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INTERNESHIP IN TEACHER EDUCATION

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8121 U00
JONES, HOWARD ROBERT
INTERNESHIP IN TEACHER EDUCATION
Y ale U n i v e r s i t y
University
Microfilms
International
PH.D.
300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106
Copyright
198l
by
JONES, HOWARD ROBERT
All Rights Reserved
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INTERNESKIP IN TEA.CKE.-i EDUCATION
a
D issertatio n
P resen ted to th e
F a c u l t y o f t h e G r a d u a te School
o f Y ale U n i v e r s i t y
I n C andidacy f o r
t h e Degree o f
D o cto r o f P h i lo s o p h y
by
Howard R o b e rt J o n e s
llay 1940
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ABSTRACT
T itle:
Interneship in Teacher Education
Problem: To study Interneship programs in the professional education of
elementary and secondary school teachers answering s p e c ific a lly these questions:
1. What are the stated ob jectives o f ex istin g programs o f interneship?
2. What are present p ractices in the organization and adm inistration
o f these programs?
3 . What p rin cip les are generally recognized by leaders in the f ie ld
o f teacher education as being desirable p rin cip les undergirdlng the
organization o f interneship programs?
4. To what extent do e x istin g p ractices conform with these basic
principles?
Procedure: Twenty-one interneship programs rep lied to a questionnaire covering
the major aspects o f interneship. Thirty-one leaders in teacher education
rated f if t y - f i v e proposed interneship p rin cip les v a lid a tin g forty-fou r o f them.
Sixty-one cooperating teachers and one hundred and two former internes replied
to a questionnaire requesting th e ir frank opinions of the advantages and d is­
advantages o f interneship.
Besides using a questionnaire procedure, the w riter personally v is it e d
f if t e e n o f the twenty-one interneship programs included in the study. Addi­
tio n a l data were gathered by correspondence with d irectors o f interneship
programs.
fin d in g s: The findings o f th is th e sis are organized around the forty-four
interneship p rin cip les validated by leaders in teacher education. The lim ita ­
tio n s o f th is abstract, that i t be but one page in length, prevent the l i s t i n g
o f these p rin cip les with in d ication s o f the degree to which they are observed
by e x istin g interneship programs.
Major goals o f interneship are:
1. The in tegration of theory and p ractice in the p rofessional education
o f teachers.
2. Insuring that the beginning teacher secures h is f ir s t year's
experience in a school situ a tio n conducive to profession al growth.
3* Providing a scheme o f teacher induction in which there i s adequate
and competent supervision at the time o f induction.
Providing a program o f professional preparation o f teachers in which
learning i s based upon doing.
5. Making p o ssib le gradual induction in to the work of teaching.
Recomnendations include: more emphasis on helping internes to become
acquainted with the lo c a l community and with community problems; greater
p a rticip a tio n by internes in a wide variety of adm inistrative tasks; wider
experience for internes in directing d ifferen t types of extra-curricular
a c t iv it ie s ; opportunity for internes to a s s is t sp ecialized s ta f f members at
some time during the period o f interneship; continued str e ss on encouraging
internes to p articip ate in recreation al, so c ia l, and cultural a c t iv it ie s
leading to personal enrichment; more careful se le c tio n o f internes; b etter
supervision and guidance o f internes; d efin ite contractual agreements between
the p a rties involved in an interneship program; a salary for internes suf­
f ic ie n t to cover minimum liv in g expenses at le a s t; lim itin g graduate work
fo r most internes to one course a semester in addition to the internes*
seminar; stressin g more p articip ation in internes* seminars by cooperating
teachers, superintendents o f schools, and members o f academic departments o f
teacher training in stitu tio n s; graduate credit for interneship a c t iv it ie s
su c cessfu lly carried on in the lo ca l school situ a tio n when the purpose of
graduate work i s conceived to be improved teaching competence; giving
in ternes in a number o f interneship programs more resp o n sib ility in the
d irection o f classroom a c t iv it ie s .
I
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a. GKE 0 I I j KIXhvuilDi 'S
The w r i t e r e x p r e s s e s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e d i r e c t o r s o f
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s , t h e i n t e r n e s , and t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s whose
i n t e r e s t i n and w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s tu d y have made t h e
s u c c e s s fu l p r o s e c u tio n of th e stu d y p o s s ib l e .
The h e lp o f l e a d e r s i n
t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n who r a t e d p r o p o se d i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s i s a l s o
acknow ledged.
The 'w r i t e r i s a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e c o u n s e l g i v e n him by members
o f t h e i’a c u l t y o f t h e D epartm ent o f E d u c a ti o n , Y a le U n i v e r s i t y ,
He i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. Clyde H. H i l l , Chairm an o f t h e D epartm ent
an d S t e r l i n g P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t i o n , and t o D r. S. hi. B r o w n e l l, P r o f e s s o r
o f E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n .
Howard H. J o n e s
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TABLE OT CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I.
PAGE
THE PBOBLEM--DEVELOPMENT OP THECONCEPT OP INTERNESHIP IN
TEACHER EDUCATION . . ......................................................................
I
...................
1
Introdixction— atatement of the problem
. . .
Interneship in other p r o f e s s i o n s .......................
2
Interneship in teacher education in certain European
countries
................................
6
Landmarks in the h istory o f interneship in the Uhited
S t a t e s .......................
II.
9
The importance o f th is s t u d y .....................................................
IS
Summary
29
........................
RELATED LITERATURE..............................................................................
26
I n t r o d u c t io n ......................................................................................
26
R ied's t h e s i s .....................................................................................
26
Values claimed for in t e r n e s h ip .................................................
2S
1.
Interneship coordinates, in teg ra tes, or synthesizes
theory and p ractice
2.
29
Interneship serves as a try-out or probationary
period
3.
.........................................
............................................
29
Interneship provides adequate and competent super­
v isio n during the f i r s t year o f induction into
the p r o f e s s i o n ................................
4.
30
The interneship program makes p ossib le greater in­
divid u alization of i n s t r u c t i o n ................................
>5
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PAGE
5.
I n t e r n e s h i p g i v e s a s c h o o l system a s o u r c e
o f s u p p ly o f s u p e r i o r b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s
■;
who have had a y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e in t h e s y s te m . .
6.
32
I n t e r n e s h i p i s a n o r i e n t a t i o n and a d ju s t m e n t
e x p e r i e n c e f a m i l i a r i z i n g t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r
w i t h many d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f s c h o o l w o rk ............
7.
32
I n te r n e s h ip p e rm its g rad u a l in d u c tio n in to th e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t e a c h i n g ...............................................
8.
33
I n t e r n e s h i p p r o v i d e s a program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l
p r e p a r a t i o n i n w hich l e a r n i n g i s ba sed upon
d o i n g .......................................................................................
9.
I n te r n e s h ip r a i s e s sta n d ard s f o r th o se e n te r in g
th e tea c h in g p r o f e s s io n . .
10.
33
................................
. . .
34
I n t e r n e s h i p o f f e r s t h e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t i m e s o f unemployment, a n
o p p o rtu n ity to secure a year of e x p erien ce. . . .
11.
34
The p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r n e s in a s c h o o l sy stem e n ­
c o u r a g e s and s p u r s o t h e r t e a c h e r s t o become more
com p e ten t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y ........................................................
12.
35
B e in g an i n t e r n e may make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r t o c a r r y on some g r a d u a t e work .
13.
35
I n t e r n e s h i p makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a s c h o o l system
t o have s u b s t i t u t e h e lp r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n
t h e s c h o o l s y s te m . . . . » ...........................................
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35
GILS’TER
PAGE
14.
In te r n e s h ip b rin g s about c lo s e r c o o p e ra tio n
betw een t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and
s c h o o l s y s te m s
3.5.
............................................................
36
I n t e r n e s h i p i s a means by w hich t h e t e a c h i n g
p r o f e s s i o n can d i s c h a r g e i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f
h e l p i n g young p e o p le e n t e r i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n
t o g e t a s u c c e s s f u l s t a r t ........................................................
16.
I n t e r n e s h i p s a f e g u a r d s t h e p u p i l from in c o m p e te n t
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s ......................................................................
17.
36
37
I n t e r n e s h i p makes p o s s i b l e t h e r e l e a s i n g o f
e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and
r e s e a r c h ..................................................................................
18.
37
In te rn e sh ip a id s th e a d m in is tra to r c o n s tru c tin g
t h e s c h o o l s c h e d u l e a s i n t e r n e s c a n be a s s i g n e d
t h e two o r t h r e e e x t r a c l a s s e s w hich h a r d l y
w a r r a n t t h e employment o f a n a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r .
III.
.
37
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e r n e s h i p .................................................................
40
M a jo r p ro b le m s i n i n t e r n e s h i p .................................................................
43
S u m m a r y .............................................
49
PROCEDURES EMPLOYED.............................................................................................
I n t r o d u c t i o n .........................................................................
51
51
S e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e
s t u d y ....................................................................................................................
51
L o c a ti n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s .................................................................
55
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PAGE
CHAPTER
The questionnaire sent directors o f interneship programs. .
61
Questionnaire determining p rin cip les underlying
in te r n e sh ip ............................. ... ........................................................
64
Questionnaires dealing w ith the opinions of former internes
and cooperating teachers regarding Interneship programs .
Correspondence and v is it a tio n
Summary . . .
IV.
..................................... ...
65
67
..........................................................................................
68
PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING- INTERNESHIP; DEFINING INTERNESHIP
AND ITS MAJOR FUNCTIONS......................................................................
70
P rin cip les underlying interneship as valid ated by leaders
in the f ie ld of teacher ed u ca tio n ................................
..
70
Major functions o f interneship. . .................................................
75
Defining interneship
....................................... ................................
80
......................................................................................
88
ACTIVITIES IN IHICH INTERNES ENGAGE.................................................
90
Introduction..............................................................................................
90
Summary . . . .
V.
A c tiv itie s carried on by internes concerned w ith the
planning and organizing o f classroom a c t iv it ie s in
preparation for classroom teaching. . . . . . . . . . . .
91
Classroom a c t iv it ie s in which internes p a rticip a te.................
94
The part played by the interne in connection with
supervisory a c t i v i t i e s ..................... ... ........................................
97
The interne and extra-curricular a c t iv it ie s .............................
101
Internes and school adm inistration.................................................
io 4
Becoming acquainted with the r e s p o n sib ilitie s o f
sp ecia lized s ta f f members ..............................................................
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104
CHAPTER
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The i n t e r n e and community and o u b l i c r e l a t i o n s
a c t i v i t i e s .......................................................................................................
106
C e rta in a c t i v i t i e s c o n trib u tin g to p ro fe s s io n a l
,
advancem ent
.
.........................................................................................
110
A c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p e r s o n a l d e v e lo p m en t o f
t h e i n t e r n e ..................................................................................................
Summary
V I.
/
112
.............................................................................................
116
ADR:MISTERING THE INTERNESHIP PROGRAM....................................................
119
I n t r o d u c t i o n ......................................................................................................
119
P r o c e d u r e s employed i n s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s ......................................
119
m a jo r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d
122
i n s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s ..........................
M a jo r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a t i n g
teach ers
.......................................................................................................
125
C o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n ts and a g r e e m e n t s b e tw e e n t h e
s c h o o l s y s te m and t h e i n t e r n e .............................................................
127
S p e c i a l i z e d s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l ........................................................
158
S e m in a r and g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e p r o c e d u r e s ..........................................
144
E v a l u a t i n g t h e work o f i n t e r n e s and t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
£
p r o g r a m ...........................................................................................................
150
P la c e m e n t and f o l l o w - u p ...............................................................................
153
S e l e c t i o n o f s c h o o l s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
program by c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s
. .
156
i n t e r n e s h i p ....................................................................................................
157
P ro b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s ....................................
161
S u m m a r y ..................................................................................................................
164
G ra d u a te c r e d i t g i v e n f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e ti o n o f
X-
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CHAPTER
VII.
PAGE
OUTCOMES OP INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS................................................
I n t r o d u c t io n ............................................................
168
168
The outcomes o f Interneship as viewed by directors
o f interneship programs .
.........................................................
168
Advantages of interneship as liB ted by former in tern es
and cooperating teachers.
.........................................................
173
Drawbacks o f interneship as lis t e d by former internes
and cooperating teachers.................................................................
I 7U
Suggestions for improving interneship made by former
internes and cooperating te a c h e r s .............................................
178
B en efits derived from interneship by cooperating
V III.
t e a c h e r s ..............................................................................................
181
General appraisal o f interneship.....................................................
182
Summary......................................................................................................
I 83
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................
127
Introduction..............................................................................................
127
Procedures employed
128
....................
Major findings..........................................................................................
129
Recommendations............................................
I 92
Suggested additional stu d ies.............................................................
211
BIBLIOGRAPHY Ax A Bibliography of General References in Teacher
Education and References in Student Teaching having
A p p licab ility to I n te r n e s h ip .............................................
$
i
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2l4
CHAPTER
PACE
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bj
References Pertaining S p e c ific a lly to
In ter n e sh ip ..................................................................................... .
APPENDIX A:
218
A Check L ist o f Phases o f Interneship Discussed
in the Major References Dealing with Interneship in the
Professional Education o f Elementary and Secondary
School Teachers ..................................................................................
APPENDIX B:
232
Porn Letters and Reply Poms Used in Locating
Interneship P ro g ra m s.........................................................
APPENDIX C: Pom Letters which Accompanied Questionnaires
APPENDIX D:
Questionnaires Used in the S tu d y ............................
APPENDIX E:
L ist o f Experts in Teacher Education who Rated
237
. . .
2^1
2^5
Questionnaire Items Dealing with P rin cip les o f
In te r n e sh ip ................................
APPENDIX P:
276
L ist o f School Systems and Teacher-Training
In stitu tio n s Cooperating in th is S t u d y ....................
APPENDIX 0:
278
Table XXIX, Importance o f Interneship Goals and
P rin cip les as Rated by Thirty-One Experts in Teacher
E ducation .................................................................................
APPENDIX H:
280
Tables L isting Major Advantages and Drawbacks of
Interneship together with Suggestions for Improvement
made by Pomer Internes and CooperatingTeachers
. . . .
1
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LIST OF TABIES
TABLE
I.
F re q u e n c y w i t h w hich C e r t a i n V a lu e s A t t r i b u t e d t o
I n t e r n e s h i p a r e L i s t e d in t h e l i t e r a t u r e
II.
.....................................
I n t e r n e s h i p Program s L o c a te d ; I n t e r n e s h i p Program s S e n t
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; I n t e r n e s h i p Program s H e t u r n i n g Ques­
t i o n n a i r e and I n c l u d e d i n t h i s S tu d y ;. I n t e r n e s h i p
P ro g ra m s V i s i t e d .............................................................................................
III.
F u n c t i o n s o r M a jo r C o a ls o f I n t e r n e s h i p Program s a s
D e term ined by F a c t o r s C a u sin g t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f
Twenty-One I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ra m s , a s D e te rm in e d by th e
O p in io n s o f Twenty-One D i r e c t o r s o f I n t e r n e s h i p
P ro g ra m s , and a s D e term ined by t h e O p in io n s o f
Thirty-One E x p e r t s i n t h e F i e l d o f T e a c h e r E d u c a ti o n . . .
IV.
E x t e n t t o w hich t h e F a c t o r s i n a D e f i n i t i o n o f
I n t e r n e s h i p a s D e term ined by t h e H a t i n g s o f L e a d e rs
i n T e a c h e r E d u c a ti o n a r e found i n t h e D e f i n i t i o n s
o f E x i s t i n g I n t e r n e s h i p Program s ........................................................
V.
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p P rogram s i n w hich I n t e r n e s
P a r t i c i p a t e i n and t a k e f u l l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
C e r t a i n A c t i v i t i e s c o n c e rn e d w i t h t h e P l a n n in g and
O r g a n iz i n g o f C la ssro o m A c t i v i t i e s i n P r e p a r a t i o n
f o r C lassroom T e a c h in g ..............................................................................
V I.
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p Program s i n w hich I n t e r n e s
P a r t i c i p a t e i n and t a k e f u l l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r C e r t a i n
Classroom A c t i v i t i e s ...................................................................................
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
I
TABLE
II
V II.
If:
PAGE
Number o f
I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ram s i n which I n t e r n e s
P a r t i c i p a t e i n C e r t a i n S u p e r v i s o r y P r o c e d u r e s ........................
if
V III.
Number o f
99
I n t e r n e s h i p Program s in w hich I n t e r n e s
P a r t i c i p a t e i n and t a k e f u l l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e
%
•
D i r e c t i o n o f C e r t a i n E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s .....................
IX.
102
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ra m s i n w hich I n t e r n e s
Become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h and P a r t i c i p a t e i n C e r t a i n
\
A c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to the A d m in is tra tio n of th e S ch o o l.
X.
.
105
C e r t a i n S p e c i a l i z e d S t a f f Members ...................................................
107
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p P rogram s i n w hich I n t e r n e s
Become A c q u a in te d w i t h and P a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e Nork o f
X I.
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p Program s in w hich I n t e r n e s Become
F a m i l i a r w i t h and P a r t i c i p a t e
in C e r t a i n Community
and P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A c t i v i t i e s ........................................................
X II.
109
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p Program s w hich E n c o u rag e and
E x p e c t t h e I n t e r n e t o Engage i n C e r t a i n A c t i v i t i e s
C o n t r i b u t i n g t o P r o f e s s i o n a l A dvancem ent.....................................
X III.
111
Number o f I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ra m s w hich E nc o u rag e and
E x p e c t t h e I n t e r n e t o Engage i n C e r t a i n A c t i v i t i e s
F u r t h e r i n g t h e I n t e r n e ' s P e r s o n a l Development ........................
XIV.
114
P r o c e d u r e s u sed in S e c u r i n g I n t e r n e s Ranked A c c o rd in g
t o th e P r o c e d u r e w h ic h S e c u r e s t h e L a r g e s t Number o f
j
XV.
I n t e r n e s ...........................................................................................................
120
M a jo r F a c t o r s C o n s i d e r e d i n S e l e c t i n g I n t e r n e s ........................
124
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TABLE
XVI.
PAGE
F a c t o r s w hich a r e Required
and O th e r F a c t o r s w hich
R e c e iv e D e f i n i t e C o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e S e l e c t i o n
o f C o o p e r a ti n g T e a c h e r s ...........................................................................
X V II.
126
A greem ents betw een t h e S c h o o l System and t h e I n t e r n e
C o n c e r n in g R e m u n e ra tio n t o be g i v e n t h e I n t e r n e ...................
X V II I .
134
F r e q u e n c y o f M e e tin g o f Group C o n f e r e n c e s C onducted by
S i x t e e n L o c a l S c h o o l S y stem s and P r i v a t e S c h o o l s ...................
XIX.
145
P r o p o r t i o n o f an I n t e r n e ’ s Time S p e n t i n G ra d u a te work
( i n a d d i t i o n t o the I n t e r n e s ' S e m inar)
in T h irte e n
I n t e r n e s h i p P r o g ra m s ....................................................................................
XX.
XXI.
XXII.
149
P r o c e d u r e s Employed in A p p r a is i n g t h e 'Cork o f I n t e r n e s
and in E v a l u a t i n g th e I n t e r n e s h i p Program .................................
152
P o l i c y o f Placem ent and F o l l o w - u p ........................................................
155
F a c t o r s C o n s i d e r e d by T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s
S p o n s o r in g I n t e r n e s h i p Program s i n S e l e c t i n g S c h o o l s t o
C o o p e r a te i n t h e P ro g ra m ...........................................................................
X X III.
XXIV.
XXV.
P ro b le m s C o n f r o n ti n g I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ram s a t t h e
P r e s e n t Tim e.................................................................................................
162
M a jo r and C oncom itant Outcomes o f I n t e r n e s h i p ............................
169
M a jo r A d v a n ta g es o f I n t e r n e s h i p a s L i s t e d by Former
I n t e r n e s and by C o o p e r a ti n g T e a c h e r s ...............................................
XXVI.
175
Drawbacks o f I n t e r n e s h i p a s L i s t e d by F o rm e r I n t e r n e s
and by C o o p e r a ti n g T e a c h e r s ............................................................
XXVII.
158
.
177
Form er I n t e r n e s and C o o p e r a tin g T e a c h e r s ......................................
180
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r Improvement o f I n t e r n e s h i p made by
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
PAGE
TABLE
XXVIII.
General Appraisal of Interneship:
Opinions o f S ix ty -
One Cooperating Teachers and One Hundred and Two
Former Internes ................. .................................................
XXIX,
Importance o f Interneship Goals and P rin cip les as
Rated by Thirty-One Experts in Teacher Education
XXX.
XXXI,
•
280
by One Hundred and Two Former I n t e r n e s .........................
293
Major Advantages o f Interneship as L isted by Sixty-One
. . . . . . . .
.........................
..................................... .
295
296
297
Suggestions for Improvement of Interneship Program
made by Sixty-One Cooperating T e a c h e r s ........................
XXXVI.
U
Suggestions fo r Improvement o f Interneship Program
made by One Hundred and Two Former Internes . . . . .
XXXV.
2 9
Drawbacks o f the Interneship Program as Listed by
Sixty-One Cooperating Teachers
XXXIV.
................. . . .
Drawbacks of the Interneship Program as Listed by One
Hundred and Two Former Internes . . . .
XXXIII.
•
Major Advantages or B enefits o f Interneship as Listed
Cooperating Teachers
XXXII.
IBS
29s
B enefits Sixty-One Cooperating Teachers have Personally
Derived from being Cooperating Teachers . . . . . . .
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300
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEivi—DEVSLOBEKT OF THE CONCEPT OF INTERNESHIP
IN TEACHER EDUCATION
i
I
%
%
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I n t r o d u c t i o n ; s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m — I n t e r n e s h i p , a te rm borrow ed
from t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n , i s b e i n g found w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y i n t h e
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f.
pag e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n .
?
t h e te rm r e f e r s t o d e f i n i t e l y p la n n e d
t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and i n d u c t i o n p r o ­
fs
grams i n w hich b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s a r e
g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e a c t u a l work:
if
o f t e a c h i n g u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s d e s ig n e d
to be v ery fa v o r a b le f o r p r o f e s s io n a l
a d j u s t m e n t and g r o w th .
S
Most o f t e n ,
R e c e n t y e a r s have s e e n a r e m a rk a b le i n c r e a s e i n t h e
number o f t h e s e p ro g ra m s,
n s c o r e o f more i n d u c t i o n n l a n s o f t h i s ty n e have
I
I
s p ru n g i n t o b e in g w i t h i n t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s .
i
d i s s e r t a t i o n t o examine c e r t a i n i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
I t i s th e purpose o f t h i s
e d u c a t i o n o f e le m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a n s w e rin g s p e c i f i c a l l y
|
th ese q u e stio n s:
;;
|
1 . what
a r e t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f e x i s t i n g program s o f i n t e r n e -
s h i p s p o n so re d by s c h o o l s y s te m s and t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ?
|
2 . ».hat
|
a r e p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f t h e s e program s?
[■;
j?
I
3 . what
p r i n c i p l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d
o f te a c h e r e d u c a tio n a s b ein g
d e s ir a b le p r in c ip le s u n d e rg ird in g th e o r-
f$
|
fI
g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s?
4 . To what e x t e n t do e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s conform w i t h t h e s e b a s i c
'A.
|
p rin c ip le s?
I n t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h e developm ent o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
i n o t h e r n r o f e s s i o n s and i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n Euronean c o u n t r i e s w i l l
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
be b r i e f l y s u rv e y e d , t h e h i s t o r y o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n in
3
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t h i s c o u n t r y w i l l be s c a n n e d , and t h e im p o rta n c e o f
|
embodied i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be p o i n t e d o u t .
I
s t u d y i n g t h e p ro b le m s
I n t e r n e s h i o in o t h e r n r o f e s s i o n s . —A few y e a r s a g o . P r e s i d e n t
4
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H u tc h in s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h icago s a i d :
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E d u c a ti o n i s n o t a s u b s t i t u t e f o r e x p e r i e n c e .
I t is
p rep a ra tio n fo r i t .
T here i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r e x p e r i e n c e .
The way t o g e t e x p e r i e n c e i n a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y is t o
engage i n t h a t a c t i v i t y . T h u s, we a r e l i k e l y t o see in
p r o f e s s io n a l e d u c atio n an e x te n s io n of th e p r in c i p le o f
i n t e r n e s h i p t h a t h a s worked so w e l l i n m e d i c in e . Even
t h e law s c h o o l s n a y e v e n t u a l l y abandon t h e a t t e m p t t o
p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e p r a c t i c e by p u t t i n g them t h r o u g h
l i t t l e f a k e e x p e r i e n c e s in t h e c la s s r o o m and i n moot
c o u r t s and may i n s t i t u t e a s y s te m o f i n t e r n i n g law s t u d e n t s
u n d e r p r a c t i c i n g la w y e rs a f t e r a sound and c a r e f u l e d u c a t i o n
i n t h e t h e o r y and p r i n c i p l e s o f l a w . l
I;
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A
::
3
’C h ile t h e r e a r e many who w i l l d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e d ich o to m y i n t o which
H u tc h in s a p p a r e n t l y d i v i d e s e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e a r e few who
w i l l c h a l l e n g e h i s e m p h a s is upon e x p e r i e n c e i n r e a l s i t u a t i o n s a s
b e in g
b a sic to p re p a ra tio n f o r s u c c e s s fu l p r a c tic e in th e p r o fe s s io n s .
Y«ho w i l l
summon t h e p h y s i c i a n who h a s n o t c o m p le te d a t l e a s t a y e a r o f I n t e r n e s h ip ? I n m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n ,
t
i n t e r n e s h i p a s i t i s now o r g a n i z e d may be
c r i t i c i z e d and a t t a c k e d , b u t nobody a d v o c a t e s i t s r e m o v a l.
A c c o rd in g t o
Dean ite p n le y e o f t h e Columbia U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f M e d ic in e " o p i n i o n l a
r a p i d l y d e v e lo p i n g t h a t t h e
i n t e r n e p e r i o d sh o u ld be r e g a r d e d a s a p a r t
;
o f th e b a sic p r e p a r a tio n f o r m ed ical p r a c t ic e
and t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n and
i-
d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h o s p i t a l t r a i n i n g s h o u ld be a j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f
4
t h e m e d i c a l s c h o o ls and t h o s e h o s p i t a l s which p r o v id e o r can a r r a n g e a
^ R o b e r t Maynard H u t c h i n s , Ho f r i e n d l y V o ic e (C h ic a g o : U n i v e r s i t y
o f C hicago P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ), p . 1^7.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
I
I
|
s a t i s f a c t o r y e d u c a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e ." ^
In th e f i e l d o f e n g in e e rin g , th e id ea o f p re p a rin g c a r e f u l l y
s e l e c t e d g r a d u a t e e n g i n e e r s f o r p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p by g i v i n g them a n
i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g i n v o l v i n g f i r s t hand e x p e r i e n c e i n a wide
s
I
v a r i e t y o f j o b s and p o s i t i o n s s u p p o s e d ly o r i g i n a t e d w i t h a g ro u p o f u t i l i t y
i
c o n c e r n s i n 1906 and h a s been a d a p te d and a d o p t e d s i n c e t h a t tim e by a
l a r g e number o f f i r m s e m p lo y in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d e n g i n e e r i n g s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s .
I
|
On t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e l e v e l , o f c o u r s e , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n i n i t i a t e d by
j!i
t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i h a s s p r e a d w i d e l y t o many e n g i n e e r i n g f i e l d s .
I n t h e t r a i n i n g o f m i n i s t e r s , a d e f i n i t e l y o r g a n i z e d program o f
f i e l d work h a v in g many o f t h e a s p e c t s o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s b e in g a d v o c a te d
i n many q u a r t e r s ,
.a c c o rd in g t o May:
F i e l d work i s t h e g r a d e d e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d e n t s c a r r i e d
on u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h o s e more s k i l l e d t h a n t h e y in
i t s p e r f o r m a n c e , and r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m th r o u g h con­
s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e c la s s r o o m o f t h e p ro b le m s and d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n c o u n t e r e d on t h e f i e l d . ^
I t i s p ro p o s e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e be d e r i v e d from t h i s
wo r k :
(1) by s e l e c t i n g f i e l d s o f s t u d e n t e f f o r t , o r a p p r o v i n g
f i e l d s s e l e c t e d by s t u d e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t u d e n t s ’
e d u c a tio n a l needs;
(2) by e x e r c i s i n g some d e g re e o f s u p e r v i s i o n ov e r t h e
f i e l d work o f s t u d e n t s e i t h e r ( a ) by c o n f e r e n c e s and
r e p o r t s to f a c u l t y members a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s o r
(b) by v i s i t a t i o n , on t h e p a r t o f f a c u l t y members o r
t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , o f th e s t u d e n t a t work, o r
(c) by b o t h (a) and ( b ) ;
P
W i l l a r d C. R a p p le y e , Quoted i n " S e ek s Improved I n t e r n e T r a i n i n g
i n M e d ic a l 'Work," New York T im e s , S e c t i o n D :7 , F e b r u a r y 18, 1940.
Gib
3 H. G
ib b o n s, "C adet S c h o o ls o f b u s i n e s s , " Forum, 5 8 :7 4 1 - 4 8 ,
December, 1917.
_ _ _________________________________
^ Mark A
A. May,
E d u c a t i o n o f A m erican M i n i s t e r s (New York: I n s t i t u t e
o f S o c i a l and R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n , 19
3 :2 4 8 -4 9 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
|
|
lit
1
(3)
by m aking t h e p ro b le m s and d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te r e d
by s t u d e n t s on t h e f i e l d t h e b a s i s o f a n a l y s i s , d i s c u s s i o n , and s t u d y i n t h e c la s s r o o m a s a r e g u l a r p a r t
o f such d u l y c o n s t i t u t e d c o u r s e s a s r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n ,
p a s t o r a l t h e o l o g y , C h r i s t i a n e t h i c s and s o c i o l o g y . ^
|
I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e s o f f i e l d work s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d
on an d t h e r a p i d e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e "m ight w i t h r e a s o n
l e a d to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s u p e r v i s e d , g ra d e d e x p e r i e n c e a s t h e c o re
a ro u n d w hich c u r r i c u l u m c o u r s e s a r e formed w i l l soon be c o n s i d e r e d a s
e s s e n tia l to an
ao.equate t r a i n i n g f o r t h e m i n i s t r y
as i t i s
now c o n s i d e r e d
n e c essa ry to an
a d eq u ate t r a i n i n g f o r e n g in e e rin g ,
f o r law ,
and f o r
m edic in e.
I n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r i a n s , i n t e r n e s h i p i s b e in g
p ro p o se d a s a v a l u a b l e e le m e n t i n t r a i n i n g .
W rig h t s a y s :
Such i n t e r n e s h i p s c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d o f a y e a r , o r
r a t h e r t e n m o n th s, would g iv e t o t h e l i b r a r y s c h o o l
g r a d u a t e an a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i n v a r i o u s
l i n e s o f l i b r a r y w ork. F o r p e r i o d s o f two m onths e a c h
he would d e v o te h i m s e l f t o p a r t i c u l a r d e p a r t m e n t s o f
th e
lib ra ry .
The r e m u n e r a t i o n would have t o be
sm a ll, because
o f t h e e x p e n se t o t h e l i b r a r y o f t r a i n i n g a p e rs o n in
v a r i o u s l i n e s f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f work in
ea ch f i e l d . The em phasis t h r o u g h o u t s h o u ld be on t h e
e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , in g i v i n g t o t h e
g r a d u a t e an a d d i t i o n a l y e a r o f t r a i n i n g beyond h i s c o u r s e
in l i b r a r y s c h o o l.?
r
I n y e t a n o t h e r f i e l d which m ig h t be c l a s s e d a s a p r o f e s s i o n ,
■
p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r young men and women e n t e r i n g governm ent s e r v i c e
5 I b i d . , p . 192.
6 I b i d . . p . 251.
^ V.’y l l i s K. W r ig h t, " I n t e r n e s h i p s i n L i b r a r y L d u c a t i o n , " L i b r a r y
J o u r n a l , 6 0 : 7 8 2 - 8 3 , O c to b e r 15, 1955.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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on a " c a r e e r " b a s i s , i n t e r n e s h i p i s b e g i n n i n g t o p l a y a p ro m in e n t p a r t .
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i n c e r t a i n f e d e r a l governm ent d e p a r t m e n t s .
They r e c e i v e no p a y , but so
r i g i d i s t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and so e x c e l l e n t t h e i r work t h a t , a c c o r d in g t o
..a ld r o n , "most o f t h e s e young p e o p le have a c h o ic e o f s e v e r a l f e d e r a l jo b s
^
when t h e y f i n i s h t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p s . " ®
S i m i l a r c l a n s a r e b e in g f o llo w e d
by c e r t a i n s t a t e and l o c a l g o v e rn m e n ts , o f t e n on a c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s w i t h
s t a t e and m u n i c i p a l u n i v e r s i t i e s .
New York S t a t e c o o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e
S c h o o l o f C i t i z e n s h i p a n d P u b l i c A f f a i r s a t S y ra c u s e U n i v e r s i t y .
A number
o f g r a d u a t e s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , ch o sen by c o m p e t i t i v e exam ina­
t i o n , o b t a i n one y e a r a p p o in tm e n ts i n t h e s t a t e p e r s o n n e l o f f i c e and a r e
p la c e d on th e p a y - r o l l r e c e i v i n g some r e m u n e r a t i o n .
In t h i s i n s t a n c e , a
l i m i t e d amount o f c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a t e work i s c a r r i e d on by t h e i n t e r n e .
At t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c in n a t i^ g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s in p u b l i c s e r v i c e spend
h a l f t h e i r tim e w o rk in g i n c i t y o r c o u n ty o f f i c e s , t h e o t h e r h a l f in th e
;
c la s s r o o m .
Q
O th e r i n s t a n c e s c o u ld be c i t e d .
Thus, in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s o f
law , m e d i c in e , e n g i n e e r i n g , th e m i n i s t r y , l i b r a r y work, and p u b l i c a d /■
m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n t e r n e s h i p i s o r i s b e in g p ro p o se d a s a n e s s e n t i a l , o r a t
l e a s t a v e r y v a l u a b l e , e le m en t o f t r a i n i n g .
a
■Hebb W aldron, " I n t e r n e s i n G overnm ent, " R e a d e rs D i g e s t . 3 3 : 1 4 ,
S e p tem b e r, 1938.
(Condensed from S u rv e y G r a p h i c , S e p tem b e r, 1 9 3 8 .)
9 I b i d . , pp. 1 4 -1 5 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I n t e r n e s h i p i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i n c e r t a i n E u ro p e an c o u n t r i e s . —The
o b s e r v e r o f E u ro p e a n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y im p re ss e d w i t h t h r e e
th in g s:
t h e c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s by a s e r i e s o f r i g i d
e x a m i n a t i o n s ; t h e s t r e s s p l a c e d upon " s o u n d , r i c h , b ro a d s c h o l a r s h i p " on
t h e p a r t o f t h o s e who would e n t e r t e a c h i n g ; and t h e e x te n d e d p r a c t i c e , i n ­
t e r n e s h i p , o r p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d com bining t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e t h a t con­
s t i t u t e s t h e s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by b e g i n n i n g
t e a c h e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y in Germany, Sweden, Norway and D enm ark.’*'®
w i t h t h i s l a s t a s p e c t t h a t we a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d .
I t is
U s in g Germany a s
a n e x a m p le , we f i n d t h a t t h e s t r i c t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e
p r o s p e c t i v e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r i s a c h ie v e d by p l a c i n g t h e n o v i c e i n
an a c t u a l s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n w hich he i s g r a d u a l l y i n d u c t e d i n t o t h e work
o f t e a c h i n g u n d e r the s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e p r i n c i p a l and s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s . ■*•■*■
T h i s p e r i o d o f i n d u c t i o n i s two y e a r s i n l e n g t h and may be s p e n t i n two o r
more s c h o o l s .
U s u a l l y a n e f f o r t i s made t o g iv e c a n d i d a t e s a cha n ce t o
become f a m i l i a r w i t h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t o t e a c h t h r e e
d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , and t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h p u p i l s o f d i f f e r e n t age
lev els.
12
D u rin g b o th y e a r s , t h e o r e t i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s c a r r i e d
on by se m in a r o r confei-ence g r o u p s w h ic h a r e r e q u i r e d t o meet a t l e a s t two
‘i
5
vi
■3
Thomas A l e x a n d e r , "The T r a i n i n g o f T e a c h e r s i n E u r o p e ," N a t i o n a l
S u rv e y o f t h e E d u c a ti o n o f T e a c h e r s . 5 :4 0 6 , 4 0 8 -0 9 , U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f
E d u c a ti o n B u l l e t i n , 1933, No. 10 (W ashington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government
P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 5 ). P ages 408-09 c o n t a i n a n e x c e l l e n t summary o f t h e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f European t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n .
^ I . L. H a n d e l, C o m parative E d u c a ti o n (B o sto n : Houghton M i f f l i n
Company, 1 9 3 3 ), p . 845.
12
E s t h e r C ra n e , "The T r a i n i n g o f S e c o n d a ry - S c h o o l T e a c h e r s in
P r u s s i a —Some I m p r e s s i o n s , " S c h o o l R e v ie w , 4 2 : 1 8 1 , M arch, 1954.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h o u r s a week.
Much o f t h i s s e m in a r work i s r e l a t e d t o t h e e v e r y - d a y
c la s s r o o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r a nd i n v o l v e s d i s c u s s i o n
o f t e a c h i n g which h a s been o b s e r v e d , t e a c h i n g p ro b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s , a nd i m p o r ta n t t h e o r e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l p ro b le m s o f
i n t e r e s t t o a l l members o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n .
|
*}*Z
At t h e end o f t h e s e two
y e a r s , a n e x a m i n a t i o n composed o f t h r e e p a r t s , an o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e
t e a c h i n g o f two m odel l e s s o n s b e f o r e a n e x a m in in g c o m m itte e , and t h e p r e -
.f
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s e n ta t io n o f a w r i tt e n paper o r t h e s i s , d e te rm in e s w h eth er th e c a n d id a te
s h a l l be p l a c e d on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t f o r perm anent a p p o in t m e n t .
Those who
s u c c e s s f u l l y p a s s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n a r e n l a c e d i n a c t i v e s e r v i c e , draw
i
s a l a r i e s , and may lo o k f o rw a r d t o p e rm a n en t a p p o in tm e n t i n a b o u t f i v e
;>
■V
d
y e a r s . 14
Sweden f u r n i s h e s a n o t h e r exam ple o f t h e e m p h a s is p l a c e d upon
a c t u a l c la s s r o o m work i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n Europe.
A le x a n d e r d e s c r i b e s t h e y e a r o f i n t e r n e s h i p w hich f o l l o w s t h e c o m p l e ti o n
M. ■
o f t h e c a n d i d a t e ' s academ ic work:
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U su a lly about te n c a n d id a te s a r e a s sig n e d to a secondary
s c h o o l w here th e y work u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f m a s t e r
t e a c h e r s , a c a n d i d a t e ' s a c t u a l t e a c h i n g lo a d i s v e r y l i g h t —
a b o u t 6 h o u r s p e r week— but he i s e x p e c t e d t o make c a r e f u l
p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s w ork. The minimum r e q u i r e m e n t in
o b s e r v a t i o n i s from 10 t o 12 h o u r s p e r w eek. The c a n d i d a t e
d oes t e a c h i n g i n n o t l e s s t h a n 2 n o r more t h a n f o u r s u b j e c t s —
t h o s e in w hich he h a s had a c adem ic p r e p a r a t i o n .
In a d d itio n
t o f o l l o w i n g th e s c h e d u l e o f o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e , t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o a t t e n d w eek ly c o n f e r e n c e s
i n w hich t h e f a c u l t y and s t u d e n t s t o g e t h e r d i s c u s s t h e work
w hich h a s been d o n e . 15
13 Thomas A le x a n d e r , o p . c i t . , p . 431.
I . L. K a n d e l, op* c i t . , p . 845.
1^ Thomas A le x a n d e r ,
0£ .
c i t . , p p . 4 5 1 -5 2 .
15 I b i d . . p. 4 3 8 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
e
A s i m i l a r p l a n i s f o ll o w e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n Denmark.
S t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d on a p a r t - t i m e h a s i s u n d e r
e x p e r i e n c e d gymnasium t e a c h e r s who a r e s e l e c t e d b y t h e i n s p e c t o r o f t h e
gymnasium s c h o o l s .
In d u c tio n i s th ro u g h th e f a m i li a r p la n o f o b s e rv a tio n —
l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n — f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , th o u g h i t i s n o t many weeks
S'
g
b e f o r e t h e t e a c h i n g i s done a l t e r n a t e l y by t h e s u p e r v i s i n g t e a c h e r a nd t h e
p
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r .
i:;
In E u ro p e , b e g in n i n g e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a s w e l l a s s e c o n d a r y
|
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s have a n e x te n d e d p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g i n a p r a c t i c a l
situ a tio n ,
p
T here i s no E uro p e an c o u n tr y i n w hich t h e r e i s n o t a p r o b a t i o n a r y
period
g
o f some s o r t , and a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d i n Europe i s n o t m e r e ly a
n a tte r
c f j u d g in g w h e th e r a c a n d i d a t e s u c c e e d s o r f a i l s b u t i n v o l v e s c l o s e ,
'5
p o s i t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n by e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d
su p e rv iso rs.^
It is a
d e f in ite p a rt of th e p ro fe ssio n a l tra in in g of tea c h e rs.
I n c l o s i n g t h i s s e c t i o n on i n t e r n e s h i p i n E u ro p e , i t s h o u ld be
n o te d t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r i n E u r o re i s b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w ith
I
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a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t a s n e c t s o f a t e a c h e r ' s job a s a r e e u l a r p a r t o f
t r a i n i n g program .
h is
A le x a n d e r sum m arizes i t w e l l when he w r i t e s :
Eo p h a s e o f a t e a c h e r ' s work i s l e f t o u t o f t h e young:
c a n d i d a t e ' s e x p e r i e n c e , o r g a n i z a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f
m a t e r i a l s , p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g , i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s t u d i e s ,
p a r e n t and a d u l t c o n t a c t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g and
s p e a k i n g , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l c i v i c and p o l i t i c a l
a f f a i r s , p u b l i c work and s o c i a l s e r v i c e , r u r a l and c i t y
s c h o o l p r a c t i c e , s p o r t s and c lu b w ork, f a c u l t y m e e t i n g s ,
i n s h o r t , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t a ny t e a c h e r e v e r d o e s .I B
16
E. ft. nnifgirt, " T r a i n i n g o f High S c h o o l T e a c h e r s i n Denm ark,"
S chool and S o c i e t y , 2b:5£>6, way 1 4 , 1927.
17 Thomas A l e x a n d e r , "./hut kuy T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e
U n ite d S t a t e s L e a rn from S i m i l a r I n s t i t u t i o n s i n O th e r C o u n t r i e s ? " E l e v e n t h
Yearbook o f t h e A iaerican As s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s , 1932, p . 120.
1® Thomas A l e x a n d e r , ojw c’i t . , p. 406.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
9
Landmarks i n t h e h i s t o r y o f i n t e r n e s h i p in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . — I n
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Brown U n i v e r s i t y p r o b a b l y had t h e f i r s t
in d u ctio n
program s p o n s o re d by a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n w hich g r a d u a t e
s t u d e n t s were g r a d u a l l y i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e work o f t e a c h i n g in a n a c t u a l
schoolroom s i t u a t i o n .
B e g in n in g in 1S95, a c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n was worked
o u t w i t h th e c i t y o f P r o v id e n c e w hereby s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s t a u g h t f i v e t o
f i f t e e n p e r i o d s a week in P r o v id e n c e s c h o o l s f o r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r ,
e a c h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r b e in g u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d
e x p e r i e n c e d P r o v id e n c e t e a c h e r .
A member o f t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e D e p a rtm en t
o f E d u c a tio n a t Brown U n i v e r s i t y v i s i t e d e a c h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r once a week
and c o n d u c te d a s e m in a r f o r a l l s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s w hich d e a l t w i t h c la s s r o o m
p ro b le m s b e in g f a c e d by members o f th e g r o u p .
An a r t i c l e - w r itte n some
t w e n ty y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h i s p l a n o u t l i n e s t h e b a s i c
p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g a t Brown, p r i n c i n l e s w hich w ere s t i l l
b e in g o b s e rv e d t h e n and which a r e b e i n g o b s e rv e d now a f t e r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s
of a p p a re n tly s u c c e s s fu l o p e ra tio n :
19
1.
P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s h o u ld be open o n ly t o g r a d u a t e
s t u d e n t s ; t h a t i s s t u d e n t s who h o ld a b a c h e l o r ’ s d e g r e e ,
2.
P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g s h o u ld be u n d e r a c t u a l schoolroom
c o n d itio n s.
3.
P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g sh o u ld i n c l u d e t h e c o n t i n u o u s i n ­
s t r u c t i o n and c o n t r o l o f a c l a s s f o r a lo n g p e r i o d .
4.
P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g m ust be u n d e r t h e c o n t i n u o u s d i r e c t
o r i n d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f a n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r who
knows t h e s c h o o l , t h e c l a s s , and t h e d e t a i l e d p r o g r e s s
o f th e su b je c t ta u g h t.
5.
P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g m ust be c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e
un i v e r s i t y w ork.
‘.V a lte r B. J a c o b s , " P r a c t i c e T e a c h in g f o r S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l T e a c h e r s
a t Brown U n i v e r s i t y , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 3 : 5 5 3 - 3 6 , A p r i l 8 , 1916.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6.
P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g m ust n o t be a n i n j u r y t o t h e s c h o o l
o r to th e p u p il, but r a t h e r a b e n e f it.
I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h i s was term ed t h e "practice t e a c h i n g program " a t
Brown U n i v e r s i t y ; t h e t e r m " i n t e r n e s h i p " h a s n o t b e e n used i n e d u c a t i o n
|
e x c e p t i n t h e l a s t t e n o r t w e lv e y e a r s .
. i n t e r n e s h i p , ho w e v e r.
The p l a n h a s many a s p e c t s o f
D u rin g h i s u n d e r g r a d u a te y e a r s , t h e t e a c h e r i n
t r a i n i n g had u s u a l l y t a k e n s e v e r a l s e m e s te r c o u r s e s i n e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g
h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s o f e d u c a t i o n , and a g e n e r a l m ethods c o u r s e
w hich i n c l u d e d o b s e r v a t i o n and some l i m i t e d t e a c h i n g by members o f th e
c la ss.
I t was f e l t t h a t t h e n o v ic e was r e a d y t o " t r y h i s w ings" d u r i n g h i s
f i r s t y e a r a f t e r c o m p l e ti n g t h e b a c c a l a u r e a t e .
The b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r was
by no means c u t l o o s e from t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , th o u g h .
T h is
was e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t o f Brown’ s t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n pro g ra m , n o t p r i m a r i l y
a means o f i n d u c t i n g t e a c h e r s i n t o t h e P r o v id e n c e s c h o o l s y s te m .
th ein te r n e s '
re g iste r
se m in a r w hich met e v e r y w eek,
i n t e r n e s were e x p e c te d
B e s id e s
to
f o r some work i n t h e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n and in d e p a r tm e n ts
a l l i e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s t h e y w e re t e a c h i n g .
20
J u d g in g from t h e l a c k o f m e n tio n o f a ny s i m i l a r program s in t h e
l i t e r a t u r e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e p l a n a t Drown U n i v e r s i t y was not
c o p ie d by many t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r a s c o r e o r more y e a r s .
The F i t c h b u r g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Normal S c h o o l , th o u g h , had a p l a n o f t e a c h e r
e d u c a t i o n t h a t was a f o r e r u n n e r o f s e v e r a l i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s i n t h i s
c o u n try .
At t h e c o m p l e ti o n o f t h e u s u a l two y e a r norm al s c h o o l c o u r s e ,
a p p r o x i m a t e l y tw e n ty o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g g r a d u a t e s w ere o f f e r e d t h e o p p o r­
t u n i t y o f two y e a r s a d d i t i o n a l work, t h e t h i r d y e a r t o be s p e n t a s a r e g u l a r
20 I b i d - » PP- 554-36.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11
te a c h e r in a s e le c te d p u b lic elem en tary school in F itc h b u rg o r e n v iro n s
and t h e f o u r t h y e a r t o be a f i n a l y e a r o f work a t th e n o rm a l s c h o o l .
D u rin g t h e t h i r d y e a r , t h e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r r e c e i v e d a s a l a r y e q u i v a l e n t
t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g s a l a r y f o r f i r s t - y e a r t e a c h e r s and was s u p e r v i s e d by
t h e no rm a l s c h o o l and r e c e i v e d some s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t i n g
d i r e c t l y t o c la s s r o o m work.
One o f th e p e rs o n s who became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h
t h e program a t F i t c h b u r g was F ra n k E. S p a u l d i n g , t h e n s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f
s c h o o ls a t Newton, M a s s a c h u s e t t s ( 1 9 0 4 ) .
I n a r e c e n t l e t t e r he w r i t e s :
As soon a s I h e a r d o f t h i s p l a n , I went a t once t o
t h a t Normal S c h o o l f o r t e a c h e r s , f o r I f e l t s u r e t h a t t h e
c o m b in a tio n o f a h i g h l y s e l e c t e d g r o u p , a y e a r o f r e a l
e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r e x p e r t s u p e r v i s i o n , and a f i n a l y e a r o f
s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n would y i e l d s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s .
And f o r 10 y e a r s — 1904 t o 1914— a s lo n g a s I was s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Newton (M ass.) S c h o o l s , I s e c u r e d a
l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s f o r t h e f i r s t 6 g r a d e s from
t h o s e advanced g r a d u a t e s o f t h e F i t c h b u r g Norm al. 'They
never d isa p p o in te d .* ^
In 1915, S p a u l d in g a c c e p t e d t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y o f t h e M in n e a p o lis
p u b lic s c h o o ls .
T h o ro u g h ly s o l d on t h e v a lu e o f a y e a r ' s b e g in n i n g
t e a c h i n g u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n f o r o u t s t a n d i n g b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s ,
S p a u l d in g i n a u g u r a t e d an i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n in th e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s of
M in n e a p o l i s .
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Q uoting S p a u l d in g a g a i n :
The dom inant p u rp o se w h ic h l e d t o t h e M in n e a p o lis
p l a n . . . . was d e v e lo p i n g t h e s t r o n g e s t p o s s i b l e body
o f t e a c h e r s f o r t h e M in n e a p o lis s c h o o l s , how c o u ld t h a t
be done? Get t h e most c a p a b le and p r o m is in g g r a d u a t e s
o f t h e b e s t t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s , f r e s h from t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l
p r e p a r a t i o n , b r e a k them i n t o t h e M in n e a p o lis s c h o o l s u n d e r
^ F ra n k E. S p a u l d i n g , L e t t e r , F e b r u a r y 11, 1940. D r. S p a u ld in g
d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l t h e F i t c h b u r g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , p l a n and t h e M in n e a p o l is
p l a n . Much t h a t i s w r i t t e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r a b o u t t h e s e p l a n s i s a
su m m a riz a tio n o f p o r t i o n s of D r. S p a u l d i n g 's l e t t e r .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
conditions calculated to insure th eir continued professional
development. And i f they make good, as they are expected to
do, retain them. I f they do not f u l f i l l th eir i n i t i a l promise,
l e t them go (th is they were given clea rly to understand at
the o u tset, which was Intended to discourage any who might
he looking primarily for a job rather than for an opportunity
fo r professional growth). I f they were not retained, they
had s t i l l had the advantage o f a year of valuable professional
experience.22
For every f iv e internes in the Minneapolis system, a supervisor was
appointed whose sole resp o n sib ility was to see that the interne was given
th e kind o f help which would make fo r optimum adjustment and growth.
I
'§
These supervisors were outstanding experienced teachers who seemed q u alified
1
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t
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I
fo r p rincipalships and whose fit n e s s for th is larger resp o n sib ility could
be te sted in part by th eir work as supervisors.
j!
salary increment.
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se le c te d graduates of normal sch ools.
i|
They received a small
As Spaulding has stated, the in ternes were carefu lly
The opportunity of g ettin g into a
large c it y system upon graduation was a real inducement to the interne
p a rtic u la r ly as a salary equivalent to what might be expected during a
f i r s t year o f appointment elsewhere was a part o f the interneship plan.
Internes were assigned c la sse s for which they were best prepared, usually
in one o f the f ir s t four grades.
In the three years that
plan worked very e ffe c tiv e ly .
Spaulding was at Minneapolis, he found the
Hot only did the internes do a very ex­
c e lle n t job o f classroom teaching, but th eir presence in the school system
served to epur older teachers to further professional growth and develop-*
ment.
23
22
IM d ., p. 2
23
1*1*-. P* 7
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13
I n 1917, S p a u ld in g was a p p o i n t e d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s in
C l e v e la n d .
A c i t y norm al s c h o o l was in o p e r a t i o n when he assumed h i s
p o sitio n th ere.
The i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n w hich had been d e v e lo p e d a t M innea­
p o l i s was i n t r o d u c e d w i t h m inor m o d i f i c a t i o n s and e f f e c t i v e l y c o o r d i n a t e d
t h e work o f t h e norm al s c h o o l w ith t h e i n d u c t i o n o f new t e a c h e r s i n t o t h e
C le v e la n d s y s te m .
T h u s, from S p a u l d i n g ’s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e work o f t h e
F i t c h b u r g Normal S c h o o l, a p la n o f i n t e r n e s h i p e v o lv e d and was i n t r o d u c e d
i n two l a r g e c i t y s c h o o l s y s te m s .
At t h e same tim e t h a t S p a u ld in g was s t a r t i n g a n i n t e r n e s h i p program
i n M i n n e a p o l i s , t h e B o sto n s c h o o l s i n t r o d u c e d a t r a i n i n g program e x t e n d i n g
o v e r a t w o - y e a r p e r i o d i n w hich i n e x p e r i e n c e d b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s w ere g iv e n
a t h o r o u g h c o u r s e i n p r a c t i c a l work i n v o l v i n g d e f i n i t e c la s s r o o m r e ­
sp o n sib ilitie s.
second.
c itie s.
24
A s a l a r y o f $800 was p a i d f o r th e f i r s t y e a r ; $900 f o r th e
The S c h o o l n e v ie w a l s o r e p o r t s s t e p s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n o t h e r
I n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l news and e d i t o r i a l comments s e c t i o n o f t h e
J u n e , 1915, i s s u e , t h e work b e in g done t o c o o r d i n a t e c o u r s e s i n m ethods
w i t h a c t u a l c la s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e was la u d e d and n o t e t a k e n o f th e g ro w in g
movement f o r " a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t e a c h i n g " :
T h e re i s coming to t h e f o r e e v e ry w h ere som ething
r e s e m b li n g t h e German s y s te m o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p — l e a r n
by d o i n g , l e a r n n o t i n t h e somewhat s t r a i n e d s i t u a t i o n s
o f a m o d e l - s c h o o l c la s s r o o m , b u t by s u b o r d i n a t e p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n i n e v e ry d a y p ro b le m s o f t h e c i t y s c h o o l r o o m . 2 5
OA
" T r a i n i n g C o u rs e s i n B o sto n and M i n n e a p o l i s , " S c h o o l R e v ie w ,
2 3 : 4 1 5 - 1 7 , J u n e , 1915.
" P r a c t i c e T e a ch in g v e r s u s h e a l A p p r e n t i c e s h i p , " S c h o o l R eview .
2 3 : 4 1 4 - 1 5 , J u n e , 1915.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
14
I n 1919, t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i i n a u g u r a t e d t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
program t h a t h a s t r a i n e d more t e a c h e r s to d a te t h a n any o t h e r i n t e r n e s h i p
program i n t h i s c o u n t r y .
I n t h a t y e a r , . A l f r e d L. H a l l - ' i u e s t t o o k o v e r t h e
d i r e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g work and o r g a n i z e d a program
whereby c a n d i d a t e s f o r a t e a c h e r ' s d ip lo m a s p e n t t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a ­
t i o n from th e r e g u l a r f o u r - y e a r c u r r i c u l u m a s p a r t - t i m e t e a c h e r s in
C i n c i n n a t i h ig h s c h o o l s u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
The i n t e r n e , c a l l e d a f i f t h - y e a r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r i n C i n c i n n a t i , r e c e i v e d
o n e - h a l f t h e s a l a r y f o r b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s , th e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r a l s o
r e c e i v e d a s a l a r y in c r e m e n t o v e r t h e ba se pay she would r e c e i v e a s a
teach er.
The c la s s r o o m t e a c h i n g c a r r i e d on by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r was
c o n s i d e r e d a d e f i n i t e p a r t o f a f i f t h - y e a r t r a i n i n g p l a n , and s i n c e 192 3^
g r a d u a t e s who have s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p le te d t h e t e a c h i n g work p l u s c o r r e l a t e d
c o u r s e work c a r r i e d on c o n c u r r e n t l y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i have
r e c e i v e d t h e B a c h e lo r o f e d u c a t i o n d e g r e e .
I n t h e tv;ent i e s , a number o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s we r e e s t a b l i s h e d
p a r t i c u l a r l y by s c h o o l sy ste m s d e s i r i n g to o b t a i n o u t s t a n d i n g b e g in n i n g
t e a c h e r s whom t h e y c o u ld t r a i n t h e m s e lv e s i n a t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e
t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w th .
I n J u n e , 1923, t h e C oncord, New L am pshire Board
o f e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d two " f e l l o w s h i p s " to s e n i o r s g r a d u a t i n g from l i b e r a l
a r t s c o l l e g e s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o s p e c t o f u l t i m a t e f u l l - t i m e
employment a s i n s t r u c t o r s i n Concord s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .
Bach o f t h e two
c a n d i d a t e s s e l e c t e d was t o be q u a l i f i e d i n two d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
f i e l d s ; b o th c a n d i d a t e s t o g e t h e r t o b e q u a l i f i e d in f o u r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s .
Of t
R alph b . W ilb u r , T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g f o r S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls in th e
U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i ( u n p u b lis h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f
C i n c i n n a t i , 1 9 2 8 ).
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The s t ip u la t io n s o f th e plan were th eses
(a ) During th e f i r s t year o f h is appointm ent, each
candidate s h a ll d evote o n e -h a lf o f h is sch ool time
to th e stud y and o b serv a tio n o f secon d ary-sch ool
tea ch in g methods and tea ch in g technique and o n e -h a lf
o f h is tim e to s u b s t it u t io n tea ch in g in the ju nior
and se n io r high sc h o o ls . His study and p r a c tic e
w i l l be under th e d ir e c t su p e rv isio n o f the su perin te n d e n t.
I
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Ii
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(b) During th e second y ea r, he s h a ll devote on e-q u arter
o f h is tim e to study and o b serv a tio n , on e-q u arter to
reg u la r a s s is t a n t te a c h in g , and o n e -h a lf to s u b s t it u t io n tea ch in g .
(c ) During th e th ird y e a r , he s h a ll become a f u ll- t im e
in s tr u c to r in e ith e r ju n io r or sen io r high sch o o l.
ji
For the f i r s t year o f s e r v ic e , th e b eginning tea ch er under t h is plan would
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r e c e iv e $1100; fo r the second y ea r, $1200; and fo r th e th ir d y e a r , a $1200
I
minimum sa la r y p lu s th e reg u la r y e a r ly in cr ea se o f $100 g iv en reg u la r s t a f f
f
members.
.
28
In 1928, A shland, Kentucky, i n i t i a t e d a plan o f "cadet teaching"
which i s t y p ic a l o f s e v e r a l plans th at have been developed sin c e th a t
tim e.
The two e s s e n t ia l c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f th e plan a re an in te n s iv e
program o f o b serv a tio n and v i s i t a t i o n d ir e c te d by tra in ed su p e rv iso rs,
and s u b s titu te te a c h in g .
Those s e le c te d as ca d ets are beginning tea ch ers
who have had two or more years o f s p e c ia l tr a in in g in te a c h e r -tr a in in g
in s t it u t io n s .
The "cadets" are not paid fo r th e tim e th ey spend in ob­
s e r v a tio n , v i s i t a t i o n , and co n feren ce, but during th e second sem ester o f
27
"A pprenticeship T raining o f High School Teachers," School Review,
31:570-72, O ctober, 1923.
28 I b i d . , p. 572.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
th e program when most o f th e s u b s titu te tea ch in g i s done, th ey a re paid
f iv e d o lla r s a day for each day th ey tea ch .
29
In B u ffa lo , New York, th e f i r s t year probationary period fo r in ­
experienced normal sch ool graduates was organized in 1928 in to a program
which might be termed in te r n e s h ip .
S e le c te d on the b a s is o f co m p etitiv e
exam inations, s u c c e s s fu l can d id ates were a ssig n ed to elem entary sch ool
b u ild in g s d esign ated a s "teaching cen ters" because o f the demonstrated
a b i l i t y o f the p r in c ip a l in a id in g young tea ch ers and because o f the "high
id e a ls o f achievement" e s ta b lis h e d fo r th e v a rio u s g ra d es.
The program
has been d escrib ed a s fo llo w s :
For every 8 to 10 probationary te a c h e r s, each cen ter
has one a d v iso ry tea ch er , who, by reason o f her high
id e a ls , stron g p e r s o n a lity , ca p a city for growth, and
unusual in s t r u c t io n a l s k i l l has shown s p e c ia l a p titu d e
fo r t h is work. She h elp s th e probationary teach er plan
her le s s o n s ; sy m p a th etica lly e v a lu a te s her performance;
tak es her c la s s e s f o r dem onstration purposes; a id s her
in d is c ip lin a r y tr o u b le s; keeps her in touch w ith th e
most h e lp fu l lit e r a t u r e o f her s u b j e c t s , encourages,
s tim u la te s , and a s s i s t s her in a l l her d i f f i c u l t i e s ;
in s h o r t, a c t s a s a "big s is t e r " or o f f i c i a l a d v is e r .
A fte r a s u c c e s s fu l year in the " teaching cen ter," th e b egin n in g tea ch er
was tra n sferred to a reg u la r sch ool in th e c i t y .
She was not lo s t track
o f , however, and one o f th e main fe a tu r e s o f th e B u ffa lo plan was th e
arrangement which had been worked out w ith th e U n iv e r s ity o f B u ffa lo and
J . D. F a l ls , "Training th e Cadet Teacher in A shland, Kentucky,"
American School Board Jou rn al, 8 4 :5 1 -5 2 , 99, May, 1932.
!!
I
30 B u ffalo Department o f Education, "Probationary Teachers in
B u ffalo .assigned to Teacher Centers fo r One Year," School L i f e , 13:1 6 1 -62,
May, 1928.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
C a n i s i u s C o lle g e w hich p e r m i t t e d t h e t e a c h e r t o t a k e c o u r s e s l e a d i n g t o
t h e b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e by a t t e n d i n g l a t e a f t e r n o o n a nd S a t u r d a y c l a s s e s .
One o f t h e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h i s a rr a n g e m e n t was t h a t two c o l l e g e
c r e d i t s were a ll o w e d f o r e a c h s e m e s te r o f s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g i n t h e B u f f a l o
s c h o o l s w i t h a maximum a llo w a n c e o f tw e lv e c r e d i t s e a rn e d i n t h i s m an n er.
31
w ith t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e B u f f a l o p l a n , we come t o t h e n i n e t e e n th irtie s.
Bot e v e r y i n t e r n e s h i p program e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r t o 1930 h a s been
i n c l u d e d i n t h i s b r i e f re s u m ^ t o u c h i n g t h e h i g h s p o t s o f t h e de v e lo p m en t o f
i n t e r n e s h i p up t o t h i s t i m e .
S e a t t l e e s t a b l i s h e d a n i n t e r n e s h i p program i n
1917, but i t i s so s i m i l a r t o t h e H i n a e a p o l i s p ro g ra m t h a t i t d oes n o t b e a r
su m m a riz in g .
32
G a ry , I n d i a n a , i n a u g u r a t e d a p l a n h a v in g t h e same c h a r -
a c t e r i s t i c s i n 1925.
33
D o u b t l e s s , t h e r e a r e many p l a n s w hich w ere t r i e d
and w hich n e v e r found t h e i r way i n t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e .
The m a jo r p a t t e r n s
o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s t h e y d e v e lo p e d have b e e n r e c o r d e d , how ever, and we p a s s
t o t h e e ra o f t h e n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s , t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w hich m ost o f t h e
i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y w ere e s t a b l i s h e d .
T h is i s
t h e p e r i o d wnen p r i v a t e s c h o o l s j o i n t o g e t h e r to make t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
more e f f e c t i v e so t h a t t h e y may o b t a i n a d e q u a t e l y e q u ip p e d t e a c h e r s w i t h a
p r o g r e s s i v e v i e w p o i n t ; t h i s i s t h e p e r i o d when t h e d a rk d e p t h s o f t h e d e ­
p r e s s io n re a c h d e e p est in to th e ran k s of th e g rad u a tin g c la s s e s o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , many more g r a d u a t e t h a n a r e p l a c e d , and i n t e r n e s h i p
I b i d . , pp. 1 6 1 -6 2 .
I n f r a , p . 160.
^ H e le n II. R e y n o ld s , " R e c r u i t i n g t h e T e a ch in g C o rp s—The C adet
P l a n , " E d u c a t i o n a l h ie tn o d , 9 : 2 9 0 - 9 6 , i 'e b r u a r y , 1930.
Jo h n Gr. aossm an, " A p p r e n t i c i n g t h e B e g in n in g l e a c i i e r , " e le m e n t a r y
S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 2 7 : 6 6 3 - 7 3 , h a y , 1927.
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i s proposed a s a p a r t ia l s o lu tio n fo r th e unemployment o f employable be­
gin n in g tea ch er s; t h i s i s the p eriod when r a is in g standards becomes the
keynote o f th o se who would l i f t ed u cation tr u ly in to th e rank o f th e pro­
f e s s io n s and in te r n e sh ip i s h a ile d a s an in t e g r a l and e s s e n t ia l part o f
’’th e f if t h - y e a r program."
But t h is i s cu rrent h is t o r y .
These th in g s l i v e
and breathe w ith th e in te r n e sh ip programs to be stu d ied in t h i s d is s e r t a ­
t io n .
Our h is to r y has been brought a s f a r a s we can carry i t w ithout con­
f l i c t i n g w ith th e main ta s k o f t h i s t h e s i s , to d escrib e and a p p ra ise in ­
tern esh ip programs a s th ey e x is t now.
The importance o f t h i s stu d y . —The pages in t h i s f i r s t chapter
devoted to in te r n e sh ip in other p r o fe s s io n s , to th e h is to r y o f in tern esh ip
in education, and to in te r n e sh ip in teach er ed u cation in Europe have been
in clud ed w ith a d e f in it e purpose in mind.
They p o in t out th e importance
o f a study o f in te r n e sh ip programs in th e p r o fe s s io n a l ed u cation o f
te a c h e r s.
I f a program approxim ating in tern esh ip seems to be o f valu e in
oth er p r o fe s s io n s , i t may be v ery much worthwhile to study in tern esh ip as
i t i s and can be adapted to tea ch er ed u ca tio n .
I f in te r n e sh ip in teacher
ed u cation succeeds abroad, i t i s p la u s ib le to examine th e p o s s ib le c o n t r i­
b u tion s in te r n e sh ip i s making and can make to te a c h e r ed u cation in t h is
country.
In s h o r t, th e f i r s t s e c tio n s o f t h is f i r s t chapter ex p la in in
part th e importance o f th e su b jec t about which t h is t h e s is c e n te r s .
And
i f any doubt o f th e importance o f stud ying in te r n e sh ip s t i l l l i e s in the
mind o f th e rea d er, the growing p r o fe s s io n a l r e c o g n itio n o f in tern esh ip
may be c a lle d upon to d is p e l t h is sk ep ticism .
In th e Twenty-Third
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
19
1
Yearbook o f the N a tio n a l S o c ie ty o f C o llege Teachers o f E ducation, th e
I
yearbook th a t a p p ra ises th e N ation al Survey o f th e Education o f Teachers
1
and attem pts to s e t up d e fe n s ib le g u id e-p o sts fo r the education o f te a c h e r s,
1
t h is p r in c ip le i s c le a r ly and u n eq u iv o ca lly s ta te d :
1
teach in g should be fo llo w ed by a period o f in te r n e s h ip ." 34
1
a m p lifie s t h i s statem en t:
1
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"The work in d ir e c te d
S ch orling
I t i s p r a c t ic a lly im p o ssib le fo r a tr a in in g sch ool to
p rovid e tr a in in g in a g rea t v a r ie ty o f ta sk s fo r many
stud en t tea ch ers when th ese in v o lv e a d e ta ile d study o f
home and community r e la t io n s h ip s . Moreover, many c r i t i c
tea ch ers have a stud en t tea ch er load which makes in t e l lig e n t
guidance o f th ese numerous and va ried a c t i v i t i e s im p o ssib le.
But adequate tr a in in g in th ese task s could be g iv e n in a
probationary p erio d . The in tern esh ip i s an appropriate
part o f th e n ecessa ry in - s e r v ic e tr a in in g a f t e r graduation
in which th e c o lle g e p rovid es competent su p e rv isio n o f th e
graduate by reg u la r members o f th e s t a f f . These two id eas
should be coordinated and be accepted a s th e n ext step in
our e f f o r t s to improve th e education o f t e a c h e r s .35
S
James E. B u s s e ll s t a t e s th e g i s t o f same th in g more v iv id ly in th e 1926
II
report o f th e Dean o f Teachers C ollege:
I
I
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I
I
I
No amount o f form al in s tr u c tio n in normal sch o o ls or
teachers* c o lle g e s can o f f s e t the disadvantage under which
our p r o fe s s io n s u ff e r s by not having a period o f ap p ren tice
tr a in in g comparable to th a t which o b ta in s in law , m ed icin e,
anden g in ee rin g . As
long a s young tea ch er s are l e f t to t h e ir
own d e v ic e s , so lon g w i l l bad h a b its crop up which can never
be era d ica ted by m erely being talk ed ab ou t. I f a m istake
in tea ch in g were regarded a s s e r io u s ly a s i s an error in a
le g a l b r ie f o r in an en gin eerin g com putation, we should have
tea ch er s a s c a r e fu l o f t h e ir p r e s c r ip tio n s as p h y sicia n s a r e .3®
34 R aleigh S c h o r lin g , "Directed Teaching," The Education o f
T eachers, chapter 4 (Twenty-Third Yearbook o f th e N a tio n a l S o c ie ty o f
C ollege Teachers o f E d u ca tio n ), p. 173.
35 I k i a . , p. 174.
3® James E. B u s s e ll, "Report o f th e Dean o f Teachers C ollege fo r
the Academic Year Ending June 3 0 , 1926," Teachers C ollege Record, 28:337,
December, 1926.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Thus, a d m i t t i n g t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p a s a pha se o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
i s an i n t e r e s t i n g and im p o r ta n t s u b j e c t , who s p e c i f i c a l l y w a n ts t o know
t h e a n sw e rs t o t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n s propounded in t h i s t h e s i s ?
One o f t h e
w r i t e r ' s a d v i s e r s h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t no t h e s i s problem e x i s t s u n l e s s
i t i s i n a v e r y r e a l way an i m p o r ta n t and p e r p l e x i n g problem t o some
one.
37
Who i s i n t e r e s t e d , v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d , i n knowing more a b o u t t h e
f u n c t i o n s f o r w hich i n t e r n e s h i p e x i s t s , a b o u t p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s in
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, a b o u t p r i n c i p l e s w hich a r e r e c o g n i s e d a s sound in
a d m i n i s t e r i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s?
Y i r s t o f a l l , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e o f r e a l c o n c e r n t o M ary.
a g r a d u a t i n g s e n i o r i n W hite H i v e r T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e .
y e a r ahead w i t h no l i t t l e
f e a r and t r e p i d a t i o n .
Mary i s
She i s f a c i n g t h e
H er s i s t e r who g r a d u a t e d
two y e a r s ago and who i s now t e a c h i n g t e l l s h e r o f what she can e x n e c t on
h e r f i r s t j o b ; s i x c l a s s e s a da y , many " p r e p a r a t i o n s , " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
some c lu b a c t i v i t i e s , community o b l i g a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t e a c h i n g a Sunday
s c h o o l c l a s s and s i n g i n g i n t h e c h o i r , a l l t h i s t h r u s t upon t h e a s p i r i n g
and e n t h u s i a s t i c t e a c h e r t h e f i r s t day sh e e n t e r s t h e s c h o o l .
is d isillu sio n e d .
M a r y 's s i s t e r
A f t e r a few weeks o f b u r n in g m id n ig h t o i l i n o r d e r t o
p r e p a r e f o r h e r c l a s s e s so t h a t she c o u ld keep h e r t e a c h i n g on th e
h i g h l e v e l o f w hich she had been so proud a s a s t u d e n t t e a c h e r , M a ry 's s i s t e r
had d e c id e d she was p a y in g t o o g r e a t a p r i c e .
Now she m uddles th ro u g h
rtn
Mark A. May, " G e n e r a l C r i t e r i a f o r a Ph.D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , "
Mimeographed B u l l e t i n u s e d in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e T h e s i s S e m in a r, Yale
U n iv e rsity .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
on a hand-to-mouth b a s is a s b e st she can.
She adm its th a t in d iv id u a liz e d
in s tr u c tio n i s a l l r ig h t in theory but humanly im p o ssib le under th e circum­
sta n c e s in which she has to tea ch .
She b e lie v e s thoroughly in a club pro­
gram, but not when a tea ch er i s expected to serve a s sponsor a f t e r she has
a lrea d y put in a f u l l day o f work.
She en joys community c o n ta c ts , but she
would l i k e to have tim e to do more inform al home v i s i t i n g in stea d o f lim it in g
her a c t i v i t i e s to th e tim e-honored groove o f Sunday sch o o l tea ch in g and
ch oir sin g in g .
Mary would li k e to escape th e a lto g e th e r to o strenuous and
heavy load w ith which her s i s t e r had to cope during her f i r s t year of
tea ch in g and which changed her from a young and eager teach er in to a c y n ic .
She has been to ld o f a f ir s t - y e a r in te r n e sh ip p lan th a t New B ridgew ater, a
l i v e community o f tw e n ty -fiv e thousand, has inaugurated.
She understands
th a t b egin n in g tea ch ers are g iv en a li g h t e r load than reg u la r te a c h e r s,
th a t th ey are giv en help in t h e ir problems by sym pathetic su p e r v iso r s, t h a t,
alth ou gh , th e sa la r y i s b a rely enough to meet li v in g ex p en ses, s t i l l th e
chances fo r placement in a good 3ystem a f t e r com pleting th e year o f in te r n e ­
sh ip are very good, perhaps even a chance fo r a p o s it io n in New Bridgew ater.
She wants to know more about t h is in te r n e sh ip scheme.
She wants to know
i f th ere are o th er communities which are doing t h is same type o f th in g .
She wants to know what th o se who have been in te r n e s th in k o f th e p lan .
Some o f th ese q u estio n s t h is t h e s is seek s to answer.
Mary i s n ’ t the on ly person perturbed about th e d i f f i c u l t i e s con­
fr o n tin g b egin n in g te a c h e r s.
T ea ch er-tra in in g in s t it u t io n s r ec o g n ize the
f u t i l i t y o f sound p r e -s e r v ic e tr a in in g i f the gap between th e c o lle g e and
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
th e job i s so g rea t th a t th e v a lu e s o f th e p r e -s e r v ic e tr a in in g a re
I
v ir t u a l ly n u l l i f i e d .
I
program to in clu d e a f i f t h y ea r, th ere i s co n sid era b le d is c u s s io n a s to
I
what ought to c o n s t it u t e t h i s f i f t h year o f t r a in in g .
I
f e e l th a t th e t y p ic a l graduate program le a d in g to the m a ster’ s degree
1
would n ot meet th e needs o f th e average b egin n in g tea ch er and th ey agree
!
w ith Brubacher th a t:
With the trend toward exten d in g the tea ch er ed u ca tion
There are many who
The f i f t h year should* be to th e tea ch er what the
in te r n e sh ip i s to th e p h y sic ia n . In i t should be con­
cen tra ted r ic h exp erien ce in th e n ecessa ry mechanics
o f in s t r u c t io n , classroom te ch n iq u es, community r e ­
la t io n s h ip s , and p r o fe s s io n a l e t h i c s . 38
I
C ooperative arrangements o f v a rio u s s o r t s are b ein g made between
I
te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s and p u b lic sc h o o ls so th a t graduate stu d en ts
I
can r e la t e t h e ir work to a c tu a l schoolroom s it u a t io n s ,
I
in th e Worth C entral A sso c ia tio n tw e n ty -six te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s
I
had some so r t o f a co o p era tiv e arrangement w ith secondary sch o o ls in con-
I
n e e tio n w ith t h e ir graduate programs.
1
" in tern esh ip tea ch in g by graduate stu d en ts i s becoming a s ig n if ic a n t type
I
o f p rep aration in some i n s t i t u t i o n s . "39
E verett found that
In h is r e p o r t, E v erett s t a t e s ,
Thus, th e fin d in g s o f t h is t h e s is
are o f in t e r e s t to tea ch er-ed u ca to rs in sch o o ls and departm ents o f educa­
t io n .
They a re o f p a r tic u la r in t e r e s t to te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t it u t io n s
A. it. Brubacher, "The T eacher-T raining Program He-Examined,"
Journal o f Higher E d u cation . 3 :4 3 6 , November, 1932.
39 Samuel E v e r e tt, "A Survey o f C ooperative Teacher Education
Carried on by I n s t it u t io n s W ithin the A ss o c ia tio n ," The North C entral
A s s o c ia tio n Q u a rterly , 1 4 :1 9 5 -2 0 0 , October, 1939.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23
contem plating th e esta b lish m en t o f in te r n e sh ip programs.
S ta te departments o f ed u ca tio n , which in many s t a t e s e x e r c is e con­
sid e r a b le p r o fe s s io n a l le a d e rsh ip a s w e ll a s s e t t in g th e standards fo r
c e r t i f i c a t i o n which tea ch ers must m eet, are in te r e s te d in th e answers to
th e q u estio n s r a ise d in t h i s t h e s i s .
The rep o rt o f a q u estio n n a ire study
made by K lain in 1936 fin d s that fou r s t a t e s a lrea d y have r a is e d t h e ir r e ­
quirem ents fo r c e r t i f i c a t i o n beyond th e fou r y ea rs o f c o lle g e ed u cation
and "that e ig h t other s t a t e departments o f ed u ca tio n are co n sid erin g
s e r io u s ly in c r e a se s in c e r t i f i c a t i o n requirem ents fo r secondary sch ool
tea ch ers beyond the t r a d it io n a l four year c o lle g e c o u r s e ."40
J u st as
te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t it u t io n s are concerned w ith th e nature o f p ost-g ra d u ate
work in ed u ca tio n , s t a t e departments o f ed u cation are a ls o confronted w ith
t h is problem.
I t seems c e r ta in th a t in te r n e sh ip i s l i k e l y to r e c e iv e con­
s id e r a tio n on the part o f s t a t e departments a s an e s s e n t ia l elem ent in
extended tea ch er -e d u ca tio n programs,
a
l e t t e r from th e Department o f
E ducation, S ta te o f .F lorida, r e a d s , "j»e are now in th e m idst o f revamping
our te a c h e r -tr a in in g program to in clu d e in te r n e s h ip .
Very l i t t l e has been
done about i t a t th e p resen t but we hope to p e r fe c t i t in th e p resen t
,,4 1
y e a r .”
School a d m in istra to rs are in te r e s te d in in tern esh ip programs which
are b ein g t r ie d out and would li k e to know more about t h e ir o rg a n iza tio n
40
Zora E la in , "Beyond th e T r a d itio n a l Four Y ears: Trend Towards
F if t h Year fo r Cadet Teaching?" School and S o c ie t y . June 1 9 , 1937, 45:860-62.
41 M. L. S ton e, Curriculum D ir e c to r , Department o f E ducation, S ta te
o f F lo r id a , L e tte r . November 20, 1939.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and adm inistration.
I f i t i s true, as some have claimed, that the best
way to improve a teaching s ta ff i s to appoint very outstanding graduates
o f teacher-training in stitu tio n s as internes and gradually induct them
in to the system under excellen t supervision, then superintendents cannot
help but be concerned with th is type of teacher training.
Private school
adm inistrators, too, are in terested in estab lish in g sound interneship
programs.
Already, the Head M istresses Association of the East has pub­
lish e d a committee report on p ractices which ought to prevail in interne­
ship programs in private schools. t s
There are doubtless others who are very much in terested in the
questions with which th is th esis deals.
The w riter begins h is study finn
in the b e lie f that important problems are being considered, problems that
are real to many people, and that the d isserta tio n w ill make a contribution
to lite r a tu r e in the teacher education f ie ld .
The Head M istresses Association of the East, Report o f the
on Apprentice Teachers. ( 6 page printed pamphlet; no publisher
or date o f publication given, although the w riter understands i t was
published the la tt e r part of 1937* Inquire o f the Head M istresses Associa­
tio n o f the E ast). Cf. pp. 4 l-42 of th is th e sis .
C om m ittee
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Summary
I t i s th e purpose o f t h i s d is s e r t a t io n to study in tern esh ip programs
sponsored by tea ch er tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s and sch o o l systems^ seek in g
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V.
fi
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answers t o th e fo llo w in g q u estio n s:
1 . What are th e sta ted o b je c tiv e s o f e x is t in g programs o f in te r n e sh ip sponsored by sch ool system s and tea ch er tr a in in g i n s t i t u tio n s?
2 . What are th e p resen t p r a c tic e s in th e o rg a n iz a tio n and ad m inis-
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tr a tio n o f th e s e programs?
3.
What p r in c ip le s are g e n e r a lly recognized by le a d e r s in th e
f i e l d o f tea ch er ed u cation a s being d e s ir a b le p r in c ip le s underg ir d in g th e o rg a n iza tio n of in te r n e sh ip programs?
4.
To what e x ten t do e x is t in g p r a c tic e s conform w ith th e se b a sic
p r in c ip le s ?
The s ig n if ic a n c e o f any t h e s is i s determ ined by th e importance o f
th e su b ject w ith which i t d e a ls and by th e c r u c ia lit y o f the s p e c if ic
problems i t seek s t o s o lv e ,
In tern esh ip in ed u cation i s assuming in c r e a s­
in g importance because o f i t s wide use and apparent su ccess in tea ch er
ed u cation in c e r ta in European co u n tries and because o f th e ex ten t to which
in tern esh ip i s beginning to p la y a prominent part in th e p r o fe s s io n a l
tr a in in g o f th o se en terin g en g in eerin g , law , the m in is tr y , lib r a r y work,
and p u b lic s e r v ic e a s w e ll a s th e recognized part i t now p la y s in m edical
ed u cation .
The s p e c if ic problems d e a lt w ith in t h is t h e s is are o f r e a l
concern to tea ch er tr a in in g i n s t i t u t i o n s , s t a t e departments o f ed u cation ,
sch oo l a d m in istr a to r s, and beginning te a c h e r s.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
related l i t s i a t u r s
In tro d u c tio n —
Liuch o f w hat h a s be e n summ arized i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r m ight he
c la sse d as r e la te d l i t e r a t u r e .
I t is th e p a r t i c u l a r ta s k of t h i s c h a p te r
t o r e v ie w a s tu d y w hich h a s p r e v i o u s l y been made r e l a t i n g t o i n t e r n e s h i p
and t o p o i n t o u t th e c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o f u n c ­
t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e r n e s h i p , and m a j o r problem s
c o n f r o n t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
R i e a ' s t h e s i s . — But one m a j o r s tu d y h a s been made w hich p r o b e s a t
a l l t h o r o u g h l y i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p i n e d u c a t i o n , a d i s s e r t a t i o n by H a ro ld 0 .
R ie d e n t i t l e d " C o o p e r a t iv e I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g f o r
T e a c h e r s . O t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s a r e now w orking in t h e f i e l d , and t h e
c l o s e o f t h e y e a r may s e e t h e c o m p l e ti o n o f two o r t h r e e o t h e r s t u d i e s .
p
At p r e s e n t , t h o u g h , R i e d ' s t h e s i s s t a n d s in a c l a s s by i t s e l f a s a p i o n e e r
v e n t u r e in t h i s f i e l d .
H a r o ld 0 . R i e d , " C o o p e r a t iv e I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g
f o r T e a c h e r s , " ( D o c t o r 's d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a , 1 9 5 8 ).
^ C a r l C. C r e s s i s s u b m i t t i n g a d i s s e r t a t i o n e x a m in in g i n t e r n e s h i p
p rogram s s o o n s o r e d by p u b l i c s c h o o l sy s te m s t o t h e f a c u l t y o f S t a n f o r d
U n i v e r s i t y , t i a r i e A l e x a n d e r , c o m p l e ti n g h e r d e g re e a t T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , i s f o r m u l a t i n g a p l a n o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n t e a c h e r
e d u c a t i o n f o r M adison C o l l e g e , H a r r i s o n b u r g , V i r g i n i a . F in a n c e d by t h e
G ra d u a te S c h o o l a t N o r t h w e s te r n U n i v e r s i t 2r and w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f
t h e R e s e a rc h Committee o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g , U i l l i a m
G. B r i n k i s s t u d y i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n f o c u s i n g
p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n upon " t h e e x t e n s i v e n e s s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s and
t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t - u p s w hich have been e f f e c t e d . "
(Quoted from
l e t t e r to th e w r i t e r . )
C la y J . D a g g e tt h a s a t h e s i s i n p r o g r e s s a t th e
U n i v e r s i t y o f W isc o n sin e n t i t l e d " a n E v a l u a t i o n o f an I n t e r n e s h i p P r o g ra m ."
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
R i e d ’ s m a jo r i n t e r e s t was in d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v a l u e o f an i n - s e r v i c e
t r a i n i n g program s p o n s o re d by th e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b ra s k a .
t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r s w i t h l i t t l e
In ex p e rie n c e d
e x p e r i e n c e i n more t h a n f o r t y N e b ra sk a
s c h o o l s y s te m s were p a i r e d i n t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s .
S ecu rin g
t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program
was c a r r i e d o u t w ith t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g ro u p i n c l u d i n g
" v isita tio n ,
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h g r a d u a t e s , p ro m o tio n o f e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s ' m e e t i n g s ,
p ro m o tio n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g and t h e s u p p l y i n g o f m a t e r i a l s and a i d s
as n e e d e d . R i e d w rite s :
The m a jo r pha se o f t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i m e n t was t h e
fu n c tio n in g of a c o o p e ra tiv e i n s t i t u t i o n a l in -s e rv ic e
t r a i n i n g program t o prom ote i n - s e r v i c e grow th in t h e
e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r s w h ic h , i t was h o n e d , would r e f l e c t
i t s e l f i n t h e a c h ie v e m e n ts o f t h e i r p u p i l s . ^
R ie d d i d f i n d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f p u p i l g ro w th a s m ea su red by s t a n d a r d i z e d
t e s t s i n d i c a t e d " i n a l l b u t two i n s t a n c e s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h e r s
grew more i n s e r v i c e t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l t e a c h e r s when m easured in term s
o f p u p i l a c h ie v e m e n t .
I n many c a s e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t . " ^
S u b j e c t i v e d a t a b a s e d on t h e o p i n i o n s o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and t e a c h e r s
a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e v a lu e o f t h e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program .
As may be s e e n , It l e a ' s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h a b r o a d e r f i e l d t h a n
in te rn e s h ip .
I t i s c o n c e rn e d w ith t h e w hole problem o f th e i n - s e r v i c e
g ro w th o f t e a c h e r s .
The p o r t i o n o f A i e d 's t h e s i s t h a t i s o f g r e a t e s t
v a lu e t o e d u c a t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e r n e s h i p i s f i i e d ' s s u r v e y o f t h e
3
i i a r o l d 0 . R i e d , _on. c i t . , p . 18.
4 I b i d - . T- 1 7 •
® I b i d . , p. 117.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
literature pertaining to interneship in industry and in the professions.
B esid es tr a c in g th e development o f in te r n e sh ip in f i e l d s o th er than
te a c h in g , Hied review s th e p la ce in tern esh ip o ccu p ies in tea ch er ed u cation
in European co u n tries and then s y s te m a tic a lly c i t e s and a b s tr a c ts many o f
th e a r t i c l e s which have appeared on in tern esh ip in tea ch er ed u cation in
p
I
th e U nited S t a t e s . Data d e s c r ip tiv e o f in tern esh ip p lan s secured through
*
correspondence are a ls o p resen ted by H ied. I t i s R ied 's co n clu sio n that;
Up u n t il recen t tim es th e tr a in in g o f tea ch ers in the
U nited S ta te s lagged behind oth er p r o fe ssio n s in becoming
p r o fe s s io n a l, and in u t i l i z i n g modern in te r n e sh ip tr a in in g
p r a c t ic e s , but now th ere seems to be a d e f in it e trend
toward in te r n e sh ip s in te a c h in g . These in tern esh ip s are
being promoted both by te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s and
p u b lic sch o o l system s. They seem to be the f i r s t step
toward th e u n iv e r s a l adoption o f a five-j^ear program fo r
p r o sp e c tiv e te a c h e r s, but as y et th ere i s no u n iform ity a s
to i t s n a tu re. There i s v a r ia tio n in the machinery o f the
v a rio u s in te r n e sh ip programs being u sed .^
Hied a ls o summarizes th e v a lu e s claim ed fo r in te r n e s h ip , th e to p ic
to which we now turn our a t t e n t io n .
V alues claim ed fo r in te r n e s h ip . — In th e lit e r a t u r e d e a lin g w ith
in te r n e s h ip , th e most fr eq u en tly d iscu sse d to p ic i s the purported v a lu es
which accrue or supposedly vrauld accrue from in tern esh ip programs.
On
th e next few pages th e claim s made fo r in tern esh ip are grouped in to some
eig h tee n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s covering ra th er e x h a u stiv e ly th e v ariou s advan­
ta g e s in te r n e sh ip i s sa id to h old .
6 I b i d . , p. 53.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1.
p r a c t ic e .
In tern esh ip co o r d in a te s, I n te g r a te s , o r s y n th e s iz e s th eory and
This fu n ctio n has been a ttr ib u te d to in tern esh ip s in c e in te r n e ­
sh ip programs were f i r s t organized.
The Columbia U n iv e r s ity B u lle tin
d escrib in g New C o llege contained a statem ent which has been w id ely copied
in enumerating the fu n ction s o f in te r n e sh ip :
"As a f i n a l step in th e in ­
te g r a tio n o f theory and p r a c tic e each stu d en t has an in tern e period in a
p u b lic or p r iv a te sch o o l as a member o f th e reg u la r s t a f f ."
7
Windes,
a ls o , w r ite s :
This period o f p r a c tic e not o n ly serv es to produce spe­
c i f i c s k i l l s o f performance but to g iv e , a l s o , enriched
meaning and r e a l m astery o f th e s ig n if ic a n t p r in c ip le s mak­
ing up th e body o f th eory.
2.
In tern esh ip serv es a s a tr y -o u t or probationary p erio d .
Such
a period has advantages fo r th e in tern e and th e tea ch er tr a in in g i n s t i ­
tu tio n from which th e in tern e graduated a s w e ll a s b ein g a probationary
p eriod in which the sch o o l system can determ ine whether or not th e in ­
tern e should r e c e iv e permanent appointm ent.
The f i r s t o f th e se v a lu es
i s d escrib ed by Brink:
I t i s p o s s ib le th a t a student may fin d h im self un­
f i t t e d fo r or u n in terested in tea ch in g a f t e r he has tr ie d
a r e a l p o s it io n . Moreover, th e a d v iso r under whom he
works may d isco v er unsuspected t a le n t s during t h i s period
o f tr a in in g . For example, he may show unusual a d m in istra ­
t iv e a b i l i t y , or e s p e c ia l c a p a c ity for d e a lin g with subnor­
mal p u p ils , problem c a s e s , or th e g if t e d . A teach er who
may succeed admirably a t one le v e l o f sch o o l work may be
a mediocre or even poor tea ch er a t another l e v e l . U nless
? Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , "Education o f Teachers
in New C o lleg e," Teachers C o llege Record, 3 8 :4 3 , October, 1936.
8 E. E. .j'indes, "Meed fo r a P eriod o f In tern esh ip Follow ing
Graduation from a Teacher T raining I n s t it u t io n ," V irg in ia Teacher.
1 4 :4 9 , March, 1933.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
t h e b e g i n n e r h a s o p p o r t u n i t y t o s tu d y th e s c h o o l a s a whole
and i s g i v e n th e g u id a n c e o f a n e x p e r t in a n a l y z i n g h i s
o r a a b i l i t y , he may f a i l t o a t t a i n h i s f u l l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s
a s a t e a c h e r .®
The s t r e s s t h a t a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n c a n place on i n t e r n e ­
s h i p a s a p r o v i n g ground i s s e t f o r t h by S t r a t e m e y e r :
I t i s d u r in g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p t h a t t h e s t u d e n t and f a c u l t y
may judge o f t h e i r s u c c e s s in e d u c a t i n g a t e a c h e r squirm ed
I D w i t h t h e r i c h s c h o l a r s h i p and c u l t u r a l background e s s e n ­
t i a l to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o g e t h e r
w ith a v i s i o n o f t h e i r r e a d j u s t m e n t , (2) w i t h power and
a b i l i t y to t h i n k i n t e l l i g e n t l y and a c t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y a b o u t
t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , and (5) w ith t h e a r t o f h e l p i n g o t h e r s —
c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s — in t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e lo p m e n t.
S t u d i e d w ith t h i s p u r n o s e i n m ind, t h e i n t e r n e s h i p l e a d s t o
(1) an im proving and d e v e lo p i n g c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m , (2) i n ­
c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t i o n , and (1) a f o l l o w up program t h a t i s a r e a l i t y .
The p r o b a t i o n a r y p o i n t o f view i s e x p r e s s e d by F a l l s :
I t i s n o t known w h e th e r t h e s e I n e x p e r ie n c e d t e a c h e r s can
t e a c h u n t i l t h e y a r e t r i e d . T h e ir m arks i n m ajo r and m in o r
s u b j e c t s a r e u s u a l l y good, t h e i r e n th u s i a s m s p l e n d i d ; b u t
t h e s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s who have a t h e a r t t h e developm ent o f
11
th e c h i l d do n o t w ish t o make a m i s t a k e .
•
I n t e r n e s h i p p r o v i d e s a d e q u a te and c o m p e ten t s u p e r v i s i o n d u r i n g
th e f i r s t y ear of in d u c tio n in to the p r o f e s s i o n .
No more i d e n t i c a l p h r a s e
a p p e a r s u n d e r t h e names o f d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s d i s c u s s i n g i n t e r n e s h i p t h a n
t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p " p r o v i d e s b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h g u id a n c e and s u p e r v i -
® A. G-. B r in k , " I n t e r n e s h i p T e a c h in g in t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n
o f T e a c h e r s , " E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , 2 2 : 9 b , F e b r u a r y ,
192?.
10 F l o r e n c e B. S t r a t e m e y e r , " I n t e r n e s h i p a s an I n t e g r a l P a r t o f
Teacher P r e p a r a t i o n , " E a s t e r n S t a t e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l S c h o o ls
f o r T e a c h e r s , P r o c e e d i n g s . 1928, p . 222.
a*
T. D. F a l l s , " T r a i n i n g th e C a d e t T e a c h e r in A s h la n d , K e n tu c k y ,"
American S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l . 8 4 : 5 1 , May, 1922.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s i o n a t t h e t im e t h e y need i t m o s t . "
IP
y e a r t e a c h e r s i s f r e q u e n t l y la m e n te d .
The t y p i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f f i r s t
H e r e f o r d , f o r e x a m p le, d e p l o r e s
t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f many c i t y sy ste m s t h a t f o r c e young t e a c h e r s t o :
go t o t h e r u r a l a r e a s u n p re p a re d and i n many i n s t a n c e s w i t h
no p u r p o s e save g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . At th e end o f two y e a r s
t h e y come back t o t h e c i t y sy stem s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e , b u t ex ­
p e r i e n c e t h a t f i t s them p o o r l y f o r t h e c i t y .
I n many i n ­
s t a n c e s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e p r o v e s a p o s i t i v e d e t r i m e n t in t h e
new f i e l d . 13
I n t e r n e s h i p " g i v e s t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o spend h i s f i r s t
y e a r i n a s u p e r i o r s c h o o l u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may c o n t r i b u t e to h i s
p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h . " 1^
A c c o rd in g t o C ra n e , one o f t h e v a l u e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s t h a t i n ­
t e r n e s a r e s u p e r v i s e d by p e r s o n s who a r c t h e m s e l v e s i n a n a c t u a l s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n and a r e t h u s c o m u e te n t s u p e r v i s o r s .
U rg in g t h a t we copy t h e
Uerman i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n , Crane w r i t e s :
The young c a n d i d a t e s would t h e n be t r a i n e d by t e a c h e r s
o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , who would be i n t e r e s t e d i n a c t u a l
t e a c h i n g p ro b le m s and G<?yld g i v e a d v ic e a p p ljr in g d i r e c t l y
to te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n s .
The i n t e r n e s h i p program makes p o s s i b l e g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l i z a ­
t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n .
Day w r i t e s , " T h is a p p r e n t i c e t r a i n i n g p l a n i s o f
m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e s c h o o l s y s te m , r e l i e v i n g some o f t h e i n c r e a s e d
bu rd en t h a t e n f o r c e d economy and o v e rc ro w d in g have p l a c e d upon t e a c h e r s . "
One o f t h e a d v a n ta g e s o f t h e p l a n o f a s s i s t a n t t e a c h i n g t h a t B e a t t y
12 1 . C. b r i n k , op. c i t . , p. 192.
1 <7.
x
2 . H. H e r e f o r d ,
" A p p r e n t i c e s h i p f o r B e g in n in g T e a c h e r s , " Ameri­
c a n S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l . 9 4 : 5 1 , J u n e , 1937.
^
P . 3 . S t r a t e m e y e r , o£ . c i t . , p . 222.
^ H s t h e r C ra n e , "The T r a i n i n g o f S e c o n d a r y - S c h o o l T e a c h e r s in
P r u s s i a —Some I m p r e s s i o n s , " S c h o o l R e v ie w . 4 2 :1 8 6 .
^
jJ# c. Day, " S o u th P o r t l a n d A p p r e n ti c e T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g P l a n , "
A m erican S c h o o l Board J o u r n a l , 3 6 : 1 6 , F e b r u a r y , 1935.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
i n a u g u r a t e d a t B r o n x v i l i e was t h a t a s s i s t a n t s worked i n t e n s i v e l y " w i th
s m a l l g ro u p s o f p u p i l s , u n d e r t h e g u id a n c e o f t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r , t h e r e b y
i n c r e a s i n g t h e amount o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p u p i l . "
5.
17
I n t e r n e s h i p g i v e s a. s c h o o l sy ste m a_ s o u r c e o f s u p p ly o f s u p e r i o r
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s who have had a_ y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s y s te m .
in g B e a t t y a g a i n :
quot­
" V a c a n c ie s i n t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f may from tim e to
tim e be f i l l e d by t h e b e s t q u a l i f i e d a s s i s t a n t s , who w i l l h a v e th e immense
a d v a n ta g e o f a y e a r o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e work o f t h e B r o n x v i i l e s c h o o l s . "
S e v e r a l s c h o o l sy s te m s have i n a u g u r a t e d i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s p r i m a r i l y be­
c a u se o f t h e i r v a lu e in r e c r u i t i n g a b le young t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r s t a f f .
T h is i s t r u e o f G ro sse P o i n t e :
The i n t e r n e s h i p program h a s been s e t up t o a s s i s t the
s c h o o l system i n s e l e c t i n g s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s f o r t h e G ro sse
P o i n t s s c h o o l s y s te m . S u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s s h o u ld be b e s t
a b l e t o f i l l v a c a n c i e s on t h e G rosse P o i n t e s t a f f w hich may
o c c u r a f t e r t h e i n t e r n e s h i o* i s e o m"n le te d , and a r e g i v eTnQ
p r i o r i t y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r f i l l i n g such v a c a n c i e s . 5
6.
I n t e r n e s h i p i s an o r i e n t a t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t e x p e r i e n c e f a ­
m i l i a r i z i n g t h e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r w ith many d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f s c h o o l
w o rk .
One o f t h e v a l u e s of i n t e r n e si d p i s t h a t t h e i n t e r n e h a s "an op­
p o r t u n i t y to v iew h i s a c t i v i t i e s
i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l s c h o o l program ,
to s tu d y t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e , ur.i to see
more c l e a r l y h i s work w i t h c h i l d r e n in term s of t h e i r c o n t i n u e d c o n t a c t s
17
J . i<. B e a t t y , " A u s p ic io u s P l a n o f A s s i s t a n t T e a c h i n g ." S c h o o l
iteview , 4 2 :6 4 2 , November, 1934.
13 I b l d ‘
19 Alonzo F. M yers, L o u is e id. L i f e r , R uth G. M e rry , and F r a n c e s
F o l e y , "The I n d u c t i o n and G uidance o f B e g in n in g T e a c h e r s , " U n it I I I in
G o o p e r a ti v e S u p e r v i s i o n i n t h e P u b l i c J c h o o l s . New York: P r e n t i c e - i l a l l
I n c . , 1958. P. 97.
(q u o te d from m a t e r i a l s s u p p li e d by P r o f e s s o r G. hi.
B ro w n e ll.)
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
33
a nd d e v e lo p m e n ts .
or\
The em phasis on becoming a c q u a i n t e d w i t h many
d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l ' s program seems t o be gro w in g .
B row nell
w r i t e s t h a t im p ro v in g t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s f o r a s c h o o l s y s te m m ig h t
i n v o l v e " c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e g u i l d s y s te m w hich r e q u i r e d t h a t one
a llo w e d r e c o g n i t i o n a s a m a s t e r c r a f t s m a n m ust know more o r l e s s o f a l l
phases o f th e c r a f t .
7.
I n t e r n e s n i p p e r m i ts g r a d u a l i n d u c t i o n i n t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
of tea c h in g ,
k e f e r r i n g once a g a i n t o Herman t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n , Crane
w r i t e s , "The p a r t I a d m ired m ost and t h e p a r t I c o v e t f o r o u r b e g in n i n g
t e a c h e r s i s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to d e v e lo p g r a d u a l l y . T h e B r o n x v i l i e p l a n
r e f l e c t s t h i s e m p h a s is:
Through a c t u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t t e a c h i n g , f i r s t
w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e n w i t h s m a ll g r o u p s , and l a s t l y w i t h
f u l l - s i z e d c l a s s e s , t h e a s s i s t a n t can a p p ly t h e r e s u l t s o f
o b s e r v a t i o n t o h i s own t e a c h i n g a n d , t h r o u g h t h e a d v ic e
and c r i t i c i s m o f t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r , im prove i t . 23
8.
I n t e r n e s h i p p r o v i d e s a p rogram o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n i n
w h ic h l e a r n i n g i s b a s e d upon d o i n c .
S e v e r a l o f t h o s e who s t r e s s t h i s v ie w ­
p o i n t b e l i e v e t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be t h e c o re o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u ­
c a tio n of te a c h e rs .
The c u r r i c u l u m f o r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld b e f u n c ­
t i o n a l and b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s s h o u ld l e a r n t o t e a c h by t a k i n g p a r t i n
SO
i'.
b . S tr& te m e y e r, oo. c i t , ,
p.
221 •
21
S. Ivl. B r o w n e l l, "T e a c h e r S e l e c t i o n , ^ f u n c t i o n o f S ch o o l a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i o n , " M u c a t l o n a l P r o g r e s s and S c h o o l - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (C. M. H i l l ,
e d i t o r , c h a p t e r V l l i ; Hew Haven: Y a le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ), p . 141.
op
23
H s t h e r H rane, o p . c i t . , p . 180.
■U.
. B e a tty ,
0
£ . c i t ., p. 643.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
classroom a c t i v i t i e s .
Their classroom ex p erien ces would show them th e
need fo r r e la te d theory and fo r knowledge o f ed u ca tio n a l psych ology.
Butterweck i s th e c h ie f exponent o f t h is p o in t o f view :
I f th e young teach er i s to be assured o f th e tr a in in g
which en ab les him to assume th e d u tie s o f a f u l l fled g ed
te a c h e r , then student teach in g must be the exp erien ce
in to which such psychology, methods, p r o fe s s io n a liz e d
su b ject m atter and the l i k e are fe d , fo r which he, as a
growing neophyte, reco g n izes th e need. Student teach in g
then ta k es on th e form o f an extended in tern esh ip fo llo w in g
th e s tu d e n t's c o lle g e course.
S.
p r o fe s s io n .
In tern esh ip r a is e s standards fo r th ose en terin g the tea ch in g
I t i s claim ed that a f i f t h year o f in te r n e s h ip , should i t be­
come a reco g n ized part o f th e tea ch er -e d u ca ticn program, would e f f e c t i v e ly
d iscou rage th o se who use teach in g as a stop gap u n t il something they con­
s id e r b e tte r comes a lo n g .
By d iscou ragin g entrance to a p r o fe s s io n which r e a l l y
req u ir es f iv e rath er than four years p rep aration , such a
p r o fe s s io n w i l l hold a ch a llen g e fo r th e su perior student
o n ly .25
10.
In tern esh ip o f f e r s the beginning te a c h e r , p a r tic u la r ly in t imes
o f unemployment. an opportunity to secu re a year o f e x p erien ce.
n.t a tim e when th ere are more tea ch ers than p o s it io n s ,
th e plan o f f e r s opportunity to c o lle g e graduates to secure
a year or more o f p r a c tic a l exp erien ce in a good sch ool
system under th e guidance o f su p erior te a c h e r s , thus b e tte r
f i t t i n g them selves to compete fo r p o s it io n s .26
2 4 J . S . Butterweck, " Interneship Should Frecede Tenure," JuniorS enior High School C learing House, 12:137, November, 1937.
2 5 Herbert B.. H elb le, " In tern esh ip s fo r Surplus T eachers," Educa­
t io n a l A d m in istration and S u p e rv isio n , 19:1 2 3 , February, 1933.
2 5 ini. Vi|. B ea tty ,
0£ .
c l t . , p. 642.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
55
11.
The p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r n e s i n a s c h o o l system e n c o u r a g e s and
sriurs o t h e r t e a c h e r s t o become .more com petent p r o f e s s i o n a l l y .
C erney
n o te d t h i s a t G r a d u a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e :
F u r th e r m o r e , t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s in t h e t h r e e
s c h o o l s have been l e d t o r e - e x a m in e t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s
and t e c h n i q u e s in t h e l i g h t of i n t e r n e s ' q u e s t i o n s and
comments.
"You have been a h a i r s h i r t t o n e , " g r in n e d one
s u p e r v i s i n g t e a c h e r t o a n a d m ir in g nut c r i t i c a l g r a d u a t e
s tu d e n t.-7
12.
Being an i n t e r n e may make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a b e g in n in g t e a c h e r
t o c a r r y on some g r a d u a t e w o rk .
D e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r g r a d u a t e
work i n some i n t e r n e s ! i p p r o g ra m s .
In a number o f i n s t a n c e s i t i s con­
s id e r e d an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e p ro g ra m .
O c c a s io n a l! / grad u ate c r e d i t
i s g i v e n f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e ti o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
B r in k p o i n t s o u t
t h a t " t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e s o f t e n makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r
w o rth y s t u d e n t s t o e n t e r g r a d u s t e w o rk ."
IS .
r»c
I n t e r n e s h i p makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r _a_ s c h o o l system t o have
s u b s t i t u t e he In r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n th e s c h o o l s y s t e m .
T h i s was one
r e a s o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n i n H ilm in g to n ,
Delaware*
OQ
H e l b le a l s o s t a t e s t h a t s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h i n g i s one o f th e
v a l u e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p , b e in g more e f f e c t i v e and a t a lo w e r c o s t .
30
27
I s o b e l M. C e rn e y , " P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n a t t h e G ra d u a te
L e v e l , " P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n , 1 4 :5 7 5 , L a y , 1957.
I;. G. B r i n k , or* c i t . , p . 98.
OQ
5 . K . B t o u f f e r , " C a d e t T e a c h e r P l a n in h i J m i n g t o n , D e la w a re ,"
l l e n e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 5 8 : 5 , S e p te m b e r, 1957.
^
H e r b e r t K. H e l b l e , o o . c i t . , o. 122.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14.
I n t e r n e s ! i n b r i n g s a b o u t c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n b etw een t e a c h e r -
I
t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and s c h o o l s y s t e m s .
I
w rite rs..
I
N o r th w e s te r n U n i v e r s i t y w i l l " b r i n g about c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n betw een t h e
1
U n i v e r s i t y a nd p u b l ic s c h o o l s o f th e a r e a , and w i l l make t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
|
T h i s h as been n o te d by two
B r in k f e e l s t h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program w hich i s sp o n s o re d by
f a c i l i t i e s and l e a d e r s h i p c f t h e U n i v e r s i t y more d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e to
:
!
s c h o o l s i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r p r o b l e m s . " ''
i
j
C e rney s t a t e s t h a t one
t h e outcomes o f G ra d u a te T e a c h e r s C o lle g e ha s been t h a t " t h e l o c a l p r i v a t
j
and p u b l ic s c h o o l s Lave been b ro u g h t i n t o a h e a l t h y c o o p e r a t i o n w hich
|
would o t h e r w i s e n o t e x i s t . " 1'*
0 1
.
15.
I n t e r n e s h i p i s a_ means by w hich t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n can
d i s c h a r g e i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h e l p i n g young n e o n le e n t e r i n g t h e p r o ­
fessio n to get a su ccessfu l s t a r t .
" I v e r y p r o f e s s i o n w o r t h y o f i t s name,
and o u r s c f t e a c h i n g d o u b ly s o , owes a p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n t o p l a y a
d i r e c t and h e l p f u l n a r t in t h e i n d u c t i o n o f i t s young p r a c t i t i o n e r s . " 1'0
S t o u f f e r , l i k e h e r e f o r d , s c o r e s th e e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f some o f
t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s y s te m s :
B very s c h o o l s y s te m h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not o n ly
o f em ploying a c e r t a i n number o f b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s b u t
o f p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e i r s y m p a t h e ti c g u i d a n c e . The p r a c t i c e
o f some o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s o f r e f u s i n g t o employ t e a c h e r s
who have n o t had a t l e a s t a y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s u n f a i r t o
s m a l l e r c o m m u n itie s , a n d i t d oes n o t c o n t r i b u t e to th e w e l l
b e in g o f th e p r o f e s s i o n . 54
^
52
Vi1 .
G. b r i n k , on. c i t . , p . 97.
I s o b e l II. C ern e y , o p . c i t . , p . 575.
u '-> H e r b e r t II. h e l b l e , _oo. c i t . , p .
122.
r't4 S . Li. S t o u f f e r , _on. c i t . , p . 3 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
1 6.
te a c h e rs.
I n t e r n e s h i p s a f e g u a r d s t h e p u p i l from in c o m p e te n t b e g in n i n g
P e r h a p s t h i s v a lu e o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be s t a t e d a h ead o f
I
a l l th e r e s t .
I t can be assum ed, th o u g h , t h a t a l l o f t h e v a l u e s
and
I
f u n c t i o n s c la im e d f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e m ajo r g o a l o f a l l
e d u c a t i o n , t h e developm ent o f t h e s t u d e n t .
Two w r i t e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n tio n t h i s a s an a d v a n ta g e o f i n t e r n e ­
sh ip .
B ro w n e ll s t a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r i n d u c t i o n n e e d s :
c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s made by bha
m ed ical p r o f e s s io n th a t the t h e o r e t i c a l l y t r a i n e d
members s h a l l s t a r t making a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y u n d e r
c o n d itio n s t o safeg u ard th e p a t i e n t as w e ll a s to g iv e
e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . . . .35
17.
I n t e r n e s h i p makes p o s s i b l e t h e r e l e a s i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e d
t e a c h e r s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h .
i
f
\
I n a p p r a i s i n g i t s urogram ,
t h e New C o l l e g e s t a f f s t a t e d :
The i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n h a s w i t h i n i t o t h e r p o t e n t i a l
v a l u e s f o r t h e s c h o o l w hich c o o p e r a t e s i n i t s d e v e lo p m e n t.
These v a l u e s a s n o te d t o d a t e i n t h e p la c e m e n t of hew
C ollege i n te r n e s in c lu d e :
f re e in g of ex p erien ced te a c h e rs
(whose r e g u l a r p l a c e s a r e t a k e n by i n t e r n e s ) f o r r e s e a r c h
ana e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n ; . . . m aking p o s s i b l e t h e g r a n t i n g
o f l e a v e s o f a b s e n c e t o t e a c h e r s where r e g u l a r p r o v i s i o n s
a r e n o t made f o r s u c h ; making p o s s i b l e t r a v e l and f o r e i g n
s tu d y f o r s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s whose work i s t a k e n o v e r byi n t e r n e s . . . .36
1 8.
I n t e r n e s h i p a i d s t h e a c u n i n i s t r a t o r c o n s t r u c t ing t h e s c h o o l
s c h e d u le a s i n t e r n e s can be a s s i g n e d t h e two o r t h r e e e x t r a c l a s s e s
w hich h a r d l y w a r r a n t t h e employment o f an a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r .
T h is is
33 s . 11. B r o w n e ll, op. c i t . , p . 141.
36 Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , " E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s
in New C o l l e g e , " T e a c h e r s C o lle g e R e c o r d , 3 8 : 5 5 , O c to b e r , 1936.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38
t r u e in i n t e r n e s h i p program s in w hich g r a d u a l n e s s o f i n d u c t i o n i s accom­
p l i s h e d by l i m i t i n g t h e number o f c l a s s e s f o r w hich a n i n t e r n e i s
r e s p o n s i b l e r a t h e r t h a n by a s s i s t a n t t e a c h i n g u n d e r a m a s t e r t e a c h e r .
B r in k s t a t e s t h a t " i t f r e q u e n t l y h a p p e n s t h a t where a n a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r
f o r o n l y two o r t h r e e c l a s s e s i s n e e d e d , a n i n t e r n e c a n be used t o a d v a n ..37
ta g e ."
T a b le I summarizes in t a b u l a r form t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w hich t h e s e
e i g h t e e n c la i m s a r e found in t h e l i t e r a t u r e .
course, is r a th e r d i f f i c u l t to c o n s tru c t.
Such a t a b l e a s t h i s , o f
C e rta in r a th e r a r b i t r a r y ru le s
were f o llo w e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e what were c la im e d a s
v a lu e s.
An ite m had t o have t h e a u t h o r ’ s a p p a r e n t a p p r o v a l b e f o r e i t
was i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t .
F o r exam ple, s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h i n g i s r e p r e ­
s e n te d t o be a v a l u e o f i n t e r n e s h i p by t h r e e w r i t e r s .
S ev eral o th er
w r i t e r s d e s c r i b e i n t e r n e s h i p program s in w hich s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h i n g p l a y s
a p a r t b u t do n o t s t a t e w h e th e r i t
i s lo o k e d upon a s a v a l u e o r w h e th e r
i t i s a n e c e s s a r y e v i l w hich f i n a n c e s t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
In th ese
l a t t e r c a s e s , no a tt e m p t a t m i n d - r e a d in g was made; t h e ite m s w ere n o t
c o u n te d .
A n o th e r problem c o n f r o n t e d was how t o c o u n t t h e v a l u e s w hich
t h e same w r i t e r enu m e rate d in d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s u s i n g a lm o s t i d e n t i c a l l y
t h e same w o rd s .
D u p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t were c o u n te d b u t o n c e .
Thus
i t ' i s f e l t t h a t t h e t a b l e does g i v e some id e a o f t h e r e l a t i v e em phasis
b e in g p l a c e d upon t h e v a r i o u s v a l u e s c la im e d f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a s f a r a s
d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s in th e f i e l d a re concerned.
U. G-. B r i n k , o p . c i t . , p . 9 7 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
TA33IE I
KiSQXSITCY vJITIi 7,HIGH OBTAIN VALU3G ATTRIBUTED TO I!?TjSPJSSKIP
iiHE LISTED IN TEE UT-KATUHE
Claim ed v a lu e
I n t e r n e s h i p l e a d s t o an i n t e g r a t i o n o r s y n t h e s i s c f
t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e ,
I n t e r n e s h i p s e r v e s a s a t r y - o u t or n r o b a t i e r a r y p e r i o d .
I n t e r n e s h i p p r o v i d e s a d e q u a te and co m p e ten t s u p e r v i s i o n
d u r i n e th e f i r s t y e a r o f i n d u c t i o n i n t o th e p r o f e s s i o n .
The i n t e r n e s h i p program makes p o s s i b l e g r e a t e r i n d i v i ­
d u a li z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n .
I n t e r n e s h i p g i v e s a s c h o o l system a s o u r c e o f s u p p ly c f
s u p e r i o r b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s who have had a y e a r o f
expei* i e n c e in th e system .
i s a n o r i e n t a t i o n and a d ju s t m e n t e x p e r i e n c e
fami l i a : ~ i u i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r v’i t h many d i f f e r e n t
p h a s e s o f s c h o o l w ork.
Interneship
I n te r n e s h ip p erm its g ra d u a l in d u c tio n in to th e r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of te a c h in g .
I n t e r n e s h i n p r o v i d e s a program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a ­
t i o n i n w hich l e a r n i n g i s based upon d o in g ,
I n t e r n e s h i p r a i s e s s t a n d a r d s f o r t h o s e e n t e r i n g th e
tea c h in g p ro fe s s io n .
I n t e r n 3 s n i p o f f e r s t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y
i n t irues c f unem ploym ent, an o p p o r t u n i t y to s e c u r e a
y ear o f ex p erien ce.
The p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r n e s in a s c h o o l system e n c o u r a g e s
and s p u r s o t h e r t e a c h e r s t o become more c o m p e ten t p r o ­
fessio n ally .
Being an i n t e r n e may make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a b e g in n i n g
t e a c h e r t o c a r r y on some g r a d u a t e w ork.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
40
TABLE I
(c o n tin u e d )
FREQUENCY V:iTIi V.I.ICK CERTAIlS YaLUES ATTRIBUTED TO ITTMRIEoE
ARM LISTED IN TIE LITERATURE
Claim ed v a lu e
|
1
I
|
f
I n t e r n e s h i p c a k e s i t p o s s i b l e f o r a s c h o o l s y s te m t o
have s u b s t i t u t e h e lp r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e
s y ste m .
*
I n t e r n e s h i p b r i n g s a b o u t c l o s e r c o c n e r a t i o n betw een
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and s c h o o l s y s te m s .
I n t e r n e s h i p i s a means by w hich th e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n
can d i s c h a r g e i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g young p e o p le
e n te r in g th e p ro fe s s io n to g e t a s u c c e s s fu l s t a r t .
i
|
|
>
i‘
f!
I
.
I n t e r n e s h i p s a f e g u a r d s t h e p u p i l from in c o m p e te n t
b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s .
i n t e r n e s h i n makes p o s s i b l e t h e r e l e a s i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e d
'
t e a c h e r s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h .
I n t e r n e s h i p a i d s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r c o n s t r u c t i n g th e
s c h o o l s c h e d u le a s i n t e r n e s can be a s s i g n e d t h e two
o r t h r e e e x t r a c l a s s e s w hich h a r d l y w a r r a n t t h e em­
ploym ent o f a n a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e r n e s h i p . —A lth o u g h t h e r e a r e a number o f
d e s c r i p t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s , t h e r e a r e few pro n o u n ce m en ts a s to
what ought t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e e s s e n t i a l e le m e n ts o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
in te rn e sh ip .
T h e re a r e two o f g e n e r a l im p o r ta n c e ,
a
stu d y o f th e
t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p was made by a j o i n t com m ittee
r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Mead M i s t r e s s e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e Mast and t h e
C o o p e r a tiv e B ureau f o r T e a c h e r s .
As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r s t u d y , c e r t a i n
I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
s u g g e s te d s t a n d a r d s f o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program s were e s t a b l i s h e d .
r e p o r t i s a b s t r a c t e d i n o u t l i n e form :
T h eir
38
D e fin itio n of a p p re n tic e :
The te r m a p p r e n t i c e i s used t o d e s c r i b e a s t u d e n t who,
a lo n g th e l i n e s h e re i n d i c a t e d , i s b e i n g t r a i n e d f o r
t e a c h i n g . lie spends a t l e a s t a y e a r i n a s c h o o l ,
( o r g ro u p o f s c h o o l s ) l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i c i n g u n d e r
o r g a n i z e d d i r e c t i o n ......................A p p r e n t i c e s a r e added
t o an a l r e a d y c o m p le te s t a f f ; t h o y do n o t d i s p l a c e
s t a f f members.
D e l e c t io n o f a p p r e n t i c e s :
C a n d i d a te s f o r a p p r e n t i c e t r a i n i n g should have com­
p l e t e d a c o l l e g e c o u r s e in a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h
s t a n d i n g or s h o u ld have had some e q u i v a l e n t in
t r a i n i n g or i n e x p e r i e n c e s u c h a s t e a c h i n g or s o c i a l
w ork. They s h o u ld have done work o f t h o r o u g h n e s s
and d e p th i n a t l e a s t one f i e l d and s h o u ld have a
r a n g e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s ; t h e y sh o u ld be
p e o p le o f such p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a s a r e d e s i r a b l e
i n t e a c h e r s , a nd i n t h e i r own developm ent t h e y sh o u ld
have r e a c h e d a r e a s o n a b l e d e g re e o f b a la n c e and
'm a t u r i t y ; t h e i r aim in t a k i n g t h e t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g
s h o u ld he s e r i o u s .
F in a n c ia l a rra n g e m e n ts:
Sin ce th e a p p re n tic e y ear is a y ear o f t r a i n i n g ,
t h e f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r i t cun be comnared
to th o se f o r a y e a r o f g rad u ate stu d y .
S t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s :
T here must be members of t h e s c h o o l s t a f f who a r e
d e f i n i t e l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e a p p re n tic e t r a i n ­
i n g , . . . , , R e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e pro b le m o f a d j u s t ­
ment t o t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l work i s
o f t e n d i f f i c u l t , t h e y m ust u n d e r t a k e w h a te v e r
p e r s o n a l g u id a n c e t h e a p p r e n t i c e n e e d s . To
e s t a b l i s h t h e s t a t u s o f th e a p p r e n t i c e s among th e
p u p i l s of t h e s c h o o l i s a l s o t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
ao
The Head d i s t r e s s e s A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e j ^ a s t, R e p o r t o f t h e
Committee on A p p r e n t i c e T e a c h in g ;
( s i x - p a g e p r i n t e d p a m p h le t— no
i m o r i n t ; P u b lish e d t h e l a t t e r o a r t o f 1957)
'
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
The s c h o o l m ust p r o v id e o r g a n i s e d c l a n s f o r t h e s tu d y
o f i d e a s u n d e r l y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e . T h is work
may be done by q u a l i f i e d members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f ,
p r o b a b ly i n c l u d i n g th e he a d o f th e s c h o o l ; o r a r r a n g e ­
m ents f o r i t may b e made w i t h t h e g r a d u a t e s c h o o l o f
a u n i v e r s i t y , o r w i t h some o t h e r q u a l i f i e d i n s t i t u t i o n .
I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e s i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o? the
s c h o o l t o work o u t s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een such
s tu d y and the s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e „
P rocedure:
The a p p r e n t i c e s ’ e x p e r i e n c e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
s h o u ld , u n d e r su p e rv i s i o n , expand th r o u g h o u t t h e
y e a r . The c la s s r o o m p r a o t i c e s h o u ld i n c l u d e ob­
s e r v a t i o n , t h e t e a c h i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s and s m a l l
g r o u p s , and t h e o r g a n i z i n g and t e a c h i n g o f s u s t a i n e d
u n i t s o f work w i t n e n t i r e c l a s s e s . The a p p r e n t i c e s
s h o u ld al.se be iu ti'o d u c ed t o t h e many o t h e r a s p e c t s
o f a t e a c h e r ’ s w ork, such as p h y s i c a l r o u t i n e , th e
p r e p a r a t i o n and c a r e o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , s u p e r ­
v i s i o n o f g r o u p s t h r o u g h th e d a y , the m a in te n a n c e
and u s e s o" r e c o r d s , s t a f f com m ittee work, and
p a r t i c i p a t i o n in c e n t r a l s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s .
R e g u l a r l y s c h e d u le d c o n f e r e n c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the
tra in in g .
P ro fe ssio n a l o b ie o tiv e s:
-
-
- - - -
—
-i--
-
-
-
■
The main o b j e c t i v e i s to d i r e c t t h e a p p r e n t i c e
to w a rd an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f th e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s in v o lv e d in t e a c h i n g a r i d
to w ard e f f e c t i v e p a r t i o i p a t i o n i n them . I t i s
hooed t h a t t h r o u g h h i s y e a r o f t r a i n i n g the
a p p r e n t i c e w i l l be i n i t i a t e d i n t o ways o f w o rk !* "
and o f t h i n k i n g th ro u g h w hich he can c o n t i n u e h i s
s e lf - e d u c a ti o n th ro u g h o u t l a s p r o f e s s io n a l l i f e .
P lacem en t:
I n u n d e r t a x i n g t h e t r a i n i n g o f a p o r e n t i c e s th e
s c h o o l assum es a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h e l p i n g t h e n
t o s e c u r e p o s i t i o n s f o r w hich t h e y a i ’e q u a l i f i e d .
. . . . The, s c h o o l c a n n o t g u a r a n t e e p la c e m e n t.
I t d o e s , however, recojrvr.end a p p r e n t i c e s d i r e c t l y
t o o t h e r s c h o o l s , and i t c o l l a b o r a t e s w i t h c o l l e g e
p la c e m e n t b u r e a u s and w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l and
c o m e rc ia .l a g e n c ie s.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
43
P r o b a b ly t h e m ost w i d e ly known f o r m u l a t i o n o f e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t i c s o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s one drawn up by S c h o r l inf; a p p e a r i n g in The
T w en ty -T h ird Yearbe ok o f t h e n a t i o n a l hoc i e t y o f C o lle g e T e a c h e r s o f
E d u c a tio n .
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t i t d i f f e r s m ark e d ly from t h e r e p o r t o f
t h e Head M i s t r e s s e s A s s o c i a t i o n i n two i m p o r ta n t r e s p e c t s ,
in th e m a tte r
o f r e m u n e r a t io n f o r t h e i n t e r n e and i n c o n n e c t io n w i t h p l a c e m e n t , b e s i d e s
i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l ite m s n o t t o u c h e d upon i n th e r e p o r t o f th e mead
m is tre s s e s A sso c ia tio n :
The n a t u r e and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p e rio d o f i n t e r n e s h i p
i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s :
(1) a l i g h t
t e a c h i n g l o a d ; (?) s a l a r y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l o a d , i d e a l l y
a l i v i n g vage f o r a s i n g l e p e r s o n ; (3) e x p e r i e n c e i n a
g r e a t v a r i e t y o f t a s k s , a s f o r e x a m p le , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r ,
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and t e a c h i n g ; (4) a d e q u a te and com petent
s u p e r v i s i o n ; (5) c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a t e w ork; (6) an o p p o r ­
t u n i t y t o s t u d y th e work o f t e a c h i n g a s a "w hole" b e f o r e
be in g U n i t e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f a s i n g l e s u b j e c t or
g r a d e ; (7) an a rr a n g e m e n t t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l which
g u a r a n t e e s t h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p c o n c e n t *111 n o t be u s e d
a-- a means o f h i r i n g a cheap t e a c h e r t o r e p l a c e a more
e x p e n s iv e b u t e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r ; (°) t h e s e l e c t i o n of
t e a c h e r s f o r t h e perm anent s t a f f b a s e d i n p a r t on t h e
way t h a t t h e c a n d i d a t e a d j u s t s t o th e p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l
and t h e community i n t h e t r i a l p e r i o d ; and (9) an
o p p o rtu n ity f o r e f f e c t i v e o b s e rv a tio n s in sh arp c o n tr a s t
t o t h e n r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e i n which s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s a r e
r e q u i r e d t o make numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s so e a r l y i n t h e i r
p r o f e s s i o n a l work t h a t t h e y c a n n o t see v e r y m u c h . 39
M aior problem s i n i n t e r n e s h i p . — I t i s much e a s i e r t o w r i t e g lo w in g
a c c o u n t s o f t h e s u c c e s s o r p r o b a b l e s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s t h a n
to c r i t i c a l l y a n a ly se th e d e f e c ts or p o s s ib le dan g ers o f in te r n e s h ip ,.
To d a t e , no e v a l u a t i v e s t u d y ha s been made o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
From th e
l i t e r a t u r e one would ju d g e e i t h e r t l i a t i n t e r n e s h i p ha s few l i m i t a t i o n s
39
k
R a l e ig h S c h o r l i n g , " D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g ," c h a p t e r IV o f The
E d u c a ti o n o f T e a c h e r s , 'iV e n ty - T h ird Y earbook o f t h e R a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f
C o lle g e T e a c h e r s o f e d u c a t i o n , p. 174,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44
B
or th a t d ir e c to r s o f in tern esh ip programs are b l i s s f u l l y unaware o f the
shortcom ings o f t h e ir programs,
a
few w r it e r s , though, w ith a view toward
stren gth en in g in tern esh ip have p oin ted out dangers or problems th a t need
to be guarded a g a in s t.
Their c o n trib u tio n s are o f decided v a lu e.
At th e tim e th e Head M istre sses A sso c ia tio n was form ulating i t s
standards fo r a p p ren tice te a c h in g , The beaver Country Day School a t
Chestnut H i l l , M a ssa ch u setts, composed a code fo r th e t r a in in g o f apprentic e s .
One s e c t io n o f th at code p o in ts out th e fo llo w in g as dangers to
be avoided:
'
1
1.
The e x p lo it a t io n o f a p p ren tices to save expense.
2.
F a ilu re to g iv e e f f e c t i v e guidance and su p e r v isio n .
3.
F a ilu re to provide adequate con feren ces or co u rses
to r e la t e th eory and p r a c tic e .
4.
P a in tin g too e n th u s ia s tic a p ic tu r e o f a p p ren ticesh ip
so th e candidate does not a p p recia te th e d i f f i c u l t y
o f th e work, f a i l s to fo r e se e th e c o s t o f th e y ea r,
ex p ects to b egin teach in g a t on ce, or f e e l s to o
c e r ta in o f a good p o s itio n a f t e r a p p ren ticesh ip .
5.
The use o f a p p ren tices in a way to be u n fa ir to the
p u p ils because o f g iv in g them l e s s e f f e c t i v e guidance
and in s tr u c tio n .
6.
F a ilu re to make c a r e fu l s tu d ie s o f the su ccess of
a p p ren tices so a s to help them d ecid e about th e fu tu r e.
7 . Lack o f help in attem p tin g to fin d p o s it io n s , or over­
40 enthusiasm in recommending a p p r e n t ic e s .^
Typew ritten copy o f th e code fu rnished the w r ite r by The
Beaver Country Day S ch ool.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45
B rin k , i n o u t li n in g th e in te r n e s h ip p la n a t n o r th w e s te rn U n iv e r s ity ,
s u g g e s t s c e r t a i n pro b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e s e who would e s t a b l i s h i n t e r n e ­
s h i p p ro g ra m s .
F i r s t , t h e r e i s a need t o t h i n k t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n o f
i n t e r n e s h i p t o t h e r e s t o f t h e t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n program .
I
The u s u a l p rogram o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i s p la n n e d
on a f o u r y e a r b a s i s .
The new p l a n i n v o l v e s a f i f t h y e a r
o f work. The q u e s t i o n t h u s a r i s e s a s t o what s h o u ld be
t h e n a t u r e o f an i n t e g r a t e d program w hich i s t o i n c l u d e
i n t e r n e s h i p - t e a c h i n g . 41
S e c o n d , t h e s e l e c t i o n by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f c o o p e r a t i n g s c h o o l s w i t h a t t e n d a n t
d i f f i c u l t i e s o f f i t t i n g the proper in te rn e in to th e proper p lace in -th e
p r o p e r s c h o o l may c o n s t i t u t e a p ro b le m ,
n t h i r d p r o b le m i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h
e f f e c t i v e l y c o o rd in a tin g th e s u p e rv is io n g iv en th e i n t e r n e ; a f o u r t h , w ith
t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d i n a t t e m p t i n g to e v a l u a t e t h e g ro w th and p r o g r e s s
made by t h e i n t e r n e .
T h i s l a s t pro b le m i s c l e a r l y summ arized by B r i n k :
I t i s now r a t h e r commonly a g r e e d t h a t any f u n d a m e n ta l
method o f m e a s u r in g t e a c h i n g s u c c e s s m ust t a k e i n t o
a c c o u n t i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l g ro w th . However, t h e r e i s g r e a t
d i s p a r i t y b e tw e e n s u p e r v i s o r s a s t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e
w hich t h e y a t t a c h t o v a r i o u s outcom es o f t e a c h i n g , and
t h e r e a r e a s y e t p r a c t i c a l l y no v a l i d m e a s u r e s o f t h e
t o t a l outcom es o f l e a r n i n g . 42
I n 1924, n a l l - !g u e s t c i t e d c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s which may b e s e t a
41 a . &. B r i n k , og. c i t . , p . 99.
42 I b i d < , P . 100.
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i
type o f in te r n e sh ip s im ila r to th e C in cin n a ti p la n .
In C in c in n a ti,
student tea ch in g i s done during the f i f t h y e a r , th e stud en t spending h a lf a
day in the classroom under the su p e rv isio n o f a coop eratin g teach er and th e
remainder o f the day a t Teachers C o lle g e, U n iv e r s ity o f C in c in n a ti.
lim it a t io n s su ggested by H all-'^uest in clu d e:
The
p o s s ib le c o n f li c t in p oin t o f
view between coop erating tea ch ers and th e Teachers C o lleg e regarding
teach in g method; d i f f i c u l t y o f carryin g on c o n tr o lle d experim en tation in
con n ection w ith stud en t te a c h in g — "the s te r n demands o f p u b lic sch ool
a d m in istra tio n r a is e w e ll n ig h insurm ountable b a r r ie r s" ; th e programs o f
f if t h - y e a r stu d en ts may be unduly heavy, the c o r r e la te d course work in
a d d itio n to th e c la s s work c o n s titu tin g a ra th er stren u ous program; th e
c lo s e and c a r e fu l su p e rv isio n req u ired may be p r o h ib itiv e from a standpoint
o f c o st in many sch o o l system s; th e expansion o f th e program demands a
!
la r g e o u tla y o f fu n d s, many tr a in in g c e n te r s, and a la r g e number o f
coord in a tin g su p e r v iso r s.
43
A fter d escrib in g th e Crosse P oin te p la n , Brow nell p o in ts out s e v e r a l
problems th a t must be con sidered in con n ection w ith in te r n e s h ip .
44
In th e
f i r s t p la c e , th e q u estio n i s r a is e d a s to whether the in te r n e sh ip p lan i s
43
A lfred L. H a ll—^ u est, "The C in cin n a ti Plan o f Teacher T rainin g,"
■Educational A d m in istra tio n and S u p e r v isio n . 1 0:140, March, 1924. H a ll^uest adds: "These c r it ic is m s a re o ffe r e d fo r th e b e n e f it o f th o se who,
in attem p tin g th e adoption o f a s im ila r plan may fin d in tr o d u c tio n d i f f i c u l t .
In C in cin n a ti th e plan i s op era tin g w ithout any s e r io u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . What­
ever d i f f i c u l t i e s th ere a re grow out o f the a d m in istr a tiv e d e t a i l s and are
w e ll n igh un avoid ab le." (p . 141)
44
s.
M. B row nell, op. c i t . , pp. 144-49.
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47
s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t iv e to in t e r e s t the ou tstan d in g graduates o f te a c h e r tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s in becoming in te r n e s .
U n less i t succeeds in doing
t h i s , th e whole p lan i s doomed to f a i l u r e .
Grosse P o in te found i t s major
s e le c t io n problem n o t in secu rin g ou tstan d in g beginning te a c h e r s, but in
determ ining whether th e c r i t e r ia by which in te r n e s were s e le c te d were sound
c r ite r ia .
T h is, o f co u rse, i s a problem co n sta n tly con fron tin g th e adm inis­
tr a to r in the s e le c t io n o f te a c h e r s, experienced a s w e ll a s in exp erien ced .
.n. second problem concerned th e n e c e s s it y o f educating the s t a f f to th e
v a lu es o f in tern esh ip and to th e r e s p o n s i b ili t ie s tea ch ers and su p erv iso rs
would be c a lle d upon to b ea r.
Brownell recommends th a t th e v a lu e o f c a r e fu l
work w ith a l l s t a f f members "who would be a s so c ia te d w ith an in tern e before
the plan i s put in to o p era tio n cannot be emphasized too s t r o n g l y . "45
One o f th e emphases in th e Grosse P o in te plan i s to g iv e th e in tern e
an opportunity to become fa m ilia r w ith community in s t it u t io n s and o rgan iza­
tio n s a s w ell a s to become acquainted w ith th e e n tir e sch o o l system .
It is
much more d i f f i c u l t fo r a d ir e c to r o f an in tern esh ip program to arrange
varied ex p erien ces o f t h i s s o r t than to arrange r i g id , r a th e r grooved
assign m en ts.
Arranging a wide v a r ie ty o f ex p erien ces fo r in te r n e s in v o lv in g
community a s w e ll a s sch o o l r e la tio n s h ip s i s v i t a l in an in tern esh ip program
but i s o fte n not a d m in is tr a tiv e ly ex p ed ien t.
Brownell a ls o r a i s e s two problems which have been p rev io u sly men­
tio n ed by Brink:
45
c o r r e la tin g in tern esh ip w ith graduate work, and th e
I b id . . p. 1 4 6 .
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48
d i f f i c u l t i e s in herent in measuring s a t i s f a c t o r i l y th e growth and p rogress
made by th e in te r n e .
46
But one oth er p erson, a s fa r as th e w r ite r has been a b le to a s c e r ­
t a in , has broached in the lit e r a t u r e a p o s s ib le drawback o f in tern esh ip
programs.
A fte r advocating in tern esh ip a s a means o f g iv in g s e le c te d
unemployed beginning tea ch ers a v a lu a b le year o f e x p erien ce, H elb le w r ite s:
There i s on ly one p o s s ib le danger which appears to
th e w r ite r in the plan as proposed. Would such a plan
o f employing in tern es w ithout pay or w ith nominal pay
tend to reduce the compensation o f teach ers? Minimum
sa la r y la w s, r e c o g n itio n o f te n u r e , sa la r y sch ed u les
in e f f e c t , h igh c e r t if ic a t i o n standards fo r te a c h e r s,
and the d e s ir e fo r q u a lity teach in g by tea ch ers o f
m atu rity and ex p erien ce, undoubtedly would tend to
d efea t any such tendency. Would th ey be s u f f i c i e n t ,
however, to e f f e c t i v e l y bar the employment o f younger
and cheaper te a c h e r s, who have a c t u a lly proved s a t i s ­
fa c to r y during th e t r i a l y ea r, a t the expense o f old er
tea ch ers alread y e m p l o y e d ? ^ ?
In concluding t h is s e c t io n , i t should be p oin ted out that a l l th ose
who have c ite d problems or pointed out d i f f i c u l t i e s in con n ection w ith
in tern esh ip s t i l l advocate in te r n e sh ip as a v a lu a b le phase o f tea ch er
ed u cation .
They agree w ith Brink when he says:
Tor the most part th e d i f f i c u l t i e s are o f an ad­
m in is tr a tiv e ch a ra cter, a s to th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f the
in tern esh ip exp erien ce th ere appears to be common a g ree­
ment. I t i s reason ab le to b e lie v e , th e r e fo r e , th a t as
in tern esh ip teach in g becomes more w idely accepted as an
in te g r a l part o f th e p rep aration o f te a c h e r s, and as the
philosophy o f experim entalism i s ap p lied to the improvement
o f th e program, many i f not a l l o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s th a t
have been mentioned can be o v e r c o m e . 4 8
46 I b id . . pp. 147-49.
^ Herbert H. E e lb le , " In tern esh ip s fo r Surplus 'Teachers," Educa­
t io n a l A dm in istration and S u p e r v isio n , 19:123, February, 1933.
48
iiii.
G.
B rink,
0£ .
c it. ,
p.
100.
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Summary. —There i s but one major p u blished study which p e r ta in s to
in te r n e s h ip , a study by Hied e n t it le d ''Cooperative I n s t it u t io n a l In -S e r v ic e
Training fo r T eachers."
Other w r itin g s in th e f i e l d are fo r the most part
pe^iedi^stl a r t i c l e s d escrib in g in te r n e sh ip programs or proposed in te r n e sh ip
programs.
The major v a lu es claim ed fo r in te r n e sh ip are th a t i t coord in ates
theory and p r a c t ic e , th a t i t serv es as a try -o u t or probationary p erio d ,
th at i t p rovid es a scheme o f in d u ctio n in which th ere i s adequate and
competent s u p e r v isio n , th a t i t mahes p o s s ib le g rea ter in d iv id u a liz a tio n o f
in s tr u c tio n , th a t i t p rovid es th e sch ool system w ith a source o f supply o f
su perior beginning te a c h e r s, th a t i t i s an o r ie n ta tio n and adjustm ent ex­
p erien ce f a m ilia r iz in g th e beginning tea ch er w ith many d if f e r e n t phases o f
school worh, th a t i t perm its gradual in d u ctio n , th a t i t p rovides a program
o f p r o fe s s io n a l p rep aration in which lea rn in g i s based upon d oin g, and
th at i t r a is e s standards fo r th o se en te r in g th e tea ch in g p r o fe s s io n .
Hmong th e major problems o f in te r n e sh ip are determ ining the part
in tern esh ip should p lay in th e t o t a l tea ch er-ed u ca tio n programs, form u lat­
ing sound c r i t e r ia fo r s e le c t in g in te r n e s and fo r determ ining th e sch o o ls
in which they should be p la ced , coord in atin g su p e r v isio n , measuring th e
outcomes o f th e in tern esh ip program, and safeguarding the in tern e from
p o s s ib le e x p lo it a t io n .
Two statem en ts o f th e e s s e n t ia l c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f in tern esh ip
have been form ulated, one by the Head m is tr e s s e s A sso c ia tio n o f the Hast
and the C ooperative Bureau o f Teachers j o i n t l y , th e other by S ch o rlin g .
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50
Because i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e n c y c lo p e d ic a lly c a ta lo g a l l the a r t i c l e s
r e la t in g to in te r n e sh ip in a chapter such a s t h i s , a check l i s t o f the
to p ic s tr e a te d in the major a r t i c l e s i s found in Appendix
A.
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CENTER I I I
PROCEDURES EMPLOYED
In tro d u ctio n . —Two major q u estio n s had to be decided a t the o u tse t
o f th e stu d y, what c r i t e r ia should be used in s e le c t in g th e in tern esh ip
programs to be included in th e study and what procedures should be employed
in studying th e programs s e le c t e d .
T his chapter r e l a t e s th e manner in
which th ese q u estio n s were d ecid ed .
S e le c tin g in t ern esh ip programs to be Included in th e stu d y . —There
are cadet tea ch in g p la n s , a p p ren ticesh ip tr a in in g p la n s, f if t h - y e a r stu d en t
teach in g arrangem ents, a s s is t a n t tea ch in g schem es, and in tern esh ip p lan s
o f a sso r ted s i z e s , l o t s , and d e s c r ip tio n s .
The f i r s t tn in g th a t had to
be done was to d efin e fo r purposes o f t h is study what was meant by in ­
te r n e sh ip .
.-it th e o u tse t th e -writer concluded th a t th ere were c e r ta in pro­
cedures designed to in troduce th e te a c h e r -in -tr a in in g to th e classroom
s it u a tio n th a t he d e f i n i t e l y did not want to in clu d e in th e stud y.
graduate stu d en t teach in g was one o f th e s e .
Under­
S ev era l s tu d ie s have alrea d y
been made o f undergraduate student te a c h in g , and fo r th e w riter th e con­
cep t o f in tern esh ip c a r r ie s more o f th e co n n o ta tio n o f graduate work,
work done a f t e r the rudiments have been m astered.
C onsequently, a f i r s t
lim it a t io n p laced upon in te r n e sh ip programs was th a t in te r n e s be graduates
o f a fo u r-y ea r c o lle g e or teach ers c o lle g e b efo re e n terin g th e ir period
o f in te r n e s h ip .
This -was not to p reclu d e, o f co u rse, t h e ir having had
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undergraduate student tea ch in g .
This did not e n t ir e ly so lv e the problem
o f excluding th e ty p ic a l student tea ch in g program, however.
Some sch o o ls
postpone student tea ch in g u n t il a f if t h - y e a r o f tea ch er tr a in in g , changing
i t s ch aracter v ery l i t t l e from the typ e o f student tea ch in g t y p ic a lly done
on an undergraduate l e v e l ,
and what o f the lib e r a l a r ts c o lle g e graduate
who has had no p r o fe s s io n a l education work and who does p ost-grad u ate work
a t a te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n tak in g th e undergraduate course in
student tea ch in g in order to meet c e r t i f i c a t i o n requirem ents?
A graduate
o f a fo u r-y ea r c o lle g e , he could hardly be ch a ra cterized as an in te r n e .
Thus, a second requirem ent -was s e t up, th at th e period o f in te r n e sh ip be
a t le a s t a sem ester in le n g th w ith the in tern e spending a t le a s t h a lf o f
the sch o o l day in th e sch o o l s it u a t io n .
This ruled out the u su al student
teacn in g program even i f th e course were taken by a graduate stu d en t.
In p r o fe s s io n a l li t e r a t u r e , se v e r a l a ccu sa tio n s have been made o f
the a ty p ic a ln e s s o f dem onstration s c h o o ls .
Taking cognizance o f th e
f a c t th a t a dem onstration sch o o l may have very much o f a hot-house
atmosphere w ith an in tern e not coming to g rip s w ith s t a f f , p a ren t, and
community r e la t io n s to say nothing o f having a classroom s it u a t io n a t
a l l ty p ic a l o f th e type o f sch ool in which he w i l l probably be u ltim a te ly
p la ce d , t h is s t ip u la t io n was made in th e o r ig in a l o u tlin e o f th e t h e s i s ,
th at the in te r n e sh ip be in a t y p ic a l school s it u a t io n , not in a demon­
s tr a tio n s c h o o l, and th a t th e in tern e be r e sp o n sib le w holly or in part
to lo c a l sch o o l a u t h o r it ie s .
Toward the end o f th e stu d y , the w riter
-was e f f e c t i v e l y ch allenged on t h is p o in t:
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53
Point 2 in your l e t t e r i s somewhat analagous to
s ta tin g th a t m edical in te r n e sh ip s could not be carried
on in d if f e r e n t ty p es o f h o s p it a ls . I f a p ro sp ectiv e
teach er a n t ic ip a t e s f u ll- t im e employment in an e x p e r i­
m ental or dem onstration high s c h o o l, i s i t not p o s s ib le
th a t an in tern sh ip in such an i n s t it u t io n would be as
b e n e f ic ia l, perhaps more b e n e f ic i a l, than one in a
p u b lic high sch o o l? I s i t w ise fo r us to assume th at
a l l in te r n s are preparing fo r p u b lic sch o o l work?
furtherm ore, i t may be p o s s ib le th a t th e d is t in c t io n
between a t y p ic a l sch ool s it u a t io n and a dem onstration
sch ool s it u a t io n i s sometimes more d esired than r e a l . l
A dm itting th e m erit o f
of
t h is c r it ic is m , th e w riter i n s i s t s th at th e type
in te r n e sh ip program he i s in te r e s te d in studying i s a d ecid ed ly r e a l
and not a h ig h ly a r t i f i c i a l s it u a t io n , dem onstration sch ool or no demon­
s t r a t io n s c h o o l.
I f a dem onstration sch ool can be c la ss e d a s t y p ic a l , or
a t any r a te as d ecid ed ly not a t y p ic a l, then i t probably should be included
in th e stu d y .
C onsequently, th e phrase "not in a dem onstration school"
was d e le te d from th e o r ig in a l s t ip u la t io n in some o f th e l e t t e r s accom­
panying q u estio n n a ires sen t out during the l a t t e r part o f the study.
L e tte r s accompanying the b a sic q u estio n n a ires did con tain t h is p r o v iso ,
although a s fa r as the w riter has been a b le to a s c e r t a in , no in tern esh ip
programs m eeting the other q u a lif ic a t io n s were excluded on the b a s is o f
t h is c o n d itio n .
These th ree c o n d itio n s , th e graduation requirem ent, th e minimum
time requirem ent, and th e t y p ic a l s it u a t io n requirem ent, c o n s titu te d the
c r i t e r ia fo r s e le c t in g in te r n e sh ip programs when t h i s study s ta r te d .
th e study p ro g ressed , i t was found n ecessa ry to make fu rth er s e le c t iv e
^ C. a . Sanford, L e t t e r , -February 21, 1940.
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As
ru lin gs.
There are said to be in existence some induction programs de­
signed osten sib ly for beginning teachers and dubbed interneship in which
the beginning teacher i s given a regular teacher's load for a year's time,
I
|
i t being agreed that the teacher w ill be given a permanent appointment at
the end o f the year i f h is work i s sa tisfactory.
the beginning teacher for h is services;
Ho remuneration i s given
the proposition i s more one of
being hired man for a year to obtain a job that that of being placed in
the best p ossib le environment for adjustment and professional growth.
To
avoid inclusion o f any program of th is sort, i t was stipulated that a
major objective o f the interneship program be the professional education
and development of the interne.
In some private schools, arrangements are occasionally made to
take on temporarily some alumnus of the school who has just graduated
;
I
from c o lleg e and who i s seeking a teaching p o sitio n but has been unable
to obtain an appointment.
The arrangement i s purely a temporary one.
Something akin to interneship i s worked out by mutual agreement between
the school and the beginning teacher.
When a permanent job i s obtained,
the school ceases to sponsor anything which might be ca lled interneship.
To avoid having to include such haphazard ventures as th is , th is provision
was added to the conditions already estab lish ed, that the interneship
program be a d e fin ite ly planned program involving at le a st several internes
n egatively, that i t not be a temporary make-shift arrangement occasionally
made fo r one or two individuals.
S t i l l another requirement, that the interneship program be in
existen ce at the present time was added;
that i t not be a program which
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55
e x i s t s o n ly on paper—th a t i t not be a temporary program v;hich e x is te d a t
the depth o f th e d ep ressio n but has been abandoned s in c e .
The w riter wants
to know th e s ta tu s o f in te r n e sh ip programs here and now, in th e year 194C.
L ocating in te r n e sh ip programs. —Having determ ined the c r i t e r ia by
which in tern esh ip programs would be s e le c t e d , th e n ext ta sk was to lo c a te
te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t it u t io n s and sch o o l system s sp onsoring such programs.
The f i r s t s te p was to w rite s t a t e departments o f ed u cation req u estin g that
th ey supply the w r ite r w ith th e names o f in s t i t u t i o n s and sch o o l system s
g
sponsoring in te r n e sh ip programs coming w ith in th e scope o f the study.
They
were a ls o asked to l i s t the names o f a d m in istra to rs or fa c u lt y members o f
te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t it u t io n s who might be acquainted w ith any in tern esh ip
urograms e x is t in g in th e s t a t e .
.Replies were r e c e iv e d from fo r ty -fo u r o f
th e f o r t y - e ig h t s t a t e departm ents.
A second means o f lo c a tin g in tern esh ip
programs was to w r ite le a d e r s in th e f i e l d o f tea ch er ed u cation in a l l p arts
o f th e U nited S ta te s o u t lin in g th e stu d y , req u estin g t h e ir su g g e stio n s, and
s p e c i f i c a l l y ask in g fo r th e lo c a tio n s o f any in te r n e sh ip programs w ith which
th ey were fa m ilia r .
In tern esh ip programs were a ls o lo c a te d through de­
s c r ip tio n s th a t appeared in ed u ca tio n a l p e r io d ic a l li t e r a t u r e .
N early
h a lf o f th e in te r n e sh ip programs in clud ed in th e study were lo c a te d through
le a d s su p p lied by s t a t e departments o f ed u ca tio n .
One hundred and fo r ty
C
a copy o f th e r e p ly form which s t a t e departments were requested to
f i l l out and retu rn to the w riter may be found in Appendix B, p. 237«
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
B
le t t e r s were w ritten to school systems and teacher-training in stitu tio n s
I
which had been suggested as probably or p ossibly sponsoring internesh ip.3
One hundred and tw enty-five or eighty-nine per cent of the one hundred
and fo rty replied.
Of those that rep lied , th ir ty -s ix were sponsoring
interneship programs that came within the lim its o f the three origin al
sp e cifica tio n s se t.
At th is point, another problem presented i t s e l f .
I t was found that
in a number of Instances, schools were linked together in what r e a lly con­
s titu te d one interneship program.
A teacher-training in s titu tio n had been
the im pelling force behind the establishment o f the program, or at le a s t a
teacher-training in stitu tio n cooperated in the program, and the interneship schemes carried on by the various lo ca l schools were almost id en tica l.
I t was decided to trea t such an arrangement as one interneship program.
|
In
two or three cases, the cooperative arrangement that existed was not known
u n til a fte r data concerning the program had been gathered by questionnaire.
The d ecision to treat any such arrangement
as a sin gle u n ified program
narrowed the l i s t o f t h ir t y - s ix interneship programs to be studied to
th irty -th ree.
(The l i s t of th ir ty -s ix would have been swelled tremendous-
ly i f an e ffo rt had been made to discover and add to the l i s t the d if­
feren t school systems cooperating w ith a sin gle teacher-training in s t itu ­
tio n in the interneship program in itia te d by that in s t itu t io n .)
3 A copy o f the form le t t e r i s in Appendix B, p. 239 .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Three other interneship programs had to he dropped from the l i s t
of those to he studied.
In one case, the director of a private school
f e l t that th eir program wasn't s u ffic ie n tly organized to he of value to
the study;
in another case, a private school, a ls o , hoth the school and
the interneship program were heing reorganized and inten sive study of
th e ir program was d if f ic u lt and inconvenient;
and in the third case, the
administrator in charge o f interneship frankly stated that she didn't
have the time to give to the study.
That l e f t th irty interneship programs.
Twenty-one o f the th ir ty have f i l l e d in a rather lengthy questionnaire
and have supplied the data requested.
twenty-one interneship programs.
This th e sis i s concerned with these
The l i s t of the interneship programs
located , the school systems and teacher-training in stitu tio n s to which
questionnaires were sent, and the fin a l l i s t o f the twenty-one programs
in ten siv e ly studied may he found in Table I I .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58
table i i
c
o
X
a;
u
a)
1 -4
-P
<D
3
5o
+3
•P
o:
Q
d
C
Q)
to
I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ra m
v i s i t e d by t h e
w rite r
a>
•H
'O
0)
a
p
d
■p
a-
One of the 21 p ro g ra m s
included in the s t u d y
ETTEHNESIiIP PaGGamiS LOCATED; EITEENESiilP PPOGP.iiviS SENT ^UESTIOMtiLiE;
ETCEctiifeSaZF PhOUtfoMS hETUoNING- OUESTIGluOiloE aS D INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY;
INTEfilESHIF EaOGAuifiS VISITED^
B a l t i m o r e , owaryland, P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
B eaver C o u n try Day S c h o o l, C h e s tn u t h i l l s ,
ila ssa c h u se tts
X
X
X
X
n r a i n t r e e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
X
B r o n z v i l l e , New Y ork, P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
9
X
Brown U n i v e r s i t y , P r o v i d e n c e , .anode I s l a n d
X
X
X
X
Chatham County S c h o o l s , Savannah, G eorgia
X
7
Chicago T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s
X
The Community S c h o o l, S t . L o u i s , M is s o u r i
X
e
The C o o p e r a ti v e S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s , New York
C ity
X
X
X
C r e i g h t o n U n i v e r s i t y , Omaha, N ebraska
X
D a l l a s , T e x a s , P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
i ' i e l d s t o n S c h o o l , New York C i t y
X
X
S
P r i e n d s ' S c h o o ls - P r i e n d s ' C o u n c il on
E d u c a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n i a
X
X
X
X
X
X
4 The numbers i n t h e t a b l e r e f e r to n o t e s a p p e a r i n g a t t h e end
of th e ta b le .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
TABLE II (continued)
1
•H
-P
3
•p
d
0)
CO
I n t e r n e s h i p Program
v i s i t e d by t h e
w rite r
a>
*hH
tf
a>
a
f-i
3
■P
a>
rR
0)
•H
s
a
d
o
•i-4
-P
a)
d
One of the 21 p ro g ra m s
included in the s t u d y
1
INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS LOCATED; INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS SENT QUESTIONNAIRE;
INTEHNiSEIF FKOGto-MiS RETURNING QUESTIONNAIRE AND INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY;
INTEHNESHIP PROGRAMS VISITED
The George S c h o o l , George S ch o o l P. 0 . ,
P e n n s y lv a n i a
5
G eorgia T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l l e g e b o r o ,
G e o rg ia
X
G ra d u a te T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , G 'innetka, I l l i n o i s
X
X
X
X
G ro s s e P o i n t e , M ic h ig a n , P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
X
Kansas C i t y , K a n sa s, P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
wit. L ebanon, P e n n s y l v a n i a , P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
M id d le s e x S c h o o l , C oncord, M a s s a c h u s e t t s
X
New York U n i v e r s i t y , New York C i t y
X
X
X
X
N o r t h w e s te r n U n i v e r s i t y , E v a n s to n , I l l i n o i s
X
X
X
X
Oklahoma C i t y , Uklahoma, P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
Omaha, N e b r a s k a , P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
n o s l y n , New Y ork, P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
X
X
Shady H i l l S c h o o l, C am bridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s
X
S tan fo rd U n iv e rs ity , S ta n fo rd U n iv e rs ity ,
C a lifo rn ia
X
X
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
X
X
60
TABLE I I ( c o n t i n u e d )
INTEtiKESHIP FHOGHAMS LOCATED; INTEkdESEIP PROGRAMS SENT Q.UESTIOMAIHE;
INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS RETURNING QUESTIONNAIRE MID INCLUDED IK THIS STUDY;
IKTEHKESHIP PROGRMIS VISITED
3
One of the 21 p ro g ra m s
included in the s t u d y
Sent
Q u e stio n n a ire
t)
d)
X
X
g
•p
0>
X
0)
t*
•H
s
ao
•ri
P
tG
CD
a
UJ
&
Q!.1
O
ft 0)
ht Xi
-p
p,
•H >»
00
O) u
rt <i> &
U -p 0)
<U -H 4->
+3 (O -rt
a ?
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Eew
York C i t y
X
Temple U n i v e r s i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n i a
6
U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i , C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio
X
X
X
X
U n iv e rs ity o f I l l i n o i s , U rbana, I l l i n o i a
X
X
X
X
U n iv e r s ity of P e n n sy lv a n ia , P h ila d e lp h ia ,
P e n n s y lv a n i a
X
X
X
X
«ayne U n i v e r s i t y , D e t r o i t , M ic h ig a n
X
X
X
X
w e s t e r n M aryland C o l l e g e , W e s tm in s te r ,
M aryland
X
X
X
/ s i liu in g to n , D e la w a re , P u b l i c S c h o o ls
X
C i l l i s t o n Academy, E a s th a m p to n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s
X
%
X
X
X
X
X
5 . George S c h o o l i s one o f t h e F r i e n d s ' s c h o o l s s p o n s o r i n g
i n t e r n e s h i p ; t h e m a j o r p h a s e s o f t h i s pro g ra m a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a
c om piled by t h e F r i e n d s ' C o u n c il on E d u c a t i o n .
6.
The o n l y i n t e r n e s h i p program s p o n s o re d by Temple U n i v e r s i t y
c o n fo rm in g to t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t
a t t h e Oak Lane C ountry hay S c h o o l, a p r i v a t e s c h o o l a f f i l i a t e d w i t h
Temple U n i v e r s i t y . T here a r e b u t two i n t e r n e s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , and
s i n c e t h e program i s u n d e rg o in g r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t was t h o u g h t b e s t n o t
t o i n c l u d e Oak Lane C ountry Day S c h o o l i n t h e s t u d y .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ADDITIONAL NOTES - TABLE I I
7 . The A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e Chatham County S c h o o ls
found she was u n a b le t o f i n d tim e t o f i l l o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r
t o r e t u r n i t i n tim e t o be i n c l u d e d in t h e s t u d y .
8 . M iss S t o n e , D i r e c t o r o f t h e Community S c h o o l , w r i t e s , " A f t e r
l o o k i n g o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , I f e e l t h a t o u r v e r y s im p le p l a n f o r i n ­
t e r n e s i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y o r g a n i z e d t o b e o f v a l u e t o you i n t h e s tu d y
w hich you a r e m aking.
I r e g r e t t h a t , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , I am r e t u r n i n g
c o p ie s o f th e q u e s ti o n n a ir e ."
( L e t t e r , J a n u a r y 29, 1940)
9 . a.t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e B r o n x v i l l e S c h o o ls a nd t h e E 'i e l d s t o n
S c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e i n and f o l l o w t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n o f T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , a l t h o u g h i n t e r n e s h i p s t a r t e d i n e a c h o f t h e s e s c h o o ls
a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t p rogram d e s ig n e d t o m eet d e f i n i t e n e e d s s e n s e d by t h e
s c h o o l s . T or p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e B r o n x v i l l e s c h o o l s and t h e
E’i e l d s t o n S c h o o l a r e t r e a t e d a s p a r t o f t h e T e a c h e r s C o lle g e Program .
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p -programs. —Three
m ethods o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y :
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and v i s i t a t i o n .
q u e stio n n a ire ,
The b a s i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d was a
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a nd was d e s ig n e d
p r i m a r i l y t o a n sw e r t h e f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s :
what
a r e t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p programs^ an d what a r e p r e s e n t
p r a c tic e s in th e o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tra tio n of in te r n e s h ip p ro g ra m s? ^
C e r t a i n s u p p le m e n ta r y m a t e r i a l s , t o o , w ere d e s i r e d .
For i n s t a n c e , i t
was th o u g h t i t would b e o f v a l u e t o know t h e f a c t o r s w hich w e re c o n s i d e r e d
m ajo r e le m e n t s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s i n t e r n e s h i p i s d e f i n e d
by a s c o r e o r m ore s c h o o l s y s te m s and t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .
was th o u g h t i t would b e o f v a l u e t o know t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s w hich
S u p ra , p. 1.
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
It
b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
I t was th o u g h t
t h a t a n a p p r a i s a l o f i n t e r n e s h i p made by d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r o ­
grams and p o i n t i n g o u t outcom es o r r e s u l t s o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s w e l l a s
s e t t i n g f o r t h problem s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p would be o f
v a lu e .
Keeping a l l t h e s e ite m s i n m ind, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was o r g a n i z e d
a ro u n d t h e s e h e a d in g s :
d e fin in g in te r n e s h ip ; reaso n s fo r th e e s ta b l is h ­
ment o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program ; a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on by t h e i n t e r n e ;
p r a c t i c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p ; o u t ­
comes o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program .
The w r i t e r had c e r t a i n a i d s o r h e l p s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n ­
n a ire .
The p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r n e s h i p was c a r e f u l l y
s c r u t i n i z e d t o f i n d ite m s t h a t m ig h t f i t i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u n d e r
one o f t h e h e a d in g s j u s t l i s t e d .
The l i t e r a t u r e i n a r e l a t e d f i e l d ,
t h a t o f s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g , was s u rv e y e d and fo u n d p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l
i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on by
th e i n t e r n e . ^
The w r i t e r v i s i t e d s e v e r a l i n t e r n e s h i p program s w h i l e
^ The f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e s w ere o f d e c id e d v a l u e i n c o n s t r u c t i n g
t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d o n by i n t e r n e s :
* . D. A r m e n t r c u t , The Conduct o f
T e a c h in g i n S t a t e
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s ( G r e e l e y , C o lo r a d o : C o lo rad o S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
1 9 2 7 ) , p . 40 f f .
S tu d e n t
A. S . B a r r , An A n a l y s is o f t h e D u t i e s and F u n c t i o n s o f I n s t r u c ­
t i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r s , a S tu d y o f t h e D e t r o i t S u p e r v i s o r y O r g a n i z a t i o n
( U n i v e r s i t y o f W is c o n s in , Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n No. 7.
m a d is o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f r i i s c o n s i n , B ureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l .R esearch, 1 9 2 6 ) ,
pp. 1 9 -4 9 . C h a p te r I I , "An A n a l y s i s o f S u p e r v i s o r y A c t i v i t i e s . "
(C ontinued on p. 63)
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
63
the questionnaire was in process of construction, talk in g to d irecto rs
of interneship programs about possible items which might be included.
When a prelim inary form had been constructed, the questionnaire was trie d
out in two communities where interneship programs had been in operation.
A fter a few fu rth er revisions^ the questionnaire which appears in Appendix
D was sent to the interneship programs cooperating in th is study.-*2
Two
11 (continued)
Jacob I . Baugher, Organization and Administration of P ractice
Teaching in P riv a te ly Endowed Colleges of L iberal Arts (Teachers College
Contributions to Education, No. 487. New York: Teachers College,
Columbia U niversity, 1931), pp. 117-19.
Raymond D. Bennett, "A Basis fo r Selecting the Content of
Required Courses in Education," Educational Research B u lle tin . 13:113-19,
132, May 16, 1934.
Columbia U niversity, New College S ta ff, "Education of Teachers
in New College," Teachers College Record, 38:42-46.
W. W. Charters and Douglas Waples, The Commonwealth Teacher
Training Study (Chicago: U niversity of Chicago Press, 1929), pp. 304-72.
Edna M. M arshall, Evaluation of Types of Student Teaching
(Teachers College Contributions to Education, No. 488. New York: Teachers
College, Columbia U niversity, 1931), pp. 55-65.
Edward S. Mooney, An Analysis of the Supervision of Student
Teaching: A Study Based on the New York S tate Teacher Education I n s titu ­
tio n s fo r the Preparation of Elementary School Teachers (Teachers College
Contributions to Education, No. 711. New York: Teachers College,
Columbia U niversity, 1937)
E sther M. Nelson, An Analysis of Content of Student Teaching
Courses for Education of Elementary Teachers in State Teachers Colleges
(Teachers College Contributions to Education, No. 723. New York: Teachers
College, Columbia U niversity, 1939), p. 44 f f .
12 Infra, PP* 245-65*
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
I
major fa cto rs, then, contribute to the v a lid ity of the questionnaire:
1
(1) a thorough an alysis o f the liter a tu re; (2) try-out of the questionnaire
prior to general c ircu la tio n .
Questionnaire determining prin ciples underlying inte me ship.T-The
third major task of t h is th e s is , as outlined in the f ir s t chapter, was to
.
determine what principles are generally recognized by leaders in the fie ld
o f teacher education as being desirable princip les undergirding the organization o f interneship programs.
Defining a prin cip le as a theorem
which makes possible the determination and interpretation of p ractice,
'
the basic questionnaire was ca refu lly studied with a view to framing
generalizations which might govern interneship p ractices.
The litera tu re
o f student teaching was culled for principles said to underlie student
teaching which might also be applicable to interneship.
I
From these two
sources, some f i f t y ten ta tiv e and suggested prin cip les were drawn up and
submitted to two o f the w riter’s advisers for checking as to content and
c la r ity .
j
Revisions were made on the basis of th e ir suggestions, and the
p rincip les submitted to a jury of "experts” in teacher education for
v a lid a tio n .^
The sele ctio n o f leaders in the f ie ld of teacher education to
serve as members of the jury of experts was made by the w riter in con­
su ltation with three members o f the facu lty of the Department of Educa­
tion o f Yale U niversity and the President of one of the teachers’ c®lleges
Supra, p. 1.
14
a
copy of th is questionnaire may be found in Appendix D, pp. 266-71.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
in C o n n e c t i c u t ,
as
a group, th e s e fo u r i n d iv id u a ls a re w e ll a c q u a in te d
w ith p e r s o n s who a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s o u t s t a n d i n g in t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r
e d u c a tio n .
Some o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d e d in t h e j u r y a r e f a m i l i a r
w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l w o rk in g s o f one o r more i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s; o t h e r s
know i n t e r n e s h i p o n ly a s a p r o c e d u r e w h ic h i s a d v o c a t e d i n t e a c h e r e du­
c a tio n
but w h ic h , a s y e t , h a s n o t been t r i e d o u t v e r y e x t e n s i v e l y .
was deemed d e s i r a b l e t o have t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f b o th t h e s e
It
groups.
Of t h e f o r t y - s i x e x p e r t s t o whom t h e ’• p r i n c i p l e s ” q u e s t i o n n a i r e
was s e n t , s i x were u n a b le t o s e rv e a s j u r o r s , one b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s ,
f o u r b e c a u s e t h e y had a l r e a d y assumed o b l i g a t i o n s w hich p r e v e n t e d t h e i r
g i v in g s u f f i c i e n t tim e t o th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 1 ^ and one b e c a u s e he s t r o n g l y
opposed t h e b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p upon w hich t h i s s tu d y i s
p r e d i c a t e d ..
Of t h e r e m a in in g e x p e r t s , t h i r t y - o n e o f t h e f o r t y have r e ­
turned t h e i r q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
The r a t i n g s o f t h i s g roup have t e e n u sed in
s e t t i n g up g u id e p o s t s f o r a p p r a i s i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p u r a c t i c
The
l i s t o f t h o s e who s e r v e d a s j u r o r s i s found in Appendix
q u e s tio n n a ire s d e a lin g w ith th e
o p i n i o n s o f fo rm e r i n t e r n e s and
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rs r e g a rd in g i n te r n e s h ip program s. —
17
as
p a rt of
T h e re may be o t h e r s who have n o t r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e
s e n t them who m ig h t be i n c l u d e d in t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . These f o u r
i n d i v i d u a l s w ro te t h e w r i t e r e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r r e g r e t o v e r b e in g u n a b le
to serve as j u r o r s .
15 P p . 2 7 6 -7 7 .
1^ C o p ie s o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may b e found in Appendix D,
pp. 2 7 2 -7 5 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
t h i s s t u d y , i t was deemed o f v a l u e t o o b t a i n t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e who
had b e e n i n t e r n e s c o n c e r n in g w hat t h e y t h o u g h t were t h e m a jo r a d v a n ta g e s
and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
Two h undred and tw e lv e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r
who had b e e n i n t e r n e s i n s e v e n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n e s h i p program s w i t h i n a
p e r i o d o f t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s were s e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a s k i n g t h e s e q u e s ­
tio n s:
1.
what w ere t h e m a j o r a d v a n ta g e s and b e n e f i t s you g a in e d from
b e in g an a p p r e n tic e t e a c h e r , an i n t e r n e , o r a f i f t h - y e a r , s tu d e n t te a c h e r?
2.
I n y o u r o p i n i o n , what w ere t h e m a jo r draw backs o r w e a k n e s se s o f
t h e program o f a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h i n g , i n t e r n e s h i p , o r f i f t h - y e a r s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g i n w hich you p a r t i c i p a t e d ?
3.
a p p re n tic e
4.
.jhat s u g g e s t i o n s would you make f o r im p ro v in g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p ,
t e a c h i n g , o r f i f t h - y e a r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g program ?
what i s y o u r g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l o f t h e w o rth o f t h e t y p e o f
i n t e r n e s h i p a p p r e n t i c e t r a i n i n g , o r f i f t h - y e a r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g program
i n w hich you p a r t i c i p a t e d ?
The
not
t e r m i n o l o g y d e s c r i b i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s v a r i e s m a r k e d ly ,
a l l o f t h e program s coming w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y b e in g term ed
i n t e r n e s h i p by t h o s e who s p o n s o r and p a r t i c i p a t e i n them .
The s e v e r a l
te r m s u sed a l l a p p l y t o t h e same g e n e r a l t y p e o f i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e ,
ho w e v e r, and meet t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p u s e d i n t h i s s tu d y .
S u g g e s te d r e s p o n s e s w ere n o t g i v e n u n d e r e a c h o f t h e q u e s t i o n s
a s k e d ; i t was f e l t t h a t i n t e r n e s would be u n d u ly i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e
o p t i o n s and would f a i l t o g i v e a n a c c u r a t e a p p r a i s a l o f what t h e y t h o u g h t
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of Interneship.
A sim ilar questionnaire was also sent to cooperating teachers, super­
vising teachers in the lo c a l school system to whom in tern es are assigned to
observe and a s s is t.
One hundred and th ir ty - s ix cooperating teachers in fiv e
interneship programs were in v ite d to p a rtic ip a te in the study.
The findings
in th is study are based on re p lie s received from sixty-one cooperating teachers
and from one hundred and two former in tern es.
Correspondence and v is ita tio n .—Besides gathering data to answer
the.questions raised in th is study by means of questionnaire, considerable
supplementary information was gained through correspondence with d irecto rs
o f interneship programs.
In addition to th is , the w rite r personally
v is ite d twenty-one interneship programs, in each instance interview ing
the d irector of the interneship program and in many cases, talking to
in te rn es and cooperating teachers.
Certain "stock" questions such as
what p a rtic u la r functions do you think your program of interneship i s
f u l f i l l i n g or what major problems or "headaches" do you have were usually
worked somewhere into the interview s w ith d irec to rs of interneship pro­
grams and cooperating teachers, although the major purpose of v is ita tio n
was to "absorb" from those connected w ith interneship programs a3 much
about those programs as would make the w rite r a more able in te rp re te r of
the ro le interneship i s playing in teacher education.
A l i s t of the
interneship programs v is ite d i s found in the la s t column of Table I I .
18 Pp. 58-60.
•d
L
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68
Summary. —The f i r s t
w h a t,
t a s k c o n f r o n t i n g t h e w r i t e r was t o d e f i n e
f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , was m ea n t by i n t e r n e s h i p .
I t was
s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s be m et b e f o r e a n i n d u c t i o n p r o ­
gram b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r n e s h i p :
1.
T hat i n t e r n e s be g r a d u a t e s o f a f o u r y e a r c o l l e g e o r t e a c h e r s
c o lle g e b e fo re e n te r in g t h e i r p erio d o f in te r n e s h ip .
2.
T hat t h e i n t e r n e s h i p be i n a t y p i c a l s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n , and
t h a t t h e i n t e r n e be r e s p o n s i b l e w h o lly o r i n p a r t t o l o c a l s c h o o l
a u th o ritie s.
5.
w ith
T hat t h e p e r i o d
o f i n t e r n e s h i p be a t l e a s t a s e m e s t e r i n l e n g t h
t h e i n t e r n e s p e n d in g a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e sc h o o l d a y i n th e s c h o o l
situ a tio n .
4.
T hat a m a jo r o b j e c t i v e o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram b e t h e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and d e velopm ent o f t h e i n t e r n e .
5.
That t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program b e a d e f i n i t e l y p la n n e d program
i n v o l v i n g a t l e a s t s e v e r a l i n t e r n e s ; n e g a t i v e l y , t h a t i t n o t be a
te m p o r a r y m a k e - s h i f t a rr a n g e m e n t o c c a s i o n a l l y made f o r one o r two i n ­
d iv id u a ls.
6.
T hat t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program b e i n e x i s t e n c e a t t h e p r e s e n t
t im e .
I n t e r n e s h i p program s co n fo rm in g t o t h e s e c r i t e r i a w ere l o c a t e d b y r e ­
q u e s t i n g s t a t e d e p a r tm e n ts o f e d u c a t i o n to in fo r m t h e w r i t e r o f such
p ro g ra m s , by a s k in g s e v e r a l p e r s o n s w o rk in g i n t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r
e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f program s w ith w hich t h e y were f a m i l i a r ,
■hi L,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69
and by s u r v e y i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s
o f i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s i n e x i s t e n c e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .
The f i n d i n g s
o f t h i s s t u d y a r e b a s e d on d a t a g a t h e r e d from tw e n ty - o n e i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s .
T h re e m ethods o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a were u s e d , q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ,
and v i s i t a t i o n .
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w ere s e n t t o d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r o ­
gram s, t o fo rm e r i n t e r n e s , and t o c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
T h irty -o n e e x p erts
i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n r a t e d some f i f t y i te m s a p p e a r i n g i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e
d e s ig n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s upon w hich i n t e r n e s h i p
s h o u ld b e b a s e d .
The w r i t e r p e r s o n a l l y v i s i t e d t w e n ty - o n e i n t e r n e s h i p
program s.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
chmpttw
iv
PaiKCEELES UI^LEHLYIiJG INTEftNESHI?;
DEFINING IlMTEiSvESHIP aND ITS LflAJOR FUNCTIONS
P r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g i n t e r n e s h i p a s v a l i d a t e d by l e a d e r s i n t h e
f i e l d o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n . — Each o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s s u b m i t t e d t o l e a d e r s
i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r r a t i n g was ju d g ed on a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e , t h e
p o in ts b e in g :
an e s s e n t ia l p r in c i p le ; h ig h ly d e s ir a b le b u t not e s s e n t ia l ;
n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t ; d e t r i m e n t a l t o a sound i n t e r n e s h i p program .
A f t e r t h e r e t u r n s were t a b u l a t e d , t h e p ro b le m was f a c e d o f d raw ing a l i n e
w hich would d e m a r c a te p r i n c i p l e s w hich w ere h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t from t h o s e
w hich d i d n ' t r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t from t h e e x p e r t s t o b e r e g a r d e d a s
o f I m p o r ta n c e .
To s t a t e t h e q u e s t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y , i t had t o b e d e c id e d
what p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e x p e r t s s h o u ld judge a p r i n c i p l e a s e s s e n t i a l o r
h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e b e f o r e t h a t p r i n c i p l e c ould be c o n s i d e r e d t o be v a l i d a t e d
a s a sound p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g i n t e r n e s h i p .
A r b i t r a r i l y , i t was d e c id e d
t h a t a t l e a s t th re e out of fo u r of th e e x p e r ts , t h a t i s s e v e n ty -fiv e per
c e n t , s h o u ld r a t e a p r i n c i p l e a s e i t h e r e s s e n t i a l o r h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e
b e f o r e t h a t p r i n c i p l e would b e u se d i n t h i s t h e s i s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g i n t e r n e ­
sh ip p r a c t i c e s .
F o rty -fo u r o f th e f i f t y - f i v e o r ig i n a l p r in c i p le s r a te d by
th e ex p e rts f a l l w ith in t h is c l a s s if i c a t io n .
More t h a n h a l f o f t h e s e
f o r t y - f o u r p r in c i p le s a re r a t e d e i t h e r as e s s e n t i a l or h ig h ly d e s ir a b le
by more t h a n n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p e r t s .
a
fo llo w s.
l i s t o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s v a l i d a t e d by l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
For purposes o f easy r e f e r e n c e in d is c u s s in g th e s e p r i n c i p l e s ,
e a c h p r i n c i p l e i s a s s i g n e d a -rtoman n u m e ra l.
The p e r c e n t f i g u r e f o l l o w i n g
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71
each p r in c i p le in d ic a te s th e p ro p o rtio n o f e x p e rts r a t i n g t h i s p r in c i p le
e i t h e r as e s s e n t i a l or h ig h ly d e s ir a b le .
The seco n d f i g u r e r e f e r s t o t h e
o r i g i n a l number o f t h e p r i n c i p l e a s i t a p p e a r e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t
le a d e r s in te a c h e r e d u c atio n .
The breakdow n o f t h e r a t i n g s g i v e n e a c h
p r i n c i p l e by t h e e x p e r t s a p p e a r s i n A ppendix
G, e a c h p r i n c i p l e a p p e a r i n g
u n d e r i t s o r i g i n a l A r a b ic n u m e r a l.
PRINCIPLES RELATING TO iv^JOh FULCTIOwS OF Ii'iTFxiN'ESHIF1
P r i n c i p l e I . — I t s h o u ld be a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o s e c u r e
i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f
tea c h e rs.
(100/*; 1)
P r i n c i p l e I I . — I t s h o u ld b e a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o i n s u r e t h a t
t h e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s e c u r e s h i s f i r s t y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n a s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th .
(100;*; 3}
P r i n c i p l e I I I . — I t s h o u ld be a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o p r o v id e
a scheme o f t e a c h e r i n d u c t i o n i n w hich t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e and com p e ten t
s u p e r v i s i o n a t t h e tim e o f i n d u c t i o n .
(97/*; 6)
P r i n c i p l e IV . — I t s h o u ld b e a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o p r o v id e
a program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n w hich l e a r n i n g
i s b a s e d upon d o in g .
(87 :] q \ 5)
P r i n c i p l e V . — I t s h o u ld be a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o p e r m i t
g r a d u a l i n d u c t i o n i n t o t h e work o f t e a c h i n g .
(875*; 2)
P r i n c i p l e V I . — It' s h o u ld b e a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o p r o v i d e a
t r y - o u t p e r i o d i n w h ic h i t can be d e te r m in e d w h e th e r t h e b e g i n n i n g
t e a c h e r p o s s e s s e s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d o f a good t e a c h e r .
(84>b; 7)
P r i n c i p l e V I I . — ( C o r o l l a r y t o P r i n c i p l e V I ) — The s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e ti o n o f
i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n .
(84-/i>; 50)
DEFINING DJTERInIESHIP
P r i n c i p l e V I I I . — I n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f t h e b a s i c p r e ­
p a r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r .
(100$; 20)
P r i n c i p l e s i n th e f i r s t two g r o u p s , f u n c t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p and
d e fin in g i n te r n e s h i p , a r e l i s t e d i n o rd e r a c c o rd in g to th e p erc e n ta g e of
l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n e n d o r s i n g e a c h p r i n c i p l e . The r e m a in d e r o f
t h e p r i n c i p l e s ( i . e . P r i n c i p l e XIV - P r i n c i p l e XLIV) a r e l i s t e d i n t h e o r d e r
i n w hich t h e y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o p e r c e n t a g e
e n d o rs e m e n t.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
!
72
P r i n c i p l e IX . —D uring t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h e i n t e r n e s h o u ld engage
i n t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r e n g a g e s .
(100$; 16)
P r i n c i p l e X . — The i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s h o u ld i n c l u d e a c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i n w hich i n t e r n e s c a r r y on c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a t e
work d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
(87$; 21)
P r i n c i p l e X I . —The p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be a t l e a s t a y e a r i n
len g th .
(84$; 17)
P r i n c i p l e X I I . —B a s ic c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g s h o u ld b e co m p le te d p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p .
( 8 4 $ ; 15)
P r i n c i p l e X I I I . — The i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld b e i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a p p r o x i m a tin g a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e t y p e o f s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n in w hich
t h e i n t e r n e w i l l p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e perm anent a p p o in t m e n t .
(7 7 $ ; 18)
ACTIVITIES CAXdlEE ON BY THE ETEffiSi!
P r i n c i p l e XIV. —The m a jo r c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o be i n ­
c o r p o r a t e d i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p program s s h o u ld be t h e i r v a lu e i n
d e v e lo p i n g t e a c h i n g c o m petence.
(94w; 47)
I
P r i n c i p l e XV. — k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s and r a t e o f i n d u c t i o n s h o u ld be d e t e r mined b y t h e a b i l i t y , b a c k g ro u n d , and nee d s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n ­
tern e.
(97'/®; 48)
P r i n c i p l e XVI. —O b s e r v a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g o f many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s and a t
d i f f e r e n t g r a d e l e v e l s s h o u ld be a d e f i n i t e and p la n n e d p a r t o f t h e
i n t e r n e s h i p program .
(80/®; 23)
P r i n c i p l e X V II. —P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r p ro g ra m o f t h e
s c h o o l sh o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
(100$; 24)
P r i n c i p l e X V I I I . —P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a wide v a r i e t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s
s h o u ld be a p a r t o f t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p so t h a t t h e i n t e r n e
may become f a m i l i a r w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p ro b le m s and p r o c e d u r e s .
( 7 7 $ ; 25)
P r i n c i p l e X3X. — I n t e r n e s s h o u ld become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e d u t i e s o f
s p e c i a l i z e d members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f ( s c h o o l c l e r k , s c h o o l n u r s e ,
c o u n s e l o r , v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r , e t c . ) by a s s i s t i n g t h e s e p e r s o n s a t some
tim e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
(8 4 $ ; 26)
P r i n c i p l e X I . — I n t e r n e s s h o u ld be e x p e c te d t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e
l o c a l community, i t s p e o p l e , e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
i n d u s t r i e s , and s h o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e i n c i v i c a f f a i r s .
(9 7 $ ; 27)
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P r i n c i p l e XXI. — I n t e r n e s s h o u ld b e e x p e c te d t o be a c t i v e members o f p r o ­
fe s sio n a l teach ers o rg an izatio n s.
(9 7 $ ; 28)
P r i n c i p l e X X II. — I n t e r n e s s h o u ld b e e x p e c t e d t o keep in fo rm e d o f e d u c a t i o n a l
d e v e lo p m e n ts t h r o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d i n g b o t h i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and
i n f i e l d s i n w hich t h e y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d .
(100$; 29)
P r i n c i p l e X X I I I . — P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some r e s e a r c h problem c o n n e c te d w i t h t h e
i n t e r n e ’ s work s h o u ld be i n c l u d e d i n t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n
o rd er to f o s t e r th e s p i r i t of ex p erim en tatio n .
(8 4 $ ; 30)
P r i n c i p l e XXIV. — Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld
e n c o u ra g e i n t e r n e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s
a c t i v i t i e s le a d in g to p e rs o n a l en rich m en t.
(100',*; 31)
P r i n c i p l e XXV. — The dev e lo p m en t o f d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a i t s
s h o u ld be em phasized a s p a r t o f t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
(1 00$; 45)
ADL'Ili ISTP. illOft! OF IilTEPEESHIP
P r i n c i p l e XXVI. — I n t e r n e s h i p should b e so o r g a n i z e d an d a d m i n i s t e r e d t h a t
t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u p i l a r e p r o t e c t e d and f u r t h e r e d .
(1 0 0 $ ; 52)
P r i n c i p l e XXVII. — Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r n e s h i p program s s h o u ld make
a n e f f o r t t o a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t t h e m ost a b l e g r a d u a t i n g s e n i o r s i n
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r a p p o in tm e n t a s i n t e r n e s .
(77/^; 32)
P r i n c i p l e XXVIII. — I n s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s , a s much p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a s
p o s s i b l e sh o u ld b e o b t a i n e d c o n c e r n in g a p p l i c a n t s , and a p p o in tm e n ts
made a f t e r c o n s id e r in g ; a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .
(9 4$; 33)
P r i n c i p l e X X II. — Those c h o s e n c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s s h o u ld b e s e l e c t e d b e ­
ca u se t h e y a r e b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o a i d t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r i n h i s
in d u c tio n in to tea c h in g .
(1 0 0 $ ; 34)
P r i n c i p l e XXX. — There s h o u ld be a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t b e tw e en
t h e s c h o o l s y s te m a n d t h e i n t e r n e .
(8 4 $ ; 35)
P r i n c i p l e XXXI. — I n t e r n e s s h o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d a s r e g u l a r members o f t h e
s c h o o l s t a f f on t h e same f o o t i n g a s o t h e r t e a c h e r s a s f a r a s s t a f f ,
p u p i l , and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o n c e r n e d .
(9 7 $ ; 46)
P r i n c i p l e XXXII. —n n i n t e r n e s h o u ld n e v e r be employed t o r e p l a c e a n e x ­
p e r i e n c e d and more e x p e n s i v e t e a c h e r ; s u c h a p r a c t i c e should be
condemned a s e x p l o i t i n g t h e i n t e r n e .
(87L
/»; 53)
P r i n c i p l e XXXIII. — The a d v a n ta g e s o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e i n
a s c h o o l sy ste m c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g row th s h o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d
p a r t o f t h e c o m p e n s a tio n g i v e n t h e i n t e r n e f o r h i s s e r v i c e s .
(87$; 36a)
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
P r i n c i p l e XXXIV. — The i n t e r n e sh o u ld r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e ra tio n to
c o v e r minimum l i v i n g e x p e n se s a t l e a s t .
(8 4 $ ; 36b)
P r i n c i p l e XXXV. — The l e n g t h o f th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be c o n ­
t i n g e n t upon t h e p r o g r e s s made b y th e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n e and t h e i n ­
t e r n e 's p r o f i c i e n c y r a t h e r th a n upon a n a r b i t r a r y tim e a l l o t m e n t .
(8 1 $ ; 49)
P r i n c i p l e XXXVI. —P r o v is i o n sh o u ld b e made f o r th e t e r m in a ti o n o f a n i n - ,
t e r n e s h i p a p p o in tm e n t w henever i t seem s d e s i r a b l e from th e s ta n d p o in t
o f e i t h e r p a r t y t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p b e t e r m in a te d .
(9 0 $ ; 37)
P r i n c i p l e XXXVII. — One o r m ore members o f t h e s t a f f o f a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n c o o p e r a tin g i n th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram sh o u ld have d e f i n i t e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e s u p e r v i s io n o f i n t e r n e s .
(97*); 38)
P r i n c i p l e XXXVIII. —S u p e r v is o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith i n t e r n e s h i p
sh o u ld be c o o r d in a te d by t h e s u p e r i n te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls o r by some one
p e rs o n d e s ig n a t e d by him .
(8 7 $ ; 39)
P r i n c i p l e XXXIX. —T h ere sh o u ld be c o n s ta n t e v a l u a t i o n o f th e p r o g r e s s and
g ro w th o f e a c h i n t e r n e w ith r e c o r d s k e u t o f t h i s p r o g r e s s and g ro w th .
(9 7 $ ; 40)
P r i n c i p l e XL. — The s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s i n s u b s e q u e n t p o s i t i o n s f o llo w in g
t h e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld b e c a r e f u l l y checked a s one m eans
o f a p p r a i s i n g th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
(1 0 0 $ ; 41)
P r i n c i p l e X LI. — C r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s tio n s r e l a t i n g , t o t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
program s h o u ld b e s o l i c i t e d from i n t e r n e s , c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s , and
s u p e r v i s o r s in o r d e r t o a p p r a i s e and im prove th e program o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip .
(1 0 0 $ ; 42)
P r i n c i p l e X L II. — Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld
a s s i s t th e s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e i n o b t a i n in g em ploym ent e i t h e r i n th e
sy ste m i n w h ich he i s a n i n t e r n e o r i n some o t h e r sy ste m . (1 0 0 $ ; 43)
P r i n c i p l e X L I I I . — Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e pro g ram o f i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld
m a in ta in c o n ta c t w i t h th e i n t e r n e a f t e r h i s p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p h a s
b e e n c o m p le te d o f f e r i n g t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e when t h e i r s e r v i c e s may be
h e l p f u l . (1 0 0 $ ; 44)
P r i n c i p l e XLIV. — G ra d u a te c r e d i t s h o u ld be g iv e n by t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r th e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f i n t e r n e s h i p th u s
r e c o g n iz in g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th a c h ie v e d by t h i s ty p e o f
te a c h e r t r a i n in g .
(7 7 $ ; 51)
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
75
M ajor f u n c t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p . —The f i r s t s i x p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e
to m a jo r f u n c t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
The e x te n t t o w hich th e s e f u n c t i o n s
a r e th e f u n c t i o n s w hich b ro u g h t a b o u t th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f i n t e r n e s h i p
program s i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b le I I I .
T h is t a b l e a l s o sum m arizes th e
o p in io n s o f d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s c o n c e rn in g what' th e y b e l i e v e
t o be d e s i r a b l e m a jo r g o a ls o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
I t 'was o r i g i n a l l y in te n d e d t h a t d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
sh o u ld r a n k th e f u n c t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p l i s t e d i n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n
th e o r d e r o f t h e i r im p o rta n c e .
T h is p ro v ed a d i f f i c u l t t a s k , a number o f
th o s e f i l l i n g o u t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o t e s t i n g t h a t i t was im p o s s ib le t o
draw l i n e s so f i n e l y .
C o n s e q u e n tly , T a b le I I I i s b a s e d on th e number o f
tim e s e a c h f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s r a t e d a s a m ajo r o r b a s i c g o a l.
C o n c lu s io n s b a s e d on T a b le I I I a r e :
1.
The e s ta b lis h m e n t o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d
t o th e n eed f o r f u l f i l l i n g an y one d o m in a tin g and m ost im p o rta n t f u n c t i o n .
H a th e r, i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s a r e d i r e c t e d to w a rd th e a tt a in m e n t o f s e v e r a l
aim s o r a c o m b in a tio n o f a im s .
2.
The c h i e f f u n c t i o n s f o r w hich i n t e r n e s h i p was e s t a b l i s h e d a r e ,
i n g e n e r a l , th e m a jo r aim s l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n s a y
i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld b e d e s ig n e d t o s e r v e .
3.
biot a l l o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s have a c c e p te d a l l o f th e
b a s i c g o a ls o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
£ ach o f t h e b a s i c g o a ls o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s a
m a jo r g o a l o f a p p ro x im a te ly s e v e n ty p e r c e n t o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
T h ere i s one e x c e p t io n .
The t r y - o u t o r p r o b a tio n a r y f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip i s r e c o g n iz e d a s a m a jo r g o a l i n o n ly e le v e n o f t h e tw e n ty -o n e i n ­
t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76
TABLE I I I
FUNCTIONS OR MAJOR GOALS OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS AS DETERMINED BY FACTORS
CAUSING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF TvENTY-ONE INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS, AS DETERMINED
BY THE OPINIONS OF T/ENTY-QNE DIRECTORS OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS, AND AS DETERMINED BY THE OPINIONS OF THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN THE FIELD OF TEACHER
EDUCATION
.
•
•
1
0
•
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.
•
F u n c tio n o r G oal
m
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7 N
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16
76 19
90 31
100
To i n s u r e t h a t t h e b e g in n in g te a c h e r s e c u r e s h i s
f i r s t y e a r ’ s e x p e rie n c e i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n
c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th ( P r i n c i p l e I I )
14
67 15
71 31
100
To p r o v id e a scheme o f t e a c h e r in d u c t io n i n
w hich t h e r e i s a d e q u a te a n d com petent s u p e r ­
v i s i o n a t th e tim e o f in d u c t io n ( P r i n c i p l e I I I )
15
71 16
76 30
97
To p r o v id e a program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n
o f te a c h e r s i n w hich l e a r n i n g i s b a s e d upon
d o in g ( P r i n c i p l e IV)
15
71 14
67 27
87
To p e rm it g r a d u a l i n d u c t io n i n t o th e w ork o f
te a c h in g ( P r i n c i p l e V)
67 16
76 27
87
:N
To s e c u r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f th e o r y and p r a c t i c e in
t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s
( P rin c ip le I)
14
-/o '.
® Number an d p e r c e n t o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n w hich th e n eed f o r
f u l f i l l i n g : t h i s f u n c t i o n was i n f l u e n t i a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r n e s h i p .
Number and p e r c e n t o f d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s r a t i n g
t h i s g o a l a s a d e s i r a b l e m a jo r g o a l o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
4
Number and p e r c e n t o f e x p e r t s in t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n r a t i n g t h i s
g o a l a s a h ig h ly d e s i r a b l e o r b a s ic f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
77
TABLE III (continued)
t
O pinions of l e a d e r s
in te a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
O pinions of d i r e c t o r s
of in te r n e s h ip p r o ­
g ram s
F u n c tio n o r G oal
F u n c tio n s for w hich
in te r n e s h ip was e s t a b ­
lis h e d
FUNCTIONS OR ivAJQR GOALS OF HWERNESHIP PROGihiMS AS DETERMINED BY FACTORS
CAUSING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THENTY-ONE INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS, AS DETERMINED
BY TEE OPINIONS OF TmENTY-ONE DIRECTORS OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS, AND AS DE­
TERMINED BY 'THE OPINIONS OF THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IH THE FIELD OF TEACHER
EDUCATION
N
To p r o v id e a t r y - o u t p e r io d i n w hich i t can be
d e te rm in e d w h e th e r th e b e g in n in g te a c h e r
p o s s e s s e s th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d o f a good
t e a c h e r ( P r i n c i p l e Y l)
worded a s f o llo w s i n th e b a s ic q u e s ti o n n a ir e
s e n t d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s: To
p r o v id e a p r o b a tio n a r y p e r io d i n w hich i t can be
d e te rm in e d w h e th e r th e te a c h e r p o s s e s s e s th e
q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r p erm an en t a p p o in t ­
m ent .
11
To make p o s s i b l e o r i e n t a t i o n and e x p e rie n c e i n
many d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f s c h o o l work b e f o r e r e ­
q u i r i n g th e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r to s p e c i a l i z e in
t e a c h in g c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s o r te a c h in g a t c e r t a i n
g ra d e l e v e l s .
10
To a t t r a c t s u p e r i o r b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s to t h e
s c h o o l sy ste m b e c a u s e o f t h e v a lu e s r e c o g n iz e d
i n th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram .
10
A s i m i l a r ite m i n t h e e x p e r t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s :
To in d u c t com petent b e g in n in g te a c h e r s i n t o a
g iv e n s c h o o l sy ste m i n w h ich p erm anent a p p o in t­
m ent w i l l be r e c e iv e d i f th e i n t e r n e s h i p i s com­
p le te d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .
'SB ^
ft N
ft J
ft
26
84
52 13
62
48 15
71 20
65
48 11
52
.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
58
TABLE
III (continued)
\r
To m eet th e p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n o f each
comm unity to h e lp some beg in n in g ; t e a c h e r s to
g e t t h e i r s t a r t in t e a c h in g .
O pinions of l e a d e r s
in teach er e d u c a t i o n
O pinions of d i r e c t o r s
of in te r n e s h ip p r o ­
gram s
F u n c tio n o r G oal
F u n c tio n s for w hich
in te r n e s h ip was e s t a b ­
lis h e d
FUNCTIONS OB MAJOR GOALS OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS AS DETERMINED BY FACTORS
CAUSING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF TWENTY-ONE INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS, AS DETERMINED
BY THE OFINIONS OF TWENTY-ONE DIRECTORS OF BITEfiNESHIP PROGR--.2S, AND AS DETERlvIIN'ED BY THE OPINIONS OF THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN THE FIELD OF TEACHER
EDUCATION
•7
Jo W
Jo
11
52
2
57 15
48
To s u b s id i z e p ro m is in g s t u d e n t s who w is h t o con­
t in u e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n by d o in g
p a r t - t i m e g r a d u a te w ork.
5
24
8
38
9
29
To s e c u r e good b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s a t a com para­
t i v e l y low s a l a r y o f f e r i n g them a s p a r t i a l com­
p e n s a t i o n th e a d v a n ta g e s o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g
and e x p e r ie n c e .
3
14
4
19
To nave good s u b s t i t u t e h e lp r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e
w i t h i n th e s c h o o l sy ste m .
4
1
3
14
1
3
To p r o v id e t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n c e t o r e g u l a r c l a s s ­
room t e a c h e r s who have a heavy lo a d .
3
1
3
14
1
3
1
5
0
0
1
5
0
To te m p o r a r il y r e p l a c e a r e g u l a r te a c h e r who i s
g r a n te d s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e .
To g iv e employment t o unem ployed hom e-town
te a c h e rs .
2
1
5
T h is ite m d id n o t a p p e a r i n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o l e a d e r s i n
te a c h e r e d u c a tio n and c o n s e q u e n tly m s n o t r a t e d .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79
4.
D i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a g re e w ith l e a d e r s i n t h e
f i e l d o f t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n a s to w hat s h o u ld be t h e m a jo r f u n c t i o n s o f i n ­
te r n e s h ip .
5.
T h e re a r e c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s som etim es a t t r i b u t e d to i n t e r n e ­
s h ip t h a t d e f i n i t e l y s h o u ld n o t be r e c o g n iz e d a s m a jo r g o a l s .
I t is not
a m a jo r g o a l o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o p r o v id e s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s f o r a s c h o o l
s y s te m .
I t i s n o t a m a jo r g o a l o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o r e p l a c e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s
who a r e th e r e b y r e l e a s e d f o r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e .
I t i s n o t a m a jo r g o a l o f
i n t e r n e s h i p t o p r o v id e a s s i s t a n c e f o r a n o v e rlo a d e d t e a c h e r .
The
p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e x p lo itin g in te r n e s in h e re n t in th e s e l a t t e r fu n c tio n s
c a u se d th e e x p e r t s t o t u r n "thum bs down" on them a s p o s s i b l e m a jo r g o a l s .
In d e e d , a p p ro x im a te ly h a l f o f t h e e x p e r t s s a i d t h a t t h e a d o p tio n o f th e s e
g
f u n c t i o n s a s g o a ls w ould be d e t r i m e n t a l t o th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
One
d i r e c t o r o f an i n t e r n e s h i p program w r o te , " I would do a l l I c o u ld to p r e ­
v e n t a n i n t e r n e b e in g p la c e d f o r an y o f t h e s e r e a s o n s ."
N e i th e r i s i n ­
t e r n e s h i p a r e l i e f program d e s ig n e d t o g iv e employment t o unem ployed home­
town t e a c h e r s .
The e x p e r t s w ere a lm o s t unanim ous i n t h e i r d e n u n c ia tio n
o f t h i s a s a m a jo r f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p , tw e n ty - n in e o f th e t h i r t y - o n e
r a tin g t h i s fu n c tio n a s d e trim e n ta l.
6 I n f r a , p p . 2 8 1 -8 2 .
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
D e f in in g i n t e r n e s h i p . — I n t e r n e s h i p i s d e f in e d by th e t a s k s i t
s e e k s t o a c c o m p lis h and by o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich s e t i t o f f and
d e l i m i t i t from o t h e r in d u c t io n p ro g ra m s.
H aving d e f in e d th e g o a ls o f
i n t e r n e s h i p , i t i s t h e s e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w ith w h ich we a r e now con­
c e rn e d .
At th e o u t s e t o f t h i s s tu d y , th e w r i t e r s e t down c e r t a i n c o n d it io n s
w h ich d e f in e d i n t e r n e s h i p in b ro a d o u t l i n e .
7
A re t h e r e s t i l l o t h e r co n ­
d i t i o n s w hich s h o u ld ea rm ark i n te r n e s h i p ?
L e a d e rs in t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n v a l i d a t e d s i x su c h c o n d i t i o n s .
IV)
(T ab le
In th e c a s e o f t h r e e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s
o b s e rv e th e s e c o n d i t i o n s and c o n s id e r them a p a r t o f t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s
of
i n t e r n e s h i p t o a b o u t th e same d e g re e t h a t e x p e r t s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n
r a t e them a s e s s e n t i a l o r h i g h ly d e s i r a b l e .
In t h r e e o t h e r c a s e s , a n
e le m e n t c a l l e d b a s i c t o a d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s c o n c e iv e d by th e
e x p e r t s was n o t c o n s id e r e d n e a r l y a s b a s ic i n th e d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip w hich c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e tw e n ty -o n e e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s
p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h i s s tu d y .
One d is c r e p a n c y a p p e a r s in th e c a s e o f
P r i n c i p l e X I I . t h a t b a s ic c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n in c lu d in g
s tu d e n t t e a c h in g s h o u ld be c o m p le te d p r i o r t o e n tr a n c e i n t o I n t e r n e s h i p .
T w e n ty -3 ix o f th e t h i r t y - o n e l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n s u b s c r ib e d to t h i s
p r i n c i p l e , tw e n ty -o n e r a t i n g i t a s e s s e n t i a l , f i v e a s h i g h ly d e s i r a b l e .
T w o -th ir d s o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p la n s c o n s id e r t h i s b a s ic t o i n t e r n e ­
s h ip .
In d e e d , h e re i s p r o b a b ly th e m ost im p o r ta n t is s u e in t e a c h e r
e d u c a tio n w h ich i n t e r n e s h i p r a i s e s .
T here a r e th o s e who c o n te n d t h a t
^ S u g r a , p p . 5 0 -5 5 .
,V i
L-
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
81
TABLE IV
EXTENT TO •/HICK THE FACTORS IN A DEFINITION OF INTERNS3KIP AS DETERMINED
BY THE RATINGS OF THIRTY-ONE LEADERS IN TEACHER EDUCATION ARE FOUND IN THE
DEFINITIONS OF TWENTY-ONE EXISTING INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS
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I n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld he c o n s id e r e d a p a r t o f
th e b a s ic p r e p a r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f th e
b e g in n in g t e a c h e r ( P r i n c i p l e V I I I )
15
71 31
100
D u rin g t h e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h e i n ­
t e r n e sh o u ld engage in t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y
o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r
e n g a g es ( P r i n c i p l e IX)
21
100 31
100
The i n t e r n e s h i p p la n sh o u ld in c lu d e a
c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
i n w hich i n t e r n e s c a r r y on c o r r e l a t e d
g r a d u a te w ork d u r in g t h e i r p e r io d o f i n ­
t e r n e s h i p ( P r i n c i p l e X)
13
62 27
87
The p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be a t
l e a s t a y e a r in le n g t h ( P r i n c i p l e XI)
17
81 26
84
B a sic c o u rs e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n i n ­
c lu d in g s tu d e n t t e a c h in g s h o u ld be com­
p l e t e d p r i o r t o e n tr a n c e i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p
( P r i n c i p l e X II)
14
67 26
84
The i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be i n a s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n a p p ro x im a tin g a s c l o s e l y a s
p o s s i b l e th e ty p e o f s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n in
w hich t h e i n t e r n e w i l l p r o b a b ly r e c e i v e
p erm an en t a p p o in tm e n t ( P r i n c i p l e X I I I)
67 24
77
14
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE IV (continued)
EXTENT TO VJHICH THE FACTORS IN A DEFINITION OF INTERNESHIP AS DETERMINED
BY THE RATINGS OF THIRTY-ONE LEADERS IN TEACHER EDUCATION ARE FOUND IN THE
DEFINITIONS OF TWENTY-ONE EXISTING INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS
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T h a t t h e i n t e r n e be r e s p o n s i b le p r i m a r i l y
and d i r e c t l y t o th e l o c a l s c h o o l ad­
m in is tra to r.
T h at th e i n t e r n e s h i p be a s ta n d a r d program
s i m i l a r i n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o m e d ic a l i n t e r n e ­
s h ip in w hich a l l i n t e r n e s a r e g iv e n ap­
p r o x im a te ly t h e same e x p e r ie n c e s .
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71
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83
s tu d e n t te a c h in g sh o u ld n o t p r e c e d e i n t e r n e s h i p .
Some w i l l go so f a r a s
t o s a y t h a t none o f t h e s t r i c t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r te a c h in g
need b e g in u n t i l a f t e r f o u r y e a r s o f c o ll e g e and th e n i t s h o u ld b e g in w ith
in te rn e s h ip .
P e rh a p s t h e b e s t way o f summing up t h i s p o i n t o f v iew i s t h a t
i n t e r n e s h i p i s n o t t h e c u lm in a tio n o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s
b u t r a t h e r i n t e r n e s h i p i s i t s e l f e n t i r e l y and w h o lly th e v e r y e s s e n c e o f
th e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s .
f o r c e f u l l y t h a n B u tte rw e c k .
Nobody p r e s e n t s t h i s v iew more
M a in ta in in g t h a t o u r p r e s e n t t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n
program i s b a s e d on a ty p e o f l o g i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r r a t h e r
th a n on f u n c t i o n a l e x p e r ie n c e , B u tte rw e c k s a y s :
T e a c h e r t r a i n i n g came i n t o e x i s t e n c e u n d e r t h e o ld
o r d e r . C o u rs e s i n E d u c a ti o n a l P s y c h o lo g y , h i s t o r y o f
E d u c a tio n , P h ilo s o p h y o f E d u c a tio n , M ethods o f T e a c h in g
w ere su p p o sed t o s u p p ly th e f a c t s needed by th e s tu d e n t
l a t e r o n . S tu d e n t T e a c h in g w as added a t t h e end o f h i s
t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t o g iv e him an o p p o r tu n i ty t o p u t h i s
know ledge i n t o u s e . The v e ry f a c t t h a t "know ledge le a r n e d "
p r e c e d e s "know ledge u se d " im m e d ia te ly r e l e g a t e s o u r
t e a c h e r - p r e p a r a t i o n program t o a p e r io d i n th e e v o lu t io n
o f e d u c a tio n w hich i s o u t m o d e d . 8
B u tte rw e c k c o n ti n u e s :
I n my p l a n t h e s tu d e n t w ould e n t e r h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l
t r a i n i n g by becom ing a n i n t e r n e on th e s c h o o l l e v e l i n
w h ich he i s i n t e r e s t e d . T h is i n t e r n e s h i p w ould c o n tin u e
u n t i l he h a s g iv e n e v id e n c e o f b e in g a b le t o assum e t h e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e r o l e o f t e a c h e r . 8
B u tte rw e c k t h e n l i s t s th e a c t i v i t i e s w hich he w ould in c lu d e i n i n t e r n e s h i p
in c lu d in g a s tu d y o f th e c h i l d r e n w ith w hich t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r comes
® J. S . B u tte rw e c k , " I n t e r n e s h i p S ho u ld P re c e d e T e n u r e ," The
J u n i o r - S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C le a r in g H o u se. 1 2 :1 3 6 , Novem ber, 1937.
9
P* 138 •
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
84
i n to c o n t a c t , p la n n in g l e a r n in g e x p e r ie n c e s f o r and w ith s t u d e n t s , and
t a k i n g a c t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e w ork o f p u p i l s .
A l l t h i s t im e , t h e i n t e r n e i s d ra w in g upon th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n a p p ly in g i t im m e d ia te ly t o s i t u a t i o n s a t h a n d .
The p o s i t i o n B u tte rw e c k t a k e s h a s been d e lv e d i n t o a t t h i s p o i n t in
th e t h e s i s b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s w h ich a r e b a s e d upon t h i s
p o i n t o f v ie w , a p o i n t o f v iew w hich n e g a te s , o f c o u r s e , th e p r i n c i p l e t h a t
b a s ic c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n i n c lu d in g s tu d e n t t e a c h in g sh o u ld
be c o m p le te d p r i o r t o e n tr a n c e i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p .
T h is p o i n t o f v ie w i s
h e ld by s e v e r a l o f t h e p r i v a t e s c h o o ls s p o n s o rin g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
T h ere a r e o t h e r i n t e r n e s h i p program s w hich do n o t conform t o th e
t w e l f t h p r i n c i p l e , b u t f o r a d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n th a n t h a t a d v o c a te d by
B u tte rw e c k .
T h e re a r e th o s e who b e l i e v e t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g o u g h t t o
be th e c u lm in a tio n o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f
t e a c h e r s , com ing
a fte r
p r e p a r a t o r y u n d e rg r a d u a te c o u rs e s in e d u c a t io n , an d t h a t s tu d e n t t e a c h in g
s h o u ld ta k e on t h e form o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
f a l l s w i t h in t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
The U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i p la n
So d o es Brown U n i v e r s i t y .
C o n c e rn in g
t h e program a t Brown, i t was w r i t t e n a s lo n g ago a s 1916:
P r a c t i c e t e a c h in g s h o u ld be open o n ly t o g r a d u a te
s t u d e n t s ; t h a t i s , s tu d e n t s who h o ld a b a c h e l o r 's d e g r e e .
T h is r u l e i s i n f l e x i b l e and h a s n e v e r b e e n b ro k e n . Brown
U n i v e r s i t y lo o k s a sk a n c e upon t h e custom w h ich h a s d e v e lo p e d
o f in c l u d in g p r a c t i c e t e a c h in g an d e x te n d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
p r e p a r a t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e f o u r y e a r s ' w ork f o r th e f i r s t
c o ll e g e d e g re e and r e g a r d s i t a s a lo w e rin g o f s ta n d a r d s .
W a lte r B. J a c o b s , " P r a c t i c e T e a c h in g f o r S e c o n d a ry S c h o o l
T e a c h e rs a t Brown U n i v e r s i t y , " S c h o o l an d S o c i e t y , 3 :5 3 4 , A p r i l 8 , 1916.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
T h e re i s s t i l l a n o th e r r e a s o n why i n t e r n e s h i p i s n o t l i m i t e d t o
th o s e who have c o m p le te d b a s ic c o u r s e s in p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n .
Some
p r i v a t e s c h o o ls and s c h o o l s y ste m s c la im t h a t th e ty p e o f i n d i v i d u a l
g r a d u a tin g from w ell-k n o w n l i b e r a l a r t s c o ll e g e s i s s u p e r i o r t o t h e ty p e
o f i n d i v i d u a l who h a s t a k e n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n c u r r ic u lu m in a
t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , n o t b e c a u s e t h e c u r r ic u lu m i s s u p e r i o r b u t
b e c a u se t h e s e l e c t i o n in v o lv e d when th e s tu d e n t e n t e r s t h e c o ll e g e o r th e
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o u rs e i s such t h a t t h e l i b e r a l a r t s c o u rs e e n r o l l s th e
o u t s t a n d in g s t u d e n t s .
When i t comes t o c h o o s in g from among a p p l i c a n t s f o r
i n t e r n e s h i p p o s i t i o n s , t h e n , i t m eans t h a t th o s e a d m i n is t e r i n g th e i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s e l e c t t h e l i b e r a l a r t s c o ll e g e g r a d u a te who may n o t know a s
much a b o u t t e a c h in g a t t h e o u t s e t b u t who in th e lo n g r u n i s l i k e l y t o
p ro v e a b e t t e r t e a c h e r .
T h u s, w h ile t h e e x p e r t s may o v e rw h e lm in g ly e n d o rs e
th e e i g h t h p r i n c i p l e , th e many r e a s o n s f o r v i o l a t i n g i t do n o t p o i n t t o a
c lo s i n g o f t h e gap b e tw e en t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n th e v e r y n e a r f u t u r e .
The l a g b etw een i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s a s th e y a r e d e f in e d now and a s
th e y s h o u ld be d e f in e d i s u n d e rs ta n d a b le i n c o n n e c tio n w ith P r i n c i p l e V I I I ,
t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be c o n s id e r e d a p a r t o f t h e b a s ic p r e p a r a t i o n and
t r a i n i n g o f t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r .
A lth o u g h a l l o f th e l e a d e r s in t e a c h e r
e d u c a tio n who r a t e d i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s e n d o rs e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e , i t i s
e v id e n t t h a t a num ber o f i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s have b een e s t a b l i s h e d w ith o u t any
f e e l i n g on t h e i r p a r t t h a t t h e y have become an i n d is p e n s a b l e e le m e n t i n th e
p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s .
N or a r e a l l d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro ­
gram s r e a d y t o s a y a s y e t t h a t a l l b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s s h o u ld have a p e r io d
o f in te rn e s h ip .
^
By and l a r g e , i n t e r n e s h i p a s i t now e x i s t s i s f o r th e s e l e c t
i.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
86
few , c o m p e titio n f o r i n t e r n e s h i p p o s i t i o n s i s k e e n , and u n t i l t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s d e v e lo p b e t t e r m ethods o f s e l e c t i n g p r o s p e c t iv e
t e a c h e r s , i n i t i a l l y and th ro u g h o u t t h e y e a r s o f u n d e rg r a d u a te t e a c h e r
t r a i n i n g , d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s w i l l n o t be r e a d y t o sa y
t h a t a l l b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s c a n p r o f i t from an i n t e r n e s h i p p e r i o d .
T h e re i s a v e r y im p o rta n t em p h a sis i n t h i s p r i n c i p l e w hich s h o u ld
n o t be o v e rlo o k e d , how ever.
The f a c t t h a t th o s e r e s p o n s i b le f o r i n t e r n e s h i p
program s c o n s id e r t h e i r work p a r t o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s
r e i t e r a t e s one o f t h e c o n d it io n s s e t up a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h i s s tu d y , t h a t a
m a jo r o b j e c t i v e o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p program be th e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n
and d e v e lo p m en t o f th e i n t e r n e .
e ffe c tiv e b ar to e x p lo ita tio n .
S t r i c t a d h e re n c e t o such a v ie w p o in t i s an
M o re o v e r, th e a c c e p ta n c e o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e
le a d s i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f a c c e p ta n c e o f th e t e n t h p r i n c i p l e , t h a t th e
i n t e r n e s h i p p la n s h o u ld in c lu d e ji c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
i n w hich i n t e r n e s c a r r y on c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a te work d u r in g t h e i r p e r io d o f
in te rn e s h ip .
T h is e n a b le s i n t e r n e s h i p t o be a r t i c u l a t e d and i n t e g r a t e d w ith
th e work b e in g done by t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
The f a c t t h a t
t h r e e o u t o f f i v e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s do have some such c o o p e r a ti v e a r r a n g e ­
m ent i s e n c o u ra g in g .
One o f t h e p ro p o se d p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d i n th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o
l e a d e r s i n th e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n w hich f a i l e d o f v a l i d a t i o n by b u t
a narro w m a rg in i s c o n s id e r e d an e s s e n t i a l e le m e n t in th e d e f i n i t i o n o f
i n t e r n e s h i p i n a lm o s t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m , th e p r i n c i p l e
t h a t i n t e r n e s sh o u ld be r e s p o n s i b l e p r i m a r i l y and d i r e c t l y t o th e l o c a l s c h o o l
a d m in is tra to r.
I n p r a c t i c e , t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s c o n s id e r e d a s im p o rta n t a s th e
e i g h t h , t e n t h , t w e l f t h , and t h i r t e e n t h p r i n c i p l e s w hich w ere v a l i d a t e d by th e
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87
e x p e rts .
M ost d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s f e e l t h a t i f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip i s t o be a t a l l in a r e a l i s t i c s e t t i n g , th e i n t e r n e s h o u ld be
r e s p o n s i b l e t o th e s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls .
A n o th e r p ro p o se d p r i n c i p l e w as r e j e c t e d by t h e e x p e r t s , t h a t th e
i n t e r n e s h i p be a s ta n d a r d program s i m i l a r in o r g a n i z a t i o n t o m e d ic a l in ­
t e r n e s h i p i n w hich a l l i n t e r n e s a r e g iv e n a p p ro x im a te ly th e same e x p e r i ­
ences.
T h is tim e , how ever, o n ly t h r e e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s c la im t h i s a s
a n a c c e p ta b le e le m en t in a d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
I t i s a p p a re n t th a t
i n t e r n e s h i p i s n o t d e s ig n e d t o be a s ta n d a r d iz e d and i n f l e x i b l e program
in w hich a l l i n t e r n e s a r e g iv e n a p p ro x im a te ly th e same d u t i e s and r e ­
s p o n s ib ilitie s .
The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s o f t e n t r u e o f m e d ic a l i n t e r n e s h i p
w ith i t s s e t p e r io d o f r o t a t i o n i s lam e n te d by m e d ic a l e d u c a t o r s , and th e
t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h i s p r a c t i c e from m e d ic a l e d u c a tio n i n t o te a c h e r e d u c a tio n
I
w ould r e p r e s e n t t r a n s f e r e n c e o f an ab u se and n o t o f a b e n e f i t .
Summary. — I t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c id e d t h a t when s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t
o f th e l e a d e r s i n te a c h e r e d u c a tio n r a t i n g p ro p o se d i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s
r a t e d a p ro p o se d p r i n c i p l e a s e i t h e r e s s e n t i a l o r h i g h ly d e s i r a b l e , t h a t
p r i n c i p l e w ould be c o n s id e r e d v a l i d a t e d and u sed in i n t e r p r e t i n g i n t e r n e ­
s h ip p r a c t i c e s .
F o r ty - f o u r o f th e f i f t y - f i v e s u g g e s te d p r i n c i p l e s w ere
v a lid a te d .
The m a jo r g o a ls o f i n t e r n e s h i p , s u b s c r ib e d t o by l e a d e r s in t e a c h e r
e d u c a tio n and o p e r a t iv e in e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, a r e :
1.
To s e c u re i n t e g r a t i o n o f th e o r y and p r a c t i c e in th e p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s .
2.
To in s u r e t h a t th e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s e c u r e s h i s f i r s t y e a r 's
e x p e r ie n c e in a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e to . p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th .
■d ■/
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•s* ^ ;
88
3.
To p r o v id e a schem e o f t e a c h e r i n d u c t io n in w hich t h e r e i s
a d e q u a te and c o m p e ten t s u p e r v i s io n a t t h e tim e o f in d u c t io n .
4.
To p r o v id e a program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s
in w h ic h l e a r n i n g i s b a s e d upon d o in g .
5.
To p e rm it g r a d u a l in d u c t io n i n to th e w ork o f t e a c h in g .
6.
To p r o v id e a t r y - o u t p e r io d i n w hich i t c a n be d e te rm in e d
w h e th e r th e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r p o s s e s s e s th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d o f a
good t e a c h e r .
B e s id e s i n c lu d in g th e g o a ls f o r w hich a n in d u c tio n program i s
e s t a b l i s h e d , a d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld in c lu d e c e r t a i n o t h e r
c o n d it io n s w h ich a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s id e r e d b a s ic to sound i n t e r n e s h i p p r o ­
g ram s:
1.
B a s ic c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n i n c lu d in g s tu d e n t
t e a c h in g sh o u ld be c o m p le te d p r i o r t o e n tr a n c e i n to i n t e r n e s h i p .
2.
D u rin g th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h e i n t e r n e s h o u ld engage
in t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s in w hich a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r e n g a g e s .
5.
The p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be a t l e a s t a y e a r in l e n g t h .
4.
The i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a p p ro x im a tin g
a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s ib l e t h e ty p e o f s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n in w hich t h e i n te r n e
w i l l p r o b a b ly r e c e iv e p erm an en t a p p o in tm e n t.
5.
I n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be c o n s id e r e d a p a r t o f th e b a s ic p r e p a r a t i o n
and t r a i n i n g o f th e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r .
6.
The i n t e r n e s h i p p la n sh o u ld in c lu d e a c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n in w hich i n t e r n e s c a r r y on c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a te w ork d u r in g t h e i r
p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
89
A lth o u g h i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g re e d t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld r e p r e s e n t
t h e c u lm in a tio n o f th e program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n f o r t e a c h e r s ,
p r e p a r a to r y b a s ic c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n s u b j e c t s p r e c e d in g
i n t e r n e s h i p , a m in o r it y d i s a g r e e i n g w ith t h i s v ie w p o in t a d v o c a te t h e p la n
o f t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n fo llo w e d in t r a i n i n g s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r s in
Germany in w hich th e s t r i c t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n o f t e a c h e r s i s con­
c e n t r a t e d i n th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
The i s s u e , b r i e f l y , i s t h i s :
sh o u ld i n t e r n e s h i p be th e c u lm in a tio n o r th e c o re o f th e t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n
program ?
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
ACTIVITIES IN SfiRICH 3MEHNIS ENGAGE
I n t r o d u c t i o n . —T h is c h a p te r c o n s t i t u t e s a lm o s t a
in te rn e s h ip .
jo b a n a l y s i s o f
I t r e p o r t s th e f i n d i n g s c o n c e rn in g th e a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich
i n t e r n e s en g a g e.
B e fo re r e p o r t i n g s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , th o u g h , t h e r e a r e
c e r t a i n g e n e r a l p o i n t s w hich need t o b e e m p h a size d .
S e v e r a l o f th e
p r i n c i p l e s c i t e d i n t h e p r e v io u s c h a p te r h o ld i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e s e l e c ­
t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p a c t i v i t i e s and t h e m anner i n w hich i n t e r n e s a r e t o
c a r r y on th e s e a c t i v i t i e s .
P r i n c i p l e n in e s t r e s s e s t h a t i n t e r n e s sh o u ld
engage i n t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s in w hich a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r e n ­
g a g e s; p r i n c i p l e f i v e s t r e s s e s g r a d u a l in d u c t io n i n to th e work o f t e a c h in g :
and p r i n c i p l e s f o u r and s i x im ply t h a t th e i n t e r n e i s e x p e c te d a t some tim e
d u rin g th e p e rio d o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o c a r r y f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e
a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a t e a c h e r e n g a g e s , n o t m e re ly to o b s e rv e o r a s s i s t a
m a s te r t e a c h e r .
« id e v a r i e t y , g r a d u a l i n d u c t io n , and u l t i m a t e f u l l r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e n , a r e t h r e e key p h r a s e s i n p la n n in g th e i n t e r n e s h i p
program .
Two o t h e r g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s sh o u ld b e c i t e d .
The j u s t i f i c a t i o n
f o r b o th p r i n c i p l e s seem s so o b v io u s t h a t th e y need l i t t l e
d is c u s s io n .
I t i s t h e w r i t e r 's o p in io n , th o u g h , t h a t m ost o f th e a b u s e s t h a t may be
found i n i n t e r n e s h i p ca n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o l a c k o f o b s e rv a n c e o f one o r th e
o th e r o r b o th o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s .
P r i n c i p l e f o u r t e e n i s t h a t th e m a jo r
c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s to b e_ I n c o r p o r a te d i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
91
program s sh o u ld b e t h e i r v a lu e i n d e v e lo p in g te a c h in g c o m p e ten c e .
U n le s s
c l e r i c a l t a s k s w h ic h i n t e r n e s a r e e x p e c te d t o do can m eet t h i s c r i t e r i o n ,
th e y have no p l a c e i n th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram .
U n le ss c e r t a i n r o u t i n e
a c t i v i t i e s a s s ig n e d i n t e r n e s do h av e a v a lu e in m aking i n t e r n e s b e t t e r
t e a c h e r s , th e y do n o t b e lo n g i n i n t e r n e s h i p .
U n le s s s u b s t i t u t e te a c h in g
c o n t r i b u t e s t o th e dev elo p m en t o f te a c h in g c o m p eten ce, i t h a s no p l a c e
i n a n i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram .
The o t h e r p r i n c i p l e , p r i n c i p l e f i f t e e n , i s t h a t
k in d s o f e x p e r ie n c e s and r a t e o f in d u c t io n sh o u ld be d e te rm in e d 'oy th e
a b i l i t y , b a c k g ro u n d , an d n e e d s o f e a ch i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n e .
When i n d i v i d u a l
g u id a n c e i s b e in g s t r e s s e d a s a need f o r e a c h p u p i l i n th e s c h o o l, t h e r e
seem s no r e a s o n why t h e same p r i n c i p l e s h o u ld n ’t be a p p l i e d t o b e g in n in g
t e a c h e r s , who a r e i n a v e ry r e a l s e n s e l e a r n e r s and who, l i k e p u p i l s , l e a r n
a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f speed and p r o f i t from d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f e x p e r ie n c e s .
I n t e r n e s h i p m ust be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d .
A c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on by i n t e r n e s c o n c e r n e d .w ith th e p la n n in g and
o r g a n iz in g o f c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c la s s ro o m t e a c h i n g . —
The b a s ic q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i l l e d o u t by d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
l i s t e d n in e a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e rn e d w ith p la n n in g i n s t r u c t i o n .
D ire c to rs o f
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s w ere a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e th e e x te n t t o w h ich i n t e r n e s
p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ; w h e th e r th e y m e re ly o b s e rv e d and a s s i s t e d
a c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r ; w h e th e r in d u c t io n was g r a d u a l - s t a r t i n g w ith ob­
s e r v a t i o n and l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n b u t e n d in g w ith f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;
o r w h e th e r t h e i n t e r n e assum ed f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y a t
th e o u ts e t.
The r e s p o n s e s made t o t h e s e q u e s ti o n n a ir e ite m s a r e l i s t e d
JL .
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92
in Table V.
I n o r d e r t o u n d e rs ta n d th e m aim er i n w h ich i n t e r n e s a r e in tr o d u c e d
to c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s c o n n e c te d w ith i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p la n n in g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know th e two g e n e r a l ty p e s o f in d u c t io n p r o ­
c e d u re s em ployed i n i n t e r n e s h i p .
G ra d u a ln e s s o f i n d u c t i o n i s a c c o m p lis h e d
by two m a rk e d ly d i f f e r e n t p l a n s :
a
.
B.
The i n t e r n e i s a s s ig n e d to one o r tw o c o o p e r a tin g
t e a c h e r s ("m a ste r t e a c h e r s " ) . He b e g in s by o b s e r v in g
th e work o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s . A f t e r a p e r io d o f ob­
s e r v a t i o n , t h e i n t e r n e b e g in s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an d
a c c e p t l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c e r t a i n t e a c h in g
a c t i v i t i e s d e le g a te d t o him . Toward t h e end o f t h e
p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , th e i n t e r n e i s g iv e n f u l l
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c la s s ro o m work f o r s h o r t p e r io d s
o f tim e . The p r o c e d u r e , th e n , i s o b s e r v a t io n
—^ p a r t i c i p a t i o n —^ f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
I n t h e se co n d p l a n , th e i n t e r n e i s g iv e n f u l l c h a rg e
o f c e r t a i n c l a s s g ro u p s a t th e o u t s e t . K is in d u c t io n
i s tem p e re d by l i m i t i n g th e number o f c l a s s s e c t i o n s
and e x t r a - c l a s s g ro u p s f o r w hich he i s r e s p o n s i b l e .
I t i s a l i m i t a t i o n o f amount o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r a t h e r
t h a n d e g re e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
I n i n t e r n e s h i p p la n s
o f t h i s t y p e , th e i n t e r n e i s i n c h a rg e o f two o r t h r e e
c l a s s e s a day and may have a d d i t i o n a l r e g u l a r l y
s c h e d u le d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s su c h a s a home room o r a
c lu b . The re m a in d e r o f th e i n t e r n e ’ s day i s d e v o te d
t o p r e p a r in g f o r c la s s ro o m w ork, v i s i t i n g an d o b s e rv in g
c l a s s g r o u p s , c o n f e r r i n g w ith th o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s
s u p e r v i s i o n , a n d o f t e n c a r r y in g on some g r a d u a te work
i n c o n n e c tio n w ith a c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
in s titu tio n .
T h ere a r e two o u t s ta n d in g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s em ploying p l a n B.
These
two p ro g ra m s a c c o u n t f o r m ost o f t h e e n t r i e s i n t h e seco n d colum n o f
T a b le V.
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e some i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s i n w hich
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Of pp”-•
93
TABIE V
NUMBER OF BTEERNESHIP PROGRAMS IN WHICH INTERNES PARTICIPATE IN AND TAKE
FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR CERTAIN ACTIVITIES CONCERNED WITH THE PLANNING AND
ORGANIZING OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES IN PREPARATION FOR CLASSROOM TEACHING*
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S e l e c t i n g a n d p r e p a r in g m a t e r i a l s
f o r c la s s ro o m u s e .
1
P la n n in g ways o f u t i l i z i n g and
d e v e lo p in g i n t e r e s t s and o f
m o tiv a tin g w o rk .
2
2
16
S e l e c t i n g and o r g a n iz in g s u b j e c t m a tte r.
3
1
16
P la n n in g a s s ig n m e n ts .
1
P la n n in g g e n e r a l m ethods t o be u sed
in th e c o n d u c t o f t h e c l a s s .
3
2
15
M aking p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l
d i f f e r e n c e s i n p l a n s f o r c l a s s w o rk .
4
3
13
W ritin g o u t le s s o n p l a n s .
2
4
12
D e f in in g a n d s e l e c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s
f o r u n i t s o f w o rk .
7
3
10
P la n n in g ways o f m e a s u rin g p u p i l
p ro g re ss.
6
2
10
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2
16
1 B ased on r e p l i e s r e c e iv e d from tw e n ty i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s. The
d i r e c t o r o f th e t w e n t y - f i r s t program w ro te t h a t t h e i r " c a d e t s '' to o k p a r t
i n " a l l n in e ite m s w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e c a d e t d i r e c t o r . ”
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94
th e i n t e r n e d o e s n ’ t have t h e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a c l a s s group lo n g
enough t o c a r r y th ro u g h a u n i t o f work from s t a r t t o f i n i s h .
T h is i s
r e f l e c t e d i n th e e n t r i e s f o llo w in g th e f i r s t and s e v e n th ite m s .
W ith
th e p o s s i b l e e x c e p tio n o f ite m o n e , i t i s r e g r e t t a b l e t h a t t h e r e a r e
any e n t r i e s a t a l l i n th e f i r s t colum n o r an y o m is s io n s .
C e r t a i n l y no
t e a c h e r can have a n a d e q u a te t r y - o u t and o r i e n t a t i o n e x p e rie n c e u n l e s s
a t some tim e o r a n o th e r she assum es r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t i n g an d o r ­
g a n iz in g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , f o r p la n n in g m eth o d s t o be u se d and m eans o f
m o tiv a tin g i n s t r u c t i o n , f o r p la n n in g a s s ig n m e n ts , f o r m aking d e f i n i t e
p r o v i s i o n f o r a d a p ti n g i n s t r u c t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
C lassro o m a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich i n t e r n e s p a r t i c i p a t e . — T a b le VI
t a b u l a t e s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p l i e s d e a li n g w ith c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s
c a r r i e d on by i n t e r n e s ,
w ith o u t com m enting a t l e n g t h on s p e c i f i c ite m s
and c o n s id e r in g i n s t r u c t i o n a l p la n n in g and c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t h e r ,
t h e f o llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s c a n b e draw n:
1.
The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s o b s e rv e
t h e p r i n c i p l e o f g r a d u a l i n d u c t io n i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p la n n in g and c la s s ro o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , th e u s u a l
p ro c e d u re b e in g o b s e r v a t io n , l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,
an d f i n a l l y f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l i m i t e d l e n g t h
o f t im e . I n two i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, how ever, th e
i n t e r n e assum es f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r two o r t h r e e
c l a s s e s a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p ,
g r a d u a l i n d u c t io n b e in g a c c o m p lis h e d b y l i m i t i n g th e
number o f c l a s s g ro u p s f o r w hich he i s r e s p o n s i b l e .
2.
A lth o u g h , w ith few e x c e p t io n s , n e a r l y a l l i n t e r n e s
come i n t o c o n ta c t w ith th e m a jo r a c t i v i t i e s in v o lv e d
in i n s t r u c t i o n a l p la n n in g and c la s s ro o m d i r e c t i o n and
g u id a n c e , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n
w h ic h t h i s c o n ta c t i s l i m i t e d t o o b s e r v a t io n an d a s s i s t ­
in g a c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r w ith o u t f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
e v e r b e in g assum ed by th e i n t e r n e . T h u s, w h ile t h e
p r i n c i p l e s o f e x p e rie n c e i n a w ide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s
J L
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
95
TABLE V I
NUMBER OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS IN M IC H INTERNES PARTICIPATE IN
AND TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR CERTAIN CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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s k i l l s : re a d in g , w r itin g , o u tlin in g ,
lo c a tin g re fe re n c e m a te r ia ls , o r­
g a n iz in g w r i t t e n w o rk , e t c .
2
4
15
G iving r e m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n .
2
4
15
S u p e r v is in g s tu d y .
2
5
14
A rra n g in g b u l l e t i n b o a rd and
d i s p l a y w o rk .
14
D i s t r i b u t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g
s u p p lie s .
13
T aking c a re o f a b s e n c e , t a r d i n e s s ,
and d i s m i s s a l .
12
M aking announcem ents and r e a d in g
not i c e s .
11
H o ld in g i n d i v i d u a l and g ro u p con­
f e r e n c e s b o th d u r in g c l a s s and a f t e r
s c h o o l.
12
M aking a d ju s tm e n ts r e l a t i n g to t h e
p h y s ic a l a s p e c t s o f th e c la s s ro o m :
h e a t , v e n t i l a t i o n , l i g h t , a d ju s tm e n t
o f s e a t s and d e s k s , e t c .
11
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96
TABLE VI (continued)
NUMBER OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS IN V.IIIGH INTERNES PARTICIPATE IN
AND TM E FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR CERTAIN CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
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s t u d e n t s in v o lv e d and t o t h e
m a te ria ls u sed .
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O b ta in in g in f o r m a tio n from p u p i l s
f o r r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s .
5
5
9
2
U sing v i s u a l a i d s .
6
2
11
2
P r e s e n t in g and e x p la i n in g o b j e c t i v e s
t o p u p i l s and d e c id in g w ith them
o b j e c t i v e s f o r a g iv e n u n i t .
7
3
10
1
C a r ry in g o u t home-room r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 5
3
10
1
h a n d lin g p ro b lem s r e l a t i n g to p u p i l
c o n d u c t and d i s c i p l i n e .
7
D e te rm in in g p u p i l ac h ie v e m e n t and
p u p i l d i f f i c u l t i e s by m eans o f
t e s t s , s c a l e s , and s i m i l a r d e v i c e s .
6
3
9
3
U tiliz in g ra d io b ro a d c a s ts .
7
3
5
6
10
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r
97
and u l t i m a t e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e o b s e rv e d by th e
l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, t h e r e a r e
a few i n t e r n e s h i p p la n s w h ic h , a t th e p r e s e n t t im e ,
c a n h a r d l y be s a id t o be e q u ip p in g i n t e r n e s w ith th e
s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s n eed ed by b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s
e x p e c te d t o assum e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a t e a c h e r
w ith a f u l l - t i m e lo a d a t th e end o f t h e i r p e r io d o f
in te r n e s h ip .
3.
The c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a l l i n t e r n e s engage
i n a l l i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s te n d t o be a c t i v i t i e s o f
th e " a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r " v a r i e t y , t h a t i s , a c t i v i t i e s
w h ich t h e t e a c h e r i n c h a rg e o f a c l a s s can d e l e g a t e
to a n a s s i s t a n t th u s f r e e i n g h e r s e l f f o r m ore com plex
t a s k s r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e r t e a c h in g s k i l l . T h is i s
i l l u s t r a t e d by th e f a c t t h a t t a k i n g c a r e o f a b s e n c e
and t a r d i n e s s and a r r a n g in g b u l l e t i n b o a rd an d d i s p l a y
work a r e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on by i n t e r n e s i n a l l i n ­
t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s. I n t e r n e s a l s o a s s i s t w ith o r have
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u p e r v i s i n g s tu d y o f g ro u p s o f p u p i l s ,
f o r h e lp in g s tu d e n t s w ith b a s i c l e a r n i n g s k i l l s , a n d f o r
g i v in g r e m e d ia l i n s t r u c t i o n . P r o p e r ly c a r r i e d o u t , t h e s e
l a s t t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s demand te a c h in g a b i l i t y o f a h ig h
o rd er.
I t i s th e w r i t e r 's im p r e s s io n , th o u g h , t h a t t h e s e
a c t i v i t i e s a r e som etim es n o t s e e n i n t h i s l i g h t and t h a t
th e y , t o o , may b e " a s s i s t a n t t e a c h e r " a c t i v i t i e s , a c t i v i ­
t i e s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e " d i r t y work" o r r o u t i n e work o f
th e te a c h e r i n c h a rg e o f th e c la s s ro o m . I n t e r n e s n eed
e x p e r ie n c e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , b u t u n d e r p r o p e r c o n ­
d i t i o n s . T hen, t o o , i n t e r n e s sh o u ld n o t b e d e le g a te d
t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s beyond t h e p o in t o f d im in is h in g r e ­
t u r n s a s f a r a s d e v e lo p in g t e a c h in g com petence i s
c o n c e rn e d . A g a in th e p r i n c i p l e n e e d s t o be r e i t e r a t e d
t h a t th e m a jo r c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c lu d in g a c t i v i t i e s i n
i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s i s t h e i r v a lu e i n d e v e lo p in g
t e a c h in g c o m p eten ce. The i n t e r n e sh o u ld n e v e r be
t r e a t e d a s a n o f f i c e b oy.
The p a r t p la y e d by t h e i n t e r n e i n c o n n e c tio n w ith s u p e r v is o r y
a c t i v i t i e s . —S u p e r v is o r y a c t i v i t i e s a r e u s u a l l y d e s c r ib e d from th e p o in t
o f v iew o f w hat t h e s u p e r v i s o r d o e s .
S in c e th e i n t e r n e s h o u ld b e th e
c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m , th o u g h , and s in c e t h i s c h a p te r
i s a jo b a n a l y s i s o f th e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on by i n t e r n e s , t h e o p p o s ite
a p p ro a c h i s ta k e n and s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d p r i m a r i l y from
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98
th e s ta n d p o in t o f t h e p a r t i n t e r n e s p la y i n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s .
a c t i v i t i e s a r e g ro u p ed u n d e r f i v e h e a d in g s :
S u p e r v is o r y
o b s e r v a t io n o f t e a c h in g ;
i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s ; g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s ; te a c h in g -while b e in g o b s e rv e d
by s u p e r v i s o r s ; an d w r i t i n g r e p o r t s c o n c e rn in g te a c h in g o b s e rv e d and
c o n c e rn in g th e i n t e r n e 's own t e a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e s .
The number o f program s
o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n w hich i n t e r n e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e v a r i o u s s u p e r v is o r y
p ro c e d u re s i s shown i n T a b le V I I .
a.s m ig h t be e x p e c te d , o b s e r v a tio n o f te a c h in g p la y s an im p o rta n t
p a r t i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram .
Twenty o f t h e tw e n ty -o n e i n t e r n e s h i p
program s cheched a t l e a s t t h r e e o f th e f i v e o b s e r v a t io n ite m s in c lu d e d in
th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s b e in g a d e f i n i t e p a r t o f t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram ;
th e t w e n t y - f i r s t program checked two o f t h e ite r a s .
T h re e o f th e i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s s t a t e d t h a t a l l f i v e o f th e o b s e r v a t io n p r o c e d u r e s w ere
em ployed i n t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n .
In g e n e r a l , i t c a n be s t a t e d t h a t
a p p ro x im a te ly t h r e e o u t o f f o u r o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s conform t o th e
s i x t e e n t h p r i n c i p l e , t h a t o b s e r v a t io n o f t e a c h in g o f many d i f f e r e n t ty p e s
and a t d i f f e r e n t g ra d e l e v e l s sh o u ld be a_ d e f i n i t e and p la n n e d p a r t of
th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
I n d i v i d u a l c o n fe r e n c e s a r e in d is p e n s a b l e t o any s u p e r v i s o r y program .
I t i s h e a r t e n i n g t o n o te th e w ide sco p e o f p ro b le m s r e l a t i n g to te a c h in g
d is c u s s e d i n i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s .
P e rh a p s one o f th e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g
f in d i n g s i s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f o b j e c t i v e d e v ic e s f o r m e a s u rin g c la s s ro o m
i n s t r u c t i o n a r e c o n s id e r e d i n i n d i v i d u a l c o n fe r e n c e s i n b u t n in e o f th e
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
The u se o f th e s e in s tr u m e n ts i s a p p a r e n tl y r a t h e r
.A
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99
TABLE V I I
NUMBER OF INTiRMSSillP PROGRAMS IN VJHICE INTERNES
PARTICIPATE IN CERTAIN SUPERVISORY PROCEDURES
P ro c e d u re
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
i n w hich i n t e r n e p a r t i c i p a t e s
i n t h i s n ro c e d u re
O b s e r v a tio n o f t e a c h in g :
O b se rv in g th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r .*
19
O b se rv in g te a c h in g a t v a r i o u s g ra d e
le v e ls .
16
O b s e rv in g t e a c h in g o f a number o f
d if f e r e n t s u b je c ts .
16
O b se rv in g a v a r i e t y o f t e a c h e r s ,
t e a c h e r s o f a v e ra g e a b i l i t y a s w e ll
a s th o s e who a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l e d .
13
O b se rv in g s p e c i a l l y p la n n e d d e m o n s tra tio n
te a c h in g .
10
I n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w ith t h e c o o p e r a tin g
t e a c h e r o r s u p e r v i s o r r e g a r d in g :
P ro b le m s a r i s i n g in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e
f o r m u la tio n o f l e s s o n p l a n s .
The s e l e c t i o n , d e v e lo p m e n t, and o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f c u rr ic u lu m m a t e r i a l s .
20
S p e c i f i c t e a c h in g p ro b lem s o r d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n c o u n te re d by th e i n t e r n e i n h i s c la s s ro o m
t e a c h in g .
20
P ro b le m s a r i s i n g in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e
s u p e r v i s io n of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r o r c o c u rric u la r a c ti v it ie s .
19
Means o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ad v an cem en t: p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l r e a d in g ; p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s
t o j o i n ; m e e tin g s t o a t t e n d ; c o u rs e w ork f o r
w hich t h e i n t e r n e s h o u ld r e g i s t e r , e t c .
19
* The term " c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r " d e s ig n a t e s a t e a c h e r to whom th e
i n t e r n e h a s b een a s s ig n e d to o b s e rv e o r t o a c t i v e l y a s s i s t in th e c o n d u c t
o f th e c l a s s .
JL
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100
TABLE VII (continued)
NUMBER OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS IN VJHICII INTERNES
PARTICIPATE IN CERTAIN SUPERVISORY PROCEDURES
P ro c e d u re
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
i n w hich i n t e r n e p a r t i c i p a t e s
in t h i s p ro c e d u re ______________
P e r s o n a l and s o c i a l p ro b le m s con­
f r o n t i n g th e i n t e r n e .
16
P a r t i c i p a t i o n in comm unity a c t i v i t i e s .
14
E v a lu a tio n o f th e i n t e r n e 's te a c h in g a s
m easured by o b j e c t i v e d e v ic e s .
9
Group c o n fe r e n c e s o f a l l i n t e r n e s r e g a r d in g
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro b le m s:
W ith s u p e r in te n d e n t o r o t h e r s p e c i a l l y
d e s ig n a te d s u p e r v i s o r in th e l o c a l s c h o o l
sy ste m .
16
W ith s u p e r v i s o r from th e c o o p e r a tin g
te a c h e r-tra in in g in s titu tio n .
13
T e a ch in g w h ile b e in g o b se rv e d by:
The c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r .
20
The p r i n c i p a l .
19
The s u p e r in te n d e n t o r o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r in
c h a rg e o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram .
14
A s u p e r v is o r from th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r tra in in g in s titu tio n .
13
D e p a rtm e n ta l s u p e r v i s o r .
12
'W ritin g r e p o r t s :
.R e p o rtin g t e a c h in g o b s e rv e d .
7
K eeping a d i a r y sum m arizing i n t e r n e s h i p
e x p e r ie n c e s .
7
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lim ite d .
Group co n feren ces o f a l l in tern es regarding in tern esh ip problems are
h eld in every in tern esh ip program.
In eight o f th e in te r n e sh ip programs,
group con feren ces are h eld both w ith th e su p erin ten d en t o f sch o o ls (or
some other s p e c ia lly d esign ated su p erv iso r in th e lo c a l sch o o l system) and
w ith a su p erv iso r from a coop eratin g te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n .
An in tern e has a number o f su p erv iso rs v i s i t i n g her accordin g to
the fig u r e s in Table V II.
Because o f t h i s i t would seem to be important
th a t p ro v isio n be made fo r co o rd in a tio n o f su p erv iso ry a c t i v i t i e s .
The in tern e and e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s . —D ir e c to r s o f in tern e­
sh ip programs were asked to in d ic a te th e e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s in
which one or more in tern es p a r t ic ip a t e .
Table V III in d ic a te s th e wide
v a r ie ty o f e x t r a - c la s s a c t i v i t i e s in which in te r n e s a s s i s t .
The low
frequency fo llo w in g each item , though, in d ic a te s th a t in tern esh ip programs
are not planned so th a t each in tern e has an op p ortu n ity to become ac­
quainted w ith s e v e r a l ty p es o f e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s .
A ll o f the in te r n e sh ip programs in d ic a te th a t some o f th e ir in tern es
are p a r tic ip a tin g in one or more o f the typ es o f e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s
l i s t e d in Table V II I .
In two c a s e s , however, i t i s ev id e n t th a t t h i s phase
o f th e in tern esh ip i s more in c id e n ta l than planned; th e on ly e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r
a c t i v i t i e s fo r which in te r n e s are r e sp o n sib le in th e s e two in sta n ces are
what might be termed c o -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s , a c t i v i t i e s growing im m ediately
out o f the classroom s it u a t io n , th e sch ool journey fo r example.
In th e s e
two programs th e in tern es serve a s in tern es h a lf a day and a tten d c la s s e s
in a coop eratin g te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n the o th er h a l f , th e aftern oon
■■ML
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102
TABLE VIII
NUMBER OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS IN VIIICK INTERNES PARTICIPATE
IN AND TAKE FtJLL RESPONSIBILITY 50R IRE DIRECTION OF CERTAIN
EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES2
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p
program s i n w h ic h
i n t e r n e o b s e rv e s
and a s s i s t s
A s s i s t i n g p u p i l s w ith s tu d e n t
p u b lic a tio n s .
10
A s s i s t i n g i n p la n n in g and s u p e r­
v i s i n g s c h o o l jo u rn e y s and t r i p s .
10
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip p ro g ram s
in w h ic h i n ­
te rn e c a rr ie s
f u l l re s p o n s i­
b i li ty fo r a
tim e
A d v is e r t o a d e p a r tm e n ta l c lu b
(su c h c lu b s a s t h e S c ie n c e C lu b ,
F re n c h C lu b , Home E conom ics C lu b ,
A rt C lu b , e t c . , a r e c l a s s e d a s
d e p a r tm e n ta l c l u b s ) .
A s s i s t i n g in p la n n in g a n d s u p e r­
v i s i n g a s s e m b lie s and s p e c i a l
p ro g ra m s.
S u p e r v is in g p h y s ic a l p la y a c t i v i t i e s
o r c o a c h in g a t h l e t i c s p o r t s .
S u p e r v is in g m u s ic a l and d ra m a tic
o rg a n iz a tio n s .
S u p e r v is in g s t u d e n t s ’ s o c i a l
a c ti v it ie s : p a r tie s , d ances,
b a n q u e ts , e t c .
2 R e tu rn s t a b u l a t e d from tw e n ty i n s t e a d o f from t h e u s u a l tw e n ty one i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s. I n s t e a d o f c h e c k in g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Brown
U n i v e r s i t y w r o te , " N e a rly a l l t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s have p a r t i a l o r f u l l
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r some one e x t r a - c l a s s a c t i v i t y su c h .a s th o s e m e n tio n e d
above (e x c e p t ite m 9 ) . . . . The d e p a rtm e n t a t Brown e n c o u ra g e s su ch
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o g iv e a f u l l t y u i c a l t e a c h in g and s e r v i c e lo a d e x p e r ie n c e
t o t h e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s . "
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105
TABLE VIII (continued)
NUMBER OF IMTKNESHIP PROGRAMS IN V.'HIGII ItJTERNES PARTICIPATE
IN AND TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR TfB DIRECTION OF CERTAIN
EKTRA-CDRRICULAR ACTIVITIES
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p
pro g ram s in w h ich
i n t e r n e o b s e rv e s
and a s s i s t s
Mo. o f i n t e r n e s h ip p ro g ram s
in w hich i n ­
te rn e c a r r ie s
f u l l re s p o n s i­
b ility fo r a
tim e
A d v is e r t o a n o n - d e p a r tm e n ta l
c lu b (su c h c lu b s a s Stam p C lu b ,
Camera C lu b , h i k in g C lu b , C hess
C lu b , e t c . , a r e c l a s s e d a s n o n d e p a r tm e n ta l c l u b s ) .
A d v is e r t o a c l a s s o r s t u d e n t governm ent o r g a n i z a t i o n .
L eader o f a c h a ra c te r -b u ild in g
o r g a n i z a t i o n (su c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s
a s t h e Boy S c o u ts , G i r l S c o u ts ,
C am pfire G i r l s , H i-Y C lu b , G i r l
R e s e r v e s , S e to n G u ild , e t c . , a r e
c la s s e d a s c h a ra c te r -b u ild in g
o rg a n iz a tio n s ).
S u p e r v is o r o f S a f e t y P a t r o l ,
S e r v ic e C lu b , T r a f f i c S q u ad , or
s i m i l a r s e r v i c e g ro u p .
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104
u s u a lly being spent a t the te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t i t u t i o n .
p a r tic ip a tio n in club a c t i v i t i e s .
T h is p revents
With the ex ce p tio n o f th e s e two in tern e­
sh ip programs, i t can be sa id th a t in tern esh ip programs are adhering to
the seven teen th p r in c ip le , th a t p a r tic ip a tio n in the e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r
program o f th e sch o o l should be con sid ered an e s s e n t ia l part o f in tern e­
s h ip .
In tern es and sch o o l a d m in istr a tio n . —P r in c ip le eig h teen s t a t e s :
p a r tic ip a tio n in £ wide v a r ie t y o f a d m in istr a tiv e ta sk s should be £ part
o f th e program o f in tern esh ip so th a t th e in tern e may become fa m ilia r w ith
a d m in istra tiv e problems and p rocedures.
Table EC in d ic a te s th e e x te n t to
which t h i s i s tru e in e x is t in g in tern esh ip programs.
In the ca se o f four
in te r n e sh ip programs, two or fewer than two o f th e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d were
checked a s being a d e f in it e part o f th e in te r n e sh ip program.
In th ree o f
th ese c a s e s , the sc h o o ls involved were p r iv a te s c h o o ls .
With th e ex ce p tio n o f keeping records involved in p u p il accou n tin g,
the average in te r n e ’ s acquaintance w ith a d m in istra tiv e a c t i v i t i e s never
g e ts beyond th e d is c u s s io n s t a g e .
In on ly a sm all number o f in tern esh ip
programs do in te r n e s become fa m ilia r w ith accou n tin g or budgetary pro­
ced u res.
The work o f th e sch o o l board rem ains an enigma to most internes^,
and in but two in sta n c e s do in tern es ev er v i s i t a board o f ed u cation
m eetin g .
I t can be g e n e r a lly s ta te d th a t th e eig h te e n th p r in c ip le i s
f la g r a n t ly v io la t e d .
Becoming acq u ain ted w ith the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f s p e c ia liz e d
s t a f f members. — In tern es should become acquainted w ith th e d u tie s o f
s p e c ia liz e d members o f th e sch o o l s t a f f ( sch o o l c le r k , sch ool n u rse.
c o u n se lo r , v i s i t i n g te a c h e r , e t c . ) b£ a s s i s t i n g th ese persons a t some
A
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10 5
TABLE IX
NUMBER OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS IN wlIICSI IlffiERNSS BECOME ACQUAINTED WITH AND
PARTICIPATE IN CERTAIN ACTIVITIES RELATED TO HIE ADMINISTRATION OF THE SCHOOL
P ro c e d u re fo llo w e d
D is c u s s io n w ith
r e s p o n s i b le
p e rs o n
D ir e c te d
o b s e r v a tio n ;
v is ita tio h
A c tiv ity
T re a tm e n t o f d i s c i p l i n a r y
p ro b lem s r e f e r r e d t o th e
a d m in is tra to r.
A c tu a l
p a rtic ip a tio n
IP
17
K eeping o f r e c o r d s and
r e p o r t s in v o lv e d in p u p il
a c c o u n tin g .
19
12
17
F a c u lty co m m ittee m e e tin g s
d e a li n g w ith a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
p ro b le m s.
1 1
O rd e rin g and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
s c h o o l s u p p li e s and e q u ip m e n t.
1 0
2
13
11
1
12
C o n s tr u c tin g th e
s c h o o l s c h e d u le .
M ajor a c t i v i t i e s c o n n e c te d w ith
o p e r a tio n o f t h e s c h o o l p l a n t .
16
8
10
A cc o u n tin g and b u d g e ta ry p ro ­
c e d u re s .
8
iVork o f t h e s c h o o l b o a rd .
8
Number o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s u s in g a n y o f t h e s e p ro c e d u re s in
c o n n e c tio n w ith a g iv e n a c t i v i t y .
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'• • W
7 "
106
tim e during th e period o f in te r n e s h ip .
So reads p r in c ip le n in e te e n .
In
th e th r e e p r iv a te sc h o o ls p a r tic ip a tin g in t h i s stu d y , t h i s p r in c ip le i s
not g e n e r a lly fo llo w ed .
In most o f th e o th er in tern esh ip programs, though,
an e f f o r t i s made a t l e a s t to acquaint th e in tern e w ith th e fu n ctio n s o f
th ese in d iv id u a ls .
I t i s encouraging to n ote th a t in e lev en in tern esh ip
programs, in tern es a c t iv e ly a s s i s t the lib r a r ia n a t some tim e during
th e ir in te r n e sh ip period (Table X) .
With wide use o f th e lib r a r y demanded
i f study a c t i v i t i e s are s k i l l f u l l y d ir e c te d , in tern es need to become f u l l y
aware o f th e important part the lib r a r y p la y s in in s tr u c tio n .
I t i s l i k e l y th at some o f th e s p e c ia liz e d s t a f f members l i s t e d in
Table X are not found in some o f th e sch o o ls in which in tern es are p la ced .
V is it in g te a c h e r s , fo r exam ple, are found in com paratively few sc h o o ls .
I t may be th a t wherever th e r e are s p e c ia liz e d s t a f f members an e f f o r t i s
made to acquaint th e in tern e w ith th e ir r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
I t can hardly
be s a id , though, th a t in tern es a c t iv e ly a s s i s t th e s e s p e c ia liz e d s t a f f
w orkers.
The in tern e and community and p u b lic r e la t io n s a c t i v i t i e s . —The
members o f th e Bennington Conference committee d e a lin g w ith r e la t io n s o f
the tea ch er, th e sch o o l, and the community included th e fo llo w in g s t a t e ­
ment in th e ir rep ort:
I t has been suggested by the Committee on P r o fe ss io n a l
Education th a t a s one a sp ect o f p r o fe s s io n a l ed u ca tio n , each
tea ch er should spend a period o f tim e as an in te r n in an
a c tu a l p u blic sch o o l s it u a t io n . We agree w ith t h is p o in t o f
view . We w ish , however, to add th a t th e stud en t should in tern
in th e community a s w e ll as in th e sch o o l s it u a t io n . Making
a l l p o s s ib le community c o n ta c ts a s a r e sp o n sib le member o f
th e community group i s fundam entally important*^
^Commission on Teacher E ducation, American C ouncil on Education,
Bennington Planning Conference for th e C ooperative Study o f Teacher Educa­
t io n . R eports and A dd resses. (Washington, D .C .: American C ouncil on
E ducation, 19 3 9 ), p . 63.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
107
TABLE X
NUM2ER OF INTEHH2SHIP PROGRAMS IN XHICIl INTERNES BXGCI.1X AC^UitlNTSD
■V'TITVU AND PAHTICIRATE III THE NORK OF CERTAIN S?ZCIALISED STAFF MSLiBSRS
P r o c e d u r e fo llo w e d
S t a f f ' Member
V'or'c o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n .
D is c u s s io n
w ith r e ­
s p o n s ib le
p e rs o n
O b se rv a ­
tio n ;
v is ita ­
tio n
A c tiv e
p a rtic i na­
tio n
s
N
1 1
19
1 0
1 2
.Vo v ]r o f th e o f f i c e c l e r k s . ’
1 0
6
5
14
V.'ork o f t h e s c h o o l n u r s e .
1 0
6
5
14
.. ork o f th e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r .
1 0
0
4
15
..ork o f th e v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r .
6
5
1
8
5
Number of. i n t e r n e s h i p program s u s in g any o f t h e s e p ro c e d u re s in
c o n n e c tio n w ith a g iv e n a c t i v i t y .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
108
Thus th e tw en tieth p r in c ip le u n derlyin g in te r n e sh ip :
in te r n e s should be
expected t o become acq u ain ted w ith the lo c a l community, i t s p e o p le . educa­
t io n a l a g e n c ie s , o rg a n iz a tio n s and in d u s t r ie s , and should p a r tic ip a te in
c iv ic a f f a ir s .
Table XI l i s t s the number o f in tern esh ip programs in which
in te r n e s engage in c e r ta in community and p u b lic r e la t io n s a c t i v i t i e s .
The community study and v i s i t a t i o n program o f one o f the sch ool
system s included in t h i s in tern esh ip study has r e c e iv e d co n sid era b le recog­
n it io n .
In tern es in Grosse P o in ts , M ichigan, sch o o ls d evote Friday
mornings to a study o f sch o o l and community in s t i t u t i o n s .
Among th e p la c e s
v is it e d by in tern es are the ju v e n ile c o u r t, a settlem en t h ouse, m unicipal
government b u ild in g s , p a ro ch ia l s c h o o ls , and community fund head q uarters.
Brownell w r it e s : :
Through th ese o p p o r tu n itie s , i t would seem, fa r more
than through read in g about th e sch o o l system and lo c a l
community a g e n c ie s, th e in te r n s should r e c e iv e a proper
p ic tu r e o f th e sc h o o ls as s o c ia l in s t it u t io n s in a
p a r tic u la r community as w e ll a s a dem onstration o f the
ways in which co o p era tio n or supplem entation o f work o f
e x is t in g a g en cies i s b ein g or may w e ll be assumed by the
sch o o ls,®
The d ir e c to r o f th e in te r n e sh ip program a t Northwestern U n iv e r s ity
a ls o p la c e s s t r e s s on t h i s em phasis:
In tern esh ip tea ch ers are encouraged to read w id ely in
current la y and p r o fe s s io n a l m agazines, books, and newspapers.
They are urged to study o ccu p a tio n a l l i f e in th e la r g e urban
c e n te r o f Chicago and in the lo c a l communities in which th ey
work, t o make f i e l d t r ip s to v a r io u s in d u s t r ia l p la n t s , and
in ev ery way p o s s ib le to g a in a broad in s ig h t in to and appre­
c ia t io n o f th e complex ch a ra cter o f modern s o c ia l l i f e , 7
S . M. B row nell, "Teacher S e le c t io n , A Function o f S ch ool Ad­
m in is tr a tio n ," E d u cation al P rogress and S ch o o l A dm in lstration (New
Haven: Yale U n iv e r sity P r e s s , 1936), pp. 146-47. Chapter V II I . C. M.
H i l l , e d it o r .
7
W. G. Brink, " In tern esh ip Teaching in th e P r o fe s s io n a l Education
o f T eachers." E ducational A d m in istration and S u p e r v isio n . 2 3 :9 7 , February,
1937.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
109
NQHBEB CF INTNRNDSHIF PROGRAMS E l l i l l d i IIITiSUGS BDCOilu F^iHLIAR mIIK
IF CERTAIN COMMUNITY aND PUELIG RELATIONS ACTIVITIES
P ro c e d u re fo llo w e d
a c tiv ity
D is c u s s io n
w ith r e s ro n s ih le
p e rso n
G b se rv a tio n :
v is its tio n
a c tiv e
p a rtie ira tio n
q
n c t i v i t i e s o f th e P a r e n t- T e a c h e r
.a s s o c i a ti o n .
11
1?
IS
19
R e c e p tio n o f p a r e n t s and p a tr o n s
who v i s i t s c h o o l.
3
9
12
16
P r e p a r a t i o n o f e d u c a t io n a l
e x h ib its .
7
10
I'd
15
home v i s i t a t i o n .
8
3
6
10
Ghuroh and r e l i g i o u s e d u c a tio n
a c tiv itie s .
4
Community d r i v e s and c a m p a ig n s.
8
6
4
9
The w ork of im p o rta n t c i v i c
a g e n c ie s and b u s in e s s and i n d u s t r i a l
e s ta b lis h m e n ts in th e com m unity.
8
7
2
9
Community r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .
6
5
7
8
■ a c t iv i t ie s o f l o c a l c i v i c and
s o c i a l c lu b s .
4
3
6
8
P r e p a r a ti o n o f news a r t i c l e s
r e la tin g to sch o o l a f f a ir s .
4
3
5
8
Im p o rta n t c i v i c m e e tin g s .
5
7
3
8
A d u lt e d u c a tio n program .
4
3
2
5
;
2
5
9
^ Number o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s u s in g any o f th e s e p ro c e d u re s in
c o n n e c tio n w ith a g iv e n a c t i v i t y .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
110
U n fo rtu n a tely , th e s e two in tern esh ip plan s are not t y p ic a l o f the
e n tir e group o f in tern esh ip programs stu d ied .
In g e n e r a l, i t can be sa id
th a t few er than h a lf o f th e in tern esh ip programs now e x is t in g p lace
s u f f i c ie n t s t r e s s on the part in tern es should p la y in th e l i f e o f the
community.
C ertain a c t i v i t i e s co n tr ib u tin g to p r o fe s s io n a l advancement. —
Leaders in tea ch er ed u cation endorsed th ree p r in c ip le s r e la t in g t o
a c t i v i t i e s designed t o promote th e p r o fe s s io n a l advancement o f the in tern e:
P r in c ip le XXI—In tern es should be expected to be a c t iv e members o f
p r o fe s s io n a l tea ch er s o r g a n iz a tio n s .
P r in c ip le XXII—In tern es should be expected to keep informed o f
ed u ca tio n a l developm ents through p r o fe s s io n a l reading both in
g en era l ed u cation and in f i e l d s in which they are p a r tic u la r ly
in t e r e s t e d .
P r in c ip le XXIII—P a r tic ip a tio n in some resea rch problem connected
w ith th e in te r n e ♦s work should be Included in th e program o f
in tern esh ip in order to f o s t e r th e s p i r i t o f ex p erim en tation .
Table XII shows the e x te n t to which in tern esh ip programs are ob­
servin g th e se p r in c ip le s .
In a l l but th ree in tern esh ip programs, in tern es
are encouraged or expected to be members o f p r o fe s s io n a l tea ch ers
o r g a n iz a tio n s.
Two o f the th ree in tern esh ip programs o f which t h is is not
tr u e are p r iv a te sc h o o ls.
Keeping ab reast o f ed u ca tio n a l developm ents
through p r o fe s s io n a l reading i s s tr e s s e d in n ea rly a l l in tern esh ip p la n s .
In tw o -th ird s o f the in tern esh ip programs, the in tern e i s en­
couraged or expected to carry on or p a r tic ip a te in a resea rch problem
connected w ith h is work in the sc h o o l.
In c o n str u c tin g th e q u e stio n n a ir e ,
th e term "research" was conceived in i t s broadest se n se , th e w r ite r in ­
ten d in g th a t i t should in clu d e p r a c t ic a l s tu d ie s r e la t in g to classroom
L
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
111
TABLE X I I
NUMBER OB INTERNESLI? PROGRAMS WHICH ENCOURa GE AND EXPECT TliE INTERNE
TO ENGAGE IN CERTAIN A C TIV ITIES CONTRIBUTING TO PROBESSIOI'AL ADVAN33S3OT
A c tiv ity
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s
in w hich th e
a c ti v it y is
e n co u rag ed
R eading im p o r ta n t p r o f e s s i o n a l
books p e r t a i n i n g t o g e n e r a l
e d u c a tio n and t c o n e ’ s s p e c i a l
fie ld .
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s
in w hich th e
a c t i v i t y is
14
R e a d in g r e g u l a r l y a t l e a s t one
g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n p e r i o d i c a l
and one p e r i o d i c a l i n a s p e c i a l
fie ld .
Member o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s ’
a s s o c ia tio n .
21
19
18
1 2
T ak in g a p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n
c o u rs e o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a
g r a d u a te s e m in a r a t a t e a c h e r tra in in g in s titu tio n .
2
14
16
T ak in g a c o u rs e in o n e ’ s m ajo r o r
m inor s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f i e l d a t an
i n s t i t u t i o n o f h ig h e r l e a r n i n g .
4
11
15
C a rry in g on o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a
r e s e a r c h pro b lem in c o n n e c tio n w ith
t h e i n t e r n e 's work in th e l o c a l s c h o o l.
8
14
C o n t r ib u t in g t o program s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n by r e a d in g p a p e r s , s e r v in g
a s a member o f a p a n e l forum , e t c .
1 2
1
13
Making r e p o r t s in t e a c h e r s ' m e e tin g .
4
12
11
11
8
P a r t i c i p a t i n g in r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u le d
grout) c o n fe r e n c e s f o r i n t e r n e s
sp o n so re d by th e l o c a l s c h o o l sy ste m
and d e a li n g w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l p ro b le m s.
W ritin g e d u c a t io n a l a r t i c l e s .
8
8
A s s i s t i n g i n p la n n in g t e a c h e r s '
m e e tin g .
5
7
A s s i s t i n g in p la n n in g and c o n d u c tin g
d e m o n s tr a tio n l e s s o n s .
5
7
* Number o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s in w hich t h i s a c t i v i t y •
•
c o u ra g e d o r e x p e c te d .
is e i th e r enR eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
te a c h in g .
T h e re may have b e e n some a m b ig u ity in c o n n e c tio n w ith ite m
s ix *
th o u g h , b e c a u s e o f t h e w r i t e r ’ s f a i l u r e t o d e f i n e w hat he m eant by r e s e a r c h .
D r. S a n f o rd o f th e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s w r i t e s :
I n num erous p l a c e s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e e m p h a siz e s
" r e s e a r c h " , and l i t t l e o r no a t t e n t i o n i s g iv e n t o
p r o f e s s i o n a l p ro b le m s . I f t h e te rm " r e s e a r c h " i s
u s e d in t h e i n c l u s i v e s e n s e so t h a t t h e ty p e s o f
p ro b le m s w h ich in v o lv e f i e l d s t u d i e s a r e in c lu d e d ,
t h e n my p o i n t i s n o t v a l i d , b u t I s h o u ld c e r t a i n l y
l i k e t o se e some e m p h a sis p la c e d upon t h i s point.-*-®
I n h i s in te r v ie w s w ith d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, t h e w r i t e r
g a in e d th e im p r e s s io n t h a t t h e r e was g e n e r a l a g re e m e n t w ith D r. S a n f o r d ’ s
p o i n t , t h a t r e s e a r c h s h o u ld be o f th e ty p e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l
p ro b le m s and d e f i n i t e l y lin k e d w ith th e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n in w h ich t h e in ­
te r n e f in d s h im s e lf.
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te i n c o n n e c tio n w i t h th e c o u rs e w ork c a r r i e d
on by i n t e r n e s a t c o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t i n t e r n e s
a r e e n c o u ra g e d t o c o n tin u e t h e i r w ork i n t h e i r acad em ic f i e l d a lm o s t t o
t h e same e x te n t a s th e y a r e e n c o u ra g e d t o t a k e c o u r s e s in p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a t io n .
T h is seem s sound t o th e w r i t e r who d e p lo r e s t h e la c k o f i n t e ­
g r a t i o n and t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w hich o c c u rs i n t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n when
u n d e rg r a d u a te y e a r s a r e d e v o te d e n t i r e l y t o a c ad e m ic work a n d g r a d u a te w ork
i s d e v o te d a lm o s t e n t i r e l y t o p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n s u b j e c t s .
A c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p e r s o n a l d ev elo p m en t o f th e i n ­
t e r n e . — Two p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e t o t h i s p h a se o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram :
P r i n c i p l e XXIV—T hose r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p rogram o f i n t e r n e s h i p
sh o u ld e n c o u ra g e i n t e r n e s t o p a r t i c l p a t e in c u l t u r a l , s o c l a l . and
r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s le a d i n g t o p e r s o n a l e n r ic h m e n t.
C. V/. S a n f o r d , L e t t e r , F e b ru a ry 2 1 , 1940.
,1 L.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
113
P r i n c i p l e XXY—The d e v e lo p m en t o f d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l
t r a i t s s h o u ld be em p h asized a s p a r t o f t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
It
is
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e s e a r e tw o o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s r a t e d a s e s s e n t i a l
or
h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e by e v e ry one o f th e l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n ?;ho
ch eck ed th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l i n g w ith p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r ly in g i n t e r n e s h i p .
T a b le X I I I t a b u l a t e s t h e num ber o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s in w hich
i n t e r n e s a r e e n c o u ra g e d o r e x p e c te d t o p a r t i c i p a t e in c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s
le a d in g t o t h e i n t e r n e ’ s p e r s o n a l grow th and d e v e lo p m e n t.
E ncouragem ent
r a t h e r t h a n r e q u ir e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e m anner i n w h ic h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
a re f o s te r e d .
I t c a n n o t be s a i d , th o u g h , t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p program s o v e r ­
lo o k o r n e g l e c t t h i s a s p e c t o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
By and l a r g e , t h e ite m s in
T a b le X I I I a r e ch eck ed w ith a s g r e a t f r e q u e n c y a s ite m s p e r t a i n i n g to
i n s t r u c t i o n a l p la n n in g , c la s s ro o m a c t i v i t i e s , and s u p e r v i s o r y p r o c e d u r e s .
D i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s a p p a r e n tl y a g r e e w ith t h e p o in t o f
view h e ld by t h e s t a f f o f New C o lle g e when in t h e i r a p p r a i s a l o f New
C o lle g e th e y w r o te :
S o c i a l g r a c e and e a s e a r e a s much a p a r t o f th e
t e a c h e r ’ s eq u ip m e n t a s i s th e know ledge o f p s y c h o lo g y ;
in f a c t , i t i s p r o b a b ly more im p o r ta n t, b e c a u s e i t i s
a p p li e d p s y c h o lo g y . Wide c o n t a c t s w ith f i e l d s o u t s i d e
o f te a c h in g go f a r i n d e v e lo p in g a c u l t u r e d p e r s o n .
S t u d e n ts s h o u ld be b ro u g h t I n to c lo s e c o n t a c t w ith
l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f m u s ic , r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s ,
s c i e n c e , a r c h i t e c t u r e , an d t h e t h e a t e r . O fte n t h e s e
c o n t a c t s w i l l make a d e e p e r im p r e s s io n upon t h e young
s tu d e n t t h a n d o z e n s o f o r d in a r y l e c t u r e s .
I t s h o u ld
n o t be f e l t t h a t s tu d e n t s a r e n e g le c ti n g t h e i r e d u c a tio n
when t h e y go f r e q u e n t l y t o c o n c e r t s , p l a y s , o p e r a s ,
l e c t u r e s , museums, and a r t g a l l e r i e s .
On th e c o n t r a r y
such a c t i v i t i e s s h o u ld be e n c o u r a g e d .i l
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , T e a c h e rs C o lle g e , " E d u c a tio n o f T e a c h e rs
in New C o l l e g e ," T e a c h e rs C o lle g e R e c o rd , 3 8 :4 8 -4 9 , O c to b e r, 1936.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
NUMBER OP INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS ’.VHICH ENCOURAGE AMD EXPECT TE E INTERNE TO
ENGAGE I P CERTAIN ACTIVITIES FURTHERING THE INTERNE'S PERSONAL DSraLOffiENT
A ct i v i t '
No. o ? i n t e r n e ­
s h ip pro g ram s
in w hich th e
a c t i v i t y is
e n c o u ra g e d
No. o f i n t e r n e s h ip program s
in w hich th e
a c tiv ity is
e r n e c te d
, r12
E n g ag in g in r e c r e a t i o n a l
a c t i v i t i e s d e s ig n e d t o m a in ta in
p h y s ic a l w e l l b e in g a n a p ro ­
m ote good h e a l t h .
1 2
17
a t t e n d i n g c o n c e r t s , p l a y s , th e
th e a te r.
15
17
8
16
Becoming a member o f a s o c i a l
g ro u p ; a c q u ir in g ana m a in ta in in g
frie n d s h ip s .
1 2
16
P u rs u in g a hobby i n t e r e s t .
1 1
14
V i s i t i n g museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s .
12
14
D ev e lo p in g l e i s u r e - t i m e re a d in g
in te re s ts .
1 1
13
D eepening o n e ’ s i n t e r e s t in r e l i g i o n
and in a p e r s o n a l p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e .
1 1
13
a tte n d a n c e a t s t a f f s o c i a l a f f a i r s .
W orking o u t a f i n a n c i a l program d e­
s ig n e d t o p ro v id e a m easure o f
econom ic s e c u r i t v .
5
12
Number o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n w hich t h i s a c t i v i t y i s e i t h e r
e n c o u ra g e d or e x p e c te d .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g comments w ere w r i t t e n b y d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip pro g ram s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e i r r e p l i e s t o t h i s s e c t i o n o f th e
q u e s tio n n a ire .
R e f e r r i n g t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n T a b le X I I I , The
F rie n d s * C o u n c il on E d u c a tio n w r o te , " T h e se , I t h i n k , a r e m e re ly ta k e n
f o r g r a n te d a s w hat t h e t y p i c a l i n t e r n e ch o sen w ould n a t u r a l l y d o . ”
G ra d u a te T e a c h e rs C o lle g e r e p o r t s , "We do n o t " e n c o u ra g e ” o r " e x p e c t"
o u r i n t e r n e s t o do t h e s e t h i n g s .
We a c c e p t them f o r t r a i n i n g b e c a u s e th e y
a r e p e o p le who a l r e a d y do th e m ."
S e v e r a l o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, p a r t i c u l a r l y th o s e c o n n e c te d
w ith p r i v a t e s c h o o ls , s t r e s s c r e a t i v e w ork i n t h e f i n e a r t s a s a p a r t o f
th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m , n o t p r i m a r i l y so t h a t i n t e r n e s w i l l be a b le t o
te a c h t h e s e s u b j e c t s b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s make
to w a rd p e r s o n a l developm ent and e n ric h m e n t.
The C o o p e ra tiv e S c h o o l f o r
T e a c h e r s , f o r ex am p le, in c lu d e s in i t s c u rr ic u lu m p a i n t i n g , m o d e llin g , and
th e d an ce a s a c t i v i t i e s on th e a d u lt l e v e l w hich c o n t r i b u t e t o p e r s o n a l
d e v e lo p m e n t.
G ra d u a te T e a c h e rs C o lle g e and Shady H i l l S c h o o l a re o t h e r
i n t e r n e s h i p program s m aking d e f i n i t e p r o v is i o n f o r a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s
ty p e .
T h is s e c t i o n i s c lo s e d w ith a s ta te m e n t made by t h e D i r e c t o r o f
th e C o o p e ra tiv e S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e rs r e f l e c t i n g a g ro w in g p o i n t o f v ie w ,
na
"What t h e t e a c h e r i s i n h e r own r i g h t i s v e ry im p o r ta n t. "■LO I f we s t r e s s
in c o n n e c tio n w ith c h i l d r e n ’ s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e d u c a tio n i s n o t m e re ly
p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i v i n g b u t i s l i v i n g h e re and now, we n eed a l s o t o s t r e s s
i n c o n n e c tio n w ith t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g t h a t th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s im-
13
S ta te m e n t made in i n te r v ie w .
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116
portant as a year o f rich and abundant liv in g and i s not merely a year o f
preparation for a job beginning a fte r the interneship i s completed.
Suranary. --The nature o f interneship as defined by leaders in teacher
education suggests the follow ing as emphases in the interneship "curriculum"?
a wide variety o f a c t iv it ie s ;
gradual induction under supervision;
f u ll
resp o n sib ility fo r major teaching a c t iv it ie s at some time during the period
o f interneship.
Two other general p rin cip les con trollin g the sele ctio n of interne­
ship a c t iv it ie s are that the major criterio n for sele ctin g a c t iv it ie s to
be incorporated in to interneship programs should be th eir value in developing
teaching competence and that kinds o f experiences and rate of induction
should be determined by the a b ility , background, and needs of each individual
interne.
In connection with a c t iv it ie s concerned with in stru ction al planning and
classroom teaching, the follow ing conclusions can be drawn:
Gradual induction i s usually accomplished by means o f three stages;
observation, then lim ited p articip ation , and f in a lly , f u ll responsi­
b i l i t y . The majority o f interneship programs follow th is plan or
some minor m odification o f i t .
Provision i s made in nearly a l l interneship programs for acquainting
the interne with the major r e s p o n sib ilitie s involved in in stru ction al
planning and classroom teaching. Several interne!ship programs, though,
do not give the interne an opportunity to have f u ll resp o n sib ility
for these a c t iv it ie s thus disregarding the try-out and probationary
functions o f interneship as w ell as lim itin g the extent to which an
interne can develop true teaching competence.
There i s some evidence that the a c t iv it ie s in which a l l Internes in
a l l programs p a rticip a te can be characterized as delegated a c t iv it ie s
designed to free the regular teacher from routine and le s s in terestin g
ta sk s. Any such tendency i s to be deplored i f Internes are assigned
these tasks beyond the point at which they cease to have value in
developing teaching a b ility .
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117
N e a r ly a l l i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s em ploy a w ide v a r i e t y o f s u p e r ­
v is o ry p ro c e d u re s.
p ro g ra m .
O b s e r v a tio n o f t e a c h in g i s a p a r t o f e v e ry i n t e r n e s h i p
I n d i v i d u a l a n d g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h many t y p e s o f
p ro b lem s a r e fo u n d i n a l l i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
V i s i t i n g t h e i n t e r n e in
t h e c la s s ro o m s i t u a t i o n i s c a r r i e d on by a num ber o f s u p e r v i s o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y
by t h e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r an d t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l .
I n more th a n h a l f o f
t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, t h e i n t e r n e i s v i s i t e d a l s o by a d e p a r tm e n ta l
s u p e r v i s o r , by th e s u p e r i n te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls o r some one d e le g a te d by him
t o be i n c h a r g e o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m , and by a s u p e r v i s o r from a
c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
A lth o u g h m o st i n t e r n e s h av e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
in c o n n e c tio n
w ith t h e program o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y a s s i s t r a t h e r t h a n
assum e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c lu b w o rk .
At p re s e n t,
i t i s n o t th e
p o l i c y t o g iv e t h e i n t e r n e a n o p p o r tu n i ty t o p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e d i r e c t i o n
of se v e ra l e x tra -c u rric u la r a c tiv itie s
in t h e c o u r s e o f h i s p e r io d o f i n ­
te rn e s h ip .
The i n t e r n e ’ s a c q u a in ta n c e w ith a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s i s l i m i t e d
in m ost i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f m a jo r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s .
P r o v is i o n i s made f o r a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n in
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s in b u t a v e r y few p ro g ra m s, a n e x c e p tio n b e in g t h a t
i n tw e lv e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s i n t e r n e s do h a v e some p r a c t i c e i n k e e p in g
r e c o r d s p e r t a i n i n g t o p u p i l a c c o u n t in g .
I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, t h e i n t e r n e ’ s f a m i l i a r i t y
w ith t h e work o f t h e s c h o o l c o u n s e l o r , th e v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r , th e s c h o o l
n u r s e , and o f f i c e c l e r k s i s l i m i t e d t o d i s c u s s i o n an d o b s e r v a t io n o f th e
work done by th e s e i n d i v i d u a l s .
The o n ly s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f member t h a t
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m ost i n t e r n e s a c t i v e l y a s s i s t a t some tim e d u r in g t h e i r p e r io d o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip i s t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n .
I n s p i t e o f th e s t r e s s p la c e d upon t h e im p o rta n c e o f th e i n t e r n e 's
becom ing a c q u a in te d w ith t h e com m unity a s w e l l a s w ith th e s c h o o l, fe w e r
th a n h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program s p la c e s u f f i c i e n t s t r e s s on t h i s
a s p e c t o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t io n .
The o n ly a c t i v i t i e s c l a s s e d a s com m unity and
p u b lic r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s in w h ic h i n t e r n e s i n t h e m a j o r it y o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip pro g ram s p a r t i c i p a t e a r e P a r e n t- T e a c h e r A s s o c ia tio n f u n c t i o n s , r e ­
c e p ti o n o f p a r e n t s and p a t r o n s who v i s i t th e s c h o o l, and p r e p a r a t i o n o f
e d u c a tio n a l e x h ib i ts .
C e r t a i n l y , i t i s t r u e a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e t h a t
i n t e r n e s do n o t " i n t e r n in t h e com m unity a s w e l l a s in t h e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n .
The f o llo w in g a c t i v i t i e s l e a d in g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th a r e ex ­
p e c te d o f i n t e r n e s i n m ost i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s:
c a r r y i n g on g r a d u a te
w ork, r e a d in g p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c i p a t i n g in s p e c i a l se m in a rs
fo r in te rn e s .
M em bership in p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
t a k i n g p a r t in e d u c a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and m e e tin g s a r e e n c o u ra g e d .
M ost i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s d e f i n i t e l y e n c o u ra g e c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s
f u r t h e r i n g t h e p e r s o n a l advandem ent a n d g ro w th o f th e i n t e r n e .
A p p a r e n tly
th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e i n t e r n e a s an i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t o v e rlo o k e d o r
s h u n te d a s i d e .
14
Com m ission on T e a c h e r E d u c a tio n , A m erican C o u n c il on E d u c a tio n ,
o p . c i t . , p . 6 3.
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CHAPTER VI
AIMINISTERING- THE INTERNESHIP PROGRAM
I n t r o d u c t i o n . — The t w e n t y - s i x t h p r i n c i p l e u n d e r g ir d in g i n t e r n e s h i p
i s t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be so o r g a n iz e d and a d m i n is t e r e d t h a t t h e b e s t
i n t e r e s t s o f th e p u p i l a r e p r o t e c t e d and f u r t h e r e d .
T h is c a n be done o n ly
i f th o s e s e l e c t e d a s i n t e r n e s a r e c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n , i f t h e s u p e r v i s io n
g iv e n them i s c o m p e ten t and a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n t e r n e a t a l l t i m e s , i f
c o n t r a c t u a l a rra n g e m e n ts and a g re e m e n ts p la c e i n t e r n e s h i p on a h ig h p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l p l a n e , and i f th e i n t e r n e ’ s work i s c a r e f u l l y a p p r a i s e d th ro u g h ­
o u t th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
T hese a r e some o f th e t o p i c s t o be i n ­
c lu d e d i n t h i s c h a p te r on a d m i n is t e r i n g th e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
O th e r
t o p i c s a r e s e m in a r and g ro u p c o n fe r e n c e p r o c e d u r e s , p la c e m e n t and f o llo w up o f i n t e r n e s , c o o p e r a ti v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b etw een t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n ­
s t i t u t i o n s and l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m s , and m a jo r p ro b le m s i n a d m in is te r in g
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
P r o c e d u r e s em ployed in s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s . —P r i n c i p l e tw e n ty - s e v e n
re a d s:
Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r n e s h i p program s s h o u ld make an e f f o r t
t o a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t t h e m ost a b le g r a d u a t in g s e n i o r s in t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r a p p o in tm e n t a s i n t e r n e s .
T a b le XIV r e p o r t s t h e p r o ­
c e d u re s u se d by tw e n ty i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s in p r o c u r in g i n t e r n e s .
M ost t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and s c h o o l s y ste m s s p o n s o rin g
i n t e r n e s h i p em ploy s e v e r a l p r o c e d u r e s in s e c u r in g i n t e r n e s .
Of t h e f i v e
ite m s l i s t e d i n T a b le XIV, th e a v e ra g e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram em ploys t h r e e .
T hus, ite m n 2 n i n T a b le XIV sh o u ld n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t f o u r ­
te e n i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s s e l e c t a l l o f t h e i r i n t e r n e s fro m among a p p l i -
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TABLE XIV
PROCEDURES USED IN SECURING INTERNES, RANKED ACCORDING TO THE
PROCEDURE WHICH SECURES THE LARGEST NUMBER OP INTERNES1
Procedure
No. o f interneship pro­
grams indicating they
use th is procedure
Teacher-training in stitu tio n s serving
the immediate area inform outstanding
students o f the p o s s ib ilit ie s of interne­
ship , a number of applications resulting.
!5
Internes are selected from anong those
who make u n so licited applications for
interneship appointments.
i k
Because of a cooperative arrangement
between the school and a teacher-training
in s titu tio n , internes are selected from
among a group o f beginning teachers
recommended by the teacher-training
in s titu tio n .
12
Teacher-training in stitu tio n s over a wide
area are sent lite r a tu re pertaining to the
interneship program, a number o f applications
from without the immediate lo c a lity resu ltin g .
9
The superintendent o f schools or. the person
in the lo ca l school system responsible fo r
the interneship program v i s i t s teachertrainin g in stitu tio n s conferring with pros­
p ective internes.
7
1 Based on twenty instead of twenty-one interneship programs.
One interneship program did not report the procedure used in securing
in tern es.
A
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121
c a n ts who make u n s o l i c i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h i s i s one means
o f s e c u r i n g i n t e r n e s em ployed by f o u r t e e n i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, th e
d i r e c t o r s o f th e s e pro g ram s u s in g o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s a s w e l l .
As a m a t t e r o f
f a c t , o n ly one i n t e r n e s h i p program r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s was th e o n ly p ro c e d u re
u s e d , and b u t two o t h e r program s r e p o r t e d s e c u r in g m ost o f t h e i r i n t e r n e s
i n t h i s m an n er.
B ecause many i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s in c lu d e a c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , i n t e r n e s a r e o f t e n s e l e c t e d from among t h e o u t ­
s ta n d in g s e n io r s i n th e g r a d u a tin g c l a s s o f t h a t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u ­
tio n .
I n o n ly s e v e n o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p program s does t h e l o c a l s c h o o l
a d m i n i s t r a t o r v i s i t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t i n g th e
m ost o u t s t a n d in g b e g in n in g te a c h e r s f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a p p o in tm e n ts .
L arg e
b u s in e s s and e n g in e e r in g f ir m s send t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o c o ll e g e cam puses
e a c h y e a r i n an e f f o r t to o b t a i n o u t s t a n d in g g r a d u a t e s ; i f i t p r o f i t s them ,
i t m ig h t a l s o be a w o rth -w h ile p ro c e d u re f o r th e l o c a l s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r .
A common p ro c e d u re in i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s i n w hich t h e r e i s a co ­
o p e r a t in g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i s f o r th e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
t o no m in ate o n e , o r , p e r h a p s , two o r t h r e e i n t e r n e s f o r a n i n t e r n e s h i p
p o s i t i o n i n a g iv e n s c h o o l s y s te m , t h e f i n a l s e l e c t i o n re m a in in g w ith th e
s u p e r i n te n d e n t.
I n some i n t e r n e s h i p p la n s o f t h i s t y p e , a n e f f o r t i s made
t o b r in g in two o r t h r e e g r a d u a te s o f o t h e r c o ll e g e s e a c h y e a r t o a v o id i n b r e e d in g .
T h is i s d o n e , f o r exam ple, a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i .
As
f a r a s t h e w r i t e r know s, N o rth w e s te rn U n i v e r s i ty i s th e o n ly t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n w hich o p e n ly s a y s t h a t g r a d u a t e s o f t h e i r own u n i v e r s i t y a r e
c o n s id e r e d on t h e same b a s i s a s g r a d u a te s o f o t h e r r e c o g n iz e d i n s t i t u t i o n s .
a
L
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122
Ma.1or factors considered In se le c tin g Internes.—-In se le c tin g in­
tern es. as much pertinent information as p ossib le should be obtained con­
cerning applicants, and appointment s made a fter considering a l l relevant
information.
(P rinciple XXVIII).
The d iff ic u lt part o f carrying th is
p rin cip le into practice i s determining what information i s pertinent and
relevant and what i s not.
After describing the c r ite r ia used in selectin g
internes for the Grosse Pointe school system, Brownell p oints out:
Zt i s p o ssib le , of course, that some o f these hurdles
are improper ones, and that a high rating in some one or
more of the items used i s an in dication o f u n fitness rather
than o f f itn e s s for the jo b .2
The only way th is problem can ever be solved i s by obtaining a
great deal o f information concerning applicants for interneship p o sitio n s,
as much as seems at a l l relevant, and then correlating each i t an with the
success of th e Interne in the interneship program and in p o sitio n s taken
a fter interneship.
Thus a p lea i s made for the observance or p rin cip le
tw enty-eight, gathering a l l information that seems at a l l lik e ly to have
a bearing on the in t e r n e t success.
The major factors concerning which information i s gathered in
se le c tin g internes are lis t e d in Table XV.
As w ill be noted, the factors
most frequently considered are the app licant's general sch o la stic average
in c o lle g e , the impression made in an interview , the ap p lican t's health
and physical examination record, the grades received in co lleg e in the
subjects the applicant i s to teach, and recommendations o f c o lleg e in­
2 S. U. Brownell, "Teacher S election , A Function of School Ad­
m inistration," Educational Progress and School Administration (New Haven:
Tale U niversity Press, 1936 ), P* 1^5- Chapter VIII. C. M. H ill, editor.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
123
stru ctors.
In only h a lf of the Interneship programs are the grade received
in p ractice teaching and possession of a teacher's c e r tific a te major factors
considered.
This seems surprising at f i r s t , hut the reason for i t i s that
in a number of interneship programs, the interneship replaces student teaching
and i s prerequisite to c e r tific a tio n .
This i s true, for example, at the
University o f Cincinnati, at Brown U niversity, and at Tayne University.
It
i s also true in the interneship programs a f f ilia t e d with private schools as
the ty p ica l interne in these programs i s a lib e r a l a rts co lleg e graduate with
l i t t l e or no work in professional education*
Considering the fa ct that most internes merely observe and a s s is t in
extra-curricular a c t iv it ie s , i t i s a l i t t l e surprising to note the number
o f interneship programs which require information concerning the applicant's
a b ility to sponsor extra-curricular a c t i v it ie s .3
I f th is factor i s given
th is amount o f consideration, i t might w ell be questioned whether interne­
ship programs are givin g internes su ffic ie n t resp o n sib ility in d irecting
Club a c t iv it ie s .
The relationship between one factor receiving consideration in eleven
interneship programs and probable teaching success can be questioned, the
w illin gn ess o f the interne to accept an interneship appointment with l i t t l e
or no salary*
This i s a factor which apparently must be considered, though,
as internes receive in su ffic ie n t remuneration to take care of liv in g expenses
in most interneship programs ex istin g today.
^ Supra, pp. 101-103
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
124
TABLE XV
MATOB FACTORS CONSIDERED IN SELECTING INTERNES
F a c to r
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i n program s
s e cu rin g in fo rm a tio n conc e r n i n g t h i s f a c t o r _________
G eneral s c h o la s tic av erag e in c o lle g e
or tea c h e rs c o lle g e.
20
Im p r e s s io n made in i n t e r v i e w .
20
H e a l th and p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n r e c o r d .
18
P a r t i c u l a r e x c e l l e n c e in s u b j e c t s i n t e r n e
i s to t e a c h a s m easured by c o l l e g e g ra d e s
in th o se s u b je c t s .
17
Recommendations o f c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s .
17
Recommendations o f p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e s g iv e n
by th e i n t e r n e .
IS
P r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k ground a s e v id e n c e d by th e
number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s
ta k e n and th e 5- ra d e s r e c e i v e d i n t h o s e c o u r s e s .
14
.a b ility to
1?
sponsor e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .
Grade r e c e i v e d in p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g .
12
V J iilin g n e s s o f the i n t e r n e t o u n d e r t a k e t h e
i n t e r n e s h i p w i t h l i t t l e o r no s a l a r y .
11
P ossession of a t e a c h e r ’ s c e r t i f i c a t e .
10
P r o b a b i l i t y o f a p l a c e f o r th e i n t e r n e a s a
r e g u l a r member o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f f o l l o w i n g
t h e c o m p le tio n o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p p e r i o d .
S
E c o r e s made on c e r t a i n t e s t s ( s c h o l a s t i c
a p t i t u d e , c o m p rehensive p r o f e s s i o n a l
knowledge t e s t , g e n e r a l c u l t u r e t e s t , e t c . )
8
A p proval o f th e i n t e r n e by th e c o o p e r a t i n g
teach er.
8
F i n a n c i a l need o f th e i n t e r n e .
4
I n t e r n e i s a home-tovm r e s i d e n t .
2
1
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
In o n ly t h r e e o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program s i s hom e-tow n r e s id e n c e
a m a jo r f a c t o r c o n s id e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s .
I n b u t one o f t h e s e
t h r e e h a s i t been a s in e qua non f o r a p p o in tm e n t, an d t h i s i n t e r n e s h i p
program h a s t h i s y e a r ta k e n s t e p s w hich w i l l le a d away from th e heavy
em p h asis f o rm e rly p la c e d on b e in g a l o c a l c a n d i d a t e .
I n t h e seco n d o f th e
t h r e e p ro g ra m s, hom e-town r e s i d e n c e e n t e r s th e p i c t u r e o n ly b e c a u s e th e
i n t e r n e ’ s s a l a r y i s so s m a ll t h a t m ost n o n - r e s id e n t b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s
c a n n o t a f f o r d t h e b o a rd and room e x p e n se s w hich w ould h av e t o be m e t.
In
th e t h i r d , th e d i r e c t o r o f th e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram w r i t e s , " I n r e c e n t
y e a rs t h i s h a s been a f a c t o r i n some c a s e s ."
T h a t i t i s n o t a number o f s i n g l e f a c t o r s b u t a c o m b in a tio n o f
f a c t o r s t h a t n e e d s to be c o n s id e r e d in s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s was s t r e s s e d
in a n o te appended by th e Dean o f G ra d u a te T e a c h e rs C o lle g e .
She w r i t e s ,
"The m a jo r f a c t o r w ith u s i s a c o m b in a tio n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , p u r p o s e , and
p e r s o n a l i t y w hich a p p e a r s t o be one w hich w i l l be h e l p f u l t o c h i l d r e n . "
M ajo r f a c t o r s c o n s id e r e d in s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r s . —Those
ch o sen c o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r s s h o u ld be s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e th e y a r e b e s t
q u a l i f i e d to a i d t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r in h i s in d u c t io n i n t o t e a c h i n g .
( P r i n c i p l e XXIX).
The f a c t o r s w h ich a r e c o n s id e r e d in s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a t­
in g t e a c h e r s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b le XVI.
I t w i l l p ro b a b ly be a g re e d t h a t
th e m a jo r f a c t o r s w h ic h do r e c e iv e em p h a sis a r e t h e o n e s w hich s h o u ld
r e c e iv e e m p h a s is .
The d i r e c t o r o f t h e o n ly i n t e r n e s h i p program w hich
f a i l e d t o in c lu d e r e c o g n iz e d e x c e lle n c e a s a c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r and
d e m o n s tra te d a b i l i t y a s a h e l p e r o f o t h e r t e a c h e r s a s m a jo r f a c t o r s
f r a n k l y a d m its , " I presum e
t h i s i s t h e w e a k e s t f e a t u r e o f o u r p la n and
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
126
TABIE XVI
FACTORS THICK ARE REQUIRED AND 0T1JER FACTCRC V.'HIGIi RECEIVE
DEFINITE CONSIDERATION IE THE SELECTION OF COOPERATING TIACIiERS4
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s
lis tin g th is as
a re q u ire m e n t
F a c to r
___
I n t e r e s t in and w i l l i n g n e s s o f
th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r to
u n d e rta k e th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
she w i l l have in th e i n t e r n e s h i p
program .
1 0
R e c o g n ise d e x c e lle n c e a s a
c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r .
10
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s
s ta tin g th a t
t h is i s not a
re q u ire m e n t b u t
re c e iv e s d e f i n i te
c o n s id e ra tio n
.D em onstrated a b i l i t y a s a
h e lp e r o f o t h e r t e a c h e r s .
T e a c h e r o f s i m i l a r s u b je c t or
g ra d e in which th e i n t e r n e
w i l l p r o b a b ly be p la c e d upon
c o m p le tio n o f th e period, o f
in te rn e s h ip .
6
4
l e a d e r on th e s c h o o l s t a f f .
5
A
a
The c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r w i l l a c h ie v e
d e f i n i t e p r o f e s s i o n a l grow th a s a
r e s u l t o f th e p a r t sh e p la y s in th e
i n t e r n e s h i p program ..
P o s s e s s o r o f an ad v an ced d e g re e .
C o u rse s ta k e n i n s u p e r v is io n ( i f
t h i s i s c h e ck e d a s a r e q u ir e m e n t,
i n d i c a t e number o f c r e d i t s r e q u i r e d : )
T e a c h e r m ost n e e d in g a s s i s t a n c e
b e c a u se o f heavy t e a c h in g lo a d .
T e a c h e r w ith l i g h t e r th a n a v e ra g e
t e a c h in g lo a d h a v in g a d d i t i o n a l
tim e t o work w ith i n t e r n e .
4
B ased on r e p l i e s r e c e iv e d from f o u r t e e n i n t e r n e s h i p program s
h a v in g d e f i n i t e l y a s s ig n e d c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
127
th e one to which more a tte n tio n should be g iv e n ."
In th e op in ion o f th e w r it e r , th e f a c t o r which i s most s lig h te d and
which should be con sid ered by more in te r n e sh ip programs i s th e a b i l i t y o f
th e coop eratin g tea ch er to a ch ie v e d e f in it e p r o fe s s io n a l growth as the
r e s u lt o f her d u tie s a s a co o p era tin g te a c h e r .
The in - s e r v ic e growth
experienced by th e coop eratin g tea ch er should be one o f the major outcomes
o f in te r n e sh ip .
C ontractual arrangements and agreem ents between th e sch o o l system
and th e in te r n e . —There are a number o f in te r n e sh ip p r in c ip le s r e la t in g
d ir e c t ly or in d ir e c t ly to c o n tr a c tu a l arrangements and agreements involved
in th e in tern esh ip program.
Each o f th e se p r in c ip le s w i l l be s t a t e d , to ­
g eth er w ith w hatever data herce been gathered regardin g the observance o f
th a t p r in c ip le in a c tu a l p r a c t ic e .
P r in c ip le XXX—There should be a. d e f in it e c o n tra ctu a l agreement
between th e sch o o l system and th e in te r n e .
Less than h a lf o f th e in te r n e sh ip programs observe t h i s p r in c ip le .
The e s s e n t ia l elem ents in the in te r n e sh ip program are d e f i n i t e l y under­
stood by both in tern e and a d m in istra to r, but in most o f th e c a s e s in
which te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s are sp onsoring in tern esh ip programs,
th ere i s no c o n tr a c tu a l agreement between th e sch o o l system and th e in ­
te r n e .
D ir e c to r s o f th ese in te r n e sh ip programs s t a t e th a t no o cca sio n
has ever a r is e n where la ck o f a co n tra ct has been f e l t t o be d etrim en tal
t o in te r n e s h ip .
The in tern esh ip program i s arranged j o in t ly by the
te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n and th e sch o o l a d m in istra to r, and in tern es
a ccep t th e p r o v is io n s made w ith ou t th e fo r m a lity o f a c o n tr a c t.
Two
d ir e c to r s o f in tern esh ip programs, members o f th e s t a f f s o f te a c h e r -
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
128
t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , s t a t e th e y w ould r a t h e r h a v e i t t h i s w ay;
The
f a c t t h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram i s b a s e d upon a " g e n tle m a n ’ s a g re e m e n t"
w ith o u t to o d e f i n i t e a commitment a llo w s lo o p - h o l e s w hich may some day
p ro v e h an d y .
T here i s a n o th e r r e a s o n why s e v e r a l i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s h av e no
c o n t r a c t u a l a g re e m e n ts .
G ra d u a te T e a c h e rs C o lle g e , The C o o p e ra tiv e
S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s , and s e v e r a l o t h e r i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ram s s p o n s o re d by
p r i v a t e s c h o o ls lo o k upon th e y e a r o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s a y e a r o f t e a c h e r
e d u c a tio n s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o a y e a r o f g r a d u a te s tu d y .
c h a rg e d i n t e r n e s f o r t h e i r y e a r ’ s r e s i d e n c e .
T u i ti o n i s
The paym ent o f t h i s f e e i s
th e o n ly s t i p u l a t i o n o f a c o n t r a c t u a l n a tu r e in v o lv e d i n th e i n t e r n e s h i p
p ro g ram .
T here a r e r e a s o n s , th o u g h , why a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a c t u a l a g re e m e n t i s
d e s i r a b l e i n m ost i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s,
a c l e a r s ta te m e n t o f t h e r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e i n t e r n e , o f t h e s e r v i c e s th e s c h o o l a g r e e s t o r e n d e r ,
o f t h e s a l a r y t h e i n t e r n e can e x p e c t, o f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p e r io d o f i n ­
t e r n e s h i p rem oves any p o s s i b i l i t y o f m is u n d e rs ta n d in g a r i s i n g betw een t h e
i n t e r n e and t h o s e s p o n s o rin g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra in .
I t i s s u rp ris in g ,
c o n s id e r in g th e f r a i l t i e s o f human n a t u r e , t h a t some m is u n d e rs ta n d in g s
h a v e n ’ t a l r e a d y a r i s e n i n th e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s s t u d i e d .
T hen, t o o ,
t h e r e i s a n o th e r v e ry im p o r ta n t r e a s o n why a c o n t r a c t i s d e s i r a b l e .
The v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f a c o n t r a c t h e lp s t o g iv e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s t o th e
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in te rn e .
I t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e i n t e r n e a s a t e a c h e r i n th e e y e s o f f e llo w
t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s , an d p a r e n t s .
T h is i s t h e e s s e n c e o f th e n e x t p r i n c i p l e
t o be d i s c u s s e d .
P r i n c i p l e XKXI— I n t e r n e s sh o u ld b e c o n s id e r e d a s r e g u l a r members
o f th e s c h o o l s t a f f on t h e same f o o t i n g a s o t h e r t e a c h e r s a s f a r a s s t a f f ,
p u p i l , and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o n c e rn e d .
The m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s make a n e f f o r t to o b s e rv e
th is p rin c ip le .
In d e e d , t h e i n t e r n e s h i p i s l i k e l y t o b e a v e ry s t r a i n e d
and s tr a n g e s i t u a t i o n i f th e i n t e r n e i s s e t a p a r t from o t h e r members o f
th e s t a f f an d c o n s id e r e d some s o r t o f pupa i n a n i n t e r m e d ia t e s ta g e o f
d e v e lo p m e n t.
No b e g in n in g t e a c h e r c a n b e e x p e c te d t o do a good jo b o f
t e a c h in g u n d e r s u c h c o n d i t i o n s .
D is c ip lin a ry d i f f i c u l t i e s a re in v ite d
and t h e i n t e r n e i s in tr o d u c e d i n t o a t e a c h in g s i t u a t i o n w hich can by no
p o s s i b l e s t r e t c h o f t h e im a g in a tio n be term ed t y p i c a l .
I t is an ad­
m i n i s t r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e t h a t no one sh o u ld be g iv e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w ith o u t
a l s o h a v in g a u t h o r i t y , and t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s j u s t a s v a l i d i n t e a c h in g .
A c h ie v in g a s i t u a t i o n i n w hich i n t e r n e s a r e a c c e p te d a s r e g u l a r
t e a c h e r s j u s t d o e s n 't h a p p e n .
T e a c h e rs and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m u st make a
c o n s c io u s e f f o r t t o make t h e i n t e r n e f e e l he i s one o f th em ; t h e y m ust
p u t th e m s e lv e s o u t t o make t h e i n t e r n e f e e l welcome w i t h i n t h e i r r a n k s .
I n t h i s c o n n e c tio n , l i t t l e
th in g s o f te n m a tte r .
I t h u r t s th e p r id e o f
th e n e o p h y te t o b e e x c lu d e d from a t e a c h e r s ' m eetin g ^ f o r ex am p le.
One
i n t e r n e h a v in g f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h r e e c l a s s e s and d o in g a good
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
130
jo b o f te a c h in g c o n fid e d t o th e w r i t e r t h a t t h e t h i n g t h a t h a n d ic a p p e d h e r
m o st was t h a t h e r name was n o t in c lu d e d i n t h e l i s t o f th e f a c u l t y pub­
l i s h e d i n t h e f i r s t i s s u e o f th e s tu d e n t p a p e r a n d t h a t p u p i l s and ev en
t e a c h e r s k e p t a s k in g h e r , " S a y , what a r e y o u , anyw ay, a s tu d e n t te a c h e r ?
H a v e n 't you g r a d u a te d y e t? "
T h is same f e e l i n g can b e e n g e n d ere d by n o t
in c lu d in g t h e i n t e r n e a s a r e g u l a r member o f th e s t a f f i n c o n n e c tio n w ith
p a re n t-te a c h e r fu n c tio n s .
One i n t e r n e i n a p r i v a t e s c h o o l commented r a t h e r
i r o n i c a l l y , "T h e re a r e two t h in g s we d o n 't have h e r e , c o n ta c t w ith p a r e n t s
an d a s a l a r y . "
P r i n c i p l e X kX lI—An i n t e r n e sh o u ld n e v e r b e em ployed t o r e p l a c e an
e x p e rie n c e d and m ore e x p e n siv e t e a c h e r ; s u c h a_ p r a c t i c e sh o u ld be condemned
a s e x p lo itin g th e i n te r n e .
A greem ent w ith t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s a lm o s t u n i v e r s a l .
I t i s a lm o st
u n a n im o u sly e n d o rs e d by l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n and by d i r e c t o r s o f
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
T h e re i s no i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram w ith w hich th e
w r i t e r i s a c q u a in te d t h a t d o e s n o t p u r p o r t t o f o llo w t h i s p r i n c i p l e .
Yet
g ra v e d o u b ts c a n b e r a i s e d a s t o w h e th e r th e p r i n c i p l e i s fo llo w e d i n a l l
cases.
The c o n tr o v e r s y h in g e s on t h e word " r e p l a c e . "
To t h e c r e d i t o f
e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s l e t i t b e s a id t h a t a s f a r a s t h e w r i t e r
know s, no e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r s have b e e n rem oved and i n t e r n e s s u b s t i t u t e d
i n t h e i r p la c e i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t a s a v in g i n t e a c h e r c o s t s .
The i s s u e
a s t o w h e th e r v i o l a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e o c c u rs r e v o l v e s a b o u t th e u s e o f
i n t e r n e s a s s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s and th e u s e o f i n t e r n e s t o t a k e th e p la c e
1
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131
o f e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r s who a r e g iv e n s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e .
s t i t u t e r e p la c e m e n t?
Does t h i s co n ­
I t i s n o t g e n e r a l l y c o n s id e r e d s o .
In th e o p in io n o f th e w r i t e r , t h e r e g u l a r u s e o f i n t e r n e s a s
s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s m ig h t b e c o n s tr u e d t o b e a v i o l a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e .
I f t h e i n t e r n e s d i d n 't do t h e s u b s t i t u t i n g , a p a id s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r ,
o f t e n a m a r r ie d woman an d a n e x p e rie n c e d and good t e a c h e r , w ould be
c a l l e d i n te m p o r a r il y t o r e p l a c e t h e r e g u l a r c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r .
From t h e
s ta n d p o i n t o f th e p u p i l s , t h i s w ould seem t o t h e w r i t e r t o be a b e t t e r
s o l u t i o n o f t h e p ro b lem th a n t o e x p e c t th e i n t e r n e t o f i t i n t o w h a t, a t
b e s t, i s a d i f f ic u l t s itu a tio n .
I n many c a s e s , s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s a r e
c a l l e d i n t o t h e c la s s ro o m w ith o u t tim e f o r a d e q u a te p r e p a r a t i o n , th e y
a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h th e p u p i l s , th e y re m a in a n i n s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h o f
tim e t o s e e th e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n .
T h is c a n h a r d l y be c a l l e d
a n e x p e r ie n c e j u s t i f i e d p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f i t s v a lu e i n d e v e lo p in g
t e a c h in g c o m p eten ce, th e m a jo r c r i t e r i o n w h ic h s h o u ld d e te rm in e th e
a c t i v i t i e s w hich e n t e r i n t o th e i n t e r n e s h i p program .
T h ere a r e a number o f d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s who would
d i s a g r e e w ith t h e w r i t e r 's p o in t o f v iew .
The T u ilm ington, D e la w a re ,
c a d e t t e a c h in g p l a n was e s t a b l i s h e d w ith s u b s t i t u t e te a c h in g a s one o f
i t s two m a jo r p u r p o s e s , t h e o t h e r s t a t e d p u rp o s e b e in g t o b r i d g e t h e g ap
b e tw e e n t h e c la s s ro o m an d th e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
S to u ffe r
w rite s :
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132
One im p o r ta n t f e a t u r e o f t h e W ilm ington p la n i s t h a t
much o f t h e s u b s t i t u t i n g i s done by t h e c a d e t t e a c h e r .
U nder th e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s te m , s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h in g i s
g e n e r a l l y done by a g ro u p o f t e a c h e r s who h av e p r e v i o u s ly
b e e n a p p ro v e d f o r t h i s work a n d who a r e c a l l e d upon from
tim e t o tim e a s t h e n eed a r i s e s .
I n m o st i n s t a n c e s t h e
c h i e f i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s e p e o p le l i e o u t s i d e t h e c la s s ro o m .
M o re o v e r, t h e good t e a c h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o be em ployed;
v a c a n c ie s o c c u r s u d d e n ly a n d t h e s u p e r i n te n d e n t i s o f t e n
co m p e lle d t o t a k e anybody he c a n g e t . S in c e i n many
i n s t a n c e s t h e i r s e r v i c e s a r e n eed ed f o r o n ly a few d a y s
a t a tim e , o r ev en l e s s , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r any
s u b s t i t u t e , how ever c o m p e te n t, t o r e n d e r e f f e c t i v e
s e rv ic e .^
H e re , t h e n , i s a n i s s u e i n th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
S hould s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h in g b e c o n s id e r e d a d e s i r a b l e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program ?
Does i t v i o l a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e p l a c i n g e x p e rie n c e d and
m ore e x p e n s iv e t e a c h e r s ?
The i s s u e i s a n im p o r ta n t one b e c a u s e s e v e r a l
i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ram s a tte m p t t o pay t h e i r way by means o f th e s u b s t i t u t e
te a c h in g done by i n t e r n e s .
Two i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e t o t h e r e m u n e ra tio n t o be r e ­
c e iv e d by th e i n t e r n e :
P r i n c i p l e X X X III—The a d v a n ta g e s o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and e x p e rie n c e
i n £ s c h o o l sy ste m c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th s h o u ld be c o n s id e r e d
p a r t o f t h e c o m p e n sa tio n g iv e n t h e i n t e r n e f o r h i s s e r v i c e s .
P r i n c i p l e XXXiy— The i n t e r n e s h o u ld r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e ra tio n
t o c o v e r minimum l i v i n g e x p e n se s a t l e a s t .
4
S . M. S t o u f f e r , "The C adet T e a c h e r ," S c h o o lm a n 's Week P r o c e e d i n g s ,
T w e n ty -F o u rth a n n u a l M e e tin g , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia B u l l e t i n ( P h i l a ­
d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y lv a n ia , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 250.
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133
P u t t i n g t h e s e two p r i n c i p l e s t o g e t h e r i t c a n be s a id t h a t l e a d e r s
i n t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n ta k e t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t w h ile th e i n t e r n e sh o u ld r e ­
c e iv e s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e ra tio n t o m eet minimum l i v i n g e x p e n s e s , he m ust
e x p e c t p a r t o f h i s reim b u rse m e n t to be i n t h e form o f th e i n - s e r v i c e
t r a i n i n g he r e c e i v e s .
T here i s w ide v a r i a t i o n i n th e o b s e rv a n c e o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s .
The
n a tu r e o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program h as c o n s id e r a b le to do w ith th e sa la ry p a id th e i n t e r n e .
In d e e d , i t h as a lr e a d y b e e n n o te d t h a t i n s e v e r a l i n ­
s t a n c e s , th e i n t e r n e s h i p program i s c o n s id e r e d co m p arab le t o g r a d u a te work
i n a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and a t u i t i o n f e e ch arg ed t h e i n t e r n e .
T h is f e e r u n s a s h ig h a s $350 i n one i n t e r n e s h i p program .
T h ere i s some­
t h i n g t o b e s a i d f o r program s s p o n s o rin g t h i s ty p e o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
They
make a n h o n e s t e f f o r t t o g iv e t o th e i n t e r n e a w e ll-ro u n d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a tio n i n th e c o u rs e o f a y e a r .
T h e ir se m in a r and c o n fe r e n c e g ro u p s a r e
w e ll p la n n e d and u n d e r co m p eten t l e a d e r s .
s u p e r v i s io n .
T h e ir i n t e r n e s a r e g iv e n a d e q u a te
Young p e o p le who a r e and have b e e n i n t e r n e s i n t h i s ty p e o f
program have o f t e n s t a t e d t o th e w r i t e r t h a t t h e y c o n s id e r t h e i r y e a r o f
i n t e r n e s h i p o f m ore v a lu e to them t h a n any o f t h e i r u n d e rg r a d u a te y e a r s i n
c o lle g e .
The d e a n o f one o f t h e s e p ro g ra m s, a s k e d i f she w ish ed th e y
d i d n 't have t o have a t u i t i o n c h a rg e , r e p l i e d t h a t she would l i k e t o s e e
th e t u i t i o n c h a rg e re d u c e d f o r many young p e o p le b u t t h a t she w ould n e v e r
w ant i t e n t i r e l y rem oved.
She S a id t h a t t h e p e rs o n s c o o p e r a tin g i n th e
i n t e r n e s h i p program f e l t more o f a n o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e i n t e r n e b e c a u s e th e
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134
in te r n e was paying t u i t i o n , and, th e r e fo r e , did t h e ir utmost to se e th a t
th e in te r n e was giv en th e exp erien ces which would co n trib u te most to
making him a good te a c h e r .
Most in tern esh ip programs, though, are not o f t h i s s o r t .
When
le a d e rs in teacher ed u cation endorsed th e t h ir t y - t h ir d and t h ir ty -fo u r th
p r in c ip le s th ey were th in k in g o f an in te r n e sh ip program in which b a sic
courses f o r p r o fe s s io n a l ed u cation had alread y been completed w ith th e
c o lle g e graduate ready to s te p in to a tea ch in g s it u a t io n on more or
l e s s o f a try -o u t b a s is .
They expected th at the in tern e would render
many s e r v ic e s o f d ecided value to the sch ool and th a t to avoid e x p lo it a t io n ,
th e sch o o l system should pay the in tern e at le a s t enough to cover minimum
li v in g exp en ses,
.assuming minimum liv in g expenses to be a t l e a s t $600,
not more than e ig h t o f the tw enty-one in tern esh ip programs conform to
t h is p r in c ip le .
Of th ese e ig h t , two report a $500 minimum w ith in te r n e s
sometimes r e c e iv in g more.
The wide v a r ie ty o f arrangements made i s
in d ica te d in the fo llo w in g ta b le :
TABLE XVII
AGREKmTS BETWEEN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM AND THE IETEHNE
CONCERNING AEtvIUKERATION TO BE GIVEN THE MTEKEES
F in a n c ia l Arrangement
$1200 (ju n io r and sen io r high sch ool
in t e r n e s ) ; $1000 (in te r n e s in
grades one to s ix )
1
In tern esh ip Program in
Which t h is i s the
Arrangement
Mt. Lebanon
Starred item s in d ic a te th a t t u it io n a t the coop erating te a c h e r tr a in in g in s t it u t io n must be paid out o f th e sa la r y r e c e iv e d .
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135
TABLE XVII (continued)
AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE SCHOOL SYSTM AND THE INTERNE
CONCERNING REMUNERATION TO BE GIVEN THE INTERNE
F in a n c ia l Arrangement
In tern esh ip Program in
Which t h i s i s the
Arrangement____________
1
B r a in tr e e , M assachusetts
Range t h is y e a r , $750-$1050*
1
U n iv e r s ity o f I l l i n o i s
$750*
1
Grosse P o in te , M ichigan
$60 per month'
1
Omaha, Nebraska-
$3 per day
1
Kansas C ity , Kansas
$500 minimum*
2
Northwestern U n iv e r s ity
and New York U n iv e r s ity
$500*
1
R oslyn, New York
$25 per month
1
w estern Maryland C ollege
$400*
1
U n iv e r s ity o f C in cin n a ti
N eith er t u it io n nor s a la r y
1
Beaver Country Day School
In tern e pays t u it io n a t te a c h e r tr a in in g in s t it u t io n ; r e c e iv e s
no sa la ry
Arrangement v a r ie s from sch o o l to
sch o o l; e ith e r no s a la r y , a very
sm all s a la r y , or board and room
giv e n in tern e
D irecto r o f in tern esh ip program
f a il e d to rep ort f in a n c ia l
arrangements
Brown U n iv e r sity
U n iv e r s ity o f Pennsylvania
Wayne U n iv e r s ity
C ooperative School fo r
Teachers
Graduate Teachers C o llege
Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia
U n iv e r s ity
F rien d s' S ch ools
Oklahoma C ity , Oklahoma
W illis t o n Academy
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136
Thus, i t can be said th a t only a few in te r n e sh ip programs are ob servin g
the t h ir t y - f o u r t h p r in c ip le , th a t in tern es should r e c e iv e s u f f i c ie n t
rem uneration to cover minimum liv in g exp en ses.
P r in cip l e XXXV—The le n g th o f th e period o f in te r n e s h ip should be
con tin gen t upon the progress made by th e in d iv id u a l in tern e and th e in ­
t erne* s p r o fic ie n c y ra th er than upon an a rb itr a r y time a llo tm e n t.
At f i r s t t h is p r in c ip le seams a t odds w ith another p r in c ip le en­
dorsed by le a d e r s in tea ch er ed u cation and d iscu ssed e a r lie r in t h is
t h e s i s , p r in c ip le e le v e n , th e period o f in tern esh ip should be a t l e a s t a
year in le n g th .
L iiscussing t h is p oin t w ith d ir e c to r s o f in te r n e sh ip pro­
grams, th e consensus o f op in ion seemed to be th a t a year i s looked upon
as a minimum le n g th o f tim e fo r the in tern esh ip p erio d , and th a t beyond
t h is p o in t th e in t e r n e ’ s p rogress and p r o fic ie n c y should determ ine the
len gth o f the period o f in te r n e s h ip .
P r a c tic a l c o n sid era tio n s make i t n ecessa ry fo r both sch o o l ad­
m in istr a to r and in te r n e to agree upon a c e r ta in period as c o n s titu tin g at
le a s t th e i n i t i a l in tern esh ip p erio d .
p eriod .
A year i s th e commonly s p e c ifie d
This i s th e case in sev en teen o f th e tw enty-one in tern esh ip pro­
grams stu d ie d .
In th ree o f th e in tern esh ip programs, the in te r n e sh ip period
i s a sem ester in le n g th .
One d ir e c to r o f in tern esh ip did not s t a t e th e
le n g th o f th e ir program; presumably i t i s a year period.
P r in c ip le XXXVI—P ro v isio n should be made fo r th e term in a tio n o f an
in te r n e sh ip appointment whenever i t seems d e s ir a b le from th e standpoint o f
e ith e r party th a t In tern esh ip be term inated .
Because o f the absence o f
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137
contracts in many interneship programs, n o th in i s said to internes re­
garding provisions for terminating interneship.
In interneship programs
sponsored and directed by teacher-training in s titu tio n s , an interne can he
dropped from the Interneship program just as he can he dropped from the
graduate school.
In two o f the school systems, the in tern e's services
are subject to termination on the same b asis as the services o f any other
teacher.
By and large, l i t t l e attention has been paid to the point of
making d e fin ite provision for termination o f interneship in any agreement
between the interne and the school system.
In most cases, the need for
terminating interneship because o f unpleasant circumstances has never
arisen .
I t has been the p olicy o f interneship programs to release internes
from th e ir r e s p o n sib ilitie s and ob ligations i f they have an opportunity
to taka a p o sitio n as a regular teacher.
This has happened in a number
o f cases in which internes have f i l l e d sudden vacancies occurring in
school systems in riiich they were internes.
In a l l such cases
y r i t h
which the w riter i s fam iliar, the interne has been paid the salary of a
beginning teacher in the system from the time he accepted the regular
p o sitio n .
Although the need for a d e fin ite stip u lation concerning termina­
tio n o f interneship apparently has never been put to a cru cial t e s t , i f
an interneship program accepts the point o f view advocated in th is th e sis ,
that there be a d e fin ite contractual agreement, i t seems wise to include
provision fo r termination o f the interneship as one element in that
agreement.
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138
S p e c ia liz e d su p erv iso ry p erso n n el. —I t has a lrea d y been noted th a t
a number o f d iffe r e n t in d iv id u a ls serve in a su p erv iso ry c a p a c ity in
g
connection w ith in te r n e s h ip .
B esid es the coop erating teacher (in
in tern esh ip programs u sin g th e coop eratin g tea ch er p la n ), the average
in tern e r e c e iv e s a id from th ree d if f e r e n t su p e r v iso r s.
The part th ese
persons p lay in in tern esh ip i s b e s t d escrib ed by the fo llo w in g g e n e r a lizat io n s :
1.
The s p e c ia liz e d s t a f f member most freq u en tly performing
su pervisory fu n c tio n s i s th e sch o o l p r in c ip a l.
In the average in tern esh ip
program, each in tern e is v is it e d by th e sch o o l p r in c ip a l four or f iv e
tim es in th e course o f th e in tern esh ip y ear.
Often th e p r in c ip a l's v i s i t
to th e in te r n e 's classroom is fo llo w ed by an in d iv id u a l con ference; a t
any r a t e , th e p r in c ip a l holds about as many in d iv id u a l con feren ces as
he has classroom v i s i t s .
The p r in c ip a l serv es a s a su p erv iso r in n in eteen
in tern esh ip programs.
2.
In th ir te e n in tern esh ip programs, a l l o f th e in tern esh ip pro­
grams in which there are coop eratin g te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s , a
su pervisor from th e te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n c a r r ie s a la r g e share
o f the su pervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
Often t h is su p ervisor i s th e same
person who is reco g n ized a s the d ir e c to r o f th e in tern esh ip program.
Intern es in programs o f t h i s type are v is it e d on th e average o f s ix tim es
a
a year byyjrepresentative o f the te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t it u t io n . Many more
con ferences are held than th ere are classroom v i s i t s .
One reason fo r
6 Sugra, pp. 100, 101.
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139
t h i s i s th a t th e in te r n e s ' sem inars sponsored hy te a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t i t u ­
t io n s b rin g in tern es t o th e campus from many s c a tte r e d p o in ts; in d iv id u a l
con feren ces are e a s i l y scheduled b efore and a f t e r seminar m eetin g s.
It
would seem th a t th e th ir ty -s e v e n th p r in c ip le , th a t one or more members o f
th e s t a f f o f _a te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n co o p era tin g in th e in tern esh ip
program should have d e f in it e r e s p o n s i b ili t ie s in co n n ectio n w ith the
su p e rv isio n o f in t e r n e s , i s a s w e ll observed as any o f th e in tern esh ip
p r in c ip le s which have been c it e d in t h i s stud y.
3.
The superintendent o f s c h o o ls v i s i t s in tern es in te n in tern e­
sh ip programs, each in tern e b ein g v i s i t e d an average o f th ree to f iv e tim es
in the course o f th e y ea r.
The number o f in d iv id u a l co n feren ces h eld by
the su perin ten d en t i s sm a ller than the number o f classroom v i s i t s .
4.
In th ree in tern esh ip programs, a p a r tic u la r person is d esig n ated
by th e su perin ten d en t t o rep resen t him in a d m in isterin g and su p e rv isin g
th e in tern esh ip program.
T h is person i s the D irec to r o f In str u c tio n in
one in tern esh ip program, th e D irec to r o f S t a t i s t i c s and Guidance in
another, and a Coordinator o f S tu dent-T eaching, an a d m in istr a tiv e o f f ic e r
w ith oth er d u t ie s , in th e th ir d .
Where th ese r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been
s p e c i f i c a l l y d eleg a ted to th e s e in d iv id u a ls , more in d iv id u a l co n feren ces
are h eld w ith in tern es than are held when th e su perintendent attem p ts to
carry on su p ervisory fu n c tio n s .
In f a c t , in d iv id u a l co n feren ces are much
more freq u en t than classroom v i s i t s .
5.
In a number o f in tern esh ip programs a s p e c ia l su b ject or
departm ental su p e rv iso r employed by th e lo c a l sch o o l system v i s i t s and
holds co n feren ces w ith in te r n e s .
The ex ten t t o which th e s e persons
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p a r tic ip a te in th e in tern esh ip program v a r ie s not o n ly from sch o o l system
to sch o o l system hut w ith in th e same system depending upon th e department
or su b ject in which th e in tern e is doing h is te a c h in g .
D irectors o f in te r n e ­
sh ip programs, asked th e number o f v i s i t s made and con feren ces h eld by
departm ental su p e r v iso r s, r e p lie d w ith the s in g le word " varies" so f r e ­
q u en tly th a t t h i s is th e o n ly fin d in g th e w r ite r can r e p o r t.
6.
su b jec t f i e l d
A member o f an academic departm ent, a s p e c i a l i s t in the
in which the in tern e is te a c h in g , v i s i t s th e in tern e in
two in te r n e sh ip programs.
Brown U n iv e r sity makes d e f in it e p ro v isio n
fo r such su p e r v isio n in i t s p lan .
The s t a f f members making the v i s i t s
a ls o hold in d iv id u a l con feren ces w ith in te r n e s .
At w estern Maryland
C o lle g e , p r o v isio n is made fo r one such v i s i t and two co n feren ces in the
on e-sem ester in te r n e sh ip program.
In two o th er in tern esh ip programs,
" occasional" v i s i t s by fa c u lty members in academic departments are
planned; th e w r ite r fe a r s th ey are v ery " o cca sio n a l."
In th e op in ion o f the w r ite r , i t i s h ig h ly r e g r e tta b le that members
o f academic departments in te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s aren ’ t more
freq u en tly drawn in to th e in tern esh ip program.
In tern es would, no doubt,
ap p recia te t h e ir a id , and the important th in g i s th a t th e in tern esh ip
program might draw to g e th e r department o f ed u cation members and members
o f academic departm ents in a common e n te r p r is e .
Any one a t a l l fa m ilia r
w ith c o lle g e a d m in istra tio n knows the clea v a g e which o fte n sep a ra tes
th ese two groups.
With so many d if f e r e n t persons p a r tic ip a tin g in th e su p e rv isio n
A
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141
o f the in tern esh ip program, th ere i s a d e f in it e need fo r some one person
to co o rd in a te and in te g r a te su p erv iso ry a c t i v i t i e s .
aimed a t t h i s p o in t :
P r in c ip le XXXVIII i s
Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s in con n ection w ith in te r n e ­
sh ip should be coordinated by the su perin ten d en t o f sch o o ls or by some
one person d esig n a ted by him.
In a c t u a lit y , a number o f d if f e r e n t persons
are r e sp o n sib le fo r co o rd in a tin g su p e rv isio n in d if f e r e n t in tern esh ip
programs.
The su perin ten d en t o f sch o o ls ta k es i t upon h im se lf to perform
t h is fu n c tio n in but one in tern esh ip program, although in a second in ­
ter n e sh ip program, th e superintendent and th e su p erv iso r from th e
te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n share a jo in t r e s p o n s i b ili t y fo r co o rd in a tio n
o f su p e r v isio n .
In th r e e in tern esh ip programs, a s noted above, a member
o f th e lo c a l sch o o l s t a f f r ep re se n ts th e su perin ten d en t in th e su p e rv isio n
o f in te r n e s .
7
In th e s e c a s e s , t h i s person a ls o assumes r e s p o n s ib ilit y
fo r co o rd in a tin g su p e r v isio n .
The sch o o l p r in c ip a l co o rd in a tes super­
v is io n in fou r in te r n e sh ip programs; and in some o f th e p r iv a te s c h o o ls ,
a member o f th e f a c u lt y i s appointed by th e headmaster to d ir e c t and co­
o rd in a te su p e rv isio n o f th e in tern esh ip program.
The person rep resen tin g
th e te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n in the d ir e c t io n o f the in te r n e sh ip pro­
gram c o o rd in a tes su p e rv isio n in s i x in te r n e sh ip programs, th e one person
most fr e q u e n tly r e sp o n sib le fo r coo rd in a tin g su p e r v isio n .
In f i v e in ­
te r n e sh ip programs no one person i s l i s t e d a s being r e sp o n sib le fo r
co ord in a tin g s u p e r v isio n .
In fou r o f th ese f i v e programs, th ree d if f e r e n t
in d iv id u a ls are carryin g o n .su p ervisory a c t i v i t i e s .
I t would seem a
7 Supra, p . 159.
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sound recommendation that some one o f the three be given the resp o n sib ility
for seeing that supervision i s correlated.
I t i s d if f ic u lt to estim ate the number of cases in which the
superintendent has formally designated some one person to coordinate the
supervision o f the interneship program.
I t i s probable that th is designa-
tio n has been made ty the cooperating teacher-training in s titu tio n as
often as i t has been made hy the superintendent.
There i s a tendency for
many cooperating teacher-training in stitu tio n s to regard interneship as
th e ir program rather than as the program of the lo ca l school.
cases th is i s understandable.
In many
Interneship would not have been started
i f i t hadn*t been fo r the in it ia t iv e o f the teacher-training in stitu tio n
which saw the need for th is type o f professional education and which
sold the superintendent on the m erits o f i t .
Having gotten interneship
under way, the control and d irection o f interneship tends to remain with
the teacher-training In stitu tio n .
At the present time, se le c tio n , supers
v isio n , and placement o f internes are functions o f the cooperating teachertraining in stitu tio n rather than the resp o n sib ility o f the lo c a l school
adm inistrator.
Where the seat o f control should be i s a debatable issu e.
The w riter has maintained before and reitera te s again that i f interaeship i s to be in a r e a lis t ic settin g , the interne must be responsible
prim arily and d ire ctly to the lo ca l school adm inistrator.8
This i s
not to minimize the importance of the part a cooperating teacher-trainin g in s titu tio n plays in interneship and the n ecessity o f interneship
8 Supra, pp. 86-87.
•m L .
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143
being a jo in t e n te r p r ise in v o lv in g th e te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n and
th e lo c a l sch o o l system .
I f in tern esh ip is to be an a r tic u la te d part
o f th e p r o fe s s io n a l ed u cation o f te a c h e r s, the coop eratin g tea ch er tr a in in g in s t it u t io n must p a r tic ip a te in the determ ination and d ir e c tio n
o f th e in tern esh ip program.
But the b a sic r e s p o n s ib ilit y o f th e lo c a l
sch o o l ad m in istrator must never be d isregarded or g lo ssed o v er.
If. a
member o f the f a c u lt y o f a te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n i s t o be r e ­
sp o n sib le fo r th e co o rd in a tio n of su p e r v isio n , i t should be understood
by in tern es and su p erv iso rs a lik e th a t he d e r iv e s h is r e s p o n s ib ilit y
and a u th o rity from th e lo c a l sch o o l a d m in istra to r.
T ea ch er-tra in in g in s t it u t io n s sponsoring in tern esh ip as a part
o f th e ir tea ch er-ed u ca tio n program need not fe a r such a p oin t o f view .
Because they are fr e e t o s e le c t th e sch o o ls which are to coop erate in
the in tern esh ip program, th ey hold th e whip hand in the determ ination
of p o lic ie s .
The a c tu a l a d m in istra tio n o f th e in tern esh ip program,
though, must be ca rr ied out by the lo c a l sch o o l ad m in istrator i f in te r n e ­
ship i s to be in a s e t t in g approximating a t a l l the co n d itio n s under
which th e in tern e w i l l fin d h im self when he r e c e iv e s permanent appoint­
ment .
In c lo sin g t h i s s e c tio n on s p e c ia liz e d su p ervisory p erson n el,
i t should be p oin ted out th a t w ith the average interne having aid
a v a ila b le to him from th ree a iffe i'e n t so u rces, with tw elve to f i f t e e n
classroom v i s i t s paid him in th e course o f a year by s p e c ia liz e d
su p e rv iso rs, w ith as many or more in d iv id u a l co n fere n c es, the in tern e
is w ithout q u estion re c e iv in g much b e t t e r su p erv isio n than the average
,A
L
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144
b eginning te a c h e r .
Indeed, in tern esh ip i s making r e a l s t r id e s towards
r e a liz in g i t s g o a l o f p rovid in g a scheme o f in d u ction in which th ere i s
adequate and competent su p e rv isio n a t the time o f in d u ctio n .
Seminar and group conference proced u res. —The c o r r e la te d work in
theory ca r r ie d on by in tern es can be grouped in th ree c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s :
group co n feren ces sponsored by the lo c a l sch ool system and attended by a l l
in tern es; seminars d ea lin g w ith in tern esh ip problems sponsored by th e
coop eratin g te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n ; regu lar graduate cou rses o ffered
by a te a c h e r -tr a in in g in s t it u t io n in which in tern es r e g i s t e r .
I t has alread y been noted th a t in s ix te e n in tern esh ip programs,
lo c a l sch o o l system s sponsor group con feren ces fo r in te r n e s.^
Inquiry r e ­
v e a ls th a t in most in sta n ces th e se con ferences are d ir e c te d by a p r in c ip a l
or su p erv iso r a ssign ed t h i s r e s p o n s ib ilit y by th e su p erin ten d en t; th a t such
group m eetings are rath er in fr e q u e n t, once a month or o fte n e r in but s ix
in tern esh ip programs (Table X V III); th a t few in d iv id u a ls connected w ith the
in tern esh ip program b e sid e s the in tern es and th e person in charge o f the
m eeting a tten d ; th a t by and la r g e , con feren ces sponsored by lo c a l sch o o l
system s are not considered a b a s ic part o f the in tern esh ip program.
To
be su re, th ere are some o u tstan d in g ex cep tio n s to th ese g e n e r a liz a tio n s .
Grosse P o in te , M ichigan, P rovid en ce, Rhode Islan d (Brown U n iv e r s ity ’ s
in tern esh ip program), Oklahoma C ity , Omaha, Nebraska, and most of the
p r iv a te sch o o ls sponsoring in tern esh ip are conducting r e g u la r ly scheduled
group m eetings d e a lin g w ith th e in te r n e 's immediate problem s.
9 Supra, p. 100.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.-S. M It-i-'*'
1^5
TABLE XVIII
FHEQDENCY OF MEETING OF GROUP CONFERENCES CONDUCTED
BY SIXTEEN LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS
Frequency o f meeting
No. of interneship
programs having
group conferences
th is frequently
Weekly
"Usually once a week f i r s t semester; once a
month thereafter."
1
Twice a month
2
"Every two or three weeks"
1
Monthly
2
Six times a year
1
Four times a year
1
"Two to six times a year"
"Occasionally hut not regularly
"Varies"
.
1
5
1
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146
One o f t h e m ost i n t e r e s t i n g t y p e s o f c o n f e r e n c e g r o u p s , s p o n s o re d
i n p a r t by t h e l o c a l s c h o o l , i s t h e combined g ro u p m e e t in g h e l d r e g u l a r l y
by i n t e r n e s i n f i f t e e n o r t w e n ty F r i e n d s ' s c h o o l s .
Edna H. V a n s a n t,
S e c r e t a r y o f t h e F r i e n d s ' C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , d e s c r i b e s t h e s e m e e t i n g s :
The I n t e r n e C o u n c i l , w hich i n c l u d e s t h e i n t e r n e s i n
a l l t h e F r i e n d s ' s c h o o l s , h o l d s m e e t i n g s a b o u t once a
m onth f o r t h e e n t i r e g r o u p . F o r t h e p a s t two y e a r s t h e y
have c h o s e n a t o p i c a s t h e c o r e o f t h e i r t h i n k i n g f o r t h e
y e a r . L a s t y e a r , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y had f o r t h e i r t o p i c
" E d u c a t io n f o r Democracy" a ro u n d w h ic h t h e y p la n n e d
s e v e r a l v ery f in e m ee tin g s. T his y e a r th e y a re c o n s id e rin g
"Unique F u n c t io n o f F r i e n d s ’ S c h o o l s i n a Community." The
f i r s t m e e tin g i n c l u d e d a p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n o f p r i n c i p a l s
s p u r r e d on by a n a c t i v e and t h i n k i n g i n t e r n e g r o u p . 1 0
Even th o u g h r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u le d i n t e r n e s ' s e m i n a r s a r e n ' t s p o n s o re d
v e r y w i d e l y b y l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m s , i t d o e s n ' t f o l l o w t h a t p r o v i s i o n
i s n ' t made f o r g ro u p m e e t in g s o f i n t e r n e s .
N e a rly a l l o f th e c o o p e ra tin g
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s s p o n s o r such s e m i n a r s .
s e m in a r s m eet r e g u l a r l y — on c e
t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s .
M o re o v e r, t h e s e
a week f o r a tw o - h o u r p e r i o d i n m ost i n ­
The se m in a r a t N o r t h w e s te r n U n i v e r s i t y i s t y p i c a l
o f t h o s e s p o n s o re d by s c h o o l s and d e p a r t m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n :
Each S a t u r d a y m orning d u r in g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p e r i o d
t h e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d a t w o - h o u r s e m i n a r on t h e U n i v e r s i t y
cam pus. They m eet i n a n a t t r a c t i v e room i n D e e r in g
L i b r a r y w hich i s e q u ip p e d w i t h t a b l e s , c o m f o r t a b l e
c h a i r s , window d r a p e r i e s , and am ple l i b r a r y s h e l v e s .
The p u rp o s e o f t h e S a t u r d a y s e m in a r i s t o p r o v i d e op­
p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f problem s e n ­
c o u n te red in te a c h in g , f o r re c o u n tin g i n t e r e s t i n g
e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e j o b , a nd f o r d i s c u s s i n g and c a r r y i n g
f o rw a r d i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e improvement
o f t e a c h i n g . The t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n a r e n o t l a i d o u t
i n a d v a n c e , b u t g e n e r a l l y emerge o u t o f r e a l t e a c h i n g
e x p e r i e n c e s . A few o f t h e m e e t i n g s , how ever, a r e d e ­
v o t e d t o p r e s e n t a t i o n s by s t a f f members o f c u r r e n t
^
Edna H. V a n s a n t, L e t t e r . December
8
, 1939.
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147
t r e n d s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s , m eth o d s , and c u r r i c u l a o f
e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . S t u d e n t s a r e alw ays
e n c o u ra g e d t o r e a c t a s f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e t o such p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n s . The s e m in a rs a r e o f a. c o o p e r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r
i n w h ic h v a r i o u s members o f t h e s t a f f p a r t i c i p a t e from
tim e t o t i m e , s e v e r a l o f them u s u a l l y a t t e n d e a c h
m e e tin g .H
I n t a l k i n g w i t h i n t e r n e s , t h e w r i t e r found t h a t m ost i n t e r n e s a r e
e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p s e m in a rs and c o n s i d e r them an i n v a l u a b l e
p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram .
In te rn e s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p re c ia te t h e i r
’' p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e . " ^
In s p i t e o f t h e i r a p p a re n t s u c c e ss, th e w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t s e v e r a l
s u g g e s t i o n s c a n be made r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e s e s e m i n a r s .
Co­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s (or p e r s o n s d e s i g n a t e d
by t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o be in c h a rg e o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s) r a r e l y
a t t e n d and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e s e m i n a r s .
One d i r e c t o r o f an i n t e r n e s h i p
program r e p o r t s t h a t c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a t t e n d v e r y o c c a s i o n a l l y b e c au se
o f t h e d i s t a n c e o f some o f t h e s c h o o ls from t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
I f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a r e made t o f e e l t h e y have a p l a c e i n t h e s e m in a r ,
th o u g h , t h e y , l i k e t h e i n t e r n e s , w i l l p r o b a b l y d r i v e t w e n ty o r t h i r t y
m i l e s f o r a S a t u r d a y m orning m e e t in g .
A n o th e r g ro u p r a r e l y i n v i t e d i n t o
t h e i n t e r n e s ' s e m in a r c o n s i s t s o f the c o l l e g e s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e v a r i o u s
s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f i e l d s i n w hich i n t e r n e s a r e t e a c h i n g .
The w r i t e r h a s
p r e v i o u s l y v o i c e d h i s v ie w s on d raw ing t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram .
13
I t sh o u ld n e v e r be f o r g o t t e n t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p " i s a
W. G. B r i n k , " I n t e r n e s h i p T e a c h in g i n t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a ti o n
o f T e a ch e rs," E d u c a tio n a l A d m in istra tio n and S u p e r v is io n . 2 3 :9 5 -9 5 ,
F e b r u a r y , 19371
12
T h e se s e m in a rs a r e c o n d u c te d by t h e member o f t h e c o l l e g e s t a f f
i n c h a rg e o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
S u p r a . p . 140.
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148
c o o p e r a t i v e u n d e r t a k i n g i n which e v e r y one c o n c e r n e d , from s u p e r i n t e n d e n t
t o c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r , makes an e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . " ^
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n t e r n e s ' s e m i n a r s , m o st i n t e r n e s r e g i s t e r f o r
some g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s i n t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
in stitu tio n .
The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s tim e s p e n t i n g r a d u a t e work o f t h i s s o r t
v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s .
T a b le XIX shows t h i s
wide v a r i a t i o n .
The amount o f g r a d u a t e w ork, o f c o u r s e , i s d e p e n d en t i n p a r t on
t h e ty p e o f i n t e r n e s h i p program i n w hich a n i n t e r n e i s w o r k in g .
Con­
s i d e r a b l e tim e h a s t o be s p e n t i n c o r r e l a t e d c o u r s e work when t h e i n t e r n e
has had l i t t l e p r e - s e r v i c e work i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and i s a t t e m p t i n g
t o crowd h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n t o one y e a r .
The w r i t e r i s o f t h e
o p i n i o n t h a t f o r i n t e r n e s who have c o m p le te d b a s i c c o u r s e s in e d u c a t i o n ,
very l i t t l e
g r a d u a t e work s h o u ld be c a r r i e d on by t h e i n t e r n e b e s i d e s t h e
i n t e r n e s ' s e m in a r, not more t h a n one c o u r s e a s e m e s te r a t a ny r a t e .
One
o f th e r e a s o n s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n t e r n e s h i p was t h a t t h e a v e r a g e
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r had t o o heavy a s c h e d u l e , was o v e rb u r d e n e d , and l i v e d a
h a rrie d e x iste n c e .
T h i s i s s t i l l t r u e i n some i n t e r n e s h i p program s in
w hich t h e i n t e r n e i s e x p e c te d t o spend o n e - t h i r d t o o n e - h a l f o f h i s tim e
in c a r r y i n g on g r a d u a t e w ork.
I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e t h i r d m ost f r e ­
q u e n t c o m p l a in t made by i n t e r n e s i n l i s t i n g t h e draw backs o f i n t e r n e s h i p
i s t h a t c o u rse s a t th e c o o p e ra tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n tak e to o
much tim e and e n e r g y .
15
One c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e w r i t e r
^ " A p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n , " Chicago S c h o o ls J o u r n a l .
1 6 :8 5 , M arch, 1935.
1 5
I n f r a , pp. 176-77-
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABIE XIX
PROPORTION OF AN INTERNE’S T B S SPENT IN GRADUATE WORK
(IN ADDITION TO THE INTERNES’ SEMINAR)
IN THIRTEEN INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS
P o rtio n o f an i n te r n e ’ s
tim e s p e n t i n g r a d u a t e
w ork,
(b esid e s i n t e r n e s ’
___
s em inar)
"None" ( i n t e r n e s ' s e m in a r
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p
program s h a v in g
t h i s a rra n g e m e n t
o n ly )
1
" L im ite d t o one c o u r s e p e r te r m "
1
"Only i n t e r n e s ' s e m in a r r e q u i r e d . Some
i n t e r n e s c a r r y a s much a s s i x h o u rs
g r a d u a t e work, t h o u g h , i . e . o n e - h a l f
f u l l p ro g ra m ."
1
" O n e - f o u r th "
1
" O n e - f o u r th t o o n e - h a l f "
1
" F o u r h o u r s a week recommended; s i x h o u r s a
week a ll c w e d "
1
" O n e-th ird "
1
" I n t e r n e s ' s e m in a r r e q u i r e d .
I n t e r n e s may
t a k e o t h e r g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s in a d d i t i o n .
One o f our p ro b lem s i s t h a t s t u d e n t s
t r y t o crowd a l l o f t h e i r g r a d u a t e work
i n t o one y e a r i n c l u d i n g i n t e r n e s h i p . "
1
"One c o u r s e a s e m e s t e r i n a d d i t i o n t o i n t e r n e s ’
se m in a r i s t h e u s u a l p ro g ra m ; t h e maximum
i s t w e lv e h o u rs g r a d u a t e c r e d i t a y e a r . "
1
"About o n e - h a l f "
1
" S t u d e n t s spend t h e f i r s t f o u r d ays o f e a c h week
in t h e l o c a l s c h o o l . F r i d a y and S a t u r d a y th e y
come t o t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n ­
s t i t u t i o n f o r a f u l l w eek-end t r a i n i n g program
w hich i s p la n n e d a s a w h o le and d o e s n o t in v o lv e
s e le c ti o n o f p a r t i c u l a r c o u rs e s —a p p ro x im ately
f o u r t e e n h o u r s p e r w e e k ."
1
"About o n e - h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s t i m e . The se m in a r
c o u r s e s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s p r o g ra m ."
1
D i r e c t o r o f i n t e r n e s h i p program d id n o t s u p p ly t h i s
in fo rm a tio n .
1
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
150
f r a n k l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e work o f i n t e r n e s s u f f e r e d to w a rd t h e c l o s e o f
e v e r y s e m e s t e r when p a p e r s became due in c o u r s e s a t t h e c o o p e r a t i n g
te a c h e r-tra in in g in s titu tio n .
• One o f two p e r s o n s i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n m ost i n t e r n e s h i p program s
f o r g u id in g th e in te r n e in h is s e l e c t i o n of g rad u a te c o u rs e s , e i t h e r th e
p e r s o n on t h e s t a f f o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n in c h a r g e o f
i n t e r n e s h i p o r t h e s t u d e n t ’ s m a jo r a d v i s e r a t t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u ­
tio n .
I n c l o s i n g t h i s s e c t i o n on s e m in a r and g ro u p c o n f e r e n c e s , t h e im­
p o r t a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i n g s e m in a r and c o u r s e work w i t h a c t u a l t e a c h i n g pro b le m s
s h o u ld be s t r e s s e d :
The program i s one o f c o n s t a n t i n t e r p l a y betw een t h e
t e s t i n g o f t h e o r y i n t h e t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n and t h e d i r e c t ­
ing o f f u r t h e r s tu d y i n in d e p e n d e n t work, c o l l e g e c o u r s e s ,
o r s e m i n a r s i n te r m s o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r a c t i c a l
e x p e r i e n c e and t h e n e e d s grow ing o u t o f i t .
E v a l u a t i n g t h e work o f i n t e r n e s and t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m . —T hree
p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e t o th e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program :
P r l n c i p l e XXXIX—T here s h o u ld be c o n s t a n t e v a l u a t i o n o f th e p r o g r e s s
and g ro w th o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n e w i t h r e c o r d s k e p t c f t h i s
p r o g r e s s and g r o w t h .
P r i n c i p l e XL—The s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s i n s u b s e q u e n t p o s i t i o n s f o l l o w ­
in g t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be c a r e f u l l y c h e ck e d a s one
means o f a p p r a i s i n g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
P r i n c i p l e XLI—C r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
program s h o u ld be s o l i c i t e d from i n t e r n e s , c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , and
s u p e r v i s o r s i n o r d e r t o a p p r a i s e and improve t h e program o f i n t e r n e sh lp .
Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , A p p r a i s a l o f Mew C o l l e g e ,
o p . c i t . , p . 34.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Tie procedures employed by interneship programs in appraising the work of
internes and the worth of the interneship program are lis t e d in Table XX.
I t has been stated that "since in the la s t a n a ly sis, teachers are
trained in order that students might learn more e ffe c tiv e ly , i t i s lo g ic a l
to think that the only way to evaluate improvement in teaching i s to te st
pupil achievement."^7 Three interneship programs do use standardized
t e s t s in an e ffo r t to determine pupil accomplishment and thus to measure
the effectiv en ess o f the in tern e's teaching.
Since r e la tiv e ly few of the
major outcomes o f education can be measured by such means at the present
time, though, those supervising and administering the interneship plan turn
in most cases to rating sca les or other means o f reporting teaching which
measure q u a litie s seemingly possessed by the interne or the manner in which
the interne teaches.
Bating scales or other d e fin ite reports of interne
success are employed by cooperating teachers and supervisors in fif t e e n
interneship programs.
interneship plans.
Internes rate themselves using such scales in fiv e
Since s e lf-r a tin g i s generally conceded to be a valuable
supervisory procedure, i t i s regrettable that th is procedure is n 't employed
more frequently.
I t leads one to suspect that supervision and evaluation
o f the in tern e's work i s done much too often from the standpoint of marking
and rating rather than from the standpoint o f helping the interne to appraise,
understand, and overcome h is shortcomings.
The most frequently used method of appraising the interneship program
i s to request in ternes' opinions concerning the m erits and demerits of the
plan.
The suggestions of cooperating teachers and supervisors are also
^
Department o f Supervisors and Directors of Instnuction, " S cien tific
Method in Supervisory Programs," Seventh Yearbook (Hew York: Bureau of
P ublications, Teachers College, Columbia U niversity, 193*0, P* 92.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
152
TABLE XX
PROCEDURES EMPLOYED IN APPRAISING THE KCEK OE INTERNES
AND IN EVALUATING TEE INTERNESHIP PROGRAM
Procedure
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
em ploying t h i s p r o c e d u r e
A p p r a i s i n g t h e work o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
in te rn e:
R a t in g s c a l e s o r o t h e r d e f i n i t e
r e p o r t s o f i n t e r n e s u c c e s s used
by c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , s u p e r ­
v i s o r s , and o th e r s o b serv in g th e
work o f i n t e r n e s .
15
S e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e s u s e d by
in te rn e s.
5
T e s t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l know ledge.
3
T e s t s o f knowledge o f t h e s c h o o l
s y ste m .
P r o g r e s s made by p u p i l s a s
m easured by s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s .
A p p r a i s i n g th e i n t e r n e s h i p program :
C r itic is m s o f in te r n e s h ip p lan
s o l i c i t e d from i n t e r n e s .
17
C r itic is m s of in te r n e s h ip p lan
s o l i c i t e d from s u n e r v i s o r s .
13
C r itic is m s o f in te r n e s h ip p lan
s o l i c i t e d from c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
12
Success of in te rn e in subsequent
p o sitio n s.
12
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
153
so lic ite d .
Inasmuch a s t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program h a s a s i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l t h e
dev e lo p m en t of c o m p e te n t t e a c h e r s , t h e b e s t m ea su re o f t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e
program i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e e x t e n t t o which fo rm e r i n t e r n e s p ro v e s u c c e s s f u l
t e a c h e r s i n t h e p o s i t i o n s t h e y assume a f t e r i n t e r n e s h i p .
Twelve i n t e r n e s h i p
program s a t t e m p t t o d e te r m in e t h e s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s i n s u b s e q u e n t p o s i t i o n s .
T hat n i n e i n t e r n e s h i p program s make no e f f o r t t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n ­
d i c a t e s a s e r i o u s w eakness i n a number o f i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s .
As a m a t t e r o f
f a c t , t h e w hole pro b le m o f a u p r a i s a l o f th e work o f i n t e r n e s and e v a l u a t i o n
o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program i s one o f i n t e r n e s h i p ' s b i g g e s t p r o b le m s .
18
One
d i r e c t o r o f an i n t e r n e s h i p program who ha s been s t r i v i n g t o s o l v e t h i s
problem f r a n k l y a d m i t s , "V/e a r e s t i l l f u m b lin g b a d l y a t t h i s p o i n t . "
P la c e m e n t an d f o l l o w - u p . —Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f i n ­
t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld a s s i s t t h e s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e i n o b t a i n i n g employment
e i t h e r i n th e system in w h ic h he i s an i n t e r n e o r i n some o t h e r s y s te m .
( P r i n c i p l e XLII)
T h i s p r i n c i p l e i s c a r r i e d o u t t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r d e g re e in
p r a c t i c a l l y a l l i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
Only one i n t e r n e s h i p program f a i l e d
t o check a t l e a s t one o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e ite m s i n T able XXI, i te m s d e a l i n g
w ith p la c e m e n t o f i n t e r n e s .
In a p p ro x im ately h a l f o f th e in te r n e s h i p
p ro g ra m s, b o th t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e s c h o o l sy ste m
a s s i s t in te r n e s in p ro cu rin g p o s it i o n s .
In e ig h t of th e in te r n e s h ip pro­
gram s, t h e s c h o o l s y s te m e x p e c t s t h a t w i t h n orm al t u r n o v e r a l l i n t e r n e s
1 8
S u p r a , p . 45.
I n f r a , p . 161.
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154
w i l l be p l a c e d i n t h e i r own s y s te m .
T h is i s t r u e in Kansas C ity :
"YYe
u s e o n l y a s many i n t e r n e s a s we have a v e r a g e v a c a n c i e s p e r y e a r i n th e
e le m en ta ry s c h o o ls ."
I n many s y s te m s u s i n g i n t e r n e s h i p a s t h e s o u r c e o f
a c o n s id e ra b le s h a re o f th e te a c h e r s perm an en tly a p p o in te d , i t is g e n e r a ll y
a g r e e d t h a t i t i s good p o l i c y t o have fe w e r i n t e r n e s ‘ t h a n t h e a v e ra g e
number o f y e a r l y v a c a n c i e s , t h a t t o r e c r u i t a l l t e a c h e r s from t h e i n t e r n e ­
s h i p g ro u p may l e a d t o i n b r e e d i n g , and t h a t more e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s w i l l
o c c a s i o n a l l y be d e s i r e d i n f i l l i n g a g i v e n p o s i t i o n .
In g e n e r a l,
i t c a n be s a i d t h a t p r i n c i p l e f o r t y - t w o i s w e l l o b s e r v e d .
A lth o u g h s i x i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s c h e c k e d t h e ite m r e a d i n g t h a t t h e r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l s y s te m f o r t h e i n t e r n e c e a s e s a t t h e c o m p le tio n
o f t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , m ost o f t h e d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n t h e s e
p rogram s added t h e comment t h a t w h ile t h e y assum ed no " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " f o r
p l a c e m e n t , t h e y d i d a l l t h e y c o u ld t o h e l p i n t e r n e s s e c u r e p o s i t i o n s .
P r i n c i p l e X L II I —Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p ro (pram o f i n t e r n e s h i p
s h o u ld m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n t e r n e a f t e r h i s p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p
h a s been c o m p le te d o f f e r i n g t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e when t h e i r s e r v i c e s may be
h e lp fu l.
P rin c ip le fo rty -th re e
two i s w e l l o b s e r v e d .
i s a s p o o r l y o b s e rv e d a s p r i n c i p l e f o r t y -
T a b le XXI i n d i c a t e s t h a t b u t s i x s c h o o l s y s te m s
f o l l o w up t h e work o f i n t e r n e s a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e when
t h e i r s e rv ic e s a re h e lp f u l and t h a t b u t seven t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u ­
t i o n s have t h i s same p o l i c y .
two i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s;
T here i s a n o v e r l a p p i n g i n t h e c a s e s o f
i n two i n s t a n c e s b o th t h e l o c a l s c h o o l
s y s te m and t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n th e
same i n t e r n e s h i p program f o l l o w up fo rm e r i n t e r n e s .
Thus th e t o t a l
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
Ta b l e x x i
POLICY OP PLACEMENT AND fOLLCii'«-UP
P o lic y
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
a c t i n g on t h i s p o l i c y _______
The t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n co ­
o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
a s s i s t s i n t e r n e s in o b t a i n i n g employment
t h r o u g h i t s p lac e m e n t b u r e a u .
13
The s c h o o l system a s s i s t s i n t e r n e s in
o b t a i n i n g employment i n o t h e r s y s te m s .
10
The s c h o o l s y s te m assum es r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r p la c in g s u c c e s s fu l in te r n e s in the
l o c a l s y s te m .
8
a
The c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
f o l l o w s up t h e work o f i n t e r n e s a f t e r p l a c e ­
ment. and g i v e s a s s i s t a n c e when i t s s e r v i c e s
are h e lp fu l.
The s c h o o l system f o l l o w s up t h e work o f
i n t e r n e s a f t e r p la c e m e n t and g i v e s a s s i s t a n c e
when i t s s e r v i c e s a r e h e l p f u l .
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l sy ste m f o r '
t h e i n t e r n e c e a s e s a t t h e c o m p l e ti o n o f t h e
p erio d o f in te rn e s h in .
The c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
assum es no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n t e r n e
a f t e r t h e c o m n l e ti o n o f th e i n t e r n e s h i n n e r i o d .
a A n o th e r i n t e r n e s h i p program chocked t h i s ite m b u t q u a l i f i e d
i t by a d d in g t h e p h r a s e " t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . "
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
156
number o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s h a v in g a f o l l o w - u p p o l i c y s i m i l a r t o t h a t
s u g g e s t e d in ite m s t h r e e and s i x i s e l e v e n ,
b i g h t i n t e r n e s h i p program s
f a i l e d t o i n d i c a t e a f o l l o w - u p p o l i c y o f a n y s o r t , and two i n t e r n e s h i p
p ro g ra m s w r o te n o t a t i o n s t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i n t e r n e s w ere f o llo w e d up
" i n some c a s e s " o r " o n l y when r e q u e s t e d . "
T h u s, t e n , o r a p p r o x i m a t e ly
h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program s f a i l t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r sound f o l l o w up p r o c e d u r e s .
S e l e c t i o n o f s c h o o l s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e I n t e r n e s h i p program by
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . — Because o f t h e n a t u r e o f
s e v e r a l o f th e c o o p e ra tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w hich s c h o o l s s h a l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
d oes n o t r e s t e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
In two
c a s e s , t h e " t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n " was e s t a b l i s h e d by a c l o s e l y - k n i t
g ro u p o f s c h o o l s w hich saw a need f o r a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
t h a n was b e in g p r o v i d e d .
I n 1950, e i g h t p r i v a t e s c h o o ls in and around
Hew York j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n a v e n t u r e w h ic h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e C o o p e r a ti v e
School f o r T eachers.
19
G ra d u a te T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e was s i m i l a r l y formed
by t h e W innetka P u b l i c S c h o o l s , t h e N o rth S h o re C o u n try Day S c h o o l, and
th e F ra n c is P a rk e r S ch o o l.
T hree o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s
a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f l a r g e c i t y s c h o o l s y s te m s .
In th ese c a s e s , in te r n e s a re p laced in l o c a l p u b lic s c h o o ls .
I n one
c a s e , a l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m i n i t i a t e d t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p , p e r -
19
I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e number o f c o o p e r a t i n g s c h o o l s h a s be e n r e ­
duced t o t h r e e " t o p e r m i t c l o s e r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e j o i n t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
p r o g ra m ." ( B u l l e t i n o f The Bank S t r e e t S c h o o ls )
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s u a d in g two u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e im m ediate a r e a t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h e g r a d u a t e
work and s u p e r v i s i o n g i v e n t h e i n t e r n e .
Thus, in r a i s i n g t h e q u e s tio n o f
what f a c t o r s t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n s i d e r i n s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a t i n g
s c h o o ls, i t
i s known in advance t h a t t h e a n s w e rs w i l l h e c o n d i t i o n e d by
th e n a tu re of th e t e a c h e r - tr a in i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
T a b le XXII l i s t s t h e f a c t o r s w h ic h e n t e r i n t o th e s e l e c t i o n o f
c o o p e r a t i n g s c h o o ls a s l i s t e d by tw e lv e d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
Both t h e C o o p e r a ti v e S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s and G ra d u a te T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e
a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t a b l e , d i r e c t o r s o f t h e s e program s s t i p u l a t i n g t h e
f a c t o r s w hich make t h e c o o p e r a t i n g s c h o o ls '
s h i p p ro g ra m .
accep tab le to th e ir in te r n e ­
D r. Sm ith o f t h e C o o p e r a ti v e S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s l i s t s
t h e s e two f a c t o r s in a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e s p e c i f i e d in t h e t a b l e :
s i m i l a r i t y i n f u n d a m e n ta l e d u c a t i o n a l p h i lo s o p h y ;
" (1 ) C lo s e
(2) E q u a l c o n c e r n w i t h
p roblem s o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n and r e a d i n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e in a j o i n t
p r o g ra m .”
Dean Murray o f G r a d u a te T e a c h e r s C o lle g e s t a t e s , ”The t h r e e
c o o p e r a t i n g s c h o o l s w ere a l r e a d y in a p o s i t i o n o f u s i n g t h e same p h i l o s o p h y ,
h a v in g h e a d s who were w e l l a c q u a i n t e d , f r i e n d l y , and c o o p e r a t i v e and who
j o in e d t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e t h e G ra d u a te T e a c h e rs C o l l e g e . "
G r a d u a te c r e d i t g i v e n f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e ti o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p . — I n
a r r a n g e m e n ts made betw een t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m and t h e c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e amount o f g r a d u a t e c r e d i t t o be g i v e n
f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s som etim es s t i p u l a t e d .
P ra c tic e v a rie s a g re a t d eal in t h i s r e s p e c t.
I n a number o f i n t e r n e s h i p
p ro g ra m s, i t i s i m p o s s ib l e i n com puting c r e d i t s t o s e p a r a t e t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
work done from t h e c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a t e work c a r r i e d on a t t h e same t im e .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
15B
TABLE X X II
FACTORS CONSIDERED BY TEACHER-TRAINING INSTITUTIONS SPONSORING
INTERNESEI? PROGRAMS III SELECTING SCHOOLS TO COOPERATE IN TEE PROGRAM
C rite ria
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p pro,prams
c o n sid e rin c t h is f a c t o r
R e c o g n ize d g e n e r a l e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e
sch o o l.
10
A b i l i t y o f s c h o o l t o f u r n i s h com petent
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s .
10
S c h o o l c l o s e l y r e s e m b le s t h e type o f
s c h o o l in w hich i n t e r n e s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y
be p l a c e d .
C loseness o f sch o o l to t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
in stitu tio n .
Agreement c a n be s e c u r e d c o n c e r n in g
a d v i s o r y and s u p e r v i s o r y s e r v i c e s t o be
g iv e n th e l o c a l s c h o o l system by t h e
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n in c o n n e c t i o n
w i t h t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program .
Agreement can be s e c u r e d c o n c e r n in g
f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n ts ( s a l a r i e s t o
be p a id i n t e r n e s , amount t o be p a id
sc h o o l s y s te m by t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i tu t io n fo r su p erv iso ry s e rv ic e s , e tc .)
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
159
B oth a r e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s o f a n i n t e g r a t e d f i f t h - y e a r program and no e f f o r t
i s made t o s e p a r a t e t h e tw o.
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e a t th e C o o p erativ e
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e and G r a d u a te T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e .
In d eed , fo rm al grad es
and c r e d i t s h a v e no p l a c e i n t h e s e g r a d u a t e program s a l t h o u g h s t a t e d e ­
p a rtm en ts o f e d u c a tio n a llo w s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n of th o se
who c o m p le te t h e s e p rogram s s u c c e s s f u l l y .
I n i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ra m s i n w h ic h t h e c r e d i t a llo w e d f o r i n t e r n e s h i p
c a n he s e p a r a t e d from t h a t r e c e i v e d f o r c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a t e w o rk , i t i s
found t h a t o n l y t h r e e i n t e r n e s h i p program s g i v e g r a d u a t e c r e d i t f o r th e
s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
New York U n i v e r s i t y g i v e s f o u r
p o i n t s f o r f i e l d work w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l s i x f o r work done in c o n n e c t i o n
w i t h t h e p r a c t i c u m ; N o r t h w e s te r n g i v e s e i g h t h o u rs o f g r a d u a t e c r e d i t ;
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y , s t a t e s t h a t t h e c r e d i t g i v e n
v a r i e s from f o u r t o e i g h t p o i n t s .
The U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a awards
no c r e d i t to w a rd an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e , b u t a l l o w s t e n s e m e s te r c r e d i t s
to w a rd s t a t e c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s .
Wayne U n i v e r s i t y g i v e s seven
h o u r s o f c r e d i t a l l on a n u n d e r g r a d u a t e l e v e l . a l t h o u g h some g r a d u a t e
c r e d i t f o r i n t e r n e s h i p may be g i v e n u n d e r t h e h e a d in g o f i n d e p e n d e n t
stu d y .
T h i s i s c u s t o m a r i l y done i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r r a n g e m e n ts Wayne
U n i v e r s i t y h a s made w i t h G ro s s e P o i n t e .
c r e d i t f o r t h e i n t e r n e s 1 s e m in a r o n l y .
W e s te rn M a ry la n d C o l l e g e g i v e s
In g e n e ra l,
i t c a n be s t a t e d
t h a t i n o n ly f i v e o r s i x c a s e s i s t h e f o r t y - f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e o b s e r v e d ,
t h a t g r a d u a t e c r e d i t be g iv e n b y t e ac he r - t r a i n in g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e
s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t h u s r e c o g n i z i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
grow th a c h i e v e d by t h i s t y p e o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
160
Many d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e somewhat i m p a t i e n t w i t h
t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y f a c e i n o b t a i n i n g a d e q u a te r e c o g n i t i o n f o r i n t e r n e ­
sh ip .
Somehow, c r e d i t f o r w ork done in. a l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m i s frow ned
upon by c o l l e g e f a c u l t i e s a s n o t b e in g w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f academ ic r e ­
sp e c ta b ility .
T h i s h a s alw ays been a p r o b le m .
I n c o n n e ctio n w ith th e
u n d e r g r a d u a t e program i n v o l v i n g p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s i n B u f f a l o t e a c h i n g
c e n te rs,
i t was w r i t t e n i n 1928:
C o l l e g e c r e d i t f o r s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g i s somewhat
o f a n o v e l t y and was n o t g a in e d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a b l e
e f f o r t . The n e c e s s a r y c r e d i t w a s , how e v e r, g r a n t e d ,
and a s a r e s u l t , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , so f a r a s I know,
in t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a tio n , s u c c e s s fu l te a c h in g under
t h e m o st c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n i s p l a c e d on a f o o t i n g o f
c o l l e g i a t e e q u a l i t y w i t h such s a c r e d o p e r a t i o n s a s
c h a n g in g c h e m ic a l compounds and c a r v i n g c r a y f i s h . 2 0
I t i s th e w r i t e r 's o b s e rv a tio n t h a t n e a rly a l l d i r e c t o r s o f i n te r n e ­
s h i p pro g ra m s a r e h e a r t i l y i n a g re e m e n t w i t h T ra b u e when h e w r i t e s :
I s t h e r e any v a l i d r e a s o n why t h e g ro w th i n t e a c h i n g
s k i l l w h ic h r e s u l t s from a c t u a l t e a c h i n g u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n
and d i r e c t i o n s h o u ld be w o rth l e s s c r e d i t t h a n t h e gro w th
w hich r e s u l t s from r e a d i n g books a b o u t t e a c h i n g and
a n s w e r in g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t w hat h a s been r e a d ? be see no
r e a s o n f o r d e n y in g c o l l e g e c r e d i t t o a t e a c h e r f o r grow ing
p r o f e s s i o n a l l y u n d e r a ty p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n w h ic h i s r i c h
and v i t a l w h i l e g i v i n g c r e d i t f o r s m a l l e r amount o f g row th
i n l e s s i m p o r ta n t d i r e c t i o n s j u s t b e c a u s e i t t o o k p l a c e
w i t h i n t h e f o u r w a l l s o f an academ ic i n s t i t u t i o n . P r o ­
f e s s i o n a l grow th i n t e a c h i n g s k i l l i s the p r im a r y o b j e c t i v e
o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , and w h e t h e r t h e grow th
t a k e s p l a c e in t h e e d u c a t i o n a l vacuum o f a c o l l e g e c la s s r o o m
o r i n t h e l i v i n g r e a l i t y o f a p u b l i c - s c h o o l c la s s r o o m i s o f
r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i m p o r ta n c e . 2 1
20
B u f f a l o D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , " P r o b a t i o n a r y T e a c h e r s in
B u f f a l o A s s ig n e d t o T e a c h e r C e n t e r s f o r One Y e a r ," S c h o o l l i f e , 1 5 :1 6 1 ,
May, 1928.
2 1
M. R, T r a b u e , " T r a i n i n g T e a c h e r s on t h e J o b , " S c h o o l L i f e ,
1 6 :5 1 , November, 1950.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Problems confronting Interneship programs..—.According to th eir own
statements, two major problems confront directors of interneship programs,
finding v a lid c r ite r ia which can be used in determining which o f the applicants;
for interneship w ill be the best internes and finding means o f evaluating the
work o f internes and the outcomes o f the interneship program.
I t i s in terest*
ing that these tvo major problems should both involve measurement.
She third
most frequently mentioned problem, one c ite d by directors o f eight interneship
programs, i s in terestin g outstanding beginning teachers in interneship appoint*
raents.
The frequencies with which various problems are id e n tifie d as problems
by nineteen d irectors of interneship programs are lis t e d in Table XXIII.
Besides the items lis t e d in Table XXIII, a number of additional
problems were suggested by directors o f interneship programs.
mentioned by more than one interneship director.
Only one was
This problem, mentioned
in two cases, concerns the d iffic u lty o f securing places for internes in
outstanding school systems.
Northwestern w rites that th eir major problem
i s obtaining a s u ffic ie n t number of interneship p osition s conforming to the
requirements of th eir plan.
Dr. Sanford of the University of I llin o is sta tes
th e ir major problem to be " in teresting superintendents in 'half-tim e*
beginning teachers in the b etter school systems."
The Cooperative School for Teachers added an in terestin g comment
to the questionnaire:
"I would say our major concern and problem rela tes
to the degree to which colleg e graduates have liv ed a protected, rather
circumscribed l i f e composed mainly o f vicarious and academic experience
rather than broad and intim ate contact with the every-day world."
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
162
PROBLEMS CONTORTING- INTERNESKIP PROGERIS
P ro b le m
a?
THE PRESENT TEliS**'
No. o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
r a n k i n g t h i s a s a n I m p o rta n t
problem
F i n d im ; v a l i d c r i t e r i a which can be
used in d e t e r m i n i n g which o f t h e
a p p l i c a n t s f o r i n t e r n e s h i n w i l l be
the b e s t in te r n e s .
D i f f i c u l t y o f ad eq u ate ly e v a lu a tin g
t h e work o f i n t e r n e s and t h e o u t ­
comes o f t h e i n t e m e s h i n urogram .
1 1
I n t e r e s t i n g o u t s t a n d i n g b e g in n in g
t e a c h e r s in i n t e r n e s h i p a p p o in t m e n t s .
S e c u r i n g i n t e r e s t and w h o l e - h e a r t e d
c o o p e ra tio n o f c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rs
and o t h e r members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f .
G e ttin g th e te a c h e r - tr a in i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
t o r e l a t e t h e g r a d u a t e work done by i n ­
t e r n e s t o the p ro b lem s w ith which i n t e r n e s
a r e c o n f r o n t e d i n t h e i r d a i l y w ork.
G e ttin g the t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
c o o p e r a t i n g in t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
t o a c c e p t some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u p e r ­
v i s i n g t h e work done by i n t e r n e s .
J u s t i f y i n g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program t o
th e Board of E d u c a t i o n and t o th e
community.
C o o rd in atin g a c t i v i t i e s o f s u p e rv is o rs .
Lack o f a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i n t e r n e a s a
" r e g u l a r " t e a c h e r by t h e r e s t o f t h e s c h o o l
s ta ff.
^ Based on r e t u r n s from n i n e t e e n i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ra m s; tv.ro program s
f a i l e d t o c h e ck a n y o f th e problem s l i s t e d a s b e in g p ro b lem s in t h e i r c a s e s ;
n e i t h e r d i d t h e y add a d d i t i o n a l , problem s in t h e space provided..
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
165
T a BLE X X I I I ( c o n t i n u e d )
PROBLEMS CCHFHQilDIIB IBTERNSSIilP EROGR^S AT THE PRESELT TEIE
Problem
Ho. o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s
r a n k i n g t h i s a s an i m p o r ta n t
problem________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s betw een t h e
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and th e
lo c a l sc h o o l.
Lack o f a c c e p t a n c e o f th e i n t e r n e a? a
" r e g u l a r " t e a c h e r by th e p u p i l s in th e
sc h o o l.
C o n f l i c t in tim e s c h e d u l e s betw een th e
s c h o o l s c h e d u le and t h e s c h e d u l e o f
g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s w hich i n t e r n e s sh o u ld be
t a k i n g in t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Summary. — The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s summarize t h i s c h a p t e r :
1.
in te rn e s.
M ost i n t e r n e s h i p program s em ploy s e v e r a l p r o c e d u r e s in s e c u r i n g
I n a number o f c a s e s , c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tw e en t h e
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m a r e such t h a t
i n t e r n e s a r e s e l e c t e d from a g ro u p o f b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s recommended by
th e t e a c h e r - tr a in i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
Even th o u g h no s u c h c o o p e r a t i v e
a r r a n g e m e n t e x i s t s , l o c a l s c h o o l system s r e c e i v e a number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s
d i r e c t l y t r a c e a b l e to i n f o r m a t i o n p a s s e d on t o g r a d u a t i n g s e n i o r s by
te a c h e r-tra in in g in s titu tio n s .
I n most i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s , some a p p o i n t ­
m en ts a r e made from among t h o s e who make u n s o l i c i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s .
More
s t r e s s n e e d s t o be p l a c e d on a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t i n g t h e m ost a b l e g r a d u a t i n g
s e n i o r s f o r a p p o in tm e n t a s i n t e r n e s .
2.
The m a jo r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s a r e :
th e
a p p l i c a n t ' s g e n e r a l s c h o l a s t i c a v e r a g e i n c o l l e g e , t h e i m p r e s s i o n made in
an i n t e r v i e w ; t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n r e c o r d ;
g rad es re c e iv e d in c o lle g e in th e s u b je c ts th e a p p lic a n t e x p e c ts to tea c h ;
rec o m m e n d a tio n s o f c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s .
Z.
M a jo r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d in s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a r e :
re c o g n ize d e x c e lle n c e a s a classro o m te a c h e r ; d em o n strated a b i l i t y a s a
h e lp e r of o th e r te a c h e rs ;
i n t e r e s t and w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r to un d ertak e th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c ia te d w ith
such a p o s i t i o n .
4.
C o n t r a c t u a l a g re e m e n ts b e tw e en t h e s c h o o l s y s te m and t h e i n t e r n e
a r e found i n f e w e r t h a n h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g r a m s .
I n m ost c a s e s ,
th o u g h , i n t e r n e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s r e g u l a r members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
165
on t h e same f o o t i n g a s o t h e r t e a c h e r s a s f a r a s s t a f f , p u p i l , a n d community
r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re concerned.
5.
A lth o u g h a l l i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s s u b s c r i b e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e
t h a t a n i n t e r n e s h o u l d n e v e r be employed t o r e p l a c e an e x p e r i e n c e d a nd
more e x p e n s i v e t e a c h e r , t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e may be
q u e s t i o n e d i n one o r two i n s t a n c e s .
The m a jo r i s s u e h i n g e s on w h e t h e r o r
n o t s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h i n g s h o u ld be r e g a r d e d a s r e p l a c i n g a more e x p e r i e n c e d
and more e x p e n s i v e t e a c h e r .
6
.
T h e .r e n u m e r a t i o n g iv e n i n t e r n e s f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s v a r i e s
g r e a t l y from s c h o o l sy stem t o s c h o o l s y s te m .
In only a h a n d fu l o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p p rogram s d o e s t h e i n t e r n e r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e r a t io n t o c o v e r
minimum l i v i n g e x p e n s e s .
7.
In a l l b u t t h r e e i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s , t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p e r i o d
is a t l e a s t a y ear in le n g th .
W hile l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n s u b s c r i b e
t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be
c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e p r o g r e s s made by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n e , a y e a r i s
g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s a minimum l e n g t h o f t i m e .
8
.
The a v e r a g e i n t e r n e r e c e i v e s h e l p from t h r e e s p e c i a l i z e d
s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l , t h e s u p e r v i s o r fro m t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s .
A p p r o x im a te ly tw e lv e t o
f i f t e e n c la s s r o o m v i s i t s a r e p a i d t h e i n t e r n e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e y e a r
w i t h a s many o r more i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s b e in g h e l d .
More s t r e s s n e e d s
t o be p l a c e d upon t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g
su p e rv isio n .
Members o f academ ic d e p a r t m e n t s in t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u ­
t i o n s ne e d t o p l a y a g r e a t e r p a r t i n s u p e r v i s i n g i n t e r n e s .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
l66
9.
Comparatively few lo c a l school systems hold regularly scheduled
in ter n es1 conferences.
Internes' seminars or practica are held by a l l
cooperating teacher-training in s titu tio n s , though, meeting in most cases
once a week fo r a two-hour period.
Cooperating teachers, superintendents
o f schools, and members of academic departments o f teacher-training
in s titu tio n s rarely attend these seminars.
10.
The amount of time an interne spends in graduate course work
v a ries greatly in d ifferen t interneship plans, so greatly that no generaliza­
tio n can be made except that there i s great variation .
The range i s from no
regular course work to half-tim e spent in graduate courses at a cooperating
teacher-training in stitu tio n .
11. Bating scales or other d e fin ite means o f reporting interne success
are used in appraising the work of internes in most interneship programs.
S elf-ra tin g on the part o f internes, however, i s carried on in but a few
cases leading to the suspicion that these supervisory devices are used too
often for purposes o f rating and not often enough as devices designed to
help internes ferret out and correct th eir own shortcomings.
12. The most frequently used method of appraising the interneship
plan as a whole i s to s o li c i t criticism s o f the plan from former internes.
In the majority o f interneship plans, criticism s are also s o lic ite d from
cooperating teachers and supervisors.
In twelve cases, the success of
in ternes in subsequent p osition s i s used as a measure o f the worth o f
interneship.
13 .
Although a l l interneship programs make some e ffo r t to a s s is t
the Interne in securing a permanent p o sitio n , with eight school systems
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
•sj
167
a s su m in g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a c i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y
h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s f a i l t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r sound f o l l o w - u p
procedures.
14.
In s e le c ti n g l o c a l sch o o ls to c o o p e ra te in th e in te r n e s h ip p la n ,
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s impose a number o f c r i t e r i a ,
rec o g n ize d g e n e ra l e x c e lle n c e o f th e school and a b i l i t y o f th e school t o
f u r n i s h c o m p e ten t s u p e r v i s o r y h e l p b e i n g two o f t h o s e m ost f r e q u e n t l y
used.
15.
G ra d u a te c r e d i t i s g i v e n f o r i n t e r n e s h i p work done i n t h e
l o c a l s c h o o l i n b u t a few c a s e s a l t h o u g h t h e i n t e r n e s ' s e m i n a r p r a c t i c a l l y
a lw a y s c a r r i e s g r a d u a t e c r e d i t .
In g e n e ra l, th e p r in c i p le t h a t g rad u ate
c r e d i t s h o u ld be g i v e n by t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l
c o m p l e ti o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h u s r e c o g n i z i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th
a c h i e v e d by t h i s ty p e o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g ,
16.
i s d e c id e d ly not observed.
The two m ost p r e s s i n g p ro b lem s c o n f r o n t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p a t t h e
p r e s e n t t i m e , a c c o r d i n g t o d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s , a r e f i n d i n g
v a l i d m e a s u re s f o r p r e d i c t i n g t e a c h i n g s u c c e s s w hich c a n be u sed i n
s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s and f i n d i n g means o f a p p r a i s i n g t h e work o f i n t e r n e s
and e v a l u a t i n g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram .
In te re stin g
o u t s t a n d i n g be­
g in n in g t e a c h e r s i n i n t e r n e s h i p i s a t h i r d p r o b le m .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V I I
OUTCOMES OP INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS
I n t r o d u c t i o n . — I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e te rm ” outcom e" i s u sed w i t h t h e
m eaning a t t r i b u t e d t o i t by t h e c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r t ,
.an outcome i s d e f i n e d
a s t h e r e s u l t o r p r o d u c t o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program .
What a c t u a l l y a r e t h e r e s u l t s , t h e outcom es o f i n t e r n e s h i p ?
I t is
t h e p u rp o se o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o a p p r a i s e i n t e r n e s h i p t h r o u g h t h e ey e s o f
d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s , c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , and i n t e r n e s .
The outcom es o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s view ed by d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p
p r o g ra m s . —D i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s w ere a s k e d t o l i s t t h e o u t ­
comes o f i n t e r n e s h i p d i v i d i n g them i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , m a jo r outcomes
and c o n c o m ita n t outco m e s.
T a b le XXIV r e p o r t s t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w hich
v a r i o u s outcom es w ere l i s t e d .
Among t h e m a jo r f i n d i n g s d e r i v e d from t h i s
ta b le are th e s e :
1.
F o u r m a jo r outcom es s t a n d o u t above a l l o t h e r s :
(a) i n t e r n e s
r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r ’ s e x p e r i e n c e i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e t o
p r o f e s s i o n a l growth;'*'
(b) s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s w ere p l a c e d i n t h e l o c a l
s c h o o l sy stem in w hich t h e y had t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p o r s e c u r e d d e s i r a b l e
p o s i t i o n s i n o t h e r s c h o o l s y s te m s ; (c) i n t e r n e s w e re g i v e n a n o v e rv ie w
o f and were o r i e n t e d i n many p h a s e s o f s c h o o l work b e f o r e b e in g r e q u i r e d
t o s p e c i a l i z e in t e a c h i n g c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s o r a t c e r t a i n g r a d e l e v e l s ;
■*■ T h i s ite m m ig h t have been c h e ck e d a s an outcome o f a l l i n t e r n e s h i p
program s e x c e p t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h r e e i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e a s e m e s t e r
i n s t e a d o f a y e a r in l e n g t h . One d i r e c t o r o f an i n t e r n e s h i p program
c r o s s e d o u t ’’y e a r " s u b s t i t u t i n g " s e m e s t e r ” i n s t e a d .
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169
TABIE XXIV
MAJOR AND CONCOMITANT OUTCOMES OF EWEENESIilP
.
J
Outcome
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p pro g ra m s
l is t in g th is as
a m a jo r outcome
__________
In te rn e s re c e iv e d t h e i r f i r s t y e a r 's
e x p erien ce in a sch o o l s itu a tio n
c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th .
18
S u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s w ere p l a c e d in
t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s y ste m i n w hich
t h e y had t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p o r s e c u r e d
d e s i r a b l e p o s i t i o n s in o t h e r s c h o o l
sy stem s.
15
The p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s e r v e d a s
a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d p r o v in g t h e
a b i l i t y o r lack o f a b i l i t y o f th e
in te rn e in a te a c h in g s itu a tio n .
1 2
I n t e r n e s were g i v e n a n o v e rv ie w o f
and w ere o r i e n t e d i n many p h a s e s o f
s c h o o l work b e f o r e b e in g r e q u i r e d t o
s p e c i a li z e in te a c h in g c e r t a i n s u b je c ts
o r a t c e r t a i n grade l e v e l s .
1 1
S u p e r i o r b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s w ere a t ­
t r a c t e d t o t h e s c h o o l s y s te m b e c a u s e
o f th e v a lu e s reco g n ized in th e in t e m e s h i p p ro g ra m .
7
S t a f f members o f t h e c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n g a in e d
a g r e a te r in s ig h t in to th e p r a c t ic a l
p r o b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s .
7
P u p i l s r e c e i v e d more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n
t h a n w o u ld have b e e n p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t
in te rn e s.
7
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p pro g ra m s
l i s t i n g th is as
a c o n c o m ita n t
outcome
L.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5
170
TABIE XXIV (continued)
MAJOR AND CONCOMITANT OUTCOMES OF INTERNESHIP
Outcome
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p program s
lis tin g th is as
a m ajo r outcome
—
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p program s
lis tin g th is as
a c o n c o m ita n t
outcome ________
A c t i v i t i e s co n n ected w ith th e
c a r r y i n g - o n o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
c re a te d increased i n te r e s t in o th e r
members o f t h e s t a f f i n becoming more
p r o f e s s i o n a l l y com petent. T h is in c re a s e d
i n t e r e s t was shown by:
O r e a t e r u s e o f the s c h o o l ’ s
p ro fe ssio n a l lib r a ry .
4
In c re a se d e n ro llm e n t in c o u rs e s
o f f e r e d by c o l l e g e s an d t e a c h e r s
c o lle g es.
2
In c re a se d p a r t i c i p a t i o n in c u rricu lu m
re v isio n .
®
1
More t e a c h e r s en g a g ed i n r e s e a r c h .
3
More a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n f o r p u b l i c a t i o n
in p ro fe s s io n a l p e rio d ic a ls .
1
Com petent s u b s t i t u t e h e l p was r e a d i l y
a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s te m .
I n te r n e s serv ed a s p a r t- tim e te a c h e r s ta k in g
c a r e o f t h e two o r t h r e e e x t r a c l a s s e s i n
t h e s c h o o l s c h e d u l e f o r w hich i t was un­
p r o f i t a b l e f o r t h e s c h o o l system t o employ
a re g u la r fu ll-tim e te a c h e r.
The work o f s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s was r e c o g n i z e d
th r o u g h t h e i r s e l e c t i o n a s c o o p e r a t i n g
tea c h e rs.
7
2
4
3
^
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5
171
TABIE XXIV (continued)
MAJOR AND CONCOMITANT OUTCOMES OF IOTERNESHIP
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p p rogram s
l i s t i n g t h i s as
a m ajo r outcome
Outcome
The r e m u n e r a t i o n r e c e i v e d e n a b le d
s e v e r a l i n t e r n e s t o do g r a d u a t e work
w hich o t h e r w i s e c o u ld not have been
c a r r i e d on b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f f u n d s .
J
No. o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p program s
l is t in g t h is as
a c o n c o m ita n t
outcome_________
2
5
Good b e g in n in g t e a c h e r s were s e c u r e d
f o r t h e s c h o o l s y s te m a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y
low s a l a r y .
2
S t a n d a r d s f o r t e a c h e r s in t h e system
have be e n r a i s e d .
4
P r i n c i p a l was g i v e n more o f f i c e
assista n c e .
4
An e n l a r g e d a n d e n r i c h e d program o f
e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was
c a r r i e d on.
5
T eacher load has been in cre ase d through
e x t r a d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w ith i n t e r n e s h i p .
2
T e a c h e r l o a d a s m e a su re d by h o u r s o f
t e a c h i n g was r e d u c e d .
1
Employment was g i v e n t o unemployed
home-town t e a c h e r s .
1
C l a s s s i z e was d e c r e a s e d .
2
I n te r n e s served as tem porary r e p l a c e ­
m en ts a t c o m p a r a t i v e l y low c o s t f o r
r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s on s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e .
2
T e a c h e r s f e e l b u r d e n e d by e x t r a d u t i e s
ca u se d by i n t e r n e s .
2
P r e s s u r e t o t a k e in l o c a l t e a c h e r s was
reduced.
1
T e a c h in g c o s t s have i n c r e a s e d .
1
L
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
172
(d) t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s e r v e d a s a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d p r o v in g t h e
a b i l i t y o r la c k o f a b i l i t y o f th e in te rn e in a te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n .
2.
O th e r i m p o r ta n t outcom es were t h a t s u p e r i o r b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s
were a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s c h o o l s y s te m b e c a u s e o f t h e v a l u e s r e c o g n i z e d i n
t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m , t h a t p u p i l s r e c e i v e d more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n
t h a n would have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t i n t e r n e s , t h a t s t a f f members o f t h e
c o o p e ra tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n g a in e d a g r e a t e r in s ig h t in to
t h e p r a c t i c a l p ro b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s .
3.
Ite m s r e c o g n i z e d a s a b u s e s o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program were
checked a s outcom es in c o m p a r a t i v e l y few i n s t a n c e s .
For ex a m p le, employment
o f home-town t e a c h e r s , o b t a i n i n g b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s a t a low s a l a r y , and
s e c u r i n g c l e r i c a l h e l p f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r w ere i n f r e q u e n t l y c l a s s e d a s
outcom es.
4.
I n no c a s e d i d i n t e r n e s h i p have a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t on t h e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s employed in a l o c a l s c h o o l s y s te m .
I n f i v e i n s t a n c e s , once a s a m a jo r outcom e, s t a n d a r d s f o r t e a c h e r s in t h e
system were r e p o r t e d r a i s e d .
5.
I n t e r n e s h i p was a b u rd e n on t h e l o c a l s c h o o l sy stem in b u t a
few i n s t a n c e s .
Only one i n t e r n e s h i p program l i s t e d a s a m a jo r outcome
t h a t e x t r a d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n e s h i p c a u se d a n i n c r e a s e d t e a c h e r
lo a d .
Two i n t e r n e s h i p program s l i s t e d t h i s a s a m in o r outcom e.
T hat
t e a c h e r s f e l t burd en e d by e x t r a d u t i e s c a u s e d by i n t e r n e s was l i s t e d a s a
c o n c o m ita n t outcome in two c a s e s .
6
.
A lthough t h e work o f s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s was r e c o g n i z e d t h r o u g h
t h e i r s e le c ti o n a s c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s ,
in te r n e s h ip spurred in - s e r v ic e
t r a i n i n g on t h e p a r t o f o t h e r members o f t h e s t a f f in b u t a d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
173
few c a s e s .
T here may ha v e b e e n more p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th t h a n t h e q u e s t i o n ­
n a i r e i n d i c a t e d inasm uch a s d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s w ere a s k e d t o
c i t e e v id e n c e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l gro w th such a s i n c r e a s e d u s e o f t h e s c h o o l ' s
p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r y and i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n ,
m a t t e r s w h ic h many d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s c o u l d n ' t e a s i l y a s c e r ­
ta in .
S till,
th e c la im e d v a l u e o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p i n t e r e s t s
a l l members o f t h e s t a f f i n becoming more p r o f e s s i o n a l l y c o m p e te n t, ha s
d e f i n i t e l y not been s u b s ta n t ia te d .
A d v a n ta g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p as l i s t e d by f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and c o ­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . — One h u n dred and two f o rm e r i n t e r n e s and s i x t y - o n e
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rs r e p lie d to th e q u e s tio n n a ire r e q u e s tin g t h e i r e stim a te
of in te rn e sh ip .
I n t h e m a in , b o th f o rm e r i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s
a g r e e a s t o w hat c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a j o r a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
Both
a g r e e t h a t g r a d u a l i n d u c t i o n i n t o t e a c h i n g i s t h e g r e a t e s t a d v a n ta g e o f
in te rn e sh ip .
Both a g r e e t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n p r o v id e d t h e b e g in n i n g
t e a c h e r i s a m a jo r a d v a n t a g e .
Both s t r e s s t h e a d v a n ta g e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n
o f th e o ry in a p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n .
Both b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s
o f t h e t e a c h e r u n d e r g u id a n c e i s a v a l u a b l e outcome o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
The
f i r s t t e n a d v a n ta g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s l i s t e d by f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and co­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o f r e q u e n c y o f m e n t io n , a r e found
i n T a b l e XXV.
A lth o u g h t h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g re e m e n t b e tw e en f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a s t o t h e a d v a n ta g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h e r e a r e t h r e e
o f f o u r i n s t a n c e s i n w hich i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t s a r e a p p a r e n t .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
The
17 4
a d v a n ta g e s ra n k e d f i f t h and s i x t h by f o rm e r i n t e r n e s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o
know and o b s e r v e c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s a g e s and a b i l i t i e s and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y
t o o b s e r v e work i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t f i e l d s , f a i l t o r e c e i v e n e a r l y a s
much r e c o g n i t i o n from c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
I t I s e x tr e m e l y i m p o r ta n t
t o fo rm e r i n t e r n e s t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e ti o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p makes
i t e a s i e r t o s e c u r e a perm anent p o s i t i o n ; c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , a p p a r e n t l y
a r e n o t aw are o f t h e a c u t e n e s s o f t h i s a d v a n t a g e .
On t h e o t h e r hand,
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s s e e a s d e f i n i t e a d v a n ta g e s some f a c t o r s n o t c o n s i d e r e d
p a r t i c u l a r l y im p o r ta n t by f o r m e r i n t e r n e s .
The t r y - o u t o r p r o b a t i o n a r y
f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s ra n k e d f i f t h by c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s ;
it tie s
f o r t w e n t y - f i r s t and t w e n ty - s e c o n d r a n k i n g a s f a r a s i n t e r n e s a r e c o n c e r n e d .
Many i n t e r n e s who have had s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g a s a c o u r s e p r e c e d i n g i n t e r n e ­
s h i p f e e l t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g s h o u ld c o n s t i t u t e t h e t r y - o u t p e r i o d , and
because e v e ry i n te r n e ex p ects to succeed, th e p ro b a tio n a r y a s p e c ts of in ­
t e r n e s h i p seem t o be r e l e g a t e d t o a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n .
Two o t h e r a d ­
v a n t a g e s i n c l u d e d among t h e f i r s t t e n by c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a r e ra n k e d
a s o f l e s s e r im p o r ta n c e by f o r m e r i n t e r n e s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o become
a c q u a i n t e d w i t h community c o n d i t i o n s and l e a r n i n g how t o g e t a lo n g w i t h
o th er te a c h e rs.
Drawbacks o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s l i s t e d bjr f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r s . - - A l t h o u g h one o f t h e m a jo r a d v a n ta g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s t h a t t h e
b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r h a s e x c e l l e n t s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e m a jo r draw back o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p , ra n k e d f i r s t and second by f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s
re sp e c tiv e ly ,
i s t h a t th e q u a l i t y of s u p e rv is io n i s p oor.
A p p a r e n t l y , th e
s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program h i n g e s i n l a r g e p a r t on t h e
. . . I
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
175
TABLE XXV
MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF INTERNESHIP AS LISTED- BY FORMER
INTERNES AND BY COOPERATING TEACHERS2
A dvantage
F orm er
In te rn es
(N=102)
f
rank
C o o p e r a tin g
T eachers
(N=61)
rank
f
G radual in d u c tio n in to te a c h in g .
68
1
35
1
S u p e r v i s i o n by a n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r .
45
2
20
4
A p p lica tio n o f th eo ry to p r a c tic e .
31
3
21
3
A c q u a in ta n c e w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
p ro b lem s a n d p r o c e d u r e s and w i t h
a d m in is tra tiv e a c t i v i t i e s in
w hich t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e .
28
O p p o r t u n i t y t o know and o b s e rv e
c h ild r e n o f v a rio u s ages and
a b ilitie s.
23
O p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e work in
d if f e r e n t su b je c t f ie ld s .
18
C o n fid e n c e i n t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y
d e v e lo p e d .
15
7 .5
11
O bserv atio n o f tea c h in g of
ex p erien ced t e a c h e r s .
15
7 .5
8
8
S tim u la tin g p r o f e s s io n a l c o n ta c ts ;
in te r n e s g e t a f e e l in g of be­
l o n g i n g to t h e p r o f e s s i o n .
13
S u c c e s s f u l co m p letio n o f in te r n e s h ip
makes i t e a s i e r t o s e c u r e a
p o sitio n .
11
23
11
10
A try - o u t or p ro b atio n ary p erio d .
5
2 1 .5
15
5
A c q u a in ta n c e w i t h community c o n d i t i o n s .
9
15
10
7
I n t e r n e s l e a r n how t o g e t a lo n g w i t h
o th er te a c h e rs.
10
T h i s t a b l e l i s t s o n l y t h e f i r s t t e n a d v a n t a g e s g i v e n by fo rm e r
i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . Com plete l i s t s a p p e a r in Appendix H.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
176
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s e le c te d .
Two s t a t e m e n t s , t a k e n from th e r e p l i e s o f
fo rm e r i n t e r n e s , i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t :
My c h i e f o b j e c t i o n t o t h e system a s i t i s i n __________
i s t h a t t h e r e i s n ’ t enough c a r e t a k e n t o s e l e c t t h e c o ­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , f o r i n many c a s e s t h e r e a r e s e r i o u s
c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e t e a c h e r s b e c au se o f t h e i r f a i l u r e to
h e l p t h e s t u d e n t a s t h e y s h o u l d . I t seems o f t e n a s i f
t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r i s t o t a l l y u n q u a l i f i e d f o r such
a p o sitio n .
I , p e r s o n a l l y , found no draw backs s i n c e I was w orking
u n d e r i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s , b e i n g g iv e n t h e same a d v a n ta g e s
a s i f I were employed and y e t h a v in g th e a d v a n ta g e o f
f i n e s u p e r v i s i o n and a p e r s o n who was w i l l i n g t o answ er
my q u e s t i o n s a s t h e y a r o s e .
Two o t h e r draw backs c o n c e r n in g w hich f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r s a r e i n q u i t e c l o s e ag re e m e n t a r e t h a t c o u r s e s a t c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t a k e t o o g r e a t a s h a r e o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s tim e
and t h a t i n t e r n e s r e c e i v e i n s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e r a t i o n .
The f i v e draw backs m ost f r e q u e n t l y m e n tio n e d by c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s
and fo rm e r i n t e r n e s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b le 3CXVT.
T h e re i s nowhere n e a r t h e u n a n im ity o f a g reem ent be tw e en f o rm e r i n ­
t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d th e a d v a n t a g e s o f
i n t e r n e s h i p l i s t e d by t h e s e two g r o u p s .
I n f a c t , f o rm e r i n t e r n e s seemed
unaware o f t h e draw back o f i n t e r n e s h i p r a n k e d f i r s t by c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r s , t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a c e t o o g r e a t a b u rd e n on
th e c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r .
p oor
I f t h e y were aw are o f i t , t h e y c l a s s e d i t u n d e r
s u p e r v i s i o n i n s t e a d o f l o o k in g more c l o s e l y a t th e c a u s a l f a c t o r .
C o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r s tim e and a g a i n
w ith in te r n e s .
s t r e s s t h e need f o r more tim e t o work
T h i s comment i s t y p i c a l :
The m a jo r draw back i s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s i n g t e a c h e r
n e e d s more f r e e p e r i o d s so t h a t she can c o n f e r more
o f t e n w i t h t h e c a d e t t e a c h e r a s t o h e r p l a n s and l a t e r
t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e w ork. We have so l i t t l e tim e f o r t h a t .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
f
j
177
TABIE XXVI
DRAWBACKS OF EITSRNESKIP AS LISTED BY FORMER INTERNES
AMD BY COOPERATED TEACHERS3
Drawback
Former
In te rn e s
(N=102)
f
rank
C o o p e r a tin g
Teachers
'(Ns6l)
f
rank
V e ry p o o r q u a l i t y o f h e l p from co­
o p e ra tin g te a c h e r ( ty p i c a l in ­
t e r n e ’s s ta te m e n t); c o o p e ra tin g
te a c h e rs not w e ll s e le c te d or
t r a i n e d and g i v e i n a d e q u a te h e lp
( ty p i c a l c o o p e ra tin g t e a c h e r ’ s
sta te m e n t).
34
I n t e r n e i s n o t a llo w e d t o do enough
t e a c h i n g on h i s own.
17
C ourses a t th e c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rt r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n t a k e t o o much
o f t h e i n t e r n e ’ s tim e a nd e n e r g y .
1 2
3 .5
6 .5
In te rn e s re c e iv e in s u f f ic ie n t
r e m u n e ra t i o n .
12
3 .5
6 .5
D u tie s of i n te r n e not c l e a r l y
d e fin e d .
11
15
1 2 .5
19
In te r n e s h ip r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p lace
t o o g r e a t a b u rd e n on t h e co ­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r — no a d d i t i o n a l
r e m u n e r a t i o n , no f r e e t i m e .
In te r n e s giv en c la s s e s t o tea c h fo r
w h ic h t h e y a r e n o t p r e p a r e d .
Work o f t h e c l a s s may s u f f e r b e c a u s e
o f tea c h in g o f th e i n te r n e .
8 .5
11
10
P o o r and i n a d e q u a te p r e - s e r v i c e
tra in in g .
T h is t a b l e l i s t s o n l y t h e f i r s t f i v e draw backs g i v e n by f o rm e r
i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . Complete l i s t s a p p e a r i n A ppendix H.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
178
T hree o f t h e f i r s t f i v e o f t h e draw backs l i s t e d by c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r s have t o do w i t h in co m p e te n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n e .
In te rn e s
a r e in a g re e m e n t w i t h b u t one o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a r g e s , t h a t i n t e r n e s a r e
som etim es g i v e n c l a s s e s t o t e a c h f o r w hich t h e y a r e n o t p r e p a r e d .
T his i s
th e f a u l t of n e it h e r th e in te r n e nor th e c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r , but r e f l e c t s
on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m . "Jim one o f t h e r e m a in i n g
c h a r g e s , t h a t t h e i n t e r n e ’ s p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s p o o r and i n a d e q u a t e ,
i n t e r n e s t e n d t o show d i s a g r e e m e n t ; none o f them m e n tio n t h i s a s a d raw ­
back o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
W ith t h e l a s t c h a r g e , t h a t t h e work o f t h e c l a s s
may s u f f e r b e c a u s e o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f th e i n t e r n e , t h e drawback ra n k e d
f o u r t h by t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , f o rm e r i n t e r n e s c o u n t e r w i t h t h e i r
second m ost f r e q u e n t c o m p l a i n t , t h a t t h e i n t e r n e i s n o t a llo w e d t o do
enough t e a c h i n g on h i s own.
T hese draw backs l i s t e d by f o rm e r i n t e r n e s and c o o n e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s
are illu m in a tin g .
None o f them a r e in s u r m o u n ta b le and t h e y a r e e x tr e m e l y
h e l p f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g ways i n w hich i n t e r n e s h i p c a n be im proved.
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r im proving i n t e r n e s h i p made by f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . —As m ig h t be e x p e c t e d , t h e s u g g e s t i o n s g i v e n by
fo rm e r i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s d e a l l a r g e l y w i t h c o r r e c t i n g t h e
f a u l t s and d raw b a ck s j u s t named,
f i r s t and f o r e m o s t , b o t h fo rm e r i n t e r n e s
and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h e r e m ust be b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n .
The
s u g g e s t i o n s o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s on t h i s p o i n t g ro u p t h e m s e lv e s a b o u t
two h e a d i n g s , more tim e f o r g u id a n c e work w i t h i n t e r n e s and more c a r e f u l
s e le c tio n o f c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s .
These a r e g ro u p e d a s s e p a r a t e f a c t o r s
i n r e p o r t i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s ' r e p l i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e s e two
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
179
d i f f e r e n t em p h a se s.
The s u g g e s t i o n s made m ost f r e q u e n t l y by b o t h f o rm e r
i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a p p e a r i n T a b le XX7II.
A n o th e r m a jo r p o i n t upon w hich b o t h f o rm e r i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r s a g r e e i s t h a t d u r i n g i n t e r n e s h i p f e w e r o r no c o u r s e s s h o u ld be
t a k e n by t h e i n t e r n e .
A t y p i c a l s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e be " l e s s u n i ­
v e r s i t y work and t h e work t h a t we have s h o u ld c o i n c i d e more w i t h t e a c h i n g . "
S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s w ere m ost e m p h a tic on t h i s p o i n t w r i t i n g r e p l i e s o f
t h i s t e n o r , " I would a d v o c a te t h e abandonment o f any r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e
i n t e r n e be e n r o l l e d in c o n c u r r e n t c o u r s e s i n e d u c a t i o n . "
As i n d i c a t e d
a b o v e , i n t e r n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , f e l t t h a t i f t h e r e was t o b e r e g u l a r
g r a d u a t e c o u r s e work c a r r i e d on a t t h e same tim e a s i n t e r n e s h i p , t h a t
g r a d u a t e c o u r s e work s h o u ld be more c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e v e r y - d a y
t e a c h i n g p r o b le m s .
The p l e a f o r more t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e c h a n ce f o r i n ­
t e r n e s t o do more t e a c h i n g "on t h e i r own" was made by o n e - f i f t h o f t h e
fo r m e r i n t e r n e s r e p l y i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
L inked w i t h t h i s p l e a in
s e v e r a l c a s e s was t h e recom m endation th a .t f e w e r r o u t i n e j o b s be s h o u ld e r e d
on t h e i n t e r n e .
T h is i s a t y p i c a l re p ly :
Some s u p e r v i s o r s a r e n o t w i l l i n g t o g i v e enough
fre e d o m so t h a t t h e i n t e r n e w i l l g e t t h e f e e l i n g o f
a c t u a l l y b e in g t h e t e a c h e r and h e n c e have t h e same
t y p e o f p ro b le m s t h a t a norm al t e a c h e r h a s .
Nine c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , one i n t e r n e , see a need f o r much more
c a re fu l se le c tio n of in te rn e s.
back g ro u n d was c r i t i c i z e d .
In s e v e ra l in sta n c e s^ la c k of s u b je c t-m a tte r
Two o r t h r e e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s had t h e
f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c ismv, a f a u l t t h e y hoped c o u ld be rem edied by more c a r e f u l
-M .
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180
TABIE XX7TI
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNESHIP MADE BY
FORMER INTERIMS AND COOPERATING TEACHERS^
S u g g e s t i o n s f o r Improvement
Form er
In te rn es
(N-102)
f
rank
B e tte r s u p e rv is io n ( in t e r n e s ' s ta te m e n t);
more t im e f o r g u id a n c e work on the p a r t
o f t h e c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r (co o p e ra tin g
t e a c h e r 's sta te m e n t)
22
1 .5
C o u r s e s i n e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld be l e s s
t h e o r e t i c a l a n d more p r a c t i c a l and
s h o u ld be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n t e r n e s h i p
w ork.
22
1 .5
I n t e r n e s h o u ld b e a llo w e d more r e ­
s p o n s ib ility in te a c h in g .
20
3
D u rin g i n t e r n e s h i p , f e w e r o r no
c o u r s e s s h o u ld be t a k e n .
10
4
Fewer odd j o b s and l e s s r o u t i n e work.
7
5
More c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s .
1
34
C o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r s s h o u ld be more
c a re fu lly se le c te d .
•a
a
C o o p e r a ti n g
T eachers
(N -Sl)
f
rank
19
6
1
7 .5
11
T h e re s h o u ld be some c o m p e n s a tio n f o r
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s , e i t h e r c r e d i t ,
f r e e t u i t i o n a t th e c o o p e ra tin g
te a c h e r-tra in in g in s titu tio n , or a
s a la r y in crem en t.
7
5 .5
C l o s e r c o n t a c t betw een t h e c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r.
7
5 .5
^ T h i s t a b l e l i s t s o n l y t h e f i r s t f i v e s u g g e s t i o n s g i v e n by fo rm e r
i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s . More c o m p le te l i s t s a p p e a r in
A ppendix H.
a I n t e r n e s r a n k e d t h i s item w i t h b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n . I t was k e p t
a s a s e p a r a te f a c t o r in th e r e p l i e s of c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s because th e
o th e r s ta te m e n ts o f c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s d e a lin g w ith b e t t e r s u p e rv is io n
o o u ld a l l be g ro u p ed u n d e r t h e head o f more tim e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1S1
selection of internes:
A ll my cadets were honor "scholarship11 students,
hut several should not consider teaching because of
appearance and personality. "Guidance" f e l l down some­
where.
A number of cooperating teachers expressed the opinion th at there
should be some compensation fo r cooperating teachers, e ith e r c re d it, free
tu itio n a t the cooperating teach er-train in g in s titu tio n , or a salary incre­
ment.
That i t i s not always monetary recompense th a t i s desired i s shown
in the statements of several cooperating teachers,who suggested that
p rofessional recognization be given cooperating teachers "perhaps by
popularizing some term such as ‘master teacher1—make i t an honor to super­
v ise beginning teachers."
Several cooperating teachers also suggest closer
contact between the teach er-train in g in s titu tio n and the cooperating teacher.
B enefits derived from interneship by cooperating teach ers.—One question
was designed only fo r cooperating teachers:
What b e n efits, i f any, have you
personally derived In the way of professional advancement and improved teacher
competency as a re s u lt of the p a rt you have played in the Interneship program?
The following two re p lie s are typical of many received:
As a c r i t i c I should say the b e n e fits I have derived
are many and great—chief among them are the imperative
demands on my own methods, th a t I keep them up-to-date,
fresh and c le a r cut. I must perforce be on my toes as an
example and so my own work advances because i t i s b e tte r
prepared.
Guiding a c tiv itie s , through planning conferences
with adults who are usually e n th u sia stic, i s stim ulatirg.
Sharing experiences with others engaged in the same work
makes from growth.
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182
Most of the re p lie s could be c la s s if ie d under three headings,
sim ilar in nature but having s lig h tly d iffe re n t shades of meaning:
B enefit
f
Interneship makes the cooperating teacher
analyze and become more c r i t ic a l of h is own
work; helps him to c la rify h is own ideas.
31
The presence in the room of an interne i s
a spur and Incentive keeping the cooperating
teacher "on her to es."
13
Younger minds give constructive suggestions
and new p o in ts of view to cooperating
teachers.
10
A complete l i s t of the b e n efits cooperating teachers f e l t they
gained from interneship may be found in Appendix H.^
General appraisal o f Interneship.--The l a s t question asked of
former in tern es and cooperating teachers requested th e ir frank opinion
of the worth of interneship.
Bo i t s m erits outweigh i t s demerits?
The
re p lie s are tabulated in Table XXYIII.
TABLE m i l l
GENERAL APPRAISAL OP INTERNESHIP: OPINIONS OP
SIXTY-ONE COOPERATING TEACHERS AND
ONE HUNDRED AND TflO PORMER INTERNES
Opinion
U nqualified approval.
Former
Internes
N
j>
Cooperating
Teachers
“N
j>
79
77
37
6l
q u a lifie d approval, but interneship
i s judged o f decided value.
9
9
11
18
A n e u tra l opinion^-"straddles the
fence."
9
9
9
15
Disadvantages of interneship outweight
i t s m erits.
4
4
3
5
Omission
1
1
1
5 In fr a ., pp. 300-301*
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2
183
In a l l c a s e s t h e r e s p o n s e s t a b u l a t e d u n d e r q u a l i f i e d a p p r o v a l were
such t h a t t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f i n t e r n e s h i p was u r g e d a l t h o u g h t h e r e s p o n d e n t
l i s t e d a d e f e c t w hich n eeded t o be overcome o r made a s u g g e s t i o n f o r
b e tte rin g in te rn esh ip .
G rouping t h e two ite m s q u a l i f i e d a p p r o v a l and
u n q u a l i f i e d a p p r o v a l t o g e t h e r , i t c a n be se en t h a t e i g h t v - s i x p e r c e n t o f
th e form er in te r n e s and s e v e n ty -n in e n e r cent of th e c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rs
lo o k upon i n t e r n e s h i p a s a v a l u a b l e and w o r t h - w h il e i n d u c t i o n program .
An e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y n eeded o f t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n s e t a b u l a t e d
as a n e u tr a l response.
Most c a s e s o f t h i s s o r t were s t a t e m e n t s in w hich
an a s s e r t i o n f a v o r i n g i n t e r n e s h i p was b a l a n c e d by a s t a t e m e n t p o i n t i n g
o u t a draw back o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
T hese two s t a t e m e n t s , made by t h e same
in d iv id u a l, i l l u s t r a t e t h is p o in t:
I t s m e r i t s o u tw e ig h i t s d e m e r i t s .
T h i s t r a i n i n g and i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e h a s n o t c a u se d
a n y g r e a t d e g r e e o f p r e f e r e n c e among a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r
t h o s e who have c o m p le te d i n t e r n e s h i p a nd m ust t h e r e f o r e
be c o n s i d e r e d n o t v e r y e s s e n t i a l .
The fo rm e r i n t e r n e s who ju d g e d i n t e r n e s h i p u n f a v o r a b l y s c o re d two
p r a c t i c e s , t o o much r o u t i n e vjork f o r i n t e r n e s w i t h o u t enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
i n a c t u a l t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s and l a c k o f r e m u n e r a t i o n .
A ll th re e o f th e
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s who r a t e d i n t e r n e s h i p u n f a v o r a b l y w ere i n t h e same
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m .
T h is i s th e g i s t o f t h e i r c r i t i c i s m :
I c o n s id e r i t (in te rn e s h ip ) v a lu a b le tr a i n in g f o r th e
i n t e r n e , b u t a d i s t i n c t d e t r i m e n t t o t h e p u p i l who i s f o r c e d
t o a c t a s a g u i n e a p i g and t o t h e t e a c h e r who m ust s t a n d
a s i d e and s e e h i s own e f f o r t s r u i n e d w h i l e t h e i n t e r n e l e a r n s
by e x p e r i e n c e .
Summary. —T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h outcom es o r r e s u l t s o f i n t e r n e ­
s h i p p r o g ra m s .
‘ Atfl
D i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s , f o r m e r i n t e r n e s , a nd
k.
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184
c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rs a p p ra is e in te r n e s h ip .
D i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s a t t r i b u t e f o u r m a jo r outcom es t o
in te rn e sh ip :
i n te r n e s r e c e iv e t h e i r f i r s t y e a r ’ s e x p e rien c e i n a school
s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th ; s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s a r e p l a c e d
i n t h e s c h o o l sy stem i n w hich t h e y have b e e n i n t e r n e s o r s e c u r e d e s i r a b l e
p o s i t i o n s i n o t h e r s y s te m s ; i n t e r n e s a r e g i v e n a n o v e rv ie w o f and a r e
o r i e n t e d i n many p h a s e s o f s c h o o l 'work b e f o r e b e i n g r e q u i r e d to s p e c i a l i z e
in tea c h in g c e r t a i n s u b je c ts or a t c e r t a i n g rad e l e v e l s ; th e p e rio d of i n ­
t e r n e s h ip se rv e s a s a p ro b a tio n a ry p e rio d p ro v in g th e a b i l i t y or la c k of
a b i l i t y o f th e in te r n e i n a te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n .
b o t h c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and fo rm e r i n t e r n e s t e n d t o a g r e e on t h e
m a jo r a d v a n ta g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p :
gradual in d u c tio n in to te a c h in g ; h e lp fu l
s u p e rv is io n ; a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e o ry to p r a c t i c e ; p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e
t e a c h e r 's a d m in is tra tiv e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
I n a d d i t i o n , f o rm e r i n t e r n e s
s t r e s s a n e x p l o r a t o r y f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p , o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e rv e c h i l d r e n
of d i f f e r e n t ages i n d i f f e r e n t s u b je c t f i e l d s , w h ile c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s
s tr e s s in te r n e s h ip 's p ro b atio n ary fu n c tio n .
C o n c e rn in g t h e d raw backs o f i n t e r n e s h i p , f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and co­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a g r e e on t h r e e p o i n t s :
i n many c a s e s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r y
h e l p i s n o t what i t s h o u ld b e , p oor s e l e c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and
i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n b e i n g t o b la m e ; i n t e r n e s r e c e i v e i n ­
a d e q u a t e r e m u n e r a t i o n ; t o o many c o u r s e s a t c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n s t a k e to o much o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s tim e and e n e r g y .
Form er i n ­
t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s d i s a g r e e m a r k e d ly on one r o i n t ; f o m e r
i n t e r n e s c la im i n t e r n e s a r e n o t a llo w e d t o assum e enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
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i n a t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n w h i l e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s c la im t h a t c h i l d r e n ’ s
work may s u f f e r b e c a u s e o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f th e i n t e r n e .
te a c h e rs p o in t out t h a t ,
C o o p e r a ti n g
in some c a s e s , i n t e r n e s have, been a s s i g n e d c l a s s e s
which t h e y were n o t p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h ,
a. number o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s
c la im t h a t t h e i n t e r n e ’ s p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s p oor and i n a d e q u a t e .
Former i n t e r n e s c i t e a s a drawback t h a t t h e d u t i e s o f i n t e r n e s a r e not
c le a r ly d e fin e d .
The s u g g e s t i o n s g iv e n f o r t h e improvement o f i n t e r n e s h i p d e a l
l a r g e l y w i t h means o f rem edying t h e d e f e c t s j u s t l i s t e d .
/B e tte r s u p e r ­
v i s i o n —more c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a n d more tim e f o r
su p e rv isio n --h e a d th e l i s t .
Both c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and f o rm e r i n t e r n e s
a g r e e t h a t l e s s tim e sh o u ld be s p e n t by t h e i n t e r n e i n f o r m a l c o u rs e work.
Course work t h a t i s t a k e n sh o u ld be c l o s e l y c o i 'r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c la s s ro o m
work b e in g c a r r i e d on by t h e i n t e r n e .
C o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r s e m p hasize t h a t
t h e r e s h o u ld be more r i g i d s e l e c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s w h ile fo rm e r i n t e r n e s
recommend t h a t i n t e r n e s be a llo w e d t o do more t e a c h i n g "on t h e i r own."
Former i n t e r n e s p o i n t o u t t h e need f o r g u a rd in g a g a i n s t t h e a s s ig n m e n t o f
a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount o f r o u t i n e work t o i n t e r n e s .
C o o p e r a ti n g
t e a c h e r s d e s i r e r e c o g n i t i o n o f some s o r t f o r t h e i r work in c o n n e c t io n w ith
in te r n e s h i p ; th e y a l s o ad v o cate the e s ta b lis h m e n t of c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s
betw een t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
Most c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y d e r i v e d c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e
a d v a n ta g e s from b e in g c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
Most f r e q u e n t l y e n um erated
b e n e f i t s w ere t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p makes t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r a n a ly z e and
become more c r i t i c a l o f h i s own w ork, t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t e r n e s s e r v e s
a s a s p u r and i n c e n t i v e k e e p in g th e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r on h e r t o e s , t h a t
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pp"'
186
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s g a i n c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s and new p o i n t s o f view
from i n t e r n e s .
A p p r o x im a te ly s i x o u t o f seven o f t h e f o rm e r i n t e r n e s and f o u r o u t
o f f i v e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s lo o k upon i n t e r n e s h i p a s a v a l u a b l e
and w o r t h - w h il e i n d u c t i o n program .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CLiAPTIR V I I I
STMiAKY AND CONCLUSIONS
I n t r o d u c t i o n . — " N e g le c t o f t h e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r means more t h a n t h e
l o s s o f Imm ediate t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y ; i t p e r m i t s th e development, o f c h r o n i c
i n c o m p e t e n c y . S t r o n g words t h e s e , b u t words few would c a r e t o d i s p u t e .
T h e i r t r u t h i s i n d e l i b l y stamped in t h e t e a c h i n g o f many young p e o p le who
have been throw n on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r o f t e a c h i n g
w i t h o u t a d e q u a te p r e p a r a t i o n , w i t h o u t com p e ten t s u p e r v i s i o n , and w i t h l i t t l e
s ti m u lu s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l grow th and a d v a n ce m en t.
I t i s b e c a u s e o f th e
p l i g h t of many b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p h as be e n p ro p o se d a s a
v a l u a b l e , and in d e e d i n t e g r a l , part, o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n .
It
is because
o f t h e p ro m ise o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s t h a t t h e w r i t e r has b e e n le d t o
examine p i o n e e r v e n t u r e s in t h i s f i e l d , to s tu d y t h e i r a im s , t h e i r p r a c ­
t i c e s , t o a t t e m p t .to d e te r m in e what r e p r e s e n t s d e s i r a b l e p r a c t i c e , t o
p o i n t o u t l a g s betvreen what i s and w hat s h o u ld b e .
As one o f th e f i r s t
s t u d i e s in t h i s f i e l d , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a n o r i e n t a t i o n or s u r v e y s t u d y .
I t s f i n d i n g s s h o u ld be of i n t e r e s t t o b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s , t o t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t o s t a t e d e p a r t m e n t s
of e d u c atio n .
A f t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e m ethods employed i n t h i s s t u d y , t h i s c h a p t e r
w i l l r e v ie w t h e m a jo r f i n d i n g s , w i l l l i s t r e c o m m e n d a tio n s , and w i l l p o i n t
o u t a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h a t need to be made.
^ R. M. N orthw ay, " P r o f e s s i o n a l A d ju s tm e n t S e r v i c e f o r B e g in n in g
T e a c h e r s , " New York S t a t e E d u c a t i o n . 2 6 :4 2 5 , M arch, 1959.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P r o c e d u r e s em p lo y e d . — I n t e r n e s h i p i s a c o o p e r a t i v e l y new word i n
e d u c a tio n .
T h e re a r e p ro g ra m s o f c a d e t t e a c h i n g , a s s i s t a n t t e a c h i n g , and
f i f t h - y e a r s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g h a v in g many o f t h e e a r - m a r k s o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s
in te re ste d
l i t t l e m a t t e r w hat i t s name.
in a c e r t a i n t y p e o f i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e ,
S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s stu d y concerns in d u c tio n
program s m e e tin g t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :
T h a t t h e i n t e r n e s be g r a d u a t e s o f a f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e o r
t e a c h e r s ' c o lle g e b efo re e n te r in g t h e i r p erio d of in te r n e s h ip .
T h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p be i n a t y p i c a l s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n , and
t h a t t h e i n t e r n e be r e s p o n s i b l e w h o l l y o r i n o a r t t o l o c a l
school a u t h o r i t i e s .
T h a t th e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p be a t l e a s t a s e m e s te r i n
l e n g t h w ith t h e i n t e r n e s p e n d in g a t l e a s t h a l f o f th e s c h o o l
d ay i n t h e s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n .
T hat a m ajo r
p ro fe ssio n a l
o b j e c t i v e o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program be t h e
e d u c a t i o n and d e v e lo p m en t o f t h e i n t e r n e .
T h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program be a d e f i n i t e l y p lan n e d program
in v o lv in g a t l e a s t s e v e r a l in te r n e s .
T h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program be in e x i s t e n c e a t t h e p r e s e n t
tim e.
I n t e r n e s h i p program s c o n fo rm in g t o t h e s e c r i t e r i a w ere l o c a t e d by
r e q u e s t i n g s t a t e d e p a r t m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n and l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
t o in fo rm t h e w r i t e r o f any su c h program s t h a t t h e y knew e x i s t e d .
T h is
s tu d y i s b a s e d on a d e t a i l e d s tu d y o f t w e n ty - o n e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s was o b t a i n e d by q u e s ­
t i o n n a i r e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and v i s i t a t i o n .
The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s b a s e d on
a c a r e f u l a n a ly s is o f th e p r o f e s s io n a l l i t e r a t u r e p e r ta in in g t o i n te r n e ­
s h i p , and was t r i e d o u t i n two i n t e r n e s h i p program s p r i o r t o g e n e r a l
c irc u la tio n .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r p e r s o n a l l y v i s i t e d f i f t e e n o f t h e tw e n ty -
one i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
189
I n o r d e r t o d e te r m in e what u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s s h o u ld g o v e rn t h e
o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r
e d u c a t i o n were a s k e d t o r a t e some f i f t y p ro p o s e d p r i n c i p l e s .
P rin c ip le s
r a t e d a s e s s e n t i a l o r h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e by s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o r more o f
t h e " j u r o r s ” have be e n u sed i n i n t e r n r e t i n y c u r r e n t i n t e r n e s h i p p r a c t i c e s .
P e r h a p s t h e b e s t p e r s o n s t o a p p r a i s e i n t e r n e s h i p a r e th o s e who have
been most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n e s h i p n r o g ra m s .
S ix ty -o n e co­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and one h u n d re d and two f o r m e r i n t e r n e s r e p l i e d t o a
q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r f r a n k o p i n i o n o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s ­
ad v an tag es of i n te r n e s h i p .
M a jo r f i n d i n g s :
1.
I n t e r n e s h i p program s w ere n o t e s t a b l i s h e d t o meet a s i n g l e
d o m in a ti n g and m ost i m p o r ta n t aim .
R a t h e r , i n t e r n e s h i p i s d i r e c t e d tow ard
t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a number o f g o a ls c h i e f among which a r e :
a.
The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e in t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s .
b.
I n s u r in g t h a t th e b eg in n in g te a c h e r s e c u re s h i s f i r s t y e a r ’ s
e x p e r i e n c e in a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l
g row th.
c.
P r o v i d i n g a scheme of t e a c h e r i n d u c t i o n in w hich t h e r e i s
a d e q u a t e and co m p e ten t s u p e r v i s i o n a t t h e tim e o f i n d u c t i o n .
d.
P r o v i d i n g a program o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s
i n w h ic h l e a r n i n g i s b a sed upon d o i n g .
e.
Making p o s s i b l e g r a d u a l i n d u c t i o n i n t o t h e w ork o f t e a c h i n g .
2.
These m a jo r f u n c t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e
a lm o s t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e aim s which l e a d e r s in t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n s t a t e
s h o u ld be t h e m a jo r aims o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
L e a d e r s in t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n
would add one f u n c t i o n t o t h o s e j u s t l i s t e d ,
th o u g h , t h e f u n c t i o n t h a t
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
190
i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld p r o v i d e a t r y - o u t p e r i o d i n w hich i t can be d e te r m in e d
w h e th e r th e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r p o s s e s s e s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d o f a
good t e a c h e r .
p ro g ra m s.
T h is i s a r e c o g n i z e d m a jo r g o a l o f b u t h a l f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
Some d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s c o n te n d t h a t t h i s i s a
fu n c tio n o f stu d e n t te a c h in g r a t h e r th a n a f u n c tio n o f in te r n e s h ip .
S.
I n d e f i n i n g i n t e r n e s h i p , l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n h o ld t h a t
th e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s s h o u ld be o b s e r v e d :
a.
I n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f t h e b a s i c p r e p a r a t i o n
and t r a i n i n g o f t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r .
b.
D u rin g th e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , t h e i n t e r n e sh o u ld engage i n
t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r
engages.
c.
The i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n s h o u ld i n c l u d e a c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n i n w hich i n t e r n e s c a r r y on c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a t e work
d u rin g t h e i r p e rio d of in te r n e s h i p .
d.
The p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be a t l e a s t a y e a r in l e n g t h .
e.
B a s ic c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h i n g
s h o u ld be co m p le te d p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p .
f.
I n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t in g a s
c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e t y p e o f s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n in w hich t h e
i n t e r n e w i l l p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e pe rm a n en t a p p o in t m e n t .
But one o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i s s u b s c r i b e d t o by a l l tw e n ty - o n e o f t h e
i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s , t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e i n t e r n e sh o u ld engage in t h e
l a r g e v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r e n g a g e s ,
seventeen
i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s d e f i n e i n t e r n e s h i p i n te rm s o f a p e r i o d w hich i s a
year in le n g th .
In te rn e s h ip i s d e fin ed as a p a r t o f th e b a s ic p re p a ra tio n
and t r a i n i n g o f t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r in f i f t e e n i n s t a n c e s .
F o u rteen in ­
t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s l o c a t e i n t e r n e s h i p i n t h e t o t a l t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p l a n
by r e q u i r i n g t h a t b a s i c c o u r s e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t
t e a c h i n g be c o m p le te d p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p .
F o u rte e n i n t e r n e -
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s h i p p rogram s b e l i e v e t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n
a p p r o x i m a t in g a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e ty p e o f s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n w h ic h
t h e i n t e r n e w i l l p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e perm anent a p p o i n t m e n t .
T h irteen in te rn e ­
s h i p p l a n s have a c o o p e r a t i v e a rra n g e m e n t w h ic h i n c l u d e s a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
in stitu tio n .
I n f i f t e e n i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, a p r i n c i p l e w hich j u s t f a i l e d
o f v a l i d a t i o n by l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n ,
f a c to r in d e fin in g in te rn e s h ip :
i s c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r ta n t
t h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h o u ld be r e s p o n s i b l e
p r i m a r i l y and d i r e c t l y t o t h e l o c a l s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r .
4.
The n a t u r e o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s d e f i n e d by l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r
e d u c a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g a s emphases i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p " c u r r ic u l u m "
a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s ; g r a d u a l i n d u c t i o n u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , f u l l
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a jo r t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t some tim e d u r i n g th e p e r i o d
of in te rn esh ip .
Two o t h e r g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n
o f i n t e r n e s h i p a c t i v i t i e s a r e t h a t t h e m a jo r c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i n g
a c t i v i t i e s s h o u ld b e t h e i r v a l u e i n d e v e lo p i n g t e a c h i n g com petence and
t h a t k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s and r a t e o f i n d u c t i o n s h o u ld be d e te r m i n e d by
t h e a b i l i t y , b a c k g ro u n d , a nd n e e d s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n e .
5.
P r o v i s i o n i s made i n n e a r l y a l l i n t e r n e s h i p program s f o r a c ­
q u a i n t i n g t h e i n t e r n e w i t h t h e m a jo r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in v o lv e d i n i n ­
s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g .
S e v e r a l i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s,
th o u g h , do n o t g i v e t h e i n t e r n e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o ha v e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t h u s d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e t r y - o u t and p r o b a t i o n a r y
f u n c t i o n s o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s w e l l a s l i m i t i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w hich a n
i n t e r n e can d e v e lo p t r u e t e a c h i n g com petence.
.;li
l
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
192
.
6
E very i n t e r n e s h i p program i n c l u d e s c e r t a i n s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s
in w h ic h i n t e r n e s p a r t i c i p a t e .
O b s e r v a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g , i n d i v i d u a l and
gro u p c o n f e r e n c e s , a n d t e a c h i n g w h ile b e i n g v i s i t e d by s u p e r v i s o r s a r e
s u p e r v i s o r y p r o c e d u r e s i n w h ic h i n t e r n e s engage i n a l l tw e n ty - o n e o f t h e
i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s .
7.
I n t e r n e s i n m ost i n t e r n e s h i p program s have some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
i n c o n n e c t io n w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .
I n m ost
c a s e s , th o u g h , t h i s i s a s u b o r d i n a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e i n t e r n e a s s i s t i n g
r a t h e r t h a n b e in g g i v e n t h e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a
clu b a c t i v i t y .
L i t t l e e f f o r t i s made t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i n t e r n e
to p a r t i c i p a t e in th e d i r e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t ty p es of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
a c tiv it ies.
8
.
The i n t e r n e ' s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s i s l i m i t e d
i n m ost i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f m a jo r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s
and p r o c e d u r e s .
P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
t a s k s i n but a v e r y few p r o g ra m s , a n e x c e p t i o n b e i n g t h a t i n t w e lv e i n ­
t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, i n t e r n e s do have some p r a c t i c e i n k e e p in g r e c o r d s p e r ­
t a i n in g to p u p il a c c o u n tin g .
9.
I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s , t h e i n t e r n e ' s f a m i l i a r i t y
w i t h t h e work o f s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f members, such p e r s o n s a s t h e c o u n s e l o r ,
th e school n u rs e , th e o f f i c e c l e r k , th e v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r , i s lim ite d to
d i s c u s s i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e work done by t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s .
The
o n l y s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f member t h a t m ost i n t e r n e s a c t i v e l y a s s i s t a t some
tim e d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
193
10.
In most interneship programs, the p rinciple that internes
should be expected to become acquainted with the lo ca l community, i t s
people, educational agencies, organizations and ind u stries, and should
p a rtic ip a te in public a ffa ir s i s flagran tly violated*
11.
The follow ing a c t iv it ie s designed to further the interne*s
p rofessional growth are e j e c t e d o f internes in most interneship programs:
graduate work, reading professional lite r a tu r e , p articipating in special
seminars for in ternes.
Most internes are encouraged to belong to pro­
fessio n a l teachers' organizations and to p articip ate in educational con­
ferences and meetings.
12.
Most internes are d e fin ite ly encouraged to p a rticip a te in
a c t iv it ie s leading to personal and so cia l enrichment, such a c t iv it ie s as
attending concerts and p lays, developing leisu re-tim e reading in te r e sts,
becoming a member o f a so c ia l group.
13*
in ternes.
Most interneship programs employ several procedures in securing
In a majority o f interneship programs, cooperative relation ­
ships between the teacher-training in s titu tio n and the lo c a l school system
are such that internes are selected from a group o f beginning teachers
recomnended by the teacher-training in stitu tio n .
Even though no such
cooperative arrangement e x is t s , lo c a l school systems receive a number of
applications d ir e c tly traceable to information passed on to graduating
senior by teacher-training in s titu tio n s .
In most interneship programs,
some appointments are made from among those who make u n so lic ite d applica­
tio n s.
In but seven interneship programs does the superintendent o f
schools or other s ta f f member in the lo c a l school system in charge of
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
i n t e r n e s h i p v i s i t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n f e r r i n g w ith p r o s p e c t i v e
in te rn e s,
14.
The m a jo r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s a r e :
th e
a p p l i c a n t ' s g e n e r a l s c h o l a s t i c - a v e r a g e in c o l l e g e ; t h e i m p r e s s io n made i n
an i n t e r v i e w ; t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n r e c o r d ;
grad es re c e iv e d in c o lle g e in th e s u b je c ts th e a p p lic a n t ex p ects t o te a c h ;
recom m endations o f c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s .
15.
M a jo r f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a r e :
r e c o g n i z e d e x c e l l e n c e a s a c la s s r o o m t e a c h e r ; d e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y a s a
h e lp e r o f o th er te a c h e rs;
i n t e r e s t a nd w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e co­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r t o u n d e r t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such
a p o sitio n .
O nly s e v e n i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s t a k e i n t o d e f i n i t e c o n s i d e r a ­
t i o n t h e p r o b a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l growth t h a t a p r o s p e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r w i l l a c h ie v e a s a r e s u l t o f h e r d u t i e s a s a c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r .
16.
W r i t t e n c o n t r a c t u a l a g r e e m e n ts b e tw e e n t h e s c h o o l s y ste m and
t h e i n t e r n e s a r e found i n f e w e r t h a n h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
17.
I n most i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, i n t e r n e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s
r e g u l a r members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f on t h e same f o o t i n g a s o t h e r t e a c h e r s
a s f a r a s s t a f f , p u p i l , a n d community r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o n c e r n e d .
18.
The r e m u n e r a t i o n g iv e n i n t e r n e s f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s v a r i e s
g r e a t l y from s c h o o l system t o s c h o o l s y s te m .
I n o n l y a few i n t e r n e s h i p
p rogram s d o e s t h e i n t e r n e r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e r a t i o n t o c o v e r minimum
liv in g expenses.
19.
The a v e ra g e i n t e r n e r e c e i v e s h e l p from t h r e e s p e c i a l i z e d
s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e p r i n c i p a l , t h e s u p e r v i s o r from t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
195
i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of s c h o o l s .
A p p r o x im a te ly tw e lv e t o
f i f t e e n c la s s r o o m v i s i t s a r e p a i d t h e i n t e r n e i n t h e c o u rs e o f t h e y e a r
w i t h a s many o r more i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s b e in g h e l d .
20.
sem in ars.
Only a few s c h o o l s y s te m s s p o n s o r r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u le d i n t e r n e s '
E v e ry c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s p o n s o r s such a
s e m in a r , how ever.
I n m ost c a s e s , t h e f a c u l t y member i n c h a rg e o f s u p e r ­
v i s i n g i n t e r n e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g a w eekly tw o - h o u r s e s s i o n
d e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l p ro b le m s i n t e r n e s a r e f a c i n g i n t h e i r
lo c a l school s itu a tio n .
21.
T here i s g r e a t v a r i a t i o n be tw e en d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n e s h i p p r o ­
grams i n t h e number o f r e g u l a r g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s w h ic h i n t e r n e s a r e ex ­
p e c t e d o r a r e a llo w e d t o c a r r y .
The r a n g e i s from no r e g u l a r g r a d u a t e
c o u r s e work t o h a l f - t i m e work a t a c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
22.
The m ost f r e q u e n t l y u se d method o f a p p r a i s i n g i n t e r n e s h i p i s
t o s o l i c i t c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p l a n from f o rm e r i n t e r n e s , from
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , and from s u p e r v i s o r s .
Twelve i n t e r n e s h i p program s
a t t e m p t t o d e te r m in e t h e s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s in s u b s e q u e n t p o s i t i o n s a s
a m ea su re o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e
2Z.
in te rn e s h ip p erio d .
A l l i n t e r n e s h i p program s make some e f f o r t t o a s s i s t t h e i n ­
t e r n e in s e c u r i n g a perm anent p o s i t i o n .
E i g h t s c h o o l sy ste m s p u r s u e t h e
p o l i c y o f p l a c i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s w i t h i n t h e i r own s y s te m .
24.
Only h a l f o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program s make a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n
f o r f o l l o w - u p o f t h e i n t e r n e a f t e r t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p h a s been
c o m p le te d and perm anent a p p o in tm e n t s e c u r e d .
T h i s i s one o f t h e o u t ­
s t a n d i n g w e aknesses o f e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25.
T e a c h e r -tr a in in g i n s t i t u t i o n s use s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a
in s e l e c t i n g
l o c a l sch o o ls to c o o p e ra te in t h e i r in te r n e s h i p p la n , reco g n ized g e n e r a l
e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l a n d a b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l t o f u r n i s h com p e ten t
s u p e r v i s o r y h e l p b e in g two m a jo r f a c t o r s .
26.
G r a d u a te c r e d i t i s g i v e n f o r th e work done i n t h e l o c a l s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n in o n l y a few i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s .
T hat g r a d u a t e c r e d i t s h o u ld
be g i v e n f o r t h e improvement i n t e a c h i n g com petence r e s u l t i n g from t h i s
t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e i s a p o i n t o f v iew n o t y e t a c c e p t e d by m ost t e a c h e r tra in in g in s titu tio n s .
G ra d u a te c r e d i t i s g i v e n , how ever, f o r work done in
c o n n e c tio n w ith the i n t e r n e s ' sem in ar.
27.
A c c o rd in g t o d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r o g ra m s , t h e two m ost
p r e s s i n g p ro b le m s c o n f r o n t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e a r e f i n d i n g
v a l i d m ea su res f o r p r e d i c t i n g t e a c h i n g s u c c e s s and f i n d i n g means o f a p ­
p r a i s i n g t h e work o f i n t e r n e s and e v a l u a t i n g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram .
2 8.
D i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a t t r i b u t e f o u r m a jo r outcom es
to in te rn esh ip :
in te r n e s r e c e iv e t h e i r f i r s t y e a r 's ex p erien ce in a school
s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c iv e t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g ro w th ; s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r n e s a r e p l a c e d
i n the s c h o o l system i n w h ic h t h e y h a v e been i n t e r n e s o r s e c u r e d e s i r a b l e
p o s i t i o n s in o t h e r s y s te m s ; i n t e r n e s a r e g i v e n an ov e rv ie w o f and a r e
o r i e n t e d i n many p h a s e s o f s c h o o l work b e f o r e b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o s p e c i a l i z e
in te a c h in g c e r t a i n s u b je c t s or a t c e r t a i n grade l e v e l s ; th e p e rio d o f i n ­
t e r n e s h i p s e r v e s a s a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d p r o v in g t h e a b i l i t y o r l a c k o f
a b i l i t y o f th e in te rn e in a te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n .
29.
Both c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and f o rm e r i n t e r n e s a g r e e on t h e
m a jo r a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p :
g rad u a l in d u ctio n in to te a c h in g ; h e lp f u l
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
197
s u p e r v i s i o n ; a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e o r y to p r a c t i c e ; p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t e a c h e r '
a d m in istra tiv e r e s p o n s i b il it ie s .
30.
Asked t o l i s t d ra w b a c k s o f i n t e r n e s h i p , f o r m e r i n t e r n e s and c o ­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a g r e e on t h r e e p o i n t s :
i s o f a p o o r e r q u a l i t y t h a n i t s h o u ld b e ;
th e s u p e r v i s i o n g i v e n t h e i n t e r n e
i n t e r n e s r e c e i v e i n a d e q u a te r e ­
m u n e r a ti o n ; g r a d u a t e w ork a t t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
t a k e s t o o much o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s t i m e and e n e r g y .
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s d i s a g r e e m a r k e d ly on one p o i n t :
in stitu tio n
Former i n t e r n e s and c o ­
f o rm e r i n t e r n e s c la im
i n t e r n e s a r e n o t a llo w e d t o assum e enough r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in a t e a c h i n g
s i t u a t i o n w h i l e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s c la i m t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s work may s u f f e r
because of th e te a c h in g of th e in te r n e .
th a t,
i n some c a s e s ,
C o o p e ra tin g te a c h e r s p o in t out
i n t e r n e s have be e n a s s i g n e d c l a s s e s w h ic h t h e y were
not prepared to te a c h .
A number o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s c la i m t h a t t h e
i n t e r n e ' s p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s p o o r and i n a d e q u a t e .
Form er i n t e r n e s
c i t e a s a draw back t h a t t h e d u t i e s o f i n t e r n e s a r e n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .
31.
More c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s , more tim e
a l l o t t e d t o c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s f o r s u p e r v i s i o n , and i n g e n e r a l , much
b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n , h e a d t h e l i s t o f rec o m m e n d a tio n s made by fo rm e r i n ­
t e r n e s a nd c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
Both c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s a n d fo rm e r
i n t e r n e s a l s o a g r e e t h a t l e s s tim e s h o u ld b e s p e n t by t h e i n t e r n e in
f o r m a l c o u r s e w ork.
C o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r s em p h a size t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld be
more r i g i d s e l e c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s .
Former i n t e r n e s recommend t h a t i n t e r n e s
be a llo w e d t o do more t e a c h i n g " o n t h e i r ow n.”
52.
Most c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s d e r i v e c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e a d v a n ta g e s
from s e r v i n g a s c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s .
The m ost f r e q u e n t l y e n u m e rate d
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
b e n e f i t s a r e t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p makes t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r a n a l y z e and
become more c r i t i c a l o f h i s own w ork, t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i n t e r n e
s e r v e s a s a sp u r and a n i n c e n t i v e k e e p in g t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r "on h i s
t o e s , " t h a t c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s g a i n c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s and new p o i n t s
o f view fro m i n t e r n e s .
33.
A p p r o x im a te ly s i x o u t o f s e v e n o f t h e f o rm e r i n t e r n e s and f o u r
out of f iv e of th e c o o p e ra tin g te a c h e rs c o n sid e r in te r n e s h ip a v a lu a b le
and w o r t h - w h i l e i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e .
R ecom m endations. —Most o f t h e rec o m m e n d a tio n s t o be made a r e based
on d e f i n i t e l a g s be tw e en c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e and w hat i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s d e ­
s i r a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s e n d o rs e d by l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n .
The q u e s t i o n may be r a i s e d a s t o w h e th e r ju d g in g a l l i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s by
t h e same s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s c a n be d e fe n d e d a s a sound a p p r a i s a l p r o c e d u r e .
C o n f o r m ity t o t h e same s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s on t h e p a r t o f a l l i n t e r n e s h i p p r o ­
grams m ig h t i n d i c a t e an u n d e s i r a b l e u n i f o r m i t y an d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n .
I t m ust
be a d m i t t e d t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p i s s t i l l i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e ; in d ee d i t
i s t o be hoped t h a t t h e tim e n e v e r comes when i n t e r n e s h i p i s r e g a r d e d a s a
s e t and e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n d u c t i o n p r o c e d u r e .
D e p a r t u r e s from t h e
.
a c c e p t e d p a t t e r n i n t h e hope o f im p ro v in g t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n m ust a lw ays be
encouraged.
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , most o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s f o r m u l a t e d i n t h i s
s tu d y a r e g e n e r a l g u i d e p o s t s p e r m i t t i n g many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n e s h i p p r a c t i c e s
w i t h i n t h e i r b r o a d fram ew ork.
T h e i r s o u n d n e s s h a s be e n a t t e s t e d t o by p e r s o n s
o u tsta n d in g in th e f i e l d o f te a c h e r e d u c a tio n .
I f i n t e r n e s h i p i s t o be a p ­
p r a i s e d , and i t m ust be a p p r a i s e d i f p r o g r e s s i s t o be m ade, s u c h a s e t o f
p r i n c i p l e s seems a s v a l i d a s a n y s i n g l e s e t o f c r i t e r i a w h ic h c a n be d e v i s e d .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
199
The w r i t e r d o e s n o t s a y t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld n o t be d e p a r t u r e s from t h e s e
p rin c ip le s.
R a t h e r , he would c l a i m t h a t when t h e r e a r e d e p a r t u r e s , t h e r e
m ust be a d e f i n i t e , c l e a r - c u t r e a s o n f o r t h e d e p a r t u r e , t h a t t h e b u rd e n o f
p r o o f i s upon t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program t o show t h a t t h e d e v i a t i o n im proves
i n t e r n e s h i p f o r t h a t program o r t h a t t h e d e p a r t u r e i s b e i n g made i n an e x ­
p e r i m e n t a l e f f o r t t o f i n d a more s a t i s f a c t o r y way o f a c h i e v i n g i n t e r n e s h i p
g o a ls.
F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f e x i s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, t h e w r i t e r b e ­
l i e v e s i t i s sound t o t u r n t h e c r i t i c a l g l a r e o f i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s on
present in te rn e sh ip p ra c tic e s .
F o llo w in g a r e m a jo r recom m endations w hich a r e an o u tg ro w th o f
t h i s stu d y :
1.
The c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r w h e th e r b a s i c c o u r s e s in p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld be c o m p le te d p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p c a l l s
f o r a r e t h i n k i n g o f t h e e n t i r e t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m .
O ften in ­
t e r n e s h i p h a s be e n o f a patch-w orlc n a t u r e ; i t h a s been d e s i g n e d t o remedy
c e r t a i n i l l s m aking t h e i n d u c t i o n o f t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r d i f f i c u l t ,
in a d e q u a te s u p e r v i s i o n f o r e x a m p le.
I f i n t e r n e s h i p i s t o be an a r t i c u ­
l a t e d p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n p rogram , i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e r e s t
o f t h e t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n p l a n m ust be c a r e f u l l y t h o u g h t t h r o u g h .
B r in k
p r e s e n t s t h e pro b le m w e l l when he s a y s :
The u s u a l program o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i s p la n n e d
on a f o u r y e a r b a s i 3 . The new p l a n i n v o l v e s a f i f t h y e a r
o f w ork. The q u e s t i o n t h u s a r i s e s a s t o w hat s h o u ld be
t h e n a t u r e o f a n i n t e g r a t e d program which i s t o i n c l u d e
i n t e r n e s h i p - t e a c h i n g . What e x p e r i e n c e s c a n b e s t be i n ­
t r o d u c e d d u r i n g ea ch s u c c e s s i v e y e a r ? What s h o u ld be t h e
n a t u r e o f t h e c o u r s e work w hich i s t o be c a r r i e d on d u r i n g
t h e summers im m e d ia te ly p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g t h e y e a r
o f i n t e r n e s h i p ? I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t some o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s
t h a t a r e u s u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e u n d e r g r a d u a t e work s h o u ld
be p o s tp o n e d t i l l t h e g r a d u a t e y e a r and t h a t o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
200
s h o u ld be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r them? What i s t h e r o l e o f
o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n a program l e a d i n g
to a f u l l y ear of in te rn e sh ip ? 2
Few i n t e r n e s h i p program s have been c a r e f u l l y p la n n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e
t o t a l t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g p ro g ra m .
I n many c a s e s i n t e r n e s h i p i s a s o r t o f
o u t c r o p p i n g appendage in a n u n i n t e g r a t e d t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n p l a n .
In te rn e ­
s h i p can h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d t o r e a l i z e i t s m a jo r f u n c t i o n s u n d e r such
co n d itio n s.
2.
Coming t o more s p e c i f i c re c o m m e n d a tio n s, t h e r e a r e f o u r o r
f i v e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s i n w hich i n t e r n e s n e v e r assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r a number o f t h e m ost im p o r ta n t c la s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s .
I f in te rn e sh ip
i s t o be a n i n d u c t i o n program i n w hich i n t e r n e s l e a r n by d o in g and i f i t
i s t o be an a d e q u a t e t r y - o u t and p r o b a t i o n a r y e x p e r i e n c e , i n t e r n e s m ust
have f u l l c h a r g e o f a c la s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n s e e i n g th ro u g h t h e work o f
s e v e r a l u n i t s from s t a r t t o f i n i s h .
Even in i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n
which i n t e r n e s do have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e
i s a f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t o f i n t e r n e s t h a t t h e y s h o u ld have more r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a c la s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n .
The draw back o f i n t e r n e s h i p r a n k i n g
second in f r e q u e n c y o f m e n tio n a s l i s t e d by one h u n dred and two f o rm e r
i n t e r n e s from se v e n d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s i s t h a t i n t e r n e s need
t o do more t e a c h i n g "on t h e i r own."
I n w o rk in g w i t h c h i l d r e n we r e a d i l y
s u b s c r i b e t o th e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a t e v e r y s t a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n l e a r n i n g e x ­
p e r i e n c e s m ust be w i t h i n and up t o t h e c a p a c i t y o f th e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t .
We need t o a p p l y t h e same p r i n c i p l e to i n t e r n e s h i p , s t r e s s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y
t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p e x p e r i e n c e s s h o u ld be up t o and in d ee d sh o u ld s t r e t c h
th e c a p a c ity o f th e i n te r n e .
2 W. G. B r i n k , " I n t e r n e s h i p T e a c h in g i n t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n o f
T e a c h e r s . " E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , F e b r u a r y , 1937, 2 3 : 9 9 .
i.'.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s rec om m endation, w h i l e e m p h a s iz in g t h i s
need f o r i n c r e a s e d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r i n t e r n e s i n a number
o f i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s, i t m ust be p o i n t e d o u t a t t h e same tim e t h a t
a ny e x t e n s i o n and b r o a d e n in g o f t h e i n t e r n e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a c l a s s ­
room s i t u a t i o n m ust be made w i t h due r e g a r d f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e p u p i l s .
Indeed, t h i s t h e s i s has p re v io u s ly s tr e s s e d t h a t th e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of
t h e p u p i l s m ust a lw a y s be p r o t e c t e d and f u r t h e r e d .
To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t ,
t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be a- d i f f e r e n c e i n p o i n t o f view b etw een i n t e r n e s
who a r e e a g e r t o do a s much c la s s r o o m t e a c h i n g a s p o s s i b l e and co ­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s who f e e l t h a t r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e i r c l a s s to younger
and l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n s may c a u se t h e work o f t h e c l a s s t o s u f f e r .
I n d e te r m i n in g when i n t e r n e s a r e r e a d y t o assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r a c la s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n and i n d e t e r m i n i n g how much c la s s r o o m t e a c h i n g
i n t e r n e s s h o u ld do , t h e r e s h o u ld a lw ay s be a m a rg in o f s a f e t y a s s u r i n g
t h e p u p i l s o f com p e ten t i n s t r u c t i o n .
T here i s no r e a s o n why t h i s c a n n o t
be so w i t h i n t e r n e s s t i l l h a v in g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o do a g r e a t d e a l o f
te a c h in g .
I f i n t e r n e s a r e c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and i f t h e y have a d e q u a te
p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , t h e y s h o u ld be a b l e t o do a v e r y s u p e r i o r job o f
c la s s r o o m t e a c h i n g a t l e a s t by t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p
p erio d ,
idhat t h e y may l a c k i n s k i l l and e x p e r i e n c e s h o u ld be o f f s e t by
t h e i r l i g h t e r t e a c h i n g l o a d g i v i n g them more tim e f o r p r e p a r a t i o n , by
t h e i r y o u t h f u l e n th u s i a s m a nd v i g o r , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p p e a l i n g t o
a d o l e s c e n t s , and by t h e i r tre m en d o u s e a g e r n e s s t o p ro v e th e m s e lv e s a b l e
tea c h e rs.
3
S u p r a , p . 119.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3.
I n t e r n e s need t o be g i v e n more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c o n n e c t i o n
w ith e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s .
A lth o u g h , i n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e i n t e r n e ­
s h i p p ro g ra m s, t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e r n e t o d i r e c t e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
a c t i v i t i e s i s a f a c to r in h is s e le c tio n as an in te rn e ,
i n few i n s t a n c e s
i s t h e i n t e r n e g i v e n f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c l u b a c t i v i t y a t any tim e
d u rin g th e in te r n e s h ip p e rio d .
B e s i d e s m aking a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r t h e i n ­
t e r n e t o hav9 f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a tim e f o r a t l e a s t one e x t r a ­
c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , a r r a n g e m e n ts s h o u ld be made f o r t h e i n t e r n e t o have
an o p p o r tu n ity to p a r t i c i p a t e in the d i r e c t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r
a c t i v i t i e s of sev eral d iffe re n t ty p es.
4.
T h e re s h o u ld be g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a w ide v a r i e t y o f
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s so t h a t t h e i n t e r n e w i l l become f a m i l i a r w i t h a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e p ro b le m s and p r o c e d u r e s .
I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t one
o f t h e m a jo r a d v a n ta g e s o f i n t e r n e s h i p s e e n by c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and
i n t e r n e s i s t h a t t h e i n t e r n e 'b e c o m e s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e , many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a c ­
q u a i n t i n g t h e i n t e r n e w i t h b ro a d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and p ro b le m s
are l o s t .
I t seems s t r a n g e t h a t i n o n l y two i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s do
i n t e r n e s v i s i t a s c h o o l b o a rd m e e t in g .
5.
T h e re i s much t o commend t h e p r a c t i c e o f h a v in g i n t e r n e s a s s i s t
s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f members f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f tim e, t h e p u r p o s e b e in g n o t
to p ro v id e th e s e p erso n s w ith a s s i s t a n c e but to a c q u a in t th e in te r n e w ith
t h e f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t by t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s .
S p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f members
can c a r r y on t h e i r work e f f e c t i v e l y o n l y i f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s u n d e r s t a n d
t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r p r e s e n c e and make u s e o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n t h e m ost
a d v a n ta g e o u s w ay s.
A .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
203
6.
D e f i n i t e p l a n s need t e be made by i n t e r n e s and t h e d i r e c t o r o f
t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program f o r h e l p i n g i n t e r n e s t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e
l o c a l community and w i t h community p r o b le m s .
is an e s s e n t i a l p a rt o f in te r n e s h ip .
F i e l d work i n t h e community
Some o f t h e p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d on a t
The C o o p e r a ti v e S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s a r e s u g g e s t i v e .
H e r e , i n t e r n e s have
s t u d i e d housing: problem s and l a n d v a l u e s a ro u n d t h e Bank S t r e e t S c h o o l s ;
t h e y have made a s tu d y o f h e a l t h p ro b le m s w o rk in g j o i n t l y w i t h t h e s t a f f
o f a n e ig h b o r i n g community h o u s e ; t h e y h a v e s t u d i e d t h e a f t e r n o o n r e c r e a ­
t i o n a l and p la y g ro u n d program o f a p u b l i c e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l , m aking
recom m endations f o r i t s im provem ent.
T h is em p h a sis i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e
c a t a l o g o f t h e C o o p e r a ti v e S c h o o l f o r T e a c h e r s :
C o o p e r a ti v e S c h o o l s t u d e n t s d o n ’ t s t a y i n s i d e i v i e d
w a l l s w h ile t h e world w i t h i t s c h a l l e n g i n g p ro b lem s goes
on o u t s i d e . From t h e beg in n in g : o f t h e i r c o u r s e t h e y a r e
d e e p l y c o n c e rn e d w i t h t h e m a jo r i s s u e s o f t h e i r t i m e , and
work a m orning a week f o r a s e m e s t e r u n d e r v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s
c o n c ern e d 'with s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t . L a s t y e a r t h e y v i s i t e d
th e a n th r a c i t e re g io n s o f P e n n sy lv a n ia , a s s i s t e d in a co st
o f l i v i n g s u r v e y , h e lp e d i n s p e c t o l d law t e n e m e n t s , con­
s i d e r e d n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . F a c t s t h e y u n e a r t h e d were used
in p u b lic h e a r in g s .4
7.
C o ntinued s t r e s s n e e d s t o b e p l a c e d on e n c o u r a g in g t h e i n t e r n e
t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s l e a d i n g
t o h i s own p e r s o n a l d e v e lo p m e n t,
"a te a c h e r i s p rim a rily a s p e c i a l i s t
i n h i g h - g r a d e human l i v i n g . ' ’0
^ The Bank S t r e e t S c h o o l s , C a t a lo g (New York C i t y : 63 Bank S t r e e t ) ,
p . 13.
5 F r a n k l i n B o b b i t t , "A Summary T heory o f t h e C u r r ic u l u m ," S o c i e t y
f o r C u r r ic u lu m S t u d y , News B u l l e t i n , J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1934, p p . 2 - 4 . q u o te d
i n iii. ivi. D r a p e r , P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n iq u e s o f C u r r ic u lu m making (New
York: D. n p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 14.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
204
8.
T h e re a r e s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i n t e r n e s need t o he more
c a re fu lly se le c te d ,
a
number o f c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s l i s t more r i g i d
s e l e c t i o n a s t h e i r m a jo r rec om m endation f o r t h e improvement o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip .
a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s need i s t h a t some c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s
f e e l t h a t c l a s s work may s u f f e r b e c a u s e o f t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e i n t e r n e .
a s i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e now c o n s t i t u t e d , i n t e r n e s h i p s u c c e e d s b e s t
i f t h o s e who r e c e i v e and a c c e p t i n t e r n e s h i p a p p o in t m e n t s a r e t h e o u t ­
sta n d in g g ra d u a te s o f t e a c h e r - tr a in i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .
Local school a d -
m i n i s t r a t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , need t o be more a c t i v e i n r e c r u i t i n g o u t ­
s t a n d i n g b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a p p o in t m e n t s .
I f i n t e r n e s h i p i s a v a l u a b l e i n d u c t i o n and t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o ­
c e d u re f o r t h e s e l e c t few , t h e q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d a s t o w h e th e r o r n o t
i n t e r n e s h i p w ouldn’ t b e e q u a l l y o r p e rh a p s even more p r o f i t a b l e f o r b e ­
g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s -who a r e a v e r a g e i n a b i l i t y .
A fte r a l l , not a l l be­
g i n n in g t e a c h e r s c a n r a n k a t t h e to p o f t h e i r g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s .
«e a r e
rem in d ed t h a t l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n a g r e e t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p
s h o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f t h e b a s i c p r e p a r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f t h e
b e g in n in g te a c h e r .
£
L i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e h e s i t a n t t o
a d v o c a te t h e e x t e n s i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p t o i n c l u d e a l l b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s
a t t h e p r e s e n t time b e c a u s e many t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s have n o t
e x e rc is e d s u f f i c i e n t l y c a re fu l i n i t i a l s e le c tio n to in s u re t h a t th o se
who c o m p le te t h e p r e - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m w i l l have t h e
t r a i t s and a b i l i t i e s t h a t make f o r s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h i n g ,
mhen c a r e f u l
s e l e c t i o n i s e x e r c i s e d and t h o s e who a r e a d m i t t e d t o t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n
^ S u p r a , p . 71, P r i n c i p l e V I I I .
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
205
program s r e a l l y do c o n s t i t u t e a s e l e c t g r o u p , t h e n d i r e c t o r s o f i n ­
t e r n e s h i p p rogram s a r e r e a d y t o a d v o c a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l n e s s o f i n t e r n e s h i p .
a.t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , more c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s i s n e e d ed b e c a u s e
t h e r e a r e b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s a p p l y i n g f o r i n t e r n e s h i p p o s i t i o n s who n e v e r
s h o u ld have b e e n a llo w e d t o co m p le te a n u n d e r g r a d u a te t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n
program ,
d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e wary o f p e r m i t t i n g i n ­
t e r n e s h i p t o become t h e h u r d l e by means o f w hich o b v i o u s l y in c o m p e te n t
t e a c h e r s a r e e x c lu d e d from f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n .
Thus,
t h e e x t e n s i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s d e p e n d e n t i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s upon c a r e ­
f u l and r i g i d s e l e c t i o n o f t h o s e who e n t e r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l a ,
w i t h f u r t h e r s e l e c t i o n and g u i d a n c e , o f c o u r s e , t a k i n g p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t
th e p erio d o f p r e - s e r v ic e t r a i n i n g .
9.
teach er.
B e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n and g u id a n c e m ust be g i v e n t h e b e g i n n i n g
I t i s h e re t h a t l a r g e s t r i d e s may be t a k e n i n im p ro v in g i n ­
te rn e sh ip .
Most d i r e c t o r s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s s e e m in g ly a r e n ’t aw are
o f t h e m a g n itu d e o f t h i s p ro b le m .
m a jo r d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y a r e f a c i n g .
Few o f them m e n tio n i t a s one o f t h e
Former i n t e r n e s and c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r s , how ever, l i s t b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n a s t h e i r m a jo r rec o m m e n d a tio n .
C o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s m ust be more c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and m ust b e g i v e n
more tim e f o r c o n f e r e n c e work w i t h i n t e r n e s .
The a b i l i t y o f t h e co­
o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r t o grow p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e d u t i e s she w i l l
have s h o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a m a jo r f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i n g c o o p e r a t i n g
tea c h e rs.
10.
There s h o u ld be a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a c t u a l a g re e m e n t b e tw e e n t h e
p a r t i e s in v o lv e d i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program .
I f i n t e r n e s h i p iB a s i g n i f i ­
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
c a n t p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l program o f a s c h o o l s y s te m , i n v o l v i n g t h e
i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n p u p i l s , tim e s p e n t by members o f t h e s t a f f i n s u p e r ­
v i s i n g i n t e r n e s h i p , and e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r i n t e r n e s ’ s a l a r i e s , t h e Board
o f E d u c a ti o n ought t o g i v e fo rm a l a p p r o v a l t o t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
and s h o u ld p a s s on c o n t r a c t u a l s t i p u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
o f i n t e r n e s t o t h e s c h o o l system and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e sc h o o l
sy ste m t o i n t e r n e s .
Not o n ly a r e m is u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p r e v e n t e d by such
c o n tr a c t s , b u t th e iss u a n c e o f c o n tr a c ts h e lp s to e s t a b l i s h in te r n e s as
r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s i n t h e ey e s o f p u p i l s , p a r e n t s , a nd f e l l o w t e a c h e r s .
S p o n s o rin g i n t e r n e s h i p t h u s becomes a n a c c e p t e d f u n c t i o n o f t h e sc h o o l
s y s te m , i n t e r n e s a r e n o t r e g a r d e d a s mere a p p e n d a g e s , and t h e i n t e r n e ­
s h i p program i s i n no d a n g e r o f sudden abandonment due t o a n o c c a s i o n a l
p r o t e s t o f a m is u n d e rsta n d in g c r i t i c .
11.
I n t e r n e s h i p program s i n w hich t h e p r e - s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n e has b e e n com pleted p r i o r t o i n t e r n e s h i p must
a p p r o p r i a t e fu n d s so t h a t t h e s a l a r i e s o f i n t e r n e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t a t
l e a s t t o m eet minimum l i v i n g e x p e n s e s .
I t i s rea so n a b le to b e lie v e
t h a t many o u t s t a n d i n g b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s a r e u n a b le t o a f f o r d a n a d d i ­
t i o n a l y e a r o f t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n i n w hich t h e y have t o pay t h e i r way.
I f i n t e r n e s h i p a p p o in t m e n t s a r e t o b e t e n d e r e d t o and a c c e p t e d by t h e
m ost o u t s t a n d i n g b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s , t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n o f f e r e d w i l l have
t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o m eet a t l e a s t minimum l i v i n g e x p e n s e s e l s e a con­
s i d e r a b l e number o f t h e a b l e s t b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s w i l l be e x c lu d e d from
c o n sid e ra tio n .
T here i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , t o o .
A school
sy ste m p a y in g i n t e r n e s l e s s t h a n a minimum l i v i n g s a l a r y i s l i k e l y t o be
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
207
open t o c h a rg e s o f e x p l o i t i n g th e i n t e r n e .
I n t h o s e i n t e r n e s h i p program s i n w hich m ost i n t e r n e s a r e p la c e d
i n t h e s c h o o l s y ste m i n w hich t h e y a r e i n t e r n e s , t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
may
p ay f o r i t s e l f .
Good b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s a r e s e c u r e d w i t h o u t h a v in g
t o employ a t e a c h e r w i t h two, t h r e e , o r more y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , con­
s e q u e n t l y p a y in g a g r e a t e r i n i t i a l s a l a r y .
Over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s t h i s
s a l a r y d i f f e r e n c e p a y s f o r any a d d i t i o n a l c o s t i n c u r r e d by p a y in g t h e
in te r n e a s a la r y d u rin g th e p erio d o f in te r n e s h ip .
12.
T here i s ne e d f o r more d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n ana c o o r d i n a t i o n
o f s u p e r v i s i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s .
In a t l e a s t
f i v e i n t e r n e s h i p program s no one p e r s o n i s d e s i g n a t e d a s b e in g d e f i n i t e l y
re s p o n s ib le f o r c o o rd in a tin g su p e rv isio n .
W ith t h e a v e r a g e i n t e r n e
b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d by a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e need f o r
c o r r e la t io n i s o b v io u s.
The sco p e and v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s e n t e r i n g
i n t o i n t e r n e s h i p make i t n e c e s s a r y t h a t d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n b e made to
i n s u r e t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p i s an i n t e g r a t e d and -w e ll-b a la n c e d program ,
t h a t i t i s n o t a m i s c e l l a n y o f f r a g m e n t a r y e x p e r i e n c e s w ith t h e e n e r g i e s
o f i n t e r n e s s c a t t e r e d i n a th o u s a n d a nd one d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s .
I t i s th e w r i t e r ’ s o p in io n t h a t th e s u p e rin te n d e n t o f sc h o o ls
o r someone a p p o i n t e d by him s h o u ld b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e i n g t h a t i n ­
t e r n e s h i p i s a u n i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e , and t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n i s c o o r d i n a t e d .
I f t h e i n t e r n e i s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e p r i m a r i l y t o t h e l o c a l s c h o o l a d ­
m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e l o c a l s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r h as a r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
t o t h e i n t e r n e t o s e e t h a t t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program i s a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d ,
u n i f i e d , and e f f e c t i v e i n d u c t i o n program .
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
208
13.
F o r i n t e r n e s who ha v e com pleted b a s i c c o u r s e s i n e d u c a t i o n
p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p , v e r y l i t t l e g r a d u a t e work
s h o u ld be c a r r i e d b e s i d e s t h e i n t e r n e s ' s e m i n a r , p r o b a b l y n o t more t h a n
one c o u rs e a s e m e s t e r .
I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e t h i r d most f r e q u e n t
c o m p la in t made by i n t e r n e s i n l i s t i n g t h e d raw b a ck s o f i n t e r n e s h i p i s
t h a t c o u r s e s a t t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n t a k e to o
much o f t h e i n t e r n e ’ s tim e and e n e r g y .
14.
S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o l s and c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s sh o u ld
p a r t i c i p a t e more f r e q u e n t l y i n i n t e r n e s ' s e m i n a r s .
A g re a t d eal of th e
’w ork i n m ost i n t e r n e s ' s e m in a rs i s b a s e d upon problem s c o n f r o n t i n g i n ­
t e r n e s in t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n .
Sem inar d i s c u s s i o n i s l i k e l y t o
be o f g r e a t e r v a l u e i f t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e who d i r e c t and s u p e r v i s e
i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a s w e l l a s t h e view s o f i n t e r n e s
and t h e s u p e r v i s o r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n .
There
a r e t i m e s , o f c o u r s e , when t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e se m in a r may b e s t be
a c h ie v e d when i n t e r n e s and t h e c h a irm a n o f t h e se m in a r o n ly a r e p r e s e n t .
T here a r e o t h e r t i m e s , t h o u g h , when c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and s u p e r ­
i n t e n d e n t s can make d e c id e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s .
M oreover, t h e j o i n t s tu d y
o f common problem s on t h e p a r t o f b o t h c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s and i n t e r n e s
may s e r v e to b r e a k down any b a r r i e r s w hich may have a r i s e n betw een t h e s e
two g r o u p s .
I t s h o u ld n o t be o v e rlo o k e d t h a t t h e i n - s e r v i c e grovrth o f
c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r s i s prom oted by a t t e n d a n c e a t such s e m i n a r s .
F a c u l t y members i n academ ic d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o o , sh o u ld b e drawn i n t o t h e i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ra m .
They
have p l a y e d a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
i n t e r n e ; t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why t h e i r h e l p s h o u ld n o t be s o u g h t i n s o l v i n g
p roblem s w i t h which i n t e r n e s a r e c o n f r o n t e d ,
p ro b le m s i n v o l v i n g s u b j e c t a r e a s ,
llany p ro b le m s a r e c u r r i c u l u m
who can be o r sh o u ld be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d
t o p ro p o se s o l u t i o n s t h a n t h o s e who a r e e x p e r t s i n s u b j e c t f i e l d s ?
There
a r e o t h e r d e f i n i t e a d v a n ta g e s a c c r u i n g from t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s u b j e c t f i e l d
s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram .
These c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s become
much b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a and p r o b le m s .
They
a r e l i k e l y t o be more s y m p a t h e ti c w i t h t h e t a s k t h e h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r
i s t r y i n g t o a c c o m p li s h ,
a r t i c u l a t i o n i s promoted b e tw e e n t h e s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l and t h e c o l l e g e .
Then, t o o , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p r o ­
gram h e l p s t o b r e a k down any c l e a v a g e w hich may e x i s t be tw e en members o f
academ ic d e p a r tm e n ts o f t h e c o l l e g e f a c u l t y and f a c u l t y members i n th e
d e p a rtm e n t o r s c h o o l o f e d u c a t i o n .
15.
b e s i d e s assu m in g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e l p i n g t h e i n t e r n e
t o s e c u r e p l a c e m e n t , i n t e r n e s h i p program s m ust i n a u g u r a t e d e f i n i t e
f o ll o w - u p p r o c e d u r e s by means o f ’w hich t h e s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s a f t e r
p la c e m e n t may b e d e te r m i n e d .
The f i n a l , p r o o f o f t h e s u c c e s s o f any i n ­
t e r n e s h i p program l i e s i n t h e s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s i n s u b s e q u e n t p o s i t i o n s .
S t r o n g and weak p o i n t s o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s a r e l i k e l y t o be r e f l e c t e d
i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t s made by i n t e r n e s i n t h e p o s i t i o n s t h e y e n t e r a t t h e
end o f t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p p e r i o d .
F o llo w -u p s t u d i e s have a n o t h e r p u r p o s e b e s i d e s s e r v i n g a s an
a p p r a is a l of th e in te rn e s h ip " c u rric u lu m ."
O f te n , t h e p e r s o n m ost com­
p e t e n t t o h e lp a fo rm e r i n t e r n e i r o n o u t d i f f i c u l t i e s i s t h e c o o p e r a t i n g
t e a c h e r w i t h whom th e fo rm e r i n t e r n e worked o r , p e r h a p s , th e d i r e c t o r
o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program .
T hus, t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s a d v o c a t e d , t h a t
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
210
t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program o f i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h
t h e i n t e r n e a f t e r h i s p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p h a s b e e n c o m p le te d o f f e r i n g
a s s i s t a n c e when t h e i r s e r v i c e s may be h e l p f u l .
16.
>«hen t h e p u r p o s e o f g r a d u a t e work i s t o improve t e a c h i n g
com petence, g r a d u a t e c r e d i t s h o u ld be g r a n t e d f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a c t i v i t i e s
s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d on i n t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n .
T h is rec om m endation
i s made w i t h f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e l e a d e r s i n
t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n who oppose g r a d u a t e c r e d i t f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a c t i v i t i e s .
F . E. S p a u ld in g g i v e s a s h i s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s "no more r e a s o n f o r
graduate c r e d i t f o r in te r n e s h ip th an fo r s u c c e s s fu l e x p e rien c e ; " c r e d it s "
rp
a l r e a d y a r e to o f r e e l y g i v e n . "
Of t h e l e a d e r s i n t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n who
r a t e d t h e i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s f o r m u la t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , s e v e n t y - s e v e n
p e r c e n t e n d o rs e d g r a d u a t e c r e d i t f o r i n t e r n e s h i p a c t i v i t i e s .
The r e a s o n f o r a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n i s due l a r g e l y to
d i f f e r i n g v iew s a s t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f g r a d u a t e work i n e d u c a t i o n .
If a
g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t ' s program i s l a i d o u t w i t h t h e p u rp o se o f s p e c i a l i z i n g
i n t e n s i v e l y i n a r a t h e r narrow f i e l d o r i f i t d e a l s p r i m a r i l y w i t h r e ­
s e a r c h , g r a d u a t e c r e d i t f o r i n t e r n e s h i p can h a r d l y be j u s t i f i e d .
The
p o i n t m ust b e conceded t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f i n t e r n e s h i p
h as l i t t l e
t o do w i t h t h e a t t r i b u t e s and a c h ie v e m e n ts n o r m a l ly e x p e c t e d
o f t h e c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e Ph.D. d e g r e e a s t h a t d e g r e e i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y
d efin ed .
But m ost o f t h e g r a d u a t e work i n e d u c a t i o n t h e s e days i s n o t
d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y tow ard r e s e a r c h o r even tow ard t h e m a s t e r y o f a
h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge i n a v e r y narrow f i e l d .
The g ro w th i n t h e
number o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s a w a rd in g D o c to r o f E d u c a ti o n d e g re e s , and
7 F . E. S p a u l d in g , Comment w r i t t e n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t l e a d e r s
i n e d u c a t i o n r e q u e s t i n g t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p p r i n c i p l e s be r a t e d .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
211
P ia ste r o f E d u c a ti o n d e g r e e s i s e v id e n c e o f t h e f a c t t h a t g r a d u a t e
r e c o g n i t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y b e in g g i v e n f o r work done w hich im proves a
p r o f e s s io n a l edu cato r a s a p r a c t i t i o n e r in h i s f i e l d .
The f i f t h y e a r
i n f i v e - y e a r p l a n s o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d n e i t h e r tow ard
s p e c i a l i z a t i o n n o r r e s e a r c h , b u t tow ard i n c r e a s i n g t h e t e a c h i n g com­
p e te n c e o f t h o s e e n t e r i n g t e a c h i n g .
Thus, i t i s t h e w r i t e r ’ s recom ­
m e n d a tio n t h a t when t h e p u r p o s e o f g r a d u a t e work i s t o i n c r e a s e t e a c h i n g
c o m petence, i n t e r n e s h i p must b e r e c o g n i z e d a s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r
i n t e a c h e r improvement and s h o u ld be c r e d i t e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s a c t u a l
v a lu e i n im proving t e a c h i n g .
U n fo rtu n a tely , i t o fte n ap p ears t h a t
t h o s e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s -which t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e s a c r e d f o u r
w a l l s o f t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s and s c h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n a r e -somehow
h a llo w e d w h ile more m e a n i n g f u l e x p e r i e n c e s taking- p l a c e i n a n a c t u a l
c la s s ro o m s i t u a t i o n and l e a d i n g d i r e c t l y t o t e a c h i n g com petence a r e
reg a rd e d a s w itn o u t th e p a le .
S u g g e s te d a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . —A numher o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s p r o j e c t
th e m s e lv e s o u t o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s t h e s i s .
The i s s u e o f w h e th e r i n ­
t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be t h e c o r e o r t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
can be a p p ro a c h e d t n r o u g h a c o m p a ris o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n t h i s c o u n tr y w i t h
i n t e r n e s h i p i n E u ro p e a n c o u n t r i e s .
I n m o s t E uro p e an c o u n t r i e s , i n t e r n e ­
s h i p c o n s t i t u t e s t h e h e a r t a nd t h e whole o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
te a c h e rs .
A n o t h e r c o m p a r a tiv e s t u d y o f v a l u e would be t o compare i n t e r n e ­
s h i p a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l w i t h i n t e r n e s h i p pro g ra m s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
e d u c a t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y an d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .
Many o f t h e
a s s i s t a n t s h i p p l a n s i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e i n r e a l i t y i n t e r n e ­
s h i p p ro g ra m s.
I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , an i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r n e s h i p developm ent
i s r e p o r t e d by a N o rth C a r o l i n a t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e :
T h i s y e a r we have tv;o Cerman r e f u g e e s on a n i n t e r n e s h i p
r e l a t i o n and Mr. F_________ , who was f o r m e r l y w i t h Furman
U n i v e r s i t y . Mr. F . __________ i s s p e c i a l i z i n g in e d u c a t i o n an d
i s e x p lo rin g p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a d i s s e r t a t i o n in r e l a t i o n t o
o u r program and t h e n e e d s o f t h i s a r e a . These i n t e r n e s m eet
w ith o u r f a c u l t y , tak e p a r t in d is c u s s io n s c o n c ern in g p o lic y
and have t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f f a c i n g a l l t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
p ro b le m s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . 5
Many a t t a c k s have b e e n made on t h e pro b le m o f s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s .
S t i l l , t h e p ro b le m o f e x a c t l y w hat c r i t e r i a c a n be u s e d in p r e d i c t i n g
t e a c h e r s u c c e s s r e m a in s l a r g e l y u n s o l v e d .
B ec a u se o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e developm ent and a c h ie v e m e n t o f b e g in n i n g t e a c h e r s
i n an i n t e r n e s h i p s i t u a t i o n , a s tu d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f v a r i o u s f a c t o r s
h a v in g supp o sed p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e t o s u c c e s s i n i n t e r n e s h i u m ight shed some
l i g h t on t h e l a r g e r problem o f t e a c h e r s e l e c t i o n .
I n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s , t h e w o rth o f a n i n t e r n e s h i p program can be
m ea su red o n l y i n te r m s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h i n t e r n e s h i p makes f o r more
c o m p e ten t and more s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s .
F orm er i n t e r n e s m ust be b e t t e r
t e a c h e r s i n t h e p o s i t i o n s i n w hich t h e y s e c u r e p e rm a n en t a p p o in tm e n t be­
c a u s e o f t h e i r i n t e r n e s h i p e x p e r i e n c e s .®
S o o n e r o r l a t e r an a t t e m p t w i l l
5
F r a n k C. F o s t e r , Dean o f E d u c a ti o n , A s h e v i l l e Normal and T e a c h e r s
C o l l e g e , L e t t e r , November 25, 1939.
® S u p r a , p . 155.
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213
be made t o m e a s u re th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r n e s h i p by a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y
o f p a i r e d g r o u p s , com paring t h e t e a c h i n g o f t e a c h e r s who have n o t been
i n t e r n e s w i t h t e a c h e r s o f s i m i l a r t a l e n t s , b a c k g ro u n d , and p r e - s e r v i c e
t r a i n i n g who have b e e n i n t e r n e s ,
h e r e , in d e e d , w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t
stu d y .
S t i l l a n o t h e r p ro b le m s u g g e s t s i t s e l f .
S e v e r a l i n t e r n e s h i p program s
w ere i n a u g u r a t e d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f th e 1930’ s but a r e no l o n g e r in
e x iste n ce .
Som etimes t h e y w e re emergency p rogram s d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o
employ unemployed home-town t e a c h e r s .
lish e d fo r o th er rea so n s.
o f e x iste n ce ?
Some o f them may have been e s t a b ­
Why have t h e s e i n t e r n e s h i p program s p a s s e d out
What w ere t h e f a c t o r s w hich c a u se d them t o be ju d g ed o f
i n s u f f i c i e n t v a l u e t o m e r i t c o n ti n u a n c e ?
A s tu d y o f t h e s e program s may
p o i n t o u t f a c t o r s w hich need t o be g u a rd e d a g a i n s t i n i n t e r n e s h i p p ro g ra m s.
J u s t as a b n o rm a l p s y c h o lo g y c o n t r i b u t e s much t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e
n o rm a l human b e i n g , so a s t u d y o f i n t e r n e s h i p program s w hich have a p ­
p a r e n t l y f a i l e d may be o f d e c id e d v a l u e t o i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s which a r e
su cceed in g .
With t h i s e n u m e r a tio n o f s u g g e s t e d r e s e a r c h p r o b le m s , t h i s s t u d y
o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n o f e le m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s comes t o a c l o s e .
I f g o a ls o f i n t e r n e s h i p t h a t have not
been to o c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d have been d e f i n i t e l y f o r m u l a t e d , i f p r e s e n t
i n t e r n e s h i p p r a c t i c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r n e s h i p
have b e e n d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d , i f g u i d in g p r i n c i p l e s w hich may l e a d t o
t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t a nd improvement o f i n t e r n e s h i p p rogram s have b e e n s e t
u p , t h e n t h i s t h e s i s h a s a c h i e v e d i t s purpose,,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BIBLIOGRAPHY a
BIBLIOGxi'iPHY OF GENERAL REFERENCES IN TMGEUSK EDUCATION AM) xZESEaBSCES
HAVING APFLICA3ILI1Y TO INTK3NESHIP BUT NOT DE-LIAG DIRECTLY
UITH. INTERNESHIP IN TEACHER EDUCATION
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GENERAL REFERENCES IN TEaCHER EDUCATION aND REFERENCES
HAVING APPLICABILITY TO BTERNESEIP BUT NOT DOLING DIRECTLY
WITH KTiaiffiSHIP Bl TEACHER EDUCATION
A l e x a n d e r , Thomas F . , and o t h e r s , "The T r a i n i n g o f T e a c h e r s i n E u r o p e ,"
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W ash in g to n , D. C .: O f f i c e o f E d u c a ti o n , 1933.
A l e x a n d e r , Thomas F . , "what Kay T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s L e a rn from S i m i l a r I n s t i t u t i o n s i n O th e r C o u n t r i e s ? "
E l e v e n t h Yearbook o f t h e A m erican A s s o c i a t i o n o f Te a c h e r s C o l l e g e s ,
1932. Pp. 1 1 6 -2 1 .
A l l e n , C e c i l i i . , L e g a l P r i n c i p l e s G overning P r a c t i c e T e a c h in g i n S t a t e
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s , Normal S c h o o l s , and P u b l i c S c h o o l s . George Peabody
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T e n n e s s e e : George Peabody C o lle g e f o r T e a c h e r s , 1937.
.-.rm e n tro u t, w. D . , "The Conduct o f S t u d e n t T e a c h in g i n S t a t e T e a c h e rs
C o l l e g e s , " D o c t o r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , H a rv a rd U n i v e r s i t y , 1926. G r e e le y :
C o lo ra d o T e a c h e r s C o lle g e E d u c a ti o n S e r i e s No. 2_, 1927. 198 pp.
n u t h u r s t , E f f i e G . , a T e a c h e r s C o lle g e F o l l o w-Up S e r v i c e . T e a c h e r s C o lle g e
C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n , No. 478. Lev; Y ork: T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1931. 89 pp.
n a u g h e r , J . I . , Or g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P r a c t i c e T e a c h in g i n
P r i v a t e l y Endowed C o l l e g e s o f L i b e r a l A r t s . T e a c h e r s C o l]e g e C o n t r i ­
b u t i o n s t o E d u c a t i o n , No. 487. New Y ork: T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia
u n iv e rsity .
127 pp.
B e n n e t t , A. A . , 'A o a s i s f o r S e l e c t i n g C o n te n t o f R e q u ire d C ourses i n
E d u c a t i o n , " E d u c a ti o n a l R e s e a rc h B u l l e t i n , 1 3 :1 1 3 - 1 2 , Pay 16, 1934.
Do urchin n , C h a r le s . i . , " P r o f e s s i o n a l T e s t s a s A e a s u re s o f T e a c h in g
E f f i c i e n c y i n n i g h S c h o o l ." d o c t o r ’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , new Term: Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e rs
C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1928. 84 pp.
B ry a n , A. C , , l u r i l R a t i n g o f S e c o n d a ry S ch o o l T e a c h e r s . T e a c h e rs C o lle g e
C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a ti o n , No. 708. New York: T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y .
C ole b a n k , George n . , " P r a c t i c e T eaching i n t h e C o l l e g e s o f t h e N o rth
C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , " N o rth C e n t r a l Associ a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 3 :3 7 6 -4 3 1 ,
December, 1928,
Commission on T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , A m erican C o u n c il on E d u c a ti o n ,
B e n n in g to n P l a n n in g C o n fe re n c e f o r t h e C o o p e r a ti v e S tudy o f T e a c h e r
E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r ts and A d d r e s s e s . W ash in g to n , D. C .: A m erican
C o u n c il on E d u c a t i o n , 1939, p. 63.
.JL
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215
G rabbs, L. H. , P le a s u rin g E f f i c i e n c y i n S u p e r v i s i o n and Y e a c h i n r . T e a c h e r s
C o lle g e C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a t i o n , h o . 175. hew Y ork: T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1925. 98 pp.
D e a rb o rn , Ned n . , " I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a ti o n o f T e a c h e r s , " p . 358. O f f i c e o f
E d u c a ti o n B u l l e t i n n o . 1 0 , n a t i o n a l S urvey o f t h e E d u c a ti o n o f
T e a c h e r s , volume 5 . W a shington, E. C . : O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1935.
d e p a rtm e n t o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f d i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , " S c i e n t i f i c method
i n S u p e r v i s o r y P r o g r a m s ," Se v e n t h Y earbook. New York: B u reau o f
P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1934. 134 pp.
Evenden, E. S . , n a t i o n a l S u rv e y o f t h e E d u c a ti o n o f T e a c h e r s . O f f i c e o f
E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n iio. 1 0 , 1953. W ash in g to n , D. C . : O f f i c e o f
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B i t c h , xi. N . , An A n a l y s i s o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r y A c t i v i t i e s and T e c h n iq u e s
o f t h e E le m e n ta r y S c hool T raining- S u p e r v i s o r . T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e Con­
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T r a i n i n g o f Seconda r y T e a c h e r s i n S t a t e
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C ou rse s B e s ig n e d f o r t h e
T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s . T e a c h e rs
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C a r r i s o n , N. L . , S t a t u s and work o f t h e T r a i n i n g S u p e r v i s o r . T e a c h e r s
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125 pp .
H u t c h i n s , rto b e rt in ., No E r i e n d l y V o i c e .
P r e s s , 1936, p . 127.
C h ic a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago
J a rm a n , A r t h u r E . , "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l s . " D o c t o r ’ s
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E a n d e l, I . L . , C o m p a ra tiv e E d u c a t i o n .
1933. Pp. 5 8 5 - 8 6 .
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A night, E. w ., "Training o f High Scnool Teachers in Denmark," School and
S o c ie ty , 2 5 :5 5 3 -5 8 , May 14, 1927.
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C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity . 331 pp.
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C ollege C ontrib u tion s to E ducation, No. 676. New York: Teachers
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b u tio n s to E ducation, No. 202. New York: Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia
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R ich ter, A. L . , and A. 0 . C arlson, "O rienting th e New Teacher," School
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R u s s e ll, James E . , "Report o f the Bean o f Teachers C ollege fo r th e
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BIBLIOGRAPHY B
REFERENCES PERTAINING SPECIFICALLY TO INTERNESHIP
A
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
REFERENCES PERTAINING SPECIFICALLY TO INTERNESHIP
Andrews, W illiam E ., "Training Teachers in the Sm all P u b lic High S chool
by C ooperative Study o f D a ily Work," S ch ool and Home E ducation.
3 6 :2 4 7 -5 0 , May, 1917.
Advocates th a t the sm all high sch o o l s t a f f be c o o p e r a tiv e ly
organized so a s to u t i l i z e the work o f each tea ch er "as th e su bjeot
m atter o f a graduate sch o o l course in p r a c tic e tea ch in g ."
"A pprenticeship in Secondary E ducation," Chicago S ch ools Jo u rn a l, 16:
84 -8 5 , March, 1935.
An o u t lin e o f the Chicago Normal C o lleg e plan o f ap p ren ticin g
p r o sp ectiv e tea ch ers in Chicago high sc h o o ls. This a r t i c l e d e a ls
w ith th e work b ein g ca rried on a t th e Normal C o lleg e ra th er than
w ith the a p p r e n tic e 's r e s p o n s i b ili t ie s in th e classroom .
"A pprenticeship T raining o f High School T eachers," S chool Review. 31:
570-72, O ctober, 1923.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f two te a ch in g fe llo w sh ip appointm ents in th e Concord,
Nevj Hampshire, sch o o ls in which two graduates o f a reg u la r li b e r a l
a r t s course are to be employed in part time tea ch in g p o s itio n s under
su p e rv isio n a t a stip u la te d sa la ry d evotin g the remainder o f th e ir
tim e to study and o b serv a tio n o f secondary sch o o l teach in g methods
and tea ch in g tech n iq u es. The U n iv e r sity o f C in cin n a ti in tern esh ip
plan i s a ls o o u tlin ed in t h i s a r t i c l e .
Babcock, R u s s e ll, "Pioneering in Teacher T raining; Graduate Teachers
C o lle g e , Winnetka," School and S o c ie t y . 4 0 :6 7 -7 0 , J u ly 14, 1934.
A former stu d en t of Graduate Teachers' C o lleg e d e sc r ib e s h is year
as a p a r tic ip a n t in th e Graduate Teachers' C o lleg e p la n . The
" fu n ctio n a ln ess" and f l e x i b i l i t y o f th e p la n , i t s emphasis upon
student in t e r e s t s in determ ining a c t i v i t i e s to be ca rr ied o u t, and
th e freedom allow ed th e student are s t r e s s e d . S tu dents work h a lf
o f each day w ith a c a r e f u lly chosen tea ch er in one o f th ree p a r t i­
c ip a tin g s c h o o ls . D isregard o f exam in ation s, c r e d i t s , and d egrees
i s a n o ta b le fea tu re o f th e p la n .
Barnes, John R ., "Group A n a ly sis o f In tern esh ip E xp erience," Appendix
7 in Annual Report o f th e Department o f I n s tr u c tio n . 1957-1938,
Grosse P o in t e , M ichigan.
Unpublished report l i s t i n g th e stren g th s and w eaknesses o f the
Grosse P o in te in tern esh ip program a s g iv en by in tern es in the
system . S u g g estio n s fo r improving the program are a ls o l i s t e d .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
219
.................. " Supervision o f th e In tern esh ip Program," S e c tio n IV o f th e
Annual Report o f th e Department o f I n s tr u c tio n . 1957-1938. Grosse
P o in t e . M ichigan, pp. 8 -1 1 .
A rep o rt o f th e D ir e c to r o f I n str u c tio n o f th e Grosse P o in te sch o o ls
summarizing h is a c t i v i t i e s as the person s p e c ia lly d esig n a ted a s th e
g e n e r a l su p ervisor o f th e in tern esh ip program. Q uestions and problems
a r is in g in th e a d m in istra tio n o f the program are d iscu sse d b r ie f ly
and fr a n k ly .
B ea tty , W. W., "A uspicious Plan o f A s s is ta n t Teaching," S ch ool R eview ,
4 2 :6 4 1 -4 6 , November, 1934.
E xplains th e B r o n x v ille , New York, plan o f a s s is t a n t tea ch in g .
Recent c o lle g e graduates are accepted a s unpaid a s s i s t a n t s fo r one
or two y ea rs. The plan " o ffe r s op p ortu nity to c o lle g e graduates to
secure a year or more o f p r a c t ic a l ex p erien ce in a good sch o o l
system under the guidance o f su p erior te a c h e r s." A co o p era tiv e
arrangement w ith Teachers C o llege a llo w s th e a s s is t a n t s to work fo r
New York S ta te tea c h in g c e r t i f i c a t e s or advanced degrees by carryin g
la t e aftern o o n , ev en in g , or Saturday morning c l a s s e s .
Brink, V/. G ., " In tern esh ip Teaching in the P r o fe s s io n a l Education o f
T eachers." E d u cation al A dm in istration and S u p e r v isio n . 23:89-100,
February, 1937.
A d is c u s s io n o f th e fo llo w in g to p ic s : the in c lu s io n o f a f i f t h year
in th e p r o fe s s io n a l ed u cation o f tea ch er s a r e s u lt o f the g rea t
need fo r b e tte r prepared tea ch er s; v a lu e s o f in te r n e sh ip a s th e core
o f th e f i f t h year program; the program o f in te r n e sh ip tea ch in g
sponsored by Northwestern U n iv e r sity ; some problems involved in the
a d m in istra tio n o f in te r n e sh ip programs.
B row nell, S . M ., "Teacher S e le c t io n , A Function o f S ch ool A d m in istration ,"
Chapter V III in K i l l , C. M ., e d ito r , E d ucational P rogress and School
A d m in istra tio n . New Haven: Pals U n iv e r s ity P r e ss , 1936, pp. 140-50.
A d is c u s s io n o f th e inadequacies o f both experienced and inexperienced
tea ch er s a s new s t a f f members, d e s c r ip tio n o f th e in tern esh ip plan a t
Grosse P o in te , M ichigan, and d is c u s s io n o f f iv e major problems in the
a d m in istra tio n o f in te r n e sh ip programs.
Brubacher, A. R ., "The Teacher-T raining Program Re-Examined," Journal
o f Higher E ducation, 3 :4 5 1 -3 5 , November, 1932.
A dvocates u n if ic a t io n and p r o f e s s io n a liz a t io n o f the p r e -s e r v ic e
ed u cation o f te a c h e r s. A f i f t h year in tern esh ip i s b r ie f l y d i s ­
cussed as th e next ste p to be taken in teach er p rep a ra tio n .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
220
B u ffa lo Department o f E ducation, "Probationary Teachers in B u ffalo
A ssigned to Teacher C enters fo r One Year," S ch ool L i f e , 1 3 :1 6 1 -6 2 ,
May, 1928.
In du ction o f two year graduates o f th e B u ffa lo Teachers G ollege
in to the B u ffa lo sch o o l system by a one y ea r, f u ll- t i m e , s a la r ie d
in tern esh ip program c a rr ied on in c e r ta in d esig n a ted "teacher
c e n te r s ." I n -s e r v ic e tr a in in g arrangements are made w ith th e
U n iv e r s ity of B u ffalo and C an isiu s C o lle g e .
Butterweck, J . S . , "A pprenticeship Teaching in Secondary S ch o o ls,"
S ch ool Review, 3 7 :3 7 7 -8 7 , May, 1929.
A d e s c r ip tio n and a p p r a isa l o f an in d u ctio n program in which
graduates or near-grad u ates c o n s titu te d th e f a c u lt y o f a summer
sch o o l working under th e su p erv isio n o f s e v e r a l o f the reg u la r
tea ch ers o f th a t high s c h o o l. The stu d en t tea ch ers had f u l l re­
s p o n s ib ilit y f o r two c l a s s e s . Theory was in teg ra te d w ith p ra ctic e
through required read ing r e la te d to classroom problem s. In d iv id u a l
and group c o n fere n c es, dem onstration le s s o n s , and te a c h e r r a tin g
s c a le s were some o f th e su p ervisory d e v ic e s employed. The plan
was appraised in terms o f: (1) p rogress measured by th e p u p ils as
determined by t e s t s ; (2) o p in io n s o f stu d en t tea ch er s; (3) op in ion s
o f th o se in p o s itio n s o f a d m in istra tiv e and su p erv iso ry a u th o r ity .
o . . . , " In tern esh ip Should Precede Tenure," J u n io r-S en io r High School
C learin g House, 1 2:135-39, November, 1937.
In tern esh ip i s presented as the core o f p r o fe s s io n a l ed u cation o f
tea ch er s i f th e su ccess o f tea ch er ed u cation i s to be measured in
term s o f the competency o f the tea ch er over the span o f her teach in g
y e a r s . P r a c tic e tea ch in g a s now organized i s condemned a s part o f
an outmoded plan o f tea ch er p rep a ra tio n . A period o f probation
a f t e r in tern esh ip cu lm inating in a sem ester or a y ea r as an exchange
tea ch er to prove the te a c h e r ’ s a d a p ta b ility i s rep resen ted a s being
b a sic to safegu ard in g s o c ie t y from incompetent te a c h e r s.
C arley, Verna A ., "Coordination in the Teacher-Education Program a t
S tanford U n iv e r sity ," S u p ervisors o f Student T each ing, Seventeenth
Annual S e s s io n , 1937, pp. 50 -5 1 .
"Two typ es o f te a c h in g -in te r n e sh ip s are now provided by S tan ford .
(1) There i s a s ix t h year in tern esh ip a f t e r th e stu d en t has com­
p le te d th e fiv e - y e a r program and has r e c e iv e d h is tea ch in g c r e d e n tia l.
In t h i s type he c a r r ie s part o f a teach in g load in some ou tstan d in g
experim ental sch o o l in which he w ishes t o g a in e x p e r ie n c e , and he
r e c e iv e s some com pensation. (2) For a lim ite d number o f s e le c te d
stu d en ts th ere i s provided one q u a rter’ s in tern esh ip during the
f i f t h year a f t e r the stu d en t has done h is student te a c h in g . For
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221
t h i s type he r e c e iv e s no compensation but does r e c e iv e f u l l u n iv e r s ity
c r e d it , provided he s a t i s f i e s th e requirem ents o f th e s it u a t io n as
w e ll as th e resea r ch and study program p ro jected by him when he
a p p lied fo r an in te r n e sh ip ."
This a r t i c l e i s a b r ie f d e s c r ip tio n o f th e se two ty p es o f in te r n e ­
s h ip .
C ase, G ilb ert E . , "A dm inistration and S u p ervision o f Student Teaching
a t Brown U n iv e r sity ," 1954 Yearbook, S u pervisors o f Student
T eaching, pp. 5 2 -5 6 .
An extended p r a c tic e tea ch in g program a t th e graduate l e v e l having
many o f the a sp e c ts o f in te r n e s h ip . Student te a c h e r s spend h a lf
o f th e usual sch o o l day carryin g tea ch in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in co­
o p era tin g s c h o o ls . They are a ls o en ro lled in th ree o f the f i v e
graduate cou rses p rescrib ed fo r th e degree o f blaster o f A rts.
F eatu res o f t h i s program a r e : c a r e fu l s e le c t io n o f student
tea ch er s; a competent su p erv iso r in th e lo c a l sch o o l who i s r e ­
sp o n sib le fo r th e adjustm ent and advancement o f one student
tea ch er; coord in a tio n o f th eory and p r a c tic e through in d iv id u a l
con ferences h eld w ith th e su pervisor from the U n iv e r s ity and
through an in te g r a tin g course running throughout th e year c a lle d
"Problems in P r a c tic a l Teaching." The score card used in ev a lu a t­
ing stud en t tea ch in g i s a ls o included in t h is a r t i c l e .
Cerney, I so b e l M., " P rogressive -Education a t th e Graduate L evel,"
P ro g ressiv e E d u cation , 14:3 7 0 -7 3 , May, 1937.
d e s c r ip tio n o f the manner in which the Graduate Teachers C o lleg e
fu n ctio n s by an "alumna" o f t h is in tern esh ip and tea ch er education
p la n .
a
Columbia U n iv e r s ity , Teachers C o lle g e, "Education o f Teachers in New
C o lle g e," Teachers C ollege Hecord, 3 8 :1 -7 3 , O ctober, 1936.
A d e s c r ip tio n and a p p ra isa l o f New C ollege in the l i g h t o f the
p r in c ip le s of tea ch er ed u cation sta ted in the Twenty-Third
Yearbook o f the N a tio n a l S o c ie ty o f C ollege Teachers o f E ducation.
Pages 54-56 d ea l w ith th e in tern esh ip plan which i s a d e f in it e
part o f the program o f New C o lle g e.
.................. "New C o llege fo r th e Education of Teachers for th e S essio n s
1936-1937," Teachers C o lleg e B u ll e t in , Twenty-Seventh S e r i e s .
No. 2_, December, 1935. New York: Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia
U n iv e r s ity , 1935, p. 43.
B r ie f statem ent o f th e part in te r n e sh ip played in th e teach er
ed u cation program o f New C o lle g e.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
222
Crane, E sth er, "The Training o f Secondary-School Teachers in P r u s s ia —Some
Im pressions," School Beview , 4 2 :1 7 7 -8 7 .
A d e s c r ip tio n o f tea ch er education in Germany based on fir s t-h a n d
o b serv a tio n on th e part o f th e w r ite r . The m erits o f ap p lying the
German V orbereitungsjahre to teach er ed u cation in th e U nited S ta te s
are d is c u s se d .
Day, L. C . , "South Portland A pprentice Teacher T raining Plan," American
School Board J o u rn a l. 8 6 :1 6 , 64, February, 1933.
A p lan to g iv e a number o f unemployed graduates o f tea ch er tr a in in g
in s t it u t io n s an opportunity "to g a in fu rth er te a c h e r -tr a in in g ex­
p erien ce under c a r e fu l su p e r v isio n ." The a p p ren tices are a ssig n ed
as ex tra a s s is t a n t s to a id the reg u la r tea ch in g s t a f f . They r e c e iv e
pay when serv in g as s u b s titu te te a c h e r s. The sch o o l system i s not
o b lig a te d to employ a p p ren tices a t th e con clu sion o f the year o f
a p p ren tice tea ch in g , but "an a p p ren tice w ith a h ig h ly c r e d ita b le
tr a in in g record w i l l r e c e iv e p referen ce a s a candidate" fo r a
p o s it io n fo r -which he i s q u a lif ie d .
Ekstrom, C. E . , "The F ive Year Plan o f Brown U n iv e r sity ," School and
S o c ie t y , 45:146, January 30, 1937.
A stu d en t teach in g program ca rried on a s part o f th e f i f t h year
work a t Brown U n iv e r s ity . Students tea ch tw elve to f i f t e e n hours
a week in Providence and oth er nearby communities. Public sch ool
te a c h e r s, under whom stu d en ts g e t t h e ir exp erien ce and guidance,
work w ith on ly one student a t a tim e, and fo r an e n t ir e year; con­
fer e n c e s w ith student tea ch ers are held weekly w ith th e purpose o f
co o rd in a tin g ed u cation al theory w ith p r a c tic a l te a ch in g problems;
in d iv id u a l c o n ta c ts between a member o f th e U n iv e r s ity Department
o f E ducation, th e su p e rv isin g te a c h e r s , and student p r a c tic e
tea ch ers are freq u en tly arranged a t the sc h o o ls.
E ls e a , A. F . , "Teacher T raining th a t B e n e fits Both Teachers and S ch o o ls,"
N ation ’ s S c h o o ls , 8 :4 9 -5 2 , October, 1931.
The student tea ch in g program o f N ortheast M issou ri S ta te Teachers
C o lle g e. S tu dents do th ree months regu lar tea ch in g in e ig h t co­
o p era tin g p u b lic sc h o o ls.
E v e r e tt, Samuel, "A Survey o f Cooperative Teacher Education Carried on
by I n s t it u t io n s w ith in the A sso c ia tio n ," The North C entral A sso c ia ­
t io n Q u a rterly , 1 4:195-200, O ctober, 1939.
The rep ort o f a q u estio n n a ire study r e la t in g to co o p era tiv e
arrangements between tea ch er preparatory in s t it u t io n s and secondary
sch o o ls in the North C entral A ss o c ia tio n . Most o f the arrangements
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223
rep orted a re in con n ection w ith stu d en t tea ch in g on an undergraduate
l e v e l alth ou gh tw e n ty -six teach er tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s rep orted
some type o f co o p era tiv e program a t th e graduate l e v e l in v o lv in g
n in e t y - f iv e secondary s c h o o ls .
F a l l s , J . D ., "Training th e Cadet Teacher in A shland, Kentucky,"
American School Board J o u rn a l. 8 4 :5 1 -5 2 , 9 9 , May, 1932.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e Ashland p lan o f cadet te a c h in g . O bservation
and s u b s t it u t e tea ch in g are major elem ents in th e p lan .
F itc h , M a r j o r i e , and Hood, Mabel E . , " In tern ing in P erson n el," B u lle t in
o f th e A ss o c ia tio n o f American C o lle g e s , 2 5 :2 8 6 -9 2 , May, 1939.
The head r e s id e n t o f each o f th e sm all d orm itories a t Syracuse
U n iv e r sity i s a graduate stud en t m ajoring in p ersonnel work. Each
"student dean" i s appointed to a two year a s s is t a n t s h ip and d iv id e s
her tim e between guidance work in con n ection w ith th e g i r l s in her
dorm itory and c la s s work in p erson n el problems. Opportunity i s
giv en fo r work in th e o f f i c e o f the Dean o f Women, and an e f f o r t
i s made to acq u ain t th e student w ith a l l o f th e personnel r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t i e s she w i l l have when she i s p laced a t th e com pletion
o f her in tern esh ip a s a f u ll- t im e c o lle g e p erson n el worker.
C raves, E. B . , "Apprentice Teaching," V ir g in ia Journdl o f E d ucation.
3 2 :2 6 2 -6 4 , March, 1939.
D iscu sses th e a p p ren tice tea ch in g program a t Mary Washington
C o lle g e , F redericksburg, V ir g in ia . The a p p ren ticesh ip i s ca rried
on during th e sen io r year but i s sim ila r to many graduate in te r n e ­
sh ip programs.
H all-<4uest, A lfred L . , "The C in cin n a ti Flan o f Teacher T raining."
Educational A d m in istration and S u p e r v isio n , 1 0 :1 2 9 -4 1 , March, 1924.
D iscu sses th e co o p era tiv e p lan a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f C in c in n a ti.
Student tea ch er s must be c o lle g e graduates b e fo re th ey a re adm itted
to th e department o f co o p era tiv e tea ch er t r a in in g .
Head M istr e sse s A sso c ia tio n o f the E a st, Keport o f the Committee on
A pprentice T eachers. P rin ted pamphlet w ith no p u b lish er or date
o f p u b lic a tio n n oted . I t was pu blish ed in 1937 or 1938.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f what, in th e op in ion o f th e Committee, c o n s t it u t e s
a p p ren tice tr a in in g and a b r ie f d is c u s s io n o f th e fa c to r s which
make a p p ren ticesh ip e f f e c t i v e and v a lu a b le .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2-24
H e lb le , Herbert H ., "In tern esh ip s fo r Surplus Teachers," E ducational
A d m in istration and S u p e r v isio n , 1 9 :1 1 9 -2 3 , February, 1933.
A proposed in te r n e sh ip p lan d ev ised p rim a rily to a id th e prom ising
and competent graduate prepared to teach who fin d s h im se lf unem­
ployed.
H ereford, E. H ., "A pprenticeship f o r Beginning Teachers," -funerican
School Board Jo u rn a l, 9 4 :5 1 , June, 1937.
A fter p o in tin g out th a t th e ex p erien ce requirem ent fo r o b ta in in g
employment in a c i t y sch o o l system o fte n fo r c e s b egin n in g tea ch ers
to o b ta in exp erien ce in r u r a l system s in which the exp erien ce
gained c o n trib u tes l i t t l e to p r o fe s s io n a l competency, Hereford
d e sc r ib e s th e a p p ren ticesh ip system sponsored by th e sch o o l board
o f Corpus C h r is ti.
Jacobs, Walter B . , " P ra ctise Teaching fo r Secondary School Teachers a t
Brown U n iv e r s ity ," School and S o c ie t y , 3 :5 3 3 -3 6 , A p r il 8 , 1916.
A lso in Mead, A. K ., " P ra ctice Teaching fo r Teachers in Secondary
S ch o o ls." U. _S. Bureau o f E ducation, B u lle t in 1916, Ho. 2 9 .
W ashington: Government P r in tin g O ffic e , 1917, pp. 4 3 -4 4 .
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e p r a c tic e tea ch in g program a t Brown U n iv e r s ity ,
a f i f t h year program which began in 1895 and which u t i l i z e s
Providence s c h o o ls and oth er sc h o o ls in surrounding communities as
coop erating s c h o o ls . P a rt-tim e teach in g i s done under su p e rv isio n
fo r a period o f one y ea r. The tea ch in g i s c lo s e ly c o r r e la te d w ith
the u n iv e r s it y work which i s being carried on by the stu d en t tea ch er
a t th e same tim e.
K e lly , D. J . , "The T raining and Development o f Teachers a f t e r E ntering
the P r o fe ss io n ," Elementary School Jo u rn a l, 2 3:763-67, June, 1923.
D iscu sses th e plan used by th e sch o o ls o f Binghamton, New York.
K lain , Zora, "Beyond th e T ra d itio n a l Four Y ears; Trend Towards F if t h
Year fo r Cadet T rainin g," School and S o c ie t y , 4 5 :8 6 0 -6 2 , June 19,
1937.
L is t s b r ie f l y se v e r a l advantages o f cadet tea ch in g on the graduate
l e v e l . Heports r e s u lt s o f q u estio n n a ires sen t t o s t a t e departments
o f ed u cation and teach er tr a in in g in s t it u t io n s regarding the
esta b lish m en t o f f i f t h year programs and th e in c lu s io n o f programs
o f cadet tea ch in g in th e f i f t h y ea r.
L ivin good, F. G ., " In tern esh ip fo r E ducation," School and S o c ie t y ,
3 8 :6 3 9 -4 0 , November 11, 1933.
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225
Reasons u n derlyin g th e many p ro p o sa ls f o r a f i f t h year in th e t r a in ­
ing o f h igh sch o o l te a c h e r s. The v a lu es u n derlyin g a program o f
in te r n e sh ip in tea ch er ed u cation are enumerated.
Mead, A. R ., "Cadet Teacher Must Have Adequate S u p erv isio n ," N ation ’ s
S c h o o ls , 1 2 :5 3 -5 4 , September, 1933.
An a p p r a isa l and c r it ic is m o f plans o f cadet tea ch in g on an under­
graduate l e v e l sim ila r to th a t fo llo w ed a t N orth east M issouri S ta te
Teachers C o lle g e . Because both cadet tea ch ers and su p e rv isin g
tea ch ers carry a f u l l tea ch in g lo a d , Mead q u estio n s th e tim e
a v a ila b le fo r p a r tic ip a tio n in sound su p ervisory procedures. Be­
cause cadet tea ch ers do b e t t e r tea ch in g than r e g u la r tea ch ers as
measured by the r e s u lt s o f standardized t e s t s , Mead q u estio n s the
competency o f the reg u la r tea ch er s e ith e r to do t h e ir own jobs or
to su p e rv ise beginning te a c h e r s.
. . . . , "Why th e Cadet System fo r th e Young Neophyte?" E ducational
Method, 1 2 :4 8 3 -8 5 , May, 1933.
S im ila r in content to th e above a r t i c l e by Mead.
M itc h e ll, Lucy S . , "a C ooperative School fo r Student Teachers," Pro­
g r e s s iv e E d u cation , 8 :2 5 1 -5 5 , March, 1931.
d e s c r ip tio n o f th e o rg a n iza tio n o f The C ooperative School fo r
Teachers when the program o f th e C ooperative S chool was f i r s t
s ta r te d . Three a s p e c ts o f teach er tr a in in g are s tr e s s e d : the
development o f the s tu d e n t's ora p e r s o n a lity ; th e understanding o f
ch ild r e n and t h e ir powers; th e development o f classroom a b i l i t i e s
which are based on and u t i l i z e th ese f i r s t two a s p e c ts o f teach er
ed u ca tio n .
a
Mondart, C. L . , "Apprentice T raining a t th e L ou isian a S ta te U n iv e r sity ,"
A g r ic u ltu r a l Education Magazine. 1 1 :4 , J u ly , 1938.
A g r ic u ltu r a l ed u cation stu d en ts spend s ix weeks f u ll- t i m e tr a in in g
in th e f i e l d .
Myers, Alonzo F . , L if e r , L ouise M ., Merry, Ruth C ., and F o le y , F ran ces,
"The Indu ction and G-uidance o f B eginning T eachers," U nit I I I in
C ooperative S u p erv isio n in th e P u b lic S ch o o ls. New York: P r e n tic e H a ll, I n c ., 1938, pp. 88-126.
A d is c u s s io n o f th e type o f su p e rv isio n which should be provided
b eginning te a c h e r s. The Grosse P o in te in tern esh ip plan i s o u tlin ed
a s an example o f a d e s ir a b le type o f in te r n e s h ip . Dr. C la ir S.
Viightman’ s t h e s i s , "The T eacher's Diary as an Instrument o f F ollow Up Work," i s summarized. The fin d in g s o f Dr. Grant Vi, Leman's t h e s is
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
226
on the p r o fe s s io n a l adjustm ent s e r v ic e s o f a teach er tr a in in g i n s t i t u ­
t io n are enumerated. The c lo s in g s e c tio n i s e n t it le d "Su p ervision o f
Beginning Teachers a C ooperative E nterprise" and l i s t s su g g estio n s
■which p r in c ip a ls and tea ch er s can fo llo w in planning fo r th e induc­
tio n o f beginning te a c h e r s.
Northway, H. M ., " P ro fessio n a l Adjustment S erv ice fo r Beginning T eachers,"
New York S ta te E d u cation , 2 6 :4 2 4 -2 5 , 470, iiarch, 1939.
A summary o f ways in which th e teach er tr a in in g in s t it u t io n can help
the beginning tea ch er . Northway p o in ts out th e need fo r a program
o f in tern esh ip or some eq u iv a le n t program.
O lson, 0 . S . , " In tern esh ip in E ducation," High S c h o o l Jou rn al, 1 7 :1 3 9 -4 4 ,
A p r il, 1934.
a b r ie f d is c u s s io n o f c e r t a in problems in ed u cation , p a r tic u la r ly
the over-su p p ly o f c e r t if ic a t e d tea ch er s and problems o f s e le c t in g
d e sir a b le candidates fo r te a c h in g , to g eth er w ith a p roposal fo r a
program o f in te r n e sh ip . O lson’ s plan i s one o f a s s is t a n t teach in g
in which th e in tern e i s d ir e c t ly under a "head tea ch er." The plan
i s d iscu ssed under th ree head in gs: e s s e n t ia l elem ents in such a
plan; b e n e f it s to be d eriv ed , and fa c to r s upon which the e s t a b lis h ­
ment of in tern esh ip i s dependent.
P e c h ste in , Louis A ., "The C ooperative Id ea l in Teacher T raining— The
C in cin n a ti Plan," School and S o c ie ty , 1 8 :271-77, September 8 , 1923.
The U n iv e r sity o f C in cin n a ti plan o f in d u ctin g tea ch er s in which a
program o f in te r n e sh ip during th e f i f t h year culm inates a program
of p ro g ressiv e in d u ctio n which began w ith th e adm ittance o f th e
student to the C ollege o f Education a t th e beginning o f the th ird
year o f c o l le g e . Emphasis i s placed on ex p erien ces in r e a l s it u a ­
tio n s in which th e stu d en t assumes r e a l r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r d ir e c tin g
the work o f a t y p ic a l c la s s group. In tern es r e c e iv e a s a la r y fo r
th e ir h a lf-tim e teach in g p o s it io n and p r e fe r e n tia l appointment fo r
permanent p o s itio n s in th e C in cin n ati P u blic S ch o o ls. In tern esh ip
i s c a r e fu lly su p erv ised .
" P ractice Teaching versu s Heal A p p ren ticesh ip ," School Hevlew, 2 3 :4 1 4 -1 5 ,
June, 1915.
I t i s urged th a t p r a c tic e tea ch in g in tea ch ers c o lle g e s be made
p r a c tic a l exp erien ce in teach in g w ith methods courses supplementary
to and subordinate to the main job o f le a rn in g how to teach in a
classroom s it u a t io n . Indu ction by an a p p ren ticesh ip in which a
graduate i s g iven "subordinate p a r tic ip a tio n in everyday problems
o f th e c i t y schoolroom" i s favored .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
227
Purdom, J . L e s li e , "Teacher Training Through D irected Observation o f
Teaching, Through Teaching Under F acu lty S u p erv isio n , and Through
Teaching a s An .app rentice," 1927 Yearbook, S u pervisors o f Student
Teaching, pp. 32 -3 6 .
d e sc r ip tio n o f the teach er ed u cation program o f Harris Teachers
C o lle g e, S t . L o u is, M isso u ri. A p lan o f a p p ren tice tea ch in g la s t in g
for a period o f twenty weeks i s d iscu sse d in the l a t t e r part o f th e
a r t i c l e . The fo llo w in g unconventional op in ion i s ex p ressed , "This
ap p ren tice term need not be under th e d ir e c tio n o f th e c o lle g e and
perhaps should not b e. I t i s the period in which the p ro sp ectiv e
teacher must make very s ig n if ic a n t adjustm ents to a c tu a l co n d itio n s
in th e s c h o o l, and th e e v a lu a tio n o f t h is a p p ren ticesh ip may be l e f t
to an ad m in istrator in the o f f ic e o f the Superintendent o f In stru c­
tio n ."
a
Reynolds, A. A ., " k ecru itin g th e Teaching Corps; The Cadet Plan,"
E ducational Method, 9 :2 9 0 -9 7 , February, 1930.
d e s c r ip tio n o f the S e a t t le plan o f cadet tea ch in g . S e le c tio n o f
cadet te a c h e r s, assignm ent to classroom r e s p o n s i b ili t ie s , super­
v is io n , and a d m in istra tiv e arrangements a re d isc u sse d . Advantages,
d i f f i c u l t i e s , and problems o f cadet teach in g are enumerated.
Suggestions made by former cad ets are l i s t e d .
a
Hichardson, w. L . , "Suggestions for Teacher Training Obtained from a
Study o f Medical In tern esh ip ," Educational -Adm inistration and
S u p e rv isio n , 9 :3 0 4 -1 4 , may, 1923.
d e s c r ip tiv e account o f the work o f the in tern e in m edical educa­
t io n w ith su g g estio n s from m edical in te r n e sh ip seem ingly a p p lica b le
to teach er ed u cation . The r a i s i n ; o f standards of equipment and
p erson n el, a la r g e amount o f o b serv a tio n under s k ille d tea ch er s,
p a r tic ip a tio n in many d if f e r e n t ty p es o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and
c a r e fu l, c lo s e su p e rv isio n are s t r e s s e d .
a
Hied, Harold 0 . , "Cooperative I n s t it u t io n a l In -S erv ice T raining for
T eachers." D o cto r's d is s e r t a t io n , U n iv e r sity of Nebraska, L in co ln ,
Nebraska, 1938. 158 pp.
An ev a lu a tio n o f an in - s e r v ic e program sponsored fo r inexperienced
tea ch ers and tea ch er s w ith l i t t l e ex p erien ce a t the U n iv e r sity o f
Nebraska. H ied 's survey o f the lit e r a t u r e in clu d es d e s c r ip tio n s
o f in tern esh ip and ap p ren ticesh ip programs in teacher education
and a b str a c ts major a r t i c l e s d ea lin g w ith in te r n e s h ip .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
228
................ "A pprenticeship and In -S e r v ic e T raining o f T eachers," Nebraska
E ducational J o u rn a l, 16:384, November, 1936.
A d is c u s s io n o f contem plated p lan s a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f Nebraska
r e la t in g to in te r n e sh ip and to an expanded program o f f i e l d s e r v ic e s
to be made a v a ila b le to lo c a l s c h o o ls . The Grosse P o in te , M ichigan,
in te r n e sh ip plan i s o u tlin e d a s an example o f in te r n e s h ip .
Robinson, W. M ., " C incin n ati Plan o f Teacher T raining R equires C u ltu ral
and P r o fe s s io n a l P rep aration ," School L i f e , 1 0 :1 4 4 , A p r il, 1925.
A b r ie f summary o f th e main fe a tu r e s o f th e C in cin n a ti p la n .
Rossman, John G ., "A pprenticing th e B eginning Teacher," Elementary
School J o u rn a l, 2 7 :6 6 3 -7 3 , May, 1927.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e Gary, Indiana, a p p ren ticesh ip p lan in which s i x
in exp erien ced norm al-school graduates a re a ssig n e d th e work o f f i v e
reg u la r te a c h e r s, each tea ch in g f i v e - s i x t h s o f th e day, o n e -s ix th
o f th e day being s e t a s id e fo r v i s i t a t i o n , co n feren ce, and observa­
t io n . A pp rentices are d ir e c t ly r e sp o n sib le to a c a r e f u lly s e le c t e d
"master tea ch er." Rossman s t a t e s th a t Gary w i l l r e a l iz e a con­
s id e r a b le savin g in in s t r u c t io n a l co st a s w e ll as markedly improving
in s t r u c t io n a l e f f ic ie n c y .
S c h o r lin g , R a leig h , "-Directed T eaching," Chapter IV o f The Education o f
T each ers, Twenty-Third Yearbook o f the N a tio n a l S o c ie ty o f C ollege
Teachers o f Education , pp. 173-78.
In a m p lify in g a p r in c ip le advanced as b a s ic in tea ch er ed u ca tio n ,
th a t "the work in d ir e c te d tea ch in g should be follow ed by a p eriod
o f in te r n e sh ip ," S ch o rlin g l i s t s th e c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f a d e s ir a b le
program o f in te r n e s h ip and o u t lin e s the Grosse P o in te , ivlichigan,
in te r n e sh ip p la n . The inadequacy w ith which stu d en t tea ch in g d e a ls
w ith home and community r e la t io n s h ip s as w e ll as w ith oth er a s p e c ts
o f th e te a c h e r 's job i s c ite d as one o f the rea so n s in te r n e sh ip
should be a v i t a l part o f th e tea ch er tr a in in g program.
S p auld in g, Frank E . , The L o u is v ille Normal School (A Survey R ep ort).
L o u is v ille ; Kentucky: Board o f E ducation, 1933, pp. 3 0 -3 4 .
A fo u rth year in te r n e sh ip plan recommended in a proposed teacher
ed u cation program fo r th e L o u is v ille Normal S ch o o l.
S to u ffe r , S . M ., "Cadet Teacher Plan in W ilm ington, Delaware," E le ­
mentary School J o u rn a l, 3 8 :3 -5 , September, 1937.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
229
Cadet tea ch er s are f u ll- t im e employees o f th e board o f ed u ca tio n ,
are paid a "nominal sa la r y ," and work under th e guidance and
d ir e c t io n o f a "master tea ch er ." O bservation, co n fere n c es, pro­
f e s s io n a l reading r e la t in g to problems which a r i s e , and s u b s titu te
tea ch in g are fe a tu r e s o f the p la n .
Stratem eyer, Florence B . , " In tern esh ip as an In te g r a l Part o f Teacher
P rep aration ," E astern S ta te s A ss o c ia tio n o f P r o fe ss io n a l S chools fo r
T eachers, P ro ceed in g s. 1938, pp. 213-25.
Stratem eyer s t a t e s th a t in tern esh ip i s not a s u b s t it u t e fo r student
tea ch in g but th e continued t e s t in g o f th eory in p r a c tic e f i n a l l y
in te g r a te d during th e period o f in te r n e tea ch in g ." C ertain v a lu es
to be gained by in te r n e sh ip are d iscu sse d and p r in c ip le s suggested
which need to be fo llo w ed i f the v a lu es in in te r n e sh ip a re to be
r e a liz e d .
" S u ccessfu l Plan fo r A pprentice Teachers," American School Board J o u rn a l.
9 7 :4 9 , September, 1938.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e a p p ren ticesh ip plan used by P oslyn H eights and
s e v e r a l oth er sch o o l system s on Long Isla n d , New York. I t i s planned
th a t "app rentices s h a ll serve th ree c la s s hours or o n e -h a lf day d a ily
in r e s p o n sib le tea ch in g assign m en ts. Beyond t h i s th e a p p ren tices
supplement other te a c h e r s' work, a s s i s t in club-work and homeroom
a c t i v i t i e s , take charge o f study h a l l s — in s h o r t, carry on a v a ried
program o f a c t i v i t i e s which are in lin e w ith a w e ll-c o n sid e red
te a c h e r -tr a in in g program." Graduate c r e d it i s g iv en fo r th e ap­
p r e n tic e sh ip work by coop erating c o lle g e s . S u p erv isio n i s ca rried
on j o in t ly by the coop eratin g c o lle g e s and the lo c a l sch o o l system .
Tokars, L ester E . , "Cadet Teaching," New York S ta te E ducation. 2 2 :2 1 -2 2 ,
October, 1934.
The cadet plan in New York S ta te as viewed by a se n io r in the S ta te
Normal School a t Brockport. There are twenty weeks o f te a c h in g ,
f i v e weeks in a ru r a l s c h o o l, f iv e in a co n so lid a ted sc h o o l, f i v e in
th e tr a in in g sch ool o f th e normal sc h o o l, and f iv e in a c i t y sch ool
system .
Trabue, M. H ., "Training Teachers on th e Job," School L i f e , 1 6 :5 1 ,
November, 1930.
Trabue holds th a t most courses in ed u cation are o f g r e a te r valu e i f
taught a s in - s e r v ic e courses based on th e f e l t needs o f stu d en ts
than i f taught as p r e -s e r v ic e co u rses.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
830
"Training Courses in Boston and M inneapolis," School Review, 83:415-17,
June, 1915.
An o u tlin e o f th e p la n o f a p p ren ticesh ip teach in g in th e C ity o f
Boston in 1915 and th e plan o f a s s is t a n t , tea ch in g ca rried on in the
M inneapolis P u b lic S ch ools in coop eration w ith the U n iv e r sity of
Minnesota-.
Ward, C. C ., "Cadet T raining a t New P a ltz ," New York S ta te E ducation.
1 8 :5 0 -5 4 , September, 1930.
D escrip tio n o f student tea ch in g during the sen io r year in s e le c te d
cooperating sc h o o ls.
W heeler, John T . , "A pprenticeship Training in Teacher E ducation,"
A g r ic u ltu r a l Education Magazine. 1 0 :8 4 , November, 1937. A lso ,
School and C o lle g e . 2 5 :5 5 -5 6 , March, 1937.
A g r ic u ltu r a l ed u cation stu d en ts a t the U n iv e r s ity o f Georgia spend
a f u l l sem ester as members o f th e tea ch in g s t a f f o f a county high
sch o o l or a lo c a l high sc h o o l. Community work i s emphasized. The
lo c a l su p erv isin g tea ch er fo r th e period o f the a p p ren ticesh ip b e­
comes a member o f th e tea ch er tra in in g s t a f f o f the U n iv e r sity o f
G eorgia.
■Wilbur, Halph G ., "Teacher T raining fo r Secondary Schools in th e Uni­
v e r s it y o f C in cin n a ti," Unpublished M aster’ s t h e s i s , 1928.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e h is to r y and development o f the coop erative
plan for tr a in in g secondary sch o o l tea ch er s a t the U n iv e r sity of
C in cin n a ti.
w illia m so n , E. G ., and M. M. Sukov, "An A pp rentice Method for Training
C ounselors," O ccupations, 1 6 :8 7 2 -7 3 , June, 1938.
A plan o f f i e l d work sponsored j o in t ly by th e Departments o f Edu­
c a tio n , S o la l S e r v ic e , and Psychology a t th e U n iv e r s ity o f Minnesota
in which graduate stu d en ts work under su p e rv isio n in sch o o l guidance
programs. P r a c tic a l use o f th e t o o ls o f guidance i s s tr e s s e d . The
plan in clu d es weekly m eetings o f p a r tic ip a n ts and in d iv id u a l con­
fe r e n c e s w ith U n iv e r sity o f Minnesota s t a f f members. Graduate
c r e d it i s giv en fo r t h i s a p p ren tice t r a in in g .
W ilson, Mary, "Plan fo r A s s is ta n t Teaching in Home Economics," Journal
o f Home Economics. 2 4 :8 0 0 -0 2 , September, 1932.
A c t iv it i e s in to which a s s is t a n t tea ch ers in home economics a t
M is s is s ip p i S ta te C o llege fo r Women a re to be g ra d u a lly inducted
are l i s t e d under f iv e heads:
.t i.
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231
1.
Those h elp in g th e stud en t teach er t o become fa m ilia r w ith c l a s s
o rg a n iz a tio n and management;
2.
Those a id in g the student tea ch er in org a n izin g su b je c t m atter
in to tea ch in g u n it s and le s s o n s ;
3.
Those h elp in g the student teach er to d isco v er p u p il a b i l i t i e s ;
4.
Those h elp in g th e stu d en t tea ch er to develop an a b i l i t y t o
stand b efo re th e c la s s and ta lk to th e group in a cle a r unhurried
manner;
5.
Those h elp in g the stud en t teach er to become acquainted w ith home
c o n d itio n s .
M n d es, E. E . , "Need fo r a Period o f In tern esh ip F ollow in g Graduation
frcan a Teacher T raining I n s t itu t io n ," V irg in ia T eacher, 1 4 :4 9 -5 1 ,
March, 1933.
A l i s t i n g o f th e fa c to r s which make in tern esh ip a needed element in
th e p r o fe s s io n a l education o f tea ch ers along w ith a proposed program
in which th e lo c a l s c h o o l, th e teacher tr a in in g i n s t i t u t i o n , and the
s t a t e department o f ed u cation would co op erate. The w r ite r would have
s u c c e s s fu l com pletion o f in tern esh ip p r e r e q u isite to c e r t i f i c a t i o n .
b r ig h t, m. IS., C. C. •■nilliamson, and M. a . Nev/berry, " In tern esh ip s in
Library E d u ca tio n ,” Library J o u rn a l, 60:781-84; 7 9 8 -9 9 , October 15,
1935.
A proposed plan o f in te r n e sh ip in lib r a r y ed u ca tio n fo llo w in g lib r a r y
sch ool grad u ation . The in tern e would be given s u f f i c i e n t remuneration
and would secu re p r a c tic a l exp erien ce under su p e r v isio n in the major
phases o f lib r a r y work.
.arigh t, W illiam w ., "Experience While in T raining," New York S ta te
E ducation, 1 8 :6 6 -7 0 , September, 1930.
The work o f th e Syracuse c i t y normal sch o o l and i t s program o f
teach er t r a in in g .
I'nyland, M. J . , " In tern esh ip in Guidance," O ccupations, 13 :8 5 1 -5 2 , June,
1935.
d e s c r ip tio n o f how the a c t i v i t i e s o f the home room teach er are
drawn in to the p r a c tic e tea ch in g exp erien ces o f stud en t tea ch ers in
th e high sch o o ls cooperating w ith Pennsylvania S ta te C o lle g e.
a
ft
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX A
A CHECK LIST OF PHASES OF INTERNESHIP DISCUSSED IN THE MAJOR REFERENCES
DEALING WITH INTERNESHIP IN THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF EIEMENTARY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A CHECK LIST OF PEASES OF INTERNESHIP DISCUSSED IN THE MAJOR REFERENCES
DEALING WITH ETERNESIilP IN THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF ELEIvlENTARY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
• o. •CO
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A d is c u s s io n o f th e p la ce
o f in te r n e sh ip in the pro­
f e s s io n a l ed u cation o f
te a c h e r s.
A d e s c r ip tio n o f a proposed
in te r n e sh ip p lan .
A d e s c r ip tio n o f an in te r n e ­
sh ip plan in op era tio n .
A sp ects o f in tern esh ip d isc u sse d .
a.
F actors u n derlyin g th e need
fo r in tern esh ip ; major fu n c­
t io n s o f in te r n e s h ip .
B. The in t e r n e 's classroom
r e s p o n s ib ilitie s .
C. E x tr a -c la ss r e s p o n s i b ili t ie s
o f th e in te r n e .
D. Seminar or graduate work
ca rried on by th e in te r n e .
E. S e le c t io n o f in te r n e s .
F. S u p erv isio n o f in te r n e s .
G. C ontractual arrangements
in v o lv in g th e in te r n e .
H. Placement and fo llo w -u p o f
th o se who have completed in ­
te r n e sh ip .
I . E valu atin g the in tern esh ip
program.
J« Major problems in in tern esh ip
III.
x
X
X
X
X
X
M iscella n eo u s (numerals r e fe r to
n o tes appearing a t th e end o f the
check l i s t ) ________________________
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
X
X
A CEECK LIST OF PHASES OF INTEHNESHIF DISCUSSED IK THE MAJOR REFERENCES
DEALING ii'JLTH. IKTEMESHIP IN THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF ELMENTARY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
( c o n tin u e d )
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A.
B.
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II.
x
A s p e c ts o f i n t e r n e s h i p d i s c u s s e d .
a
.
E.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
III.
d i s c u s s i o n o f th e p la c e
o f i n t e r n e s h i p i n th e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f
te a c h e rs .
A d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p ro p o se d
in te r n e s h ip p la n .
d e s c rip tio n o f an in te rn e ­
s h ip p la n i n o p e r a t i o n .
a
F a c to r s u n d e r ly in g th e need
f o r i n t e r n e s h i p ; m a jo r f u n c ­
tio n s of in te rn e s h ip .
The i n t e r n e ’ s c la s s ro o m
re s p o n s ib ilitie s .
E x tra -c la s s r e s p o n s ib ilitie s
o f th e in te r n e .
S e m in a r o r g r a d u a te work
c a r r i e d on by th e i n t e r n e .
S e le c tio n o f in te r n e s .
S u p e r v is io n o f i n t e r n e s .
C o n tr a c tu a l a rra n g e m e n ts
in v o lv in g t h e i n t e r n e .
P la c e m e n t and f o llo w - u p o f
th o s e who h ave c o m p le te d i n ­
te r n e s h ip .
E v a lu a tin g th e i n t e r n e s h i p
pro g ram .
M ajor p ro b le m s i n i n t e r n e s h i p
x
X
x
x
M is c e lla n e o u s (n u m e ra ls r e f e r to
n o te s a p p e a r in g a t t h e end o f th e
ch eck l i s t ) _______ _________________
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
II MI I
^
234
A CHECK LIST OF PHASES OF INTERNESHIP DISCUSSED IN THE MAJOR REFERENCES
DEALING WITH INTERNESHIP ID THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF ELEvIMT/UiY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
( c o n tin u e d )
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in te rn e s h ip in th e p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h ­
e rs.
A d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p ro p o se d
in te r n e s h ip p la n .
h. d e s c r i p t i o n o f a n i n t e r n e ­
s h ip p la n i n o p e r a t i o n .
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A s p e c ts o f i n t e r n e s h i p d i s c u s s e d .
n.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
L II.
•
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G e n e ra l c h a r a c te r o f r e f e r e n c e .
A.
II.
R e y n o ld s ,
L. A.
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F a c to r s u n d e r ly in g th e need
f o r i n t e r n e s h i p ; m ajo r f u n c ­
tio n s o f in te rn e s h ip .
The i n t e r n e ’ s c la s s ro o m
re s p o n s ib ilitie s .
E x tra -c la s s r e s p o n s ib ilitie s
o f th e i n t e r n e .
S em in ar o r g r a d u a te work
c a r r i e d on by t h e i n t e r n e .
S e le c tio n o f in te r n e s .
S u p e r v is io n o f i n t e r n e s .
C o n tr a c tu a l a rra n g e m e n ts
in v o lv in g th e i n t e r n e .
P la ce m en t and f o llo w - u p o f
th o s e who h av e c o m p le te d i n ­
te rn e s h ip .
E v a lu a tin g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
program .
M ajor p ro b lem s i n i n t e r n e s h i p
M is c e lla n e o u s (n u m e ra ls r e f e r t o
n o te s a p p e a r in g a t th e end o f th e
cheek l i s t )
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
v
4
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
5
X
A CHECK LIST OF PHASES OF LMTEKNESHIF DISCUSSED IN THE MAJOR REFERENCES
DEALING H H Ilm'TERL'IESHIP M i THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF ELEMENTARY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
( c o n tin u e d )
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A.
B.
C.
A d i s c u s s i o n o f th e p l a c e o f
i n t e r n e s h i p i n th e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f
te a c h e rs .
a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p ro p o se d
i n t e r n e s h i p p la n .
A d e s c r i p t i o n o f an i n t e r n e ­
s h ip p l a n i n o p e r a t i o n .
X
x :
X
A s p e c ts o f i n t e r n e s h i p d i s c u s s e d .
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
K.
I.
J.
F a c to r s u n d e r ly in g t h e need
f o r i n t e r n e s h i p ; m a jo r f u n c ­
tio n s o f in te rn e s h ip .
The i n t e r n e ’ s c la s s ro o m
re s p o n s ib ilitie s .
E x tra -c la s s r e s p o n s ib ilitie s
o f th e in te r n e .
S em inar o r g r a d u a te work
c a r r i e d on by th e i n t e r n e .
S e le c tio n o f in te r n e s .
S u p e r v is io n o f i n t e r n e s .
C o n t r a c t u a l a rra n g e m e n ts
in v o lv in g t h e i n t e r n e .
P la ce m en t a n d fo llo w - u p o f
th o s e who have co m p leted
in te rn e s h ip .
E v a lu a tin g t h e i n t e r n e s h i p
program .
M ajor p ro b lem s i n i n t e r n e s h i p
x :
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x :
X
X
M is c e lla n e o u s (n u m e ra ls r e f e r t o
n o te s a p p e a r in g a t th e end o f t h e
ch eck l i s t )
A
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A CHECK LIST OF PHASES OF INTERNESHIP DISCUSSED IN THE MAJOR REFERENCES
DEALING WITH INTERNESHIP IN THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF ELMENTARY AND
SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
( c o n tin u e d )
NOTES
1 . M iss C r a n e 's a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e s th e German i n t e r n e s h i p y e a r s
d i s c u s s i n g t h e a s p e c t s c h e c k e d . The a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f th e German p l a n to
th e U n ite d S t a t e s i s d i s c u s s e d .
2 . T h is p a m p h let i s r e a l l y a code o f s u g g e s te d s ta n d a r d s f o r
a p p re n tic e tr a in in g .
3 . K l a i n 's a r t i c l e i s p r i m a r i l y a r e p o r t o f a q u e s ti o n n a ir e s tu d y
d e te rm in in g th e t r e n d to w a rd s f i f t h - y e a r s tu d e n t te a c h in g and i n t e r n e s h i p .
4 . A p p lie s t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e r n e s h i p a s i t i s c a r r i e d o u t in
m e d ic a l e d u c a tio n t o t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n .
5 . N e a rly a l l o f th e ite m s en u m erated i n t h i s c h e ck l i s t a r e
to u c h e d upon i n c i d e n t a l l y i n c o n n e c tio n w ith C h a p te r I I o f A i e d 's t h e s i s ,
a s u rv e y o f th e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o i n t e r n e s h i p .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
APPENDIX B
FORM LETTERS AND REPLY FORMS IBED IN LOCATING INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
COPY
( L e t t e r s e n t t o S t a t e D e p a rtm e n ts o f E d u c a tio n )
D e p a rtm en t o f E d u c a tio n
Y ale U n i v e r s i t y
New h a v e n , C o n n e c tic u t
November 9 , 1949
Mr. Jo h n S m ith
D i r e c t o r o f T e a c h e r T r a in i n g
S t a t e D e u a rtm en t o f E d u c a tio n
D ear M r. S m ith :
U nder th e s p o n s o r s h ip o f th e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n a t Y ale U n i v e r s i t y ,
I have u n d e rta k e n a s a P h .D . t h e s i s p ro b lem a s tu d y o f program s o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip s p o n so re d by l o c a l s c h o o l sy ste m s and by t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .
B ecause t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few such pro g ram s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , I am
m aking e x te n s i v e i n q u i r i e s in o r d e r t o f e r r e t o u t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e
p ro g ram s. I w ould a p p r e c i a t e i t v e ry much i f you w ould n o te on t h e en­
c lo s e d b la n k w h e th e r o r n o t you know o f th e e x is t e n c e o f an y su c h i n d u c tio n
p ro ced u res in y our s t a t e .
At t h i s s ta g e o f my s tu d y i t i s im p o s s ib le t o s p e c i f y d e f i n i t e l y and
w ith e x a c tn e s s j u s t w hat c o n s t i t u t e s i n t e r n e s h i p . Schemes o f i n t e r n e s h i p ,
a p p r e n t i c e t e a c h i n g , c a d e t t e a c h i n g , and e x te n d e d pro g ram s o f p r a c t i c e
t e a c h in g c a r r i e d on i n t y p i c a l c la s s ro o m s i t u a t i o n s p o s s e s s many p o i n ts
i n common. Hence in f o r m a tio n i s r e q u e s t e d c o n c e r n in g t h e e x is t e n c e o f
a n y o f t h e s e ty p e s o f p ro g ra m s.
I have a tte m p te d t o d e s ig n th e in q u ir y form so t h a t you may answ er
q u ic k ly and e a s i l y from in f o r m a tio n w hich you have a l r e a d y a t h a n d . I f
you a r e u n d e r th e im p r e s s io n t h a t a g iv e n com m unity o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n i s a d m i n is t e r i n g o r c o o p e r a tin g in some s o r t o f an i n t e r n e s h i p
program b u t a r e n o t c e r t a i n o f t h i s , p l e a s e g iv e me t h e name o f t h a t
com m unity o r c o l l e g e and I w i l l c o n ta c t t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls o r
d ir e c to r o f te a c h e r tr a in in g d ir e c tly .
May I th a n k you i n ad v a n ce f o r y o u r h e lp in t h i s m a t t e r . In e d u c a ­
t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e r n e s h i p i s r e c e i v i n g more and more c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s
a f a c t o r in t e a c h e r e d u c a t io n .
I t h i n k t h i s s tu d y w i l l p ro v e o f v a lu e .
S in c e re ly ,
Howard R. J o n e s
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238
(Reply form enclosed with Letter to State Departments of Education)
REPLY
I OHM
Please liB t here the names and location s o f school systems or teacher train­
in g in s titu tio n s which are carrying on programs of interneship, apprentice
teaching, cadet teaching, or programs o f probationary supervision sim ilar to
interneship in which graduates of four year co lleg es orteachers co lleg es are
inducted into the teaching profession.
School or
Teacher Training
In stitu tio n
Address
Director of
Program
:
•m
«
J
*•
•e
*•
••
«•
:
:
••
*
Please l i s t here co lleg es or teachers co lleg es in which the supervised teaching
program i s carried out by assigning students to regular community schools in
which students have classroom r e sp o n sib ilitie s for at le a s t a quarter or a
semester.
Teacher Training
:
In stitu tio n _________:
Address
Director o f
Student Teaching
Please l i s t here the names o f other administrators and facu lty members with
whom you would suggest that I get in touch in regard to programs o f teacher
induction.
Name
:
P osition
Address
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
239
YALE UNIVERSITY
Graduate School
Department o f Education
2S Hillhouae Avenue,
Neir Haven, Connecticut
Ur. John Smith
Superintendent o f Schools or
Dean o f School o f Education
Dear Mr. Smith}
Under the sponsorship of the Department of Education at Yale U niversity,
I have -undertaken as a Fh.D. th e sis problem a study of programs of interneship
sponsored by school systems and by c o lleg es, teachers c o lle g e s, and universi­
t i e s . Because there are r e la tiv e ly few such programs in the United S tates, I
am making extensive in q u iries in order to ferret out the location o f these
programs. This le t t e r i s being sent to you because i t has been suggested by
your sta te department o f education or has been reported in educational lit e r a ­
ture that you may be sponsoring or cooperating in an interneship program.
I t i s d if f ic u lt , o f course, to define interneship. Such an induction
procedure has much in common wLth schemes of apprentice teaching, cadet teach­
in g , and extended programs o f p ractice teaching. For the purposes o f th is
study, i t i s stip u lated that the follow ing conditions be met before an induc­
tio n program be considered an interneship program:
1. That internes be graduates of a four year college or teachers co lleg e
before entering th eir period o f interneship. (This does not preclude,
o f course, th eir having had supervised teaching a s undergraduates.)
2.
That the interneship be in a typ ical school situ a tio n , not in a demon­
stra tio n school, and that the interne be responsible wholly or in part
to lo c a l school au th orities.
3.
That the period o f interneship be a t le a st a semester in length.
I am enclosing a copy o f my d isserta tio n ou tlin e. I f you are sponsoring
or cooperating in an interneship program which meets the conditions ju st out­
lin ed , i t i s hoped you w ill find i t advantageous to p articip ate in th is study.
Your part would con sist o f replying to a questionnaire concerning the functions
o f your program o f interneship and the practices employed in carrying out those
fu nction s, a d , perhaps, making i t p ossib le for the w riter to interview some
o f your in ternes and to see some o f your interneship p ractices in action i f
your in stitu tio n or school system can be included in h is v is it a t io n schedule.
The re su lts o f the study, o f course, would be made available to you.
Whether or not you are sponsoring a program of interneship, your return o f
the enclosed reply card w ill be appreciated. Your help w ill aid m aterially in
lo ca tin g co lleg es and school systems sponsoring interneship programs. Please
accept my thanks in advance.
Sincerely,
Howard H. Jones
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BE P i I
CARD
(P le a s e check ap p rop riate b lan k s)
Mr. H. R. Jones:
We are ( ) , are n ot ( ) , sp onsoring an
in te r n s h ip program such a s th a t o u tlin e d in
your l e t t e r .
We would be in t e r e s t e d in h avin g our program
o f in te r n s h ip in clu d ed among the programs you
sire stu d y in g ( ) .
Nama^___________ _______________ ________ _____
P o s it io n __________
Address________________
__
_ __________
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APPENDIX C
FORM IETTERS WHICH ACCOMPANIED QUESTIONNAIRES
.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TALE UNIVERSITY
Graduate School
Department o f Education
28 Hlllhouse Avenue,
New Haven, Connecticut
Ur. John Smith
D irector, Interneship Program
Dear Ur. Smith)
I am enclosing two copies o f the questionnaire being used in the study
o f interneship programs. Please return one copy f i l l e d out with the informa­
tio n requested in the enclosed stamped envelope. The other copy i s for your
f ile s .
The appearance o f the questionnaire i s quite formidable; brevity being
a meritorious quality in a questionnaire, I almost f e e l ca lle d upon to apolo­
g iz e for i t . I ju s tify i t s length because the information requested i s needed
in my study and because those who are f i l l i n g out the questionnaire are much
in ter ested in t h is problem and have eapressed th eir w illin gn ess to aid in an
in ten siv e study. In part, i t s length i s deceiving. Uost o f the items are in
check l i s t form and can be quickly answered.
When the information secured from the interneship programs cooperating in
t h is study i s assembled and summarized, I am sure the findings w ill be o f value.
Of course, I sh a ll make the r esu lts of the study available to you.
Very sin cerely yours,
Howard R. Jones
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
(L etter accompanying check l i s t )
TALE UNIVERSITY
Graduate School
Department o f Education
~42
^ Hillhouae Avenue,
New Haven, Connecticut
Dr. John Smith
Expert in Teacher Education
Dear Dr. Smith!
Under the sponsorship o f the Department o f Education at Tale U niversity,
I have undertaken as a Ph.D. th e sis problem a study of interneship in the
p rofessional education o f teachers. In an e ffo r t to e sta b lish guide posts
which may be followed in the organization of interneship programs, a jury o f
experts in teacher education has been selected to valid ate certain proposed
p rin c ip le s. Because of your p o sitio n in the f ie ld of teacher education, I am
asking you to be one o f the jurors.
Enclosed i s a check l i s t containing some f i f t y proposed p rin cip les which
have been suggested as underlying interneship. I would appreciate very much
your rating each of these p rin cip les as e sse n tia l, highly d esirable, none s s e n tia l, or detrimental. The second copy of the check l i s t i s fo r your f i l e s .
Nor purposes o f t h is study, i t i s stip ulated that an induction program
meet the follow ing conditions before i t i s defined as interneship!
1.
That internes be graduates of a four year co lleg e or teachers
co lleg e before entering th eir period of interneship. (This does
not preclude, o f course, th eir having had student teaching as
undergraduates.)
2.
That the interneship be in a typ ical school situ a tio n , not in a
demonstration school, and that the interne be responsible wholly
or in part to lo c a l school au th orities.
3.
That the period o f interneship be at le a st a semester in length.
In rating the p rin cip les in the check liB t , please think of interneship as
meeting these conditions, u n less, of course, you disagree fundamentally with
lim itin g the concept of interneship in th is manner.
I hope that I am not Imposing upon you unduly in asking you to serve as
a juror. I have f e l t that you would be in terested in th is study because o f
your in te r e st in the f ie ld o f teacher education. Interneship programs have
come into increasing prominence during the la s t few years, impetus having
been given to th eir establishment by the principle formulated in the TwentyThird Yearbook o f the National Society of College Teachers o f Education, that
"the work in directed teaching should be followed by a period o f in ternesh ip ,"
and by the proposed inclusion of interneship in several o f the projected
"fifth-year* programs in teacher education.
Besides the check l i s t s , I am enclosing an annotated bibliography on
interneship which you may fin d o f value.
Very sin cerely,
Howard R. Jones
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
243
TALE UNIVERSITY
Graduate School
Department of Education
2S H illhouse Avenue,
New Haven, Connecticut
Ur. John Smith
Cooperating Teacher
Dear Ur. Smith:
Under the sponsorship o f the Department o f Education at Yale U niversity,
I am studying as a Ph.D. th e sis problem apprenticeship, cadet teaching, and
interneship programs in the professional education o f teachers. Some f i f t h
year student teaching programs also f a l l within the scope o f my study.
As part o f your work you are or have a s siste d internes as a supervising
or master teacher. I am hoping you w ill be w illin g to further my study by
giving me a frank appraisal o f the merits and fa u lts of interneship as you
see them.* The enclosed question form requests answers to fiv e questions.
Your r e p lie s w ill be considered s t r ic t ly con fid en tial. The opinions of
directors o f interneship programs and the opinions o f internes are being
secured. The opinions of master teachers or cooperating teachers are needed
to complete the picture. An addressed stamped envelope i s enclosed for your
reply.
I t i s necessary to begin tabulating the findings Uarch f if t h . I am
wondering i f i t w ill be asking too much to request that you mail back the
reply form within a week.
I hope that you do not fe e l that th is i s in any way an imposition upon
you. I know that you w ill agree with me that interneship as a phase of
teacher education i s very much worth-while studying.
May I thank you in advance for your help in th is study.
Sincerely,
Howard B. Jones
*Tor purposes o f th is study and for sake of a common term, an induction program
i s termed interneship i f i t meets these conditions: that internes be graduates
o f a four year co lleg e or teachers co lleg e before entering th eir period of
interneship; that the interneship be in an actual school situ ation ; that the
period of interneship be at le a st a semester in length. Your program may not
be ca lle d interneship, but f a l l s w ithin the lim its of th is study. The term
Hintem e8hipN refers to your teacher education and induction program whatever
i t may be ca lled .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
244
YALE UNIVEHSITY
Graduate School
Department of Education
22 Hillhouse Avenue,
New Haven, Connecticut
Mr. John Smith
Eormer Interne
Dear Mr. Smiths
Uhder the sponsorship o f the Department o f Education at Yale U niversity,
I am studying as a Ph.D. th e sis problem apprenticeship, cadet teaching, and
interneship programs in the p rofessional education o f teachers. Some f i f t h
year student teaching programs a lso f a l l within the scope of my study.
As part o f your professional training, you participated in and completed
a period o f interneship.* I am hoping you w ill be w illin g to further my
study by giving me a frank appraisal of the m erits and fa u lts o f that induction
procedure. The enclosed question form requests answers to four questions.
Your r e p lie s w ill be considered s t r ic t ly con fid en tial. I have personally
v is it e d the interneship programs cooperating in my study and have secured the
opinions o f d irectors o f interneship programs and supervising or master teachers.
The opinions o f former internes are needed to complete the picture. An ad*
dressed, stamped envelope i s enclosed for your reply.
I t i s necessary to begin tabulating the findings March f if t h . 1 am
wondering i f i t w ill be asking too much to request that you mail back the
reply form w ithin a week.
I t i s very important that your questionnaire be returned. I f a number
o f individuals f a i l to return questionnaires, th e r e su lts of the study may be
in validated as i t i s lik e ly that those who are most en th usiastic about interne*
ship w ill be sure to return th e ir questionnaires while those who find interne*
ship an unsatisfactory arrangement are lik e ly to disregard the questionnaire.
I f you do not wish to f i l l out the questionnaire fo r some reason, in d icate th is
on the questionnaire, but p lease return the questionnaire. In th is manner, i t
i s hoped to elim inate the sampling errors shich plague many questionnaire stu d ies
I hope that you do not f e e l that th is i s in any way an im position on you.
I know you w ill agree w ith me that interneship as a phase of teacher education
i s very much worth-while studying.
May I thank you in advance for your help.
Sincerely,
Howard H. Jones
*l*or purposes o f th is study and for sake of a common term, an Induction program
i s termed interneship i f i t meets these conditions* that internes be graduates
o f a four year co lleg e or teachers college before entering th eir period of
interneship; that the interneship be in an actual school situ ation ; that the
period of interneship be a t le a s t a semester in length.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX D
QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN THE STUDY
J .
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QUESTIONNAIRE Oil INTEENESHIP IN EDUCATION
This 1 b a questionnaire being used in the study of programs of interneship
in which you have indicated your in te re s t in cooperating. Because interneship
programs are varied, those sponsored by teacher tra in in g in s titu tio n s often being
quite d iffe re n t from those sponsored by public school systems or priv ate schools,
i t has been d if f ic u lt to construct a questionnaire which could be used with each
o f the various types of Interneship. The questionnaire i s quite comprehensive.
Those items th at do not pertain, to your scheme of Interneship can be omitted.
Please f i l l in one copy of the questionnaire and retu rn i t in the envelope
provided to H. E. Jones, Department of Education, Yale U niversity, The other
copy i s fo r your f i l e s .
The following index to the questionnaire may prove helpful fo r quick reference
to various sections of the questionnaire!
Page
Section 1. D efinition of Interneship
Section 2, Reasons fo r the Establishment of your Present Interneship
Program; Major Goals of Interneship
Section 3* A c tiv itie s Carried on by the Interne
Sub-section a . A c tiv itie s Concerned with the Planning and Organizing
of Classroom A c tiv itie s in Preparation fo r Classroom
Teaching
3
Sub-section b. Classroom A c tiv itie s Carried on by the Interne
3
Sub section c. A c tiv itie s Involved in the Supervisory Procedures
k
Employed in the Interneship Program
6
Sub-section d. Sponsorship of E xtra-C urricular A c tiv itie s
Sub-section e. A c tiv itie s Related to the Administration of the School
7
Sub-section f , Becoming Acquainted with the R esp o n sib ilities of
Specialized S ta ff Members
7
8
Sub-section g. Community and Public Relations A c tiv itie s
8
Sub-section h. Professional Advancement
Sub-section i . Personal Advancement
3
Arrangements Underlying the Organization and Administration
Section
of Interneship Programs
10
Sub-section a. Major Factors Considered in Selecting Internes
10
Sub-section b. Procedures in Securing Internes
Sub-section c. Major Factors Considered in Selecting Cooperating
11
Teachers
Sub-section d. Contractual Arrangements and Agreements between the
School System and the Interne; Between the School
12
System and the Cooperating Teacher
Sub-section e. Supervisory Personnel
13
Sub-section f f Seminar and Group Conference Procedures Designed
ik
to In teg rate Theory and P ractice
Sub-section g. Evaluating the Work of Internes and the Interneship
Program
15
Sub-section h. Placement and Follow-Up
15
Sub-section i . Major Problems in the Organization and Administration
16
of Interneship
Section 5« Outcomes of Your Program of Interneship
17
Sections 6 and 7 contain supplementary information requested i f a teacher
train in g in s titu tio n sponsors the interneship plan.
Section 6. C rite ria Used by the Teacher Training In s titu tio n in
Selecting Schools to Cooperate in the Interneship Program
15
Section 7* Contractual Arrangements between the Teacher Training
In s titu tio n and the Local School System; Between the
Teacher Training I n s titu tio n and the Interne
19
1
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Section 1.
D efin ition 9f InternaahiT)
D irections: (a) In the f i r s t column to the lig h t of the factors lis t e d below,
place a check mark a fter those factors which are considered basic to interneship
as i t i s defined in your present program, (b) In the second column, indicate by
check marks the factors you would consider basic to interneship under ideal
cpniitlos.s.
Check
here
fa cto rs
IJhder
in present id eal
d efin itio n condi*
1. That internssbe graduates of a four year college or
tion s
teachers co lleg e before entering the period of interneship
_ _ _ _ __ _____
2.
•
That the interne have completed basic professional courses
in education prior to h is interneship appointment
_
______
3.
That during the period o f interneship, the interne engage in
the large variety o f a c t iv it ie s in which a regular teacher
engages and under the conditions that a regular teacher
experiences them
____
______
That the period o f interneship be at le a st a year in length
5.
________ ___ _
That the interne be inducted into new r e sp o n sib ilitie s
gradually
L
_
6;
That the interne be under clo se and competent supervision
_
_____
7.
That the in terne 13 program be so planned that he gains
experience in a l l of the major phases of school instruction
and management
8.
___
That the interneship be in a school situ ation approximating
as c lo se ly as p ossib le the type of school situ ation in which
the interne w ill probably receive permanent appointment
.
^
9« That the interne be responsible primarily and d ire c tly to
the lo c a l school administrator
10. That interneship be considered a part of the basic prepara• tion and training of the beginning teacher
_
_
_
^
11. That the Interneship program be sponsored by a teacher
training in stitu tio n with internes carrying on some graduate
work during th eir period o f interneship
^
^
12. That the primary purpose o f interneship be the securing and
Inducting o f competent beginning teachers into a given school
system
________ _____
13*
That the interne receive some compensation for h is services
_
That there be a d e fin ite plan of evaluation of the in tern e's
success thus "certifying" to the profession that the success• fu l interne has completed h is basic period of trainin g
_
_
1^.
13*
That the interneship be a standard program sim ilar in organi­
sation to medical interneship in which a l l internes are given
approximately the same experiences
_____
Additional factors and comments: _________________
____________
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.
^
247
Section 2. Seasons for the Establishment of Yoor Present InterneahlT>
Program: Major Qoals pf Interneship
D irections: lis t e d below are some reasons which have been advanced for the
promotion o f Interneship programs.
(a) In th9 f i r s t column, number in 1, 2, 3 order the factors which
you b eliev e have been most in flu e n tia l in bringing about the establishment, of
your present program o f interneship. Include in your numbering any additional
reasons which you may add in the spaces provided at the bottom of the page.
(Note; Uhless a factor played a very d e fin ite part in the establishment of
interneship, do not include i t in your numbering.)
(b) In the second column, number in 1, 2, 3 order the factors j y x
b elieve should be the major goals o f interneship.
Number here
fa ctors D esirin estab* able
lishment major
goals
1. To secure integration o f theory and practice in the
professional education of teachers
_____. _ _
2.
To permit gradual induction into
the work of teaching_____________
_____
3.
To insure that th9 beginning teacher secures h is f i r s t year*s
experience in a school situ ation conducive to professional
growth
_____
_____
H. To malc9 p ossib le orientation and experience in many d ifferent
phases of school work before requiring the beginning teacher
to sp ecia lize in teaching certain subjects or teaching at
certain grade le v e ls
_____
_____
5.
•
To provide a program of professional preparation of teachers
in which learning i s based upon doing
_____
_____
6.
To provide a scheme of teacher induction in which there i s
adequate and competent supervision at the time o f induction
_____
_____
To provide a probationary period in which i t can be
determined whether the teacher possesses the q u a lifica tio n s
necessary for permanent appointment
_____
_____
To subsidize promising students who wish to continue their
professional education by doing part-time graduate work
_____
_____
9. To a ttra ct superior beginning teachers to the school system
• because of the values recognized in the interneship program ______
_____
7.
8.
10. To secure good beginning teachers at a comparatively low
salary o fferin g them as p a rtial compensation the advantages
o f in -serv ice training and experience
_____
_____
lli
_____
_____
_____
_____
To give employment to unemployed home town teachers
12. To have good su b stitu te help readily available within the
school system
13. To temporarily replace a regular teacher who i s granted
sabbatical leave
_____
lH. To provide trained assistance to regular classroom teachers
who have
a heavy load
15« To meet the professional obligation of each comnunity to help
some beginning teachers to get th eir start in teaching
_____
Other factors; comments:________________________________________
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_____
_____
______
248
(3)
Using visu a l aids
Interne Interne carobserves r ie s f u ll
and
responsia s s is t s b i l i t y for
a time
.
—_ _ _
(4 )
U tiliz in g radio broadcasts
.
(5)
Supervising study___________________________________________ __
_____
(6)
Determining pupil achievement and pupil d if f ic u lt ie s
by means o f t e s t s , scales, and sim ilar devices
_____
_____
Holding individual and group conferences both during
c la ss and a fter school
_____
_____
(7)
(S)
Giving remedial in stru ction
(9)
Helping students with basic learning s k ills : reading,
w ritin g , o utlining, lo catin g reference m aterials,
organizing w ritten work, e tc,
______
.
. -
.
_____
(10)
Handling problems rela tin g to pupil conduct and d isc ip lin e
______
(11)
Carrying out home room r e s p o n sib ilitie s
(12)
D istributing and c o lle c tin g supplies
______
. . .
(13)
Arranging b u lle tin board and display work
_____
„
(14)
(15)
Making adjustments rela tin g to the physical aspects of
the classrooms heat, v en tila tio n , lig h t , adjustment of
seats and desks, e tc ,
Taking care o f absence, tardiness, and dism issal
_____
_____
_____
_____
(16)
Making announcements and reading n o tices
_____
_____
(17)
Obtaining information from pupils for records and reports _____
_____
__
_____
0
Other major a c t iv it ie s in th is c la s s ific a tio n ;
comments:
Sub-section c, A c tiv itie s Involved in the Supervisory Procedures Employed in the
Interneship Program
D irections: Indicate by check marks the a c tiv itie s re la tin g to supervision in
which a l l or nearly a l l in tern es engage and which are considered a basic p a rt of
your program of interneship.
(1)
Observation of teaching:
(a) Observing the cooperating teacher^
(b) Observing specially planned demonstration teaching
_
_
2
The term "cooperating teacher" designates a teacher to whom the in tern e
has been assigned to observe or to a c tiv e ly a s s is t in the conduct of the c la ss.
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249
Section i* Activities Carried on bjL the Interne
I t i s the purpose of th is section of the questionnaire to determine the types
and d iv ersity of a c t iv it ie s carried on by the interne in your present program
o f interneship and to obtain certain items o f information concerning these
a c t iv it ie s .
Sub-section a. A c tiv itie s Concerned with the Planning and Organizing of
Classroom A c tiv itie s in Preparation for Classroom Teaching
D irections: Indicate by check marks the extent to whichinternes engage
the follow ing a c t iv it ie s . Leave spaces blank i f a given a c tiv ity i s not
part of your program.1
Interne
observes
ana
a s s is ts
(1)
Defining and se le ctin g ob jectives for u n its of work_______ _____
(2)
S electin g and organizing subject matter
(3) Planning ways of u t iliz in g and developing in te r e sts
and o f motivating work
_____
_____
.
(4)
S electin g and preparing m aterials for classroom use_______ _____
(5)
Planning general methods to be used in the conduct of
the c la ss
— —.
ifeHrig provision for individual d ifferences in plans
for c la ss work__________________________________________________
(7)
Planning ways of measuring pupil progress
(8)
Planning assignments____________________________________________
(9)
Writing out lesson plans
'Other major a c t iv it ie s in th is c la s s ific a tio n ;
Sub-section b .
in
a
fctern0 ^
r ie s f u l l
responsib i l i t y fo r
a time
_____
.
_____
——
—
____
_____
.
comments:
Classroom A c tiv itie s Carried on by the Interne
D irections: Same as for sub-section a.
(1) Presenting and explaining objectives to pupils and
deciding with them objectives fo r a given u n it
( 2 ) Using a wide v ariety of teaching methods adapting the
method to the students involved and to the m aterials used
^E ither one or both columns may be checked in the case of any given
a c tiv ity . A c tiv itie s in which there i s gradual Induction (observation,
p a rtic ip a tio n , and fin a llj^ re s p o n a ib ility ) w ill be checked in both columns.
A c tiv itie s in which the interne p a rtic ip a te s but fo r which he i s never
fu lly responsible w ill be checked in the f i r s t column only. A c tiv itie s
fo r which ths in tern e assumes resp o n sib ility without a p rio r period o f
observation and supervised p ra c tic e w ill be checked in the second column
only.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(2)
(c)
Observing a variety of teachers, teachers o f average
a b ility as w ell as those who ar9 p articu larly sk ille d
(d)
Observing teaching a t various grade lev els
(e)
Observing teaching o f a number of d ifferen t subjects
Individual conferences with the.cooperating teacher or super- .
viso r regarding:
(a)
The sele ctio n , development, and organization of curriculum
m aterials
(b)
Problems a risin g in connection with the formulation of
lesso n plans
S p ecific teaching problems or d if f ic u lt ie s encountered
by the interne in h is classroom teaching
(c)
(d)
Problems a risin g in connection with the supervision of
extra-curricular or concurricular a c t iv it ie s
(e)
Evaluation of the in tern e's teaching as measured by
ob jective devices
(f)
Means c f professional advancement: professional reading;
professional organizations to join; meetings to attend;
course work for which the interne ohould reg iste r , etc,
(g)
P articip ation in community a c t iv it ie s
(h)
Personal and so c ia l problems confronting the interne
(3) Group conferences o f a l l internes regarding interneship problems:
(a)
With superintendent or other sp ecia lly designated super­
v iso r in the lo ca l school system
(b) With supervisor from the cooperating teacher training
in s titu tio n
(^) Teaching while being observed by:
(a)
The cooperating teacher
(b)
The principal
(c)
(d)
Departmental supervisor
The superintendent or other supervisor in charge of the
interneship program
A supervisor from the cooperating teacher training
in s titu tio n
(e)
(5) Writing reports:
(a)
Reporting teaching observed
(b)
Keeping a diary summarizing interneship experiences
Other major a c t iv it ie s in th is c la ss ific a tio n ;
I
o o ,"
1 »'
comments;
~ u- » ' 1 ■—T.«
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251
Sub-section d.
Sponsorship of Extra-Currlcular or Co-Curricular A c tiv itie s
D irections: Indicate by check marks the extra-curricular a c t iv it ie s with which
internes are a s sistin g . Place double checks in the spaces follow ing items in
which a l l internes are expected to engage*
Interne Interne carobserves r ie s f u ll
and
responsia s s is t s b i l i t v for
a time
(1) Supervising physical play a c t iv it ie s or coaching a th le tic
sports
.
.
(2)
(3)
Supervising students* so cia l a c t iv it ie s !
banquets, e tc .
p a r tie s, dances,
..., r
Adviser to a departmental club (such clubs as the Science
Club, French Clubr Home Economics Club, Art Club, e t c ,,
are classed as departmental clubs)
a .
L.
v, .
(U)
Supervising musical and dramatic organizations___________ (____ ____ _____
(5)
A ssistin g pupils with student publications
_
„......
(6)
Adviser to a r.on--departmental club (such clubs as Stamp
Club, Camera Club, Hiking Club, Chess Club, e t c ., are
classed as non-departmental clubs)
______
_____
(7)
Adviser to a c la ss or student-government organization
(8)
Supervisor of Safety Patrol, Service Club, Traffic
Squad, or sim ilar service group
(9)
_
...
leader of a character building organization (such organi­
zations as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire G irls,
Hi-7 Club, Girl Reserves, Seton Guild, e t c .. are classed
as character building organizations)
_______
(10) A ssistin g in planning and supervising assemblies and
special programs
(11) A ssistin g in planning and supervising school journeys
and tr ip s
Other major a c t iv it ie s in thi^ c la ss ific a tio n :
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. .
_
..
_
252
Sub-section e.
A c tiv itie s Belated to the Administration of the School
D irections: Place check marks a fte r the follow ing phases of school work to
in d icate whether internes become fam iliar with them through ( l ) discussing them
with persons responsible for them; (2) directed observation of these a c t iv it ie s ;
(3 actual supervised p articip ation in these a c t iv it ie s .
D iscussion
Directed
Actual
with
observe- p a rticip a responsition:
tion
b le person v is it a tio n
Constructing the school schedule
(1
Treatment of d iscip lin ary problems referred
(2
to the administrator
Major a c t iv it ie s connected with operation of
(3
the school plant
Ordering and d istrib u tion o f school supplies
(*
and equipment
Accounting and budgetary procedures
(5
(6
Keeping c f records and reports Involved in
pupil accounting
(7
Faculty commietee meetings dealing with
adm inistrative problems
(s
Work of the school board
Other a c t iv it ie s in th is c la ss ific a tio n ;
comments;
4_________________________________________
.....
Sub-section f , Becoming Acquainted with the Respon­
s i b i l i t i e s of Sp e c ia lis e d St a f f Members
D irections:
Same as for sub-section e.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4-)
Work
Work
Work
Work
of
of
of
of
the
the
the
the
(5)
Work o f the
schoollibrarian
schoolcounselor
v is it in g teacher
schoolnurse
o ffic e clerks
Work of other specialized members of the school
s ta f f ; comments|'
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
255
Sub-. section g.
Community and Public Relations A c tiv itie s
Directions: Place check marks a fter the a c t iv it ie s lis t e d below to indicate
whether internes become fam iliar with them through ( l) discussing them with
persons responsible for them; ( 2 ) observing or v is it in g them; ( 3 ) a c tiv e ly
p articip atin g in them.
Discussion
ObservaActive
with
tion*
p a rticip a responsi- v is ita tio n
tion
b le person
(1) A c tiv itie s o f the Parent-Teacher Association
_________ _____
_____
(2)
Reception o f parents and patrons who v i s i t
school
______
_____
_____
(3 )
Home v is it a tio n
_____
_____
_____
(U)
Church and r elig io u s education a c t iv it ie s
_____
_____
_____
(5)
A c tiv itie s o f lo c a l c iv ic and so cia l clubs
_____
___________ _____
( 6)
Community drives and campaigns
__________ _____
(7)
Important c iv ic meetings
____
( 8)
Preparation o f news a r t ic le s rela tin g to
school a ffa ir s
_____
Preparation o f educational exh ib its
_____
(9)
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
(10)
Community recreational a c t iv it ie s
_____
_____
(11)
Adult education program
_____ _____
(12)
The work o f important c iv ic agencies and
business and in d u strial establishments in the
community
________ _
Other major a c tiv itie s in th is c la s s ific a tio n ;
comments:
Sub-section h,,
Professional Advancement
D irections: Place check marks a f te r the a c tiv itie s lis te d below to indicate
whether an in tern e is "encouraged* or whether he i s "expected" to engaged in
these a c tiv itie s .
Encouraged Expected
(1) Member of a professional teachers association
(2)
Reading reg u larly a t le a s t one general education
p erio d ical and one p erio d ical in a special f ie ld
( 3 ) Reading important professional books pertaining
to general education and to one's special f ie ld
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354
Encouraged Expected
Contributing to programs of professional organizations
by reading papers, serving as a member of a panel
forum, etc.
_____
_____
(6 )
Carrying or or p articip atin g in a research, problem in
connection with the in tern e’s work in the lo c a l school
Writing educational a r tic le s
_____
________
_____
_____
(7)
A ssistin g in planning teachers’ meeting___________________ _____
_____
( 8)
Making reports in teachers’ meeting
_____
_____
(9)
A ssistin g in planning and conducting demonstration lessons _____
_____
( k )
(5)
(10)
(11)
Taking a course in one’ s major or minor subject-matter
f ie ld at an in s titu tio n o f higher learning
Taking a professional education course or p articip atin g
in a graduate seminar at a teacher training in s titu tio n
(12) P articip atin g in regularly scheduled group conferences
for internes sponsored by the lo ca l school system and
dealing with professional problems
Other major a c t iv it ie s in th is c la ss ific a tio n ;
Sub-sec tio n i .
D irections:
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
comments!
Personal advancement
Same as fo r sub-section h,
(1)
Engaging in recreatio n al a c tiv itie s designed to maintain
physical well being and to promote good h ealth
( 2 ) Attending concerts, plays, the th ea te r
(3) V isitin g museums and a r t g a lle rie s
(4)
Developing le isu re time reading in te re s ts
(5)
Pursuing a hobby in te re s t
( 6 ) Becoming a member of a social group;
m aintaining friendships
(7)
acquiring and
Attendance a t s ta f f social a ffa irs
( 8 ) Deepening one’s in te re s t in re lig io n and in a personal
philosophy of l i f e
(9)
Working out a fin an c ia l program designed to provide a
measure of economic security
Other major a c tiv itie s in th is c la s s ific a tio n ;
comments!
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255
Section 4 Arrangements Underlying the Organization and Administration of
Interneship Programs
I t i s the purpose o f th is section of the questionnaire to ascertain the
adm inistrative organization which underlies your present program of interneship.
Please read carefu lly the d irections at the beginning of each sub-section.
Sub-section a,
Ma.lor Factors Considered in S electing Internes
D irections: Check those factors regarding which d e fin ite information i s secured
before a decision i s reached regarding an application for interneship.
Check
here
General sch olastic average in college or teachers college
Particular excellence in subjects interne i s to teach as
(2
measured by college grades in those subjects
( 1
(3
Professional background as evidenced by the number of professional
education courses taken and the grades received in those courses .
(*
(5
Grade received in p ractice teaching
Possession of a teacher*s c e r tific a te
Health and physical examination record
Scores made on certain te s ts (sch o la stic aptitude, comprehensive
professional knowledge t e s t , general culture t e s t , e t c .)
(6
(7
(s
(lo
A b ility to sponsor extra-curricular a c t iv it ie s
Recommendations of college instructors
Recommendations of personal references given by the interne
(U
Impression made in interview
(12
Approval of the interne by the cooperating teacher
(9
V illingnes3 of the in tern e to undertake the interneship with
l i t t l e or no salary
P robability of a place for the interne as a regular member of
(1H
the school s ta ff follow ing the completion of the interneship
period
(15 Interne i s a home town resident
Financial need of the interne
(16
Other factors; comments:.
(13
Sub-section b.
Procedures in Securing Internee
D irections: Listed below are a number of procedures followed in procuring
internes. Number these procedures in 1, 2, 3 order, rating as number 1
the method by which you obtain the greatest number o f internes, etc. Include
in your numbering any additional procedures you may add on the lin e s below
those lis t e d . Number only those procedures which you regularly employ,
leaving other lin e s blank
Number
here
( l ) Internes are selected from among those who make'U nsolicited
ap plications fo r interneship
(Continued on next page)
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856
Number
here
Teacher train in g in s titu tio n s serving the immediate area inform
outstanding students of the p o s s ib ilitie s of interneship, a number
of applications re su ltin g
______
(3) Teacher train in g in s titu tio n s over a wide area are sent lite r a tu r e
p ertaining to the interneship program, a number of applications
from without the immediate lo c a lity re su ltin g
_
( k) The superintendent of schools or the person responsible for the
program of interneship v i s i t s teacher tra in in g in s titu tio n s
conferring with prospective in te rn es
______
(5) Because of a cooperative arrangement between the school and a
teacher train in g in s titu tio n , in tern es are selected from among
a group of beginning teachers recommended by the teacher tra in in g
in s titu tio n
, „
Other procedures; comments;
(2)
Sub-.section c „ Major Factors Considered in S electing Cooperating Teachers
D irections; Check below those factors which are required and other factors which
receive d e fin ite consideration in the selectio n of cooperating teachers. I f
your plan does not use cooperating teachers, skip the lis t e d items and note th is
under comments.
Check here
A
re quirement
(1)
Recognized excellence as a classroom teacher
(2 )
Demonstrated a b ility as a helper of other teachers _______
( 3 ) A leader on the school s ta ff
______
Not a requirement, but receiv es d efin ite
consideration
______
______
______
_____
(*0
Possessor of an advanced degree
_____
(5)
Courses taken in supervision ( i f th is i s checked
as a requirement, indicate number of cred its
required;______)
______
The cooperating teacher w ill achieve d e fin ite
professional growth as a resu lt of the part she
plays in the interneship program
_____
(6)
(7)
In terest in and w illin gn ess of the cooperating
teacher to undertake the r e sp o n sib ilitie s she
w ill have in the interneship program
(8) Teacher os sim ilar subject or grade in which the
interne w ill probably be placed upon completion
o f the period of interneship
(9) Teacher most needing assistanco because of heavy
teaching load
(lO) Teacher w ith.li« 3ibt-*r
average teaching load
having additional time to work with interne
Other factors; comments:^______
.
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____ ^
_____
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257
Sub-section d. Contractual Arrangements and Agreementa between the School
System and the Internei Between the School System and the Cooperating Teacher
D irections: Indicate the items sp ecified in contracts and agreements between
the p a rties in your interneship program bjr w riting out the provisions stipu lated.
Leave blanks a fter items concerning which there i s no clear-cu t, d e fin ite
agreement. (Note: I f your school system has duplicated material containing
th is information, please enclose copy and mark nsee copy" on items covered by
the duplicated m ateria l.)
(1) Items sp ecified in the contract between the school and the interne:
(a) Length o f period o f interneship:
(b)
Salary to be received by the interne:
(c)
S p ecification of services interne i s to render:
t
(d)
S p ecification o f services and supervision to be given interne:
(e)
Amount and type o f graduate work interne i s to carry on at a teacher
training in stitu tio n :
( f)
Stipulation concerning ultim ate placement for successful interne:
(g)
Provision for termination of interneship before interneship period i s
___ _________________________________________________
completed:
(h)
Other provisions binding the school and the Interne;
comments:
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258
*
(2 )
A r r a n g e m e n ts b e t w e e n t h e l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m a n d t h e c o o p e r a t i n g t e a c h e r :
(O m it t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n i f y o u r i n t e r n e s h i p sch em e d o e s n o t m ake u s e o f
c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s .)
(a )
A d d i t i o n a l s a l a r y I n c r e m e n t?
(b )
R e d u c t io n i n t e a c h i n g l o a d ? ______________________________________________
(c )
T e a c h in g l o a d t o b e i n c r e a s e d b e c a u s e o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a n i n t e r n e ?
(d )
C r e d it to w a r d p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n cem en t t o b e g iv e n f o r w ork d on e a s
a c o o p e r a tin g te a ch er ?
(e)
O th e r a r ra n g em e n ts b e tw e en t h e s c h o o l sy ste m and th e c o o p e r a tin g
t e a c h e r ; c o m m e n ts;
Sub-section e . Supervisory Personnel
D irections: Indicate the approximate number of v i s i t s made in the course of a
year to observe the work of the interne and the approximate number of individual
conferences held with internes by various supervisors cooperating in the
interneship program. Place a check mark a fte r the one person responsible for
- coordinating supervisory a c t iv it ie s .
Humber Humber of Check here
of
individual the one
v i s i t s conferences person co­
ordinating
supervision
(1) Superintendent of schools
__
_____
_____
(2)
School principal
_________ _____
(3)
Person responsible for interneship in the
lo ca l school i f other than the principal
or superintendent
______
_____
Departmental supervisor
______
Supervisor from the education department
of the cooperating teacher training in s t itu t io n
_____
______
_____
_____
_____
___
(h)
(5)
(6)
S p e c ia list in subject interne i s teaching from
the cooperating teacher training in s titu tio n
_____
(7)
Others (sp ecify -positions):
(g )
C om m ents:
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_____
259
Sub-section f . Seminar and Group Conference Procedures Designed to Integrate
Theory and Practice
D irections* (a) Check those procedures which are employed in your program
o f interneship. (b) Supply additional information requested under the items
you check.
_ ,
Check
here
( l ) Regularly scheduled group conferences sponsored by the lo ca l
school system and attended by a l l internes
_____
(a) Person generally in charge o f these conferences:
(b) Attended by cooperating teachers?
(c ) Attended by principal?
(d) Attended by superintendent?
(e) Attended by departmental supervisors?
(f)
Attended by representative o f the cooperating teacher
tra in in g in stitu tio n ?
(g) How frequently are these group conferences held?
(2)
Regularly scheduled seminar dealing with interneship problems
sponsored by the cooperating teacher training in stitu tio n
(a)
Person generally in charge o f th is seminar:
(b)
(c)
Attended by cooperating teachers?_
Attended by person in lo c a l school system in charge o f
Interneship?
Attended by co lleg e s p e c ia lis ts in the various subjects
which in ternes are teaching?
(d)
(e )
(3)
Regular graduate courses offered by a teacher training in s titu ­
tio n in which internes reg ister
(a) Person responsible for guiding the Interne in the sele ctio n
o f these courses:
(b)
(4)
How frequently does th is seminar meet?
Portion o f the interne*s time which i s spent in graduate
work o f th is so rt:_______________________________________
Comments:
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260
Sub-section g. Evaluating the Work of Internes and the Interneship Program
D irections: Check the methods you employ in appraising the work of
internes and the interneship program.
(1)
(2)
S elf-ra tin g scales used by internes
Check
here
_____
Eating scales or other d efin ite reports of interne success
used by cooperating teachers, supervisors, and others observing
the work of internes___________________________________________________
(3)
Tests o f professional knowledge
(U)
Tests of knowledge o f the school system__________________________ ___ _
(5)
Progress made by pupils as measured by standardized te s ts
_____
(6)
Criticism s of interneship plan s o lic ite d from
internes
_____
(7)
C riticism s of interneship plan s o lic ite d from
cooperating teachers
(8)
(9)
C riticism s of interneship plan s o lic ite d from
Success of internes in subsequent p osition s
supervisors
Other methods employed;
Sub-section h.
______
_____
_____
comments
Placement and Follow-Up
D irections; Check the statements which describe the p olicy of placement and
follow-up followed in your program of interneship. I f your p olicy cannot be
described by checking the lis t e d statements, write your plan on the lin e s set
aside for comments.
(1)
(2)
The school system assumes resp o n sib ility for placing successful
internes in the lo ca l system
_____
The school system a s s is t s internes in obtaining employment in
other systems
_____
(3)
The school system follows-up the work o f internes after placement
and gives assistan ce when i t s services are h elp fu l
_____
(*0
The resp o n sib ility o f the school system for the interne ceases
a t the completion of the period of interneship
(3)
(6)
(7)
_____
The teacher training in stitu tio n cooperating in the interneship
program a s s is t s internes in obtaining employment through i t s
placement bureau_________________________________________________ _____
The cooperating teacher training in stitu tio n follew s-up the work
of internes a fter placement and gives assistance when i t s services
are helpful
_____
The cooperating teacher training in stitu tio n assumes no responsi­
b i l i t y for the interne a fter the completion of the interneship
period
_____
Comment s :_______________________
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261
S u b jectio n i .
o f Intem eshio
Major Problems in the Oraani zation and ^dmini at ration
D irections: Listed below i s a m iscellany of problems which have been represented
as being major problems in interneship. Space i s provided for lis t in g additional
problems. Humber in 1, 2, 3 order, including the additional problems w ritten in ,
those problems n.'iich are your most pressing problems at the present time. Leave
blank 3paces a fter those problems which are not rea l, c r it ic a l problems as far
as your present program of interneship i s concerned.
Humber
here
J u stify in g the interneship program to the Board o f Education and
to the community
(2
In terestin g outstanding beginning teachers in interneship
appointments
( 1
(3
Finding v a lid c r ite r ia which can be used in determining which
o f the applicants for interneship w ill be the best internes
(4
Securing in te r est and whole-hearted cooperation of cooperating
teachers and other members of the school s ta ff
(5
Getting the teacher training in stitu tio n cooperating in the
interneship program to accept some resp o n sib ility for supervising
the work done by internes
(6
Getting the teacher training in s titu tio n to rela te the graduate
work done by internes to the problems with which internes are
confronted in th eir daily work
(7
C onflict in time schedules between the sehool schedule and the
schedule of graduate courses which internes should be taking in
the teacher training in stitu tio n
(s
Transportation d if f ic u lt ie s between the teacher training
in stitu tio n and the lo c a l school
(9
Coordinating a c t iv it ie s o f supervisors '
(10
Lack of acceptance o f the interne as a “regular" teacher by the
rest of the school s ta f f
(ii
Lack of acceptance o f the interne as a “regular" teacher by the
pupils in the school
(12
D iffic u lty o f adequately evaluating the work of internes and the
outcomes of the interneship program
o t aer major problems;
comments:
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262
Section 5* Outcomes of Your Program of Interneship
D irections: l i s t e d below are a number of p ossib le outcomes of interneship.
In the f i r s t column, check those outcomes which you consider to lave been major
outcomes o f your progrnin of interneship. In the second column, check those
outcomes which are concomitant outcomes or "by-products'* of your program o f
interneship.
j a j o r Concomitant
outcottQSi outcomes
1. Internes received th eir f i r s t year's experience in a
_____
_____
school situ a tio n condxicive to professional growth
2.
Internes were given an overview of and were oriented in
many phases of school work before being required to
s p e c ia liz e in teaching certain subjects or at certain
grade le v e ls
_____
3. The period o f interneship served as a probationary period
proving the a b ility or lack of a b ility of the interne in
a teaching situ ation
H.
The remuneration received enabled several internes to do
graduate work which otherwise could not have been carried
on because of lack of funds
5.
Superior beginning teachers were attracted to the school
system because o f the values recognized in the interneship
program
6. Good beginning teachers were secured for the school
system at a comparatively low salary
7. Class siz e was decreased
8. Teacher load as measured by hours o f teaching was reduced
9. An enlarged and enriched program o f extra-curricular
a c t iv it ie s was carried on
10. Successful internes were placed in the lo ca l school system
in which they had th eir interneship or secured desirable
p o sitio n s in other school systems
11. Employment was given to unemployed home-town teachers
12. Competent sub stitu te help was readily availab le within
the school system
lj.
Internes served as temporary replacements at comparatively
low cost for i3guir.r teachers on sabbatical leave
l*k Internes served as part-time teachers taking care of the two
or three extra cla sses in the school schedule for which i t
was unprofitable for the school system to employ a regular
f u ll time teacher
•• i. The work of superior teachers was recognized through th eir
sele c tio n as cooperating teachers
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_____
263
Major Concomitant
outcomes
outcome-a■
16 .
|
\
A c t i v i t i e s connected w ith the ca rry in g -o n o f the
in te r n e s h ip program crea ted in cr ea se d in t e r e s t i n oth er
members c f th e s t a f f i n becoming more p r o f e s s io n a lly
com petent. This in cr ea se d in t e r e s t was shown by:
(a )
G reater u se o f th e s c h o o l's p r o fe s s io n a l lib r a r y
_____
(b)
In crea sed enrollm ent in cou rses o ffe r e d by c o lle g e s
and tea ch ers c o lle g e s
_____
(c )
In crea sed p a r t ic ip a t io n in curriculum r e v is io n ________ _____
(d)
More tea ch ers engaged in resea rch
(e )
More a r t i c l e s w r itte n fo r p u b lic a tio n in p r o fe s s io n a l
p e r io d ic a ls
______
(f)
Other ev id en ces o f in crea sed in t e r e s t :
17.
S t a f f members o f the co o p era tin g tea ch er tr a in in g i n s t i t u ­
t io n gain ed a g rea te r in s ig h t in to the p r a c t ic a l problems
co n fro n tin g b egin n in g tea ch er s
IS .
P u p ils r e c e iv e d more in d iv id u a l a t t e n t io n than would have
been p o s s ib le w ithout in te r n e s
19.
P ressu re to take in lo c a l tea ch ers was reduced
20.
P ressu re to take in lo c a l tea ch ers was in crea sed
21.
Standards
fo r tea ch ers in the system have been raiB ed
22.
Standards
fo r tea ch ers in th e system have been low ered
23.
P r in c ip a l
was giv en more o f f i c e a s s is ta n c e
2v.
Teacher lo a d has b ten in cr ea se d through ex tra d u tie s
a s s o c ia t e d w ith in te r n e sh ip
25.
Teaching c o s t s have in crea sed
2 C.
Teachers f e e l
_____
burdened by ex tra d u tie s caused by in te r n e s
O th e r outcom es;
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SDPPLiMBNTARY INFORMATION; The remainder of the questionnaire i s to be f i l l e d
in only i f a teacher training in stitu tio n i s sponsoring the program of interneship.
Section 6, C riteria Used by the Teacher Training In stitu tio n in S electin g Schools
to Cooperate in an Interneship Program.
Directions; Chect: the factors which are considered basic in the sele ctio n
of schools to cooperate in the interneship program.
1; Recognized general excellence of the school
2, School c lo se ly resembles the type of school in which internes
w ill ultim ately be placed
3i Closeness o f school to teacher training in stitu tio n
4.
A b ility of school to furnish competent cooperating teachers and
supervisors
_
5. Agreement can be secured concerning fin an cial arrangements
(sa la r ie s to be paid in ternes, amount to be paid school system
by the teacher training in stitu tio n for supervisory services, e t c . )
6. Agreement can be secured concerning advisory and supervisory
services to be given the lo ca l school system by the teacher
trainin g in s titu tio n in connection with the interneship program
Other c r ite r ia ;
comments;
Section X» Contractual Arrangements and Agreements between the Teacher Training
I n stitu tio n and the Local School System; Between the Teacher Training In stitu tio n
and the Intern.
D irections; Indicate the items sp ecified in the agreement bjr w riting out the
provisions stip u la ted .
(1) Items in the agreement between the teacher training in stitu tio n and the
lo c a l school system;
(a)
Provision for administration and supervision o f the interne;
(b)
Salaries to be paid internes:
(c)
Remuneration to be given school system or individual cooperating
teachers by the teacher trainin g in stitu tio n in return for supervisory
services given internes by the lo c a l school system:
(d)
Advisory and supervisory services to be given the lo c a l school system
by the teacher training in stitu tio n as part payment for the services
given by the lo c a l school system in connection with the interneship
program:
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265
(e)
(2)
Other arrangements between the school and the teacher train in g
in s titu tio n : ___________
Items in the agreement between the interne and the teacher tra in in g
in s titu tio n :
(a)
.Amount of graduate c re d it to be given interne fo r successful
completion of in terneship:_________________________________
(b)
.Amount and kind o f post-graduate course work to be carried on by
the interne:
(c)
Services to be given interne by the college’s placement bureau:
(d)
Other arrangements between the interne and the teacher train in g
in s titu tio n ; comments:_________________________ _
I
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266
CHECK LIST — IHTEBNKSEIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
D irections: Indicate by checking In the appropriate column the importance you
attach to each o f the follow ing ob jectives and p rin cip les as guide posts in
establishing and organizing interneship programs. Space i s l e f t at the end of
each section for lis t in g additional p rin cip les.
-p a>
Objective or principle
-P-P
rid
S '* !
—°tf,
©o
nop,
Section 1, Junctions o f Interneship. I t should be
major function of interneship:
I. To secure integration of theory and practice in the
p rofessional education of teachers.
2 ; To permit gradual induction into the work of teaching.
3. To insure that the beginning teacher secures h is f ir s t
year*s experience in a school situ ation conducive to
professional growth.
To make p ossib le orientation and experience in many
K
d ifferen t phases o f school work before requiring the
beginning teacher to sp ecia lize in teaching certain
subjects or teaching at certain grade le v e ls .
5.
To provide a program of professional preparation of
teachers in which learning i s based upon doing.
6.
To provide a scheme o f teacher induction in which
there i s adequate and competent supervision at the
time o f induction.
To provide a try-out period in which i t can be deter­
mined whether the beginning teacher posseses the
q u a lifica tio n s required of a good teacher.
7.
8.
To subsidize prom:sing students who wish to continue
th eir professional education by doing part-time
graduate work.
9. To induct competent beginning teachers into a given
school system in which permanent appointment w ill be
received i f the interneship i s completed s a tis fa c to r ily
lOi To give employment to unemployed home town teachers.
II. To make i t p o ssib le for a lo ca l school system to have
good substitute help readily available within the
school system,
12. To temporarily replace regular teachers who are granted
sabbatical leave,
13* To provide trained assistan ce to regular classroom
teachers who have a heavy load.
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
267
l k t
To meet the professional ob ligation of each community
to help some beginning teachers get th e ir sta rt in
teaching.'
«4
®
E sse n tia l
Objective or p rin cip le
H
0
1 2
t
«rl
a
®
P
p tt:
00
p p :
I
Additional functions (please rate these a lso ):
Section 2 .
Intem eshin.
'
Conditions Which are Basic in Defining
15.
Basic courses in p rofessional education, including
student teaching, should be completed prior to
entrance into interneship.
16.
During the period o f interneship the interne should
engage in the large v a riety o f a c t iv it ie s in which
a regular teacher engages.
The period of Interneship should he at le a st a year
in length.
17.
IS.
19.
.
The interneship should he in a school situ ation
approximating as c lo s e ly as p ossib le the type of
school situ a tio n in which the interne w ill prohahly
receive permanent appointment.
The interne should he responsible prim arily and
d ir e c tly to the lo c a l school administrator.
20
Interneship should he considered a part o f the b asic
preparation and training o f th e beginning teacher.
21.
The interneship plan should include a cooperating
teacher-training in s titu tio n in which internes carry
on correlated gjad'iate work during th eir period of
interneship.
Interneship should he a standard program sim ilar in
organisation to medical interneship in which a l l
internes are given rpproxinutely the same experiences.
.
22
Additional p rin cip les (please rate these p rin cip les a lso ):
«
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
p
®
p
268
P rin cip le
*3
<*W
a§
a
H
O * » *
iH !• S
Qi :•
t
«art ;♦ t 4J ♦
0 ! SS 1
: **»•*> 1
Section 2, P rin cip les Concerned with S p ecific A c tiv itie s
Carried On By Internes.1
23. ’ Observation o f teaching o f many d ifferen t types and
at d ifferen t grade le v e ls should be a d e fin ite and
planned part o f the interneship program.
24. P articip ation in the extra-curricular program o f the
school should be considered an e sse n tia l part o f
interneship.
25. P articip ation in a wide variety of adm inistrative
tasks Should be a part of the program o f interneship
so that the interne may become fam iliar with adminis­
tr a tiv e problems and procedures.
26. Internes should become acquainted with the d u ties of
sp ecia lized members o f the school s ta f f (school
clerk , school nurse, counselor, v is it in g teacher, etc;)
by a s s is tin g these persons at some time during the
period o f interneship.
27.
28.
Internes should be expected to become acquainted with
the lo c a l community, i t s people, educational agen cies,*
organizations and in d u stries, and should p articip ate
in c iv ic a ffa ir s .
Internes should be expected to be a ctiv e members o f
professional teachers organizations.
Internes should be expected to keep informed of
5
educational developments through professional reading :
both in general education and in f ie ld s in which they •
are p articu la rly in terested .
30. P articip ation in some research problem connected with
the in tern ets work should be included in the program
o f interneship in order to fo ster the s p ir it of
experimentation.
31. Those responsible fo r the program o f interneship
should encourage internes to p articip ate in cu ltu ral,
so c ia l, and re lig io u s a c t iv it ie s leading to personal
enrichment.
Additional p rin cip les (please rate these p rin cip les a lso ):
29.
1 These p rin cip les supplement the 4th and 16th p rin cip les
previously lis t e d .
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269
Principle
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Section V. Administering the Interneship Program.
(P rinciples re la tin g to the selectio n of in tern es, con­
tra c tu a l arrangements, provision fo r supervision, policy
of placement and follow-up, e tc .)
32. Those responsible fo r Interneship programs qhould
make an e ffo rt to activ e ly re c ru it the most able
graduating seniors in teacher tra in in g in s titu tio n s
fo r appointment as in tern es.
33. In selectin g in te rn es, as much pertin en t information
as possible, should be obtained concerning app lican ts,
and appointments made a f te r considering a l l relevant
information.
34. Those chosen "cooperating teachers '1 should be selected
because they a re best q u alified to a id the beginning
teacher in h is induction into teaching . 2
35. There should be a d e fin ite contractual agreement
‘ between the school system and the in tern e.
36. The in tern e should receive some compensation for h is
services. 3
36a. The advantages of in -serv ice tra in in g and
experience in a school system conducive to
professional growth should be considered p a rt
of the compensation given the in tern e fo r hie
services.
36b. The in te rn e should receive su ffic ie n t remunera­
tio n to cover minimum liv in g expenses a t le a s t.
37* Provision should be made for the termination o f an
Interneship appointment whenever i t seems desirable
from the standpoint o f either party that interneship
by terminated.
32, One or more members of the s ta f f of a teacher^
tra in in g in s titu tio n cooperating in the interneship !
program should have d e fin ite re s p o n s ib ilitie s in
*
connection w ith the supervision of in tern es.
.
t
39. Supervisory a c tiv itie s in connection with Interneship •
I
should be coordinated by the superintendent of schools*
I
o r by some one person desl&iated by him.
1
Ho. There should be constant evaluation of the progress
:
and growth of each in tern e with records kept o f th is *
progress and growth.
:
Hi. The success o f in tern es in subsequent p ositions
following the period of interneship should be care­
f u lly checked as one means of appraising the in te ra e ship program.
2 The term "cooperating teacher" designates a teacher to whom the
interne i s assigned to observe or to actively assist*
3 Please rate 36 , 36a* and 36b as separate principles, They are
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
270
m
P rinciple
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C riticism s and suggestions rela tin g to the interneship
program should be s o lic ite d from in ternes, cooperating
teachers, and supervisors in order to appraise and
improve the program of interneship.
^3. Those responsible for the program of interneship
should a s s is t the successful interne in obtaining
employment eith er in the system in which he i s an
interne or in some other system.
Those responsible for the program of interneship
should maintain contact with the interne a fter h is
period o f interneship has been completed offerin g
th eir assistan ce when th eir services may be h elp fu l.
Additional p rin cip les (please rate these p rin cip les a lso ):
Section 5., Miscellaneous P rin cip les Relating to Interneship:
•
•
•
^6. Internes should be considered as regular members of
j
the school s ta f f on the same footing as other teachers)
as far as s t a f f , p u p il, and community relationship s
*
are concerned.
*
^7. The major c riterio n for selectin g a c t iv it ie s to be
•
incorporated into interneship programs should be
.
th eir value in developing teaching competence.
•
^8. Kinds o f experiences and rate of induction should be
determined by the a b ility , background, and needs o f
each individual interne.
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^2.
^5. The development of desirable personal and so cia l
tr a its should be emphasized as part o f the program
o f interneship.
•
•
•
•
•
•
*
j
*
^9. The length of the period o f interneship should be
;
contingent upon the progress made by the individual
;
interne and the in tern e’ s proficiency rather than
:
upon an arbitrary time allotment.
•
50, The successful completion o f interneship should be
!
p rerequisite to c e r tific a tio n .
s
51. Graduate credit should be given by teacher training
!
in stitu tio n s for the. successful completion o f interne-*
ship thus recognizing the professional growth achieved*
by th is tyne of teacher t^vioinr.
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Interneship should he so organized and administered
th a t the hest in te re s ts of the pupils are protected
and fu rthered.
53 An in tern e should never he employed to replace an
experienced and more expensive teacher; such a
p ra c tic e should he condemned as exploiting the internB.
Additional p rin cip le s (please ra te these p rin cip le s a lso ):
52.
Any comments you care to make would he very much appreciated:
'"'Turne
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272
AQUESTIONNAIRE TO BE FILLED IN 3Y FORMER INTERNES, APPRENTICE
TEACHERS, AND FIFTH-YEAR STUDENT TEACHERS
D ir e c tio n s: Your answers to th e fo llo w in g q u estio n s a r e req u ested . P le a se he
s p e c if i c . When you have com pleted t h i 3 q u estio n form, m ail i t in th e en clo sed
stamped envelope to Howard R. Jon es, Department o f E ducation, Y ale U n iv e r sity .
Q uestion 1. What were th e maior advantages and b e n e f it s you gained from b ein g
an a p p ren tice tea ch er, an in te r n e , o r a f i f t h year stud en t teacher?
•t
Q uestion 2 . In your o p in io n , what were th e roa.ior drawbacks or w eaknesses o f
th e program o f a p p ren tice tea ch in g , in te r n e s h ip . or f if t h - y e a r student tea ch in g
in which you p a r t ic ip a t e d ?
Q uestion
What su g g estio n s would you make fo r improving th e in te r n e s h ip .
a p p ren tice tea ch in g , or f if t h - y e a r student tea ch in g program?
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
273
Question U.
interneship.
in which you
e sse n tia l i s
education o f
What i s your general appraisal of the worth of the type of
apprentice tra in in g, or fifth -y e a r student teaching program
participated? (Do i t s m erits outweigh i t s demerits? How
such a training and induction procedure in the professional
teachers?)
Name:____________________________________ _
School or school system in which you '-ere an apprentice, interne, or f if t h
year student t e
a
c
h
e
r
; _______________________________________
School system in which you are now employed;_________________________
,
I f you are not teaching because of marriage, acceptance of a b etter p osition
in some other type of work, s t c . , please note that here:
Thank you very much for replying to these questions.
w ill be considered co n fid en tial.
Your r e p lie s . of course,
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274
QUESTIONNAIRE TO BE FILLED IN BY COOPERATING TEACHERS,
SUPERVISING TEACHERS, AND MASTER TEACHERS
D irection s: Your answers to the following questions are requested. Please be
s p e c ific . When you have completed th is question form, mail i t in the enclosed
stamped envelope to Howard R. Jones, Department o f Education, Yale U niversity.
Question 1. What do you consider to be the major accomplishments o f your
program of interneship. apprentice teaching, or fifth -y e a r student teaching?
What important functions does i t actu ally f u l f i l l ?
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Question 52. In your opinion, what are the major drawbacks or weaknesses of
the apprentice teaching, interneship. Or fifth -y ea r student teaohing plan in
which you are participating or have participated?
Question 53. What b e n e fits . i f any, have you personally derived in the way of
professional advancement and improved teacher ^competency as a r e s u lt of the
part you have played in the apprentice teaching, interne, .or fifth -y ea r student
teaching program?
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
275
Question 4. What suggestions would you make for improving the interneship.
apprentice teaching, or fifth -y e a r ~student teaching program?
Question 5. What i s your general appraisal of the worth o f the type of
interneship, apprentice tra in in g. or fifth~year student teaching program
in which you are participating or in which you did participate? ( D o i t s
merits outweigh i t s demerits? How esse n tia l is such a training and induction
procedure in the professional education of teachers?)
Name
School
Thank you very much for replying tQ .these questions, 'Your r e p lie s , of ccwrfre .
w ill be considered con fid en tial.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX E
LIST OF EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION WHO RATED
QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS DEALING WITH PRINCIPLES OF INTERNESHIP
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APPENDIX E
LIST OT EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION TOO RATED
QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS DEALING WITH PRINCIPLES OP INTERNESHIP
W. D. Airaentrout, Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colorado.
Prank B. Baker, State Teachers College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
W illard W. Beatty, D irector o f Indian Education, Washington, D. C.
Earl C. Bowman, Director o f Student Teaching, DePauw University, Greencastle,
Indiana.
S. U. Brownell, Department o f Education, Tale U niversity, New Haven,
Connecticut.
Doak S. Campbell, D ivision o f Surveys and P ield Studies, George Peabody
C ollege, N ash ville, Tennessee.
W. W. Charters, Bureau o f Educational Research, Ohio State U niversity,
Columbus, Ohio.
Sheldon E. Davis, State Normal School, Dillon,Montana.
Harl R. Douglass, D ivision o f Education, University o f North Carolina,
Chapel H ill, North Carolina
P in is E. EngLeman, State Teachers College, New Haven, Connecticut.
E. S. Evenden, Teachers College, Columbia U niversity, New York City.
Samuel E verett, Civic Education P roject, Educational P o lic ie s Commission,
Washington, D. C.
J , G. Flowers, State Teachers College, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania.
Clyde M. H ill, Department o f Education, Tale U niversity, New Haven,
Connecticut.
Henry W. Holmes, Graduate School o f Education, Harvard U niversity,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.
W. E. Lessenger, College o f Education, Wayne U hiversity, D etroit, Michigan.
W. H. Morton, Teachers College, U niversity of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Alonzo Myers, New York U niversity, New York City.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Louis A. Pechstein, Teachers College, University o f Cincinnati, Cincinnati,
Ohio. (C. W. Johnson, Teachers College, University o f Cincinnati,
collab orator).
Wesley E, Peik, College o f Education, University o f Minnesota, Minneapolis,
Minnesota.
V. Carson Byan, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement o f Teaching, New
York City.
C. V. Sanford, U niversity o f I llin o is , Urbana, I llin o is .
Baleigh Schorling, University o f Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Payson Smith, School o f Education, Harvard U niversity, Cambridge, Massa­
ch u setts.
Trank E. Spaulding, S terlin g Professor o f Education, Soeritus, Tale
U niversity, 2901 H ill Drive, Eagle Hock, Los Angeles, C alifornia.
Florence Stratemeyer, Teachers College, Columbia U niversity, New York City.
Paul W. Terry, University o f Alabama, U niversity, Alabama.
Vivian T. Thayer, Ethical Culture Schools, 33 Central Park West, New York
City.
Frank W. Thomas, Fresno State College, Fresno, California.
Carleton Washbume, Superintendent o f Schools, Winnetka, I lli n o is .
(Frances C. Murray, Dean, Graduate Teachers College, Winnetka,
collab orator).
Eoscoe L. West, Trenton State Teachers College, Trenton, New Jersey.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(JF
APPENDIX F
COMPLETE LIST OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS AND TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS
COOPERATING IN THIS STUDY
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS AND DIRECTORS OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAMS
COOPERATING IN THIS STUDY
Public School Systems Cooperating in the Study:
B raintree, Massachusetts
Mr. C. Edward Fisher, Superintendent of Schools
Grosse Pointe, Michigan
Mr. John R. Barnes, D irector of In stru ctio n
Kansas C ity, Kansas
Mr. F. L. Schlagle, Superintendent of Schools
Mount Lebanon, Pennsylvania
Mr. H. V. Herlinger
Oklahoma C ity, Oklahoma
Miss F lo re tte McNeise, D irector of Secondary Education
Omaha, Nebraska
Mr. Donald E. Tope, D irector, S ta tis tic s and Guidance, Omaha
Public Schools
Roslyn, New York
Mr. F. R. Wegner, Superintendent o f Schools
P rivate Schools Cooperating in the Study:
Beaver Country Day School, Chestnut H ill, Massachusetts
Mr. Eugene R. Smith, Headmaster
The Friends’ Schools:
Mrs. Edna H. Vansant, Friends’ Council on Education, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania
W illiston Academy, Easthampton, Massachusetts
Mr. A. V. G albraith, Headmaster
Teacher Training In s titu tio n s Cooperating in the Study:
Brown U niversity, Providence, Rhode Island
Dr. G ilbert E. Ca3e, A ssistant Professor of Education
Cooperative School for Teachers, New York City
Dr. Randolph B. Smith
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2 79
Graduate Teachers College, Winnetka, I llin o is
Mrs, Frances C. Murray, Dean
New York U niversity, School of Education, New York C ity
Dr. Glenn S. Thompson, A ssistant Professor of Education
Northwestern U niversity, School of Education, Evanston, I llin o is
Dr. William G. Brink
Teachers College, Columbia U niversity, New York City
Dr. Arthur V. Linden
U niversity of C incinnati, Teachers College, C incinnati, Ohio
Dr. C. W. Johnson, D irector o f Student Teaching
Miss Mary G. Waite, Associate Professor of Education
U niversity of I llin o is , Urbana, I llin o is
Dr. C. W. Sanford, P rin c ip a l, U niversity High School
U niversity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Dr. Chester G. Stocker, D irector of Student Teaching
Wayne U niversity
Miss E. M. Dawner, A ssistant Professor of Education
Western Maryland College, VJestminster, Maryland
Dr. A. M. Isanogle, Dean, School o f Education
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX G
TABLE XXIX
IMPORTANCE OF INTErEESKIP GQ.J.S .USTD PRL jCIPLSS
AS HATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE XXJX
IMPORTANCE OF EfTEHNESHIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
RATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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P e rc e n ta g e of e x p e r t s
ra tin g th is p r i n c i p l e
e ith e r as e s s e n t i a l o r
. . a.? k iJg h ly ..d .§ s.iisb .lre;. ..
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Not p a r t i c u l a r l y
im p o r ta n t
Highly d e s ir a b le
not e s s e n t i a l
O b je c tiv e o r p r i n c i p l e
An e s s e n t i a l
p rin c ip le
but
hS
S e c ti o n 1 . F u n c tio n s o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip .
I t s h o u ld be a m ajo r
fu n c tio n o f in te rn e s h ip :
1
2
.
.
3.
4.
5.
To s e c u r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f
th e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e i n t h e
p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f
te a c h e rs .
26
3
To p e rm it g r a d u a l in d u c t io n
i n t o th e work o f t e a c h in g .
2 0
7
To i n s u r e t h a t th e b e g in n in g
te a c h e r se c u re s h is f i r s t
y e a r ’ s e x p e rie n c e i n a s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n co n d u c iv e to p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l g ro w th .
26
5
To make p o s s i b l e o r i e n t a t i o n
and e x p e r ie n c e i n many
d i f f e r e n t p h ases o f school
work b e f o r e r e q u i r i n g t h e
b e g in n in g t e a c h e r to s p e c i a l ­
i z e i n t e a c h in g c e r t a i n
s u b j e c t s o r t e a c h in g a t
c e r t a i n g ra d e l e v e l s .
8
To p r o v id e a program o f p r o ­
f e s s io n a l p re p a ra tio n of
t e a c h e r s i n w hich l e a r n i n g i s
b a s e d upon d o in g .
2 2
1 2
5
1 0 0
3
1
87
1 0 0
7
2
2
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TABLE XXIX (continued)
BffiCHTANCE OF IKTESMESHIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
AS RATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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To p ro v id e a scheme o f t e a c h e r
i n d u c t io n i n w h ich t h e r e i s
a d e q u a te and co m p eten t s u p e r ­
v i s i o n a t t h e tim e o f in d u c ­
tio n .
25
96
To p r o v id e a t r y - o u t p e r io d
i n w hich i t can be d e te rm in e d
w h e th e r t h e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r
p o s s e s s e s th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
r e q u ir e d o f a good t e a c h e r .
17
84
To s u b s id i z e p ro m is in g
s tu d e n t s who w ish t o c o n tin u e
t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n
by d o in g p a r t - t i m e g r a d u a te
w ork.
To in d u c t co m petent b e g in n in g
t e a c h e r s i n t o a g iv e n s c h o o l
sy stem i n w hich perm an en t a p ­
p o in tm e n t w i l l b e r e c e iv e d i f
th e i n t e r n e s h i p i s co m pleted
s a tis fa c to rily .
16
17
29
11
58
To g iv e employment t o unem­
p lo y ed hom e-tow n t e a c h e r s .
To make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a
l o c a l s c h o o l sy ste m t o have
good s u b s t i t u t e h e lp r e a d i l y
a v a i l a b l e w ith in t h e s c h o o l
sy ste m .
29
14
15
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282
TABLE XXIX (continued)
1 2.
13.
14.
To t e m p o r a r il y r e p l a c e
r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s who a r e
g r a n te d s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e .
To p r o v id e t r a i n e d a s s i s t a n c e
t o r e g u l a r c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s
who have a heavy lo a d .
To m eet th e p r o f e s s i o n a l
o b l i g a t i o n o f each comm unity
t o h e lp some b e g in n in g
te a c h e rs g e t t h e i r s t a r t in
t e a c h in g .
3
P e rc e n ta g e of e v e r t s
ra tin g th is p r i n c i p l e
e ith e r as e s s e n t i a l o r
as highly d e s i r a b l e
O m is s io n
D e trim e n ta l
Not
D e s ira b le
E s s e n tia l
O b je c tiv e op p r i n c i p l e
i m p o r ta n t
IMPORTANCE OF INTERNESHIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
AS RATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
18
1 1
2
0
1
1 2
17
1
3
1 2
1 0
3
3
48
2
84
S e c ti o n 2 . C o n d itio n s <»hich a r e
b a s ic in D e fin in g I n t e r n e s h i n .
1 5.
16.
B a s ic c o u rs e s i n p r o f e s s io n a l
e d u c a tio n , i n c lu d in g s tu d e n t
t e a c h in g , sh o u ld be co m p leted
p r i o r t o e n tr a n c e i n t o i n ­
te rn e s h ip .
2 1
5
D urin g th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip th e i n t e r n e sh o u ld
engage i n t h e l a r g e v a r i e t y
o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich a
r e g u la r te a c h e r engages.
27
4
3
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 0 0
283
TABLE XXIX ( c o n tin u e d )
O b je c tiv e o r p r i n c i p l e
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19.
20.
21.
The p e rio d o f i n t e r n e s h i p
s h o u ld b e a t l e a s t a y e a r
in le n g th .
The i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld be
i n a sc h o o l s i t u a t i o n a p ­
p r o x im a tin g a s c l o s e l y a s
p o s s i b l e t h e ty p e o f s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n i n w h ich th e i n ­
te r n e 7/111 prob ab ly r e c e i v e
perm anent a p p o in tm e n t.
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The i n t e r n e s h o u ld b e r e ­
s p o n s ib l e p r i m a r i l y and
d i r e c tl y to th e lo c a l sch o o l
a d m in is tra to r.
14
8
I n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld b e con­
s id e re d a p a r t of th e b a s ic
p r e p a r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f
th e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r .
2 2
9
The i n t e r n e s h i p p la n sh o u ld
in c lu d e a c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h ­
e r - t r a in i n g i n s t i t u t i o n in
w hich i n t e r n e s c a r r y on
c o r r e l a t e d g r a d u a te work
d u r in g t h e i r p e r io d o f i n ­
te rn e s h ip .
15
1 2
5
D e trim e n ta l
im p o r ta n t
BEPOKHUM'CE Oi’ IAIKRNiSKIP GOALS AKD F&INCXEXJiS
AS RATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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TABLE XXIX (c o n tin u e d )
IMPORTANCE OF INTZRIMSI1IP 0CAL3 AND PRINCIPLES
AS RATED 3Y THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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s ta n d a r d pro g ram s i m i l a r in
o r g a n i s a t i o n to m e d ic a l i n ­
t e r n e s h i p i n w hich a l l i n ­
t e r n e s a r e g iv e n a p p r o x i­
m a te ly th e same e x p e r i e n c e s .
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S e c t io n _3. P r i n c i p l e s C oncerned
w lth S p e c i f i c A c t i v i t i e s C a r r ie d
on by I n t e r n e s .
20.
2 4.
25.
O b s e r v a tio n o f t e a c h in g o f
many d i f f e r e n t ty p e s and a t
d i f f e r e n t g ra d e l e v e l s sh o u ld
be a d e f i n i t e and p la n n e d
p a rt o f th e in te rn e s h ip
p ro g ra m .
14
P a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e e x t r a ­
c u r r i c u l a r program o f th e
s c h o o l sh o u ld be c o n s id e r e d
an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f in te r n e ­
s h ip .
28
P a r t i c i p a t i o n in a w ide
v a r ie ty o f a d m in is tra tiv e
t a s k s sh o u ld be a p a r t o f
th e program o f I n te r n e s h in
so t h a t th e i n t e r n e may be­
come f a m i l i a r w ith a d m in is ­
t r a t i v e p ro b lem s and p r o ­
c e d u re s.
10
11
80
100
14
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77
TABLE XXIX (c o n tin u e d )
EJP0RTANC3 OF INTERNSHIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
AS RATED BY TIIIRTY-OKE EXPERTS III TEACIER EDUCATION
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27 .
28.
29.
I n t e r n e s sh o u ld become a c ­
q u a in te d w ith th e d u t i e s o f
s p e c i a l i z e d members o f th e
sch o o l s t a f f (sc h o o l c le r k ,
s c h o o l n u r s e , c o u n s e lo r ,
v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r , e t c . ) by
a s s i s t i n g t h e s e p e rs o n s a t
some tim e d u r in g th e p e rio d
o f in te rn e s h ip .
1 1
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld be e x p e c te d
t o become a c q u a in te d w ith
th e l o c a l com m unity, i t s
p e o p le , e d u c a t io n a l a g e n c i e s ,
o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d u s t r i e s ,
and sh o u ld p a r t i c i p a t e in
c iv ic a f f a i r s .
2
?
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld be e x p e c te d
t o be a c t i v e members o f p r o ­
fe s s io n a l te a c h e rs ’ o r­
g a n iz a tio n s .
9
I n te r n e s s h o u ld be e x p e c te d
to k een inform ed o f ed u o a . t i o n a l d e v e lo p m e n ts th ro u g h
p r o f e s s i o n a l re a d in g b o th in
g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n and in
f i e l d s in w hich th e y a r e
p a r t ic u la r l y i n t e r e a t fid .
26
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TABLE XXIX (continued)
IMPORTANCE OF IIJTERNESEIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
AS RATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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31.
P a r t i c i p a t i o n in some r e ­
s e a r c h problem c o n n e c te d
w ith th e i n t e r n e ’ s work
sh o u ld be in c lu d e d in th e
program o f i n t e r n e s h i p in
o r d e r to f o s t e r th e s p i r i t
o f e x p e r im e n ta tio n .
Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e
program o f i n t e r n e s h i p
sh o u ld e n c o u ra g e i n t e r n e s
t o p a r t i c i p a t e in c u l t u r a l ,
s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s
a c t i v i t i e s le a d in g to p e r ­
s o n a l e n ric h m e n t.
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L e c tio n 4 . A d m in is te r in g th e
I n t e r n e s h i p P ro g ram .
( P rin c ip le s
r e l a t i n g to t h e s e l e c t i o n o f in ­
t e r n e s , c o n t r a c t u a l a rra n g e m e n ts ,
p r o v is i o n f o r s u p e r v i s io n , p o l ic y
o f p lacem en t and f o llo w - u p , e t c . )
32.
Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r n e
s h ip program s sh o u ld make an
e f f o r t to a c tiv e ly r e c r u it
th e m ost a b le g r a d u a tin g
s e n i o r s in t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r a p p o in tm e n t
as in te rn e s .
4
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77
TABLE XXIX (continued)
IMPORTANCE OF INTSHFLSfll? GOALS AND PRLNCIPLE3
AS RATED BY TRIP-TY-CNE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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35.
36.
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In s e l e c t i n g i n t e r n e s , a s
much p e r t i n e n t in f o r m a tio n
a s p o s s ib l e sh o u ld be ob­
t a i n e d c o n c e r n in g a p p l i c a n t s ,
and a p p o in tm e n ts made a f t e r
c o n s id e r in g a l l r e l e v a n t i n ­
f o rm a tio n .
25
4
Those c h o sen " c o o p e r a tin g
t e a c h e r s " sh o u ld be s e l e c t e d
b e c a u se th e y a r e b e s t q u a l i ­
f ie d t o a id th e b e g in n in g
t e a c h e r in h i s in d u c tio n
i n to te a c h ing.-'-
50
1
T h ere sh o u ld be a d e f i n i t e
c o n t r a c t u a l a g re e m e n t b e­
tw een th e s c h o o l system and
th e i n t e r n e .
20
6
3
The i n t e r n e sh o u ld r e c e iv e
some c o m p e n sa tio n f o r h i s
s e rv ic e s .
17
6
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The a d v a n ta g e s o f i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and
e x p e rie n c e in a s c h o o l
system c o n d u c iv e t o
p r o f e s s i o n a l gro w th
sh o u ld be c o n s id e r e d
p a r t o f t h e com pensa1 The term " c o o p e r a tin g t e a h e r" d e s ig n a t e s a t e a c h e r to whom th e
i n t e r n e i s a s s ig n e d to o b se rv e o r to a c t i v e l y a s s i s t .
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288
TABIE XXIX (c o n tin u e d )
IMPORTANCE OF INTERME311IP GOALo AMD PRIM JIPI23
AS RATED BY THIRTY-ONE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
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c e iv e s u f f i c i e n t
re m u n e ra tio n t o c o v e r
minpnum l i v i n g e x p e n se s
at le a s t.
15
1 0
P r o v is i o n sh o u ld be made f o r
th e t e r m in a ti o n o f an i n ­
t e r n e s h i p a p p o in tm e n t when­
e v e r i t seem s d e s i r a b l e from
t h e s ta n d p o in t o f e i t h e r
p a r t y t h a t i n t e r n e s h i p be
t e r m in a te d .
24
A
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One o r more members o f th e
s ta f f o f a te a c h e r-tra in in g
i n s t i t u t i o n c o o p e r a tin g in
t h e i n t e r n e s h i p program
sh o u ld have d e f i n i t e r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in c o n n e c tio n
w ith th e s u p e r v i s io n o f
in te rn e s .
22
8
S u p e r v is o r y a c t i v i t i e s in
c o n n e c tio n w ith i n t e r n e s h i p
s h o u ld be c o o r d in a te d by th e
s u p e r i n te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls o r
by some one p e rs o n d e s ig n a te d
by him .
2 1
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t i o n g iv e n th e i n t e r n e
f o r h is c e rv ic e s .
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IMPORTANCE OP INTERNESIIIP GOALS AKB PRINCIPLES
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T h e re sh o u ld be c o n s ta n t
e v a l u a t i o n o f th e p r o g r e s s
and gro\vth o f each i n t e r n e
w ith r e c o r d s k e p t o f t h i s
p r o g r e s s and g ro w th .
27
The s u c c e s s o f i n t e r n e s in
s u b s e q u e n t p o s i t i o n s f o llo w ­
in g th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip sh o u ld be c a r e f u lly ch eck ed a s one m eans o f
a p p ra is in g th e in te rn e s h ip
p ro g ram .
20
11
100
C r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s tio n s
r e l a t i n g to th e i n t e r n e s h i p
program s h o u ld be s o l i c i t e d
from i n t e r n e s , c o o p e r a tin g
t e a c h e r s , and s u p e r v i s o r s in
o r d e r to a p p r a i s e and im­
p ro v e th e program o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip .
,
23
8
100
T hose r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e
program o f i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld
a s B i s t th e s u c c e s s f u l i n ­
t e r n e in o b t a i n in g employment
e i t h e r in t h e sy ste m in w hich
he i s an i n t e r n e o r i n some
o t h e r sv ste m .
14
17
100
97
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290
TABLE XXIX (c o n tin u e d )
IMPORTANCE CP HTTSSI-ISSEIP CrOAL3 AND PRINCIPLES
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program o f i n t e r n e s h i p
sh o u ld m a in ta in c o n ta c t w ith
th e i n t e r n e a f t e r h i s p e r io d
o f i n t e r n e s h i p h a s been com­
p le te d o f f e r in g t h e i r
a s s i s t a n c e when t h e i r s e r ­
v i c e s may be h e l p f u l .
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S e c ti o n _5. M is c e lla n e o u s P r i n ­
c i p l e s R e l a ti n g t o I n t e r n e s h i p .
45.
46.
47.
The developm ent o f d e s i r a b l e
p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a i t s
sh o u ld be em phasized a s p a r t
o f th e program o f i n t e r n e ­
s h ip .
26
I n t e r n e s sh o u ld be c o n s id e r e d
a s r e g u l a r members o f th e
s c h o o l s t a f f on t h e same
f o o ti n g a s o t h e r t e a c h e r s
a s f a r a s s t a f f , p u p i l, and
community r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e
c o n c e rn e d .
21
97
The m a jo r c r i t e r i o n f o r
s e l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o be
in c o r p o r a te d i n to i n t e r n e ­
s h ip program s sh o u ld be t h e i r
v a lu e in d e v e lo p in g t e a c h in g
co m p eten ce.
25
94
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TABLE XXIX (continued)
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49.
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52.
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IMPORTANCE OF INTERNESHIP GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
AS RATED BY THIRTY-ORE EXPERTS IN TEACHER EDUCATION
H in d s o f e x p e rie n c e and r a t e
o f in d u c t io n should be
d e te rm in e d by th e a b i l i t y ,
b a c k g ro u n d , and n eed s o f
e a ch i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n e .
25
The le n g th o f th e p e r io d o f
i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be co n ­
t i n g e n t upon th e p r o g r e s s
made by th e i n d i v i d u a l i n ­
t e r n e and th e i n t e r n e ’ s p ro ­
f i c i e n c y r a t h e r th a n upon an
a r b i t r a r y tim e a l l o t m e n t .
13
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The s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f
i n t e r n e s h i p sh o u ld be p r e ­
r e q u i s i t e to c e r t i f i c a t i o n .
14
1 2
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g iv e n by t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
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th u s r e c o g n iz in g th e p r o ­
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t h i s ty p e o f t e a c h e r t r a i n in g ,
1 0
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p u p i l s a r e p r o te c te d and
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APPENDIX H
TABLES LISTING- IXAJOR ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS OF IMTERNalSKIP
TOGETHER WITH SUGGESTIONS FOP. IlJHtOVElIENT HADE BY
FORMER INTERNES iJMD COOPERATING TEACHERS
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABIE XXX
MAJOR ADVANTAGES OR BENEFITS OF INTERNESHIP AS LISTED BY 102 FORMER INTERNES
A d v a n ta g e
G ra d u a l i n d u c t io n i n t o t e a c h i n g .
t_
6 8
S u p e r v is io n by a n e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r .
45
A p p l i c a t io n o f th e o r y t o p r a c t i c e .
31
A c q u a in ta n c e w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s and
w ith a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s
in w h ich t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e .
28
O p p o r tu n ity t o know and o b s e rv e c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s a g e s and
a b ilitie s .
23
O p p o r tu n ity t o o b s e rv e w ork in d i f f e r e n t s u b je c t f i e l d s .
18
C o n fid e n c e i n te a c h in g a b i l i t y d e v e lo p e d .
15
O b s e r v a tio n o f t e a c h in g o f e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r s .
15
S tim u la tin g p r o f e s s io n a l c o n ta c ts .
13
S u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f i n t e r n e s h i p made i t e a s i e r t o
se cu re a p o s itio n .
1 1
E x p e rie n c e i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p la n n in g .
10
O p p o r tu n ity t o e a r n g r a d u a te c r e d i t .
10
O p p o r tu n ity t o e x p e rim e n t w ith c la s s ro o m p r o c e d u r e s ,
9
A c q u a in ta n c e w ith comm unity c o n d i t i o n s .
9
F i r s t t e a c h i n g done in a good s y s te m .
9
A b i l i t y t o h a n d le d i s c i p l i n e o r p ro b le m s.
9
A c q u a in ta n c e w ith s c h o o l p ro b le m s (no p a r t i c u l a r p ro b le m s
s p e c ifie d )
9
Some s a l a r y r e q u i r e d w h ile g a in in g e x p e r ie n c e .
8
A c q u a in ta n c e w ith c u r r ic u lu m m a t e r i a l s i n s p e c i a l f i e l d o f
te a c h in g .
8
E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y w ork.
8
D evelopm ent o f p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a t io n .
5
A t r y - o u t, p ro b a tio n a ry p e rio d .
5
A id g iv e n c h i l d r e n who need ed s p e c i a l h e l p .
4
O p p o r tu n ity f o r o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h .
3
A id from s e m in a r a tt e n d e d by i n t e r n e s .
2
U n c la ss ifie d .
2
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE XXXI
MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF INTERNESHIP AS LISTED
BY SIXTY-ONE COOPERATING TEACHERS
A d vantage
_f
G ra d u a l in d u c t io n i n t o t e a c h i n g .
35
A c q u a in ta n c e w ith a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s
and w ith a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s in w hich t e a c h e r s
p a r t ic i p a t e .
23
A p p l i c a t io n o f th e o r y t o p r a c t i c e .
21
S u p e r v is io n by a n e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r .
20
A tr y - o u t o r p ro b a tio n a ry p e rio d .
15
D e v e lo p s i n t e r n e ’ s c o n fid e n c e in h i s t e a c h in g a b i l i t y .
11
A c q u a in ta n c e w ith community c o n d i t i o n s .
10
O p p o r tu n ity f o r i n te r n e t o o b s e rv e e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r s .
8
I n t e r n e s g a in a f e e l i n g o f b e lo n g in g t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n .
7
I n t e r n e s l e a r n how t o g e t a lo n g w ith o t h e r t e a c h e r s .
6
O p p o r tu n ity t o know and o b s e rv e c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s a g e s
and a b i l i t i e s .
6
A b i l i t y t o h a n d le know ledge o f d i s c i p l i n a r y p ro b le m s .
5
I n t e r n e s become a c q u a in te d w ith c u r r ic u lu m m a t e r i a l s in
t h e i r s p e c ia l f ie ld .
5
I n t e r n e s have a n o p p o r tu n i ty t o e x p e rim e n t w ith c la s s ro o m
p ro ce d u re s.
4
S c h o o l d i s t r i c t s h i r i n g i n t e r n e s g e t a n e x p e rie n c e d t e a c h e r
f o r a b e g in n e r ’ s s a l a r y .
3
A c q u a in ta n c e w i t h sch o c/l problem s (no p a r t i c u l a r p ro b lem s
s p e c ifie d )
2
O p p o r tu n ity t o w ork to w a rd m a s t e r ’ s d e g r e e .
2
C o r r e l a t i o n o f o t h e r s u b j e c t f i e l d s w i t h th e i n t e r n e ’ s
m a jo r acad em ic f i e l d .
1
O p p o r tu n ity f o r o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h .
1
U n c la ss ifie d .
2
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABIE XXXII
DRAWBACKS OF THE INTERNESHIP PROGRAM AS LISTED BY 102 FORMER INTERNES
Drawback
_f
'V & r y poor q u a l i t y o f h e lp from c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r .
34
I n te r n e i s n o t a llo w e d t o do enough t e a c h in g
17
on h i s own.
C o u rse s a t t h e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
t a k e to o much tim e and e n e rg y .
1 2
No s a l a r y .
12
D u tie s o f i n t e r n e n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .
11
No know ledge g a in e d o f t h e o t h e r d e p a r tm e n ts in t h e
s c h o o l.
7
Too much r o u t i n e o f f i c e w ork.
7
I n t e r n e s h i p program t o o s h o r t .
6
I n te r n e g iv e n c l a s s e s t o te a c h f o r w h ich he was n o t
p re p a re d .
6
M ethod C o u rse i n U n i v e r s i ty d o e s n o t c o r r e l a t e w ith
i n t e r n e s h i p w ork.
5
Program to o lo n g ( i n th e s e c a s e s i t i s one y e a r )
5
P u p i l s have to o l i t t l e
4
re sp e c t fo r in te rn e s .
G iven many u n d e s ir a b le odd jo b s t o d o .
4
Too l i t t l e
4
o b s e r v a t io n b e fo r e t e a c h i n g .
N e rv e -w ra c k in g f o r i n t e r n e — t h e r e a r e so many t o p l e a s e .
3
R a tin g o f i n t e r n e to o s u b j e c t i v e .
3
S c h o o l s u p e r in te n d e n t shows no i n t e r e s t i n program o r
in te r n e s .
2
No t r a i n i n g in d i s c i p l i n a r y m e th o d s.
2
No c o n ta c t w i t h p a r e n t s and com m unity.
2
Some i n t e r n e s ta k e t h e o p p o r tu n i ty t o i n f l u e n c e s u p e r v i s o r
i n t h e i r b e h a l f ( " a p p le p o l i s h i n g " ) .
2
No t r a i n i n g i n h e a l t h e d u c a tio n .
2
S tu d e n ts i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y H igh a r e t o o h i g h ly s e l e c t e d .
2
I n t e r n e s h i p w ould be o f more v a lu e a f t e r a b e g in n in g
t e a c h e r h ad t a u g h t two y e a r s .
1
E x p e c te d t o a t t e n d t o o many o u t s i d e f u n c t i o n s .
1
C u rric u lu m t o o s t a t i c
1
( " h id e - b o u n d " ) .
C la s s e s to o l a r g e .
1
H ard on t h e p u p i l s .
1
U n c la ss ifie d .
2
I n t e r n e s s t a t e d t h e r e w ere no d raw b a ck s.
9
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
TABLE X X X III
DRAWBACKS OF THE INTERNESHIP PROGRAM AS LISTED
BY SIXTY-OUE COOPERATING TEACHERS
Drawback
f.
Too g r e a t a b u rd e n on t h e c o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r — no
a d d i t i o n a l r e m u n e r a tio n , no f r e e t im e .
16
C o o p e ra tin g t e a c h e r s n o t w e l l s e l e c t e d o r t r a i n e d and
g iv e in a d e q u a te h e l p .
15
I n t e r n e s g iv e n c l a s s e s t o te a c h f o r w h ich t h e y a r e n o t
p rep ared .
1 1
Work o f th e c l a s s may s u f f e r b e c a u se o f t e a c h in g o f
in te rn e .
1 0
P o o r and in a d e q u a te p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g .
9
I n t e r n e s n o t g iv e n s u f f i c i e n t r e m u n e r a tio n .
5
C la s s w ork a t th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n
t a k e s to o much tim e and e n e rg y .
5
Lack o f tim e p r o v id e d in c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r ’ s s c h e d u le
f o r work w ith i n t e r n e s and f o r c l a s s p r e p a r a t i o n .
4
I n t e r n e s te n d to copy c o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r i n s t e a d o f
u s in g a v a r i e t y o f m e th o d s.
4
I n t e r n e s h i p p e r i o d to o s h o r t .
4
M ain o f f i c e makes c l e r k s o f i n t e r n e s a b s o r b in g t e a c h in g
tim e .
4
I n t e r n e i s n o t a llo w e d t o do enough t e a c h in g on h i s
3
P a re n ts 1 a ttitu d e
own.
i s u n f a v o r a b le to w a rd i n t e r n e s h i p t e a c h i n g .
3
No c o n ta c t w i t h p a r e n t s and com m unity.
2
P r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s c o u ld b e e a s i l y done
in f o u r y e a r s i n s t e a d o f a d d in g a f i f t h y e a r o f t r a i n i n g .
2
More c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f i n t e r n e s n e e d e d .
1
I n t e r n e s ' s a l a r i e s in c r e a s e t e a c h i n g c o s t s .
1
D u tie s o f i n t e r n e s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .
1
I n t e r n e s r a t e d on s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i n s t e a d o f te a c h in g
a b ility .
1
A d m issio n t o i n t e r n e s h i p o f i n t e r n e s whose n a t i o n a l i t y
m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t u l t i m a t e em ploym ent in th e p r o f e s s i o n .
1
I n t e r n e s g iv e n o n ly a v e ra g e and p o o r s t u d e n t s t o t e a c h
because o f p a r e n ts ' o b je c tio n s .
1
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld u n d e rs ta n d m ore o f t h e p ro b le m s o f e d u c a tio n
(no p a r t i c u l a r p ro b le m s s p e c i f i e d ) .
1
No. o f c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s s t a t i n g t h e r e w e re no d raw b a ck s.
3
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
jJF
297
TABLE XXXIV
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNESHIP PROGRAM MADE BY 102 FORMER INTERNES
S u g g e s tio n f o r Im provem ent
_f
B e tte r s u p e rv is io n .
22
C o u rs e s in e d u c a tio n s h o u ld be l e s s t h e o r e t i c a l and more
p r a c t i c a l a n d c o r r e l a t e d w ith i n t e r n e s h i p w o rk .
2 2
I n t e r n e s h o u ld be a llo w e d m ore r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in t e a c h i n g .
20
D u rin g i n t e r n e s h i p few e r o r no c o u r s e s s h o u ld be
10
ta k e n .
No e r r a n d - b o y ’ s odd j o b s .
7
More o b s e r v a t io n a t d i f f e r e n t g ra d e l e v e l s .
6
P r e - s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n c o u r s e s s h o u ld in c lu d e m ore
o b s e r v a t io n o f t e a c h in g i f i n t e r n e s h i p i s t o be more
m e a n in g fu l.
4
D iv id e th e p e r io d o f i n t e r n e s h i p so t h a t i n t e r n e s a r e a s s ig n e d
a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s .
4
D iv id e t h e p e r i o d o f i n t e r n e s h i p so t h a t i n t e r n e s t e a c h a
h a l f y e a r in t h e i r m a jo r s u b j e c t a n d a h a l f y e a r i n t h e i r
m in o r s u b j e c t .
4
L e ss o f f i c e w o rk .
4
G ive i n t e r n e c l a s s e s in s u b j e c t s in
w h ich he i s p r e p a r e d .
E x p e rie n c e i n m ore t h a n one s c h o o l.
4
3
C r e d it f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p le tio n o f
in te rn e s h ip .
3
More o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t i o n o f
e x tra -c u rric u la ra c t i v i t i e s .
3
Too c lo s e s u p e r v i s io n .
3
More tim e f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r e n c e s w ith c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r .
3
O p p o r tu n ity t o t e a c h a t d i f f e r e n t g ra d e l e v e l s .
3
M ore h e lp w ith d i s c i p l i n e .
3
S u p e r in te n d e n t s h o u ld v i s i t c l a s s e s t a u g h t by t h e i n t e r n e .
2
T hose who s p o n s o r i n t e r n e s h i p s h o u ld assum e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r in te rn e s h ip .
2
S m a lle r c l a s s e s .
2
G uidance i n s e l e c t i n g g r a d u a te c o u r s e s .
2
More c o n ta c t w ith p a r e n t s .
2
U n c l a s s i f i e d ( in c l u d e s n i n e t e e n d i f f e r e n t s u g g e s t i o n s e a c h
l i s t e d but o n c e ).
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 9
29S
TABLE XXXV
SUGGESTIONS ffOB IMPROVEMENT Off INTEHNESHIP PBQGBAM
MADE BY SIXTY-ONE COOPEBATING TEACHERS
Suggestion for Improvement
f
More time fo r guidance work on the part o f the cooperating
teacher.
19
Baring interneship, the interne should take fewer or no courses.
11
More careful sele ctio n of internes.
Cooperating teachers should he more carefu lly selected.
9
8
Compensation for cooperating teachers, eith er cred it,
free tu itio n at the cooperating teacher-training in stitu tio n ,
or a salary increment.
7
Closer contact between the cooperating teacher-training
in s titu tio n and the cooperating teacher.
7
P rofession al education courses should he much more p ractical.
6
More observation in various cla sse s and grades before interne
assumes resp o n sib ility for teaching.
6
Period o f interneship should be longer—at le a st one year
( th is suggestion made by cooperating teachers in interne­
ship programs a semester in length).
5
Buries o f internes should be more clearly defined.
k
Not so much resp o n sib ility should be placed on the cooperating
teacher.
3
Cooperating teachers should have more part in administering
the interneship program.
3
Internes should be allowed to do more teaching.
3
Internes should learn more about adm inistrative tasks
which the teacher has to perform.
3
Internes should be b etter prepared in subject-matter
3
Method o f rating internes should be improved or abolished.
3
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TAJ3LEXXXV (continued)
SUGGESTIONS POH IMPROVEMENT OF INTEHNESHIP PROGRAM
BLADE BY SIXTY-ONE COOPERhTBfG TEACHERS
S u g g e s tio n f o r Im provem ent
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld b e a s s ig n e d s u b j e c t s t o t e a c h i n w h ic h
th e y a r e p r e p a r e d .
The w hole t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n program s h o u ld b e c u t t o f o u r
y e a r s w ith t h e i n t e r n e s h i p coming i n t h e f o u r t h y e a r .
Program o f e d u c a tio n s h o u ld in c lu d e d e v e lo p in g p e r i o d and
s o c ia l q u a litie s b e fo re f i f t h y e a r.
I n s t r u c t o r s i n e d u c a tio n i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s
s h o u ld h av e s p e n t a t l e a s t one t o f i v e y e a r s te a c h in g
s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l.
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld r e c e i v e m ore r e m u n e ra tio n .
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld b e g iv e n e x p e r ie n c e i n t e a c h in g t y p i c a l
c l a s s e s , n o t j u s t slo w g r o u p s .
T r a in i n t e r n e s t o a p p ly m ore common s e n se r a t h e r th a n to o
much p r o f e s s i o n a l th e o r y .
I n t e r n e s s h o u ld t e a c h t h e same s u b j e c t a t d i f f e r e n t g ra d e
le v e ls .
I n t e r n e 's c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y s h o u ld b e e n c o u ra g e d .
U n c la ss ifie d .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE
XXXVI
BENEFITS SIXTY-ONE COOPERATING TEACHERS HAVE PERSONALLY DERIVED
FROM BEING COOPERATING TEACHERS
B e n e f it
No. o f c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s
c itin g th is as a b e n e fit
Makes th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r a n a ly z e
and become c r i t i c a l o f h i s own w ork;
h e lp s him t o c l a r i f y h i s own i d e a s .
51
The p re s e n c e in t h e room o f an i n t e r n e
i s a s p u r and i n c e n t i v e k e e p in g th e
c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r on h e r t o e s .
15
Y ounger m inds g iv e c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s tio n s
and new p o i n t s o f v iew t o c o o p e r a tin g
te a c h e rs .
10
I n t e r n e s ’ im a g in a tio n , e n th u s ia s m and e n e rg y
v i v i f y th e w hole s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n .
I n t e r n e s h i p program s t i m u l a t e s t h e c o o rje ra tin g
t e a c h e r t o w id e r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e a d in g and s t u d y .
More s y m p a th e tic and b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e
p ro b lem s o f th e b e g in n in g t e a c h e r .
Has b ro u g h t ab o u t e x ch an g e o f id e a s betw een
c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s .
Has b ro u g h t a b o u t p l e a s a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s and
f r i e n d s h i p s w ith i n t e r n e s .
C o o p e ra tin g t e a c h e r m akes more th o ro u g h
p re p a ra tio n .
Has i n t e r e s t e d c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r i n e x p e rim e n tin g
w ith a w ide v a r i e t y o f te a c h in g and d i s c i p l i n a r y
p ro ce d u re s.
T e a c h e s one t o w ork w ith a d u l t s a s w e l l a s w ith
c h ild re n .
M akes one more t o l e r a n t o f a v a r i e t y o f o p in io n s
and te a c h in g p r o c e d u r e s .
B e t t e r a t t i t u d e to w a rd f e llo w t e a c h e r s .
2
1
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
301
TABLE XXXVIfcont inued)
BENEFITS SIXTY-GNB COOPERATING TEACHERS HAVE PERSONALLY DERIVED
ERCM BEING COOPERATING TEACHERS
No. o f c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s
c itin g t h i s as a b e n e fit
B e n e f it
C o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r l e a r n s t o r e c o g n iz e
th e s tu d e n t a s a p e r s o n a l i t y a n d t o
re sp e c t h e r p e rs o n a lity .
1
I n t e r n e s h i p h a s lo w ered th e c o o p e r a tin g
t e a c h e r 's c l a s s lo a d and h a s f r e e d
th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r from some
r o u t i n e d ru d g e r y .
1
The a p p ro a c h o f th e i n te r n e t o c h i l d r e n
in th e c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r 's room i s
i l l u m i n a t i n g and o f t e n h e l p f u l .
The c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r som etim es s e e s
h i s own e r r o r s when t h e y a r e r e f l e c t e d
by t h e i n t e r n e .
The c o o p e r a ti n g t e a c h e r g e t s a c e r t a i n
e x h i l e r a t i o n from b e in g c o n s t a n t l y on
p a ra d e .
1
R e c o g n itio n a s a c r i t i c
1
te a c h e r.
Com m endation from s c h o o ls in w h ic h fo rm e r
i n t e r n e s h a v e b een p l a c e d .
1
S e n se o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n g u id in g f u tu r e
members o f th e p r o f e s s i o n .
1
S tro n g e r p r o fe s s io n a l a t t i t u d e .
1
A y e a r l y s t i p e n d ($ 1 0 0 ).
1
"M ost l i k e l y I have become m ore m e t h o d ic a l ."
1
U n c l a s s i f i a b l e — n o t r e l a t e d t o th e q u e s ti o n a s k e d .
1
No. o f c o o p e r a tin g t e a c h e r s who w r o te , " N o n e ."
9
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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