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Petrography of two Iowa loess materials

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U s t j e r s a t t j e e t G e o lo g y a » 4 s o i l s
jjjp p x w r o & s
— -w - »
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le w t S ta t e C o lle g e
1940
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m i s s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p ro d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e rm is s io n .
UMI N u m b e r : D P 1 2 2 8 1
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R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m i s s io n of t h e co p y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
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R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
~
3 -
ASSKRAO*
fsw » s p l # s o f Immm m a teria l, meleeted fey tiku» Iowa
State S i ^ i m y aonttls»ion ms being dg& lfiaa& t l a highway
ooiuriwaetlea,. mare Sirreetigated fey eevaral methods w ith
the porpoaa o f d eterm in in g th e ir m iaeralogleal offioatitutioa*
ilthough the m aterials are nearly sim ilar as far as
standardized highway laboratory t e s t s are eoaeerned, one
afford s a sta b le highaRy foundation w hile the other g ives
considerable d if f ic u lt y , e&nslag the slab to tmeiiii aa&
dip*.
H e ld ©msfaatie® revealed that the m aterials d iffered
i s th e ir r e la tio n to e heavy gpnbotilt ose feeisg lo s s ted
Sjaaedlatsly above, and the other about ten fe e t abeve the
gambotil*
fhe samples m m fra etlo a a ted fey sedimentation
m d fey a sap erositrifnge*
,l»rayt o p tic a l, and eb eoleal stu d ies
in elud lag fease-exohasg# ie t e r a ia t io a d were made on ©ash o f
the c o llo id a l separates obtained*
The r e su lts slow that
one of th e samples o@ata.ias as i t s p rin cipal d a y m ineral,
a o a ta o r illo o ite , while the other
l a o l i a i t s ant i l l i t e *
mixtures o f
ividenoe p oin ts to the eoaolusioa
that highway engineers must take■in to consideration both the
geo lo g ica l p o sitio n s o f the m aterials to fee used in mobgradsa
and th e ir s la y mineral eonteBt*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
4
m m m n x m
Highway engineers ha1?© ftaii fros experience that
certain soils» subsoils* a M soil parent materials
behave differently la tbs subgradcs of roads*
some ar©
s t a b l e a s f o u n d a tio n s , ufcsrcas o th e r s cause the ro a d to
buckle and d rain p o o rly *
t h e standard highway la b o r a to r y
t e s t s f a l l to d i s t i n g u i s h betw een these materials, f o r t h e i r
p r o p e r t i e s from th e e n g in e e r* s sta n d p o in t a r e very sim ila r *
1&© .slight differences t h a t do occur have net boon c o n s id e re d
d ia g n o stic *
I t was w ith t h e p u rp o se of d isc o v e r in g some
explanation o f the difference i n b e h a v io r o f th o s e materials
that the fo llo w in g work was undertaken*
S e c a n t work i a
c la y mineralogy Indicates th e p o s s i b i l i t y ©f a p p ly in g know­
ledge of the c la y mineral constituents to p r a c t i c a l prob­
lems of this natur© (5) *
fm sam p les, which, w ere as wmh alike i n p h y s ic a l
p r o p e r t i e s as it m s p o s s ib le to o b ta in but d if f e r e n t a s
r e g a r d s b e h a v io r in the subgred® , were s e le c te d f o r s tu d y
by sr* I* W* Wood o f th e loss S t a t e Highway Remission*
It
m s d e c id e d to i n v e s t i g a t e th e s e two samples as c o m p le te ly
a s p o s s i b le i n o r d e r to dotcaemiaa t h e i r minora.l o g i c a l
c h a r a c te r and any s ig n if ic a n t difference In their mineral*-
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
e g lfte l QQBgosltlesu
X-ray* e p t l e s l , and efcenleal s tu d ie s
la o la d ln g tese-ex eh a iig e d e te n d iia tio n ft were sh&s **
Smapl© 1SS3, ©f the m terial that eeusee trouble in
tii# sabgrede, oenslsts of a eenposite seotion from 12 to
15 feet deep taken from MarsM!! Soiinty, %m®- |SX# | 11# f ;
see* 23, T* 03 £•-, 1%I t W#|» me asterlal.ls gray lerfas,
slightly aottlofi wltli ire® oxide* I t rests iMsediately upoo
Haasea t i l l , the upper forties of ahtoh ten weathered to
gUBbotll* The loess is Peoriaa in age,
Thm soil of this
area is the Twm Silt loam* .Sample ISIS, of somewhat similar
properties f r « the engineer*s stamifoint ami shieb does notsense trouble in the suhgrads, is of a eosiposit© seetioa, 5
to 11 feet deep- taken from 0ass County, Iowa {S# -§ mm* 20,
f* 77 1 », 1# 37 w«)« me material is brown loess, mottled
nitit gray and with ©ooasioaal iron-stained streaks,
mis
material lies 10# f m t above a oliooolste-teown gmbetil*
The age of the loess is feorlam and the gnabetll, Xfeaseiu
flie soil of H is area, although ill© eounty is not sapped,
w r y likely is the Marshall Silt loam#
♦ m e in itia l p reh ea t m s co o p er a tiv e between tk e fiepart*
n en t* of O eolegy and C heniatry and E x p o r te d by th e
B essareli C onnell* The eb stttea l a n a ly se s were made ■by
workers unde? th e ilr o o t io a o f fir*
A* W ilkinson, sad th e
reaesiaing work was tmftu* the su p e r v isio n o f Dr# J . f *
Lonsdale*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
s m n r
o f m T im m m
Sh© -litera tu re referrin g t© ©lay isim ersls, Methods
applicable to th e ir detersilmatioa, a&& o f th e ir influence
©a tli© behavior o f m aterials 1© o f a d iv e r s ifie d nature.
A rtiela s Mt® been found in geologtoal journals, s o i l
Journals* oaraalo, ant ebaniafery Journals*
isuay o f tiie.se
haw no p a rticu la rly eloaa ap p lication to the problsa a t
t o s t ant eoBOeqtto&tly w i l l not bo aaBtiosad in th is review*
for the- b en efit o f any r a ste r in terested in ©lay mineralogy
ant l a i t s lite r a tu r e which i s not reviewed h ere, the
reader i s referred to the work o f E* 1* Grim (10) who has
raea&tly published the most ©oispAiite survey o f lite r a tu r e
and bibliography to date#
% to about the l a s t tan y e a r s a ln @ m lo g i.sta recognized
one oaoMMm © lay adnexal* k a o l in or k a o liu lte*
e d i t i o n o f B asa*s
th e l a s t
K ta s r a lo g y , a w id e ly used
s ta n d a r d is e d t e x t , l i s t s t h i s on# s l a y M ineral*
w ith in the
l a s t t e a y e a rs o u r know ledge o f th e M in e ra ls composing
s o i l s f © la y s, and lo e s s m a t e r i a l s k s In©rea se d many fo ld *
fbu s* © lay »i»© ral© §y i s young and has a l l th e pramiaa o f
youth*
$b* p r e s e n t data are by no seam s co m p lete and i n the
f u t u r e s t i l l f u r t h e r dcnrelopuata aaa ba expected,
®te developm ent o f m m te a h jjitju e s of. s tu d y and t h e i r
a d a p ta tio n to i a v e s t i g a t i o s e eagkoarnl&g © lay ad aaralogy has
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
fewm t l m g reatest siagl© fa s te r 1m the ©powth of th is
solene#*
l a M « *tfmtacy i t i s eo n o n j»r@.etiee to as# as
m ay methods m peasdfel* to determine the nature of the
olay .mineral e o a s tlta s a ts of say m aterial*
theee metheds,
a t pr#s#mt# taelM© fra c tio n a tio n , ohenleel aaaly*!*,
sioreseopi© dstasmdJB&tloiis, x*aray powder d iffra c tio n
an a ly sis, bese-esoshange dmtwrmlsatlQa*, and dehydration
eurreo*
l a Qemaay saay ieteisiiiiatioB s are .made on t i e
!>&si* of ac-ray analysis alone {11} * la rg e ly a* a r e s u lt of
the improved methods ©f study xm sow reoogalae three
d is tta e t group* of olay aine-rals 5 the kaolin group, the
» B tB © rillo m ite -h e lisllite group* and the la te s t addition.,
the illit® gronjt {IS}.*
Bee* s a d m r have t e t e r a i a # ! ami eum eerlsed th e
p r o p e r t i e s o f th e k a o lin group o f s l a y m ls s r a ls i n two
p ap ers*
‘The f i r s t o f th e s e i s m fc&oilnlt#*. dleldLt*, and
aaor.it© (2 1 } , tto* eoooad on t o l l o y e i t e an d a llop b aa* {22)*
th e a s s o c i a t i o n o f th e « M .tB O r ill© B it# » b e ite llite groop
o f ©lay m i s t r a l s .is toeatoKklto, a r o s k o f w ide o o a m r e le l
os®, h as l e d t o a n a tu ra l i a t e r e s t i a t h i s g ro u p .
M&m an d
Shannon {23} d e f in e f e e s te a lte a s Ba .rook e o a p js e d e s s e n t ia lly
o f a © lay -life# a i a s r a l form ed by d e v i t r i f i c a t i o n a n t th e
aoscnp&aylfig a l t e r a t i o s o f a g la s s y ig n e o u s m a t e r ia l, u s u a lly
* t o f f o r v o lo a a io asbs and. i t o f t e n os& talns v a ris h l®
p ro p o rtio n s o f m m m m r y c r y s t a l g r a in s t h a t w e o r i g i n a l l y
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
=m 8
p&Mo&erysta i a t i e mXaania g le e s *
33mmm a r e .fe ld s p a r
(e#iffl»al|r Q KttooeiAm a n t nX lg M laa# }* b l & t l t a , Q u a rts ,
ppxB9CMWf«. zixeen* and vaxdUnw Btftar s ia e ra ls tp p iaal of
wloiu&I© roetfca* fl© aharantexintla e la y - llle al&aral la s
a m M m m m M b i t and f u s il© Qieamgo.* l i g l M » frto g © ii@ e#.
m& m m i l f a ta x tu ra in la r i ia d f w a x o la a a l* t u f f o r aab*
a n t i t i s n a s a l l y tl@ s l& e r a l a o n ta B H lX e silta ^ b u t l e s s
o f ta n b a ld a lX lta * ”
I t i s tie - panallaar p l y s i e a l bahavlor o f
tle .s e a d a a s a ls t p a rtlau larX y .® e st® o y illo iiit« # tb a t awakes
b a a to n lta o f m ® k v id e e a n n r a la l m l m
(2)»
Bi@ s w e llin g
pM©a*em§® o f nam taoa^Ulonite i n w ater and i t s r e l a t i o n t o
t i e orystaX X a ttlo o a tr a o ta r o o f t i e m in e ra l i M t o i t s
b a so -o x o la sg e o a p a o lty Isas I n t e r e s t e d botb. m in e r a lo g is ts a n !
s o i l a a le n tlo to *
1 . S o ftaam a M ©©Msorleors CIS)f HaraltalX
( l f ) t anft Ifo llo y f 16)» l a w pn&XSahod on t i e e r y s t a l a t m o u e to o f a o s ia s f tf ill a n it# and tjb* work o f H o feaaa i s sow
a la n a t n n lw ro a X ly aooop tol*
Xarsaa and lH e » y fl3). snawd a saw ad nexal from S e id e ll,.
OoXaradOg to e ld n llit e ,'a n d l o s s and B m nm m |M ) dntaxadnad
t i e © p tio a l i M obem ieal fe ta *
U t li# t h in adsaraX i s tbougbt
to be fo n a sd ® 4 0 r smmvdm% thm mam- e iro n a s ta s io e s a s inontaoriX X onltev i t n x b lb lts d la tX a e tly d if f e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s ,
l a r g e l y tb e r e a n l t o f tfce d i f f e r e n c e i n ly d x a tio n betw een
tie
tm
(1 6 ) *
g o n tro atte, another aanftar o f tit* aontiserilIonite group,
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
'«►§ **
» s © rig tw iU y d eserih ed t y «©iaslieial£ | 3 i ) a s the ftsr rle
e q u iv a le n t o f taateUAits*
$i&seqii*Bt iavestigatiC B U i b f
-to rs e s f i t } s a d @ r« a « (14) t a w sh o rn the t na&troKilte i s
tm aMatnwrillo&lte asi
olosely related,
belongs to this groi# ©f ©toy aiaexels rather ttaa to the
hsolla growp*
g a fo n it© , th© re m a in i at. m ttbm e « f tM s group* was f ir s t
© i e a r l j described by to to e li# (SO) im ©©»®9ti©a w it*, a. study
of tit*
#®ff«r deposits*
l- m j studies of th is
i i t i a i r tm la d a p i t term isd isa tlv e o f a M t o r i a l i w e r * -
phras with ae&t»GHriI103iite» fosheg end ftoedferd (6) also
showed the iscoKirpluKUi relation o f th is high angftoslm
o o s to a t ©lay*
She l a s t group o f ©My adjEeerals t h a t i s reoogaise& a t
the psese& t tim e i s th e I l l i t # groap ( 1 3 ) .
S m
u
w orkers
haws reported to® oeowrreBse of a atos»ilfee ©lay aiaereX*
$pdroBtest g li» s r t « i# «n& searlftlte*lllc* (1) are sms©® that
hay#
hmm given. to this .material* la l.®3f Ortm end his
*
rf
©©•workers joragosed to# hobs* 4111%% im this asteritl*
S p e e if lo a lly mm & group name ssd w ith th o wadttrstaadiBg th a t
a s data were aooamstoted fey y a r io a s raen i t might he safe*
d iv id ed i n t o fit©m than m m ad s© m l*
A* fu r th er evide&ee*
Sri® a n t S m ile y ( i s ) te s e r lb e d a. © lay f n » the m m ® Lake
e v e s i s lilts©!# whisk a p p a ren tly belongs to this group yet
whose p r o p e r tie s d i f f e r seewwhet from those ordinarily
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
«* x o
*•
associated with the 8Q-*ealXs& wXm**li3m slay isXnerals*
By
using th© term* i W t e , fu rth e r confusion In the sesnmala*
tvetm m ill be &?$&&#& and. at the same tl s e i t w ill affo rd
a eoamiai name fo r the m£ea*lXke olmy minerals*
The a p p l i c a t i o n ©f ©lay x&neralegy to problems o f the
type dealt with, i s t h i s p a p e r u s a f i r s t suggested by th e
work o f SiS&law and G ris ( 5 ) • th e relationship o f tb e c la y
mineral c o s s t i t a t i o m o f various m a t e r i a l s -and their
physical p r o p e r t i e s is made e y i t e n i and i t seems a p p a re n t
t h a t th e t o » l ® % e aesumtilat&d about c l a y minerals & M
their identification i s sufficient t o warrant I n v e s ti g a ti o a g
o f a p r a c t ic a l nature*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
Method e f pr©##S*ar©
p eterm tea tio a o f p feysteal p r o p e r tie s
*&» ro sea so h jereg o st, a s * s t mg# w s M conjunction
n ltfe She Iowa S ta t e Hl#M§sy a e s ffite sle s « i t n th e «©ep«ra~
t i o n o f bp#- I*-* W« f#oo4«
S r . lfo o t olios# t2»» two s a a p le s t o
fee stu d ie d a f t e r noJetag a o&poful sonpapison o f t i e p jb y sie a l
p r o p e r tie s , o f ussy wlaos® feeMavior i n tlie sabgr&de varied# Twe sam ples were. f i n a l l y ebesan and tb* stmBdardlaoft hlgfe*
way Is fe o ra to ry t e s t s sbowad t b m t o fee split© s i m i l a r .
‘Xboaa
t e s t s la ste d ® a M b a n iea l a n a l y s i s fey a lo v ta g a n t fey tlie
Bonyotisoas a s t i j o t | . i | mi t h e 4 # t® ia ia a tlo s o f sliri^ m g ®
f a ® to rs t d en sity * . a o la tu r e a o ateat, m i p la s t ic it y .
A fp & e tie n & tte n o r aeofeaatea 1 a n a l y s i s o f m a t e r i a l o f
t b l a n a tu r e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a s tu d y wltfe tb s p ap p o se o f
a s s e r t a l a l a e tiie s t e s r a i s g i o a l e o s p o s itim *
The f r a o t i o m -
t i o n l a s t& rse m t e ^ j s a t l v s s i
1* f© o b ta in a n id e a o f tlie sis® g rad # d la tr lb r c tle ii
o f p a r t ia l* a partdeaX arly i n I M c o l l o i d a l ( l o s s
fetea one a ie r © » | r a n g e s .
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
2 * f© separate the active oar eellol&al fraction fro®
the relatively inert or ncn~eolloldai fraction*
3* to f a c i l i t a t e aloroaooplo study, x-ray an aly sis,
chemical an aly sis, aM base-exehaage determinations
by a t t e s t i n g to seeure separates of pure minerals*
The l a t t e r point i s brought about by the fa c t th a t oertaln
o f th e ©lay minerals tend to be more or le ss ecuiaentratod
la the various sis© fractions f4 |*.
fhe two sample# were fractionated acceding to Bray,
S-ria and E err {4 }, with certain adaptations*
was sad© to treat the two exactly alike,
ivory endeavor
One 1300 gras
sample from each location m s prepared for fr a c tio n a tio n
by leaching 5©0 gram portions with 1000 ec* of 1 K C % 000 K
and 1000 ec» of 0 ,1 1 HOI* -then washing with 1000 cc, of
distilled water*
She samples were than separated into two
parts, by sedimentation (one fraction eoatednlag all those
partial®s greater than mm micros in diameter, called the
residue, ant one fraction containing all those particles
lees than one micron, the colloidal fraction},.
This was
effected by dividing the samples in two parts and dispersing
each part in a very weal SS^OH solution {Z «©* of con e.
KS4 OS la 1060 oo* of distilled water}*
Bach suspension was
shaken aasu&lly for five minutes in £$ liter bottles, allowed
to stand for B4 hours and the top eight centimeters then
siphoned off*
Shis represented the colloidal fraction and.
the remaining fraction constituted the residue,
The bottles
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
©OBtainiiig the mmi&m were again f il le d up- to the o rig in a l
le v e l with the ffi|4lll s e ls tie a mad the preeess repeated#
this- m« ton© fust a to ta l of ftS times or taste£3. the to ta l
ftMMost ©f so lid s being e$3JLeete& per week I s the ©eXloiial
soepsaelea m s le a s than $•$ of -&m per se a t of the o rig in a l
m sisp X e
weight* Allqiiet
s a b le s
of 10© ©*©* mare seed for
teats*
fli# eolloddaX separate m s then fr a e iio a a te t with a
the ©oars#
mm
Sharpies siqpsrom trlfugs l a t e three fr&etioaes
©©Holt, p e r tie le * ap p rexim tely 1 to 0*1 miexoa in d isa ste r
the fine ©oXXoit*, 0* 1 to 0 * 0 0 mlere&s;. attt the m p m tim
#©1X©M* all th o se 1ess than 0.0# Morons im diameter*
These
three eeUoidal firaoilons sad the resides were air dried and
weighed*
Qheateal. aaalysjs
ChsmleaX analyse# m m made of the original samples
before the ilsrporsios trmtmest and fractionation mA of
mmh of the foar fractionated separates (the residue* the
eeeirse eolloM# the fin© eelleld* and the superfl&e colloid) *
Standardised prooedares war# ms# 4 tkroagheat*
w
Shi© work
i#a§- by Qamey ami iSLsg m te r the direction of Br* 1 * A*
Wilkinson of the Separtasat of jffheMstry* Iowa state
O oX X sgs*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
•» 1,4 -»
Ml©r©if©©p-t© ata fly
fti# 4tet©xsds&tlon o f o p tic a l. ®mm%m.ta o f ©&elt. o f the
©OIX0 I&&X firaotisB© a f f o r d s a n a d d i t i o n a l means o f sappl#-» # a tia g tb© ©tbs? data*
Xft a d d i t i o n , »«$©*&tes o f tb*
r e s ito ® ra n g in g i s s a r t l s l e ©is© from #»© to t h r e e ad©r©n©£
tbr©« to- f i v e Kleawne,. five t o fern alsxQtt©* «&€ a l l those
partlo3.es greater Itea tea stosso© maw mi® iM studied
id o r o s o o p ls a lly *
m® t© tb© £©et tliat tb© ©lay s r fjte r a ls a r e
si©&©«*&© i a bablt and te n d to o r i e n t tbanuMl?©© i n a g g re ­
g a t e s , i f « u *«©4 to s e t t l e slo w ly out o f a n s fe -s s im * i t i s
p o s s i b le to l a l i i A i s e v e r a l ©ptio&l # © » ste a ts f f l *
Qptloal
e o s s t a a t s Aetsasained were &&&!«©© ©f r e f r a c t i o n , s i g n , and
f e l l *rl«&t©d a g g r e g a te s gar© g©©€ iat«xrf«r©n©© figur©©
3V,
and permitted th© rattier &&onrat© determlmtlon. of the
l e a s t ( <*.) and greatest C> I i M i o t s of xvfireatlea*
a set
©f index l l f t d i s was m i # up- and u sed a e o o rd in g to J e w e ll
{&©©© C&)f v a ry in g i n s t e p s o f 0«O6&«
X«aray
a n a ly s is
X -ray powtex* i i f f s r a e t l o s .p a t t s r a s were made o f a ll- of
til® e o lX o lia l ©epftvst©© of ©eeb o f tb© sample®,
Xbe x - r a y
laboratory o f tit© m ii-y e rs ity ©f I l l i n o i s ms mad© available
t o tb© ©utber by M * 5* X.* S larte ©f tb© S ep a rtu n it o f
Ch«ai«t*ar and tbft work m© don® ©after tb© s u p e r v is io n o f
U r, If, !•- B rad ley o f th e I l l i n o i s .Stitt® Q#©X©gi©al s u rv e y .
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
fti© o q a lp m a t m«6€ oo&slst*& o f m HbXl&pa StteULiz tu b #
is ltii FeEd
©astern*
#ad ofeat 1# r a n c n ly los©*® a# a c ir c u la r
Xagpesisees v srio ft frcm s i x t o ten b o ars*
*gm- mt
ih ,# fraotlO B S , tb# fin® #©XX@i4 o f s o p l s 13X6 and tb#
s a p o r f ia # #©Xl©i»€ ©f sa a g lo 1263* «w@ tr e a te d td th
'BHH^ptligrSaatAiv (?) to A m %hm. prosoao# o f tb # s o a tis o r il*
X eolto ty p e o f o ls y l i m n l *&•&* booaiaso o f tb© Ms® a t tb©
s i g u i f i e a a t #»d o f th e f i l a # i t wm l a ^ o s s l b l # to t e l l
idtotfeor ©r n o t ttoXB greqp iw o japoooat*
a # la r g o ©rgaslo
s o lo e s ! # * sgprooft th© l a t t i o o o f %im j»B%»©riXi©iit« a n t #©m*
seq u en tly #© ©Mag# tb# yeaX tloa o f I t s a® st o b a r a o to r ls tle
t i f f r a e i i o n lis t# a s to male© i t © s a lly ro o o g n lsa b le i f
a«s«X tg wor* ecnq^ited an d tat«X at#€. a s i v a lu e s
p r e s e n t,.
from tb# fo llo o d a g r o t a t io n s t
B
s ilg ta n # # i a ©a&tlswrters i r e s sor© p e in t t©
a iiiX # o f tiiffra o tles Ms®
r
s ra.4i.M o f sansrs* 6*54 sau
a
s « y e longtfe, 1*639 A
B /r * 2 0 l a ra d la fi#
A
x M. s l a #
A
4
s
~T"
a r t
a § & » « te ig fi
4 # t « w i» t i© a p
Saplia& t© sam ples were p rep ared . o f osefe. o f tb# fo u r
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
fr a c tio n # W jMWidoriBg th e m a te r ia l t o s lio w aoogplete ami
immediate re a etio ii*
Oare mas ta k a s s o t to paw&ar s©
v ig o r o u sly a s to d estro y th e o r ig in a l p arti© !# s iz e *
Three
gram samples o f tlie r e s id u e f r a e t ie a weep® u sed , two ®rm®
©f th e o ca rse © o l l o i i , ami one g r a s eaah o f th e f i n e and
tli® auperflxte o e llo ld s *
The sam ples were e e a tr ifu g e d
fiv e tim e s w ith 1 1 g® {0^S gigjg, washed f i v e tim es w ith
70 par © est alecfo& l, aafi. a g a in e e s t r lf u g s d fir® tim es w ith
n e u t r a l 1 l S & g O g ! f i f t y ae« o f eaefe reage&t were
ias®€ f o r aash treatm ent*
A ll o f th e su p ers© teat liq u id
from eaefe o f th e l a s t f i v e trea tm en ts m s saved and o a lo iu a
d e te z s in s d v o lta a e tr ie a lly *
S o s u lt s
p e ta z a ia atlcm o f p h y sio s ! p r o p e r t i e s
Si® p h y sla a l p r o p e r t i e s , dstexnlxted fey tli© M g ta e y
la b o ra to ry * r e v e a l v e ry l i t t l e iiffe re a ® © between th e two
sam ples*
T able X g iv e s th e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e te s ta *
The
most s l g s i f i e a n i variations a r e tfc« moisture eoatent and
the p la stieity *
i s M,gfc*
l a both* i t i s s a s p la sunber 1316 whloh
This M i l fee dlseussad l a t e r *
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
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R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
fa fe ls XX g l u t th e r e s u l t s o f th » fr a o tio sa tto m or
anehasleaX a n a ly s e s fey betfc seaiaM fttatian and ean tv ifo g a X
Methods*
2&® e a ig h t s g iv e n a r e a l l on an a i r - t r y b a sis*
S it adtailaritgr beheeaa the two «asjX#s i s striking*
there has been, an lasrease £m the t o t a l eollaid al content
o f feotfe saaplee ever that determined by tb * highway
laboratory*' asapl* 1S63 .stews a greater lo ss labtlofi t o
to t it t e r lesehlag m .tmstXiiig*- MM tM® a w n t lo s t i s
tesiX tsg m s the same .is tetb instaaees aaA afiag^etrativmXy
» s l l .# the greater n m m t lo s t fey aaajple ISiS is ®ass®€
largely fey o tter faetars*
Cfoanlaal a n a ly s ts
fhs ofe«aioal analyses of tte bulk samples ant o f each
of the four .fraotioaatei separates are presented la
Hfebls 111*, slg o lf leant pelnt* bsenght cmt fey tb® etesdoal
analyses are*
1* Bio Inorease In tb* awMxat o f s llla e I s the r e sid u e
frmeticai ever .the feaXlc fisaiifXe*
1*. $he g ra in s!. d eereeee I s e l l l e a a s th e p a r t ie le e l s e
d im in ish es*
$*. 'Hie ebangea i s th e amounts of ir o n and. alinl&am
a n t t h e ir r e la t io n t o th e aaoaat o f s l l i o a a s shm m
fey th e r e l a t i v e am oasts o f eaeh s a t fey the s l l l n a *
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
If «
T able
o f Meoliamleal J a a l j s e s by
S@ tis®a% atloa a s d O ta tr if u g #
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gaggle
:
:
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t
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1
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O rig in a l weight t 150© 8 B B ,t P e r cents 1800 m Bm %P er oen t
R esid u e
Coarse c o llo id
F in e c o llo id
s u p e r f in e
Total oollol&s
Total eoUolds
tuft residue
loot i s loaohim g
and handling
1071#81
71*45
1 0 8 .0 8
7*00
113.40
7.56
37*e?
2 .5 1
46.56
8 .0 9
6. 94
91.09
6 .0 7
246*95
16*45
550.85
1 6 .7 2
1518.76
87*90
1 4 27.20
9 5 .1 5
181*24
12.08
72*80
4*85
1 0 4
*m
1176*35 ,
7 8 .4 5
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
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R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m i s s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p ro d u c tio n p rohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
<** .131 •*►
■
oooqaXeadd* rati© *
I t I s e& £ghtly h ig h er l a ta #
« 8 # Of SMpl® ISIS*
4* I2i#re 1® » g r e a t e r p e rc e n ta g e @f © a le im m rb m A t®
in saapl® 1263* Shis 1# sfes«8t, by tho wmm%3 ©f
QftXalm ©sdUUi s a l oarhen dioxide*
5* St® t lta n in a ©add© te n d s t o fee o o w w tr & tsd l a %h@
eouree ©©licit fraction ,1a both ouap&os*
ib is
easnot fee . a n e w l f l fo r a t tits pgMMumt time*
X*»i»y a n a l y s t s
Si© aweey p a tte r n s o b ta in ed a re showa l a fla t© 1 and
P lat© II*
Meaty o f tb® d if f r a c t io n l& aes ayo fu lt© f a in t
and ecosaQ iiantly d© s e t show up m i l l a rep rod u ction *
Si®
p o s it io n and pcoscnco o f l i n e s c h a r a c t e r is t ic fo r any
.m ineral are marked*
Ih h le I f g if® s tb® © a lem ta iei t v a lu e s
in JjagstrSm u n it s and t t » ©bsorrad in te n s ity *
w M
ih ooe lin e s
a s © lay a r c n e t to be eo&si&ered d ia g n o stic ©f any
p a r tic u la r © lay m ineral*
X iao masher one l a tb© f in # c o llo id fr a c tio n o f
ISIS and tb© smperfia© ©©Hold of ssiapi® 1265 are
asrb ed q u estio n a b le#
o f th e film *
S i i s is. due t o tb©. has® a t th a t end
f&eae ts© s a b l e s , a s m eatioaei. in th e
procedure t were ian eraod in a s o lu tio n o f B-SmpthylaaiB© and
a g a in exposed*
l a both o a se s th e m tp e stio m b l® p resen ce
o f »m1amjLU.oaslte w o anted*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
*.
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19
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fable -IT*—1-ray Data*
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Xllita, B* quartz
Olay**
5
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s w.w.
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Quarts
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s.s. s
3.52
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£.84
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B.12
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8
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i W.W*
1*98
Quartz, illite
3
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1.81
quartz■
W W S w w w 1*66
Quartz, Olay**
1.53
S
s
Quartz
1.49
s
S' S $ s
Olay**
s
s
s
um Quartz
O bserved i n t e n s i t i e s
S. S.*. 1 ?®ry strong
S z stasm&
M * Medioa
W
' S' W eak
W*W* a Tory weak
** lot diagnostic of any partioular ©lay mineral.
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
S a & la & a t& m
o f
P lo t*
1
paolk o f th e § ± f£ sm % tm l i n t s ua©4 to I n d ic a te tlie
ppoM ooe o f a a d a n a l i s in d ic a te d ana anrtberodu
l& ese
xgatiMtta o o x ra p o u ft t o th o s e o f th e c a lc u la te d d a ta i n
m i * it*
S i# la s t two repxodaot&eBJi represent ^-aesy d iffra ctio n
pattwnui o f the saa§
tint saporfiso* and. «re
id e n tic a l -with the exoeptios of H ue one.
that show in tt» la s t pattern* 1®
a d s lin e*
to ® » ta o r ille a ito
and has been ttireaght esb by the B-S&ptfegrla&iBo treatment
t e o f t b o d In 'the body ®f ih© th e s is *
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
- 24 -
I.
Coarse Colloid Fraction
II.
Fine Colloid Fraction
III.
I¥.
Superfine Colloid Fraction
Superfine Colloid Fraction with B-Napthylamine
Plate I.
X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Sample 1263
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m i s s io n of t h e co p y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p ro d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e rm is s io n .
£ a $ la a & t% m o f f i a t # X I
Saotk. o f t&»
I b w s «©©€ t© tastiest® t&©
'■ ptm m m o f a sdxtasal i s iadXofttoA sM saefeoxod*
ftos#®
a w t e ooarra^posift to tb oso o t t im oalG Blatod 4a ta i a
fata® m *
$b» aoooad and la s t m ^ToAm % lom xeprososst x-ray
d lffr a o tio a pattoraa o f Mm smm fr a o tio a , tiu fia©
colloid.* « 4 are l& otttloal witb. t l* oxooptlogi o f lima cmo*
t t l s 14s% tb a t Obovm la tbo la s t p otto ra, i s due to
K a t» r ill© m it# asA lias le s s brought ©at by* t&© -S-SaptlyXii'
nine treatn oat AosorlbeA ia t i» feoiy o f tb« tii©sis*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
- 26 -
I.
Coarse Colloid Fraction
II.
Fine Colloid Fraction
III.
17.
Plate II.
Superfine Colloid Fraction
Fine Colloid Fraction with B-Napthylamine
X - r a y Diffraction Patterns of Sample 1316
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m i s s io n of t h e co p y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e rm is s io n .
m -
But d esalts show a d efin ite tendency f « the aftntmttril*"
iGaite type of clay
end fur i l l l t e
sisted
mineral
to be predosdtaamt in staple 1516
and teoiialte in
through to the
fine
sample 1363*
colloid
Quarts per­
fraction la
diminishing
amounts but met to the superfine fraction*
Sase-eguhauge determ inations
^alile ¥ eeataias the re edits of the haso^er&hange
determinations*
fi» great d itt&Temm i s the tase^exehaiige
capacity between the colloid al
is
striking*
The superfine colloid
remarkably, high value which
a
m i
oea
Bos-eolleidal fractions
of
senple 1516
be accounted
for
lias a
only
by
predominance of momtnorilXohlte*
fabl© I " * - - f e ta l Base-2acehange O ap a ctty
Sapressod a s H illle g a iv a le n t s
per 100 areas of goiiold
*
t
SBperflSi r
£ Xtho
i Beal-due t Colloid £ Colloid t Colloid
*
coarse
’
Staple 1263
e*70
46*30
69*23
ft *05
Sample 131ft
13*30
43*31
65*96 •
95*24
lm order to completely understand the above resu lts
m i their significance as regards the mineralogies! mm~
position of the two samples, the following presentation of
resu lts i s given from the standpoint of the various frae-
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
'•#*
JH3
t&eaa o f ©ate of t3m ossgilos*
jKr*s*&t«& is
optical -data am also
tli©#© results*.
m m M 2JM&
Mmmtim* mmlrnm rspxosoatlng different partiolo
a£$s« m m separated tx m th is fraction by so&tatsntfttloiu
*Eb« etmroost of t&ese, with p srtlslo s larger than tea
aforeas* sontalsoA 98 per seat angular quarts* a t m rook
fy«&MSt*# some llm onit© and sassorito*
ta in in g p a r tia l# # h$twm& f i w
Tlie fxootioa eon*
and t e a s io r o n s i s a i m
ooatalsoft about ?§ per eoafe qparts.
Tiie r e s t was asi&ly
and mascoirit#* Between tbxoe am& fiv e odorous tbs
aaou&t o f tp&rfes dooroeia*& to about $8 p er oent and th e
amount of aloe laoreasod*.
A few fragm ent# of fcaoXlsdt* wtr©
a ls o f s m S i s th is p a rti© !# rang®.
19*a fraoilea eaataiBl&g
partial** ranging between on© amd t&rae-XB&aro&s ooataiaed
tli# sano amount of q$tsrts and jutes as the prneedlag ©a©
and a slig h tly groator amount o f Jcaoliait© .
fUe sm all base*
•aoliaago espaelty o f th is to ta l r e s ite © fraotioa indicates
a high i egree of separation by the g#di»®&tabi©» p ro o ess and
ooaso<|Usatly a g en era l l a t e o f s la y m inerals*
defers# o o i l o i i fr a e tio n *
< $ t lo a l © m a in a tio a o f t h i s
f r a c t io n revssX sd a g g reg a tes who©© im A lsos o f r o fr a o tlo n
ranged from 1 .5 6 9 t o !JSf4t»
So a g g reg a tes cou ld b® ob tain ed
w ith an o r ie n ta t io n s u f f i o i e a t l y p e r f e c t to y i e l d a d d itio n a l
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
* £# **'
i n f o r m t i e s afeomt t b s ep t& o al p r o p e r tie s *
"Stat x - r a y
QS.ftxmQti.€m p a t t e r n o f M i f r a e t i o s showed m o d e ra te ly
a t s e s g l i n e s o f i l l l t © , t o u & t a l t s , e a l o l t e , i M s tr o n g l i n e s
o f q u a rtz *
f& ars watt a d e s id a d $i*©rea.e« i a t h e bas#*
©xc&aiige e a p a o ity i a d l e a t i a g a © eaoenfcratioii o f t&e c la y
fim a n a ly s e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s f r a c t i o n i s ©on-
siiseraX s*
p e se d l a r g e l y o f q u a r tz , M e l i n i t e , l l l l t # , and e a le it© *
f in # c o l lo if t f r a g t l o a *.
ra n g e d f r o a X*5$S t o X,5#4%
Hfe# la d io e s o f t&e a g g re g a te #
A g g reg ates o f a lm o st p e r f e o t
o r i e n t a t i o n a a i hens# shornl a g good in te rfe re s © © f i g u r e s tier©
o&mson*
Tb# i s l s s r s j o f th e a g g r e g a te s was b ia x ia l., n e g a tiv e ,
and S f urns a b o u t § d eg rees*
a g g r e g a te s w ere
Xa&lees .of r e f r a o t l o n f o r th o s e
<* « l* U ? iti > « 1*§84»
S t# x - ra y d i f f r a c t i o n
p a t t e r n r e v e a le d » € « r s t # l y s tr o n g l i s a s o f i l l i t © am i m e&
l i n e s o f te s e lis it© a n t q u a rtz *
0 i « i © a l a n a l y s i s showed
l e s s S i% an d mer# JlgG g th a n th e ©oars© .o o llo id f r a c tio n *
ISbtis i s a t t r i b u t e d t© & m a i l e r mmmmt &f q u a rtz *
The e<®*
b tn e d d a ta show t h a t t h i s f r a c t i o n i s so iip essd o f 11111# w ith
s m a ll amotmts o f M e l i n i t e and q u e rix *
S u p e rfin e o o l l a l d f r a c t i o n *
A la rg e a « t e o f m i l
o r le m te i a g g re g a te s was a s s u re d whose i» il© e s o f r e f r a c t i o n
ra n g e d from
1*.574U
T&# b e s t o r ie n te d agp?@ gat«s w ere
b i a x i a l , n e g a tiv e , 2¥ * f i v e d e g r e e s , <* » .1*554, > a 1#5?3*
^a© x - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n atto m d m o d e ra te ly s tr o n g l i n e s
o f l i l t t © and q u e s tie s ftb lo l i n e s o f M e l i n i t e and m a ta o r!!* *
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
Xenlte* m x-ray dlffraetion pattern o f powder that had
been ijati-erset 1st BHtepthylanl&e geee * a Identleal p u t t e r s
exeept f o r a s© d « ra t« ly s tr o n g lin e o f aontaKtrllXonlte so
nsved i a p o s l t i o a t h a t i t eettXd fe# identified p o s i t i w l y .
the sillea-aeeqitioxlde rati© a t S.lfi and the Inse-exsfca&ge
eapaelty a t 99 *.09 w ere greater th a n w ith the f i n e oollold
fraetlea*
a t # eleo euggeete the preftnee o f laostaiorillO B it© *
Si® oonplete d a ta lndloate t h a t th is trea ties i s ecopeoed
l a r g e l y o f U l l t e and mmtsorllXaalte aa& that kaollnlte i s
a l s o p ro b a b ly p re s e n t*
Saiagjo 111,$
wnniin^nitiriafwiiiiaimni iniawniwiiiHwn
gbeeldaa*
About f§ p e r s e a t o f t h e p a r tie X e s o f th e
e o a r e e s t r e s id u e s e p a ra ta * t h a t e e n a ia tla g o f p a r t i o l e s
q m r tz .
g r e a te r than t e a a lo n m s l a dlaK eter » «
o t t e r s e e r e a a i i i l y i l s o m i t i o a a t e x la l*
ft.
s n a il anotm ts o f
a n e e o x lta and m g n e t lt e m m m is# p r o s e a t .
The e th e r r e s id u e
s e p a r a te s * th o ee co n ta in in g p a r t l e l e s from f i r e t o ten *
th r ee t o f ir e * m at one to th r e e a i @ m m in sis® r e s p e c tiv e ly *
ware n o t j j i g a i f l o i i s t l y d if f e r e n t ex eep t t h a t th e y b a t pro­
g r e s s iv e ly l e s s q uarts and warn mlea* h a e lls lt e * a n t
lia c s k ltie a a t e r ia l*
3Sie I r o n m ost ©at o f t h i* sam ple was
ml s o h i g b e r than th a t o f s a s p l# lfi$S* T ab le S I *
The base**
exehenge e a p a e lty was q u ite M a ll* in tim a tin g a f a i r l y good
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
m*
mm-
M^azatlMi o f th e oeUfldUtal s s € s@ a-« © llaM sl aa tso ria lii*
Ib is was also truo o f til© rssito® fraotloa o f snap!© 2,265*
G oafs# e o lio M fgaotlpau
fii© x k tb ? i i f f r m o t l o n p a t t e r n
o f t l i s trm tX m . abowod atktarately strong list©© of most*
anrllloxilte and ealelte* strong ltm#s of t«aj*t2 # and weal:
lines- of iU it o mat iaaolinltB.
Xn&ioea of refraction ranged
froa 1*53© to 1*58#* ftgrtbor optloal data could. not b©
obtal&od booaasa of th% lqporfoot axlastatlogu
lb© ovldeiteo,
ofelafly 2- a | f in&loatoa tbat %h±m f r a c t i o n i s eoaqpeaoi
©ssonttally of sm tm ttillaaita* quartz. * «Bd ©aloifco*
fin© o o l l o l d . f r a c t i o n *
Optical © m a ia a tlo n abowod
ladtaaa of m im Q tim ‘raryisg from 1*54# to
1*573
sal
%&»
following -rnXwes war© obtain©! fre® many aggregates h a v ia g
good iBttrfortae® flguroo*
biazial*. suNgatlve sign* 2?
ab o u t 1# d a g r e e s , <t as 1*542* > s l . S i i *
f la t powder x - r a y
d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r s ravealad a qoaatiraabla lis a o f sto iita o r i l l o m i t # and weak lim a o f illit a * kooliaito9 and quarts*
Hie x-fmy p a t t e r s aaourad a f t e r traatamst of bbe naterial
with BH^ptbjrlaaiaa r*v*alad th e asaiataicabla praooaae ©f
im tnerillo& ita*
The eanbiiied d a te i n f i o a t e t h a t M i
f r a c t i o n I s e s s e n t i a l l y a a i x t a r e o f ifto a tia o rlllo a it© t. i l l l t e *
k a o l i s i t a * a n d ' .qaarba*
Superfine ©©Hold fyaotjem .* The x-rny d i f f r a c t i o n
p a t t e r n o f t h i s f r a c tio n , a&owod a s tr o n g lin ® o f n o n t s o r i l l# n it© a M a weak lin e of 1111to*
The
1M1ees
of r e f r a o tto m
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
m r i e i fro® X*5S4 t o l* 5 7 f«
fJte b e t t e r erle& te4 a g g r e g a te s
gave b i a x i a l i& terfere& ee flg e r e * * n e g a tiv e s i g n , W ta r y la g
fro® 30 t o 0§ &egree*». <* « 1*-5S9* >- « X*8f8*
th e baee*
eapaoity o f t&ls fraetloa was fS*S4 s&llieqolva*
la s ts j«r 100 grana* t&e feigheet value c&tal&edj, a&d os©
that eaa only be aeemmteft for fey a largo a » « t o f stoat*
tttrllle& lte*
Hie data l&dleate that tfe is fsm o tio s i m ocas*
$oeed able fly of Moataorilloait© with a m a ll » ® t of
iiiit© *
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
-
$3
sis8 sssx < a i
fha physical properties oaf the two materials «nier
study, ms dstemined toy the highesy laboratory throogh t&e
m® of standardised te s ts , are so similar that i t i s
Impossible to iif f e » » t ia t # between than, fable I* As
pointed out previously t&® no-lstere oombont and p la s tic ity
of sample 131$ i s slig h tly .greater than sample X3$S» Bits
weald toe. eapeeted i f , for ©sasaipl©, sample ISM contained
a predcndnanee of
Phsther or sot th is
difference i s stgnlfloent would depend open a study o f
may asare samples s la lle r to these*
fraotiosatioa o f tbs materials toy sedimentation and a
superoentrlfuge into several different sise separates also
f a ils to reveal any sigaifioant diffsrenee in aaounts of tbe
several grade a lses# fatol© Xl»
Accordingly, i t Is impossible
to fereoast the behavior of these materials toy a eettparlsoa
of their eolloidaX eoatent, although i t is w ell knew that
in s®a© elrewBstaness, variations i n the mmm.t of eollold al
material ean bo regarded as toeing dlagBOstie*
ffeat i s ,
materials. with & large pereentage of eello ld a l particle®,
behave d ifferently frsaa materials that ©batata negligible
aaeuB ts*
f toe reaetion o f the lesehlsg proeess- which preceded
th e dispersion o f th e sam p les m s netieeably different*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
m S|4 «*
Sample US-3 offorreseod w ith both ae®ti© -sat bytw hl@ rl©
M l&»* wb®r®« sonpls ISM save pxmetloalljr so reaction*
fM s lad ioato* U s iifferea e® la tb s earbonate e o s te s t o f
th© two jaateria is s a t I s a lso su b stan tiated b j the ©beiaie&l
an alyses o f the bftUc s a t ooH old al samples*
I t a lso
abeosats i m the larg er o&ttf&t lo o t 1a the leaeh ln g proeesa
la oaaple 1263*
Botb the sedlaestatlon «sd fraetionatlen by OMtxlfugal
aeiion p m m e m B sn st bo atopped a t m m a r b i t r a r y e a t point*
l a t h i s work th e s e p a r a tio n o f th e - e o l l o i i a l © at no n G o l l o i t a l f r a o tio m s »
stepped whoa th e amount o f eelleideX
notarial being; eolleeted por week wa© le fts th a n 0*3 p e r s e a t
o f the o r ig in a l aaapie weight*
® » eestrif&ge operations
w ere stopped f o r oaftb £raet£on when the © entrt-fagst© fro ® a
glvon dispersion oen&alned l e e s than. 0*g par s e a t o f th e
o r i g i n a l saaple w eig h t*
I f os® w ere t o draw a eurve plotting
th e m m mnt r® s#irsr® i against tbs original e a n p le weight.*, i t
would f l a t t e n j^ r e e p b ib ly b u t r e f e r a r r i r a a t a e o s p l s t e
endpoint*
I t should be possible tbsn to eontlnue oontrifagol
n o tio n -m a © lay aasgHwaalen to a point w here weehasleal
breaM Ofia o f th e p artia l® © m a l t alw ay s a llo w some f i n e r
parti©!©.© to be s e p a ra te d *
'Barn r e l a t i v e s ig s lf l e a B s e o f th e eheoleaX , o p tie a l*
x-ray* a a d testHOzsbaage a tsd le s as mease o f ie te r a isiB g
olay mineral® depends e n tir e ly ®a th e degree th a t the wardens
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
mtaimmlB M m boon
ad&er&ls a re w
i f o « r t e is o f th e ©lay
o r l e e s ee a o eB tr ste d i a wnrt&ixi s i s e
fra#tt©as»: than th e a n a ly se# o f th a t f r a e t ie n sheisXA e l o s e l y
oex&espo&d t o tko a n a ly se s o f t i e psr # K lsa ra l*
fte ta a lly happens has bees parorea fey $ r i* |4 ) .
ffeat t h i s
I f th is m s
mot th e oaee %h& eenstaxtt* or e h a r e e t e r is t le e o f th e f r a o t lo a
m t l d s o t fee th o se o f asy p ertlstO K r sin g le ©lay a ta o r o l
feat eou ld be th e eosbt&ed* r e s ts lta a t e h a x s e t e r ia t lo s o f
t m or ea rs*
f ie ob«Bdoal eeoposltiea of a l l o f the ©lay minerals*
as sonnarised ia <Srlm*a work (10} » show that* chaaloaily,
the olay sdLoerals d iffer vory little* -
The dlfferesoe i s
a© sllg b t as to msk# ©fesaloal analyses* alone* praetloally
Taltt@l##s as a Maas of d stm d a lsg tits adttsr&logieal ecn»
position m l ess ©so i s p ositive fee Is eserklag udtfe pips
s&sexals* However*. the ohe»ieal analyses aid ecmsiderably
wkm. «s#i w ith ot&ar methods of analysis*
'I’iie l a r g e d e e ie a s e i n s i l i s a fro® tits b a lk s a a p le to
th e ooorso e o U e ld aaft fefee gradual d eerease m the s iz e o f
th e f r a o tio s . iim ia i^ L o s i s eaused fey a d eo rea ss l a th e a » m t
o f ^tx&rtau
p a tte r n s *
t h i s i a a l s o ahown fey tfe© x -ra y d i f f r a c t i o n
As s m a rts I s more r e s i s t a n t t o w eat& erisg a a t
ao o feaalo al breaM ow a th&gt an y o f th e ©lay M in e ra ls and does
mot tend t o w e a th e r to smofe s n a i l p a r t i e l e s , tfeis I s t o fee
expeotsd*
1hm changes i s the aaetm ts o f I r o n and altnlst& i
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
urn 36 **-
i M their relation *6© the aaouftt of silica -dioxide as shown
h7 -the sllla&**e8£uiAxJ4e ratio is significant* It is
slightly M g t e for -aenple U i § than for.sam ple 1£63, and
this is attributed to a
m m m tm t& m of-slay aiaerals im the
finer fractions* particularly of the xetttaorlXlottlte type
of
i n sample- XSlt»
fli© z e s a lt e o f th e ac-ray a s a ly s e e show a d e f i n i t e
teadeuey f o r th e s e n t i w i l l o i i l t e ty p e o f el&y a io e r a l to
bm
paredandLaaiit l a sam ple 13X6 -and f o r i l l i t e a n ! Isao lin it© i n
-sample 1£63 ead o f f e r th e most e o a e lu a ir e p ro o f o f th e
a i a o r a l o g i o a l c o m p o sitio n o f - t h e v a rio u s f r a c t i o n s aaA
when eea a ld ered i n s o a j m t t l o a e i t h th e o th e r data a f f o r d
w e ll founded eonolusiaats*
Beeeuee o f the- d l f f i e u l t y i n
reproduoing c l e a r l y aaagr o f th e f in e U s e s o h o m m th e
x**ay film, the plates nay appear indieM.net unless one
k n o w w hat to lo o k f o r and where*
W&mmat* t he l a s t tw o
reproduction* o f the fin e, o f l l o l d o f sample
ISIS
and th e
mspoxf i n e c o l l o i d o f -gaspX® XS61 show raeuueilcably w e ll th e
r e u n ite o f in a e r e in g th e s a a p lea i n a s o l a t i o a o f S-Sapthylm *
a d se t o b rin g -out th e p r e e e se e « f th e aMmtaexlllOBi^» t ype
o f c l a y m in e ra l*
a # p o s i t i o n of the d ia g n o s tic list®© on
each o f t h e films, w hich w ere u se d a s efidenee o f the p re s e n c e
o f s ls e x a ls * a r e marked and suahered*
These numbers a g re e
w ith th e e a le u la te d -d a ta i a T ab le W *
I t i s a ls o I n te r e s t-
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
mk
***
la g to note tli© presenee &t q m r tz la a l l fr a o tlo ss feat the
s u p e r f in e *
3&e str ik in g d ifferen ce
the base^xohaxsge
eapaoifcy o f the c o llo id a l and aos*«Oll©idal fr a ctio n s earn
© all' b© e x p la in e d fey a eoaparatively g o o t sepaxatlco*
'The
t o t a l base-»e3&haBgo cap acity o f a l l o f tho c o llo id a l
f r a e t i o a s i s n o ta b ly h ig h and profc&bly itt&ieatee the
presence o f a c r e m ontnnrllleiilte th a n the o t h e r d a ta su g ­
gest*
T&lfoxnlty o f aggregates and o p t i c a l constants
d e ter m in e d f o r th e superfine «© X loifi o f sam p le 1315 sub­
s t a n t i a t e t h e conclusion th at t h e h ig h bass-exchango capacity
o f tills fr a ctio n ©an o n ly fee aoootratcd f o r fey a l a r g e amount
o f a ra ta a rlllo n lte*
Ht# a n a l y t i c s ! r e s u l t s show t h a t th e tw o sa m p le s d i f f e r
i n t h e natnr© o f t h e i r © la y m in e r a l s e a t © at, 1316 feeing
m l® up e s s e n t i a l l y o f m o a tm o r lllc m lte «&e?ea@ sam ple IM S
c o n t a i n s i l l i t e and Ic & o lln its a s I t s p r i n c i p a l c l a y a d a s r a l
e e n s t lt t t e n t s *
The d i f f e r e n c e 1b t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
b efea rlo r o f t h e s e o la y s d a e r a l s , M o n t a t t r illo s it e * l l l l t e ,
and h a o l l a l t e w ould le a d one- t o s u s p s o t t h a t t h e m a t e r ia l
c o n t a in in g a o n t a o r i l l o n l t e in. l a r g e r amcnmta w ould b eh ave
p o o r ly i s th e subgr& des o f t h e roads*:
2 © iiw « r # l a t h i s
s i t n a t io n t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e a a i t h e n o a tto o r illo n it® *
b e a r in g M a te r ia l fo rm s t h e b e t t e r smfegra-d©*
t i o n m ast be ta k e n .in to c o n s id e r a t io n *
A n oth er c o n d i­
4 stm dy o f t h e
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
** 5 8 ■*»
field x o ls t lo B s r e v e a ls th a t atQapl© IM S w m takon tm m a
isnsdlatoly abcnrs a relatively loparvlsiui gnmbotil#
while sas#!© 2J1® w
taken t man aaterisl 10-| feet above
a almtlar gaafeohil* Sbia relatively Jjsperrtous layer
ereatea a tHsqporsryj, pereited water table, able! Is the
^jfasr ease ©an be expected to interfere with t&e drainage
of
the
material lanediately beseem
the
slab#
la the
ms®
of sample 133L6 the drainage of the aaterial inm&tately
beasatb the slab Is m% lnflsenoed by Mm gmbetil bemuse
of the Ix&ertenl&g dlstanee*
Beeaase of this dlfferenee
in the effeot of the gmbetil® t#oa the drainage of the
two materials* any variatjUw Is the behavior of the materials
tee to a difference ia slay adnexal ©©stent is fe lt to be
obeeured*.
3hi» study is the first ®t Its type- os Iowa naterlaXe*
Bar this, reason i t was thought deainable to gather as much
d&ta ss possible Is ©rte* to- establish tbe ftmdaawatal
eluu&eteriatleB* Bsesuso of the involved and lengthy
proeednrea of analyses weed* i t ms tstfOssiM© to work with
m y sar© than two samples* i t is reoegnlsed that a atndy
of saay sore saiaj»l#s of different types of material would
be desirable*
'Bi® plasticity test is euggeeted as a possible moans
of differentiating b « tw i natexiale of the nature of these
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
• m
•xpeslae&&*a qpon i s tltla wmpfc*
Again a s t s d f o f aoro
gas^Xiss w i l l r e v e a l wbotber ©J8 n e t t& io d iff e r e s o e i s
p X a a tie lty oitoald bo s M i t e M
elgsdflea&fc*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
«* 4 0 —
.
1*
.m s m m m m
At th e p resen t tim e i t i s in p o s sife le fed p r e d ic t th e
behairim o f subgn& s m a te r ia l* £ m
a stu d y o f th e
p h y s ic a l p r o p e r tie s a s d etefttia o d is . th e M ^tasay
lab oratory*
2 *.
fame tio n a felon by sed la a n ta tie& aM a stipereenferliiiQe
in to s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t . s l s e o o l l e t d a l se p a r a te s
f a i l e d t o r e p e a l any s i g a i f i o a n t d iffe r e n c e i s am ounts
o f th e s e v e r a l grade s ls s s *
0*
A n a l y t i c a l a e t h e f t s , eh eu lo aX y x * ra y « o p t l o a l * a n d
bas«*'«xeiia&@B show t h a t th e sam ples d i f f e r i s th e
sa t® © o f tf e e l? e la y a t a o r a l o « n te & t» 1516 b e in g made
u p e s s e n t i a l l y o f » s t s © s i l l o m i t e , s h a r e a s sa m p le 1863
© © stains U U f e o a n d I c a o l l a i t e a s i t s p r i n c i p a l ©lay
id & eral eonsfeituianfea*
4*
fS e f i e l d r e l a t i o n s ©f th e two m a t e r i a l s stu d ie d a r e
sm b. a s t o obsoure any v a r ia tio n I s t b s behavior o f
the m a te r ia ls th a t s i g h t be dn# t o a d iffe r e n c e i s ©lay
m in e ra l ©©stent*.
0*
Highway en g in ee rs should ta k e 1st© ©©nstderatlan th e
p o s s i b i l i t y o f d iff e r e n c e s o f b eh avior b e in g due t o
m in e ra l d iffe r e n c e s * p a r t i c u l a r l y o f th e c o l l o i d a l
f r a c tio n * and the g e o lo g ic a l p o s it io n s o f th e m a t e r i a l s
th e y p la n t o u s e i s th e subgrades o f ro ad s#
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
m- 4lfcX 'm-
&«. f&e plaetieitgr t e s t s i f a b l e I ) a r e aligiLtly higher f o r
t i t siOBtaort3l2,oai.fc«-l>@arteg s a t © ria l a s d a s t i i i y o f
sore mtaxlftls will perhaps rewaX tltat this dlffove&e*
*3umld be oooeidared s i g » t f i # a s t *
?•
*&» p o s s i b i l i t y o f ttftiag th e g re a t d lf f o r e s e e i s th e
base-exeteag® o a p a o lty feotmMm th e e o llo M a l and m©a»
aoX lotiaX fr a e tio m s a s a b r ib e r ie s o f t&* p e r fe e tlG a o f
s e p a r a tio n o f th e s e fra etlo & e I s suggested*
8*
I t i s aeeeeeery to M m as may different typos o f
data as possible in order t o detesmlxie the slay alaeral
oonotltoeats o f M a te r ia ls of t h i s nataare*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
A sm m xxm a m
Deep appreciation i# expressed to tkose wM by tiieir
assistance a»4 cooperation In'?© sain tils woric possible.
fle y are Professor £* f* Xmsttfil®., Dr*. X* M* Clime, and
&*, -0, 3* Q w m m o f Xew& S ta te G ollego; m * 1* 1* G r is ami
**?
Da?« ??» ?# Bradley of the I llin o is S tate GeoXogiQ&l survey
Hr* h* W* le o fi o f t i e t o m s t a t e fiXgteray OoiiMssiom; sM
Mr* f* 1*Gurney* Miss 1* M ag, as# Sr« 3* A. Wilkinson of
tie Department of dhmde%xyt lows s ta te College*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
4& -
m tm m m
lm-
it*
mmw-
Bagiey* W* 3*# WsMM. im Worth'jm*iA&o with a
B r ie f l e t # @m' B y iro is ita *
248* JJEt*
b*
le o s * ( M l* 1§* 35 § -
0 ftX$lat s* Ir*f S t a t i i w r e f f l i n t C lay a a n t H ie ir
frame* Jis* Oar* 300 * I4# 3©l»34i*
Aaaoftiates*
M i2 *
a*
llasgtsfraii* x«, ant.
31-59.
E*
3«
'&•*
X taaxttlin aX.a f@asafe®fcaBS®e« zelt* g r i s t * 98*
MS?*
Be&tosiit**' tbabaoliksgr
I s in s tf la l 9a«a*
Co*., eMesg®, Illinois*.- 1935*
B&W0m 0 » , d* i*t
Myir#is#tei* Method tmt Halting a
Tory S e t m l M iS e o te s lo a l A n a ly s is o f -Soils*
m $ 235. MBS..
4*
§*
Jan. C olloid
S o il so l*
B » y , 1* H*t d r is ,. S* ! • * and K err* p» f-** A p f llo a tio n
o f S la y M in e ra l
t o ' I l l i n o i s S la y a n t She!#*
Sal* S eol* soa* An* 46, IfS S * 1935*
lK blaw # a* g * #. t a t @rli% ft* 1;*,, sow* de-ologjlosil
of S o il ~J§&t e r i a l s
Eolations Between th e S ens t i t a i l o r
a n t Mgfrway CcmatyuotjUm#.
1 1 1 . S t a t e M L * Samr* l e j t t *
of Investigations*. He* 43* 11*13.. 1S3§*
6,
Jtwsfcag, W*. F*» ami.
\.A» 0*,. B s s t o a l t l o -» g u © o lw
S la y M in e ra l f » a C a lif o r n ia * jS®* M ineral*. 31* 338*
£44* MSS*
?».
d losoM sg.*. <T* 1** fti# M eo lm slm o f C a tio n X rehange i n
th e » a ta @ j,ill© a it# » B @ M # llite -S & n tr s a it« Typo o f C lay
Minerals*
8.
Sei*
19* 459*465*
lf5S*
is *
1#S4*
S r imp S* &»* fit# P e trd g rA jM d ' S te ty o f C lay SS.mefals A laboratory .lot©*
10*
4?* .1-11*
C la s s , I.e w e ll, s t a n d a r d iz a tio n o f In d ex iiQ & its .
anaaal.
9.
s o il
lotir*. Sat* Pet*
d rl® #. S* S*f P r o s # r t l « s o f C la y .
Siirr* Clre. 80* 49* 1939*
4» 45*
1934.
1 1 1 . Shat© d e o l.
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
- 44 -
IX*
QspSm, B. 1 *, O aoparatlv* S ta te s 'o f O lay_Mineralogy
.to Ssrope and to* united states* Donto . of too
f i f t o Annual M ineral to iu stri# © donf*, XXX* s ta te
Qeol* sanr* CXre* m * 25, toS* 1938.
12*
orto, 1 * S*, and pradXey* if* IV*'A Otal^oa'Olay from to©
Soon© to te , " X lliiw is urea* Jour* jat* Cer. so©* 22,
ISf-to*. 1939*
to*
Saris, B* I* . Bray, S. H ., and Bradley, W* F*, f&e
Aa» itinera!* 22,
Mica Xn togllXaoeoae sedtoents*
8X5-6®. 1937.
14* Grtatar,. J* W*. S tom ot^al BetottoaaM ps of Bontronites
and HoatsorilloiaXtos* Am* IStoeml* SO, 475-483.
Xfl&,
to* Bofm aa, U», JnieXX, K .f a a t tvUm, S ., E rista lls tra e ls tor. ami ^aeXlnag iron MentefiorilloftXt©* z o lt* K a is t*
8 6 , S4&-34S.
1033*
16.
.le lle y , W* IV, Jenny, 2*, and Brown, S* E ., Hydration
of M inerals mad s o il/ QoXXoits to g elatio n t© C ry sta l
Strnetor#* s o il Sei* 41, i§t-2?4* ££36*
17*
-1* s., m& Steiger,■ft*# Btoydratioa and
©ptioal stottes of .AXmogea, .loatroaite -and _
G riffith ite *
18*
Am* Jew * Sal* to , X -lt.
X928.
X arsea, 1 . S . , and W»3?ry, 1* f * , B e ld e liit e , a Hew
,Sto#f& i .las®* Jour* la to* Ae&d. le i * I S , 4 6 3 -4 6 6 .
X92S*
IS* M a rsh a ll* 6. 1*, l a y e r L a t t l o o a 'and B aae-X atoange ©lays*
zeit* m e t * 91, 433-449. ISM ,
2#,
Bsliioti© , s . , and f a s t o r , 2 * , sette M ineral* o f to e .
Agu M in era l. 1 0 , 4X2*418*
1925,
Wmmmmmn Copper D ep o sits*
21*
l o s s , a . " S . , a a d X a r r # 'F« ? * , fib* la o lt o id n eraX s#
Jour* As* Oer* See* to, 151-160. 19®.
22* B o ss, ®m S * , sa fi'E e r f, P . F* , ■l&XXoyitlt® and AXXophaae*
.. 2* a * 0*. S . .prof* Paper I S M , tog*XtS*
1934*
25* B o s s, 6* 3 * , and to a a n o n , 1 . ? * , X taeraX e o f B e n to n ite '
end t e l a te d O lays and f l i e i r F b jB ie a l P ro p o rtio n * J o u r .
M * Oer* see* 9 , 77-96* 1926*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
M*
Hoss, 0* a., and sbaaaas, 1. T*f Gfendoal Composition
«&& Optical Properties- of
Jour. istsii*
a o i * . I S , 4 A ? ~4 6 8 *
JS§*
I t 2 S»
Welasolw&k*
' B eitrlg© z m K iaasaX egle Ba/arna*
S a i t . K r i s t . SS, 150*. 189?*
R e p r o d u c e d with p e r m is s io n of t h e cop y rig h t o w n e r. F u r th e r r e p r o d u c tio n prohibited w ith o u t p e r m is s io n .
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