close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

The contribution of the case method to guidance in a summer camp

код для вставкиСкачать
INFORMATION TO U SERS
This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films
the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and
dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from any type of
computer printer.
T h e quality of this reproduction is d e p en d en t upon the quality o f the
c o p y submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations
and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper
alignment can adversely affect reproduction.
in the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript
and there are missing pages, these will be noted.
Also, if unauthorized
copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
Oversize
materials (e.g.,
maps,
drawings,
charts)
are reproduced
by
sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand corner and continuing
from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps.
ProQuest Information and Learning
300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 USA
800-521-0600
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
NOTE TO USERS
This reproduction is the best copy available.
UMI’
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
jlurus_________ 19 40
I hereby recommend that the thesis prepared under m y
supervision b y ________ e d m ..a r h o l i u a r w e r ____________________________________
entitled__________ t h e
c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c a s e m e th o d t o _______________ ^
__________________________________ OTTT D A N C E
TN
a
STTMMER C AMP____________________________________________
be accepted as fu lfillin g this part o f the requirements fo r the
degree o f
d o c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n ______________________________________
A p p ro ved by:
\
\
F O R M 6 6 8 — O . S . AN D C D .— 1M — 7 * 3 3
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
MB CONTRIBUTION OF TEE CASE METHOD
TO GUIDANCE IN A SOMMER CAMP
A d is s e r ta t io n , s u b m itte d to
The G rad u ate F a c u lty o f th e T ea ch ers C o lle g e
o f th e U n iv e r s it y o f C in c in n a ti
in p a r ti a l fu lf illm e n t o f th e
re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d eg ree o f
DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
1940
by
Edna A rn o ld W arner
11
B. A . L o u isia n a S t a t e U n iv e r s ity 1923
M# A . U n iv e r s ity o f C in c in n a ti 1933
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
UMI N um ber: D P 1 6 1 2 8
INFORMATION TO U SE R S
The quality of this reproduction is d ep en d en t upon the quality of th e copy
subm itted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and
photographs, print bleed-through, substandard margins, and improper
alignm ent can adversely affect reproduction.
In the unlikely even t that the author did not sen d a com p lete manuscript
and there are m issing p a g es, th e se will b e noted. A lso, if unauthorized
copyright material had to b e rem oved, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI
UMI Microform D P 1 6 1 2 8
C opyright2009by P roQ uest LLC
All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United S ta te s C ode.
ProQ uest LLC
789 E ast E isenhow er Parkway
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 -1 3 4 6
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ACKNOWLSDQSJMT
T h is s tu d y h as b e e n made p o s s i b l e by th e a d v ic e o f
D octo r Gordon H e n d rick so n o f th e U n iv e r s it y o f C i n c i n n a t i . The
w r i t e r w is h e s to acknow ledge a g r e a t in d e b te d n e s s t o D o cto r
H en d rick so n f o r h i s in v a lu a b le c o u n s e l and g u id a n c e i n th e
p r e p a r a t io n o f t h i s t h e s i s .
G r a te f u l acknow ledgm ent i s a l s o made to
Dean P e c h s te i n and D o cto r C a r te r Good o f t h e C o lle g e
o f E d u c a tio n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C in c in n a t i, f o r c r i t i c i s m o f -the
s tu d y .
D o c to r E r n e s t O sborne, T e a c h e rs C o lle g e , Colum bia
U n iv e r s it y ,
f o r i n t e r e s t a n d s u g g e s tio n s o f f e r e d .
The c o u n s e lo rs o f t h e p a s t f i v e s e a s o n s f o r h e lp i n
th e a s s e m b lin g o f d a ta o r g iv in g s u g g e s tio n s i n t h e g u id a n c e
program i n e f f e c t .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................................................
Page
V
C h a p te r
I.
TEE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING......................................................................
The G e n e ra l S ta te m e n t o f th e P ro b lem ...........................................
B ackground o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n ....................
G e n e ra l S o u rc e s a n d P r o c e d u r e ..........................................................
S u rv ey o f R e la te d L i t e r a t u r e .................................
S ig n if ic a n c e o f t h e S tu d y ......................................
1
1
1
2
4
18
II.
PHILOSOPHY AND PROGRAM.................................................................................
G e n e ra l S ta te m e n t o f Camp P h i l o s o p h y . . . . . ................................
P ro g ram ..........................................
Summary........................................................................................
20
20
23
SO
III.
GUIDANCE APPROACHES........................................................................................
I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . ........................
Case Method A p p lie d .................................
G u id a n c e 'P ro c e d u re s i n jziffect a t P r e s e n t . . . . . ......................
Summary.................................
31
31
34
39
41
17.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CASE METHOD TO INSIGHT INTO THE
EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL NEEDS OF THE CLAMPER.......................................
I n t r o d u c t i o n ........................
Y alue i n D ia g n o sin g P roblem s and F o rm u la tin g P la n o f
T re a tm e n t.............. *.......................
V alue i n D iag n o sin g P ro b lem s and C o n tr o llin g c o n fe re n c e .
Y alue i n D iag n o sin g P ro b lem s a n d A d v is in g C a m p e r.,
Y alu e i n D iag n o sin g P ro b lem s i n Pre-Camp C o n fe re n c e
Y alue f c r t h e A d m in is tr a tio n .............................................................
Summary........................................
45
50
54
59
71
72
Y.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CASE METHOD TO PROGRAM GUIDANCE.. .
I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . ......................................
E n ric h in g P rogram f o r U n a d ju s te d Cam pers...................................
E n ric h in g Program f o r M a la d ju ste d Campers................................
P ro v id in g f o r I n d iv i d u a l D if f e r e n c e s ............................................
E n ric h in g Program f o r R e tu rn in g Cam pers.................................
V alue f o r Program A d m in is tr a tio n
.......................................
Sumznary........................
73
73
74
78
84
86
88
89
Y I.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CASE METHOD IN EVALUATING THE
BEHAVIOR CHANGES.............................................................................................
B ehavi o r Change s ...............
90
90
iii
2 6 Ag ’40
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
42
C h a p te r
One S easo n Case S k e tc h e s ................................ . ...........................
Cam pers4 T e s tim o n ie s ...............................................................................
S o c i a l i z a t i o n . . . * ...............................
Summary*...............
V II.
V III.
Page
108
110
115
118
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CASE METHOD TO PARENTAL GUIDANCE..
I n t r o d u c t i o n ............................................ .......................
The R e la tio n s h ip o f th e Camp E x p erien ce t o th e Home
Environmen t
.............
Summary.................
119
119
119
125
GENERAL SUMMARY...............................................................................................
The P roblem an d P r o c e d u r e s ...............
G e n e ra l S o u rces an d P r o c e d u r e ...................
T im e lin e s s o f th e S tu d y ..................................
C o n tr ib u tio n s o f t h e A n e c d o ta l M ethod......................
L im ita tio n s o f th e A n e c d o ta l M ethod...............................
S u p p lem en tary T e c h n iq u e s
..........................
S ig n if ic a n c e of th e S tu d y ................
126
126
126
127
127
130
131
132
BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................................................................................
APPENDIX......................................................................................................................................
i-v
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13
140
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
II.
III.
IV .
V.
V I.
V II.
PAGE
3
D ates o f u se o f V a rio u s P e r s o n n e l K e c o rd s.............................
F req u en cy o f M ention o f A sp e c t o f Growth i n C am per's
T e s tim o n ie s ...........................
. ............. . ..........................
112
la k e Lure S o c ia l M a tu ra tio n S c a l e .................
114
I n i t i a l E a tin g s o f B eh av io r o f 90 Cam pers, S easo n
o f 1939...........................................................................................................
'
11?
F i n a l E a tin g s o f B eh av io r o f 90 Cam pers, S easo n o f
1939....................
117
F re q u e n c ie s o f C e r ta in B e h a v io r Changes i n 90 Cam pers,
S easo n o f 1 9 3 9 .............................................................................................
117
P a r e n t a l E s tim a te o f Change i n A t t i t u d e . ...............................
124
v
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I
TEE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
The G e n e ra l S ta te m e n t o f th e P roblem
P ro b lem . -
The p ro b lem o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o a n a ly z e a n d
e v a l u a te t h e c o n t r i b u ti o n s w h ich th e c a s e m eth o d , a s d e v elo p ed on th e b a s i s
o f a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s , may make to th e g u id a n c e o f a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s i n
summer camp l i f e .
The d a ta o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , c o l l e c t e d a t la k e L ure camp f o r
G i r l s , p e r m it an sw ers to th e f o llo w in g f o u r q u e s tio n s :
(1)
What c o n t r i b u ti o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make t o t h e co u n se­
l o r ^ p rim a ry f u n c tio n - t h a t o f g u id in g i n th e developm ent o f p e r s o n a l i t y
and m e e tin g th e e m o tio n a l an d s o c i a l n e e d s o f t h e camper?
(8)
W hat c o n t r i b u t i o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make to th e d e­
v elopm ent o f a r i c h a n d e d u c a t i o n a l l y v a lu a b le camp program ?
(3)
What c o n t r i b u t i o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make t o th e e v a lu ­
a t i o n o f b e h a v io r ch an g e s?
(4 )
What c o n t r i b u t i o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make t o p a r e n t a l
g u id a n c e o f th e camper?
B ackground o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n
G e n e ra l S e t t i n g . -
The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s th e
w ork o f Lake L ure Camp f o r G i r l s , lo c a t e d n e a r A s h e v ill e , N o rth C a r o lin a ,
A d e f i n i t e a tte m p t a t c h a r a c t e r g u id a n c e h a s b e e n made i n t h i s camp f o r
th e p a s t e i g h t sum m ers.
T h is i s a n eig fct-w eek camp i n w hich t h e program
in c lu d e s b o th th e p r o j e c t an d r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u le d a c t i v i t i e s ,
A m id d le -
1
with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2
o f - t h e - r o a d p h ilo s o p h y i s m a in ta in e d .
The pro g ram i s in te n d e d to m eet
th e n e e d s , i n t e r e s t s , a n d c a p a c i t i e s o f each cam per.
ap p ro a c h o r m ass r e g im e n ta tio n .
T here i s no mass
The c o u n s e lo r-c a m p e r r a t i o i s one a d u l t
c a b in c o u n s e lo r f o r e v e ry f o u r g i r l s a n d one a c t i v i t i e s c o u n s e lo r f o r e v e ry
th r e e .
The t o t a l s t a f f num bers t h i r t y - f i v e p e r s o n s .
The camp o f f e r s a
program w hich t r i e s to m eet t h e i n d i v i d u a l p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , a n d e m o tio n a l
n eed s o f eac h o f i t s n i n e t y cam p ers.
A d a i l y s e l f - i n i t i n te d a c t i v i t y
program a llo w s th e o p p o r tu n ity f o r dev elo p m en t o f d e c i s i o n a n d i n i t i a t i v e
i n m aking c h o ic e s from th e s c h e d u le d a c t i v i t i e s .
th e th r e e o r u i s e r s .
T h is i s s u p e r v is e d by
Bach camper h a s a d a i l y a c t i v i t y s c h e d u le c a r d w hich
she c h e c k s, a copy o f w hich i s s e n t home t o h e r p a r e n t s a t th e end o f th e
week a lo n g w ith h e r c o u n s e l o r s r e p o r t o f h e r h e a l t h and a t t i t u d e s .
Gfaneral S o u rc e s a n d P ro o e d u re
S o u rces. -
The m a jo r s o u rc e s o f m a t e r i a l f o r th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t ­
i g a t i o n c o n s i s t o f r e c o r d s k e p t th ro u g h a f i v e - y e a r p e r io d , c o v e rin g th e
s e a s o n s from 1955 th ro u g h 1939, in th e form o f a n a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r
jo u rn a l.
Numerous o th e r r e c o r d s have b een u s e d , a s shown i n T ab le I .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3
TABLE I
DATES OF USE OF VARIOUS PERSOM'TEL RECORDS
Type o f D ata C o lle c te d
1. C o n f id e n tia l Q u e s t!o n n a ire
to P a r e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
s . A p p lic a tio n B lanks
(S o c ia l H is to r y D a t a ) . . . . .
3 . M ed ical H e a lth R e p o rt..........
4 . A n e c d o ta l B eh av io r J o u r n a l
5 . S o c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e ..............
6 . C um ulative A chievem ent
R ecord................................. ..
7. C um ulative H e a lth R e p o rt
W eight G ra p h .............................
8 . C um ulative I n d iv id u a l
R ecord F o l d e r . . . . .............. ..
9 . Weekly R ep o rt C ards to
P a re n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 0. Sum a r y R e p o rt to P a r e n t . .
11. Campers* T e s t i m o n i e s . . . . . .
12. B eh av io r F req u en cy R a tin g
S c a l e . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................
iL3. B eh av io r R a tin g S c a le
(R e v isio n o f M cCloy)............
14. W atson R a tin g S c a l e ......... ..
15. Campers * R a tin g o f
C o u n s e lo rs ..................................
Y ear
1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
'
X
X
X
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
4
G e n e ra l P ro c e d u re . -
The g e n e r a l p ro c e d u re o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n
i s t h a t o f th e c a s e m ethod, w i t h e s p e c i a l u s e o f a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a s a b a s i s
f o r case s tu d ie s .
The r e c o r d s have b een s tu d ie d i n d i v i d u a l l y an d a r e p r e ­
s e n te d p r im a r ily i n t h e form o f i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s .
I n a few i n s t a n c e s th e
d a t a a r e t a b u la te d to show tr e n d s and t o s u p p o r t th e g e n e r a l c o n c lu s io n s .
The b a s ic e v id e n c e s , how ever, a r e th o s e o b ta in e d on i n d i v i d u a l g i r l s a n d
p r e s e n te d in c a s e s k e tc h e s a s I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the p o s s i b l e v a lu e s o f th e
a n e c d o ta l p ro c e d u re .
S u rv ey o f R e la te d L i t e r a t u r e
R e la te d S t u d i e s . -
A o a a p l e te re v ie w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g
to th e te c h n iq u e s u s e d i n th e a d m in is tr a t io n o f p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s f o r g u i­
dance p u rp o s e s w ould in c lu d e m a t e r i a l i n a l a r g e number o f p e r i o d i c a l s
a n d b o o k s.
A s e l e c t e d l i s t h a s b een m ade, a f t e r c a n v a s s in g th e f i e l d b y
means of p e r s o n a l c o n fe re n c e s w ilh o u ts ta n d in g e d u c a to r s i n th e f i e l d o f
g u id a n c e a n d cam ping.
T h is l i s t in c lu d e s s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o n:
(1 ) a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s , (2) camp p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s , and (3) b e h a v io r r a t i n g s .
The b ib lio g r a p h y a t the end o f t h e s tu d y in c lu d e s a n e x t e n s i v e g ro u p o f
a r t i c l e s , r e p o r t s , and books d e a lin g w ith p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s a n d p e r t i n e n t
d a ta in t h e f i e l d
o f cam ping.
A lth o u g h a l l o f th e s e h av e b e e n g iv e n
a t t e n t i o n , o n ly th o s e r e f e r e n c e s im m e d ia te ly p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s tu d y a r e
rev iew ed i n th e fo llo w in g s e c t i o n s .
A n e c d o ta l H e c o rd s .-
The u s e o f -the word " a n e c d o te " i n p e r s o n n e l
r e c o r d s o r i g i n a t e d a t R o c h e s te r Athenaeum a n d M echanics I n s t i t u t e I n 1 9 3 1 .
1 W. W. C h a r te r s , "A C h a r a c te r D evelopm ent Study,** P e r s o n n e l
J o u r n a l, X II (A u g u st, 1 9 3 3 ), 1 1 9 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
5
As u s e d th e n , th e a n e c d o te i s a r e c o r d o f a n e p is o d e i n th e l i f e o f th e
in d iv id u a l.
I t i s a w ord p i c t u r e o f th e i n d i v i d u a l i n a c t i o n , th e ob­
s e r v e r s b e s t e f f o r t a t ta k in g a word s n a p - s h o t a t th e moment o f th e i n c i d e n t .
I t i s any n a r r a t i o n o f e v e n ts i n w hich t h e i n d i v i d u a l ta k e s su ch p a r t a s
to r e v e a l som ething w h ich m ay b e s i g n i f i c a n t a b o u t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y .
P r o p o s a ls t o r e c o r d s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t s o f c o n d u c t f o r g u id a n c e
p u rp o s e s have b e e n a d v o cated by Wood f o r a lo n g tim e .
He a c t i v e l y pub­
l i c i z e d th e v a lu e o f a c o n tin u o u s r e c o r d c o n ta in in g a n a c c u m u la tio n o f
b e h a v io r ite m s f o r m ore th a n a dozen y e a r s .
He d i s c u s s e s t h e c o u n s e lin g
v a lu e o f a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s and o f f e r s th e f o llo w in g p ro c e d u re a s th e m a jo r
s t r a t e g y o f g u id a n c e .
(1 )
(2)
(3 )
(4 )
2
O b se rv in g co n d u ct
R e c o rd in g o b s e r v a tio n s
P e r i o d i c a l a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a n e c d o te s
R em ed ial tr e a tm e n t
R a n d a l, fa rm e r P r e s i d e n t o f R o c h e s te r A thenaeum and M echanics
I n s t i t u t e , d is c u s s e s t h e v alu e o f t h e a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a l a s a g u id a n c e
te c h n iq u e , s t a t i n g t h a t th e Athenaeum h a s u s e d f o r some tim e th e term ’♦Be­
h a v io r J o u r n a l" a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r th e c u m u la tiv e i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d .
As t h e w o rd " jo u r n a l " s u g g e s ts , t h e r e may be f o u n d i n i t ch ro n o ­
l o g i c a l e n t r i e s o f f a c t s , o b s e r v a tio n s , com m ents, h y p o th e s i s , d i a g n o s t ic
sum m aries, d i s e r i p t i o n o f t r e a tm e n t, o r o th e r ite m s r e l a t i v e to a n i n d i v i d u a l
s tu d e n t o r h is b e h a v io r w hich seem t o g iv e p ro m ise a s d a ta f o r u s e i n t h e
p e rs o n n e l work o f g u id a n ce o f f i c e r s . I t may c o n t a in a th o ro u g h c a s e s tu d y
by a s o c i a l w o rk er w ith th e r e s u l t o f a n e x a m in a tio n b y a p s y c h i a t r i s t o r
p s y c h o lo g is t a s w ell. a s ach iev em en t r e p o r t s , p e r s o n a l i t y m e a su re s, and
a n e c d o ta l m a t e r i a l s .
g
Ben Wood, "M ajor S tr a t e g y o f G u id a n c e ," E d u c a tio n a l R eco rd ,
XV (O c to b e r, 1 9 3 4 ), 4 1 9 -4 4 ,
3
J . A . R a n d a ll, "The A n e c d o ta l B eh av io r J o u r n a l , " P r o g r e s s iv e
E d u c a tio n . X I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 6 ), 2 1 -2 6 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
J a r v i e , Chairm an o f th e E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h Committee a t th e
A thenaeum , r e p o r t s a f t e r t h e c a r e f u l s tu d y and a n a l y s i s to d a te o f approB im a te ly one hundred b e h a v io r jo u r n a l r e c o r d s o f fo m ier s tu d e n t s t h a t , i f th e
b e h a v io r jo u r n a l i s to be o f m ost v a l u e ,t h e f o llo w in g c o n s id e r a tio n s m ust
be ta k e n in t o a c c o u n t.
1 . E a r ly v a lu e o f th e b e h a v io r jo u r n a l i s d ep en d en t upon th e
scope and q u a l i t y o f in f o r m a tio n o b ta in e d a b o u t th e e n t e r in g s tu d e n t .
2 . T here i s need f o r r e p e t i t i o n o f a n e c d o te s o f s i m i l a r c o n te n t
i n o r d e r t o v e r i f y t h e u s u a l b e h a v io r of th e s tu d e n t .
3 . C o m p leten ess o f th e s tu d e n t p i c t u r e o b ta in e d i s d e p e n d e n t upon
th e ra n g e o f a r e a s o f b e h a v io r in w h ic h o b s e r v a tio n s a r e made and r e c o r d e d .
4 . P r o v is io n m ust be made f o r p e r io d i c sum m ation, s y n th e s iz in g ,
and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b e h a v io r r e p o r te d i n o r d e r to g a in an u n d e rs ta n d in g
o f t h e u s u a l b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s o f th e s t u d e n t .
5 . C o n s id e r a tio n n eed s to be g iv e n t o th e r e a s o n s
an ce from t h e jo u r n a l o f b e h a v io r p r e v io u s ly r e c o r d e d .
6. T here n e e d s
c o u n s e lo r s o f d e v ia tio n s
fo r d is a p p e a r ­
to b e c o n s c io u s n e s s on th e p a r t o f
i n s t r u c t o r s and
o f th e s t u d e n t frcm h i s u s u a l p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v io r .
7. A t t e n t i o n n eed s to be g iv e n in c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n th e b e h a v io r
p a tte r n s of th e s tu d e n t.
8 . R e l a tio n s h ip o f i s o l a t e d b e h a v io r i n c i d e n t s t o th e g e n e r a l
b e h a v io r p a t t e r n n eed s t o be s tu d ie d .
9 . T here a s n eed f o r ^ s e n s i t i v i t y to r e p o r te d b e h a v io r w h ich g iv e a
i n d i v i d u a l i t y to tfie s tu d e n t .
Brown, G uidance D ir e c t o r , and M a rtin , a te a c h e r a t U n iv e r s it y H igh
S c h o o l i n O akland, C a l i f o r n i a , u sed t h e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d a s a d e v ic e to
5
know more a b o u t t h e i r p u p i l s .
T h is d e v ic e i s t y p i c a l of th e new tr e n d
4 L. L . J a r v i e , "A D ev elo p in g G uidance P ro g ra m ,” P r o g r e s s iv e
E d u c a tio n , X 7I (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 9 ), 2 5 -3 3 .
5
M. A. Brown an d V. M a rtin , ”A n e c d o ta l R eco rd s o f P u p i l B e h a v io r,”
C a l if o r n ia J o u r n a l o f S eco n d ary E d u c a tio n . Z I I I ( A p r il, 1 9 3 8 ), 2 0 5 -8 .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
7
i n e v a lu a tio n o f p u p i l b e h a v io r .
T hese c r o s s - s e c t i o n s o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t
b e h a v io r o f s tu d e n ts a r e u sed f o r a p u rp o se e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from g ra d in g
o r m arking s t u d e n t s ’ ac h ie v e m e n t.
They su p p lem en t th e r e c o r d s on h e a l t h ,
s o c ia l-e c o n o m ic back g ro u n d , i n t e l l i g e n c e , a c h ie v e m e n t, i n t e r e s t s , an d g o a l s .
T h is s tu d y f in d s t h e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d a u n iq u e c o n t r i b u t i o n to th e c a s e
h i s t o r y o f th e s t u d e n t .
'The p u rp o se s o f th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d i n t h e Oak­
la n d s c h o o ls a r e a s f o llo w s ;
(1) To f u r n i s h a v a r i e t y o f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f
s tu d e n ts i n s p e c i f i c and d e v is e d s i t u a t i o n s .
makes f o r a goo d cu m u lativ e r e c o r d .
T h is m u l t i p l i c i t y o f ev id e n c e
(2) To s u b s t i t u t e f o r vague g e n e r a l­
i z a t i o n s , s p e c i f i c e x a c t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f b e h a v io r .
T h is r e s u l t s i n few er
g e n e r a liz a tio n s b a s e d on a s in g le i n c i d e n t , a n d l e s s te n d e n c y t o p la c e
c h i ld r e n i n t o su ch c a te g o r ie s a s " la z y * o r " C o o p e r a tiv e ."
(3) To s tim u la t e
te a c h e r s t o use r e c o r d s i n h e lp in g s tu d e n ts make optimum p r o g r e s s ,
c o n t r i b u te tow ard u n d e r s ta n d in g b a s i c p e rs o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s .
(4 ) To
C h a ra c te ris tic s
may n o t b e o b se rv e d u n le s s r e p e a te d r e c o r d in g s a r e made o f th e same g e n e r a l
p a tte rn .
T r a x le r h a s g iv e n a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f th e u s e o f a n e c d o ta l
r e c o r d s , w hich i s p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l to te a c h e r s and a d m in is tr a t o r s who a r e
i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s m ethod o f p e r s o n a l i t y S tu d y .
The fo llo w in g u s e s and
v a lu e s h av e b een c a l l e d e s p e c i a l l y o u ts ta n d in g by w r i t e r s o f p u b lis h e d a r t i c l e s
on th e s u b j e c t ;
1 . A n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s p r o v id e a v a r i e t y o f d e s c r ip t io n s c o n c e rn in g
th e u n c o n s tr a in e d b e h a v io r o f p u p il s i n d iv e r s e s i t u a t i o n s a n d th u s c o n t r i b u te
to a n u n d e rs ta n d in g of th e c o re o r b a s ic p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n o f each i n d i ­
v id u a l and o f th e ch an g es i n p a t t e r n .
2 . They s u b s t i t u t e s p e c i f i c an d e x a c t d e s c r ip t io n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y
f o r vague g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
3 . They d i r e c t th e a t t e n t i o n o f te a c h e r s away from th e s u b j e c t
m a tte r and c l a s s g ro u p s and tow ard i n d i v id u a l p u p i l s .
4.
They s tim u la t e te a c h e r s t o u se r e c o r d s and to c o n t r i b u t e to
them .
5 . They r e l i e v e i n d i v i d u a l te a c h e r s o f th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f
m aking t r a i t r a t i n g s an d p r o v id e a b a s i s f o r c o m p o site r a t i n g s . M oreover,
th e y p ro v id e a c o n tin u o u s r e c o r d w h ile t r a i t r a t i n g s a r e u s u a l l y made o n ly
a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s i n a p u p i l ’ s s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e .
6 . They en co u rag e te a c h e r i n t e r e s t i n , a n d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f , th e
l a r g e r s c h o o l p ro b lem s t h a t a re in d i c a te d b y an a c c u m u la tio n o f a n e c d o te s .
7 . They p r o v id e th e in f o r m a tio n w h ich th e c o u n s e lo r n eed s to
c o n t r o l th e c o n fe re n c e s w ith i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s . An a p p r o p r ia te s t a r t i n g
p o in t f o r each c o n fe re n c e can be fo u n d i n th e d a t a , a n d th e d is c u s s io n can
be k e p t c lo s e t o th e p u p i l 's n e e d s .
8 . They p r o v id e d a ta f a r p u p i l s to u s e i n s e l f - a p p r a i s a l . W hile
i n some c a s e s th e a n e c d o te s sh o u ld n o t be shown to th e p u p i l s , e a c h p u p i l
can p r o f i t a b l y s tu d y th e i n d i c a t i o n s i n many o f t h e a n e c d o te s a b o u t him i n
o rd e r to d e c id e w hat he n eeds t o do to im p ro v e.
9 . P e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een th e p u p i l and th e c o u n s e lo r a r e
im proved by a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s , f a r t h e s e r e c o r d s shew th e p u p il t h a t th e
c o u n s e lo r i s a c q u a in te d w ith h i s p ro b le m s .
10 . A n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a i d i n th e f o r m u la tio n o f i n d i v i d u a l h e lp
program s a n d e n co u ra g e a c t i v e p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n re m e d ia l w o rk .
11 . They shew n eed s f o r th e fo rm a tio n o f b e t t e r w ork and s tu d y
h a b i t s and a l s o p r o v id e en co u ra g in g e v id e n c e o f g ro w th i n th e s e r e s p e c t s .
12 . C u rric u lu m c o n s tr u c t io n , m o d i f ic a t io n , an d em phasis may be
im proved th ro u g h r e f e r e n c e to th e w hole volume o f a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d m a t e r i a l
c o l l e c t e d by a s c h o o l. The a n e c d o te s in d i c a te w here t h e r e s h o u ld be g e n e r a l
p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l i n c h a r a c t e r developm ent to s a t i s f y th e n eed s o f
th e whole s c h o o l community.
1 3 . An a p p r o p r ia te summary o f a n e c d o te s i s v a lu a b le f o r f o r ­
w ard in g w ith a p u p i l when he i s prom oted to a n o t h e r s c h o o l.
14 . A n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s may b e u se d by new members o f th e s t a f f i n
a c q u a in tin g th e m se lv e s w ith th e s t u d d n t body.
15 . The q u a l i t a t i v e s ta te m e n ts c o n ta in e d i n a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s
supplem ent and a s s i s t i n th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a .
16. C o ll e c t io n s o f a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s may p ro v id e th e n e c e s s a r y
v a l i d a t i n g e v id e n c e f o r v a r io u s e v a l u a ti n g in s tr u m e n ts . F o r i n s t a n c e , when
th e r e s u l t s o f th e B e r n r e u te r P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n to ry i n d i c a t e t h a t c e r t a i n
p u p i l s a r e h ig h i n dom inance and o t h e r s a r e 1cm, th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d
m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s e p u p i l s may be a n a ly z e d to f i n d o u t w h e th e r o r n o t
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
9
■the B e r n r e u te r s c o r e s a g re e w ith t h e o b s e r v a tio n s o f b e h a v io r .
17.
A n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a i d i n c l i n i c a l s e r v i c e , when p u p i l s a r e
r e f e r r e d to c l i n i c a l w o rk e rs f a r s p e c i a l s tu d y of t h e i r p ro b le m s, t h e r e i s
g r e a t a d v a n ta g e i n la v in g a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e f o r th e s e h ig h l y
t r a i n e d w o rk e rs to i n t e r p r e t .
O lson d ia g n o se d b e h a v io r p ro b le m s o f c h i l d r e n by t h i s m ethod a n d
p re p a re d a m anual o f d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e b e h a v ic r jo u r n a l f o r u s e i n s c h o o ls ,
w ith a su p p lem en t f o r m e i n cam ps.
I t s p u rp o se i s a s f o llo w s :
The b e h a v io r j o u r n a l i s d e s ig n e d f o r th e m a in te n a n c e o f a c h ro n o ­
l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f s i g n i f i c a n t ite m s o f b e h a v io r c o n c e rn in g a c h i l d , o f r e ­
com m endations f o r th e e d u c a tio n a l o r tre a tm e n t p ro g ram , o f s t e p s ta k e n to
p u t th e s e i n t o e f f e c t , an d o f th e r e s u l t s s e c u r e d .
S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t one o f t h e v a lu a b le m ethods
i n l o c a t i n g c h i ld r e n who a r e p ro b le m s , o r p o t e n t i a l p ro b le m s , i s sim p ly to
keep a c h r o n o lo g ic a l r e c o r d o f th e ty p e s o f b e h a v io r w hich c a l l f o r s p e c i a l
a t t e n t i o n on th e p a r t o f w o rk ers i n t h e s c h o o l, 'ih i s n a t u r a l h i s t o r y a p p ro a c h
g r a d u a l ly d e f in e s t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f th e p ro b lem i n p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d ­
r e n . Such a r e c o r d h a s th e f u r t h e r a d v a n ta g e o f o f f e r i n g m§ny p o s s i b l e u s e s
by p r i n c i p a l s , te a c h e r s , a n d o t h e r s , s i n c e th e e m u l a t i v e r e c o r d f u r n i s h e s
a n e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f a r in te r v ie w s w ith c h i l d o r p a r e n t a n d f o r p la n n in g a d ­
ju s tm e n t w ork. E a r ly d is c o v e r y fo llo w e d by tr e a tm e n t lo o k in g fo rw a rd to
p r e v e n tio n o f m are s e r io u s d ev elo p m en ts s h o u ld be one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f
th e r e c o r d k e e p in g .
On th e p o s i t i v e s i d e t h e r e c o r d may b e u sed to n o te c o n s tr u c t iv e
th in g s a b o u t th e c h i l d such
a s e l e c t i o n to o f f i c e s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o th e
w ork o f th e room, s p e c i a l a c h ie v e m e n t i n w r i t i n g , d ra m a tic a r t , a n d s t r i k i n g
i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f a b i l i t y t o w ork w ith o r to le a d o t h e r s . Both c o n s tr u c t iv e
i n c i d e n t s and b e h a v io r p ro b lem ite m s a r e n eed ed f o r th e m o st e f f e c t i v e
g u id a n c e w ork w ith c h i l d r e n .
The V/.
g u id a n ce
K. K e llo g g k o u n d a tio n Camps h av e -used t h i s m anual i n t h e i r
program r e c e n t l y . No r e p o r t o f t h e s tu d y h a s b een m ade.
J e r s i l d d e p a r te d from th e more common m ethods o f r e s e a r c h a n d
s u c c e s s f u l l y em ployed t h e u se o f th e a n e c d o ta l te c h n iq u e i n s e v e r a l i n v e s t i ­
g a tio n s .
An exam ple i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e n a tu r e o f c h i l d r e n ’ s f e a r s
g
A rth u r E. T r a x l e r , "Nadtare a n d U se o f A n e c d o ta l H e c o r d s ," E x c e rp ts
E lem en tary S c h o o l J o u r n a l, XXXIX (M arch, 1 9 3 9 ), 4 9 4 -6 .
7
W. C. O lso n , B eh av io r J o u r n a l . Ann A rb o r, M ich ig an : S c h o o l o f
E d u c a tio n , U n iv e r s it y o f M ic h ig a n . P p . 5 .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
from in fa n c y th ro u g h a d o le s c e n c e .
I n t h i s w ork a number o f d i f f e r e n t
m ethods w ere u s e d , some o f w hich r e p r e s e n t e d a d e p a r tu r e fro m th e more com­
mon m ethods o f r e s e a r c h .
I n g e n e r a l, ■fee s tu d y depended upon t h e k eep in g
o f a c c u r a te r e c o r d s o f r e v e a lin g i n c i d e n t s , i . e . , upon a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s .
The m onograph i s i n f o u r p a r t s a s f o llo w s :
P a r t I t " C h ild f e a r s o b se rv e d i n d a i l y l i f e b y p a r e n t s and
e d u c a to r s "
P a r t I I , "P e a rs r e p o r te d by c h i l d r e n th e m se lv e s and f e a r s r e ­
c a l l e d from c h ild h o o d by a d u l t s "
P a r t I I I , " S p e c ia liz e d s tu d y o f th e f e a r s o f young c h ild r e n "
P a r t I P , "N a tu re sa n d p r e v e n tio n o f c h ild h o o d f e a r s "
Camp L i t e r a t u r e . -
Dimock a n d H endry made an e x te n s iv e stu d y o f
c h a r a c t e r dev elo p m en t a t Camp Ahmek.
l i e s t a n d m o st im p o r ta n t books i n
T h is i s r e p o r t e d i n o n e o f th e e a r 9
t h e f i e l d ' o f c a r p i n g . I t i s u n d o u b te d ly
th e m ost v a lu a b le c o n t r i b u t i o n t o fe e l i t e r a t u r e o f th e o rg a n iz e d camp
m ovem ent.
The book i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the u t i l i z a t i o n o f c u r r e n t p r i n c i ­
p l e s and p ro c e d u re s o f e d u c a tio n , p sy c h o lo g y , m e n ta l h y g ie n e , a n d s o c io lo g y
in t h e ach iev em en t o f " c h a r a c t e r " outcom es i n th e l i v e * o f boys cam ping a t
Ahmek.
Camp Ahmek i s p r i m a r i l y a w o o d c ra ft camp a n d i s c h a r a c te r i z e d by
a n a b s e n c e o f fe e " r e c r e a t i o n a l " s t i m u l i .
No p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r th e k in d
of a c t i v i t i e s w hich a r e m o st enjoyed b a c k home.
E r n e s t s e to n h a s g u id e d
th e w o o d c ra ft p ro g ram , w hich p r o v id e s o p p o r tu n i tie s f o r c o o p e r a tiv e and
c re a tiv e p ro je c ts and tM p s .
JSach e x p e rie n c e a f f o r d s p o t e n t i a l e d u c a tiv e
8
A . T. J e r s i l d and F . £ . H olm es, C h ild re n s* F e a r s . C h ild D evelop­
m ent M onographs, No, SO. New Y ork: T e a c h e rs c o l l e g e , 1935. P p . 35 6 .
9
H. S . Dimock an d C. S . H en d ry , Camping and C h a r a c te r . New Y ork:
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 19S9* P p . 564.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
11
■values,and i s accom panied by th e p rim a ry , a s s o c ia t e d , and co n c o m ita n t
le a r n in g s ,
(Jbeil? a p p ro ac h t o p e r s o n n e l g u id a n ce was th ro u g h th e te c h n iq u e
o f p s y c h ia tr y a n d s o c i a l w ork.
The c a s e m ethod w as a p p lie d to in d i c a t e th e
k in d of b e h a v io r needs an d t o s e c u r e b e t t e r b e h a v io r a d ju s tm e n t o f cam pers,
Four m ethods have b een em ployed in a n a ly z in g th e n e e d s , i n t e r e s t s ,
and a b i l i t i e s o f th e cam p ers:
(1) i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ( I . Q . ) , (2) m e d ic a l
e x a m in a tio n , (3) t e s t s f o r camp i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s , a n d (4 ) in d i v id u a l
cam per*s a n a l y s i s and r a t i n g s .
The fre q u e n c y H a tin g s c a l e d e v is e d by
W atson was u sed a s a d e v ic e t o r e v e a l b e h a v io r n eed s and p ro b le m s, a lo n g
10
w ith th e b e h a v io r o b s e r v a tio n r e c o r d .
B oth d e v ic e s had a tw o -fo ld p u r ­
p o se , t h a t o f d ia g n o s is and e v a l u a ti o n .
Most camps a r e n o t s t a f f e d
s u f f i c i e n t l y to c a r r y on t h e c l i n i c a l p ie c e o f work w hich was done by a
tra in e d p s y c h ia t r is t.
Many o f t h e su g g e ste d te c h n iq u e s h av e b e e n in c lu d e d
in th e d e v e lo p in g g u id an ce program a t Lake Lure Camp.
O sborne, from a r i c h background i n t h e f i e l d o f cam ping, p a r e n t
e d u c a tio n , a n d u n i v e r s i t y te a c h in g , v i t a l i z e d w ith c a s e s k e tc h e s a d m in is tr a t­
iv e a p p ro a c h e s s u g g e s te d i n g u id in g th e em o tio n a l an d s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t o f
th e i n d i v id u a l c a m p e r.11
3®
Goodwin W atson, B a tin g S c a le s (O c c a sio n a l S tu d ie s , No. 2 .) New York:
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1927, Pp. 5 .
11 .E rnest G. O sborne, Camping a n d G u id an ce.
P r e s s , 1937. P p . 192.
New Y ork:
A s s o c ia tio n
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
12
O sb o rn e 's s tu d y on w hich t h i s book i s b a se d d e a l t w ith q u a n t i t a t i v e d a ta
r e l a t e d t o th e i n t e r e s t s o f boys a t a Y. I,i. G, A . Gamp.
A b a tte ry o f te s ts
and a d e t a i l e d i n t e r e s t f i n d e r o b ta in e d th e d a ta t h a t r e v e a le d th e r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip o f t h e i n t e r e s t s t o a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n camp a c t i v i t i e s .
A s ta tis ­
t i c a l a p p ro a c h , how ever, co u ld n o t o b ta in th e many s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s
r e l a t i n g to th e g u id a n ce o f th e i n t e r e s t s of t h e cam per,
'ih ls le d to O s b o rn e 's
in c re a s e d i n t e r e s t i n th e g u id a n c e p h a s e o f cam p, a n d h is c o n t r i b u t i o n o f
th e c r u i s e r 's r e l a t i o n t o th e whole p e r s o n a l i t y o f th e c h i l d .
r o l e i n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g th e program i s d e s c rib e d i n d e t a i l .
The c r u i s e r ’s
The m a jo r t a s k
o f th e c r u i s e r i s t o i n t e r e s t th o s e w hose la c k o f a d ju s tm e n t shows i t s e l f i n
la c k o f i n t e r e s t , an d th o se w hose m a la d ju s tm e n t r e s u l t s i n u n c o o p e r a tiv e
b e h a v io r .
Osborne i n d i c a t e s t h e way i n w hich t h e c r u i s e r can m e et th e s e
problem s b y c a s e s k e tc h e s , and th u s g iv e s th e book u n u s u a l p r a c t i c a l v a lu e
to camp a d m i n i s t r a t o r s an d c o u n s e lo r s .
A ld e r h as made a s tu d y o f r e c o r d ta k in g i n cemp,
he s ta te s th a t
a n a d e q u a te system o f r e c o r d s i s n e c e s s a r y i f t h e camp i s i n t e r e s t e d i n im­
p ro v in g b e h a v io r .
th e f o llo w in g :
12
h a v io r r a t i n g s ,
To b e o f d e f i n i t e s e r v i c e , r e c o r d s s h o u ld in c lu d e m o st o f
(1) h e a l t h r e p o r t , (2) t h e d a i l y b e h a v io r j o u r n a l , (3) b e ­
(4) p h y s ic a l a b i l i t y an d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s , (5) n o te s
on so cio -ec o n o m ic s t a t u e ,
(6) l i s t s o f a c t i v i t y i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s ,
and (7) s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t a l d a t a .
T hese s h o u ld be assem b led i n c u m u la tiv e
in d i v i d u a l r e c o r d f o l d e r s .
12
M agazine,
George G. A ld e r , "The Use o f P e r s o n n e l K e c o rd s ," The Camping
V II (J u n e , 1 9 8 5 ), 1 2 ,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13
L ieberraan g iv e s a v iv i d a c c o u n t o f s i x y e a r s o f t e s t i n g o u t e x p e r i 13
m e n ta lly th e t h e o r i e s o f p r o g r e s s iv e e d u c a tio n a s th e y a p p ly to cam ping.
He d e s c r ib e s th e d ev elo p m en t o f a n e x p e r im e n ta l camp s t a r t e d w ith o u t e q u ip ­
m ent o r r e s o u r o e s e x c e p t su c h a s e x i s t e d i n t h e camp p e r s o n n e l, l e a d e r s , a n d
c h ild re n .
He d i s c l o s e s new an d im p o rta n t f a c t o r s a n d te c h n iq u e s to a i d th e
camp d i r e c t o r i n b u il d in g and e q u ip p in g th e cam p, and in d e te rm in in g i t s
o b j e c t i v e s an d p ro g ra m s .
The em p h asis g iv e n to b o th p e r s o n a l i t y dev elo p m ent
an d t o s o c i a l l i v i n g i n a c o - e d iic a tio n a l camp, and i n d e te rm in in g i t s
o b je c tiv e s and p ro g ra m s .
The em phasis g iv e n to b o th p e r s o n a l i t y developm ent
and t o s o c i a l l i v i n g i n a c o - e d u c a tio n a l cam p, d i r e c t e d b y a p e r s o n who
knows n o t o n ly t h e t h e o r y b u t th e p r a c t i c e o f p r o g r e s s iv e e d u c a tio n , m akes
t h i s book in v a lu a b le t o
th o s e who . Would u n d e r s ta n d th e "w hat an d how" o f
th e e d u c a tio n a l a p p ro a c h t o cam ping.
Mason*s s tu d y i s a n a c c o u n t o f camp p ro b lem s from th e cam p er’ s
v ie w p o in t.
14
The w r i t e r ’ s own e x te n s iv e e x p e r ie n c e i n cam ping, com bined
w ith th e s e d a ta a n d a r e a d a b le s t y l e , m akes t h e book u s e f u l a s a b a s is f o r
a c o u n s e lo rs * t r a i n i n g c o u rs e and v a lu a b le f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e a d i n g .
S o c io ­
l o g i c a l i m p lic a tio n s a r e d ev elo p ed th r o u g h o u t, an d c o n c r e te p ro b lem s i n
camp le a d e r s h ip an d camp program m ing a re d is c u s s e d e f f e c t i v e l y .
Dimock a n d S t a t t e n in a s e r i e s o f f i f t e e n t a l k s to c o u n s e lo r s
h av e p ro v id e d f o r th e c o m p le te o r i e n t a t i o n o f th e c o u n s e lo r to h i s t a s k , to
h i s camp e n v iro n m e n t, t o w hat i s r e q u ir e d o f h i # , and t o th e o b j e c t i v e s o f
th e camp.
15
They have p u t i n c l e a r an d sim p le te rm s th e jo b o f group le a d e r s h ip ,
—
Jo sh u a LLeberman, C r e a tiv e Camping. New Y ork: A s s o c ia tio n
P p . 25 1 .
B e rn a rd S . Mason, Camping a n d E d u c a tio n . New Y o rk : M cCall
Company, 1920• Pp» 281*
H. S . Dimock an d T a y lo r S t a t t e n , T a lk s t o C o u n s e lo rs . New
Y ork: A s s o c i a ti o n P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 . P p . 9 2 .
P r e s s , 1931,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14
A s e r i e s o f s ix m onographs, e n t i t l e d C h a r a c te r E d u c a tio n i n th e
Summer Camp, i s th e r e c o r d o f the d is c u s s io n s a n d sp e e c h e s o f t h e camp sem16
i n a r s h e ld a t th e G eorge W illiam s C o lleg e i n C h icag o .
They a r e im p o rta n t
c o n t r i b u ti o n s to th e l i t e r a t u r e o f cam p in g .
a re :
The m onographs i n th e s e r i e s
(1) C h a ra c te r E d u c a tio n , (2) On G uidance and S u p e r v is io n . (3 ) On S e t ­
t i n g S ta n d a r d s ,
(4) On P u t t i n g S ta n d a rd s i n t o O p e r a tio n , (5) On A p p ra is in g
th e Summer Camp, (6) Soane i'T o n tia r s in Camping.
The f i r s t two m onographs
d e a l w i t h such t o p i c s a s c h a r a c te r o b j e c t i v e s , a n d p r i n c i p l e s a n d m ethods o f
program p la n n in g .
The t h i r d , f o u r t h , a n d f i f t h m onographs a r e co n ce rn ed w ith
th e s e t t i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n o f s ta n d a r d s and th e a p p r a i s a l o f th e summer
camp.
The s i x t h o f th e s e r i e s in c lu d e s a r t i c l e s on th e r e l a t i o n o f th e camp
t o th e y e a r - lo n g e x p e r ie n c e s o f t h e cam pers; on p ro g ram s f o r o ld e r cam pers;
and on d em o cratic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n an d s u p e r v is io n .
R a t i n g s .-
T here i s a w e a lth o f m a t e r i a l on r a t i n g s c a l e s .
Symonds
sum m arized th e e x te n s iv e l i t e r a t u r e on r a t i n g s c a l e s and p ro v id e d a b ib lio g r a p h y
o f 123 r e f e r e n c e s .
He r e a c h e s t h e fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s :
.Enough i s now known a b o u t r a t i n g s so t h a t s k i l l f u l an d p ro p e r u se
may b e made o f t h i s m ethod o f m easurem ent. Time was when r a t i n g s were i n d i s ­
c r im in a t e ly u sed w ith no th o u g h t o f s a fe g u a rd s o f p r e c a u tio n a r y te c h n iq u e s .
U n f o r tu n a te ly t h i s h o ld s t r u e to d a y among n o v ic e s . D ir e c t ly a f t e r th e W orld
War a r e a c t i o n s e t i n , due t o e x p e rie n c e w ith th e Army R a tin g S eale and a l s o
p a r t i c u l a r l y t o R u g g 's a d m is sio n s c o n c e rn in g h i s e x p e rie n c e s w ith r a t i n g a s
s e t f o r t h i n h is s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s e n t i t l e d " I s th e H a tin g o f Human C h a ra c te r
P r a c t i c a b l e ? " But e x p e rim e n ta tio n c o n tin u e d , a n d r e f in e m e n ts w ere made u n t i l
to d a y r a t i n g s a re a c c e p te d , -though somewhat g in g e r l y a s a v a l i d means o f
o b ta in in g d a ta . But th e w ar e x p e rie n c e ta u g h t u s to be a l e r t a g a i n s t th e
u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e s i n g l e o ffh a n d r a t i n g .
R a tin g s a r e c a p a b le of g r e a t im provem ent i f th e f o llo w in g f a c t o r s ,
among o t h e r s , a r e c o n s id e r e d and i f enough p a in s a r e ta k e n t o e n s u re t h a t
th e r a t i n g s a re r e l i a b l e :
16
H.
S . Dimock ( E d i t o r ) , C h a r a c te r E d u c a tio n i n th e Summer Ca
A s e r i e s o f s i x r e p o r t s . Y o l. I . C hicag o : R e lig io u s E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n ,
1930. Y o ls . I I , I I I , IY , Y, Y I. New Y ork: A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1931, 1935,
1936, 1937, 1938.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1.
R a tin g s sh o u ld be made i n a s y s te m a tic w ay.
2.
An e x te n d e d p e r io d o f o b s e r v a tio n s h o u ld p re c e d e r a t i n g .
3 . I t s h o u ld be k e p t i n mind t h a t r a t i n g i s momething i n w h ich
th e r a t e r may im prove th ro u g h p r a c t i c e j u s t a s he grow s more s k i l l f u l in
ju d g in g th e q u a l ity o f h a n d w r itin g o r a n E n g lis h c o m p o sitio n th ro u g h p r a c t i c e .
4 . More a t t e n t i o n s h o u ld be p a id to d e f in in g th e q u a l i t i e s o r
t r a i t s to be r a t e d , and mare e x te n s iv e d e f i n i t i o n s sh o u ld b e in tr o d u c e d .
I n p la c e o f th e m an-to-m an r a t i n g schem e, a d e f i n i t e and e x ten d ed d e s ­
c r i p t i o n o f t h e s c a l e men m ight p ro v e e f f e c t i v e (a s u g g e s tio n borrow ed i n
p a r t frcm e x p e rie n c e w ith th e E n g lis h co m p o sitio n s c a l e te c h n iq u e ) .
5 . S in g le r a t i n g s s h o u ld n o t be u sed i n t h e r a t i n g o f human
q u a l i t i e s , s u f f i c i e n t r e l i a b i l i t y may be o b ta in e d o n ly when a co m p o site
i s m ade o f th e in d e p e n d e n t judgm ent of frcm f iv e t o t e n o b s e r v e r s .
6 . k o r e x p e rim e n ta l p u rp o s e s a l l r a t i n g s sh o u ld be d is c a r d e d
e x c e p t th o s e w hich a r e a t th e ex tre m e ends o f th e r a t i n g s c a le and th o s e
on w hich th e r a t e r s a re su re o f t h e i r ju d g m en t.
7 . T r a i t s f o r r a t i n g s h o u ld be s e le c te d w h ich e x p e rie n c e shows
y i e l d b e t t e r th a n a v e ra g e r e l i a b i l i t y .
8 . So f a r a s p o s s i b le b i a s s h o u ld be e lim in a te d frcm r a t i n g s .
I n d iv i d u a ls sh o u ld n o t be e x p e c te d to g iv e f a i r r a t i n g s when ju d g in g them ­
s e l v e s , f r i e n d s , o ld a c q u a in ta n c e s , o r p e rs o n s whcm th e y much l i k e o r
d i s l i k e , a d m ire o r d e s p is e .
W atson i s o f the o p in io n t h a t a g e n e r a tio n o f c f i t i c i s m h a s made
p s y c h o lo g is ts c a r e f u l and c r i t i c a l i n t h e u s e o f r a t i n g s c a l e s .
He
q u e s tio n s how lo n g i t w i l l ta k e f o r th o s e l e s s p s y c h o lo g ic a lly s o p h i s t i c a t e d
to a p p r e c i a t e th e l i m i t a t i o n s o f th e m ark s an d r a t i n g s so r e a d i l y a s s ig n e d .
18
S m e ltz e r and Adams made a s tu d y o f th e co m p ariso n o f g ra p h ic
r a t i n g s c a le s and n a r r a t i v e in te rv ie w r e p o r t s .
They found l e s s r e l i a b i l i t y
V7
New York:
P . M. aymonds, D iag n o sin g p e r s o n a l i t y a n d o o n d u ct, p p . 1 1 3 -1 1 4 .
A p p leto n C en tu ry company, 1932.
IS
Goodwin W atson, " P e r s o n a lit y and C h a ra c te r Measurement
Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h , V I I I (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 8 ), 281.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
16
f o r judgm ents b a s e d on n a r r a t i v e s .
r e l i a b l e , b u t i s i t v a l id ?
No d o u b t th e g r a p h ic s c a le is m ore
The g r e a t e r c o m p le x ity o f t h e n a r r a t i v e a c c o u n t
w ould make i t much more v a l i d .
c a r b e r r y found t h a t th r e e e s tim a tio n s o f '‘a d ju s tm e n t" o f c h i l d r e n ,
by p a r e n t s , c l i n i c i a n s , a n d t e a c h e r s , a r e n e c e s s a r y to make a co m prehensive
p ic tu r e *
20
T h is s tu d y was a n a tte m p t to d e te rm in e th e c o n s is te n c y o f
judgm ent o f e s ti m a t io n s o f c h i l d r e n exam ined b y a g u id a n c e c l i n i c .
Goodwin W atson d e v is e d a r a t i n g s c a le o f f i f t y - f o u r ite m s d e sig n e d
s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r cam ps,
a t Camp Ahmek.
c h a p te r.
uim ock a n d H endry p u b lis h e d th e r e p o r t o f i t s u s e
T h is r e p o r t h a s a l r e a d y b een sum m arized i n th e p r e s e n t
T h is s c a le was u sed a t L ate Lure d u r in g one s e a s o n , 1932, a n d
s e le c te d ite m s o f W a tso n 's s c a le were u se d i n 1 9 3 5 .
£>ee A p p e n d ix .)
Many camps have a tte m p te d th e u se o f r a t i n g s c a l e s .
S to n e con­
d u cted a n e x p e rie m e n t w ith r a t i n g s c a l e s c o v e r i n g s tw o -y e a r p e r io d i n "the
S o u th e rn S e c tio n , A m erican Camping A s s o c ia tio n .
21
L u rin g t h e f i r s t y e a r
t h e s tu d y was c o n fin e d t o a su rv ey o f th e s i t u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g b e h a v io r ch anges
i n cam ps.
T h is w as r e p o r te d i n 1933.
L u rin g t h e seco n d y e a r th e s tu d y to o k
th e form o f a r a l h e r i n t e n s i v e p i e c e o f r e s e a r c h i n s i x cam ps.
H is b r i e f
r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t b eh aafio r ch an g es do takB p la c e i n camp o v er a s i x - t o
e ig h t-w e e k p e r i o d , b o th p o s i t i v e l y an d n e g a t i v e l y .
—
C.
H. S m e ltz e r a n d C. R. Adams, "A C om parison o f G rap h ic an
N a r r a tiv e I n te r v ie w R e p o r ts ,* P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l, X I I I (May, 1 9 3 6 ), 3 - 7 .
20
M. A. Carbexr-y, "An A tte m p t t o D eterm in e th e C o n s is te n c y o f
Judgm ents R e g a rd in g t h e A d ju stm en t S t a t u s o f C h ild re n Examined b y a C h ild
G uidance c l i n i c ,* J o u r n a l o f J u v e n ile R e s e a rc h , XIX ( A p r il, 1 9 3 5 ), 7 5 -9 2 .
21
W a lte r L . S to n e , B eh av io r Chanfee I n q u ir y . S o u th e rn S e c tio n ,
A m erican Camping A s s o c i a ti o n , M imeographed, 1 9 3 4 .
12.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17
Much i n t e r e s t c o n tin u e s i n r a t i n g s c a l e s .
S c a le s o f i n t e r e s t
r e p o r te d s in c e 1934 w hich s h o u ld b e n o te d a r e :
2
(1)
The W innetka S c a le f o r n u r s e r y a n d e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n .
(2)
The W isc o n sin S c a le f a r o l d e r s t u d e n t s .
.
13)
The b u s in e s s e d u c a tio n c o u n c i l s c a l e .
23
24
Munn*s s c a le o f s o c i a l m a t u r i t y f o r p rim a ry g ra d e s was d e v is e d ,
u s in g f o u r t e e n p a t t e r n s .
" S o c ia l m a tu r it y " i s d e f in e d a s t h a t gro w th a n d
developm en t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , c o n d itio n e d by b o th i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l
f a c t o r s , w hich e n a b le s him t o a d a p t h im s e lf s u c c e s s f u l l y t o h i s fello w -m en
an d to a d a p t h i s fello w -m en t o h i m s e l f .
Two h u n d red an d s e v e n ty g ra d e
c h i l d r e n w ere u s e d a s a w o rk in g b a s i s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f th e s e p a t t e r n s .
The l i s t o f p a t t e r n s i s a s f o llo w s :
(1 ) Group c o m p a t i b i l i t y
(2 ) K in d n ess and Sympathy
(3 ) E f f i c i e n c y
(4 ) F a i r .play
(5 ) E ta o tio n a l a d j u s t a b i l i t y
(6) C o u rte sy a n d p o l i t e n e s s
17) D e p e n d a b ility
(8) N e a tn e s s a n d o r d e r l i n e s s
----------------------------------------------g g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
D o ro th y Van A ls ty n e , "A New S c a le f o r H a tin g B e h a v io r an d
A t t i t u d e s i n th e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l P s y c h o lo g y .
XXVII (Decem ber, 1 9 3 6 ), 6 7 7 -9 3 .
^ R oss S ta g n e r , "W isco n sin S c a le of P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s , " J o u r n a l
o f A bnorm al and S o c i a l P s y c h o lo g y , XXXI (J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ), 4 6 3 -7 1 .
24 P . J . R u lo n , a n d o t h e r s , " P e r s o n a l i t y R a tin g S c h e d u le ," H a rv a rd
T e a c h e rs R e c o rd , VI (F e b ru a ry , 1 9 3 6 ), 4 6 -5 3 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
(9) S e lf - c o n f id e n c e
(10) C o o p e ra tio n
(11) O r i g i n a l i t y
(12) C u r io s ity
(13) L e a d e rs h ip
(14) C heer f u ln e s s
25
These p a t t e r n s fo rm u la te d b y Munn a r e u sed i n c o r r e l a t i o n w ith
th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s i n s tu d y in g th e b e h a v io r c h an g e s r e p o r te d by cam pers
and c o u n s e lo rs i n th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
The e x p e rie n c e a t Lake Lure
Camp has b een e x te n s iv e w ith t h e u se o f r a t i n g s .
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s ex ­
p e r ie n c e , a s r e p o r te d l a t e r i n t h e s tu d y , i n d i c a t e t h a t r a t i n g s c a l e s when
u sed a lo n e a r e e n t i r e l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .
F u r th e r d is c u s s io n o f t h i s p o i n t
w i l l be g iv e n l a t e r .
S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e s tu d y
There i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f th e tim e lin e s s cf th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i ­
g a t io n i n th e c o n c lu s io n s drawn from th e p r e c e d in g s u rv e y o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a ­
tu re .
D ata r e v e a l in c r e a s e d a tte n d a n c e in summer cam ps; y e t no f r u i t f u l
a tte m p s have b e e n made to s t a n d a r d i z e t h e i r p r o c e d u r e s .
There i s a w ide
d i v e r s i t y o f o p in io n and p r a c t i c e i n th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f re c o rd k e e p in g
i n cam ps.
A t th e same tim e th e re i s a n in c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n by p a r e n t s
and e d u c a to r s o f th e camp
a s a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l e d u c a tiv e a s s e t .
The u s e o f t h e in f o im a l m ethod o f a p p r a i s a l , known a s th e
a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d , i s r a p i d l y g a in in g p r e s t i g e among p r o g r e s s iv e e d u c a to r s ,
25
M. D. Minn an d L. A . P e c h s t e i n , "The M easurem ent o f S o c ia l
M a tu rity i n C h il d r e n ," E lem en tary S c h o o l J o u r n a l, XL (O cto b er, 1 9 3 9 ),
113-23.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
19
and h a s shown i t s w o rth i n a number o f s c h o o l and c o l le g e s t u d i e s , b u t
n o t i n a n y camp s tu d y t h u s f a r r e p o r te d . .
.
*• •• *
’* * •
The p r e s e n t s tu d y c o n ta in s mate.Tia.1 -tha-t.m ay.,have v a lu e i n th e
* » ♦♦ !
*,*
• *• • •* ..: . .. •
f o r m u la tio n o f g u id a n c e p o l i c i e s i n summer eau p s .g e n e r a ll y , e s p e c i a l l y th o s e
•
* ,■* '
•
i n t e r e s t e d i n g u id in g b e h a v io r . The r e s u l t s seem l i k e l y to have f u r t h e r
•
v a lu e f o r th o s e w orking w ith th e a d o l e s c e n t i n o th e r f i e l d s .
More n a rro w ly ,
t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u ld h e lp i n th e e v a l u a ti o n o f p ro c e d u re s a n d r e s u l t s
i n t h e camp s t u d i e d , an d a t t h e same tim e may have c o n s id e r a b le s i g n i f i c a n c e
f o r o th e r camps w is h in g to e v a lu a te t h e i r w o rk .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I
EHILOSOEHY AMD PROGRAM
G e n e ra l S ta te m e n t o f Camp P h ilo s o p h y
U ltim a te Aim. -
The s u c c e s s o f a camp depends upon th e c o u n s e l o r 's
u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e u lt im a te a im f o r th e cam p er.
The c e n t r a l aim o f Lake
Lure Camp i s th e d evelopm ent o f p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r .
The u l t i m a t e
aim i s to s e c u re a h arm onious d ev elo p m en t o f th e m e n ta l, e m o tio n a l, p h y s i c a l ,
an d s o c i a l l i f e o f e ac h cam per.
The im p lic a tio n o f t h i s c o n c e p t o f h a r ­
m onious d evelopm ent i s t h a t t h e camp s t a f f i s g e n u in e ly c o n c e rn e d t h a t th e
camp e x p e r ie n c e s h a l l b e m e a n in g fu l t o e v e r y cam p er.
I t is e s s e n tia l th a t
t h e program c o r r e l a t e w ith t h e n e e d s , a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , a n d c a p a c i t i e s
o f e ac h cam p er.
I n d i v i d u a l i z i n g th e Camp P ro g ra m .i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ty p e o f camp.
Lake L ure i s a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d ,
The camp p h ilo s o p h y upon w hich i t i s fo u n d ed
m akes t h e f i r s t an d c h i e f d u ty o f th e c o u n s e lo r t h a t o f c a b in l e a d e r s h i p .
The camp i s n o t " a c t i v i t y c e n t e r e d " b u t " c h ild c e n t e r e d . "
The c o u n s e lo r
i s e x p e c te d to t h i n k i n ta n a s o f g i r i s an d n o t i n te rm s o f a c t i v i t i e s .
B oth program and equipm ent e x i s t f o r th e sa k e o f th e cam per.
The fu n d a ­
m e n ta l p u rp o s e o f th e c a b in l e a d e r i s to mal© p o s s i b l e f o r each cam per th e
h ig h e s t s e l f f - r e a l i z a t i o n th ro u g h p e r s o n a l i t y d ev elo p m en t and t r a i n i n g i n
th e a r t o f l i v i n g jo y o u s ly and s u c c e s s f u l l y .
The t a s k o f th e c a b in l e a d e r i s
to c a u s e e a c h cam per to s e t h e r
own g o a ls o f p r o f i c i e n c y , a n d to v i s u a l i z e th e s e g o a l s .
The g o a l , how ever,
m ust be a c c e p te d by e ac h c a r p e r a s h e r own g o a l , an d th e r e w i l l b e no n eed
SO
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21
f o r c o m p u lsio n .
I f a cam per h as a g o a l o r p u rp o se i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t
a c t i v i t i e s sh e w i l l n eed no re w a rd .
H ap p in ess w i l l r e s u l t from p r o g r e s s ,
and th e m ain o b j e c t i v e , jo y , w i l l b e a t t a i n e d f o r e ac h cam per.
Two a s s u m p tio n s a r e fu n d a m e n ta l i n th e " c h ild - c o n s c io u s " and
" c h i l d - c e n t e r e d " camp:
( 1 ) a n i n d i v i d u a l ’s a c t i v i t i e s m u st be d e te rm in e d
by t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ’ s i n t e r e s t s , an d (2 ) th e program m u st be so c o n s tr u c te d
a s t o d e v e lo p i n th e in d i v i d u a l th e c a p a c it y to make c h o ic e .
la k e Lure d o e s n o t have a " f i x e d , " c o m p e titiv e , " a ll - a r o u n d "
program i n w hich a l l cam pers a r e e x p e c te d to p a r t i c i p a t e .
The program i s
i n t e r e s t - c e n t e r e d an d e ac h cam per c h o o ses d a i l y h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s
and h o b b ie s .
The f r e e - c h o i c e program makes f o r grow th i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,
i n m aking d e c i s i o n s , and i n g e n e r a l (i n m ore s e l f - r e l i a n t b e h a v io r .
The v a r i e d a n d f l e x i b l e program s e e k s th e g ro w th a n d c r e a t i v e
e x p r e s s io n o f e ac h cam per i n term s o f h e r in d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s ,
and a p t i t u d e s .
The c r i t e r i o n a p p lie d to e v e r y a c t i v i t y i s :
W ill t h i s
a c t i v i t y c o n t r i b u t e to th e h a p p in e s s o f th e cam per, o r t o h e r h i g h e s t s e l f r e a liz a tio n ?
The r e a l i z a t i o n o f jo y , a s th e p rim a ry o b j e c t i v e , f o r a l l c a m p e rs,
i s n o t re a c h e d by a m s s ap p ro ac h o r r e g im e n ta tio n , b u t by a n i n d i v i d u a l
a p p ro a c h .
I n w ork in g to w ard th e r e a l i z a t i o n o f th e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f
p e r s o n a l i t y a n d c h a r a c te r d ev elo p m en t, o f s k i l l s , an d o f h e a l t h , th e i n ­
d i v i d u a l a p p ro a c h i s u s e d .
I f cam pers a r e n o t h ap p y , th e y w i l l n o t su c c e e d
i n a c c o m p lis h in g th e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s .
S p e c i f i c O b je c tiv e s . -
C le a r a n d d e f i n i t e aim s f o r in d i v i d u a l
cam pers g iv e fo c u s and m eaning t o th e program a n d l e a d e r s h i p .
camping o f f e r v a r io u s c a t e g o r i e s .
Books on
The f o llo w in g f o u r p u rp o se s r e p r e s e n t
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
22
a s y n th e s is o f th e o b je c tiv e s o f c o u n s e lo r s o f la k e Lure Camp:
(1) a p ­
p r e c i a t i o n , (2) h e a l t h an d s a f e t y , (3) d c i l l , a n d (4) s o c ia l iz a tio n *
A p p r e c ia tio n . -
The dev elo p m en t of i d e a l s an d o f h i $ i e r v a lu e s ,
a t t i t u d e s , and h a b i t s i s a dom inant a im .
c o n s id e r a tio n f o r o t h e r s a r e s t r e s s e d .
The a t t i t u d e s o f c o o p e r a tio n a n d
The em phasis i s m o ra l a n d s p i r i t u a l .
By means o f t r a d i t i o n s and p r e s e n t a t i o n a t c o u n e il r i n g o f a " c h a lle n g e *
t o h ig h e r i d e a l s , t h e camp s e e k s t o g iv e a g e n u in e c o n c e rn f o r human v a l u e s .
T o le ra n c e , u n d e r s ta n d in g , an d a b i l i t y t o l i v e c o o p a r a tiv e l y a r e s o u g h t.
The c h a lle n g e o f th e *L* g i r l i s :
An "L* g i r l i s c o n sp ic u o u s f o r h e r f in e s p i r i t an d a t t i t u d e a s
she e n t e r s w h o le - h e a rte d ly i n t o a l l a c t i v i t i e s . She in c lu d e s n o t o n ly
h e r c a b in -m a te s b u t e v e ry o n e in h e r c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s , an d i s c o n g e n ia l
a t a l l tim e s . She i s n o t s e l f - c e n t e r e d b u t r a t h e r d is r e g a r d s h e r p e r s o n a l
d e s ir e s in a n e f f o r t to make o th e r s h a p p y . She i s c o n s t a n t l y o n th e a l e r t
f o r ways i n w h ich sh e may be o f s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . She a c c e p ts c r i t i c i s m
from h e r c o u n s e lo r 3 w ith o u t a l i b i s . She c o o p e ra te s t o th e u tm o st w ith
h e r camp m a te s a n d i s alw ay s a good s p o r t , a g r a c e f u l w in n e r, a n d a c h e e r­
f u l lo s e r *
H e a lth an d S a f e t y . -
S tim u lu s i s g iv e n t o s tr e n g t h e n th e cam per*s
m o tiv a tio n i n s e e k in g know ledge o f d i e t , r e s t , e x e r c i s e , a n d s l e e p , and t o
d ev elo p h a b i ts an d a t t i t u d e s w hich c o n t r i b u te t o b e t t e r o r g a n ic v ig o r an d
s k ill,
flach cam per i s en co u ra g ed i n h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g by en h an c in g h e r a p ­
p r e c i a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l w e ll b e in g .
A d a i l y h e a l th ch eek i s made by th e
h e a l th s e r v ic e , and cam pers ch ec k t h e i r h e a l th and a c t i v i t y c h a r t s co­
o p e r a t i v e l y w ith t h e i r c a b in group and c o u n s e lo r .
The e v en in g g roup
d is c u s s io n b e fo re r e t i r i n g p r o v id e s a n e x c e l l e n t o p p o r tu n ity f a r th e camper
t o e v a lu a te h e r d ay * s e x p e r ie n c e s , an d f o r th e c o u n s e lo r to g a in i n s i g h t s
i n t o h e r a t t i t u d e s a n d s ta n d a r d s .
S k ills .-
The camp i s co n cern ed t h a t each cam per d ev elo p i n t e r e s t s
a n d s k i l l i n a c t i v i t i e s i n v h ic h s h e may p a r t i c i p a t e i n h e r l e i s u r e tim e ,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
23
and i n w hich th e r e i s a c a r r y - o v e r v a lu e a t th e a d u l t l e v e l .
B ecause o f
t h i s c o n c e p tio n , i n d i v id u a l and d u a l s p o r t s a r e o f f e r e d e x c l u s i v e ly e x c e p t
f a r o c c a s io n a l swimming m eets an d canoe r e g a t t a s .
P r o f ic i e n c y i n v a r io u s
s k i l l s i s a n o b je c tiv e o f p a r e n t s , a s shown i n more th a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f
th e a p p l i c a t i o n fo rm s r e c e iv e d .
The s h i f t from a n i n t e r e s t i n la b o r t o
one i n p o t e n t i a l l e i s u r e in c r e a s e s th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e camp a s an
ag en c y in e d u c a tin g fo r s p a re -tim e p u r s u i t s .
The r e s o u r c e s o f th e camp
a r e many, and a camper i s g u id e d t o dev elo p a n a c t iv e i n t e r e s t i n some one
a c tiv e le is u re e n te r p r is e .
S o c ia liz a tio n . -
The camp e n d ea v o rs to prom ote happy s u c c e s s f u l
l i v i n g and to c o n t r i b u te to th e p e r s o n a l i t y an d s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t o f th e
cam p ers.
The camp re c o g n iz e s su ch b a s ic n eeds a s :
R esponse - need o f s o c i a l a c c e p ta n c e ;
R e c o g n itio n - need o f s o c i a l a p p r o v a l;
S e c u r it y - need o f s e n s e o f a c h ie v e m e n t a n d ad eq u acy ;
G-rOTth - need o f s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , a l t r u i s t i c b e h a v io r , and
new e x p e r ie n c e .
The need f o r s o c i a l a c c e p ta n c e and a p p r o v a l a n d r e c o g n itio n by
th e group i s a c c e p te d a s b a s i c .
The program o f th e oamp a n d th e p la n o f
c o o p e r a tiv e l i v i n g a r e d e sig n e d to m eet th e s e n e e d s .
The d e s ir e f a r a se n se
o f a c h ie v e m e n t, o f s e c u r i t y , o f new e x p e rie n c e * o f g row th, an d o f ad eq u a cy ,
a l s o a r e b a s ic p e r s o n a l i t y n e e d s .
Through th e g u id an ce s e r v i c e , s i t u a t i o n s
an d e x p e rie n c e s a r e p ro v id e d t o m eet th e n eed s o f th e cam per.
P rogram
The c o u n s e lo r ’ s o b je c tiv e s fa r th e camper im ply t h a t a program
o f a c t i v i t i e s s h o u ld be c o n s tr u c te d a ro u n d th e n e e d s , i n t e r e s t , and a b i l i t i e s
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
24
of th e cam per.
To make a c o n t r i b u ti o n t o the grow th o f th e cam per, co ­
o p e r a tiv e s t a f f e f f o r t i s e s s e n t i a l i n c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e cam per a s a
w hole.
H eed. -
The cam per*s s t a t u s a n d a c c e p t a b i l i t y t o th e 'In-groupP a r e
d is c o v e re d by th e p e r s o n n e l th ro u g h th e g u id an ce te c h n iq u e s u s e d , w hich w i l l
be d is c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p te r I I I .
The u s e o f t h e s e g u id a n ce te c h ­
n iq u e s fo c u s e s th e a t t e n t i o n o f th e c o u n s e lo rs on e ac h cam per, b o th a s a n
i n d i v i d u a l a n d a s a member o f th e camp g ro u p .
The c o u n s e lo r a t th e p r e ­
camp s e t t i n g - u p c o n fe re n c e becomes f a m i l i a r w ith th e g u id a n ce p ro c e d u re s
em ployed i n b r in g in g a b o u t h appy, s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g .
P a c ts a s to th e b ack ­
ground o f th e cam per a r e o b ta in e d th ro u g h in te r v ie w , a p p l i c a t i o n r e c o r d ,
and p a r e n t a l q u e s ti o n n a ir e , p r e v io u s t o camp.
T hese a r e u s e d i n m aking
im p o rta n t d e c is io n s a f f e c t i n g cam pers a n d i n p r o v id in g them w ith e x p e rie n c e s
w hich seem l i k e l y to be o f m ost b e n e f i t .
A b i l i t i e s an d I n t e r e s t s . -
A w ide and f l e x i b l e program i s r e q u ir e d
to p r o v id e f o r t h e a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s o f w id e ly d i f f e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s .
The c o n c e rn o f th e camp f o r e d u c a tio n f o r f r u i t f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e i s u r e
le a d s to th e p r o v is io n o f o p p o r tu n i tie s to g a in p r o f i c i e n c y i n s k i l l s , e s ­
p e c i a l l y s k i l l s t h a t can be e x te n d e d th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r .
S n p h a s is i s p u t
upon s k i l l s w hich have a c a r r y - o v e r v a lu e f o r th e a d u l t l e v e l a n d w hich th e
cam per i s a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n ,a n d which, w i l l be s e l f - p r o p e l l e d i n h e r
l e i s u r e tim e .
T here s h o u ld be jo y f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r i t s own sa k e a n d
n o t f o r e x tr in s im a w a rd s.
P rogram B n p h a s is . -
The camp by l o c a t i o n an d t r a d i t i o n d i f f e r s
from o th e r e d u c a tio n a l a g e n c ie s i n i t s c o n t a c t w ith th e g r e a t o u t- o f - d o o r s .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
25
The lo c a t i o n o f la k e l u r e Camp on a p r i v a t e l a k e and i t s c l o s e p r o x im ity
t o l a r g e Lake L u re , o n e - h a l f m ile d i s t a n t , o f f e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r a q u a t i c
i n t e r e s t s a n d s k i l l s t h a t c a n he e x te n d e d th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r and f o r c o ­
o p e r a tiv e g ro u p e x p e rie n c e s i n ad v en tu reso m e canoe t r i p s .
O th e r f a c i l i t i e s
and r e s o u r c e s s tim u la te i n t e r e s t an d s k i l l i n a v a r i e t y o f l e i s u r e - t l m e
p u r s u i t s — some p h y s i c a l , same s o c i a l , some a e s t h e t i c , a n d some i n t e l l e c t u a l .
A v a r e i t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s i s o f f e r e d th e cam per t h a t sh e h a s
n o t had e ls e w h e re o r a t o th e r tim e s .
D is c o v e rin g I n t e r e s t s . in te re s ts .
Camps have u sed many d e v ic e s t o d is c o v e r
Check l i s t s o f p o s s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s , a t o u r o f camp, r e v e a l i n g
e q u ip m en t, a n d i n t e r e s t " f i n d e r s " h a v e b e e n u s e d w i t h good e f f e c t a t Lake
l u r e Camp.
A "sam p le" day o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d i n w h ic h a l l p a r t i c i ­
p a t e b y c a b i n g ro u p s h a s b e e n more e f f e c t i v e i n s tim u la t in g i n t e r e s t i n th e
e a r l y d ay s o f cam p.
The e x p o su re o f t h e cam pers to e q u ip m en t, a c t i v i t y
c o u n s e lo rs * t a l k s i n t e r p r e t i n g th e v a lu e o f t h e a c t i v i t y , an d o b s e r v a tio n
by th e s k i l l e d c o u n s e lo r s le a d s t o i n t e r e s t i n a n a c t i v i t y .
P a rtic ip a tio n
by th e n e o p h y te g iv e s t h e d e s i r e t o a c q u i r e p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e s k i l l .
G i r l - i n i t i a t e d A c t i v i t y P ro g ram . -
The program o f m o st camps a
decade a g o was h ig h l y r e g im e n te d , and t h a t ofi some s t i l l i s .
H owever,
Lake L u r e 's pro g ram i s n o n -re g im e n te d a n d i s b u i l t on th e cam p er’ s i n t e r e s t s .
I n l i n e w ith th e b a s ic id e a o f i n t e r e s t , th e cam per s e l e c t s h e r i n t e r e s t
groups d a i l y .
In s tru c tio n a l A c tiv itie s . -
C ap ab le i n s t r u c t o r s , who a r e s p e c i a l ­
iz e d i n t h e d i f f e r e n t camp a c t i v i t i e s , o f f e r o r g a n iz e d i n s t r u c t i o n .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
The
26
program d i r e c t o r s c h e d u le s w ith th e a c t i v i t y c o u n s e lo r s h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p e r io d s .
This i s s u b je c t to change a c c o rd in g t o cam p er’s s e l e c t i o n .
The
fo llo w in g a r e a c t i v i t y f i e l d s i n w hich t h e cam per can r e c e iv e in d i v id u a l
an d group i n s t r u c t i o n .
A q u a tic s
S p o r ts
A r ts
Swimming
D iving
C anoeing
B o a tin g
S a ilin g
L if e S av in g
T en n is
R id in g
A rc h e ry
Hi f i e r y
G olf
H ik in g
D ancing
D ram atics
A r ts and c r a f t s
I n d ia n l o r e
Glee Club
P ia n o
C eram ics
Program S e l e c t i o n . -
I n th e e a r l y days o f camp, each g i r l i s
c l a s s i f i e d by a s k i l l t e s t and th e a c t i v i t y c o u n s e lo r s u g g e s ts t h a t i f sh e
i s a b e g in n e r sh e s e l e c t any one of th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r io d s o f f e r e d f o r
t h e b e g in n e r s .
T h is i s n e c e s s a ry i f i n s t r u c t i o n i s t o be m o st e f f e c t i v e
a n d th e cam pers* d i f f e r e n c e s a r e to be c a re d f o r .
I n th e r i d i n g d e p a rtm e n t,
w here th e h o r s e s a r e li m it e d i n num ber, b e g in n e rs r i d e to g e th e r .
In a q u a tic s ,
th e non-swimmer a n d t h e ad v an ced swimmer c a n r e c e iv e i n s t r u c t i o n a t th e
same tim e .
Swimming, d iv in g , c a n o e in g , a n d b o a tin g c l a s s e s to c a r e f a r t h e
d if f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y can a l l go on a t th e same s c h e d u le d h c u r , s in c e th e r e
a r e many i n s t r u c t o r s i n th e s e a c t i v i t i e s .
The cam per c h o o ses h e r program o f a c t i v i t i e s d a i ly an d s c h e d u le s
i t on h e r i n d i v id u a l a c t i v i t y c a r d (s e e A p p e n d ix ).
One copy o f t h i s p r o ­
gram i s m a ile d w eek ly to p a r e n t s , a n d one i s k e p t i n th e in d i v i d u a l r e c o r d
f o ld e r.
T here a r e f o u r o rg a n iz e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r io d s a d ay , from 9 :0 0 -
1 1:00 and 3 : 00- 5 : 0 0 .
l a t e a f te r n o o n .
T here i s one hobby h o u r i n th e m orning an d one in th e
Campers can p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s d u rin g hobby h o u r s ,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
27
w ith su p e r v isio n ,but th e r e i s no organ ized in s t r u c t io n .
o f r e c r e a tio n a l even ing en tertain m en ts v a r ie s .
The camper’ s ch o ic e
S quare-dancing, s t o r y - t e l l i n g
hour, a r t s ’ n ig h t programs, and r e c r e a t io n a l canoeing and b o a tin g a re o f f e r ­
ed.
G-roup E n te r p r is e s . -
Group e n te r p r is e s are s im ila r in s p i r i t to
th e p r o j e c t , which i s d efin ed a s a’tohole-hearted p u rp o se fu l a c t , c a r r ie d on
amid s o c i a l su rro u n d in g s.” ^ There are many ty p es o f group e n t e r p r is e s , d i f f e r ­
in g accord in g to th e ages and camp ex p erien ce of th e p a r t ic ip a n t s .
Same
t y p ic a l group e n t e r p r is e s o f every cabin group are th e w eek ly s t u n t - n ig h t
programs, song c o n t e s t s , b rea k fa st h ik e s , and cabin p a r t ie s .
These are
e n te r p r is e s based on th e cam pers’ p u rp o ses, and r eq u ir e them to p la n and
a c t u a lly ex ecu te t h e ir p r o j e c t .
S e v e r a l tim es d u rin g th e sea so n , a c e n t r a l p r o j e c t talces p la c e ,
u t i l i z i n g th e com plete r eso u rce s o f th e camp.
such an e n te r p r ise a s the "Pow-Wow.”.
Whole days are d ev o ted to
Many g i r l s work c o o p e r a tiv e ly in th e
c r a f t shop d esig n in g and making Indian costum es, w h ile o th e r s are p lan n in g
r i t u a l s , d an ces, and c o n t e s t s ; o th ers a r e d e s ig n in g and p a in tin g th e Indian
tep ee.
The p r o je c t i s a s s i s t e d by a Cherokee Indian m aiden, and i s super­
v is e d by th e S taff!.
Frequent o v ern ig h t canoe t r ip s and h ik es p rovid e fa v o ra b le op­
p o r t u n it ie s fo r v a rio u s k in d s o f le a r n in g .
The s k i l l s , k n ow ledges, and
a b i l i t i e s th a t r e s u l t d ir e c t ly from th e s it u a t io n a r e the primary le a r n in g s .
An example i s s k i l l in paddling or h ik in g .
The a p p r e c ia tio n o f n ature and
in cr ea se d knowledge o f t r e e s and flo w ers are a s s o c ia t e d le a r n in g s .
Con­
com itant le a r n in g s , or ch a ra cter outcom es, such a s le a r n in g to coop erate ,
^ W. H. K ilp a tr ic k , The P r o je c t Method, p . 5 .
C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s it y , 1922.
New York:
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Teachers
28
or to be u n s e lf is h w ith equipm ent, are o f g r e a te r im portance than the p r i ­
mary o r a s s o c ia t e d le a r n in g s .
Awards. -
No m edals or awards are g iv e n .
on an in t e r e s t b a s is o n ly .
A camper p a r t ic ip a t e s
However, the N a tio n a l R i f l e A s s o c ia tio n and
American Red Cross both g iv e c e r t i f i c a t e s and medals f o r standard t e s t s w hich
a camper may p a s s .
Achievem ent T e s t s . -
A camper may m easure her ach ievem en t
and
p ro g ress in an a c t i v i t y by p a ssin g the t e s t com piled by c o u n selo rs in each
a c tiv ity f ie ld .
This can be done a t th e cam per's req u est or when the counse­
lo r b e lie v e s she i s q u a lif i e d .
A ccum ulative Achievem ent Record. — A reco rd i s Icept in th e o f f i c e
showing th e p ro g ress of each camper.
by a c t i v i t 5’r c o u n s e lo r s .
T h is i s prepared from w eek ly r e p o r ts
A camper can p a in t on her b e l t , awarded a t c o u n c il
r in g in t h e e a r ly p a rt o f t h e sea so n , th e sym bol fo r any ach ievem en t t e s t
th a t she has p a ssed .
This i s her o n ly r e c o r d .
T his r e c o g n it io n , based
on th e w eek ly r e p o r t of th e c o u n se lo r s a t c o u n c il r in g , i s m ean in gfu l in
b u ild in g th e camper’ s p e r s o n a lit y and making for a se n se o f ach ievem ent.
Camp P op u d ation . -
Campers are drawn from more .than sev en teen
s t a t e s , caning p r in c ip a lly from L o u isia n a , M i s s is s ip p i, A rkansas, T en n essee,
Ohio, and F lo r id a .
The summer p o p u la tio n f o r 1939 was 125, o f whom n in e t y
were campers and t h i r t y - f i v e were c o u n s e lo r s .
Campers may be from e ig h t
to e ig h t e e n y ea rs of a g e.
The camp i s d iv id ed in t o fo u r s e c t i o n s , d esig n a ted a s :
P e b b le s,
8 -1 1 ; R ocks, 1 1 -1 3 ; B ou ld ers, 14 and over; and c o u n s e lo r s - in - t r a in in g .
The cab in group i s composed o f e ig h t g ir ls w ith two c o u n se lo r s, who are
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
29
p r i m a r i l y c o u n s e lo r s and s e c o n d a ry i n s t r u c t o r s .
I n e a c h c a b i n an a tte m p t
i s made t o a s s ig n r e tu r n e d cam pers w ith new o n e s .
F o r th e p a s t t h r e e s e a s o n s
•there have b e e n a p p ro x im a te ly f b r t y p e r c e n t r e tu r n e d cam p ers.
S e lf-G o v e rn m e n t. -
Campers s h a r e i n th e c o n t r o l o f camp a f f a i r s
th ro u g h t h e camp c o u n c i l , com posed o f a n e l e c t e d member fro m e a c h o f th e
tw e lv e c a b in u n i t s .
T h is c o u n c i l m e e ts r e g u l a r l y .
c o u n c i l r i n g th e menber f b r t h e w eek i s r e c o g n iz e d .
E ach Sunday e v e n in g a t
I t has been tr a d i ti o n a l
t o a p p o i n t a new c o u n c il member e a c h w eek , so t h a t eac h camper may have a n
o p p o r tu n ity f o r l e a d e r s h i p .
The f u n c t i o n s o f th e c o u n c i l a r e : (1 ) t o make
s u g g e s tio n s i n p ro g ram p la n n in g , (2 ) to o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m t o a i d
i n c a m p e r's grow th in s e l f - r e l i a n c e , s e l f - c o n t r o l , a n d t o l e r a n c e , (3) to
a p p o in t a s e r i e s o f c o m m ittees, such a s a co m m ittee on c h a p e l s e r v i c e , on
c o u n c il r i n g p ro g ram , s o c i a l a f f a i r s , and th e l i k e , a n d (4)- t o ta k e o v e r
much of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w ork o f th e camp com m unity.
L e a d e rs h ip . -
The c o u n s e lo r-c a m p e r r a t i o i s one a d u l t c a b in coun­
s e l o r f o r e v e ry f o u r g i r l s a n d o n e a c t i v i t i e s c o u n s e lo r f o r e v e r y t h r e e .
The t o t a l s t a f f num bers t h i r t y - f i v e p e r s o n s .
The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o u n s e lo r s a r e :
T w en ty -fo u r a r e c a b in l e a d e r s .
d i r e c t o r , p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r , program
d i r e c t o r , p h y s ic i a n , n u rse i n c h a rg e o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e , d i e t i t i a n , a n d
t h r e e “c r u i s e r s ; ?
The p rim a ry f u n c t i o n o f t h e " c r u i s e r " i s to d i v e r t i n t o
o r g a n is e d camp a c t i v i t i e s th e i n t e r e s t o f g i r l s
s t r u e t i v e farm s o f p 3 a y .
p e rso n n e l d ir e c to r .
found in d u lg in g i n n o n -co n -
She w orks c l o s e l y w ith th e c a b in c o u n s e lo r a n d
A second and more s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c ti o n i s to h e lp th e
cam per who i s u n a b le to make a n a d ju s tm e n t t o camp l i f e .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
30
Summary
Program and P h ilo so p h y . -
The program i s in ten d ed to m eet th e
n eed s, i n t e r e s t s , and c a p a c it ie s o f each camper.
or mass r e g im e n ta tio n .
There is no mass approach
The camp o f f e r s a program w hich t r i e s to meet th e
in d iv id u a l p e r s o n a l, s o c i a l , and a u o tio n a l needs o f each o f i t s n in e ty
campers.
A v a r ie d and f l e x i b l e a c t i v i t y program a llo w s the o p p o rtu n ity
f o r developm ent o f d e c is io n and i n i t i a t i v e in making c h o ic e s d a ily from
the sch ed u led a c t i v i t i e s .
The program in clu d es both the p r o je c t and
r e g u la r ly sch ed u led a c t i v i t i e s .
A m ia d le -o f-th e -r o a d p h ilo s o p h y iis
m ain tain ed .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
aaapTER h i
GUIDANCE APPROACHES
I n tr o d u c tio n
The m ethod employed a t Lake l u r e Camp in th e a p p ro a c h to th e
ta s k s o f p e r s o n n e l g u id a n ce o r b e h a v io r a d ju stm e n t i s th e c a s e m e th o d .
T h is
h a s become th e m ost im p o r ta n t te c h n iq u e o f g u id a n c e , a s th e outcom e o f
s e v e r a l y e a r s o f e x p e r im e n ta tio n .
„
s tu d y .
I t conform s to th e m eth o d o lo g y o f c a s e
1
C ase M ethodology. -
This m ethod in v o lv e s th e g a th e r in g o f i n ­
fo rm a tio n w hich i s u s e d by th e g u id a n c e s e r v ic e i n a n a ly z in g t h e d i f f i c u l t
camp a d ju s tm e n ts o f th e in d i v i d u a l cam per; and i n c o n d itio n in g th e e m o tio n a l
an d s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f th e m ore wholesome an d s o c i a l l y e f ­
f e c t i v e b e h a v io r o f th e n o rm al c h i l d .
Thom ad v an c es th e n o ti o n t h a t th e
norm al c h i l d i s a l s o a problem c h i l d .
"Most c h i ld r e n a r e n o rm a l; few i f
an y a r e p e r f e c t . " 2
Mason, p ro m in en t i n th e f i e l d s o f e d u c a tio n and cam ping, s t a t e s ,
"from s t a r t t o f i n i s h , e v e ry cam per, w h e th e r n o rm al a n d w e ll a d j u s t e d o r
th e o p p o s ite , n e e d s g u id a n c e ."
3
1
G.
V. Good, A. S . B a r r , a n d i). E. S c a te s , The M ethodology o f
E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , p p . 2 6 5 -7 5 , New Y ork: D« A p p leto n C e n tu ry Company,
1938.
2
D.
A. Thom, Everyday P ro b lem s o f E veryday c h i l d , p . 4 4 . New
Y ork: D. A p p leto n C en tu ry Company, 1 929.
3
B ern ard Mason, " E d i t o r i a l , " Camping M agazine. X(May, 1 9 3 7 ), 2 2 .
31
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
Development o f G uidance ffrocedures.-
A survey o f the experimental
developm ent o f v a r io u s r a t i n g s an d o th e r te c h n iq u e s u se d i n th e g u id a n c e
program f o ll o w s .
Xn th e f i r s t summer (1932) d u r in g w h ic h a d e f i n i t e p ie c e
o f c h a r a c te r g u id a n c e was co n d ucted a t Lake L ure Camp, th e s u g g e s tio n s g iv e n
4
by Dimock a n d H endry w ere f o llo w e d .
The B eh av io r F req u en cy S c a le d e v is e d
by W atsonsand em ployed by Camp Ahmek was u s e d .
D uring t h e seco n d s e a s o n
(1 9 3 3 ), th e W atson E a tin g S cale was fo u n d to o lo n g and to o s u b j e c t i v e , and
McCloy’ s. s c a le f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n s i t u a t i o n s was u s e d w ith some r e v i s i o n s .
(Sea A p p en d ix .)
I n th e tix ird s e a s o n (1 9 3 4 ), n o r a t i n g s c a l e s w ere u s e d , b u t
o b s e r v a ti o n a l o r a l r e p o r t s were se c u re d and many c o u n s e lo rs * m e e tin g s w ere
h e ld i n w hich b o th t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l c a s e s o f b e h a v io r w ere d i s c u s s e d .
T his p ro c e d u re was fo u n d n o t to b e s o s a t i s f a c t o r y , s in c e th e r e was n o th in g
o b je c tiv e to e v a l u a te ch an g es i n p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r .
F o r th e f o u r t h s e a s o n (1 9 3 5 ), a r a t i n g s c a le o f tw e n ty ite m s , w h ich
was t h e outcom e o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s an d much m are o b j e c t i v e i n con­
t e n t , was em ployed (s e e A p p e n d ix .)
A n o th er s c a l e u s e d i n 1936 a n d 1937, b u t
o m itte d i n 1938, was more o b j e c t i v e th a n th e s c a l e i n 1935 (see A p p e n d ix .)
F o r th e s e a s o n o f 1 939, a s h o r t e r r a t i n g s c a l e e m p h a siz in g " s o c i a l ­
i z a t i o n ” o r * * p sy ch o lo g ical w ean in g ” w as d e v is e d .
d e s c r i p t i v e a n e c d o te s .
T h is was s u p p o r te d by
T hese a n e c d o te s showed i n t e r - a c t i o n b etw ee n th e
g i r l s in th e c a b in a s r e v e a le d by t h e i r c o n v e r s a tio n (see A p p e n d ix .)
E . S . Dimock an d C. E. H endry, Camping and C h a r a c te r .
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 . P p . 39 2 .
The
New Y ork:
Goodwin W atson, R a tin g S c a le s (O c c a s io n a l s tu d ie s ,N o . 2 ) . Ndss-York:
A ® o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1927. p p . 5 .
6 C. H. McCloy, " C h a ra c te r B u ild in g Through P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n ,”
The R e se a rc h Q u a r te r l y o f th e A m erican P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a ti o n , I
(O c to b e r, 1 9 3 0 ), 9 1 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
33
a n e c d o ta l reco rd in g tech n iq u e had b een u sed s in c e 1955*
B a tin g s c a l e s r e q u ir in g p e r so n a l e v a lu a tio n s are d i f f i c u l t to u s e .
T h eir c a r d in a l v a lu e in an endeavor to c a r r y out a m en tal h e a lth program
i s th a t th e y fo c u s a t t e n t io n upon more s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c ts o f b eh a v io r.
They have been used a t t h i s camp p r im a r ily f o r d ia g n o s tic p u r p o se s.
Among
t h e ir li m it a t io n s a s m easuring d ev ic es are th e fo llo w in g :
(1 )
C o -co u n selo rs who make judgments d i f f e r in em o tio n a l m a tu r ity ,
in s ig h t in to m alad ju stm ents, and t r a in in g .
(2)
O ften c o u n s e lo r s a re u n q u a lifie d to make sound judgm ents,
ja ck in g p r o f e s s io n a l t r a in in g .
(3)
T a lid judgments are a lm o st im p o ssib le fo r su ch t r a i t s a s
a t t it u d e s o f s u p e r io r it y or i n f e r i o r i t y toward o th e r s .
The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r a t in g s c a le a s a m easuring
d e v ic e are q u e s tio n a b le , due to th e above r e a so n s.
On the w h o le, th e r e l i ­
a b i l i t y o f b eh avior r a t in g s c a le s i s open to q u e s tio n .
H artshorne and May
in t h e i r C haracter E ducation In q u iry s tu d y , however, d isc o v e r e d th a t th e
in d ex o f b eh a v io r reached through a n e la b o r a te r a tin g s c a le was a s a ccu ra te
a s th e corresp on d in g in d ex b ased on a b a tte r y o f l i f e - s i t u a t i o n t e s t s .
7
From 1935 to datd th e mos t s ig n if ic a n t means of g a in in g in s ig h t
in to th e n eed s o f campers has been th e u se o f th e a n ecd o ta l r e c o r d s.
Lake
Lure Camp has depended on th e a n a ly s is o f beh avior through the use o f
a n ecd o tes or pen p o r t r a it s in d eterm inin g c h a r a c t e r is t ic b eh a v io r, ra th er
7
H.
Hartshorne and M. A. May, **A Summary o f the C haracter Edu­
c a t io n In q u ir y ," R e le g io u s E d u cation , .XXV (O ctob er,1 9 3 0 ), 7 5 4 -6 2 .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
th a n by a n a n a ly s is th ro u g h th e u s e o f r a t i n g s c a l e s .
The b e h a v io r r a t i n g s
w hich h ad b een u s e d were supplem ented by th e a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a l, b e ­
g in n in g i n 1 9 3 5 .
The r a t i n g s have been o m itte d s in c e 1937 i n f a v o r o f th e
" g e s t a l t e d " view o b ta in e d by more in f o r m a l m ethods o f a p p r a i s a l .
Case Method A p p lie d
D ata c o n c e rn in g e v e ry camper a r e assem b led i n a n in d i v i d u a l
re c o rd f o ld e r .
The s t a t u s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s o b s e rv e d , d a t a a r e c o l­
l e c t e d , and a d ia g n o s is m ade.
fo llo w -u p .
R em edial p r o c e d u r e s a r e a p p lie d w ith a
These s t e p s conform to th e r e q u i s i t e s f o r c a se stu d y te c h n iq u e s .
8
The p e r s o n n e l p ro c e d u re s u s e d in a p p ly ir g th e c a s e m ethod fo llo w c l o s e l y
M o r r is o n 's s u g g e s tio n s .
9
E x am in atio n and H e a lth S t a t u s . -
A m e d ic a l c e r t i f i c a t e from th e
fa m ily p h y s ic ia n a n d a p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n a d m in is te re d by th e camp phy­
s i c i a n a t th e o p en in g o f camp r e v e a l d a t a t h a t may be t r e a t e d as h av in g
p e r s o n a l i t y im p lic a tio n s .
S c h o o l, F a m ily , and S o c ia l H is to r y . -
Pre-cam p in te r v ie w s by
th e d i r e c t o r o r c o u n s e lo r s , th e c o n f i d e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s tio n n a ir e f i l l e d
in by p a r e n t s , an d c o n ta c ts w ith o th e r p e r s o n s su p p ly th e n eeded d a ta a lo n g
w ith t h e in f o r m a tio n r e g i s t e r e d on th e a p p l i c a t i o n r e c o r d .
8
9
p p . 6 1 8 -3 9 .
Good, B a r r , and S c a t e s , op. p i t . , p p . 5 6 5 -7 5 , 5 8 9 -9 2 .
H.
C h icag o :
C. M o rriso n , The P r a c t i c e o f T each in g i n th e S eco n d ary S c
U n iv e r s it y o f C hicago P r e s s , 1931.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
D ia g n o s is , T re a tm e n t, a n d F o llo w -u p . -
By t h e u se o f t h e a n e c ­
d o t a l re c o r d in g te c h n iq u e , a lo n g w ith i n c i d e n t a l d a t a , th e cam p er’ s b e h a v io r
s t a t u s i s a n a ly z e d and d is o u s s e d by th e s t a f f .
S i t u a t i o n s a n d e x p e r ie n c e s
to m eet th e n eeds a r e p ro v id e d i n t h e program a n d i n c o o p e r a tiv e l i v i n g .
The c s b in le a d e r r e p o r t s t o th e c r u i s e r a b o u t th e f o llo w - u p .
S he ch eck s to
d e te rm in e w h e th e r t h e s u g g e s te d r e m e d ia l m e a su re s recommended b y th e c r u i s e r
o r p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r have b e e n e f f e c t i v e .
C ase R e c o rd in g . -
A f t e r th e opening o f camp th e f i r s t te c h n iq u e
u t i l i z e d f o r a n a ly z in g th e b e h a v io r s t a t u s o f th e cam pers i s t h e a n e c d o ta l
b e h a v io r j o u r n a l .
The a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r j o u r n a l i s th e d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t
o f c o -c o u n s e lo rs who l i v e i n t i m a t e l y w ith e i g h t cam pers a n d r e c o r d s i g n i f i ­
c a n t a c t s and a t t i t u d e s , r e v e a lin g th e p h y s ic a l an d s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t t o
th e c a b in g ro u p .
o b s e rv e .
The c o u n s e lo r s a r e g iv e n i n s t r u c t i o n s on w h at an d how to
The s ta te m e n t o f p u r p o s e , d i r e c t i o n s , and s u g g e s tiv e ite m s o f
b e h a v io r to be d e s c r ib e d i n th e c a n p e r ’ s jo u r n a l , a s p r e s e n te d t o th e co u n se­
l o r s , a r e re p ro d u c e d b elo w ;
IAKE HJRE CMP
The A n e c d o ta l B eh av io r J o u r n a l
P u rp o s e : An o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e c o r d o f cam p ers’ b e h a v io r , d e s ig n e d :
(1) To in c r e a s e c o u n s e lo r s ’ i n s i g h t i n t o campers* n e e d s ;
(2) To p r o v id e in f o r m a tio n an d i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l f o r g u id a n c e
s e rv ic e ;
(3) And to s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r e v a lu a tin g changes in b e h a v io r ,
and f o r t h e sumnaxy r e p o r t m a ile d t o p a r e n t o f cam per’ s
p ro g re ss.
D i r e c t i o n s : S i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t s i n d i e a l i n g w hat cam per d o es o r
s a y s a r e r e c o rd e d c h r o n o lo g io a lly by c a b in c o u n s e lo r s a s w e l l a s
t h e i r canm ents r e v e a l i n g g ro u p i n t e r a c t i o n . The f o llo w in g q u e s tio n s
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
a r e s u g g e s tiv e ite m s f o r a n e c d o te s :
A c c e p ta b ility S ta tu s ;
1 . Does cam per a c c e p t new in - g r o u p (h e r own c a b in g ro u p ) o r
r e f e r c o n s t a n t l y t o home a s s o c i a t e s ?
2 . Does in -g ro u p a c d e p t cam p er, o r i s she u n p o p u la r due t o :
(1) Q u a r r e lin g - a r o u s in g an tag o n ism ?
(2 ) la c k in g c o n s id e r a tio n a n d c o u r te s y f o r o t h e r s ?
(3 ) S e e k in g l i m e l i g h t by b r a g g in g , b o a s tin g , show ing o f f ?
(4 ) R e fu s in g to c o o p e r a te ?
(5) D om in eerin g , a c t i n g s ig > e rio r, b o ssy ?
(6 ) S e l f - e f f a c i n g , tim id ?
(7) M aking a l i b i s f o r m is ta k e s and d e f i c i e n c i e s ?
3* Does cam per mix w e ll? I s h e r f r i e n d s h i p d e s ir e d by o t h e r
th a n c a b in g ro u p ?
4 . I s cam per p o is e d in g i r l - b o y a f f a i r s ?
S o c ia liz a tio n .
D oes Camper:
1 . A c c e p t w i l l i n g l y c a b in d u t i e s : Making b e d , la u n d ry l i s t s ,
sw e ep in g , e t o . , and n o t e x p e c t h e lp frc m o th e r s i n a c t i v i t i e s
t h a t s h o u ld b e done a lo n e ?
2 . Make d e c i s i o n s an d n o t r e l y a lw a y s upon c o u n s e lo rs * o p in io n s
( i n d i c a t i n g o v e r-d e p e n d e n c e ? )
3* C o n tr ib u te s u g g e s tio n s w h ic h a r e re c o g n iz e d an d a c c e p te d b y
g ro u p ?
4 . C o o p erate r e a d i l y a n d s e r v e w i l l i n g l y i n c a b in p r o j e c t s , s t u n t s ,
an d so n g s?
5 . V o lu n te e r f o r s e r v ic e f o r good o f g ro u p ?
6 . Assume l e a d e r s h i p in g ro u p ?
7.
Make
good o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d develop u n f in i s h e d t a s k s ?
8 * Have
a s e n s e o f a c h ie v e m e n ts , c o n fid e n c e in own a b i l i t y , a n d
m eet p ro b lem s w ith o u t tu r n in g to o t h e r s f o r h e lp ?
9 . Always conform t o and obey r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s ?
1 0 . Have c o u ra g e o f h e r c o n v i c tio n s , o r i s she alw ay s a " y e s "
cam per a n d f o ll o w in -g r o u p o r c a b in -m a te fro m home town?
1 1 . A ccep t c r i t i c i s m and g u id a n c e o f c o u n s e lo r , p r o f i t i n g b y i t
r a t h e r th a n alw ay s m aking a l i b i s ?
12.
Have s e l f - c o n t r o l i n a n n o y in g s i t u a t i o n s ?
13.
Seem n e a t , c l e a n , an d o r d e r l y and c a r e f u l w ith b e lo n g in g s ?
E x c e r p t from Camper’ s J o u r n a l . -
The e x c e r p t re p ro d u c e d i s a n
i l l u s t r a t i o n o f th e c o u n s e lo r ’ s f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n a l summary made a f t e r
t h r e e t o f o u r days o f camp; i t in c lu d e s a l s o th e d a i l y a n e c d o te s r e c o r d e d
by th e c a b in c o u n s e lo r , a s w e ll a s th e f i n a l s y n t h e t i c summary.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
Bobbie i s a new camper in the c o u n s e lo r -tr a in in g d iv is i o n . She
i s a d a p ta b le to the campers and v ery f r ie n d ly to the g i r l s . Yery co n scio u s
o f her appearance and i s a f f e c t e d in her manner—ra th er bragadocious o f her
nnumerous a b i l i t i e s ” and knows sane th in g about every s k i l l m en tion ed . She
t a lk s c o n s ta n tly o f boys and p a r t ie s and a c t s s o p h is t ic a t e d . The other
cab in members a r e n ’ t much concerned about such s o p h is t ic a t io n and p o l i t e l y
ign ore i t . She o f t e n r e f e r s to her c o u n s e lo r -in -tr a in in g d u t ie s and h o ld s
h e r s e lf above th e o th e r g i r l s ’ l e v e l . She d o esn ’ t a s s i s t in th e ca b in d u tie s
v ery w e l l —u s u a lly i s prim ping b e fo r e the m irr o r.
J u ly 4th - Wot in t e r e s t e d in g o in g t o boys* camp fo r p ic n ic . How­
e v e r , tad a grand tim e and im t some o f th e o ld e r b oys.
J u ly 5th - B oys, boys, and more b o y s. Talks too much o f soph­
i s t i c a t e d a f f a i r s . D oesn’t seem to in flu e n c e th e o th e r s .
J u ly 6th - S i t s a t d r e ssin g t a b le and h a sn ’ t swept th e cabin y e t .
Forced enthusiasm over s k i l l s but c a n 't swim w e l l .
J u ly 7th - Assumes too much a u t h o r it y , as a c o u n s e lo r - in - t r a in in g .
T ries t o make cabin-raates e a t what th ey should a t the ta b le and th ey r e s e n t
it.
J u ly 8 th - "Up in th e sky". T h r ille d over b ein g a b le t o r id e
Charles'-, one o f th e s p ir it e d h o r s e s , b u t d isg u ste d th a t she i s n ’ t a llo w e d
to go out on a d a te.
J u ly 9th - R e s tin g in th e h o s p it a l w ith a c o ld .
J u ly 11th - Out o f th e h o s p it a l. ”1 am goin g t o ta k e i t ea sy
f o r I don’ t f e e l v ery s tr o n g ." However, managed to be r e le a s e d from h o s p it a l
in tim e f o r square dance f o r one o f the v i s i t i n g camps.
J u ly 13th - H eld h er head during m eals and w o u ld n 't e a t lunch or
d in n er. When I su g g este d th a t she go se e th e nurse she r e p lie d , "Oh, I have
ju st had too much to do in d eco ra tin g for the barn dance." She r e a l l y made
a gingham d r e s s fo r one o f th e cab in -m ates and did p a r t ic ip a t e i n the de­
c o r a tio n .
J u ly 14th - S le p t a l l a fte r n o o n . One o f her cab in -m ates c a lle d
h er, "the glamour g i r l " . She outwardly p r o te s te d but seemed in w ard ly p le a s ­
ed a t th e remark.
J u ly 16th - Taken q u it e a fancy to one o f her ca b in -m a tes. (Hope
th is w i l l prove b e n e f i c i a l ) .
J u ly 17th - Borrowed from her new f r ie n d a s h i r t . Judge i t was
n ecessa ry a s she le a v e s h er own c lo th e s s c a t t e r e d a b ou t and th ey g e t s o i l e d .
J u ly 18th - A ccep ted the L. L. C. c h a llen g e a t c o u n c il r in g .
Hope i t w i l l be an in s p ir a t io n . She d o esn ’ t d is c u s s or ask q u e s tio n s about
the id e a l s or camp a s do her ca b in -m a tes.
J u ly 19th - Appeared w i l l i n g for her tu rn a t sw eep in g, but d id
not do i t v ery s u c c e s s f u lly .
J u ly 20th - She i s o v e r ly p o l i t e and gu sh in g to p eo p le she w ish e s
to c u lt i v a t e but g la r e s r u d e ly and is a b ru p t to th ose sh e d o esn ’ t li k e a t
th e t a b le .
J u ly 2 1 s t - She i s n ’ t assum ing her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s v ery s e r io u s ly ;
la t e in th e c r a f t shop and i s not doing any more than i s su g g e ste d in th e
c a b in .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38
J u ly 22nd - C ontinuously p u ts t e r th in g s on f r ie n d s ' bed and i s
q u ite u n tid y .
J u ly 23rd - Executed a c le v e r b it o f d esig n on th e donkey’ s head
far the p la y . R eceived rnucn p r a is e frcm her a c tin g i n "Midsummer R ig h t’ s
Dream".
J u ly 25th - O bjected to th e id ea of one o f her cab in -m ates b ein g
moved out and changing p la c e s w it h one of the g i r l s who a tten d ed her s c h o o l.
"I j u s t can ’ t l i v e w ith h er. I t j u s t c a n ’ t b e .”
J u ly 26th - She ta lk ed a g r e a t d ea l to the cabin about o b je c tin g
to th e change and th a t th ey sh ould have a d is c u s s io n w ith th e d ir e c t o r .
J u ly 27th - N othing more has been sa id s in c e change made and a l l
seems q u ie t a g a in .
J u ly 28th - She a v o id s d oin g ca b in clean -u p by b e in g o b liv io u s to
i t . F req u en tly s i t s on her bed and read s or f i x e s her h a ir u n t i l ask ed
s p e c i f i c a l l y to do som ething, then she seems d e lig h te d .
J u ly 29th. - One of th e 0 . I . T’ s asked i f she would ta k e her tu rn ,
and
g e t th e horse from th e s t a b le . She r e lu c t a n t ly put down h er w r itin g
which she g la d ly reassumed w ith o u t comment when s e v e r a l o f the cab in -m ates
v o lu n teere d they would l i k e to g o .
J u ly 30th - Wrote a song fo r th e cab in c o n t e s t . She i s f a l l i n g
in l i n e and tr y in g t o fo llo w good exam ples o f her ca b in -m a tes.
J u ly 3 1 s t - She i s more n a tu r a l and not a s a f f e c t e d . D o esn 't
p it c h v o ic e low as fr e q u e n tly .
August 1 s t - Inwardly f la t t e r e d on having a p a rt i n the c a r n iv a l
program an d t r i e d hard. Perform ed v ery humbly b e fo r e the group.
A ugust 2nd - A tten d in g H en d erson ville horse hhow. T alk o f th e
cab in th e l a s t few d ays.
August 5 th - My c r it ic is m s of her u n co o p era tiv e a t t it u d e have been
e f f e c t i v e . E s p e c ia lly in morning clea n -u p and prom ptness.
August 15th - C ontinues to show improvement in h er a t t it u d e toward
th e
group. Does more th o u g h tfu l th in g s fo r th e group.
August 20th - Making an e f f o r t to adapt h e r s e lf to th e ca b in p ro­
j e c t s . She l i k e s being g iv e n sa n eth in g e s p e c ia l ly so t h a t "she can show her
s k i l l " . Has been v e r y c o n s c ie n tio u s in h er d u tie s when g iv e n a ta s k to do.
August 2 1 s t - Has been w ork in g very hard on d eco ra tio n s and in ­
v it a t i o n s fo r th e p a r ty , e s p e c ia l ly when oth ers have f a i l e d to show up.
August 22nd - Stopped to f i x one of her ca b in -m a te’ s h a ir . D if ­
f i c u l t ta s k , y e t p a tie n t in s p it e of the f a c t t h a t she was ready to go
down fo r the p a r ty .
Cabin L ead er's S y n th e tic Summary. - Bobbie has made much p ro g ress
in camp, e s p e c ia l ly the l a s t few w eeks. She has fo r g o tte n h e r s e lf to a g r e a t
e x t e n t . She i s not a s a f f e c t e d ; having come down to r e a l i t y , she i s b e tte r
lik e d , n o t o n ly by h er in-group but o th e r s . R eceiv in g r e c o g n itio n fo r her
dram atic and a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s has done much far her a t t it u d e .
She i s s t i l l u n tid y and d oesn ’ t coop erate u n le s s she has som ething
im portant to do. In sm aller everyday th in g s sh e le a v e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
to o th e r s . As soon a s she comes in to the cab in sh e spraw ls on the bed and
i s o b liv io u s to o th ers w h ile r ea d in g . She i s n ' t prompt to a c t i v i t i e s and
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
39
h a s p a r t i c i p a t e d o n ly i n r i d i n g and swimming a n d some t e n n i s , n ow ever, she
has s p e n t more th a n to o h o u rs a day i n th e c r a f t s h o p , a s t h i s i s h e r s p e c i a l
in te re s t.
i n some m easu re she lias overcam e h e r g ra n d s ta n d p la y and a f f e c t e d
m an n erism s. She i s a p o lo g e tic i n a c a t e r i n g m anner when h e r a t t e n t i o n i s
c a l l e d to h e r th o u g h tle s s n e s s . She i s s t i l l s e l f - c e n t e r e d , b u t th e grow th
h as been m arked i n t h a t th e group a c c e p t h e r a n d ev en seek h e r com panion­
s h ip . une mi (git b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d h e r g ro w th a f t e r h e r c o n f i d e n t i a l re m a rk s:
”1 t h i n k t h a t la k e L ure h a s ta u g h t me to have b e t t e r s e l f - c o n t r o l . 1 hope
I ’ ve le a r n e d n o t to s a y u n k in d th in g s and n o t to be a f f e c t e d . I want to
go on im p ro v in g i n e v e ry w ay. l th i n k camp ha s made me w ant to im prove an d
I w an t to th a n k you f o r g iv i n g me th e i n i t i a t i v e . **
G uidance p ro c e d u re s in m ffe c t a t P r e s e n t
P e rso n n e l P ro c e d u re s. -
As shown i n 'fa b le I , th e r e h a s been a
g r a d u a l dev elo p m en t o f th e f o llo w in g p e r s o n n e l p r o c e d u r e s w hich a r e now i n
e f f e c t a t Lake L ure Oamp.
I.
C o n f id e n tia l in f o r m a tio n i s g a th e r e d frcm p a r e n t s , te a c h e r s , d o c to r s ,
and o th e r p e rs o n s who h av e had c o n t a c t wi th th e cam per, by means o f
th e f o llo w in g :
a . C o n f id e n tia l q u e s tio n n a ir e s f i l l e d i n b y p a r e n t s (s e e A p p e n d ix ).
b . S o c i a l c a se h i s t o r i e s w orked o u t b y camp d i r e c t o r from s o u rc e s
s u g g e s te d above i n p re-cam p in t e r v ie w s an d d a ta from a p p l i c a t i o n
b la n k s .
c . S c r u tin y o f m e d ic a l and h e a l t h r e c o r d s from fa m ily p h y s ic ia n and
c o n s id e r a tio n o f p h y s i c a l e x a m in a tio n s g iv e n a t t h e b e g in n in g
o f cam p.
(The in f o r m a tio n i s t r e a t e d a s h a v in g p e r s o n a l i t y im­
p l i c a t i o n s , a s w e ll a s b e in g u s e d to l i m i t program a c t i v i t i e s . )
The p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r a n d g u id a n ce c o u n s e lo r s u s e th e s e d a ta i n
a s s ig n in g cam pers to c a b in s an d i n h e lp in g c o u n s e lo r s become a c ­
q u a in te d w ith t h e i r c a b in g r o u p s .
The a s s ig n m e n ts a r e made on th e
b a s is o f c h r o n o lo g ic a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l a g e , s o c i a l d ev elo p m en t,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
40
f r i e n d s , a n d p r o x im ity o f a r e a s { fo r c a r r y - o v e r f r i e n d s h i p s ) .
II.
A n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a ls a r e k e p t d a i l y and sum m arized p e r i o d i c a l ­
l y by th e camp c o u n s e lo r , w ith o c c a s io n a l s u p p le m e n ta ry r e c o r d s by
a c t i v i t i e s c o u n s e lo r , an d b y s e c t i o n a l l e a d e r s .
T hese a r e th e m o st
im p o r ta n t s o u r c e s o f in f o r m a tio n a b o u t th e c a m p e r's p h y s i c a l a n d
s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t to camp and a b o u t i n c i d e n t s w h ich r e v e a l p e r ­
s o n a l i t y t r a i t 3 an d p ro b le m s.
III.
S o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e s a r e ch eck ed a t th e end o f th e f i r s t , f o u r t h ,
and e ig h th weeks o f camp by tw o c o u n s e lo r s f o r e v e ry g i r l .
IV .
C o u n s e lo r s ' m e e tin g a r e h e ld to d e a l w ith c a s e s of im a g in a ry and
a c t u a l b e h a v io r an d m aking s u g g e s tio n s f o r p o s s i b le s o l u t i o n s o f
b e h a v io r n e e d s .
V.
Camper in te r v ie w s a r e g iv e n when n e c e s s a r y to g a in r a p p o r t i n s o l u t i o n
o f m a la d ju s te d b e h a v io r .
F re q u e n t i n d i v i d u a l c a m p e r-c o u n s e lo r and
d i r e c t o r c o n fe re n c e s a n d e v e n in g c a b in group d is c u s s io n s a b o u t a d ­
ju s tm e n t a r e a l s o h e l d .
V I.
C u m u lativ e a c t i v i t y r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e p r o g r e s s i n s k i l l s .
A c tiv ity
c o u n s e lo r s announce -the p a s s in g o f a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s a t c o u n c il
rin g .
(The s ta n d a r d s i n th e s e t e s t s h av e b e e n co m p iled by j o i n t
p la n n in g o f a c t i v i t y c o u n s e lo r s a n d program d i r e c t o r an d f i t th e
n eed s o f th e camp u n d e r s tu d y .
The cam per i s a llo w e d t o p a i n t on
h e r b e l t i n th e c r a f t s h o p , th e sy m b o ls f o r th e a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s . )
V II.
W eekly r e p o r t c a r d s , m a ile d to p a r e n t s an d f i l l e d i n c o o p e r a tiv e l y
by
cam per an d h e r c a b in c o u n s e lo r , r e p o r t a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , h e a l t h ,
h a b i t s , and a t t i t u d e s (s e e A p p e n d ix ).
V III.
Summary p a r e n t a l r e p o r t s a r e p r e p a re d a t th e en d o f th e s e a s o n
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
41
i n d i c a t i n g grow th i n p e r s o n a l i t y , h e a l t h , s k i l l , an d a c h ie v e m e n t.
S o u rc e s o f d a ta a r e th e a n e c d o te s , th e c u m u la tiv e h e a l t h r e p o r t s by
n u r s e , an d th e a c h ie v e m e n t r e p o r t s .
IX .
T e s tim o n ie s from each camper on "what camp h as done f a r me" a r e sub­
m i t t e d a t th e c lo s e of camp.
C u m u lativ e I n d i v i d u a l .Record F o ld e r . -
The a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a r e
a ssem b led alo n g w ith th e o t h e r r e c o r d s , c o n f i d e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s tio n n a ir e
f i l l e d i n b y p a r e n t s , h e a l t h r e p o r t s , b e h a v io r r a t i n g s , s k i l l a n d ach iev em en t
t e s t s , n o te s an s o c io -e c o n o m ic s t a t u s , a n d o th e r s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t a l d a ta
i n t o a c u m u lativ e in d i v i d i a l f o l d e r .
This f o l d e r i s a c c e s s i b l e to a l l s t a f f
members a n d i s k e p t i n th e c o u n s e lo rs * w ork roctn.
The p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r
and th e c r u i s e r s a r e th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s who ch eck and u s e t h i s
m a te ria l re g u la rly .
th e c lo s e o f camp.
W r it te n te s tim o n ie s from th e cam pers a r e o b ta in e d a t
The c u m u la tiv e h e a l th a n d a c h ie v e m e n t r e c o r d , i n a d d i t i o n
to th e p a r e n t a l summary r e p o r t o f th e sum m er's e x p e r ie n c e , a r e f i l e d i n
t h e campers* c u m u la tiv e i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d .
Summary
A th o ro u g h p ro g ram o f p e r s o n n e l a n a l y s i s a n d b e h a v io r a d ju s tm e n t
i s i n o p e r a tio n a t Lake Lure Camp.
The d e s c r i p t i o n o f how la k e Lure Camp
a p p ro a c h e s th e t a s k o f p e r s o n n e l g u id a n ce M s b e e n i n d i c a t e d .
I t re c o g ­
n iz e s th e supreme w o rth o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a n d d e l i b e r a t e l y se e k s th e
grow th a n d c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s io n o f a cam per in te rm s o f h e r i n d i v i d u a l
a b i l i t i e s , in te r e s ts , an d a p titu d e s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IV
THE CATTRIBUTION OF THE CASE I.EETHOD TO INSIGHT INTO
THE EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL NEEDS OF THE CAMPEB
I n tr o d u c t io n
S ig n if i c a n c e o f S o c i a l i z a t i o n i n Camping, -
The summer camp i s
u n e q u a le d i n i t s o p p o r tu n ity f o r th e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f b e h a v io r .
E very e f f o r t
s h o u ld b e made to g u id e th e s o c i a l an d e m o tio n a l a d ju s tm e n t o f each c h i l d ,
i n a n a tte m p t to b r i n g a b o u t h ap p y , s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g i n camp.
g u id a n c e i s a c r u c i a l one i n cam ping to d a y .
The n eed f o r
I n o rd e r t h a t th e program may
be in d i v i d u a l i z e d , a n i n t e l l i g e n t e f f o r t m ust b e made t o g u id e th e b e h a v io r
o f i t s cam p ers.
A g u id a n ce s e r v ic e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e b e s t developm ent
o f e v e ry c h i l d , w h eth er sh e b e n o u n al a n d w e ll a d j u s t e d , o r t h e o p p o s ite .
E s s e n t i a l l y th e ta s k o f g u id a n ce i s
to h e l p e v e ry c h i l d d ev elo p h e r
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , a s w e l l d e fin e d b y S tran g :^"
G uidance i s th e p ro c e s s o f s tu d y in g t h e i n d i v i d u a l an d b r in g in g
t o b e a r up o n him a J l th o s e i n f li e n e e s w hich may h e lp him , th ro u g h h i s own
e f f o r t , t o d ev elo p i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , a n d m o r a lly , t o
th e optimum e x t e n t o f h i s c a p a c it y f a r grow th an d s e r v ic e t o s o c i e t y .
F u n c tio n s o f C o u n s e lo rs .-
The m o st im p o r ta n t k in d o f s k i l l needed
i n a Sumner camp i s s k i l l in d e a lin g w ith c h i l d r e n ,
xhe d is c o v e r y o f
c h a r a c te r n e e d s , th e p ro m o tio n o f s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju s tm e n t, a n d g u id a n c e i n
in d i v i d u a l developm ent a r e th e p rim a ry f u n c tio n s o f t h e c o u n s e lo r s .
G uidance
i n camp may b e b ro a d ly d e fin e d a s t h e p r o v is io n o f th o s e e d u c a tio n a l
R uth S tr a n g , "G uidance a t Camp," Camping M agazine, IX (December,
1 9 3 7 ), 10.
42
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
43
e x p e r ie n c e s w hich h e lp th e cam per th ro u g h h e r own e f f o r t s t o d ev e lo p
d e s ir a b l e and s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r s o n a l i t y gro w th .
The common A pproaches to C o u n s e lin g . -
Two m ethods o f a p p ro a c h
have b een p r e v a le n t i n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g summer camp p ro g ra m s f o r t h e p a s t
d eca d e:
1.
C o u n s e lo r o b s e r v a tio n o f th e camper w ith o u t u s e o f s p e c i f i c
te c h n iq u e s .
2.
The u s e o f s p e c i f i c te c h n iq u e s su ch a s t e s t s , re c o r d e d d e s ­
c r i p t i o n s o f b e h a v io r , a n d b e h a v io r r a t i n g s c a l e s , a n d o t h e r in f o r m a tio n
se c u re d a b o u t th e cam per.
E x p e rie n c e o f Lake L ure Camp w ith R e c o rd s . -
The c o u n s e lin g p r o ­
gram a t la k e Lure Camp i s b ased u p o n th e a ssu m p tio n t h a t o n ly th ro u g h th e
u s e o f d e t a i l e d w r i t t e n r e c o r d s can a d e q u a te in s L g h t and u n d e r s ta n d in g o f
th e camper and h e r p ro b le m s b e o b ta in e d .
The e d u c a t i o n a l aim o f t h e camp
d e te rm in e s th e r e c o r d s n e c e s s a r y f o r b a s ic in f o r m a tio n i n th e s e r v ic e o f
g u id a n c e .
L im ita tio n s Upon Case S tu d y A p p ro ach . have h e lp e d i n d ia g n o s in g th e p ro b lem s o f cam p ers.
The a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s
No a d e q u a te c l i n i c a l
d ia g n o s is c a n be m ade, h o w ev er, s in c e t h i s i s im p o s s ib le f o r a camp s i t u a t i o n .
The camp m ust ta k e th e camper a s i t f i n d s h e r an d do w h a t i t c a n w ith th e
in fo rm a tio n s e c u re d ab o u t t h e camper from in te r v ie w s c o n d u cted w h ile camp­
e r s a r e b e in g s o l i c i t e d , a n d from p a r e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n c i d e n t a l d a t a ,
an d o b s e r v a ti o n a l r e c o r d s k e p t by c o u n s e lo r s .
is n o t p o s s ib le .
An i d e a l c l i n i c a l c a s e s tu d y
Camps do n o t have a v a i l a b l e th e f a m ily h i s t o r y and g e n e t ic
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44
developm ent o f the c h il d .
so n n e l r e c o r d s.
Lake Lure i s no e x c e p tio n in i t s u se o f p er­
There a re c e r t a in l i m i t s beyond which the camp cannot g o.
F u n ction o f th e C r u ise r . -
The c r u is e r has a c c e s s to th e p er­
so n n e l reco rd s k ep t in th e co u n se lo r s * work room.
I t i s her duty to make
a study o f th e a n e c d o ta l b eh avior jo u rn a l and t y p ic a l in fo rm a tio n in clu d ed
in th e in d iv id u a l record f o ld e r o f th o se campers who fin d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y
in making an a d ju stm en t to camp l i f e .
A fte r t h is s tu d y , supplem ented by
c o n feren ces w ith th e ca b in le a d e r and o b se r v a tio n o f th e camper (w ith o u t
h er knowing i t ) ,
the c r u is e r makes rem ed ial s u g g e s t io n s .
U s u a lly th e se
a re made d i r e c t l y to the a c t i v i t y c o u n se lo r s and fo llo w e d up by the ca b in
c o u n s e lo r s .
V alu es o f A n e cd o tes. -
The a n ecd o tes su g g e st "hunches" or le a d s
for g u id in g and working w ith campers.
T heir im portant fu n c tio n i s sharp­
en in g th e judgment o f c o u n se lo r s and c o n tr ib u tin g u n d erstan d in g fo r th e
in d iv id u a liz a t io n o f th e camp program.
They do n o t g iv e c o n c lu s iv e
ev id en ce in th e m se lv e s, and do n o t le n d th em selv es to s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t ­
m ent.
The guidance v a lu e s which have a ccru ed from t h e ir u se over a p erio d
of f iv e y ea rs may be c i t e d a s f o llo w s :
A.
They su p p ly data to th e c r u is e r s and th e p erso n n el d ir e c t o r
a s a b a s is f o r t e n t a t iv e a n a ly s is and fo rm u la tio n o f a
method o f treatm en t by th e co u n se lo r .
B.
They supply needed data f o r th e d ir e c t o r ’ s c o u n s e lin g in
camper in t e r v ie w s .
C.
They a i d th e c o u n selo r in th e p e r so n a l in te r v ie w w ith th e
camper.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
45
D,
They furnish, data f o r pre-sam p co n fere n c es o f the d ir e c t o r
w ith th e s t a f f ; a ls o , the r e c o r d s are used to a s s i s t in h an dlin g
retu rn ed campers.
E.
They a id th e d ir e c to r in :
1.
D eveloping s t a f f le a d e r s h ip ,
2.
P ro v id in g more f r u t i f u l c o n ta c ts and co n fere n c es
w ith th e s t a f f ,
3.
E v a lu a tin g th e c o u n s e lo r s ,
4.
E nabling in d iv id u a liz in g o f program, and
5.
G iving a b a s is fa r s t a f f m eetin g s and d is c u s s io n s .
The record s have been stu d ie d in d iv id u a lly and are la r g e ly
p r e se n te d in the form o f in d iv id u a l r e p o r t s , a s i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the p o s­
s i b l e v a lu e s o f th e a n e c d o ta l b eh avior jo u r n a l.
A n a ly sis and treatm en t
n e c e s s a r ily run to g e th e r in th e s e ca se s k e tc h e s ;
f o r , i n p o in t o f f a c t ,
the camp p erso n n el has to do som ething th e moment th e a d o le s c e n t becomes
a camper.
A tr a n s c r ib e d in d iv id u a l rec o rd f o ld e r o f the o r ig in a l data u sed
in making one o f th e ca se sk e tc h e s or in d iv id u a l r e p o r ts i s in clu d ed in th e
ap p en d ix.
A l l o f the ca se sk e tc h e s i n t h is ch a p ter a re su bm itted a s
ev id en ce o f th e v a lu e o f th e a n e c d o ta l b eh a v io r jo u rn a l a s a guidance
tech n iq u e .
Value in D iagn osin g Problems and Form ulating
P la n o f Treatment
V alue to C ru isers and P er so n n el D ir e c t o r .-
The a n ecd o tes su pp ly
data which are needed by crtu isers and th e p erso n n el d ir e c to r f o r in c r e a se d
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
i n s ig h t , in order th a t th e se guidance o f f i c e r s may malce a t e n t a t iv e
a n a ly s is ,
form ulate a method o f treatm ent and a s s i s t th e cou n selor
to d ir e c t and r e d ir e c t u n favorab le behavior p a tte r n s .
The fo llo w in g
case s k e tc h e s , organ ized from c o u n s e lo r s ' a n e c d o te s, show the v a lu e o f
th e a n ecd o ta l b eh avior jou rn al a s a guidance d e v ic e from the a n g le o f
d ia g n o sis and trea tm en t.
*
Case I : Jane - A Problem o f S e lf-C o n s c io u s n e s s . I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Jane f i r s t came t o camp when sh e was fo u r te e n .
She was overgrown, a d o le s c e n t, hom esick, and ta lk e d c o n s ta n tly o f her
p aren ts and f r ie n d s a t home. Her mother and fa th e r drove to camp w ith
her cab in c o u n se lo r -to -b e who had been one o f her tea ch er s th a t y ea r.
The p aren ts thought Jane to be a capable g i r l who needed to mix w ith
c h ild r e n and not be s a t i s f i e d alw ays w ith a d u lt company.
She was lik e a b le and was a ccep ted by her in -g ro u p , but she sp en t
an e n d le ss amount o f time w r itin g l e t t e r s . She did not p a r t ic ip a t e in
a c t i v i t i e s , and w it h much p ersu a sio n her c o u n selo r ( o f whom she was very
fond) persuaded her not to remain in her cabin a f t e r r e s t hour w r itin g
l e t t e r s , but t o go a lo n g w ith the g 3 lf group. Her mother was. an xiou s
th a t she le a rn how to p la y . Jane was r e lu c t a n t about ta k in g any o f th e
h ik e s . When she d id g o , she seemed to t i r e e a s i l y and sp en t the a f t e r ­
noon in bed, remarking to h er co u n se lo r , nI have had the b e s t tim e a l l
day, j u s t s ta y in g in , w r itin g l e t t e r s , and l i s t e n i n g to th e r a d io ."
Her co u n selo r ta lk e d to h er ab ou t th e need o f b ein g a good
m ixer. One sh ould n o t sta y in the cab in a l l day w r itin g l e t t e r s . Jane
to ld h e r , "I know you are r ig h t ah ou t c o r r e c tin g me fo r sen d in g so many
l e t t e r s home and n o t tr y in g to make new f r ie n d s h ere. I am h o n e s tly
goin g to tr y to m ix more and n o t M s s the f o lk s at home so much." She
made an e f f o r t fo r a sh o rt tim e, but soon dropped back, b ein g p e r f e c t ly
con ten t in read in g or w r itin g and seek in g o n ly th e company of her counse­
lo r . F req u en tly sh e went w alk in g w ith th e co u n selo r r a th e r than
p a r tic ip a t e in ev en in g r e c r e a t io n a l games. On o v ern ig h t h ik e s no one from
the cab in asked her to be a bunk-mate, so sh e always s le p t b esid e her
co u n selo r. She seemed to la c k s e lf - c o n f id e n c e and to fe a r making advances
to the in -group t o promote her a c c e p t a b ilit y s t a t u s . She did n o t have
one c lo s e f r ie n d .
A ll c a s e s d isc u sse d in t h is d is s e r t a t io n are numbered con­
s e c u t iv e ly , w ith ou t r e fe r e n c e to c h a p te r s.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
D ia g n o s is . - The a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s were used in d ia g n o sin g
t h i s c a s e . A l l o f th e f a c t s n oted above were made m a tters of reco rd in
J a n e 's behavior jo u rn a l, by th e ca b in c o u n s e lo r . They were f i l e d in th e
cou n selors* cab in and were th e r e in s p e c te d by th e c r u is e r . The c r u is e r
n oted the c o u n s e lo r 's r e p o r t t h a t Jane was having d i f f i c u l t y making
adjustm ent to her ca b in m a tes. She a l s o n oted the concern w ith w r it in g ,
and th e d e s ir e to s t a y in the c a b in . By p erso n a l o b s e r v a tio n s , the
c r u is e r confirm ed th e s e r e p o r t s .
Rem edial Program .- A fte r c o n fere n c es w ith her ca b in co u n selo r
the c r u is e r su g g este d a s s ig n in g her t o a d e f in it e job w hich would r e s u l t
in h er being fo r c e d to le a v e th e ca b in and mix w ith o t h e r s . S in c e she
was in t e r e s t e d in w r itin g , i t was d ecid ed t o make her a r e p o r te r on the
p ap er. This fo rced her t o c i r c u la t e and make advances o th er than in her
in -g ro u p . The program d ir e c to r secu red one o f th e c o u n s e lo r s - in - t r a in in g
to encourage Jane to be her buddy i n a r e c r e a t io n a l swimming p e r io d in
th e aftern o o n on th e eruiserT s recom m endation. A lthough sh e was a good
swimmer, she n ever had gone because no one in h er in -g ro u p had a sk ed to
go w ith h e r .
E vidences o f I m p r o v e m e n t Both o f th ese m easures were o f
v a lu e , and th ere was e v id e n t growth in her a b i l i t y t o mix w ith o th e r s .
A t m id -sea so n when her f a th e r and m other came to s e e h e r , Jane
c r ie d . T h is i s a r a th e r n a tu r a l r e a c t io n fo r one who had p en t-u p f e e l in g s
of h o m esick n ess, but she wanted to go for a sh o rt r id e w ith them im­
m e d ia te ly . Her p aren ts ask ed her i f she wanted t o le a v e , and she s a id ,
"No” , an ev id e n c e o f a d e f i n i t e growth in p s y c h o lo g ic a l w eaning. She
v o lu n teere d to announce th e s tu n ts and on the fo llo w in g Sunday had a
p a rt i n th e c o u n c il r in g s e r v i c e s . She was eager to a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b ili t y :
"I want to work la r d so th a t I can be in c o u n s e lo r - in - t r a in in g n ex t y e a r ."
She ex p ressed h e r s e l f , ”1 lo v e camp more a l l the tim e and r e a l l y want to
take p a rt in e v e r y th in g ." She d id n ot t a l k of home in her c o n v e r sa tio n
to h er cab in -m ates so much. She worked d i l i g e n t l y on her l i f e - s a v i n g
and p assed th e Junior l i f e S avin g t e s t . She a tten d ed one of the fu n c tio n s
a t a n eigh b o rin g b o y s’ camp, but v e r y r e l u c t a n t l y , but on r e tu r n in g she
s a id , " It was one of the l o v e l i e s t p a r t ie s I have been t o ."
The s e c u r it y she gain ed frcm b e in g a c c e p te d h elp ed a g r e a t d e a l
in tran sform in g her a t t it u d e toward the group. She was n ot so r e t i r i n g ,
and th e r e was e v id e n t growth toward being a b e t t e r m ixer, n ot o n ly in
camp but in g ir l- b o y a f f a i r s . She was s t i l l co n scio u s o f her s i z e , however
and con tin u ed to be u n t i l sh e had a sen se o f achievem ent and o f s e c u r it y
in her group. But th e camp e x p e r ie n c e a id ed in w eaning her p s y c h o lo g ic a lly
Continued Use o f R ecord s. - P rev io u s record s on Jane were g iv e n
to th e co u n selo r who was to have th e le a d e r s h ip o f h er fo r the se a s o n . Her
duty was to study th e s e and d is c u s s them w ith the p erso n n el d ir e c t o r , in
order th a t she have a c le a r u n d erstan d in g o f the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t iv e s th a t
camp was d e sir o u s of o b ta in in g .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
F ollow -up in th e Second S ea so n . - There was an in te r im a f t e S th e
sea so n , h u t upon her retu rn she was p la c e d in the c o u n s e lo r -tr a in in g group,
one o f the recommendations o f the p rev io u s se a so n . She was v ery cap ab le
in swimming, r id in g , and t e n n is , hut because o f her s i z e , she was r e se r v e d
and made no c lo s e f r ie n d s . The o p p o r tu n ity o f having ta sk s w hich gave
her a sen se of ach ievem en t and r e c o g n it io n from th e group took away much
o f t h i s s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s .
Jane spent a g r e a t d e a l o f time a s a ju n io r Red Cross guard on
the w a te r fr o n t and was e n t h u s i a s t i c ab ou t g o l f . She h elp ed th e in s t r u c t o r
keep s c o r e s and g iv e in s t r u c t io n a l l e s s o n s . She took a c t u a l le a d e r sh ip in
a s s ig n in g c e r ta in numbers o f the group t o le s s o n s on c e r t a in d a y s.
She coop erated in ca b in p r o j e c t s and showed much more le a d e r sh ip
in o f f e r in g s u g g e s tio n s . F re q u en tly s h e v o lu n teere d her s e r v ic e s to th e
ca b in group and met a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e l l .
F in a l S t a t u s . - The sea so n c lo s e d w ith d e f i n i t e growth i n J a n e 's
s o c i a l i z a t i o n . W hile i t w i l l ta k e much more group l i v i n g and p a r t ic ip a t io n
in group a f f a i r s to h elp her se c u r e p o is e and more a g g r e s s iv e n e s s , she i s
a changed g i r l from th e v ery s e lf - c o n s c io u s Jane who f i r s t came to th e
camp.
Case 2 :
M arjorie - A Problem o f T im id ity . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - M arjorie was in camp two s e a s o n s , when she was
f i f t e e n and s e v e n te e n . She was q u ie t , tim id , a t t r a c t i v e , and alw ays
p le a s a n t . T h is was her f i r s t e x p e r ie n c e away from home. Being from a
la r g e fa m ily , she a d ju sted h e r s e l f in an unassuming way. She was f r a i l ,
n ot y e t p h y s i o lo g ic a lly m atured. She d id not swim, r i d e , p la y t e n n is , or
have any s k i l l s g i r l s her a g e h a v e . She had a fe a r o f w a ter.
D ia g n o s is . - The p e r so n n e l d ir e c t o r observed th a t M arjorie was
having d i f f i c u l t y in le a r n in g to swim. She had a fe a r o f th e w ater and
would n ot r e la x or respond to th e in s t r u c t io n . The c r u is e r rep o rte d th a t
a f t e r a stu d y o f h er jo u rn a l and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a tio n o f M arjo rie, she
was con vin ced th a t M arjorie needed in d iv id u a l a t t e n t io n in s k i l l s to h elp
overcome her t im id it y .
Rem edial P rogram .- The p erso n n el d ir e c to r had s o l i c i t e d her f o r
camp and was in t e r e s t e d in M a r jo r ie ’ s overcom ing a fe a r o f w a te r . She
took advantage o f th e o p p o rtu n ity o f knov/ing h er p rev io u s to camp and
su cceed ed i n d e v e lo p in g ra p p o rt. She "buddied" w ith h er during th e swim­
ming p e r io d s f o r s e v e r a l d a y s. D uring th e r e c r e a t io n a l swimming p e r io d s
she o ffe r e d s u g g e s tio n s and in c r e a s e d h er c o n fid en ce in h e r s e l f by p r a is e
f o r th a t which sh e was p r a c t ic in g . She a p p lie d h e r s e l f d i l i g e n t l y but
her p ro g ress was s lo w . She was e x c it e d , however, th a t th e d ir e c t o r was
h e lp in g h er w ith swimming. "Oh, I am doing s o much b e t t e r ," she s a id , and
seemed not to be a s a f r a id .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
49
The c r u is e r recommended to th e f in e a r t s department th a t a part
on san e o f th e a r t s ' n ig h t programs p o s s ib ly would be o f v a lu e . She need­
ed group a p p roval, far thus f a r she had n ot gained any thorough r e c o g n itio n
by her s k i l l s , a s had o th e r g i r l s . The dram atic cou n selor gave her a
le a d in g p a rt in "Snow White and th e Seven D warves.” She was p r a ise d fo r
her c h a r a c te r iz a tio n o f Doc, and i t brought her g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n . She
was n ot e n t h u s ia s t ic in a tte n d in g j o in t a f f a i r s w ith b o y s, a s one her
age should b e . This was due to h er la t e p h y s io lo g ic a l m a tu ra tio n .
B vidences o f Improvement. - During the summer she was q u ie t and
c a r e fu l n o t to d is tu r b any o f her eab in -m ates on Sundays when sh e had to
get up e a r ly f o r m ass. Hear the end o f camp sh e swam one hundred y a rd s.
She beamed when the camp san g to h er fo r th e accom plishm ent. But sh e was
fo rced to le a v e camp e a r ly , due to a sudden s e r io u s i l l n e s s i n th e fa m ily .
She was calm a t r e c e iv in g the news and showed much more s e l f - c o n t r o l than
e x p e c te d . She r e g r e t t e d n ot b ein g a b le to s t a y th e e ig h th week to en jo y
th e c lo s in g e v e n t s .
Her p a ren ts were p le a s e d w ith t h e in c r e a se d s e lf - c o n f id e n c e th a t
was n o tic e a b le in h e r . An a d u lt f r ie n d rep o rted th a t upon her r e tu r n , sh e
was e n th u s ia s t ic a b o u t 3.11 th e th in g s she had le a rn ed a t camp and came in
e s p e c ia l ly to g iv e an a cco u n t in glow in g term s. ”Camp h elp ed me very
much. I lea rn ed many t h in g s . Look hew brown I am and how f a t t o o . I can ’ t
w a it to go back n ext y e a r .”
Continued Use o f R ecord s. - The co u n selo r stu d ie d her jou rn al
and was asked to rep o rt e s p e c ia l ly on h er adjustm ent to new ca b in -m a tes.
She needed t o be encouraged t o a p p ly h e r s e l f in in s t r u c t io n a l c l a s s e s , fo r
sh e became discou raged e a s i l y , a s a l l the gLrls her a g e fa r e x c e lle d h er.
Follow -up th e Second S ea so n . - M arjorie retu rn ed th e second sea so n ,
th e same sw eet c h ild , but s t i l l d e f i n i t e l y a fo llo w e r , n eed in g a g r e a t d e a l
more s e lf - c o n f id e n c e . She was c o n s c ie n tio u s about a n y th in g th a t she under­
to o k , i f i t w ere her ca b in clea n -u p d u tie s or h er a c t i v i t i e s . She was
h e lp f u l in su g g e stin g th in g s to the new cam pers. What she wanted to do, she
n ever l e t in t e r f e r e w ith anyone e l s e ’ s p le a s u r e . She had n ot much i n i t i a t i v e .
" I ' l l w a it to se e what th e o th ers i n th e ca b in a r e d o in g ,” was her a t t it u d e .
She was a d ecided fo llo w e r .
Rem edial S u g g e s tio n s, Second S eason . - The c r u is e r recommended
th a t she be g iv e n s p e c ia l a t t e n t io n in swimming and any p o s s ib le o p p o rtu n ity
o f p a r t ic ip a t io n in some o f th e Sunday r e c r e a t io n a l w ater m e e ts.
She was one o f th e b u ff team e n t r ie s in th e newspaper r a c e . She
had lea rn ed to swim q u ite w e l l , u s in g the b a c k -str o k e , and she was v ery
e x c ite d a t w in n in g a p la c e in the s tu n t water m eet. She did n ot sa y any­
th in g , but h er f a c i a l e x p r e ssio n was one o f keen s a t i s f a c t i o n . ”1 am making
so much more progress in a l l my a c t i v i t i e s t h i s year than I did l a s t , be­
cau se I g o t such a good s t a r t l a s t s e a s o n .” She showed her la c k o f
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
50
s e lf- c o n f id e n c e fr e q u e n tly in the c r a f t shop. "You. th in k I can do th a t? "
was the q u estio n about a in eta l p r o j e c t . Everytime soine th in g came up which
she was n ot sure o f , sh e s a id , "I am n o t
any good in t h is kind of s t u f f ."
E v id en tly she was b o ls te r e d by her in s t r u c t o r 's en cou raging, "Sure you
can!" Once she came ou t w ith a s u r p r is in g remark when p a in tin g on th e t e e ­
pee and su g g este d , " L et's use more y ello w and r e d . I don’ t l i k e too much
o f th e dark c o lo r ." This came as a shock, fo r she n ever s a id h a lf o f th e
th in g s she thought. She was alw ays so a f r a id o f n ot having them a c c e p te d
by th e group. A fte r making a s u g g e stio n she u s u a lly q u a lif ie d i t w ith
"Oh, I don’ t know." M arjorie s t i l l la c k e d s e lf - c o n f id e n c e , even though
she had p ro g ressed n ic e ly in many o f her a c t i v i t i e s . The c r u is e r recom­
mended a s p e c ia l tr ip to be planned to care f o r th e g i r l s who had r e c e n t ly
p assed th e ir canoe t e s t s . S in ce sh e had ju s t p a ssed th e canoe t e s t , Mar­
j o r ie v/as su rp rised a t being a llo w ed t o go and remarked, "Do you r e a l ly
th in k I can paddle w e ll enough? l a s t year I c o u ld n 't do a n y th in g . How
I can swim and even r i d e f a i r l y w e l l . I am goin g to swim and r id e a f t e r
I g e t home."
Evidences o f Improvement. - She shewed marked development in
s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The m asterin g of s e v e r a l s k i l l s h elp ed her overcome t h i s
sh yn ess and la c k o f s e lf - c o n f id e n c e w hich made h er h e s it a n t t o ex p ress her
id e a s and c o n v ic tio n s . She was aware o f her t im id it y and made a r e a l
e f f o r t to be more p o s it iv e in h er c o n v e r s a tio n . "I have made a v ery con­
s c ie n t io u s e f f o r t to ex p ress what I th in k and n ot alw ays do what o th ers
sa y . I b e lie v e th a t camp has h elp ed me a g r e a t d e a l," she w ro te. She was
very a m b itio u s, a hard w orker, and y e t eLlways c o n sid e r a te o f o th e r s . Mar­
j o r ie showed g rea t improvement and developm ent, n ot o n ly in h er s k i l l s ,
but in her g en era l a t t it u d e by not b ein g a f r a id t o m eet new s i t u a t i o n s .
This made h er more s e l f - r e l i a n t , a lth o u g h she s t i l l needs many group s i t ­
u a tio n s to d evelop in it i a t iv e ' a n d : le a d e r s h ip .
Value in D iagnosing Problems and C o n tr o llin g Conference
Value fo r Direotor-Cam per C o n fe ren ce.-
The a n ecd o ta l method
su p p lie s needed data fo r the d ir e c to r in her c o u n selin g in camper in te r v ie w s .
The reco rd s p rovid e m a te r ia l w hich makes the d i r e c t o r 's a d v ice more w orth­
w h ile and p erson al fo r the in d iv id u a l c h i l d .
The fo llo w in g ca se sk etch
shows how th e d ir e c to r was a b ie t o c o n tr o l a s e r i e s o f co n feren ces by:
(1)
Taking i n i t i a t i v e ,
(2)
Making a t a c t f u l approach,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
51
(3)
M ain tain in g ra p p o rt,
(4)
S u g g estin g rem edial s t e p s .
Case 3 ;
Anne - A Problem o f Com pensation. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - A nne's f i r s t sea so n in camp was when sh e was
e le v e n . She seemed to a d j u s t h e r s e lf w e ll to th e in -grou p and did ev ery ­
th in g th a t was r e q u e ste d . The co u n selo r th ou ght h er f r ie n d ly , w ith a n ic e
d is p o s it io n , h u t soon d isco v ere d th a t t h i s f i r s t im p ressio n was wrong.
Anne began to do sm a ll th in g s which a n ta g o n iz e d the group, t e a s in g , b u lly ­
in g , and q u a rrelin g w ith o th e r s fr e q u e n tly , and sh e h e ld h e r s e lf a p a rt
from th e ir com panionship.
Her m other was a co u n selo r fo r a d if f e r e n t group,and Anne’ s
o ld e r s i s t e r e x c e lle d in a l l a c t i v i t i e s , not o n ly a t camp but a t home.
There was in t h is young c h ild evid en ce o f many d e fe n s e r e a c t io n s f o r com­
p e n s a tio n . She would n ot fo llo w the in s t r u c t io n s o f c o u n se lo r s and do a s
she vie.a t o ld u n t i l she was "good and r e a d y .” O ften , b reak in g the r u le s
o f r e s t hour and tap s was her means o f g e t t in g n o tic e d in th e group.
F req u en tly a t cab in c le a n clea n -u p tim e s, sh e f a i l e d to co o p era te by n ot
even showing up to h e lp . She was s e n t to th e d ir e c to r f o r co n fere n c es which
seemed to have an e f f e c t f o r se v e r a l d a y s, b u t th en she f e l l back and
used a g a in h er tech n iq u es Of breaking r e g u la tio n s and her o n ly means o f
b ein g n o tic e d e s p e c i a l l y . She had an u n c o n tr o lla b le temper w hich , w ith
g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , showed some improvement.
D ia g n o s is . - A m ista k e in ca b in assign m en t had p la ced her w ith
two of th e most popular and cap ab le campers in th e s e c t io n . Not knowing
Anne’ s background s u f f i c i e n t l y , the camp had u n fo r tu n a te ly a id e d in th ese
com pensations w hich sh e used in order to g et the lim e lig h t . She r efu sed
to co o p era te w ith th ese two g i r l s who were a cce p te d e n t e r t a in e r s in stu n t
n ig h ts and ev en in g program s.
I f Anne did n ot lik e what th ey p lan n ed , sh e
would have n o th in g to do w ith i t .
Rem edial C onferen ce. - The d ir e c to r a f t e r a co n feren ce w ith th e
cab in le a d e r made a study of the journal and had a t a lk w ith Anne. She
su g g ested th a t she move in t o a group where she could a d ju st b e t t e r . These
cabin-m ates w ere from the S o u th , and a lr ea d y had p a r tic ip a te d in b o y - g ir l
a f f a i r s . They were much more s o p h is t ic a t e d , an d a ls o had had camp ex ­
p erien ce fo r th e l a s t two s e a s o n s . Anne was much happier in th e new group,
but she con tin u ed to t± y and le a d , and when thw arted would s u lk . She a t
l e a s t was more c o o p e r a tiv e in cab in r e g u la t io n s , and th e change was b e lie v e d
more s a t is f a c t o r y .
F o llo w -u p . - She was a ssig n e d to a ca b in w ith s i x new campers, and
on ly one farm er camper, b e lie v in g th at the o p p o rtu n ity o f le a d e r sh ip was
her n eed . Her co u n selo r was g iv e n in a d d itio n t o h er jou rn al o f l a s t se a ­
son , some s u g g e stio n s to h elp cope w ith her d efen se m echanisms.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
52
At th e secon d sea so n she retu rn ed , d esiro u s o f changing her
name, so was c a lle d "Tommy” . "Knowing the r o p e s ," she to ld th e other
g i r l s th e "how" of e v e r y th in g . At f i r s t she seemed h e lp f u l and coop­
e r a t iv e , but soon th e g i r l s a g a in com plained t h a t "Tommy" was n o t in th e
cab in enough and d id n o t mix w ith them. I n ste a d , she c o n s t a n t ly sought
company o f o ld e r g i r l s . She o f t e n took th e le a d and organ ized s t u n t s , but
i f th e group did n ot fo llo w h er id ea e x a c t ly , she su lk e d . She cla sh ed
fr e q u e n tly w ith one of h er bank m ates who d isp la y e d a b it of tem per, a s
she d id . T h is con tin u ed u n t i l the p er so n n e l d ir e c to r a d v ise d a change.
Tommy was t o ld th a t she would be moved t o an oth er ca b in .
Rem edial C o n fe r e n c e .— She would not a ccep t th e v e r d ic t o f th e
co u n se lo r , and in a lo n g co n feren ce w ith th e d ir e c t o r , sh e argued about
the change. F i n a l ly th e d ir e c t o r to ld th e g i r l th a t i f she were r e a l ly
in tei* este d in her own growth and in le a r n in g t o c o n tr o l h er tem per, i t
would be b e s t t o remain and not run away from the s it u a t io n . She r e ­
mained in her o r ig in a l c a b in , and far s e v e r a l days ev ery th in g was calm .
But soon antagonism began a g a in in the group* F req u en tly Tommy bragged
about her a b i l i t y a s a swimmer, because sh e had been p la ce d in one o f th e
most d i f f i c u l t w ater fo r m a tio n s . She was a d v ised by her co u n selo r n o t
to t a lk c o n tin u o u sly about h e r s e l f . She fought w ith th e le a d e r and would
n o t r e s p e c t her judgment. Whenever her d u tie s a r o s e in th e c a b in , she
s lip p e d away and was found w ith o th e r campers who w ere reco g n ized le a d e r s .
I t was w e ll th a t one o f her cab in -m ates was a b le t o hold her ground a g a in s t
h e r . A lthough i t was u n p lea sa n t f o r o th er members- i n th e cab in a s lo n g
a s th e o th e r g i r l was th e rre eo g n ized le a d e r , th e r e co u ld be no c o n f l i c t .
Many co n feren ces w ere n e c e ssa r y to r eg a in harmony, a l l o f which were a id ed
through th e stu d y o f th e c a b in -m a te s' jo u rn a l a s w e ll a s Anne’ s jo u r n a l.
Tommy s a t i s f i e d her d e s ir e fo r th e lim e lig h t by id e n t if y in g
h e r s e l f w ith cap ab le and re c o g n iz e d members in th e camp. She showed some
s l i g h t improvement, but the c o n sta n t changes from in te n s e joy t o moody
momemts p r e v a ile d -throughout the sea so n .
F o llo w -u p . - The p erso n n el d ir e c to r and th e guidance co u n selo r
were of th e o p in io n th a t h er m alad ju sted b eh avior was a c a se o f com pensation.
Her s i s t e r was th e thorn in th e f l e s h . The m other, to o , w ished th a t sh e
m igh t r e c e iv e as much a p p r o v a l a s t h is o ld e r ta le n te d s i s t e r . I t was d ecided
to g iv e her le a d e r sh ip o p p o r tu n itie s a g a in . Two former campers, both nona g g r e s s iv e , and f iv e new ones were her ca b in -m a tes.
Remedial Program. - Far the t h ir d sea so n th e cabin assign m en t was
n o t s a t is f a c t o r y to h er and sh e w ished t o change. A fte r a co n feren ce w ith
the d ir e c t o r sh e r e a liz e d th a t sh e had been p la ced there fo r th e op p ortu n ity
o f grow th, and she f u l f i l l e d the c h a lle n g e . She was g iv e n many responsii-L : :
b i l i t i e s and was p le a s e d when p r a ise d or reco g n ized fo r accom plishm ents.
That was e x a c t ly what she needed.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53
E vidences o f Improvement*- The cab in group lik e d her and r e s p e c t­
ed her s u g g e s tio n s . She t r ie d hard to c o n tr o l her temper and d id n o t alw ays
i n s i s t upon having her way. She took s e v e r a l o f the young, hom esick campers
under her wing and h elp ed them make s a t is f a c t o r y a d ju strr en ts. She d is p la y e d
a much b e t t e r cabin s p i r i t and was ch osen fr e q u e n tly by the group a s c o u n c il
member. She worked d i l i g e n t l y to make h er cab in p a rty a su ccess and was
chosen to be P r o fe s s o r Q uiz,w hich g iv e her a b it o f r e c o g n itio n from th e
e n t ir e group.' She encouraged th e g i r l s to cooperate in k eep in g a n e a t cab in
so th a t th ey would g e t b e t t e r in s p e c tio n g ra d es, and she alw ays was the one
m ost r e l i e d upon by her cab in co u n selo r.
Tonxiiy was q u ite happy over th e a t t e n t io n r e c e iv e d from one of th e
boys a t a p a rty w ith a n o th er camp. Her whole a t t it u d e was d if f e r e n t t h is
se a so n , and she was h e lp f u l on o v ern ig h t t r i p s and did n o t have to be w a ited
on a s b e fo r e .
She was s o r r y when she l o s t her temper and was frank i n a p o lo g iz in g ,
a r e a l growth on h er p a rt from her former a l i b i s . She was th e one who
b u i l t the cabin e s p r it de corps and le d in o b serv in g the r e g u la tio n s . When­
ev er she g o t in t o m is c h ie f , she was h o n est and n ever h e s it a t e d to c o n fess
th e wrong she la d done.
ffollow -U p. - Anne’s r e c o r d had ev id en ced such marked growth her
th ir d sea so n , th a t th e p erso n n el d ir e c to r gave her an o p p o rtu n ity o f group
le a d e r s h ip .f o r th e fo u r th se a so n . She was p la ced in the c o u n s e lo r -tr a in in g
d iv is io n , fo r now s h e was q u ite mature fo r her a g e . The s t a f f b e lie v e d
th a t t h is r e c o g n itio n would h elp more in r e d ir e c t in g the o ld u n fa v o ra b le
b eh avior sh e had vised to secu re n o t i c e . I t r e s u lt e d , however, in having
freq u en t co n feren ces in order to make her r e a l i z e th a t her cab in d u tie s
were im portant and t h a t , b ecau se sh e was an o ld camper, she sh ould n o t
ex p ect th e o th ers t o f u l f i l l th e many n e c e s s a r y d u tie s fo r h e r . I t took
many co n feren ces to rem ind her t h a t i f she were to be o ld e r in ways and
a s s o c i a t e s , she must prove i t in judgment and a cce p ta n ce o f r e s p o n s i b ili t y
a s w e l l . The approach was made through her c o u n s e lo r -tr a in in g , which was
im portant to h e r . She was to ld th a t i f sh e were n o t ready fa r co o p e r a tiv e
l i v i n g a f t e r fo u r s e a s o n s , sh e c e r t a in ly was n o t read y f o r c o u n se lo r in - t r a in in g le a d e r sh ip o p p o r tu n itie s .
E vidences o f Improvement. - She a c c e p te d th e c r i t ic i s m s from
her group w e ll by r e p ly in g , "W ill you t r y to h e lp me improve? I don’ t
want to be c o n s ta n tly rem inded t o be prompt and to put out my l i g h t or to
f i l l my a c t i v i t y s c h e d u le .” She s t i l l lik e d to do th in g s when she was
ready and n ot b e fo r e , and when co rr ected she w ould y e l l , ”For c r y in g ou t
lo u d ,” in a m ost d is g u ste d to n e .
Her h e a lth reco rd in d ic a te d a cn e, and sh e had been a d v ise d not
to e a t r ic h fo o d s. She r e s e n te d c o r r e c tio n frcm her co u n selo r about her
s i l l y ch o ic e o f fo o d s. I t was w it h much d i f f i c u l t y th a t her co o p era tio n
was gain ed toward a proper d ie t .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
54
She showed much growth in co o p era tiv e l i v i n g in comparison w ith
former seasons and jo in ed in cabin work fo r stu n t n ig h t and o th er programs.
S t i l l she has not overcome th e f e e l i n g th a t "she i s more grown up than she
r e a l l y i s , " A l l o f t h i s has r e s u lt e d from an e a r ly p h y s io lo g ic a l matur­
a t io n and a d e s ir e to e x c e l and r e c e iv e r e c o g n itio n a s w e ll a s her a t t r a c t i v e
s i s t e r , but she even y e t r e s e n ts remarks made in th e way o f c o r r e c tio n .
She has shown a decided growth in s e lf - c o n f id e n c e , which was due to r ec o g ­
n it io n from th e group fo r h er a b i l i t y in a q u a tic s ,
F in a l S t a t u s . - The c a r d in a l growth was in her endeavor to over­
come the b ig f a u l t , her id ea th at s p e c ia l c o n s id e r a tio n sh ould be g iv e n
her because she was a "couns e l o r - i n - t r a i n i n g . " Her a c t i v i t y reco rd in team
com p etition on P la y Day and in w ater m eets showed h er m eeting d e fe a t grace­
f u l l y , o ffe r in g no excu ses fo r lo s in g the back stro k e ra ce o r l e t t i n g
down her team in a rch ery because she had not p r a c tic e d .
Her p a ren ts are p le a se d w ith h er camp ex p erien ce and her marked
growth in s e l f - c o n t r o l and c o n sid e r a tio n fo r t h e o th er members in the
fa m ily .
Value i n D iagnosing Problems and A d v isin g Camper
Valu e fo r Counselor-Camper C onferen ce. -
The a n ecd o ta l method
a id s in th e m ost im portant s i n g l e a d v iso r y ta s k o f the c o u n se lo r , t i n t of
the p erso n a l in te r v ie w w ith the camper.
The cab in le a d e r can a id th e camper in e v a lu a tin g her own p er­
so n a l g o a ls in th e l i g h t o f her str e n g th s and w eaknesses and in rec o g n iz in g
her own p erso n a l n e e d s.
Help from the o u ts id e is n e a r ly always th e g r e a t­
e s t fa c to r in s o lv in g the problems o f p e r s o n a lit y a d ju stm en t.
By r e f e r r in g
to th e recordsftssf p erso n a l in te r v ie w s and ca b in c o n fe r e n c e s, a co u n selo r
can be o f more v a lu a b le s e r v ic e .
These s t e t c h e s o f an a g g r e s s iv e and a
n o n -a g g ressiv e camper a r e subm itted as -typical exam ples.
Case 4:
C atherine - A Problem o f A g g r e s s iv e n e s s . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - C atherine f i r s t came to u s when sh e was t h ir t e e n ,
p r e v io u s ly she had camped in the Ehst and had found i t a d is a g r e e a b le ex­
p e r ie n c e . She was a v ery b e a u tifu l g i r l w ith a g r e a t amount o f outv/ard
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
55
s e lf - c o n f id e n c e and p o is e . R e a lly , she adopted a su p e r io r a t t it u d e to
compensate for h er i n a b i l i t y in many s k i l l s . She ta lk e d in c e s s a n t ly about
her fr ie n d s a t home ans was t a c t l e s s in h er d erogatory remarks about
Southern g i r l s .
She was c h r o n o lo g ic a lly younger, but much more mature and p o ised
than her ca b in -m a tes. Most of them w ere in c o u n s e lo r - in - t r a in in g and had
d u tie s to perform which made her f e e l she was b ein g l e f t o u t. T h is made
her more dom ineering and s e lf - c e n t e r e d in many o f the o p p o r tu n itie s th a t
would enable her to g a in the lim e lig h t .
D ia g n o s is . - The co u n selo r d is c u s se d her b eh a v io r w ith th e p er­
son n el d ir e c t o r who a id ed her on the approach t h a t she should tak e in her
co n fe r e n c e . I t was n e c e ssa r y to make C atherin e r e a l iz e th a t her c r i t i c a l
manner was n ot lik e d by her cab in -m ates and th a t i t was r e s u lt i n g in her
lo s s o f th e ir f r ie n d s h ip . She must h e lp h er r e a l i z e how im portant i t would
be to her to g a in p r o f ic ie n c y i n a camp s k i l l .
Rem edial Camper-Counselor C o n feren ces. - The co u n selo r h elp ed her
to s e e the need f o r a c h ie v in g a r e a l s e n s e o f s e c u r it y from perform ing some
camp s k i l l s w e ll , n ot to a c h ie v e lim e lig h t from d ero g a to ry c r i t i c i s m s about
th e group or by p la c in g h e r s e l f a s th e le a d in a l l o f th e s t u n t s . Her id e a s
were r e a l ly the germs fo r cab in p r o j e c t s , b u t o th ers r e s e n te d her a b i l i t y
and b eau ty .
E vidences o f Improvement. - She was r e sp o n siv e to the s u g g e stio n s
o ffe r e d by th e le a d e r and n ever seemed t o r e s e n t th e c r it ic is m s th e counse­
lo r s g iv e h e r . Her b e l i t t l i n g a t t it u d e and c r i t i c a l remarks were not a s
fr e q u e n t. She s t i l l , however, im pressed her le a d e r w ith a p reoccu p ied a i r
and su p e rio r a t t i t u d e and a f a il u r e to e n te r in t o th e c o n v e r s a tio n o f th e
group. But she was ready to put fo r th her e f f o r t in the ca b in programs
and lik e d to t a lk about her s u c c e s s i n them a fte r w a r d s . She was heard r e ­
m arking, "C aroline l i k e s to be in e v e r y th in g ." T h is was r e a l l y a ca se o f
p r o je c tio n . The c r it ic is m sh e la d g iv en one o f her ca b in -m a tes should have
been fo r h e r s e l f .
The cab in co u n selo r fr e q u e n tly had in te r v ie w s w ith h e r , fo r
alth ou gh she en tered e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n t o a l l th e a c t i v i t i e s , sh e had th e
f e e lin g o f not e x c e llin g in her a c t i v i t i e s as did her ca b in -m a tes.
She f e l t deep adm iration and lo v e for her cab in c o u n se lo r , and
the in flu e n c e of t h i s person did much fa r her developm ent and c o n s id e r a tio n
o f o th e r s . The reco rd shews th a t the c o n v e r sa tio n s which fo rm erly alw ays
ended about h e r s e lf seemed now to p r a is e her ca b in -m a tes. She became
lo y a l and m o ra lly in d ig n a n t i f h er in -g io u p were c r i t i c i z e d . This was a
d e f in it e growth in i n t e r e s t f o r o th e r s; form erly sh e had been concerned w ith
s e l f o n ly .
Follow -U p. - S t a f f d is c u s s io n recommended th a t r e d o g n itio n be
g iv en C atherine in th e c o u n s e lo r -in -tr a in in g group in order th a t she m ight
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
@6
become more group co n scio u s and l e a 3 s e lf - c e n t e r e d . She had n o t e x c e lle d
in any o f th e s k i l l s , but her jou rn al r e v e a le d how c r e a tiv e and a r t i s t i c
she had been. She was given th is o p p o rtu n ity .
C atherin e had le a d e rsh ip p o t e n t i a l i t i e s which som etim es came
through and o th er tim es f a i l e d . She seemed unable t o f o r g e t h e r s e l f . The
com plim ents she r e c e iv e d from p eo p le 3iad made her v a in and s e lf - c o n s c io u s .
She was dom ineering w ith one o f th e ca b in -m a tes from her own home town
whom C atherine ex p ected to w a it on her and run errands for h e r . She
fr e q u e n tly r e fe r r e d to "the gang back hom e.” She lik e d a t t e n t io n and
som etim es u n c o n sc io u sly did th in g s to draw i t to h e r s e l f . She was in c lin e d
to be s e l f - a s s e r t i v e . She to o k her p o s it io n a s a cab in c o u n c il member to
be a b o rin g job which must be done, and she was p e s s im is t ic ab ou t th e
c a b in 's s id e show and c l e a r l y showed i t .
But she le d the group in c le a n in g
up th e lod ge a f t e r the c ir c u s and i n s i s t e d t h a t i t be done th o ro u g h ly .
Her r e fe r e n c e s t o her home town w ith a s l i g h t l y su p erio r a t t i t u d e seemed
to be in r e t a l i a t i o n a g a in s t one o f h er ca b in -m a tes who fr e q u e n tly ta lk e d
o f h er f r ie n d s a t home.
When c r i t i c i z e d in the lemon p a r ty a b o u t her m a n a g eria l q u a l i t i e s ,
she e x p la in e d , "Coming from a la r g e fa m ily where you have to grab what you
f e e l b elo n g s to you makes you carry t h i s a t t it u d e in to cam p.”
E vidences o f Improvement. - She seemed to f i t in to th e cab in
group more a s an in t e g r a l p a r t and l e s s a s a le a d e r . She was endowed w ith
an u n usu al amount o f i n i t i a t i v e and a c c e p te d r e s p o n s i b ili t y w e l l . But
campers d id n ot lo v e her or even li k e her as much a s th ey did o th er g i r l s .
Y et, she did more than h er share in c a b in c le a n -u p . Her ten d en cy t o p o in t
ou t what each one should do took away ffom the a p p r e c ia tio n . One gain ed
th e im p ressio n th a t h er c h e e f f u l a t t it u d e and d is p o s it io n were a l i t t l e
fo r c e d . She alw ays ex p ected to have th e fem in in e le a d s in th e s t u n t s and
u s u a lly load them. She was q u ite s e l f - c r i t i c a l and r e a l l y t r i e d to improve
h e r s e lf and not fo r c e h e r s e l f and t a s t e s upon o th e r s . She did n ot take
th e le a d in g p a rt in cab in d is c u s s io n s b ecau se o f t h i s . She was complimented
by her ca b in f o r her p rid e in i t s appearance and fo r how much she d id in
h e lp in g make i t th e c le a n e s t on th e h i l l . To a d u lts she gave the im pres­
s io n o f b ein g smug, alth ou gh her cab in -m ates did not seem c o n sc io u s o f
t h i s q u a lit y . They a c c e p te d th a t a s her p e r s o n a lit y .
F in a l S t a t u s . - By th e end of th e season C atherine was more one
o f the group and not so much the d ic t a t o r . She s t i l l was alw ays sure o f
h e r s e lf and a c c e p te d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and had p le n ty of i n i t i a t i v e , but she
did not go out o f her way to make f r ie n d s among the new g i r l s o u ts id e o f
the ca b in . She succeeded b e t t e r a f t e r i t was p o in ted out to her by h er
cab in -m ates th a t she was so a g g r e s s iv e and th a t th e y re se n te d i t .
In some
m a tters her r e s t r a i n t o f s e l f - a s s e r t i o n became a smug s i l e n c e , and when
she b e lie v e d in som ething, sh e was so co n v in ced th a t her mind was c lo s e d .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57
The camp p erso n n el are of th e op in io n th a t t h is very b e a u t if u l
g i r l compensated w ith o f f e n s iv e and a g g r e s s iv e beh avior patteraH because
she was n o t a ccep ted by her group. She did not have the m astery o f any
s k i l l s , and she did not p a r t ic u la r ly care a b o u t camping. She had a de­
f i n i t e a e s t h e t ic sen se and both p layed the piano and a c te d w e l l . S e c r e t ly
she longed to be popular v.ith boys b u t seldom was n o tic e d a s much as her
eh urn, who was l e s s a t t r a c t i v e but had a dynamic p e r s o n a lit y .
I t i s hoped th a t C a th erin e’ s growth w i l l carry through in t o her
a s s o c ia t io n s in sch o o l a f f a i r s and th a t she w i l l n o t co n tin u e to s a t i s f y
her ego by d ic t a t in g to fr ie n d s whom she th in k s she i s m othering by her
a d v ic e .
Case 5;
H elen - A Problem o f N on-A ggressiveness
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Helen was in camp two se a so n s, when she was
t h ir t e e n and a ls o fo u r te e n . She was c h r o n o lo g ic a lly th e o ld e s t in her
cabin but d e c id e d ly younger in a c t io n s . She was a r e t ir in g but very in ­
dependent g i r l , o fte n e x h ib itin g stu b b o rn ess, a s she enjoyed b ein g made
to do t h in g s . She fo llo w ed th e crowd and showed no i n i t i a t i v e . She did
not care about a c t i v i t i e s w hich took much energy and sp en t a g r e a t d ea l o f
her time s le e p in g . Her cabin-m ates were amused, e s p e c i a l l y once when
she went to bed w ith o u t u n d r essin g . She alw ays jo in ed e n t h u s ia s t ic a lly
in p r o j e c t s but was n ever a g g r e s s iv e . She remained c lo s e to one of th e
cab in -m ates from h er home town. She was v ery in t e r e s t e d in b oyish a c t ­
i v i t i e s such a s w r e s t lin g and f is h in g , and q u ite o fte n cou ld be s e e n w ith
hook and li n e a t th e lak e or w r e s t lin g around th e camp f i r e on o v ern ig h t
h ik e s .
D ia g n o s is . - The c r u ise r noted th e c o u n s e lo r ’ s rep o rt th a t
H elen o fte n f e l l a s le e p w h ile a tten d in g assem bly or w a itin g f o r m eals or
alm ost any p la c e where she cou ld r e la x co m fortab ly. She a ls o noted H elen ’ s
i n t e r e s t in f is h in g . A fte r a co n feren ce w ith th e h e a lth s e r v i c e , sh e
was a ssu red th a t the g e n e r a l la s s it u d e was due p o s s ib ly to h er d i f f i c u l t y
in making th e c lim a t ic change and to an a d o le s c e n t growth sta g e .
The recommendation to the co u n selo r was th a t she continue to
irake an a c c u r a te r e p o r t to th e h e a lth s e r v ic e about H e len ’ s p h y s ic a l
adjustm ent and th a t sh e encourage her in t o a c t i v i t i e s &nd not l e t her
remain in h er cab in to read or s le e p .
Rem edial Camper-Oounselor C on feren ces. - The co u n selo r made
H elen r e a l i z e th a t u n le s s she p a r tic ip a te d in some o f her a c t i v i t i e s
h er p a ren ts would be q n ite d isa p p o in ted in her camp e x p e r ie n c e . She
encouraged her to spend tim e in r i f l e r y . I t was n ot f a t ig u in g and was a
s k i l l th a t she would en joy a s she could go h u n tin g w ith her f a t h e r . A ls o ,
as th e g i r l seemed to en jo y b ein g o u t-o f-d o o r s , th e co u n selo r t o ld her to
jo in a w ood craft group and to gain the ex p erien ce of th e n ature h ik e s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58
E vidences o f Improvement. - Site responded to the c o u n s e lo r 's
s u g g e stio n s and co u ld be found d a ily on the r i f l e ra n g e. Sonn she p a ssed
the pro-marksman req u irem en ts, and keen i n t e r e s t r e s u lte d in her w in n in g
many of th e N a tio n a l R if ie r y A s s o c ia tio n c e r t i f i c a t e s 1^ and m edals b efo re
the season was o v er.
She needed to become more p o s i t i v e and more a g g r e s s iv e , and th e
co u n selo r urged her in to a c t i v i t i e s which helped h er to m ingle w ith o t h e r s .
When her turn came to be cab in r e p o r te r , she f i a t l y r e fu s e d . "I d o n 't
want to w r it e . I d o n 't know fthat to w r it e . I c a n 't ." A fte r a l i t t l e
coaxing and t a lk in g about b e in g a good sp o r t and t r y in g and n o t s a y in g ,
"I c a n ’t " , she a ccep ted and turned in a very good cab in r e p o r t. She was
one o f the b e s t loved and rnos t a ccep ted by her in -g ro u p , but sh e d id n ot
branch ou t in t o a w ide c i r c l e o f f r ie n d s . When her p a ren ts v i s i t e d camp,
she was tim id about in tro d u cin g them even t o her ca b in -m a tes. Her d i s ­
p o s it io n and her w illin g n e s s to h elp o th e r s and a b i l i t y to sta n d te a s in g
endeared her to th e in -g ro u p .
S ta tu s a t th e End o f F ir s t S ea so n . - A ll summer th e co u n se lo r
had d i f f i c u l t y g e t t in g H elen to e $ t a v a r ie t y o f fo o d s. She would mind
on ly a f t e r much u rg in g . Her mannerisms were in d ic a t iv e o f a s m a ll, p ro ­
v i n c i a l town. Being a s s o c ia t e d w ith g i r l s who had b road er, c u lt u r a l
o p p o r tu n itie s did som ething for h e r , n o t o n ly in e a t in g h a b its but in
m ixing a b i l i t y . She was n o t an a g g r e s s iv e c h ild and had to be fo r c e d to
do th in g s she d id not care f o r . Yet when i t came down to e s s e n t i a l s ,
she could "take i t ” b e t t e r than anybody e l s e in her group and was th e
l a s t person to com plain on a h ik e or o v ern ig h t t r i p . Not once did she
adm it th a t she was u n com fortab le. She was c h e e r fu l a l l o f the tim e.
Follow-Up th e Second S ea so n . - The co u n selo r was inform ed th a t
in a d d itio n t o th e ta sk o f le a d in g H elen in to more a c t iv e s p o r t s , she
had an e a tin g problem . The g i r l ' s a p p e t it e was v e r y sm a ll, and she d i s ­
lik e d many fo o d s . These were th e two m ain problem s the co u n selo r o f th e
p reviou s season had coped w ith .
She retu rn ed the secon d season s t i l l stub b orn about e a tin g , but
was very su b m issiv e when c o rr ected and would take another n ib b le . She
was d ir e c te d in t o more vig o ro u s a c t i v i t i e s , w ith an aim o f b u ild in g up
a p p e t it e . A fte r a week she began to e a t more n orm ally. F ish in g was
s t i l l one o f h er f a v o r it e s p o r t s , but t h i s summer she developed q u ite
an in t e r e s t in t e n n is . Her a p p e t it e improved under co n sta n t s u p e r v is io n ,
and she was d ir e c te d in t o a much more a c t iv e program. In a d d itio n to
te n n is and r id in g she took up g o l f . She was very much in need o f some
"drive". She s t i l l seemed p a s s iv e . The g i r l s c a lle d her " sleep y " , y e t
she was alw ays a g r e e a b le , w i l l i n g , and c o o p e r a tiv e . I n i t i a t i v e was th e
th in g she la ck ed .
Rem edial Program. - She s a id l i t t l e and seldom took th e le a d .
The s t a f f f e l t th a t she should be more a g g r e s s iv e , and she was g iv e n p a r ts
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
on c o u n c il r in g programs and o p p o r tu n itie s t o le a d in a ssem b ly . H elen
d id a l l o f th ese w i l l i n g l y but n ever v o lu n te e r e d . She did not seem to care
what o th ers d id .
Further S v id en ces o f Improvement. - She expanded her in t e r e s t to
in clu d e t e n n is , g o l f , and a rch ery , and could fr e q u e n tly be found on th e
arch ery ran ge. She p la ce d high in th e archery tournament in t h e In dian
Pow-Wow but n ever m entioned the f a c t to c a b in -m a te s. Camp h elp ed her to
become a b e t t e r m ix er, and when a v i s i t i n g g i r l s ' camp came to spend the
n ig h t , she was sen t down a s an o f f i c i a l g r e e t e r . One of the c o u n selo rs
was amazed to se e how w e l l she was e x p la in in g to th e stra n g ers th e work
w hich was done in th e c r a f t shop.
She sig n ed up f o r a l l thd o v e r -n ig h t h ik e s and en tered in to
th e p lan n in g o f them w ith much en th u siasm . I t was through th e se th a t
she mixed w ith o th e r s than her in -g ro u p . The h e a lth s e r v ic e department
gained her c o o p e r a tio n , a s w e ll as th e cab in co u n selo r in b u ild in g up her
a p p e tite t h a t she m ight make a l l th e sc e n ic o v e r n ig h t t r i p s . I f sh e l o s t
w eig h t c o n tin u o u sly , th ey t o ld her th a t sh e w ould be d en ied th e p r iv i le g e
o f g o in g . She n ev er m issed one th e w hole se a s o n .
F in a l S t a t u s . - She was b a f f lin g because sh e d id e v er y th in g
w i l l i n g l y and a cted as i f she enjoyed i t , but she seemed to have no dims
or o b j e c t iv e s . When asked why sh e came to ca rp , sh e s a i d , "I d o n 't know.
I ju st came." She n ever went swimming, and y e t sh e sa id sh e had no fe a r
o f th e w a ter. She was th e m ost pop ular g i r l in th e ca b in group, b ecau se
she never argued and was n a t u r a lly w i t t y . She ju st " fo llo w ed th e crowd"
and y e t she d id w hat she l i k e d . She enjoyed t e n n is and g o t up s e v e r a l
mornings a t s ix o 'c lo c k to p la y .
H elen showed much more m a tu rity and in d iv i d u a l it y a t th e end
o f the sea so n th an a t the b eg in n in g . Her camp e x p e r ie n c e brought her out
to make her a much b e t t e r m ixer and more s e l f - r e l i a n t . She s t i l l needs
to have more i n i t i a t i v e and d r iv e t o overcome her in d if f e r e n c e .
Value in D iagn osin g Problem s in Pre-Camp C onference
Value o f Pre-Camp C on feren ces. s ig n if ic a n t data f o r pre-camp c o n fe r e n c e s.
The a n e c d o ta l method fu r n is h e s
The jo u r n a l, d eriv ed d ir e c t ly
from cam pers’ a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s, summaries, c o n f id e n t ia l d a ta , and a c t i v i t y
r e p o r t s , i s o rgan ized during the w in te r in t o case s k e tc h e s .
T h eir u se and
s ig n if ic a n c e i n the s e t t in g - u p co n feren ce b efo re th e sea so n s opens i s con9
s id e r a b le .
The ca se s k e tc h e s fu r n is h a b a s is f o r d is c u s s io n and in s t r u c t io n
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
60
among th e s t a f f .
They g iv e d e e p e r i n s i g h t an d more p e n e t r a t i n g i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s in t o p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,
x h e s k e tc h e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y m e a n in g f u l
a s a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r g u id a n c e f o r r e tu r n e d cam p ers.
A.
G uidance Use in Pre-Camp C o n fe re n c e . -
The j o u r n a l i s s i g n i ­
f i c a n t i n th ro w in g l i g h t upon th e p ro b le m s o f a c h ild who i s r e t u r n i n g f o r
a second o r t h i r d y e a r .
The s k e tc h o f the g i r l w i l l be o f a i d i n a n t i ­
c i p a t i n g , u n d e r s ta n d in g , and t r e a t i n g b e h a v io r p ro b le m s, n o t o n ly t o th e
i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e lo r b u t a l s o to t h e 3 t a f f a s a w h o le .
The f o llo w in g c a s e
s k e tc h i s a n exam ple o f m a t e r i a l ta k e n from p r e v io u s r e c o r d s a n d h anded
to t h e c o u n s e lo r to a i d f u r t h e r i n -the p e r s o n a l i t y grow th o f a g i r l who
h a s b e e n a t camp b e f o r e .
Case 6 :
B e tty - A P ro b lem o f th e F o llo w e r. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - B e tty w as i n camp a t t h i r t e e n . She h a d p r e ­
v i o u s l y camped e ls e w h e re a n d was r e l u c t a n t i n com ing to th e camp, a s th e
e x p e rie n c e had n o t b e e n a s a t i s f a c t o r y one t o h e r . She li v e d on a la r g e
p l a n t a t i o n and h a d a younger s i s t e r , so t h a t s h e w as i n n e e d o f b r o a d e r
com panion sh ip d u rin g th e summer. H er p a r e n t s e n r o l l e d h e r f o r t h e s e a s o n
a g a i n s t h e r w i l l . She w as & tim id g i r l w ith a n even d i s p o s i t i o n , seem in g ly
th e s p e c t a t o r ty p e . She w as i n t e r e s t e d i n th e c a b in c o n v e r s a t io n s and
p r o j e c t s b u t s a t and lo o k e d on w i t h o u t e v e r e n t e r in g i n . She h ad n o t
le a r n e d to swim b e c a u se o f f e a r o f t h e w a te r , a n d sh e h ad no camp s k i l l s
in t h e l i n e o f s p o r t s .
She was sw e et an d th o u g h t f u l a n d a lw a y s p u t o t h e r s b e f o r e h e r s e l f .
F r e q u e n tly s h e m o th ered a h om esick younger cam per fro m h e r own hcrne tow n.
She g a v e up swimming t o e n t e r t a i n t h i s lo n e ly c h i l d .
The g ro u p a c c e p te d h e r r e a d i l y , f o r s h e w as c o o p e r a tiv e and con­
s i d e r a t e . She p e rfo rm e d w i l l i n g l y a n y a s s ig n e d d u t i e s b u t n e v e r v o lu n te e r e d
i n c a b in p r o j e c t s . The t h i r d week o f camp sh e w as tr o u b l e d a b o u t h a v in g t o
make a d e c is io n a s to w h e th e r o r n o t to s t a y th e f u l l s e a s o n . H e r p a r e n t s
had a g r e e d t h a t i f sh e would e n r o l l f o r a m o n th , sh e w ould be th e one t o
d e c id e f i n a l l y . A f t e r much p e r s u a s io n fro m h e r c a b in g ro u p , sh e w ro te h e r
p a r e n t s she w ould s t a y .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
She d id n ot com plain when her kodak had been m isp laced a t th e
tim e she had counted on ta k in g the group p ic t u r e s . Such a sm all in c id e n t
would in f u r ia t e o th e r s .
I t was an amazing th e courage th a t she showed in her reser v ed
manner in sta n d in g up fo r what she knew to be r i g h t . Once o ffe r e d a p ie c e
o f candy by her c o u n s e lo r , she s a id , "Thank you j u s t the same, but when
Edna asked fo r th o se who would prom ise not to eat, between m ea ls, I h e ld
up my hand." Another tim e one o f h er cab in -m ates d id not th in k th a t she
should pay th e f o r f e i t to th e pound i n order t o g e t h e r c lo th e s w hich she
had s c a t t e r e d a b o u t. "You are wrorg in ta k in g t h is a t t it u d e , F l o s s i e ,
fo r we agreed to pay th e f o r f e i t , and i t i s r ig h t t h a t I sh o u ld ," she
to ld her f r ie n d .
D ia g n o s is . - B e tty needed a se n se o f r e c o g n itio n . Because o f
her s iz e and s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s sh e bad been u n able to a c h ie v e any s k i l l s
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . She p ro g ressed f a i r l y w e ll w ith r i d i n g , but she was d is ­
couraged th a t she did not swim w e ll enough to make the canoe t r i p s .
Rem edial Program. - The cabin co u n selo r su g g ested th at in the
c o u n c il rin g program in which campers were g iv in g te s tim o n ie s o f "admirable
q u a lit i e s o f a good camper" th a t th ey c i t e B e tty f o r her sw e e tn e ss. The
r e c o g n itio n r e c e iv e d from th e la r g e group did xauch f o r h er s e c u r it y .
Evidence o f Improvement. - S lo w ly she began to develop q u a lit i e s
o f le a d e r sh ip and gave id e a s which were a c c e p te d . " L et's ta k e our ponchos
by th e lake for r e s t hour," she s u g g e ste d . Once she su p erv ised a b ir t h ­
day p a rty and p resen ted an impromptu speech in one of the evening e n t e r t a in ­
m en ts. The l a s t dance o f th e season sh e th orou gh ly en jo y ed . Her record
in d ic a te d d e f in it e growth in s o c ia l adjustm ent in th e la r g e guoups and a
le s s e n in g o f t im id it y .
Follow-Up Second S ea so n . - A fte r a stu d y o f B e t t y 's in d iv id u a l
f o ld e r the p erso n n el d ir e c t o r recommended th a t she be p la ced w ith new
ca b in -m a tes. N o n -a g g ressiv e ty p es sh ou ld be her bunk-mates so th a t she
m ight assume th e le a d e r sh ip o f the in -g ro u p . She needed the r e c o g n it io n
and s e n se o f ap p roval th a t should come from th is e x p e r ie n c e .
B e tty retu rn ed a second season and was not p la ce d w ith her form er
cabin-m ates but in s t e a d w ith th ree new n o n -a g g r e ssiv e in d iv id u a ls . She
m othered her new cabin-m ates in a q u ie t unassuming B a n n e r and took the
r e s p o n s i b ili t y o f h e lp in g them a c c lim a te th e m s e lv e s . She alw ays d id an yth in g
asked o f her but s t i l l would n ot assume th e le a d e r sh ip fo r cab in p r o j e c t s .
She was h e lp f u l in arra n g in g a c t i v i t y sc h e d u le s fo r her cabin-m ates and
was o f g r e a t v a lu e in h elp in g th e co u n selo rs t o make a s a t is f a c t o r y a d ju s t­
ment o f her group. She was s e l f - c r i t i c a l and was in s p ir e d by th e camp
d ev o tio n s to le a d her cab in -m ates in a c c e p tin g the c h a lle n g e and l i v i n g up
to i t s cod e.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
62
Rem edial Program Second S eason . - The co u n selo r a p p o in ted her
in charge o f the County F a ir . She d id many l i t t l e th in g s o th e r s would n ot
do, for which sh e r e c e iv e d cabin-m ates* p r a is e . Other o p p o r tu n itie s o f
le a d e rsh ip were g iv en by her c o u n se lo r , such a s cabin r e p o r te r , c o u n c il
member, and cabin h o s t e s s a t a b o y - g ir l p a r ty .
F urther E vidences o f Improvement. - Her a c t i v i t y record shewed
in cr ea se d p a r t ic ip a t io n and achievem ent. "This week I co n cen tra ted on
swimming, ca n o ein g , and t e n n is , and I have g a in ed so much more, even though
I can ’ t do a s w e ll a s o t h e r s ,” she remarked to her c o u n s e lo r .
Her c o n s id e r a tio n far o th ers was in d ic a te d fr e q u e n t ly . She was
generous w ith th e b oxes r e c e iv e d from home, When th e r e wei*e a c c id e n ts which
she thought m ight worry her mother, such a s an a n k le b ru ised by a h o r s e ’ s
h o o f, sh e s a id , ”1 th in k Mother should know, y e t she i s so e x c it a b le th a t
I fe a r to m en tion i t . Don’ t you th in k i t w i l l be a l l r i ^ i t not to t e l l
h er?”
F in a l S t a t u s . - In t h i s second season her reco rd in d ic a te d growth
in s e lf - c o n f id e n c e and in m ixin g a b i l i t y , b u t th ere was s t i l l a g rea t need
fo r more a g g r e s s iv e n e s s . She needed to put f o r t h her b e s t e f f o r t s and n o t
be so p a s s iv e . She i s p la n n in g to return a g a in , and her developm ent o f
a g g r e s s iv e n e s s and le a d e r sh ip w i l l be h elp ed by p la c in g her in th e c o u n se lo r in - t r a in in g d iv is io n .
Case 7;
Marion - A Problem o f " R eflected L ig h t” . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Marion was in camp for t h r e e h a lf sea so n s and
one f u l l se a s o n . She had alw ays been a d e lic a t e o n ly c h ild and was under
d o c to r ’s trea tm en t. The f i r s t sea so n showed t h a t she p o sse sse d no le a d e r ­
sh ip p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , but was always w i l l i n g to be a f o llo w e r . She was ,
however, sw eet and am iab le and c o o p era tiv e in a l l p r o j e c t s . There was
some growth in m ixing a b i l i t y by the end of t h e month fo r a t f i r s t she
had been v ery sh y , and by le a v in g tim e , had somewhat overcome her t im id it y .
At a l l tim es she was o b ed ien t and e n t h u s ia s t ic and conformed to a l l reg u ­
la tio n s .
D ia g n o s is . - Marion asked t o bunk w ith her cab in -m ates o f th e
p rev io u s se a so n . A fte r a co n feren ce w ith th e p erso n n el d ir e c t o r , she was
ch a llen g ed to a c c e p t th e o p p o rtu n ity o f new cab in -m ates a s a chance o f growth
in s e l f - r e l i a n c e . She was much o ld e r c h r o n o lo g ic a lly than her cab in -m ates
and needed a n o p p o rtu n ity of r e c o g n it io n , a s she could not o b ta in i t in
s k i l l s . Her i l l h e a lth had retarded her in s c h o o l, and i t a ls o handicap­
ped her in her p a r t ic ip a t io n in s p o r t s .
Rem edial Program. - In th e second season an o p p o rtu n ity to develop
in le a d e r sh ip p o t e n t i a l i t i e s was given h er, by a ssi'g h in g her to a cab in
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
63
w ith a l l new g i r l s . Being an old camper, she endeavored to a c c e p t th e
c h a lle n g e o f le a d in g the g i r l s and h e lp in g them to f a l l in l i n e . She took
p r id e not o n ly in cab in clea n -u p b u t i n her p erso n a l n ea tn ess a s w e l l ,
and fr e q u e n tly she would sa y , " l e t ' s pep i t up and s e e i f we can not have
th e c le a n e s t ca b in on the h i l l . ” She took g r e a t in t e r e s t in the c r a f t shop
and showed su p e r io r a b i l i t y in r i f l e r y and r i d i n g , 'out because o f her
p h y s ic a l l i m i t a t i o n s , sh e was u n able to p a r t ic ip a t e in many stren u o u s a c t ­
i v i t i e s . She was h e lp f u l and c h e e r fu l and made many f r ie n d s and gave her
support and co o p era tio n to a aew camper who became th e reco g n ized le a d e r
o f the c a b in .
Follow-Up Third S ea so n . - Marion was l a t e in e n te r in g the th ir d
season b eca u se she had to a tte n d summer s c h o o l. But her a t t it u d e o f b ein g
a model camper was a stim u lu s to h er feroup, and her a b i l i t y to g e t a lo n g
w ith p eo p le was o u tsta n d in g . She was q u ite sym pathetic w ith ev ery o n e,
a lth o u g h she s t i l l showed a b i t o f r e s e r v e due t o h er t im i d i t y . She was
a b le to g e t a lo n g w ith g i r l s in her ca b in b e t t e r than alm ost anyone and
alw ays sta y ed out o f argum ents. She com plained a b o u t her many p a in s , how­
e v e r , and seemed to have d evelop ed a complex about them. She s t i l l shewed
h er p rid e in ca b in o r d e r lin e s s , and somethr.es her "old m aidish w ays” were
r id ic u le d by the group, but she was a b le t o sta n d such comments. She was
much o ld e r than o th er g i r l s , but b ecau se o f her i l l n e s s had not advanced
in her s c h o o l work and of course was thrown w ith younger g i r l s . The
change i n th e m ountains each sea so n improved her h e a lt h im m ensely, but
sh e d id n ot p a r t ic ip a t e in many a c t i v i t i e s and had few s k i l l s .
Rem edial Program Fouftth S ea so n . - Marion retu rn ed a fo u r th s e a ­
son and stayed th e f u l l tim e . A gain sh e was g iv e n th e o p p o rtu n ity to
d evelop in le a d e r s h ip , by b ein g p la c e d in th e c o u n s e lo r - in - t r a in in g group.
A t a l l tim es she was co o p era tiv e and h e lp f u l in cabin and camp p r o j e c t s .
B eing underw eight and not stro n g p reven ted her e n te r in g w h o le -h e a r te d ly
in t o a number o f a c t i v i t i e s . She d id r e c e iv e r e c o g n itio n from th e group,
however, fo r her i n t e r e s t in cer a m ics. Not h aving a dynamic p e r s o n a lit y ,
sh e seemed t o en jo y b ein g w ith o u tsta n d in g campers, and ch ose th e s e a s
h er chums. She was s a t i s f i e d over t h e ir " r e f le c t e d lig h t " and was alw ays
read y and w il l i n g to do th in g s fo r them .
E vid en ces of Improvement. - She was an o n ly c h ild who had been
pampered b ecau se o f i l l n e s s . She a d ju s te d h e r s e l f to camp and never
phoned home a s she had fr e q u e n tly wanted to and a s she had fo rm erly done.
She p a r tic ip a t e d in more a c t i v i t i e s than fo rm erly , and was seen fr e q u e n tly
p ad d lin g a can oe, and swimming.
She needed rea ssu ra n ce
frcm h er group
and prom ised t o f i n i s h
h er b eg in n er’ s t e s t in swimming.
She showed i n t e r e s t in th e f in e r th in g s
and a s p i r i t u a l growth was q u ite marked. She once remarked, "Oh, th e
sermons are s w e ll; th ey make you f e e l th a t big" and she measured th e
s i z e by th e end o f her f in g e r . "I am tr y in g my b e s t to l i k e D ot, but
I j u s t ca n ’ t do i t somehow. I am s t i l l t r y in g though."
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
64
F in a l S t a t u s . - She was n o t o r i g in a l and la ck ed i n i t i a t i v e in
c o n tr ib u tin g to c a b in p r o j e c t s . She always h elp ed out w ith her s p i r i t , as
shown by her p h ra se, "Cone on, you a l l .
L e t’ s ----------------- ." Her reco rd
shewed d e f i n i t e grew th in le a d e rsh ip and a g g r e s s iv e n e s s which were her
b a s ic p e r s o n a lit y n e e d s. Her p a ren ts were e n t h u s ia s t ic a b ou t h er growth
in independence and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . Her d e s ir e to do th e r ig h t th in g a t
a l l tim es was shown in her con tin u ed sw eetn ess and c o n s id e r a tio n fo r o th e r s .
She was c h e e r fu l and seem in gly l o s t her se n se o f f e e l i n g in f e r io r and in ­
a d eq u ate. A f r a i l p h ysiqu e had p reven ted her from a c h ie v in g o u tsta n d in g
s k i l l s , but she seemed to e n j o y tiie " r e f le c t e d li g h t " o f her fr ie n d s and
to be w ith them and be a ccep ted by them. She i s retu rn in g for her f i f t h
sea so n and a g a in w i l l be g iv e n le a d e r sh ip o p p o r tu n itie s in th e c o u n se lo r in - t r a i n i n g group.
B.
I n s t r u c t io n a l Use in Pre-Camp C onferen ce. -
The ca se sk etch e
se r v e to a c q u a in t the incoming s t a f f w ith d if f e r e n t typ es o f c h ild r e n whom
th ey must h e lp .
be e v o lv e d .
I n d iv id u a l needs can be s e e n , and p la n s f o r developm ent can
B ehavior problem s e s p e c ia l ly are em phasized.
The f o llo w in g
case s k e tc h e s show some o f the problems th a t co n fro n t c o u n s e lo r s .
Case 8 ;
JoanT A Problem o f A S p o ile d , Pampered C h ild . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Joan was in camp h er f i r s t season a t th e a g e o f
e le v e n . She was an o x - li k e , overgrown baby who had matured p h y s io lo g ic a lly
q u ite young. She had no thought o f anyone but h e r s e l f . Her c o n v e r sa tio n s
were alw ays "me and m ine” w ith much b ra g g in g . Her p a r e n ts ware r a th er
w e a lth y . As Joan had o n ly a few fr ie n d s a t home, th ey were an xiou s th a t
sh e s t a y th e whole tim e to le a r n "to g iv e and ta k e ," But she phoned and
w rote a i r m a il, " If you do not l e t me come home, I w i l l run away," and th ey
s a t i s f i e d h er whims and l e t her come home a t the end of th e f i r s t month.
Her la z y str e a k p o s s ib ly was due to her s i z e and to the f a c t t h a i
she had been w a ited on a t home. She in c e s s a n t ly asked o th ers to w a it on
h e r . " P lease keep my money for me u n t i l I go up to w ash." When sh e was
t o ld to put i t in her p urse she s a id , "Oh, p le a s e keep i t .
I ’ l l be back."
When she was t o ld she must le a r n to do th in g s fa r h e r s e l f , she p o u ted .
The s ig n s o f hom esickness which s h e showed the f i r s t few days
soon p assed o f f .
"You are n o t hom esick now, a r e you ?” asked th e c o u n se lo r .
"W ell, I h a v en ’ t c r ie d l a t e l y . I guess n o t," was th e answer. She sought
th e fr ie n d s h ip o f a form er home town g i r l who was not in her ca b in , and
Joan prom ised th a t
she could be p la c e d i n t h is g i r l s ’ c a b in she would
s ta y a l l o f the tim e. The p erso n n el d ir e c t o r d ecid ed i t would be the b e s t
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
65
p lan and she was changed and seemed much h a p p ie r ,
a l l she would ta k e .
a month, however, was
She was c a r e le s s w ith h er p o s s e s s io n s and l o s t .many or them. She
l e f t money ly i n g on the ta b le and when a p asserb y knocked i t o f f , she w hined,
"I had sane money and now i t ’ s g o n e .” She did n ot lik e to have anyone
touch her b ooks. "Let them a lo n e ," she scream ed. Her cab in-m ate whom she
was fond o f was se n t to the h o s p it a l w i t h a c o ld , and she d id many l i t t l e
kind tilin g s t o show her i n t e r e s t . But sh e c o n t in u a lly l e f t th in g s s c a t ­
te r e d , and walked out when o th er g i r l s w ere c le a n in g . When her cab in -m ates
g o t up a s k i t , she was in t e r e s t e d in n oth in g e x c e p t, "Let me be the Indian
C h ief and 1*11 powder my h a ir ." I t was im p o ssib le to q u iet h e r , so f i n a l l y
she was s e n t o f f to look f o r f e a t h e r s . Her cou n selor seemed to th in k i t
was a h o p e le s s job in tr y in g to h elp t h i s s p o ile d , o n ly c h ild in such a
sh o rt tim e . She had an excu se for e v e r y th in g . She was in s u lt e d i f i t
were m entioned th a t she should have been h e lp in g to c le a n . "I was in the
bath room," she s a id , but r e a l l y she was m erely th ere t a lk in g .
D ia g n o s is . - The c r u is e r d isc u sse d th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e - d ir e c t in g th e behavior o f th is pampered o n ly c h ild , a f t e r study o f her jo u rn a l
and a co n feren ce w ith the p erso n n el d ir e c t o r . I f same r e a l sen se o f
achievem ent cou ld be p ro v id ed . She c o n tin u o u sly a li b i e d about n o t g oin g
swimming. "I don’t li k e to swim in a la k e . I l i k e a p o o l," were her
an sw ers, and i t was w ith g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y th a t anyone could persuade h er.
Rem edial Program. - The recommendation was g iv e n to h e a lth s e r v ic e
th a t th ey se e th a t she a tte n d swimming d a ily . P o s s ib ly she would coop erate
i f she thought i t was an o rd er, fo r n e ith e r f r ie n d s nor co u n selo r had thus
fa r su cceed ed . The measure was e f f e c t i v e and sh e swam f a i r l y r e g u la r ly a s
lo n g as she knew h er a tten d a n ce was b ein g ch eck ed . Her s i z e made her s e l f c o n s c io u s , y e t the a q u a tic s d ir e c to r succeeded in b reak in g down her r e s e r v e
and accom plished a g r e a t d e a l w ith in d iv id u a l in s t r u c t io n . A lso sh e was
d ir e c te d in to g o l f . Most of th e g i r l s th a t p la y ed were o ld e r , b u t she was
q u ite la r g e fo r her age and f i t t e d in n ic e ly .
E vidence o f Improvement. - Having som ething r e a l l y to t a lk a b o u t
w ith cab in -m ates h elp ed h e r . She seemed to have dropped th e bragadocious
a i r . The p r a is e she had been g iv e n by in s t r u c t o r s f o r her e f f o r t (which
was one o f the recommendations) was o f v a lu e. R ecen tly she had been
generous in sh a rin g candy. Form erly she never shared a n y th in g , not even
her new spapers. She would not have them u n t i l sh e was e n t ir e ly through.
S ta tu s End o f F i r s t S eason . - She improved co n sid e r a b ly in
ca b in o r d e r lin e s s . J u st a s she seemed to be making d e f in it e improvement,
she d ecid ed th a t sh e would n o t remain and w ired her p a r e n ts. Of c o u r se ,
th ey p erm itted her to come home. She l e f t a t m id season even though her
p a ren ts p lead ed w ith her to rem ain.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
66
Follow-Up Second S eason . - Her jo u r n a l was read and stu d ie d by
many o f th e co u n selo rs in the pre-camp c o n fe r e n c e . L i t t l e hope was ex­
p ressed f o r b ein g a b le to r e - d ir e c t th e many u n favorab le behavior p a t t e r n s ,
i f she l e f t a g a in a s she had the p rev io u s season a t the end o f the f i r s t
month. Her p a ren ts planned th a t the camp ex p erien ce should l a s t the e ig h t
weeks p erio d and were a llo w in g h er to make the d e c is io n . She had n ever
been made to do one t h in ; a g a in s t her w i l l . Many w ir e s , lon g d is ta n c e
c a l l s , and a ir - m a il l e t t e r s p a ssed between th e d ir e c to r and her m other.
But she l e f t , th e second tim e , a t th e end o f th e f i r s t month.
I n i t i a l S ta tu s Second S eason . - Joan retu rn ed the second sea so n ,
s t i l l tr y in g to a t t r a c t a t t e n t io n to h e r s e l f by com plaining about ev er y th in g
or braggin g about her home and h e r s e l f . She was not hom esick b u t a c te d a s
i f she were to a t t r a c t a t t e n t io n . She d id not understand th e te a s in g or
l i t t l e c r it ic is m s by o th e r s, and i n t h i s way e s p e c ia l ly the former sea so n
did n o t seem t o have h elped h er, fa r she did not do a n y th in g by h e r s e lf
w ith o u t b ein g t o ld . She ex p ected to be w a ite d on, alw ays c a l lin g for h elp
in order to p a ss her th in g s from the s h e lv e s w h ile she was ly in g on the
bed. A l l day i t was " give me t h i s , g iv e me th a t; p a ss me t h i s , p ass me
t h a t."
She s t i l l was v ery u n tid y . She was o fte n moody and su lk ed and
pouted when she did n o t have her way. As tim e p a ssed , she showed more
co o p era tio n in sweeping or h e lp in g o th e r s in th e cab in , and she seemed
to show more se n se o f r e s p o n s i b ili t y . She was v e r y demanding o f o th e r s ,
t e l l i n g them w h a t,to do. Whenever she was co r r e c te d , she got very angry
and turned her head and r a is e d her ey es to the sky in a most in s o le n t
manner. She n ever once adm itted th a t she was wrong. She was alw ays ready
w ith a n a l i b i . In th e ev en in g when she was t ir e d because she had n o t
s le p t during r e s t h ou r, she barked a t the o th ers and screajded, "Turn o f f
th e lig h t s " lo n g b e fo re th ey had had a chance to u n d ress.
Her cab in -m ates w ere q u ite d is g u ste d w ith h er and fr e q u e n tly
made h er the g o a t in a s u b tle way. She began ta lk in g o f going home.
S e c r e t ly th ey a l l welcomed th e th ou ght o f her le a v in g , and what she r e a l l y
wanted was to be begged to s t a y . A fter many a i r m a il l e t t e r s and w ires
and telep h on e c a l l s she persuaded her p a ren ts to a llo w h er to r e tu r n .
I t was j u s t then th a t she was b egin n in g t o show some improvement. She
made up h er mind to be happy, as she had to s t a y o n ly one more week. I t
was d i f f i c u l t fo r th e co u n selo r t o g a in h er co o p era tio n in su p e r v is in g
the n u r s e ’s r e q u e s t about e lim in a tin g so much sta r c h in her d i e t . ”1 w i l l
take i t i f I want t o . I f I want to eat i t , i t i s my p r i v i l e g e . I pay
f o r i t . ” S in c e she did n o t go swimming, i t was d i f f i c u l t to g e t her to
bathe r e g u la r ly . Sarcasm had to b e used t o g e t her to tak e a b ath . " I ’m
g la d I ’m goin g home." A fte r she l e f t , th e atm osphere in th e ca b in was
changed, and everyone was h a p p ier.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
67
F in a l S t a t u s . - In s p i t e of a l l t h is we were s o r r y t h a t sh e had
n o t been "forced" to s ta y a t camp. She did not have any r e a l l y bad t r a i t s .
She was j u s t a s p o ile d c h ild , and th e r e i s s t i l l tame to bring fo r th what
good sh e h id e s i n s i d e . To the v e r y l a s t day her extrem e s e l f i s h n e s s and
eg o tism p e r s is t e d . In p ack in g, o r n on -packing, her p illo w and o th er a r t i c l e s
were l e f t o u t. She calm ly s a id , "I c a n ’ t get them i n . You a l l can send
them on ." When i t was su g g ested th a t p o s s ib ly th e r e was room in her trunk,
she was v ery i r r i t a t e d and would n o t a llo w a th in g to be tou ch ed . I t was
th en su g g e ste d th a t i f she w ish ed them to be s e n t , sh e should wrap them and
a d d ress them h e r s e l f and take them up t o th e s t a r e . "Oh, I ’l l have mania
w r it e back f o r them. H ere’ s a d o lla r . You can g iv e i t to them f o r p o s t a g e .”
She w en t g a i l y on her way. Money f o r her cou ld buy a n y th in g .
She lo v e d g o l f , and as no one in h er cab in p la y ed i t , sh e bragged
o fte n a b o u t how w e ll sh e was d o in g . She never responded to th e su g g e stio n s
of th e ca b in group e x ce p t in an a n t a g o n is t ic manner, f i g h t i n g e v e r y th in g .
Of c o u r s e , t h is was her way o f g e t t in g some a t t e n t io n . She p a id her c a b in m ates to make her laundry l i s t u n t i l i t was sto p p ed . She could n o t under­
stan d why money could n o t buy e v e r y th in g . Her m otto was: "I want what I
want when I want i t . ” Her parents? s o c ia l p o s it io n i n the sm a ll town had
gone to her head. She c r i t i c i z e d and b e l i t t l e d her c o u n selo r f o r th e r e ­
mark, "Where i s t h a t town? I never heard a b o u t i t . "
She was m e n ta lly "dwarfed” and p h y s ic a lly "puffed-..” She was
alw ays v e r y p ig g is h and could h a rd ly w a it to have th e d is h e s p a ssed to h e r .
She seemed to e a t w ith her e y e s and, o f co u rse, had v ery poor ta b le manners.
She did n o t have p r id e about h e r s e l f , p a ssin g days w ith o u t b a th in g or
combing her h a ir , k eep in g i t covered up w ith a h a n d k erch ief to h id e h er
c a r e le s s n e s s . There was improvement in her b eh avior o n ly when sh e thought
she would be o b lig e d to rem ain.
Case 9:
Marie - A Problem o f A N o n -P a r tie ip a to r . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - M arie, an o n ly c h il d , was in camp fo r th r e e
y e a r s , when sh e was e le v e n , tw e lv e , and t h ir t e e n . She appeared to be r a th er
r e fin e d and m odest in a t t it u d e and p e r s o n a lit y . She was more than t h i r t y f i v e pounds overw eight and was c h a r a c te r iz e d a s b ein g la z y and slo w .
During her f i r s t season sh e had a touch o f h o m e -sic k n e ss, c r y in g ,
and sa y in g th a t she had the stom ach -ach e. She was a l l r ig h t , however,
a f t e r s e v e r a l o f th e g i r l s from h er p a r t of the country com forted h er, and
she had r e c e iv e d m a il from home.
D ia g n o s is . - Marie had a h a b it o f sta n d in g around w atch in g o th er
p eo p le do th in g s and not e n te r in g in t o them h e r s e l f . She asked q u e stio n
a f t e r q u e stio n and had to be to ld e v e r y th in g t o do. She was the calm ,
p e a c e -lo v in g type and ended by d o in g th e ca b in clea n -u p h e r s e lf when any
q u a r r e lin g a r o se w ith in th e group. Her sen se o f inadequacy and n o n -p a r ti­
c ip a t io n r e s u lt e d from n o t having had o p p o r tu n itie s to le a r n many, s k i l l s
in a sm all p r o v in c ia l town.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
68
She showed v ery l i t t l e growth in making d e c isio n s fo r h e r s e l f .
She was much l e s s m ature and s o p h is t ic a t e d than her ca b in -m a tes.
Rem edial Program. - Marie had s e le c t e d piano le s s o n s a s one o f
her i n t e r e s t grou p s. The g le e clu b d ir e c t o r was asked t o in v it e and urge
her to become one o f th e se members. She d id , and was r e g u la r in her
a tten d a n ce o f ch o ir p r a c t ic e , as w e ll as co n cert p r a c t ic e . She was g iv e n
the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o l l e c t i n g th e song books. Her in t e r e s t in o th er
p eo p le would have been adm irable i f i t had not been c a r r ie d so f a r . Her
apparent la c k o f in t e r e s t in h e r s e l f was v ery p u z z lin g . Her o f f e r to
h elp s o r t laundry or o th er cabin ch o res was freq u en t but never fo llo w e d
by a c t i o n . She sim p ly sto o d and looked on.
E vidences o f Improvement. - Toward the c lo s e o f th e sea so n sh e
showed a growth in ca rry in g out her own id e a s : "I w i l l go on th e nature
h ik e even though none o f you in th e ca b in w a n t'to g o ," and she d id ,
r e tu r n in g w ith e n t h u s ia s t ic r e p o r ts o f what she le a r n e d .
Marie was not a s r e t i r i n g a s form erly b u t never go* v ery en­
t h u s i a s t i c about many t h in g s . She never took ad van tage o f o p p o r tu n itie s
to le a d . In f a c t , she shunned o p p o r tu n itie s g iv en h e r , a s ca b in r e p o r te r
or svipervisor o f p r o j e c t s . To be a s ta c it u r n a s she was, she sto o d up
f o r what she thought r i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y when o th ers w ere b ein g c r i t i c i z e d .
She alw ays saw th e good in o th e r s .
S ta tu s a t End o f F i r s t S ea so n . - Her le a d e r sh ip a b i l i t y , a c ­
cep ta n ce o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and growth in s e l f - r e l i a n c e and in i n i t i a t i v e
w ere not marked by th e end o f th e se a so n . She was not th e typ e who
o f f e r e d s u g g e s tio n s , but she was w i l l i n g to do what the group w ish ed and
she had lea rn ed a ls o to mix and p a r t ic ip a t e d more.
H ollow-lip Second S ea so n . - SJje was a s s ig n e d to a l l new ca b in m a tes, e x c e p t one, fo r th e second se a s o n . She continued under th e same
p ian o co u n se lo r who was asked when p o s s ib le t o g iv e her group r e c o g n itio n
on th e a r t s ’ n ig h t programs. Her co u n selo r was to urge her in to t e n n is
and swimming c l a s s e s . She had n ot shown any in t e r e s t in e it h e r o f th e s e
a c t i v i t i e s l a s t se a so n . Her s i z e was the h an dicap . She was a l s o p la ce d
a g a in a t th e overw eight t a b le .
In th e second year Marie was n ot a s hom esick a s she had been
b e fo r e , a n d b oasted o f i t many tim e s . Her cabin-m ates were n o t p a r t ic u la r ­
l y im pressed w ith h e r . She sp e n t much tim e combing h er h a ir , not so much
in v a n ity , a s a h a b it o f p erso n a l n e a tn e s s .
She returned to camp v ery proud o f "knowing the r o p e s .” She
seemed to take v ery s e r io u s ly th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r the son gs and s t u n t s
o f h er ca b in , s a y in g , "You know we have got to have our o r i g in a l song fo r
to n ig h t."
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69
O ften the peace-m aker q u a lit i e s came o u t. When the g i r l s grum­
b le d , she remarked, "You have to le a r n to be a good winner and g r a c e fu l
lo s e r . Don’t com plain. We w eren ’ t so good a s they were or we would have
th e p r iz e in s te a d ." Marie s a id t h i s u n co n sc io u sly and was su rp rised w ith
the sh eep ish n e ss o f th e group.
FuAther E vidences o f Improvement. - In comparing her record s
fo r two y ea rs one i s su rp rised a t her p r o g r e s s . She was her own calm s e l f
in th e s e l e c t i o n o f th e costum es fo r cab in s tu n t n ig h t. The group a c ­
cep ted h e r ch o ic e and looked to "Old K e lia b le " . She was p r a c t ic a l to a
f a u lt and very u n im a g in a tiv e, but she f i l l e d a d e f i n i t e s p o t .in the group.
She c a r r ie d th e r e s p o n s i b ili t y fo r the e n t ir e cab in on her sh o u ld ers and
was very c o n s c ie n tio u s about cab in clea n -u p and s tu n ts and so n g s." H ere's
the cabin lau n d ry. Thought I ’ d b rin g i t down," she s a id to a fr ie n d .
She was ra th er slow and la z y and even tempered, a l l b eca m e o f
her p h y s ic a l b u ild . She p a ssed her b e g in n e r 's swimming, but Marie gave
up tr y in g fo r th e in term ed ia te t e s t a s i t was more d i f f i c u l t . Her counse­
lo r was p le a se d th a t she had p ro g ressed t h i s f a r . Her in t e r e s t and
p a r t ic ip a t io n were commendable. She s t i l l did not f i t in t o any p a r tic u la r
group. Q,uite o f t e n she d id not go on o v ern ig h t t r i p s , because nobody
asked to have her pack w ith h e r . She was gen erou s w ith a l l her b elo n g in g s
and c o n sid e r a te o f o th e r s .
Follow-Up Third S ea so n . - Marie en tered camp far the th ir d
season w ith much more p o is e and s e lf - c o n f id e n c e . She had been ab le to
take ca re o f h e r s e l f in a l l s it u a t io n s and to h elp o th e r s . She did n ot
complain when sh e bad m osquito b it e s and r a s h v/hich prevented her from
goin g swimming a s sh e had l a s t se a so n . She coop erated and mixed w e ll
but seldom had th e c e n te r o f the s t a g e and n ever t r i e d to g e t i t . Her
peace-m aking p r e v a ile d , a s evidenced in h er manner in c a b in d is p u te s .
She r e fu s e d to fu s s or com plain b a t t o l d her cab in -m ates in a firm tone
o f t h e ir e r r o r s . She had become a s o l i d , s u b s t a n t ia l person w ith no
f e a r s , but Marie was g e t t in g s e lf - c o n s c io u s ab ou t h er w eig h t and wanted
to be slim m er. She came through w it h any r e s p o n s i b ili t y a ssig n ed h er and
responded to le a d e r s h ip , b u t h er record d id n o t y et show a marked growth
in o f f e r in g s u g g e stio n s w hich o th e r s fo llo w .
F in a l S t a t u s . - She le a rn ed to swim much b e tte r but gave up
l i f e sa v in g , fo r she ju s t was n o t a " g o -g e tte r " . I f she w ere, she would
not be t h ir t y pounds over w e ig h t. She became more c o n s is t e n t ab ou t con­
t r o l l i n g her d ie t than p rev io u s seasons and was slimmer and mare a c t iv e .
She en joyed r id in g more than any o th er a c t i v i t y . She learned a c c u r a te ly
her p ie c e s fo r m usic and wes q u ite gpod in a n ig h t program, but n ot
a r tis tic .
Her ch a rt shows growth in s e l f - r e l i a n c e and i n i t i a t i v e and in
r e a d in e ss to c o o p e r a te , but she i s s t i l l more o f a fo llo w e r than a lea d er
and i s s t i l l q u ite s a t i s f i e d to a c c e p t th e group s u g g e s tio n s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
70
She was alw ays c h e e r fu l and h e lp f u l to o th ers and le d a much
more a c t i v e l i f e in p a r t ic ip a t io n o f a c t i v i t i e s which helped her red u ce.
The co u n selo r dubbed her ’’Old R e lia b le " . She alw ays came through when
g iv e n r e s p o n s i b ili t y .
Case 10;
H a r r ie t - A problem o f a S e lf - E f f a c in g C h ild . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - H a r riet was a tw elve y ear o ld q u ie t , g e n t le ,
but r e td r in g c h ild who a d ju sted to camp q u ite w e ll . She spent a g r e a t
d ea l o f her time dreaming on her bed or w r itin g l e t t e r s , or t a lk in g w ith
her c o u s in who was h er cab in-m ate . She was s a t i s f i e d to b e i n th e company
o f one p erso n . A fte r two weeks she d id not do e x a c t ly what her d ic t a t in g
cou sin su g g este d b u t she war Iced a t d if f e r e n t th in g s w ith o th er groups.
She con tin u ed to w a it on h er c o u sin , however, combing and c u r lin g h er
h a ir and p a ssin g her th in g s and s tr a ig h te n in g her bed.
D ia g n o s is .- The c r u is e r recommended to h er ca b in le a d e r th a t
i f she could be in flu e n c e d n ot to have the same in s t r u c t io n a l p e r io d s a s
her d i c t a t o r i a l c o u sin , th is would make her stand on her own two f e e t
more. She had never been out o f th e home s e t t i n g b e fo r e , so the break
from home to camp had n o t been p ro p erly prepared 'f o r . .
When one s a id she was sw eet and good, th a t was a l l th a t co u ld
be s a id a b ou t h e r , f o r she was c o l o r l e s s . She had an in s ip id p e r s o n a lit y .
When fo rce d to t e l l what she thought o f -tilings d is c u s s e d , sh e s a id , "I
don’ t know. I cannot sa y . I don’ t know what to s a y . I don’ t have any­
th in g to s a y . ” C e r ta in ly she must have some id e a , b u t i t was hard fo r
her t o t a l k to a group. She had liv e d in the co u n try on a la r g e p la n t a t io n .
She alw ays la d lack ed companionship and was s i l e n t m ost o f the tim e . Her
tim id it y was d iscard ed o n ly when s h e made ex cu ses fa r her co u sin from
the c i t y who was b ein g blamed j u s t l y . Her q u ie t ways w ere not th a t she
was n ot i n t e l l i g e n t but an a c t u a l i n a b i l i t y to sa y what sh e f e l t .
Remedial Program .- The can oeing c o u n se lo r , who knew her s l i g h t l y
b efo re caning to camp, b ein g frcm th e same p a r t o f th e s t a t e , in t e r e s t e d
her to d evelop an e f f i c i e n c y in p a d d lin g . She was s e e n fr e q u e n tly out in
one cf th e canoes or kayaks w ithout her c o u sin . Her c o u sin had not y e t
p assed h er swimming requirem ent th a t e n t i t l e d her to canoe p r i v i l e g e s . The
c r u is e r a ls o had th e te n n is in s t r u c t o r p la c e her in a d if f e r e n t in s t r u c t io n ­
a l group, so now she p a r tic ip a te d in two sp o r ts w ith o u t her co u sin ta g g in g
a lo n g . F req u en tly she was a b le to be in clu d ed in canoe t r i p s .
E vidences o f Improvement. - The group developed more in d iv id u a l
i n i t i a t i v e in H a r r ie t, and she seemed not t o be q u ite so much under th e
in flu e n c e o f her c o u s in . She remained s i l e n t in th e cab in d is c u s s io n s ,
but her cab in -m ates lik e d h e r . "iVe co u ld n ’ t fin d a n y th in g to c r i t i c i z e
you f o r . You a r e alw ays so sw e et and u n s e lf is h ." This was t r u e . She
alw ays combed and cu rled the hair o f th e o th ers when th ey washed t h e i r s .
She w i l l i n g l y le n t anything the oth ers needed and shared a l l o f her b e­
lo n g in g s . She even t o l d one of the s p o ile d , s e l f i s h , ca b in -m a tes in h er
sw eet b u t firm way, "You c o u ld be more c o n sid e r a te o f o th e r s , e s p e c ia lly
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71
when th e y a r e t r y i n g to r e s t . ” And a g a i n , "You n e e d n ’ t he so n o is y a t
th e t a b l e . B e tty d o esn ’ t c a r e w h at you e a t . I t ’ s f o r y o u r g o o d * ”
The c o u n s e lo r w as am azed t o h e a r h e r t e l l o f a can o e t r i p , t o
h e a r h e r r e v e a l th e g e n u in e c u r i o s i t y a n d lo v e w hich s h e h ad f o r n a t u r e .
H a r r i e t was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n i t a n d c o u ld d i s c u s s i t i n a lm o s t a p o e t ic
m a n n er. She h a d a s p i r i t u a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f l i f e .
" I t was so b e a u t i f u l
w ith th e w a te r so b lu e and t h e g r e e n m o u n ta in s f a r aw ay, t h a t I th a n k ed
G o d .” Bach n i g h t b e f o r e r e t i r i n g s h e r e a d by f l a s h l i g h t h e r book o f
d a i l y B ib le r e a d i n g s .
F i n a l S t a t u s . - A t the end o f th e se a so n sh e showed m ore in d e ­
p e n d e n c e , o f f e r i n g s u g g e s tio n s a n d d a r in g t o e x p r e s s a few o f h e r i d e a s ,
b u t w ith b lu s h e s . She was humble i n h e r d e s i r e s , alw ay s a p o lo g iz in g
a n d show ing a lo c k o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d o f t e n s a y in g , ”1 d o n ’ t know w hat
to s a y . ” She h ad le a r n e d to m ix w ith g i r l s fro m o th e r c a b in s a n d w as
no lo n g e r u n d e r th e thumb o f h e r c o u s in . S he alw a y s had b e e n q u i e t l y
l i s t e n i n g a n d s n i l i n g , b u t a f t e r th e f o u r t h w eek s h e began to t a k e
p a r t i n c o n v e r s a tio n s a n d a l l t h e f u n . S h e seem ed to be coming m ore and
m ore out o f th e s h e l l o f th e s i l e n t s e l f - e f l f e c i n g g i r l . She d ev elo p ed
a n in d e p e n d e n c e o f a c t i o n a n d d e c is io n o f h e r own a n d d i d n o t l e t h e r
c o u s in d i c t a t e a s f o r m e r ly .
Even th o u g h s h e j e s s e d s e v e r a l r i f l e r y t e s t s and le a r n e d to
p a d d le a can o e and p la y te n n is b e t t e r a n d make a lo v e ly b r a c e l e t , sh e
n e v e r seemed to h a v e a s e n s e o f acc o m p lish m e n t a n d s e l f - r e l i a n c e . I f
more f o r c e o f c h a r a c te r c o u ld be a c q u i r e d w ith t h i s s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e ,
s h e w o u ld n o t be s o c o l o r l e s s . She n eed s m ore e x p e r ie n c e o f l i v i n g
w ith o t h e r s t o overcom e h e r shy a n d r e t i r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . Y e t, h e r camp
l i f e h e lp e d h e r r a t h e r re m a rk a b ly i n such a s h o r t tim e .
Y alu e F o r th e A d m in is tr a tio n
The c a s e m ethod i s o f g r e a t v a lu e to th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s
o f th e d i r e c t o r o f th e camp.
(1)
Seme o f th e a d v a n ta g e s a r e :
The m ethod d e v e lo p s a g e n u in e m o tiv a tio n on th e p a r t o f t h e
s t a f f to c o n tin u e t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p .
(2 )
The m eth o d e n a b le s th e d i r e c t o r to have m ore f r u i t f u l co n ­
t a c t s and c o n f e r e n c e s w ith th e s t a f f .
(3 )
The m eth o d h e lp s th e d i r e c t o r t o n o te th e u n d e rs ta n d in g o f
th e c o u n s e lo r s , t o s e e how w e l l th e y u n d e r s ta n d th e n eed s a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n s
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
72
o f th e cam pers1 p e r s o n a lit ie s a s in d ic a te d in the a n ecd o ta l jo u r n a ls .
(4)
The method h e lp s in the in d iv id u a liz a t io n o f programs by
th e r e c o g n itio n o f in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s .
(5)
The method p ro v id es a b a s is f o r s t a f f m eetin g s and d i s ­
c u s s io n s during the season to d ecide the needs o f th e camp and th e campers.
Summary
1.
The s o c i a l and p e r so n a l adjustm ent of th e camper i s g r e a t ly
a id ed by th e use o f th e b eh a v io r jo u r n a l.
The s t a f f o f th e camp i s g iv en
an in c r e a se d in s ig h t in to the problem s of each g i r l and can h elp th e camper
to a t t a in r e c o g n itio n - and s t a t u s from her ca b in group and th e camp a s a
w h o le.
2.
Much m a te r ia l i s p rovid ed by th e jo u rn a l f o r more s u c c e s s f u l
co n fere n c es between camper and c o u n s e lo r .
The co u n selo r i s b e t t e r a b le
to h elp th e g i r l ev a lu a te p e rso n a l g o a ls in th e l i g h t of her own s tr e n g th s
and w eak n esses.
3.
The cu m ulative body o f e v id e n c e s which r e l a t e t o h a b it s ,
id e a s , and p e r s o n a lit y i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r guidance s e r v ic e s in pre-camp
c o n fe r e n c e s.
I n s t r u c t io n a l b e n e f it s , a s w e l l a s th o se o f guidance, accrue
from s t a f f c o n fe r e n c e s.
4.
se a so n .
The jo u rn a l fu r n is h e s m a te r ia l far s t a f f t r a in in g during th e
G-rcwth in in s ig h t i s g r e a t ly in cr ea se d from the i l l u s t r a t i v e
m a te r ia l 'which i s a v a ila b le fo r d is d u s s io n in m e e tin g s.
Here a g a in , in ­
s t r u c t io n a l a s w e ll a s guidance b e n e f it s r e s u lt from s t a f f m e e tin g s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V
THE CONTRIBUTION OF fJHE CASE METHOD
TO PROGRAM GUIDANCE
I n t r o d u c t io n
The m odern, c h i l d - c e n t e r e d , in d i v i d u a l i z e d ty p e o f cam ping i a
a id e d m a t e r i a l l y i n p ro g ram p la n n in g th ro u g h t h e u s e o f t h e "behavior j o u r n a l .
The c a b in c o u n se lo rs* a n e c d o te s r e c o r d t h e i n t e r e s t s an d t h e a c t i v i t i e s
p a r t i c i p a t e d i n b y th e cam p er.
The b e h a v io r jo u r n a l r e v e a l s , th ro u g h th e
com m ents, c o o p e r a tiv e a c t i v i t i e s i n c a b in p r o j e o t s ,a n d sh o rtco m in g s i n
s k ills .
Each c a a p e r h a s d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , a n d a s p i r a t i o n s
from e a c h o l h e r .
The c o u n s e lo r can a p p r e c ia te each o f h e r cam pers a s a
p e r s o n i n h e r own r i g h t , l e a r n h e r i n t e r e s t s , d is c o v e r h e r g o a l s , a n d h e lp
h e r r e a l i z e them by r e c o r d in g th e s e d if f e r e n c e s i n h e r b e h a v io r j o u r n a l .
T r a n s la tin g I n s i g h t s I n t o P rogram P r a c t i c e s . -
A
s tu d y
of th e
r e c o r d s b y program c r u s i e r s a n d p e r s o n n e l s u p e r v is o r s e n a b le s a m are i n ­
t e l l i g e n t s u p e r v is io n o f th e p ro g ram .
I n s i s t s a r e o b ta in e d an d t r a n s l a t e d
in t o b e t t e r program p r a c t i c e s , s in c e a d e f i n i t e e f f o r t i s made t o p ro v id e a
s i t u a t i o n t h a t w i l l m e e t th e n e e d s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .
The c a b in c o u n s e lo r
fo llo w s up i n o r d e r to s e e t h a t eac h cam per i n h e r c a b in le a r n s th e s k i l l s
n e c e s s a r y i n m aking h e r u n iq u e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o th e g ro u p .
The developm ent
o f s p e c i a l s k i l l s f r e q u e n t ly i s a m eans by w h ich a c c e p t a b i l i t y w i l l be
d e v e lo p e d .
P s y c h o lo g ic a l w ean in g o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d
73
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
74
by le a r n in g the s k i l l s n e cessa ry fo r f e e l i n g a t home in the camp com­
m unity.
Northway g iv e s th e v a lu es o f s k i l l s a s to o ls fo r s o c ia l iz a t io n :
S k i l l s a lo n e do n ot make for s o c i a l i z a t i o n but th ey f a c i l i t a t e
i t , and th e co u n selo r who can d isc o v e r , and d ir e c t h is camper’ s s p e c ia l
a b i l i t i e s in s o c i a l p a r t ic ip a t io n i s h elp in g the c h ild a c h ie v e a very
w orthw hile end. 7 /h ile r e c o g n it io n for ach ievem en t i s u s e f u l in d ev elo p in g
s o c i a l i z a t i o n , th e u ltim a te aim should be th a t o f "anonymous c o n trib u tio n "
in which th e work of th e in d iv id u a l becomes l o s t in the product o f th e
group and the in d iv id u a l’ s r e c o g n itio n i s o n ly apparent through th e group’ s
su ccess.
E n richin g Program for U nadjusted Campers
C ru iser R e la tio n sh ip to N o n -P a r tic ip a to r s . -
The primary aim o f
a v a ried and f l e x i b l e program i s to help 'the camper le a r n to make independ­
en t and i n t e l l i g e n t c h o ic e s in th e dai l y a c t i v i t i e s .
F req u en tly , however,
a camper w i l l r e f r a in from p a r t ic ip a t io n in an a c t i v i t y and f e ig n d i s in t e r e s t
when the cau se i s a la ck o f a sense o f a ch iev em en t, a f e e l i n g o f inadequacy.
Sane p e r s o n a lity t r a i t i s the cause fo r n o n -p a r tic ip a tio n in an a c t i v i t y .
The beh avior jo u rn a l b r in g s th e c r u is e r ’ s a t t e n t io n t o th e camper whose la ck
o f ad ju stm en t i s shown in la c k o f i n t e r e s t .
The fo llo w in g ca se sk etch es
are c i t e d , showing how th e in fo rm a tio n secu red from cab in c o u n s e lo r s ’
a n ecd o tes was o f v a lu e to program su p e rv iso rs and c r u is e r s who have a c c e s s
t o th e reco rd s in d ia g n o sin g la c k o f a d ju stm en t.
Case 11:
P a t t ie - A Problem o f Inadequacy. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - P a t t ie f i r s t came to camp a t the a g e o f tw elv e
and a h a l f . She was a tim id , sh rin k in g c h ild , d isa p p o in ted th a t sh e could
not share a ca b in w ith her b e s t fr ie n d from her home town. Her mother
Mary Northway, " S o c ia liz a t io n ; ” Camping M agazine, XI (November,
1 9 3 9 ), 30 .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75
had p r iv a t e ly req u ested th a t th ey be se p a r a te d . P a t t i e did n o t show any
sig n 3 o f hom esick n ess, how ever, b ecau se o f the g ir ls whom she knew p r e v io u s ­
l y from her town. She im pressed one a s having l i t t l e p e r s o n a lit y , la z y
in her a c t i v i t i e s , y e t o b ed ien t t o r e g u la t io n s and r e sp o n siv e to th e
c o u n s e lo r ’ s s u g g e s tio n s .
D ia g n o s is . - F req u en tly she rem ained a lo n e and read and did not
care to p a r t ic ip a t e in th e p lan s she had sch ed u led fo r th e m orning. In­
v e s t ig a t io n r e v e a le d th a t she had t r ie d alw ays to keep up w ith a g i r l
fn ie n d who could do many o f th e camp s k i l l s w e l l , w h ile P a t t i e was o n ly
m ediocre in m ost of them. She had s e le c t e d c l a s s e s in w hich m ost o f th e
g i r l s were ex p e r ie n c e d , and th ey a 11 e s c e l le d h er.
A ll o f her b eh avior a c t i o n s p o in ted to a r e a l f e e l i n g o f i n f e r i o r ­
i t y . She showed no i n i t i a t i v e and was w i l l i n g to fo llo w th e r e c o g n iz e d
le a d e r in th e cab in w ith whom sh e sp e n t a g rea t d ea l o f tim e. Too, she
was alw ays q uick to c r i t i c i z e and f in d f a u l t .
Rem edial Program. - Her la c k o f p a r t ic ip a t io n was due to no
se n se o f ach ievem en t, th e c r u is e r d e c id e d . She s h if t e d her c l a s s e s so th a t
she r e c e iv e d in s t r u c t io n w ith g i r l s her own a g e who d id n o t e x c e l h e r .
R id in g had been her o n ly i n t e r e s t . She now began to work hard to p ass th e
achievem ent t e s t . S in c e th e swimming in s tr u c to r had g iv e n her more a t ­
t e n t io n , she a tte n d e d the r e c r e a t io n a l swimming p e r io d s more f r e q u e n tly
and was encouraged to p r a c t ic e some o f t h e th in g s sh e was le a r n in g .
E vidences o f Im provem ent.- As tim e p a sse d , P a t t i e began to have
a sen se o f a ch iev em en t in r id in g and swimming and began to speak up and
ex p ress her o p in io n s in th e ca b in c o n fe r e n c e s . S e v e r a l tim es she was g iv e n
charge of the ch a p el programs and she d id h er p a r t ra th er w e l l . New sh e
began to be a s s e r t iv e in c o r r e c t in g the o th e r s about t h e i r la c k o f con­
s id e r a t io n far th e c o u n s e lo r s . "You a l l keep q u ie t now and l e t Anne r e s t .
You know she i s t ir e d from th e h ik e ," sh e was heard to s a y . A month e a r l i e r
she w ould never have u tte r e d su ch a s ta te m e n t. She n o t o n ly showed more
le a d e r sh ip in h er group, b u t a ls o was m ixin g more and was n o t a s "mousey"
a s b e fo r e . Her tendency to be d is o r d e r ly improved, and she o f t e n did more
than h er share in ca b in c le a n -u p . The s p e c ta to r a t t i t u d e t h a t sh e had in
th e b eg in n in g disap peared because o f b e t t e r program g u id a n ce.
Follow-Up Second S ea so n . - She was a s sig n e d to a c a b in w ith her
b e s t fr ie n d from her own home tow n. I t was s a t i s f a c t o r y from th e p a r e n ta l
a s p e c t t h i s sea so n and s in c e she and her g i r l f r ie n d were ea g er to bunk
to g e th e r , i t was so arra n g ed . Her e x p erien ce from l a s t sea so n sh o u ld en a b le
her to f e e l more ad eq u ate. The guidance s e r v i c e ' s recommendation was th a t
she be g iv e n every o p p o rtu n ity o f group a p p ro v a l, far she was a very s e n s i ­
t i v e c h il d . She must have a s e n se o f adqquacy, o th erw ise she would n o t
p a r t ic i p a t e . T his was the d ia g n o s is o f l a s t s e a s o n ’ s jo u r n a l.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
76
During her second season she m s n ot a s c o o p e r a tiv e in r e s t hour
and in k eep in g o th e r r e g u la tio n s . She seemed to show her independence and
a d e s ir e to be d if f e r e n t . Knowing the background, th e co u n selo r was g la d
to s e e t h i s a g g r e s s iv e n e s s , fo r P a t t ie r e a l l y was v ery h e lp f u l in cabin
adjustm ent and o ffe r e d t o do many l i t t l e th in g s f o r the g i r l s when th ey
came back from h ik e s . She was chosen by her group a s c o u n c il member. She
had retu rn ed w ith a d eterm in a tio n t o s e r v e her group in E n te r p r ise s and
to coop erate in a l l p r o j e c t s . One o f her home town f r ie n d s , however,
r id ic u le d h er and jib ed a t her c o n tin u o u sly . ”0h, you a r e tr y in g t o do
a l l o f th a t to be th e s p i r i t of s e r v ic e ." Her remarks had i t s e f f e c t upon
h er, and i t was an u n fortu n ate e p is o d e , f o r she d r if t e d away from her cab in
group and sought th e a t t e n t io n o f o ld er g i r l s from her home town on th e
s e n io r s id e .
Heme d ia l C on feren ces. - The cab in co u n selo r took the m atter up
d i r e c t l y w ith th e p erso n n el d ir e c t o r . Jane, th e m alad ju sted cab in -m a te,
had caused f r i c t i o n fr e q u e n tly l a t e l y . A fte r s tu d y o f both jo u r n a ls , the
c r u is e r had s e v e r a l co n feren ces w it h the co u n selo r and d ir e c t o r , and a ls o
c o n fe r e n c e s w ith the c r i t i c i z i n g cab in -m ate, Hie e s p r it de corp s was r e ­
e s t a b lis h e d . nI want to a p o lo g iz e to th e w hole group fo r the way I have
acted th e p a s t s e v e r a l d a y s ,” sh e sa id f i n a l l y . "W ill you p le a s e h elp me
to g e t a lo n g b e tte r w ith Jane? Sctnehow, e v er y th in g she does seems to make
me mad."
F u rth er E vidences o f Improvement and F in a l S t a t u s . - P a t t ie de­
v elo p e d in s e lf - c o n f id e n c e and even ign ored th e cabin-m ate who seemed to
have a g r e a t in flu e n c e in h er l f f e . Her p a ren ts v i s i t e d a t the end o f th e
sea so n and were q u ite p le a s e d w ith her new t r a i t s . She was much more
a g g r e s s iv e and not th e b lin d fo llo w e r she had b een . Her d eterm in a tio n to
r id e w e ll was th a t she m igh t e q u a l or su rp a ss her cabin-m ate who had camped
fo r s e v e r a l sea so n s and had won p la c e s in the h o rse show. She had not
shown a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t in h er a c t i v i t i e s but had accom plished s e v e r a l
o f h er ach ievem en t t e s t s in swimming, ca n o ein g , and r i d i n g . The .p a ren ts
q u e stio n n a ir e which was retu rn ed two months l a t e r r e v e a led th e in cr ea se d
developm ent in a s s e r t in g h er own o p in io n s and th e courage to d isa g r e e w ith
th is home town f r ie n d .
Case 12:
A nita - A Problem o f O v e r -P r o te c tio n . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - A nita made an u n u su a lly good ad ju stm en t fo r
a ndw camper. She was s e n t to camp on a d o c t o r ’s recommendation and n ever
had t o be to ld when she was t o go to t h e in fir m a ry fo r her m ed icin e. She
was c o n s c ie n tio u s in her cab in d u t ie s .
She began to show s u r p r is in g i n i t i a t i v e f o r a c h ild whose p a ren ts
had s h ie ld e d her so much. She was alw ays th e s i l e n t s u ff e r e r and never
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
77
com plained. She seemed t o adapt h e r s e lf to any s it u a t io n but was a s u r p r is ­
in g m is f it in an unusual way.
D ia g n o s is . - A pparently her home environm ent was q u ite o ld - f a s h ic n ed, and her i n t e r e s t s had been con fin ed to m usic and p r a c tic in g her p ia n o .
She had p la y ed or mixed very l i t t l e w ith other's. She alw ays f e l t a p o lo g e tic
f o r being in the ca b in and even in camp. T his complex so i r r it a t e d her
cabin-m ates th a t th e y t o ld her to s to p saying "Thanic you" or "That’ s a l l
r ig h t" when th in g s a c t u a lly were n o t a l l r ig h t . She c o u ld never say "No"
to a n y th in g , and was c o n tin u a lly a p o lo g iz in g when someone reminded her o f
the l e a s t th in g . She was n ot as neat about her p erson a s she should 1bve
been, but she d id e x h ib it an e a r n e st and c o n s is t e n t d e s ir e to improve.
"Thank you. I w i l l t r y to remember th a t," was her answer when c r i t i z i z e d ."
She was one o f the m ost u n s e lf is h
c h ild r e n . "Jane, i f you are
a fr a id no one e l s e w i l l wear s la c k s , I w i l l change to mine so you won’ t
be th e o n ly on e," she was heard to say. Another tim e , "I b e lie v e I can
w a it f o r you i f you don’ t want t o go a lo n e ," she t o ld someone.
Remedial Program. - The c r u is e r r e a liz e d th a t the g i r l needed to
r e c e iv e some r e c o g n itio n from th e group to h elp t h is sen se o f i n f e r i o r i t y ,
She was asked to g iv e a c o n c e r t, f o r she p layed th e piano q u ite w e l l . She
gain ed more s e lf - c o n f id e n c e a f t e r th e r e c i t a l and more p o is e among a l l the
campe r s .
She needed to sta n d on h er two f e e t and t o le a r n to th in k fo r
h e r s e lf and to le a r n to sa y "No". Home fa c t o r s are r e s p o n s ib le , however,
as she i s a product o f th e o ld e r g e n e r a tio n . She would have been more
accep ted by her group i f she had a s s e r t e d h e r s e l f . "I have been taught to
s a y , ’Thank you ’ when b ein g c r i t i c i z e d ," she re p o r te d in her con ference
w ith the p erso n n el d ir e c to r , who endeavored to h elp her g ain a c c e p t a b ilit y
s ta tu s w ith her cab in group.
A n ita was alw ays a b i t too sw eet and too goody-goody to be very
popular w ith her c a b in . Her answer o fte n would b e , "Well, i f Edna th in k s
i t ’s b e s t, t h a t ’ s a l l th ere i s . " She needed to a s s e r t h e r s e lf and to d is ­
agree w ith p e o p le once in a w h ile . Her home t r a in in g and d i s c ip l in e had
been much d if f e r e n t from o th ers in her c a b in .
E vidences o f Improvement and F in a l S t a t u s . - G radually she showed
growth and independence and more s e lf - c o n f id e n c e in the la r g e group. She
was always the same sw eet c h il d , eager to p le a s e , but she did not show a s
narked improvement in p erso n a l n ea tn ess a s in cabin t i d i n e s s . C ooperation
in cabin t id in e s s was n ecessa ry fo r a ccep ta n ce, and she was an xiou s to
p le a s e . She ex p ressed d e f in it e growth in s e l f - r e l i a n c e in her testim o n y ,
"I th in k i f you go anywhere in a crowd and t r y to have a good tim e, you
w i l l . I have had a much b e t t e r time s in c e I have stopped seem ing s e l f c o n sc io u s."
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
78
She had a t e r r i b l e cr y in g s p e l l a f t e r one o f the p a r t ie s a t a
b oy’ s camp and was q u ite u p se t b ecause she had n ot r e c e iv e d th e a t t e n t io n
w hich o th e r s in her cab in had. Tor/ard th e end o f th e sea so n she showed
much more p o is e in g ir l- b o y a f f a i r s .
E n richin g Program fo r H a la d ju sted Campers
C ruiser R e la tio n s h ip to ila la d ju ste d Campers. -
Those who a re
m alad ju sted and r e fu s e to co o p era te in ca b in p r o j e c t s and u se b ehavior
mechanisms which make them unpopular must be d ir e c te d in t o an a c t i v i t y
th a t g iv e s them a s e n se o f a ch ie v em en t.
Then they w i l l n o t d e s ir e to g a in
a t t e n t io n by d ero g a tio n , b ra g g in g , q u a r r e lin g , d iso b e d ie n c e , or any o th er
u n d e sir a b le b eh a v io r.
A ls o , the camjsers who are m a la d ju sted b ecause o f
hom esick n ess or i n f e r i o r i t i e s can be a id e d through the program g u id a n ce.
The f o llo w in g sk etch es i l l u s t r a t e seme o f th e b eh avior problems which
c r u is e r s a r e co n fro n ted w ith in m a la d ju sted campers.
Case IB:
Joyce - A Problem o f S u lle n n e s s . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Joyce f i r s t camped a t the age o f e le v e n . She
was a n e a t, w e ll behaved g i r l w ith a very c r i t i c a l n a tu r e . She lik e d to
have fun, but alw ays a t th e expense o f o th e r s . She te a s e d a t t im e s , and
y e t she seemed to be such a s e r io u s c h ild . She was d i f f i c u l t to u n derstand.
D ia g n o s is . - She had a keen sen se o f r ig h t and wrong, but i t was
d i f f i c u l t a t f i r s t f o r h er to a d j u s t h e r s e lf to th e group a s sh e was alm ost
too c r i t i c a l o f o th ers in sm a ll d is c r e p a n c ie s . ’’T his i s n ’ t r i g h t , ” or
"That i s n ' t r i g h t ," and she w ould r e a l l y be provoked over th e m a tte r .
Once she made tro u b le over th e f a c t t h a t her book had been moved. "Who
moved my book," she asked a n g r ily . "Joyce d o esn ’ t seem to have fu n and
to laugh l i k e the oth er g iz * ls ,w was one o f h er cab in -m ates rem arks. Her
c r i t i c a l a t t it u d e was a s ig n o f an i n f e r i o r i t y com plex.
Remedial Program. - The c r u i s e r s ’ recommendation was th a t the
cab in le a d e r g iv e her any o p p o r tu n itie s p o s s ib le f o r in -grou p r e c o g n it io n ,
s e e to i t th a t her a c t i v i t y sc h e d u le was not lim it e d on ly w ith h er c a b in mates .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
79
She r e fu s e d the o p p o rtu n ity o f le a d e r sh ip th a t h er cab in gave
h er. "Let B e tty do i t . " T h is , of co u rse, was due to th e f e e l i n g of in ­
f e r i o r i t y which she showed the whole se a s o n . She had no s k i l l s in any
sp o rts when she came to camp, and her p r o g r e s s was slo w . She fr e q u e n tly
made comments on the improvements th a t o th er campers were m aking. Her
co u n selo r h elp ed her to p a r t ic ip a t e in th e a c t i v i t i e s . Those she enjoyed
she would become q u ite anim ated i n . Whenever she was d o in g th in g s th a t
she lilt e d , and ev er y th in g went a l l l i g h t , sh e w ou ld seem q u ite happy.
S p e c ia l a t t e n t io n was g iv en her in swimming. She responded to t h i s and
was e x c it e d over b eing a b le to p a ss th e swimming t e s t w hich e n t i t l e d h er
to make one o f th e canoe t r i p s . T his s e n s e o f achievem ent was e s s e n t i a l
f o r h er d eep -sea ted i n f e r i o r i t y . This accounted fo r her "sour grapes"
a t t it u d e .
S ta tu s a t End o f F i r s t S ea so n . - O ften she seemed to t i r e o f
th e hub-bub in th e cabin and en jo y ed t a lk in g w ith c o u n s e lo r s . She was
n ot a gpod m ixer and n ever was one of th e popular ones in her c a b in . She
never g o t to p la c e s on tim e and u s u a lly su lk ed and made a l i b i s . She
3aeked i n i t i a t i v e and s e lf - c o n f id e n c e and n ever made a n y s u g g e s tio n s fo r
the cab in p r o j e c t s ,b u t alw ays was w il l i n g to f o llo w . Toward th e end o f
th e sea so n she showed some growth in s e lf - c o n f id e n c e a s a r e s u l t o f her
sen se o f a ch iev em en t, o b ta in ed in r id in g and swimming.
Follow-Up the Second S ea so n . - She was a s s ig n e d to a cab in w ith
two retu rn ed campers and th e same c o u n selo r who had a thorough u n derstand­
in g o f her many p a tte r n s o f com pensation fa r her i n f e r i o r i t y .
Joyce retu rn ed th e second s e a s o n , e n jo y in g the id ea o f b ein g an
o ld camper, but prom ptly shewed h er s u lle n and d isa g reea b le nature when
th in g s d id n o t go her way. The h e lp f u l a t t it u d e did n ot l a s t very lo n g .
She seemed to have a p e s s im is t ic o u tlook on m ost t h in g s , and i t was Joyce
f i r s t and o t h e r s la t e r . She was a b i t d isa g r e e a b le over her c h o ic e of
beds but f i n a l l y d ecided th a t th e r e was no n eed to a r g u e .
Her a t t it u d e was s t i l l th a t she "was g oin g t o s e e th a t th e o th er
fe llo w did ju s t r ig h t" and con tin u ed to g e t a f t e r her cab in -m ates about
such t in y th in g s and n ever in a n ic e way. She i n s i s t e d th a t two o f them
sh ou ld n o t have th e ir d e s s e r t , sim p ly b ecau se th ey had made i t a r u le when
one was l a t e th ey would have to be d ep riv ed o f i t . She was cocksure in
l i t t l e th in g s and so ready t o t e l l o th e r s when th ey f a i l e d , rem arking to
her c o u n se lo r , "Why do you t e l l me about my p o stu re more than o th ers? Look
a t B o b b ie 's!" She alw ays made a l i b i s w ith f a u l t s o f o th e r s and compen­
sa ted far her own sh art-com in gs by s e e in g th a t o th ers were not doing th in g s
ju st r i g h t .
Her b o ssy ways in th e cabin caused h er cab in -m ates n ev er to s e e k
her o u t. She t r ie d to overcome h er s e lf - c e n t e r e d n e s s when one o f th e ca b in m ates she liv e d w ith was a ssig n e d to h er bunk. "I d id n ’ t li k e her l a s t y e a r ,
but I am going to t r y to li k e her now, and I w i l l h elp her g e t s e t t l e d and
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
make her f e e l th a t she b elo n g s to our group," the g i r l s a id .
Joyce was in more a c t i v i t i e s and b e tte r a t ea se than th e p rev io u s
se a so n , but she s t i l l was very stu b b o rn . "I have n ev er s l e p t i n th e day
tim e , and I know I c a n ’ t , " was her dogmatic sta n d . Her cock su ren ess ab ou t
h e r s e lf ag a in was in d ic a t iv e o f in f e r i o r i t y , and the f a c t th a t sh e was
more ready to c o r r e c t some one e l s e far hSB f a u lt s than to adm it her own.
Y e t, she was overheard sa y in g to one o f her cab in -m ates th a t "You must
tak e some o f every fo o d , but in time you w i l l le a r n to l i k e i t . That was
th e way i t was w ith u s l a s t y e a r ."
P in a l S t a t u s . - What cou ld be done to h elp h er s u r ly d is p o s it io n ?
The co u n selo rs were in t e r e s t e d a s w e l l a s the c r u is e r i n g iv in g her a
sen se o f ach iev em en t. This s u r ly a t t it u d e p o s s ib ly was due to co n sta n t
c o r r e c tio n a t home. Her fa th e r had r e la te d th a t sh e had been spanked not
so lo n g ago because she r e fu se d to go and g o t her c e r t i f i c a t e when her name
was c a l le d . He was very s e v e r e w ith the c h ild r e n , and t h is m ight be the
rea so n fo r her deep sen se o f i n f e r i o r i t y and the u se o f her many d efen se
m echanism s. Comparing her reco rd to t h a t o f the p r e v io u s sea so n , one s e e s
th a t she was now much more f r ie n d ly and f u l l o f fu n . She en tered in t o th e
a c t i v i t i e s only a f t e r b ein g urged, however, and i t w i l l ta k e much group
l i v i n g and continued sen se o f ach ievem en t to overcome th is d erogatory
a t t it u d e to o th e r s . Program guidance did a id t h is cam per’s adjustm ent to
group l i v in g , and in o b ta in in g s k i l l in r id in g and swimming.
Case 14:
L u c ille - A Problem o f B ragging. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - L u c ille was a -th irteen year o ld g i r l who was
very hom esick. She had poor p o stu re and an u n fo rtu n a te whiny v o ic e . She
made h e r s e lf obnoxious to the g i r l s wi Hi her in an e rem arks, s i l l y la u g h in g
and co n sta n t e f f o r t to secu re the c e n te r o f th e s ta g e by b raggin g ab ou t her
fa m ily ’. She was tid j r in h er p erson and o r d e r ly in cabin c le a n up.
D ia g n o s is . - She did n o t know hew to swim, r i d e , p la y t e n n is , and
did n o t have s k i l l in any sp o r t, but she com pensated by bragging about th in g s
back home. "I am n ot b ra g g in g , but I g u e ss our fa m ily i s a l l r i g h t ," she
o f t e n s a id . A fte r a v i s i t o f h er p a r e n ts , sh e a sk e d , "Don’ t you th in k my
mama i s th e sw e e te st mama in the w orld? I s n ’ t she p retty ? " v'/hen her counse­
lo r commented th a t a su g g estio n she had made was good fo r cabin news, L u c ille
s a id , "I s a id t h a t . T e ll everyone I was th e o n e .” She was c o n s ta n tly seek ­
in g p r a is e to b o ls t e r her e g o .
Although q u ite w ea lth y and from a good fa m ily , she f e l t very
in f e r i o r and t r ie d to compensate w ith an a g g r e s s iv e manner, due to her la c k
o f achievem ent in s k i l l s . She was c o n s ta n tly making a p la y fo r a t t e n t io n
and wanting p r a is e , and i f she did not r e c e iv e i t , she bragged.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
81
Remedia1 Program. - The c r u is e r o b tain ed in d iv id u a l a t t e n t io n fo r
her in swimming during the r e c r e a t io n a l p erio d . She had such d i f f i c u l t y
in f lo a t in g th at her p r a c tic e Deeded s u p e r v is io n . The a q u a tic s d ir e c to r
had been g iv in g her s p e c ia l a t t e n t io n in her c l a s s in s t r u c t io n , but much
more a t t e n t io n was needed. The recommendation to th e co u n selo r was th a t
she make her r e a l iz e through p erso n a l con feren ce th a t her ways were ir k in g
her ca b in -m a tes.
E vidences o f Improvement.- She acd ep ted c r it ic is m from her
co u n selo rs w e ll but made a l i b i s ev e r y ti m e her cab in -m ates c r i t i c i z e d h e r .
She t r ie d to overcome her b o a stfu l,m a n n er. When s h e began to f e e l th e
t h r i l l o f a ch ievem en t, she seemed much h ap p ier and did not always im agine
tlxat the g i r l s were le a v in g her o u t o f fun. hiany tim es she w ould be a
"wet b la n k e t” when d oin g ifchat she was supposed to do, and o th ers wanted to
d isob ey r u le s . She wandered around by h e r s e l f fr e q u e n tly and commented
to the co u n selo r, "No one w ants to be w ith me, b u t I am g oin g t o have a
good time in s p i t e of i t . ”
She coop erated w ith h er group in a l l p r o j e c t s , but t h e g i r l s
c o n s ta n tly w hispered about h e r . She was a -thorn i n the f le s h during the
whole sea so n . Her remark a t th e end w as, "I have had a grand tim e h e r e ,
even i f I haven ’ t made any fr ie n d s ." She was so v a in . She o f t e n s to o d
b efo re the m irror and combed her h a ir , u n t i l t h is g o t on e v e r y o n e 's n e rv es.
"I want to be a mannequin when I grow u p ,” sh e t o ld o th ers in the group.
F in a l S t a t u s . - The ex p erien ce a t camp was v e r y p r o f it a b le fo r
L u c il le . By the end of the season her group was more kind to her because
she had a d ju sted h e r s e lf to th e s i t u a t i o n . She did not ex p ect them to
p r a is e her and to l e t her brag about her p o s se s s io n s and her prom inence
a t home. She had worked d i l i g e n t l y on her s k i l l s but had had d i f f i c u l t y
because o f poor m uscular c o o r d in a tio n . She was so p le a s e d w ith h e r s e lf
when she no lo n g er was in the swimming c r ib and was allow ed to g e t in deep
w a ter. She lack ed a p p lic a tio n , fa r th e , te n n is co u n selo r rep orted th a t she
would pout v ery e a s i l y and appear to have v e r y hurt f e e l in g s i f she was
not ab le to a ccom p lish what was asked o f h e r . She was always to be com­
mended fo r her p erseveran ce and her p a tie n c e in le a r n in g to swim and r id e
and her gained s e lf - a s s u r a n c e .
Case 15:
Frances - A Problem o f H om esickness. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - F ran ces, an e le v e n year o ld g i r l , had g r e a t
d i f f i c u l t y w ith ad ju stm en t. She was underw eight, and sh e c r ie d a lm ost
every n ig h t and whined c o n tin u o u sly , ”T his i s the f i r s t time I have been
away from home.” She was r a th e r e a s i l y d iv er te d a t f i r s t , but q u ick ly
became homesick a g a in . Cabin-jpates were d isg u sted w ith h er. "I d o n 't
want to give in to i t , but I do want t o go hom e,” Frances moaned. Her
a p p e tite was poor, and i t was w ith r e l i e f th a t h er c o u n selo rs saw her e a t
more than h a lf a bean or a seed from a tom ato.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
82
D ia g n o s is . - She stood around and gazed a t th e o th ers whenever
th ere was an yth in g to do and ted t o b e t o ld s e v e r a l tim es b efo re she f i n a l l y
g o t around to h e lp in g w ith her sh a r e . She had a c r in g in g manner, and o n ly
in her in-group was she a t a l l a g g r e s s iv e . She was generous in sh a rin g
her b e lo n g in g s , e s p e c ia l ly the many boxes o f candy she r e c e iv e d .
R em edial Program. - The c r u is e r got her in t e r e s t e d in swimming.
A fte r many we.'ks o f in s t r u c t io n , she p a ssed th e c r ib t e s t . But she came
out crin g in g and moaning th a t probably she would §o down in deep w a ter.
Yet Frances took advantage o f her au d ien ce and made a p la y for a t t e n t io n by
jumping o f f the low board and th en the h igh one in to dee.p w a ter, g e t t in g
a l l ey es upon h e r .
E vid en ces o f Improvement. - A lthough f in ic k y about her fo o d , she
showed g r e a t improvement and was a good sp o rt about " clea n in g her pD ate."
She gained s e l f - r e l i a n c e and did n ot have t o be h elp ed in making her laundry
l i s t nor d id she have to be c o n s ta n tly rem inded to keep her th in g s more
o r d e r ly . In one o f th e ca b in q u a rrels la t e r when one of the g i r l s was a
v ic tim , Frances rem arked, "Now you can im agine hew I f e l t a t the f i r s t o f
camp when you a l l h ated me, but I li v e d through i t . "
T his was t r u e . Her
one achievem ent was le a r n in g to ta k e i t on th e c h in w ith ou t making a l i b i s ,
or p o in tin g out th e f a u l t s o f o th ers a s she had done so fr e q u e n tly in the
e a r ly p a rt o f camp. She was aware o f the f a c t th a t her whiny drawL was
n au seatin g to o th e r s and made a d e f in it e e f f o r t t o c o r r e c t i t . She was
t h r i l l e d and e x c it e d a t w inning th e j it t e r b u g c o n t e s t . She needed a r e a l
sen se of achievem ent f o r she was used to spending a g rea t d e a l o f time
w ith a d u lt s who a llo w e d her to secu re th e cen ter o f th e s ta g e w ith h er
w hin in g.
F in a l S t a t u s . - The camp e x p erien ce did a g r e a t d eal fo r F ra n ces.
She le a rn ed th a t w hining did not gain a resp o n se and th a t th ere were "other
p eb b les on th e b each ." She did not r e s o r t to p o in tin g ou t the f a u lt s o f
oth ers when she was c o r r e c te d . Her c h a rt re v e a le d a d e f in it e growth in
s e l f - r e l i a n c e , a cce p ta n ce o f r e s p o n s i b ili t y , and a r e a d in e ss to co o p era te .
ffase 16:
J a n et - A Problem o f I n f e r io r i t y F ea r. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - J a n et, a tim id th ir t e e n year o ld g i r l had g r e a t
d i f f i c u l t y a d ju s tin g h e r s e l f to camp. Her p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n was not up
to p a r. She was underw eight and had ev id e n c es o f poor n u t r it io n . She
seldom r e fe r e d t o her fa m ily , but was q u ite home s i c k . She was w orried
about what her cab in -m ates would th in k o f h e r , and was d e f i n i t e l y a f r a id
o f m eetin g a new s it u a t io n .
D ia g n o s is . - She would alw ays a sk when p ia n n in g her sch ed u le,
’•What a re th e r e s t o f the k id s g o in g to tak e?" She te d th a t "I don’t c a r e
i f I am l a t e a t t it u d e " a t f i r s t , but a f t e r a w h ile she managed to g e t to
her c l a s s e s and m ea ls on tim e . "What c lo th e s s h a ll I wear today?"
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
83
"What a c t i v i t y s h a ll I p a r t ic ip a t e in ? ” Her remarks in d ic a te d l i t t l e con­
fid e n c e and d e c is io n and th a t she f e l t i n f e r i o r . J a n e t’ s jo u rn a l r e v e a le d
day a f t e r cay th a t she r e fu s e d to p a r t ic ip a t e in swimming. She chose oth er
a c t i v i t i e s in s t e a d , and y e t her mother d e s ir e d th a t she le a r n to swim. An
in v e s t ig a t io n found th a t she was v ery tim id , th a t she had n ot y e t p h y sio ­
l o g i c a l l y matured fo r h er c h r o n o lo g ic a l age and was v ery m odest and o v e r ly
s e n s i t iv e about u n d r e ssin g .
Remedial Program. - The c r u is e r c u lt iv a t e d t h i s c h i l d ’ s f r ie n d ­
sh ip and, due to th e ra p p o rt, was a b le to in d u ce her to go swimming. She
was taken in d iv id u a lly and h elp ed to overcome h er fe a r o f th e w a te r . A fte r
s p e c ia l h elp she was encouraged t o jo in her cabin group in c la s s in s t r u c t io n
and p ro g ressed n oticeab ly.,- She had a d eep -sea ted f e a r o f w a ter, and by a
slow p r o c e s s , the c r u is e r succeeded in h e lp in g her overcome t h is f e a r .
E vidences o f Improvement. - Her c h ie f i n t e r e s t s were r id in g and
can oein g, and she seemed concerned over im proving in th e s e s k i l l s . She
was q u ite s e lf - c o n s c io u s , and found i t q u it e d i f f i c u l t to do th in g s , i f she
were th e c e n te r o f a t t e n t io n . 7/hen asked why she d id n ’ t a tte n d swimming
in s t r u c t io n more f r e q u e n tly , she s a id , "I ca n ’ t swim w e ll en o u g h .” Another
tim e she remarked, ”1 don’ t l i k e t o do th in g s i f I can ’ t do them a s w el l
a s everybody e l s e . ”
She had a n ic e a t t it u d e and alw ays co o p era ted , b u t n ever c o n t r i­
b uted to th e group d is c u s s io n u n le s s she was a sk ed p o in t b la n k . Her
co u n selo r would c a l l on her fr e q u e n tly in order to t r y to encourage her
to speak u p . She was one o f the m ost immature o f her group and was q u ite
tim id . She d id not r e a c t w e ll to th e c r i t ic i s m o f her cab in -m ates or her
c o u n se lo r . She did n o t seem to be a b le to ta k e the k id d in g . ”1 ca n ’ t be
as p le a s a n t a s o th er p e o p le because I c a n ’ t ev er t e l l w hether th ey are
t e a s in g or n o t . ”
She was q u ite t h r i l l e d over b ein g chosen c o u n c il member. Her
f i r s t r e a c t io n was a la c k o f s e lf - c o n f id e n c e . ”Gee, I would lo v e b ein g
i t , but do you th in k I can do i t ? Suppose I would fo r g e t som ething?”
Her ex p erien ce was o f much v a lu e to h e r , fo r she gained th e r e s p e c t o f
her group, and i t seemed to g iv e her a sen se o f ach ievem en t and s e c u r it y .
F in a l S t a t u s . - L ater in th e sea so n sh e asked her c o u n se lo r ,
”Do you th in k I take k id d in g any b e t t e r ? I hope I d o .” ”1 hope I improve
enough fo r everyone t o n o t ic e b efo re I l e a v e . ” Camp d id wonders fo r h e r .
She w as, however, s t i l l in c lin e d to be e a s i l y le d . She d id show i n i t i a t i v e
and responded when c a l le d upon, but i t was lik e p u llin g eye t e e t h t o g e t
her in to d is c u s s io n s . Camp h elped her to r e l y upon h e r s e l f in her p e r so n a l
neods and t o become in dependent enough to make her own c h o ic e s in her a c t ­
i v i t y s c h e d u le s . T his was in d ic a te d by her n o t c o n s ta n tly shadowing her
p a l and cabin-m ate a s fo rm erly . She was a ls o not a s r e t i r i n g in th e camp
group. She gain ed more co n fid en ce in h e r s e l f a f t e r she had the f e e l i n g o f
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
84
b e in g a b l e t o do a s w e ll i n h e r swimming, c a n o e in g , r i d i n g , a s o t h e r s .
H er camp e x p e rie n c e gave h e r a f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y a n d a s e n s e o f a c h ie v e ­
m e n t.
P r o v id in g f o r I n d i v i d u a l D if f e r e n c e s
C r u i s e r t s R e la tio n s h ip to I n d iv i d u a l D if f e r e n c e s . -
I n d iv id u a 1
d i f f e r e n c e s in a b i l i t i e s an d i n t e r e s t s m u st be p ro v id e d f a r in th e p ro g ram .
An a l l - r o u n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n n o t be e x p e c te d , f o r each c h i ld i s d i f f e r e n t
from e v e ry o th e r c h i l d ,
flach camper i s u n iq u e .
f r e q u e n t l y a c a m p e r's aw kw ardness an d c lu m s in e s s p r e v e n t h e r
from a c h ie v in g an y s e n s e o f r e o o g n itio n from s k i l l s d u rin g th e e n t i r e
season,
The p ro g ram c r u i s e r m u st f i n d d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s from th o s e
w hich a r e b ased on -the s a t i s f a c t i o n w h ich comes frcm a sen se o f a c h ie v e ­
m ent i n s k i l l s .
S o c ia l a p p r o v a l m u st be p r o v id e d .
The f o llo w in g c a s e
s k e tc h c i t e s th e way i n w hich th e f i e l d o f d ra m a tic s g av e a sen se o f r e ­
c o g n itio n to a cam p er, a s w e l l a s d i r e c t i n g h e r i n t e r e s t i n t o r i f l e r y
w here th e g i r l ' s s iz e w as n o t a h a n d ic a p .
(Case 1 7 ;
L i l l i a n - A P ro b lem o f Awkwardnesa. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - L i l l i a n ' s f i r s t s e a s o n w as a t t h e a g e o f te n
a n d a h a l f . She was a l a r g e , overgrcw n c h i l d , b e s t d e s c rib e d a s s i m i la r
to a b ig , clu m sy , g o o d - h e a r te d , G re a t Dane p u p p y . She a lr e a d y h ad p h y s io ­
lo g i e s U y m a tu re d an d was u n s ta b l e e m o tio n a lly . D uring th e f i r s t w eek she
s p e n t m o st o f "the tim e c r y in g , b u t , w i t h a l i t t l e a f f e c t i o n fro m o t h e r s , s h e
snapped o u t o f i t .
D i a g n o s i s She w as a c h i l d o f m id d le -a g e d p a r e n t s and li v e d
on a l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n w ich no com panionship and la c k e d many o f th e g ra c e s
and r e f in e m e n ts o f one from h e r s o c i a l l e v e l . H er c a b in n e v e r a c c e p te d
h e r , but she n e v e r seemed to r e a l i z e i t .
They g o t q u i t e a n g ry w ith h e r ,
b u t s h e q u ic k ly f o r g o t i t . She h ad some b ad q u a r r e l s w ith a c a b in -m a te
who w as a s p o i l e d , o n ly c h i l d l i k e h e r s e l f , a n d th e y s a i d many h a t e f u l
th in g s to each o t h e r . " I t ' s b r e a k f a s t tim e . G et u p ," one w ould c a l l .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
85
" I won’ t g e t u p . You c a n ’ t make m e ,” came th e an3w ep.
n i t i o n and re s p o n s e from h e r in - g r o u p .
she n eed ed re c o g ­
Heme d i a l M easu res. - L i l l i a n lo v e d t o h ik e an d en jo y ed w r e s tli n g
on th e o v e r n ig h t h ik e s , an d t h e c o u n s e lo r , r e a l i z i n g t h a t sh e re e d e d group
r e c o g n i tio n , made a s p o r t o f t h i s a f f a i r . A n o th er tim e s h e was c a s t a s
F r i a r Tuck i n one o f th e p a g e a n ts . She g o t a g r e a t d e a l o f p le a s u r e i n
r e c e iv in g the r e c o g n i tio n a n d p r a i s e from th e g ro u p . The program c r u i s e r
a l s o d i r e c t e d h e r i n t e r e s t i n t o r i f l e r y w here h e r s iz e would n o t h an d icap
h e r . She gave much tim e to t h i s a c t i v i t y and a t th e end o f th e s e a so n ,
r e c e iv e d s e v e r a l m ed als from th e n a t i o n a l R i f l e r y A s s o c ia tio n .
3 v id a n c e s o f Im provem ent.- H er grow th in s e l f - r e l i a n c e a n d c o ­
o p e r a tio n was n o t n a r k e d , b u t t h a t was to be e x p e c te d frcm a n o n ly c h i l d .
T here w as marked im provem ent i n h e r p e r s o n a l t i d i n e s s a n d g r e a t e r c o o p e r a tio n
i n th e c a b in p r o j e c t s . Her p a r e n t s had r e q u e s te d t h a t s h e l e a r n to ng iv e
an d t a k e , ” f o r s h e had h ad no one t o p la y w ith a t hem e. H er a d ju s tm e n t
to l i v i n g so c lo s e i n a n in - g ro u p was much mare d i f f i c u l t th a n t h a t o f m ost
cam pers, f o r d u r in g th e w in te r sh e was ru sh e d heme each day on th e s c h o o l b u s .
Follow -U p Second S e a so n . - She r e tu r n e d th e second s e a s o n v e r y
e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t sh e h ad p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d u rin g th e
p re v io u s s e a s o n . The same le a d e r a s o f th e l a s t seaso n was h e r c o u n s e lo r
and r e p o r te d a m arked im provem ent i n c o o p e r a tiv e l i v i n g a n d a c c e p ta n c e by
h e r in -g r o u p . "You w o n 't have a baby i n y o u r c a b in t h i s s e a s o n . I h av e
grown up so you n eed n ’ t e x p e c t me t o c r y , n L i l l i a n s a i d . A n o th er tim e when
sh e w renched h e r a n k le , s h e s a i d , WI am g o in g on a n d do th in g s and le a r n
a l o t , ev en i f I have to go on c r u tc h e s ." D uring t h e f i r s t seaso n she
w ould have p o u te d and have b een g la d t o be i n a c t i v e .
She was s t i l l u n ti d y a n d d i s o r d e r l y , b u t th e g ro u p soon le s s e n e d
t h i s d is o r d e r ly b e h a v io r . "L eaving y o u r shoes u n d e r th e bed c a u se d u s to
g e t a low g ra d e i n i n s p e c t i o n , " h e r f r ie n d s co m p lain ed .
R em edial Program Second S easo n . - She was r e l u c t a n t to l e a r n
b a ll-ro o m d a n c in g and showed d i s i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n . When p a r ty
tim es ap p ro a c h e d , sh e a s k e d , "What do I do? S i t a ro u n d an d s i t on?" She
w as s e lf - c o n s c i o u s about h e r s i z e , and th e program c r u i s e r p ro v id e d p r i v a t e
dancing i n s t r u c t i o n f o r h e r . T h is r e s u l t e d i n h e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th e
p a r t i e s w ith boys a t th e end o f th e s e a s o n . She showed th e same r e lu c t a n c e
a b o u t s c h e d u lin g s k i l l s she c o u ld n o t p e rfo rm . Soon a f t e r a c o n fe re n c e
w ith th e d i r e c t o r , she a g re e d to th e value o f a n a c t i v e s p o r t l i k e t e n n i s ,
and L i l l i a n th e n was s e e n on th e t e n n i s c o u r ts r e g u l a r l y . "S ee, I have
le a rn e d to s e r v e . When I gc b a c k home I w i l l b e a b l e to p la y t e n n i s , " sh e
exclaim ed to th e c o u n s e lo r .
F u r th e r E vidences of Im provem ent. - D isc o v e ry th ro u g h th e jo u r n a l
o f t h i s c a n p e r’ s needs a n d o f h e r s e lf - c o n s c i o u s n e s s due to s iz e e n a b le d
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
86
a s a t i s f a c t o r y se n se o f a c h iev em en t to b e o b ta in e d through, program g u id a n c e .
Her r e c o r d showed m arked im provem ent in c o o p e r a tiv e l i v i n g and t a b l e m a n n e rs.
She s t i l l n eed s g u id a n ce to a t t a i n more e s s e n t i a l t a c t and r e f in e m e n t.
■Enii ch in g Program f o r r e tu r n i n g Campers
C r u is e r * s Recom mendation o n R e tu rn in g Campers. -
One o f th e im­
p o r t a n t v a lu e s i n r e l a t i n g t h e a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a l t o th e program i s
th e recom m endation made by th e c r u i s e r o r p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r on r e t u r n i n g
cam pers.
These a r e g e n e r a l l y s u b m itte d a t p r e - s t a f f c o n fe re n c e s , w h ic h w ere
t r e a t e d i n th e f i r s t c h a p te r .
The fo llo w in g ca se s k e tc h i l l u s t r a t e s how, a f t e r many d ays o f
camp, recom m endation was made t o p la c e a camper i n a p o s i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h ip
so t h a t she m ig h t d ev elo p more i n i t i a t i v e .
Case 1 8 :
N o m a- A P ro b lem o f a F o llo w e r .-
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Norma, a n a t t r a c t i v e , o n ly c h i l d , was i n camp
two B easons w h ile she was f o u r te e n an d f i f t e e n . She had a t te n d e d a s h o r t
te rm o r g a n iz a tio n camp d u rin g two p r e v io u s s e a s o n s . T h e re fo re , she a d j u s t e d
h e r s e l f v e r y w e ll from th e b e g in n in g and a s s o c i a t e d v e ry l i t t l e w i t h s e v e r a l
o f th e home town g i r l s who w ere cam ping w ith h e r , b u t w ere n o t h e r c a b in m a te s . She e n te r e d i n t o a c t i v i t i e s , c o o p e ra te d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , a n d made
f r i e n d s v e r y e a s i l y . She v o lu n te e r e d h e r s e r v i c e s f r e q u e n t ly f o r c a b in
p r o j e c t s . When a n y t a s k was a s s ig n e d h e r , s h e d id i t v e r y in c o n s p ic u o u s ly .
S ta t u s a t End o f th e F i r s t S e a so n . - A t th e end of th e seaso n sh e
was s t i l l a f o llo w e r i n th e i n - g r o u p , due to h e r unassum ing w ay. She was
c o o p e ra tiv e a n d alw ay s g e n e ro u s w ith any o f h e r b e lo n g in g s an d th e boxes
she r e c e iv e d from home. She alw ay s seem ed t o ta k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
th e c a b in s t u n t s and w o r r ie d b eca u se th e y h ad n o t made t h e i r p la n s i n
s u f f i c i e n t tim e . She s p e n t to o much o f h e r tim e w ith one o f h e r c a b in - ip a te s ,
how ever, and e n jo y e d f o llo w in g b e t t e r th a n le a d in g .
Follow -U p Second S e a s o n . - Her r e q u e s t to bunk w ith h e r c a b in m ate o f th e p r e v io u s s e a s o n w as g r a n te d . T h is cab in -m ate h ad r e t u r n e d f o r
h e r f i f t h se a s o n an d was i n th e c o u n s e l o r t i n - t r a i n i n g g ro u p . She was th e
i d o l o f th e camp. T o g eth er th e y w ere c h a lle n g e d to h elp th e f i v e new
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
87
campers and the form er tim id camper to make s a t is f a c t o r y camp ad ju stm en ts
and to m a in ta in th e b e st camp s p i r i t on th e s e n io r s id e .
Rem edial Program. - Her ca b in co u n selo r recorded her la c k o f
i n i t i a t i v e and f a il u r e to o f f e r any s u g g e s tio n s f o r any o f th e ca b in p ro ­
j e c t s . She was s t i l l the f o llo w e r . Knowing h er p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , th e
c r u is e r recommended to the d ir e c t o r th a t she be g iv e n an o p p o rtu n ity to be
p la ce d in th e co u n selo r-in -^ tra in in g group. The d ir e c t o r 's co n feren ce w ith
her was m ost fa v o r a b le , and she was m ost e n t h u s ia s t ic o v er th e honor th a t
had been co n ferred upon h e r , c a l l i n g lo n g -d is ta n c e to t e l l h er m other o f
the good news.
S v id en ces o f Improvement. - T h is was th e means o f Norma's s t e p ­
p in g forward and showing i n i t i a t i v e . She assumed r e s p o n s i b ili t y in h e lp in g
to b rin g th e h o rses from th e s ta b le to th e r in g and o th er t a s k s . The
o p p o r tu n itie s o ffe r e d in c r e a se d her i n i t i a t i v e , and her a ssu ra n ce was
n o t ic e a b le . Having p r e v io u s ly s u ffe r e d w ith s in u s t r o u b le , sh e r e d ir e c te d
her program in t o 2and s p o r t s . Her e f f i c i e n c y in r i f l e r y was o u tsta n d in g .
She won many m edals h er f i r s t season and during h er second made her
p o s s ib le 500 b a r. ]Jven w ith making the m ost o f h er c o u n s e lo r - in - t r a in in g
o p p o r tu n itie s , i t was s t i l l n ear the end o f th e sea so n b efo re sh e a s s e r t ­
ed any d e f in it e le a d e r s h ip q u a lif i c a t io n s . Her n a tu r a l t im id it y caused
her t o m ix more s lo w ly among her new f r ie n d s , a lth o u g h she got around to
knov; them e v e n tu a lly . She was alw ays c o n sid e r a te o f o th ers and happy
and f r ie n d ly in h er in -g ro u p .
She seemed h e lp le s s and d is in t e r e s t e d , and w h ile she d id not le a d
her cab in group in p la n n in g the cab in s tu n ts or composing th e camp so n g ,
she assumed h er share o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . P ic k in g up a l e t t e r j u s t r e ­
c e iv e d , Norma r o lle d over on th e bed and began to r e -r e a d i t .
"Come on,
Norma, and h elp u s. Do you even know th e song?" "Yes, I know i t but I am
not in th e s t u n t ." "But you a r e g o in g to h elp s in g , a r e n ' t you?" th ey
asked'.
She was an a c t i v e camper but s a id v ery l i t t l e about a n y th in g
th a t sh e th o u g h t, alw ays rem aining c o ld , calm , and unconcerned, an on­
lo o k e r . When news came th a t her m other was v i s i t i n g in camp, she s a id ,
"I th ou ght sh e would come tod ay," and w ent w alk in g slo w ly up the h i l l .
Yfhen a sk ed about th e t r ip to th e H e n d er so n v ille h o rse show her r e p ly w as,
"Yes, we had a good tim e." She was never e x c it e d about her a c t i v i t i e s .
F in a l S t a t u s . - Toward th e l a s t o f camp she seemed more a t e a s e
w ith th e new campers in h er cabin and clim bed up in t o th e ir beds to rea d ,
w r it e , or f i x her n a ils w ith them. S lo w ly and s u r e ly she endeared h e r s e lf
to a l l the cabin group but because o f her u n a g g ressiv e n a tu re, Norma never
r e c e iv e d t h e ir r e s p e c t a s a su p e rio r member o f th e group. This was due
to her q u ie t , u n e sp r e ssiv e and uneanm unicative n a tu r e . As camp waned,
however, sh e seemed to have more fu n , to be more lig h t - h e a r t e d , to have
g a in ed more s e l f - r e l i a n c e . "The b e s t tim e I had i n my l i f e was when I
took p a r t in th e Gymkhana," she to ld th e c o u n s e lo r . Because o f her q u ie t
d is p o s it io n she was l i k e l y to be unobserved, b u t she showed g r e a t s e l f ­
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88
r e l i a n c e an d a n in c r e a s e d gro w th i n l e a d e r s h i p , o f te n d o in g th i n g s un­
a s s u m in g ly . She a c c e p te d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w ith p r id e an d lik e d to be m are
re c o g n iz e d . She showed i n i t i a t i v e b e t t e r i n th e c a b in group th a n i n th e
camp a s a w h o le .
She was a l i t t l e too r e t i r i n g f o r one w ith such a n a t t r a c t i v e
p e r s o n a l i t y . The camp d o c to r b e lie v e d t h a t t h i s r e s e r v e m ig h t b e due to
p r e v io u s i l l h e a l t h , a lth o u g h a t p r e s e n t s h e i s w e l l . She had one s in u s
a t t a c k a t camp w hich w o rrie d h e r p a r e n t s d r e a d f u l l y , a s h e r l a s t a t t a c k
r e s u l t e d i n pheum onia. A ^ i n , t h i s r e s e r v e may have b e e n due t o a p o is e
t h a t ccmes fro m h a v in g had th e a d v a n ta g e o f t r a v e l a n d sp e n d in g m ore tim e
w ith a d u l t s . She was a lw a y s v e ry c o o p e r a tiv e , ho w ev er, when som ething
was to be d o n e, an d sh e showed m arked grow th in s e l f - r e l i a n c e .
V alue f o r Program A d m in is tr a tio n
The a n e c d o ta l m ethod i s o f g r e a t v a lu e in th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
o f t h e program by th e program d i r e c t o r and d i r e c t o r .
Some o f th e a d v a n ta g e s
a re :
(1)
D eterm in in g th e p h ilo s o p h y o f program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a
d em o cratic w ay; p o o lin g t h e c o u n se lo rs* comments from t h e i r jo u r n a l s i n
s t a f f m e e tin g s an d m aking s u g g e s tio n s a b o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d p r o ­
g r e s s o f e a c h cam per.
C abin l e a d e r s r e p o r t th e n eed s o f cam pers to a q u a tio
o r e q u e s tr i a n d i r e c t o r s , a n d th e s t a f f d i s c u s s e s s i t u a t i o n s and m ethods o f
s a tis f y in g th e s e needs.
(2 )
E v a lu a tin g program i n term s o f cam pers* comments r e p o r te d by
th e c o u n s e lo r in t h e j o u r n a l a n d d is c u s s e d in s t a f f m e e tin g s .
(3 )
D eterm in in g w h e th e r o r n o t th e c a n c e r h a s b a la n c e d h e r
program i n t e r e s t s ,
i s s h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th e a e s t h e t i c a n d s o c i a l ty p e s
o f a c t i v i t y a s * e l l a s th e p h y s ic a l?
(4 )
D eterm in in g d e s ir e d t r i p s , o v e r - n ig h t h ik e ? , canoe t r i p s ,
or r i d e s a c c o rd in g to jo u r n a l comments a n d r e q u e s t s r e p o r te d by c o u n s e lo r s .
(5 )
D eterm in in g s p e c i a l i z e d h o b b ie s a n d i n t e r e s t s t h a t do n o t
have a s c h e d u le d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , su ch a s p h o to g ra p h y , s k e tc h in g , an d
p o e tr y h o u r .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
89
(6)
A id in g i n th e w eek ly r e p o r t f i l l e d i n c o o p e r a tiv e ly by t h e
camper and c o u n s e lo r fflind m a ile d to th e p a re n t*
Summary
A s tu d y of t h e r e c o r d s b y p rogram c r u i s e r s and p e rs o n n e l s u p e r­
v i s o r s e n a b le s t r a n s l a t i o n o f i n s i g h t s o b ta in e d in to b e t t e r program p r a c t ic e s *
Program e x p e r ie n c e s a r e p ro v id e d on t h e recom m endation o f t h e c r u i s e r to
m eet more a d e q u a te ly t h e i n t e r e s t s an d n e e d s o f :
(1)
The unadjusted camper.
(2)
The m a la d ju s te d cam p er.
(3)
The i n d i v i d u a l l y d i f f e r e n t cam pers.
(4)
The retu rn in g campers.
The jo u r n a l c o n t r i b u te s in d e te rm in in g th e p h ilo s o p h y an d in
e v a lu a tin g t h e p ro g ram .
I t a l s o c o n t r i b u te s i n d e v elo p in g a r i c h e r and
more e d u c a tio n a lly a d e q u a te program in m e e tin g th e n eed s o f t h e cam pers
by m eans o f s p e c ia liz e d t r i p s a n d h o b b ie s , an d i n p r o v id in g f o r i n d i v i d u a l
di f f e r e n c e s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER VI
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CASE METHOD IN
EVALUATING THE BEHAVIOR CHANGES
The organized summer camp claim s a unique opportunity in s o c ia l­
iz in g b eh avior.
The outstanding co n trib u tio n , according to many educators,
i s to h elp form d e sir a b le h a b its and to develop e f f e c t i v e s o c ia l a d ju sta en t.
A s a t is f a c t o r y camp experience can co n trib u te g r e a tly to p e r so n a lity and
character growth.
B eh av io r Changes
The r e s u lt s o f organized camping are changes in behavior, r e ­
g a rd less o f camp philosophy or camping m a te r ia l.
Intim ate liv in g during
tw enty-four hours a day w ith oth ers than one’ s own fa m ily a f f e c t s behavior.
Changes in o n e ’s ideas and b e lie f s that have been patterned w ith in the fa m ily
group are a ff e c te d by a summer camp exp erien ce.
These chanfees may not
always be d e sir a b le ones; u su a lly they are profound.
The summer camp h o ld s a p re e m in e n t p la c e a s a s o c i a l i z i n g , human­
iz in g i n s t i t u t i o n .
th e i n d i v i d u a l .
W hatever a r e th e ways o f t h e group become th e ways o f
M ason, a p ro m in e n t camp e d u c a to r , s a y s :
The k in d o f p e r s o n a l i t y we a t t a i n d ep en d s on th e number and k in d s
o f o u r a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o n t a c ts ; a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e e d u c a tin g , s o c i a l i z i n g ,
c i v i l i z i n g , h u m an izin g f a c t o r i n l i f e , a n d h e r e i n l i e s th e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i ­
b u tio n o f o r g a n iz e d cam ping—boys and g i r l s need cam ping t o g e t away from
th e k i d s in t h e i r b lo c k and from t h e i r p a r e n t s , xhey n eed new c o n t a c ts ,
in tim a te a s s o c i a t i o n w ith o th e r a d u l t s f o r th e s a k e o f p e r s o n a l i t y d ev elo p ­
ment a n d s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t.
B e rn ard M ason, Camping a n d E d u c a tio n , p p . 3 9 -4 1 .
M cCall C o ,, 1 9 30.
New Y ork:
90
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
91
V in c e n t, p s y c h o lo g is t a t M e r r ill- P a lm e r S c h o o l, s a y s :
Camp e z p o se s th e c h i l d t o a w id e r v a r i e t y o f s ta n d a r d s and t o a
b ro a d e n in g o f to l e r a n c e f o r th in g s w h ich th o u g h d i f f e r e n t m ig h t be r i g h t —
C e r ta in forms o f in d e p en d en ce o f a c t i o n a n d t o l e r a n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e a r e
e s s e n t i a l to d e s i r a b l e grow th and mus t , i f th e c h i l d becomes a c a p a b le
a d u l t , be a c h ie v e d somewhere a lo n g th e way t o a d u lth o o d . Camp o f f e r s th e s e
c lo s e c o n ta c ts .
E v a lu a tin g B eh av io r C hanges. -
The m o st im p o rta n t outcom e, and
th e m o st d i f f i c u l t t o m e a su re , h a s b een th e p r o d u c tio n o f d e s i r a b l e ch an g es
in th e l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a v in g a n e ig h t-w e e k camp e x p e r ie n c e .
Gamp
w o rk e rs f e e l t h a t s u c h changes a r e p ro d u c e d , an d th e b e l i e f i s s u p p o rte d
by p a r e n t a l r e p o r t s r e t u r n e d ,
c o u n s e lo r s and d i r e c t o r s l i k e t o s e t up
s ta n d a r d s o f p r o g r e s s i n p e r s o n a l i t y d ev elo p m en t.
They w an t to b e a b l e
t o say d e f i n i t e l y t h a t Mary h a s ad v an c ed frc m p o s i t i o n 0 to A o r J3, b u t
th is i s n o t p o s s ib le .
The u s e o f r a t i n g s c a l e s an d o f o th e r d e v ic e s o f
p e r s o n a l i t y m e asu ra n en t h a s h e lp e d d i r e c t o r s c l a r i f y t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s ,
w hich i n t u r n h av e b e e n com m unicated t o th e c o u n s e lo r s ,
Dimock a n d H endry
f i r s t c a l l e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c arp w o r ld t o th e a p p r a i s a l o f b e h a v io r
c h a n g e s.
3
The i n t a n g i b l e n a tu r e o f t h e r e s u l t s o f a camp e x p e r ie n c e i s a
c h a lle n g e to s y s te m a tic and th o ro u g h r e c o r d k e e p in g a s a i d s to m ore a c ­
c u r a t e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e r e s u l t s o f th e o r g a n iz e d camp.
The a n e c d o t a l b e h a v io r j o u r n a l s p r o v id e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d q u a l i t a ­
t i v e r e c o r d s f o r e v a lu a tin g the p e r s o n a l gro w th o f t h e camper and of h e r
-
Lee V in c e n t, "Camping C o n tr ib u tio n t o M en tal H y g ie n e ,"
Camping Magazine , IX (Tune, 1 9 3 7 ), 1 7 .
New Y ork:
3 H . Dimock and C. H endry, Camping a n d C h a r a c te r , p p . 255-91*
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
92
developm ent in s o c i a l i z a t i o n .
Sane id ea o f t i e e x te n t t o which th e u se o f th e
a n e c d o ta l method a s a guidance tech n iq u e does produce p e r s o n a lit y i n t e ­
g r a tio n may be ob tained from th e fo llo w in g c a se sk e tc h e s, organ ized from
a n e c d o ta l jo u rn a ls and in c id e n t a l d a ta .
Case 19;
Leone - A Problem of th e "T enderfoot". -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - Leone en tered camp a t th e age o f fo u r te e n and
retu rn ed f o r fou r co n secu tiv e s e a s o n s . She had been adopted when very
young by a prom inent w ea lth y widew who li v e d on a la r g e p la n t a t io n . A fte r
h er o n ly son had m arried, th ey moved in t o tow n. L eone's e a r ly ch ild h ood
and a d o le s c e n c e , however, had been sp en t on the p la n ta tio n .
D ia g n o s is . - T his was her f i r s t time away from home. She was
hom esick th e f i r s t week and sought ou t a r e l a t i v e in th e camp to com fort
h e r . She was a t t r a c t i v e , but in d if f e r e n t to the resp o n se from her in ­
group, and made no e f f o r t to be s o c ia b le w ith them. She was co n ten t to
spend th e tim e on her c o t reading and r e s t in g . Having been req u ired to
tak e a nap a f t e r s c h o o l, she exp ressed s a t i s f a c t i o n over n o t b ein g fo rce d
to p a r t ic ip a t e in many a c t i v i t i e s th a t her cabin-raates sch ed u led . She
fr e q u e n tly sch ed u led an a c t i v i t y and th en did not go.
Remedial Program. - As she was a good r id e r from h avin g rid d en
on -the farm , th e p erso n n el c r u is e r had the r id in g in s tr u c to r allo w her to
spend tim e in b rin g in g the h o rses from the s t a b le to the r i n g . This op­
p o r tu n ity fo r le a d e r sh ip caused her to be more w ith o th ers than w ith her
in -g ro u p , and h elp ed overcome some o f her r e s e r v e . But a f t e r s ix weeks o f
camp, she s t i l l did not knew th e names o f th e g i r l s her own a g e, much
l e s s th e younger or o ld er o n es, as a l l th e o th er campers did lon g b efo re
th is .
le o n e was n eat in h er p erso n a l appearance and o fte n sp e n t hours
b efore th e m irror, arranging her h a ir in some new f l a t t e r i n g s t y l e , e s ­
p e c i a l l y b efo re a tte n d in g some of the cab in p a r t ie s and g ir l- b o y a f f a i r s .
She showed l i t t l e in t e r e s t in cabin o r d e r lin e s s and n e a tn e s s, however,
and was alw ays lo s in g and m is p la c in g her t h in g s . She never had th e s l i g h t ­
e s t id ea o f the number o f her p o s s e s s io n s even when ch eek in g h er laundry
l i s t . This la c k o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e was due to home c o n d itio n s . She had
alw ays been w a ited on by h er m other. '
E vidences o f Improvement. - Her reco rd by the m iddle and th e end
o f the sea so n showed more c a p a b ilit y and i n t e r e s t in ca rin g fo r what belonged
to h e r . A ls o , i t r e v e a le d a d ecid ed growth in a b i l i t y to make d e c is io n s
fo r h e r s e l f . She p r e v io u s ly had asked the c o u n s e lo r and h er r e l a t i v e fo r
t h e ir o p in io n s a s w e ll a s her cabin-m ates b efo re making a d e c is io n . She
had seemed unable to th in k th in g s out for h e r s e l f . Always sh e watched
th e o th ers and fo llo w ed t h e ir exam ple. I t was toward th e end of th e summer
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
93
th a t she began to v o ic e h er o p in io n s on d if f e r e n t ca b in p r o je c ts and make
h e r s e lf one o f th e in -g ro u p . She planned one of th e cabin p a r t ie s and
the in-group accep ted her s u g g e stio n of la v in g a m ovie s t a r p a rty w ith
c u t-o u t p u z z le s .
S ta tu s a t Sad o f F i r s t S eason . - She was s t i l l in d if f e r e n t , and
i t was d i f f i c u l t to determ ine i f t h i s reser v ed a t t it u d e was one o f in ­
f e r i o r i t y or s u p e r io r it y . P o s s ib ly i t was a com pensation f o r her f e e l in g
o f in s e c u r it y from b ein g an adopted c h ild and from b ein g handicapped by a
f r a i l p h ysiq u e. Her n o n - in t e r e s t and in d if f e r e n c e to c a b in w elfa re and
p r o je c ts improved, but she showed no growth in i n i t i a t i v e and was s t i l l
in c lin e d to fo llo w and not le a d in h er in -g ro u p .
Follow-Up Second S eason . - The second season sh e returned with
the same la s s it u d e and apparent la c k o f enthHsiasm f o r a c t i v i t i e s . She
had no tro u b le in a d j u s t in g h e r s e lf to th e in-group but took l i t t l e in ­
t e r e s t i n an ything and m erely fo llo w e d th e o th e r s . She s t i l l had th e
tendency t o lo s e her th in g s and showed no e f f o r t to f in d them. She
enjoyed being w a ited on but did n o th in g far o th e r s . There was soon ev id e n t
improvement in u n t id in e s s , bu t, having been w aited on a t hone fo r ten
months, she seemed q u ite w ill in g to have o th ers w a it on her and not take
th e r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r cabin c le a n -u p . S lw rly she improved in s p i r i t s and
became more generous in sharing h e r b elo n g in g s.
She had many t a le n t s which she co u ld use i f she wanted t o , but
she seldom took the tr o u b le t o use them. She showed le a d e r sh ip in volu n ­
t e e r in g to have charge of a Tom Sawyer s k it and proved her dramatic a b i l i t y .
L ater, Leone even v o lu n teere d to dance the tango on an even ing program.
She s t i l l kept h e r s e lf v e r y neat and clea n but did n ot spend a s much time
primping or f ix in g h e r s e l f a s form erly . She went on her f i r s t ov ern ig h t
canoe t r ip toward the end o f th e se a so n , and returned e n t h u s ia s t ic about
the good tim e she had had.
Further Evidence o f Improvement. - Her a t t it u d e o f apparent in ­
d iffe r e n c e and independence seemed to have waned, and sh e was much more
c h e e r fu l and th o u g h tfu l o f o th ers and did not m ention home so fr e q u e n tly .
She even p a r tic ip a te d in more a c t i v i t i e s , but Leone s t i l l gave the im­
p r e s s io n th a t sh e did not care i f she ach ieved any o f th e s k i l l t e s t s . This
in d if f e r e n t a t t it u d e toward a c t i v i t i e s was seem ingly one o f com pensation.
Being lim ite d by her p h y s ic a l la c k of endurance to p a r tic ip a te in strenuous
a c t i v i t i e s , she had adopted an a t t it u d e of d i s i n t e r e s t and had gain ed th e
cen ter of the sta g e by blam ing her d is in t e r e s t on a s id e -a c h e or some such
a ilm e n t. Her h o s p it a l reco rd showed many h a lf days in bed for no apparent
i l l n e s s . She en joyed b ein g sung to i n the d in in g room upon her r e tu r n .
She m erely loved to be n o tic e d and w aited on.
She was h a p p iest when she was around boys and n o tic e d by them.
She fu ssed trem endously when she had to a tte n d th e j o in t a f f a i r s , but r e a l l y ,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
94
she ju s t wanted som ething to t a l k a b o u t. Her mother had had d i f f i c u l t y
su p e r v is in g her boy f r ie n d s , so much so th a t she had req u ested a r e p o r t
on th e m a il Leone r e c e iv e d .
S ta tu s a t Had o f Second S ea so n . - She cooperated w ith the group
and was w e ll lik e d by them and o ffe r e d fr e q u e n t s u g g e stio n s fo r ca b in
p r o j e c t s , showing more narked s ig n s o f le a d e r s h ip . She o ffe r e d s e r v ic e s
w i l l i n g l y by the second month o f th e second se a so n , such a s h e lp in g g e t
and s o r t the lau ndry, and sh e was much sw eeter in her manner to th e
co u n selo rs in a c c e p tin g t h e ir c r i t i c i s m s . She was more generous w ith her
th in g s , far she had been q u ite p en u riou s i n h er p o s s e s s io n s . There was
d e f in it e g D O w th in s e l f - r e l i a n c e and c o o p e r a tiv e n e s s i n t h is s p o ile d ,
o v e r ly -in d u lg e d , adopted c h i l d .
Follow-Up Third S eason . - She retu rn ed flor a t h ir d se a so n , q u ite
happy over the p ro sp ect of bunking w ith two o f her l a s t y e a r ’ s ca b in -m a tes,
but she made no e f f o r t to know the o th e r s . She seemed a d ju sted t o her own
p e r so n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and li v e d more or l e s s w ith in h e r s e l f .
Remedial Program. - An o p p o rtu n ity was g iv e n to h elp h er o v e r ­
come t h i s g en era l la s s it u d e and t o d evelop more i n t e r e s t and c o n s id e r a tio n
fo r o t h e r s . She com plained a b ou t h a v in g to perform l i t t l e d u tie s &f s e r v ic e
req u ired o f c o u n s e lo r s - in - t r a in in g . Always a f t e r a tte n d in g c o u n s e lo r -in ­
tr a in in g m eetin g s theras was a change i n h er a t t it u d e and few er c o m p la in ts.
A gain , t h i s com plaining was a ca se o f com pensation in ord er to be th e c e n te r
o f th e s t a g e , f o r when an o f f e r was made to r e l ie v e her o f th e s e d u t ie s ,
she begged to have th e p r iv ile g e of keeping them . Her changes o f a t t it u d e
were on ly in s p u r ts, and l a t e r h er u g ly renarks and la z in e s s r e tu r n e d . In
g e n e r a l, however, she was much sw eeter and more coopearative. On o v ern ig h t
canoe t r ip s she d id her share o f the p a d d lin g and was much more c o n g e n ia l
even when caught in th e r a in . She had to spend th e n ex t day in th e h o s­
p i t a l rec u p er a tin g from th e canoe t r i p , but l e f t in time to d r e s s fo r a
dance. As u s u a l, she had a grand tim e .
S ta tu s a t Bnd of Third S ea so n . - The l a s t month o f the th ir d
season showed a d e f in it e improvement in h er a t t i t u d e . Much b e tte r camp
s p i r i t was evidenced and a g r e a te r w illin g n e s s to h elp in a l l p r o j e c t s .
F req u en tly she remarked, WI want t o do my p a r t . ” She o ffe r e d to ir o n th e
cab in c u r ta in s and put them up. She d id not c o n fin e h e r s e lf o n ly to th e
in -grou p but m ingled w ith o th e r s . She took p a rt in a number o f p la y s and
pageaaats w ith o u t h e s it a t io n . She lea rn ed to l i v e w ith o th er p eo p le much
b e t t e r and was more generous and a g r e a t d e a l more th o u g h tfu l. She a c ­
cep ted her c a b in -d u tie s , and vrhen in s tr u c te d t o do th in g s , d id them
w illin g ly .
Follow-Up Fourth S ea so n . - She retu rn ed a fo u rth se a so n , showing
more improvement th a t e v e r . She was w e ll lik e d by the g i r l s in h er cab in
and took hold o f many s it u a t io n s and c o r r e c te d them. She w rote th e cab in
s tu n ts and took le a d in g p a r ts in them. She was more r e c e p tiv e to c r it ic is m
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
95
and t r i e d to p r o f i t fro m th e h e lp o f o t h e r s . She s t i l l w as n o t p a r t i c u l a r ­
l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t an y one a c t i v i t y a n d p r e f e r r e d t o fo llo w a la z y
s c h e d u le . When a s k e d why she d id n ’ t p a r t i c i p a t e more i n a c t i v i t i e s , sh e
s a i d , " I d o n ’ t f e e l v e r y w e l l . I th i n k I ’ l l l i e down i n s t e a d o f g o in g
swimming. "
T h ere w as in h e r a wi dh to be l i k e some o f h e r " f i n e r f r i e n d s , "
f o r sh e would p erfo rm l i t t l e k in d n e s s e s an d b e q u ie t a b o u t them , a lm o s t
em b arrassed when sh e w as th an k ed fo r th e m . She v o ic e d th e d e s ir e t h a t
sh e w as g o in g to t r y to b e an "Ln g i r l , w h ich she u l t i m a t e l y becam e.
F i n a l S t a t u e . - H er re m a rk s a b o u t th e s e a s o n w ere t h a t , "T h is
h as been t h e m o st s a t i s f a c t o r y o n e . I h a v e made many f r i e n d s and have
grown m ore th o u g h tf u l and c o n s id e r a te o f o t h e r s . " She was a good exam ple
o f how camp te a c h e s c o o p e r a tio n a n d h e lp s a g i r l to make s a t i s f a c t o r y
a d ju s tm e n ts f o r h e r s e l f and h e r l i f e w ith o t h e r s . H er m o th e r w r i t e s t h a t
sh e h a s made a s a t i s f a c t o r y a d ju s tm e n t a t th e b o a rd in g s c h o o l t h a t sh e i s
a tte n d in g th is y e a r.
C ase 2 0 ;
L o is - A P ro b lem o f U n re q u ite d F r ie n d s h ip . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - L o is w as i n camp f iv e s e a s o n , fro m t h e tim e sh e
was tw e lv e u n t i l s e v e n te e n . She was th e o n ly c h ild o f p a r e n t s who h a s b een
d iv o rc e d a n d l a t e r r e m a r r ie d , sh e h ad a v i b r a n t , a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y .
D u rin g th e f i r s t s e a s o n s h e a d j u s t e d h e r s e l f w ith no e v id e n c e of h o m e sick n ess,
a n d a t a l l tim es showed h e r s e l f t o be th e l e a d e r i n th e g ro u p . She c o o p e r a te d
w ith c a b in p r o j e c t s , b e in g p e r f e c t l y w i l l i n g t o sm ear h e r f a c e w ith s o o t
f o r one o f t h e s t u n t s an d t o h e lp c h e e r f u l l y w ith sw eeping a n d c le a n in g .
She seemed t o make no c l o s e f r i e n d s , h o w ev er. S h e was v e ry s o p h i s t i c a t e d
an d p o is e d i n b o y - g i r l r e l a t i o n s , an d w as i n c l i n e d to be b o y - c r a z y f a r one
j u s t ifewelve y e a rs o l d .
F r e q u e n tly sh e became i r r i t a t e d and n a s ty a n d l o s t h e r tem p er
e a s i l y . One o f th e c a b in -m a te s a c c i d e n t a l l y s p i l l e d same in k on sane th i n g s
o f L o is ’ s a n d she l o s t h e r s e l f - c o n t r o l i n a n o u tb u r s t o f te m p e r . T here
w ere many e v id e n c e s o f -th is th e w hole summer, a lth o u g h th e y im proved a s
simmer w eaned. She s u lk e d , a f t e r h e r c o u n s e lo r rep rim an d ed h e r , a b o u t n o t
b e in g a llo w e d t o p l a y c a r d s d u rin g r e s t h o u r o r to r e a d by f l a s h l i g h t a f t e r
ta p s .
S ta t u s a t End o f F i r s t S e a s o n . - S he d is p la y e d l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s
a t a l l tim e s f o r one so young, a n d , when h e r s k i l l s d id n o t e n a b le h e r to
e x c e l t h e o t h e r s , sh e b rag g ed an d was b o is tr o u s i n o r d e r t o be r e c o g n iz e d .
A t th e c l o s e she e x c e lle d t h e o th e r s i n h e r age group i n d c i l l s an d r e c e iv e d
p r a i s e fro m th e e n t i r e g ro u p .
F o llo w -u p Second S e a so n . - She r e tu r n e d th e seco n d se a s o n w ith
a h e l p f u l s p i r i t , e n d e a v o rin g to te a c h th e new cem pers th e t r a d i t i o n a l
r u l e s t h a t w ere e x p e c te d o f them an d h e lp in g them " to f a l l i n l i n e . ” She
c o o p e ra te d i n a l l camp p r o j e c t s and i n k e e p in g r e s t h o u r and t a p s . The
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
96
co u n selo r was q u it e firm w ith her from th e s t a r t . L ois was more mature
for h e r a g e than o th e r g i r l s . She p a r tic ip a te d e n t h u s ia s t ic a lly in a c t ­
i v i t i e s and s t i l l e x c e lle d in them, w inning th e s e m i- f in a ls in t e n n is .
She did not seem to lo se her temper s o fr e q u e n tly . She was frank in her
o p in io n s, sa y in g to h er ca b in -m a tes, " If you have anyremarks to make about
me, p le a s e do so to my fa c e and n o t t o my back ."
S ta tu s a t End o f Second S eason . - Her summer’s ex p erien ce brought
her no c lo s e f r ie n d s . She was seem in gly a g e n ia l p e r s o n a lit y , e x h ib it in g
a l l excess o f o v e r - s e lf -c o n f id e n c e and showed no fe a r o f camp r e g u la tio n s
by smoking fr e q u e n tly . She f e l t th is was a l l r i g h t , because cer mother
p erm itted h er to smoke a t home. She promised her co u n selo r not to a g a in
in camp. Her anwer w as, "Yes, and when I prom ise, I w i l l tt ic lc to i t , "
and sh e d id .
F ollow —
Up Third S eason . - An appendectomy prevented her retu rn in g
th e fo llo w in g y ea r, so th a t th ere was an in terim between the second and
th ir d se a so n s. She showed d e f in it e q u a lit i e s o f le a d e r sh ip but lack ed t a c t
and fr e q u e n tly b o a sted , "I am very franlc and I li k e p eo p le who a r e ."
Remedial Program. - The second month the d ir e c to r p la ced h er in
the c o u n s e lo r -in -tr a in in g group, hoping th a t a p o s it io n o f le a d e rsh ip would
develop more t a c t f u ln e s s on her p a rt ana a c c e p t a b ilit y by the group. IvSany
co n feren ces were n e c e ssa r y , however, t o h elp h er develop fr ie n d s h ip s w ith
a ll' the campers.
For the f i r s t time sh e succeeded in having one bosom fr ie n d and
sp en t most o f th e tim e w ith her when n ot in a c t i v i t i e s . An in c r e a se d
a d o le sc e n t in t e r e s t in sex was shewn by her d e v isin g a "pu rity t e s t " which
she s e c r e t ly gave to the o ld e r campers and c o u n s e lo r s . She d isco n tin u ed
g iv in g th e t e s t a f t e r co n feren ces w ith the d ir e c t o r . She new sp en t more
tim e reading and w r it in g . S e v e r a l tim es sh e did not a tten d c o u n c il r in g
or Sunday ch ap el s e r v ic e s and raaarkBd, "I am n o t in t e r e s t e d in them." She
was n o t so popular in th e cabin a s b e fo r e . She t r ie d t o dominate over
o tn e r s py b o ssin g them too much and bragging a g rea t d e a l.
S ta tu s a t 2nd of Third S eason . - Formerly she had been t id y in
appearance, but now began to show a la c k o f in t e r e s t in keeping h er c lo th e s
o r d e r ly . There was a d e f in it e swing i n many o f her camp behavior r e a c t io n s .
She e x c e lle d o th ers in th e m astery of s k i l l s but d id not have the fr ie n d s h ip
o f h er in -g ro u p . She p ia y ed a g a in in th e te n n is f i n a l s , and p r a c t ic a lly
th e whole camp group were joyous over her d e fe a t. She was a n ta g o n is tic
because o f her b o a s t f u l a t t it u d e which was com pensation fo r h er ja ck o f
b ein g a ccep ted . She c r ie d hard, and i t was very d i f f i c u l t to a c c e p t h er
d e fe a t . A nother n ig h t , she r e fu s e d t o go to supper because sh e had not won
in th e horse show, and her o n ly g i r l fr ie n d c r ie d w ith h er. Her a t h l e t i c
a b i l i t y made her o u tsta n d in g , and she never h e s it a t e d to t e l l ju st what she
cou ld do. She showed l i t t l e ca b in p rid e and was in t e r e s t e d o n ly in " h e r s e lf
and b oys." But for th e f i r s t tim e sh e l e f t camp w ith a r e a l chum, one who
liv e d in h er same s t a t e and w ith whom she exchanged v i s i t s fr e q u e n tly during
th e fo llo w in g w in te r .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
97
Remedial Program Third S ea so n . - The p erson n el d ir e c t o r a g a in
p laced her in th e c o tin s e lo r -in -tr a in in g group b e lie v in g th a t a h e a lth y
s a t i s f a c t i o n in a c t i v i t i e s e n t a ilin g r e s p o n s i b ili t y , le a d e r sh ip , and co o p era t­
ion would help m eet her f e l t need fo r a t t e n t io n . This attem pt p o s s ib ly
would combat her d i f f i c u l t y in not b ein g a c ce p te d .
I n i t i a l S ta tu s o f Fourth S ea so n . - The next summer, L ois was de­
lig h te d to g e t back t o camp and became th e d ecid ed le a d e r , d e s p ite the
f a c t th a t her camp chum o f l a s t sea so n a Iso showed unusual le a d e r sh ip
q u a lit i e s and was her cabin-m ate. She was h a p p ie st when t e l l i n g o th ers
what to do or when she was the c e n te r of a t t e n t io n . She e x c e lle d in s p o r ts ,
had p e r fe c t p o stu re , and alwa3rs was w e ll groomed and t id y . She was v ery
in t e r e s te d in ca b in clean -u p and cooperated throughout the s e a s o n . She was
r e l ia b le in her c o u n s e lo r -in -tr a in in g d u tie s and was w e ll lik e d by th e
younger campers.
S t i l l she was v ery t a c t le s s in making reiiarks to her cabin members.
"Mary, why do you wear th a t hat a l l th e tim e? I t looks t e r r i b l e , " she t o ld
one o f the g i r l s , i/hen co rrected for her ta b le Banners, she remarked, "I
get co rr ected enough a t home about such th in g s . Up here I don’ t have to
be on my good b eh a v io r, but I r e a l l y know b e t t e r ." She enjoyed shocking
some o f h er cabin-m ates by remarks a b ou t d rin k in g and smoking, w hich were
her o M ef to p ic s of co n v e r sa tio n . R egard less o f c o r r e c tio n sh e remarked,
"My mother and fa th er drink and smoke and t a lk about i t . Yfhy sh o u ld n ’ t I ,
when I am allow ed to drink a t home?"
Remedial C o n fe ren ces.- She s t i l l showed keen i n t e r e s t in to o
th in g s -p e r ta in in g to s e x , t e l l i n g o f f - c o l o r jok es to hen ca b in -m a tes.
The tren d o f cab in s tu n ts far the sea so n which sh e su g g ested p ortrayed
d rinking and cab aret s c e n e s . She enjoyed shocking cabin-m ates and th e
cou n selor w ith her t o p ic s o f c o n v e r sa tio n , even a d m ittin g t h is to the d ir ­
e c t o r , who by ev id en cin g a tru e in t e r e s t and warm frie n d sh ip f o r her t r ie d
to r e d ir e c t her "shcw -off" b eh a v io r.
B ia n y
L ois d id n o t h e s it a t e to m ention l i k e s and d i s l i k e s about th in g s
and p e o p le , and was alw ays fxank. She was s e l f - r e l i a n t and not open to
s u g g e s tio n s . She was very dependable, however, e s p e c ia l ly about her cou n selo r - in - t r a in in g d u tie s on the w a terfro n t and en jo y ed having charge of some
s p e c if i c duty. She was th e c a p ta in o f one of the c o lo r teams and showed
th e lea d ersh ip a b i l i t y o f a mature co u n selo r. Tor t h is sh e r e c e iv e d th e
f u l l coop eration and ad m iration, n ot o n ly o f h er team, but o f her r i v a l s ,
f o r handling th e "Play Day" e v e n ts . She was one cf the h a p p iest g i r l s in
camp, and fr e q u e n tly remarked, " I d o n 't understand why any g i r l d o e s n 't
lcwe camp l i f e . There i s always som ething e x c i t in g doing, and tim e f l i e s . "
Such th in g s a s s p ir it u a l growth d id not a p p ea l to h er. Due to home en v iro n ­
m ent, one can understand her remark, " I never go t o church e x c e p t ’-hen I
come to camp."
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
98
F in a l S t a t u s . - Her c a p a b ilit y and d e p e n d a b ility were r e c o g n iz e d
by both campers and co u n se lo r s, and sh e r e c e iv e d the unanimous v o te as th e
o u t-sta n d in g c o u n s e lo r - in - t r a in in g during h er fo u rth sea so n . She w i l l a l ­
ways be more popular w ith boys than w it h g i r l s , fo r she s t i l l la c k s t a c t
and p r id e s h e r s e lf on b ein g fra n k . Her ch a r a c te r growth in a c c e p tin g d e fe a t
and disappointm ent 1ms been shown by a r e p o r t from her p a ren ts who w r ite
how n ob ly she a ccep ted s e v e r a l d isa p p o in tm en ts.
Case 21;
J e a n e tte - A Problem o f th e C lan n ish Camper. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - J e a n ette was in camp th ree y e a r s , from th e tim e
she was e le v e n u n t i l fo u r te e n . She was w ell-m annered, p o is e d , and l i k a b l e ,
an o n ly c h ild who a d ju ste d h e r s e l f to camp l i f e u n u su a lly w e ll . She was
n o tic e a b ly independent fo r one her a g e . She had changed sc h o o l fr e q u e n tly
and l i v e d
for weeks a t a tim e in h o t e l s , as her p a r e n ts tr a v e le d e x t e n s iv e ly .
She wasv ery d ecided about fo o d , and i t was w ith d i f f i c u l t y th a t h er coun­
s e lo r coped w ith t h i s problem . She i n s i s t e d , "But Anna, I don’ t want i t .
I won’ t e a t i t . ” By p e r su a sio n , however, she ended by e a tin g th e d i s t a s t e ­
f u l v e g e ta b le .
D ia g n o s is . - She showed a d e f i n i t e w i l l and was v ery hard to
persuade to change her mind. She had le a d e r sh ip a b i l i t y , but was a l i t t l e
too in d ep en d en t, and d id n o t p a r t ic u la r ly care whether or not th e o th er
g i r l s fo llo w e d h er s u g g e s tio n s .
R em edial S u g g estio n s-a n d Program. - The co u n selo r in h er co n fer­
en ces su g g este d th a t i f she w ished to d ev elo p i n le a d e r sh ip j tshe not- alw ays
be so p o s it iv e and a u to c r a tic when making her c o n tr ib u tio n s to th e group
p r o j e c t s . Many o p p o r tu n itie s o f le a d e r sh ip weoe g iv e n h e r . She took
charge of the m eetin g h e ld to p la n th e ca b in p a r ty , and o ffe r e d s u g g e st­
io n s , n ot a l l o f w hich were a c c e p te d . She p u t over a game program v e r y
com p eten tly . Her ca b in group w ere n o t e n t h u s ia s t ic about t h i s , but p r a is e d
i t a fterw a rd s. She o f t e n was th e one from th e cab in who rem ained to h elp
w ith the laundry or to f in is h ca b in c le a n -u p . "The o th e r s run o f f to
c l a s s e s . I don’ t suppose th ey th in k I have an3{” she remarked. She was
generous with a l l h er p o s s e s s io n s and shared th e many boxes th a t her p a ren ts
sen t her.
Her costume was m ost a t t r a c t i v e fo r a masquerade p a rty w ith a
<tpys’ camp, and she was e la te d over w inning th e p r iz e fo r th e b e s t costum e.
But th ere was no b o a stin g o r b raggin g. She was a sw eet c h ild , l e v e l ­
headed, a c c e p tin g co u n selo rs* c r it ic is m s in a m ost g ra cio u s manner. F re­
q u en tly h er thoughts turned inward, she examined h e r s e l f , "I don’ t think
I have done my b e s t t h is weak and don’t f e e l worthy o f a c c e p t in g th e
c h a lle n g e . ’’
S ta tu s End o f F i r s t S eason . - She showed marked s e l f - c o n t r o l ,
w ith a w illin g n e s s to co o p era te, and le a d e r sh ip a b i l i t y fo r one so im­
m ature. The o p p o rtu n ity o f group l i v i n g brought ou t her t a le n t s co n sid erab ly.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
99
She had been in c lin e d to put th in g s o f f u n t i l th e l a s t m in u te, a lth o u g h
she u s u a lly managed t o f i n i s h . Toward the end of th e season s h e had shown
a g r e a te r s e n se o f r e s p o n s i b ili t y in th a t she d id e v er y th in g th a t she was
asked t o im m ecliately and th o ro u g h ly , ev en t o f i l l i n g out th e rep o rt card
and a r r iv in g a t m eals and a ssem b ly on tim e . She le d in ca b in c le a n -u p ,
b ein g c a r e f u l about sweeping and o th er t a s k s .
Follow-Up Second S ea so n . - She retu rn ed th e second season a s one
o f th e reco g n ized le a d e r s o f th e cab in group. F req u en tly , however, J e a n e tte ,
l o s t s ig h t o f the group’ s p r iv i le g e o f c h o ic e and gave too v ig o ro u s ex ­
p r e s s io n to her o p in io n s on m ost o c c a s io n s , a lth o u g h n o t in a quarrelsom e
way. She seemed q u ite jie tu la n t about o b serv in g camp r e g u la t io n s , l i k e
p u ttin g ou t the l i g h t when tap s a r e blown and not g ig g lin g during r e s t hour.
Her i n i t i a t i v e was shewn in s u g g e s tio n s : '♦Let’ s c o n f is c a t e th in g s l e f t
around and charge f e e s t o redeem them, s o th a t we can keep ou t ca b in n ic e
and s t r a i g h t . ”
D ia g n o s is . - She farmed a c liq u e w ith one o f her ca b in chums, i s o ­
l a t i n g th e o t h e r s . When c r i t i c i z e d , by her c o u n se lo r , she claim ed th a t
she c o n s ta n tly s tr u g g le d w ith t im id it y , but when she knew p e o p le , she g o t
over i t . Her home background may have lim ite d her fr ie n d s h ip s and brought
about a t im id it y , which i s not apparent b ecau se o f her p o is e and seem in gly
s e lf-c o n tr o l.
She con tin u ed to r e c e iv e a number of boxes and was gen erou s in
sh a rin g them w ith o th e r s . She did not a tte n d the a c t i v i t i e s sh e sch ed u led ,
and o f te n fo r g o t th a t th e r e w ere r u l e s and r g u la t io n s , when th ere was
som ething th a t she wanted to do: "I don&t care what Edna or anybody s a y s .
I am goin g to w r ite in r e s t h o u r .” L ater J e a n e tte a p o lo g iz ed p r o fu s e ly
and was more c o -o p e r a tiv e . An a n t a g o n is t ic f e e l i n g toward camp r e g u la t io n s ,
though made by them, has been shavn by many a t t h is growth s t a g e . On th e
w h ole, she was an o b ed ien t c h ild b u t not su b m issiv e and w ished to know the
why and w herefore of a l l th in g s .
Remedial Program Second S e a s o n .- The c r u ise r su cceed ed in
c h a lle n g in g h er to a tte n d her in s t r u c t io n a l a c t i v i t i e s and to p a r t ic ip a t e
more, as she had p assed o n ly a few o f her achievem ent t e s t s , and made l i t t l e
improvement in p o stu r e . She r e a liz e d t h i s and worked hard th e l a s t few
w eeks, b u t had w a ited to o long to accom plish much w ith her s k i l l t e s t s .
However, she did d e f i n i t e l y improve in her s k i l l s .
Evidences o f Improvement. - She developed p e r so n a l t id in e s s and
o r d e r lin e s s . Form erly she s c a tte r e d th in g s about a s m ost on ly c h ild r e n do
who a r e w a ited on, but b ecau se mere -thoughtful n ess was giv en to her c a b in d u t ie s , she improved. She stopp ed c o n s ta n tly a sk in g o th er p eo p le to hand
her th in g s . She had some baby ways s t i l l and c r ie d a t the thought o f having
her f in g e r bandaged. "I don’ t want t o go to the h o s p it a l and l e t the nurse
p u ll o f f the a d h esiv e t a p e .” Y et she was mature and p o is e d in her s o c i a l
a f f a i r s w ith the b oys’ camps.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
100
Follow-Up Third Season. - J e a n e tte was a ssig n e d to a cabin w ith
f i v e new campers and two former ca b in -m a tes. She retu rn ed the th ir d season
w ith an in te n tio n o f e n la r g in g h er fr ie n d s h ip s and not spending a l l o f her
tim e w ith one chum a s she did th e l a s t se a s o n . She was s in c e r e in her
prom ise to th e d ir e c to r th a t she w ould m ingle more, i f only she cou ld bunk
w ith her chum who a ls o had returned f o r h er th ir d se a so n .
She was f r ie n d ly and agreeable to everyone but tended to s t i c k
c lo s e in her sch ed u led a c t i v i t i e s w ith t h is chum. She made fr ie n d s in oth er
cab in s and o fte n made her pack f o r an o v er-n ig h t t r ip w ith o u ts id e r s . She
showed an i n t e r e s t in more a c t i v i t i e s . I t was not so d i f f i c u l t to g e t her
co o p era tio n in th e c h o ic e o f f o o d s . She seldom spoke o f her s o c ia l l i f e
back home, b u t a d a itte d tim id ly th a t sh e d id go out q u ite a b i t . She n ever
bragged and was irk ed by a braggart in th e c a b in , whose w o rld ly p o s se s s io n s
w ere not so g rea t a s h er own.
F in a l S t a t u s . - J e a n e tte was unanim ously v o ted an MLW g i r l , and
her grcwth in i n i t i a t i v e and a ccep tan ce o f r e s p o n s i b ili t y and m ixing a b i l i t y
was marked in her th ree summers a t camp. She came in t o camp w ith some s e l f c o n tr o l and independence far one s o immature. She seemed to have overcome
a g r e a t d e a l o f her tim id it y and no lon ger lim ite d her fr ie n d s h ip s to on e,
but mixed w ith many o f the g i r l s and went ou t o f her way to do l i t t l e th in g s
far them a l l . She in tro d u ced the boys to the new g ir ls a t th e b o y - g ir l
a f f a i r s , and endeavored to make o th ers have a good tim e. She depended on
her own judgment alw ays but shewed growth in h er group ad ju stm en ts in being
t o le r a n t w ith o th e r s .
Case 22:
S a lly - A Problem o f D ero g a tio n . -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - S a lly was i n camp th ree sea so n s from th e tim e
she was e le v e n u n t i l fo u r te e n . She seemed a t e a se frcrn th e f i r s t , a lth o u g h
her mother rep o rted i t was her f i r s t ex p erien ce away from home. She had
tr a v e le d w ith h er and v i s i t e d two weeks in order th a t she m ight not be
hom esick. She was a pampered o n ly c h ild but a t t r a c t i v e in appearance. Her
f a c i a l e x p ressio n r e f l e c t e d in t e r e s t in e v e r y th in g . S a lly appeared to be
s e lf - c o n f id e n t , y e t she hung back from th e o th e r s .
D ia g n o s is . - She was in d if f e r e n t ab ou t camp ex p e r ie n c e s and had
l i t t l e to s a y about any o f her o v ern ig h t camping e x p e r ie n c e s , a s th e o th ers
d id . She d isp la y ed a s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s on the program fo r c o u n c il- r in g .
This in d iffe r e n c e p o s s ib ly in d ic a te d th a t she d id not know what to do. Her
apparent a t t it u d e o f s e lf - c o n f id e n c e was o n ly a mask, f o r fr e q u e n tly her
in d iff e r e n c e showed a compensated d e sir e t o b e a b le to le a d and to do th in gs
w e ll.
Rem edial Program. - S p e c ia l a t t e n t io n was giv en in swimming and
te n n is , her main i n t e r e s t s . With d i f f i c u l t y sh e overcame fe a r o f w ater, aad
i t was th e end o f th e sea so n b e fo r e she lea rn ed t o swim even a l i t t l e w ays.
T h is a f f e c t e d a t t it u d e o f in d iffe r e n c e and apparent s e lf - c o n f id e n c e was
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
101
fr e q u e n tly in remarks to ca b in -m a tes: "Peggy, you try to l e a l to o m uch.”
"Anne, did j'ou n o tic e what I d id f o r you w h ile you were in the h o s p ita l? "
She wanted so to be recogn ized by the group. Her cabin co u n selo r appointed
her in charge o f the cab in p a rty and l e t her have f u l l management o f p lan ­
ning th e menu w ith the d i e t i t i a n .
S ta tu s a t End of the S eason . - Being a s p o ile d and rdtther s e l f i s h
on ly c h ild , she exp ected a t t e n t io n , and i f she did n o t got i t , she was
prone to fo r c e h e r s e lf on one t o g a in i t . Her camp ex p erien ce seemed to
temper the c r i t i c a l a t t it u d e and apparent envy and je a lo u s y , for she seemed
to see good th in g s in o th ers, and she was im pressed w ith the c h a ra cte r
v a lu es gained from a camp e x p e r ie n c e . The r e p o r t o f her growth was th a t
she was not so c r i t i c a l a s fo rm erly , and she had learn ed to m ix and be a t
ease w ith oth er g i r l s .
Follow-Up Second S eason . - The second sea so n S a lly retu rn ed
proud o f "knowing the ropes" and a t r i f l e demanding, but she k in d ly h elped
the new campers a d ju s t th em selv es. She took i n i t i a t i v e in program p la n ­
n in g far cabin p r o je c ts and eo n p leted any a ssig n ed d u t ie s . She was a b i t
too cock -su re o f h e r s e lf and did not a cce p t c r i t ic i s m e a s i l y , When cor­
r e c te d she made a l i b i s . " I’ ve always done i t t h i s w ay." I t was obvious
th a t a t home she d id j u s t a s she p le a s e d .
D ia g n o sis. - She was n o t e n t h u s ia s t ic ab ou t a tte n d in g c l a s s e s .
T his was due to her lack o f a b i l i t y in s k i l l s , and i t was d i f f i c u l t to g e t
her to coop erate during r e s t hour, o r g e t t in g to m eals on tim e. Her a t t it u d e
w as, "Why should I do i t ? R ules are a l l r ig h t f o r o th e r s , but I don’ t have
to be on tim e ." At tim es she a c te d s i l l y in the attem pt to a t t r a c t a t t e n t io n .
Remedial Program Second Season. - The c r u is e r r e a liz e d she needed
a t t e n t io n , so su g g ested th a t th e ch o ir d ir e c to r have t e r ren d er a s o lo in
ch ap el s e r v ic e on Sundays. She had been unable to o b ta in group r e c o g n itio n
from her s k i l l s . T h is m ight h elp her combat th e sh ow -off b eh a v io r.
E vidences o f Improvement. - She remarked in a tr u th s e s s i o n , "I
w ould lik e a l i t t l e tim e to f ig u r e out my f a u l t s . I c a n 't say offh and what
I would l i k e to c o r r e c t . I know I have many." The c r a f t c o u n s e lo r ’ s r e ­
cord shewed th a t she had been q u ite c a r e le s s w ith m etal work and d id n o t
com plete her p r o j e c t s . This f a il u r e to p ersev ere u n t i l su cceed in g seemed
to be due to th is in d iffe r e n c e in her a c t i v i t i e s . She did n ot t r y to
m onopolize the co n v ersa tio n s and go the o th er g ir ls one b e t t e r w ith her
long-w inded t a l e s , a s forroerly.
S ta tu s End o f Second S eason . - The reco rd shows she d id not e x c e l
in any s k i l l s , but compensated by o u tstan d in g s e r v ic e rendered in cabin
p r o j e c t s . In a c t i v i t i e s she seemed la z y , but i t was a need of e x c e llin g
which fo rced her to g iv e tim e t o th in g s where she cou ld be prom inent. She
was s t i l l flip p a n t and a b i t too co ck -su re.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
102
Follow-Up Third S ea so n . - The t h ir d se a so n , S a lly was p la c e d in.
a ca b in w ith a l l new cabin-m ates e x ce p t one who was a d e f in it e le a d e r . She
showed a marked improvement and f i t t e d w e l l in t o the in -g ro u p , b e in g d e c id e d ly
c o o p e r a tiv e . She performed d u tie s w e l l , and her a b i l i t y was r e c o g n iz e d by
h er b e in g e le c t e d c o u n c il maaber. Her growth was marked alth ou gh she was
s t i l l n o t o u tsta n d in g ly a g g r e s s iv e i n her le a d e r s h ip . She was not s e l f i s h
or b o is t e r o u s , and was c o n sid e r a te o f o th e r s i n making s u g g e s tio n s for
cabin p r o j e c t s .
Rem edial Program. - Her c o u n se lo r d ir e c te d her in to two a c t i v i t i e s
in which sh e e x c e lle d , r i f l e r y and r i d i n g . She no lo n g er was a b eg in n er in
th e swimming c l a s s e s and sh e had d evelop ed an in t e r e s t i n g o l f . She s t i l l
bragged o c c a s io n a lly a b o u t th e th in g s she d id f o r her ca b in , but th e s a t i s ­
f a c t io n she r e c e iv e d from th e r e c o g n it io n in the horse show and gymkana
com batted th e urge a t overstatem ent o f h er -v irtu es.
F in a l S t a t u s . - S a l l y , s s e lf - p o s s e s s e d manner was admired by th e
o th e r g i r l s . She had a p erso n a l a t t r a c t io n f o r boys and go t a lo n g w e ll
w ith them. She matured in h er se n se of v a lu e s , which sh e a t t r ib u t e d to th e
in s p ir a t io n r e c e iv e d a t camp. By th e end o f camp she was not so p r e ju d ic e d
in g e n e r a l ab ou t t h in g s . She d e f i n i t e l y p ro g ressed and matured in q u a l i t i e s
o f le a d e r sh ip and in h er c o n s id e r a tio n and a p p r e c ia tio n o f o th e r s , a s was
in d ic a te d by her b ein g s e le c t e d an ”L” g i r l .
Case 25:
K ath leen - A Problem o f T im id ity . -
I n i t i a l S ta tu s . - K ath leen was in camp two se a so n s, from th e a g e s
o f e le v e n to t h ir t e e n . She was th e o n ly c h il d o f d ivorced p a r e n ts , and
sp en t p a rt o f a year w ith each of them. A p rev io u s camp ex p erien ce had n ot
been a happy o n e, but she came to camp, a s i t was h er f a t h e r ’ s tim e to take
care o f h e r . She was a q u ie t sw eet c h ild who e a r ly had matured p h y sio ­
l o g i c a l l y and showed am b ivalent sw ings from b abyish to a d u lt mannerism s.
U s u a lly she performed her t„.,ask q u ie t ly w ith n o t ic e a b le s e l f - r e l i a n c e .
Her trunk was cany days l a t e in a r r iv in g , and she took t h i s
s it u a t io n w ith o u t com p lainin g. She was very in t e r e s t e d in ca b in n ea tn ess
and o r d e r lin e s s , and sp en t a g r e a t d ea l o f tim e s tr a ig h te n in g her s h e lv e s .
Her a t t it u d e toward o th e r s was g ood , ex cg p t when she thought someone was
f a l l i n g down i n h er d u t ie s . Then sh e was ex trem ely sev ere in her rem arks.
D ia g n o s is . - She was d eep ly d istu r b e d over th e l o s s o f a sm a ll
p ie c e o f candy and made a f u s s o ver i t , s u r p r is in g her co u n se lo r . nI don’t
th in k one sh o u ld take th in g s th a t d on ’ t b elong to h im ,” she s a id . K athleen
was alw ays seem in gly s u s p ic io u s o f h er ca b in -m a tes, and not very q u ie t ab ou t
t h e ir sh o rteem in g s. I t was b e lie v e d th a t she was s u s p ic io u s o f p e o p le , be­
cause of a f e e l i n g o f in s e c u r it y .
Rem edial Program. - Her co u n selo r was asked to g iv e her a f f e c t i o n
whenever p o s s ib le and make her f e e l t h a t th e group loved and wanted h e r .
She tucked her in and k is s e d her g o o d -n ig h t each ev en in g . K athleen was
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
103
babyish, in her sp eech , and a t tim es was li k e a monkey ca u sin g the g i r l s
much daughter and fu n . She was s c a r c e ly known by th e o th er campers, and
th e c o u n se lo r s remarked, "She’ s a c h ild th a t I h a rd ly know a t a l l . " Her
jo u rn a l showed a g r e a t d ea l o f i n t e r e s t in n a tu re. Her cab in -m ates had
been urged by her to g a th er fern s and flo w ers to p la n t around th e c a b in .
Subbing h er hands te n d e r ly over a p ie c e o f m oss, sh e s a id , " N o v j i s n ’ t
t h i s a dear?” The c r u is e r recommended to th e co u n selo r and to h er p er­
s o n a lly th a t she s ig n up f o r some o f th e w o o d -e ra ft t r ip s and a l s o th a t
she would e n jo y can oeing a s she had p a ssed her swimming t e s t , and i f sh e
would a p p ly h e r s e lf would be e n t i t l e d to th e canoe t r i p s .
B vidences o f Improvement. - She n ever showed le a d e r sh ip p o te n t­
i a l i t i e s in any o f h er a c t i v i t e s , but sh e o ffe r e d a d v ice to her ca b in -m a tes.
F req u en tly when her cabin-m ates did not respond i n h elp in g to c le a n up,
she would g e t a f t e r them to p ick up th e ir t h in g s , and one of them remarked
a f t e r she had asked her a th ir d tim e, ’’That i s your main f a u l t , you keep
c o r r e c tin g i f we don’ t do i t r ig h t aw ay.” Once she became h y s t e r ic a l when
the g i r l s w ouldn’ t p ic k up t h e ir th in g s from th e f l o o r . "When I g e t mad,
I r e a l l y g e t m ad,” sh e scream ed, and f e l l on th e bed c r y in g . She lik e d
fo r th in g s to run s y s t e m a t ic a lly and when they d id not she would g e t up­
se t.
F in a l S ta tu s Bdd o f S eason . - She was an in d iv i d u a l is t and
r e fu s e d to do w hat th e group decided t o do, but w ith a l i t t l e coaxin g
she could be brought around. F req u en tly she would o f f e r to h elp and was
alw ays w i l l i n g when a sk e d .
Follow-Up Second S ea so n . - She was a s s ig n e d to the s u p e r v is io n
o f the same cabin le a d e r , who had developed such a warm fr ie n d s h ip w ith
h e r . I t v/as thought w ise to have t h is fo llo w -u p w ith t h is c o u n selo r who
mothered her and tucked her in a t n ig h t s in c e she had been o f f to boarding
s c h o o l a l l y ea r.
She retu rn ed the second sea so n s t i l l an a f f e c t i o n a t e , u n tra in ed
baby, a d ju s tin g r ig h t Hway in the cabin group and w orking, p la y in g , and
h avin g fun w ith h er ca b in -m a tes. She had improved from l a s t year but
s t i l l r e s o r te d to baby t a lk to g a in a t t e n t io n . She was v ery c h i l d - l i k e
and was not taken s e r io u s ly by e t h e r s . She g ig g le d too much and h er c a b in m ates were n ot a t t e n t iv e to her s u g g e s t io n s . She showed a continued
i n t e r e s t in ca b in n e a tn e ss and o r d e r lin e s s , and o fte n did most o f th e
sw eeping and p ic k in g up o f o lh ers* m isp la ced a r t i c l e s . She was n ot co­
o p e r a tiv e in r e s t - h o u r .
She would have a lt e r n a t e sw ings o f m oodiness and e x c i t a b i l i t y .
Her manners a t th e ta b le were p o o r. One day she would a c c e p t her c r i t ic i s m
w ith o u t making a l i b i s , and th e n ex t day sh e would r e se n t i t .
She showed much more growth i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e , but d id n ot im­
prove in her a t t it u d e toward b o y - g ir l a f f a i r s . With b oys she had a f e e l i n g
o f in ad eq u acy,n ot knowing what to s a y , nor d id sh e knew how to dance w e l l .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
104
H er c o u n s e lo r had s e c u re d p r i v a t e le s s o n s f o r h e r , but she r e s e n te d h a v in g
t o go to th e d an cin g l e s s o n s . " I d o n * t see why we h av e th e s e d arn p a r t i e s ,
I l i k e e v e r y th in g e l s e a b o u t camp, b u t I d o n 't s e e why you a l l a s k me to
g o , ” sh e rem arked to h e r g ro u p . She was u p s e t, how ever, t h a t she d id n o t
have a n e v e n in g d re ss., when th e g i r l s w ere a l l g e t tin g t h e i r s o u t t o p r e s s .
The c o u n s e lo r borrow ed one f o r h e r a n d p o lis h e d h e r sh o e s, an d c u r le d h e r
h a i r . She a p p r e c ia te d a l l th e a t t e n t i o n , b u t d id n o t e x p re s s h e r f e e l i n g s .
H er d i s l i k e o f s o c i a l a f f a i r s an d n o t w a n tin g t o l e a r n to dance was n o t
o n ly b e c a u se she f e l t s e lf - c o n s c i o u s m e e tin g p e o p le , p r i n c i p a l l y b o y s , b u t
h e r home b ack g ro u n d . The g u a r r e l s an d s e p a r a t i o n o f h e r p a r e n t s w ere th e
u n d e r ly in g c a u s e s o f h e r a t t i t u d e . WI d o n ’ t l i k e b o y s, an d th e y a r e a l l
w o r th le s s .* I t w as alw ay s a s t r u g g l e t o g e t h e r to w r i t e h e r f a t h e r , a n d
y e t he p a id a l l ex p en ses a t b o a rd in g s c h o o l a n d camp.
F i n a l S t a t u s . - Toward th e e n d o f camp she a s s e r t e d h e r in d e p en d ­
en ce by ig n o r in g camp r e g u l a t i o n s . She w as n o is y a t r e s t h o u r a n d a f t e r
ta p s so t h a t h e r c o u n s e lo r migfrt p u r p o s e ly c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o h e r i n c o r ­
r e c t i n g h e r . When c r i t i c i z e d sh e re m a rk e d , " I j u s t l i k e to h e a r you c o r r e c t
my, why c a n ’ t I t a l k i f I w an t to ? T h is i s o u r camp a f t e r a l l . Why c a n ’ t
we do w hat we w ant?* l a t e r she showed w i ll in g n e s s to conform to th e r e g u ­
l a t i o n s , a n d a sk e d h e r m o th er to b r i n g no f r u i t s o r candy on h e r n e x t v i s i t .
She alw ays s h a r e d th e s e g e n e ro u s ly w ith h e r c a b in -m a te s .
By th e end o f camp s h e w as e n t e r in g e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n t o m ore
a c t i v i t i e s . T here was a m arked grow th in s e l f - r e l i a n c e an d in d e p e n d e n c e .
S he d id n o t u se baby ways t o g a in a t t e n t i o n b e c a u se sh e had a c h ie v e d re c o g ­
n i t i o n from swimming, w in n in g a rib b o n i n th e h o rs e show, an d can o e in g i n
th e p a g e a n t.
The f iv e s k e tc h e s p r e s e n te d o f th r e e - a n d f o u r - s e a s o n cam pers
w ere n o t c a s e s o f problem g i r l s .
T hese g i r l s ’ p ro b lem s a l l have b een
c h o sen from a la r g e group o f c a s e s k e tc h e s ,b e c a u s e th e y i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n
m ethods o f g u id a n c e , a n d r e v e a l p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n and d e s ir a b l e ch an g es
i n g e n e r a l f o r c a s e s o f : ( l ) h o m e sic k n e ss, th e te n d e r f o o t c a s e ; (2) d o m in a tio n ,
th e c a s e o f u n r e q u ite d f r i e n d s h i p ; (3) p o o r food h a b i t s a n d s o c i a l in a d e q u a c y ,
th e c a se o f th e c la n n is h cam per; (4) la c k o f s k i l l s , th e c a s e o f d e r o g a tio n ;
and (5) a s e n s e o f i n s e c u r i t y , th e c a s e o f t i m i d i t y .
The fo llo w in g c a s e s k e tc h i s o f a f o u r th s e a so n -c a m p e r, who w as much
more o f a d e v ia te i n b e h a v io r th a n m o st o f th e g i r l s i n camp,
wo a tte m p t
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
105
h as b e e n made to s e p a r a t e d ia g n o s is a n d re m e d ia l p ro g ram , a s i n th e o th e r
c a s e s k e tc h e s p r e s e n te d .
The aim of th e camp a n d of t h e c a b in le a d e r each
se a so n was t o h e lp h e r u n d e r s ta n d h e r co m p en sato ry b e h a v io r , an d g iv e h e r
a r e a l s e n se o f a c h iev em en t th ro u g h program g u id a n c e .
Case 2 4 :
S u san - A Problem o f m a la d ju s tm e n t. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - S u san e n te r e d camp a t th e ag e o f n in e a n d a h a l f .
She r e tu r n e d f o r two s e a s o n s c o n s e c u tiv e ly w ith a n in te r im b e fo re th e f o u r t h .
She had a y o u n g er b r o t h e r whom she te a s e d a n d fo u g h t s o t e r r i b l y t h a t h e r
m o th er had found i t n e c e s s a r y to s e n d h e r to camp. H er p a r e n t s w ere a le a d ­
in g fa m ily i n th e c i t y , a n d h e r m o th er t r a v e l l e d much.
D ia g n o s is . - She w as an a t t r a c t i v e b u t s l y c h i l d . H er f i r s t s e a s o n
i n camp sh e did many m isc h ie v o u s th in g s to g a in a t t e n t i o n . She w ould a tte m p t
to p u t th in g s o v er on h e r c o u n s e lo r , l y i n g , p ro b a b ly in n o c e n tly , b u t l i k e l y
w ith f o r e th o u g h t . S in c e i t was r e q u e s te d t h a t th e y e a t a l l o f th e fo o d t h a t
th e y s e rv e d th e m s e lv e s , she would h id e w hat she d id n o t w an t u n d er a p ie c e
of b re a d and s a y , ’"Now I have e a te n e v e r y th in g . May I have my d e s s e r t? "
She was alw ays v e r y good when the c o u n s e lo r w as i n th e c a b in b u t w ould
s t a r t th in g s b u z z in g t h e m in u te she s te p p e d o u t . B reak in g r e g u l a t i o n s was
a means o f r e c o g n i t i o n . One m orning b e f o r e .b u g le, when th e c o u n s e lo r h ad
awakened e a r l y t o talas a show er, Susan awoke a l l th e c a b in by ta k in g a f o o t
s t o o l and b an g in g and pounding on e v e ry b e d , c a u s in g a n u p r o a r i n th e c a b in
on th e c o u n s e lo r ’ s r e t u r n .
The co v in selo rs b e l ie v e d h e r f e a r s t o be a means o f g a in in g th e
c e n te r o f t h e s t a g e . " I won’ t go to th e c a b in a lo n e . I am s c a r e d t o d e a th
of t h a t r a t t l e s n a k e I saw to d a y ." She would n e v e r go anywhere i n camp w ith ­
o u t a com panion.
She h ad no r e g a r d f o r th e p r o p e r t i e s of o t h e r s . When one o f h e r
c a b in -m a te s a s k e d a b o u t h e r comb, she was o v e rh e a rd s a y in g , " I t g o t s tu c k
i n my h a i r and b r o k e ," and sh e made no a tte m p t t o buy a n o t h e r one f o r h e r .
Q u ite f r e q u e n tly she g rasp ed th e n o t o r i e t y sh e c o u ld from t e l l i n g a b o u t
n ig h tm a re s .
S ta t u s a t End o f F i r s t S e a so n . - S u sa n ’ s r e c o r d showed grow th i n
p s y c h o lo g ic a l w eaning and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . She no lo n g e r n eed ed c o n t in u a l
rem in d in g o f th e many n e c e s s a r y c a b in d u t i e s , a n d showed c o o p e r a tio n ,in
c a b in o r d e r l i n e s s .
F o llo w -u p Second S e a so n . - The seco n d s e a s o n sh e r e tu r n e d sw eet and
p o l i t e , and she e n te r e d i n t o camp l i f e e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . She was v e r y n ic e to
th e new cam pers a n d e x e r te d h e r s e l f to h e lp them a l l a d j u s t to camp l i f e . Soon
she had t h e b lu e s and com plained of f e e l i n g t h a t so m eth in g was g o in g to h ap p en .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
106
F r e q u e n tly she camp G ained o f an e a r ach e o r a h e a d a c h e , b u t th e c o u n s e lo r
th o u g h t t h a t t h i s was o n ly im a g in e d . One n i g h t she w as mean and f r i g h t e n ­
in g to one o f h e r c a b in - ip a te s . She p ro m ise d n o t t o do i t a g a in £ f sh e w ere
n o t moved to a n o th e r c a b in . She s t i l l had no r e g a r d o f o t h e r ’ s p r o p e r t y ,
b re a k in g one o f h e r c a b in - m a te s ’ m i r r o r s , a n d th o u g h t t h a t a p p lo g y was
s u f f i c i e n t . She showed some im provem ent i n k e e p in g r e s t h o u r a n d a f t e r
c o n s id e r a b le u r g in g was a b i t m ore t i d y . She did n o t a c c o m p lish a g r e a t
d e a l in s k i l l s , a s sh e h a d p o o r h e a l t h .
F o llo w -u p T h ird S e a so n . - She r e tu r n e d th e t h i r d s e a s o n , im p re s s in g
th e c o u n s e lo r a s a s w e e t, a t t r a c t i v e , c o o p e r a tiv e cam p er, b u t ft week was a l l
sh e c o u ld m anage, f o r soon t h e c o u n s e lo r saw th ro u g h th e h y p o c r is y . T hrough­
o u t t h e se a so n she w as c o n s t a n t l y f i n d i n g f a u l t w ith o th e r p e o p le an d c r i t i ­
c i z i n g them , n e v e r s e e in g h e r own f a u l t s , ev en a f t e r th e y were p o in te d o u t
to h e r . T h is d e ro g a to ry a t t i t u d e t h a t she h ad f o r o th e r s w as one o f " s o u r
g ra p e s * a n d was h e r means o f s e c u r in g l i m e l i g h t . She ev en m a n u fa c tu re d t a l e s
a b o u t h e r f r ie n d s b ack home i n o r d e r to b e n o t i c e d .
R em edial P ro g ra m .- The c o u n s e lo r h ad d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g S u san t o
s c h e d u le i n s t r u c t i o n a l camp a c t i v i t i e s , y e t sh e d id none o f th e s p o r t s w e l l .
S eem ingly sh e was e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t scene few t h i n g s , b u t whan t h e tim e
came to a t t e n d c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n , she l o s t i n t e r e s t . The r i d i n g te a c h e r ,
how ever, s e c u re d h e r i n t e r e s t , and -the g i r l w on a b lu e r ib b o n i n h e r d i v i s i o n
in th e h o r s e show a t th e end o f th e season*
She s t i l l w as v e r y u n ti d y an d s c a t t e r e d h e r t h i n g s a b o u t . A f t e r
a c o n fe re n c e sh e w o u ld remember to be n e a t f o r a w h ile . She w as c a r e l e s s
of o t h e r ’ s p r o p e r ty a n d b o rro w ed f r e q u e n t l y , b u t she w as s e l f i s h a b o u t
le n d in g o r s h a r in g h e r own p o s s e s s io n s . ” 1 w ish a l l th e g ro u p w o u ld n ’ t
u s e my m i r r o r , * sh e c o m p ia in e d . Yifhen c o r r e c t e d by h e r c o u n s e lo r , sh e gave
a lib is .
S ta t u s a t and o f T h ird S e a so n . - A f t e r t h r e e s e a s o n s , s h e c o n tin u e d
to s l i p o u t o f bed an d t i p - t o e a ro u n d d o in g th i n g s w hich sh e knew were w rong.
When re p rim a n d e d she was v e r y d i s t r e s s e d a n d showed a w i l l i n g s p i r i t to do
b e t t e r , a n d sh e w ould be v e r y th o u g h t f u l o f o th e r s f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d . B eing
th e n e rv o u s , h ig h l y e x c i t e d ty p e , sh e f r e q u e n t l y had h e a d a c h e s an d was con­
s t a n t l y w atch ed by th e h e a l t h s e r v ic e f o r o v e r f a t i g u e .
One’ s f i r s t im p r e s s io n o f h e r s w e e tn e s s w o re t h i n i n a s h o r t tim e ,
and h e r s l y p r e te n d in g n a tu r e shown th ro u g h i n h e r d o in g many l i t t l e t r o u b l e sa n e and s p i t e f u l th i n g s to h e r c a b in - m a te s . A t tim e s sh e w as im p re s s e d
w ith th e s p i r i t u a l a tm o s p h e re o f t h e camp and t o l d th e o th e r g i r l s t h a t
she w anted them to h e lp c o r r e c t h e r bad t r a i t s . H er own te s tim o n y a t th e
end o f th e t h i r d s e a s o n w as t h a t she had become c o n s c io u s o f h e r f a u l t s .
F o llo w -u p F o u rth S e a s o n . - She r e tu r n e d t o camp th e f o u r t h s e a s o n
a s th e "same o ld S u s a n .” She was l a z y , s e l f i s h , c a r e l e s s , c o n c e ite d , a n d
b rag g ed c o n s t a n t l y . She h ad th e a b i l i t y t o ca u se m ore f r i c t i o n i n f i v e m in u te s
th a n o th e r s c o u ld in an h o u r . S he i n s i s t e d a n d demanded a t t e n t i o n and g a in e d
i t by b e in g d i c t a t o r i a l and dem anding. ” 0 h , I c a n ' t g e t e x c i te d o v e r w in n in g
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
107
a c a k e , I am u s e d to i t by no w ," sh e s a i d , a n d when h e r c a b in -m a te s su g ­
g e s te d t h a t she n o t r e p e a t i t , she d e n ie d h a v io g s a i d i t .
Sarcasm was a l s o
one o f h e r te c h n iq u e s o f b u i l d i n g up h e r own e g o . "What a r e you doing a l l o f
th e s e l i t t l e th i n g s aro u n d th e c a b in f o r ? To be th e s p i r i t o f s e r v ic e ? *
I n t h i s way sh e t r i e d to make fu n o f th e a m b itio n o f h e r m a te s .
The d i r e c t o r a sk e d th e in -g ro u p who o r i g i n a t e d th e id e a o f r e ­
m oving th e d o u b le d e c k e r b e d s . S usan an sw ered , "We a l l d i d ," and when a lo n e
w ith th e g r o u p , th e y t o l d h e r w hat a p o o r s p o r t she was and t h a t i t w as h e r
p la c e to go a n d a d m it t h a t i t was h e r i d e a . She s t a r t e d t o g iv e an a l i b i
and l i e h e r way o u t, p o s i t i v e l y r e f u s i n g t o ta k e the blam e a s shown by th e
fo llo w in g c o n v e r s a tio n : "W e ll, d id I do t h e s u g g e s tin g ? A l l o f u s d i d .
I d o n ’t th i n k t h a t th e r e was r e a l l y any one who d id i t .
-W e ll, I don’ t
know w h at you mean by s u g g e s tin g i t i The f i r s t th i n g I knew we were a l l
m oving them and I d id n ’ t do i t .
I don’ t s e e hew you co u ld p o s s i b ly say
t h a t I was th e o n e ."
k i n a l S t a t u s . - A t th e end of t h e s e a s o n sh e seemed t o ha to done
th e b e s t s h e c o u ld w ith w hat s h e h a d . She im proved somewhat i n h e r c a r e l e s s ­
n e s s a b o u t h e r c l o t h e s an d c o o p e ra te d w ith c a b in a c t i v i t i e s , i f she had
n o th in g b e t t e r to d o . She d id n o t c o n c e n tr a te on a n y th in g b u t was r a t h e r
s a t i s f i e d w ith h e r s e l f . "W ell, I can a l r e a d y swim one hun d red y a r d s , an d
I am g e t t i n g p r e t t y good i n a r c h e r y a n d r i d i n g , " s h e t o l d h e r c o u n s e lo r .
The d i r e c t o r had a v e r y im p o rta n t c o n fe re n c e w ith tsusan w h ich seemed to
make a d e f i n i t e im provem ent i n h e r a t t i t u d e f o r a w h ile , sh e d id n o th in g
in th e c a b in t o l o s e f a v o r w ith th e group a n d s e e m in g ly was s i n c e r e i n h e r
rem a rk , " I f e e l t h a t camp h a s a lr e a d y h e lp e d me t h i s y e a r . I know I am g o in g
to t r y h a r d e r t o do e v e r y th in g I s h o u ld ," "Any tim e you c a t c h me ly in g
j u s t s a y ’S to p ly in g * b e c a u se 1 j u s t do i t w ith o u t m eaning t o . " "Have you
a l l n o ti c e d me b o rro w in g a n y th in g l a t e l y ? I mean w ith o u t le n d in g s o m e th in g ."
" I j u s t h a te d ev ery o n e i n th e c a b in a t f i r s t .
I j u s t th o u g h t you a l l w ere
lo u s y , b u t o f c o u rs e I l i k e ev ery b o d y no w ." One o f t h e b e s t th in g s t h a t
happened t o h e r was th e f a c t t h a t th e d i r e c t o r w o u ld n o t a llo w h e r to be
s e l e c t e d on s e v e r a l o f th e t r i p s . T h is seemed t o make h e r r e a l i z e t h a t sh e
was n o t so im p o r ta n t a s she th o u g h t she was a n d w as m ore hum ble a n d su b d u ed .
She m ig h t be d e s c r ib e d a s a p e rs o n f o r whom" th e s p i r i t i s w i l l i n g b u t t h e
f l e s h i s w e a k ." She seemed t o h a v e a d e te r m in a tio n to im prove b u t f a i l e d
i n t h e n e c e s s a r y u rg e t o do s o .
Her record seems to show l i t t l e character growth a f t e r liv in g so
c lo s e ly w ith g i r l s over a period o f four seasons, but her parents reported
a d e fin ite change and more con sid era tio n f o r o th e r s , ner ego kept her from
being more respon sive to c r it ic is m s she r e c e iv e d , and she always was ready
to give an a l i b i . These defense mechanisms that a re part of her are the
means of her gaining th e cen ter o f a tte n tio n , far she has never e x c e lle d in
any sp ort but r id in g and has no p a r tic u la r t a le n t s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
108
Susan can e s from a w e ll - t o - d o home, a n d many o f h e r had t r a i t s
a r e due to p oor home t r a i n i n g and b e in g s p o ile d , n e r m o th er a d m its o p e n ly
t h a t th e c h i ld m akes h e r n e rv o u s , a n d i t i s n e c e s s a r y to se n d h e r to camp
i n th e summer, f o r sh e c a n n o t s u p e r v is e a d e q u a te ly h e r f r e e tim e . I t i s
b e lie v e d t h a t sh e w i l l alw ays r e s e n t c r i t i c i s m a n d s u g g e s tio n s and w i l l
m a in ta in an e x a l te d o p in io n o f h e r s e l f . H er camp e x p e rie n c e showed a
d e f i n i t e grcw th i n c o o p e r a tio n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , y e t l i t t l e developm ent
i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r own a c t s . A r e a l s e n s e o f a c h iev em en t i n many
th in g s i s n eed e d .
One b'eason b ase S k e tc h e s
B ehavior Ohanges i n a Une-Beason Pam per.Q
xhe c a s e s k e tc h e s
p r e s e n te d have i n d i c a t e d changes e f f e c t e d by a camp e x p e rie n c e o f s e v e r a l
seasons,
i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to m easu re th e d e s ir a b l e o r u n d e s ir a b le
c h an g e s in a o n e -s e a s o n cam p er,
xhe e x t e n t to ^.which th e g u id a n c e p ro g ram
p ro d u ced d e s ir a b le p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e g r a t i o n i n a tw o-m onth p e r io d i s i n ­
d ic a te d i n th e fo llo w in g c a s e s k e tc h e s :
Base 25:
n o b e r ta - A P ro b lem o f ii x h ib itio n is m .-
i n i t i a l S t a t u s . - H o b e rta , a t h i r t e e n y e a r o ld g i r l whose com­
p le x io n was m a rre d w ith a d o le s c e n t a c n e , a d j u s t e d h e r s e l f w ith much c o n fid e n c e
and a s s u r a n c e o f h a v in g a good tim e . She was v e ry lo u d i n c o n v e r s a tio n
and l a u g h t e r . She was a rg u m e n ta tiv e a b o u t l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t­
io n s o f f e r e d to h e r , and a f te r w a r d s i l e n t a n d moody. She w as h ig h l y
e m o tio n a l and alw ay s a c te d by im p u ls e . Her a g g r e s s iv e n e s s som etim es
i r r i t a t e d h e r c a b in - m a te s . She d is p la y e d b o a s tf u l n e s s and was lo u d one
m in u te and b lu s h in g an d s e l f - e f f a c i n g t h e n e x t. H er v o ic e was v e r y h ig h ,
a n d she had d o m in eerin g w ays, y e t n e v e r q u a r r e le d o r g o t i n t o d is p u te s w ith
h e r c a b in -m a te s . She enjoyed h o ld in g th e c e n t e r o f th e s ta g e w ith h e r
s t o r i e s o f house p a r t i e s a n d s o c i a l a f f a i r s back home.
D ia g n o s is .- A ll o f h e r a g g r e s s iv e b e h a v io r was a co m p en satio n
f o r h e r i n f e r i o r i t y , p r i m a r i l y b ecau se sh e was u n s k i l l e d i n s p o r t s , and had
no s e n s e of ach iev em en t o r r e c o g n i t i o n from h e r in - g r o u p , an d s e c o n d ly ,
b eca u se o f h e r u n a t t r a c t i v e com plexion.
Heme d i a l P ro g ram . - The c r u i s e r recommended to h e r c o u n s e lo r t h a t
hhe c o n c e n tr a te on r i d i n g , t e n n i s , a n d swimming i n o r d e r to a c q u ir e s k i l l
and n o t ns p re a d h e r s e l f o u t t h i n , " a s h e r a c t i v i t y sc h e d u le had in d i c a t e d .
T his w ould r e s u l t in a sen se o f ach iev em en t a n d p o s s i b ly s h e w ould n o t be
to o lo u d an d b o i s t r o u s o r t r y to se c u re th e l i m e l i g h t w ith h e r l o q u a c ity .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
109
Her love f o r h o r s e s made h e r e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t r i d i n g . She
a p p lie d h e r s e l f d i l i g e n t l y a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n t h i s s p o r t , a c c o m p lish ­
in g a g r e a t d e a l i n t h i s s k i l l , a f t e r h e r c o u n s e lo r h ad a d v is e d h e r t o
c o n c e n tr a te on i t . She seemed more a n x io u s t o o b ta in a c h ie v e m e n t i n h e r
a c t i v i t i e s , t o a c q u ir e r e c o g n i tio n , th a n to be m e re ly i n t e r e s t e d i n them
f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n a lo n e .
up,
her
d id
an d
E v id en ces o f Im provem ent. - She h ad b een d is o r d e r ly i n c a b in c le a n ­
b u t im proved i n c o o p e r a tiv e n e s s a n d a c c e p ta n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
p a r t in c le a n in g an d sw eeping. When h e r c o u n s e lo r c o r r e c t e d h e y , sh e
n o t a rg u e t h a t h e r way was th e r i g h t one b u t w e s w i l l i n g to c o o p e ra te
showed a much b e t t e r a t t i t u d e .
Jbinal S t a t u s . - She w as m ore s e l f - r e l i a n t and seldom a s k e d a n y
h e lp now o f an y k in d fro m h e r c o u n s e lo r s . H er la c k o f n e a tn e s s and
o r d e r l i n e s s and t a b l e m anners a l l im p ro v ed . L iv in g i n a n in - g r o u p gave
h e r m ore p o is e and she d id n o t r e s o r t a s much to h e r lo u d m annerism s i n
o r d e r to be n o t i c e d . She e x c e lle d i n h e r r i d i n g , h a v in g won one o f th e
rib b o n s i n the h o rs e show a t th e end of t h e s e a s o n .
Case 2 6 ;
J u l i a - A P ro b lem of th e P r o s a ic Carnper. -
I n i t i a l S t a t u s . - J u l i a f i r s t camped a t th e a g e o f f i f t e e n ^ She
was a n a t t r a c t i v e an d r e s e r v e d c h i l d , who had b e e n c o n s ta n t ly pam pered
by a n a t t r a c t i v e n u rse an d g o v e rn e s s f o r many y e a r s . She a d a p te d h e r s e l f
w e ll and p r id e d h e r s e l f t h a t sh e was n o t a b i t h o m esick . She was e s p e c i a l l y
i n t e r e s t e d in t h e c a b in -m a te s from th e S o u th . M eetin g them was a new e x ­
p e r ie n c e f o r h e r . She f r e q u e n t l y te a s e d them ab o u t t h e i r b e a u ty p r e p a r a t io n s
f o r th e b o y - g i r l p a r t i e s a n d t r i e d to a c t u n co n cern ed a b o u t them h e r s e l f .
She was r e t a r d e d i n r e l a t i o n s w ith b o y s, a n d com pensated by t e a s i n g th e
o th e r s abo u t t h e i r b e a u s . She seemed i n t e r e s t e d and w anted to p a r t i c i p a t e
i n th e p a r t i e s , b u t h e r a t t i t u d e was m ore a s i f she w ere s t o r i n g up in fo rm ­
a t i o n a b o u t th e fu n a n d a c t i v i t i e s an d th e S o u th e rn g i r l s ’ r e a c t i o n t o i t
s o s h e c o u ld u s e i t l a t e r . She needed t o lo o s e n u p an d y e t sh e seemed
to en jo y h e r s e l f .
D ia g n o s is . - She k e p t a d ia r y d u rin g h e r camp s e a s o n and was
alw ay s m e th o d ic a l w ith h e r c l o ih e s a n d h a b i t s . She was v e r y m e th o d ic a l
a b o u t p r a c t i c i n g th e p ro p e r a p p ro a c h i n l e a r n i n g t o swim, d iv e , an d p la y
t e n n i s . She p r e v io u s l y had h ad an i l l n e s s w h ich c a u s e d th e need o f r e g i ­
m ented e x e r c i s e s , t h i s made h e r e n t e r a c t i v i t i e s w ith th e id e a o f a c h ie v in g
e x c e lle n c e r a t h e r th a n en jo y in g them . She needed t o be l e s s s t o l i d a n d
p r o s a i c . "You n eed to dev elo p a s e n s e o f h u m o r," was th e comment fro m h e r
c a b in -m a te s .
K em edial P rogram . - Her c o u n s e lo r s u g g e s te d on t h e e m r i s e r ’ s r e ­
com m endation, t h a t she p a r t i c i p a t e more i n c a b in p r o j e c t s and i n t h e grouj*
e n t e r p r i s e s . She sh o u ld n o t l i m i t h e r a c t i v i t i e s to th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l
g ro u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l a n d d u a l s p o r t s , but j o i n h e r c a b i n - u a te s on th e h ik e s
an d s c e n ic t r i p s ,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
110
LY idenees o f Im provem ent. - She f r e q u e n t l y im posed upon h e r s e l f
r e g u l a t i o n s an d k e p t to them . She g o t re a d y f a r th e m o u n tain t r i p s v e ry
e f f i c i e n t l y , w hich sh e was r e l u c t a n t a b o u t m ak in g , a s sh e m isse d th e op­
p o r t u n i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n th e s k i l l s w h ich she was i n t e r e s t e d
i n . She w as so i n t e n t on a c c o m p lish in g a g r e a t d e a l i n t h e c l a s s e s t h a t
she u n d e rto o k , t h a t she had s p e n t l i t t l e e f f o r t i n m aking f r i e n d s . H er
p o l i t e n e s s , p o i s e , a n d c o o p e r a tio n , h o w ev er, made h e r a n a c c e p te d member
o f t h e g ro u p . She seemed t o show a n in c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n c a b in p r o j e c t s
a f t e r s e v e r a l c o n f e r e n c e s w ith h e r c o u n s e lo r .
J u l i a n e v e r commented o r c r i t i c i z e d th e o th e r cam pers, b u t h e r
h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s seem ed to d is a p p ro v e o f th em , sh e was g enerous w i t h
e v e r y th in g an d e v e ry b o d y . She u s u a l l y was th e f i r s t to s a y , "H ere, u s e
m in e ," a n d when s h e w on th e P r o f e s s o r Q uiz m oney, sh e r e f u s e d t o ta k e th e
b a la n c e b u t s a i d , "T h is b e lo n g s to a l l o f u s . " She seemed v e r y s e l f - c r i t i c a l
an d once to ld th e o t h e r s , "We h a v e j u s t h e a rd a g ran d serm o n . Now l e t ' s
t r y t o p u t the good p o i n t s i n t o p r a c t i c e . "
h i n a l S t a t u s . - She was n e i t h e r a g g r e s s iv e n o r r e t i r i n g b u t
f r i e n d l y w ith e v e ry o n e . H er q u i e t , t o l e r a n t a p p ro a c h gave h e r a f a r r e a c h ­
in g m ix in g a b i l i t y w hich was n o t a t f i r s t o b v io u s to th e b y - s ta n d e r . She
had a s tr o n g c h a r a c t e r and n e v e r to o k th e c o lo r o f th e crow d when th e y
c o n f l i c t e d w ith h e r id e a s o r i d e a l s . S he showed a g ro w th i n p o is e and a
f e e l i n g o f b ein g a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f th e g ro u p , a n d s e e m in g ly was n o t a s
p r o s a i c . She w as alw ay s a w o n d e rfu l s p o r t a n d a h e l p on th e t r i p s . "L et
me h e l p , " o r "May I h e lp " was h e r c o n s ta n t a t t i t u d e . She en d eared h e r s e l f
to a l l o f t h o s e w ith whom sh e came i n c o n t a c t . J u l i a d id o n ly a few th in g s
b u t sh e d i d them w e l l .
H er f i r s t camp e x p e r ie n c e c lo s e d , le a v in g h e r n o t so much th e
" p lo d d e r" a s sh e h ad b een a t th e b e g in n in g . She was a b e t t e r m ix e r an d
more a t , e a s e .
C am pers' T e s tim o n ie s
Campers* T e s tim o n ie s .-
in c h cam per su b m its a t th e end of th e s e a ­
son a s ta te m e n t o f w h at s h e b e l i e v e s to b e t h e tw o m o st m e a n in g fu l v a lu e s
a c q u ire d i n h e r e m o tio n a l a n d s o c i a l g ro w th from th e summer camp e x p e r ie n c e .
T able I I i s a n a n a l y s i s o f a s p e c ts o f g ro w th m e n tio n e d by cam p ers.
I t shows how many cam pers m e n tio n e d e a c h a s p e c t , a n d c i t e s f a r e a c h a s p e c t
a p a r a l l e l t r a i t name, a s s e l e c t e d an d u s e d by iaunn
4
H.
M a tu r ity i n C h il d r e n ,"
1 1 3 -2 3 .
4
in a r a tin g s c a le fo r
D. Munn an d L. A . P e c h s te i n , "The M easurem ent o f S o c ia l
E lem en tary S c h o o l J o u r n a l, AL (O c to b e r, 1 9 3 9 ),
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I ll
s o c ia l n a tu r ity ,
T here i s n o t p e r f e c t ag re e m e n t betw een th e names u sed by
Mum and th e s e l i s t e d by th e cam p ers.
One o r two a r e n o t m atch ed by M unn's
t r a i t s e le c tio n .
Table I I i s th e sum o f more than too hundred and to e n ty -fiv e
statem ents from approxim ately e ig h ty campers o f th ree sea so n s.
Borne f a ile d
to respond and did not submit a testim ony o f t h e ir s o c ia l and em otional
growth.
Only th o se changes mentioned by a t l e a s t f iv e campers were in d ica ted
in aable X I.
Many other te stim o n ies were subm itted, but were not ta b u la ted ,
fo r th ey d id n o t r e c e iv e as many as f iv e v o te s , such a s:
(1) not bragging,
(S) n o t so o p in io n a te d , (3 ) n o t b l u f f i n g to g e t b y , (4) n o t l y i n g , "a b o v e b o a r d ," (5 ) n o t a s moody, (6) more r e f i n e d , ^7) more o b e d ie n t, (8 ) b e t t e r
m a n n ers, (9 ) le a r n i n g t o fo llo w a s w e ll a s l e a d , (10) h a v in g a p u rp o s e ,
(11) deeper a p p recia tio n o f c o n str u c tiv e c r it ic is m , (12) more r e sp e c t fo r
e ld e r s , and (13) making others happy.
K esu lts o f T estim onies. -
The noteworthy conclusion th a t emerges
from an a n a ly s is o f Table I I i s th a t the a d o lescen t develops a s e l f - c r i t i c a l
a ttitu d e and becomes consciou s o f more a l t r u i s t i c behavior in h er d esire to
have s ta tu s and group a c c e p t a b ilit y .
She becomes l e s s s e lf-c e n te r e d and
more co n sid era te of th e w e lfa r e o f o th e r s.
She attem pts to co n tro l her
toaper and i s more to le r a n t o f others* shart-com ings by not c r i t i c i z i n g
and making deprecating comments.
Cooperation i s n ecessary so th a t she
shares her belongings and i s w illin g to g iv e in and not pout or su lk when
she can n o t have her own way.
Group l i v i n g brings about the acceptance o f
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
112
TABLE I I
FREQUENCY OF MENTION OF ASPECTS OF GROWTH
IN CAMPERS’ TSSTIMONISS
A sp e c ts o f Growth.
1 . More c o o p e r a tiv e i n l i v i n g w ith o th e rs
2 . More th o u g h tf u l of o t h e r s . . .......................
3 . More f r i e n d l y ap p ro ach to o th e r s th a n
ca b in -m a te s ...........................................................
4 . More u n s e l f i s h w ith b e lo n g in g s and
p l a y ..........................................................................
5 . More c o n t r o l o f tem per i n an n o y in g
s i t u a t i o n s ....................................................
6. More i n t e g r a t i o n of i d e a l s and co n d u ct
7. More r e c e p tiv e to c o n s tr u c tiv e
c r i t i c i s m ................................................................
8 . L ess c r i t i c a l - l e s s g ro u c h in g ................
9. More a s s u ra n c e in m aking d e c is io n s
and do ing th in g s f o r ones s e l f . . ............
10. More dep en d ab le i n a c c e p te d
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ................................................
11. More sp o rtsm an sh ip i n ta k in g d e c is io n s
IS . More w i l l i n g n o t to have o n e’ s way,
l e s s s p o i l e d ................ ........................................
13. More a b l e to e x e r t le ad eB sh ip th ro u g h
r e c o g n i tio n and p o p u l a r i t y .........................
More
v o lu n te e r in g f o r s e r v i c e ...................
14.
More
courage t o s ta n d a g a i n s t o th e r s
15.
f o r w o rth w h ile e n d s .................................... ..
16. More a c c e p ta n c e o f s u g g e s tio n s o f f e r e d
18. More o r d e r ly w ith b e lo n g in g s an d m eater
18. More c h e e r f u l , a b le to make th e b e s t
o f s i t u a t i o n s ......................................................
19. More r e g a r d
o th e rs * b e lo n g in g s ,
le s s b o rro w in g ....................................................
20. More p o i s e , l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . ..
21. More i n t e r e s t and a p p r e c ia ti o n o f
o u t- o f - d o o r s ....................................................
22. L ess p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , t a r d i n e s s ..............
23. L ess e a s i l y d is c o u ra g e d ................................
24. C lo s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to God.........................
No. o f Times C o rresp o n d in g P a t t e r n s
M entioned
o f S o c ia l M a tu rity
86
68
C o o p e ra tio n
C o u rte sy an d P o l i t e n e s s
55
Group C o m p a tib ility
50
Blindness and- Sympathy
45
40
E m o tio n al A d j u s t i b i l i t y
38
35
E m otional A d j u s t a b i l i t y
E m otional A d j u s t i b i l i t y
26
S e lf-C o n fid e n c e
23
20
D e p e n d a b ility
F a i r P la y
20
Group C o m p a tib ility
17
15
L ea d ersh ip
S e lf-C o n fid e n c e
15
12
12
S e lf-C o n fid e n c e
L ea d ersh ip
N eatn e ss and o r d e r lin e s s
11
C h e e rfu ln e s s
11
10
C o u rte sy an d P o l i t e n e s s
Group C o m p a tib ility
8
7
6
6
C u r io s ity
E f f ic ie n c y
E f f ic ie n c y
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
113
c o n s tr u c t iv e c r i t i c i s m an d d e c is io n s w ith, fe w e r a l i b i s .
A g i r l i s a b l e to make f r i e n d l y a d v a n c e s to o t h e r s th a n j u s t h e r
" in - g r o u p ,* a n d th ro u g h h er a c q u ire d s k i l l s a c h ie v e s r e c o g n i tio n an d l e a d e r ­
s h ip , n o t o n ly i n th e in - g r o u p , b u t from th e e n t i r e camp.
JjJarly i n th e se a s o n
she r e a l i z e d t h a t b o a s tin g , b ra g g in g , an d a rg u in g m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t h e r
bein g a c c e p te d by hear c a b in - m a te s .
T his i s in d i c a te d by n e a r l y a l l o f
th e cam pers who ra n k c o n s id e r a tio n , c o o p e r a tio n , t o l e r a n c e , a n d u n s e l f i s h ­
n e s s as the p rim a ry v a lu e s th e y le a r n e d from g ro u p l i v i n g .
One o f th e m o st i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e c am p ers’ t e s t ­
im o n ia ls w as th e d e s ir e t o i n t e g r a t e i d e a l s a n d c o n d u c t a s shown by th e
fo llo w in g t e s t i m o n i a l s :
More c o n s c io u s o f w h at I s a y and do in f l u e n c e i n g o t h e r s . —15
V alue o f h ig h id e a l3 and l i v i n g up t o th e m .— 22
C lo s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to Cod, an d H is h a n d iw o rk .— 7
A void d e s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m — lo o k f o r th e good i n o t h e r s . — 11
D eeper a p p r e c i a t i o n o f o n e 's o p p o r t u n i t i e s and ta k in g a d v a n ta g e
o f th e m .— 6
The a d o le s c e n t becom es m are s e l f - c r i t i c a l a n d g ro u p c o e r c io n
b r in g s a b o u t m ore a l t r u i s t i c b e h a v io r .
Her d e s i r e to b e m are a c c e p ta b le
and to r e c e iv e re s p o n s e and r e c o g n itio n le a d s h e r to be l e s s s e l f - c e n t e r e d .
The f a r c e s o f a p p ro v a l o r d is a p p r o v a l o p e r a te a s s o c i a l c o n t r o l s w i t h i n a
s e t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s c h a r a c te r i z e d b y a c c e p te d f r i e n d s h i p s o r u n r e q u ite d
frie n d s h ip s .
D evelopm ent o f S o c ia l M a tu ra tio n S c a le f a r Cam pers. -
A s o c ia l
b e h a v io r m a tu r a tio n s c a l e was p re p a r e d , b a s e d on th e s h o r t form o f th e r a t i n g
s c a le d ev elo p ed by Munn.
The f o u r t e e n t r a i t nam es, a s la b e le d by Munn, i n th e
s c a le f o r s o c i a l m a t u r i t y a r e u s e d i n t h e la k e L ure S o c i a l M a tu r a tio n S c a le .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I^EE IAAZ S Q c W flA ffiL frlGiI SCALE
Name o f Camper
Name o f C ounselor
P erio d o f O b servation
S e c tio n
Date o f Record
Form o f Behavior
R a ter’ s a ssu ra n ce
Age
Cabin
S e l­- F a ir ly
Fre
Never dom
Often q u en tly
C ooperation : Cooperates and se r v e s group
r e a d i l y ...................................................................................... 1
2 . C ourtesy and P o l it e n e s s : Courteous and con­
s id e r a t e o f o t h e r s .............................................................. 1
5 . C-roup C o m p a tib ility : I,Jakes f r ie n d ly approach
to o th e r s than cab in group............................................ 1
Chosen by o th e r s a s p refer red companion.............. 1
4 . K indness and Sympattiy: U n s e lf is h in u se o f b e­
lo n g in g s , p la y w i l l i n g to g iv e in (D e n ie s s e l f
fo r goo d o f group.............................................. ................. 1
5 . F a ir P la y : A ccep ts c r it ic is m and ta k es de­
c i s i o n s , does not a l i b i fo r d e f i c i e n c i e s ............ 1
Observes r u le s and r e g u la tio n s , not ta k in g ad ­
van tage o f cou n selor® a b sen ce..................................... 1
6 . S e lf-C o n fid e n c e : Shews a ssu ra n ce by making de­
c i s i o n s and n o t tu rn in g to o th e r s fo r h elp
in doing th in g s she should do h e r s e l f ................... 1
A ttem pts th e d i f f i c u l t and not e a s i l y d i s ­
cou raged ..................................................................................... 1
Stands up a g a in s t opponents in w orth w h ile ends •
(Courage of o n e’ s c o n v i c t i o n s .) ................................. 1
7. L ead ersh ip : Advances id ea s to which group pays a
a t t e n t i o n . ............................................................................... 1
A ch iev es le a d e r sh ip through s k i l l s or p o p u la r1
E xtrem ely
O ften
1.
8.
9.
LO.
LI.
L2.
L3.
L4.
Ernotional A djustm ent. Inadequate ways o f
B M ea se.
1 . Becomes angry and l o s e s tem per.......................... S
2 . S eek s lim e lig h t , shows o f f , and b o a s t s . . . . 5
3 . Domineers and b o s se s o t h e r s ................................. 5
4 . Tim id, w ithdraw s, p r e fe r s to be a lo n e .......... 5
5 . Makes fak e ex cu ses fo r d is a g r e e a b le t a s k s . 5
6 . Grouches, c r i t i c i z e s o th e r s , and f in d s
f a u l t ................................................................................... 5
D e p e n d a b ility : C a rries out a ccep ted ?*er'_
s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ................................................ ......................... 1
E f f ic ie n c y : E n th u s ia s tic in camp a c t i v i t i e s
and a ttem p ts h igh sta n d a rd s.......................................... 1
P u n ctu a l to m e a ls, c l a s s e s , and a c t i v i t i e s . . . . 1
C h e erfu ln ess: Am iable, s m ile s f r e q u e n tly . S e l­
dom d ep ressed ......................................................................... 1
N ea tn ess and O rd e rlin ess: C a refu l o f b elo n g ­
in g s , n e a t .............................................................................. 1
O r ig in a lit y : I n i t i a t e s , c r e a t e s p a tte r n s in
a r t s and c r a f t s , and id e a s fo r ca b in pro­
j e c t s .........................................................................................
1
C u r io s ity : Sager to make ex p lo r a to r y t r ip s
and i n t e r e s t in the n o v e l............................................ 1
2
2
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
2
3
5
4
4
5
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
3
2
1
2
3
4
5
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
Make a n e c d o ta l comments on r e v e r se s id e on g e n e r a l p a r t ic ip a t io n in camp l i f e ,
a t t i t u d e , ad justm ent, and a c c e p t a b il it y .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
114
115
The d e s c r i p t i v e ite m s u n d er e a c h t r a i t a r e b a se d on th e cam p erst
s ta te m e n ts o f change o r a s p e c t s o f g ro w th .
T h is s c a le of s o c i a l b e h a v io r
m a tu r it y h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d bn th e b a s i s o f 225 ca m p e rs' t e s t i m o n i a l s sub­
m i tte d o v e r a p e r io d o f th r e e s e a s o n ^ ,19 3 7 , 1 9 3 8 , an d 19 3 9 .
xhe f iv e
p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e fo llo w s Munn.
A lth o u g h t h i s s c a l e h as n o t b een u se d e x p e r im e n ta lly , i t i s p r e ­
s e n te d h e re a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f th e c o n tin u in g developm ent o f o b s e r v a ti o n a l
t o o l s f o r th e s t u d y o f b e h a v io r c h a n g e s.
S o c ia liz a tio n
S o c ia liz a tio n S c a le . -
P s y c h o lo g ic a l w eaning h a s b een one of th e
g o a ls to be a c h ie v e d i n th e cam per’ s g ro w th , a n d s i x r e l a t e d p a t t e r n s w ere
em phasized an d p la c e d on a r a t i n g s c a l e u s e d i n 1939 f o r c o u n s e lo r s t o check
a t th e o p e n in g , m id d le , a n d e n d o f camp.
The p a t t e r n s a r e a s f o llo w s (See
A p p e n d ix ):
1.
S e l f - r e l i a n c e - show ing in d e p en d en ce and c o n fid e n c e i n b e ­
2.
A c c e p ta n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - tr u s tw o r th y an d d ep en d ab le i n
h a v io r.
a c c e p te d d u t i e s .
3.
I n i t i a t i v e - a c h ie v in g le a d e r s h ip th ro u g h s u g g e s tio n s a n d
4.
C o o p e ra tio n - w i l l i n g n e s s to d e n y s e l f and c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r
s k ills .
th e w e lf a r e o f o t h e r s .
M ix in g a b i l i t y - c o n g e n ia lity a n d f r i e n d l y a p p ro a c h to o th e r s
th a n in - g r o u p .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
116
6«
E f f ic ie n c y - g iv in g o n e 7a b e s t i n c a b in d u ti e s an d a c t i v i t i e s ,
liab le I T
i n d i c a t e s th e i n i t i a l r a t i n g s by c a b in c o u n s e lo r s o f
n in e ty cam pers on a f i v e s t e p r a t i n g s c a le t o a p p r a is e " s o c i a l i z a t i o n . "
T able T i n d i c a t e s th e f i n a l r a t i n g s o f b e h a v io r .
I t i s e v i d e n t when com­
p a r in g T able IT w ith T ab le T t h a t d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e grow th changes o b ta in e d
f o r a p p ro x im a te ly a l l th e n i n e t y cam pers i n th e s i x p a t t e r n s r a t e d .
T ab le T I i s an a n a l y s i s o f th e f r e q u e n c ie s o f th e amount o f change
on a f i v e - s t e p s e a l e .
The t o t a l p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s, in c lu d in g on e-an d tw o-
s te p im provem ent, diow c o o p e r a tiv e b e h a v io r ra n k in g f i r s t , and m ix in g a b i l i t y
ra n k in g s e c o n d .
T h is c o r r e l a t e s w ith th e cam pers* te s tim o n ie s o f g ro w th c h a n g e s,
a s in d ic a te d i n T ab le I I .
The cam pers m eationednm ore c o o p e r a tiv e living**
e i ^ i t y - s i x tim e s , and "more th o u g h t f u l ," s i x t y - e i g h t tim e s ; th u s r a n k in g t h i s
a s p e c t o f grow th f i r s t .
"More f r i e n d l y a p p ro a c h " was m en tio n ed f i f t y - f i v e
tim e s , w h ile " s h a r in g " w as c i t e d f i f t y tim e s .
The ag reem en t in t h e r a n k in g o f th e grow th a s p e c t s o f c o o p e r a tiv e
b e h a v io r and m ix in g a b i l i t y by cam pers and c o u n s e lo r s s u g g e s ts t h a t s o c i a l
a t t i t u d e s and co n d u ct a r e in f lu e n c e d by th e g ro u p .
This c o n firm s th e im por­
ta n c e o f a g i r l * s b e h a v io r a s a d e te rm in in g f a c t o r i n h e r a c c e p t a b i l i t y
among th e camp g ro u p .
The c o r r e l a t i o n o f cam per’ s te s t im o n i e s a n d c o u n s e lo r ’ s r a t i n g s
on c o o p e ra tiv e b e h a v io r i s e v id e n c e o f c lo s e c a m p e r-c o u n s e lo r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
117
TABLE IV
INITIAL RATINGS OF BEHAVIOR OF
90 CAMPERS* SEASON OF 1939
D egree to Which. B e h a v io r P a t t e r n i s Shewn
P a tt e rn
C o o p e r a tio n .. . . .
I n i t i a t i v e ............
R e s p o n s ib ility ..
S e lf-R e lia n c e .. .
M ixing A b i l i t y . .
E f f i c i e n c y ............
None
S lig h t
6
9
9
7
13
6
34
28
19
22
37
11
A verage
Marked
23
36
36
34
23
29
19
13
21
19
10
25
O u ts ta n d in g
8
4
5
8
7
19
TABLE V
FINAL RATINGS OF BEHAVIOR OF
90 CAMPERS, SEASON OF 1939
P a tte rn
None
C o o p e ra tio n ..........
I n i t i a t i v e . ..........
R e s p o n s ib ility ..
S e lf-R e lia n c e .. .
M ixing A b i l i t y . .
E f f i c i e n c y ............
D egree t o Which B e h a v io r P a t t e r n i s Shown
S lig h t
A verage
Marked
O u ts ta n d in g
3
3
4
3
2
3
35
37
34
35
49
26
3
5
2
3
6
1
32
36
35
32
24
38
17
9
15
17
9
22
TABLE VI
FREQUENCIES OF CERTAIN BEHAVIOR CHANGES
IN 90 CAMPERS, SEASON OF 1939
Amount o f Change on F iv e - S te p S o a le
B e h a v io r
P a tte rn
C o o p e r a tio n .. . . .
I n i t i a t i v e ............
R e s p o n sib i l i t y . .
S e lf - R e lia n c e ...
M ixing A b i l i t y . .
E f f i c i e n c y ............
No Change
O ne-S tep
Im provem ent
Two-Step
Im provem ent
26
29
34
37
27
57
60
54
51
48
56
31
4
7
5
5
7
2
T o ta l P o s itiv e
C hanges
64
61
56
53
63
33
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
118
Summary
A n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a r e in d is p e n s a b le i f c o u n s e lo r s and camps
a r e t o p o s s e s s i n f o m a t i o n e s s e n t i a l f o r th e a p p r a i s a l o f w hat h a s h ap ­
pened to t h e cam per d u rin g t h e summer.
The s y s te m a tic o b s e r v a tio n s r e c o r d e d r e g u l a r l y i n th e fo rm o f
a n e c d o te s a r e a n a i d t o a c c u r a t e a p p r a i s a l i n sh o w in g b e h a v io r c h a n g e s.
The cam p er’ s a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a l p r o v id e s q u a n t i t a t i v e
and q u a l i t a t i v e r e c o r d s f o r e v a l u a ti n g th e p e r s o n a l grow th of th e cam per
and h e r dev elo p m en t i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n .
I l l u s t r a t i v e c a s e s k e tc h e s s u g g e s t
th e m anner i n w h ich t h e u s e o f th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s r e v e a l s p e r s o n a l i t y
i n t e g r a t i o n and g ro w th i n th e cam per’ s i n t e r e s t s a n d a c h ie v e m e n t.
The c u m u la tiv e body o f cam p ers’ te s t im o n i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r
camps w hich a c c e p t t h e id e a t h a t g u id a n c e i s th e h e a r t o f cam ping.
The
e v id e n c e shows t h a t i d e a l s an d c o n d u c t a r e in f l u e n c e d by th e in - g r o u p and
a l s o by th e g e n e r a l camp g r o u p .
The f o r c e s o f a p p r o v a l or* d is a p p r o v a l
o p e r a te to make th e a d o l e s c e n t more s e l f - c r i t i c a l an d m are a l t r u i s t i c i n
h e r b e h a v io r and a t t i t u d e s .
The s tim u la tiv e booty o f c o u n s e lo r s ’ r a t i n g s on s o c i l a i z a t i o n
shows s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w ith t h e c a m p e rs’ s ta t e m e n t s o f ch an g es and
grow th i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v io r .
The d e s i r e to become a c c e p ta b le
t o t h e grou p an d t o s e c u re s o c i a l a p p r o v a l a n d r e c o g n i t i o n m o tiv a te s th e
a d o le s c e n t t o becom e l e s s s e l f - c e n t e r e d .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER V I I
THE CONTRIBUTE ON OE THE CASE ivIETHOD
TO PAHSJJTA1 GUIDANCE
I n tr o d u c t io n
Camps a r e b e g in n in g t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r th e cam per d o es n o t b e g in a n d e n d w ith th e samp s e a s o n .
There i s
a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f th e camp e x p e rie n c e t o th e r e t u r n t o th e home
en v iro n m e n t.
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e p a r e n t i s th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f th e b e h a v io r o f th e c h i l d i n a camp s i t u a t i o n .
I t s h o u ld p o r t r a y th e
c h i l d i n re s p o n s e t o h e r cab in - m a te s , c o u n s e lo r s , camp e x p e r ie n c e s , an d
a c tiv itie s .
The id e a s h o u ld p r e v a i l t h a t th e camp e x p e r ie n c e i s a co­
o p e r a tiv e v e n t u r e b etw een th e p a r e n ts and th e p e r s o n n e l.
The R e l a ti o n s h i p o f th e Camp E x p e rie n c e to th e Home E nviro n m en t
P a re n ts * E a p e c ta t io n . -
P a r e n ts hav e a r i g h t t o e x p e c t t h e i r
c h i ld r e n t o r e t u r n t o them w ith im proved h e a l t h , in c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l v ig o r ,
new s k i l l s , and i n t e r e s t s ,
iiu rth e m o r e , th e y have a r i g h t t o e x p e c t th o s e
h ig h e r v a l u e s w hich e n r ic h p e r s o n a l i t y an d s tr e n g t h e n c h a r a c t e r .
'The
h ig h e r v a lu e s o f camp t r a i n i n g a r e c i t e d by Jo h n so n :
A p h y s ic a l reg im e t h a t b r in g s boy3 an d g i r l s to t h e end of
t h e i r v a c a tio n s w ith m in d s e a g e r and a l e r t , and b o d ie s g lo w in g w ith
h e a l t h ; th e a c q u ire m e n t o f new s k i l l s , le a d in g t o u s e f u l and p l e a s a n t
a v o c a tio n s ; t h e d is c o v e r y a n d developm ent o f l a t e n t a b i l i t i e s an d
t a l e n t s , le a d in g t o a w id e r ra n g e o f i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s , an d
th e r e f o r e to a r i p e r , f u l l e r l i f e ; th e developm ent o f i n i t i a t i v e , r e ­
s o u r c e f u ln e s s an d p o i s e , l e a d in g to s e l f - m a s t e r y a n d in d e p en d en ce o f
a c t i o n ; s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t, l e a d in g to a new s e n s e of s o c i a l v a lu e s
and t o new s o c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s ; f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e , th ro u g h ­
o u t th e y e a r s to come, to s o c i a l h a p p in e s s and b u s in e s s s u c c e s s ; th e
aw akening o f th e d e e p e r an d f i n e r im p u ls e s o f th e s o u l o f y o u th , le a d ­
in g t o a n e n ric h m e n t of t h e a e s t h e t i c an d s p i r i t u a l l i f e — th e s e a r e
seme o f the h ig h e r v a lu e s o f camp t r a i n i n g w h ich s tr e n g th e n c h a r a c t e r
119
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18D
and e n r ic h p e r s o n a l i t y .
C o n f id e n tia l Q ,u e s tio n n a ire . -
P a r e n ts who r e c o g n iz e t h a t th e camp
e x p e rie n c e i s a n e d u c a tio n a l one a n d t h a t th e p e r s o n n e l d e s i r e s t h e i r i n ­
t e l l i g e n t c o o p e r a tio n u s u a ll y r e t u r n th e c o n f i d e n t i a l q u e s ti o n n a ir e .
T h is
q u e s tio n n a ir e , f i l l e d i n by th e p a r e n t w ith o u t th e know ledge o f th e c h i l d ,
a s k s fo r a fr a n k s ta te m e n t ab o u t th e c h i l d ’ s a t t i t u d e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s
in th e s c h o o l an d a t home.
(See A p p e n d ix .)
T his c o n f i d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l i s
used by th e p e r s o n n e l in n o tin g th e changes o f q t t i t u d e d u rin g th e camp
summer.
P a re n ta l V i s i t s .in g th e s e a s o n .
P a r e n ts a r e en c o u ra g e d to v i s i t th e camp d u r­
The c a b in c o u n s e lo r a n d d i r e c t o r p e r s o n a lly en d ea v o r t o
d is c u s s th e p ro g re s s o f t h e camper and h e r a d ju s tm e n t to camp l i f e w ith th e
p a re n ts.
They a s k a n d r e c e iv e s u g g e s tio n s t h a t a r e o f te n h e l p f u l i n a d ­
ju s tm e n ts to in - g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s .
T h ere a r e no r i g i d v i s i t i n g h o u r s .
p a r e n ts a r e th e cam p's g u e s t i n t h e d in in g h a l l f a r s e v e r a l m e a ls .
The
They
a r e i n v i t e d t o v i s i t th e c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s an d t o o b se rv e th e c h i l d i n h e r
i n t e r e s t g ro u p s .
W eekly R e p o r ts . -
The p a r e n t r e c e iv e s a w eek ly r e p o r t c a rd w hich
i s f i l l e d i n c o o p e r a tiv e ly by th e cam per and h e r c o u n s e lo r ( s e e A p p en d ix .)
T h is r e p o r t in c lu d e s n o t o n ly h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s b u t a l s o h e r
h e a l th r e c o r d f o r th e w eek an d g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s and a d ju s tm e n ts .
P e rso n a l
l e t t e r s a r e s e n t by th e d ir e d t o r to th e p a r e n t i n th e e a r l y p a r t of caap d e s­
c r i b i n g th e cam per’ s a d ju s tm e n t and r e p o r t i n g t h a t sh e w i l l h e a r f r e q u e n t ly
from h e r c a b in c o u n s e lo r w ith r e ^ r d to h e r p r o g r e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , a n a c c o u n t
Camp,’’
C.
W alton Jo h n so n , "What P a r e n ts Should E x p ect o f th e Summer
Camping W orld, I I (M arch, 1 9 3 6 ), 3 0 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
121
o f th e c h i l d 's c a b in -m a te s i s g iv e n .
A t th e end o f th e s e a s o n , a l e t t e r
i s s e n t to each p a r e n t in th e form o f a summary r e p o r t .
summary R e p o r ts . -
A l e t t e r w h ich i s an e v a l u a ti o n o f th e cam per’ s
e x p e rie n c e i s m a ile d each p a r e n t a t th e end o f th e s e a s o n .
The summary
l e t t e r e n a b le s th e p a r e n t to c o n tin u e th e good work done a t camp.
I t a ls o
gLves th e c h i ld a se n s e o f acco m p lish m en t and g ro w th w h ile a t camp, s i n c e
th e deg ree and p r o f i c i e n c y o f th e a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a r e i n d i c a te d .
The d a ta f o r t h i s r e p o r t a r e ta k e n from t h e a n e c d o te s and syn­
t h e t i c s u ra ia rie s in th e cam p er’ s j o u r n a l , from th e r e p o r t of th e h e a l th
s e r v i c e , a n d from t h e a c h iev em en t r e p o r t o f a c t i v i t i e s .
The f o llc s r in g
to p i c s and q u e s tio n s a r e s u g g e s te d to th e c o u n s e lo r s a s a b& sis f o r t h i s
re p o rt:
R e la tio n s h ip t o C a b in -m a te s .
1 . Did sh e w ork w e l l w ith th e g ro u p ?
2 . w hat w as t h e g r o u p ’ s a f f e c t on h e r ?
5 . What w as h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n to th e g roup?
4 . Was sh e t h o u g h t f u l i n h e r p e r s o n a l h a b i t s , in h e r r e s p e c t
f o r th e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s , and i n h e r sp e e c h ?
P s y c h o lo g ic a l W eaning.
1 . Did sh e show grow th in s e l f - r e l i a n c e ?
2 . D id she a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ?
In te re s ts .
1 . W hat a c t i v i t i e s was she m o st i n t e r e s t e d in ?
2 . 7/hat d eg ree o f p r o f ic i e n c y d id sh e a c c o m p lish
in h e r s k i l l s ?
3 . What s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s does she have?
H e a lth .
1 . What w as h e r h e a l t h s t a t u s d u r in g th e se a so n ?
2 . D id sh e g a in o r lo s e w b ig h t?
Sample L e t t e r . -
E x c e rp ts f r a n a summary l e t t e r c o n c e rn in g a f i r s t -
y e a r and a s e c o n d -y e a r cam per f o llo w :
" D o t t l e 's a n i le and h e r sen se o f humor have won h e r many f r i e n d s
t h i s summer. She h a s h ad an o p p o r tu n ity t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f and t o d ev elo p
s e l f - r e l i a n c e . H owever, when h e r s u g g e s tio n s were n o t a c c e p te d by th e
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
122
g ro u p , she f r e q u e n t l y l e s t i n t e r e s t i n th e group p r o j e c t . We b e lie v e t h a t
i t w ould be m o st h e l p f u l a t t h i s tim e i n D o ttie * s l i f e i f she were g iv e n
th e o p p o r tu n ity to a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e w e lf a r e o f a g ro u p p r o ­
j e c t i n s c h o o l. She i s a v e ry s e n s i b l e c h i l d a n d c a n b e re a s o n e d w ith
e a s i l y . She n eed s t o l e a r n t o fo llo w a s w e l l a s t o l e a d . She i s k e e n ly
i n t e r e s t e d i n m u sic an d alw ay s c o n t r i b u te d much to a n y m u s ic a l g ro u p
a c t i v i t y . She i s v e ry n e a t p e r s o n a l l y an d ta k e s u n u s u a lly good c a r e o f
a l l b e lo n g in g s . She h a d l i t t l e p a t ie n c e w ith o th e r c a b in -m a te s who w ere
n o t so c a r e f u l a b o u t t h e i r a p p e a ra n c e a n d b e lo n g in g s . D o ttie i s a t e a s e
a t h e a r t , b u t i s n o t alw ay s a good s p o r t a b o u t b e in g te a s e d . Vie f e e l
t h a t w ith c a r e f u l g u id a n ce sh e can overcom e t h i s t r a i t , f o r i t o f t e n won
h e r s o c ia l d is fa v o r l
D u rin g the f i r s t p a r t o f camp, D o ttie was r a t h e r r e l u c t a n t a b o u t
a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s an d in v e n te d many a l i b i s . I f t h e c o u n s e lo r h ap p en ed to
q u e s tio n th e s e e x c u s e s , s h e was in c l i n e d to be a b i t moody, an d s tu b b o r n .
H er p a r t i c u l a r mood a t th e moment was a l l im p o r ta n t, and a n y d u ty was
s e c o n d a ry . A f t e r a w h ile , ho w ev er, sh e b e ^ n t o ta k e an i n t e r e s t i n a r t s
and c r a f t s w o rk , sh e soon fou n d o u t t h a t h e r e was a n a r t i n w hich sh e
c o u ld e x c e l a n d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n r e c e iv e d from t h i s d e p a rtm e n t seem ed t o
g iv e h e r a new l e a s e o n l i f e . She began t o b r a n c h o u t an d s o o n r e a l i z e d
t h a t she h ad b een m is s in g a g r e a t d e a l b y n o t a t t e n d i n g a l l s c h e d u le d
c l a s s e s . H e e d le ss t o s a y , h e r d a y s t h e r e a f t e r w ere crammed f u l l o f a c t i v i t i e s .
She a p p l ie d h e r s e l f d i l i g e n t l y a n d le a r n e d to swim an d r i d e q u i t e w e l l . ”
"Ja n e h a s s u c h a sw e et d i s p o s i t i o n and such a q u i e t , d i g n i f i e d
m anner t h a t sh e h a s won many new f r i e n d s a t camp t h i s summer. .Being a n
o ld camper s h e h a s ta k e n h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e ll a n d h a s c o o p e ra te d i n
m o st c a s e s , a an e tim .es, she i s l a z y a b o u t c a b in c l e a n - u p , b u t when a sk e d
to do a n y th in g i s alw ay s w i l l i n g and does i t w e l l . J a n e i s v e r y co n ­
s c i e n t i o u s a b o u t a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s and g e ts a l o t o u t o f e v e r y th in g s h e
d o e s . She i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n swimming a n d h a s im proved a g r e a t
d e a l in d i s t a n c e . She i s alw o w o rk in g h a r d o n d iv i n g and h a s a c c o m p lish e d
m uch. C anoeing i s a n o th e r o f h e r f a v o r i t e s p o r t s a n d e v e ry e v e n in g f i n d s
h e r o n th e la k e t r y i n g t o im prove h e r fo rm . She h a s e n jo y e d s e v e r a l canoe
t r i p s and h ik e s a n d alw ays does h e r s h a re o f the w ork on t r i p s away fro m
camp.
I n c a b in group d i s c u s s i o n s , Ja n e i s u s u a l l y q u ie t u n le s s a s k e d
h e r o p in io n — th e n , sh e g iv e s i t r e a d i l y an d h o n e s t l y . I n lem on p a r t i e s ,
she alw ay s t r i e s to m ix in a l i t t l e s u g a r . A t f i r s t when c o r r e c t e d h h e
seemed t o f e e l h u r t , b u t she now ta k e s c r i t i c i s m w e ll an d p r o f i t s by i t .
She g e ts a l o n g w e ll w ith h e r c a b in - m a te s , due t o h e r th o u g h tf u ln e s s and
r e s p e c t f o r o th e r p e o p le ’ s p r o p e r ty . She g e t s a l i t t l e u p s e t when th e
o th e r g i r l s u s e h e r t h i n g s w ith o u t a s k i n g f o r them , b u t when th e y a s k i s
more th a n g e n e ro u s w ith a n y th in g th e y w a n t. J a n e 's c h o ie e o f r e a d in g
s h o u ld be g u id e d , f o r f r e q u e n t l y d u r in g r e s t h o u r, h e r c o u n s e lo r p r o v id e d
o th e r r e a d in g m a t e r i a l th a n "T rue S t o r y . ” She w as i n t e r e s t e d m o st i n
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
125
th e books d e a lin g in "daring adventure and scree n romance,'* She has shown
marked growth in p e r s o n a lity and ch a ra cter th is summer, and I ’m su re you
w i l l be j u s t as proud of h er as we a r e ."
Both o f th ese e x c e r p ts quoted have q u a l i t i e s o f p o s it iv e sug­
g e s t io n s and a t t e n t io n to im portant a r e a s o f p e r s o n a lit y developm ent.
Judging Camp B e s u i t s . -
One to two months a f t e r camp i s c lo s e d ,
a q u estio n n a ire i s m ailed to the p a r e n ts , a s k in g them i f th ey have n o tic e d
a ca rry -o v er in h a b its , a t t it u d e s , and b eh avior from th e camp e x p e r ie n c e .
The q u e s tio n n a ir e , "Judging Carup R e s u lts" , i s reproduced below ;
Dear Camp P a re n ts:
la k e Lure i s in t e r e s t e d to know i f i t s em phasis on p e r s o n a lit y and ch a ra cter
v a lu e s has had a c a r r y -o v e r . Changes in h a b it s , a t t it u d e s , and b eh avior
r e s u lt from cam ping. Would you retu rn t h is q u e stio n n a ir e so th a t we may
know i f you have observed any changes?
A.
CHANGES IN ATTITUDE.
K indly check the fo llo w in g b eh avior changes i n f i r s t column i f improvement
has been n o tic e d ; in th e second column i f no change has been n o tic e d ; and
in th e t h ir d column, i f un favorab le chanbe seems to have r e s u lt e d .
Improve No
ment
Change Loss
...........................
1 . More co n fid e n c e i n s e l f ............................................................ ..........
2 . More s e l f - r e l i a n t (r e s o u r c e fu ln e s s and i n i t i a t i v e .
......................................
3 . More c o n sid e r a te of o th e r s w e lf a r e .
..........
............................
4 . V o lu n teers fo r s e r v ic e m ore.
..........
............................
5 . More s e l f c o n tr o l in annoying s it u a t io n s .
.................................................
6 . More r e c e p t iv e to c r i t i c i s m , n o t making a l i b i s .
..........
............................
7. More a p p r e c ia tiv e o f p a ren ta l a u t h o r it y , and r e ­
sp o n siv e to s u g g e s t io n s .
.....................................................
8 . C ooperating more r e a d i ly .
.................................................
9 . M eeting disappointm ent more c h e e r f u lly .
..........
............................
16, More m odest when e x h ib itio n is m could be d is p la y e d .
............................
B. CHANGES IN HABITS.
C. Changes in I n t e r e s t s and S k i l l s
Check "X" i f P r a c t ic in g , i f not> "0". Check i f In crea sed A p p re cia tio n
or P a r t i c ip a t io n .
1 . B e tte r pos tu i'e .
Musi c
C raft
1 . P in e A r t s ;
2 . B e tte r a t t it u d e toward e a t in g .
Dancing
Dram atics
3 . B e tte r p e r so n a l h y g ien e.
2 . New s k i l l s lea rn ed a t camp:
4 . B e tte r p e r so n a l t i d i n e s s .
Swimming
R id in g
5 . B e tte r e t iq u e t t e .
Tennis
G olf
A rchery
R if le r y
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
124
TABLE T i l
PAHiMAL ESTIMATE 01' CHANGES IN ATTITUDES
Changes in A ttitu d e
No.
Showing
Improvement
No.
Showing
No Change
1.
More co n fid en ce in s e l f .........................................
91
10
2.
More s e l f - r e l i a n t (r e so u r c e fu ln e ss and
i n i t i a t i v e ......................................................................
92
3
3.
C ooperates more r e a d i l y . . . ..................................
90
8
4.
More c o n sid era te o f o th ers * w e lf a r e ..............
89
13
5.
More r e c e p tiv e to c r i t i c i s m (Not g iv in g
a l i b i s fo r m ista k es and d e f i c i e n c i e s , ) . . . .
89
4
More a p p r e c ia tiv e o f p a r e n ta l a u th o r ity
and resp o n siv e to s u g g e s tio n s ...........................
88
7
7.
T olu n teers f o r s e r v ic e more................................
87
5
8.
More s e l f - c o n t r o l in annoying s i t u a t i o n s ..
87
12
9.
Meets disappointm ent more c h e e r f u lly ...........
88
8
10.
More m odest when e x h ib itio n is m co u ld be
d isp la y e d ........................................................................
87
12
11.
More o rd erly w ith b elo n g in g s and n e a t e r . ..
87
6
12.
B etter m ixer and more p o is e in g .r 1-boy
a f f a i r s .............................................................................
85
5
6.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
P a re n ts * E v a lu a tio n o f R e s u l t s Tabl e V II i s a c o m p ila tio n o f
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s r e tu r n e d f a r s e a s o n s 1937, 1 9 5 8 , and 1 9 3 9 .
Less th a n o n e -
t h i r d o f th e p a r e n ts resp o n d each s e a s o n i n r e t u r n i n g th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .
Many g iv e o r a l r e p o r t s an d p re v io u s t o t h i s w r ite m o st s a t i s f a c t o r y l e t t e r s
a b o u t the summer*s e x p e r ie n c e .
An a n a l y s i s o f T able V II shows t h a t none o f
th e chang es l i s t e d s ta n d s o u t on th e p o s i t i v e s i d e , b u t ite m s o n e , f o u r ,
e i g h t , and te n
show m o st r e t u r n s were on t h e "no change** s i d e ,
how ever,
m ost p a r e n t s w ere o f th e o p in io n t h a t th e camp e x p e rie n c e was o f v a lu e .
T h e ir c h i l d r e tu r n e d to them n o t o n ly w ith new s k i l l s , hew know ledge, a n d
new i n t e r e s t s , b u t w ith in o r e a s e d s e l f - r e l i a n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l .
Summary
The a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s su p p ly d a ta f o r r e p o r t s s e n t home to th e
p a r e n t s in th e form o f a l e t t e r .
These l e t t e r s may s u g g e s t ways w hich th e
camp p e rs o n n e l h a s found b e s t to u s e w ith th e cam per an d o f f e r e v a l u a ti o n s
o f o u ts ta n d in g a b i l i t i e s an d i n t e r e s t s .
The summary r e p o r t s a r e th e o n ly
means a t command o f th e camp f o r a id in g i n th e c o n tin u a n c e o f a d ju s tm e n t
begun o r s tim u la te d i n camp.
The d a ta from th e a n e c d o ta l jo u r n a l f u r n i s h an e x c e l l e n t b a s is
f o r t h e in te r v ie w s w ith p a r e n t s a f t e r t h e camp s e a s o n i s c lo s e d .
T h is a i d s
n o t o n ly th e p a r e n t s b u t o th e r s i n p la n n in g a d ju s tm e n t w ork.
The camp p r o v id e s a u n iq u e o p p o r tu n ity to o b s e rv e cam pers* a d ­
ju s tm e n t.
s c h o o l.
A c c u ra te o b s e r v a tio n i s o f g r e a t v a lu e to the p a r e n t o r th e
I t may g iv e a b e t t e r u n d e r s ta n d in g to t h e p a r e n t , a n d t h i s i s
p o s s i b le o n ly i f summary r e p o r t s a r e made f r a n a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
CHAPTER Y I I I
GENERAL SUMMARY
The P ro b lem an d P ro c e d u re s
.Problem . -
The p ro b lem o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o a n a ly z e an d
e v a lu a te th e c o n t r i b u t i o n s w hich th e c a s e m eth o d , a s d ev elo p ed on th e
b a s i s o f a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s , may make t o th e g u id a n c e o f a d o le s c e n t g i r l s
i n summer camp l i f e .
The d a ta o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , c o l l e c t e d a t Lake L ure camp f o r
G i r l s , p e rm it a n sw e rs t o th e f o llo w in g f o u r q u e s ti o n s :
(1) What c o n t r i b u t i o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make
t o th e co u n se­
l o r ’ s p rim a ry f u n c ti o n - t h a t o f g u id in g i n th e developm ent
o f p e rs o n a lity
and o f m e etin g th e a a o t i o n a l an d s o c i a l n e e d s o f t h e cam per?
(2)
W hat c o n t r i b u ti o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make
to t h e d e­
velopm ent o f a r i c h a n d e d u c a tio n a lly v a lu a b le camp program ?
(3) What c o n t r i b u t i o n s do a n e c d o ta l
r e c o r d s make
to th e e v a lu a tio n
o f b e h a v io r ch an g es?
(4)
What c o n t r i b u t i o n s do a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s make to p a r e n t a l
g u id a n ce i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e cam pers?
G e n e ra l S o u rces and P ro c e d u re
The m a jo r s o u rc e s o f m a t e r i a l f o r th e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n co n ­
s i s t o f r e c o r d s k e p t th ro u g h a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d , c o v e r in g t h e s e a s o n s from
1935 th ro u g h 1939, i n th e form o f a n a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r j o u r n a l ,
num erous
o th e r r e c o r d s have b een u s e d ,, a s shown i n T able I , p ag e 3 .
126
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
127
Tli© general procedure of t h i s in v e s tig a tio n is th a t o f case
s tu d ie s .
The records have been stu d ied in d iv id u a lly and are presented
prim arily in the form of in d iv id u a l r e p o r ts,
in a few in sta n c e s the data
are tab u lated to show tren d s and to support the general c o n c lu sio n s.
The
b asic ev id en ces, however, a re -those obtained on in d iv id u a l g ir ls and a re
presented in case sketches a s illu s t r a t i o n s o f the p o s s ib le values o f the
an ecd otal procedure.
T im eliness of the study
The modern summer camp has changed from an i n s t it u t io n prim arily
in te r e ste d in r e c r e a tio n to one whose c h ie f concern i s the guidance o f
youth.
I t s philosophy and primary purpose are to bring about the maximum
of happiness and s a t is f a c t io n , and th e g r e a te s t degree, of p e r so n a lity
growth p o s s ib le fo r campers w hile in camp.
A s u rv e y o f th e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s th e ti m e lin e s s
o f t h i s s tu d y , f o r th u s f a r t h i s i s th e f i r s t r e p o r t o f th e c o n t r i b u t i o n s
o f th e a n e c d o ta l m ethod a s a g u id a n c e te c h n iq u e in a summer camp.
C ontributions o f the A necdotal Method
More e f f e c t iv e lead ersh ip o f personnel through the use o f th e
an ecd otal method has m a te r ia lly a id ed th e in d iv id u a liz a tio n of th e camp
program.
The follo w in g are con trib u tio n s of the an ecd otal method to the
camp guidance program, as revealed over a period o f fiv e seasons;
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
128
S t a f f I n s i g h t V a lu e . -
The s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l a d ju s tm en t o f th e
camper i s g r e a t l y a id e d by th e u s e o f th e b e h a v io r jo u r n a l .
The s t a f f o f
th e camp i s g iv e n an in c re a s e d i n s i g h t i n t o th e p roblem s o f each g i r l .
On
th e b a s is o f th e j o u r n a l r e c a r d d , i t can h e lp th e camper t o a t t a i n reco g *
n i t i o n and s t a t u s fro m h e r c a b in group an d from th e camp a s a w h o le.
C o u n se lin g V a lu e . -
Much n a t e r i a l i s p r o v id e d by th e j o u r n a l
f o r more s u c c e s s f u l c o n fe re n c e s betw een th e cam per and c o u n s e lo r , a n d betw een
th e camper and d i r e c t o r .
The c o u n s e lo r i s b e t t e r a b l e to h e lp th e g i r l
e v a lu a te p e r s o n a l g o a ls i n the l i g h t o f h e r own s t r e n g t h s a n d w eak n esses.
Pre-Camp 7 a l u e . -
The cu m u la tiv e body o f e v id e n c e s w h ich r e l a t e
to h a b i t s , id e a s , and p e r s o n a l i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r g u id a n c e s e r v ic e s
i n pre£oamp c o n f e r e n c e s ,
i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e n e f i t s a s w e ll a s th o s e o f g u id a n ce
a c c ru e from s t a f f c o n f e r e n c e s .
S t a f f T r a in in g V a lu e . t r a i n i n g d u rin g th e s e a s o n .
The j o u r n a l f u r n i s h e s m a t e r i a l f o r s t a f f
Growth in i n s i g h t i s g r e a t l y in c r e a s e d from
th e i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l w h ich i s a v a i l a b l e f o r d is c u s s io n i n m e e tin g s .
Here a g a in , i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s w e ll a s g u id a n ce b e n e f i t s r e s u l t fro m s t a f f
m e e tin g s .
Program P la n n in g . -
A s tu d y o f th e r e c o r d s by program c r u i s e r s
and s u p e r v is o r s e n a b le s t r a n s l a t i o n o f i n s i g h t s o b ta in e d i n t o b e t t e r p r o ­
gram p r a c t i c e s .
P rogram e x p e rie n c e s a r e p ro v id e d on th e recom m endation
o f th e c r u i s e r to m eet a d e q u a te ly th e i n t e r e s t s and n e e d s o f :
(1) th e
u n a d ju s te d cam per, (2) th e m a la d ju s te d cam per, (3) t h e i n d i v i d u a l l y d i f ­
f e r e n t cam per, a n d (4 ) th e r e t u r n i n g cam per.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
129
P e r s o n n e l A d m in is tr a tio n V alu e. -
The a n e c d o ta l m ethod i s o f g r e a t
v a lu e to th e a d m in is tr a t iv e d u t i e s o f th e d i r e c t o r o f t h e camp.
Some o f th e
a d v a n ta g e s a r e :
(1)
The m ethod d e v e lo p s a g en u in e m o tiv a tio n on th e p a r t o f th e
s t a f f to p r o v id e a d e q u a te le a d e r s h ip f o r th e cam p ers.
(2)
The m ethod e n a b le s t h e d i r e c t o r to hav e more f r u i t f u l con­
t a c t s and c o n fe re n c e s w ith th e s t a f f .
(3)
The m ethod h e l p s th e d i r e c t o r t o n o te th e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f
t h e c o u n s e lo r s , a n d to s e e how w e ll th e y u n d e rs ta n d t h e n eed s and s a t i s ­
f a c t i o n s o f t h e campers* p e r s o n a l i t i e s , a s th e s e a r e in d i c a te d i n th e
a n e c d o ta l j o u r n a l s .
P rogram A d m in is tr a tio n V a lu e .-
The a n e c d o ta l m ethod i s o f g r e a t
v a lu e i n th e a d m in is tr a t io n o f program b y th e program d i r e c t o r an d d i r e c t o r .
Seme o f th e a d v a n ta g e s a r e :
(1)
The m ethod te n d s t o keep program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e m o c ra tic .
I t means p o o lin g o f th e c o u n s e lo r s ' canm ents from t h e i r j o u r n a l s , d is c u s s in g
th e s e i n s t a f f m e e tin g s , and s e c u r in g c o rre s p o n d in g s u g g e s tio n s a b o u t th e
d i f f i c u l t i e s an d p r o g r e s s o f eac h cam per.
The c a b in le a d e r s a r e en co u rag ed
by t h i s te c h n iq u e to r e p o r t needs to th e v a r io u s d i r e c t o r s , an d th e s t a f f
i s en co u rag ed t o d is c u s s s i t u a t i o n s an d m ethods o f s a t i s f y i n g n e e d s .
(2)
The m ethod p ro v id e s e v id e n c e to show w h eth er o r n o t th e
cam per h a s b a la n c e d h e r program i n t e r e s t s .
The r e c o r d s show w h e th e r sh e
i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in th e a e s t h e t i c an d s o c i a l ty p e s o f a c t i v i t y a s vie 11 a s
th e p h y s i c a l .
(3)
The m ethod p r o v id e s a b a s is f o r e v a lu a tin g th e program
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
130
i n term s o f cam p ers1 comments, a s th e s e a r e r e c o r d e d i n th e j o u r n a l .
(4)
The m ethod p r o v id e s s u g g e s tio n s fo r d e s ir e d t r i p s , o v e r n ig h t
h ik e s , canoe t r i p s , an d r i d e s ; a n d a l s o f o r a s p e c i a l i z e d hobby an d i n t e r e s t s
t h a t do n o t have a s c h e d u le d i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , such a s p h o to g ra p h y ,
s k e tc h in g , and a p o e tr y h o u r .
(5 )
The m ethod a i d s in m ak in g th e w e e k ly r e p o r t f i l l e d i n c o ­
o p e r a t i v e l y by th e cam per and c o u n s e lo r a n d m a ile d t o t h e p a r e n t .
P a r e n t a l G uidance V a lu e . -
Summary r e p o r t s p r o v id e th e c h i e f
means a t command o f th e camp f o r a i d i i ^ i n th e c o n tin u a n c e a t heme o f
a d ju s tm e n t begun or s tim u la te d i n camp.
The a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s s u p p ly d a ta
f a r th e s e r e p o r t s s e n t heme i n l e t t e r s to th e p a r e n t s .
These l e t t e r s
may s u g g e s t ways w hich th e camp p e r s o n n e l h a s fo u n d b e s t to u se w ith th e
cam per and may o f f e r e v a lu a tio n s o f o u ts ta n d in g a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s .
The d a ta fro m th e a n e c d o ta l j o u r n a l a l s o f u r n i s h a n e x c e l l e n t b a s is f o r i n ­
te r v ie w s w ith p a r e n t s a f t e r t h e camp s e a so n i s c l o s e d .
A p p r a is a l V a lu e .-
The cam per*s a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a l p r o ­
v id e s q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e c o r d s f o r e v a l u a ti n g th e p e r s o n a l
grow th o f th e cam per an d h e r d ev elo p m en t i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n .
Illu s tra tiv e
c a s e s k e tc h e s i n d i c a t e ways i n w hich a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d s r e v e a l i n t e g r a t i o n
a n l grow th i n th e cam per*s i n t e r e s t s , a c h ie v e m e n t, and p e r s o n a l i t y .
L im ita tio n s o f th e A n e c d o ta l Method
The a n e c d o ta l -behavior j o u r n a l can be o f s i g n i f i c a n t v a lu e i f
th e f o llo w in g c o n s id e r a tio n s a r e ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t.
I f n o t , i t s g u id a n c e
v a lu e i s d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
131
(1)
The q u a l i t y o f th e in f o r m a tio n r e p o r t e d an d th e c c m p le te n e s s
o f th e r e p o r t o f any p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t v a r y ... w ith th e i n s i g h t o f t h e
c o u n s e lo r .
I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o p ro v id e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o u n s e lo r s who a r e
t o r e c o r d t h e i r o b s e r v a tio n s i n th e j o u r n a l .
(2)
The in c a a p le te n e s s o f th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d from th e c l i n i c a l
p o i n t o f view i s a n im p o rta n t l i m i t a t i o n .
Q u ite f r e q u e n t l y s e r io u s b e h a v io r
problem s o c c u r an d camps do n o t have a v a i l a b l e th e fa m ily h i s t o r y and
g e n e t ic developm ent r e c o r d o f th e c h i l d i n o r d e r to h e lp d ia g n o se an d p la n
a re m e d ia l pro g ram .
(3)
The r e c o r d in g o f a n e c d o te s i s c o s t l y i n tim e an d e n e rg y .
Only a low cam per-eounsalor r a t io p erm its th e k eep in g o f adequate r e c o r d s.
(4)
The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a n a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d sy stem depends
upon th e com petence and e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e camp l e a d e r s h i p .
The r e c o r d ­
k e e p in g m ig h t e a s i l y become a n en d , n o t a m ean s.
(5)
P e r io d ic summaries, which in t e r p r e t and s y n th e s iz e th e
running n o t e s , must be made.
(6)
T h ere i s n e e d to r e c o r d b e h a v io r o b j e c t i v e l y an d n o t t o g iv e
o p in io n s o r s ta te m e n ts o f b e h a v io r i n a b s t r a c t te rm s .
S u p p lem en tary T ech n iq u es
The a n e c d o ta l b e h a v io r jo u r n a l can b e more e f f e c t i v e f o r g u id a n ce
s e r v ic e i f i t i s su p p lem en ted b y th e f o llo w in g in f o r m a tio n .
(1)
The h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e sh o u ld g iv e a n a d e q u a te p i c t u r e o f
th e cam per’ s s t a t e o f h e a l t h , as sh e e n t e r s camp, and r e v e a l t h e h e a l th
h i s t o r y p r e v io u s l y .
The h e a l t h h i s t o r y i s v a lu a b le s in c e i t may show up th e
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
132
cau se o r c a u se s of u n u s u a l b e h a v io r .
(2) C o n f id e n tia l in fo rm a tio n s e c u r e d from th e p a r e n t a b o u t th e
l i f e h i s t o r y and s o c i a l s t a t u s o f th e camper a t home, o b ta in e d by con­
f i d e n t i a l q u e s tio n n a ir e s an d th ro u g h in t e r v ie w s , i s e s s e n t i a l .
(3) fteco rd s o f th e cam per’ s h e a l t h w h ile i n camp and o f v i s i t s
to t h e h e a lth s e r v ic e sh o u ld augm ent t h e jo u r n a l .
(4) A w eek ly a c t i v i t y r e p o r t b y th e a c t i v i t y c o u n s e lo r s i s o f
v a lu e in o r d e r t h a t th e c r u i s e r may d e te rm in e w h e th e r th e cam per i s ob­
t a i n i n g a sen se o f ach ie v e m e n t by g ro w th i n s k i l l s .
(5) S t a f f c o n fe re n c e s and d is c u s s io n o f cam p ers’ n eed s a n d
s a t i s f a c t i o n s augm ent th e v a lu e o f th e j o u r n a l .
(6) A r a t i n g b y c o u n s e lo r s on th e ‘* s o c ia l iz a tio n ,, s c a le a i d s
in m ore o b je c tiv e e v a lu a tio n o f b e h a v io r .
S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e S tu d y
T h ere i s i n d i c a t i o n o f th e t i m e l in e s s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
a s r e v e a le d by a s u rv e y o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e .
D ata r e v e a l in c r e a s e d a t ­
te n d a n c e in summer camps; y e t no f r u i t f u l a tte m p ts have b e e n made to
s ta n d a r d iz e t h e i r p r o c e d u r e s .
T h ere i s a w ide d i v e r s i t y o f o p in io n an d
p r a c t i c e in the a d m in is tr a t io n o f r e c o r d k e e p in g i n camps.
A t th e same
tim e , th e r e i s a n in c r e a s e d a p p r e c i a t i o n by p a r e n t s a n d e d u c a to r s o f th e
camp a s a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l e d u c a tiv e a s s e t .
The u s e o f th e in f o r m a l m ethod o f a p p r a i s a l , known a s th e
a n e c d o ta l m eth o d , i s r a p i d l y g a in in g p r e s t i g e among p r o g r e s s iv e e d u c a to r s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
133
■lie method has shown i t s worth in a number of sch o o l and c o lle g e s tu d ie s ,
but not in any camp study thus fa r rep orted .
This i s the f i r s t camp study
rep ortin g the v a lu es o f the an ecd otal behavior journal a s a camp guidance
program.
T his study con tain s m a ter ia l th at may have value in the formu­
la t io n o f guidance p o li c ie s in other summer oamps; e s p e c ia lly th ose
in te r e ste d in guid ing behavior.
The r e s u lt s o f the stu d y seam l i k e l y to have fu rth er value to
those working w ith th e ad o lescen t in other f i e l d s .
More narrowly, t h is study should h elp in th e ev a lu a tio n o f
procedures and r e s u lt s in th e camp stu d ie d , and a t th e same time may have
considerable s ig n ific a n c e fo r o th er camps w ishing to evaluate th e ir work.
lake Lure Camp fo r a ir I s has accepted the idea th a t guidance i s
a t the h eart of camping.
The primary g o a l o f i t s guidance program i s the
r ela tio n sh ip o f personal adjustm ent to s a t is f a c t io n of needs o f th e campers.
The s ta r tin g p o in t in t h is ed u cation al process i s the understanding o f the
in d iv id u a l by the lead ersh ip p erson n el.
The a n ecd o ta l technique has
trib u ted to added in s ig h t as a b a s is f o r guidance s e r v ic e .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
con­
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A ld e r , G eorge G. “The Use o f P e r s o n n e l R e c o r d s ," The Camping M agazine,
V II (J u n e , 1 9 3 5 ), 1 3 .
A lle n , H a z e l K. Camps an d f h e i r M odern A d m in i s t r a ti o n .
Woman*s P r e s s , 1 9 30. P p . X / 117.
A lle n , R. D. "G uidance an d C o u n s e lin g ,"
I I I (J u n e , 1 9 3 3 ), 3 1 4 -2 1 .
New Y ork:
Review o f .E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h ,
A l l p o r t , G. V/., and V ernon, P . E. "The F ie l d o f P e r s o n a l i t y , " P sy ch o ­
l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , XXVII (D ecem ber, 1 9 3 0 ), 7 -3 0 .
A l s t y n e , B. V. "A New S cale f o r R a tin g B e h a v io r a n d A t t i t u d e s i n th e
E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l P s y c h o lo g y , XXVII
(Decem ber, 1 9 3 6 ), 6 7 7 -9 3 .
A r l i t t , A . H. A d o le s c e n t P s y c h o lo g y .
1933. P p . 250.
New Y ork:
A m erican Book Company,
A r l i t t , A. H. " S h a ll I Send My C h ild t o Camp?" C h ild W e lf a r e , XXV
( A p r il, 1 9 3 1 ), 4 6 2 -4 6 5 .
B e r n r e u te r , H. G. " P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t T e s t , " E d u c a tio n a l
R e co rd , I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 0 ), S upplem ent No. 13, 1 6 0 -7 1 .
B lu m en th a l, L ouis H ., Group Work i n Camping .
1937. P p . 100.
New Y ork:
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s ,
B rew er, John N. C ases i n th e A d m in is tr a tio n o f G u id an ce , p p . 2 9 3 -3 0 4 .
New Y ork: M cG raw -H ill Book Company, 1929.
B rew er, Jo h n N. E d u c a tio n i s G u id an ce.
1932. P p . x i i / 66 8 .
New Y ork:
M acM illian Company,
Brosnley, D o ro th y , a n d B r i t t e n , F lo r e n c e H . Y outh an d s e x .
H a rp e r an d B r o th e r , 1 9 38. P p . v i i / 303.
New Y ork:
Brown, M. A ., a n d M a r tin , V. "A n e c d o ta l R eco rd s o f P u p i l B e h a v io r ,"
J o u r n a l o f S eco n d ary E d u c a tio n , X I I I ( A p r il, 1 9 3 8 ), 2 0 5 -8 .
Burnham, w. H. The wholesome P e r s o n a l i t y .
Company, 1 9 3 2 . P p . I x / 713.
New Y ork:
D. A p p le to n C en tu ry
C a rb e rry , M. A . "An A tte m p t to D eterm ine th e c o n s is te n c y o f Judgm ents
R eg ard in g th e A d ju stm e n t S t a t u s o f C h ild re n Examined by a C h ild
G uidance C l i n i c , " J o u r n a l o f J u v e n ile R e s e a rc h , XIX ( A p r il,
1 9 3 5 ), 7 5 -9 2 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
135
C h a r te r s , w. W. "A C h a ra c te r Development S tu d y ,”
V o l. X II (A ugust, 1 9 3 3 ), 119.
P e rs o n n e l J o u r n a l ,
C h a s s e ll, Jo se p h 0 . C h a ra c te r e d u c a tio n . T en th xearbook o f th e De­
p a rtm e n t o f s u p e r in te n d e n c e . W ashington: n a t i o n a l e d u c a tio n
A s s o c ia tio n , 1932. P p . 53 5 .
C h a s s e ll, Jo se p h 0 . “I n d i c a t i o n f o r Camp P r e s c r i p t i o n s , " A m erican
J o u r n a l o f u rth o p s y e h o lo g y , V II (J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ), 8 2 -9 5 .
Dimock, H. S . ( E d i t o r ) . C h a r a c te r e d u c a tio n i n th e summer Camp. A s e r i e s
o f s i x r e p o r t s .v o l ,I Q h i c a g o : R e lig io u s E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , 1930.
7 6 1 § . I I , I I I , IV, V, V I, Dew xovk: A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1931,
1935, 1936, 1937, 1938.
Dimock, H. S . R e d isc o v e rin g t h e A d o le s c e n t.
P r e s s , 19371 P p . v i i / 2 8 5 .
Dimock, j±. 8 . , and H endry, C» E,
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1929.
Dew Y ork:
A s s o c ia tio n
Camping a n d C h a r a c te r .
Pp. v i i / 364.
New Y ork:
Dimock, pi. S . , and S l a t t e n , a a y l o r . x a lk s to C o u n s e lo rs .
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1939. P p . 9 2 .
D o h erty , J . K en n eth . S o lv in g Camp B eh av io r P ro b le m s.
s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1939. P p . 55.
D u ff, c . A. " C h a ra c te r T r a in in g i n cam p in g ,"
V II (J u n e , 1 9 3 1 ), 202.
Eastm an, e . G. -Summer a t cam p,"
4 6 3 -6 5 .
New Y ork:
New Y ork:
H igh S ch o o l x e a c h e r ,
C h ild W e lfa re , XXVII (May, 1 9 3 3 ),
E l l i o t t , H. S . , and E l l i o t t , J . L. S o lv in g P e r s o n a l P ro b le m s.
Henry H o lt and Company, 1936~ P p . v / 3 2 0 .
G ibson, H. ¥ .
1923.
camp M anagement.
P p . x iv / 265.
As­
C am bridge:
New Y ork:
M urray P r i n t i n g company,
G ibson, H. W. The M onthly L ib r a r y o f Camping, V o l. I - XV.
'The G ibson P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1927.
W atertow n:
Good, c . v . , B a rr, A. S . , and S c a t e s , u . e . The m ethodology o f E d u ­
c a t i o n a l R e s e a rc h , p p . 2 6 5 -7 5 , 5 8 9 -9 2 . juew lo r k : D. A p p le to n
c e n tu r y company, 1938.
Graham, A b b ie . The G i r l s ' camp.
P p . v / 146.
New i o r k :
The woman’ s P r e s s , 1933.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
136
G u lic k , m. "program Making f o r u -irls* Camp,"
1 925), 8 5 -8 8 .
P la y g ro u n d , X (May,
Hartshorns, n , , and May, Mark. S tu d ies in u e c e it .
Company, 1928. p p . x x i / 3 0 6 .
New xork: IviacMiIlian
H a rts h o rn s , h . , and May, M ark. "A Summary o f th e Work o f th e C h a r a c te r
e d u c a tio n i n q u i r y ," R e lig io u s B d u c a tio n , XXVII (O c to b e r, 1 9 3 0 ),
754-62.
x ia rp e r, x . a . "C am pfire u - ir ls and C h a r a c te r ,"
(December, 1 9 3 1 ), 2 0 1 -2 0 3 .
ixasbrouch, r . b . "How campers change,"
1 9 3 2 ), 1 6 -1 7 .
u h il d w e lf a r e , XXVI
Parents Magazine, V II ( J u ly ,
H endry, u . iS. "Why Not T ry R e a l R ew ards?"
(J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 2 ), 4 3 -4 9 .
R e lig io u s E d u c a tio n , XXVII
Hymes, James H. " T r a in in g f o r G u id a n c e ,"
1 9 3 8 ), 7 - 9 .
Camping Mag a z in e , X (J a n u a ry ,
H o llin g w o rth , L o la S . The P sy ch o lo g y o f th e A d o le s c e n t.
A p p le to n C en tu ry Ccmpany, 1928. P p . x i i / 227.
New Y ork:
D.
K i l p a t r i c k , W. H. "A P h ilo s o p h y o f S d u c a tio n ," The S c h o o l H e a lth P ro ­
gram , T. D. Wood a n d O th e rs , p p . 1 3 -3 3 . W h ite House C o n feren ce
on C h ild H e a lth a n d P r o t e c t i o n . New Y ork: C en tu ry Company,
1932. P p . xx / 4 0 0 .
K i l p a t r i c k , W. H. P r o j e c t M ethod, p . 5 .
Colum bis u n i v e r s i t y , 1922,
New Y ork:
T e a c h e rs C o lle g e ,
K i l p a t r i c k , W, H . , ch airm an . Summer V ac a tio n A c t i v i t i e s o f th e S ch o o l
C h ild . W hite House C o n feren ce on C h ild H e a lth an d P r o t e c t i o n .
New York": C en tu ry Company, 1932. Pp." x i / 8 2 .
J a r v i e , L. L. "A D ev elo p in g G uidance P ro g ra m ,"
XVI (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 9 ), 2 5 -3 3 .
P r o g r e s s iv e s d u c a ti o n ,
J e r s i l d , A. T ., and H olm es, F . B. C h ild r e n ’ s F e a r s . C h ild D evelopm ent
M onographs, No. 20. New Y o rk : T each ers C o lle g e , Columbia
U n iv e r s it y , 1935. P p . x iv / 356.
Jo h n so n , C. W alto n , "What P a r e n ts S h o u ld E xpect o f th e Summer Camp,"
Camping W orld, I I (M arch, 1 9 3 6 ), 70.
J o y , B. E. " T r a in in g C o u rses f o r Camp L e a d e r s h ip ," J o u r n a l o f H e a lth
and P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n , IV (May, 1 9 3 3 ), 1 3 -1 5 .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Lehman, Eugene, Gamps and Camping, 1950♦ New Y ork:
P u b lis h in g Company, 1950. P p . 1 6 2 .
L ieberm an, Jo sh u a . C r e a tiv e Camping.
P p . x v i i / 251.
L ieberm an, J o sh u a .
1 9 3 3 ), 12.
New Y ork:
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1931
"C hoosing a c h i l d r e n ’ s Camp,"
May, B o lo . The A r t o f C o u n se lin g .
P p . 247.
N a s h v ille :
M ason, B e rn a rd . Camping and E d u c a tio n .
P p. x iv / T 8 3 7
-----------------
A m erican S p o r ts
D e li n a to r , EXXII (Ju n e
C okesbury P r e s s , 1939.
New Y ork:
M cCall Company, 1950.
McCloy, C. H. " C h a ra c te r B u ild in g Through P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n ,” R e se a rc h
Q u a r te r ly o f A m erican P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a ti o n , I (O c to b e r,
1 9 3 0 ), 9 1 .
M organ, John J . B. K eep in g A Sound M ind.
1934. P p . i x / 440.
New Y ork:
M cM illian
company,
M inn, M. D ., and P e e h 3 te in , L. A . "The M easurem ent o f S o c i a l M a tu r ity
on C h il d r e n ,” E lem en tary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , XL (O c to b e r, 1 9 3 9 ),
1 1 3 -2 3 .
M u rd ick , O lin . "Camping an d M en tal H y g ien e T r e a tm e n t," Camping Ma g a z in e ,
X I (November, 1 9 3 9 ), 8 -1 0 .
M urphy, G ard n er, and J e n s e n , F r e d r i c k . A p p ro ach es to P e r s o n a l i t y .
Y ork: Coward-Mc0ann, I n c . , 1 9 32. P p . x v / 427.
N orthw ay, M ary.
30.
New
" S o c i a l i z a t i o n , " Camping M ag azin e, X I (November, 1 9 3 9 ),
O lso n , W. C. "G e n e ra l S u rv ey of t h e F ie ld o f C h a ra c te r and P e r s o n a l i t y
M e a s u re s ," Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , V (J h n e , 1 9 3 5 ), 2 4 2 -4 4 ,
315.
O sborne, E r n e s t G. Camping a n d G u id an ce.
1937. P p . 192.
New Y ork:
R a n d a ll, J . A. "The A n e c d o ta l B eh av io r J o u r n a l , "
X I I I (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 6 ), 2 1 -2 6 .
R o g e rs , C a r l R.
B o sto n :
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s ,
P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n ,
The C l i n i c a l T re a tm e n t o f th e P roblem C h ild , p . 26 6 .
H oughton M i f f l i n Company, 1939.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
138
R ulon, P . J I , a n d o t h e r s . " P e r s o n a lit y H a tin g S c h e d u le ," H a rv a rd T e a c h e r s
R e c o rd , 71 (F e b ru a ry , 1 9 3 6 ), 4 6 -5 3 .
Samson, P a u l . "Modern T rends i n C am ping," Camping M ag azin e, X I (O c to b e r,
1 9 3 9 ), 7 4 .
S c o t t , C. W. "G uidance in a W e s tc h e s te r C ounty Camp,"
X I (May, 1 9 3 7 ), 5 4 7 -5 0 .
S c o t t , C. W. "G uidance in t h e M odern Summer Camp,"
X (M arch, 1938) 2 6 -2 8 .
C le a r in g House,
Camping M agazine
S h a rp , L. B. E d u c a tio n i n th e Summer Camp, An E x p erim en t. New Y ork:
B ureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T ea ch ers C o lle g e , Colum bia U n iv e r s it y ,
1 9 30. P p . v i i i i 114.
S h e llo w , S . M. How t o D evelop P e r s o n a l i t y .
in g Company, 1 932. P p . v i i / 3 0 7 .
New Y ork:
H a rp e rs P u b lis h ­
S m e ltz e r, C. H ., a n d Adams, C. R. "A C om parison o f G rap h ic a n d N a r r a tiv e
I n te r v ie w R e p o r ts ," P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l , X I I I (J u n e , 1 9 3 6 ), 3 -7 9 .
S m ith ie s , E l i s e M. C ase S tu d ie s o f Normal A d o le s c e n t G tfcls.
D. A p p le to n C en tu ry Company, 1 933. P p . v / 277.
New Y ork:
S ta g n e r , R o ss. "W isco n sin S c a le o f P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s , " J o u r n a l o f Ab­
n o rm al a n d S o c i a l P sy c h o lo g y , XXI (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 7 ), 4 6 3 -7 1 .
S to n e , Ytfalter L. B e h av io r change I n q u i r y . M im eographed.
Y. M. C. A. G rad u ate S c h o o l, 1 9 3 4 .
P p. 12.
S to n e ,
W a lte r L. A Camp C o u n se lo rs M anual. M im eographed.
Y. M. C. A. G rad u ate S c h o o l, 1933. P p . v / 115.
S tr a n g , R u th .
10
.
N a s h v ille :
N a s h v ille :
"G uidance a t Camp," Camping M ag azin e, IX (Decem ber, 1 9 3 7 ),
Symonds, P . M, D ia g n o sin g P e r s o n a l i t y a n d C onduct, p p . 1 1 3 -1 4 .
D. A p p le to n C e n tu ry Company, 1932.
New Y ork:
Them, D ouglas A. E veryday P ro b lem s o f th e E veryday C h ild . New Y ork:
D. A p p leto n C e n tu ry Company, 1 9 2 7 . P p . x i i i / 34 9 .
Them, D ouglas A . The N oim al Y outh a n d i t s E veryday P ro b le m s.
D. A p p le to n C en tu ry Company, 1 9 3 2 . P p . x v / 368.
U re , R o la n d . F i f t y C ases f a r Camp C o u n s e lo rs .
P r e s s , 1935. P p . 1 1 9 .
New Y ork:
New Y ork: A s s o c ia tio n
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
139
V in c e n t, S . Lee. "Camping C o n tr ib u tio n s t o M en tal H y g ie n e ," Camping
M agazine, IX (J u n e , 1 9 3 7 ), 3 - 5 ,
YJatson, Goodwin, R a tin g S c a le s . New Y ork:
O c c a s io n a l S tu d ie s , Ho. 2 . P p . 5 .
A s s o c ia tio n P re s s., 1931.
W atson, Goodwin. " P e r s o n a lit y and C h a r a c te r M easurem ent,"
E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , V III ( J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 3 ), 281.
W atson, Goodwin. Seme A chievem ents i n Stunner Camps,
A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1928.
p . 25,
Review o f
Hew Y ork:
W atson, Goodwin, and W atson, G ladys H. Case S tu d ie s f o r T ea ch ers o f
R e lig io n . New Y ork: A s s o c ia tio n P r e s s , 1 9 26. P p . 296.
Wood, Ben, "M ajor S tr a t e g y o f G u id a n c e ,"
(O cto b er, 1 9 3 4 ), 4 1 9 -4 4 .
Young, R o b ert A.
C lin ic ,"
E d u c a tio n a l R e se a rc h , XV
"A Summer Camp a s a n I n t e g r a l P a r t o f a P s y c h i a t r i c
M en tal H y g ie n e , X X III ( A p r il, 1 9 3 9 ), 2 4 1 -2 5 6 .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
JffiPENDIX
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I n d iv i d u a l F o ld e r
e m u l a t i v e I n d iv i d u a l F & ld e r. - . The fo llo w in g r e c o r d s o f Ann
Jan e Brown a r e in c lu d e d i n th e i n d i v i d u a l f o l d e r :
■ ■; 1 .
A p p lic a tio n fo r. E n ro llm en t'.
2.
C o n f id e n tia l Q u e s tio n n a ir e .
3.
A n e c d o ta l B ehavior J o u r n a l /
4.
S o c ia lis a tio n S c a le .
5.
T estim ony o f Ann. J a n e . :
6.
Sample A c t i v i t y S c h e d u le .
?.
Summary l e t t e r t o P a r e n t .
8.
P a r e n t ’ s W eekly R e p o rt.
9.
O f f ic e Copy o f Summary o f P e r s o n a l i t y G row th.
10.
O f f ic e Copy o f H e a lth R ecord and R e p o rt made P a r e n t s .
11.
H e a lth S e r v ic e R eco rd .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
140
APPLICATION
FOR
ENROLLMENT
LAKE LURE C A M P , INC.
LAKE
LURE,
NORTH
CAROLINA
................................ . . . <4p ?il. 89................... 1 9 3 .8 ..
Mrs. Edna Warner, Director
LAKE LURE C A M P F O R G IR LS
LA K E LURE, N O R T H C A R O L IN A
I hereby make application for the enrollment of my daughter for the com­
ing season, subject to the conditions as outlined in your camp catalogue. Enclosed
find a deposit of $25.00. (It is understood that the balance $250.00 on tuition is due
on the opening day of camp.) There will be no refund of the initial deposit of
$25,00 after June 1st, 1938.
Name in full .
.7 W 9 . BPPTO.......................................................Age . 1 2 . ..................
Birthday. H ay. 5 , . 192.4 ................ Height. . 64§; .........................
Weight. . . 1 - 1 . . . .
School now attending .J u n io r. H ig h ...................................................................................
Particularly interested in . 5Fi-PW£P.g A PA.
...................................................
Religion .P r e sb y te a sia n .................... ................................................. .....................................
S ig n e d ...........................................................................................................................................
Parent or guardian
Business address. . JUEain .B u i l d i n g ,. C hicago,. .111 .............................
Mail application and make checks payable to Mrs. Edna Warner, Lake Lure
Camp, Lake Lure, North Carolina.
I became interested in Lake Lure Camp
through .........................................................................................................................................
Please give name oi person or publication.
Permission is given to use pictures in which my daughter may appear in Lake
Lure Camp catalogue or other camp advertising. (Laws of certain states require this
permission.)
In order to maintain a regular and proper diet, parents are urged to refrain
from sending boxes of edibles to camp.
It is also important that campers be instructed to cooperate with the Camp
Bank in an effort to keep expenditures within reasonable limits. Not over $25.00
for the season. The above amount to cover incidentals such as stamps, stationery,
personal laundry', camper's spending money.
Signed. .E. .R ,. BTP.TO..............................................
NOTE: The signature of parents approving the above policy, or written sug­
gestions referring to the same, will be appreciated.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
DOCTOR'S HEALTH CERTIFICATE
Name
.A n n s .l a n e . Brown........................................... Date of Birth. .l a y . Z.r .1 9 2 4 ..
A g e . . 2 5 .......... Lungs. iio im a l. . . Heart. ITonnaJ.. . . .
Kidneys . KoisnaJL..............
Has she had contagious disease recently?.. .No..................................................................
Is she free from all infection?. . .Y es.......................................................................................
Any Limitation in Athletics? . . U o .........................................................................................
Physical defects . .No.................................................................................................................
Advise to diet or exercise. A l l e r g i c , to. .tom atoes.,. f la k * .acrom blad .e g g s , . s u g g e s t
h ig h c a l o r i e d ie t e r y r e g im e.
Remarks: .......................................................................................................................................
Physician's Signature.............................................................................
A d d r e s s .....
.......................
Y
. . . . . . ...........................
D ate......... .................................. ................................
QUESTIONNAIRE
Candid answers to the following questions will enable the personnel to more
effective guidance.
1. Has she been a camper before? Where? . .No....................................... ...................
2. Does she enjoy the out-of-doors?. .Y&S........................................................................
3. Does she mingle readily with others?. .Y es..................................................................
4. Has she any brothers?. . Net
any Sisters? .KP..................
5. Are there grandparents or other relatives living in the home?. . No........................
6. Is your daughter mature? Average? or Immature for her age? Ayere-ge............
7. Is she accustomed to visiting away from home? . Ho.t. .o fte n ..............................
8. Has your daughter any special needs?. R e la x a tio n .,, u n d erw eig h t....................
9. Has she any special interests and talents? .D iving, aud swimm ing....................
10. What skills would you like her to develop at camp? R id in g ...............................
11. What would you like her to accomplish during her stay at Lake Lure Camp?
To- deve-lo-p -a e if-c o n fid -e ir c e -a n d •ao’C i a i ’ ftdhh'cl'o'uandSS..........................
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
141
OONFIDSHTXil QUESTIONAIRE
In order th a t tho s t a f f o f L’.ko Lure Camp may h elp your daughter in the
g r o r t o s t p o s s ib lo development during, the camping sea so n , we ask your co o p era tio n in
f i l l i n g out the fo llo w in g q u o stio n n iro and retu rn in g i t to th e P erso n n el D iro cto r
.at l e a s t throe days b efo re she lo a v e s f o r Camp.
I f tto know her h a b its and temperament we can more e a s i l y help hor a d ju st
h e r s e l f to camp l i f e . She may have s p e c ia l a b i l i t i e s 'which might n o t be d isco v ered
im m ediately w ith o u t some h in t from you. I f th ere are c e r t a in ways in which she
roods encouragement we nan b a tte r h e lp hor i f we have t h is in fo rm a tio n b efo re she
e n te r s camp.
____________ Jl§—P1 '■dG._lQ—
c ho r__________________________________
nadress.Jlifl.tm_ .B uilding, Chicago.,.. T il., , _Schoo 1 ~ttonding__jjj^j^Qj^_2ig]i__
_________________
I s t h is her f i r s t exp erien ce from heme? Vp,a_________
Has she attended any oth er camp?_________ No______________________________________________
Did she enjoy th is ex p erien ce?
___________________________________________ _______
C'^eck th ose which are t r u e :
L ik e s— to p la y games ^ to r e a d
t o be w ith fr ie n d s % t o be a lo n e Ho bo work w ith
hands Kfn t o w r ite s t o r i e s pro to sew ffo to h ik e X escook No P o e tr y fffo .
P la y s —P ian0i i i f l f e 0 l i nPTn otrier in stru m en ts iyQ _______sin g sjj^
swims ^
t en n is x
.
F rien d s a re—her own age % younger No o ld er No g e ts a lon g w e ll w ith grown upsjjc__
p la y s w ith boys ftTo makes fr ie n d s e a s i l y x no t in t e r e s t e d in boys x
p r e fe r s to be a lo n e Ho i s she popular?
H e a lth —l i k e s a l l fo o d uq di s l i k e s
e a t s between m eals Y esea ts reg u la rly ^
c o n s t ip a t e d ^ u s u a lly w e ll x t akes c o ld
e a s i l y Yesr e t i r e s when
9 :5 0
r i s e s g ;3®leeps w e ll x wa lk s in s le e p No how muchtim e l o s t from school,
l a s t y earN one
reason
______ .
T r a its —h e lp f u l x n eat
stubborn No shy x generous x s e l f - a s s e r t i v e No
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y x .con sid erate s f in ic k y No l a z y Y e sjf she has any fe a r s l i s t
them R e p t i l e s , bugs .
___________________________________
.
D is p o s it io n — choorful y
^ossy Ho .
moody tjo quick-tem pered
I s sho look in g forward to camp?
-yQq_
3^ even tempered.
TTn.ioslous tj<->
_________
I f sho i s r e lu c ta n t —v/hv?
Why docs she want to come to camp?
Meet g i r l s her own a g e .
What do you want hor to g a in fra u hor ex p erien ce a t camp?
To d evelop s e lf - c o n f id e n c e
and s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s ._____________________________ _____________________________________
F ath er l i v i n g x
O ccupation
Ivlo thcr l i v i n g a
No . b ro th er s Nones i s t o r s None
Tawver__________ oth er r e l a t i v e s in homo No______ _____________ ______ ______
Edna Warner
D iro cto r
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
142
ORIGINAL B&TA IN JUJRNAL
A necd otal B ehavior J o u rn a l. -
The f o llo w in g data are tr a n s c r ib e d
from th e o r i g in a l jo u rn a l o f Ann Jane Brown - Cabin 4 - C ounselor, IT. S m ith .*
Undoubtedly s p o ile d . She seems to be v ery moody, one m inute s h e 's
lau gh in g and v ery loud and th e n e x t s h e 's down in th e dumps. S h e 's q u ite
in t e r e s t e d in the th in g s she l i k e s - d iv in g f o r in s t a n c e . S h e 's good in
i t , but d o n 't worry she knows i t . A ll t h is sounds t e r r ib le and r e a l l y ,
s h e 's very lik a b le and q u ite a t t r a c t i v e . She is f in ic k y about e a t in g .
J u ly 4 t h .- She a c t s v e r y queer around and ab o u t b o y s. She i s
d e f i n i t e l y boy cra z y . The o th er g i r l s i n th e cabin in trod u ced her to boys
a t Chimney Sock and she wouldn’ t speak to them and walked q f f .
J u ly 5 t h .- I s a t a t th e t a b le w ith her and she a cted t e r r i b l y .
Grabbed th ree cak es and th r e e o ra n g es. Too loud a t th e ta b le and le a d s
th e o th e r s in b ein g lo u d a f t e r t a p s . She d o e sn 't seem t o have th e s l i g h t e s t
id ea o f co o p era tio n w ith or ab ou t a n y th in g . She a lw ays has t o a s k which
c o lo r sh o r ts to wear tod ay - her g ree n , b lu e , e t c .
J u ly 6t h . - (Equestr&an’ s comments) Came in to r in g w ith an id ea
in h er n o o d le th a t sh e knew i t a l l . D ecided to r id e w ith o u t s t ir r u p s . I'fiT
th in k in g we made her f e e l we were hard b o ile d . She d o e sn 't r id e so w e l l
|jut t o ld me she had rid d en f o r f i v e y e a r s . T h ere's a complex — I r e a l l y
f e e l f o r h er, and she won’ t be lik e d u n t i l she changes a l o t .
J u ly 7 t h .- She, a s w e ll as th e r e s t of th e cab in ,w as supposed
to g e t up f o r a 6:30 r id e —w e l l , th e y g o t d ressed and went to the barn f o r
t h e ir h o rses and she f i n a l l y dragged down to the r in g l a t e - j u s t s le e p y ,
t h a t ' s a l l . She i s im p ro iln g i n her a t t it u d e towards r u le s and t h in g s .
A cted very in t e r e s t e d in th e "scaven ger h u n t."
J u ly 8 t h . - She j u s t lo v e s to be in th e l i m e li g h t . E s p e c ia lly
around th e boys around camp. I heard th a t out on the h ik e she u sed a
r a th e r p e c u lia r way o f g e t t in g a tte n tio n .—proceeded to tr y on someone
e l s e ' s s h i r t r i g h t out on th e road in broad d a y lig h t* Loud v o ic in g o f
comments, food b ein g one her s p e c i a l i t i e s , i s her u s u a l m ethod. S e l f cen ter ed e n t i r e l y . Yery n erv o u s. She lau gh s fan hours over n o th in g . She
a ls o lo v e s to brag about th e amount o f sp ending money she h as, c o s t o f
her th in g s , e t c . I don’ t th in k she w ould ever dream o f p u ttin g h e r s e lf
out for an yone. She ju s t d oesn ’ t th in k o f i t .
J u st has w orlds o f energy
a t tim es.
J u ly 9 t h .- I don’ t knew whether i t ’ s j u s t th a t I ’m g e t t in g u sed
to her and know her b e t t e r or n o t, but she seems to be im proving a l i t t l e
in her a t t i t u d e . Yery t ic k le d about th e ca b in p la n n in g an o v ern ig h t
b r e a k fa st o u t f i t . I th in k she has her bones on her m ind- by th a t I mean
sp ra in in g a n k les and w r is t s and sca red o f g e t t in g p o iso n iv y (more so than
m ost p e o p le .) She i s a c t in g more f r ie n d ly and g e t s l o t s more n a tu r a l a f t e r
* No attem pt has been unde to c o r r e c t sen ten ce s tr u c tu r e or
gram m atical e r r o r s . The o r ig in a l a n e c d o te s a r e su b m itted .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
143
you t a lk w ith h er a w h ile . I th in k she would r e a l l y l i k e to he "good
f r ie n d s ” w ith th e g i r l s , but she ju s t doean’ t understand or know how to
fo r g e t h e r s e lf a m in u te.
J h ly 1 0 t h .- She w ants to do ju st what she wants to do when she
wants to . E very o th e r g i r l i n the cabin went down to th e lod ge to
p r a c t is e f o r th e stu n t but Jane, because she p r e fe r r e d to do som ething
e l s e . She s t i l l lias no id ea o f how to g e t alo n g w ith th e group and a l ­
ways th in k s o n ly o f h e r s e l f . J u st h asn ’ t become a d ju ste d one b i t . S he’ s
p e r f e c t ly happy and c o n te n t I'm s u r e and doesn ’ t r e a l i z e in th e le a s t
th a t sh e a c t s d i f f e r e n t l y tkah the o th e r g i r l s . She g e t s one id ea in to
her head and i s n ’ t co n ten t u n t i l she has done t h a t . For in s ta n c e - f i x ­
in g her ra d io where sh e sh ou ld have been doing som ething e l s e . Ju st
lo v e s to argu e and n ev era c cep ts what you t e l l her th e f i r s t tim e.
tim e s .
J u ly 1 1 t h .- She co n tin u es to a c t r a th e r b ab yish and loud a t
She i s im proving in her t a lk in g , e t c . a f t e r ta p s .
J u ly 1 2 t h .- She s t i l l s t r i v e s c o n t in u a lly fo r a t t e n t io n , u sin g
such methods a s h an d sp rin gs, e t c . when i n a crowd. The r e s t o f the cabin
i s p lan n in g a b r e a k fa s t h ik e f o r tomorrow, g e t up e a r ly so a s to g e t th e
cab in cle a n e d up b efo re le a v in g - but Jane s a id t h a t she ju st cou ld n ’ t
p o s s ib ly be d istu rb ed so e a r ly , t h a t she f e l t t h a t sh e wanted to s le e p
l a t e , so ju st to wake h er up j u s t b e fo r e le a v in g on the h ik e or she
co u ld n ’ t p o s s ib ly g o . That is j u s t a sample o f her a t t i t u d e .
J u ly 1 5 t h .- To my s u r p r is e , the g i r l s i n th e ca b in li k e Jane.
K e a lly she i s good natured and a l o t of fun i n h er own w ay. She li k e s
to g e t p erm issio n to do a s many th in g s a s p o s s i b l e - j u s t any excu se to
move around durirg r e s t h ou r.
J u ly 1 4 t h .- I can see th a t sh e i s g e t t ir g more a d ju ste d to
camp and i s f i t t i n g in so much b e t t e r . She ha s a tendency to be very
in te r e s te d i n o n ly one th in g a t a tim e. Now i t ’ s swimming, d iv in g , e t c .
I th in k she would p r e fe r doing j u s t th a t an d dropping th e r e s t o f her
a c t i v i t i e s . I don’ t know how she a c t s a t h e r c i a s s e s or i f she i s tr y in g
and improving or n o t- th a t i s ju s t g a th ered from h er a t t it u d e in the
ca b in . She ju s t lo v e s t o b e d if f e r e n t - even i f i t ’ s o n ly to have her
egg f r ie d when th e r e s t a re scram bled - on a h ik e ,
J u ly 1 5 t h .- She was in h igh s p i r i t s to n ig h t a f t e r g o in g to th e
show.
She k ep t r a v in g about what a w ond erful tim e she was h a v in g . Any­
th in g we do th a t i s d i f f e r e n t , she en jo y s th o ro u g h ly . She g o t a l o t o f
p le a su r e out of some new h a lt e r s and th in g s we brought her from town a l s o , showing me her ev en in g d ress and s l i p p e r s . She i s ju st dying f o r
th e form a l so she can wear them. I th in k sh e i s im proving s t e a d ily , g e t ­
tin g more n a tu r a l and l e s s s e lf - c e n t e r e d a l l the t im e . S h e’ s l o t s more
a g ree a b le and n ic e r to b e around. I t ’ s fr ie n d s h ip t h a t she needed and
i t has brought her o u t.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
144
J u ly 1 6 th ..- This morning she ju st w ouldn’ t s t i r out o f bed u n t i l
a f t e r we had l e f t the cab in when th e l a s t b u gle had blown fo r b r e a k fa s t.
She l i k e s to do l i t t l e aggravatin g t h in g s - such a s t h a t , coming in s l i g h t l y
la t e a f t e r tap s c o n tin u a lly having to be t o ld th in g s more than once, e t c .
She s t i l l has h e r s e lf on h er m ind. She t o ld me a g a in toddy how many
sw e a ters, e t c . and how many dozens of sock s she b rou gh t. S he’ s ju s t l i k e
a c h ild . G-ets d e lig h te d over some sm all th in g s and p ou ts a t o th er t h in g s .
J u ly 1 7 t h .- She can’ t con cen trate or keep her mind on one th in g .
Always jumping around from one th in g to th e n ex t w ith o u t doing a n y th in g
th orou gh ly. D e f in it e l y d oesn ’ t respond to s u g g e s t io n s . C onsiders h e r s e lf
f i r s t a t a l l tim es. She i s never ready to do an y th in g a t th e r ig h t tim e.
Ju ly 1 8 t h .- She i s very fond o f Mary and seems to g e t "crushes'*
on p e o p le . S h e’ s very im p u ls iv e . Her a t t it u d e i s s t e a d ily im proving.
She told' me today th a t she had been t r y in g t o have th e r ig h t s p i r i t and
deserve an "L. L. C." That su rp rised me because I d id n ’ t th in k she gave
a k ic k about i t . I s t i l l have a f e e l i n g th a t she d oesn ’ t understand even
what i s meant by co o p era tio n , e t c . - t h a t i s ju s t a s u p p o s itio n . She
en joyed th e Sunday canoe t r ip a l o t and a c te d very w e ll i n th e can oe. Her
moods have m o stly been happy ones l a t e l y . When sh e does p o u t, s h e ’s
over i t i n a m inute - ju s t f o r g e t s a l l about i t . She li k e s to s e e j u s t
how much she can g t away w ith from th e fo r c e o f h a b it and when we don’ t
c o r r e c t h er much and l e t i t go sh e s e t t l e s down. When you do c o r r e c t
h er, she minds e x c e p tio n a lly w e l l . Seems to be used to c o r r e c tio n .
S u ly 1 9 t h .- She j u s t la y in bed t h is morning and d id n ’ t go
to b rea k fa st a g a in . She was s t i l l in bed when we came back down. I asked
h er what she had done during th e week i n order to make o u t her r e p o r t and
she ju s t couldn’ t remanber a th in g she had done.
J u ly 2 0 t h .- A gain she lay i n bed during b r e a k fa s t. I t o ld her
she j u s t bad to g e t up and so sh e t o ld me she f e l t very a w fu l so she r e ­
mained i n bed in to th e m orning. She g o t up for dinner and w ent swimmingshe w o u id n 't mi ss t h a t . She m irds w e ll, not on ly does she do what we
t e l l h er, but she fo llo w s what th e o th er g ir d s t e l l h er - a f t e r p ou tin g
a l i t t l e . She has the h a b it of borrow ing sm a ll change too fr e q u e n tly ,
I th in k . I t o l d her to g e t mare out of th e bank i f she needed i t . I
heard th e g i r l s t e l l i n g h er and rem inding her to pay back som ething she
owed to somebody. She c h e e r f u lly a g reed . I b e lie v e she r e a l ly in ten d s
to but doesn’ t remanber a th in g any le n g th of tim e.
Ju ly 2 1 s t . - L ast n igh t the r id in g in s t r u c t o r sen t her a s s i s t a n t
down to fin d out i f Jane was g oin g to gake her e a r ly morning r id e the
next day or not and Jane a sk ed her i f they w ere t o r id e in th e r i n g or on
th e t r a i l . I t depended on -that. Can you im agine a ich n erv e. A fte r
hemming and hawing around and e x p e c tin g t o be begged she t o ld h er she was
goin g to r i d e . T his morning she would not s t i r out of th e bed and th e
in s tr u c to r had a h o rse sa v ed fo r her d c w n a t th e barn. When she found out
th a t Jane h a d n 't cone down she came t o th e ca b in and g o t h er o u t i n a
h u rry. That su r e ly su r p r ise d Jane and she s u r e ly needed i t . Her ta r d in e ss
caused the o th er g i r l s to m iss h a lf an hour o f t h e i r morning r i d e . They
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
145
were a l l d isg u sted w ith h e r . Tonight she made an u g ly remark to Bobbie
about not d oin g w e ll in a ra ce a t the p a r ty . Jane i s alw ays lau gh in g
and t a lk in g about Bobbie to th e o th e r s . Jane never does an y th in g on her
own i n i t i a t i v e a s Mary and Evelyn do. For in s ta n c e on Sunday a fte r n o o n
and fr e e n ig h ts she ex p ects us to ju st p rovid e sem ething, she would
en joy doing - d o e s n 't th in k o f a th in g h e r s e l f .
J u ly 2 £ n d .- She was a good h ik er on th e Sugar Loaf t r ip and
enjoyed i t a l o t . I n o tic e d her b e in g v e r y n ic e t o Mary when sh e wasn’ t
f e e l i n g w ell# There i s som ething ab ou t Jane t h a t makes you li k e her in
s p it e o f her many f a i l i n g s .
J u ly 24th and 2 5 t h .- She i s alw ays la t e to weery m eal and a s ­
sem bly, or j u s t makes i t by th e sk in o f her t e e t h . She d o esn ’ t know how
to organ ize what she h as t o do in order t o f i n i s h and g e t p la c e s on tim e.
She ju st i d l e s around and t a l k s . A fte r a l l t h a t t a lk about th e im portance
o f p la y in g your te n n is match, sh e was g o in g r ig h t o f f to d iv e in s te a d o f
p la y in g her match because she d o e s n 't li k e t e n n i s , but we caught.:her:;
and made h er p la y i t . She alw ays has ana l i b i f o r e v e r y th in g .
She was
very a n x io u s fo r the le a d in g p a rt i n th e s t u n t ,
J u ly 26th and 2 7 t h .- She d id n 't enjoy the p a rty p a r t ic u la r ly
and came up ra th er e a r ly . She was t ir e d or som ething. She alw ays ia s
h e r s e lf on hsr mind. That i s a b s o lu t e ly the only th in g she i s cap ab le
of con cen train g on fo r v ery lo n g . She makes the s i l l e s t remarks con­
t i n u a l l y , - I ’ ve never heard her ca rry on an i n t e l l i g e n t c o n v e r sa tio n w ith
anyone. She g e t s v ery t h r i l l e d over som ething f o r a w h ile , th en f o r g e t s
i t . She bevan making ranarks about b e in g glad th a t Bobbie was lea v in g to
the o th er ;g i r l s , b u t d id n ’ t g e t th e resp o n se t h a t sh e ex p ected . Even
though th e y d id n ’ t l i k e Bobbie v ery much, they d id n ’ t gay much ( s l i d some
though) about h e r . Meg s a id how glad she was th a t Bobbie was g o in g .
J u ly 2 8 t h .- A fte r the g i r l s l e f t we made seme changes in the
cab in in which Jane was most in t e r e s t e d . She swept and clean ed
her tru n k w hich is q u ite unusual fo r h e r . T onight as we planned our fo o d , she j u s t
s a t around doing som ething e l s e and cou ld n ’ t keep h er mind on even t h a t .
Every now and then sh e would come f o r t h w ith a n im p r a c tic a l s u g g e stio n one was to have ic e cream in g in g er a le fo r one t h in g . She i s a "copy­
c a t ” in a c t io n s and i n what she s a y s . Evelyn wore pajamas to the p a rty
so she did too but when May wanted to a l s o , Jane ju st to ld her not t o ,
e t c . She i s very s e l f i s h about w antin g th in g s t h a t sh e wants when she
wants i t . Such a s an e x tr a m a ttr e s s . I th in k sh e i s generous about le n d ­
in g some th in g s and not about o th e r s . I t a ls o depends on h er mood.
J u ly 2 9 t h .- She made no c o n trib u tio n w hatsoever to th e song
her cab in -m ates cre a ted f o r th e o r ig in a l song c o n t e s t . She r e s te d a good
w h ile tod ay,
th en a l l o f a sudden she jumped out o f bed and sa id she was
r e s t l e s s andbegan s t r o l l i n g around th e ca b in . She was l& te to two m eals
tod ay.
J u ly 5 0 t h .- I don’ t th in k anybody, not even h e r s e lf , pays any
a t t e n t io n to t h e su g g e stio n s she m akes. She u s u a lly says what somebody
e l s e has s a id . She i s not in t e r e s t e d in many a c t i v i t i e s , and the few th a t
she goes out
f o r she makesno attem p t t o improve in ( ex ce p t d iv in g .)
J u ly 3 1 s t . - She is s t i l l nervous and can n o t keep s t i l l v e r y
lo n g . She does not co n cen tra te on a t h in g . 'Jhen you t r y to g e t her to hurry
f o r dinner she w i l l ju s t s i t th ere and t a l k about th e f l e a s on the dog she
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
146
i s fo n d lin g ,
August 1 s t . - Her p aren ts v i s i t e d today and she went in t o A s h e v ille
w ith them.
August 2 n d .- She brought back som ething from hown fo r a l l o f th e
g i r l s . She seems so concerned about lo s in g w e ig h t. She alw ays seems to
have h er h e a lth , w e ig h t, n erv es or sane th in g on her mind.
August 3 r d .- She never o f f e r s a d v ice to th e th in g s th e ca b in i s
supposed to do. She d o e s n ’ t even l i s t e n when the o th e r s make s u g g e s t io n s .
She always has an a l i b i when you make same c r i t ic i s m of h er.
August 4 t h .- '.i'hile th e cab in were p la n n in g the p a rty sh e j u s t
s a t around. She was l a t e g e t t in g up to the d in in g room to h elp f i x fo r
i t . A fte r g e t t i n g th ere sh e cooperated v e r y w e l l .
J M gu st 5 th , 6th , and 7 t h .- She was gone two days on the over n ig h t
t r i p . She s t i l l co n tin u es to be l a t e to m eals and c l a s s e s and o f f e r s
a l i b i s when c r i t i c i z e d .
August 8 t h . - She o ffe r e d to len d her th in g s to th e g i r l s who were
d r e s s in g for th e (Jhimney Hock d a n c e . She was very generous but she alw ays
m entioned th e f a c t th a t she had done so and s o .
August 9 t h .- She was too t ir e d to remove her pack from the perch
a f t e r they came back on d ie P isg a h t r i p . P reviou s to t h is sh e had been
jumping around a l l over th e pta.ee; I made her go up and g e t i t and she ended
by being very ru d e. She i s never th e r e when a n y th in g u n p lea sa n t or hard i s
to be done.
August 1 9 t h .- She paddled one c f th e can oes to th e v i l l a g e t h is
a fte r n o o n , and t y p ic a l o f her sh e d id n ’ t do her share o f th e p a d d lin g . She
r e s te d c o n tin u a lly and was " ju st to o t i r e d to paddle home” so she was a
p a ssen g er . As u su a l she h a d n 't brought any money w ith h er, and p ick ed up
a'’coke* o f f the counter and began d rin k in g i t w ith o u t s a y in g a word to a n y ­
on e. I ask ed her i f she borrowed a n ic k e l
and she calm ly s a id
"No,”she
hadn’ t . She d id n 't seem to cauprehend th a t
i t c o s t a n ic k e l so
I borrowed
one fo r h e r .
August 11, 12 th , and 1 3 t h .She has g o tte n in to the h a b it o f
hurrying o th ers to g e t up, much to t h e i r s a s w e ll a s my s u r p r is e .
She r e ­
mained i n th e cabin in s t e a d o f g o in g t o l i f e s a v in g s a y in g *1 j u s t don’ t
care about going" when I a sk ed her why s h e
had n ot a tt ended.
August 1 4 t h .- She i s h e lp in g much b e t t e r in cab in cleanGup even
though sh e s t i l l p r o c r a s t in a t e s .
August 1 5 th . -She has formed th e h a b it o f hurrying the g i r l s to
m e a ls. I th in k she i s doing t h is m erely to b e t a lk in g laud to g e t a t t e n t io n .
August 1 6 t h .- She c o n tin u o u sly m is s e s her algbbra le s s o n s which
she i s b ein g coached i n . She alw ays has an a l i b i and a poor one a t t h a t .
August 1 8 t h .- She remained i n bed in s te a d o f e a tin g b r e a k fa st
a f t e r b ein g to ld not t o . She had dnne t h is p r e v io u s ly .
August 19th and 2 0 t h .- She g e t s p le a su r e tfrom unexpected and
sim p le t h in g s . She li k e s to p e t th e dog, p ta y w ith Gus and a t th e moment
she i s in t e r e s t e d to th e core in c o l l e c t i n g money fo r kodak f il m s . She
i s in t e r e s t e d v i t a l l y in making each g i r l pay t h e ir n ic k e l fo r th e p ic tu r e
o f th e P isg a h t r i p .
August 2 1 s t .- Her d is p o s it io n has improved s t a d i l y . She p ou ts
much l e s s and c o o p e r a te s very w e l l when t o l d to do t h in g s .
August 2 2 n d ;- She i s s t i l l nervous and jumps around p ic k in g a t
t h in g s . She i s n ’ t ca p a b le of c o n c e n tr a tin g on th e th in g t h a t you a re t e l l i n g
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
147
h e r . Her mind i s a thousand m ile s o f f ; on her dog a t home or som ething.
I would say th a t she l i v e s i n a world o f her own and d o e s n 't r e a l iz e what
i s g oin g on.
August 2 3 r d .- She i s a l l e x c ite d over d r e ssin g fo r th e form al
dance. She t e l l s me a hundred tim es ab ou t her many d resses a t home.
She has many c lo th e s to pack f o r she brought a g rea t d e a l and she has
ask ed a m illio n q u e stio n s how t o pack t h i s and t h a t .
Summary.- Ann Jane, a f i r s t year camper, has c e r t a in ly improved.
She c o u ld n 't do one th in g g fo r h e r s e lf when she came; a lth o u g h th ere i s much
room f o r improvement. She can depend on h e r s e lf more.
She g e ts a lo n g b e t t e r w ith th e g i r l s . She th in k s and ta lk s ab ou t
h e r s e lf more than s h e sh o u ld . Her b ra g g in g , however, has improved.
A t the f i r s t o f camp she was v e r y nervous and jumpy but sh e has
a u ie te d dcwn and r e la x e d so much. She has a n ic e d is p o s it io n and a s a
r u le p ou ts o n ly very seldom now when sh e i s c o r r e c te d .
The g i r l s l i k e h er and she seems to b e very happy, and g e ts a lo n g
n ic e ly w ith them. She never ta k es the i n i t i a t i v e in c a b in a f f a i r s , o n ly
fo llo w s what th ey s u g g e s t. She is r e s p e c t f u l fo r a u th o r ity and i s alw ays
p o lite .
Her i n t e r e s t depends e n t ir e ly upon the mo.;d she i s in , which i s
m ost u n fo rtu n a te fo r i t d o esn ’ t g iv e her tim e to p u t her mind on a -tiling
and r e a l l y le a r n i t . She h a s however, e x c e lle d in h er swimming and d iv in g
and improved i n r id in g .
Ann J a n e’ s Testim ony
I have lea rn ed not to say ’’ca n ’ t'' and to make th e b e s t o f t h in g s .
I have a ls o lea rn ed n o t to depend on o th ers and I b e lie v e I have lea rn ed
b e t t e r manners.
Ann J a n e 's S chedule Third Week
INDIVIDUAL INSTRU CTIO N SCH ED U LE—“L A K E L U R E CAMP F O R GIRLS”
Ann -Jan e-.Brown------------------------------------------------N am e of C am per
F i r s t P e rio d
Second P e rio d
— 15---------A ge
T h ird P erio d
S u n d ay
Chanel
M onday
■Riding
Ri f '1firy
Swimmi n g ------ -
T u esd ay
Tennis
R if le r v
Swimmi ng-----
W ed n esd ay
R iding
A lgebra
Swimming-----
T hu rsd ay
Canoeing
Tennis
Swimming-----
F rid a y
R iding
Alhebra
Swimming-----
S a tu rd a y
Tennis
R if ie r y
Swimming-----
4------
C abin No.
F o u rth P erio d
Swf mmi n g Mete t
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IAKS IURE CAMP
SOCIALISATT ON SCALE
Cabin
Camper’ s Name iijm ja n e Brown
Coubs e lo r w. ^
Y/eek
J la i.
+M
M aturation in :
None B lig h t average 1-jark ed fo u ts ten d in g
E
1. S e lf-r e lia n c e .(I n d e p e n d e n c e
x
and co n fid en ce in b eh a v io r.)
2 . A cceptance o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y
(Dependable in d u t ie s .)
x
3 . I n i t i a t i v e (A chieves le a d e r ­
sh ip by su g g e stio n s and s k i l l s . ) 2
4 . C ooperation (D enies s e l f , con­
s id e r s vrelfare o f g ro u p .)
5 . M ixing a b i l i t y (F rien d ly ap praaah to o th ers than in g ro u p .)
6 . E f fic ie n c y (In cabin d u tie s
and a c t i v i t i e s . )
COUNSELORS WEEKLY REPORT
—
N ea tn ess (p erson al)
T id in e ss (cabin)
C ourtesy
P o stu re
^ ■ T C T s o '! t s r l “ -qrra,i r t i - 5 B
2 . H ealth Record
C le a n lin e ss
R est
A p p e tite
3 . P a r t ic ip a t io n
G eneral A ttitu d e
Adjustm ent
A cceptance
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
DIRECTIONS
The s c a le fo r m atu ration
m id d le, and end o f camp.
in above p a tte r n s i s to be checked a t th e opening,
The w eekly rep ort i s o f f i c e record and i s tr a n sc r ib e d from th e j o in t campercou n selor rep o rt m ailed to p a ren t.
Make a n e c d o ta l comment on r e v e r s e s id e of s h e e t o f in t e r e s t s and s k i l l s .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A c t i v i t i e s p r in c ip a lly in t e r e s t e d in have been swimming, r id in g ,
and d iv in g
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
14©:
LAKE LURE CAMP
S00IAL3ZA.TI0N SCALE
Campers’ Nama:Ann Jane Brown
M aturation In :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Cabin
4
¥eek
4th
None S lig h t Average Marked O utstanding
S e l f - r e l i a n c e . (Independence
and co n fid en ce in b e h a v io r .)
A cceptance o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
(Dependable in d u t i e s .)
I n i t i a t i v e (A ch ieves le a d e r ­
sh ip by s u g g e s tio n s and s k i l l s . )
C ooperation (D en ies s e l f , con­
s id e r s w e lfa r e o f grou p .)
M ixing a b i l i t y (F r ie n d ly ap­
proach to o th ers than in g ro u p .)
E f f ic ie n c y ( in ca b in d u t ie s and
a c t iv it ie s .)
x
COUNSELORS WS2KLZ REPORT
P er so n a l Q u a lit ie s
N eatn ess (p erso n a l)
T id in e ss (ca b in )
C ourtesy
P ostu re
X
X
X
X
H ealth Record
C le a n lin e ss
R est
A p p e tite
Js
X
X
P a r t ic ip a t io n
G eneral A ttitu d e
Adjustment
A cceptance
X
X
X
DIRECTIONS
The s c a le f o r m a tu ra tio n in above p a tte r n s i s to be checked a t th e op en in g,
m id d le, and end o f camp.
The w eekly rep o rt i s o f f i c e reco rd and i s tr a n sc r ib e d from th e j o in t camperco u n selo r r e p o r t m a iled to p a ren t.
Make a n ecd o ta l comment on r e v e r s e d id e o f sh e e t o f in t e r e s t s and s k i l l s .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Swimming and d iv in g are s t i l l - h e r p r in c ip a l i n t e r e s t s . She was one
o f the f i r s t to swim a m ile . She p la c e d 'th ir d in th e w ater m eet and added
many p o in ts far her s id e w ith her d iv in g . She made th e Sugar Loaf h ik e l a s t week.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
150
Liuas DJHB OAflP
SOU&IU&MIXON 3 Gil I,"
Cannier *3 l i w ;
C ounselor
Cabin
Atm Jane gyawn
2.
5.
4.
6
.
S.
2 ,
8 th
Sons S l i g h t Average fsaarlflsd. O u ts ta n d in g
S e lf - r o lla . r.es • {Xnflepa nC©nee
anti eo&fidezioe in b&h&vior.)
A cceptance o f rotspons I b i l l ty
(Dependable in d u t ie s .)
“I n i t i a t i v e (a c h ie v e s le a d e r ah ip by su ggen tiu as and s h i l l s . )
C ooperation (D enies s e l f , eonsid e r n w e lfa r e o f grou p .)
Mxlng a b i l i t y (F r ie n d ly ap­
proach to o t lifer a than In g ro u p .)
f t f f i o t o f t a y (In cnblr, d u tie s a n d
a c t i n tie a .)
couw s
1.
iSCSlC
M« Smith
S a tu ra tio n In ;
1.
4
X
X
:s
ftam sxr ftm & T
i?a,.'aaaai d u a l i t i e s
Baa tn e ss ( p e r s o a a l )
T idlnoaa {cab in )
C ourtsay
.Posture
X
:c
X
X
H ealth ueeord
C lcrnlinosK
X
H e a t.
X
A p p e tite
X
ticijx-itioR
General a t t it u d e
i-a r
j
;3S
!
j-.d ju s ia » n i
1
X
-•vcceptiuice
]X
i
i
rx ^ m om She s e a l a f o r m a tu r a tio n I n ab o v e p a t t e r n s i s t o bo ch eek ed a t th o o p e n in g ,
mid r.lo . e.iid end o f samp.
The w eekly re p o r t i s o f f i c e r e c o r d an d i s tr a n s c r i b e d from Hie j o in t cam perc o u n s e lo r r e p o r t m a ile d t o . a r e n t .
J&ake a n e c d o ta l cocuaent on re v e r e d s i do o f s h e e t o f i n t e r e s t s ancl s k i l l s .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
J a m h a s p a s s e d t h e fo llo w in g a e h ie v « u e n t t e s t ! r i f I o r y 9
iifirksm en and pro-m arksm an* swimming, th e f i s h t e s t an d r s i l o r « She
w as in t h e fo rm s w i m m i n g i n th e p a g e a n t * S he hogan h e r Had C r o s s •
l i f e S a w i n g h u t dropped i t end d id .not c o m p le te th e t h a t w h ich sh e
bad s t a r t e d *
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
151
P a r e n t’ s Report
T ranscribed Summary L e t t e r . -
The summary l e t t e r o f Ann Jane
Brown i s reproduced below :
Dear Mr. and Hr s . Brown:
I t i s our custom to w r it e to th e paren ts o f each g i r l who lias
been in Lake Lure, g iv in g b r i e f l y o b serv a tio n s o f her w h ile she was in camp.
We r e a l i z e th a t our judgement o f them perhaps i s f a u lt y , but i t i s an un­
p re ju d ic e d o b serv a tio n o f h er camp e x p e r ie n c e ,
Jane’ s problem a t camp was to make h e r s e l f one of th e group.
A lthough she d id n 't a ch ie v e le a d e r s h ip , she v ery d e f i n i t e l y f i t t e d h e r s e lf
in w ith her ca b in -m a tes.. She was alw ays w i l l i n g to coop erate with, any
group a c t i v i t y , but sometimes she seemed a b it too e n t h u s ia s t ic and t r ie d
to m onopolize the c o n v e r sa tio n . This was not done m a lic io u s ly , however,
but we do f e e l th a t t h i s i s a t r a i t th a t could be overcame w ith c a r e fu l
gu id an ce. She is k een ly in t e r e s t e d in p e o p le , and t r i e s to b e co n g e n ia l
w ith th e group. The e f f i c i e n c y w ith which h er cabin d u tie s w ere done
depended e n t ir e ly upon her mood. Jane lea rn ed to be l e s s moody and con­
form w ith th e con ven tion s of the o th e r g i r l s w h ile a t camp. Her a b i l i t y
to a c c e p t c o n s tr u c tiv e c r i t ic i s m from her co u n selo r was one o f h er ch eef
v i r t u e s , p r o c r a s tin a tio n was one of h er c h ie f f a u l t s .
Jane has been k een ly in t e r e s t e d in a q u a tic s t h is summer, and
sp en t many hours in im proving h er d iv in g and form swimming. She was a l ­
ways ready to h ik e , and seemed th orou gh ly to e n jo y everyon e. T h is was a
new ex p erien ce f o r her,and the t h r i l l o f s le e p in g ou t and p la n n in g s u p p lie s
fo r th e t r ip seemed to f a s c in a t e h e r .
Jane sprained her a n k le during the e a r ly p a rt o f the se a so n ,
o th e r w is e , she was in good p h y s ic a l c o n d itio n . She lias n o t g a in ed in
?/eigh t b u t seems more r ela x ed and n ot a s nervous which we know w i l l p le a s e
you a s you req u ested th a t she r e s t and r e la x more. Jane, however, seems
co n scio u s o f minor a ilm e n ts and v i s i t e d th e h e a lth s e r v ic e fr e q u e n tly .
We are s in c e r e in s a y in g th a t we f e e l Jane has gained a l o t from
her s t a y h e r e . She has learn ed to a ccep t c r i t ic i s m w e ll and not to make
a l i b i s . She had a hard time overcoming t h i s t r a i t and was q u ite p le a se d
when her ca "in-m ates complimented her far i t .
Vie have dnjoyed having Jane w it h us t h i s summer. We hope her
s ta y a t la k e Lure proved b e n e f i c i a l , and we w ish to a s su r e you o f our
con tin u ed i n t e r e s t in h e r . I f at any tim e you would l i k e to t a l k fu r th e r
w ith u s , we w i l l be o n ly to o g la d to do s o .
S in c e r e ly y o u rs,
Sdna Warner, D ir e c to r
Ann Sm ith, C ounselor
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
152
P a r e n t’ s YJeelcly Report
One o f Ann Jane’ s w eek ly r e p o r ts , m ailed to h er p a ren ts i s
reproduced below .
T his i s made out c o o p e r a tiv e ly by Ann Jane and
her co u n se lo r , A. Smiths
DAILY CHECK SYSTEM
X - P a r t ic ip a t io n
FKKSOAAI,
ItKPOKT
rou
AVKIOK
KMMNC;:
k i:v
V—Fair
<;—(JoihI
K-SI'MIAV
M()M)AY
TFHSDAY
AVIO!>iVI'’SI>AY
TIIUItSOAV
FIUHAY
SATUHDAV
C O th N S H L O K
&
ft w
Z
tb
&
Cfl p
P e*
G $
< <
>
M
Q
fc
P
<
£
0e
I tr.
M
M£
£ fc
£ fe
e s<
M
>
—ft
o
CO
TV
-P O
TO“©■
CO C5
£
C!
<
M
fc
Cft
£
e
E
S
E
&
<
S
P
<
“Trr
o
—CJ
O
Sr
c'
tH
54*fc
«
B M
K (C
<
0
w
M
•—
i
X
sOCIAli
!U
JATIOAAI;
<D
»5
tt
V ft •H
£ £0
«r. £fc
M
» ft
£ V.
0
£ M
cM jj :
11, X +5
M
£
>
5l
S
M
M
N
+
*f.
*! C E £
£
£
C
g :
£
5
3
K
fe
cd
£
'
c
£
&
• B
£ O
<k
S i
v £< £v.
<
♦r* <
c
IK £ Q
<
j
£
)
c
c
d
£
s
e
£ I
a * ;
c* £ e K s 5 0 e;
■
c
C
D
P
:
&
c
1h p
<
M s c i—
M
cd
CA 'J3 :
FP ;P rs» E A E a £ P (A
»0.
M
M M
M
M
X
X
M M
«
M X M 1-1
M
O
M
M
H-l
M M
W X X
X
M
H
M
M M
X
M CO
W 1—1
H X
CO
X
KI’MAKKS*.
iii'i.vi/m
(0
>“•*
d •H
fe
K
m
>
*r-{
+-*
"W
M
,
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.
* T r a n sc r ib ed O f f ic e Copy o f Summary o f P e r s o n a lit y Growth
153
IAIvE HJRH GAAP REPORT
OF
PERSONALITY GROWTH
Name o f Camper ; Ann Jane Brcwn__________________________ Date August 24, 1939__________________
As you. answer th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s , p le a s e check in your own mind Bach s t a t e ­
ment you make T&ith a t l e a s t one co n cre te in c id e n t to support i t . This i s fo r
o f f i c e rec o rd o n ly .
R e la tio n s h ip to C abin-M ates:
1 . Did sh e work w e ll w ith t h e group? ( i . e . 7/bat was th e group’ s e f f e c t on her?)
No she d id n o t. She seamed to lea v e i t up to o th ers what to do, and w aited
to be to ld what t o do. I f she was n o t in t e r e s t e d , sh e d id n o th in g .
She stro v e f o r a t t e n t io n and th ou ght and ta lk e d of h e r s e lf more than sh e should
in th e e a r ly p a rt o f camp but th e group h as changed t h is a t t it u d e a g r e a t d e a l.
2.
77hat was her c o n tr ib u tio n to th e group?
She n ever co n trib u ted any s u g g e s t io n s , but was alv/ays e n t h u s ia s t ic about the
th in g s th a t ap p ealed to her and sh e would f o llo w and co o p era te w ith ca b in
p ro jects.
3.
Was she th o u g h tfu l in her per so m l h a b it s , i n her r e s p e c t fo r th e r i g h t s o f
o th e r s , and in h er speech?
She was very co u rteo u s when sh e thought about i t , i t a l l depended on what kind
ofi'mood she was in a t th e tim e. She would want to do ju s t what sh e wanted to
do when she wanted t o . Example: A ll the cabin-m ates went down t o the lod ge
to p r a c tic e far th e s t u n t , but she p r e fe r r e d to r ana in i n her ca b in rea d in g .
The g i r l s lik e d her and she seemed to be happy even though she was c o n s ta n tly
reminded what to do and when to do i t .
P s y c h o lo g ic a l le a n in g :
1* Did sh e show growth in s e l f - r e l i a n c e ?
She has c e r t a in ly improved, f o r she c o u ld not do one th in g fo r h e r s e lf when
she came. There i s s t i l l much room far fu r th e r improvement. She can depend
on h e r s e lf more now. L earning to th in k and do fo r h e r s e lf was the most im­
p o rta n t th in g th a t she gained from camp. One s t i l l h as to rem ind her when to
do t h in g s . She tak es the i n i t i a t i v e on ly o c c a s io n a lly and f o llo w s what the
o th ers s u g g e st.
2.
Did she a cce p t r e s p o n s ib ilit y ?
No she d id n o t. She d id n ot seem to r e a l iz e th a t i t was exp ected o f h e r . She
allow ed th e o th e r s to ta k e th e le a d and ca rry through in a l l ca b in p r o j e c t s .
3.
Did shB show bablance i n h er judgments and a t t it u d e s ?
N ot a t a l l . She was m ost h a s ty and jumped a t c o n c lu sio n s about t h in g s . She
was in c lin e d to s h i f t i n t e r e s t a cco rd in g to h er moods becau se of her nervous
temperament she d id not co n cen tra te on* one in t e r e s t fo r any le n g th o f tim e.
I n t e r e s t s and A b i l i t i e s :
She was in t e r e s t e d in divLng, d e f i n i t e l y . Her i n t e r e s t s changed q u ic k ly , she would
be e x c e e d in g ly in te r e s te d i n an a c t i v i t y and th en would drop i t . Example: L ife
s a v in g , gave up a l l a c t i v i t i e s fo r i t , th en d id not a tte n d c l a s s e s when sh e was
alm ost read y to p a ss the t e s t . She divew very w e ll and i s a g r a c e fu l a c r o b a tic
dancer.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* T r a n sc r ib ed O f f ic e Summary R ep ort hade from R ecord o f P a r e n t a l Summary L e t t e r
154
Ann Jane.Brown
113
v,
112
P a ir
■ Good
. .
Very n ea t
. Good - No i l l n e s s but p r a c t ic a lly ev ery day r e c e iv e d
treatm ent f o r minor a ilm e n ts of # ii c h she i s ex trem ely c o n s c io u s .
P a ir
A t tim es
Very f r ie n d ly , d id n * tnchumrt e s p e c i a l l y w ith anyone.
Not as much a s she could bave.
Never made any s u g g e stio n s.
D ivin g e s p e c i a l l y .
acco rd in g to h er mood.
She changed o th e r i n t e r e s t s f r e q u e n tly ,
N ice a t t it u d e toward a u t h o r it y .
a l i t t l e u rgi ng.
■
- .Very_____ ^
Som etim es.
She co o p era ted very w e ll a f t e r
.J e s .................vi.-. ...
;
...Very
3
•“h
:
u s u a lly _ _ _
__ _____
o u tsta n d in g f e a r s .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
■ U su a lly
* T ranscribed H ea lth Record
L-aKE LURE ChMP
W e i g h t r e c o r d o f Anne Jane Brown
f / c i g h t on a r r i v a l 113_________
W e i g h t on l e a v i n g 1 1 2 _____
W eek
f
s
1
t
~r
9
114
1
9
3
4
-r
“f
r
9
?
■“ r
9
?
■ r Or * t
t
' 112"' *
t
f
111
113
1
r
t
~T
t
5
?
q,
f
9
9
r
9
j _
1
ND-
0
-
t
6 * 7 »
♦ — ... t .......... r
t
r
t
}
t
8
9;
' ♦
f
9
10
t
1
i
11
»
............. . 1
?
1
9
»
t
1
t
i
t
t
f
t
t
t
•9
t
1
9
’—
\
t
i
■r
9
9
f
*
9
1
9
9
1
1
f
9,
9
A
-O -
t
9
Y° a I _ 183.9..
P
f N > -'K
9
1
t
9
__ ------ j -----
t
i
t
♦
t
I
1
9
f
9
9
t
9
1
9
t
9
■ T
t
t
1
t
t
9
9
~r~
1
r
t
t
1
I
9
9
9
r
1
1
i
t
9
1
1
9
9
t
t
»
t
9
9
1
t
♦
9
9
9
1
9
?
1
t
?
t
1
9
9
t
t
9
t
1
1
(
f
1
t
H e ig h t
....6 4 4 _______
INFIRMARY RECORD
Namo_ -Anne Jane Brown
Yc nr_ 29 5
admitted
,
-.2 g G _ j.5 _
? ,
D a t o * D inecn 0 s i a and C o u r s e
7 /3 /3 9 ’ C o n stip a tio n
JZ/5/3&. ’ Sprained an k le
7/ I 4/ 3 C' —H anses_____
8/_5/2L9_ ’ S l i e h t Cold
t
»
*
Tx 0 true n t
t la x a t iv e
t Strapped
1
9
1
9
D is c
9
9
9
9
t
9
1
Manv m inor com p lain ts - S h e ’seems to b e i n good c ondi’t io n hut, asfima
to be aware o f s l i g h t a i l me A ts . Had a lig h t trou b le vfith h er a n k l e s .
Rep o rted hos p i t a l p r a c t ic a lly d a ily f o r many minor ailm en t s . ________
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
_
Besting S c a le s
The f o ll o w i n g a re s c a l e s r e fe r e e d t o i n Table I and i n th e
developing guidance procedures, Chapter I I I , page 32.
They a r e no lo n g e r used but are submitted here f o r i n s p e c t io n .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
❖ R evision o f LTcCloy's S c a le used i n 1S53
156
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
U a tso n 's S h ort ’H ating Used in 1935
B ehavior S elect^ d from Frequency S c a le
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
157
il© used 19S6 and 195?
Name o f p e r s o n r a t e d
BEHAVIOR FREQUENCY RATING SCALE
15£
A ge
D ate
R e la tio n
Name o f r a t e r
L e n g t h o f t i m e r a t e r h a s known p e r s o n
O u t­
M ark ed
sta n d in g
Form s o f B e h a v i o r
C a b in c l e a n
S lig h t
A verage
None
up
N ea tn ess
H e a lt h H a b its
Campus c l e a n
up
R e s t Hour
R e tir in g
h ou r
T a b le co n d u c t
L e a d e r sh ip a b i l i t y
A ccep tan ce o f
r e sp o n sib ility
R e a d in e ss
S e lf
in c o o p e r a tin g
co n tro l
M ix in g a b i l i t y
<
In tr o v e r sio n
R a z z in g and t e a s i n g
C r a b b i n g and g r i p p i n g
L oss
of tem p er
B u lly in g
B o a stin g ,
sh o w in g o f f
S e l f i s h n e s s w i t h eq u ip m en t
D d stro y in g p r o p e r ty
Rough la n g u a g e W e e k ly A c t i v i t y R e c o r d
A c tiv ity
Camper
A tten d a n ce
Int e r e st
P rogress
■ P ro ject
C om p leted
>
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P r o j e c t in
P rocess
Pei's on n el Records
The fo llo w in g reco rd s are used i n o b t a in in g in form ation from
/ p a ren ts a b ou t p e r s o n a l i t y o f camper.
The h e a lt h s e r v ie e r e c o r d s are subm itted fo r in s p e c t i o n .
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
159
* Sample H ealth H isto r y
Used 1939
l a t e Lure Camp H ea lth Record
J l G E _ ____________________
I4BA8XZS
COUNSELLOR
CABIN
NAME
KdKEti
SCARLET FEVER
____ ..
jDLGb_1 __
CriICmUH);:_____ Ai 'jAIL V'H
'LrR’iOjT> FEVER....
INFANTILE EifULYFJis___ TUBERCULOSIS
ILMJNIZATION AGAINST
SIA1LIPCX
DLPTHERIA
_WEIGHT._„
RJMBilTIS?/.
RH'THER ■1 _ _
WHOOPING C.
TyPKOID FEVER
SURGICAL HISTORY
.week
■lgS.l2r.fl 115,03
L i m b 13.th. JL. n±h__l_2-ta u JELtIu
SKIN.
EARS
THROAT.
NOSE
HEART_
LUNGS
MENSES
T
!
C-ASTRO INTESTINAL
*_____S
i
t
EYES
?
t
ACTIVITIES ENCAGED IN
REMARKS:
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
* Mailed paren t a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n r e c e iv e d .
G E N E R A L
165
IN F O R M A T IO N
B L A N K
TO P A R E N T S :
T h is b la n k is to be filled o u t by you a n d to be re tu r n e d , to g e th e r w ith th e P e rs o n a lity R ecord, as soon a s
possible. T h is p re lim in a ry in fo rm a tio n is of g r e a t h e lp in m a k in g p la n s fo r th e in d iv id u a l c a m p e r a n d th e
lo n g e r tim e w e c a n h av e to becom e fa m ilia r w ith it, th e b e tte r we s h a ll know th e c a m p e rs w h en th e y a rriv e a t
c a m p . T h e M edical E x a m in a tio n by y o u r fa m ily p h y s ic ia n sh o u ld n o t be m a d e u n til th e w eek im m e d ia te ly
p re c e d in g th e ca m p season.
I T IS VITALLY IM PO RTA N T TH A T NO CAM PER W HO HAS BEEN EX PO SE D TO A COMMUNICABLE
D ISEA SE SHOULD BE SEN T T O CAMP B EFO R E T H E PE R IO D O F INCUBATION HAS ELAPSED.
I.
G ENERAL INFORM ATION.
N am e
A ge
w as ................. .................. ........ o n
A ge of b r o th e r s a n d s is te rs ? ___________________________
_.-----
19------
--------- -------------------------------------------------------
C h u rc h a ffilia tio n __________________________________D oes c a m p e r a tte n d S u n d a y S chool ? — ...............................
.L a s t g ra d e co m p leted
S chool la s t a tte n d e d
N am e o f p rin c ip a l
S ta n d in g in school w o rk (E x cellen t, good, fa ir , poor)
I.
Q. ( If kno w n) ___
—
H ow lo n g a n in te r im w ill th e r e be b e tw e e n th e e n d o f school a n d th e b e g in n in g of c a m p ?
W ill c a m p e r ta k e College E n tr a n c e E x a m in a tio n s in J u n e ? --------------------------------------------------
H.
H EALTH H ISTO RY .
U n d e rlin e a n y of th e follow ing d iseases w h ic h c a m p e r h a s h a d , in c lu d in g y e a r o f o cc u rre n ce:
C h ick e n P o x
D ip th e ria
G e rm a n M easles
In flu e n z a
........M um ps.........................................T u b ercu lo sis.............................S m all P ox
....... P o lio m y e litis..................... ....... .T yphoid F ev er
P n e u m o n ia ........................ ....... W h o o p in g C ough
........S c a rle t F e v e r................... ........M easles
U n d e rlin e a n y of th e follow ing illn esses w h ic h c a m p e r h a s h a d :
B ro n c h itis ..................................R h e u m a tis m ..................... ...—P le u ris y ............................... ....... H e r n ia
S t. V itu s D a n c e
S in u s In fe c tio n s
A p p en d icitis
........T o n silitis
I n th e follow ing u n d e rlin e a n y te n d e n c y t o w a r d s :
Colds
C o n s tip a tio n
........F a in tin g S pells............... ........S leep W a lk in g
___ H e a r t D iso rd e r................ ....... E n u re s is
.......In d ig e s tio n
A sth m a
V a c c in a te d fo r S m all P ox ? .........
D a te................................... ...........
I n n o c u la te d fo r D ip th e ria ? .....
D a te ------------------------------------
I n n o c u la te d fo r T y p h o id ? ________________________
D a te---------- -------------------------
D oes c a m p e r e a t n o rm a lly ? __________________A re a n y foods a source o f p o iso n ?
-------------
Is th e re a n y a c tiv ity fro m w h ich c a m p e r sh o u ld b e d e b a rre d ? --------- --------------------------------I t is u rg e d t h a t c a m p e rs b e im m u n ize d th r o u g h s u c h reco g n ized im m u n iz a tio n s as v a c c in a tio n s, th e d ip h ­
t h e r i a a n tito x in , a n d th e ty p h o id se ru m .
T h e y w ill a ls o be b e tte r ab le to re sp o n d to c a m p life if th e y h a d
d ise ase d to n sils a n d te e th a tte n d e d to.
P a r e n t o r G u a rd ia n
D a te ____________________________________i
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
^ M a ile d p a r e n t a f t e r
a p p lic a tio n re c e iv e d .
C O N F ID E N T IA L
P E R S O N A L IT Y
R E C O R D
T o b e filled in by p a r e n ts w ith o u t re fe rrin g to o r k n o w led g e of ch ild ren .
T h is q u e s tio n n a ire h a s grow n o u t of ou r d esire fo r th e in te llig e n t c o o p e ratio n of th o se p a r e n ts w h o recog­
n iz e th e e d u c a tio n a l v alu e of th e c a m p experience. I n g iving a fu ll a n d f r a n k s ta te m e n t o f w h a t you re g a rd
a s y o u r ch ild ’s a ttitu d e to w ard d iffe re n t situ a tio n s a n d re la tio n sh ip s you a re p o in tin g o u t w ays in w h ic h th e
c a m p m a y be c o n s tru c tiv e in its in flu en ce to w a rd a n a ll-a ro u n d d ev elo p m en t. I t w ill be o f in te r e s t to you a n d
to u s to n o te c h a n g e s of a ttitu d e d u rin g th e c a m p se a so n a n d to observe how th e s e c h a n g e s c a rry o ver in to
t h e sch o ol a n d h o m e situ a tio n s. P lease r e tu r n th e q u e s tio n n a ire to g e th e r w ith th e G e n e ra l I n fo rm a tio n B la n k
a s so o n a s possible.
C a m p e r’s n a m e ...................._.......................................................................... D a te o f b ir th __________
I.
._____
SCHOOL BACKGROUND
A.
P e rso n a l re la tio n sh ip s
W ith te a c h e rs ? ___________________________ ______ _________________________ ____ ___ __ __ __ _________
W ith c la ssm a te s ? _________________________________________________________________ ________________
B.
A ttitu d e
C oop erativ e ?
C o n te n te d ? _______
A ttitu d e to w a rd a u th o rity ? _________________
C.
R e stless ? ________________________
....____________________________
I n te r e s ts
F a v o rite school su b je cts ? ___________________________
Is c a m p e r in te re s te d in a th le tic s?
II.
._____ ....__________
’_..._________ ;____________________
I n c r a fts ?
I n n a tu r e ? _____
RECREATIONAL BACKGROUND
A.
F rie n d sh ip s
A re h is frie n d s h is ow n age ? _________________ Y o u n g er ?
O ld er
?
____ ______
D oes h e p re fe r exclusive frie n d sh ip s ? _______________________________________________ ________ _______
B.
I s h e a le a d e r ?
i
C.
W h a t a re h is ch ie f re c re a tio n a l in te re s ts ?
H a s h e a n y hobb ies
D.
H I.
D oes h e p re fe r a g ro u p o r sin g le frie n d s ? ._ .......
'______
___ __________________ _________________________________
?_____ ____________ ________________________ _________ ___________________________
W ould y ou like to h av e h im d ire c te d to w a rd a n y sp e cia l a c tiv itie s o r in te re s ts th is su m m e r ?
______
HOME BACKGROUND
A.
A ttitu d e to w a rd m o th e r ? ___________________________
F a th e r ? _______ _________ ____________________
T o w ard b ro th e rs a n d sisters? ............................................................................................................................................. .....
B.
Is h e co o p e rativ e in th e ho m e? ....________ !__ ______________
C.
Is h e fo n d o f re a d in g ? ------------ ----------------------------------- ----------- ----- ----------------- -------------------------------------O f m u sic? ............
D.
IV .
_....___________________
of a r t?
In d iv id u a listic ? ........... .........................................
............................ ........................ ..........................
D oes h e h a v e a re g u la r allo w an ce?_____________ _________________________________________ ___________
GENERAL A TTITU DE
T o w h a t e x te n t is h e accu sto m ed to b ein g aw a y fro m h is p a re n ts ?
..... ..............................................................
H a s h e m a rk e d fe a r of a n y of th e follow ing:
The d a r k ?
...........
W ater?............. A nim als? .:.................T h u n d e rsto rm s? —
Is h e p ro n o u n c e d in h is likes a n d d islikes?
Is h e c a re fu l in h is use of p ro p e rty : H is ow n?
V.
B e in g A lo n e ? -----------
___________ _________________________________ ___ _________
...... — ..........
O th e r p eo p le’s?------ -------------------------------
D raw a lin e th r o u g h th e c h a ra c te ristic s t h a t do n o t ap p ly :
T im id, aggressive, optim istic, c ritic a l, to le ra n t, se n sitiv e , ex citab le, subm issive, d estru c tiv e , co n stru c tiv e ,
e n th u s ia s tic , q u iet, shy, im a g in a tiv e , p h le g m a tic , n e a t, careless, easily fa tig u e d , easily d isco u rag ed .
VI.
H a s a n y in flu e n c e of ca m p p e rsis te d th ro u g h th e w in te r?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
D a te ______________________________________________________________
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
P a r e n t o r G u a rd i
R R i Am y v .r c n t a T t e r a p p l i c a t i o n
r e c e iv e d ,
CONFIDENTIAL PERSONALITY RECO RD
"L°
To be filled in by parents without referring to or knowledge of children.
This questionnaire has grown out of our desire for the intelligent cooperation of those parents who recog­
nize the educational value of the camp experience. In giving a full and frank statem ent of what you regard
as your child’s attitude toward different situations and relationships you are pointing out ways in which the
camp may be constructive in its influence toward an all-around development. It will be of interest to you and
to us to note changes of attitude during the camp season and to observe how these changes carry over into
the school and home situations. Please return the questionnaire together with the General Information Blank
as soon as possible.
Camper’s nam e ...................... .............................. .......... ..... .................... Date of birth ..................................................... _.......
I.
SCHOOL BACKGROUND
A. Personal relationships
With teachers ? .................................................................................................................................................................
With classm ates ? .......... ..............._...... _.........................................................................
B.
_.........
Attitude
Cooperative ?
Contented ? ...........
Restless ? .............................. ...............
Attitude toward authority ? ....................................................... .................................. ... ...........................................
C. Interests
Favorite school subjects ? ..............................................................................................................................................
Is camper interested in athletics? .................
II.
In crafts ?
In nature ? ..................
RECREATIONAL BACKGROUND
A. Friendships
Are his friends his own age ? ................................ Younger ?
,.. Older ? ..................
Does he prefer exclusive friendships ? .................................................... .................. ...............................................
B.
Is he a leader ?
................................... Does he prefer a group or single friends ? ........................................
C. What are his chief recreational interests ? ............................. ....... .............................................. ...........................
Has he any hobbies ?................................... ....... ........................................................ ..................................................
D.
III.
Would you like to have him directed toward any special activities or interests this summer ? ...............
HOME BACKGROUND
A.
Attitude toward mother ? .........................................
Father ?
................
Toward brothers and sisters? ..................................................... .................................
B.
Is he cooperative in the home? .................................................. Individualistic?
C.
Is he fond of reading? ...................................................................................................
Of music? .......................
D.
IV.
of art?............................
Does he have a regular allowance?............................................................................................. ...................................
GENERAL ATTITUDE
To w hat extent is he accustomed to being away from his parents? ......................................................................
Has he marked fear of any of the following:
The dark? ................. Water?............... A nim als?................. Thunderstorm s?
Being A lo n e?..............
Is he pronounced in his likes and dislikes?.........................................................................................................................
Is he careful in his use of property: His own?.................................... Other people’s?.. ............................................. .
V.
Draw a line through the characteristics th at do not apply:
Timid, aggressive, optimistic, critical, tolerant, sensitive, excitable, submissive, destructive, constructive,
enthusiastic, quiet, shy, imaginative, phlegmatic, neat, careless, easily fatigued, easily discouraged.
VI.
Has any influence of camp persisted through the winter? ............................................ .................................. ........
Date .........................................................
Parent or Guardian.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
10 664 Кб
Теги
sdewsdweddes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа