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AN ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT (1937-1938) WITH A PROGRAM FOR THEIR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

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University Microfilms
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A X erox E d u c a tio n C om pany
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J .R55
Ring, Carlyle C
An analysis of the public schools of
New Britain, Connecticut (1937-1938)
with a program for their future develop­
ment...
New York, 1940.
viii,526 typewritten leaves, tables
(part fold.)
diagrs.
29cra.
Final document (Bd.D.) - New York
university, School of education, 1940.
'Source material'1: p. 101-526.
Includes Annual reports for 1936/37
and 1 9 3 ^ 3 8 , Rules and regulations of
the 3oard of
\ education, report
cards and
; other records attached
to numbered leaves. A60471
*>i.fcil Lisi
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
lee •»Ud
AN ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF
NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
(1937 - 1938)
W ith a Program f o r T h e ir F uture Development
CARLYLE C. RING
Subm itted in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t o f th e
req u irem en ts f o r th e degree o f D octor o f
E d u catio n in th e School of E ducation of
New York U n iv e rs ity
1940
PLE ASE
NOTE:
Some pages may have
indistinct prin t.
Filmed as recei ved.
U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , A Xerox Education Company
PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The n a tu re of t h i s document, b ein g an a n a ly s is of a
lo c a l sc h o o l system w ith th e sou rce m a te r ia l on f i l e only In
th e o f f ic e of th e S u p erin ten d en t of Schools In New B r ita in ,
C o n n e c tic u t, has made a somewhat unique and bulky o rg a n isa ­
t i o n seem d e s ira b le *
The document Is d iv id e d In to two d i s t i n o t
p a rts :
I*
II*
The d e s c r ip tio n , e v a lu a tio n , and recom­
m endations of th e stu d y ; and
The souroe m a te r ia l I t s e l f *
A stu d y , suoh as t h i s document I s , r e p re s e n ts th e
co o p e ra tiv e e f f o r t of many people*
I , th e r e f o r e , w ish t o
tak e t h i s o p p o rtu n ity t o e x p re s s my a p p r e c ia tio n o f and to
commend th e e f f o r t s of p r i n c i p a l s , s u p e rv is o rs , te a c h e r s ,
and Board members*
m arized here*
The r e s u l t s of t h e i r e f f o r t s a re sum­
The In d iv id u a ls who p a r tic ip a t e d a re named
e i t h e r In th e main document o r in th e source m a te ria l*
In
my o p in io n , such an a n a ly s is of a sch o o l system re p r e s e n ts
democracy a t work and i s a v alu ab le su p e rv iso ry d ev ice f o r
th e Improvement o f p u b lic education*
To th e members of th e New York U n iv e rs ity s t a f f o f
th e G raduate School of E ducation who have s tim u la te d and
ad v ised me in t h i s w ork, I ex p re ss my sln o e re thanks*
A6 0 4 7 I
ii
T his
document co uld n ev er have been com pleted w ithout th e h e lp fu l
advice a id u n d erstan d in g o f D r. A. B. M ered ith , to whom
goes c r e d i t f o r w hatever o f m e rit th e r e I s In t h i s docu­
m ent.
C a rly le C. Ring
ill
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C hapter
*ses.
S e c tio n I :
I.
Document
INTRODUCTION...........................................................
Purpose o f S t u d y . . . . . . .
New B r ita in Backgrounds
II.
• • • • • • .• • • • • • • •
• • • . • • • • • ..........
1
1
2
THE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS.................... 10
Sources of I n f o r m a tio n ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
O rg an izatio n of S tudy..............
13
III.
AH EVALUATION AND SUMMARY OF THE SUPERINTENDENT*S
STUDIES.. . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 4
S ala ry S i t u a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . .............. • • • • • • • • • • •
Elem entary School S i t u a t i o n . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
The Secondary School S i t u a t i o n . . • • • • • • • • • • • • •
O ther S i t u a t i o n s . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • • • •
IV.
AN EVALUATION AND SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH DE­
PARTMENT STUDIES........................................
I n te llig e n c e T e s t i n g . . . . . . . . ..............
Achievement T e s tin g .. . • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
I n te r n a l Problem s..............
Summary o f R esearch Department S t u d i e s . . . . . . .
AN EVALUATION AND SUMMARY OF STAFF COMMITTEE
STUDIES.............................
Committee f o r Study o f Semi-Annual v s . Annual
P
r
o
m
o
t
i
o
n
s
.
Study of th e Course o f Study and G raduation
Requirem ents i n th e New B r ita in J u n io r and
S enior H igh S ch o o ls• • • • • • • • • • • • • ............ • • • •
Study of G uidance
•••••••••••••••••••••••
Study o f th e Assignment P l a n . .
•••••••••
Study o f Problems o f Secondary C o o rd in a tio n .•
Study o f Higb School G raduates
............
iv
14
17
23
26
29
29
34
39
44
45
45
50
53
57
63
65
TABIE OF CONTENTS ( C o a t.)
C hapter
V I.
Page
A PROGRAM FOR THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOIS.............................................................. 70
The D eterm in atio n o f F u tu re P o l i c i e s . ..................71
The Program .
..........
75
V II.
SOME FIRST STEPS — 1938-1939...................
83
R egular Program o f T e s t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Adjustment C lasses and Annual P rom otions
84
G uidance.
85
R eport C a r d s ..• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 86
C urriculum S t u d i e s . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . 8 7
B udgeting and A ccounting P ro ced u res• • • • • • • • • • 93
S a la ry Schedule P ro g ra m ..• • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • • • • 94
Long-Term B u ild in g S tudy
95
T eacher S e l e c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............95
R ules and R eg u latio n s of B o ard .• • • • • • • • • . • • • • 96
O b sta c le s............................................. • • • • • • • • ........... 96
\
V III.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
................................. . . . 9 9
Source M a te ria l
S ectio n
I I . O f f ic ia l M inutes o f th e Board o f E d u catio n ,
A p ril 8 , 1938.................................................................101
III.
Annual R ep o rt, 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 3 7 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 0 6
IV.
Old S a la ry S c h e d u le .......................• • • • • • ...........• ••••1 0 8
V.
Proposed S a la ry S o h e d u l e .......................... . . . . . . . . 1 1 0
V I.
Amended S ala ry S c h e d u le .................
.116
V II. Annual Promotion P la n ..................• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 1 8
V I I I . Study f o r Guidance S e r v i c e . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • . 1 2 1
IX. B u lle tin I , I n te llig e n c e T e s t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
X,
B u lle tin I I , A Study o f I n te r n a l P ro b lem s.. . . . . 1 4 2
▼
TABIE OF CONTENTS ( C o n t.)
S eotlon
*ȣ&
X I.
B u lle tin I I I , Report an Achievement T e s t in g .. . . 193
X II.
B u lle tin IV, R eport on a Study of th e SemiAnnual F lan o f Prom otions w ith Recommenda­
tio n s f o r a Return t o an Annual F lan o f
Prom otion..........................................
• • • • • 218
X III.
B u lle tin V, Report and Recommendation of th e
Committee f o r th e Study o f th e Course of
Study and Graduat 1 on Requirem ent ..........• • • • • • • 225
XIV.
B u lle tin V I, Report of th e Committee on
Guidance..............• • • • • • • • • • ...................
258
XV.
B u lle tin V II, A Study of th e Assignment P l a n . . . 274
XVI.
B u lle tin V I I I , Report and Recommendations o f
th e Committee f o r th e Study o f th e Problems
o f Secondary School C o o rd in a tio n .• . • • • • • • • • • • 286
XVII.
B u lle tin IX, A Study of High School G rad u ates. • 300
X V III.
C urriculum B u lle tin I , Suggested S tandards of
Prom otion
..................................
XIX.
The P lato o n P la n : A Type o f Elem entary School
E
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
.
402
410
XX.
New B r ita in a t Work on I t s C u rricu lu m .• • • • • • • • • 420
XXI.
The C urriculum and P u p il N eeds, a Curriculum
Address by John K in g sle y ...................... . • • • • • • • • • 432
XXII.
C urriculum B u lle tin 2 - A T e n ta tiv e Frame of
R e f e r e n c e ..• • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • 438
X X III.
C urriculum B u lle tin 3 - Guide L ines f o r a
P r a c tic a l A rts C urriculum i n New B r i t a i n . • • • • 445
XXIV.
C urriculum B u lle tin 4 - R eport of Committee on
Secondary School P ro b lem s.
• • • • • . • • • • • • • 455
XXV.
R eport of Guidance D i r e c t o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • • • • • 460
XXVI.
A Study o f Long Term B u ild in g Needs In New
B r i t a i n . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 468
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS (C o n e.)
S eotion
Page
XXVII.
R esearoh Department B u lle tin - Report o f th e
1938-1939 T e stin g P r o g r a m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
XXVIII.
In fo rm atio n Concerning Placement of R egular
and S u b s titu te T e a c h e r s ..• • • • • • • • • • . . • • • • • • • 514
XXIX.
Budgeting and Accounting P ro c e d u re s .• • • • ..............517
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
R evised Rules and R eg u latio n s o f Board of
E d u c a tio n .. ............
521
Annual R ep o rt, 1937-1938.......................
523
Cum ulative R ecords
............................................. 525
LIST OF TABIES
Table
Page
I*
The Growth of P o p u latio n in New B r i t a i n ................. •
3
II*
P ercentage o f A tte n d a n c e ..* ............. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • «
7
P eroentage of I l l i t e r a c y . . .................• • • • • .............
8
III*
IV*
P eroentage o f Non-Prcmot icn a a t th e New B r ita in
S en io r High S c h o o l* * .* .* .* . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
24
LIST OF CHARTS
C hart
I*
Page
Growth of P o p u latio n in New B r ita in * • • • • • • • • • • • • •
3
II*
T e n ta tiv e Schedule o f Problems t o Be S tu d ied
in New B r ita in , 1938-1948............................................. 81
III.
S p e c ific Schedule, 1938-1948........................................... 82
▼ ill
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Purpose o f Study
On August 1 , 1937, a change In th e a d m in is tra tio n of
th e P u b lic Schools of New B r ita in , C o n n e c tic u t, marked th e
beginnin g of a new e d u o a tia n a l e ra f o r th e c i t y .
On t h a t
d a te , D r. S ta n le y H. Holmes, who had serv ed th e c i t y as i t s
su p e rin te n d e n t o f sch o o ls f o r th ir ty - o n e y e a rs , r e t i r e d and
th e w r i te r of t h i s document became th e new d ir e c tin g head o f
th e school sy stem .
T his document w ill s e t down some o f th e
m ajor e x p e rie n c e s met b y th e new su p e rin te n d e n t in becoming
a d ju s te d to t h e new s i t u a t i o n .
Such an adjustm ent c a lle d
f o r an a n a ly s is o f th e P u b lic School System o f New B r ita in ,
and th e p la n n in g o f a t e n ta t iv e program f o r i t s f u tu r e de­
velopm ent.
I f th e s to r y of th e s e two y e a rs o f ex p e rien ce
proves of value t o o th e r a d m in is tra to rs as an in d ic a tio n of
one s u p e rin te n d e n t's attem p t to meet t h i s type of adjustm ent
thro u g h a dem ocratic p ro c e s s , i t w i l l have se rv e d i t s p u r­
p o se.
In any e v e n t, suoh a statem en t o f p la n s , h o p es,
achievem ents and f a i l u r e s w i l l be o f v alue to th e su p e rin ­
ten d en t in New B r ita in as he c h a rts h is f u tu r e o o u rse .
Any change i n th e a d m in is tra tiv e head of a school
system i s im p o rta n t, b u t e s p e c ia lly so when th e change ta k e s
1
2
p la ce a f t e r su ch a long term o f s e r v ic e , as had been th a t of
Dr* Holmes*
N a tu ra lly th e r e would be changes: changes in
p h ilo so p h y , changes i n d e t a i l s of a d m in is tra tio n , and changes
in methods*
A djustm ents would be n e c e s s a ry n o t only by th e
su p e rin te n d e n t, b u t by th e f a c u lty , and th e community a t
la r g e .
New B r ita in Backgrounds
H is to r ic a l Growth
New B r ita in was f i r s t s e t t l e d by th o se who had o r i g i ­
n a l ly oome to th e H a rtfo rd oolony* The f i r s t s e t t l e r s a r 1
riv e d in 1687*
What i s now New B r ita in was s u c c e s s iv e ly a
p a r t of th e towns of Farm ington and B e r lin , and beoame a
1
se p a ra te town in 1850*
I t s growth u n t i l about th e tu r n of
th e tw e n tie th c e n tu ry was slow and s te a d y , as i s in d ic a te d in
th e P o p u latio n T able and C h a rt, Table I and Chart I , (on
page 3)*
1*
Americana. 20 (1938),pp* 114-115*
3
TABIE I
The Growth o f P p p u la tlo n In New B r ita in
(From TJ. S . Census R ep o rts)
Per ce n t
In crease
Year
1840
(A p a r t of B e rlin which had a
p o p u la tio n of 3,411$ H artfo rd
had 9,468; and New Haven
1 2 ,9 6 0 .)
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1938 (e stim a te )
11,800
19,007
28,202
43,916
59,316
68,128
75,000
61.0
4 8 .3
55.7
35.3
14.8
10.8
C hart I
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1938
The g r e a te s t peroentage in c re a s e s to o k p la c e between
1880 and 1890 (61 p e r cen t) and between 1900 and 1910 (over
55 p er c e n t) b u t th e g r e a te s t in c re a s e in p o in t o f in d i­
v id u a ls to o k p la c e between 1910 and 1920, w ith n e a rly 16,000
in c re a s e .
Since 1920 th e in c re a s e s have le v e le d o f f and
a p p a re n tly th e Hew B r ita in p o p u la tio n i s f a s t approaching a
s t a t i c c o n d itio n .
New B r i t a i n 's p o p u la tio n h as came t o be a v ery co s­
m opolitan one, h aving la rg e numbers of people from almost
ev ery n a t i o n a l i t y and ra c e in th e w o rld . A ccording to th e
1
1930 census New B r ita in h a s th e la r g e s t P o lis h p o p u la tio n
in C onnecticut and i s f o u rth in th e s t a t e in i t s number of
Ita lia n s .
C onnecticut h a s , acco rd in g to th e 1930 U n ited S ta te s
1
Census, a t o t a l p o p u la tio n o f 1 ,0 3 9 ,1 0 9 , of which 382,871
a re fo re ig n -b o rn w h ite s and 656,238 a r e of mixed p a re n ta g e .
The le a d in g n a t io n a l ity groups i n th e s t a t e ares
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ita ly
P o la n d .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 , 2 6 7
I r i s h F ree S t a t e ••
R u s s i a . . . . . ......... ..
Germany.................. ..
New B r i t a i n 's p ercen tag e o f n a tiv e -b o rn w h ites in c re a se d
from 37,763 (o r 63.7 p er c e n t) in 1920 t o 47,018 (o r 69 p e r
c e n t) in 1930.
1.
T his i s due t o th e d e c re a se in im m igration
U n ited S ta te s Census. V ol. H I , P a r t I , 1930.
5
and th e in c re a se o f seoond and t h i r d g e n e ra tio n c h ild re n of
fo re ig n born a id mixed p a re n ta g e .
Of th e 47,018 l i s t e d a s
n a tiv e -b o rn w h ite , only 15,600 were o f n a tiv e p a r e n ts .
At
th e same tim e , th e fo re ig n -b o rn w hites d ecreased from 21,230
in 1920 (35*8 p er c e n t) to 20,746 in 1950 (30.5 p er c e n t) .
The negro p o p u la tio n in c re a se d s l i g h t l y from 305 in 1920
(•5 p e r c e n t) to 359 in 1950 ( .5 p e r c e n t ) .
The le a d in g
n a t i o n a l i t y groups in New B r ita in fo llo w th e g e n e ra l Connec­
t i c u t tr e n d a s g iv e n below:
F o reig n -b o rn F o reig n born and
w hite__________mixed p aren tag e
1 . Poland ( la r g e s t in
s t a t e ) ..........................
2 . I t a l y (4 th la r g e s t in
s t a t e ) ..................• • • • • • . ,
3 . S w e d e n . . ........
4 . L ith u a n ia ................................
5 . R u ssia.................. ...................
6 . Germany........... . . • • • • • • • • • .
7 . Canada-French.
8 . A u s tr ia .. . . • • . . . • • • • • • • • ,
9 . I r i s h F ree S t a te ............... .
10. E n g lan d .......... • • • • • • • • • • • <
11. C z ec h o slo v ak ia.. • • • • • • • • ,
12. Canada ( o th e r s ) ...................
13. S c o tla n d ............... .............. •«
14. G reece.......... • • • • • • • • • • • • <
15. N orth I r e la n d .......................
16. P o rtu g a l.................• • • • • • • <
17. Norway.................• • • • • • • • • .
18. H ungary...........................
19. F rance................• • • • • • • • • • .
20. S w itz e rla n d .• • • • • • • • • • • • <
.
21. Denmark. .............
22. A ll o t h e r s . . . • • • • • • • • • • • •
T o ta l
5,882
10,408
4,097
1,936
1,220
1,117
1,090
952
719
622
545
454
328
176
165
85
65
57
50
40
26
- ,C23
1.095
5,386
2,593
1,654
1,535
2,539
1,048
839
2,894
1,191
20,746
33,418
6
T his In d ic a te s one of th e problems which f a c e s edu­
c a to r s in New B r i t a i n .
The c i t y has o f te n been c a lle d th e
"most f o re ig n c i t y i n Am erica."
Economic Growth
New B r ita in i s p o p u la rly known as th e "Hardware C ity
of th e W orld," b ein g th e home of th e American Hardware Cor­
p o ra tio n and i t s s u b s id ia r ie s , C orbin, and B u s se ll and Erw in.
The Americana l i s t s th e le a d in g m anufactures a s : stamped w are,
hardw are, fo u n d ry , machine shop p ro d u c ts , k n it goods, h o s ie ry ,
and c u t l e r y .
The 1930 Census l i s t s th e employed in th e le a d in g
in d u s tr ie s as th e fo llo w in g :
T o ta l
Iro n and S te e l I n d u s tr ie s
W holesale and Bet a i l T ra d es.................
B uildin g I n d u s tr y .• • • • • • • . • • • ..........
P u b lic S e r v i c e ..........................• • • • • • • •
P ro fe s s io n a l and S e m i-P ro fe s s io n a l.•
Other I n d u s tr ie s .........................
Male
Female
20,627
6,980
8,676
1,965
1,368
589
537
2,343
2,019
625
16
62
961
625
New B r ita in i s , th e r e f o r e , an I n d u s t r i a l c i t y w ith
a d iv e r s i f ie d i n d u s t r i a l o f f e r in g , b u t n e v e r th e le s s , s e rio u s ly
below th e norm al employment and b u sin e ss le v e l d u rin g th e
l a s t te n y e a r s .
These in d u s tr ie s have play ed an Im portant
p a r t in b rin g in g t o New B r ita in in th e re c e n t p a s t such la rg e
numbers o f fo re ig n b o m .
7
C u ltu ra l and E d u ca tio n al Growth
From a c u l t u r a l p o in t of view , New B r ita in has^much
t o commend i t .
I t has over 234 a c re s o f p u b lic paries.
It
has many lo v e ly ch u rch es, and as th e Americana, in a n o t too
2
u p - to -d a te s ta te m e n t, sa y s:
HI t has a school system second
t o none In a c i t y of i t s s i z e .
In a d d itio n t o a h ig h school
and grade sch o o ls i t has a p re -v o c a tio n a l grammar and a vo­
c a tio n a l h igh s c h o o l."
I t i s a ls o th e home of th e f i r s t
Normal School o f th e S ta te of C o n n e cticu t, e s ta b lis h e d by
Henry Barnard in 1859.
In 1933, t h i s norm al sc h o o l became
th e f i r s t fo u r-y e a r te a c h e r s ' c o lle g e of C o n n e c tic u t, known
as The T eachers C ollege o f C o n n ecticu t.
A ccording to th e 1930 Census, New B r ita in has an ex­
c e lle n t p ercen tag e of atten d a n ce in school up t o th e age of
s ix te e n as in d ic a te d in T able I I .
TABIE I I
P ercentage of A ttendance
1930
New B r ita in
H a rtfo rd County
(o f which New B r ita in i s a
p a r t)
98.8J*
90.9
46.4
15.8
98.9# •
9 0 .1 *
50.7 *
18.2 *»
Ages
7-13
14 and 15
16 and 17
18 t o 20
* H ighest in s t a t e
** Second to New Haven County
1.
Americana E n cy clo p ed ia. .20 (1938).
2.
lioo. cltT
8
New B r ita in has something o f an i l l i t e r a c y problem
as in d ic a te d in T able I I I , d e riv e d from th e 1930 Census*
TABIE I I I
P ercentage o f I l l i t e r a c y
C lasses
New B r ita in
1920
1930
10 y e a rs and over
6*2
S ta te
4 .8
4.5
N ative w hite
0 .3
0.4
F oreig n b ora
14*6
14.6
6*6
4*9
Negro
The p u b lic sch o o ls of New B r ita in are ad m in istered
by a Board of E ducation composed o f tw elve members p rovided
f o r in the c i t y c h a rte r*
T his b o ard i s a b i - p a r t i s a n board
composed o f s ix re p u b lic a n s and s ix dem ocrats e le c te d by th e
p e o p le , a lth o u g h a c tu a l ly s e le c te d in th e p a rty prim ary e le c ­
tio n s *
During th e 1 9 2 0 's and e a r ly 1 9 3 0 's , New B r ita in had
embarked upon and com pleted a two m illio n d o lla r school
b u ild in g program and has many f in e new b u ild in g s*
The New E d u c a tio n a l A d m ln lstra tio n
The a r r i v a l o f a new su p e rin te n d e n t was preceded by
an e le c tio n t o th e Board of younger members, b o th in age and
experience*
T his tr e n d has co n tin u ed so t h a t , th ro u g h r e s i g ­
n a tio n s and e l e o t l a n s . In about one y e a r, f i f t y p e r cen t o f
9
th e Board has changed*
Some o f th e new members began to
c r i t i c i s e th e sc h o o ls , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e secondary s c h o o ls,
and th e s o - c a lle d "New B r ita in Assignment F lan" of th e Senior
High Sohool*
T h is r e s u lt e d in th e Board o f E ducation asking
th e su p e rin te n d e n t t o su rv ey th e e d u c a tio n a l s i t u a t i o n in New
B rita in *
The " S u p e rin te n d e n t's Survey of th e New B r ita in
Schools" was th e outcome*
The su p e rin te n d e n t had two b a s ic p o lic ie s in mind in
connectio n w ith s e t t i n g up t h i s survey:
1*
The dem ocratic approach i s th e only p r a c tic a b le
one* None b u t s t a f f members was in c lu d ed in
th e su rv ey committees* No o u ts id e rs were
c a lle d in to ad v ise o f f i c i a l l y , alth o u g h many
were c o n s u lte d as in d iv id u a ls* T his p o lic y
was s t a t e d in th e f i r s t annual re p o rt o f
Septem ber, 19S7 a s fo llo w s :
(1) "We are a tte m p tin g to educate th e young
people in our sch o o ls to liv e i n a Democracy,
and we s h a l l attem pt to make th e fu n c tio n in g
of th e e n t ir e sc h o o l system a p r a c t i c a l example
of a working dem ocracy,"
2*
P ro g ress and changes can be made only a f t e r th e
f a c t s a re known, and th e n only slow ly as s t a f f ,
board and p u b lic are convinced th a t th e ste p s
a re r ig h t and proper*
This was th e community th a t welcomed a new s u p e rin ­
te n d e n t in A ugust, 1937*
I t p re se n te d a g re a t many a s s e t s ,
many problems and c h a lle n g e s .
The methods used in stu d y in g
th e s e problems and m eeting th e se ch a lle n g es a re t o l d in th e
succeeding ch ap ters*
CHAPTER I I
THE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS
Sources o f Inform ation
La o rd er t o an a ly se th e problems o f th e p u b lic
sobool system In New B r ita in , th e su p e rin te n d e n t had f i r s t
t o in v e s tig a te h is so u rces
became
o f In fo rm atio n and r e s o u r c e s . I t
ap p a re n t th a t th e s e problem s should be a tta c k e d from
f o u r d i f f e r e n t a n g le s :
1.
The su p e rin ten d en t sh o u ld p e rs o n a lly study th e
Board o f E duoatlon
r e c o rd s , suoh as m inute books
and f in a n c ia l account books; co n fer w ith Board
members, s t a f f members and c i t i z e n s ; and make i n ­
dependent s tu d ie s .
2.
The R esearch Department sh o u ld be e n l is te d t o make
c a r e f u l and com plete s tu d ie s in th e fo llo w in g a r e a s :
3.
a.
I n te llig e n c e t e s t i n g .
b.
Achievement t e s t i n g .
o.
Survey of i n t e r n a l problem s th ro u g h q u e s tio n ­
n a i r e s t o s t a f f members.
S ta f f com mittees should be s e t up t o in v e s tig a te
and recommend p ro ced u res t o th e su p e rin te n d e n t in
o e r ta in a r e a s .
A fte r th e R esearch Department has
10
11
made i t s re p o rt on i n t e r n a l problem s, re p re s e n tin g
th e problems and i n t e r e s t s of s t a f f members,
f a c u lty com mittees mere e n l i s t e d and co o p erated in
in v e s tig a tin g th e fo llo w in g a r e a s :
4*
a.
Promotions*
b*
R eport cards f o r elem entary schools*
o*
Secondary sch o o l cou rse o f stu d y and g radua­
tio n requirem ents*
d*
Guidance*
e*
New B r ita in Assignment Plan*
f*
C o o rd in atio n of Secondary Schools*
g.
High School Graduates*
C o n su lta tio n v i t h o u ts id e e x p e r ts , such a s th o se in
th e S ta te Department of E duoatlon and v a rio u s Schools
of E duoatlon was a ls o t o be u til is e d *
T his could
n o t d e tr a c t from th e p r in o ip le of th e s t a f f a t
work on i t s own problem s, a s no o u tsid e e x p e rts mere
to be engaged t o make a survey*
However, in th e
second y e a r , c e r t a in e x p e rts were brought in to
s tim u la te and ad v ise te a c h e rs and committees in c u r­
ricu lu m re b u ild in g *
T h is procedure o f in v e s tig a tio n , c a lle d "The Super­
in te n d en t 1s Survey," was i n i t i a t e d in th e e a r ly months of
th e new a d m in is tra tio n and pushed th ro u g h more r a p id ly th a n
might have seemed w ise because of th e in s is te n c e o f th e
Board o f E duoatlon t h a t o e r ta in answers be given t o some of
12
th e se problem s a t th e e a r l i e s t p o s s ib le moment.
T h is soon
had th e e n t i r e f a c u lty I n te r e s te d In i t s problem s and c e r ­
t a i n members h ard a t work on t h e i r s p e c if ic t a s k s .
I t was
a d i f f i c u l t m a tte r to p reserv e th e dem ocratic method under
th e se c irc u m sta n ces.
To guide him In h i s g e n e ra l adm inis­
t r a t i v e m a tte r s , th e su p e rin te n d e n t s e t up a Round T ab le,
which met once a month and was composed o f a l l p r in c ip a ls ,
v ic e - p r in c ip a l s , an d s u p e rv is o rs .
T his committee helped
in determ ining th e com position of th e o th e r s p e c ia l com­
m itte e s .
The make-up o f th e se v a rio u s oommlttee groups
can be seen by r e f e r r i n g to th e r e p o r ts o f th e v a rio u s com­
m itte e s in th e source m a te r ia ls .
T h is document w i l l n o t attem p t t o r e c a p itu la te th e s e
r e p o r ts , b u t i t w i l l endeavor to b r i e f l y summarize and
e v a lu ate each r e p o r t as a p a r t o f th e p ic tu r e of th e educa­
tio n a l s it u a ti o n i n New B r ita in in 1937-1938.
I t w i l l be
n oted t h a t th e m ajor p o rtio n s o f t h i s "survey" c e n te re d
around problems o f secondary e d u c a tio n .
T h is was due to
two re a s o n s :
1.
There was l i t t l e lo c a l c r iti c is m o f th e elem entary
schools •
2.
The m ajor problems fa c in g e d u c a tio n today a r e on
th e secondary l e v e l .
IS
O rg an izatio n o f Study
The rem ain d er o f t h i s document w i l l c e n te r around
th e fo llo w in g :
1,
S u p e rin te n d e n t's s tu d i e s ,
2,
R esearch Department s tu d i e s ,
3,
S ta f f com m ittees' s t u d i e s ,
4,
A program f o r th e f u t u r e ,
5,
An e v a lu a tio n of th e f i r s t s te p s .
6,
Source m a te r ia ls .
CHAPTER I I I
AN EVALUATION ANT SUMMARY OF THE SUPERINTENDENT' S STUDIES
A su p e rin te n d e n t oannot sim ply s e t th e wheels in
m otion and go o f f and le a v e a sch o o l system t o run i t s e l f .
E s p e c ia lly i s t h i s tr u e i n a system w hich had been p r e t t y
much c e n te re d in one p erso n and where o th e r s t a f f meinbers
had not been tr a in e d to a c c e p t le a d e rs h ip and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
C onsequently, th e r e was th e c o n s ta n t ta s k o f keeping in
to u ch w ith th e chairm en and t h e i r com m ittees t o be su re th a t
honest r e p o r ts r e s u l t e d and no "w hite-w ashing” to o k p la c e .
Aside from th e problems tu rn ed over to th e com m ittees, th e re
were many o th e r problem s th a t th e su p e rin te n d e n t needed to
in v e s tig a te p e rs o n a lly — an d , on th e s id e , he needed t o g e t
f i r s t hand in fo rm a tio n and fo rm u la te te x ta tiv e opinions con­
ce rn in g th e m a tte rs tu rn e d over t o th e com m ittees.
T here­
f o r e , w h ile many te a c h e rs f e l t a b i t p ressed by t h i s " s u r ­
vey” te c h n iq u e , none worked h a rd e r th a n th e su p e rin ten d en t
in th is p ro c e s s .
T h is o h ap ter w i l l attem p t t o summarize
and ev a lu ate th e s u p e rin te n d e n t's study o f many problem s.
S a la ry S itu a tio n
The f i r s t s it u a ti o n re q u ir in g th e s u p e rin te n d e n t's
immediate a t te n t io n was the s a la r y m a tte r .
14
A committee o f
15
th e T each ers' C ouncil, th e s e m i- o f f ic ia l o rg a n iz a tio n c f
te a c h e rs f o r lia s o n w ith th e Board of E d u catio n , had been
ap p o in ted d u rin g th e p rev io u s y e a r to stu d y th e v ery se rio u s
s a la r y s i t u a t i o n .
F or th e f iv e p rev io u s y e a r s , a l l s a la ry
increm ents had been suspended, and Board o f E ducation em­
p loyees had re c e iv e d c u t s , o r made " v o lu n ta ry c o n trib u tio n s ,"
amounting t o n e a rly f o r t y p e r cen t in one y e a r (two te n s and
a tw enty p er cen t c u t ) .
G radually th e c u ts had been r e s ­
to re d u n t i l i n September, 1937, a l l te a c h e rs were re c e iv in g
th e same s a l a r i e s as th e y had fiv e y e a rs b e f o r e .
crem ents had been " f ro z e n ."
A ll i n ­
Those a t maximum were s a t i s f i e d ,
b u t a l l below maximum wanted r e s t o r a t i o n o f th e "fro zen " in ­
crem ents i n whole o r i n p a r t .
R e s to ra tio n in f u l l was a
f in a n c ia l im p o s s ib ility , e s p e c ia lly in view of th e " r e c e s ­
sio n " l a t e in 1937.
Such a s it u a ti o n a f f e c tin g th e pocketbooiks o f n e a rly
ev ery te a c h e r in th e system , a s w e ll as t h a t o f th e ta x p a y e r,
was not a happy one f o r a new su p e rin te n d e n t t o fa c e .
It
became e v id e n t t o th e su p e rin te n d e n t and committee t h a t th e
s a la r y schedule th e n i n fo rc e had many in ad eq u acies and
f a u l t s , and i t s r e s t o r a t i o n was n o t w orth f ig h tin g f o r .
T his sch ed u le found i n S e c tio n IV o f th e Source M a te r ia ls ,
d id n o t reo o g n lze advanced p r e p a r a tio n , and exaggerated
s a la r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s between elem en tary , ju n io r and s e n io r
h ig h school le v e ls and between th e se x e s.
An #1100 d i f ­
f e r e n t i a l e x is te d between th e maxlmnms f o r an elem en tary
■■■
■
"
^
.
16
school te a c h e r and a se n io r h ig h school male te a c h e r .
In
November, th e committee and th e S u p e rin te n d e n t's Round
T able a g ree d upon a compromise p la n , c a l l i n g f o r a f i f t y
p e r ce n t r e tu r n on th e "fro z en " Increm ents and th e Immediate
t r a n s f e r in Septem ber, 1958, t o a new s a la r y s c h e d u le , b reak ­
ing down d i s t i n c t i o n s and lo o k in g tow ard a s in g le s a la r y
sch ed u le.
M a te r ia ls .
T his p la n may be found In S e c tio n V of th e Source
T his p la n was approved by tw o -th ird s o f th e
te a c h e rs In a referendum conducted by th e T ea ch ers' C ouncil.
Funds, however, were n o t made a v a ila b le f o r th e f u l l
o p e ra tio n o f t h i s p la n by th e C ity C o u n cil.
A tw e n ty -fiv e
p er ce n t r e s t o r a t i o n of th e "fro z en " Increm ents became e f ­
f e c tiv e i n A p r il, 1938.
T his p la n c a lle d f o r a more g ra d u a l
t r a n s i t i o n to th e new s a la r y schedule so a s a la r y adjustm ent
p lan co n tain ed In S e c tio n VI was approved by th e o f f ic e r s
of th e T eao h ers' C o u n cil.
I t has been th e guide o f the
su p e rin ten d en t o f sch o o ls and Board of E duoatlon s in c e .
Under t h i s , th e p r in o ip le of r e g u la r Increm ents was e s ta b ­
lis h e d f o r a l l o o n tr a c ts Issu e d f o r September, 1939, and
a l l new te a c h e rs employed an and a f t e r September, 1938, have
ixonedlately gone onto th e new sc h e d u le .
The 1939-1940 and
th e 1940-1941 budgets have p rovided f o r f u l l ad o p tio n of
th e adjustm ent s a la r y p la n .
, . .
.
17
Elem entary Sohool S itu a tio n
In th e elem entary school f i e l d , th e s it u a ti o n s
e a lll n g f o r th e s u p e rin te n d e n t's a t t e n t i o n concerned:
1,
The P rom otional P o lic i e s .
2.
The P lato o n O rg a n isa tio n .
5.
Report C ards.
lew B r ita in f o r many y e a rs had worked under a p la n
o f sem i-annual prom otions.
I t was becoming In c re a s in g ly
ev id en t t o many t h a t t h i s procedure needed s tu d y , inasmuch
as t h i s procedure was b reak in g down th e c o n tin u ity o f th e
e d u c a tio n a l program f o r th e c h i ld , and was uneconom ical In
term s o f b o th tim e and money.
A o o am ittee under th e le a d e r ­
s h ip o f th e elem entary sch o o l s u p e rv is o r, H iss Mary A.
Campbell, undertook t o stud y t h i s s i t u a t i o n .
t h i s committee I s co n tain ed in C hapter V,
The r e p o r t of
S u ff ic ie n t t o
say th a t th e C o am lttee's re p o rt recommending an adjustm ent
y e a r (1938-1939) f o r t r a n s i t i o n from th e sem i-an n u al to
annual prom otion p la n was approved by th e Board o f Educa­
t i o n and h a8 been s u c c e s s fu lly c a r r ie d o u t.
A f u r th e r stu d y
o f prom otional s tu d ie s h a s been made d u rin g 1938-1939 in
oonneotlon w ith Hew B r ita in C urriculum S tu d ie s , and was r e ­
le a se d a s C urriculum B u lle tin Ho. 1 in December, 1938.
It
w i l l be found In S e c tio n XVIII o f th e Source M a te ria ls .
For a number o f y e a r s , Hew B r i t a i n 's elem entary
schools have been organized under a P la to o n p la n , a modi-
18
f i o a t i a n o f th e Gary, In d ia n a , p la n .
New B r ita in l a
th e few c i t i e s In th e E ast u sin g t h i s p la n of o rg a n iz a tio n .
Under t h i s p la n s p e c ia l f i e l d s of te a c h e r i n t e r e s t s are worked
out and th e sohool i s d e p a rtm e n ta liz e d .
C h ild ren a r e , th e r e ­
f o r e , ro u te d to s e v e r a l s p e c ia l te a c h e rs in e s p e c ia lly
equipped rooms.
The p la n and i t s advantages a re co n tain ed
in a statem en t by Miss Mary A. Campbell, s u p e rv is o r of e l e ­
m entary s c h o o ls, w hich w i l l be found in S ectio n XIX, o f th e
Source M a te r ia ls .
T his o rg a n iz a tio n h as c a lle d f o r t h some
c r i t i c i s m , b u t g e n e r a lly i s w e ll ac ce p ted in New B r ita in ,
so d id n o t develop in to a c r i t i c a l problem in 1937-1938.
The n e o e s s lty of stu d y in g t h i s p la n h a s a r is e n i n co n n ectio n
w ith New B r i t a i n 's C urriculum S tu d ie s o f 1938-1939, and w i l l
d o u b tle ss be m o d ified in th e l i g h t o f th e b e s t tho u g h t of
p re se n t day e d u c a tio n .
A committee on elem en tary sc h o o l r e p o r t card s had
been ap p o in ted by th e p rev io u s s u p e rin te n d e n t, b u t i t s
work had not been brought to f r u i t i o n .
The new su p e rin ten d en t
re q u e ste d th e co m n ittee to con tin u e i t s s tu d i e s , and i t
brought in a r e p o r t in th e form of a re v is e d r e p o r t c a rd .
No r e p o r t c a rd had ev e r been g iven in th e k in d e rg a rte n and
g rades one th ro u g h th r e e .
The r e p o r t c a rd f o r grades fo u r
through s ix i s shown on th e fo llo w in g pages
>e?>ar-atA*^e:t
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OP
NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
REPORT OF
.School
NOTE TO PARENTS
'T 'H IS report la intended to be a
A co m p lete su m m ery o f y o u r
child's echoed life th is half year—
as such i t should receive your active
interest. If the report gbreniaagood
one please bestow upon your child
a word erfpraise, if n o t good, please
visit th e teacher and in friendly
conference w ith th e teacher m ake
an effort to find th e remedy for
unsat isfactory work or conduct.
19
C itizenship
' Habits and A ttitudes
Desirable for Good
Citizenship
1.
2.
3;
4.
5.
6.
S cholarship
F irst •
Second
Period . Period
F irst
Period
j
Second
Period i
T otal School D ays..
T otal Days A bsent.
Tim es T ardy..........
E xplanation of M arks
A
B
C
D
H ealth R ecord
For th e Semester
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
T eeth ..................
H earing..............
S ig h t. ...........
P o stu re ..........
H eigh t................
W eight...............
Normal weight »houldbe
First Second
Period Period
Reading and L ite ra tu re ....
Language and Composition
Spelling.................................
Penm anship.........................
A rithm etic...........................
G eography............................
H istory an d Civics...............
A rt and H andw ork..............
Science and N ature Study..
M usic....................................
Physical E ducation.............
H ygiene.................................
C o n d u c t.!......
E ffort..................
O bedience..........
Respect
C ourtesy............
C leanliness........
A tten d an ce R ecord
&•
STUDIES
=
=
=
=
Excellent
Good
F air—Passable
Poor and below prom otion
T eacherPrincipaL
P a re n t's S ig n atu re
_lbs..
F irst PeriodPeriod..
w
20
The new r e p o r t c a rd , w hich p ro v id es f o r a c h e c k lis t of de­
s ir a b le developm ents f o r th e k in d e rg a rte n and grades one
and two i s shown below:
r~rr-
* 1
II
* Iff
i
1
NEW BRITAIN , CONN
A
-GRADESI**®
RECORD OF
................ ............................. Ripif* Name
•
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4^i^ado.■
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For "tKa Sckool Yaa.r
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The r e p o r t c a rd f o r grad es th r e e th ro u g h s i x p ro v id es f o r a
th r e e - p o in t l e t t e r sc a le as shown below:
-NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
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TEACHER’5 COMMENTS
- -; ■■*-.
fir s t Period
Second FWiod
■
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Foyrtk Ftriod
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PARENTS SIGNATURE
Firtt Roriod..... ..................
Second Period. . . . . . . . . .
TklrJ PsfiaJ . .............
jbMftK
- .. .7 . . t * • • • »• • • • • • *• *•• • • •••#
PROMOHQN RECORD
D r s t -S e m e s te r
S eco n d 'S em ester
Promote te^nuk . . ^. .
F r c lJ ^ d ^ & n d e ................
Promoted on iriol ioGrod* . . .. ^•mdUdoh^rielts6rede.. - .
Admitted to Gredeteiis.*... Admittedto Gftftd*. . ..........
- ..1 - ..
. .........nil.,.
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.'..............
sewwsrtiK..’’Jk":. :. • ; . . . . . . .............
v-6»Mtiwuw!.zaous««#WMeeKi»«gsiS858IBi
88
The new report cards were purposely adaeographad for experi­
mental nae.
The raport oarda when firat used for the aeoand
semester of 19S8 wara aooaapanlad by a latter to parents ask­
ing for their orltiolama and an inatraction sheet to teachera
tailing how to use than. These raport oards hare nos bean
approved with oartain changes, for tha next five yeara.
Copies of these revised oards are presented belowt
PUBLIC
SCHOOLS
OF
NEW BBIZAWt CONK
ACHIEVEMENT RECORD
OF
.....................
;.......___
Pupil's Name
..... ............................
.Grade
...................______ .....................
School
Foe die School Year
September 19:.
to June 19..
grades m. nr. ▼
. vi
TO PARENTS:
THIS report is intended to be a complete summary oi
your' child's school life for the'year. It should receive
.your active- interest. If the report given is satisfactory
please bestow upon the child a ward of .praise; if not.
please visit the sdhoal an d in-friendly conference with the
principal and the teacher make an effort to bring about
improvement
S i x t h s report does npt inm lytheopproval of the
oftherepcnt Please signarid return a t once.
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TEACHER3 COMMENTS
First Period
*. ,.-•' e?-:.
4
Second Period
.......... .Teacher
Third Period
Fourth Period
PARENTS SIGNATURE
First Period..............
Second Period........
Third Period............
Fourth Period..........
PROMOTION RECORD
Promoted to Grade...
Promoted on trial to Grade.......................................
Admittedte-Grade... ............-......... Teacher...................
Principal..................
This report should be carefully preserved The pupil should present -it to the teacher at the opening oi school in September as a card of
admission to the grade. It will be returned to him.
‘^VOSBBUamm
THE PUBLIC
SCHOOLS
OF
NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
A Record of Child Development
KINDERGARTEN-GRADES I and U
RECORD OF
..Pupil's Name;
Grade
.....School)
For the School Tear
September 19
to June
TO PARENTS:
THIS report is intended to be a complete summary Of -;
your child’s school life for the year. -It should receive^.. *
your active interest
VCV1;?
The school report for Kindergarten and for; Grades I and II isareco rd o fch ild development with ’specidlj.OTt-: ^ /^
phasis on attitudes, social behavior and
the basic skills. Ii the report is unsatisfactory br)heedsi.v .
explanatioa please visit the school and. in frieh dljr^n^^';
ference with the principal and the teacher make an
to bring about improvement
-
CARLYLE Q W a M l i
SUPERINTENDENT OF
-----
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TEACHER’S COMMENTS
I t'
ffiSi-’ijjii
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A ",
i
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t
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. Third Period
\
* V' •
- .
Fourth Period
V-C?;-.V4AAs:>.V.iHlr*
'!’■Ij- ■'
v -'
................................... Teacher
■
PARENTS SIGNATURE
, First Period......
Second Period...
i, Asi v. Third'Period........
'V ^Fourth-Period.....
PROMOTION RECORD
to.Grade.^.:...„......
1.....
ialto Grade....
............
&»,Grade..*,,..,_____ ...__..— „-------- ...
WfgT*? »‘f
nfflSSBS
ild becarefully preserved The pupil should present
.at the opening of school m&eptember as a card of
i$tfae grada It wiU be returned to him.
23
The Secondary Sohool S itu a tio n
Not only d id th e u s u a l secondary sohool problem s now
so g e n e ra l a l l over th e U nited S ta te s p re s e n t them selves In
1957-1938, b u t a v a r ie ty o f problems o f p u re ly lo c a l o rig in
a ro se .
One o f th e most Im portant was t h a t caused by th e
re s ig n a tio n o f U r. Louis P . S la d e , who had been p r in c ip a l o f
th e S en io r High School f o r over tw e n ty -fiv e y e a r s .
The se ­
le c tio n of h i s su c c e sso r was b o th an Im portant e d u c a tio n a l
problem and a p re c a rio u s p o l i t i c a l one.
The recommendation
of th e su p e rin te n d e n t of schools and th e s p e c ia l Board of
E ducation committee f o r th e appointm ent of a ca n d id ate from
o u tsid e th e c i t y was d e fe a te d by
th e
e n tire
Board.
A s a tis ­
fa c to ry can d id ate was e le c te d in
th e
p erso n
o f a younger
Ju n io r h ig h sch o o l p r in o lp a l, Mr. V incent S a la , who th u s f a r
h as proven capable of making th e adjustm ent and e x e rtin g th e
p ro p er le a d e rs h ip in a f a s t growing S en io r High S chool.
The New B r ita in Assignment F la n , which was a modi­
f i c a t i o n o f th e D alton P la n , had been in e f f e c t f o r about
fifte e n y e a rs.
I t has been openly a tta c k e d in re c e n t y e a rs
by Board members and p a re n ts as a cause o f f a i l u r e and th e
development of p r o c r a s tin a tio n and a s p i r i t of " g e ttin g by"
on th e p a r t o f p u p ils .
I t had been defended by th e p r i n c i ­
p a l and some s t a f f members.
A s p e c ia l oommittee was ap­
p o in te d t o stu d y t h i s m a tte r and
its
rep o rt
w i l l be d i s ­
cussed i n C hapter V.
The h ig h p erce n tag e e f non-prom otions in th e S en io r
24
High S chool, p a r t i c u l a r l y in th a te n th g rad e, was a tta c k e d
by a Board member b efo re th e advent o f th e new s u p e rin te n d e n t.
The raw f ig u r e s f o r non-prom otions d id in d ic a te need f o r
stu d y , b u t th e y were c lo s e ly connected w ith th e Assignment
P la n , S en io r High School a d m in is tra tiv e p o lic y , and in a d e­
quate f a c u lty f o r a growing so h o o l.
Ho s p e c ia l committee
was ap p o in ted , b u t th e change in th e S en io r High School ad­
m in is tr a tio n , abandonment o f th e assignm ent p la n as th e cen­
t r a l p o lic y o f th e sc h o o l, to g e th e r w ith improved f a c u lty f a ­
c i l i t i e s and a lo n g er sch o o l day has gone a long way to c o r ­
r e c t t h i s c o n d itio n .
Table IV, ta k en from th e re p o rt of th e
S en io r High Sohool p r in c ip a l f o r th e sch o o l y e a r 1958-1939
in d io a te s t h i s improvement•
TABLE IV
P ercentage o f Non-Promotions a t th e New B r ita in
S en io r High Sohool
Grade
1957-1938
September
F ebruary
t o January
to June
1938-1959
September
F ebruary
t o Jan u ary
t o June
X -l
.16
.36
.07
.11
X-2
.06
.30
.07
.13
X I-1
.22
.31
.0 4
.06
X I-2
.16
.19
.0 3
.04
X II-1
.11
.13
.02
.04
X II-2
.0 1
.003
.007
.006
25
As has a lre a d y been in d ic a te d , th e S en io r High School
f a c i l i t i e s were s e r io u s ly overcrowded.
T h is s i t u a t i o n i s
c le a r ly re v e a le d in th e study o f I n te r n a l Problems by th e
R esearch Department (S e ctio n X o f th e Source M a te r ia l) .
The S en io r High Sohool r e g i s t r a t i o n has grown from 1120 in
1927 to n e a rly double t h a t in 1952, f iv e y e a rs l a t e r (2 ,1 3 0 ),
and to 2,493 in 1937.
reached th e 3,0 0 0 mark.
D uring 1938-1939 t h i s r e g i s t r a t i o n
In 1927 th e S en io r High Sohool had
a f a c u lty o f 62, w hile in 1937 i t had only in c re a se d 1 .4
tim es to 88 te a c h e r s .
Since th e b u ild in g had only a t h e o r e t i ­
c a l c a p a o lty of 2,000 and th e f a c u lty had n o t in c re a se d in
s te p w ith th e p u p il grow th, sueh d e v ic e s as la rg e au d ito riu m
c la s s e s o f s e v e ra l hundred p u p ils , and o f a d iv id e d p la to o n
sohool had been r e s o r te d t o .
In Septem ber, 1938, i t became
p o s s ib le to house a l l th e s tu d e n ts a t one tim e by u t i l i z ­
ing an abandoned elem entary school b u ild in g a c ro ss th e
s tre e t.
Even th o u g h th e S en io r High School has a p ro sp ec­
ti v e r e g i s t r a t i o n of 3,800 in Septem ber, 1939, by u sin g a
p o rtio n of th e new Trade School a d d itio n , i t w i l l s t i l l be
p o s s ib le to house a l l a t one s e s s io n .
T h is , coupled w ith
th e f a c t th a t i t was p o ss ib le to In c re a se th e S en io r High
Sohool f a c u lty due to d ecreased r e g i s t r a t i o n s in th e ju n io r
Tiigh s c h o o ls , has g r e a t ly improved atten d an ce and s c h o la r ­
sh ip r e c o r d s .
I t became e v id e n t t o th e su p e rin te n d e n t t h a t th e
m a tte rs of p u p il g u ld an o e, secondary sohool c o o rd in a tio n ,
26
and o f c u r r ic u la r o f f ©rings t o meet th e needs of ALL th e
c h ild re n an th e seoondary le v e l needed a t t e n t i o n .
S p e c ia l
com mittees were ap p o in ted t o stu d y th e s e m a tte rs and t h e i r
r e p o r ts w i l l be co n sid ered In C hapter V.
O ther S itu a tio n s
There were many o th e r s it u a ti o n s clam ouring f o r a t ­
te n tio n b y th e new s u p e rin te n d e n t.
Some co uld only be
p la c e d on th e l i s t o f item s f o r f u tu r e stu d y .
The a d u lt ed u c atio n and A m erican izatio n program ,
coupled w ith th e W.P.A. e d u c a tio n a l and r e c r e a tio n a l program,
c a lle d f o r a g re a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n and re o rg a n iz a tio n .
Adequate fin a n c in g and s t a f f i n g to meet new needs and de­
mands, to g e th e r w ith improved le a d e rs h ip w ere, and s t i l l
a r e , Im portant problem s.
Much tim e has been consumed in
c o n fe rrin g w ith th e lo c a l c i t y f a th e r s and s t a t e departm ent
o f f i c i a l s about th e se program s.
New B r i t a i n , w ith i t s la rg e
a d u lt fo re ig n -b o rn g ro u p s, needs an o u tsta n d in g a d u lt educa­
t i o n program , b u t i t s development has been postponed a w a it­
in g a c l e a r e r u n d erstan d in g and a p p r e c ia tio n of th e problem
by th e c i t y f a t h e r s , board members and c i t i z e n s .
In a s t a t e w ith o u t any s t a t e s y l l a b i n o r much s ta te
su p e rv is io n of th e e d u c a tio n a l program , th e cu rricu lu m may
be a source o f r e a l e d u c a tio n a l s tr e n g th in a lo c a l program,
or a r e a l source of w eakness.
I t soon became e v id e n t th a t
27
a l l c u r r ic u la and c o u rse s of stu d y needed r e - e v a lu a tio n and
r e b u ild in g .
O bviously a l l a re a s co u ld not be a tta c k e d a t
once, b u t p la n s were made f o r a b eg in n in g in 1938-1959,
which w i l l be d e s o rib e d in C hapter V II.
A c a s u a l in s p e c tio n of th e b u ild in g s i t u a t i o n in
New B r ita in in d ic a te d th a t th e c i t y co uld w e ll be proud of
i t s g e n e ra l b u ild in g s i t u a t i o n , as a $ 2 , 000,000 sohool con­
s tr u c t io n program had been c a r r ie d on d u rin g th e 1 9 2 0 's , b u t,
th a t th e u t i l i s a t i o n o f th e se b u ild in g s was n o t always to
th e b e s t ad v an tag e.
T h is became one o f th e s tu d ie s In clu d ed
in th e stu d y o f in te r n a l problem s, which w i l l be d isc u sse d
in C hapter IV.
During 1958, a s u c c e s s fu l campaign brought
about th e ap p ro v a l o f a $289,000 a d d itio n to th e Tirade Sohool,
w hich had been a f e l t need f o r y e a r s .
B arly in 1959 th e
su p e rin te n d e n t fo llo w ed up the stu d y of I n te r n a l Problems
as r e l a t e d to b u ild in g u t i l i z a t i o n w ith a lo n g -term b u ild ­
ing stu d y , which w i l l be d isc u sse d in C hapter V II.
A s h o rt e x p e rie n c e w ith th e b u d geting and acco u n t­
in g pro ced u res in d ic a te d th a t th e y were a n tiq u a te d and "grew
up lik e Topsy" a s th e need a r o s e .
C onsequently, th e acco u n t­
in g headings d id n o t ag ree w ith s t a t e o r n a tio n a l r e q u ir e ­
m en ts.
During th e p e rio d o f 1957-1938, t h i s system h as been
g ra d u a lly changed t o f i t s ta te and national, re q u ire m e n ts.
It
i s hoped in th e n e a r f u tu r e to in tro d u c e m echanical book­
keeping as w e ll.
T his m a tte r w i l l be d isc u ss e d more i n de­
t a i l in Chapter V II.
28
F in a lly , and o f g r e a t p e rso n a l Im portance to th e
su p e rin te n d e n t and h is program , a f t e r one y e a r of s e r v ic e ,
he was r e e le c te d
f o r a th r e e -y e a r te rm , In su rin g c e r t a in
s e c u r ity and c o n tin u ity t o e s ta b li s h h is program .
Such were th e m u l t i p l i c i t y of problems th a t th e
su p e rin te n d e n t fa c e d as he took over h is new work In 1937.
T his c h a p te r has attem p ted t o b r i e f l y review th e manner In
which th e problems were a tta o k e d .
I t Is p o s s ib le th a t to o
much was attem p ted b u t I n s is te n c e of th e Board o f E ducation
and th e n a tu re o f circu m stan ces fo rc e d a c tio n of seme s o r t
on a l l th e s e problem s.
1.
See Source M a te r ia l, S e c tio n I I ,p p . 101-105.
‘>Tf"
r
CHAPTER IV
AN EVALUATION AND SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH
DEPARTMENT STUDIES
The R esearch Department was g iv en th e ta s k o f g a th e r­
in g th e d a ta and in te r p r e t in g th e r e s u l t s concerning th e In ­
te llig e n c e and Achievement of th e c i t y 's n e a rly 13,000 boys
and g i r l s , and of in v e s tig a tin g c e r t a in i n t e r n a l problems
of I n te r e s t to th e s u p e rin te n d e n t.
The r e s u l t s of th e s e
in v e s tig a tio n s are in clu d ed in th e Source M a te r ia ls , Sec­
tio n s IX, X, and X I,
T his c h a p te r w i l l summarize and
e v a lu a te th e s e s tu d ie s .
I n te llig e n c e T e stin g
(See S e c tio n IX in Source M a te r ia l,)
The Xuhlman Anderson t e s t s were g iven t o a l l p u p ils
in th e norm al grade groups on th e fo llo w in g le v e ls :
V I-1, IX -1, IX-2, X - l, and X -2,
III-l,
T his program gave an e x c e l­
le n t p io tu re of th e a b i l i t y of New B r ita in p u p ils .
The r e -
1
p o rt summarizes th e r e s u l t s a s fo llo w s:
1,
Source M a te ria l, S eo tlo n IX, B u lle tin I , p p , 129-132,
29
30
Elem entary School R e su lts and Im p llcatlo n a
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I.Q . 1a in th e elem entary
grad es fo llo w s p r e t t y c lo s e ly a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n
and th e mean I.Q .* s a m v ery c lo se t o th e average f o r
an u n se le o te d group. In th e t h i r d grade th e re i s a
s l i g h t l y la r g e r p ro p o rtio n o f c a se s w ith I.Q .* s from
107.5 t o 117.5 b u t few er th an m ight be ex p ected in
th e very s u p e rio r and in th e d u l l norm al c l a s s i f i c a ­
tio n s .
h i the s i x t h grade th e re i s an o v er-p ro p o rtio n
o f o ases w ith I . Q . 's from 102.5 t o 107.5 but an
u n d e r-p ro p o rtio n of s u p e rio r and very su p e rio r
o a s e s . Likewise an un ex p ected ly low number o f cases
w ith I . Q . 's from 92.5 to 102.5 i s co u n terb alan ced on
th e ourve by th e p resence of an unexpectedly la rg e
group o f d u ll norm al c h ild r e n .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f I . Q . 's may be compared t o
th e I.Q . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p re v io u sly given acco rd in g
t o the fo llo w in g t a b l e :
I.Q . C las­
s ific a tio n
Grade I I I - l
D is tr ib u tio n
Grade VI-1
D is tr ib u tio n
2%
1%
1%
6
4
4
12
22
13
60
56
57
12
11
16
6
5
7
2
1
2
Normal
P ercentage
D is tr ib u tio n
Oenius
(130 and above)>
Very s u p e rio r
(120-130)
S up erio r
( 110- 120)
Average
(90-110)
D u ll noxmal
(80-90)
B o rd erlin e
(70-80)
Feeble -minded
(below 70)
Grades I I I - l and V I-1 have few er e a se s in th e average
group th a n th e norm al d i s t r i b u t i o n c a l l s f o r . 3h th e
t h i r d grade we have more oases in th e s u p e rio r , b u t
in th e s ix th grade we have few er in th e s u p e rio r and
more in th e d u l l norm al. The f a c t t h a t we have b u t
1% feeble-m inded i s ex p la in e d by our a ty p lo a l c la s s e s
31
whioh ta k e care of th e s e c h ild r e n .
Very d e f in ite im p lic a tio n s accompany such f a c t s
and th e s e a re as fo llo w s :
In each group over 50# have average in te llig e n c e
and to t h e i r needs th e u s u a l cu rricu lu m co n ten t and
stan d ard s a r e r e a d ily ad a p te d .
Between 18 and 27# have su p e rio r or v ery s u p e rio r
in te llig e n c e and should be re q u ire d to do work on a
s u p e rio r l e v e l . O cc asio n a lly , when p h y s ic a l and
s o c ia l adjustm ent w arra n ts i t , a c h ild in t h i s group
may be g iv en a double prom otion, b u t f o r th e g re a t
m a jo rity of c a s e s anen rlo h ed program allo w in g f o r
l i b r a r y p r iv ile g e s , assum ption o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,
p o s itio n s o f s o c ia l and e d u c a tio n a l le a d e r s h ip , w ider
v a r ie ty of su b je c t m a tte r , f i e l d t r i p s and r e p o r ts to
th e c la s s would f u l f i l l th e needs ex p ressed in th e
I.Q . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The te a c h e rs must keep in mind
t h a t th e s e c h ild re n w i l l go f a r in e d u c a tio n i f w ise ly
guided and a re p o te n tia l le a d e rs in t h e i r community.
I f th e s e c h ild re n do n o t do s u p e r io r work th e y a re j u s t
as much f a i l u r e s as th e average stu d e n t who a c tu a lly
f a i l s t o make h is g rad e.
From 16 t o 25# are d u ll normal o r b o rd e rlin e o a s e s .
I t i s t o be remembered when d e a lin g w ith th e s e c h ild re n
th a t th e y a r e dev elo p in g m e n ta lly a t o nly 70 to 90# of
the norm al r a t e . They g ra s p e x p la n a tio n s le s s q u ic k ly ,
th ey d e a l i n a b s tr a c tio n s le s s a p tly , and th e y con­
s ta n tly f e e l the s tin g of I n f e r i o r a b i l i t y u n le s s
w ise ly handled by th e te a c h e r . Such t a l e n t s as th e y
have must be developed to t h e i r utm ost and th e y must
a t a l l tim es f e e l t h a t th e y have a p la c e in th e
scheme o f th in g s . Since p r a c t i c a l judgment i s a
phase o f in te lli g e n c e , i t i s t o be borne in mind th a t
th e se c h ild re n must be g uided w ith more p a tie n t and
d e t a il e d e x p la n a tio n s o f a c c e p ta b le conduct in v a rio u s
s itu a tio n s and i t i s n o t to b e expected th a t th e y can
r e a c t t o them as q u ic k ly as a more h ig h ly endowed
c h ild i s a b le t o do .
The p resen ce of a few c h ild re n in th e c l a s s i f i c a ­
tio n below 70 in d io a te s th a t th e s e c h ild re n should be
p la ced in th e a ty p ic a l groups where programs and ac­
t i v i t i e s a re a d ju s te d t o th e needs and a b i l i t i e s of
feeb le-m in d ed c h ild r e n . A ty p ic a l normal curve o f an
elem en tary grade in a system allow ing f o r a ty p ic a l
c la s s e s should in r e a l i t y show th e co n clu sio n of a
curve a t th e I n te r v a l f o r b o rd e rlin e o a s e s .
r
52
One f u r th e r p o in t should be brought o u t. The v id e
range in I . Q . 'a , 76 and 75 p o in ts r e s p e c tiv e ly in th e
t h i r d and s ix th g ra d e s , in d ic a te s a v id e range in
m ental age a l s o . In sp e c tio n o f t e s t r e s u l t s re v e a l
an a c tu a l ra n g e from 6 y e a rs 5 months to 10 y ea rs 4
months in th e t h i r d g ra d e , and 7 y e a rs 8 months t o 14
y ea rs 4 months in th e s ix th g ra d e . T his means th a t
th e re i s an a c tu a l d if fe re n c e o f 4 y e a rs in th e t h i r d
grade and s ix and o n e -h a lf y e a rs i n th e s ix t h grade
betveen th e d u lle s t and b r ig h te s t p u p ils . Any one
te a c h e r th e n must be p rep ared t o adapt h e r program t o
th e s e v a r ia tio n s so t h a t she may e l i c i t a maximum
response from each in d iv id u a l. From th e te a c h e r 's
sta n d p o in t t h i s i s one of th e most c h a lle n g in g f a c t o r s
in elem en tary sch o o l te a c h in g .
Secondary School R e su lts and Im p lic a tio n s
The secondary sc h o o l curv es shov a pronounced
s v e llin g in th e d u ll norm al a r e a , and, in th e n in th
grade a d ecrease from th e elem entary schools i n th e
average I.Q . V arious f a c to r s c o n trib u te t o t h i s de­
v ia tio n from th e normal and th e s e may be l i s t e d as
fo llo v s :
1. There i s an accum ulation o f r e ta rd e d p u p ils
vho have managed to g e t th ro u g h th e elem entary
sch o o ls b u t vho fin d th e y must s lo v up a t th e more
d if f ic u lt le v e ls .
2 . Whereas th e sc h o o l la v fo rm erly a llo v e d
c h ild re n fo u rte e n y e a rs o f age t o leav e sc h o o l i f
th e y had com pleted th e s ix t h g ra d e , i t nov re q u ir e s
them t o com plete th e e ig h th g rad e and rem ain u n t i l
th e y become s ix te e n y e a rs o f ag e .
3 . There i s le s s in c e n tiv e t o leav e school nov
as many p la c e s of employment have d o s e d t h e i r doors
to c h ild re n under 18 y e a rs o f ag e. T his vould ap p ly
to th e d u l l normal group as th e b r ig h te r p u p ils vould
con tin u e in school re g a r d le s s o f employment oppor­
tu n itie s .
4 . A sm a ll p ercen tag e of our secondary sch o o l
p u p ils a tte n d p r iv a te sc h o o ls. Many of th e s e a re p re ­
sumably above average s tu d e n ts and th e re fo re by t h e i r
absence from th e p u b lic sOhools send th e average to v a rd
th e lo v e r l e v e l .
ss
5 . The t r a n s f e r o f a c e r t a i n p ercen tag e of p u p ils
from th e ju n io r h ig h school to th e grade school may
have some b e a rin g on th e average sta n d in g o f a grade
in th e form er school* In th e p o p u la r machine shop d i ­
v is io n of th e tr a d e s c h o o l, e n tra n c e i s based on th e
r e s u lt s o f an academic t e s t sin c e th e re i s room f o r
only a f r a c t i o n of th e a p p lic a n ts * The le s s ab le
stu d e n ts co n tin u e in th e r e g u la r secondary o la sses*
6 . The ty p e o f oonaunity w hich a sch o o l system
se rv e s always p la y s some p a r t in d eterm in in g sc o re s
d e riv e d from in te lli g e n c e te s ts * In New B r ita in i t
i s to be presumed t h a t th e predominance o f fo re ig n
homes w ith t h e i r lim ite d background of American c u l­
tu r e and meager supply of books and m agazines, a s w e ll
as th e lack o f f a c i l i t y o f th e a d u lts w ith th e E n g lish
lang u ag e, would r e s u lt in a p o o rer showing in I.Q .
ra tin g .
At t h i s p o in t i t w i l l be i n t e r e s t i n g to i n v e s t i ­
g ate th e average I.Q . r a t i n g re p o rte d in o th e r c i t i e s *
From s t a t i s t i c s g a th e re d by Dr* V a lte r F. Dearborn
b efo re 1928 from th r e e f a i r l y ty p ic a l New England
towns we f in d th e average I*Q *'s f o r th e gamut of
g rad es to be as fo llo w s:
Grade
I.Q .
II III
97 97
IV V
97 98
VI
101
V II V III
101 104
EC
106
X XI
106 106
X II
106
$ o r th e sake o f com parison we may a ls o l i s t th e I . Q . 's
d e riv e d from th e New B r ita in t e s t i n g p erio d t h i s October*
Grade
I.Q .
III
101
VI
101
EC
98
X
101
In th e New England towns th e f iv e lower grades are
s l i g h t l y below average as each grade le v e l i s lowered
by th e p resen ce of r e ta r d e d c h ild r e n . In th o se days
th e s i x t h grade began to f e e l th e e f f e c t s o f s e le c tio n
due to th e dropping out of th e d u lle r p u p ils and th e
r e s u lt in g In c re a se in th e average o f th e c la s s as i t
th u s rem ained. Subsequent grades became more and more
r e f in e d from th e sta n d p o in t of In n a te a b i l i t y as more
and more c h ild re n w ith le s s academic i n t e r e s t s dropped
out*
T his tre n d fo r I . Q . 's t o in c re a se a s grad es became
h ig h e r i s not t y p ic a l of our p re s e n t day schools*
I . Q . 's i n th e seocndary sc h o o ls are l i t t l e or no h ig h er
th a n th o se i n th e lo w er'g ra d es and we may a t t r i b u t e t h i s
54
f a c t to th e fo rc e s p re v io u sly l i s t e d w hich a re in f lu e n c ­
ing the d u lle r c h ild t o rem ain in school* In f a c t ,
th e se fo rc e s have been so e f f e c t i v e th a t th e mean I.Q*
in th e n in th grade i s lower r a t h e r th a n h ig h e r th a n
th o se in th e elem entary schools*
T his summary o f the in te llig e n c e t e s t i n g in New
B r ita in le ad s to th e fo llo w in g a d m in is tra tiv e im p lic a tio n s :
1*
The p ro p er placem ent of low I*Q. p u p ils in th e
J u n io r V o catio n al School which i s provided in one
of th e ju n io r h ig h sc h o o ls f o r th e s e p u p ils*
2*
P ro v is io n o f m eaningful and v o c a tio n a lly e f f e c tiv e
c u r r ic u la w ith d e f i n i t e re c o g n itio n upon comple­
ti o n o f th e cou rse f o r p u p ils in th e J u n io r Vo­
c a tio n a l School ( fo r low I . Q . 's over fo u rte e n
y e a rs of age)*
5.
P ro v isio n f o r in d iv id u a l d iffe re n c e s *
a*
b.
4.
P a r tic u l a r ly f o r non-book-minded p u p ils by
development o f c u r r ic u la on th e le v e l of
a b i l i t y and i n t e r e s t le a d in g to h igh sch o o l
diplom a.
Also f o r c h a lle n g in g th e s u p e rio r stu d e n t who
w i l l b e th e le a d e r of tomorrow.
In creased aw areness of th e changing s i t u a t i o n on
th e secondary sch o o l le v e l as school f o r " a l l th e
c h ild re n " by th e f a c u l t i e s o f th e ju n io r and
se n io r h ig h sch o o ls ( p a r tic u l a r ly th e S en io r High
S c h o o l)•
Achievement T e stin g
(See S e c tio n XI o f Source M a te r ia l.)
The M etro p o litan Reading R eadiness T e sts f o r Grade
I c h ild re n and th e P ro g ressiv e Achievement T e sts f o r Grades
I I through X II were chosen t o give a comprehensive p ic tu r e
of p u p il achievem ent of th e New B r ita in sc h o o ls.
The t e s t s
r
55
were given t o 526 f i r s t g ra d e rs ;
1
t o 4,876 elem entary
school p u p ils in g rad es two th ro u g h s ix ; t o 3,732 ju n io r
h ig h sch o o l p u p ils ; and to 2,307 s e n io r h ig h sch o o l p u p ils*
2
T his i s a t o t a l of 10,915 p u p ils te s te d out of ap p ro x i­
m ately 13,000 r e g is t e r e d .
A g e n e ra l p ic tu r e of th e t e s t ­
in g r e s u l t s from a stu d y of th e ta b le s given in S ectio n
X I, on pages 210, 214, 215, 216 and 217.
These seem to
In d ic a te b e t t e r achievement in low er g rad es w ith In c re a s in g
f a i l u r e t o reao h th e expected achievem ent le v e ls as upper
grades and h igh sch o o l are reached*
The fo llo w in g summaries and recommendations a re
3
Included In t h i s r e p o r t:
Elem entary Level
1* 2h c h ro n o lo g ic a l age, th e New B r ita in elemen­
t a r y sch o o l c la s s m edians ran g e from 1 t o 4 months
younger th a n t h e n a tio n a l, and average 2*3 months
und erage.
2* In in te llig e n c e grade placem ent th e c la s s
medians ran g e from 4 months h ig h e r to 2 months lo v e r
th a n th e n a tio n a l s ta n d a rd . Average in te lli g e n c e ,
however, i s p r a c t i c a l l y e q u iv a le n t; ,4 o f a month
above th e standard* (For a more d e t a il e d stu d y o f
in te llig e n c e le v e ls see B u lle tin No. 1 o f t h i s s e r ie s * )
3* In achievem ent, th e c la s s medians range from
3 months above to 4 months below , a g a in m ain tain in g
an average p r a c t i c a l l y e q u iv a le n t t o th e sta n d a rd ;
•1 of a month above it*
From g rad es I I - l through V -l th e lo c a l sta n d ard s
1*
2*
3.
Source M a te r ia l, S ectio n X I, p* 195*
Souroe M a te r ia l, S ectio n X I, p* 204*
Source M a te r ia l, S ectio n X I, B u lle tin I I I , pp* 207-209,
212*
36
a re c o n s is te n tly eq u a l t o or above th e n a tio n a l
sta n d a rd s , b u t the l a s t th re e se m e ste rs, V-2, V I-1 ,
and V I-2 , drop from 2 to 4 months below.
Seoondary le v e l
4 . In c h ro n o lo g ic a l ag e , th e seoondary sohool
c la s s medians range from 3 months above t o 3 months
below the sta n d a rd ag e, w ith an average of .5 months
above. A lthough th e lo c a l c h ild re n average below
age a t th e s t a r t of t h e i r sohool c a r e e r , t h i s advan­
ta g e (o r d isa d v an ta g e) i s l o s t b efo re th e y complete
t h e i r s c h o o lin g .
5 . In m ental a g e , th e range I s widened s t i l l
more • I t in c lu d e s medians from 4 months above th e
average to 2 y ears and 3 months below . The average de­
v ia tio n i s 3 .9 months below th e norm al. A pparently we
a re r e ta in in g a la r g e r percentage of th e c h ild re n in
th e lower le v e ls o f in te llig e n c e th an th e average
sch o o l i n th e c o u n try , o r a t le a s t in th o se s e c tio n s
In which th e t e s t s were s ta n d a rd is e d .
6 . In g e n e ra l ach iev em en t, our d e v ia tio n s from th e
norm al ran g e from 3 months t o one y ea r and s ix m onths.
The average d e v ia tio n i s 8 .1 months below th e sta n d a rd .
Much o f t h i s d iffe re n c e i s accounted f o r , however, by
our below p a r m ental age norms.
S u b ject M atter Achievements
G eneral achievement s c o re s must be bro k en up in to
more s p e c if ic te rm s b e fo re th e y can be of much v alu e
in a d ia g n o s tic survey of academic s ta n d in g . Conse­
q u e n tly , average sc o re s f o r th e perform ance of th e
c h ild re n in each of th e f i v e s u b je c t f i e l d s a re d e t e r ­
m ined. In summary th e r e s u l t s are as fo llo w s:
1 . On th e elem entary le v e l th e p o o rest showing i s
made in th e language t e s t , a lth o u g h th e average median
sco re i s b u t .4 months below th e s ta n d a rd . A ll o th e r
su b je c ts a re r a t e d h ig h e r th a n th e n a t io n a l . In f a c t ,
in read in g com prehension, a rith m e tic re a s o n in g , and
a r ith m e tic fu n d am en tals, th e lo c a l elem en tary g rad es
ran k from 1 .3 t o 1.5 months above th e s ta n d a rd . There
seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t th e elem entary schools a r e
hold in g t h e i r own.
2 . The ju n io r h igh sc h o o ls f a l l somewhat below in
a l l s u b je c ts , th e g r e a t e s t o ffe n d er b e in g a r ith m e tic
fun d am en tals. W ithin th e ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l le v e l th e
37
n in th g rad e I s la rg e ly re s p o n s ib le f o r th e low so ores
in a r ith m e tic , b o th in re a so n in g and In fu n d am en tals.
Since our se n io r h ig h sc h o o l stu d e n ts co n tin u e t o
lo se ground, r e l a t i v e l y sp eak in g , i t i s lo g ic a l to
contend th a t th e reason l i e s i n th e f a c t th a t a l l
c h ild re n to o k th e t e s t r e g a r d le s s o f w hether or not
th ey a r e ta k in g or have ta k e n much work in mathe­
m atics beyond th e e ig h th g ra d e .
3 . B esides b e in g low in a r ith m e tic fu ndam entals,
th e IX-2 group i s g e n e ra lly low in a l l s u b je c ts . I t
has a m e n tal le v e l no h ig h e r th a n th e DC-1 group.
There i s th e p o s s i b i l i t y th a t t h i s i s a sp o rt or f re a k
group, one of th o se o cc asio n al anom alies which a re f a ­
m ilia r t o a l l ex p erien ced te a c h e r s . F u rth e r t e s t i n g
of th e se c h ild re n d u rin g t h e i r course in th e h ig h
school would add more l i g h t to the achievem ent s ta n d ­
ing of th e s e p u p ils .
4 . Grade X U -2 has th e low est m ental r a t i n g of any
c la s s in th e h ig h s c h o o l, y et in comparison w ith i t s
m ental l e v e l , made th e b e s t showing in th e t e s t of any
grade th roughout th e system . Since i t s m ental ages
were d e riv e d from I . Q . 's o b tain ed on th e average of two
y ea rs ag o , i t may be t h a t th e m ental ages were unduly
low , b u t a t any r a t e , t h e i r showing on th e t e s t was
very commendable, i n s p i t e of th e f a c t th a t th e sc o re s
a re below th e sta n d a rd f o r achievem ent in t h a t g ra d e .
In o rd e r t o detexm lne th e e x te n t t o which in d iv id u a l
p u p il a b i l i t y i s b e in g ch a lle n g ed b y th e school p ro ­
grams th e d iffe re n c e s between in te llig e n c e grade p la c e ­
ment and achievem ent grad e plaoement were fig u re d f o r
th e f iv e b r ig h te s t and th e f iv e d u lle s t c h ild re n in
each c la s s of IV -1, V II-1 and X - l. In t h i s way th e re
was o b ta in ed a c ro s s s e c tio n o f th r e e le v e ls : elemen­
t a r y , ju n io r h ig h and s e n io r h ig h . These f ig u r e s were
averaged f o r eaoh o f th e th r e e g rad es w ith th e r e s u l t s
as b elo w . A p lu s In d ic a te s th o se cases in which th e
c h ild re n average b e t t e r in achievem ent th a n in in n a te
a b i l i t y ; a minus in d ic a te s th o se ca ses in w hich th e y do
not average so w e ll in achievement as in a b i l i t y .
B rig h te s t
D u lle a t
E lem entary (Grade 17-1)
- .3 months
4 .7 months
Ju n io r High (Grade V II-1)
-1 .1 months
4 .2 months
S en io r High (Grade X -l)
- .5 months
3 months
58
There app ears to b e very l i t t l e d iffe re n c e between
th e two g ro u p s, not more th a n 1 .3 months on th e le v e l
of g r e a te s t d i s p a r i t y . There i s , however, a tendency
f o r th e d u lle r c h ild re n t o do b e t t e r acco rd in g to t h e i r
I n te llig e n c e th an th e b r ig h te r c h ild re n d o .
C onclusion and Recommendations
I t should be noted th a t th e elem en tary sch o o ls com­
pare fa v o ra b ly w ith th e n a tio n a l sta n d a rd s b u t t h a t th e
secondary le v e ls are in need o f f u r t h e r stu d y . I t seems
obvious t h a t a t e s t i n g program of t h i s s o r t could b rin g
t o l i g h t in fo rm a tio n which th e so h o o ls co uld n o t o th e r­
wise o b ta in , m xile i t i s n o t p o s s ib le a t th e p re s e n t
tim e to make v ery p o s itiv e recom m endations, th e fo llo w ­
ing seem t o be borne out by th e survey:
1. Study and r e v is io n o f en tra n ce req u irem en ts so
th a t more mature c h ild re n a re ad m itted t o Grade I and
so th a t th e m a tu rity o f a l l p u p ils on a l l le v e ls w ill
th e re b y e v e n tu a lly be r a is e d . (See su g g ested program
on pages 200- 201.)
2 . F u rth e r study and r e v is io n on th e secondary
le v e l o f cu rricu lu m , achievem ent s ta n d a rd s , co u rses o f
stu d y , methods of in s t r u c tio n , g u id an ce, and co o rd in a­
t i o n through more adequate s u p e rv is io n .
3 . A doption o f an annual t e s t i n g program w hich
s h a ll serv e b o th as a d ia g n o s tic dev ice and as a b a s is
f o r c o n s ta n tly checking Kew B r ita in r e s u l t s a g a in s t
o u tsid e sta n d a rd s o f a b i l i t y and achievem ent.
The in te llig e n c e t e s t i n g and achievem ent t e s t i n g p ro ­
gram had aohieved i t s p u rp o se.
I t p re se n te d a f a i r l y a c ­
c u ra te p ic tu r e ( in s p it e o f i t s known lim ita tio n s ) to th e
su p erin ten d en t, o f s c h o o ls , Board o f E d u catio n , and s t a f f ,
o f th e n a tiv e a b i l i t y of th e sch o o l c h ild r e n , to g e th e r
w ith a measure o f th e su c cess th e New B r ita in sohools were
having in p ro v id in g e d u c a tio n f o r th e s e c h ild re n .
I t p re ­
se n ted a ch allen g e f o r b e t t e r m eeting th e needs of each i n ­
d iv id u a l c h i l d .
59
I n te r n a l Problems
(See Source M a te ria l, S e c tio n X.)
A study of I n te r n a l Problems o f th e sch o o l system
was a ls o made by th e R esearch D epartm ent, a t th e re q u e st
of th e s u p e rin te n d e n t.
These s tu d ie s in clu d ed such prob­
lems a s :
1,
P u p il p o p u la tio n tren d s*
2*
T ea ch er-p u p ll lo a d s .
3*
Teacher p r e p a r a tio n .
4*
B u ild in g u t i l i z a t i o n *
5*
A stu d y of problems te a c h e rs would lik e t o
have review ed.
The r e p o r ts of th e s e s tu d ie s a re in c lu d ed in S e c tio n X of
B u lle tin s 2A and 2B.
A b r i e f summary of th e s e s tu d ie s i s
given below*
P u p il P o p u latio n Trends
T his stu d y i n ta b le s and c h a rts p re se n te d in B u lle ­
t i n IIA , on pages 143>L 146,apd 146
, in d ic a te a r a p id ly
changing p u p il p o p u la tio n in New B rita in *
I t i s in lin e
w ith g e n e ra l tre n d s in n o rth e a s te rn U nited S ta te s of
A m erica, b u t i f anything; i s somewhat accentuated*
During
th e te n - y e a r p e rio d stu d ie d (1927-1937), th e elem entary
1
r e g i s t r a t i o n dropped from a peak in 1929 o f 9,361 t o 6,627
and from
1*
2*
2
b eing 71 p er cen t of th e t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n In
Source M a te ria l, B u lle tin IIA , S e c tio n X, p . 143*
Source M a te r ia l, B u lle t ip IIA , S e c tio n X, p . 146*
40
1927 to 51 p e r eent of th e t o t a l i n 1937.
1
The secondary sch o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n
(grades 6 to 12)
In creased from 3,661 in 1927 t o a peak o f 6,359 in 1935
and ended in 1937 w ith 6,262*
At th e same tim e th e secondary
2
school r e g i s t r a t i o n s
in c re a se d from 29 p er cen t of th e
t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n in 1927 t o 49 p e r cen t in 1937*
T his
i s even more a c ce n tu ate d in th e S en io r High School when i t
i s d o u b tfu l i f th e peak of r e g i s t r a t i o n has y e t been
reached*
These tr e n d s i n New B r ita in d e f i n i t e l y c a l l f o r
a t te n t io n in two ways:
1*
D ecreasing elem entary r e g i s t r a t i o n c a l l s f o r ca re
in elem entary sc h o o l b u ild in g and o th e r elem entary
e x p e n d itu re s, b u t open th e way to b e t t e r I n s tr u c ­
tio n w ithout in c re a se d c o s ts th ro u g h sm aller
c la s s e s and s p e c ia liz e d se rv ic e s*
2*
The in c re a s in g r e g i s t r a t i o n in th e seoondary
schools p a r t i c u l a r l y th e S en io r High S chool, in ­
d ic a te s th a t th e high school i s becoming a "com­
mon sohool" and p ro v is io n must be made f o r boys
and g i r l s on a l l le v e ls o f a b i l i t i e s and in ­
te r e s ts *
T each er-P u p ll Load and P u p il Costs
A v ery I n te r e s t in g stu d y o f p u p ll- te a c h e r lo a d i s
in c lu d ed in B u lle tin IIA*
The ta b le on page 151 g iv es th e
r a t i o between f a c u lty and p u p il, and th e p e r p u p il co st*
T his stu d y seems t o in d ic a te no p a r t i c u l a r tr e n d in norm al
1*
2*
Souroe M a te r ia l, B u lle tin IIA , S ectio n X, p*143*
Souroe M a te ria l, B u lle tin IIA , S ectio n X, p . 146.
■''"■s'—
r
TS?J
41
y e a rs , b u t d u rin g th e d e p re ssio n y e a rs a d e f in it e In c re a se
In te a c h e r lo ad and a d ecrease In p e r p u p il c o s ts .
The
peak lo ad was f o r th e elem entary sch o o ls In 1032-1933 w ith
a r a t i o o f 32 p u p ils p er te a c h e r and a minimum p e r p u p il
c o st In 1933-1934 of $60.67, a d ecrease o f over 25 p e r ce n t
from th e peak o f $81.15 In 1927-1928.
The l a t e s t p e r p u p il
c o s ts on th e elem entary so h o o l le v e l a re $76.60.
On th e
ju n io r h ig h sohool l e v e l , peak p u p il lo a d In 1932-1933 was
28, and th e minimum p e r p u p il c o s t of $73.20 was In 19331934, a d ecrease o f over 40 p e r oent from th e peak in 19291930 of $131.00.
The l a t e s t p e r p u p il c o s ts a re $110.13.
The S en io r High Sohool f ig u r e s show a peak i n p u p il lo ad
In 1933-1934 of 32 p u p ils and th e minimum p e r p u p il c o s ts
In 1934-1935 of $ 7 5 .1 2 , a d ec re ase of over 60 p e r c e n t from
th e peak In 1929-1930 o f $178.28.
The l a t e s t p e r p u p il
c o s ts i n S enior High Sohool a r e $100.68.
A study o f th e s e f ig u r e s in d ic a te s c l e a r ly th e severe
outs i n s t a f f and s a la r y (n e a rly 40 p e r ce n t c u t in 19331934) d u rin g th e d e p re ssio n y e a rs .
I t would seem a ls o t o
in d ic a te th e la c k of any c o n s is te n t p o lic y a s to te a c h e r
lo ad s and c o s ts p r i o r t o th e d e p re s sio n .
At p re s e n t th e
J u n io r High Sohool has th e low est p e r p u p il lo ad and th e
h ig h e st p e r p u p il c o s ts .
T his would seem t o in d ic a te th e
need o f th e a d o p tio n of th e fo llo w in g p o lic ie s :
1.
A stu d y o f th e r e la tio n s h i p between p u p il
lo a d s , te a o h ln g e f f ic ie n c y and c o s ts .
I
i
42
2*
A stu d y o f ways and means of d e c re a sin g
Ju n io r h ig h school c o sts*
A h in t t o v ay s and means of In c re a s in g th e e f f ic ie n c y
of th e so h o o ls , e s p e c ia lly on th e seoondary l e v e l , i s con­
ta in e d in th e ta b le and c h a rts in clu d ed in pages 152 t o 166 *
A stu d y o f th e se ta b le s and c h a rts d e f i n i t e l y lead s to
th is :
There i s a s u f f i c i e n t v a r ia tio n in c la s s s iz e
and in d iv id u a l te a c h e r lo a d to w arra n t very
o a r e f u l stu d y by th e p r in c ip a l and s u p e rin ­
te n d e n t, w ith a view toward e q u a liz in g th e
lo a d , in c re a s in g th e e f f ic ie n c y , and low ering
th e co sts*
P ro fe s s io n a l P re p a ra tio n of th e P re sen t F a c u lty
The stu d y of th e p r o fe s s io n a l p re p a ra tio n of th e
p re s e n t f a c u lty b eg in s w ith a stu d y of th e h ig h sohool p re ­
p a r a tio n of th e p re s e n t f a c u l t y , in o rd er to g et some id ea
of th e in b ree d in g of th e fa c u lty *
The ta b le on page
of B u lle tin IIA in d ic a te s 68*87 p e r ce n t of a l l te a c h e rs
g rad u ated from th e New B r ita in S en io r High Sohool*
The
d iv is io n m ain ta in in g th e h ig h e st p ercen tag e of lo c a l p r e ­
p a r a tio n i s th e elem entary w ith 88*4 p e r c e n t and th e
low est was th e S en io r High School w ith 51*1 p e r cent* There
was a t o t a l o f e ig h t te a c h e rs who were n o t g rad u ates o f any
h ig h school*
T h is , coupled w ith th e in fo rm a tio n th a t t h i s
took p lace i n th e fa c e of no s a la ry r e c o g n itio n d u rin g th e
d e p re ssio n y ears, i s Indeed commendable.
However, 22*7 p er
cen t o f th e te a c h e rs have done n o th in g sin c e g raduation*
43
The r e a l s o lu tio n o f th e se problem s seems t o be in
two d ir e c tio n s t
1«
Freedom to s e l e c t th e b e s t te a c h e rs a v a ila b le
f o r th e f u tu r e , r e g a r d le s s o f re s id e n c e .
2.
In -s e rv ic e tr a in i n g and encouragement f o r ad­
vanced stu d y , in c lu d in g s a la ry re c o g n itio n .
B u ild in g U tili z a tio n
The ta b le on page 176 iai B u lle tin I IB g iv e s a summary
of co n d itio n s found w ith re g a rd to b u ild in g u t i l i z a t i o n .
These p erce n tag e s a t b e s t a re e stim a te s and in d ic a tio n s and
cannot be ta k e n as to o a b s o lu te .
However, th e usage in
seoondary sohools from 61 p e r cent to 114 p er ce n t (o m ittin g
th e ju n io r high sohool b u ild in g c a lle d th e Old B u r r ltt
Sohool) and from 62 p e r ce n t to 103 p er cen t in th e elemen­
t a r y sc h o o ls, would te n d to in d ic a te t h a t much g r e a te r e f ­
f ic ie n c y i n u se would be p o s s ib le .
Changes a re b ein g made to look tow ard economy and
e f f ic ie n c y .
The abandoned Rockwell Sohool was used in th e
f a l l o f 1938 a s an annex t o th e S en io r High Sohool i n o rd e r
t o do away w ith th e n e c e s s ity o f th e double p la to o n in g p re ­
v io u sly found n ec essary t h e r e .
The Old B u r r ltt Sohool has
been abandoned and th e shop work w hich i t p ro v id ed f o r has
been tr a n s f e r r e d to th e r e g u la r ju n io r h ig h so h o o ls , which
w ill u se them t o a h ig h e r p ercentage of e f f ic ie n c y .
T his
stu d y a ls o In d ic a te s th a t in th e fu tu re th e re may be a
p o s s i b i l i t y of tr a n s f e r r in g ^he C e n tra l Ju n io r High School
44
from th e c e n te r o f tb s c i t y t o one o f th e grade sohools in
th e w estern p a r t o f th e c i t y , which w ith an a d d itio n could
he adapted to J u n io r h ig h so h o o l u s e .
T his would out down
th e number o f so h o o ls t o b e m a in ta in ed , im p ro v e th e lo c a ­
tio n o f th e J u n io r h ig h so h o o l and in c re a s e th e e f f ic ie n c y
of th o se of o th e r elem entary sohool b u ild in g s .
T ea ch ers 1 Q uestions
The r e s t of B u lle tin IIB s tu d ie s th e q u e stio n s r a is e d
by te a c h e r s , which a r e f o r th e most p a r t th e s u b je c t of com­
m itte e s tu d ie s and do n o t need to be d isc u sse d h e re .
Summary of R esearch Department S tu d ie s
The s tu d ie s made by th e R esearch Department were
th o se b e s t ad ap ted to Im personal and s t a t i s t i c a l tre a tm e n t.
They p re se n te d a l l conoem ed w ith a p ic tu re o f th e fo llo w in g :
1.
The in te llig e n c e le v e ls of New B r ita in c h ild r e n .
2.
The achievement le v e ls of New B r ita in c h ild re n .
3.
In fo rm atio n co n cern in g :
a.
P u p il p o p u la tio n tr e n d s .
b.
T ea c h e r-p u p il lo a d s .
o.
Teacher p re p a ra tio n .
CHAPTER V
AN EVALUATION AND SUMMARY OF STAFF COMMITTEE STUDIES
As has been in d ic a te d , th e su p e rin ten d en t c a lle d
upon many com m ittees to I n v e s tig a te o e r ta ln o th e r ty p e s of
problems and to make re p o r ts to him .
A b r i e f summary and
e v a lu a tio n of th e com plete r e p o r ts which a re Inclu d ed In th e
Source M a te r ia ls , S ectio n s X II t o XVII, pages 218-401,
w ill be th e purpose o f t h i s c h a p te r .
The s t a f f com m ittees s e t up f o r t h i s purpose stu d ie d
th e fo llo w in g problems fa c in g th e a d m in is tra tio n o f th e New
B r ita in S ohools:
1.
Prom otions.
2.
Secondary School Course of Study and Gradua­
tio n R equirem ents.
3.
Guidance •
4. Assignment P la n .
5.
C o o rd in atio n of Secondary S ch o o ls.
6.
Follow -up of High Sohool G raduates.
Committee f o r Study o f Semi-Annual v s. Annual Prompt io n s
1
A committee headed by th e s u p e rv iso r o f elem entary
1.
See Souroe M a te r ia l, S e c tio n X II, B u lle tin IV ,pp. 219-224.
45
46
sohools was a p p o in te d , a t th e re q u e s t of many s t a f f members,
t o stu d y th e s it u a ti o n w ith re g a rd to th e c u rre n t p la n o f
sem i-annual prom otions and to make recommendations f o r i t s
f u tu re cantinuanoe o r change.
The r e p o r t o f t h i s committee
i s co n tain ed in Source M a te r ia l, S ectio n X II,
annual p la n h as been in o p e ra tio n sin c e 1919,
The sem l1
The committee
s tu d ie d th e fo llo w in g f a c to r s in t h i s p lan s
1,
F in a n c ia l c o s t,
2,
Prom otions and non-prom otions,
3,
The p u p il and h is ad ju stm e n t,
4,
The g rad u ate who f in is h e s in th e m iddle of th e
y e a r.
A fte r c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e se f a o t a r s , th e committee
recommends:
"That th e New B r ita in Sohools be p laced on an
annual prom otion o rg a n iz a tio n a s ra p id ly as i s c o n s is te n t
w ith th e proper adjustm ent of th e p u p ils Involved,"
This recommendation i s based upon th e fo llo w in g
p r in c ip le s which th e committee f e e ls should govern prom otions
so th a t th e e d u c a tio n a l program of th e schools may f i t th e
recognized needs of p u p ils .
P rin c ip le s t
1 , The prom otion of p u p ils in th e New B r ita in
School system should be based on th e id e a l of a s te a d y ,
u n in te rru p te d p ro g re ssio n th ro u g h th e tw elve g rad es,
1,
2,
Souroe M a te ria l, S e c tio n X II, B u lle tin IV, p . 219,
Souroe M a te ria l, S c o tia n X II, B u lle tin IV, p p .220-223,
r
47
w ith prom otional s te p s from grade t o grade based
upon a d e f in ite s e t of f a o to r s such a s :
M astery of s u b je c t m a tte r - - s ig n i f ic a n t of
I n te ll ig e n c e , h e a lth , p e rso n a l c h a ra c te r ­
is tic s , e tc .
S o c ia l m a tu rity — a le v e l o f In d iv id u a l
grow th measured In term s o f s o c ia l In ­
t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s .
C h ro n o lo g ical ag e .
M ental a b i l i t y .
S. Any system of prom otion in v o lv in g group move­
ments a t s ta te d in te r v a ls should in c lu d e ample oppor­
tu n ity f o r In d iv id u a l p u p il adjustm ent and prom otion
a t o th e r th a n r e g u la r prom otion p e rio d s — p u p il growth
and p ro g re ss d eterm in in g th e tim e .
S. Promotion should be decided on th e b a s is of th e
in d iv id u a l p u p il.
4 . I t i s n o t th e prom otion p la n b u t th e p ro p er
a d m in is tra tio n o f th e p la n in th e I n t e r e s t of p u p il
development th a t i s im portant — t h a t e h lc h w i l l r e s u lt
in th e g r e a te s t good to th e a ll-ro u n d development of
th e in d iv id u a l.
5 . I t i s in c re a s in g ly reco g n ised th a t p u p il
f a i l u r e s a re very o ften due to a f a i l u r e of th e edu­
c a tio n a l program of th e soh o o l, t o r i g i d i t y in th e
a d m in is tra tiv e m achinery and in th e course of study
p r e s c rib e d , and t o f a u l t y te a c h in g p r a c t ic e s . These
w eaknesses in th e program can be c o rre c te d w ith study
and v ig ila n c e .
6 . The promotion p la n th a t e lim in a te s fre q u en t
c la s s d is ru p tio n s and th e a tte n d in g p u p il d i s t r a c ­
t i o n s , th a t p ro v id es tim e f o r adequate p la n n in g , and f o r
te a c h e rs to secu re a knowledge o f p u p il p e r s o n a litie s
in o rd e r t o d esig n a p r o f it a b le guidanoe program f o r
m eeting in d iv id u a l p u p il d iffe re n c e s i s th e p la n f o r
th e New B r ita in sc h o o ls.
The advantages o f th e proposed change were summarised
1
as fo llo w s:
1.
S o u rce M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n X I I , p p . 2 2 1 -2 2 2 .
r
48
1.
I t has th e advantage of g r e a te r s im p lic ity . I t
i s easy to a d m in is te r.
2.
I t can be made f l e x i b l e ; and should pro v id e f o r
p u p il ad ju stm en ts in a v a r ie ty of v a y s.
3.
I t p ro v id es f o r long term p la n n in g on th e p a rt
of a d m in is tra to rs and te a c h e r s .
4.
I t p ro v id e s a lo n g er p e rio d f o r th e stu d y of i n ­
d iv id u a l d if fe re n c e s among p u p ils , and f o r a
more thorough program of d ia g n o s tic -re m e d ia l
work, and p u p il g u id an ce.
5.
I t overcomes th e lo s s of tim e brought on by
c la s s re o rg a n iz a tio n s a t m id -y ea r.
6.
I t e lim in a te s two mass read ju stm e n ts o f p u p ils
d u rin g th e sch o o l y ea r and th e p u p il d is t r a c ti o n s
a tte n d in g •
7.
I t e lim in a te s ex o esslv e c l e r i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
8.
I t i s more econom ical in tim e and money, and in
th e co n se rv a tio n o f b oth te a c h e r and p u p il
energy.
9.
I t p ro v id es tim e d u rin g th e summer v a c a tio n to
make a v ery c a r e f u l re o rg a n iz a tio n of th e s c h o o ls.
10. I t c o n trib u te s to a c lo s e r a r t i c u l a t i o n between
S enior High School and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h er
le a rn in g : and i n normal tim es to a more f l u i d ab­
so rp tio n of g rad u ates by in d u s try and commerce.
11. I t conforms w ith th e d e s ir e o f p a re n ts t h a t p u p ils
g raduate from S en io r High School in June r a th e r
th a n a t m id -y ear.
The method of e f f e o tin g th e tr a n s f e r t o th e annual
prom otion p la n was covered on pages 222 t o 224 as fo llo w s:
1.
1.
1
That th e l a s t r e g u la r sem i-annual prom otion from
elem en tary sohools to th e ju n io r h ig h s c h o o ls ,
and from Grade V III -2 to IX-1 ta k e p la c e in June, 1938.
S ource M a t e r i a l , S e o t lc n - X I I , p p . 2 2 2 -2 2 4 .
i
49
2.
That Grades IX and above o ontinue on th e semi­
an n u al p la n u n t i l such c la s s e s have g rad u ated ,
(The c o lle g e c r e d it req u irem en ts n e c e s s a r ily
make f o r a slow er r e tu r n t o th e annual p la n on
th e le v e l o f seoondary e d u o a tio n ,)
3*
That ad ju stm en t c la s s e s be s e t up in th e elemen­
ta r y and in th e ju n io r h ig h sohools t o care f o r
ir r e g u la r c la s s and in d iv id u a l p u p il a d a p ta tio n s
to th e p la n , ( C r ite r ia f o r e s ta b lis h in g th e s e ad­
justm ent groups t o be worked out by a committee
made up of membership from th e d if f e r e n t sohool
le v e l s .)
4,
F or th e adjustm ent o f p u p ils t o th e new p la n ,
th e sc h o o l p r in c ip a ls may be h elp ed from th e r e ­
s u l t s of th e in te llig e n c e and achievem ent t e s t s
in a d d itio n to the o th e r a v a ila b le sohool e s t i ­
m ates of c h ild a b i l i t y and p ro g re s s ,
5,
That a l l p u p ils assig n ed to th e adjustm ent c la s s
be c a r e f u lly grouped, and th a t s p e c ia l a t te n t io n
be g iv en to t h e i r in d iv id u a l n e e d s. S p e c ia l ac ­
c e le r a tio n may be recommended f o r a few p u p ils of
e x c e p tio n a l a b i l i t y . The m a jo rity o f p u p ils now
in th e low er h a lf - y e a r d iv is io n s w i l l be c l a s s i ­
f ie d so t h a t d u rin g th e two te n a s , th e f a l l o f
1938 and th e sp rin g of 1939, th r e e term s of work
may be com pleted. This should be p o s s ib le by
c a r e f u l p lan n in g f o r many of th e average s tu d e n ts .
G eneral a b i l i t y and r a t e of p ro g re ss o f each
p u p il w i l l determ ine h is grade placem ent,
6,
That one p u b lic g ra d u a tio n ta k e p la c e in Ju n e,
1939 in th e Ju n io r and S en io r High Sohools and
th a t th e diploma alo n e be issu e d a t m id-year to
th o se vho have com pleted th e minimum requirem ents
f o r g ra d u a tio n ,
7,
That f o r adm ission t o K in d erg arten In Septem ber,
c h ild re n be f iv e y e a rs o f age b efo re December
3 1 st of th e same y e a r,
8,
That f o r adm ission t o Grade I in Septem ber, c h i l ­
d re n be s i x y e a rs o f age by O ctober 1 st of th e
same y e a r,
9,
That c h ild re n who become s ix y e a rs o f age between
October 1 st and December 3 1 st be ad m itted t o Grade
one upon th e recommendation o f th e sohool p r in c ip a l
and th e school p s y c h o lo g is t, an d upon e s ta b lis h in g
a com pensating m e n ta lity and s o o ia l m a tu rity .
j
50
10.
I r r e g u la r p u p il adjustm ents or u n fo re see n d e t a i l s
n ecessary to make f o r an e f f e c tiv e t r a n s f e r w ith in
a sohool or betw een sohools w i l l be made s u b je c t
t o th e ap p ro v al o f th e su p e rin ten d en t o f s c h o o ls.
This re p o rt was r e f e r r e d to th e Board o f E ducation
a t I t s Maroh m eeting f o r stu d y .
A fte r co n sid e ra b le s tu d y ,
a t i t s A p ril m eeting, th e Board adopted th e fo llo w in g r e s o ­
lu tio n :
The q u e stio n of th e annual prom otion p la n was
brought up and d isc u sse d a t some le n g th . On
m otion o f M rs. Siangan, i t was v oted t o r e tu r n
to th e annual promotion p la n , and th e su p e rin ­
te n d en t o f sch o o ls was empowered t o work out
th e d e t a i l s o f th e ad ju stm e n t .1
The a c tu a l p la n s f o r e f f e c tin g th e adjustm ent were
f u r th e r s tu d ie d by th e f a c u l t i e s and round ta b le s and covered
In an o f f i c i a l b u l l e t i n Issu ed about th e f i r s t of May, 1938.
Study of th e Course of Study and G raduation Requirement s
in tne~TTew ferTFaln Ju n io r and S enior &lgh'"Sbhoois*
The committee e s ta b lis h e d to stu d y t h i s m a tte r made
a very bulky r e p o r t c o v e rin g :
1.
2.
1*
The O b jectiv es of ju n io r h ig h sc h o o l.
2.
The S enior High Sohool c u r r ic u la .
3.
Supplements on s p e c if ic c u r r ic u la .
Source M a te ria l, S e c tio n I I : O f f ic ia l M inutes of th e
Board o f E duoation, p . 103.
See Source M a te ria l, S eo tio n X II I , pp. 226-257.
51
T h e ir summary and recommendations f o r th e ju n io r h ig h
schools are a s fo llo w s:
1.
R ev isio n of th e co u rses in E n g lish f o r Grades
2.
Exam ination of th e co u rses in S o c ia l S tu d ies
f o r Grades VII-DC w ith a view t o a d a p tin g them
to th e d if f e r e n t le v e ls of le a r n in g . A survey
of th e te x t books t o b e made in t h i s f i e l d w ith
a view to s e le c tin g one o r se v e ra l which a re
s u ite d to te a c h in g t h i s s u b je c t on th e ju n io r
h igh sc h o o l l e v e l .
3.
A survey o f th e books a v a ila b le in th e f i e l d of
m athem atics to d eterm in e w hether t h i s course
can be improved by a change of te x tb o o k .
4.
Development o f a d e t a il e d course of study f o r
th e th r e e achievem ent l e v e l s of th e ju n io r high
sohools as a working guide f o r th e te a c h e rs o f
su b je c t m a tte r.
V II-D C .
T h eir aumnary and g e n e ra l recommendations f o r th e S enior
High School a re a s fo llo w s:
1.
2.
2
1.
Four s u b je c ts a se m ester.
P u p ils must o b ta in th e recommendation o f t h e i r
co u n selo r and th e ap p ro v al of th e p r in c ip a l t o
o a rry more or le s s th a n th e norm al lo ad of fo u r
o n e -c re d it s u b je c ts . F r a o tio n a l- c r e d it s u b je c ts
lik e Guidance, M usic, and Art A p p re cia tio n may
be tak en in a d d itio n .
2.
Who may ta k e f iv e s u b je c ts ?
No p u p il w i l l be p e rm itte d t o o a r r y f iv e sub­
j e c t s u n le s s th e work i n eaoh su b je c t th e p re ­
vious sem ester m e rits th e p r iv ile g e . In ad­
d i t i o n , t o continue c a rry in g th e e x tra lo a d ,
a p u p il must m a in ta in a s a tis f a c to r y grade in
each of th e f iv e s u b je c ts he i s ta k in g .
Source M a te ria l, S ectio n X I I I , p . 232.
Souroe M a te r ia l, S ectio n X I I I , p . 248.
\
52
3.
Major8 and M inors.
In your program o f s tu d ie s you must have two
m ajors and two m inors. E n g lish must be one
m a jo r. S o c ia l S tu d ies most be a t le a s t a m inor.
I t may be a m ajo r.
One m ajor and minor may be from a r e la te d f i e l d
of work w ith in one departm ent; f o r example,
Shorthand I and I I and T ypew riting I and I I and
T ra n s c rip tio n may be a m ajor and B usiness P rac­
t i c e and O ffice P ra c tic e may be th e minor from
th e same d ep artm en t.
4.
F o reig n Languages.
S tudents who expect to e n te r c o lle g e must com­
p le te a t l e a s t two u n its in th e same language.
Not le s s th a n two u n its in th e same language may
be accep ted f o r g ra d u a tio n .
5.
One c r e d it in P h y sic a l E ducation i s re q u ire d f o r
g ra d u a tio n .
6.
The fo llo w in g c o n s ta n ts a re re q u ire d f o r gradua­
tio n :
E n g lish - 3 u n its
American H isto ry - 1 u n it
P h y sical E ducation - 1 u n it
S afety Eduoation - 1 u n it
7.
Two o r mare co u rses in E n g lish may not be ta k e n
c o n c u rre n tly .
8.
G eneral req u irem en ts f o r a l l p u p ils f o r g ra d u a tio n
from S en io r High School: com pletion o f 13 u n i t s
a f t e r prom otion in to Grade X from j u n i o r h ig h
sc h o o l.
T h is r e p o r t has been r e f e r r e d t o th e Board of Edu­
c a tio n and th e newly foxmed C ouncil on Problems of Secondary
Eduoation (composed of secondary sohool p r in c ip a ls ) f o r
study and th e ev o lv in g of a d e f in ite p la n f o r th e f u tu r e .
I t i s hoped th a t t h i s p la n can be i n such shape t h a t i t may
be adopted by th e Board of E ducation in th e n e a r f u tu r e .
53
1
Study o f Quidanoe
A committee headed by th e v ic e - p r in c ip a l of th e
S enior High School was ap pointed t o e v a lu a te th e p re s e n t
guidance program and make recommendations f o r th e f u t u r e ,
This co m m ittee's re p o rt i s B u lle tin V I,
2
The re p o rt co v ers
a d is c u s s io n o f th e c o s m itte e 's p o in t of view and d e f in it io n
of g u id a n ce.
The o b je c tiv e s o f guidance were o u tlin e d by
3
th e committee a s fo llo w s:
1,
To develop d e s ir a b le I d e a ls and h a b its o f c i ­
tiz e n s h ip .
a,
b.
2,
In d iv id u a l and group knowledge, id e a ls and
a ttitu d e s ,
P r a c tic a l o p p o rtu n itie s in home roams f o r
stu d en t government,
To develop d e s ira b le p u p ll- te a c h e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s ,
a,
A cquainting th e te a c h e r w ith p u p ils .
The school i s in te r e s te d in rem ed ial work, in lo ­
c a tin g th e weaknesses and d e f ic ie n c ie s in p u p ils ,
t h e i r h a b i t s , am bitions and I d e a ls , and in d e­
velo p in g programs f o r improving th e s e .
3,
To guide p u p ils a s in
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f•
1,
2,
3,
P erso n al guidance
E d u catio n al guidance
S o c ia l guidance
H oral guidance
V ocational guidance
H ealth guidance
See Souroe M a te ria l, S e c tio n XIV, B u lle tin V I,p p . 259-273,
Souroe M a te ria l, S e c tio n XIV, p . 259,
Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XIV, p , 262,
54
4*
To guide and h elp boya and g i r l s choose w isely
such lif e - c e n te r e d e x p e rie n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s
th a t w i l l develop in them r a t i o n a l lo y a ltie s and
reaso n ab le e x p e c ta tio n s t h a t a re o b ta in a b le .
There th e n fo llo w s a g e n e ra l d is c u s s io n of what the
guidanoe program in ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h sohools should
be.
There i s th e n given a g re a t d e a l of v alu ab le inform a­
tio n f o r te a c h e rs I n te r e s te d In th e guidanoe program.
The
committee*s re p o rt i s weak in th a t i t does not give a
d e f i n i t e e v a lu a tio n of th e p re s e n t program, which was one
of th e re q u e s ts o f th e s u p e rin te n d e n t.
T his was d o u b tle ss
avoided because th e re was a t th a t tim e no d e f in it e guidance
o rg a n iz a tio n o r p la n .
I t had been la r g e ly an in c id e n ta l
m a tte r which th e su p e rin ten d en t f e l t had been to o much neg­
le c te d by p r in c ip a ls and te a c h e rs a l i k e .
The committee*s
recommendations p lan f o r a more d e f i n i t e o rg a n iz a tio n as
fo llo w s:
1.
The ofcmmittee recommends th e esta b lish m e n t of th e
p o s itio n of D ire c to r of Guidance f o r th e New
B r ita in sc h o o ls. The d u tie s of such a d ir e c to r
would be to :
a.
b.
1.
Organize guidance departm ents in each o f th e
p re se n t elem en tary , ju n io r h ig h sc h o o ls,
and s e n io r h ig h sc h o o l, u sin g th e p re se n t
s ta ffs .
S tim u la te , e d u o a te, and a id in th e f i e l d o f
Guidance
Sohool guidance d ir e c to r s
C lass a d v is e rs
Home roam te a c h e rs
C lass room te a c h e rs
S p e c ia ls
S ource M a t e r i a l , p p . 2 7 2 -2 7 3 .
55
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
2*
O rganise and develop o la s s e s in Guidance*
A s s is t in th e s e t t i n g up of an adequate
guidance re c o rd system f o r th e c i ty
sehools*
C o lle c t Guidanoe m a te r ia l and in fo rm a tio n ,
and make a v a ila b le f o r a l l te a c h e rs and
p u p ils .
Set up V o catio n al Inform at io n and Plaoement
S e rv ic e .
Set up sane ty p e of adequate fo llo w -u p sy s­
tem*
We recommend:
a.
b*
A Guidance committee t o be e s ta b lis h e d in
eaoh sc h o o l.
A g e n e ra l Guidance oom m lttee, w ith th e D irec­
t o r of Guidanoe aa chairm an, made up of th e
chairm an o f eaoh sch o o l Guidanoe committee
and suoh o th e r persons as may be d e s ir a b le ,
whose d u tie s w ill be
(1) t o a s s i s t in se c u rin g a v a ila b le m a te ria l
in th e Guidanoe f i e l d
(2) t o a s s i s t in e s ta b lis h in g a Guidanoe l i ­
b ra ry in eaoh s c h o o l, one f o r te a c h e rs
and one f o r p u p ils .
(3) to a c t a s a c le a r in g house f o r Guidance in ­
fo rm atio n and su g g estio n s
(4) t o keep i n to u ch w ith th e Guidance work in
th e schools and c a l l a t te n t io n of te a c h e rs
and a d m in is tra to rs to p o s s ib le improve­
ments and m o d ific atio n s
(5) t o a id and a s s i s t th e D ire c to r of Guidance
a t a l l tim es to promote and improve th e
Guidanoe se rv ic e in th e New B r ita in
sch o o ls
(6) t o subm it an accum ulative re c o rd ca rd
th a t wou?.d be used in a l l sc h o o ls, b e­
g in n in g in Septem ber, 1958.
3*
Where th e r e s u l t s of th e Guidanoe program in d ic a te
a need f o r cu rricu lu m r e v is io n , we recommend th a t
a stu d y of th e p o s s ib le r e v is io n s and th e i n t r o ­
d u ctio n o f new co u rse s be given c o n s id e r a tio n .
4*
The committee f e e l s th a t many d e t a i l s of a d m in iste r­
in g t h i s or any Guidanoe program and th e methods and
procedures and teohnlques used w i l l v ary in eaoh
sohool* While th e in d iv id u a lity of each so h o o l w ill
be r e f lo o te d in i t s Guidance program as a d m in iste re d ,
y e t th e alms and o b je c tiv e s are approxim ately th e
56
same in a l l s c h o o ls• There must be reaso n ab le
f l e x i b i l i t y in o rd e r to ta k e f u l l advantage of
th e p e rso n n e l, f a c i l i t i e s , a g e n c ie s, e t c . , a v a i l ­
ab le in eaoh so h o o l.
The su p e rin ten d en t, from th e survey r e p o r ts and from
p e rso n a l o b s e rv a tio n , had come to th e co n clu sio n t h a t th e
key to th e New B r ita in secondary sohool problem la y in more
adequate (1) s u p e rv is io n , (2) c o o rd in a tio n , and (3) g u id ­
an c e.
W ith t h i s in mind, a p la n to ap p o in t a d ir e c to r of
1
guidanoe and su p e rv is o r o f secondary e d u c a tio n was p r e ­
se n te d t o th e Board o f E ducation f o r s tu d y .
A fte r s e v e ra l
months of study end d is o u s s lo n , d u rin g which tim e i t became
In c re a s in g ly c le a r t h a t th e Board o f E ducation d id n o t care
t o appoint a man from o u tsid e th e o l t y , th e su p e rin ten d en t
proposed a compromise p la n .
The v ic e - p r in c ip a l of th e
S en io r High Sohool, who had a c te d as chairm an o f th e oom­
m ltte e on guid an ce, was e le c te d as p a rt-tim e d i r e c t o r of
guidance a t an in c re a s e in s a la r y .
The guidance co m m ittee's
su g g e stio n o f a permanent te a c h e r s ' oommlttee an guidanoe
was met by th e s u p e rin te n d e n t's appointm ent o f a Guidance
C ouncil composed o f a s s i s t a n t s t o th e p r in c ip a ls and o th e rs
who are in te r e s te d in th e guidance program .
T his committee
w i l l be re sp o n s ib le f o r th e development of an adequate guid­
ance program f a r th e f u t u r e .
A lready th e new S enior High
School p r in c ip a l and th e guidanoe d ir e c to r have planned th e
1.
S ource M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n J T I I I , pp. 122-123*
T
57
f i r s t s te p s of a b e t t e r program f o r th e s e n io r h ig h school
by r e le a s in g c e r t a i n te a c h e rs p a r t tim e from te a c h in g a s ­
signm ents to do c o u n s e lin g .
On A p ril 1 , 1938, a conference open t o a l l te a c h e r s ,
p a re n ts and p u b lic in th e v i c i n i t y v as h e ld on "P u p il A d ju st­
ment th ro u g h Quldanoe and M ental H ygiene."
D r. Ruth S trang
of Columbia U n iv e rs ity p re se n te d th e case f o r guidance and
conducted a p an el d is c u s s io n o f lo c a l te a o h e r s , p a re n ts and
b u sin e ss men a fte rw a rd s .
D r. Bruce R obinson, p s y c h i a t r i s t ,
of th e Newark, New J e rs e y , so h o o l d ep artm en t, d id th e same
f o r m en tal h y g ien e.
T his co n ference d e f i n i t e l y awakened
te a c h e r s , p a r e n ts , and p u b lic to th e need f o r f u r th e r a t te n ­
tio n to th e s e problem s.
The f u tu re w i l l determ ine th e r e ­
s u lts .
Study of th e Assignment Plan
1
T his com m ittee, under th e chairm anship of th e
se n io r member of th e secondary sohool p r in c ip a ls , made i t s
re p o rt in B u lle tin V II.
The p la n , modeled a f t e r th e "D alton
Plan" but so m odified as to be c a lle d th e "New B r ita in Plan"
was in tro d u ce d by th e Senior High Sohool p r in c ip a l in 19221923.
I t became th e t a r g e t o f much o f th e o r ltlo is m of th e
secondary so h o o ls ih 1937.
T his co m m ittee's r e p o r t i s ,
th e r e f o r e , of g re a t im p o rtan ce.
1.
The committee d e fin e s th e
See Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XV, B u lle tin V II, p p . 275-285
58
"New B r ita in Flan" a s fo llo w s:
The la b o ra to ry o o n trao t ty p e of assignm ent p la n oons i s t s of a s e r i e s o f s p e c if ic jo b s o r u n its which
are determ ined by com m ittees of te a c h e rs in eaoh
s u b je c t and a re mimeographed so th a t eaoh p u p il may
have h i s own copy. As o r ig in a lly p lan n ed , th e tim e
schedule c a lle d f o r a f i v e p e rio d day in th e Senior
High Sohool, o f which fo u r p erio d s were about seventy
m inutes long and th e f i f t h p e rio d a p e rio d o f make­
up work t h i r t y m inutes lo n g . P a r tic u l a r stu d y was
given to th e marking system and to th e d e f in ite n e s s
of th e assignm ents i n eaoh s u b je c t. I t was thought
th a t most of th e e v i l s of te a o h e r e v a lu a tio n of p u p il
work could be done away w ith i f an Im personal d a ily
reco rd of piupil achievem ent by means o f a graph card
could be made. The d e f in it e w r itte n d a ily assignm ent
f iv e weeks i n advanoe, would, i t was b e lie v e d , p lace
th e r e s p o n s i b ilit y f o r d a ily achievem ent d i r e c t l y
upon th e p u p il, and so b rin g about a d e s ir a b le a t t i ­
tude toward h is sohool work.
I t should be p o in te d out th a t th e c o n tra c t p la n was
designed p rim a rily as a new way of ao q u irin g old
su b je c t m a tte r .1
They th e n summarize th e advantages and d isad v an tag es
of th e p lan b ased upon a q u e s tio n n a ire stu d y t o th e te a o h e rs
2
and p u p ils .
A stu d y of th e la b o ra to ry p la n a s used in th e two
ju n io r h ig h sch o o ls and in th e S en io r High Sohool in
New B r ita in d is c lo s e s th e fo llo w in g c r ltlo is m s :
1.
2.
5.
1.
2.
There ap p ears to be no adherence t o a d e f in ite
course o f stu d y .
The assignm ents b rin g about a s it u a ti o n in which
some te a c h e rs do to o l i t t l e te a c h in g .
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o rg an iz in g th e su b je c t
m a tte r to be ta u g h t has been ta k e n from th e i n ­
d iv id u a l te a o h e r , t o h is lo s s , a s w e ll a s t o th e
lo s s of th e p u p ils .
Source M a te r ia l, S e c tio n XV, p p . 277-279.
I b id .
59
4.
5.
6.
There la a la c k of a T a i le d o b je c tiv e t e s tin g p ro ­
gram.
The f iv e week assignm ent p e rio d d i s t o r t s th e amount
o f tim e which should be a l l o t t e d f o r th e accom­
plishm ent o f a n a tu r a l u n it of work.
C ritic is m s o f th e assignm ents them selves a re made
on th e fo llo w in g b a s is :
a . I n s u f f ic ie n t o r ex c essiv e soope.
b . E xcessive q u a n tity .
c . Too sm all a p ro p o rtio n o f thought q u e s tio n s .
d . Laok of a p p ro p ria te t e s t s .
C o n stru ctiv e Plans f o r th e Improvement of th e Work
1.
2.
3.
4.
A more v a rie d and e x te n siv e u se of o b je c tiv e t e s t s
i s t o be encouraged as a means o f is o l a ti n g th e
in d iv id u a l problems of te a c h in g in th e c l a s s .
T ests in a l l s u b je c ts should be c o n s tru c te d f o r
use im m ediately.
Make new oourses of study and fo llo w them s t r i c t l y .
A s e r i e s of s k e le to n is e d assignm ents based on th e
cou rse of stu d y and in c lu d in g t e s t s are t o be
made by th e b e s t t a l e n t a v a ila b le and a re t o be
s u b je c t t o a d a p ta tio n by in d iv id u a l te a c h e rs to
f i t th e needs of th e c la s s e s ta u g h t.
The assignm ents are to be designed so as t o in olude
one o r more n a tu r a l u n its of work. There may be
cases where i t i s d e s ir a b le th a t a n a tu r a l u n it
o f work extend over a p erio d lo n g er th a n f iv e
w eeks.
Advantages of th e Assignment P lan
As s ta te d by the A d m in istra tio n :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
An a i d t o o f f i c i a l conferences w ith p u p ils or
p a re n ts sin c e i t a s c e r ta in s d e f i n i t e l y each
p u p i l 's stan d in g and p ro g re s s .
A u n ity i n tb e work of a la rg e school w ith many
te a c h e r s .
F a c i l i t a t e s p u p il t r a n s f e r s from one c la s s t o
a n o th e r.
Aids th e in ex p erien ced te a o h e r, th e s u b s t itu te
te a c h e r , and th e p u p il who e n te r s l a t e .
Develops i n i t i a t i v e on th e p a r t of th e p u p il by
r e q u ir in g him to aeeep t a la r g e r sh are o f r e s ­
p o n s ib i lity .
Develops p u p il o h a ra c te r by i n s i s t i n g on th e com­
p le tio n of a t a s k .
Aids a b sen te es t o stu d y a t home and be p rep ared on
r e tu r n to s c h o o l.
8.
9.
The f a l l i n g p u p il knows he i s f a l l i n g and what
p a r t o f th e work he has f a i l e d .
Hay he a motive f o r th e in d u s trio u s p u p il t o speed
h is work.
As s ta te d by high so h o o l te a c h e r s :
1.
2.
9*
4.
Provides in e f f e o t an o rg a n ise d cou rse of s tu d y ,
developed by s k i l l e d te a o h e r s , r i c h in re fe re n c e
and te a c h in g h e lp s , c o n s ta n tly b ein g re v is e d and
improved.
P rovides a good tim in g of work f o r th e five-w eek
p e rio d and p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r th e in e x p er­
ien ced te a c h e r .
The planned work i s d e f i n i t e and ev ery c la s s in th e
same s u b je c t cov ers ap p roxim ately th e same ground
w hile th e te a c h e r may s t i l l develop th e work in
an in d iv id u a l way.
Saves tim e in t h a t d ir e o tio n s f o r work need not be
d ic ta te d o r w r itte n .
As s ta te d by p u p ils :
1.
2.
3.
4.
I t i s a d e f in it e p la n of work which en a b les each
p u p il t o know h is o b je c tiv e and to b u dget h is
tim e . 'One oan always work b e t t e r and more
e a s i l y w ith an o u tlin e to f o l l o w .1
The assignm ent i s u s e fu l a s a worksheet f o r n o te s .
The slow stu d e n t may r e f e r to e x p lio it d i r e c tio n s .
The assignm ents are an a id to re v ie w s .
D isadvantages of th e Assignment P lan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Many p u p ils seem t o g e t beh in d in t h e i r c o n tra c ts
and p i l e up a 'work d e b i t ' w hich ap p ears in th e
re c o rd s a s a f a i l u r e .
Many p u p ils e l e c t co u rses where t h e i r chanoes of
su ccess a re p o o r, sin ce th e work i s s e t in ad­
vance •
The p lan n in g of assignm ents i n advance must r e ­
s u l t in some lao k o f p ro v is io n f o r p u p ils d i f ­
f e r in g from th e normal m iddle group.
The a t te n t io n o f th e te a c h e r i s fo cu sed an "co v er­
in g th e ground" in s u b je c t m a tte r r a th e r th a n on
th e p ro g re ss o f th e in d iv id u a l p u p il.
The p u p il or th e o la s s has no Chance f o r develo p in g
o r i n i t i a t i n g th e classroom m a te r ia l.
The tendency t o use th e same assignm ents and t e s t s
and workbooks, sem ester a f t e r se m e ste r, r e s u l t s
in some p u p il d ish o n e s ty . The notebook of J o e 's
r
61
s i s t e r who to o k th e course l a s t sem ester may
save him h o u rs of work.
7.
8.
9*
The p la n te n d s to promote th e id ea th a t a p iece of
sch o o l work having once been done and c r e d it
d u ly re c o rd e d , i t I s th en ce fo re v e r over w ith ,
d e p re c a te s th e id e a th a t le a rn in g i s worth keep­
in g a s p a r t o f th e m ental fu rn itu re *
Too g re a t an em phasis on s p e o if lc ta s k s t o th e ex­
c lu s io n of a t t i t u d e s (s c h o la rly and o th e rw ise ).
There may be to o g re a t a d i so our agement of th o se
p u p ils who work slowly*
T his summary i s fo llo w ed by a sum m arization of e x p e rt
te stim o n y in reg ard t o su ch a plan*
T h eir summary in d ic a te s
th a t over tw o - th ir d s of th e te a o h e rs fa v o r a m o d ific a tio n cf
1
th e p la n and th e fo llo w in g recommendations a re made:
1*
The mimeographed assignm ents f o r p u p ils in a l l sub­
j e c t s be r e v is e d by committees of te a o h e rs in th o se
departm ents where th e te a c h e rs w ith them c o n tin u e d ,
w ith th e fo llo w in g th o u g h ts in mind:
1*
a*
The assignm ent should be b r ie f *
b*
The assignm ent should c o n ta in stu d y h e lp s .
o*
The assignm ent should be m o d ifia b le t o ta k e
c a re of d i f f e r e n t le v e ls of a b i l i t y *
d*
The work a s s ig n e d should b e , as f a r as p o s s ib le ,
a u n it which can be te s te d and marked*
e*
The work a s s ig n e d should allo w f o r th e in c lu ­
s io n of some classroom su g g e stio n s and ad d i­
tio n s — o r d e le tio n s *
f•
The work a s s ig n e d should n o t become a f o rg o tte n
is s u e f a r t h e r a lo n g i n th e course*
S o u rce M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n XV, p* 283*
r
62
g*
2.
The tendency t o use th e same t e s t s , th e same
notebooks, th e same q u e s tio n s , and th e same
procedure eaoh sem ester must be as f a r as p o s­
s ib le avoided, n o t only t o reduce p u p il d i s ­
h o n esty , b u t to vary th e work and add i n t e r e s t .
Organize th e te a o h e rs of ea ch su b je c t in to a com­
m itte e f o r :
3*
a.
Frequent c o n s u lta tio n and conference between
them selves*
b*
The o rg a n iz a tio n o f a f l e x i b l e o u tlin e of w ork.
o*
The p re p a ra tio n of a s e t of aims and purposes
in t h e i r su b je c t*
d*
The esta b lish m e n t o f a sem i-annual achievement
t e s t in t h e i r su b je c t*
e*
The s e le c tio n o f an adequate means o f r a t i n g
p u p il achievement*
f*
The c o n s id e ra tio n and s o lu tio n of i n t r a d ep artm en tal problem s.
g*
The p re p a ra tio n end r e v is io n o f d ep artm en tal
assignm ents where d e s ir e d .
O rganize, p r e f e r a b ly by te a c h e r e l e c t io n , a committee
of te a c h e rs whose t a s k i t would be t o :
a*
Study th e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s between th e s u b je c ts .
b*
Suggest means and methods f o r c o r r e la tin g th e
work o f th e sch o o l a s a w hole, p a r t i c u l a r l y
from th e view p o in t of th e in d iv id u a l le a rn e r
( p u p il) •
T his study and recommendations have been r e f e r r e d
to th e Board of E ducation and th e C ouncil on Problems o f
Secondary E ducation f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y .
I t i s now g e n e ra lly
understood by th e secondary school p r in c ip a ls th a t th e "New
B r ita in P lan” i s no lo n g e r a re q u ire d p la n , b u t th e most'
63
su c c e s s fu l method th e te a o h e r knows s h a l l be u t i l i z e d .
It
i s hoped th a t a more d e f in ite improvement may oome d u rin g
suooeeding y e a r s .
Study of Problems o f Secondary C o o rd in atio n
1
The committee was le d by a Ju n io r h ig h aohool p r in ­
c i p a l , who h a s sin o e been e le c te d p r in c ip a l o f th e S enior
High Sohool.
T his a d m in is tra tiv e change in i t s e l f should
h e lp to b rin g about a b e t t e r c o o rd in a tio n and u n d erstan d in g
between the ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h so h o o ls.
This committee
d id one of th e b e t t e r jo b s in p re s e n tin g th e f a c ts of th e
re a l s itu a tio n .
p o in ts s
1.
The committee d iv id e d lb s re p o rt in to f iv e
2
O rg an izatio n of c la s s e s .
(Suggest more homogeneous grouping on ju n io r and
s e n io r high so h o o l le v e ls w ith g r e a te r a t t e n ­
tio n to in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s .)
2.
T ea ch ers' v ie w p o in t.
(Suggest g r e a te r agreement a s t o philosophy
and o b je c tiv e s o f ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h school
te a o h e r s , and more adequate s u p e rv is io n .)
3*
B ridging th e gap between two u n i t s .
(Suggest guidanoe d i r e c t o r be employed, cumu­
la tiv e reo o rd s, e to .)
4.
Problems of cu rricu lu m and co u rses o f stu d y .
( I t covers such to p ic s ass
1.
2.
See Souroe M a te r ia l, S ectio n XVI, B u lle tin V II I , p p . 287-299.
Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XVI, p . 288.
a.
b.
c.
5.
Lack o f c o o rd in a tio n in s u b je c ts .
P ro v isio n f o r p u p ils a t lo v e r and upper
le v e ls of a b i l i t y .
S e le c tio n o f cu rricu lu m and s u b je o ts .)
Textbooks and o f fic e re c o rd s .
(This l i s t in d ic a te s a g re a t d e a l of v a r ia tio n
in b a s ic te x ts and re c o rd s , and th e absence of
a c o n s is te n t p o lic y .)
The g e n e ra l recommendations a re as fo llo w s:
1.
1
That a p o lic y be e s ta b lis h e d r e l a t i v e to th e group­
in g o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p u p ils in th e two seoondary
u n its •
a.
2.
That a committee of ju n io r and s e n io r h ig h
school p r in c ip a ls a s w ell as te a c h e rs be ap­
p o in te d t o determ ine what p h ases o r f a c to r s
should be co n sid ered in th e s o - c a lle d homo­
geneous g ro u p in g .
That com m ittees be ap p o in ted from th e two secondary
u n its to fo rm u la te co u rses o f stu d y in th e s p e c ia l
s u b je c ts .
That i t c o n ta in a minimum e s s e n t i a l as
w e ll a s p ro v is io n s f o r th e g i f t e d and slow p u p il.
a.
3*
That p a r t i c u l a r em phasis be p la c e d upon th e
fo llo w in g s u b je c ts d u rin g th e coming y e a rs :
(1)
E n g lis h and S o c ia l S tu d ie s , 1938-1939.
(2)
Science and Hygiene, 1939-1940*
That m eetings be h e ld among te a c h e rs of th e secondary
sch o o ls f a r th e purpose of c la r if y in g th e o b je c tiv e s
o f eao h u n it as w e ll as being infozmed of th e l a t e s t
tre n d s in secondary e d u c a tio n .
S ource M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n XVI, p . 299
T his study has a ls o boon r e f e r r e d t o th e Board o f
E ducation and th e C ouncil on Secondary School Problems f o r
f u r th e r stu d y and d e f in it e p la n s .
A lready s te p s have been
tak en toward c o o rd in a tio n th ro u g h :
1.
Appointment of a p a rt-tim e guidanoe d i r e c t o r .
2.
S u p e rin te n d e n t's Round Table and C ouncil on
Secondary Sohool Problems f o r Study and Co­
o rd in a tio n .
3.
Committee ap pointed on Curriculum R e v isio n .
Study of High School G raduates
1
This co m m ittee's stu d y was made by a committee
under th e chairm anship of th e r e t i r i n g p r in c ip a l o f th e
S enior High School t o I n v e s tig a te charges th a t th e g rad u ates
of th e high school were p o o rly equipped f o r co lle g e and b u s i­
ness.
An u n u su a lly ex h a u stiv e treatm en t of th e s u b je c t was
made by the com m ittee.
1.
B u lle tin IX co v ers:
R eports from c o lle g e s on success of th e New
B r ita in High Sohool g rad u ates In freshm an
y e a rs from 1914 to 1935.
2.
R eports from employees about New B r ita in High
Sohool g rad u ates from 1932 t o 1937.
3.
R eports from g rad u ates concerning t h e i r sucoess
1931-1934 (by F .E .R .A .)
1935-1937 -(by Committee)
1.
See Source M a te r ia l, S ectio n XVII, B u lle tin IX, p p . 300401.
66
To t h i s I s appended a g r e a t many ta b le s o f i n t e r e s t to g uid­
ance d i r e c t o r , p r in c ip a ls and te a c h e r s .
The r e tu r n s from th e c o lle g e s
in d ic a te a f a l l i n g
o ff sin c e 1914 o f th e p ercen tag e (from 16 p er cen t t o 6 p er
ce n t) o b ta in in g h ig h e s t honors in th e freshm an y e a r; an in ­
c rea se in th o se o b ta in in g more or l e s s d i s t i n c t i o n (from 5
per ce n t to 25 p er c e n t) ; a s l i g h t d ec re ase in th o se m erely
m eeting th e minimum requirem ents (from 17 p e r ce n t t o 14 per
c e n t) ; and an in c re a s e in th o se o b lig ed t o withdraw (from
6 p er ce n t t o 10 p e r c e n t) .
These r e tu r n s seem t o speak
w e ll f o r th e g rad u ates o f th e New B r ita in High School to o
go on t o c o lle g e , when we c o n s id e r t h a t in 1914 p rim a rily
only c o lle g e p re p a ra to ry s tu d e n ts a tte n d e d h ig h school and
th e te a c h e r lo ad was much l i g h t e r th a n a t p r e s e n t.
Perhaps
an in c re a se in w ithdraw als in d ic a te s th e need of more ade­
quate g u id an ce.
The r e s u l t s of th e q u e s tio n n a ire s t o em ployers i s
in d ic a te d as fo llo w s:
2
The q u e s tio n n a ire s re tu rn e d numbered
79, of which tw elve s ta te d th a t th e y had employed no high
school g ra d u a te s , te n answered in g e n e ra l, and f if ty - s e v e n
answered in d e t a i l .
The ta b u la tio n of th o se answering in
d e t a i l may b e found to pages 334 and 335 o f th e Source Ma­
te ria l.
I t w i l l be noted from th e ta b le th a t th e s e employers
re p o rte d upon th e su co ess o f 676 g ra d u a te s .
1.
2.
The p ercen tag es
Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XVII, P a rt I , p . 303.
Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XVII, P a rt I I , pp. 305-306.
r
67
were a s fo llo w s :
12.7 per een t were u n u su a lly good; 35.5
p e r cen t were above av erag e; 38.9 p er oent were av erag e;
7 .6 p er oent were below av erag e; 1.9 p e r oent were v ery poor;
and 3 .4 p er oent were d ism issed f o r reaso n s r e f l e c t i n g poor
p r e p a r a tio n .
From tb e se f ig u r e s , I t I s ev id en t th a t th o se un­
u s u a lly good and th o se above average a re more numerous th a n
would norm ally be ex p ected .
I t shows th a t em ployers appear
to be w e ll s a t i s f i e d w ith th e g ra d u a te s of th e New B r ita in
S enior High Sbhool.
From a study o f th e q u e s tio n n a ire s re tu rn e d I t seems
ev id en t th a t th e em ployers o f New B r ita in and H artfo rd a re
w e ll s a t i s f i e d w ith th e g rad u ates of th e New B r ita in S en io r
High Sohool.
The su ccess of our g ra d u a te s i s commendable.
Both th e ta b u la tio n s and th e g e n e ra l sta te m e n ts , however,
r e f le c te d a weakness in th e m athem atical a b i l i t y of g ra d u a te s.
The poor a t t i t u d e of th e g rad u ates th a t some em ployers l a ­
mented might be Improved b y a guidanoe program.
Penmanship,
s p e llin g , sa lesm an sh ip , economics and v o c a tio n a l guidanoe
a ls o re p re s e n t f i e l d s in which improvements m ight be made.
P a rt I I I of S e c tio n XVII i s a stu d y o f v i s i t s made
t o g ra d u a te s o f c la s s e s betw een 1931 and 1934, co v erin g such
th in g s a s :
M a rita l s ta tu s and age
M o b ility
High Sohool C u rric u la
E ducation planned a f t e r h ig h sohool g ra d u a tio n
E ducation ac q u ired a f t e r high sc h o o l g rad u atio n
68
E ducation In p ro o ess
E ducation d e s ire d
O ccupations be Id In f i e l d s tr a in e d f o r
O ccupations h eld In f i e l d s not tr a in e d f o r
Number o f d if f e r e n t p o s itio n s h e ld sin c e h ig h
school g rad u atio n
Monthly wages o f employed g rad u ate
O ccupations p r e f e r re d
P a rt IV cowers th e same item s a s P a rt I I I f o r
g rad u ates from 1935 to 1937, w ith th e a d d itio n s o f:
Reasons f o r changing o r le a v in g employment
S a tis f a c tio n w ith p re s e n t occupation
Courses in which g ra d u a te s r e g r e t th e om ission
Suggestions f o r th e b etterm en t of th e S enior
High School program
The most s ig n if ic a n t p a r t of P a rts I I I and IV i s
th a t th e y have t o do w ith su g g e stio n s f o r th e b etterm en t
1
of th e h ig h school program , su ch as th e fo llo w in g :
The re q u e s ts f o r a d d itio n a l co u rses a r e , f o r th e
most p a r t , v e ry s e n s ib le . Penmanship, s p e llin g ,
d ram atics and p u b lic speaking are re q u e s te d by a
la rg e group o f g ra d u a te s. Economics, so c io lo g y ,
e t iq u e t te and salesm anship were a ls o re q u e s te d by
our g ra d u a te s . P e rso n a l h y g ien e, p h ilo so p h y ,
psychology, s t a t i s t i c a l work, geography, and th e
P o lis h language had sm all p erce n tag e s of r e q u e s ts .
1.
1.
A la rg e p ercen tag e (16 p er c e n t ) , f e e lin g th a t
t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l o p p o rtu n itie s were lim ite d ,
asked f o r a r e tu r n t o an a l l day s e ssio n a t th e
S en io r High Sohool.
2.
About 10 p e r cent asked f o r an abolishm ent of th e
assignm ent system of m arking and a r e tu r n to a
system b a s e d upon q u a lity of t h e i r work.
S o u rce M a t e r i a l , S e o tlo n X V II, P a r t IV , p p . 325-326
69
3.
About 18 per o en t asked f o r a guidanoe program,
and an a d d itio n 18 p e r oent remarked th a t some
method should be d ev ised to Im press th e value
of ed u c atio n upon s tu d e n ts . Since t h i s i s one
of th e purposes o f a good guidance program , th e s e
two p ercen tag es m ight be combined. T h ir ty - s ix
p er oent of our g ra d u a te s , th e n , re c o g n ise t h a t
a guidanoe program i s needed In our sc h o o ls.
4.
About 5 p e r c e n t o f our g ra d u a te s th o u g h t th a t
more e x t r a - o u r r i c u la r a c t i v i t i e s a re needed.
5.
About 7 .5 p er ce n t o f th e young women thought t h a t
th e commercial departm ent should be m odernized.
What th e y had i n mind was an in c re a s e in use of
commercial and bookkeeping m achines.
6 . A sm a ll p ercen tag e o f young men wanted more com­
m e rc ia l s u b je c ts th a t would i n t e r e s t young men.
7 . About 3 .5 p er c e n t of our g rad u ates thought i t
would be advantageous t o a b o lis h f r a t e r n i t i e s and
s o ro ritie s .
8.
Small p ercen tag es of young women asked f o r sm a lle r
e la s s e s , h ig h er academic s ta n d a rd s , a more e x te n ­
s iv e a t h l e t i c program f o r g i r l s , and more t r a in i n g
f o r p ro sp e c tiv e n u rs e s .
9.
Eleven p e r cen t of the young women and th r e e p e r
oent o f th e young men ex p ressed complete s a t i s f a c ­
tio n w ith th e h ig h sch o o l as i t is a t p r e s e n t.
A ll of th e s e p o in t d e f i n i t e l y t o th e immediate need
o f b e t t e r g u id an ce.
T his r e p o r t has been tu rn e d over t o the
Board o f E d u ca tio n , th e C ouncil on Guidanoe, and th e C ouncil
on Secondary School Problems f o r a d d itio n a l stu d y and de­
f i n i t e recom m endations.
There i s an abundance o f food f o r
thought and a id i n d eterm in in g th e d ir e c tio n of th e educa­
t i o n a l program f o r th e f u tu r e .
CHAPTER V I
A PROGRAM FOR THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOLS
These s tu d ie s p re se n te d a v a s t fund o f Inform ation
and recommendations which needed t o be s i f t e d and organized
in to some s o r t of workable program f o r th e f u t u r e .
Ob­
v io u s ly a l l of th e se problems co u ld not be ta c k le d a t once,
but i n t e l l i g e n t p lan n in g over a p e rio d of y e a rs would be
re q u ir e d .
No such p la n w ould, o f c o u rs e , be cap ab le of
f u lf illm e n t in i t s e n t i r e t y , b u t would serve as a guide to
th e su p e rin te n d e n t and Board of E d u catio n .
T his c h a p te r
r e c a p itu la te s th e th in k in g of th e su p e rin te n d e n t on th e
m a tte r o f d e te rm in a tio n o f f u tu re p o l i c i e s and programs as
w r itte n b y him a t th e c lo s e of th e f i r s t y e a r.
These s tu d ie s h av e , of c o u rs e , been supplemented
by s tu d ie s and changes made in o th e r f i e l d s d u rin g the y e a r.
The y e a r had c a lle d f o r :
1.
A d riv e f o r a $289,000 a d d itio n to th e Trade School
(which w ith P.W.A. h e lp has sin c e been r e a l i z e d ) .
2.
A study by th e Board of E d u catio n and C ity Board o f
Flnanoe and T ax atio n of th e b u ild in g needs as f o l ­
lows:
70
71
Elem entary Schools
a.
Abandonment or rem odeling o f th e Chamberlain
S chool.
b.
Abandonment or rem odeling of th e L e ri 0 . Smith
S chool.
J u n io r High Schools
o.
Abandonment o r rem odeling of th e C e n tra l J u n io r
High S chool.
These l a t t e r p r o je c ts f o r th e tim e being have been
postponed w ith an a p p ro p ria tio n f o r t h e i r inxnedlate s a fe ty
needs and r e p a i r s which a ls o In clu d e s a l l of th e o th e r o ld e r
sc h o o ls.
(A s p e c ia l a p p ro p ria tio n of $45,000 has been made
f o r t h i s p u rp o se .)
3.
The s e le c tio n o f a new S en io r High Sohool p r in c ip a l
(which r e s u lte d in th e e le c tio n of a lo c a l Ju n io r
h ig h sohool p r in c ip a l and consequent o th e r a s s ig n ­
ment ch a n g es).
4.
Beginning of changes In th e f in a n c ia l c o n tro l and
accounting system .
5.
E le c tio n of su p e rin te n d e n t f o r a th r e e -y e a r te rm .
The D eterm ination of Future P o lic ie s
The y e a r 's s tu d ie s seem t o In d ic a te th e d e s i r a b i l i t y
of adop tin g th e fo llo w in g fundam ental and s p e c if ic p o lic ie s
to se rv e as alms f o r th e next few y e a rs :
72
Fundamental P o lio le a
1.
The dem ocratlo method I s to be used In any approach
t o th e s o lu tio n o f New B r i t a i n 's e d u c a tio n a l prob­
lems and d e te rm in a tio n of i t s e d u c a tio n a l p o lic ie s *
2*
Rate of p ro g re ss in making improvements and changes
in th e e d u c a tio n a l s e t-u p in New B r ita in must be
dependent upon convincing th e m a jo rity o f th e Board
o f E d u ca tio n , the s t a f f , and th e p a tro n s of th e need
and reaso n ab len ess of th e s e changes and improvements*
3*
The p u b lic schools of New B r ita in a re supported a t
p u b lic expense in th e i n t e r e s t s o f th e boys and
g i r l s a tte n d in g them to se rv e th e s e ends:
a*
To develop New B r ita in boys and g i r l s in to
re sp o n s ib le c i tiz e n s in a democracy*
b*
To develop " a l l th e c h ild re n of a l l th e people"
t o l i m i t s of each in d iv i d u a l's osn t a l e n t s and
a b ilitie s *
S p e c ific P o lic ie s
T e sts and S tudents
1*
A r e g u la r p la n (b u t m o d ifiab le p lan ) f o r t e s t i n g
should be o a r r ie d out e a c h y e a r w ith a view tow ard
improving th e c l a s s in s t r u c tio n g iv e n , th e a c h ie v e ­
ment a t t a i n e d , and th e a t te n t io n t o in d iv id u a l need s.
2*
G reater a t t e n t i o n to m eeting th e v a rie d needs of in ­
d iv id u a ls through:
a*
b*
S p ecial c la sse s*
V aried c u r r ic u la -to meet d if f e r i n g i n t e r e s t s
and a b i l i t i e s *
73
c.
d*
e*
C hallenges t o s u p e rio r stu d e n ts*
B e tte r grouping of p u p ils ,
B e tte r guidanoe.
P u p il P o p u latio n Trend
5*
Improvement of elem entary so h o o l ed u o atio n w ith o u t
In creased c o s ts by re d u c in g c la s s e s in s ls e and
p ro v id in g s p e c ia lis e d se rv io e s*
4*
P ro v isio n of new and v a rie d co u rses f o r In creased
secondary sohool r e g i s t r a t i o n on a l l le v e ls of
a b i l i t y and in te r e s ts *
T eaoher-F u p ll Load and Costs
5*
An attem p t to b r in g th e c o s ts of ju n io r h ig h sohool
in lin e w ith th e c o s ts of th e o th e r New B r ita in
schools*
6*
Great v a r ia tio n In c la s s s is e and in d iv id u a l te a c h e r
lo ad s on the secondary le v e l in d ic a te s th a t b e t t e r
and more e q u a lis e d assignm ents would le a d to g r e a te r
e f f ic ie n c y and d ecreased p e r p u p il c o sts*
P ro fe s s io n a l P re p a ra tio n
7*
P ro v is io n f o r in - s e r v ic e in c e n tiv e f o r p r o fe s s io n a l
grow th th ro u g h f a c u lty m e etin g s, c o n fe re n c e s, ex­
te n s io n c o u rse s, summer c o u rs e s , and s a la r y reco g ­
n itio n *
B u ild in g U t i l i s a t i o n
8*
A co n tin u in g stu d y of th e most e f f i c i e n t u t i l i s a t i o n
o f th e school b u ild in g s*
74
Teaoher Q u estio n n aire
9.
A c o n tin u in g p o lic y o f keeping In touch w ith
te a c h e r problems*
S alary Schedule
10*
P ro g re ssiv e ad o p tio n of th e p la n approved on Noventoer 2 , 1937, o r I t s eq u iv ale n t*
Report Card
11*
The co n tin u in g e f f o r t s t o keep our r e p o r ts to
p a re n ts u p - to - d a te , I n t e l l i g i b l e to p a r e n ts , and an
In c e n tiv e to p e rso n a l Improvement w ithout r i v a l r y .
Annual Prom otion Plan
12*
The c o n tin u in g e f f o r t s to have c o n s ta n t and immediate
adjustm ent of a l l p u p ils under an an n u al prom otion
p la n th ro u g h f l e x i b l e in te rc h a n g e , p ro v isio n f o r
In d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s , a ty p io a l c la s s e s and stim u ­
l a t i o n of s u p e rio r ch ild re n *
Courses of Study
13*
The ad o p tio n o f co n tin u in g p la n s o f c u r r i c u l a r ad ­
ju stm en ts on a l l le v e ls th ro u g h s t a f f committees*
14*
R ev isio n a t th e e a r l i e s t p o s s ib le moment o f gradua­
t i o n re q u ire m e n ts, th ro u g h g e n e r a liz a tio n of r e ­
q u irem en ts, and p ro v is io n of co u rses to meet needs
of high school stu d e n ts*
Guidanoe
15*
The co n tin u in g stu d y and development o f a r e a l
guidanoe program th ro u g h th e Guidanoe Council*
Assignment Plan
16*
The co n tin u in g stu d y and ad o p tio n o f th e b e s t
methods by th e te a o h e r under t h e i r s u p e rv is o rs ,
departm ent heads and p r in c ip a ls w ithout demanding
th a t a l l te a c h e rs use th e same method, perhaps u n ­
su c c e ssfu lly *
Secondary Sohool C oo rd in atio n
17*
The co n tin u in g Improvement of r e la tio n s and u n d er­
stan d in g between f i v e secondary sch o o ls th ro u g h
(1) common alms and o b je c tiv e s , (2) common co u rses
of stu d y , (3) b e t t e r su p e rv is io n by p r in c ip a ls ,
heads o f d ep artm en ts, and s u p e rv is o rs , (4) common
guidanoe p la n , (5) common b a s ic t e x t books,
(6) common reco rd c a rd s , etc*
High Sohool G raduates
18*
C ontinuing and in c re a s in g em phasis on keeping In
to u ch w ith th e g ra d u a te , a id in g him in placem ent
and w ith o th e r a d v ic e , and re c e iv in g h is sug g estio n s*
The Program
In m eeting the p o lic ie s s e t down In th e p rev io u s
s e c tio n , a program i s necessary*
Such a program can only
be con sid ered a s te n t a t i v e and m od ifiab le*
However, such
a program i s a r e a l guide to an a d m in is tra to r In aim ing
tow ard c e r t a in accomplishments*
A d e f in it e program o f s tu d ie s
NEW YORK U NIVERSITY
SCH O O L O F EDUCATION
,
library
•
T
76
was s a t up f o r 1938-1939*
b u l l e t i n which f o llo ira.
I t la ooverad in th e copy of th e
A long term program I s s e t up on
th e c h a rts on pages 81 and 82*
OFFICIAL MESSAGES
S e rle s Genera 1
June 2 l , 1938
To
S ubjects
No. 77
School Department
New B rita in * C onnecticut
O ffice of
S u p erin ten d en t o f Schools
P rin c ip a ls and Teaohers
Committee appointm ents f o r 1938-1939
1*
The S u p e rin te n d e n t's Round T able w i l l In clu d e a l l p r in ­
c ip a ls* su p erv iso rs* and d ir e c to r s * The r e g u la r meet­
in g d a te w i l l be th e f i r s t Wednesday of th e month* a t
two o 'o lo o k p.m . in th e Board of E ducation o ffic e *
Walnut H i l l Sohool*
2.
C ouncil on Secondary E ducation
H arry Weasels* Chairman
V incent Sala
Edward E* Weeks
W illiam C* Frenoh
Raymond B* S e a rle
Frank A* James
M illie C. McAuley
Ruth C. K im ball
M eeting d a te : 4 th Wednesday o f th e month a t 2 o 'c lo c k
p .m ., o r upon th e c a l l of th e ohalrm an.
P laces L ibrary* Walnut H i l l Sohool
Problems f o r study* 1938-1939:
a . R eports of s p e c ia l com mittees on Courses of Study*
th e Assignment Plan* C o o rd in atio n of J u n io r and
S en io r High Schools* and o th e r secondary sohool
problem s such as T esting* Standards* Aims and
Philosophy* E v alu a tio n o f P re sen t P ra c tic e s * and
recommendations f o r changes*
3*
Guidance C ouncil
Frank A. James* Chairman
M illie G* McAuley
C aro lin e F* S tea rn s
77
Anna C. B. Pomeroy
M ildred 0 . MoNiokle
M argaret Foirayth
Mary A. Campbell
Abel E . Johnson
Anna V. Foberg
Anne G. O 'B rien
R uth C. K im ball
A ll o th e r p r in c ip a ls and s u p e rv is o rs and th e su p e rin ­
ten d en t of sch o o ls a re e x - o f f lc io members and may a t ­
te n d any m eetings*
M eeting d a te :
P la c e :
Second Wednesday o f th e month, 2 p .m .,
o r upon th e c a l l of th e chairm an.
L ib ra ry , Walnut H i l l S chool.
Problems f o r S tudy, 1938-1939
a . Improvement of th e New B r ita in guidanoe program
th ro u g h
1 . S t a f f I n s tr u c tio n and assignm ents of s p e c ia l
guidanoe d u tie s
2 . Courses f o r secondary stu d e n ts
b . M ental Hygiene
1 . Study o f th e s i t u a t i o n in New B r ita in .
2 . Reoomnend Improvements.
o. Recommendation f o r Permanent Record system f o r
New B r ita in .
d . C o rre la tio n between th e sch o o l system , th e Con­
n e c tic u t Employment S e rv ic e , and o th e r employers
in th e New B r ita in a r e a .
4.
C u rric u la r Committee
Mary A. Campbell, G eneral Chairman
Ruth C. K im ball, R esearch A dviser
A ll classroom te a c h e rs a re members o f th e la r g e r c u r ­
r i c u l a r com m ittees i f th e y a re te a c h in g th e su b je c t
concerned. They may be c a l l e d upon by th e co re com­
m itte e to h elp in any way t h a t i s n e c e ss a ry .
Core committee memberships may be e n la rg e d by th e
recommendation of th e chairm en. Core oommlttee mem­
b e rs w i l l be excused from classroom a c t i v i t i e s on th e
day o f th e m eeting o f th e com m ittee.
a.
M athematics Committee
W alter B l a ls d e ll, Chairman
M ildred G. Weld
Mary Clancy
Grace Conion
M ollie Gilman..
A d v isers: V incent S a la , Mary A. Cox,
L o lia L i t t l e h a l e s , Anne Murnane
78
Meeting d a te s
P la c e :
F i r s t F rid ay of eaoh month, a t 9 a.m .
or a t th e c a l l o f th e chairm an.
L ib ra ry , Walnut H ill Sohool.
Problems:
b.
a.
b.
o.
Course of S tudy, Grades I-X II
Methods
Textbook and equipment needs
S o c ia l S tu d ies Committee
Palmer P . Howard, Chairman
Joyce E. Goss
Robert S. Qulmby
E leanor O 'B rien
Mary F a r r e l l
A d v isers: W illiam C. F rench, K ath arin e M.
Roche, M ildred Barrows, Mary C.
Gorman.
Meeting d a te :
P lace:
Second F rid ay of eaoh month, a t
9 A.M., o r a t th e c a l l of th e c h a ir ­
man.
L ib ra ry , Walnut H ill School
Problems: a .
b.
c.
d.
c.
Course of S tudy, Grades I-X II
Methods
Textbook and equipment needs
C itiz e n s h ip and c h a ra c te r
Committee on In d iv id u a l D iffe re n ces
Adele B a sse t, Chairman
James H. Ginns
F re d e ric k M. Senf
Adrian E. Lambert
E ls ie Gamerdlnger
A d v isers: Slgne M. Swanson, Edward E . Weeks,
Raymond B. S e a r le , E ls ie M. M iles,
Jaoob M ellio n , M.D., Anne G. O 'B rien.
Meeting d a te :
P lac e:
T h ird F rid ay of each month, a t
9 a .m ., or a t th e c a l l of th e c h a ir ­
man.
L ib ra ry , Walnut H ill School.
Problem s:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Changes in co u rses o f study to meet
in d iv id u a l needs
Methods t o meet in d iv id u a l needs
A ty p ic al o la s s o rg a n iz a tio n
H ealth o la s s o rg a n iz a tio n
Ju n io r v o c a tio n a l c la s s o rg a n iz a tio n
Adjustment c la s s e s
r
79
g.
h.
d.
Remedial re a d in g and o th e r rem edial
c la s s e s
P ro v isio n s f o r s u p e rio r stu d e n ts
P r a c tic a l A rts Committee
Harry W easels, Chairman
James H, Ginns
E liz a b e th L. Hungerford
Newell S . Ames
Thomas P . E ld er
E s te lle H otohkiss
A d v isers: Abel E. Johnson, Minnie C lark
M eeting d a te : F o u rth F rid ay o f eaoh month, a t
9 a .m ., or a t th e c a l l o f th e
chairm an.
P la c e : L ib ra ry , Walnut H ill S chool.
Problems:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
5.
Course of stu d y s i t u a t i o n ,
Grades I-X II
Methods
Textbook and equipment needs
E x p lo rato ry courses in th e
Ju n io r high schools
C o rre la tio n between elem en tary ,
ju n io r high* and s e n io r h ig h
so h o o ls•
P u b lic R e la tio n s and Sohool P u b lic a tio n s : V isu al Aids
W illiam D. F renoh, Chairman
Edward E. Weeks
Je ss e D. S a lle e
Thomas P. E ld er
Dorothy L. Shapleigh
James V. Shea
Henry R. Goodwin
P re s id e n t, T each ers' C ouncil
Henry J . Z ie g le r
Ruth O 'B rien
Anna V. Roberg
M eeting d a te :
P la c e :
F i r s t F rid ay o f each month, a t 2 p .m .,
o r a t th e o a l l o f the chairm an.
C e n tra l J u n io r High S chool.
Problem s:
a.
b.
o.
d.
e.
P ublio r e l a t i o n s
F.T.A . a c t i v i t i e s
Newspaper p u b lic a tio n s - sohool page
Radio
Budget p u b lic ity
80
f • American E ducation Week
g . S pring E x h ib it and Music Week
h . F a c u lty and P.T.A . i n s t i t u t e
i . P u b lic a tio n s : Annual Report
S u p e rin te n d e n t1a S ta f f
B u lle tin s
j • V isu al Aids
6.
School Assembly Programs
Vincent S a la , Chairman
W illiam C. F rench
Mary A. Campbell
Each committee w i l l meet monthly from O ctober, 1958
thro u g h May, 1939* No m eetings w i l l be h e ld in Septeniber
o r June.
The names o f a l l te a c h e rs who have s ig n if ie d t h e i r
w illin g n e s s to a s s i s t anthe v a rio u s ocm mittees w i l l be
tin n e d over to th e committee chairm en, who w i l l o a l l on
th e se te a c h e rs to a s s i s t in th e v a rio u s phases of th e
work.
C a rly le C. Ring,
S u p erin ten d en t of Schools
TENTATIVE SCHED?
TO BE ST?
NEW BRITAIN
H ead in g
1937 - 1933
M ajor Theme
E le c te d 1 y e a r
T e s tin g P rogram
S u rv e y -c o m p le te d
M arch 1933
1 ) S e m i-a n n u a l v s .
A nnual P ro m o tio n s
o . k . »d A p r. 3,193«*
2 ) G uidance S tu d y
r e c . A p r. 3 ,1 9 3 3
C onf. A p r i l 1933
3) M ental H ygiene
C onf. A p r. 1933
l«
- E le c te d t h r e e y e a r s
R e g u la r program o f t e s t i n g
A d ju stm en t
C la s s e s
S tu d y by D i r e o t o r
o f G uidance a n d
G uidance C o u n o il.
S tu d y by G uidance
C o u n c il
4-) R e p o rt C ards
Kdg. G r. 1-3
Sem. 1937-33
C hairm an,
Mr. Weeks
C u rric u lu m
R e v is io n and
T ext S e le c tio n
1939 -
BETTER PUPIL ADJUSTMENT THROUGH GUIDANCE
E le c tio n as
S u p er l o t e n d e n t
G e n e ra l
P ro b lem s
1933 - 1939
S p e c ia l c o ac h in g
and A d ju stm en t
C la s s e s
D evelopm ent o f
G uidance Program
D evelopm ent o f
C h ild G uidance
C l i n i o a l S e rv ic e
f o r s c h o o ls o f
New B r i t a i n
7 - 12
C hairm an,
M r. Weeks
3 ) A nnual R e p o rt
w ith fo u r
p ic tu re s
Com m ittee f o r
s tu d y
1) J r .H .S . M ath.
M r. B l a i s d e l l ,
chairm an
2) P ro b lem s o f
D em ooracy,
M r. H ow ard,
c h a irm a n
3) L a t i n ,
M iss F in n e g a n ,
c h airm an
M a th em atics
G rad es 1 - 1 2
P ic to ria l
re p o rt
6) 1
at
S o c i a l S tu d ie s
G rades 1-1 2
]
G
7) P
*1-) P r a c t i c a l A r ts
P ro g ram , 1 -1 2
5) P ro v is io n s f a r
E x c e p tio n a l
c h ild re n
Mod. L anguages
G rad es 7 -1 2
GHEDULE OF PROBLEMS
9- STUDIED IN
1933-1943
194-0 - 1941
1941 - 1942
1942 - 1943
1943 - 1944
1944 - 1945
1945 - 191
DANCE, MENTAL HYGIENE, AND CURRICULUM REVISION
hing
eat
End o f F eb ru ary
Graduat io n s and
com pletion of
ad ju stm en ts
o f ______________________________
gram
of
ee
rv ic e ------------------------------------- — —
of
6) P latoon p la n
Study and
improvements
6) E n g lish ,
Reading
ie s
S p e llin g
W riting
Grades 1-12
7 ) Commercial
- Grades J-12
g es
3} S cience
Program
Or. 1-12
9) V isu a l
Program
G r. 1-12
R e -e v alu a tio n
10) H e a lth and
Program
. P h y sica l Ed.
1 . M athematics
Grades 1-12
2 . P r a c tic a l A
11) Music Program
Grades 1-12
1944-45
3. S o o ial Stud:
12) A rt Program
1945-46
. Grades 1-12
4 . Mod. Languaj
1946-47
5 . E n g lish
1947-43
6 . Commercial
1943-49
7 . Science
1949-50
3 . V isu a l Prog:
T T o o l +.V* s n 4
I
1938-1948
940 - 1941
“
1941 - 1942
1942 - 1943
:
1943 - 1944
1944 - 1945
1945 - 1943
E, MENTAL HYGIENE, AND CURRICULUM REVISION
^
----------------------------------------- y
End o f F e b r u a r y
G ra d u a tio n s and
c o m p le tio n o f
a d ju s tm e n ts
N.
S
I
e ---------
------------------------------------------------ y
P latoon p la n
Study and
■>
im provem ents
E n g lish ,
Reading
S p e llin g
W riting
Grades 1-12
Commercial
Grades J-1 2
3) S cience
Program
Gr. 1-12
9) V isu a l
Program
G r. 1-12
10) H e a lth a n d
R e -e v a lu a tio n
Program
. P h y s ic a l E d.
1 . M athematics
G rades 1-12
2 . P r a c t i c a l A r ts
11) M usic P rogram
G rades 1-12
1944-45
3* S o c i a l S t u d i e s
12) A r t Program
1945-46
G rad es 1-12
4 . Mod. L anguages
5 . E n g lis h
1947-43
6 . C om m ercial
1943-49
7* S c ie n c e
1949-50
3 . V i s u a l P ro g ram ,
H e a lth an d ___
P hys. Ear;
19^0-51
9 . M u sic , A r t ,
E x c e p tio n a l
c h ild re n
1951-52
62
SPECIFIC SCHE
1933
H ead in g s
E le m e n ta ry
1937 - 1933
1933 - 1939
1 )P ro m o tio n P la n s
A nnual P la n
A d ju stm en t
2 )M en tal H ygiene
3 )R e p a rt C ards
, - F e b . 1933
4 ) G uidance
F u r t h e r s tu d y
1939 - 1940
' 1
194
S p e c ia l C oaching
and A d ju stm en t '—
C la s s e s
D ev. o f C l in i c s -----
A ppointm ent o f
D ire c to r - F u rth e r
study "through
Council
5 ) C u rric u lu m S tu d ie s
a . M a th em atics
b . P r a c t i c a l A r ts
c . E x c e p tio n a l
c h ild re n
d . S o c ia l S tu d ie s
e . El
6 ) Pl«
sti
Imj
S eco n d ary
1 )P ro m o tio n P la n s
A nnual P la n
A d ju stm en t - F e b r u a r y G ra d u a tio n o v e r
2 )M en tal H ygiene
As u n d e r G e n e r a l
------------------ 3 )G uidance
As u n d e r G e n e ra l -----------—
4 )R e p o rt C ard s tu d y
Mr. Weeks
5 ) Perm anent R e co rd s
G uidance C o u n c il
6 ) C u rric u lu m S t u d i e s
a . M a th em atics
e . Modern
f. £
b . P r a c t i c a l A r ts
L anguages
g. C
c . E x c e p tio n a l
C h ild re n
d . S o c ia l S tu d ie s
7 ) F u l l Day S e s s io n
3 ) C o u rses o f Study
F u r t h e r S tu d y and A d o p tio n - co m p leted
9 )A ssignm ent P la n
F u r t h e r S tu d y a n d A d o p tio n - com pleted
1 0 )C o o rd in a ti on
F u r t h e r S tu d y a n d A d o p tio n - co m p lete d
llJ H ig h School
G ra d u a te s
F u r t h e r S tu d y an d A d o p tio n - co m p leted
A d u lt a n d
R e c r e a tio n
S tu d y o f WPA
R e o r e a tio n P r o j e c t
an d a d o p tio n a s
p a r t o f B oard Program
an d A d u lt and C ity
R e c r e a tio n
F u r t h e r s tu d y a n d
u n ific a tio n of
A d u lt WPA
R e c r e a tio n Forum
; SCHEDULE
1944
1940 - 194-1
194-1 - 194-2
194-2 - 194-3
194-3 - 1944- i944- - 194-5
i945 - 1944
Lng
it *
'.a
f . S c ie n c e
g . V is u a l
e . E n g lis h
ti. H e a lth and
P h y s . E d.
i . M usic
j . A rt
R e - e v a lu a tio n
6 ) P la to o n
- S tu ty an d
Im provem ent
a o v e r ------------ >
>
-------------------------------------------------------------- :----------------------------------------------------------- y
s tu d y
f . E n g lis h
g . Com m ercial
h . S c ie n c e
i . V is u a l
m p le ted by
m p le te d by
m p le ted by
m p le te d by
*
j . H e a lth and
P h y s . Ed.
k . M usic
1 . A rt
R e - e v a lu a tio n
CHAPTER V II
SOME FIRST STEPS - - 1938-1939
No program su ch a s has been s e t up In th e p receding
c h a p te r I s capable of b ein g p u t in to o p e ra tio n in to to *
The
su p e rin ten d en t had no hope t h a t such would be th e c a s e , b u t
r a th e r th a t i t might prove t o be a guide and check sheet in
c a rry in g forw ard th e n e c e ssa ry a d m in is tra tiv e work.
Con­
se q u en tly a b r i e f review o f th e work o f 1938-1939 as f i r s t
ste p s in p u ttin g t h i s program in to o p e ra tio n may be of
v a lu e , as in d ic a tin g how such a procedure works out in p ra c ­
tic e *
A c o r r e la tio n between th e program l a i d out and th e
a c tu a l accomplishments of 1938-1939, b f i e f l y would be as
fo llo w s :
R egular Program of T e stin g
T his has been c a r r ie d out t h i s y e a r approxim ately
in accordance w ith th e recommendations of 1938*
A re p o rt
of t h i s work i s giv en i n th e Souroe M a te ria l, S e c tio n XXVII,
page 48&
I t should be n oted th a t an attem p t was made t o
c o r r e la te some o f th e t e s t i n g w ith th e cu rricu lu m study p ro ­
gram*
The c h ie f d i f f i c u l t y in co n n ectio n w ith th e a c tu a l
o p e ra tio n of t h i s program tu rn e d out to be t h a t th e program
83
was s t i l l t o o h e av y a t a s k f o r t h e s t a f f o f t h e R e s e a rc h De­
p a r tm e n t.
N ext y e a r , New B r i t a i n w i l l h a v e a n o th e r f u l l ­
tim e w o rk e r i n t h i s d e p a rtm e n t a n d i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s
w i l l b e a b i g h e lp i n g e t t i n g r e p o r t s and recom m endations
e a r l y enough t o t e a o h e r s an d p r i n c i p a l s t o b e o f r e a l im­
m e d ia te a i d t o th em .
H ow ever, t o do t h i s a s i t s h o u ld be
d o n e , th e t e s t i n g pro g ram w i l l p ro b a b ly s t i l l have t o be r e ­
d u ced and l i m i t e d .
A d ju stm ent C la s s e s an d A nnual P ro m o tio n s
The pro g ram a s recommended h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y
c a r r ie d i n t o o p e ra tio n .
A p p ro x im ately n i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t
o f t h e p u p i l s i n t h e c l a s s e s a tte m p tin g t o do t h r e e s e m e s te r s '
w ork i n tw o w ere s u f f i c i e n t l y s u c c e s s f u l t o b e recommended
f o r f u l l p ro m o tio n i n J u n e , 1939.
H ow ever, a l l t e a o h e r s and
p r i n c i p a l s r e c o g n is e t h a t s t i l l f u r t h e r i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t ­
m en ts m ust b e made f o r t h e s e p u p i ls i n t h e y e a r s a h e a d .
In
f a c t , a s s t a t e d i n C u rric u lu m B u l l e t i n No. 1 , " S u g g e ste d
S ta n d a rd s f o r P ro m o tio n ,"
i t i s t h e hope o f t h e a d m in is ­
t r a t i v e s t a f f t h a t o u t o f t h i s change i n p ro c e d u re may come
a change i n p h ilo s o p h y o f p ro m o tio n s , and t h a t a l l p u p i l s
w i l l be t r e a t e d a s i n d i v i d u a l s an d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r
i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s on a l l g ra d e l e v e l s .
G r a d u a lly , i t i s th e
aim o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o w ork to w a rd a c o n tin u o u s o h ro n o -
1.
S o urce M a t e r i a l , S e o tlo n X V I II,p p . 4 0 3 -4 0 9 .
f
85
l o g i c a l age o r g a n i z a t i o n .
W ith lo w e rin g r e g i s t r a t i o n s , i t
i s hoped t h a t enough re m e d ia l work may be done by t h e r e ­
l e a s e d t e a c h e r s t o make su c h a pro g ram r e s u l t i n no lo w e r­
in g o f s t a n d a r d s .
T h is p a s t y e a r h a s s e e n t h e l a s t m id -y e a r
g r a d u a tio n o f th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o ls an d J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 2 , w i l l
m ark th e l a s t i n S e n io r H igh S c h o o l.
In t h e m ain , t h i s p a r t
o f t h e pro g ram h a s w orked o u t a s w e ll a s an y su c h program o f
a d ju s tm e n t c o u ld .
g u id an c e
1
The r e p o r t o f t h e G uidance D i r e c t o r
in d ic a te s th a t
p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n made on t h e s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l l e v e l .
On
t h i s l e v e l f o r t h e f i r s t tim e a d e f i n i t e l y o rg a n iz e d g u id ­
an ce p rogram h a s b e e n made p o s s i b l e , and a g ro u p o f t e a c h e r s
have b e e n r e l e a s e d f o r a p e r io d a d a y , who w ith t h e a i d o f
t h e p r i n c i p a l , v i c e - p r i n c i p a l (d ean o f b o y s) and a s s i s t a n t
t o th e p r i n c i p a l (d ea n o f g i r l s ) a r e a l l g iv in g t h e i r a t t e n ­
t i o n t o h e lp in g th e o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r g u id a n c e w ork.
F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , p a r e n t s and p u p i l s h av e b e e n made aw are
o f t h i s s e r v i c e i n t h e s c h o o l.
The d i r e c t o r , M r. Ja m e s , who
i s a l s o v i c e - p r i n c i p a l o f t h e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l, h a s n a ­
t u r a l l y c o n f in e d h i s f i r s t e f f o r t s t o t h e S e n io r H igh S o h o o l,
a lth o u g h t h e r e have b e e n many m e e tin g s o f h i s G uidance Coun­
c il.
1.
As y e t , a l l t h a t h a s b een done on o t h e r l e v e l s h a s
S o urce M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n XXV,pp. 4 6 1 -4 6 7 .
86
b e e n an in c r e a s e d a w a re n e ss o f th e n e e d an d t h e o r g a n iz a tio n
o f v i s i t i n g d a y s a t t h e h ig h e r s c h o o ls f o r t h o s e a b o u t t o
le a v e th e lo w e r s c h o o ls *
The C o u n c il, i n c o n ju n c tio n w ith
th e s u p e r in te n d e n t and o th e r c o m m itte e s , h a s w orked o u t a
new c u m u la tiv e r e c o r d c a r d f o r th e tw e lv e - y e a r p r o g r e s s o f
t h e p u p il*
I t i s i n a m a n ila e n v e lo p e , c o n ta in in g t h r e e
c a r d s : a n e d u c a ti o n a l r e c o r d , a s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l r e c o r d ,
and a h e a l t h re c o rd *
A copy o f t h e s e r e c o r d s may b e fo u n d
i n t h e S ource M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n XXXII, on p ag e 526*
The
r e c o r d s a r e now b e in g f i l l e d o u t u n d e r a W*F*A* p r o j e c t*
The w e ak n e sses o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e program l i b
c h i e f l y i n t h e f a c t t h a t New B r i t a i n h a s b e e n f o r c e d t o w ork
w ith an u n t r a i n e d s t a f f *
I t s s tr e n g th l i e s in th e f a c t th a t
t h e pro gram w i l l be one d e v e lo p e d b y t e a o h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s
on t h e jo b *
The y e a r s ahead o f f e r o p p o r tu n ity f o r much
g r e a t e r developm ent*
R e p o rt C ard s
As h a s a l r e a d y b e en i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p te r I I I , th e
e le m e n ta ry s o h o o l e x p e r im e n ta l r e p o r t c a r d h a s b e e n r e v i s e d
and im p ro v ed , a n d p u t i n t o se m i-p e rm a n e n t fo rm .
I t i s th e
b e l i e f o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t s u c h d e v ic e s s h o u ld n o t b e ­
came p erm anent o r s t a t i c *
The s e n i o r h ig h s o h o o l h a s b e en
e x p e rim e n tin g w ith a new ty p e o f r e p o r t c a rd *
I n a n o th e r
y e a r , i t i s hoped t h a t t h e com m ittee on se o o n d a ry s c h o o l
p ro b lem s may be a b le t o make a s tu d y an d r e v i s i o n o f a l l t h e
87
se o o n d a ry s o h o o l r e p o r t o a r d s .
Time h a s I n d i c a t e d t h a t th e
e a r l y c r i t i c i s m s and o b j e o t l a n s t o chan g es I n t h e e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l r e p o r t c a r d h av e d is a p p e a r e d , and t h a t th e p u b l ic
and p a r e n t s h a v e th ro u g h t h e s e o a rd s b e e n e d u c a te d a n o th e r
s t e p I n t h e m odem p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a ti o n .
C u rric u lu m S tu d ie s
M ath em atics
A r e p o r t h a s a t l a s t b e e n made b y t h i s c o m m itte e ,
b u t a s y e t I t h a s n o t b een p u b lis h e d a n d so I s n o t In c lu d e d
In th is r e p o r t.
The e x p e r ie n c e o f t h i s com m ittee I n d i c a te s
t h e n e e d o f good l e a d e r s h i p .
A p o o r s e l e c t i o n o f ch airm an
made n e c e s s a r y a g r e a t d e a l o f a i d fro m t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t
o f s o h o o ls and th e s u p e r v i s o r o f e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l s .
I t is
h o p ed t h a t d u rin g t h e n e x t y e a r a l l t e a o h e r s may b e made
a v a re o f t h e work o f t h i s co m m ittee and t h e p ro b lem s I n t h i s
fie ld .
I t i s t h e hope o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t no c u r ­
r ic u lu m m i l l come t o b e c o n s id e r e d s t a t i c o r p e rm a n e n t,
t h e r e f o r e , as t h i s i s s t u d i e d by t h e s t a f f i t w i l l b e open
t o c o n s ta n t e r l t l o l s m and r e v i s i o n , an d I s s c h e d u le d In t h e
t e n - y e a r program f o r a n o th e r r e v i s i o n i n 1 9 4 4 -1 9 4 5 .
S o c i a l S tu d ie s
B ecause o f s p e c i a l n e e d s , t h e S u p e r i n te n d e n t 's Round
T a b le d e s i r e d t o have a co m m ittee on S o c i a l S tu d ie s s e t u p .
T h is co m m ittee h a s b e e n much more s u c c e s s f u l , p ro b a b ly b e -
88
c a u se o f b e t t e r l e a d e r s h i p .
T h is com m ittee h a s done a g r e a t
d e a l o f stu d y a n d I n v e s t i g a t i n g .
I t h a s d e c id e d on g e n e r a l
p r i n c i p l e s and i s e x p e rim e n tin g t h i s y e a r w i t h d i f f e r e n t
t e x t s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
I t h a s su c c e e d e d t o a f a i r l y s u c ­
c e s s f u l e x te n t i n m aking a l l s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s c o n s c io u s
o f i t s p ro b le m s.
How ever, t h i s co m m ittee h a s a sk e d f o r an
e x te n s io n o f tim e f o r i t s f i n a l r e p o r t u n t i l J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 0 .
P r a o t l o a l A rts
The com m ittee a p p o in te d t o s tu d y t h e P r a c t i c a l A rts
Program o f t h e New B r i t a i n S c h o o ls made i t s oom plete r e p o r t
1
e a rly in th e y e a r.
I n g e n e r a l , t h i s com m ittee recommended
t h a t t h e P r a c t i c a l A r ts program be e x te n d e d t o in c lu d e th e
e le m e n ta ry a n d s e n i o r h ig h s o h o o ls ; and t h a t t h e j u n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l e x p l o r a t o r y c o u rs e s move fro m a u n i t s p e c i a l
shop s e t - u p , to w a rd a g e n e r a l sh o p s e t - u p .
S te p s i n t h i s
d i r e c t i o n have a lr e a d y b e en t a k e n .
E x c e p tio n a l C h ild re n
T h is oom m lttee h a s h a d u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n n o t
o n ly th e pro g ram f o r s p e c i a l ty p e s o f c h i l d r e n su c h a s
th o s e p ro v id e d f o r b y t h e a t y p i c a l c l a s s e s , th e h e a l t h
s c h o o l a n d j u n i o r v o c a t io n a l s c h o o l, b u t a l s o th e p r o v i s i o n s
t h a t s h o u ld be made w i t h in t h e r e g u l a r p ro g ram f o r th e s u ­
p e r i o r and d u l l no rm al c h i l d .
1.
T h is com m ittee fo u n d t h e t a s k
S ource M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n X X III, p . 4 4 6 .
89
to o g re a t f o r th e one y ea r and has asked f o r an e x te n sio n of
t i n e , but has made a re p o rt o f p ro g re ss whloh has not y et
been p u b lish e d .
T his re p o rt looks tow ard an o rg a n iz a tio n
c a llin g f o r le s s stigm a and a b e t t e r program f o r th e nonaverage c h i ld .
Seoondary Sohool Course of Study
The Committee an Secondary School Problems has r e ­
viewed th e work o f th e course o f study r e p o r t (Source Ma­
t e r i a l ) and has re p o rte d as C urriculum B u lle tin No. 4 1 "A
Qulde f o r Secondary Sohool Courses o f Study aid G raduation
1
Requirement s . n
I t i s expected th a t by September, 1940, th e
courses o f study w ill be so r e v is e d by chairm an of d e p a rt­
ments and p r in c ip a ls t h a t t h i s p la n f o r th r e e tr a c k p ro ­
g re ss through th e secondary sc h o o ls and f o r each p u p il to
fo llo w a d e f i n i t e m ajor sequence may go in to f u l l opera­
tio n .
T his b r i e f summary w i l l in d ic a te th a t many s i g n i f i ­
cant s te p s have b een ta k e n on th e programs la id out f o r 19381939.
A ll lias not been accom plished th a t was la id o u t.
Op­
p o s itio n h as developed b o th from th e s t a f f and from some of
th e Board members to c e r t a i n phases of th e program, p rim a rily
because some have tho u g h t th e p ro g re ss was to o r a p id and th a t
i t meant to o much o u tsid e work f o r s t a f f members.
1.
S ource M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n XXIV, p . 4 5 6 .
A ll of
1
90
t h i s was to ba ex p ected .
C onsequently, th e program f o r
1939-1940 w ill be m odified t o p ro v id e f o r th e in te g r a tio n
of th e p ro g re ss a lre a d y made.
Committees whose work i s n o t
com pleted w i l l co n tin u e, b u t no new f i e l d s w ill be opened
tip.
An e f f o r t w i l l be made to have th e e n t ir e s t a f f and
Board u n d erstan d and a s s im ila te th e work a lre a d y com pleted.
In a d d itio n t o th e m a tte rs d e f i n i t e l y l a i d out in
th e program f o r 1939-1940, th e re have been o th e r p r o je c ts
th a t d eserv e some d e s c r ip tio n .
C urriculum S tu d ies
As has a lre a d y been in d ic a te d , a la rg e p a r t of th e
y e a r 's work c e n te re d around cu rricu lu m b u ild in g .
I t has
been th e attem p t of th e a d m in is tra tio n to have t h i s p r o je c t
serve n o t only th e needs o f th e schools f o r modern c u r r ic u la ,
b u t to have t h i s p r o je c t se rv e as a c ity -w id e su p e rv iso ry
device to awaken and m ain tain te a c h e r i n t e r e s t in i t s p ro fe s ­
s io n a l problem s.
C onsequently, not only d id c e r t a i n com­
m itte e s tu r n i n r e p o r ts , a s has j u s t been re p o rte d , b u t th e
e n tir e f a c u l ty p a r tic ip a t e d in a s e rie s of f a c u l ty c o n fe r­
ences on cu rricu lu m b u ild in g , ad d ressed and le d by e x p e rts
in t h i s f i e l d .
T his was made p o s s ib le by th e a p p ro p ria tio n
of an adequate fund by th e Board of E d u catio n .
The schedule of f a c u l t y conferences was as fo llo w s:
91
Wednesday, October 2 6 , 1988
Speaker: D r, Alonzo G. G race, S ta te Cammlssloner
of E ducation
S u b jec t: Importance of Curriculum R evision f o r th e
Changing School
M eeting: G eneral meeting a t 3:80 P.M ., S enior High
Sohool auditorium
S p ecial m eeting a t 8:00 P.M ., S enior High
School L ib rary : Dr, G race, Board of Edu­
c a tio n , school p r in c ip a ls
Thursday. December 1 , 1988
Speaker: D r, H o llis L, C asw ell, D ire c to r, Department
of Curriculum and T eaching, Teachers Col­
le g e , Columbia
S u b jec t: Why Revise th e Curriculum ?
U eeting: G eneral m eeting a t 3:80 P.M ., S enior High
School au d ito riu m
S p e c ia l m eetin g , 1:30 t o 3:00 P,U. Walnut
School L ib ra ry .
Dr, C asw ell, S te e rin g Committee
Tuesday. December 15, 1938
Speaker:
S u b je c t:
U eeting:
D r, Donald D, D u r r e ll, Boston U n iv e rs ity
The Currioulum and Remedial Reading
G eneral m eeting, 8:00 p ,m ,, S enior High
School A uditorium
Supper m eeting, 6 P.M ., Y,W,C,A.
D r, D u rr e ll, S te e rin g Committee and Com­
m itte e on In d iv id u a l D iffe re n ces
Wednesday. January 11. 1959
Speaker: U r, John K in g sley , P re s id e n t, Vermont
J u n io r College and M ontpelier Seminary,
M o n tp elier, Vermont; fo rm erly A s s is ta n t
S uperintendent of S chools, Albany, New York
S u b je c t: The C urriculum and In d iv id u a l Needs: Albany
E xperiences
U eetin g : G eneral m eeting a t 3 :3 0 p .m ., Senior High
School Auditorium
S p e c ia l m eeting, 1:30 to 3:00 p .m ., Walnut
H ill Sohool L ib ra ry , U r, K ingsley, S te e r­
ing Committee, Guidance C o u n cil, In d iv id u a l
D iffe re n c e s Committee
92
Wednesday. January 25, 1959
S u b je c t:
M eeting:
Committee r e p o r ts on p ro g re ss
Open m eeting a t 4:30 p .m ., S enior High
Sohool L ib ra ry . Board of E ducation e s ­
p e c ia lly in v ite d .
Wednesday. February 8 , 1959
Speaker:
S u b je c t:
M eeting:
D r. George K. P r a t t , T ale Medioal School;
P re s id e n t, C onnecticut M ental Hygiene
S ooiety
M ental Hygiene and th e C urriculum
G eneral M eeting, 3:30 p .m ., S en io r High
School Auditorium
S p e c ia l M eeting, 1:30 t o 3:00 p .m ., Walnut
H ill Sohool L ib rary
D r. P r a t t , S te e rin g Committee, In d iv id u a l
D iffe re n ces Committee, Secondary E ducation
C ouncil
Wednesday. March 8 , 1939
Speaker:
S u b je c t:
M eeting:
D r. H erbert G. Espy, P ro fe ss o r o f E ducation,
W estern Reserve U n iv e rs ity , C leveland,
Ohio; Member of Nee York S ta te In q u iry in to
C h a ra cte r and Costs o f E ducation
C o n trib u tio n of Nev York S ta te In q u iry t o
Curriculum R evision
G eneral m eetin g , 3:30 p .m ., S en io r High
Sohool A uditorium
S p e c ia l m eetin g , 1:30 t o 3 :00 p .m .,
Walnut H ill Sohool L ib ra ry
D r. Espy, S te e rin g Committee, Secondary
E ducation C ouncil
Wednesday. A p ril 5 , 1959
Speaker:
S u b je c t:
M eeting:
D r. Anna Y. Reed, P erso n n el D ir e c to r, Nev
York U n iv e rs ity
Guidance and C urriculum R evision
G eneral m eeting a t 3 :30 p .m ., S en io r High
School A uditorium
S p e c ia l m e etin g , 1:30 t o 3:00 p .m .,
Walnut H i l l School L ib rary
D r. Reed, S te e rin g Committee, Guidance
C ouncil, Secondary E ducation Committee
S ectio n XXI (page 433) o f th e souroe m a te r ia l g iv es
th e ad d ress of one of th e s p e a k e rs , Mr. John K in g sley , fo rm erly
93
a s s i s t a n t s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls I n A lb an y , New Y ork.
T h is p rogram o f s p e a k e r s , o o u p le d w ith t h e e f f o r t s o f th e
c o m m itte e s , u n d e r t h e c a p a b le g e n e r a l l e a d e r s h i p o f M iss
Mary A. C am pbell As g e n e r a l i n t e g r a t i n g c h airm a n o f th e c u r ­
ric u lu m c o m m itte e s , s e r v e d a r e a l p u rp o se i n f a c u l t y i n s e rv ic e t r a i n i n g .
The s t e e r i n g ecm m ittee on c u rr ic u lu m
b u i ld i n g a l s o i s s u e d tw o g e n e r a l b u l l e t i n s t o s e r v e a s b a c k ­
g ro u n d s f o r t h e c u r r i c u l a r s t u d i e s .
The f i r s t f o llo w e d up
th e p ro m o tio n co m m ittee r e p o r t o f t h e y e a r b e f o r e a n d was e n ­
t i t l e d "S u g g e ste d S ta n d a rd s o f P ro m o tio n " (se e S o u rce M a t e r i a l ,
S e c tio n X V III, p . 403 ) •
T h is c le a r e d t h e way f o r t h e ty p e
o f p u p i l o r g a n i s a t i o n t h a t t h e c u rr ic u lu m co m m ittee s sh o u ld
p la n f o r .
The se c o n d , e n t i t l e d , "A T e n t a t i v e Frame o f R e fe r­
en ce f o r C u rric u lu m B u ild in g (S o u rce M a t e r i a l , S e c tio n X X II,
page 439) p ro v id e d a g e n e r a l b a c k g ro u n d f o r a l l c o m m itte e s.
T hro u g h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o f a c u l t y m em bers, t h e s e b u l l e t i n s
w ere made t h e s u b j e c t o f f a o u l t y d i s c u s s i o n s and s tu d y i n
e a c h s c h o o l.
In g e n e r a l , t h i s p ro g ram seem ed t o f u l f i l l i t s d e ­
s i r e d p u rp o se o f f a c u l t y s t i m u l a t i o n , a lth o u g h , o f c o u r s e ,
i t f a i l e d i n r e a c h in g a l l o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s .
B u d g e tin g and A c c o u n tin g P ro c e d u re s
I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s u p e r in te n d e n t
fo u n d t h e b u d g e tin g and a c c o u n tin g p ro c e d u re s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ,
b e o a u se o f p o o r a c c o u n tin g p r o c e d u r e s and la c k o f c o n fo rm ity
94
t o s t a t e or n a tio n a l s ta n d a rd s •
D uring 1938-1939 th e change
over from th e o ld methods to th e new have been e f f e c te d .
In th e Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XXIX (page 518 ) w i l l be
found th e 1939-1940 budget worked out f o r b o th th e old and
new m ethods.
Also a r e in clu d ed samples of the monthly and
q u a rte rly summaries under th e old and new s e t-u p .
This new s e t-u p n o t only p la c e s our system of budget­
ing and acco u n tin g in accord w ith s t a t e and n a tio n a l r e q u ir e ­
m ents, but th e acco u n tin g system has been Improved to in olude
th e follow ings
1.
A running commitment re c o rd .
2.
A monthly oheok-up a g a in s t A p p ro p riatio n s.
3.
More thorough breakdown of c o s t s .
4.
More s c i e n t i f i c placem ent of item s in th e
acco u n tin g h ead in g s.
The next ste p which th e a d m in is tra tio n hopes to i n ­
tro d u ce
i s m echanical bookkeeping.
More c a r e f u l budgeting
and accounting should In c re a se p u b lic confidence in th e
handling of sohool funds and r e a c t more fa v o ra b ly tow ard
school a p p ro p ria tio n s .
S a la ry Sohedule Program
During th e p a s t y e a r th e s a la r y s i t u a t i o n has been
Improved by th e is s u in g o f c o n tra c ts c a rry in g u s u a l in o rd ments and r e e s ta b lis h in g heads of d ep a rtm en ts.
I t i s t o be
hoped t h a t a r e g u la r schedule w i l l be adopted by th e Board
95
o f E du catio n , based upon th e p lan approved in November,
1937, by th e te a c h e r s .
(See Source M a te r ia l, S e c tio n V,
page i l l . )
Long-Term B u ild in g Study
Many f a c t o r s th a t a re l i s t e d in t h i s b u l l e t i n (see
Source M a te ria l, S ectio n XXVI, page 469) le d th e su p e rin ­
te n d en t t o study th e p o p u la tio n tre n d s and b u ild in g needs
in New B r ita in f o r th e n ex t te n y e a rs .
Lowering elem entary
and ju n io r h ig h school p o p u la tio n s, coupled w ith demands
by c e r t a in members of th e c i t y o o u n o il f o r s a f e ty and s a n i­
ta r y Improvements in th e o ld e r sc h o o ls, made such a study
v i t a l t o I n t e l l i g e n t th in k in g on th e m a tte r.
T his study
would in d ic a te th a t many of th e o ld e r b u ild in g s can be
abandoned i f th e c i t y i s w illin g to have school d i s t r i c t s
in o reased in g eo g rap h ical a re a and w i l l provide funds to
b u ild a d d itio n s t o c e r ta in p re s e n t sc h o o ls.
Such a program
would seem t o mean a long term f in a n c ia l saving and th e
housing o f a l l th e c h ild re n in modem, f ir e p r o o f b u ild in g s .
Teacher S e le c tio n
An attem p t was made by th e su p e rin ten d en t in th e
b u l l e t i n co n tain ed in S e c tio n XXVIII o f th e Source M a te ria l
(page 515) t o s e t up a more s e l e n t i f i o b a s is f o r th e s e le c ­
tio n o f te a o h e rs i n New B r ita in .
The In flu x o f nepotism
1
96
and patronage made some s o r t of p la n w ith a s c i e n t i f i c b a s is
a n e c e s s ity .
I t i s n o t a p e r f e c t in stru m e n t, nor has i t as
y et se rv e d i t s purpose of le s se n in g patronage demands.
How­
e v e r, i t i s a s t a r t which may b ear f r u i t .
Rules and R eg u latio n s o f Board
A s p e c ia l committee o f th e Board of E ducation was
ap poin ted d u rin g th e y e a r t o r e v is e i t s r u le s and re g u la ­
tio n s ,
S e c tio n XXX (page 522) of th e Source M a te ria l g iv es
th e re v is e d r u l e s .
Ho g re a t s te p s in advance were made.
Three sta n d in g com m ittees s t i l l rem ain t o c a rry on th e work
of th e Board, even though th e p re se n t Board f a i l s t o a c ­
cep t committee r e p o r ts except a f t e r c a r e f u l review and r e ­
v is io n .
The su g g estio n of a c tin g as a committee o f th e whole
was co n sid ered , b u t tu rn e d down a t t h i s tim e .
Most o f th e
changes were in th e n a tu re o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n of d u t i e s , and
of s lm p lif ic a tlo n s .
O bstacles
These f i r s t s te p s in c a rry in g out a c a r e f u lly worked
out program (1938-1939) have re v e a le d o e r ta in o b s ta c le s th a t
w i l l p robably be met in alm ost any s it u a ti o n a tte m p tin g t o
d e m o c ra tic a lly i n s t i t u t e suoh a p ro ced u re.
At le a s t th re e
m ajor o b s ta c le s have ap p eared .
The f i r s t o f th e se i s s t a f f i n e r t i a .
I t is , of
co u rse , only n a tu r a l t o f in d a s t a f f a s a whole r e s i s t i n g
97
change o r s tim u la tio n , even i f d e m o c ra tic a lly in sp ire d *
T his
i s not t o a ay t h a t th e re mere n o t and a re n o t la rg e numbers
of in d iv id u a ls who welcome and a id in t h i s s tim u la tio n .
th e group r e a c tio n i s t o r e s i s t change.
But
However, as m utual
re sp e o t and confidence grow s, t h i s r e s is ta n c e le s s e n s .
The
y ear ahead of c o n s o lid a tio n should h e lp a g re a t d e a l In
changing th e rem aining i n e r t i a .
A second o b sta c le grew out of m isunderstandings on
th e p a r t of th e Board and p u b llo .
The f a c t th a t a t p re s e n t
only o n e -th ird o f th e Board have serv ed lo n g er th an th e
su p e rin ten d en t and th a t many have been ap p o in ted r a th e r th a n
e le c te d by th e p e o p le , h as d o u b tle ss serv ed t o in c re a s e m is­
u n d e rsta n d in g s.
F a ilu re o f th e Board to u n d erstan d has in ­
c re a se d p u b lic m isu n d erstan d in g .
F a rt of t h i s i s a n a t u r a l
concommltant of th e ad ju stm en t p e rio d , and p a r t i s due to
th e u n u su a l com bination of ciroum atanees.
I t i s to be hoped
th a t w ith in the next tw o-year p e rio d o f th e s u p e rin te n d e n t's
c o n tr a c t, a b a s is f o r m utual u n d e rsta n d in g , n o t in im ic a l
t o th e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of th e sc h o o ls, may be worked o u t.
Another s e rio u s o b s ta c le has been th a t each y e a r
th e r e has been se rio u s c u ts in th e budget a p p ro p ria tio n s .
T his h as cane in th e fa c e of b e t t e r acco u n tin g methods and
a balanced budget — th e f i r s t in many y e a rs .
These lim i­
t a t i o n s h av e, of c o u rse , made p ro g re ss w ith t h i s s o r t of an
a d m in is tra tiv e program more d l f f i o u l t .
A more fundam ental Impediment to th e dem ocratic ap -
98
proach t o th e problem has been th e f a i l u r e on th e p a r t o f
many s t a f f and Board members t o u n d ersta n d th e tr u e p ra c ­
t i c e of th e dem ocratic m ethod,
llany people give l i p s e r ­
v ic e t o dem ocracy, b u t f a l l in to one of two c la s s e s w ith
reg ard to i t s p r a c t i c e .
E ith e r th e y r e a l l y d e s ire a d ic ­
t a t o r mho is s u e s e d u c a tio n a l e d i c t s re q u ir in g no thought on
t h e i r p a r t , o r th ey m istake th e p ra o tio e of democracy to
mean th a t each man i s a m aster and le a d e r in every f i e l d ,
w hether e s p e c ia lly p rep ared f o r i t or n o t.
(True democracy
reco g n izes a m an's m e rit and le a d e rs h ip in h is s p e c ia l f i e l d ,
and he re c o g n iz e s h is o b lig a tio n to b e a good fo llo w e r in
o th e r f i e l d s . )
Because o f t h i s f a c t , th e attem pt to i n s t i ­
t u t e a program th ro u g h d em ocratic approach i s slow er and
fraught; w ith m isunderstanding and d an g er.
Time and educa­
t i o n a r e n e c e ssa ry to develop in th e s t a f f . Board of Educa­
t i o n . and p u b lic , a c le a r u n d ersta n d in g o f th e p r a c tic e of
th e dem ocratic method.
CHAPTER V III
SUMMARY AND CONCEJSION
T his com pletes the lo g of one su p e rin ten d en t a t work
on h is problem s.
The a n a ly s is h ere attem pted has t o l d th e
s to ry of a new superInbendent a n a ly sin g th e problems of th e
New B r ita in , C o n n e cticu t, sch o o ls and developing a program
f o r t h e i r b e tte rm e n t.
An attem p t has been made to l e t th e
re a d e r peek b eh in d th e scenes and t o judge f o r h im self as
to th e tech n iq u es and p ro ced u res used In t h i s p ro c e s s.
In rev iew in g th e s e two y e a rs of work, th e s u p e rin ­
te n d en t f e e l s t h a t much la s been ac h iev e d , much p ro g re ss made.
The f a c t s are known, th e problems a re d e fin e d , c e r ta in
te c h ­
niques of m eeting th e se problem s have been fo rm u la te d , and
a program f o r development has been fo rm u late d .
However, Inasmuch as t h i s i s a tr u e s to r y , many
f a i l u r e s o r disappointm ents have developed.
To an e x te n t,
to o much was attem p ted In a s h o rt tim e , due to fo rc e of c i r ­
cum stances.
P ersonnel r e la tio n s h ip s of th e r i g h t s o r t have
been slow In d ev e lo p in g .
S ta f f i n e r t i a , m isu n d erstan d in g ,
f in a n c ia l retren ch m en t and f a i l u r e to u n d ersta n d th e demoi
c r a t l o method have a l l hampered th e program .
New B r ita in , n e v e rth e le s s , fa c e s i t s e d u c a tio n a l
f u tu r e w ith c o n fid e n c e .
Confidence t h a t a p r o fe s s io n a l p erso n
99
100
can be and l a being In s p ire d to b e t t e r th in g s .
Confidence
t h a t a Board and s t a f f can be eduoated In th e dem ocratic
m ethod.
Confidence t h a t th e people of New B r ita in want f o r
t h e i r c h ild re n th e b e s t type of dem ocratic e d u c a tio n .
With
t h i s co n fid en ce, th e program f o r th e f u t u r e , f o r c o n so lid a ­
t i o n and u n d erstan d in g o f re c e n t achievem ents, and f o r a
co n tin u in g r e - e v a lu a tio n and b etterm en t o f th e sch o o ls of
New B r ita in cannot f a l l .
The dem ocratic approach I s . by
n a tu r e , slow , but I t I s the only sure way t o so lv e educa­
t i o n a l problem s.
1
101
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c tio n I I
O f f ic ia l H im te a of th e Board o f E d u catio n
A p ril 8 , 1998
102
The r e g u l a r c x m th ly m e e tin g o f t h e B oard o f B d u e a tio n
was h e ld on F r id a y , A p ril 8 , 1933# * t it*50 o Bc lo c k p.m.
In the Board o f Edxicafcior. o f f i c e , W alnut H i l l School.
f
F r e s s n t w ere Mr. A l l e n , Mr. B u r r , Mr. K le b e s , M rs. N usa,
Dr. M a r tin , Mrs. Mangan, Mr. M urphy, Mr. S u l l i v a n , and
Mr. T a y lc r .
S u p e r in te n d e n t H ing was also p r e s e n t .
\
In th e a b se n c e o f th e p r e s i d e n t , Mr. B u rr wee elected
„ "a s i d e n t p ro t e n .
The m in u te s o f th e r e g u l a r m e e tin g o f I'ai-oh 1 1 , 19? 8 ,
w ere a p p ro v e d a s c i r c u l a r i s e d .
finance
: ; o r - r ,i t t ? 6
On m o tio n o f Mr. A l l e n , th e Finance Com m ittee was
a u t h o r i s e d t o pay bills from t h e 19?7*19?3 appropriation
amounting t o ^ 5 , ^ 2 6 .2 3 ,
<
\
On m o tio n o f Mr. A lle n , th e a c tio n o f th e F in a n c e
m it t e e i n p a y in g b i l l s a s fo llo w s from th e 1937*1933 a p p ro ­
p r ia ti o n was approved*
S a l a r i e s , March 3 th ro u g h M arch 3 1 , am ount
B i l l s p a id f o r s e r v i c e s , March 5 th ro u g h
March 31, 1938
D is c o u n te d h i l l s , M arch 3 th ro u g h M arch 51
& 9 2 ,603.72
l,C 3ii.ii,6
2 , 1 9 8. (
On m o tio n o f Mr. A l l e n , th e F in a n c e Com m ittee was
a u t h o r i s e d t o pay h i l l s from t h e 1938-1939 a p p r o p r i a t i o n
am ounting t o $ 4. ,687. 2 6 .
On m o tio n o f Mr. A l l e n , th e n e ti o n o f th e F in a n c e C o m ­
m itte e I n p a y in g s a l a r i e s from A p r i l 1 th ro u g h April k> 1938,
i n t h e amount o f * 2, 2 8 5 . 0^ was a p p ro v e d .
{
On motion o f Mr. A ilb .. th e a c t i o n o f th e F in a n c e Com­
mittee i n p a v in g b i l l e f o r s e r v i c e s from A p r i l 1 th r o u g h
A p r i l li.9 193d , I n t h e am ount o f $ 4-5 9 #32 «a« a p p ro v e d .
On m o tio n o f Mr. A l l e n , c o n t r a c t s f o r j a n i t o r s * supplies
ap p ro v e d a s f o llo w s t
A m o u r a n d Company
M iner Heed an d T u l l 00k
U n iv e r s a l Plum bing Company
K olodney B ro s.
C. A. H je rp e
Hayes H ardware
F. P. C arey Company
R a c k l lf f e B ros
M aaury Young Company
Heed T is s u e s C o r p o r a tio n
$ 2 1 1 .7 5
1 3 .6 0
1 0 6 .0 1
1+6 . 9Z4.
1 5 2 .2 0
2 3 9 . h5
1 6 3 .00
2 5 3 .7 5
2 2 0 .0 0
3 1 3 .0 0
$ 1 7 3 1 .7 0
103
Finance
C o rra n .it t e e ,
cont.
On motion. of -*r. Alien, It was voted that ^ uo AV,.painfc f o r the 'VVA p ro jo c to oo accep ted and o rd ers p la ced
at the following p r i c e s as needed*
Jo h n Boyl© Company ( f l a t )
Jo h n B oyle Company ( g l o s s )
S ta n le y P a i n t a n d Hardware Co.
(o u ts id e )
T e a c h e rs
Com m ittee
0 1 .6 0 g a l .
1 .9 5 gel*
2 .7 0 S®1 *
On m o tio n o f M rs. Mangan, th e m o n th ly r e p o r t of s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s was a o c e p te d .
The q u e s tio n o f th e a n n u a l p ro m o tio n p la n
up and d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h . On m o tio n o f
i t was v o te d t o r e t u r n to th e a n n u a l p ro m o tio n
th e s u p e r i n te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls was empowered t o
d e t a i l s o f t h e a d ju s tm e n t.
was b ro u g h t
M rs. Mangan,
p l a n , and
w ork o u t th e
On m o tio n o f M rs. M angan, i t was v o te d t o em ploy
Mrs. M a rg a re t Murphy a s c l e r k a t t h e W ashington J u n i o r High
S chool a t a s a l a r y a t th e r a t e o f $1000. a y e a r on a t w e l v e
m onth b a s i s .
The s u p e r i n te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls r e p o r t e d on th e proposed
c o u rs e i n s a le s m a n s h ip , t o b e g iv e n f o r s i x w eeks beginning
on A p r i l 1 9 , 1953. The r e p o r t was a c o e p te d . T h is c o u rs e I s
s p o n s o re d by t h e B oard of E d u c a tio n a n d th e Chamber of
Commerce, and i s to be p a id f o r by f e d e r a l fu n d s appropriated
f o r t h i s p u rp o s e .
The S ohool Accommodations Com m ittee recommended that tba
Sohool Accom­
B oard o f E d u c a tio n empower t h i s co m m ittee t o p r e s e n t to the
modations
B oard o f F in a n c e an d T a x a tio n a r e q u e s t f o r a bond is s u e to
Coramittae
c o v e r t h e f o llo w in g item s*
1,
2,
3,
Ij,.
R e p a irs t o o ld b u i l d i n g s , a s r e q u e s te d by
th e c i t y b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r , a s s i s t a n t
f i r e c h i e f , and B oard o f E d u c a tio n
A d d itio n t o t h e R o o s e v e lt S c h o o l t o p ro v id e
fo r
e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r
p u p i ls h o u se d a t th e p r e s e n t tim e i n th e
S m ith S c h o o l, a p p ro x im a te ly
A d d itio n t o t h e T rad e S c h o o l t o p ro v id e f o r
e x p a n s io n o f t h e p r e s e n t d e p a rtm e n ts a n d
a d d i t i o n o f new d e p a r tm e n ts , a p p ro x im a te ly
Hew e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l b u ild in g t o p ro v id e
f o r p u p i l s now h o u sed i n th e C h am b erlain
S o h o o l, a p p ro x im a te ly
T o ta l
0 8 o ,0 0 ? .
1 1 0 ,0 3 0 .
21^2,000.
2 6 8 ,0 0 0 .
$ 7 0 0 ,3 0 ?
On m o tio n o f Mr. M urphy, t h i s m a tte r was t a b l e d for
a c t i o n a t a e p e o i a l m e e tin g t o be h e ld l a t e r i n th e month.
On m o tio n o f Mr. M urphy, i t was v o te d t h a t th e B oard of
Education a d v e rtis e f o r b id s f o r t b s s a l e o f th e Monroe
S t r e e t School p ro p e rty , w ith no m en tio n of any am ount t o be
made i n th e a d v e rtisem en t.
104
i
salary
Committee
on m otion of Mr. S u lliv a n , th e reoannnendetian f o r the
ad o p tio n o f the new s a la r y sch ed u le f o r new te a c h e rs 'beginning
r e g u la r s e rv lo e in September 19 58 was ta b le d f o r a c tio n a t a
s p e c ia l m eeting to be c a lle d l a t e r .
C <v. ia tlv e
. **h leav e
On n o tio n o f Ur. A lle n , i t was v o ted to ad o p t th e
cum ulative d o le le a v e p la n as f e l l o e s , e f f e c t iv e i n Septem­
b e r 19^61
\
X
Teaohers s h a l l be allow ed te n days absence d u rin g each
sch o o l y e a r w ith f u l l pay f o r th e causes l i s t e d below. I f t h i s
te n days allow ance o r any p o rtio n o f i t i s n o t u t i l i s e d in one
y e a r , i t may be ao o u au lated to a raaxiaaia o f t h i r t y d ays.
1.
The employee*a p e rso n a l I l l n e s s .
2.
The fo llo w in g may be counted on t h i s allowance*
a . P ot more th a n th r e e days may be in c lu d ed f o r d e a th in the
em ployee's immediate fam ily (m other, f a t h e r , w ife , h . :band
c h i ld , s i s t e r , b ro th e r) o r o th e r member o f th e household.
b . Not more th a n one h a l f day may be in c lu d ed f o r a fu n e ra l
o u ts id e o f th e lxsnsdi&te fam ily ,
o. Not more th a n two days may be In clu d e d f o r th e s e rio u s
i l l n e s s o f a member o f th e employee * a immediate fam ily as
d e fin e d above, o r o th e r member o f th e household.
3.
The S u p erin ten d e n t o f Schools may c o n s id e r c e r t a i n m o difica­
tio n s o f th e above r e g u la tio n s , upon a p p lic a tio n o f th e
te a o h a r co n cern ed , t o allow f o r v i s i t i n g days o r o th e r
reaso n ab le i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , b u t n ev er in e x c e ss o f th e
maximum absence p ro v id ed f o r above.
Allowanoe f o r
On m otion o f Hr. A lle n , i t was v o ted to allo w
illn e s s ,
t o t a l o f th r e e days s ic k le av e between A p ril 1 and
Aor 11 to Juno sohool in June 1938, one and o n e -h a lf days w ith o u t
p ay , and 1- 1/2 days when th e pay o f th e s u b s t itu te
etton o f
r.iipt.
ii.
te a o h e rs a
th e oloae oi
lo s s o f
i s deducted.
Kr. A llen o ffe re d th e fo llo w in g re so lu tio n *
Resolved* That C a rly le C. Ring be e le o te d su p e rin te n d e n t o f
so h o o is , and t h a t th e Teachers Committee be a u th o riz e d to enter
in to a c o n tra c t w ith him , th e c o n tra c t to be f o r a term o f three
y e a rs a t an aH--j.al s a la r y o f 16000. , and t o c o n ta in th e provis io n
t h a t i f th e re i s a g e n e ra l re d u c tio n i n teach ers* s a l a r i e s mad©
f o r any reaso n d u rin g th e term o f th e c o n tr a c t, a proportionate
re d u c tio n i s t o be made i n th e s a la r y o f the s u p e rin te n d e n t.
A fte r d is c u s s io n , and by f i n a l unanimous b a l l o t o f th e
members p r e s e n t, th e Board adopted tb s r e s o lu tio n .
ner
.-c a tio n
Program
On m otion o f Mr. A lle n , i t was v o ted t h a t th e Board of
E d u catio n cooperate w ith th e R eo re atio n Coramisa lo n o f th e c ity
o f New B r ita in i n th e p la n p ro v id in g f o r a summer r e c r e a tio n
program w ith in th e l i m i t s o f th e Board o f E ducation budget
a p p r o p r ia tio n , and th e p r e s id e n t o f th e Board and th e su p e rin ­
te n d e n t o f sc h o o ls were empowered t o re p r e s e n t th e Board o f
E ducation i n making p lan e f o r t h i s program.
104
s a la r y
Corswtttee
C v ia tiv e
.... *vc leav e
On motion o f Mr. S u lliv a n , th e r • eammend&tion f o r the
ad o p tio n o f th e new s a la r y sch ed u le f o r new te a o h e rs b eg in n in g
r e g u la r se rv lo e I n September 19 38 was ta b le d f o r a c tio n a t a
s p e c ia l m eeting to be e a lle d l a t e r .
On m otion o f Ur. A llen* I t was v o ted to ad o p t th e
cum ulative elo k le a v e p la n a s f e l l o e s * e f f e o tiv e I n Septem­
b er 1938*
Teaohers s h a l l be allow ed te n days absenoe d u rin g each
school y e a r w ith f u l l pay f o r th e
causes l i s t e d below. Zf t h i s
te n days allow ance o r any p o rtio n
of I t i s not u tilis e d in
one
year* I t may be accum ulated to a marlrmm o f t h i r t y d ays.
1.
The employee»s p e rso n a l i l l n e s s .
2.
The fo llo w in g may be counted on t h i s allow ances
a . P o t more th a n th r e e days may be in clu d ed f o r d e a th In the
employee* a immediate fam ily (m other, fa th e r* wife* ft .-band
c h ild * s i s t e r * b ro th e r) o r o th e r member o f th e household.
b . Not more th a n one h a l f day may be In clu d ed f o r a fu n e ra l
o u ts id e o f th e immediate fam ily .
o. Not more th a n two days may be In clu d ed f o r th e s e rio u s
I l l n e s s o f a member o f th e employee* a Immediate fam ily as
d e fin e d above* o r o th e r member o f th e household.
3.
The S u p e rin te n d e n t o f S chools may c o n sid e r c e r t a i n m o d ifica­
tio n s o f th e above re g u la tio n s * upon a p p lic a tio n o f the
te a c h e r concerned* t o allo w f o r v i s i t i n g days o r o th e r
re aso n ab le I r r e g u l a r i t i e s * b u t n ev er In e x c e ss o f th e
maximum absence provided f o r above.
-
Allowance f o r
On m otion
Illn e s s ,
t o t a l o f th r e e
A o rll to Juno school I n June
pay, and 1*1/2
i( at ion of
r.upt.
o f Ur. Allen* I t was v o ted to allow
days s ic k le av e between A p ril 1 and
1938* one and o n e -h a lf days w ith o u t
days when th e pay o f th e s u b s t itu te
te a o h e rs a
th e olooa of
lo s s o f
i s deducted.
Kr. A lle n o ffe re d th e fo llo w in g re s o lu tio n *
Resolved* That C a rly le C. Ring be e le o te d su p e rin te n d e n t o f
schools* and t h a t th e Teachers Committee be a u th o riz e d to enter
in to a c o n tra c t w ith him* th e c o n tra c t to be f o r a term of three
y ea rs a t an an - a l s a la r y o f $6000. , and to c o n ta in th e provialo;
t h a t I f th e re i s a g e n e ra l re d u c tio n i n teach ers* s a l a r i e s made
f o r any reaso n d u rin g th e term o f th e o o n trae t* a proportionate
re d u o tlo n I s t o be made In th e s a la r y o f the s u p e rin te n d e n t.
A fte r d isc u ssio n * and by f i n a l unanimous b a l l o t o f th e
members p resen t* th e Board ad o pted th e r e s o lu tio n .
ner
*’e a tio n
.-■gram
Pr
On m otion o f Nr. A llen* I t was v o ted t h a t th e Board of
E d u catio n co o p erate w ith th e R e c re a tio n Commission o f th e C ity
o f New B r ita in i n th e p la n p ro v id in g f o r a summer r e c r e a tio n
program w ith in th e li m i t s o f th e Board o f E ducation budget
a p p ro p ria tio n * and th e p r e s id e n t o f th e Board and th e su p e rin ­
te n d en t o f sc h o o ls were empowered t o re p r e s e n t th e Board of
E ducation i n making p la n s f o r t h i s program.
.........
105
Meeting,,
Boards of
E ducation
On. m otion o f --ur. S u lliv a n * i t ma, vjtod. t o r e f e r to
P resident and Supcuint^ «ds.nt o f Schools the ccexiunl cation
from tlie S ta te Department o f Bduoa tio n reg ard in g th e conference
on May 7# w ith re g a rd to th e form ation o f a C onnecticut
A sso c ia tio n o f Boards o f E ducation.
*&bter*
S o c ia l
S erv ice
ClUb
A o o s a m lo a tio n from th e S o c ia l Bor v ice Club was re c e iv e d ,
w ith re g a rd to th e co o p e ra tio n o f th e Board o f E ducation w ith
th e v a rio u s s o c ia l s e rv ic e a g e n c ie s , and on m otion o f Mr.T&ylo
to e m a tte r vac r e f e r r e d to the p r e s id e n t and su p e rin te n d e n t of
sc h o o ls.
M edical
R eport
On m otion o f Mrs. H&ngan, th e monthly r e p o r t o f sohool
p h y sic ia n s and n u rse s was accep ted and p la c e d on f i l e .
A ttendance
Bureau
On motion o f h r s . Mangaa* th e monthly r e p o r t o f th e A tten ­
dance Bureau was ac ce p ted and p la c e d on f i l e .
Evening
Schools
Oil a c tio n o f lire. Maugun, th e monthly r e p o r t o f t h
Evening Bohhal was accep ted and p la ced on f i l e .
Survey
B u lle tin s
Tbo fo llo w in g survey b u lle tin s v e re received*
3 u llo t ln Ho. p: Jamal fetes on Oouroo o f stu d y and G raduation
B u lle tin Ho. 63
B u lle tin No. 71
Requirementa
Quldanoo
Committee on Assignment Plan
On motion o f Mr. S u lliv a n , i t was v o ted t h a t th e shove
r e p o r ts he re c e iv e d w ith th o thanks o f th e Board o f E ducation,
and th a t th ey ho r e f e r r e d f o r stu d y and f u tu re a c tio n to the
Board o f Education* th e S u p erin ten d en t o f Schools* end th e
s t a f f members concerned.
Mrs. Nuaa’
retirem ent
Mr. S u lliv a n o ffe re d feho fo llo w in g re so lu tio n *
Resolved* T hat th is Board deep ly r e g r e ts t h a t p re ssu re of
b u sin e ss has made i t n e c e ssa ry f o r Mrs. Amalie R. Muss to sev er
h er o f f i c i a l co n n ectio n w ith ed u c atio n in New B r ita in a t th e
e x p ir a tio n o f h e r p re s e n t term d u rin g t h i s month*
That wo hero fo rm ally ex p ress th e k in d ly sen tim en ts f e l t by
each f**mbor of th e Board and by th e Superintendent- o f S c h o r l s
?
That on b e h a lf of th e C ity o f
B r ita in , we te n d e r Mrs. Hus a
th e thanks and a p p re c ia tio n o f th e community f o r h e r f in s
s e rv ic e in th e cause o f ed u c a tio n .
The r e s o lu tio n was adopted by a unanimous r i s i n g v o te.
S p e c ia l
m eeting
On motion o f Mr. S u lliv a n , i t was v oted to c a l l a special
mooting o f th e Board o f E ducation to in te rv ie w condidotes for
th e S en io r High School p r ia c lp a la h lp f o r Monday, A p ril 18, &t
fo u r o’c lo c k p.m.* th e new members o f th e Board to bo in v ited
to a tte n d t h i s m eeting.
The m eeting ad jo u rn ed .
A tte st*
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c tio n I I I
ANNUAL REPORT, 1956-1957
ANNUAL REPORT
1 9 3 6 -1 9 3 7
PUBLIC SCHOOLS
NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
Public Schools
NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
For the
SCHOOL YEAR ENDED JUNE TWENTY-FIFTH
and fo r the
FINANCIAL YEAR ENDED APRIL FIRST
1937
DR. S T A N L E Y H . H O L M E S
re tire d S u p e rin te n d en t of Schools
w ho served N ew B ritain
from S eptem ber, 1906 to A ugust, 1937
as its ed ucational lead er
N EW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
3
BOARD OF EDUCATION
T e rm expire* A pril, 1939
H enry M artin
George B. Taylor
Joseph M. W ard
M orris D. Saxe
T erm expire* A pril, 1938
H enry T. B urr
Jam es P. M urphy
Thom as C. Smith
Amalie R. Nuss
T erm expirea A pril, 1937
M ark C. Allen
John S. Black
George L eW itt
L aura P. M angan
Officer* o f th e C om m ittee
President, Joseph M. W ard
Secretary, H enry T. B urr
Superin ten d en t o f School*
Stanley H. Holmes
4
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
STANDING COMMITTEES
1936-1957
Finance
George B. Taylor, Chairman
H enry M artin
M ark C. Allen
T ext B ooks
L aura P. M angan, Chairman
M orris D. Saxe
Amalie R. Nuss
School Accom m odations
George L eW itt, Chairman
Thom as C. Smith
John S. Black
G eorge B. Taylor
M orris D. Saxe
Jam es P. M urphy
H ealth and Sanitation
H enry M artin, Chairman
Thom as C. Smith
Amalie R. Nuss
T rade Education
John S. Black, Chairman
L aura P. M angan
Jam es P. M urphy
E vening Schools
M orris D. Saxe, Chairman
George L eW itt
M ark C. Allen
Teachers
President, Joseph M. W ard, ex-officio
Secretary, H enry T. Burr, ex-officio
Superintendent of Schools, ex-officio
N EW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
S
REPORT OF
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
To the M embers of the Board of E ducation:
Ladies and G entlem en:
I offer for your consideration the annual report of the public
schools for the school year July 1, 1936 to July 1, 1937, and for the
financial year April 1, 1936 to April 1, 1937.
T H E SCHOOL PLANT
The junior high school problem was solved during the past year
by the conversion of the W ashington elem entary school into a
junior high school to relieve th e crowded conditions at the N athan
Hale Junior H igh School, and by the construction of the new R oose­
velt Ju n io r H igh School to relieve the overcrowding at the Central
Junior H igh School. This new school was built and equipped at a
total cost of $220,508.95, p art of this am ount being offset by a Federal
grant of $97,891.42. The building contains sixteen classrooms, a
library, an auditorium , a gymnasium, and the following fully
equipped shop ro o m s: printing, general shop, drafting, woodwork­
ing, electrical, and machine shop, a cooking room, sewing room, arts
and crafts room, and a typew riting room. The building has been
supplied w ith th e latest equipment and is up-to-date in every respect.
It is a credit to the city and a source of satisfaction to the teachers
and pupils of the district.
D uring the first year of its operation, the building contained
seventh and eighth grades only, but w ith the opening of the school
term in Septem ber, 1937, pupils of Grade 1X1 in the district will be
accommodated there. This addition of Grade IX calls for an increase
of five teachers in the faculty and brings the school enrollm ent to
approxim ately six hundred pupils.
6
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
In Septem ber, 1936, the W ashington elem entary school was con­
verted into a junior high school to accommodate seventh and eighth
grades, and w ith the opening of school in Septem ber, 1937, this
building will also receive its first ninth grade class. T here w ere no
shop room s installed in this building, the pupils reporting a t the
N athan Hale and Old B u rritt Schools fo r the regular shop work. In
Septem ber, 1937, this building will have a faculty num bering thirtyone, and an approxim ate enrollm ent of nine hundred pupils.
In order to accommodate the elem entary school pupils form erly
housed in the W ashington School, it was necessary to reopen the
B artlett School, and to reassign some of the pupils, particularly those
in the upper grades, to the Elihu B u rritt and the Benjamin Franklin
Schools. A new boiler house equipped w ith a Johnson oil burner was
constructed for the B artlett School, at a cost of approxim ately
$12,600.00.
An addition to the Israel Putnam School containing tw o class­
rooms and an auditorium was also constructed. This addition gives
the building a total of ten classrooms, an auditorium and a gym ­
nasium, and should take care of the needs of this district for some
years to come.
The recent installation of a large ceiling Alpine sun lamp in the
Open Air School is a m ark of the B oard’s interest in the health
service of the schools. The purchase of this lamp has made it possible
to give sun baths to from tw elve to fifteen children a t one time. A
table, octagonal in shape, built especially for giving the baths, occu­
pies the center of the room in which the lamp has been installed, and
the children re st on this table while the treatm en t is administered.
A body exposure to the ultra-violet rays of the Alpine lamp is a
p a rt of the daily program for approxim ately one hundred children
who are enrolled in the open air school.
T H E SALARY SITUATION
In April, 1937, all School D epartm ent employees received a res­
toration of 11.1 percent in th eir salaries, bringing the basic salaries
back to the 1932 level. As soon as possible, provision should be made
to restore the system of annual increm ents, which was abandoned
five years ago.
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
7
SA FETY EDUCATION
In September, 1936, the first course in safe driving was introduced
into the Senior H igh School. The ability to drive an autom obile will
soon be one of the universal requirem ents of m odern life, and the
secondary school should accept the responsibility for instructing the
young student in the proper understanding of the traffic laws, causes
of accidents, and the legal and moral responsibility of both the driver
and the pedestrian.
This course was covered by a series of lectures by the instructor,
arid m otion pictures and lantern slides w ere used to in terp ret the
rules of the road, and causes of accidents. From tim e to tim e local
and state officials addressed the pupils on subjects pertaining to safe
driving.
The course has been a popular one, approxim ately four hundred
and eighty pupils com pleting the sem ester’s w ork in February, 1937.
A t th at time, the course was made compulsory for pupils of Grade
X II, and credit is given to those successfully com pleting the work.
In the elem entary and junior high schools the w ork in Safety
Education has been, for the first time, supervised by a full tim e
director. The following item s will illustrate some of the w ork ac­
complished during the first year of operation.
1. T w enty schools w ere visited on an average of once a
month, and an inspection to u r of school building, grounds,
and surroundings was made.
2. Lessons on safety education and bulletins and posters
published by the Cleveland and Chicago Safety Councils
and the A.A.A. w ere distributed, as well as a variety of
plays and stories and lists of safety slogans, which w ere
sent to the schools each month.
3. Textbooks on safety education w ere placed in a num ber
of schools for experim ental u s e ; tw o safety moving picture
films were purchased and put into circulation, and a begin­
ning was made in developing “Safety Shelves” in the school
libraries.
8
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
4. The D irector kept a constant check oti the boys assigned
to patrol duty near the schools before and a fte r school
hours, investigated and recommended the abolishing of
hazards in the schdol buildings and on the grounds, and
made a study of all accidents reported by the principals,
recom m ending ways of avoiding future accidents of the
same nature.
5. T he D irector gave several safety talks before P arents and
Teachers’ m eetings, and also spoke before th e F irst Aid
Club in one of the junior high schools.
6. Various state and local officials connected w ith traffic and
safety problems, fire prevention, etc., were contacted, and
arrangem ents made for talks and the showing of moving
pictures on the various phases of safety education.
The work of this departm ent is still in an experim ental stage,
but a foundation has been laid and the departm ent should grow into
one of the most im portant in the school system.
T H E W. P. A. PRO JECTS
Through the W.P.A. Educational and Recreational P roject, a
Community C enter has been operated at the N athan H ale Junior
High School, which provides recreational facilities throughout the
fall, w inter, and spring, for both youth and adults. Supplem enting
the indoor program of the school, a sum m er schedule was m ain­
tained in the parks and school playgrounds, providing wholesome
outdoor activities. To assist those desiring work, a day and evening
program was conducted at the M onroe Vocational School, offering
instruction in fields which enabled many to obtain employment. A
N ursery School has been open throughout the year which gave
supervised care, play, and nourishm ent to pre-school children.
The L ittle T heatre Guild has contributed to the pleasure of dram a
lovers in New Britain.
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3
N EW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
9
CONCLUSION
In closing this report, I wish to acknowledge m y deep appreci­
ation of the cooperation and support of the Board of Education and
of the m em bers of the teaching and adm inistrative staff during my
thirty-one years as superintendent of the N ew B ritain Public
Schools.
R espectfully subm itted,
STANLEY H. HOLM ES,
Superintendent of Schools.
Ju ly 31,1937.
10
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
REPORT OF
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
To the M embers of th e Board of E ducation:
Ladies and G entlem en:
This is the first official communication which it is m y privilege
to present to the New B ritain Board of Education. Coming, as it
does, a t the close of th e first m onth of my adm inistration, this report
will be prim arily one looking tow ard the future. M y brief stay in
New B ritain has born out m y first impressions, namely, th a t the
position of superintendent of schools in this city presents both a
challenge and an opportunity for w ork in a very pleasant city. New
B ritain has dem onstrated its interest in its schools and in the in­
tangibles which m ake for grow th socially, intellectually and spirit­
ually. The fine school buildings, the lovely parks, the playgrounds
and public buildings, and th e m any churches,—all point to an active
interest in cultural and spiritual things. All this m akes me glad to
be here.
As your superintendent, it will be my desire and purpose to serve
the B oard of Education and the city as its educational leader, and
to cooperate with all groups who m ay be interested in young people
and the im provem ent of our city. As the duly elected representatives
of the citizens of New B ritain, it is your duty, a fte r careful study,
in which your superintendent should help and advise you, to lay
down the broad general policies for the adm inistration of your
schools, and it is my duty, as your executive, to see th at these policies
are carefully executed by the school staff. It will be my constant
desire to adm inister the schools in a democratic fashion, as fa r as is
hum anly possible, calling upon the teachers, parents, and interested
citizens to counsel w ith regard to policies. W e are attem pting to
educate the young people in our schools to live in a DEMOCRACY,
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
11
and we shall attem pt to make the functioning of the entire school
system a practical example of a working democracy. The schools of
New B ritain are the result of the interest and support of the people
of New Britain. They belong to the P E O P L E and as such will be
in the long run w hat they w ant them to be. Hence, constructive,
intelligent suggestions will alw ays be welcomed by your super­
intendent.
The constant aim of this adm inistration will be to serve the best
interests of the boys and girls of New Britain. Boys and girls cannot
speak for them selves and it m ust be the aim of the Board of Educa­
tion to protect them and to provide for their worthwhile develop­
ment.
D uring this m onth of A ugust, the superintendent has been busy
g ettin g acquainted with the staff, the citizens of New Britain, the
school facilities and procedures. I am pleased w ith much I have seen
and heard. It is apparent th a t the guiding spirit of your schools,
Dr. Stanley H. Holmes, has kept not only the school buildings mod­
ern, but the spirit of instruction progressive and the spirit of the
teaching staff cooperative. It is a privilege and a distinct responsi­
bility to follow in his footsteps.
W ith members of th e Board of Education and w ith the Super­
visor of Buildings, I have visited and inspected all of the New Britain
School buildings. Already certain slight changes have seemed de­
sirable. The Elm S treet building has been abandoned for school
purposes, and will be used as headquarters fo r the school repair
crew. The shops previously housed in the Elm S treet building have
been moved to the annex of the C entral Junior High Schbol.
A different procedure for selecting new teachers for the New
B ritain staff has been placed in th e hands of the Teachers Committee
for study. I t proposes using many factors in selecting future teach­
ers, such as educational preparation, academic standing, cultural
background, experience, intelligence, residence, and personality.
I t has been m y usual procedure to study and evaluate a new school
system from the point of view of the interests of the boys and girls.
This I shall wish to do in New Britain. The procedure will consume
12
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
a t least a year, and consequently few recom m endations of m ajor
changes will be made during th a t period, and then only upon evidence
indicating its wisdom.
In this study, the superintendent will welcome m ature advice,
suggestions and recom m endations from board members, teachers,
parents, and taxpayers. In m any cases he will call upon different
groups to make reports on specific situations. This evaluation will
be an attem pt to get during the 1937-38 school year a bird’s-eye
picture of the present school system , its strong points, and places
for improvement. Such item s as the following will be included in
this study.
1. Teacher morale, professional im provem ent, and salary
schedule.
2. Pupil achievem ent in all grades.
3. The Elem entary School.
4. The Secondary School.
5. The Adult Education and Recreational Program .
6. Public Relations, th at is, interpreting the schools to the
parents and public, and obtaining from them th eir sug­
gestions for the im provem ent of the schools.
If “team w ork” m ay become the m otto of m y adm inistration, I
am sure th at not only will the present high standards of the New
Britain schools be maintained, but we m ay go on to g reater heights.
P rogress is the law of life, and cooperation is the way to achieve it.
Respectfully submitted,
CARLYLE C. RING,
Superintendent of Schools.
Septem ber 1,1937.
13
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
STATISTICAL SUMMARY
School Year, September, 1936 — June, 1937
I. PO PU LA TIO N AND VALUATION
Population of New B ritain, October, 1937 (estim ated)
68,128
Valuation of all taxable property in city, October, 1936 $101,708,906.00
V aluation of all city property, October, 1936..............
10,185,425.00
Valuation of all school property, October, 1937 ..........
7,035,264.59
II. P U P IL S
Average num ber belonging in all public schools................
A verage daily attendance in all public schools....................
P ercentage of attendance to num ber belonging................
A pproxim ate num ber of pupils in private schools..............
W hole num ber of pupils registered in all public day schools
N um ber of pupils enrolled in Senior H igh School..............
13,262.20
12,408.84
93.56
2,536
15,838
3,013
III. SCHOOL CENSUS
Num ber of children in the city between four and sixteen
years of age, September, 1937.............................................
Septem ber, 1936 .........................................................................
October, 1935 .............................................................................
October, 1934 .............................................................................
October, 1933 .............................................................................
October, 1932 .............................................................................
Septem ber, 1931 .........................................................................
Septem ber, 1930 .........................................................................
Septem ber, 1929 ............................................................
Septem ber, 1928 .........................................................................
Septem ber, 1927 .........................................................................
14,764
15,199
15,974
16,333
16,819
17,306
18,069
18,778
19,595
210,105
19,516
IV. SCHOOLS
H igh School—Grades X, XI, X I I ...................................................
Junior H igh Schools—Grades V II, V III, I X . . . . : ......................
E lem entary Schools—Grades I-V I.................................................
K indergartens ...................................................................................
Trade S c h o o l.......................................................................................
1
4
15
12
1
14
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
V. SCHOOL BUILDINGS
F or H igh and T rade Schools...........................................
F or Junior H igh Schools.................................................
F or E lem entary Schools and K indergartens............
W hole num ber of buildings............................ ..............
W hole num ber of buildings in u se ................................
W hole num ber of school rooms occupied, June, 1937
VI. TEACHERS
Senior H igh S c h o o l.........................................................................
Principal .......................................................................
1
V ice-Principal ...............................................
...
1
A ssistants
...
84
M e n .............................................................
23
W o m e n .......................................................
61
Junior H igh Schools.........................................................................
Principals
...
5
A ssistants .......................................................
...
159
37
M e n .............................................................
W o m e n .......................................................
122
Elem entary Schools ...........................................
Principals
...
12
M e n .............................................................
2
...
W o m e n .......................................................
10
...
Teachers of E lem entary Schools................
...
222
Teachers of K in d e rg a rte n ..........................
16
Special School (R ockw ell)................................
M e n ................
2
• W o m e n .......................................................
4
........
Special In stru cto rs and S upervisors.
Supervisor of E lem entary Schools
...
1
Supervisor of M usic
...
1
Supervisor of A r t
...
1
Supervisor of Physical E ducation
...
1
Supervisor of T ests and R esearch
...
1
Supervisor of Safety E ducation
...
1
P erm anent S u b s titu te s ......................................
2
8
15
25
25
570
86
164
234
2
IS
N EW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
T otal num ber of teachers in day schools, June,
1937 .............................................................
Elem entary Evening School
Principal .........................................................
A ssistants .......................................................
V II.
...
...
...
...
1
18
498
19
ATTEN DANCE — DAY SCHOOLS
Kdg. and Junior Hi(
Grades 1-6 Gr. 7-8-9
A verage num ber belonging, 1935-1936. . 7,409
A verage num ber belonging, 1936-1937. . 6,925
Increase .............................................. ............
Decrease ............................................
484
P ercent of increase............................
• • • •
P ercent of d e c re a se ..........................
7.
Average daily attendance, 1935-1936.. . 6,855
Average daily attendance, 1936-1937.. . 6,476
Increase .............................................. « . . . .
Decrease ............................................ .
379
P ercent of increase............................
P ercent of d e c re a se ..........................
6.
Tardiness, num ber of cases, 1935-1936. . 3,617
Tardiness, num ber of cases, 1936-1937. . 3,626
Increase ...............................................
9
Decrease ............................................ . . .
Dismissals, num ber of cases, 1935-1936 . 1,798
Dismissals, num ber of cases, 1936-1937 . 1,450
Increase .............................................. • • • • •
Decrease ............................................ .
348
V III. EVENING SCHOOL
Enrollm ent and Attendance
Total enrollment, 1935-1936....................................
T otal enrollment, 1936-1937....................................
Increase .................................................................
A verage daily attendance, 1935-1936....................
A verage daily attendance, 1936-1937....................
Increase ................................................................
3,808
3,840
32
• • «•
1.
....
3,614
3,662
48
....
Sr. High
10- 11-12
2,495
2,497
2
2,282
2,271
11
1.
4,215
4,864
649
1,332
1,368
36
10,372
8,369
2,003
2,842
3,227
385
___
537
539
2
272
300
28
Statistical Reports
18
ANNUAL R EPO RT FO R 1936-1937
Statistical Report A
ENROLLMENT BY GRADES, 1936-1937
T otals..........
Enrollment
Feb. 1,1937
Total
Enrollment
No. in Grade
First Time
459
273
545
356
554
391
579
422
563
438
623
472
714
528
6
12
28
701
551
785
560
876
440
756
218
451
247
389
164
35
27
67
72
60
45
33
27
39
50
30
35
44
23
18
50
2
28
5
13
13
6
7
3
103
7
153
51
13
9
0
463
318
583
394
563
401
573
437
582
454
633
498
715
538
48
13
47
683
545
760
548
837
437
755
206
568
288
394
166
22
261
451
427
568
411
563
429
594
482
578
468
657
545
687
55
13
56
549
693
550
759
549
830
548
513
465
429
303
325
69
224
441
351
523
357
526
388
545
421
553
434
624
490
679
14
11
14
535
683
541
751
539
829
414
511
316
405
250
320
65
14,169 13,136
1,033 13,469
13,827 12,754
37
10
76
45
54
37
41
49
61
25
34
33
55
8
41
2
42
14
10
9
8
10
1
134
2
149
24
53
5
4
Enrollment
June 25,1937
No. in Grade
Previously
486
340
617
416
599
424
606
461
613
468
658
516
737
546
56
14
56
706
564
798
566
883
443
859
225
604
298
402
173
35
No. in Grade
Previously
No. in Grade
First Time
K -l...............
K-2...............
1-1................
1-2................
2-1................
2-2................
3-1................
3-2................
4-1................
4-2................
5-1................
5-2................
6-1................
6-2................
Atypical.......
Sight Saving.
Ungraded.. .
7-1................
7-2................
8-1................
8-2................
9-1................
9-2................
10-1..............
10-2..............
11-1..............
11-2..............
12-1..............
12-2..............
Special..........
SECOND HALF YEAR
Total
Enrollment
FIRST HALF YEAR
249
429
408
535
393
537
418
567
458
548
457
630
519
672
51
13
45
536
670
544
737
529
813
439
464
413
402
291
320
45
1,073 13,132
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
J B 9 A JOd
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ATTENDANCE
BY SCHOOLS, 1936-1937
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Statistical Report B
Ht
s i ou5H' O00' #00( N' t t ^Tj t 00U) NOMON
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a O ' O O . m i O T j ' ^ M ' t O ' t i o n
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821
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p3J3}Sl23ft 'Oft
Totals .....................
• t O i O O O ^ N l - M / i l s C O l O
Chamberlain..................
Elihu Burritt .................
Smalley..........................
Levi 0. Smith ...............
Northend .......................
Lincoln...........................
Robert J. Vance............
B artlett ..........................
Camp .............................
Stanley ...........................
Benjamin Franklin ........
Israel Putnam................
JE 3A JO J
p 3 J 3 1 S l g 3 a 'O f t
0 0 ' O O ' l O ' O < # f ^ ^ ' t O ,^ l / ) N
533.81
J3)S3U13g 1SJIJ
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634.70
a c S O O O W N v O v O t O N f O f O
0 0 0 v » ^ * ' 0 0 0 s - ( r < 5 0 r 0 ^
655.30
m jssuisg puoasg
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SCHOOLS
ATTENDANCE, 1936-1937
KINDERGARTEN
Statistical Report C
' O N « 0 Q i n « H Q 0 O > ^ ' O O
' O O ' O t O O ' W J W H i O i H O O H
602.19
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N ^ f O f O O ' N 5 * H O O N O O O O
T ) I I O < 4 * N O T H ( t ) Q 0 4 I N H a
1,056
JB 3 A J O J
aauepuajiy
89.14
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
20
Statistical Report D
AGE AND GRADE DISTRIBUTION, OCTOBER 1, 19;
60
CO
S. ■c
60
CM
>o < 10
O
CSJ
1
w
4J-3 y e ars......................
5 y e ars......................
y e ars.....................
y ears......................
6 1 4 y ears......................
7 y e ars.....................
7 \ 4 y ears......................
8 y e ars.....................
5 1 4 y ears......................
9 y ears......................
9 ] 4 y e ars......................
10 y e a rs...................
10^4 y e a rs ...................
11 y e a rs...................
W 1 4 y e ars....................
12 y e a rs...................
\.2 } 4 y e ars...................
13 y e a rs...................
13\4 y e a rs...................
14 y e a rs...................
y e ars....................
15 y e a rs...................
1 5 ^ y e a rs...................
16 y e a rs ...................
\ 6 Y 2 y e a rs...................
17 y e a rs...................
11)4 y e a rs...................
18 y e a r s . . . .............
1833 y e ars...................
19 years and a b o v e ..
514
6
T otals by G ra d es. . . .
Below N orm al A g e. .
Above N orm al A ge. .
% Above N orm al Age
CM
w H
CM
CM
CM CM
10
4
388
3 296 28
3 414 40
3
1 103 246 61
3
28 67 320 48
26 113 210
3
2
10 30 79
39
3
18
2
1 7 11
2
1
7
4
1
CM
CM
M- to
n
5
80
319
83
38
25
8
2
3
1
4
53
219
84
38
16
14
5
2
2
1
CM
VO
■o
•u
u0.
6C
CM
t-L
In
1
4
97
271
97
45
26
19
11
4
3
1
8
73
214
71
41
23
16
6
8
1
12
72
275
117
66
40
25
24
5
1
1
2
12
73
187
83
53
44
19
14
7
6
5
3
2
2
16
80
297
117
83
44
36
19
9
4
1
1
1
1
4
31
157
123
66
54
53
18
17
5
4
3
5
4
1
4
5
4
4
2
5
6
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
9
4
13
15
2
1
26
69
251
135
90
52
35
22
3
1
3
14
73
178
125
47
48
29
27
7
2
1
1
1
401
10
304
580
393
555
402
564
438
578
4
28
7
1 .2
40
14
3 .5
64
28
5.
51
23
5.7
85
39
6 .9
57
40
9 .1
101
81
64
54
11. 11.7
461
638
505
708
535
84
87
96
35
96
95 115
154
15. 18.8 16.2 28.7
53 14
53
685
554
96
90
113 114
16.4 20.5
4
53
219
84
38
16
14
5
2
2
1
04
04
001
C\
d\
1
4
97
271
97
45
26
19
11
4
3
1
8
73
214
71
41
23
16
6
8
1
12
72
275
117
66
40
25
24
5
1
1
2
12
73
187
83
53
44
19
14
7
6
5
16
80
297
117
83
44
36
19
9
4
1
1
1
4
31
157
123
66
54
53
18
17
5
4
3
3
2
2
1
5
4
1
4
5
4
4
2
5
6
5
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
9
4
13
15
2
1
26
69
251
135
90
52
35
22
3
1
3
14
73
178
125
47
48
29
27
7
2
1
15
82
207
176
114
90
53
23
6
2
1
1
2
20
61
149
127
88
52
29
18
5
1
4
18
72
242
207
157
97
47
21
2
1
•
564
438
578
85
39
6.9
57
40
9.1
101
81
54
64
11. 11.7
461
638
505
708
535
84
87
96
35
96
95 115 154
15. 18.8 16.2 28.7
53 14
53
685
554
768
96
90
97
113 114 174
16.4 20.5 22.6
552
5
5
55
135
108
62
42
17
7
1
1
6
58
188
234
174
105
54
20
2
.
868
438
841
2
3
30
35
83
30
30
6
4
1
Total
1
00
Special
04
r^I
12-2
1
12-1
1
NO
11-1
1
NO
10-2
(M
1
1-0
Ungraded
lo1
Sight Saving
M1
rr
1
1H
z-u
5
80
319
83
38
25
8
2
3
1
oj
<*15
1-01
1
Atypical
AGE AND GRADE DISTRIBUTION, OCTOBER 1, 1936
10
392
327
460
414
468
437
497
470
505
470
511
480
562
483
633
591
621
591
674
674
659
583
600
459
384
281
155
94
129
. . .
5
15
64
191
145
82
51
27
10
11
6
12
76
49
61
28
20
45
15
53
117
94
53
35
33
4
3
39
40
34
21
30
224
601
297
400
172
32 13,614
68
47
68
30
17. 17.4
1,664
1,983
14.5
1
83
94
65
64
35
84
18
105 168
41
99
93
68 181
19. 19.3 15.5 21.5 18.3 16.4 31.3
«*•
1
2
6
6
7
10
21
N EW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Statistical Report E — Table I
PROMOTIONS AND NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES
FEBRUARY, 1937
Grades
Grade
K-l to K-2........
K-2 to 1-1.........
1-1 to 1-2...........
1-2 to 2-1...........
2-1 to 2-2...........
2-2 to 3-1 ...........
3-1 to 3-2...........
3-2 to 4-1...........
4-1 to 4-2 ...........
4-2 to 5-1 ...........
5-1 to 5-2 ...........
5-2 to 6-1 ...........
6-1 to 6-2...........
6-2 to 7-1 ...........
Atypical.............
Sight Saving. . . .
Ungraded..........
7-1 to 7-2 ..........
7-2 to 8-1...........
8-1 to 8-2...........
8-2 to 9-1 ...........
9-1 to 9-2...........
9-2 to 10-1.........
Senior High 10-1 to 10-2.......
10-2 to 11-1.......
11-1 to 11-2.......
11-2 to 12-1.......
12-1 to 12-2.......
Graduates from 12-2..............
Total number graduated (not
included in total)................
Specials*............
Total
Number in
Grade
463
318
583
394
563
401
573
437
582
454
633
498
715
538
48
13
47
683
545
760
548
837
437
755
206
568
288
394
166
Promoted
454
312
505
352
515
368
534
394
520
427
602
473
660
528
11
668
531
744
534
807
436
447
188
406
258
338
160
Not
Promoted
Percent
Not
Promoted
9
6
78
42
48
33
39
43
62
27
31
25
55
10
48
2
47
15
14
16
14
30
1
308
18
162
30
56
6
2.
2.
13.
11.
9.
8.
7.
10.
11.
6.
5.
5.
8.
2.
100.
15.
100.
2.
3.
2.
3.
4.
.2
41.
9.
29.
10.
14.
4.
215**
(22)
Totals...................................
13,447
12,172
1,275
9.
•Not included in total.
*‘Includes pupils regularly graduated from 12-2 and pupils from grades below
12-2 who have completed the total number of units required for graduation.
22
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
Statistical Report E — Table II
PROMOTIONS AND NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES
_________
JUNE, 1937
Grades
Grade
K -l to K-2.........
K-2 to 1-1..........
1-1 to 1-2............
1-2 to 2-1............
2-1 to 2-2............
2-2 to 3-1............
3-1 to 3-2............
3-2 to 4-1............
4-1 to 4-2............
4-2 to 5-1............
5-1 to 5-2............
5-2 to 6-1............
6-1 to 6-2............
6-2 to 7-1............
Atypical.............
Sight Saving. . . .
Ungraded...........
7-1 to 7-2............
7-2 to 8-1............
8-1 to 8-2............
8-2 to 9-1............
9-1 to 9-2............
9-2 to 10-1..........
Senior High 10-1 to 10-2........
10-2 to 11-1........
11-1 to 11-2........
11-2 to 12-1........
12-1 to 12-2........
Graduates from 12-2..............
Total number graduated (not
included in total)................
Specials*.............
Total
Number in
Grade
249
429
408
535
393
537
418
567
458
548
457
630
519
672
51
13
45
536
670
544
737
529
813
439
464
413
402
291
320
482“
(45)
Promoted
247
428
353
496
355
511
383
540
431
521
436
598
496
664
Not
Promoted
Percent
Not
Promoted
2
1
55
39
38
26
35
27
27
27
21
32
23
8
51
100.
45
13
24
15
23
15
13
181
56
149
59
21
2
100.
2.
4.
3.
3.
3.
2.
41.
12.
36.
14.
7.
.6
.8
.2
13.
7.
10.
5.
8.
5.
6.
5.
5'
5.
4.
1.
13
523
646
529
714
514
800
258
408
264
343
270
318
• ••
...
8.
12,059
1,028
13,087
T otals..................................
‘Not included in total.
“ Includes pupils regularly graduated from 12-2 and pupils from grades below
12-2 who have completed the total number of units required for graduation.
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
23
Statistical Report F
K - l..................
K -2..................
1-1...................
1-2...................
2-1...................
2-2...................
3-1...................
3-2...................
4-1...................
4-2...................
5-1...................
5-2...................
6-1...................
6-2...................
Atypical..........
Sight Saving. .
Ungraded........
7-1...................
7-2...................
8-1...................
8-2...................
9-1...................
9-2...................
10-1.................
10-2.................
11-1.................
11-2.................
12-1.................
12-2.................
Specials...........
Totals..........
401
304
580
393
555
402
564
438
578
461
638
505
708
535
53
14
53
685
554
768
552
868
438
841
224
601
297
400
172
32
399
302
577
393
552
400
560
432
572
458
626
498
698
516
52
13
49
665
531
737
532
832
425
808
218
585
295
387
168
31
13,614 13,311
2
2
3
3
2
4
6
6
3
12
7
10
19
1
1
4
20
23
31
20
36
13
33
6
16
2
13
4
1
206
142
273
158
231
168
232
158
200
158
191
150
210
121
9
4
7
184
134
162
148
212
104
246
39
209
85
115
44
13
88
57
108
79
108
69
100
87
101
77
87
91
109
61
5
1
9
103
63
80
64
108
47
135
47
82
34
47
19
6
107 316
105 223
199 435
156 302
216 395
165 270
232 357
193 272
277 349
226 294
360 354
264 313
389 423
353 288
f39
16
9
10
37
25
398 347
357 303
526 416
340 314
548 617
287 291
460 760
138 195
310 548
178 265
238 349
109 147
13
29
85
81
145
91
160
132
207
166
229
167
284
192
285
247
37
4
28
338
251
352
238
251
147
81
29
53
32
51
25
3
Percent from
Non-English
Speaking Homes
1
! Total
From Non-English
Speaking Homes
From English
Speaking Homes
Both Parents
Foreign Born
One Parent
Native Born
Both Parents
Native Born
Pupils Not Born
in U. S. A.
Pupils Born
in U. S. A.
Grades
Total Number
Pupils
1
NATIVITY, PARENTAGE AND LANGUAGE OF PUPILS, 1936-1937
401
304
580
393
555
402
564
438
578
461
638
505
708
535
53
14
53
685
554
768
552
868
438
841!
224
601;
297
400
172
32
21.
27.
25.
23.
29.
33.
37.
38.
40.
36.
45.
38.
40.
46.
70.
29.
53.
49.
45.
46.
43.
29.
34.
10.
13.
9.
11.
13.
15.
9.
303 4,313 2,072 7,229 9,223 4,391 13,614 32,
24
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
Statistical Report G
DATA REGARDING AM ERICANIZATION CLASSES
IN EVENING SCHOOLS, 1936-1937
Total num ber evening classes.........................................................
12
Classes located in public school buildings......................................
12
Average num ber m onths classes w ere in session. . . .
6
Average num ber of sessions per w eek ........................
3
A verage num ber hours per session..............................
2
Total enrollm ent included:
165
Men . v.............................................................................................
W o m e n ...........................................................................................
144
T o t a l ........................................................
Total enrollm ent included:
U nder 21 years of a g e ..........................................
21 to 35 y e a rs ........................................................
36 to 50 y e a rs
51 to 60 y e a rs ........................................................
Over 60 y e a rs ........................................................
309
Men Women Total
17
12
29
38
45
83
83
84 167
20
3
23
7
..
7
Totals ..................................................................
Nationalities :
American ..............................................................
A s s y ria n ................ ■...............................................
A rm e n ia n
A u s tr ia n ................................................................
Canadian (French) .............................................
Czecho-Slovakian ..............................................
German
Greek
I t a l i a n ....................................................................
L ith u a n ia n
Polish
Russian ................................................................
S p a n ish
Swedish .................................................................
U k ra in ia n
*165
144 309
Men Women Total
36
13
49
12
5
17
1
2
3
4
8
12
7
5
12
2
2
4
1
4
5
1
1
2
69
28
97
3
13
16
23
53
76
4
7
11
1
..
1
..
1
1
1
2
3
165
144
309
CLASSIFIED STATEMENT OF EXPE
Statistical Report G
SCHOOLS AND
DEPARTMENTS
c
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Trade School......................
Senior High........................ $152,827.91
Central Junior High..........
93,667.35
Nathan Hale Junior High.,
92,691.94
Roosevelt Junior High
19,125.77
Washington Junior High..
28,524.73
Junior High Shops.............
29.713.91
Washington (Elementary).
16.047.50
Smalley...............................
45,000.72
Elihu B urritt.....................
41,331.93
Valentine B. Chamberlain.
27,918.01
Roosevelt.......................... .
13,809.20
Lincoln...............................
22,036.55
Benjamin Franklin............
29,956.31
Levi O. Smith....................
16,707.48
Bartlett...............................
9,997.99
Northend............................
25.705.91
Israel Putnam ....................
9,479.33
Walnut Hill........................
11,853.57
Rockwell Vocational..........
11.333.50
Camp..................................
Vance..................................
Stanley................................
Monroe...............................
General Supply Room.......
General Administration__
8,710.00
Evening School..................
4,183.50
Special Teachers................
8,538.15
Medical Inspection............
Attendance Bureau............
Permanent Substitutes.. . .
900.00
Census.................................
Americanization Dept........
1,668.63
Salary—Suprv. of Const...
Totals..........................
•a .
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S'S §
$7,411.91
4.366.21
4.286.21
1,276.29
1,617.33
1,172.32
663.51
2,125.78
2,008.93
1,443.18
649.69
1,241.76
1,379.74
847.56
615.67
1,379.97
436.20
474.27
354.00
200.00
".a
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$4,183.61
898.80
898.80
149.80
898.80
6,378.74
ap
m
p
>->w
*1
$1,152.78
9,341.80
5.583.24
5.583.24
956.00
2,852.40
1,405.56
855.72
3.958.24
3,368.04
2.305.68
2.060.69
2,305.68
2,500.16
1,680.64
832.25
1,909.96
1,388.92
1,250.08
1,527.76
1,250.08
225.00
.
$104.35
8.274.62
3,865.55
3,399.69
1,723.75
1,386.48
2,055.16
105.46
1.473.62
1,292.91
1.060.67
196.71
699.97
898.39
694.41
564.40
805.34
500.92
941.05
947.08
.85
5.29
17.43
1,002.14
1.608.67
426.90
u">?
v!
.t;o —o,
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$517.38
355.92
330.70
37.65
174.13
28.67
25.99
172.78
150.90
131.80
136.96
64.63
101.92
72.42
82.74
79.65
77.03
45.73
36.24
$2,862.47
2,727.96
2,921.64
1,416.52
1,662.60
7.73
77.94
867.97
946.14
813.65
183.82
546.10
1,075.75
669.49
400.01
481.77
385.97
140.88
33.20
58.07
64.67
24.45
594.99
$757.23
360.09
520.80
778.43
313.67
7.95
51.90
122.99
126.66
77.67
122.87
91.35
88/27
112.82
25.25
76.69
32.76
54.91
32.68
63.92
326.81
100.00
898.80
$721,729.89 $34,377.34 $14,307.35
617.28
$54,911.20 $34,051.81 | $2,770.43 $18,880.52
$3,754.99
$757.23
360.09
520.80
778.43
313.67
7.95
51.90
122.99
126.66
77.67
122.87
91.35
88/27
112.82
25.25
76.69
32.76
54.91
32.68
$726.71
68.73
69.66
28.30
10.50
1.18
14.85
31.09
62.30
295.30
$21 79
2,645.55
2,090.35
1,153.87
84.96
497.91
301.16
287.52
678.07
598.29
400.57
1,543.83
200.33
194.67
187.99
1,465.68
86.66
240.26
784.24
121.87
265.06
16.20
90.18
$779 04
3,641.89
2,325.98
1,609.03
308.80
931.88
573 20
217 77
1,198.62
539.25
757.96
958.45
262.50
377.76
490.64
1,578.36
285.93
486.04
1,466.81
413.18
.95
687.52
93.17
419 65
14 36
$1,143.21
116.19
135.13
124.79
57.83
46.09
42.32
42.32
34.80
27.28
34.80
27.28
27.28
31.04
27.27
19.75
19.75
745.71
$2,448.42
4,896.86
1,479.85
1,715.78
131.26
369.78
306.78
153.60
720.86
522.70
230.80
528.56
235.83
352.34
553.40
278.30
562.44
250.36
818.91
372.26
$3,305.34
6,610.69
2,175.55
3,183.53
891.91
2,389.72
686.79
14.49
1,953.13
1,751.52
955.65
1,692.46
1,441.93
1,001.74
777.94
640.36
1,266.30
1,059.94
1,409.46
702.41
217.15
1,402.65
487.49
739.93
313.85
1,087.77
Miscellaneous
Fuel
Light and
| Power
I
Printing
Repairs
Material
1
I
$2,008.49
517.43
490.31
7,148.10
681.88
86.09
43.81
154.86
188.11
111.87
134.08
5.30
16.40
125.77
477.. 06
11.82
88.77
933.06
15.59
| Repairs
Sup. and Labor
!
Furniture and
Equipment
J
Apparatus
Library
EXPENDITURES FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR — April 1936 — ,
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O
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$2,128.75
1,090.03
1,079.70
377.23
356.70
122.40
108.94
318.84
341.78
252.49
246.61
193.54
252.14
190.70
198.11
174.92
215.72
245.69
241.71
.85 $21,501.80
.85 21,501.80
.85 21,501.82
33.30
27.73
3,153.85
23.00
$12,351.01
$3,900.00
1,744.68
$3,754.99
$905.08
$13,642.34 $15,701.69 $20,418.74
$2,702.84
$18,373.66 $36,715.13 $11,376.43 $64,505.42
$3,900.00 $12,351.01
$1 143
116
135
124
57
21
19
13
79
83
46 09
42 32
42.32
34 80
27 28
34 80
27.28
27.28
31 04
27.27
19.75
19.75
745.71
$2 448.42
4,896.86
1,479.85
1,715.78
131.26
369.78
306.78
153.60
720.86
522.70
230.80
528.56
235.83
352.34
553.40
278.30
562.44
250.36
818.91
372.26
$3,305.34
6,610.69
2,175.55
3,183.53
891.91
2,389.72
686.79
14.49
1,953.13
1,751.52
955.65
1,692.46
1,441.93
1,001.74
777.94
640.36
1,266.30
1,059.94
1,409.46
702.41
217.15
1,402.65
487.49
739.93
313.85
1,087.77
*
48.45
21.94
10.97
21.94
5.10
“
43.02
2,089.85
1,143.00
241.25
87.76
$3,579.64
$1,096.58
$12,351.01
$1,114.75
$3,900.00 $12,351.01
$1,114.75
TOTALS
10.97
10.97
10.97
10.97
120.62
$3,900.00
12,702.84 $18,373.66 $36,715.13 $11,376.43 $64,505.42
Open Air
i
21.25
33.78
$142.44
54.85
164.49
43.88
10.97
10.97
120.62
$195.19
$2,128.75
1,090.03
1,079.70
377.23
356.70
122.40
108.94
318.84
341.78
252.49
246.61
193.54
252.14
190.70
198.11
174.92
215.72
245.69
241.71
.85 $21,501.80
.85 21,501.80
.85 21,501.82
33.30
27.73
3,153.85
23.00
Gas
Transportation
1
Census
11
: Medical
Inspection
Attendance
Bureau
Tuition
Miscellaneous
Fuel
I
Printing
Light and
Power
i
E FINANCIAL YEAR — April 1936 — April 1937
$5,285.02
8,149.35
210,033.93
121,874.97
120,147.69
34,570.53
41,838.51
37,487.14
18,654.15
58,814.51
53,270.08
36,524.26
22,298.73
29,368.82
38,241.36
23,149.51
17,194.43
32,979.02
14,712.51
28,054.53
17,381.99
21,504.45
22,460.52
21,626.89
2,269.52
1,751.83
23,182.50
6,750.02
8,864.96
12,351.01
4,898.80
1,517.28
1,114.75
1,668.63
1,744.68
$5,285.02 $1,096,451.86
25
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
sSuipjing
suiooy
Statistical Report H
COMPARATIVE TABLE
Showing School Growth for Twenty Years—1917-18 to 1936-37
SJ31J3B0X '°N
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26
ANNUAL REPO RT FOR 1936-1937
Statistical Report I
AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARIES
Junior High School
Senior High School
Elementary
Men
1921-1922................
1922-1923................
1923-1924................
1924-1925................
1925-1926................
1926-1927................
1927-1928................
1928-1929................
1929-1930................
1930-1931................
1931-1932................
1932-1933................
1933-1934................
1034-1935................
1935-1036................
1936-1937................
$1,482.38
1,524.52
1,483.80
1,496.15
1,487.07
1,511.52
1,544.98
1,552.13
1,570.81
1,620.67
1,562.84
1,250.83
1,146.76
1,181.33
1,318.94
1,411.45
Women
$2,146.99 $1,768.57
1,995.83 1,794.44
1,973.43 1,824.60
2,087.50
1,843.93
2,209.72
1,824.28
2,250.00 1,853.75
2,281.66 1,926.96
2,340.90 1,914.69
2,283.08 1,878.75
1,922.05
2,350.75
2,271.87 1,901.83
1,850.46 1,504.51
1,696.03 1,371.68
1,746.45 1,466.80
1,627.49
2,001.35
2,214.80 1,789.39
Men
Women
$2,692.85 $1,840.24
1,866.30
2,740.62
2,736.11
1,900.00
2,730.55
1,935.71
2,729.54 1,961.45
2,766.66 1,962.50
2,991.66 2,155.10
2,939.28 2,140.38
3,000.00 2,145.28
3,052.14 2,047.69
2,915.53 1,989.84
2,088.82 1,604.12
1,905.82 1,479.80
2,174.27 1,563.60
2,233.79 1,736.40
2,335.66 1,872.65
27
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Statistical Report J
VALUATION OF SCHOOL PROPERTY
Valuation
Schools
Land
Walnut Hill..................................
Senior High..................................
Central Junior High, Old BIdg...
Central Junior High,
Prevocational Building........
Elm Street...................................
V. B. Chamberlain......................
Smalley.........................................
Old Burritt...................................
Elihu B urritt...............................
Rockwell......................................
Levi 0 . Smith..............................
North end......................................
B artlett.........................................
Monroe.........................................
Israel Putnam..............................
Stanley.........................................
Nathan Hale Junior High..........
Nathan Hale Annex....................
Washington..................................
Roosevelt.....................................
Lincoln.........................................
Vance............................................
Benjamin Franklin......................
Shuttle Meadow Storehouse. . . .
Buildings
Contents
$ 60,000.00
108,000.00
100,000.00
$167,000.00
985,000.00
252,500.00
$ 45,000.00
116,000.00
38,000.00
15,000.00
10,000.00
25,000.00
35,000.00
300,000.00
48,000.00
14,700.00
10,000.00
16,500.00
15,000.00
10,900.00
14,600.00
15,600.00
35,000.00
40,000.00
10,000.00
50,000.00
24,000.00
27,800.00
30,000.00
15,700.00
163,000.00
12,000.00
148,000.00
356,000.00
42,000.00
257,500.00
78,000.00
93,000.00
183,000.00
83,000.00
34,000.00
106,000.00
183,000.00
158,000.00
366,000.00
178,000.00
346,000.00
452,500.00
268,000.00
258,000.00
233,000.00
1,800.00
23,000.00
4,500.00
19,000.00
34,000.00
12,000.00
21,000.00
8,800.00
11,100.00
11,100.00
3,000.00
2,200.00
11,600.00
11,100.00
33,000.00
41,787.00
26,000.00
26,000.00
22,000.00
2,000.00
$5,404,300.00
$584,387.00
Oak and Allen Sts. Property.. . .
6,450.00
9,327.59
Totals.......................................
$1,046,577.59
62,200.00
Total Valuations $7,035,264.59
28
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1936-1937
SUMMARY
A ppropriation 1936-1937 ...................................................... $1,086,633.20
Plus R e fu n d s ...........................................................................
9,820.84
„
_
$1,096,454.04
E x p enditures:
Teaching Day Schools................................. $717,546.39
State T eachers’ R etirem ent F u n d
34,377.34
Ja n ito r Service—Day Schools................... 54,686.20
4,183.50
Teaching — Evening S c h o o l....................
Jan ito r Service—Evening School
225.00
Clerical Service — Senior High, Junior
H igh School, Office of Superintendent
of Schools and A ssistant S ecretary
of Board of E ducation.......................... 14,307.35
Ja n ito rs’ Supplies .......................................
2,770.43
T ext Books and Supplem entary R eading 18,880.52
Supplies ......................................................... 34,051.81
L ibrary .........................................................
3,754.99
A pparatus ....................................................
905.08
F urniture and Equipm ent.......................... 13,642.34
Repairs, Supervision and L ab o r.............. 15,701.69
Repairs, M aterial and L ab o r.................... 20,418.74
P rin tin g .........................................................
2,702.84
L ight and P o w e r.......................................... 18,373.66
Fuel ............................................................... 36,715.13
Miscellaneous .............................................. 11,376.43
Tuition—State Board of E ducation
64,505.42
Attendance B u r e a u ....................................
3,900.00
Medical Inspection ..................................... 12,351.01
Census ...........................................................
1,114.75
T ra n s p o rta tio n ............................................
3,579.64
Gas .................................................................
1,096.58
Open Air .......................................................
5,285.02
--------------- 1,096,451.86
Balance Unexpended
$2.18
108
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c tio n IV
OLD SALARY SCHEDULE
109
Salary Schedule, effective April 1 , 1937 *
Kdg.
Grades 1-6
New Britain, Connecticut
Junior High School
Grades 7 and 8
Women
Men
Senior High School
Grade s 9,10,11,12
Women
Men
Experience
1st
2nd
3 rd
ij.th
5th
6th
7 th
8 th
9th
10th
year
year
year
year
year
year
year
year
year
year
107 k.
117k.
127k.
157 ^.
ikoo.
1500.
1600.
1700.
1300 .
1 900 .
l 37 i+.
ikoo.
1500.
1600.
1675.
1-7 5 0 .
1825.
1900.
2000.
17 00 .
1800.
1900.
2000.
2100.
2200.
25OO.
2 k00.
2500.
ll+OO.
1500.
1600.
1700.
1800.
1900.
2000.
2150.
2300.
1800.
1950 .
2100.
2250.
2I4.OO.
2550 .
2700 .
2850.
3000.
110
SOURCE MATHRIAL
Sect ion V
PROPOSED SALARY SCHEDUIB
I ll
SALARY SCHEDULE AND INCREMENT ADJUSTMENT PLAN
PROPOSED FOR STUDY BY SALARY COMMITTEE
OF TEACHERS * COUNCIL
Amended November 2 , 1937
New Britain Public Schools
In tro d u c to ry Statem ent
This amended salary schedule represents the wor k of the
Salary Committee of the New Britain Teachers* Council and the study
and revision suggested by the Superintendent's Round Table and the
principals of the New Britain Schools.
All suggestions and questions with regard to the new
salary schedule have been carefully studied and it is the feeling of
this group that this amended schedule represents the best of the
suggestions that have been turned in.
The following matters have been discussed.
1.
Single Salary Schedule
The advantages of the single salary schedule were care­
fully considered by the Superintendent's Round Table, and with
one dissenting vote the Round Table favored the single salary
schedule as an ideal set-up, but recognized that as a practical
matter, It was impossible to -work out an adjustment on a single
salary schedule at the present time, wh i c h would be acceptable
to the City of New Britain.
2.
Basis of Recognition for Advanced Increments
The Round Table and Principals considered the matter of
the various bases for advanced salary increments and decided
that the completion of a degree or advanced degree was the
best indication of professional growth that could be found at
the present time,
The degree is an indication that the teacher
has been working on professional problems and at least has
attempted to grow professionally.
Merit, which ideally should
be considered in a salary schedule, was considered to be
impractical of inclusion inasmuch as every teacher would consider
that he was a superior teacher.
This amended schedule includes changes under General Prin­
ciples , especially Paragraph 3 c, and a change in the maximum“for a
Bachelor's degree from the eleventh to the twelfth year on the salary
schedule.
General P rin cip les
1.
This salary schedule shall go Into full operation in September,
1938.
2.
The schedule provides for new teachers.
112
Page 2
S a la r y S c h e d u le « November 2 , 1937
3.
ij..
Present Teacher Adjustments
a.
Present teachers will receive adjustments equal to 50 # of the
"frozen" increments as of their present salaries; this
adjustment to become effective April 1 , 1938 and be the
salary of present teachers until June 1938.
(Note:
In order
to deal in even amounts, any odd figures will be adjusted to
the next higher multiple of §25.00)
b.
Beginning in September 1938, each present teacher will proceed
toward his maximum on the new salary schedule wit h normal
regular increments regardless of years of experience.
Teachers now on maximum who have the qualifications for the
new maximum shall proceed toward that maximum by normal
yearly increments.
c.
The Superintendent of Schools is authorized to consider and
recommend to the Board of Education any adjustment or modifi­
cation of this schedule as it applies to teachers now employed
by the Board of Education during the next five year period
(until September I9I4.3).
It is the Intention of this paragraph to make provision for
such cases as
1 . Suspension of administrative and supervisory require­
ments
2 . Consideration of teachers who do not meet the degree
requirements, but who have b y professional improvement,
by direct contribution of special service or otherwise,
convinced the Superintendent of Schools of their need
for special consideration.
d.
No provision in this proposed salary schedule shall be inter­
preted to mean a reduction in a teacher’s present salary
(1937-1938), but if he is above the maximum of the new
schedule he shall receive no increments until he has earned
them under the schedule which applies in his case.
A teacher may move from one schedule to another as advanced educa­
tional preparation or new responsibilities make this possible.
Preparation Requirements
1.
All present teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n shall be accepted for present
positions, but teachers will not be considered for promotions
unless they meet the basic requirements here laid down.
2.
Practice teachers:
a.
b.
c.
6 for secondary schools, paid as provided in basic Schedule A,
minimum
Must be graduates of New Britain High School, or New Britain
resident of five years standing, and graduate of an approved
college.
Appointment good only for one year, with no assurance of
future appointment.
113
Page 3
S a la r y S c h e d u le , November 2 , 1957
d.
3.
Elementary - Kindergarten and Grades 1 through 6
a.
b.
I]-.
Bachelor*s degree or equivalent (]+ years beyond high school)
Connecticut State certificate
One year of successful teaching experience
Elementary School Principals, Specialists, Department Chairmen,
Directors in High iSohoolV Assistants to Principals, and Athletic
Cfoaoh
'
a.
b.
c.
6.
State Teachers* College or equivalent (ij. years) and in upper
50$ of graduating class
Connecticut State certificate
Junior-Senior High School
a.
b.
c.
5.
These teachers are to be used as substitute teachers, clerks,
assistant teachers, and helpers, thus cutting costs for
substitutes and extras
Master*s degree, in appropriate subjects
Connecticut State certificate
Not less than three years of successful teaching experience
Elementary School Supervisor;
, etc.
School
a.
b.
c.
Medical;
Vice principal, High
Master’s degree
Connecticut State certificate
Not less than three years of successful teaching experience
Increments
1.
2.
Increments shall range from § 10 0 .to §200 .
Following factors to be taken into consideration:
Basic:
on new teacher schedule
§7 5 *
§100 .
Summer school of approved six semester hours work— an
additional §50
Extension study approved— 6 semester hours— additional §50.
(no credit for less than six hours)
Note: Credentials for the above must be presented
prior to May 1 of the year preceding the increase.
These special increments do not influence maximums,
but do influence the rapidity of progress toward
these maximums.
Allowance for Absence
Teachers shall be allowed ten days absence during each
school year with full pay for the causes listed below.
If this ten
days allowance or any portion of it is not utilized in one year it
may be accumulated to a maximum of thirty days.
114
Page 4
S a l a r y S c h e d u le , November 2 , 1937
1 . The employee’a personal Illness.
2.
TEe f ollowing may be" counted on this allowance:
a. Not more than three days may be included for death in the
employee’s immediate family (mother, father, wife, husband,
child, sister, brother) or other member of the household.
b. Not more than one half day may be Included for a funeral
outside of the immediate family.
c.
Not more than two days may be included for the serious
illness of a member of the employee’s immediate family
as defined above, or other member of the household.
3 . The Superintendent of Schools may consider certain modifica­
tions in the above regulations upon application of the
teacher concerned, to aliow for visiting days or other
reasonable irregularities, but never in excess of the
maximum absence provided for above.
NEW TEACHER SALARY SCHEDULE
Kdg. and
Grades 1 -6
Practice teacher
1st yr. exp.
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
1100.
1200.
1500 .
1400.
1500 .
1600.
1700.
l800.
1900.
Jr. High School
Grades 7 *8*9
Women
Men
1000.
1 1200.
I30<j.
i4oo.
1500 .
1600.
1700.
l800.
1900.
2000.
Senior High School
Grades 1 0 ,1 1 ,1 2
Women
Men
1000.
1000,
litOO.
1500 .
1500 .
l400.
1500 .
1600.
1700.
l800.
1900.
2000.
2100.
1500
1600 ,
3.700 .
1000.
1600.
3.700 .
l800.
1900.
2000.
2150.
2300.
l800
1900,
2000
2100
2250.
2400
B.
10th
2000.
2100.
2I150. 2200,
255O.
11th
2100 .
2200.
2600 . 23OO.
2700 .
12 th (Max. for
2200 .
23OO.
2750.
2^ 0 0 .
2850.
_________ Bachelor’s)______________ ______________________________________
c,
13th
lljth
15t h (Max. for
2300.
2I4.OO.
25OO.
2)4.00.
2500.
2600.
2900.
3050.
3200.
2 500.
2600.
2 7 OO.
3000.
315O.
33OO.
Master’s )
Note:
a.*
b.
*
Those who receive an approved Master’s degree
will be placed §100. ahead on schedule toward
maximum.
Those serving in atypical, health or special
classes will be placed §100. ahead of schedule
toward maximum.
To be omitted for September 1938, except
for those voider 10 years of experience.
Page 5
S a la r y S c h e d u le . November 2 , 1937
D.
Department chairmen, Assistants to Principals, Athletic Coach,
and present incumbents:
At least three years experience and Master's degree,
add §300 . to above Schedules A, B, or C
E.
Elementary school principals, Specials and Supervisor, and
present incumbents:
At least three years experience and Master's degree
Specials - add $ 500 . to Schedules A, B, or C, above
Principals, under 11 teachers - add #500 * to Schedules
A, B, or C, above
Principals, 11-20 teachers - add ^70 0 , toSchedules
A, B, or C, above
Principals, over 20 teachers - add $ 800 . to Schedules
A, B, or C, above
Supervisor - add $1100 . to Schedules A, B, or C, above
Increments
F.
$ 150.
Junior High School principals
At least three years experience and Master's degree
Add $1100 . to Schedules A, B, or C, above
Increments
G.
$ 150.
Senior High School
At least three years experience and Master's degree
Principal: Over 25 teachers - add #1800 . to
Schedules A, B, or C above
Vice principal:
Over 25 teachers - add $ 1100 . to
Schedules A, B, or C above
Medical Department: Add $1000 . to Schedules A, B, or G
above
Increments
$ 200 .
116
SOURCE MATERIAL
S ectio n VI
AMENDED SALARY SCHEDULE
117
A PLAN FOR ADJUSTMENT OF SALARIES
TO THE SALARY SCHEDULE APPROVED BY THE TEACHERS
AS AMENDED NOVEMBER 2 , 1 9 3 7
Introductory: This plan Is presented fo r study In the hope
that some time th is Spring the Salary Committee w ill see f i t to
recommend a permanent plan for salary adjustments.
1.
I t I s recommended that the salary schedule as given on page 4he adopted for a l l new teach ers coming Into the system as
o f September 193^> with one change, namely, that the f i r s t
year teachers in the elementary grades be started a t $1 0 0 0 .
on the same b a s is as the p r a c tic e teachers In Senior and
Junior High Schools. This w ill put a l l f i r s t year teachers
on the same salary le v e l.
The second year teachers w ill be the same as in the schedule,
n am ely:
Elementary
Junior high
Junior high
Senior high
Senior high
-
women
men
women
men
$1 2 0 0 .
1300 .
1600.
2.
I t I s recommended t h a t i n m aking o u t new c o n t r a c t s f o r th e
s c h o o l y e a r b e g in n in g S eptem ber 193&, tShe s u p e r in te n d e n t
b e a u th o r iz e d to in c r e a s e eac h t e a c h e r 's s a l a r y b e lo w th e
maximum by $2 5 -0 0 i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n o th e r y e a r 's s e r v i c e .
3.
I t i s recommended t h a t th e L eave o f A bsence p la n a s in c lu d e d
i n th e s a l a r y s c h e d u le on p a g e s 3 and 4- b e a d o p te d , e f f e c t i v e
I n Septem ber 193&.
4-.
I t i s recommended t h a t e f f e c t i v e S eptem ber 1939> a l l t e a c h e r s
b elo w th e p r e s e n t maximum b e a d ju s te d to th e new s a l a r y
s c h e d u le by fo llo w in g th e p la n i n s t i t u t e d i n H a r tf o r d whereby
e a c h te a c h e r w i l l go to th e n e x t s te p i n th e s a l a r y sc h e d u le
w hich i s a t l e a s t $7 5 .0 0 g r e a t e r th a n th e p o i n t a t w hich
th e y a r e now b e in g p a id .
5.
E f f e c t i v e S eptem ber 1940, th e e n t i r e s a l a r y sc h e d u le w i l l go
i n t o e f f e c t f o r a l l t e a c h e r s , i n c lu d in g th o s e on th e p r e s e n t
maximum s a l a r y .
118
SOURCE MATERIAL
S ectio n V II
ANNUAL PROMOTION PLAN
119
MEMORANDUM ON METHODS OP ADJUSTING TO THE ANNUAL PROMOTION PLAN
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1.
The adjustment to the annual promotion plan in each school
shall be in the hands of the principal, after consultation
with the teacher and parent with regard to individual pupil
cases, with the understanding that all adjustments are to
be completed before September 1939 *
2.
The foremost point in consideration of the adjustment of the
Individual pupil shall be the child's own best Interests.
3.
The general suggestions given in Bulletin k, pages *J-, 5, and 6,
shall be followed, except in the exceptions noted below.
SPECIFIC SUGGESTIONS
K in d e rg a rte n a d m is s io n s .
1.
A dm ission to t h e k in d e r g a r te n s h a l l be a t any tim e d u rin g
th e y e a r when th e c h i l d s h a l l have a t t a i n e d f i v e y e a r s o f
a g e , w ith th e e x c e p tio n t h a t a d m iss io n i n S eptem ber w i l l
be a llo w e d f o r th o s e who w i l l be f i v e y e a r s o f ag e w ith in
30 d ay s a f t e r th e f i r s t day o f s c h o o l.
2.
A ll c h il d r e n m ust s ta y i n th e k in d e r g a r te n u n t i l th e S eptem ber
a f t e r th e y h a v e p a s s e d t h e i r s i x t h b i r t h d a y , o r who w i l l
h av e had t h e i r s i x t h b i r t h d a y w ith in 30 days a f t e r th e
o p e n in g o f s c h o o l i n S ep tem b er, w ith c e r t a i n e x c e p tio n s
n o te d below .
F i r s t G rade a d m is s io n s
1.
C h ild re n s h a l l be a d m itte d to f i r s t g ra d e o n ly d u r in g th e
m onth o f S ep tem b er, and i f th e y hav e p a s s e d t h e i r s i x t h
b i r t h d a y o r w i l l hav e p a s s e d i t w ith in 3° days a f t e r th e
o p e n in g o f sc h o o l i n S ep tem b er.
2.
C e r ta in e x c e p tio n s to t h i s r u l e o f a d m iss io n to t h e f i r s t
g ra d e can be made upon recom m endation o f th e k in d e r g a r te n
t e a c h e r , th e p r i n c i p a l , and th e sc h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t , w ith
th e a p p ro v a l o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n t o f s c h o o ls , i f th e
c h i l d 's s i x t h b ir th d a y h a s p a s s e d b e f o r e December 31>
p r o v id e d th e c h i l d i n d i c a t e s p h y s i c a l , m e n ta l, and s o c i a l
m a t u r i t y , c a p a b le o f d o in g f i r s t g ra d e work i n a r e g u l a r
r e a d in g g ro u p .
S u g g e s tio n s f o r a d ju s tm e n t f o r G rades 1 -1 th ro u g h V I I I - 1 i n c l u s i v e
1.
O nly th o s e s h a l l be r e t a r d e d i n Ju n e 193*3
n o rm a lly would
h a v e been non -p ro m o ted b e c a u s e o f im m a tu rity o r p o o r
a c h ie v e m e n t.
120
P ag e 2
2.
An adjustment group on the next higher grade le v e l sh a ll be
se t up for a l l February groups other than those provided
fo r in (1). These adjustment groups w ill cover the work
o f the second semester o f the preceding grade, and the
f i r s t and second sem esters o f the next higher grade.
Example: A normal J - l pupil w ill go in to the
fourth grade adjustment group in which the b a sic
e s s e n tia ls o f 3 - 2 , ^ - 1 and %-2 are to be covered
before June 1939* Repeaters from the two groups
(September) w ill a lso be placed in these adjustment
groups o f the same grade le v e l which they should
repeat.
I t w ill be noted that t h is plan g iv es every ch ild in the Feb­
ruary group an opportunity during the school year 1 9 3 & -1 9 3 9 to
progress a h a lf year beyond normal progression.
NOTES
1.
Teachers are expected to do a great deal o f work between now
and the c lo se o f school in June to prepare the February groups
fo r t h is adjustment c la s s during the next school year.
2.
6 -1
3.
D etailed plans for subject matter to be covered in these
adjustment c la s s e s should be worked out by the supervisors
and p rin cip a ls with the teachers.
p u p ils, w ith the exception o f the f a ilu r e s , w ill go in to
the seventh grade adjustment c la ss in th e ir resp ectiv e Junior
high schools. This w ill n e c e ss ita te the re lea se o f no Junior
high school teachers to the Senior High School in September,
but in February such r e le a s e s w ill be p o s sib le . In order to
take care of the a d d itio n a l load in the Senior High School,
a l l p ra ctic e teachers w ill be assigned to the Senior High
School for the f i r s t sem ester, and in the second semester
w ill be assigned to the Junior high sch ools.
In June 1939> very carefu l analyses o f retarded p u p ils, and
p u p ils who have been unable to make the grade in the adjust­
ment groups should be made, and retardation s made i f necessary.
5-
P r in c ip a ls, in conferring with parents, should c a l l to the
a tte n tio n o f the parents the d e s ir a b ilit y o f the immature
p u p il remaining an extra h a lf year in the grade rather than
attem pting to be put in to the adjustment group, which would
r e s u lt in a h a lf year double promotion. This should be done,
however, only when the parent i s convinced that i t i s
d esira b le.
6.
The question o f whether or not we s h a ll have graduation in
February fo r the Interim years of adjustment, u n t il Feb. 19^2,
w ill be l e f t fo r future d ecisio n by the p rin cip a l and high
school fa c u lty .
121
SOURCE MATERIAL
S ection VIII
STUDY FOR GUIDANCE SERVICE
122
•
A PLAN FOR STUDY
FOR IMPROVING THE NEW BRITAIN GUIDANCE SERVICE
Director of Guidance and Supervisor of Secondary Education
Duties
1.
Guidance (on all levels)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
2.
Coordinate and Supervise Secondary Schools
a.
3.
Tork with Secondary School Principals, Special
Subject Directors, and Chairmen of Departments to
coordinate work of all junior high schools and
senior high school
Curriculum Building in Secondary Schools
a.
b.
c.
I}.,
Organize Guidance Departments in each of present
elementary, junior high school and senior high
school, using present staffs.
Stimulate,'educate, and aid in field of guidance
School Guidance Advisors
Class Advisors
Home Room Teachers
Class Room Teachers
Develop classes in Guidance
Set up adequate guidance record system for city schools
Collect guidance material and information and make
available for all teachers and pupils
Set up Vocational Information and Placement Service
Study with principals and teachers, curriculum
revision needs in New Britain
Initiate, direct and Aid in Course of Study
revisions as needed
Cooperate with Bureau of Tests and Surveys in
testing on secondary level and other Research
Problems
Supervision
a.
Aid principals in improving teachers in service
123
TENTATIVE SET-UP
FOR NEW BRITAIN GUIDANCE SERVICE
New Britain Taxpayers
and Public
New Brita in
Board of Education
Supt. of Schools
Director of Guidance and
Supv, of Secondary Education
Principals
Sr. H. S.
Guidance Ad­
visors (2 )
s
??rin.Assifito
P'rin.
oaJ
Jass
Home
Room,
teacher
Elem, Schools
Prin. or
Asst, to Prin
Class
Room.
teacher
Ilasses and Con­
ferences in. ,
* m a tte rs
Pupils and
Parents
Jr. H. S.
Guidance
Advisor (1)
Asst, to Prin
iome
soom,
T
Class
Ad­
visors
Some
Class
Room
Room
teache ] 1 teache
glasses apd ConH
feranees in, ,
—<
julaance matters
Pupils and
Parents
Class
Room.
teache]
Conferences
Pup j
anc
Pareiits
I
124
SOURCE MATERIAL
Section IX
Bulletin I
INTELLIGENCE TESTING
125
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN NO. 1.
Dec.
1937
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Every school system must he alert to progress and improvement.
This means constant checking of results against the aims and ob­
jectives of education and the comparing of these results with those
obtained in other comparable cities.
Education is a constant process
of growth and educational policies and procedures must not be allowed
to become static.
Administrators and teachers must constantly
challenge their own results, their methods and procedures in the light
of the latest scientific information.
In accordance with this accepted principle, New Britain for a
number of years has carried on a general testing program, including
intelligence testing and some achievement testing.
This year, due to
the change in administration, the Superintendent and the Board of
Education have desired a more comprehensive survey of the educational
situation in New Britain.
This survey is being carried on without any formal aid from the
outside, but is entirely an internal matter, in which an attempt is
being made to evaluate the present situation and to point out the
lines which progress in the future should follow.
Partial reports will be submitted to the Board of Education from
time to time, but Board members and the school staff and public
should be warned against drawing premature conclusions until all the
evidence is in.
After all the reports are made, the Superintendent
will attempt to summarize and evaluate them and make recommendations
for a future program.
The first of a series of reports is presented in this bulletin
and deals with the results of the intelligence testing program.
Other reports covering different phases of this survey will be made
according to the following tentative schedule:
1.
December:
2.
January:
Intelligence Testing;
Research Department
Study of Internal Problems, including faculty
status, and the suggestions which the faculty
have made for improvements within the system;
Research Department
3 . February:
Report on Achievement Testing in the New Britain
Schools; Research Department
I4-. March:
Report of the Committee on the Study of High School
Graduates;
Mr. Slade, Chairman
5 . April:
a.
b.
Report of the Committee on the Course of Study
and Graduation Requirements; Mr. Ames, Chairmar.
Report of the Committee on Guidance in Secondary
Schools;
Mr. James, Chairman
126
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
6.
May:
a.
b.
7.
June:
a.
b.
Page 2
Report of the Committee on the Study of the
Assignment Plan; Mr. 'Vessels, Chairman
Report of the Committee on Secondary School
Coordination;
Mr. Sala, Chairman
Report of the Committee on Semi-annual Promotions
Miss Campbell, Chairman
Summary of all committee reports, with recommenda
tions; Superintendent of Schools
Carlyle C. Ring,
Superintendent of Schools
127
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 3
THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS
The gradual recognition among educators that all people
are not born with equal endowment gave rise to the demand for a
reliable instrument for measuring innate mental ability and fore­
telling its ultimate potential development. As a result there
has been developed the intelligence test which is an instrument
for measuring ability to learn, a thing entirely different from
previously used tests which were designed to measure what had
been learned in whatsoever field a child was being tested.
In judging the work of a group of children it is not
always possible to know how much is due to native ability and
how much to training. Therefore, to eliminate the effects of
training, all material in an intelligence test must be equally
new to all children being tested, and must be so varied in content
that it will call into play a sampling of all types of mental
processes. The variation then in the scores earned by those
taking the tests will reveal the range of mental levels found
among them.
By testing a considerable number of children, typical scores
for all ages have been determined and these have been transcribed
into a mental age scrle and used as standards for measuring mental
level.
It is apparent, however, that absolute mental age does not
give a complete picture, u 6 year old child, an 8 year old and a
10 year old may make equivalent scores on a given test but no one
would say they had done equally well when their life ages are taken
into consideration.
For purposes of illustration we may assume
that their scores are equivalent to the standard which had been
determined as normal for an 8 year old child.
It follows then that
the 6 year old youngster had reached an 8 year mental maturity in
6 year's time or had developed at a ratio of 8 / 6 . Similarly the
8 year old child developed >at a ratio of 8 /8 and the 10 year old
child at a ratio of 8/l0. For convenience these ratios are converted
into percentages and we thus arrive at the oft quoted concept of
intelligence quotient, the ratio of mental age to chronological age.
The I.Q's of these three children would be 133, 100 and 80 respectively.
Long experience with intelligence testing has enabled
psychologists to set up the following table for classification of
children tested:
I.Q
Class ification
130 and above
120-130
110-120
90-110
80-90
70-80
70 and below
Genius
Very superior
Superior
Average
Dull normal
Borderline
Definite feeble-mindedness
128
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e ;/ R e p o r t
Page ip
Just as there is a cessation of physical growth in
adolescence so is there a cessation in mental growth. This
does not mean that individuals cease to learn at that age but
that they have as much chance for meeting a situation successfully
as has an adult, providing that the situation is equally novel to
them both or that they have had an equal opportunity to prepare
for it.
One more major contribution the I.Q. offers.
It is assumed
theoretically to remain constant and therefore permits the fore­
telling of ultimate mental level.
THE GENERAL TESTING PROGRAM
For a number of years it has been the custom in our New
Britain Schools to examine children with an intelligence test
about four times during their school career.
This has been done
near the opening of the school semester in grades 1 -1 , III-l,
VI-1 and X-l.
This year the program was varied somewhat with
the result that on October 6 th grades I.TI-1, VI-1, IX-1 and 2,
and X-l and 2 were tested. Grade 1-1 was eliminated as a trial
procedure under the hypothesis that a reading readiness test in
that grade would better serve as a prognosis of academic success
than does an intelligence test.
In the future, grade IX-1 will
be tested rather than X-l so that the Senior High School may have
the resultant information about the incoming class in time to make
wise provision for its members.
Grades IX-2, X-l and X-2 were
tested this year as their pupils were not previously tested when
in grade IX-1.
For this program the Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence
Tests were used in the elementary and junior high schools and the
Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Ability in the senior high school.
Since intelligence quotients theoretically remain constant it is
not considered, necessary to test children annually but it is deemed
important to test them every few years in order to check on any
variations due to changes in physical health and emotional well
be i n g .
To facilitate interpretation of the results of the October
testing program charts have been made for each class tested.
These
are on pages 11 through 16
Each grade is plotted on a frequency curve which depicts the
number of children tested, the range in I.Q's from the lowest to
the highest, the average or mean I.Q. and the number or frequency
of cases falling at each I.Q,. level.
The base line represents the range in I.Q. and the numbers
immediately below this line divide it into I.Q. intervals of 5
points each.
The numbers below these indicate the number of cases
In each I.Q. interval.
For instance, a glance at the chart on page 11
reveal that there is one case in the interval from 52.5 to 57.5,
81 cases in the interval of 97.5 to 102.5 and 2 cases in the
highest interval, that of 127.5 to 132.5. The actual range is
from 55 to 131 as these two numbers are the actual lowest and
highest I.Q's in the group.
1 2 9 -1 3 0
Page 5
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l Su r v e y R e p o r t
Bach small black line represents a pupil.
The broken line
circumscribing the distribution of cases brings into relief the
actual arrangement, of the cases.
The dotted line superimposed on
the graph outlines a normal distribution of cases when no factors
are present to skew or swell the curve at any point.
In any distribution of a considerable quantity of cases the
majority will hover around the average point and a gradually de­
creasing number will spread towards the extremes of the range.
A glance at these charts will show that to be the case in each
one of the distributions, u few children are shown to have very
high I.Q's. The greater proportion of children have I.Q's not
far from the mean.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL RESULTS .LID IMPLICATIONS
The distribution of I.Q's in the elementary grades follows
pretty closely a normal distribution and the mean I.Q's are very
close to the average for an unselected group.
In the third grade
there is a slightly larger proportion of cases with I.Q's from
107.5 to 5-17.5 but fewer than might be expected in the very
superior and in the dull normal classifications.
In the sixth grade there is an over proportion of
with I.Q's from 102.5 to 107.5 but an under proportion
and very superior cases . Likewise an unexpectedly low
cases with I.Q's from 92.5 to 102.5 is counterbalanced
by the presence of an unexpectedly large group of dull
children.
cases
of superior
number of
on the curve
normal
The distributions of I.Q's may be compared to the I . Q .
classification previously given according to the following table:
I.Q. Classification
Genius (130 and. above)
Very superior (120-130)
Superior (110-120)
Average (90-110)
Dull normal (80-90.)
Borderline (70-80)
Feeble-minded (below 70)
Normal Percentage
Distribution
2f>
6
12
GradeVI-1
Grade III-l
Distribution Distributio:
5
lg
4
13
57
16
7
1
2
4
22
60
56
12
6
2
11
Grades III-l and VI-1 have fewer cases In the average group
than the normal distribution calls for.
In the third grade we have
more cases in the superior but in the sixth grade we have fewer in
the superior and more in the dull normal. The fact that we have but
1 % feeble-minded is explained by our atypical classes which take
care of these children.
Very definite implications accompany such facts and these are
as follows:
In each group over 50/b have average intelligence and to their
needs the usual curriculum content and standards are readily adapted.
131
.New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 6
Between 18 and 27% have superior or very superior intelligence
and should be required to do work on a superior level.
Occasionally,
when physical and social adjustment warrants it, a child in this
group may be given a double promotion, but for the great majority of
cases an enriched program allowing for library privileges, assumption
of responsibilities, positions of social and educational leadership,
'’fider variety of subject matter, field trips and reports to the class
would fulfill the needs expressed in the I.Q. classification.
The
teachers must keep in mind that these children w i n go far in
education if wisely guided and are potentic.l leaders in their
community.
If these children do not do superior work they are
just as much failures as the average student who actually fails
to make his grade.
Prom 16 to 23fi are dull normal or borderline cases. It is
to be remembered when dealing with these children that they are
developing mentally at only 70 to 90Q of the normal rate. They
grasp explanations less quickly, they deal in abstractions less
aptly, and they constantly feel the sting of inferior ability
unless wisely handled by the teacher. Such talents as they have
must be developed to their utmost and they must at all times feel
that they have a place in the scheme of things.
Since practical
judgment is a phase of intelligence it is to be borne in mind
that these children must be guided with more patient and detailed
explanations of acceptable conduct in various situations and it
is not to be. expected that they can react to them as qaiiokly as
a more highly endowed child is able to do.
The presence of a few children in the classification below
70 indicates that these children should be placed in the atypical
groups where programs and activities are adjusted to the needs and
abilities of feeble minded children.
A typical normal curve of an
elementary grade in a system allowing for atypical classes should
in reality show the conclusion of a curve at the interval for
borderline cases.
One further point should be broup;ht out.
The wide range in I.Q's, 76 and 75 points respectively in
the third and sixth grades, indicates a wide range in mental age
also.
Inspection of test results reveal an actual range from
6 years 3 months to 10 years 4 months in the third grade and
7 years 8 months to 14 years 4 months in the sixth grade. This
means that there is an actual difference of 4 years in the third
grade and 6y years in the sixth grade between the dullest and
brightest pupils. Any one teacher then must be prepared to adapt
her program to these variations so that she may elicit a maximum
response from each individual.
From the teacher's standpoint this
is one of the most challenging factors in elementary school teaching.
SEC O N DA R Y
SCHOOL R E S U L T S n F D
I M P L IC A T IO N S
The secondary school curves s h o w a pronounced swelling in the
dull normal area and, in the ninth grade, a decrease from the
elementary schools in the average I.Q. Various factors contribute to
this deviation from the normal and these may be listed as follows :
132
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 7
1. There is an accumulation of retarded pupils who have
managed to get through the elementary schools hut who find they
must slow up at the more difficult levels.
2. Vhereas the school law formerly allowed children
14 years of age to leave school if they had completed the sixth
grade it now requires them to complete the eighth grade and
remain until they become 16 years of age.
3. There is less incentive to leave school n o w as many
places of employment have closed their doors to children under
18 years of age. This would apply to the dull normal group as
the brighter children would continue in school regardless of
employment opportunities.
i
4. A small percentage of our secondary school pupils
attend private schools. Many of these are presumably above
average students and therefore by t,ieir absence from the public
schools send the average towards the lower level.
5. The transfer of a certain percentage of pupils from
the junior high to the trade school may have some bearing on the
average standing of a grade in the former school.
In the popular
machine shop division of the trade school entrance is based on the
results of an academic test since there is room for only a fraction
of the applicants.
The less able students continue in the regular
secondary classes.
6 . The type of community which a school system serves
always plays some part in determining scores derived from intelli­
gence tests.
In New Britain it is to be presumed that the predom­
inance of foreign homes with their limited background of American
culture and meager supply of' books and magazines, as well as the
lack of facility of the adults '■’1th the English language, would re­
sult in a poorer showing in I.Q. rating.
At this point it will be interesting to investigate the average
I.Q. rating reported in other cities.
From statistics gathered by Dr. :la Iter F. Dearborn before 1928
from three fairly typical New England towns we find the average I.Q’s
for the gamut of grades to be as follows:
Grade
I.Q.
II
97
III
97
IV
97
V
98
VI
VII
101
101
VIII
IX
104 106
X
106
XI XII
106 106
For the sake of comparison we may also list the I.Q’s derived
from the New Britain testing period this October.
Grade
I.Q.
III
VI
101
101
IX
98
X
101
In the New England towns the five lower grades are slightly below
average as each grade level is lowered by the presence of retarded
children.
In those days the sixth grade began to feel the effects of
selection due to the dropping out of the duller pupils and the re-
133
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 8
suiting increase in the a v e r g e of the class as it thus remained.
Subsequent grades became more and more refined from the standpoint
of innate ability as more and more children with less academic in­
terests dropped out.
This trend for I.Q’s to increase as grades become higher is not
typical of our present day schools.
I.Q's in the secondary schools
are little or no higher than those in the lower grades and we may
attribute this fact to the forces previously listed v--iiich are in­
fluencing the duller child to remain in school.
In fact, these
forces have been so effective that the mean I.Q. in the ninth grade
is lower rather than higher than those in the elementary schools.
Dr. E. L. Thorndike, educational psychologist, gives similar
findings. He says that in 1890, 95$ of all academic students in
the high schools had I.Q's above 100.
In 1918 this figure dropped
to 83$". In a report recently issued from the Albany schools it is
stated that in 1933 60$ of all academic students had I.Q's above
100, but four years later only 55$ ranked that high.
The New Britain
testing program of the present year shows 54$ of our tenth grade and
42$ of our ninth grade children have I.Q's of more than 100.
The facts are still more clearly revealed ’/hen we follow through
on this level the percentages falling at each I.Q. classification
according to the same table as was used for the lower grades.
I.Q. Classification
Normal
Percentage
Distribution
2$
Genius (130 and above)
Very superior (120-130)
6
12
Superior (110-120)
60
Average (90-110)
12
Dull Normal (80-90)
6
Borderline (70-80)
2
Feeble-mindedness (70 and
below)
IX-1
IX-2
X-l
X-2
1$
2$
6
1$
3.
15
62
IV
2
0
1$
5
13
64
16
1
0
3
12
61
18.5
4
.5
12
50
25
5
0
Although the deviations from the normal classification are
general not very large there is the same consistent swelling in
dull normal group that appears on the charts. Those falling in
group include from 16 to 25$ of the cases as against 12$ in the
distribution.
in
the
this
normal
The fact, however, that our distributions follow as closely as
they do to the normal distribution calls for more attention than
would a situation in which the curves skewed towards the upper levels.
It will be recalled that investigations placed averages of secondary
schools well above the normal for an unselected group and curriculums
were planned under this knowledge.
To-day we still need to provide
for these more highly endowed young people but we have an equal re­
sponsibility towards all children who attend our schools.
If it seems
to, the person not intimately connected with schools that standards
are lowering and children are graduating with a poorer foundation let
it be kept in mind that all children do not attend high school now for
the same scholastic purposes and with the same occupational leanings,
New Britain School Survey Report
Page 9
and standards for one course of training cannot be set up as a
yard stick for all others.
Implications for the child’s fullest development may be drawn
for each I.Q. classification.
Those children of superior intelligence are potential college
material and leaders in whatever occupational fields they elect to
engage. They may become outstanding civic and national leaders,
research and professional workers, inventors, scientists and buisneso
executives.
They should be required to do work on a level which is
consistent with their capabilities.
They should be given freedom to
read widely and explore thoughtfully many occupational interests.
While it is not recommended that children be informed of their I.Q.
ratings, every bright child is in a measure aware of his superior
ability and he should be impressed with the moral, social and
educational responsibilities that attend it.
From 50 to 64$ of the children have average intelligence. They
will become the average citizens and occupy the great number of average
positions. Some of them will go to college or professional and busi­
ness schools but many of them will prefer to seek employment upon
their graduation from the hiah school.
Their educational interests
are varied, both because by their sheer numbers they include a wide
assortment of interests and because there are many vocational and
avocational interests which can make an appeal to people of normal
intelligence.
It is immediately seen that the school has a great
responsibility to qpen many doors of activities to these young people
and to make the best of a few year's opportunity to provide educational
guidance to those who may be spending the last of their school days in
these years.
In some ways the teacher's responsibility is greater
towards these children than to those preparing for college because
for the latter there will at least be ether instructors to carry on
the task of counseling and guidance.
The next group of children, the dull and borderline cases, are
relative nevrcoiners to a senior high school but it is evident that a
group compri.ang from 17 to 30$ of the enrollment is deserving of
thoughtful consideration.
It might seem that a group of children
who will ultimately fill jobs requiring relatively little planning
and foresight would find little to attract them to a senior high
school.
The fact that they do find it worthwhile to attend is a
tribute to the school for many are attending beyond the years of age
requirement. There is no reason why these children should not be
given all the cultural background they can
enjoy and utilize. If
they later are to occupy jobs limited to routine and uninteresting
detail perhaps they need this chance for cultural enrichment more
than any other group. An ideal of cultural enrichment, however,
should not veil the need for these children to be given some
vocational guidance. Perhaps some of these children should be learn­
ing a trade or taking an industrial arts course.
Some of the pupils
may be in need of remedial instruction in tool subjects which have
baffled them through their elementary years. Such remedial work is
being carried on at both the junior and senior high school levels,
but results of this test and classification placement may reveal
further need. Certainly intelligence ratings obtained from them do
much to explain why some children are having difficulty with their
work.
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page It'
It is of course important for a teacher to keep in mind the
fact that it is normal for this group to learn at from 70 to 90%
of the average rate of speed and if the pupils are making progress
at this rate they are doing commendable work.
Judgments in ethical
and social situations are iikewn.se made mere slowly and insight and
planning will be more limited.
A very small fraction of the pupil population is classified as
feeble-minded.
Theoretically it would seem doubtful that children
in a secondary school should score so low but it does happen in a
minority of cases . As a rule the program at the junior vocational
school is much better adapted to the needs and capabilities of these
children but occasionally a child ’’hose ambition and confidence
greatly outstrip his native endowment will derive a measure of benefit
from a secondary school. When it is certain that a child is feeble­
minded he should be transferred to an atypical class long before
the high school age is reached and the foundation of his course
through school thoughtfully planned for him there.
In case there
is any doubt about the accuracy of these low scores these children
should be retested at the next testing period in order that a fair
estimate of their mental ability may be kept with their records.
In general, there are no hard and fast rules which govern tho
treatment of any one child. Each personality is a law unto itself.
No child comes to school with a heritage exactly like that of any
other and individual differences are magnified as years go by.
Mental and social reactions become increasingly complex and inter­
woven, and defy any attempt on the part of the educator to completely
and thoroughly fathom their origins.
Intelligence tests are extremely important aids to the teacher
but they cannct summate all these factors and explain the total
personality.
The teacher uses these results as just one more
source cf information and considers them in the light of everything
else she knows about the child.
136
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SOURCE MATERIAL
Section X
Bulletin II
A STUDY OP INTERNAL PROBLEMS
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN NO. 2A.
Jan .1 9 3 8
STUDY OP INTERNAL SCHOOL PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION
In presenting this second bulletin in the series in
connection wit h the survey of the New Britain Schools, many tables
and facts are presented which will form the background for considera­
tion of other school problems.
Very little discussion of these
facts will be made, inasmuch as the purpose of the bulletin is to
present to the Board of Education data which will be valuable in the
consideration of future policies.
It has seemed desirable to
divide this bulletin into two parts, Part A to be presented at the
January meeting of the Board of Education, and Part B at the
February meeting.
Part A will include a study of (1) the pupil population
trends, (2 ) a study of teacher-pupil load, and (3 ) a study of
teacher preparation.
Part B will include a study of (1) building utilization
and (2 ) a study of the problems which the teachers would like to
have reviewed.
This will mean that the report on achievement testing will
be postponed until the March meeting, and will be made in conjunction
with the other report scheduled for that time.
The material presented in this bulletin has been compiled
and studied by the Bureau of Tests and Surveys, of which
Miss Ruth Kimball is the director.
Np ' y B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R epo rt:
Page 2
The passing of time witnesses as much change in a school depart­
ment as it does in any other phase of life.
In fact, changes in educa­
tional realms both result from and shoulder much responsibility for the
changing opinions, ideals, goals and experiences in the world at large.
Schools try to keep abreast of current conditions by preparing chil­
dren for happy social and economic adjustment, but they sleep in the
presence of a golden prerogative if they do not make a sturdy attempt
t« remain in a general's capacity as the social trends of a democracy
march on with the years.
Much is outside their control, but much is
within, and other agencies are inclined to shunt more and more respon­
sibility and place more and more reliance on the schools as the balance
wheel of democratic progress.
PUPIL POPULATION TREND
One very significant change of which the school must take cogni­
zance is the trend of its pupil population. As one might expect, the
population of the New Britain Schools increased while the city was grow­
ing. Prom 1927 to 1933, the school population grew from 12,524 to
14,154, increasing in six years by 1530 children.
1933 proved to be the
peak year and since that time there has been a fairly consistent decrease
with the registration for the current year set at 12,889.
The depression period left its stamp here as elsewhere, although
its impression was not conspicuous until after a lapse of years. During
that time wage earners were leaving the city, factories closed their
doors to job seekers, young people postponed marriage and the rearing
of children, and sizec of families decreased because of economic hard­
ship.
Immigration practically ceased and it was in our immigrant homes
that we found a good proportion of our large families.
In 1927, the
New Britain schools had two large classes of non-English speaking chil­
dren, but six years later there were not enough children to make up
one small class on a full time basis.
One class was disbanded in 1930
and the other in 1933. This year a class on half-time schedule was
established to take care of a small fluctuating group of immigrant
children.
If this change in pupil population were merely a change in size,
accommodation to it would be simple, but this is not the case. \/hile
the total school population has decreased since its peak in 1933, the
enrollment in the secondary schools has continued to grow, and the
elementary schools have borne the full brunt of the diminishing totals.
The following table will indicate this to be so:
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
Elem. 8863 9152 9361 9076 8695 8332 8238 7845 7604 7103 6627
S e c . 3661 3931 4058 4643 5440 5703 5916 5844 6359 6309 6262
Ibtal 12524 13083 13389 13719 14135 14035 14154 13689 l3§63 13412 12889
The peak year for the elementary schools was reached in 1929.
The secondary schools continued to increase in enrollment for six more
years, until 1935, and from that time on have remained substantially
constant.
1 45
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 3
These facts are also presented in the charts on pages 4 and 5.
The first chart shows the total population trend. The numbers indicate
the actual enrollment for each consecutive year. The percentages indi­
cate the percent of increase of each year over the enrollment of 1927.
The peak enrollment of 14,154 in 1933 represents a 13$ increase over
the 1927 enrollment, but the enrollment of the current year shows only
a 2 $ net gain.
The second chart depicts the trends as they are in each school
level. The numbers represent the actual enrollments for each year and
the percentages the division of each year's enrollment into secondary
and elementary school levels.
In 1927, 29$ of the school children were
in the secondary schools; now, in 1937, 49$ of the enrollment are on
that level.
In other words, nearly one-half rather than a little more
than one-fourth of the entire school population are in the secondary
schools.
The fact that more children continue through school to their grad­
uation from high school means that more families are represented in the
schools and more homes are vitally conscious of what the schools are try­
ing to do. Furthermore, it is of concern to the public at large that
secondary education has a distinctly higher per capita cost than elemen­
tary education, both in material and equipment used and in the salaries
of the upper grade teachers. Though the total school population may re ­
main the same or even diminish to some extent, the budget will necessarily
grow with a relative increase in the secondary levels.
The real significance of this redistribution lies in the obliga­
tion thereby imposed on the schools to plan for this growing number of
secondary school children who enter with more diversified interests,
backgrounds, capabilities, occupational leanings, and social and spirit­
ual aspirations.
M/e hope this may lead to a provision for more extensive
trade school opportunities, more diversified programs in the academic
departments, and more thorough educational, vocational, and social
guidance of the pupil on the part of the teacher.
It is a matter of
genuine concern to us as a community whether or not our boys and girls
do remain in school. Twelve years are not too long to spend in appren­
ticeship when we consider the long years ahead which require the best of
training in human relations.
S ep te m b er
S ch o o l
R e g is tra tio n s
from
1927
th ro u g h
1957
146
Page 4
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148
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 6
THE TEACHER-PUPIL LOAD
Trends in the pupil population or average daily attendance for
the past ten years do not appear to have the expected close correlation
with the number of teachers employed for each of those years. Reference
to the table on page 10 will show that fluctuations are found in both
variables but the peak years in attendance are not matched by equivalent
heights in the teacher ranks for those same years.
The teacher-pupil loads did not change significantly in any of the
three levels until the invasion of the depression period forced a
doubling up of responsibilities. The maximum pupil load was reached
in all levels in 1932 but further slashing in the budget resulted in
a new maximum load in the senior high school in 1933. The teacherpupil load in that school had almost doubled in the five year period
from 1928 to 1932, jumping from 17 to 32 pupils per teacher.
These increases in the teacher load were naturally accompanied
by a decreasing per pupil cost.
In one year's time, between the years
1931 and 1932, the average in the elementary levels was cut from $80.36
to $67.83, on the junior high level from $109.05 to $85.21, and on the
senior high from $139.28 to $95*30. The next year brought more cuts,
the heaviest being in the senior high school where the per-pupil cost
dropped to $75.12.
A general summary of the most important facts found in the table
may be given as follows:
Elementary Schools. The high point in the number of faculty members in
the elementary schools was reached in 1930-1931 when there were 284
teachers, and 8446 pupils in average daily attendance. At the present
time we have 6805 pupils enrolled, as of December 1. 1937, with 216.5
teachers.
In 1930-31 the average teacher load was 30 pupils.
On
December 1, 1937, the average teacher load was 31. The high point in
the per
pupil cost was in 1931-32, the figure being $80.36. In 1930-31
the per
pupil cost was $79.53, and. for last year, 1936-37, theper
pupil cost was $76.60.
Junior High Schools. The largest number of pupils enrolled in junior
high schools is the present enrollment, with 3764 pupils, 144,5 teachers
and an average teacher load of 26. The highest per pupil cost in
junior high schools was in 1929-30, an average of #131.13. The per
pupil cost for the last school year was $110.13,
Senior High School. The peak enrollment in the senior high school is
this present semester, with 2500 pupils registered December 1, 1937,
with 85 teachers, and a teacher load of 29 pupils per teacher. The
highest per pupil cost during the past ten years was in 1929-30, the
figure being $178.28. The per pupil cost for the last school year was
$1 0 0 . 6 8 .
The peak of the average daily attendance for all of the schools wasreached
in 1932-33 with a total of 13,660.
Our average daily attendance
for 1936-37 was 12,409, a decrease in average daily attendance of 1251.
Our enrollment as of December 1, 1937 is 13,069.
In 1930-31, the peak was reached for faculty members, with 490 teachers.
In 1936-37, we had 471 teachers, and this year we have 463.
149
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u rv ey R e p o rt
(
Page 7
During the last two years there has been a general trend to­
wards the re-establishment of pre-depression figures but on no
level has there been a full return to the basis deemed necessary
for adequate instruction. The high school shortage is particularly
noticeable. As stated above, the per-pupil cost for last year, 193637, is § 1 0 0 .6 8 against a high in 1929 of $178.28. This low figure
is maintained through the double platoon system an arrangement which
enables one half of the pupils to attend school in the morning and the
other half in the afternoon, which permits the building and equipment
to do double duty, and the teachers to carry heavier than normal loads.
This can hardly be considered a satisfactory arrangement, but it appears
unavoidable as long as adequate resources are not forth-coming.
It is
interesting to note that in pre-depression days, in New Britain as well
as in the average for the state, the per-pupil eost on the elementary
level was about 50# of the per-pupil cost on the senior high school
level. Now, with the failure of the upper level per-pupil cost to
approach a return to normal, the elementary per-pupil cost is 70# of
that of the senior high school.
Departmental Teacher-Pupil Loads on the Secondary Level.
A complete picture of conditions can not be given in terms of
averages as these too often obscure the deviations from a theoretical
normal.
It has therefore seemed advisable to continue the survey
in somewhat more detail by taking under separate consideration each
department of work in the secondary schools.
This has not been an easy task because of the many variable
factors involved, yet the results seem significant enough to include
as bases for subsequent study.
For this purpose various tables and
charts have been made.
On pages 11 and 12, tables have been reproduced which show the
total number and total percent of class periods spent by the teachers
in each department.
These periods have been split into three divisions,
showing the number and percent of periods spent in small classes having
from 1 to 15 children each, in medium sized classes having from 16 to
35 children each, and in large classes having 36 or more children in
each group.
For all schools combined there are 514 periods spent in small
classes, 3109 periods in average and 941 periods in large groups,
These have respective percentages of 11.3, 68.1 and 20.6.
It is
readily seen that the majority of classes are average in size. A study
of the reasons for the small enrollments in some groups and the large
enrollments in others would be necessary before deciding whether cr
not they should be adjusted to a more average size.
Some departments have a larger percentage of average size
classes than others.
One department has only 39.4# its classes in
the medium size classification while another has 81.5#.
In this case
there is a definite reason, for work in the former department permits
larger groups without loss of efficiency in instruction.
Special at­
tention should be given to those sehools and departments where averages
are conspicuously out of line with the others to see whether or not
changes might be made.
150
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 8
The charts on pages 13 through 18 show the average size class of
each teacher in each department and also the range in sizes from her
smallest to her largest. Each number in the column to the left stands
for a teacher. Each horizontal line to the right of the numbers be ­
gins under the classification equal to her smallest class and terminates
under the classification equivalent to her largest. A small cross near
the center of the line marks her average size class. Dotted lines
connect the averages in the horizontal lines in order that comparisons
may more quickly be observed.
In the cases of large auditorium and gymnasium classes the actual
size of the groups could not be included as they exceeded the largest
classifications given in the scale, but arrows to the right indicate
a relatively large size.
These averages could not always be determined with absolute
accuracy as groups in some departments fluctuate with pupil transfers,
and revisions in schedules have been made since the September figures
which have resulted in the ironing out of some of the inequalities in
teacher loads.
The next set of charts, given on pages 19 through 24, show the
number of different pupils with whom each teacher comes into contact,
and her total teaching load which would be the sum of her weekly
class enrollments.
The left hand column is a scale for measuring
this load. The total number of pupils met by each teacher during a
week is plotted opposite the appropriate number on the scale and these
levels are connected by the upper line.
Similarly the number of
different pupils met by each teacher is plotted and the resulting
points connected by the lower line. Dotted lines connect the lines
of each school, thereby making a unit of each department. Wherein a
teacher instructs in more than one department the case is indicated
by an asterisk.
This fact should be kept in mind when interpreting
the charts as it accounts for the seeming discrepancy in teacher load
in some cases. A check mark is placed after some numbers to indicate
that the teachers represented by those numbers have no home rooms.
This was thought worthy of inclusion in the charts as home rooms entail
much additional work on the part of the teacher.
As detailed as these charts are they still do not represent all
the facts .
It was not possible without a great deal more detailed work
and more involved charts to take into consideration all the socalled extra class periods.
These would include all the provisions
for supervised study, extra-curricula activities, guidance,
manners and morals, auditorium programs and other activities.
Under the double platoon system at the high school some teachers
have two home rooms but this fact does not show up on the charts.
The distribution of free periods also had to be omitted.
In the
majority of cases the free time was quite evenly distributed,
although in a few cases not much time was allowed.
These charts will serve best when used as bases for further
study.
It is impossible to guarantee that all the figures are
absolutely accurate or complete in all cases. Such factors as
seasonal programs in the physical education department and
r
151
New B r i t a i n . S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 9
flexibilities which allow children to take work for short terms
inhibit strict accuracy.
Since each principal is responsible for the organization of
his own school, such questions as the following may help him in his
study of the educational problems reviewed in this survey:
1. Is the
all teachers?
work distributed as equally as possible among
2. What rearrangements could be made to bring about a
better equalization of load?
3. Is the
be relieved of home
respons ibilities ?
work of some teachers such that they should
room duties or should have fewer "extra" class
4. Are some departments more heavily loaded than others?
5. Do some departments lend themselves more easily to
large classes than others without incurring loss of efficiency, and
are these the departments which have the largest per-pupil groups?
6. Is there an agreement among schools as to what departments
can carry the heavier loads?
7. How well does the department in one school correlate
with the same department
in the others?
8. Is there or should there be an agreement among the
schools as to the type of work which belongs in each department?
9. Are there conditions revealed in one school which
would assist planning in another?
I
152
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153
P a g e 11
Teacher-Pupll Load
Table showing number and percent of hours devoted in each
department to classes small, average, and large in terms of pupil
enrollment.
Small
1 - 15
English Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
No.
102
5
7
0
0
114
Average
16 - 35
P
23.
2.5
4.
10.9
No.
et
p
Total
Large
36
No.
i
No.
$
305
192
138
65
87
787
69.
95.
77.
76.
64.
75.5
34
5
35
20
48
142
8.
2.5
19.
24.
36.
13.6
441
202
180
85
135
1043
100
100
100
100
100
100
190
252
133
83
108
766
60.
97.
66.
78.
66.
73.1
56
4
64
24
55
203
17.
2.
32.
22.
34.
19.4
319
258
201
107
163
1048
100
100
100
100
100
100
364 83.
51 80.
24 49.
8 100.
12 39.
77.6
52
10
21
0
19
152
12.
15.
43.
440
64
49
8
31
■522
100
100
100
100
100
100
53.
95.
69.
74.
69.
72.4
9
0
24
16
26
75
8.
120
126
112
61
84
503
100
100
100
100
100
100
96 51.
25 100.
15 75.
5 100.
0
I4l 59.2
4
0
0
0
0
4
188
25
20
5
0
238
100
100
100
100
100
100
Social Studies Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
73
2
4
0
0
79
23.
1.
2.
24
3
4
0
0
■51
5.
5.
8.
47
6
11
0
0
64
39.
5.
10.
88
0
5
0
0
93
47.
7.5
Commercial Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
5.2
61.
17.2
Mathematics Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
12.7
64
120
77
45
58
364
21.
26.
31.
14.9
Languages Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
25.
39.1
2.
1.7
154
Pa g e 12
Teacher-Pupil Load (Continued)
Small
1 - 15
Science Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
No.
%
44
2
1
0
0
47
33.
2.
1.
11.6
Average
16 - 35
No.
Large
36 -
Total
%
No.
%
No.
%
74
80
47
30
39
270
55.
85.
61.
79,
64.
66,8
16
12
29
8
22
87
12.
13.
38.
21.
36.
21.6
134
94
77
38
61
404
100
100
100
100
100
100
56,
68.
49.
44.
60.
56.2
110
88
85
48
62
393
100
100
100
100
100
100
8.
48
32
23
19
22
144
100
100
100
100
100
100
Physical Education Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
9
1
9
2
1
22
8.
1.
11.
4.
1.
5.6
40
27
34
25
24
150
36.
31.
40.
52.
39.
38.2
61
60
42
21
37
221
32
3
6
6
4
,51
67.
9.
26.
31.5
18.
35.4
12
29
14
7
12
74
25.
91.
61.
37.
55.
51.4
4
0
3
6
6
19
13.
31.5
27.
13,2
27.
10.
6.5
2
6
11
11
13
43
13.
30,
50.
73.
65.
46.75
9
12
11
4
7
43
60.
60.
50.
27.
35.
46.75
15
20
22
15
20
92
100
100
100
100
100
100
6
7.7
34
43.6
38
48.7
78
100
1
3.3
22
73.4
7
23.3
30
100
Art Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
Music Department
Senior High
Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
Total
4
2
0
0
0
6
Heme Economics Department
Senior High only
Drafting Department
Senior High only
155
S iz e o f a v e ra g e c l a s s and ra n g e o f c l a s s
6-
Intervals of
olass size
0-
1110
P a g e 13
s i z e m et b y e a c h t e a c h e r
■1 6 - '2 1 - • 2 6 15
20
'25
1 31- ‘ 36- ' 41- ' 46- ' 5130
‘ 35
’ 40
' 45 ' 50
English Department
Senior High
-----3
4
5
s/
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* 4
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9
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12
*13
14
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Nathan Hale
1
2
3
4
5
--
6
7
8
9
Roosevelt
Washington
M
* Part time in another department.
.~^~X-:.
--------
156
P age 14
Size of average class and range of class size met by each teacher
11-
Intervals o£
class size
0
5
10
Z±-
1615
20
2625
31364146- 5130 ' 35
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45 ' 50
Social Science Department
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6
1
10
11
12
13
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1
2
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u
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8
9
10
Roosevelt
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2
* 3
4
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6
Washington
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
* Part time in another department.
-r*
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157
S iz e
P a g e 15
o f a v e r a g e c l a s s a X;r r a n g e o f c l a s s s i z e m et b y e a c h t e a c h e r
Intervals of
class size
60
5
1110
1615
2120
2625
3130
3635
Mathematics Department
.p
Senior High
e
1 e
2
3 a
4 P*
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2
3
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\1
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Senior High
3
4
5
6
* 7
8
9
10
Central Jr.
*
*
Nathan Hale
* 1
Roosevelt
P1
* Part time in another department.
__
zL
----
4140
4645
5150
158
Page 16
•Size of average class and range of class size met by each teacher
Intervals of
olass size
6.0
5
1110
1615
2120
2625
3130
3635
Commercial Department
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1
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Central Jr.
Nathan Hale
Roosevelt
Washington
-i-x* Part time in another department.
.41465140
45
50
159
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Intervals of
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6-,
0
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P a g e 17
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and ra n g e o f c l a s s s i ' e
11-
16-
10
15
2120
2625
3130
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.414651-40
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________________
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2
3
----------------------------------------
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Roosevelt
Washington
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161
Page 19
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New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P a g e 25
PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF THE PRESENT FACULTY
The survey of the New Britain School System is continued
to include its most important instrument - the teaching body.
There is no way to summate completely and adequately the
assets of a group of personalities, since so much is embraced
by their intangible virtues, and yet it seems logical to include
some index of their suitability for their positions.
It has
therefore been decided to select three aspects which would have
a common denominator in all teachers - their professional
training.
The first phase has to do with their high school education.
Inspection of the table on page 26 reveals that 98$ have graduated
from high school and of these 68.8$ received their diplomas from
the local institution. The elementary school has the highest
percent of local graduates, 88.4$; the junior high schools the
next with 58.2$, and the senior high school the lowest, with
51.1$.
The second table, on page 27, gives statistics on the
preparation above the high school level. A total of 37.8$ have
at least a bachelor’s degree and of these 8.4$ have a master’s
degree or its equivalent in number of y e a r s : 52$ graduated from
the local Normal School or Teachers' College.
The third table, on page 28, offers an index of professional
alertness, as it represents those who have continued to study since
coming into service.
35.4$ have studied during the past year,
either at summer schools, in extension courses or through
matriculation in nearby universities through the winter.
60,8$
have studied during the past five years and 73.9$ have studied at
some time since they began to teach.
Many of these are working
towards higher degrees.
1
i
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Page 26
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171
NEW BRITAIN
8CH00L SURVEY REPORT
.
BULLETIN NO. 2B.
Feb.1938
y .
STUDY OF INTERNAL PROBLEMS
At the invitation of the superintendent, the principals,
supervisors and heads of departments made a summary in the fall of
the problems they were facing in their work and their suggestions
for bringing about improvement which they felt to be necessary for
effective teaching.
The problems listed in this summary ranger1 from those which
seemed to be puzzling the majority of the faculty to those which
were peculiar to individual departments.
Some problems were of a
financial nature, induced by the depression era and then by the
continued necessity of curtailing expenses against a judgment of
real need.
Some were brought on by the rapid increase in population
in the secondary schools and the accompanying increase in the
divergence of interests and needs of the student body.
Others came
from the ever present need of a school to keep practice in tune with
the newest and best of modern educational theories.
This act of pausing to take stock of the working out of
one's profession and appraising it in the light of several years’
experience is in itself a hoalthy process, for the very act of
recording in orderly sequence the various duties and the problematic
aspects is the first step towards satisfactory solution.
It is to be borne in mind that this is not intended to be an
exhaustive study, as many of the topics taken under consideration
are being given much more thorough study by the special committees
set up for this purpose, but it is planned to be a summary of the
opinions of the administrators on those questions submitted by the
superintendent.
The classifications under which the problems are
listed follow the headings suggested by him in his letters, copies
of Which follow on the next two pages.
On page 4 is a copy of the
form for giving data on building utilization, the first topic
listed in the letters.
T
Page 2
172
S eptem ber 2 0 , 1957
D ea r
w r i
a g
N ew
th e
C o lle a g u e :
I n a
t in g to a sk y o u
e n e r a l tin d e r s ta n
B r it a in S c h o o ls
f u t u r e .
c c o
t o
d in
, a
r d a n c
h e lp
g o f
n d th
I s h a ll a p p r e c ia te y o u r
p r e s e n t s e t - u p in y o in ’
th e p r o b le m s w h ic h y o u
I e s p e c i a l ly w is h y o u r
i f th e y a p p ly in y c u v c
c a r e to d is c u s s .
1 .
2 .
3 t
I )..
S .
S.
7 ,
8 .
9»
1 0 .
1 1
B u ild in g
e w ith m y a n n o u n c e d p la n , I am
me g e t a s q u ic k ly a s p o s s ib le
th e p r e s e n t s it u a t io n in th e
e p r o b le m s d e m a n d in g s tu d y i n
w r it
s c h o o
t h in k
e v a lu
a s e ,
u t i l i z a t i o n
in
l
d
a t
a s
g m e a b r ie f su m m ary o f th e
o r d e p a r tm e n t, a n d l i s t i n g
e s e r v e 3 tu d y in th e f u t u r e .
io n o n th e f o llo w in g m a tt e r s ,
w e ll a s a n y o th e r s y o u m ay
( p r in c ip a l t o f i l l o u t
e n c lo s e d b la n k )
T e a c h e r lo a d
F u r n itu r e a n d e q u ip m e n t
T he D a lto n A ssig n m e n t P la n
A c h ie v e m e n t; P r o m o tio n s , a n d H
T he S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m
o r p r o v is io n s f o r th e s lo w
s h o u ld be m ad e. )
T he G u id a n c e P r o g r a m
C o o r d in a tio n o f d e p a r tm e n ts in
s c h o o ls
S u c c e s s o f g r a d u a te s in c o lle g e
P a r e n t-T e a c h e r a n d P u b lic d e la t
T e a c h e r q u a l if ic a t i o n s , m o r a le ,
o ld in g P o w er
,
(M e n tio n n ew s u b j e c t s
m o v in g g r o u p s w h ic h
ju n io r
a n d
io n s
a n d
\ h i l e y o u r r e p o r t w i l l b e u t i l i z e d a s
s u r v e y , th e n am es c f t h o s e s u b m ittin g
m rd e p u b lic a t a n y tim e .
1 s n a i l
O c to b e r
in t h i s
e x p e c t t h is
l 8 , 1 9 5 7 *
s tu d y .
r e p o r t
P le a s e
th e
a n d
s e n io r
b u s in e s s , e t c .
s a la r ie s
a p a r t o f th e g e n e r a l
r e p o r ts w i l l n o t b e
t o b e in m y h a n d s b y
a c c e p t m y th a n k s f o r
M on d ay ,
c o o p e r a tin g
S in c e r e ly
C C R /S
h ig h
y o u r s ,
C a r ly le C . R in g ,
S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls
\
173
Page 3
S eptem ber YJ, 1937
Dear Colleague:
In accordance with my announced plan, I am
writing to ask you to help me get as quickly as possible
a general understanding of the present situation in the
New Britain Schools, and the problems demanding study in
the future.
I shall appreciate your v;riting me a brief summary of the
present set-up in your school or department, and request that
you list the problems which y o u think deserve study in the
future.
I especially wish your evaluation on the following
matters, if they apply in your case, as well as any others
you may care to discuss.
1.
Building utilization
2.
Teacher load
Furniture and equipment
The Platoon Plan
Achievements and Promotions
The Elementary School Curriculum.
p.
4.
5.
6.
(principal to fill out the
enclosed blank)
Vliat matters need study
and modernization?
7.
o.
Parent-Teacher and Public Relations
Teacher qualifications, morale, and salaries
'Thile your report will be utilized as a part of the general
survey, the names of those submitting reports will not be
made public at any time.
I shall expect this report to be in my hands by Monday,
October 18, 1937*
th is study.
Please accept my thanks fo r cooperating in
Sincerely yours,
Carlyle C. Ring,
Superintendent of Schools
CCR/S
Page I4.
174
NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
BUILDING UTILIZATION STUDY
School
orX-X IX- 'b;;yfV
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:bc-?£ Ijii’j?:- ‘t© ■§3Xr 6t*n'^ S SyrU^XoiQT.llociS'-j; : f: 13.
Xffoiuafcjroom R a & i s l j r a r * ’. si.'i P e r& tK t: Rogis.taA'td'CW fttiou . ■iPer
obent ,
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Room
No.
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1
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'■ •T. ■ifvoi: ••2S?:
i\ 0 :'OOO •; S r t
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U
Summary:
No. of rooms
Total capacity
Total fegistration
Average
percent
of use
What la the greatest number of pupils ever registered in the building?__
How much is the building overcrowded?
Underfilled?
Use opposite side to discuss improvements in building utilization.
Directions on other side.
DIRECTIONS
'•V. . A. a .viV
; l fc; J t i s t j i i ^ „ £ ^
a v a i l a b l e room ( i n c l u d i n g sp e c.la l-
in
u a s ^ i " l « v
! „ . « A .«■<u .tj
l ^ i a i s e o iof ■th e rqjMr, ais* Grade j 2*1^; o r fSoiencje
“ * $ r% d ^ ^ l^ a ^ L m u m p u p iL
...
.
5’
; ;I n d ic a te n u m j^ y p r ^ p u p l l s i n r o o m f o r
a c t u a l j u a e . i s . jTnla J fo y p e b b t a l n e a a a iri a^u si t:r,,*
a t ef rdMhlj>h
T » l o v **»
r : WI f - ,
6 #"Jo h a a .JL lP & w o ity o f iij.0 i p u p i l s : andi t h e r e a r e e i g h t
'* p e rio d s- iiir t h e
naln- ;day
M aw .are:
avia' 3o0.
2K H
4>k«
„ pr vun pn li1l aa f.a
t a^t 'tn
ioW
h ea peir
■
: IT*>f th
e t o t a l a c tu a l p u p il
- u s e j n r ? 3 0 Q r t l f c '^
:... ..
r' f rr“----------r ~ - - f •••«’--•
ir'4irf d5/ 6:•'•>■%•
M
6.
rj. .
r e g i e tO r in g i n t h e heme #oom. ;
Qj+Si/yjSr
'; . '
Sum m arize' a t b o t t q a ' cj'f"'^ge' “f t ' "'•..........
• ■1
T h is sp ad e fO r d ia q u a a io n o f im provem ents in j b u i l d i n g u t i l i z a t i o n . ;
~ ...
.*
t • «-f»* *• — -,'•.. . j»-«
..
.mm
«...
»...« . .. .. . . .
*-».
v.'*"* '
.*«
•*»/.* >" •*’
175
New B r i j b a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 5
Summary of Reports of Administrative
Officers and Department Chairmen
Secondary School
1. Building IItl.liza.tl.on (including the elementary school
buildings)
On the following page there are listed the builc'ings of the
New Britain School system with figures on pupil capacity.
Column 1 shows the actual number of rooms which could be used
for home rooms, including those not desirable yet available if needed.
Certain types of roans, such as gymnasiums, auditoriums, shop rooms,
s,nd dressing rooms have not been included as they are either entirely
unsuitable or necessary for other than class activities.
Column 2 gives the numbercf rooms used full time, every period
in the day, for some school activity.
Column 3 shows the percent of the total rooms used
in this way.
Column 4 lists the number of rooms used part time.
This would
include the range of rooms used nearly every period in the week to
those used only occasionally.
Column 5 gives the percent of those partially used.
Columns 6 and 7 list the number a.nd percent of rooms
yet available for home rooms.
not U 3 e d ,
Column 8 lists the total pupil capacity measured in terms of
the number who could be accommodated in the combined available home
rooms.
Column 9 gives the actual pupil registration in September, 1937Column 10 is the percent of capacity, or the percent of pupil
registration of the pupil capacity.
There are a number of factors which help to determine the
percent of capacity anc, in order to interpret this table, they
should be listed.
1. It is not always possible to district schools so that
the percent of capacity is the same for all.
2. Elementary schools with their simpler programs and more
or less identical schedules for all children can maintain a higher
percent of capacity than can the junior high wherein programs have
begun to be diversified according to individual tastes and needs.
Likewise the senior high school caters to even more specialised in­
terests and it is therefore impossible to maintain a definite sized
class or keep all rooms filled at all times.
3 . Since shop rooms were excluded from listed home rooms
the Old Burritt School which is entirely a shop center, appears to
176
r:ew Sritain School Survey Report
Column No —
5 1
Re 3*
2
3
Rage
6
4
.5
Secondary
7
Used every
period
No.
/o
Part time
Not used
No.
.,0 .
i°
6
r\
10
9
Home­
room
Sept.
Pupil Pupil /°
Ca.p.
Reg.
Cap
Senior
'55
11
'9 -3
36
86 -1
3
4-5
2255
2572
114
Central
47
42
39.3
3
6.4
2
4.3
1493
1395
93
Nathan Hale 45
31
58.9
5
11.1
9
1827
1110
51
Roosevelt
31
27
37.1
3
9.7
1
3.2
1120
758
58
Washington
29
26
39-7
1
3.4
2
5.9
1135
924
31
5
4
55.7
0
.0
2
33-3
150
205
123
.0
0
.0
335
347
'90
Old Burritt
20.
2 lementary
11
11
100.
0
Burritt
25
13
72.
5
20.
2
3. •
875
335
95
Camp
14
10
71.5
4
28.5
0
.0
493
362
73
.s
;o
76 ;2
5
23 ‘8
0
.0
715
710
99
3artlett
Chamberlain •21
Franklin
21
19
90.5
0
.0
2
9 .5
780
560
85
Lincoln
17
n
64.7
4
23-5
2
11.3
512
468
75
Northend
15
n
73-3
4
25/7
0
.0
553
543
98
Putnam
10
10
0
.0
0
.0
380
393
103
Smalley
36
25
59.4
1
2.8
10
27.8
1373
950
59
Smith
14
7
30.
7
0
.0
502
392
78
Stanley
15
11
73-3
0
.0
4
26.7
534
384
72
Vance
19
12
53.2
0
.0
7
35.8
590
429
52
5
5
33.3
1
16 .7
0
.0
129
111
85
Walnut Hill
Rockwell
Lonroe
100.
50.
12
432
8
356
* There are 17 other rooms in the senior high school which are
put to various uses.
Although unsuitable for home rooms some of
them could be so used if the registration demanded it.
I
\
177
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 7
have an unusually high capacity percent.
The children attending
there are registered elsewhere and therefore the question of a
suitable homeroom is not so pertinent.
Furthermore, since the
children are only at the shops on a part time basis the school
is not so crowded as it appears.
It is planned that this school
be abandoned after the present semester and therefore does not
figure materially in an estimate of available homeroom space.
An eighty percent capacity use might roughly be considered
a go :x3 working capacity percent and .'ne that would have at the
same time a regard for both economical usage and flexibility in
the school program.
The senior high school percent of capacity
is conspicuously higher than this and must unquestionably re­
sult in a sacrifice of efiiciency and type of instruction.
The
fact that the senior high school is on a two session plan accounts
for the high percentage of its present use.
How this double session
plan actually works out is discussed by the administrative officers
under a later heading.
4. Some of the older buildings were designed to accommodate
forty children in each home room, rather than the thii'ty-six
considered a proper size now.
In this chart the pupil capacity
is figured according to the actual space rather than according to
the proper size class room.
If the pupil capacity were figured
for these large room, buildings, namely, the Senior High School
old section, the main buildings of Central and Nathan Hale, the
Washington, Putnam and Sms,lley Schools, on the basis of thirty-six
pupils per room the percents of use would be higher than those
listed..
5. The Rockwell and Lionroe Schools with 12 and ..8 rooms and
pupil capacities of 432 and 336 respectively are not in present use.
2. Teacher Load
This topic was discussed in some detail in Bulletin 2A and
therefore will not be given much space here.
An ideal elaso size is set at 25, but a, class of 30 or 32 can
be handled efficiently and to the good interests of the students.
A class of 35 or 4c becomes more difficult and the large auditorium
classes are way beyond the. possibilities of individualized instruction
and attention to pupil needs.
A total of 150 different students is
all any teacher can become thoroughly acquainted with and offer any
sort of satisfactory guidance, yet many teachers meet each semester
as many as 300, 400, and even 600 or 700 students.
The size of the teacher-pupil load has varied with teachers and
with departments.
Because of the necessity of holding large
auditorium classes in the senior high school in order to conserve
sps.ee and tea.char time those departments which could be adapted to
this makeshift have borne the brunt of the heavy load.
Teachers of
those subjects which meet only once or twice a week also have
heavier pupil loads than thoBe whose classes meet every day.
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
178
Page- 8
3. Furniture and Equipment
For the most part general satisfaction has been expressed
with the equipment on hand although some departments feel the
need of additional or revised material.
The following items,
however, have been listed as needed or highly desirables
Senior High School
1. Cafeteria if the school returns to a one-session
schedule.
2. A more private office for the vice-principal.
3. Supplementary material in some of the college
preparatory classes.
4. A typewriter with mathematical symbols for the
mathematics department.
5. A standard map rack containing a set of maps which
could be kept in a central place and borrowed by
the teachers as necessary.
6. Improved lighting in many rooms, particularly those
in the south wing.
7. Cleaner and brighter rooms, removed from the furnace
area, for sewing and home economics.
8. Better ventilation in the lavoratories.
9. Lore locker and storage space and better laundry
facilities for gymnasium work.
10. Extended playground space to allow for more student
activities and some provision for large audiences
at indoor ball games.
11. Typewriters bought under a systemic plan of re­
placing each year one-seventh of the number used.
Junior High School
1. Improved, lighting in many rooms.
2. Chairs and desks, movable style and adjusted in
size to meet the standards for junior high school
pupils.
3. Lore maps and globes.
4. New stoves and sewing machines to replace the
obsolete and worn out models now in use.
4. The Dalton Assignment Plan
The plan of instruction in the secondary schools goes generally
by the name of the Dalton System.
In reality, however, the system
bears only slight resemblance to this distant relative, as it has
undergone many changes.
As it is set-up in New Britain the plan
consists of a series of specific jobs or units which are determined
by committees of teachers in each subject and are mimeographed, so
that each pupil may have his own copy.
As originally planned, the
time schedule called for a five period day in the Senior High School,
of which four periods were about seventy minutes long and the fifth
period a period of make-up work thirty minutes long. Particular
study was given to the marking system and to the definiteness of
the assignments in each subject.
This plan operates differently and with varying
success in different departments.
Perhaps it is the
operation that is one cause for dissatisfaction, for
is a lack of agreement among the teachers as to just
expected from them in the utilization of this plan.
degrees of
freedom of
the result
what is
It would
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seem that a compromise would have to be reached in any plan between
freedom and initiative of the teacher and some basic framework which
all would accept.
The crux of the situation, however, lies as one
administrator said, in the teacher herself.
"If we have the right
kind of teachers we will not have to worry much about plans,
New
Britain, Dalton or any other."
However the plan may be changed or whatever plan is adopted it
must maintain the good features of the present system. Those features
as pointed out by the faculty are as follows:
1.
The plan gives the teachers a perspective of their work
in their own departments and aids them in seeing the
relation of their work to that of other departments.
2. It provides a vehicle by which the teacher may plan her
work for a semester in a coherent unit and in orderly
sequence from the beginning to the desired goals.
3- The plan holds the different classes in a department
to-gether and, if a transfer is necessary, the student
finds no difficulty in adapting himself to the new class.
4. It allows the teacher freedom in arranging the work to
the advantage of all pupils.
5. It provides a standard and hence fair method of marking
students.
6. It saves time which otherwise might have to be devoted
to' the dictation of lessons.
7*
It gives the student a. bird's eye view of the subject.
It gives him a chance to see the trend of development,
the relation of the various aspects of the subject, and
the subject's relationship to other subjects in the curri culum.
8. The student understands at the outset his responsibility
in the work.
9. It provides an outline'for the absent student so that he
may work on his own initiative and, as nearly as he is
able, keep up with the class.
10. It offers a guide to the slow student.
11. It makes provision for individual differences.
12. It points out to the parent just where his son or daugh­
ter stands at any particular time.
Dissatisfaction with the plan lies both in its inherent faults
and the faults forced upon it by the depression when funds and teacher
service were curtailed. The inherent faults are listed first:
1.
The plan allows teachers to rely too much on the material
presented so that they may become satisfied with the bare
essentials.
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2. It limits the initiative of the teachers except those
concerned in writing the assignments.
3. Different departments have different conceptions of the
objectives, methods, and results of the plan.
4. The plan is in danger of becoming stereotyped.
5. It makes no specific allow?nce for the slow student who
needs help in organizing the work and selecting the es­
sential elements.
6 . It develops habits of mental laziness in the pupils who
are unwilling to accept responsibility themselves.
7- Students are inclined to procrastinate in their work and
then rush through the assignment superficially near the
close of the five week period.
8 . The plan should be more flexible so as to allow the start­
ing of new classes after the third assignmentfor the stu­
dents who are failing.
9. Inasmuch as work is well laid out in the textbooks of
many subjects, long involved assignment sheets are not
necessary.
With the induction of the two session plan in the senior high
school (a plan for enrolling one-half of the student body in the morn­
ing session and the other half in the afternoon), further faults bur­
den the workability of the system in that school.
1. The length of the periods are shortened so that no time
is allowed for supervised study.
2 . Extra curricula activities, those functions planned speci­
fically to aid in the development of well rounded person­
alities, are precluded.
3 . Periods for make-up work and for special work with the
slow children and with those having specific difficulties
are eliminated.
4. There is very little time for department meetings for the
discussion of problems.
3. Large auditorium classes are necessitated. By aiming at
the average level of a group the teacher reaches only
one-half of the students.
Several days elapse before the
teacher meets the students in smaller units.
5. The large auditorium classes make an unequal distribution
of pupil load among the teachers.
7* The teacher program is so long thatshe becomes fatigued
beyond her ability to do her best work by the end of the
day.
*
\
r
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8 . Afternoon students often have responsibilities in the
morning so that their energies are expended before they
embark on their school work for the day.
9. The coming and going of students at odd hours during the
day creates an atmosphere of unrest.
5. Achievement, Promotions, and Holding Power
Achievement and promotion are intimately bound up both with the
calibre of the student and the fitness of the instruction.
A discus­
sion of the general student body was given in Bulletin No.l of this
survey.
Suffice it to say here that whereas formerly the high school
received a select group (from the standpoint of intelligence) of ele­
mentary school graduates who were continuing their schooling primarily
to prepare for college, now it receives a good majority of all the
elementary school pupils.
Consequently, the average ability of the
student body has been lowering, necessitating a revision of curriculum
material and of achievement and promotion standards.
It may be added
here, also, that this in itself is one very good evidence of increased
holding power.
In order to make achievement possible for the student not inclined
towards college or towards the college preparatory course, general
courses in Bnglish, social studies, mathematics, and the sciences have
supplemented the college courses, and courses in home economics, me­
chanical drawing, art, music, and commerce have been added to dhh cur­
riculum.
Various standardized achievement tests have been given in the
schools from time to time and on the whole these have shov7n very close
approximations to national standards.
...ore definite information will
be given along this line in the next bulletin of this survey which will
be issued in .^arch. The following observations were made by the adminis
trators on this topic in answer to the questionnaire:
1. Since regular attendance is necessary to achievement, any
individual not interested in academic success nor willing to face u n ­
pleasant obstacles for the sake of desired goals, and therefore irre­
sponsible in his attendance and upsetting to the general morale, should
be dealt with rather severely and perhaps ultimately denied the privi­
leges of school.
2. Some more satisfactory decision must be reaxhed in regard
to those students who are doin part time work in out-of-school hours
and seem thereby to be under too great a mental and physical 3train.
3. The change from a 75 to a 50 minute period curtailed the
amount of time the teacher could allow for supervised study and work
with individual students. Unquestionably this affects achievement
records.
4.* The large auditorium classes present a. far cry from in­
dividualized instruction.
Under such conditions education joins the
ranks of mass production and little thought can be given to individual
needs.
Since college requirements had to be met, the college prepara­
tory groups were saved from these large classes, and since the special
classes for slow moving children simply will not fit into such a pro-
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12
cedure, these too were spared.
It remained for the large group of
average children to get as much as they could from such a schedule
as this seemed the only solution to a bad situation.
The question of promotion brings up many problems.
Normally the
secondary program requires three years on each level for completion
of work, but there enter into this such factors as the type of course
taken, the level of ability of the pupil, his prep-'ration for the v/ork,
hi3 hea.lth, regularity of attendance, and his interest and application
in his work.
Such questions as the following puzzle the teacher:
1. If a student is failing in his work which one of the
above mentioned factors is chiefly responsible?
2. Is failure ever awholesome lesson to a student and under
what conditions?
3. Are there ever legitimate failures and are there cases
for which the school can absolve itself from blame?
4. What is the school's responsibility in helping students
to face difficulties and disappointments?
5. Should there be a minimum mental level admitted into the
high school?
6 . How much should a child be told about his innate ability
and his qualifications of work on various levels?
7. How may the courses of study be adjusted to challenge
the best in every student?
8.
Should there be a graded scale for promotion
and gradua­
tion requirements adjusted to two or three levels of
ability?
9- Should merks be given according to results achieved or
according to efiort expended? 'how may one pass judgment
on the latter?
10. Has the method of giving one mark for completion of a
task, a better mark for extra work,and a failing mark
for incomplete work been satisfactory?
Promotion records and records of failures are kept over a period
of years so that they may be studied by the teachers. Records are
scrutinized for the purpose of ascertaining on the basis of the com­
plete picture what is best for the student.
Semi-annual promotions are challengedfor the following reasons:
1.
Under this plan a school is scarcely settled
time to reorganize classes for the next promotion.
before itis
2. Instructors have very little time to become acquainted
with the individual needs and differences of their students.
3.
tions .
iuuch time and money are lost through semi-annual promo­
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It is sometimes a debatable question as to how far we should
attempt to hold pupils in school, although ideally speaking, the
schoolroom offers the best social, educational, and moral environ­
ment for a young person.
Never-the-less, there arc other factors
which influence an instructor!s decisions.
Such pertinent' questions
as the following have been raised by the teachers:
1. Is the pupil of such high mental calibre that he
should be urged to finish high school and continue
into college?
2. Is the school offering such diversified and suitable
curricula that it has the right to urge pupils to
stay?
3. Is the teacher doing all she can to make school
attractive and beneficial to the student?
4. Is the pupil helped to an u n d e r s t a n d i m of the
utilitarian value of school study?
Is the teacher
herself convinced of the utilitarian or cultural
value of her worlc?
5. How do the benefits derived from remaining in school
compare with those derived from early employment?
6 . Is the family of the student in need of his economic
assistance before he completes school?
7. Y/hat is the familyls attitude towards the value of
school?
6 . The Secondary School Curriculum
The courses in the junior high schools are intended to be
somewhat explorative, in nature in preparation for the senior high
school level whereon the student begins to specialize in the field
of his choice.
A number of recommendations are submitted for
study:
1 . A study of the following aspects of curriculum building
should be made.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Guidance philosophy.
Practical arts.
Continuity of basic subjects.
Provision for individual differences.
Bxtra curriculum activities.
Adequate courses for the superior, average, and slow
pupils.
g. Uniformity of textbooks on the junior high school level.
2. There should be a course of study for the students coming
from foreign backgrounds,
3. Provision should be made for the diagnosis of reading
difficulties and remedial reading for those who need it.
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4. There should he a language course in the eighth grade as
an exploratory or tryout course prior to electing the college
courses.
5. There should be an elementary business training course in
the seventh and eighth grades as an exploration in the business
or commercial field .
6 . There should be an occupational information class in the
eighth grade to bring into focus the scattered information acquired
in the homeroom guidance period and in subject matter classes,
A
plan to introduce information through school subjects is
supplementary to well-balanced informational courses in guidance.
7- There should be courses of study in all departments, in­
cluding the departments of art and physical education.
3.
There should be more informal discussions among the
teachers in each department.
9- There should be occasional institutes and opportunities to
hear outstanding authorities in the various fields.
10. There should be more classes in more departments adaptable
to the needs of the slow moving groups.
This might mean that some
courses in the senior high school would actually be on the seventh,
eighth or ninth grade level.
11. There should be more courses whose primary aim is pure
enjoyment of the work without such diverting features as compliance
with college board standards.
12. There should be more exploratory courses in the junior
high schools so that by the time a student reaches the senior high
school he has a fairly definite idea of the course he wishes to
pursue.
7. The Guidance Program
There appears to be agreement among the teachers that while
there is definite provision for educational, social, and moral
guidance of the student, the set-up is not adequate and some
phases of guidance are not attempted.
The sources of the difficulty
seem to be as follows:
1. Inadequate provision is made for the leadership of a
guidance program. All administrators and teachers assume
responsibility for guidance, but none have time in their programs
sufficient to discharge such duties to their satisfaction.
2. No one in the syBtem feels capable of advising students
as to their vocational needs and aptitudes and of supplying in­
formation about a wide variety of occupations and professions,
although many do much to explain the application of their department
work to life occupations. Vocational counseling is as much a
specialized field as is teaching in any one subject.
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5. Insufficient provision is made for personal interviews.
4. Insufficient effort is made to accumulate through the
years such information about the pupil's mental make-up, social
inclinations and occupational potentialities as would assist in
rightfully guiding him.
5. Guidance too often does not begin to function until after
the pupil finds himself in trouble.
True guidance has a preventive
rather than curative function.
6 . Insufficient attempt is made to attract students to certain
departments when their capabilities would indicate they should be
there.
7 . There is no follow-up system after graduation, both for
continuing the services which might be rendered
and for checking
up on the effectiveness of what has been done.
8 . The schools are unprepared to render a service which could
well be within their province, namely, the supplying of information
about possible candidates to prospective employers.
8. Coordination of Departments in the Junior and Senior HIah Schoc
It seems to be the general consensus of opinion that there is
insufficient coordination brtween the two secondary school levels.
The points brought out by the teachers are as follows:
1. There should be a greater agreement as to the general aims,
objectives and methods employed in the two schools.
2. There should be greater articulation within any onedepart­
ment on the two levels as to skills, attitudes,
and subject matter.
Students (50 to the high school inadequately prepared to assume
responsibilities in some departments.
3. There should be a better mutual understanding of the
problems each are facing.
4. Provision should be made for more gradual assumption of
responsibility for studying and executing work on the part of the
students.
At present many feel somewhat adrift when they first
enter the senior high and sometimes become so discouraged that they
are persuaded to leave.
5. The Lanners and Morals Period should be more effectively
organized.
'In order to bring about the above aims the following
suggestions are made:
1. Intervisitation of teachers (especially IX-2 and X-l)
2. Holding of discussion groups.
3. Revision of courses of study.
4. Definite provision in the guidance program for the
orientation of pupils to new situations in the high school.
5. Study of teacher., classroom requirements.
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6 . Study of the promotion system.
7. Establishment of department heads having jurisdiction
over both levels.
9. Success of Graduates in College and Business
Although there has been no general system for keeping in
touch with graduates, teachers follow with interest the careers
of many of their students and on two occasions surveys on the
success of graduates in colleges covering periods of five and
ten years have been carried through.
The results were gratifying
since many had made the deans' lists, had received substantial
scholarships because of high merit, or had received better than
average marks.
Only Q% failed, to make good.
There is at present
very little information about those who have gone into business
except that very favorable reports have come concerning the
graduates of the commercial department.
The report of the
committee on the Study of High School Graduates will have much
more to report.
10. Parent-Teacher and. Public Relations
In the elementary school districts the Parent-Teacher
Association serves as a social outlet to a group of individuals
bound to-gether both by mutual neighborhood interests and by their
common interest in their children.
The junior high schools
benefit to a somewhat smaller degree from these incentives but
the former at least is not present for the senior high school.
Other than the children there is very little to bind the parents
to-gether.
Neither in background nor in interests have they
common ground on which to meet and for this reason concerted action
is most difficult.
Other factors working against the success of
the association are as follows:
1. Some parents feel they have little to offer.
2. Some are discouraged by their children in coming, perhaps
because they are either a bit ashamed of the "old-world appearance
or because they fear the tenor of the probable discussion between
the parent and teacher.
3. Many parents maintain an indifferent attitude towards the
school and bestir themselves to appear only when summoned because
of some difficulty the child is in.
4. Some parents who have very little education themselves
are in awe of the educational set-up at the high school.
In order to overcome these barriers the suggestion is
made that channels of publicity such as the newspapers, radio,
school department bulletins and exhibits be used more extensively.
11. Teacher QuailficatIons, Morale, and Salaries
General satisfaction is expressed regarding the preparation,
ability to teach, and morale of the members of the faculty, although
a few criticisms have been offered:
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1. The teaching profession is too often thought of as a
business rather than as an opportunity to serve.
2. An occasional unethical practice creeps into the conduct
of a teacher.
3. Some time spent on adverse criticism might well be spent
on introspection as to one's own responsibility for the success
of a cooperative enterprise.
A few suggestions have been given for the toning up of the
professional service which a new teacher might offer:
1. The practice teachers should actually practice teaching
under the tutelage of an experienced teacher.
2. A systematic plan of Ktudy should be undertaken by those
who do not understand the mechanics of the system.
3. A revision should be made in the system selecting new
teachers.
4. Principals and supervisors should use concerted effort
in bringing about a greater degree of participation on the part
of home room teachers in the administrative problems of the school.
All those who spoke of the salary schedule were very much
in favor of a schedule which would recognize graduate study and
educational travelling.
The return or as great percent of the
return of frozen increments to those teachers not on the
maximum is unanimously considered the most important step in the
matter of salary revision.
Elementary School
1. Building Utilization - report included with the secondary
school report on this topic.
2. Teacher Load
The average teacher load is a little more than 31 pupils
per teacher.
Ideally the primary grades should have somewhat
smaller classes but this is not always possible.
Some classes,
particularly in the upper elementary grades, are considerably
larger;than the average size.
Figures alone do not tell the whole
story regarding teacher load for factors other than size enter in.
Among these may be listed the following:
1. A non-platoon teacher has few children to become
acquainted with but more subjects to teach.
2 . A platoon teacher has more children to teach but fewer
subjects.
3. Semi-platoon teachers have both home room activities
and special subjects, although probably more moderate responsibilities
In each.
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4.
Training schools have non-platoon responsibilities plus
some responsibilities given them in connection with the training
of cadet teachers.
These latter., in turn can assume some re­
sponsibilities for the regular teachers.
3* Furniture and Equipment
General satisfaction with the furniture and equipment was
expressed although some needs were listed.
These included.:
1. Movable and adjustable desks and chairs in the rooms
not equipped with them.
2. Greater range in size of chairs and tables in the
a.uditorium and library rooms.
3. Radiators and hot water heaters.
4. Furniture in some teachers' rooms.
5. New piano.
6 . Better wash room facilities.
7. Electric clock system.
8 . Lore bulletin space.
9. New kindergarten toys.
10. Footlights in the auditorium.
11. New shades to
replace shabby ones.
12. Lore sanitary partitions and tile floors providing
better drainage in the lavatories.
13. Linoleum on play room floors.
14. Amesite for playground.s.
13. More and safer playground space.
16. Shrubbery on lawns.
17* Fire siren to
replace the fire gong sothat
heard, over the entire building.
18
. Tinttag of w a lls.
19. Electric eraser cleaner.
20. New typewriter.
21. Lore library books.
22. New set of maps in modern holders.
it may be
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23. More laboratory material for science rooms.
24. Improved auditorium acoustics.
25. Cots for kindergarten and first grade children for
rest periods.
26. Bathrooms for open air children.
2 7 . A door cut from the sun room to the rest rooms in the
open air school to pre\ ent the exposure of children to
drafty corridors.
4. The Platoon Plan
The Platoon plan of having children in the elementary
grades go to departmental rooms for instruction in ell but the
tool subjects has been the basis of our elementary school program
since 1916.
Its advantages are listed as follows:
1. The teachers are specialists in their particular fields.
2. Rooms can be appropriately equipped according to subjects
and made available to large numbers of children, thus effecting a
high degree of economy.
3 . Children develop more'quickly under specialized teachers.
44
More freed.om and fixibility arc allowed.
5.
A richer program is made possible.
5. Children gain in self-control and in ability
responsibility.
to assume
7 . Children gain in ability to adjust to different personalities.
3.
The plan prepares children for an easier adjustment to the
departmentalized junior high school program.
9. The plan is popular with children, parents and teachers.
The advantages greatly outweigh the disadvantages but a
few of these are found:
1. Some children would be better off if under the supervision
of fewer teachers.
2. One teacher assuming full time responsibility can in
some ways offer a better all round guidance.
3 . The program is in greater danger of becoming less
integrated and of causing confusion of thought and overlapping of
effort.
It is felt that these difficulties would be largely
eliminated if the platoon plan were not installed in the second.
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grade and possibly not in the third.
Little children develop
greater poise and assurance if responebile to fewer adults. It
is further felt that the platoon should be modified to allow longer
periods in the fundamental subjects for the slow moving groups.
5.
Achievement and Promotions
A number of questions for detailed study of this topic
were suggested:
1. Should there be more standardized, tests to help in
estimating the degree of progress?
2.
To what extent should grouping in grades be based on
ability?
3. Should anything be done to remove the idea of stigma
from failure?
4. On what basco 3hould double promotion be judged?
5. Should standards of achievement be redefined?
5. Should there be an upper age limit for elementary school
child ren?
7- Should first grade children remain a full year with one
teacher?
8 . On what bases should entrance to kindergarten be placed?
9. On what bases should entrance to first grade be determined?
10. What can be done to prevent the development of the
non-reader?
11. What are the relative values of annual and semi-annual
promotions?
6 . The Elementary School Curriculum
A unified course of study has been assigned to each grade
but the teachers are encouraged to be resourceful in their
application of it.
Linimum essentials are to be covered by slow
moving groups, these same essentials plus a moderate amount of
enrichment by average groups, and a larger amount of enrighment,
including opportunities for resourcefulness, initiative, and
development of creative ability, for the most gifted groups.
The
curriculum is at all times to be sufficiently flexible to allow
adjustments to pupil needs.
Although general satisfaction is felt with the curriculum
the following problems are still in need of solution:
1.
Should literature be removed from the list of special
subjects and returned to the home room with the tool
subjects?
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2. Should history be included with the list of special
subjects?
3. Should the mechanics of reading be divorced from the
study of literature?
4. Should literature and library study be combined?
3. What other revisions in the curriculum are needed?
6 . How can a greater coherence in all studies be effected?
7. Should we have a definite course of study in art?
8 . What reallocation of subject matter is needed?
9* What recommendations are to be made from the experimental
adoption of manuscript writing in the first grade?
1 0 . What study is necessary in regard to text books?
11. What can be done about the double but conflicting
standards of promotion in the first grade?
(We allow promotion or admission to the first grade on the
basis of chronological agr but promotion to the second
grade on the basis of reading accomplishment.)
7« The Parent-Teacher and Public Relations
The elementary school Parent-Teacher Associations have been
very successful and helpful adjuncts to school administration.
Parents themselves find in them opportunities for social get-to­
gethers and. often times the best chance for getting acquainted
with American ideals and standards.
They welcome the opportunity
to talk with the teachers of their children and to see the
products of their efforts.
The association is the strongest link between the public and
the schools and therefore is mutually beneficial.
Through
conferences between the parent and teacher the youngster is better
understood by both.
Unfortunately many parents never attend and
others only when a disagreeable discipline case is to be settled.
Activities of the organizations include large group meetings
with lectures and musical programs, small study groups, mothers
clubs, socials, individual conferences, and cooperative money
raisiig enterprises for some desired equipment for the schools.
One very gratifying project was the institute sponsored
last spring by the Progressive Education Association.
The
community joined with the schools in attending lectures given by
outstanding educators and by engaging in many panel discussions.
It was a project well worth repeating.
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Teacher Qualifications. Morale, and Salaries
In the quality of teachers the school is protected by
standards set up by the State Board of Education.
By local
agreement the majority of candidates have been selected from
the upper 70 % of the graduates from the local Teachers1 College.
More detailed figures regarding teacher preparation were given
in Bulletin 2A.
Teacher morale has been good.
For the most part the
teachers are happy in their professional surroundings.
Cooperation
within the whole teaching and. administrative force has been very
high and very enjoyable.
Miscellaneous Suggestions
Many principals listed suggestions which do not aptly fall
in any of the above categories but which are worthy of inclusion..
1. The district lines between those elementary schools which
do not have six full grades should be revamped so that the schools
could, have a normal distribution of all grades.
2. In order to eliminate the tendency of special and.
vocational classes for subnormal children to become educational
dead-ends there should be:
a. Better opportunities for promotion from one level to the
next.
b. Certificates or diplomas showing acceptable attendance
redords and accomplishment of work.
3. The presence of the subnormal children at the Walnut Hill
School prejudices parents against the open air sections of the
school.
Atypical classes should therefore be removed, to other
districts.
4. The accessibility of the downtown district to children
in the Walnut Hill Classes tempts the irresponsible atypical
children into mischief, another reason for removing these
. children from this school.
5* There should be some men teachers for the boys' physical
education classes.
6. Semi-annual reports should be simplified.
7. There should be accumulative sick leave to permit a
sabbatical semester.
8. A list of the assignments to teachers should be forwarded
to the principals in August rather than September to allow the
principals to formulate their plans.
.9* The practice of using schools as polling places should
be abolished.
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194
HEW 3RITA 11! SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLET III HO.
3
MARCH 1938
THE 1TATURE OP ACHIEVEIvIEHT TESTS
Although it is platitudinous to say that heredity and
environment are the two chief factors which determine human nature,
acknowledgement of this fact has not really been reflected in school
practice until the past twenty odd years. During this time a con­
centrated effort has been made to develop instruments which should
measure that part of the mental make-up of a child which he in­
herited and therefore was a factor which could not be changed, and
that part which was the result of training and growth and which the
schools could do something about. Instruments for measuring innate
mental ability were given the name of intelligence tests and those
which measure the extent of acquired learning became known as
achievement tests. The use of the former in our Hew Britain School
System was discussed in the first bulletin of this series. The use
of the latter, achievement tests, is the subject for the present
bulletin.
Characteristics of an achievement test may be classified as
follows:
1. The questions or exercises used are carefully selected
tocoincide with
the purpose for which the test is designed.
2. The exercises are arranged in accordance with certain
principles of test construction agreed upon by all educators who
construct tests so that they may form an accurate measuring in­
strument.
3. The test is standardized by administering it to a
large number of children of varying age and grade and by setting
up standards of attainment for each grade from the results of this
testing.
4. The tests sample the testee*s ability in all the
functions ofa given subject field and the resultant scores can
thereby be translated into specific remedial procedures where
deficiencies are found.
Of late years the educational field has become prolific with
tests and it therefore is possible for a school system to select
one which will very closely serve any diagnostic survey it may see
fit to undertake. V/ith the change in administration this year in
the Hew Britain Schools came the logical desire for an inventory of
our local standards and procedures. It seemed best to begin with a
study of the tool subjects in all the grades and then plan for a
further more detailed study of particular aspects if the results
pointed to the need of such a study.
A number of tests were carefully studied in order to find the
ones most suited to the task at hand. The Metropolitan Readiness
Tests were chosen for the first grade children and the Progressive
Achievement tests for grades II through XII.
195
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 2
THE ELEMENTARY TEST PROGRAM AND INTERPRETATION CF RESULTS
The Metropolitan Readiness Tests
Inasmuch as intelligence tests had never proved entirely satis­
factory as instruments for foretelling success in the first grade
work and particularly in the reading program, it was decided to
substitute this type of test by one definitely designed to measure
readiness to learn to read. Readiness for this type of learning is
deemed to lie in such faculties as perceptual and reasoning abilities,
language usage, motor control, ability to use pencils and crayons in
drawing, number information, and general knowledge. With these
faculties in mind the Metropolitan Readiness Tests were developed.
They were selected for the local program because they seemed capable
of offering three desired objectives:
v, The determination of the extent to which pupils are
ready to learn first grade skills in reading,
II,' The provision of an analysis of difficulties revealed,
and
III, Assistance in the interpretation and application of
the results for the facilitation of the learning process and the re­
duction of failures.
The Metropolitan Tests were given to 526 *- first grade children
on October 28, 1937. The tests were administered, scored, and checked
by the teachers, and'then returned to the Research Department. There
the tests were revieived to see that all teachers had interpreted the
scoring process in the same manner so that fair estimates could be
made for all children concerned. Finally the results were tabulated
in the following way:
Children in each class were ranged in order of score on the test
from the highest to the lowest, with columns of additional data as to
age, percentile rank of score, and teacher*s letter and numerical
rating of ability after three months of instruction in reading. In
order to insure a uniformity in the teacher ratings, the teachers were
given keys which outlined the level of attainment ascribed to each of
the ratings of A, B, C, D, and E.
Inspection of the results shows that the tests have contributed
towards the desired ultimate realization of the three objectives
which were listed above and which are discussed in detail below.
-«-Note - Actually 536 children took the test but ten of them ©hanged
schools or left the city before the teachers were asked to send in
their ratings. Since we wished to correlate the results on the test
with the teacher ratings only those 526 cases scored in both ways
were considered in this discussion.
196
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 5
.I. The determination of the extent to which pupils are
ready to learn first grade skills in reading.
The ages of the children tested ranged from 5 years and 4 months
to 8 years", the extremes including an underage child who had given
an erroneous birthdate and an overage child who was repeating the
work. The median age was 6-5. The scores ranged from 117 to 8 with
a median of 85. The percentiles ranged from 99 to 1 with the median
at 66. Since this test was given six weeks after the opening of
school, rather than prior to any first grade instruction, the local
median score and percentile of 85 and 66 respectively are higher
than the national standards for score and percentile which are 76
and 50 respectively.
In order to determine to what degree this test would be
successful in pointing out those children not ready to learn to
read before they were forced through the humiliating and deadening
experience of failure through no willful fault of their own, a
correlation chart which shows the relationship of the predictive
scores on the test with the actual marks of the pupils after three
months of school was made. This chart is reproduced on page 10.
The horizontal row of figures across the top marks off the
test scores into steps of ten points each. The vertical column on
the left marks off the five possible teacher letter ratings.
Individual pupil results were charted in the appropriate areas.
Those children who actually failed at the close of the semester
were charted with the small dotted line instead of the solid one.
A score of 60 is set by the authors as the minimum score predictive
of success.
By the formula for the computation of the Pearson Product-Moment
Coefficient of Correlation, the relationship between the test scores
and the teachers* marks is a plus 50. This is far from a complete
correlation, but considering all the factors which influence success
in school, particularly on the first grade level, the relationship
is sufficiently high to draw certain conclusions.
In general the children rated highest by the teachers in progress
in reading made the most promising scores on the test.
Of those children making scores better than 60 only 8$ failed,
whereas, of those making scores of 60 or below, 39/. failed. 58% of
those making scores less than 51 and 86% of those making scores less
than 41 failed. In other words, practically 2/5 of the children
making scores less than 61 failed of promotion at the end of the
term. If these children could have been put in classes in which
definite time was allotted to the preparedness of reading, much of
this mortality would have been spared.
All children who made scores of 91 or above were promoted except
two, both of these being children who were already repeating first
grade work and who therefore, probably had gleaned enough skill to
I
Page 4
Hew B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
moke a good score on the test, but not enough to carry them
successfully through the year. Perhaps if they had postponed
entrance into first grade for a semester they would not have failed
on the second attempt.
Nine children out of 114 who made scores of 81 to 90 failed.
Of these, two were judged poor in health and three fair in health.
Three of them had been absent from four to five weeks. One other
was considered unstable and excitable.
It appears that in 2/5 of
the cases we may look to conditions of health as contributing causes.
One of the six was repeating grade I and perhaps thereby made a score
higher than was substantiated by ability to continue. Seven were
judged immature, slow-minded, or lacking in readiness to learn.
Twelve out of 100 making a score between 71 and 80 failed.
Causes listed by the teacher included protracted absences,
nervousness and hysteria, irregular attendance, lax home conditions,
unfamiliarity with the English language, immaturity, and mental
retardation. One little girl, because of marked immaturity, was
spending part time in kindergarten and part time in the first grade.
Although listed in this group she could hardly be considered on the
same basis as the others. The arrangement proved satisfactory and
she now appears to be on a secure footing for full time first grade
work,
Thirteen out of 63 children who made scores of 61 to 70 failed.
The reasons given by the teachers were the same as for the previous
group except that here a much greater percent of them were marked
slow-minded and immature. None in this group were given a rating
higher than D earlier in the term.
The percent of failures among the schools varied from zero to
26/. i/hile ideally speaking 100/ success should exist in every
school*, this is of course an ideal difficult of attainment at the
present time. Schools, homes, and all social agencies must
cooperate before such a goal will be realized. More scientific
study of individual pupils about to embark upon their school career
and revision of curricula based on the results of the study will
precede such a realization. On the other hand 26/ of failure is a
very high rate when one considers the far reaching effects of such
an experience on a child looking ahead to long years of enforced
schooling. Schools will do well to investigate thoroughly all
contributing causes and see what is in their power to improve.
i
The average percent of failure for the city was'13. The
percent of children who made scores below 61 and therefore the
percent of those who might be expected to fail if attempting to
learn to read was 15. Since all those children actually were in
reading situations, the percent of failure was not large. Had those
15'/i of children been given pre-reading training the number would un­
doubtedly have been substantially reduced.
r
198
Hew B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 5
Two main facts come from this analysis of failures:
1, The fact that a correlation exists as substantial as
plus 50 is evidence that a readiness test can aid in determining
which children are ready to learn to read and which are not.
It
cannot be considered the sole determinant but when considered along
with other factors such as age, 3 0 cial maturity, general mental
level, and performance in the kindergarten program, the teacher
has a very reliable composite estimate of the child’s fitness for
first grade.
2. The fact that the correlation is not complete throws
the responsibility back on the teacher to determine the co-existing
factors which are responsible for failure when the scores augur
success. She must seek to dotennine how much the discrepancy be­
tween scores and degree of success is due to factors which she can
change and how much to things beyond her control. A suggested
list of factors to be considered would be the following:
Extraneous to school control
a. Foreign atmosphere of the home which deprives children of
a helpful background of experiences common to English speaking
children.
b. Lack of interest on the part of the home and failure to
provide incentives for success.
c. Emotional disturbances in the home which distract and
upset a child so that he is unfit for work at school.
d. Poor general health and prolonged illnesses,
e. Unstable mental make-up of the child which prohibits
steady growth and begets uneven and unreliable responses from
day to day.
f. Although general mental retardation and specific dis­
abilities would lower test scores as well as teacher estimates in­
stead of making for discrepancies, they are included here as very
important factors in the question of success in school.
Factors at least partly under the jurisdiction of the school.
a. Unhealthy emotional interreactions occasionally existing
between children or between a child and the school.
b. Lack of interest in or active resistance to instruction
in reading.
c. Long absences or truancies from school.
d. Incomplete understanding of the child or the environment
from which he comes.
New 3 r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Pag e 6
e. Insufficient knowledge on the part of the school as to the
types of abilities which are requisite to success in school and
particularly to success in reading.
f. Even some things which appear to be beyond the realm of
the school should challenge a teacher’s responsibility, for she
should know that much can be done for a child by promoting
understanding between the home and the school, inlisting the
cooperation of the home, and by attempting to provide compensating
privileges in the schools when advantages are lacking m the home.
revealed#
II# The provision of
*
*
n analysis of difficulties
‘
‘
~
Inasmuch as readiness to learn to read depends upon the
learner’s level of maturity in perceptual and reasoning abilities,
language usage, motor control, ability to use pencils and crayons,
number formation, and general knowledge, success in each one of
the sub-tests measuring these specific abilities must be a part
of a general successful score. Compensating abilities sometimes
atone for deficiencies in other abilities but for the most part
general satisfactory preparation makes the road to learning more
comfortable and success more even and assured.
Test booklets of the children should be inspected to see in
which sub-tests the children in a group make the lowest scores and
those in which individuals fall short and digress from the group.
While these tests themselves are definitely not to be used as
instruction material they serve as a basis for the type of work
which needs specific drill. To analyze the characteristics of
her group the teacher should ask herself the following questions:
1. ’That is the range of scores and percentiles from the
highest to the lowest?
2# '/hat is the median score of the class and how does it
compare with the city and national standards?
3# How many and what children fall short of the score
deemed necessary for successful first grade work?
4# How do the results compare with social maturity of the
children and with their level of performance in kindergarten through
the year?
5# Are the scores composites of fairly even attainments
through the five sub-tests or have the results in some tests
significantly surpassed results in others?
6# Are poor results in any one or two sub-tests substanti­
ated by limitations or deficiencies noted in the child’s behavior
or reactions to the kindergarten program?
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 7
7. H oy/ does the relative standing of the pupils in a
class correlate with the standing of the members in teacher judgment?
In other words, did the children rated best in the kindergarten
activities make the best scores m the test?
8. ’7as any unusual behavior noted on the part of any
child during the test or was there any reason to believe that any
child was not doing his best on the test?
III. Interpretation and application of the results.
According to the standards set by the authors of the test the
following interpretations of the results may be m a d e :
A score of 84 or above is indicative of almost certain success
in first grade v/ork.
A score of 78 to 84 offers a good probability of success.
A score of 60 is the minimum score which a child attempting
to learn to read should make. Children not able to make this score
are in danger of meeting ultimate severe reading difficulties and of
failure in the work. They "should have a modified first-grade curric­
ulum, with little reading until later in the year and only informal
and incidental number work".
(Quoted from the manual for the
Metropolitan Test.)
A score of 40 or below indicates ultimate special class
placement. Children not able to make a better shoring "should not
even attempt formal reading and arithmetic until there is considerable
evidence of more maturity"'.
(Quoted as above.)
At no time is it recormnended, hov/ever, that these results alone
determine whether or not a child is placed in a group for formal
instruction in reading. These results are to be considered only
in conjunction v/ith all other available information about the
children in question. Teachers must be on the alert for test re­
sults which are unexpected because they differ-so widely from their
estimates of the children’s degree of maturity and learning aptitudes.
If the results differ the teachers must know why.
Inasmuch as one of the chief values of such a testing program
as has just been described is in the early availability of its re­
sults, a trial revision in the plans is suggested, not withstanding
the unavoidable disadvantages of testing some children earlier than
others.
Suggested program for trial procedure starting June, 1958.
All children in K-2 are to be tested with the Metropolitan
Readiness test early in June, starting this year, 1938.
Those children who will become 6 years of age by December 31st
and who have shovm themselves to be conspicuously alert and outstanding
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 8
leaders in their kindergarten work will also he tested.
(This
will include' only the best, a small per entage of K-l children.)
Those children entering school in September and placed
in grade I by virtue of their age will be given the Metropolitan
test during the opening week of the school term.
All children who will become six years of age on or before
October 1st will be promoted to or admitted into the first grade
at the opening of the fall semester. They will be placed either
in a reading instruction group or in a reading readiness group
according to the following standards:
Reading instruction group
1. A social maturity sufficient for healthful adjustment
to a first grade reading program.
2. An academic readiness for first grade work as shown by
the type of work done and the participation given in the general
kindergarten program.
3. A score of SO or above on the Metropolitan Readiness Test.
4. Outstanding pupils who will become six years of age between
October 1st and December 31st and who meet the above requirements
may be recommended for an individual Binet examination to determine
their level of mental maturity.
5. Judgments made on those children entering first grade
without kindergarten experience wi.ll have to be made on the basis
of their reactions to the Metropolitan test.
Reading readiness group
1. General social immaturity as shown by his relationships
in his kindergarten activities.
2. General academic immaturity as shown by the type of work
and participation in the kindergarten program.
3. A score of less than 60 on the Metropolitan Readiness Test.
4. Those children who by age and kindergarten performance are
judged by the teacher as ready for the regular first grade program
but who made a poor showing on the test may be re-examined in the
first week of school in September with the children just entering
school for the first time. Their cases must be considered
individually. Because they have taken the test before, they
should make scores substantially higher than 60.
5* Those children who make scores of 40 or under should be
recommended for individual Binet examination to check on the accuracy
of tho test score and to give further help regarding their proper
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page
9
placement. This examination may lead to recommendations for
another term in kindergarten, temporary exclusion from school,
or eventual assignment to an atypical class.
It is never to he considered that this division of pupils
is in any way final. Pupil personnel of the groups should be
tentative and flexible. Teachers should be on the alert to
transfer a child from one group to the other if the level of his
work would indicate the advisability of so doing.
Reading readiness groups are merely stepping stones to
regular reading instruction and are designed for those who need
this additional preparation for this all important subject.
Specifically, these groups should include:
1. Opportunities for developing the fluent expression of
ideas and recounting of experiences.
2. Opportunities for reproducing stories read aloud to the
class •
3* Opportunities for enriching the vocabularies through lesson
plans designed to develop very specific verbal concepts.
4* Opportunities for developing the meaning of likenesses
and differences and for practicing the recognition of these through
discussions of similarities and differences in familiar experiences
and thence to written symbols•
5. Drills for promoting the accurate enunciation of words
and the recognition of sound differences and similarities.
6. Drills for developing the visual and auditory imagery
of words•
7. Opportunities for developing motor coordination through
the handling of tools and recreational equipment and thence to the
manipulation of the smaller instruments of drawing, painting and
writing.
8* Drill in the concepts of left and right and in their
immediate recognition.
9.
Opportunities for determining the natural hand dominance
and for developing its proficiency in manipulating instruments of
writing and drawing.
10.
Definite instruction in the arbitrary techniques of reading
such as the left to rigjat progression across the page, and top to
bottom progression through the page.
203
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73
Hew B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 11
ULSiD'iKTARY AMD SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The Progressive Achievement Tests - Reasons for its selection
This battery of tests was selected for the following reasons:
1. It measures five important tool subjects; namely,
reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, arithmetic reasoning,
arithmetic fundamentals, and language.
2. The tests are devised on four levels and are suitable
for testing all grades; le., the primary tests for grad® II and III,
the elementary tests for grades IV, V, and VI, the intermediate
for the junior high school grades, and the advanced for the
senior high school grades.
It is thus possible to determine the
educational growth of the children in our schools with a continuous
and integrated scale.
3. The tests are orderly and comprehensive and are de­
veloped by competent educators.
More specifically, the following additional advantages are
listed by the authors:
4. They are "organized to test the knowledge, abilities,
and skills which are of basic importance as the tools of learning
in these and higher levels."
5. They provide "for a diagnostic profile which reveals
graphically the pupil*s actual status in relation to normal status
in the tools of learning for his particular grade placement;" and
they provide "in addition for those with unsatisfactory status a
diagnostic analysis of various elements which may be responsible
for learning difficulties.
This analysis is accomplished by in­
dicating which particular test items reveal each type of difficulty."
6. Their "organization and standardization provide for a
variety of information, including the customary survey or inventory
results, both for the test as a whole and for five major aspects;
for grade placement in the tools as a whole, as well as five major
fields; and for relative tool mastery in the sub-divisions of the
five major fields."
7. "'.Thile providing the usual survey or inventory results,
the test is intended to be primarily of immediate practical value
to the teacher in revealing which pupils have mastered the basic
tools of learning and for determining the particular type of
remedial work necessary for those who are deficient."
Administration and Statistical Treatment of Results
The Progressive Achievement Tests were given to 4876 elementary
school children in grades II through VI, to 5732 junior high pupils,
and to 2307 senior high school students, making a total of 10,915
New B r i t a i n S e h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P a g e 12
children tested. These tests were administered and scored hy the
teachers and returned to the Research Department for the tabulation
and interpretation of results.
The following process was carried
through:
In order to have a common denominator for comparing age,
intelligence and achievement level, each child’s life age, mental
age, and score on the test were changed into equivalent grade
placements.
For example, the age of eleven years and three months,
according to the standards of the authors, was the typical age
of a child in the seventh month of the fifth school year and a
typical child of that age would make a score on the test of from
21C to 222. Similarly a typical child of fourteen years and two
month: would be in the eighth month of the eighth school year and
would make a score of 204 to 286.
Children in each class were listed in order of achievement
grade placement on the test from the highest to the lowest, with
columns of additional data concerning age grade placement and
intelligence grade placement. Medians for each of the three grade
placements were recorded at the bottom of the columns. Thus it was
made possible for the teacher to see at a glance the median of her
group and the spread of ability from the best to the poorest
students.
Medians for these three measures; age, intelligence, and general
achievement, were likewise computed for each school and for the city.
Finally, city and school medians in the achievement grade placements
for each of the five subjects tested; reading vocabulary, reading
comprehension, arithmetic reasoning, arithmetic fundamentals, and
language* were figured.
In order that the results of the test might be made thoroughly
practicable for the teachers, the superintendent arranged a schedule
of meetings so that he, the elementary school supervisor, and the
director of research might confer with the principal and teachers
of each school concerning these results . The material used as a
basis for the conference included the following:
1. The individual test booklets, on the front pages of
which were the grade placements for each of the five subjects as
well as for the total of the test, grade placements for age and
intelligence, and a profile chart, showing pictorially the extent
of variation in the scores among the five subjects.
2. The class lists showing the median and spread of grade
placements, as well as the relative standing of the pupils with
each other.
3* Mimeographed sheets on which were recorded the school,
city and national grade placements in age, intelligence, and test
achievement for each of the semester grades in the schools.
4.
Mimeographed sheets on which were recorded the school
and national grade placements for each of the five sub-tests.
206
Mew 3 r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P ag e 13
5* Mimeographed lists of questions which should he
discussed in connection with a testing program of this type.
Sources of Unreliability
Before an analysis of the results is made it would be
pertinent first to list the sources of unreliability which are
unavoidably incumbent upon a wide-spread testing program, even
though they are not serious enough to invalidate the results
beyond a useful application. Since these are somewhat illusive
factors it is not possible to measure the extent of their effect,
but their purpose is served if they are merely kept in mind as
possible modifiers of the results.
These factors are as follows:
1. The administration of the tests by a number of
different teachers who, in spite of all efforts to standardize
the methods, do by their own individual differences interpret
methods differently and give varying degrees of seriousness to
the arguments for strict adherence to the methods.
2. Differences in methods of scoring and differences
in degree of accuracy in the scoring on the part of the teachers.
3. All the differences between home life and community
background of the children in a local city and thosein the
localities in which the tests were standardized.
4. Discrepancies between what is considered correct by
the authors of the test and what is considered correct by the
authorities followed in the textbooks used in the local schools.
5. Errors introduced by the necessity of using I.Q.*s
which were not all derived at the same time nor from the same test.
Although all mental ages were brought up to date, some I.Q.’s were
taken just
prior to the achievement testing and some two and three
years ago.
Changes in emotional, physical, and mental health in
the interim are therefore not taken into account.
6. On the secondary level, particularly from grades IX
through XII, whereon courses have become specialized, it is im­
possible to find a test encompassing several different subjects
which would deal fairly with all children. This is especially true
in the department of mathematics since different courses require
different amounts of this subject and some children had not taken
any mathematics for a number of months.
7. Standardizations made on the basis of too few
children and too limited a sampling of types of schools.
This
happens to be true of the advanced level- of this test inasmuch as
fewer children were tested with this battery than with any of the
other three.
20 7
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l
S urvey R ep o rt
P a g e 14
Analysis of the Results
On pages 21 and 22 there are recorded for the elementary
and secondary school levels the results of the test in terms of
grade placement,
*
The first column of figures on the left lists the standard
grade placements for each grade, two months after the opening of
the school term.
These figures were used because the tests were
given on November 4th, after two months of school. For instance,
tho figure 2.2, opposite "grade II-l", means that the standard
grade placement for the second grade at that period of the year
is two years and two months . The standard grade placement for
grade II~2 is 2.8, since the children in that grade are a half
year more advanced in school.
The second column lists the median chronological ages of the
children for each grade in terms of grade placement.
The third column lists the median mental ages of the children
for each grade in terms of grade placement.
The fourth column lists the median total achievement scores
of the children for each grade in terms o'f grade placement.
Columns five through nine list the median scores of the
children in each grade for each of the five subjects; reading
vocabulary, reading comprehension, arithmetic reasoning, arithmetic
fundamentals, and language.
These too are in terms of grade
placement.
On page 23 is a table showing the average deviations in
units of months of the local scores from the national standards
for each of the two school levels, elementary and secondary, and
for the whole system. These are in terms of grade placements
for chronological age, intelligence level, total achievement age,
and for achievement age in each of the five subjects tested.
Wherein the local scores are above the standard a plus sign is
used; wherein the local scores are below the standard a minus
sign is used.
and
From this table and from the two preceding tables on pages 21
22 the following facts are derived:
Elementary Level
1. In chronological age, the New Britain elementary
school class medians range from 1 to 4 months younger than the
national, and average 2.3 months underage.
2, In intelligence grade placement the class medians
range from 4 months higher to 2 months lower than the national
standard. Average intelligence, however, is practically equivalent;
i
■
208
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Page 15
•4 of a month above the standard.
(For a more detailed study of
intelligence levels see Bulletin No. 1 of this series.)
5.
In achievement, the class medians range from 3 months
above to 4 months below, again maintaining an average practically
equivalent to the standard;
.1 of a month above it.
From grades II-l through V-l the local standards arc con­
sistently equal to or above the national standards, but the last
three semesters, V-2, VI-1, and VI-2, drop from 2 to 4 nonthe below.
Secondary Level
4. In chronological age, the secondary school class
medians range from 3 months above to 3 months below the standard
age, with an average of .5 months above. Although the local
children average below age at the start of their school career
this advantage (or disadvantage) is lost before they complete
their schooling.
5. In mental age, the range is widened still more.
It
includes medians from 4 months above the average to 2 years and
3 months below. The average deviation is 3.9 months below the
normal. Apparently we are retaining a larger percentage of the
children in the lower levels of intelligence than the average
school in the country, or at least in those sections in which
the tests were standardized.
6. In general achievement, our deviations from the normal
range from 3 months to one year and 6 months• The average deviation
is 8.1 months below the standard. Much of this difference is
accounted for, however, by our below par mental age norms.
Subject Matter Achievements
General achievement scores must be broken up into more
specific terms before they can be of much value in a diagnostic
survey of academic standing. Consequently, average scores for
the performance of the children in each of the five subject fields
are determined.
In summary the results are as follows:
1. On the elementary level the poorest showing is made
in the language test, although the average median score is but .4
months below the standard. All other subjects are rated higher
than the national.
In fact, in reading comprehension, arithmetic
reasoning, and arithmetic fundamentals, the local elementary grades
rank from 1.3 to 1.5 months above the standard.
There seems little
doubt that the elementary schools are holding their own.
2. The junior high schools fall somewhat below in all
subjects, the greatest offender being arithmetic fundamentals.
Within the junior high school level the ninth grade is largely
responsible for the low scores in arithmetic, both in reasoning and
\
p
209
Hew B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P a g e 16
in fundamentals. Since our senior high school students continue
to lose ground, relatively speaking, it is logical to contend that
the reason lies in the fact that all children took the test r e ­
gardless of whether or not they are taking or have taken much work
in mathematics beyond the eighth grade,
3. Besides being low in arithmetic fundamentals, the
IX-2 group is generally low in all subjects.
It has a mental level
no higher than the IX-1 group. There is the possibility that this
is a sport or freak group, one of those occasional anomalies which
are familiar to all experienced teachers,
Further testing of
these children during their course in the high school would add
more light to the achievement standing of these pupils,
4, Grade XII-2 has the lowest mental rating of any class
in the high sohool, yet in comparison with its mental level, made
the best showing in the test of any grade throughout the system.
Since its mental ages were derived from I.Q.*s obtained on the
average of two years ago, it may be that the mental ages were
•unduly low, but at any rate, their showing on the test was very
commendable, in spite of the fact that the scores are below the
standard for achievement in that grade.
In order to determine the extent to which individual pupil
ability is being challenged by the school programs the differences
between intelligence grade placement and achievement grade placement
werefigured for the five brightest and the five dullest children in
each class of IV-1, VII-1 and X-l.
In this way there was obtained
a cross section of the three levels; elementary, junior high and
senior high.
These figures were averaged for each of the three
grades with the results as below, A plus indicates those cases
in which the children average better in achievement than in innate
ability;_ a minus indicates those cases in which they do not
average- so well in achievement as ability.
Brightest
Dullest
Elementary (grade IV-1)
- .3 months
f .7 months
Junior High (grade VII-1)
-1.1
"
■)• .2
"
Senior High (grade X-l)
- .5
,r
- .3
"
There appears to be very little difference between the two
groups, not more than 1.3 months on the level of greatest disparity.
There is, however, a tendency for the duller children to do better
according to their intelligence than the brighter children do.
September Semesters versus February Semesters
One more interesting observation may be made about the
results-of the test. When the results of the September entrants
are compared with the results of the February entrants it is
revealed that the former have done consistently better work. The
210
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P ag e 17
total months* deviation for each of the two groups on each of the
school levels is as follows:
Read. Read. Arith. Arith.
Achieve.
Intell.
Voc . Comp. R e a s . Fund. Lang
Chron.
G.P.
G.P.
G.P.
G-.P.
G.P.
G.P.
G.P.
G.P.
Elementary
September
— .9
4
.3
4 .7
41.0
41.2
41.4
41.0
4 .6
February
—1 .4
4
.1
- .6
- .2
4 .1
4 .1
4 •3
-1 . 0
Jr. High
September
- .1
- .5
-2 . 0
—1.4
-1.7
- .9
-1.7
-2 . 1
February
- .2
-1 . 2
-3.3
-2 . 6
-2.4
-1.5
—3 . 8
-2.7
Sr. High
September
4 .6
- .3
-1.5
4 .3
4 .2
-6 . 2
-7.8
4 1 .2
*3
-2.7
-2.9
— .2
— .3
-8 . 0
-8.5
4 .9
February
T
While these deviations would be very slight if figured in terms
of average deviations for each level instead of total deviations for
each level, their complete consistency would indicate that there is
an underlying cause greater than chance.
It may be that September
entrants make better adjustment to school work and make more con­
sistent progress than do the children who enter upon a new grade
in the middle of the school year.
Before closing an analysis of test results it would be well
to refer to results obtained in the Connecticut High School Survey
sponsored by the Connecticut State College during the school year,
1936-37, and participated in by our local high school. Statistical
results of this survey are reproduced on page 24 •
Five subjects were tested; namely, English Vocabulary, English
Usage, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science. Although norms
are' given for the ninth grade, only our tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth grades participated.
Three measures are given for each
grade;
or the quartile below which 25/j of the cases fall; Mdn.
or median, the middle score when all scores are arranged in rank
order; Q 3 , the quartile below which 75>j of the cases fall.
In this testing program our local pupils adhered very closely
to the state norms derived from this testing with three exceptions.
The eleventh grade class (part of which are our present XII-2
students) fell 3 points below the norm in English Usage and an
average of 8 points below the science norms. The scores of the
eleventh - grade would substantiate the results of the Progressive
Test in that it is the same grade which made the poorest showing
(speaking without regard to intelligence level) in the two tests.
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P a g e 18
Since the twelfth grade of last year*s testing has graduated we
have no comparative scores for their deviation from the standard.
Apparently the local schools are holding their own with other
Connecticut cities.
No survey will he of any great value unless the contents of
the results are thoroughly studied. For this reason questions are
herewith given which may aid in the interpretation and application
of these results.
1. Does the fact that the local children are younger on
the average in the lower grades and older on the average i:'i the
upper grades indicate that we are allowing children to enter school
at’a younger age than is wise and failing an undue number of them
before they complete school?
2. Do the results in any way indicate that children en­
tering a grade in February are at a disadvantage when compared with
the September entrants?
3. Does the fact that our average mental ages tend to
decrease in comparison with national scores as our children progress
through school indicate that we retain a larger percentage of the
below average students than does the average school?
If this is so,
what is the significance of this fact for curriculum building?
4. Since our scores show up better when compared with
the norms in the Connecticut survey than they do in the nationally
standardized tests have we a right to assume that we are performing
well our tasks and are adapting our methods to the needs of children
in the environment of Oonnecticut?
5. Is the teacher load too heavy or are the responsibilities
too varied on the secondary level whereon fcho poorest showing is made?
6 . Are children being guided into the work they are best
fitted to do according to their mental ability and special aptitudes?
7. Would a greater coordination between levels bring about
more consistent results?
8.
Are there any weak spots in our curriculum or any sub­
jects in which the children should have more semesters of work?
Individual schools might ask themselves the following questions:
Concerning general achievement 1. How do the school norms compare with the city and the
s tandard norms ?
2. How do the achievement grade placements compare with
intelligence grade placements and age grade placements? That is,
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
P ag e 19
3, Has there been a consistent increase in score from
grade to grade?
4. What is the range in score from best to poorest pupil?
Ooncerning achievement by subjects;
1. How do the average scores in one subject compare with
those in another?
2. What pupils show marked differences in ability among
the five subjects tested?
3. What pupils show a discrepancy between ability and
achievement?
4. In what subjects do the pupils need s.pecial help?
5. What subjects can be given less time in favor of a
subject needing more time?
Conclusion and Recommendations
In conclusion it should be noted that the elementary schoole
compare favorably with the national standards but that the secondary
levels are in need of further study. • It seems obvious that a testing
program of this sort could bring to light information which the schools
could not otherwise obtain. While it is not possible at the present
time to make very positive recommendations, the following seem to be
borne out by the survey:
1. Study and revision of entrance requirements so that
more mature children are admitted into grade I and so that the
maturity of all pupils on all levels will thereby eventually be
raised.
(See suggested program on pages 7 and 8.)
2. Further study and revision on the secondary level of
curriculum, achievement standards, courses of study, methods of
instruction, guidance, and coordination through more adequate
supervision.
3. Adoption of an
both as a diagnostic device
New Britain results against
ment. Such a program might
annual testing program which shall serve
and as a basis for constantly checking
outside standards of ability and achieve­
be:
213
New B r i t a i n S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t
Nature of Test
P ag e 20
Date of Administration
Grades Tested
Intelligence
May
II, V, VIII, XI.
Reading Readiness
May
Kindergarten.
Achievement
Reading
Other subjects as
needed
October
October
II, III, VI, VIII.
Ill, VI, VIII,
May
IX, X, XI, XII,
Achievement
Subject matter
according to
need at hand
This report completes that portion of the survey placed by the
superintendent in the hands of the research department for the
present school year, 1957-38. Recognition is hereby given to the
able members of the staff who assisted in this work. The research
department takes pride in being an integral part in this program.
Ruth C. Kimball
Director of the Research Department
Approved
Carlyle C. Ring
Superintendent of Schools
1
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P a g e 24
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218
SOURCE MATERIAL
Section XII
Bulletin IV
REPORT OK A STUDY OP THE SEMI-ANNUAL PLAN OP
PROMOTIONS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS PUR A
RETURN TO AN ANNUAL PLAN OP PROMOTION
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN No. 4
March 1938
A REPORT ON A STUDY OF THE SEMI-ANNUAL PLAN OF PROMOTION
WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A RETURN TO AN ANNUAL PLAN OF PROMOTION.
In the report of the Superintendent of Schools to the Board of
Education for the year 1919, it was announced than a semi-annual
practice of promoting pupils through the grades had been established.
Frevious to that time the children of Nevr Britain had been advanced
from grade to grade annually.
^Taile the semi-annual plan has
worked fairly well over the years in adjusting the offerings of
the schools to the recognized needs of the pupils, local school
administrators and teachers who have had intimate experience with
its advantages and disadvantages are in general accord with the
proposal that a return to the annual plan of promotion be made at
this time.
The special committee assigned last October to the study of
the problem of semi-annual promotions in New Britain has critically
examined the plan v/ith regard to the following factors:
Its
Its
Its
Its
The committee
financial
influence
influence
influence
course
cost
on
promotions and non-promotions
on
thepupil and his adjustment
on
thegraduate who completes his
in the middle of the year
also has investigated present practices of
promoting pupils among cities of the state and beyond the state;
it has carefully analyzed the most recent professional and scientific
studies that have been made on annual and semi-annual promotional
plans; and it has in several conferences discussed in detail the
arguments advanced in support of and in opposition to each.
The trend of thought on promotion practices as revealed by
research studies and by current educational literature on the
subject seems to indicate that the semi-annual plan of promoting
pupils is out-moded and does not effect the reforms in overcoming
retardation that were claimed for it; but in addition the plan
creates situations in mid-year that disrupt school life and increase
school expenses.
A very definite movement in favor of a return to
the annual plan is influencing school administrators.
As a result
of the general study, and of the discussions and conferences held
on the subject of promotions,
- including meetings of principals
and directors of departments, - the committee recommends THAT THE
NEE BRIT AIM SCHOOLS BE PLACED OH AN ANNUAL PROMOTION ORGANIZATION.
AS RAPIDLY AS IS CONSISTENT r,ITK THE PROPER ADJUSTMENT OF THE PUPILS
INVOLVED.
This recommendation is based on the following principles which
the committee feels should govern promotions so that the educational
program of the schools may fit the recognized needs of pupils.
PRINCIPLES:
1.
The promotion of pupils in the New Britain School System
should be based upon the ideal of a steady, uninterrupted progression
through the twelve grades, with promotional steps from grade to
grade based upon a definite set of factors such as:
Mastery of subject matter - significant of intelligence,
health, personal characteristics, etc.
Social maturity - a level of individual growth measured
in terms of social interests and abilities.
Chronological age
Mental ability
2.
Any system of promotion involving group movements at stated
intervals should include ample opportunity for individual pupil
adjustment and promotion at other than regular promotion periods pupil growth and progress determining the time.
221
Page 3
3.
Promotion should he decided on the basis of the individual
pupil.
4,
It is not the promotion plan but the proper administration
of the plan in the interest of pupil development that is important that which will result in the greatest good to the
all-round
development of the individual.
5.
It is increasingly recognized that pupil failures are
very often due to a failure of the educational program of the school,
to rigidity in the administrative machinery and in the course of
study prescribed, and to faulty teaching practices.
These weakness­
es in the program can be corrected with study and vigilance.
6,
The promotion plan that eliminates frequent class d i s ­
ruptions and the attending pupil distractions, that provides time
for adequate planning, and for teachers to secure a knowledge of
pupil personalities in ord.er to design a profitable guidance
program for meeting individual pupil differences is the plan for
the New Britain Schools,
A change to the annual plan should remove the long recognized
disintegration of classes at mid-year and the attending pupil
distractions and. loss of time, and it is also anticipated that the
plan will result in greater economy.
According to the study the
outstanding advantages of the annual promotional plan over the
semi-annual plan are as follows:
ADVANTAGES:
1.
It has the advantage of greater simplicity.
It is easy
to administer.
2.
It can be made flexible; and should provide for pupil
adjustments in a variety of ways.
222
P age 4
3.
It provides for long term planning on the part of
administrators and teachers.
4.
It provides a longer period for the study of individual
differences among pupils, and for a more thorough program of
diagnostic-remedial work, and pupil guidance.
5.
It overcomes the loss of time brought on by class re ­
organizations at mid-year.
6.
It eliminates two mass readjustments of pupils during the
school year and the pupil distractions attending.
7.
It eliminates excessive clerical responsibilities.
8.
It is more economical in time and money, and in the
conservation of both
9.
It provides
teacher and pupil energy.
time during the summer vacation to make
a
very carefixl reorganization of the schools.
10.
It contributes to a closer articulation between Senior
High School and institutions of higher learning; and in normal
times t'o
a more fluid absorption of graduates by industry and
coimnerce,
■11.
It conforms
ate from Senior High
with the desire of parents that pupils gradu­
School in June rather than at mid-year.
A procedure for effecting a transfer to the annual promotion
plan has been discussed by the committee, and it is felt that
while much of the individual pupil adaptation, and school adjustment
can be administered best by the principals within their respective
schools, the general policy which seems necessary for the whole
organization is embodied in the following recommendations.
RECOIN PUPATIONS FOR EFFECTING A TRANSFER:
1.
That the last regular semi-annual promotion from elemen-
223
P ag e 5
tary schools to the junior high schools, and from Grade VIII-2 to
IX-1 talce place in June 1938.
2.
That Grades IX and ahove continue on the semi-annual plan
until such classes have graduated., (The college credit require­
ments necessarily make for a slower return to the annual plan on
the level of secondary education.)
3.
That adjustment classes be set up in the elementary and
in the Junior High Schools to care for irregular class
individual pupil adaptations to the plan.
and
(criteria for establish­
ing these adjustment groups to be worked out by a committee made
up of membership from the different school levels)
4.
For the adjustment of pupils to the new plan the school
principals may be helped from the results of the intelligence and
achievement tests in addition to other available school estimates
of child ability and progress.
5.
That all pupils assigned to the adjustment class be care­
fully grouped, and that special attention be given to their indivi­
dual needs.
Special acceleration may be recommended for a few
pupils of exceptional ability.
The majority of pupils now in the
lower-half-year divisions will be classified so that during the
two terms, the fall of 1938 and the spring of 1939, three terms of
work may be completed.
This should be possible by careful planning
for many of the average students.
progress
6.
General ability and rate of
of each pupil will determine his grade placement.
That one public graduation take place in June 1939 in
the Junior and Senior High Schools and that the diploma alone be
issued at mid-year to those who have completed the minimum
requirements for graduation.
224
Page 6
7.
be five
8.
That for admission to Kindergarten in September children
years of age before December 31st of the same year.
That for admission to Grade I in September children be
six years of age by October 1st of the same year.
9.
That children who become six years of age between October
first and December 31st be admitted to Grade I upon the recommenda­
tion of the school principal and the school psychologist, and upon
establishing a compensating mentality and social maturity.
Irregular pupil adjustments or unforeseen details necessary
to make for an effective transfer within a school or between schools
will be made subject to the approval of the Superintendent of
Schools.
In submitting the recommendation stated herewith, the committee
has one thought, that of serving best the interests of all the
children of the New Britain Public Schools.
Respectfully submitted,
Mary A. Campbell, Chairman
Committee on the Study of
Promotion Plans
Members of the Committee
Miss Mildred G. HeId
Miss Mary Curran
Mr. Henry Goodwin
Miss Ida Mucke
Miss Anne Foberg
Mr. Beldin W. Tracy
Mr. Raymond B. Searle
Mr. Abel E, Johnson
Miss Ruth O'Brien
M arch 1 0 , 1938
i
2 25
SOURCE MATERIAL
Section XIII
Bulletin V
REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION OP THE COMMITTEE FOR
THE STUDY OP TEE COURSE OP STUDY AND
GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS
226
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN No. 5
April 1938
REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE FOR THE STUDY OF THE
COURSE OF STUDY AND GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS
in the
NEW BRITAIN SENIOR AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Committee Members
Newell S. Ames, Chairman
G. Davis Chase
Manola H, Cutting
Agnes M. Finnegan
Margaret Forsyth
Jame s H , Ginns
Frank A. James
Edward W. Kiesewetter
Leonard R. Nixon
Margaret T. Shea
Harry Y/essels
227
INDEX
Page
Introduction
Part I, Objectives of the Junior High School
Criticisms of the Curriculums of the Ninth Grade
Trade Training
Commercial Course
College Preparatory Course
Summary
Other Recommendations
Minimum Requirements for Promotion to Tenth Grade
Part II, The Senior High School Curriculums
Chart of Growth, 1 9 2 3 - 2 ^ to 1 9 3 6 - 3 7
Eleven Year Trend
Senior High School Objectives
Retardation, Grade X-l to X-2
Coordinating the Work of the Ninth and Tenth Grades
General Science, Grades X-l, X-2
Suggested Curriculum for General Course
The Commercial Curriculums
Commercial with Major in Stenography
Commercial with Major in Bookkeeping
Commercial with Major in Typewriting
Study of College Entrance Requirements
Suggested Modifications for Latin Department
Suggested Curriculum for College Classical Preparatory
Suggested College Technical Preparatory Course
Suggested Nurses Training Preparatory Course
Suggested Academic Industrial Course
Suggested Teacher Training Preparatory Course
Summary of Curricula
Summary of Regulations Governing a Pupil's Educational
Plan
Supplement A
"A Study of the public school need for a course in
Industrial Arts and a survey of the schools of
Connecticut that offer Industrial Arts in their
program. "
1
1-2
2—14.
-5
L[.
5
5
5
6
6
6
7-9
9
J-10
10-11
11-12
12-13
11
15
I5-I0
16
,-S
1
18-19
19
19-20
20
21-22
22-30
228
REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON COURSE OF STUDY
AND GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS
The committee appointed to study the Course of Study and
Graduation Requirements in the New Britain Senior and Junior High
Schools, hereby submits its report.
The average time required for revision of the curriculum
of a school system is three years.
This committee has had less than
six months in which to make its investigation and therefore, we
admit it has been a cursory survey and the most we hope to do is
to point out obvious' weaknesses in the Course of Study and recommend
further study.
The work of this committee was carried on by investigations
of the individual members of the committee, by conferences with
principals, department chairmen and classroom teachers; the com­
mittee as a whole served to collate the material and submit it in
the following report.
Part I of this report deals with the junior
high schools, Grades VII, VIII, and IX; Part II deals with the
Senior High School, Grades X, XI, and XII.
PART I
In order that we may judge the value of the Course of
Study in the junior high school, we must know the objectives of
this unit of the school system and then express the judgment as to
whether the objectives are being fulfilled by the curricula.
This
committee agrees that the following are the objectives of the
junior high schools;
1.
2.
3.
q.
5.
6.
7.
Learning to live together
Learning how to be a good citizen
Learning to care for individual and community health
Learning by courses in exploration and guidance
to discover aptitudes and interests
Learning to use the English language adequately
and increasingly well
Learning the elements of science and mathematics
Learning to appreciate the beautiful in the arts
It is the opinion of this committee that the objectives
of the seventh and eighth grades are fulfilled by the present
curriculum.
Minor changes deemed necessary will be discussed in
a later paragraph.
The following material shows how the present
co.urse of studies attempts to satisfy the objectives of the junior
high schools.
Objective 1: by home room activities, assemblies,
student councils, club organization, pupil traffic control and the
social studies
229
Page 2
Objective 2:
pupil activities.
by the courses in social studies and other
Objective 3: by instruction in hygiene, nutrition, phy­
sical education, science and responsibilities for clean school
grounds and buildings.
Objective
system of guidance.
ki
Objective 5:
Objective 6:
mathematics
Objective 7:
by the many exploratory courses and by the
by the courses in English
by the courses in general science and in
by courses in literature, art and music
It can be said of the courses in the seventh and eighth
grades that they are in accord with the recommendations made in the
National Survey of Secondary Education
The following is quoted
from the National Survey:
"One of the most pronounced trends in
the junior high school program is t h e :displacement of specialized
courses by more general courses. ..In mathematics, courses in
arithmetic in seventh and eighth grades and algebra in the ninth
grade have been giving place to "general mathematics" in all three
grades."
General courses in the seventh and eighth grades of the
local junior high schools are English, Social Studies, General
Science, and General Mathematics.
CRITICISMS OF THE CURRICULUM OF THE NINTH GRADE
Quoting from the National Survey of Secondary Education:,
"The chief obstructive influences here have been the ad­
mission requirements to colleges and the too great respect for the
Carnegie unit in terms of which the admission requirements are
almost universally stated.
With the J^-unit pupil program still
applying in the ninth grade, it is difficult to work out a satis­
factory articulation with the curriculum in the seventh and eighth
grades below which includes more subjects in the program of the
individual pupil
Now that standardizing agencies and higher
institutions are beginning to lift their oppressive hands from the
ninth grade curriculum we should see more rapid progress toward
articulating this curriculum with the curriculum of the first two
grades of the junior high school."
The foregoing is quoted to show how the ideal program of
the junior high school contrasts with actual practice in our own
ninth grade of the junior high schools.
The pupil entering this
grade is required to elect either a specialized course or a general
course.
These courses enumerated by name are:
General Course,
Commercial Course, College Preparatory Course and Trade Course.
230
Page 5
Whereas the trend for junior high schools is a core of
required subjects for Grades VII, VIII arid IX with few electives
in the ninth grade, another trend is to postpone specialization
until the eleventh grade in favor of more general and academic
training.
The curriculum as set up fpr the ninth grade of the
New Britain Junior High Schools is contrary to this trend.
Two of the factors which have accounted for the trend
toward postponing specialization are:
1,
2.
raising of
the age of compulsory school attendance
raising of
the age for full time trade training in
state trade schools.
’When it was possible for the pupil to leave the ninth
grade at the age of fourteen and enter employment, probably it
was desirable for him to have specialized to some extent; policy
makers could say truthfully that for these pupils the junior high
school was not preparing
for the senior high school.
The age for
compulsory school attendance has been raised to sixteen, with the
result that most pupils pass through the tenth and some the
eleventh grade before they may leave school for employment
In
view of this change we must change our thinking in regard to (1 )
coordinating the work of the ninth and tenth grades; (2 ) the problem
of general academic background courses; (3 ) the desirability of
specializing in the ninth grade; (J4.) recognizing the need for
several levels of achievement.
TRADE TRAINING
A few years ago it was possible for a boy leaving the
ninth grade at the age of fourteen to attend the state trade
school as a full-time pupil for the purpose of learning a trade.
Employers while tinder the influence of the policies created by the
National Industrial Recovery Act were discouraged from employing
youths under eighteen on so-called hazardous jobs.
The state
officers charged with the administration of the state trade schools
raised the entrance age for full-time trade pupils from fourteen
to sixteen in order to have the age of their graduates agree with
the minimum age at which they might enter employment.
As a result
of this policy the boys of the ninth grade who elect this coopera­
tive .trade training course are not allowed to enter the trade
school at the completion of the ninth grade but must continue to
carry on in the senior high school as a cooperative trade training
pupil until they are sixteen years of age.
As operated in the junior high schools the pupil in the
cooperative trade training course spends alternately one week in
the junior high school and one week in the trade school.
This
committee feels it would be very much worth while to determine
by special study whether the loss of half his academic work in
the ninth grade is compensated by achievement in half time trade
training at the trade school.
During the first semester of this
school year, 136 junior high school pupils were enrolled in this
course.
231
P ag e 4
In giving thought to the practicability of the trade
training course this committee suggests that any further study of
the problem might better consider the desirability of extending
the industrial arts work of the junior high school to the ninth
grade on an elective basis for those pupils who have a real desire
for this typo of instruction. An extension of the industrial
arts along this line would serve a three-fold purpose:
1.
koop all pupils under one administrative head
and. insure their receiving as much general
education as other pupils
2.
through free election of industrial arts it
would give tangible evidence that the exploratory
work of the seventh and eighth grades had
resulted in values for those electing to con­
tinue the work.
3.
abolish part-time trade training and part-time
academic work.
COMMERCIAL COURSE
This committee questions the value of a commercial
course in the ninth grade.
The foregoing arguments regarding
compulsory school attendance and the postponement of specializa­
tion applies as much to this type of work as it does to trade
training.
In fact, vocational specialization in commercial
subjects is deferred in the senior high school until the eleventh
grade.
The trend toward general courses causes this committee
to suggest the thought that general mathematics may have more
claim to a place in the curriculum of the ninth grade than a
specialized subject under the name commercial arithmetic. Type­
writing as now taught tvfice a week for a year has little voca­
tional .value and may be treated as exploratory shop work in
case the shop idea is extended to the ninth grade.
COLLEGE PREPARATORY COURSE
It is quite likely that New England school systems will
continue to meet the requirements of Eastern colleges by
providing the means by which their pupils can acquire the six­
teen units for admission to these colleges. However the rigidity
of this course in the ninth grade can be overcome to some extent
by substituting Social Science for Civics, teaching Ancient
History in the Senior High School and offering Latin and Algebra
as electives for those pupils planning to pursue a college
preparatory course in the Senior High School.
232
Page 5
SUMMARY
The foregoing criticisms of the curriculum of the ninth
grade may he summarized as follows:
1.
Set up a core curriculum for all pupils.
a. English
b. General Mathematics (unless Algebra is
elected)
c. General Science and Hygiene
d. Social Studies
e. Physical Education
(Latin
(Industrial Arts
f.
Electives
(J]l{!iC
(Home Economics
(Typewriting
2.
Extend the industrial arts to the ninth grade on an
elective basis.
OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS
The suggestions which have been made in connection with
the ninth grade curriculum are so revolutionary in character as
to require special study by a carefully picked and trained committee
There are, however, other changes which may be suggested and on
which studies should begin at once.
They are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Revision of the courses in English
for Grades VII-IX.
Examination of the courses in Social Studies for
Grades VII-IX with a view to adapting them to the
different levels of learning.
Make a survey of the
textbooks in this field with a view to selecting
one or several which are suited to teaching this
subject on the junior high school level.
A survey of the books available in the field of mathe­
matics to determine whether this course can be
improved by a change of textbook.
Develop a detailed course of study for the three
achievement levels of the junior high schools as a
working guide for the teachers of subject matter.
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE ATTAINED FOR PROMOTION
TO THE TENTH GRADE OF THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
In order to merit promotion to the tenth grade of the
Senior High School, a pupil must have completed satisfactorily
the approved three-year course of study, covering 24 units of work
which includes English, Science, Physical Education and Hygiene,
and have maintained a reasonable degree of conduct and attendance.
233
P ag e 6
PART I I
THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM
During the past fourteen years the Senior High School
has shown a steady growth in pupil enrollment.
The amount of this
growth is set forth in the following table.
School Year
Semester I
Semester II
f
1923-24
1936-1937
Percent of Increase
1,001
2,596
159
1,078
2,652
146
Any attempt to fix the objectives of this school must
take into consideration the interests of the pupils attending the
school.
The interests and to some extent the abilities of many
pupils now enrolled in the school are different from those of the
pupil body of a few years ago. This point is emphasized by the
following table which shows significant percentage decreases in
pupil enrollment in certain subjects and percentage increases in
other subjects.
Subject
Feb. 1926
Percent of pupil
body of 1,125
Sept. 1937
Percent of pupil
body of 2,561
Decreases:
French
Latin
Mathematics
Science
27
21
39
35
14
14.4
22
23
Increases:
Social Studies
60
Typewriting
19
Business Practice
Arithmetic (new in curriculum)
86
46.5
32.
Whereas there has been a slight percentage decrease in
the number of pupils enrolled in the College Preparatory division
there has been a large percentage increase in the number of pupil
enrolled in the General Course.
It seems fair to assume that
better than 50$ of the total pupil body is enrolled in the
General Course, about 40$ divided equally between the College
Preparatory Course and the vocational Commercial Course, the
remaining 10$ scattered among the Cooperative Trade Training
Course, Teacher Training Preparatory Course and Nurses Training
Preparatory Course.
Although the basic social objectives of the school
remain unchanged by the increased enrollment, the emphasis on
09 *
(Last two subjects combined as work is similar)
234
Page 7
certain objectives has shifted. A few years ago the Senior High
School had two major duties, in addition to the specific aims of
education:
L.
2.
to prepare pupils for institutions of higher learning
to teach skills of a vocational commercial nature which
would enable the pupil to secure remunerative employment.
Today with more than 50 % of the pupils showing no interest
in preparation for either college or future employment, emphasis
on the objectives comes back to the specific aims of education which
are stated below in Items 1-7.
It is the opinion of this committee that the following
outline suggests the objectives
of the Senior High School:
To promote an interest
in and a knowledge of how to
maintain health.
To develop a command of the fundamental processes reading, arithmetical computations, oral and written
expressions.
To develop an appreciation of worthy home membership.
To develop a knowledge
of the vocations.
To learn how to be a good citizen.
To learn the worthy use of leisure.
To promote the development of ethical character.
Preparation for schools of collegiate grade
Preparation for technical schools of less than
collegiate grade
The development of vocational skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10 .
f
L
Objectives 1-7 would apply to all pupils, and for many
in the General Course, they would represent the complete aim of
the school.
Pupils enrolled in the College Preparatory Course
are required to take some subject matter that will have immediate
value only in aiding the pupil to gain admission to college. The
same may be said for pupils enrolled in the Teacher Training
Preparatory Course and the Nurses Training Preparatory Course.
Pupils who specialize in
the Commercial Course do so because they
hope it will aid them in securing remunerative employment.
On Page 126 of the Sixth Yearbook of the Department of
Superintendence is a table which sets forth the claims made for
the subjects most frequently offered in the program of studies
of 196 small high schools in relation to the seven cardinal ob­
jectives of secondary education.
The seven cardinal objectives
are the first seven given as the objectives of the New -Britain
Senior High School.
The part of the table that applies to our
curricula is reproduced here to show how the objectives relate to
subject matter.
OBJECTIVES
1.
H e a lth
SUBJECT
-
General Science
Biology
-"-Physical Education
Science
Athletics
OBJECTIVES
SUBJECT
Command of
Fundamental
Processes
-^English
Ancient Foreign Language
Bookkeeping
Modern Foreign Language
-:sBusines s Arithmet ic
-"-General Mathematics
Business English
General Science
■"-Home Economics
Manual Training and Mechanical Drawing
Science ;
Citizenship
-"-History
General Science
Physical Education
Geography
■si-Other Social Sciences
Science
Commercial Lav/
Worthy Use
of Leisure
-"-English
History
Ancient Foreign Language
Physical Education
Modern -Foreign Language
tf-Music
-"-American Literature
-"-Art
Extra-curriculum
Worthy Home
Membership
General Science
-"-Home Economics
Manual Training and Mechanical Drawing
Science
Hygiene
Ethical Character
Vocation
English
History
Other Social Sciences
Assembly
American Eiterature
Commercial Law
Club Activities
Athletics
English
-"-Algebra (College preparatory)
-"-Geometry (College preparatory)
-::-Physics (College preparatory)
-"-Home Economics
-^'■Bookkeeping
•SfChemistry (College preparatory)
-"■Typewriting
-"-Business Arithmetic
^Manual Training and Mechanical Drawing
-"-Shorthand and Stenography
236
Page 9
Geography
-"■Commercial Law
-"-Vocational Guidance
-"■Commercial Education
(-:sThe star indicates that a subject makes a direct
contribution, while unstarred subjects bear only an
indirect relation to the objectives.)
Before outlining the curricula for the Senior High School
this committee calls attention to a condition recorded in the
annual report of the Superintendent of Schools for the school year
1923-24- and which condition continued to be recorded in the last
annual report for the school year 1936-1937. The condition to
which reference is made is the large percent of non-promotions
from Grade X-l to Grade X-2.
The following table shows the percent
of non-promotions.
Year
^
1923-24
1936-37
Semester I
Semester II
31.
*41.
33.
41.
The school year 1923-24 was chosen for purposes of com­
parison and contrast as it was in the annual report of this
particular year that former superintendent of schools, Dr. Stan­
ley H. Holmes gave notice of his intention to introduce the
Laboratory Plan in the Senior High School the following September.
Among threereasons
which he gave for this plan,
the first was
expressed as a hope that"the percentage offailures
can be con­
siderably reduced."
{
A comparison of the figures given above tend to prove
that the Laboratory Plan has not succeeded in reducing the percent
of failures in the tenth grade.
In fairness to the Laboratory
Plan one must note the percent of failures before the plan went
into effect and raise serious objections to any claim that there
is a relation between the percent of failures and the Laboratory
Plan.
It seems more reasonable to this committee to look to
the curriculum and the break that occurs in the pupils' school
life between the junior and senior high schools to account for
this large percent of non-promotions.
The committee accepts these
figures as a challenge to proper curriculum construction.
COORDINATING THE WORK OF THE NINTH AND TENTH GRADES
The committee believes it pertinent to quote from page
176 of the volume "Forward to the Fundamentals in Education", a
brief report of the survey of the Hartford Public Schools, issued
by the Strayer Committee for the year 1936-1937.
"The present senior high school program lacks unity.
It
is composed of a series of disjointed segments made up of courses
in a number of unrelated areas. Homogeneity is achieved largely
through the social activities of the school rather than through
237
Page 1 0
the regular classroom work.
The survey staff recommends that the
curriculum he divided into two major divisions.
The first would
be a social living core a3 an extension of the social living and
science and mathematics areas of the junior high school.
In this
pupils would deal according to ability and interest with social
problems of the past, present, and future.
It would welcome a
common integrating center around which the program of each pupil
would function, thereby giving unity to the present subject pro­
gram.
Subject lines would not be respected but all subjects would
be drawn upon for their peculiar contributions.
This core should
occupy at least one-third to one-half of the time of the pupil
and should culminate in helping him formulate some basic values
for social living, sometimes called a philosophy of life.
"The second division would include a large number of
functional courses open only to pupils who have an interest
or a need to be met by such courses.
These should make provision
for pupils who may w i s h to continue an interest for three years
as well as those who may have their needs satisfied in one-half
year.
An example of the former might be a two-year study of how
improvements in physical science have improved the conditions of
living; while an example of the latter might be how to entertain
in the home. All extra-curricular activities would be included
in the second division.
" . ..... The senior high school science can be organized
around general biological and general physical science."
The Strayer committee urges the abolition of all curric­
ula such as College Preparatory, Commercial, etc.
This committee
is not prepared to make this recommendation.
s'
U.
In planning the coordination of the work of the ninth
and tenth grades we shall give our attention first to the General
Course pupil, the largest body of pupils in the tenth grade.
It
was suggested in Part I that the curricula of the ninth grade be
revised to include a core which would integrate with the previous
grades.
It is now proposed to extend this idea to the tenth
grade in order that this integration may be carried into the next
higher unit of the local school system.
Reasons for extending this
integration would be those given above by the Strayer committee
for a core for social living; secondly, the change would attempt
to correct the conditions which cause the large percent of failures
of pupils from Grade X-l to Grade X-2.
This proposed change assumes that a new course would be
created which would be known as General Science.
This course would
be offered for two years on the tenth and eleventh grade levels
and would be required of all General Course pupils in the tenth
grade as a part of the core of subjects.
It might be elective on
the eleventh grade level and possibly extended to the twelfth grade
level under the name of Senior Science.
This plan would permit a
General Course pupil to major in sciencewithout meeting the
higher requirements of the College Preparatory division in such sub­
jects as Biology, Chemistry and Physics.
The course would be
organized around one of the older disciplines as suggested by the
Strayer committee.
J
238
Page 11
A suggested curriculum for the General Course is outlined
below.
In keeping with the recommendations of the Strayer committee
the core which consists of English, Social Studies and General
Science requires 5 0% of a pupil's time while allowing enough
electives for him to choose a major and two minors.
SUGGESTED CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL COURSE
GENERAL
GRADE TEN
Units
Weekly
Periods
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
y?_
2
1
Subject
English 1
Social Studies 1
General Science 1
Elective
Physical Education
Guidance
U -i/3
Elective
Art 1
Ind. Arts 1
Drafting
Home Economics
Sewing 1
Typewriting 1
Bus. Practice 1
French 1
German 1
Mathematics 1 or 2
Music
GRADE ELEVEN
1
1
1
1
2£ l
5
5
5
5
2
1
English 2
Social Studies 2
Electives
Electives
Phys. Education
Guidance
J+-1/3
General Science 2
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Art 1 or 2
Industrial Arts 1 or 2
Drafting 1 or 2
Home Econ. 1 or 2
Sewing 1 or 2
Typewriting 1 or 2
Bookkeeping 1
French 1 or 2
German 1 or 2
Mathematics 2 or 5
Music
GRADE TWELVE
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
2
1
lj-l/3
English 5
Elective
Elective
Elective
Phys. Education
Guidance
Senior Science
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Art 2 or 3
Ind. Arts 2 or 3
Drafting 2 or 3
Home Econ. 2 or \
Sewing 2 or 3
Bookkeeping 2
French 2 or 3
German 2 or 3
Math. 3 or lj.
Social Studies 3
Music
1
239
Page 12
Note:
Electives to include at
Social Studies may be a
least (1)
(2)
major and
Major 5 yr. sequence
Minor 2 yr.sequence
must be a minor
THE COMMERCIAL CURRICULUM
The chief criticism to be made of the Commercial Course
is the absence of a rule enforcing the election of a major and
minors and the pursuit of the proper sequences.
This division of
the school has gradually acquired several unit courses which are
taken by many pupils who have not a definite plan of study.
Another
criticism, which is one of school policy, is directed at the plan
whereby a pupil is allowed to carry English 5 and 6 concurrently and
thereby graduate before completing his vocational training in
commerce.
Because of the many offerings in this division of the
school, it becomes necessary to limit the number of subjects which a
pupil may elect.
This will deprive the pupil of the opportunity
to elect certain subjects in commerce, but this restriction will
be offset by forcing the pupil into subjects in other departments,
thus making for a less technical course and a broader academic
preparation for life.
Among the unit courses \vhich this department has acquired
and which no longer contribute to the training of pupils taking a
major in this department are:
(1) Commercial Arithmetic; (2)
Filing, which goes under the name of Office Practice 1.
Commercial Arithmetic was included in the curriculum for
the young women of the Nurses Training Preparatory Course.
It is
now populated largely by pupils seeking credits toward graduation.
It seems more reasonable to believe this work should be included
in the Mathematics department under a course in General Mathematics.
The content of the course in Office Practice 1 should be
absorbed by one of the other courses and the term Office Practice
applied to the work in our machine department.
Under the present arrangement Commercial Law instead of
being required of majors in this department is taken by credit seek­
ing pupils.
By placing a proper limitation on the number of subjects
in commerce which a pupil is allowed to take this course then could
assume its rightful place in the curriculum and be required of all
commercial majors, who now do not have the time to take it.
Business Practice as a general basic course would be re­
quired of all commercial majors.
The content of the course is broad
enough to have value as general education and as such would be open
on an elective basis to pupils with majors in other departments.
The same may be snid of typewriting in the tenth grade.
The work
of this grade would be sufficiently complete in itself so the pupil
would derive value from these courses in case they were not pursued
beyond this grade.
Vocational specialization in bookkeeping,
shorthand and typewriting would begin in the eleventh grade.
240
Page 15
A pupil electing a course in business education would have
the choice of one of three majors.
Suggested curricula are out­
lined below:
COMMERCIAL WITH MAJOR IN STENOGRAPHY
GRADE
Units
1
1
1
1
1/5
Weekly
Periods
5
5
5
5
2
1
TEN
Subjects
English 1
Social Studies 1
Typewriting 1
Business Practice 1
Physical Education
Guidance
Electives
None
k-1/3
GRADE ELEVEN
1
1
1
1
1/5
5
5
5
5
2
1
English 2
Social Studies 2
Typewriting 2
Shorthand 1
Physical Education
Guidance
None
I4.-I/ 3
GRADE TWELVE
1
1
1
1
1/5
5
5
5
5
2
1
English 3
Shorthand 2
Transcription 1
Office Practice
Physical Education
Guidance
None
1+-1/3
COMMERCIAL WITH MAJOR IN BOOKKEEPING
GRADE TEN
1
1
1
1
li±
ip—1/3
5
5
5
5
2
1
English 1
Social Studies 1
Business Practice 1
Elective
Physical Education
Guidance
Art 1
Ind. Arts 1
Drafting 1
Home Econ, 1
Sewing 1
Typewriting 1
Business Practice ]
French 1
German 1
Latin 1
Mathematics 1 or 2
Music
241
Page 1I4.
Commercial with Major In BookkeepingT cont.
Units
Weekly
Periods
Electives
Subject
GRADE ELEVEN
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Social Studies 2 Art 1 or 2
Ind. Arts 1 or 2
Bookkeeping 1
Drafting 1 or 2
Elective
Phys. Education Home Econ. 1 or 2
Sewing 1 or 2
Guidance
Gen. Science 2
Typewriting 1 or 2
French 1 or 2
German 1 or 2
Latin 1 or 2
Mathematics 2 or 3
Music
English 2
1
1
1
5
5
5
2
1
4 -1 /5
GRADE TWELVE
English 3
1
1
1
111.
5
5
5
2
1
Bookkeeping 2
Commercial Law
Elective
Phys. Education
Guidance
4 -1 /3
Note
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Art 2 or 3
Ind. Arts 2 or 3
Drafting 2 or 3
Home Econ. 2 or 3
Sewing 2 or 3
Senior Science
French 2 or 3
German 2 or 3
Latin 2 or 3
Mathematics 3 or 4
Social Studies 3
Music
Electives to include at least (1) Major 3 yr. sequence
(2) Minor 2 yr. sequence
Social Studies may be a major, and must be a minor.
COMMERCIAL WITH MAJOR IN TYPEWRITING
GRADE TEN
1
1
1
1
1/5
4- 1/5
5
5
5
5
2
1
English 1
Social Studies 1
Typewriting 1
Business Practice
Physical Education
Guidance
242
Page 15
Commercial with Major In Typewriting, cont.
Units
Weekly
Periods
Subject.:
Electives
GRAPE ELEVEN
English 2
1
1
1
5
5
5
2
1
Social Studies 2
Typewriting 2
Elective
Phys. Education
Guidance
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Industrial Arts 1
Drafting 1
Home Economics 1
Sewing 1
Bookkeeping 1
French 1
German 1
Mathematics 1 or 2
Music
General Science 1
Latin 1
GRADE TWELVE
1
1
1
1
±£l
k-iA
5
5
5
5
2
1
English 3
Office Practice
Commercial Law
Elective
Phys. Education
Guidance
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Art 2
Industrial Arts 2
Drafting 2
Home Economics 2
Sewing 2
Bookkeeping 2
French 2
German 2
Mathematics 2 or ;
Social Studies 3
Music
Latin 2
The following study of college entrance requirements
was made hy Miss Agnes M. Finnegan of this committee.
A study of the entrance requirements of several hundred
institutions of higher learning in these United States, and, in
particular, of those universities and colleges which have attracted
students from the New Britain Senior High School within the past
decade, both discloses striking changes in methods of admission and
presents a surprising diversity in combinations of subjects required.
In regard to methods of admission, "psychological tests",
"personal interviews", "selective modes of entrance", "health
examinations", and the "recommendations of the secondary school
principal" are superseding the unit and the subject mark as means
of determining those candidates who give promise of deriving the
greatest good from a college education.
243
Eage 16
In terms of "units” or subjects offered for college en­
trance, the recent trends have been a decided "liberalizing of the
secondary school curriculum and a constant.change in the statement
of requirements for admission to college,"
"There must be a total
of ten units from the fields of English, mathematics, foreign
language (ancient or modern), history, and science, including prepara­
tion amounting to a major or minor sequence in at least three
different fields." Although the different colleges require different
combination of subjects, such as two m a j o r s of three units each and
two minors of two units each, or three’ majors of three units each,
ail prescribe English as one major.
"For the five additional units
any w o r k will be acceptable which is counted for graduation from
high school."
The various curricula in operation in the New Britain
Senior High School fulfill, In large measure, the requirements of
the colleges, and conform to the laws of the State of Connecticut.
The three constants, English major for every student, as required
by the colleges, Physical Education for three years, and American
History for one year, as required by state law, have been provided.
In the fields of mathematics, foreign language (Latin and French),
history, science, art, and drawing, both major and minor sequences
are available, and in addition, German if offered as a minor.
In
these subjects a more definite organization of classes into college
preparatory and general groups is suggested.
This division might
be made on the basis of first, I.Q., second, class record, third,
achievement test (in the case of a sequential subject) and, fourth,
junior high school principal's recommendation.
For the college
preparatory group it is recommended that an average rating in all
subjects of at least 75 Per cent be obtained with a minimum passing
mark of 65 for any paper, as in New York State.
The following modifications in the present set-up in the
Latin Department in the senior High School seem desirable to improve
the local situation:
1.
Provision for courses of the first two years on college
preparatory and general levels, the personnel of each
course to be determined by the combined rating of I.Q.,
school record, and achievement test in Latin.
2. Adoption of new Latin text or texts to meet the needs of
pupils on different levels, and to provide for the
changing technique in the teaching of Latin.
3 . Provision for class meetings on five days a week and for
a class period of sufficient length to allow time for
supervised study, which is an essential feature of new
teaching technique.
1+. Arrangement for alternation of courses in Latin Third Year
and Latin Fourth Year, if necessary
5 . Provision for a special work period at end of session.
o. Although arguments may be advanced for beginning Latin
in the Senior High School, it does not seem advisable
to reduce the Latin course to three years.
SUGGESTED CURRICULUM FOR COLLEGE CLASSICAL PREPARATORY
GRADE TEN
Units
Weekly
Periods
1
1
1
5
5
5
1
5
2
1
Subject
Elective
English 1
Latin 5
French 1
or
German 1
Mathematics 1 or 2
Physical Education
Guidance
k-l/3
Note:
Ancient History may be elected as a fifth
subject in any grade
GRADE ELEVEN
1
1
5
5
1
1
5
5
2
1
± l±
I4--I/ 3
English 2
Latin 3
French 1
French 2
German 1
or
German 2
Mathematics 2 or 3
American History Chemistry
Elective
Physics
Physical Education
Art Appreciation
Guidance
(2 periods)
Music
GRADE TWELVE
1
1
•1
1
5
5
5
5
2
1
J /3
English 3
Elective
Elective
Elective
Phys Education
Guidance
k - 1/3
Latin If.
French 2 or 3
German 2 or 3
Mathematics 3 or ij.
Chemistry
Physics
Biology
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Music
SUGGESTED COLLEGE TECHNICAL PREPARATORY COURSE
GRADE TEN
1
1
5
5
1
1
iZl
5
5
k -V 3
2
1
Note:
English 1
French 1
or
German 1
Mathematics 2
Elective
Phys. Education
Guidance
Art 1
Drafting
Latin 2
Modern History
Ancient History may be elected as a fifth subject.
245
Page 18
S u g g e s te d
C o lle g e
T e c h n ic a l
P r e p a r a to r y
GRADE
U n its
W e e k ly
P e r io d s
1
1
5
5
1
1
-1/1.
5
5
2
1
C o u r s e ,
ELEV EN
S u b je c t
_
E n g lis h 2
F r e n c h 2 o r
G erm an 2
M a th e m a tic s
3
E le c t iv e
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
G u id a n c e
U --1/3
GRADE
1
1
1
1
-1/2-
5
5
5
5
2
1
E n g lis h 3
A m e r ic a n H is to r y
E le c t iv e
E le c t iv e
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
-G u id a n c e
S tu d e n ts
p r e p a r in g f o r e n g in e e r in g
e l e c t M a t h e m a t i c s ij .
SUG G ESTED
N U R SES
T R A IN IN G
GRADE
1
1
1
1
2/1
5
5
5
5
2
1
E
B
M
L
P
G
E le c t iv e s
C
F
G
L
P
A
h e m istr y
r e n c h 1
erm an 1
a tin 3
h y s ic s
r t A p p r e c ia tio n
(2 p e r io d s )
M u sic
TW ELVE
k-i/3
N o te ;
c o n t.
A
B
C
P
F
G
M
A
m e r ic a n H is t o r y
io lo g y
h e m istr y
h y s ic s
r e n c h 2 o r 3
erm an 2 o r
a th e m a tic s
r t A p p r e c ia tio n
(2 p e r io d s )
M u sic
s h o u ld
PREPARATO RY
COURSE
TEN
n g lis h 1
io lo g y
a th e m a tic s 1 o r 2
a t in 1
h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
u id a n c e
N one
k -1 / 3
GRADE ELEV EN
1
1
1
1
-i/l .
k -1 /3
5
5
5
5
2
1
E
H
C
L
P
G
n g lis h 2
om e E c o n o m ic s 1
h e m istr y
a tin 2
h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n
u id a n c e
A r t
A p p r e c ia tio n
(2 p e r io d s )
M u sic
"1
246
S u g g e s te d
N u r se s
T r a in in g
P r e p a r a to r y
GRADE
W e e k ly
P e r io d s
U n its
1
C o u r se ,
c o n t.
1 9
TW ELVE
S u b je c t
5
P a g e
E le c t iv e s
3
E n g lis h
A r t
a p p r e c ia tio n
(2 p e r i o d s )
5
5
1
1
X
1 /3
S
A
E
P
5
2
1
o c ia l S tu d ie s 3
m e r ic a n H is to r y
le c t iv e
h y s. E d u c a tio n
G u id a n c e
A r t 1 o r 2
H om e E c o n o m ic s
S e w in g
S e n io r S c ie n c e
M us ic
1^ 1/3
SUG G ESTED
A C A D E M IC
GRADE
1
1
1 /3
5
IN D U ST R IA L
TEN
E n g lis h 1
,
M a th e m a tic s 1 o r
P h y s. E d u o & tio n
G u id a n c e
T ra d e W ork
1/2 d a y
5
2
1
COURSE
N on e
2
k-V3
GRADE
1
1
1 /3
5
5 •
2
ELEV EN
E n g lis h 2
A m e r ic a n H is t o r y
P h y s. E d u c a tio n
G u id a n c e
T ra d e W ork
1/2 d a y
1
A r t
A p p r e c ia tio n
(2 p e r i o d s )
M u sic
k-l/3
(
GRADE
5
5
1
1
1 /3
TW ELVE
E n g lis h 3
E le c t iv e
P h y s. E d u c a tio n
G u id a n c e
T r a d e W ork
1/2 d a y
2
1
k-1/3
SUG G ESTED
TEACH ER
T R A IN IN G
GRADE
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
2
1
1 /3
k -i/3
N o t e :
A r t
E
B
M
E
P
G
G e n e r a l S c ie n c e 1
M a th e m a tic s 2 o r
P ro b . o f S o c ia l
S tu d ie s 3
A r t A p p r e c ia tio n
(2 p e r i o d s )
M u sic
PREPARATO RY
3
COURSE
TEN
n g lis h 1
io lo g y
od ern H is t o r y
le c t iv e
h y s. E d u c a tio n
u id a n c e
1 recom m ended
A
F
G
H
S
M
L
r t 1
r e n c h 1
erm an 1
om e E c o n o m ic s 1
e w in g
a th e m a tic s 1 o r
a t in 1
2
247
Page 20
Suggested Teacher Training Preparatory Coursa. cont
GRADE ELEVEN
Weekly
Periods
Units
'
Subject
English 2
1
1
1
J-/3.. .
American History
Elective
Elective
Phys, Education
Guidance
5
5
5
2
1
4- 1/3
Elective3
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Art 1 or 2
French 2
German .2
Chemistry
Mathematics 2 or 3
Latin 2
GRADE TWELVE
l
l
l
l
English 3
Social Studies
Elective
Elective
Phys. Education
Guidance
5
5
5
5
2
- 1 /3 ..
1
4-1/3
SUMMARY OF CURRICULA
1.
2.
General
Commercial
(a)
Major in Stenography
(b)
Major in Bookkeeping
(c)
Major in Typewriting
3.
College Classical Preparatory
4.
College Technical Preparatory
5.
Nurses Training Preparatory
6.
Academic Industrial
7.
Teacher Training Preparatory
Art Appreciation
(2 periods)
Art 2 or 3
Senior Science
Mathematics 3 or 4
French 3
German 3
Latin 3
Ancient History
1
248
P ag e 21
SUMMARY OP REGULATIONS GOVERNING A PUPIL’S EDUCATIONAL PLAN
1.
Pour subjects a semester
Pupils must obtain the recommendation of their counselor
and the approval of the principal to carry more or less than
the normal load of four one-credit subjects.
Practional-credit
subjects like Guidance, Music, and Art appreciation may be
taken in addition.
2.
Who may take five subjects?
No pupil will be permitted to carry five subjects unless
the work in each subject the previous semester merits the
privilege.
In addition, to continue carrying the extra load,
a pupil must maintain a satisfactory grade in each of the five
subjects he is taking.
3.
Majors and Minors
In your program of studies you must have two majors and
two
minors.
English must be one major. Social Studies must
be at least a minor.
It may be a major.
One major and minor may be from a related field of work
within one department; for example, Shorthand I and II and
Typewriting I and II and Transcription may be a major and
Business Practice and Office Practice may be the minor from
the same department.
JU-,
Foreign Languages
Students who expect to enter college must complete at
least two units in the same language.
Not less than two units
in the same language may be accepted for graduation.
5,
One credit in Physical Education is required for graduation,
6.
The following constants are required for graduation:
English - 3 units
American History - 1 unit
Physical Education - 1 unit
Safety Education - 1 unit
7.
Two or more courses in English may not be taken concurrently.
8,
General requirements for all pupils for graduation from Senior
High School:
completion of 13 units after promotion into
Grade X from junior high school.
249
P ag e 22
TYPES OP DIPLOMAS
It is the opinion of this committee that the one type of
diploma meets the needs of the pupils of the community
SUPPLEMENT A
THE AIMS OP INDUSTRIAL ARTS
by James H. Ginns
1.
2.
3.
I4..
5.
6.
78.
910.
11.
12.
To increase the studentfs knowledge of how the world’s work is
accomplished.
To develop appreciation of workmanship and design.
To train for the intelligent consumption of the product of
others
To provide opportunities for sampling various kinds of activities
as a possible means of selecting a life work
To present information as to the qualifications of workers and
the conditions of employment in a wide variety of callings.
To provide experience and some training in fields likely to have
large avocational values in the profitable use of leisure time.
To provide training for the intelligent use
and maintenance
of the equipment of the home
To inform young people of the history of our present industrial
civilization and something of its present trends.
To develop appreciation of the common materials and the methods
by which they are prepared to serve our needs.
To provide integration of the facts presented in the classrooms
and picked up in life; to achieve education and culture
through shop activities.
To provide for the exercise of the native creative instinct.
To provide opportunities for motor activity.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL INDUSTRIAL ARTS
When the high school is reached a number of new elements
enter to modify the aim and change the character of the work as
compared with that of the junior high school industrial arts.
The pupil has gone through the preliminary experiencegiving period and should now be ready for something more nearly
approximating the real job.
This secondary school period should be the place where
the reasons for things are sought, where investigations are made,
and explanations are proposed and tested.
Senior High School pupils
can as far as boys are concerned roughly be divided into two groups.
250
P ag e 25
Group I would Include those who are preparing to enter educa­
tional institutions above the high school level.
Group II would
include those whose formal education will end either before or
upon graduation.
Students from Group I will not enter the ordinary manipulative
phases of vocational work and hence will have no direct need for
definite manipulative skill except in-so-far as such skill might
be an aid to appreciation in various fields with which they must
come in contact.
These people must build houses, employ labor, use
machines and have contacts with and become leaders in industry.
Some preparation for such contacts could be acquired by courses in
the industrial arts field.
Group II is much the larger group and with the increasing
numbers entering the High School there are many in this group who
need to be provided with subject material suited to their interests
and abilities.
The major part of Industrial Arts work for them
would be manipulation with some time for the acquisition of related
information and some guidance in the selection of an occupation.
The work to be organized as a part of the pupil *3 general education
rather than a definite preparation for a future vocation.
Dr. Strayer
in his Hartford report, says, "Teachers in the secondary schools
need not and should not concern themselves with the responsibilities
of trade training."
Mechanical drawing is the only industrial arts subject now
being offered to High School students.
The work should be extended
to include machine and hand work activities in metals and woods,
graphic arts, electricity, automotive and such other appropriate
activities as suggested in the pamphlet, "Suggestions for Industrial
Arts in Secondary Schools", pages 5>
an£i 5 included in this
report.
The type of shop organization whether general combination
or unit type, would depend on the number electing the work and the
interest shown by the demand for certain activities.
A wide variety of offerings could be included in a series of
general shops.
Providing there developed a decided demand for any
one or more of these offerings,
they might be better served by
means of the unit type of shop.
All industrial arts work in the Senior High School would be
on an elective basis with credit allowed for satisfactory work
towards promotion and graduation.
No effort should be made to teach trades, but so far as the
work goes, it should be performed by the best methods.
Suggested courses of study material and projects included
in "Suggestions for Industrial Arts in Secondary Schools".
251
Page 2lj.
INDUSTRIAL ARTS SURVEY
Three-year senior high schools
Bridgeport
Bridgeport
New Canaan
Stamford
West Hartford
Bassiclc High School
Central High School
New Canaan Senior High School
Stamford High School
William Hall High School
Four-year high schools
Ansonia
Bridgeport
Bristol
Derby
Greenwich
Groton
Hamden
Hartford
Hartford
Hartford
Naugatuck
New Haven
Plainville
South Windsor
Stonington
Vernon
Wallingford
Waterbury
West Haven
Windsor
Pine Manual Training School
Warren Harding High School
Bristol High School
Derby High School
Greenwich High School
Robert E. Fitch High School
Hamden High School
Bulkeley High School
Hartford Public High School
Weaver High School
Naugatuck High School
New Haven High School
Plainville High School
South Windsor High School
Stonington High School
Rockville High School
Lyman Hall High School
Leavenworth High School
West Haven High School
Windsor High School
Six-year high schools
Berlin
Darien
Farmington
Middle town
Newington
Stratford
Thompson
Wethersfield
Berlin High School
Darien High School (grades 8-12)
Farmington High School (listed as
separate junior and senior
high schools but in reality
only one school)
Woodrow Wilson High School
Newington High School
(no 12th year as yet)
Stratford High School
Tourtellette Memorial High School
Wethersfield High School
Junior high schools
Bridgeport
Bridgeport
Bridgeport
Bridgeport
Farmington
Congress Junior High School
Maplewood Junior High School
Waltersville Junior High School
Whittier Junior High School
Center Junior High School
I
252
Page 25
J u n io r , H ig h S c h o o l s , c o n t i n u e d
Hartford
Hartford
Hartford
Hartford
Meriden
Meriden
New Britain
New Britain
New Britain
New Britain
New Canaan
New Haven
New Haven
New Haven
New Haven
Norwalk
Norwalk
Norwalk
Stamford
Stamford
Stamford
West Hartford
West Hartford
West Hartford
Westport
Barnard Junior High School
Burr Junior High School
Northeast Junior High School
Northwest Junior High School
Jefferson Junior High School
Lincoln Junior High School
Central Junior High School
Nathan Hale Junior High School
Washington Junior High School
(The Roosevelt Junior High School
will have a system of shops when
completed.
The shop program in
the junior high schools of New
Britain cannot he allocated to
various schools hut is general for
all of the junior high schools).
New Canaan Junior High School
Bassett Junior High School
Pair Haven Junior High School
Susan Sheridan Junior High School
Troup Junior High School
Center Junior High School
Franklin Junior High School
Roger Ludlow Junior High School
Burdick Junior High School
Cloonan Junior High School
Rogers Junior High School
Plant Junior High School
Sedgwick Junior High School
Talcott Junior High School
Bedford Junior High School
Endowed and Incorporated Academies
New London
North Stonington
Norwich
Suffield
Winchester
Chapman Technical High School
Wheeler School
Norwich Free Academy
Suffield School
Gilbert School
FOUR YEAR HIGH SCHOOLS
Ansonia:
Pine Manual Training School
Printing, Woodworking, Pattern making, Auto mechanics,
Machine, Mechanical Drawing
Required 9: 15 hours per week - 1 year
1/3 printing, 1 /3 woodworking, 1 / 3 pattern
making
Required 10: 15 hours per week - 1 year
1 / 3 printing, 1 /3 auto mechanics, 1 / 3 machine
Required 11: 15 hours per week - 1 year; Choice
of 1 shop
Required 12: 15 hours per week - 1 year; Choice
of 1 shop
253
P ag e 2 6
Bridgeport;
Warren Harding
Elective 2 year program in General Shop, mostly
woodwork.
Open to pupils whose program permits
Greenwich High School
Arts and Crafts, Woodworking, Mechanical Drawing
Elective 1 year Arts and Crafts to hoys and girls from
any curriculum
Elective 1 year Woodwork
Elective If years Mechanical Drawing
Groton:
Fitch High School
General Shop, Mechanical Drawing
Required 9s 2 periods a week - 1 year General Shop
10: 10 periods a week — 1/2 year General Shop,
1/2 year Mechanical Drawing
Elective 11 and 12 for 5 to 10 periods a week General Shop
and Mechanical Drawing
Hamden High School
Woodworking, Metal, Electricity
Required 2 periods a week - l/2 year ■"'oodwork, 1/2 year Metal
Elective (10-11-12) 5 to 10 periods a week - Metal and
Woodworking
5 to 10 periods a week - Mechanical
Drawing
5 to 10 periods a week - Electricity
Hartford Public High
Woodworking, Metal, Machine, Mechanical Drawing
Elective 9-10-11-12:
7/oodworking, Metal Machine, Mechanical
Drawing
Four years of Mechanical Drawing may be selected
Hartford
Weaver High
Woodworking and Mechanical Drawing
2 year course in '7oodwork
If year course in Mechanical Drawing
Naugatuck High School
Woodwork and Mechanical Drawing
Required 9 and 10: 3 periods a week - Woodwork,
Commercial curriculum
General curriculum
Elective 11 and 12:
3 periods a w eek - Woodwork
Mechanical Drawing: Elective 2 years (9 and 10 elect 1 y r . )
(1 1 and 12 elect 1 y r . )
Waterbury Leavenworth High School
Elective:
Woodwork, Sheet Metal, Machine and Foundry,
Printing, Pattern making
Required 9? 10 per, week, 8 weeks, Electric, Woodwork,
sheet metal, machine and foundry
Required 10: 10 per. week, 1 / 3 carpentry, 1 / 3 printing,
1 / 3 pattern making
Required 11: 10 per. week, must elect 1 shop
Required 12:
10 per. week, must elect 1 shop
254
Page 27
Waterbury
Leavenworth High School, cont.
All hoys in the school are required to take this program.
Required 9:
2 periods - 1 year
) Mechanical Drav/Required 10-11-12: J4. periods - 3 years ) ing offered as
) separate course
New Haven
Machine, Printing, 'Woodworking, Pattern Making
Required:
9 th grade boys - technical course: 6 per. Wood.
2 Mech. Draw. 2 free hand drawing
10-11-12 boys - technical course.
Choice of
Shops, 2 Mech. Draw. 2 free hand drawing
Elective:
1 to 3 years for girls, !Jood carving and
pottery
1 to I4. years for boys, Wood carving and pottery
Open to all pupils
(10-11-12) 2 per. a week - Printing open to
girls also
900 to 1000 boys elect some Industrial Arts.
300 girls
elect wood carving and pottery.
Rockville
High School
Woodworking, Machine, Mechanical
Elective 9 and 10: 10 periods, 2
11 and 12: 10 periods, 2
any year:
5 periods, 1
Drawing
years Woodworking
years Machine
year Mechanical Drawing,
1 / 2 unit
This program is primarily for boys in Industrial Arts
curriculum
General Course boys may elect if program permits
College Course program doesn’t permit any shop work.
Wethersflttld 6 year high school
General metal, General
Required 7:
5 periods
Required 8 :
2 periods
Eleetlvd 9 *
5 periods
Elective 10: 5 periods
Elective 11: 5 periods
Elective 1 2 ; 5 periods
woodworking, Printing
- 1 year General Shop
- 1 year General Shop
- 1 year Wood or metal work
- 1 year Wood or metal work
- 1 year General Shop or Printing
- 1 year General Shop or Printing
Hartford
Bulkele y
Woodworking and Mechanical Drawing.
Elective to boys in
General Course: Woodworking, Mechanical Drawing,
for four years.
Bridgeport
Bassick
Electrical, Woodworking, Metal, Mechanical Drawing
Elective 10-11-12:
5 periods a week - 1 unit each in
Electrical, Woodworking, Metal
Elective 10-11-12:
5 periods a week - Mechanical Drawing
New Canaan
Woodworking, Mechanical Drawing
Elective 10-11-12:
2 periods a week - Woodworking
Elective 10-11-12:
2 periods a week - Mechanical Drawing
College preparatory students earn 1 unit of credit for
college entrance
255
Page 28
Stamford
Arts and Industrial Arts
Elective - 1 year course - Zoning and Landscaping
West Hartford
William Hall
Woodworking, General Shop, Mechanical Drawing
Elective 10:
10 periods a week - 20 weeks each
Elective 10-11-12:
5 periods a week - 3 years Mechanical Drawing
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Bridgeport
Congress Junior High School
General Shop, Machine, Mechanical Drawing
Required 8th grade:
1 period a week - 1 year, Gen.Shop
9th grade: 1 to 7 periods a week - 1 year,
Mechanical Drawing
9 th grade: 5 periods a week - 1 year,
Machine Shop
Bridgeport
Maplewood Junior High School
2 General Shops
Required 7th grade 2 periods
a week - 1 yr. Gen.
8th grade 2 periods
a week - 1 yr. Gen,
9th grade 2 periods
a week - 1 yr. Gen.
Elective 9 th grade 5 periods
a week - 1 yr. Gen.
Mechanical Drawing as integrated part of program
In the 7 th grade hoys and girls exchange programs
period of 12 to 13 weeks - hoys take homemaking,
Industrial Arts
Hartford
Shop
Shop
Shop
Shop
for a
girls
Barnard, Burr, Northeast, Northwest
Woodworking, Home Mechanics, Printing, Mechanical Drawing,
Science laboratory and General Languages, Art Drawing
Required 7-1, 7-2., 8-1: 5 periods a week - 10 weeks in
each shop
Required 8-2:
5 periods a week, 1/2 year choice of 1 shop
Required 9! 5 periods a week, 1 year choice of 1 shop
Girls explore home mechanics and printing if not overcrowded
Meriden
Jefferson Junior High School
Printing and General Shop
Required 7 th grade:
3 periods, l/2 year General Shop,
1/2 year Printing
Required 8 th grade: 3 periods, as above
Elective 9 th grade: 3 periods, 1 year choice of either shop
Meriden
Lincoln Junior High School
General Shop
Required 7th grade:
2 periods
1 year General Shop
1 year General Shop
Required 8 th grade:
I4. periods
1 year General Shop
Elective 9 th grade:
3 periods
Can truly be called a General Shop since equipment provided
for every program except Arts and Crafts
256
P ag e 29
New Haven
Bassett Junior High School
Woodworking, Metal, Printing, Mechanical Drawing
Required 7th grade:
2 periods 10 weeks in each shop
Required oth grade:
3 periods 1 year choice of wood• work, Metal, Printing
(College Preparatory - 2 periods)
(Scientific
ij. periods) Choice of 8 th shop
(General
2 periods) continued in 9 th
9th (Manual Arts)
5 periods)
9 th Scientific and Manual Arts boys required to take
'
2 periods a week of Mechanical Drawing
New Haven
Fair Haven Junior High School
Woodwork, Printing, Metal Shop, General Shop, some
Mechanical Drawing, Arts and Crafts
Required 7 ” 1 period a week - 13 weeks in each shop
Elective 8 - 3
periods a week - 1/2 year choice of 2 shops
Elective 9 ~ 2
periods a week - 1 year choice of 1 shop
Special for non-book minded:
5 periods a week in shop,
3 periods a week in mechanical drawing
New Haven
Troup junior High School
V/oodworking, Metal, Mechanical Drawing, Printing,
General Shop
R e q u ir e d
R e q u ir e d
7
8
- 3
- 2
p e r io d s a
p e r io d s a
w eek f o r 8 w e e k s in e a c h
w e e k f o r 1 y e a r - c h o ic e
sh o p
o f
one shop
year - choice of
one shop
Special program for 20 boys - 6 periods a week of shop
work
Required 9
Norwalk
Stamford
“
2 periods a week for 1
Center Junior High School
Woodworking and Printing
Required 7 anc* 8: 2 periods a week, 1/2 year printing,
1/2 year Woodworking
Elective 9 ^
5 periods a week, l/ip year printing,
3/J4. year woodworking
Burdick Junior High School
Home Mechanics, Woodworking, Mechanical Drawing, Printing
Required 7: 5 periods a week - 1 year Home Mechanics
Elective 8 : 5 periods a week - 10 weeks Home Mechanics,
Mechanical Drawing,Woodworking, Printing,
West Hartford
Plant Junior High School
V/oodworking, Mechanical Drawing, General Shop,Printing
Required 7 :
5 periods - 1 year, 3/ b Woodworking,
I/I4. Mechanical Drawing
Required 8 : k periods - 1 year, 1/2 General Shop,
i/I), printing
l/i-i- Mechanical Drawing
Elective 9 :
year,
periods
1
Printing
5
Elective 9 :
5 periods - 1 year, l/ij. Mechanical Drawing,
3/ 4. Woodworking
257
P age 30
West Hartford
Sedgwick Junior High School
W o o d w o r k in g , M e c h a n ic a l D r a w in g , P r in t in g
R e q u i r e d J:
I 4. p e r i o d s - 3/ I 4. W o o d w o r k i n g , 1 / J 4. M e c h a n i c a l
Drawing
W est
R e q u ir e d
8:
ij. p e r i o d s
f o r
E le c t iv e
9*
5
-
p e r io d s
1
1 /2
y e a r :
W o o d w o
D r a w in g , P r in t i
y e a r , c h o ic e o f 1
c o m b in a tio n o f
r k in g ,
n g
sh o p o r
sh o p s
H a r tfo r d
T a lc o t t J u n io r H ig h S c h o o l
S h e e t M e ta l, 7 /o o d w o r k in g , M e c h a n ic a l D r a w in
R e q u ir e d 7*
3 p e r io d s
1 y e a r , 1/3 s h e e t m e t a l ,
1/3 w o o d w o r k i n g ,
1/3 m e c h a n i c a l d
R e q u i r e d 8:
3p e r io d s
1 y e a r , 1/3 s h e e t m e t a l ,
l /3 w o o d w o r k i n g ,
1/3 m e c h a n i c a l d
E le c t iv e 9*
3 p e r io d s
1 y e a r , 2/3 w o o d w o r k i n g
1/3 m e c h a n i c a l d
g
r a v /in g
r a w in g
r a v /in g
258
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c t io n
XIV
Bulletin VI
REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE OK GUIDANCE
259
NEW
B R IT A IN
SCHOOL
SUR V EY
REPO RT
O P
REPO RT
THE
O r ig in a l
N
W
R
M
V
E
H
P
B U L L E T IN
C O M M IT T E E
M em b ers
o f
ON
N O .
6
A p r il
G U ID A N C E
C o m m itte e
e w e ll S , A m es
illia m C . F r e n c h
u th C . K im b a ll
i l l i e G . M c A u le y
in c e n t S a la
d w ard E . W eek s
a r ry W e s s e ls
r a n k A . J a m e s , C h a ir m a n
T he c o m m itte e w is h e s t o th a n k th e f o llo w in g m en
a n d w om en f o r t h e ir s u g g e s t io n s a n d h e lp , a n d to
a c k n o w le d g e c o n tr ib u t io n s fr o m o th e r m em b ers o f th e
t e a c h in g s t a f f .
E
A
R
F
liz a b e t h
r th u r E .
o b e r t S .
r e d e r ic k
L .
M a
Q u
M.
H
ha
im
S
u n g e r fo r d
n
b y
e n f
1938
260
GUIDANCE
If one were going to take an extended trip, he would spend
many hours and days reading and inquiring in order to acquaint himself
with all the possibilities, values-, and advantages in such a trip,
and he would set up a more or less definite plan and schedule to
enable him to realize to the fullest his anticipations, and his hopes.
If possible, he would talk with someone who had already taken a
similar trip, or he would inquire of the proper agencies as to the
cost and the time it would take to travel from his starting point to
the desired destination, and what he could expect to see and do as' he
continued on his journey. Even though he might have a well conceived
and planned itinerary, developments or obstacles might arise along
the way whereby it would be desirable and wise to change his plans.
He might have been mistaken in his interests as revealed by realities
or he might"have over-estimated or under-estimated his ability and
capacity to benefit from this trip as planned and so need to make
changes and adjustments if he is to continue pleasantly and profita­
bly on his way. How similar all this is to a youth's school trip
from the seventh grade through the tv/elfth grade on the secondary
school level and even beyond into the college and university levels.
Certainly, if it is important and worth while for one to study and
analyze and prepare for a two or three month's trip to Europe, how
much more important it is that one chooses wisely and makes changes
and adjustments if they are needed as he sets out upon and continues
his high school course of six years.
As a pupil progresses in his school course, he is contin­
ually called upon to adjust himself to new situations, and to new
people. He discovers that he cannot do and accomplish what he
thought he could, that people are not what he anticipated, or that
conditions encountered present unexpected challenges. Some students
make adjustments more readily and wisely than others, but all students
can and will make better and more satisfactory adjustments and choices
if guided and advised by guidance-minded principals a n d teachers.
Friendly, intelligent, and timely advice and guidance can do much to
dissipate the old fallacy that experience is the only teacher.
Reasonable regard and consideration should be given individual dif­
ferences but there are common goals and objectives and patterns of
living which time and experience have proved valid and which never
change.
A Guidance program, if it is to be a success, must have the
whole hearted support and cooperation of the superintendent of schools,
principals, counselors and teachers. Everyone connected in any way
with the instructional program must catch the vision of his oppor­
tunity and accept his obligation and responsibility for the welfare
of the boy or girl. Guidance should be inherent in every activity
and classroom group. Guidance is the duty of the entire teaching
staff. The successful operation of a guidance program depends upon
an administrative plan and schedule wherein every teacher will have
time and opportunity to make whatever contribution possible and to
show his interest by assuming a reasonable share of the responsibility
for guidance. Has there not been a lack of emphasis on mental
hygiene, and on the development of personality, character and healthy
attitudes and ideals? Mastery of facts, figures and formulas is not
261
Page 2
the end hut rather the means of education. Unless we place reasonable
emphasis upon the development and growth of the many desirable
personal characteristics, we are not educating the whole child.
Guidance should be an ever present element in all teaching
to be Used whenever and wherever it seems advisable. Educational,
social, and moral guidanoe is necessary in order that pupils may
enjoy educational opportunities and derive benefits from school
experiences compatible with their interests and capacity to learn.
Vocational guidance is necessary in order that there may be a minimum
of maladjustment in one’s vocational life.
Courses of study or fields of activity should be organized
which will accommodate all levels of learning and will challenge and
draw out the best in every pupil.
In the past, teacher guidance of
pupils has in many cases concentrated upon difficulties in mastery of
subject matter. This limited viewpoint is understandable as the
many social, environmental, and personality problems of normal
children do not come to the attention of teachers as readily as do
deficiencies in subject matter. However, the committee feels that
the discovery of these social, environmental, and personality problems
and the application of intelligent and scientific adjustment measures
will reduce subject matter failures and will greatly stimulate normal,
healthy, mental, moral, social, and physical growth.
The scope of Guidance is unlimited. The key to the solution
of many of our present day problems in school and out of school lies
in Guidance. The degree of success we may expect to achieve as
schoolmen and schoolwomen will be determined largely by the interest,
cooperation and v/isdom we manifest.
WHAT IS GUIDANCE?
If Guidance meads anything at all, it means to help boys
and girls find themselves, their interests, aptitudes, and abilities;
to help them find their direction in all of life’s aitivities'education, vocation, citizenship, home relationships, leisure, and
to develop wholesome attitudes in relation to all of these. The
Guidance help should not determine the direction or lives of people.
It should help to direct their lives into paths of wholesome living
and wholesome serving.
The Guidance aspect of education is becoming more and more
significant as the secondary school enlarges its service to include
students with all levels of ability, all catagories of interest, and
all types of goals.
No Guidance organization expects to raise each pupil to a
professional status.
Its chief aim is rather to help the pupil to
help himself, to put before him the background of information which
he must have in order to guide himself.
Self-guidance which has been
properly directed is the most effective kind of Guidance. A child who
has access to good Guidance material, and who has the sympathetic
262
in t e r e s t
s e l f th o s
th e f i e l d
w ill e n s u
w id e r c h a
o f a G u id
e q u a lit i
in w h io h
r e a b o y
n c e o f a c
A d
o r g a n iz a tio n
to s e e w h en w
d u r in g th e l a
s o h o o ls h a v e
a b le e d u c a tio
i t is n e c e s s a
g o in g to b e g
a r e g o in g t o
a b i l i t i e s , a n
a n c e t
e s a n d
h is a
o r g ir
h ie v e m
e a c h
a p t
b i l i
l b e
e n t
e r
it u
t i e
t t e
a n d
h a s a g o o
d e s w h io h
s l i e .
I
r a d ju s tm
h a p p in e s
T o
d e v e lo p
a .
b .
2 .
T o
d e v e lo p
4 .
T o
.
.
.
.
.
.
g
li f
d e
e x
d e s ir a b le
o o l i s in
e a k n e s s e s
io n s a n d
v in g t h e s
g u id e
a
b
c
d
e
f
d e s ir a b le
A c q u a in tin g
T h e s c h
th e w
a m b it
im p r o
T o
c h a n c e t
w i l l m ake
f r ig h t ly
e n t fo r th
s f o r th e
OP
P
E
S
M
V
H
u
e
v
p
p u p ils
th e
o
d e v
f o r
u n d e r
e p r e
f u t u r
n t i
s o n
y s
g r
p a
n d
la n
o f
t h
e
s
t
s
e
lo p in h im ­
u c c e s s in
a k e n , G u id a n c e
e n t a n d a
.
a l f a c t o
f o r t h i
c h o o l e n
o w th a n d
c e w ith
c h a n g in g
i f a t t e
p u p ils ,
e ir n e e d
r in
s i s
r o llm
th e
a l l d
m e th
n t io n
a n d i
s , in
th e
e a s y
e n t
e s ir ­
o d s
is
f th e y
t e r e s t s
G U ID A N C E
id e a ls
a n d
h a b it s
I n d iv id u a l a n d g ro u p k n o w le d g e ,
P r a c t ic a l o p p o r tu n itie s in h om e
g o v e r n m e n t
a .
3 .
d
e f i n i t e G u id a n c e p r o g r a m i s a n e s s e
o f th e p r e s e n t d a y s c h o o l.
T h e r e a
e c o n s id e r th e in c r e a s e in s e c o n d a r
s t fe w y e a r s w ith su c h a p h en o m en a l
n e c e s s a r ily h a d a h a r d tim e to k e e p
n a l a d v a n c e s .
W ith la r g e s c h o o ls a
r y t o h a v e som e d e f i n i t e G u id a n c e p
iv e n to th e in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s
b e a llo w e d to p r o g r e s s a c c o r d in g to
d f u tu r e p r o s p e c ts .
O B JE C T IV E S
1 .
Page 3
p u p il- t e a c h e r
t e a c h e r
w ith
o f
c it iz e n s h ip
id e a ls a n d a t t it u d e s
room s f o r s tu d e n t
r e la t io n s h ip s
p u p ils
t e r e s t e d in r e m e d ia l w o rk , in lo c a t in g
, a n d d e f ic i n e c ie s in p u p ils , h is h a b it s ,
id e a ls a n d in d e v e lo p in g p ro g ra m s fo r
e .
a s
in
e r s o n a l G u id a n c e
d u c a tio n a l G u id a n c e
o c ia l G u id a n c e
o r a l G u id a n c e
o c a t io n a l G u id a n c e
e a lth G u id a n c e
id e a n d
- c e n t e r
e lo p in
e c ta t io n
h e lp b o y s a n d g i
e d e x p e r ie n c e s a
th em r a t io n a l l o
s t h a t a r e o b t a i
G U ID A N C E
IN
THE
r
n
y
n
ls
d a
a l t
a b l
JU N IO R
c h o o se w is e ly su c h
c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l
i e s a n d r e a s o n a b le
e .
H IG H
SCH O O L
O ur j u n io r h ig h s c h o o ls a r e a tte m p tin g th e t a s k o f a c q u a in t ­
in g th e p u p il w ith a n e v e r -b r o a d e n in g e n v ir o n m e n t, th u s e n r ic h in g a n d
s o c ia liz i n g h is l i f e .
T h ey a r e p r o v id in g o p p o r tu n itie s f o r th a t ty p e
1
ft
263
Page 4
of leadership which in a democracy makes for profitable leisure hours
as well as adjusting the pupils* capacities to an ever widening
environment and broadened social and vocational outlook.
The curriculum, for the most part, has been organized with
a view to the needs of the average or normal pupils who must leave
school at the end of the ninth grade and to the needs of those who
plan to complete the work of the secondary school.
It is not the
plan to develop skills or precision in thought or action, but rather
to provide a course of study affording information about many things.
Choice of subjects in the seventh and eighth grades is not permitted;
opportunity for this is given in the ninth grade after consultation
with the parents. The curricula also make provision for direction of
pupils social activities. Gymnasiums are provided and are fairly
well equipped. About the gymnasiums and auditoriums center much of
the social and recreational activities of the schools. In the activ­
ities offered social and racial distinctions are to a considerable
extend eliminated and each pupil commands the respect of his fellows
in proportion to his merit.
The operations of democracy are much in evidence in the
literary, social, and recreational activities of the junior high
schools in our city. All of the junior high school principals are
proudly conscious of the distinctiveness of their problem, institution,
teachers, pupils, building, questions of discipline, school activities,
auditoriums, advisory system, social center, and so on. Of course,
the system of approach and administration "varies in each of the four
schools.
(
A home room period once each week Is provided for and
considerable individual Guidance is done at that time. Of course,
much valuable pupil Guidance is done by all of the classroom teachers.
It is doubtful, however, if there is as much Guidance done there as
might be the case if there existed a more sympathetic understanding
between pupil and teacher. Without doubt a well planned Guidance
program would greatly aid in solving this problem.
In brief, we may say that our junior high schools are
realizing
1.
a democratic school training through retention of pupils, the
economy of time, the recognition of individual differences,
exploration, and the recognition of moral, physical, civic,
avocational and vocational needs
2.
3.
4.
5.
recognizing the nature of the adolescent child
providing better conditions for better teaching
securing better scholarship
improving the disciplinary situation and providing social­
izing opportunities
The above is being achieved through courses of study taught
with the educational philosophy of the junior high school In the mind
of the teacher, the physical education program, the assembly, student
participation in problems of school government (student Council, civic
league) clubs, the home room period, student publication, shops, house­
hold arts, auditorium programs and social activities, civic forums
i
*
264
Page 5
and the like. Possibly there are other activities not listed. No
attempt has been made to evaluate the degree of accomplishment.
Undoubtedly it varies greatly in each of the junior high schools.
It
may be said that at least an attempt is being made to achieve the
above desirable aims and objectives. Much is being done but much of
real worth could be accomplished in addition by the establishment of
a well administered Guidance program.
GUIDANCE IN THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
In educational Guidance, the classroom teacher advises the
student in choosing the course which logically follows the course in
process.
In some departments these preliminary forecasts are reviewed
by the head of the department and are then sent to the vice-principal
and principal’s assistant who make the final programs.
The subject teacher in many cases indicates the students
who, in his opinion, belong in the slow moving group.
The section or 'home room" teacher takes care of students
who desire optional courses in subjects in which they are not already
enrolled.
The vice-principal for grades X-l and X-2, the principal’s
assistant for grades X I -1, XI-2, XII-1 and XII-2, study the programs
in connection with the curriculum chosen, such as Commercial, Teacher
Preparation, Nurses’ Training, General or College, and by a survey
of the subjects previously taken, decide whether or not a conference
is needed in advising the student in his program for the following
semester.
Many conferences follow and students who are going to higher
institutions are advised as to the courses to meet the requirements
of the institutions for which they are preparing.
In addition to these conferences, students who are uncertain
about the program are also interviewed, and after study of their
previous courses and the general ability of the student, are directed
to courses which will meet their needs in-so-far aa the present
curriculum permits.
The section or "home room" teacher is the medium by which
the student is conversant with the customs of the school and such
directions as may be issued from time to time by the administration.
By the system of accounting in use in the school, the section
and subject teachers are expected to make accurate returns of irregu­
larity of attendance.
For years it has been the policy of the administration to
expect every teacher, without special instructions or regulations, to
use his influence in promoting the observance of the customs of the
school and of what he knows to be the policy of the administration.
265
Page 6
He is not expected to report to the administration every
infraction of the customs or every failure to follow instructions or
regulations.
In the administration of the school, iiifluenee with per­
suasion instead of rigid discipline is used.
Health Guidance is one of the chief concerns of the depart­
ment of health and physical education. Regular semi-weekly visitations
of the school nurse and the visitation of the school physioians, as
occasion may require, supplement the work of the department.
Through the supervision of the "Girls League" and its
activities by the principal’s assistant and other members of the
faculty, the young women of the school, particularly the active
members (about four or five hundred) are guided in the development of
wholesome social attitudes.
Guidance in fields covered by clubs is the responsibility
of the faculty supervisors. At present this field includes the
following:
the Camera, Dramatic, Mineralogy, Musical, Public Speaking,
Radio, and Stamp Clubs.
Throughout the year the rearrangement by the administration
of individual programs involves a continuous guidance.
Through the year problem cases are also handled by members
of the administration. These cases often involve long conferences
with students and with parents, and sometimes necessitate visitation
at the homes and the help of
neighboring clincs.
The Senior High School has no organized Placement Bureau or
Follow-Up Department. A considerable amount of time and attention
is given to occupational placement by individual teachers, heads of
departments and administrative officers. Through the Commercial
Department, a considerable number of Commercial students are placed,
each year, in various business and factory offices.
WHO SHALL PARTICIPATE IN THE GUIDANCE PROGRAM?
The purposes of Guidance are gonorally agreed upon and are
stated elsewhere in this report. There are some honest differences
of opinion as to the methods and procedures in the organization and
administration of a Guidance program. The following diagram is an
attempt to identify the personnel in the plan recommended for the
schools of New Britain. Flexibility in the allocation of duties and
responsibilities among nmembers of any particular school staff is
recognized as necessary and desirable.
The committee does not submit the following diagram as a fina'..
and unalterable arrangement but merely as an aid to assist in setting
up an effective and adequate Guidance plan.
It will undoubtedly be
subject to modification from time to time. However, it will serve as
a suggestion for future action.
266
Page 7
FUNCTIONS OF GUIDANCE
1,. Exploration of abilities of the pupils
a.
b.
2.
Adjustment of school tasks to needs and abilities of pupils.
a.
b.
c.
3.
b.
c.
d.
Cultivation of social, civic habits, attitudes and
skills
Adequate physical development and correct health habits
Stimulation of aesthetic and recreational interests
and pursuits
Utilization of all available agencies for character
building
Vocational Guidance - Giving of counsel and advice relative
to the selection of training for and entering upon a life
career.
a.
b.
c.
d.
5.
Curriculum making
Ability grouping
Knowledge of a wide range of educational opportunities
Cultural Guidance - Direction of school activities and
courses to promote growth and development.
a.
4.
Knowledge of and ability to employ and interest
the results of educational and vocational tests.
Knowledge of and ability to employ methods of
supplementary objective tests and seals by
means of interviews
Collect and import vocational information
Help in selection of vocational objectives and in
securing necessary training through a proper
sequence of subject, curricula and school
Assistance rendered in securing of suitable employment
when training is completed
Adequate follow-up of individuals trained and placed,
with a view in rendering assistance in making
necessary adjustments or securing other employment
Organization of agencies necessary to carry out an adequate
Guidance program involving:
a.
b.
Securing interest and cooperation of classroom teachers
and home room teachers in the principles
and
technique of Guidance
Providing for the appointment and training of full time
and part time counselors which will be shown on the
organization set-up
?
267
Page 8
GUIDANCE IN THE NOME ROOM
Guidance is a cooperative enQ^avor the success of which
depends upon a sympathetic understanding and a reasonable acceptance
of duties and responsibilities, by all administrative officers and
teachers, Guidance should be given whenever and wherever it seems
advisable and not confined to specific meetings, situations and
occasions. The possibilities and opportunities for Guidance are
numerous and varied.
It is impossible to list all the duties of
counselors or those designated to do Guidance work. The ’•'’ultimate
responsibility for the division of work and the general functioning
of this Guidance program rests with the chief Guidance counselor with
the consent and approval of the principal.
There are certain kinds and types of Guidance that are
applicable to all students at any time and there are rather definite
and specific items of information and advice which would be of special
value if given at the appropriate time.
In-so-far as possible students
should be guided all along their school course whenever there is need
or whenever an opportunity presents itself to further the normal,
healthy growth of students in their various activities.
To a very large extent the home room should be the center of
Guidance work. Each section room teacher shall be responsible for the
administration of proper Guidance to the students in his or her section
room. At least one period a week should be devoted to Guidance work
in each section room. The case conference method may be used and part
of the time given over to personal interviews. Every teacher is at
liberty at all times to refer any student to the chief Guidance
Counselor.
ITEMS FOR CONSIDERATION IN THE HOME ROOM
1.
2
.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10 .
11 .
12 .
13.
14.
1 5 ..
All Senior High School students (especially X-l students) should
become familiar with Chapters II, IV, XIII, XV, XVIII, XXI,
XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXXI, XXXVI, XXIX, X L I , XLIV of the Customs,
Instructions and Infoimation.
Special attention to students entering late or returning after
absence to help them "catch up".
Improvement of attendance, tardiness, general scholarship, etc.
Practice good citizenship.
Meaning and development of ideals.
Participation in extra-curricula activities.
Support of and contribution to school publications.
Keeping of cumulative records.
Credit requirements for promotion, graduation, etc.
Orientation of new students.
Receiving and making available to other teachers outside informa­
tion about students.
Electing officers for home room organization.
Furnish material for classroom use along Guidance lines.
Keeping his or her I.Q. in mind when interviewing or advising
a student.
Cultivating such a friendly relationship with students that they
will feel free to ask advice at any time.
\
268
Page 9
16,
17,
18,
19,
20,
21;
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Emphasize the need and value of cooperative work.
"Electives", their purpose, value and use.
Personal interviews with maladjusted students and those who are
not making passing grades (especially X-l students),
Causes and remedies for probable "drop-outs".
Confer with each student about his program next to follow and
help him make his first choice his final choice.
Regularity and promptness in keeping appointments.
Determination to finish on time every job undertaken.
Special attention to the physically weak or handicapped.
An understanding of current industrial and economic trends will
be helpful to the teacher in her Guidance work.
The requirements, possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of
various occupations.
Formation of desirable friendships.
Knowledge of and practice and cultivation of proper social and
ethical habits or usages.
Leadership and followship.
Study habits and techniques.
Give attention to remedial work in learning.
GUIDANCE OUTSIDE THE HOME ROOM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Requirements for and approximate cost of attendance at colleges,
business schools, hospital training schools, etc.
Information about the home life of the pupil.
Consulting with parents and guardians.
Club activities
Use of library
Purposes and aims of various courses.
Leisure time activities, their advantages and potentialities.
Self analysis by student as to his interests, aptitudes,
limitations, etc.
Intelligence, prognostic, diagnostic aptitude and achievement
tests.
Talks on Guidance and occupations by teachers, students and
"outsiders" such as business and professional men or
industrialists.
Enrichment of program for students of exceptional ability.
Case studies
Give attention to remedial work in learning.
THE APPRAISAL OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A GUIDANCE PROGRAM *
A,
From
1.
2.
3,
4,
the teacher*s standpoint
Do my students feel free to
be themselves?
Do they express their ideas
without hesitation?
Is their attitude toward me
as teacher frank and friendly?
Do they feel that I am interested in their growth and
happiness provided that it does not interfere with the
development of others?
268a
Page 10
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
B,
Is there a happy lack of sarcasm in the classroom?
Is genuine approval for good work generously given?
Are my students learning to accept defeat and criticism
In an unemotional and forward looking way?
Has each student found some work that gives him a feeling
of growth and accomplishment?
Do I realize that much annoying behavior arises from
conflicts within the child and is not an expression of
defiance but rather his way out of a difficulty?
Do I see to It that recognition is taken of a provision
made for the wide range of Individual differences in my
class?
From the pupil*s standpoint
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
Have I learned to control myself better?
(This may include
my temper, conduct, tongue, appotite, emotions, etc.)
Have I developed greater confidence (or belief) In myself?
Do I have more tolerance toward other people?
Have I learned to work and to cooperate with other people?
Have I become more dependable and trustworthy?
(This may
include keeping appointments, doing what has been
promised, accepting responsibility, etc.)
Have I learned tobe more polite and courteous?
Have I learned to work harder and therefore show more
Industry?
Have I developed leadership qualities?
(In class, club,
home room, sports, etc.)
Have I developed intelligent followship ability?
«• Strang, Ruth,
The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work,
Teachers College, 1935,
SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR FACULTY STUDY AND DISCUSSION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
What is Guidance?
Home Work for Pupils
Choice of Courses
The Pupil's Report Card and Marks
Unsatisfactory Report to Parents
The Right School Spirit
The Study Period
The Library Period
Cooperation of Subject Teacher, Homeroom Teacher and Counselor
Program Adjustments
Choices of Elective Subjects
Investigation of Causes for Failure
Psychological Test Results
Achievement Test Results
The Pupil*s Record Card
Personal and Social Adjustment
Health Problems
Attendance
269
P age 1 1
19,
20,
21,
22,
231
241
25|
26i
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
Desirable Personal and Social Traits
Problems of Discipline
The Time Schedule
The Curriculum
The Auditorium Program
Remedial Instruction of Pupils Who May be Deficient
The Home Room Teacher
How to Use the Library
Individual Aptitudes, Interests, and Abilities
The Student Council
Remedial Work in Reading
Tentative Election of Courses
The Home Room Guidance Program
Complete Objective Records
Effective Counselling
Adjustment of Pupils With Low Ability
Adjustment of Pupils With Superior Ability
Educational Opportunities for Physically Handicapped Pupils
Promotion Policy
Revision of Textbooks
Teacher Load
Teacher’s Plans
Choice of a School Club
The Cumulative Record and its Place in Guidance
The Place of Guidance in Education
The Present Conception of Guidance
The Testing Program in Relation to Guidance
The Technique of Interviewing
Avocational and Recreational Guidance
Guidance Through Class Room Instruction
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
English
Social Studies
Music
Physical Education
Art
Science
Mathematics
Literature
REFERENCE LIBRARY FOR PROFESSIONAL READING AND STUDY GROUPS
In order that teachers may become better informed and keep
in touch with the best procedures and techniques along Guidance lines
a number of the latest books in the Guidance field have been added to
the teachers’ library at the Walnut Hill School,
It is hoped that
teachers will make a large use of these as well as other books for
professional reading and study groups in order that all teachers may
more effectively participate in and contribute to the Guidance work in
the New Britain Schools.
Allen, Frederick J.
Principles and Problems in Vocational Guidance
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1937
270
P age 1 2
Allen, Richard D.
Organization and Supervision of Guidance in
Public Education
Inor Publishing Company 1934
Brewer, John M.
Case Studies in Educational and Vocational
Guidance
Ginn and Company 1926
Jones, A. J.
Principles of Guidance
McGraw-Hill Book Company 1934
Koos, L.V. and Kefauver
Guidance in Secondary Schools
Macmillan Company 1932
Allen, Richard D.
Case Conference Problems in Group Guidance
Inor Publishing Company 1933
Allen, R.D. and Others
Common Problems in Group Guidance
Inor Publishing Company 1933
Allen, Richard D.
Self-Measurement Projects in Group Guidance
Inor Publishing Company 1934
Bingham, W.V. and
Moore, B.V.
How to Interview
Harper Brothers 1931
Bell, Hugh M.
The Theory and Practice of Student Counseling
Stanform University Press 1935
Brewer, John M.
Education as Guidance
Macmillan Company 1932
Brewer, J.M. and
Glidden, Charles
H,
Newspaper Stories for Group Guidance
Inor Publishing Company 1935
Jones, Vernon A.
Character and Citizenship Training in the
Public School
University of Chicago Press 1936
McKown, Harry C,
Home Room Guidance
McGraw-Hill Book Company 1934
Strang, Ruth
The Role of the Teacher in Personnel Work
Teachers College 1935
REASONABLE OUTCOMES PROM A GUIDANCE PROGRAM
What then may we reasonably expect from the establishment
of a well administered Guidance program in our schools?
1.
Increased information and improvement in healthful living
and an appreciation of the ideal of a sound mind in a
sound body, with health habits of a high order gained
through the conscious application of principles of
hygienic living.
271
P age 1 3
2,
There might he an increased command and appreciation of
the importance of the fundamental processes gained
through their application in simple scientific and
socially worth while situations provided hy the subject
matter and social programs of the school.
3*
Information on the pursuits of mankind, with a variety of
experiences gained through doing the cultural and
prevocational tasks in the school. The rather strict
division which now prevails between subjects of
instruction in our schools might be penetrated to the
advantage of all.
In relation to this such a Guidance
program would probably lead to recognition of the need
for adequate courses of instruction for those pupils
who are not now well served and adjusted.
4.
The change of the teachers* attention from the scholastic
achievement alone to the development of the whole per­
sonality of the pupil would occur, at least, in many
instances.
It would tend toward forming habits of
developing to the full one's physical, mental, moral,
and social resources, securing for the student the
maximum development in resourceful living, and insuring
one's richest contribution to society.
5.
Certainly the teachers would tend to become more and more
conscious of the individuality of each pupil. There
would be a tendency for the teacher to conceive of
education as something more than a classroom procedure
to "inform the mind", and being primarily interested in
factual matter, a n d 'unmindful of his emotional, social
or physical make-up. By training and from the influence
of the Guidance program the teacher would be better
equipped to deal with the many varied problems of
Individual differences.
6.
With an increased realization of the pupils' personality
a greater degree of sympathetic tinders tending seems a
possibility on the part of each teacher.
7.
It would to some extend stimulate
interest in further education.
and encourage the pupil's
8.
Prom information made available the pupils might be better
acquainted with the many ways in which people earn a
living and better prepare themselves to select courses of
study leading toward an intelligent choice of a life work.
Accumulation and study of information might serve to oonfirm and refine an earlier vocational choice, or to in­
spire interest in a new one.
9.
It might serve to better the ordinary classroom methods and
effect a better liasion with the going eoonomic world.
10.
Better emotional development in the direction of maturity
can concievably occur.
p
272
Page 1 4
11 .
12
.
Proper Guidance will help to readily identify a series of
sooial institutions from which teaching materials can he
drawn, into livhich excursions may he made for a hroader
experience of life.
Both the teacher and pupil will come to realize the close
tie-up between educatipn and economic status.
13.
Although we realize that much of the best Guidance is done
incidentally, opportunities for personal conferences will
become more effective and of more scientific value.
14.
"Guidance aims toward social adjustment".
This would help
the individual to develop so that he will habitually
function more effectively, not only as a measurably
efficient and internally consistent unit, but consciously
as part of the varied and often disharmonious fabric of
human society.
15.
A better and more sympathetic understanding between teachers
and parents that would go far toward solving difficulties
that at times arise through misunderstanding on the part
of one or both. As many of our so-called "problem cases"
are the results of unfortunate homo conditions the work
of a visiting teacher would be of inostimable value.
In other words, we would try to have the pupil stay in school
through the secondary level, we would try to adjust the school work to
his needs and capacities, we would have the teacher and the pupil
react to each other as friendly, sympathetic human beings, we would
try to have the pupil explore our culture as widely as possible, we
would try to develop the whole personality of the child, we would try
to furnish enough information about the economic plan of living so that
the student may choose his courses wisely, we would try to have an
agency that would help to discover the causes for maladjustment. By
so guiding the pupil, he may in the days to come, be able to guide
himself, which is the ultimate goal of all Guidance.
RECOMMENDATIONS
I.
The committee recommends the establishment of the position of
Director of Guidance for the New Britain Schools. The duties
of such a director would be to
A.
Organize Guidance Departments in each of the present
elementary, junior high schools and senior high
sehool using the present staffs.
B,
Stimulate, educate and aid in the field of Guidance
School Guidance advisors
Class advisors
Home Room teachers
Classroom teachers
Specials
275
P age 1 5
II.
C.
Organize and develop classes in Guidance
D.
Assist in the setting up an adequate Guidance record
system 'for city schools.
E.
Collect Guidance material, and information and make
available for all teachers and pupils
P.
Set up Vocational Information and Plaoement Service
G.
Set up some type of adequate follow-up system.
We recommend
A.
A Guidance committee to be established in each school.
B.
A general Guidance committee,
as chairman, made up of the
Guidance committee and such
desirable whose duties will
with the Director of Guidance
chairman of each school
other persons as may seem
be
1.
To assist in securing available material in
the Guidance field
2. To assist in establishing a Guidance library
in each school, one for teachers and one
for pupils
3. To act as clearing house for Guidance
Information and suggestions
4. To keep in touch with the Guidance work In
the schools and call attention of teachers
and administrators to possible improvements
and modifications
5. To aid and assist the Director of Guidance at
all times to promote and improve the
Guidance service in the Now Britain Schools.
6 . To submit an accumulative record card that
would be used in all schools, beginning
September 1938.
III.
IV.
Where the results of the Guidance program indicate a need for
curriculum revision, we recommend that a study of the possible
revisions and the introduction of new courses be given considera­
tion,
The committee feels that many details of administering this or
any Guidance program and the methods and procedures and tech­
niques used will vary in each school. While the individuality
of each school will be reflected in its Guidance program as
administered, yet the aims and objectives are approximately the
same in all schools. There must be reasonable flexibility in
order to take full advantage of the personnel, facilities,
agencies, etc., available In each school.
274
SOURCE MATERIAL
Section XV
Bulletin VII
A STUDY OP TEE ASSIGSMEHT PLAB
275
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN No. 7
A STUDY OF THE ASSIGNMENT PLAN
in the
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
b.
Introduction
What is the Assignment Plan?
Advantages and Disadvantages
Recent Educational Comments
Recommendations
The junior high schools
COMMITTEE MEMBERS
Edith A, Adams
Newell S. Ames
Lee Bryant
Joyce E. Goss
Palmer P. Howard
William J. Hurley
Jesse D. Sallee
Harry V/essels, Chairman
April 1938
276
A STUDY OF THE ASSIGNMENT PLAN IN NEW BRITAIN
INTRODUCTION
During the past forty years, public high school enrollment
in the United States has increased thirty times.
There are now
about 2 5 ,0 0 0 high schools with nearly 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 children in
Grades § to 12.
Before 1 8 9 0 , only 7 $ of the boys and girls
between the ages of II4. and 17 years went to school; in 1 9 0 0 ,
1 1 .14$ went to school; In 1910 1 6 .6$; in 1920 37-9/^5
1930
51 $, and in 193 ^ &k% were in attendance.
New Britain has, of course, been in the procession with the
rest of the country.
Certainly these figures show from where many of our problems
of high school administration have come.
Not only have v/e been
swamped with a great increase in the number of boys and girls who
want to go to high school, but the needs, abilities and interests
of these children, taken as a group, have changed.
Briefly,
stated, it is evident that the 7% who went to high school in I 8 9 O
were chiefly those who were interested in higher education, while
of the 7 0 $ who go to high school now, only one out of seven will
go to college, if national statistics hold for our city.
Many of our past problems and certainly many of our present
pressing problems arise from the fact that the six out of every
seven pupils who will not go to college have not been adequately
cared for either in New Britain or anywhere else.
As a matter of fact, the New Britain school authorities have
in years past made some vigorous efforts to solve the difficulty.
The local Trade School was fostered and developed.
We experimented
with a Prevocational School which later became our junior high
school.
A vocational department of the high school, which
included home-making courses for girls was developed.
Without going into historical detail, it is sufficient for
the purposes of this report merely to outline some of the back­
ground.
In 1890 our high school offered two courses of study or
curricula.
Today we offer seven.
The figures for the country
as a whole are as follows:
1890
1900
1910
1922
1928
9 courses
18 courses
23 courses
I4.3 courses
ii-7 courses
of
of
of
of
of
study
study
study
study
study
After the establishment of the junior high schools in New
Britain, the school authorities turned their attention to the
needs of the Senior High School.
Many plans were being evolved
over the country in an attempt to provide adequate instruction for
all types of pupils.
Outstanding among these schemes were the
Morrison Plan, the Dalton Plan, the Winnetka Plan, the Project
\
Ji
277
Page 2
Method, the Contract Plan.
These were all carefully studied and
visits were made to some of the cities where these plans were in
operation.
After considerable discussion and planning, an
adaptation and revision of several features of these plans was
developed for use in New Britain.
It has received various names
such as the laboratory plan, the assignment plan, the contract
plan, and the New Britain plan.
It has been described by Mr. Slade
in his school bulletins and elsewhere.
Samples of these bulletins
are included herewith.
WHAT IS THE ASSIGNMENT PLAN?
The laboratory contract type of assignment plan consists of
a series of specific jobs or units which are determined by committees
of teachers in each subject and are mimeographed so that each pupil
may have his own copy.
As originally planned, the time schedule
called for a five period day in the Senior High School, of which
four periods were about seventy minutes long and the fifth period
a period of make-up work thirty minutos long.
Particular study
was given to the marking system and to the definiteness of the
assignments in each subject.
It was thought that most of the
evils of teacher evaluation of pupil work could be done away with
if an impersonal daily record of pupil achievement by means of a
graph card could be made.
The definite written daily assignment,
five weeks in advance would, it was believed, place the respon­
sibility for daily achievement directly upon the pupil, and so
bring about a desirable attitude toward his school work.
It should be pointed 6 ut that the contract plan was designed
primarily as a new way of acquiring old subject matter.
THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE ASSIGNMENT PLAN
Several years ago a committee was appointed to consider the
.working of the assignment plan in our high schools. .'The report
follows:
"A study of the laboratory plan as used in the two junior
high schools and in the Senior High School in New Britain discloses
the following criticisms:
1.
There appears to be no adherence to a definite course of study.
2 . The assignments bring about a situation in which some teachers
do too little teaching.
The responsibility for organizing the subject matter to be
taught has been taken from the individual teacher, to his
loss, as well as to the loss of the pupils.
Ij.. There is a lack of a varied objective testing program.
5* The five week assignment period distorts the amount of time
which should be allotted for the accomplishment of a natural
unit of work,
6 . Criticisms of the assignments themselves are made on the
followingbasis:
a.
Insufficient or excessive scope
b. Excessive quantity
c. Too small a proportion of thought questions
d. Lack of appropriate tests
3.
278
Page 3
Constructive Steps for the Improvement of Our ’.Vork
1.
A more varied and extensive use of objective
tests is to
be encouraged as a means of isolating the individual
problems
of teaching in the class
Tests in all subjects
should be constructed for U 3e immediately.
2. Make new courses of study and follow them strictly.
3 . A series is skeletonized assignments based on the course
of study and including tests are to be made by the best
talent available and are to be subject to adaptation by
individual teachers to fit the needs of the classes taught,
ij.. The assignments are to be designed so as to include one or
more natural units of work.. ' There may be cases where it
is desirable that a natural unit of work extend over a
period longer than five w e e k s .*1
This year a survey made by some of the members of this com­
mittee in the Senior High School resulted as follows:
Advantages of the Assignment Plan
As stated by the Administration:
1.
2.
•5.
q..
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
An aid to official conferences w i t h pupilsor parents since
it ascertains definitely each pu p i l ’s standing and progress.
A unity in the work of a large school with many teachers.
Facilitates pupil transfers from one class to another
Aids the inexperienced teacher, the substitute teacher, and
the pupil who enters late
Develops initiative on the part of the pupil by requiring
him to accept a larger share of responsibility.
Develops pupil character by insisting on the completion of a
task.
Aids absentees to study at home and be prepared on return to
school
The failing pupil knows he is failing and what part of the
work he has failed.
May be a motive for the industrious pupil to speed his work.
As stated by high school teachers:
1.
Provides in effect an organized course of study, developed by
skilled teachers, rich in reference and teaching helps,
constantly being revised and improved.
2. Provides a good timing of work for the five week period and
particularly useful for the inexperienced teacher.
3 . The planned work is definite and every class in the same
subject covers approximately the same ground while the
teacher may still develop the work in an individual way.
JL|— Saves time in that directions for work need not be dictated
or written.
As stated by pupils:
1.
It is a definite plan of work which enables each pupil to
know his objective and to budget his time.
:,One can always
work better and more easily with an outline to follow. 11
279
Page
2.
•5.
4.
The’ assignment is useful as a worksheet for notes
The slow student may refer to explicit directions.
The assignments are an aid to reviews.
Disadvantages of the Assignment Plan
1.
2.
3.
ij..
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Many pupils seem to get behind in their contracts and pile up
a "work •debit" which appears on the records as a failure.
Many pupils elect courses where their chances of success are
poor, since the work is set in advance.
The planning of assignments in advance must result in some
lack of provision for pupils differing from the normal
middle group'.
The attention of the teacher is focused on "covering the
ground" in subject matter rather than on the progress of
the individual pupil.
The pupil or the class has no chance for developing or
initiating the classroom material.
The tendency to use the same assignments and tests and work­
books, semester after semester, results in some pupil
dishonesty.
The notebook of J o e ’s sister who took the course
last semester may save hours of work.
The plan tends to promote the idea that a piece of school
work having once been done and credit duly accorded, it is
thence forever over with, deprecates the idea that learning
is worth keeping as part of the mental furniture.
Too great an emphasis on specific tasks to the exclusion of
attitudes (scholarly and otherwise ),
There may be too great a discouragement of those pupils who
work slowly.
But changes have been taking place in the last ten years.
The influx of pupils into the high school has not ceased.
It has
increased.
The economic pressures in the world have changed. Boys
and girls cannot get work easily and tend to remain in school
longer.
The desire for more education is not always their most
impelling motive in attending school.
The percentage of those
intending to go to college has decreased.
The critical eye of the
public is focused on the cost of education.
The importance of
college entrance requirements has declined.
The need for providing
adequately for all types of pupils attending high school requires
a re-study of our curricula and our methods of instruction.
There
is a growing trend to emphasize the idea that high school life is
an opportunity to form ideals of citizenship and ideals of character
by actual practice during these school days.
The tendency toward
breaking down the barriers between the subjects of instruction is
being much discussed.
Everywhere there exists a constantly
increasing emphasis on the expansion of the so-called extra-curricula
activities such as the school newspaper, clubs, dramatics, debating
societies, musical activities and so forth
Finally the increasing
knowledge of educational psychology leads to the need for revising
our methods and materials of teaching.
With these facts before us, we again face the need for
improvement and revision
But let us first consider what some
educational authorities have said within the past few years which
appears pertinent to our study
280
RECENT EDUCATIONAL COMMENTS
Page 5
R. 0. Blllett in his section of the National Survey of
Secondary Education made in 1932, says, "All measures to provide
for individual differences, now in use in outstanding secondary
schools, may he classified under seven categories, namely, (1 )
homogeneous grouping, (2) special classes, (3) plans characterized
by the unit assignment, (4) scientific study of problem cases, (5)
variation in pupil load, (6 ) out-of-school projects and studies,
and (7) advisory or guidance programs.
Apparently these arc the
elements from which the program may be fashioned which will trans­
form education In a given community from a monotonous, lock-step,
leveling process of mass instruction into diversified educational
procedures adapted to the Individual pupil."
Brink, in his recent book entitled, "Directing Study Activities
In Secondary Schools", says, "Of all the activities involved in
directing the study of high school pupils, none is more important
than that of developing effective assignments. The assignment is
the heart of the problem of pupil direction.
It affords the
teacher his greatest opportunity for initiating activities which
will promote the growth and development of pupils. The assignment
therefore, should not be considered merely as a device used in
preparation for teaching; essentially it is teaching. The days
of the formal recitation are over; the teacher's function as a
hearer of lessons has lost its importance. His first opportunity
for real teaching comes during the period given over to the assign­
ment. The skill he shows in this activity will in large measure
determine his success in teaching.
Changes in educational theory
have not diminished, but rather have increased the importance of
proficiency in this teaching activity."
When we ask in what sense this author uses the term "Assignment"
his answer is, "Today wc think of the assignment as a period of
cooperation between teachers and pupils in which they discuss the
next step in the learning process.
Pupil purposes are respected;
students are encouraged to express preferences, to suggest lines
of action, and to contribute to the enterprise by volunteering
information concerning sources of material and the like. The
assignment becomes a cooperative enterprise which is to be carried
on by the pupils under the expert direction of the teacher."
The Traditional Educative Process
(William H. Kilpatrick)
"In keeping with tradition, knowledge was put down
authoritatively in textbooks.
The duty of the pupil was to accept
and acquire the knowledge so set out.
The sign and test of learn­
ing was primarily the ability to give back on demand what was
found in the book.
Study meant the process - typically rote
memorization - of acquiring the assignment.
The curriculum was
an orderly arrangement of what was thus to be studied and learned."
The Educative Process as conceived today.
It is no simple matter to compress within a few para­
graphs a clear and definite description of the present day attitude
of forward-looking educators. However, a few quotations from
281
P ag e 6
Wrightstone1s Appraisal of Experimental High School Practices may
help in the attempt to present this point of view.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
V.
8.
9.
10.
The organization of the curriculum for the integration of
pupil personality is paramount.
The human being is characterized by activity, the tendency
to strive, to persist, to grow and to develop.
The true unit of educative experience is a realistic study
of a problem and a cooperative, creative solution.
Each pupil personality is inherently social in origin and
character.
Mastery of principles and practices of intelligent living is
more important than memory of specific facts.
Certain changes seem desirable in the selection, organization,
sequence and range of content of subject matter.
The trend seems to be toward fusion courses.
A decided emphasis is being placed on the social studies with
particular stress on the modern period, our contemporary
institutions and their processes.
The study of the heritage of the past is being used as a
means of gaining insight into present day life activities
and community problems.
It is hoped that the student will be able to obtain more or
less independently from a variety of sources, information
which will help him to arrive at intelligent decisions
regarding problems and actions of citizenship.
The Role of the Teacher:
If the modern concept, that learning is a highly complicated
process involving activity, comparison and judgment, is correct,
the teacher must assume an increasing responsibility.
He is no
longer a dictator, a hearer of lessons or a mere expert in his
subject matter field; he must be a student of students, a guide,
a counselor, leader and director.
His knowledge of the psychology
of learning, of progressive teaching practices and of youth in
general must be fundamental if not broad.
John Dewey in his Inglis Lecture on Secondary Education, 1931,
claimed that there is no relationship between the subjects of the
present curriculum which represents lactual life experiences.
He
proposes that a central question or theme act as a magnet to unify
and integrate the subjects of the curriculum.
Materials for the
study of this central theme or problem would be drawn from any
fields of knowledge available.
Similarly Bode has contended that the confusion in present day
education is largely due to the departmentalization of subjects
and the insertion of this or that subject into the curriculum. Prom
this confusion arises a group of aims and objectives for each
separate subject leaving no chance for the systematic integration
of aims and objectives for educational philosophy as a whole.
G. A. Yoakum in his interesting book on the Improvement of the
Assignment in the Secondary School pertinently says, "In practice,
the Dalton contract, the guide sheet, the unit plan, have been
282
Page V
regarded by some as a panacea for all educational ills. They have
not and they never will be this. Each of the schemes is significant
and helpful.
None of them is perfect and probably none is perma­
nent. The tendency is to regard them as perfect and to become
a violent propagandist with regard to them.
The more defensible
view is to regard them as tentative, to adapt thqm to the needs
of local situations, and from them to evolve a more perfect plan
for the direction of learning both in the classroom and outside."
He further summarizes the principles which apply to the use
of the newer type of assignment.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The use of guide sheets needs careful study. This
technique is in its experimental stages.
No evidence
is available to show what type of guide sheet is best,
how long they should be, the amount of detail desirable
or who shall write them.
The making of guide sheets is expert work.
Principles of guidance must be set up so that the form
of the guide sheet will be clear to all. He sets
up a tentative set of principles
as follows:
a.
Set aside adequate time to write the assignment.
b.
Gather good samples of assignments
c. Work with units instead of isolated day by day lessons
d.
Consider first the objectives
of the unit
e.
Consider the pupil motivation
f . Examine the learning material available
g. Divide the work into its natural divisions
h.
Organize the pedagogical side, questions,
practice exercises, constructive activity,
problems, test, etc.
i. Plan necessary directions, introductions,
reference material, illustrations, etc.
j. Revise for English
k.
Consider finished unit merely a tentative plan.
The technique of making guide sheets needs to be learned.
The appropriateness of the general assignment-studyrecitation technique to be used requires serious
examination and study.
In general he recommends a scheme for directed learning based
on the following principles:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Clear objectives
Motivated learning
Assignment
Directed Study
Testing for mastery
Socialized discussion
Provision of opportunities to apply knowledges and
skills gained.
]
283
Page 8
RECOMMENDATIONS
Your committee for the study of the assignment plan wished
to get the opinions of the teachers as to the need for revising
this plan and so sent them the questionnaire included herewith.
The responses numbering 107 are classified as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I believe the mimeographed assignments should be
continued as they are
I believe the mimeographed assignments should be
continued, but in a modified form
I believe the mimeographed assignments should bo
abolished
I believe the mimeographed assignments.should not be
abolished
I believe a statement of aims and objectives for
use of teachers is desirable
22
55
29
68
60
In the light of those returns it appears evident th at the
majority of teachers desire a modification of the present assign­
ments rather than abolishment.
With these concepts of the learning process and of the
teacher’s function in mind, it becomes apparent that a general
written assignment for all pupils and teachers in any subject may
become an impediment to efficient teaching.
To assume that the
assignment plan is the one and only useful teaching procedure for
our schools is obviously erroneous. Would it not be expedient to
approach the task of directing the study of pupils from the stand­
point of individual progress rather than from the standpoint of
group instruction? If this approach is accepted, it would appear
that a revision in our school procedure mig^t take place along the
following lines:
1.
The mimeographed assignments for pupils in all subjects be
revised by committees of teachers in those departments where
the teachers wish them continued, with the following thoughts
in mind:
a*
b«
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
The
assignment should be brief.
The
assignment should contain study helps.
The
assignment should be modifiable to take care
of
different levels of ability.
The work assigned should be, as far as possible, a
unit which can be tested and marked.
The work assigned should allow for the inclusion of
some classroom suggestions and additions - or deletions.
The work assigned should not become a forgotten issue
farther along in the course.
The
tendency to use the same tests, the samenotebooks,
the same questions, and the same procedure each semester
must be as far as possible avoided, not only to reduce
pupil dishonesty, but to vary the work and add interest.
i
284
P age 9
2.
Organize the teachers of each subject into a committee for:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
3.
frequent consultation and conference between themselves
the organization of a flexible outline of work
the preparation of a sot of aims and purposes in their
subject
the establishment of a semi-annual achievement test in
their subject
the selection of an adequate means of rating pupil
achievement
the consideration and solution of intra-departmental
problems
the preparation and revision of departmental assignments
where desired
Organize, preferably by teacher election, a committee of
teachers whose task it would be to
a.
b.
study the inter-relations between the subjects
suggest means and methods for correlating the work
of the school as a whole,particularly from the view­
point of the individual learner (pupil).
THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
At the present time our junior high schools diverge somewhat
in their use of the assignment plan.
It would appear desirable
to establish some rather definite agreement to which all four
schools tyould conform. At least the continued conference of the
principals should enable them to set up with the superintendent
a general plan, a sot of common ideals, and a philosophy that
would act as a guide for the solution of common problems.
So far as the social studies arc concerned, the use of
mimeographed assignments seems to be unnecessary since the Rugg
work books contain the essential assignments for the whole semester.
Such deviations as are necessary with slow or rapid groups may
be readily made by the teacher. In this connection, it should be
pointod out that a study of the substitution of some simpler
working tools for the slow moving groups in Grades VII and VIII
needs to be made immediately.
We have on hand a course of study for junior high school
English.
It is suggested that it be studied with a view to
adoption or revision by all four junior high schools.
The basic
problem here arises from the vast divergence on English ability
among our pupils. Too great an emphasis on group achievement
may be a detriment to efficient teaching.
Each English teacher
must study the English ncods of his charges. A general assignment
for all is almost sure to become a stumbling block. A procedure
which would analyze the proficiency in English of each child by
moans of a diagnostic test every semester, which would enable each
teacher to provide materials, encouragement and direction for
increased proficiency in English skills and for improved ability
to read, should be planned and adopted.
285
Page 1 0
The courses in mathematics in the junior high sohools are
being studied.
In Grades VII and VIII, emphasis may well be laid
upon remedial work with a considerably enriched program for
pupils of ability.
Many of the newer texts are aimed at definite
types of pupils and care should bo taken to provido adequate
materials for all types.
These short comments about the core curriculum of the
junior high schools are made with special reference to the assign­
ment.
They indicate that today educational emphasis is being
placed on the instruction of the individual pupil. As a consequence
the preparation of one mimeographed assignment for all, simply
does not meet the needs.
It is likely to load to mass teaching,
the establishment of artificial general standards, lowering of
teacher initiative, and a tendency to become set in an educational
rut.
The committee therefore advocates the abolition of general
mimeographed assignments in the junior high schools, the estab­
lishment of outlines of the core material in each course for the
use of the teacher, the setting up of diagnostic tests each
semester in every subject; the working out, cooperatively, of a
philosophy of education by the teachers; and a comprehensive
system of pupil recording which will not only serve tho purposes
of educational guidance, but of all other types of guidance. The
need for supervision and the mutual cooperation of teachers in
making such a program efficient and successful is obvious.
It
would seem therefore wise to plan annually for a general conference
of the teachers of the city, in which the general as well as the
specific educational problems of our system may be discussed.
In general, it is tho viewpoint of the committee that the
assignments for pupil use be looked upon as one method of
presenting material to be learned, not as the one method which
must be used by all teachers for all pupils in the same way.
Wo plead for better assignments which will be expertly fitted
for tho use of each particular group, for greater freedom for
every teacher in making adaptations, and for an increased
responsibility of tho teacher for tho individual progress of each
of his pupils.
8OOR0B HtZEBXAL
S e c tio n XVI
B u lle tin V III
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*ES STOBY OP THE PHJBLEKS OP S2C0IDARY SCHOOL
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287
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN NO. 8
MAY 1938
REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS OP THE
COMMITTEE FOR THE STUDY OP THE PROBLEMS OP
SECONDARY SCHOOL COORDINATION IN NEW BRITAIN
Committee Members
Dorothy Quigley
Caroline F. Stearns
Robert Quimby
Clarence Nordstrom
Frederick C. Mirliani
Thomas P. Elder
Wilfred J. Sheehan
Lionel M. Depot
Fred Drabble
Vincent Sala, Chairman
Senior High School
Central Junior High School
Nathan Hale Junior High School
Roosevelt Junior High School
Director of Music
Director of Art
Senior High School
Senior High School
Junior High School Shops
Washington Junior High School
T
288
PROBLEMS OP SECONDARY SCHOOL COORDINATION
IN NEW BRITAIN
The importance of close coordination between the elem­
entary, the junior and senior high schools cannot be over-emphasized.
Whatever viewpoint is taken, it is realized that the education of
the child should be a unified process A^ithout abrupt breaks; and
that the various administrative units should be closely coordinated.
It is also realized that in this unified process there should be
a progressive adjustment of aims, objectives and methods to the
gradually changing physical and mental growth of the child.
The work of the Committee of Secondary School Coordination
was aimed to discover what difficulties the pupils encountered in
the transition from the junior to the senior high school, and what
plan should be set up to effect better coordination between the
two administrative units.
The first three meetings were devoted to the discussion
of the problems which the committee thought were of vital importance.
Subsequent meetings with sub-committee chairmen were spent in
analyzing the problems, and recommending remedial procedures that,
in their opinion, would aid in coordinating the junior and senior
high schools.
The problems presented may be classified in the following
groups:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
I.
Organization of Classes
The Teachers' Viewpoint
Bridging the Gap Between the Junior and Senior High
School
Courses of Study and Curriculum
Textbooks and Office Records
Organization of Classes
The committee has felt that one consistent policy of
grouping should be in effect in the Senior High School. The
honogeneous grouping of pupils in the Junior High School needs
to be carried over into the next level if adjustments are to
be made to meet the differences in abilities, peculiarities
and needs.
In considering the special problem, the question
arises as to what should bo the basis for this type of group­
ing. Work in the junior high shows that no one factor is a
sufficient basis. The mental age, school or scholastic
accomplishments, health, chronological age and application
are factors often considered. The importance of each has not
been determined satisfactorily as to whether they are the only
evidence in homogeneous grouping.
It has been found that the
following plan has worked out successfully and it is possible
that such a plan would bo effective and successful if adopted
in the New Britain Schools.
289
Page 2
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Teacher’s Estimate of Ability
Special Interests and Abilities
Character Traits
Scholastic Accomplishments
Home Conditions
Homogeneous grouping in the Senior High School has proven
to be somewhat of a problem due to the difficulties encountered
in schedule making and the elective courses that are offered.
However, due to the large enrollment, the committee feels that
the problem is one in which some definite steps could be taken
to effect an organization that would be similar to that in the
junior high schools.
The committee feels greater emphasis should be placed
on the following:
1.
A list of subjects pupils intended to pursue gathered
before the opening of school.
Thecollection of such
data would reveal the enrollment expected in each
subject. The larger the enrollment the more section
classes can be made in grouping according to the factors
listed on the previous page.
2.
’There there is only one class,
work may be planned to
meet the individual abilities, requiring a minimum
essential and special assignment according to individual
abilities and interests.
It is realized that the above problem of grouping in
the senior high school is difficult and reqviires considerable
study and experimentation. The one danger that .Trust be con­
sidered is that the problem of homogeneous grouping may move
toward a large percentage of constant subjects for the sake
of achieving this type of organization.
Oftentimes pupils
have been grouped according to certain principles of homo­
geneous groupings in the junior high school, then when enter­
ing the senior high school, the practice is discontinued or
a new procedure is followed. They are thrown into groups in
order to increase their numbers which have dwindled due to
the choice of many electives. Students of lower ability often
cannot find electives in the high school program in which
they can succeed. This often destroys the student’s ambition,
thus causing him to leave school, whereas vocational courses
might have developed his talents.
II.
The Teachers * Viewpoint or Philosophy
There is a tendency in the Senior High School to emphasize
the subject material, whereas in the junior high school the
development of the individual child is stressed.
One of the
functions of the junior high school should be to explore the
abilities, interests and personality of the child so that the
Senior High School teachers might carry on instruction in
specialized subjects using such information from the junior
high school as a guide, especially in adjustment of classes
in 10-1.
290
Page 3
In the minds of the committee the above differences might
be remedied by the following:
a.
Inter-visitation of teachers (especially 9-2 and 10-1)
b.
Carefully planned discussions by the superintendent on the
aims and objectives of the secondary schools.
c.
Teachers on both levels to aid in the revision of the
courses of study.
d.
Possibly a Supervisor of Instruction or an Assistant to the
Superintendent whose function it would be to coordinate
the secondary schools. Aid may also be obtained from
vertical supervision, where heads of departments would
supervise subject matter throughout the secondary schools.
The committee investigating this aspect of a unification
of the courses of study is in general agreement as to the
advantages to be gained by well qualified department heads
who have had experience and training on both levels.
The following advantages are presented briefly in summarized
form:
(1)
The Course Director would-be able to develop a unified
program of study for all pupils, insuring an
uninterrupted progress from grade to grade.
(2)
Teachers of the same subject would benefit profession­
ally through collaborating with the course director
in organizing their materials.
(3)
Teacher weaknesses would be discovered and corrected
better by a specialist in the field than by any
other means.
(4)
The pupils’ transition from junior high to senior high
school would be more easily handled.
(Subject matter
would be on a properly graded basis.)
Recommendat ions:
1.
That the Senior High School teachers be selected from those
who have had training in methods as well as subject matter.
2.
That the Junior High School teachers should be thoroughly
familiar with the functions of the junior high school.
(It is felt that many of the teachers advanced from elem­
entary school have failed to realize the objectives of
this particular unit.)
3.
Inter-visitation of schools and joint conferences in
clarifying the differences in attitudes of teachers on
both levels.
291
Page 4
III.
Bridging the Gap Between the two Secondary School Units
As previously stated, the acceptance on the part of both
senior and junior high school teachers of a basic educational
philosophy and the formulation of clear statements as to the
function of each unit would aid tremendously in solving the
problem of bridging the gap between the junior and senior
high schools. Suggestions have been made by committee members
that some of the methods used in the junior high school be
employed in the senior high school and some of the senior
high school methods well be used in the junior high school.
It is felt that this would be of value in aiding students to
make adjustments to the senior high school.
The committee feels that the plan used in the junior high
school for guidance would have value for the senior high school
students. A guidance period in addition to a home room period
each morning would make a teacher available to all students
needing assistance. Emphasis on a well-articulated program
and the acceptance of a basic philosophy on the part of all
teachers in the secondary school would, reduce to a minimum
the problems of transition from one school to another.
It is felt that definite plans should bo made to assist
pupils to make their adjustment and take an active part in
school life.
It may be of value to have senior high school
teachers meet the students of the junior high school and
explain the requirements for graduation, college entrance,
training required for entrance to industry and the semiprofessional occupations. All other matters pertaining to
curriculum, etc., could be presented and would have a definite
value in pupil adjustment in the senior high school.
Members of the committee reported that there has been and
is at the present time overlapping requirements made by
various subject teachers.
It would seem to members of the
committee that a carefully prepared course of study outline
for each school would eliminate duplication. Discussion
groups, formulation of new courses of study by teachers on
both levels would aid materially in reducing this deficiency.
It cannot be overlooked that a well-articulated supervisory
program consisting of heads of departments, principals,and
the superintendent of schools would be of value in bridging
the gap.
Since a committee has been appointed to investigate the
guidance problem in the New Britain secondary schools, it will
be mentioned briefly in this report. Because of the following
reasons, definite guidance programs are needed in the secon­
dary schools:
1.
Wide range in individual differences
2.
Drastic retardation in 10-1
r
292
Page 5
3.
Lack of holding-power (pupils leaving school
before needs are met.)
4.
Lack of information on qualifications and preparation
The Committee suggests the following:
1.
Employment of a guidance counsellor who would
coordinate the guidance work throughout the
secondary schools.
2.
That cumulative records in addition to the present
data that is sent to the next school level include
the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3.
That information and data be obtained relative to
junior and senior high school graduates and their
life adjustments. The committee suggests that the
following be used as a tentative plan for studying
this problem:
a.
b.
c.
4.
Conferences between principals and former pupils
Surveys: Jobs entered by boys and girls who have
dropped out or graduated from the junior or senior
high schools.
Personnel Bureau: To follow up graduates who have
dropped out of school. Possibly this type of
work could be carried out by the Attendance Bureau.
This information would be of value to all prin­
cipals and teachers who are directly concerned
with the Guidance problem.
That greater emphasis and study be placed upon the
following in the secondary schools:
a.
b.
IV.
Teachers' estimate of ability (more than a mark
of A, B, C , etc. )
Special interests and abilities
Character traits
Home conditions
Future plans
Supervised study
Changes in specialized techniques
(1) Subject emphasis to pupil emphasis
(2) Home assignment
(3) Formal textbooks and methods
(4) Provision for individual differences.
Problem of Curriculum and Courses of Study
a.
Lack of coordination in subjects
The hygiene classes in the junior high school present
an excellent example of the lack of coordination. To illustrate,
hygiene is often taught by regular science teachers and health
293
Page 6*
education classes. At the present time there is no outline
or course of study for these teachers to follow, and it results
in duplication and omission. As far as the committee has been
able to find out, the outlines are usually those prescribed by
the principal of the school.
It is suggested that a committee
of subject teachers should be set up and that courses of study
for consecutive units be developed. The situation is somewhat
the same in the fields of English, Mathematics, and General
Science.
b.
Lack of subject matter provisions for pupils of superior
and low levels
It is the opinion of the committee that where homo­
geneous classes are recognized, it is only a step toward the
realization of individual differences in pupils. In many
instances differentiated courses of study and curricula must
be provided. At the present time, some of the junior high
schools use the following method in providing for individual
differences. A minimum requirement is set up for all pupils
and at the same time this is used as a maximum for the lower
groups, while provisions are made for enrichment through the
addition of supplementary work for the gifted child. This is
a problem of vital importance, and it is possible that the
Committee on Courses of Study
and Curriculum Revisionwill have
further data to report.
It is interesting to note that many of the junior
high schools claim to have the above in effect, but in the
estimation of the committee it is only in theory and not in
practice. The special needs of the "bright" pupil and the
personality problems of the large group of average pupils do
not come to the attention of teachers as readily as deficiencies
in school subjects.
c.
Selection of Curriculum and Subjects
The selection of curriculum and subjects by pupils in
the junior and senior high schools is one of the greatest
problems with which the committee has been confronted. It has
been found that where there is a lack of proper guidance,
pupils follow no well thought
out plan of choices, and give
little attention to the sequences in their selection. This
often results in a serious problem at the Senior High School
and may result in retardation of a great number of pupil's. It
seems to the members that there should be close cooperation
between the pupil, principal and counsellors in the selection
of curriculum and courses. This would require or include more
than a signature of approval by the parent.
It may also be
profitable for the graduating class with their parents to
attend a meeting where high school teachers are present to
explain the curriculum offerings and to answer all questions
about the school which the parents may care to raise. The
successful selection of curriculum and courses of study depends
on, as previously stated, a well developed program of Guidance
and educational counselling.
p
294
Page 7
It may be of
enters the next higher
and short unit try-out
nature and which would
value to give each boy and girl who
unit a number of orientation courses
courses which would be exploratory in
help pupils to find themselves.
College entrance requirements may make a problem in
coordination of the two units.
It is the consensus of opinion
of the junior high school principals that the junior high school
should be relieved of the responsibility of direct preparation
for college.
It is also thought that colleges could accept
as their requirement the three years of high school preparation
as a basis for admittance.
It is interesting to note that
certain educators are recommending that admittance to colleges
be placed on a basis of general ability rather than the
prescription of certain definite courses or admitting students
on a basis of more elective courses.
Recommendat ions;
1.
That requirements in traditional subjects should be
reduced and those of vocational subjects increased.
2.
That courses of study for curriculum units be developed
by committees representing each grade level in the secon­
dary schools.
3.
That course of study outlines be given to all teachers in
the school showing what is being taught in the different
departments,as well as suggestions for correlated
activities.
4.
That inter-visitation of teachers in the different depart­
ments be provided.
5.
That the following be taken into consideration relative
to grade placement of curricvilum materials:
a.
b.
c.
6.
Learner's needs
Learning difficulty
Psychological and logical arrangement of subject matter
That the following opportunities be provided for the junior
high school graduates:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Explanatory talks to entering ninth grade pupils
Visits by groups to the next unit
Meeting teachers before entrance to the next school
Assemblies in advance of entrance
Opportunities for individual conferences with old and
new teachers
295
Page 8
V.
Junior High School textbooks
a.
Social Studies
Central
J.H.S.
1. An Introduction to American
Civilization: Rugg
2. Changing Civilization in a
Modern World: Rugg
3. History of American Civili­
zation: Rugg
4. History of American Govern­
ment and Culture: Rugg
5. An Introduction to Problems
of American Culture: Rugg
6. Workbooks for the above
b.
2.
Ancient Times (recent ed.)
Breasted
Practical Map Exercises and
Syllabus
X
X.
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Commerce and Industry
1. Nations at Work: Packard,
Sinnot and Overton
d.
Roose. Wash.
J.H.S. J.H.S.
Ancient History
1.
c.
N.Hale
J.H.S.
English
1. English Essentials for Junior
High Schools: Paul-Hiller
2. Adventures in Literature,
Book 9: Ross-Schwaikort
3. Junior Highway to English:
Ward-Moffctt
4. Literature and Living,
Book I: Lyman-Hill
5. Literature and Living,
Book II: Lyman-Hill
6. Good English Through Practice:
Webster
7. Dictionaries: Thorndike,
Webster, Winston
8. Dramatic Ballads
9. Reading to Learn
10. Correct English Usage
11. Poems for Enjoyment
12. World's Best Poems: Van Doren
13. New Narratives': Williams
14. Junior English Activities:
Hatfield
15. International Short Storios:
Church
16. Essentials of English:
Pierson and Kirchwey
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x
x
x
■
X
296
Page
Central
J.H.S.
9
N.Hale Roose. Wash.
J.H.S. J.H.S. J.H.S.
General Science
1. Man's Control of His
Environment
2. This Changing World
3. The World Around Us
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Mathematics
1. Lennes Pads
X
2 . Work and Test Books in
t
5.
6.
g.
Elementary Algebra
New Day Algebra
General Mathematics
New Day Junior Mathematics:
Foberg-Durrell
Modern School Arithmetic
General Mathematics: Lennes
Modern School Mathematics:
Schorling
2.
3.
Junior Business Training
for Economic ILiving
Forms for above
Workbooks,Junior Business
Training
X
X
X
x
..
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Music
1. Twice 55 Community Song Books
2. Junior Music
3 . Music of Many Lands and
Peoples
ij.. Songs We Like to Sing
5 . Treasure Chests
6 . The Laurel S.A.B. Books
7 . Junior Songs and Chorus Books
j.
X
Commercial work
1.
i.
X
X
Typewriting
1. 20th Century Typewriting:
Lessenberry-Jevon
h.
X
X
X
X
X
X
Health
x
x
1. Adventures in Health
2 . Health Studies
x
Science in Living
x
Health
Habits,
I
and
II
x
x
x
I:
Personal and Public Health
x
x
x
x
x
I: Progress in Living
x
7 . New Healthy Living
N o t e : (1). College course not offered at Washington Junior High
School during the years 1937-1939•
x
x
x
x
'■
297
Page 1 0
Recommendations:
1.
That a basal text be used in Met hematics and English in
the junior high schools.
That additional books be furnish­
ed in order that provisions may be made for individual
differences in ability.
2.
That courses of study, outlines, assignments and textbooks
used in the elementary and senior high schools be given
careful study before adopting texts for the junior high
schools in order that there may be a gradual transition
from Grade 6-2 to 7-1, an^ from 9”2 to 10-1 in subject
matter.
3.
That a study be made of the so-called Laboratory Plan used
in some of the junior high schools in the fields of English
and Mathematics as compared to the basal text or assignment
plan.
(The tabulations show that there is a wide difference
in the use of textbooks in the four junior high schools,
especially in the fields of Mathematics and English. )
Office Record Cards Used in the Junior High Schools
Central
J.H.S.
1.
2.
5-
k5.
6.
(m
O•
9.
10.
11.
12.
1? ‘
1 k.
16 .
3-7•
18.
1 9 .
20.
21.
22.
2? ‘
2k.
26 .
27.
28.
2 9 .
Attendance Slips (pink)
Attendance Slips (blue)
Admit Slips
Attendance Reports
Ninth grade Attendance
Book Receipt
Class Records
Club Excellence
Club Application Cards
Conduct and Effort Report
Conduct and Effort Inquiry
Daily Absence Reports
Official Notice
Diploma Signature Card
Special Communication
Excuse from Building
Textbook Requisition
Family Census
Health and Physical Education
Lunch Room Application Card
Notice of Incomplete Assign­
ment
Parent Reply to Physician
Monthly Attendance Card
Pass from Building
Pass to Building
Physical Record
Pink Record Card
White Record Card
Library Passes
X
X
X
N.Hale Roose.
J.H.S. J.H.S.
Wash.
J.H.S
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
•
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
298
Page 11
Central
J.H.S.
50.
31.
32.
ft
ft
18:
22:
hi.
k2.
ft
ft
ij-7.
1*8 .
U-9.
5 0 .
51.
5 2 .
5 3 .
5k 55 ‘
56.
5 7 .
X
Promotion Cards
Pupil Program (white)
Pupil Program (blue)
X
Pupil Program (office)
X
X
Request for Admit slip
X
Exce lie nee C ard
X
Class Record
(3 X 5)
X
Official Record, Civic League
X
Civic League Membership
X
Supply Requisition (duplicate)
X
Supplies Received
Pass from Room
X
X
Transfer Card (buff)
Record of Advice to Parents
X
Record of Scholarship
X
Report of Religious Attendance
X
Room Assignment
Special Assignment Application
X
Card
X
Special Assignment
Subject Excellence
X
X
Teacher* s Class Program
X
Transfer Card (green)
Excuse Pass
Exehsed from Religious Instruction
x
Instruction
x
Subject Deficiency (paper)
X
Brother and Sister Record
Report of Unsatisfactory Work
Typewriting Proficiency
Total
51
N.Hale
J.H.S.
Roose.
J.H.S.
W ash
J.H.!
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2k
28
X
35
Fifty-seven different cards are used covering pupil records.
In many cases the cards are not identical, but call for the same
information.
Schools vary in method of recording attendance.
The
Washington and Roosevelt Junior High Schools use notebooks. The
Central and Nathan Hale Junior High Schools use a Daily Absence
Card, which is printed in the Junior High School Shops.
The Chairman of this particular phase of work reports that
all schools have an excess of miscellaneous cards, most of which
are now in disuse.
Recommendations:
1.
That all cards used in the New Britain schools be numbered
with a key-letter to designate elementary, junior and
senior high school, as:
E-l
J-2
S-l
Elementary Schools
Junior High Schools
Senior High School
299
P ag e 12
2.
That all schools use identical card3 , and that they he
printed on the same color stock (facilitating reference).
J.
That a revision he made of all cards used in the New Britain
Schools.
It is felt hy members of the committee that there
is a duplication; much of which could he eliminated as well
as effecting economy in printing and purchasing of supplies.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
1.
That a policy be established relative to the grouping or
classification of pupils in the two secondary units.
a.
2.
That a committee of junior and senior high school
principals as well as teachers be appointed to
determine what phases or factors should be considered
in the so-called Homogeneous Grouping.
That committees be appointed from the two secondary units
to formulate courses of study in the special subjects.
That it contain a minimum essential as well as provisions
for the gifted and slow pupil
a.
That particular emphasis be placed upon the following
subjects during the coming years:
(1)
(2)
3.
English and Social Studies, 1938-1939
Science and Hygiene, 1939-19^+0
That meetings be held among teachers of the secondary schools
for the purpose of clarifying the objectives of each unit
as well as being informed of the latest trends in secondary
education.
500
SOURCE MATERIAL
Section X V H
Bulletin IX
A STUDY OP HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
301
NEW BRITAIN SCHOOL SURVEY REPORT
BULLETIN No. 9
May
1938
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
CONTENTS
Introduction
Part I:
A
Statement Concerning Returns from the Colleges
Part II:
A
Statement Concerning Returns from Employers
Part III:
A
Statement Concerning Returns from
1931-1934 Graduates
Part IV:
A Statement Concerning Returns from
1935-1937 Graduates
Part V:
Appendixes:
1.
2.
3.
i|.
5.
6.
7.
Results from Questionnaires Sent to the
Colleges
Results from Questionnaires Sent to the
Employers
Results from Questionnaires given in the
F.E.R.A. Project to Male Graduates of the
Years 1931-1934
Results from Questionnaires given in the
F.E.R.A. Project to Female Graduates of the
Years 1931-1934
Results from Questionnaires sent by the
Committee to Male Graduates of the
Years 1935-1937
Results from Questionnaires sent by the
Committee to Female Graduates of the
Years 1935-1937
Forms and Other Communications Used in
Gathering the Data
COMMITTEE
William C. French
Millie G. McAuley
Marie E . May
Anne C. B. Pomeroy
Frederick M. Senf
Louis P. Slade, Chairman
302
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
INTRODUCTION
The investigations of this committee have been in three
groups: first, among the colleges and degree-giving institutions
which students have entered directly from the New Britain Senior High
School ftfom September 1914 to and including September 1935? secondly,
among employers of New Britain Senior High School graduates during
the five years 1932 - 1937 ? an(3- thirdly, among the graduates themselves
of the years 1931 - 1937 *
The data from the first group was found already on hand in
the Senior High School office; the data from the second group and
from a part of the third group were obtained through questionnaires
prepared by Mr. Senf in conference with other members of the committee,
and sent out from and returned to the Senior High School office.
From the graduates of the years 1931-1934 data collected in
a house-to-house canvass by F.E.R.A. workers were studied and grouped
by Mr. Senf, who also has prepared the statements of Parts II, III,
and IV.
The parts of the report are assembled in the following
or de r :
I.
A statement concerning the returns
from the colleges
II.
A statement concerning the returns
from employers
III.
A statement concerning the returns from the 1931-1934
graduates themselves
IV.
A statement concerning the returns from the 1935-1937
graduates themselves
V.
Appendixes as follows:
Appendix 1:
Appendix 2:
Appendix
Appendix I4.:
Appendix 51
Appendix 6:
Appendix 7:
Results from Questionnaires Sent to
the Colleges
Results from Questionnaires Sent to
the Employers
Results from Questionnaires given in
the F.E.R.A. Project to Male Graduates
of the Years 1931-1934
Results from Questionnaires given in
the F.E.R.A. Project to Female Graduates
of the Years 1931-1934
Results from Questionnaires sent by the
Committee to Male Graduates of the
Years 1935-1937
Results from Questionnaires sent by the
Committee to Female Graduates of the
Years 1935-1937
Forms and Other Communications Used in
Gathering the Data
I
303
PART I
A STUDY OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
THE RETURNS
FROM THE COLLEGES
These returns, as has "been indicated, have been collected
at the close of three different periods, first in 1920, next in 1S26,
and again in 1936. The motive of these investigations had primarily
been the desire to show that students who were ready to do their
part could satisfactorily prepare for college in the public high
school.
The first and second investigations, through an oversight,
overlapped by one year.
In every case reported, the student entered
the higher institution directly from the high school and not by way
of a preparatory school.
Because the Connecticut State Teachers
College has been a degree-giving institution for so short a time,
the figures from that institution are not included.
A study of the tables which may be found in an appendix of
this report reveals the following:
1.
With the possibility of a few duplications due to a repetition
of figures for one year (1919) 767 different graduates are
concerned.
2.
There are at least 107 different higher institutions that have
admitted graduates of the high school.
It should be said that
the records of some higher institutions do not make possible a
grouping of their students by preparatory schools.
3.
The students are grouped as follows according to the quality
of their work:
Period
1914-1919
Period
1919-1925
16$
6^$
6$
5$
25 J$
25$
Good Average
Students
56$
37$
45$
Merely Meeting
the Minimum
Requirements
17$
23$
14$
6$
8$
10$
Awarded
Highest Honors
Given
More or Less
Distinction
Obliged to
Withdraw
100$
100$
Period
1926-1935
100$
304
P a r t I , Page 2
Prom these percentages the following conclusions may
he drawn:
Fewer New Britain students than formerly win highest
honors in college;
/
The number winning some distinction holds about the
same;
A very considerable number, increasing during the past
ten years, do good average work;
The number of those #10 merely "get by" is diminishing;
The number who leave college because of unsatisfactory
work is increasing somewhat.
305
PART I I
RESPONSE OF EMPLOYERS OF NEW BRITAIN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
GRADUATES DURING THE YEARS OF 1932-1937
To a group of business houses in New Britain and Hartford,
259 questionnaires were sent, the form of which may be found in
Part V, Appendix 7.
They were asked to state the numbers employed in the past
five years in various occupations, and rate them according to this
scale: unusually good, above average, average, below average, very
poor, and dismissed for reasons reflecting lack of preparation.
The questionnaires returned numbered 79, of which twelve
stated that they had employed no High School graduates, 10 answered
in general, and 57 answered in detail. The tabulation of those
answering in detail may be found in Part V, Appendix 2. It will
be noted from the table that these employers reported upon the
success of 676 graduates. The percentages were as follows:
12.7$
were unusually good; 35.5$ were above average; 38.9$ wore average;
7.6$ were below average; 1.9$ were very poor; and 3.4$ wore dis­
missed for reasons reflecting poor preparation.
From these figures, it is evident that those unusually
good and those above average arc more numerous than would normally
be expected.
It shows that employers appear to be well satisfied
with the graduates of the New Britain Senior High School.
Taking the different classes of employees from the table
it will be noted that most of those receiving actual occupational
training in the local high school, i.e., bookkeepers, library
assistants and pages, general office clerks, secretaries, steno­
graphers and typists, rank relatively high. The greatest percentage
of bank clerks, cashiers, time clerks, and salespeople are notice­
ably lower on the rating scale. This may reflect on inadequate
mathematical training in the first three occupations, and the total
lack of sales training in the Senior High School.
It is apparent from these detailed returns that our
graduates have had outstanding success in their occupations as
judged by their employers.
Ten of the employers, as previously stated, were only able
to make general statements.
In the replies were such phrases as
"satisfactory in every w a y , " "doing splendid work,"
"have done
excellent work," and Very well trained." One stated that a problem
of attitude seemed to be involved, for some high school graduates
had an aversion to manual labor.
Each questionnaire provided a space in which the employer
could express his desire for a change in training at the New Britain
Senior High School.
Nineteen made valuable statements regarding
II
306
P a rt I I ,
Page 2
future preparation.
Of the group of nineteen, five considered
the general attitude of high school graduates toward success,
thoroughness and accuracy to be poor; four thought that they were
particularly lacking in mathematical training; four thought that
penmanship, English and spelling should receive more emphasis; three
desired a more thorough commercial training with attractions for a
higher type of students; one spoke for a course in economics, one
for legal training for future stenographers, and one for a limitation
on the emphasis of athletics.
Nine other replies contained statements such as, "teach
students how to apply for a job,"
"our experience with high school
graduates has been very satisfactory,"
"they are turning out
exceptionally fine work" and "there is a need for vocational guidance."
CONCLUSIONS:
From a study of the questionnaires returned it seems
evident that the employers of New Britain and Hartford are v/ell
satisfied with the graduates of the New Britain Senior High School.
The success of our graduates is commendable.
Both the tabulations
and the general statements, however, reflected a weakness in the
mathematical ability of graduates. The poor attitude of the gradu­
ates that some employers lamented, might be improved by a guidance
program.
Penmanship, spelling, salesmanship, economics and
vocational guidance also represent fields in which improvements
might be made.
PART I I I
SURVEY OF GRADUATES. 1 9 3 1 -1 9 3 4
Fields of Study from the F.E.R.A. Investigation
Marital Status and Age
Mobility
High School Curricula
Education Planned after High School graduation
Education Acquired since High School graduation
Education in Process
Education Desired
Occupations Held in Fields Trained for
Occupations Held in Fields Not Trained for
Number of Different Positions Held since
High School graduation
Monthly Wages of Employed Graduate
Occupations Preferred
(Tables found in Part V, Appendixes 3 and U i*1
above order)
308
PART I I I
What the Committee♦a Study of the F.E.R.A. Investigation Revealed
Part III of the Committee’s report on the success of
New Britain Senior High School graduates is based upon figures taken
from a study made under the supervision of the Connecticut State
Board of Education, with funds supplied by the Federal government.
Data was collected b y means of interviews; and in the
New Britain District, 1747 persons who graduated from the New Britain
Senior High School between the years 1931-1934 were interviewed,
beginning in October 1934.
The data pertaining to Now Britain were examined and
selected and figures giving information under the titles on the
preceding page were recompiled for this report. The tables contain­
ing these figures for young men and young women may bo found in
Appendixes 3 and 4 respectively.
MARITAL STATUS AND AGE
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4, Table No. 1)
Due to the fact that this is a young population, only a
small percentage is married, namely, 4.6$ of the young women and 1$
of the young men.
Since those figures were first completed in June
1935, the age percentages are significant only in relationship to
those married.
It is noted that 75.5$ of the young women were under
21 years of age, and 24.5$ over 21 years of age, while 64.3$ of the
young men were under 21 years of age, and 35.7$ over 21 years of age.
The fact that almost 4$ more young women than young men
were married may indicate that the young men graduates find marriage
economically impossible, while the young women are marrying men
older than themselves.
MOBILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4, Table No. 2)
A study of the present addresses of graduates showed that
of the young men 89.8$ were living at home with their parents, .9$
were living in their own homes married, and 9.3$ were living away
from home and parents; 90.5$ were living in New Britain and 9.5$
were living away from New Britain. A study of the young women
showed 87.5$ with parents, 1.7$ in own homes married, 10.8$ away
from home and parents; 92,6$ were living in New Britain, and 7.4$
away from New Britain.
A vast majority of these graduates still live at home.
The percentage of those leaving their high school district in the
State of Connecticut was 12.5$ while 87.5$ therefore lived in'the
309
P a rt I I I ,
Page 2
same district.
(Prom state wide reports, not our own tables. ) It
will be noted from the tables that approximately 8 .5 $ of the New
Britain Senior High School graduates were living away from New Brit­
ain.
New Britain’s ability to absorb the graduates of her high
school is greater than that of smaller towns or rural districts and
in some cases than that of larger cities.
HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULA
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 an(i ij., Table No. 3 )
The table on High School curricula will be of considerable
significance to those concerned with the management and support of
secondary schools.
Distinct differences will be noted in curricula completed by
young men and young women.
It will be noted that 39*2$ of the young
men take a college preparatory course as compared to only 2 1 .5 $ of
the young women.
Commercial curricula show a much larger enrollment of young
women in our high school.
In fact, two and one-half times as many
young women as young men completed vocational-commercial curricula
with percentages of 3 9 - 0 and 15*7 respectively.
The general course percentages are young women, 2 9 .9 # an<i
young men, 2 8 .3 .
It was found that 2.1$ of the young women pursued a combina­
tion commercial-college curriculum, and 8 .8 $ a curriculum preparing
them for Teachers’ College.
Additional figures may be found on this table showing 12.5$
of the young men pursued a cooperative general-trade curriculum, and
2 .7 $ a commercial-general curriculum.
It will be found by averaging the percentages of the three
major curricula that approximately 25 $ of the students take a college
curriculum, 27 $ a commercial, and 29 $ a general, with the balance
divided among the four other curricula mentioned above.
This is
evidence of a well balanced school, for in the report covering the
entire state it was noted that *the general course (in Connecticut
schools) is apparently poorly defined in the minds of high school
pupils, for only a small group is enrolled.
About 1 8 .3 $ of high
school graduates for the past four years have taken a general course."
It may be deduced therefore, that New Britain with approximately 2 9 $
taking a general course has a healthier curricular balance than most
of the schools of the state.
The following tabulation is presented to discover changes
in percentages of various courses offered for graduation in New Brit­
ain.
A comparison is made between courses offered in 1931 ancL 193^*
310
P a rt I I I ,
Percent completing
College course
1931
1934
36
28
-8
Page 3
Percent completing
Commercial course
Percent completing
General course
1931
1934
1931
1934
26
35
26
30
•V-9
+4
Those graduates completing a college curriculum in the New Britain
Senior High School dropped 8$ between 1931-1934.
In the same period
those completing the commercial course increased 9$ and those com­
pleting a general course increased 4$.
Quoting again from the state report, :'During the last two
or three years, educational leaders have attempted to enlist the
cooperation of teachers in reducing the number and percentage
of
those electing vocational-commercial curricula.
The figures show
that this has not been effective, and guidance in this matter has
not been very influential.
The problem of curricula elections remains
a significant one, challenging educational leaders to find a solu­
tion. "
EDUCATION PLANNED
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4, Table No. 4)
This study indicated that a majority of our high school
graduates planned further education.
Approximately 65$ of the young
men and 55$ of the young women planned for education in many fields.
In the tables showing figures for young men, it will be
noted that the large percentages included 49.3$ planning to go to
college, 7.2$ planning to go to Trade School, 4.3$ planning further
commercial training, and 2$ desiring to go to Teachers’ College.
Of the young women, 18.9$ planned for college, 10.3$ for T e a chers’
College, 17.3$ for nurses' training, and 3.9$ for further commercial
training.
Others planned various kinds of specialized training such
as art, aviation, embalming, music, and journalism.
REASONS FOR NOT CARRYING OUT PLANS
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4, Table No* 4)
About 30$ of the young men and young women carried out
their plans for education.
Of the large number who did not carry out pre-graduation
plans, 45.5$ failed because of economic and financial reasons; about
1.5$ failed because of the need for further preparation; 7.1$ changed
their plans and 15.4$ had no plans for further education.
The 70$ who planned advanced education and never received
it presents a problem for those who are interested inequality of
educational opportunity for youth. Evidently guidance is needed.
311
P a rt I I I ,
Page 4
EDUCATION ACQUIRED SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4,
Table No. 5)
Since the population interviewed includes graduates of
four years, beginning with 1931, it is possible for this group to
have, either in process or completed, four years of post-secondary
education.
It is possible for the 1932 graduates to have, either in
process or completed, three years; for the 1933 group, two years;
and for the 1934 group, one year.
Table No, 5 then shows not only
the number who have had various terms of education, but shows delayed
entrance as well. For example, of the 290 graduates listed for 1931,
thirty-two have completed only one year of education when four years
were possible; thirty-six have completed only two years; fifty have
completed three years, and only eighteen have completed four years,
while twenty-seven have completed only six months of post-secondary
education.
The figures in the years following also reveal a signifi­
cant lag between high school and further education.
If higher
education were financially possible, a much larger group would begin
immediately upon being graduated from high school.
This table also shows that the types of higher education
received are different for young men and young women.
The young men
go into a more expensive type, while young women do more educational
work on a vocational basis.
EDUCATION IN PROCESS AND DESIRED
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4, Table No. 6)
This study enables us to compare the numbers and percentages
of those who have education in process with those who still desire
further education.
It also gives us numbers and percentages of those
receiving different types of education and numbers and percentages
of the types of education desired.
In the table compiled through interviews with young men,
it will be seen that of the 32$ who have education in process, 15.5$
are in college. An additional 30$, however, desired college educa­
tion. Commercial training was in process by 3.9$, but an additional
8$ desired it.
The table for young women reveals that 7.3$ were in college
and an additional 10$ wished to go to college; 11.1$ were receiving
commercial training whereas an additional 18.2$ desired it; 9.1$ were
at Teachers* College and 5.8$ wished to go; 9.1$ were receiving
nurses* training while 13.3% more wanted this type of education.
Further education, therefore, is desired by 64$ of our
graduates, but only 36$ of our graduates realize this antoition.
312
P a rt I I I ,
Page 5
OCCUPATIONS OF YOUNG MEN
(See Part V, Appendix 3, Tables No. 11 and 12)
A study of the occupations of our young men graduates
revealed that only 10$ of these graduates were engaged in occupations
for which they had received special training.
The mechanics trade
leads with 3.6$ and office workers are next with 3.2$. The balance
of the 10$ is represented by small percentages of professional men
such as engineers, journalists, pharmacists, musicians, teachers
and undertakers; tradesmen, such as draftsmen, electricians, platers
and printers, and commercial workers.
A much larger percent, 57.1$ were employed in fields for
which they had received no special training.
Factory workers account
for 17.9$ of the above, 15.4$ were doing miscellaneous work, 5.8$
were engaged in relief work, 4$ were engaged in office work, 3.9$
were engaged in sales work, and 3.8$ were gas station attendants.
There were slightly more untrained commercial artists than trained
ones. The professions were represented by untrained workers such as
engineers, laboratory workers, psychiatric aides, and in one case,
a teacher. There were untrained tradesmen such as draftsmen, elec­
tricians, mechanics, printers, and carpenters.
In the case of
commercial artists and engineers, the percentage of untrained workers
was slightly higher than trained workers.
This study also revealed that 15.4$ were unemployed and
17.6$ were engaged only in completing their education. A large
percentage, 72.5$ then, were either unemployed or working in fields
for which they had received no training.
The question arises:
What can the educational authorities do to provide for this group?
OCCUPATIONS OF YOUNG WOMEN
(See Part V, Appendix 4, Tables No. 11 and 12)
The occupations of the young women graduates were not as
varied as those of the young men. Because of apparent discrepancies
in the figures on the F.E.R.A. study, accurate percentages were
impossible, so they are not included in this table. Approximate
percentages, nevertheless, are possible to determine.
Office work
leads as an occupation for which special training has been received,
for 21$ of our young women graduates were employed in this field.
Nursing and teaching are second and third, with approximate percen­
tages of 1.8$ and 1.6$ respectively.
Other small percentages include
two librarians, two cosmeticians, two commercial artists, one dancing
instructor, one dentist's assistant, and one scout executive. The
total percentage of our young women graduates employed in fields
for which they have been trained is approximately 27$. This is con­
siderably larger than the young men graduates with only 10$. This
is due to the large percentage of young women (21$) who have
received commercial training.
313
P a rt I I I ,
Page 6
Approximately 30$ of the young women graduates were em­
ployed in fields for which they had received no training. Those
engaged in saleswork led, with approximately 9$. Following (per­
centages approximate) were those engaged in housework, 8.4$;
factory workers, 6$; psychiatric aides, 2.5$; those engaged in
miscellaneous employment, 2$; and small percentages Of telephone
operators, social service workers, dental assistants, commercial
artists and journalists.
This study also contains figures revealing that approximate­
ly 16$ were unemployed, and 26$ were occupied solely with furthering
their education.
Since 30$ of the young women as compared to 57$ of the
young men are working in fields for' which they have received no
training, the question arises:
Is the place for young men in our
high school shrinking in its dimensions before the advance of a
w o m a n ’s world?
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT POSITIONS HELD SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
(See Part
V, Appendixes 3 and
4, Table No. 13)
Of great
significance is the
number of different positions
that have been held by recent high school graduates. The summariza­
tion of the positions held by graduates of 1931-1934 reflects
surprising occupational stability on the part of those employed.
Of the young men graduates, 54.8$ and of the young women, 50.9$ have
held only one position since graduation; 11.7$ of the young men and
3.8$ of the young women have held two positions. No young man held
three or more and only.one young women held three; none held four
or more. This probably means that for those who have secured employ­
ment, a fairly stable tenure has been provided.
Stable tenure
reflects satisfaction with the high school product on the part of
employers and contentment or resignation on the part of our graduates.
The percentages on the tables representing graduates who
have held no positions, 33.5$ for the young men, and 45.2$ for young
women, include those going to school, as well as unemployed graduates.
TOTAL MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT
(See Part
SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
V, Appendixes 3 and
4, Table No. 14)
In considering duration of employment of our graduates,
it must be remembered that the 1931 graduate had a potential employ­
ment period of 42 months at the time the survey was made; the 1932
graduate a period of 30 months; the 1933 graduate 18 months; and the
1934 graduate had a period of six months or more, depending upon the
time of year of the interview. Those who had more employment than
seems possible, included in their returns part time employment
while enrolled in the high school.
i
I
1
314
P a rt I I I ,
Page 7
The New Britain Senior High School graduated 840 young men
and 907 young women during this period.
Of this number, 281 young
men and 410 young women had not been in remunerative employment*
The following table of unemployed graduates will give an
idea of the rate of absorption:
Young Men Graduates
Graduated
1931
1932
1933
1934
134
178
228
300
Young Women Graduates
Unemployed
Graduated
Unemployed
28
45
68
110
156
215
248
288
42
97
109
162
This lag in absorption, although it is to be expected,
will present an ever-increasing problem for educators and graduates
alike. A significant group of b ot h young men and young women had
had more than one to ten months of employment, while the greatest
number in both studies had had fifteen months of employment.
MONTHLY WAGES OF EMPLOYED GRADUATES
(See Part V, Appendixes 3 and 4, Table No. 15)
The wage scale of high school graduates may be used as a
basis to judge their success in life.
Of course four years is not
very long for the high school graduate to advance in the wage scale,
but it does reveal economic problems of youth.
Some refused to give
information on wages received.
The following table presents a summary of the various wage
scales;
Wages in Dollars
per month
$ 1. - $20.
20. - 40.
40. - 60.
60. - 80.
80. - 100.
Over 100.
Unemployed
Amount not given
Young Men
Young Women
Totals
1931-1934
59
147
179
128
22
16
281
108
102
114
212
37
4
1
410
63
161
261
391
165
26
17
691
171
While there are more young men than young women employed,
more of the young women graduated and subsequently reported their
wages.
These differences compensate for each other and the wages
per month can be compared directly.
The greatest number of young men and young women receive
$40. to $60. per month.
The earning capacity of young men goes
higher, in 38 cases ranging between $80. to over $100. a month.
i
\
n
316
P a rt I I I ,
Page 9
professions under their immediate desires were probably completing
training at the time of the interview.
In the trades it seems that there is a definite agreement
between immediate and ultimate desires.
The unclassified group represents mostly those unemployed
who were seeking almost any kind of immediate employment.
It will be noted that a relatively large group were
undecided. This group would be aided immeasurably by vocational
guidance in the high school.
IMMEDIATE AHD ULTIMATE AIMS - YOUNG WOMEN
(See Part V, Appendix 4, Table No. 16)
A supplementary classification to the final one in Appendix
4 will aid the reader to obtain a more composite picture.
Arts
I.
10
Profes­
Commer­ Trades
Un­
sions
cial
skilled
U. I.
U. I.
U. I.
U.
U. I.
45
91
303 494
425
10
17
30
Home E c ­ Undeci­
ded
onomics
I.
U. I.
U.
14
16
258
91
The same comment regarding the realisation of necessary
training in the arts and professions applies to young women as well.
The outstanding professions for which young women are preparing are
nursing and teaching.
Nearly all who listed these as their ultimate
choice arc now being educated in these fields.
In the commercial field the immediate and ultimate choices
check very well as they did in the case of the young men.
Few young women desired to enter trades, but here again
the factor of training enters the picture.
The "unskilled classifi­
cation" represents to a large extent those who were unemployed and
would take any kind of unskilled factory employment or do any kind
of miscellaneous work.
They, at least, had not outstanding prefer­
ence, or were undecided.
The unemployment situation is probably
reflected in this study.
The classification under "home economics" represents those
who contemplated marriage in the immediate future, or as an ultimate
aim.
This number is relatively small, and it may appear strange
that so few consider marriage as an aim in life.
317
PART
IV
SURVEY OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES OF NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1955 - 1957
Fields of Study of the Committee1s Investigation
Marital Status and Age
Mobility
High School Curricula
Education Planned after High School Graduation
Education Acquired since High School Graduation
Education in Process
Education Desired
Occupations Held in Fields Trained for
Occupations Held in Fields Not Trained for
Total Months of Employment since High School Graduation
Number of Different Positions Held Since High School
Graduation
Monthly wages of Employed Graduates
Reason for Changing or Leaving Employment
Satisfaction with Present Occupation
Occupations Preferred
Courses of which graduates regret the omission
Suggestions for the Betterment of the
Senior High School Program
(Tables found in Part V, Appendixes 5 anc* 6 i*1
above order)
PART IV
The information from which this part of the report was
compiled was gathered from questionnaires sent to 1927 young men and
young women graduates.
The number returned was 683 . A 35$ return
of this questionnaire is encouraging when we find that paid inter­
viewers reached only 71 $ of the graduates to receive the information
for Part III of this report.
The form of this questionnaire may be found in Appendix J.
We were primarily interested in the graduate’s education or employment
since he left the New Britain Senior High School.
The concluding
questions on the report sought out the graduate’s opinions on his
high school experience.
These questions were very general and many
graduates found them difficult or impossible to answer.
The questions
were made general so that ideas would not be suggested to them by
the type of question and that each answer would be a spontaneous
expression of their opinion.
These concluding questions account for
the four additional studies in Part IV, otherwise the information
gathered was used to continue the F.E.R.A. study, so that the years
1935-1937 might be included.
It must be remembered that this was not an attempt to bring
the earlier information up-to-date.
The findings of the preceding
study for graduates of the year 1931 -1934 - are compiled as of 1935 *
Part IV of the study covers graduates of the years 1935“1937 and "the
information contained is compiled as of February 1938.
The figures gathered by questionnaire, the committee thought,
should not be combined with those gathered by F.E.R.A. interviews.
For that reason, the results of the questionnaire study are discussed
separately on the following pages.
MARITAL STATUS AND AGE
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an<3- 6, Table No. 1)
The percentages of married and unmarried graduates show
the same trend as in the years 1931-1934*
More of the young women
graduates are married: 2 .3$ as compared to .3 $ of the young men. We
may draw the same conclusions that young men find early marriage
economically impossible while the young women are marrying men older
than themselves. Attention might also be called to the fact that
young women graduate from high school at an earlier age than young men.
This is borne out by figures in both Part III and Part IV of this
report and covers seven years, 19 31 - 1 9 3 7 *
From the figures obtained on marriage, 1931-1937, we may
predict that out of every one hundred graduates in the next seven
years, 6.9 young women and 1.3 young men will marry.
319
P a r t IV , P a g e 2
MOBILITY
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 and 6, Table No. 2)
In the study for the years 1935“T937> the figures lead to
the same conclusion.
The percentage of young women living with
parents is higher than young men: 8I4..I4# and 8 1 . 1 $ respectively.
As before, more young men have either permanently or temporarily left
New Britain: young men, 18$; young women, 13 .9 ^* This is an
increase over the previous study, for only 8$ of our graduates left
New Britain between 1931 and 193*4HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULA
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 and 6, Table No. 3 )
The same distinct differences between the curricula of
young men and young women is as noticeable as in Part III of this
report. Forty percent of the yoiang men take a college course; while
33-1% of the young women are in the commercial curricula.
The following summarization table will give both trends and
percentages:
j Men
1 Women
Percent Completing
College Curricula
Percent Completing
Percent Completing
Commercial Curricula General Curricula
1931
1931
193*4-
30
*4-6
I93 I+
1937
kk
36
38
27
19
22
18
1937
1931
2<
5*
30
21
193*4-
28
1937
33
19
The summary shows trends in the various curricula for young
men and young women. The percentages are of graduates completing that
type of curricula in the years represented. It will be seen that
more young men than young women take the college course while the.
commercial course is made up mostly of young
women. The decrease in
college preparatory students from 1931 to 193 *1- s®aras to be coming
back slightly.
The commercial department is increasing alarmingly,
Over half of the young women students were enrolled in this curricula
in 1937* The number of young men in this department increased by 11$
between 193 *4- and 1937 - One questions the ability of society to find
a place for so many commercial workers
Fewer students are in the general curriculum because of the
increase in the commercial department.
Whereas the percentage of
young men has slowly increased, the curricular balance existing in
193 *4- has been somewhat upset by the decrease from 28 $ to 19$ of
young women, in 193 *4- and 1937 respectively in this curriculum.
These figures show that curricular guidance is now more
necessary than in 193 *4-.
320
P a r t IV , Page 3
EDUCATION PLANNED AND CARRIED OUT
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an(i 6, Table No. I4.)
This study shows a reduction in the percentages of young
women planning further education.
Education Planned
1931-193^ 1935-1937
Young Men
Young Women
65
55
6k
I4.0
Carried Out
1931-1931+
1935-1937
25
31
35
29
The table above shows that education planned on the part
of the young men has remained about the same and that their ability
to carry out their plans dropped in proportion,
dropped
7%
The percentage of young women planning further education
and plans carried out dropped in proportion.
Young men desiring to enter the field of commercial work
has increased over the 1931 - 193 ^ study from 1;..3 % to 11.
The number of young men wishing to go to college has de­
creased about 15 $. The number wishing to go to Teachers* College
has increased 9*7$* Those wishing to go to Trade School after
graduation has decreased about 'J%. The percentage with no plans
increased from 19 $ to 3 6 .1$.
The number of young women who desire additional commercial
training still remains small, but shows an increase from 3.9/j to
8 .9$. Those desiring nurses* training has decreased about 5%. Those
planning to go to Teachers’ College has decreased 2% and those
desiring to go to college has decreased 7«2/u.
The tremendous increase in the percentage with no plans
reflects a need of guidance. Leisure time education and adult educa­
tion would be of great benefit to this group.
Financial reasons account for the greatest inability to
carry out plans.
EDUCATION ACQUIRED SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 and 6, Table No. 5 )
Since questionnaires were sent to graduates beginning with
1935 , it is possible for this group to have, either in process or
completed, three years of post-secondary education.
The graduates of
193 ° could have two years, and the 1937 graduates from six months to
one year.
This study shows delayed entrance into further education,
as did the study for the period 1931 - 193 ^- For example, of the 176
graduates of 1935 who returned questionnaires, ten have completed
only six months, when three years was possible; twenty-one have com­
pleted only one year, seventeen have completed only two years, and
sixteen have completed three years.
321
P a r t IV ,. Page ij.
This study also shows, as did the study of the previous
period, that young men go into a more expensive type of education;
while young women do more educational work on a vocational basis.
EDUCATION IN PROCESS AND DESIRED
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an(i 6 , Tables No. 6 and 7)
This study gives us a summary of the kind of education in
which our graduates are now engaged and the kinds that others still
desire.
College, Teachers’ College, business college, and trade
school are the fields engaged in whole or part time by 35 $ of our
young men graduates.
It will be noted therefore that 65^ have no
education in process.
Sixty-seven percent of the young women have no education in
process.
The large groups of the 33 $ in school are in colleges,
hospital training schools and commercial schools.
The number who desire further education is, however, con­
siderably lower, for only 10 $ of the young women and 25 $ of the
young men graduates still desire further education,
Considering male and female graduates of this period
together, 31 $ are furthering their education, 18 $ wish further educa­
tion, and 51 % desire no further education.
The greater number of
jobs available when this questionnaire was returned may help explain
the drop in the desire for advanced education.
OCCUPATIONS OF' YOUNG MSN
(See Part V, Appendix 5> Tables 8 and 9 )
The study of the period 1935-1937 reveals a greater number
of young men graduates engaged in occupations for which they have
received special training than in the period 1931-193^-* The increase
was from 10$ to 22.3$.
This may be explained by the increase in young
men in the commercial curriculum.
The young men, in many cases, are
replacing the young women office workers, for there is an increase of
from 3 .2 % in the previous period, to 1 8 .9$ at present in male office
•workers.
There is a reduction, therefore, in the number working in
fields for which they have received no training (57 *1$ to 2 8 .5$).
In Table 9# the high school curricula of the untrained
worker is also shown,
A surprising number, now working in the factory,
pursued a college curriculum.
It will be remembered that 14.0$ of the
young men were in this group.
It will also be noted that the number
of untrained workers is greatest in graduates of 1937 # and is lower
In 1936 and again in 1935*
This shows a slow absorption into more
desirable positions.
322
P a r t IV , Page 5
The outlook in New Britain for young men shows a marked
improvement in the period 1935-1937 over 1931 -193 ^-*
This study also revealed that 21$ were unemployed and 28.2$
were engaged only in completing their education.
OCCUPATIONS OP YOUNG WOMEN
(See Part V, Appendix 6 , Tables 8 and 9)
Young women lead young men as trained employees in this
period also, but only by Ij$ as compared to 27 $ in the 1931 -193 ^- period.
This gives a more encouraging picture for young men.
Twenty-five and one-half percent of the 26 .1$ of trained
female employees are working as general office workers.
The percentage of the young women graduates working as
untrained employees is l8.1j$. This is a decrease of about 12$ over
the previous period. Young women still lead the young men by about
i|$ as trained employees.
But as previously stated, there is an
improvement of 13 $ in "trained" occupations for young men.
This study also revealed that 25.2$ of the young women were
employed, and 28 $ were engaged in furthering their education.
TOTAL MONTHS OP EMPLOYMENT SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
(See Part, Appendixes 5 an& 6 , Table No. 10)
In considering the duration of employment of our graduates,
their potential employment period must be considered.
The following
table shows the potential employment period of each graduating class:
February 1935
June 1935
February 193 6
June 1936
February 1937
June 1957
3 6 months
30 months
2k months
18 months
12 months
6 months
Those who seem to have more employment than is possible (on Table 10)
included in their returns, part time employment while enrolled in
high school.
Two and one-half per cent of the young men and 12.6$ of the
young women have had no remunerative employment since graduation.
It will be noticed that the largest number in each year get
immediate employment after graduation. Since the largest percentage
of our employed graduates are employed as office workers, it is
possible to state that the offices in town take the good students
from our commercial department immediately, while the others are
absorbed more slowly.
323
P a r t IV , P ag e 6
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT POSITIONS HELD SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an(i
Table 11)
This table shows that our graduates still have a stable
tenure in their positions, for the largest percentages, both male
and female, have had only one position since they graduated from high
school.
There are, however, lafger percentages that have held three
or four positions than in the preceding period.
This may show a
trend of independence with increase in wages.
About Y\% of our grad­
uates have held only one position since graduation; lo% have held
two; and 6% have held three.
WAGES OF EMPLOYED GRADUATES
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an^ 6, Table 12)
If the wage scale of our graduates is used to judge their
success, the picture is not very bright.
Three years does not give
much chance to advance in wage scale, but the earning capacity of
our graduates is still relatively small.
The following summary will make the situation clearer:
Wages in Dollars
per month
$ 1. - # 20
Per cent
young men
Per cent
young women
.0
0
.
8 0 . - 100.
Over
100.
Unemployed
Amount not given
In school only
2 '^
20.6
18.8
28.2
28.1
5-8
It will be seen above that more young men fall into the
$60. to $80. group than young women.
There is, however, a very large
group of our graduates earning only $i(.0. to $60. per month.
Five and
six-tenths per cent of the young women are earning only $20. to $lj.O.
per month.
The young men reached a higher level than young women.
REASONS FOR CHANGING OR LEAVING EMPLOYMENT
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 and 6,
Table No. 1 3 )
The various reasons given by young men and young women
were advancement, business failure, discharged, laid off, low wages,
only temporary employment, and unpleasant working conditions.
As can
be readily seen, the only reason that reflects in any way upon the
ability of our graduates is "discharged”. Four male graduates gave
this as their reason.
324
P a r t IV , Page 7
The large number laid off (12$ of young men and 7»5$ of
young v/omen) is due to the current recession.
Temporary employment
accounts for the great turn-over in young women graduates. The
percentage of those receiving advancement was relatively high, 7*7$
young men and if. 3$ young women.
SATISFACTION WITH PRESENT OCCUPATION
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an(l
Table No. llf)
This table shows the occupations in which our graduates are
engaged, together with the degree of satisfaction with these occupa­
tions.
Those who express satisfaction are those who are working in
fields for which they have received training.
One way then, to make
our graduates happy, would be to give them a wider variety of voca­
tional training while in high school.
Dissatisfaction was expressed particularly by factory
workers.
It Is discouraging to those who have prepared for office
work or college, for example, to have to take work in the factory.
young men.
faction:
The greatest amount of dissatisfaction is expressed by
The following table will give an idea of the dissatis­
Per cent dissatisfied young men
1935
1936
1937
18.5
23.7
2 6 .6
Per cent dissatis­
fied young women
13.0
Ik. if
8. If
The percentages above are percentages of those gainfully employed.
The same thing is evident here, as in other parts of this report:
that young men are not being properly fitted for life.
It may be
that recently graduated young men become adjusted more slowly since
the dissatisfaction is greatest with the more recent graduates. These
figures might reflect that a wider choice of curricula on the voca­
tional level, for young men especially, is needed.
OCCUPATIONS PREFERRED
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 and 8, Table No. 1 5 )
This table repeats the emphasis in previous tables of the
fact that graduates prefer occupations for which they have had a
chance in high school to get basic or complete training. Vary the
scope of the curricula and you will have assured more happiness, more
satisfaction, and more jobs for our graduates
Those who prefer business or office work lead the list,
primarily because our graduates feel that they are prepared for this
type of work.
Many young men and young women prefer teaching because
325
P a r t IV , Page 8
they have been in contact with teaching, because we offer a teachers
college curriculum, and because we have a Teachers’ College in New
Britain.
Young men prefer work in various trades for the same
reason, and young women desire nurses’ training because they can
receive a preparatory curriculum at the high school, and New Britain
affords them, to some degree, the opportunity for training.
The need, then, is apparent.
Guidance and vocational
guidance are mandatory. Enlarge the Trade School to accommodate
both young men and young women. Awaken our community to the need for
a Junior College.
Our graduates appear to know too little about vocations
and have too little opportunity to prepare themselves for a satisfac­
tory place in life.
COURSES OF WHICH GRADUATES REGRET THE OMISSION
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 and- 6, Table No. 16)
This study was compiled from the answers to the question:
Are there any courses that you wish you might have had in high school?
The percentages on this table represent the percentages of the total
number of omissions regretted. About 63 $ of the graduates wished
that their choice of courses offered in the high school had been
different. A large part of this number regretted omitting typewriting
and other commercial or vocational subjects. A proper guidance
program would greatly aid this group.
Thirty-seven per cent of the graduates who regretted
omissions wanted courses other than those now offered.
The requests for additional courses are, for the most part,
very sensible. Penmanship, spelling, dramatics, and public speaking
are requested by a large group of graduates. Economics, sociology,
etiquette and salesmanship were also requested by our graduates.
Personal hygiene, philosophy, psychology, statistical work, geography,
and the Polish language had small percentages of requests.
A course in salesmanship appears to be a field in which the
high school might do something for its young men.
The study has
shown many young men are employed as salesmen and are completely
satisfied. Many more would like to be salesmen.
Since the whole
study shows that we are not doing as much for young men as for young
women, here, at least, is one field in which amends might be made.
SUGGESTIONS FOR THE BETTERMENT OF TIE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM
(See Part V, Appendixes 5 an<i 6, Table No.
17)
The data for this study was gathered from the question:
Have you any suggestions for the betterment of the Senior High School
program?
326
P a r t IV , Pag© 9
Many of our graduates availed themselves of this opportun­
ity to express their opinions.
Their answers were serious and well
meaning, for the four leading suggestions deal with educational
matters.
A large percentage (16$), feeling that their educational
opportunities were limited, asked for a return to an all day session
at the Senior High School.
About 10$ asked for an abolishment of the assignment marking
system and a return to a system based upon quality of their work.
About 18 $ asked for a guidance program, and an additional
18 $ remarked that some method should be devised to impress the value
of education upon students. Since this is one of the purposes of a
good guidance program, these two percentages might be combined.
Thirty-six per-cent of our graduates, then, recognize that a guidance
program is needed in our schools
About 5$ of our graduates thought that more extra-curricular
activities are needed.
About 7* 5$ °£ the young women thought that the commercial
department should be modernized.
-Vhat they had in mind was an
increase in use of commercial and bookkeeping machines.
A small percentage of young men wanted more commercial
subjects that would interest young men.
About 3 .5$ of our graduates thought it would be advantageous
to abolish fraternities and sororities.
Small percentages of young women asked for smaller classes,
higher academic standards, a more extensive athletic program for
girls, and more training for prospective nurses.
Eleven percent of the young women and 3/° of the young men
expressed complete satisfaction with the high school as it is at
present.
327
P a r t V, A p p e n d ix 1
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P a r t V. A p p e n d ix 3
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1931+
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
RECAPITULATION
Complete Interviews
6144-
Incomplete Interviews
196
Cannot Locate
Deceased
26
3
Moved
52
Outlying District
Total Graduates
7
928
337
P a r t V. A p p e n d ix 3
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A Survey)
(No. 1 F.E.R.A. Series)
MARITAL STATUS
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
134
178
No. 1933
No. 1934
840
928
228
300
Age
Class
Single
Married
Under 21
Over 21
Feb. 1931
---- ---45-
1
1
45
June 1931
84
4
9
79
Feb. 1932
47
1
14
34
1
June 1932
128
2
71
59
Feb. 1933
94
0
66
28
June 1933
134
0
112
22
Feb. 1934
104
0
92
12
June 1934
196
0
185
11
TOTALS
832
8
550
290
PER CENT
99.0
64.3
35.7
1.0
338
Part V.
Appendix 3
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 2 F.E.R.A. Series)
MOBILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
8 I4.O
928
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. I9 3 I
No. 1932
Class
13 k
178
No. 1933
No. 193 ft
Living
at home
with
parents
Feb. I 9 3 I
l*o
June 1931
77
Feb. 1932
ko
June 1932
120
88
122
Feb. 1933
228
300
Living
at own
home
married
k
k6
8
9
88
19
1
2
0
7 .... .
1*8 .
June 193U
87
181
TOTALS
755
7
Feb. I93 I4.
PER CENT
*
8 9 .8
Living
Living
in
away from
New
New
Britain Britain*
2
2
0
0
0
June 1933
Living
away from
home and
parents
.9
Therefore not interviewed
■3H* Per cent of total number graduated
8
130
5
93
5
16
11
13
15
135
10 I*
196
78
81*o
88
9.3
9 0 .5**
9 .5**
13
17
8
8
339
P a r t V.
A p p e n d ix 3
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 3 F.E.R.A. Series)
HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULA
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
81j.O
No. I93 I
No. 1932
228
300
Class
Feb. 1931
June 1931
Feb. 1932
13 k
178
No. I933
No. 193 k
College
23
11
21
18
36
3k
329
3 9 .2
23
Feb. 1933
29
June 1933
53
Feb. 193k
37
PER CENT
General
lk
27
12
57
TOTALS
Commercial
5
lk
k
17
k2
June 1932
June 193k
928
... JR..—
29
Commercial
~ and ,
General
2
0
3
2
GeneralTrade
8
5
6
lk
22
3
2
21
29
69
5
15
132
251
23
105
15.7
29.9
2.7
12 .5
37
6
.... Ilk
.
340
Part V. Appendix 3
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 4 F.E.R.A. Series)
EDUCATION PLANNED AFTER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total Number of Interviews
Total Number of Graduates
No, 1931
No. 1932
134
178
Types of
Education
College
Com. Art
Com. Training
Enbalming
Naval Academy
Music
Teachers* Col.
Trade School
U. S. Navy
No Plans
Work
No. 1933
No. 1934
840
928
228
300
Grads. Grads. Grads.
1932
1933
1931
102
75
105
2
2
1
10
8
7
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
29
11
6
TOTALS
20
20
26
24
42
38
134
178
228
Grads. Total Grads.
1931-1934
1934
133 j
415
1
6
36
11
1
1
2
4
9
17
15
61
1
1
138
50
78
160
840
300
REASONS FOR NOT CARRYING OUT PLANS
Percent
Plans Carried Out
Change of Plans
Economic Reasons
215
31
164
Financial Reasons
Further Preparation
No Plans
279
14
137
TOTAL
840
25.4
3.7
19,6
33.2
1.7
16.4
100.
Percent
49.3
.7
4.3
.2
.2
.5
2.
7.2
.2
16.4
19.
100.
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TOTALS
05
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U
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I<
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LO
1
I
1
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t-3
O
O
K
P
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Agriculture
to
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Grads. 1932
NEW
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53
H
03
G r a d s . 1931
BRITAIN,
Eh
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SENIOR
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342
P a r t V . A p p e n d ix 3
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 6 F.E.R.A. Series)
Total Number of Interviews
Total Number of Graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
134178
No. 1933
No. 1934
840
928
228
300
EDUCATION IN PROCESS AND DESIRED
Types of Education
Accounting:
Architecture
Agriculture
College
Commercial training
Embalming
Home Economics
Horology
Laboratorv work
Music
Naval Academy
Night School
Poetry writing
Post Graduate
Teachers College
Trade School
West Point
None in process
TOTALS
Grads
1931
28
2
In Process
Grads. Grads.
1932
1933
2
1
1
38
6
31
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
7
Grads. Total Grads
193)+
1931-193142
S
1
1
1
136
39
IS
29
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
8
30
1
13
13
21
7
PI
1
11
T
1
p
8
1+
3
S
2
8
90
13k
113
173
228
.
.1
k.1
1 .8
2-1+
P.).
1
1
is 8
Per
cent
.6
.1
.1
1S.S
3.9
.2
.1
.1
209
.. ..30.0.
.
S70
8k0
1
100.
Desi.red
Accounting
Agriculture
Bus.Administration
College
Commercial Art
Commercial Training
Korologv
Laboratory
Music
Poetry Writing
Flight School
Post Graduate
leachers College
Irade School
None Desir'firi
TOTALS
10
,3
ll2
7
9
3
6Il
7
6
6
10
3
3
1
60
10
21
2
1
8
1
1
1
8
6
2
8
is
1+3
19
SO
26
Vk
178
228
...
9
3S
2
2
12
290
3
84
1+
30
3 .2
31
1
1
1
8
8
9
3
1
1*
20
3
%
k .2
. .2
l.lj.
26
119
300
2k
8?
292
8l+0
.1
1.
1 .1
4
2 -1+
4
2 .8
1 0 .1
9 I+.7
100.
343
Part V.
Appendix 3
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-1934
MALE
GRADUATES
(Data taken from FjE.R.A. Survey)
(do. 11 F.E.R.A. Series)
OCCUPATIONS HELD IN FIELDS TRAINED FOR
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
840
928
No. 1931
No. 1932
228
300
134
178
Occupations
Accounting
Commercial Art
Drafting
Electricity
Embalming
Engineering
Journalism
Mechanic
Music
Office -:rork
Pharmacy
Plating
Printing
Teachinf
Unemployed
Going tOQ school
Fields not
trained for
TOTALS
No. 1933
No. 1934
Grads.
1931
1
1
3
Grads. Grad3.
1932
1933
1
°I98l*
1
1
1
2
2
1
6
1
9
11
1
8
10
1
1
6
1
2
1
1
2
1
6
1
2
17
29
22
28
39
79
61
92
112
134
134
178
228
Total Grads.
1931-1934
2
1
A.
6
1
1
1
27
2
25
2
1
5
1
131
For cent
.2
.1 ....
.5
.8
.1
.1
.1
3.6
.2
3.2 ..
.
.2 ....
.1
.6
.1
15.4 .
.
.
150
17.6
142
480
57.1
300
840
100.
344
Part V. Appendix 3
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1951-1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
No. 12 F.E.R.A. Series)
OCCUPATIONS HELD IN FIELDS NOT TRAINED FOR
8 I4.O
928
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
Occupations
13 k
178
No. 1933
No. 193 k
Grads.
1931
Agriculture
Commercial Art
Draftins
Electricity
Engineerins
Factorv work
Gas Attendant
Laboratory work
Mechanic
Music
Office Work
Psvchiatric aide
Printing
Relief work
Salesman
Sales work
Teachins
U.S. Army
U.S. Navv
Work
Woodworking
Unemploved
Goins to school on lv
Fields trained
for
TOTALS
1
228
300
Grads.
1932
1
1
Grad s.
1933
3
2
Grads.
1934
5
1
3
1
2
40
53
36
10
1
6
8
2
3
2
2
11
2
11
11
1
5
7
8
2
1
1
1
29
25
27
22
8
2
1
7
3
3
8
8
2
12
4
1
11
5
3
Total Grads Per
1931-1934
cent
10
1 .2
3
.4
1
.1
3
3
151
32
3
5
.4
.4
17.9
3.8
.4
8
1.
4.
.9
34
7
.6
1
.1
45
17
16
5.8
2.
1.9
1
1
2
5
2
.1
.6
.2
50
131
15.4
1
2
.2
1
6
22
17
28
29
39
79
61
131
150
15.4
17.8
14
21
26
18
79
9.4
134
178
228
300
840
100.
345
P a r t V,
A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-195^
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 13 F.E.R.A. Series)
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT POSITIONS HELD SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. I9 3 I
No. 1932
13 k
178
81f0
928
No. 1933 228
No. I93 J4. 300
Number of Different Positions
Class
0
1
2
Feb. 1931
11
23
12
June 1931
17
57
14
Feb. 1932
14
27
7
June 1932
31
76
23
Feb. 1933
27
50
17
June 1933
41
81
12
Feb. 1934
30
66
8
June 1934
110
79
7
Total
281
459
Per cent
33.5
54.8
100
11.7
3
4
5
6
7
346
P a r t V.
A p p e n d ix 3
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-193^
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. II4. F.E.R.A. Series)
TOTAL MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
8 J4.O
928
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
13 k
178
No. 1933
No. 193Ll
228
300
Class
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
Feb. 1931
11
4
2
3
1
1
2
2
2 14
5
3
Juno 1931
17
7
1
5
3
6
5
5
3 21
6
7
F eb. 1932
14
2
1
1
1
2
4 11
6
6
June 1932
31 13 10 10
6
6
9
2
7 28 12 13
Feb. 1933
27
3
6
7
2
2 11
5
3 27
8
6
June 1933
41 12
9
8
8
3
4 12
4 25
8
5
1
6
Feb. 1934
40
4
9
3
5 12 15
11 10
2
1
3
n o 27 14
6
6
3
1
6
281 75 47
46 29 27 50 51
4 12 17
29
June 1934
TOTALS
7
6
8
10 15 18 24 30 36 42 Unknown
3 10
1
1
37 146 46 43
2
2
4
3
1
4
9
3
1
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
3
347
P a r t V.
A p p e n d ix 3
SURVEY" OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
MALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 15
F.E.R.A. Series)
MONTHLY WAGES OP EMPLOYED GRADUATES
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
134
178
. 840
928
No. 1933
No. 1934
228
300
______________________________ Wages Per Month in Dollars______________
Totals
11
17
14
31
27
41
40
110
281
P
Class
Fob. 1931
June 1931
Feb. 1932
June 1932
Fob. 1933
June 1933
Feb. 1934
June 1934
1G
Totals
a o
CH
pp
Class
Feb. 1931
June 1931
Feb. 1932
June 1932
Feb. 1933
June 1933
Fob. 1934
JUne 1934
&1-5
6-10
11-15 16-20 21-25
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
4
2
2
1
5
2
4
1
3
5
4
3
6
6
13
14
26
26-30 31-35
5
1
4
8
3
2
12
2
7
4
5
6
5
4 .
2
1
8
7
5
4
20
56
17
Amt.
9
12
12
9
12
12
15
15
21
108
41-45 46-50
2
2
A
2
2
10
1
7
3
8
4
7
1
11
13
51
51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90
3
10
3
'11
19
2
6
2
5
5
6
20
14
17
1
10
16
11
17
14
2
8
11
11
1
4
17
4
1
115
72
56
8
91-100
3
3
1
4
1
2
36-40
3
6
4
11
4
10
7
9
54
Over
100
3
1
1
9
1
1
14
16
A p p e n d ix 3
P a r t V,
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-1954
MALE GRADUATES
(D&ta taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No, 16
F.E.R.A. Series)
OCCUPATIONS PREFERRED. IMMEDIATE AND ULTIMATE
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
81^.0
No. I9 3 I
No. I932
228
300
List
occupations
13 k
178
Embalming
TOTALS
No. 1933
No. 193k
Grads .1931
Im. Ult.
Accounting
4
Agriculture
Archeology
Armv
Business Admin
3
Cert. Pub.Acct
2
Commercial Art
Dentist
Doctor
1
Drafting
2
Electrician
Ensineor
6
Finance
Gas Attendant
1
Horology
Home Economics
Journalism
2
L a b . work
2
Lawyer
Mechanic
Music
Minister
46
No preference
34
Office work
Pharmacist
1
Phvs. Dir.
Priest
Printing
3
Prof.Baseball
Psychiatric ai le
2
Salesman
Saleswork
6
Teaching
2
Tree Surgerv
U. S. Navy
Woodworking
1
Work
15
1
Architecture
134
928
11
Grads .1932 Grads .1933 Grads .1934 Total Grads. Fer
_ 193]
cent*
Im.
Ult.
Im.
Ult. Im.
Ult. Im.
i- m
4
14
1
10
1
12
2
1
5
5
9
2
2
12
1
1
18
1
12
1
1
2
3
1
2
16
5
2
1
4
5
3
1
1
18
15
2
6
12
6
1
2
1
8
9
22
37
14
1
18
6
3
4
5
9
4
12
9
5
8
1
1
2
1
5
2
6
1
19
16
1
1
71
65
35
34
2
2
2
7
31
3
1
9
5
22
21
12
17
2
88
97
1
2
19
4
2
6
7
42
5
52 .271
54 233
2
2
2
1
4
2
1
1
6
4
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
20
1
1
134
178
5
5
9
3
1
1
4
3
178
4
4
1
2
2
1
S
4
2
2 .
13
4
8
15
2
13
1
1
2
17
3
1
3
8
2
2
2
3
1
3
48
6
1
1
110
2
2
228
300
300
840
* Percents of Ultimate Preference Only
.5
6.7
.4
3.2
10
1 .2
38
17
25
90
4.5
2.
3.
8
3
1
5
1.
.4
1
.1
21
14
24
46
6
3
127
117
4
7
3
14
1
14
3
47
9
5
7
15
840
1 0 .6
3
2
4
2
1
27
1
4
56
3
27
1
3
1
228
2
2
6 .1
.6
.2
51
5
1
9
6
5
3
11
1
2
1
1
66
2
8
16
2
1
1
1
1
12
5
3
5
25
3
5
3
7
11
1
2
4
5
4
14
4
6
2.5
1.7
2.9
5.5.
.7
.4
15.
13.8
.5
.8
.4
1.7
.2
.1
1.7
.4
5.6
1 .1
.6
.8
6
1701
.7
5
.6
100.
349
Part V,
Appendix I4.
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931
-
19314-
FEMALE GRADUATES
(DATA TAKEN FROM F.E.R.A. SURVEY)
RECAPITULATION
Complete interviews
714
Incomplete interviews
193
Cannot locate'
25
Deceased
k
Outlying District
6
Removed from District
Total Graduates
37
979
350
P a r t V. A p p e n d ix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931-1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A Survey)
(No. 1 F.E.R.A. Series)
MARITAL STATUS
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. I 93 I
No. 1932
156
9^7
979
No. 1933
No. 1 9 3 4
215
2hB
288
Age
Class
Single
Married
Under 21
Over 21
Feb. I9 3 I
41
5
3
k-3
June 1931
100
10
33
77
Feb. 1932
53
3
27
29
J June 1932
147
12
121
38
Feb. 1933
81
1
65
17
June 1933
160
6
156
10
Feb. 1934
91
4
91
4
June 1934
192
1
189
TOTALS
865
42
685
222
95.4
4.6
75.5
2 4 .5
Per Cent
..
.
1*
351
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 4
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 2 F.E.R.A. Series)
MOBILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
Class
156
215
No. 1933
No. 1934
Living
at home
with
parents
907
979
248
288
Living
at own
homo
married
Living
away from
home and
parents
Living
in
New
Britain
46
Living
away from
New
Britain
5
Feb. 1931
40
3
3
June 1931
91
3
16
110
12
Feb. 1932
48
8
56
3
June 1932
140
13
159
17
Feb. 1933
72
10
82
12
June 1933
Feb. 1934
151
81
13
13
166
95
9
5
June 1934
171
22
193
9
TOTALS
794
15
98
907
72
PER CENT
87.5
1.7
10.8
92. 6*h :-
7.4*:k :-
«•
6
2
1
Therefore not interviewed
Per cent of total number graduated
i
i
352
Part V, Appendix 4
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR
HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A, Survey)
(No. 3 F.E.R.A. Series)
HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUA
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
Class
156
215
No. 1933
No. 1934
College
907
979
248
288
Commercial
General
June 1931
13
29
13
34
10
24
Feb. 1932
17
20
June 1932
34
! Feb. 1933
June 1933
Feb. 1931
Commercial
and
Col T ego
3
Toaohorft
College '
7
4
19
14
2
3
55
49
5
15
32
26
1
16
8
67
52
2
12
Feb. 1934
33
12
38
34
2
9
June 1934
41
95
48
3
6
TOTALS
194
354
257
22
80
PER CENT
21.5
39.0
28.3
2.4
8.8
353
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from'F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 4 F.E.R.A. Series)
EDUCATION PLANNED AFTER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total number of Interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
156
215
No. 1933
No. 1934
Grads.
Types of
Education
1931
38 .
College
Com. Art
3
Com. Trainins
6
Cosmetics
Dancing
Journalism
Laboratory
1
Medicine
Music
Nurses Trg.
27
Post Graduate
Scout Exec.
Teachers’ Col.
23
34
Work
24
No Plans
TOTALS
156
907
979
248
288
Grads. Grads. Grada.
1934
1932
1933
42
44
47
2
5
5
15
9
6
2
5
3
1
1
1
1
35
1
1
26
62
25
51
2
47
2
29
85
30
15
98
54
215
248
288
Totals
1931 - 1934 Per-Cent
18*9
171
1.7
15
3.9
36
10
1.1
1
.1
1
.1
.1
1 ....
1
.1
.3
3
■' ■" 160
1 "" 17.8 "
.3
3
1
.1
93
10.3
30.7
278
14.5
133
907
REASONS FOR NOT CARRYING OUT PLANS
Per cent
Plans Carried Out
Change
of Plans
Economic Reasons
324
95
202
35.7
10*5
22.4
Financial Reasons
Further Preparations
No Plans
145
130
11
15.9 '
14.3
1.2
TOTAL
907
100.
100.
CO
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TOTALS
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w
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Graduate
©
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1
1
1
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1
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03
SURVEY
rH r -
(College
ICommercial Art
ICom. Trainine
(Cosmetician
(Dancing
1Journalism
(Librarian
p
03
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CO
IV
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NEW
SCHOOL,
HIGH
SENIOR
CF
I
P
to
P
d
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GRADUATES
§
t—1
•P
O
pH
cO
H
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©
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P a r t V.
A p p e n d ix 4
355
P a r t V, A ppendix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 6 F.E.R.A. Series)
EDUCATION IN PROCESS AND DESIRED
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No; 1931
No. 1932
156
215
No.
No.
1933
1934
Grads.
Types of Education
1931
Accounting
1
College
9
Commercial Art
3
Commercial trainin* :
.9
Cosmetics
Dancing
Dentistry
Home Economics
Laboratory
Music
1
Nurses Training
8
Post Graduate
Psyvhiatry
1
Religious Educ.
Teachers* College
5
119
None in Process
TOTALS
156
907
979
248
288
In Process
Grads.
1932
Grads.
1933
23
1
27
1
14
1
24
2
G rads. Total Grads
Per
1934
1931-1934 Cent
.2
2
1
19
65
7.3
.8
7
2
102
42
11.1
8
.9
5
1
1
.
.1
1
1
-1
2
5
.6
1
1
___ 15
.6
1
83
9.1
17
13
10
1.6
6
1
.7
1
1
.1
49
5.4
10
558
174
,,61.3 ,
.
3
...
3
30
1
1
28
2
3
14
114
20
151 __
215
248
907
288
100.
Des ired
College
Commercial Art'
Commercial Trg.
Cosmetics
Dancing
Dentistrv
Home Economics
Journalism
Laboratory
Music
wurses Training
Post Graduate
Social Service
Teachers’ College
None Desired
TOTALS
19
14
22
26
9
33
4
1
21
9
43
1
1
25
22
67
9
4
2
6
7
3
2
1
7
35
3
39
2
15
76
215
4
20
100
248
2
13 ..
1
5
74
156
1
34
3
1
13
100
288
.
io:
91
54
5.9
18.2
165
14
1.6
2
.2
3
13
19
2.3
2 ... , ,2_..
2
.2
„1?..
._| 2.3
lSl
13.3
;3
3
8
.9_
5.8
53
38 i5
351
100.
907
356
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 11 and 12 F.E.R.A. Series)
OCCUPATIONS
HELD IN FIELDS TRAINED FOR AND NOT TRAINED FOR
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
907
979
No. 1931
No. 1932
248
288
156
215
No. 1933
No. 1934
Fields Trained For
Occupations
Commercial Art
Cosmetics
Dancing
Dentists Assistant
Librarian
Music
Nurs ing
Office Work
Scout Executive
Teaching
TOTALS
(A)
Grads.
1931
2
2
Grads.
1932
Grads.
1933
Grads.
1934
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
66
13
53
1
1
78
62
70
16
45
2
Commercial Art
Dentists Assistant
Factory
House Work
Journalism
Psychiatry Aide
Sales Work
Social Service
Telephone Operator
Misc. Employment
Fields Not Trained For
1
1
1
7
16
17
17
19
19
1
2
8
4
22
23
23
1
1
1
4
3
1
8
5
TOTALS
58
67
21
21
178
(B)
No Employment
(C)
In School Only (D)
Totals of
Items A.B.C.D
1
1
41
48
Total Grads.
1931-1934
2
5
2
1
7
2
17
205
1
16
258
5
1
2
59
81
1
23
90
2
8
19
80
81
286
28
69
39
70
71
91
158
252
226
259
291
954
19
26
9
22
357
Part V, Appendix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A, Survey)
(No. 13 F.E.R.A. Series)
NUMBER OP DIFFERENT POSITIONS HELD SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
156
215
907
979
No. 1933
No. 1934
248
288
Number of Different Positions
Class
0
1
2
3
1
Feb. 1931
10
32
3
June 1931
32
71
7
Feb. 1932
19
30
7
June 1932
78
77
4
Feb. 1933
31
47
4
June 1933
78
81
7
Feb. 1934
45
50
June 1934
117
74
2
TOTALS
410
462
34
45.2
50.9
3.8
PER CENT
•
1
.1
4
5
6
Over
6
358
P a r t V.
A p p e n d ix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 14 F.E.R.A. Series)
TOTAL MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
907
979
No. 1931
No. 1932
248
288
156
215
No. 1933
No. 1934
24 30 36 42 Unknown
6
8
2
6
2
1
3
1
6
5
4
2
1
5
3 11
7
2
2
8
9
8
1
11 7
8
3
3
2
4
4
9
7
4
3
2
78
7 10
2
4
5
3
6 16
6 14
1
7
Feb. 1933
31
7
7
2
5
3
8
3 10
5
3
2
June 1933
78
6 LI
7
6
12
7
6 24
9
6
1
Feb. 1934
45
7
3
3
5
LO
2
6
7
2
5
June 1934
117 17 L5
5
8
13
2
1
6
TOTAL
410 51 57
29 43
60
26 29 83 38 44
Class
0
1
2
3
4
Feb. 1931
10
1
3
4
June 1931
32
3
Feb. 1932
19
3
June 1932
5
10 15 18
1
4
2
1
10
21 9
7
33
i
359
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 15 F.E.R.A. Series)
Total number of Interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
156
215
No. 1933
No. 1934
907
979
248
288
MONTHLY WAGES OF EMPLOYED GRADUATES
UnemClass
Dloyed
Feb. 1931
10
32
June 1931
Feb. 1932
19
June 1932
78
Feb. 1933
31
June 1933
78
Feb. 1934
45
June 1934 ... 117
TOTALS
Class
Feb.
June
Feb.
June
Feb.
June
Feb.
June
1931
1931
1932
1932
1933
1933
1934
1934
TOTALS
410
Amt.
9
5
11
7
13
2
10
6
9
63
$1-5
1
2
6-10
1
3
2
5
2
6
5
9
7
33
2
2
41-45 46-50
6
8
1
3
3
6
8
2
1
4
8
4
4
3
7
22 '
46
11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35
2
1
1
1
2
6
1
3
1
1
4
1
4
1
2
9
2
1
2
2
5
3
1
6
1
8
2
6.
3
2
1
3
. 4 _ ...
6
10
3
6
1
._.
15
47
25
14
17
51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 90-100
8
7
3
1
1
6
26
3.
1
13
1
23
3
1
20
2
2
31
5
1
2
15
8
2
144
21
16
3
1
36-40
4
12
4
8
5
10
3
12
58
Over
100
.1
1
360
P a r t V,
A ppendix 4
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1931 - 1934
FEMALE GRADUATES
(Data taken from F.E.R.A. Survey)
(No. 16 F.E.R.A. Series)
OCCUPATIONS PREFERRED. IMMEDIATE AND ULTIMATE
Total number of interviews
Total number of graduates
No. 1931
No. 1932
1933
248
1934
288
Grads . 1931 Grads . 1932 Grad s.1933 Grads .1934
List
Im. Ult.
Ult.
oOccupations
Im.
Ult. Im. Ult.
Im.
fi
13
7
7
Art.
3
11
9
1
1
22
6
2
5
Cosmetics
1
1
1
9 „10.
1
1
T
2
Dancine
3
4 .
1
3
Factory
1L.,
2
Dental Hvciene
1
1,
1
1
8
1
3
4
4
1
Home Economics
3 14
6
1
1
Laboratory
Law
1
2
2
2
Librarian
1
3
1 , 1
Music
2
3
1
4
1.
78
33
14
27 258
18
No preference
80
23
67
9
42 43
28
8
38
41
6
Nurs ins:
20
Office Work
76
58
97
89 .144 138 157... 152 474
Phvsician
1
4
Prof. writing
2
1 .
1,
2
2
8
2
Psychiatry
5
1
1.
Rel. Educ.
1
1
2
4
1 15
5.
1
4
Sales Work
1
1
1
Sc nut. Exec.
1
2
Social Service
1
1
1
5
7
2
28 29
32
32
Teaching
16
4
34
5
1
1
1
Tel. Operator
3
1
2
6
Undecided
1
19
2
Misc. Work
3
14
TOTALS
156
215
907
979
No.
No.
156
156
215
248
248
* Per cents of ultimate preference only
288
288 907
Per
Cent *
,36...... ,3.*a_
,17 . ...1*8..,
.1
... 1...
__ 33..
16
2
1
.a2.„
1.7
.2
.1
5
82
149
431
1
8
1
2
2
1
9
126
2
9
.6
9.
16,5
47.6
,1
.9
.1 .
.2
907
100.
4
.1
1.
14.
.2
.1,. .
361
Part V.
Appendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935 “ 1937
MALE GRADUATES
Questionnaires Distributed
906
Questionnaires Returned
270
Not Delivered by Post Office
Deceased
10
1
362
P a r t V A ppendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 1
MARITAL STATUS
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies,- received
Replies,
906
270
86
9 I4-
1935
1936
1937
90
7—
Class
Single
Married
.Unde r 21
—
Ag e
' —
—
—
Over 21
Feb. 1935
35
0
June 1935
51
0
Feb. I936
27
0
27
June 1936
66
1
67
Feb. 1937
28
0
23
June 1937
62
0
62
TOTAL
269
1
18ij-
86
Per Cent
99.7
.3
6 8 .2
3 1 .8
•
Totals
35
84
51
•
9k
90
270
100 .
363
P a rt 5
A ppendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
MOBILITY
No. 2
$06
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
Class
Feb. 1935
1935
193b
1937
Living
at home
with
parents
270
S6
9^
90
Living
at own
home
married
23
Living
away from Total
New
Britain
Living
away from
home and
parents
Living
in
New
Britain
7
23
7
9
06
June 1935
42
9
42
Feb. 1936
21
6
21
6
June 1936
51
15
52
15
Feb. 1937
23
5
23
5
June 1937
5*
3
55
7
TOTALS
219
1
50
221
49
270
•3
18.6
32.
IS
10 0 .
Per cent
31.1
1
Sk
90
364
P a rt 5
A ppendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULA
' No. 3
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
^06
2JO
^6
1935
193b
1937
9^
90
1
Class
College
Commercial
General
Feb. 1935
12
7
16
J'une 1935
20
12
19
Feb. 1936
13
2
12
June 1936
30
16
21
Feb. 1937
13
6
9
June 1937
21
20
21
TOTALS
109
63
9S
Per cent
ko.k-
23.3
Total
S6
9*J-
36.3
90
270
100 .
365
P a rt 5
A ppendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
EDUCATION PLANNED AFTER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
No. 4
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
9°6
270
66
1935
1936
1937
94
90
Grads.
1935
3
2
6
19
1
2
Types of Education
Art School
Aviation
Business College
College
Drama
Engineering
Forestry
Music
Pharmacy
Teachers College
Trade School
None planned
Grads.
1936
2
1
6
3?
2
5
1
IS
2^
5
2
1
36
2
7
1
30
33
S6
90
94
17
TOTALS
Grads.
. 1937___
7
Total
1935-37
5
3
30
SO
3
12
1
3
2
31
1
99
270
Per
cent
l.S
x4
11.4
29.4
1.1
4.7.
.3
1.1
•7
11.7
.3
36.4
100.
REASONS FOR NOT CARRY ING OUT PLANS
Reason
Plans carried out
Change of plans
Further Preoaratior
Financial reasons
No plans
TOTALS
Grads.
1935
23
5
22
36
S6
Grads.
1936
31
2
31
30
94
Grads.
1937
30
3
3
21
33
90
Total
1935-37
74
Per
cent
31.1
3.
l.S
27.4
99
270
36:7
100 .
s4
s
5
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1
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a
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:
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031
i
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IV
m
:= 3
13
6
a
38
366
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a
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rH
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to
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a
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CQ
5:
a
a
1
M
«
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2
a
a
rH
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<
■0
EH
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H
to
rH
m l
H
a
rH
h■" ■
IV
O
W
S
14
Eh
3
H
o
M
i
in
4
eh
367
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
EDUCATION IN PROCESS
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies, 1935
1936
1937
Types of Education
906
270
9^
90
Grads.
1935
Grads.
1936
Art School
1
1
Business College
2
Il-
College
9
Drama
1
IS
Grads.
1937
Per
cent
2
.7
9
15
5.6
13
4o
liJ-.S
1
>3
1
r3
1
Ministry
Total
1935-37
Pharmacy
1
1
2
•7
Secretarial School
1
1
2
.7
10
6
5
21
7.9
1
5
5
11
k.k-
None in process
60
5*3
57
175
6K .6
TOTAL
S6
9^
90
270
Teachers College
Trade School
100 .
368
P a rt V
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN,
A p p e n d ix 5
CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 7
EDUCATION DESIRED BUT NOT IN PROCESS
906
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
270
26
9^
90
Grads.
1935
Types of Education
Grads.
1936
Grads. Total
1935-37
1937
1
1
Art School
Business College
1
5
College
2
10
k■
15
Per
cent
•3
10
K
27
10.
Dramatics
1
1
.3
Embalming
1
1
•3
Engineering
6
5
11
Ministry
1
2
3
1 .1
3
1 .1
Music
1
2
Optometry
1
1
.3
Psychiatry
1
1
.3
1
•3
k
1-5
Secretarial School
1
Teachers College
1
3
Trade School
2
1
1
k
1.5
None Desired
*7
3 H-
39
120
m .iv
Education in Process
25
26
29
62
3 0 .2
66
Sk-
90
270
TOTAL
I
*
100 .
369
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1.937
MALE GRADUATES
No. S
OCCUPATIONS HELD IN FIELDS TRAINED FOR
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
Occupations
$06
2J0
&&
9^
90
Grads. Grads. Grads. Total
1936
1937
1935-37
1935
1
•3
2
•7
1
1
•3
1
1
•3
51
is. 9
Barber
1
Journalism
1
Mail Clerk
Mechanic
Office Work
Per
cent
23
1
IS
10
Radio
2
2
•7
Salesman
3
3
1 .1
Unemployed
Ilf
2k-
IS
56
21.
At School
22
2S
26
76
2S.2
Fields Not Trained For
IS
2k-
35
77
2S, 5
S6
9^
90
270
TOTAL
100.
370
P a r t V. A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935 - 1937
MALE
GRADUATES
No. 9
OCCUPATIONS HELD IN FIELDS NOT TRAINED FOR
High School Curricula
Forestry
Printing
Psychiatric
Aide
r
g
9
1
1
1
5
1
2
1
Truck driver
il-
20.
1.1
1
2
•7
1
2
.7
3
ill-
5-k
1
2
0.7
1
2
5^
3
1
Salesman
Cent
g
totals
1935-37
Per
1
k
General
k
Commercial
5
College
General
5
6
College
Commercial
College
I
Factory
Grads. 1937
1
Grads. 1936
Grads. 1935
Commercial
r
General
Occupations
2
lg
56
21 .c
At School
22
2$
26
76
2 g. 2
•60
1
—1
11
61
2 2 .2
9^
90
270
Fields Traine
For
TOTAL
CVJ
2k
r^\
ik
Ti
Unemployed
g6
1
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
^6
9*J90
906
270
100.
3 71
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITA IN , CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 10
TOTAL'MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT SINCE GRADUATION
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies, 1935
1936
1937
906
270
86
94
90
Mont]is of Employment
Class
Feb. 1935
0 2
3 4
5 6
8 10 12 15 18 20 24 30 36
1
In School
Totals
. Only
6
9
ID 7
13
1
8 9
2
6 7
6
3 5
5 2
2
i
■
86
June 1935
Feb. 1936
June 1936
1 1
f
1 1 1
Feb. 1937
1
7
94'
4
5 2
9 12 11
21
1 11 2 1 16
7
90
June 1937
6 2
1
TOTALS
7 4
3 4
PER CENT
3
6 16 9
19
7 22 16 3 29 19 23 9 16 19 13
76
270
28.2
100.
2.5 1.5 1.1 1.5 2.5 8.2 5B ia 10.77JL &4 3.5 5.8 7.1
5.
37 2
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 11
NUMBER OP DIFFERENT POSITIONS HELD SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
906
270
86
94
90
Number of Different Positions
Class
1
2
3
4
Feb. 1935
9
12
4
1
June 1935
14
8
9
6
Feb. 1936
14
4
2
28
10
5
16
. 4
0
6
8
School
Only
Total
9
86
1
13
7
94
June 1936
1
Feb. 1937
2
21
1
7
90
June 1937
6
25
10
2
TOTALS
7
106
48
22
PER CENT
2.5
39.2)17.6 8.2
.... 1
19
10
4.
1
.3
76
270
28.2
100.
373
Part V, Appendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 12
MONTHLY WAGES OF EMPLOYED GRADUATES
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
(
1935
1936
1937
906
270
86
94
90
Wages Per Month in Dollars
Class
Unem- A m t . In 41- 51not
pLoyed Stated
50 60
m f
6170
71- 8180 90
91- Over
100 100
Feb. 1935
4
3
9
2
2
1
5
4
2
3
June 1935
10
6
13
1
3
3
9
3
2
1
Feb, 1936
6
5
7
2
2
4
June 1936
IS
3
21
5
6
2
9
1
Feb. 1937
3
1
7
3
2
6
4
1
June 1937
15
2
19
8
5
3
7
56
20
76
21
20
19
34
TOTALS
86
1
94
2
1
90
TOTALS
PER CENT
20.6
7.5 28.2
7.9 7.5
7.1 12,2
9
3.5
2
1
8
7
3.
2.5
270
100.
374
Part V, Appendix 5
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 13
REASONS FOR CHANGING OR LEAVING EMPLOYMENT
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
Reasons
Advancement
906
270
85
94
90
Grads.
1935
15
Grads.
1936
3
Grads.
1937
3
Total
1935-1937 Per Cent
21
7.7
1
.3
4
1.5
Business Failure
1
Discharged
2
2
Laid Off
7
15
10
32
Low Wages
6
5
1
12
4.5
Temporary Employmenl
Unpleasant Working
Conditions
7
4
2
13
5.
5
3
2
10
4.
In School Only
Unemployed Since
Graduation
22
28
26
76
28.2
1
6
7
2.5
No Change
20
33
40
93
No Reason Given
TOTALS
1
86
1
94
90
270
12.
34.
.3
100.
P p r t V.
375
A ppendix 5
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376
P a r t V , A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 15
OCCUPATIONS PREFERRED
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
906
270
86
94
90
Total
Grads.
1935-1937 Per Cent
1937
.. .7 ::..::. ..... ... ... .4,4......
3
.. 6
2,1
1
5
1.8. .
2
3
1,1....
1
2
3
1,1....
.....1....
.... 1...
,3....
18,8
... 20.... ......................8 ....
... .2.2....
50
Dramatics
2
2
.7.....
Engineering
4
7
18
7
6.5
Embalming
1
1
.3
Hair Dressing
1
1
.3....
Insurance
2
2
.7
1
■jQurnallam.........
.... .1.
,3.....
.7 ..
.La.w....... .........
.... 2
2
4
5 . ....
..I.a.Qh.iJlis.t.s....T.ra.4g... ....i .... ......3....
. .13.
3
1.1
„Ma±l.....Cle.rk.......... .... .3.....
Medicine
2
1
1
4
1,5....
Ministry
2
2
1,8
1
5
Music
2
2
1.8
1
.... .5. . .
3
14
8;s
23
..Q.££.ic.e.....I.ork........
... 6 ...
..Qp.torngtry..........
1
.....1...
, 3 ...
Pharmacy
2
I
.... 3....
.P.Q.l.i.c.e..,..w.Q.rk........
... .1.... ..... 1.
. 3 ...
Psychiatry
1
1
,3....
Radio
8
4
3
1
... 3 a.......
Sales Work
2
'5
3
... .10..... . . 4.......
Store Manager
2
2
.7
Teaching
28
11
10
7
10,4
Trade
5
1.8
.. ._....5.....
No Preference Stated
52
19
16
17
19,3
Occupations
..4o..c.Q.unting.........
.Army................
,Ar.t........... ......
Athletic Director
Aviation
..Baling............
TOTALS
Grads.
1935
Grads,
1936
.. ..4....
3
....4
1
86
94
90
270
100.
377
P a rt
V , A p p e n d ix 5
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OP SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 16
COURSES OP WHICH GRADUATES REGRET THE 'OMISSION
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
June 1936
23
Feb. 1937
12
June 1937
20
TOTALS
109
1
1
2
1
1
6
9
3
2
2
5
8
4
5
1
13
17
1
12
6
19
12
59
57
1
2
1
4
1
2
1
4
1
6
2
2
2
1
1
1
PER CENT* 61.0 •6
*
1
2
1
1
8
2
3
4.5 1.1 1.7
2
1.1
1
1
3
1
3
1
6
17
6
9
10
3.4 9.8
answered
4
Not
13
None
Feb. 1936
Spelling
1
Sociology
28
Salesmanship
June 1936
Psychology
1
Public
speaking
2
Penmanship
13
Philosophy
Etiquette
Feb. 1935
Class
Dramatics
Economics
86
94
90
Personal
Hygiene
1935
1936
1937
Courses now
offered
Replies,
906
270
3.4
5. 5.6
5
2.8
Per cents are of the total number of omissions regretted
378
Part V, Appendix 5
SURVEY OP GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
MALE GRADUATES
No. 17
SUGGESTIONS FOR THE BETTERMENT OF THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM
Total questionaires sent
Total replies received
3
8
7
4
2
1
3
June 1936
2
7
11
4
3
7
2
1
4
Feb, 1936
6
5
2
2
7
1
1
1
June 1936
5
11
13
7
8
3
Feb. 1937
4
5
1
7
1
June 1937
7
14
27
50
TOTALS
PER CENT *
Jl2.7
34
4^
5
1
11
1
1
26
8
41
11
3
23,5 16. 12.2 3.6 19. 3 j5.1
5
1.3 2.9
1
Question left
blank
satisfaction
No
suggestion
1
Feb. 1935
2
Expressed
86
94
90
Expand extra­
curricular
program
Increase commer
cial subjects
for young men
Build new H.S.
in northern par
of city
Student
government
1935
1936
1937
Suggestions
Abolish assign­
ment marking
system
Impress value
of education
upon students
Institute a
guidance
program
Institute a vo­
cational guidan
program
Abolish frater­
nities and
sororities
Return to all­
day session
CO
CO
o
M
P
Replies,
906
270
8
4
10
9
1
7
3
9
20
7
2
15
13
56
48
1
5
.5
2.9
i
#
Per cents are of the total number of suggestions
379
Part V.
Appendix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935 " 1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
Questionnaires Distributed
Questionnaires Returned
Not delivered by post office
Deceased
1021
3^-6
10
1
3SL
P a r t V A ppendix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 2
MOBILITY
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
Class
1
1935
1935
1936
1937
Living
at home
with
parents
IS
1021
3^6
26
125
135
Living a -; Living
own home away from
married home and
parents
Living
in
New
Britain
lg
Living
away fron 1 Total
New
Britain
11-
1
3
2
S
53
11
S6
I , Tune 1935
5k
Feb. 1936
40
g
kl
7
June 1936
6k
13
66
11
Feb. 1937
30
2
32
6
June 1937
S6
11
gg
9
l»-g
3k 6
13.9
100.
125
135
TOTAL
292
3
51
29g
Per cent
glJ-A
•9
ilk 7
g 6 .l
I
382
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 3
HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULA
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
(
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
1021
&&
125
135
College
Commercial
Feb. 1935
k
13
5
June 1935
17
33
lH-
Feb. 1936
IS
19
ll
June 1936
22
kz
13
Feb. 1937
10
23
5
June 1937
20
56
21
91
1 S6
69
3 *1-6
53-7
20.
100 .
Class
TOTAL
Per cent
2 6 .3
General
Total
S6
125
135
383
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 4
EDUCATION PLANNED AFTER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
(
1935
1936
1937
Types of Education
Art School
Business College
College
Dress Designing
Hair Dressing
.Tmirnnl 1sm
Music
Nursing
Secretarial School
Teachers College
No clans
TOTAL
1021
346
86
125
135
Grads.
1935
Grads.
1936
3
9
1
2
1
2
12
1
6
49
5
IS
2
3
Grads.
1937
4
... .
12
2
...
62
86
........ .
1
.
.“
4
17
39
5
5
9
1
1
15
5
13
Total
1935-37
5
,
4
4
2
1
IS
S
45
i4
s
27
71
1S2
135
346
...
Per
cent
1.2
4,9
11.2
1-5
1*5
1.2
l r2
13 f
4!
7, S
52.5
100.
REASONS FOR NOT CARRYING OUT PLANS
Grads.
Reason
1935
24
Plans carried out
4
Change of Plans
Further preparatior
Financial reasons
9
No clans
TOTAL
66
Grads.
1936
42
3
1
17
62
125
Grads.
1937..
35
'4
4
21
71
135
Total
1935-37
101
11
5
47
162
346
Per
cent
29.2
3.2
1 3 .6
52.5
100.
P a r t V . A p p e n d ix 6
384
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P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 6
EDUCATION IN PROCESS
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
Types of Education
1021
34-6
S6
125
135
Grads.
1935
Grads.
1937
Total
1935-37
Per
cent
1
1
•3
2
3
6
l.S
16
6
26
7.5
1
3
Grads.
1936
Art School
Business College
1
College
4-
Evening courses at
Central Jr.H.S.
2
l.S
1
.3
3
5
1 .5
10
24-
7.
2
2
.6
1
Hair Dressing
6 -
Music
2
Nursing
/
Post Graduade Cours &
N.B.H.S.
7
Secretarial School
2
5
9
16
Ik 6
Teachers College
6
10
S
24-
7.
1
1
2
.6
62
S2
S9
233
67.
S6
125
135
34-6
100 .
Trade School
No education
in process
TOTAL
7
—
386
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 7
EDUCATION DESIRED BUT NOT IN PROCESS
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
Types of Education
1021
3^6
36
125
135
Grads.
1935
__
Grads.
1936
Grads.
1937
2
2
College
1
3
Dressmaking
1
Business College
J ournali sm
1
None desired
Education now
in process
TOTAL
1225=2Z._
Per
cent
..... 5... ...1,5 ..
k
1 .2
1
•3
1
2
.6
8
3
16
k.6
1
3
2
6
1 .8
60
69
71
200
57.7
23
H-l
ij-S
112
32.3
36
125
1
Nursing
Secretarial School
Total
135
3^6
100 .
387
P a rt V
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN,
A p p e n d ix 6
CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 8 and 9
OCCUPATIONS HELD IN FIELDS TRAINED FOR AND NOT TRAINED FOR
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
193b
1937
1021
3^-6
86
125
135
Trained For
Occupations
Bookkeeping
General Office Wor e
Hair dressing
Grads.
1935
Grads.
Grads.
1936
L-.193I.....
2
Totals
1935=3I_.
Per
cent
2
20
39
...30....
1
89
1 ..
.6
.. 2 5 .5 ...:....
.
.3...
Not Trained For
Factory-
11
General Office Wor! c
7
Hospital Attendant
1
Housekeeping
2
Saleslady
. 3. ...
Telephone Operator
Unemployed
In school only
TOTAL
. 17 .....
22
86
16
10
1
5....
2
r ■
... 3 3 ....
.. 13.... ... 3,8....
3
2
*
k
11
2
1
3
22
... Ua....
88
... 17..... ... 3i...... ... 9.7.....
125
1
135
11.
34-6
.... -.9...
.6
... 3,2...
.9
.. 2.5,2....
28.
100.
388
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 10
TOTAL MONTHS OF EMPLOYMENT SINCE GRADUATION
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
125
1937
135
1021
34-6
26
Months of Employment
Months of Employment
i
Feb. 1935
school
1 2 3 4- 5 6 g 10 12 15 lgiso & 30 36 In only
i
2 j2 1 5 3
1
1
2 1
19
June 1935
3
1
Feb. 1936
2
2 1 4- 1 2 1
June 1936
5 1 1 1
Class
0
l
3 1 1
6 3 9 is
Total
g6
3
6 5 6
IS
125
Feb. 1937
June 1937
3 2
5 4- 15 21
2 6 1 1.4- 1
1 3
31 4- k 2 3 2 7 g 4 1
19
2
6 6
IS
i
1
6 14- 20 16 23 lg 35 'p-o16 23 3
TOTAL
44 5
Per cent
1# 15|3*2 13 .9 LS 4, 5l2 16 $7 52]ioita9 4:6S.7 .9
3
135
20
_j
97
34-6.
2 g.l
100 .
389
P a rt V
A p p e n d ix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 11
NUMBER OF DIFFERENT POSITIONS HELD SINCE
HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies, received
Replies, 1935
1936
1937
1021
3^6
125
135
Number of Different Positions
Class
0
1
2
3
4
Feb. 1939
1
9 ,5
2
1
5
6
i
15 or
g ilO ^12 l4 u more
• p1
1
1
In
ssa ? 1
10
3
22 17
3
Feb. 1936
3
13 15
±
June 1936
6
3^ 13 1
20
Feb. 1937
2
19
June 1937
29
2
86
12
June 1935
.. ..
Total
... 17 ...
5
3
16
25 10
4
22
125
135
TOTAL
Per cent
44 322 65 14
1Z & 352 1S.7
3
4. .9
j
!
1
97
•3
2 8 .1
346
100 .
390
P a r t V . Appe n d i x 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935 - 1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 12
MONTHLY WAGES tOF EMPLOYED GRADUATES
Total questionnaires sent:
1021
Replies received:
346
Replies: 1935
86
1936
125
1937
135
Wages per month in dollars
Unem­
ployed
3
5
9
12
2
34
65
18.8
Class
Feb. 1935
June 1935
Feb. 1936
June 1936
Feb. 1937
June 1937
TOTAL
Per cent
Class
Feb. 1935
June 1935
Feb. 1936
June 1936
F e b . 1937
June 1937
TOTAL
Per cent
J
Amt.not In
stated
school
10
2
12
2
17
20
8
2
16
22
6
20
97
5.8
28.1
$ o! ••-
51.36. -40 41.-45. 46.-50 60.
1
5
15
4
1
1
3
11
1
7
17
1
1
2
8
5
6
5
6
2
1
12
62
21
8
17.9
2.3
6.1
3.5
6.10.
11. 16.- 21.- 26.15. 20.
25. 30.
1
1
1
.3
1
.3
31.35.
2
2
2
6
1.8
61.- 71.- 81.- 91.- Over
80. 90.
100. 100. Total
70.
7
1
14
4
1
6
2
5
6
1
2
3
2
41
9
346
11.9 2.6
.6
100.
391
P a rt V
A ppendix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 13
REASONS FOR CHANGING OR LEAVING EMPLOYMENT
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
Reasons
1021
3^6
^6
125
135
Grads.
1935
Grads.
1936
Grads.
1937
Total
1935-37
Per
cent
Advancement
6
7
2
15
*•3
Business Failure
2
3
7
12
3-5
Laid off
4
11
11
26
7.5
Low wages
Temporary
employment
Unpleasant working
conditions
6
2
5
13
3.3
9
13
19
41
1 1 .S
15
7
1
23
6 .6
In school only
Unemployed since
graduation
22
37
33
97
2 S .1
3
4
IS
25
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19
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TOTAL
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346
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39 2
P a rt V
A ppendix 6
SURVEY OF GRADUATES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
1935-1937
FEMALE GRADUATES
No. 15
OCCUPATION PREFERRED
Total questionnaires sent
Total replies received
Replies,
1935
1936
1937
Occupations
1021
3^6
36
125
135
Grads.
1935
Grads.
1936
Art Work
Bookkeeping
Grads.
1937
3
2
2
Total
1935-37
Per
cent
3
•9
2
.6
2
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176
5 0 .g
Dressmaking
General
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*14
59
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1
2
3
•9
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1
2
3
.9
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1
1
2
.6
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1
1
2
.6
1
1
2
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Music
73
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g
16
17
4l
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1
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1
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10
12
12
3^
9.9
s
17
11
36
1 0 .3
9
12
15
36
1 0 .3
135
3U6
100.
SecretaryTeaching
No preference
stated
TOTAL
g6
125 '
394
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Appendix 6
Per
Part V.
3 95
SCHOOL DEPARTMENT
City of New Britain
Connecticut
Part V.
Appendix 7
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
C O P Y
TO THE EMPLOYERS OF NEW BRITAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES:
We are interested in finding out in what way
service rendered the community by the New Britain Senior
High School may be improved and extended.
Y/ith this in
mind may we ask your cooperation and a few minutes of your
time in filling out the accompanying questionnaire concerning
New Britain Senior High School graduates whom you have
employed during the last five years?
Any information received will be confidential
and will be used for statistical purposes by a small committee.
Your assistance in this service will be greatly
appreciated.
Sincerely yours,
For the Committee
Frederick M. Senf
Approved:
Carlyle C. Ring
Superintendent
Louis P. Slade
Principal
397
Part V. Appendix 7
C O P Y
INFORMATION CONCERNING SERVICE OF NEW BRITAIN SENIOR HIGH
SCHOOL GRADUATES DURING THE YEARS I 932 -I 937
Please fill out and return this sheet to the Senior High
School, New Britain, Connecticut.
Louis P. Slade,
Principal
Employer ____________________________ Address________________
Employment official ________________________________________
Nature of business or industry ____________________________
During the past five years graduates of the New Britain
Senior High School have been employed here as follows:
I
Character of Service Rendered
1
Number
Employed as
Unusually Above
Average
good
Average
Belov/
Average
Very
Poor
Number Dismissed for Reasons Reflecting Lack of Preparation
I believe some change in the training of high school pupils for work
in this organization should be made as follows:
398
Part V.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Appendix 7
NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
C O P Y
Dear Graduate:
Even though you are no longer a student in the
New Britain Senior High School, we are still interested in you,
in your whereabouts, in your work.
Will you not be kind enough to sit right down and
fill in the enclosed questionnaire and mail it in the addressed
stamped envelope before February 18, 1938 ?
Do not be afraid
that we shall mention your name, salary, the name of your
employer or anything else that you may put in your answer.
We
are merely gathering general statistics and are using them to
improve what the school may offer to students who may come after
you.
If you are unemployed, do not be embarrassed to tell us
about it.
There are many v/ho are not employed at present.
Please accept our best wishes for your success,
and please, too, send your questionnaire back if possible by
return mail.
Sincerely yours,
Louis P. Slade
Principal
Approved:
Carlyle C. Ring
Superintendent of Schools
399
Part V.
Appendix 7
C O P Y
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
INFORMATION CONCERNING GRADUATES
1. Name ____________________________ 2. Present address_______________
3. If married woman, maiden name __________ I4.. Living with parents ?__
5 . Date of Graduation _________________ 6. Married?___________ .______
7-
Schools or Colleges Attended Since Graduation
Day or
e
Name of Institution ve ning
classes
8.
10.
Date
Entered
Date
Left
Reason
for
leaving
Employment Since Graduation
Name of Employer
9.
Department
or
School
Address
Date
entered
Date
left
Reason
Wages
S alary for leaving
Plans and the Question of Carrying Them Out
a.
What curriculum did you followi d n the senior high school?
h.
What did
c.
How far have
you plan to do after graduation?
you heen able to carry
out your plans?
d.
If you have not been able to carry out your plans, what has
prevented you?
e.
What are your plans and desires now?
Questions Concerning Your Present Employment
a.
Do you lilce the work you are doing?
b.
What are
its advantages?
c.
What are
its disadvantages?
400
INFORMATION CONCERNING GRADUATES,
continued
11.
What subjects which you took in high school have been most
useful to you?
12,
Are there any subjects which you wish you might have had in
senior high school?
15.
Have you any suggestions for the enrichment of the senior high
school program?
1 I4..
Are there any outstanding things that you know today that you
wish yo u had known as a first-year senior high school student?
15.
Have you any other improvements to suggest for a better senior
high school?
ALL REPLIES W ILL BE CONSIDERED STRICTER CONFIDENTIAL.
Reports will be compiled for groups and not for individuals.
The back of this sheet may be used for any communications for
which there is no room above.
401
Part V.
SCHOOL DEPARTMENT
City, of New Britain
Office of
Principal of
Senior High School
Appendix 7
C O P Y
Date
To the Registrar of ___________________ College:
In order that I may make a report to our Board of E d u ­
cation upon the attainments in higher degree-giving institutions
of students who have been admitted to these higher institutions
directly from this school, may I trouble you, so far as it may
be possible, to send me your answers to the questions that appear
below?
Louis P. Slade,
Principal
I
1.
How many students have entered your institution directly from
the New Britain, Connecticut, Senior High School during
the period September 1926 - September 1935?
2.
How many of the above have been awarded high honors?
3.
How many have been above the average and attained more or
less distinction in their work?
i±.
How many have merely done good average work?
5.
How many have merely met your minimum requirements?
6.
How many have withdrawn because of failure in their work?
7.
Have y o u any remarks to make as to the quality of the work
of students admitted directly from this school?
(Signature and title of reporting officer
402
SO UR C E
M A T E R IA L
S e c tio n
C u r r ic -a lx a n
SU G G ESTED
X V III
B u lle t in
STA N D A R D S
OP
1
P R O M O T IO N
403
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
STUDY OP CURRICULUM
BULLETIN NO. I
DECEMBER 1938.
SUGGESTED STANDARDS FOR PROMOTION
Prepared "by
Carlyle C. Ring, Superintendent
Ruth C. Kimball, Research Director
INTRODUCTION
In March 1938, a committee of which Miss Mary A. Campbell was
chairman reported on the promotional policies in New Britain and in­
cluded a recommendation that the present system of semi-annual pro­
motion be abandoned in favor of an annual plan.
The adjustment problems which have resulted from putting this
recommendation into effect have indicated the desirability of setting
up a fairly definite permanent promotional policy against which group
and individual cases may be considered. Such a policy should be
based
upon the six principles recommended by this committee.
1. The promotion of pupils in the New Britain School System
should be based upon the ideal of a steady, uninterrupted progression
through the twelve grades, with, promotional steps from grade to grade
based upon a definite set of factors such a s :
a.
b.
c.
d.
Mastery of subject matter
Social maturity
Chronological age
Mental ability
2. Any system of promotion involving group movements at stat­
ed intervals should include ample opportunity for individual pupil
adjustment and promotion at other than regular promotion periods —
pupil growth and progress determining the time.
3. Promotion should be decided on the basis of the individual
pupil.
4. It is not the promotion plan but the proper administration
of the plan in the interest of pupil development that is important--that which will result in the greatest good to the all-round develop­
ment of the individual.
5. It is increasingly recognized that pupil failures are very
often due to a failure of the educational progrsmi of the school, to
rigidity in the administrative machinery and in the course of study
prescribed, and to faulty teaching practices. These weaknesses in
the program can be corrected with study and vigilance.
6. The promotion plan that eliminates frequent class disrup­
tions and the attending pupil distractions, that provides time for
adequate planning, and for teachers to secure a knowledge of pupil
404
Page Tv/4
New Britain School Study of Curriculum
Bulletin No. I
personalities in order to design a profitable guidance program for
meeting individual pupil differences is the plan for the New Britain
Schools.
Such definite standards should frankly work in the direction
of the organization of our schools on a. chronological age basis and
a continuous plan of progress. Of the four factors to be taken into
account— chronological age, mental age, achievement age, and social
age
the chronological age is to be given the foremost consideration.
Not only is this evaluation in line with the general opinion accepted
among educators, but it also permits in our school groups a more typ­
ical sampling of society in general.
In other words, by limiting
each grade to a small range of chronological a g e s , we are preserving
for each grade level a normal cross section of abilities, from those
found in the most highly endowed child to the limited abilities of
the least gifted. With the age factor controlled we may then turn
more intense scrutiny on the individual characteristics found in men­
tal ages, educational ages, and social ages.
Because our instruments for measuring these three ages
mental,
educational, and social
are not infallible, wc must think of them as
approximate estimates of the level of maturity to which a child has
developed.
In interpreting these levels, therefore, the teacher*^
.judgment becomes of paramount importance.
In fact, the mere' listing
of the age levels in these three factors is of little value until the
teacher has aggregated the results and' placed a thoughtful i n t e r p r e ~
tation upon them.
During these transitional years, when the school system is
making its adjustment to the annual promotion plan, the teacher will
find these age standards to be of particular value in three w a y s :
1. They will give her valuable information to guide her in
proper pupil placement.
2. They will call attention to the many important implications
inherent in the wide range of individual differences found in every
class room.
3. They will form the basis for permanent promotional standards
to be attained.
SUGGESTED STANDARDS FOR ALL GRADES
In order to help determine the question of readiness for pro­
motion, standards for each of the four age concepts are defined. These
will pertain to the regular classrooms and not to the special classes
and the Junior Vocational School.
1, Chronological Age Standards
Inasmuch as admission into kindergarten is based almost entire
on chronological age, it is suggested that a range in that grade in
iy
405
Page Three
New Britain School Study of Curriculum
Bulletin No. I
September of any year be limited to about one and onc-half years,
from age 4-8 to 6-2. The lower limit will allow for entrance of any
child who will be five by December 31st of that year.
In grade I, a range of approximately two years in chronologi­
cal age is planned. The lower limit permits promotion to grade I of
those children who will be six by December 31st, providing they have
reached the required standards in mental and social maturity.
Gradually the range of years allowed in any one grade will be
extended until a range of three years is reached in grade VII. Prom
there on, there seems to be no need of extending the range signifi­
cantly beyond three years. For the present at least, in these upper
grades the upper limits of the ranges are more or less automatically
determined by the dropping out of the older children who are not
making good progress in school.
The chart on page eight illustrates the theoretical age of
each grade and the suggested, range limits within any one grade. The
limits are arbitrarily set to allow for the gradual increase in range
from one and one-half years to three years.
If a child has reached the upper limits of the range of his
grade, he automatically goes to the next higher grade at promotion
time, regardless of his mental age or achievement level, unless he is
so handicapped mentally that he would be better adjusted to a special
class.
If a child comes well inside the range limits, the question
of promotion will be decided upon by reference to the other three
important criteria
mental ago, achievement age, and social age,
2. Mental Age Standards
Mental ages will be determined by the Kuhlmann-Anderson Group
Mental Test or the Stanford-Binet Individual Examination. Since men­
tal ages are constantly growing just as definitely as chronological
ages are. growing, these must be figured for the same date as the
chronological ages are figured.
For instance, in deciding the questim
of promotion, the teacher will consider the chronological age and m e n ­
tal age of the child as of the following September.
If the child*s
I.Q. is 100, his mental age will be the same as his chronological age.
If his I.Q. is 75, he will develop mentally at three-fourths the speed
at which he develops chronologically, that is, nine months mentally
for every period of twelve months.
If his I.Q. is 125, he will grow
fifteen months mentally for* every twelve calendar months .
5. Achievement Age Standards
(or Educational Age Standards)
Achievement ages will be determined by the results of a reliable
battery of subject tests in conjunction with the teacher’s estimate.
If the battery has not been a recent one, the educational ages will
have to be estimated as to what they would approximately be on the
date in question.
4. Social Age Standards
Social ages will be determined by the teacher’s estimate of the
406
Page Four
Now Britain School Study of Curriculum
Bulletin No. I
child*s social maturity and in certain cases through the help of
personality and self-rating tests, social case histories or psychiatric
s tudy•
In general, mental, achievement, and social age ranges will
correlate with the chronological age range, although a somewhat wider
range must be permitted for them. This is particularly true of the
mental age range, because, with any given chronological age, there is
a wide range between the highest and the dullest pupils. For in­
stance, a child entering kindergarten is about five years of age, but
if he should happen to have an I.Q. below the average, his mental age
may be well below five years. Furthermore, if his I.Q. is superior,
his mental age will be well above six years.
Although educational age and social age follow the tendency of
the mental age, there is less difference between the best and the
poorest in these two factors.
Probably the chief reason educational
age does not nliow so wide a spread is due to the fact that we have
been able to work our duller groups to their capacity much better
than we have succeeded in challenging our best groups to their superior
capacity.
It is seen, therefore, that educational age and social age
usually seek a compromise between mental age and chronological age
so that the ranges of these two, while greater than chronological age,
will not be so wide as the range in mental age.
It can be further
illustrated by the following small diagram:
MORE DETAILED STANDARDS FOR CRITICAL PERIODS
While promotion at any year is a matter of importance, the
most crucial periods are those promotion periods from grade III to IV,
grade VI to VII, and grade IX to X, marking respectively promotions
from the primary to the intermediate level, from the elementary to
the junior high and from the junior high to the senior high school
level. Therefore, for these three periods, applications of the pre­
viously described standards are given.
407
Page Five
New Britain School Study of Curricvilum
Bulletin No. I
Promotion from Grade III to Grade IV
1. Chronological Age Standards
The age range under consideration is age 7-6 to 9-10 for
grade III and from 8-6 to 11-0 for grade IV. When considered to
gether in chart form they appear like the following*
to
-6
846
to
9rltf
j
i
11-0
(Grade III)
IV)
(Grade
All those children who are still under 8-6 years of age "by
September will remain in grade III. All those over 9-10 years of age
will progress to grade IV.
For those children in the intervening range, from 8-6 to 9-10,
promotion is decided by the other three factors.
2. Mental Age Standards
The minimum mental age for promotion will be about 7-0, which
is the mental age of a child whose I.Q. is 70 and whose age is 9-10.
If the I.Q. were less than 70 the mental age would be less than 7-0,
but that child would then be placed in a special class. The maximum
mental age is indeterminate since the I.Q. may go to any theoretically
possible heights.
5. Educational Age Standards
The minimum educational age as determined by reliable subject
test batteries and the judgment of the teacher should be 7-0, going
under the assumption that the child with the lowest mental age does
work at least equal to his ability.
4, Social Age Standards
This will be estimated by the teacher’s judgment as to the
adjustability of the child to the next grade with psychiatric help if
available and desirable.
Promotion from Grade VI to Grade VII
1. Ghronological Age Standards
The age range under consideration is age 10-4 to 13-2 for
grade VI and from 11-2 to 14-2 for grade VII. When considered to­
gether in chart form they appear like the following:
408
.Page Six
Hew Britain School Study of Curriculum
10-4
to
Juliet in. No. I
13-2
TOST
to
14-2
(Grade VI)
(Grade VII)
All those under 11-2 will remain in grade VI and all those
over 13-2 automatically progress to grade VII without further consid­
eration.
For those ehildren-in
promotion will be decided by
the intervening group from 11-2 to
the other three factors.
13-2,
2. Mental Age Standards
The minimum mental age for promotion will be about 9-6, which
is the mental age of a child whose I.Q, is 73 and whose age is 15-2.
It will be observed that the minimum I.Q. has increased
from 70to
73. This is in accordance with our custom of transferring children
in the lower grades whose I.Q.’s are 70 or below to the atypical
classes and those in the intermediate grades with I.Q.’s of 73 or 75
or below to the vocational schools. The maximum mental age is inde­
terminate.
3. Educational Age Standards
The minimum educational age as determined by reliable subject
test batteries plus the teacher’s estimate should be 9-6, assuming
that the child with the minimum mental age does work at least equal
to his ability.
4. Social Age Standards
This will be estimated by the teacher’s judgment as to the
ability of the child to fit in with the next higher grade.
Promotion from Grade IX to Grade X
1. Chronological Age Standards
The age range under consideration is age 13-0 to 16-2 for
grade IX and from 14-0 to 17-2 for grade X. When considered to­
gether in chart farm they appear like the following:
13-0_____ ;
15^0
to____________16-2_________
tc
17-2
(Grade IX)
(Grade X)
All those under 14-0 years of age will remain in grade IX
but all those over 16-2 years of age are automatically promoted.
For those children in the intervening group from 14-0 to 16-2
promotion will be determined with the help of the other three factors.
409
Page Seven
New Britain School Study of Curriculum
Bulletin No# I
2# Mental Age Standards
The minimum mental age for promotion will be about 11-9 which
is the mental age of a child whose I.Q. is 78 and whose age is 16.
Most of the children with I.Q.'s under 80 will voluntarily drop out
before the tenth grade is reached, although an increasing number of
borderline and dull normal children are found in any high school of
today.
If there are children over 16 years of age who have spent a
year in the ninth grade and wish to remain in school, they should be
promoted rather than transferred to the vocational school. Perhaps
with additional shop and trade school opportunities many of these can
be guided into less academic programs.
5# Educational Age Standards
The minimum educational age as determined by reliable subject
test batteries and the teacher's judgment should be 11-9, assuming
that the child with the minimum mental age does work at least equal
to his ability,
4. Social Age Standards
This will be estimated by the teacher's judgment as to the
ability of the child to fit in with the next higher grade.
CONCLUSIONS
It is not intended that these standards should become in­
volved and intricate.
It seemed to be impossible to give them in less
detail and yet offer satisfactory definitions, and if more detail were
given the standards would seem to indicate a precision which they do
not deserve.
In applying the standards perhaps the greatest difficul­
ty will be found in the process of estimating mental and educational
growth from tests given some months prior to the promotion period. If
this is true, keys for estimating this growth can be made at that time.
As always, the most important factor in estimating readiness
for promotion is the judgment of the teacher. When all facts are
gathered, she makes the interpretation and reaches the final decision.
As her aids, chronological age receives first consideration and men­
tal age and educational age next. Social age is usually quite con­
sistent with the others and does not often present a perplexing angle
to the problem.
Occasionally, however, emotional difficulties are
present so that soeial maturity does not correlate with the others and
in such cases it must be given careful consideration.
SOURCE XfcfERZtt
S to tio n XIX
THE PLA700H PU S I A TO* OP SXSXBRFASX SOHOOX, HWrOAfXOI
*y
Hits V«7 i« Campbell
S u p e rriio r o f K Lasam tary 8 th o « lf
411
3KB PLATOCK PLAX
A Type of Blementary School Education
Hour Britain, Gonnoetiout
The elementary school la the fundamental unit of tho
Anerioan public school system.
It la the aehoel to which
all tho people aend their children* the aohool that leaves
ita nark, ita impreaa upon all) it serves to pass on to
all the people the fundamental knowledge and akilla needed
by everyone in meeting life*a eonmen demands* it fumlehea
the foundation for further education, whether that further
ednoation be gained in ether aehoola of hl#ier rank or in
the larger aohool of Ufa*
3hla fundamental ednoation la ae important to everyone
that atatutery law requires that elementary aehoola be pro­
vided, and that within certain age limits, regular attendance
be expected from every child who is able to attend*
3ho Transitional School
Over a long period of years the eharaoter of the elemen­
tary aehoola has been in a state of transition.
Seienae and
invention have brought about revolutionary changes in modern
lift and these changes have affected aohool administration
and praeticea•
Xany educational theories and experiments incorporated
in a newer and truer psychology have been modifying the
traditional elementary school pattern, the correction of
existing defects and the introduction of bettor procedures
mad praeticea being the aim*
The newer theories of the
learning process and ef individual differences among ahildrenf
412
m*
the development of atandardiaed teataj improvements In
instructional material#* aohool equipment, and teaching
mothoda are among tho influences that havo molded a newer
typo of aohool*
She elementary aohoola of Sew Britain, in lino with
forward-looking aohoola* hawo kapt ahroaat with tho now
aoolal philosophy of education that haa boon gradually
omorging and developing strength* and tho proaont program
of work In Sow Britain la baaod on tho prlnoiplo that edt*»
oatlon la not a proparation for life— it la lifet and modom
oduoational praotiooa moat bo thoao aaaooiatod with good
living and with tho physical# aontal and spiritual unfolding
of ohildron*
9 » &»«*«»»« of « W
m O M
She now aohool plaooa tho child and hia intontion to
loarn to tho fore, and a vary dooidod ahlft of emphasis
from subjest matter to tho Child, from tho more maatory of
praaoribod faota to tho guidance of ohild growth among
aohool subjects ia in oridoneo*
In bio tranaition that haa taken plane a apirlt of
active pupil participation rather than of more passive ex­
periencing among booka and matorlala ia onoouragod*
In
every well organised elementary aohool* paralleling tho
maatory of tho throe R*a* puplla play an important* active
part in tho adminiatratien of tho aohool*
Shore are pupil
committees with reaponaibilitioa for aaaombling Information
from booka and for organising tho acme for bulletin diaplaya
•i
413
«•
and discussion) there are safety patrol* to guide and protect
the young pupil* j there are group* that give eare to play*
ground*, and dressing rooms, and that encourage oerreot
•oolal behavior among their contemporaries— all performing
aotivltle* which are socially valuable and vhioh, if direoted
and guided, should develop a sense of responsibility, in­
itiative, and leadership*
Further, through individual and group effort such
creative work is being done in the field of spoken and
written English,«— with a sohool publication an important
expression of the subject) in the field of music, both vocal
and instrumental; in the plastic arts and handicraft) in
play, and in dramatics/ in the fundamental skills— reading,
writing, spelling and the use of maBber**teaohing today aims
to develop these skills in meaningful situation* that pro*
vide opportunities for pupil choice, for cenltrustive think­
ing, for decisions, and evaluations*
With emphasis placed on the child as the crux of the
whole scheme of education, the elementary aohoola of lew
Britain have been organised over the last twenty-one years
on a pattern known as the platoon plan*
Shis type of school
organisation is distinctly founded upon the interpretation
of the social aims of education*
It insures the fullest
and meat effective use of the whole seheel plant, and pro­
vides educational advantages to children that are in accord
with a modern social philosophy of education and with the
414
beat teated methods*
She principles upon which the plan la baaed are theaet
1*
She successful teaching of all the subjects of
the curriculum demands a teaohing staff, individual in
talents, abilities, and training* It.educator believes
that a single teacher oan teaeh all subjects equally.veil.
Eaoh teaoher teaehea beat the subject which he likes beat,
and with which he la moat conversant*
2*
Pupils have the advantage of guidance by special*
lata in special subject fields*
3,
It ia flnaneially impossible to adequately equip
every room for tho teaohing of all aubjeeta) it ia finan­
cially sound, however, to properly equip one room in eaoh
building for eaoh special subject— thus providing for eaoh
child dally contact with the atmosphere of the art studio,
the library, the museum, the gymnasium, and the assembly
halls,
4*
Zt is in aoeord with the laws of health for the
ohild to move, to change his environment, to exercise.
Confinement to the same aohool seat or room for a whole day
is not In full aoQOrd with health laws,
5* Positive sharing In the aotlve, mobile life of the
school develops self-control, helpfulness, social responsi­
bility, and other habits and attitudes fundamental to
democratic living,
6, She flexible program of a platoon plan makes
possible a varied and fully coordinated oourso of study.
lit
ii i n i h u b
p i im um
m
in
_
i
u s n|ni
i
u n i i m ni nijm
pnm m i' nni iia
inm ip i ■ h iiiip w p iiiiii || >wiipp^n»w
i mi ■■■
I'uimni
'
.umi" L.'iii»fW
i|ij|ij|i»piii>iB|i|ppi.wi
415
Stt J^it
**
fl&rs&ft
The children of tho school above tho primary grades
are divided into two group* oaoh mad* up of an equal number
of classes. During half of tho day one of those groups of
olassos is engaged with the regular or formal studios In
olasgrooms assigned for that purpose*
These rooms are
called the children*s heme rooms, and the teachers of the
subjects are the children's home room teachers.
It la upon
heme room aooompllShment* that promotion Is based. The
other group of classes is at the same time engaged In the
work of special *ubjeote~«art, physical education, music,
literature, geography, and selenee~»ln special rooms with
speolal teachers»
At mid point in the school session these groups of
classes exchange placos— those who hare been engaged in the
regular home room work leave for special class activities,
and these from speolal departments return to home rooms.
Thus, teachers of the regular subjects teach two class
groups, but are relieved from teaching the special subjects.
The special subjects are taught by teachers who because of
native endowment, Interest, and training are particularly
equipped for the work.
By this means the children are provided with as
skillful teaching as can be secured, and the equipment In
the several rooms offers an environment challenging and
rich in suggestions.
S t atesitiSBSi issali
Jlsa
j
The principal of each platoon school Is the unifying,
i
mmmmmm
«•
416
coordinating influence that salmi possible thi educational
point of Tlanr of the platoon plan*
It la ho oho safeguards
thn plan from moohanlea, and conventions} who guidea It
through toata and oheeka and necessary changes} and who
Intogratoa Its activities through the Interworking of program*
teaching force and pupil body*
The physical or structural aspects of a school are
fundamental to the platoon organisation and help In no anil
way to malm for spirit and atmosphere% but unless some
unifying force constantly dlreeta and coordinates the pur­
poses and the work ef the teachers and the pupils in this
social order, the platoon school migat soon have no more
claim to a more efficient training for children than the
traditional school.
This guiding, unifying force, this co­
ordinator of the human and the material elements can be no
other than the principal.
To the question that has been asked frequently as to
whether the. pupil suffers a less In his development under
the special and departmentalised teaching that the platoon
school offers, those d m understand the educational Ideals
of the modern platoon school, and the advantages made
possible through Its enriched curriculum, its corps of
teachers of special activities, and Its varied and well
organised facilities feel that there should be no loss, but
on the contrary, a decided gain In pupil development.
The
heme room teachers te whom pupils report for one-half ef
every day for a whole year learn to understand and te
administer to their pupils* educational needs In a very
Intimate way*
On the other hand, every teacher-pupll
417
f*
■'
relationship among the spoolal department* la of longer
duration, lasting in most instances over a period of three
years*
Primarily, the leashing eorpa Bust believe in the
educative force of this type of school* A teacher naturally
absorbed in the Interest ef her special work mast he mind*
fal of the school as a whole, and mast contribute daily te
its richness*
fhe influences of her personal talent should
extend beyond her planning and teaching into the life of
the whole school* A teacher who can personally demonstrate
her musical,art, or dramatic ability at a school assembly
gives Inspiration to the hear, and solidarity to the plan*
Her acquaintance with the maty children she teaches needs,
as early as possible, to became a very personal and
Intimate one*
Under the daily influence of a variety of personalities
in the teaching force, the unsocial child •omeshsre should
acquire responsibility and habita of self-control and social
adjustment! the child who does net achieve academic progress
according to grade or home room standards seaeshere should
find himself in his special talent} and the child who early
expresses ability, achievement, and power of leadership
has the opportunity to offer this ability everywhere for
the good ef the group and of the larger school eosnunlty*
As it is for the pupils that this whole scheme has been
devised, their purposes in this unified order are the all
important tests of the plan*
90S inspiration, the stipulation
and the urge for aslf >cspvsaslon Shat the atmosphere of the
platoon school creases in children calls for coordination*
.W P P W W W S pip^fS W
418
Reeogniftng the love far variety and change that la Inherent
la childhood, a principal la ealled upon to vigilantly
safeguard children from becoming little wandering souls
among the many shifts and varied experiences ef the day.
Wien children eleae their work for the day with any
teacher to take up work with another, it is meat desirable
that some departing comment or some helpful message that
has a carry-over Influence for the next Unit of work be
given, Tfpon beginning the new period, the importance of
a greeting that recalls the work of an earlier period should
never be overlooked by teachers.
school day cannot help
In this way the pupil*a
but be enriched byhie
personal
contact with many teachers who are interested In what he
has dene and what ho plans to do. He leaves the home room
or auditorium on a tour of explorations, sc to speak, and
returns te it later with the results of his accomplishments.
His school day Is full
ef the cutoroppings of
theunusual and
unexpected in the related whole.
Directed by an orderly, unified program a child becomes
self-critical of his Shertomalngai he becomes self-respect­
ing because his special ability or talent has boon commended
by his group) he becomes resourceful because there is se
nuoh be be done for the school) he becomes a leader in the
service ef the school because there are others to be helped)
and he becomes a cooperating member of the school community.
Twenty-one years1 of experience with the platoon plan
In Hew Britain schools has shown that such a program def­
initely secures for young childrent
1, An enriched school environment.
419
8*
•*
A balance of emphasis among the several subjects*
5. Flexibility in sohool organisation and character
of program*
4*
increased teaching skill, and attending pupil
aohlavement •
6, Large opportunities for integrating sohool life*
Over the years the original plan has undergone maoh
refinement, and further changes are being contemplated*
These changes will include (1) a breaking away from the short
periods devoted to special department work for a more flexible
organisation which will main possible longer periods for
pupil and teacher purposing and planning, and (8) a platoon
unit above second grade*
Whatever modification in the present plan future
experimentation may effect, it will be in the quest of pro*
viding the fullest and richest program ef education for the
development of the young child*
Mary A* Campbell
Supervisor of Elementary Sohpbis
December 87, $938
420
SOURCE MATIEIAJ
Section XX
NEW BRITAIN AT V/ORK 02! IT;
CURRICULUM
421
NEW BRITAIN AT WORK ON ITS CURRICULUM
A S u p e r v is o r y " R ep ort o f P r o g r e s s " o f S t u d ie s C o n d u cted b y
T e a o h e r s and P r i n c i p a l s i n D e te r m in in g th e N e x t S to p s i n
C u rricu lu m B u il d i n g
R e p o r te d b y C a r ly le C. R in g , S u p t. o f S c h o o l s ,
New B r i t a i n , C o n n e c tic u t
" C h ild - c e n t e r e d c u r r i c u l a " , " c o r e - c u r r i o u l a " , " d e v e lo p m en t
fo r l i f e
in a dem ocracy" a r e b u t t h e h ig h so u n d in g te r m s o f c u r r ic u lu m
s p e c i a l i s t s u n t i l a s c h o o l s y s te m b e g in s w ork on i t s
an e f f o r t t o fo r m u la te i t s
o u t a program f o r
own cu rricv ilu m in
own p h ilo s o p h y and p r o c e d u r e s , and t o l a y
stu d y o v e r an e x te n d e d p e r io d o f y e a r s .
T h is
ty p e
o f program th e New B r i t a i n B oard o f E d u c a tio n and s t a f f h a v e em barked
upon.
I f New B r i t a i n ’ s e x p e r ie n c e i s
a c r i t e r i o n , p e r h a p s no b e t t e r
s u p e r v is o r y a id c o u ld be fo u n d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e t h o u g h t , i n t e r e s t ,
and s t u d y , n o t o n ly o f th e s t a f f , b u t o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a tio n and
th e i n t e r e s t e d l a y p u b l i c .
Y e t , l e t no s c h o o l s y s te m embark upon su c h
a program w it h o u t c a r e f u l l y w e ig h in g th e w h o le p r o b le m ,— th e h o u r s o f
h a r d work and s t u d y , th e lo n g p e r io d s o f d e b a t e , and th e " h ea d a ch es"
th a t are su re to b e in v o lv e d .
New B r i t a i n i s now i n t h e t h r o e s o f
i n i t i a t i n g s u c h a program and i s now f e e l i n g t h e s e v e r e s t e f f e c t s
th e s e " h ead ach es" .
The f u t u r e o n ly can d e te r m in e t h e f i n a l
T h is i s m e r e ly a b r i e f " r e p o r t o f p r o g r e s s "
of
-o u tco m e.
t o be e v a lu a t e d b y a l l
who may r e a d i t .
INCEPTION OP THE PROJECT
A ohan ge i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n in A u g u st 1 9 3 7 made i t h i g h l y
d e s i r a b l e t h a t th e new s u p e r in t e n d e n t s e c u r e a u t h e n t i c in f o r m a t io n
a b o u t th e s o h o o l s y s te m o f w h ic h h e h a d becom e th e h e a d .
Y e s , h e knew
th e o b v io u s f a c t s ,; t h a t New B r i t a i n was an u n u s u a lly c o s m o p o lit a n ,
I n d u s tr ia l c i t y
o f a p p r o x im a te ly 7 0 ,0 0 0 p e o p l e , o f w h ic h 1 3 ,0 0 0 w ere
p u b l i c s o h o o l c h i l d r e n ; t h a t t h e s e c h ild r e n w ere i n t w e lv e e le m e n ta r y
422
Page 2
s c h o o l s ( t h r e e o f w h ic h w ere c o o p e r a t i v e l y run h y th e s t a t e and c i t y
a s t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s f o r th e S t a t e T ea ch ers*
f o u r j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l s ,
C o lle g e );
t h a t t h e r e w ere
one r a p i d l y g r o w in g c o s m o p o lita n S e n io r H igh
S c h o o l, and one s t a t e tr a d e s e h o o l ; t h a t t h e s e s c h o o l s w ere s t a f f e d
b y n e a r ly f i v e h u n d red t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s and s p e c i a l i s t s ;
t h a t th e
c i t y had many w e l l e q u ip p e d new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , and a r e p u t a t i o n f o r
b e in g a le a d e r i n many a r e a s o f e d u c a t io n .
Y e t th e f i r s t t a s k f a c i n g
t h e new s u p e r in t e n d e n t seem ed t o b e one o f g e t t i n g t h e a o u r a te f a o t s
a b o u t t h e s e s c h o o ls an d th e reco m m en d a tio n s o f t h o s e on th e " f i r i n g
lin e "
a s t o th e a r e a s n e e d in g im m ed ia te a t t e n t i o n .
t h a t th e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s
1.
g u id e t h i s
I t seem ed d e s i r a b l e
in v e s tig a tio n :
T hat i t b e d e m o c r a t ic a ll y a p p ro a c h e d th r o u g h th e
s t a f f m em bers.
2.
T h a t New B r i t a i n p r o c e e d on t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t i t h ad
w ith in i t s
own s t a f f th e a b i l i t y
t o r e c o g n i z e and s o l v e
i t s l o c a l p ro b lem s w it h a s s i s t a n c e from o u t s id e e x p e r t
o o u n c il fo r th o s e a r e a s w here a n e e d f o r c o n s u l t i v e h e lp
was f e l t .
E a r ly in t h e f a l l o f 1 9 3 7 , a " s e l f - s u r v e y "
o f th e s c h o o l s o f
New B r i t a i n was u n d er w ay, w it h c o m m itte e s o f t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s
a p p o in te d b y t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t a t w ork on a s tu d y o f th e a r e a s w h ich
seem ed t o r e q u ir e im m ed ia te a t t e n t i o n .
T h ese a r e a s w ere r e v e a l e d b y
a q u e s t io n n a ir e s e n t o u t t o r e s p o n s i b l e s t a f f m em bers.
At a l l s ta g e s
t h o s e r e p o r t s w ere made in t h e form o f m im eographed " S u rv ey B u l l e t i n s "
t o t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t and t o th e B oard o f E d u c a t io n , and th ro u g h th em ,
w it h t h e a i d o f t h e p r e s s , t o th e p u b l i c .
423
Pago 3
T h e se s tu d y r e p o r t s w ere a s f o l l o w s :
B u lle tin 1:
An I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g S u rv e y
Made h y th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f S c h o o ls and
th e R e se a r o h D e p a r tm e n t, w it h th e c o o p e r a ­
tio n o f a l l te a o h e r s.
B u lle t in 2:
A S tu d y o f I n t e r n a l S c h o o l P rob lem s
Made h y th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s ,
R e s e a r c h D e p a r tm e n t, P r i n c i p a l s , and
d i r e c t o r s o f s p e c i a l d e p a r tm e n ts .
th e
T h is s tu d y in c lu d e d
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
B u lle t in 3:
P u p il p o p u la t i o n tr e n d s
T e a c h e r - p u p ll lo a d s
T e a c h e r p r e p a r a t io n
B u ild in g U t i l i z a t i o n
P rob lem s t e a c h e r s w o u ld l i k e t o h a v e r e v ie w e d
An A c h ie v e m e n t T e s t S u rv e y
Made h y th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f S o h o o ls and th e
R e se a r c h D ep artm en t w it h th e c o o p e r a t io n o f
a l l te a c h e r s.
B u l l e t i n 4:
A C om m ittee S tu d y o f th e S em i-A n n u a l P la n o f
P r o m o tio n w it h R ecom m endations f o r a R e tu r n
t o An A nnual P la n o f P r o m o tio n .
B u lle t in 5:
A C om m ittee S tu d y o f C o u rses o f S tu d y and
G r a d u a tio n R e q u ir e m e n ts i n t h e Now B r i t a i n
S e n io r and. J u n io r H igh S c h o o ls .
B u lle t in 6:
A C om m ittee S tu d y o f
B u l l e t i n 7:
A C om m ittee S tu d y o f t h e Now B r i t a i n A ssig n m e n t
P la n f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o ls .
B u lle tin 8:
A C om m ittee S tu d y o f P rob lem s o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l
C o o r d in a t io n .
B u lle tin 9:
A C om m ittee S tu d y o f H igh S o h o o l G r a d u a tes
G u id a n ce N eeds
A g la n c e a t t h i s l i s t w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e c o m p r e h e n siv e n a t u r e
*
o f th is
"s e l f - s u r v e y " .
A b r i e f summary and a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e
r e p o r t s was p r e s e n t e d b y t h e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f S o h o o ls i n h i s a n n u a l
r e p o r t t o t h e B oard o f E d u c a t io n , made i n S ep tem b er 1 9 3 8 , a s f o l l o w s :
"The s u r v e y c l e a r l y i n d i o a t e s t h a t a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b le m s
a r e c o n t in u in g p ro b lem s and a r e c o n s t a n t l y w i t h us»
No p o r f o c t s o l u t i o n
424
P ag e 4
w i l l e v e r "be fo u n d .
The b e s t we oan do i s t o s t u d y and s e a r c h f o r
b e t t o r s o l u t i o n s th a n t h o s e we now h a v e .
The n o e d o f a c o n t in u in g
s t u d y o f New B r i t a i n * s e d u c a t io n a l p ro b lem s b y t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t ,
B oard o f E d u c a tio n , and s t a f f ,
i s a p p a ren t.
I n c o n t in u in g t h e s e s t u d i e s ,
th e f o l l o w i n g fu n d a m e n ta l p o l i c i e s w i l l g u id e t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n :
1.
The d e m o c r a tic m eth o d m u st b e u s e d i n a n y a p p ro a c h t o
t h e s o l u t i o n o f New B r i t a i n e d u c a t io n a l p ro b lem s and
th e d e t e r m in a t io n o f i t s
2.
e d u c a tio n a l p o l i c i e s .
R a te o f p r o g r e s s I n m aking im p ro v em en ts and c h a n g e s In
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t * u p i n New B r i t a i n m ust d ep en d
upon c o n v in c in g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a tio n ,
th e s t a f f ,
and th e p a r e n t s o f t h e n e e d and r e a s o n a b le ­
n e s s o f t h e s e c h a n g e s a n d im p ro v e m e n ts.
3.
The p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f New B r i t a i n a r e s u p p o r te d a t p u b lic
e x p e n s e i n th e i n t e r e s t o f th e b o y s and g i r l s who a t t e n d
th em , t o s e r v e t h e s e e n d s :
a.
To d e v e l f p New B r i t a i n b o y s a n d g i r l s i n t o
r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s i n a d em ocracy
;*£
b.
1
To d e v e lo p " a l l t h e c h il d r e n o f a l l th e p e o p le "
t o t h e l i m i t s o f e a o h i n d i v i d u a l * s own t a l e n t s
and a b i l i t i e s .
The s u r v e y seem s t o W arran t t h e f o l l o w i n g t e n t a t i v e
c o n c lu s io n s and r ec o m m e n d a tio n s:
1.
A c h ie v e m e n t" i n t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s I s fo u n d t o b e
e q u a l i n ra n k t o s i m i l a r s c h o o l s y s te m s th r o u g h o u t
th e c o u n try .
The e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s t a f f w i l l ,
c o u r s e , b e c o n s t a n t l y a l e r t t o im p ro v em en t.
th e n e x t fSw y e a r s , t h e S t a f f w i l l want
of
D u r in g
to stu d y
c a r e f u l l y t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e p r e s e n t fr la to o n p la n
425
Pago 5
o f t h e e le m e n t a r y s o h o o l 3 w it h a v ie w t o i t s
im p ro v e ­
m e n t, m o d i f i c a t i o n , o r c o m p le te c h a n g e ,— a l l i n l i n e
w it h th e b e s t p h ilo s o p h y o f e le m e n ta r y e d u c a t io n .
2.
A ch iev em en t i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s o h o o l s . — a s ju d g e d b y
te sts,
r e p o r t s from c o l l e g e s ,
and e m p lo y e r s o f h ig h
so h o o l g r a d u a t e s ,—has b een e q u a l t o a l l t h a t m i$ it
b e e x p e c t e d u n d er e x i s t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s j - - l i m i t a t i o n s
o f b u ild in g s p a c e ,
s t a f f , and
d o u b le p l a t o o n i n g , in a d e q u a te
in a d e q u a te f i n a n c i n g .
N e v e r th e le s s ,
th e
r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e th e n e e d f o r th e f o l l o w i n g c h a n g e s
and im p rovem en ts in t h e New B r i t a i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l
program :
a.
C u r r ic u la r c h a n g e s t o m eet th e n e e d s o f a l l
l e v e l s o f p u p i l s , b e c a u s e t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls
o f to d a y s e r v e , and m u st c o n tin u e t o s e r v e " a l l
th e c h i l d r e n o f a l l t h e p e o p le " .
b.
I n c r e a s e d s t a f f t o m eet t h e s e n e e d s . D u r in g th e
p a s t y e a r , th e h ig h e s t te a c h e r -p u p il r a t io has
b e e n on t h e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l l e v e l .
c.
C hanges o f p h ilo s o p h y and m eth o d s o f se c o n d a r y
e d u c a t io n t o m eet th e ch a n g ed n e e d s o f p u p il s
a t t e n d i n g our s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s to d a y .
The
s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l p o p u la t io n n e a r l y d o u b le d
i n f i v e y e a r s from 1 9 2 7 t o 1 9 3 2 , and to d a y o v e r
tw o and o n e - h a l f tim e s a s many p u p ils a r e b e in g
s e r v e d by o n ly one and o n e - h a l f tim e s a s many
t e a c h e r s , g iv in g a p p r o x im a te ly th e sam e i n s t r u c ­
t i o n i n a p p r o x im a te ly th e sam e way a s b e f o r e
t h i s g r e a t " i n c r e a s e came.
O b v io u s ly th e i n f l u x
o f n o n - a c a d e m ic a lly m in d ed p u p i l s r e q u ir e s a
ch an ged p h ilo s o p h y and a program t o m eet t h e i r
n eed s.
d.
C hanged c o u r s e s o f s t u d y and g r a d u a t io n r e q u i r e ­
m en ts f o r t h e same r e a s o n s a s i n d i c a t e d u n d e r
" c\
e.
More a d e q u a te f i n a n c i n g o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l e d u c a ­
t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l l e v e l ,
t o p r o v id e f o r in c r e a s e d s t a f f , i n c r e a s e d
m a t e r i a l s , new c o u r s e s , a n d more a d e q u a te
s u p e r v is io n .
426
P age 6
3.
A c o n t in u in g program o f c u r r ic u lu m s t u d i e s and
r e a d ju s tm e n t s on b o t h e le m e n ta r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l
le v e ls
i s n e e d e d , n o t o n ly t o k e e p ou r c o u r s e s o f
s t u d y u p - t o - d a t e , b u t in o r d e r t o h a v e a c h i l d - c e n t e r e d
c u r r ic u lu m , b a s e d u p on c o n t in u in g w o r th w h ile e x p e r ie n c e s
and g r o w th .
4.
5.
C o n s ta n t Im provem ent o f our s t a f f i s n e e d e d th r o u g h :
a.
S e l e c t i o n o f th e b e s t t e a c h in g m a t e r i a l t o f i l l
v a c a n c ie s o r new p o s i t i o n s .
b.
I n - s e r v i c e s t i m u l a t i o n and im p rovem ent o f th e
p resen t fa c u lty .
c.
A s a l a r y s c h e d u le t h a t w i l l a t t r a c t and k e e p th e
b e s t and e n c o tir a g e i n - s e r v i c e im p rovem en t o f th e
p resen t s t a f f .
In creased
a t t e n t io n to th e n eed s o f th e in d iv id u a l
p u p i l i s d e s i r a b l e th r o u g h :
6.
a.
A r e t u r n t o t h e a n n u a l p r o m o tio n p la n on a
c h r o n o lig ic a l age b a s is .
b.
I n c r e a s e d p r o v is io n s f o r in d iv id u a l a d ju stm e n ts.
c.
Im proved p r o v i s i o n s f o r e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n .
d.
An im p ro v ed g u id a n c e program .
I t is
i n d i c a t e d t h a t n o one m eth o d , s u c h a s t h e
New B r i t a i n A ssig n m e n t P la n , s h o u ld b e th e r e q u ir e d
m eth od o f a l l t e a c h e r s , b u t r a t h e r th e u s e o f w hat­
e v e r m eth od th e t e a c h e r f i n d s b e s t f i t t e d
and s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
t o p u p ils
T h is im p l i e s t h a t a l l New B r i t a i n
t e a c h e r s w i l l b e a l e r t t o c h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s and
m eth od s and w i l l n o t a l l o w t h e i r t e a c h in g t o g e t
"in to a r u t" .
7.
Im proved c o o r d in a t i o n o f t h e f o u r j u n io r h i g h s o h o o ls
and s e n i o r h i g h s o h o o l s h o u ld b e o b t a in e d th r o u g h s u c h
m eans a s :
427
Page 7
a.
C lo s e r c o o p e r a t io n and u n d e r s t a n d in g among th e
f i v e p r i n c i p a l s and t h e i r s t a f f s .
b.
More a t t e n t i o n t o common c o u r s e s o f s t u d y and
common b a s i c t e x t b o o k s .
c.
A common g u id a n c e program .
d.
More common s u p e r v i s i o n .
A lr e a d y some f i r s t s t e p s h a v e b e e n ta k e n , w it h th e a p p r o v a l
o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a t io n , t o m e e t t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s .
T h ese s t o p s
in c lu d e :
\
1.
A d o p tio n o f t h e r eco m m en d a tio n s o f th e C om m ittee on
P r o m o tio n P la n s ~
a ch an ge fro m a s e m i-a n n u a l t o an
a n n u a l p la n o f p r o m o tio n .
2.
A p p o in tm en t o f a p a r t - t im e d i r e c t o r o f g u id a n c e .
3.
P r o v i s i o n f o r a m o d if ie d s i n g l e p la t o o n p la n f o r th e
S e n io r H igh S c h o o l ,
th r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e R o c k w e ll
S c h o o l a s an a n n ex t o t h e S e n io r H ig h S c h o o l , th u s
a l l o w i n g more o p p o r t u n it y f o r i n d i v i d u a l h e lp from
t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l t im e .
4.
A s m a ll i n c r e a s e i n th e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l s t a f f ,
w h ic h p a r t i a l l y m e e ts t h e p r e s e n t n e e d o f th e s c h o o l .
5.
I n t r o d u c t i o n o f an I n d u s t r i a l A r ts C o u rse in t h e S e n io r
H igh S c h o o l, w h ic h b r o a d e n s t h e o f f e r i n g , and h e lp s
m e e t th e n e e d s o f a s p e c i a l grou p o f p u p i l s now
a t t e n d i n g h ig h s c h o o l .
6.
P r o v i s i o n o f a lu n c h room f o r t h e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l.
7.
E x p e r im e n ta tio n w it h a m ore modern and s t i m u l a t i n g
e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l r e p o r t c a r d .
8.
P r e lim in a r y s t e p s to w a rd an a d ju s tm e n t t o a new s a l a r y
s c h e d u l e , w h ic h w i l l b e more i n l i n e w it h modern tr e n d s
and w i l l s t i m u l a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l im p rovem ent i n th e s t a f f .
428
Page 8
9.
P r e lim in a r y s t e p s ta k e n to w a rd a s e l f - o o n t a i n e d sh o p
program f o r ea o h J u n io r h ig h s o h o o l , s o t h a t p u p i l s
w i l l n o t h a v e t o l e a v e t h e i r own J u n io r h ig h s c h o o l
f o r sh o p w ork.
10.
P r e lim in a r y s t e p s to w a rd " b etter s u p e r v is o r y o r g a n iz a ­
tio n o f secon d ary s c h o o ls .
The s u r v e y th u s s t a r t e d i s n o t a p i e c e o f w ork t o b e
c o m p le te d and f o r g o t t e n , b u t r a t h e r th e b a s i s o f a c o n t in u in g program
o f s tu d y and im p rovem ent o f th e New B r i t a i n S c h o o l s .
W ith t h i s p o in t
o f v ie w i n m in d , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m itte e s h a v e b e e n s e t up f o r th e
s o h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 t o c a r r y on t h e s e s t u d i e s more i n d e t a i l .
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
S u p e r in t e n d e n t ’ s Round T a b le
A l l P r i n c i p a l s and S u p e r v is o r s
C o u n c il on S e c o n d a r y E d u c a tio n
H arry W e s s e ls , Chairman
G u id an ce C o u n c il
F rank A. Jam es, Chairman
C u r r ic u la r C om m ittee
Mary A. C a m p b ell, G e n e r a l Chairman
1.
M a th em a tics C om m ittee
W a lte r B l a i s d e l l , Chairman
2.
S o c i a l S t u d ie s C om m ittee
P alm er Howard, Chairm an
3.
C om m ittee on I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s
L . A d e le B a s s e t t , Chairman
4.
P r a c t i c a l A r ts C om m ittee
H arry W e s s e ls , Chairman
P u b lic R e l a t i o n s and S c h o o l P u b l i c a t i o n s and
V i s u a l A id s
W illia m C. F r e n c h , Chairman
S c h o o l A ssem b ly Program s
V in c e n t S a l a , Chairm an
P r o g r e s s from t h i s p o i n t i s
t h e B oard
d e p e n d e n t upon th e s u p p o r t
o f E d u c a tio n , and t h e u n d e r s ta n d in g c o o p e r a t io n o f
p a r e n t s an d p u b l i c .
It
I s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t
of
th e s t a f f ,
and s t a f f
b e a llo w e d .c o n s u l t i v e a i d , e s p e c i a l l y w it h th e g u id a n c e and c u r r i c u l a r
p ro g ra m s."
429
Page 9
THE CURRICULUM BUILDING PROJECT
T h is p r e lim in a r y grou n d work l e d , a s th e a b o v e q u o t a t io n
i n d i c a t e s , t o t h e a p p r o v a l by t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s Round T a b le , w h ic h
is
com posed o f a l l p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r v i s o r s , o f th e f u r t h e r s t u d i e s
f o r 1 9 3 8 -1 9 3 9 , su g g e ste d a b o v e.
th e s t a f f ,
The Round T a b le , and t o a l a r g e e x t e n t ,
i s b e g in n in g t o r e a l i z e
t h a t a lo n g term c u r r ic u lu m b u i l d ­
in g program i s n e e d e d t o a p p ro a c h a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n o f New
B r i t a i n * s e d u c a t io n a l p r o b le m s .
The c u r r ic u lu m c o m m itte e s a r e o p e r a t ­
in g u n d er a g e n e r a l ch a irm a n , and a s t e e r i n g c o m m ittee com posed o f th e
S u p e r in te n d e n t o f S c h o o ls and th e ch a irm en o f th e s u b - o o m m it t e e s .
E ach c u r r ic u lu m c o r e co m m ittee i s
s m a ll and m e e ts on s c h o o l t i m e , th e
e q u i v a l e n t o f one day a m o n th ,— a s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r b e in g p r o v id e d
t o a llo w t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r t o b e away from c l a s s e s .
A very d e fin ite
a tte m p t i s b e in g made b y e a c h c o r e c o m m ittee t o b r in g a l l I n t e r e s t e d
t e a o h e r s i n t o t h e p r o j e c t th r o u g h th e c i r c u l a r i z i n g o f r e p o r t s an d
q u e s t io n n a ir e s w h ic h a s k f o r i n d i v i d u a l Judgm ent, t e a c h e r s com m ents,
and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s .
The S t e e r i n g C om m ittee h a s ta k e n a s i t s
b ility
s p e c ia l r e s p o n s i­
th r e e p r o j e c t s :
1.
The s e t t i n g up o f a l i b r a r y o f C u rricu lu m R e v i s i o n m a t e r i a l s .
2.
The b r in g i n g t o New B r i t a i n t e a c h e r s o u t s t a n d in g c o n s u l t a n t s
on c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n .
3.
The d e v e lo p m e n t o f a "fram e o f r e f e r e n c e " i n c l u d i n g a m a jo r
e d u c a t io n a l p h ilo s o p h y , o b j e c t i v e s and p r o c e d u r e s t o g u id e ■
a l l c o m m itte e s i n t h i s lo n g tim e c u r r ic u lu m b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t .
The s p e a k e r s p r o v id e d f o r
b y a s p e c i a l a p p r o p r ia t io n o f th e
B oard o f E d u c a tio n and who m eet w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s p a r t l y on s c h o o l tim e
and p a r t l y on t h e t e a c h e r s *
tim e a r e a s f o l l o w s :
D r. A lo n z o G. G r a c e , S t a t e C om m ission er o f E d u c a tio n
S u b je c t:
Im p o r ta n c e o f C u rricu lu m R e v is io n f o r th e
C h an gin g S c h o o l.
430
Page 10
D r. H o l l i s L . C a sW e ll, D i r e c t o r , D ep a rtm en t o f C u rricu lu m
and T e a c h in g , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y
S u b j e c t : Why R e v is e th e C u rricu lu m ?
D r. D o n a ld D. D u r r e l l , B o s to n U n i v e r s i t y
S u b je o t:
The C u rricu lu m and R em ed ia l R e a d in g
Mr. John K i n g s le y , P r e s i d e n t Verm ont J u n io r C o ll e g e and
M o n t p e lie r S e m in a r y , M o n t p e li e r , V erm on t; f o r m e r ly
A s s i s t a n t S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , A lb a n y , New York
S u b je c t:
The C u rricu lu m and I n d i v i d u a l N e e d s: A lb a n y
E x p e d ie n c e
D r. G eorge K. P r a t t , Y a le M e d ic a l S c h o o l; P r e s i d e n t ,
C o n n e c t ic u t M en ta l H y g ie n e S o c i e t y
S u b je c t:
M en ta l H y g ie n e a n d th e C u rricu lu m
D r . H e r b e r t G. E sp y , P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t io n , W e ste r n
R e s e r v e U n i v e r s i t y , C le v e la n d , O h io; Member o f
New Y ork S t a t e I n q u ir y i n t o C h a r a c te r an d C o st
o f E d u c a tio n
S u b je c t:
C o n t r ib u t io n o f New Y ork S t a t e I n q u ir y t o
C u r r ic u lu m R e v is io n
D r. Anna Y . R e e d , P e r s o n n e l D i r e c t o r , New Y ork U n i v e r s i t y
S u b j e c t : G u id an ce and C u rricu lu m R e v is io n
It is
t h e hop e o f t h e S t e e r i n g C om m ittee t h a t c u r r ic u lu m c o n s u l t a n t s
may p r o v id e a d e f i n i t e p o in t o f v ie w , i n s p i r e th o u g h t a n d d i s c u s s i o n ,
and h e l p i n th e f o r m u la t io n o f th e d e c i s i o n s t h a t h a v e t o b e m ade.
CURRENT EVALUATION OP THE PROJECT
To a tt e m p t t o e v a l u a t e a l i v i n g p r o j e c t , l i k e
a p p r a is in g a l i v i n g p e r so n , i s
th a t o f
t o l a y o n e s e l f open t o p o s s i b l e f u t u r e
c r i t i c i s m b e o a u s e th e p r o x im it y o f t h e p r o j e c t te n d s t o p u t i t
fo c u s.
out of
Y e t , c e r t a i n v a l u e s w h ic h a l l p e r s o n s , who a r e c o n n e c te d w it h
t h e p r o j e c t h op e a r e g r o w in g o u t o f th e u n d e r t a k in g a r e a p p a r e n t a t
t h i s t im e .
The f i r s t v a lu e i s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t i m u l a t i o n .
Upon t h e
s u p e r in t e n d e n t , h i m s e l f , r e s t s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l le a d e r s h ip i n c u r r ic u lu m
b u ild in g .
S t a f f members a r e b e i n g s t i m u l a t e d t o th o u g h t a t th e p r e s e n t
tim e and p r o b a b ly t o a c t i o n a t a l a t e r d a t e .
v is it
T h is i s e v id e n c e d b y a
t o an y c o m m ittee m e e t in g when p r o s an d co n s a r e a r g u e d w i t h g r e a t
g u s t o — n o t o n ly w i t h some h e a t b u t w it h more l i g h t .
T eaoh ers a re
d i s c u s s i n g c u r r ic u lu m p ro b lem s an d f i n d t h a t a l l p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s a r e
c l o s e l y c o n n e c te d w it h c u r r ic u lu m p r o b le m s.
p r o c e d u r e s an d m e th o d s, i f
T hey a r e c h a l l e n g i n g p r e s e n t
t o n o g r e a t e r e x t e n t th a n t o c o m p la in o f th e
r a t h e r f r e q u e n t f a c u l t y m e e tin g s w h ic h a r e n e c e s s i t a t e d .
A lr e a d y some
t e a c h e r s a r e w i l l i n g t o e x p lo r e a t l e a s t f o r New B r i t a i n , u n c h a r te d
p a th s i n an e f f o r t t o s e e i f t h e y w i l l w ork i n New B r i t a i n .
The s e o o n d v a lu e a s s o c i a t e d w it h t h e w ork o f c u r r ic u lu m
r e v is io n i s
t h a t o f b o a r d o f e d u c a t io n and l a y i n t e r e s t .
A ll f a c u lt y
m e e t in g s on c u r r ic u lu m b u i l d i n g h a v e b e e n open t o th e p u b l i c and th e
c u r r ic u lu m s p e a k e r s h ave h a d t h e i r t a l k s b r o a d c a s t th r o u g h th e k in d
o o o p e r a t io n o f t h e l o c a l r a d io s t a t i o n , WNBC.
w i l l b e s u c c e s s f u l u n le s s i t
No c u r r ic u lu m program
h a s t h e w h o le h e a r t e d s u p p o r t o f th e s t a f f
i n t h e f i r s t p l a o e , and th e u n d e r s t a n d in g c o o p e r a t io n o f p a r e n t s and
th e la y p u b lic .
P r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s n e e d t o h a v e t h e i r " f e e t on th e
ground" and t o t e s t t h e i r i d e a l s b e f o r e a forum o f p u b l ic o p in io n .
CONCLUSION
T h is i s
a " rep o rt o f p rogress"
i n g In b u i l d i n g i t s
o f w h at New B r i t a i n i s
c u r r ic u lu m f o r t h e f u t u r e .
I t is
a ttem p t­
ou r i n t e n t i o n t o
b u i l d a f ir m f o u n d a t io n and s o t h i s r e p o r t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h th e s i n c e r e
hope
th a t I t w i l l b e c r i t i c a l l y
d is s e c t e d by o u ts id e e d u c a to r s , s t a f f
members and t h e laym en who pay t h e b i l l s
f o r p u b li c e d u c a t io n .
I t is
f u r t h e r h op ed t h a t th e b e n e f i t o f t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s may b e b r o u g h t t o
f o c u s on New B r i t a i n * s a tte m p t t o m eet t h e p r e s s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p ro b lem s
o f th e day.
W hatever t h e r e b e o f v a lu e o r s u c c e s s t o d a t e i s due t o
t h e s i n c e r e c o o p e r a t io n o f h a r d -w o r k in g , c l e a r - t h i n k i n g s t a f f m em bers.
432
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c t i o n XXI
THE CURRICULUM AMD PUPIL NEEDS
A C u r r icu lu m A d d r e ss
by
John K in g s le y
433
The C u r r icu lu m a n d P u p i l N eeds
New B r i t a i n
C o n n e c t ic u t
F eb ru a ry 8 , 1 9 3 9
An A d d re ss b y John K in g s le y
I t i s in d e e d a g r e a t h o n o r t o b e i n v i t e d b y you r
p r o g r e s s i v e s u p e r in t e n d e n t , t o d i s c u s s w i t h you th e m o st v i t a l
p ro b lem c o n f r o n t in g th e p u b l i c s c h o o l s n a m ely :
c u r r ic u la r a d j u s t­
m ent t o m eet th e n e e d s a n d a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l .
Our a p p ro a c h
t o t h i s much d i s c u s s e d p ro b lem w i l l n o t be a c a d e m ic , n e i t h e r w i l l
i t be from th e s t a n d p o in t o f a t h e o r i s t w i t h a co m p lex o r g a n iz a t i o n
t h a t n e v e r q u i t e m e e ts th e New B r i t a i n c o n d i t i o n s - R a th e r I w ould
l i k e t o p i c t u r e a s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h ic h h a s b e e n w o r k in g
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f o r th e p a s t t e n y e a r s , i n a c i t y s y s te m su c h a s
y o u r s , w it h th e v e r y same p ro b lem s a s t h o s e w h ic h now c o n f r o n t y o u .
I n s t e a d o f c a t a l o g u i n g t h e t h in g s t h a t s h o u ld be d o n e , l e t u s
d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n t o a n a r r a t io n o f t h i n g s tE a t h a v e b e e n d o n e ,
w i t h t h e i r r e s u l t s , f o r e n co u ra g em en t r a t h e r th a n a d v i c e .
I f i n t h i s n a r r a t i v e t o o much e m p h a sis seem s t o be g iv e n
t o t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l y e a r s i t i s b e c a u s e t h o s e a r e th e y e a r s o f
g r e a te s t need.
Secondary sc h o o l te a c h e r s b eca u se o f tr a in in g .
S t a t e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , c o l l e g e d o m in a tio n , and th e w o r sh ip o f
f a l s e s ta n d a r d s a r e g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t m a t te r m in ded.
The modern
s c h o o l m u st be p u p i l c o n s c i o u s .
T hat i s
a t r i t e s a y in g b u t th e
c i t y a b o u t w h ic h I am t o s p e a k a c t u a l l y to o k i t s e r i o u s l y and d i d
so m e th in g abou t i t , a s y o u a r e d o in g .
When our B oard o f E d u c a tio n ( I s h a l l s p e a k t h i s i n t i m a t e l y
a lt h o u g h now more th a n s i x m onths rem oved fro m t h a t C it y ) a d o p te d
th e J u n io r H igh S c h o o l P h ilo s o p h y t w e lv e y e a r s a g o , t h e y d e f i n i t e l y
a c c e p t e d th e p r i n c i p l e t h a t i t s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w ere f o r a l l th e
c h ild r e n o f seco n d a ry s c h o o l a g e.
The J u n io r H igh S c h o o l c la im e d
to o ff e r c it iz e n s h ip tr a in in g fo r a l l fu tu r e c it iz e n s ; s o c ia l
p r a c t i c e s and a d j u s tm e n t f o r a h ig h e r s o c i a l o r d e r ; v o c a t i o n a l and
e d u c a t io n a l e x p l o r a t i o n f o r e f f i c i e n t g u id a n c e . Y e t , u n d er t h e
t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s , t h o s e a d v a n ta g e s w ere d e n ie d th e v e r y o n e s
who m o st n e e d e d them - t h e b o o k d u l l - s o o f t e n t h e f o r e i g n b o r n ,
th e s o c i a l l y u n a d j u s t e d , t h e p o t e n t i a l d r i f t e r s .
U nder th e o ld
p r a c t i c e b o y s and g i r l s had t o p a s s a s i x t h y e a r e x a m in a tio n b e f o r e
t h e y c o u ld e n t e r th e s e v e n t h g r a d e .
T h is i s j u s t a b o u t a s l o g i c a l
a s i t u a t i o n a s th o u g h we w ere t o b u i l d a g r e a t h o s p i t a l w it h e v e r y
known f a c i l i t y f o r th e tr e a t m e n t o f i n c i p i e n t t u b e r c u l o s i s and th e n
e x c lu d e d from i t s b e n e f i t s a l l t h o s e w ho, upon e x a m in a t io n , show ed
e v id e n c e o f b e i n g a f f l i c t e d w it h t h a t d r e a d m a la d y .
B ut l e t us
n o t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e th e p h y s i c a l l y a f f l i c t e d , u n d er s u c h inhuman
t r e a t m e n t , w o u ld g o o u t t o p e r i s h w h ile i n t h e s i x t h g ra d e th e
m e n t a lly slo w j u s t s t a y e d on in t h e g ra d e lo n g en o u g h t o g e t o ld
enougjh t o le a v e s c h o o l ; lo n g en o u g h t o h a t e s c h o o l and s o c i e t y
en o u g h t o becom e a m enace t o our d e m o c r a tic i n s i t u t i o n s ; lo n g
en o u g h t o becom e f a i l u r e s en ou gh t o make a s u c c e s s f u l , happy l i f e
a lm o s t i m p o s s i b l e .
The t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m o f g r a d in g i n th e
434
The Curriculum and Pupil Needs
Page 2
e le m e n ta r y y e a r s , b o rro w ed fro m P r u s s ia n e a r l y a h u n d red y e a r s
ag o had t o b e e n t i r e l y d is c a r d e d i n o rd er t o m i n i s t e r t o a l l . S in c e
th e t e a c h e r s of' j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l y e a r s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d
t o h a n d le th e p ro b lem s o f a d o l e s c e n c e , s i n c e th e program a n d th e
p r o c e d u r e s a r e b u i l t f o r t h o s e p a r t i c u l a r y e a r s - th e n e v e r y
a d o l e s c e n t y o u t h n e e d s and h a s a r i g h t t o t h o s e a d v a n t a g e s .
Here I m u st m e n tio n b r i e f l y th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l p la n
s e t up, a f t e r much r e s e a r c h and w id e s t u d y , w h ic h p r a c t i c a l l y
e l i m i n a t e s b o t h r e t a r d a t i o n an d a c c e l e r a t i o n - a p la n w h ic h
a s s u r e s t o e v e r y b o y and g i r l t h r e e y e a r s i n j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l
b e f o r e r e a c h in g t h e l e g a l a g e f o r w ork p a p e r s - i n o t h e r w ords a
p la n u n d er w h ic h a l l p u p i l s c o m p le te th e n i n t h y e a r .
Our g r a d e s
a r e a g e g r o u p s w i t h t h r e e or more a c h ie v e m e n t l e v e l s t o e a c h g r o u p .
Our minimum and maximum age l i m i t s w ere a p p r o x im a te ly th e
same a s t h o s e y o u now h ave u n d er c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
No p u p il c o u ld
e n t e r th e t h i r d g r a d e who h ad r e a c h e d t e n y e a r s o f a g e .
He e n t e r e d
th e f o u r t h g ra d e e v e n th o u g h b e a r l y a b le t o r e a d a s ta n d a r d s e c o n d
read or.
I n th e same grou p t h e y o u n g e s t p u p i l m ig h t b e o n ly 8 . 6
w it h many t h i r d r e a d e r s and f o r t y l i b r a r y b o o k s c o m p le te d .
I n th e
f o u r t h g r a d e e a c h one c a r r i e s on fro m w here he or s h e l e f t o f f
In su c h a s y s te m i t i s th e d u t y o f e a c h t e a c h e r - t o g e t e a c h c h i l d
th r o u g h th e s ta n d a r d g r a d e ?
Oh' N o! - t o d r iv e th e s lo w w h ile th e
b r i g h t j u s t "do th e w ork anyw ay” ? NO! I t i s th e d u t y o f e a c h
t e a c h e r t o a c c e p t e a c h c h i l d w here sh e f i n d s him and t o ta k e him
f r o m .t h a t p o in t on s o f a r a s p o s s i b l e i n th e y e a r a t h e r d i s p o s a l .
To make t h i s t a s k more o b j e c t i v e and s im p le t o t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s
and a d m in is t r a t o r s , we u s e d - b a t t e r y a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s when s c h o o l
o p en ed i n S ep tem b er and a t i t s c l o s e i n J u n e .
The p r o f i l e r e c o r d e d
th e g r o w th , n o t o n ly f o r th e c u r r e n t y e a r , b u t o v e r a te r m o f y e a r s .
Now I know th e f i r s t r e a c t i o n o f many t e a c h e r s t o s u c h a p la n .
And
I s y m p a th iz e w it h them
M iss J o n e s h a s b e e n a f o u r t h grade t e a c h e r
fo r , sa y , te n y e a r s.
She w as t r a i n e d f o r i t , sh e knows th e w ork
to be co v ered by th e gra d e.
She i s a g r a d e t e a c h e r . E ach y e a r
sh e i s f a c e d w it h a n im p o s s ib le t a s k - many o f h e r p u p i l s c a n n o t do
th e work o f th e s y l l a b u s .
E ach y e a r sh e w e a rs h e r s e l f o u t t r y i n g
c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y t o do th e im p o s s ib l e
E ach y e a r sh e h a s o v e r -g r o w n ,
o v e r - a g e b o y s and g i r l s , a c o n s t a n t m enace t o a l l h e r h o p e s .
E ach
y e a r sh e a r g u e s w it h p a r e n t s and o t h e r s o v e r t h e n o n -p r o m o tio n o f
some s lo w t h in k i n g p u p i l .
Do y o u l i k e i t ?
Under th e p r o p o s e d
New B r i t a i n p r o m o tio n a l p la n no t e a c h e r or p u p i l w i l l be a s k e d t o
do t h a t w h ich c a n n o t b e d on e. You n e e d n o t d r iv e t h e s lo w .
There
w i l l be no p i l i n g up o f f a i l u r e s .
T hose p r o b le m b o y s h a v e gone on no lo n g e r p r o b le m s .
I t i s th e way t o be a h a p p y , s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l .
Oh! y e s , e x c u s e m e, M iss J o n e s w i l l n e e d t o t e a c h some s e c o n d g ra d e
w ork and some t h i r d - b u t w h ic h i s e a s i e r , t o t e a c h s e c o n d g ra d e
w ork t o a b oy who ca n d o i t o r f o u r t h g ra d e work t o th e same b oy
when he c a n n o t p o s s i b l e g e t I t ? And when I s a y g r a d e 'w o r k I am
s p e a k in g t r a d i t i o n a l l y
The m odern s c h o o l w i l l u s e no su c h m i s l e a d ­
in g te r m s .
By way o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t, M iss J o n e s , we h ave some s e n i o r
h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who fo u n d much more s a t i s f a c t i o n and rew a rd i n
t e a c h in g f i f t h g ra d e r e a d in g th a n I n t e a c h i n g E n g l is h I I .
Where d id
we e v e r g e t th e id e a t h a t h ig h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s c o u ld n o t t e a c h
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e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l w ork? I w o u ld l i k e t o h ave y o u v i s i t a h ig h
s c h o o l A lg e b r a t e a c h e r , w e l l t r a i n e d , w it h y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , who
i s h a v in g a d e l i g h t f u l tim e t e a c h in g e le m e n ta r y a r i t h m e t i c t o
s i x t e e n y e a r o ld b o y s who ca n n e v e r do A lg e b r a .
No p u p il may e n t e r th e s i x t h g ra d e who i s p a s t 1 3 - 6 , w h ic h
means t h a t e v e r y b o y and g i r l e n t e r s j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l .
W ill
s ta n d a r d s o f a c h ie v e m e n t be lo w e r e d b y s u c h a p la n ?
T hat i s y o u r
q u e s t i o n , Page 5 , B u l l e t i n No. 2 .
We a r e s u r e a b o u t th e a n sw e r .
A f t e r g i v i n g up th e hope or f a n c y t h a t g r a d e s w ere l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e ­
m en t, th e g r a d e norm s w ere r a i s e d i n e v e r y s u b j e c t b y s e v e r a l m o n th s,
in some s u b j e c t s more th a n a h a l f y e a r .
H avin g f i n i s h e d t h e j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l on h i s o r h e r
l e v e l , w h at th e n ? T here a r e n o g r a d u a t io n e x e r c i s e s , a lt h o u g h t h e r e
i s a c l a s s d a y , or d ip lo m a s t o im p ly t h a t th e n i n t h y e a r c o m p le te s
a n y t h in g .
W ith no c l o s e d d o o r s t o p r e v e n t t h e i r e n t r a n c e t o s e n io r
h ig h s c h o o l m o r e T h a n 90 p e r c e n t c o n t in u e i n t h e t e n t h y e a r .
Here
th e g r o u p in g i s th e p r o d u c t o f th e e le m e n ta r y and j u n io r h ig h
sch ool y ea rs.
We w o u ld e m p h a siz e t h i s p o i n t b e c a u s e we f e e l t h a t
no h ig h s c h o o l s h o u ld a tte m p t su c h a n o r g a n i z a t i o n w it h o u t th e
p r e lim in a r y r e a d j u s t m e n t s th r o u g h t h e g r a d e s .
Many a t t e m p t s a t g r o u p in g h a v e b e e n t r a g i c f a i l u r e s
b e c a u s e t h e r e w ere n o c o r r e s p o n d in g c u r r ic u lu m c h a n g e s .
The b a s i s
f o r our g r o u p in g i s a c u r r ic u lu m b u i l t t o p r o v id e f o r a b i l i t y
d i f f e r e n c e s and th e a g e n t i n m aking th e a d ju s tm e n t o f w ork t o w o rk er
i s th e g u id a n c e c o u n s e lo r .
T here a r e t h r e e c u r r ic u lu m d i f f i c u l t y
l e v e l s t o m e e t t h e v a r y in g a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n a g iv e n f i e l d o f
in te r e s t.
H e r e in l i e s th e s e c r e t o f our e u c c e s s - we do n o t c l a s s i f y
p u p i l s and t h e n t e l l them w h at th e y m u st t a k e .
We o f f e r th e
c u r r i c u l a and e a c h p u p i l i s f r e e t o e l e c t , u n d er g u id a n c e , th e l e v e l
a t w h ic h he w i l l b e a b le t o s u c c e e d .
U nder t h i s p la n , t r a i n i n g i s
f o r s u c c e s s and s u c c e s s o n ly .
We n e e d no t r a i n i n g f o r f a i l u r e s .
A g iv e n c o u r s e m ust b e s o c o n s t r u c t e d and s o p r e s e n t e d t h a t a l l
i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d t h e r e i n w i l l f i n d work w h ic h i n d i f f i c u l t y
w i l l c h a lle n g e t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t b u t n e v e r demand from them t h a t
w h ic h t h e y c a n n o t d o .
T h is i s a l i f e s i t u a t i o n . I t i s n o t s o f t
p e d a g o g y th o u g h we do i n s i s t that" itT i s t h e b u s i n e s s o f 'the s c h o o l
t o p r o t e c t i t s y o u t h fro m f a i l u r e .
I t i s th e b l e s s e d p r i v i l e g e o f
th e s c h o o l t o p r o v id e f o r th e y o u t h o f th e la n d t h a t h a p p in e s s ,
o p tim ism , e n co u ra g em en t and s y m p a th e t ic tin d e r s ta n d in g s o g e n e r a l l y
d e n ie d them .
To t h e b o y who e n t e r s th e p o r t a l s o f a s c h o o l b u i l d ­
in g tom orrow from a home o f e c o n o m ic or m o ra l c o l l a p s e , a k in d ly
u n d e r s ta n d in g s m ile i s w o r th more th a n a l l th e k n o w led g e i n a l l th e
books
The c o u n tr y n e e d s l e a d e r s o f l i f e , s e n s i t i v e , b e w ild e r e d
b o y s and g i r l s w h e r e , t o o "o!Ften, we h a v e d r i l l m a s te r s o f u s e l e s s
s u b je c t m a tte r .
Why w o rry a b o u t more o r l e s s w o r t h le s s a ca d em ic
s ta n d a r d s when we h a v e p r i c e l e s s y o u t h t o w o r ry u s?
A p r o m in e n t e d u c a to r o f t h e S t a f f o f an e d u c a t i o n a l
f o u n d a t io n w r i t e s - " E d u c a tio n i s f o r th o s e who d e s i r e t o l e a r n and
who h ave th e a b i l i t y t o le a r n " .
We ta k e v i o l e n t e x c e p t i o n t o th e
im p lic a tio n s o f th a t sta te m e n t.
Modern p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r e d ic a t e d
upon th e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t th e " d e s ir e t o le a r n " and th e " a b i l i t y t o
le a r n " a r e d e te r m in e d b y th e m a t te r t o be le a r n e d and t h e m ethod o f
i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n q u i t e a s much a s b y th e in n a t e a b i l i t y o f th e
le a r n e r .
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Some y e a r s a g o I i n t e r v ie w e d a f a t h e r w hose s o n was f a i l ­
in g e i g h t h g ra d e w ork .
H is t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t he w as l a z y , t h a t
h e was d u l l .
As I e n t e r e d th e h o u se th e b oy w as j u s t l e a v i n g f o r
a Boy S c o u t m e e tin g and a c r o s s h i s m a n ly c h e s t an d on h i s s l e e v e
w ere th e i n s i g n i a o f an E a g le S c o u t .
Was he l a z y ? Was he d u l l ?
C o u ld h i s t e a c h e r s h a v e p a s s e d th e r e q u ir e d t e s t s ?
The " a b i l i t y t o le a r n " and th e " d e s ir e t o le a r n " a r e
d e te r m in e d by th e m a t te r t o b e le a r n e d and th e m eth o d o f i t s
p r e s e n t a t i o n q u i t e a s much a s b y t h e i n n a t e a b i l i t y o f t h e l e a r n e r .
To m eet i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s - n o t i c e th e o m is­
s i o n o f a b i l i t i e s w h ic h we s h a l l d i s c u s s p r e s e n t l y , we o f f e r th e
u s u a l w ork i n a c a d e m ic and co m m e rc ia l f i e l d s
I n a d d i t i o n th e
s c h o o l o f f e r s m ajor s e q u e n c e s i n A r t , M u sic, Home E c o n o m ic s, B ea u ty
P a r lo r P r a c t i c e , and a l l k in d s o f s h o p s - e l e c t r i c a l , m a c h in e , w ood,
a u t o m e c h a n ic s , d r a f t i n g , p r i n t i n g , e t c .
S t i l l th a t i s n ot s u f f i c ­
i e n t - we a llo w e d p u p i l s t o sam ple g e n e r o u s ly fr o m a w id e v a r i e t y
o f co u rses.
Many g i r l s t a k i n g c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e , o r m u sic o r commerce
e l e c t e d a s e m e s te r o f b e a u t y c u lt u r e or p e r s o n a l r e g im e n . Young men
t a k in g a u t o m e c h a n ic s e l e c t e d F r e n c h o r I t a l i a n .
The n e e d s and
i n t e r e s t s a r e a lm o s t a s g r e a t a s th e number o f p u p i l s r e g i s t e r e d .
T hat p r o b le m i s c o m p a r a t iv e ly e a s y i f t h e r e i s money f o r room , e q u ip ­
m ent and s t a f f .
I t i s n o t s o e a s y t o p r o v id e , i n e a c h o f t h e s e
f i e l d s , f o r v a r y in g a b i l i t i e s .
I n our c i t y " e a c h s u b j e c t i s o f f e r e d i n th r e e d e g r e e s o f
d i f f i c u l t y " ( q u o t in g fr o m t h e r e p o r t c a r d ) " d e s ig n a t e d a s A, B, C,
le v e ls .
A - a d v a n ce r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t h o s e o f s u p e r io r a b i l i t y and
s u p e r io r a c h ie v e m e n t i n th e s u b j e c t .
B - r e g u la r s y lla b u s r e q u ir e ­
m en ts f o r t h e a v e r a g e p u p i l .
C - a s p e c i a l s u b j e c t m a tte r l e v e l
d e s ig n e d t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f t h o s e who a r e n o t a b le t o p r o f i t b y
th e w ork o f B.
T h is S l e v e l d o e s n o t m eet th e S t a t e r e q u ir e m e n ts
f o r e n tr a n c e t o R e g e n ts e x a m in a t io n s o r f o r a c a d e m ic e d u c a t io n b e y o n d
th e h ig h s c h o o l . Marks on th e C l e v e l a r e on th e b a s i s o f e f f o r t
r a t h e r th a n s ta n d a r d a c c o m p lis h m e n t."
F r a n k ly and s im p ly t h i s m eans t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e k in d s
o f E n g lis h I I , t h r e e k in d s o f M a th e m a tics 1 0 , o f F r e n c h I , S c ie n c e
12, e t c ., e tc .
C - d i f f i c u l t y E n g lis h p r o v id e s many m onths w ork i n
e le m e n ta r y r e a d in g , p en m an sh ip and la n g u a g e u s a g e .
T here i s l i t t l e
w r i t t e n c o m p o s it io n b e y o n d f r i e n d l y l e t t e r s and k e e p in g a d i a r y a n d
n o t e c h n i c a l grammar. A t t h e o t h e r e x tr e m e , th e s u p e r i o r g r o u p s do
c r e a t i v e w ork i n e s s a y s , o r a t i o n s , p o em s, d ra m a s, j o u r n a lis m ,
f i c t i o n , and a l l th e t e c h n i c a l grammar fo u n d i n p r i n t .
The C
d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l l i t e r a t u r e I s l i m i t e d t o c u r r e n t f i c t i o n , b o y s* and
g i r l s 1 m a g a z in e s , n e w s p a p e r s , e t c . , c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e e x a c t i n g
s t u d y o f c l a s s i c a l and m odern l i t e r a t u r e , a u t h o r s and c r i t i c s f o r th e
A d iffic u lty le v e l.
I n M a th e m a tics th e C l e v e l may n e v e r g e t b e y o n d s im p le
a p p l i e d m a th e m a tic s w i t h no a lg e b r a or g eo m e try a s s u c h , w h ile th e
A l e v e l a r e t a k in g a d v a n c e d A lg e b r a , P la n e and S p h e r ic a l T r ig o n o m e tr y .
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The Curriculum, and Pupil Needs
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So we m ig h t c o n t in u e t h e c o n t r a s t .
I t to o k f i v e y e a r s o f e x p e r im e n t­
in g b e f o r e th e o u t l i n e s i n a l l f i e l d s w ere p u t i n m im eographed form
and e a c h y e a r s i n c e t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n ch a n g ed .
D o .n o t be d i s ­
couraged .
There i s no a c t i v i t y s o s t i m u l a t i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n a l
g ro w th a s c u r r ic u lu m a d ju s tm e n t a n d n o t h in g w it h g r e a t e r r ew a r d .
A p p r o x im a te ly one f o u r t h o f t h e s e c o n d a r y r e g i s t r a t i o n i s
on th e A l e v e l , one f i f t h on th e C l e v e l and th e o t h e r s on th e B
or n o r m a l.
N eed I s a y t h a t our g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i s i n g e t t i n g
s u p e r io r work from th e s u p e r io r p u p ils ?
T h at i s th e r e s u l t o f th e
d r i f t i n g h a b it i n t o w h ic h th e s u p e r io r h ave b e e n f o r c e d b y th e
t r a d it io n a l proced ures
Our s t u d i e s and many o t h e r s show t h a t th e
s u p e r io r y o u t h d o e s th e p o o r e s t w ork when a b i l i t y i s th e s ta n d a r d .
The r e a l f a i l u r e s a r e th e p u p i l s o f h ig h a b i l i t y b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f
c h a lle n g e .
The modern s c h o o l w i l l demand from th e s u p e r io r th e same
d e g r e e o f c o n c e n t r a t io n , t h e same e n e r g y o f a p p l i c a t i o n , th e same
s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t f o r su ic c e s s t h a t i t h a s a lw a y s e x a c t e d fro m th e p u p il
o f b u t norm al c a p a c i t y .
Then y o u w i l l b e s u r p r i s e d how f a r and how
f a s t th e y w i l l g o .
May I c l o s e t h i s d r y , fo r m a l p a p er w i t h a summary o f a c t u a l
o u tcom es o f t h i s p la n .
A lth o u g h th e p u p il p o p u la t i o n i s l e s s i n our
c i t y th a n t e n y e a r s a g o , t h r e e tim e s a s many p u p i l s g ra d x ia ted from
h ig h s c h o o l i n 1 9 3 6 , 1 9 3 7 , 1 9 3 8 a s a t a n y p r e v io u s d a t e .
Of t h o s e g r a d u a te s t h e r e w ere n a t u r a l l y more who to o k th e
f i n a l s t a t e e x a m in a t io n s , b u t n o t e t h i s , y e who w o u ld w o rry a b o u t
th e o ld a ca d em ic jsta n d a r d s - o f th e p a p e r s w r i t t e n a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t
w ere m arked p a s s i n g ; o f t h o s e p a s s in g a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t w ere h o n o r s th a n e v e r b e f o r e .
A g a in - i n e a c h o f th o s e y e a r s we won more S t a t e
s c h o l a s t i c c o m p e t it io n s and s c h o l a r s h i p s th a n we had e v e r h o p ed t o
w in .
We a d m it a s t a r t l i n g drop in t h e m e n ta l a b i l i t y o f th e
s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l g r o u p s .
F i f t e e n y e a r s ago 85$ o f th e grou p had
IQ »s a b ove 1 0 0 .
Today b u t 60 $ o f t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n a r e s o r a t e d .
And
s t i l l th e o ld s ta n d a r d s a r e h ig h e r th a n e v e r b e f o r e .
Are you w o r r ie d a b o u t s ta n d a r d s ? We w ere t r a i n e d t o
p e r p e t u a t e th e s y s te m fr o m w h ic h we s u r v iv e d ; a s y s te m w h ic h c o n t i n u a l !
s i f t e d o u t th e b o o k - b r ig h t and d is c a r d e d a l l o t h e r s a s u n w o rth y ; a
s y s te m w h ic h d e te r m in e d i t s s ta n d a r d s b y th e a c c u r a c y o f i t s s i e v e ;
w h ic h f i x e d th o s e s ta n d a r d s b y th e r u t h l e s s n e s s w it h w h ic h i t d i s ­
c a r d e d t h e w ea k . And how we b o a s t e d a b o u t t h e s ta n d a r d s o f our
s c h o o l a s th o u g h i t had b e e n done b y s u p e r io r t e a c h i n g , o r s u p e r io r *
s o m e th in g .
The m easu re o f th e e f f i c i e n c y o f y o u r new s c h o o l w i l l be
i n te r m s o f i t s h o ld in g pow er o v e r t h o s e o f s c h o o l a g e ; i n th e
c h a r a c t e r , eco n o m ic and s o c i a l a d ju s tm e n t o f i t s p r o d u c t .
T h ese a r e
th e e s s e n t i a l s ta n d a r d s an d a b o u t them we s h o u ld be c o n c e r n e d .
45a
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c t i o n XXII
CURRICULUM BULLETIN 2
A TENTATIVE FRAME OF REFERENCE
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
STUDY OP CURRICULUM
BULLETIN NO. 2
JANUARY 1839
A REPORT OF PROGRESS OF THE STEERING COMMITTEE AT WORK
ON A PROGRAM FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUCTION
IN THE NEW BRITAIN SCHOOLS
A TENTATIVE FRAME OF REFERENCE
INTRODUCTION
E d u c a tio n f o r l i f e i n a r a p i d l y c h a n g in g s o c i e t y
r e q u ir e s a c o n s t a n t a l e r t n e s s and a w a r e n e ss o f t h e s e c h a n g e s ,
and an a d ju s tm e n t o f th e s c h o o l program t o m eet c h a n g in g n e e d s .
New B r i t a i n h a s em barked upon a c o n t in u in g s tu d y o f th e c u r ­
r ic u lu m f o r i t s s c h o o l s ,
a s ta te m e n t o f a "fram e o f r e f e r e n c e "
i n c l u d i n g p h ilo s o p h y , o b j e c t i v e s , and p r o c e d u r e s , a s a g u id e
i n th e program o f c u r r ic u lu m b u i l d i n g , i s e s s e n t i a l and i s
a tte m p te d h e r e .
WHY THE WORK OF THE SCHOOLS NEEDS REVISION
" E d u c a tio n i s th e p r o c e s s o f m a s t e r in g th e k n o w le d g e ,
th e t o o l s , th e s k i l l s , and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h ich m ankind h a s
s l o w l y a c c u m u la te d , o f le a r n i n g how t o work w it h o t h e r s , o f
u n d e r s ta n d in g and m aking th e m o st o f o n e s e l f , and o f fo r m in g
i d e a l s and h a b i t s ."
" T h is i s n o t an e a s y t a s k t o do w e l l . We l i v e i n a
c o n s t a n t l y e x p a n d in g w o r ld ; th e c o n t e n t o f human k n o w led g e i s
c o m p lic a t e d . B e s i d e s , t h e r e i s i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y i n th e n a t u r e ,
c a p a c i t i e s , and c h a r a c t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g s .
C le a r ly ,
e d u c a t io n c a n n o t be s t a n d a r d iz e d o r s t a t i c ; i t m ust grow w it h
e a c h a d v a n ce o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , and i t m u s t , a t th e same t im e ,
f i t t h o s e who a r e t o be e d u c a te d ." (1 )
T h is s h o r t e x c e r p t from t h e r e c e n t r e p o r t on a s u r v e y
o f p u b lic e d u c a t io n in th e S t a t e o f New York e x p l a i n s , i n
g e n e r a l , why th e s c h o o l s o f th e n a t i o n a r e a t work on c u r r ic u lu m
r e v i s i o n , and why t h o s e who a r e d i r e c t i n g th e work o f th e
New B r i t a i n s c h o o ls a re a t p r e s e n t s u r v e y in g t h e s c h o o l o r g a n ­
i z a t i o n and program s i n an e f f o r t t o h a v e them f i t th e c h i ld r e n
who a r e b e in g e d u c a te d t o d a y .
I t i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n th e
ju n io r and s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s t h a t , due t o th e trem en d ou s i n ­
c r e a s e i n s c h o o l e n r o llm e n t o v e r th e l a s t s i x y e a r s , an o b v io u s
n e e d e x i s t s f o r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a d e q u a te c o u r s e s o f s tu d y
1.
E d u c a tio n f o r A m erican L i f e , R e g e n ts '
T rnr;"T S3'8T ~p7^:----------------
I n q u ir y , McGraw-
440
Page Two.
New Britain Sohool Study of Curriculum, Bu 1letin No. 2
t h a t w i l l m eet t h e v a r ie d and w id e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l th e p u p ils
e n r o lle d .
Among th e i n t e r e s t s a demand f o r v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r ­
t u n i t i e s h as lo n g c a l l e d f o r an e x p a n s io n o f t r a d e s c h o o l
f a c i l i t i e s . W ith t h e s e and o t h e r s c h o o l p ro b lem s th e w ork o f
c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , and i t i s th e hop e o f th e
d i f f e r e n t c o m m itte e s t h a t a program f o r th e im provem ent o f
i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e New B r i t a i n s c h o o l s w i l l r e s u l t .
PHILOSOPHY
The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f s t a t e m e n t s o f b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i s
p r o p o s e d a s a g u id in g p h ilo s o p h y t o w h ic h t e a c h e r s and com­
m i t t e e s may r e f e r when f a c e d w it h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m aking
d e c i s i o n s on g e n e r a l s c h o o l p r o b le m s:
The p u b lic s c h o o l s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d and s u p p o r te d by
th e c i t i z e n s i n o r d e r t o m a in t a in and p r e s e r v e i n th e p r e s e n t
a s w e l l a s f o r th e f u t u r e a 3 t a b l e , d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y .
Im­
p l i e d in t h i s id e a i s th e hope t h a t th r o u g h e d u c a t io n th e
com ing g e n e r a t io n may be a b le t o a v o id th e e r r o r s o f th e p a s t ,
and c o n s t r u c t a b e t t e r w o r ld f o r t h e f u t u r e .
F u n d a m e n ta lly , th e p u b l ic s c h o o l s s h o u ld b e so o r g a n iz e d
t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n w i l l a c q u ir e a r e a s o n a b le c o n t r o l o f th e t o o l s
o f le a r n in g i n so f a r as t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s p e r m it . A lo n g w it h
t h i s , and no l e s s im p o r t a n t , m ust be th e i n s i s t e n c e t h a t e a ch
c h i l d a c q u ir e a v ie w o f h i m s e l f a s an e s s e n t i a l member o f h i s
com m unity, d e f i n i t e l y o b l i g a t e d t o s e r v e and t o d e v e lo p h i s
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s t o th e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e d e g r e e .
F u r t h e r , t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l i s th e p la c e w here a l l th e
c h i l d r e n o f a l l th e p e o p le may l e a r n t o work and l i v e t o g e t h e r
i n t o l e r a n c e , m u tu a l u n d e r s ta n d in g and f o r b e a r a n c e .
I t is
e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h o s e who a r e e n t r u s t e d w it h th e
c o n t r o l o f th e s c h o o ls s e e t o i t t h a t n o t h in g i n th e p r a c t i c e s
o f th e s c h o o ls s h a l l s e t one group a g a i n s t a n o t h e r , o r make
u n d e m o c r a tic d i s t i n c t i o n s among t h e members o f th e same g r o u p .
I n s t r u c t i o n w h ic h w i l l p r e p a r e f o r c i t i z e n s h i p in a common
c o u n tr y and f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f th e c o n t r i b u t io n s o f o n e ' s
fe llo w c it iz e n s i s a g o a l.
The e v e n t s o f t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s h a v e made v e r y c l e a r
t o a l l t h a t th e one c e r t a i n t y i n l i f e i s c h a n g e . The s c h o o l ,
t h e r e f o r e , m ust e m p h a siz e th e n e e d t o " ch an ge w it h a c h a n g in g
w o r ld ."
Through th e a d ju s tm e n t and b r o a d e n in g o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l
p r o g r a m s, p u p i l s w i l l b e h e lp e d t o d e v e lo p sta m in a f o r m e e tin g
ch an ge and f o r c u l t i v a t i n g th e s c i e n t i f i c m eth od o f f a c t
f i n d i n g , o f a n a l y z i n g , o f ju d g in g v a l u e s , and o f d ra w in g c o n ­
c l u s i o n s i n new s i t u a t i o n s .
441
Page Three.
New Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin Ho. 2
The New B r i t a i n s c h o o ls s h a l l a tte m p t to p r o v id e a
w e ll- r o u n d e d e d u c a t io n f o r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f e v e r y c h i l d ’ s
p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r , t a k in g i n t o a c c o u n t th e i n d i v i d u a l
d i f f e r e n c e s and n e e d s o f e a c h c h i l d i n a c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g in g
and i n c r e a s i n g l y dem anding s o c i e t y .
The c u r r ic u lu m w i l l b e
c h i l d - c e n t e r e d , b u t w i l l r e c o g n iz e and p r o v id e f o r h i s s o c i a l
and c i v i c n e e d s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a d e m o c r a tic s t a t e .
The p u b l i c s c h o o ls a r e th e f o u n d a t io n u p o n w h ich
dem ocracy i s b u i l t , and a r e among th e im p o r ta n t i n s t i t u t i o n s
s e t up f o r th e p u rp o se o f d e v e lo p in g s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y i n th e
w h ole p o p u la t i o n .
EDUCATIONaL OBJECTIVES
*
I n d e v e lo p in g t h i s p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n , th e
f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s a r e s e t up t o a id t e a c h e r s i n g i v i n g a
d e s ir e d d i r e c t i o n t o th e grow th o f Hew B r i t a i n ' 3 b o y s and g i r l s
1.
The d e v e lo p m e n t o f a w e ll- r o u n d e d p e r s o n a l i t y and h ig h
c h a r a c t e r i n th e i n d i v i d u a l p u p il b y p r o v id in g f o r ;
e m o t io n a l, p h y s i c a l and m e n ta l g ro w th
a p p r e c i a t i o n o f e t h i c a l s ta n d a r d s and s p i r i t u a l v a lu e s
2.
The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f th e v a lu e s o f ou r o a s t c u l t u r a l and
s o c i a l h e r i t a g e th r o u g h grow th i n u n d e r s ta n d in g s o f :
s o c ia l r e la tio n s h ip s
s o c i a l in t e r d e p e n d e n c e
s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to w a r d s n a n 's d e v e lo p m e n t.
3.
The d e v e lo p m e n t i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l o f a m ature s e n s e o f
s o c i a l - c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , “w h ic h p r e p a r e him i n a
d e m o c r a tic f a s h i o n f o r a d e m o c r a tic l i f e . "
(1 )
4.
The d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h a t d e g r e e o f m a t u r it y w h ich makes
p o s s i b l e s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - c o n t r o l .
5.
The d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e a b i l i t y i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o t h in k
c r i t i c a l l y , t o ju dge f a i r l y , and t o e v a lu a t e f u l l y .
6.
The d e v e lo p m e n t o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n s c h o o l p r a c t i c e s and p r o ­
c e d u r e s , and th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a ls o f i n s t r u c t i o n
i n su c h a way “ t h a t th e b e s t a b i l i t i e s o f th e more a b le
s c h o l a s t i c a l l y be d e v e lo p e d f u l l y w ith o u t r e s t r i c t i n g th e
e d u c a t io n a l o p p o r t u n it y o f t h o s e w hose a b i l i t i e s l i e i n
o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s . ” (2 )
1.
2.
Ed u c a t io n f o r Am e r ic a n L i f e , p . 3 9 .
I b i d ';
442
Page Four.
New Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin Ho. 2
7.
The d e v e lo p m e n t o f e x p lo r a t o r y s tu d y b y g r o u p s o f i n t e r e s t e d
t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s i n a l l t h e a r e a s o f s c h o o l work and
on a l l s c h o o l l e v e l s , so t h a t f i n a l reco m m en d a tio n s may he
b a s e d on a c t u a l c la s s r o o m s u c c e s s i n New B r i t a i n .
PROCEDURES
The f o l l o w i n g p r a c t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s a r e recommended
a s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e p h ilo s o p h y and th e e d u c a t io n a l
o b j e c t i v e s w h ich a r e b a s i c t o a p r o g r a m f o r im p r o v in g th e
i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e New B r i t a i n p u b lic s c h o o l s :
1.
a c o n t in u in g d e v e lo p m e n t o f new c o u r s e s o f s tu d y i n harmony
w it h th e p h ilo s o p h y and e d u c a t io n a l o b j e c t i v e s .
2.
a c o n t in u in g i n - s e r v i c e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e a c h e r s i n an
e f f o r t to k e e p a l i v e an a v /a ren ess f o r and an i n t e r e s t i n
c u r r ic u lu m n e e d s .
3.
A c o n t in u in g s u p p o r t and i n t e r e s t from p a r e n t s and th e
p u b lic f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a p r a c t i c a l s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m ,
so t h a t th e p r e s e n t day n e e d s o f New B r i t a i n ' s c h ild r e n
may be m e t.
4.
I n c r e a s e d e m p h a sis on t h e m a s te r y o f s k i l l s , and on th e
d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e a b i l i t y to t h in k ; t h i s a b i l i t y t o be
c h e c k e d r e g u l a r l y a g a i n s t th e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d s ta n d a r d s
i n a t e s t i n g p rogram .
5.
A c o n t in u in g
6.
Such o r g a n i z a t i o n o f program s i n o u r Hew B r i t a i n s c h o o ls
as w i l l r e f l e c t an i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e e d u c a t iv e
f o r c e o f a c t i v i t y , and o f th e l e a r n i n g t h a t r e s u l t s from
e x p e r ie n c in g among l i f e s i t u a t i o n s .
7.
Such ch an ges i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p r o g r a m s, c o u r s e s o f s t u d y ,
and g r a d u a t io n r e q u ir e m e n ts a s a r e i n harmony w it h l i f e ' s
demands and m odern e d u c a t io n a l i d e a l s .
r e v i s i o n o f t h i s “ fram e o f r e f e r e n c e 1' i n th e
l i g h t o f new n e e d s .
PROBLEMS PRESENTED FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION
I n d e v e lo p in g a c u r r ic u lu m t h a t w i l l m eet th e e d u c a t i o n a l
n e e d s o f th e c h i l d r e n o f New B r i t a i n and t h a t w i l l , a t th e same
t im e , r e sp o n d t o t h e c h a lle n g e o f m odern e d u c a t io n a l t r e n d s ,
c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c i s s u e s seem t o c a l l f o r im m ed ia te s tu d y and
d e t e r m in a t io n .
443
Page Five.
Mew Britain School Study o f C u rriculum, Bulletin Ho. 2
ISSUE HO. 1
PROMOTION
(S e e C u rricu lu m B u l l e t i n Ho. 1)
S h a l l p r o m o tio n a l p r o c e d u r e s work i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f
a d v a n c in g p u p ils on a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e b a s i s , t h a t i s ,
on a c o n tin u o u s p la n o f p ro m o tio n ?
W ill s ta n d a r d s o f a c h ie v e m e n t be lo w e r e d b y su c h
a ch an ge ?
W ill t e a c h e r s h a v e enough o b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l to
c r i t i c a l l y m easu re and e s t im a t e th e m e n ta l and
s o c i a l grow th o f p u p ils ?
What c h a n g e s in th e work a s s ig n e d t o c l a s s g r o u p s ,
o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n th e s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l
h a v e t o be made i n o r d e r t o p r o v id e f o r th e ran ge
o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n any c l a s s ?
ISSUE HO. 2
.TYPES OF CURRICULUM ORGaHIZa TIOH
S h a l l Hew B r i t a i n make u s e o f th e " c o r e c u rricu lu m " or
th e " i n t e g r a t e d c u rricu lu m " o r g a n is a t io n ?
In w h o le?
I n p a r t?
S h a l l New B r i t a i n e x p lo r e th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s
th e p rim a ry g r a d e s , so a s to p r o v id e f o r a
t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s
• ment in e x p e r ie n c e s and c o n te n t m a t e r i a l s ,
m o tio n a t th e end o f t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f th e
g rad e ?
o f r e o r g a n iz in g
s in g le p u p il'w ith a a v a n c e and w it h p r o ­
p r e se n t th ir d
S h a l l th e p r e s e n t p la t o o n o r g a n i z a t i o n be m o d ifie d to
in c lu d e g ro u p s c o r r e s p o n d in g t o th e p r e s e n t f o u r t h th r o u g h
s i x t h g r a d e s?
(an eco n o m ic f a c t o r i s i n v o l v e d . )
CONCLUSION
T h is r e p o r t r e p r e s e n t s th e th o u g h t and s tu d y o f th e
S t e e r i n g C o m m ittee. I t i s p r e s e n t e d a s a p r e f a c e t o th e work
on c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n f o r a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s by a l l t e a c h e r s .
444
Page Six.
New Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin Ho, 2
I t i s recommended t h a t th e p h i lo s o p h y , th e e d u c a t io n a l o b ­
j e c t i v e s , and th e s u g g e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s , s t a t e d a b o v e , be
d e m o c r a t ic a lly and g r a d u a ll y in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o th e c o u r s e s o f
s tu d y .
Mary A. C a m p b ell, Chairman
C a r ly le C. K ing
H arry W e sso ls
Prank a . J a n e s
R uth K im b a ll
W a lte r B l a i s d e l l
P alm er Hov/ard
A d e le B a s s e t t
W illia m C. F ren ch
V in c e n t S a la
J an u ary 2 5 , 1939
445
SOURCE FATLEIAL
S e c t i o n X X III
CURRICULUM BULLETIN 3
GUIDE LINES FOR A PRACTICAL ARTS CURRICULUM
IN HEW BRITAIN
446
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
STUDY OP CURRICULUM
FEBRUARY
1939
BULLETIN NO. I l l
GUIDE LINES FOR A PRACTICAL ARTS CURRICULUM IN NEW BRITAIN
•
INTRODUCTION
I n an u rb an and m a n u fa c tu r in g c i t y
th e r e i s b u t l i t t l e
s u c h a s New B r i t a i n
n e c e s s i t y o f p o i n t i n g e u t or j u s t i f y i n g th e i n ­
c l u s i o n o f c o u r s e s i n P r a c t i c a l A r ts i n our p u b lic s c h o o l s .
I t is
o b v io u s t h a t m o st o f our b o y s w i l l make t h e i r l i v i n g b y w o r k in g in
our f a c t o r i e s and m o st o f our g i r l s w i l l h a v e much t o d o , s o o n e r or
l a t e r , w i t h h o u s e h o ld a f f a i r s .
T h e r e fo r e i t
i s app arent th a t in s tr u c
t i o n i n P r a c t i c a l A r ts s h o u ld b e c a r r i e d on th r o u g h o u t our t w e lv e
g r a d e s a lo n g w it h t h e b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d in g , w r i t i n g , h i s t o r y ,
g e o g r a p h y , m u s ic , m a th e m a tic s , e t c .
P r a c t i c a l A r ts may b e d e f i n e d a s t h a t p a r t o f g e n e r a l
e d u c a t io n w h ic h d e a l s w it h th e t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s , p r o c e s s e s and w it h
th e a c q u ir e m e n t o f m a n ip u la t iv e s k i l l s ,
th e s tu d y o f th e m a t e r i a l s
and th e t o o l s u s e d i n t h e s e s k i l l s
a s w e l l a s th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s
th e se
to l i f e .
s k i l l s , m a t e r i a l s , an d t o o l s
of
K e ep in g U p«T o-D ate
The s c h o o l s n e e d c o n s t a n t l y t o k e e p a l e r t t o t h e c h a n g e s
i n th e l i f e
o f th e com m unity.
C hanges o f a fu n d a m e n ta l n a tu r e have
b e e n t a k in g p l a c e i n our c i t y ' s l i f e
The r e v i s e d s t a t e
d u r in g th e p a s t tw e n ty y e a r s .
s t a t u t e s p r o v id e t h a t no em p lo y er i n New B r i t a i n
may to d a y em p loy a b e y or g i r l un d er s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e .
us r e a liz e
A ll of
t h a t fu n d a m e n ta l c h a n g e s i n f a c t o r y and home m aking p r o c ­
e s s e s h a v e ta k e n p l a c e d u r in g th e p a s t fe w y e a r s .
So i t
is
o n ly th e
p a r t c f w isdom t o s u r v e y our c o u r s e s i n P r a c t i c a l A r ts i n o r d e r t o
make c e r t a i n t h a t t h e y a r e s o o r g a n iz e d a s t o m e e t, a s a d e q u a t e ly a s
p o s s ib le ,
th e n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l s .
447
New Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin III
Page 2
P r e s e n t J u n io r H igh S c h o o l O r g a n iz a tio n i n P r a c t i c a l A r t s .
The t h e o r y up on w h ic h we h ave b e e n w o r k in g i s t h a t e v e r y
b e y and g i r l i s e n t i t l e d t o come i n t o c o n t a c t w it h a s e r i e s o f
e x p lo r a t o r y e x p e r ie n c e s i n th e f i e l d
s e v e n and e i g h t .
o f p r a c t ic a l a r ts in grad es
H ence we have s e t u p , a t c o n s id e r a b le e x p e n s e ,
s p e c i a l i z e d sh op s f o r b o y s in wood w o r k in g , e l e c t r i c i t y , m ach in e w ork,
p r in tin g ,
d r a ftin g ,
c o m m e rc ia l p r a c t i c e , and g e n e r a l h o u s e h o ld r e p a i r .
F or th e g i r l s we h a v e s p e c i a l room s f o r c o o k in g , s e w in g , a r t s and
c r a f t s , c o m m e rc ia l p r a c t i c e and home m a k in g .
New B r i t a i n h a s p e r ­
h a p s a s e x t e n s i v e a s y s te m o f j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l
sh o p s a s an y c i t y
i n th e s t a t e .
S u g g e s t io n s f o r R e o r g a n iz a t io n
T h is co m m ittee b e l i e v e s t h a t a w is e s t e p h a s b e e n made in
a c c e p t i n g th e r ec o m m e n d a tio n o f t h i s C u r r icu lu m R e v is io n C om m ittee
t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t th e p a r t tim e tr a d e c o u r s e i n g ra d e n in e be
a b o lis h e d .
The n e x t s t e p m u st o b v io u s l y b e t o in c lu d e some e l e c t i v e
p r a c t i c a l a r t s c o u r s e s i n grad e n i n e .
be s o lv e d im m e d ia te ly .
T h is i s a p ro b lem w h ic h s h o u ld
Our s u g g e s t i o n i s
t h a t th e p r e s e n t j u n io r
h ig h s c h o o l sh o p s be u s e d f o r e l e c t i v e p r a c t i c a l a r t s c o u r s e s f o r
g r a d e n in e b o y s j u s t a s a t p r e s e n t g rad e n in e g i r l s may e l e c t c o o k ­
in g ,
s e w in g and h o u s e h o ld m anagem ent
The n a tu r e o f th e c o u r s e s t o
b e o f f e r e d w i l l h ave t o dep en d on th e sp a c e and t e a c h in g p e r s o n n e l
a v a ila b le .
We s u g g e s t a b e g in n in g be made i n S ep tem b er 1 9 3 9 and t h a t
a N in th Grade I n d u s t r i a l A r ts c o u r s e be o f f e r e d g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e s o
t hat it s
c o n t e n t an d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may b e f l e x i b l e as. o c c a s io n
dem ands.
T h is reco m m en d a tio n b r in g s a n o t h e r m a t te r t o our a t t e n t i o n
w h ic h i s w o r th y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
I t w o u ld seem a d v i s a b l e t o s e t up
448
New Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin III
a n o t h e r p a t h th r o u g h g r a d e s 9 t o 12 w it h th e t i t l e ,
A r ts C o u r s e .
Page 3
The P r a c t i c a l
The n e e d s o f th e c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y p u p i l s and th e
co m m e rc ia l p u p i l s a r e q u i t e a d e q u a t e ly c a r e d f o r by t h e i r p la n n e d
p a th s th r o u g h t h e s e g r a d e s .
A P r a c t i c a l A r ts c u r r ic u lu m o r c o u r s e
o f s t u d y w ou ld t e n d t o c a r e f o r many p u p i l s w h ose n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g
i n th e a f f a i r s
o f d a i l y l i v i n g i s a p p a r e n t and o u t s t a n d in g .
A su rvey
o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a lo n g t h i s l i n e m ig h t be made b e f o r e th e c l o s e
o f t h is sem e ste r .
S u ch a s u r v e y w o u ld i n d i c a t e how many p u p i l s w o u ld
be l i k e l y t o s e l e c t s u c h a c o u r s e , w hat t e a c h e r s ,
s u p p l i e s , s p a c e and
eq u ip m en t w ere n e e d e d and how f a r t h e s e r e q u ir e m e n ts w ere a v a i l a b l e
i n our p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n .
RECOMMENDATIONS
The E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l
T here m ig h t
w e l l b e i n e a c h e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l some one
room or sh o p or la b o r a t o r y i n c h a r g e o f a c o m p e te n t t e a c h e r w here th e
c h i l d r e n m ig h t be a b le t o make t h i n g s :
p r o j e c t s c o n n e c te d w i t h t h e i r s t u d i e s .
th a t i s ,- c a r r y out c o n c re te
Such w ork , we r e a l i z e ,
b e in g done t o some e x t e n t by th e a r t t e a c h e r s .
We b e l i e v e i t
i s now
s h o u ld
be e x te n d e d a t l e a s t e x p e r im e n t a ll y i n one or tw o s c h o o ls a s a b e g in ­
n in g .
I n th e J u n io r H igh S c h o o ls
The a tte m p t t o h o u se t h e w ork i n P r a c t i c a l A r ts i n e a c h
s c h o o l seem s w is e s i n c e th e t r e n d to d a y to w a rd th e g e n e r a l sh o p r a t h e r
th a n t h e s p e c i a l i z e d or u n i t sh op i s w id e s p r e a d .
We s u g g e s t f o r
d i s c u s s i o n th e f o l l o w i n g p la n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f P r a c t i c a l A r ts c o u r s e s
f o r t h e j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l s .
449
New Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin III
F or B oys ( 1 )
Page 4
A g e n e r a l w oodw orking sh o p w h ic h m ig h t he e q u ip p e d t o
p e r m it w ork i n v a r io u s k in d s o f f i n i s h i n g w it h p a i n t s ,
s ta in s ,
la c q u e r s and v a r n i s h e s .
P erh a p s t o o a ch an ce
t o do s o m e th in g w it h c e r a m ic s a n d l e a t h e r c r a f t
(2 )
A g e n e r a l m e ta l sh op w it h p o s s i b l e i n s t r u c t i o n i n s h e e t
m e t a l, a r t m e t a l, f o r g i n g , w e ld in g ,
c a s t i n g and m achin e
w ork.
(3 )
A g e n e r a l p r i n t sh o p w it h o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n b o o k m a k in g ,
lin o le u m c u t t i n g , p h o to g r a p h y and e t c h i n g a s w e l l a s
th e common p r i n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s .
(4 )
A d r a f t i n g or d ra w in g room w here p la n s f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n
®f a p r o j e c t c o u ld be d e v e lo p e d , c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e in g
g iv e n t o th e s e l e c t i o n
o f th e p r o j e c t , t h e d e s i g n , th e
p r o d u c t io n o f a w o r k in g d r a w in g , th e s e l e c t i o n
m a te r ia ls ,
of
th e e s t i m a t i n g o f th e c o s t s a n d .t h e d e t a i l s
o f p roced ure.
(5 )
E l e c t r i c sh op w it h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o home w o rk .
The
o p p o r t u n it y t o l e a r n so m e th in g a b o u t e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip ­
m en t, i t s
s e le c tio n ,
c a r e and r e p a i r i n th e home.
F or G i r l s
(1 )
A c o o k in g room s u i t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f th e s e l e c t i o n ,
p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r e p a r a t io n o f f o o d s t o m eet th e n e e d s
o f th e m odern f a m ily o f lo w or m o d era te in co m e.
(2 )
A s e w in g room e q u ip p e d f o r th e s tu d y o f t h e c h o ic e o f
m a t e r i a l s and p a t t e r n s , t h e u s e o f m odern s e w in g e q u ip ­
m ent and th e m aking o f g a r m e n ts .
A s tu d y o f th e c l o t h ­
in g b u d g e t, t h e c a r e o f c l o t h i n g and good g ro o m in g s h o tild
b e in c lu d e d .
Hew Britain School Study of Curriculum, Bulletin III
(3 )
Page 5
An a r t s and c r a f t s room w here h o u se d e c o r a t i o n , a r t i n
th e home and p e r h a p s co stu m e d e s ig n m ig h t b e u n it e d
w it h p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n p r o d u c in g s o m e th in g s u s e f u l
i n t h e home.
(4 )
A h o u s e h o ld m anagem ent room d i v i d e d b y p a r t i t i o n s t o
s im u la t e a home u n i t f o r p r a c t i c e p u r p o s e s .
T h is s h o u ld
be a r e a l d e m o n s tr a tio n la b o r a t o r y f o r home s k i l l s .
Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n 3 h o u ld b e g iv e n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
p r o v id in g some i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o o k in g and o th e r h o u s e h o ld a r t s
e le c t iv e b a s is fo r b o y s.
of
on a n
S i m i l a r l y g i r l s s h o u ld n o t b e d e p r iv e d o f
th e o p p o r t u n it y t o l e a r n some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f g e n e r a l h o u s e h o ld
r e p a ir s i f
th ey d e s ir e t h i s
in s tr u c tio n .
I n g e n e r a l , th e w ork o f th e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s i n
p r a c t i c a l a r t s s h o u ld b e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n p u r p o s e s and n o t f o r
s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n p r e p a r a t io n f o r a d e f i n i t e
o c c u p a t io n .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e te n d e n c y t o e x p lo r e many p h a s e s o f th e
p o s s ib ilitie s
i n e a c h sh o p , e a c h w it h a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t sp a n o f
a tte n tio n ,
t o be p r e f e r r e d in th e j u n io r h i g h s c h o o l .
is
I n th e S e n io r H igh S c h o o l
T here i s n e e d
h e r e f o r a c o n s id e r a b le in c r e a s e i n th e
o p p o r t u n i t i e s f a r i n s t r u c t i o n in th e P r a c t i c a l A r t s .
th e r e i s needed in c r e a s e d sp a c e ,
e q u ip m e n t.
S p e c ific a lly
in c r e a s e d t e a c h in g p e r s o n n e l and
The ty p e o f c o u r s e s t o b e o f f e r e d may w e l l be t h e s u b j e c t
o f e x p e r im e n t a t io n .
C e r t a i n l y e v e r y o n e to d a y s h o u ld know so m e th in g
p r a c t i c a l a b o u t a u to m o b ile e n g i n e s , r e f r i g e r a t i o n , a v i a t i o n and a i r
c o n d itio n in g .
I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v id in g w o r th w h ile e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e
451
Hew B r i t a i n S c h o o l S tu d y o f C u r r ic u lu m , B u l l e t i n I I I
P ag e 6
mechanical sciences which affect our daily lives these courses would
provide exploratory experiences for pupils who may wish to enter the
trade school after attaining the age of sixteen years.
Cooperative
trade school courses for senior high school students should he
investigated.
As in the junior high schools the work in practical arts on
the senior high school levtsl should he considered as a part of general
education, open to all who can profit by the instruction, and should
not be thought of as a device for caring for the dull pupil any more
than any other subject in the curriculum but should be designed for
the mechanically
.minded pupil.
The
necessary related subject matter
should be treated as a part of the practical arts course and should
be taught by a member of the department in order to facilitate a
close integration with the handwork of the department.
The home economics work for girls should be developed
further along the lines begun in September 1938.
Respectfully submitted,
Practical Arts Committee
Harry Wessels, Chairman
James H. Ginns
Elizabeth L. Hungerford
Newell S. Ames
Thomas P. Elder
Estelle L. Hotchkiss
Page 7
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Written by Superintendent Carlyle C. Ring
2/20/39
The committee on Practical Arts has submitted its report
which is accepted and the committee discharged with thanks.
The application of the suggestions will be in the hands of
the Superintendent of Schools, supervisors of Practical Arts, faculty
members
and the secondary school principals concerned.
The Committee
on Secondary Education Problems under the chairmanship of
Harry Wessels will continue to serve as an advisory committee on
Practical Arts in the secondary schools.
The essential recommendations may be summarized as follows;
1.
More attention should be given to Practical Arts
In the elementary schools.
2.
In the junior high schools the exploratory Practical
Arts courses should be housed in each junior high
school, as soon as physically and financially
possible.
The staff members should be considered
a part of the junior high school faculty where
they are primarily assigned.
3.
In the junior high schools the Practical Arts program
should develop toward generalized shops and away
from unit shops.
In the opinion of the superin­
tendent this may eventually go further than
suggested by the committee.
Two general shops for
boys should be able to provide these exploratory
experiences;
a. Woodworking,
ceramics, drafting, electrical
and house hold mechanics.
b. Metal working, machine and printing
453
Summary a n d C o n c l u s io n s
P ag e 8
Two general home economics rooms should provide for
the girls:
a. A cooking laboratory
b. A sewing laboratory
The household’ management work could well be postponed
for advanced classes in the senior high school.
The arts and crafts work can be done in connection
with the regular art work.
Commercial work, art, music, etc. are, of course, to
be continued as exploratory work for junior high
school students as at present.
4.
Industrial Arts and Home Economics should be offered
as electives for ninth grade pupils.
5.
More definite provisions through a regular curricu­
lum (to be worked out as soon as possible by the
Superintendent and teachers concerned) should be
provided for both industrial arts and home economics
in the senior high school and should be
designed
to meet the needs of manually minded pupils.
6.
Further attention should be given to cooperative
trade and high school ccurses.
In conclusion, it should be stated that the adoption of these
recommendations will be gradual and dependent upon physical, financial,
and staff limitations.
These recommendations merely indicate the
direction in which Practical Arts in New Britain should point.
Supervisors of Practioal Arts, teachers and principals concerned
should study these recommendations carefully with the teachers in
these departments and report their reactions and suggestions to the
Superintendent of Schools.
The real purpose of all future changes
454
Summary and Conclusions
Page 9
should he to recognize the needs of all hoys and girls, and their right
to exploratory and consumer experiences in the field of Practical
Arts, together with a recognition that the aim even in the secondary
schools is not Vocational hut Educational.
455
SOUiiCE MATERIAL
auction XSIV
CURRICULUM BULI£TIN 4
REPORT OP COMMITTEE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL PROBLEMS
A Guido for Secondary School Courses
of Study ana Graduation Require­
ments
456
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
STUDY OF CURRICULUM
BULLETIN NO. 4
APRIL 1939
REPORT OP' THE COMMITTEE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL PROBLEMS
A Guide for Secondary School Courses of Study
and Graduation Requirements in New Britain
INTRODUCTION
This guide for secondary schools has been prepared by the
Committee on Secondary School Problems after a careful study of the
New Britain School Survey Report, Bulletin No. 5, presented in
April 1938, by a committee of which Mr. Newell S. Ames was chairman.
It is intended as a flexible guide of minimum requirements to aid
in modernizing and coordinating the requirements of the several
junior and senior high schools..
Nothing in this bulletin should be
interpreted as a handicap to exploration in any worth-while field
in secondary education.
In fact, explorations in such fields as the
"core curriculum", "fvision courses", "integration", etc., are to be
encouraged after lefinite plans have been prepared by the principals
and supervisors end are approved by the superintendent of schools.
The Cojmnittee recommends that this guide go into operation
in the guidance of all pupils entering either junior or senior high
schools in September 1940, and that it be followed as far as possible
prior to that time.
Graduation requirements based upon this bulletin
will become effective on and after June 1943.
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM
1.
Pupils shall be admitted to the junior high schools upon
promotion from the sixth grades of the New Britain elementary
schools in accordance with the general plans as set forth in
Curriculum Bulletin No. 1 entitled "Suggested Standards for
Promotion." Pupils from other schools will be admitted upon
approval of the superintendent of schools.
2.
The junior high school program is designed especially for early
adolescents and should provide opportunity to complete the
mastery of tool subjects, allow exploration and guidance in
the fiolds which the pupils may care to follow up in their later
education, and provide a good general education.
Since this is
true, it is desirable to free the junior high schools as much as
possible from the requirements of the College Entrance Board.
3.
Flexibility is to be encouraged within the minimum basic require­
ments
The program of studies for junior high schools is based
upon the assumption that there will be a school week of thirty
periods, with at least 50 minutes in each period.
4.
No further part time trade school courses will be provided in the
junior high schools.
5.
Promotion from junior high school to the tenth grade of the
Senior High School will be conditional upon the completion of
the approved three year course of study for junior high schools
as provided for in Curriculum Bulletin No. 1 on Promotional
Standards.
467
P age 2
5.
P ro g ra m o f S t u d i e s
G rad e V II
Periods per week
English
Mathematics
General Science and Hygiene
Social Studies
Physical Education
Exploratory covirses in
Home Economics
Industrial Arts
Commercial subjects
Art
Music
Clubs
Religious education or manners and morals
Student government and guidance
Audit orium
5
5
3
5
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
Total
30
Grade VIII
English
Mathematics
General Science and Hygiene
Social Studies
Physical Education
Exploratory courses in
Home Economics
Industrial Arts
Commercial subjects
Music
Clubs
Religious education or manners and morals
Student government and guidance
Auditorium
5
4
3
5
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
Total
28
Electives
Elect 2 periods of work
1
1
1
1
1
T o ta l
30
or
or
or
or
or
2 of
2 of
2 of
2 of
2 of
Art
Exploratory language
General Mathematics (remedial)
Social Studies
(remedial)
General English and Reading (remedial)
458
Page 3
G rad e IX
Periods per week
5
4
2
1
1
1
Required
English
General Science and Hygiene
Physical Education
Audit orium
Student government and
guidance
Religious education
or manners and
morals
Electives
Choose at least 12 periods of work including
1 course in Mathematics, and 1 course in
Social Studies
4
4
6
4
4
4
1 or
1 or
1 or
1
2
2
2
Mathematics
Algebra
General Mathematics
Social Studies
Ancient History
Social Studies in Community Civics
Latin
Industrial Arts
Home Economics
Music
Art
Typewriting
Club
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM
1.
Pupils shall be admitted to the Senior
with the promotion plans given above,
the superintendent of schools.
High School in accordance
or upon the approval of
2.
It is assumed that a normal senior high school program will be
four subjects per week, plus physical education, each subject
to meet either four or five times a week for at least fifty
minutes, making a minimum total of 200 minutes per week.
3.
Provision shall be made for three paths of progress through the
senior high school, to be known as (a) College Preparatory;
(b) Academic-Commercial; (c) General-Prevocational.
4.
During the year 1939-40, the matter of cooperative trade and high
school classes should be carefully studied by the trade and high
school faculties, in order that an improved arrangement may be
worked out.
459
P ag e 4
The general requirements for graduation from the Senior High
School shall follow as far as possible the suggested promotional
standards given in Curriculum Bulletin No. 1, and shall include
the following courses.
At least 12 units of work in accordance
with this plan will “be required for graduation.
I.
CONSTANTS
Units
Periods per week
4 or 5
English (3 years)
3
4 or 5
American History (1 year)
1
1 or 2
Physical Education, Hygiene
and Safety ($ years)
4 units
II.
4 or 5
MAJOR SEQUENCE
Each pupil shall select and follow
through a 3 year sequence in some
one department such as Social
Studies, Mathematics, Language,
Commerce, Home Economics,
Industrial Arts, Art, Music, etc.
III.
4 or 5
ELECTIVES
Five electives (to be chosen in
consultation with the Guidance
Counsellor)
Total for Graduation
Note:
12 units
Exceptions to these requirements may be made by the
principal upon application by the pupil and parent
and the approval of the pupil’s guidance counsellor.
The various departmental heads shall work out with the teachers
in their departments, detailed plans for sequences within their
departments, and present them to the principal and the
superintendent of schools for approval before the close of the
school year 1939-1940.
Diplomas. Upon the completion of 12 units as specified above,
xe pupil shall be awarded, upon the recommendation of the
principal, a diploma which shall specify the path followed and
the major sequence completed.
Committee on Secondary Education
Vincent Sala
William C. French
Edward E . Weeks
Raymond B. Searle
Frank A James
Millie G. McAuley
Ruth C . Kimball
Harry Wessels, Chairman
■
460
SOURCE MAmERIAL
Section XXV
REPORT OP GUIDANCE DIRECTOR
Mr* Prank A. James
461
Report of the Director of Guidance
This report v/ill relate primarily to Guidance in the Senior
High School.
I have received and am forwarding to the Superintendent
a report from the Assistant to the Principal in each Junior High
School stating what each junior high school is doing along Guidance
lines.
Until this year we have never had what could be called "Organ­
ized Guidance" in the Senior High School.
This does not mean that
462
we have never carried on Guidance work; teachers and administrators
must necessarily do a 1 t of guiding and advising as part of their
routine work, regardless of whether they call it Guidance or teach­
ing.
Education is Guidance and Guidance is education.
The Senior High School was fertile ground for organized
Guidance. The Superintendent realized the need and encouraged us to
go ahead with our organizing plans. He has assisted us in improv­
ing our Guidance service by allowing us to visit other schools and
by bringing to New Britain outstanding speakers on Guidance and in
other ways has aided and assisted us. The Principal of the High
School cooperated one hundred per cent. The counselors selected
to assist the Director, and, every teacher in the school have shown
interest, willingness, and enthusiasm that has enabled us to launch
our Guidance undertaking most auspiciously.
(
A Guidance Council which was set up with the Director of
Guidance as Chairman and a representative from each Junior High
School, the elementary schools, Research Department, and Attendance
Department, has met several times during the year. This Council
acts as a clearing house and coordinating agency for all schools in
the matter of Guidance. The Director of Guidance visits each of the
Junior High Schools a few days before the 10-2 pupils make out their
Senior High School programs in order to answer questions and give
information about High School offerings. Reports from Junior High
School teachers indicate this has been a great help to both teachers
and pupils in making intelligent choices of subjects.
Before any class from a junior high school enters the Senior
High School we have an orientation session at the Senior High School.
At this session members of the administration and the Heads of
Departments address the new students briefly. They explain the
content, purpose and values in the various courses and what pupils
are expected to do and accomplish. The pupils are conducted through
the Senior High School plant by student guides.
On this tour they
get a good idea of the physical facilities and by meeting students
and teachers are able to make adjustments and find their way about
with little difficulty when they enter as registered High School
members.
By adopting a new Elective Blank this year it has not only
been possible but necessary that parents, teachers, counselors, and
pupils think together and work together in selecting courses.
A good many persons have the wrong conception of Guidance and
how it works and what it can and cannot do. There is nothing
mysterious about Guidance. We know what we would like to do. We
would like to develop such attitudes, skills, and patterns of behavior
in youth that will enable them to fit into their proper places in
the social and economic world.
In other words our objectives and
goals are clear; but, the realization of those goals and objectives,
the techniques, methods, and procedures, the evaluation of results
present problems.
I think we will all gree that the function of
education is to help young men and young women to live and work
pleasantly, profitably, sanely and safely in a changing world. The
job of Guidance then becomes one of advising and guiding young
persons wisely in order that these ends may be realized.
463
The question is sometimes asked, "Why do weneed Guidance
programs in our schools?"
Let me mention thefollowing
reasons
which will explain \vhat I mean by a changing world and at the same
time will show the need for Guidance.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Changed conditions of the home
Changed condition of labor and industry
Changes in population
Changed standards of living
Increase in amount of general education
Elimination from school
Moral and religious conditions
Increased leisure
Need of developing qualified leaders
Need of developing intelligent followers
Of course, one could add to this list but these items will
suffice to show the wide range and variety of problems that confront
youth today. There should be someone in the school aware of these
changes and needs, qualified and designated to assist youth in
meeting and making satisfactory adjustment to changes and nev;
developments.
It is the job and responsibility of every school,
not only in New Britain, but everywhere to strive by teaching and
precept, by practical school relationships, by student organizations,
and by proper balance between curricular and extra-curricular
activities to enable young men and young women to discover and use
effectively their interests and abilities. This year for the first
time in the Senior High School certain teachers were delegated for
Guidance service one period each day. This was accomplished without
any additional cost or increase in personnel. By an examination of
the teaching force and a study of the number of students selecting
courses in the various subject fields, we found it would be possible
to relieve nine teachers from their regular teaching duties one
period each day. The normal daily teaching load in the Senior High
School is six periods.
Those teachers doing Guidance work now have
a five period teaching day. Several of these nine counselors have
taken courses in Guidance during summer vacations or as Extension
courses during the school year, thereby preparing themselves for
this special duty.
By personal interviews with each counselor and through group
meetings we have carried on an in-service training program. These
interviews and meetings have been very helpful in organizing the
work and determining the techniques, policies and procedures.
In Guidance, as in other activities, we learn by doing. By
actually guiding, counseling, and advising we have learned much
about the interests and needs of boys and girls of high school age.
In the process of introducing organized Guidance and coordinating
it with other school functions, we have emphasized the fact that
Guidance is nothing new and in no way lessens the responsibility of
the individual teachers.
Instead we have found that as we become
more Guidance conscious our job as individuals and as a group become
larger and more exacting. All teachers are urged to render Guidance
when and where it is needed.
Incidental Guidance is many times the
best Guidance and more and more subject teachers are encouraged to
464
ad vise and counsel students in th e ir c la s s e s and home rooms without
referring them to the regular cou n selors. We are emphasising that
every teacher i s a counselor in so far as tim e, q u a lific a tio n s , and
circumstances perm it.
Following i s the Guidance set-up in the Senior High School. We
divided the school with i t s present enrollm ent of approximately
3 ,0 0 0 in to nine groups according to grades. A counselor was assigned
to each group and each student in every group was informed who h is
counselor was. By t h is arrangement, each counselor has about 330
students assigned to him fo r Guidance purposes. The work o f a ssig n ­
ing counselors to c e r ta in grades was f a c ili t a t e d by the fa c t that
home room assignments are made by grades a t the beginning o f each
sem ester.
Through the fin e cooperation o f Miss McIntyre, the school
lib r a r ia n , one o f the conference rooms o f the lib r a r y was made
a v a ila b le as a Guidance or cou n selor’ s o f f i c e . Each counselor uses
t h is o f f ic e during h is Guidance period. One or more o f the counselors
are a v a ila b le in t h is o f f ic e each period o f the day. Students may
make appointments w ith th e ir counselor by w ritten request or in some
cases by coming d ir e c t ly to the o f f ic e . Many tim es teachers send
students to counselors or counselors may, and many times do, send for
stu d en ts.
The counselors, adm inistrators, and teachers aim to accomplish
in an integrated guidance program the follow in g:
1.
They give Educational Guidance. Any boy or g i r l in te re ste d in
c o lle g e or some sp e c ia l school may secure inform ation from
h is counselor about entrance requirem ents, c o s t, standards,
placement se r v ic e , e t c . The counselor sees to i t that students
assigned to him are advised as to the appropriate courses o f
study to take in high school and a s s i s t s in making whatever
educational adjustments th at seem ad visab le in clo se coopera­
tio n with parents and subject teach ers.
2.
We have in the Guidance o f fic e a s e r ie s o f the Commonwealth
Vocational Guidance monographs. We are able to give
occupational inform ation to in te r e ste d stu d en ts. Each one
d escrib es an occupation and shows:
(a) The importance o f the occupation, (b) the tasks performed
by various employees, (c) the q u a lific a tio n s necessary to
enter the trad e, (d) education needs, (e) prelim inary train in g
both w ithin and without an occupation, ( f) lin e o f promotion,
(g) occupations to which the trade may lea d , (h) earning,
( i) re g u la rity and hours o f employment, ( j) hazards,
(k) organ ization s for employers and employees, ( 1 ) types o f
places o f employment, (m) m iscellaneous inform ation,
(n) bibliography or suggested reading.
465
We a lso have a s e r ie s o f Organization ana Promotion Charts from
the I n s titu te fo r Research devoted to research in the P rofessions
and V ocations. These charts and monographs are used by the counselors
in furnishing inform ation to in te r e ste d stu d en ts. With these aid s
and other types o f m aterial a v a ila b le the counselors furnish
occupational inform ation.
3.
We are a lso able to give R ecreational Guidance. We emphasize
the importance o f understanding and appreciating the place
and the importance o f correct recrea tio n a l a c t iv it y . Students
are encouraged and helped to discover and develop worthwhile
hobbies, thereby in creasin g th e ir range o f in t e r e s t s . Our
school clubs are valuable agencies in th is r e sp e c t. With the
ad d ition o f new clubs and other ex tra -cu rricu la r a c t i v i t i e s ,
boys and g ir ls are offered the opportunity to make new co n ta cts,
and counselors are able to c a p ita liz e on stu d en ts 1 in te r e s ts
and d e s ir e s .
4.
Students are not only given some in sig h t in to the ways and means
o f earning money, but a lso hov; to spend money w ise ly . T h rift
in the w ise use of time as w ell as in t e llig e n t use o f money i s
emphasized. The dangers in tard in ess and unwise use o f
m aterials and equipment are explained.
5.
Good morals and manners, cou rtesy, and c itiz e n sh ip are part o f
our Guidance work. Counselors and teachers are a le r t to every
opportunity to improve th ese e s s e n tia ls o f adequate liv in g .
6.
The importance o f mental as w ell as p hysical h ealth i s str e sse d .
S afety in school and out of school; school hygiene, personal
c le a n lin e ss and a ttr a c tiv e n e s s , b ette r speech and numerous
other phases o f b ette r liv in g are encouraged.
7 » Much time and energy i s given to the developing and improving
o f c itiz e n sh ip as practiced in the school and in the community.
8.
The proper understanding and appreciation o f courage, obedience,
to lera n ce, s e l f co n tro l, r e l i a b i l i t y , lo y a lty , honesty,
cooperation, e t c . are worthy o b je c tiv e s.
9.
Counselors have aided the adm inistration in checking, in terview ­
ing and fo llo w in g up tardy and truant ca se s.
10.
Pupils who are absent or tardy to sin g le period c la s s without
good reason or are reported as in danger o f f a ilin g are
interview ed by counselors and correction s and adjustments are
made.
11.
Many boys and g ir ls who fo r one reason or another have fa ile d
adequately to adjust them selves to th e ir fello w s or to the
various school s itu a tio n s have come to the a tte n tio n o f the
Guidance Department. The counselors have in most cases been
ab le to help th ese maladjusted persons d iscover a more
s a tis fa c to r y and con stru ctive outlook.
466
12.
Counselors and teachers have been a great help in aiding and
advising students in making out th e ir E le c tiv e Blanks for
the next sem ester.
13.
Through our regular o f f ic e records and a card f i l i n g system
kept in the Guidance o f fic e a f a ir ly complete picture o f the
s o c ia l, academic, ex tra -cu rricu la r, e t c . records o f our
students i s ob tain ab le.
14.
In th e ir in terview s and contacts w ith stu d en ts, counselors
and teachers are given large op portu nities to carry on the
various types o f Guidance as mentioned, answer q u estion s, and
give whatever aid and a ssista n c e they may be able to g iv e .
I t i s not intended that anyone reading th is report should get
the im pression that only counselors do Guidance work in the
Senior High School.
Every teacher and adm inistrative o f fic e r i s expected to guide
wherever i t seems a d v isa b le. Everyone i s assuming a share o f the
r e s p o n s ib ility and we are g ettin g r e s u lts as in dicated by improved
attendance, fewer f a ilu r e s , a more seriou s a ttitu d e toward school
work, a deeper f e e lin g o f in d iv id u a l r e s p o n s ib ility for the w ell
being and success o f the sch o o l, a keener in te r e s t in academic
achievement and a d e sir e for occupational inform ation and job
fin d in g aids and an improved teacher and student morale and s p ir it
which i s extremely g r a tify in g . A ll of t h is has come about not
through the e ffo r ts o f the adm inistration and guidance department
alone but rather because a very large number o f teachers were not
only ready and w illin g but eager to cooperate in a Guidance program
that would improve our schools and render a fin e r se rv ic e to the
youth o f New B r ita in .
This in te r e s t and cooperation bare fr u it because we did not
impose an elab orate, more or le s s ready made, Guidance Program upon
our teach ers, in stead we began at the bottom and a fte r discovering
our needs started to build a foundation that was s a fe , sane, and
adequate to support our Guidance stru cture as i t develops and
grew. Every teacher was made to f e e l he or she had something to
contribute and i f Guidance was going to r e a lly mean anything and be
su c c e ssfu lly administered they would be resp on sib le in no small
measure. I t i s with th is s p ir it and understanding th a t the guidance
work has progressed. The old game o f "passing the buck" i s f a s t
disappearing. Cases o f d is c ip lin e and v io la tio n o f school customs
and regu lation s are more and more being handled and adjustments made
by the teachers in stead o f sending students to the o f f ic e . Education­
a l , v o ca tio n a l, s o c ia l, and the various other types o f guidance are
now being carried on to some degree by a l l o f our tea ch ers. We
r e a liz e that a teacher with a f u l l teaching load has not much time
or energy l e f t fo r other d u tie s , n ev er th eless, v/e a lso know that
many teachers are more conscious o f the needs of our students and
are giving b its o f good ad vice, in c id e n ta lly , in connection with
th e ir regular classroom work.
r
467
The aim o f a l l guidance i s se lf-g u id a n ce . We w ill never get
very far in the development, improvement, and refinement o f our
democratic in s t it u t io n and so c ie ty i f large numbers o f both youth
and ad ults must be advised co n tin u a lly and repeatedly and in some
cases to ld what to do and what not to do. Under proper guidance,
in t e llig e n t su p ervision , i t i s p o ssib le to i n s t i l l and promote
a t tit u d e s , understanding, and sense o f r e s p o n s ib ility in the minds
o f young men and young women. They can and w ill from in t e llig e n t ,
unprejudiced optaten^ make w ise and ra tio n a l d ecisio n s; propose and
i n i t i a t e sound, con stru ctive a c tio n , and conform to reasonable
r e s tr a in ts .
School d is c ip lin e , which in i t s f in e s t sense means s e l f d is c ip lin e and se lf-g u id a n ce , i f properly understood and p racticed ,
w ill enable in d iv id u a ls and groups to accept reasonable s o c ia l
r e s t r a in ts . I t w ill in sp ire them to use s o c ia l c r itic is m and mass
a ctio n in a thoughtful manner, leaving to the in d iv id u a l the
freedom necessary for h is most e f f e c t iv e development.
Next year we expect to improve and add to what we have done
t h is year. In -th is changing world there w ill always be new needs
and the challenge for b etter se rv ic e i s always with u s. During .
the past year sev era l b u sin ess, p r o fe ssio n a l, and p u b lic o f f ic e
holding men have spoken to C ivic Forum groups explaining the d u ties
involved in th e ir p a rticu la r b u sin ess, job, or o f f i c e . Next year
the P rin cip a l o f the High School i s planning on having more
ex ten siv e programs o f t h is so rt and making them a v a ila b le to a l l
students who may be in te r e s te d . I f the necessary funds and
personnel are a v a ila b le , we ought to have a b etter v o ca tio n a l
placement se rv ic e and follow -up serv ice for our stu d en ts, One or
more v is it in g teachers would be a great help in g ettin g inform ation
about and a s s is tin g in making adjustments for boys and g i r l s with
problems. Our organ ization fo r Guidance i s not p e r fe c t. Wa have,
however, made progress in what v/e b e lie v e i s the r ig h t d ir e c tio n .
In clo sin g t h is report I wish to r e ite r a te the fa c t th a t much
o f the success we have had has been the r e s u lt o f the cooperation,
keen in te r e s t and u n ifie d purpose of a l l cou n selors, tea ch ers, and
ad m in istrative o f f ic e r s .
I am happy to include in t h is report ay personal thanks and
sin cere appreciation to every person who has contributed in any way
toward making organized guidance in the Senior High School a su cc ess.
Frank A. James
SOURCE MATERIAL
S ection XX¥X
a s tu d y o r m t a te rm b u ild in g h e e d s i h m
b r ita h
469
A STUDY OP LONG TERM SCHOOL BUILDING NEEDS IN NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
(Prepared by Carlyle C. Ring, Superintendent of Schools)
A pril 1939
Introduction:
This study attempts to present the fa c ts about and p o ssib le
needs concerning the school b u ild in g program of New B r ita in during
the next ten year period. I t i s presented to the Board o f Education
as a b a sis fo r study and fo r the determ ination o f an i n t e lli g e n t ,
long-term b u ild in g p o lic y . I t i s not intended as a se t of yecommenda­
tio n s , but as a study upon which future p o lic ie s and recommendations
may be based. The superintendent o ffe r s but one recommendation.
Re c ommenda t i on
That the Board of Education c a r e fu lly examine the m aterial
contained in t h is study for ajb le a s t one y ea r, w ith s t a f f members,
parents and taxpayers, before i t determines a long term b u ild in g
p o lic y to be gradually put in to practice during the period of the next
ten years (I94O-I95O).
There are many reasons why such a long term study and
p o licy determ ination should be made at t h is time. Among these reasons
are:
1.
Long term planning tends to elim inate c o s tly mistakes that may
r e su lt from mere "hand to mouth” n e c e s sity .
2.
Population d ecreases, p a rticu la rly of school age ch ild ren , demand
in t e llig e n t reorganization and planning.
3.
Economic pressure and in creasin g tax needs in other areas demand
the most economical organization and ad m inistration o f public
education th at is p o ssib le w ithin the lim its o f providing ade­
quately for the education of the youth of New B rita in . For
nearly ten y ea rs, the C ity of New B rita in has f a ile d to provide
a sum adequate fo r the proper maintenance o f i t s school b u ild in g s.
I t is time that t h is procedure be c a r e fu lly studied and a
permanent p o licy adopted.
I4..
There is need of determining a c o n siste n t p o lic y w ith regard to
ce rta in older school buildings in New B r ita in , which are being
c r it ic is e d more or le s s co n sta n tly by the c it y f i r e , b u ild in g ,
arid cou n cil departments. E ither these b u ild in gs should be
com pletely modernized or they should be gradually abandoned for
modern school b u ild in gs. Such school b uildings which are under
c r itic is m include: (a) the B a r tle tt School, (b) the Smith
School, (c) the Chamberlain School, (d) the Smalley School, (e)
the Walnut H ill School, ( f ) the Central Junior High School, (g)
the old portion o f the Senior High School. ( I t should be noted
that during the p ast year, the Old B u rritt School and the Monroe
School have been abandoned.)
470
P ag e 2
Suggested policies with regard to these schools are not
intended as recommendations, hut as a basis for study. Consolidation
of school districts and changes in district lines will naturally arouse
some objection from parents and pupils.
No suggestions are made which
are not reasonable, but it may be found that they are impractical
because public sentiment is opposed.
That is the basic reason for
suggesting a year of study and discussion.
It must be realized, how­
ever, that "we cannot have our cake and eat it"j we cannot decrease
school expenditures and maintenance costswithout causing some incon­
venience to some people.Whether the tax
saving and the safety and
modernization features suggested are worth any additional inconvenience
is a matter of policy to
be decided by the Board of Education and the
citizens of New Britain.
II.
A Study of Population Trends in New Britain
School building needs must be considered in the light of
population trends in the country and locally.
Particularly in the
northeastern part of the United States, school population trends have
reversed themselves in the last ten or fifteen years, and these changes
require compensating changes in school policies.
The general popula­
tion trend and the resulting problem is well described by Stuart Chase
in his article which appeared recently in both the Atlantic Monthly and
Readers Digest, under the title of "Population Going Down".
Significant
portions of this article are quoted below.
"There are more than a million empty desks in our elementary
schools this year.
The 1930 enrollment was 21,300,600; it was
20,000,000 in 1 9 3 8 * If present trends continue, by I9 0 O there will be
over 10,000,000 empty desks in schools and colleges.
But the army of
people over 65 will be 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 greater than it was in 1930 .
"Our population curve, after 300 years of unprecedented rise,
is now rapidly leveling off, cutting down the proportion of children
and expanding the proportion of old people— a massive, irreversible
trend which affects all the Western world.
"Empty desks are only one indication of the drift. Why has
the Townsend plan received such mammoth popular support? Why do
millions of farmers suddenly demand crop controls? Why have there
been so few opportunities for new capital investments in recent years?
The population curve by no means answers these questions in full, but
it offers some clues.
When an economic system built on three centuries
of steady expansion encounters a population curve which is rapidly
ceasing to expand, it is bound to buckle and crack— until adjusted to
the new conditions."..........
*The American birth rate has been falling.
In 1875 it was,
roughly, a new baby in every fifth family each year.
In 1935 it was
down almost to one in 12, and still falling.
Our death rate has also
been falling.
In 1900 it was 18 per thousand; in 1934# H «
Hence, as
we have seen, our population has steadily been getting older.
"Finally we come to migration rates.
From 1900 to 1 9 1 3 , net
migration into America averaged close to 1,000,000 persona a year, mostl,
young persons.
We now show a net movement out of the country of 5C,C00
persons a year.
471
Page 3
"In the summer of 1 9 3 8 , the National Resources Committee
released a most authoritative report on these trends.
The consensus of
expert opinion expects a peak by i 960 of 1 I4.O to 150 millions.
We are
close to 130 million today.
This gives us another 10 to 20 million,
and 20 years to go before a decline in total numbers sets in.
Crests
in most countries of western Europe are expected sooner— in England
during the I9 U-O *s .
"Assuming low fertility, medium mortality and no immigration,
the number of youngsters under 19 will fall from lj.8 million in 1930 to
28 million in 1 9 8 0 . Oldsters over 65 will increase from 6 .6 million
in 1930 to 22 million in I 9 8 O " ..............
"A curious population wave is passing upward through the
schools, with a heavy undertow of empty desks behind it.
The wave was
caused by the large number of children born immediately after the war.
The undertow is caused by the sharply declining birth rates which set
in around 1 9 2 5 . The United States Bureau of Education estimates a
peak high-school enrollment of 6 ,135>000
1938 - 3 9 , then a recession
as the wave rolls on to the colleges.
"Overcrowding is ceasing to be a problem in many elementary
schools.
Cleveland reports its teaching staff reduced by more than
600.
Orders for textbooks and supplies are declining.
School building
programs in the elementary grades are not so urgent as they were.
School budgets can halt their upward march.
Teachers’ colleges must
revise their plans.
Contractors, builders, supply houses, publishers,
will be deeply affected.
"The smallest effect will be felt in those districts of the
South where the birth rate is still high, and where schools are most
bitterly needed.
’Our future population is stemming from states least
able to provide adequate education.’ Hence we are already hearing a
demand for federal subsidy to equalize school facilities............ .
"There is, however, a definite bright side to this picture.
With immigration greatly restricted in the future, the American people
for the first time in history will have a breathing spell to become more
integrated and homogeneous.
Educational standards can be lifted all
around, as pressure on the schools relaxes.
What we call "democracy"
can be brought nearer.
"The population curve promises to remake our economic system
as we pass from an era of growth to an era of maturity.
Industrial
changes will be profound, and to a degree painful.
The outlook for
higher living standards and a more integrated democracy— provided we do
not lose our heads in the transition period— is bright.
In the long
run, the good effects ought to outweigh the bad.
"One last prophecy, and I am done.
The reproductive index
will move up again when children are wanted so badly that parents are
at last ready to sink their prejudices and really safeguard the
community against insecurity, unemployment and war. Will the instinct
for survival take care of this in due time?
I think it will.
It is
a tough instinct."
S t u a r t C h ase
472
P ag e I4.
This trend has i t s s p e c if ic a p p lica tio n to school trends
in New B rita in . A ll o f the su ggestion s w ith regard to school consol*id a tio n and changed d is t r ic t lin e s are based on the assumption that
present population trends in New B rita in continue without great change,
This i s , of course, hard to p red ict and changes in these trends would
mean a change in the p o lic y adopted on the b a sis o f present trends.
What are the b asic population, b irth r a te , and sch ool en­
rollm ent trends in th is city ? Table I and Chart I in d icate that
New B ritain population has grown c o n s is te n tly sin ce 1890, as fo llo w s:
Table I
C ity Population - New B rita in
Percent
Increase
I8 9 O
19,007
28,202
1900
1910
1920
lj-8.3
^3,916
55-7
68,128
1930
1938
75,000 (approximated by
Chamber of Commerce)
10.8
Chart I
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1938
75,000
70,000
65,000
60,000
55,000
50,000
ij.5,000
lj.0,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
r" ■
,
----
15,000
The g re a te st percentage increase took place between 1900
and 1910 (over 50#) but the g re a te st increase in point of in d iv id u a ls
was between 1910 and 1920 , w ith nearly 16,000 in crease. Since 1920
the in creases have le v e le d o f f , both in percent and in numbers of
in d ivid u als u n t il the New B r ita in population i s f a s t approaching a
s t a t ic fig u re.
473
P ag e 5
The average daily attendance can be studied from Table II
and Chart II for the past twonty year period.
Table II
Average Dally Attendance for New Britain, 1918-1958
Year
Average
daily attendance
Increase
Decrease
1918-1919
7 ,7 0 6
1919-1920
8,087
4 .9
1920-1921
8 , 814-7
9 .4
1921-1922
9,516
7 .6
1922-1923
9,695
1 .9
1923-19214.
9,871
1.8
19214.-1925
10,662
8.
1925-1926
11,570
6. 6
1926-1927
n ,755
5 .2
1927-1928
12,322
5-
1928-1929
12,549
.2
I929-193O
12,6514.
2 .5
1930-1951
15,055
5 .2
1951-1952
15 ,441
5.
1952-1955
15,660
1 .6
I933-I93I4.
15 , 521+
2 .5
195 J+-1955
15,122
1 .5
1935-1956
12,751
2 .8
1956-1957
12,^09
2 .7
1957-1958
12,238
1 .4
]
474
Page 6
C h art I I
Graph Showing Average Dally Attendance . 1918-1958
1918 - 19 20 21 22 23 2 k 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3k 35 36 3
20 21 22 23 2L\. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3k 35 36 37 3
1919
1 3 ,7 5 0
12,500
(
12,000
1 1 ,7 5 0
11,250
11,000
(
1Q>2 5°
10,000
8,000
7,500
475
Page 7
The school average daily attendance in 1918 was 7 , 706 , and
increased to a peak of 1 3 ,6 6 0 in 1932 -3 3 , over a 71% increase.
This
represents a rather steady increase over this period of years, until
1 9 3 3 , when the drop in school attendance began. Since this peak in
1932 - 3 3 , it has gradually and steadily decreased to 1 2 ,2 3 8 . This,
however, has been reflected most clearly in elementary and junior high
school decreases.
Senior high school enrollments have continued to
increase - nearly doubling in five years from 1 9 2 7 -1 9 3 2 from approxi­
mately 1100 to 2 2 0 0 , and reaching a present peak of slightly over
3000.
Indications point to continuing increases in the Senior High
School until June 191+2, possibly reaching a peak of over 3 5 00 pupils,
in spite of increased trade school facilities.
This would be an
increase of more than trebling the Senior High School enrollment
since 1 9 2 7 # a fifteen year period.
The birth rate trend is perhaps the most significant of all
in a study predicting future school needs in New Britain.
Table III
and Chart III study this trend in the last twenty years.
Table III
Birth Rate Trend
Year
Births
1919
1899
1§ 15
1920
1921
1922
1925
1921+
1925
1926
3.927
1928
1929
1950
1931
1932
1955
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1821
161+8
1709
1701
11%
1500
1306
Percent of
Increase
Decrease
4-5
.1+
9.5
3.8
.4
.1+
•4
6.
6 .6
6 .3
ll+n
1358
119 I+
3*7
1109
7.1
1 .2
1 0 .1
997
921
975
7.6
6.
961
1025
1034
6 .6
.8
1.4
476
Page 8
Chart III
Birth Rate Trend
1919
1200
1150
1121
TTO
1000
20 21 22 23 2 lj. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 324. 35 36 37 38
1
477
P ag e 9
There has been an almost consistent decrease in the New
Britain birth rate since 1919# with 1899 births, to the 1934 low of
921.
This is over a ^0% decrease in births in New Britain. Since
1934 # the births have increased from 921 to IO 3 I4. in 1938 , an increase
of 113 births over this period, or approximately a. 12 $ increase.
This is being reflected to an extent in the study of school enroll­
ments as of February 1939# which indicate that the kindergarten enroll­
ment of 722 is ll 6 greater than the first grade enrollment of 606 .
Apparently the low in birth rates has been reached and the wave of low
enrollments will be followed by slight increases which will doubtless
tend to become more static. A study of Table IV, showing present
enrollments by grades indicates the great decrease from a peak load
of 1446 in the tenth grade and the low enrollment of 606 in the first
grade. This decrease between the tenth grade and the first grade is
greater than 50 $. However, it should be noted that not until 1942
when the present ninth grades are graduated will the Senior High School
graduates be greater than the new pupils entering the Senior High
School.
(
Table IV
Enrollment by Grades as of February 1939
Kindergarten
722
Grade I
606
Grade II
849
Grade III
850
Grade IV
928
Grade V
939
Grade VI
968
Special
Grade VII
m )|i
Grade VIII
II97
Grade IX
1235
3#473
Grade X-l
X-2
612 )
834 )
(1,446)
Grade XI-1
XI-2
374 )
507 )
(8 8 1 )
Grade XII-1
XI1-2
301 )
333 )
(634)
Special (post graduates)
._58
Grand Total
3,019
12,498
478
Page 10
A study of all those population trends would seem to
indicate that the lowering school population has reached its lowest
ebb and there may be some slight school enrollment increases starting
in the elementary schools.
This will tend to stabilize the school
enrollments in the New Britain Schools.
III.
A Study of School Building Capacities and Needs for the Future.
The following table gives a study of capacities, present
enrollments, and estimated enrollments for 1 939 “ 19 m-0
present
Nov/ Britain school buildings.
Table V
STUDY OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND FUTURE BUILDING NEEDS AND CONSOLIDATION!School
building
Theoretical
capacity
(See Bulle­
tin 2B,1938)
Senior High
Ro ckwe11 (anne x )
Total (for
single session)
Practical
capacity
2255
if3 2
' ii-00
2687
2600
Central Jr.
High and
annex
1 I4.98
Nathan Hale
Jr. High and
annex
1827
Washington
Jr. High
1135
2200
1200
Enrollment
Nov.30 , ’ 38
2790
Sept.1939
Feb. 3000? Sept. 19 4-0
After Sept.
191+2 , de­
crease to
Il6k
(plus shops)
1200
IO 69
(plus shops
and com­
munity
center)
1000
(9 0 0 plus
993
shops)
Roosevelt Jr.
High and
annex
1120
TOTALS
Sr.H.S.
2687
2600
Jr.H.S.
5580
1+200
Jr.H.S.
1939
I 9 I4.O
900
752
(plus shops)
785 surplus capacity
1200 surplus capacity
Estimated probable
enrollment for
future
Sept.1939
Sept. 194-0
and after
■ 3 5 OO
3500
2600
1025
9C0
Sept.1939
Sept. 194-0
and after
85 #
Sept.1939
Sept. 194-0
and after
750
Sept.1939
Sept. I 94.O
and after
800
700
690
650
Sept.I 939 Sr. 3 5 OO
Jr. 3315
Sept. I9 I+-O Sr.- 3 5 OO
3978
Jr. 3050
Sr.H.S. 1939 800 overload
194-0 900 overload
I 9 U 2 normal capacity
2790 or
3000 ?
479
P ag e 11
T a b le V. c o n t i n u e d
School
building
Theoretical
capacity (See
Bulletin 2B,
1938)
E.Burritt
Smalley
Practical
capacity
Enrollment
Nov. 3 0 ,* 38
875
800
737
Sept. 1939
Sept. 19 3+0
1378
1200
829
Sept . 1939
Sept. 193+0
750
Estimated
probable en­
rollment for
future
730
700
776
Chamberlain
715
700
771
Sept. 1939
Sept. 193+0
725
700
Lincoln
612
550
i+32
Sept . 1939
Sept. 193+0
422
400
Smith
502
if50
396
Sopt .1 9 3 9
Sept.194o
364
350
Bartlett
385
300
299
Sept. 1939
Sept. 1940
275
260
Northend
555
500
if70
Sept . 1939
Sept. 1940
460
425
Israol Putnam
380
350
333
Sept.1939
Sept.194°
360
380
Walnut Hill
129
130
112
Sept. I939
Sept. 1940
130
130
B. Franklin
780
750
506
Sept . 1939
Sept.1940
467
450
Camp (owned
by state )
I+98
if50
272
Sept.I 939
Sept. 194°
260
250
Stanley
53 I+.
500
326
Sept.1939
Sept.1940
350
300
Vance
690
650
387
Sept. 1939
Sept. 1940
410
350
8 O3 I
7330
5870
Sept . 1939
plus 89
Sept. 1940
Jr.Voc.
pupils -5959
9729
TOTAL
ELEMENTARY
1939
1940
-
l 6 ll surplus capacity
1885 surplus capacity
51+14-5
480
P a g e 12
This table seems to indicate that in September 1939 the
Senior High School will have an overload of at least 900, whereas
in the junior high schools there will be a surplus capacity of over
7 0 0 , and the elementary schools will have a probable surplus capacity
of over 1600 .
By 19 l| 0 , the surplus in the junior high schools will
total about 1 2 0 0 , and in the elementary schools over 1 8 0 0 .
These figures would seem to indicate the possibility of
consolidation of certain elementary and junior high schools so as to
abandon the obsolescent and non-fireproof older buildings.
Briefly,
such consolidations as the following are possible for consideration:
1.
Bartlett School:
close building and divide district between the
Elihu Burritt and Benjamin Franklin Schools
2.
Smith School:
3.
Chamberlain School:
1)..
Robert J. Vance School:
5.
Walnut Hill School:
6.
Central Jr. High School:
close building and send pupils to present Roosevelt
School building
One
1.
2.
3.
of the following plans:
Modernize present building
Construct now building
Construct addition to Roosevelt School
to absorb these pupils.
Close building as an elementary school
and transform it into a junior high
school.
Present Vance School district
can be divided between Northend and
Lincoln Schools.
Close building for classroom purposes and
send pupils to various elementary schools
within their districts.
Continue for
administrative purposes.
Abandon present building and transfer
pupils to enlarged Vance School building
This policy, if adopted, would mean the abandonment of from
three to five school buildings, and the consequent savings in school
maintenance, overhead, and administration costs, etc., as well as the
advantage of having all pupils housed in modern fireproof and sanitary
schools.
The next section Will discuss in some detail each of these
changes and summarize the costs and savings.
IV.
Possible changes. costs and savings
General Statement
Maps of all proposed district changes are on file in the
superintendent’s office, for study by any who are interested.
In
none of the proposed new elementary school districts will very many
pupils be outside the one mile, radius line.
In the proposed new
junior high school areas, there will be a few pupils outside the one
mile radius line, but almost none outside the mile and a half radius
line.
481
Page
A.
13
Senior High School
The problem at the Senior High School for the moment is one
of overcrowding, and the necessary modification of the old section
of the high school building.
As has already been stated, it is
indicated that until after June I9 J+2 , unless unforeseen factors
intervene, the Senior High School population is bound to increase,
after which time there will be a decided trend downward.
To meet
this temporary condition, it is expected that it will be necessary
to do one of four things:
(1 ) return to a two-jhlatoon day at the
Senior High School, (2) continue all or some of the tenth grade
pupils in their respective junior high schools, (3 ) use the
Trade School addition as a high school annex if not equipped by
the State, or (I4.) transform one of the junior high schools into
a senior high school.
Any of these expedients should be looked
upon as emergency measures.
About the only modernizing features that are necessary in the
old part of the Senior High School bililding are the addition of
certain fire escapes, and the modernizing of certain toilet rooms,
at an estimated cost of $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 .
B.
Bartlett School
If the Bartlett School is to be continued as an elementary
school, it would be necessary in order to modernize it, to do the
following things:
fire escapes from each room, and an addition to
the building to take care of modern toilet facilities on each
floor, the addition also to provide for an auditorium and gymna­
sium.
However, there is sufficient room space to absorb the
pupils of the Bartlett School in the Benjamin Franklin and the
Elihu Burritt districts, as is at present done for all fifth and
sixth grades.
In case this were done, the boundary line between
the Benjamin Franklin and Elihu Burritt Schools would probably be
Gpove Street.
This abandonment of the Bartlett School would cost
the city almost nothing, and would save the necessity of modern­
izing the old building and the maintenance of the old building.
C.
Levi 0. Smith School
In order to modernize this building, it would be necessary
to do the following things:
(1 ) put on fire escapes from all
rooms to the ground, with the exception of the rear rooms which
are fireproof; (2 ) build a separate boiler room outside of the
present building; (3 ) provide an addition to the building for
modern toilet facilities on each floor, together with room in
the addition for a gymnasium.
However, it would be possible to abandon the Smith School and
to send these elementary school pupils to the present Roosevelt
Junior High School, where they could be absorbed at the present
time with small expense to the city, due to the surplus capacity
in that building.
This will not change the present district lines
nor increase the districts, and pupils will have to walk in no
case more than about one quarter mile farther.
482
Page llj.
D.
V. B. Chamberlain School
In order to modernize the present Chamberlain School, it will
be necessary to do the following things:
(1 ) add fire escapes
from each room to the ground; (2 ) an addition to provide for
modern toilet facilities on each floor, an auditorium, a gymna­
sium, and provision for a new boiler room and heating plant, plus
the modernization of the present heating system; (3 ) provision
of additional property to increase the playground facilities.
There are three possible ways
of meeting the need for a
school building at the Chamberlain School.
One is to modernize,
as has already been suggested; the second would be to build a new
building at an estimated cost of $3 0 0 ,000 ; and third, to build an
addition to the Roosevelt School in order to absorb the Chamberlain School pupils, at an estimated cost of $200,000.
Plans I and II would not provide for any change in the
district lines, save that of restricting the Chamberlain district
to that section which is south and east of the railroad tracks,
and adding to the Smalley district that present portion of the
Chamberlain d i s t r i c t which is north and west of the railroad
tracks.
Plan III would keep the distriot lines approximately as
described above, but would add to the walking distance of some
children approximately one quarter mile.
E.
Robert J. Vance School
The Vance School is a thoroughly modern school building,
which could be transformed into a junior high school through the
purchase of some additional property and the addition of rooms
for shops and classrooms to the present building.
Such a trans­
formation of the Vance School to a junior high school would
require an expenditure of in the neighborhood of $ 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ., and
necessitate the drawing up of a new contract with the State
Board of Education with regard to the use of the building as a
training school.
The children in the present Vance School
district w o u l d ' be divided between the Lincoln School district and
the Northend School district, at approximately Llnwood Street,
those west of Linwood Street going to the Lincoln School, and
those east to the Northend School.
Such a change in districting
might mean that some children would have to walk as much as a
half mile farther.
There is sufficient surplus room in the
Lincoln and Northend Schools to absorb this increase by 19^4-0.
F.
Walnut Hill School
The Walnut Hill School building has been used for administra­
tive purposes and for the housing of special health and atypical
classes.
It is desirable both from the point of view of getting
the pupils into modern school buildings, and also for educational
reasons, to have an addition built on one of the present modern
elementary school buildings as soon as possible, to carry on this
health work, and to have the pupils in the atypical classes return
to special classes within their own elementary school districts.
The cost of such an addition w o u l d ‘be $(J0,000.
In t his way, the
Walnut Hill School building would be left for administrative
purposes alone.
483
Page 15
G.
Central Junior High School
In order to modernize the present Central Junior High School
it will be necessary to (1 ) put fire escapes on the building from
many rooms to the ground; (2 ) build a covered passageway from the
main building to the annex; (3 ) build an addition to house a
separate boiler room outside the present building; (I*.) remove the
auditorium from its present location on the third floor; (5 )
provide modern toilet facilities; (6 )
• improve the gymnasium
facilities.
As suggested previously, it would seem better to transform
the Vance School into a junior high school at an estimated cost
of $ 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,, which would then become the geographical center of
the present Central Junior High School district, so that nearly
all of the pupils in that district would be within a mile radius
of the school, and every pupil would be within a mile and a half
radius of the school.
H.
Smalley School
In order to modernize the Smalley School, the following
things should be done:
(1 ) additional fire escapes, fire screens
and fire doors.
I.
Israel Putnam School
An addition is needed at the above school to take care of
present overcrowded conditions.
This will require three rooms
and a library, at an estimated cost of $4 5 >0 0 0 .
Table VI summarizes some of the savings that these changes
would accomplish.
Table VII summarizes the costs of these changes.
Table VI
SUMMARY OF CURRENT EXPENSE SAVING '/(1957-1958 figures)
Janitor Service
Janitor Supplies
Repairs
Light and Power
Fuel
Gas
Total
Bartlett
Smith
1 6 6 7 .1 2
1 8 6 7 .8
85.1+7
558.
2 4 1 .1 3
9 4 8 .4 1
79.6
1516.
Ii.oo.6o
1 0 6 4 .6 3
Chamberlain
2562.04
i 5 6 .ll
1688.
2 2 3 .5 0
3-3U
.17
1222.89
20.14
$ 3503.97
4728.88
5 8 7 2 .6 8
Grand Total
Walnut
Hill
1388.92
26.47
1632.
Central Jr.
High
6405.10
2 7 1 .2 3
5602
1242.
659.25
6 lo. 8 l
176.52
2061.
251.55
4499-97
15812.86
$ 3 4 ,4 1 8 .3 6
These figures do not include insurance and overhead.
484
Page 16
T ab le V II
SUMMARY OP POSSIBLE COSTS CONNECTED WITH SUGGESTED CHANGES
School
1.
Senior High
Estimated
cost
Change s
Fire escapes for
old section
2.
Bartlett
Abandon
3.
Smith
Abandon
I
10,000.
5 0 ,0 0 0 .
3a. Roosevelt
Changes at Roosevelt
I4.,
Chamberlain
1.
2.
3.
5.
Vance
Abandon as an elementary
school
6.
Walnut Hill
Abandon for school purposes
and add new health rooms
to a present elementary
school building
60 .0 0 0 .
200,000.
1 0 0 .0 0 0 .
3 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 0 .0 0 0 .
Modernize
New building
Addition to Roosevelt
7.
Central Jr. High
Abandon and build addition
to Vance School
8.
Smalley School
Fire escapes and fire screens
1 8 .00 0 .
9.
Israel Putnam
Add three rooms and library
115.000.
Total
from
%83#000»
to
$
6 8 3 ,000 .
A 'study of tables VI and VII would indicate that a maximum
expenditure of $0 8 3 ,0 0 0 . within the next ten years, would put all
New Britain pupils in modern, fireproof and sanitary buildings, and
decrease the current expenses to the city by something in excess of
$ 3ij.,0 0 0 . annually, which would go a long way toward amortizing the
bonded indebtedness that would be incurred.
This study is hereby respectfully submitted for examination
and study by the New Britain Board of Education, New Britain citizens,
and taxpayers.
The resulting long term policy should take into con­
sideration not only tax relief, but improvement of the educational
facilities and program in New Britain in the interest of its boys
and girls and future citizens.
Carlyle C. Ring,
Superintendent of Schools
!
\
i
SOOBCE MATERIAL
S e c tio n XXVII
RESEARCH DEPARTMEHT BULLETM
REPORT OP THE 3.988^X989 TESTIItfl PH) 8RAH
486
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
RESEARCH DEPARTMENT
APRIL 1939,
REPORT OP THE 1938-1939 TESTING PROGRAM
INTRODUCTION
During the school year 1937-38, a concentrated effort was
made to survey the levels of scholastic aptitude and of subject achierement of our total school population. While this survey was to be con­
sidered the first of a program of annual testing, it was not intended
that so inclusive a program be repeated every year. Rather it was
planned that starting with the present school year, 1938-39, certain
important grade levels would be selected for testing so that the schools
might have periodic checks on individual pupils and on the effectiveness
of their planning.- Grades III, VI, and VIII were chosen for this more
intensive study since they are crucial periods, anticipating the time
when children enter respectively the intermediate, junior and senior
high school levels..
The actual achievement testing program carried out in
1938-39 is as follows:
1. New Stanford Achievement Test
Grades VI and VIII
November
2. Gates Silent Reading Tests
'Grades III, VI and VIII
October 1938
1938
3. Durrell-Sullivan Reading Capacity and Achievement Tests
Grades III through VI
(Franklin School only)
October 1938
4. Cooperative General Achievement Test of the Social Studies
Grades XII-1 and XII-2
November 1938
Cooperative Current Public Affairs Test
Grade XII-2
November 1938
5. Metropolitan Readiness Test
Kindergarten (Report of this test not
May 1939
included herein as the test lias not yet been given.)
THE NEW STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST
The New Stanford Achievement Test Is a battery of tests
in ten important tool subjects; namely, paragraph meaning, word mean­
ing, spelling, language usage, literature, history and civics, geog­
raphy, physiology and hygiene, arithmetic reasoning, and arithmetic
computation. This battery was selected for use in our system because
487
Page 2 .
it included these fundamentals, because it has been used beneficially
in many school systems, and because it offers reliable information as
to grade and age standards.
Test Results in Grade VIII
The median results of this test for grade VIII are in
tabular form on page 15.
Medians have been calculated for the adjustment classes,
regular classes, and for these two classes combined.
Our regular
classes surpassed the adjustment classes in the ten subjects by 2 to
5 months in grade placement, an increase which could be expected since
most of the pupils in our regular classes had had a semester more of
work than those in our adjustment groups.
The medians of the ten subjects were in close agreement
with each other. Except for literature and arithmetic computation,
the median in any one subject did not exceed that of another by more
than four grade placement months. There might be a number of reasons
why the arithmetic computation median is higher than the others, but
the most reasonable one to select is the fact that this test alone was
practically independent of skill in reading. All others necessitated
reading ability and therefore the possession of it or lack of it as the
case might be offered a common factor which tended to level the scores
into comparable results.
In the computation test the pupil showed his
actual ability in the fundamental arithmetic skills irrespective of
reading ability.- If this hypothesis is true, it is also safe to assume
that were skill in reading greater among our pupils all other scores
would have more closely matched the arithmetic computation median which
now stands practically a grade above the others.
The score in litera­
ture falls below the others and our hypothesis remains consistent if
we conclude that this subject falls below because our children on the
average do not have the advantages in a wide variety of reading mate­
rial in the home which those children upon whose scores the test was
standardized apparently hav e . Many homes are conspicuously lacking
in opportunities to get acquainted with larger varieties of books and
book characters in history, mythology, fairy tales, folk lore and
biographies, and children are dependent entirely upon the relatively
limited periods of school time without supplementary help from the
home s .
Inspection of the table on page 15 reveals that our grade
placement medians are lower than the norms established by the test.
Because our children took the test in November, two months after the
opening of school, the actual grade placement of our eighth grade
classes is 8.2, as recorded in the first column of figures in the
table. Since eight out of ten of our subject grade placements were
7.+ rather than 8,2, our medians were somewhat below in grade standing.
When we compare the educational ages of our children in these ten sub­
jects with their average chronological age we find less discrepancy.
With the exception of arithmetic computation and literature our sub­
jects averaged from 5 months to no months below the median age of the
children in the combined, regular and adjustment groups.
In arithmetic
488
Page 3 .
computation our children were distinctly above the age standards set.
All this would indicate that the age standards and grade
placement standards of the test are not in very close agreement, since
we make practically equivalent scores by one measure and fall behind
by the other. This is, however, another indication of the same facts
which we found in previous testing periods.
Our children on the aver­
age are advanced in grade beyond the average child in many other cities.
By the present scores they have done well in the subjects for their
ages but their scores are more typical of seventh grade work than of
eighth grade work. With the general tendency over the country of ad­
vancing children more on the basis of chronological age than has been
the custom heretofore, it would seem that revisions of norms based on
school systems where this trend has been in effect v/ould bring about
a better correlation between age and grade standards. Until that time
however, we are supported by the test authors in attaching more sig­
nificance to the age standards than the grade standards.
"The best
single index for grading pupils is the educational age, based on the
composite score of the complete test. Grade norms are given for referunco, bub the age norms are far more significant. A given age
means something definite because age differences are fairly constant
phenomena except in the higher ages • A given grade, on the other hand,
means one thing in one city and something else in another.
It is one
thing, in the city and another thing in the country.
Its significance
fluctuates with every change in the system of grading or classification.
A high grade average in achievement tests does not necessarily indicate
satisfactory school conditions. Whether it is to be so interpreted
depends on the average age of the pupils in each grade, and also on the
amount of elimination. Since it is always necessary to take age into
account in appraising grade performances, it is better to base all of
our ratings and comparisons directly upon age norms."
It will be well to remember that norms set up for stand­
ardized tests are necessarily somewhat arbitrary figures. By the very
fact that they are based on country wide surveys, sampling various
types of communities with many different aims, their real significance
is lost as far as indicating a typical prformance is concerned. Yet
they serve in just the capacity they purport to serve— as an average
of many, many school systems and as a point of departure for all.
Any system using the tests will do well in checking its own averages
against nation-wide norms and then making a study as to the causes of
the deviations, whether they indicate higher or lower averages than the
standards. The causes of the deviations may be many and they may be
reasons of which we may be proud or which we easily justify.
On the
other hand, deviations may indicate spots in our teaching or in our
curriculum which we may wish to tackle.
On pages
16 through 19 are charts showing the range and
distribution of the actual individual scores made by the 477 adjustment
pupils, 684 regular pupils, or a total of 1161 eighth grade pupils. A
chart has been made for each of the ten subjects included in the test
and one for the total or average scores made in the test. There are
three fluctuating lines in each graph, the dotted line to indicate the
distribution of scores for the adjustment classes, the solid line for
489
Page 4 ,
the regular, and the dot-dash line for the combined groups. A cross
has been placed on each of these lines to mark their respective me- .
dians.
While there is a distinction in medians between the
adjustment and regular classes, it is immediately obvious how nearly
alike the range and distribution of scores are for the two groups.
There were pupils in both groups who made very high scores and pupils
in both groups who made very low scores. There were pupils in the
adjustment groups who made scores as high as the best of the regular
groups and pupils in the regular groups who made scores as low as the
poorest in the adjustment groups.
It appears then that while the
distinction between the two groups served a most important function
during this transitional year from semi-annual to annual promotions
there is little reason on an achievement level basis for continuing to
make the distinction from now on#
(
Each of the ten subjects shows a range in achievement level
of from nine to ten and one-half grades.
The individual scores range
from second and third grade ability to twelfth and thirteenth grade
ability. There are a few children who measure third grade ability,
many who measure sixth, seventh, and eighth grade ability, and a few
who measure better than high school senior level.
Spelling does not show quite that range since pupils are
given a complimentary score for spelling lists on the grades below
the eighth.
If the children were given these spelling lists many
would be unable to make a good showing and hence tiieir spelling scores
would extend to the low levels made in the other subjects.
/
'
This very wide range in scholastic levels is significant
for it substantiates what we have been finding to be true in other
testing programs and which other cities report to be true.
Grade as
a level of scholastic ability is in reality a myth. Just because a
pupil is in grade VIII there is no guarantee that he is doing eighth
grade work. By means of a statistical formula it was calculated that
two-thirds of our eighth grade pupils made scores falling within a
three year range, within one and one-half years above and below the
median, or grade placements from 6.0 to 9.0. But the other third of
the class may make scores as low as grade three or as high as grade
thirteen, or college freshman level.
It is important that we keep in mind that the range found
in the results of an objective or standardized test will be wider
than the range found from a test based on material in any one text bock
or course. Standardized tests are based on material taken from many
texts and many courses and purport to sample the pupil's knowledge of
a fairly wide field. The pupil's score represents his grasp of that
field, obtained not only from instruction given in the class room but
from all other sources of knowledge) home, newspapers, movies, lectures,
or voluntary reading. If this fact is kept in mind it will not be
difficult to believe that children in any one grade can differ to the
extent to which they appear to differ from the test results. Even
though children may seem to be progressing together when tested for
490
P age 5 .
specific skills or on material from a given assignment, these wide
differences in knowledge and achievement are still present for we
cannot disregard these other sourcos of learning.
Since any one grade does not guarantee any certain level
of attainment,we are supported in our plan of using the chronological
age as a prominent factor in promotion.
Grade levels will then be­
come indices of age levels and the varying achievement levels within
each grade will become the indices for differentiated instruction to
meet these varying ne e d s .
The vast majority of pupils taking this test varied by two
years or more in their standing in the different subjects. The aver­
age child proved to be four years better in one subject than in an­
other. A few children stood as much.as seven or eight years higher
in one subject than they did in another. There -was no subject in which
the majority of children did conspicuously better or poorer than they
did in another, although the scores in arithmetic computation showed
some superiority. Bright and dull children were equally inconsistent
in their scores. One group was as likely to show wide differences as
another.
Again we meet with figures which argue for the reason­
ableness and the necessity of taking children where they are in each
subject, regardless of the grade in which they may happen to be en­
rolled.
In order to compare the results of the Stanford Achievement
Battery given this year with the Progressive Achievement Battery given
last year, the amount of growth in grade standing v/as figured for the
eighth grade in one of the junior high schools. Of the 356 children
in this school who took both tests the median increase in grade place­
ment was one year and two months (1.2) which indicates more than nor­
mal growth in achievement. While the two tests are not strictly' com­
parable since they did not include exactly the same combination of
tool subjects, the results of the comparison of scores are what we
could expect, not only for this school but for the other junior high
schools as well.
Test Results in Grade VI
The median results of the New Stanford Achievement Battery
in grade VI are in tabular form on page 20.
The medians of the regular classes exceed those of the
adjustment classes from 2 to 5 months in grade placement, a normal
difference since the regular classes are in reality a semester ahead
of the adjustment classes. The difference between the two groups is
the same as the difference between the two eighth grade groups.
The medians cf the ten subjects for the combined classes
did not vary from each other by more than 3 months, showing a very
close agreement. All were from grade placement 5.6 to 5.9. These
grade placement medians are slightly below our actual grade placement
491
Page 6 .
of 6*2 (second month of school In the sixth grade), but when our
educational age medians are compared with the median chronologial age
of the group we find the advantage in favor of our pupils. For the
eombined groups., adjustment and regular together, our median chrono­
logical age is 11-4 while our median educational age for all ten sub­
jects is 11-8.
C
On pages 21
through 24
are charts showing the range
and distribution of the actual individual scores made by 451 adjust­
ment pupils, 492 regular pupils, or a total of 943 sixth grade pupils.
The charts for the ten subjects show the same wide range that is found
in the eighth grade.
In each of the subjects the poorest pupils were
from 7,0 to 10,5 years below the best. Two -thirds of the pupils made
average scores for the ten subjects which fell within a two year range,
that is within one year above or below the median for the entire grade.
The scores for the other one-third of the pupils extended as low as
the second and as high as the ninth grade. There was an occasional
score in a separate subject which v/as as high as any score made by any
eighth grade pupil. Although the medians for the regular groups were
from 2 to 5 months higher than for the adjustment groups there v/ere
just as low scores in the regular classes as in the adjustment and
just as high scores in the adjustment as in the regular groups.
Individual pupils themselves showed wide ranges in their
own abilities. Sixth grade pupils on the average proved to be three
years better In one subject than in another.
Re c ommendat ions
The following recommendations result logically from the
test results:
1.
abandoned.
That the distinction between regular and adjustment groups be
2* That we accustom ourselves to thinking of grades primarily as
indices of age levels and secondarily as indices of achievement levels,
3, That the courses and material offered on each grade level be
more flexible, frankly adapted to the needs and abilities of the pupils
whether they be two or three years below their actual grade or two or
three years above,
4, That instruction be measured more in terms of individual pupil
growth during a school year and less in terms of particular achieve­
ment grade level,
5, That promotion be based more upon chronological age and evidaioe
of individual growth during a year than upon the attainment of grade
standards.
“
6, That class scores be studied to see in which subjects the best
work was done and in which the poorest scores were made. Although the
492
Page 7 .
medians of the ten subjects compared very well with each other for
the grades as a whole, individiial class sheets show class medians
which differ from those of the whole grade.
It may be found that a
class may need more time in one subject and can afford to spend less
time in another.
7. That individual pupil records be studied to determine in which
subjects a pupil is most skilled and in which more concentrated effort
is needed.
8. That the scores of each of the ten tool subjects be studied in
order to determine wherein changes, improvements or shifts of emphasis
should be made in instruction at* curricula.
9. That consideration be given to the suggested hypothesis that
lack of skill and comprehension in reading prevented our children from
making better scores in the other subjects.
10. That further study be made of the suggestion that our children
are not so familiar with the field of literature as the average child
In this country.
Is our relatively poor score in literature in the
eighth grade something about which we should concern ourselves?
Is it
or is it not an essential that children be well acquainted with various
types of literature or are we concentrating on things of greater impor­
tance? Are the test norms by chance too severe?
11. That further study be made of the fact that the arithmetic
computation scores in grade VIII are considerably above the scores in
the other subjects.
Is this due to the fact that that subject is
praotically independent of reading? Are our materials and methods of
instruction better in this field than in others or better than those
available in other cities? Are the norms set by the test too low?
12. That consideration be given to the fact that some children
are being forced to attempt to master material which they are in no
way mentally or educationally equipped to master.
13. That consideration be given to the probability that some
children are already so well Informed and skilled in certain subjects
that their time spent in class room work on the traditional eighth
grade Is a waste of time and a loss of opportunity to develop leader­
ship and a broader scope of the field.
14. That consideration be given to the possibility that teachers
are being forced to attempt to maintain grade standards in the cases
of children who are hopelessly unable to meet them.
15. That tutors or coaches be provided in each school to provide
remedial instruction to those children in greatest need of it.
493
Page 8.
THE GATES READING TESTS
Because of the importance of skill and comprehension in
reading, not only for successful attainment in other school subjects
but also for efficient workmanship and cultural pleasure in adult
life, it is expected that some standardized testing of reading will be
a part of the annual testing program.
This year the Gates Silent Reading Test, a team of four
tests to measure (1) Reading to Appreciate General Significance,
(2) Reading to Predict the Outcome of Given Events, (3) Reading to
Understand Precise Directions, and (4) Reading to Note Details, was
given to grade VIII in the junior high schools and grade VI in the
elementary schools. The Gates Primary Reading Test, a team of three
tests for measuring (1) Word Recognition, (2) Sentence Reading, and
(3) Paragraph Reading, was given to grade III in the elementary schools.
Although the primary test is actually designed for use in Grades I and
II, it was thought best to use it in our third grade rather than the
more advanced team because a large proportion of the pupils taking it
were in adjustment classes and had had only the first semester of
second grade work. The norms of the primary test extended well into
the third grade, but since some perfect scores were made by our best
readers we can assume thet some of them would have made higher scores
if they had been able to show their ability on the more difficult test.
Test Results in Grade VIII
The median results of the Gates Test for grade VIII are
set up in tabular form on page 25,
Medians have been established for the adjustment, regular,
and combined groups in each of the four types of tests and for the test
as a whole. While only general results for all our schools together
have been given for other tests, results are given for the Gates Test
for each of the four junior higji schools because of the district prob­
lem in reading revealed by these results.
The figures for the grade placements (G.P.’s) for the four
separate types of tests are medians which are found by listing all
scores in rank order from highest to lowest and taking the middle
score. This explains why the median for the combined groups is not
always the same as the arithmetical average of the adjustment and
regular groups would be. The median of the combined group may be any
number along the range between the medians of the adjustment and regular
groups. For instance, the median cases of the two groups for which
separate medians of 8.5 and 8.0 were found may be any number between
8.5 and 8.0. By listing the actual cases in the two groups the median
happened to fall on 8.5. The median of the two classes which had sep­
arate medians of 6.6 and 7.1 turned out to be 6.6.
To find a grade placement which was typical of the adjust­
ment, regular and combined classes on all four tests together, the
arithmetical average was used, that is, the quotient obtained by
I
494
Page 9 .
dividing by four the sum of the grade placements for the four sub­
tests.
On the whole, the results of the Gates Test corroborate
the results of the Stanford Achievement Test. We find reason to
believe that we have a real reading problem. This is more pronounced
in sane sections than in others but our average grade placement'for
the city is 7*1 in the combined, adjustment and regular classes.. Our
average educational age is 12-10 while our median chronological age is
13-4.
Averages of course have both a satisfactory and an unsatis­
factory connotation in that they include scores which are better than
the established norms and poorer than those norms. We have many stu­
dents who have far excelled the standard accomplishments but as long
as there remains a discrepancy between our median and those of a re­
liable objective test there is an impetus to do something about the
scores in the lower brackets.
As we found in the Stanford Test our medians for the
regular classes averaged about four months higher than the medians
for the adjustment groups, but also as we found before, there are just
as high individual scores in the adjustment as in the regular groups
and just as low scores in the regular as in the adjustment classes.
Wide ranges between the best and poorest scores also were
revealed.
Individual scores spread from twelfth to third grade ability.
Class medians spread from a grade placement of 10.5 to 5.0.
In other
words, eighth grade classes themselves presented medians which were
five years apart in ability.
The results of the Central, Nathan Hale and Roosevelt
Junior High Schools compare very closely with each other but the
Washington Junior High School averages are distinctly lower. Coupled
with this is the fact that the Washington School pupils average seven
and eight months older than those in the other three schools so that
for their age they read with much less skill and comprehension.
While no comparative study has been made between the re­
sults earned by the children who had been in our public schools
through the elementary grade and those who have recently transferred
from schools wherein English is not the sole language used in general
class room activities, the discrepancy between the V/ashington district
and the others indicates the need for a more thorough study of the
underlying causes.
Although the Washington School medians were lower than the
medians for the other schools there were individual pupils who made
just as high scores as the best pupils made in any of the other schools.
The results of the types A, C and D, are quite consistently
equivalent, but the medians for type B, Reading to Predict the Outcome
of Given Events, are higher in every instance. Apparently our pupils
are more proficient in reading for the purpose of finding out probable
495
Page 10.
outcomes of stories than they are in noting details or understanding
precise directions. Since the latter two skills are particularly
helpful in such work as arithmetic reasoning and some others of our
fundamental courses, this may he a clue as to one reason why our
scores in these other subjects were not quite up to the test standards.
Test Results in Grades VI and III
The general results of the Gates Test in these grades are
typical of the average school system.
Our grade placements for the
regular group differ from the established norms by only one month.
Our grade placements for the adjustment groups are from four to six
months behind our regular groups and therefore lower than the norms
for these grades but this is normal since the children in these groups
have been advanced a semester.
As usual, medians and averages while they illustrate the
central tendencies of scores and levels do also hide the extremes in
scores which contribute to these central tendencies.
Individual school
medians differ from the city medians by varying degrees according to
the problems which each must meet such as foreign homes with the domi­
nance of foreign languages and different standards of cultural back­
grounds. The teaching problems are different for each and must be
planned to meet these differences.
School medians for the sixth grade ranged from 4.4 to 6.5
in the adjustment groups, from 4.9 to 7.4 in the regular groups, and
from 4,9 to 6.7 in the combined groups. For the third grade these
medians ranged from 2.2 to 3.3 in the adjustment groups, from 2.9 to
3.4 in the regular groups and from 2.7 to 3.3 in the combined groups.
Individual pupil scores ranged from grade 12.5 to 2.8 in
the adjustment classes of grade VI and from 12.5 to 3.1 in the regular
classes of that grade. Every school had pupils who made scores at
least as high as grade eleven equivalents and at least as low as grade
three equivalents.
The range in the sixth grade is practically the same as
that for the eighth grade.
In other words, as far as reading skill
and comprehension are concerned, many of these children could compete
with the eighth grade pupils with a good chance of holding their own.
On the other hand, many eighth grade pupils read as laboriously as a
fourth grade child would if confronted vYith an eighth grade text book
in science or history.
In the third grade, individual pupils scored as high as
grade 3.8 and as low as 1.2 in the adjustment groups and as high as
grade 3.8 and as low as 1.5 in the regular groups. Some pupils made
the highest scores possible indicating that they might have made even
higher averages on a more difficult test. Some other pupils at the
other end of the scale showed almost negligible skill in reading.
4 96
P a g e 11
Re o ommendatIons
Many of the recommendations based on the Stanford Achieve­
ment Test are equally appropriate ho?e but will not be repeated. Specific
recommendations for the Gates Tests are:
1. That class and school scores, as well as individual test
booklets, be studied in order to ascertain those children who need
special attention in reading.
2. That those children who have made scores far in advance of
their grade be given reading material on a level challenging to their
ability,
3. That individual pupil scores on the different types of the
test be compared in order to discover the types of skills in which
each child is proficient and those types in which he needs more prac­
tice .
4.
entered
sohools
be that
That scores made by those children who have just recently
our junior high schools from other than New Britain public
be compared with the results of the other children.
It may
a special program in reading must be planned for them.
THE DURRELL-SULLIVAN READING TEST
The Durrell-Sullivan Reading Tests were given to the
children of the Franklin School in all grades from III through VI,
Inasmuch as these tests had not been in the market for a sufficiently
long length of time to show whether or not they could give the diag­
nostic value to the individual pupils and schools which the authors
hoped for them, it was decided to limit during the current year the
administration of these tests to one school.
If the tests showed
promise of offering definite help, their services could be extended
further through the schools.
The Durrell-Sullivan Tests are composed of two companion
tests, one designed to measure innate capacity or ability to learn to
read, the other to measure the level of reading actually achieved. The
material of the two tests parallel each other closely in interest and
content but the former is devoted entirely to pictures and the latter
to print.
Success in the capacity tests, therefore, depends upon the
child’s ability to respond to the spoken language as used in the di­
rections given to him and to the pictorial material through which he
designates his response. No symbolic (written) language is used in
this test. Similarly, success in the" achievement test is dependent
upon the child* s ability to read printed material which is the symbolic
counterpart of the pictorial material in the capacity test.
One more characteristic of the test should be mentioned.
Each of the two tests has two sub-parts, one to measure word meaning
and the other paragraph meaning. For the scores in each sub-part and
for the totals there are equivalent age and grade norms.
Barring any influences on the scores due to temporary
emotional or physical upsets on the part of any pupils during one test
or the other, or any other factor which would spuriously affect the
score, the difference between the scores on the two tests would be
due to the difference between a child’s capacity to (learn to read and
his aetual achievement in reading.
Test Results in Grades VI through III
In order to get some idea of the validity of the results
of this new test, the scores made in it by the sixth grade children
were correlated with the scores made in the Gates test by the same
children.
It was found that the coefficient of correlation was .69,
indicating a substantially high ratio of agreement between the two
tests•
While wide ranges are found in the scores on both the
capacity and the achievement tests, the ranges in the achievement test
for the most part cover a lower section of the scale.
In illustration
of this fact is the
table on page
2V giving the ranges for the grades
tested. The medians for the two parts of the test are also given on
this same page. Except for the regular classes of grade V, the medians
in the achievement test were consistently lower than the medians in the
capacity test.
Many more children fell short of their ability to achieve
than the number who excelled it, thus supporting the test authors’
contention that the average person has not learned to read in a way
commensurate with his ability.
In comparing the scores in the two
tests for individual pupils it was found that the achievement scores
for some children lagged as much as four years behind their capacity
to achieve.
On the other hand some children excelled all expectations
by rating as much as two years higher in the achievement test than in
the capacity test.Effort on the part
of the child and skill on the
part of the teacher
had donemuch to overcome innate limitations.
An idea of the extent to which the scores on the capacity
and achievement tests differed from each other is given by the table
on page 28 . The plus signs indicate individual cases in which the
achievement scores were higher and the minus signs indicate cases in
which the achievement scores were lower. For instance, in the regular
classes of the sixth grade the difference extends from individual cases
in which the scores on the two tests were equivalent to cases in which
the achievement scores were 3.6 years below the capacity scores.
In
the regular classes in the fourth grade the difference extends from
individual cases in which the scores on the achievement test were 1.9
years above those on the capacity to cases in which the scores were
1.9 years below those in the capacity.
4 98
Page 1 3 .
The median differences found between the two sets of
scores in each grade are given in the right hand column of page 28.
The regular class of the sixth grade shows the greatest difference
between capacity and achievement while the regular class of the fifth
grade shows a slight superiority of achievement over capacity.
Recommendations
It is recommended that the Durrell-Sullivan Test be used
as part of our annual testing program.
THE COOPERATIVE GENERAL ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES
and
THE COOPERATIVE CURRENT PUBLIC AFFAIRS TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOL CLASSES
Inasmuch as the field of social studies was not included
in the Progressive Achievement Battery given in 1937-38, it was
thought best to include on the testing program of the current year
tests which would offer some information as to our standards in this
field. For that reason the tests in Social Studies and in Current
Public Affairs from the Cooperative Test Service were selected for
testing our twelfth grade classes in the senior high school. Supple­
menting the results from these, are the results from the social studies
sections in the New Stanford Achievement Battery given in the sixth
and eighth grades.
{
The Social Studies Test is a comprehensive survey test
including sections in Geography, Civics and American Government, the
Contributions of Early Civilizations and the Middle Ages, the Rise
of Modern European Nations, the Development of the United States, and
Economic Problems. The emphasis in this examination is placed on an
understanding of the information, ideas, relationships, and general­
izations gained from courses in the social studies.
The Current Public Affairs Test includes sections in
National Events and World Events. According to the publishers it is
"designed to transcend special courses and to provide an indication of
the effectiveness of the school in attaining what many regard as one
of the most important objectives of education, a functioning interest
in the activities and progress of present society."
The social studies test was given to all studonts in the
twelfth grade but the test of current public affairs only to those
graduating in the mid-year class.
The norms sent to us for the social studies test were of
two sets, one set based on the 1938 spring testing program in Con­
necticut carried on by the cooperative plan at Connecticut State College,
and the other set based on results of a partial nation-wide survey,
4 99
Page 14.
two thousand students In eighteen schools in seven states.
The Connecticut State scores are based on testing periods
held toward the end of the term. The twelfth grade scores are then
appropriate for our XII-2 group. For our XII-1 group, an average of
the XI-1 and XII-1 Connecticut norms was taken as a standard.
Again we find the wide range of scores in our test results
which were made in all other tests.
In the social studies test our
students ranged all the way from the 99th percentile, that height
surpassed by only one percent of all the young people tested in
Connecticut, to percentile one, that score surpassed by 99$ of the
students rated on this test.
Our median percentiles are 57 for grade
XII-2 and 62 for grade XII-1. Therefore, in terms of the subject
matter material used in the social studies classes in Connecticut, our
scores are safely above the average.
The norms established for the Current Public Affairs are
based on relatively few cases and are therefore not considered reliable
by Connecticut State College. Whatever the degree of reliability, our
average percentile is 38 which indicates that of the relatively few
tested 62$ had better scores than did our average student. When put
against the norms of the eighteen schools in seven different states
our Current Public Affairs results faired still less favorably, a
percentile of 21.
Whether or not we take stock in these comparative results
we can hardly be satisfied until we study the content of this Current
Public Affairs test and determine whether or not it represents or
samples attitudes, ideals and factual knowledge which we would likfe
our graduating students to have. The value of the findings of this
test would not be that it was testing the effectiveness of any par­
ticular course but that it gives a cross section of the standing of
our young people about to leave our schools in certain attitudes and
certain factual knowledge. Does this material or does it not represent
something that these children on the verge of graduation should have?
Recommendations
Specific recommendations arising from the results of this
examination are:
1. That consideration be given by the Social Studies Committee
and teachers to the possibility that our high school students are not
establishing habits of keeping informed regarding current public
affairs nor of making applications of their knowledge gained from
social studies courses to present day civic and social problems.
2. That the Current Public Affairs Test become a part of the .
annual testing program of the twelfth grade.
Ruth C. Kimball,
Approved:
Carlyle C • Ring
Superintendent of Schcols
Director of Testing
and Research.
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Page 16.
STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
Junior High Schools
GRADE VIII
November 14, 1959
Distribution of Scores for Ten Subjects Tested
Grade
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Page 18•
S t a n f o r d A c h ie v e m e n t T e s t
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Pap;e 21,
STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
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SOURGB MATERIAL
Sectioa
XXX
BS7I8SD SULBS AMD REGT7IATI0MS OS* BOARS <& MWCA * * «
522
RULES A N D REGULATIONS
OF THE
B O A R D OF EDUCATION
N B W BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
RULES AND REGULATIONS
OF THE
B O A R D OF EDUCATION
NE W BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT
ADOPTED MARCH 10, 1939
RULES AND REGULATIONS
The schools of New Britain were organized
under an act of Legislature concerning the
consolidation of districts. The act of consoli­
dation was passed without opposition at a
town meeting held October 13, 1874, and the
school interests of the town were intrusted
to a school committee composed of 12 mem­
bers.
Chapter 50, Sec. 243b, of the Cumulative
Supplement to the General Statutes, January
sessions, 1931, 1933, State of Connecticut,
reads as follows:
Sec. 243B. Town school committee or board of
school visitors to become board of education.
BOARDOF EDUCATION
Excerpt from General Statutes of 1939
Concerning Election of Board of Education
Section 2. At the biennial election in
1940, there shall be elected six members of
the school committee for terms of four years
and until their successors shall be elected and
shall have qualified, and no person shall vote
for more than three of said members; two
members for terms of two years and until
theirsuccessors shall be elected andshallhave
qualified, and no person shall vote for more
than one of said members. Biennially there­
after six members shall be elected for terms
of four years, and no person shall vote for
more than three members of said committee.
The respective terms of said members of the
school committee shall commence at noon on
the third Tuesday of April following their
election. The terms of the members of the
school committee expiring on the third Tues­
day of April, 1939, are extended to the third
Tuesday of April, 1940, and the terms expir­
ing on the third Tuesday of April, 1941, are
extended to the third Tuesday of April, 1942.
The town school committee or board of
school visitors of any town shall become the
board of education of such town, and all pro­
visions of the general statutesrelatingthereto
are amended to conform to such change.
Section 4. All vacancies in any of said
offices shall be filled by the common council
and from the same political party from which
the former incumbent was elected, and the
person so chosen shall hold office for the re­
mainder of the term and until his successor
shall be elected and shall have qualified .
2
3
RULES AND REGULATIONS
EXTRACTS FROM THE CITY CHARTER
REFERRING TO
THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE
CHAPTER XII
Consolidated School District
Property, etc., of Town Vested In City
Section 1. Said cityshall be a consolidated
school district and it shall be in place of the
town of New Britain in all duties, obligations,
and other matters required by law of or by
the town concerning education, and it shall
act in such matters instead of the town. All
the powers, obligations, rights, and property
of the town, whether as a town or as a consolidated school district, shall be vested in
and belong to said city.
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School Committee. Powers and Duties
Section 2. There shall be a school committee of said city, with all the rights, duties or
powers concerning schools and educational
matters now or hereafter vested in committees of consolidated school districts and selectmen of towns by the laws of this state.
Said committee shall serve without compen­
sation, except as hereinafter provided.
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Compensation of Officers of School Committee
Section S. Said committee may fix and determine the compensation to be paid to its
officers.
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BOARDOF EDUCATION
Committee to Audit Expenses and
Report to Comptroller
May Pay Billsto Secure Discounts
Comptroller to Certify to City Treasurer
Committee to Draw on Treasurer
Comptroller to Keep List of Bills
Section 4. Said committee shall audit and
approve monthly all bills for all current ex­
penses of their department and report the
same to the city comptroller, provided, in all
cases whenever a discount for cash can be
procured from the price of any goods pur­
chased, the finance committee of the school
committee shall have power to pay any such
billin order to take advantage of the discount
for the benefit of the school district, and may
draw an order upon the treasurer therefor in
favor of the person entitled to payment of
the bill discounted, but all such bills so dis­
counted shall be afterwards ratified and ap­
proved by the school committee at the next
regular meeting thereof. The city comp­
troller shall certify to the city treasurer
whether or not the appropriation available is
sufficient for the payment of the bills audited
and approved, and, if sufficient, said com­
mittee, by its duly authorized official, shall
draw upon the treasurer in favor of the per­
son entitled to the payment of any such bill,
and the comptroller shall keep a list of all
bills approved and filedwith said committee.
RULES AND REGULATIONS
Powers of School Committee
Section 5. Said committee may make,
change, amend, or alter any rules, regulations,
or hy-lawa which they may deem necessary
relative to the manner of conducting the
meetings and business of the committee, to
the conduct and government of schools, and
to the duties, terms of office, mode of election, and compensation of all persons employed by said committee and its officers; and
said committee may at any time remove any
officer thereof or any person employed by
them.
Expense for School May Be Met byBond Issue
Common Council to Fix Conditions of Bonds
Section 6. Whenever, upon estimates of the
board of finance and taxation, the common
council shallmake an appropriation exceeding
five thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting any school building, enlarging any existing school building, buying or securing land
therefor or for equipment thereof or acquiring any property for school purposes or for
the present or future requirements of the con­
solidated school district, the common council
may, in lieu of voting to lay a tax to meet
such appropriation, vote to issue the bonds of
said city for the purpose of raising money to
defray the expense thereof and shall, in compliance with the statutes regulating the issuance of municipal bonds, fix the rate of interest on such bonds, the time and place of payment of principal and interest thereon, the
amount and kind ofbonds,themanner inwhich
they shall be issued and soldandtheperson or
BOARDOF EDUCATION
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persons empowered to signthesame on behalf
of said city; and may provide that a certain
part of such bonds may become due in each
year. The avails of suchbondsshallbepaidin­
to the city treasury and credited to the school
committee on the books of the treasurer to
the account of new school buildings, and no
portion of the money raised by the sale of
bonds shall be used for any purpose or paid
out of the treasury except for the purposes
hereinbefore stated and any balance remain­
ing after payment of such billsshall be avail­
able only for said purposes.
Special Account for Rentals
Section 7. The school committee of said
city is authorized to deposit in a special ac­
count in one of the banks of said city re­
ceipts for rentals of school buildings from
which funds all expenses connected with such
rental shall be paid and the balance shall be
credited to the general fund of the city.
CHAPTER H
Estimates to Be Submitted
Section 2. The officers of the several de­
partments of the city shall, not later than the
first of February of each year, transmit to
the clerk of said board estimates in detail of
the amounts of money required by their sev­
eral departments for the ensuing year, with
a corresponding statement of the amounts ex­
pended the previous year, and said officers
shall be given opportunity to be heard in re­
gard to their several appropriations, either
by the whole board of finance and taxation
or by committees of that board.
7
BULBS AND REGULATIONS
RULES OF THE
BOARD OF EDUCATION
CHAPTER 1
MEETINGS
Annual Meeting
Section 1. The annual meeting ofthe Board
of Education shall be held in the month of
May in each year.
Regular and Special Meetings
Section 2. Regular meetings shall be held
on the second Friday of each month, except
August, at 4:30 p. m. Special meetings may
be called by the president or secretary or at
the request of any three members, providing
the reason for the meeting is stated, and a
twenty-four hour notice isgiven. In addition
to the foregoing, two evening meetings may
be held each year, one on the second Monday
ofOctober and the second on the second Mon­
day in January.
Quonim
Section 3. Seven members shall constitute
a quorum for the transaction of business.
Order of Business
Section 4. The order of business at'a reg­
ular meeting shall be as follows:
1. Reading of records of the previous
meeting, if called for.
2. Reports of standing committees.
3. Reports of special committees.
4. New business proposed.
5. Communications or reportsfrom the Su­
perintendent of Schools.
8
BOARDOF EDUCATION
Term of Office
Section 5. All officers and regular com­
mittees shall hold office for a term of one
year and until their successors shall"be duly
elected and qualified.
CHAPTER II
OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
Election of Officers
At the annual meeting of the Board of Ed­
ucation held in the month of May of each
year, the following officers and committees
shall be elected by ballot:
1. A President.
2. A Secretary.
3. An Assistant Secretary.
4. A committee of four on teachers.
5. A committee of four on finance.
6. A committee of four on school accomo­
dations.
At all elections by ballot, seven affirmative
votes shall be required for an election.
CHAPTER HI
DUTIES OF OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
Duties of President
Section 1. It shall be the duty of the presi­
dent to preside at meetings of the Board of
Education and to perform such other duties
as usually devolve upon a presiding officer.
9
RULES and regulations
Duties of Secretary
Section 2. The secretary shall give notice
of and attend meetings of the Board of Edu­
cation, and shall keep an accurate record of
its proceedings.
Duties of Committee on Finance
Section 3. I. The Committee on Finance
shallhave charge of allproperty, furnish sup­
plies and have a general oversight of the fi­
nances. The Finance Committee shall meet
monthly or more often to examine and pass
upon all bills, and no expenditures in excess
of one hundred dollars shall be incurred with­
out the sanction of said committee. The
members of said committee, the superinten­
dent of schools, the assistant secretary of the
Board of Education, or the bookkeeper, shall
draw orders upon the treasurer of the district
for the payment of all salary payrolls and
discounted bills and for all bills of expendit­
ure bearing the written approval of the Fi­
nance Committee. At the option of the Fi­
nance Committee one order on the treasurer
may be drawn for any entire payroll ifithas
been duly approved, and the proceeds of such
order shall be deposited in the New Britain
Trust Company, and the New Britain Na­
tional Bank in rotation, and any person here­
in authorized to draw orders upon the treas­
urer may draw checks on such deposits in
favor of the persons entitled to the payment
of any salary included in such payroll to the
amount of his or her salary. Each person
herein authorized to draw orders on the treas­
urer, shall give a suitable bond according to
10
BOARD OP EDUCATION
law for the faithful performance of his or her
duties, the amount to be fixed by the Board
of Education. It shall also be the duty of
the Chairman or authorized agent of said
committee to keep the accounts of the dis­
trict and make an annual report of the same
to the Board of Education.
Special Accounts
II. All special accounts such as the ath­
letic account, rental account, towel account
and the accounts of school organizations shah
be under the jurisdiction of the Finance Com­
mittee. The rates for rentals of school build­
ings shall be determined by said committee.
Approval of Bills
III. All bills, with the exception of salar­
ies and discounted bills shall first be reported
to the Board of Education for its approval.
The Finance Committee shall send to each
member of the Board of Education a list of
bills to be offered for the approval of the
Board of Education at least twenty-four
hours before the meeting at which the bills
are to be acted upon.
Annual Estimate
IV. Said Committee in the month of De­
cember in each year shall prepare an item­
ized estimate of the expenses of the district
for the next fiscal year, beginning April first
thereafter, and shall submit the same to the
Board of Education for its action at a meet­
ing in the month of December.
11
RULES AND REGULATIONS
BOARD OP EDUCATION
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Duties of Committee on Teachers
Nomination of Teachers, School Physicians,
Nurses and Attendance Officers
Section 4. I. The Committee on Teachers
shall consider all nominations of instructors
made by the Superintendent of Schools in accordance with Chapter 46, Cumulative Supplement to the General Statutes of the State
of Connecticut, January sessions, 1931, 1933,
and annually in the month of May shall piesent a list of instructors, school physicians,
nurses, and attendance officers to be nomin­
ated for election for the ensuing school year
beginning in September. A copy of said list
shall be sent to each member of the Board
of Education at least three days before the
date of the annual election.
Selection of Text Books
U. The Committee on Teachers shall ex­
amine with care all text books proposed by
the superintendent of schools for use in the
schools, and no textbook shall be adopted
without the recommendation of this committee.
Supervision of Evening Schools,
Adult Education and Recreation
III. The Committee on Teachers shallhave
the supervision and oversight of the evening
schools, adult education and recreation, approve the course of study to be pursued in the
same, and present to the Board of Education,
a list of teachers to be employed in the same
for such a length of time as they shall deem
proper. A copy of said list shall be sent to
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each member of the Board of Education at
least three days before the date of the elec­
tion of teachers. All the acts of said com­
mittee are to be subject to the approval of
the Board of Education.
Health of Pupils
IV. The Committee on Teachers shall have
the oversight of the health of all pupils in
the schools.
Duties of Committee on School
Accommodations
Section 5. The Committee on School Ac­
commodations shall have the oversight of all
buildings and equipment, maintenance of the
same, including the janitorial service, and
shall from time to time inspect or cause to
be inspected the physical plant, the sanitary
condition, and the safety of all school build­
ings. This Committee shall ascertain from
time to time what additional facilities are
needed, and shall prepare plans and estimates
for new construction, and shall act as a build­
ing committee to carry into effect such rec­
ommendations as the Board of Education
may adopt.
CHAPTER IV
ELECTION AND DUTIES OF
SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
Election of Superintendent
Section 1. The Board of Education shall
elect a superintendent of schools by ballot in
the month of March for a term to be determ-
13
RULES AND REGULATIONS
ined by the Board of Education, this term
to begin on the first day of August follow­
ing the election. Seven affirmative votes
shall be necessary for an election.
Duties of the Superintendent
Section 2. The Superintendent of Schools
shall arrange for and superintend the exam­
ination of candidates for teachers; visit, ex­
amine and supervise the several schools, in­
cluding the evening schools, and make such
orders, directions and suggestions to teach­
ers and pupils as he may deem necessary. He
shall cause to have made a bi-annual inven­
tory of ail the property of the Consolidated
School District. He shall employ substitute
and temporary teachers as necessary and
shall make monthly reports of such appoint­
ments to the Board of Education. He shall
give attention to the settlement ofallcases of
differences arising between teachers, parents
and pupils, and in every proper manner de­
vote himself to promote the highest useful­
ness of the schools. He shall advise the
Board of Education on educational matters
and policies, and shall carry out allvotes and
orders of the Board of Education.
Section S. He shall, in the month of Sep­
tember in each year, make a detailed report
to the Board of Education concerning the con­
dition of the schools and the operation of
the same, and concerning the condition of the
school property of the district.
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BOARDOP EDUCATION
CHAPTER V
ELECTION, APPOINTMENT, TRANSFER
AND SUSPENSION OF TEACHERS,
SCHOOL PHYSICIANS, NURSES AND
ATTENDANCE OFFICERS.
Annual Election of Teachers,School
Physicians, Nurses, and Attendance Officers
Section 1. Annually in the month of May,
the Board of Education shall elect the in­
structors, school physicians, nurses and at­
tendance officers in the public schools and
fix their compensation for the ensuing year
beginning in the month of September there­
after. All such appointments shall be made
subject to the right of the Board of Educa­
tion to dismiss any principal or teacher upon
giving notice of not less than thirty days and
at the expiration of said notice all compensa­
tion shall cease. At the annual meeting or
at any adjournment thereof, all principals,
teachers, school physicians, nurses and at­
tendance officers shall be elected by ballot.
Seven affirmative votes shall be necessary for
the election of all the above persons.
Appointments of Teachers
Section 2. I. Appointments of teachers
for Kindergarten and Grades one to six in­
clusive shallbe restrictedto graduates offour
years teachers’colleges or colleges of recog­
nized standing, who have a standing in schol­
arship and practice among the upper fifty
percent of the graduating class, and who hold
acceptable Connecticut statecertificates.
15
522
r
RULES AND REGULATIONS
BOARD OF EDUCATION
n. Appointments of teachers to junior and
senior high schools shall be restricted to
graduates of four year colleges or professional
training schools of recognized standing who
hold acceptable Connecticut state certificates,
and who have had not less than one year of
successful teaching experience, regular or
substitute.
III. No female married teachers are to he
engaged, and female teachers marrying dur­
ing the school year shall not be candidates
for reelection.
Suspension of Teachers
Section S. The Committee on Teachers, for
cause, may at any time suspend any principal
or teacher until the next meeting of the
Board of Education, when they shall report
the fact of such suspension and the reasons
therefor with such recommendations as they
shall deem proper, and the Board of Educa­
tion shall thereupon take such action as it
shall deem proper in the case.
Any principal or teacher so suspended shall
draw pay from the time of the suspension
until the Board of Education shall take final
action in the matter.
I;
>'
Transfer of Teachers
Section 4. The Superintendent, at his dis­
cretion, may transfer any teacher to any
other room or grade in any of the schools as
he may deem to be for the best interests of
the schools.
I\
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»:
CHAPTER VI
DUTIES OF TEACHERS
Punctual Attendance, Etc.
Section 1. Teachers shall be at their re­
spective rooms at least fifteen minutes be­
fore the opening of each session, and shall
devote themselves faithfully to their appro­
priate duties during the hours of school.
Discipline
Section 2, Teachers shall exercise such dis­
cipline in theirschools as a kind and judicious
parent would exercise in the family.
Manners, Morals and Conduct of Pupils
Section 3. Teachers shall give constant
and careful attention to the manners and
morals of their pupils, ever striving to pre­
vent or suppress improper conduct or vicious
habits, not only in the school room and school
yard, but also, as far as possible, on the way
to and from school. They shall seek to culti­
vate habits of neatness in the school room,
and exercise a watchful care to preserve the
furniture and premises from marks and de­
facement.
Temperature and Ventilation of SchoolRooms
Section 4. Teachers shall give special at­
tention to secure the proper ventilation and
temperature of their respective rooms, pre­
serving as nearly as possible, a temperature
of from 68 to 70 degrees, during the cold sea­
son, ever exercisingproper care for the health
of their pupils.
17
RULES AND REGULATIONS
BOARDOF EDUCATION
Absence of Employees of Board of Education
Employment of Substitutes
Section 5. All employees of the Board of
Education shall be allowed ten days absence
during each school year with full pay for the
causes listed below. If this ten days allow­
ance or any portion of itisnot utilized in one
year, it may be accumulated to a maximum
of thirty days.
1. The employee’s personal illness.
2. The following may be counted on this
allowance:
a. Not more than three days may be
included for death in the employee’s
immediate family (mother, father,
wife, husband, child,sister, brother),
or other member of the household.
b. Not more than one half day may be
included for a funeral outside of the
immediate family.
c. Not more than two days may be in­
cluded for the serious illness of a
member of the employee's immedi­
ate family as defined above, or other
member of the household.
Records and Reports
Section 6. Teachers shall keep a careful
record of the attendance of their pupils, and
make a monthly report of the same to the
superintendent of schools. Other reports as
required shall be promptly made.
3. The Superintendent of Schools may con­
sider certain modifications of the above regu­
lations, upon application of the teacher con­
cerned, to allow for visiting days or other
reasonable irregularities, but never in excess
of the maximum absence provided for above.
Advertising Notices and Contributions
Section 7. Teachers shall not allow agents
of any description to give or circulate any
advertising notices in the schools or to offer
any article for sale; nor shall teachers pro­
cure contributions for any object from their
pupils, without permission from the superin­
tendent of schools.
Sale of Tickets or Merchandise
Section 8. No teacher or employee of the
School Department shall distribute or cooper­
ate in the sale of tickets or merchandise
through pupils without written permission of
the superintendent of schools. No organiza­
tion or individual shall distribute for sale
tickets or merchandise on school property
without written permission of the superinten­
dent of schools.
CHAPTER VH
SCHOOLS
Age of Admission to the Kindergarten and
First Grade
Section 1. No child shall be admitted to
the kindergarten who has not, in September,
attained the age of five years, and no child
RULES AND REGULATIONS
BOARDOP EDUCATION
shall be admitted to the first grade, who has
not, in September, attained the age of six
years, except by special permission of the
superintendent of schools.
Departments of Public Schools
Section 2. The public schools shall be di­
vided into the following departments: Kin­
dergarten, including the first year of school
life; Elementary, including the next six years
of school life; Junior High School, including
the next three years of school life; Senior
High School, having a course of three years;
and the school of adult education and recre­
ation.
Promotions
Section S. Regular promotions shall take
place in June, but promotions may be made
at any time for special merit and progress at
the discretion of the teacher, when approved
by the principal and the superintendent of
schools.
Holidays
Section 4. Schools shall be closed upon
the following days: Armistice Day; Thanks­
giving Day and the day following; New Year’s
Day; Washington’s Birthday; Memorial Day;
and convention day in October.
1. The observance of Armistice Day; Am­
erican Education Week; FirePrevention
Week; and Columbus Day.
2. Participation in work of the Red Cross;
the Boy Scouts; and the Girl Scouts.
3. Cooperation with the City Hospital,
Children’s Home, and Polish Orphanage.
4. The suitable observance of any and all
days proclaimed by the Governor of the
State.
5. Attention to the observance of State
and National holidays.
Special Observances
Section 5. It is recommended that the spe­
cial participation of the schools in civic move­
ments, community service and other enter­
prises which are extra curricular in character
shall be confined to the following:
20
’jj,
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I
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Opening Exercises
Section 6. It is recommended that the
opening exercises of the schools consist of
reading a brief passage of Scripture, followed
by singing and repeating the Lord’s Prayer.
Sessions
Section 7. The sessions of the Senior High
School shall be as follows:
Morning schedule 8:10— 12:10.
(Special) 12:10— 1:00.
Afternoon schedule 1:05— 2:55.
(Special) 2:55— 3:45.
The forenoon sessions of the Junior high
schools shall begin at 8:30 and close at 11:30
and the afternoon sessions shall begin at 1:20
and close at 4:00.
The forenoon sessions of all schoolsbelow
the juniorhigh schools shall begin at 8:40 and
close at 11:35 and the afternoon sessions
21
RULES AND REGULATIONS
shall begin at 1:30 and close at 3:30. Each
session ofthe kindergarten shall be two hours
in length.
These hours may from time to time be
changed by the Board of Education on request
of the superintendent of schools.
BOARDOF EDUCATION
CHAPTER V m
PUPILS
Attendance of Pupils
Section 1. I. All pupils must attend school
regularly or furnish a satisfactory reason for
non-attendance.
n. Any pupil in the Senior High School
who has been absent without reasons satis­
factory to the principal, shall be denied the
privileges of the school for the remainder of
the semester.
Suspension of Pupils
Section 2. Any pupil whose conduct is in­
jurious to the best interests of the school may
be suspended by the principal, immediate no­
tice of such suspension, with reason therefor,
being sent to the parent or guardian and to
the superintendent of schools.
CHAPTER DC
AMENDMENTS
These by-laws may be amended, or new
ones adopted, by seven affirmative votes of
the Board of Education, notice of such amend­
ment or new by-laws being given at the meet­
ing previous to its adoption, and the proposed
change specified in such notice.
INDEX
A
Absence of Employees of Board of Edu­
cation ....
18
Accommodations, Committee, Duties of.. 13
Admission to First Grade, Age of..19-20
Admission to Kindergarten, Age of_19-20
Adoption of Text Books.......
12
Adult Education and Recreation ... 12
Advertising in Schools .......... 19
Amendments to Rules, How Made... 22
Annual Election of Attendance Officers. 15
Annual Election of School Physicians and
Nurses.................. 15
Annual Election of Teachers...... 15
Annual Estimates, To Be Prepared.7,11
8
Annual Meeting, Date of.......
Annual Report of Superintendent.... 14
Appointments of Teachers ....... 15-16
Approval of Bills ........
5,11
Attendance Officers, Compensation of... 15
Attendance Officers, Term of Office
15
Attendance of Pupils.......... 22
Attendance Records, Kept by Teachers.. 19
17
Attendance of Teachers ....
Audit of Bills ....'...........
5
B
Bills, How Contracted,Approved and Paid 5,11
Bills, Reported to Comptroller by Com­
mittee
• 5
Board of Education, Duties of ....
4
Board of Education, Election of....
3
Board of Education, Powers of..... 4,6
Board of Finance and Taxation
. 7
Bonds for School Buildings......
6
Buildings, Changes in...........
13
Building Committee ...........
13
22
23
522
RULES AND REGULATIONS
BOARD OP EDUCATION
Buildings, Erection of New........ 13
Business, Order of .............
8
C
Candidates for Teaching, Examined by
Superintendent ........
14
Charter Provisions Relating to Schools.. 4- 7
Committee on Finance, Duties of
10-11
Committee on School Accommodations,
Duties of.................
13
Committee on Teachers, Duties of
12-13
Committees .................
9
Committees, Election of.........
9
Committees, Terms of ..........
9
Compensation of Officers of Board of
Education .................
4
Comptroller, City .............
5
Conduct of Pupils ............. 17
Consolidated School District, Duties of.. 4
Consolidated School District, Obligations
of .....................
4
Consolidated School District, Organiza­
tion of ...................
2
Consolidated School District, Powers of.. 4
Consolidated School District, Property of 4
Contributions by Pupils ........ 19
D
Date of Annual Election of Teachers
15
Date of Annual Meeting,Board ofEduca­
tion .....................
8
Date of Evening Meetings, Board of Edu­
cation ...................
8
Date of Regular Meetings, Board of Edu­
cation ...................
8
Department, Elementary School .... 20
Department, Evening School ...... 20
Department, Junior High School.... 20
Department, Kindergarten
—
20
Department, Senior High School... 20
Department of Public Schools.... 20
Discipline of Pupils, Character of.... 17
Duties of Board of Education......
4
Duties of Committee on Finance ... 10-11
Duties of Committee on School Accom­
modations ................. 13
Duties of Committee on Teachers... 12-13
Duties of Consolidated School District.. 4
Duties of Officers and Committees.. 9-10
Duties of President ............
9
Duties of Secretary ............ 10
Duties of Superintendent ......... 14
Duties of Teachers ............ 17
E
Election of Attendance Officers .... 15
Election of Officers and Committees.... 9
Election of School Physiciansand Nurses 15
Election of Superintendent ....... 13-14
Election of Teachers .Annual, Date for. 15
Election of Teachers, Annual, Method of 15
6
Employees, Removal of .........
Employment of Substitutes.......
18
Employment of Substitute Teachers ... 14
Employment of Temporary Teachers
14
Erection of New Buildings .....
13
Estimates, Annual, To Be Prepared
7,11
Estimates for New Buildings..... 13
Evening School, Supervision of... .12,14
Examination of Candidates for Teaching 14
Examination of Schools by Superintend­
ent ...............
14
Exercises for Opening Sessions
21
Expenses, Annual Estimate Required.. 11
Expenses, Bills for, How Audited
5,10
Expenses, Bills for, How Contracted
10
Expenses, Bills for, How Paid ..... 5,10
24
25
522
BOARD OP EDUCATION
RULES AND REGULATIONS
F
Finance and Taxation, Board of.....
7
Finance Committee, Duties of..... 10-11
First Grade, Age of Admission to --- 20
G
Grade, First, Age of Admission to
20
H
Health of Pupils.............. 13
Holidays ................... 20
I
Inventory of School Property, Bi-Annual 14
J
Junior High School Department.....
K
Kindergarten, Age of Admission to
Kindergarten Department .......
M
Manners of Pupils .............
Meeting, Date of Annual
....
Meetings, Date of Evening.......
Meetings, D ate of Regular .................
Meetings, Special, How Called.....
Morals of Pupils..............
N
New Buildings, Erection of .......
New Buildings, Estimates and Plans for
Nominations of Teachers, School Physi
cians, Nurses and Attendance Officers
26
20
19
20
17
8
8
8
8
17
IB
13
12
o
Obligations of School District......
4
Officers and Committees, List of....
9
' I Officers, Duties of ............. 9-10
Officers, Election of ...........
9
Officers, Removal of ...........
6
Officers, Terms of .............
9
Opening Exercises of School Sessions... 21
Order of Business .............
8
Organization of School District.....
2
P
Payment of Bills.............
5
Plans for New Buildings ......... 13
Powers of Board of Education....... 4-6
Powers of Consolidated School District.. 4
9
President, Duties of ...........
Promotions of Pupils.........
20
Property, Bi-Annual Inventory of
14
Property of Consolidated School District 4
Pupils, Attendance of ........... 22
Pupils, Conduct of............. 17
Pupils, Contributions by ......... 19
Pupils, Discipline of ...........
17
Pupils, Health of .............
13
Pupils, Manners of ............ 17
Pupils, Morals of .............
17
Pupils, Promotion of ........... 20
Pupils, Suspension of ........... 22
iv
Q
Quorum ...................
8
R
Records of Attendance, To Be Kept By
Teachers .................
19
Regular Meetings, Date of .......
8
27
RULES A N D REGULATIONS
Removal of E m p loyees.............
Removal of Officers ..................
Rentals, Special Account for ..
Report of Bills to Comptroller by
of Education ................ ..........
Report of Superintendent........
Reports Monthly by Teachers to
in ten d en t...................................
Rules, How Amended ...............
Rules, Made or Amended by Board of
Education ............ ......................................
BOARD OF EDUCATION
6
6
7
5
14
19
22
S
Sale of Tickets or Merchandise in Schools 19
School Accommodations. Committee, Du­
ties of .........................................................
13
School Buildings, Bonds for .....................
6
School District, Duties of .........................
4
School District, Obligations of ..............
4
School District, Powers of .......................
4
School District, Property of .....................
4
School Expenses, Bills for, How Approved
and P a id ................................................. 10-11
School Expenses, Bills for, How Con­
11
tracted .......................................................
School Expenses, Committee to Audit
Bills .............................................................
5
School Physicians and Nurses, Election
of ........................................
15
School Property, Bi-Annual Inventory of 14
School Rooms, Temperature of ............... 17
School Rooms, Ventilation o f ................... 17
Schools, Departments of ........
20
Schools, Examined by Superintendent.. .
14
Schools, Sessions of ................................... 21
Schools, Supervision of by Superintendent 14
Secretary, Duties of ..............................., .
10
28
4
Selection of Text Books ...........................
12
Senior High School D epartm ent............
20
Sessions of Schools ...................................
21
Special Account for Rentals ...................
7
Special Accounts .......................................
11
Special Meetings, How Called ..............
8
Special Observances in Schools ............ 20-21
Substitute Teachers, Employment of . . .
12
Substitutes, Employment of ..................
18
Superintendent, Annual Report o f........
14
Superintendent, Duties of .......................
14
Superintendent, Election of, Date fo r.. 13-14
Superintendent, Term of Office ............ 13-14
Superintendent to Examine Schools . . .
14
Superintendent to Supervise S ch ools...
14
Superintendent, Transfer of Teachers by 16
Supervision of Evening Schools..........
12-13
Supervision of Schools by Superintendent 14
Suspension of Pupils ....................
22
Suspension of Teachers .............. .
16
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
tendent
Teachers,
Teachers,
Teachers,
Absence of .................................
18
Annual Election of, Date f o r .. 15
Annual Election of, Methodfor
15
Appointment o f .....................15-16
Committee, Duties of . . . .
12-13
Duties o f ............................
17-19
Examination of ..............
14
Keep Attendance Records
19
Nomination of ................
12
Punctual Attendance Required 17
Report Monthly to Superin19
Substitutes f o r ........................... 14
Suspension o f ....................
16
To Discipline Pupils W isely ...
17
29
RULES A N D REGULATIONS
Teachers, Transfer of ...............................
16
Temperature of School R o o m s............
17
Temporary Teachers, Employment o f . . .
12
Term of Office, of Attendance O fficers.. 15
Term of Office, of School Physicians and
Nurses .........................................................
15
Term of Office, of Superintendent
.....13-14
Terms of Officers and C om m ittees.........
9
Text Books, Selection o f ........................
12
Transfer of T each ers..............................
16
Treasurer, City .............................................
5
V
Vacancies in Teaching Staff, How Filled
Ventilation of School Rooms, by Teacher
30
12
17
SOURCE MATERIAL
S e c tio n XXXI
AN1TOAL REPORT, 1937*1988
a)
ANNUAL REPORT
1937-1938
PUBLIC SCHOOLS
NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
i
ipiuimi ■ ^ ^ ^ w p y p ^ g p w i^p
'■
ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
Public Schools
NEW BRITAIN, CONN.
For the
SCHOOL YEAR ENDED JUNE TWENTY-FOURTH
and for the
FINANCIAL YEAR ENDED APRIL FIRST
1
MR. LOUIS P. SLADE
who retired on July 1, 1938
after serving as principal of the
New Britain Senior High School
for twenty-five years
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
3
BOARD OF EDUCATION
T e r m expires April, 1940
M a r k C. Allen
Arthur N. Klebes
John L. Sullivan
Laura P. M a n g a n
T e r m expires April, 1939
Henry Martin
George B. Taylor
Joseph M. W a r d * 1
Morris D. Saxe
T e r m expires April, 1938
Henry T. Burr
James P. M u r p h y * 2
** Resigned
*2 Resigned
*3 Retired
*J Retired
'
T h o m a s C. Smith*3
Amalie R. Nuss*4
Mrs. M a r y S. Baker appointed to fill vacancy
John J. Kata appointed to fill vacancy
E d w a r d J. O ’Brien elected to fill vacancy
John L. Ericson elected to fill vacancy. Resigned
Catherine S. Zwick appointed to fill vacancy
Officers of the Committee
President, Joseph M. W a r d (to June 1938)
Henry Martin
Secretary, George B. Taylor
Superintendent of Schools
Carlyle C. Ring
t
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1937-1938
STANDING COMMITTEES
1937-1938
Finance
M a r k C. Allen, Chairman
H en ry T. Burr
Henry Martin
T h o m a s C. Smith
Teachers
Joseph M. Ward, Chairman
Laura P. M a n g a n
Amalie R. Nuss
Morris D. Saxe
School Accommodations
J ames P. Murphy, Chairman
Arthur N. Klebes
John L. Sullivan
George B. Taylor
R E O R G A N I Z A T I O N ' — June, 1938
Finance
M a r k C. Allen, Chairman
Henry Martin
E d w a r d J. O ’Brien
George B. Taylor
Teachers
Laura P. Mangan, Chairman
H enry T. Burr
M a r y S. Baker
Morris D. Saxe
School Accommodations
John L. Sullivan, Chairman
John J. Kata
Arthur N. Klebes
Catherine S. Zwick
SW
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
6
REPORT OF
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
T o the M em be rs of the Board of Education:
Ladies and Gentlemen:
O n August 1, 1937, I became the superintendent of the N e w
Britain Public Schools. A little over a year later it becomes m y
privilege and opportunity to present for your consideration the
results of the first year’s stewardship. This report will cover the
school year from July 1, 1937 to July 1, 1938, and the financial
year from April 1,1937 to April 1, 1938.
T h e position of superintendent of the N e w Britain Schools has
presented a real challenge. The relationship between superin­
tendent, Board, and staff, calls for trust and confidence, and can
only continue satisfactorily as long as such confidence exists.
The Board m e m b e r s are the duly elected representatives of the
N e w Britain public,— parents, taxpayers, and citizens,— to carry
on the great democratic enterprise of educating the future citi­
zens of the City of N e w Britain. The future of our democracy
rests upon the conscientious discharge of this duty by all con­
cerned. The chief interest of all must be the welfare of the N e w
Britain boys and girls, and the development of our democracy.
Party politics, personal gain, favors for friends, thoughtlessness,
or other extraneous interests must not be allowed to be determin­
ing factors in the administration of the schools of N e w Britain.
Before studying in detail some of the results of the studies of
the past year, a word of appreciation for the cooperation of the
staff and Board should be made. Especially fine has been the
cooperation of the staff in the studies of N e w Britain problems
m a d e during the past year. A change in administration calls for
<fM
6
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1937-1938
adjustment on all sides. T he superintendent must endeavor to
understand and k n o w the Board members, staff members, and
public, and they in turn to understand him, and any n e w policies
that m a y be introduced. The process of mutual understanding
and cooperation has been m a d e a very agreeable procedure
through the kindness of Board m em be rs and staff members.
During the past year, the Board of Education has lost the serv­
ices of such veteran m em be rs as its former president, Joseph M.
Ward, and Mrs. Amalie R. Nuss and James P. Murphy. Mr. John
Ericson served on the Board but a few weeks. This has brought
to the Board Mrs. M a r y S. Baker, Mrs. Catherine S. Zwick, Mr.
John J. Kata, and Mr. E d w a r d O ’Brien.
O n March 26, 1938, Dr. Stanley H. Holmes, w h o for thirtyone years until July 31, 1937 served as the superintendent of the
N e w Britain Schools, passed away. T he Board of Education and
the staff recognize the loss of a great educational leader and a
friend.
Our staff has lost through retirement the services of Mr.
Louis P. Slade, w h o has served the N e w Britain School Depart­
ment for the past twenty-five years as the conscientious and cap­
able principal of our Senior H igh School. Mr. Vincent Sala was
chosen to be his successor.
SECTION I
T H E N E W BRITAIN S U R V E Y
Questions raised by Board m e m b e r s regarding the efficacy of
certain educational methods, procedures and policies of the N e w
Britain Schools, brought about a request from the Board early in
the school year that the superintendent study and evaluate the
present system and m a k e recommendations for future improve­
ment. Such a study was m a d e and the reports have been turned
over to the Board and public for study. This is the first oppor­
tunity the superintendent has had to summarize these reports
and to present his recommendations.
fw
NEW BRITAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
The study was set up in the form of a local survey, utilizing
only local staff members, and giving opportunity for democratic
study of local problems, not only by the staff, but also by the
Board and public. This study w as divided into two parts:
(a) those completed by the Research Department, and (b) those
completed by faculty committees. These have been reported in
nine study bulletins covering the following items:
■4?;
A.
1. Intelligence Testing
2. Achievement Testing
3. Internal problems, such as
a. Pupil population trends
b. Building utilization
c. Teacher preparation
;
B.
\
I
Staff Committee Studies
1. Committees set up prior to September 1937, to study
a. Report cards for elementary schools
b. Salary schedule
%,
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1
,
i
V
Research Department Studies
■
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2. N e w Committees set up in 1937-1938, to study
a.
b.
Promotion plans
Course of study and graduation requirements in secondary schools
c. N e w Britain Assignment plan
d. Secondary school coordination
e. N e w Britain High School graduates
While m u c h of this survey should be recognized as preliminary
to a further more detailed study of certain problems and planning
by the superintendent, Board of Education, and staff, never­
theless, certain steps have already been taken and certain policies
and recommendations for the future have become clear. Inasmuch
as the detailed reports are available for study by the Board or
other interested parties, no detailed s u m m a r y is necessary here.
8
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1937-1938
The survey clearly indicates that all educational problems are
continuing problems and are constantly with us. N o perfect
solution will ever be found. T he best w e can do is to be always
studying and searching for better solutions than those w e n o w
have. T he need of a continuing study of N e w Britain’s educa­
tional problems by the superintendent, Board of Education, and
staff, is apparent. In continuing these studies, the following
fundamental policies will guide the superintendent:
1. T h e democratic method must be used in any approach
to the solution of N e w Britain educational problems and
the determination of its educational policies.
2. Rate of progress in making improvements and changes in
the educational set-up in N e w Britain must be dependent
upon convincing the majority of the Board of Education,
the staff, and the parents of the need and reasonableness
of these changes and improvements.
3. T h e public schools of N e w Britain are supported at public
expense in the interests of the boys and girls attending
t h e m to serve these ends:
a. T o develop N e w Britain boys and girls into
responsible citizens in a democracy
b. To develop “all the children of all the people” to the
limits of each individual's o w n talents and abilities.
T h e survey seems to warrant the following tentative conclu­
sions and recommendations:
1. Achievement in the elementary schools is as good as can
be expected for pupils of the capacity and ability of N e w
Britain pupils. T h e elementary school staff will, of
course, be constantly alert to improvement. During the
next few years, the staff will want to carefully study the
efficacy of the present platoon plan of the elementary
T he N ew Britain S tate