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A DIAGNOSIS OF THE LABORATORY-SCHOOL PROBLEM OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS AS A BASIS FOR IMPROVING DIRECTED TEACHING, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE STATE TEACHERS' COLLEGE AT SALISBURY, MARYLAND

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University Microfilms
30 0 N or th Z e e b R o a d
Ann A rbor, M ic h i g a n 48106
A X e ro x E d u c a t i o n C o m p a n y
C
O LJ
LD3907
3
Hatthews, Anna H u l d a .
I
40
A diagnosis of the laboratory-school
.1135
problems of prospective teachers as a
basis for improving directed teaching,
with special reference to the State
teachers college at Salisbury,
Ilaryland. . .
N e w York. 1940.
ix,250 typewritten leaves.
tables
(part fold.) diagr., form.
29cm.
Pinal document (Bd.D.) - New York
university, School of education, 1940.
Bibliography:
p . 167-172.
"3ibiiography for prospective
teachers'1;
p. 243-250.
v ■,
A60477
;■ L,S;
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, M ichigan 48106
T H IS D I S S E R T A T I O N H A S B E E N M I C R O F I L M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E I V E D .
A DIAGNOSIS OP THE LABORATORY-SCHOOL PROBLEMS
OP PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS AS A BASIS FOR
IMPROVING DIRECTED TEACHING
W ith S p e c ia l R eferen ce t o th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e
a t S a lis b u r y , M aryland
ANNA H. MATTHEWS
S ubm itted in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of th e
re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e d e g re e o f D o cto r of
E d u ca tio n in th e S ch o o l of E d u c a tio n o f
New York U n iv e r s ity
1940
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
i n d i st in e t pr i n t .
F i l m e d as r e c e i v e d .
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABLE OP CONTENTS
C hapter
P r e f a to r y S ta te m e n t,....................................................................... 11
I.
THE PROBLEM AND THE PROCEDURE...........................................
The Problem ......................
The Meaning o f Term s............................
Need f o r th e S tu d y ,.....................................
L im ita tio n s o f th e S tu d y ..............................
P ro c ed u res and T h e ir V a l i d i t y
R e la te d S tu d ie s ..........................
II,
1
1
2
4
7
11
17
THE PROBLEM IN ITS SETTING AT THE STATE TEACHERS
COLLEGE AT SALISBURY................................................................. 24
G en eral I n fo rm a tio n ............................................................... 24
R equirem ents f o r A dm ission to th e P r o f e s s io n a l
26
C u rricu lu m ...........................................
L a b o ra to ry -S c h o o l F a c i l i t i e s ...................
28
The P lan f o r th e A d m in is tra tio n of D ire c te d
T eaching I .....................................
30
The P la n f o r th e A d m in is tra tio n of D ire c te d
T eaching I I , . ..................................................................• 32
The P lan f o r th e A d m in is tra tio n o f D ire c te d
34
T eaching I I I ............................
S o c ia l, Economic and S c h o la s tic Backgrounds
of th e S tu d e n t ..............« . . . ...........................
42
III,
IV.
A STUDY OP DIRECTED TEACHING 1 ........................................ 45
A STUDY OP DIRECTED TEACHING I I ............................
83
V. A STUDY OP DIRECTED TEACHING I I I .................................... 124
V I.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................
P r in c ip le s U n d erly in g a Program
T ea ch in g , ....................
G m e lu slo n su a n d Recommendations
T each in g I . . • • . • • • • • • .
C o n c lu sio n s and Recommendations
T eaching I I .................
k6047T
iv
157
of D ire c te d
158
f o r D ire c te d
, , • • . . ...........,159
f o r D ire c te d
,160
TABIE OP CONTENTS (Concluded)
C h a p ter
Page
C o n c lu sio n s and Recommendations f o r D ire c te d
...........
161
T eaching I I I #
A p p lic a tio n s o f th e F in d in g s ,
......................, , , 1 6 2
Problem s f o r F u rth e r S tu d y ....................
165
BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................... 167
APPENDDC.....................................
173
A,
Examples of th e D ia r ie s and A n e c d o ta l R e c o r d s ,, 174
B,
E d u c a tio n 301 and 302.....................................
185
C,
F o u r-Y ear C urriculum f o r th e S ta te T each ers
C o lleg e a t S a lis b u ry L eading to th e B .s . De­
g re e in E d u c a tio n ,, , , , ............................
190
Examples of Guide S h eets f o r S tu d e n t T each ers
in th e L ab o rato ry S c h o o l s , , , , ,
193
D,
E,
A Handbook f o r P ro s p e c tiv e T e a c h e r s ,....................... 202
v
LIST OP TABLES
T ab le
Page
I.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by T w enty-Five S tu d en t
T each ers ( J u n io r G lass 1938-1939) in O b serv atio n
and Study D uring D ir e c te d T eaching I as In d ic a te d
by Those S tu d e n ts and by T h e ir T ra in in g T eachers
•• • • ........ 52
and S u p e r v is o r s ..........................................
II.
III.
IV.
V.
V I.
V II .
V III.
IX.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by T h irty -T h re e S tu ­
d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C la ss 1939-1940) in O bser­
v a tio n and Study D uring D ire c te d T eaching I as I n ­
d ic a te d by Those S tu d e n ts and by T h e ir T ra in in g
T eachers and S u p e r v i s o r s . . . . . .....................................
58
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by Tweikty-FIve T ea­
ch ers (J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) in C lassroom
Management and P u p il C o n tro l D uring D ire c te d
T eaching I . . . . ......................................
60
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by T h irty -T h re e S tu ­
d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C la ss 1939-1940) in C la s s ­
room Management and P u p il C o n tro l d u rin g D ire c te d
T eaching I ............................
64
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by T w enty-Five S tu ­
d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C la ss 1938-1939) in th e Im­
provement of P e rs o n a l Q u a li tie s d u rin g D ire c te d
T eaching I ........... • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . ................
66
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by T h irty -T h re e S tu ­
d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) i n th e Im­
provement of P e rs o n a l Q u a litie s d u rin g D ire c te d
T eaching I
...........
70
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n c o u n te re d by Tw enty-Five S tu ­
d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) in P lan n in g
and T eaching d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I ...................
73
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n te re d by T h irty -T h re e S tu ­
d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C la ss 1939-1940) in P lan n in g
and T eaching d u rin g D ir e c te d T each in g I . . . . . ..........
77
A Summary of th e D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by TwentyF ive S tu d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) d u r­
in g D ire c te d T eaching I . ..........................................• • • • • • • 79
vi
LIST OP TABLES (C ontinued)
T able
X,
X I.
X II.
X III.
Page
A Summary of th e D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by
T h irty -T h re e S tu d e n t T eachers ( J u n io r C la s s
1939-1940) D uring D ire c te d T eaching I
.
.
81
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T w enty-Five S tu ­
d e n t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) i n S u b je c t
M a tte r d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I ................................
87
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered b y T h ir ty S tu d e n ts
T e a c h e rs ( J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) in S u b je c t Mat­
t e r d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I . . . . . ...........................
90
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T w enty-PIve S tu ­
d e n t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) in O bser­
v a tio n and S tudy D uring D ire c te d T each in g I I . . . . ,
92
XIV.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T h ir ty S tu d e n t
T ea ch ers ( J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) in O b se rv a tio n
and Study d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I . . . . ....................... 94
XV.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered by T w enty-F ive S tu ­
d e n t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) i n P r o f e s ­
s i o n a l I n t e r e s t s and R e la tio n s h ip s d u rin g D i­
r e c te d T eaching I I .
............................................96
XVI.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered by T h ir ty S tu d e n t
T ea ch ers ( J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) in P r o f e s s io n a l
I n t e r e s t s and R e la tio n s h ip d u rin g D ire c te d T each­
in g I I .................................................................... .........................
99
XVII.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered b y T w enty-F ive S tu ­
d e n t T each ers ( J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) i n C la s s ­
room Management and P u p il C o n tro l d u rin g D ire c te d
T each in g I
I
,
.
• 100
X V III.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered by T h ir ty S tu d e n t
T ea ch ers ( J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) in C lassroom
Management and P u p il C o n tro l d u rin g D ire c td d
T each in g I I . . . . . . . . ......................... ..... ................................ 105
XIX.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered by T w enty-F ive S tu ­
d e n t T each ers (J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) I n th e Im­
provem ent of P e rs o n a l Q u a litie s d u r in g D ir e c te d
T each in g I I a s in d ic a te d by Those S tu d e n ts and by
T h e ir T ra in in g T each ers and S u p e r v is o r s ..................
106
XX.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered by T h ir ty S tu d en t
T e a c h e rs ( J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) in th e Im prove­
ment of P e rs o n a l Q u a litie s d u rin g D ire c te d T each­
in g I I ............................................................................................. 110
v ii
LIST OF TABIES (CONTINUED)
T able
XXI.
XXII.
X X III.
XXIV.
XXV.
Page
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T w enty-Five S tu ­
d e n t T eachers (J u n io r C lass 1938-1939) i n P la n ­
n in g and T eaching I I . . ......... • • • • ..........................
111
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered b y T h ir ty S tu d e n t
T each ers (J u n io r C lass 1939-1940) in P la n n in g
and T eaching D uring D ire c te d T each in g I I ...................
117
A Summary o f th e D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by
Tw enty-Five S tu d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C la s s 19381939) d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I . . . . . . . ...................
118
A Summary of th e D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by
T h ir ty S tu d en t T each ers ( J u n io r C la ss 1939-1940)
d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I . . . . ................. • • • « • • • • • • 122
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered b y T h irty -T w o T each­
e r s (S e n io r C lass 193 8 -1 9 3 9 )..............................
129
XXVI.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered b y T w enty-Five S tu ­
d e n t-T e a c h e rs (S e n io r C lass 1939-1940) in S u b je c t
M a tte r d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I I ............... • • • • • • • 131
XXVII.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T hirty-T w o S tu ­
d e n t T each ers (S e n io r C lass 1938-1939) i n P r o f e s ­
s i o n a l I n te r d s ts and R e la tio n s h ip s d u rin g D i­
r e c t e d T eaching I I I .
...................................
153
XXVIII.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered b y T w enty-Five S tu ­
d e n t T eachers (S e n io r C la ss 1939-1940) in P ro ­
f e s s i o n a l I n t e r e s t s and R e la tio n s h ip s d u rin g
D ire c te d Teachjng I I I . . . . , , . . .................................
136
XXIX.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E ncountered b y T hirty-T w o S tu ­
d e n t T each ers (S en io r C lass 1938-1939) in C la s s ­
room Management and P u p il C o n tro l d u rin g D i­
r e c te d T eaching I I I . ............................................................... 137
XXX.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T w enty-Five S tu ­
d en t T eachers (S en io r C lass 1939-1940) in C la s s ­
room Management and P u p il C o n tro l d u rin g D i­
r e c t e d T eaching I I I .
••••••••••••••
• • • • 141
XXXI.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T hirty-T w o S tu ­
d e n t T eachers (S e n io r C lass 1938-1939) i n th e Im­
provem ent of P e rso n a l Q u a litie s d u rin g D ir e c te d
T each in g I
I
I
.
.
• • • • • • • • ................... • • • • 142
v iii
LIST OF TABLES (C oncluded)
T able
XXXII.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by Tw enty-Five
S tudent T each ers (S e n io r C lass 1939-1940) in
th e Improvement of P e rs o n a l Q u a litie s d u rin g
D ire c te d T each in g I I I . .....................• • • • • • • • • • ............. 145
XXXIII.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T hirty-T w o S tu ­
d en t T eachers (S e n io r C lass 1938-1939) in P la n ­
n in g and T eaching d u rin g D ir e c te d T eaching I I I . . 147
XXXIV.
The D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by Tw enty-Five S tu ­
d en t T eachers (S e n io r C la ss 1939-1940) in P lan ­
n in g and T eaching d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I I * . 151
XXXV.
A Summary of th e D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by T h ir ty two S tu d en t T each ers (S e n io r C la s s 1938-1939)
d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I I . . • • • • • • • • • • • • .......... 152
XXXVI.
A Summary of th e D i f f i c u l t i e s E n co u n tered by
Tw enty-Five S tu d en t T each ers (S e n io r C lass 19391940) d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I I . ........................... 156
PREFATORY STATEMENT
nWe a r e j u s t as l o s t as th o s e l i t t l e c h i l d r e n a r e ;
we, t o o , a re b e g in n e r s , f i r s t g ra d e rs In our p r o f e s s io n ,"
T h is s ta te m e n t h u r le d a t me by a p ro s p e c tiv e te a c h e r
of more th a n a v e ra g e a b i l i t y i s t y p i c a l of th e rem arks r e s ­
p o n s ib le f o r th e s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s problem f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
The rem ark came d u r in g th e e a r l y weeks of th e co u rse e n t i t l e d ,
" D ire c te d T eaching I , " when a group o f ju n io r s w ere o b se rv in g
c h ild r e n in th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l and s tu d y in g , e s p e c i a l l y ,
t h e i r le a r n in g d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
"We a r e t r y i n g t o b e g in t o u n d e rsta n d th e problem s of
b e g in n in g r e a d in g .
You may n o t b e lie v e i t , b u t our le a r n in g
problem s i n our p r o f e s s io n a l w ork a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e i r s , " added
a n o th e r good s tu d e n t,
"They a r e , in d e e d , b e g in n e r s ," th o u g h t I ,
"Have we,
have I , c o n s id e re d s u f f i c i e n t l y th e n a tu r e and th e d i f f i c u l t y
of t h e i r le a r n in g problem s?
H ere we a r e g l i b l y d is c u s s in g
re a d in g r e a d in e s s f o r f i r s t g r a d e r s , b u t what have we r e a l l y
done t o b r i n g ab o u t te a c h in g r e a d in e s s f o r b e g in n e rs in th e
p r o f e s s io n a l c u rric u lu m f o r th e t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e r s f o r
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l s e r v ic e ? "
From t h a t h o u r, "How B est t o In d u c t S tu d a n ts in to
S tu d en t T eaching" became a r e a l l y v i t a l p ro b lem .
ii
The p ro b -
lem grew t o in c lu d e a stu d y o f p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s ' d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s i n th e e n t i r e program o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g .
The p u r ­
pose was t o s e l e o t from th e m u ltitu d in o u s e x p e rie n c e s p o s­
s i b l e i n th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l th e s i g n i f i c a n t o n e3 , th e ones
c o n s id e re d by le a d in g a u t h o r i t i e s a s h a v in g g r e a t e s t p o s s i ­
b i l i t i e s i n g u id in g p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s to u n d e rs ta n d t h e i r
p r o f e s s io n a l problem s and g o a ls , a c q u ire knowledge o f te c h ­
niq u e c o n s id e re d e s s e n t i a l , fo rm f i n e a t t i t u d e s to w ard p r o f e s ­
s io n a l w o rk , and e v o lv e a grow ing p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n .
F o r encouragem ent i n th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th i3 p ro b ­
lem and f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , I am in d e b te d ,
th e n , f i r s t o f a l l t o my s tu d e n ts and t o my c o -w o rk e rs , th e
D ir e c to r o f T ra in in g and th e T ra in in g T eachers i n th e S ta te
T each ers C o lle g e a t S a lis b u r y , M aryland,
For f u r th e r en­
couragem ent w ith t h e p ro p o sed s tu d y and f o r w ise g u id an ce and
m a te r ia l a i d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g and c a r r y in g th ro u g h t h e problem
I am g r a t e f u l to D r, Ambrose L, S u h rie , P r o f e s s o r of T ea ch ers
C o lleg e and Normal S ch o o l E d u c a tio n ; D r, Alonzo F , M yers, P ro ­
f e s s o r o f E d u c a tio n ; D r, D a n ie l C, K now lton, P r o f e s s o r o f
E d u c a tio n ; and D r, P a u l R a d o s a v lje v ic h , P r o f e s s o r o f E x p e r i­
m e n tal E d u c a tio n , a l l o f New York U n iv e r s ity ,
ill
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND THE PROCEDURE
The Prob lem
The m ajor o b je c tiv e o f t h i s stu d y i s t o d e te rm in e
th e c h i e f problem s of p r o f e s s io n a l a d ju stm e n t t h a t p ro s p e c ­
t i v e te a c h e r s e n r o lle d i n th e S ta te T ea ch ers C ollege a t
S a lis b u r y , M aryland, e n c o u n te r d u rin g t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
e x p e rie n c e s an d t o a n a ly z e th e s e problem s a s a b a s i s f o r mak­
in g recom m endations f o r a d j u s tin g and im p ro v in g th e program of
d i r e c t e d te a c h in g in t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n .
T h is s tu d y makes no a tte m p t t o d e te rm in e w h eth er
s i m i l a r problem s a r e e n c o u n te re d by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in o th e r
te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s , b u t c o n fin e s i t s i n q u i r i e s , a n a l y s i s , and
recom m endations e x c lu s iv e ly t o th e S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e
above m e n tio n e d .
The s tu d y , th e n : (1) c o n s id e r s th e n a tu r e
and th e number of th e d i f f i c u l t i e s which p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s
e n c o u n te r i n t h e i r program of D ire c te d T ea ch in g ; (2) a n a ly z e s
th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s ; and (3) makes s u g g e s tio n s and recommenda­
t i o n s f o r a d j u s t i n g and im proving th e p ro g ram o f d i r e c t e d
te a c h in g i n th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o ls co n n e cte d w ith th e c o l le g e .
T h is in v o lv e s a c r i t i c a l s tu d y of e a c h o f th e t h r e e le v e l s of
th e e x p e rie n c e s o f p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s d e s ig n a te d , r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y , as D ir e c te d T eaching I , D ire c te d T each in g I I . and
1
2
D ire o te d T eaching I I I , d u rin g th e s c h o o l y e a rs 1938-1939.
As th e s tu d y p r o g re s s e d , i t seemed d e s i r a b l e to In c lu d e a l s o
th e problem s e n c o u n te re d by p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s i n t h e i r
la b o r a to r y e x p e rie n c e s d u r in g th e s c h o o l y e a r 1939-1940.
The Meaning of Terms
The te rm D ire c te d T each in g a s u se d in t h i s document
r e f e r s to th e d i r e c t i o n and th e s u p e r v is io n o f a program
t e n t a t i v e l y s e t up f o r th e g u id an ce o f p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e rs
th ro u g h a l l o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e rie n c e s d i r e c t l y co n ­
n e c te d w ith th e work of th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l.
D ire c te d T eaching I , a s th e p h ra s e i s u se d i n t h i 3
s tu d y , r e f e r s t o th e program o u tlin e d f o r th e members o f th e
j u n i o r c l a s s d u rin g i t s f i r s t s e m e s te r .
T h is program i n ­
c lu d e s : (1) th r e e t o f i v e days d u rin g th e f i r s t week of th e
se m e s te r of d i r e c t e d o b s e rv a tio n s and d is c u s s io n s ; (2) a l ­
t e r n a t i n g o b s e rv a tio n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p e rie n c e s i n th e
campus la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l f o r t h r e e h o u rs a week d u r in g th e
rem a in in g s e v e n te e n weeks o f th e f i r s t s e m e s te r.
D uring
th e s e weeks more tim e i s d e v o te d t o o b s e rv a tio n th a n to
p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p e rie n c e s •
D ire c te d T eaching I I r e f e r s t o th e program o u tlin e d
f o r th e members o f th e ju n io r c l a s s d u rin g i t s second
s e m e s te r.
T h is program c a l l s f o r n in e weeks o f a l l day a l ­
t e r n a t i n g e x p e rie n c e s in o b s e r v a tio n o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in th e
campus la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l wi-th more tim e d e v o te d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n
3
th a n t o o b s e rv a tio n .
D ire c te d T ea ch in g I I I r e f e r s t o th e program o u tlin e d
f o r th e members o f th e s e n io r c l a s s d u rin g th e f i r s t semes­
te r.
I t c a l l s f o r n in e weeks o f a l l - d a y r e s p o n s ib le te a c h ­
in g e x p e rie n c e s i n th e o ff-cam p u s la b o r a to r y - s c h o o ls .
Lab ora t o ry -s c h o o l i s u sed h e re t o mean an elem e n tary
sc h o o l e i t h e r on o r o f f th e campus ( o f a te a c h e rs c o lle g e )
u sed f o r an y a c t i v i t y c o n n e c te d w ith o b s e r v a tio n , p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n , or r e s p o n s ib le s tu d e n t te a c h in g a s a p a r t of th e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n o f p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s .
P ro s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a re s tu d e n ts
e n r o lle d in th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r y e a rs o f th e f o u r - y e a r
c o lle g e c u rric u lu m who a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g in D ire c te d T eaching I ,
D ire c te d T eaching I I , o r D ir e c te d T each in g I I I .
L a b o ra to ry - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s a r e any o f th e a c ­
t i v i t i e s a p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r may p erfo rm in c o n n e c tio n w ith
th e te a c h in g and management of c h i l d r e n in th e la b o r a to r y sc h o o l in or out o f th e c la s sro o m .
A t r a i n i n g te a c h e r i s a r e g u l a r l y employed elem en tary
sc h o o l te a c h e r i n c h a rg e o f a g roup o f c h ild r e n in a c l a s s ­
room in e i t h e r th e campus o r th e off-cam pus la b o r a to r y sc h o o l t o whose c la ssro o m s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a re a s s ig n e d f o r
d ir e c te d te a c h in g e x p e r ie n c e s .
4
Need f o r t h e S tudy
1*
T h ere i s a need o f le s s e n in g th e c h i e f d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s o f s tu d e n t te a c h e r s d u rin g t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x ­
p e rie n c e s i n th e S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u r y , M aryland,
T h is i s a p ro b lem r e q u i r i n g a w orkable answ er i n t h a t c o l l e g e .
E vidence o f t h i s i s th e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on th e p a r t o f b o th
th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s .
T h is d i s ­
s a t i s f a c t i o n , w hich th e y have n o t h e s i t a t e d t o e x p re s s t o th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r , h a s b een g r e a t e r d u rin g th e p a s t f o u r y e a rs s in c e
th e " i n t e g r a t e d program "* was la u n c h e d .
I t seems t o th e i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r and h e r c o -w o rk e rs t h a t th e r e i s to o much c o n fu ­
s io n and la c k of a d ju stm e n t among s tu d e n t te a c h e r s an d t r a i n ­
in g te a c h e r s and t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a l need t o s tu d y th e p r o ­
gram o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g from th e p o in t o f view o f th e
l e a r n e r , and t o i n t e r p r e t p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e ,
2,
T h ere i s a n eed f o r a s tu d y of th e problem s o f
b e g in n in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n a s p e c if ic s i t u a t i o n f o r th e
p u rp o se o f recommending more d e s ir a b le i n i t i a l e x p e rie n c e s
f o r them .
T h at b e t t e r in d u c tio n e x p e rie n c e s f o r p r o s p e c tiv e
te a c h e r s sh o u ld be p ro v id e d i s e v id e n t in th e la r g e body of
c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e e x t a n t co n c ern in g th e i n t e g r a t i o n o f th e o ry
and p r a c t i c e i n th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o ls , and i n th e a tte m p t
*• T h is p h r a s e i s h e re u s e d t o mean th e a tte m p te d f u s i o n o f
th e c o u rs e s I n tr o d u c tio n t o T eaching and T echnique
o f T e a c h in g , w ith t h e s u p e r v is io n o f s tu d e n t te a c h ­
in g i n c o n n e c tio n w ith D ire c te d T each in g I and D i­
r e c t e d T eaching I I ,
5
b e in g made t o te a c h ’'m ethods" a s a p a r t o f th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s o f s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s ,
"What a re th e im p lic a tio n s f o r o r g a n iz a tio n w ith in
th e c o lle g e o f a movement now e v id e n t f o r b e t t e r in d u c tio n
e x p e rie n c e s f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e rs ? " i s one o f th e q u e s tio n s
l i s t e d by H e ls e th .^
Mooney^ recommends t h a t s u p e r v is o r s sh o u ld a d ju s t
t h e i r in d u c tio n program s to meet th e n eed s of th e in d iv i d u a ls .
A su rv e y o f th e l i t e r a t u r e o f th e f i e l d r e v e a ls t h a t sc h o o ls
o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n have n o t k e p t p ace w ith e le m e n ta ry sc h o o ls
i n ta k in g i n t o a c c o u n t th e in d iv i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f s tu d e n ts
i n p la n n in g and a d j u s tin g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a .
3.
T here i s a need of a p p ly in g th e p r i n c i p l e o f
" te a c h in g r e a d in e s s " to th e p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r ’ s la b o r a to r y sc h o o l e x p e r ie n c e s •
S c h o rlin g a s k s , " I s th e r e n o t a ’r e a d in e s s * t o e x ­
p e r ie n c e v a rio u s a s p e c ts o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g w hich common
se n se sh o u ld c a u se us t o ta k e i n t o acco u n t when making a s ­
sig n m en ts t o i n d iv i d u a l te a c h e rs ? " ^
1.
2.
3.
011a Inga H e ls e th , S u p e rv iso ry P r a c t i c e s In v o lv ed I n th e
I n tr o d u c tio n o f th e S tu d e n t i n t o R e sp o n sib le Group
D ir e c t io n , S u p e rv is o rs o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g ,
E ig h te e n th Annual S e s s io n . 1938, p . 3 1 .
Edward Sa Moonev. J 'r . .~An A n a ly s is o f th e S u p e rv is io n
o f S tu d e n t T ea ch in g . A s tu d y b a s e d on th e tfew York
Uniate te a c h e r Edueafe io n l o s t I t u t io n s f o r th e P re ­
p a ra tio n o f T e a c h e rs, p . 149.
R a le ig h S c h o r lin g , D ire c te d T e a c h in g . The N a tio n a l So­
c i e t y o f C ollege T each ers o f E d u c a tio n , TwentyT h ird Y earbook. 1935, p . 157.
6
An a p p l ic a tio n o f t h a t p r i n c i p l e r e q u i r e s a s tu d y of
th e problem s of p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s a t e a c h l e v e l of s tu d e n t
te a c h in g j u s t as an a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p l e of " re a d in g
r e a d in e s s " h as r e q u ir e d s p e c i f i c s tu d y o f re a d in g p ro b lem s.
Washburn^ c o n tr ib u te s t o t h i s th o u g h t when he s t a t e s t h a t
th e r e i s much i n common betw een an a d u l t ’ s b e g in n in g a course
o f e d u c a tio n and a c h i l d ’ s b e g in n in g a s tu d y .
4.
T here i s a need o f g iv in g more a t t e n t i o n t o th e
human m a te r ia ls in a t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l a .
T h is th o u g h t
i s r e f l e c t e d in a r a p i d l y grow ing body o f l i t e r a t u r e d e a lin g
w ith problem s of te a c h e r t r a i n i n g .
F lo w ers^ has d ev elo p ed
th e id e a t h a t s o c i a l a d ju stm e n t i s one o f th e m ajor problem s
en c o u n te re d in s tu d e n t te a c h in g , f o r th e s tu d e n t must n e c e s­
s a r i l y make a d ju stm e n ts " to b o y s and g i r l s and t h e i r p a r e n t s ,
t o th e sc h o o l o r g a n iz a tio n , to th e com m unity, and t o h i s p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l a d v i s e r s ." 3
T hat s u p e r v is o r s h av e in th e p a s t been
to o concerned w ith te c h n iq u e s and n o t enough w ith th e p erso n s
in v o lv e d i s th e o p in io n o f De Y oung.^
s im ila r p o in t of v iew :
W ilson e x p re s se s a
"These p r o f e s s io n a l s t a f f w o rk e rs
must h e lp th e p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r e x p e rie n c e o r i e n t a t i o n ,
1.
2.
3.
4.
John N, W ashburn, D eveloping a C u rricu lu m f o r T eacher
E d u c a tio n . P ro g re s s iv e E d u c a tio n . XIV (May, 1937).
John G. F lo w ers, S o c ia l A d ju stm en ts and Guidance from
th e S ta n d p o in t o f th e T e a c h e r. Problem s i n T eacher
T r a in in g . X II (1 9 3 7 ), p . 10.
Ib id . . p . 9 .
ffris A. De Young, T rends and P o s s i b i l i t i e s in S u p e rv is io n .
E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e r v is io n . XXIV,
(TpriT;T 958 r,~pT“ff/s;.---------------- ------------
7
a d a p ta tio n , h a b i t u a t i a n .n^
Adams s t a t e s :
T here i s a n in c r e a s in g em phasis b e in g p la c e d
upon th e o r i e n t a t i o n o f th e b e g in n in g te a c h e r
i n th e l i g h t o f b a s ic e d u c a tio n a l p r i n c i p l e s
and I s S3 upon th e p e r f e c t io n of s p e c if ic
methods and te c h n ic s . T his change i s one of
th e m ost fu n d a m e n ta l t h a t has ta k en p la c e in
te a c h e r- tr a in in g .2
One w orkable way of g iv in g a t t e n t i o n to th e in d iv id u a l p r o s ­
p e c tiv e t e a c h e r ’ s c u r r e n t need i s t o a n a ly z e h is problem s and
t o g iv e s u g g e s tio n s f o r a d j u s t i n g and im proving h is program
of d ir e c te d t e a c h i n g in th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o ls .
L im ita tio n s o f th e Study
1.
T h is s tu d y is lim ite d t o one t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
i n s t i t u t i o n , th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u r y , Mary­
la n d .
I t i s f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d t o a s tu d y o f th e problem s
l i s t e d by members o f th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r c l a s s e s d u r ­
in g th e s c h o o l y e a r s 1938-1939, and 1939-1940, in connec­
ti o n w ith t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s in t h a t c o l le g e ,
and by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s w orking w ith
them .
In th e o u t l i n e , th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o
1.
2.
O tis G. W ilso n , B rid g in g th e Gap betw een Theory and P r a c ­
t i c e i n T e a c h in g . Educa t i o n a l A d m in is tra tio n and
S u p e r v is io n , XXIV ( A p r il, 1 9 3 8 ), p . 316.
F rank Adams, E d u c a tio n a l P r in c ip le s i n P r a c tic e T e a c h in g .
E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e r v is io n . XXIV
(J a n u a ry , 193&), p . 6 l .
8
a s tu d y o f th e problem s o f th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r c l a s s e s
of th e s c h o o l y e a r 1938-1939*
As th e s tu d y p r o g re s s e d , i t
was c o n s id e re d d e s ir a b le t o in c lu d e , a l s o , a s su p p le m e n ta l ma­
t e r i a l , th e problem s of th e ju n io r an d th e s e n io r c l a s s e s o f
th e s c h o o l y e a r 1939-1940*
I t i s n o t p o s s ib le w ith in th e scope of th e p r e s e n t
stu d y t o c o n s id e r th e whole problem o f te a c h e r e d u c a tio n w ith
a l l o f i t s r a m if ic a tio n s *
The in v e s t i g a t o r i s co n c ern ed p r i ­
m a r ily w ith th e k in d s of problem s f r e q u e n tly o c c u rrin g in
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s ’ la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s*
She hopes
t o p o in t out th e a d ju stm e n t seem in g ly needed in th e program
of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g *
2*
The la c k o f q u a n t i t a t i v e s ta te m e n ts may be co n ­
s id e r e d a l i m i t a t i o n .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r c la im s , how ever, t h a t
t h i s i s a q u a l i t a t i v e and n o t a q u a n t i t a t i v e study*
in te n d e d t o be i n t e r p r e t a t i v e and n o t s t a t i s t i c a l *
I t is
I t is
more co n cern ed w ith t h e ty p e o f resp o n se th a n w ith th e number
of re sp o n se s*
C oncerning t h i s ty p e o f l i m i t a t i o n , th e f o l ­
low ing q u o ta tio n from B a rr , w hich seems s i g n i f i c a n t , i s
c ite d :
Too many i n v e s t i g a t o r s assum e, how ever, t h a t
th e f i n a l i t y o f c o n c lu sio n s i s d i r e c t l y p r o ­
p o r tio n a te t o th e number o f c a s e s s tu d i e d .
T h is assu m p tio n i s n o t n e c e s s a r ily t r u e * . . .
G reat d is c o v e r ie s i n p h y s ic a l s c ie n c e , f o r
exam ple, have b een made w ith a few c a s e s * ••*
9
The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t many c a s e s a r e d e s i r a b l e
comes a b o u t i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h
o v e r - e m p h a s i s upon s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d . 1
Wightman q u o t e s a s f o l l o w s f r o m L u n d b e r g :
"In so c ia l r e ­
s e a r c h a l l methods w hich give prom ise t o y i e l d so m eth in g in
know ledge, i . e . ach iev e a degree of a d j u s t m e n t , a re v a l i d
2
and d e s i r a b l e t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e y a c h i e v e t h i s e n d . "
3.
I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assum e t h a t s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s
d i d n o t r e p o r t many o f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s .
The i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r made e v e r y e f f o r t t o d e s e r v e t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f
e a c h s t u d e n t t e a c h e r and t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r .
m e n t a l h o n e s t y and f a i t h f u l n e s s
help t o the
She e n c o u r a g e d
in r e p o r t i n g problem s f o r
in d iv id u a ls r e p o r tin g and f o r a i d t o f u t u r e
c l a s s e s , who m i g h t p r o f i t f r o m t h e p r o g r a m o f l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s t o be r e v i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o n e e d s .
Prom
t h e num ber a n d q u a l i t y o f d i a r i e s and a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d s t h a t
were s u b m i t t e d sh e h a s e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t a s i g ­
n i f i c a n t n u m b er o f o u t s t a n d i n g p r o b l e m s w e re r e c o g n i z e d by
th e stu d en t te a c h e rs them selves, or by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs
and s u p e r v i s o r s .
4.
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s n e c e s s a r i l y
had to be s u b je c tiv e .
I n many c a s e s one may q u e s t i o n why an
i t e m was p l a c e d i n a g i v e n m a j o r c a t e g o r y .
1.
2.
The i n v e s t i g a t o r
A . S . B a r r , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c D i f f e r e n c e s o f Good a n d P o o r
T e a c h e r s , p . 5TI
G. A. L u n d b e r g , S o c i a l R e s e a r c h , p . 3 2 1 , a s q u o t e d by
C l a i r S . Y/ightman, The I ' e a c h e r 1s D i a r y a s a n I n s t r u ­
ment o f Follow -U p Work, p . 3 1 .
10
a tte m p te d , In s o fa r as p o s s i b l e , to t a b u l a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s a c ­
c o rd in g t o th e s tu d e n t’ s oto p h r a s in g o f th e p ro b lem s t a t e d .
Same o f th e problem s were s o p o o rly p h ra s e d t h a t th e y co u ld
n o t have been p la c e d in th e c a te g o r ie s in w h ic h , no d o u b t,
th e y b e lo n g e d , had th e i n v e s t i g a t o r n o t known th e s tu d e n ts
and th e s i t u a t i o n q u ite i n t i m a t e l y .
T hat th e s tu d e n t te a c h e rs
w ere n o t g iv en a p o s s ib le l i s t o f ite m s w ith w hich th e y m ight
have d i f f i c u l t i e s may a c c o u n t, in p a r t , f o r th e v a r i e t y of i n ­
fo rm a l s ta te m e n ts su b m itted b£ w hat th e y c o n s id e re d problem s.
Many o f them might be c o n s id e re d a s o b je c tio n s and n o t d i f f i ­
c u ltie s .
However, a l l a p p a re n t d i f f i c u l t i e s from th e s t u ­
d e n t s ’ d i a r i e s a r e in c lu d e d in th e t a b u l a t i o n s s in c e th e y seem
t o be a d e f i n i t e p a r t of th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r ’ s a d ju stm e n t p ro b ­
lem s.
A lthough knowing th a t th e pro b lem o f c l a s s i f y i n g d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s would be p e rp le x in g and m ight r e s u l t i n a d e p a rtu re
from th e u s u a l t a b l e s , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r p u rp o s e ly chose such
a method f o r th e purpose o f a tte m p tin g t o le a r n s t u d e n t s ’
r e a l p ro b lem s.
5.
I t was not p o s s ib le to make a n e x a c t com parison
o f th e problem s re p o rte d by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith th o s e
r e p o r te d by th e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s .
S tu d e n t te a c h e r s u s u a lly
r e p o r te d ea ch d ay th e y had an y c o n ta c t w ith th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l, w h ile th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s handed in a n e c d o ta l
r e c o r d s whenever th e y had a n y th in g s i g n i f i c a n t t o r e p o r t ,
n e i t h e r i s i t p o s s ib le t o com pare e x a c t l y th e problem s e n ­
c o u n te re d by th e ddLass o f 1938-1939 w ith th o s e en c o u n te re d
by th e c l a s s of 1939-1940 in - a s p e c i f i c l e v e l of d ir e c te d
11
te a c h in g .
The numbers i n th e c l a s s e s f o r th e two y e a rs a re
u n e q u a l; th e number of t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s in some c a s e s v a r ie s
w ith a p a r t i c u l a r g roup; and th e p e r s o n n e l of th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s d i f f e r s f o r th e two y e a r s .
However, in c o n s id e r in g th e problem s o f th e c la s s e s
f o r th e tw o -y e a r
p e i lo d , th e s i g n i f i c a n t ite m s seem t o be
(1) th e re c u r r e n c e o f s i m i l a r p ro b le m s, and (2) th e p e r ce n t
of th e item s o f d i f f i c u l t y c l a s s i f i e d i n a m ajo r c a te g o ry in
r e l a t i o n t o th e t o t a l fre q u e n c y in t h a t c a te g o r y .
6.
The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s n o t a s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n may be c a l l e d a l i m i t a t i o n .
T here has b een no a tte m p t t o
u se s t r i c t l y s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e s .
The s i t u a t i o n and th e
a v a ila b le methods o f s tu d y in g i t d id n o t le n d th em selv es t o
s c i e n t i f i c and s t a t i s t i c a l tr e a tm e n t.
R a th e r i s t h i s a stu d y
of th e n o rm a tiv e -su rv e y ty p e , u s in g docum entary ev id en ce and
a p p r a i s a l p ro c e d u re s .
The e f f o r t i s t o b r in g some o rd e r out
of c o n fu sio n w hich se em in g ly was a r e s u l t o f having an " i n t e ­
g r a te d program ” su p erim po sed on th e program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h ­
in g .
P roced u res and T h e ir V a l i d i t y
D ia r ie s and a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s w ere c o n s id e re d t o b e
th e b e s t means of s e c u r in g d a ta h e l p f u l in c a r r y in g on th e
s tu d y .
in c lu d e d
P ro g n o sis and a p t i t u d e t e s t s were t o be g iv e n and
o n ly i f th e y seem ed t o c o n t r ib u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y
t o a s o lu tio n o f th e p ro b le m .
The t e s t s a re n o t h e re in c lu d e d
12
s in c e th e r e s u l t s seem t o c o n tr ib u te n o th in g of im p o rta n c e .
A ccording t o t h e p la n a s s t a t e d in th e o u tlin e approved
by th e sp o n so rs
o f t h i s s tu d y , o nly th e d i a r i e s w r i tte n b y
p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s e n r o lle d i n th e ju n i o r and th e s e n i o r
c la s s e s a t th e S ta te T each ers C o lle g e in S a lis b u r y , M aryland,
d u rin g th e sc h o o l y e a r 1938-1939 and a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s w r i t ­
te n b y t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs were t o be
u se d .
The stu d y grew t o in c lu d e , as su p p lem en tal m a t e r i a l ,
th e d i a r i e s w r i t t e n b y th e members o f th e ju n io r and th e
s e n io r c l a s s e s of th e sc h o o l y e a r 1939-1940.
The s p e c i f i c so u rce s of d a ta in c lu d e d , th e n , in t h i s
stu d y f o r an e v a lu a t io n o f th e d i f f e r e n t le v e ls o f d i r e c t e d
te a c h in g a r e :
1.
F or D ir e c te d T each in g I :
a.
D ia r ie s w r i t t e n by th e tw e n ty -fiv e members o f
th e j u n i o r c l a s s o f 1938-1939.
b.
A n ec d o tal r e c o r d s w r i t t e n by th e f o u r t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s i n th e campus la b o r a to r y sc h o o l and th e
two s u p e r v is o r s w orking w ith t h a t g ro u p .
c.
D ia r ie s w r i t t e n b y th e t h i r t y - t h r e e members of
th e j u n i o r c l a s s o f 1939-1940.
d.
A n ecd o tal re c o rd s w r i tte n b y th e f o u r t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s i n th e campus la b o r a to r y sc h o o l and th e
two s u p e r v is o r s w o rk in g w ith t h a t g ro u p .
2.
F o r D ire c te d T each in g I I :
a.
D ia r ie s w r i t t e n by th e tw e n ty -fiv e members o f th e
j u n i o r c l a s s o f 1938-1939.
13
b.
A n ec d o tal r e c o r d s w r i tte n by th e f o u r t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s i n th e campus la b o r a to r y s c h o o l and th e
two s u p e r v is o r s w orking w ith th a t group*
c.
D ia r ie s w r i t t e n by th e t h i r t y members o f
th e ju n i o r
c l a s s o f 1939-1940*
d.
A n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s w r i t t e n b y n in e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
i n th e on-cam pus and off-cam pus la b o r a to r y s c h o o ls
and th e two s u p e r v is o r s w orking w ith t h a t group*
3*
F o r D ir e c te d T eaching I I I :
a*
D ia r ie s w r i t t e n b y th ir ty - tw o members o f th e
s e n io r c l a s s of 1938?*1939.
b.
A n ec d o tal r e c o r d s w r i t t e n by n in e t r a i n i n g
c h e rs and two s u p e r v is o r s w orking w ith t h a t
c.
te a ­
group*
D ia r ie s w r i t t e n by tw e n ty -f iv e members o f th e
s e n io r c l a s s of 1939-1940.
d.
A n ec d o tal r e c o r d s w r i t t e n by seven t r a i n i n g
te a ­
c h e rs and two s u p e r v is o r s working w ith t h a t g ro u p .
The p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s were giv en o n ly g e n e ra l d i ­
r e c t io n s f o r w r i t i n g th e d i a r i e s .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r w ished
t o o b ta in s ta te m e n ts o f th e r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s th a t s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s a c t u a l l y e n c o u n te re d and n o t th o se j u s t l i k e l y t o
be c o n s id e re d d i f f i c u l t i e s by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r­
v is o rs .
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ere ask ed t o s t a t e f r a n k ly in
as b r i e f a form as p o s s ib le th e q u e s tio n s and problem s con­
c e rn in g o b s e rv a tio n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in w hich th e y needed
s p e c ia l h e l p , an d t o subm it “th o s e d i a r i e s t o th e i n v e s t i g a t o r
14
each d a y th e y had any c o n ta c t w ith th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l.
They w ere t o l d th e re a s o n s f o r w r i tin g th e d i a r i e s : (1) t o
make s u re t h a t e a c h s tu d e n t sh o u ld r e c e iv e th e a s s i s t a n c e he
r e a l l y needed w ith h is
la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l work; (2) t o h e lp
th e c o l le g e a u t h o r i t i e s s u g g e s t Improvements in th e program
of d i r e c t e d te a c h i n g , and th u s t o e f f e c t b e t t e r g u id an ce s e r ­
v ic e in th e la b o ra to ry - s c h o o ls .
The c o n te n ts of a l l th e d i a r i e s and a n e c d o ta l re c o rd s
were a n a ly z e d f o r th e problem s th e y c o n ta in e d .
D uring th e
p r o g re s s of th e s tu d y th o s e problem s w ere u se d by th e in v e s ­
t i g a t o r a s a means o f im proving s u p e r v is io n .
S ta te m e n ts
from t h e d ia rie s and a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s se rv e d a s a b a s is f o r
in d iv id u a l an d f o r g roup c o n fe re n c e s .
A f te r a l l th e d i a r i e s and a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s had b een
s u b m itte d , t h e y were r e - a n a ly z e d and c l a s s i f i e d i n th e c a t e ­
g o r ie s * r e v e a le d by th e m .
The problem s of ea ch c l a s s i n e a c h
s ta g e o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g w ere g rouped s e p a r a te ly and ta b u ­
la te d .
The f i n a l s t e p was i n t e r p r e t i n g p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e and
s e t t i n g up recom m endations f o r ea ch s ta g e of th e program of
d i r e c t e d te a c h i n g .
S u g g e stio n s f o r improvement have b ee n made on th e
b a s is o f (1) th e d a ta p r e s e n te d , (2) a knowledge o f e d u c a tio n a l
tr e n d s a s r e v e a le d i n te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n l i t e r a t u r e .
The i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r h a s g iv e n c o n s id e r a ti o n t o th e p r e s e n t a d m in is tr a ­
t i v e s e t- u p a t th e c o lle g e b ein g s tu d ie d i n o rd e r t o o f f e r
*
No p re d e te rm in e d c a te g o r ie s co u ld have b een u s e d in a
s tu d y o f t h i s ty p e . '
15
p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s tio n s .
The m ethods, t h e n , u sed i n t h i s document a re p r im a r ily
a n a l y t i c a l ; th e n a tu re o f th e s tu d y d id n o t le n d i t s e l f t o
e x te n s iv e r e s e a r c h m eth od s.
A ccording t o Good*1, th e msthods
h e re u se d may be c la s s e d as b e i n g , in p a r t , docum entary f r e ­
quency, and a p p r a i s a l p ro c e d u re s of th e n o rm a tiv e -s u rv e y
ty p e of r e s e a r c h , an d , in p a r t , th e c a s e - s tu d y te c h n iq u e *
They may be in c lu d e d as b e lo n g in g t o th e n o rm a tiv e -s u rv e y
ty p e of r e s e a r c h s in c e such a te c h n iq u e i s d i r e c t e d to w ard
a s c e r ta in in g p r e v a i l i n g c o n d itio n s in an e f f o r t t o detexm ine
th e r e a l f a c t s w ith r e g a r d t o e x i s t i n g c o n d i tio n s .
The t e c h ­
n iq u e s a r e c o n s id e re d p r a c t i c a l s in c e th e y grow out of a c t u a l
s i t u a t i o n s and fo c u s a t t e n t i o n on n eeds t h a t m ight o th e rw ise
rem ain u n o b se rv e d .
d i f f e r e n t ty p e s
The c a s e - s tu d y te c h n iq u e em ploys " ...m a n y
o f p ro c e d u re s and in s tr u m e n ts , su c h as t e s t s ,
r a t i n g s c a l e s , c h e c k - l i s t s , in te r v ie w s , q u e s tio n n a i r e s , e t c ,
(a s d is c u s s e d in C h a p ters V II and
In fo rm al ty p e s
V III).
"2
of p ro c e d u re c l a s s e d a s c a s e - s tu d y
te c h n iq u e s a re n o t w ith o u t p r e c e d e n t.
p a r a g r a p h s , a ty p e o f d i a r y , b y
The u se of w r i t t e n
S p ra g u e ®
and th e u se o f th e
case method b y S p e rle ^ may b e c i t e d as ex a m p le s.
1.
2.
3.
4.
C a r te r V. Good, A. S . B a r r , and D ouglas E . S c a t e s , The
M ethodology o f E d u c a tio n a l R e s e a rc h , p p . 2 8 7 -2 9 1 .
I b i d . . p . 575.
3 T I . S p rag u e, Case Problem s o f S tu d e n t-T e a c h e rs . Edu­
c a t i o n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e r v is io n . XIV (May,
p . "314.
D, H e n ry e tta S p e r le , The Case Method i n S u p e r v is io n .
F i f t e e n t h Annual S e s s io n . S u p e rv is o rs o f S tu d e n t
te a c h in g , p p . 'S 4 -4 2 .,"
16
A lthough t h e d i a r y as a v a l i d m ethod of r e s e a r c h i s
c o m p a ra tiv e ly new, i t h a s b een fo u n d in a com prehensive s tu d y
by Wightman* t o be a v a lu a b le in s tru m e n t in c o l l e c t i n g u s ­
a b le d a ta *
I t was s e l e c t e d f o r u s e in t h i s s tu d y f o r th e se
re aso n s:
1.
I t was th e means m ost l i k e l y t o i n v i t e stu d e n t con­
fid e n c e and fra n k n e s s in s t a t i n g problem s*
2.
I t seemed h e l p f u l t o each in d iv i d u a l in th a t he must
attem p t t o e v a lu a te h is work and t o lo c a te and s t a t e
any h in d ra n c e s to h i s p ro g re ss*
3.
I t would p ro v id e a cu m u lativ e r e c o r d f o r the s u p e r ­
v is o r and h e lp h e r t o cffer ’’f i r s t a i d ” t o p ro sp ec­
t i v e te a c h e r s .
4.
I t seemed a method m ost n e a r l y s u i t e d t o th e in v e s ­
t i g a t i o n o f a p ro b lem so human and so seem in g ly i n ­
ta n g ib le a s to i t s s o l u t i o n .
The a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d was s e l e c t e d f o r th e re a s o n t h a t i t
seems t o p a r a l l e l th e d i a r y i n i t s u s e f u l n e s s , in i t s i n t i ­
m acy, and in i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y .
Jo n es,® in r e p o r tin g s u p e r­
v is o r y a c t i v i t i e s a t th e T e r re H a u te , I n d ia n a , S ta te T eachers
C o lle g e , b e lie v e s t h a t r e p o r t s o f th e p ro g re s s o f stu d e n t
te a c h e r s in th e form of a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s a id in i n t e r p r e t ­
in g and d ia g n o sin g p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s an d form b a s e s f o r
1*
2*
WIghtman, 0 £ . p i t . . p p . 116-117.
J . W. J o n e s, The A p p lic a tio n s o f P r in c ip le s o f I n te g r a ­
t i o n Follow ed by th e S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e a t
T e rre H au te , I n d ia n a , S e v e n te e n th Annual S e s s io n .
S u p e rv iso rs o f S tu d e n t T ea ch in g , pp* V4-7&.
17
f u r t h e r g u id a n c e .
B oth t h e d i a r y an d th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d ,
th e n , seem e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e and u s a b le f o r t h i s s tu d y .
The p e rso n m aking t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n h as b ee n co n ­
n e c te d w ith th e c o lle g e b e in g s tu d ie d s in c e i t was f i r s t
opened a s a tw o -y e a r noxmal s c h o o l i n September o f 1925,
She
has w atched i t s ch an g es i n p h y s ic a l p l a n t , in s tu d e n t e n r o l l ­
m ent, in th e te a c h in g s t a f f , an d in c u r r i c u l a ; 3he has been
a c tiv e in h e lp in g s o lv e
i t s p ro b le m s.
The c o m p arativ e ly
sm a ll j u n i o r and s e n io r c l a s s e s , an d th e tim e d ev o ted t o
s u p e rv is io n p erm it h e r to keep i n c lo s e c o n ta c t w ith th e s t u ­
d ent te a c h e r s and t h e i r work i n th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o ls .
I t would seem , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t h e r e v a lu a tio n of th e
problem s p r e s e n te d in t h i s s tu d y s h o u ld be r e l i a b l e .
R e la te d S tudio
3
There a r e many s tu d ie s r e l a t e d t o th e problem and
many recom m endations f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y t o d eterm in e th e con­
t e n t and th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r e - s e r v i c e e d u c a tio n f o r
te a c h e r s .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r , h o w ev er, h a s b een u n ab le t o l o ­
c a te any p u b lis h e d s tu d y t h a t d e f i n i t e l y a tte m p ts to c o n t r i ­
b u te t o a s o l u t i o n o f th e pro b lem o f im proving a program of
d ir e c te d te a c h in g th r o u g h a n a n a l y s i s of th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
as r e p o r te d by p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s i n t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
e x p e rie n c e s to g e th e r w ith r e p o r t s made by th e t r a i n i n g t e a ­
c h e rs and s u p e r v is o r s on th e problem s w hich th e y observed as
b ein g e s p e c i a lly d i f f i c u l t f o r s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s .
Only th e
18
more s i g n i f i c a n t s tu d i e s h a v in g a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o t h i s
problem a r e h ere in c lu d e d .
A u s tin 1 made a s tu d y of th e problem s o f t h i r t y - f i v e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in th e A p p alach ian S ta te T each ers C o lle g e ,
Boone, N orth C a r o lin a , d u rin g th e w in te r q u a r te r o f 1 9 36-37.
She fou n d a t o t a l o f 354 d i f f i c u l t problem s re c o g n iz e d b y
t h i r t y - f i v e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in t h e i r la b o r a to r y e x p e rie n c e s
d u rin g a p e r io d o f tw e lv e w eek s.
She c l a s s i f i e d th e problem s
as grow ing o u t o f s i x m ain a c t i v i t i e s :
(1) c la ssro o m te a c h ­
in g , 131 f r e q u e n c ie s ; (2) sc h o o l management, 101 f r e q u e n c ie s ;
(3) p u p il p la n n in g , 65 f r e q u e n c ie s ; (4) p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s ­
s io n a l d e v e lo p m e n t, 50 f r e q u e n c ie s ; (5) problem s p e c u l i a r t o
s tu d e n t te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n s , 3 f r e q u e n c ie s .
She re p o rts , an u n p u b lis h e d stu d y by LeRosen2 who
i n v e s t i g a t e d a l l th e problem s re c o g n iz e d by t en s tu d e n t t e a ­
c h e rs o v er a p e rio d o f e ig h te e n weeks in c o n n e c tio n w ith
t h e i r lab o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s in th e t r a i n i n g d ep artm en t
o f th e L o u is ia n a I n s t i t u t e T ra in in g S ch o o l.
She found s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r s ’ a c t i v i t i e s g iv in g r i s e t o p ro b lem s, and th e p e r c e n t­
age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f th e t o t a l problem s re c o g n iz e d a s f o llo w s :
1.
2.
E lla Mae A u s tin , Problem s o f S tu d en t T each ers i n Labora t o r y S ch o o l E x p e rie n c e s . A ppalachian S ta te T each ers
C o lle g e , tfn p u b iish e d M a s te r’ s T h e s is , George Peabody
C o lle g e f o r T e a c h e rs , 1937.
Sue H opkins LeRosen, Problem s R ecognized by S tu d e n t
T each ers D uring T h e ir L aE o raio ry -S 'ch o o l E x p e rie n c e s .
U n p u b lish ed M a s t e r o f A rts t h e s i s , Peabody C o lle g e ,
1935, a s q u o te d by E l l a Mae A u s tin , op. c i t . . p . 3 .
19
(1) p la n n in g , 4 0 .3 p e r c e n t ; (2) e v a lu a tin g r e ­
s u l t s , 1 7 .3 p e r c e n t ; (3) te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s ,
1 6 .2 p e r c e n t; (4) f in d in g m a t e r i a l , 7 .3 p e r
c e n t; (5) s e c u rin g c o o p e ra tio n of c h i l d r e n ,
6 .3 p e r c e n t; (6) r o u tin e and m anagem ent, 4 .7
p e r c e n t; (7) how t o s e l e c t , i n i t i a t e and d e ­
v elo p a c t i v i t i e s , 4 .2 p e r c e n t; (7) m e etin g i n ­
d iv id u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , 3 .7 p e r c e n t.
In 1938 S prague^ r e p o r te d a stu d y o f c a se problem s
o f s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n th e S ta te T eachers C o lle g e a t Upper
M o n tc la ir , New J e r s e y .
These problem s he s e c u re d in th e form
o f d e s c r i p t i v e p a r a g r a p h s , e a c h s tu d e n t s e n d in g i n ”a few
c a se -p ro b le m s e v e ry tw o o r t h r e e w eek s.1’2
The c a te g o r ie s
i n t o w hich th e c a se s f e l l and th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f them i s
a s f o llo w s :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6•
7.
Organ i z a t i o n and Management......................
376
D is c ip lin e Problem s — T eam W ork............. . . . . 1 , 2 2 1
T e a c h e r’s P e r s o n a lity a s a Source o f
P ro b lem s
• . . • • • • • • • • • • • .............• • • • • • • • 37
How to Work w ith I n d iv id u a l A djustm ent C a s e s l,0 9 4
S e le c tio n and O rg a n iz a tio n o f S u b je c tM a tte r • •
.............
51
G en eral M ethods
............• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 152
T ech n iq u es o f T eaching I n d iv id u a l S u b j e c t s . . 1.498
T o ta l.• • • .• • • • • • • .4 ,4 2 9
As a r e s u l t o f th e s tu d y , Sprague®, b y way o f summary,
o f f e r e d se em in g ly s i g n i f i c a n t s ta te m e n ts .
He b e lie v e s t h a t
th e u se o f a method o f re c o r d in g th e problem s o f s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r s h as v alu e f o r th e s e r e a s o n s : (1) i t a i d s s tu d e n ts
1.
2
.
3.
S prag u e, oj>. c i t . , p . 314.
.
J b id . , p . 324.
20
t o re c o g n iz e and to a n a ly z e t h e i r p ro b le m s , a n d , a s a r e ­
s u l t , to become more p r o f e s s io n a l; (2) i t s u p p lie s th e
f a c u l t y w ith in fo rm a tio n v a lu a b le in t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l work
(3) i t le a d s to s i g n i f i c a n t changes in th e c u r r i c u l a .
W rin k le1 made a c r i t i c a l a n a ly s is o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
o f se c o n d a ry sc h o o l s tu d e n t- te a c h e r s in th e C olorado S ta te
C o lle g e o f E d u c a tio n , G re e le y , C o lo ra d o , w ith r e s p e c t to c e r ­
t a i n a b i l i t i e s , in o r d e r t o i n t e r p r e t th e program o f f e r e d and
th e p r a c t i c e s u se d i n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n .
He fo u n d p r o v is io n
f o r th e g u id an ce o f b e g in n in g te a c h e r s t o be in a d e q u a te , e s ­
p e c i a l l y in th e developm ent of d e s ir a b le p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s
and te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s .
He s t a t e d , MThe know ledge o f e s s e n ­
t i a l a b i l i t i e s in v o lv e d i n s tu d e n t te a c h in g and th e d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s e x p e rie n c e d by b e g in n in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a s r e v e a le d
by t h i s s tu d y s h o u ld be u t i l i z e d i n th e e v a lu a t io n and r e v i s i o n
of p r e - te a c h in g p r o f e s s io n a l c o u r s e s .* ^
In 1929 C h a rte rs and W aples3 p u b lis h e d a stu d y of
s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and v a lu e t o p e rso n s i n t e r e s t e d in a t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g pro g ram .
The a c t i v i t y and t r a i t a n a l y s i s te c h n iq u e
was u se d t o d e te rm in e what a c t i v i t i e s and te c h n iq u e s te a c h e r s
sh o u ld be t a u g h t .
1.
2.
3.
A co m parison o f th e a c t i v i t i e s o f s tu d e n t-
W illia m L . W rin k le , An A n a ly s is o f th e D i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e
B eg in n in g StudenF 'T eao h ers in tfete S econdary S c h o o l,
l/n p u b lisn e d Pli.D . Document/TTew Y ork b 'n i v e r s i t y ,
1932.
Ib id . . p . 92.
v/. W. C h a rte r s and Douglas W aples, The Coamaonwea 1 th
T each er T ra in in g S tu d y . p p . 3 0 -3 4 .
21
te a c h e r s w ith th o s e o f e x p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s r e v e a ls : (1) e x ­
p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s p erfo rm more a c t i v i t i e s th a n s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r s , b u t in g e n e r a l, th o s e perfo rm ed most f r e q u e n tly by
e x p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s a r e a ls o th o s e perfoxm ed most f r e q u e n tly
by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ; (2) th e a c t i v i t i e s o f s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
te n d t o be
lim ite d t o th e c la s s ro o m , w hereas e x p e rie n c e d
te a c h e r s have numerous e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , community
c o n t a c t s , an d d u tie s r e l a t i n g to th e s c h o o l p la n t and sup­
p l i e s ; (3) many a c t i v i t i e s r e p o r te d d i f f i c u l t by e x p e rie n c e d
te a c h e r s a re r e p o r te d ea sy by s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , b u t no d u tie s
r a t e d e a s y by e x p e rie n c e d te a c h e r s a r e r a t e d d i f f i c u l t by
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ,
F itc h ^ in h is s tu d y co n c lu d es t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
a re h a v in g lim ite d e x p e rie n c e s in becoming a c q u a in te d w ith
c h ild r e n e x c e p t in th e c la s s ro o m , in c o n ta c ts w ith h e a l t h and
p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n program s f o r c h i l d r e n , in le a r n in g t o U3e
t e s t s , in h a n d lin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , i n ta k in g c h ild r e n on
e x c u r s io n s , and in s u p e rv is in g c h i ld r e n in p r e p a r a tio n o f
program s and p a r t i e s .
In o th e r w a rd s, he f in d s t h a t s tu d e n t
te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e s a r e lim ite d to o much t o c lassro o m te a c h ­
in g and t h a t th e y do n o t in tro d u c e th e s tu d e n t- te a c h e r t o
th e whole te a c h in g t a s k ,
"T eaching s h o u ld be re g a rd e d as one
o f th e f i n e s t ty p e s o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , " 2 he s t a t e s .
1.
2.
H arry N. P i t c h , An A n a ly sis o f th e S u p e rv is o ry A c t i v i t i e s
o f th e Elem enFary Scho‘o l~ T ralu in p : S u p e r v is o r , p p . 7 2 Yg
I b i d . . p , 73 .
22
To d eterm in e th e c o n t a c t s t h a t s u p e r v is o r s of s tu d e n t
te a c h in g have and sh o u ld h a v e , Mooney1 made a n a n a ly s is of th e
s u p e rv is o ry a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on w ith s tu d e n t te a c h e rs in
New York S ta te te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n i n s t i t u t i o n s p re p a rin g e l e ­
m entary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .
Among th e f in d in g s o f h i s 3tudy
a r e : (1) s tu d e n t te a c h e r s h av e n o t had s u p e rv is o ry guidance
in e x p e rie n c in g a l l th e p h ases o f a t e a c h e r 's a c t i v i t i e s ;
(2)
s u p e rv is o ry a c t i v i t i e s sh o u ld be b a se d on a u n if ie d
te a c h e r - p r e p a r a tio n program ; (3) i n s t r u c t i o n in s p e c ia l m ethods
and te c h n iq u e s sh o u ld be th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e s u p e rv i­
s o r s in th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l.
The s tu d y makes d e f i n i t e sug­
g e s tio n s f o r o rg a n iz in g and m a in ta in in g a u n i f i e d te a c h e r p r e p a r a tio n program .
p
H enderson'5 in v e s t i g a t e d th e p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s in
s t a t e te a c h e r s c o l le g e s w ith r e f e r e n c e t o th e o rg a n iz a tio n
and a d m in is tr a tio n o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n o rd e r t o e v a lu a te
them and t o o f f e r s u g g e s tio n s t h a t may be h e lp f u l t o a d m in is ­
tr a tiv e o ffic e rs .
H is s tu d y i n d i c a t e s c o n c lu s iv e ly t h a t d e ­
t a i l s co n n e cte d w ith th e o r g a n iz a tio n and a d m in is tr a tio n of
s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n our s t a t e te a c h e r s c o lle g e s need to be
r e o r g a n iz e d .
A s tu d y h av in g a d e c id e d b e a rin g on th e problem o f
1.
2.
Edward S. Mooney, J r . , An A n a ly s is o f th e S u p e rv isio n o f
S tu d en t T e a c h in g .
E lis lia la n e H enderson, The O rg a n iz a tio n and A d m in istra ­
t i o n o f S tu d e n t TeaoKTng in ^ba‘t'e‘ fea'olhers C o lle g e s .
p 7 “TlO.
23
t h i s document h as b e e n p u b lis h e d (1939) sin c e work on i t was
u n d ertak en *
N e ls o n 1 made a com prehensive in v e s tig a tio n o f
f i f ty -s e v e n t e tc h e r - p r e p a r in g i n s t i t u t i o n s , lo c a te d in tw e n ty seven s t a t e s , t o a n a ly z e e x p e rie n c e s b f stu d e n t te a c h e r s in
o rd e r to make recom m endations f o r e n r ic h in g th e c o n te n t of
s tu d e n t te a c h in g i n c o lle g e s p r e p a r in g te a c h e rs f o r e le m e n ta ry
sch o o l s e r v i c e .
As h e r m edia M iss N elson u sed p e rs o n a l v i s i t s
to a l l te a c h e rs c o lle g e s in c lu d e d in h e r s tu d y , in te rv ie w s
w ith le a d in g e d u c a to r s , in q u ir y s h e e ts f i l l e d out by s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs and f a c u l t y members, and a stu d y o f p r o f e s s io n a l
lite ra tu re .
The d i s c u s s i o n o f s tu d e n t- te a c h e r s * a c t i v i t i e s ,
d i f f i c u l t i e s , an d p ro b lem s a s r e p o r te d by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
and la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l f a c u l t y members i s c lo s e ly r e l a t e d t o
t h i s s tu d y .
I n t h e l i g h t of th e f in d in g s co n cern in g th e ex­
p e rie n c e s of s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , and o f p r i n c i p l e s r e c e n t l y ad ­
v o cated by le a d e r s in te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n w ork, th e a u th o r
l i s t s d e t a i l e d s u g g e s tio n s f o r p r i n c i p l e s , o b je c tiv e s and
p urposes o f s tu d e n t t e a c h i n g .
She in c lu d e s , a l s o , p ra c ­
t i c a l s u g g e s tio n s f o r th e a p p l i c a t i o n of th e p r in c ip l e s and
th e o b je c tiv e s she co n clu d es a r e th e e s s e n t i a l o n es.
1.
M arian E s th e r N e ls o n , An A n a ly s is o f Content o f S tu d en t Teac h in g C o u rses f o r E d u c a tio n o f IS lem entaryT W cher s
in S ta te Teaclbers "C o lle g e 's.
CHAPTER I I
THE PROBLEM IN ITS SETTING AT THE STATE
TEACHERS COLLEGE AT SALISBURY
T h is s e c t i o n i s in c lu d e d f o r th e re a s o n t h a t c e r t a i n
in fo rm a tio n r e l a t i v e to th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e a t S a l i s ­
bu ry and i t s program f o r th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f s tu d e n t te a c h ­
in g seems im p o rta n t to h e lp i n t e r p r e t a p a r t i c u l a r s tu d y o f
th e s tu d e n t- te a c h in g program a t t h a t c o lle g e *
G eneral In fo rm at io n
The i n s t i t u t i o n now known a s th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e
a t S a lis b u ry opened a s a tw o -y e a r norm al sc h o o l in S ep tem b er,
1925.
I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a "v e ry young" s c h o o l.
I ts e s ta b ­
lish m en t was a u th o r iz e d by th e M aryland G en eral Assembly o f
1922 a s th e t h i r d s c h o o l i n th e s t a t e f o r th e t r a i n i n g o f
te a c h e rs (w h ite ) f o r th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
L ocated in
S a lis b u ry * a c i t y of a p p ro x im a te ly 14,000 p e o p le , i t i s i n
th e h e a r t o f th e Delmarva P e n in s u la , an a re a d ev o ted l a r g e l y
t o tr u c k fa rm in g and t o s e a food i n d u s t r i e s .
The c o lle g e p l a n t c o n s i s t s o f one la r g e c o l o n ia l
ty p e b u ild in g w h ich c o n ta in s a d m in is t r a tio n , l i b r a r y , gym­
nasium , la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l, c la ssro o m , and r e s id e n c e f a c i l i t i e s
f o r young women.
T h is p la n t i s d e sig n e d t o accommodate 250
24
25
t o 550 s tu d e n ts .
The campus o f f o r t y a c r e s p ro v id e s ample
space and f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and s p o r t s .
The e n ro llm e n t as of 1938-1939 was 156 young women
and 83 young men.
A pproxim ately 75 p e r o e n t o f th e t o t a l
numbers come from th e r u r a l a r e a , th e p e n in s u la , b e t t e r known
a s th e E a s te r n Shore o f M aryland.
c l a s s e s a s f o llo w s :
They w ere e n r o lle d in
108 fresh m en ; 63 sophom ores; 25 j u n i o r s ;
32 s e n io r s ; 11 s p e c i a l s t u d e n t s .
D uring th e s c h o o l y e a r 1 9 3 9-
1940, th e t o t a l e n ro llm e n t numbered 273.
The d i s t r i b u t i o n in
c l a s s e s c o rresp o n d e d c l o s e l y t o t h a t o f th e p re c e d in g y e a r .
W ith in a p e r io d of e ig h t y e a rs th e s c h o o l h as made
changes i n i t s c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r in g s in ac co rd an c e w ith th e
u p -g ra d in g o f re q u ire m e n ts f o r th e p r e p a r a tio n o f te a c h e r s
th ro u g h o u t th e n a t i o n .
Prom S eptem ber, 1925, when th e i n s t i t u t i o n was opened
u n t i l S eptem ber, 1931, i t o p e ra te d as a norm al s c h o o l o f f e r ­
in g a tw o -y e a r te a c h e r - p r e p a r in g c u rric u lu m , th e co m p le tio n
o f w hich e n t i t l e d one t o a c e r t i f i c a t e v a l i d f o r te a c h in g i n
th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls o f M aryland.
In 1931, by S ta te l e g i s ­
l a t i o n , i t became a te a c h e r s c o lle g e o f f e r i n g a t h r e e - y e a r
c u rric u lu m t o th o s e d e s i r i n g a c e r t i f i c a t e f o r e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l s e r v ic e i n M aryland.
In 1934, a g a in by S t a te l e g i s ­
l a t i o n , a l l te a c h e r s c o lle g e s ( f o r w h ite s tu d e n ts ) in Mary­
la n d w ere made f o u r - y e a r te a c h e r - p r e p a r in g i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d ,
in Septem ber o f t h a t y e a r , th e S ta te T each ers C o lle g e a t
S a lis b u r y began o f f e r in g i t s f i r s t f o u r - y e a r c u rric u lu m ,
26
le a d in g t o th e g r a n tin g of th e d e g re e , B ,S . in E d u c a tio n ,
The n e x t y e a r , 1935, u n d er th e a u t h o r i t y o f th e S ta te
B oard o f E d u c a tio n , th e f o u r - y e a r c u rric u lu m was ch an g ed .
T h is change made th e f i r s t two y e a r s ’ o f f e r in g s s t r i c t l y a c a ­
dem ic i n n a t u r e .
The p r o f e s s io n a l, or t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g p a r t
of th e w ork, t h e n , was d e f e r r e d u n t i l th e ju n i o r and th e
s e n io r y e a rs o f c o lle g e work; th e c o u rse o f f e r i n g s in th o s e
y e a r s a re now composed of p r o f e s s io n a l and p r o f e s s io n a liz e d
s u b je c t- m a tte r c o u rs e s (see A ppendix, page 190 f o r a copy
of th e c u rric u lu m a s a t p re s e n t o f f e r e d ) .
R eq u irem en ts f o r A dm ission t o th e P r o f e s s io n a l C u rricu lu m
L im ited s e l e c t i v e ad m issio n i s b e in g p r a c t i c e d a t
p re s e n t.
D uring th e sophomore y e a r s tu d e n ts d e s i r i n g t o e n ­
t e r upon th e p r o f e s s i o n a l w ork, o f f e r e d d u rin g th e l a s t two
y e a rs o f th e f o u r - y e a r c u rric u lu m , must ap p ly f o r a d m is s io n ,
A co m m ittee, known as th e Committee on E n tra n c e t o th e P ro ­
f e s s i o n a l C u rric u lu m , p a s s e s on a l l a p p l i c a n t s .
The menfoer-
s h ip o f t h i s g ro u p in c lu d e s : th e d i r e c t o r of t r a i n i n g who a c t s
as ch airm an ; th e p r e s id e n t o f th e c o lle g e , member e x - o f f i c i o ;
th e i n s t r u c t o r o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n f o r g i r l s ; an i n s t r u c t o r
who te a c h e s b o th academ ic and p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c t- m a tte r
c o u r s e s ; a s u p e r v is o r o f s tu d e n t- te a c h in g ; and two o f th e t r a i n ­
in g te a c h e r s fro m th e campus la b o ra to ry s c h o o l.
To be g r a n te d ad m issio n by th e C om m ittee, a s tu d e n t
must meet th e f o llo w in g re q u ire m e n ts :
(1) have made an a v e ra g e
27
g rad e o f C o r b e t t e r (on an A, B, C, D sy stem o f g ra d in g )
d u rin g th e p re c e d in g two y e a rs of c o lle g e w ork; (2) have
made a c c e p ta b le r a t i n g s on a s e r i e s of f o u r d i f f e r e n t ty p e s
of s ta n d a r d iz e d te s ts ,'* ’ v i z . , (a) i n t e l l i g e n c e , (b) a c h ie v e ­
m en t, (c) p e rs o n a lity , and (d) a p ro g n o s is o f te a c h in g a b i l i t y .
(The i n t e l l i g e n c e and th e achievem ent t e s t s a r e a d m in is te re d
when th e s tu d e n t e n te r s th e c o l le g e , and th e p e rso n a lity and
p ro g n o s is t e s t s a re g iv e n d u rin g th e sophomore y e a r .)
(3) Pos­
s e s s w hat i s re g a rd e d as d e s ir a b le p e r s o n a l i t y f o r te a c h in g
in e le m e n ta ry s c h o o ls .
F or f u r t h e r a id in fu d g in g
p er­
s o n a l i t y o f an a p p l i c a n t , e a c h member o f th e com m ittee who
does n o t know a p a r t i c u l a r a p p lic a n t h as a p e r s o n a l in te r v ie w
w ith him a t a tim e p re c e d in g th e m eetin g of th e co m m ittee.
S ince th e e n ro llm e n t o f th e c o lle g e i s s m a ll, 239 d u rin g 19381939, f a c u l t y members have an o p p o r tu n ity t o know p e r s o n a lly
m ost of th e s tu d e n ts who a p p ly .
D uring th e p a s t two y e a rs a p ­
p ro x im a te ly tw e n ty - f iv e p e r c e n t of a l l a p p l ic a n ts have b een
e lim in a te d as n o t m e e tin g s ta n d a rd s s e t up f o r a d m is s io n .
1.
The t e s t s u se d d u rin g 1937-39 in c lu d e : (a) Am erican Coun­
c i l on E d u c a tio n , P s y c h o lo g ic a l E x am in atio n f o r C ol­
le g e Freshm en. T h u rs to n e . L .L ., and T h u rs to n e , Thelma
G ., W ashington, D .C .; (b) A m erican C o u n c il on E duca­
t i o n , C o o p e ra tiv e Achievement T e s t s . E n g lis h , M athe­
m a tic s , N a tu r a l S c ie n c e s , S o c ia l S tu d ie s , C o o p e ra tiv e
T e s t S e r v ic e , New York; (c) American C o u n c il on Edu­
c a t i o n . C o o p e ra tiv e E d u c a tio n a l T e s t . C o o p e ra tiv e
T e s t S e r v ic e , New York; (d) Coxe, W arren W ., and Or­
l e a n s , Jaco b S . , P ro g n o sis T e st o f T eaching A b i l i t y ,
W orld Book Company, New Y ork; (e) B e r n r e u te r , R obert
G ., The P e r s o n a li ty In v e n to ry , S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity
P re ss.
28
L a b o ra to ry - S chool F a c i l i t i e s
The campus la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l, in w hich a l l members
of th e ju n io r c l a s s have e x p e rie n c e s d e s ig n a te d a s D ir e c te d
T eaching 31 and a p p ro x im a te ly o n e - th ir d have e x p e rie n c e s in
D ir e c te d T each in g I I , i s a f o u r - te a c h e r e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
q u ite t y p i c a l of many M aryland s i t u a t i o n s i n t o w h ich p ro sp e c ­
t i v e te a c h e r s may g o .
L ocated in one wing of th e m ain c o lle g e
b u i l d i n g , th e elem e n tary s c h o o l u n i t co m p rises f o u r l a r g e ,
w e ll-e q u ip p e d modern c la s sro o m s, f o u r o f f i c e s f o r t e a c h e r s , two
r e s tr o o m s , a s t o r e room , an assem b ly room , and a r a p i d l y grow­
in g c h i l d r e n ’ s l i b r a r y .
The la r g e p la y g ro u n d p ro v id e s ample
space f o r s p o r ts and has more th a n " s ta n d a rd " a p p a r a tu s .
In
t h i s s e t t i n g one f in d s a l l g r a d e s , one t o se v e n I n c l u s i v e ,
w ith ab o u t 130 " r u n - o f - th e - m ill" c h ild r e n who come from S a l i s ­
b u ry and v i c i n i t y and a r e a d m itte d in o rd e r of th e d a te of
th e ir a p p lic a tio n s .
These g ra d e s a re ta u g h t by w e l l - t r a i n e d
t e a c h e r s , known as t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s , and a r e u n d er th e d i r e c ­
t i o n o f th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l p r i n c i p a l who i s a l s o d i r e c t o r
of t r a i n i n g .
T hree of th e f o u r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s h o ld th e
d e g re e of B .S . i n E d u c a tio n , and one a M.A. in E d u c a tio n .
A ll have e a rn e d " c r e d i t s " in advance o f th e d e g re e s th e y now
h o ld .
W orking w ith th e s e f iv e i s th e s u p e r v is o r o f s tu d e n t
te a c h in g (th e co n d u cto r o f t h i s s tu d y ) who gave on an a v e r ­
age n in e h o u rs a week d u r in g th e y e a r 1938-1939 and f i f t e e n
h o u rs a week d u r in g th e y e a r 1939-1940 t o th e s u p e r v is io n o f
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s .
Both th e d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g and th e
29
s u p e r v is o r a ls o te a c h e d u c a tio n a l an d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d su b ­
je c t- m a tte r co u rse s.
The g ro u p in g o f th e g ra d e s an d arran g em en t f o r te a c h ­
ing in th e campus school i s :
T ra in in g
T each ers
Grades
Number
E n ro lle d
1 and 2
35
1
M usic
3 and 4
35
1
P h y s ic a l
E d u c a tio n
5 and 6
35
1
7
25
1
" S p e c ia l"
T e a c h e rs *
A rt
The off-cam pus la b o r a to r y s c h o o ls a r e s i t u a t e d in
th e c i t y o f S a lis b u ry and i n th e town of P r in c e s s A nne, tw elve
m ile s from th e campus.
These s c h o o ls p ro v id e la b o r a to r y f a ­
c i l i t i e s f o r a p p ro x im a te ly tw o - th ir d s of th e members o f th e
ju n i o r c l a s s in D ire c te d T eaching I I , and f o r a l l th e members
o f th e s e n io r c l a s s i n D ire c te d T each in g I I I ,
By arrangem ent
w ith t h e County S u p e rin te n d e n t o f S ch o o ls o f Wicomico C ounty,
th e S a lis b u r y sc h o o ls p ro v id e seven g ro u p s s e l e c t e d from f o u r
o f th e s c h o o ls .
These groups a r e s e l e c t e d an th e b a s i s of
q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e i r te a c h e rs f o r d o in g t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g
#
The " s p e c ia l" te a c h e rs a r e from th e c o lle g e d e p a rtm e n t.
Each one has th e group of c h i l d r e n from ea ch room
about t h i r t y m in u tes a week. In a d d i t i o n , th e y a re
"on c a l l . "
30
work In a d d itio n t o c a r r y in g th e u s u a l classro o m r e s p o n s i b i l i ­
tie s .
These seven s i t u a t i o n s p ro v id e e x p e rie n c e s f o r s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s in g rad es one, tw o, t h r e e , f o u r , s i x , and s e v e n .
By
s p e c i a l arrangem ent w ith th e County S u p e rin te n d e n t o f Somer­
s e t C ounty, th e P rin c e s s Anne sc h o o ls su p p ly two rooms which
p ro v id e e x p e rie n c e s f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in g rad es f i v e , s i x ,
and se v en .
While each of th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s in th e o f f campus sch o o ls has had a number o f y e a r s o f s u c c e s s f u l te a c h ­
in g e x p e rie n c e , none of them h o ld s an academ ic d e g r e e , and
o n ly two of th e number have had any s p e c i f i c p r e p a r a tio n f o r
te a c h e r - t r a i n i n g w ork.
in modern b u i l d i n g s .
The roam s, w ith two e x c e p t io n s , a re
D uring th e sc h o o l y e a rs 1938-1939 and
1939-1940 from f o r t y - f i v e t o f i f t y c h ild r e n were e n r o lle d in
e a c h o f th e groups used f o r s tu d e n t te a c h in g p u r p o s e s .
The P la n f o r th e A d m in is tra tio n o f D ir e c te d T each in g I
In D ire c te d T eaching _I th e members o f th e ju n io r
c l a s s have t h e i r f i r s t c o n ta c ts w ith th e campus la b o r a to r y
sc h o o l d u rin g th e f i r s t se m e ste r o f t h a t y e a r .
I t c e m p ris e s j
( 1 ) from th r e e t o f i v e days c o n ta c ts w ith th e la b o r a to r y sc h o o l d u rin g th e f i r s t week o f th e se m e ste r t o p ro v id e an
n overview ” of some of th e work and p la y in each of th e seven
g r a d e s , and (2) th r e e h ou rs a week o f a l t e r n a t i n g o b s e rv a tio n
and p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u rin g th e re m a in in g se v e n te e n weeks o f th e
s e m e s te r.
31
D uring th e t i # e d e v o te d t o g e t t i n g th e "o v erv iew ” ,
th e members o f th e ju n io r c l a s s , num bering tw e n ty -f iv e in
1938-1939, and t h i r t y - t h r e e i n 1939-1940, and th e i n v e s t i ­
g a to r o b serv ed one h a i r each day in e a c h o f th e f a i r la b o ra to r y - s c h o o l c la ssro o m s, and sp e n t a p p ro x im a te ly an ho u r a day
in c o n fe re n c e .
The d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g and th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d in th e s e c o n fe re n c e s w henever i t was
a d m in is t r a tiv e l y p o s s ib le f o r them t o do s o .
P re c e d in g th e
o b s e rv a tio n o f th e f i r s t day an in tr o d u c to r y c o n fe re n c e was
h e ld .
At t h i s tim e the p u rp o se and th e a d m in is tr a tio n of th e
p la n were e x p la in e d , and guide s h e e ts c o n ta in in g g e n e r a l p ro b ­
lem s, q u e s tio n s , and r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e f i r s t week were d i s ­
trib u te d ,
(See A ppendix, page 193 f o r m a te r ia l s u s e d ,)
In
a d d i tio n t o th e "guide s h e e ts " o r “u n i t s , " p re p a re d to sh arp en
o b s e rv a tio n , ea ch s tu d e n t was a sk e d t o hand i n d a i l y from f iv e
to te n q u e s tio n s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o him w hich grdw out
o f h i s o b s e r v a tio n .
Some o f th e s e q u e s tio n s se rv e d as a b a s is
f o r d is c u s s io n d u rin g th e c o n fe re n c e s h e ld t h a t f i r s t week,
some were u sed in su b seq u en t c o n f e r e n c e s , and same were used
in th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c t- m a tte r c l a s s e s w ith th e same
group o f s tu d e n ts .
A fte r th e "overview " p e r io d th e s tu d d n ts were d i ­
v id e d in to f o u r g ro u p s, nam ely, 1 , 2 , 3 , and 4 .
Each group
was a s s ig n e d t o one o f th e fo u r c la ssro o m s f o r th r e e h ours a
week f o r a p p ro x im a te ly f o u r w eek s.
At th e end o f t h a t tim e
th e groups were s h if te d u n t i l e a c h g roup had g a in e d ex p e rien ce
32
in each classro o m w ith e a c h g r a d e , and w ith e a c h t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r.
The sc h e d u le s on page 33 show th e number and th e
arrangem ent by groups and c la ssro o m s f o r th e ju n io r c l a s s o f
1938-1939 and th e c la s s of 1939-1940.
Each group had th r e e c o n fe re n c e s a week: (1) w ith th e
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r in whose c la ssro o m th e g roup was o b se rv in g
o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g ; (2) w ith th e d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g or th e
s u p e rv is o r who o b serv ed each g ro u p a t work in th e la b o ra to ry
sc h o o l f o r one hour a week; (3 ) w ith th e d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g
and th e s u p e rv is o r who j o i n t l y co n d u cted a g e n e ra l co n feren ce
w ith th e f o u r groups m eetin g to g e th e r f o r one h o u r a week.
The P la n f o r th e Admin1 st r a t io n of D ir e c te d T eaching I I
In D ire c te d T eaching I I members o f th e ju n io r c l a s s
have a minimum of f o u r h o u rs a day a l t e r n a t i n g o b s e rv a tio n
and p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p e rie n c e s f o r a p e r io d o f n in e weeks in
one or two o f th e on-campus o r th e o ff-cam p u s la b o r a to r y sc h o o l room s.
A d m in is tra tio n r e q u ir e s t h a t th e c l a s s be d i ­
v id e d i n t o s e c tio n s d e s ig n a te d a s J u n io r I and J u n io r I I .
The section n o t h av in g la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s i s re g u ­
l a r l y e n r o lle d in c o lle g e c o u r s e s .
The sc h e d u le s on pages
35 and 36 show th e number and th e arran g em en t b y groups and
c l a s s e s f o r th e ju n i o r c l a s s o f 1938-1939 and f o r th e jn n io r
c l a s s o f 1939-1940,
More p a r t i c i p a t i o n , in v o lv in g th e te a c h in g of le s s o n s
and ’’u n i t s of w ork” i s e x p e c te d d u rin g t h i s s ta g e o f d ir e c te d
33
SCHEDULE 1
D irected Teaohing I — Junior C lass 1938-1939
Campus Laboratory School* F ir s t Sem ester, 1938-1939
F ir s t Weeks September 7 -1 4 , "Overview’' o f Campus School
F ir s t Four Weeks
Sept. 14 to Oct.
7 in c lu s iv e
Room 101
Grades 1-2
Roam. 102
Grades 3 -4
Room 103
Grades 5-6
Group 1
(6 stu d en ts)
Group 2
(6 stu d en ts)
Group 3
(6 stu d en ts)
Roam 104
Grade 7
Group 4
(7 stu d en ts)
Second Four Weeks
Oct. 10 t o Nov*
4 , in c lu s iv e
Group 4
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Third Four Weeks
Nov. 7 to Deo*
6 , in c lu s iv e
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1
Group 2
Fourth Four Weeks
Deo. 7 to Jan.
12, in c lu s iv e
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1
SCHEDULE 2
D irected Teaohing I — Junior C la s s, 1939- 1940
Campus Laboratory S ch ool. F ir s t Sem ester, 1939-1940
F ir s t Weeks September 6 t o 10, Overview o f Campus School
F ir s t Four Weeks
September 11 to
O ct. 6 , in c lu s iv e
Roam 104
Grades 6-7
Roam 101
Grades 1-2
Room 102
Grades 3 -4
Room 103
Grades 5-6
Group 1
(8 stu d en ts)
Group 2
(8 stu d en ts)
Group 3
(9 stu d en ts)
Group 4
(8 students]
Seoond Four Weeks
Oot. 9 t o Nov. 3,
in c lu s iv e
Group 4
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Third Four Weeks
Nov. 6 to Deo. 5,
in c lu s iv e
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1
Group 2
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1
Fourth Four Weeks
Deo. 6 to Jan. 10,
Semester ends Jan.
19
34
te a c h in g .
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a r e g u id ed by th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s who a re a s s i s t e d by th e d i r e c t o r of t r a i n i n g and
th e s u p e r v is o r .
Working c o o p e r a tiv e ly , th e d i r e c t o r o f
t r a i n i n g and th e s u p e r v is o r u s u a lly se e ea c h s tu d e n t a t work
w ith t h e c h ild r e n a t l e a s t once a week and a id him d u rin g co n ­
fe re n c e w ith th e s o lu t io n o f h is p ro b le m s.
As r a p id ly a s a
s tu d e n t i s p re p a re d t o ta k e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he i s p e r ­
m itte d t o do s o .
The P la n f o r th e A d m in is tra tio n o f D ir e c te d T each in g I I I
In D ir e c te d T each in g I I I members of th e s e n io r c l a s s
spend a minimum o f f o u r h o u rs a day f o r n in e weeks in one of
th e off-cam pus s c h o o ls .
H ere th e d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g p la c e s
each s tu d e n t a s n e a r l y a s p o s s ib le in th e grade and w ith th e
s u b je c ts o f h i s c h o ic e .
U n less a s tu d e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s ir e s
e x p e rie n c e i n two g r a d e s , o r u n le s s th e a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i ­
c e r s c o n s id e r a change d e s i r a b l e f o r th e p r o f e s s io n a l grow th
o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t , he spends th e n in e weeks in an e
s itu a tio n .
In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , how ever, he i s g iv e n a s many
e x p e rie n c e s as p o s s i b l e .
In t h i s s ta g e o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g th e s tu d e n t i s e x ­
p e c te d t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p la n n in g and e x e c u tin g
a l l work a s s ig n e d t o him b y th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r in c h a rg e of
th e c la ssro o m .
As a minimum re q u ire m e n t, a t th e end o f th e
n in e w eeks1 p e r io d , e a c h s tu d e n t I s e x p e c te d t o be a b le t o
assume e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - f o r a g rad e o r group f o r o n e -
35
SCHEDULE 3
D ireoted Teaohing I I , Junior I Group, C lass o f 1938-1939
Campus L aboratary-Sohool.
F ir s t 4j| Weeks
Jan. 23 t o
Feb. 22
Seoond 4g- Weeks
Feb. 23 t o
Maroh 24
Second Sem ester, 1938-1939
Rocm 101
Grades 1-2
Roam 102
Grades 3-4
Roam 103
Grades 5-6
Group 1
(3 stu d e n ts)
Group 2
(3 stu d en ts)
Group 3
(3 stu d en ts)
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1
Room 104
Grade 7
Group 4
( 3 stu d e n ts )
Group 2
SCHEDULE 4
D ireoted Teaohing I I , Junior I I Group, C lass o f 1938-1939
Campus Laboratory Sohool — Seoond Sem ester, 1938-1939
F ir s t 4a Weeks
Maroh 27 t o
A p ril 28, in ­
o lu s iv e
Second 4|r Weeks
May 1 t o May 31,
in o lu s iv e
Roam 101
Grades 1-2
Room 102
Grades 3-4
Room 103
Grades 5-6
Group 1
(3 stu d en ts)
Group 2
(3 stu d en ts)
Group 3
(3 stu d en ts)
Group 3
Group 4
Group 1
feoam 104
Grade 7
Group 4
(4 stu d en ts)
Group 2
36
SCHEDULE 5
D irected Teaohing I I
Junior I and I I Groups, C lass o f 1939-1940
Seoond Sem ester, 1939-1940
January 22 to March 20 (9 -weeks)
Maroh 26 to May 24 (9 -weeks)
Junior I
Junior I I
A
B
tirade
Level
Training
Teacher
7
1
C ollege Elementary
6-7
2
College Elementary
5-6
3
E ast S alisb u ry
4
4
C ollege Elementary
3-4
5
Pinehurst
3 -4
6
Pinehurst
2 -3
7
C ollege Elementary
1-2
8
Pinehurst
1
9
Sohool
Wicamioo
AA
BB
C
D
CC
E
DD
F
G
EE
FF
H
GG
HH
I
J
II
JJ
K
L
KX
LL
M
MM
N
0
NW
00
37
h a lf day.
Each s tu d e n t i s o bserved b y a s u p e r v is o r f o u r t o
f i v e tim e s d u rin g h is p e r io d o f te a c h in g and h as a c o n f e r ­
ence fo llo w in g ea ch v i s i t .
F or a d m in is tr a tiv e p u rp o ses th e c l a s s i s d iv id e d in to
two s e c t i o n s .
The group n o t engaged in s tu d e n t te a c h in g i s
e n r o lle d in c l a s s e s a t th e c o lle g e .
in g s se e A ppendix, page 1 9 0 .)
(F o r c u rric u lu m o f f e r ­
The te a c h in g g roup i s t r a n s ­
p o rte d from th e c o lle g e t o th e te a c h in g c e n te r s each d a y .
T hus, a f t e r s c h o o l h o u rs , s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s have th e u se o f th e
c o lle g e l i b r a r y and access to c o lle g e i n s t r u c t o r s f o r any
needed h e lp w ith p la n s and p ro b lem s.
The d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g i n v i t e s th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r
and th e s u p e r v is o r to a c o n fe re n c e on an a v e ra g e of t h r e e
tim e s d u rin g th e nine-w eek p e rio d f o r th e p u rp o se of s tu d e n tte a c h e r g u id a n c e .
T here fo llo w s th e sc h e d u le s o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h in g
a ssig n m e n ts f o r th e s e n io r c l a s s e s of 1938-1939 and 19391940.
38
SCHEDULE 6
D ir ec te d Teaching I I I
Senior I Group - - C lass o f 1938-1939
F ir s t Nine Weeks1 P eriod
September 6 t o November 10, 1938
Senior I*
Sohool
Grade Level
Training Teaoher *
A)
b
Wioomioo High
6-7
1
Chestnut S tr e e t
6-7
2
P rin cess Anne
6-7
3
East S alisb u ry
4
4
P rin cess Anne
4-5
5
Chestnut S tr e e t
3
6
P inehurst
3
7
P inehurst
3-4
8
Pinehurst
1
9
J
c 1
-I
E?
I
I
F1
G
>
H'
I )>
JJ
K
y
L ■
M
N
,
0„
P
Q
* The student teaohers are d esig n a ted by l e t t e r ; th e tr a in in g teaohers
by number*
39
SCHEDULE 7
D irected Teaohing I I I
S enior I I Group, C lass o f 1938-1939
fo r th e Second Nine Weeks' Period
November 10, 1938 to January 20, 1939
Senior II
Grade Level
Training Teacher
Wicomioo
6-7
1
Chestnut S tr e e t
6-7
2
P r in o ess Anne
6-7
3
P r in c e ss Anne
4 -5
4
3
5
3
6
School
R
S .
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
AA
Chestnut S tr e e t
C
P in eh u rst
BB
P in eh u rst
3-4
7
P in eh u rst
1
8
E ast S alisb u ry
4
9
CC
DD
EE
FF
40
SCHEDULE 8
D ireoted Teaching I I I
S enior I Group, C lass o f 1939-1940
F ir s t Nine-Week P eriod - - F ir s t Semester
September 7 , to November 8 , I n o lu s iv e , 1939
Senior I
School
Grade Level
A
Wicomico
6-7
P rin o ess Anne
6-7
Training Teacher
B
C
D
E
F rin oess Anne
F
G
E ast S a lisb u ry
H
P in eh u rst
I
J
P in eh u rst
K
L
M
P in eh u rst
4
4
3-4
5
41
SCHEDULE 9
D ireoted Teaching I I I
Senior I I Group, C lass o f 1939-1940
Second Nine Weeks - F ir s t Semester
November 8 , 1939 to January 20, 1940, in o lu s iv e
Senior I I
School
N
Wioomioo
Grade Level
0
P
P rin oess Anne
6-7
Q
R
P r in o ess Anne
S
T
P in eh u rst
3-4
P in eh u rst
2-3
U
V
w
X
Y
P in eh u rst
T raining Teacher
42
S o c i a l . Economic and S c h o la s tic Backgrounds of th e S tu d en t a
G e n e ra lly sp e ak in g th e s tu d e n ts who e n r o l l In th e
S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u ry a r e of E n g lis h o r i g i n and
r e p r e s e n t th e a v e ra g e , in some c a se s th e a b o v e -a v e ra g e ,
American home.
The homes o f most o f th e s e s tu d e n ts a r e l o ­
c a te d i n th e r u r a l a re a s and sm a ll towns on th e E a s te r n Shore
o f M aryland.
T h at s e c tio n co m p rises n in e o f th e tw e n ty -th r e e
c o u n tie s i n t h a t s t a t e .
Of th e th r e e c l a s s e s b e in g su rv ey ed
in t h i s s tu d y , a t o t a l of n in e ty s tu d e n ts , o n ly th r e e came
from o th e r s e c t i o n s o f M aryland.
Only two members o f th e
t h r e e c l a s s e s r e p r e s e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s o th e r th a n E n g lis h .
One o f th o s e s tu d e n ts came from a c u ltu r e d S p a n is h home; th e
o th e r i s o f I t a l i a n e x t r a c t i o n .
A b r i e f su rv ey o f th e o c c u p a tio n s o f th e p a r e n ts of
th e n in e ty s tu d e n ts (tw e n ty -fo u r young men and s i x t y - s i x
young women) shows t h a t many have lim ite d c u l t u r a l b a c k g ro u n d s.
The p a r e n ts of alm o st h a l f of th e s tu d e n ts , f o r t y - f o u r , own
farm s of s m a ll a c re a g e u sed c h i e f ly f o r tr u c k fa rm in g — sm a ll
f r u i t s and v e g e ta b le s .
The o c c u p a tio n s o f th e p a r e n ts o f th e
o th e r s tu d e n ts above m entioned a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
s i x c l e r k s , f o u r f is h e r m e n , f o u r r a i l r o a d em ployees; f i v e
m e rc h a n ts , f i v e em ployees i n b o x or in ca n n in g f a c t o r i e s , two
c a r p e n t e r s , one b la c k s m ith , one government em ployee, one em­
p lo y e e of a te le p h o n e company, th r e e sa le sm e n , one g a ra g e
m echanic, one m i n i s t e r , and th r e e te a c h e r s .
s tu d e n ts a r e orphans who su p p o rt th e m s e lv e s.
T hree o f th e
43
The m a jo rity of th e s tu d e n ts have b een g ra d u a te d
from s m a ll h ig h s c h o o ls — sc h o o ls t h a t have an e n ro llm e n t
of from f i f t y t o 250 s tu d e n ts .
l im ite d c u l t u r a l a d v a n ta g e s .
They, t h e r e f o r e , have r a t h e r
Of th e n in e ty s tu d e n ts , s i x t y -
f o u r came from th e sm a ll h ig h s c h o o ls , and tw e n ty - s ix from
h ig h s c h o o ls h av in g e n ro llm e n ts o f from 450 t o 600 s t u d e n ts .
I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t sin c e th e p u b lic sc h o o ls i n M aryland
r e q u ir e o n ly seven y e a rs in th e e le m e n ta ry g r a d e s , t h a t g ra d u a ­
t i o n fro m h ig h sc h o o l r e p r e s e n ts o n ly e le v e n y e a rs o f p u b lic
sc h o o l w ork.
T h ir ty - n in e of th e n in e ty s tu d e n ts fo u n d i t n e c e s ­
s a ry t o f in a n c e a l l o r a p a r t o f t h e i r c o lle g e e d u c a tio n .
Many of t h a t number worked on N.Y.A. ws c h o la r s h ip s " d u rin g
t h e i r fresh m en and sophomore y e a rs and to o k a d v a n tag e of
s tu d e n t lo a n funds d u rin g th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r y e a r s .
Twenty o f th a t number worked f o r a l l o r f o r a p a r t of t h e i r
room and b o ard in homes n o t f a r d i s t a n t from th e c o l l e g e .
The
a d d i t i o n a l work t h a t th e s e s tu d e n ts d i d , how ever, d id n o t
seem t o h an d icap t h e i r academ ic s ta n d in g s .
A b r i e f stu d y t o
compare th e s c h o l a s t i c re c o rd s of th e s tu d e n ts who a r e d o in g
some ty p e o f work f o r re m u n e ra tio n w ith th o s e who a r e n o t i s
made ea ch y e a r by th e p r e s id e n t o f th e c o l l e g e .
D uring th e
p a s t t h r e e y e a rs th e r e s u l t s have g iv e n e v id e n c e t h a t th e
fo rm er group ra n k s somewhat h ig h e r th a n th e l a t t e r g ro u p .
A s tu d y w ith r e f e r e n c e to t h e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e
a t S a lis b u r y made by C a r u th e r s , in c lu d e s o b je c tiv e e v id e n c e
44
c o n c e rn in g th e s c h o la s t ic backg ro u n d s o f one of th e c la s s e s
b e in g i n v e s tig a te d in t h i s documents th e s e n io r c l a s s 19381939*
T ab les V t o VIII'*' of t h a t s tu d y g iv e th e r e s u l t s of
th e T horndike I n te ll ig e n c e T e s t , th e Iowa C ontent E x am in atio n ,
th e B e m r e u te r P e r s o n a lity I n v e n to r y , th e C oxe-O rleans Prog­
n o s is T e st of T eaching A b i l i t y , and th e s c h o l a s t i c s ta n d in g
made by th e g roup d u rin g t h e i r fresh m an and sophomore y e a rs
in th e c o l le g e .
C a ru th e rs makes t h i s c o n c lu s io n :
"W ithout
e x c e p tio n th e r e s u l t s on e a c h t e s t show t h a t e a c h c la s s *
made a m edian s c o r e h ig h e r th a n th e m edian on th e t e s t ." 2
a
S im ila r t e s t s a d m in is te re d t o su b se q u en t c l a s s e s r e v e a l r e ­
s u l t s w hich p a r a l l e l th o se g iv e n f o r th e two c l a s s e s r e ­
f e r r e d t o above.
1.
2.
■»
Thomas J . C a ru th e rs , An I n te g r a te d Program o f T eacher
Educat ion in a Four- y ea r Curriculum forHThe Prepara­
t io n o f "Elementary T each ers, pp. 6 4 -6 8 .
I b i d . . p."l> 3.
TETs r e fe r s a ls o t o th e se n io r c la s s o f 1936-1937 udiich
he in clu d ed in h is stu d y .
CHAPTER I I I
A STUDY OP DIRECTED TEACHING I
The f i r s t t a s k in a n a ly z in g th e problem as s t a t e d on
page 1 was t o d e te rm in e th e c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t stu d e n t
te a c h e rs found d u r in g t h e i r f i r s t c o n ta c ts w ith th e la b o r a to r y sc h o o l in th e cou rse
named D ir e c te d T each in g I .
m itte d ly d i f f i c u l t t a s k .
I t Is an a d ­
I t i3 one t h a t in v o lv e s th e use of
s u b je c tiv e Judgment a s w e ll as th e u se o f o b je c tiv e e v id e n c e .
T h is c h a p te r d e a l3 w ith a stu d y of th e d i f f i c u l t i e s s ta te d
by f i f t y - e i g h t p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s and by t h e i r t r a i n i n g
te a c h e rs and s u p e r v is o r s c o n c e rn in g th e co u rse e n t i t l e d
D ire c te d T eaching I .
A d e s c r ip tio n o f th e c o u rse i s g iv e n on page 30 .
The
d is c u s s io n o f th e u se o f d ia r y and th e a n e c d o ta l re c o r d t e c h ­
n iq u e , a s g iven on page
16 , shows t h a t th e e x p e rim en te r a t ­
tem pted to s e c u re a s much o b je c tiv e ev id en ce as p o s s ib le in
d e te rm in in g th e c h i e f problem s of b e g in n in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s .
The q u e s tio n s t h a t e a c h s tu d e n t s u b m itte d d u rin g th e "o v er­
view p e rio d " re v e a le d many o f t h e i r i n i t i a l p ro b lem s.
The
w r itin g of th e q u e s tio n s h e lp e d th e s tu d e n ts form h a b its of
su b m ittin g d i a r i e s , w hich t h e p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s were f a i t h ­
f u l in p u ttin g i n a box d e s ig n a te d f o r t h a t p u rp o se .
The d i f f i c u l t i e s m en tio n ed i n th e d i a r i e s and th e
a n e c d o ta l re c o rd s w ere c l a s s i f i e d in th e fo llo w in g m ajor
45
46
c a te g o r ie s i n t o w hich th e y f e l l : o b s e rv a tio n and stu d y ; c l a s s ­
room management and p u p il c o n t r o l; improvement of p e r s o n a l
q u a l i t i e s ; and p la n n in g and te a c h in g .
Examples of th e d i a r i e s and a n e c d o ta l r e c o rd s * a re
in c lu d e d in t h i s c h a p te r t o show th e form and th e in fo rm a l n a ­
tu r e o f th e r e s p o n s e s .
They a r e rep ro d u ced h e re as th e y were
w r i tte n w ith th e e x c e p tio n t h a t a l l names and p e rs o n a l r e f e r ­
ences have b e e n d e l e t e d .
The p h ra se p re c e d in g each of them
was p la c e d th e r e by th e one making t h i s stu d y t o show th e
item in to w hich th e d i f f i c u l t y in d ic a te d by th e stu d e n t
te a c h e r was c l a s s i f i e d .
In some c a se s more th a n one d i f f i ­
c u l ty was i n d ic a t e d i h a d i a r y o r in a r e c o r d .
The d a te s
and th e g rad es a t th e u p p e r r i g h t o f e a c h show when and in
which g ra d e , or g r a d e s , th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r e x p e rie n c e d th e
d iffic u lty .
There f o llo w s exam ples of d i a r i e s su b m itte d f o r t h e
c o u rs e , e n t i t l e d D ir e c te d T eaching J[.
O b se rv a tio n :
C h ild r e n ’ s h a b i ts
- - 9 /2 2 /3 8 , Grade 7
I sh o u ld l i k e a few s u g g e s tio n s a s t o how one would
han d le t h a t c h i l d i n th e s i x t h g rad e who a c ts baby­
i s h . P erhaps some o th e r s tu d e n t would p r o f i t by
th e s e s u g g e s tio n s , t o o .
#
A d d itio n a l exam ples o f th e d i a r i e s and a n e c d o ta l re c o rd s
u se d in fo rm u la tin g th e t a b l e s , a re in c lu d e d in th e
A ppendix on page 174 f f . They show som ething of th e
v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y o f th e re s p o n s e ; th e y a l s o make
e v id e n t a r e a s o n f o r th e p h ra s in g u sed in some of
th e s u b d iv i s io n s .
47
O b se rv a tio n :
problem s
H andling b e h a v io r
1 1 /1 0 /3 8 , Or. 7
How sh o u ld th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r keep D. from c a l l i n g
out when he i s ta lk in g ? Should he em b arrass him? I t
i s v ery an n o y in g , y e t th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r seems t o
be d o in g v e r y l i t t l e ab o u t i t .
Managing a c l a s s
1 1 /3 /3 8 , O r.3-4
Today I c o n tin u e d te a c h in g th e s t o r y o f Rosa Bonheur.
A ll of th e c l a s s t o g e th e r made a n o u tli n e on th e
b o a r d . The c h i ld r e n seemed o v e rly an x io u s t o add
what th e y knew t o e a c h p a r t . They were so an x io u s
t h a t ev ery o n e was y e l l i n g a t th e same tim e and th e r e
was l i t t l e o rd e r in th e room. I am v e ry a f r a i d I am
g o in g to have tr o u b le w ith d i s c i p l i n e . How may I
check t h i s r i g h t a t th e b e g in n in g ? L i t t l e B. h as a
g r e a t h a b it o f c o n tin u a lly waving h e r h an d . T his
i s v e ry d i s t r a c t i n g t o me.
H andling m a te r ia l s
1 2 /1 3 /3 8 , G r.3 -4
S tu d e n t te a c h e r s need much h e lp i n l i t t l e th in g s as
when t o g e t b o o k s, how to have p a p e rs c o l l e c t e d , how
assig n m e n ts a r e a rra n g e d , w hat ty p e o f se a tw o rk i3
g iv e n , how to c a l l on th e c h i l d r e n , e t c . I f in d I
make m ista k e s in l i t t l e th i n g s . Maybe I ’m n o t v ery
o b s e rv a n t; I b e lie v e I ’m one t h a t h a s t o e x p e rie n c e
t o know.
Overcoming s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s
1 1 /3 0 /3 8 , Gr. 7
I want to le a r n t o m o tiv a te a le s s o n and a l s o le a r n
t o f a c e a c la s s and t a l k f l u e n t l y w ith o u t b e in g
s c a re d h a l f t o d e a th . I r e a l i z e t h a t th e p u p ils
won’t h u r t me b u t when I f a c e them I f o r g e t e v e ry ­
t h i n g , I alm o st sw allow my to n g u e .
P la n n in g a u n i t
1 1 /3 0 /3 8 , G r. 7
My d i f f i c u l t y in th e u n i t "Who Were th e G reek s?” i s
s e l e c t i o n o f s u b je c t m a tte r and o rg a n iz in g th e s e r i e s
o f le s s o n s . I d on’t see how t o m o tiv a te th e whole
u n it l i k e t h a t .
In many c a se s th e re c o rd s made b y th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
and s u p e r v is o r s were mere s ta te m e n ts o f o u ts ta n d in g s tr e n g th s
and w eak n esses t h a t th e y o b serv ed in th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith
48
whom th e y w ere working*
The exam ples t h a t fo llo w show th e
ty p e s o f re c o rd s named a n e c d o ta l.
The s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
and th u s th e c a te g o r ie s i n t o w h ic h th e y were c l a s s i f i e d , a r e
e v id e n t i n ea ch c a s e .
Examples o f th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s su b ­
m itte d f o r D ire c te d T each in g I a r e :
P— has no re g a rd f o r m o tiv a tio n . Her n o tio n o f an
assignm ent was t o m e re ly m en tio n a to p ic and she
th o u g h t th e c h ild r e n would r e t u r n f u l l y in fo rm ed .
Her purpose in te a c h in g i s v ag u e . She i s u n ab le
to se e th e " w h o le .”
R— la c k s c o n fid e n c e in h e r s e l f and does n o t have
much d e p th to h e r th i n k i n g . She o rg a n iz e s p o o rly
and when b e f o r e a c l a s s , la c k s a b i l i t y t o re a s o n and
th in k q u ic k ly . She i s a m b itio u s and w illi n g to w ork.
P— en jo y s w orking w ith s m a ll g ro u p s o f c h ild r e n b u t
w ith la r g e g ro u p s she i s a t l o s s as t o what t o do and
sa y . She e x p e c te d c h i ld r e n to o rg a n iz e h e r th in k in g
f o r h e r . She e n jo y s b e in g w ith c h ild r e n and re c o g ­
n iz e s th e im p o rtan ce o f h o ld in g c h i l d r e n ’ s a t t e n t i o n
b u t i s u n ab le t o t h i n k o f ways and means of doing i t .
Each o f th e s tu d e n t- te a c h e r s i n Group I I e x p e rie n c e d
th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s :
1 . H andling of r e s p o n s e s in a h e l p f u l manner t o
c h i ld r e n .
2 . F o rm u latin g a d e f i n i t e aim f o r te a c h in g a s p e c if ic
le s s o n .
3 . Wording of p iv o ta la n d s u b o r d in a te q u e s tio n s t o d e ­
v e lo p th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f a le s s o n .
4 . D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g betw een p i v o t a l and su b o rd in a te
q u e s tio n s .
5 . I n t e r p r e t i n g s u b je c t m a tte r b e fo re te a c h in g i t .
6 . W ritin g on th e b o a rd ( c u r s iv e w r i t i n g ) .
7 . Making s u i t a b l e and s p e c i f i c seatw o rk f o r le s s o n s
w ith c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s .
As was s t a t e d on page 13 , an h o n e st e f f o r t was made
t o encourage p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s t o s t a t e f r a n k ly th e c h i e f
d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t th e y found in t h e i r p r o f e s s io n a l a d ju stm e n t
d u rin g t h e i r i i i b i a l e x p e rie n c e s i n th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
49
in th e c o u rse e n t i t l e d D ire c te d T eaching _I.
In l i k e manner
th e members o f th e s u p e rv is o ry group were ask ed t o s t a t e th e
problem s th e y o b se rv e d w hich seemed u n d u ly p e r p le x in g t o
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and th u s h in d e re d t h e i r norm al p r o g r e s s .
However, th e a c t i v i t i e s t e n t a t i v e l y p la n n e d f o r th e
group w ere so u rc e s o f p o s s ib le p ro b lem s,
A l i s t o f th o s e a c ­
t i v i t i e s , com piled by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s ,
i s g iv e n on page 185 of th e A ppendix,
The p o in t o f view h e re
assum ed, how ever, i s t h a t problem s n o t a n t i c i p a t e d by th e
s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p may be s i g n i f i c a n t o n e s , and t h a t th e s e
problem s may be o f v a lu e in r e v is in g and a d j u s tin g th e program
of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
Have w e, a s e d u c a to r s , been a s k e e n ly aw are o f th e
le a r n in g problem s o f s tu d e n ts in c o lle g e as we have b e e n of
th o s e o f c h i ld r e n in th e elem e n tary sc h o o l?
Would t h i s n o t
in s u r e more e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n in c o lle g e a s i t h as done
in th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l?
Many a re th e w ell-know n i n v e s t i ­
g a tio n s w ith c h i ld r e n t o d eterm in e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s in r e a d ­
in g and s p e l l i n g , f o r exam ple, in o rd e r t o r e v i s e c u r r i c u l a ,
and t o improve te a c h in g p ro c e d u re s .
Is i t n o t p s y c h o lo g ic a lly
sound t o a p p ly s i m i l a r p ro c e d u re s tow ard th e problem s s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s meet in t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s ?
T here fo llo w in t h i s c h a p te r t a b l e s c o n c e rn in g th e
d i f f i c u l t i e s in d ic a t e d i n D ire c te d T eaching
a b r i e f d is c u s s io n o f e a c h o f th e t a b l e s .
I,
to g e th e r w ith
These t a b l e s show;
(a ) th e item s of d i f f i c u l t y ( f o r e a c h o f th e J u n io r c l a s s e s
50
b e in g s tu d ie d ) c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e m ajor c a t e g o r i e s ; (b) th e
fre q u e n c y of m ention o f e a c h d i f f i c u l t y by each of th e g ro u p s,
th e s tu d e n t te a c h e rs and th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r­
v i s o r s ; (c) th e p e r c e n t o f fre q u e n c y o f m en tio n o f each d i f ­
f i c u l t y by each o f th e g ro u p s; (d) th e t o t a l s in f re q u e n c ie s
and p e r ce n ts f o r th e two g ro u p s .
I t w i l l be n o te d in th e t a b l e s th ro u g h o u t t h i s stu d y
t h a t , i n most c a s e s , fe w e r d i f f i c u l t i e s a re in d ic a te d f o r b o t h
th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r c l a s s e s of 1939-1940 th a n f o r th e
ju n io r and th e s e n io r c l a s s e s o f 1938-1939.
r e q u ir e an e x p la n a tio n .
Th*s seems t o
I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t th e p la n
approved b y th e sp o n so rs of t h i s s tu d y c a l l s f o r an i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e members of th e ju n io r and th e
s e n io r c l a s s e s e n r o lle d in th e c o lle g e d u rin g th e y e a r 19381939.
Those s tu d e n ts were t o subm it d i a r i e s e a c h day th e y had
any c o n ta c t w ith th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l.
The stu d y grew to
in c lu d e , a s su p p le m e n ta l m a t e r i a l , d i f f i c u l t i e s from th e
d i a r i e s w r i t t e n b y th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r c l a s s e s e n r o lle d
i n th e c o lle g e d u rin g th e y e a r 1939-1940.
These s tu d e n ts ,
how ever, were asked t o su b m it d i a r i e s o n ly when th e y had any­
t h in g of s ig n if ic a n c e t o r e p o r t .
By t h i s method th e i n v e s t i ­
g a t o r hoped to s e c u re a d d i t i o n a l , and p e rh a p s , more v a lid
e v id e n c e of th e item s o f d i f f i c u l t y .
The t a b l e s In c lu d e d in
C h a p ters I I I , IV, and V, in c lu d e i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a .
The d i f ­
f e r e n c e i n c o l l e c t i n g th e d a t a seems to s tr e n g th e n r a t h e r th a n
t o weaken th e v a lu e of th e s tu d y , sin c e th e p e r c e n ts o f t o t a l
51
fre q u e n c ie s and n o t th e t o t a l f re q u e n c ie s a re c o n s id e re d in
i n t e r p r e t i n g th e d a t a .
T ab le I , on page 5 2 , d e a ls w ith th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f
th e ju n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1939 t h a t were ta b u la te d u n d e r th e
m ajor c a te g o ry o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y .
F or each of th e su b ­
d iv is io n s in t h i s c a te g o r y , th e d a ta show th e fre q u e n c y o f men­
t i o n and th e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l fre q u e n c y f o r th e fo llo w in g :
(1) th e tw e n ty -f iv e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ; (2) th e s ix t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s ; (3) b o th g ro u p s above m en tio n ed .
These d a ta a l s o i n d ic a t e th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of th o se d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s by g r a d e s .
S tr i k in g d if f e r e n c e s c o n c e rn in g s e v e r a l item s a re e v i ­
d en t i n th e t o t a l p e r c e n t o f fre q u e n c ie s m entioned by th e
two g ro u p s , th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and
s u p e r v is o r s .
The m ost s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s are in th e f o l ­
low ing ite m s : (1) o b se rv in g le s s o n s ta u g h t by a t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r and u n d e rs ta n d in g te c h n iq u e , w ith 14.55 p e r c e n t men­
t i o n by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and 2.7 p e r c e n t m ention by th e
su p e rv is o ry g ro u p ; (2) c la ssro o m management w ith 14.55 p e r
cen t and 7 .0 3 p e r c e n t m e n tio n , r e s p e c tiv e ly ; (3) o b se rv in g
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s ' work w ith c h i ld r e n w ith 1 .4 p e r c e n t and
6.49 p e r c e n t m e n tio n , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and (4) o b se rv in g w ith ­
out c o n fe re n c e f o llo w in g f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w ith 3 .8 p e r c e n t
and 9 .7 3 p e r c e n t m e n tio n , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e n t o f m ention by th e two
groups to g e th e r w ith t h e number of s i g n i f i c a n t item s w ith
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53
w hich t h e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s had d i f f i c u l t y , a s m entioned by
b o th g ro u p s , te n d s to in d ic a te s (1) a la c k o f o r g a n iz a tio n in
th e c o u rse e n t i t l e d D ire c te d T eaching I , and th u s a need f o r
r e o r g a n iz a tio n and s t a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y th e o b je c tiv e s of th e
c o u rs e ; (2) a need f o r more g u id an ce o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ;
(3) a need f o r p la c in g few er s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith one group
of c h ild r e n and one t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r .
The s u g g e stio n th a t more s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s be s e ­
l e c t e d i s in k eep in g w ith s ta te m e n ts made by S ch o rlin g ^ - and
by P ick e n s and S c h o rlin g .
The fo llo w in g p a ra g ra p h i s ta k e n
from th e la st-n a m e d r e f e r e n c e :
D ire c te d te a c h in g need3 t o p r o f i t by p ro c e d u re s
t h a t have been em ployed in some o f o u r sc h o o l
s u b j e c t s . The s ta te m e n t of aim s f o r th e s e su b ­
j e c t s in w hich advance h a s b een m ost pronounced
seems to have p assed th ro u g h t h r e e s t a g e s . In
th e f i r s t s ta g e we h av e th e s ta te m e n t o f a few
g e n e ra l aim s. In th e seco n d th e r e i s an e f f o r t
t o expand th e number o f aims as g e n e ra l o b je c tiv e s
and to d e fin e them b y d e s c r i p t i v e s ta te m e n ts i n ­
c lu d in g i l l u s t r a t i o n s . In th e t h i r d l i s t th e
i n v e s t i g a t o r fo rm u la te s a lo n g l i s t o f s p e c i f i c
s k i l l s , c o n c e p ts , a t t i t u d e s , and so o n . I t would
seem d e s ir a b le on b e h a lf o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g , t h a t
h av in g p assed th ro u g h tw o of th e s e s t a g e s , we now
ta k e th e t h i r d s te p by m aking th e a n a ly s is r e ­
q u i s i t e to s e c u rin g a d e t a i l e d s ta te m e n t o f
s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s .2
The o p in io n e x p re sse d in th e above q u o ta tio n i s a ls o
1.
2.
R a le ig h S c h o rlin g , D ire c te d T ea ch in g . T w enty-T hird Year
b o o k , The N a tio n a l S o c ie ty o f C o lleg e te a c h e r s o f
E d u c a tio n , p . 134.
H orace D. P ick en s and R a le ig h S c h o r lin g , The C o r r e la tio n
of P r o f e s s io n a l Work. S e v e n te e n th A nnual S e s s io n .
S u p e rv is o rs o f S tu d en t te a c h in g , p . 5 9 .
54
e x p re s se d by K opel, W a tte n b e rg , and D eboer3- In an a r t i c l e
co n c ern in g th e s e t t i n g up o f th e new c u rric u lu m a t Chicago
T each ers C o lle g e .
W illia m s2 p r e s e n ts a s im ila r p o in t o f view .
H enderson3 h as p o in te d out a need f o r more guidance
o f stu d e n t te a c h e r s i n t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l w ork.
T hat
t h i s i s a need in th e S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u ry
seems e v id e n t.
S ta te m e n ts Horn w hich th e s e d a ta were d e riv e d
f r a n k ly e x p re s s su ch a n eed .
One t r a i n i n g te a c h e r w rote on
O ctober 31, 1938:
These ju n io r s j u s t a r e n o t g e t t i n g an y th in g out
o f t h e i r o b s e rv a tio n u n le s s a te a c h e r (s u p e r­
v is o r ) i s w ith them t o d i r e c t i t and t o d is c u s s
i t . We ( t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s in ch arg e of c l a s s
groups) j u s t h a v e n 't th e tim e t o h o ld c o n f e r ­
e n c e s . The o th e r p la n , I t h i n k , i s b e t t e r any­
way.
Comments from th e d i a r i e s in c lu d e su ch comments from
s tu d e n t te a c h e rs a s : (1) "We n eed s t i l l more d e f i n i t e th in g s
in d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a tio n .
I d o n 't know what to look f o r " ; and
(2) " I t h in k we would a l l p r o f i t fro m th e r e a d in g and d i s c u s ­
s io n of some of th e problem s o th e r s tu d e n ts a re f in d in g .
I
e n c o u n te r p ro b lem s, b u t when I w r i te them down th e y look so
c h ild is h .
1.
2.
3.
I t en c o u rag es
me t o know t h a t o th e rs have s im ila r
D avid K o p el, W illiam W. W atten b erg and John J . D eboer,
C u rricu lu m R e c o n s tru c tio n a t th e C hicago T each ers
C o lle g e . E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e rv is io n .
XXV (November, 1 9 3 9 ), p . 6 0 l.
P ro f e s s o r J . D. W illia m s , E v a lu a tio n of S tu d en t T ea ch in g ,
E ig h te e n th Annual S e s s io n , S u p e rv is o rs o f S tu d en t
t e a c h i n g , p . 4fe.
E lis h a Lane H enderson, The Organ l z a t i o n and A dm lnist r a t i on
of S tu d en t T each in g i n § t a t e T each ers C o lle g e s , p . 115.
55
p ro b le m s.
P erh ap s th e y are
not so sim p le a f t e r a l l .
C a n 't
we have more tim e t o d is c u s s our problem s?"
The same s tu d y by Henderson^- c o n ta in s a recommenda­
t i o n t h a t n o t more th a n f o u r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s be a s s ig n e d t o
one t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r .
T h is s u g g e s tio n i s in harmony w ith
t h a t g iv e n by D r, Ambrose L , S u h rie in a c o u rse e n t i t l e d ,
S u p e rv is io n and I n s t r u c t i o n i n L a b o ra to ry -S c h o o l D epartm ents
o f T e a c b e r-P re p a rin g I n s t i t u t i o n s , a t p r e s e n t b e in g o f f e r e d
in New York U n iv e r s it y ,
The d a t a re g a rd in g u n d e rsta n d in g c h i l d r e n 's le a r n in g
problem s seems e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .
The p e r c e n ts of t o t a l
m ention r e v e a l t h a t i t ran k s second in o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y by
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , t h i r d by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r­
v i s o r s , and f i r s t by th e groups c o n s id e re d t o g e t h e r .
In a d ­
d i t i o n to th e s e d a t a , th e r e a d e r 's a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d t o th e
d i f f i c u l t i e s m en tio n ed by b o th groups in th e item s l i s t e d
u n d e r g ro u p and c l a s s c o n t r o l .
These ite m s and u n d e rs ta n d in g
c h i l d r e n 's le a r n in g problem s in d ic a te t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
have an i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f c h i ld p sy c h o lo g y , o r t h a t
th e c o u rs e s in p sychology a re n o t f u n c tio n in g e f f e c t u a l l y .
T y p ic a l o f th e rem aik s from th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s c o n c e rn in g
th e need f o r more knowledge o f psychology i s t h i s one from a
d ia r y d a te d O ctober 2 6 , 1938:
"We n eed a s tu d y of th e c h i l ­
d re n - - t h a t I s more s tu d y of th o se u n i t s * and s i m i l a r ones
1,
•»
H enderson, 0 £ , c l t . , p , 115,
R e fe re n ce I s h ere made to u n i t s d e a lin g w ith th e p sy c h o lo g y
o f ch ild h o o d (see u n i t s I I I and IV on p ag es 197-198
of th e A ppendix,)
56
you gave in th e f i r s t w eek."
One re a s o n f o r t h i s a p p a re n t n eed may be found in th e
arrangem ent o f th e c u rric u lu m o f f e r i n g s , c o n c ern in g th e p sy ­
ch ology co u rses (see A ppendix, page 1 9 0 ) .
I t w ill be observed
t h a t G eneral Psychology i s o f f e r e d a s a sophomore s u b je c t and
t h a t E d u c a tio n a l Psychology i s o f f e r e d as a s e n io r s u b je c t.
G eneral P sychology, t h e n , p re c e d e s a l l D ire c te d T eaching, and
E d u c a tio n a l Psychology f o llo w s i t , w h ile no course in C h ild
P sy ch o lo g y , as su ch , i s o f f e r e d .
The p sy ch o lo g y co u rse s as
a t p r e s e n t conducted in th e c o lle g e a r e rem ote from c h ild r e n
and from th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l.
A b a l l o t on c o n t r o v e r s i a l is s u e s in programs o f s t u ­
d e n t te a c h in g re p o r te d by S c h o r lin g 1 shows t h a t 53 p e r cen t
of th e 500 f a c u l ty members in n in e le a d in g te a c h e r-e d u c a tio n
i n s t i t u t i o n s b e lie v e t h a t th e te a c h in g o f e d u c a tio n a l p sy ­
ch ology as a s e p a ra te c o u rse rem o te from la b o ra to ry - s c h o o l
s i t u a t i o n s sh o u ld be aban d o n ed .
W atson^ b e lie v e s t h a t one
le a r n s o f th e n a tu re and th e developm ent o f c h ild r e n th ro u g h
o b se rv in g them a t work and a t p la y b o th i n and out o f t h e i r
c la s s ro o m s .
Henderson s t a t e s , " C la s s e s in th e c o lle g e in ed u ­
c a t i o n a l psychology and e d u c a tio n a l th e o r y sh o u ld observe in
th e t r a in i n g s c h o o l." 3
1.
2.
3.
R a le ig h S c h o rlin g , A B a llo t on C o n tr o v e r s ia l Is s u e s in
Programs o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g . N in e te e n th Annual
S e ssio n , S u p e rv iso rs o f S tu d e n t T each in g , p . 9 .
Goodwin Wat so n , Donald P . C o t t r e l l , and E s th e r M. LloydJo n e s, R e d ire c tin g T each er E d u c a tio n , p . 9 9 .
Henderson, op. c i t . , p . 119.
57
T ab le I I , on page 5 8 , supplem ents T able I (page 52)
and i s s i m i l a r t o i t *
I t shows th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e ju n io r
c la s s o f 1939-1940 t h a t were ta b u la t e d u n d e r th e m ajo r c a te ­
g o ry , o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y .
ta b le seem
C e rta in f a c t s re v e a le d in t h i s
s ig n ific a n t.
In g e n e r a l th e ite m s having a h ig h p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
m ention w ith one c l a s s have a h ig h p e r c e n t w ith th e o th e r
c la s s .
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of th e s i g n i f i c a n t ite m s ,
classroom c o n t r o l , te c h n iq u e s , and u n d e rsta n d in g c h i l d r e n 's
le a rn in g p ro b le m s.
I t i n d i c a t e s , no d o u b t, t h a t th e s e problem s
of stu d e n t te a c h e r s a re p e r s i s t e n t o n es.
I t seems e s p e c i a l l y
s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , in each o f th e t a b l e s , u n d e rs ta n d in g c h i l ­
d r e n 's le a r n in g problem s had a h ig h p e r c e n t o f t o t a l m en tio n
w ith e a c h g ro u p , an d , a l s o , t h a t i t ra n k s f i r s t in d i f f i c u l t y
in th e t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s i n th e m ajor c a te g o ry , o b s e rv a tio n
and s tu d y , as m entioned b y b o th g ro u p s.
T h is f a c t , to g e th e r
w ith th e d i f f i c u l t i e s m entioned co n cern in g group and c l a s s
c o n t r o l, s tr e n g th e n s th e s u g g e s tio n made In th e d is c u s s io n
fo llo w in g T able I t h a t th e r e i s need t o make th e p sy ch o lo g y
co u rse s in th e c o lle g e f u n c tio n .
The d i f f i c u l t i e s co n c e rn in g
th e item s l i s t e d voider group and c l a s s c o n tr o l a re p l a i n l y a
p a r t of u n d e r s ta n d in g th e p r i n c i p l e s o f c h ild p sy c h o lo g y .
T ab le I I , t h e n , a l s o shows a need f o r a b e t t e r o r g a n i­
z a tio n of th e c o u rse e n t i t l e d D ire c te d T eaching ^ and f o r more
s u p e rv is o ry g u id a n c e of th e te a c h e r s in t r a i n i n g .
1*
H enderson, oj>, c i t . , p . - 8 0 .
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59
recommends th a t, In g e n e r a l in te a c h e r s c o l l e g e s ,t h e r e be more
c o n fe re n c e s , more tim e f o r c o n f e r e n c e s , and a d e f i n i t e l y
sch ed u led tim e f o r c o n f e r e n c e s .
S tu d en t te a c h e r s , t r a i n i n g
t e a c h e r s , and s u p e rv is o rs have com plained about th e need f o r
tim e f o r c o n fe re n c e s in th e c o lle g e b e in g s tu d ie d .
Extrem e d if f e r e n c e s o f m ention o f c e r t a i n item s in
th e two ta b le s a r e e v i d e n t .
fo llo w in g :
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f th e
b e g in n in g r e a d in g , m a n ag in g rest p e r io d s , and ob­
se rv in g s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s 1 work w ith c h i l d r e n .
th e s e d if f e r e n c e s a r e , p e r h a p s , th e s e f a c t o r s :
Reasons f o r
(1) a d i f ­
fe re n c e in p e rs o n n e l of th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , and of one of
th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s (a change o f o n e - s ix th o f th e e n t i r e
s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p )? (2) th e s iz e o f th e c l a s s e s th e re b y mak­
in g i t n e c e s s a ry f o r each o f th e f o u r t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs t o
have e ig h t or n in e s tu d e n ts in h e r c lassro o m in 1939-1940
in s te a d of s ix o r sev en as in 1938-1939; (3) d if f e r e n c e s in
c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s in w hich th e stu d e n t te a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d
d u rin g th e two y e a r s .
T able I I I , on page 60, shows th a t e ig h t ty p e s o f d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s were c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r th e m ajo r c a te g o r y , c l a s s ­
room management and p u p il c o n t r o l .
In t h i s t a b l e i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o n o tic e t h a t , f o r
th e most p a r t , th e item s ra n k in g h ig h in p er c e n t of m ention
by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a l s o r a n k h ig h i n p er c e n t of m ention b y
th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p .
Those item s a l s o r a n k h ig h by th e two
groups c o n s id e re d t o g e t h e r .
F or exam ple, s u p e rv is in g p lay g ro u n d s
The D iffic u ltie s Enoountered by Twenty-Five Student Teachers (Junior Class 1938-1939) in Classroom Manage­
ment and Pupil Control During Directed Teaching I as Indioated by Those Students and by
Their Training Teachers and Supervisors
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61
ra n k s second In d i f f i c u l t y w ith ea c h group c o n s id e re d
s e p a r a te ly ; t h i s item t i e s f o r f i r s t p la c e w ith s u p e r v is in g
a c la ssro o m , when one c o n s id e r s th e p e r c e n t o f f r e q u e n c ie s
by b o th groups*
The ite m l a s t named ra n k s f i r s t in o r d e r o f
m ention by th e s u p e rv is o ry group and f o u r th w ith th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs *
A s t a r t l i n g d if f e r e n c e b etw een th e p e r c e n t o f men­
t i o n by th e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and t h e i r s u p e r v is o r s i s fo u n d in
th e ite m h a n d lin g b e h a v io r problem s o f in d iv id u a ls *
T h is may
be due t o th e f a c t t h a t members o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f te n
to o k sm a ll groups o f c h ild r e n i n t o one o f th e t e a c h e r ’ s o f ­
f i c e s f o r some i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .
P ro b a b ly s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s d id not t e l l t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s of th e problem s
th a t a ro s e when th e y were alone w ith th e c h i l d r e n , b u t t h a t
th e y d id r e p o r t many o f them in th e d i a r i e s su b m itte d t o th e
in v e s tig a to r *
I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t many o f th e ite m s i n t h i s
t a b l e a r e r e l a t e d t o th e psych o lo g y of ch ild h o o d and t h a t th e
h ig h e s t p e r
c e n t o f d i f f i c u l t i e s f a l l s in th e s e ite m s .
The
d a t a , th e n ,
may be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean (1) t h a t s tu d e n t t e a ­
c h e rs la c k a knowledge of c h i l d n a tu re in g e n e r a l, o r t h a t th e
knowledge o f p sy c h o lo g y t h a t th e y p o sse ss i s n o t f u n c tio n in g
in th e " i n t e g r a t e d c u rric u lu m " ; (2) t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s have
i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge
of th e groups and th e in d iv i d u a ls w ith
whom th e y a re w o rking; (3) t h a t t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r­
v is o r s ex p e c t more of th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n a c t i v i t i e s co n ­
62
c e rn e d w ith management and p u p il c o n t r o l th a n th e s tu d e n ts
a r e cap ab le o f d o in g a t t h i s s ta g e o f t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
e x p e r ie n c e s .
I t fo llo w s , th e n , t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s would
e x p e c t more o f th e m se lv e s th a n th e y a r e a b le t o acco m p lish ;
(4) t h a t th e s u p e rv is o ry group h as not l i s t e d th e s p e c i f i c
a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich s tu d e n t te a c h e r s sh o u ld en g ag e.
The i n v e s t i g a t o r a g re e s w ith th e o p in io n s e x p re s se d
by Embree-1- t h a t , to be s u c c e s s f u l , th e te a c h e r on th e jo b o r
th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r must be ta u g h t th e te c h n iq u e s o f p u p il
a n a ly s is and of g e t t i n g a c q u a in te d w ith p u p i l s .
Embree b e ­
lie v e s t h a t i t i s c l e a r l y th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e " t r a i n i n g
sc h o o l" t o h e lp s tu d e n t te a c h e r s t o u n d e rs ta n d th e c h ild r e n
w ith whom th e y a r e w orking.
An im p o rta n t q u e s tio n , t h e n , f o r
th e s u p e r v is o r y group seems to b e , "Do we g iv e s tu d e n ts in
t r a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t h e lp in knowing c h ild r e n a s in d iv id u a ls ? "
T hat s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w i l l p r o f i t b y th e h e lp g iv e n
them in u n d e rs ta n d in g c h ild r e n , and th a t th e tim e g iv e n t h a t
a c t i v i t y i n th e c o lle g e a t S a lis b u ry i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i s in ­
d ic a te d by th e rem arks in t h i s d ia r y :
I c a n 't seem t o g e t much out o f o b s e rv a tio n —
I mean j u s t a group o f u s o b se rv in g in a room.
I do g e t som ething from our o b s e rv a tio n s when a
s u p e r v is o r accom panies u s and we d is c u s s what we
have s e e n . These ca se s tu d ie s now I They have
h e lp e d me t o know th a t I need t o s tu d y and t r y t o
h e lp e a c h c h ild i f I r e a l l y am t o te a c h . I was
1.
R oyal B. Embree, J r . , P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Guidance f o r
S tu d e n t T e a c h e rs . E d u c a tio n . LIX (O c to b e r, 1 9 3 8 ),
p . 620,
63
n o t a b le t o g e t a l l o f th e in fo rm a tio n I w anted
d u rin g th e f i r s t f o u r w eeks. I f we co u ld only
do more o f th a t work now i t would h e lp me and
o t h e r s , t o o , I know#
The s u p e rv is o ry s t a f f a t th e S t a te T each ers C o lleg e a t
S a lis b u r y a g re e s t h a t i f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a re t o a c q u ire
a knowledge o f th e s u b je c t m a tte r o f p sy ch o lo g y and an a p p l i ­
c a t i o n o f th e p r in c ip l e s of i t a s a p a r t o f th e c o u rse D ire c te d
T each in g I* t h a t more tim e must be a l l o t t e d t o t h a t co u rse #
T able IV, on page 64, g iv e s f o r th e ju n io r c l a s s o f
1939-1940 s i m i l a r d a ta t o t h a t c o n ta in e d in T ab le I I I (page 60)
f o r th e ju n i o r c l a s s of 1938-1939#
I t c o n ta in s one ite m le s s
s in c e no m en tio n was made o f h a n d lin g books and s u p p lie s by
e i t h e r o f th e groups r e p o r t i n g .
An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e d a ta
u n d er ite m 1 may be t h a t e i t h e r th e members o f t h i s c l a s s had
no d u t i e s o f a ro u tin e n a tu r e in th e c a re o f a c la ssro o m , o r
t h a t th e y w ere n o t given r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r th o s e a c t i v i t i e s .
Knowing th e u n d e s ira b le s i t u a t i o n c r e a te d by th e number o f
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s '5** in each of th e c la s s ro o m s , and th e la c k of
d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e d a c t i v i t i e s in th e program o f d ir e c te d te a c h ­
in g , th e i n v e s t i g a t o r h as re a s o n t o b e lie v e t h a t th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s in t h i s c l a s s d id n o t p a r t i c i p a t e in many d u t i e s p e r *■ The c u rric u lu m o f f e r in g s (Appendix C, page 190) show t h a t
D ire c te d T eaching I , E d u c a tio n 301, m eets a minimum
of two se m e ste r h ours a week w ith one se m e ste r h o u r of
c re d it #
The s i z e o f th e ju n i o r c la s s made i t n e c e s s a ry t o a s s ig n
e ig h t or n in e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s t o ea ch o f th e f o u r
t r a i n i n g fce&ohdrs#_
64
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t a i n i n g t o th e c a re of th e roam .
L ik e n e sse s i n th e two ta b le s
a r e e v id e n t i n th e ty p e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s l i s t e d u n d e r sub­
d i v i s i o n B, c o n tr o l o f p u p i l s .
T h is te n d s t o supplem ent
th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e r e d f o r th e s e ite m s i n T ab le I I I and
t o s t r e s s a need e s p e c i a lly f o r " f u n c tio n a l" c o u rs e s i n psy ­
c h o lo g y .
A ccording t o th e d a ta p r e s e n te d in T able V, on page
6 6 , i t seems t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s te n d n o t to r e c o g n iz e , or
n o t t o m e n tio n , many of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s of a p e r s o n a l n a ­
tu re ,
I t w i l l , a l s o , be o b se rv e d t h a t th e h ig h e s t p e r cent
of d i f f i c u l t i e s m entioned by them occur in item s t h a t a r e , or
te n d t o b e , e a s i l y re c o g n iz e d .
F or exam ple, im proving hand­
w r itin g has tw en ty p e r cen t o f th e t o t a l m ention by stu d e n t
te a c h e r s ; overcoming s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s h a s th e same p e r c e n t;
w inning th e c h ild r e n , r e t a i n i n g p o i s e , and im proving v o ice
and sp e ech each have 11,66 p e r c e n t and ra n k n e x t i n o rd e r of
d iffic u lty .
The d a ta r e v e a l t h a t th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and su p e r­
v is o r s m en tio n ed , in s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t s , th e fo llo w in g
ty p e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s w hich most o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ten d
n o t t o re c o g n iz e in th e m se lv e s: b e in g r e s o u r c e f u l , b e in g
e t h i c a l in th e u se of s u p p lie s , b e in g s u f f i c i e n t l y firm to
i n v i t e th e c h i l d r e n ’ s r e s p e c t , and r e p e a tin g c h i l d r e n ’ s an sw ers.
No d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith th e s e f o u r ite m s w ere in d ic a t e d by th e
p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e rs in t h e i r d i a r i e s .
I t w i l l be n o te d , a ls o ,
t h a t th e item b e in g re s p o n s iv e t o c h i l d r e n h as a t& ta l m ention
66
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67
of o n ly 3 ,3 3 p e r c e n t b y s tu d e n t te a c h e r s as c o n tr a s te d w ith
8 ,8 6 p e r c e n t o f m en tio n by th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p .
What d o es i t a l l s ig n i f y ?
d en t te a c h e r s a r e
I t te n d s t o show t h a t s t u ­
n o t g iv e n s u f f i c i e n t s u p e rv is o ry g u id a n c e ,
and t h a t , p e r h a p s , n o t enough tim e i s d ev o ted t o f r a n k , f r i e n d l y
d is c u s s io n o f r e a l problem s d u rin g th e c o n fe re n c e p e r io d s .
The
g e n e ra l te n d e n c y of s tu d e n t te a c h e r s to se e and t o r e p o r t what
i s p o in te d out t o them seems t o j u s t i f y th e o p in io n j u s t s t a t e d .
T hen, to o , th e d a ta may mean t h a t members o f th e s u p e rv is o ry
group a r e n o t s tu d y in g , s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , th e s tu d e n t te a c h e rs
as i n d iv i d u a ls , an d t h a t th e y a r e th u s n o t re c o g n iz in g i n ­
d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s a s th e y w ould, no d o u b t, in a group o f
c h ild r e n in th e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l.
In t h a t c a s e th e y a r e n o t
g iv in g each in d iv i d u a l s tu d e n t t e a c h e r ad e q u ate h e lp w ith h is
p ro b lem s.
The fo llo w in g comments from some of th e d i a r i e s a re
t y p i c a l ones t h a t r e f l e c t th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r ’s need f o r
guidance w ith problem s of a p e r s o n a l n a tu r e :
1,
I t seems t o me th a t th e g r e a t e s t o b s ta c le t o p r o s ­
p e c tiv e te a c h e r s i s th e developm ent of a te a c h in g
p e rs o n a lity ,
2,
We do have a d ju s tm e n t problem s t h a t we need t o d i s ­
cu ss w ith som eone. We have b e e n b ro u g h t up t o f e e l
t h a t we m ust i n h i b i t
a l l our r e a l th o u g h ts and tr u e
f e e l i n g s . Som ething happens to u s d u rin g
th e m iddle
g r a d e s , in s c h o o l, a t home — somewhere. W6 younger
p eo p le b e g in to f e e l
t h a t we h av e t o make
a l l th e a d ­
ju s tm e n ts i f we g e t a lo n g .
T hat th e r e i s need in te a c h e r - p r e p a r in g i n s t i t u t i o n s
68
t o c o n s id e r each s tu d e n t te a c h e r a s an in d i v i d u a l , a s a p e r ­
s o n a l i t y , was m entioned i n C h ap ter I o f t h i s docum ent.
I t is
p ro b a b ly tr u e t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y a d ju stm e n ts a r e o f te n t h e
cau se o f f a i l u r e
in b o th p r e - s e r v ic e and i n - s e r v i c e te a c h in g ,
De Young v e n tu re s t h i s o p in io n :
"The i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f th e
te a c h e r i s s a c r e d , b u t we c a n h e lp him t o grow .
The s u p e r ­
v is o r i s a s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g is t who se e k s to d ev e lo p th e p e r ­
s o n a l i t y o f th e t e a c h e r f o r th e good of s o c i e t y , ” 1
P Ick en a and S c h o rlin g s t a t e , ” ,,,w e have come to see
th e n eed f o r g r e a t e r em phasis upon th e p e rs o n a l and s o c i a l d e ­
velopm ent o f p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s , ”^
The d a ta may r e v e a l , a l s o , t h a t th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r ’ s
f e a r of c r i t i c i s m , o f th e te a c h in g a c t i v i t y , or o f th e c h i l ­
d ren may be c a u s in g some o f th e item s o f d i f f i c u l t y e n u m e ra te d ,
and t h a t th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs are n o t k e e n ly
aware o f t h i s .
T hree ite m s h av in g a t o t a l o f 3 9 ,9 9 p e r ce n t
of a l l th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in d ic a te d by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a re :
overcom ing s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s , r e t a i n i n g p o is e , and b e in g
a le rt.
These d a t a seem to j u s t i f y th e s ta te m e n t t h a t s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r s ' f e a r may be a f a c t o r n o t f u l l y re c o g n iz e d n o r u n d e r­
sto o d by th e s u p e r v is o r y g ro u p .
The fo llo w in g o b s e r v a tio n co n c ern in g t h i s problem was
^
1,
2,
C h ris A, De Young, T rends and P o s s i b i l i t i e s in S u p er­
v i s i o n , E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e r v is io n .
XXIV ( A p r il, 1 9 3 8 ), p . 275,
H orace D, P ick e n s and R a le ig h S c h o r lin g , The C o r r e la tio n
o f P r o f e s s io n a l Work, S e v e n te e n th A nnual S e s s io n .
S u p e rv is o rs o f Student_ te a c h in g , p . # 7 .
69
made by M yers:
In te a c h e r t r a i n i n g sc h o o ls g re a t p ro g re s s h as
b een made In th e s e l e c t i o n of th o se to be a d ­
m i t t e d , P ar l e s s p ro g re s s seems t o have b ee n
made, how ever, in d ev e lo p in g s o c i a l courage and
s e lf - c o n f id e n c e i n th e young men and women d u r in g
p ra c tic e -te a c h in g .
U ndoubtedly th e ’b r a s s f r o n t ’ i s a p o s s e s s io n
o f th e c a d e t te a c h e r o v e r - ra te d by th e c r i t i c
te a c h e r o r d i r e c t o r o f t r a i n i n g . On th e o th e r
h an d , alm o st a l l o th e r good q u a l i t i e s may be o v er­
shadowed b y e x c e s s iv e p e r s o n a l i t y - f e a r m a n ife s te d
by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r whose t r a i n i n g d e m o n stra ­
t i o n i s t o be r e p o r te d a s ’p a s s in g ’ o r ’u n s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y ’ b y th e c r i t i c e x p e rt o b se rv in g h e r . l
T h at th o se i n ch arg e o f stu d e n t te a c h e r s sh o u ld be
f a m i l i a r w ith th e c a s e h i s t o r y o f ea ch in d iv id u a l has b een
p o in te d out b y
F l o w
e r s
Wightman, in d is c u s s in g th e s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r 's f e a r o f c r i t i c i s m , u s e s t h i s e f f e c t i v e p h ra s e in
r e f e r r i n g t o a d v e rse c r i t i c i s m , " th e d e v i l ’ s own d e v ic e f o r
d e s tr o y in g p e r s o n a l i t y . " 3
A s tu d y o f T able V I, on page 70 , seems t o add o b je c ­
t i v e e v id e n c e to t h e d is c u s s io n of T able V (page 66) g iv e n
on th e p re c e d in g p a g e s .
No s i g n i f i c a n t d if f e r e n c e s a p p e a r in
th e d a ta in th e two t a b l e s , b u t a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y i s found
in th e s e t h r e e ite m s seem in g ly r e l a t e d t o th e f e a r s tu d e n t
1.
2.
3.
G arry C. M yers, P e a r o f th e C r i t i c T e a c h e r. The J o u m a l
o f E d u c a tio n . CXVIII (O ctober 21, 1 9 3 5 ), p . 4 l¥ I
John i5. F lo w e rs, S o c ia l A djustm ents and G uidance from th e
S ta n d p o in t o f th e T e a c h e r. Problem s in T e a c h e r T ra in ­
in g , X II (1 9 3 7 ), p . 10 .
C l a i r S . W ightman, O p p o rtu n itie s f o r P o s te r in g Growth i n
th e C lassro o m . Problem s in T eacher T r a in in g , X II ,
p . 141.
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71
te a c h e r s show: r e t a i n i n g p o i s e , overcom ing s e lf - c o n s c io u s n e s s ,
and b e in g a l e r t .
The t o t a l p e r cen t o f m ention o f th e s e th r e e
item s b y b o th groups (s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
and s u p e r v is o r s c o n s id e re d to g e th e r ) i s 28.04 p e r c e n t in
T able V (page 6 6 )j i t i s 2 8 .6 8 p e r c e n t in T ab le VI (page 7 0 ).
I t may be t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s m entioned c o n c e rn in g ” b e in g i n ­
t e r s s t e d Msh o u ld be spoken o f as r e l a t e d to f e a r .
I f th a t
item i s added to t h e t o t a l s j u s t g iv e n th e s i m i l a r i t y re m a in s ,
f o r i t h as 6.59 p e r c e n t o f m ention in T able V, and 6 .2 9 p e r
cen t in T able V I.
A g ain , t h e n , th e n eed f o r th e u n d e rs ta n d in g
and th e guidance o f s tu d e n t te a c h e rs a s in d iv id u a ls i s r e v e a le d .
In th e two t a b l e s ev id en ce accu m u lates f o r a need f o r
making E n g lis h f u n c t i o n .
The d a ta may p o in t to a need f o r
p ro v id in g c l i n i c a l work in v o ic e and sp eech and re m e d ia l w ork
in E n g lis h .
C oncerning th e u se of e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s io n , W rinkle
c o n s id e rs t h a t
. . . e f f e c t i v e and f o r c e f u l o r a l e x p r e s s io n i s an
e s s e n t i a l a b i l i t y in th e c lassro o m i n s t r u c t i o n a l
and many o th e r d u tie s of th e te a c h e r . As s u c h ,
th e p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r sh o u ld be s tu d ie d c a r e ­
f u l l y in th e p e r io d fo llo w in g a d m issio n f o r th e
p u rp o se o f d is c o v e r in g sp eech d e f e c t s and a d v is in g
c o r r e c t iv e and re m e d ia l m e a su re s. C o r r e c tiv e
sp e e c h c o u rs e s sh o u ld be o f fe re d and p r e s c r ib e d
w ith j u s t a s much care as i s e x e r c is e d in grammar
and c o m p o s itio n .!
1.
W illia m L. W rin k le , An A n a ly s is of th e D i f f i c u l t i e s o f
B eg in n in g StudenF~Teiachers i n th e S econdary SchooT.
U np u b lish ed !Ph.t). T h esis," frew York Uni v e r s i t y ," l9 '3 2 ,
p p . 83-84•
72
A n eed f o r h e lp in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in g e n e r a l t 6 im­
prove in p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i s s t a t e d by W atson:
T here i s much e v id e n c e t o in d ic a te need f o r op­
p o r t u n i t y t o improve s k i l l s in : (a) sp e e c h ,
lb ) w r i t t e n E n g lis h ; (c) m en tal h y g ie n e ; and
(d) a p p e a ra n c e , d r e s s and e t i q u e t t e . •• I n s t r u c ­
t i o n o f t h i s ty p e , r e q u ir in g la b o r a to r y work and
in d iv i d u a l a t t e n t i o n , i s c o s t l y in s t a f f tim e ,
b u t 3eems e s s e n t i a l i f th e p r o f e s s io n a l ed u c a­
t i o n of our g ra d u a te s i s to be ju d g ed in term s of
com petency f o r s u c c e s s f u l work in th e p r o f e s s i o n . !
A s tu d y o f th e d a ta in T able V II , on page 7 3 , te n d s
t o r e v e a l s e v e r a l w eak n esses In th e p r e s e n t program o f d i ­
r e c t e d te a c h in g i n th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u r y ,
M aryland:
(1) t h a t th e " in t e g r a te d program"'* i s n o t f u n c ­
tio n i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; (2) t h a t th e r e i s need t o s e l e c t and
t o s t a t e s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s f o r th e program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h ­
in g ; (3) t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s la c k a f u n c tio n a l knowledge o f
p sy c h o lo g y .
F i r s t , c o n s id e r th e t o t a l p e r c e n t o f m en tio n o f d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s c o n c e rn in g the n in e ite m s l i s t e d u n d er p la n n in g
( s u b - d iv is io n s A and B ).
The f ig u r e s r e v e a l u n if o rm ity o f
agreem ent by th e two g ro u p s.
The t o t a l p e r c e n t o f m ention
o f th e s e n in e Item s i s 28.82 by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ; i t i s
28 .9 0 by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs and s u p e r v is o r s .
These d a ta
seem t o in d i c a t e t h a t b o th groups re c o g n iz e problem s c o n c e rn -
1.
■s*
W atson, C o t t r e l l and L lo y d -Jo n e3 , oj). c i t . . p . 4 3 .
E x p la in e d in f o o tn o te on page 4 .
CO
05
opepouanbejj Teq-Oj;
The D iffic u ltie s Encountered by Twenty-Five Student Teaohers (Junior Class 1938-1939) in Planning and
Teaohing during Directed Teaching I as Indicated by Those Students and by Their Training
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74
in g p la n n in g and a re w i l l i n g to s t a t e them .
Since th e course "T echnique o f T eaching" was d i s ­
c o n tin u e d , as su c h , and an e f f o r t h a s b ee n made t o i n t e g r a t e
i t w ith o th e r la b o ra to ry - s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e s , in g e n e r a l, th e re
has e x i s te d a la c k of d e f i n i t e n e s s a s t o e x a c tly what i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s co n c ern in g te c h n iq u e s sh o u ld be in c lu d e d in
th e program o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g .
T h is , to g e th e r w ith th e f a c t
th a t th e r e h as b een no d e f i n i t e a l l o c a t i o n o f d u t i e s c o n c e rn ­
in g th e te a c h in g of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , has ca u sed a co n fu ­
s io n n o t conducive to e f f e c t i v e te a c h in g and l e a r n in g .
t i o n s f r e q u e n tly ask ed w ere:
ta u g h t? "
Ques­
"When sh o u ld le s s o n p la n n in g be
"Who sh o u ld te a c h i t ? "
"Are th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d
s u b je c t- m a tte r i n s t r u c t o r s te a c h in g le s s o n p la n n in g ? "
Do
th e s e f a c t s n o t in d ic a te t h a t th e " i n t e g r a t e d program " i s
n o t f u n c tio n in g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ?
Second, c o n s id e r th e r e l a t i v e l y la rg e number o f item s
l i s t e d u n d er s u b - d iv is io n C, e x e c u tin g p la n s .
The d i f f i c u l t i e s
a re f a i r l y w e ll d i s t r i b u t e d among th e f i f t e e n item s as men­
tio n e d by b o th th e stu d e n t te a c h e r s and th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p .
These d i f f i c u l t i e s , c o n s id e re d t o g e t h e r , have a h ig h p e r c e n t
of m ention by b o th groups as f o llo w s :
6 3 .4 8 p e r c e n t by th e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ; 60.29 p e r c e n t b y th e s u p e rv is o ry group;
62.74 p e r c e n t t o t a l f re q u e n c ie s by b o th g ro u p s .
The stu d e n t
te a c h e r s seem t o b e most p e r tu r b e d about ite m s 2 , 3 , 6 and
13 i n t h i s s u b - d iv is io n .
I t w i l l be o bserved t h a t th e s e item s
a r e a l l d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o u n d e rs ta n d in g c h i l d r e n , and th u s
75
may show a la c k of f u n c t i o n a l knowledge o f psychology*
For
exam ple, one s tu d e n t w ro te :
T hursday I t r i e d t o t e a c h s e v e n th -g ra d e h i s t o r y .
My, b u t th o s e s e v e n th -g ra d e c h i ld r e n can c e r ­
t a i n l y th in k o f q u e s tio n s to a s k . How does one
h an d le so many q u e s tio n s ? E ver s in c e I ta u g h t
I have been w o rrie d as th e re w ere s e v e r a l boys
who e i t h e r d id n o t lik e me, or d i d n 't u n d e r­
sta n d my te a c h in g . They resp o n d ed v e ry l i t t l e
and seemed n o t i n t e r e s t e d a t a l l .
A nother s tu d e n t commented t h a t sh e co u ld n o t keep th e a t t e n ­
t i o n o f th e f i r s t - a n d se c o n d -g ra d e c h i ld r e n .
The r e l a t i v e l y la rg e number of ite m s , th e n , and th e
h ig h t o t a l p e r ce n t of m en tio n of th e s e item s may mean t h a t
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s a r e e x p e c tin g to o h ig h a d e g re e of s k i l l of s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in e x e c u tin g p la n s a t t h i s
s ta g e o f t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s .
I t seem s, t h e n ,
t h a t th e r e i s a need to s e l e c t and to s t a t e s p e c i f i c o b je c ­
t i v e s f o r e a c h of th e p h a se s of th e program of s tu d e n t te a c h ­
in g .
T h is would te n d t o c e n t e r a t t e n t i o n on th e u n d e rs ta n d in g
and th e a c c e p ta b le p erfo rm an ce of th e few a c t i v i t i e s c o n s id e re d
Im p o rta n t; i t would te n d t o l e s s e n u n n e c e ss a ry c o n fu s io n , an d ,
t h u s , s tu d e n t- te a c h e r le a r n in g would be more e f f e c t u a l l y d i ­
re c te d .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r r e a l i z e s t h a t th e problem s j u s t d i s ­
c u sse d co n cern some of th e p r e s e n t ’’c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s ” in
te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n p ro g ram s.
However, s ta te m e n ts made by au­
t h o r i t i e s i n th e f i e l d of te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n te n d t o su p p o rt
th e f in d in g s i n th e s e d a t a .
In d is c u s s in g a th o ro u g h and
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
LiPPAP {
76
pro g ie s s iv e p r o f e s s io n a l t r a i n i n g a s a n e c e s s a ry p a r t of th e
e d u c a tio n of t e a c h e r s , M cConnell s t a t e s :
How t o o rg a n iz e t h e c u rric u lu m o f t h i s phase o f
t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i s an im p o rta n t p ro b lem . How
s h a l l we in tr o d u c e th e c a n d id a te t o th e p r o f e s ­
s io n ? ,,,W h ic h e x p e rie n c e s a r e most w o r th w h ile ? ..,
A s y s te m a tic program o f p r o f e s s io n a l e d u c a tio n i s
q u ite e s s e n t i a l . Our p h ilo s o p h y must be c o n s is ­
t e n t w ith p r a c t i c e . P r a c tic e sh o u ld o f f e r o p p o r­
t u n i t i e s f o r s e e in g th e o r y a p p l i e d . The co u rses
in p sy ch o lo g y s h o u ld be i l l u s t r a t e d i n m ethods, and
methods sh o u ld be i n t e g r a t e d in p r a c t i c e . . . , I f
th e o ry and p r a c t i c e a re t o be c o n s is te n t and
te a c h e r s in t r a i n i n g a re n o t t o be c o n fu se d , p s y ­
c h o lo g is ts and p r o f e s s i o n a l w o rk ers sh o u ld ag ree on
t h e i r p o l i c i e s in a g iv e n i n s t i t u t i o n . That i s th e
cru x o f th e m a t t e r .^
The d a ta i n T ab le V I I I , on page 7 7 , show t h a t th e
members o f th e c l a s s of 1939-1940 e n c o u n te re d d i f f i c u l t i e s
s im ila r t o th o s e in d ic a t e d by th e ju n i o r c l a s s of 1938-1939
in T able V II (page 7 3 ) .
No a p p r e c ia b le d if f e r e n c e s in th e
p e r c e n t of t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s m en tio n ed by th e two groups a re
t o be o b se rv e d in th e tw o t a b l e s when one c o n s id e rs th e m ajo r
s u b d iv is io n s .
In T ab le V II , th e n in e item s l i s t e d u n d er mak­
ing p la n s (b o th u n i t and d a i l y p la n s ) have a t o t a l m en tio n of
27.44 p e r c e n t by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
and s u p e r v is o r s ; in T ab le V II I th e s e item s t o t a l 30 .2 8 p e r c e n t.
In T able V II, th e f i f t e e n item s l i s t e d u n d er e x e c u tin g p la n s
have a t o t a l m en tio n of 6 0 .7 4 p e r c e n t by th e two g ro u p s; in
T ab le V III th e s e same ite m s t o t a l 5 9 .8 9 p e r c e n t o f m ention by
1.
R obert E . M cConnell, T each er T ra in in g A p p ro p ria te f o r th e
Modern S c h o o l. E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S uperv l s i o n , XXIV (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 8 ), ‘ p . 1 5 . ' '
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78
th e two g ro u p s .
T able V I I I , t h e r e f o r e , c o n ta in s o b je c tiv e
ev id en ce t h a t may be c o n s id e re d t o s tr e n g th e n th e d is c u s s io n
p r e s e n te d f o r th e p re c e d in g t a b l e .
T ab le IX, on page 7 9 , i s a summary o f a l l th e d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s in d ic a te d by tw e n ty - f iv e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ( ju n io r c l a s s
1938-1939) and th e s ix members o f th e s u p e r v is o r y g ro u p .
It
shows th e m ajor c a te g o r ie s i n t o w hich th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in d ic a te d
in D ir e c te d T eaching I were c l a s s i f i e d , and th e p e r c e n ts f o r
th e s e c a t e g o r i e s , a s f o llo w s :
p la n rtin g and te a c h in g 4 0 .3 ;
o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y 2 6 .2 ; improvement o f persoraL q u a l i t i e s
1 8 .9 ; and c lassro o m management and p u p il c o n t r o l 1 4 .3 .
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e t o t a l p e r c e n t of m ention
by th e s u p e rv is o ry group i s h ig h e r th a n th e t o t a l m ention by
th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in e a c h c a te g o r y w ith th e s in g le ex cep ­
t i o n o f o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y .
In t h a t c a te g o ry and in im­
provem ent of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r e t o be o b serv ed th e g r e a t e s t
d if f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e n t of m ention b y th e two g ro u p s .
A summary of th e a n a ly s e s of th e t a b l e s in c lu d e d in
T able IX seems t o r e v e a l th e f o llo w in g :
1.
T here i s a la c k of o r g a n iz a tio n in th e co u rse e n ­
t i t l e d D ire c te d T eaching jC; t h e r e f o r e , th e r e i s need f o r th o se
i n ch a rg e of th e co u rse t o s e l e c t s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s f o r i t
and t o p la n a s a t i s f a c t o r y way o f a c c o m p lish in g th o se ob­
je c tiv e s .
2.
S tu d en t te a c h e r s n eed more s u p e rv is o ry guidance
w ith ite m s co n cern ed w ith e a c h o f th e m a jo r c a t e g o r i e s .
T h is
Summary of the D iffic u ltie s Encountered by Twenty-Five Student Teachers (Junior Class 1938-1939) During
Directed Teaching I as Indicated by Those Students and by Their Training Teachers and Supervisors
79
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i s e s p e c i a l l y t o be n o te d in th e t a b l e p e r t a i n i n g t o th e im­
provem ent o f p e rs o n a l q u a l itie s *
3*
Each t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s h o u ld be r e s p o n s ib le f o r
n o t more th a n f o u r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a t an y one p e r io d d u rin g
t h i s p h ase of th e program of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
4.
S tu d en t te a c h e rs have an i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge
o f p sy c h o lo g y , e s p e c i a l l y of c h i ld p sy c h o lo g y , o r th e y a r e n o t
a p p ly in g th e knowledge th e y have t o t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s in th e
l a b o r a to r y sch o o l*
5.
S tu d e n t te a c h e rs have in a d e q u a te in fo rm a tio n r e ­
g a rd in g th e c h i ld r e n w ith whom th e y a r e w orking and a r e , t h e r e ­
f o r e , e x p e rie n c in g many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u n d e rs ta n d in g and in
h e lp in g c h i ld r e n and groups of c h i l d r e n ,
6.
The " in te g r a te d program" i s n o t f u n c tio n in g s a t i s ­
f a c t o r i l y a t th e S ta te T eachers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u r y .
7.
th e
A m ajo r t a s k , th e n , f o r th e s u p e r v is o r y group a t
C o lleg e i s t o make th e o b s e rv a tio n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c ­
t i v i t i e s o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s r e a l , v i t a l , and m e a n in g fu l.
A s tu d y o f th e d a ta in T able X, on page 8 1 , r e v e a ls
t h a t th e d a ta p r e s e n te d f o r th e ju n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1940 a re
s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t g iv e n in T a b le IX (page 79) f o r
th e j u n i o r c l a s s of 1938-1939.
L ik e n e ss e s a r e e v id e n t i n th e
t o t a l p e r c e n t of f r e q u e n c ie s i n ea ch o f th© c a t e g o r i e s :
p la n n in g and te a c h in g has th e h ig h e s t p e r c e n t o f m en tio n w ith
e a c h o f th e c l a s s e s , nam ely, 4 0 .3 p e r c e n t f o r th e ju n i o r c l a s s
of 1938-1939, 4 2 .0 7 p e r c e n t f o r th e j u n i o r c l a s s of 1939-1940;
A Summary of the D iffic u ltie s Enoountered by Thirty-Three Student Teachers (Junior Class 1939-1940) During
Directed Teaohing I as Indicated by Those Students and by Their Training Teachers and Supervisors
81
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o b s e rv a tio n and stu d y ran k s second h av in g 2 7 ,5 7 p e r c e n t and
2 6 ,2 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ; improvement o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s
i s t h i r d w ith 18,9 and 18,34 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ; classro o m
management and p u p il c o n tr o l i s l a s t w ith 1 4 .3 p e r c e n t and
12 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .
L ik e n e sse s a r e a l s o to be o b serv ed in th e t o t a l p er
c e n t of m en tio n by each of th e groups c o n s id e re d s e p a r a t e l y .
In each of th e t a b l e s th e d i f f i c u l t i e s co n cern ed w ith o b se r­
v a t io n and s tu d y have a h ig h e r p er c e n t o f m en tio n b y th e s t u ­
d e n t te a c h e r s th a n th e y have by th e s u p e r v is o r y g ro u p ; in each
o f th e t a b l e s d i f f i c u l t i e s co n cern ed w ith p la n n in g and te a c h in g
and w ith improvement o f p e rs o n a l q u a l i t i e s have a h ig h e r p e r
c e n t o f m en tio n by th e s u p e rv is o ry group th a n th e y have by th e
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s .
In only one o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , classro o m
management and p u p il c o n t r o l, i s th e re a d e v ia tio n from t h i s
s im ila rity .
The a d d i tio n a l o b je c tiv e e v id e n c e , t h e n , g iv e n in
t h i s ta b le ,s e e m s t o su p p o rt th e d a ta p r e s e n te d i n T ab le IX
an d , a l s o , th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of th e d a ta in th e d i f f e r e n t
t a b l e s a s o f f e r e d i n th e p re c e d in g p ag e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r .
CHAPTER IV
A STUDY OP DIRECTED TEACHING I I
T h is c h a p te r d e a ls w ith th e d i f f i c u l t i e s en c o u n tered
by s tu d e n t te a c h e rs i n D ire c te d T eaching I I and w ith th e i n ­
t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r th e improvement o f t h a t
phase of th e program o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g .
I t w i l l be r e ­
c a lle d (from a d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e co u rse g iven in C hapter I I )
t h a t members of th e j u n i o r c la s s e x p e rie n c e t h i s s ta g e of
s tu d e n t te a c h in g f o r a minimum o f f o u r hours d a i l y f o r n in e
weeks d u rin g th e seco n d se m e ste r of th e t h i r d y e a r o f c o lle g e
w ork.
S ix m ajor c a te g o r ie s w ere u se d f o r ta b u la tin g th e
t o t a l o f 4 ,8 0 1 d i f f i c u l t i e s '5' o f th e f i f t y - f i v e members of th e
two ju n io r c la s s e s in c lu d e d in t h i s stu d y o f th e program f o r
D ire c te d T eaching I I .
These c a te g o r ie s a r e : s u b je c t m a tte r ,
o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y , p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s , classroom management and p u p il c o n t r o l , improvement
of p e rs o n a l q u a l i t i e s , and p la n n in g and te a c h in g .
Item s of
d i f f i c u l t y in e a c h o f th e s e m ajo r d i v is io n s a re shown i n th e
ta b le s on th e su c c e e d in g p a g e s .
F o llo w in g each ta b le i s an
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e o u ts ta n d in g problem s r e v e a le d ,
*• These d i f f i c u l t i e s w ere I n d ic a te d b y th e members of th e
ju n io r c l a s s of 1938-1939, th e members of th e ju n io r
c la s s of 1939-1940 and by t h e i r tr a in i n g te a c h e rs and
su p e rv is o rs in d i a r i e s and a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s .
83
84
The fo llo w in g exam ples o f d i a r i e s s u b m itte d b y s t u ­
d ent te a c h e r s d u rin g t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s i n D ir e c te d T each in g I I
show t h a t th e y a re q u ite s im ila r to th o s e w r i t t e n b y them d u r­
in g t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s in D ire c te d T eaching JC.
T here is some
ev id en ce t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s now te n d t o f i n d a re a s o n f o r
t h e i r p ro b le m s.
O rg a n iz a tio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r
5 /8 /3 9 , G r.3 -4
In my u n i t on A u s tr a lia I f i n d i t v ery d i f f i c u l t t o o r ­
g a n iz e th e m a t e r i a l I w ish to t e a c h in th e te x tb o o k
w ith t h a t o f o tits id e r e f e r e n c e s . The te x tb o o k does n o t
c o v e r enough m a te r ia l and y e t i t has t o be used some so
th e c h ild r e n have som ething d e f i n i t e upon w hich to b ase
t h e i r s tu d y . In tr y i n g to b r in g i n more m a t e r i a l , I
g e t a l l m ixed up and n e v e r q u ite a c c o m p lish my aim .
Room management, u n d e rsta n d in g c h ild r e n
2 /2 7 /3 9 ,G r .l- 2
I am s t i l l h a v in g q u ite a tim e w ith d i s c i p l i n e .
They r e a l l y a c te d worse to d a y th a n th e y d id F r id a y .
I ’m tr y i n g to acco m p lish so m e th in g , b u t som etim es I
have my d o u b ts . I hope to g e t u se d to th e s m a lle r
c h i ld r e n s o o n , b u t r i g h t now I am b e w ild e r e d . I t r u s t
t h a t tom orrow w i l l be a b e t t e r d a y .
I n te r r u p t io n s by t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
3 /2 1 /3 9 , G r.5 -6
I 'd l i k e t o a s k i f i t b o th e rs o th e r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
f o r a t r a i n i n g te a c h e r to i n t e r r u p t w ith comments d u r ­
in g a le s s o n ? I t d is t u r b s me. Sometimes a te a c h e r
changes my le s s o n f o r me. I t may be b e t t e r , b u t I
lo s e th e th r e a d o f th o u g h t, and I am n o t a b le t o a c ­
co m p lish w hat I had in m ind.
M annerisms - ,,Uh-Huh,‘ - E n g lis h
5 /2 4 /3 9 , G r.3 -4
H a b its once s t a r t e d and f r e q u e n tly p r a c t ic e d a re
m ost c e r t a i n l y t e r r i b l e th in g s t o b re a k . Of a l l
my h a b i t s , t h a t mannerism "Uh-huh-U h-huh, n e t c . I s
p erh ap s th e most h o r r i b l e . J u s t k eep rem in d in g me
and no doubt my b r a in w i l l some day re sp o n d t o yo u r
h e l p s . At any r a t e I hope s o . Do you th in k our
c l a s s &s a whole has improved in E n g lish ? I am t r y ­
in g .
85
P la n n in g : How much t o in c lu d e and
t o a s s ig n . Making se a tw o rk .
3 /3 1 /3 9 , G r.3 -4
I t seems to me I have t o spend a g r e a t d e a l o f my
tim e tr y i n g t o f i n d enough m a te r ia l t o l a s t th ro u g h
th e le s s o n , f o r an a s s ig n m e n t, and f o r seatw ork (o r
fo llo w -u p work, or w h a te v e r ) . I have tr o u b le f i n d ­
in g enough se atw o rk t o keep th e c h ild r e n busy and
s t i l l have i t a t l e a s t h a l f way good and i n t e r e s t i n g
t o them .
Examples of th e a n e c d o ta l r e c o r d s c o n c e rn in g s tu d e n t
t e a c h e r s 1 e x p e rie n c e s in D ire c te d T each in g I I :
B— has d i f f i c u l t y in making p la n s and in u n d e r­
s ta n d in g c h ild p u rp o s in g .
S— has c o n fu sio n In h e r c l a s s and i s n o t always
aware of th e i n a t t e n t i o n . She c o n s ta n tly r e p e a ts
c h i l d r e n 's r e s p o n s e s .
P— made l i t t l e e f f o r t t o c o n t r o l th e g ro u p , and
showed l i t t l e knowledge o f th e "how" in what he
a tte m p te d t o d o .
A -- la c k s p e r s o n a l i t y , I f e a r . She h as l i t t l e
f o rc e and d e c is io n . She does n o t mix w ith th e
c h ild r e n and i s n o t so u g h t a f t e r by them .
L— »s q u e s tio n s a re v ery v ag u e. They f a i l to
c e n te r around a b ig t o p i c . He f a i l s t o g iv e p u p ils
a background o f e x p e rie n c e w ith w hich t o t h i n k .
C——makes many g ram m atical e r r o r s . He makes l i t t l e
e f f o r t t o d is c o v e r p u p i l s ’ d i f f i c u l t i e s . His q u es­
ti o n s o f te n su g g e st th e a n sw e rs.
The t a b l e s and th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of them a re g iv e n
i n th e rem a in in g pages of t h i s c h a p te r .
86
Of th e e ig h t item s c l a s s i f i e d tinder th e m ajor c a te g o r y ,
s u b je c t m a tte r , in T able X I, on page 8 7 , o rg a n iz in g s u b je c t
m a tte r f o r te a c h in g has th e h ig h e s t p e r c e n t o f m ention by ea ch
of th e grou p s r e p o r t i n g , and i t h as 35.05 p e r c e n t of m ention
o f a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r te d b y th e two g ro u p s.
S e le c tin g su b ­
j e c t m a tte r f o r te a c h in g ra n k s second in d i f f i c u l t y w ith th e
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , an d t h i r d w ith th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p , w h ile
i t h o ld s second p la c e a s an item of d i f f i c u l t y w ith th e two
g ro u p s.
I n t e r p r e t i n g th e s ig n if ic a n c e of s u b je c t m a tte r ra n k s
t h i r d by th e s u p e rv is o ry g roup as a d i f f i c u l t problem f o r s t u ­
d en t t e a c h e r s , w h ile , w ith th e s tu d e n ts th e m s e lv e s , i t has
r e l a t i v e l y few ite m s and p e r c e n t o f m e n tio n .
K eeping w e ll
inform ed on c u r r e n t a f f a i r s i s f o u r th in o rd e r as an ite m of
d i f f i c u l t y as in d ic a te d by th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p , y e t i t has th e
low est p e r c e n t of m en tio n by th e stu d e n t >t e a c h e r s .
I t w ill
be n o te d t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s m ention in s i g n i f i c a n t p er
c e n ts th e s e ite m s : f in d in g tim e to a c q u ire n eeded s u b je c t m at­
t e r , b e in g c o n f id e n t of s u b je c t m a tte r , and becom ing more f a ­
m i l i a r w ith r e f e r e n c e and r e c r e a to r y books.
These d if f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e n ts of m ention may be
i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean one o f two t h i n g s .
E ith e r th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s f a i l t o re c o g n iz e t h e i r problem s c o n c e rn in g th e i n ­
t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u b je c t m a tte r a s su c h , and a re in c lin e d t o
la b e l t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s as " f in d in g tim e ," " b e in g c o n fid e n t
of s u b je c t m a tte r ," and "becoming more f a m i l i a r w ith r e f e r e n c e
and r e c r e a t o r y b o o k s ," o r th e y have a d e f i n i t e la c k o f s u b je c t
m a tte r b ack g ro u n d , and p e rh a p s , i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e f o r p r e p a r a t io n .
87
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88
F o r exam ple, th e i n v e s t i g a t o r l a b e l l e d th e fo llo w in g
co m p lain t from a d ia r y w r i tte n by a s tu d e n t te a c h e r r a te d
above averag e "F in d in g tim e t o a c q u ir e needed s u b je c t m a tte r .”
How does a te a c h e r f i n d tim e f o r a l l he has to
do? As f a r as I c a n le a r n a te a c h e r w ith two
g ra d e s in a room has t e n o r tw e lv e c l a s s e s a
d ay ; a llo w in g only o n e - h a lf h o u r f o r p r e p a r a ­
t i o n f o r ea c h s u b je c t ( i t som etim es ta k e s me
two h o u r s ), th e tim e i n p r e p a r a tio n i s f i v e
h o u r s . . . . I wonder i f a te a c h e r e v e r s le e p s .
I f s o , when?
The d i f f i c u l t y c l a s s i f i e d a s " b e in g c o n fid e n t o f sub­
j e c t m a tte r" i s im p lie d in t h i s e x t r a c t :
In te a c h in g geography and h i s t o r y in th e f i f t h
and s i x t h g ra d e s I have much t r o u b le w ith my
s u b je c t m a tte r . I r e a l i z e t h a t I m ust k eep r i g h t
u p - to - d a te in c u r r e n t e v e n ts and t h a t I should
have a g re a t d e a l of know ledge ab o u t p a s t ex­
p e r ie n c e s .
The fo llo w in g sta te m e n t fro m a r e p o r t g iv e n to th e in ­
v e s t i g a t o r by one of th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s r e f l e c t s th e g e n e ra l
o p in io n co n c ern in g needs in s u b je c t m a tte r as ex p re sse d by th e
tr a in in g te a c h e rs .
C e r ta in ly i n a b i l i t y t o o rg a n iz e s u b je c t m a tte r f o r
te a c h in g causes most“ d i f f i c u l t y . The s tu d e n ts may
have g e n e ra l knowledge o f s u b je c t m a tte r , b u t th e y
u s u a lly need to s tu d y an d t o o rg a n iz e s u b je c t m at­
t e r r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o th e p e r io d in h i s t o r y ,
u n i t of a r ith m e ti c , o r ty p e o f l i t e r a t u r e , f o r e x ­
am ple, and t o se e i t as r e l a t e d t o th e age group.
They c o n s ta n tly need h e l p , in d iv id u a l h e lp , w ith
s e l e c t i o n of s u b je c t m a tte r and o r g a n iz a tio n f o r
te a c h in g ”i t .
In h e r stu d y of f if ty ;- s e v e n te a c h e r - p r e p a r in g I n s t i -
89
t u ti o n s N elson found t h a t :
O rg an izin g m a te r ia l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n was r a te d
above a v e ra g e in d eg ree of d i f f i c u l t y , in need
o f s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , and in amount of a c tu a l
p r a c t i c e w h ich th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s o b ta in e d
d u rin g s tu d e n t te a c h in g , A common d i f f i c u l t y
among s tu d e n t- te a c h e r s was th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f
u n i t s of work w here s u b je c t m a tte r had t o be
se c u re d fro m numerous so u rces.* I t seems s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t th e item s ra n k in g f i r s t ,
seco n d , and t h i r d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , in d eg ree of d i f f i c u l t y as
m entioned by b o th o f th e groups i n T able X I (page 87) have a
s im ila r ra n k in g i n t h e t o t a l m en tio n by b o th of th e groups in
T able X II, on page 9 0 .
T h is s tr e n g th e n s th e c o n c lu s io n t h a t
item s concern ed w ith s u b je c t m a tte r a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r s t u ­
d e n t te a c h e r s t h a t sh o u ld be g iv en s p e c ia l a t t e n t i o n by th e
a u t h o r i t i e s co n cern ed w ith th e program f o r D ire c te d T eaching I I .
T h is I s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f th e fo llo w in g ite m s:
s e le c tin g
s u b je c t m a tte r f o r te a c h in g ; i n t e r p r e t i n g th e s i g n i f ic a n c e of
s u b je c t m a tte r ; and o rg a n iz in g s u b je c t m a tte r f o r t e a c h i n g .
The ite m s "becoming f a m i l i a r w ith r e f e r e n c e and r e c r e a ­
to r y books," and ’f in d in g tim e to a c q u ire needed s u b je c t m a tte r "
a r e not in c lu d e d in T able X II (a s th e y w ere in T ab le XI) f o r
th e re a so n t h a t no m en tio n o f problem s p e r ta in in g t o them b y
th e J u n io r c l a s s o f 1939-1940 n o r by t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
and s u p e rv is o rs was made.
1.
A cause may be th a t in 1938-1939
M arian E s th e r N elso n , An A n a ly sis o f C ontent o f S tu d en t
T eaching C ourses f o r E d u ca tio n o f R lem en tary T reach ers
in S-bate T each ers C o lle g e s . pp.*^75-¥6. '
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from th r e e t o f o u r s tu d e n ts were a s s ig n e d t o one t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r ; in 1939-1940 n o t more th a n tw o s tu d e n t te a c h e r s were
a s s ig n e d t o one t r a i n i n g te a c h e r . (See S c h e d u le s , pages 3 5 -3 6 .)
I t seems re a s o n a b le to suppose t h a t d u rin g th e l a t t e r
y e a r th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s co u ld g iv e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s more
tim e and in d iv i d u a l h e lp and th u s h e lp them t o re c o g n iz e t h e i r
problem s more s p e c i f i c a l l y .
That s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in th e
ju n i o r c l a s s o f 1939-1940 in d ic a te d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h e r p er
c e n ts o f problem s i n s e le c tin g and in o rg a n iz in g s u b je c t m at­
t e r th a n d id th e ju n io r c la s s o f 1938-1939 seems t o s u b s ta n ­
t i a t e th e s ta te m e n t j u s t made.
Of th e sev en item s c l a s s i f i e d in th e c a te g o r y , ob­
s e r v a tio n and s tu d y , as shown in T ab le X I I I , on page 9 2 , 'Handers ta n d in g c h i ld r e n an d t h e i r le a r n in g problem s "seems e s p e c i a lly
s ig n ific a n t.
T h is item has 7 2 .7 7 p e r
c e n t of th e t o t a l d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s m entioned by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in t h i s c a te g o r y ,
2 0 .3 7 p e r c e n t of t o t a l m ention by th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p , and
50 p e r c e n t of t o t a l m ention by b o th g ro u p s .
The ite m s , ob­
s e rv in g and s tu d y in g g ro u p s, and o b s e rv in g and stu d y in g i n d i ­
v i d u a l s , w hich have r e s p e c tiv e ly 2 7 .7 7 p e r c e n t and 24.07 p e r
c e n t of m en tio n b y th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p , a re b o th r e l a t e d to
th e u n d e rs ta n d in g o f c h ild r e n and t h e i r le a r n in g p ro b lem s.
O bserving and s tu d y in g groups h as 1 1 .1 1 p e r c e n t of m en tio n
by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s .
I t w ould seem , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s t a b l e i n d ic a t e s
t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s la c k a s u f f i c i e n t knowledge of c h i ld
92
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93
p sy ch o lo g y , o r t h a t th e y need more a s s is ta n c e in a p p ly in g
p sy c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s .
The fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n from a
d ia r y i s t y p i c a l o f one ty p e of r e q u e s t f r e q u e n tly d isc o v e re d
i n th e d i a r i e s :
” 1 do g e t so d is c o u ra g e d when my t r a i n i n g
te a c h e rs do n o t g iv e me any h e l p , b u t j u s t l e t me go b lu n d e r­
in g along u n t i l a s u p e r v is o r comes in t o h e lp .
s u p e r v is io n ,”
We need more
In d is c u s s in g th e problem of how t o gu id e s t u ­
d e n ts in th e use and developm ent o f p r i n c i p l e s , S tratem ey ere­
d evelo p s th e th o u g h t t h a t p r i n c i p l e s a re a b s tr a c tio n s and t h a t
th e y are b a rre n and m e a n in g le ss e x c e p t a s theybecom e m eaning­
f u l th ro u g h many and v a r ie d e x p e r ie n c e s .
T able XIV, on page 94, shows t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f
th e ju n io r c la s s o f 1939-1940 in o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y f e l l
in to only two item s a s c o n t r a s te d w ith seven item s m entioned
by th e p reced in g c l a s s .
However, i t a p p e a rs s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t
th e d if f ic u lty 'U n d e r s ta n d in g c h ild r e n an d t h e i r le a r n in g
problem ^' ran k s f i r s t in p e r c e n t of m en tio n by b o th groups
(s tu d e n t te a c h e rs and t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs ) in
th e c la s s e s t o w hich r e f e r e n c e has j u s t b een made.
T h is seems t o em p h asize a n eed f o r th o s e re s p o n s ib le
f o r th e program o f D ir e c te d T eaching I I t o a id s tu d e n ts ev o lv e
m eanings of th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d to u n d e rs ta n d ­
in g c h ild r e n and t h e i r le a r n in g p ro b le m s ,
1,
F lo re n ce B, S tra te m e y e r, G uiding th e S tu d e n t-T e a c h e r i n
th e Development and Use o f " P r i n c i p l e s . ” E d u c a tio n a l
Admin 1 st r a t io n and S u p e r v is io n . XVII, p , 349,
94
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The d if f e r e n c e s in th e a rra n g e m e n ts f o r t h e a d m in is­
t r a t i o n o f t h i s phase of th e program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g
d u rin g th e s c h o o l y e a rs 1938-1939 and 1939-1940, a s p r e v io u s ly
e x p la in e d , may a c c o u n t, in la r g e p a r t , f o r th e d i f f e r e n c e s in
th e number o f item s menfc ioned a n d , a l s o , f o r th e fre q u e n c y o f
m ention by item s a s shown in T ab le X I I I (page 92) and in T able
XIV (page 9 4 ) .
T ab le XV, on page 9 6 , shows t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
and th e s u p e rv is o ry group in d ic a te d a t o t a l o f o n ly s i x t y e ig h t d i f f i c u l t i e s in item s c o n c e rn in g p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s
and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
T his is o n ly 2.25 p e r c e n t o f a l l th e d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d , b$otrhis group of s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in
D ir e c te d T eaching I I (see T ab le X X III on page 118).
However,
th e p o in t of view c o n s i s t e n t l y m a in ta in e d in t h i s s tu d y by
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s th a t any d i f f i c u l t y ( o f enough consequence
to be in d ic a t e d as such u n d e r th e c o n d itio n s o f t h i s stu d y )
i s enough o f a h in d ra n c e t o th e p r o f e s s io n a l p ro g re s s o f a
s tu d e n t te a c h e r t o be c r i t i c a l l y s t u d i e d .
N a tu r a lly enough, p e rh a p s , s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s men­
tio n e d by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a r e n o t in d ic a t e d b y th e s u p e r ­
v is o r y g ro u p .
These item s a r e :
(1) much s tu d e n t te a c h in g and
l i t t l e o b s e r v a tio n , (2) t a l k i n g f r a n k ly w ith t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s ;
(3) b e in g i n t e r r u p t e d by t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s ;
(4) c o n s u ltin g
s u b je c t- m a tte r s p e c i a l i s t s ; and (5) t a l k i n g f r a n k l y w ith s u p e r­
v is o rs .
The d i f f i c u l t i e s were o f te n f r a n k l y e x p r e s s e d , as th e
fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n s from s e l e c t e d d i a r i e s w i l l show.
They
96
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97
seem t o s t a t e th e o p in io n o f more th a n one s tu d e n t.
c a s e , th e y m e rit c o n s id e r a ti o n .
more o b s e rv a tio n ,
In any
The f i r s t r e v e a ls a need f o r
nI f I had o b serv ed more in th e f i f t h and
s i x t h g ra d e s b e fo re a tte m p tin g t o te a c h , I t h in k I c o u ld have
av o id ed many o f ray m is ta k e s .
I n s te a d , I ’barged* ahead n o t
knowing what to do n e x t,"
T hat e i t h e r th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s o r t h e i r t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s need h e lp i s im p lie d i n th e w ording o f t h i s d ia r y :
I f in d t h a t I have g r e a t tr o u b le in ta l k i n g
f r a n k ly w ith th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s . I r e a l i z e
t h a t th e y a r e w i l l i n g t o h e lp me, b u t I do not
f e e l f r e e t o t a l k w ith them about my ’r e a l ’
q u e s tio n s . I have t r i e d to overcame t h i s ; so
f a r , I have n o t su c c e e d e d .
I t w i l l be o b serv ed t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t y , h av in g d a ily
c o n fe re n c e s w ith t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s , was n o t m entioned b y th e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s .
Y e t, h av in g c o n fe re n c e s (w ith s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s ) has a fre q u e n c y of 7 6 .4 7 p e r c e n t w ith th e su p e r­
v is o r y g ro u p .
F u r th e r s tu d y of th e t a b l e r e v e a ls t h a t a l l
m en tio n of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was made by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r
r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e f i f t h - and s ix th - g r a d e g ro u p .
However,
a l l o f th e o th e r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s o f te n d is c u s s e d th e la c k of
tim e f o r c o n fe re n c e s w ith th e p e rso n making t h i s s u rv e y .
T his
la c k o f tim e was d u e , p r i m a r i l y , t o th e f a c t t h a t th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s c a r r i e d a f u l l te a c h in g lo a d in th e la b o r a to r y sc h o o l
in a d d itio n t o t h e i r s u p e rv is o ry d u t i e s .
One seems j u s t i f i e d i n s t a t i n g t h a t s tu d e n t - t e a c h e r ’ s
problem s o f t h i s n a tu r e m ight be le s s e n e d i f th e t r a i n i n g
98
te a c h e rs h ad more tim e in c o n fe re n c e to d is c u s s t h e i r p ro b ­
lems w ith them .
A stu d y made by H enderson1 s u p p o rts th e
o p in io n th a t more tim e sh o u ld be d ev o ted t o c o n fe re n c e s , and
t h a t more c o n feren c es sh o u ld be h e ld .
H enderson f u r t h e r
recommends, " In th e e le m e n ta ry g rad es th e r e sh o u ld be a ’h e lp ­
in g t e a c h e r ’ f o r each f o u r t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r s .”2
A need
f o r a " h e lp in g te a c h e r" i n th e la b o r a to r y sc h o o l a t th e c o l­
le g e b e in g surveyed i s r e f l e c t e d h e r e , and th ro u g h o u t t h i s
s tu d y .
Comparing th e d a ta in T ab le XVI, on page 9 9 , w ith
th e d a ta in Table XV, on page 96, i t w i l l be o b serv ed th a t
th e r e i s a f a i r l y c lo s e agreem ent betw een th e ju n io r c la s s e s
o f 1938-1939 and 1939-1940 and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and
s u p e rv is o rs as to th e c h i e f ite m s o f d i f f i c u l t y en co u n tered
by them in th e m ajor c a te g o ry p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a ­
tio n s h ip s .
A lthough th e r e a re some m inor d if f e r e n c e s in th e
ty p e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s in d ic a t e d by th e two c l a s s e s r e f e r r e d
t o ab o v e, T able XVI may, a l s o , be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean th a t
th e s tu d e n t te a c h e rs need more tin d e rs ta n d in g and sy m p ath etic
guidance by t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s .
The d a ta in T able X V II, on page 100, show t h a t s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s en co u n tered a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t of d i f f i c u l t i e s in
1.
2*
E lis h a Lane H enderson, The O rg a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tra tio n
of S tu d en t T eaching "in S ta te T ea ch ers C o lle g e s , p . 80T
I b i d . , p . 113.
99
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101
Item s co n cern ed with, th e c o n tr o l o f p u p ils th a n th e y d id w ith
th o se p e r ta in in g t o th e g e n e r a l f a c t o r s o f management*
T his
i s in d ic a t e d by b o th th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r and by th e s u p e rv is o ry
groups*
I t w ill be o b serv ed t h a t t h r e e item s in s u b - d iv is io n
B, c o n tr o l of c h i ld r e n , in c lu d e a p p ro x im a te ly f i f t y p e r c e n t
o f a l l th e d i f f i c u l t i e s c l a s s i f i e d in t h i s ta b le *
Managing a
c la s s h av in g 24*94 p e r c e n t of th e t o t a l f re q u e n c ie s ran k s
f i r s t ; c o n t r o l l i n g u n ru ly c h ild r e n h a v in g 17,99 p e r cen t I s
second; and a tte m p tin g to c o n t r o l c o n c e rt answ ers having
12.08 p e r c e n t i s t h i r d .
These d a t a , t o g e t h e r w ith th e e le v e n o th e r ite m s o f
d i f f i c u l t y m entioned i n t h i s t a b l e , i n d ic a t e a need f o r g iv ­
in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s more g u id an ce w ith problem s p e r ta in in g t o
c lassro o m management and p u p i l c o n t r o l .
th e f o llo w in g , w ere
Comments, su ch as
o f te n fo u n d in th e d i a r i e s :
" I am s t i l l
w orking on th e problem of c l a s s management and d i s c i p l i n e .
I
am a l s o tr y i n g t o f i n d ways t o keep th e re s p o n s e s down to
one p e rso n a t a tir a e • l,
" I was l e f t a lo n e w ith th e c h ild r e n f o r about an h o u r,
and I ’m tr y i n g to t a l k m y se lf i n t o b e l ie v i n g t h a t I can d i s ­
c ip lin e .
I ’m a f r a i d I ’m u s in g a l i t t l e h ig h p r e s s u r e s a l e s
ta lk ."
A ty p e of p ro b lem c o n c e rn in g in d iv id u a l c h ild r e n I s
named In t h i s e x c e r p t from a s tu d e n t t e a c h e r ’s d i a r y :
E . H. do h is work f o r anybody?
a jo k e ."
"W ill
He seems t o th in k t h a t I am
102
The fo llo w in g n o te s made by th e in v e s tig a to r d u rin g
one of th e m e etin g s h e ld by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs and s u p e r ­
v is o r s e x p re s s d e f i n i t e o p in io n s c o n c ern in g s t u d e n t s ’ problem s
in management and c o n t r o l :
(1) ’’S tu d e n ts cause d i s c i p l i n a r y
problem s b y n o t w atc h in g c h i l d r e n ’ s h a b i t s , an d , a l s o , b y
not a tte m p tin g t o c o n tr o l c o n c e rt answ ers d u rin g t h e i r a t ­
tem pts t o te a c h a c l a s s ; ” (2) " S tu d e n ts c a n ’t c o n tr o l c h i l d r e n
d u rin g ’gym’ p e r i o d s ” ; (3) ’’The s tu d e n ts a re making a good
s t a r t in t h a t th e y a p p e a r to b e s i n c e r e , i n t e r e s t e d and in d u s ­
trio u s .
The c h ie f d i f f i c u l t y seems to be t h a t th e y c a n ’t or
won’t w atch c h i l d r e n ’ s h a b i t s .
T hat ca u ses double d i f f i c u l t y
w ith p u p i l 's l e a r n i n g . ”
I n a b i l i t y t o d i s c i p l i n e i s o f te n th e re a s o n f o r th e
f a i l u r e o f a b e g in n in g te a c h e r in th e o p in io n o f a d m in is tr a ­
t o r s and s u p e r v i s o r s .
I t f o llo w s , th e n , t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
need t o a c q u ire a " s a f e t y minimum" of s k i l l in classro o m
management and p u p i l c o n tr o l d u rin g t h e i r p r e - s e r v ic e p e r io d
o f s tu d e n t te a c h i n g .
D eterm in in g a cau se f o r th e d i f f i c u l t i e s co n cern ed
w ith t h i s m ajor problem i s a f i r s t s te p in i t s a tte m p te d s o ­
lu tio n .
A ccording t o g e n e r a lly a c c e p te d o p in io n o f e d u c a to r s ,
p u p il c o n t r o l i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to th e m o tiv a tio n of l e a r n ­
in g , and t h a t , i n t u r n , h as i t s b a s i s i n knowing th e l e a r n e r .
A lthough th e s e s ta te m e n ts a r e a c c e p te d by e d u c a to r s , i t seems
t h a t t h e i r I m p lic a tio n s a r e not g e n e r a lly re c o g n iz e d — th e
need to g iv e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s h e lp in stu d y in g and in knowing
103
c h i ld r e n , and t h e i r le a r n in g p ro b lem s,
F r e d e r ic k , R ag sd ale and S a lis b u ry ^ e x p re s s th e view
t h a t in any c o n t r o l o f s tim u la tin g s i t u a t i o n s th e le a r n e r
must be t r e a t e d a s an in d iv id u a l t o s e c u re b e s t r e s u l t s ,
W atson s t a t e s :
Our s t u d e n t s , to d a y , sh o u ld be g iv e n much b e t t e r
unde r s t and in g o f in d iv id u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s ', ^he
p sy ch o lo g y w h ic h we have commonly ta u g h t, w ith
i t s em phasis upon s t a t i s t i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s ,
h a s n o t equipped our s tu d e n ts to u n d e rsta n d the
b e h a v io r of a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d , t o see how t h a t
b e h a v io r grows out of b a s ic d r i v e s , e a r l i e r e x ­
p e r ie n c e s and th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e im m ediate
s i t u a t i o n s , and t o know, t h e r e f o r e , what t o do
ab o u t i t
The i n v e s t i g a t o r b e lie v e s t h a t t h i s stu d y r e v e a ls f o r
a p a r t i c u l a r sc h o o l an in ad eq u acy in th e psychology c o u rse s
s im ila r t o a g e n e r a l problem d is c u s s e d by W atson,3 and th a t
b a s ic to a s o l u t i o n of th e problem is ad eq u ate g u id an ce s e r ­
v ic e f o r p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s .
T his s e r v ic e sh o u ld in c lu d e
p s y c h o lo g ic a l c o u n s e l f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a s w e ll as a d v ic e
on c o u rse s and a c t i v i t i e s .
Such a p la n would n e c e s s i t a t e in
th e s c h o o l b e in g s t u d i e d , more tim e and a t t e n t i o n th a n i s now
g iv e n in th e program of D ir e c te d T eaching I I , t o a id in g s t u ­
d en t t e a c h e r s in m aking o b s e rv a tio n s and s tu d ie s of in d iv i d u a l
1,
2,
3,
R obert W, F r e d e r ic k , C laren ce E, R a g sd a le , and R achel
S a lis b u r y , D ir e c tin g L e a rn in g . p , 7 9 ,
Goodwin W atson, R e d ir e c tin g te a c h e r E d u ca tio n and I t s
I m p lic a tio n s f o r S u p e rv iso rs of S tu d en t T e a c h in g ,
N in e te e n th Annual S e s s io n , S u p e rv is o rs of S tu d en t
T e a c h in g ,' p. &9«
Ib id . , p . 29,
104
c h i ld r e n and t h e i r problem s*
I t w ould, p e rh a p s , mean (1) ad ­
d i t i o n a l tim e f o r c o n fe re n c e s , an d (2) a r e o r g a n iz a tio n o f
th e c o u rs e s in p sy c h o lo g y , (3) a " h e lp in g te a c h e r" in th e
la b o r a to r y sch o o l*
T ab le X V III, on page 105, shows t h a t t h e ju n io r c l a s s
o f 1939-1940 a l s o e x p e rie n c e d th e g r e a t e r number o f d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s i n item s co n cern ed w ith th e c o n t r o l o f c h i l d r e n , su b ­
d i v i s i o n B, th a n th e y d id w ith th e g e n e r a l f a c t o r s o f manage­
m en t, s u b - d iv is io n A.
I t , t h e r e f o r e , te n d s t o su p p o rt th e
f in d in g s in T able XVII (page 100) and w ith th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f th o s e f in d in g s *
The d a t a in T able XIX, on page 106, show a r e l a t i v e l y
c lo s e agreem ent betw een th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs co n c e rn in g th e ty p e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s
and th e p e r c e n ts o f th e t o t a l m en tio n of them in th e m ajo r
c a te g o r y , th e improvement of p e rs o n a l q u a l i t i e s *
Only two
d i f f i c u l t i e s , b e in g r e s o u r c e f u l , and b e in g a p p r o p r ia te ly
d r e s s e d , were n o t m entioned by th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s .
Most
s i g n i f i c a n t as m entioned by b o th g ro u p s , a re ite m s 1 - a , and
1—c , l i s t e d u n d e r im proving v oice and sp e e c h , and th e d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s c o n c e rn in g im proving E n g lis h , re a c h in g an a c c e p ta b le
s ta n d a rd in w r i t i n g , b e in g e n t h u s i a s t i c , b e in g f o r c e f u l , and
h aving s e lf - c o n f id e n c e .
E x c e rp ts from a few of th e d i a r i e s show th e n a tu r e of
some of th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s .
Two d i f f i c u l t i e s , em phasis in
I
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107
v o ic e (ite m 1 -a ) and i n E n g lis h p r o n u n c ia tio n and e n u n c ia ­
t i o n (item 2) a re e v id e n t i n th e fo llo w in g comment from a
s tu d e n t te a c h e r w orking w ith g ra d e s one and tw o:
I have tr o u b le w ith my v o ic e — in making i t
firm enough. E n g lis h ! T h is i s so m eth in g I
have most tr o u b le w ith i n my te a c h i n g . Such
words as c a n ’t , l a s t , and th e in g words g iv e me
most t r o u b l e . 1 am w o rk in g on e n u n c ia tio n and
p ro n u n c ia tio n and I th in k I have im proved, b u t I
am s t i l l w orking v e ry h a r d .
The n e x t shows a need f o r a s s i s t i n g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s to le a r n
some o f th e ru d im en ts o f v o ic e c o n t r o l .
The d i f f i c u l t y was
c l a s s i f i e d as m o d u latio n of v o ic e , item 1 - a , m entioned ab o v e.
"How can I c o n t r o l , le a r n t o c o n t r o l ray v o ic e ?
have i t to n e d t o
I th in k I
the sch o o lro o m , b u t i t booms o u t, n e v e r­
th e le s s ."
S tu d en t te a c h e rs o f te n ask ed f o r s p e c i f i c h e lp , as
th e s e t y p i c a l re sp o n se s i n d i c a t e :
of my n eed f o r b e t t e r E n g lis h .
W ill you p le a s e c o r r e c t me
w henever you see th e n eed f o r i t ?
where my E n g lis h i s c o n c e rn e d .
" I have been made aware
My p r id e c a n n o t be s c a r r e d
I ab h o r p o o r E n g lis h ."
Lack of s e lf - c o n f id e n c e i s in d ic a t e d b y t h i s s tu d e n t
who w ro te :
P le a se i n g r a f t in th e m inds of th o s e ju n io r s
who a re now hav in g c l a s s e s t h a t c o n fid e n c e in
o n e s e lf i s h a l f th e b a t t l e . D evelop t h e i r eg o ,
i f n e c e s s a r y , b u t d o n ’t l e t any more s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs go out w ith o u t th e id e a t h a t th e y a re
as good a s o th e r s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s .
T h is s tu d e n t makes a - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n co n c e rn in g a need
108
f o r c o u rse in penm anship.
lems i s penm anship.
it.
"One of th e 3tu d e n t - t e a c h e r ’ s p ro b ­
I have co n c lu d e d t h a t I need a c o u rse in
We g e t provoked o v er th e p u p i l s ’ a s k in g so many q u e s­
t i o n s , b u t I h o n e s tly d o n ’t th in k th e y can re a d our w r i t i n g ."
One re a s o n f o r th e h ig h p e r c e n t of d i f f i c u l t i e s to
be found u n d er s u b - d iv is io n 1 , im proving v o ic e and sp e e c h ,
and 2 , im proving E n g lis h , may be t h a t th e c u rric u lu m (see
A ppendix, page 190) makes no p r o v is io n f o r a sp eech co u rse
a s su ch ; and t h a t i t makes no p r o v is io n f o r " o p p o rtu n ity "
c o u rse s in E n g lis h , and in h a n d w r itin g .
The needs i n d ic a t e d , th e n , b y th e d a ta in t h i s t a b l e
a r e ; (1) a co u rse in sp eech ; (2) an " o p p o rtu n ity " o r a re m e d ia l
c o u rse in E n g lis h ; (3) a d d i t i o n a l c o n fe re n c e tim e in o rd e r to
a s s i s t s tu d e n t te a c h e rs in s o lv in g t h e i r problem s as in d iv i d u a ls .
These s u g g e s tio n s a re in k e e p in g w ith needs and tr e n d s
a s r e f l e c t e d in some of th e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e co n c ern in g th e
e d u c a tio n of t e a c h e r s .
W atson, O o t t r e l l , and Lloyd-Jones'*’
have s t a t e d t h a t th e r e i s a need t o o f f e r o p p o rtu n ity c o u rse s
t o h e lp s tu d e n t te a c h e r s improve e s s e n t i a l s k i l l s .
C a rlso n e x p re s s e s th e f o llo w in g o p in io n s :
A lthough th e im p o rtan ce o f p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e lo p ­
ment in t r a i n i n g of te a c h e r s has lo n g b een re c o g ­
n iz e d , l i t t l e t h a t i s c o n s tr u c tiv e h as been d o n e.
Lack of means f o r e v a lu a tin g p e r s o n a lity h as b een
a h a n d ic a p . Two ap p ro ac h es t o p o s s ib le s o lu t io n
1.
Goodwin W atson, Donald P . C o t t r e l l , and E atier m. L loydJ o n e s , D ir e c tin g T each er E d u c a tio n , p . 43.
109
a r e , Improved d a ta - g a th e r in g te c h n iq u e s and
more com prehensive r e c o r d s , and se c o n d ly - p ro ­
v is i o n f o r ad eq u ate c o u n s e lin g p ro g ram s•
A stu d y of th e d a ta in T ab le XX, on page 110, lik e w is e
r e v e a ls a need f o r making p r o v is io n f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s t o
have " o p p o rtu n ity co u rse s" in (1) th e ru d im en ts o f sp e e c h ,
(2) E n g lis h , (3) penm anship.
The p e r c e n t o f fre q u e n c ie s o c­
c u r r in g i n th e ite m s p e r ta in in g t o th o s e h a b i t s and s k i l l s
seem to j u s t i f y th e s u g g e s tio n s o f f e r e d .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
th e item s c l a s s i f i e d u n d er s u b - d iv is i o n B, a t t i t u d e s and
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , seems to im ply t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s sh o u ld
be g iv e n more in d iv id u a l g u id an ce o f an u n d e rs ta n d in g and
sy m p a th etic n a tu re b y t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s .
Table XXI, on page 111, shows t h a t , f o r th e ju n io r
c l a s s of 1938-1939, th e d i f f i c u l t i e s co n c e rn in g p la n n in g and
te a c h in g a r e numerous as to f re q u e n c ie s o f m ention and d i s ­
trib u tio n .
F o r ty - s ix s e p a r a te item s a re l i s t e d in t h i s c a t e ­
gory u n d er t h r e e main s u b - d iv is i o n s , w ith p e r c e n ts a s fo llo w s :
s u b - d iv is io n A, w r itin g p l a n s , 17.12 p e r c e n t; s u b - d iv is io n B,
e x e c u tin g p la n s , 79 .3 4 p e r c e n t; and s u b - d iv is io n C, o th e r
i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , 3 .5 4 p e r c e n t .
The g r e a t e s t number
of ite m s , t h i r t y - s e v e n , and a l s o t h e h ig h e s t p e rc e n t o f d i f ­
f i c u l t y o f in d iv id u a l ite m s , o ccu rs in th e s u b - d iv is io n B,
1.
W illiam S . C a rls o n , P r e d ic tiv e F a c to rs Which Are S i g n i f i ­
can t in S e le c tio n . T w e n tie th A nnual S e s s io n . Super­
v is o r s of S tu d en t T eaching N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n , p .
68.
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112
e x e c u tin g p la n s .
Of th e s e ite m s , s e c u rin g c h ild p u rp o sin g
( o r m o tiv a tio n ) h as th e h ig h e s t p e r c e n t o f m ention by th e
s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , a n d , a l s o , by th e two g ro u p s c o n s id e re d t o ­
g e th e r.
C lo s e ly r e l a t e d t o t h i s d i f f i c u l t y in c a u s e , p e rh a p s ,
a re th e fo llo w in g ite m s w hich have s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n ts o f
m ention by b o th g ro u p s : a c c o m p lish in g th e aim ; h a n d lin g p u p il
re s p o n s e s /m a in ta in in g c l a s s i n t e r e s t .
One re a s o n in h e re n t in
each of th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s i s , p e rh a p s , t h a t th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s have an i n s u f f i c i e n t u n d e rs ta n d in g of a c h i l d 's i n ­
t e r e s t s w ith due r e g a r d to t h e k in d and d eg ree of h i s m a tu r i ty .
Next in o rd e r o f d i f f i c u l t y , a s m entioned by th e two
g ro u p s, i s th e ite m u s in g q u e s tio n s .
T h is ra n k s h ig h e s t in
p e r ce n t of m ention by th e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s .
W ritin g q u es­
t i o n s , l i s t e d in s u b - d iv is io n A, w r i tin g p la n s , p erh ap s i s one
cau se of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y .
I t w i l l be o b serv ed t h a t " w ritin g
q u e s tio n s " h as a s m a lle r p e r c e n t o f m en tio n b y e a c h of th e
groups th a n h as " a sk in g q u e s tio n s ."
The i n v e s t i g a t o r o f f e r s th e o b s e rv a tio n th a t in many
of th e cases th e d i f f i c u l t i e s , and n o t th e c a u se s o f th em ,
a re ftfan k ly s t a t e d .
T hat th e r e i s a g e n e ra l n eed f o r im proving th e q u a l i t y
of classro o m q u e s tio n s and q u e s tio n in g has b een p o in te d out by
Houston.-*1,
V. M, H ouston, Im proving th e Q u a lity o f C lassroom Ques­
t i o n s and Q u e s tio n in g . E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n
and S upervi s i o n , XXIV (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 8 ), p . 17 .
113
T y p ic a l o f th e comments f r e q u e n tly found in th e d i a r i e s
a re:
" I had tr o u b le w ith my q u e s tio n s a g a in to d a y .
seemed to b e vague, y e t I t r i e d to make them c l e a r .
one t e s t what he in te n d s t o be a m ajor q u e s tio n ?
They
How can
I c a n ’t
seem t o make my q u e s tio n s d ev elo p my m ain p o i n t s . "
In s u b - d iv is io n A, w r itin g p la n s , th e d i f f i c u l t y h a v ­
in g th e h ig h e s t p e r ce n t o f m ention i s 'W ritin g s p e c i f i c a im s ;11
second i n m ention as a d i f f i c u l t y is"m ak in g u n i t p la n s ."
The d a ta in T able XXI show a s t r i k i n g agreem ent b e ­
tw een th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and
s u p e r v is o r s as t o the ite m s c a u sin g d i f f i c u l t y , a lth o u g h th e
ra n k o rd e r v a r i e s .
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o tic e t h a t s i g n i ­
f i c a n t l y more o f th e t o t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s m entioned in t h i s c a t e ­
gory by b o th g ro u p s o cc u r in th e p rim a ry g r a d e s .
One cause
f o r t h i s may be t h a t a l l s tu d e n ts in D ire c te d T each in g I I a re
r e q u ir e d t o te a c h in e i t h e r a p rim ary o r an u p p e r g ra d e .
Many
of th e s e s tu d e n ts a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d in te a c h in g th e younger
c h i ld r e n ; th e y c la im t h a t th e y do n o t u n d e rs ta n d them .
T h is
i s , no d o u b t, one re a s o n f o r th e d i f f i c u l t i e s m en tio n ed as
a d ju stm e n ts from one g ra d e le v e l to a n o th e r .
I t i s commonly
a g re e d among e d u c a to rs t h a t te a c h in g in th e p rim a ry g rad es
r e q u ir e s s p e c i a l a p titu d e s and r e f i n e d te c h n iq u e s .
C e r ta in ly
e v e ry s tu d e n t te a c h e r does n o t p o s se ss a s p e c i a l a p titu d e f o r
te a c h in g p rim a ry c h ild r e n ; i t i s n o t t o be e x p e c te d t h a t he
has a c q u ire d r e f i n e d te c h n iq u e s .
I t i s p ro b a b le t h a t th e
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs e x p e c t to o h ig h a d e g re e o f
s k i l l o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s f o r t h i s s ta g e of s tu d e n t te a c h -
114
in g .
T hat wcruld te n d t o c a u se th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s t o ex p ect
to o much of th e m se lv e s.
A d m ittin g t h a t s ta n d a rd s sh o u ld be
h ig h , one a d m its t h a t s e t t i n g s ta n d a r d s u n re a s o n a b ly h ig h may
cau se s tu d e n t te a c h e r s t o become d is c o u ra g e d .
D i f f i c u l t i e s in h e re n t i n th e e ig h t d i f f e r e n t s u b je c ts
ite m iz e d may im ply one o f tw o th i n g s : (1) t h a t the p r o f e s ­
s io n a liz e d s u b je c t- m a tte r c o u rse s a re n o t c l o s e ly enough con­
n e c te d w ith a c t u a l le a r n in g problem s o f th e c h i ld r e n t o have
a " c a r r y over" in th e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r ’ s work iaa th e la b o r a to r y
s c h o o l; or (2) t h a t th o s e r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e a d m in is tr a tio n
of D ire c te d T eaching I I have n o t made p r o v is io n to se c u re th e
i n t e g r a t i o n * d e s ir e d in "m ethods" and " p r a c t i c e . "
The numerous item s o f d i f f i c u l t y in c lu d e d in t h i s
t a b l e and th e p e r c e n ts of d i s t r i b u t i o n s in d ic a te th e s t u ­
d e n t te a c h e r s need a id in u n d e rs ta n d in g and a p p ly in g p r in c ip l e s
commonly c a l l e d te c h n iq u e s .
B a sic t o t h i s i s t h a t b o th s t u ­
d e n t te a c h e r s and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s n eed t o be k e e n ly
aw are o f th e e s s e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s w hich sh o u ld be s e le c te d
a s th e c o n te n t of D ire c te d T eaching I I .
Mooney p ro p o se s t h a t :
S u p e rv iso rs a c q u a in t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith th e
o b je c t of th e s u p e r v is io n in a s u f f i c i e n t l y d e ­
t a i l e d and d e f i n i t e form t o s e rv e th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r a s a g u id e f o r m e a su rin g th e p ro g re s s
#
I t w i l l be remembered t h a t c o u rse s e n t i t l e d I n tro d u c tio n
t o T eaching and T echnique of T eaching were d is c o n ­
tin u e d in Septem ber, 1935, and made a p a r t of th e
program of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
115
o f h is a c h ie v e m e n t, b u t not so d e t a i l e d a s t o
d e s tr o y h i s o p p o r tu n itie s t o s h a re c o n s tr u c ­
t i v e l y in p la n n in g h is program o f v /o rk .1
S c h o rlin g makes th e p o i n t , in h is sta te m e n t of p r i n ­
c i p le s o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g , t h a t th e s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s
sho u ld be s o s t a t e d " th a t a l l concerned can s t r e s s t h e i r
ach iev em en t"2
In b r i e f , t h e d a t a in t h i s ta b l e in d ic a t e t h a t th o s e
re s p o n s ib le f o r th e program o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g sh o u ld :
1,
S e le c t w ith g r e a t e r d e f in it e n e s s th e a c t i v i t i e s co n ­
n e c te d w ith p la n n in g and te a c h in g t h a t seem to have
most v alu e in th e e d u c a tio n of t e a c h e r s .
2.
P ro v id e a more e f f e c t i v e s u p e rv is o ry g u id an ce s e r v ic e :
(a) t o g u id e p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s in i n t e r p r e t i n g th e
s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s o f t h i s sta g e of th e program r e ­
l a t i n g t o p la n n in g and te a c h in g ; (b) t o a id p ro s p e c ­
t i v e te a c h e r s w ith t h e i r in d iv id u a l problem s c o n c e rn ­
in g s e l e c t i n g and a p p ly in g te c h n iq u e s ;
(c) t o a id s tu ­
d e n t te a c h e r s t o see th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een th e
p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c t- m a tte r and th e p sy ch o lo g y
c o u rse s and t h e i r te a c h in g a c t i v i t i e s in th e la b o r a ­
to r y s c h o o l.
1*
2.
Edward S. Mooney, J r . , An A n a ly s is of th e S u p e rv is io n o f
S tu d en t T e a c h in g , p . l l 6 .
R a le ig h S c h o r lin g , D ire c te d T each in g . T w enty-T hird Y ear­
b o o k , The N a tio n a l S o c ie ty of C ollege T ea ch ers o f Edu­
c a t i o n , p . 133.
11 6
The f in d in g s in T able X X II, on page 117, ag ree f o r
th e m ost p a r t w ith th o se in T ab le XXI (page 1 1 1 ).
T h is i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of th e number of ite m s o f d i f f i c u l t y men­
t io n e d , th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f them in th e s u b - d iv is i o n s , and
th e v a r i a t i o n in p e r c e n ts of t o t a l m e n tio n .
In th e m ajor
c a te g o r y , p la n n in g and te a c h in g , th e j u n i o r c l a s s of 19391940 a l s o e n c o u n te re d by f a r th e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t and number
of d i f f i c u l t i e s in item s co n cern ed w ith th e e x e c u tio n of p la n s ,
su b -d iv isio n B, o r w ith th e te c h n iq u e s o f te a c h in g .
The t o t a l
of t h a t s u b - d iv is io n i s 8 3 .7 4 p e r c e n t of th e t o t a l d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s m entioned in t h i s t a b l e .
The d i f f i c u l t i e s co n cern in g
th e d e t a i l s of w r itin g p la n s , s u b - d iv is i o n A, ra n k s seco n d ,
as i t d id i n T able XXI and h as a t o t a l p e r c e n t o f 1 5 .9 8 .
In g e n e r a l, th e item s h av in g th e h ig h e s t p e r c e n t o f m ention
in T able XXI have a h ig h p e r c e n t of m en tio n in T ab le XXII.
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y tr u e o f th e ite m s c o n c e rn in g c h i ld p u r­
p o sin g and q u e s tio n in g l i s t e d u n d e r s u b - d iv is i o n B, and of
w r itin g m ajo r q u e s tio n s and w r itin g s p e c i f i c aims l i s t e d
■under s u b - d iv is io n A.
g rees.
The two t a b l e s v a ry in n e g l ig ib le de­
They th u s te n d t o show s im ila r w eaknesses and s im ila r
needs in th e program of D ire c te d T each in g I I .
T able X X III, on page 118, sum m arizes th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n c o u n te re d by th e tw e n ty -fiv e members of th e ju n io r c la s s
of 1938-1939 as in d ic a te d by them and by t h e i r t r a i n i n g t e a ­
c h e rs and s u p e r v is o r s .
I t shows t h a t th e t o t a l o f 3 ,0 2 4 d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s m en tio n ed were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s ix m ajo r c a te g o r ie s .
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119
A ccording t o th e p e r c e n t o f t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s o f
th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in d ic a t e d in D ire c te d T eaching I I , th e s e
a r e : (1) p la n n in g and te a c h in g 4 5 ,7 7 p e r c e n t; (2) im prove­
ment o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , 2 5 ,1 3 p e r c e n t; (3) c la ssro o m
management and p u p il c o n t r o l , 12,86 p e r c e n t; (4) s u b je c t
n a t t e r 9 ,8 2 p e r c e n t;
(5) o b s e rv a tio n and s tu d y , 4 ,1 7 p e r
c e n t; and (6) p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 2 ,2 5
p er c e n t,
A stu d y o f t h i s t a b l e r e v e a ls t h a t b o th s tu d e n t t e a ­
c h e rs an d t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s in d ic a t e d th e
g r e a t e s t number of problem s in s u b - d iv is io n B, p la n n in g and
te a c h in g .
These f in d in g s a re s i m i l a r t o th o se r e p o r t e d i n an
e x te n s iv e stu d y b y N elson who found t h a t th e fo llo w in g a c t i ­
v i t i e s r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h ig h in th e d eg ree o f d i f f i c u l t y fc r
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s :
” 1*
P la n n in g th e s e l e c t i o n and o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n of m a te r ia l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; 2 ,
S e le c tin g and a d a p tin g
m a te r ia l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n in d a i l y w ork; 3 .
S e le c ti n g , p la n ­
n in g , and a d a p tin g m a te r ia l s of I n s t r u c t i o n . ” 1
W ith b o th s tu d e n t te a c h e rs and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
and s u p e r v is o r s th e m ajor c a te g o r y , improvement o f p e r s o n a l
q u a l i t i e s , c o n ta in s th e second h ig h e s t p e r c e n t o f a l l d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s in d ic a t e d in D ir e c te d T each in g I I ,
L i t e r a t u r e in th e f i e l d o f te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n p o in ts
out t h a t p r o v is io n f o r h e lp in g th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r d e v e lo p a
1,
N e lso n , op , c i t , , p . 120,
120
d e s ir a b le and w e ll-ro u n d e d p e r s o n a lity must b e in c lu d e d i n
th e c o n te n t o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g .
N elson s t a t e s , " I t i s as
much th e f u n c tio n of th e te a c h e rs c o lle g e t o prom ote p e r ­
s o n a l i t y developm ent as t o f u r n is h ad e q u ate academ ic and p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l b a c k g ro u n d s." ^
A summary of th e a n a ly s is and th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
th e t a b l e s in c lu d e d in T able X X III seems t o r e v e a l:
1.
T hat t h e r e i s an u rg e n t need f o r a u t h o r i t i e s in
ch a rg e o f th e program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g t o d e t e r ­
mine d e f i n i t e l y th e c o n te n t of s tu d e n t te a c h i n g .
2.
T hat ad eq u ate p r o v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s and t h e i r s u p e rv is o rs and t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
t o know th e s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s a g re e d upon in o rd e r
t h a t th e y may work tow ard th e accom plishm ent o f th o s e
o b je c tiv e s .
5.
T hat ad eq u ate p r o v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r s u p e rv is o ry
g u id a n c e , and th u s f o r tim e f o r c o n f e r e n c e s , t o a id
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith th e fo llo w in g p ro b le m s, e s ­
p e c i a l l y : (a) saLecting, o r g a n iz in g , and i n t e r p r e t i n g
s u b je c t m a tte r a s a p r e p a r a tio n f o r te a c h in g ; (b) s e ­
l e c t i n g and u n d e rsta n d in g s p e c if ic aims f o r te a c h in g ;
(c) s e l e c t i n g and e x e c u tin g te c h n iq u e s s u i t a b l e f o r
th e accom plishm ent of th o s e aim s; (d) u n d e rs ta n d in g
th e a p p l i c a t i o n of p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s , e s p e c i a lly
1.
N elso n , oj3. c l t . , p . 3 1 2 .'
121
th o se p e r ta in in g t o th e s e d e t a i l s :
(1) stu d y in g and
u n d e rs ta n d in g c h ild r e n and t h e i r le a r n in g and b eh a v io r
p ro b lem s, (2) s e c u rin g c h i l d p u rp o s in g , (3) u n d e rs ta n d ­
in g in d iv id u a l and group i n t e r e s t s , and (4) h a n d lin g
p u p il re s p o n s e s ; (e) fo rm u la tin g and u s in g m ajor and
d ev elo p m en tal q u e s tio n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; ( f ) h e lp in g
w ith th e many problem s p e r ta in in g t o th e developm ent
of d e s ir a b le p e r s o n a l i t i e s .
4.
T hat p r o v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r ” o p p o rtu n ity
c o u rs e s ” e s p e c i a l l y in (a ) th e fu n d am en tals o f sp e e c h ,
(b) E n g lis h , (c) penm anship.
5.
T hat p r o v is io n should be made f o r a " h e lp in g te a c h e r"
in th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l.
A stu d y o f T able XXIV, on page 122, r e v e a ls th a t th e
d a ta p r e s e n te d f o r th e j u n i o r c l a s s o f 1939-1940 a re s i m i l a r ,
in many r e s p e c t s , t o th e d a ta g iv e n i n T able X X III (page 118)
f o r th e ju n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1939.
A ccording t o p e r c e n t of
t o t a l f re q u e n c ie s in d ic a te d by b o th g ro u p s , th e members o f
e a c h of th e c l a s s e s b e in g i n v e s tig a te d fo u n d by f a r th e
g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y in th e m ajor c a t e g o r i e s : (1) p la n n in g and
te a c h in g ; and (2) th e improvement o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s .
o th e r c a te g o r ie s a r e s i m i l a r in p e r c e n ts o f m e n tio n .
The
L ik e ­
n e s s e s , t o o , a re t o be o bserved In th e o r d e r and th e p e r c e n ts
of m en tio n b y each o f th e groups when th e y a r e c o n sid e re d
s e p a ra te ly .
A s t r i k i n g d if f e r e n c e i n th e two t a b l e s i s to be
o b served in th e p e r cen t o f m ention made b y th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
A Sum
m
ary of the Difficulties Encountered B
y Thirty Student Teachers (Junior Class 1939-1940) During Directed
Teaching II as Indioated by Those Students and b
y Their Training Teachers and Supervisors
122
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123
i n th e m ajo r c a te g o r y ,th e Improvement o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s .
T h is may n o t b e s i g n i f i c a n t , how ever, s in c e i t w i l l be n o te d
t h a t i t ra n k s second in o rd e r of d i f f i c u l t y when th e f r e q u e n ­
c i e s in d ic a t e d by th e s u p e rv is o ry group a r e in c lu d e d .
The f a c t t h a t h ig h e r p er c e n ts in s u b - d iv is io n B,
p la n n in g and te a c h in g , a r e shown in T ab le XXIV th a n in T ab le
X X III may be due t o th e d if f e r e n c e in th e number of t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs h e lp in g th e s tu d e n ts and r e p o r tin g t o
th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
In 1938-1939 th e r e were s i x ; in 1939-1940
th e r e were e le v e n .
The f i v e a d d i tio n a l members of th e 1939-
1940 group were t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs co n n e cte d w ith th e c i t y
sc h o o l system s i n S a lis b u ry and in P rin c e s s Anne.
These f iv e
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s were i n c lin e d t o p o in t out many problem s
co n c ern ed w ith th e d e t a i l s o f p la n n in g and te a c h in g .
The f a c t
t h a t th e group o f f i v e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s j u s t r e f e r r e d t o had
p r e v io u s ly h an d led o n ly D ire c te d T each in g I I I f o r th e c o lle g e
may ac co u n t f o r t h a t te n d en cy and show, t h e r e f o r e , a la c k o f
c r i t e r i a f o r ju d g in g th e work o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in
D ir e c te d T eaching I I .
T his im p lie s a la c k o f s u f f i c i e n t d e ­
f i n i t e n e s s in th e o r g a n iz a tio n of th e program of d i r e c t e d
te a c h in g ; i t th u s adds o b je c tiv e ev id en ce t o th e a n a ly s is and
th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e ta b le s in c lu d e d in t h i s c h a p te r f o r
th e program o f D ire c te d T eaching I I .
CHAPTER V
A STUDY OP DIRECTED TEACHING I I I
T h is c h a p te r i s co n c e rn e d w ith a c r i t i c a l a n a ly s is
of th e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d by s tu d e n t teachers'®* in D i­
r e c t e d Teaching I I I , th e f i n a l s ta g e of th e program of d i ­
r e c t e d te a c h in g .
I t w i l l b e r e c a l l e d t h a t th e p ro s p e c tiv e
te a c h e r s e x p e rie n c e t h a t p h ase o f th e program f o r n in e weeks
d u rin g th e f i r s t s e m e ste r of t h e i r s e n io r y e a r o f w ork.
They
spend a minimum of f o u r h o u rs a day in one o f th e rooms in th e
off-cam pus la b o r a to r y s c h o o ls .
F o r th e most p a r t , th e f o u r
h o u rs a day r e p r e s e n t th e maximum tim e each s tu d e n t spends
d a i l y in th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l room t o w hich he has b een a s ­
s ig n e d .
T h is means t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s do n o t have th e
o p p o rtu n ity of f o llo w in g th ro u g h th e sc h ed u le f o r a group o f
c h ild r e n d u r in g an e n t i r e d a y .
Not more th a n two s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s are a s s ig n e d t o one t r a i n i n g te a c h e r and one group of
c h ild r e n d u rin g th e p e r io d of n in e w eeks.
U nless a s tu d e n t
d e s i r e s more th a n one te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e d u rin g t h i s f i n a l
p e r io d o f s tu d e n t te a c h i n g , he re m a in s in th e one s i t u a t i o n
f o r th e e n t i r e p e r io d o f n in e weeks*
I t seems re a s o n a b le t o assum e t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f
*■ R eferen ce i s bBre made to th e d i f f i c u l t i e s en c o u n tered by
th e s tu d e n ts in th e s e n io r c l a s s e s of 1938-1939 and
1939-1940.
124
125
th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s sh o u ld d e c re a s e t o a n o tic e a b le d e g re e ,
d u rin g t h i s p h ase of th e program , f o r two r e a s o n s :
(1) th e
f a c t t h a t t h i s i s th e l a s t c o n ta c t w ith th e la b o r a to r y sc h o o ls
p ro v id e d f o r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s b e fo re th e y a re c e r t i f i e d to
te a c h ;
(2) t h a t th e y have p r e v io u s ly had two e x p e rie n c e s in
d i r e c t e d te a c h in g ; and (3) t h a t n o t more th a n two s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s a r e a s s ig n e d to one la b o ra to ry - s c h o o l room a t any
one tim e .
The i n v e s t i g a t o r makes th e s e o b s e rv a tio n s from a
c a r e f u l s tu d y o f th e d i a r i e s :
t h a t , in g e n e r a l, fe w e r p ro b ­
lems war© in d ic a t e d by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s d u rin g th e l a s t p a r t
of any s ta g e o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g th a n a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h a t
program ; (2) t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s th ro u g h o u t ea ch o f th e
s ta g e s i n d i r e c t e d te a c h in g in th e s o - c a lle d m ajor a c t i v i t i e s
of a te a c h e r d id n o t d e c re a s e in m en tio n in an a p p r e c ia b le
num ber.
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f th e ite m s co n cern ed w ith
th e m ajo r c a t e g o r i e s (1) p la n n in g and te a c h in g , (2) c la ssro o m
management and p u p i l c o n t r o l , and (3) th e improvement o f p e r ­
sonal q u a litie s .
S e v e ra l ex am p les of th e d i a r i e s w r i t t e n by t h e p r o s ­
p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s d u rin g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s in D ir e c te d T each in g
I I I show t h a t t h e i r problem s w ere q u ite s i m i l a r t o th o s e i n ­
d ic a te d by them d u r in g t h e i r p re v io u s s tu d e n t- te a c h in g con­
ta c ts ,
I t I s to b e e x p e c te d th a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s would
be somewhat more d e f i n i t e i n s t a t i n g t h e i r tr o u b le s and in a t ­
te m p tin g to a n a ly z e th e m .
That th e y a r e somewhat f r e e r in e x ­
p r e s s i o n , a l s o , w i l l b e n o te d from th e fo llo w in g sa m p lin g s:
126
Being c o n fid e n t o f s u b je c t m a tte r
1 0 /1 5 /3 8 , G r.5
My tr o u b le in te a c h in g seems t o be in n o t knowing
enough m a te r ia l o u ts id e o f th e te x tb o o k and i n f a i l ­
in g t o b r in g th e main th o u g h ts down t o th e leveL of
th e c h i ld r e n . I en jo y te a c h in g th e c h ild r e n and th e y
resp o n d w e ll , b u t I have a long way t o go y e t t o
s a t i s f y m y s e lf.
A ccom plishing aim s
1 0 /1 4 /3 8 ,G r.3-4
I r e a l l y f e l l down in th e dumps to d a y . My le s s o n s
were t e r r i b l e . I g u ess one f e e l s t h i s way som etim es,
b u t I h a te t o . The c h i ld r e n were j u s t f i n e and th e
re sp o n se was v ery good, b u t I d i d n ’t acco m p lish what
I p la n n e d .
E n g lis h
1 0 /2 0 /3 8 , G r.5
My g r e a t e s t problem i s p r o n u n c ia tio n and e n u n c ia tio n .
I have ” s l u r r e d ” my speech and I have b e e n v e ry
s lo v e n ly in my c o n v e rs a tio n and h a b i t s of s p e e c h . Our
c o n fe re n c e was v ery h e l p f u l , I f e e l . A lso , my te a c h ­
ing com panions, I b e l i e v e , a r e going t o prove in v a lu ­
a b le h e lp i n th e c o r r e c tio n o f th e s e u n d e s ir a b le
h a b its .
U sing th o u g h t q u e s tio n s
E n g lis h , v o ic e
1 1 /2 2 /3 8 , G r.7
My q u e s tio n s a re s t i l l b o th e r in g me. They a re n e a r ly
a l l f a c t t n o t th o u g h t. Tim ing my le s s o n s t o f i t th e
tim e allotm ent i s d i f f i c u l t ; i f i t wore n o t f o r a
w atch t h a t one o f th e l i t t l e g i r l s le n d s me I would
p ro b a b ly n e v e r f i n i s h . My e n u n c ia tio n a l s o i s n o t
good. When I am d i c t a t i n g s p e l l i n g words I s e e l o t s
o f p u z z le d e x p re s s io n s and I have t o r e p e a t th e word sometim es tw ic e . In o rd e r to s t r e s s c e r t a i n p o i n t s , I
sh o u ld p u t mere em phasis i n m$ v o ic e , to o .
Need f o r c o n fid e n c e
1 1 /1 4 /3 8 , G r.5
A nother p u p il came in to d a y — g i r l - - d e a f .
Taught my f i r s t le s s o n u n d er t h i s new s e t- u p t h i s
m orn in g . H is to r y 45 m in u te s . I w asn’t p a r t i c u l a r l y
s c a re d b u t th in g s seemed b e fu d d le d t o me. I d i d n 't
f e e l su re o f m y se lf.
W ith 51 p u p ils — my , my, th in k in g o f q u e s tio n s t o
a sk - - rem em bering s p e c i f i c ite m s o f Im portance in th e
le s s o n s , k e e p in g th e a t t e n t i o n o f 102 e y e s , e n fo rc in g
d i s c i p l i n a r y m e a s u re s - - - I s a y , my good 3ady, t h i s i s
no s m a ll ta s k I
127
C o n f lic t in te c h n iq u e s
1 2 /6 /3 8 , G r. 1
T h is method of in tr o d u c in g a s to r y c o n ta in in g ab o u t
te n new w o r d s ,d r i l l i n g on th o se w ords, and h av in g an
a p p r e c ia tio n o f th e s t o r y a l l in one le s s o n i s a d i f ­
f i c u l t p ro c e d u re , b u t , I hope th e f i r s t g ra d e rs can
le a r n a l i t t l e .
I t d o e s n 't ag ree w ith what I have
le a rn e d a t c o lle g e b u t I have t o do i t . Those c h i l ­
d ren g e t so t i r e d d u rin g t h a t 30 t o 40 m inute p e r io d .
Examples o f th e a n e c d o ta l re c o rd s f u r t h e r show t h a t
problem s a r e r e c u r r e n t ones th ro u g h o u t th e e n t i r e program of
d ir e c te d te a c h in g s
C h ild re n have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y in re a d in g D - - ’ s w r i t ­
in g , I have su g g e ste d t h a t she u se m an u scrip t w r i t ­
in g to se e i f th e c h i ld r e n g e t a lo n g b e t t e r w ith i t .
She does n o t o b je c t t o w ork, b u t she i s to o tim id
and u n c e r ta in t o a c c o m p lish much. As a r u l e , I pay
l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to v o ic e , b u t I do th in k t h a t h e r s
i s th e most d o le f u l I have e v e r h ea rd in th e sc h o o l­
room,
j — »s b o ard s lo o k good. Her seatw o rk i s p l a i n .
i s making a g r e a t e f f o r t t o m a in ta in o r d e r ,
She
E— needs h e lp i n o rg a n iz in g s u b je c t m a tte r . Two
slow in t a l k i n g , m oving. D o e s n 't ac co m p lish enough
In a p e r io d . C h ild re n g e t t i r e d and i n a t t e n t i v e b e ­
cause she m easures e v e ry w ord. Very l i t t l e e n th u s ia s m .
Uses v ery l i t t l e i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . Much im prove­
ment made i n h elp in g slow c h i ld r e n . B e tte r a t t i t u d e
tow ard c r i t i c i s m .
N— *s r a t h e r h ig h -p itc h ed v o ic e seems t o c r e a te d i s ­
o rd e r in h e r c l a s s . She h a s made some improvement in
h e r q u e s tio n in g , and th u s i n s e c u r in g p u p il p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n . More v a r i e t y i n p ro c e d u re s and th e u se o f more
i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l would im prove h e r te a c h in g ,
B— w astes to o much tim e w ith u n im p o rtan t d e t a i l s . She
h as a n erv o u s g e s t u r e , I s u p p o s e , of p o in tin g a t th e
c h ild r e n when she w an ts them t o re s p o n d . She knows
t h e i r names by t h i s tim e . She o ftd n i n t e r f e r e s w ith
th e view o f th e c h i ld r e n when she i s w r itin g on th e
bo ard or h o ld in g c a rd s f o r d r i l l w ork. In o th e r w o rd s,
she needs a n undue amount o f h e lp w ith d e t a i l s co n c ern ­
in g management,
128
In u s in g a l i s t of q u e s tio n s a s a b a s i s f o r c l a s s
d is c u s s io n , H— f a i l e d t o se e and b u i l d up a l o g i ­
c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e q u e s tio n s . She asked
" b la n k e t” q u e s tio n s and made some " b la n k e t" a s s ig n ­
ment s ,
A t o t a l of 2,521 d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d ic a t e d by th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s ( in th e s e n io r c la s s e s o f 1938-1939 and 1939-1940) and
by t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs and s u p e r v is o r s were t a b u l a t e d
u n d e r th e f i v e m a jo r c a te g o r ie s re v e a le d b y them , nam ely,
s u b je c t m a tte r , p r o f e s s io n a l I n t e r e s t s aid r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c l a s s ­
room management and p u p il c o n t r o l, improvement of p e r s o n a l
q u a l i t i e s , and p la n n in g and te a c h in g .
The t a b l e s show ing th e
r e s u l t s o f th e t a b u l a t i o n s and th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f them are
g iv e n on th e f o llo w in g pages of t h i s c h a p te r .
The d a ta in T able XXV, on page 129, c o n c e rn in g th e d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s i n s u b je c t m a tte r en c o u n tered b y th e s e n io r c l a s s
o f 1938-1939 a r e i n t e r e s t i n g f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .
F irs t, it
w i l l be o b se rv e d t h a t o n ly s ix d i f f e r e n t ite m s of d i f f i c u l t y
were i n d i c a t e d and t h a t each item c o n ta in s few f r e q u e n c ie s .
An e x p la n a tio n of t h i s may be t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s ten d ed
t o th in k o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in s u b je c t m a tte r as r e l a t e d t o
p la n n in g and te a c h in g and in d ic a te d them a s su c h .
c o n c e rn in g p la n n in g and te a c h in g , on page
t h a t te n d e n c y .
T a b le XXXIII
147 , seems t o imply
Second, ev en th o u g h th e f re q u e n c ie s o f men­
t i o n a r e few , th e p e r c e n ts o f t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s may be s i g ­
n ific a n t.
These p er c e n ts te n d t o show t h a t p r o s p e c tiv e
te a c h e r s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y 3ure o f s u b je c t m a tte r , and
129
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t h a t th e y n eed h e lp w ith th e o r g a n iz a tio n and s e l e c t i o n of i t .
The p e r c e n ts of m en tio n by s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , by t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s , and by b o th g ro u p s su p p o rt th e
o p in io n j u s t e x p r e s s e d .
P ran k s ta te m e n ts made by th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in t h e i r
d i a r i e s a l s o s u p p o rt su ch an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .
One s tu d e n t w ro te:
” I f anyone had e v e r to ld me t h a t s e v e n th g rad e c h i ld r e n knew
a s much a s th e y do I would have h e a r t i l y d is a g r e e d w ith him .
O ften when I th in k I have m a ste re d my E n g lis h , th e c h i ld r e n
b r in g up p o in ts w hich s h o u ld be d is c u s s e d , b u t ab o u t w hich I
am n o t s u r e . ”
A nother s t a t e d , ”1 have t r o u b le in knowing
enough s u b je c t m a tte r ,
I r e a d and r e a d h i s t o r y te x tb o o k s , b u t
s t i l l I do not have command of a l l th e f a c t s I n e e d ,”
S till
a n o th e r s tu d e n t i s o f th e o p in io n t h a t a l l of h i s problem s a re
r e l a t e d t o o r g a n iz a tio n of s u b je c t m a t t e r .
T able XXVI, on page 131, shows t h a t r e l a t i v e l y few
d i f f i c u l t i e s co n c ern in g s u b je c t m a tte r were e n c o u n te re d by th e
s e n io r c l a s s o f 1939-1940 and th a t th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s were
ta b u l a t e d in o n ly f iv e d i f f e r e n t ite m s .
The e x p la n a tio n o f ­
f e r e d f o r th e few fre q u e n c ie s in th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of th e
p re c e d in g t a b l e i s , p e rh a p s , a p p lic a b le h e r e .
The p e r c e n ts
o f t o t a l m en tio n may, how ever, be s i g n i f i c a n t in t h i s t a b l e ,
a ls o .
I t w i l l be n o te d t h a t a l l th e problem s i n th e f i v e ita n s
a re co n cern ed w ith know ing, s e l e c t i n g , and o rg a n iz in g s u b je c t
m a tte r.
131
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132
A stu d y of th e d a ta in T ab le XXVII, on page 1 3 3 , r e ­
v e a ls t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in d ic a t e many more d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s c o n c e rn in g p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s th a n
th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s d o .
I t may be t h a t th e
s tu d e n t p o in t o f view c o n c e rn in g problem s o f t h i s n a tu re is
q u ite s i g n i f i c a n t .
A u th o r itie s in th e f i e l d o f t e a c h e r -
e d u c a tio n r e a d i l y adm it th e a c c u s a tio n t h a t th e y a re o f te n more
co n cern ed w ith th e te c h n iq u e s t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s employ th a n
th e y a r e w ith th e t o t a l p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s io n a l grow th o f
th e in d iv i d u a ls u s in g th o s e te c h n iq u e s .
The e x p e rim e n te r ven­
t u r e s t o s t a t e t h e o p in io n t h a t , i f we a re t o improve th e ed u c a­
t i o n o f te a c h e r s t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y d e g re e , th e l a t t e r must
h o ld a f i r s t p la c e .
In t h i s c o n n e c tio n th e d i f f i c u l t i e s m en tio n ed by th e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n th e f o llo w in g item s seem e s p e c i a l l y s i g ­
n i f i c a n t : t a l k i n g f r a n k ly w ith t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s ; r e c e iv in g
h e lp from t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s ; hav in g s u f f i c i e n t v i s i t s from
s u p e r v is o r s .
I t would a p p e a r t h a t th o se ite m s o f m e n tio n ,
to g e th e r w ith s ta te m e n ts su ch a s th e fo llo w in g ones g le a n e d
from some o f th e d i a r i e s , sh o u ld be s e r i o u s l y c o n s id e re d by
th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p .
I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o know t h a t each
of th e comments co n cern s a d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r , and
t h a t ea£h o f th o s e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s i s c o n s id e re d t o b e w e ll
p re p a re d f o r h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in t h a t c a p a c ity .
S e v e r a l comments f o llo w :
133
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134
1.
How m u c h more profitable my teaching would be
to me if m y training teacher would only tell me
m y weak and strong points (if any).
I dislike
be i n g critical of her, but I honestly w i s h she
would change her style of criticizing.
Her state­
ments to the tv/o of us are very general.
It would
be good to k n o w what is right and what is wrong
about my work.
2.
I do wish our training teacher w o u l d tell us some
definite way s in w h i c h we can improve.
I really
do not k n o w what m y weakest points are.
3.
I t h i n k we are going too fast in our work....We
c a n ’t do justice to either the children or to our­
selves.
What can I do?
I c a n ’t a p p r o a c h my t r a i n ­
ing teacher about it."
This table, then, may be interpreted to indicate:
(1) that the g r owth of the professional interests and r e l a t i on­
ships of the student teachers should be w a t c h e d and wisely
guided;
(2) that adequate and competent supervisory assistance
should be provided.
These suggestions are in harmony wit h the
general
principles a dvocated b y leading educators in the field of
1
teacher education.
In this connection the study by Nelson
is cited.
A conclusion reached by Henderson regarding s u p e r ­
vision is:
The type of supervision that a student receives,
the criticisms, the conferences, and the general
contact w i t h the training supervisors, the p r i n c i ­
pals, and the director of the training school,
1.
Esther M a rion Nelson, A n Analysis of Content of S tudentT e a c h i n g Courses for Education of E l e m e n t a r y frea'clhe'rs
in State T e a c h e rs C o lle g e s , p.‘ 262.
135
w i l l d eterm in e h is a t t i t u d e to w ard th e whole p ro b ­
lem of s u p e rv is io n and s u p e r v is o r s , a n d v ery ma­
t e r i a l l y in flu e n c e h i s f u t u r e conduct tow ard b o t h . 1
T ab le XXVIII, on page 1 3 6 , shows d a ta f o r th e s e n io r
c l a s s of 1939-1940, w hich c o rre s p o n d s t o t h a t In clu d e d in
T ab le XXVII (page 133) f o r th e p re c e d in g s e n io r c l a s s .
The
t a b l e s sh o u ld be i n t e r p r e t e d t o reveaL s im ila r im p lic a tio n s ,
nam ely, ( i ) th e grow th of d e s i r a b l e p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and
r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s tu d e n t te a c h e r s sh o u ld be c a r e f u l l y observed
and d i r e c t e d by t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s an d s u p e rv is o rs ; (2)
p r o v is io n f o r ad eq u ate and com petent s u p e rv is io n sh o u ld be
made.
I t w i l l be observed t h a t , in t h i s t a b l e , 63.63 p er
c e n t of a l l of th e d i f f i c u l t i e s m entioned b y th e s u p e rv is o ry
group occu r In ite m 4 and th u s show a n eed f o r more s u p e rv is o ry
a s s is ta n c e .
In each o f th e t a b l e s ( t o w hich r e f e r e n c e was made
in th e p re c e d in g p arag rap h ) ite m 4 has th e h ig h e s t p er ce n t of
m en tio n by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s , b y th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p , and by
b o th o f th e s e g ro u p s.
I t seems re a s o n a b le t o assume th a t o th e r
d i f f i c u l t i e s enum erated in t h i s t a b l e would te n d t o d is a p p e a r
i f more s u p e rv is o ry a s s i s t a n c e , a n d , p e r h a p s , more e f f i c i e n t
a s s i s t a n c e were t o be p ro v id e d .
T ab le XXIX, on page 137, shows t h a t th e stu d e n t te a c h e rs
i n th e s e n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1939 I n d ic a te d f a r g r e a t e r d i f f i 1.
E lis h a L an e H e n d e r so n , T h e O r g a n iz a tio n a n d A d m ln is tr a ti on
o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g in s t a t e T e a c h e r s' 'C o lle g e s . p . 1 1 7 .
136
The D iffic u ltie s Encountered by Twenty-Five Student Teachers (Senior Class 1939-1940) in P r o fe ssio n a l
Interests and Relationships During Directed Teaching III as Indicated by Those
Students and by Their Training Teachers and Supervisors
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138
c u l t i e s in th e ite m s p e r t a i n i n g t o th e c o n t r o l o f c h ild r e n
th a n th e y d id in th o s e co n cern ed w ith th e g e n e r a l f a c t o r s of
c la ssro o m management,
S u b -d iv is io n B, c o n tr o l of p u p i l s ,
c o n ta in s 67*95 p e r c e n t of th e t o t a l fre q u e n c y of m ention by
b o th g ro u p s .
In t h a t s u b - d iv is io n th e item s a c c o rd in g to t h e i r
p e r c e n ts of d i f f i c u l t y a s in d ic a te d by b o th t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s
and t h e i r s u p e rv is o rs a r e : (1) m anaging 45 t o 52 c h i ld r e n in
one c la s s ro o m , (2) h e lp in g c h i l d r e n form b e t t e r h a b i t s , (3) con­
t r o l l i n g u n ru ly i n d i v i d u a l s .
I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t th e
ra n k o rd e r of d i f f i c u l t y by e a c h o f th e groups i s s i m i l a r .
In
s u b - d iv is io n A, g e n e r a l f a c t o r s o f management, th e ite m " f o l1 owing a sch ed u le” has th e h ig h e s t p e r ce n t o f m ention by e a c h
of th e g ro u p s , and i t has more th a n h a l f th e t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s
in t h a t s u b - d iv is i o n .
The fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n s from th e d i a r i e s may throw
some l i g h t on th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e d a ta in t h i s t a b l e :
1.
I f I c o u ld manage my c l a s s b e t t e r I would f e e l
h a p p ie r . We have t r i e d b r i b e r y , p e r s u a s io n ,
r e a s o n in g , p le a d in g - - a l l w ith l i t t l e s u c c e s s .
2.
I have been a f r a i d o f d i s c i p l i n e in t h a t t h i r d
and f o u r t h g r a d e room. P erhaps t h e r e i s som ething
in b e in g m i l i t a r i s t i c .
3.
What to d o w ith one boy who i s a t a t t l e t a l e , a
s i s s y (a s much a s I h a te t h a t word) i s a p u z z le
t o me. He h as somewhere f a i l e d to make a n eed ed
a d ju s tm e n t, I f e a r .
Not o n ly d id th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e rv is o rs men­
t i o n i n t h e i r re c o rd s t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s e x p e rie n c e d many
d i f f i c u I t ie s i n th e c o n tr o l -of c h i l d r e n , b u t th e y r e f e r r e d t o
139
i t d u rin g t h e i r c o n fe re n c e s as one of t h e i r c h i e f problem s;
th e y d is c u s s e d means of h e lp in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s u n d e rsta n d
some of th e p r i n c i p l e s o f th e management o f c h i ld r e n .
Two of th e ty p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s m entioned by N elson^
a s r a t i n g h ig h in th e d eg ree o f d i f f i c u l t y and h ig h in v alu e
of p r e p a r a t io n f o r e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s a r e : d e a lin g w ith p ro b ­
lems o f c h i l d b e h a v io r , and h a n d lin g d i s c i p l i n e of c h i ld r e n .
One cau se o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n c e rn in g classro o m
management and p u p il c o n t r o l in th e c o lle g e a t S a lis b u ry may
be t h a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s seem t o have an in a d e q u a te work­
in g know ledge o f e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s of p sy c h o lo g y .
T his
seemslto be p a r t i c u l a r l y tr u e of th o s e p r i n c i p l e s w hich con­
c e rn th e b e h a v io r and th e c o n t r o l o f c h i l d r e n .
N elson has p o in te d o u t t h a t one o f th e most im p o rtan t
problem s t h a t stu d e n t te a c h e r s sh o u ld i n v e s t i g a t e and stu d y
i s "How t o s e c u re and m a in ta in h ig h s ta n d a rd s o f conduct among
2
th e c h i ld r e n ; and t o e s t a b l i s h p ro p e r te a c h e r - p u p il r a p p o r t."
The d a ta in t h i s t a b l e te n d
t o r e v e a l t h a t p ro v is io n
sh o u ld be made to in s u re t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a c q u ire an a d e ­
q u a te w orking knowledge o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f psychology e s ­
p e c i a l l y th o s e w hich would te n d to c l a r i f y and le s s e n problem s
c o n c e rn in g c lassro o m management and p u p il c o n t r o l .
1.
2.
N e lso n , 0 £ . c i t . . p . 122.
I b i d . , p . 200.
140
The d a ta
in T ab le XXX, on page 1 4 1 , r e v e a l t h a t th e
members of th e s e n io r c l a s s o f 1939-1940 e x p e rie n c e d d i f f i ­
c u l t i e s q u i t e s im ila r in k in d and degree t o th o s e e x p e rie n c e d
by th e s e n i o r c l a s s o f 1938-1939,
T his a d d i t i o n a l o b je c tiv e
ev id en ce te n d s to su p p o rt th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e d a ta g iv e n
f o r T able XXIX (page 1 3 7 ),
T ab le XXXI, on page 142, co n cern in g th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n c o u n te re d by th e s e n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1939 in th e im prove­
ment of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s :
(1)
a s tu d y o f i t shows t h a t 5 6 ,4 1 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l d i f ­
f i c u l t i e s m en tio n ed a re concerned w ith s u b - d iv is io n A, s k i l l s
and
h a b i t s ; (2) t h e r e i s a c lo s e agreem ent b etw een th e s t u ­
d e n t te a c h e r s and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s as
t o th e number and p e r c e n t o f th e d i f f e r e n t ite m s in su b ­
d i v i s i o n A; (3) th e th r e e item s h aving th e h ig h e s t p e r c e n ts
o f m ention i n s u b - d iv is io n B, a t t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,
seem t o show t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s have to o much f e a r o f th e
s i t u a t i o n to do t h e i r b e s t w ork.
These item s show d i f f i c u l ­
t i e s e n c o u n te re d in (1 ) r e t a i n i n g p o is e , (2) b e in g d is c o u ra g e d ,
(3) h av in g s e lf - c o n f id e n c e .
P e a r, t o o , may be a re a s o n in
scsne c a s e s , f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s co n cern ed w ith b e in g e n t h u s i a i i c .
That ite m , i t w i l l be n o te d , has a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h p e r c e n t of
m e n tio n , e s p e c i a l l y by th e s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p .
T h is t a b l e seems e s p e c i a lly s i g n i f i c a n t i n a tte m p tin g
t o s o lv e th e problem s in t h i s stu d y when one r e f e r s to th e
141
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p re c e d in g ta b le s * which c o n ta in d a ta in t h i s m ajor c a te g o ry f o r
D ire c te d T eaching
I and
D ir e c te d T each in g I I .
I t w ill be ob­
se rv e d t h a t many o f th e ite m s h av in g a h ig h p e r ce n t o f men­
t i o n in th o s e t a b l e s , s t i l l have a h ig h p e r c e n t o f m ention
by th e s tu d e n ts e x p e rie n c in g D ire c te d T eaching I I I , th e f i n a l
s ta g e of s tu d e n t te a c h in g .
T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y tr u e o f th e
d i f f i c u l t i e s ta b u la t e d i n th e fo llo w in g ite m s :
im proving v o ic e
and s p e e c h , E n g lis h , penm anship, and th e item s showing t h a t
s tu d e n t te a c h e rs te n d t o have an undue amount of f e a r in th e
to ta l s itu a tio n .
The e v id e n c e a c c u m u la te s , t h e n , and r e v e a ls t h a t s t u ­
d e n t te a c h e r s need: (1) a c o u rse in th e fu n d am en tals o f sp eech ;
(2) an o p p o rtu n ity c o u rse i n E n g lis h , an d one in penm anship;
(3) a d d i t i o n a l tim e f o r c o n fe re n c e s t o r e c e iv e h e lp from t h e i r
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s w ith t h e i r in d iv id u a l p ro b ­
lem s.
E x c e rp ts from s e v e r a l of th e d i a r i e s in d ic a te r a t h e r
s p e c i f i c a l l y th a t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s need more a s s is ta n c e in
p la n n in g t h e i r work, i n a n a ly z in g t h e i r w ork, and en co u rag e­
ment in f a c in g and i n s o lv in g p ro b lem s.
One s tu d e n t w ro te:
I am so c o n fu se d and d isc o u ra g e d t h a t I d o n 't know
w hether I am coming o r g o in g . Tomorrow we s t a r t
te a c h in g . I hope my le s s o n s w i l l be up to p a r ,
b u t I doubt i t b ecau se I f e e l s o u t t e r l y l o s t . I
j u s t need h e lp to u n d e rs ta n d what i t i s a l l about •
#
R eferen ce i s h e re made t o T able V, on page 66, and T able
XIX on page 106.
J
144
Such c o n fu s io n seems q u ite u n n e c e s s a ry in D ire c te d
T each in g I I I a s does t h a t im p lie d i n :
" I f e e l v e ry d i s ­
co uraged b ecau se I d o n ’t f e e l th a t I have made any im prove­
ment s in c e I b e g a n .
lo g ic a l.
When M iss — makes a s u g g e s tio n i t sounds
I guess I need more
h e lp to w ork th in g s o u t . ”
S in ce th e above comment was made by a s tu d e n t r a t e d above
a v e ra g e , i t would seem to be more s i g n i f i c a n t th a n i f i t were
made by an av erag e o r below av erag e s t u d e n t.
The s u g g e s tio n t h a t more a t t e n t i o n be g iv e n t o h e lp in g
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s d e v e lo p d e s ir a b le p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s is
in harmony w ith p r i n c i p l e s o f a program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g
a s a d v o c a te d by le a d in g e d u c a to rs In th e f i e l d o f te a c h e r
e d u c a tio n .
As one a u t h o r i t y , S c h o rlin g 1 may be c i t e d .
Watson s t a t e s , ” Ih th e f u t u r e we s h o u ld e d u c a te te a c h e r s
who a re th e m se lv e s i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s o n s , w ith b ro a d e r o u tlo o k ,
r i c h e r i n t e r e s t s , and a c a p a c ity f o r c o n tin u o u s g ro w th .”2
He
b e l ie v e s t h a t c o lle g e s sh o u ld ’’a d a p t t h e i r work t o th e needs
•Z
of e a c h in d iv i d u a l s tu d e n t* ”0
The d i f f i c u l t i e s en c o u n te re d by th e s e n io r c l a s s of
1939-1940 in th e improvement of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r e shown
in T able XXXII, on page 145.
1.
2.
3.
These d a ta i n d i c a t e , as d id th e
R a le ig h S c h o r lin g , D ire c te d T each in g . T w enty-T hird Y earBook. The N a tio n a l S o c ie ty of C o lleg e T ea ch ers of Edu­
c a t i o n , p . 137.
Goodwin W atson, R e d ire c tin g T eacher E d u c a tio n and I t s Im­
p l i c a t i o n s f o r S u p e rv iso rs o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g . N ine­
te e n th Annual S e s s io n . S u p e rv is o rs o f S tu d en t T each­
in g , p . 3 l .
I b id .. p . 31.
145
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146
d a ta in T ab le XXXI (page 142) f o r t h e p re c e d in g s e n io r c l a s s
t h a t th e r e i s a need f o r p ro v id in g means (1) t o help s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s a c q u ire g r e a t e r p r o f ic ie n c y in sp e e c h , E n g lis h , and
penm anship, and (2) t o o f f e r g u id an ce in h e lp in g them s o lv e
t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problem s*
T able XXXIII, on page 147, p r e s e n ts d a ta co n c ern in g
th e d i f f i c u l t i e s th a t members o f th e s e n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1939
e n c o u n te re d in th e m ajor c a te g o r y , p la n n in g and te a c h in g *
A
stu d y o f th e s e d a ta shows: (1) t h a t 1 9 .6 4 p e r c e n t of th e t o t a l
f re q u e n c ie s p e r t a i n to te n item s in s u b - d iv is io n A, w r itin g
p la n s ;
(2) t h a t 80*36 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l f re q u e n c ie s a re
d i s t r i b u t e d among tw e n ty - s ix ite m s in s u b - d iv is io n B, e x e c u t­
in g p la n s ; (3) t h a t th e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y c lo s e agreem ent b e ­
tw een th e s tu d e n t te a c h e rs and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and
s u p e r v is o r s as t o th e item s o f g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y .
In s u b - d iv is io n A th e ite m s o f g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y a r e :
(1) making u n i t p la n s ; (2) p la n n in g m ajor q u e s tio n s ; (3) w r i t ­
in g s p e c i f i c a im s.
In s u b - d iv is io n B, th e ite m s c a u s in g th e
h ig h e s t p e r c e n ts of t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s a r e : (1) u s in g th o u g h tp ro v o k in g q u e s tio n s ; (2) p ro v id in g f o r i n d iv i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ;
(3) s e c u rin g c h i l d p u rp o sin g ; (4) m o tiv a tin g a s sig n m e n ts;
(5) f in d in g d i f f i c u l t i e s
in h e re n t in p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s .
It
w i l l be n o te d t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in s u b - d iv is io n A a r e con­
c e rn e d w ith th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f s u b je c t
m a tte r f o r te a c h in g ; th o s e in s u b - d iv is io n B p e r t a i n t o th e
a p p l i c a t i o n o f th e p r i n c i p l e s o f p sy ch o lo g y a s th e y r e l a t e t o
147
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148
d ire c tin g le a rn in g .
An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e s e f a c t s may
be t h a t th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c t- m a tte r c o u rs e s and th e
p sychology c o u rs e s a r e n o t f u n c tio n in g e f f e c t i v e l y in th e
e d u c a tio n o f th e s tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , and, th u s in th e program
of d i r e c t e d te a c h i n g .
The item s c a u s in g g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y f o r th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs i n e a c h of th e s u b - d iv is i o n s , th e t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s
in a seem in g ly e x c e s s iv e number of ite m s , and th e p e r c e n ts
of f re q u e n c ie s i n a la r g e
n ific a n t.
number of item s a p p e a r t o be s i g ­
T hese s ta te m e n ts seem e s p e c i a lly tr u e when th e d a ta
in t h i s t a b l e a r e com pared w ith th e d a ta i n T able V II , on page
7 3 , and in T ab le XXI, on page 111.
I t w i l l b e o b se rv e d t h a t ,
in g e n e r a l, th e item s c a u sin g g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y f o r s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s in p la n n in g and te a c h in g d u rin g t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s in
D ire c te d T each in g I and D ire c te d T eaching I I a re s t i l l th e
ones of c h i e f co n cern t o them d u rin g t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s in
D ire c te d T each in g I I I .
I t seems r e a s o n a b le to assume t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n c o u n te re d b y s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in D ire c te d T each in g I I I would
a p p e ar n o tic e a b ly d i f f e r e n t in (a) th e t o t a l m e n tio n o f d i f ­
fic u ltie s ,
(b) th e number o f d i f f e r e n t ite m s c a u s in g d i f f i ­
c u l t y , (c) th e p a r t i c u l a r ite m s c a u sin g d i f f i c u l t y .
The d a t a ,
th e n , in t h i s t a b l e a r e a c c u m u la tiv e ev id en ce s (1) t h a t th e
program o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g la c k s u n ity ; (2) t h a t th o s e r e s ­
p o n s ib le f o r th e program o f s tu d e n t te a c h in g sh o u ld s e l e c t
w ith g r e a t e r d e f i n i t e n e s s th e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t te n d t o have
most v a lu e f o r p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s ; (3) t h a t t h e r e i s a need
149
t o p ro v id e more e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v is o r y s e r v i c e s ; (4) t h a t th e
p sy ch o lo g y c o u rs e s a r e n o t f u n c tio n in g e f f e c t i v e l y ;
(5) t h a t
th e professioneL ized s u b je c t- m a tte r c o u r s e s a r e n o t f u n c tio n ­
in g e f f e c t i v e l y .
In making reco m n en d atio n s r e l a t i v e t o th e improvement
of s tu d e n t te a c h in g Mooney s t a t e s :
"U n less a u n i f i e d t e a c h e r -
p r e p a r a t io n program i s d e te rm in e d b y th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l and
s u p e rv is o ry s t a f f s , t h e r e i s a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t d u p lic a t io n ,
o v e rla p p in g , in a d e q u a c ie s , and even c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s and
p r a c t i c e s may o c c u r ." ^
Sane o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s and n eed s of th e p ro s p e c tiv e
te a c h e r s a r e f u r t h e r r e v e a le d b y su c h comments a s th e f o llo w ­
in g :
1.
I am s t i l l w orking on making my q u e s tio n s d e f i n i t e .
I am n o t s a t i s f i e d .
2.
I s t i l l f in d i t d i f f i c u l t t o work in a good sum­
m ary. However,I was t o l d t h a t I amd e v e lo p in g a
b e t t e r c l a s s m anner. T hat h e lp s ."
3.
Today h a s b een a v e ry t r y i n g
as though I had been p u lli n g
f in is h e d my s c ie n c e le s s o n .
th in g more t o s a y b ec au se we
c o n fe re n c e . I j u s t had n o t
day f o r me. I f e l t
eye t e e t h when I
I d o n ’t know any­
t a l k e d i t over in
s tu d ie d th e c h i ld r e n .
These e x d e rp ts f u r t h e r td n d t o show t h a t . s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s need h e lp w ith th e same ty p e s o f problem s t h a t tr o u b le d
them i n th e e a r l i e r p h a s e s of s tu d e n t te a c h in g .
1.
Edward S. Mooney, J r . , An A n a ly s is of th e S u p e rv is io n of
S tu d e n t T e a c h in g . p . 142.
150
The d i f f l e n i t i e s e n c o u n te re d by th e s e n io r c l a s s of
1939-1940 in th e c a te g o r y , p la n n in g and te a c h in g , a r e p r e ­
s e n te d i n T ab le XXXIV, on page 151.
A stu d y of th e d a ta r e ­
v e a ls a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y to th e d a ta g iv e n in th e p re c e d ­
in g t a b l e f o r th e s e n io r c l a s s o f 1938-1939 in r e g a r d t o th e
number and th e p er c e n t o f ite m s c a u sin g g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y .
The e v id e n c e i n t h i s t a b l e , t h e n , len d s s u p p o rt to th e i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n g iv e n f o r th e p re c e d in g t a b l e .
A summary of a l l th e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d by th e
s e n io r c l a s s o f 1938*1939 i s t o be found in T able XXXV, on
page 352.
I t shows t h a t 1,467 d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d ic a t e d by th e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s and t h e i r t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s and s u p e r v is o r s
were c l a s s i f i e d in to f i v e c a t e g o r i e s .
In th e o rd e r o f th e
p e r c e n ts o f t o t a l m en tio n by b o th of th e g ro u p s , th e s e c a t e ­
g o rie s a r e s p la n n in g and te a c h in g , 56.24 p e r c e n t; improvement
of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , 19.93 p e r c e n t; c la ssro o m management
and p u p il c o n t r o l , 15.75 p e r c e n t; s u b je c t m a tte r 6 .2 0 p e r
c e n t; and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s 2 .1 1
p er c e n t.
In th e m selv es th e s e d a ta a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t
th e y seem t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y so when th e y a r e com pared w ith
th e summary t a b l e s * f o r D ir e c te d T eaching I and D ir e c te d T each-
R e fe re n ce i s h e re made t o th e fo llo w in g ta b le s * T able IX
(page 7 9 ) , T able X (page 8 1 ) , T able X X III (page 1 1 8 ),
T able XXIV (page 1 2 2 ).
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155
in g I I .
S tr i k in g s i m i l a r i t i e s a r e t o be o b se rv e d in th e s e
summary t a b l e s to th e summary t a b l e s f o r D ir e c te d T eaching I I I
(see a l s o T ab le XXXVI,on page 1 5 6 ).
These lik e n e s s e s a r e :
(1) th e m ajor c a te g o r y , p la n n in g and te a c h in g , h as by f a r th e
h ig h e s t p e r c e n t of th e t o t a l f r e q u e n c ie s in e a c h of th e s e
t a b l e s ; (2) th e m ajor c a te g o r y , improvement of p e r s o n a l q u a l i­
t i e s , h a s a h ig h p e r c e n t o f m en tio n in ea c h of th e s e t a b l e s ,
and ra n k s second or t h i r d i n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l m en tio n in each
o f them ; (3) th e m ajor c a te g o r y ,c la s s r o o m management and p u p il
c o n t r o l , h a s a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h p e r cen t of m en tio n in each of
th e s e t a b l e s .
The f in d in g s above m en tio n ed a r e e s p e c i a lly s i g ­
n i f i c a n t s in c e th e y te n d t o p ro v e t h a t s tu d e n t te a c h e rs ex­
p e r ie n c e s i m i l a r ty p e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s and in s i m i l a r d eg ree s
in each of th e s ta g e s o f th e program of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
I t seems re a s o n a b le t o assume t h a t th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
e n c o u n te re d by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in th e f i n a l s ta g e o f th e p r o ­
gram o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g sh o u ld be n o tic e a b ly l e s s and o f a
d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c te r th a n th o s e e x p e rie n c e d by them in th e two
p re v io u s s ta g e s of th e program .
In th e l i g h t o f th e ev id en ce
p r e s e n te d in th e p re c e d in g pages of t h i s docum ent, i t seems
r e a s o n a b le to assum e, a l s o , t h a t su ch s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s
in th e d i f f i c u l t i e s in d ic a te d would n o t a p p e a r i f th e program
o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g were a c a r e f u lly - p la n n e d one — a u n if ie d
o n e.
A summary o f th e a n a ly s is and th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
th e t a b l e s in c lu d e d in Table_XXXV f o llo w s :
15ft
1*
One re a s o n f o r th e i n e f f e c t u a l f u n c tio n in g of th e
program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g i s th a t i t la c k s u n i t y
of p la n ; t h e r e f o r e , a need e x i s t s f o r th o s e re s p o n ­
s i b l e f o r i t to d e te rm in e th e c o n te n t of each s ta g e of
th e program w ith r e g a r d to i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e e n ­
t i r e pro g ram ,
2.
T here seems t o be a n eed o f p ro v id in g ad eq u ate and
e f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g te a c h e r and s u p e rv is o ry g u id an ce f o r
th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f a u n if ie d p la n o f d i r e c t e d te a c h ­
in g .
3.
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s show an in a d e q u a te w orking know­
le d g e o f th e p r i n c i p l e s of psycbdogy.
T h is in a d eq u ac y
i s e s p e c i a l l y t o bo n o te d in r e g a r d t o th e p r i n c i p l e s
p e r ta in in g t o th e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l g ro u p s and i n d i ­
v id u a l c h i l d r e n , and t o guide t h e i r l e a r n i n g .
4.
The p sy ch o lo g y and th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d c o u rse s a r e
n o t f u n c tio n in g e f f e c t u a l l y in th e program of d ir e c te d
te a c h in g .
5.
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s show a need (a) t o a c q u ire g r e a t e r
p r o f ic ie n c y in v o ic e c o n tr o l and e f f e c t i v e s p e a k in g ,
(b) t o have p r o v is io n made f o r them t o e n r o l l in ” opp o r tu n ity c o u r s e s ” in E n g lis h and in penm anship,
(c) t o have more tim e d ev o ted t o c o n fe re n c e s in o rd e r
t o o b ta in h e lp w ith problem s p e r ta in in g e s p e c i a l l y t o
(1) p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (2) th e
improvement of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , and (3) th e k n o tty
problem s th e y e n c o u n te r in th e mft&ng and e x e c u tin g o f
155
p la n s*
6.
The re c u rre n c e o f s i m i l a r problem s in each o f th e
s ta g e s of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g i n d ic a t e s th a t th e s t u ­
d en t te a c h e r s have i n s u f f i c i e n t c o n ta c ts w ith th e
la b o r a to r y sch o o l*
T able XXXVI, on page 1 5 6 , p r e s e n ts a summary of th e
d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d by th e s e n io r c la s s o f 1939-1940
d u rin g D ire c te d T eaching I I I ,
I t shows a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y
to th e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d by th e s e n io r c l a s s o f
1938-1939 (se e T ab le XXXV, page 1 5 2 ),
A s tu d y of th e two
ta b l e s r e v e a ls th e fo llo w in g li k e n e s s e s :
(a) ran k a c c o rd in g
t o d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n te re d i n th e m ajo r c a te g o r ie s ; (b) p e r
c e n ts of t o t a l m en tio n of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n ea c h of th e m ajor
c a te g o rie s .
These d a t a , t h e n , seem t o su p p o rt th e i n t e r p r e ­
t a t i o n g iv e n f o r th e ta b l e t o w hich r e f e r e n c e has j u s t b een
made.
A Summary of the D iffic u ltie s Enoountered by Twenty-Five Student Teachers (Senior Class 1939-1940) During
Directed Teaching III as Indicated by Those Students and by Their Training Teachers and Supervisors
156
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CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y has been to d e te rm in e th e
c h ie f problem s of p r o f e s s i o n a l ad ju stm e n t t h a t p r o s p e c tiv e
s tu d e n t te a c h e r s e n r o lle d in th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e a t
S a lis b u r y , M aryland e n c o u n te re d d u rin g t h e i r la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
e x p e rie n c e s and t o a n a ly z e th e s e problem s as a b a s is f o r mak­
in g recom m endations f o r a d j u s tin g and im proving th e program of
d ir e c te d te a c h in g in t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n .
T his stu d y has made
no atte m p t t o d e te rm in e w h e th e r s i m i l a r problem s a r e encoun­
te r e d by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s i n o th e r te a c h e rs c o l le g e s .
I t h as
been made w ith s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o th e c o lle g e above men­
tio n e d .
I t h as in v o lv e d a c r i t i c a l stu d y of e a c h of th e th r e e
le v e ls of th e e x p e rie n c e s o f p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s in th e p r o ­
gram of d ir e c te d te a c h i n g , nam ely: D ire c te d T eaching _I,
D ire c te d T eaching I I , and D ir e c te d T eaching I I I .
T h is c h a p te r a tte m p ts to summarize th e f in d in g s o f th e
stu d y and to o f f e r recom m endations f o r th e improvement o f each
o f th e s ta g e s o f th e program o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g t o w hich
r e f e r e n c e h as j u s t b e e n made.
These s u g g e stio n s a re o f f e r e d
w ith th e hope t h a t th e y may be t e n t a t i v e l y in c lu d e d i n th e p r o ­
gram of d ir e c te d te a c h in g i n th e S ta te T eachers C ollege a t
S a lis b u r y , M aryland, and e v a lu a te d a s t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s
i n im proving t h a t program .
The f in d in g s in t h i s s tu d y , to g e th e r
157
158
w ith, u n d e rly in g p r in c ip l e s o f s tu d e n t te a c h i n g , w id ely a c ­
c e p te d and g e n e r a lly a d v o c a te d by le a d in g e d u c a to rs in th e
f i e l d of te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n , form th e b a s is f o r th e s e recom ­
m endations •
T e n ta tiv e " P r i n c i p l e s " U n d erly in g a Program o f D ire c te d
T eaching
1.
A u n i f i e d program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g i s an e s ­
s e n t i a l p a r t o f a te a c h e r-e d u c a t io n c u r r i c u l a .
2.
S p e c ific o b je c tiv e s f o r e a c h le v e l of th e program
o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g
sh o u ld be d e te rm in e d , b r i e f l y s t a t e d , and
a c c e p te d by a l l co n cern ed w ith t h a t pro g ram .
3.
D e f in ite p r o v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r th e
accom­
p lish m e n t of th e ag reed -u p o n o b j e c t i v e s .
4.
Adequate and e f f i c i e n t s u p e rv is io n i s e s s e n t i a l
t o a w e ll-a d m in is te r e d program of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
5.
The program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g and th e p r o f e s ­
s i o n a liz e d s u b je c t- m a tte r and p sy ch o lo g y c o u rs e s sh o u ld be
c a r e f u l l y in t e g r a t e d .
6.
The c o n ta c ts o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in th e
la b o r a to r y sc h o o ls sh o u ld be v a r ie d and e x te n s iv e enough to
p ro v id e e x p e rie n c e s w ith and u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e im p o rtan t
t a s k s of an e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l t e a c h e r .
7.
E s p e c ia l a t t e n t i o n sh o u ld be g iv en to th e
in d i­
v id u a l n e e d s , e x p e rie n c e s and a b i l i t i e s of e a c h of th e s t u ­
d e n t t e a c h e r s ; th e s e n eed s sh o u ld s e rv e as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n
in s tu d e n t te a c h in g .
159
8*
E very p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r sh o u ld o b ta in a r i c h
background o f s u b je c t m a tte r and a " s a f e t y minimum" o f t e a c h ­
ing s k i l l s needed f o r s u c c e s s f u l i n i t i a l e x p e rie n c e b e f o r e
b e in g c e r t i f i e d f o r e le m e n ta ry -s c h o o l s e r v i c e .
C o n c lu sio n s and Recommendations f o r D ir e c te d T eaching I
A stu d y of D ire c te d T eaching I seems t o r e v e a l th e
fo llo w in g ;
1.
T here i s a la c k of o r g a n iz a tio n in th e c o u rse en­
t i t l e d D ir e c te d T eaching
t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s need f o r th o se
in ch arg e of th e c o u rse t o s e l e c t s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s f o r i t
and t o p la p a s a t i s f a c t o r y way of ac c o m p lish in g th o s e o b je c ­
tiv e s .
2.
S tu d e n t te a c h e rs need more s u p e rv is o ry g u id a n ce
w ith ite m s co n cern ed w ith ea c h of th e m ajo r c a t e g o r i e s .
T h is
i s e s p e c i a l l y t o b e n o te d in th e ta b l e p e r t a i n i n g t o th e im­
provem ent o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ,
3.
Each t r a i n i n g te a c h e r sh o u ld be r e s p o n s ib le f o r
n o t more th a n f o u r s tu d e n t te a c h e r s a t an y one p e r io d d u rin g
t h i s p h ase of th e program of d ir e c te d te a c h i n g .
4.
S tu d e n t te a c h s r s have an i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f
p sy c h o lo g y , e s p e c i a l l y of c h i ld p sy c h o lo g y , o r th e y a r e n o t
a p p ly in g th e know ledge th e y have t o t h e i r e x p e rie n c e s i n th e
la b o r a to r y s c h o o l.
5.
S tu d e n t te a c h e r s have in a d e q u a te in fo rm a tio n r e ­
g a rd in g th e c h i ld r e n w ith whom th e y a r e w orking and a r e , t h e r e -
160
f o r e , e x p e rie n c in g many d i f f i c u l t i e s in u n d e rs ta n d in g and in
h e lp in g in d iv id u a l c h ild r e n and groups o f c h i ld r e n .
6.
The " in t e g r a te d program" i s n o t f u n c tio n in g s a t i s ­
fa c to rily a t th e S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u r y .
7.
A m ajor t a s k , t h e n , f o r th e s u p e rv is o ry group a t
th e C ollege i s t o make th e o b s e rv a tio n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c ­
t i v i t i e s o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s r e a l , v i t a l , and m e a n in g fu l.
C o n clu sio n s and Recommendstions f o r D ire c te d T eaching I I
F or t h i s s ta g e o f th e program o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g th e
fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n s and s u g g e s tio n s a r e o f f e r e d :
1.
There i3 an u rg e n t n eed f o r a u t h o r i t i e s in ch a rg e
o f th e program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g t o d eterm in e d e f i n i t e l y
th e c o n te n t of s tu d e n t te a c h in g .
2.
Adequate p r o v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r s tu d e n t
te a c h e rs and t h e i r s u p e r v is o r s and t r a i h i n g te a c h e r s t o know
th e s p e c if ic o b je c tiv e s a g re e d upon i n o rd e r t h a t th e y may work
tow ard th e accom plishm ent o f th o s e o b je c ti v e s .
3.
A dequate p r o v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r s u p e r v is o r y
guidance to a i d s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith th e f o llo w in g problem s
e s p e c i a l l y : (a) s e l e c t i n g , o r g a n iz in g , and i n t e r p r e t i n g su b ­
j e c t m a tte r a s a p r e p a r a t io n f o r te a c h in g ? (b) s e l e c t i n g s p e c i­
f i c aim s and u n d e rs ta n d in g t h e i r s ig n i f ic a n c e in te a c h in g ;
(c) s e le c tin g and e x e c u tin g te c h n iq u e s s u i t a b l e f o r th e accom­
p lish m e n t of d e s i r a b l e a im s ; (d) u n d e rs ta n d in g and a p p ly in g
p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s , e s p e c i a l l y th o s e p e r ta in in g t o u n d e r-
161
s ta n d in g c h i ld r e n and t h e i r le a r n in g and "behavior p ro b lem s,
s e c u r in g c h ild p u rp o s in g , u n d e rs ta n d in g in d iv i d u a l and group
i n t e r e s t s , and h a n d lin g p tip il r e s p o n s e s ; (e ) fo rm u la tin g and
u s in g m ajo r and d e v e lo p m e n ta l q u e s tio n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; ( f )
h e lp in g w ith th e many problem s p e r t a i n i n g to th e developm ent
of d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t i e s .
4.
P ro v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r th e fo llo w in g ” op­
p o r t u n i t y c o u rs e s ” to be o f f e r e d in th e c u rric u lu m :
(a) th e
fu n d am e n tals of sp e ech , (b) E n g lis h , (c) penm anship.
5.
P ro v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r a " h e lp in g te a c h e r"
to be added t o th e la b o ra to x y -s c h o o l te a c h in g s t a f f .
C o n c lu sio n s and Reccmmendations f o r D ire c te d T eaching I I I
F or t h i s s ta g e o f th e program of d ir e c te d te a c h in g th e
fo llo w in g c o n c lu sio n s and recom m endations a re o f f e r e d :
1.
One re a s o n f o r th e i n e f f e c t u a l f u n c tio n in g o f th e
program of d ir e c te d te a c h in g i s t h a t i t la ck 3 u n i t y of p la n ;
t h e r e f o r e , a need e x i s t s f o r th o se r e s p o n s ib le f o r i t t o d e­
te rm in e th e c o n te n t o f e a c h stafee of th e program w ith re g a r d
t o I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o th e e n t i r e program .
2.
T here seems t o be a need o f p ro v id in g adequate
and e f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g te a c h e r and s u p e rv is o ry a s s is ta n c e f o r
th e a d m in is tr a tio n of a program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
3.
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s show an in a d eq u ate w orking
know ledge of th e p r i n c i p l e s o f p sy c h o lo g y .
T h is inadequacy
i s e s p e c i a l l y t o be n o te d in - r e g a r d t o th e p r i n c i p l e s p e r ­
162
t a i n i n g t o th e a b i l i t y t o c o n tr o l groups and i n d iv i d u a l c h i l ­
d re n and t o g u id e t h e i r le a rn in g *
4.
The p sy ch o lo g y and th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c t-
m a tte r c o u rs e s a r e
n o t f u n c tio n in g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y in th e p ro ­
gram o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
5*
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s show a need (a) t o a c q u ire
g r e a t e r p r o f ic ie n c y i n v o ic e c o n tr o l and e f f e c t i v e sp e a k in g ,
(b) t o have p r o v is io n made f o r them t o e n r o l l in ” o p p o r tu n ity
c o u rs e s ” i n E n g lis h a n d penm anship, (c) t o have more tim e d e­
v o te d t o c o n fe re n c e s in o rd e r to o b ta in h e lp w ith problem s
p e r ta in in g e s p e c i a l l y t o (1) p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p s , (2) th e improvement of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s , and
(3) k n o tty problem s th e y e n c o u n te r in th e making and e x e c u t­
in g o f p la n s*
6*
The r e c u r r e n c e o f s im ila r problem s in e a c h o f th e
s ta g e s o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g in d ic a te s th a t th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
have i n s u f f i c i e n t c o n ta c t w ith th e la b o r a to r y sch o o l*
A p p lic a tio n s o f th e F in d in g s
T here fo llo w s a l i s t of s u g g e s tio n s , t e n t a t i v e l y o f­
f e r e d a s a p r a c t i c a l means of making th e program o f d i r e c t e d
te a c h in g in th e S ta te T ea ch ers C ollege a t S a lis b u r y more e f ­
f e c t i v e in th e e d u c a tio n of th e p ro s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s e n r o lle d
in t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n *
These s u g g e stio n s have b een fo rm u la te d
on th e b a s i s o f a l l o f th e d a ta th e in v e s t i g a t o r h as been a b le
to s e c u re and w ith r e f e r e n c e t o p re s e n t tr e n d s in e d u c a tio n a l
th o u g h t.
163
1.
Those r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e program of d ir e c te d
te a c h in g should d eterm in e th e s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s * t h a t seem
t o be o f g r e a t e s t v alu e t o p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r s and a l l o c a t e
th o s e o b je c tiv e s t o each of th e s ta g e s o f t h a t program , nam ely:
D ir e c te d T eaching I , D ire c te d T ea ch in g I I , and D ire c te d Teach­
in g I I I .
2.
The fo llo w in g p r o v is io n s sh o u ld be made t o in ­
su re th e accom plishm ent of th e a g re e d -u p o n s e t o f o b je c tiv e s :
a.
Each t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s h o u ld be r e s p o n s ib le
f o r n o t more th a n f o u r s tu d e n t te a c h e rs a t any
one p e rio d d u r in g th e program of D ire c te d
T eaching I ^ /^ n d two s tu d e n t te a c h e rs a t any one
p e rio d d u r in g th e program s o f D ire c te d T each­
ing I I and D ir e c te d T eaching I I I .
b.
A w e ll - tr a i n e d a d d i t i o n a l 3 t a f f member sh o u ld
be employed in th e campus la b o r a to r y sc h o o l as
a "h e lp in g te a c h e r " in o rd e r t o more n e a r ly
pro v id e a d e q u a te and e f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g te a c h e r
*
The r e a d e r 's a t t e n t i o n i s h e re d i r e c t e d t o th e t e n t a t i v e l i s t
o f o b je c tiv e s l i s t e d in th e A ppendix on pages 210-213
In th e s p rin g of 1940 th e s u p e rv is o ry group a t th e S ta te
T each ers C ollege a t S a lis b u r y , M aryland, h e ld a s e r i e s
o f co n feren c es i n o rd e r t o d e te rm in e more d e f i n i t e l y
th e s p e c if ic o b je c tiv e s f o r each of th e s ta g e s o f d i ­
r e c te d te a c h in g , and t o b e g in work on a handbook of
s tu d e n t te a c h in g . In t h a t work th e group was g u id ed
t o a c o n s id e ra b le e x te n t by th e f in d in g s in t h i s s tu d y .
Pages from th e t e n t a t i v e handbook a r e in c lu d ed in th e
A ppendix, pages 202-250 t o show th e n a tu re o f th e
c o o p e ra tiv e t a s k w h ich th e s u p e rv is o ry group i s u n d e r­
ta k in g la r g e ly a s an o u tg ro w th o f t h i s stu d y .
T h is su g g e stio n s Im p lie s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s sh o u ld be
p ro v id ed in th e on-cam pus la b o r a to r y s c h o o l. At l e a s t
th r e e a d d i tio n a l t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s in charge of classro o m
groups are n ee d ed .
164
and s u p e rv is o ry guidance f o r th e p r o s p e c tiv e
te a c h e rs •
c.
The s tu d e n t te a c h e r s s h o u ld have c o n ta c ts w ith
th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l a s f o llo w s :
(1) One hour d a i l y d u rin g th e f i r s t s a ra e ste r
o f th e ju n io r y e a r f o r D ire c te d T each in g I .
(2) A minimum o f fo u r h o u rs d a i l y f o r n in e weeks
d u rin g th e second s e m e s te r o f th e ju n io r
y e a r in D ire c te d T each in g I I .
(3) A ll-d a y f o r n in e weeks d u rin g th e s e n io r
y e a r in D ire c te d T each in g I I I .
3.
P ro v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r th e c l o s e r i n t e r r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p ( i n t e g r a t i o n ) o f th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c tm a tte r and th e p sy ch o lo g y c o u rse s* w ith th e work of th e s tu d e n t
te a c h e r s in th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o ls .
4.
A c o u rs e e n t i t l e d The P sychology o f C hildhood
should be added to th e c u rric u lu m , a t a tim e t o p a r a l l e l th e
work of D ir e c te d T eaching JC, or th e c o u rs e e n t i t l e d D ire c te d
T eaching _I sh o u ld be f u r t h e r e x te n d e d , in tim e and in c r e d i t
a l l o t t e d t o i t , i n o rd e r t h a t i t in c lu d e a more d e t a i l e d s tu d y
o f s e le c te d u n i t s c o n c ern in g th e psych o lo g y o f c h ild h o o d .
5.
P ro v is io n sh o u ld be made f o r th e fo llo w in g oppor­
t u n i t y c o u rs e s to be o f f e r e d i n th e c u rric u lu m : (a ) fu n d a ­
m en tals o f sp e e c h ; (b) E n g lish ;- (c) penm anship.
P ro s p e c tiv e
#■ P a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e i s h ere made t o th e p r o f e s s io n a liz e d
s u b je c t- m a tte r and th e psychology c o u rs e s in c lu d e d
in th e c u rric u lu m f o r th e ju n io r and th e s e n io r y e a r s .
(See A ppendix, p . 191.)
165
te a c h e r s who a re found t o be d e f i c i e n t in th e s e s k i l l sub­
j e c t s sh o u ld b e g iv en an o p p o r tu n ity t o r e a c h an a c c e p ta b le
s ta n d a r d in them b e fo re th e y s h a l l r e c e iv e c r e d i t f o r t h e i r
work in th e program of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
6.
There i s a need t o p ro v id e more tim e f o r in d iv id u a l
and f o r group c o n fe re n c e s t o a s s i s t s tu d e n t te a c h e r s w ith t h e i r
problem s p e r ta in in g e s p e c i a l l y t o (a) p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s
and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (b) th e improvement of p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s ,
(c) th e making and th e e x e c u tio n o f p la n s .
7.
The s u p e rv is o ry g ro u p sh o u ld c o o p e ra te in com plet­
in g th e handbook o f d ir e c te d te a c h in g and t e s t i t s e f f e c t i v e ­
n e s s in th e program of d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
The one making t h i s s tu d y i s o f th e o p in io n t h a t th e
in c lu s io n o f th e s u g g e s tio n s , g iv e n a b o v e , in th e program of
d i r e c t e d te a c h in g a t th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u ry
w ould te n d to improve th e o r g a n iz a tio n and th e u n ity of t h a t
program .
However, th e recom m endations c a n be o n ly s u g g e s tiv e ;
no c la im i s made t h a t th e y a r e a l l - i n c l u s i v e .
Rew ults of such
a program s h o u ld be g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n by b o th s tu d e n t te a c h e r s
and th e s u p e rv is o ry s t a f f , and b e t t e r p re p a re d te a c h e r s f o r
e le m e n ta ry -te a c h in g s e r v ic e s i n tb e S ta te of M aryland.
Broblems f o r F u rth e r Study
In view of th e c o n c lu s io n s re a c h e d in t h i s s tu d y ,
th e fo llo w in g su g g e s tio n s f o r f u r t h e r e x p e rim e n ta tio n i n th e
i n s t i t u t i o n in v e s tig a te d i n t h i s document seem d e s ir a b le :
166
1.
A s tu d y to t e s t th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f th e p ro p o sed
r e v is e d program of d ir e c te d te a c h in g in th e e d u c a tio n of p r o s ­
p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s ,
2.
A s tu d y t o d eterm in e th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f su p e r­
v is o r y p r a c t i c e s and t o e v o lv e te c h n iq u e s f o r e v a lu a tin g them ,
3.
A stu d y o f th e d i f f i c u l t i e s of th e g ra d u a te s of
th e i n s t i t u t i o n d u rin g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r of s e r v ic e i n th e pub­
l i c s c h o o ls ,
4.
A s tu d y t o d e te rm in e th e f u n c tio n in g o f th e p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l i z e d s u b je c t- m a tte r co u rse s in s tu d e n t - t e a c h e r s ’
c o n ta c ts w ith th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l,
5.
A s tu d y to detdfcmine th e f u n c tio n in g o f th e c o u rs e s
in psychology in th e work o f th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in th e
la b o r a to r y s c h o o l,
6.
A s tu d y to d e te rm in e more n e a rly o b je c ti v e ly th a n
has y e t been done what p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s te n d t o make f o r
su c c e ss in te a c h in g .
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S tudy o f th e C h a ra c te r and E x te n t of A c t i v i t i e s in
P a r t i c i p a t i o n as a P a r t of th e L ab o rato ry S chool
Program . E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e r v is io n ,
X X III ( A p r il, 1 9 3 7 ), p p . 294-296.
De Young, C ris A ., T rends and P o s s i b i l i t i e s in S u p e r v is io n .
E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e r v is io n . XXIV
T A p ril, 1 9 3 8 ), p p . 2 6 5-276.
D ix, L e s te r , I n t e g r a t i o n in th e L in co ln School P h ilo s o p h y .
T each ers C o lleg e R e co rd , XXXVII (F e b ru a ry , 1 9 3 6 ).
p p . 3 6 3 -3 7 1 .
v
Embree, Royal B ., P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Guidance f o r S tu d e n t
T e a c h e rs . E d u c a tio n , LIX (O c to b er. 1 9 3 8 ). p p . 620.
623.
Evenden, Edward S . , P re d ic te d Changes in th e C u rricu lu m o f
T each ers C o lle g e s b y 1950 a s Shown b y th e E x p erien c e
o f th e Committee on S ta n d a rd s and S u rv e y s. The A m eri­
can A s s o c ia tio n o f T e a c h e rs C o lle g e s , A D epartm ent of
th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , E ig h th Y earb o o k ,
1929, p p . 5 0 -5 8 .
169
E v e n d e n , Edw ard S . , What I s t h e E s s e n t i a l N a t u r e o f a n E v o lv ­
i n g C u r r i c u l u m o f a T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ? The A m e ric a n
A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s , a D e p a r tm e n t o f t h e
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , S e v e n te e n th Y earbook,
1938, p p . 5 -1 6 .
C-'
P i t c h , H a r r y N . , An A n a l y s i s o f t h e S u p e r v i s o r y A c t i v i t i e 3 a n d
T e c h n iq u e s o f th e E le m e n ta ry S ch o o l d r a i n i n g S u p e r v i s o r .
New "York: B u re au o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ,
C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 1 . P p . v i 4 1 3 0 .
F l o w e r s , Jo h n G ., O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g P ro g r a m .
E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , XVII (May,
1 9 3 1 ) , pp'. 3 6 2 - 3 6 7 .
S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t s a n d G u id a n c e f r o m t h e
S t a n d p o i n t o f t h e T e a c h e r . P r o b le m s i n T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g , V o l. x l l , P ro c e e d in g s , E a s t e r n - S t a t e s A ssoc i a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l S c h o o ls f o r T e a c h e r s , 1937 ,
pp . 3-14.
F r e d e r i c k , R o b e r t W ., R a g s d a l e , C l a r e n c e E . , a n d S a l i s b u r y ,
R a c h e l , D i r e c t e d L e a r n i n g . New Y o rk : D. A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 8 . P p . x v i 4 5 2 7 .
F r i s t o e , Dewey, G a s e - S tu d y T e c h n iq u e s O r g a n iz e d an d A p p l i e d
t o S t u d e n t - T e a c h i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n an d
S u p e r v i s i o n . X X III (May, 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 3 9 3 - 3 9 5 .
F u l l e r , H e n ry H . , D i r e c t e d S t u d e n t - T e a c h i n g a t t h e S t a t e C o l­
l e g e o f W a s h in g to n . E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d
S u p e r v i s i o n . X X III ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 1 3 3 - 1 4 2 .
Good, C a r t e r V . , B a r r , A . S . , and S c a t e s , D o u g la s E . , The
M e th o d o lo g y o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o rk : D.
A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Company, 1 9 3 6 . F p T x x i 4 8 8 2 .
H a l l , C e c ile B . , S tu d ie s i n O b s e rv a tio n o f T e a c h in g . Educa­
t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n an d S u p e r v i s i o n , XVII ( J a n u a r y ,
1931), p p . 4 3 -5 1 .
H e l s e t h , In g a 0 1 1 a , S u p e r v i s o r y P r a c t i c e s I n v o l v e d i n t h e I n ­
t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e S t u d e n t i n t o R e s p o n s i b l e Group D i ­
r e c t i o n . E i g h t e e n t h A nnual S e s s i o n . S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S tu d e n t T e a c n in g , 1338, p p . 2 1 -3 1 .
H e n d e r s o n , E l i s h a L a n e , The O r g a n ! z a t i o n a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n cf
S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g i n S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s . New YoBF:
B u re a u o f tu b iic a T f T o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olum b ia
U n i v e r s i t y , 19 3 7 . P p . v i f 1 2 5 .
170
H o u s t o n , V .M ., Im p ro v in g t h e Q u a l i t y o f C la s s r o o m Q u e s t i o n s
and Q u e s t i o n i n g , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n an d S u p e r v i s i o n , XXIV ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p , 1 7 - 2 8 ,
J o n e s , J , W , , The A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e g r a t i o n
F o llo w e d by t h e S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o lle g e a t T e r r e H a u t e ,
I n d ia n a , S e v e n te e n th Annual S e s s io n . S u p e rv is o rs of
S tu d e n t T e a c h i n g , 1'937, p p , 7 0 - 7 7 ,
K e l l e y , V i c t o r H , , I n t e g r a t i o n o f S t u d e n t - T e a c h i n g and P r o ­
f e s s i o n a l C o u r s e s i n E d u c a t i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m ln is t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , XXII (N ovem ber, 1 9 3 6 ) , p p ,
355 = 551 ."------------ ------------------K o p e l , D a v i d , W a t t e n b e r g , W i l l i a m W ,, a n d D e b o e r, J o h n J . ,
C u r r ic u lu m R e c o n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e C h ic a g o T e a c h e r s
C o lle g e , E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tra tio n and S u p e rv is io n ,
XXV (N ovem ber, 1 9 3 9 ) , p p . 5 9 7 -60V .
L a f f e r t y , H .M ., A P e r s o n a l Q u e s t i o n t o T e a c h e r s ,
LIX ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p , 7 6 - 7 8 .
E d u c a tio n ,
M c C o n n e ll, R o b e r t E . , T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g A p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e
Modern S c h o o l . E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r ­
v i s i o n , XXIV ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . I l - i 6 ^
M e r e d i t h , L o is A . , P e r s o n a l i t y and T e a c h e r - T r a i n i n g . E d u c a ­
t i o n a l M e th o d , XIV ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 5 ) , p p . 1 8 4 -1 8 8 .
Mooney, Edward S . J r . , An Ana l y s i s o f t h e S u p e r v l s i o n o f S t u ­
d e n t T e a c h i n g . A S t u d y teased on t h e New 'York StTate
T each er-E d u catio n In s e titu tio n s f o r th e P re p a ra tio n of
E l e m e n t a r y - S c h o o l T e a c h e r s . New Y o rk : B u re a u o f P ub­
l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 7 .
Pp. v i i + 159.
M o t t , G eorge F o x , The C o n fe re n c e T e c h n iq u e a s t h e C e n t e r o f
th e S tu d e n t-T e a c h e r I n d u c tio n P r o c e s s . E d u c a tio n a l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , XXIV (J a n u a r y , I&3E-5) ,
pp. 55-60.
M u r r a , W ilb u r F . , I n d u c t i o n o f S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r s b y P a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n .
X X (J a n u a ry , 1 9 3 4 ) , p p . 2 6 - 3 5 .
M y e rs , A lonzo F . , The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l
E x p e r i e n c e s t o C o u r s e s i n E d u c a t i o n . F i f t e e n t h A nn ual
S e s s io n , S u p e r v is o r s o f S tu d e n t T ea ch in g , 1935, p p .
9-1 8 .
M y e r s , G a r r y C . , F e a r o f t h e C r i t i c T e a c h e r . The J o u r n a l o f
E d u c a t i o n , CXVIII ( O p t o b e r , 1 9 3 5 ) , p p . 4 4 4 - 4 4 8 .
171
N e l s o n , M a rio n E s t h e r , An A n a l y s i s of C o n te n t o f S t u d e n t T ea ch in g C ourses f o r E d u c a tio n of E le m e n ta ry t e a c h e r s
i n S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s . Hew Y o rk : B u re au o f Pub­
l i c a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y ,
1939. Pp. v i i i f 331.
P i c k e n s , H o ra ce D . , an d S c h o r l i n g , R a l e i g h , The C o r r e l a t i o n
o f P r o f e s s i o n a l W ork. S e v e n t e e n t h A n n u a l S e s s i o n .
S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g , 1937, p p . 5 i7 - 6 2 .
S c h o r l i n g , R a l e i g h , A B a l l o t on C o n t r o v e r s i a l I s s u e s i n P r o ­
gram s p f S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g . N i n e t e e n t h A n n u a l S e s s i o n .
S u p e rv is o rs of S tu d e n t T ea ch in g , 1939, p p . 7 -1 6 .
— -------- -— ---------- D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g . The E d u c a t i o n o f
T e a c h e r s . T w e n t y - T h ir d Y e a r b o o k . The N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y
o f C o lle g e T e a c h e rs of E d u c a tio n , 1935, p p . 127-185.
S p e r l e , D. H e n r y e t t a , The Case M ethod i n S u p e r v i s i o n . F i f ­
t e e n t h Annual S e s s io n , S u p e rv is o rs o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g ,
1985', p p . 24-42"!
S p r a g u e , H .A ., C a s e - P r o b le m s o f S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n an d S u p e r v i s i o n , XIV (May. 1 9 2 6 ) . p p .
314-324.
>/
S t r a t e m e y e r , C l a r a G ., I n t e g r a t i n g O b s e r v a t i o n , P a r t i c i p a t i o n
and S tu d e n t T e a c h in g . S i x t e e n t h A nnual S e s s i o n , S u p e r­
v i s o r s o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g , 1936, p p . 3 0 -3 8 .
S tr a te m e y e r, F lo r e n c e , A P h ilo so p h y of S u p e rv is io n o f S tu d e n t
T e a c h i n g . E i g h t e e n t h A n n u al S e s s i o n , S u p e r v i s o r s o f
S tu d e n t T e a c h in g , 1938, pp. 7 -2 0 .
------------- G u id in g t h e S t u d e n t - T e a c h e r i n t h e D ev elo p m en t
a n d Use o f " P r i n c i p l e s . ” E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , XVII (May, 1 9 3 1 ) , p p . 3 4 6 - 3 5 0 .
S u h r i e , Ambrose L . , S t a n d a r d P r o v i s i o n s f o r E q u ip p i n g a n d
S t a f f i n g o f t h e L a b o r a t o r y S c h o o l D e p a r tm e n ts o f N o r­
m a l S c h o o l s and T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e s t o I n s u r e A d e q u a te
L a b o r a t o r y E x p e r i e n c e ( i n T e a c h in g ) on t h e P r e - S e r v i c e
L e v e l i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y G r a d e s . E d u c a t i o n a l A d m in is ­
t r a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , XVI (May, 1 9 3 0 ) , p p . 3 4 5 - 3 6 1 .
W ash b u rn , J o h n N . , D e v e l o p i n g a C u r r i c u l u m f o r T e a c h e r E d u c a ­
tio n .
P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n , XIV (May, 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 3 5 6 363.
W a ts o n , Goodwin, C o t t r e l l , D o n a ld P . an d L l o y d - J o n e s , E s t h e r
M ., R e d i r e c t i n g T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n . New Y o rk : B u re a u
o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y ,
1938. Pp. ix f 105.
172
W a ts o n , Goodwin, R e d i r e c t i n g T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n an d I t s I m p l i ­
c a t i o n s f o r S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h in g * N in e ­
t e e n t h A nn ual S e s s i o n , S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g ,
1 6 3 9 , pp* SV -32.
W ightm an, G l a i r S . , The T e a c h e r 's D i a r y a s a n I n s t r u m e n t o f
F o llo w -U p Work, U n p u b l i s h e d P h . -! ? , - T h e s i s , New Y ork
U n i v e r s ifcy, 16 3 3 . P p . i i i f 1 3 3 .
---------------- —
O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r F o s t e r i n g Grow th o f P e r ­
s o n a l i t y i n t h e C la s s r o o m . P r o b le m s i n T e a c h e r T r a i n ­
i n g , V o l. 12, P ro c e e d in g s , E a s t e r n - S t a t e s A s s o c ia tio n
o r P r o f e s s i o n a l S c h o o ls f o r T e a c h e r s , 1 9 3 7 , p p . 1 3 8 146.
W illia m s , J . D ., E v a lu a tio n o f S tu d e n t T e a c h in g . E ig h te e n th
A n n u a l S e s s i o n , 19 3 8 , S u p e r v i s o r s o f S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g ,
p p . 4 5-49 .
W i l s o n , O t i s G ., B r i d g i n g t h e Gap b e tw e e n T h e o ry an d P r a c t i c e
i n T ea ch in g . E d u c a tio n a l A d m in is tr a tio n and Super­
v i s i o n , XXIV ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 313-31*7.
W r i n k l e , W i l l i a m L . , An A n a l y s i s o f t h e D i f f i c u l t i e s o f Be­
g i n n i n g T e a c h e r s i n the-"*S econ dary S c h o o l . U n p u b lis h e d
P h . 1). T h e s i s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 2 . P p . v f 9 5 .
173
a p p e n d ix
:
A.
E xam p les o f t h e D i a r i e s an d A n e c d o t a l R e c o r d s .
B.
L i s t s o f L a b o r a t o r y - S c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e s o f S t u d e n t T 'e a c h e rs
i n D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g ^ a n d i n D i r e c t e d T e a c h in g I I .
C.
C u rricu lu m O f f e r in g s o f th e S t a t e T each ers C o lle g e a t
S a lis b u ry .
D.
E x am p les o f t h e Guide S h e e t s f o r S t u d e n t T e a c h e r s i n
L a b o r a t o r y - S c h o o l Work (U sed S e p te m b e r , 1936 t o J u n e ,
1 9 40).
E.
A Handbook f o r P r o s p e c t i v e T e a c h e r s ( t o Be U sed d u r i n g
1940-1941).
174
APPENDIX A
EXAMPIES OP DIARIES AND OP ANECDOTAL RECORDS*
On t h i s a n d on s e v e r a l p a g e s f o l l o w i n g a r e g i v e n e x ­
a m p les o f t h e d i a r i e s a n d a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d s t o show t h e t y p e s
o f d a t a u s e d in f o r m u la tin g th e t a b l e s c o n ta in e d i n C h a p te rs
III,
IV , a n d V.
E xam ples o f D i a r i e a f o r D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g _I
Type I ,
T h e s e s a m p lin g s show t h a t some o f t h e d i a r i e s w ere
m e r e ly q u e s t i o n s ;
1.
What do y o u do when t h e c h i l d r e n l e a d t h e d i s ­
c u s s i o n a n o t h e r way?
2.
What i s a good p l a c e t o f i n d how t o v a r y h i s t o r y
l e s s o n s s o a s t o make th e m move more r a p i d l y and more
in te r e s t in g ly ?
3.
What i s t h e b e s t t h i n g t o do w i t h p u p i l s who a r e j u s t
p a s s i n g tim e b y s i t t i n g i n t h e i r s e a t s a l l day?
4.
How c a n you d e t e r m i n e how much t im e t o s p e n d on a
u n it?
Type I I .
The f o l l o w i n g d i a r i e s r e p r e s e n t t h e t y p e i n w h ic h
t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r makes a comment o r a n o b s e r v a ­
t i o n , b u t i n w h ic h n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e
in d ic a te d :
1,
I h a v e b e e n d o i n g some i n d i v i d u a l work i n t h e s e c o n d
g r a d e . T h is i s a l m o s t t h e m o st b e n e f i c i a l t h i n g t h a t
I h a v e done t h i 3 y e a r , b e c a u s e c e r t a i n l y one m ust know
t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e f o r e he knows t h e g r o u p .
I feel
t h a t t h i s h a s h e l p e d me a g r e a t d e a l .
2.
(J a n u a ry 1 2 , 1940).
I am j u s t r e a l l y b e g i n n i n g t o
r e a l i z e how a b s o l u t e l y i m p o r t a n t i t i s t h a t we s t u ­
d e n t t e a c h e r s u s e e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y w h ic h p r e s e n t s
A l l d i a r i e s a n d a n e c d o t a l r e c o r d s o r e x c e r p t s f r o m th e m
u s e d i n t h i s docum ent a r e r e p r o d u c e d a s t h e y w e r e w r i t ­
t e n w i t h t h i s e x c e p t i o n : a l l names a n d p e r s o n a l r e f e r ­
e n ce s have b een d e l e t e d .
175
i t s e l f , t o t e a c h . N o t h i n g c a n a r o u s e more q u e s ­
t i o n s o r u t i l i z e m ore i n g e n u i t y t h a n t h e a c t u a l
t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . M e r e ly m ak in g L a rg e U n i t L e sso n
P la n s i s , o f c o u rs e , a d e f i n i t e h e lp , b u t u n t i l
r e a l , h o n e st-to -g o o d n e ss te a c h in g i s e n co u n tered
n o th in g has a c t u a l l y been le a rn e d t h a t w i l l " c a rry
o v e r."
3.
I t h o u g h t t h a t you r e a l l y " o v e r - s t r e s s e d " t h e c o l l e c ­
t i o n an d u s e o f p i c t u r e s , b u t I h a v e c h a n g e d my m in d .
I h a v e had u s e f o r many o f my p i c t u r e s . The moment
I u s e a p i c t u r e t h e w h o le l e s s o n seem s t o t a k e on
more l i f e •
Type I I I .
1.
In m ost o f t h e d i a r i e s * d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d e f i n i t e
n a t u r e c o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d . E xam p les a r e :
O b s e r v a t i o n : b e h a v i o r p r o b le m
9 / 2 1 / 3 8 , G r .1 - 2
The p ro b le m i n my m ind c o n c e r n s M— . S o m e th in g h a s
t o be done w i t h b e r . She i s v e r y r o u g h w i t h t h e o t h e r
c h i l d r e n and - - d o e s n ' t m ind s c r a t c h i n g a n d p u s h i n g
th e m . What c a n be done t o h e r ?
I d o n 't t h in k th e
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r i s c o n q u e rin g h e r a t a l i i
2.
U n d e rstan d in g c h il d r e n
1 0 / 6 / 3 8 , G r.7
The s e v e n t h g r a d e i s n ' t n e a r l y a s k e e n a s t h e s i x t h ;
t h e y d o n ' t know t h e m e a n in g o f t h e w ord " a t t e n t i o n . "
I had to ask P - - t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o th e le s s o n , b u t
i t had l i t t l e e f f e c t .
I w onder i f t h e i r age h a s some­
t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e i r f a i l u r e t o r e s p o n d . Do s e v e n t h
g r a d e r s go t h r o u g h , o r b e g i n a p e r i o d o f r e s t l e s s n e s s ?
3.
O vercom ing s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s
1 1 / 2 9 / 3 8 , G r .5 - 6
I t a u g h t r e a d in g i n g eo g rap h y to d a y .
I know my g r e a t e s t
t r o u b l e i s n o t h a v in g c o n f i d e n c e i n m y s e l f .
I am s o
n e r v o u s when I g e t b e f o r e a g a n g .
I c e r t a i n l y hope I
c a n overcom e t h i s .
#
The p h r a s e i n t h e u p p e r r ig tf it- iia n d c o r n e r was p l a c e d
th e re by th e i n v e s ti g a t o r to in d ic a te th e c l a s s i f i ­
c a t i o n o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i c a t e d . The d a t e s a n d
g r a d e s a t t h e r i g h t show when an d i n w h at g r a d e o r
g r a d e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d .
176
4.
P la y g r o u n d s u p e r v i s i o n
1 2 / 2 / 3 8 , Gr. 3 -4
I f i t e v e r snows a g a i n t h i s y e a r s o m e th in g m ust he
done to w a r d s p l a y g r o u n d s u p e r v i s i o n . T hose o l d e r h o y s
have no r e s p e c t f o r us s tu d e n t te a c h e rs a t a l l .
I trie d
t o s t o p a b r a w l a n d g o t bom b arded w i t h i c e c a k e s .
5.
M aking d a i l y p l a n s
1 2 / 1 0 / 3 8 , G r. 3 - 4
I was a s s i g n e d t o t e a c h a r i t h m e t i c e v e r y d a y n e x t w e e k .
I t w as a t my w i s h t h a t she had me t e a c h t h a t s u b j e c t
but I fin d t h a t ev ery n ig h t b efo re I te a c h i t ta k e s a l l
my tim e t o make my p l a n . What i s wrong?
6.
V oice
1 1 / 1 / 3 8 , G r. 3 - 4
In t h e l e s s o n i n r e a d i n g t a u g h t b y a n o t h e r s t u d e n t t e a c h ­
e r I n o t i c e d t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g h e r v o i c e seem ed
s t a r t l i n g l y l o u d w h ic h b r i n g s me t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t
v o i c e i s a p r o b l e m . T h a t seem s t o be a n a l m o s t u n i v e r ­
s a l f a u l t among b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s . A f t e r s p e a k i n g i n
l a r g e r c l a s s r o o m s an d a u d i t o r i u m s , i t i s somewhat d i f f i ­
c u l t t o m o d u la te t h e v o i c e t o s u i t t h e s m a l l e r c l a s s r o o m ,
t o s u i t s m a l l e r p e o p l e - m ore s e n s i t i v e t o s o u n d .
I m y s e l f f o u n d t h a t t h e m a g n itu d e o f my v o i c e c a u s e d a
d istu rb a n c e .
I am s u r e t h a t t h e f a u l t i3 b y no means a
p e rso n a l one.
I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t v o i c e fo rm s a m a j o r
p o r t i o n o f w hat a n y t e a c h e r g i v e s h i s p u p i l s - v o i c e may
be u s e d t o d i s c i p l i n e , i n s t r u c t , o r t o g u i d e .
It is a
t e a c h e r ’ s b e s t w eapon.
E x am p le s o f D i a r i e 3 f o r D i r e c t e d T e a c h in g I I
Type I .
1.
S p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s w ere i n d i c a t e d i n m ost o f t h e
d i a r i e s s u b m itte d by s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in t h i s s ta g e
o f t h e p ro g r a m o f d i r e c t e d t e a c h i n g , a s t h e f o l l o w ­
i n g s a m p l i n g s show:
O rg a n iz a tio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r
4 / 4 / 3 9 , G r. 3 - 4
The t h i n g t h a t m ost o f u s n e e d h e l p w i t h i s o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t e a c h i n g . We n e e d p r a c t i c e
b e f o r e we go down t h e r e a n d make a m ess o f a h a l f
d o z e n l e s s o n s o r m ore b e f o r e t h e c h i l d r e n . We n e e d
m ore p r a c t i c e i n s e l e c t i n g a p r o b le m and i n o r g a n i z i n g
m a t e r i a l s a ro u n d t h a t p ro b lem .
177
2.
U n d e rstan d in g c h ild r e n
2 / 2 / 3 9 , G r . 1 -2
I h a v e n o t i c e d t h a t c h i l d r e n can be v e r y s t u b b o r n .
What c an one do? J — i s a lw a y s i n t e r r u p t i n g when a
te a c h e r i s t a l k i n g . F ra n k ly , I j u s t c a n 't u n d e rstan d
th e se c h ild re n .
3.
I n t e r r u p t i o n s by t r a i n i n g te a c h e r
1 / 3 0 / 3 9 , G r. 3 - 4
When a t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r h a s r e a d an d a c c e p t e d t h e
s t u d e n t t e a c h e r ' s l e s s o n p l a n i s i t w is e f o r h e r t o
s t o p h e r i n t h e m id d le o f h e r l e s s o n a n d g i v e i n s t r u c ­
t i o n s t o t e a c h a n o t h e r way? T h i s t o me i s c o n f u s i n g a n d
a n n o y in g r a t h e r t h a n h e l p f u l . *
4.
Room m anagem ent
5 / 5 / 3 9 , Gr. 3 - 4
One n e v e r r e a l i z e s how many t r i b u b t i o n s a r e c o n n e c t e d
w i t h t e a c h i n g u n t i l one t r i e s i t f o r a w h i l e . The
t r a i n i n g te a c h e r had o u ts id e b u s in e s s f o r a p a r t of th e
t im e t o d a y , an d we s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s h a d c h a r g e o f t h e
c la ss e s.
I h a d two ” c r y b a b i e s ” a n d one " t a t t l e - t a l e "
t o c o p e w i t h . Oh me I And t o t h i n k t h a t ' s o n l y a
sa m p le .
I b e lie v e th e b e st p ro ced u re i s t o j u s t l e t
th e m f i g h t t h e i r own b a t t l e s .
5.
P o is e , c o n fid e n ce
4 /2 3 /3 9 , G r. 5 -6
F r a n k l y , I d o n ’ t t h i n k I 'm i m p r o v in g a s r a p i d l y a s I
ha d h o p e d .
I t r y t o p la n c a r e f u l l y and t h i n k of m o ti­
v a t i o n , b u t s o m e t h i n g 's l a c k i n g .
I d o n ' t b la m e t h e
c h i l d r e n , b u t m y s e l f . Som etim es I f e e l v e r y u n c o m f o r t ­
a b l e b e f o r e t h e c l a s s b u t o t h e r t i m e s I f e e l more ”a t
ho m e."
I c a n ' t s a y d e f i n i t e l y w hat my p r o b l e m i s b u t
I 'm g o i n g t o c o n q u e r i t b e f o r e I l e a v e t h i s room .
6.
S e c u rin g r e a l i n t e r e s t s , h i s t o r y
G r. 5 - 6
I r e a l l y f e e l a s t h o u g h I am d o i n g p o o r e r work e a c h day
i n t h i s roo m . E v e r y t h i n g I d o seem s t o b e w r o n g . I
h a v e t r i e d f o r tw o w eeks t o t e a c h a s u c c e s s f u l c l a s s i n
f i f t h g r a d e h i s t o r y , I d o n ' t know w hat t h e t r o u b l e i s
b u t I cannot keep th e p ro p e r d i s c ip l i n e in o rd e r to
c a r r y on t h e c l a s s .
I d o n ' t know w h a t ' s w rong w i t h my
te c h n iq u e o f te a c h in g h i s t o r y .
I f I c o u ld j u s t lo c a te
my d i f f i c u l t y I w ould work t o t r y t o a d j u s t I t b u t e a c h
It
is e v id e n t th a t in t h i s case th e t r a i n in g te a c h e r i s
t h e p r o b le m .
178
d a y I f e e l l i k e c r y i n g when I f i n i s h , w i t h t h a t c l a s s .
I h a v e n e v e r f e l t a b o u t my t e a c h i n g b e f o r e , b u t u n t i l
now, and I am r e a l l y d i s c o u r a g e d o r d i s g u s t e d , OE d o n ' t
know w h ic h i
7.
T r y i n g t o w in t h e c h i l d r e n
1 / 3 1 / 3 9 , G r. 7
I am d i s c o u r a g e d .
I c a n ' t be a t e a c h e r . Why, I 'm
a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I 'm n o t m y s e l f .
I c a n ' t b e f r e e a n d command r e s p e c t . How c a n I d i s ­
c i p l i n e t h e c h i l d r e n a n d s t i l l h a v e th em l i k e me?
Type I I .
1.
2.
3.
T h e re f o l l o w s e x a m p le s o f t h e c o m m e n ta tiv e t y p e o f
d i a r y i n w h ic h n o d i f f i c u l t i e s o r no s i g n i f i c a n t
d i f f i c u l t i e s are in d ic a te d :
I b e lie v e th e c la s s has
v e r b s . I am g i v i n g t h e
a stu d y ty p e .
I expect
The h i s t o r y l e s s o n s a r e
9 / 2 / 3 9 , G r. 7
j u s t about got th e id ea of a d ­
l e s s o n to m o r ro w , more o r l e s s a s
t o h e lp each c h il d in d iv id u a lly .
g o in g a lo n g f a i r l y w e l l .
1 0 / 2 0 / 3 9 , G r. 3 - 4
I s t a r t e d a new s t o r y t o d a y a b o u t b e a r s a n d t h e c h i l d r e n
w ere c e r t a i n l y e n t h u s i a s t i c . T h i s s t o r y a f f o r d s r e a l
o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g h a r d w o rd s a n d p h r a s e s ,
b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e a n y n um ber o f d i f f i c u l t o n e s i n i t .
5 / 2 3 / 4 0 , G r. 3 -4
Y our s u g g e s t i o n s f o r w r i t i n g a c o o p e r a t i v e p a r a g r a p h y e s ­
t e r d a y w ere v e r y h e l p f u l .
I was a b l e t o k e e p a l l t h e
p u p i l s a l e r t and r e a d y f o r t h e n e x t jum p. P r o b a b l y one
r e a s o n was t h e t o p i c a n d t h e m o t i v a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n
w ere i n t e r e s t e d i n C h i n e s e g a m e s. M o t i v a t i o n was t h r o u g h
t h e i r w is h t o p l a y s ome C h in e s e gam es (a n d I w an t t o add
e v e r y c h i l d i n t h e room t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y e d C h in e se games
f o r tw o d a y s a s I t a u g h t t h e m ) . The o u t l i n e f o r t h e
p a r a g r a p h was h e l p f u l a n d my p r o b l e m o f k e e p i n g a l l men­
t a l l y a l e r t was h a n d l e d e a s i l y .
E x am p le 3 o f D i a r i e s f o r D i r e c t e d T e a c h in g I I I
Type I .
S p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s w ere i n d i c a t e d i n m ost o f t h e
d ia r ie s fo r t h i s , th e f i n a l sta g e of d ire c te d te a c h ­
in g .
179
1.
S e c u rin g c h il d p u rp o sin g
1 0 / 1 3 / 3 8 , G r. 4
T oday I c o u l d n ' t f o r t h e l i f e o f me f i g u r e o u t w h at was
t h e m a t t e r w i t h my c l a s s . T hey w e re n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n
a n y t h i n g n o m a t t e r how i n t e r e s t i n g I t r i e d t o make t h e i r
w o rk .
I n f a c t t h e y w o u l d n 't e v e n t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d .
I
t r i e d t o do e v e r y t h i n g a n d n o t h i n g w o rk e d . So I t h i n k
maybe i t was s o m e th in g l a c k i n g i n my a t t i t u d e .
I f you
h a v e n o t i c e d t h i s w i l l y o u p l e a s e t e l l me{ I w i l l t r y
t o do my s h a r e b y g e t t i n g a f t e r m y s e l f ; t h e n I w i l l s t a r t
2>n th e m .
I ' v e b e e n w o rk in g on i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s f o r
some t i m e ; b u t I h a v e my d o u b t s a s t o p r o g r e s s , a t l e a s t
t o a l l o u tw a rd a p p e a r a n c e s . Any h e l p o r s u g g e s t i o n s w i l l
be a p p r e c i a t e d .
2.
H a n d lin g u n r u l y c h i l d r e n
1 2 / 1 2 / 3 8 , G r. 5
I h a d a p r o b l e m t o d a y . E - - i s v e r y s t u b b o r n . He g o t
mad t o d a y b e c a u s e t h e c l a s s d i d n o t s e e a c e r t a i n t h i n g
c o n c e r n i n g t h e b o u n d a ry o f M exico a s he d i d . He s t a r t e d
t o show o f f h i s t e m p e r b y slam m ing h i s bo ok t o an d l o o k ­
in g v e r y b o r e d .
I a s k e d him w hat was -troubling him and
he r e f u s e d t o t a l k .
I a s k e d him a g a i n a n d he s t i l l
w o u l d n 't t a l k .
I g o t mad, t o o .
(T h a t w a s n 't s o g o o d ,
I r e a l i z e , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k I showed t h a t I w a s . )
I
s e n t E - - fro m t h e room " u n t i l he c o u l d make u p h i s m in d
t o r e s p e c t a u t h o r i t y . " Myq u e s t i o n i s , w at
th a t a p ro p er
p r o c e d u r e ? Would i t have b een b e t t e r t o " c o n q u e r " him
in f r o n t of th e c la s s o r out i n th e h a l l a s I d id ( a f t e r
t h e l e s s o n w as o v e r ) ,
3.
D isc o u rag e d
1 0 / 1 7 / 3 8 , G r. 3 an d 4
I r e a l l y f e e l b a d a n d d i s c o u r a g e d a b o u t my t e a c h i n g .
I
t h i n k my l e s s o n s w ere a l i t t l e b e t t e r t o d a y , b u t t h e y
were n o t t h e w ay I w ant th e m t o b e .
I t seems a s t h o u g h
I c a n 't get s t a r t e d .
I hope I w i l l d o b e t t e r fro m now
on.
I c a n t e l l when my l e s s o n s a r e good a n d when t h e y
a r e n o t an d I d o n ' t t h i n k I h a v e t a u g h t a g ood l e s s o n
y e t i n t h e t h i r d an d f o u r t h g r a d e s .
I d o n ' t know e x ­
a c t l y w hat I n e e d .
I guess i t ' s j u s t th e change, b u t
I w i l l have t o do s o m e th i n g b e c a u s e I am n o t s a t i s f i e d
w i t h my w ork s o f a r .
I am w o rk in g h a r d and I w i l l s t i l l
c o n t i n u e t o do s o .
4.
V oice - e m p h a s i s , c l a s s r o o m
c o n tr o l, c h ild r e n 's h a b its
9 / 2 2 / 3 8 , G r . 3 and 4
As yo u n o t i c e d f r o m o b s e r v i n g my t e a c h i n g , I am s t i l l
w o rk in g t o g e t more e m p h a s is i n my v o i c e , t o h a v e b e t t e r
c o n t r o l o f t h e room , t o h e l p c h i l d r e n f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s ,
a nd t o w r i t e w o rd s c o r r e c t l y on t h e b o a r d .
I j u s t d o n 't
seem t o know how t o d i v i d e w ords i n t o s y l l a b l e s t o h& lp
180
c h i l d r e n p r o n o u n c e th e m .
(T h is i s t y p i c a l o f th e a l l - i n c l u s i v e ty p e o f " tr o u b le "
c a rd .)
5.
E n g lish
1 2 / 1 3 / 3 8 , G r. 7
I t h i n k t h a t I h a v e im p ro v e d i n my a b i l i t y t o q u e s t i o n
b e c a u s e I seem t o be a b l e t o g e t a l m o s t an y a n s w e r I
w ant b y m e r e l y s t a t i n g a q u e s t i o n i n a c e r t a i n w ay.
I
am w o r k in g on my E n g l i s h b u t a t h l e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s hav e
h e l p e d im bed some m i s t a k e s w h ic h s t i l l c l i n g .
6.
T a lk in g f r a n k ly w ith t r a i n i n g te a c h e r
9 / 1 6 / 3 8 , G r. 1
I t seem s a s t h o u g h p r o b le m s n e v e r c e a s e c o m in g . T h e r e
i s one l i t t l e bo y i n t h e c l a s s who p e r s i s t s i n a lw a y s
c l a i m i n g someone e l s e ' s p r o p e r t y .
I t i s b e co m in g s e r i o u s
now.
T oday M i s s - - t o o k t h e c l a s s e s an d t a u g h t t h e m a t e r i a l
w h ic h A— a n d I w e re t o t e a c h on Monday. The t h i n g i s ,
we a r e s t i l l t o d o i t . Guess i t i s a l l r i g h t . We c a n
s t i l l make i t i n t e r e s t i n g . W ish I f e l t I c o u l d t a l k
fra n k ly w ith th a t te a c h e r.
I t is d i f f i c u l t to g et th e
c h i l d r e n t o f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s . T h e r e a r e s o many t h i n g s
to f a c e w ith a b e g in n in g f i r s t g ra d e .
I am v e r y g l a d
t h a t I am t h e f i r s t n i n e w eeks o f t e a c h i n g b e c a u s e I
r e a l l y do g e t a r e a l s i t u a t i o n .
7.
S e c u rin g c h i l d p u rp o sin g
R e p e a tin g c h i l d r e n 's re s p o n se s
9 / 2 7 / 3 8 , G r. 3 - 4
The tw o t h i n g s M r s . — c r i t i c i z e d b o t h — an d me f o r t o ­
d a y w ere o u r a p p r o a c h e s and t h e f a c t t h a t we r e p e a t e d
th e c h i l d r e n 's an sw ers. I n o tic e d t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y
t o d a y i n my a r i t h m e t i c c l a s s . N a t u r a l l y , t h o s e a r e two
o f t h e t h i n g s I am t r y i n g t o im pro ve now.
(Some s t u d e n t s s e e o n l y t h o s e t h i n g s d e f i n i t e l y
p o i n t e d o u t t o t h e m .)
Type I I .
1.
In t h i s f i n a l s ta g e of d ir e c te d te a c h in g th e
c o m m e n ta tiv e t y p e o f d i a r y w as o c c a s i o n a l l y s u b ­
m itte d ,
H ow ever, t h e y o f t e n r e f l e c t e d o p i n i o n s o f
v a lu e in a n a ly z in g th e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n .
1 0 / 2 6 / 3 8 , G r. 7
I f e e l t h a t my l e s s o n s t o d a y w ent a l o n g v e r y s m o o t h l y ,
I h a d a q u e s t i o n t o s t a r t o u r h i s t o r y l e s s o n t h a t seemed
t o g e t e v e r y o n e 's i n t e r e s t .
I h a d p l a n n e d t h e l e s s o n so
181
I had t h r e e m a jo r q u e s t i o n s .
t h e w ork a n d t h e c h i l d r e n g o t
t h in k e v e ry b e g in n in g t e a c h e r
t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f w h a t I have
2.
3*
4.
5.
T h i s seem ed t o o r g a n i z e
th e im p o rta n t f a c t s .
I
s h o u l d b e made t o r e a l i z e
m en tio n ed ab o v e.
9 / 2 2 / 3 8 , G r. 1
My r e a d i n g c l a s s n e e d s some r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s i n o r a l
r e a d i n g . F o r s u c h aw t h i s , l a s t y e a r ’ s w ork i s q u i t e
v a lu a b le .
I n a r i t h m e t i c , t h e g ro u p seem s t o be g e t t i n g
a lo n g v e ry w e ll; th e y a r e w o rk in g .
9 / 1 9 / 3 9 , G r. 5
T o d ay I t h i n k I becam e more a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n
th a n e v e r b e fo re .
I p l a y e d games w i t h them o u t s i d e a t
r e c e s s . T hey seem ed s o p l e a s e d a n d a c t u a l l y seem ed t o
a p p r e c i a t e t h a t I was p l a y i n g w i t h th e m .
1 1 / 3 0 / 3 9 , G r. 6
To me t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n a r e m o st e x t r a o r d i n a r y .
You e x p o se t h e m a t e r i a l t o f i f t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e
th in g s le a rn e d a re f i f t y - t h r e e d i f f e r e n t v e rs io n s .
I
have s t a r t e d p la n s f o r an a r t p r o j e c t f o r C h ristm a s.
9 / 2 5 / 3 9 , Gr. 3 - 4
I t h i n k s i n c e g i v i n g t h a t s p e e d t e s t l a s t w eek , I have
become ’’s p e e d c o n s c i o u s ” .
I made a c h a r t s o t h a t t h e
c l a s s c o u l d s e e j u s t w here t h e y s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e
r e s t of th e c l a s s .
I t h i n k t h d c h a r t h e l p e d b e c a u s e now
t h e y a l l seem i n t e r e s t e d and a n x io u s t o make a h i g h e r
s c o r e i n t h e n e x t t e s t w h ic h I h a v e t o l d them w i l l be r e ­
c o r d e d on t h e c h a r t .
E x am p le s o f A n e c d o t a l R e c o rd s
T here fo llo w s th e i n d i v i d u a l ty p e o f r e p o r t su b m itte d
by th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e rs co n cern in g s tu d e n t te a c h e r s d u rin g
t h e i r D ir e c te d T each in g I e x p e r ie n c e s :
1.
M— l a c k e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r , f o r c e f u l n e s s , p o i s e , u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g o f c h i l d r e n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
She w as f r i g h t e n e d b e f o r e t h e c l a s s an d a p p e a r e d v e r y
t i m i d to w a r d t h e c h i l d r e n .
2.
L— was w e l l l i k e d by t h e c h i l d r e n a n d p u t f o r t h r e a l e f f o r t .
He t h i n k s s l o w l y b u t o r g a n i z e s h i s t h i n k i n g w e l l . He l a c k s
182
c o n fid e n c e in h im s e lf b u t h a s a se n se o f o r g a n iz a tio n
t h a t i s f i n e . He r e a l l y e n j o y e d t e a c h i n g . H i s penman­
s h ip n eed s im p ro v in g ,
3.
B -- m a s te re d h i s s u b je c t w e ll b u t had th e g r e a t e s t tr o u b le
f o r m u l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s . He e n jo y e d t e a c h i n g a n d t h e c h i l d r e n
r e s p o n d e d p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l t o h im . He u s e d d i a g r a m s ,
m a p s, p i c t u r e s , s t o r i e s , e x p e r i m e n t s , e t c . t o k e e p i n ­
t e r e s t h ig h .
4.
B— h a s a p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m w h ic h i n t u r n a f f e c t s h i s
c o n tro l of d is c ip lin e .
He i s c o n s c i o u s t h a t b e c a u s e he
i s n o a t h l e t e he may n o t a p p e a l t o c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e v e n t h
grad e.
5.
T— l a c k s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . H er a t t i t u d e
to w a r d u p p e r g r a d e p u p i l s i s t h a t f o o l i s h n e s s a p p e a l s t o
th e m . She h a s a v e r y p l e a s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y a n d w i t h a
l i t t l e s e r i o u s n e s s s h o u l d be a b l e t o make a s u c c e s s f u l
up p er grade t e a c h e r .
6.
F - - l a c k s a m b i t i o n an d f o r c e f u l n e s s .
H is s e n s e o f o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n i s v e r y p o o r . As l o n g a s s o m e th i n g i s g o in g
on, he b e lie v e s e v e ry th in g i s s a t i s f a c t o r y .
7.
Comments r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t C—
Good: (1) P o l i t e n e s s , (2 ) R e c o g n i t i o n o f own p r o b l e t n s ,
(3) A t t i t u d e t o w a r d c r i t i c i s m , (4 ) check on
dommon s e n s e o f c h i l d r e n ' s a n s w e r s .
S u g g e stio n s:
(1 ) A l t e r t o n e o f v o i c e . How? (2) A void
"who w o uld l i k e " q u e s t i o n s . What s h o u l d you u s e ?
Why? (3 ) Get m ore a u t h o r i t y i n y o u r v o i c e . How?
Why?
The t y p e s o f r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r
e x p e r i e n c i n g D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g I I w ere q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e
e x a m p le s j u s t g i v e n .
1.
C o n c e r n in g s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r A - (1 ) O f te n g e n e r a l i z e s f r o m t o o few e x a m p l e s .
(2 ) Makes g r a m m a t i c a l e r r o r s .
(3 ) Makes l i t t l e e f f o r t t o d i s c o v e r p u p i l s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s .
(4 ) Needs t o d e v e l o p s k i l l i n m o d i f y i n g p l a n d u r i n g t h e
le sso n .
(5 ) Q u e s t i o n s o f t e n s u g g e s t a n s w e r s .
183
2*
C o n c e r n in g s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r B - (1 ) Has d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g c h i l d ' s p u r p o s e .
(2) H is p l a n s a r e se ld o m r e a d y .
(3 ) T a l k s t o o m uch a n d d o e s t o o much f o r t h e c h i l d r e n .
3.
G— a n a l y z e s a n d o r g a n i z e s s u b j e c t m a t t e r v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y
f o r t e a c h i n g p u r p o s e s , b u t s h e d o e s n o t d e v e l o p e m p h a s is
i n k e e p i n g w i t h h e r t h i n k i n g . You f e e l l i t t l e o r n o move­
m ent i n h e r v o i c e and A t t i t u d e . Has n o t made s a t i s f a c t o r y
p ro g ress in t h i s .
— — —
4.
R e c i t a t i o n was s lo w a n d d r a g g y , due t o t h e f a c t t h a t M r.
E — d i d n o t have h i s own t h i n k i n g o r g a n i z e d : one e r r o r
i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r b u t i n g e n e r a l he seem ed t d know h i s
s u b j e c t m a t t e r . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f d i s c u s s i o n he d i d not
g i v e p u p i l s t i m e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r t h i n k i n g . hen ce i r ­
r e g u l a r , i n a c c u r a t e a n s w e r s . “TTlI s co n d i t i on im p ro v ed
d u rin g th e co u rse o f th e r e c i t a t i o n .
The t y p e s o f r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t
t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c i n g D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g I I I w ere f r e q u e n t l y
lis ts
1.
o f ’’s t r e n g t h s " a n d ’’w e a k n e s s e s ” .
C o n c e rn in g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r C . C . - (1) I s l e a r n i n g t h a t n o t o n l y m ust t h e r e be a n a jm ,
b u t i t m u st b e t h e r i g h t a im .
(2 ) I s a b l e t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e t e x t w i t h h e l p f u l i n f o r ­
m a tio n , i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and a p p l i c a t i o n s t o th e
e x p e r i e n c e a n d kn o w led g e o f t h e p u p i l s .
(1 ) S t i l l n e g l e c t s t h e w e a k e r p u p i l s .
(2 ) Makes a few g r a m m a t i c a l e r r o r s .
(3 ) Som etim es s t r a i n s h e r v o i c e .
2.
C o n c e r n in g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r R— H—
(1 ) Shows e a g e r n e s s t o m a s t e r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r .
(2) L e s s o n s show c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g .
(3 ) T e a c h e s a r i t h m e t i c more c o n c r e t e l y .
(4 ) Im provem ent b e i n g made i n v o i c e a n d m a n n e r.
(5 ) H i g h l y r e s p e c t d d b y p u p i l s .
(1) A llo w s t h e b r i g h t e r p u p i l s t o m o n o p o liz e t h e c l a s s
p e rio d .
(2) N eeds t o d e v e l o p s k i l l i n q u e s t i o n i n g ( h i s t o r y ) .
(3) W aste s c l a s s t i m e t h r o u g h slo w m o v em en ts.
(4 ) P u rp o s e o f l e s s o n n o t a lw a y s c l e a r t o t h e m a j o r i t y
of th e p u p i l s .
184
(5 ) N eeds t o s t a r t l e s s o n m ore e n e r g e t i c a l l y .
(6 )
E x p ressio n a ffo rd s l i t t l e s tim u la tio n .
(7 )
E ncourages l i t t l e o u ts id e r e a d in g .
3.
Q u ite o f t e n j u s t b r i e f m otes i n d i c a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s .
I n a r i t h m e t i c R— h a s a t e n d e n c y t o e m p h a siz e 'fo rm *
at
t h e e x p e n s e o f m ea n in g o r c o n t e n t . Heh a s d i f f i ­
c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g a n a n s w e r and s h i f t i n g h i s t h o u g h t
t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n o r m ovem ent. R e p e a ts m ost
of th e p u p i l s 1 an sw ers.
185
APPENDIX B
E d u c a t i o n 301 — S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g L a b o r a t o r y - S c h o o l
E x p e rie n c e s o f S tu d e n t T each ers in
D ir e c t e d T ea ch in g I
I.
S u b je ct m a tte r
1.
2.
3.
4.
II.
O b s e rv a tio n and stu d y
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
III.
S e l e c t i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t e a c h i n g ( f o r own
w ork o r t o a s s i s t t h e t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r ) .
O rg a n iz in g s u b je c t m a t t e r f o r te a c h in g
B ecom ing f a m i l i a r w i t h t e x t b o o k s u s e d i n cam pus
school
B ecom ing f a m i l i a r w i t h r e f e r e n c e an d r e c r e a t o r y
b o o k s s u i t a b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s .
O v erv iew o f cam pus s c h o o l
O b serv in g w ith an i n s t r u c t o r w ith c o n fe re n c e
fo llo w in g
O b serv in g w ith o u t an i n s t r u c t o r w ith o u t c o n fe re n c e
fo llo w in g
G uide S h e e t : L e a r n in g t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r S c h o o l
E n v iro n m e n t
G uide S h e e t : The N a tu r e o f L e a r n in g
G uide S h e e t : Aims a n d O b j e c t i v e s i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y
School
G uide S h e e t : B e g in n i n g t o U n d e r s ta n d I n d i v i d u a l
D iffe re n c e s
G u id e S h e e t : S u g g e s t i o n s f o r Case S t u d i e s
G uide S h e e t : The Q u e s t i o n
G uide S h e e t : The A s sig n m e n t
I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t : The E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l B u i l d i n g
I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t : The E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d
I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t : C la s s r o o m E quipm ent
I n s tr u c tio n a l U n it: I n s tr u c tio n a l M a te ria ls
I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t : The E le m e n t a r y S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m
I n s t r u c t i o n a l U n i t : S u p p le m e n ta r y and R e g u l a r T e x t s
P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s an d r e l a t i o n s
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
R e ad in g s e l e c t e d p a r t s o f te c h n iq u e o f t e a c h i n g
r e f e r e n c e s as needed f o r u n d e rsta n d in g o b se rv a ­
t io n or f o r te a c h in g
D e v e lo p in g an u n d e r s ta n d in g o f e d u c a tio n a l
te rm in o lo g y
R ead in g s e l e c t e d e d u c a ti o n a l books
A t t e n d i n g P .T .A . m e e t i n g s
M aking c o l l e c t i o n s o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s
186
6.
7.
8.
9.
IV .
C l a s s r o o m m anagem ent a n d p u p i l c o n t r o l
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
V.
H aving s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a r o u t i n e
n a t u r e i n t h e room , a s c a r e o f l i g h t i n g , v e n t i l a ­
t i o n , d e c o ra tio n
A s s i s t i n g w ith re c o rd s and r e p o r t s
S u p e rv is in g h a l l s , c la ss ro o m s , or p lay g ro u n d s
d u rin g in te rm is s io n s
S u p e rv is in g groups of c h i l d r e n in c a f e g e r i a a t
lu n ch ho u r
S c o rin g t e s t s
H e l p in g c h i l d r e n f o r m good h a b i t s
Im provem ent o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s
p ro v e m e n t i n :
1.
2.
V I.
M aking b o o k l e t s o f " f o l l o w - u p " w ork and s t u d y h e l p s
f o r d i f f e r e n t age le v e ls
M aking b i b l i o g r a p h i e s o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n d r e f e r e n c e
b o o k s f o r d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s
S t u d y i n g work b o o k s and t h e i r u s e s
A t t e m p t i n g t o e v a l u a t e y o u r own l a b o r a t o r y - s c h o o l
e x p e rie n c e s
- - w o r k in g f o r im­
a . V o ic e
b . P o stu re
c . Use o f good E n g l i s h
d . P e r s o n a l ap p earan ce
e.
S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e (o v e rc o m in g f e a r )
U a p r o v in g h a n d w r i t i n g — c u r s i v e o r m a n u s c r i p t
P la n n in g and te a c h in g
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7*
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
A s s is tin g w ith c h i l d r e n ’s e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c ­
t i v i t i e s a s d r a m a tic s , new sp ap er, r a d i o , p r o ­
gram s, p a r t i e s
T a k in g e x c u r s i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n
A s s i s t i n g i n m ak in g o f u n i t p l a n s
M aking d a i l y p l a n s
T ea ch in g a " u n it" o r a s e r i e s o f le s s o n s
D oing some t e a c h i n g a t l e a s t d u r i n g f i r s t f o u r
w eeks o f s e m e s t e r
A s s is tin g w ith c h i l d r e n ’s l i b r a r y p e rio d s
H e l p in g i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n o r s m a l l g r o u p s
P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n work o f e a c h g r a d e l e v e l d u r i n g
th e se m e ste r
W orking w i t h t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s
T ry in g t o se c u re p u p i l r e a d i n e s s th r o u g h ap p ro ach es
M aking a s s i g n m e n t s
U s in g v i s u a l a i d s i n t e a c h i n g
P la n n in g b u l l e t i n b o a rd d i s p l a y s
S u p e rv isin g " fre e " p e rio d s
187
V II.
M isc e lla n e o u s A c t i v i t i e s P e r t a i n in g t o th e S tu d e n tT e a c h i n g S e t-U p
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
W eekly c o n f e r e n c e w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s
W eekly c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s
C o n feren ces w ith t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s o r s u p e r v is o r s
a f t e r b e i n g o b s e r v e d b y them
I n t e n n i t t a n t o b s e r v a tio n and te a c h in g
Much o b s e r v a t i o n , l i t t l e t e a c h i n g
188
E d u c a t i o n 302 - S t u d e n t T e a c h i n g
L a b o ra to ry -S c h o o l E x p e rie n c e s o f S tu d e n t T each ers
in D ir e c te d T ea ch in g I I
I.
S u b ject m a tte r
1.
2.
3.
4.
II.
O b se rv a tio n and s tu d y
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
III.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
R e a d in g p r o f e s s i o n a l b o o k s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e c h ­
n iq u e s o f te a c h in g and w ith p h ilo s o p h y of e d u c a tio n
R e a d in g s e l e c t e d I n s p i r a t i o n a l b o o k s a n d m a g a z in e s
A t t e n d i n g P . T .A . m e e t i n g s
A t t e m p t i n g t o e v a l u a t e y o u r own l a b o r a t o r y - s c h o o l
e x p e rie n c e s
C o n su ltin g s u b j e c t - m a t te r s p e c i a l i s t s
A tte n d in g p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e tin g s
C la s s ro o m m anagem ent a n d p u p i l c o n t r o l
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
V.
O b s e r v in g a n d s t u d y i n g T yp es o f L e s s o n s
O b s e r v in g t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r o r s u p e r v i s o r t e a c h
H aving c o n f e r e n c e w i t h t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s
H av in g c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s a f t e r b e i n g
o b s e r v e d b y th em
A t t e n d i n g a s e m i- m o n t h ly p r a c t i c u m
P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s an d r e l a t i o n s h i p s
1.
IV .
S e le c tin g su b je c t m a tte r f o r a ssig n e d to p ic s
In te rp re tin g th e s ig n ific a n c e of su b je c t m a tte r
O rg a n iz in g s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r t e a c h i n g
K e e p in g w e l l i n f o r m e d on c u r r e n t a f f a i r s
Assum ing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f room f r o m o n e - f o u r t h
to o n e -h a lf day
A s sistin g w ith re c o rd s and re p o rts
A tte m p tin g t o c o n t r o l c o n c e r t an sw ers
C a r in g f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s
S u p e r v is in g h a l l s , c la s s ro o m s and p lay g ro u n d s
C a r in g f o r t h e g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e room
Im provem ent o f p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s
1.
H aving a t t e n t i o n c a l l e d t o n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l im­
p ro v e m e n t i n
a . V oice
b . M annerism s
c . P o stu re
d . Use o f E n g l i s h
e . E n th u sia sm ( a l l v e n e s s )
189
f.
g.
h.
i*
j.
V I.
F orce
In d u stry
S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e (o v e rc o m in g f e a r )
P e rs o n a l ap p earan ce
B u sin e ss-lik e a ttitu d e
P l a n n i n g an d t e a c h i n g
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
M aking d a i l y p l a n s ( o n l y )
T e a c h i n g a p r e p a r e d u n i t p l a n i n a s many s u b j e c t s
as p o ss ib le
U s in g t h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s
M aking f o l l o w - u p o r s e a t w o r k
C h e c k in g f o l l o w - u p o r s e a t w o r k
S e c u rin g c h i l d p u rp o sin g
W r i t i n g s p e c i f i c aim3 i n p l a n s
W r itin g m ajo r q u e s tio n s i n p la n s
M o tiv a tin g d e f i n i t e a ssig n m en ts
I m i t a t i n g good t e c h n i q u e s
E v o l v i n g own t e c h n i q u e s t h r o u g h g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s
U s in g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e s s o n s
U s in g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s s k i l l f u l l y
U s in g v i s u a l a i d s i n t e a c h i n g
U s in g t h e b u l l e t i n b o a r d b o t h a s a t e a c h i n g d e v i c e
A l t e r n a t i n g t e a c h i n g and o b se rv in g th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r
190
APPENDIX G
FOUR-YEAR CURRICULUM FOR THE STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE AT
SALISBURY LEADING TO THE B .S . DEGREE IN EDUCATION*
(The c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f i r s t tw o y e a r s o f t h i 3 c u r r i c u l u m
w i t h a n a v e r a g e g r a d e o f **CM o r b e t t e r w i l l e n a b l e a s t u d e n t
to e n te r th e tw o -y e a r p r o f e s s io n a l c u rric u lu m a t th e S ta te
T e a c h e rs C o lle g e a t S a l is b u r y o r t o t r a n s f e r , w ith f u l l j u n i o r
s t a n d i n g , t o m ost c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f M a ry la n d and o f
o th e r s t a t e s .)
The F i r s t Two Y e a r s (A cadem ic)
Second S e m e s te r
F i r s t S e m e s te r
F i r s t Y ear
Sem.
H rs.
E n g l i s h 1 0 1 - C o m p o s i ti o n 3
H is to ry 1 0 1 -E arly
E uropean
3
Z o o lo g y 1 0 1 - G e n e r a l
4
P h y s i c a l E d. 101
1
IT
E n g l i s h 1 0 2 - - C o m p o s i ti o n
H is to ry 1 0 2 --L a te r E uro­
pean
B o ta n y 1 0 2 — G e n e r a l
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 102
Sem.
H rs.
3
3
4
1
u
E l e c t s i x o r s e v e n s e m e s t e r h o u rs* c r e d i t f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g :
C o l l e g e C h o ru s 101
E co n o m ic s 1 0 1 - P r i n .
E n g lis h 1 0 3-S peech
G u id a n c e 101
H e a l t h E d .1 0 1 - H y g ie n e
M a th e m a tic s 1 0 1 C o lle g e A lg e b ra
M u sic 1 0 1 -R u d im e n ts
O r c h e s t r a 101
Second Y ear
Chem. 201 o r 203
E n g .2 0 1 - W o r ld L i t .
H is to r y 2 01-E ar l y
A m e ric a n
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 201
1.
.5
3
1
1
.5
3
1
.5
4-3
3
3
m ro
A rt 1 0 2 -A p p lied
C o l l e g e C h o ru s 102
S o c i o lo g y 1 02- I n t r o d u c t o r y
E n g lis h 104-S peech
H e a l t h E d . 1 0 2 -H y g ie n e
M a th e m a tic s '1 0 2 -T rig o n o m e try
M usic 1 0 2 -R u d im e n ts
O r c h e s t r a 102
C h e m is tr y 202 o r P h y s i c s
204
E n g lis h 2 0 2 -E n g lish L i t .
H i s t . 2 0 2 - L a t e r A m e ric an
P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 202
.5
3
1
.5
3
1
.5
4-3
3
3
1
mo
T h i s h a s b e e n c o p i e d f r o m p a g e s 17 a n d 18 o f t h e b u l l e t i n
p u b lis h e d by th e C o lle g e , 1938.
E le c t s i x or sev en s e m e ste r h o u rs ' c r e d i t from th e fo llo w in g :
A rt 2 0 1 - P r i n c ip l e s
C o l l e g e C ho rus 201
E co n o m ic s 2 0 1 - A p p l i e d
E n g lis h 2 0 3 - Speech
(Same a s E n g . 103)
H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n 201 H y g ien e
M usic 2 0 1 - H i s t o r y and
A p p re c ia tio n
O r c h e s t r a 201
P sy ch o lo g y 2 0 1 -G e n e ra l
P h i l o s o p h y 202
2
.5
3
1
.5
1
.5
3
3
A rt 2 0 2 -A p p re ciat io n
C o l l e g e C h o ru s 202
G overnm ent 2 0 2 - N a t i o n a l
E n g lis h 2 0 4-S peech
(Same a s E n g . 104)
H e a lth E d u c a tio n 202H y g ie n e
M usic 2 0 2 - H i s t o r y an d
A p p re ciatio n
O r c h e s t r a 202
E n g l i s h 206-M o dern Comp.
Drama
2
.5
3
1
.5
1
.5
3
The L a s t Two Y e a r s ( P r o f e s s i o n a l )
F i r s t S e m e s te r
S e c o n d S e m e s te r
T h i r d Y e ar
P e r i o d s Sem.
P e r i o d s a Week
a Week
H rs.
1 s t 9 2nd 9 Sem.
weeks w eeks H r s •
E d . 3 0 2 'fEd. 3 0 1 -D ir.
O bserv. I
S tu d .T c h g .
25
8
E n g lis h 301E n g lish 302R ead in g
P ro b le m s
2 .5
Geog. 3 0 1 Geog. 3 0 2 Ec onomic
P rin c ip le s
2 .5
H isto ry 301Home Ec on omi c s
P ro fe ssio n a l
2
3
302 o r I n d u s ­
I n d u s . A r t s 301
4
t r i a l A r t 302
3
M usic 3 0 1 M usic 3 0 2 1
U p p e r G ra d e s
3
P r i m a r y G rades
2
1
P h y s . E d . 302
P h y s . E d . 301
.5
2
2
M a th . 3 0 1 - P r o ­
H a n d w ritin g
.5
2
fe ssio n a l
E le c tiv e (op­
E l e c t i v e (o p ­
tio n a l)
.5
1________ .5
tio n a l)
2 2 -2 3 1 6 - 1 6 .5
"26 2 0 -2 1 1 6 - 1 6 .5
-«• E d u c a t i o n 302 i s t o b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g I I
and E d u c a t i o n 401 w i t h D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g I I I a s u s e d
in t h i s stu d y .
192
(E le c tiv e s :
C o l l e g e C horus 3 0 1 - 3 0 2 ; O r c h e s t r a 3 0 1 -3 0 2 )
F o u r t h Y e ar
P e r i o d s a Wk.
1 s t 9 2nd 9 Sem,
weeks weeks H r s ,
Ed. 4 0 1 -S tu d e n t T ch g .
E ng, 401C h ild re n ' s
L it,
C eog. 401 P ro fe ss io n a l
M usic 4 0 1 Community
P h y s , E d . 401
E le c tiv e
(O p tio n al)
25
8
5
2 .5
5
2 ,5
5
2
2 .5
.5
1
1
.5
17^18 2 5 -2 6 1 S - 1 6 .5
(E le c tiv e s:
N ote 1 .
2,
3,
4,
Ed. 402H isto ry
E d u c a tio n 404P h ilo so p h y
Ed. 4 06P s y c h o lo g y
M usic 4 0 2 P ro fe ss io n a l
P h y s . E d . 402
H e a l t h E d . 402
S c ien c e 402E le m . S c h o o l
E l e c t i v e (o p ­
tio n a l)
P e rio d s
a Week
Sem.
H rs.
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
1
1
3
2
2
.5
1
18-19 1 6 - 1 6 .5
C o l l e g e Chorus 4 0 1 - 4 0 2 ; O r c h e s t r a 4 0 1 -4 0 2 )
The l e n g t h o f r e c i t a t i o n p e r i o d s i s 55 m i n u t e s ,
No r e g u l a r s t u d e n t may e n r o l l f o r l e s s t h a n 1 6 ,
o r m ore t h a n 1 8 , s e m e s t e r h o u r s ' c r e d i t , w i t h ­
out th e a p p ro v a l of th e f a c u l t y ,
But one c r e d i t w i l l be a l l o w e d e a c h y e a r f o r
O r c h e s t r a an d C h o r u s ,
The c o m p l e t i o n o f a t l e a s t 128 s e m e s t e r h o u r s
w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r g r a d u a t i o n .
193
APPENDIX D
EXAMPLES OF GUIDE SHEETS FOR STUDENT TEACHERS IN THE
LABORATORY SCHOOLS1 (U sed d u r i n g t h e S c h o o l Y e a r s
1 9 3 8 -1 9 4 0 ) — D i r e c t e d T e a c h i n g I
F or I n tr o d u c to r y C o n feren ce
Our p l a n f o r t h e n e x t f e w d a y s i s t o o b s e r v e i n t h e
l a b o r a t o r y s c h o o l t o g e t a p i c t u r e o f t h e whole*
We s h a l l
sp e n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h o u r i n e a c h room e a c h d a y d u r i n g
t h i s f i r s t week and t a k e a n h o u r f o r i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n a n d
f o r p lan n in g f o r th e next d a y .
Do you s e e any p o s s i b l e a d v a n t a g e s i n t h i s p l a n f o r
you a s a p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r ?
What seem s t o b e t h e m e a n in g o f t h e te r m " l a b o r a t o r y "
as a p p lie d t o te a c h in g ?
C o n sid e r th e m a t e r i a ls in t h i s l a b o r a ­
t o r y — t h e human m a t e r i a l s .
What r e a s o n c a n yo u s u g g e s t f o r g o i n g i n t o t h e rooms
th e f i r s t day?
The f i r s t week?
Upon what o r whom d o you t h i n k y o u r i n t e r e s t w i l l
c e n te r c h ie fly ?
Why?
What s h o u l d b e o u r m anner o f e n t e r i n g t h e room?
Our
a ttitu d e d u rin g our s ta y th e re ?
We c a n h e l p o r h i n d e r t h e c h i l d r e n i n a d j u s t m e n t a n d
1.
The p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p r o b le m s
i n U n i t s I , I I , I I I an d IV d u r i n g t h e " o v e r v ie w "
p e r i o d . T hey a r e g i v e n o t h e r u n i t s a t a t i m e i t seems
t h o s e u n i t s w i l l f u n c t l o n l P e r t i n e n t p ro b le m s a r e
d is c u s s e d in c o n fe re n c e w henever t h e y a r i s e .
194
l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s ; we c a n a s s i s t o r d i s t u r b t h e i r g u i d e ,
t h e t e a c h e r ; we c a n f u r t h e r h i n d e r o u r l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s .
O urs seem s t o b e a c o o p e r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; w e, t o o , h a v e
a r e s p o n s ib ility to th e c h ild re n .
O b se rv a tio n t o b r in g w o rth w h ile r e s u l t s f o r us r e ­
q u ire s a t le a s t th r e e th in g s :
a n a ly sis.
c o o p e r a t i o n , a c t i v i t y , and
A c t i v i t y in t h i s se n se i s l a r g e l y a m en tal c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t i c , t a k i n g a p o i n t o r a fe w p o i n t s o f v ie w f o r we c a n ­
n o t o b serv e a l l a t o n c e, and t h e n d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o th e
p o in ts ag reed upon.
The a c t i v i t y w i l l l e a d t o d i s c u s s i o n and
a n a l y s i s i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a r t s t h a t make up t h e
w h o le.
H o w ev e r, we w i l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a r t s b e t t e r i f we
s e e them i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w h o l e .
F o r t h e n e x t few d a y s p l e a s e c e n t e r y o u r i n t e r e s t on
t h e c h i l d r e n , a n d on t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t a n d l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s .
U n it I .
L e a rn in g th e
C h i l d r e n a n d T h e i r S c h o o l E n v iro n m e n t
P ro b le m s a n d Q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t
o b se rv a tio n :
1.
G ive i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f a c h i l i ’ s a d j u s t m e n t o r l a c k o f
i t t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e d a y . What seem ed t o b e
th e cause or causes?
2.
What g o o d h a b i t s d o t h e c h i l d r e n seem t o h a v e a s a
g r o u p ? What h a b i t s f o r g r o u p s m ust t h e t e a c h e r h e l p
t h e c h i l d r e n fo rm ? What h a b i t s s h o u l d be b r o k e n i f
t h e g r o u p i s t o l i v e an d w o rk h a p p i l y t o g e t h e r ?
3.
What i n f o r m a t i o n o r d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e p u ; i l s d i d t h e
t e a c h e r c o l l e c t t h e f i r s t d a y ? Why? What o t h e r d a t a
seem e s s e n t i a l ?
Give s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s e c u r i n g an d
f o r u sin g d a ta c o ll e c t e d .
4.
I n w h i c h o f t h e s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s d o th e c h i l d r e n
seem m ost i n t e r e s t e d ? -
195
5.
What a r e y o u r I m p r e s s i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e room s? How
do t h e y seem t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d r e n ? C o n s i d e r :
a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f e a c h room , h o m e l i k e n e s s , e q u ip m e n t
f o r th e d a y 's a c t i v i t i e s , te m p e ra tu re , v e n t i l a t i o n .
6.
T r y t o g e t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . B e g in t o
l e a r n t h e i r nam es a s you h e a r them i n t h e room s a n d
a s you h a v e o p p o r t u n i t y on t h e p l a y g r o u n d s . Makea
c h ^ r t o f t h e s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e roo m . Are
th e r e any p r o v is io n s f o r th e t a l l c h ild ? th e s h o r t
one? Do a n y h a v e d e f e c t i v e s i g h t o r h e a r i n g ? Are an y
p r o v i s i o n s b e i n g made f o r them ?
F o llo w -U p O b s e r v a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s :
1.
W r i t e a n y a d d i t i o n a l t o p i c s o r q u e s t i o n s you w is h d i s ­
c u s s e d i n o u r c o n f e r e n c e s , and hand th e m t o y o u r g r o u p
c h a i r m a n o r t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r . Do t h i s a f t e r e a c h d a y ' s
o b se rv a tio n .
2.
Make a l i s t o f t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s you w ant t o d o on
t h e o p e n in g d a y o f y o u r own s c h o o l . S e l e c t a c e r t a i n
g rade or age l e v e l f o r t h i s .
3.
Keep n o t e s , p r e f e r a b l y i n o u t l i n e f o r m , o f t h e r e f e r ­
e n c e s you r e a d .
I n c l u d e what you c o n s i d e r h e l p f u l t o
you i n y o u r n o t e b o o k , y o u r R e c o rd Book.
4.
S u g g e s t h e a d i n g s you t h i n k may be s u i t a b l e f o r y o u r
t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s . The f i r s t one may b e "The F i r s t
Day o f S c h o o l . "
S u g g e ste d R e a d in g s:
1.
A lm ack, J o h n C. an d L an g , A l b e r t R . , The B e g in n i n g T e a c h e r ,
p p . 61 -6 9 .
2.
A v e n t , J . E . , B e g in n i n g T e a c h i n g , C h a p t e r XV.
3.
D o l c h , E dw ard W ., The P s y c h o lo g y a n d T e a c h in g o f R e a d i n g ,
C h a p t e r s I and 1 1 .
4.
H a r d y , M a r j o r y , M anu al t o t h e C h i l d ' s Own Way S e r i e s ,
p . 59.
5.
H o l l e y , C . E . , The T e a c h e r ' s T e c h n i q u e , p p . 3 0 2 - 3 0 6 .
6.
Thom as, F . W . , P r i n c i p l e s a n d T e c h n iq u e s o f T e a c h i n g , p p .
73-76.
196
U n it I I ,
Aims an d O b j e c t i v e s o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n
P ro b le m s a n d Q u e s t i o n s f o r O b s e r v a t i o n :
1,
What d o you c o n s i d e r t o be
t h e m a j o r a im o f
t h e e le m e n ­
t a r y s c h o o l ? M ino r a im s ? What e v i d e n c e do y o u s e e t h a t
t h e a im s a s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e d i f f e r e n t rooms i n c l u d e
t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s :
H e alth ? S o c i a l c u l t u r e ( in c lu d in g h a b i t s ) ?
Id e a ls?
In fo rm a tio n ? S k i l l s ? A p p re c ia tio n s ?
2,
What a r e some o f t h e c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e s you o b s e r v e i n
t h e s c h o o l s now a n d when you w ere i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y
g rad es?
3,
Do yo u s e e a n y d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n ­
sh ip s?
Of w h a t i m p o r t a n c e i s t h i s i n r e g a r d t o accom­
p l i s h i n g a im s o f e d u c a t i o n ?
From Jtour o b s e r v a t i o n g i v e i n c i d e n t s .
F o llo w -U p A ct i v i t i e s :
1,
From y o u r r e f e r e n c e r e a d i n g l i s t s e l e c t a t l e a s t f i v e
s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e m od ern
e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . What seem t o b e t h e c h i e f p o i n t s
o f e m p h a sis?
2,
Do y ou t h i n k t h a t c o n d i t i o n s o f m o d ern l i f e demand
a r e s t a t e m e n t o f w h at e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d do i n a dem oc­
r a c y ? What f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e s c h o o l a r e h e l p i n g
t o s h a p e i d e a s and i d e a l s ; w hat are h e l p i n g t o i m p a r t
i n f o r m a t i o n ? Make a l i s t o f t h o s e w i t h i n y o u r e x p e r i e n c e .
3,
What do yo u c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e
sc h o o l co n ce rn in g th e se " o u tsid e a g e n c ie s" ?
S u g g ested R e ad in g s:
1.
E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C o m m issio n , The U n iq u e F u n c t i o n o f
E d u c a t i o n i n A m e ric an D em o crac y .
2.
F r a s i e r , George F . , and A r m e n t r o u t , W i l f r e d D . , An I n t r o
d u c tio n t o th e L ite r a tu r e of E d u c a tio n .
3,
M y e rs , A lo n z o and o t h e r s , C o o p e r a t i v e S u p e r v i s i o n .
4,
T hom as, F r a n k W ., an d L a n g , A l b e r t R . , P r i n c i p l e s o f
M odern E d u c a t i o n .
5.
W i l s o n , K y t e , L u l l , M odern M eth o d s o f T e a c h i n g .
197
U n it I I I ,
The N a t u r e o f L e a r n in g
P ro b le m s a n d Q u e s t i o n s f o r O b s e r v a t i o n :
1.
P e r h a p s y ou a r e b e g i n n i n g t o n o t i c e some c h a n g e s i n
some o f t h e c h i l d r e n . Gan you name some? What h a b i t s
a r e t h e c h i l d r e n b e i n g g u i d e d t o fo rm a s a g r o u p ? A re
i n d i v i d u a l s b e i n g h e lp e d ? How?
2.
O b s e rv e t o s e e i f you c a n e x p l a i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s , (a )
" L e a r n i n g i s a n a c t i v e p r o c e s s , " (b ) " L e a r n i n g i s b e s t
d i r e c t e d a n d m ost e f f e c t i v e when t h e c h i l d i s i n t e r e s t e d . "
3.
Make two l i s t s :
t h e s p e c i f i c p u p i l a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h
t o you a p p e a r e d u c a t i v e ; t h o s e t h a t seem n o t t o be e d u ­
c a tiv e .
4.
What f a c t o r s seem t o b e i n f l u e n c i n g w h a t t h e c h i l d r e n
w ere t r y i n g t o l e a r n ?
5.
What f a c t o r s seem t o c a u s e a d e s i r e t o l e a r n ?
F o llo w -U p A c t i v i t i e s :
1.
A p a r t i a l l i s t of p u p il a c t i v i t i e s b o th of a p h y s ic a l
a n d a m e n t a l n a t u r e i n w h ic h l e a r n i n g may t a k e p l a c e
i n s c h o o l in c lu d e s : re a d in g b o o k s, a n sw e rin g q u e s t i o n s ,
l i s t e n i n g t o te a c h e r or p u p il e x p la n a t i o n s , d ra w in g .
T ry t o make a more c o m p le te l i s t ,
2.
P s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e f o r m u l a t e d c e r t a i n la w s t o w h ic h
l e a r n i n g a p p e a r s t o c o n fo r m . From y o u r c o u r s e i n p s y ­
c h o lo g y a n d y o u r p r e s e n t r e a d i n g s , name a n d e x p l a i n
t h e s e f a c t o r s w h ic h i n f l u e n c e l e a r n i n g . I l l u s t r a t e
f r o m y o u r o b s e r v a t i o n w o rk ,
3.
T here a r e d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p ts o f l e a r n i n g . B r i e f l y th e y
a r e : ( a ) L e a r n in g i s l a r g e l y a d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o c e s s ;
(b) I t i s a g ro w in g up p r o c e s s ; ( c ) I t i s g u i d e d a c ­
c o r d i n g t o a n a c c e p t e d f o r m u l a ; (d) I t i s a n a c t i v e
p r o c e s s ; th e t e a c h e r i s a g u id e and a s s i d a n t t o th e
p u p i l s . What seem s t o b e t h e b e s t c o n c e p t ? E x p l a i n .
4.
How d o e s o n e ’ s c o n c e p t o f t h e n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g i n ­
flu e n c e te a c h in g ?
5.
L is t th e d u t ie s of a te a c h e r i n a c c o rd a n c e w ith your
concept of le a rn in g .
6.
" R e c a l l t e a c h e r s u n d e r whom y o u w ere m o st s u c c e s s f u l
a s a l e a r n e r •• .W r i t e down a l i s t o f t h i n g s t h e y d i d ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h ic h c a u s e d you t o l e a r n . "
198
7.
Keep a l i s t o f t h e t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y w h ic h you a r e
h e a r i n g an d words you f i n d i n y o u r r e a d i n g s o t h a t you
c a n r e a d and e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n m ore u n d e r s t a n d i n g l y .
Why n o t s e t a s i d e a s e c t i o n i n y o u r R e c o r d Book m arked
T e r m in o lo g y f o r t h e s e a n d o t h e r w o rd s ?
S u g g e ste d R e fe re n c e s :
1.
M o nro e, W a l t e r S , and S t r e i t z , R u t h ,
th e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l. C h a p te rs
D i r e c t e d L e a rn in g in
1 and I I .
2.
N o r s w o r t h y , Naomi, an d W h itn e y , Mary T . , The P s y c h o l o g y
o f C h ild h o o d .
3.
P a r k e r , S . C . , T ypes o f E le m e n t a r y T e a c h i n g an d L e a r n i n g .
The t o p i c s i n c l u d e d i n a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s a r e :
g in n in g t o U n d e rstan d I n d iv id u a l D i f f e r e n c e s ,
(3) The A s s i g n m e n t , (4 ) Types o f L e s s o n s .
(1 ) Be­
(2 ) The Q u e s t i o n ,
199
Example a of Guide S h eets C oncerning P h y s ic a l F a c to rs
U n it I .
I.
II*
III,
P h y s ic a l F a c to rs *
Topics
Aim:
To d ev e lo p d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s betw een th e
sc h o o l b u ild in g as su ch and th e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c ­
t i v i t i e s in th e c la ssro o m ,
P roced u re s
A,
A ssignm ent (L a b o ra to ry sc h o o l)
1,
2*
3,
4*
B,
2,
C,
In s p e c t and stu d y b u i l d i n g , f i r s t han d , and
make th e a r c h i t e c t ’ s b l u e p r i n t ,
Make a draw ing o f th e b u ild in g on s ta n d a rd s iz e
notebook p a p e r ,
Score th e b u ild in g by making u se of a s ta n d a rd
sc o re c a r d ,
Check th e b u ild in g by th e s ta n d a rd re q u ire m e n ts
s e t up by th e M aryland S ta te Board o f Educa­
t i o n , f o r an approved e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l,
Assignm ent (L ib ra ry )
1,
Read from r e f e r e n c e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t e r i a l
a s p e r a tta c h e d a n n o ta te d b ib lio g r a p h y ,
Make a re c o id o f in fo rm a tio n b e a r in g on th e t o p i c ,
A ssignm ent (C onference)
1,
2,
3,
4,
*
The e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l b u i l d i n g ,
The b u ild in g a s r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n s from th e
p o in t o f view o f th e d e m o n s tra tio n te a c h e r ,
The same, fro m p o in t of view o f th e c o lle g e i n ­
s t r u c t o r , of p r o f e s s io n a liz e d s u b je c t m a tte r .
The same, fro m th e p o in t of view o f th e su p e r­
v is o r and d i r e c t o r of te a c h e r e d u c a tio n ,
D is c u ss io n from th e p o in t o f view of th e s t u ­
d en t te a c h e r .
The u n i t s , s ix in number, w hich w ere worked out b y th e d i ­
r e c t o r of t r a i n i n g , p a r a l l e l th o s e d e a lin g w ith te a c h ­
in g te c h n iq u e s . They, t o o , form b a s e s f o r d is c u s s io n
f o r some o f th e r e g u l a r l y sc h ed u le d c o n fe re n c e s h e ld
f o r th e D ire c te d Teach in g I and D ir e c te d T ea ch in g I I
g ro u p s ,
""
200
IV,
S uggested B ib lio g ra p h y
A,
C u rren t m a t e r i a l s .
B.
S ta n d a rd te x tb o o k s , b u l l e t i n s , and p a m p h le ts.
U n it I I .
I.
II.
III.
1.
Knox, R ose, School A c t i v i t i e s and E quipm ent.
C h ap ter VIXT, p p . 285-311.
A good d is c u s s io n o f th e ty p e of f u r n i t u r e ,
f i x t u r e s , and s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s f o r th e elem en­
t a r y s c h o o l.
2.
C hallm an, S .A ., The R u ra l S chool P l a n t , C h ap ter
IV, pp . 5 8 -6 1 .
A summary of s ta n d a r d s f o r e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l
b u ild i n g s . D is c u s s io n of th e s i z e , c o n s tr u c ­
t i o n w ork, windows, w a l l s , an d c e i l i n g o f th e
b u ild in g .
3.
P e r k in s , F e llo w s , and H am ilto n , Educat io n a l
B u ild in g s .
For i l l u s t r a t i o n s , s e e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d ra w in g s.
P h y s ic a l F a c to rs
T o p ic:
Aim:
The e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l p la y g ro u n d .
To show th e re la V a n s o f th e p lay g ro u n d t o th e
h e a lth program a^ a r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a tio n a l
a c t i v i t i e s o f th e s c h o o l.
P ro c e d u re :
A.
A ssignm ent (L a b o ra to ry S chool)
1.
2.
3.
B.
Make a d raw in g of th e e le m e n ta ry sc h o o l ground.
Show c l e a r l y th e d i s t i n c t i o n s betw een elem en­
t a r y sc h o o l p lay g ro u n d and th e c o lle g e a th ­
le tic fie ld .
Study p lay g ro u n d in d e t a i l by u s in g s ta n d a rd
sco re c a r d ,
L is t by c o r r e c t names e a c h ite m o f p lay g ro u n d
equ ip m en t. C o n su lt c a ta lo g u e f o r d e s c r i p t i o n
and p r ic e o f e a c h p ie c e o f eq u ip m en t. Con­
s i d e r th e p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n s tr u c tin g e q u iv a ­
le n t b u t le s s e x p e n siv e eq u ip m en t.
Assignm ent (L ib ra ry )
1.
Read, c o l l e c t and r e c o r d in fo rm a tio n r e l a t i v e
t o th e t o p i c .
201
C.
Assignm ent (C onference)
1*
2,
IV.
D is c u ssio n of to p ic w ith r e f e r e n c e t o su g g e ste d
aim ,
P e rs o n n e l,
a . D em onstration t e a c h e r s ,
b • S u p erv is ora •
c . D ir e c to r of te a c h e r e d u c a tio n ,
d . The a p p r o p r ia te c o lle g e s u b je c t m a tte r
te a c h e r .
S ug g ested B ib lio g ra p h y .
A.
C u rre n t m a t e r i a l s .
3.
S ta n d a rd te x tb o o k s , b u l l e t i n s , and p a m p h le ts.
1.
Bowen, W. and M itc h e ll, E . , The Theory o f Or­
g an ized P la y , C h ap ter XIV, p p . 292-3037
Excel I le n t acco u n t o f th e p h y s ic a l b e n e f i t s of
p la y , i t s im portance t o p e r f e c t h e a l t h .
2.
C u r t i s , Henry S . , E d u c a tio n Through P la y . Ch.
I I , p p .17-46.
D e ta ile d d is c u s s io n o f th e aims o f th e p la y ­
ground.
3.
B a n c ro ft, J e s s i e , Games f o r th e P la y g ro u n d ,
Home and S c h o o l, p p . 1 0 -2 1 .
P o in ts out c l e a r l y th e u s e s of games t o th e
in d iv id u a l and community.
4.
W illia m s, J e s s i e and H ughes, W .L ., A th le tlc ¥
in E d u c a tio n , C h a p ter X, p p . 169-1871.
Ji~very le n g th y d is c u s s io n of th e p u rch ase and
c a re of equipm ent.
The to p ic s in c lu d e d in th e a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s a r e : (1)
C lassroom E quipm ent; (2) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a te r ia ls ; (3) The
E lem en ta ry S chool C urriculum ; (4) S upplem entary and T extbooks
202
APPENDIX E
A HANDBOOK FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS
T hi3 s e c tio n com prises th e b e g in n in g s o f a t e n t a t i v e
handbook f o r p r o s p e c tiv e t e a c h e r s .
I t has b een com piled by
th e I n v e s ti g a to r th ro u g h th e c o o p e ra tio n o f th e fo llo w in g p e r ­
sons who a r e h e r co -w o rk ers i n th e S ta te T each ers C o lleg e a t
S a lis b u r y , M aryland:
D r, T , J , C a ru th e r s , D ir e c to r of T ra in ­
in g ; Miss Je an S a n fo rd , M iss P a u lin e R i a l l , M iss M arg aret
W eant, and Mr, P a u l Hyde, T r a c i n g T e a c h e rs ; D r, John May,
I n s t r u c t o r in P sy ch o lo g y , and M iss Grace S t r i c k l a n d , L ib r a r ia n ,
D uring th e y e a r 1939-1940 th e t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s made
an u rg e n t r e q u e s t t h a t a handbook be fo rm u la te d .
T hat r e q u e s t
w as, f o r th e most p a r t , an outgrow th o f th e s tu d y r e p o r te d
in t h i s docum ent.
Throughout th e s p r in g months o f 1940, th e
co-w orkers above m entioned h e ld c o n fe re n c e s (1) t o c o n s id e r
th e f in d in g s in th e s tu d y , (2) t o f o rm u la te s p e c i f i c o b je c tiv e s
f o r each of th e s ta g e s o f th e program o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g ,
(3) t o r e v i s e o r t o e lim in a te th e g u id e s h e e ts t h a t had been
u se d e x p e rim e n ta lly w ith th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s o v er a p e rio d
of th r e e y e a r s , and (4) to s u g g e st o th e r a id s f o r p r o s p e c tiv e
te a c h e r s .
The r e s u l t s o f th e s e n e s tin g s a re t o be found in
th e handbook.
203
A TENTATIVE HANDBOOK FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS
IN
THE PROGRAM OF DIRECTED TEACHING
Compiled by;
The D ir e c to r of T ra in in g ; Dr, T , J , C a ru th e rs ;
The T ra in in g T each ers i n th e C o lleg e E lem en tary
School — M iss Jean S a n fo rd , M iss P a u lin e R i a l l ,
M iss M argaret W eant, an d Mr* P a u l Hyde.
The I n s t r u c t o r in P sy ch o lo g y , D r. John B. May.
Miss Grace S tr i c k la n d , L ib r a r ia n .
Miss Anne H, M atthew s, S u p e r v is o r .
May, 1940
204
TO THE PROSPECTIVE TEACHER
Working c o o p e r a tiv e ly , th e T ra in in g T e a c h e rs , th e
S u p e r v is o r , and th e D ir e c to r of T ra in in g in th e C o lleg e E le ­
m en tary School have p re p a re d t h i s handbook f o r y o u r u se i n
c o n n e c tio n w ith your lab o r a to r y -s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e s .
The
c h i e f p u rp o se s of I t a re t o h e lp you as a b e g in n in g s tu d e n t
te a c h e r t o make happy a d ju stm e n ts and t o have m ean in g fu l con­
t a c t s in c o n n e c tio n w ith y o u r a c t i v i t i e s i n th e program of
d i r e c t e d te a c h in g .
T hree y e a rs o f e x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith g u id e s h e e ts
fo rm u la te d f o r th e use of th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r s in our la b o r a ­
t o r y s c h o o l have p reced ed th e a sse m b lin g o f t h i s handbook.
S tu d e n t t e a c h e r s , t r a i n i n g te a c h e r s , an d s u p e r v is o r s have
e v a lu a te d th o s e g u id e s h e e ts ; th e y have o f f e r e d v a lu a b le
v a lu a b le c r i t i c i s m s of them a s to t h e i r im p o rtan ce i n a p r o ­
gram o f d i r e c t e d te a c h in g , a ls o a s to t h e i r co n te n t and fa rm .
R e v is io n s of them have b een made.
i n t e n t a t i v e form .
Even now y o u r handbook i s
Some u n i t s , c o n s id e re d v a lu a b le , have n o t
been r e v is e d and in c lu d e d .
As we work to g e th e r th ro u g h o u t th e y e a r , l e t u s hope
t h a t t h i s book w i l l assume b e t t e r form an d r i c h e r c o n te n t f o r
our m u tu a l h e l p .
F i r s t , you w i l l w ish t o t u r n t o th e s p e c i f i c o b je c ­
t i v e s , o r th e la b o ra t o ry -s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s f o r E d u c a tio n 3 0 1 ,
D ir e c te d T each in g I .
v a lu e t o you?
Are th o se th e e x p e rie n c e s t h a t seem o f
205
TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
The B ases f o r S tu d e n t T e a c h in g * .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • • • 206
L a b o ra ta ry -S c h o o l E x p e rie n c e s i n E d u c a tio n 3 0 1 , • • • • • • • • • • 210
L a b o ra to ry -S o h o o l E x p erien c es i n E d u c a tio n 3 0 2 . * * , . , • • * • • 214
Lab ora to ly -S c h o o l E x p erien c es in E d u c a tio n 4 0 1 ...............
216
I n tr o d u c tio n t o D ire c te d T eaching I (Ed* 3 0 1 ) • • • • • • • • • • • • 217
U n it I .
U n it I I .
U n it I I I *
U n it IV.
U n it
V*
U n it VI*
U n it V II .
U n it V IE.
U n it IX*
U n it
X.
U nit
XI*
L earn in g th e C h ild re n in t h e i r S ch o o l En­
vironm ent .............. • • • • • ...........
Aims and O b je c tiv e s o f E lem en ta r S ch o o l Edu­
c a tio n * .
........................
The N atu re o f L e a rn in g
• • * * ................. • * • • • • • •
B eg in n in g to U n d erstan d I n d iv id u a l D i f f e r ­
en c e s and T h e ir In flu e n c e on S ch o o l W o rk ..* .*
M o tiv a tio n of L earn in g * . ......................• • • • • • • • • • •
Aims and P u rp o s e s . .............. • • • • • • • • • • • • ...........• • • •
The Q u e s tio n ..................................................................... 230
The A ssignm ent....................
P la n n in g th e L
e
s
s
o
n
*
.
•
Types of L esso n s................. ......................* • • • • • • • • • • •
A. D r i l l *
............................
B* R eview *.............................
••••* ••••••
C* Problem .............................................
D* A p p re c ia tio n ...................
E d u c a tio n a l T erm inology............. .............*
••••
S u g g ested Form f o r R ecording E x p e rie n c e s
Bib lio g r a p h y
A.
B*
218
220
221
223
226
228
232
234
237
238
239
239
240
241
. . . . . . . * • 242
• • • • • • 243
In fo rm a tio n C oncerning "How t o T e a c h "
. . * • • 243
R e c r e a tio n a l and I n s p i r a t i o n a l R ead in g ...............
247
206
The B ases f o r S tu d en t T each in g i n th e S ta te T eachera
CToillege a t S a il a b u r y . M aryland
The b a s e s f o r th e e d u c a tio n o f p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e rs
must o f n e c e s s ity b e c o n s is te n t w ith t h e b a s e s on w h ich c h i l ­
d re n a r e e d u c a te d f o r c i t i z e n s h i p tin d er th e form o f g o v ern ­
ment u n d e r w hich th e y happen t o liv e * Fundam ental t o th e p re ­
p a r a t io n of c h i l d r e n f o r c i t i z e n s h i p , t b e r e a r e th r e e b a s ic
f a c t o r s * (1) what th e c h i ld r e n s tu d y and le a r n ; (2) th e j u s ­
t i f i c a t i o n of th e s p e c i f i c th in g s le a r n e d ; and (3) th e method
by w h ic h th e c h ild r e n l e a r n . In th e o p e r a tio n o f th e s e b a s ic
f a c t o r s th e te a c h e r i s th e most im p o rta n t in f lu e n c e , hence
h e r b a s ic e d u c a tio n i s o f m ajor s ig a if ic a n c e * T hree main
p h a s e s of t e a c h e r e d u c a tio n g u id e th e p ro ced u re i n th e p r o f e s ­
s io n a l c u rric u lu m a t th e S ta te T ea ch ers C o lleg e a t S a lis b u ry *
P h ilo s o p h ic a l
Two b a s ic c o n s id e r a tio n s d e te rm in e in la r g e m easure
th e p h ilo so p h y o f th e e d u c a tio n o f p r o s p e c tiv e e le m e n ta ry
s c h o o l te a c h e rs * F i r s t , each p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r , so f a r as
i t i s p o s s i b l e , sh o u ld be g iv en o p p o r tu n ity and d e f i n i t e e n ­
couragem ent t o d e v e lo p h e r p a r t i c u l a r i n d iv i d u a l a b i l i t i e s
and d e s i r e s . Second, each p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r sh o u ld be
g iv e n o p p o r tu n ity and d e f i n i t e encouragem ent t o d e v e lo p and
a c c e p t p e r s o n a l, c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o d e v e lo p a s o c i a l
p h ilo s o p h y o f th e means of e d u c a tio n * In ac co rd an ce w ith
th e s e c o n s id e r a tio n s , ea ch s tu d e n t te a c h e r i s en co u rag ed t o
choose th e g ra d e le v e l f o r w hich h e r a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are b e s t s u ite d * E f f o r t i s made i n a l l p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l i z e d c o u rse s to d ev e lo p a s o c i a l p h ilo s o p h y of edu­
c a tio n and s p e c i a l c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e t o p i c I s g iv e n i n
co u rse a s d e s ig n a te d i n th e c o lle g e b u l l e t i n a s E d u c a tio n 4 0 4 P h ilo so p h y o f E ducation*
P sy c h o lo g ic a l
The I n t e r a c t i o n betw een la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s
and p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rs e s i s a d o m in a tin g p r i n c i p l e i n th e
le a r n in g of th e s tu d e n t te a c h e r* In ac co rd an ce w ith t h i s
p r i n c i p l e , la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l c o n ta c t and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u rs e s
b e g in sim u lta n e o u s ly and ru n c o n c u r r e n tly th ro u g h o u t the ju n io r
and s e n i o r y e a rs * From t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een a c t u a l
te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n in p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rs e s
a r e ex p e c te d th r e e m ajor outcom es: (1 ) th e m a ste ry o f s u b je c t
m a tte r b o th p r o f e s s io n a l and ac ad e m ic, (2) s u b je c t m a tte r
w i l l be s e l e c t e d , in t e r p r e t e d and o rg a n iz e d , w ith r e f e r e n c e
t o a c t u a l te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n s and hence w i l l become f u n c t i o n a l ,
and (3) th e te a c h in g a c t i v i t i e s in b o th th e la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
207
and th e p r o f e s s io n a l c o u r s e s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d in a c c o rd ­
ance w ith t h e p e rs o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e s tu d e n t.
T h is commits the te a c b e r - e d u c a tio n program t o two
c l o s e l y r e l a t e d li n e s o f p ro c e d u re : (1) th e s y s te m a tic stu d y
o f s u b je c t m a tte r b o th p r o f e s s io n a l and a c a d e m ic , and (2) th e
i n t e g r a t i o n , o r u n i f i c a t i o n of s u b je c t m a tte r w ith r e f e r e n c e
t o a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p ro ced u re in th e e le m e n ta ry c l a s s ­
room .
A d m in is tra tio n
In acco rd an ce w ith t h e above p h ilo s o p h ic a l and p sy ­
c h o l o g ic a l b a s e s , a d m in is t r a tio n a g e n c ie s a r e d e s ig n e d and
o rg a n iz e d w ith t h e view of c a r r y in g out a te a c h e r - e d u c a tio n
program c o n s i s t e n t w ith th e s e b a s e s .
C urriculum O rg a n iz a tio n
The c u rric u lu m i s o rg a n iz e d w ith th e view o f g iv in g
th e s tu d e n t an o p p o rtu n ity t o a c q u ire a good p r o f e s s io n a l
background of academ ic s u b je c t m a tte r and t o become more
m ature b e fo re he e n te r s th e t e c h n i c a l l y p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rs e s
o f f e r e d th ro u g h o u t th e J u n io r and s e n io r y e a r s . H ence, th e
f i r s t tw o y e a r s of th e c u rric u lu m i s made up e n t i r e l y o f
l i b e r a l a r t s c o u rs e s and th e l a s t two a re made up alm ost
e n t i r e l y of p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rs e s and la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x ­
p e r ie n c e s . See Diagram I f o r a g fa p h ic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f
th e f o u r - y e a r c u rric u lu m .
A llo c a tio n o f Lab ora t pry* School E x p e rie n c e s
L a b o ra to ry -s c h o o l e x p e rie n c e s b e g in sim u lta n e o u s ly
w ith p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rse s and r u n c o n c u r r e n tly w ith them th ro u g h ­
o u t th e ju n io r and s e n io r y e a r s . D uring th e f i r s t se m e s te r
o f th e ju n i o r y e a r th e e x p e rie n c e s c o n s is t o f d i r e c t e d ob­
s e r v a tio n and a lim ite d amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D uring th e
second se m e ste r a s tu d e n t does r e s p o n s ib le te a c h in g f a r nine
w eeks. The e x p e rie n c e s in th e f i r s t s e m e s te r of th e s e n io r
y e a r a r e s i m i l a r t o th o s e in th e p re v io u s s e m e s te r, i . e . th e
s tu d e n t does r e s p o n s ib le te a c h in g f o r n in e weeks and ta k e s
a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rs e s d u rin g th e rem ain in g h a l f of
th e s e m e s te r . P a rt of th e r e s p o n s ib le te a c h in g i s done in the
campus la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l and p a r t in o ff-cam p u s la b o r a to r y
s c h o o ls .
D uring th e l a s t se m ester o f th e s e n i o r y e a r a d d i t i o n a l
d i r e c t e d o b s e rv a tio n is g iv e n in c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e fin d ,
p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rse s ta k e n d u r in g th e s e m e s te r .
208
Thus we have a g r a d a tio n o f la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l e x ­
p e r ie n c e s d e s ig n a te d a s d i r e c t e d o b s e rv a tio n and p a r t i c i p a ­
t i o n (T each in g I ) , r e s p o n s ib le te a c h in g (T each in g I I ) , r e s ­
p o n s ib le T eaching (T eaching I I I ) , and d i r e c t e d o b s e rv a tio n
a s a p a r t of p r o f e s s io n a l c o u rs e s * T hese e x p e r ie n c e s , i t
w i l l be n o te d , a r e a l lo c a te d a c c o rd in g to se m e s te r advance­
ment o v er th e tw o -y e a r p r o f e s s io n a l p e r io d o f th e f o u r - y e a r
c u rric u lu m (see Diagram I)*
Means o f I n t e g r a t i o n o f P r o f e s s io n a l C ourses w ith
L a b o ra to ry -^ c n o o l E x p erien c es
The m a s te ry of s u b je c t i s u s u a lly th e r e s u l t o f l e a r n ­
in g on a u n i t - o f - s u b j e o t - m a t t e r - b a s i s , w h ile s u b je c t m a tte r
t o become f u n c t i o n a l m u st, i t seem s, be le a r n e d upon a u n i t o f - e x p e r ie n c e s - b a s is * E f f o r t i s made th ro u g h o u t th e e n t i r e
f o u r - y e a r p e rio d t o a i d th e s tu d e n t t o a c q u ire m a ste ry and
f u n c tio n a l u n i t y o f a l l s u b je c ts and e x p e rie n c e s in c lu d e d in
th e cu rricu lu m * W ith t h i s in view f iv e m ajo r a g e n c ie s a re
u se d f o r th e p u rpose o f i n t e g r a t i n g c o lle g e c o u r s e s , b o th
academ ic and p r o f e s s i o n a l , w ith p r o f e s s io n a l a c t i v i t i e s in th e
la b o r a to r y - s c h o o ls . These a g e n c ie s a re (1) th e f o u r - y e a r
c o lle g e c u rric u lu m , (2) a d e f i n i t e urogram of s e l e c t i o n adm is­
s io n t o teach e r - e d u c a tio n c o u rs e s ; (3 ) a p ra c tic u m in connec­
t i o n w ith th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o ls ; (4) a c e n t r a l sem inar f o r
th e c o n s id e r a tio n o f th e b ro a d e r p h ases of e d u c a tio h ; and
(5) a stu d y o f m a te r ia ls c o l l e c t e d from th e s e r v ic e area s*
209
DIAGRAM I
F la n o f A d m in is tra tio n of an I n te g r a te d Program
o f T each er E d u c a tio n in a F o u r-Y ear C u rricu lu m
F i r s t S em ester
Second S em ester
R e sp o n sib le te a c h in g In C ity '
L a b o ra to ry -S c h o o l C e n te rs
/ I n t e g r a t i n g C o n feren ces f a r
/ E n t i r e F o u r-Y ear C u rricu lu m
__ y
D e m o n stra tio n L essons f o r
P r o f e s s io n a liz e d S u b je c t
M a tte r in Campus D em onstrat i o n S chool
f\\
/
I
( C e n tr a l sem in ar) (F o u rth
Y ear)
D em o n stra tio n L essons f o r
P r o f e s s io n a liz e d S u b je c t
\ M a tte r in Campus D em onstra^ t i o n School
\
A lte r n a tin g O b se rv a tio n
and P a r t i c i p a t io n
Campus D em o n stratio n S chool
R e sp o n sib le T each in g f o r
Nine Weeks
(T h ird Y ear)
D em o n stra tio n L essons f o r P r o f e s s io n a liz e d S u b je c t-M a tte r
C ourses
L ib e r a l A rts C u rricu lu m f o r S u b je c t-M a tte r Background
(Second Y ear)
L ib e r a l A rts C u rricu lu m f o r S u b je c t-M a tte r Background
( F i r s t Y ear)
210
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214
EDUCATION 302 - STUDENT TEACHING
la b o r a to r y -S ch o o l E x p e rie n c e s of S tu d en t T each ers In D ire c te d
T eaching I I ,
A Minimum o f Twenty Hours a Week f o r Nine Weeks — Second
S e m e ste r, J u n io r Y ear,
W ith T ra in in g T each ers and S u p e rv is o rs
S u b je c t M a tte r:
1,
2,
3,
4,
S e le c tin g s u b je c t m a tte r f o r a s s ig n e d t o p i c s ,
I n t e r p r e t i n g th e s ig n if ic a n e e o f s u b je c t- m a tte r ,
O rg an izin g s u b je c t m a tte r f o r te a c h i n g .
K eeping w e ll inform ed on c u r r e n t a f f a i r s .
O b se rv a tio n and S tudy:
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
O bserving and s tu d y in g Types o f L e sso n s,
O bserving t r a i n i n g te a c h e r o r s u p e r v is o r te a c h ,
Having c o n fe re n c e w ith t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s .
Having c o n fe re n c e s w ith s u p e r v is o r s a f t e r b ein g ob­
se rv e d b y them ,
A tte n d in g a sem i-m onthly p ra c tic u m .
P r o f e s s io n a l I n t e r e s t s and R e la tio n s h ip s :
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
H eading p r o f e s s io n a l books co n cern ed w ith te c h n iq u e s
o f te a c h in g and w ith p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a tio n ,
R eading s e le c te d i n s p i r a t i o n a l bo o k s and m ag azin es,
A tte n d in g P ,T ,A , m e e tin g s .
A tte m p tin g to e v a lu a te your own la b o r a to r y - s c h o o l
e x p e rie n c e s •
C o n s u ltin g s u b je c t- m a tte r s p e c i a l i s t s ,
A tte n d in g p r o f e s s io n a l m eetings •
C lassroom Management and P u p il C o n tro l:
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
Assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of roam from o n e - f o u rth t o
o n e -h a If d a y ,
A s s is tin g w ith r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s ,
A ttem p tin g to c o n t r o l c o n c e rt a n sw e rs.
S tu d y in g and c a rin g f o r in d iv id u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ,
S u p e rv is in g h a l l s , c la ssro o m s and p la y g ro u n d s ,
C arin g f o r th e g e n e r a l ap p earan ce o f th e roam.
Improvement of P e rs o n a l Q u a li tie s :
1,
Having a t t e n t i o n c a l l e d t o th e n ee d f o r p e r s o n a l
improvement in :
215
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g*
h.
i.
J•
Voice
Mannerisms
P o stu re
Use of E n g lis h
E nthusiasm ( a liv e n e s s )
F orce
I n d u s tr y
S e lf-c o n fid e n c e (overcom ing f e a r )
P e rs o n a l ap p e aran c e
B u s in e s s - lik e a t t i t u d e
P la n n in g and T eachings
1•
2.
Making d a l l y p la n s (o n ly )
T eaching a p re p a re d u n it p la n In a s many s u b je c ts
a s p o s s ib le *
3* U sing th e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s *
4 . Making fo llo w -u p o r seatw ork*
5* Checking fo llo w -u p o r se a tw o rk .
6* S e c u rin g c h ild p u rp o s in g .
7 . W ritin g s p e c i f i c aims In p la n s*
8 . W ritin g m ajor q u e s tio n s I n p la n s .
9* M o tiv a tin g d e f i n i t e assig n m en ts*
10* I m ita tin g good te c h n iq u e s*
1 1 . E v o lv in g own te c h n iq u e s th ro u g h g u id in g p r in c ip le s *
12. U sing d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f l e s s o n s .
13. U sing d i f f e r e n t ty p e s of q u e s tio n s s k i l l f u l l y .
14. U sing v i s u a l a i d s in te a c h in g .
15. U sing th e b u l l e t i n b o ard b o th a s a te a c h in g d e v ic e .
16 . A lte r n a tin g te a c h in g and o b se rv in g th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r a t work.
216
EDUCATION 401 - STUDENT TEACHING
L ab o ra to ry -S c h o o l E x p erien ces o f S tu d e n t T each ers In
D ire c te d T eaching I I I ,
A Minimum o f Twenty Hours a Week f o r Nine Weeks — F i r s t
S e m e ste r, S e n io r Y ear.
N ote: Each s tu d e n t who s a t i s f a c t o r i l y co m p letes E d u ca tio n
401, D ire c te d T eaching I I I , sh o u ld show an e x te n s io n and r e ­
fin em e n t o f a l l th e e x p e rie n c e s l i s t e d f o r T each in g I I , a n d ,
in a d d i t i o n , sh o u ld do a c c e p ta b le work in th e fo llo w in g :
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
11,
S tu dying guide s h e e t: The E lem en tary S chool Cur­
ric u lu m .
Making c a s e s t u d i e s .
R eading s e le c te d i n s p i r a t i o n a l and in f o n n a tio n a l
books and m ag azin es.
R eading s e le c te d r e f e r e n c e s a s needed f o r i n t e r p r e t ­
in g te a c h in g te c h n iq u e s ,
Making and u s in g " la rg e u n it" p la n s in a l l s u b je c ts
ta u g it •
U sing in an a c c e p ta b le manner s p e c if ic m ethods o f
in s tru c tio n ,
Taking t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a classro o m f o r a t
l e a s t two days o r th e e q u iv a le n t,
E v a lu a tin g the p u p i l s 1 p ro g re s s w ith th e t r a i n i n g
te a c h e r .
U sing r a t i n g s c a le s t o i n t e r p r e t and t o e v a lu a te
th em selv es and t h e i r p r o g r e s s ,
A tte n d in g P ,T ,A , and o th e r p r o f e s s io n a l m e e tin g s.
E s ta b lis h in g f i n e p r o f e s s io n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith
s u p e rv is o r s •
217
EDUCATION 301
INTRODUCTION TO DIRECTED TEACHING I
F o r C onference P re c e d in g th e "O verview 1* P e rio d
Our p la n f o r th e n e x t few d a y s i s to o b serv e i n th e
la b o r a to r y s c h o o l t o s e c u re a g e n e r a l Im p re ssio n o f i t . We
s h a l l spend a p p ro x im a tely one h o u r in each room ea c h day f o r
a t l e a s t th r e e days and ta k e an h o u r each d ay f o r in fo rm a l
d is c u s s io n and f o r p la n n in g . C o n s id e r th e s e q u e s tio n s :
(1) What seems t o be th e meaning o f th e te rm " la b o r a to r y " as
a p p lie d to te a c h in g ? (C o n sid er th e m a te r ia l s in t h i s la b o ra ­
to r y
th e human m a t e r i a l s .)
(2) What re a s o n s can you sug­
g e s t f o r g o in g in to t h e rooms th e f i r s t few d ay s o f th e
se m e ste r? (3) What ad v a n tag e s d o es th e p la n seem t o have
f o r you a s a p r o s p e c tiv e te a c h e r ? (4) Upon what o r whom do
you th in k your i n t e r e s t sh o u ld c e n te r c h ie f ly ? Why?
(5) What sh o u ld be our m anner o f e n te r in g th e room? Our
a t t i t u d e d u rin g our s t a y th e r e ?
We c a n h e lp o r h in d e r t h e c h ild r e n in t h e i r a d j u s t­
ment and le a r n in g p r o c e s s e s ; we ca n a s s i s t o r d i s t u r b t h e i r
g u id e , t h e te a c h e r ; we can f u r t h e r h in d e r o u r le a r n in g p r o ­
c e s s e s . Ours seems to b e a c o o p e ra tiv e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ;
we, t o o , have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o th e c h i ld r e n .
O b s e rv a tio n , t o b r in g w o rth w h ile r e s u l t s f o r u s ,
r e q u ir e s a t l e a s t th r e e th i n g s : c o o p e r a tio n , a c t i v i t y ,
and f in a ly s is . A c ti v ity in t h i s sen se i s la r g e l y a m en tal
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , ta k in g a p o in t or a few p o in ts o f v iew , f o r
we c a n n o t observe a l l a t o n ce, and th e n d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n
t o th e p o in ts a g ree d u p o n . The a c t i v i t y w i l l le a d t o d i s ­
c u s s io n and a n a ly s is i f we a re t o u n d e rs ta n d th e p a r t s t h a t
make up th e w hole. However, we w i l l u n d e rs ta n d th e p a r t s
b e t t e r i f we see them in r e l a t i o n to th e w hole.
F or th e n e x t few d ay s p le a s e c e n te r y o u r i n t e r e s t on
th e c h i l d r e n , and on t h e i r ad ju stm e n t and le a r n in g p ro b lem s.
I t i s more im p o rta n t to s tu d y th e p u p i l s , a t f i r s t , th a n i t is
t o o b serv e th e te c h n iq u e of th e t e a c h e r .
218
UNIT I — DIRECTED TEACHING I
LEARNING THE CHILDREN IN THEIR SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
We b e lie v e t h a t th e environm ent sh o u ld be ad a p te d
t o t h e c h ild r e n and t h e i r n e e d s . T h is o b s e rv a tio n w i l l
I n i t i a t e our stu d y o f c h ild r e n and t h e i r n e e d s . At f i r s t ,
i t i s more Im p o rtan t f o r us t o s tu d y th e p u p ils th a n i t i s
t o o b serv e th e te c h n iq u e of th e t e a c h e r .
C o n sid er th e s e problem s and q u e s tio n s .
o p in io n s and be a b le t o s u p p o rt them :
W rite your
1.
Try t o g et a c q u a in te d w ith th e c h i ld r e n . Begin t o
le a r n t h e i r names as you h e a r them in th e classro o m
and on th e p lay g ro u n d . What seems to be th e g e n e ra l
c h a r a c te r s o f ea c h age l e v e l as you cb serv e th e c h i l ­
dren a t work o r p la y ? Which c h i l d r e n seem s u p e r io r ?
Average? R etard ed ? Tim id? T a lk a tiv e ?
2.
What in fo rm a tio n or d a ta r e g a r d in g th e p u p ils d id th e
te a c h e r c o l l e c t th e f i r s t day? Why? What o th e r d a ta
seem e s s e n t i a l ? Give s u g g e s tio n s f o r s e c u r in g and fo r
u s in g d a ta c o l l e c t e d .
3.
What do th e c h i ld r e n
ment?
4.
Bods th e p re s e n t environm ent meet t h e i r n eeds?
your an sw e rs.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
seem t o need in t h e i r e n v iro n ­
Prove
Give i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f a c h i l d ’ s ad ju stm e n t o r
la c k of i t to th e a c t i v i t i e s of th e d a y . What
seemed to be th e c a u s e o r c a u se s ?
What good h a b i t s do th e c h ild r e n seem t o have as
a group? What h a b i t s f a r groups must th e t e a c t e r
h e lp th e c h ild r e n form ? What h a b its sh o u ld be
broken I f th e group i s t o l i v e and w ork h a p p ily
to g e th e r ?
In which o f th e s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s do t h e c h ild r e n
seem most i n t e r e s t e d ? How do you a c c o u n t f o r
th is ?
What a re your im p re ssio n s of e a c h o f th e rooms?
How do th e y seem t o in f lu e n c e th e c h ild r e n ?
C o n sid er: a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of e a c h room , home­
lik e n e s s , equipm ent f o r th e d a y 's a c t i v i t i e s ,
te m p e ra tu re , v e n t i l a t i o n .
Make a c h a r t o f th e s e a t i n g arrangem ent o f th e
room. Are th e r e any p r o v is io n s f o r th e t a l l
c h ild ? The s h o r t one? Do any have d e f e c tiv e
s ig h t o r h e a rin g ? Are any p r o v is io n s b e in g made
f o r them?
219
Follow -U p O b serv atio n A c t i v i t i e s :
1.
W rite any a d d i tio n a l t o p i c s o f q u e s tio n s you w ish
d is c u s s e d i n our c o n f e r e n c e s , and hand them t o y o u r
group chairm an o r t o th e i n s t r u c t o r . Do t h i s a f t e r
each d a y ’ s o b s e rv a tio n .
2.
Make a l i s t o f th e im p o rta n t th in g s you w ant t o do on
th e opening d ay of y o u r own s c h o o l. S e le c t a c e r t a in
age le v e l o r g ra d e le v e l f o r t h i s .
3.
Keep n o te s , p r e f e r a b ly i n o u tlin e fo rm ,o f th e r e f e r ­
ences you r e a d . In clu d e what you c o n s id e r h e l p f u l
t o you in your n o te b o o k , y o u r r e c o rd bo o k .
4.
S uggest h ead in g s you t h i n k may be s u i t a b l e f o r your
ta b l e o f c o n te n ts . The f i r s t one may be "The F i r s t
Day o f S c h o o l.”
R e fe re n c e s :
(Read a t l e a s t two)
1.
Almack, John C ., and Lang, A lb e rt R ., The B eginning
T e a c h e r, p p . 6 1 -6 9 .
2.
A vent, J . E . , B eginning T e a c h in g . C h ap ter XV.
3.
D olch, Edward W ., The P sychology and T eaching o f R ead in g .
C h a p ters I and 11.
4.
H ardy, M arjo ry , F i r s t Grade Manual f o r th e C h ild ’s Own
Way S e r i e s , p . 5 9 .
5.
H o lle y , C .E ., The T e a c h e r’ s T e c h n iq u e , p p . 302-306.
6.
Thomas, F .W ., P r in c ip le s and T echniques o f T e a c h in g ,
p p . 7 3 -7 6 .
220
UNIT I I .
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EDUCATION
Problem s and Q u estio n s f o r O b se rv a tio n ;
1.
What do you c o n s id e r t o b e th e m ajo r aim o f th e e l e ­
m entary sc h o o l? Minor aim s? What e v id e n c e do you see
t h a t th e aims as c a r r ie d o u t i n th e d i f f e r e n t rooms
in c lu d e th e developm ent o f th e c h i l d in th e fo llo w in g
r e s p e c t s ; H ealth ? S o c ia l c u l t u r e ( in c lu d in g h a b i t s ) ?
I d e a ls ? In fo rm atio n ? S k i l l s ? A p p re c ia tio n s ?
2.
What are some o f th e c h ie f d if f e r e n c e s you o b serv e
i n th e sc h o o ls now and when you w ere in th e elem e n tary
g ra d e s?
3.
Do you se e any d if f e r e n c e s i n te a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s ? Of what im portance i s t h i s i n r e g a r d t o a c ­
co m p lish in g alm s o f e d u c a tio n ?
From y o u r o b s e rv a tio n g iv e i n c i d e n t s .
Follow-Up A c t i v i t i e s ;
1.
From your r e f e r e n c e re a d in g s e l e c t a t l e a s t f i v e s t a t e ­
m ents co n c ern in g th e f u n c tio n s of th e modern elem en tary
s c h o o l. What seem to be th e c h ie f p o in ts of em phasis?
2.
C o n d itio n s of modem l i f e seem t o demand a re s ta te m e n t
o f what e d u c a tio n sh o u ld do in a dem ocracy. What f a c ­
t o r s o th e r th a n th e s c h o o l a r e h e lp in g t o shape i d e a s ,
and I d e a ls ; w hat are h e lp in g t o im p art in fo rn a tic m ?
Make a l i s t of th o s e w ith in yo u r e x p e r ie n c e .
3.
The sc h o o l h a s been f o r c e d to a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
t h a t i t fo rm e rly d id n o t have t o assu m e. What a r e th e y ?
Has i t been a b l e to r e l i n q u i s h an y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ?
4.
What do you c o n s id e r t o be th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e
sc h o o l c o n c e rn in g " o u ts id e a g e n c ie s " ?
R e fe re n c e s ;
1.
2.
3.
4.
(Read a t le a s t two)
E d u c a tio n a l P o lic i e s Commission, The Unique F u n c tlo n of
E d u c a tio n in American Democracy.
F r a s i e r , George F . , and A rm en tro u t, W ilfrd d D ., An I n t r o ­
d u c tio n to th e L ite r a tu r e of Educa t i o n .
Thomas', FranTFlW., and Lang. A lb e rt f t . . ferT nclples of
Modern E d u c a tio n .
W ilso n , fcyte, L u ll. Modern Methods of T ea c h in g .
221
UNIT I I I .
THE NATURE OF LEARNING
Problem s and Q u estio n s f o r O b se rv a tio n :
1.
P erhaps you a r e b e g in n in g t o n o t i c e some changes in seme
o f th e c h i l d r e n . Gan you name some? What h a b i t s a r e
th e c h i ld r e n bBidgK g u id e d t o form a s a group? Are
in d iv id u a ls b ein g h elp ed ? How?
2.
Observe t o s e e i f you can e x p la in th e s ta te m e n ts :
(a) L earn in g i s an a c t i v e p r o f e s s , (b) L earn in g i s
b e s t d ir e c te d and most e f f e c t i v e when t h e c h i l d i s i n ­
t e r e s t e d . (c) Every a c t i v i t y i s a le a r n in g p r o c e s s ;
i t le a d s e i t h e r to d e s i r a b l e o r u n d e s ir a b le le a r n in g .
3.
Make two l i s t s : th e s p e c i f i c p u p il a c t i v i t i e s w hich t o
you ap p e ar e d u c a tiv e ; th o s e t h a t seem n o t t o be edu­
c a tiv e .
4.
What f a c t o r s seem to be in f lu e n c in g what th e c h ild r e n
were t r y i n g to le a rn ?
5.
What f a c t o r s seemed t o c a u se a d e s ir e t o le a rn ?
Follow -U p A c t i v i t i e s :
1.
A p a r t i a l l i s t of p u p il a c t i v i t i e s b o th of a p h y s ic a l
and a m e n tal n a tu re i n w hich le a r n in g may ta k e p la c e
in sc h o o l in c lu d e s : re a d in g books, an sw e rin g q u e s tio n s ,
l i s t e n i n g t o te a c h e r o r p u p il e x p la n a tio n s , d raw in g .
Try t o make a more com plete l i s t .
2.
P s y c h o lo g is ts have fo rm u la te d c e r t a i n laws t o w hich
le a r n in g ap p e ars t o c c n f o m . From y o u r co u rse in
psy ch o lo g y and y o u r p r e s e n t r e a d in g s , name and e x p la in
th e s e f a c t o r s w hich in flu e n c e le a r n in g . I l l u s t r a t e
from y o u r o b s e rv a tio n w ork.
3.
T here a r e d i f f e r i n g co n c ep ts o f l e a r n i n g . B r i e f l y
th e y a r e : (a) L earn in g i s la r g e ly a d i s c i p l i n a r y
p r o c e s s ; (b) I t i s a growing up p r o c e s s ; (c) I t i s
gu id ed a c c o rd in g t o an ac ce p ted fo rm u la ; (d) I t is an
a c tiv e p r o c e s s ; th e te a c h e r i s a g u id e and a s s i s t a n t
t o th e p u p i l s . What seems to b e th e b e s t co n cep t?
E x p la in .
4.
How does o n e 's co n cep t o f th e n a tu re of le a r n i n g i n ­
flu e n c e te a c h in g ?
222
5,
L i s t th e d u tie s of a te a c h e r in acco rd an ce w ith your
co n cep t o f le a r n in g ,
6,
R e c a ll te a c h e r s under whom you le a r n e d e a s ily * Make
a l i s t o f th in g s th ey d i d , p a r t i e u l a r l y th o s e w hich
a id e d y o u r le a rn in g *
7,
Keep a l i s t of th e t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u la ry w hich you a re
h e a rin g and words you f in d in y o u r re a d in g so t h a t
you can r e a d and e n te r in to d is c u s s io n more u n d e rs ta n d in g ly . Why n o t s e t a s id e a s e c tio n i n y o u r Record
Book markBd Texminology f o r th e s e and o th e r words?
R e fe re n c e s : (Read a t l e a s t two)
1*
F r e d e r ic k , R*W., R a g sd a le , C .E ., S a lis b u r y , R*, D ir e c tin g
L ea rn in g , C hapters I I and I I I .
2*
Monroe, W a lte r S. and S t r e l t z , R u th , D ire c t l n g L earn ln g
in th e E lem en tary S c h o o l. C hapters' I and I I .
3.
N orsw orthy, Naomi, and W hitey, Mary T . , The Psychology
o f C h ild h o o d *
4*
P a rk e r, S .C ., Types of E lem en tary T each in g and L e a rn in g .
223
UNIT IV.
BEGINNING TO UNDERSTAND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON SCHOOL WORK
To become a s u c c e s s f u l te a c h e r one must n o t o n ly know
e a c h p u p il b u t he must a ls o know th e cau ses and th e n a tu re
o f th e d if f e r e n c e s among p u p i l s . In a d d i t i o n , one sh o u ld have
a p r a c t i c a l knowledge of how t o d e a l w ith th o s e d i f f e r e n c e s
in a group s i t u a t i o n .
Problem s an d Q u estio n s f o r O b se rv a tio n :
1.
You see e v id e n c e s t h a t a l l p u p ils a re n o t t r e a t e d a l i k e
in a l l m a tte r s . What v a l id re a s o n s can you g iv e f o r
t h i s ? J u s t i f y y o u r p o in t o f v iew . Name a t l e a s t f iv e
ways i n w hich th e te a c h e r g iv e s e x p re s s io n t o h e r re c o g ­
n i t i o n o f in d iv id u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .
2.
What s p e c i f i c in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s do you c o n s id e r
t o be th e m ost s e rio u s f o r th e te a c h e r ? F o r th e c h i ld ^
F or th e group? (In t h i s c o n s id e r th e d if f e r e n c e s in
a g e , in i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n in d u s tr y , in c o o p e ra tio n , in
i n t e r e s t s , in d i s p o s i t i o n , in h e a l t h . As a s u g g e s tio n
you m ight l i s t p u p ils who seem u n a b le t o a d a p t them ­
s e lv e s h a p p ily to g roup o r to c la ssro o m c o n t r o l , th o s e
j u s t n o t in d u s tr io u s , th o s e seem ingly slo w , th o s e e s ­
p e c i a l l y b r i g h t , th o s e la c k in g in c o o p e r a tio n . Then
stu d y your l i s t s t o se e i f you can e x p la in some of th e
d if f e r e n c e s .)
3.
I s i n d iv i d u a l o r group h e lp p ro v id e d f o r th o s e n eed in g
i t ? How i s t h i s o rg an iz ed ?
4.
What s ta n d a r d iz e d t e s t s have you s e e n g iv e n o r a s s i s t e d
w ith in any way? You w i l l have o p p o r tu n ity to s tu d y
th e s e f u r t h e r and to become more f a m i l i a r w ith th e pur­
po ses o f d ia g n o s tic t e s t i n g .
5.
From th e room t o *diich you have b e e n a s s ig n e d f o r th e
f i r s t p e r io d o f o b s e rv a tio n , s e l e c t two c h i ld r e n whom
you would lik e t o h e lp because o f some problem s th e y
seem to have and whom you would l i k e t o s tu d y .
Follow -U p A c t i v i t i e s :
1.
B efo re your c o n fe re n c e and a f t e r , you w i l l need t o
re a d some o f th e fo llo w in g r e f e r e n c e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l
in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s and how
to m eet them :
224
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f,
g,
1.
2.
C o le , R u e lla , P sy chology of E lem en tary S chool Sub­
je c ts ,
G a r ris o n , Noble L ee, The Technique and A d m in istra ­
t i o n o f T e a c h in g , "Chapter X v il,
Nora w o rth y , tfaom i, and W h itey , Mary T . , The P sy­
ch o lo g y o f C hildhood (R e v is e d ),
R eagan. George W .. l^undam entals of T each in g , Chap­
t e r V III,
S torm zand, M .J ., P ro g re s s iv e Methods o f T ea ch in g ,
C h a p ter X I I I ,
Thomas, F ran k W ., P r i n c i p l e s and Technique of
T e a c h in g , C h ap ter X V il,
Z a c h ry , C a ro lin e B ,, P e r s o n a li ty A djustm ents o f
S ch o o l C h ild re n ,
2,
L is t th e
stu d y o f
c l a s s we
stu d y t o
s tu d ie s •
ite m s you w i l l need to i n v e s t i g a t e f o r a case
th e p u p i l i n whom you a re i n t e r e s t e d . In
w i l l fo rm u la te a group o u tlin e f o r a case
s u i t o u r p u rp o s e s . Read some ty p e s o f case
3.
In th e l i g h t o f y o u r e x p e rie n c e s in o b s e rv a tio n and
from r e a d in g s , be p re p a re d t o g iv e y o u r o p in io n of
th e f o llo w in g q u o ta tio n s :
a.
" I t i s e a s y t o sa y p u t em phasis where i t b elo n g s
in s tu d e n t te a c h in g ; i t i s a n o th e r th in g to do i t . . , "
" I n th e l i g h t o f r e c e n t tr e n d s in e d u c a tio n a l
th e o r y and p r a c t i c e , how ever, th e r e seems t o be
s u p p o rt f o r th e c o n te n tio n t h a t t r a i n i n g in th e
r e c o g n itio n o f in d iv i d u a l d if f e r e n c e s in p u p ils
sh o u ld be r a t h e r s tr o n g ly em phasized in s tu d e n t
t e a c h i n g ."1
b.
" I t becomes th e d u ty o f th e sc h o o l t o d is c o v e r th e
c a s u a l elem en ts i n th e c h i l d 's conduct and so t o
g u id e him t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and e m o tio n a l a d ­
ju stm en t s w i l l be c o n s tr u c tiv e and th u s he w i l l
be h e lp e d p r o p e r ly t o f a c e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . " 2
Dewey F r i s t o e , The R e c o g n itio n of I n d iv id u a l D iffe re n c e s
i n S tu d e n t T e a c h in g . E ducat lo n a l A d m in is tra tio n and
S u p e rv is io n (December, 1 9 3 6 ).
C a ro lin e B. Z ac h ry , P e r s o n a li ty A djustm ents o f S chool
C h ild re n .
225
D ir e c te d T each in g I
S u g g e stio n s f o r flftse S tu d ie s
The c h i l d b rin g s w ith him when he e n te r s s c h o o l:
A.
H is b i o l o g i c a l eq u ip m en t.
1.
2.
P h y s ic a l equipm ent
M ental equipm ent o r n a tiv e i n t e l l i g e n c e .
Learn h i s b i o l o g i c a l equipm ent th ro u g h :
A.
B.
C.
P h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n
H e a lth h i s t o r y
P s y c h o lo g ic a l e x a m in a tio n
L earn h is e x p e rie n c e s from :
A.
B.
C.
O b serv atio n i n c la s sro o m , i n c a f e t e r i a , on p lay g ro u n d s
In te rv ie w s w ith c h i l d , h is t e a c h e r s , an d p a r e n ts
School re c o rd s
Miss Zachry
A.
B.
G,
D.
£.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
"I
in c lu d e s th e fo llo w in g item s in h e r case s t u d i e s :
S tatem en t of problem ( i . e . th e name, a d d r e s s , s e x ,
age o f c h i l d , and h i s b e h a v io r problem s on s e v e r a l
in s ta n c e s )
Fam ily h i s t o r y
Home c c n d itio n s
D evelopm ental h i s t o r y
H e a lth and h a b i ts
S leep
Food h a b its
P e rs o n a l c l e a n l in e s s
Phys le a 1 e xamlna t l on
B ehavior d u r in g p h y s ic a l ex am in atio n
P s y c h o lo g ic a l ex a m in a tio n
Sex l i f e ( i n s t r u c t i o n )
R e c r e a tio n s h ip and
com panionship
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and
tre a tm e n t
P erhaps we m ight group our in fo rm a tio n u n d er la r g e r heads a s
"M e n ta l," " P h y s ic a l," and " S o c ia l-M o ra l." Think
o f th e manner
in which you w is h t o k eep th e r e c o r d to make i t u s a b le .
1.
C a ro lin e B. g a c h ry , P e r s o n a lity A djustm ents o f S chool
C h ild re n . Ch. VlT.
226
UNIT V.
MOTIVATION OP LEARNING
J u s t what d o es th e ward " m o tiv a tio n " mean? The f o l ­
low ing e x p r e s s io n s a re o f te n used Jo c o n n e c tio n w ith th e term s
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
1.
Which pne seems b e s t t o e x p re s s th e t o t a l m eaning of
th e word? F o rm u late y o u r own meaning of m o tiv a tio n .
2.
Give yo u r o p in io n o f th e fo llo w in g to g e th e r w ith
re a so n s f o r su ch o p in io n s
a.
b.
c.
d.
"The d o c tr in e o f i n t e r e s t i s p ro b ab ly th e g r e a t e s t
c o n tr ib u tio n t h a t h as b een made t o e d u c a tio n in th e
whole h i s t o r y o f m ankind.
B e lie f s co n c e rn in g th e s ta te m e n t j u s t g iv e n w i l l
in f lu e n c e my te c h n iq u e o f te a c h in g .
"T here i s no su ch t h i n g as making a c h i ld i n t e r e s t e d .
I n te r e s ts are n a tu r a l, not a r t i f i e i a l . " 2
Fundam ental p r i n c i p l e s o f how to m o tiv a te a re s
(1) t o know i n what c h i ld r e n a r e in t e r e s t e d ;
(2) t o know how to u t i l i z e th o s e i n t e r e s t s .
3.
From y o u r o b s e rv a tio n o f , o r e x p e rie n c e w ith c h ild r e n ,
g iv e e x a n p le s to s u p p o rt y o u r re sp o n se t o 2 ( c ) .
4.
Check fro m th e fo llo w in g l i s t th e tim e you th in k
m o tiv a tio n sh o u ld be u sed in c o n n e c tio n w ith te a c h in g
and g iv e re a s o n s f o r your o p in io n .
a.
b.
c.
d.
5.
1.
2.
s e c u r in g c h i ld p u rp o sin g
s tim u la tin g c h ild r e n t o f i n d out
c r e a tin g a fa v o r a b le a t t i t u d e o r m en tal s e t
d e v e lo p in g r e a d in e s s
en c o u ra g in g c h ild r e n t o make c h o ic e s
a ro u s in g and s u s ta in in g I n t e r e s t
g e t t i n g th e s ta g e s e t
In th e
In th e
D uring
In th e
ap p ro ac h t o
a u n it
ap p ro ach t o a le s s o n
th e developm ent o f a le s s o n o r a c t i v i t y
assig n m en t
Below a re l i s t e d s e v e r a l s u g g e s tio n s f o r m o tiv a tin g .
Check th o s e w hich you have se e n t r i e d o r w ith w hich
Claude C. C raw ford, How t o T each , p . 77 .
I b id ., p. 79.
227
you have e x p e rim e n te d .
B r i e f l y s t a t e th e f a c t s
c o n c e rn in g th e u s e o f e a c h , and g iv e yo u r o p in io n
c o n c ern in g th e w o rth and j u s t i f y t h a t o p in io n .
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
U sing p a s t e x p e rie n c e s o f c h ild r e n
U sing p i c t u r e s
U sing s t o r i e s
U sing e x h i b i t s
U sing e x c u rs io n s
G e ttin g c h ild r e n t o ’’s p e c u la te " on th e answer to
a q u e s tio n o r a probibem, o r to a n t i c i p a t e what
may happen i n a s to r y o r
s itu a tio n .
6.
Add good d e v ic e s w hich you have se e n used t o m o tiv ate
c h ild re n in t h e i r work o r p la y .
7.
C onsider th e v a l i d i t y of th e . o b je c tio n t o u s in g p r i z e s ,
sarcasm , rebuke and punishm ent
a s means of m o tiv a tio n .
8.
Are
some g ra d e s and s u b je c ts more d i f f i c u l t to m o ti­
v ate th a n o th e rs ? Which ones? Why?
9.
In what way o r ways does th e p e r s o n a l i t y of th e te a c h e r
in flu e n c e th e m o tiv a tio n o f classro o m work?
R e fe re n c e s:
1.
A vent, J . E . , B eg in n in g T e a c h e r. C h ap ter X X III.
2.
C raw ford, C lau d e, How to T e a c h . C h ap ters V and
3.
F r e d e r ic k , R o b ert W ., R a g sd a le , C .E. and S a lis b u r y , R .,
D ir e c tin g L e a rn in g . C h a p te r IV.
4.
G a rriso n and G a r r is o n . P sychology of E lem en tary School
S u b je c ts , C h a p te r EC.
IX.
228
UNIT V I.
AIMS OR PURPOSES
Prom o b s e r v a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e r e a d in g s , and te a c h in g e x p e r­
ie n c e s , fo rm u la te o p in io n s c o n c e rn in g e a c h of th e fo llo w in g
s ta te m e n ts :
1.
The c o n t r ib u t io n of an aim:'*'
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
I t d e f in e s c l e a r l y what th e te a c h e r w ishes to accom­
p lis h .
I t m ales c l e a r t o th e s tu d e n t th e c e n t r a l co re of
th e le s s o n .
I t r e l a t e s th e d a i ly le s s o n to th e u n i t o f work.
I t d e te rm in e s th e te a c h in g method t o be em ployed.
I t fo c u se s th e d a i l y work and h e lp s d eterm in e th e
p ro g re s s to w ard a g iv e n g o a l.
2.
One good way t o e v a lu a te any le s s o n 3s t o c o n s id e r th e
c l e a r n e s s , th e d e f i n i t e n e s s , th e a p p r o p r ia te n e s s , and
w o rth w h ilen ess o f th e aim , and i t s a tta in m e n t.
3.
Prom a t l e a s t 3 le s s o n s o b se rv e d , a tte m p t to s t a t e th e
s p e c i f i c aim , o r th e why o f e a c h le s s o n , d is c u s s i t s
v alu e and i t s seem ing g u id in g power t o t h a t le s s o n .
A.
B.
Did i t g u id e q u e s tio n s ? A c t i v i t i e s ?
Should p u p ils be aware o f th e aim?
A ssignm ent?
R e fe re n c e s:
1*
A vent, J . E . , B eg in n in g T e a c h in g , C h ap ter V.
2.
B la c k h u r s t, J . H e r b e r t, D ir e c te d O b se rv a tio n and S uper­
v is e d T e a c h in g . L essons X V llI and XIX.
3.
B u rto n , W .H., Sup e r v is io n and Improvement o f T ea ch in g .
p p . 62, 1 0 3 -l i b .
4.
G a rris o n , N oble L ee, The T echnique and A d m ln is tra tlo n o f
Tea c h ln g .
5.
H o lle y , C h a rles E . , Modern P r i n c i p l e s and th e E lem en tary
T e a c h e rs 1 T e c h n iq u e , p . 108.
1.
A dapted from Manual f o r D ir e c te d T each in g by W illiam
Campbell and! Welcome f t i l r o e , U n iv e r s ity o f S o u th ern
C a lif o r n i a , 1932.
229
6.
M elv in , A. Gordon, The P r in c ip le s o f P ro g re s s iv e T each in g ,
C h ap ters VI a A d T T i l " ---------------- --------------------------
7.
R eagan, G.W., Fundam ental3 of T e a c h in g , p . 338.
8*
Storm zand, M a rtin J . , P ro g re s s iv e Methods o f T each in g ,
p p . 7 3 -7 4 .
9.
S t r e b e l , R a lp h , and M o re h a rt, G rover C ., The N ature and
Meaning of T e a c h in g , p . 2 4 , G raph, p . 175•
P le a se add any r e f e r e n c e s you f in d e s p e c i a l l y good
230
UNIT V I I .
THE QUESTION
•’T each in g in v o lv e s f i r s t a c l e a r c o n s c io u sn e ss of de­
f i n i t e p u rp o se s , th e n a r a t i o n a l c h o ice of ways and means of
a t t a i n i n g th o s e p u r p o s e s .” 1
A u th o r itie s seem t o a g re e t h a t th e te a d h e r ’s ques­
tio n s govern to a c o n s id e ra b le e x te n t h e r f a i l u r e o r su c c e ss
in a le s s on.
S tu d en t P roblem s:
1.
What do you c o n s id e r th e c h i e f p u rp o se s of q u e s tio n in g
in th e r e c i t a t i o n ?
2.
C o n sid er th e two m ajor ty p e s o f q u e s tio n s , f a c t and
th o u g h t-p ro v o k in g , and t h e i r u s e s and v a lu e s . In connec­
t i o n w ith y o u r o b s e rv a tio n and te a c h in g se cu re good i l l u s ­
t r a t i o n s o f ea c h k in d . Watch c h i l d r e n ’ s resp o n se s t o d i f ­
f e r e n t ty p e s o f q u e s tio n s . (Have you n o tic e d t h a t a f a c t
q u e s tio n u s u a lly t e s t s memory and answ ers who, w hat, when
or w h ere, and t h a t a th o u g h t q u e s tio n c a l l s f o r r e f l e c t i v e
th in k in g and answ ers how o r why?)
3.
You have fo u n d th e te rm s m ajor and p i v o t a l and m inor and
su b o rd in a te i n c o n n e c tio n w ith y o u r r e f e r e n c e re a d in g on t h i s
u n i t . What i s th e p la c e and im p o rtan ce of e a c h in p la n ­
n in g a le sso n ?
4.
What e f f e c t dees th e u se of many m inor q u e s tio n s have upon
a c la s s ? A few p iv o t a l q u e s tio n s w e ll o rg an ized ?
5.
What i s th e e f f e c t of q u e s tio n s n o t c l e a r l y s ta te d ? Not
s in c e r e ly s t a t e d ? Reworded b e f o r e th e c h i ld has a chance
t o respond?
6.
L is t th e l a r g e r p r i n c i p l e you t h i n k sh o u ld be observed
in q u e s tio n in g .
7.
L is t th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a good q u e s tio n .
8.
What a r e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a good q u e s tio n ?
9.
Why i s i t c o n s id e re d d e s ir a b le to s tim u la te c h ild re n t o
ask q u e s tio n s ?
1.
G, W. R eagan, Fundam entals o f T e a ch in g , p . 8 .
231
10.
Read "Methods o f Two G reat T e a c h e rs ," p . 132 f f . in
Aven/ft, J . E . , B eginning T e a c h in g .
S uggested R eferen ce Books:
1.
A vent, J . E . , B eg in n in g T ea c h in g .
2.
B la c k h u rs t, J . H . , D ire c te d O b se rv a tio n and S u p e rv is io n .
3.
C raw ford, C .C ., How t o T each .
4.
H o lly , C .E ., The T e a c h e rs 1 T ech n iq u e.
5.
Reagan, G.W., Fundam entals of T e a c h in g .
6.
Storm zand, M . J . . P ro g re s s iv e Met hods o f T each in g .
232
UNIT V I I I .
THE ASSIGNMENT
The im portance of a c q u ir in g s k i l l i n making a le s s o n a s s ig n ­
ment i s b e in g em ph asized .
1.
Give an o p in io n re g a rd in g ea ch of th e fo llo w in g s t a t e ­
ments and s u p p o rt yo u r p o in t of view :
a.
’’T here i s l e s s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r jamming th e a s s ig n ­
ment th ro u g h in a h u r ry th a n f o r jamming th e s o c a lle d le s s o n i t s e l f th r o u g h ."
b.
"A whole p e r io d sp e n t in making a s in g le assignm ent
m ight be e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d . "
c.
"The assignm ent i s as v a lu a b le a p a r t of th e d a y ’ s
work a s any o t h e r ."
d.
" P u p ils sh o u ld a s s ig n t h e i r own le s s o n s ."
e.
"The c h i e f f u n c tio n o f th e assig n m en t i s t o te a c h
th e p u p ils how t o s tu d y ."
2.
Prom your o b s e rv a tio n s l i s t a t l e a s t f i v e assig n m en ts
you c o n s id e r good o n es, and s t a t e re a s o n s f o r th e e f f e c ­
tiv e n e s s of e a c h .
3.
Judging from r e a d in g s and o b s e r v a tio n , w hat do you co n ­
s id e r to be th e b e s t tim e f o r making assig n m en ts?
4.
Should assig n m en ts be made f o r o n ly one day in advance,
or f o r a lo n g e r p e rio d ? How long? I f t h i s seems to
vary w ith m a te r ia l an d w ith ag e o r g rad e l e v e l s , e x p l a in .
5.
What p a r t , i f a n y , d o es th e q u e s tio n p la y in making th e
assig n m en t?
6.
Try t o f o rm u la te th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good a s s ig n m e n t.
7.
T ry to l i s t th e s te p s I n making a good a ssig n m e n t.
8.
L is t th e ty p es o f assig n m e n ts you have observed or fo u n d
in y o u r r e a d in g s . Give e x a m p le s.
9.
S ta te some d if f e r e n c e s betw een t h e assignm ent in th e p ro ­
g r e s s iv e sc h o o l and t h a t i n th e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l.
10.
W rite an assignm ent t h a t you have u sed w hich proved t o
be an e f f e c t i v e one.
253
R e fe re n c e s:
1.
A vent, J .E . , B eg in n in g T e a c h e r.
2.
B u rto n , W illia m H ., S u p e rv is io n and Improvement of T each­
in g .
3.
C lassroom T e a c h e r. T h e. V o l. I ,
4.
C raw ford, C laude C ., How t o T each.
5.
F r e d e r ic k , R . F . , R a g sd a le , C.E. and S a lis b u r y , R .,
D ir e c tin g L e a rn in g . C h ap ter X I.
6.
H o lle y , C .E ., The T e a c h e r’ s T ech n iq u e.
7.
Reagan, G.W., Fundam entals o f T ea c h in g .
8.
Thomas, F .W ., P r i n c i p l e s and T echnique o f T each in g .
9.
Yoakam, G .A ., The Improvement of th e A ssignm ent.
p p . 323-332.
234
UNIT IX.
PLANNING THE LESSON
The p la n n in g o f a le s s o n r e q u ir e s th e s e l e c t i o n , i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n and o r g a n iz a tio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r f o r te a c h in g p u r ­
p o s e s . T h is r e q u ir e s us t o c o n s id e r s u b je c t m a tte r from th e
s ta n d p o in t o f th e l e a r n e r . T h in k in g b e f o r e , d u r in g , a n d a f t e r
th e p ro g re s s o f e v e n ts c o n s t i t u t e s th e cru x o f p la n n in g and
g u id in g th e le a r n in g p r o c e s s . P a c in g s i t u a t i o n s and a c tin g
upon th in k in g i s th e c ru x o f th e te a c h in g p r o c e s s .
1.
When sh o u ld one p la n a le s s o n ? D uring th e p ro g re s s o f
th e r e c i t a t i o n ? An h o u r b e f o r e ? The n ig h t b e f o r e ? A
week p re c e d in g ? D uring th e summer p re c e d in g th e o p en in g
of sc h o o l? What i s th e optimum tim e f o r p la n n in g a
le s s o n ?
2.
Can th e re be a u n ifo rm le s s o n p la n a p p lic a b le in a v a ry ­
in g d eg ree t o a l l s u b je c t m a tte r by a l l te a c h e r s ? Do
p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , a n d s u b je c t m a tte r v a ry so much t h a t
th e r e a r e no common b a s ic e le m e n ts w hich guide le s s o n
p la n n in g ?
3o
Do lo n g -v iew p la n n in g and u n if o im ity go to g e th e r ? What
a re th e d a n g e r s , i f a n y , o f lo n g -v iew p la n n in g ? I s u n i ­
fo rm ity o f le s s o n p la n d e s i r a b l e , i f you g ra n t t h a t i t i s
p o s s ib le ?
4.
What sh o u ld be in c lu d e d in a le s s o n p la n ? Memoranda of
main p o in ts of s u b je c t m a tte r t o be tau g jh t? The o r d e r
of e v e n ts ? D e f i n i t e l y fo rm u la te d q u e s tio n s ? D e ta ile d
o r p i v o t a l q u e s tio n ? L is t o f te a c h in g m a te r ia ls ? Sug­
g e s te d a c t i v i t i e s ? P ro v is io n f o r in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s
in p u p ils ? The assig n m e n t? A s t a t e d aim a p p r o p r ia te t o
th e s u b je c t m a tte r t o be ta u g h t? The t y p e , or ty p e s of
p ro ced u re t o be u sed ? What a d d i t i o n a l ite m s , e t c . ?
"The le s s o n p la n w i l l in c lu d e what Jiou w i l l a c t u a l l y
need i n o rd e r t o g iv e th e p u p ils th e e x p e rie n c e you
want them t o h av e . M1
5.
What sh o u ld be th e p ag e-fo rm o f a w r i t t e n le s s o n p la n ?
Columns, row s, a n d b lo c k s f o r s p e c i f i c n o ta tio n s ? Or
open o u tlin e ? Which w ould prom ote th e g r e a t e r d e g re e o f
f l e x i b i l i t y ? How much d e t a i l sh o u ld be in c lu d e d ?
6.
What is th e p ro p e r u se o f a le s s o n p la n d u rin g th e p ro -
1.
C. C. C raw fo rd , How t o T each , p p . 132.
235
g re a s o f t h e te a c h in g a c t i v i t y ? Make no c o n s c io u s r e f e r ­
ence t o i t ? Use i t o p e n ly and fra n k ly ?
7.
Some a u t h o r i t i e s t h i n k t h a t j u s t t h r e e b a s i c e lem e n ts
a r e i n e v i t a b l e i n a l l p la n n e d te a c h in g : (a) What i s t o be
t a u g h t , (b) th e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r te a c h in g what i s t o be
ta u g h t , and (c ) th e s p e c i f i c p ro c e d u re t o b e u se d i n
te a c h in g what i s t o be ta u g h t*
8*
Some a u t h o r i t i e s a d v o c a te th e u se o f d e f i n i t e , fo rm a l
s te p s as a means o f s e c u r in g e f f e c t i v e p la n n in g and
te a c h in g . The fo llo w in g i s a f a i r exam ple o f fo rm a l
s te p s w id ely used*
I*
II.
III.
9.
T opic ( t h a t w hich i s t o be ta u g h t)
Aim (th e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f te a c h in g th e to p ic )
P ro ced u re (how th e s u b je c t m a tte r o r to p ic i s t o
be ta u g h t)
A* I n tr o d u c tio n ( le a r n in g r e a d in e s s )
B. Type o f le s s o n ( d r i l l , a p p r e c i a t i o n , e t c . )
C. Summary
D. A ssignm ent
Are common b a s ic elem en ts and f l e x i b i l i t y m u tu a lly ex ­
c lu s iv e ? Are fo rm a l s te p s and f l e x i b i l i t y m u tu a lly
e x c lu s iv e ?
1 0 . In p la n n e d te a c h i n g , what p r o v is io n s h o u ld be made f o r
p e r s o n a l i t y o f th e te a c h e r , i . e . a b i l i t i e s , e n th u s ia s m s ,
p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e , p h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n , e t c . ?
Follow -U p A c t i v i t i e s
1.
Make a s e l e c t i o n o f some to p ic o r s u b je c t m a tte r and make
a le s s o n p la n i n ac co rd an ce w ith th e su g g e ste d fo rm a l
s te p s .
2.
O bserve th e te a c h in g of a le s s o n and i d e n t i f y th e fo rm a l
s te p s .
3.
A f te r you have made a le s s o n p la n make a b r i e f o u tlin e o f
what you would need f o r r e f e r e n c e in c a r r y in g out th e p la n .
4.
In o b se rv in g th e d e m o n s tra tio n t e a c h e r , notehow c l o s e l y
she fo llo w s her p la n . How much she v a r ie s f o r th e p u rpose
o f m e etin g th e n eed s of th e c l a s s .
5.
Does y o u r le s s o n p l a n evolve from s u b je c t m a tte r?
th e p u p ils ? From b o th ?
From
236
R e fe re n c e s :
1*
C raw ford, Claude C ,, How to T each .
2.
R eagan, G.W., Fundam entals o f T e a c h in g .
237
UNIT X.
TYPES OP LESSONS
From th e d is c u s s io n s you have h e a rd and from same o f
your r e a d in g s a re you q u e s tio n in g th e v a lu e t h a t a knowledge
o f ty p e s of le s s o n s may have f o r you? You a re r i g h t in so
q u e s tio n in g . I s th e r e a v a lu e in knowing th e ty p e s of
le s s o n s and i n knowing how an d when t o u se them?
Let u s c o n s id e r th e c la ssro o m and i t s two c o n s ta n ts ,
th e p u p ils and th e t e a c h e r . Of th e two a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e
going on, te a c h in g and l e a r n i n g , w hich i s th e more im p o rta n t?
You resp o n d " le a r n in g ." You m ight f u r t h e r a d d , ’'T eaching i s
m erely g u id in g o r d i r e c t i n g t h a t l e a r n i n g . ” T ru e , now, may
one wqy o r method of g u id in g be b e t t e r th a n a n o th e r? Of
c o u r s e . May th e r e be more th a n one r i g h t way t o g u id e? A gain
y e s , and t h a t one r i g h t w ay, o r m ethod, or te c h n iq u e , w i l l
depend la r g e ly upon th e a im . T hat i s , i n t h i s te a c h in g a c ­
t i v i t y , do we d e s ir e th e c h ild r e n t o q u e s tio n , t o g a th e r and
s e l e c t d a t a , and t o draw c o n c lu s io n s , e v a lu a te a p r in c ip l e or
a r u le ? I f t h a t i s th e c a s e irein ead t o u se a n a t u r a l way
known a s th e d ev elo p m en tal m ethod, o r th e s te p s we ta k e in
th in k in g .
I s th e aim la r g e l y t o h e lp th e c h i ld r e n e n jo y a
poem, p i c t u r e , s to r y , o r song? I f s o , we employ th e te c h ­
n iq u e of an a p p r e c ia tio n le s s o n .
A gain a re th e r e c e r t a i n f a c t s o r wards t h a t we need
t o h e lp th e c h ild r e n f i x so t h a t th e re sp o n se w i l l be a u to ­
m a tic ? C e r ta in ly su ch an aim r e q u ir e s d r i l l .
Can you th in k o f a n o th e r aim t h a t m ight r e q u ir e s k i l l
a d i f f e r e n t method f o r i t s accom plishm ent?
P erhaps method or t ech n iq u e and commonsense o r th e
Laws of L earn in g go hand i n h a n d . R eserve your o p in io n on
t h i s u n t i l you have i n v e s t i g a t e d b y o b s e r v a tio n , re a d in g
and d is c u s s io n .
C o h sid er th e ty p e s l i s t e d u n d er A, B, C, and D, t h a t
f o llo w . I s th e re a v a lu e i n knowing them , and when and how
t o use them? Should o th e r ty p e s be in c lu d e d in t h i s s e c ­
tio n ? I f s o , what a re th e y ?
238
A.
D rill
l a c o n n e c tio n w ith your o b s e rv a tio n and stu d y you
have found t h a t th e r e a r e c e r t a i n f a c t s , h a b i t s , and s k i l l s
t h a t must be " f ix e d ” i n c h i l d r e n ’ s minds so t h a t th e re sp o n se
i s a u to m a tic . F or ex am p le, one must know c e r t a i n a r i t h m e t i c a l
f a c t s in o rd e r t o l i v e in to d a y ’ s w o rld a s in making change
a t a s t o r e . A g ain , one needs t o know why and when to u se a
c a p i t a l l e t t e r , p u n c tu a tio n m ark, o r a word t o w r ite an a r t i c l e
o r a l e t t e r . A tte n tiv e and p u rp o s e fu l r e p e t i t i o n o f su ch f a c t s ,
o r d r i l l i n g , i s th e n a t u r a l way o r method o f f i x i n g f a c t s or
e s ta b li s h in g a h a b i t . Our main problem c e r t a i n l y i s t o le a r n
how to use d r i l l e f f e c t i v e l y ,
1,
In c o n n e c tio n w ith your work i n th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l,
l i s t what you c o n s id e r th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d r i l l .
2,
In what s u b j e c t s or g rad es have you o b serv ed t h a t i t i s
used? (Give s e v e r a l exam ples and s t a t e i n each case
why and when wa3 u s e d ,)
3,
L is t s e v e r a l ways you have o b serv ed t o be e f f e c t i v e i n
m o tiv a tin g d r i l l ,
4,
What ]aw3 o f le a r n in g f u n c tio n in an e f f e c t i v e d r i l l
le sso n ? Why?
5,
From o b s e rv a tio n o r a c t u a l e x p e rie n c e l i s t s e v e r a l
d e v ic e s o r p ro c e d u re s t h a t you have fo u n d h e l p f u l in
c o n d u c tin g a d r i l l le s s o n ,
6,
W rite a d e s c r i p t i o n of a t l e a s t one e f f e c t i v e d r i l l le s s o n
you have s e e n ,
7,
What do you c o n s id e r t o be th e s t a t e s of d r i l l i n th e
modern sc h o o l?
R e fe re n c e s:
1,
F r e d e r ic k , R.W ,, R a g s d a le , C .E ., and S a lis b u r y , R ,,
D ir e c tin g L e a rn in g , C h ap ter XX,
2,
S to n e , C la re n c e , B e tte r Advanced R eading.
3,
S to n e , C la re n c e , B e tte r P rim ary R ead in g . C h a p ter V I I I .
4,
Yoakam
and Seimps on , AnI n tr o d u c tio n to T each in g and
L e a rn in g , C h a p te r T ,
C h a p te r V II,
239
T^e Review L esson
"The re v ie w may be an Im p o rtan t p a r t o f a le s s o n or
i t may b e an a p p r o p r ia te le s s o n , o r a s e r i e s o f le s s o n s w ith in
o r a t th e end o f a u n it of work. The re v ie w has o f te n b een
m isused and m isu n d e rsto o d . Mere r e p e t i t i o n of f a c t s and th e
l i k e becomes a d r i l l and n o t a re v ie w . The v a lu e o f th e r e ­
view sh o u ld be t o b r in g out new i d e a s , t o r e o r g a n iz e and c o r r e ­
l a t e th e e s s e n t i a l s of a le s s o n o r a u n i t o f w o rk .” l
1.
What d if f e r e n c e s do you observe betw een d r i l l le s s o n s
and rev ie w le s s o n s ?
2.
What do you c o n s id e r th e p ro p e r p la c e o f each?
3.
In w hat s e n s e i s or sh o u ld a review mean ’’new v iew ?”
4.
What g u id e s th e i n t e r v a l of tim e f o r g iv in g re v ie w le s s o n s ?
5.
L is t s e v e r a l ty p e s o f re v ie w .
6.
O u tlin e a method of p ro ced u re in a good rev iew t h a t you
have o b se rv e d .
C.
Problem T each in g
1.
1.
What do you u n d e rsta n d b y th e te rm "p roblem te a c h in g ? "
2.
What p la c e do you th in k p ro b le m -s o lv in g h as in th e
l i f e o f an in d iv i d u a l, a s compared w ith m em o rizatio n
of d e t a i l s ? How e a r l y in l i f e s h o u ld a c h i l d be le d
in to p ro b le m -so lv in g ?
3.
In w h at s u b je c ts have you used i t ?
problem s u s e d .
4.
In what s u b je c ts may i t be u sed ?
5.
What p la c e does th e te a c h e r occupy i n problem t e a c h ­
in g ?
Give exam ples of
Edgar M. Cook and John H. C a te s , O b se rv a tio n an d S tudy
Guide f o r T e a c h e rs, p . 53* S t . L o u is; The d . V.
U o ile y 7 T 9 3 8 ;--------
240
D.
6.
I f you have o b se rv e d any d if f e r e n c e s in th e a t t i t u d e
of p u p ils ta u g h t b y t h e a r b i t r a r y method and th o s e
p e rm itte d to l e a r n by th e problem m ethod, t r y to a c ­
count f o r such d i f f e r e n c e s .
7.
A ccording t o John Dewey, w hat i s th e p la c e of problems
in " th in k in g ” (se e "How We T h in k " ) . What i s your
o p in io n o f h is p o s it io n ? Do you know o f any e d u c a to rs
who d is a g re e w ith Dewey on t h i s ?
8.
What a re th e s te p s i n s o lv in g a problem b y th e deduc­
t i v e method? The in d u c tiv e ?
9.
What p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e s f a v o r problem te a c h in g ?
The A p p reciat io n Lesson
Be p re p a re d t o e x p r e s s o p in io n s b ased on o b s e rv a tio n ,
e x p e rie n c e , and r e a d in g s , on e a c h of th e fo llo w in g quo­
ta tio n s :1
1.
1.
"The a p p r e c ia tio n le s s o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o prom ote
a p p r o p r ia te a t t i t u d e s , s tim u la te c e r t a i n s k i l l s , i n ­
su re w o rth w h ile h a b i t s , and i n s t i l l l o f t y i d e a l s ."
2.
"The aims of such a le s s o n sh o u ld be p r im a r ily f o r
enjoym ent and p le a s u r e , t o a ro u se th e em o tio n s, t o
cau se one t o l i k e r a t h e r th a n d i s l i k e . "
3.
"The su ccess o f an a p p r e c i a t i o n le s s o n does n o t de­
pend so much upon m eth o d s, as upon th e en th u siasm
and p e r s o n a lity o f a dynam ic t e a c h e r ."
4.
T e l l b r i e f l y of one ty p e of a p p r e c ia t io n le s s o n you
have o b serv ed .
5.
L is t p o s s ib le ty p e s of a p p r e c i a t i o n .
6.
Form ulate a l i s t o f s ta n d a rd s f o r Ju d g in g an ap p re­
c i a t i o n le s s o n .
Cook and G ate s, oj>. c l t . . p . 5 3 .
241
UNIT X I.
EDUCATIONAL TERMINOLOGY
Are you som etim es a t a lo s s t o know j u s t whqt i s
meant by su c h a word a s i n t e g r a t io n , f o r exam ple?
In c o n n e c tio n w ith y o u r r e a d in g , d is c u s s io n s , and
te a c h in g , t r y t o le a r n th e m eanings of th e fo llo w in g te am s:
a c t i v i t y pro g ram , a c t i v i t i e s c u r r ic u lu m , c o r r e l a t i o n , co ­
o r d in a ti o n , f u s i o n , th e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l, in d iv id u a l i n ­
s t r u c t i o n , p r o j e c t te a c h i n g , u n i t s o f w ork, u n i t te a c h in g ,
c o n tr a c t m ethod, problem m ethod, in d u c tio n , d e d u c tio n , d i ­
r e c te d s tu d y , s tu d y le s s o n s , d r i l l , a p p r e c i a t i o n , re v ie w ,
g u id a n c e , c h iI d - c e n te r e d s c h o o l, co m m u n ity -cen tered s c h o o l,
c r e a tiv e e d u c a tio n , e d u c a tio n f o r l e i s u r e , e t h i c a l t r a i n i n g ,
d i s c i p l i n e , h a b i t f o rm a tio n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , th e s o c ia li z e d
r e c i t a t i o n , q u e s tio n in g (m a jo r, p i v o t a l , m in o r, th o u g h t,
f a c t , judgm ent q u e s t i o n s ) , d e v e lo p in g i n i t i a t i v e , m o tiv a ­
t i o n , th e u se o f th e laws o f le a r n in g , a s s ig n m e n ts , sum m aries,
re m e d ia l m e a s u r e s ,s e a t w ork, f o llo w -u p work*
What o th e r te rm s sh o u ld be added?
L is t th em , p l e a s e .
242
SUGGESTED FORM FOR RECCRDING EXPERIENCES
S tu d en t -Tea c h e r 1s Rec ord o f
Lab o ra to ry -S c h o o l E x p e rie n c e s
Name ( l a s t name f i r s t )
Grade le v e l
I.
II.
III.
Date
A c ti v ity o r E x p e rie n c e :
D e s c r ip tio n o f A c ti v ity :
V alue o f A c t i v i t y :
A.
To yo u r c l a s s :
B.
To y o u r grow th as a s tu d e n t te a c h e r :
243
BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS
A.
In fo rm a tio n C oncerning "How t o T each"
Almack, John G. and Lang, A lb e rt R ., The B eg in n in g T e a c h e r*
New Y ork: Houghton M if f lin Company, 1968. Pp. 4 7 8 .
American C ouncil on E d u c a tio n , Committee on M otion P ic tu r e s
in E d u c a tio n , M otion P ic tu r e s i n E d u c a tio n , New York:
The C o u n c il, 193V, Pp. 24 .
A vent, J . E . , B eg in n in g T each in g , K n o x v ille , T en n e ssee :
U n iv e r s ity o f T en n e ssee , 1929. P p . 592.
-----------
The E x c e lle n t T e a c h e r. K n o x v ille , T en n e ssee :
U n iv e r s ity o f T en n e ssee , 1931, P p. 4 7 7 .
B l a i s d e l l , Thomas C ., Ways t o Teach E n g lis h . New Y ork:
D oubleday Doran and"-Company, 1930. P p. 5 6 6 .
B la c k h u r s t, J . H . , D ire c te d O b serv atio n and S u p e rv ise d T eachin g . B o sto n : Ginn and Company, 1925, Pp. 4 2 0 .
B u rto n , W illiam H ., S u p e rv is io n and Improvement o f T e a c h in g .
New Y ork: D. A p p leto n anti Company, 1922. Pp. 5 l0 .
C lo u s e r, L.W. and M illik a n , C .E ., K ln d e rg a rte n -P rim a ry Ac­
t i v i t i e s Based on Community l i i f e . New V ork: The
M acm illan "dompany, 1929 . Pp • 307.
C raw fo rd , Claude C ., How t o T each. Los A n g eles: S o u th ern
C a lif o r n ia S chool Book d e p o s ito r y , 1938. Pp. 5 1 1 .
D olch, Edward W ., The Psychology and T each in g o f R ead in g .
New Y ork: Ginn and Company, 1931. P p. 261.
— A Manual f o r R em edial R ead in g . Champaign,
I l l i n o i s : The Garrard Company, 1939. Pp. 166.
N ation a l E d u cation al A sso c ia tio n of the U nited S t a t e s , Edu­
c a tio n a l P o lic ie s Commission, The Unique F unction of
Education in American Democracy. W ashington: The
(3ammission‘7’’W*G. Carr, S e c ., 1937. P p. 129.
F r a s i e r , G.W. and A rm en tro u t, W .D., An I n tr o d u c tio n of th e
L i t e r a t u r e o f E d u c a tio n . C hicago: S c o t t , Foresm an
and Company, 1931. Pp. 562.
244
F r e d e r ic k , R.W ., R a g sd a le , G.E. and S a lis b u r y , R ., D ir e c tin g
L e a rn in g . New Yorks A p p leto n -C en tu rv Comoany. 1938.
Pp". IfeT.
G a r ris o n , Noble L ee, The T echnique and Admlni s t r a t io n of T eachin g . New Y ork: The American Book Company', T&3F7 P p .5 9 3 .
G a r ris o n , S . C. and G a r ris o n , D. C ., P sychology o f E lem en tary
S ch o o l S u b je c ts . Richmond, V ir g in ia s JoEnson P u b lis h ­
in g Company, 1929. Pp. 569.
G ray, W illia m H enry, P sychology o f E lem en tary S ch o o l S u b je c ts .
New Y ork: P r e n t i c e - H a l l ,“T n c . , 1938• P p . 4 5 9 .
G ray, W illia m S . , T e a c h e r1s Guidebook f o r th e E ls o n B asic
R e a d e rs. P re p rim e r and P rim e r. New Yorks S c o tt
F c re s a a n a id Company, 1936. Pp. 361.
H ardy, M a r jo r ie , F i r s t Grade Manual f o r th e C h ild ’ s Own Way
S e r i e s . C hicago: W heeler P u b lis h in g Company, 1930.
Pp. 358.
— ----------- Second and T h ird Grade Manual f o r th e C h ild ’s
Own Way S e r i e s . C hicago: W heeler P u b lis h in g Company,
1930. Pp. 290.
H a r ris o n , M a rg a re t, R adio i n th e C lassroom .
t i c e - H a l l , 163*7. P p . 2 6 0 .
H o lle y , C .E ., The T e a c h e r’s T ech n iq u e.
Company, 1926. Pp. 378.
New Y ork: P re n -
New Y ork: The C en tu ry
H opkins, Thomas, I n t e g r a t i o n l t s Meaning and A p p lic a tio n . New
Y ork: D. A p pleton C en tu ry Company, 1937. P p . 3 l5 .
K an d el, I . L , , C om parative E d u c a tio n . New Y ork: Houghton
M if f lin Company, 19S>8. Pp. 922.
K e e lo r, K. and S w eet, M ., U n its o f Work: In d ia n L if e and
D utch C o lo n ia l S e ttle m e n ts . Mew Y ork: Bureau o f Pub­
l i c a t i o n s , T each ers C o lle g e , Colum bia, 1931. P p . 314.
K ep p ie , E liz a b e th E . , The T eaching o f C horic S peech.
The E x p re ss io n Company, 1932. P p . 149.
B oston:
Knox, Rose B ., School A c t i v i t i e s and E quipm ent. New Y ork:
Houghton M if f lin Company, 1927. P p . 386.
L ane, R .H ., A T e a c h e r’ s Guide Book t o th e A c ti v ity Program .
New Y ork: The M acm illan Company, 1936. P p . 2577
245
<
M ichener, James A. ( E d i to r ) , The F u tu re o f th e S o c la l S tu d ie s .
C am bridge, M a ssa c h u se tts: N a tio n a l C o u n c il f o r th e
S o c ia l S tu d ie s , 1939. Pp. 178.
M onroe, W a lte r S . , D ev o sse, James C ., and R eagan, George W.,
Edu c a t i o n a l P sy ch o lo g y . Garden C ity , New Y ork:
D oubleday, Doran and Company, 1930. Pp. 607.
M onroe, W a lte r S. and S t r e i t z , R u th , D ire c te d L ea rn in g in
th e E lem en tary S ch o o l. New Y ork: D oubleday, Doran
and Company, 1932. Rp. 480.
M elv in , A. Gordon, The Technique o f P ro g re s s iv e T e a c h in g .
New Y ork: JoEn Day Company, 1932. 5?p. 405'.
N a tio n a l C o u n c il of T each ers of E n g lis h , C u rricu lu m Commis­
s i o n , An E x p erien c e C urriculum in E n g lis h . New Y ork:
D. A p p leto n -C en tu ry Company, 1935“. P p. 323•
N orsw orthy, Naomi and W hitey, Mary T . , P sychology o f C h ild ­
hood. New Y ork: The M acm illan Company, 1933.
R ev ised E d iti o n . Pp. 515.
O tto , H . J . , C o - c u r r ic u la r A c t i v i t i e s i n E lem en tary S c h o o ls.
New Y ork: DT Apple ton-Century"TTampany, 1937. Pp. 441 •
P a r k e r , S .C ., Types of E lem en tary T eaching and L e a rn in g .
B oston: Ginn and Company, 1923. Pp. 5 8 5 .
P e n n e ll, M.E. and C usack, A.M., The T eaching o f Reading f o r
B e tte r L iv in g . New Y ork: Houghton k ifT T in Company,
193b. Rp. 469.
P o r t e r , M artha P . , The T eacher in th e New S c h o o l. Y onkerson-Hudson, New York: World Book Company, 1930. Pp. 312.
Reagan, G.W., F undam entals of T each in g . New Y ork: S c o tt,
Foresman and Company, 1C&2. Dp. 554.
Ruch, G ile s M ., The O b je c tiv e or New Type E x am ln atio n . New
Y ork: S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1 9 2 9 . Dp. 4 7 8 .
S a n fo rd , C h e ste r M ., D eveloping T each er P e r s o n a lity T hat W ins.
New Y ork: Row, P e te rs o n , IC&8. Pp. 160.
S te v e n s , M arion P . , A c t i v i t i e s C urriculum in th e P rim ary G rad es.
New Y ork: D.C. N eath and Company, 1 9 3 1 . P p. 440.
S to n e , C la re n c e , B e tte r P rim ary R eading. S t . L o u is: W ebster
P u b lis h in g Company, 1936. Rp. 536.
------------------------- B e tte r Advanced R ead in g . S t . L o u is: W ebster
P u b lis h in g Company, 1937. P p . 536.
2 46
S torm , Grace E . , The S o c ia l S tu d ie s l h th e P rim ary G rades,
New Y ork: Lyons and C arnahan, 1931, Pp. 596,
S torm , Grace E . and S m ith , N ila B ., Reading A c t i v i t i e s in th e
P rim ary G ra d e s, B oston: Ginn and Company, 1930.
Pp. 3 7 6 ,
S torm zand, H . J . , P ro g re s s iv e Methods o f T e a c h in g .
Houghton M if r lin Company, IS 2^7 P p . 3 7 5 .
S t r a y e r , G .E ., P rln d p le s o f T each in g .
Book Company, 1936. Pp. &§5.
B oston:
New Y ork: American
S t r e b e l , R a lp h , and M o reh art, G rover C ., The N atu re and Mean­
in g of T e a c h in g . New York: M cG raw -H ill, I § 2 § . Pp. 273.
Thomas, F .W ., P r i n c i p l e s and Technique o f T e a c h in g .
Houghton U if T lin Company, 1927. P p. 4 l0 .
B oston:
Weeks, B lan ch e , L it e r a t u r e and th e C h ild . New Y ork: S ilv e r
B u rd e tt and Company, 1936. Pp. 456.
W ilso n , H .B ., K y te , George C ., L u ll, H e rb e rt G ., Modem
Methods i n T each in g . Newark: S i l v e r , B u rd e tt and
C o m p a n y . Fp • 286.
W rig h ts to n e , J .W ., A p p ra isa l of Newer E lem en tary S chool P ra c ­
t i c e s . New Y ork: VeacKers ColTege, Columbia U n iv e r s ity ,
1938. Pp. 2 2 1 .
Yoakam, G.A. and Sim pson, R .G ., An I n tr o d u c tio n t o T eaching
and L e a rn in g . New Y ork:TThe M acm illan Compariy, 1934.
Pp. 4 9 8 .
— —— --------------------TheImprovement o f th e A ssig n ­
ment . New Y ork: The M acm illan Company, 1932. P p. 396.
Z ac h ry , C a ro lin e B ., P e r s o n a lity A djustm ents o f School C h il­
d r e n . New Y ork: C h arles S o rib n e r^ s S o n s, 192^. t*p.
x l ' i l , 306.
247
B.
R e c r e a tio n a l and I n s p i r a t i o n a l R eading
Here a r e some books you may e n jo y . How many have you
re a d ? Do you av erag e a t l e a s t one book ” j u s t f o r fu n ”
amonth?
Adams, J . T . , The E pic o f A m erica.
Company, 1931 . T p . 433.
B o sto n : L i t t l e , Brown and
A d le r, M o rtim er, How t o Read a Book. New Y ork: Simon and
S c h u s te r Company, 1940. Pp. 398.
B eard , C h a r le s , W hither M ankind? New Y ork: Longmans, Green
and Company, 1928. P p. 408.
Benson, E .R ., David B la iz e . New York: George H. Doran CompanypiU)l~6• Pp. 365.
B ogaslovsk y , B .B ., The I d e a l S c h o o l.
Company, 1936. Pp. 5 2 3 .
New Y ork: The M acm illan
C a r r e l , A le x is , Man. th e Unknown.
B r o th e r s , 1935. Pp. 3 4 6 .
New Y ork: H arp er and
C hase, Maryy E lle n , T h is E n g lan d .
Company, 1936. Pp. 1&8.
New Y ork: The M acm illan
-------------------- - A Goodly F e llo w s h ip .
m illa n Company, 1939. P p. 365.
Dewey, Jo h n , A rt as E x p e rie n c e .
pany ,*“T§33T Pp. 355.
New Y ork: The Mac­
New Y ork: M in to n , B alch Com­
—---- — ------ School and S o c ie ty . C hicago:
o f Chicago P r e s s , 1915. Pp. 164.
D ic k e n s, C h a rle s , David C o p p e rfie ld .
Company, 1925. P p . 506.
The U n iv e r s ity
New Y ork: The M acm illan
Dumas, A le x a n d re , The T hree M u sk e te e rs.
and Company, 1&20. P p. 555.
New Y ork: Dodd, Mead
D u ra n t, W ill, The S to ry o f P h ilo so p h y . New Y ork: Simon and
S c h u s e ie r 0ompany, 1927. P p . 5 8 9 .
E g g le s to n , Edward, The H o o sier S c h o o lm a ste r.
G ro sset and D unlap, 1913. Pp. 281.
New York:
E m erson, R alph W., E d u c a tio n , and E ssay and O ther S e le c ti o n s .
New York: Hought on M if f lin Company, 19(59. P p. 86.
248
P o r t e r , E dna, So B ig . New Y ork: D oubleday, Page and Company,
1924. Pp. 3 6 0 .
P ia h e r , D orothy, L earn o r P e r i a h .
Pp. 43.
New Y ork: L iv e r ig h t , 1930.
P ia h e r , D orothy, U nderato o d B e ta y .
Company, 1$IV , P p . 2 7 1 ,
New Y ork: H. H olt and
P ia h e r , D orothy, Why S top L e a rn in g . New Y ork: H a rc o u rt, Brace
and Company, 1927• P p. 2 9 5 .
P o r e a te r , C e c il S . , C a p tain H o ra tio H arn b lo w er.
Brown and Company, 1939. Pp. 662.
Porm an, Jamea H enry, Our Moyle Made C h ild r e n .
M acm illan Company, 1933. Pp. 2 8 8 .
G u n th er, Jo h n , In s id e E u ro p e.
1938. Pp." 5 3 1 ,
B oaton: L i t t l e ,
New Y ork: The
New Y ork: H arp er and B ro th e ra ,
H a llib u r to n , R ic h a rd , R oyal Road t o Romance. New York: Garden
C ity P u b lis h in g Company, T 937. P p . 3991
H enderaon, C .H ., What I s I t t o Be E d u c a te d ?
M if f lin Company, 1914. T p . 4 6 2 .
H orne, H .H ., The T each er a s A r t i s t .
Company Monograph, 19i'? .
New Y ork: Houghton
New Y ork: Houghton M if f lin
H a c k e tt, F r a n c is , Henrj; V I I I . Garden C i ty , New Y ork: Garden
C ity P u b lis h in g Company, 1931. P p .452.
Hugo, V ic to r , The Hunchback o f N otre Dame.
Mead a nil' Company, 1 9 2 5 .
—
Lea M ise ra b le a .
p an y , 1925^ Pp.--585.
New Y ork: Dodd,
iPp. 3 1 5 .
New Y ork:
K a l l e t , A rth u r, 100,000,000 Guinea P ig s .
and Dunlap“7i9l"6T Pp.' 3 l 2 . ~ “^
Dodd, Mead
and Com­
New Y ork: G ro sset
L in d b erg h , Anne Morrow, N orth t o th e O r ie n t. New Y ork: Har­
c o u r t , Brace and Company, 1935. t p . 255,
Ludwig, E m il, N apoleon.
Pp. 7077
New Y ork: B o n i, L iv e r ig h t , 1926.
Mann, H o race, Go F o rth and T ea ch .
E ducatT onal A s s o c ia tio n .
W ash in g to n , D .C .; N a tio n a l
249
M a rtin , G.M., Emmy Lou,
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