra n t ten in long hand and sold a t th e
'
re c e iv e r g e n e ra l’ s o f f ic e .
They were n ot numbered and
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th e re was no account rendered exceot fo r the c u a n tity
issued
and the funds re c e iv e d , y e t these c e r tific a te s c irc u la te d
24
r e a d ily as money.
The governor’ s a n x ie ty was aroused by
2 5 . Joseph A. .vad d eli, jam ais o f Augusta County( Staunton,
V ir g in ia , 1902} p p. 5 8 -3 9 . The problem o f the n ear d is­
appearance o f the h e a d lig h t is fu rth e r com plicated by the
fa c t th a t epotsweod Issued orders th a t no aich r ig h ts dated
a f t e r 1706 should be allow ed to anyone but the person im­
p o rte d . ( E xecutive J o u rn a l,I I I , - 5 3 6 ). I t is q u ite p o s s ib le
th a t th is was observed fo r a tim e , but i f th is is the case,
such few servants as case in assigned t h e ir r ig h ts to e th e rs .
The w r ite r has been unable to d is c o v e r'p a te n ts a f t e r th is
date in which an im m ig rant, servant or o th e rw is e, re ce ived
lan d through h is own im m igration in to th e colony. Perhaps
some such in stan ce has bem overlooked, but they do n o t e x is t
in any considerable number*. As a m a tte r o f f a c t , cpotswood
h im s e lf claim ed a g re a t q u a n tity of len d fo r the im p o rta tio n
o f a number o f Germans, and, although these people also
a p p lie d fo r f i f t y acres each "according to th e Boyal C h arter” ,
i t i s u n lik e ly t h a t th e y e v e r g ot any la n d frcm th e colony.
(V a. Mag, o f H is t, and B lo g ., XL I I , 5 7 0 ). In 1754 I sham
Bandolph presented a c e r t if ic a t e showing th a t he had im ported
49 p eo p le, but the s e c re ta ry ’ s c le rk re fu s e d to accept th is
as a claim fo r la n d , saying th a t th is r ig h t belonged to the
people im ported. Bandolph appealed to the c o u n c il and the
m a tte r was d e fe rre d fo r General Court session, thus we have
no re c o rd o f the d e c is io n . E xecutive J o u rn a l. IV . p re fa c e ,
LV, 549. However, in 1774 the a tto rn e y g en eral ru le d th a t
the allow ance o f land 1d tie im p o rters o f servants was v a lid ,
s ta tin g th a t the K ing could not have intended to d ep rive h is
su b jects o f a r i r h t guaranteed by the c h a rte r o f C harles I I .
The c o u n c il searched the reco rd s and determ ined th a t the claim
was c o n s is te n t w ith "Custcm and Common B ig h t.” E xecutive
Jo u rn als o f the C o u n c il, May 2 4 , June 16-.17, 17744 p h o to stats
in U. o f Va. L ib r a r y .)
2 4 . C e l.
S tate Papers. A. & ??.!«« 1717-171S, pp. 2 0 , 166.
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- 119 the d isco very o f sons c o u n te rfe it c e r t if ic a t e s , and lie
determ ined to put the whole m atter bn a sound b a s is .
A ll
outstanding tre a s u ry r i g it s s e re c a lle d and rep laced by
w arran ts made out on a p rin te d form and signed by the
re c e iv e r g eneral and th e a u d ito r - fo r these o ffic e s were
no lo n g e r h eld by the sane person.
E encefo rth a l l cer­
t if ic a t e s c a rrie d a mmiber so t in t a convenient check
could be made on .th e ex te n t o f the is s u e .
At th e same
tim e the c a n c e lla tio n of each r i / h t when used to claim
la n d would be more c e rta in .
As a ro u tin e m a tte r the
governor and co u n cil from th is time onward au th o rize d the
re c e iv e r g en eral to issue .r ig it s u p .to a c e rta in q u a n tity ,
and a o a r t o f these were d is trib u te d fo r sale by the county
25
surveyors.
The new system was o b vio u sly an improvement,
b u t, lik e so many o f Spotswood’ s u s e fu l refo rm s, i t was
inaug u rated w ith 1he im p lic a tio n th a t fra u d was to be found
wherever i t s p o s s ib ility e x is te d .
W ith tra n s p a re n t u n fa ir ­
ness the.go vern or to ld the Board o f Trqde th a t the increase
in the tre a s u ry r ig h t revenue was due to the a p p lic a tio n o f
h is methods, b ut he did n ot e2p 3ain th a t during th is tim e the
issu e o f h ea d rig h ts had d e c lin e d .
T h is in s in u a tio n was n o t
made u n t il the governor was in op a i q u a rre l w ith R eceiver
G eneral Byrd, A uditor L ud w ell, and the g re a te r p a rt o f h is
26 *
c o u n c il.
2 5 . S secu tive Jo u rn als. I l l ,
4 5 4 -4 5 5 , 60S.
2&» Brock, L e tte r s . I I , 27 1 , 322 , 335.
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Meanwhile Spotswood attach ed th a t p e re n n ia l problem ,
the q u itre n ts .
M a tte rs o f revenue were o f s p e c ia l in te r e s t
to him and a t the sane tim e th is was an approach to the
i
d if f ic u lt ie s in th e lan d system.
To Spotswood, w ith h is
yen fo r e ffic ie n c y , the s ta te o f the q u itre n ts was out­
rageous,
The system, embraced, he s a id , "th e grossest
mismanagements and most fra u d u le n t c o lle c tio n s th a t ever
27
was known in a Bevenue.”
The p r in c ip a l d if f ic u lt y was,
o f course, th a t no one had any s p e c ia l in te r e s t in paying,
and the c o lle c to rs were not s u f f ic ie n t ly -rewarded to na-'e
the work p r o fita b le .
The s h e rif fs chsnged from year to
y e a r, and th e o f fic e was so l i t t l e
.
sought th a t th e re was
28
a p e n a lty fo r re fu s a l to serve.
The q u itre n ts were
p r a c tic a lly farm ed out to "the b aser s o rt o f men” , who
were in e f f ic ie n t and under no o a th .
The s h e r iffs sim ply
swore to th e county re tu rn " to the best o f t h e ir knowledge
and b e lie f" and th e re the m a tte r ended.
The re p o rts which
th ey re tu rn e d to -fee re c e iv e r g m e ra l w ere, th e governor s a id ,
"uncouth medleys o f rough unmethodized p ap ers", and these
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were th e n e a re s t approach to the long-sought " p e rfe c t re n t
r o ll” .
Spotswood by p ro clam ation re q u ire d a l l deputy co l­
le c to rs to render th e ir account under o a th .
What the gov­
ernor r e a lly p re fe rre d was to tu rn the m a tter over to the
surveyors who were permanent appointees under h is ra th e r
close c o n tro l, but such an in n o v a tio n was beyond even Spotswood*s
27* Ib id »■ I I , 1 8 6 -1 8 7 , 266, 267.
28 . V irg in ia C o lo n ia l D ecisions: The Beports o f S ir John
Bandolph and Edward B a rra d a ll. 1728-1741, B. T . B arton, ed.
(Boston, 1 9 0 9 ), 3 8 7 .
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i
d a rin g , f o r , as he s a id , " i t would in tro d u c e g re a te r
exactness than is co n sisten t K ith the p o p u la r n o tio n s
29
o f L ib e rty *"
The Tobacco Act o f 1715 m ight have become Spotswood’ s
g re a te s t c o n trib u tio n to the f is c a l and lan d systems o f
V ir g in ia , fo r th is re g a in e d th e payment o f a l l q u itre n ts
and a l l taxes in tobacco inspected and re c e iv e d a t “ware­
houses in each county.
P re v io u s ly s poor grade o f tobacco
had been o ffe re d a t a s e t r a te , which in the case o f the
q u itre n ts was a penny a pound.
However,: in 1717 th is law
was vetoed in England a t the -in s tig a tio n o f the merchants
30
aided by R eceiver General Byrd. ' The ex e c u tiv e o rd er which
re p la ce d th is a c t contained some of i t s u s e fu l p r in c ip le s ,
fo r i t made the s h e r iffs resp o n sib le under bond fo r the
h ig h e st acreage p re v io u s ly re tu rn e d from t h e ir co u n ties;
a form was e s ta b lis h e d fo r a l l r e n t - r o lls ; and the tobacco
31
was to be sold a t p u b lic a u c tio n in W illiam sburg.
Both th e o ffic e r s of the revenue, Byrd,and h is re la tiv e ^
A u d ito r L u d w e ll, opposed th ese reform s w ith g re a t energy.
In 1715 In d w e ll was suspended by th e governor.
In th e same
year Byrd went to England m a in ly , i t appears," to th w a rt the
measures o f Spotswooa.
Making o n ly s lig h t progress th e re ,
he sold h is o ffic e as re c e iv e ^ general fo r £500 f o r ,'h e s a id ,
anyone who h e ld th e p la c e "must e ith e r be th e Governor’ s dog
o r h is e s s , n e ith e r o f which •s ta tio n s s u its in th e le a s t
32
w ith my c o n s titu tio n ."
2 9 . Brock, L e tte r s . I I , 162-268.
30* H ening, S ta tu te s . IV , 3 2 -3 6 ; Dodson, on* c i t * . pp. 5 7 ,1 6 9 .
31* E xecutive Journals . I I I - . 458, 485; Brock L e tte r s . I I ,
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6 7 -6 9 .
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Earing the tw elve years of Spot snood’ s a d m in is tra tio n
35
the valu e o f th e q u it r a it re c e ip ts more than doubled.
The governor claim ed f u l l c r e d it, b u t, as the Board o f
Trade was quick to p oint o u t, th is was in g re a t measure
due to the in crease in the value o f tobacco fo llo w in g the
peace o f U tre c h t.
I f we lo o k a t the m a tte r from the stand­
p o in t o f the t o ta l acreage upon which th e re n t was p e id ,
we fin d th e Board’ s o b servatio n w e ll-fo u n d e d .
In Spotswood’ s
la s t year as governor, the q u it n eats were p eid on o n ly
about 275,000 acres above the q u a n tity re p o rte d in 1710,
y e t between these d ates a t le a s t 400,000 acres o f new land
34
had been p a te n te d .
T h u s -it would appear th a t the e f f o r t
to b rin g th e c u itre n t evaders to account had a c tu a lly lo s t
ground.
I f we accept the im p lic a tio n o f the fig u re s sub-
"k
m itte d by Spotswood, i t would spsear th a t the owners o f
35
over a q u a rte r o f th e patented land escaped payment.
3^* Ca3-« S tate Papers. A .
1720-1721, p . 42 1; Dodson,
op. c i t . , Appen^SH I I I , p p . 308-509.
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54. Some 350,000 a c re s were p a ten ted between 1710 and 1718.
There were s u ffic ie n t tre a s u ry r ig h ts sold between 1710 and .
1722 to have produced p a te n ts a>r approxim ately 725,000 acres,
Not a l l o f these were used a t once, but th is would be some­
what o ffs e t by th e h ead rig h t g r a it s . I t is also tru e th a t
q u it re n t c o lle c tio n s oh some land p aten ted a f t e r 1720 were
suspended pending approval o f a b i l l passed in th a t y e a r.
A lto g e th e r i t seems probable th a t considerably more then
400,000 acres should have been added to th e re n t r o l l between
1710 and 1722. In 1710, q u itre n ts were p aid on 2 ,4 5 0 ,9 9 8
ac re s , and in 1722, 2 ,7 2 0 ,8 4 7 acres. I b i d . . 151. 29 4.
308-309.
35. Spotswood e s tim a te d th a t th e re were about 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 acres .
o f p aten ted land in 1 7 18 , y e t elsewhere he re p o rts th a t
q u itre n ts were p a id on 2 ,3 8 5 ,2 2 8 acres in th a t y e a r. I t is
n e a rly im possible to discover the to ta l acreage o f p aten ted
la n d since some tr a c ts were abandoned and i t was common p ra c tic e
to secure a "double” or " in c lu s iv e ” p a te n t fo r la n d alre a d y
owned as w e ll as the new la n d added to the o r ig in a l t r a c t .
Ib i d ; , p . 308-309; Brock L e tte r s , I I , 265.
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- 123 But what a£ the law s of 1710 and 1713 re q u irin g fo r ­
f e it u r e & r th re e years f a ilu r e to pay q u itre n ts ?
I t m ight
appear th a t these a c ts should have ended the problem o f
the absentee land-ow ners who had ib rm e rly evaded the fe e
by m a in ta in in g n o th in g on th e ir lan d w orth d is t r a in t .
The
law o f 1710 seems e x p lic it enough, though i t was rumored th a t
i t would be h eld not a p p lic a b le to p a te n ts a lre a d y out­
stan d in g ,
In the a c t o f 1713 the governor b e lie v e d he had
,
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cured th is d e fe c t beyond a l l question and s u re ly the wording
could not have been more e x p lic it o r in c lu s iv e .
The c o u n c il-
-
lo rs had agreed, however r e lu c ta n tly , to th is la w , but soon
a fte rw a rd th is body in ju d ic ia l session as the G eneral Court
declared th a t no la n d p aten ted p r io r t o -1714 could be fo r­
f e it e d
under the c u itre n t c la u s e .
As a m a tte r o f f a c t , th e re
was no n e c e s s ity -fo r th is opinion fo r
no q u itre n t case had
been brought b e fo re tbe c o u rt, and a p p aren tly th e o n ly purpose
was to
serve n o tic e th a t i t would be u seless fo r. anyone to
t r y to ta k e a p aten t h o ld e r's lan d on th is b a s is ,
%otswood
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sa id th a t some o f the c o u n c illo rs , in
j
refu sed not o n ly to pay a u it r a it s , bat d e c lin e d to s ta te the
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o rd er to s e t an example,
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q u a n tity o f t h e ir land o r re v e a l th e name o f the o r ig in a l
p a te n t h o ld e r so th a t the acreage could be determined from
36
the reco rd s,
•
In ju d ic ia l session the governor was n r a c tic a lly h e lp -
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le s s fo r here h is vote counted fb r no more than any o th e r.
Bad he been, o therw ise le s s form idable
36. Brock, L e tte r s , I I ,
h is p lig h t must arouse
176-1 87 , 266-267.
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- 124 our p it y . As Spotswood surveyed the a rra y a g a in s t him ,
he bemoaned the fa c t th a t six o f the te n - th e re being
two vacancies on th e c o u n c il then - were so c lo s e ly
37
re la te d the t he could not hope to b reak t h e ir ranks*
But he could s t i l l c a l l up one re s e rv e o f m ysterious
m i^ht - the P re ro g a tiv e .
He sent a l e t t e r p o sth aste
to th e crown s o lic ito r ask ing f c r an o p in io n on the
38
q u itre n t clause o f 1713.
The re p ly was g r a tify in g ,
fo r the p ro v is io n was held to ap p ly to a l l p aten ts
w hatsoever.
Y e t, has was the governor to make th is p r e v a il,
since no case fo r le s s than *,300 was su b je ct to appeal to
England?
There was one la s t p o s s ib ilit y -
could "pack th e c o u rt0.
the governor
H is to ria n s have n o t asso ciated
Spotswocd’ s attem p t a t t h is w ith the q u itr e n t co n tro versy,
a p p a re n tly because th e governor sought o n ly to change the
3 7 . I b i d . , I I , 171. L ud w ell, E arxiso n , and B la ir were b ro th e rs in -la w , th e la s t by h is f i r s t m a rria g e . B la ir and h is b ro th e r
were p a rtn e rs in tirade w ith In d w e ll. John Grymes who succeeded ; /
lu d w e ll as deputy a u d ito r {c o n tra ry to Spotswood’ s nom ination)
was L ud w ell’ s nephew and had m a rrie d one 'o f B la ir ’ s daughters.
Gawin C orbin, le a d e r o f the o p p o sitio n to Spotswooc in the
burgesses, also m a rrie d in to the H a ir fa m ily . tT illia m Byrd’ s
f i r s t w ife was L u d w ell’ s n ie c e . Spotswood w rote Orkney th a t
u nless sceneth in g was done to che &: these " u n g ra te fu l C reo lian s” ,
the K ing’ s Governor would be reduced to a "desperate g a s p ....
and th e colony surrendered to the Haughtiness o f a C a rte r, the
Hyprocracy o f a B la ir , the In v e te ra c y o f s L u d w e ll,th e B ru tish ­
ness of a S n ith , the M alice of a Byrd, the Conceitedness o f a
Grymes, and the o c u r r ilit y o f a C orbin. C a l. S tate Papers.
A. & « . I * « 1717-1718, pp. 1 0 7 , 429; Xbdson. op. c i t . , p . 257.
3 8 . C al. State- Papers. 1719-1720, p . 8 7 .
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- 125 personnel o f tbs oyer and te rm in e r sessions, and in these
33
o n ly c rim in a l cases were o r d in a r ily t r ie d .
However, th e
w r ite r has Sound cases p e rta in in g to lan d re fe rre d to a
session o f th is type in 1783, 1725, 1752 and 1735.
Perhaps
o th e r and e a r lie r instan ces could he discovered were the
40
records e x ta n t.
I f one f a i l s to connect Sootswood’ s
behavior w ith 1he q u it ren t o p in io n , th e re remains no o th e r
s p e c ific e x p la n a tio n o f -fee m a tte r.
In any e v e n t, scon
a f t e r th e G eneral C o u rt’ s ru lin g in th is m a tte r, the
governor, re ly in g on the power given by h is commission,
appointed fo u r gentlem en, m a in ly members o f the House o f
Burgesses, to p resid e w ith f iv e of the c o u n c illo rs in oyer
and te m in e r session.
A ll o f the c o u n c illo rs except Jenings
refu sed to s it w ith the new judges on " y t L in sey v?oolsey
Commission.”
They m aintained th a t the c o u n c illo rs had always
been e x -o ffie io members o f the h ig h e s t c o u rt and no o th e rs
41
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could be appointed..
The governor re c e iv e d from the a tto rn e y
gen eral in England c o n firn s t io n o f h is power to ap p oin t s p e c ia l
judges, but i t was accompanied w ith the sound advice th a t the
39* Dodson (eg* e i t . , p . 1 7 3 ), does n o t connect the attem p t
to c o n tro l th e courts w ith the q u itre n t o p in io n , but m erely
im p lie s th a t th is was due sim ply to th e governor’ s g en eral
e f f o r t to assume power*
40* E xecutive Jo u rn als o f The C o u n c il. P re fa c e . LY. 5 7 . 108.
118, 2 7 1 , 542.
41. Dodson, 22? £ !£ •> PP* 173-178.
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42
a u th o rity be reserved fo r very e x tra o rd in a ry occasions.
Thus th e m a tte r was solved in a manner ty p ic a l o f the
S a g lis h c o n s titu tio n - the poser was re ta in e d but was
not to be used.
The c o u n c il nos adm itted th is a u th o rity
in an in d ir e c t manner.
Y e t, when the governor t r ie d to
prove h is moral v ic to r y by ap p o in tin g as fudges men whom
he had nominated to the co u n c il but whose commissions
43
had n o t a r riv e d , f iv e o f the c o u n c illo rs again w ithdrew .
The g overnor's attem pt to c o n tro l the courts was
clo se d , and thus the q u it r a it fo r fe itu r e clause o f the
Act o f 1713 was p r a c tic a lly n u llif ie d by ju d ic ia l rs v ie w .
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For lo n g a fte r th is th e court continued to m ain tain an
a ttitu d e which alm ost com pletely p ro h ib ite d fo r fe itu r e
o f any p a te n ts , w hatever the d ate o f th e ir iss u e , on th is
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or any o th e r grounds.
Taken a lto g e th e r, dpotswoodf s measures to reform th e lan d system, however much th ey were re s is te d , had made seme.
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improvements, e s p e c ia lly in system atizin g -the issue o f im •
p o rta tio n and tre a s u ry r ig h t s , and im proving the prodecure
*
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42* v a l. State Papers. A. &.
1717-1718, p . 135. In f o r warding th is o p in io n th e Board o f Trace in d ic a te d as best
th ey could vathout o ffen d in g cpotswood, th a t they did not .
a n tic ip a te cny n e c e s s ity for him to appoint s p e c ia l judges,
One g ets the im pression from th e correspondence th a t the
Board o fte n in w a rd ly wi died 1is. t Bpotswocd would be a l i t t l e
le s s p u n c tilio u s .
43 . Dodson, on. c i t . . p . 1 7 8 *'
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- 127 fo r c o lle c tin g and keeping the accounts o f q u itre n ts .
The "s e a tin g and p la n tin g " p ro v is io n s o f the Act o f
1715 a t le a s t made i t
something o f a r is k fo r a p aten t
h o ld e r to n e g le c t h is land com pletely; and, whereas
th ere had p re v io u s ly been a uniform one-acre c u ltiv a ­
tio n re q u ire m e n t, now the th e o ry o f re q u irin g a degree
o f improvement in p ro p o rtio n to the s ize o f the tr a c t
was in tro d u c ed .
The law was lo o s e ly enforced and b ro ad ly
in tre p re te d , y e t i t was some s lig h t advance.
3pctswood*s
most e ffe c tiv e e f f o r t to prevent the engrossment o f lend
in th e hands o f a few was the requirem ent th a t those
d e s irin g over fo u r hundred acres should f i r s t secure the
perm ission o f the governor and c o u n c il. ' During the f i r s t
e ig h t years o f h is a d m in is tra tio n th is c o n tro l was reason­
a b ly e ffe c tiv e .
‘ In th a t-p e rio d the governor issued eighteen .
p a te n ts and w arrants fo r p a te n ts o f over f iv e thousand
acres each.
The la rg e s t cf these tr a c ts in clu d ed fif te e n
44
thousand a c re s .
This s c a rc e ly seems to have been s u ffic ie n t
r e s tr a in t to s u it the Board of T ra d e ’ s view s, y e t I t was
t
b e tte r than no r e s tr ic tio n a t a l l .
The fu tu re value o f
th is p o lic y depended, of course, upon the a ttitu d e o f
succeeding governors ana th e ir co u n cils, and, as w i l l b e shown, th is system was spon used to defeat th e very o b je c tiv e s
which Spotseocd had upheld,
44.
I
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L is t o f p aten ts and "gran ts"
,
Appendix I .
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• 128 i
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B efore 1719 th e <31sp ate between gcrem G r end c o u n c il
I
e x p o rte d by a p a rt o f th e burgesses had reached e h ig h
p o in t*
Shsziges, co u ntercharges, end heated n e s o rie ls were
sent out fo r Use e d ific a tio n o f th e faeoe a u th o r itie s .
But
th e p o s itio n s o f a l l concerned were beconinn; to e p rec o cio u s,
end the sey was open S&r e tra c e *
ip o ts s c o d 's f la r e fo r
refo rm was sp en t, end be ncm scened w illin g to l i r e is peace*
f i t h ss a i r o f w eariness he w ro te ,. p3svisg s tru g g le d fo r
seven years p e s t*** 1 hare le a rn e d th a t a l l measures p ro ­
je c te d .tor -die s e rv ic e o f th e . Orown e re a g a in s t th e g ra in
and serve no o th e r purpose them 'to. g e ls a governor the i l l
4w
w i l l o-f the people*”
Concentrated e f f o r t to refo rm from
abroad the basic p rin c ip le s o f th e V ir g in ia le n d system was
s o t re v iv e d u n t il s h o rtly b efo re, the d e v o lu tio n ,
The in t e r ­
vening re g u la tio n s s c a rc e ly a s p ire to th e r e e l! s e t io n o f e
p la n f o r g tvin g peo ple o n ly es rxash len d as th e y could use#
45*
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Brook*, le t t e r s , XX, 26 6-2 67 ,
H
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- 129 -
CHAPTER V .
Piedmont and the T a lle y
By 1720 ipotswoo d was reacy fo r what appears to
be a complete about -fa c e on M s form er la n d and q u itre n t
p o lic y *
T h is re v e rs a l was p a r tly acceptance of th e in e v i­
ta b le and p a r t ly the r e s u lt o f a new p o lic y fo r th e encourage­
ment o f westward expansion*
The method o f encouragement
adopted was m a in ly the r e s u lt o f a fu r th e r surrender o f the
view s o f th e Board o f Trade.
T h is tr a n s itio n was made e a s ie r
by a new view point assumed.by the g o vern o r.
Spotswood is b est hnom - and r ig h t ly so- f o r h is in te re s t
in th e P e st.
W ithin a few months a f t e r M s a r r iv a l in V ir g in ia
he had sent out an e x p e d itio n o f a hundred men to th e c re s t
o f th e Blue Ridge, and as a r e s u lt he became convinced th a t
s p e c ia l measures should be tahen to cause a th ru s t o f s e t t ie 1
se n t up th e James R ive r to the m ountains.
In th e summer o f
1714 the governor spent two months on th e' f r o n t ie r , covering,
n e a rly e ig h t hundred m ile s in the southern p a rt o f the P ie d ­
mont s e c tio n , fo r th e purpose o f fu r th e r in g h is In d ia n p o lic y
w h ile a t th e sesm tim e promoting th e in te re s ts o f th e In d ia n
tra d in g company which he was then o rg a n is in g .
F o rt C h ris tia n a s
on th e M eh errin R iv e r was e re c te d 'a s a r e s u lt o f th is e x p e d itio n ,
a p ro je c t which combined in te re s ts o f tra d e , defense, and a
humane a ttitu d e toward the In d ia n s .
From t h is tim e forw ard th e
1 . L e tte r s . I , 40 .
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• 130 governor pursued w ith energy a p o lic y o f p a c ify in g and
p ro te c tin g the few In d ia n s rem aining in V ir g in ia by checking
through t r e a t ie s the fo ra y s o f the pow erful tr ib e s to the
n o rth and th e south o f V ir g in ia *
111 o f the Piedmont re g io n
was made reasonably s a fe fo r s e ttle m e n t, and the incessant
n o rth -s o u th ra id s o f the w arrin g bands were confined to
the v a lle y ro u te beyond th e Blue Ridge.
using a pass d is­
covered by some fro n tie rs m e n , Spotswooa in 1725 le d h is
famous p a rty o f gentlem en, ran g ers, and Ind ian s through the
31ue Ridge to the banks o f the Shenandoah.
Ih is e x p e d itio n
was mace p a r t ly to discover the p o s s ib ility o f reaching the
G reat Lakes, though some o f th e gentlem en, in c lu d in g th e ir
le a d e r, were actu ated a ls o by more personal economic
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in te r e s ts .
Between 1718 aad 1722 the governor sent f iv e
re p o rts to in g ls n d , urg in g w ith g re a t v ig o r th a t immediate
steps be tak en to check th e advance o f th e French in th e
M is s is s ip p i V a lle y *
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I t outraged th is old s o ld ie r’ s sense
o f s tra te g y to see the tr a d itio n a l fo e o f 'England un-
t
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m olested in e s ta b lis h in g f o r t s connecting th e ir re c e n t s e t t le -
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stents on th e G u lf o f Mexico w ith t h e ir stronghold in Canada,
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thus c u ttin g o f f th e V irg in ia -c la im e d h in te rla n d .
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The governor
was anxious to take the f i e l d h im s e lf to explore the reg io n and
b reak the French communications by b u ild in g a f o r t on Lake B rie .
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He contended t h a t , a t the v e iy le a s t , the mountaln passes o f the
Blue KLdge should be occupied.
Much o f 't h is p lead in g -eras urged
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in connection m ith the land a c ts cf 1720, but one cannot doubt
the s in c e r ity o f Spotswood’ s la rg e r m otives.
The Board o f Trade
mas impressed w ith the need ifcs* a counter move, but i t d id nothing
3
more then c a ll the m a tte r to the a tte n tio n o f th e P riv y Council*
The n e t re s u lt o f the re p o rts o f dpotsmoodand o th ers reg ard in g
the Trench menace mss to p rep are the may in England fo r accept­
ance o f the u n p a la ta b le land a c ts o f 1720 - and t h a t , to be
sure, mas a p a r t o f t h e ir purpose*
Meanwhile th e re mere co nsiderations o f a p u re ly p riv a te
n atu re which so ften ed the r ig o r o f th e governor’ s a ttitu d e
toward the lan d and o il tre a t s itu a tio n *
Spotswood c a rrie d
through many measures to forw ard h is cherished design o f promot­
in g westward advancement, and though i t
does not dim inish the
r e a l valu e of most o f h is e ffo rts ,_ _ it is tru e th a t n e a rly a l l o f
these proposals fav o re d , in a v e ry d ir e c t manner, th e governor’ s
p ers o n a l in te r e s ts .
p o ra rie s and i t
j
This fa c t was g e n e ra lly observed by contem-
4
su p p lied Spotswood’ s enemies w ith damaging arguments*
S. C a l.S ta te P ap ers. A . & T?.I. . 1 7 19 -20 . p p . 323-325; 1720-1721,p .
363; 1722-1722, p * 23 3; L e tte r s , I I , 293^298; Acts o f the P riv y
C o u n c il. C o lo n ial S e rie s . W. L* G rant. e t a l . . e d ito rs (6 v o ls ..
London, 1 9 1 0 -1 9 1 2 ), V I, 122.
4* For exam ple, the governor was charged w ith using p u b lic funds
tc fu rth e r the in te r e s ts o f the In d ia n tra d in g company and fo r the
development o f h is Germanna s e ttle m e n t* These accusations were
w ell-fo u n d ed * I t should be p oint eS -o u t, however, th a t the money
thus spent was r e g u la r ly a p p ro p ria te d , even though Spotswood, in
u rg in g these m a tte rs , was a t no pains to re v e a l the connectionw ith h is p erso nal in te re s ts .
L e tte r s . I I , 190-218; Jo u rn al o f
the House o f a irg e s s e s , 1712-1725, p . 103; Dodson, or>. o i t * . 295;
C a l. o ta te Papers. I , 208-209.
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In re g a rd to the la n d , the governor, in 1720, could more r e a d ily
sympathize w ith th e view ooiirt o f th e V irg in ia n s because he had
h im self acq u ired se ve ra l la rg e t r a c t s and was p lan n in g to in ­
crease h is h o ld in g s on a huge s c a le .
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Prom the e a rly years o f
h is a d m in is tra tio n , Spot snood had been anxious to fo rw ard th e
in te re s ts o f Baron de G rs ffe n rie d.idio had managed a settlem en t
5
o f Germans in N o rth C a ro lin a .
In 1714 the governor in p a rtn e r­
ship w ith de C h affen rie d , h r ought to V irg in ia fo rty -tw o Germans,
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but the fo rtu n e s o f the bsron w e re . in a had s ta te
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p aid th e tra n s p o rta tio n (3a rges o f th ese p e o p le .
and Spotswood
w ithout
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m entioning h is p a rt in b rin g in g the im m igrants to V ir g in ia ,
Spotswood secured perm ission to- s e t t le them a t the f a l l s o f th e
Rappahannock, and, under th e p re v is io n s o f th e ranger la w , he
secured an a p p ro p ria tio n o f p u b lic Sinds to b u ild and equip a
f o r t , make a road to the s e ttle m e n t, and g iv e the people a supply
o f fo od .
In th e fo llo w in g year th e b u rg esses,at Spotswood*s
8
req u est .exempted h is s e ttle r s fro m eounty ana p a ris h le v ie s *
As a m a tte r o f f a c t the settlem ent , though n o t w ithout p u b lic
b e n e fit, was p u re ly a p riv a te business v e n tu re .
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By way o f assign­
ment by 1he c le rk o f the c o u n c il, the governor secured in 1716
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• •
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a p a te n t ib r 3,229 acres a t Germanna end p laced these people on
the land as h is te n a n ts end la b o re rs ; th ey were to produce n a v a l
5. C al* S tate P a p e rs . A . & W .I* . 1710-1711, p . 557.
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« 1714-1715, pp. 8 5 ,8 6 ; 1724-1725, p p . 112-120; E xecutive
J o ttr n a lo f th e C o u n cil. I I I . 35 1,5 72 ; Jo u rn al of the Bouse o f
3srgesses* 17 12-1726, p . 79 e t, sec; L e tte r s . E l, l9 0 - £ l8 .
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sto re s and search fo r iro n mines.
During 1719-20 these operatio ns
were extended, and "by the time the land a c ts o f 1720 were in tr o ­
duced, Spotswood owned a t le a s t 2 5 ,0 0 0 acres along th e Dapidan
and was prepared to t^ :e up mare as soon as fa v o ra b le le g is 7
la tlo n was passed.
Spotswood’ s views reg ard in g the n e c e s s ity
o f expanding the f r o n tie r to combat the Srsneh combined w ith
h is p erso n al in te r e s ts , la r g e ly e x p la in h is read y co -o p eratio n
in the passage o f the land laws o f 1720.
A fte r rid ic u lo u s ly
fo rm al n e g o tia tio n s a w ritte n tru ce had ended, a t le a s t super­
f i c i a l l y , the q u a rre l w ith the c o u n c illo rs and the way was a t
la s t prepared fo r Spot Stood to a c t as a fe llo w -c o lo n ia l v;ith
these men.
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The le g is la t iv e sessio n o f 1720 was a v e rita b le
lo v e -fe a s t compared to p reviou s m eetings.
The c o -o p e ra tio n
in regard to th e lan d laws is so complete th a t i t is d if f i c u l t
to determ ine whether governor, o o u n c il, o r House o f Sirgesses
7 . The f u l l e x te n t o f the land in Spot suood’ s c o n tro l a t th is
tim e is d if f i c u l t to determ ine because the governor aid n o t
issue p a te n ts d ir e c tly to h im se lf .
They were made out to o th e rs
(R ichard Hickman, s e c re ta ry ’ s c le rk , W illia m Robertson, c le rk
of the c o u n e il} and la t e r a s sig n e d 'to him .
Spotswood la t e r
said to C o u n c illo r H a rris o n , who was in a po s it io n to know the
fa c ts , th a t he considered i t in a p p ro p ria te fo r Mm to be both,
g ran to r and gran tee and tb a t h is purpose was w e ll understood by
the c o u n c il'a t the tim e the p a te n ts were issu ed . The governor
a ls o had several p a rtn e rs in th is v e n tu re , which wes known as
th e Spotsylvania Company, tu t we are a t s lo s s to know whether
these people a c tu a lly intend ed to p a r tic ip a te o r were sim ply
"paper a s s o c ia te s ". Among them were Robert B e v e rle y , one"of
the governor’ s p o l i t i c a l su p porters, John B a y lo r, and Thomas
Jones, a m erchant. Spotswood la te r said th a t th ese p a rtn e rs
e ith e r d ied o r withdrew leavin g the lan d and burden o f the underta k in g upon h im s e lf, tu t G illia n . % xd , a t a tim e when he was bn
good terms w ith th e form er governor, cfcatteb to Chi sw e ll about
"C o lo . Spotswood ami M s Strategems to shake o f f h is P a rtn e rs , .
and secure a l l h is mines to h im s e lf." The W ritin g s o f Colonel
W illia m Byrd o f W estover. J .S . B a s s e tt, ed. {New Y o rk, 1 9 0 1 ),
p . 351. Dodson, og. e i t . , chap te r X I I I , g iv es a f u l l account o f
Spotswood’ s la n d a c q u is itio n s .
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is to be c re d ite d w ith the measures.
I t i s c le a r , however,
th a t the governor was a w illin g advocate o f a l l th a t was
done.
In h is alm ost a ffe c tio n a te speech opening th e session,
Spotswood a llu d e d to h is lends as "th e Stake I have among you",
and s a id he could thus have no designs c o n trary to th e w e lfa re
o f th e colony*
He h in te d a t the need fo r new lan d le g is la tio n
by c a llin g a t t r it i o n to the d e s ir a b ility o f stren gth en ing the
fr o n tie r s and e re c tin g new counties in th e Bieam ont.
In a
c o rd ia l r e p ly the burgesses prom ised to g iv e these m a tte rs
B
t h e ir a tte n tio n *
The f i r s t land a c t re s u ltin g from the new co -o p e ra tio n
supplemented th e law o f 1715 by s p e c ify in g a d d itio n a l types
o f improvement to f u l f i l l the c o n d itio n o f "s e a tin g and p la n t­
in g ."
I t s ta te d th a t e v e ry th re e acres c le a re d and fenced
and used fo r pasturage should save f i f t y acres from la p s in g .
The pasturage clause o f the a c t o f 1715 re q u ire d th a t a
s p e c ifie d number o f c a t tle be kept on th e lan d u n t i l th re e
acres in f i f t y were b ro u ^ it under c u ltiv a tio n .
In th e new a c t
the pasturage was to be m ain tain ed fo r o n ly th re e years w ith
an in d e f in it e amount o f sto c k , and th e re a fte r no fu rth e r use
o f th e land could be demanded.
The b i l l also p rovides th a t
fo r every £10 cu rren t money spent on any type o f improvement,
t it le
to f i f t y acres o f land should be secured from la p s e .
S . Jo u rn als o f tb.8 House o f Burgesses, 1712-1726, p p .2 5 0 ,2 5 1 ,
2 7 7 -2 7 9 .
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- 135 In ease a t r a c t was extended by a p a te n t fo r ad jacen t la n d ,
no net? development was necessary p ro vid ed enough was done on
the o r ig in a l t r a c t to cover the re a u ire c e n t fo r th e combined
9
acreage*
W ith some v a r ia tio n t h is , to g e th e r w ith th e ac t o f 1713,
rem ained the d e fin itio n o f "se atin g and p la n t in g u n t i l th e
d e v o lu tio n *
On the fa c e o f i t
ifee law dim inished the amount o f
u t iliz a t io n asked o f p aten t h o ld ers to n e a rly n o th in g , b u t as
in te rp re te d the m atter beceene a fa rc e .
The allow ance fo r cash
spent on improvements was given an e s p e c ia lly broad in te rp re ­
ta t io n .
The law s p e c !fle d th a t the money should be spent on
th e la n d , y e t the ap p raisers appointed by the county co u rts
accepted ev e ry conceivable expense rem o tely re la te d to the cost
o f secu rin g a p a te n t.
Tor example a prom inent lan d sp ecu lato r
lis t e d 430 fo r th e r is k to h is l i f e in going to look a t the
la n d , and th is and o th e r e q u a lly curious o u tla y s were recorded
to th e e x te n t o f 5.11,234,wki. ch was, o f course, more than ample
10
in d ic a tio n o f "improvement” on 24 ,00 0 a c re s .
10* In June, 1732, by o rd er o f the S p otsylvania County C ourt,
th re e men ap p raised tbs "improvement s" on "O c to n ia", a 2 4 ,0 0 0 acre t r a c t p aten ted by Bobert B everley o f Hewlsnds. A p a rt o f
the s e v e ra l pages o f items is as lb H ow s:
Cost, o f survey
*200
Trouble and r is k to 14 men and t h e ir horses
a t 10 s h illin g s .per day
H 47
The B ig h ts bonded fo r
*120
20^ on do
524 '
Charge and tro u b le in o b ta in in g p aten t
*5 0
Charge o f p e titio n in g fb r the la n d , Seety* s
and la w y e r’ s fee s
4.75
A tten d in g General C o u rt,' 5 co u rts w ith
tra v e lin g costs
4100
T ro u b le and r is k o f gbing to O ctonia 3 tim es
b efo re s e ttle d each tim e w ith a p a rty o f men
*3 25
(co n tin u ed )
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A q u itre n t M i l was a ls o passed in tM s good-humored
session of 1720*
P ro v is io n was made T o r a number o f improve­
ments which s ig h t have insured a more thorough c o lle c tio n ,
but a f i l i a l clause s ta te d th a t no p aten ts were to be fo r fe ite d
1
f o r f a ilu r e to p ay, irre s p e c tiv e o f o th e r laws or the p re v a ilin g
re s e rv a tio n s in the p a t a it s.
For a l l the lo g - r o llin g between
e x ec u tiv e and le g is la tu r e , one I s amazed th a t Spotswood dared
to fo rw ard w ith h is b le ss in g a b i l l embodying such a clau se.
In view o f the General C ourt’ s r e fu s a l to en fo rce q u itre n t
f o r f e it u r e , th is was, to be s u re , sim ply an admission o f th e
e x is tin g s itu a tio n .
But a co o l and p re c is e statem ent o f the
m a tte r in le g is la t iv e enaeteent
.was too much f o r the o ffic e r s
o f the revenue in England end the otherxvise acceptable b i l l was
n o t approved, b u t re tu rn e d ib r enactment w ith o u t the fo r f e it u r e
exemption clause*
LO (co n tin ued)
W ithout th is tie b i l l would s u re ly n o t have
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B i^ its p a id
£120
20 $ on do
£24
The tro u b le and expense o f g e ttin g t h is p aten t
going in v& iiism sburg 3 tim es and Colonel Grymes
once
£100
In te r e s t on the above [£ 1 1 ,2 3 4 17s 8§d)
b efo re the land was s e ttle d
£447
Bisque o f 8 negroes aid wear and te a r
on them
£75
My own tro u b le ware and te a r and ris q u e •
o f my l i f e
£80
And so the l i s t continues u n t i l the t o t a l i s £ 1 1 ,2 3 4 U s 8§-d,
E v id e n tly B everley was allow ed to charge both th e cost o f tre a s u ry
r ig h ts and the cost o f a bond posted to guarantee payment fo r these
r ig h ts . 7a , Mag, o f H is t, and B lo g ., I I I , 334, The ap p ra is ers
could also be le n ie n t w ith the humbler s o rt o f fo lk * In 1754
Joshua Hadley made a journey in to the T a lle y and re tu rn e d to b rin g
h is fa m ily by wagon to the 7 5 1-a cre p ie c e o f lan d whieh he h ad s e le c te d . He was allow ed to e n te r as "improvements” on th e land
the cost o f h is own t r i p o f six weeks a t 5 s h illin g s a day, and
the expense o f re tu rn in g w ith h is fa m ily a t 20 s h illin g s a day.
Lewis ? . Summers, .Annals o f Southwest V ir g in ia . ( A bington, V a .,
1 9 2 9 ), p . 33.
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-137; passed in tiie f i r s t in stan ce and i t was n o t ag a in in tro d u c ed ,
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tb a t " o f la t e g re a t a r t and in d u s try seem to be used in ta k in g
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q u itre n ts a t a l l , "
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A t h ir d a c t provided fo r the e re c tio n o f two c o u n tie s ,
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except a broad b e lt between the Janes and the N o rth Anna r iv e r s ,
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years was to have M s land w ith ou t cos t o th e r than the u su al
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fe e s fo r survey and issue o f a p e t o it ,
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In o th e r words, he was
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re q u ire d to present n e ith e r tre a s u ry r ig h ts n o r k e a d rig h ts to
secure a g ra n t*
He was also to b e exempt from q u itre n ts during
12
the te n -y e a r p e rio d , T h is was n o t a homestead la w , fo r no one
was re q u ire d to liv e on the t r a c t given him , and the new
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{ d e fin itio n o f "s e a tin g and p la n tin g " n e a rly e lim in a te d the
n e c e s s ity fo r doing a iy th in g to -die land*
M oreover, the law
as drawn s e t no lim it to tie an oust of fre e la n d one could re c e iv e .
There was notM ng to r e s t r ic t th is except the standing execu tive
carder th a t no surveys fa r mere th a n four-hundred acres should be
| made w ith o u t the consent o f the governor and c o u n c il - and th e re
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11® S ellin g , S ta tu te s , 1 7 , 7 9 -8 0 ; Jo u rn al o f th e Board o f Trade,
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29 9: C a l,S ta te P apers. A* & W ,I,. \^ 2 - S ? 2 3 , no,469
| Dodson, o p, e i t , , pp, 155-156,
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| p , 265 e t seq.
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- 158 Here no ru le s fo r 1he b a s is o f tM s perm ission*
Another
d is tin c tio n betw eai th is and an e ffe c tiir e homestead system
was the fa c t t in t 1he re g io n in which tire a c t Has to o p erate
was too rem ote to a t t r a c t any g re a t number o f s e ttle r s .
If
prom otion o f settlem en t a t s tr a te g ic p o in ts had been th e sole
o b je c t, then i t would o b vio u sly have been sore p r a c tic a l to have
set as id e c e rta in w e ll-d e fin e d areas so th a t people would have
been encouraged- to go th e r e , knowing th a t the country Has to be
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reasonably safe-and c lo s e ly s e ttle d . In s te a d a t e r r it o r y alm ost
•
as la rg e as th a t occupied in the p reced in g hundred years was
o ffe re d as a g i f t to those who could secure the s p e c ia l perm ission
to ta k e i t .
I t vso-old be in te re s tin g to know the v a rio u s views and m otives
o f those who passed the lend laws o f 1720V
C e rta in ly a l l Here
s in c e re ly anxious to es tm d the f r o n t ie r .
Burgesses and co u n c il
addressed memorials to th e king u rg in g ap p ro va l, p a r t ic u la r ly o f
the las t-m e n tio n e d Ia n , as a counter-move ag a in s t th e Srench,
and Spotswood e la b o ra te d upon th is
theme w ith g re a t z e a l. - The
c o u n c il ordered John C a rte r, th e nes? V ir g in ia agent in England,
to p re s s ,th e acceptance o f th ese laws in a l l q u a rte rs , and an
e x tra fund o f 5100 was g ives him to d e fra y *th e necessary charges
IS
a t the s e v e ra l o ffic e s .* 5
I t i s probable th a t most cf th e burgesses
Ib id . . -29 8.2 99.2 16 : E xecu tive Jo u rn als o f th e C o u ncil. IT ,
2 6 -2 8 ; C a l. S tate Pacers . . A. & W*.I«. 1722-1723. no* 469,pp«2252 3 9 ,2 8 3 ; Acts o f the Privy C o u n c il. V I, 122*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 139 were more o r le s s in d if f e r o it to -foe fa c t th a t these lan d g rant
proposals l e t down the bars w ith o u t p ro v id in g any safeg u ard s,
Spotswood had co n victed h is e a r lie r campaign to refo rm the la n d
system in a manner th a t aroused widespread o p p o sitio n * and, as
a r e s u lt , the seeming compromise o f th e governor had the aspect
o f a trium ph o f L ib e rty over P re ro g a tiv e ,
n o t more than enough land fo r everyone?
‘Then, to o , was th ere
To be sure th e re was.
But had these burgesses fo r seen th a t w ith in a scant dozen years
7s-
th e choice lo c a tio n s would be preempted in huge tr a c ts embracing
an area about o n e -th ird as g re a t as the e n tire amount o f lan d
then in p riv a te hands, perhaps some o f them would have been le s s
14
c e rta in o f the wisdom, o f th e ir course.
Whatever the views o f the' burgesses, we have an immediate
answer to the personal m otives o f some o f the o thers concerned.
On the same n ig h t th a t ipctssood signed the b i l l f o r the new
c o u n tie s , the governor and co u n c il granted p e titio n s fo r lan d
in S potsylvania County to the e x te n t o f over ninety-thousand acres.
Of th is amount fo rty-th o u san d acres were allow ed to the c le rk s ,
H ich ard Eicloasx, w illia m Robertson, and to -P e te r B everley and scare
1 4 . The p ro p o rtio n above i s a rough e s tim a te , fo r one cannot be
c e rta in -of the t o t a l amount of lan d p r iv a te ly owned. In 1718
Spotswood estim ated th is to be 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 acres; Q u itre n ts were
p a id on 2 ,7 5 7 ,1 6 3 acres in 1720, thus the governor’ s estim ate is
perhaps a b it low in view o f the n o to rio u s extent o f q u itre n t
evasio n s. Between 1720 and 1732, 961,550 acres were granted in
tr a c ts o f over 5 ,0 00 acres. L e tte r s , I I , 265; Dodson, op. c i t . t
Appendix I I I , 508; g ra n ts (survey w arran ts) 1720-1752 lis t e d in
Appendix I , th is work.
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o th ers who reassigned th e ir rig h ts in the lan d to Spotswood,
Hone o f the o th e r g ran ts were to c o u n c illo rs and t h is was
a p p a re n tly n o t the r e s u lt o f an exchange o f fa v o rs . I t i s ,
however, s ig n ific a n t th a t the g o v e rn o rs most p e rs is te n t enemies,
Ludw ell and Bvrd, were n o t present a t the co u n c il board th a t
15
n ig h t,
Spotswood la t e r said th a t he did n ot th in k i t ap p ro p ria te
to Issue p aten ts to h im se lf and thus he used th e names o f o th e rs
16
w ith the knowledge o f c o u n c il*
However, these were n o t p a te n ts ,
but sim ply w arran ts allo w in g surveys.
The purpose, o f course, was
to secure d e s ira b le land in a n tic ip a tio n o f the ap p ro val in
England o f th e law allo w in g exemption o f payment f o r rig h ts and
q u itre n ts .
There was nothing ille g a l in the procedure thus f a r .
However, re p o rt fra n England qa th e law o f 17E0 was delayed, and,
when the governor in some way le a rn e d th a t h is rem oval was impend­
in g , he to o k fu rth e r steps*
^otsw ood had e a r lie r -received p e r-
m ission to sign p aten ts out si de o f co u n cil m eetin g s.
Since th e
death o f Cocke, he had managed the s e c re ta ry ’ s o ffic e h im s e lf,
and thus he had complete c o n tro l over th e mechanian o f th e f in a l
steps in v o lv ed in the issue of p a te n ts .
Between May 8th and J u ly \
2 7 th , 1722,. the governor issued p a te n ts fo r 179,000 acres o f hew
lan d in S potsylvania County, o f which 59,786 acres were p aten ted ,
through c le rk Hickman and some o th e rs , f o r h im s e lf*
1 5 . E xecutive Jo u rn al o f the C o u n cil. I l l ,
H I , 4 5 5 ,H Y ,378; Dodson o p . e i t . , p .280.
The rem ainder v
53 8 ,5 5 9 ; P a te n ts ,
16. C a l. S ta te Papers. A. & * . ! » . 1724-1725, pp. 112-120.
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141 was p aten ted in la rg e tr a c ts o f above 10 ,000 acres by va rio u s
people.
The documents were w ritte n in the u su al Tom in d ic a tin g
the payment o f tre a s u ry r i.J it s , h i t , since the avoidance o f these
charges was th e s a in co n sid eratio n in ta k in g up the la n d , th e
governor accepted bonds as s e c u rity fo r payment should the a c t o f
1720 n o t be approved.
Two of these p a te n ts were issued on bonds
o f a typ e approved by the co u n cil*
These bonds s ta te a th a t i f
the exem ption law was n o t allo w ed , th e p aten tees would purchase
tre a s u ry lig h ts fo r the lan d .
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'T h e re after Spotswood changed the
fona o f the bonds to a llo w an o p tio n o f payment or surrender o f
the la n d .
In h is own case the governor posted no bonds a t a l l .
" A p p aren tly the fa c t th a t bonds could be o ffe re d in p lace o f
payment, was n o t known beyond a feu p e o p le , f o r no sm all tra c ts
17
were p aten ted on th is b a s is *
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17. I b i d . . 1724-1725, pp. 103-110; 1726-1727, p p .2 S ,6 4 ,2 7 8 ; 17281729, p p . 310,466; Acts o f the' P riv y C o u n cil. 1720-1745, p , 170;
E xecutive J o u rn al o f th e C o u ncil. I I I , 4 0 1 , 1Y, 11 , 26-281 C f.
SpotswoodTs account o f the m a tte r in C a l. S tate P ap ers. A. & 1 ? .!..
1724-1725, p p . 1 1 2-1 20 ; 1726-1727, n o s . 2 8 6 ,&89 and p . 140; Acts
o f th e P riv y C o u ncil. Unbound P apers. p . 1 8 8 . Dodson (op. c i t . ,
pp. 2 8 0 -2 9 3 j r e la te s the p r in c ip a l fa c ts o f- th e a f f a ir . He does
n o t m ention D eceiver General Gfyzaes' charge ( C a l. S tate Papers.
A. & W .I.* 1726-1727, pp. 2 3 ,3 4 ) th a t Scotswood concealed th e
bonds posted in connection with the p a te n ts . The im p lic a tio n of
Grymes1 charge i s th a t th ese p a te n te e s , who posted bonds intended;
w ith the governorTsc o llu s io n , to have t h e ir lands fre e irre s p e c tiv e
o f th e exemption in the b i l l o f 1720. T h is seems u n lik e ly , fo r i t
appears th a t Grymes had no d if f ic u lt y in lo c a tin g the bonds to cover
a l l p a te n ts except Spotswood*s and, as we have seen, no bonds were
posted by him .
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- 142 .A lto g eth er Spot snood possessed, a t the close o f M s \
a d m in is tra tio n , over 8 5 ,0 0 0 acres in a continuous t r a c t
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running fo r souse t h ir t y m ile s along th e Rapps hannoek and /
the Rapidan.
The acceptance o f the la*? c re a tin g new
co u n ties would r e lie v e q u itre n t s fo r te n years on 25 ,000
18
acres wMch he had acq u ired before 1720,
Bor the re ­
m ainder the governor would have 1fce q u itre n t exemption and
pay n o th in g fo r the la n d .
Since he posted no bonds, he might
have avoided payaenfc fo r the land in any ease i f he had continued
in power.
But fo r reasons which oerhaps w i l l never be f u l l y
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understood, he was re p la c e d by iTysdale in 1722,
18* Spotswood claim ed 89,289 acres, but o f .t h a t , 4 ,2 62 acres
were in Brunswick County. This p o rtio n was thus als o in c lu d ed
in the q u itre n t exem ption o f 1720. L a te r , when in danger o f
lo s in g most o f h is Spotsylvania la n d , Spotswood abandoned claim
to the Brunswick t r a c t . C a l. S tate Papers. L, & ' f . I , . 1724-1725.
p p . 11 2 -1 2 0 ; Acts o f th e P r iv y - C ouncil. 1720-1745. p . 170
1 9 . The w r ite r does n o t b e lie v e tba t the lan d fra u d s were the
cause o f Spotswood’ s ren ew al. The Board o f Trade does n o t
appear to have had any e x a c t account o f th is , m a tte r in 1722,
though the members had heard enough to make -them su spicio us.
These apprehensions, coupled with the lan d la w s , must have
convinced the- Board th a t t h e ir governor had suddenly tu rn ed
| c o lo n ia l in M s v ie w p o in t.
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The new a d m in is tra tio n ,in t iiie ii the co u n cil appears to have
"been dominant - in land m a tte rs a t le a s t - was thoroughly h o s tile
to Spotswood, hut the Board o f Trade was n o t inform ed o f h is
lan d fra u d s u n t il two years a f t e r h is rem oval.
The co u n c il was
anxious to have the la n d and q u it re n t laws o f 1720 approved.
Backed by the new governor, i t
continued to send m em orials to the
Board o f Trade and promptings to th e V irg in ia agent to expedite
20
a fa v o ra b le decision*
O bviously i t would sc a rc e ly have helped
th e case to have accom paiied these .p ie: s w ith a re p o rt o f theabuse which had alread y re s u lte d from th e laws*
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M oreover, the
c o u n c il could s c a rc e ly have indulged in an exposure o f th e
form er governor w ith ou t also t e llin g o f th e ir r e g u la r procedure
in accenting the bonds o f several other p eo ple, w hich, to sons
21
degree, i t had sanctioned*
The f i r s t news o f th e a f f a ir reached th e Board o f Trade
through an obscure p r iv a te source.
In 1721 an anonymous
l e t t e r was w ritte n from V irg in ia io M r. K ing, a m erchant o f
B r is t o l.
Through a M r. Joshua Gee the l e t t e r reached th e -
Board o f Trade.
R eporting the. re c o n c ilia tio n which took
p la c e as a p relude to th e le g is la t iv e session o f 1720, th e
w r it e r , r e fe r r in g to Spotswood, s ta te d , nhe m elted (the burgesses]
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20* C al* S tate P ap ers. A* & W .I., 1724-1725, pp. 108-110.
E xecutive Jo u rn al o f th e C ouncil* IV , 11, 2 6 .
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- 144 ♦ . * . w ith a Judas K iss •
p la y in g the same game as he had
p layed w ith the Council and c a jo le £d] them w ith a f in e re ­
c o n c ilin g speech and assem blies o f m usic, dancing, fe a s tin g *»•
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Then he played h is game to m onopolize th e f r o n tie r lands and
22
cheat the G rom *”
The account i s u n ju s t to Spotswood’ s
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m otives as a whole and th e Board o f Trade was e v id e n tly n o t
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p a r tic u la r ly impressed*
But soon a fte rw a rd Byrd and B la ir
were in England' and i t is probable th a t A u d ito r-G en eral
i
W alpole re c e iv e d from the meddlesome commissary h is in s ig h t
in to the p erso n al in te r e s ts in v o lv e d in the la n d laws then
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b efo re Mm*
Such gossip may perhaps have had some in flu e n c e
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upon th e d ec is io n to remove Spotswood in 1722*
E v id e n tly sensing t h a t damaging re p o rts were abroad,
Spotswood, now r e t ir e d to h is p riv a te domain, w rote in 1724
•
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a lo n g l e t t e r to th e Board o f Trade*
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perhaps some o f M s ad v ers arie s might re p o rt him g u ilty o f
la n d fra u d *
He suggested th a t
To f o r e s t a ll t h is , he gave a p ro fu se re p o rt o f
h is in te re s ts in Spotsylvania lands, s tre s s in g M s d esire to
f
| th w art the French, the need fo r producing n a v a l s to re s , and
1
|r in general rep resen ted th a t ^ C h a rity and P u b lic s p ir it ” were
f
the co n sid eratio n s th a t had caused him to undertake th e v e n tu re .
ii
I Follow ing t h is th e s e , he to ld o f the a c q u is itio n o f 89 ,28 1
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acres and said th a t M s p a rtn e rs in th e u n d ertakin g died o r
| 22* C a l. S ta te Papers, A. & f f . I * . 1720-1721, p . 458*
Dodson
{ (op* c it * p* 261 n ote 28} dism isses t h is l e t t e r as a whole as
m e ritin g l i t t l e credence* ??ith th is th e present w r ite r ag rees,
j but he b e lie v e s th a t the l e t t e r is o f im portance, in arousing
th e Board o f. Trade’ s suspicion o f the m otives behind th e lan d
i law s o f 1720.
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r e t ir e d , and he had been "fo rc e d to ta k e th e whole adventure"
23
upon h im s e lf*
In 1724 Governor E rysdele also w rote th e
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Board o f Trade givirsg a b r ie f and p re c is e account o f th e
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a f f a i r , re p o rtin g the B a tte r o f the bonds*
I t is e n t ir e ly
p ro b ab le th a t Urysdale and the c o u n c il would never have r e p o rte d th is to England excep t fa r the fa c t th a t th e decision
on the lan d laws o f 1720 had been re c e iv e d , and these re v e la ­
tio n s could no lo n g er in flu e n c e the fa te o f these a c ts .
More­
o ver tthe o rd ers which accompanied the re tu rn o f those laws
i
s appeared to in v a lid a te a u to m a tic a lly th e whole l o t o f the
bonded p a te n ts .
Y et .Spotswood was d e fia n tly a s s e rtin g h is
t i t l e , and the governor h e s ita te d w ith o u t more d e fin ite
a u th o rity from England to dispossess him and the people who
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had re c e iv e d p aten ts on bond.
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is we have seen, the n o n -fo rfe itu re q u itre n t law o f 1720
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was disapproved on the recommendation o f th e o ffic e r s o f th e
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revenue.
The "s e a tin g and p la n tin g " a c t was accepted w ith su r-
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p r is ln g ly l i t t l e p ro te s t considering th a t i t was a fu rth e r
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divergence from the g en eral views o f th e Board.
Perhaps i t was
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allow ed because o f th e lim it a t io n p u t upon the a c t c re a tin g the
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new co u n ties .
The o f f i c ia ls were s k e p tic a l o f the las t-m en tio n ed
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b i l l and showed a d is p o s itio n to go in to the m a tte r q u ite thoroughly
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C olonel H a rt, form er governor o f M aryland, was c a lle d -b e fo re th e
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Board fb r an expression o f o p in io n .
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2 3 , C a l. S ta te
& W .I ., 1724—17 25 , pp. 112—120.
24* ^ i d . . 1724-1725, p p . 108-110.
5
He disapproved o f th e q u it-
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146
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re n t exem ption and sieg es ted ra th e r Jthat the fe e s he c o lle c te d
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and the proceeds used to develop and defend the fr o n tie r .
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In
any case, he s a id , sore lim ita tio n should he placed on the
amount o f la n d ^hich could he taken up by p a te n t, m entioning
1
th a t scznething between one and two thousand acres would he
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about r ig h t fo r w e ll-to -d o p la n te rs , and about a hundred acres
nfo r the poo rer s o rt o f p e o p le ."
C olonel B la k is to n , V irg in ia
j
a g e n t, was s im ila r ly questioned.
He did n o t g iv e the V irg in ia
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proposal
I
exem ption, he said t h a t g r a its o f g re a t tr a c ts had been a
rI
complete support.
J it hough he urged the q u itre n t
detrim ent and th a t in the new co u nties no g ran ts fo r over
tw elve-hundred acres ^iou ld be made.
T his upper l i m i t , he
th o u g h t, should he allo w e d o n ly to " th e -w e a lth ie r degree o f
p la n te rs ."
These men chd.not intend d is c rim in a tio n a g a in s t
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the poor
as such.
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views o f
Ihe Board o f T ra d e , sought t o govern th e a llo te e n t o f
The p ro p o sals, q u ite in accord w ith ih e
4land according to the owners means Ib r making use o f it..B la k is oA n
and H a rt urged Ihe need fo r fru s tr a tin g the Branch by westward
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expansion to occupy tie m ountain passes.
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The sentim ent o f th e Board o f Trade was in fa v o r o f encour-
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aging s e ttle m e n t o f the f r o n t ie r by allow ance o f th e requested
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exem ptions, provided th is concession was accompanied by r e s t r ic 25.
Jo u rn als o f the Board o f Trade. 1718-1722, pp. 2 9 8 -2 9 9 .'
tI
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- 147 |
tio n s which would prevent the engrossment o f la rg e areas
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by in d iv id u a ls *
I t was suggested th a t th is be accomplished
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by a s t r ic t lim it a t io n o f the s ize o f grants in the new
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co u n ties.
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the law be re je c te d as a u seless surrender o f revenue which
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However, A udit o r-G e n e ra l W alpole advised th a t
would serve o n ly to encourage the a c q u is itio n o f g re a t tr a c ts
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o f land by a, few p eo p le.
J
b e lie v e th a t th is had a lrea d y been done in a n tic ip a tio n o f
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th e approval o f th e la w , and saw no need fo r fu rth e r ind uce-
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He said th a t he had reason to
S6
ment t o . the process.
The P riv y Council stru ck a compromise
between these views and la t e in 172S ordered th a t th e p e rio d
o f exemption from aui t r a it s in Brunswick and S potsylvania
should extend o n ly u n t il May 1,
, 1728,. in s te a d o f 1751 as
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proposed in the b i l l , and th a t u n t i l 1728 la n d should be given
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w ith o u t cost in -th e s e counties in amounts up to one thousand
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t
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a c re s .
I t is im port a it to n o tic e -the wording o f t h is q u a lif i-
c a tio n - "That no Person whatsoever be allow ed to take up
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more than one Thousand Acres in h is own or any o th er Marne in
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27
tr u s t fo r him in e ith e r o f the s a id Hew C ounties."
Thus a
i
g ran d -scale land grab was a v e rte d .
'
Sbr some reason t h is order
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was h eld up in England u n t il August, 1723, and i t was n o t
re c e iv e d in V irg in ia u n t il F ebruary, 1724.
Meanwhile Srysdele
.
had is s u e d .a few pa t a r t s fo r land in .the new counties under
26* I b i d . . 1718-1722, p . 280:' C a l. S tate Papers. A. & W .I..
1722-1723, p . 590.
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A cts o f the P riv y C o u n cil, 1720-1745, p . 25.
_ . n .—
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bonds to secure paymeat in case o f r e je c tio n o f th e exemption
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b ill*
A fte r a few months he stopped th is p ra c tic e , which was
28
unquestionably beyond h is o r the c o u n c il’ s a u th o rity *
!
In view o f the o rd ers from England, ITysd ale and the
c o u n c il were a t a lo s s to know how to proceed re g a rd in g the
g re a t tr a c ts taken w ith o u t payment by Spotswood and o th e rs .
I t was H r s t determ ined to demand th e q u itre n ts due on them,
but on r e fle c tio n th a t th is would seen to a d a it the v a lid it y
o f th ese t i t l e s , i t was la t e r agreed th a t i t would be necessary
29
to r e fe r the whole m a tte r to t ie Board o f Trade*
Spotswood
w a it to England a t once to p lead h is cause in person*
Con­
fro n te d w ith an embarrassing problem , th e Board o f Trade turned
to the le g a l ad visors o f th e crown fo r .advice*
A tto rn ey-G en eral
York and S o lic ito r-G e n e ra l $earg gave the o pinion th a t Spots­
wood’ s p aten ts issued w ithout payment o r bonds were a d e c e it
upon the crown and need n o t be reco g n ized unless the crown saw
fit
to accept payment.
exem ption.
In th a t case th e re need be no q u itre n t
The Board o f Trade, a f t e r many d e lib e ra tio n s over
b u lky m em orials from th e - former g o vern o r, re fe rre d th e basic
fa c ts o f the m a tte r to the P riv y C ouncil.
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II
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In 172? i t was
f i n a ll y determ ined th a t Spotswood should keep a l l h is la n d
■
provided he paid f i r the r ig h ts and a p p lie d fo r a new p aten t
on the 59,876 acres h e ld on d e fe c tiv e t i t l e *
Ee was allow ed
•
2 8 . C al; S tate P ap ers. A* & W *I*. 1722-1725. p* 59G* ib id * ;
1726-1727, p . 25: E x e c u tiv e 'J o u rn a l o f the C o u n cil. IY , 61.
2 9 . E xecutive Journal o f the C o u n cil, IY , 6 1 ,6 3 ,1 9 0 ; C al* S tate
Papers. A. & W *I*. 17 24-1725, p p . 1 0 8-1 10 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
exemption from the a rre a ra g e o f q u itre n t s.
In 1722 the new
p a te n ts were issued, though in s te a d o f f u l l payment in
cu rren cy, 48 im p o rta tio n rig h ts were accepted along w ith th e
SO
tre a s u ry lig h ts .
S
t
f
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Those who had p aten ted la rg e tr a c ts
secured by bonds v?ere n o t q u ite so fo rtu n a te .
In 1751 th ey
were allo w ed , by o rd e r o f the P riv y C o u n cil, to r e ta in as
much as six- thousand ac re s w ithout purchase o f r i ^ i t s , but
th e y were re q u ire d to pay sev®. je e r^ back q u itre n ts , w h ic h .
amounted to co n siderably more ihan th e value o f tre a s u ry
r ig h ts *
I f "these people cared to r e t a in over six-thousand
a c re s , they were re q u ire d to n ay fb r the land, as w e ll as the
51
a rre a rs of. q u itre n ts . .
- The thousand-acre lim ita tio n was o b vio u sly a dis­
appointment to scare.
S h o rtly a f t e r the o rd e r was re c e iv e d ,
i
th e c o u n c il, w ith the governor’ s support, w rote the Board
o f Trede asking th a t the r e s t r ic t io n be roaoved, but th ey
52
could s c a rc e ly have hoped th a t th is would be done*
In the
ll
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SO* Actg ° f the P riv y Councils Unbound P apers. p . 188; 17201745, p* 170; C a l. S tate P apers. A. & U . I . . 1724-1725, p . 112120; 1728-1729, p . 510; E xecutive Jo u rn al o f th e C ouncil. 17.
1 9 0,2 08 ; P a te n ts , 2X7, 5 7 8 ,5 8 1 . InT 1750" Spotswood presented
a b i l l fo r £600 a d d itio n a l expenses fo r a t r i p , made to Hew
York in 1722 to n e g o tia te a tre a ty w ith th e -liv e N a tio n s . The
burgesses refu sed payment ami the claim was forw arded to England,
%>otswood refused to ja y fb r h is land u n t il t h is payment was
re c e iv e d ,
whether or not he was paid is n o t knorai, but h e d id
not secure new p a te n ts u n t il 1752". C a l. S tate P ap ers. A. & *7.1..
1730, p . 21 1.
:--------
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s l* G al« S ta te P apers. A. &. U . I . . 1728-1729. pp. 2 3 3 ,5 8 6 ,4 6 6 ;
Acts o f the g riv y C o u n c il. 1720-1740, p . 246; E xecutive Jo u rn al
of the C o u n c il, 17 , 214-215.
j
^ * ilSsL* ^ te te Papers. A. & U . I . . 1724-1725. p . 14; Executive
Jo u rn al o f the C o u n c il. iV . 65.
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I
- 150 fo llo w in g y e ar the governor and co u n cil tools: th e m a tte r
in to th e ir own hands w ith amazing contempt o f the o rd er
from England.
As we have seen, th is in s tru c tio n pro­
h ib ite d any surveys ab.ove
co u nties u n t i l 17ES.
0222
thousand acres in the new
Perhaps i t was intended th a t th is
r e s t r ic t io n d io u ld a p p ly o n ly to g ra n ts c la im in g the
exem ptions, but the o rd e r does not in th e le a s t suggest
th a t meaning.
A fte r m ain tain in g fo r a year and a h a lf a
uniform lim it a t io n to one -thousand acres in th e new co u n ties ,
th e governor and c o u n c il, in the f a l l o f 1725, changed the
in s tru c tio n s to the surveyors o f S potsylvania and Brunswick.
These orders s ta te d th a t " i f any one s h a ll be desirous o f
a g re a te r q u a n tity
[than one thousand ac re s] in e ith e r o f
th ese c o u n tie s , th e said surveyors are n o t to re c e iv e e n trie s
f o r the same w ith o u t t ie u a ia l lic e n s e from th is Board a fte r
.
35
producing B ig h ts fo r the whole q u a n tity . . . r
liven though
e n tir e ly unauthorized., th is audacious in te rp re ta tio n o f th e
k in g ’ s orders was no more ths n f a i r in view o f the dispensation
made fo r those ?;ho had taken up la rg e g ran ts p r io r to the
decision' on hie law o f 1720, but n o t even the tre n d o f opinion
on those cases was known in V ir g in ia in 1725.
Very few people
took advantage o f the exemption made by the governor and c o u n c il.
The la rg e s t grant in c o n tra d ic tio n o f the B r itis h in s tru c tio n s
was fo r te r - thousand a c re s .
33. I b i d . ,
.There were several o th ers o f about
IV , 2 2 .
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34
h a lf th a t s iz e .
Since those wanting to take up la rg e tra c ts
were n o t exempted from purchasing 'tre a s u ry r ig h ts , th ey made
j
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th e ir s e le c tio n s in more d esirab le lo c a lit ie s o u tsid e the net?
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c o u n tie s , p a r t ic u la r ly in the J s ies P i ver v a lle y above the
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fa lls *
Some id ea o f Ihe value o f th e rem ission o f tre a s u ry
r ig h ts and q u itre n t s in emeouraging s e ttle m e n t is in d ic a te d
by th e fa c t th a t a f t e r ihe s p e c ia l form o f p a te n t was d eter­
mined in 1725, th e re -were one hundred and s ix ty o f these
35
thousand-acre g ran ts recce?dec. w ith in two months.
I t is
u n fo rtu n a te th a t the p o lic y was n o t continued irre s p e c tiv e
o f the o pposition from some quarter s.
The order o f the P riv y Council exp ired a u to m a tic a lly
in 1723, but i t was im m ediately rep laced by an o rd er which
' *•
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was continued as a standing in s tru c tio n to' successive
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governors u n t il 1756.
The warding is in te re s tin g , as i t
in d ic a te s the views and m otives o f the E n g lish o f f ic ia ls *
The order s ta te s th a t " i t hath in tim es p ast been a' g re a t
hindrance to the peopling and s e ttlin g o f our said province
th a t la rg e tr a c ts o f land have been engrossed by p a r tic u la r
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persons', a g re a t p e rt w hereof rem aining u n c u ltiv a te d , the
j
p ro vin ce is th ereby deprived of many in h a b ita n ts th a t would
j
o therw ise have s e ttle d th e re ."
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the fu tu r e ," i t was ordered th a t s p e c ia l care be taken fo r the
! .
54. The grants are sc a tte re d between, pages 92 and 164 o f the
E xecutive Journals o f the C o u ncil, IY .
t
To avoid "such g re a t e v il
35. P atent s. H I , 343, e t seq*
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fo r
• 152 ■>
re s e rv a tio n o f the em it ra n ts ana the enforcement o f the law s
55
re q u irin g seatin g and p la n tin g .
The o rd er was no no re
e ffe c tiv e than previous admonitions - and doubtless i t was
not expected th a t i t mould he taken too e a rn e s tly .
Gooch,
>
who was L ie u t sn an t- Govemor from 1727 u n t il 1749, b e lie v e d
th a t g ran ts c f la rg e tr a c t s -sere a p o s itiv e advantage in
37
expanding the fr o n tie r .
m th is view the governor was
supported by fa c ts , fc r (hiring two decades c f h is adm inis­
tr a tio n "the f r o n tie r was pushed forw ard -to in c lu d e an area
as g re a t as th at occupied dur Lqg the f i r s t cen tu ry o f the
58
colony.
But co n trary to the d esires o f the E n g lish
v
\
government, the s e ttle r s to a g re a t ex ten t acquired t h e ir
la n d -a t a premium p aid tc land sp e cu la to rs.
On an average
these people paid about t s i pounds a hundred acres fo r land
w ith in tra c ts which were p aten ted a t o n 9 -tw e n tie th o f th a t
amount and which were h eld u n til' sold a t l i t t l e
expense to
36. Loyal Ins tra c tio n s to B r it i di C o lo n ia l G overnors. 1670-1776,
L . l . Labaree, e d ., (2 v o ls ., New Y o rk, 1 9 3 5 ], I I , 54 7,5 80 .
37 . C a l. S tate P ap ers. A . . &
■ .« !.. 1728-1729. p . 253.
38. There a re 11,205 square m ails s in tid e w a te r, 18,759 in
Piedmont, 11 ,211 between the Blue Ridge and the A lleg h e n ie s.
(Thomas J e ffe rs o n , Notes on V ir g in ia . p . 151-} In 1727 when
Gooch became governor., settlem ent had progressed v e ry l i t t l e
above tid e w a te r though th e re were some outposts such as Germanna
close to the HLue Ridge* By 1747 the f r o n tie r was progressing
southward down the v a lle y between the HLue Ridge and the
A lle g h e n ie s .
The proportions g iven above are o b vio u sly a •rough approxim ation.
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- 153 39
tiie p a te n te e .
7
The disadvantage to the s e ttle r s who a c -
/
q u ire d land in th is way is obvious, but w hether, in re sp ec t
to the expansion o f the f r o n t ie r , th is discouragement was
o ffs e t by the e ffo r ts o f the sp ecu lators to a t t r a c t people
to th e ir lan d is a debatable q u e stio n ,
then Gooch urged the
value o f la rg e g ra n ts as an a id to expanding s e ttle m e n t, he
was answered by the foregoing in s tru c tio n from the P riv y
C o u ncil.
T h e re a fte r the u n u su ally f u l l re p o rts o f the governor
s c arce ly m ention anything r e la tin g
40
lend being granted.
to th e huge tr a c ts o f
As we have seen, the in s tru c tio n s frcaa the P riv y Council
p laced dependence on the c o lle c tio n o f Q u itre n ts and enforce­
ment, o f th e " s e a tiig aid p la n tin g " laws as a means to r e s t r ic t
land g rants to the a c tu a l needs o f s e ttle r s .
But th e law o f
1720 had reduced the "seating sad p la n tin g " requirem ents to
p r a c t ic a lly n o th in g , and the in te rp re ta tio n o f th is end the
q u itre n t law o f 1713 by the G eneral Court p r a c t ic a lly destroyed
3 9 . The tre a s u ry -rig h t cost o f la id was ten s h illin g s a
/
hundred a c re s . The crude survey o f a tr a c t o f 30,000 acres
cost o n ly £10 and the p a t a it fee s as a r u le amounted to £2
a d d itio n a l. The mar he t p ric e o f la n d , o f course, v a rie d
according to the period aid the q u a lity o f the s o il However, y
as a round statsaen t of the p ric e o f land in a reg io n under­
going settlem en t £10 a hundred acres appears to be about average.
See a b s tra c ts o f la n d tra n s fe rs in d ic a tin g su b d ivisio n s o f
la rg e tr a c ts in : Spot sylvan is County Beoords. 1721-1800,. ” *A .
C ra z ie r, ed. (Hew T o rh , 1 9 0 5 }; L .P . Summers, Annals o f Southwest
V ir g in ia . 1769-1800 (A bington, Y a .,1 9 2 9 ); H .W .S c o tt, £ H is to ry
o f Orange County V ir g in ia . {Richmond, 1 9 0 7 ); J .A . T7addeil,
Annals o f Augusta County (S tau n to n , 7 a ., 1 9 0 2 ); J .w . ^’aylen d ,
The German Element in th e Shenandoah V a lle y o f V irg in ia
T c S e r lo tte s v ilie , V aT,T qo TJZ
1
------------- --------4 0 . C a l. S tate P apers. A . & W .I.« 1728-1729. p . 233. The w r ite r
has scanned the tr a n s c r ip t le t t e r s from Gooch to th e Board o f
Trade in the L ib ra ry o f Cozgress.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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th is method o f c o n tro l.
In 1734 the c o u rt again determ ined
th a t land secured be fa r e 1710 need n o t he fo r fe ite d fo r
f a ilu r e to p ay q u itr a it s.
The laws o f 1710 and 1715 re q u irin g
i
th is f o r f e it u r e were h e ld to impose ex post fa c to co n dition s
which could n o t a p p ly to e a r lie r pa to u t s.
However, the
c o u n c illo r-fu d g e s did n o t e x p la in the reasoning by which
th ey could n u l l if y a c o n d itio n T& idi had e x is te d in p r a c tic a lly
a l l p aten ts since 1524.
The w r ite r has found o n ly fo u r
patsrfcs whiah were f o r f e it e d p rio r to 1751 fo r non-payment
o f q u itre a ts .
In these in s tan ce s r e la t iv e ly sm all p a rc e ls
o f land were in v o lv e d and i t -is probable th a t th ey had been
abandoned by t h e ir o rig in a l owners.
In 1735 a p e titio n was
f i le d fo r a t r a c t o f la n d said to be lapsed fo r want o f
" seatin g and p la n tin g ” by the o r ig in a l h o ld e r.
On s lig h t
in d ic a tio n th a t some e f f o r t in th is d ire c tio n had been made
many years b efo re, the p e t it io n was dism issed.
}t
A p e titio n e r
attem p ted , in 1741, to secure some land upon which he sta ted
th e re had been no c u ltiv a tio n done or q u itre n ts p a id during
|
the p ast f i f t y - s i x y e a rs . - The judges re q u ire d th a t he prove'
;
j
th a t th ere had n ever been any improvement on th e lan d o r th ey
i
would "presume a t th is la t e date th at the improvements re q u ire d
by law had been made."
In a m arginal n ote the re p o rte r says,
"^♦ch seems a strange o p in io n E s p e c ia lly in the Kings Case."
• 41
•
The p e titio n was dism issed.
,A p p e ra itly about the o n ly way
I
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41 . V irg in ia C o lo n ia l D ecisions. Reports o f S ir John Randolph
and Edward E a rra d a ll. 172S -1741, E .T . B arto n, ed. {2 v o ls .,
Boston, 1 9 0 9 ) B 4 5 ; P at a it s, X V III, 334; m i , 629; X XIX , 34 5,5 00 .
i
I
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in which any land r ig h ts were endangered occurred in instances
where people re c e iv e d g ran ts from the governor and c o u n c il o r
made " e n trie s ” w ith th e
su rv^ro r and f a ile d to fo llo w up
the process fo r securing a p a te n t.
P e titio n s fo r lend on
the b asis o f th is n e g le c t were fre q u e n t, ana were handled as
a ro u tin e m a tte r by the governor and c o u n c il.
G en erally
the o rig in a l claim ant, who was out no money and who had
probably a lre a d y taken land eLsewhere,did not appear, and
the p e titio n e r was allow ed a p aten t fo r the lan d in Question
42
on the usual term s.
By th e m iddle o f the century th e re was a gradual begin­
ning o f fo r fe itu r e s tbr f a ilu r e .t o "s e a t and p la n t" .
In a
p erio d o f two aid o n e -h a lf years th ere were eleven success­
f u l p e titio n s on th is b a s is , though i t is n o t known whether
43 ■
o r n o t they were contested.
The attem pts o f ihe B r itis h government to c o n tro l the
V irg in ia land system were not re v iv e d u n t il 1754,
the g ran tin g o f lan d r ®
on a wide course.
Meanwhile
fo rw ard " a l l s a il and no anchor",
The to ta l amount o f land g ran ted in tra c ts
o f over f iv e thousand acres illu s t r a t e s the tre n d o f events
d irin g the p erio d in d ic a te d :
.
1 6 9 5 -1 7 0 6
116,206 acres
1716 - 1732
1 ,1 1 3 ,3 5 0 acres
1733 - 1743
1 ,2 3 3 ,6 0 0 acres
1744 - 1756
3 ,1 3 1 ,9 2 2 ac re s(9 93 ,4 26 )
,
42. In stan ces o f these caveat proceedings may be found in
jo u rn a ls o f n e a rly a l l m eetings o f th e c o u n c il dealing w ith la n d .
4 5 . P a te n ts , X H I , 2 1 5 ,2 3 6 ,6 2 9 ,6 3 0 ; X U X , 3 2 , 1 1 7 ,3 4 5 ,3 6 5 ,3 9 6 ,
4 0 1 ,5 0 0 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Tbs fig u re s in p aren th esis f o r Ihe p erio d 1744 - 1756 are
an es tim ate o f th a t p o rtio n o f tie g ra n ts which are b e lie v e d
to have been p erfe cte d .
Many o f the o th ers in clu d ed in the
la rg e r fig u re were on w estern w aters and were n o t taken up
due to the French and In d ia n * a r , and th e P ro clam atio n o f
1765.
Most o f these g ra n ts west o f th e A lleg h e n ie s were
allow ed to la p s e , or were to a g re a t e x te n t f i n a l l y in v a li­
dated as a r e s u lt o f the d e v o lu tio n *
A lto g e th e r, in th e
p e rio d 1716 - 1756, an a rea o f 8 j5 6 1 square m ile s o f la n d
was granted in tr a c ts o f over f iv e thousand acres.
I f we
om it th e u n re a liz e d p o rtio n o f la rg e g ra n ts west o f the
44
A lle g h e n ie s , the fig u re becomes 5 ,2 20 square m ile s .
T his
44* For the p erio d 1695 - 1706 the fig u re is based on p a te n ts .
This fig u re is g iven & m ply fo r comparison* That p e rio d is
s e lec ted due to the fa c t th a t a irin g the in t e r v a l 1706-1710
no p aten ts were issued* Tbs fig u re s between 1716 and 1756 are
based on g ra n ts issued by the governor and c o u n c il. These
p a te n ts and g ran ts are lis t e d in Appendix I .
The estim ate o f
the u np erfected p o rtio n o f th e g ra n ts o f 1744 - 175.6 is based
on a re p o rt o f 1768 made by the c le rk o f th e c o u n c il end upon
the f a c t th a t 201,504 acres were a c tu a lly disposed o f by the
lo y a l Company* (7a. Mag* H is t* & H o g *. V , 175 f f * , 2 4 1 ff:
Thoma s P erkins A bernethy, Western Lands and th e Ameri can R evolution
(Hew Y o rk , 1 9 3 7 ), p . 90* C ouncil g ra n ts -ra th e r than p a te n ts
are used to compile the fig u re during 1716 - 1 7 5 6 ,since the
p aten ts -do n o t fu rn is h a complete reco rd o f the la rg e g ra n ts *
This is due to ihe f a c t th a t many v e ry la rg e tra c ts were sub­
d ivid ed into sm all p a rc e ls w ith o u t the issue o f a p a te n t fo r the
tr a c t as a whole. Thus, in com piling the l i s t o f p a te n ts o f
above fiv e thousand acres these g ran ts do n o t appear in the
reckoning. I t is n e a rly im possible to determ ine the f u l l e x te n t
to which co u n c il g ran ts were allow ed to la p s e . Eowever as an
in d ic a tio n of the e x to rt to ‘Ehieh lan d was f i r s t absorbed in
la rg e tr a c ts , i t i s b e lie v e d th a t the above fig u re s a re c o n ­
s e rv a tiv e , f o r , o ffs e ttin g the u n re a liz e d g ra n ts , th e re were
many la rg e h oldings accumulated in tr a c ts o f le s s than f i v e thousand a c re s .
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itfS
'
- 157 land was secured in t ie
f i r s t in stan ce by le s s than two
45
percent o f the p atent h o ld e rs .
Some id ea o f the e x te n t o f
t h is t e r r it o r y is suggested by the
fa c t th a t th e re are
11,206 square m ile s in tid e w a te r V ir g in ia , 18,759 square m ile s
between the f a l l lin e and the Blue R idge, and 11,911 square
m ile s between th e Blue Ridge and the A lle g h e n ie s .
The sig ­
n ific a n c e o f the m a tte r is fu r t h e r increased by th e fa c t
th a t the la rg e t r a c t s were surveyed w e ll in advance o f
s ettlem en t and thus th e y g e n e ra lly in clu d ed the best lan d
a v a ila b le .
t ie
The g re a t m a jo rity o f the p a te n ts throughout
c o lo n ia l p erio d were fo r r e la t iv e ly sm all tr a c ts .
From
1724 and 1755 s ix tv-seven ue r e s it o f th e paten tees re c e iv e d
—
'
;--- '
45
between one hundred aid four hundred ac re s .
45. I t should be observed the t th is fig u re does n o t represen t th e
p ro p o rtio n o f the landaemers as a w hole, many o f whom obvio u sly
did n o t om th e ir land by o rig in a l p a te n ts . • In Appendix I I i t
is in d ic a te d th a t throughout' th e -s e v e ra l p erio d s between 161S
and 1774 ap p ro xim ately th re e p e rc s it o f the p aten ts w ere'issu ed
fa r tra c ts " o f over tfcr ee thousand acres. In the o r ig in a l
c la s s ific a tio n o f these p a te n ts , the w r ite r discovered th a t le s s
than two percent o f the patent h o ld e rs re c e iv e d above f iv e
thousand a c re s . In the ta b le gLvoi the percentages were lumped
to g e th e r to in c lu d e the p a te n ts between th ree and f iv e thousand
acres in o rd er to avoid a - confusing a rra y o f sm all fra c tio n s .
I t is s ta ted in the preceding note th a t saae c f the ve ry la rg e
co u n c il gran ts do not appear in the p a te n t books, but the
number o m itted are too few in r e la t io n to the o rd in a ry p a te n ts
to e ffe c t the p ro p o rtio n in any considerable ‘degree.
4 6 . Appendix I I .
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]
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158 -
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Since i t was necessaxy t o re c e iv e perm ission frcea the
governor and co u n c il fo r a l l grant s above fo u r hundred a c re s ,
i t is in te re s tin g to in q u ire in to the basis upon which the;
consent eras g iv e n , but u n fo rtu n a te ly th e re i s l i t t l e
regarding t h is .
evidence
jfrom the co u n cil jo u rn a ls i t appears th a t
r
a p p lic a tio n s fb r g ra n ts were presented in w ritin g and th a t de­
c is io n was made w ithout Ihe presence o f Ihe p e titio n e r a t
th e co u n cil board,
'-'hether th e re were g e n e ra lly any perso nal
in te rv ie w s as a p relu d e to th is
is not known.
One nan r e -
!
cruesting the p r iv ile g e o f ta k in g up 24,000 acres made f iv e
i
t r ip s to W illiam sburg to arran g e the business, but he does.
47
n o t s ta te what he did w h ile th e re .
In many cases the
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p e titio n e rs were w e ll know n'to the members o f the c o u n c il;
thus th ey were s u f f ic ie n t ly f a m ilia r w ith the circum stance
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to judge the a b i l i t y o f the p ro sp ective p aten tee to pay the
♦
*
tre a s u ry r ig h t end survey costs.
These charges were n o t due
u n t il sometime l a t e r , fo r the co u n cil g rant was le g a lly o n ly
a perm ission to survey.'
j
in d ic a te allow ance o f the
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The c o u n c il jo u rn a ls alm ost u n ifo rm ly
p e titio n s fo r land in the f u l l amount
-
req u ested .
In the p e rio d 1710 - 177b, during which t h is p e r-
'/,
m ission was re q u ire d , the w rilte r has found o n ly two o u trig h t
re je c tio n s re p o rte d in 1he jo u rn a ls .
In 1741 Alexander Stinson
asked fo r th re e thousand acres o f la n d , but was refused w ith
I
the comment th a t "the p e titio n s r ' is unknown to any o f th e Board,
47. Note 1 0 , th is c h a p te r.
'
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and th e re fo re
person.
[th is '] is th o u ^ it too much fo r so obscure a
.'
On the same day we fin d th a t the request o f P e te r
J e ffe rs o n and o th e rs for 4 0 ,0 0 0 acres • • • i s re fu s e d , i t
"being judged too g re a t a g ran t to what is a lre a d y granted
46
to 1he p e titio n e r ."
I t would be in te re s tin g to know by
what process the c o u n c illo rs determ ined th a t the fa th e r o f
Thomas J e ffe rs o n had too much la n d , fo r many o th ers had
v a s tly la r g e r holdings.
The amount requested should have o ffe re d
no insurm ountable o b s ta c le , for s in g le g ran ts o f over tw ic e
th is s iz e were sometimes allow ed to in d iv id u a ls and t h ir t y o r
'
4S
fo r ty thousand-acre g ran ts were n o t uncommon during th is p e rio d .
In view o f the f a c t d ir in g " s ix ty years both o f the fo re ­
going' re fu s a ls were re c o rd e d .in one day, the w r ite r concludes
th a t the m ention o f these re je c tio n s on th is occasion was an
excep tio n to th e-u su al custom o f le a v in g out such n eg ative
d ecisio n s.
In general -the jo u rn a ls are extrem ely b r ie f and
r a r e ly contain anything except o rd e rs upon which some p o s itiv e
a c tio n was re q u ire d . Thus i t would appear, th a t la n d p e titio n s
which the c o u n c illo rs s a w -fit to re fu s e were sim oly cast aside
50
w ith o u t fu r th e r ado.
The fa c t t i n t in d iv id u a ls fre q u e n tly
took up considerable q u a n titie s o f land in a 's e rie s o f p aten ts
4 8 . E xecutive Jo u rn al o f the C o u n c il, e n try o f Eay 5 , 1741,
photo s ta tic copy, Alderman L ib ra ry , U n iv e rs ity o f V ir g in ia .
49 . Appendix I .
50. F u rth e r in d ic a tio n th a t th is was the case i s suggested by '
the ex is te n c e o f a p e titio n fo r 50,000 acres o f lan d concern­
in g which no d ec is io n has beaa discovered in the co u ncil
jo u rn a ls . Calendar o f V irg in ia S ta te Papers, Vt.P. Palm er, e d .,
I , 214.
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160
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o f e x a c tly fo u r hundred acres in d ic a te s th a t th e y were
try in g to accom plish an end whi eh would have been denied to
them by the co u n cil*
This is suggested a l l th e more s tro n g ly
by the fa c t th a t i t cost c o n sid e ra b ly more to survey and
p a te n t s n a il tra c ts than to secure a s in g le p a te n t fo r the
e n tir e amount*
'Ihe c o u n c il fre c u e n tly issued o rd ers to
51
stop th is p ra c tic e o f "people o f sm all substance*"
>’
On such meager evidence one could n o t m a in ta in th a t
the allowance o f lan d by the governor and c o u n c il was la r g e ly
I
determ ined by any s o rt o f fa v o r itis m .
However, we may be
sure th a t p erso nal and p o lit ic a l co n sid eratio n s were n ot
absent from the system.
The co m p etition fo r the b est lo ­
c a tio n s was keen, and the c o u n c il o fte n had to make sane
p u re ly a r b itr a r y decisions between th e claim s o f in d iv id u a ls *
However, one must bear in mind th a t even though a g re a t p a rt
,
o f the la n d w a s o r ig in a lly ta k e n up by a few p eo p le, o n ly a
few had both means and ihe d e s ire to engage in la rg e -s c a le
j
lan d sp ecu latio n s*
|
th a t no one was refu sed perm ission to purchase from the colony
|
as m uch'land as he could co n ceivab ly use, fo r such a d e n ia l
j
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could s c arce ly e x is t w ithout g re a t p ro te s t. .The e x e rc is e o f
*
th is r ig h t was lim ite d by the fa c t th a t g re a t areas o f the
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;
Taken, a lto g e th e r we can a t le a s t be c e rta in
choice lan d were monopolised by a few .
'
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.
*
51. E xecutive Jo u rn al o f the C o u n c il, e n try o f Nov. 9 , 1758,
p h o to s ta t, Alderman L ib ra iy ,. U n iv e rs ity o f V irg in ia *
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161
lu rin g the decade 1750 - 1740 a s p e c ia l p o lic y was
introd uced in c e rta in g ran ts in the Shenandoah T a lle y ,
3y th is tim e the ch o icest lands in ?ie<snont had teen to
a g re a t e x te n t preem pted, and sp ecu lators had t h e ir eyes
on the r ic h lands along the Shenandoah R iv e r.
V irg in ia n s
who had lon g been c re s t Isndoizners were amon*: the f i r s t to
52
take up acreage in th is re g io n .
However, th e re were c ir ­
cumstances which gave a s p e c ia l advantage to c e rta in e n te r­
p ris in g people from the N o rth ,
In th is p e rio d im m igrants
from the p o v e rty -s tric h e n German s ta te s and frcm N orth Ire la n d
were e n te rin g the p o rt o f P h ila d e lp h ia in g re a t numbers. Many
o f these people s e ttle d in P ennsylvania.
But 1 and was r e la t iv e ly
expensive th e re and the German m ig ra tio n turned in to the
narrow Piedmont reg io n o f M aryland*
1752 a few o f these
Germans had crossed the Potomac to s e ttle in the v a lle y
behind the Blue R idge.
The way-was thus p ren arec fo r a g en eral
53
in flu x o f these people in to V ir g in ia .
52* Va. Mag, of_ n is t . aid B lo g ,. X I I I , 128.
55* For 'general accounts o f the settlem ent o f th e T a lle y :
John ft’. la y la n d , The German Element in the Shenandoah T a lle y
o f V ir g in ia , ( C hariot t e s v ille , V a ., 1 9 0 7 ); Samuel E erch eval,
A H is to ry o f the T a lle y . (S tra sb u rg , V a ., 1 9 1 2 ); Joseph A,
W addell, -Annals o f Augusta County, ( Staunton. T a ., 1902};
Lyman ChaHcley, Chronicle s o f the S c o tc h -Iris h Settlem ent
in V ir g in ia , ( S v o ls ., Rosa.yn,
• , is i2 j^
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- 162 Seeing the p o s s ib ilit ie s o f tills
s itu a tio n , se v e ra l
e n te rp ris in g Germans decided th a t in re tu rn fo r a g i f t o f
la n d , th ey would undertake to e s ta b lis h on th e tr a c t w ith in
two y e a rs , one fa m ily far each, thousand acres in th e g ran t*
In June, 1750, John and Is a a c Van M e te r, sons o f a New York
In d ia n tra d e r, were g ran ted 40 ,000 acres in the Shenandoah
V a lle y on these c o n d itio n s .
was allow ed
1 0 ,0 0 0
On the same day Jacob Stover
acres on the fa m ily settlem ent p la n .
These men in d ic a te d t i s t th ey in to id e d to s e ttle t h e ir own
fa m ilie s on th e ir g rant and ha t th ey hhd' alread y arranged
fo r o th e r German fa m ilie s t o ' jo in them.
In the f a l l o f
1750, H e zander Boss and Morgan Bryan were allow ed 100,000
acres provided th ey could prove settlem en t o f one hundred
fa m ilie s w ith in two ye ars.
In the fo llo w in g year' John
Ihshback and several o th e r Germans re c e iv e d r ig h t to 50,000
acres on these term s.
A lto g e th e r th e re were 538,600 acres
in th e V irg in ia V a lle y g ran ted on th is basis to e ig h t in ­
d iv id u a ls o r p a rtn e rs h ip s .
Hot a l l the promoters o f these
ventures were from out sid e the colony.
Beverley Manor - th e
la rg e s t o f a l l - f i n a l l y consisted o f 118,491 acres when
paten ted in 1758 by T illie m
B e ve rley , A tto rn ey G eneral S ir
John Randolph, B ichard Randolph, and C o u n c illo r John Robinson.
Vvhen Benjamsn Barden a f West Jersey a p p lie d in 1755 fo r a
fa m ily settlem en t g ra n t, the V irg in ia n W illia m Robertson was
in p a rtn e rs h ip w ith him .
However ,the l a t t e r soon withdrew and
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- 163 -
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• 54
Borden re c e iv e d a p a te a t fb r 92,000 acres*
On the fa c e o f i t , th e p e titio n e r s fo r these grants p a r t ic u la r ly
pose a io in t
those o ffe re d by the Germans -appeared to
p ro -
c o lo n iz a tio n a s s o c ia tio n o f a numbero f fa m ilie s
in te n d in g to ronove from Pennsylvania in to V irg in ia *
However,
the prom oters o f the se ventures made th e ir own terms w ith
th e im m igrants aid sold them two or th re e hundred-acre tra c ts
55
a t a s u b s ta n tia l p r o f it *
In the case o f the Borden t r a c t ,
some o f the e a r lie s t f a a ilie s were p r a c tic a lly given, a
hundred a c re s , fo r the owner was hard pressed to secure
54* These g rants are in d ic a te d by a s te ris k s in th e l i s t in
Appendix I * In a rriv in g a t the -fig u re . 539,600 as the t o ta l
acreage rece ived on th is b a s is , the w r ite r has e lim in a te d
105,000 acres g ran ted 'to v .lilia a % rd , but fo r which he was
unable to secure the fa m ilie s and th e re fo re purchased tre a s u ry
r i :h ts . The e x a c t e x te n t o f ihe Borden and B everley g ran ts
is in d ic a te d in the L is t o f p aten ts 1732 - 1745 in Appendix I *
55, The substance o f 1he p e titio n s o f Stover and o f John
and Isa ac Van M eter cen be in fe r r e d from the e n try in Executive
Journals o f the C o u n cil, IV , 22 4-2 25 . The p ric e s which the
prom oters re c e iv e d fo r land o f course v a rie d w id ely * Ten
pounds a hundred acres seems to have been about average. In
Joseph W addell, Annals o f Augusta County, th e re are a g re a t
many a b s tra c ts o f assignments from B everley and Borden. In
the e a r lie r years land was sold in the Borden tr a c t fo r
around two and a h a lf pounds a hundred ac re s. John L . Peyton,
H is to ry o f Augusta County. V irg in ia . ( Staunton, V a ., 1882} pp.
5 9 -7 4 .
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the re q u is ite number o f f a n iiie s .
Eosever, assuming th a t
a l l the re q u ire d fa m ilie s users secured
was s t i l l l e f t fo r the
in th is manner, th e re
prom oter a g i f t o f 85 ,00 0 a c re s .
The
Borden end B everley Manor tr a c ts were a source o f p r o f it to
th e ir owners fo r se ve ra l decades a f t e r the grants were made*
These g re a t e s ta te s in the v ic in it y o f Lexington and Staunton
were m ain ly s e ttle d by tie
S c o tc h -Iris h .
In g en eral the g ran ts
to th e Germans, which were lo c a te d fa r th e r northw ard in the
| T a lle y , were sold more q u ic k ly then in th e case o f th e Borden
• j
and
B everley tr a c ts .
The a u th o riz a tio n
from England o f g ra n ts o f t h is type
has not been discovered.
In .ih e . r e la t iv e ly voluminous corres­
pondence w ith the Board o f Trad e, Gooch makes o n ly one very
j
j
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I
*.
56* In 1806 th ere was a lew s u it r e la t in g to th e Borden lan d
in which an old la d y o f n in e ty -fiv e years gave her re c o lle c ­
tio n s o f events when in 1737 she case w ith her husband to liv e
on th e Borden t r a c t ,
ihe said th a t anyone who would e re c t a
cabin was given a hundred acres even " i f th e y bought fo u rty " .
Then "the man" (a p p a re n tly appointed by th e county c o u rt} went
around counting the cabins to see th a t the n in e ty -tw o fa m ilie s
re q u ire d were th e re , he kept account by making a ch a lk m ark.on
h is h a t. The cabins had bees b u ilt but Bcr-den was sh o rt o f
people to occupy them, bzt by s c u rry in g ahead o f the g e n ia l
in q u is ito r' the same people were ab le to appear a t seve ra l cab in s,
One servant g i r l en terin g in to the s p i r i t o f the th in g tu rn ed up
a t f iv e or s ix d iffe r e n t p la c e s , and f i n a ll y appeared in men’ s
c lo th e s . Depot! s i on o f Mrs. James Greenlee in ‘Borden vs . C u lto n ,
e t a l , Payton, op. c l t « , p p .6 9 -7 4 .
II
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- 165 b r ie f and vague re fe re n c e to the m a tte r, and th e re aooears
“ 57
to have been no comasa t a t a l l from the Board o f Trade.
At the same time th a t Gooch was maiding th ese g ra n ts , a group
o f Germans and Pennsylvsaisns, backe d by S ir
v i l l i am K e ith ,
form er g o v e rn s o f th a t colony, appeared b e fo re the Board o f
Trade o ffe rin g to under take a la rg e s e t t le a o it o f Germans in
V ir g in ia , but the Board did n o t see f i t to recommend a g ran t
on th is basis - p o s s ib ly because ihe e x te n t o f t e r r it o r y
58
requested was so la r g e .
te v e r t ie a u th o rity fo r making
g ran ts o f th is ty p e , the p o lic y was some improvement over
the u su al type o f grant since i t was re q u ire d th a t people
be p laced im m ediately on a t le a s t a p a rt o f the la n d .
57. C a l. S ta te Papers. A . & T 7.I». 1731* p . 169. The w r ite r
has gone through 1he c o rre s> ondsec e o f Gooch w ith the Board
o f Trade in the lib r a r y o f Congress tr a n s c r ip ts and was
im ab le to fin d any f i r th e r m ention o f these ” fa m ily g ra n ts .r
The Journals o f th e Coamis si oner s fo r Trade and P la n ta tio n s
c o n tain nothing < ±ireatly r e la tin g to tEe" m a tte r.
5 8 . C a l. S tate P apers. A. fc W .I.« 1 7 5 1 , p p . 7 6 ,7 9 .
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Chanter TI
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1748 -
1774
Afcoat th© middle of
i
decade 1740 - 1750, specs-
latere feegsa to torn their attention to the lands m
the
i
weste m eaters*
There was still* of coarse* & great deal
of vacant land east of the Alleghenies* feat sot enough far
i
the grandiose vantages which were nos feegm-
The large
|
grants In the Shsaan&o&b. Talley had set a pace which was
i
scan oat-stripped b j projects absorbing the a tte n tio n of
iI
many of the leading sen of the colony.
Within a decade
\
following 1744 spprataatelj three and a third silllean acres
were assigned In great tracts*
Over two-thirds of this 1and ^
was on the headwaters of the Termeceee and the Kanawha rivers*
and on the upper Ohio.*
The enorssous Increase In lead speculation in the West
was not the resalt of dry specific policy, hot was sisgfty
the eusolatlve effect of Vie treed of affairs since 272©*
Thoogh sen sere feeing assigned tracts half as large as
Tidewater counties, there Is no particular aestlon of the
!
natter in Gooch’s lengthy correspondence with the Board of
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Trade* ©rants of fifty or a hundred thousand acres were
I
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slaply noted is a sentence or two Is the council journals*
*
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X* See list of grants 2744 - 1756 la Appendix X*
'
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167
-
There journals sere sent at intervals to the Board of
Trade along with the governor's coszaents or marginal
notes on affairs which sere supposed to he of special
interest*
Gooch called no attention to the land grants*
and It is obvious that the lords Coaaiesloners had no taste
for reading the journals as a thole*
So far as official
policy was concerned there sag only the Privy Council’s
standing Instruction that monopolization of land see to be
prevented by enforcing the laws requiring cultivation of
2
patented land and payaeat of qaitreats*
one scans
the grants of mid-century, such an admonition seeme a voice
from the past when Virginia w^s a snug little colony on
tidewater*
But the Old Boalaion had grown vastly in the
fee years since then, and bad bees®© practically Indepen­
dent in matters of land policy*
"Seating and planting” bad
meant little eaot^h to the planters alcag^tfce sluggish
tidal rivers, but the phrase eeeas archaic when applied to
the new generation, and its grand projects on the rushing
stress® of tbs West*
Such exploitive ventures - big, modem
and thoroughly American - were in keeping with the wider
seme and the bustling activity of the tlaas*
Though the English government appears to have been
unaware of the vast extent of territory is the grants made
during the decade prior to 175®* there was agreement both
in England and Virginia that the frontier should be extended
2*
Hosal Instructions to British Colonial Governors. 1670 -
1776* L*w *Lafearee, e d *,~ T 2 vola*,B © w lo rk ,1 9 3 5 ) »11 *5 ^7 *5oO *
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163
to forestall the consolidation of the Freneh position is
the Mississippi Valley.
Has Board of Trade warn, of course,
j
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snare of the treaties of 1744 and 175L, by which the Six
Satloas surrendered their claims to any territory sooth of
the Ohio*
There was, however, an essential difference be­
tween the views of the Board and the objectives of the
land speculators who negotiated these treaties*
Whereas
the English officials were anxious to further settleeeot
in the West* the speculators were first of all interested
Sb prosotiag their schemes for preempting great sections
of this area* The fandaaaatal difference in emphasis Is
f
illustrated bj ccssparieaa of the large grants sade by
|
Gooch and the council, and the Ohio Company grant author-
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iaed by the Beard of Trade*
|
when* for example, Gooch granted Councillor John
j
Blair and his partners a hundred thousand acres of land on
-•
**
p
I
the Sew Siver, there were no special conditions loosed*
According to the procedure established by lav* this tract
should have been patented within six months after cosjple4
tion of the survey.
.However* as will be shown presently,
it was usual for speculators to hold grants for several
•ears without anything more than a crude'aarfelag of the
boundaries* Sven if the land were actually patented without
3* ^ee grants in Appendix I trader the date 1745*
4. For a review of the colonial lavs regarding the process
of securing a patent, see* Report of Cases; The Court o f
tegalg 3£ Virginia. Peyton rtandolpfe, reporter, (2 votLs*,
Elefcsood, l3»j, XX, 206-227, 359-334.
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great delay, there was still no real necessity for any con­
siderable development since the “seating and planting * lass
were so broadly interpreted.
Obviously such grants were not
designed to encourage the settlement of the frontier.
The Ohio Company originally consisted of ten members,
largely Virginians, of shorn Councillors Thomas Lee and
William Nelson were the leaders*
Since this group proposed
to secure its land free of treasury right cost and with a
quitreat exemption, it was necessary to refer decision to
England.
John Hanbuxy, London merchant and partner in the
venture, was the company9s agent in dealing with the Board of
Trade.
In 1743 the Privy council, on the recommendation of
the Board,, ordered the governor of Virginia to grant this
partnership two hundred thousand acres on the upper Ohio with­
out treasury right charges.
Exemption of quitrent for ten
years was allowed on the entire tract, and thereafter this fee
was to be paid only on that portion of the land under culti­
vation.
In return the promoters were required to establish
within a Tea years three hundred families on the grant, and
were to build, equip, and garrison a fort on the Ohio.
When
this was done, an additional three hundred thousand acres .were
to be ellowed on the same terms.
Thus the government famished
land in return for service of a public nature.
The promoters
were required to bestir themselves in order to establish
settlers on the frontier, whereas in practice the usual
Virginia grants allowed the speculator to withhold land
from the market without penalty.
As a mat er of policy the
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1?3
-
gssot ea®, a? o o m * d ^ a .7 a ^artoiiao tf
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th e
i
tsaSXj
s e fc tls a a s t g r a n ts e h ie & h a d h e m
r a te
d a r in g
the ©aafty period of settlement in the Shenandoah 7aHcy.5
j
Share eere m a y is
I
oto riesed the success
the Ohio petition sltii Jealaay«
s. gressp of thirty-five
af these, n&lnly of the Fift&saai asxd valley rsgis®» «rg a e ts e S
th e
L o y a l L o a d C o a p ffla y *
O n th e
mm
& $ r t h a t th e
Obi© ^ospsay great «sa safe according to ^agilcfe orders,
ti
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Gooch sod the eoaaell assigned the Loyal Coapssy ei^ht
|
haa&rsa thousand acres on the southeastern fringe of the
Virginia frontier. The terse of the grant emtosmd ease
neasiy to the practice of Virginia epecalatoro. So settle*
scot aos required, and four years «ere allowed for
tlon of surveys aafi porchase sf treasury right®. During
this eoesioa another association of eighteen sm «as
assigned four hundred thousand scree an the saaa teres
aliased the Lqysl €©&^agy« Several other lesser partaar^sis® a£ this &a&&& ©ere alee authorised* end ty the tlae
the council srotSag of July 7, X7%* ess ended, a little
1
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ii
over a sillies stsd a half acres had been granted to five
ssascta&iace*^ Far the east part these grsasts ssre no&
•
■
•
■
5* Lshsree, l a s ^ S ^ l S 52 &3S55SQ3S* 12,6*6; gms&&$ §&
~sm££imsg& £as fissig m& nM&g&iam* if J s * m
pp. ae^^SO i a s ts M
^ riy y ^ re s e ll;. C o lo n ia l Series^ '•
27*5*1766, pp* 5$-5Ss E xecutive Joaaaal o f th e C o rn e ll o f
V irg in ia , J u ly 7* 17% * p b a to s ts iie copy* aidarsaB Ltbassy,
« o f Va»
I
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i
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6. 13tg«» J u ly 7* m 9 «
II
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- 171
v perfected.
The French and Indian $ar and the resulting
Prodaaailoa of 17&3 interrupted the operations of the
promoters*
Of the larger undertakings only the Greenbrier
Company, organized in 1752, and the Loyal Company succeeded
la disposing of any considerable quantity of their land*
&e it developed, the other schemes sere of sore Importance
for their influence upon politics than as land assignments*?
Large grants continued at & great rate until 1754*
Sorae of these sere in the southern part of the Piedmont,
which was still wore or less
frontier region, but most
of the assignments were sad© to too or three doses people
who joined in various interlocking partnerships*
Hose
of these grants approached the site of the Loyal Company’s
doaaln, though one group, in which the Bohlssoa and Ben*
dolpb fsallies were prominent, was allowed one hundred and
ninety thousand acres*
sere made m
the grants east of the Alleghenies
the usual terms, hut for those is the Hast
four years were allowed for surveys and purchase of tressuxy
rights.
7*- Th© Loyal Company sold 201,504 acres prior to the Hevolution* T.? .Aberaethy, Western Lands and the American Revoiutias. ( Sew fork, 1937;* P* 90. This work gives a full
account of the political aanoeuvers of the land companies*
Generally speaking only about on©-third of the land granted
In laxge tracts between 1744 and 1756 was actually possessed*
Generally the grantees had made no considerable expenditure,
for nest of this land was not even surveyed* See list of ■grants in Appendix I, saara. and the list of unperfected
grants la Va* %arr* of Slet* & Slo~».V. 175 ff,
3*
Appendix I.
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1?2
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la t h e ir fre n z y f o r v a s t p re e m p tio n s th e s p e c u la to rs
soon o ve rre a ch e d th e m se lve s a n d , th ro u g h th e in it ia t iv e
o f th e House o f S urges se e , th e B oard o f T rade in te rv e n e d #
The B urgesses had shoes an a n x ie ty to a s s e rt V ir g in ia ' s
c la im in th e W est, and in 1752 th e y passed a la v r e lie v in g
9
s e ttle r s "beyond th e A lle g h e n ie s fro m ta x a tio n f o r ts a :|re a rs *
H ow ever th e g re a t la n d m o n o p o lie s th re a te n e d to o ffs e t th is
encouragem ent.
A c c o rd in g ly th e House o f B urge sees d ire c te d
a m em orial to th e B oard o f T ra d e a s h in g th a t th e la n d v e s t
o f th e A lle g h e n ie s he g ra n te d o n ly in s m a ll tr a c ts and th a t
d a rin g a te n -y e a r p e rio d th e re s h o u ld be e xe m ptio n fro m
pu rcha se o f tre a s u ry r ig h ts and paym ent o f q u itr e a ts .
The
m em orial p o in te d o u t th a t th e huge la n d g ra n ts w ere a s p e c ia l
d e trim e n t because th e y w ere so e x te n s iv e and ill- d e f in e d
th a t " th e p o o re r s o rt o f p e o p le 54 h e s ita te d to s e ttle any­
w here in th e W est f o r fe a r th e y w ould su b se q u e n tly d is ­
c o v e r th a t t h e ir farm s w ere c la im e d by one o f th e la n d
com panies*
The B urgesses made no s p e c ific s u g g e s tio n s re ­
g a rd in g th e maximan s iz e o f g ra n ts , b u t fro m t h e ir re fe re n c e
to th e e a r lie r r e s tr ic tio n s In S p o ts y lv a n ia and B ru n s w ic k
we may assume th a t th e y c o n s id e re d a thousand a c re s a n
am ple a llo w a n c e *
I t Is no w onder th a t th is re q u e s t was
n o t s u p p o rte d b y th e g o v e rn o r an d c o u n c il.
w o u a c illo rs w ere in te re s te d in
H ost o f th e
th e re c e n t s p e c u la tio n s in
th e 3 e s t, and D in w id d le had been made a p a rtn e r in
9*
H o n in g , S ta t u te s , 7 , 2 5 8.
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th e O hio
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- 173 Coapany.
Moreover the policy suggested would destroy, for
ten years at least, the council's control over all of the
western land which had not already heea granted*10
The seiaorial of the Bouse of Burgesses received the
j
proapt and full approval which It deserved*
On the rocoa-
aendatloa of the Board of Trade, the PrTvy Council ordered
in 1754 that the governor aake no grants in any part of
i
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Virginia far sore than one thousand acres, and ruled that
!
anyone taking up land west of the Ailegfeeniee within ten
j
years should have his land without treasury right cost and
|
should be exempt fron q.?itreate during that period*
|
Dinwiddle acknowledged to the Board of Trade receipt of the
I
instructions,but to Horace Walpole,
Influential holder of
'
sinecures, he revealed his disappointment* Larse grants,
he wrote, were an advantage in settling the frontier, since
poor people could not afford to take up small faras by
|
patent*
He indicated that this was partly because the
settler buying his land privately was saved a trip to Williams
burg for a patent*
This argument Is open to Question*
Treasuzy rights could be purchased froa any commissioned sur[
vcyor, who was authorized to lay out as ouch as four hundred
i
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acres without farther ado*
There is no indication that tbs
|
presence of the patentee in ^illlastsburg was necessary for
!
10*
Journal of the Souse of Sasreegges. 1752-175$, P9» H 6*
143; Acti of'the Brlvj Council, colonial Scries, 17451766,'pp* 235“233i Labaree, Hoval Instructions to
Governors. 11. 647-648*•
11. Tibld., 647-648*
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-174-
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the sealing and recording of a patent.
Sad tills bees
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the case, the dlffictilty coold hare been owereooe by
establlsfcaenb of land offices closer to the frontier.
j
Pte*Iddle can hardly have been Interested in reducing the
|
cent of sectoring patents, for he had imposed a fee for
|
I
seeling these doca^ents,which was almost equal to the
'
treasury right charge for a hundred acres.
This fsaoas
pistole fee brought forth such widespread and violent
protest that the governor, on the advice of the Board of
Trade, abandoned his effort to- secure a substantial incose
fros this source.
13
Dinwiddle had intended to produce farther arguments
against the new instructions regarding land, bat in the
same year the Preach and Indian War brofce oat. The ex­
pansionist efforts of the Virginians - particularly o f th e
Ohio Company - had brought forth a counter-nove of the
Preach. Into the upper Ohio.
Oaring the ensuing straggle
the Vizginia frontier receded before the terrible raids of
the IniIons, and land ventures in the West were la abeyance.
When the Preach withdrew, the English officials saw no
farther advantage la hastening the settlement of tbs West.
In 1761 new instructions were received which continued the
H a l tat Ion of all grants to m e thousand acres, sad pro­
hibited grants or settlessnt beyond the Atlantic watershed.
13* Ibid., 44-47, 153, 362, 370; Journal of the House ^
Burgesses. 1732-1753, Preface pp. XIV - X7IX2, sad pp*I2I,
154s jfcets of the Privy Council. 1745-1766, p. 252-235;
Richard. Bland. A Fragment on the •Pistole Tee dlalaed
by the Sorernor of Virginia, (Brooblyn. l^SD. cassias.
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-
175
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14
Ibis arrangement held until the Revolution.
The restric­
tion regarding the West was confirmed by the Proelasatiatt
of 1763* cad the only authorized exception was sad© in favor
of those who were entitled to land as & reward for service
in the Froach and Indian Sar.
Dinwiddle offered two hundred
thousand acres to be divided aaong those who served node? Fry
sad ^ashlncton in 1754, and subsequently there was a general
allowance based on fifty acres for every private soldier who
served in the war*
To a great extent these solitary land
warrants were bought up by a few people who patented* daring
1773 and 1774, large tracts ra&inly on the Kanawha Hiver*1^
The ?reclamation of 1763 did not put an m d to settle­
ment beyond the Alleghenies-, for pioneers sisply aoved west
and selected their farm sites, leaving 'the matter of title
for future determination*
The Loyal and Greenbrier companies
sold considerable quantities of land In the West* though they
could give bo titles*
The legal status of these companies
was highly questionable since they had not,preformed their
©ngageaeate on schedule*
However their rights were given
tacit recognition 2a 1773 aad the validity of assignments
aa&e by the® prior to 1779 was confirmed in that year by the
14. Labor©-:* Instructions “to Governors. II, 580* 647-648;
Acts of the P r i w CoaadX* 1745-1766, p. 475; Executive
Journal of the Council of Virginia* June 10, 1761, photos­
tatic copy, Alderman Library, U*. of ?a*; ?lkiaia Gaaette, .
Feb* 12, 1762, photestable copy* Alderman Library, T
J* of 7a.
15* Frocifijaation of 1763, Eming Ststates- 711*. 665-663;
Executive Journal of the Council, Feb. l5* 1754, photostatie
copy, Alderman Library* U. of 7a* ; Patents 1767-1774,
Appendix I, gaorft*
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Virginia. government.
The British restriction or westward
expansion was* of course, only a temporary expedient to avoid
difficulties with the Indians*
However the subsequent policies
regarding the ^est and the vast land schemes which, involved
great sen in America and England are natters beyond the scope
of this BOX&-
*© return* therefore* to consideration of the
land situation east of the Alleghenies.
The prohibition or grants of sore than one thousand
acres did not prevent the issue of patents for greater amounts,
provided survey had been sade prior to 1754.
The concession
is one of great importance in vies of a custom which had become
prevalent daring the eighteenth century.
One aight suppose
that upon completion of toe survey application for a patent
would have followed soon afterward.
That was the procedure
specified by law, but there was no certain penalty for failure
to comply with the rules and governors regularly signed,
patents far land which had been held for aaay years simply on
the record of the survey.
bat no full title.
These survegr-holders had possession,
Their rights were not challenged by the
government, but any person night, by caveat proceedings, at­
tempt to secure such 1and.
Against this possibility survey-
holders protected thesselwoe by having the fora of a patent
drawn up at the secretary’s office.
If their rights were
threatened they could then forestall toe suit by having the '
16. Executive Journal of toe Council. Dec. 15 and 16* 1773*
photostotic copy Alderman Library, u. of Va.; Seaing,
Statutes. X, 45-47.
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- 177 p a te n t signed and recorded-
In 1754 th e re was sa id to he in
th e s e c re ta ry ’ s o ffic e an accum ulation o f seventeen hundred
documents ready f o r th e s ig n a tu re and s e a l which would make
then v a lid p aten ts -
Sometimes le s s fo re -s ig h te d people d id
n o t even have a p a te n t document made o ut*
They sim ply tru s te d
th a t th e s ta tu s o f t h e i r possession would n o t he g e n e ra lly
known, o r th a t no one would see f i t to tak e advantage of t h e ir
la c k o f com plete t i t l e -
A lto g e th e r th e re were s a id to he in
1754 between n in e hundred thousand and a m illio n acres
possessed hy people who had n o t completed th e process f o r se­
cu rin g p a te n ts *
The s ig n ific a n c e o f th e m a tte r is increased
hy th e fa c t th a t th is fig u re , in d ic a te s only th e c u rre n t lap se
between survey and p a te n t; th e process had been in o p e ra tio n
a t le a s t as e a rly as Spotswood’ s a d m in is tra tio n .1^
The o b je c t o f th is p ra c tic e was to avo id payment o f q u itre n ts , f o r none was. due u n t il a p a te n t was secured*
Thus the
la n d could be used o r h e ld f o r s p e c u la tio n w ith o u t c o s t o th er
1 7 - The p r in c ip a l fa c ts o f th is s itu a tio n a re s ta te d in -connec­
tio n w ith th e p is to le fe e co n tro versy- I f D inw iddle could have
com pelled th ese 1 ,7 0 0 survey h o ld ers to secure p a te n ts , I t would
have meant a p r o f it o f n e a rly - 2T300 f o r th e governor. He fa ile d
to make good h is cla im to th e fe e and was a ls o unable to make any
g re a t progress toward fo rc in g th e su rvey-h o ld ers to secure
p a te n ts - in stan ces o f th e p ra c tic e o f h o ld in g lan d w ith o u t
p a te n t a re s c a tte re d through th e co u n cil Jo u rn als- However
th e p r in c ip a l fa s ts a re s ta te d in :
Report o f Cases: The Court
o f Appeals o f V ir g in ia . Peyton Randolph, r e p o r te r , (2 v o ls .,
Richmond, 1 8 2 4 ), I I , 206—2 2 7 ,3 5 9 -3 8 4 ; R ichard B land, A Fragment
on th e P is to le Fee Claim ed by th e Governor o f V ir g in ia * (B ro o klyn ,
I 8 9 1 ) ; O f f ic ia l L e tte rs o f Robert D in w id d le- R . A - B rock- e d .,
(2 v o ls ., Richmond, 1 8 3 3 -1 8 $ 4 } , I , 3 6 2 ,3 6 3 ,3 7 0 -3 7 4 ; A cts o f the
P riv y C o u n c il* 17 45 -17 66 , p p. 2 5 2-2 55 ; Eening S ta tu te s - IV . .405 6 2 , 565; X I , 4 4 1 ; E x e c u tiv e J o u rn als o f th e C o u n c il- I I I , 55 ,
5 1 4 , 4 5 4 , 455; 1 7 , 194; The O f f ic ia l L e tte rs o f A lexander
Spotswood. R. A - Brock, e d ., (2 v o ls ., Richmond, 1 8 8 2 -1 5 3 5 ),
I I , 5 5 ,2 1 6 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-!? « -
abar th e o r ig in a l survey and tre a s u ry r ig h t charges*
t h is type o f lan d h o ld in g had no le g a l b a s is , i t
Since
:s im possible
to d is co ve r many im p o rta n t fe a tu re s o f th e business*
Though
q u itr a n t payments were avoided b y such la n d -h o ld e rs , th e re
was n oth in g i l l e g a l in t h a t aspect o f th e m a tte r, f o r te c h ­
n ic a lly th e land, s t i l l belonged to th^ crown*
These survey—
h o ld ers e ia p ly gamblec on th e chance th a t no one would make
su ccessfu l s u it' to secure th e p ro p e rty in t h ie r possession* I t
is d i f f i c u l t to determ ine the e x te n t o f th is r is k .
In g e n e ra l,
cases o f ejectm en t on th is b u s .s ore in fre q u e n t b efo re 17^0*
T h e re a fte r th ese c a v e a t proceedings become q u ite ccrsmon.
I t is
seldom, however, th a t la rg e tr a c ts ware lo s t os th is b -s is and
i t is reasonable to suppose -h a t th e holders o f the more v a lu a b le
unpatenteh tr a c ts made g re a te r e ffo r ts to p ro te c t t h e ir --o s itio n .
As a r u le th e s m a lle r su rvey-h o ld ers d id not c o n te s t th e s u its
a g a in s t them*
The reco rd s suggest th a t in the years p r io r to the
R evo lu tio n th e re were co n sid e ra b le numbers o f p e ip le who d r if t e d
about ta k in g up surveys f o r a .y crown lan d a v a ila b le *
B efore
surveys were made they were re q u ire d to pay th e usu-1 ra te o f.
f iv e s h illin g s f o r f i f t y
a c re s , b u t they n eglected to secure
jI
p a te n ts * I f these people
h e ld os to the ...roeerty
*
* • * on th is b asis
I
j f o r as ior.g as f iv e y e a rs , they saved about enough in q w itre n t
| evasion to enable them to
take up o th e r croon la n d th a t had
j been o verloo ked*
o f ejectm ent th e va lu e o f any improve­
In case
ment on th e land would be lo s t , b u t o fte n th is amo-nted to n o th -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-1 7 9 -
iu g more than a crude ca ~in and a - i t t l e c le a rin g ,
..an;, o f
these s rv e y -h o ld e rs ev_-ntu^Uy secured patency, but a consid­
e ra b le number uere c is y ts s e s s e d .
to the
Such a game o f chance appealed
ore s h iftle s s p o rtio n o f t. a p o p u la tio n *
Am bitious
people used th is technique f o r jsueh g re a te r s ta a e '. Although
th e re were no re# g ra tis o f o v .r one thousand acres a f t e r 1754,
th e re w ere, between 1756 and 1 7 6 /, two hundred and n in e ty thou­
sand acres p aten tee in tr-c u s o f above f iv e
thousand acres*
By 1769 most o f the pending p a te n ts f o r _~rge tra c ts
;e. e com-
p .e te d j b u t a fe u
;ere n o t brought or. the re . ords u n t i l s h o rtly
IS
b e fo re the E e v o lu tio r.
In the case o f the grunts aiuae by th e
governor and c o u n c il we c~xuot be- c e r ta in
h e th e r tre a s u ry rig h ts
were purchased b e fo re surveys were su&e o r a t the tin e
were issu ed *
According to law these c e r tific a te s w
in o rd er to a u th -riz e the surveyor,
a tan us
re q u ire d
to proceed w ith tn e u o ri*
However, the e n tire r a t t e r cl* c o u n c il g ran to had no b a s is i n law *
In 1774 a sweeping change in th e system o f d is p o sa l o f
crown lands wa., ordered to be a p p lie d to nine o f ul-_- ro y a l
co lo n ies in Sortfc Am erica, In c lu d in g V ir g in ia *
The p la n sp - •
pears to have been In s tig a te ^ by the “r iv y C ouncil ruuLer
than th e Board o f Trade*
I t provided fo r p u b lic au ctio n o f
croon lan d in tra c ts o f lo tte e n une hundred and one thousand
IS * See sources c ite d in .the preceding n o te , p a r tic u la r ly the're fe re n c e s in O f f ic ia l L e tte rs o f E obert D in w id dle, and in
I e o o rt o f Cases; a ls o l i s t o f p aten ts lv 5 6 -iy 6 J/ T Appe: d ix I , •
supra* The records o f caveat proceedings are found in the
Jo u rn als o f the C o u n cil* P h o to s ta tic co. i t s were examined in
th e Alcer&axt L ib ra ry , U. o f Va*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- IB S
a c re s -
The s in ia aa p ric e was to he eis-p en ee an a c re w ith
a quifcrent of a h alf-p e rm y an a c re -^
la th e a b s tra c t th e
c y s ie a bad something to recoassend i t , b a t i t was s c a rc e ly
th e t is e to encourage fa r t h e r sorest in the co lo n ies by doubl­
in g th e q a ltre a ts and in c re as in g the co st o f crown lan d s a t
least fiv e f o ld . *
Duaaore fiid n o t make p u b lic announcement o f
th e new in s tru c tio n s , though th e tsatter became known to eojae*
J e ffe rs o n in h is Saaaarv View*. «h ich was presented to th e
V ir g in ia convention o f 177%, condemned th e zsew lan d in s tru c ­
tio n s as an a r b itr a r y and u n ju s t im p o s itio n upon th e people*
He urged that the Virginians insist upon taking the IsaS
policy into their own hands In order to establish a homestead
system."" Curiously enough tee general principle of Jefferson*s views had been versed from the start hy the Sagllsh
officials, and the resistance to the measures for putting
lead directly into the hands of settlers Sad come from men
of wealth sad influence in Virginia and certain of the other
colonies-« cannot defend te e lan d orders, o f 1774 on any id e a l
b a s is *
Nor Is te a rs any escuse, fr o a ta e etan d p o tst o f
p u b lic p o lic y , f o r te e support which c e rta in o f f ic ia ls in
Sagland gave th e schesses w hich proposed to monopolise gresfc
19* Labaree, Instructions to Governors, II, 533-557; Acte
of the Prlvr Council,. 17^3^1783- o* 561.
20* Srltlnss of Ihoaas Jefferson,. ?. I** Pord, ed*, (10 vols*,
New York, 1392-1399)* I, 444-445*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
— 181 —
21
sectio n s o r the # e s t*
Prom inent aen la th e co lo n ies were
a ls o p artn ers in these v e n tu re s , and w hatever censure I s
due oust be shared by them*
G a til im m ediately befo re th e
d ev o lu tio n B a g lis h o f f ie 1s is had considered m atters r e la tin g
to la n d in V ir g in ia w ith o u t personal b ia s * and th e p o lic y
which they s e t fo r th was ju s t and p r a c tic a l*
But in th e
f i n a l a n a ly s is c o n tro l o f th e crown lands in V ir g in ia was
m ainly in th e hands o f a sm all group in th e colony* I t
would have beer* strange indeed i f th ese people had sought
no advantage from t h e ir power.
Sany o f th e methods which
they used In o rd e r to evade the d e s ire s o f th e E nglish au th o r­
i t i e s a re n o t ple& eant to contem plate*
One su et remember*
however* th a t th e V irg in ia n s regarded th e lim ita tio n s placed
upon then by E n glish in s tru c tio n s * and th e law s based upon
those in s tru c tio n s * as an u n ju s tifie d In te rfe re n c e in lo c a l
a ffa ir s #
The s o c ia l philosophy which governed th e la n d
p o lic y o f the men o f w ea lth and power In V irg in ia , does n o t
s u it our p resen t-d ay view s* b a t th e d isp o sal o f th e p u b lic
lan ds under o u r re p u b lic an government has s c a rc e ly matched
our professed b e lie f in e q u a lity *
. F o r an account o f th e p a r tic ip a tio n o f E n g lish o f f ic ia ls
l a w estern la n d sp ecu latio n s and th e in flu e n c e th is had upon
t h e ir views reg ard in g la n d p o lic y sea ?° ? . Abe m e th y* Westgng
Lands and th e American R e vo lu tio n , chapters IV * V , V IX ,
e s p e c ia lly pages 4 3 -5 0 * 1&5-1Q1*
21
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The fo llo w in g l i s t o f a l l patents f o r over 5 , GOG acres
issued, between lu ! 3 end 1774 is intended to g iv e soiee idea,
of th e e x te n t to which la n d was taken up in la rg e tra c ts
d u rin g th e p erio d s in d ic a te d .
I t does n o t, o f course, show
th e t o t a l amount o f lan d ownec by in d iv id u a ls , nor is i t any­
th in g ...ere than s g g e s tiv e c f t i e e x te n t o f I~nd ,-aten ted
by these p e .p le , f o r i t was a conuon . r u c tic e , p a r tic u la r ly
in the eig h te en th c e n tu ry , to acquire g re a t amounts o f lan d
in va rio u s p a te n ts o f r e la t iv e ly s u a ll acreage*
In a fe *
instan ces th e w r ite r has com in ed the o-creage in mere than
one p a te n t issued to an in d iv id u a l*
Ih e re th is is ci-te i t
is in d ic a te d by th e p-ge re feren ce cr .by consent besida th e
name.
Such co. b in n tio n s ware ;~aue cnly o c c a s io n a lly , arcere
th e sane person re c e iv e d two p a te n ts a t so n ea rly the s u e
tin e th a t th e f - c t was re a d ily ' apparent*
F o llo w in g th e l i s t o f p a te n ts , there is ~ l i s t o f all
g ra n ts ends by th e governor and co u n c il f o r u r-c'ts o f over
5 ,0 0 0 a c re s .
These g ran ts did. n o t g iv e f u l l t i t l e , b u t were
s is p iy p erm its to survey c e r ta in land f o r which p aten ts were
to be issued la t e r *
In th e case o f a few o f th e le rg e g ru n ts ,
p a te n ts were issued d ir e c t ly to the sever<*1 purchasers of
p o rtio n s o f th e t r a c t and thus th e o r ig in a l g ra n t does not ap—
!
!
p e a r as a u n it in th e p a te n t reco rd s*
Many c f th e la rg e
i
g ran ts w est o f th e .A lleghenies in the p erio d 1744-1755 were
n o t p e rfe c te d .
F o r fu r th e r e x p la n a tio n o f th e g ra n ts , ch apter
f iv e and s ix in th e t e x t should be co n su lted .
Mo attem pt
has been made to c o rre c t th e s p e llin g o f p r p er names*
J .-*
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1623 - 1643
Vol.
Page
1
1
1
1
1
1
410
691-704
814,882
702,771
477
52 1,8 95 ,7 59
Base
Jermiah Blackman & 7 o th ers
Geo. M u n ifie
Samuel Matthews
Henry P erry
Capt. Adam Thorogood
A rg o ll Y eardley
1643-
2
2
3
3
3
.
358
229,232
34
285,294
557
373
628
603
450-86
141
384
158
379
159,263
360
72-74
461
587
505
320
611
8,0 00
6,000
7,200
5,500
5,900
8 .2 0 0
1655
i.nu Clayborne
Moore F o n tsIro y
»rm. Clayborne
Gervase Dodson
Wm. Gooch, Hob t . • Yanis
1655 -
A
5 4
4&5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
55
4
4
5
Acreage
5,000
8,650
10,000
7,200
6.000
13'CSKS
1666
5,062
7,800
7,221
6,476
5,7 98
5 ,4 70
5,211
5,380
7,200
7,000
10,950
9,000
6 ,3 00
6 ,000
6 ,0 0 0
6 .0 0 0
w illia m B erkley
3 rid g e r & Surgh
H obt. Davis and 2 o thers
Edward H i l l
John H u ll & Wm. M oriey
V7m« Hockaday
Samuel Matthews
C uthbert P o tte r
Andrew Pettegrew
Frances Hichard
. Edmond Scarbnrg
John Savage
Lawrence Smith e t a l
Thos. Woodhouse, John flood
Tnos, W ilkinson
David W illiam son
]
1666 -
6
6
6
s*
D
6
6
o
6
6
565
126
218
225
303
499,525
518
546
547
1679
Henry Aubrey
5 ,100
2hos*& Henry B a tts
5,878
. Hobt. B everley
6 ,000
H obt. Beverley & John Pate
6 ,0 00
Hobt.' Beverley
6 ,0 0 0
Hobt. B everley
11,800
John Buckner & 2 o th ers
10,050
John 3ouzee, James H a rris o n 9,019
Hobt* S e ve rley ,H o b t. &
Lawrence Smith
6 ,5 0 0
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1666 •
( c o a t 'd . )
c* O C» C’»o o c »
604
117
182,384,489
667
27
267
588 e t sea*
C> 0* O C> C* C*
663
310
571,595
427,482
50,118
467
O C> OC>Ci©
529
434 e t seq*
590
518
: ■78
392 e t sea,
OC>
495
533
OO
Page
615
*
O <7»
V o i»
1679
421,439
410
A c re a g e
J a . Byrd
Henry Corbin
7,166
Thos. Chetwo od, John P r o r s e r i4 ,721
Aa&retj G ilso n
6 ,7 1 0
Jo b s,H a il
7,110
B obt. Howaias
6 ,0 0 0
Capt* D a n ie l J e n n ife r &
w ife {10 t r a c ts }
S 3,710
Cadwatlader Jones
14,114
Bn, H esd ali
10,500
&s« Penes. 11
13,900
-via, H e n d s ll
8 ,0 50
:7a# Loy&.
3,517
P h ilip B udw ati,P ichard
2 0 ,00 0
Phiteheed
John & Geo. a o tt
15,654
Goo, 8 o rris { 6 trs c ts )
8 ,3 48
f.owLand P lace
5,579
Phos, £ a ^ a to n ,e t a l
13,603
B&mond ijesrhnrgh
6 ,0 00
C has.3earburgh,et s i
{4 t r a c t s )
• 17,250
John Ravage
9 ,0 00
Case* & iidward cearbnrgh,
e t a l.
8 ,0 0 0
Pichol&a spencer, e t a l
5 VQQ0
John Pest & p a rtn e rs
{11 tr a c ts )
2 8 ,30 0
:uu S M ttin g to n
8 ,6 5 0
Augustine earner
10.100
364,685
<* SJ<! *3-4 "4 O «a
*4 <3 -a
1679 • 1689
*
*r»
'47
401
529
Hearer Aubrey •
John Bsughaa
Stephen Senferi&ge,Diehard
Sums t a l l
&a» 3yrd
ia a c e io t B ath u rst
fh o s , C layton
Geo*, G il l
D a n ie l J e n n ife r(5 tr a c ts )
<«3* ilo r r ia , Joshua -atorey
George D orris.
D ieh .T u rn s* a11 6- p a rtn e r
6 ,6 30
5 ,0 0 0
8 ,5 00
7,351
5 ,0 0 0
. 5 ,8 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
6,590
5 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
3 .6 0 0
6 8 ,8 7 I
"hose p aten ts are sc a tte re d throughout JGiasm 6 as in d ic a te d
ia d e r.
547*549
598
595
199
66 e t seq,.
245
£48
529'
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1689 -
jioJL*
8
8
8
8
3
•
Page
135
391
169
131,138,150
268
1695
Base
Lsarence B athurst
H obt. B everley
Hoary Bandoiph
Capt* Joshna cto re y
Capt, Joshua s to re y
acreage
5,0 00
6,5 0 0
5 ,6 5 0
23
9! 150
49.6&0
1695 • 1706*
9
9
9
9
f* /»
CO
69.612
216
669
5 ,0 0 0
Hobt* B everley
10.159
Ja* cyrd
5,0 0 0
Lewis ..-urareiL
David Bray,H enry B ig h tfo o i,
f*/ ‘A
o,cG0
B ic iu Hharion
5,6 44
D iehard Bland
5 ,0 0 0
cas^oeon Dare 11
5 ,7 6 4
John Drumraond
Bartho loses? Foster
6,5 00
Tdsard. i i i i i
6,0 60
8,057
3ea$* H a rris o n
7,253
H i ch. L ittle p s g e
John T u l l i t t •
17,660
Halph H orseley
16,700
5,0 0 0
B ieh * Shitehead
5*920
Dalph so raeley
**
9
9
9
9
9
3
9 9
9
9
n
732
217
An
153
208,211
214,740
366,456
740
11-38
218
222
116, 20?
1710 ~ 1719
to
3 4 ,28 9,45 2
455
57-68
*7<V;r
407
10
to
417,453
165
to
60
to
10
10
10
. Hobt* B everley
Dob t • Sever Ley , Thos » Jone s
L a rk in & Jos. Chew
Chas* Chiowe11 *
'Jin, Cocke, sa* a t r o t h e rs ,
F ran c is Thorton
L a rk in Chew
Henry H o rri son , i h i 1ip
Badweii
Jos* Bichsrdson
10,364
16,000
7,185
9,976
6,0 0 0
10,
loo
6 ,3 6 5
8 .0 5 0
72,740
1713 - 1732
LI
it
11
60
64 ,83
147
Jo h n -B o llin g
Hobt* So Ltin g
H arry B everley,C o le Diggs,
Fra* Hobart son, Lewis hatase
6,887
5*268'
12,000
* There were no p a te n ts signed between June 1 0 th , 1706 and
December 1 2 th ,i? iQ »
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-±«e-
1719 Vo U
3ana
11
147
11
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
14
11
li
11
12
13
13
14
14
15
12
13
13
12
14
148,404
343,373
499,501
75,75
216,229
274
*>l&,wl?
400
25
329
91*95,197
9 5 ,96
505
506
473
238
450
15
11
11
11
13
13
13
14
11
il
IS
13
13
11
12
14
14
li
1732 { c a n t'd ,}
re t e r Sever le y , vis* ^tetssrd,
Bdsrin Thacker, Jerenieh
Cloader
iie rry B everisy
•John S o ilin g
John B o y lo r.J r,
Js* B everley
Bobt* B o llin g
Henry Botseock
.-is, Beverley
H obt, Beverley
John B o llin g
Cstesby Cocke, e t a l
L a rk in Ches
Cr&viin Corbin
Oa^in Corbin
Batyin Corbin
John C a rte r
ChssV Ghissreii
Granola Conway 6 Anthony
Iko ra to n
.£&• C laiborne'
Dudley Biggs
F ran c is Bg&s
John -Orymes
D iehard liicfcasnC sootaaaofi}
125
329
20 2,4 82 ,4 85
585
433
24 &, 434
M ichael Holland
V o l, 15,86
1 -2
Chos,Jones
145
Bhos*Jones,John Clayton
147
Bobt* Mosford
295—301
Augustine BOGra
234
. Sarah Mur&en
267-268
Angnstiaa iioorc
472,43
N icholas ile ri'o e th e r
138,274
4‘a * &ayo
iS i
Bdiyard D ip p in g ,e t a l
19S
John Dobinson
20,21
Bra* Bobsrtson
134 v o l, 13,
44
Sza* Handolph
157
«fiB, Baadolph
275
John F.obineoa, Jr«
63
B n ,' S tro th e rs ,e t a l
39 c 'o l,1 3 .
481-487
John Byme
232,236
John cyse
' 378
Alexander Bpotswood
63
C h icksley C hecker,Francis
-Thornton, e t a l
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Aereae
£4,000
8 ,0 0 4
7 ,1 83
14,900
7.S32
6 ,6Lu
5 ,0 0 0
1
?f•xn'i
Lu<t
24,000
5 ,5 8 2
6 ,9 0 0
19,380
18,000
6 ,0 0 0
19,900
. 3,350
15,568
5 ,0 0 0
5 , IbS
5 ,0 0 0
11,350
12,000
28,000
13,200
10,030
40 ,000
6 ,3 6 0
5 ,5 5 0
9,68?
15,300
20,729
12,200
10,000
f•**», J
"jr\
***V
i•**-V
•*JxJ
#
5 ,5 2 0
5 ,5 5 9
6,5595 ,0 5 9
6 ,0 0 0
19,449
5 ,3 5 0
40,000
• 6 ,0 0 0
i-
1719 V o l*
1732 (e o n t*d *)
Page
11
11
Acreage
149,150
421,422 to iv
13,292,478
450
2 6 6 ,c54 ? o l*
14,449
14
13
Jss* P a llo r
15,500
Pa* ?odd
Anthony Thornton a t a l
!c ,6 4 6
6 ,0 0 0
Henry P i l l i s
1732 115,302
5 0 0 ,V o l,19 ,
951
o ,7
128,395
154
18
15
15
17
145
360
876,378
907-909
239
440-446
506
45
90
2 0 8 -2 'li
18
13
19
19
2021
17
18
18
18
249-252
577
209
291
pasaiss*
2 4 2 ,Vo1 *1 8 ,
. 4 6 ,5 9 ,1 1 4
60 ,6 1 V o l. 18,
72
874
556-560
580
284,452
455-458
424-432
417-421
6 1 ,6 5
110-117
161
472,473
475
218
184
LB
21
17
17
15
18
17
19
20
21
15
15
13
iG
17
17
17
17
17
18
20
14.715
698,Q&£
1743
8,435
John A lle n
r.o ht* d o llin g
13,103
2s* B everley A Hobt* Brooh
7,754
Sa* B e v e rle y , Jo to Randolph 0
H i chard & John Bobinson
118,491
Jos* drools:
7,46?
92,100
3en3* Borden
6,4 33
3en3*\3orden
John B o llin g
5 ,7 7 3
:7a* Byrd
105,000
11,900
Pa*'. B everley
Thos C arr
5,041
John C a rte r
10,000
Henry Cary
17,000
John C h iefs 11 ,Bob t * Green, 30,000
Hobt* 'Se2ay,Jost H ite
ps * 2 s ? f, e t a t
3,991
Lm?i3 3 e lo n y ,c r*
7,137
9,459
Henry, rits h ttg h
.7a* Grey
5,9 00
Joat H it e ,13 tra c ts '
19,873
‘
H ich a ei H olland
8,995
Hobt* Le^is
Hobt* Les?is
John Lewis
P h ilip B ig h tfo o t
£a* Mayo
S ic a * Hauldea
Ceo* N icholas
■da* B n es eli
E ich * Hsndolph
Joan Baglend
H ieh * Bsndolph
H ieh * Handolph
Ish sa Eandolph
Pa* Bohertson
John nobinson
3,2 30
6 ,4 3 0
11,790
6,538
9,778
6,100
6,1 00
9,600 '
6,529
6,727
5,4 30
12,921
6,0 00
6,196
5,0 53
^TilGSS p a te n ts axe sea tte r e fi throughout V 6 l* lo as in d ic a te d by
A.*_i
.a—
_
_
_
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-x o e -
1732 -
1743
lisas
? o l»
20
15
17
18
17
17
IS
393
129,135
149 vo l 18,
4*7
122,293 v o l.
20,493
343, Vol 18,
110,151
139,143
i"rfy
oo
iaCt
30
31
32
29
31
25
S3
29
23
26
<■»
r>
Cj+-»
29
31
26
£0
29
22
A c re a g e
H Ie h , Bandolph
Jacob ito v e r
10,300
10,000
D a n ie l 3to n e r
0 ,1 00
Abraham Venable
Geo* /ebb
9,630
7,100
7/a* aatsoa
Henry L i l l i s
1743 23
25
£6
28
31
52 -
(c O B t’ d . )
6,855
7. 146
ii? 6 *s n
17EC
Geo* B raxton,'Jr«
John D o llin g
John D o llin g
John B o llin g
John D o llin g
John B o llin g
John jo 1lin g •
Geo, C a rrin g to n
Abraham Cocke
J a lte r Coles
A rch ib ald Cary
N icholas DfiaonSe ,c ie s e n t
Dead
J ic h o ia s Sdaonds, Lunsford
317
lo o a x , Hobt* Jones, Clataent
Bead
Dobt* Green
264—272
Bich*& ks * Hannon
647
' -c a ite r King
99
John iit ie id a ie .A ie x jp a id 796
iag .
David M ills
603
John 3ash (4 tr a c ts )
409-413,616
John
Hash
514
John
Sash
708
4 5 7 ,Vol 28
John Omsby
556—561
James H atton
556—560
Janes B s tto n {8 4 tra c ts }
408,239-363
Jamas 2 s tto a {7 tr a c ts )
171-184
2d b t* Sose
1 7 fi,i8 2
P e te r Hacker
596
606
615
446,449
459
82
215,402
439
4
366
577-573
393 ‘
305
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25,000
6 ,3 00
9 ,7 66
S3,COO
5 ,2 85
l0 ,O o i
5 ,4 5 0
5 ,5 6 0
5 ,4 50
5,4 69
10,650
16,650
18,567
7,747
31 ,700
28,528
16,993
6,196
5 ,5 3 7
8 ,4 9 7
6 , o67
11,589
11,790
19,104
22,646
3 3 ,3 0 0
5 ,8 5 0
1745 - 1756 (co n t’ a .)
Vole
25
25
51
27
28
3i
51
52
oo
Page
Bazae
766 V o l.31 555-543 Sichard Sandoiph
(12 tr a c ts )
L86
tfsu Stack
722,745
3b . S tith
205-209 V o l.
28,115
Thos* W illiam s
515, 7 o l# 3 0 ,
103
Win# Batson
145,147
Thos* W alker
415
Jos* '.Vatson
14
Geo* W alker
675
John W atkins, * e t a l*
Acreage
51,209
5 ,2 9 0
5 ,8 50
9,510
7,727
7,950
5,0 00
5 ,3 6 4
6,2
>nm** 00
L756 - 1767
54
36
33
34
53
1044
596
428
515
49
33
39
33
816
268
315
55
35
36
102
105
884-908
33
36
54
35
36 '
56
35
56
34
158
902-922
993,994
542,345
583
947,961
348
910
1 6 6 ,Vo1*55
3 2 4 ,V o l,55,
1038
665,564
765
370 T o l*3 7 ,
111
905-908
35
36
36
35
3en5* Arnold
6,900
H ie h . Aden’s
5 ,4 7 0
?/ra*-Clopton
5 ,1 4 5
3 d ith Cobbs
9,854
Stephen Dewey,Ustthew T a lb o t,
lii cho 1as Bdnond s, Boh t • -Vone s8,000
Nicholas D avies
25^000
I’i-cholas Davies
31^305
Hobt* Jennings, James L i t t l e • P.sge
5,120
Hoot* Ir.n is
16,650
Hobt# In n is
7,600
W aiter Z in g , Thos. Mann
Hendolph
24,885
Chas* Lynch (9 tr a c ts )
6 ,1 5 4
James Mnrray (3 tr a c ts )
15,062
E ich * Hondoiph
10,000
' John Hobinson
8,291
Clement Head, J r.
8,0 00
Clement Bead
7,817
Andrew Shepherd
11,267
Chac<prre33 T e rry ’
2 0 ,00 0
Geo. W alton
Obadish Soodson
H i c h .’ W itton
James. B Lair & P h il Johnson
John E arn er, e t a l ,
I
I
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18,887
5 ,9 3 0
5 ,3 16
7,556
20.505
290,332
1767 - 1774 (coat'd*)
V o l.
Seme
4L
42
94
492
42
42
496
503
40
41
42
39
36
41
854
83 ,86
567-571
89,92
905-903
77
57
37
41
42
57
41
42
2
542
103
432
389,396
80
488
42
42
37
42
41
-
500.
503
342
735
66-73
John ravage {62 o th e rs )
John F ry , Andres Lexis (6
o th e rs )
OsTid Hichsrdsortf 120 o th e rs )
Vsu-Bronangh, J c s .C re ih , 6 so*
Muse
5 le a s e r Clay
Janes- C raih
N ich o las C ah ell
csanel Gordon
John Harmsr, et a l*
Oec* Hase, -.daa ^tajjheo
An&reg lots:Ls, P e te r io g ,
John West, John Poison,
Andrew Wagoner
Hobt*- Jennings, Hobt* Wathen
Jamuel Jordon
Hoary Hays
Sdmonu Lyno
Henry H a rris , s t s i .
Oeo* Harcer
Geo* H e re er, Andres? Wagner,
John west
• Geo* .Hues, Geo* Washington
Geo* little , e t s i*
Jaek: ‘Poorer, e t s i .
H o h t. P u ffin
Oeo* Washington
Acreage
28 ,62 7 {i3 ii
ft
21,941
*
28,400
*
7 ,7 9 4
5,836
5 ,6 0 6
6,026
5,065
20,305
51,302
r*
5 ,2 5 0
5,766
7,676
5 ,0 4 0
13,352
*
"
JT
7,276
7,894
3 ,2 5 0
5,6 58
20,147
t
* Patented on -m rrsnts issu ed f o r se rv ice i s the- French and
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
*
- fly ,
277,303
In d ia n Tar*-
n
"
Greats o£ Over 5,000 Acres
1713 ~ 1732
Ill*
Page
gate
432
433
1716
1715
475
475
475
475
1718
1718
1718
1718
475
475
475
502
1713
1718
1718
17153
502
503
S03
1719
1719
1719
503
503
504
1719
1719
1719
515
1719
v lvr.
1719
516
1719
516
513
516
538
1719
1719
1720
IT S )
538
1720
538
53
538
1720
1720
1720
Basse
Acreage
lo c a tio n
Robert B o llin g
Asg* S o ars, J a s .T y lo rt J r . ,
B s a j. A rnold,B orland Thoses
Robert B everley
John■B aylo r
la o s * Jones, Merchant
John B aylo r
P rin c e George
King U llis a a &
Be® Sent
BsseZjBapiden H*
»
C
T5
<T
f I f f
Essex,King & Qjueea
& K ing h IIH s e i
Augustine Moore
The a , Bellas r
T&os* Cook, Merchant
? h ll« Ltfd® ell*Joim Grsiaos,
N ich o le s a e r r iu a th s r , C hris­
to p h e r C le rk
$ a t ..& H & iry H a m son
Thos* Jesses, M archeat
Jjevid Bray
K in g
6 ,4 0 0
10,000
1 0 ,0 0 0
5 .0 0 0
5.000
22,000
6,000
5 .0 0 0
5.000
P i l i i ani
King zillim
403QB R iver
A t fo o t o f 'It s * on
Saufcfcemna B iv e r
H e n ric o , Appo. ?.•
n
v
f*
H e n ric o , above
•isanakis
Henrico ^caiehinG r*
H e n ric o , Appo* E»
15,000
6 ,0 0 0
5 .0 0 0
John T u lb it t
M ichael Archer
J a s . T a y lo r , Sasoad T y lo r ,
Benj« A rn o ld , Geo* H alfro d d Hen Kent
B a t*H a rris o n , Henry B arrieo n
John A lie n tz -is* M a a rd s
Boanok© E lv e r
John S aylor #Thos„Jone s , E o b t.
E ssex,P lldernesB .Bun
B e v e rle y , e t a l,
Lanrenee T e llia f c r io &
EssexJohn T a llia fe rx o , Jr*
H enrico
3b . Sondridge .
51
Hobt* S la v s , John Thearnton
3 a rry
B e n i. H arriso n
R ic h . H leksaa, e t a l (S p otsGenasnna
®OOd)
C ol* Diggs, P e te r B e v e rle y ,
Bapldan R iver
^a.B obertcca {^jotssood}
B .F o rk BappehennQcfe
^ a*B assett,G avin Corbin
Cedar !St* Bun
Angus tin e & LetJrence S sith
Hobt* B ro o k ,J r*,
Baaphrey Brook, '/oj-gas tin e ' C aith
Rappahannock H iv e r
& Laurence a a ith
valu e
a re in v o l. I I I .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5.0 0 0
5.000
5 .0 0 0
6.000
6 ,0 0 0
20 ,0 0 0
5.000
5.0 00
5.000
8 .0 0 0
20,000
12,000
10,000
10,000
8 ,0 0 0
Mo 111•ove
1716 - 1752 { coat*d*)
-
Ill
Page
Sate
559
SS9
1720
1720
539
540
540
540
540
1720
1721
1721
1721
1721
541
1721
541
1721
547
54?
1721
1721
54?
54?
54?
543
1721
1721
1721
1721
-
548
548
551
1721
1721
1721
Across©
lo c a tio n
Ifeese
B apifim f& v o r
John Bars
Thos* Bayess e ro ft# v&uHeoelln*.
P rin c e George
3 b» ^ e s
Fork o f Rappahannock
0©e>*?erker & Co*
Sogh Jon©st Clerk{£pots?nod} Gemanns
P rin c e George
Rich# Berber
P rin c e George
John B o llin g
Robt* B o H ln g , Jobs Baae l l s ,
P rin c e George
John F its g e rs ld
Hobt# B o llin g , John H s c e lin
P rin c e George
John F itz g e ra ld
Henry Harrison,John, Reson,
m . Coclaa & 5T !io s*H o lli2 g h n rst C hristasna
Laurence & John T e l Ife r r o
S potsylvania
via* Todd, John B a lt a ile ,
S potsylvania
John T e lia fe rro
Thcs* C arr
*•
^♦R o b ertso n & L a rk in Chew
L a rk in Chew
.
E ing w in is n
Bartholomew Y etes,Lew is
L s ta In e ,E e n iy B everley & .
-% )Otsylvsnie
vtsu ctennard
Bruns# & P rin c e Geo#
Bobt# lio a fo rd
S potsylvania
Jos* T aylo r
J.ssusd Jenicg s ,'- b #J©sings,
S potsylvania
' J a s # T a y lo r,J r. & "as.^hite
1 0 ,0 0 0
5,0 0 0
1 0 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 0
15,000
1 5 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
7 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
12 ,00 0
8 ,0 0 0
10 ,00 0
10 ,00 0
—■
IT
51
51
1723
1723
51
106
122
125
323
1726
1726
1726
1726
1726
325
124
1726
1726
128
142
145
162
163
163
1729
1727
1727
1728
1729
172S
ir u r y s t lt h ,© t a l
Bobt # Beverley f ■■&#St anna r 6,
e t a l#
B^aosd Berkeley
Thos# Josse s
John Bollcsray
Benry P o s e r,e t a l
Sense t t Abney ,J r# B icb *
. Hiekmsn.
Tbos# Bandolph
?3a* OsBdriSge & John H o llo ­
way
R&* L!ayo
F ra n c is Bpps, e t e l
Fran els %ps
Seth Ward
John cyme
6 ,0 0 0
Brunswick
Spot sylvan Ic
Henrico
16,000
5,0 0 0
6,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
Henrico
Henrico
20 ,0 0 0
10 ,0 0 0
Henrico
H enrico
12 ,00 0
6,3 50
12 ,00 0
5,000
- 5,0 00
6 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
*
*
.
H en rico ,A p p b .R iver
Appo* R iv e r
H oover
P rin c e George
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1716 - 1732 (coat'd.)
IV
?age
Date
ISO
181
181
181
191
1728
1728
1728
1728
1728
193
1728
209
1729
209
1729
224
1730
223
1730
224
1730
229
1730
224
1730
232
1730
233
1730
233 &
244
1730
241
1731
1731
249
250
1731
251
1731
251
1731
253
1731
1732
258
1732
258
281 &
262
1732
1732
262
1732
270
270
1732
1732
270
270
1732
270
271
289
295
1732
1732
1732
1732
Name
L a rk in Chew
F ran cis Epps
L a rk in Chew, e t a l .
*Jhos* Chew, e t a l .
John C a rte r, Francis Epps,
e t a l.
P a u lin Anderson, e t a l .
John C a rte r
Geo. Webb
Hsu B everley
John Van M eter
Isa ac Van M eter
I l e x . Ross, Mcrgai Bryan
Jacob Stover
B e ve rley , e t a l .
Aug. Moore & John Robinson
Chas. Burgess
Chas. Hudson, e t a l.
^ e.B e v e rle y , e t a l . '
John Fishback, e t 'a l .
Thos. Ravens c ro ft
M ichael Holland
Robt. McKay, Joost Eeyd
F ran cis W illis
Chas. .G h isw ell
lo c a tio n
S potsylvania
Spotsylvania
Spotsylvania
Hardware R iv e r
James R ive r
James R iv e r
S potsylvania
V a lle y
V a lle y
V a lle y
V a lle y
V a lle y
V a lle y
Spotsylvania
Goochland, James R.
. V a lle y
V a lle y
V a lle y
Spots. & Hanover
Spots* & Hanover
Acreage
1 0 ,00 0
5,000
10,000
6,0 00
20,000
6,000
6,000
12,000
12,000
3 0 ,0 0 0 *
1 0 ,0 0 0 *
100,000*
10 ,0 0 0 *
20 ,00 0
30,000
8,0 00
6,000
20 ,0 0 0 *
50 ,00 0*
1 0 ,00 0
7 ,0 0 0
100,000*
5,000
15 ,00 0
P rin c e George
8 ,0 0 0
John F itz g e ra ld
6,000
John Syme & V®. Robert son
Cohongaratoon R ive r 20 ,000
John Robinson
15,000
V a lle y
^ .* B everley •
Dandridge
Eanover
5 ,0 00
F ran cis W illis , John Lew is,
2 0 ,00 0
F ra n c is K irb y .
V a lle y
Robt. Brooke, Geo. B ra x to n ,J r. Spots. & Eanover
1 0 ,000
5 ,000
Upper James
John B o llin g
A lex Ross, e t a l .
Near Pa. - Md. Line 20 ,000
R obt. B everley, *&o. B e v e rle y ,
V a lle y
50 .00 0
John C o rrie
1 ,1 1 3 ,3 5 0
.
G ranted on c o n d itio n o f s e ttlin g one fa & ily fo r each: thousand
acres ia the grant w ith in two ye ars.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.
1733 - 1743
IV
Page
Date
303
305
1733
1735
311
311
1753
1733
323
326
529
350
1734
1734
1734
1734
3518c
408
553
355
362
363
363
363
364
1735
1735
1735
1735
1735
1735
1735
1735
364
364
365
367
1735
1735
1735
1735
380
380
380
580
381
1756
1736
1736
1736
1756
381
388
390
394
1736
1756
1736
1737
395
402
1737
1737
403
403
405
409
17 37
1737
1737
1737
Name
L ocation
Goochland
Henry Gary
Hieh.Bsndolph,John B o llin g ,
Brunswick
Kennon
Anthony B o g g art, e t a l .
Stephen Hughes, T a rle to n
Goochland
Fleming
Kim. Chamber1 syne, e t a l .
Appomattox H ire r
Henry L i l l i s
V a lle y
Janes Vaughn
Brunswick
H i ch. Hamdolph,John B o llin g
TSn. Xennon
Brunswick
Benjamin Borden.
Snu Bobertson
V a lle y
Hanover
Tmu Bobertson, John H a iry
Brunswick
3nu Byrd
V a lle y
Pm. B u s s e ll
Goochland
John C a rte r
Goochland
Thos. Chew,Bobt. Bose
Thos. Coring to n , Thos. Croueher Am elia
Isa ac W inston,John Heh-ry,
3m. Bobertson
Goochland
I bu C a rr
Goochland
Anthony B oggart,Jos* Babbs Goochland
T a r I t on Fleming , e t a l .
Brunswick
Samuel Cobbs, Chas, C h isw ell Amelia
Matthew Kemp ,^m. Bob e r t sen,
John Henry
Amelia & Goochland
P a tr ic k H a iry , Chas. Lynch
Brunswick
Obadiah abodson
Goochland
John B o llin g
Am elia
Chas. Hudson, e t a l .
T a rlto n Fleming , Step te n
Hughes, John Webb, H eary Webb
and 70 o th e rs
Brunswick
Thos. Chew, B o b t. Bose
Goochland
N ich o las Davies
Goochland
John B o llin g
John Mar tin ,H e n ry Armeste ad ,
Lewis Burweli,Edmond B erkeley V a lle y
Edward B a rra d e l l, John Lewis C a lf P asture B ive r
^su Bandolph, P e te r J e ffe rs o n
John Harm er, w a ite r X ir g ,
N ich o la s M e rrlw e a th e r, J r .
Head Shenandoah B.
John Cole
Eanover
J a s .F o s te r
M ich ael H o lla n d , e t a l..
Brunswick
Goochland
B obt. Lewis
Ed.Booker,John N s^i ,Geo.
ifa lk e r, Samuel Cobbs
Amelia
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Acreage
12,000
10,000
6,000
6,000
6,000
10,000
5.000
10,000
100,000*
6.000
100,000
9 ,6 0 0 *
10,000
20,000
5.000
30.000
6.000
6,000
30.000
6,000
SO,000
6,000
5,090
8,000
30.000
20.000
6,000
5,000
5 0 ,0 0 0 *
50,000*
50.000
7.000
10.000
5 .0 0 0
20,000
1733 - 1743 (cont’d.)
IV
Page
Date
418
1738
419
4E0
17 3S
1738
424
1738
429
1738
429
430
17 58
1738
435
435
435
1738
1738
1738
440
AAA
TSV
1739
1759
]
Samp?
-
Geo. B raxton, S r. ,Geo. B raxton, J r .
Humphrey Brooke, Thos. Chew, Yin.
Randolph, -John Harmer
W alter King
Anthony Belh6zs.jTlios.Code,
J a s .B e lh a m ;H ic h a rd ,? ru J r., &
F ran cis Eesnon
P i ch . Clough,John Key, John
Bagland
M ich »B o llan d,E eziiyC hild s, H e x .
Tynson,Jas. & Joseph ta lk e r
John P leasan ts
R ich* Clough, John Key, .
John Ragland
John B o llin g
I sham Randolph
Ba.Handolph,John Banner,
W alter King
Wm.Lynch,John Geainaway
John Bobinson, van.. Gooch, J r . ,
Henry Bobinson,Thos.Lew is,
Andrew Lewis
Location
Acreage
Goochland
40,000
Brunswick & V a lle y 3 0 ,0 0 0
Brunswick
60,000
Goochland
6,000
Brunswick
Upper Appo. B.
10,000
Goochland
Brunswick
V a lle y
6,000
5.000
12,000
V a lle y
24,000
6.000
V a lle y
30,000
10,000
Date
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
6/12/1740'
6 /1 2 /1 7 4 0
5 /5 /1 7 4 1
5 /5 /1 7 4 1
5 /5 /1 7 4 1
5 /5 /1 7 4 1
5 /5 /1 7 4 1
5 /5 /1 7 4 1
James D aniels
Wm.Hagginson
Jas.Wood,John- Che It o n , v& .Parks,
Wm. T r ip le t t
R ic h . Clough,John Begland,
John P e ttis
Hi ch. Randolph, Ishan & Edward
Bandolph
Henry Anderson, Matthew
T a lb o tt
Bobt. A tkins
Bich.W ard & John B o llin g
Thos. W illiam s
J e ffe rs o n , e t a l .
Clough and P e ttis
Kansas ille g ib le
John Coles
W alker
S ta u n to n ,L o v e ll & Yvatts
Brunswick
Brunswick
5.000
6.000
Orange
20,000
Brunswick
12,000
B runsw ick,O tter R .60,000
Brunswick
F a llin g R iv e r
5 ,0 0 0
Goochland,Jemes B. 8 ,0 0 0
BrunswiekBoanoke R.10,00C
Brunswick, Roanoker 6,0 00
Brunswick
15,000
Brunswick
12,000
Brunswi ck
12,000
Brunswick
5,000
Bnm swick
6 ,000
Orange
.. 6,000
1 . Date o f e n try in the unpublished jo u rn a ls o f the c o u n c il..
P h o to s te tic copies were used a t the Aldermen L ib ra ry , U n iv e rs ity
o f V ir g in ia .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-± a c -
1755 — 1743 (cont'd.)
Date
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 2
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 2
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 2
1 2 /1 5 /1 7 4 2
5 /6 /1 7 4 5
5 /6 /1 7 4 5
5 /6 /1 7 4 5
5 /6 /1 7 4 5
6 /1 6 /1 7 4 5
1 0 /2 5 /1 7 4 3
1 1 /5 /1 7 4 5
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 5
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 5
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 3
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 5
Name
Location
Drury S tith ,M ic h a e l" Young,
Henry M o rris
Cabbel, A rthur Hopkins
Abraham Cock
3ia.Randolph,Lunsfar d Lomax,
John Lom ax,W aller Sing
Tm* C a b e ll, S r. , Joseph & John
Cabel 1 , «m. Hopkins
Matthew Talbot
John & Jaaes C h ris tia n
Thos.& H a th .B a ss ett
Clement R ead,H atthes T alb o t
John & Heniy Robinson,
Thos. & Andrew Lewis
Geo .C a rrin g to n ,-Edaond Grey
Wm.Grey,Ashford Hughes
John Leonard, John W ilson
R i ch. Booker ,S aauel B aker,
John Thompson
75a.Winston J r . , Wm.Burress
Acreage
Brunswick, Stone Cr. 5.000
Goochland
7 .0 00
Brunswick
5.000
Goochland
5.000
Goo chlend
6.000
Brunswick
6,000
Goochland,James K. 5.000
Goochland,James R. 5.000
Brunswick,
10,000
Staunton R iv e r
O range,Calves R* . 30.000
Goo c h ., Fluvanna R. 6.000
Bruns. P igg R iv e r 10.000
B ru n s.B an ister R. 15,000
Brunswick
B a n is te r R ive r
8 ,0 00
Bruns. Bon R iver
5.000
,233,600
1744 - 1756
5 / 2/1744
5 /3 /1 7 4 4
5 /3 /1 7 4 4
5 /3 /1 7 4 4
5 /5 /1 7 4 4
5 /5 /1 7 4 4
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4 '
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4
6 /1 5 /1 7 4 4
P e te r Randolph, John Coles
Archabold C a ry ,B e n j.H a rris o n
R ich . W illiam s ,Lawrene e
T a llia fe r r o
Richard & Saauel Wynne .
Thos • W illi sms, Geo • Sand e r son,
John W a lle r
Stephen Dewey,Clement Read,
i3ra.Wynne, N ich o las Edmonds,
David B e ll,A rc h ib a ld Cary,
A lex . Stenson
Geo..Carring to n , P h ilip Mayo
Adam Tempi ey, J r .
Stephen Dewey, Clement Read,
R ic h . Sdmonds, B o b t. J o n e s ,J r.
Clement Sead,.WnuWynne,
R ic h . Edmonds
Clement Read, N ic h .T a lb o t,
H ic h . Edmonds
John Oensby, W m .stith
Gooch. Huvanna E.
Brunswick
5.000
15 ,00 0,
Brunswick
Brunswick
12,000
5.000
Brunswick
Brunswick
•Irw in R iv e r
Brunswick
S n ith s R iv e r
Brunswick
Brunswick
12,000
, Roanoke R iv e r
20.000
Irw in R iv e r
Brunswick
S tin k in g R iv e r
B ru n s .P a llin g R.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10,000
15.000
5,400
5 .000
10,000
10,000
' 7,0 00
1744 - 1756 {eont’d.)
* 1745
* 1745
* 1745
385 1745
John Bobinson, e t a l .
John S a ith , e t a l .
James Pat to n , e t a l .
J o in B la ir , e t a l .
* 1747
s&u MeMachan, e t a l .
* 1752
* 1752
8 /6 /1 7 4 7
8 /6 /1 7 4 7
8 /6 /1 7 4 7
8 /6 /1 7 4 7
8 /6 /1 7 4 7
8 /6 /1 7 4 7
22 /10 /1 74 7
12 /10 /1 74 7
22 /10/1747
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
4 /2 7 /1 7 4 8
6 /1 7 /1 7 4 8
6 /1 7 /1 7 4 8
6 /1 7 /1 7 4 9
G re en b rie r
Boanoke
New B iv e r
Potomac & A llegheny
r iv e r s
Potomac & A llegheny
r iv e r s
Augusta
1 0 0 ,ooc
50,0DC
100,00c
1 0 0 ,ooc
6 0 ,OOC
Thos. Lewis
1 0 0 ,ooc
N ich o las M erriw eath er
2 0 ,OOC
Wm.Booker,John Booker, J r . ,
Edmond Books? & M s son
John Booker
Brunswick & M aherin
Bev. Witt. Lawson, Joshua F ry ,
Wfcu C a b e ll, John Aarthony
Thos. W illia m s , Bobt. M odie, Lunenburg on
Seneca O r.
Wm. Broadnax
2m .Gray, Ashford Hughey
David H o lt, V a le n tin e Wood,
Chas. Fleming
Augusta
Jo s . T e rry , B io s. C h ris tia n ,
B ich .L a ae , S r ., James T e rry ,
Thos. Davenoort
Lunenburg
Henry W illis , John P a rish
Augusta N orth M t.
Nansemond
Name ille g ib le
Lunsford Lomax, Saauel Jorden Lunenburg
Albem arle
John B o llin g ( in 4 tr a c ts )
B obt. C a rte r, John Stevenson,
Lunenburg
John Lee
Lunenburg, Mayo B.
Geo. C u rrie (in 5 tr a c ts )
John H a ll, Geo. W alton, Jos. James B iv e r, Lunen.
& Albem arle
Johnson
Chas. Pear son (2 tr a c ts )
Lunenburg
David B e ll, Jas. 'B e ll, W alter Lunenburg, Dan B iv e r
K in g , A rch ib a ld Cary
Bobt. W alton, Tucker Woodson Lunenburg,
Den B iv e r 5
Samuel H a rris
Lunenburg
5 ,OOC
James P o w er,' Wa.Tay l o r , Dune an
Graham, John M a rtin
Lunenburg,
Den B iv e r 26
vm .Gray,Ashfor d Hughes, David '
H o lt,V a le n tin e "Wood, Chas.
Fleming (To purchase rig h ts on Augusta, Western
re tu rn o f survey)
w aters
John H a ll, Obaaiah Woodson,
Geo. & B obt. Walton
Lunenburg,O tter 3 .
Drury S tith
Sturgeon Bon
Thos.Jone s, H5m.Woo dfor d, Catsby
Cock,W alter M ug,John (naae
ill e g i b l e ) Bobt. Jennings, Thos.
Jones, Samuel la k e , Jacob Shep­
h e rd , Jaaes atepherd
Lunenburg
*The co u n cil records from Sept* 1 0 , 1744 to June 1 0 , 1747 have n o t
beoi discovered. However, a l i s t o f th e p rin c ip a l g ran ts during
the p e rio d 1754-1756 was prepared in 1768 by th e c le rk o f the counci]
This is pub lished in Va. Mag* o f H is t. & B lo g *. V , 175 f f . The
w r ite r se lected fra n th is l i s t o n ly the g ran ts o f 1744-1747 which
appear to have been p e rfe c te d . For purposes o f study the l i s t sub­
m itte d by th e c le r k o f the co u n c il ^ lo u ld be compared w ith th e grant:
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1744 ♦ 1756 (coat'd.)
6 /1 7 /1 7 4 8
6 /1 7 /1 7 4 8
6 /1 7 /1 7 4 6
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 8
X l/2 /1 ? 48
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 8
1 1 /3 /1 7 4 8
1 1 /1 4 /1 7 4 8
1 1 /2 6 /1 7 4 8
1 1 /2 6 /1 7 4 8
l i / 2 (y 1748
1 2 /8 /1 7 4 5
12/8/174Q
4 /8 /1 7 4 9
4 /8 /1 7 4 9
4 /6 /1 7 4 9
4 /5 /1 7 4 9
4 /8 /1 7 4 9
4 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
4 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
4 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
4 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
4 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
4 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
6 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
Q /14/1749
6 /1 4 /1 7 4 9
S en d B e ll* Jos.BeiLl* w a ite r
Z in g , Arcfel M id Cary
lAnsaburg
60,000
3s*C5ray#£aa£'aE* d Sag &es,.David
B o lt, V a le n tin a Wood, cssae*'
^loaiag C to
rig h t s on
re tu rn o r su rvey)
Western ra te rs
20.000
Sle&oSas L e v ie s , John C layto n ,
Jar* # 'Sapper W hiting , ^ B e r n a r d ,
John S. S a llE g 9C lB s *S ti3 s 3 a lr
($© scot one fs & ily per 1 ,0 0 0
etsres uifchin 4 y e a rs , paying
f o r rig h t s fc r u n s e ttle d p o rtlo n a t end o f fe e t t ls e }
Hbrth fo u n ta in
30,900
Joshua £Sy* W a*C eb ell,Ja3.
Alb m e r le 5
C h ris tia n
Bluvassa E»
8 ,0 0 0
Saz&s T erry
Lanen* B an ister £ *
5 .000
"as. C linch
Xanesborg, Dsn B .
10,000
S a tth e r Talbot
Lunen* Borsepes Cr. 5.0 00
3obt»-?*&ton, John A a lto s ,
-Osen, J r . ,
Lusen. Cascade C r.
10-000
Lunsford l-om ^
lan e n . Beaver C r.
1 5 .00 0
ThOGas ^ l i l i e s s
snuurg
6.000
Warner L e n s
Lunenterg, Kayo H« 10.000
Bobt, Todd
Lunenburg
5.000
John !3ash
~
Lunenburg, Seneca Cr. 6 .0 0 0
O es*Currie
Lunsh. & A lb e rr.s rle 9
O tte r B ive r
,00 0
va* S ta ffo rd , Hich#Thompson,
Joins Slocks e l l
L unar. Soazu&e E . ■ 12,000
John O h ls « e ll
Lluvenna r iv e r
5 .0 0 0
John Larson, John Bobin s on
Jas* T erry
A tk in B iv e r
4 5 .0 0 0
John lesso n , Jos .Cloudy Jes*
T e rry
A tk in B iver
1 2 .0 0 0
Lunenburg,
— -— Osborn
d u e stone C r. .
5 .000
Jes* Qocke, Joan Tssitty^Gao*
Lunenburg,
A tk in B iver
W alton ■
2 0 ,00 0
orange, Coke's
Taverent S e a l, Che s. B ie h ,
. Beubeu B aal, Ja&es Madison,
>3s« Bsrokenbersy
1 2 ,000
SSLII Ben
B iahard S ills
la n e rb a rg
5 ,0 0 0
Josses ?&arroy
L u rea. whipping Or* 10,000
Matbes T a lb o t, John. B ranski11 Lunenburg, Peaks o f
O tte r B*
2 0 ,0 0 0
Senue-l H a rris , John Oar^L 1 1 ,
Bobt. Leanoa, Bastes r s t it h
Inn en b arg - .
2 0 ,0 0 0
Obaetiak soodssn, Bobt* & Oao*
W alton, John B a ll
Lunenburg
20,000
Saauel H a rris
Lunenburg
13,000
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1744 • 1756 < e o rt*d .)
7 /7 /1 7 4 9
7 /7 /1 7 4 9
7 /7 /1 7 4 9
7 /7 /1 7 4 9
7 /7 /1 7 4 9
1 2 /6 /1 7 4 9
1 2 /6 /1 7 4 9
22/ 6/1749
1 2 /6 /1 7 4 9
2 2 /6 /1 7 4 9
2 2 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
2 2 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
1 2 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
1 2 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
1 2 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
2 2 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
1 8 /1 3 /1 7 4 9
5 / l / l ? 50
5 /2 /1 7 5 0
5 /1 /1 7 5 0
5 /2 /1 7 5 0
5 /1 /1 7 5 0
5 /1 /1 7 5 0
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 0
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 0
6 /2 5 /1 7 5 0
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 0
GMo COESJBSy
Upper Ohio B ive r
Lcy©l C o ., (4 peers to
Ye» - K.G# Boundary
survey & gurebase r ig h ts )
Bernard M oore, Senj*Hubbard,
P h ilip A y lG tt,T b o s. L a s s ie ,
Jolm l'el£oa,QGD* C srri2g:t»n9
Jas. Poser ,502031 Qrefeas, '3a#
T y lo r , Job*Thona3{4-jeers to
survey and p u rc M s e id g h t e}
Ueu H iv e r
Peyton BendolphjAlex* HcEorsi©
Bobt# & John Tin hex, Paul lo y a l
e t a l» , (4 ye er s to survey 5
purche gg r ig h ts )
Hess lU ver
H ie hard GS22£Jsay
Ixmes# O tte r ?*
Tucker v;codecs {£ tr e a ts )
Lunen* P ig s &
O tter- r iv e r s
F I oh# T erm
John Eeede,
Goose Greek
John B a ll
Anthony a lh e , Kenneth. MoE enziG , Jas. T e rry , Hasekeah
ro rd
Albezaarle
Is a a c Burton
John C h is o e il {3 tra c k s )
A Ib e o a rle
Esneresl to John B o lliz ^
iilbessarle & Jjmczi*
John L tith
Lunenburg
Bio hard Eennos
C leaent Bead, !i!attheu Talipot Augusta
C lesont Baad^ist theu T alb o t • Lunenburg
M stth er 'Kalbofc, Bab or uorgcs,
Si Is a c c Hollas s
Losesburg
Matthess T a lb o t, J r * ,. CMs#&
Lunenburg
John T a lb o t
George G elton
~
Lunenburg
Jas. Tslvon
Lunenbts?g
Lunenburg
Taos# T s ito a
Benj# C a tk in s , P aul C b ild es,
J o e l Johnson,Henry C hildes
Benj#
th in s , P aul C h ild s ,
J o e l Johnson,H airy C hildes
Lunenburg
. John Hea l sBio h i Terrs c k , vs*
Mead Si Metthe® T albo t
Lunenburg
■Geo* Oar rin g
H icb o la s .Hale ,Batthes Talbot »
LunenburgJ r*,
Mead
N ich o las B s le , Matthew T e lb o t,
Lunenburg
J r .* , '-.'-si* Meed
*
H ich o las H a ls , M attheu T a lb o4*9
t,
Lunenburg
J r * , ''zu Mead
I
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
500,000
800*000
100,000
400,000
5,000
2 0 ,OOC
1 0 ,OOC
4 0 ,OOC
6 ,OOC
20,00C
5,OOC
6 ,OOC
s,ooc
1C ,ooc
10,00c
10,00c
10,00c
6,00c
10,00c
10,00c
12,00c
4 0 ,00S
20.00C
6,75C
15,00C
10,OOC
10,00C
1744
6 /q /1 7 5 0
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 0
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 0
1 2 /5 /1 7 5 0
1 0 /24 /1 75 1
10/24 /1 75 1
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 5 1
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 5 1
10/24/1751
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 5 1
1 0 /24 /1 75 1
iO/T, 4/1751
1C /24/1751
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 3 .
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 c l
1 0 /24 /1 75 1
1 0 /2 4 /2 7 5 1
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 5 1
10/24/1751
1 0 /2 4 /1 7 w*3*
1 0 /29 /1 75 1
1 0 /2 3 /1 7 5 1
1 /2 S/1752
1 /2 5 /1 7 5 2
1 /2 5 /1 7 5 2
1 /2 S/2752
1 /2 5 /1 7 5 2
1 /2 2 /1 7 5 2
1756 {a>nt *d*}
John P ile 0 2 , John Garif a n ,
.3eaj « e tk ia s ,Jso *IIic Is o ls s ,
R leh o las i^avicc, .Jauuel G is t,
& Hols ton
John. Baobaasn, x.&xx Eaixiexsd, r iv e r s
10 0,0 00
.nuThceapson, J r * , Jacob Harson,
J r * (4 years to survey end
purcha so ritlvfc s* J
Adsc Herman, Jacob XlsrxBn, Val­
en tin e B e rm n , V alen tin e
Augusta
15 ,000
S o rv ie r (In 2 tr a c ts )
R ichard & Roger Jiaao^ son,
Lunenburg
John Catkins
6 ,0 00
Augustine C la ib o rn e , Mstthe®
Augusts
T a lb o t,'a * Oven j'^heodorich
Blend , Hie a* Blend ,Baga M ille r
4 0 ,0 0 0
C*eo-*Jslton?To pss* chase s ig h ts
on re tu rn o f survey)
lamenburg
1 2 ,000
>2asrY;oou " t i t on
Lunenburg
1 2 ,0 0 0
Ahereood -alton,G oo*& Jos*
Bolstcm R iv e r
Auguste
■'■aitcn
SO,000
*.-am* Devies, Bransis D avies, ■
Holstcsi R iv e r
liie b o la s -Davies, P e te r &
Augusta
Mottbe® ^ M tiz g
5 0 ,0 0 0
BenJ* & l it t l e b e r i y Rost::
(To purcce se sight s on re tu rn
o f su rvey)
20 ,000
H broel Briggs
5 ,5 50
■Sisnsoeu v;si to n , Jos L e y to n ,
Lunenburg
**o s* kj, lliSKtS
1 0 ,0 0 0
iiugustc
Thos. Lankford
7 ,0 0 0
A lb e s a rle
U icb o le s ^svies
5 ,0 0 0
■s«‘tyzme, P e te r Foust s in , J r * a
& s r» ,
Lunenburg
6 ,0 00
Lunenburg
Ahersood v.ait on, Jos • R elt on
8 ,5 0 2
Lunenburg
John T a rrin g to n ,J o s*llacbfin
1 6 ,00 0
chersood & Jos* Rel ton,Thos*
J im k lin ,^ a * S a lt on,Jos *R I1 liscsC T o ptsrc&ase rig h t s on
C lin ch R iv e r
re tu rn o f suev%')
50*000
Augusts ,S olsto& 3* 2 0 ,0 0 0
-Geo* & Jos* '".ait on
John TvJit ty jHsrsadnse S tan15 ,000
f ie ld ,A l ex* le lk e r
Lunenburg
3&*&&ach&&, e t e l * , (7 y e ars s* o f Pa*
e llo e e d 2br. survey a23d p tav
boundary
60 ,000
chase o f r ig h ts )
Gideon M arr
A lb e a a rle
5.000
g ftttb e * T a lb o t, David a Henry
Auguste
B e ll,
2 0 ,0 0 0
Lunenburg
5.0 00
i&eae is Bessie
10,000
August® ,l?e^ 2*
ia b ro s e P o « e ll
JSEies Surrey
A uguste,near r'ev 3»10*080
fh o S iM erri scathe r
Augusta,near Hss R*10,00G
Thos* ta lk e r
Augusts ,xtesr Sec R*10 ,000
Stssael & GeooKonle ,John
C o llie r , cs* Sinas
4 0 ,0 0 0
Lunenburg
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
{
4
I
1744 - 1758 {cant’d*}
1 /2 3 /1 7 5 2
1 /2 5 /1 7 5 2
I/2 S /1 7 5 2
1 /2 3 /1 7 5 2
4 /4 /1 7 5 2
4 /4 /1 7 5 2
4 /4 /1 7 5 2
5 /4 /1 7 5 2
John Bates
Beaset .-baey
Babes. Abney
N ich o les A e rrls e a tb s r
ibo s* is t t e r e h it e
■ ^ L e s ta e ro a le
Joseph Farley
John T ^ t t y tEsriaa<iahe Stsnf i e l d ,61s X* " s li© r
Lunenburg
Lunenburg
Lunenburg
Augusta
Lunenburg
Lunenburg
Lunenburg
6 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,00 0
1 0 ,0 0 0
1C90C0
5 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
10 ,00 0
Lunenburg
15,000
Auguste, Neu B«
40 ,00 0
5 /4 /1 7 5 2
5 /4 /1 7 5 2
6 /1 2 /1 7 5 2
1 1 /2 /1 7 5 2
1 1 /2 /1 7 5 2
1 1 /2 /1 7 5 2
5 /4 /1 7 5 5
5 /4 /1 7 5 5
0 /4 /1 7 0 5
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 5
6 /1 0 /1 7 5 5
6 /1 3 /1 7 5 5
6 /1 4 /1 7 5 5
6/1 5/17 55 ,
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 3
6 /1 5 /1 7 5 5
-Jos * Ironm onger, David 3 & 1 ,
Jo s. Heaton , Jos* T erry
Thos* 31 111 SS2BES
The Bev « Jen* Kiug ,H ie h*Thaca s ,
Nieh*£nG t,Jeedb Bruner &
14 o th e rs {4 years to survey
e&d purdbaso :± g |its ) ■
Henry '1 Trahan Taiey ■
Jos* & Jss. T ers y, Jos* Ir o o sponger,
Pic kerlag ,Ja s* Grant lan d ,
H ieh o i as Loyd, R ich, Bob sob*
Let o r Coops s*
100,000
AUgUStG
6 ,0 0 0
Lunenburg
Between 'G reenbrier
end ; ;oncngeliole
r iv e r s
30,000
H a lifa x
6,000
H e ll Sex
2 0 ,0 0 0
Auguste and
A lb en arle
2 0 ,00 0
Chas. Irb y * John Hale , ?iu
F ita g e ra ld , John Head
8 ,0 0 0
•J8 .s*&urray
Lunenburg
8 ,0 0 0
T u lly Choicea Gee* F ra s ie r,
- e t e r Copeland
H a lifa x
2 0 ,0 0 0
L svid .H eley
N a ll fax
5 ,0 0 0
John & F ran c is i l l i s , John, Augusts end
Janes-asd "js.N acfclia, J r * ,
H a lifa x , Ian end
Henry " "o rris , Tsu - r c it t y , Chas*
Sets r iv e r s
L ucas,I& b t* Thrcgraarten, John
3 a ith {4 years ix> su rrey and
purchase r ig h ts )
1 0 0 ,0 0 0
Jos* P a ris h , 'leson Bishop
Lunenburg &
Brunsnich
• 5 ,OOC
B ic h .C o rb ln ^ 'h il Lud’s e ll,
Che?3 . C a rte r, Het ■•Harris o k ,
Ben j . Lob ins o n, Cartes* B u rn e ll,
Bobt, c u r^ e ll* Peyton Bendolph,
John Bandolph, Chas* C a r te r ,J r * ,
Jos* Pobinson,Ben5, B d b in so n ,Jr*,
Chas* Bobisson,Meam & John Page,
John T h o rto n , Jsses B u tle r, Thes*
3ersy,4BW & John S it 2 fcqgfc,s&. P it a hugh, J r * , Strands Thornton, John
Chsrspe, B lob, S s ith ', Bm J* Oryraes,
(4 years to survey snd- puroJsse
r ig h t a *)
Hfesr B ivo r
100,0 00
To tbs shove p a rtn e rs h ip
50,000
To t i e above p a rtn e rs h ip
40 ,000
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1744: - 1755 {coat’d.)
1 0 /3 1 /1 7 5 3
1 2 /9 /1 7 5 3
1 1 /2 6 /1 7 5 3
1 2 /2 6 /1 7 5 3
1 2 /1 7 /1 7 5 4
5 /7 /1 7 5 4
5 /7 /1 7 5 4
5 /7 /1 7 5 4
Chas. Cary
<■
6,000
£sasael, Jo e l & G a b rie l
LCiSerlein
“leer OMo Co. g re e t 5,0 00
John h ay lo s, BC B j^Earsls,
K a tiiio u T a lb o t, Cary l& p p -x ,
John H y lto n , Tim othy D a lto n , Auguste, near
Augustine C la ib o rn e , i le x .
Bet? B ly e r
Jcachie
64.000
John Sfcisraeil, Jaaes L it t le - *
10.000
pegs
H a lifa x
J e m le h Ferguson, OSe s . C loy H a lifa x
10,000
To sense group In d ic a te d under -s te rs o f the
date titzss Iw th , X75o«
«f£s£ii8slppi
20,000
To sane group in d ic a te d under
date June 1 5 th , 1753
ilehnaua B.
50,000
Jsses F o u lls
E s life x
5 .0 00
£ , 131,922
1
i
1
I»
j
ii
i
1
1
1
i
i
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A P P g S E D IX I I
In th e ta b le below 3 ,6 3 2 p a te n ts .- a t le a s t 600 in each
o f the p erio d s in d ic a te d ,,-a re c la s s ifie d according to acreage*
The fig u re s can n o t be tah en as
a complete a n a ly s is o f the
s iz e o f land h o ld in g s , sin ce th e re was a tendency to subdivide
^
the la rg e r g ra n ts *
P a te n ts
P a te n ts
P a te n ts
P a te n ts
P a te n ts
P aten ts
1619-1643 1643-1666 1666-1605 L695-L724 1724-1755 1755-177Acres
0-1 00
2<#
101-400
44
401-999
999-2999
Over 3000
18$
22$
10$
19$
39
36
50
67
61
22
31
28
17
13
12
10
18
13
8
8
5
3 3 /5
2 2 /5
3
2 1 /4
8$
2 1 /4
4
{I
i
i
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
'
JOURNALS AND OFFICIAL■PAYEES
Acts o f th e P riv y C o u n c il. C o lo n ia l S e rie s , I.L .G r a n t, James
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^
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> E xecutive
^
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LOn&OSL»
Carr®
cadence of Lieutenant-Governor Oiiiiaa Gooch with tbs
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Eh® statute® at Large: being a Collection of ail the Lea®. of
'
u
ijg g ia £ a » g^f^aSafeJaSU 13 v o ls , kle&aoad- L8l9-X825^
Rhe RavjgQd Code of the Lags of Virginia, 3*l,ieigls,e&* Voi*II,
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W '
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The W ritin g s o f ? Co tone I v /illia m 3 y rd . o f W sstover* S sq*g John
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2 v o is * , sfeshiagton,1912-1914*
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Seventeenth C entury* 2 v o ls * Hew Y o rk,1896,
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-2 0 7 -
ox Augusts coast?* a t o 1s »« Ho
»a * , & 1 & *
Sodaoa, l*eOBiSss« iis x s c S s r sootsstood. £o veraor a t C o lo n ia l
Y ir R lr la r T F llW n E il W IV s ^ T lY o'iT F esag H iriaisV r L952«
FLippin* ?eroy &** fbe Fin&ocisl A&aislatrstioa of t&e Ooloay of
? ir g ia la » do>m i&mfcina 5 a iv a g s lt? stadlgg- i a iils to r lc & i
d e ig s S ^ 'segias jd B & jjL so»£> dalsiaore.i.91&»
~
Ford*. Ajaelia 0** Colonial greeedestg of chit i&tloaai .c.„a ^gateia
as it Saristod la 1800* liaiTorsit^ of ^iscoasla* 1910*
Zoonts* Xrfyalg K»«. vho Yirgisia l^oatier.1754-1763. Johns ao&Mss
UalTgrgity abiaigs 'ia d ig to r i csi and political ^clea^>
s s rie s i i l l i *
i» »
5a l sirsore, L326„
ifs jto a * Joba L . , E ls tors- o f C-agastg. Coastt? ¥ ir g in la » c ta a to a ,¥ a *t
1882*
.,‘COt-t* rV illi:-.c t it b *
♦» A Histoary o f Qraage Coast? Vir&iala»SicSsond>
s iilis a * H is to ry o f ta& Dlseorar:? &ad d e ttle ia s a t o f
y ir f t la lg t o -1 ^ - ^ .ia a b in
^ W r ia iis j. 3gg xog£-iS6S«
Sassers, L e^ is rro s to n * M s to r? o f souttegest ¥ lr g in ia , 1?46-17SS»
gasM agtog Sotait? X777—1s ¥ q» j&c&aofid. I9€&»
S sd & ell, Josapb A*# Annals of ^agagta Cganty. V ir g in ia , 1726-1784*
Stsaatoa*- ¥s»» i.902*
Saylsad* Jolin £ » , She Seraaa S ic a e a t l a t as a&easadoafe V a ile ? o f
¥£r?dJ3ia« dsarioiigvi ilg^l^d^
ie rte n b a k s r, !2ljojaa£ -J«, V ir g in ia S a ie r ta e d ta a rts , 1607-1688*
P rin c e lo a U n ite r s It? , 1914*
.________
Sher I anto rs o f C o lo n ia l ¥ir-gi&i&«,
r r in c s to a u n lT e rs it? , i£ 2 s *
..............
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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