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THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE 'SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY' AS A WORK OF TRAVEL LITERATURE AND OF SENSIBILITY

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THE O R I G I N AN D D E V E L O P M E N T
AS A W O R K
OP THE
SENTIMENTAL
JOURNEY
OF T R A V E L L I T E R A T U R E AND OP S E N S I B I L I T Y
A D i s s e r t a t i o n P r e s e n t e d to the
F a c u l t y of P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y
in C a n d i d a c y for the D e g r e e
of D o c t o r of P h i l o s o p h y
By
A l a n H.
Vrooman
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Cf
\jUHHjth. )ej(,- <
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THE O R I G I N AN D D E V E L O P M E N T
OP THE
AS A W O R K OP T R A V E L L I T E R A T U R E
SENT IM E M T A L
JOURNEY
AND OP S E N S I B I L I T Y
L e a r n e d men, b r o t h e r T o b y . don't wr i t e
d i a l o g u e s u p o n l o n g nos e s for no t h i n g .
— Tristram Shandy
II,
124,
(iii,
37).
o
/V
_co
tiCj'ij jLOJl
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I
TABLE
OE C O N T E N T S
Chapter
I
II
Page
Sh.an.deism a n d S e n s i b i l i t y .........................
The S e v e n t h B o o k of T r i s t r s.m S h a n d y and
the
b a c k g r o u n d of T r a v e l a n d T r a v e l L i t e r a t u r e .
of the S en t i m e n t a l
. .
1
14
III
The
Genesis
J o u r n e y .............. 100
IV
The
Sent iaent al Jourrtey C o n s i d e r e d ................... 143
B i b l i o g r a p h y ........................
iii
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347
I
SH ANDEISM AND SENSIBILITY
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
This
stu dy
is p r i m a r i l y
of an u n d i s c o v e r e d w e a l t h
Journey but
as a n e w
to its p e r s o n a l
thoroughly
t r a v e l boo ks;
has
bili t y b e e n f i r m l y
Sterne's
established.
work
in r e l a t i o n
The S e n t i m e n t a l
e x a m i n e d with r e f e r e n c e
nor,
debt
as a r e v e l a t i o n
for the S e n t i m e n t a l
and literary background.
the c o n t e m p o r a r y
of S t e r n e ' s
of s o u r c e s
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of that
J o urn ey ha s n e v e r b e e n
in d i v i d u a l i s m ,
d e s i g n e d not
because
to
of hi s app a r e n t
to ot h e r w r i t e r s of s e n s i ­
A l t h o u g h most
of the fac ts
li f e h a v e be e n
a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e d in the ex1
cellent b i o g r a p h y of W i l b u r L. C r o s s and the s c h o l a r l y edi2
tion of hi s l e t t e r s b y L e w i s P. Curtis, this study, m a d e in
r e l a t i o n to t h e s e
facts,
the w o r k i n g of S t e r n e ' s
may
t h r o w a d d i t i o n a l light u p o n
mind
in the c o m p o s i t i o n of his
final
work.
In the m a i n T r i s t r a m S h a n d y
of S t e r n e ' s
life before
culmination
of th e g r e a t e s t
travels
detail
abroad
the
in 1 7 6 2 - 6 4 ,
Sentimental
se ns ib ility,
1762;
we mu s t
is the
the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y
experience
of h i s
a n d 176 5- 66 .
Journey
discover
artistic product
as
career,
Before
his
examining
a w o r k of t r a v e l
its o r i g i n
the
and trace
in
a n d of
its
gradu
1. Th e L i f e and T i m e s of L a u r e n c e Sler.ftft. 3r d ed. , N e w H a v e n
1929.
T h i s w o r k w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be r e f e r r e d to as frjfft.
2. L e t t e r s of L a u r e n c e S t e r n e . Oxford, 1935.
Henceforth re­
f e r r e d to as L e t t e r s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
al evolut io n.
chapter,
To
this
the n a t u r e
en d we
of the
shall
first
conside r,
six h o o k s
c h a r a c t e r as a w r i t e r up to 1762;
chapter,
t r i p abr oad,
1762-64,
seventh b o o k of T r i s t r a m : an d
during
the
in the
fr o m the
time
( O c t o b e r 1765)
T h e r e has
of his
until his
death
a lw a y s b e e n
tradiction.
W h e n he
for he
freak of genius,
a talented buffoon;
exhibit
one
his
st ate
of the
of mind
to the
To
Jour­
conti­
difficulty
appears
in e s ­
to be a c o n ­
a
he was a d m i r e d as an odd it y,
l a m e n t e d as a m a s t e r
of the h u m a n hea rt.
composition
b u r s t u p o n the L o n d o n scene,
of f o r t y - s i x ,
lyst
second
(Marc h 1768).
literary pa r v e n u
he was
Shandy
the S e n t i m e n t a l
considerable
c h a r a c t e r of St ern e,
first
of
in the
second Journey
t i m at ing the
later,
third,
g e s t a t i o n an d c o m p o s i t i o n
n e y . i.e.,
nent
a n d the
first
of T r i s t r a m
and S t e r n e ' s
his
in this
his
whe n he d i e d eight
of p a t h o s ,
a su b t l e
contemporaries
he
years
ana­
s e e m e d to
side
of his p e r s o n a l i t y
in w r i t i n g T r i s t r a m , and
then the r e v e r s e
in the S e n t i m e n t a l
Journey.
pretation
concile
tent,
is e n t i r e l y too
these
seeming opposites
of l a u g h t e r
Shandeism and
a n d tears,
changed but
character,
We
s ha ll
S u c h an i n t e r ­
endeavor
in­
with Sterne
r e l a t e d p h e n o m e n a and that his
lit tle.
To
demonstrate
we n e e d o n l y to t ur n to th e
of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y : for,
to r e ­
of f o o l i s h a n d s e r ious
a n d to s h o w that
sensibility were
basic c h a r a c t e r
of this
sim ple.
a
as he r e marke d,
first
the n a t u r e
six b o o k s
the w o r k is a p i c t u r e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3.
1
of h i m s e l f
into
w h i c h he ha s projected, his
en ti r e p e r s o n a l ­
ity.
First
of a l l , S h a n d e i s m m a y he
osophy of the
ego.
It g l o r i f i e s
c o n s i d e r e d as a p h i l ­
self-expression.
Good writ-
2
ing,
Sterne
observes,
and lik e a b r i l l i a n t
sion to his
talents
keeps h i m s e l f
their
Secondly,
he
and
emphasis
impulse
In its d i s r e g a r d
conversation,"
gives
the
c o m p l e t e ra n g e
t h e i r eyes
and calls
at his
expres­
if one a g re es
audie nc e.
upon
com mand .
By
He
fo r t h
such
o r i g i n a l i t y an d in genuity.
is a n e g a t i o n
above
full
of his
all the t r i c k s
Shandeism
for
is a v i r t u o s o — or,
for t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t
a procedure he p l a c e s
thought.
He
continually before
feeling
name
a mountebank— exhibiting
applause with
exalts
another
conversationalist,
personality.
with T h a c k e r a y ,
of his
“ is hut
of r a t i o n a l i t y .
the p r o c e s s e s
for r u l e s
It
of l o g i c a l
an d t r a d i t i o n
it
re­
flects
the b r e a k d o w n of e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f o r m a l i s m .
"Gr ea t
3
wits Jump," Sterne, once r e m a r k e d , a n d by a h a p h a z a r d a s s o c i a 4
tion of idea s h i s m i n d f l i t s f r o m one s u b j e c t to anothe r,
s e emi ng ly w i t h o u t
direction.
reader,
th e
fre e
from
formal
He
is,
rules
as he
makes
of l i t e r a r y
cl e a r
to the
5
composition.
1. L e t t e r No. 46, to Gar ric k, Jan. 27, 1760, p. 87.
2. T r i s t r a m S h a n d y I, 178 (B oo k ii. C h a p t e r 11).
All quota-_
tions f r o m T r i s t r a m a n d th e S e n t i m e n t a l J P U n kftX * re
from T h e W o r k s a n d L i f e of L a u r e n c e £JLfl£H3.» ed. by W i l b u r
L. Cross, H e w York, 1904, 12 vols.
3. 3L.5,. II, 19 ( H i , 9)^
4. S t e r n e w a s c l e a r l y u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f L o c k e s t h e o r y
of the a s s o c i a t i o n of idea s.
See Cross, It1 £ft.
Ma c L e a n , J o h n L o c k e a n d S n a l 1 sh L i t
-fix tfrft S 1
S-flAth Sa a t U E X . N e w H a ve n, 1936.
5. T.S.. I, 12 (i, 4); II, 2 1 3 - 1 4 (iv, 10).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
But
in his
insistence upon lack
of c o n t r o l
over his m a t e r i a l
he is g u i l t y
of m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .
Whe n he insi sts that his
1
pen g o v e r n s Jalm. no t he hi s pen. that he sc ri b b l e s w i t h o u t
2
blottin g, " w r i t i n g the first s e n t e n c e — an d t r u s t i n g to Al3
Diighty God for the second," he is e x a g g e r a t i n g the i m p o r t a n c e
of his r e l i a n c e
upon
impulse.
There
can be no doub t
that
he
e n g a g e d in the o r d i n a r y p r o c e s s e s
n e c e s s a r y to
talk of h i s
had one.
a desir e
of r e j e c t i o n a n d s e l e c t i o n
4
s u c c e s s f u l l i t e r a r y com p o s i t i o n .
Th e c o n t i n u a l
l a c k of m e t h o d
The pose
to set
in its elf an i n d i c a t i o n that he
of c a r e l e s s n e s s
of f his b o o k
which a g o o d p a r t
This
is
of his
fr o m the r a t i o n a l
to fo rma li sm ,
w o rk s
a g ai nst
a n d d i s r e g a r d fo r rul es
results
satire
self-expression
is a r e a c t i o n
is di re cte d.
in an e n t i r e l y n e w r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the a u t h o r a n d
reader.
writer
S h a n d e i s m knows
of the ti m e
devoted
work w i t h the r e a d e r .
ples of c o m p o s i t i o n ,
1.
2.
3.
4.
no
s u c h wo r d as
so m u c h space
Sterne's
his
choice
ret ice nce.
No ot h e r
to d i s c u s s i n g his
explanations
of words,
the
of hi s p r i n c i ­
his m a n n e r
of char-
JL.&. Ill, 13 3 ( v i , 6) .
T.S.. IV, 62 (vii, 25).
i.S,. IV, 115 (viii, 2).
Thi s i 8 b o r n e out b y h i s l e tte rs .
While
he told G a r r i c k
that the first a n d s e c o n d b o o k s of T r i s t r a m h a d " g o n e
forth into th e world, but as it came f r o m my B r a i n , w i t h ­
out one c o r r e c t i o n , " (Le tt er No. 46, Jan. 27, 1760, pp.
86-87.) he w r o t e the p u b l i s h e r D o d s l e y that "all l o c a l i t y
is tak en out of the b o o k — -the satire g en er al , n o t e s are
a d d e d w h e r e w a n t e d , a n d the wh o l e ma d e mo re s a l e a b l e — —
about a h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y p a g e s added."
(Letter No. 39,
? O c t . 1759, p. 81.)
S i n c e he was s e n d i n g the w o r k to
D o d s l e y a s e c o n d time, t h i s l a t t e r d e c l a r a t i o n must be
r e g a r d e d as fact.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
5 .
acter p o r t r a y a l ,
new degree
and his h a n d l i n g of n a r r a t i v e
of i n t i m a c y .
Although
some of his
are c a l c u l a t e d d e l i b e r a t e l y to m i s l e a d
them all is r e v e a l e d
hearted,
impulsive
an i m p l a c a b l e
takes
a comic
its au t ho r
spleen,
o
to
3
was
throughout
grained as
strongly
4
Parson Y o r i c k.
the
train.
pages
or
We
the
to
cause m i r t h ^
that
and to
the love
d efeat
the
the
refined.
was
t r a d i t i o n of
s c r i b b l e r s who
tax Rabel ai s
galimatias
the great
followed
in­
in
two
in w h i c h
French hu­
in his
with having used marbled
to p e r p l e x the reader,
but
the b a c k
the w h o l e
s l a p p i n g h i m on
his nose,
can be f o u n d in his w r i t i n g s .
it were,
into
of
The g r o t e s q u e n e s s we
of s p o r t i n g w i t h him,
as
the
virt u es
of a jest
divided roughly
fo r m u c h of the
in the
and a s t e r i s k s
It
in w r i t i n g T r i s t r a m .
the b o o k he m a i n t a i n e d
and
chapbook
ca n n o t
l a c k i n g in d is c r e t i o n ,
The p u r p o s e
certain
may term R a b e l a i s i a n ,
morist
a good-
is e s s e n t i a l l y a f o r m of humor.
S h a n d y m a y be
grotesque
Sterne i n d u l g e d is
through
in him as he a s s e r t e d it to h a ve b e e n
The h u m o r of
types,
the reader,
of the author,
somew h at
v i e w of life.
We m a y be
confidences
gravity.
Shandeism
asserted,
and
laughter.
fellow,
enemy
Lastly,
the f i g u r e
establish a
and
idea
tweaking
These
1. T..S,. I, 3 ( D e d i c a t i o n ) .
2II, 246 (iv, 22).
3. Cf. e s p e c i a l l y II, 3 0 2 - 0 3 (iv, 32); III, 1 7 0 - 7 1 (vi, 18).
4. T..S,. I, 39 (i, 11- 12 ) .
In r e a l i t y this is a s e l f - p o r ­
trait .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
typographical
tr i c k s
are a l o w f o r m of h u m o r ,
fitting
in w ith
Ste rn e' s p o s e as a clown.
ing his
w i g in the
W h e n he p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f as thr o w *
1
a i r in a fit of e x a s p e r a t i o n , or a s k i n g
Ma dam to h a n d h i m h i s foo l ' s cap, w h i c h
2
head, he sets the k e y n o t e for th is sort
Besides
for the
gross
these
sort
eccentricities,
of wit
is a l r e a d y
of b u f f o o n e r y .
Sterne
of w h i c h R a b e l a i s
sh ows a l i k i n g
was
the ma ste r.
But when he r e m a r k s that his w o r k is far r e m o v e d
3
laie, he e x p o s e s the w e a k n e s s in hi s use of this
humor.
Maitre
Francois
his g r o s s n e s s .
Ste rn e,
in ca pa ble
force.
His h u m o r
an d
loses
the
the
b e l l y - l a u g h in S t e r n e ' s
young maidens
enormity
deal
Rabelais's
most
ha s b e e n
in
own.
There
s n i g g e r a n d too
bawdry.
element
little
of the S h a n d e a n
imitated
in part
too
of the h e a r t y
which
i n s t e a d of
satire,
l a c k of
is e n t i r e l y
The prurience
significant
was
of its
p r e y i n g u p o n the r e a d e r ' s
in the b e d - c h a m b e r
is an e v e r - p r e s e n t
of
of G a r g a n t u a n
an d w i v e s — an d S a m u e l R i c h a r d s o n — and
the b o o k to be r e a d
sc h o l a s t i c i s m ,
sort
thoroughgoing
thereby a great
while maintaining his
much of the l ee r a n d
f ro m R a b e -
b o t h b y n a t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t ,
He is s u g g e s t i v e ,
innocence,
lor
is f u l l - b l o o d e d ,
of the f r a n k n e s s
indelicacy.
on his
shocked
caused
the p a r ­
temperament.
directed against
in T r i s t r a m ,
but
1. l .S. I I , 231 (iv, 17).
2. T.S. IV, 6 2 - 6 3 (vii, 26).
3. In so saying, he m a k e s S w i f t a n i n t e r m e d i a r y : "He k e e p s
a due d i s t a n c e f r o m R a b e l a i s - — & X k e e p a due d i s t a n c e
fr o m h i m — " L e t t e r No. 38A, to --- , Summe r, 1759, p. 76.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sterne was b o r n
fect.
A great
two
centuries
deal
of S t e r n e ' s
wigs
is lost b e c a u s e
time
outmoded.
is t h e r e f o r e
of Mr.
cance
But
long since
limited
Shandy's
of t h e
mind
to the
an d
crumbled
expose
of p o m p o s i t y ,
pretensions
The f i n e r
to o c c a s i o n a l
big­
is
The humor
curious workings
d o g m a of the
shrewd
and
in hi s
the u n i v e r s a l
the
ef­
S h a n d y he
to dust.
of a f f e c t a t i o n of a n y kind,
of h i s
"C e r v a n t i c . "
of Mr.
which motivated Sterne's
S h a n d e i s m and l e a d s
full
of p e d a n t s
of the
is w i t h o u t
it
we r e a l r e a d y
theories
of xlatelais 's a t t a c k u p o n
the p r i n c i p l e
to giv e
ridicule
th e i r d o c t r i n e s
Zn mos t
t r a m p l i n g on id o l s
too lat e
signifi­
sc ho o l m e n .
satire,
a hatred
is f u n d a m e n t a l
strokes
against
to
the
age.
Shandean humor
is that
The basic p rinciple
which Sterne
is w e l l
terms
d e s c r i b e d in his
own words:
I am p e r s w a d e d that the h a p p i n e s s of the C e r v a n t i c h u m o u r
arises from th is v e r y t h i n g - - o f d e s c r i b i n g s i l l y a n d t r i ­
fling Ev e n t s , w i t h th e C i r c u m s t a n t i a l P o m p of g r e a t o n e s - - 1
Much of' the g o o d - h u m o r e d l a u g h t e r
this
theory.
horses,
tant
To Mr.
Shandy
in Tristrain is b u i l t
and U n c l e T o b y
he g i v e s h o b b y ­
a n d to e a c h his h o b b y - h o r s e b e c o m e s
thing
in life.
the l i t t l e
triumphs
to use
the w o r d
Sterne
re v e a l s
1. L e t t e r No.
It is
and
upon
the most
impor­
in the d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s
frustrations
of the s e
two h u m o r i s t s —
in its e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m e a n i n g — — that
most
38A,
surely the true
to ---,
Summer,
comic
1759,
spirit.
p.
of
77.
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At
fir st g l a n c e
vorced f rom S t e r n e ' s
je sti ng spirit
this
sensibility.
gation
Sterne's
ly u p o n his
emotions
so
in
in the p l i g h t
in s t i n c t
g ives
self.
While
is
rather
in w h i c h St e r n e
to hi s
events
i8 s o m e t i m e s
a bodily
given
th ou ght
wh ims
to p l a y
the o r i g i n of the
own feel in gs.
effec t,
a ne­
than u p o n
free r e O
St e r n e
in
capacity
in p ar t
free­
emotion
dw e l l s m a i n l y on the
and is one of the v e r y first
his
Bu t
feel­
e x a l t a t i o n of
is se ns i b i l i t y ,
As h e
a strong physical
jection which
curious
Shandeism
of ot he rs,
to d e s c r i b e m i n u t e l y
have
occasion.
s e n s i b i l i t y he a l l o w s
emotional
effect u p o n h i m s e l f
and
the ten der ,
is b a s e d u p o n his
that
and so
judgment.
in Shandeism,
may be
seen
of r a t i o n a l i t y ,
relies u p o n his
o f his
sensibility
We h a v e
and r e a s o n e d
S u c h an i r r e s p o n s i b l e ,
displayed upon
reality t hey a r e b o t h a p ar t
for feeling.
se ems c o m p l e t e l y d i ­
w o u l d seem c o m p l e t e l y u n l i k e
ing n a t u r e w h i c h S t e r n e
the self.
Shandeism
of his t im e
Of te n t h e s e
fe e l i n g s
stimulation
or d e ­
considerable
ero t i c
signifi­
cance.
At
mental ity ,
i18 worst
or
Sterne's
indulgence
charges
of life.
At
It l e a d s
1 1 8 b e s t his
where l a u g h t e r
times degenerates
c o n n e c t i o n w i t h rea li ty ,
of h y p o c r i s y .
is c l o s e
r e s u lt s
in s e n t i ­
in e m o t i o n f o r its own sake.
l u x u r i a t i n g in f e e l i n g at
and, by l o s i n g
sensibility
His
into m a w k i s h n e s s
lays h i m
o p en
to
to d i s t o r t i o n of th e p i c t u r e
sensibility engages
to t e a r s a n d r e s u l t s
in the r e a l m
in s u c h a p o r —
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
trait
as
that
of U n c l e Toby*
the c u l m i n a t i o n
of life and
in S t e r n e
is c l o s e
The
of the
i n d e e d to
old
soldier's
character
is
sympathetic understanding
the h i g h
comic
spirit
of C e r ­
vantes.
But
He c h an ges
Sterne
is n ev e r
mood with
and h a s
le d m a n y c r i t i c s
G i v e n his
whi ch he
allows
his
standing
of his
mo t i v e s ,
e x a l t a t i o n of
impulses,
but
a b i l i t y to
in his
but
to hi s
q u e s t i o n his
and
we m a y a c h i e v e
Both th e b o o k a n d t h e a u t h o r w e r e
sh ock ing,
to
the ego
to i n d u c e a g e n e r o u s a t t i t u d e
am u s i n g an d a b i t
The
for long.
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y was b a f f l i n g
cerity.
able
or w o r s t
a s t o n i s h i n g ra pi d i t y .
laugh a n d w e e p a l m o s t
temporaries,
at his b e s t
con­
sin­
the fr ee r a n g e
a better u nder­
l i f e t i m e he was n e v e r
towards Tristram S h a n d y .
c o n s i d e r e d as o r i g i n a l s ,
at
t i mes
capable
of a r o u s i n g
real emo tion.
Such was
the
1759-61 p r o j e c t e d
Tristram.
volu me s
ment.
It is
into the w r i t i n g
Despite preferences
we are
in the
are in v o l u m e s
of L o n d o n
of th e
i m p o s s i b l e to d e t e c t
a p p e a r i n g at y e a r l y
or another,
talent
character which Sterne
first
intervals
two v o l u m e s wa s
I I I — VI e v i d e n c e s
society,
admit
but
G a r r i c k or r e m o n s t r a n c e s w i t h his
six b o o k s
the
of
of
any r e g u l a r d e v e l o p ­
critics
that
for one b o o k
the a u t h o r ' s
a l r e a d y m a tu re .
of h i s
these ta ke
first
in the t h r e e p a i r s
of i n d i v i d u a l
c o m p e l l e d to
through the years
contact
form
There
w i t h the w o r l d
of a p o s t r o p h e s
critics and represent
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no
to
fu n d a m e n t a l
change
ity” from the
in d e si gn .
Sterne
had
taken
"all
local­
first
a seco nd time
two b o o k s of T r i s t r a m b e f o r e he sen t it
1
to D o d s l e y , a n d h e n c e we c a nnot say that the
work b r o a d e n s
perceptibly
from
the p r o v i n c i a l
to
the
cos mo-
poli t a n .
Nor
those who
can we
would
f i n d wh a t
formulate a theory
toward the S e n t i m e n t a l
element
an d an
w o u l d be v e r y g r a t i f y i n g
of g r a d u a l
to
evolution
J o u r n e y - - a l e s s e n i n g of the S h a n d e a n
increase
in s e n s i b i l i t y .
Those
who p o i n t
to
2
the sto ry
gr ow in g
of Le F e v e r
interest
in
in the
s i x t h b o o k as
sensibility may be
evidence
a n s w e r e d by t h e
ment that
the l i t t l e e p i s o d e of U n c l e T o b y and the
3
the s e c o n d r e p r e s e n t s a p e r f e c t i o n of the in c i d e n t
bility.
The
character
ve l o p e d g r e a t l y
of U n c l e Toby,
in b o o k s
III
and
to th e
sketch
Prior
to h i s
going abroad
progressed very
according
Shandy
all
diffe re nt
tions
far
to J o h n
Croft,
over E u r o p e ,
Courts,
was
an e u l o g i u m
1. Cf. s u n r a . p. 4,
2. C h s . 6-10.
3. Ch. 12.
there
in 1762,
travell
and after
argu­
in
of s e n s i ­
is d e ­
is n o t h i n g
S t e r n e h a d not
intention,
which,
his H e r o T r i s t r a m
remarks
strictures
of E u r o p e
superior
fl y
the
II.
m a k i n g his
making
Governments
on the
is true,
I and
original
"to
proceed with
on t h e d i f f e r e n t
work with
in b o o k s
towards his
it
IV, but
contradictory
of
on the
and r e f l e c ­
and f i n i s h
the
c o n s t i t u t i o n of E n g —
n. 4.
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land and at l e n g t h
to r e t u r n T r i s t r a m well i n f o r m e d an d a
1
compleat E n g l i s h G e n t l e m a n . ”
E v i d e n c e of this i n t e n t i o n
is to be
f o u n d in a r e m a r k
in the
first b o o k
of T r i s t r a m
Sh&a&x;
I ha d just time in m y t r a v e l s t h r o u g h D e n m a r k w i t h Mr. N o d ­
d y ’s el de st son, whom, in the yea r 1741, I a c c o m p a n i e d as a
governor, r i d i n g a l o n g w i t h h i m at a p r o d i g i o u s rate thro*
most p a r t s of E u r o p e . a n d of w h i c h J o u r n e y p e r f o r m e d by us
two, a most d e l e c t a b l e n a r r a t i v e w ill be g i v e n in the p r o ­
gress of this w o r k . 2
This
remark,
takes
together
as p r o o f
that
with
Sterne
several
actually
supplementary
ones.
made a trip a b r o a d
Cross
in
3
1741.
The d a n g e r
of t a k i n g T r i s t r a m
Shandy
seriously
as
1. “Y o r k s h i r e A n e c d o t e s , " l e t t e r s of J o h n Croft to C a l e b
W h i t e f o o r d , p u b l i s h e d by Cross, W o r k s VI, 13-14.
2.
Shaply. I, 41 (i, 6).
3. Th e a d d i t i o n a l r e m a r k s c i t e d are, first, Mr. S h a n d y ' s c o m ­
ment on the s c a r c i t y of " p a l a c e s an d g e n t l e m e n ’s seats"
in the F r e n c h p r o v i n c e s (I, 79); second, a r e f e r e n c e to
the co u r s e of a m u l e t e e r f r o m H o m e to L o r e t t o (I, 60);
third, an a p p a r e n t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the L o w Coun tr ie s,
where U n c l e T o b y c a m p a i g n e d ; a n d fou rt h, T r i s t r a m ' s a s ­
s e r t i o n that he d e v e l o p e d an a s t h m a " s e a t i n g a g a i n s t the
w i n d in F l a n d e r s " (I, 16).
C r o s s ' s c o n c l u s i o n is as fo l ­
lows. " F r o m all t h i s it m a y be s u r m i s e d at l e a s t that soon
a f t e r his m a r r i a g e in the s p r i n g of 1741, S t e r n e lef t his
b r i d e at h o m e a n d t o o k a f l y i n g t r i p to the C o n t i n e n t wi th
a s t r i p l i n g f r o m the h o u s e of G o r d o n d i s g u i s e d as ’Mr.
N o d d y ’s el d e s t son.'"
L i f e . p. 57.
T h e w e a k n e s s o f this
e v i d e n c e is o b v ious.
The fir st c i t a t i o n is a c o m m o n p l a c e
r e m a r k on F r a nc e; if the s e c o n d is e v i d e n c e of t r a v e l
abroad, t h e n the us e of the p h r a s e "as far as f r o m Cape
T o w n to Cairo" in this d i s s e r t a t i o n w o u l d p r o v e that its
a u t h o r h a d b e e n in A f r i c a ; the i n f o r m a t i o n on the L o w
Countr ie s, w h e n t e c h n i c a l , is t a k e n m o s t l y f r o m T i n d a l ' s
c o n t i n u a t i o n of H a p i n ’s H i s t o r y of E n g l a n d (See T h e o d o r e
Baird, "The T i m e S c h e m e of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y and a Source,"
F.M.ii.iL. LI (1936), 8 0 3 - 2 0 . ) and is o t h e r w i s e c o m m o n ­
place; a n d la st ly , the r e m a r k on s k a t i n g in F l a n d e r s is
m a d e in a h u m o r o u s v e i n a n d n e e d not be t a k e n s eriou sl y.
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autobiography
Sterne was
broad
too b u s y
pas sage
the
continent,
six b o o k s
son"
shows
is no p r o o f
intention
in r e se rve,
surprisingly little
le tt ers ,
sermons,
Sterne's
while waiting
in the
did not p o s s e s s
the matter,
im­
and the
of s e n d i n g T r i s t r a m to tra vel
say that
where T r i s t r a m m i g h t be
tram a b r o a d he
the
of S h a n d y .
we m a y
this m a t e r i a l
that Sterne
If Ste r n e did
narrative
such that he w o u l d not h a v e h e l d his m a t e r i a l
pletely
g o n e a-
l ik e l y that
is a fiction.
th e event m a d e
that
to hav e
it seems
to j ud ge b y his
As f o r hi s
about Eur op e,
there
to 1762,
Noddy's
pr e s s i o n u p o n him,
first
Although
abroad prior
on " S q u i r e
who
with Yorkshire politics
in that year.
had not b e e n
visit
is d e m o n s t r a t e d b y Curtis,
it,
either
six b o o k s
a n d that
int e n d e d ,
travel.
was
on trave l
to r e a c h a po int
e x p e c t e d to
first
method
co m ­
in time
The a b s e n c e
indicates
of
that St e rn e
to s u p p l y a b a c k g r o u n d for T r i s ­
if i n d e e d he
thought
seriously
to r e a d a n u m b e r of t r a v e l b o o k s
about
or to m a k e
a j o u r ne y h i m s e l f .
This
m a rka bl e
his
wh e n
absence
we c o n s i d e r t h e
sojourn abroad
s ta ll ments
of T f l a t r « m
of his book,
i. TJie P o l i t i c k s
(books
or u n a b l e
While
d a t a is the m o r e r e ­
impression made upon Sterne by
in the y e a r s
was ei th er u n w i l l i n g
out
of b o n a f i d e t r a v e l
1762-64.
VII-VIIX
and
The
final
IX)
two
in­
s how that he
to k e e p the d a t a of tr a v e l
in the p e r i o d of t im e
of LaurftftCft S t f t m a.
Oxf or d,
from his
1929,
p.
trium119.
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phant
he
arrival
in L o n d o n
found no n e w
to his
w h i c h we
shall
first an d s e c o n d tr ip s a b r oad ,
wealth of n e w ideas
character.
lo ng
towards
the
lat ter)
radically
of surp ri se.
events
love.
a f t e r the
of the p r o m i s e
It was n a t u r a l ,
should a p p e a r
in his
It i s /then,
for F r a n c e
primarily
concerned
periences
ground,
we w i s h
to
tours
W h a t we
a n d his
was
in its novelty,
completion
the
of the
definite
in m ind
Toby
in
new material
work.
literary
in the e a r l y day s
in this
in r e f e r e n c e
of other
in em p h a s i s
to s h o w U nc le
that
with Sterne's
departure
travel w r i t i n g s
therefore,
combina­
t h r o u g h his m i n d i n to his
fifth an d s i x t h v o l u m e s he h a d n o t h i n g m o r e
than the f u l f i l m e n t
the
to be.
of his
of T r i s t r a m
But
changed Sterne's
life
sh ow n h i m
cu lt u r e p a s s
M u c h of the appeal
of the P a r i s
(with a shift
w h i c h we h a v e
is h o w the
impa ct
end of h i s
and sensibility
contacts w i t h a n o t h e r
the el emen t
ca ll r e s p e c t i v e l y
the
st ay at T o u l o u s e
wish to d e m o n s t r a t e
writing.
two e x c u r s i o n s
an d ne w ma t e r i a l .
H e r e m a i n e d to the
tion of S h a n d e i s m
the c o n t i n e n t
supplied him with a
We do no.t m e a n to say that
scene or the
for
i n s p i r a t i o n fo r S h a n d y . the
in 1 7 6 2 — 64 an d 1 765 — 66,
his
departure
stu dy.
to hi s
tra v e l l e r s ,
c a r e e r a f t e r his
of 1 7 6 2 that
B y a n e x a m i n a t i o n of his
own
experiences,
and the g e n e r a l
s h o w h o w this
we are
Shandean,
th e e x ­
literary back­
sentimental
parson
came to w r i t e the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y and w h y he w r o t e as he did.
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IZ
T H E S E V E N T H B O O K OE T R I S T R A M S H A N D Y A N D
THE B A C K G R O U N D OF T R A V E L AN D T R A V E L L I T E R A T U R E
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Three weeks
sixth b o o k s
set
the p u b l i c a t i o n
of T r i e t r a m S h a n d y
im p e l l e d b y his
Death,
af te r
out
"vile
cough"
from London
of the
(Decem ber 21,
1761)
a n d p u r s u e d by the
for
fifth and
Sterne,
s p ect er
the s o u t h of France.
Ab ou t
the time
the L o n d o n C h r o n i c l e (Feb. 2-4) was c a r r y i n g a no1
tice of his death, the slfck m a n i n f o r m e d G a r r i c k fro m Paris:
"I co u l d w r i t e
this gre a t
did not
six v o l u m e s
scene,
fulf i l
sinc e
of w h a t has p a s s e d
these
last
the h o p e e x p r e s s e d
c o m i c a l l y in
2
f o u r t e e n days."
But he
to his
actor friend "in a
fortnight
to b r e a k t h r o u g h or r a t h e r f r o m the d e l i g h t s of
3
this pla ce ."
A f t e r r e c o v e r i n g his h e a l t h s om ew ha t, he suf4
fered a " d e f l u x i o n P o i t r i n e , " but b e c a u s e of his d a u g h t e r ' s
h e a l t h d e c i d e d to wait
journeying
that
to T o u l o u s e .
at P a r i s
or b r i n g w i t h me
Evidently
and his w i f e b e f o r e
In M a y he w r o t e his
11by the b e g i n n i n g of n e x t
ready to send;
for he r
determined
Year"
publisher Becket
he
would have
5
to Town ."
something
f u r n i s h i n g the p u b l i c w i t h two v o l u m e s
i n t e n t i o n of
6
a year, he a d d e d a
postscript
c o m p o s e d four days
to a n o t h e r l e t t e r
to c a r r y out his
to B e c k e t
1. Cross, L i f e . p. 289.
2.
L e t t e r No. 82, Jan. 31, 1762, p. 152.
3.
, p. 151.
4.
L e t t e r No. 88, to A r c h b i s h o p
of York,
5.
L e t t e r No. 89, M a y 12, 1762,
p. 167.
6. Cf.
I, 6 1 - 6 2 (i, 14).
M a y 10,
1762,
p.
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164.
later:
"I am v e r y hard, at W o r k and when
Z am got
d o w n to my
house at T o u l o u s e in the s o u t h of Pra n c e y o u will soon see
1
abt W h a t .M
It is not c e r t a i n * about what" St e r n e was b u s y ­
ing his p e n in the P r e a c h
p ec t e d to k e e p
Sterne
some
sort
capital.
E v e r y t r a v e l l e r was
of ac co un t
of his
ma y h a v e b e e n c h r o n i c l i n g the
his P a r i s i a n t r iumph.
T o ulo us e
In October,
journey,
ex­
an d
co mi ca l h a p p e n i n g s
how ev er ,
he wr ot e
of
from
to J o h n H a l l - S t e v e n s o n :
I am no w stout and f o o l i s h a g a i n as a h a p p y man can w i s h to
be— and am b u s y p l a y i n g the fool w i t h my u n c l e Toby, who I
have got s o u s e d ov er h e a d a n d ears in love. — I h a v e m a n y
hints a n d p r o j e c t s for oth er works; all will go on I trust
as I wish in this m a t t e r . 2
P r o m thi s l e t t e r
me nced what was
to b e c o m e
and that he was
thinking
ready l e n g t h y novel.
would h a r d l y be
then,
time some
there
t h o ug ht
rate
of oth er
To be
almost
composition
t h a n his a l ­
of u t i l i z i n g hi s
W ha t
while
and p r o j e c t s . "
In his
c e r t a i n l y must h av e b e e n at
impli es
" o t h e r works"
As we
this
e x p e r i e n c e s a b r o a d for
f o r m he con s i d e r e d ,
fr om Trlfltram S h a n d y .
1. L e t t e r No.
2. L e t t e r No.
3. L e t t e r No.
Sterne had com­
sure,
"h i n t s a n d p r o j e c t s "
S t e rn e's part,
that
the e i g h t h b o o k of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y ,
c o n s i d e r e d as " h i n t s
literary purposes.
The p h r a s e
is e v i d e n t
he h a d on h a n d s e r m o n s
3
" r e a d y w i t h a m o n t h ' s L a bo ur ," but t h e s e
which w o u l d b e
mind,
it
w e do no t
indecision
know.
on
im pl ie s p u b l i c a t i o n
shall
see later,
sepa­
books
90, to B e c ket, May 16, 1762, p. 169.
100, Oct. 19, 1762, p. 186.
104, to B e c k e t , Mar. 12, 1763, p. 192.
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of
travel w ere the
frequent
ty-products
of literary-minded, g e n t l e m e n .
tricity.
was
opportunist
sort u p o n the p u b l i c .
the m a n n e r
Sterne,
e n o u g h to
Whatever
w ere
a li be r a l d o s e
com mon,
Sterne
the E u r o p e a n t o u r s
d e s p i t e hi s
impose
a "tax"
conventional.
mus t h a v e
of S h a n d e i s m w o u l d m ak e his
from the dull n a r r a t i o n s
eccen­
of this
shape the w o r k m i g h t
of w r i t i n g w o u l d not be
travel b o o k s
of
an d w e a r i s o m e
take,
Although
seen a l r e a d y
t r a ve ls
catalogues
that
different
of hi s p r e ­
decessors.
The w i n t e r p a s s e d at T o u l o u s e w i t h o u t
of the
fourth
installment
Be ck et
that he h o p e d his r e t u r n
ferred "so long,
completion
In M a r c h S t e r n e
to E n g l a n d w o u l d not b e
wrote
de­
it n e e d f u l to s end ove r b e f o r e me
1 .
the C o n t i n u a t i o n of S h an dy ."
R e s i d e n c e at T o u l o u s e h a d not
br o ug ht
a bou t
as
of T r i s t r a m .
the
th e
to m a k e
expected
cure,
and S t e r n e ' s h e a l t h wa s
that w ork m u s t h a v e b e e n v i r t u a l l y
b r i e f pe riod s.
In s e a r c h of r e l i e f S t e r n e
d e c a m p e d for B a g n & r e s - d e - B i g o r r e
in this
que st
impossible
for h e a l t h
w r iti ng s was p r e s e n t .
and m u c h a m u s e m e n t
the
and h i s
in t he P y r e n e e s ,
for
family
but
i d ea of s e e k i n g m a t e r i a l
At B a g n e r e s
f r o m th e
except
such
ev e n
for his
he e x p e c t e d " m u c h h e a l t h
concourse
of a d v e n t u r e r s
f ro m all
1. L e t t e r Ho. 104, to B e c k e t , Mar. 12, 1763, p. 191.
2. See L e t t e r No. 108, to the A r c h b i s h o p of York, M a y 7,
1762: " h a v i n g s i n c e the f i r s t day of my a r r i v a l h e r e
b e e n in a c o n t i n u a l w a r f a r e w i t h agues, fevers, a n d
p h y s i c i a n s , " p. 195.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
17.
1
corners
of the
p r e s s e d his
"and
ea rth. "
Obviously
i n t e n t i o n to cr oss
spend a w e e k
in g o o d
the m o u n t a i n s
in that k i ng do m,
which
fertile b r a i n to w r i t e a v o l u m e upon.
history
spirits,
he
ex­
into Sp ai n
is e n o u g h for a
—
When
of my t r a v e l s — —M e m o r a n d u m • 1 am not
I write
the
to forget h o w
2
ho nest
a man
events
of his
in his
mind,--at
and in the
ference
ness
I have
journey
to his
from L o n d o n
an y rate he
joking
spoiled
for a b a n k e r
was
compliment
at P a r i s . "
the
to T o u l o u s e h a d grow n
cold
s e e k i n g new i n s p i r a t i o n ;
to F o l e y we h a v e a d e f i n i t e r e ­
i n t e n t i o n of c o m p o s i n g hi s
the
Perhaps
travels.
But
il l­
into S p a i n n e v e r
s t ay at B a g n e r e s , a n d the p r o j e c t e d t r i p
3
t o o k place.
Having gained neither health
nor
Sterne
inspiration,
France
in s e a r c h
pellier,
where,
spent
of w i n t e r
despite
the
March 1764.
Then,
re tu rn home,
he l e f t his
out
affair,
he r e m a i n e d u n t i l
of F r a n c e
and a n x i o u s
w i f e an d d a u g h t e r b e h i n d
Indulged
After
two m o n t h s
and
to
set
in the
in a s e r m o n and a l o v e -
on to L o n d o n .
In this b r i e f
1.
2.
3.
4.
tired
of P a r i s .
w h e r e he
he p a s s e d
sh ar p air,
thoroughly
for E n g l a n d b y w a y
Fr e n c h capital,
S e p t e m b e r 176 3 t o u r i n g so u t h e r n
4
quarters.
He s e t t l e d u p o n M o n t ­
account
of S t e r n e ' s
first
tri p abroad,
L e t t e r No. 106, to Fo ley,
Apr. 18, 1763, p.
193.
L e t t e r No. Ill,
to same,
June 12, 1763, p.
198.
See Cross, L i f e , p. 334.
"The visit to B a g n e r e s , so far as we h a v e any r e c o r d of
it, is a l m o s t an i n t e l l e c t u a l b l a n k in S t e r n e ' s life."
I b i d . , p. 336.
U n l e s s c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s f i g u r e d , n on e of
the eve n t s of hi s visit h av e f o u n d t h e i r wa y into S t e r n e ' s
writing.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
two th in gs
sh ou ld he
noted:
of w r i t i n g
about
travels ,
his
first,
and
the g e n e s i s
second,
of the
the app ar en t
of o p p o r t u n i t y for w o r k u p o n Tri strain S h a n d y .
March 1763
Ste rn e
ter passed,
of S h a n d v
an d he n e i t h e r b r o u g h t
to E n gl and.
not
p r o m i s e d m or e
Sickness
conducive
and m o v e m e n t
to l i t e r a r y
the end of Ma y 1764,
the a p p e a r a n c e
of the
S h a n d y . the new
have
fifth and
installment
Whereas
in
an ot he r w i n ­
n o r sent hi s
continuation
from p l a c e
to p l a c e
are
a n d w h e n St e rn e
re­
t w e n t y - n i n e mon ths
sixth volumes
was
lack
soon,
composition,
tu rn ed home at
idea
after
of T r i s t r a m
still u n f i n i s h e d .
As
we
seen above,
he ha d s t a r t e d w o r k on Un cle To b y' s love1
affair w i t h the W i d o w Wad ma n, a n d his p l a n u p o n r e a c h i n g
L o n d o n was
to go do wn
to C o x w o l d an d
c o m p l e t e B o o k s VII
and
VIII.
I am g o i n g down [he wr ot e in S h a n d e a n st yle to Mrs. E l i z a ­
beth Mon tagu ] to w r i t e a w o r l d of N o n s e n s e - - i f p o s s i b l e like
a man of S e n s e — but th er e is the R u b . W o u l d Apollo, or the
fates, or any b o d y else, h a d p l a n t e d me w i t h i n a l e a g u e of
Mrs M o u n t a g u e this Su mmer, I c o u l d h a v e taken my h o r s e &
gone & f e t c h ' d Wit a n d W i s d o m e as I w a n t e d t h e m — as for n o n ­
s e n s e — I am p r e t t y w e l l p r o v i d e d m y s e l f b o t h b y n a t u r e &
T r a v e l .2
The r e f e r e n c e
teresting
At
to his
in light
the
end
t r a vel s
of what
as
a source
of n o n s e n s e
is
in­
fol lows .
of S e p t e m b e r
he
r e t u r n e d to my P h i l o s o p h i c a l Hut
i n f o r m e d Foley:
to
“ I am
f i n i s h T ri st ram,
now
which
I
1. L e t t e r No. 100.
See als o No. 101, to Foley, Nov. 9, 1762,
p. 189.
2.
L e t t e r No. 124, to Mrs. Mon ta gu , June 1764, p. 216. C u r ­
tis's d a t i n g of this l e t t e r se em s to me concl usi ve.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
calculate will b e r e a d y for
But,
a c c o r d i n g to Cross,
by November.
inference
the w o r l d about
Sterne had
Ch r i s t m a s . "
f i n i s h e d only
" T h e n he c o n c e i v e d the notion,
fro m his
the comic v e r s i o n
let te rs ,
of his
of f i t t i n g
travels
one v o l u m e
it is a fair
into T r i s t r a m
t h r o u g h France,
Sh a n d y
already
compose d in wh ole or in p a r t as a s e p a r a t e w o r k or a loo se
2
c o nti nu at io n."
T h e i n s p i r a t i o n of this id ea is p r o b a b l y
Sterne' s
le tter
of s p e n d i n g
to J o h n H a l l - S t e v e n s o n
"a w e e k
or te n days"
s t a t i n g his
intention
at Sc ar b o r o u g h :
I go on, not r a pi dl y, b u t well e n o u g h with my u n c l e T o b y ' s
a m o u r s — There is no si tting, and c u d g e l i n g ones b r a i n s wh il st
the sun sh in es b r i g h t — 'Twill be all o ve r in six or se ve n
weeks, and there are di sma l m o n t h s e n o w after to en d u r e s u f ­
foc at io n b y a b r i m s t o n e fire-side.**
Since he
until
stayed longer
than he p r o p o s e d and did not r e t u r n
4
the end of S e p t e m b e r , he c o u l d h a v e done l i t t l e w o r k
that month.
his ef fo rt
But
Cross,
to p r o v e
last-minute
that
in se rt i o n .
his a s s e r t i o n
that
1 believe,
the
There
Sterne had
overstates
the
case
in
s e v e n t h b o o k of Tri strain was a
is no e v i d e n c e
to c o r r o b o r a t e
f i n i s h e d o n l y one v o l u m e
by
5
November,
for h e wa s
and the next
at w o r k a g a i n by the end of S e p t e m b e r ,
reference
to his
composition
is d a t e d N o v e m b e r
11:
1. L e t t e r No. 132, Sept. 29, 1764, p. 228.
2.
p. 354.
3. L e t t e r No. 130, Sept. 4, 1764, p. 225.
4. L e t t e r No. 131, to same, Sept. 27, 1764: "I am bu t
moment returned, f r o m S c a r b o r o u g h . . . " p. 226.
5. Le t t e r No. 132, to Foley, q u o t e d above.
thi s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
20.
I will c o n t r i v e to s e n d y o u these 2 n e w Vols of T r i s t r a m ,
as soon as ev er I get them f r o m the p r e s s - - Y o u will r e a d as
odd a T o u r thro* france, as ever was p r o j e c t e d or e x e c u t e d
by t r a v e l l e r or t r a v e l l Writ er, since the w o r l d t e g a n - --t is a l a u g h i n g g o o d t e m p e r d S a t y r a g a i n s t T r a v e l i n g
(as p u p p i e s t r a v e l ) - - 1
Two days
l a t e r he h a d f i n i s h e d
the two v o l u m e s ,
including Ha
comic a c c o u n t of my j o u r n e y fr o m C a l a i s t h r o 1 P a r i s
2
Garonne ."
A l t h o u g h th e s e are the first r e f e r e n c e s
actual
employment
is to be
fou nd
book d u r i n g
quoted ab o v e
of hi s
that
October,
and
implies
A l t h o u g h we
can not
de n y
flagging,and
inappropriately
i n d e e d the
that h i s
Inspiration
ther
in T r i s t r a m . no
he h a d not b e e n
nonsensical
tram was
travels
of w h i c h he wa s
that
that
in the
the
the
reasons
ha s t i l y
rearranged
for p u b l i c a t i o n
the a c c o u n t
st at e
of
Sterne r e a c h e d E n g l a n d ,
of
at
of U n c l e
letters
of T r i s ­
is i n s e r t e d r a ­
that
last
minute
to h a v e
Toby's
on the
the r e
the b o o k was
Co xwold.
further
him
to mak e use.
the novel,
the
e n t i r e l y at
or u n c o v e r
in u n p u b l i s h e d
Montagu
im pe tus
or a w o r k w h i c h S t e r n e h a p p e n e d
learn the
travel b o o k
about
for b e l i e v i n g
composed
the
trave l
to Mrs.
creative
framework
It mig ht h a v e b e e n
to
indication
on the
seventh book
sufficient
not e s
letter
the
s o j o u r n a b r o a d h a d g iv e n
are not
travel
working
to
fr o m
o n hand.
Unless
amours
evidence
s u bje ct
or
we
when
oh
the
a manu­
1. L e t t e r No. 134, to Foley, p. 231.
T h e on ly O c t o b e r l e t t e r
we h a v e is a d d r e s s e d to the A r c h b i s h o p of York, No. 133,
Oct. 30, 1764, pp. 229 -3 0, a n d does not r e f e r to hi s novel.
2. L e t t e r No. 136, to Foley, Nov. 16, 1764, p. 234.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
21.
script,
thing
there
is
that
is l i t t l e
Sterne
more
saw fit
tram S h a n dy "a l a u g h i n g g o o d
to he
said.
to w r i t e
The
and
im po rtan t
include
tempered Satyr
in T r i s ­
against T r a v e l ­
ing."
Before
d i s c u s s i n g the
we must
consider briefly
men a n d
the b o o k s
through
w h i c h t h e y wrote.
the A m e r i c a n
who
wilderness,
Although extraordinary and
imaginative
pecially
the
no n a t i o n
the fact
been
t he m
observed,"
is t h e i r
of the im agi n a t i o n .
voyages
nel and
the
wrote Philip
to t r a v e l l i n g
our su bj ect
Contine nt,
is
es­
l e d by
or by
s w a r m e d o v er the
Th i c k n e s s e ,
as the E n g l i s h :
t h e i r f o r tu ne s
1
curiosity."
Since E l i z a ­
times E n g l i s h m e n h a d b e e n f a m e d as
distinction,
were n u m e r o u s
f r e e d o m an d
to g r a t i f y t h e i r
the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,
social
or
Italy.
is so a d d i c t e d
is s o . . . I t
ena b l e
bethan
and
is not
or w i t h those who
ordinary traveller upon
in F r a n c e
"It has
which
our concern
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
c o n f i n e d to
se v en th book,
c h a r t e d u n k n o w n seas
in the r e a l m
"that
the
of travel by E n g l i s h ­
Here
t r a v e l l e d l ess d a n g e r o u s l y
in the
of
the b a c k g r o u n d
with t h o s e h a r d y a d v e n t u r e r s
crept
"S atyr"
the d e s i r e
trave lle rs.
for k n o w l e d g e
During
or
c u r i o s i t y , t he y c r o s s e d the C ha n2
Continent.
S o m e w e r e on b u s i n e s s
1 . U s e f u l Hint s to t h o s e wh o m a k e the T o u r jsJi fff.aag 9 A s
Series
L e t t e r s . w r i t t e n f.Eja.ff tfrft-t. Klttgfl.Q.g» L o n d o n
1770, p. 108.
2. For an a c c o u n t of the ty pe 6 of E n g l i s h m e n in F r a n c e in the
1 7 t h c e ntur y, see G e o r g e s A s c oli,
Grande.-B r etftgh.fi.
I 1o p i n i o n F r a n c a l s e && KVIIg.
Bk. ii. Ch. 7, " A n g ­
lais, S c o s s a i s , I r l a n d a i s en Fra nc e.
I, 4 4 7 — 91.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
or d i p l o m a t i c
missions,
and
short p e r i o d
of time,
years
making
the G r a n d Tour.
man's
education had
at the
but
some were v i s i t o r s
others
spent as m a n y as three
This phase
of a y o u n g
gentle­
in the d e s i r e for k n o w l e d g e
1
time of the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e .
In the e i g h t e e n t h
century the
its o r i g i n
t h e o r y wa s
that u n d e r
a tutor a c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d
and a r e t u r n
and scenes,
through Germany
to
and customs
lan guage
at lea s t
th rou gh c o n ta ct
ideal
competent
of ea c h
of F r a n c e
w i t h ot h e r
manners
and the L o w C o u n t r i e s
of
Italy
would a l ­
to s u r v e y n o t a b l e m o n u m e n t s
country,
and
Italy,
so ci et ies,
an d m a k e
of o m n i s c i e n c e
guidance
through France and
i n f o r m h i m s e l f of the h i s t o r y ,
manners,
and p o l i s h hi s
the
Journey
low the y o u n g m a n o p p o r t u n i t y
This
only for a
to l e a r n to
and
s p ea k the
in general,
to b r o a d e n his m i n d
the c o m p l e t e
is e x p r e s s e d
govern me nt ,
gentleman.
in S h a f t e s b u r y ' s
de­
fi nition of the vi rt u o s i :
...the real fine g e n t l e m e n , the l o ve rs of art and ingenuity,
such as ha v e se en th e world, a n d i n f o r m e d t h e m s e l v e s of the
ma nn ers and c u s t o m s of the s e v e r a l n a t i o n s in Europe;
se ar che d into t h e i r a n t i q u i t i e s an d r e c o r d s ; c o n s i d e r e d
their poli ce, laws, an d c o n s t i t u t i o n s , o b s e r v e d the s i t u a ­
tion, st re n g t h , a n d o r n a m e n t s of their c i ti es, their p r i n c i ­
pal arts, s t ud ie s, a n d a m u s e m e n t s ; t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e ,
sculpture, p a i n t i n g , music, a n d th e i r t a s t e in poetry,
learning, l a ng ua ge , and c o n v e r s a t i o n .
This
ideal,
of course,
often u n e q u a l
to thei r
was
i m p o s s i b l y high.
ta sk b o t h
in k n o w l e d g e
1.Cf. H o wa rd, E n g l i s h T r a v e l l e r * SiL
2 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ed. R o b e r t s o n , II,
The
tutors
and p o w e r
Renal
252- 53.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
were
of
discipline.
Their
bewildering
se ri es
charges,
of new sights
bored and l o n g e d for home,
the worst
this
of the
p l u n g e d at an e a r l y age
and scenes,
ei th er b e c a m e
or t u r n e d to d i s s i p a t i o n
foreigners
or w i t h their
into a
own kind.
wi th
In
connection Sharp observes:
I have not se en one y o u n g g e n t l e m a n on his t r a v e l s who does
not a p p e a r m o r e e a g e r t ha n I am to r e t u r n to his f r i e n d and
country.
I h a d a l w a y s f i g u r e d to myself, that t hey were in
the h i g h e s t de lig ht, w h e n m a k i n g the G r a n d Tour; but I f i nd
by ex p e r i e n c e , that w he n t h ey are here, they c o n s i d e r it as
a k in d of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p for q u a l i f y i n g a ge nt l e m a n , an d
would o f t e n r e t u r n b a c k a b r u p t l y , did the y not feel t h e m ­
selves a s h a m e d to i n d u l g e the i n c l i n a t i o n : Indeed, w e r e it
not that in the g r e a t c i t i e s t h e y meet w i t h n u m b e r s of
their cou n t r y m e n , th e h o u r s w o u l d lye too h e a v y on th ei r
hands; for few m e n ca n s p e n d th ei r wh ole life in p u r s u i t of
virtu, and some h a v e not t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of b i r t h to r e ­
commend t h e m to p e r s o n s of h i g h rank, w h e r e onl y is to b e
found what l i t t l e s o c i e t y there is in Ita ly.^
Sometimes
men u pon their
and a n u m b e r
the o n l y
return home
acquisitions
were French clothes
of f o r e i g n p h r a s e s
conversation.
Thus
the Grand T our
was
which
the q u e s t i o n
A summary
of th e p r o s
di al og ues
of B i s h o p Hurd,
and manners
the y a f f e c t e d
of the
warmly debated
century.
of t h e s e y o u n g g e n t l e ­
educational
throughout
an d cons
in th ei r
v a l u e of
the e i g h t e e n t h
m a y be
in w h i c h he p r e s e n t s
f ou nd in the
a debate
be­
tween S h a f t e s b u r y , as an a d v o c a t e of travel, a n d Locke, as
2
his oppon ent .
B i s h o p H a l l c o m p o s e d a t r e a t i s e on the dan-
1 • L e t t e r s f rom I t a l y , d e s c r i b i n g tfaft
M & anftEA
that C o u n t r y Xlk t h e Y e a r s 1 7 6 5 . a n & ,17_6Ja., L o n d o n , 1766,
pp. 170-71.
Cf. als o L a d y M ar y W o r t l e y M o nta gu , in a l e t ­
ter to the C o u n t e s s of P o m f r e t , d a t e d 1740.
Th e ^ 9 Xt 6X8
M i l o r k s £ £ L a d y M a r y flgrtlSX j&JLka&U. e d *
Lo*d
cliffe an d W. M o y T h o m a s , L o n do n, 1887, 2 vols., 11,60-61.
2. Alar.al fijaA P o l i t i c a l Plal9«raft8.L JLlik Lgttarjj £ & ShtYfllxx
and R o m a n c e . D i a l o g u e s VII an d VIII, ” 0n the u b s b of
f o r e i g n t r a v e l . " See a l s o S h a f t e s b u r y as q u o t e d a b o v e and
Locke, "S om e T h o u g h t s c o n c e r n i n g E d u c a t i o n , ” e s p e c i a l l y
the c o n c lusion .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
gers of f o r e i g n
best
ser mons
plentiful
travel,
on the
and Sterne hi m s e l f wrote
sub ject.
in l i t e r a t u r e .
out that not
everyone
was
walk over L o n d o n B r i d g e
spondent,
Ha n d
the R i a l t o
I'll
teen
on a tou r
of his
References
to th e p r o b l e m a r e
a u t h o r s of
the T a t i p o i n t e d
suited
for trav el.
"Let me but
w i t h a y o u n g m a n , 11 w r i t e s
a corre­
tell y o u
at V e n i c e
to a d o t i n g m o t h e r
Th e
one
will
i n f a l l i b l y w h e t h e r g o i n g over
1
m a k e h i m wiser. "
St ee l e o b je ct s
carrying
of F r a n c e
and
of f h e r p r e c o c i o u s b o y of s i x ­
Italy:
H o t h i n g is m o r e f r e q u e n t t h a n to take a la d from g r a m m a r and
taw, and u n d e r the t u i t i o n of some p o o r scholar, who is w i l l ­
ing to be b a n i s h e d fo r t h i r t y p o u n d s a y e a r an d a l i t t l e
victuals, s e n d h i m c r y i n g and s n i v e l l i n g into f o r e i g n c o u n ­
tries.
Thus h e s p e n d s his tim e as c h i l d r e n do at p u p p e t shows, and w i t h m u c h th e sa m e a d v a n t a g e , in s t a r i n g a n d g a p ­
ing at an a m a z i n g v a r i e t y of s t r a n g e things; s t r a n g e i n d e e d
to one that is n o t p r e p a r e d to c o m p r e h e n d the r e a s o n s and
m e a n i n g of them; w h i l s t h e s h o u l d be l a y i n g the s o l i d f o u n d a ­
tions of k n o w l e d g e in hi s mi nd , and f u r n i s h i n g it wi t h just
rules to d i r e c t h i s f u t u r e p r o g r e s s in l i f e u n d e r some s k i l l ­
ful m a s t e r of t h e art of i n s t r u c t i o n . 2
Pope
in the J u n c i a d
creates
a w i t h e r i n g p i c t u r e of a g o v e r n o r
and pupil who
.................... s a u n t e r ' d E u r o p e round,
An d g a t h e r ' d e v ' r y V i c e on C h r i s t i a n ground.
The
stage
of th e
ti m e w a s
Italia na te E n g l i s h m e n ,
r e a c h e d its
climax
clut t e r e d with Frenchified and
a manner
in the p l a y s
of d r a m a t i c
of S a m u e l
writing which
4
Foote.
1. T a t l e r . ed. G. A. A i t k e n , No. 93, II, 301.
P r o b a b l y by
Steele.
2. S p e c t a t o r , ed. G. A. A i t k e n , No. 364, V, 239-40.
3. Bk. IV, 11, 2 7 1 - 3 3 4 .
Cf. al s o S m o l l e t t , T r a v e l s thrQUfift.
■He a r ge a a £ Lt.alz. p. 251.
4. See e s p e c i a l l y T h e E n g l i s h m a n ,flpturB64 fE fiJL P a r iB. 1 1 7 5 6 J
and
jjlaax (1760).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The
tendency
in l i t e r a t u r e
satire
against
the
course
for
wri te r.
the
g o ver no r wa s
be as
a simple
effective
ex i s t e d am p l e
as
Th i s was,
To d r a w a sil ly
device
it see m s
unknown
cent ur y.
to be
to h a v e been,
Certainly
purpose
of tr av e l
and E n g l i s h c o n t e m p t
curious
an d
the
seekers
the
far to o u t n u m b e r
in l i t e r a t u r e ,
a curious
this
word
of the w r i t i n g s
h o wever ,
F i rst
aids
11l i t e r a t u r e "
to b e
to b e
wi th out p e r s o n a l
of l i m i t e d
came b y
Besides being mirrored
traffic
gave r i s e
We
shall
These
to
a p p l y that
a t h r e e f o l d divi si on.
necessary because
intelligence
and we re
written
The
c o u l d be d e n i e d a g r e a t part
travel became
to r e a d the h a n d b o o k s
they ent ered.
increased English
distinction
c o n s i d e r e d here.
guidance
and
f o rg ot te n.
c o n s i d e r e d are the g u i d e - b o o k s .
of E n g l i s h m e n
the
own.
a n d m a k e a m o n g them
to s u c c e s s f u l
n u mb er
social
increased bourgeois
of its
m i dd le of
foreign institutions.
serious-minded.
"literature"
The
term,
the
to
of travel
the Channel,
was p r e t t y we l l
for
after
But
i n c r e a s e of w e a l t h m o r e a n d
English victories a n d En g l i s h prosperity
pride
a n easy
there must h a v e
more m i d d l e - c l a s s E n g l i s h v e n t u r e d acr oss
the serious
a laugh.
the v o l u m e
d e n s i t y abo ut
W i t h the
sure,
to be
fop and a s t u p i d
for p r o v o k i n g
justification.
reached a hitherto
eighteenth
tra ve ller .
seems a l m o s t w h o l l y
u n i n s p i r e d volumes
of the
who went
either unable
in the l a n g u a g e
The se
abr oa d
or too
lazy
of the c o un tr y
d e s c r i b e d the plac e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
26.
to be v isited,
the o b j e c t s
to be
n i r a ti o n was
to be b e s t o w e d on
routes
followed,
ing,
to be
each
the single
F rance by
the
The
n av a l
nesse's U s e f u l
France';
five
it
is
livres;
those who
tain i ng u p o n
in two p ocket
the
Germany,
books
road,
make
are
as
is
Italy,
and will
they w ill p o i n t
to y o u t h e i r
of
could w is h
learn,
w i t h ou t
to
More p a r t i c u l a r i z e d
l anguage w e r e
Curio sitez
those who
the L i v r e
and the maps
panied traveller
1. The
which
c ou l d pilot
G e n t l e m a n * s Gui d e . p.
and e n t e r ­
every
rout
in towns,
as
situations,
question."'*'
c ou l d m a s t e r
V e r s a i l i e s , de M a r l y , de
de no s t e .
and lists
cost y o u o nly
the
de la Vi lie de Pari s . the
de S.. C l o u d . e t de s En vi ro n s . and also
annual,
of
and e v e r y t h i n g else yo\i
a s k i n g a single
for
the D e s c r i p t i o n
de Pari s . de
curiosities,
inhabitants,
guides
of F r a n c e .
extremely necessary
and are e s s e n t i a l l y u s e f u l
number
Thick-
"in y o u r w alks buy
they f u r n i s h maps of
manufactures,
t h r o ug h
and P h i l i p
[sic] yo u can take,
out
and France,
'the new v oyage
vol u me s ,
lodg­
G ra n d T o u r . w i t h
the Tour
a d vi s e s M i l la r d,
de F r a n c e ; that
these
Nugent's
o f f i c e r J o h n Mill ar d ,
Hi nt s to
voyage
for meals,
G e n t l e a a n 1s Gui de i n hi s T o u r
Sut on r e a c h i n g Calais,
1e nouveau
of prices
Such w e r e
on the N e t h e r l a n d s ,
volume
(and how ir&ch ad>
and gave the p r i n c i p a l
each),
w i t h lists
and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
a volume
inspected
the
Vincennes.
semi-official
E m p lo yi ng books
s u c h as these,
t h ey
the u n a c c o m ­
contained,
himself
about
the
continent
17.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
practically unaided.
alone.
He did not,
h o w ev er ,
M a n y of the
travellers
to p u b l i s h a c c o u n t s
sel d o m to be
thors w e r e
tinction
tions
f o u n d in th es e
not,
as
a rule,
on E u r o p e a n
of A d d i s o n
in t he se b o o k s
with so m e
note
of t h e i r
of the
t r a i n e d w r i t er s.
r e c o r d of p e r s o n a l
generalizations
country
as
1
M uc h
was
the
wh ol e
upon E n g l i s h l i b e r t y an d E n g l i s h
tions
f r o m this
p a t t e r n are
A third group
let te rs
n eve r
and d i a r i e s
found their
of t r a v e l
formal
sort
1.
tr a v e l
and
boo k s .
of a diary.
contained
there
a
dif­
travel with
some
character
writings
of the p e o p l e
with encomiums
The
consists
those abroad.
but
those
a n d th e
substantiate
Practically
The author
au­
of the
individuality.
into pr in t,
the m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s
seeing E n g l i s h m e n ,
and
an a c c o u n t
ther c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y or a c e n t u r y or m o r e
light u p o n
the
the p u b l i c a -
and here
ending
is
varia­
slight.
composed by
way
for
fit
the g u i d e - b o o k s
suffered during
to the n a t i o n a l
me ri t
of the m a t t e r
opinion
s een
No w o r k of d i s ­
appeared between
Th e r e s t
visited,
Literary
i n f o r m a t i o n f ro m
and i m p o s i t i o n s
guide-books
who p r e c e d e d h i m h a d
jou rn ey s.
and Smollett.
repeated
to r e l y u p o n
labored narrations,
travel
of d i s a g r e e m e n t .
ficulties
h av e
of The
Most
which
actions
the
of t h e s e
did,
later,
traveller
throw
of the
k ep t
G e n t l e m a n 1s G u i d e
I ex ce pt E i e l d i n g ' s V o y a g e Jl& L i s b o n . w h i c h
by sea, a n d not land.
whe­
of s i g h t ­
the evidence
every
of
is
some
urges
travel
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
" e ve ry g e n t l e m a n to put
at nigh t
to h i s
made d u r i n g t h e
recei ve d, "
in b l a c k a n d w h it e,
lodgings,
day,
al l
as w e l l
w h e n he r e t u r n s
the o b s e r v a t i o n s he m a y h a v e
as
the
In a d v i s i n g P a l g r a v e
i n f o r m a t i o n he m a y h a v e
what
to do
an d see
abro ad,
Gray wri te s: " <}uodcumque v i d e r i s , s c r i b e & de sc r i b e ;
2
ne fide."
T h e R e v e r e n d W i l l i a m Cole m a i n t a i n s that
journal
is o n l y d e s i g n e d
for m y
own use,
memoriae
" thJLs
&
to r e f r e s h m y
to &
fro m P a r i s , "
3
Memory w i t h wh a t h a p p e n e d
but
the
account
of his
me nd ou s b u l k
of h i s
an e x c e l l e n t
picture
panied by guide
or
public buildings,
ing to his
ters
have
h e l p e d to
of
pe r l y
off
the p u b l i c
tre­
in 1931,
gives
unaccom­
of c h u r c h e s
and upon
return­
detailed observations.
Montagu's
but
many
Let­
were published d u r ­
others u n p r e s e r v e d
c i r c u l a t i o n at home,
as
to what
and
one
to­
and
saw or m i g h t
ex ­
countries.
of
travel books might be
to
travel
co m e u n d e r t h a t hea d.
1. P. 58.
2. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e .
M a r c h 1765, II,
3. A J o u r n a l of m y
J.G. S t o k e s , p.
in a n d out
inscriptions,
had a manuscript
analogous
and published
darting
century,
in f o r e i g n
r e s c u e d f r o m the
inquisitive Englishman,
Mary W ortley
A fourth class
but a l t h o u g h
the
rec o r d i n g his
educate
to see
in 1765,
manuscripts
friend ,
eighteenth
day must
tri p
copying
su ch as L a d y
ing the
pect
room,
in m y J o u r n e y
This
writing,
consists
cre ated ,
it does no t
pro­
of the book s,
ed. T o y n b e e a n d W h i b l e y , L e t t e r No. 400,
867.
J o u r n e y Aft E.&£i-B. JLft AkS. Y-ftgX A2&5., ed.
330.
H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Pj&lAft
4ftft2LSLftl.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
aside
fr o m h i s t o r i e s ,
nation,
of t e n
which discuss
or d e s c r i p t i o n s .
1S.B. ApsX.o 1.9. -£-1
X ssl
lis he d
in E n g l i s h )
in 1726
phiauejB e x e m p l i f y
It m u s t
are not
serve
his
T h e Sw i s s M u r a l t ' s Let tree
he
as wel l
Every
Some
travel
The
of not
for
a guide
as
to e n t e r t a i n t h o s e
letters
a u t h o r of Th e
the f i r s t
tho se
any m o re
A l t h o u g h the
ly similar,
t h e r e wa s
at home.
Often
also he r e v i s e d his
of his
money
natural
to
asserted
to a p p e a r
in
on the p r i n ­
enemy.
Frequently
in t i r a d e s a g a i n s t
ethics.
of t h e s e b o o k s
on th e p a r t
sojourn
tha n a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s ­
and business
contents
ever
ti t l e page,
to b r e a k f o r t h
French m a n n e r s,indecencies,
follow
a n d p u b l i s h e d in e p i s t o ­
its k i n d
of E n g l a n d ' s
gallophobia
who m i g h t
G e n t l e m a n 1s G u i d e .who
of
to
allowed a personal note
a c c o r d i n g to t h e
in the c o u n t r y
categories
w r i t e r tho ugh t
of h i s w a n d e r i n g s ;
spending
he a l l o w s h i s
(first p u b ­
se p a r a t e
as
of the g u i d e - b o o k s
that his b o o k w a s
1
print, t r a v e l l e d ,
1. Pp.
th e s e
and p r inted a day-by-day relation
intrude.
sary
Voiages
sur
V o l t a i r e ' s Let tree n h i l o s o -
observed that
lary fo rm an a c c o u n t
ciple
sur les
and
the a u t h o r u t i l i z e d a c t u a l
abroad.
Su c h a n a l y s e s
this type.
in some m e a s u r e
d i ari es
of a
and often contain illustrative
ancoifl
always distinct.
footsteps
character
in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h ano the r.
u s u a l l y r e s u l t e d f r o m trav el
an ec d o t e s
the
are m o n o t o n o u s ­
of the w r i t e r s
a conscious
1-2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
striving
for
individuality.
Because
terest h a d t e e n d e s c r i b e d so often,
out n e w p l a c e s ,
tions
of hi s
visit
the
predecessors,
supply of u n k n o w n p l a c e s
putes
familiar
Each book,
therefore,
of this p r o c e d u r e
on the p art
tr aveller.
wrote
even
In m a n y
the
other.
S h o r t l y a ft er hi s
to the R e v e r e n d T h o m a s
a u t h o r h a d to s ee k
the o b s e r v a ­
a n e w atti tu de.
was
of i n ­
Th e
the dis1
i n t e l l i g e n t l y for long, and
was l i k e l y
d i r e c t l y one u p o n
chief places
and d i s p u t e
of i n t e r e s t
difficult
those a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d .
the
or d e v i s e
c o u l d not be m a i n t a i n e d
the t h i r d m e t h o d was
the
limited,
for an i n g e n i o u s mind.
to d u p l i c a t e p a r t s
instances
Goldsmith,
the w r i t e r s
for one,
of the u n i n s p i r e d ,
arrival
of
dre w
was aw ar e
unobservant
in L e y d e n in 1 75 4 he
Contarines
You ma y e x p e c t some a c c ou nt of t hi s co unt ry, and t h o u g h I am
not well q u a l i f i e d for such a n u n d e r t a k i n g , yet shall I en­
dea vour to s a t i s f y some p a r t of y o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s .
Nothing
s u r p r i s e d me m o r e than the b o o k s e v e r y da y p u b l i s h e d , d e ­
s cr ip ti ve of the m a n n e r s of this c o u nt ry .
A n y y o u n g m a n who
takes it into h i s h e a d to p u b l i s h his t r a v e l s v i s i t s the
c ount ri es he i n t e n d s to de sc r i b e ; p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e m w i t h
as m u c h i n a t t e n t i o n as his v a l e t de c h ambre ; and co n s e q u e n t l y ,
not h a v i n g a f u n d h i m s e l f to fill a volum e, he a p p l ie s to
those who w r o t e b e f o r e him, a n d g i v e s us the m a n n e r s of a
country, not as he mus t h a v e see n them, bu t such as t he y
might h ave b e e n f i f t y y e a r s b e f o r e . ^
1. A t y p i c a l c ase of q u a r r e l l i n g b e t w e e n w r i t e r s is that of
S h a r p a nd S a r e t t i .
T h e f o r m e r ' s L e t t e r s f r om Italy m o v e d
the l a t t e r to w r i t e a w h o l e b o o k to v i n d i c a t e the c h a r a c ­
ter of his c o m p a t r i o t s .
T o t hi s S h a r p w r o t e a reply.
A l s o T h i c k n e s s e has a n u m b e r of d i s p a r a g i n g r e m a r k s to
make u p o n S m o l l e t t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s .
Dr. J o h n s o n r e m a r k e d
of T h i c k n e s s e ' s a c c u s a t i o n s : " T r a v e l l e r s m u s t o f t e n be
mistaken.
In e v e r y t h i n g ex ce pt w h e r e m e n s u r a t i o n ca n be
a p pli ed , they m a y h o n e s t l y d i f f e r . "
Boswell,
III,
235-36.
Bu t h o n e s t y d o e s not m a k e t h e i r b i c k e r i n g i n t e r ­
esting.
2. A p r i l or May, 1754, W o r k s VIII, 2 2 9 - 3 0 , ed. Cun n i n g h a m .
Note that G o l d s m i t h i n d i c a t e s that t h o s e b a c k h om e e x ­
p e c t e d i n s t r u c t i v e l e t t e r s f r o m t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g friends.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Burnet,
in the l a t e
seventeenth
b l e m c o n f r o n t i n g the
travel
century,
realized
w r i t e r w h e n he
the p r o ­
ob served :
It is so c o m m o n to w r i t e T r a v e l s . that for one, who h a s seen
so little, a n d as it w e r e in haste, it m a y l o o k lik e a p r e ­
sum pt uou s a f f e c t a t i o n to h e r e c k o n e d a m o n g V o v a g a r a - if he
at te mp ts to say a n y t h i n g u p o n so short a ramble, and c o n ­
c e r n in g P l a c e s so m u c h v i s i t e d , an d by c o n s e q u e n c e so w e l l
known: yet h a v i n g h a d o p p o r t u n i t i e s that do not o f f e r t h e m ­
selves to all t hat T r a v e l , a n d h a v i n g j o y n e d to t h o s e a c u r ­
iosity a l m o s t e q u a l to t h e a d v a n t a g e s I enjoyed, I f a n c y it
will not be an u n g r a t e f u l e n t e r t a i n m e n t if 1 give y o u som e
account of t h e s e t h i n g s t h at p l e a s e d me mo st in the p l a c e s
"
thr ough w h i c h I p a s s e d : B u t I will a v o i d s a y i n g s uch t h i n g s
as o c c u r in o r d i n a r y B o o k s . for w h i c h 1 r ef er y o u to the
P r i n t s : for as y o u know, that I h a v e no i n c l i n a t i o n to copy
what ot h e r s h a v e said; so a T r a v e l l e r ha s not leisure, nor
humour eno ugh, for b o du l l an e m p l o y m e n t . ^
As we m i g h t
Bu r n e t
He says
expect
is i n t e r e s t e d
little
ab ou t
for an y a n e c d o t e s
the p e o p l e
do?
of a c l e r g y m a n l a t e r
a n d the
Addison,
to b e c o m e b i s h o p ,
in r eli gious- a n d p o l i t i c a l
individuals and
included.
s i g hts;
But
w ha t
in the P r e f a c e
.flJt I t a l y , p r a i s e s B u r n e t ,
se ems h a l f a p o l o g e t i c
other writers have described
t he n is the
to his R e m a r k s
Ray,
sub je cts.
a n d Ui ss o n ,
next
author
on S e v e r a l
but
goes
on
to
Parts
to say
There are still s e v e r a l of t h e s e T o p i c k s that are far f r o m
be i n g e x h a u s t e d , as t h e r e ar e m a n y n e w s u b j e c t s that a T r a ­
veller ma y f i n d to e m p l o y h i m s e l f upon.
Fo r my own p a r t as
I h ave t a k e n n o t i c e of s e v e r a l P l a c e s a n d A n t i q u i t i e s that
no b o d y else h a s s p o k e n of, so, 1 think, 1 h a v e m e n t i o n e d
but few t h i n g s in c o m m o n w i t h oth ers, th at a re not e i t h e r
set in a ne w light, or a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t r e f l e c ­
tions.
I h a v e t a k e n care p a r t i c u l a r l y to c o n s i d e r s e v e r a l
p a s s a g e s of the a n c i e n t P o e t s , w h i c h h a v e any r e l a t i o n to
1. Som e L e t t e r s . C o n t a i n i n g Att AgC9Uat
fffaftJi S 9
JBSAl.
R e m a r k a b l e in T r a v e l l i n g
Sirl tgerl-fllLft. JLlL&lX.
S-Ome P a r t s of G e r m a n y . & c . JLtt ik§. Xff.fljm 15.3.5 A R a XsJLS.*
p. 1.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the P l a c e s an d C u r i o s i t i e s that I met with; For b e f o r e I
e n t er ed on m y v o y a g e s I t o o k c a r e to r e f r e s h my m e m o r y a m o n g
the C l a s s i c A u t h o r s , and to m a k e such c o l l e c t i o n s out of
them as Z m i g h t a f t e r w a r d s h a v e o c c a s i o n for*
I must c o n ­
fess it w a s not one of the l e a s t e n t e r t a i n m e n t s that I met
with in t r a v e l l i n g , to e x a m i n e t h e s e s e v e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n s ,
as it were, u p o n the spot, an d to c o m p a r e the n a t u r a l fac e
of the c o u n t r y w i t h the L a n d s k i p s that the P o e t s h av e g i v e n
of it.
H o w e v e r , to a v o i d the c o n f u s i o n that m i g h t a r i s e
from a m u l t i t u d e of q u o t a t i o n s , I h a v e o n l y cited such ve r s e s
as h a v e g i v e n us s om e Image s of the place, or that h a v e s o m e ­
thing el se b e s i d e s the b a r e N a m e of it to r e c o m m e n d th e m . ^
What
shall
Sterne
an d
consider
others
la ter,
writing a novel
vels
of P h i l i p
tr emely
kind
thought
of t h is
but A d d i s o n
inquisitive,
at l e a s t
of t r a v e l book.
Skippon announces
w h e r e v e r he
scholarly
Th e
tha t his
came,
effort,
we
t h o ug ht he was
ed itor
of the
a u t h o r was
tra­
"ex­
i nto all that m i g h t
t
fur nis h h i m w i t h K n o w l e d g e
an A c c o u n t
Hand,
so
of e v e r y T h i n g he
accurately,
w ort hy t a k i n g
notice
to d e s c r i b e
saw,
and
and he kept
or M a c h i n e ,
of,
cannot
that
one
so exact
d e s i g n e d w i t h his
every E n g i n e
c o n s i d e r i n g the P a i n s he
Time
or P l e a s u r e ,
t o o k in v i e w i n g
that
own
he t h o u g h t
help wondering,
things,
h o w he
foun d
so c a r e f u l l y , and to a c c o m p a n y t he m
2
with hi s E e f l e c t i o n s ."
E d w a r d W r i g h t a p o l o g i z e s for h a v i n g
enlarged "upon
justifies
them
the A r t i c l e s
h i m s e l f by
"the
of P a i n t i n g
fashionable
and S c u l p t u r e , "
Taste
for t h o s e
but
things,
1. R e m a r k s
S e v e r a l P a r t s SiX I %ftly. -&£• i s IAS.
-120-1.
1Z&S. 1 7 0 3 . in M i s c e l l a n e o u s JLoi&fi., ed. G u t h k e l c h , II.
18.
2. "The T r a v e l s of P h i l i p S k i p p o n , Esq. ... and the R e v e r e n d
Mr J o h n Ray, t h r o u g h the b e s t P a r t of the K i n g d o m of
F r a n c e . . . " in M a v l e a n t l m n I t i n e r a n t l u m R j b l i Q • •
ed. H a r r i s , II, 715*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
which, n o w p r e v a i l s , "
vellous
observer;
br an che s
and N o r t h a l l
is a d v e r t i s e d as a m a r ­
h a v i n g “h i s p r i n c i p a l
of a r c h i t e c t u r e ,
sculpture,
taste...for
and painting;
the
in w h i c h
he has p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c e l l e d all t h o s e who h a v e yet w r i t t e n
2
upon the s u b j e c t . "
N o r t h a l l is a c a t a l o g u e r r a t h e r m o r e in3
d e f a t i g a b l e th a n th e rest, bu t as the r e v i e w s noted, he ha d
n o th in g n e w to
offer.
One r e a s o n
the p r a c t i t i o n e r s
for the m o n o t o n y
of t r av el
t e m p t a t i o n to d e s c r i b e
impression
that
to the whole.
h e a r s e d the
w r i t i n g c o u l d not
a familiar
scene or
a singl e n e w p a r t i c u l a r
F o r all
familiar
there was no n e e d
been "so
of thes e books
th e i r
fears
det ail s,
fo r mor e
tells
resis t the
objec t un d e r
the
c o u l d give n o v e l t y
of b e i n g pro l ix ,
sometimes
they r e ­
after asserting
t h a n m e n t i o n of
copiously described by abundance
Thus N o r t h a l l
is that
us t r i u m p h a n t l y that
what h a d a l r e a d y
4
of tr av eller s. "
the
tower
of P i s a
5
is 1 8 7 - 1 / 2
feet
ta l l a n d not
but the rest
of his
those of his
predecessors.
thing out
of the
r ogat or y r e m a r k s
188
description
way,
Also
observers
feet,
is
as K e y s l e r h a d said,
in no
in the
we r e
which only displayed
wise
effort
different
to say s o m e ­
often forced
their
from
into d e ­
own i g n o r a n c e of
1. Some O b s e r v a t i o n s mad e I n T r a v e l l i n g t h r E r & f l S e . >
Italy.
i a lift Yea rs 1 7 2 0 . 1Z£I. M d I?.S3, Pref. viiviii.
2. SEr.frYelB JAr.q.tt&k ttftlx. ■ . . P r e f a c e .
3. The M o n t h l y Re vi ew X X X I V ( J a n . - J u n e 176 6) , 474;
,CT 1 ti
cal R e v i e w X X I ( J a n . - J u n e 1766) , 2 8 0 -8 1.
4. Add is on , .api. c i t . . II, 140.
5. O p . c i t . . pp. 25-26.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34.
the arts.
In a d d i t i o n
travel h o o k s
is the
to c a t a l o g u i n g ,
t e n d e n c y to me asure.
many t r a v e l l e r s
hurried
servations,
the
author
of the
an d e x a c t i t u d e
car e
a tendency
t h r o u g h tow ns
wished
common
to all
Possibly because
scribbling hasty
to c o n v e y to the r e a d e r
ob­
a sense
w i t h w h i c h his r e m a r k s h a d b e e n
prepared.
Misson
cane d i v i d e d
thread we l l
into
a d v i s e d the
into
several
tow e r s
fifty
so as to b e
concerning
travellers
guessed;
for e x a c t n e s s
Science.
to m e a s u r e th e he ig ht
was
So we
find
even
o f C e m e n e l i o n to
2
w i t h p a c k th re ad.
As Dr. J o h n s o n
of t h e e v i d e n c e
of c o n ­
compared with those
modern travellers
certainly
I m b u e d w i t h th e
live d o wn t h e i r
and the d im e n -
ruins
the r e l i a b i l i t y
travellers
of p a c k ­
fathom long and divided
o f the p i l l a r s
1
so far as he is able."
the a m p h i t h e a t r e
temporary
or a p i e c e
a ble
S m ol le tt r e t u r n i n g to the a n c i e n t
remarked
a l o n g w i t h h i m "a
and t h e b i g n e s s
sions of e v e r y t h i n g
me as ur e
to t a k e
measures,
t u r n e d a n d waxed,
feet b y k n o t s ,
of the
voyager
reputation
fully r e c o r d e d m a s s e s
stimulated
experimental
of th e past: " A n c i e n t
3
measure.M
T h i s d es i r e
in p a r t b y
s p i r i t a n d a n x i o u s to
as p r e v a r i c a t o r s ,
of d a t a
the N e w
for the u s e
voyagers
of th e
care­
inductive
1. Q u o t e d by H o w a r d , E n g l i s h T r a v e l l e r s jsX
pp. 194-95.
2. T r a v e l s t h r o u g h F r a n c a a a A -LlfllZ. ed. S e c c o m b e ,
3. B o s w e l l , L i f e . Ill, 356.
p.
144.
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1
scientist.
E v e n the
unfortunate
dog
o ve r
classical
the g r o t t o de l
the e f f e c t
of the p o i s o n o u s
2
anim al 's r e c o v e r y .
Always
eager
to a d d his
such as
the
speculation
in s c riptio n.
Whenever
traveller was
sure
of the
This
the
steam,
aut h o r
bury r e c o g n i z e d
nea r N a p l e s
u s i n g a w a t c h to
of a ruin,
into
to n ot e
tim e the
curioue-minded observer
was
problem
or th e m e a n i n g
th e o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d
to p r y
of an
itself,
the
n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a and r e c o r d
investigation.
concern
into
Cani
to a n y c o n t r o v e r s i a l
the o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e
the r e s u l t s
A d d i s o n was m o v e d to h o l d an
with
sm al l
the a c c o u n t
this
detail
of his
tendency
even
lands a n d e x p l a i n e d th e r e a d e r ' s
was
carried over by
d a i l y e xi st e n c e .
in the v o y a g e s
Shaftes­
to f a r - o f f
interest:
Yet so e n c h a n t e d we are w i t h the t r a v e l l i n g m e m o i r s of any
casual a d v e n t u r e r , that be his c h a r a c t e r or ge ni us w ha t it
will, w e h a v e no s o o n e r t u r n e d ove r a p a g e or two, t h a n we
b e g i n to i n t e r e s t o u r s e l v e s h i g h l y in his a f fai rs .
No s o o n ­
er has he t a k e n s h i p p i n g at t h e m o u t h of the T h a m e s or sent
his b a g g a g e b e f o r e h i m to G r a v e s e n d or B u o y in the Nore,
than s t r a i g h t our a t t e n t i o n is e a r n e s t l y t a k e n up.
Zf in
order to hi s m o r e d i s t a n t tr a v e l s , he take s some p a r t of
E u r o p e in his way, w e can w i t h •p a t i e n c e h e a r of inns a n d
o r d i n a r i e s , p a s s a g e - b o a t an d f e r ries , foul a n d fair we athe r,
with all t h e p a r t i c u l a r s of t-he a u t h o r ' s diet, h a b i t of body,
h i 8 p e r s o n a l d a n g e r s a n d m i s c h a n c e s on l a n d an d sea.
And
thus, full of d e s i r e and h op e, w e a c c o m p a n y h i m t il l he e n ­
ters on his g r e a t s c e n e of a c t i o n , & & & b e g i n s by the d e s c r i p ­
t i o n of some
e n o r m o u s fish or b e a s t .
1.
2.
3.
S ee B. W. P r a n t z 's E n g l i s h T r a v e l l e r aft4 JLkfi M 9 Y 6 g &al
Ideas 1 6 6 0 - 1 7 3 2 . pp. 17-18 , and pa ss im .
Op.. c i t . , II, 112.
" A d v i c e to a n A u t h o r , " j&£• c i t . . I,223.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Whatever
and t r u s t i n g
his
touches
that he m i g h t
own i n t e r e s t ,
tions
of the
fraudulent
corded.
a man's
arouse
the t o u r i s t
r o a d — —b r o k e n
inn-keepers,
the m a t e r i a l
ta in ed a w a y
f r o m his
chaises,
native
the
observer himself
Walpole
confessed,
hi story;
bu t
now
don't p e r c e i v e
nov el tie s;
thing
is,
as on e ' s
that
Often
"When
the
1 first
s t r u c k me,
and
so u s e d to b e
in m y s e l f
or,
at le as t,
do not."
Bu t
all
writers
ing as was
the m a s t e r
one
to be dis-
may h a v e b e e n
i n te re st
I wrote
Z meet
wear
of
came a br oa d, "
surprised,
wh e n
other people
self;
ob ­
as m u c h so to the r e a d e r
curiosity and astonishment
to f a n c y
em­
infrequently
incidents
complaints.
flutter
fully r e ­
" T h e r e has been of late,"
are a l m o s t
I am grown
any
w h i c h he
th e s e
"everything
of
the p e t t y v e x a ­
tu r n in t r a v e l l e r s
fla gg ed .
some p a r t
d i s o b l i g i n g po s t i l i o n s ,
land.
J o h n s o n , "a s t r a n g e
1
pleased. "
However annoying
of t h e s e
All
to him,
e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y laid
comforts
said Dr.
of any n u m b e r
in the r e a d e r
t o l d all.
of the
phasis upon
they
im po rta nt
p e s t i f e r o u s b e g g a r s —— are
The En gl i s h m a n
to the t r a v e l l e r ,
se lf seems
off,
its
that
I
wit h any
an d the
next
k n o w as m u c h of p l a c e s
do es
not
remember
that
they
2
ly ahead,
facts.
w e r e not
of S t r a w b e r r y Hill.
chronicling without
Keen-minded
so a f r a i d
as he was,
1. B o s w e l l , L i f e . Ill, 236.
2. L e t t e r No. 27 to West, Apr.
of b e i n g b o r ­
T h e y went
dogged­
e n t h u s i a s m the o f t - r e p e a t e d
Henry Fielding
16,
1740,
objected
to
I, 55-56.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the w o r t h l e s s n e s s
lies
of
of t h e s e r e c i t a l s .
the v o y a g e r s ,
A f t e r d e p l o r i n g the
he wrote:
There is a n o t h e r f au lt of a k i n d d i r e c t l y op p o s i t e to this,
to w h i c h the se w r i t e r s are s o m e t i m e s liable, when, i n s t e a d
of f i l l i n g thei r p a g e s w it h m o n s t e r s w h i c h no b o d y h a t h
ever seen, a n d w i t h a d v e n t u r e s w h i c h never h a v e nor c o u l d
p o s s i b l y h a v e h a p p e n e d to them, the y was te their t i m e and
pa per w i t h r e c o r d i n g t h i n g s an d facts of so c o m m o n a kind,
that they c h a l l e n g e no o t h e r rig ht of b e i n g rem e m b e r e d ,
than as t h e y h a d “the h o n o u r of h a v i n g h a p p e n e d to the a u ­
thor, to w h o m n o t h i n g seems t r i v i a l that in an y m a n n e r h a p ­
pens to h i m s e l f . 1
If t r i v i a l i t y wa s
there was a n o t h e r
one v ice
of a n a t u r e
son r e c o g n i z e d the
of the
exactly
discouraging
travel
opposite.
ef fe ct
writer,
Dr.
of b o t h u p o n
John­
the
reader:
It may, I think, be j u s t l y o b ser ve d, that few book s d i s a p ­
point their r e a d e r s m or e tha n the n a r r a t i o n s of t r a v el le rs .
When rea ders ,
co n d i t i o n s
naturally curious
of f o r e i g n p e o p l e s
of k n o w l e d g e
to l e a r n of the m a n n e r s
open
these v o l um es
and
in se a r c h
and pleasure,
no t h i n g is f o u n d but s u c h g e n e r a l a c c o u n t s as l ea ve no d i s ­
tinct ide a b e h i n d them, or su ch m i n u t e e n u m e r a t i o n s as few
can r e a d w i t h e i t h e r p r o f i t or d e l i g h t . ^
The s e c o n d
but
of the
it r e m a i n s
tion.
to
faults here
say more
It was a h a b i t
of a g e n e r a l
truth,
of thi s p r a c t i c e ,
m e n t i o n e d has b e e n
of the p a r t i a l i t y
of m i n d at
the
time
for
to m a ke
dis cus se d,
generaliza­
statements
and the t r a v e l w r i t e r s w e r e v e r y a b u s i v e
especially
in e s t i m a t i n g n a t i o n a l
1. Th e J o u r n a l pf ja Vo y a g e t o L i s b o n ,
2. Idle r No. 97, W o r k s IV, 433.
ed. D o b son,
charac-
pp.
10-11.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ter s .
Moving
ideas,
the y
these but
made
from place
ca me
sweeping judgments.
seam.
fickle
Such
or the G-ermans dull
which make
tury u n i n s p i r i n g
Gray
there
of the
Walpole,
to the list
of th e
is not
the
of
eighteenth
s u r p r i s i n g that
of st r i c t u r e s ,
style.
of the
T he
tendency
in p a r t i c u l a r ,
"travelled through
id eas
it
existed a number
travel
show evidence
ner.
that
are r e p e a t e d ad n & u —
s h o u l d d r a w the r i d i c u l e
to a q u a n t i t y
quoted above,
lesques
tr av el b o o k s
(and
appearances
statements
a d d one m o r e
of s a t i r e
of w r i t i n g
In a d d i t i o n
inhabitants
cen­
to read.
In an a g e
me t h o d
with p r e c o n c e i v e d
from e x t e r n a l
F o r example,
generalizations
similarities
often
to k n o w o n l y a few of the
s u p e r f i c i a l l y ) , an d
F r e n c h are
his
to place,
wa s
t h e p oe t s ,
are b o r r o w e d f rom
this
of c r i t i c a l
minds.
s u c h as F i e l d i n g ' s
of p a r o d i e s
letters
and b u r ­
of V7alpole a n d
to p o k e
fun in this
man­
i r r i t a t e d b y Ad d i s o n ,
an d not
through
the d e s c r i p t i o n s
Italy;
an d not
wh o
for all
from
1
re ali ty."
upon
When
the t o u r o f
he w r o t e
was g o i n g
Gray:
erroneous report
Italy appeared
of his h a v i n g d e p a r t e d
in the L o n d o n n e w s p a p e r s ,
"I b e l i e v e y o u saw in the n e w s p a p e r s
to m a k e
y o u some
account
be f o u n d
in Mr.
comes
an
the tou r
of Italy;
of the p l a c e s
Addison,
whose
an e l a b o r a t e b u r l e s q u e
1. L e t t e r No. 36
813, V, 168.
to West,
therefore
I have
seen,
method
I s hall
"in the
Oct.
I shall
2,
that
I
give
w h i c h a r e not to
follow."
Then
style of Addison's
1740,
I,
88.
See
als o No.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Tr av e l s , "
Ca mbr id ge ,
in w h i c h h e d e s c r i b e s
using
a journey
classical names
troducing numerous
quotations,
f rom L o n d o n
for E n g l i s h p l a c e s
m a d e up
or adapted .
to
and
in­
A sample
f o ilows:
On 9th of O c t r . , 1735, we set out f r o m L o d o n e (the L u g d u n u m
of the A n c i e n t s ) , the c a p i t a l ci ty of L o m b a r d y , in a c h a r i o t —
and-four.
A b o u t 11 o ’c l o c k we a r r i v e d at a p l a c e the I t a l i ­
ans call T e m p i a l b u l o ( W h i t e ch apel) .
V i r g i l se em s to h a v e
p r o p h e s i e d of this t own w h e n he s a y s —
Am.Lalt lerap; vet us A l b u l a n o m e n .
B y T i m e the f o u n d e r ' s g r e a t d e s i g n was
A n d A l b u l a its g e n u i n e titl e lost.
Gr a y
writing.
book to be
chose
To his
to p a r o d y a less
f r i e n d 'Wharton he
entitled
"The T r a v e l s
Chap:
l e a r n e d type
sent
of T:
crost.
of tr av el
a mock outline
G:
for a
Gent:"
1:
Th e A u t h o r a r r i v e s at D o v e r ; h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the
Mayor of that C o r p o r a t i o n ; set s out in a P a c q u e t - B o a t , grows
very sick; the A u t h o r spews, a v ery m i n u t e a c c ou nt of all
the c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h er eof: hi s a r r i v a l at Calais; h o w t h e in­
h a b i t a n t s of that c o u n t r y s p e a k F r e n c h , & are s aid to be all
Pa pi s h e s ; the A u t h o r ’s r e f l e x i o n s t h e r e u p o n .
2
.
H o w t h e y f e e d h i m wilih So up e, & what S o up e is. h o w he
meets w i t h a C a p u c i n ; & what a C a p u c i n is. h o w t hey shut hi m
up in a P o s t - C h a i s e , & s e n d h i m to P a r i s ; he goe s w o n d r i n g
al ong d u r e i n g 6 days; & h o w t h e r e a r e T r e e s , & H o u s e s just as
in E n g l a n d , a r r i v e s at P a r i s w i t h o u t k n o w i n g it . 2
L at er he g a v e W e s t
a catalogue
of the p a l a c e
of th e D u k e
Modena:
Imprimis, a h o u s e , b e i n g in c i r c u m f e r e n c e a q u a r t e r of a
mile, two f eet a n d an inch; the s ai d h o u s e c o n t a i n i n g the
1. L e t t e r
2. L e t t e r
No.
No.
4 to Gray, 1735, I, 4 — 5.
79, M a r c h 1740, I, 138ff.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c u l a r s , to wit, a g r ea t room.
Item, a n o t h e r
great room; Item, a b i g g e r room; item, a n o t h e r room; item,
a vast
room; item, a s i x t h of the same; a s e v e n t h ditto;
an
e i g h t h as b e f o r e ; a n i n t h as ab ove s a i d ; a te n t h (see No.
l);
item, ten m o r e such, b e s i d e s t w e n t y b e s i d e s , which, not to
be too
p a r t i c u l a r , we shall pass over .^
Besides
on th e
th e s e l e t t e r s
subject.
Fielding
in his
to a p l a y of the p r e c e d i n g
Fe ig n *d C u r t e z a n s
his
Behn
created
g o ve rn or ,
criticism called attention
cen tury,
Mrs.
Aphra Behn's
The
Mr.
(1679),
two
co m i c gulls,
Tickletext,
"as
man w o u ' d w i s h to h e a r p r e a c h ;
the e m i n e n t
satire
in w h i c h the v o y a g e - w r i t e r 's vic e
2
i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l "is f i n e l y ri d i c u l e d . "
of r e c o r d i n g
Mrs.
the re was al s o p u b l i s h e d
danger
Sir S i g n a l B u f f o o n
errant
the F a t h e r
that y o u n g T r a v e l l e r s
and
a b l o c k h e a d as
a
wisely foreseeing
are
in of b e i n g per-
3
v e r t e d to P a p e r y . "
be fore,
returns
from s e e i n g
with a f r a u d u l e n t
girdl e an d
Tickletext,
a great
antiquary,
the
who ha s
never been abroad
s i ght s of Borne in c o m p a n y
c a r r y i n g an
i n k h o r n in his
f o l i o u n d e r h i s arm.
T i c k l e t e x t : A sm a l l V o l u m e , Sir, into w h i c h I t r a n s c r i b e
the most m e m o r a b l e and r e m a r k a b l e T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Day.
F i l l a m o u r : (Reads.) A p r i l the t w e n t i e t h , arose a ve r y
great S t o r m of Wind, T h u n d e r , L i g h t n i n g a n d B a i n , — w h i c h
was a s h r e w d s i g n of foul W e a t h e r .
T h e 2 2 t h 9 of our 12
Ch i c k e n s g e t t i n g loose, f l e w o v e r - b o a r d , the other t h r e e
m i r a c u l o u s l y e s c a p i n g , by b e i n g e a t e n by me that M o r n i n g
for
1. L e t t e r No. 86, M a y 20, 1740, I, 155.
2. _Vo_yage to L i s b o n , p. 11.
F i e l d i n g is w r i t i n g fr o m m e m o r y
and d o e s not quote.
He is u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r the a u t h o r
is Mrs. B e h n or Mrs. C e n t l i v r e or a n o t h e r , a n d his d e ­
s c r i p t i o n is r a t h e r vagu e; but t h e re se em s no d o u b t that
the F e i g n 1d C u r t e z a n s is t h e p l a y Be mean s.
3. W o r k s . ed. S u m m e r s , II, 316.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
b r e a k f a s t . ...
V e r y well,
know y o u ' l b e
I'll t r o u b l e m y s e l f to r e a d no more, si n c e
so k i n d to
the W o r l d to m a k e it public.
•Tlcklet.ext: At m y
Nation, I will p r i n t
return,
Sir, for the g o o d of the
it,
a n d I t h i n k it will d e s e r v e
Fielding himself
of t r avel
a pie c e
l e tters.
was moved
contributed
to hi s
sister's
(1747).
for this
Among
volume
gentleman
Addison,
is
to h i s
and all
into E n g l i s h . "
a boat
the
other writers
foolish e t y m o l o g i e s ,
2
generalizations.
In one
of the last
rivers,
retu rn,
All
and then h a v e
in gr e a t
of
the
detail,
with
and broad
Citizen
o£ the
travelling Chinaman recollect
f a i l e d to s e n d h o m e
any account
of b u i l d i n g s ,
t.hat
roads,
and mountains.
1. W o r k s . ed. S u m m e r s , II, 3 5 3 - 5 4 .
2. T h e W o r k s of H e n r y F i e l d i n g , ed.
ii of " M i s c e l l a n i e s " ) , 2 3 2 - 4 2 .
an
th e sig ht s a l o n g . t h e
to t h e Fre nch,
numbers
Don e
a u t h o r and a f r i e n d take
solemnity
comparisons
Wor ld G o l d s m i t h ha s h i s
he has
the
of L o nd on.
way are r e c o r d e d w i t h m o c k
from a F r e n c h
in i m i t a t i o n of Hor ace,
to P u t n e y and
streets
and some
of t r a v e l l i n g letters.
In this a c c o u n t
in the
letters
c o m p o s e d by F i e l d i n g
"A letter,
f r i e n d in P a r i s ;
writers
is i n c l u d e d
Tr«ip ^ j j
D a v i d S i mple
letters
one e n t i t l e d
from W h i t e h a l l
adventure
five
writings
volume,
b e t w e e n Lfeg PXlq.giS.ftl c h a r a c t e r s
others
it.1
to a p a r o d y of the
In h i s m i s c e l l a n e o u s
I
Saintsbury,
XII
(vol.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
This is a b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e on w h i c h all o t h e r t r a v e l l e r s
are so ver y p r o l i x that my d e f i c i e n c y w i l l a p p e a r the more
glaring.
W i t h what p l e a s u r e , for i nsta nc e, do some r e a d o f
a t r a v e l l e r in E g y p t m e a s u r i n g a f a l l e n c o l u m n w i t h hi s cane,
and f i n d i n g it e x a c t l y five feet n i n e inche s long; or o f his
c r e e p i n g t h r o u g h the m o u t h of a c at ac om b, an d com ing out by
a d i f f e r e n t h o l e f ro m that he en ter ed; of his s t e a l i n g the
finger of an a n t i q u e st at ue in sp it e of the j a ni zary t h a t
w a t c h e d him; or his a d d i n g a n e w c o n j e c t u r e to the h u n d r e d
and f o u r t e e n c o n j e c t u r e s a l r e a d y p u b l i s h e d u p o n the n a m e s of
Osiris a n d Isis.
M e t h i n k s I h e a r some of m y f r i e n d s in C h i n a d e m a n d i n g a
si mil ar a c c o u n t of L o n d o n a n d the a d j a c e n t vil lag es; a n d if
I r e m a i n h e r e m u c h lo nge r, it is p r o b a b l e I ma y g r a t i f y t h e i r
curiosi ty.
I inte nd , w h e n ru n d r y on o t h e r topics, to take
a ser io us s u r v e y of t h e C i t y Wall, to d e s c r i b e that b e a u t i f u l
bui ldi ng, the M a n s i o n H o u s e ; I will e n u m e r a t e the m a g n i f i c e n t
squares in w h i c h the n o b i l i t y c h i e f l y reside , a n d the ro yal
pa la c e s a p p o i n t e d f o r the r e c e p t i o n of th e E n g l i s h mo n a r c h ;
nor w i l l I f o r g e t the b e a u t i e s of Shoe Lan e, in w h i c h 1 m y ­
self h a v e r e s i d e d s i n c e m y a r r i v a l .
Y o u shall f ind me in no
way i n f e r i o r to m a n y of m y b r o t h e r t r a v e l l e r s in the a rt s of
de scr i p t i o n .
At p r e s e n t , h o w e v e r , as a s p e c i m e n of this way
of w r i t i n g I s e n d y o u a f e w h a s t y r e ma rks, c o l l e c t e d in a
late j o u r n e y I m a d e to K e n t i s h T o w a — a n d this in the m a n n e r
of m o d e r n v o y a g e r e , ^
The a c c o u n t
of the
which
jo urney,
vations
follows
false
etymologies,
are u n f i n i s h e d ,
darkness
fell b e f o r e
Also
supplies many uninteresting
the
according
survey
S-henney
1. No.
122,
C h ina ma n,
obser­
because
co mp le t e d .
is a n o t h e r
W i l l i a m fip.gartfr -ELBA Il Ls .
on a w a l k i n g
Works
The
par ody,
entitled
T h e F i v e D a y 18 P e r e g r i n a t i o n a g Q U B d .&&£
Sg.P.U, T o t h a l l . T h o r n h i l l .
by F o r r e s t
to th e
could be
to b e m e n t i o n e d h e r e
H o g a r t h *s F r o l i c .
and drawings.
details
IV,
tour
gor.rP.JBjL-
This
Pllfiri ffig..
work,
w i t h the m e n m e n t i o n e d
written
in the
2 6 2 -6 3.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
title,
is,
according
to
a prefatory
"burlesque on h i s t o r i c a l
signif i ca n t
events
The acc ou n t
is,
mi l d l y a m u s i n g ,
writers
however,
an d has
enough e v i d e n c e has
to
Shandy?
the
t h i n k of
cannot
A d di s on ' s R e m a r k s
2
he
the
of in­
reader."
the p o i n t
of "being
g a i n e d the a p p r e c i a t i o n of "both
There
c i t e d to
are o t h e r p ar od i es ,
show that
ridi cu l in g hooks
composition
It
r e c o r d i n g a ser ie s
i n t e r e s t i n g to
teen
W h at k n o w l e d g e
b efore
" i n t e n d e d as a
e n t i r e l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g to
Thackeray and A u st i n D o t s o n . 1
the first
note,
d i d Sterne h a v e
of
the
St e r n e was not
of travel.
of t r a v e l
literature
s e v e n t h h o o k of T r i s t r a m
d e t e r m i n e d e xactly.
and H a l l ' s
hut
aware of
3
a n d he u s e d as a
4
guide in his o w n t r a v e l s the h o o k of P i g a n i o l de la F o r c e
5
and the F r e n c h Li vre de Po st e .
But t h er e is no ce rt a i n in­
dic at i on of h o w m a n y o t h e r s
Fielding's
Voyage
travel w r i t i n g s ,
Q.uo Yadi s .
He was
he read.
to Li s h o n . w i t h its
He p r o h a h l y k new
strictures
on dull
an d p o s s i b l y his L e t t e r f r o m a. F r e n c h
g
Gentleman.
Goldsmith's
did not a p p e a r u n t i l
p a p e r in
after
the
Ci t i zen o f the Wo rid
St e r n e h a d gone
ab ro ad ;
so he p r ob -
It* to
1. T h a c k e r a y , "Hogarth, S m o l l e t t and F i e l d i n g , " in Engli sh
H u m o r i s t s of the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y : a n d D o b s o n , "The
A d v e n t u r e s of F i v e D a y s , " in E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y Vi gn e t t e s . 3d. series.
2. T.l. IV, 1 2 - 1 3 (vii, 4).
3 . T.S.. IV, 3 0 - 3 1 (vii, 13).
4. P a r o d i e d in the e a r l y p a r t of the s e v e n t h hook.
See below.
5. T.S. IV, 28 n
(vii, 10).
6. B o t h w o r k s are l i s t e d in the c a t a l o g u e of the sale of
Sterne's Library,
A F a c s i m i l e R e p r o d u c t i o n of a. Unique.
C a t a l o g u e of L a u r e n c e S t e r n e 1s L i b r a r y . i t e m 1635, p. 62;
i t em 1441, p. 56.
It m us t be p o i n t e d out at once that
this c a t a l o g u e is of l i t t l e u s e e xc e p t as a c h e c k - li s t.
The title is m i s l e a d i n g , as the o r i g i n a l t i t l e - p a g e read
"A C a t a l o g u e of a C u r i o u s and V a l u a b l e C o l l e c t i o n of Boo
a m o n g w h i c h are i n c l u d e d the E n t i r e L i b r a r y of the late
R e v e r e n d a n d L e a r n e d L a u r e n c e Sterne, A . M . "
T h er e is no
i n d i c a t i o n of w h i c h b o o k s b e l o n g e d to Ste rn e.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
ably
f a i l e d to see
further.
Because
it.
We n e e d not
car ry
our spec u l a t i o n s
of the p o p u l a r i t y of t r a v e l
he t r a v e l l e d h i m s e l f ,
he m u s t
tence of a g r e a t b o d y
of l i t e r a t u r e
and b e c a u s e
h a v e b e e n awa re of th e
of th e
exis­
character d e ­
sc ribe d above.
Avowedly,
the s e v e n t h b o o k of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y is
the a c c o u n t
P ari s
of S t e r n e ' s j o u r n e y in 1762 " f r o m C ala is thro'
2
to the G a r o n n e . "
It is a travel b o o k w h i c h m i g h t
easily h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d as
its c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
ness
of this
the p l o t
a se p a r a t e work,
of T r i s t r a m .
connection Sterne
p l a c i n g on t h e
title-page
so slight
For the
tenuous­
seems to be a p o l o g i z i n g
a m o t t o f r o m Pliny;
is
in
" No n e n i m e x ­
cursus hie
ejus, sed opus i p s u m est."
A s i d e fr om o c c a s i o n a l
3
references, the c h a r a c t e r s of T r i s t r a m are i n t r o d u c e d only
4
in the s t o r y of U n c l e T o b y a n d Hr. S h a n d y at Aux erre, w h i c h
in poin t of ti me
rest
work.
is a b a c k - n a r r a t i o n
of the tour,
but
The p e rplexity
ing of the two
tours
in r e f e r e n c e
to th e
far a h e a d of the s t o r y of the w h o l e
in w h i c h S te r n e p r e t e n d s
at
o n ce
w h i l e he
is
to be
in writ5
in a t h i r d p l a c e
is t r u l y S h a n d e a n .
1. The " C h i n e s e L e t t e r s " w e r e c o l l e c t e d an d p r i n t e d in two
v o l u m e s u n d e r the title of the C i t i z e n of the W o r l d .
1762.
A c op y of this c o l l e c t i o n m a y h a v e fo un d its way
abroad, or S t e r n e m i g h t h a v e seen the b o o k u p o n his return,
2. L e t t e r No. 136, to Fo le y, Nov. 16,
1764,
p. 234.
3. IV, 26 (vii, 9), Aun t D i n a h ; IV, 8 3 - 8 4
(vii,
31), Mr.
S h a n d y ' s b e d s of jus ti ce ; IV, 101 (vii, 40), U n c l e To by's
Lillibullero.
4. IV, 6 4 - 7 0
(vii, 27).
5. IV, 70- 71
(vii, 28).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I n d e e d the
s e v e n t h h o o k is
closely
whole by the S h a n d e a n m a n n e r p e r v a d i n g
noted
related
it.
to the
The p e r p l e x i t y
above
is t y p i c a l of th e p o t h e r S t e r n e p r o f e s s e s to be
1
in as a n a r r a t o r .
He f u r t h e r c o n t r i v e s to d e s c r i b e h i s
2
voyage d o w n the R h o n e b e f o r e he h a s r e a c h e d the river, and
3
to i n c l u d e
a chapter
The s o m e w h a t b a w d y
story
serte d s u p p o s e d l y to
means
illustrate
of A n d o u i l l e t s
a point,
but
is
in­
the p o i n t — the
h o r s e s — se e m s r a t h e r
to b e
I n t r o d u c e t h e story, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s a n o t h e r
4
digressions.
T h e a p o l o g y for this t a l e (a p i e c e
5
a d d r e s s e d to " Ma da m" ) and the a p o s t r o p h e s to
of n o n s e n s e
6
Jenn y are g e n u i n e
Tristram Shandy
beards"
is
the soul
as
The
Shandeism.
as a s a t i r e
c a r r i e d on in t h e
chief affliction
is the
tram is not
Moreover,
against
vexation which
on l y
of
and "long
of the
d i m e n s i o n s of
7
and F r a n c i s c u s R i b b e r a .
of T r i s t r a m
they
conception
the " b i g wigs"
S h a n d y a n d his
suffer
cross-accidents
crossed by
the
discussion
c o n c e i v e d by L e s s i u s
t h w a r t e d b y the l i t t l e
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
i n t e n d e d to omit.
up to
of S t e r n e ' s
1.
w h i c h he h a d
of t h e A b b e s s
of a c c e l e r a t i n g f r e n c h
br ought
father
on C a l a i s
in b e i n g p e r p e t u a l l y
8
of life.
Thus T r i s ­
the difficulties
of w r i t i n g
in a
Cf. £.,S. II, 8 6 - 8 7 (iii, 23); II, 1 3 3 - 3 4 (iii, 38); II,
212 (iv, 9).
IV, 7 2 - 7 3 (vii,
29); IV, 1 0 1 (vii, 41).
IV, 1 3 -14 (vii, 4).
Cf. S l a w k e n b e r g i u s 's Tal e, _2L.iL.IV, 1 4 8 - 9 6 (iv).
IV, 6 2 - 6 3 (vii, 26).
IV, 31 (vii, 13); IV, 74 - 7 6 (vii, 29).
IV, 3 2 - 3 3 (vii, 14).
Cf. i.^,. I, 16 (i, 4); I, 93 (i, 19); I, 187 (ii, 12);
II, 19 (iii, 8); II, 99 (iii, 28).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s t ra ight
l ine but
also
tions p r e v e n t i n g h i s
his p r e c i p i t o u s
throughout
He
fl i g h t
cannot
life by
small
a c h i e v i n g what he p r o p o s e d to
from
a s c a r e - s i n n e r ," D e a t h ,
thwarted.
his
his
even
vexa­
do.
In
the " l o n g — s t r i d i n g s c o u n d r e l
inclinations are
of
continually
s l e e p w h e n he wishes;
In the w h o l e c a t a l o g u e of t h o s e w h i f f l i n g v e x a t i o n s w h i c h
come p u f f i n g a c r o s s a m a n ' s c a nvas s, the re is not one of a
more t e a s i n g a n d t o r m e n t i n g n a t u r e , than thi s p a r t i c u l a r
one w h i c h I am g o i n g to d e s c r i b e .
There
kee p S t e r n e
follows
awake
a recounting
from Amiens
of the
to Paris.
difficulties
And again
which
at Lyons:
To t hos e who call v e x a t i o n s , V E X A T I O N S , as k n o w i n g wh at the^
are, t h e r e c o u l d n o t be a g r e a t e r , t ha n to be the b e s t part
of a day at L y o n s . the most o p u l e n t a n d f l o u r i s h i n g cit y in
P r a n c e . e n r i c h e d w i t h the m ost f r a g m e n t s of a n t i q u i t y — and
not be able to see it.
T o b e w i t h h e l d u p o n an y a c c ou nt ,
must be a v e x a t i o n ; but to be w i t h h e l d Jjx & v e x a t i o n
must
c e r t a i n l y be, w h a t ^ p h i l o s o p h y j u s t l y calls
VEXATION
upon
VEXATION2
These petty
Chantilly
cross-accidents
a theory
in the w o r l d
of t r a v e l
to t r a v e l
soon
le d him
to
formulate
at
founded
on "the b est p r i n c i p l e
3
s p e e d i l y upo n , " the Spleen.
I still c o n t i n u e in the same s e n t i m e n t s Che r e m a r k s l a t e r j - only I h a d not t h e n e x p e r i e n c e e n o u g h of its w o r k i n g to add
this, that t h o u g h y o u do get on at a t e a r i n g rate, yet y o u g<
on but u n e a s i l y to y o u r s e l f at the same time; for w h i c h r e a ­
son I h e r e quit it e n t i r e l y , a n d fo re ve r . . .
1.
2.
3.
4.
IV,
IV,
IV,
IV,
35 ( v i i , 16) .
7 5 - 7 6 (vii, 30).
38 (vii, 16).
46 (vii, 19).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The
theory which r e p l a c e d
Sterne
it we
was p a t e n t l y
shall d i s c u s s
aware
later.
of the fact
that
the Shan-
dean m a n n e r a p p l i e d to tr avel w r i t i n g r e s u l t e d in s o m e t h i n g
1
new.
If th is w e r e t r u e of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y and his o b s e r ­
vations,
way,
it w o u l d be
of hi s
fa the r.
e q u a l l y true,
Mr.
Shandy's
though
in a d i f f e r e n t
researches
were
of such a n a t u r e , that t h e y w o u l d h a v e f o u n d fruit even in a
d e s e r t . . . . I n short, w h e r e v e r my fat h e r w e n t
but 'twas more
r e m a r k a b l y so, in this j o u r n e y t h r o u g h F r a n c e and I t a l y ,
than in any o t h e r st a g e s of his l i f e - - - h i s r o a d se em ed to
lie so m u c h on one side of that, w h e r e i n all ot he r t r a v e l ­
lers h a v e g o n e b e f o r e h i m - - h e saw k i n g s an d cou rts and silks
of all colours , in s u c h s t r a n g e l i g h t s — - a n d his r e m a r k s and
r e a s o n i n g s u p o n the c h a r a c t e r s , the man ners, and cus to ms of
the c o u n t r i e s we p a s s ' d over, w ere so o p p o s i t e to those of
all other m o r t a l men, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of m y u n c l e T o b y
and T r i m - - ( t o say n o t h i n g of m y s e l f )— an d to c r o w n a l l - - t h e
o c c u r r e n c e s a n d s c r a p e s w h i c h we w e r e p e r p e t u a l l y m e e t i n g
and g e t t i n g into, in c o n s e q u e n c e of his sys te ms a n d opi ni at r y - - t h e y w e r e of so odd, so m i x ' d and t r a g i - c o m i c a l a co n ­
t e x t u r e — T h a t the w h o l e
put togethe r, it a p p e a r s of so d i f ­
ferent a s h a d e a n d tint
from any tour of E u r o p e . w h i c h was
ever e x e c u t e d - - t h a t I wil l v e n t u r e to p r o n o u n c e - - t h e fa ult
must be m in e a n d m i n e o n l y - - l f it be not r e a d by all t r a ­
vel le rs and t r a v e l - r e a d e r s , till t r a v e l l i n g is no m o r e , - - o r
which comes to the s ame p o i n t - - t i l l the world, finally,
takes it into its h e a d to s t a n d s t i l l .
2
When
this
"rich
bal e"
was
J o u r n e y ) . the t r a v e l l e r
was
anot h e r
same book,
this
character
time it w i l l
of the
suffice
tram a n d to s h o w how,
of S h a n d v
f o u n d not
to e x a m i n e
despite
is r e l a t e d to
Cf.
IV,
to be Mr.
Shandy,
the
travels
the
seen,
is
But
but
at
of T r i s ­
seventh book
its b a c k g r o u n d of t r a v e l
L e t t e r Ho. 13 4 to Foley,
6 4 - 6 5 (vii, 27).
Sentimental
P a r s o n Yo ric k.
differences,
T r i s t r a m S h a n d y , as we h a v e
1.
2.
o p e n e d (in the
li t e r a t u r e .
in p art
a sa-
c i t e d above.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tirical
w or k a g a i n s t
travel,
therefore,
the subject,
most
some p r e t e n c e
to S t e r n e ' s
Speaking
the dull and the learned.
St er ne n a t u r a l l y r i d i c u l e s
of who m are dull,
of l earni ng .
wit
of the
place he vi sits,
was
The
and all
first
traveller's
te n d e n c y
the w r i t e r s
on
of w ho m m a k e
au th or
the c l a s s i c a l t o u r i s t
In s a t i r i z i n g
to fall
vi c t i m
J o s e p h Add i so n.
to e x p a t i a t e u p o n every
S t e r n e re mar ks:
“Now b e f o r e I quit Ca l a i s .11 a tr avel- wr i ter w o u l d say, "it
wo uld not be a m i s s to give some a c c o u n t of i t . “- - N o w I think
it v er y m uc h a m i s s - - t h a t a ma n cannot go q u i et ly t h r o u g h a
town, an d let it alone, w h e n it does not meddle w i th him,
but that he m u s t be t u r n i n g abo ut and d r a w i n g his p e n at
every k e n n e l he c r o s s e s over, merely, o' my co nscien ce, for
the sake of d r a w i n g it; b e c a u s e , if we ma y judge f ro m what
has b e e n w r o t e of t h e s e things, by all who h a v e w r o t e and
g a l l o p 'd - -o r wh o h a v e g a l l o p 1d and w r o t e . w h i c h is a d i f ­
ferent way still; or for more e x p e d i t i o n t ha n the rest, have
wrote g a l l o p i n g , w h i c h is the way I do at p r e s e n t
from the
great A d d i e o n . w h o did it w i t h his satch el of s c h o o l bo oks
h a n g i n g at h i s a--, an d g a l l i n g his b e a s t ' s c r u p p e r at every
s t r o k e — there is not a g a l l o p e r of us al l who m i g h t not have
gone on a m b l i n g q u i e t l y in his own g r o u n d (in case he h a d
any), a n d h a v e w r o t e all he h a d to write, d r y s h o d , as well
as no t. ^
Considering Addison's
m a r k s . Sterne's
here
all
1.
comment
to v i e w
it
in the c o m p o s i t i o n
is not
is d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t th e
travel writers
time
method
carefully
a l t o g e t h e r unj ust .
general
to d e s c r i b e
of his J jb.-
tendency
Th e
satire
on the p ar t
everything whether
he h a d
or not.
IV, 1 2 - 1 3 (vii, 4).
T h i s commen t on s t a y i n g at h o m e is
r e m i n i s c e n t of W a l p o l e ' s p r e v i o u s r e m a r k on “ Mr. A ddison's Tr a v e l s , of w h i c h it was so t r u l y said, he m ig ht
h a v e c o m p o s e d t h e m w i t h o u t s t i r r i n g out of E n g l a n d . "
L e t t e r No. 813 to the Sev. H e n r y Zouch, Mar. 20, 1762,
V, 188.
Who f i r s t s aid this of A d d i s o n I h a v e not discovered, but the ide a was e v i d e n t l y not o r i g i n a l w i t h
Sterne.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
later
on he
fal ls
foul
of the p e d a n t r y
of B i s h o p
Hall.
“MAKE l.hgm ULJl£ »aA<? & J h e e l ." is a h i t t e r sarcasm, as all
the l e a r n e d know, a g a i n s t th e g r a n d t o u r , and that r e s t l e s s
spirit for m a k i n g it, w h i c h D a v i d p r o p h e t i c a l l y f o r e s a w
would h a u n t the c h i l d r e n of m e n in the l a t t e r days; a n d t h e r e ­
fore, as t h i n k e t h th e gr ea t b i s h o p H a l l . 'tie one of the s e ­
verest i m p r e c a t i o n s w h i c h D a v i d e ver u t t e r ' d a g a i n s t the e n e ­
mies of the L o r d — and, as if he h a d said, "I w i s h them no
worse l u ck t h a n a l w a y s to be r o l l i n g a b o u t " - - S o m u c h motion,
cont in ue s he (for h e was v e r y c o r p u l e n t ) — is so m u c h u n q u i e t ­
ness; and so m u c h of rest, by th e s a me an alo gy, is so m u c h of
heaven.-1
Hall,
vel
as a c l e r g y m a n ,
for
fear
of his
countrymen's perversion
Catholic rel ig io n.
In u r g i n g
home a n d e n j o y the
vances
was p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t
the English
many blessings
of t h e i r
continental
tra­
to the H o m a n
to stay
quietly
island,
at
he a d ­
the f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n t ;
Hone of the l ea st i m p r e c a t i o n s w h i c h D a v i d mak es a g a i n s t
God's e n e m i e s is, M a k e th e m l ik e u n t o
wheel. £ Lord.
Motion is ever a c c o m p a n i e d b y u n q u i e t n e s s , a n d b o t h a r g u e s
and c au s e s i m p e r f e c t i o n : w h e r e a s the h a p p y e s t a t e of h e a v e n
is d e s c r i b e d by re st ; w h o s e g l o r i o u s s p h e r e s in the m e a n ­
time, do b o p e r p e t u a l l y move, tha t they a r e n e v e r r e m o v e d
from their pla ces.
Sterne,
f o n d of mo t io n, p r o v i d e d that
3
the spee d c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h h i s m o o d , and w o u l d t h e r e f o r e
have
b e i n g very
to be d a m n e d
a post-chaise
thin,
i nt o a
wheel,
h u m o r o u s p a s s a g e he
was
slow-moving
as w o u l d
cart wh e e l ,
a n d not
the p o n d e r o u s B i s ho p.
is no d o u b t
poking
fun at H a l l ' s
into
In this
strained
1. IV, 30.
Th e B i b l i c a l p a s s a g e r e f e r r e d to is £*,. 83:13.
2. "<}uo Vadis? A J u s t C e n s u r e of T r a v e l , as it is c o m m o n l y
u n d e r t a k e n by the g e n t l e m e n of our n a t i o n , " Works.. IX,
55 9
3. I V , *22 (vii, 8).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
use
of the B i b l i c a l
text,
a n d also
thesis of ft^o V a d i s ? . w h i c h
i n d i r e c t l y at
is h a r d l y
the w h o l e
one that S t e r n e w o u l d
approve.
St e r n e m a k e s
run of tr avel b o o k s
in a gre at h u r r y
othe r d i r e c t
hits against
in s e v e r a l p a s s a g e s .
to r e a c h the b a n k s
the g e n e r a l
He p r e t e n d s
of the
to be
Garonne.
No;
1 ca n n o t s t o p a m o m e n t to g iv e y o u the c h a r a c t e r of
the p e o p l e - - t h e i r g e n i u s —
t h e i r m a n n e r s — their c u s t o m s —
their l a w s - - - t h e i r r e l i g i o n - - t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t — their m a n u ­
f a c t u r e s - - t h e i r c o m m e r c e - - t h e i r fi na n c e s , w i t h all the r e ­
sources an d h i d d e n s p r i n g s w h i c h s u s t a i n them: q u a l i f i e d as
I ma y be, by s p e n d i n g t h r e e days a n d two nig h t s a m o n g s t
them, and d u r i n g all that time m a k i n g the se things the en ti re
subject of my e n q u i r i e s a n d r e f l e c t i o n s
^
Shis
jibe at the
qualifications
tors u p o n n a t i o n a l
remark
of the
characteristics
of G o l d s m i t h ' s C h i n e s e
superficial
is r e m i n i s c e n t
tra ve ll er ,
who
commenta­
of a
tells his
sober
cor­
respon de nt ;
You m ust be c o n t e n t e d w i t h . . . a n i m p e r f e c t a c c o u n t of a p e o p l e
with w h o m I am as y e t s u p e r f i c i a l l y a c q u a i n t e d .
The r e m a r k s
of a man who has b e e n b u t three d a y s in th e c o u n t r y ca n only
be t h e o b v iou s c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h f o r c e t h e m s e l v e s u p o n the
ima gi na ti on. ^
St er ne p o i n t e d l y a v o i d s
sca nty data.
ei th er
this practice
S i n c e he r e f u s e s
of men or
things
of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n
to " g i v e g e n e r a l
in c h o l e r , "
he w a i t s
the
from
characters
distance
of
1... IV, 46-47.
2. " C i t i z e n of the W o r l d , " W o r k s III, 99.
W a l p o l e is l i k e ­
wise c a u t i o u s a n d m a k e s e x c u s e s for h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s :
"One does not l e a r n a w h o l e n a t i o n in four or five m o n t hs ;
but, for the time, few, I b e l i e v e , h a v e seen, studied, or
got so m u c h a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the F r e n c h as I ha ve ." L e t t e r
No. 1090 to Gray, Jan. 25, 1766, VI, 403.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ten p o s t s b e f o r e
"making
a national
reflection"
upon French
1
post-chaises
and F r e n c h p o s t i l i o n s ,
he is c a u t i o u s
in m a k i n g
a general
an d again,
at Av i g n o n ,
ded uc t i o n .
...I t h i n k it w r o n g , m e r e l y b e c a u s e a ma n's hat has b e e n
b lo wn o f f his h e a d b y ch an ce the f i r s t n i g h t he comes to
A v i g n o n — - - t h a t he s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e say, 11A v i g n o n is m o r e
subject to h i g h w i n d s tha n any t o w n in all F r a n c e . ..^
He t h e r e f o r e
proverbial
investigates
before he records
the l e a r n e d what
ca n be
rapid o b s e r v a t i o n s
four h o u r s
and
the
discovers
the w i n d i n e s s
the
s t a t e m e n t " m e r e l y to a s k
3
cause."
The d u l l n e s s of th ese
is h i n t e d at w he n S t e r n e r e m a r k s
is " t i m e
to be
to tire
that
to see e n o u g h
of L y o n s
the
f r i en ds
in the w o r l d w i t h it."
4
patience
Also
of all
the h a b i t
in his
lament
the
of b o r r o w i n g
"drawing"
f ro m the o t h e r is r i d i c u l e d
5
s t o l e n r e m ar ks .
Th e p r a c t i c e of t a k ­
for his
ing m e a s u r e m e n t s
of J a n a t o n e w i t h the
perpendicular height
s i d e r i n g that
invited
toric b u i l d i n g s
3.
3.
4.
b.
6.
IV,
IV,
IV,
IV.
IV,
IV.
to h e a r
o f the
to m e a s u r e
is
and
thought
"th e
i n t e r r u p t s his
that
his r e a d e r s
br e a d t h , an d
6
g re at p a r i s h - c h u r c h ," bu t c o n ­
the d i m e n s i o n s
the t r a v e l w r i t e r
1.
one
is d e r i d e d when S t e r n e
would p r o b a b l y p r e f e r
mi n d e d are
I had
len gth,
w il l not
t h e m at
interested
change,
their
the f a c t u a l -
leisure .
in g i v i n g d e t a i l s
in g e n e r a l i z i n g u p o n
Si nce
a bout
the people,
he
2 2 - 2 3 (vii, 8).
102 (vii, 41).
103.
76 (vii, 30).
93 -94 (vii, 36)
26 (vii, 9).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
his­
is
often e m b a r r a s s e d for
ling b e t w e e n
material,
Sterne
o b se rv es ,
in
travel­
cities.
T he r e is n o t h i n g m o r e p l e a s i n g to a t r a v e l l e r — or mo r e t e r ­
rible to t r a v e l - w r i t e r s , than a la r g e r i c h plain; e s p e c i a l l y
if it is w i th ou t g r e a t r i v e r s or b r i d g e s ; a n d p r e s e n t s n o ­
t h i n g to the eye, b u t one u n v a r i e d p i c t u r e of plenty; for
after th ey h a v e onc e told you, that 'tis delicious.1 or d e ­
lightful.1 (as the case h a p p e n s )- - t h a t the soil was g r at ef ul ,
and that n a t u r e p o u r s out all her a b u n d a n c e , &c. ... they
have th e n a l a r g e p l a i n u p o n their hands, w h i c h they k n o w
not what to do w i t h - - a n d w h i c h is of l i tt le or no use to
them but to c a r r y t h e m to some town; and that town, p e r h a p s
of l i t t l e more, bu t a n e w p l a c e to start from to the next
plain
an d so on.
1.
IV, 105 (vii, 42).
T h i s idea is by no m e a n s o r i g i n a l w i t h
Sterne.
S i r F r a n c i s Bac on, in the d e d i c a t i o n of T h e H i s JlSlUZ JL£ the R e i g n pl£ K i n g H e n r y the S e v e n t h observe s: "And
it is w i t h T i me s, as it is with ways: So m e are m o r e u p ­
h i l l and d o w n - h i l l , a n d some are more flat an d plain; and
the one is b e t t e r for the liver, and the oth er for the
w r ite r. " ed. Rev. J.R. L u m b y ; Ca mb ri d g e , 1902, pp. 3-4.
If Ster n e d i d not r e a d this O b s e r v a t i o n here, he ma y have
found it p o i n t e d out to h i m by Add ison : "Sir F r a n c i s B a c o n .
in the d e d i c a t i o n b e f o r e his h i s t o r y of H e n r y the Seventh,
obse rv es , that p e a c e a b l e times are the b e s t to li v e in,
t h o u g h not so p r o p e r to f u r n i s h m a t e r i a l s for a writer: As
h i l l y c o u n t r i e s a f f o r d the most e n t e r t a i n i n g p ro sp ects ,
t h o u g h a m a n w o u l d c h o o s e to tr av el t h r o u g h a p l a i n one."
T h e F r e e h o l d e r No. 28, Lond on, 1761, p. 153.
T h i s failure
of the t r a v e l - w r i ter to m a k e the c o u n t r y i n t e r e s t i n g to
hi s r e a d e r s is n o t i c e d b y Jo h n s o n : "Of tho s e who c r o w d the
w o r l d w i t h t h ei r i t i n e r a r i e s , some h a v e no other p u r p o s e
t h a n to d e s c r i b e the face of the country; those who sit
idle at home, a n d are c u ri ou s to k n o w what is don e or s u f ­
f e r e d in d i s t a n t co un tr i e s , may be i n f o r m e d by one of
thes e w a n d e r e r s , that on a c e r t a i n da y he set out early
w i t h the cara va n, a n d in the first h o u r ' s m a r c h saw,
t o w a r d s the south, a h i l l c o v e r e d w i t h trees, t h e n p a s s e d
over a stream, w h i c h r a n n o r t h w a r d w i t h a swift course,
but w h i c h i 8 p r o b a b l y d r y in the sum m e r months; that an
h o u r after he sa w s o m e t h i n g to the right w h i c h l o o k e d at
a d i s t a n c e like a c a s t l e wi t h towers, b u t whi ch he d i s ­
c o v e r e d a f t e r w a r d s to be a c r a g g y rock; that then he e n ­
t e r e d a val ley, in w h i c h he saw s e ve ra l tre es tall and
f l o u r i s h i n g , w a t e r e d b y a ri v u l e t not m a r k e d in the maps,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Ste rn e p r o m i s e s
to m a n a g e
Besides
tr a v e l l e r s ,
the se
th e r e
is
hi s p l a i n s b e t t e r .
direct hits
to b e
a le s s
aga in st
f o u n d in the
obvious
sort
the g u i d e - b o o k s
ises
o f the t o u r i s t
amount
of time,
tries
, y c o n t a i n e d
from town to town,
at
in hi s
Sterne
l i s t e d in his
guide-book,
he was u n a b l e
to see.
the
journey
la Force.
was
This
ea c h
of the
who,
guide-book.
mos t
seventh book
as he goe s
because
s t a n d a r d work,
France
abridged
of
along
thin g s
of his
Th e b o o k w h i c h he u s e d to g u i d e
the N o u v e a u V o y a g e
in
He r e a l ­
the list
important
of which,
of
with a limited
Thus,
the
of
criticism
time.
to w n to e x h a u s t
mentions
comments
of h u m o r o u s
which S t e r n e p a r o d i e s
the p e r p l e x i t i e s
the
haste,
h i m on
of P i g a n i o l
in tw o v o l u m e s
de
for
(cont'd fr o m p. 52) of w h i c h he was not able to l e a r n the
name; that the r o a d a f t e r w a r d g r e w stony, and the c o u n t r y
u n eve n, w h e r e he o b s e r v e d a m o n g the h i l l s m a n y h o l l o w s
w o r n by tor re nt s, an d was to l d that the r o a d was p a s s a b l e
only pa r t of the year; tha t g o i n g on they fou nd the r e ­
mains of a b u i l d i n g , once, p er ha ps , a f o r t r e s s to s e c u r e
the pass, or to r e s t r a i n th e r o b b e r s , of w h i c h th e p r e s e n t
i n h a b i t a n t s can g i v e no o t h e r a c co un t than that it is
h a u n t e d b y fa i r i e s ; th at t h e y we nt to d i n e at the foot of
a rock, a n d t r a v e l l e d the rest of the d a y a l o n g the banks
of a rive r, fr om w h i c h the r o a d t u r n e d a s i d e t o w a r d s e v e n ­
ing, a n d b r o u g h t t h e m w i t h i n sight of a v i l l a g e , w h i c h
was once a c o n s i d e r a b l e town, but w h i c h a f f o r d e d t h e m
n e i t h e r g o o d v i c t u a l s no r c o m m o d i o u s l o d g i n g .
T h u s he c o n d u c t s hi s r e a d e r t h r o u g h wet an d dry, over
r o u g h a n d smooth, w i t h o u t i nc id en ts, w i t h o u t r e f l e c t i o n ;
and, if he o b t a i n s his c o m p a n y for a n o t h e r day, wi ll d i s ­
mi ss h i m a g a i n at ni gh t, e q u a l l y f a t i g u e d w i t h a li ke
s u c c e s s i o n of ro c k s a n d streams, m o u n t a i n s and r u i n s . M
Idl er No. 97, W o r k s IV, 434.
S te r n e m a y h a v e k n o w n this
p a p e r (see q u o t a t i o n b e l o w ) .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the t r a v e l l e r '8 c o n v e n i e n c e ,
proved valuable
du ri ng
the
to h i m not
composition
The
fi rst
ter,
when Sterne
the t h r e e
r oa ds
the
only on the r o a d but
of h i s
comment
to u r i s t ' s m i n d b y
f r o m a m uc h l o n g e r
in hie
study
travel book.
on the
guide-books
remarks
account,
upon
confusion
is m a d e
c r e a t e d in the
in the t h i r d c h a p ­
the d i f f i c u l t y
of c h o o s i n g am on g
to Pa ris:
It is a gr eat i n c o n v e n i e n c e to a m a n in a haste, that
there are t hr ee d i s t i n c t r o a d s b e t w e e n C a l a i s a n d P a r i s , in
b e h a l f of w h i c h t h e r e is so m u c h to be s a i d by the se veral
d e p u t i e s f r o m the t o w n s w h i c h lie a l o n g them, that h a l f a
day is e a s i l y lost in s e t t l i n g w h i c h y o u ' l l take.
First,
about---but
would
the r o a d by Li sle a n d A r r a s . w h i c h is the most
the most i n t e r e s t i n g , a n d i n s t r u c t i n g .
T h e s e c o n d that by A m i e n s . w h i c h y o u m a y go,
see C h a n t i l l y --And
There
that b y B e a u v a i s . w h i c h y o u ma y go,
is no d i r e c t
reference
three routes
co urse
the
rou tes
are l i s t e d d e l i b e r a t e l y by St er ne
ing i n t e r e s t
co ncl udi ng )
so as
are
to P i g a n i o l
to g i v e
outlined
if y o u
if y o u will.-*-
here,
in that
a l t h o u g h of
2
work.
Th e
in o r d e r of d e s c e n d ­
satiric emphasis
to the next
(and
sentence:
g
For t his r e a s o n a g r e a t
Sterne
his
fi rs t
c o n t e n t i o n that
m a n y c h u s e to go b y B e a u v a i s .
makes use
of P i g a n i o l
in d e m o n s t r a t i n g
he c o u l d w r i t e a c h a p t e r
on the
sights
1. IV, 11.
2. "Ce V o y a g e se p e u t f a i r e p a r t r o i s r o u t e s d i f f e r e n t e s .
L a p r e m i e r e en p a s s a n t p a r B e a u v a i s ; la s e c o n d s en p a s ­
sant pa r A n i e n s ; & la troisifeme, qui est la plu s longue,
est ce lle de L i s l e . "
N o u v e a u V o y a g e . II, 213.
3. S t e r n e h i m s e l f t o o k the m o s t p o p u l a r road, that t h r o u g h
Ami e n s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of C a l a i s
a l t h o u g h he h a d n e v e r
seen the t o w n by da yli ght:
..•by m e r e l y k n o w i n g what is what, a n d by d r a w i n g this from
that in one pa r t of the town, an d b y s p e l l i n g and p u t t i n g
this an d that t o g e t h e r in a n o t h e r — — I w o u l d lay any t r a v e l ­
ling odds, that I this m o m e n t w r i t e a c h a p t e r u p o n Cala is as
long as my arm; an d wi th so d i s t i n c t a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y a d e ­
tail of e v e r y item, w h i c h is w o r t h a s t r a n g e r ' s c ur i o s i t y in
the t o w n - - t h a t y o u w o u l d take me for the t o w n - c l e r k of C a l a i s
itself--1
To p r o v e his
case,
and p a r o d i e d
the a c c o u n t
that work.
no t e d m o r e
he m e r e l y r e a c h e d
for hi s
copy of P i g a n i o l
of the F r e n c h s e a p o r t
contained
in
T h e fa c t
that S t e r n e u s e d this b o o k has be en
2
t h a n once, but no one has ever c o m p a r e d the o r i g i ­
nal a n d the p a r o d y
closely enough
about.
The
following comparison
details
from Piganiol
and
pressions and reflections
exaggeration
the
typical
to sh ow what Ste rn e was
i l l u s t r a t e s h o w Sterne
i n t e r s p e r s e d th em wi t h his own
so as
to b u r l e s q u e
travel writer's
with out
account
culled
im­
too m u c h
of a f o r e i g n
t own.
1. This is a p r a c t i c e of t r a v e l w r i t e r s c r i t i c i z e d by J o h n ­
son in the Idler No. 97 a l r e a d y q u ote d in part:
"Th e g r e a t e r par t of t r a v e l l e r s tell nothing, b e c a u s e
their m e t h o d of t r a v e l l i n g s u p p l i e s the m w i t h n o t h i n g to
be told.
fie that e n t e r s a t o w n at night, a n d surveys it
in the m o rn ing, a n d t h e n h a s t e n s away to anot he r place,
a n d g u e s s e s at the m a n n e r s of the i n h a b i t a n t s b y the e n ­
t e r t a i n m e n t w h i c h h i s inn a f f o r d e d him, may p l e a s e h i m ­
se l f f o r a time w i t h a h a s t y c h a n g e of scenes, and a c o n ­
f u s e d r e m e m b e r a n c e of p a l a c e s a n d chur c h e s ; he m ay g r a t i ­
fy hi s eye wi th a v a r i e t y of l a n d s c a p e s , and rega le his
p a l a t e w i t h a s u c c e s s i o n of v i n t a g e s ; but let h i m be c o n ­
t e n t e d to p l e a s e h i m s e l f w i t h o u t e n d e a v o u r i n g to distu rb
othe rs.
W o r k s IV, 433.
2. F i t z g e r a l d , The L i f e o f L a u r e n c e ,
S
t
333-34.
Cross, L i f e , p. 355; Curtis, L e t t e r s , p. 232, n. 4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CALAIS, C a l a t i u m . C a l u s l u m . Cal.e s i u a . T h i s town, if we may
trust its ar c h i v e s , the a u t h o r i ­
ty of w h i c h I see no r e a s o n to
call in q u e s t i o n in this p l a c e - was once no more than a small
v illage "belonging to one of the
first C ou n ts de G u i g n e s : and as
it b o a s t s at p r e s e n t of no less
than f o u r t e e n t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t ­
ants, e x c l u s i v e of f o u r h u n d r e d
and tw e n t y d i s t i n c t f a m i l i e s in
the b a s s e v i l l e . or s u b u r b s --it must h a v e g r ow n up b y l i t t l e
and little, I suppose, to its
p res e nt size.
T h o u g h there are f o u r c o n ­
vents, t h e r e is but one p a r o c h ­
ial c h u r c h in the w h o l e town; I
had not an o p p o r t u n i t y of t a k i n g
its exact d i m e n s i o n s , but it is
p r e t t y e a s y to make a t o l e r a b l e
c on j ec tu r e of 'em— f or as t he r e
are f o u r t e e n t h o u s a n d i n h a b i t a n t s
in the town, if the c h u r c h h o l d s
them all, it must be c o n s i d e r a b l y
l a r g e — and if it w i l l n o t — 'tis a
very great p i t y th e y h a v e not an­
o t h e r — it is b ui lt in f o r m of a
cross, and d e d i c a t e d to the Virgin M a r y ; the steeple, w h i c h has
a spire to it, is p l a c e d in the
middle of the church, a n d stands
u pon four p i l l a r s e l e g a n t and
light enough, but s u f f i c i e n t l y
st r o n g at the same t i m e - - i t is
d e c o r a t e d w i t h e l e v e n altars,
most of w h i c h are r a t h e r fine
than b e a u t i f u l .
The great a lt ar
is a m a s t e r p i e c e in its kind;
•tis of w h i t e marb l e, a n d as I
was told n e a r s ix t y feet h i g h —
had it b e e n m u c h h i g h e r, it h a d
b een as h i g h as m o u n t C a l v a r y
i t s e l f — t he r ef o r e , I s u p p o s e it
must be h i g h e n o u g h in all consci ence.
T h er e was n o t h i n g s t r u c k me
more than the great S q u a r e ; tho'
Calais, C a l e s i u m . C a l a s i u m
C a l e t i u m . est une Ville & Port
de mer qui n ' e t o i t a u t r e f o i s
q u 1 un V i l l a g e du C om t e de
Gui ne s ;
O n y compte e n v i r o n qu a t o r z e
m i l l e h a b i t a n t s , sans y comp r e n d r e le C o u r ga i n, ni la Villeb a s s e . . . o u f a u x b o u r g , ..On y
com pt e e n v i r o n q u a t r e - c e n s quarante mais o ns , ou f am i l i e s .
11 n'y a dans Calais qu'une
P a r o i s s e & auat re C ouvents.
L ' S g l i s e P a r o i s s i a l e est sous
I ' i n v o c a t i o n de la V ierge.
Le
v a i s s e a u , . ,est r egulier, en
f o r m e de c r o i x , . . L a tour <^ui
sert de C l o c h e r est fort elevee,
p l a c e e en m i l i e u de l'Eglise, &
p o r t e e par q u a t r e p i l i e r s forts
deli c a t s , , , . [Le v a i s s e a u est]
d e c o r e d' o n z e C h ap e l l e s .
Ce au'il y a de p l us r e m a r q u a b l e
est le m a i t r e - A u t e l , qui est tout
c o n s t r u i t de m a r b r e de Carare, &
a c i n q u a n t e six pieds de haut sur
t r e n t e - u n de larg e ,. . .
Les rues de Cal a is sont
bell es & droites, &
aboutissent
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
57.
I cannot say 'tis e i th er well
p a v e d or w e l l h u i l t ; hut 'tis
in the h e a r t of the town, and
most of the streets, e s p e c i a l l y
those in th at qu a r t e r , al l t e r ­
m i n a t e in it; c o u l d there h a v e
h e e n a f o u n t a i n in all C a l a i s .
whic h it seem s th e r e cannot, as
such an o b j e c t w o u l d ha v e h e e n
a great o r n a m e n t , it is not to
he d o uh ted, hut that the i n h a b ­
itants w o u l d h a v e h a d it in the
very c e n t r e of this s q u a r e , —
not that it is p r o p e r l y a
s q u a r e ,- - b e c a u s e 'tis for ty
feet l o n g e r from ea s t to west,
than from n o r t h to south; so
that the F r e n c h in g e n e r a l h a v e
more r e a s o n on t h e i r side in
c a l l i n g th e m P l a c e s than S q u a r e s .
which, s t r i c t l y spe aking, to he
sure the y ar e not.
T h e t o w n - h o u s e se e m s to he
hut a s o r r y b u i l d i n g , an d not to
be kept in the b e s t repair;
o t h e r w i s e it h a d h e e n a s e c o n d
great o r n a m e n t to this p l a c e ;
it a n s w e r s h o w e v e r its d e s t i n a ­
tion, an d se rv e s v e r y w e l l for
the r e c e p t i o n o f the m a g i s t r a t e s ,
who a s s e m b l e in it fr o m time to
time; so th a t 'tis p r e s u m a b l e , ,
ju s t i c e is r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d ,
I h a v e h e a r d m u c h of it, but
there is n o t h i n g at all c u r i o u s
in the C o u r e a l n : *tis a d i s t i n c t
q u a r t e r of the town, i n h a b i t e d
solely by s a i l o r s a n d f i s h e r m e n ;
it c o n s i s t s of a n u m b e r o f small
streets, n e a t l y b u i l t , a n d m o s t ­
ly of b r i c k ; 'tis e x t r e m e l y p o p ­
ulous, but as that m a y b e acc c o u n t e d for, f r o m t h e p r i n c i p l e s
of t h e i r d i e t — t h e r e is n o t h i n g
curious in that n e i t h e r . - — A
t r a v e l l e r m a y see it to s a t i s f y
h i m s e l f - - h e must not omit h o w e v e r
taki n g n o t i c e of
To ur de Gue t .
u p o n a n y ac c o u n t ; 'tis so c a l l e d
from its p a r t i c u l a r d e s t i n a t i o n ,
b e c a u s e in wa r it s e r v e s to d i s ­
cover a n d gi v e n o t i c e of the
p r e s q u e t o u t e s h la seul e p l a c e
qu'il y a, & qui est a u m i l i e u
d e ^ l a Ville.
Cet te pla c e est
t r e s - m a l pavee, ma i s d ' a i l l e u r s
t r e s - b e l l e & t r e s - g r a n d e ....
II n'y a p o i n t de f o n t a i n e s a
Calai s . ..
p u i s q u e sa l o n g u e u r du lev an t au
c o u c h & n t est de so i x a n t e six
toises, & sa l a r g e u r de c i n q u a n te huit.
L a M a i s o n de Vi l l e est sur
la place.
Le b a t i m e n t en est
a n c i e n & en m a u v a i s etat....
[de u x g r o s s e s clo ches dans
fleche,...] pour appeller
les M a g i s t r a t e .
la
Le C o u r g a i n fait p a r t i e de
la V i l l e de Calais, & tire son
n o m de ce q u 'a n c i e n n e m e n t il y
avoit en cet e n d r o i t dee pec h e u r e qui g a g n o i e n t p e u de chose
C ' e s t la que r e s i d e n t tous les
M a t e l o t s & tous les p e c h e u r s de
Calais.
II y a h u i t p e t i t e s
rues, &
les m a i e o n s en sont de
brique &
ass e z jolies.
On y
c o m p t e e n v i r o n t r o i s - c e n t s quara n t e fa mi l i e s . . . .
II y a dans ce t t e Vil le une
au t r e Tour, a p p e l l e e la T o u r du
G u e t . p a r c e q u ' e l l e sert a de co u v r i r les v a i s s e a u x qui vienn e n t de la m e r ,&
a a v e r t i r de
l ' a p p r o c h e des e n n e m i s en temps
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
e nemies w h i c h a p p r o a c h the place,
e it h er by s e a or l a n d ;
hut 'tis
m o n s t r o u s high, an d c a t c h e s the
eye so c o n t i n u a l l y , y o u cannot
avoid t a k i n g n o t i c e of it, if y o u
w o ul d.
It was a s i n g u l a r d i s a p p o i n t ­
ment to me, that I c o u l d not have
p e r m i s s i o n to take an exact sur­
vey of the fortifications,^- w h i c h
are the s t r o n g e s t in the world,
and w hi c h, f r o m f i r s t to last,
that is, f r o m the t ime t h e y w e r e
set about h y P h i l i u of F r a n c e
Count of B o u l o g n e . to the pre
sent war, w h e r e i n m a n y r e p a r a ­
tions w e r e made, h a v e cost (as I
l e a r n e d a f t e r w a r d s f r o m an en­
gineer in G a s c o n y a b o v e a h u n ­
dred m i l l i o n s of l i v r e s .
It is
very r e m a r k a b l e , that at the T e t e
de G r a v e l e n e s . a n d w h e r e the town
is n a t u r a l l y the w e a k e s t , t h e y
have e x p e n d e d the most money; so
that the o u t w o r k s s t r e t c h a great
way into the c a mp a i g n , a n d c o n s e ­
q u e n t l y o c c u p y a l a r g e tract of
g r o u n d , - - H o w e v e r , a f t e r all that
is said an d d o n e . it m u s t he
a c k n o w l e d g e d that C a l a l s was
n ever u p o n a n y a c c o u n t so con­
s id e ra bl e f r o m i t s e l f, as f r o m
its s i t u a t i o n , a n d that easy e n ­
trance w h i c h it gave ou r a n c e s ­
tors, u p o n all o c c a s i o n s , into
F r a n c e : it was not w i t h o u t its
i n c o n v e n i e n c e s also; b e i n g no
less t r o u b l e s o m e to the Bngli sh
in t hose times, t h a n D u n k i r k h a s
de guerre, soit par mer, soit
par terre, & p o u r v e i l l e r jour
& nui t ,,.
Cette p e t i t e Ville etoit
d e j a si b i e n f o r t i f i e e en 1448
Philippe
Boulogne
entourer
de F r a n c e C om p t e de
la [ie. la vi ll e ] fit
de m u r a i l l e s . . .
Celui que l'on nomine la
t8te de G r a v e l i n e s est encore
m i e u x f or t i f i e .
Tout le circuit
de cette P l a c e est e n v e l o p p e par
un bon ch e m i n couvert, a uquel on
a p r a t i q u e u n a v a n t - f o s s e du
cSte de la b a s s e Ville,
On ne
l 'a pas c o n t i n u e au cote de
G ra v e l i n e s , a cause de la h a u ­
teur du t e r r e i n , ,..
1, The F r e n c h w e r e j e a l o u s of th e ir m i l i t a r y secrets, but were
w i l l i n g to p e r m i t a ca s ua l i n s p e c t i o n of t hese wo r ks at
Calais,
M i l l a r d , a n a v a l o f f i c e r , obser ve s ! "...let y ou r
stay in this town be as short as p o s si b le ; w a l k r o u n d the
r am p ar ts ; and w h e n y o u h a ve e x a m i n e d the f o r t i f i c a t i o n s ,
(w hi c h y o u m a y do w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n , if y o u h ave a c o ck ­
ade in y o u r h a t , ) y o u w i l l have s ee n e v e r y t h i n g w o r t h y a
stranger*s inspection."
T h e G e n t l e m a n 1s G u i d e . p. 16.
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been to us, in ours; so that it
was d e s e r v e d l y l o o k e d u p o n as the
key to b o t h k i n g d o m s , w h i c h no
doubt is the r e a s o n that there
have a r i s e n so m a n y c o n t e n t i o n s
who s h o u l d k e e p it; of these, the
siege of C a l a i s . or r a the r the
bl o c k a d e (for it was shut up b o t h
by land a n d s e a ) , was the most
memorable, as it w i t h s t o o d the
efforts of E d w a r d the T h i r d a
whole year, a n d was not t e r m i n a t e d
at last but b y famine a n d e x t r e m e
misery; the g a l l a n t r y of E u s t a c h e
de St P i e r r e . w h o first o f f e r e d
h i m s e l f a v i c t i m for his f e ll ow citizens, has r a n k ' d his name
with heroes.
As it will not take
up above fi f t y pages, it w o uld be
inj us ti ce to the reader, not to
give h i m a m i n u t e a c c o u n t of that
ro ma nti c t r a n s a c t i o n , as well as o:
the siege itself, in B a p i n 's own
words;
Piganiol
relates
the
s t o r y of E u s t a c h e
the E n g l i s h k i n g a n d que en in l e s s
historian
Rapin,
but
a b r i d g e d v e rs ion.
travel w r i t e r s
writers
lengthy
places v i s i t e d
that S t e r n e
Ster ne
His
[si b i e n f o r t i f i e s . . . ] qu Ed o u a r d Boi d ' A n g l e t e r r e 1 ayant
as sie g& e, il ne put l a p r e n d r e
que p a r famine, & apres un an
de s i e g e . . . .E u s t a c h e d e ^saint
P i e r r e . ..s 1offrit p o u r etre
une de ces six vi ct imes .
Sa
g e n e r o s i t e & son a m o u r p o u r ses
c o m p a t r i o t e s . .. ces six h e r o s , ..
tha n
forbears
intention
is
the
in their
is not
of the
tours.
Pierre
fifty p a g e s
to give us
to r i d i c u l e
of p a d d i n g their b o o k s by
accounts
de St.
copying
of the
even th i s
the p r a c t i c e
of
from p r e v i o u s
familiar happenings
of the
Indeed
observed
it s h o u l d be
m a k i n g fun of P i g a n i o l ,
and
fr o m whom he has
1. IV, 1 4 -13 (vii, 5).
2. N o u v e a u V o y a g e II, 226-32.
Th e q u o t a t i o n s f r o m this b o o k
are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n sev e n p a g e s of the text, b u t are c o m ­
p l e t e l y out o f their n a t u r a l order.
Sterne, "by s p e l l i n g
and p u t t i n g this a n d that t o g e t h e r , " has c r e a t e d his own
order.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
taken hi s details,
"but of
dinary d e t a i l s
intersperse
flections.
Thus
thenticity
mensions
of
of
the
tower,
the
the
Ste r ne
the
of f o u n t a i n s ,
justice,
and
has
a r ch i v e s ,
church
the
importance.'1'
To
the
in remarks
r e pe a t
of
Courgain,
fortifications
the
the
di­
its altar,
the
lack
d i s t r i b u t i o n of
the h e i g h t
and their
of
these
stupid and m u d d l e - h e a d e d
observations
is u n n e c e s s a r y .
the time
m atter;
does
not
the
were
have been.
We n e e d not
tained that
he
could w r i t e
a chapter
town,
and w h e t h e r
he
seen the
his
contention.
he could not
The
adroit
the towns
attempt
so
so common
use
Sterne
of P i g a n i o l
s e v e n t h b o o k he
through which
no
reference
to
should
He m a i n ­
having
he p r o v e s
chapter
which
at home.
here
two
continues
lengthy a description.
that
the wh o le
t hese
he passes.
at
on-Calais without
seen it or not,
" d ry s h o d "
drew from
or not
Sterne's borrowing.
had
Wheth­
on travel w r i t e r s
is n o t h i n g in
have w r i t t e n
how m u c h m or e
t hr o u g h his
T h er e
justify
deliberately
recognized
satire
the
strategic
the h u m o r of
from Piganiol
re­
au­
explain
er the b o r r o w i n g s
or­
town,
"squar e ," the
the
on
g r o w t h of the
the he i g h t
of
who
them w it h u n i n t e l l i g e n t
t hr o w n
rectangular
of
travel w r i t e r s
the
and
population
cost
the
causes us
small
to w o n d e r
volumes.
to r e c o r d f a c t s
But
n e ve r
M a n y of
the
again
about
does
details
a g u i d e - b o o k w o u l d be
All
he
are
neces-
1. T r i st ra m , the n e p h e w of "my u n c l e To by , " was n a t u r a l l y i n ­
t e r e s t e d in f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , and the d e m o l i t i o n of D unkirk.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s&ry.
Ot h e r s
are
O c cas io na ll y,
obviously
however,
on w h i c h to b a s e
an
ney
Sterne
episode.
s c r i p t i o n of the m e a n s
count
to the G a r o n n e a n d
the
objects
from d i f f e r e n t
turns
let us
see w ha t
of
sources*
to Pi gani ol for
Before
an d t r i a l s
oi men a n d m a n n e r s ,
make about
taken
the
facts
c o n s i d e r i n g his d e ­
of t r a v e l l i n g and his
f o l l o w S t e r n e on his
f u r th er
in t e r e s t
ac­
jour­
r e m a r k s he ha s to
to the
tou ris ts a l o n g
the
rout e .
At
Calais
Sterne hired a post-chaise
travel
the t h i r t y - t w o p o s t s
of any
importance
had b e e n
In r e f e r e n c e
street
is B o u l o g n e .
the r e f u g e
for v a r i o u s
of those,
to th is
f ac t
change
"d e b t o r s a n d s i n n e r s "
ing come ab ro ad.
miring a young
He
l ady
seeing,
of h o r s e s
speculate
returning
this F r e n c h city
the
to flee
Sterne pictures
wh il e
as to the
is
wh o
the B r i t i s h
Isles.
in the
a jolly set
of
rea s o n for his h a v ­
t h ey dec id e,
there
Irish,
himself
f r o m v e sper s.
"b y Jasusi
to
first p o s t - t o w n
particularly
is a de b to r,
fo r
The
For y e a r s
reasons had been forced
d u r i n g the
is w o r t h
to Pa ri s.
and set out
the
as he
One
sits
other
ad­
thing
finest S E M I N A R Y
1
for the H U M A N I T I E S . "
ity than
it a p p e a r e d
Montreuil
looked
even worse in a c t u a l 2
in the b o o k of p o s t - r o a d s , and so St e r n e
1.
IV, 21 (vii, 7).
Cf. P i g a n i o l , " u n e M a i s o n des P r e t r e s
de l ' O r a t o i r e qui y e n s e i g n e n t les H u m a n i t e s & la
P h i l o s o p h i c . . . " II, 225.
2. IV, 2 4 - 2 5 (vii, 9).
P i g a n i o l d e v o t e s o n l y f o u r t e e n lines
to d e s c r i b i n g M o n t r e u i l .
He doe s not de s c r i b e the "gr e a t
p a r i s h — c h u r c h ," of w h i c h S t e r n e d e n i e s us the d i m e n s i o n s
but s u p p l i e s u s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n that th e " ab be y of S a i n t
A u s t r e b e r t e .. .h a s b e e n t r a n s p o r t e d f r o m A r t o i s h i t h e r . "
Cf. " L ' A b b a y e de S a i n t e A u s t r e b e r t e a ete t r a n s f e r e e
d ’A r t o i s en c e t t e Vil le ."
N o u v e a u V o y a g e . II, 22 3- 24.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h u r r i e d on to A b b e v i l l e
"to
see h o w they
c ar d and s p i n . ”
*&£. M o n t r e u i l _& M a m p o n t - goste et deini
de H a m p o n t ^a B e r n a y - - - p o s t e
de B e r n a y a N o u v i o n - - - p o s t e
de N o u v i o n a A B B E V I L L E
- poste
but the c a r d e r s and s p i n n e r s were all gone
Th i s
list
of posts,
Sterne
tells us
to b e d . ^
in a note,
is
copied f r o m the " B o o k of F r e n c h p o s t - r o a d s , page 36, e d i t i o n
2
of 1762,"
and se rv es to e m p h a s i z e the a m u s i n g effect of the
incl u s i o n of
great
commonplace
of the
town there was "a
factory which employed
Sterne,
a r r i v i n g at night,
v e x a t i o n in b e i n g u n a b l e
four
complained
nesse
At t hi s
S h e w of the W o o l l e n M a n u f a c t u r e " ; and we have one
le ngth y a c c o u n t
4
spinners.
But
out at
detail.
the
this
way fro m A m i e n s
Sterne l i s t s
to
The
for he
inn the
set
inn of which Ster ne
was p o s s i b l y the B u l l ' s Head.'
Thick-
only
t h i n g w o r t h r e m a r k i n g all the
5
Calais--"a wretched house."
Once a gain
the p o s t - t o w n s ,- - A i l l y a u C l o c h e r s
p erl y A i l l y - l e - H a u t - C l o c h e r ) , w h e r e
Hixcourt
suffered another
see the ope ra tors ,
f o l l o w i n g mo r n i n g .
so b i t t e r l y
t h o ug ht
to
the ca rd e r s and
the b e l l s
(today p r o ­
do not work,
for F l i x c o u r t ) , P e q u i g n a y , an d Amiens,
6
of w h i c h he has n o t h i n g to say.
He must h a v e spent a sec on d
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(a m i s s p e l l i n g
IV, 2 7 - 2 8 (vii, 10).
A c c o r d i n g to Sir G e o r g e F o rd ham, T h e L i b r a r y . 4t h series,
III, 124, no c o p y of this an n u a l for the y e a r 1762 is
k n o w n to exist today.
We m a y be pos i t i v e , however , from
b o t h c o n t e m p o r a r y ma ps a n d g u i d e b o o k s that the p o s t s are
l i s t e d in t h e i r c o r r e c t sequ enc e, but f r o m the e v i d e n c e
of the g u i d e - b o o k s N o u v i o n is a po st and a half fr o m A b b e ­
ville, and not a single p o s t (cf. Nug en t, Millard).
Cole, R a u Ls, JgV,rq,aI, p. 325 .
^
W r i g h t , O b s e r v a t i o n s in T r a v e l l i n g thrg,\xgji ?r&agfi. ft&a
ll&ly,. p. 2 .
U s e f u l H i n t s t o t h o s e w h o m a k e t h e T o u r o f Z 2L§JL£6.» P« 25 9.
IV, 35 (vii, 15).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
night
on t h e r o a d (the t r i p by post
but p r e t e n d i n g
to
be
sleepy in his
ing b e t w e e n A m i e n s a n d P a r i s
The
s t a bles
object
that
at
C ha nt i l l y ,
of s c o r n f u l
suc h l u x u r y
lish,
alw a y s
also s c o r n f u l
of the
does not
of the
Abbey
noth­
and S a i n t- De ni s.
saw out of s p i t e , w e r e
an
to E n g l i s h m e n ,
Catholic
sup er st itio n,
at S a i n t - D e n i s ,
and Sterne,
f rom C h a n t i l l y
t ur n his
three days),
he m e n t i o n s
Chantilly
w h i c h he
to r i d i c u l e
F r e n c h kings,
half p o s t s
chaise,
too k
w ho were s h o c k e d
1
s h o u l d b e w a s t e d on dumb beasts.
The E n g ­
ready
wonder
but
usually
travelling
to P a r i s
were
the b u r i a l p lace
the three an d a
on a p r i n c i p l e of Spleen,
h e a d to l o o k at it.
Ri ch nes s of t h e i r treasury.* s tu ff and nonsense.'--b a t i n g
their jewels, w h i c h ar e all false, I w o u l d not give three
sous for a n y one t h i n g in it, but J a i d a s 1s l a n t e r n — nor for
that either, onl y as it g r o w s dark, it m i g h t be of use .^
1. John S i c a n w r o t e to Swift: "I am p e r s u a d e d , Sir, y o u will
find a p a r t i c u l a r p l e a s u r e in t a k i n g a v i e w of the F r e n c h
n o b l e m e n ' s h o u s e s , a r i s i n g f r o m the s i m i l i t u d e b e t w e e n
the g oo d t r e a t m e n t the H o u y h n h n m s meet w i t h here, and
that w h i c h y o u h a v e o b s e r v e d i n . you r f o r m e r travels.
The
stables that L e w i s the F o u r t e e n t h has b u i l t are ve ry m a g ­
n i f i c e n t . . . --y et these s e e m m e a n to a n y o n e who has seen
that of the D u k e of B o u r b o n at C h a n t i l l y . "
Oct. 20, 1735.
C o r r e s p o n d e n c e £_£ J o n a t h a n Sw if t V, 268.
2. B e s i d e s the jew els t h e r e we re in S a i n t - D e n i s some r a r e and
curious pie ces.
"Les p r i n c i p a l e s sont une grand e C orne de
L i c o r n e de pres de sept p i e d s de l o n g , & u n O n g l e de Gfriffon
d 1une g r o s s e u r p r o d i g i e u s e . ..une des L a n t e r n e s qu' on dit
avoir servl a la P r i s e de N o t r e - S e i g n e u r , a p p e l l e e communement L A L A N T E R N S D E JUD AS ."
Lea. C u r i o s i t e z jd£ ParJ-.s 1,
405.
P i g a n i o l r e f e r s us for d e t a i l s to the lo nger work,
La D e s c r i p t i o n de la F r a n c e . T hi s l a n t e r n is m e n t i o n e d by
Hall, a l o n g w i t h the E p h e s i a n D i a n a in th e Louvre, th e
great v e s s e l at H e i d e l b e r g , a n d the a m p h i t h e a t r e at Nlmes
as b e i n g a m o n g t h e c u r i o s i t i e s w h i c h a t t r a c t E n g l i s h m e n
from t h e i r p e a c e f u l homes.
"Quo Vadis?" o p . c i t »• P* 536.
S m o l l e t t r e f u s e s to d e s c r i b e the Abbey, the p a r t i c u l a r s of
w h i c h "are m e n t i o n e d in tw en ty d i f f e r e n t books of tours,
travels, a n d d i r e c t i o n s , " but o b s e r v e s that the g e n u i n e ­
ness of the je w e l s is d o ubtf ul .
T r a v e l s . pp. 44-45.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Driving
into P a ri s
make a in a S h a n d e a n m a n n e r
tions:
the
streets
at ni ne
only
are lit by
o ' c l o c k at n i g h t , S t e r n e
tiie m o s t
superficial
candle-light
observa­
(tho ug h n e v e r
in
the s u mm er m o n t h s ) ,
cook-s ho ps
things
lieve
t h e y a r e n a r r o w an d dirty, a n d l i n e d wit h
1
and barbershops.
But Par is was full of g o o d
to see,
a l t h o u g h by
11Th a t , AhfiX JE&J2.
He m e n t i o n s the
and nine h u n d r e d
1.
fact
candle-light
S t e r n e does not b e ­
AfiLSH -La r i 6 , h a v e see n e v e r y
that
streets,
there
and
are
t h i n g ."
five h u n d r e d g r a n d H o t e l s
s o l e m n l y list s
the n u m b e r
IV,
of
39-4 0 (vii, 17).
Cf. Br ic e , D e s c r i p t i o n de la V i l l e
P a r 1 s : " l a s e u l e d e p e n s e dee l a n t e r n e s , qui Be sont
a l l u m e e s que p e n d a n t c i n q mo i s s eu le m e n t , p a s s e cent
mil le ecus t o u t e s les a n n e e s . " I, 17.
L a d y Mary W o r t l e y
M o n t a g u t h o u g h t P a r i s s u p e r i o r to L o n d o n "in the neat
p a v e m e n t of str e et s, a n d the r e g u l a r l i g h t i n g of t h e m at
nig h t s . "
L e t t e r s . I, 2 7 3- 74 .
B u t S h a r p t h ou gh t the il­
l u m i n a t i o n poor: "At P a ri s, the c a n d l e s in t h ei r b r o w n
glass l a n t e r n s , give bu t l i t t l e li g h t w h i l s t t h e y do burn,
and, b e i n g small, a r e soo n e x t i n g u i s h e d . "
Let ters fr om
I t a l y . p. 209.
T h i c k n e s s e is m i n d f u l of the nar row,
c r o w d e d s t re ets, a n d "as I a b h o r c o m i n g into a t o w n at
night, e v e n in m y own c o u n t r y , I was d e t e r m i n e d to get
early into P a r i s , an d was at the g a t e s b e f o r e noon ."
O b s e r v a t l o n e on t h e F r e n c h Hat i o n , p. 29.
Li k e al l E n g ­
l i s h m e n he f o u n d the F r e n c h h a b i t s of c l e a n l i n e s s n o t to
his taste.
" T h e s t r e e t s ar e filthy, an d the acts that
re nd e r t h e m m o s t s o . are p e r f o r m e d in the open d a y - l i g h t ,
without f e a r or s h a m e i b y b o t h sexes of th e c o m m o n sort."
U s e f u l H i n t s . p. 180.
2. IV, 42 (vii, 18).
T h e F r e n c h g u i d e - b o o k s b o a s t e d of the
gl o r y of t h e i r c a p i t a l city.
" L a v i l l e de P a r i s contient tant de d i v e r s i t e z s u r p r e n a n t e s &
dignes d'admiration, & a de si g r a n d e s a v a n t a g e s sur t o ut es les plus
f a u e u s e s V i l l e s que 1 1on c onn o£ t, q u ' i l ^ n ' e s t p a s etonnant d ' y v o i r u n c o n c o u r s e c o n t i n u e l d *e t r a n g e r s ^ q u i y
v i e n n e n t de tous les e n d r o i t s de 1 ' E u r o p e , pou r etre
eclaircis par eux-memes."
Brice, op. gj.t♦ « P r ef ace.
B r i c e says e l s e w h e r e that t h e r e p u t a t i o n of P a r i s is such
that even p r i n c e s come t h e r e to l e a r n socia l d e p o r t m e n t ,
and that t h e b e a u x arts f l o u r i s h n o w h e r e else.
I, 17-18.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
streets
When
in e a c h
one ha s
the gates,
of the
gone
twenty quarters
t h r o u g h all
bridges,
squ ares,
in 1716.
of these by d a y l i g h t
statues,
pecially Saint-Roch
and S a i n t - S u l p i c e ,
"with or w i t h o u t
statues
the
of P a r i s
and
seen
parish-churches,
and the
and pictures,"
es ­
four p a l a c e s
t h e n he wi ll
have
seen what the i n s c r i p t i o n on the L o u v r e cal ls an u n e q u a l l e d
2
city.
Th u s r a p i d l y does S t e r n e cover the v i d e n d a of Paris,
for,
hur ry
according
to
chapters
to t h e
first
southern Prance
on P a r i s
he
which the t r a v e l l e r
c o r d i n g to h i s
principle
ahead
gives
of his
of Death.
an e x c e l l e n t
went, abo ut
s e ei ng
journey,
Yet
in the
sample
that
he must
two
of the way
great
in
city-- ac -
guide-book.
S
Of the
have
forgotten
towns
everything,
and his g u i d e - b o o k
the route,
on the
w a y to L y o n s
bu t
open o n h i s
inserting
with his
Sterne
foolscap
desk before
him,
p r e t e n d s to
on hi6 h e a d
he r e v i e w e d
a s n a t c h o f i n f o r m a t i o n h e r e an d
there.
1.
IV, 4 3 - 4 4 (vii, 18).
I do not k n o w w h e r e S t e r n e c o p i e d
his list.
T h e n a m e s of t h e q u ar ters are all l i s t e d in
B r i c e (I, 21) w i t h o u t the figures.
B r i c e says there are
"pres de n e u f c e n s rues, sans p a r l e r de ce ll e s qui sont
sur les d e r r i e r e s . " 1, 16.
In Les C u r i o s l t e z ,&£. P a r 1 s .
the fir st v o l u m e of w h i c h w a s p u b l i s h e d in 1716, the
streets a r e l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y , pp. 4 0 7 - 3 5 , but the
totals d i f f e r s l i g h t l y f r o m St erne's.
2. M i l l a r d l i s t s one h u n d r e d an d t h i r t e e n t h i n g s to b e seen
in Paris, i n c l u d i n g all t h e above, a n d says, "these, to
the b e s t of m y k n o w l e d g e , are ever y t h i n g w i t h i n the
wal ls of P a r i s th at m e r i t a s t r a n g e r ' s n o t i c e . " The G e n t l e ­
m a n 'B G u i d e , p. 58.
3. S t e r n e n a m e s " P o n t a i n b l e a u , Sens, J o i g n y , A ux erre, Dijon,
C h a l l o n a n d M a c o n * . . a n d a sco re more ," (IV, 61-62), thus
m a k i n g c l ear the r o u t e he f o l l o w e d to Lyo ns .
The p o o r ­
ness of his m e m o r y is a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t e x c u s e fr o m o v e r ­
d o i n g his c o m m e n t s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
All y o u n e e d to say of Font ain't lean (in case y o u are a s k ’d)
is, that it st a nd s about f o r t y miles (south s o m e t h i n g ) from
Pari s . in the m i d d l e of a large f o r e s t
That there is some­
thing great in i t
That the k i n g goes there o n c e every two
or three y ea r s , w i t h his w h o l e court, for the p l e a s u r e of the
c h as e - - a n d that, d u r i n g the c a r n i v a l of sporting, any Engli sh
g entleman of f a s h i o n ( y o u n e e d not forget y o u r s e l f ) may be
a c c o m m o d a t e d w i t h a n a g or two, to p a r t a k e of the sport, tak­
ing care o n l y not to o u t g a l l o p the k i n g
1
Of
Sens he has o n l y
and of Joigny:
t roduced the
“The
and St,
111T 1 s an archieni seopa.1 see 11;
3
the b e t t e r 11; but at A u x e r r e he in­
less
S h a n d y and U n c l e T o b y
Apparently
M ax i m a ,
nota b le s b u r i e d
o
say;
scene of Mr,
of S a i n t - G e r m a i n ,
Optat
to
in this
the Abbey
a t t r a c t e d by the n a m e s of
l i s t e d by P i g a n i o l
abbey,
at
he
as b e i n g
St,
a m o n g the
b u i l d s up a c om i c
scene of
the two elder
S h a n d y s b e i n g s h ow n about
the a b b e y
by a y o u n g
Be ne d ic t in e,
The n e c e s s a r y f a c t s about
the a b b e y
and its
tents
are all
once more,
in P i g a n i o l ,
which
con­
Sterne u n d o u b t e d l y u t i l i z e d
No b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of his n a r r a t i v e
skill
can
IV, 63 (vii, 27),
T h i s a c c o u n t of F o n t a i n e b l e a u spares us
the d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a te a u.
The deta i ls are common
enough.
T h e gu i de b o o k s all tell us that this royal d w e l l ­
ing “est situe au m i l i e u d ’une forfit..." (N o u v e a u V o y a g e .
I, 196; also Curio si t e z de Pari s . 389; The G e n t l e m a n ’s Gui d e .
116; G r a n d T o u r IV, 140 ) , “a q u a t o r z e £li eues 3 de Pari s .,."
(Curio si t e z . p, 389), a nd that the for e st “est p e r c e e de
grandes routes, b i e n p l a n t e e s , & p e u pl e e de B e t e s sauves^
en quantite, qui la r e n d e n t tres p r o p r e p o u r la Chasse ou
la Cour p r e n o i t o r d i n a i r e m e n t ce d i v e r t i s s e m e n t en A u t o m n e . 11
(I b i d . . p, 392),
T h i c k n e s s e at S a i n t - G e r m a i n was all ow e d
to hunt w i t h the k i n g a f t e r b e i n g p r e s e n t e d to him,
Fr e n c h
bo ur g e o i s , he r e m a rk s, are n e v e r a l l o w e d this privilege,
a l t h o u g h E n g l i s h g e n t l e m e n are,
U s e f u l H i n t s , pp, 35-37,
IV, 64 (vii, 28),
Cf, N o u v e a u V oyage I, 197; Grand Tour
IV, 16.
I b i d . This m ust be S m o l l e t t ' s “little town c a l l e d Joigniville, w h e r e (by the bye) I was s c a n d a l o u s l y i m p o s e d upon,
and even a b u s e d b y a virago of a l a n d l a d y , “ T r a v e l s , p, 73,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
be found than this w e a v i n g
ments
of his
follow,
whole
in of cold f act s
two c h i e f cha rac te rs .
an d one h a s
only
ter to see how p e r f e c t l y the
com­
The p a r a l l e l p a s s a g e s
to co mpa re
story as n a r r a t e d b y S t e r n e
with typical
the
in the
characters
We'll go, b r o t h e r T o b y . sai d
my father, w h i l s t d i n n e r is c o d ­
d l i n g — to the a bb y of Saint G e r ­
main . if it be on ly to see these
bodies, of w h i c h M o n s i e u r S e ouier has g i v e n suc h a r e c o m m e n ­
dation.
...our c u r i o s i t y has l e d us
to see the bod ies, of w h i c h M o n ­
sieur S e a uler has g i v e n the
world so ex act a d e s c r i p t i o n . -The s a c r i s t a n m ad e a bow, and...
led us into the tomb of St H e r l b a l d -- T h i s . s aid the s a c r i s ­
tan, la ying his h a n d u p o n the
tomb, was a r e n o w n e d p r i n c e of
the h ous e of B a v a r i a , who u n d e r
the s ucce ss iv e r e i g n s of C h a r l e mftgqg.. fronts Is. D e b o n n a i r . and
CharfrSB ihs. B a l d . b o r e a g re at
sway in the g o v e r n m e n t , a n d h a d
a p r i n c i p a l h a n d in b r i n g i n g
every thing into o r d e r a n d d i s ­
c i p l i n e ----- T h e n he ha s b e e n as
great, said m y uncle, in the
field, as in the c a b i n e t - - - I dare
say he has b e e n a g a l l a n t so ld i e r
---He was a m o n k - - s a i d the s a c r i s ­
tan.
...This tomb, s a i d the y o u n g
B e n e d i c t i n e , l o o k i n g d ow nwar ds ,
contains the b o n e s o f Saint
MAXIMA, who came f r o m R a v e n n a
on p u r p o s e to t o u c h the b o d y - - ...of Saint G e r m a i n . the b u i l d e r
of the a b b y
...Sh e was one of
the fairest a n d mo st b e a u t i f u l
ladies ei t he r of I t a l v or
F r a n c e . c o n t i n u e d the s a c r i s t a n
But who t h e d u c e ha s got
lain down here, b e s i d e s her?
quoth my father...
fragments
w it h
the
twenty-seventh
and
situation
chap­
combine.
L 1A b b a y e de S. G e r ma in est
un l i e u o u 1 i
'on c o m p t e j u s q u 'ta
so i x a n t e corps saints, & une
qu a n t i t e p r o d i g l e u s e de R e l i ques. . ..11. S egu ier, Eveque
d ' A u x e r r e fit ou v r i r tous les
t o m b e a u x en 1636. & fit un
p r o c e s - v e r b a l de l'etat ou il
avait tr o u v e les corps saints.
...L ' o n c o n d u i t d ' a b o r d les
C u r i e u x au t o m b e a u de saint He ribalde. P r i n c e de la Mai s o n de
B a v i e r e , qui sous C h a rlema gn e,
L o u i s le D e b o n n a i r e , & Cha rles
le Chauve, eut b e a u c o u p de p ar t
au G o u v e r n e m e n t de l'Etat.
II fut
m o i n e . ..
e sa int e
Da n s l a C h a p e l l e
Maxime, sont les corpss de
sainte M a x i m e ... venue en
F r a n c e a la su ite d u corp s d e
S. G e r m a i n ,l o r s q u 'on le tran 8
p o r t a ici de E a v e n n e ou c e
Sa in t m o u r u t ...
. . .Dame
It al ien ne.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It is Saint Opt a t . Sir, a n ­
swered the s a c r i s t a n . . . S a i n t
Opt a t . . . was a b i s h o p — —— ^
And
so a n e w p r o p
names,
is a d d e d to Mr.
than anywhere
Jesuits,
a n d the
which co n t a i n s
thirty-volume
and
th e p i l l a r
is g r e a t l y
int e r r u p t e d ,
th e a r g u m e n t
the r e c o v e r y
on his
list,
its w o n d e r f u l
is closed, the
house
of P i l a t e
of the Two
his list
Sterne
lost
he
the
b y the
remarks.
is
the l i b r a r y
Chu rch
of St.
was bound,
comes
Lovers has
of order,
of S a i n t - I r e n e e
is not in L y o n s but
He
the
is
and
to v i s i t the
The
clock
th e Je su it
li­
fo rgot t e n , the
in the next town,
disappeared.
saw an e x c e l l e n t
the r e s i ­
of th e p o s t - o f f i c e ,
totally unsuccessful.
Church
in
Irenaeus,
encounter with
W h e n he
is out
of the
of th e Two Lovers.
commissary
movements
brary
Tomb
however,
four
of C h i n a w r i t t e n
to w h i c h Ch ri st
w i t h th e
of hi s
history
a n d the To mb
For
of v i d e n d a . i n cl ud in g
of Ba sel,
character,
dence of P o n t i u s P i l a t e ,
with
th eo ry of C h r i s t i a n
on the trip.
a list
clock b u i l t b y L i p p i u s
the C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e
places
else
s i g h t - s e e i n g he c o m p i l e s
the g r e a t
ass,
Shandy*s
and the s ta y at A u x e r r e is e x t e n d e d a day.
3
At L y o n s S t e r n e m e e t s w i t h m or e f r u s t r a t i o n an d more
cross-accidents
hours'
[le
corps] de S. Optat
Eveq.ue d ' A u x e r r e . ^
a n d the
In the s e l e c t i o n of
o p p o r t u n i t y to c a r r y out his
1. IV, 66-69 (vii, 27).
2. N o u v e a u Vo ya ge I, 201-03.
3. S t e r n e calls it 11the m o s t op ul e n t and f l o u r i s h i n g c i t y in
F r a n c e ."
IV, 75 (vii, 30).
An d a c c o r d i n g to S m o l l e t t it
i 8 "a great, p o p u l o u s , a n d f l o u r i s h i n g ci ty." T r a v e l s .
p. 76.
O t h e r tr a v e l b o o k s s i m i l a r l y r e m a r k u p o n the p r o s ­
p e r i t y of Lyons.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
c o nc e pt i on
of T r i s t r a m
Shandy
as
the h a r a s s e d
traveller.
The
three
items of w h i c h he m a k e s the most are the clock, the li1
hrary, and the tomb.
F o r two of these P i g a n i o l f u r n i s h e d
him w i t h leads.
clock was
A c c o r d i n g to
the most
famous
of
Mary W o r t l e y M o n t a g u m e n t i o n s
the ac c o u n t s
these
it
of t o u r i s t s
items of interest.
in 1718
al o ng w i t h
the
La d y
"the
cele-
2
3
b r a t e d j o i n i n g of the S a o n e and R h o n e , "
and W r i g h t
and Mil4
lard" give d e s c r i p t i o n s of its m ov em e n t s .
Rut P i g a n i o l , after
s p e ak in g of
its fame,
bien d e r a n g e . "
see b e c a u s e
two lovers
of
The
the
ra is es
observes:
tomb
tender
Sterne
c o mi c
a present
is p a r t i c u l a r l y
sensations
in his b r a i n .
and s e t t i n g it d ow n in
"C'est
w h i c h the
After
fa s h i o n ,
un morceau
a nx i o u s
to
s t o r y of the
imagining
the story
he observes:
T here is a soft a e r a in e v e r y g en t l e m o r t a l ' s life, where
such a story a f f o r d s m o r e p a b u l u m to the brain, than all
the F r u s t s . and
Crus t s . a n d R us t s of antiqu i ty , w h i c h trav­
ellers can cook up f o r it.
'Twas all
that s t u c k on
der in my own, of w ha t S p o n a n d
of L y o n s . h a d s t r a i n e d into it;
some I ti n er a ry , b ut in w h a t S o d
f i d e l i t y of A m a n d u s and A m a n d a ,
the right side of
the c u l l e n ­
o t h e rs , in t heir a c c o u n t s
a nd finding, m o r e o v e r , in
knows
That s a c r e d to the
a tomb was bu il t w i t h o u t
1. We n e e d not c o n s i d e r the ho m e of P i l a t e or the C h u r c h of
Saint-Irenee.
Th e f o r m e r was s u p p o s e d to be at Vienne,
but S m o l l e t t o b s e r v e s : "The s t o r y of P o n t i u s P i l at e , who
is said to h a v e e n d e d his days in this place, is a f a b l e . "
T r a v e l s . p. 338.
Of the l a t t e r P i g a n i o l s u p p l i e s us all
the i n f o r m a t i o n S t e r n e needed: "On montre ici u n e p ar t i e
de la C o l o n n e que l ' o n dit etre celle a l a q u e l l e J e s u s —
Christ fut a t t a c h e p e n d a n t q u ' o n le f l a g e l l o i t . "
Nouveau
V o y a g e I, 248.
2. To Mr. Pope, Sept. 28, O.S. 1718.
L e t te r s I, 269.
3 » O b s e r v a t i o n s , p. 9.
4. The G e n t l e m a n 1s G u i d e . p. 141.
5. Ojd . C i t . , 1 , 248.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the gates, where, to this hour, l o v e r s called u p o n them to
attest t he i r t r u t h s
1 n e v e r cou ld get into a scrape of that
kind in my life, hut this tomh of the lovers would, s o m eh o w
or other, come in at the c l o s e
... 1
Yet
to
w h e n he
the F a u x h o u r g
"just w i t h o u t
de Taise, 11 he f o u n d no
was "being g u i d e d
this boo k he
arrived
through France hy
the gate,
2
tomh.
But
leading
Sterne
the N o u v e a u V o y a g e . and in
read!
L 1an 1707 au mois de Jufn, M e s s i e u r s du Consulat de Lyon
firent d e m o l i r u n m o n u m e n t a n c i e n & celehre, a p p el le le
T o m h e a u des d e u x a m a n s . qui etoit dans le f a u x h o u r g de Vaise.
L ' or i gi n e de ce tomheau, o u p e t i t temple, a fort exerce les
Scavans.
Com m e il n ' y resto i t poin t d ' i n s c r i p t i o n , & q u 1aucun A u t e u r a n c i e n n ' e n a parle, p l u s i e u r s E c r i v a i n s ont
donne l ' e s s o r a leu r s c o n j e c t u r e s .
L es uns ont dit que
c 1etoit le t o m h e a u de d e u x amans qui m o u r u r e n t de joie en se
revoyant apr e s une l o n g u e absen c e. L e s autres
que c*etoit le
tomheau d ' H e r o d e
& d ' H e r o d i a s , qui f u r e n t re l e g u e s a Lyon
par Caligula.
D ' a u t r e s croyent que ces deux amans etoient
deux C hretiens, raari & femme, qui a v o i e n t vep u e n s e m b l e en
gardant la chastete.
M. Spon c r oy o it que c'etoit un Aute l
dedie a q u e l q u e d i v i n i t e p a y e n n e q u ' o n adoroit a I 1ent re e de
la Ville.
Le P. M e n e s t r i e r j u ge o it que ce m o n u m e n t fut consacre a la m e m o i r e de de u x P r S t r e s d u T e mp l e d'Auguste,
nommes l'un & l 1aut r e A m a n d u s . p a r u n de leurs a f f r a n c h i s
qu'ils a v o i e n t i n s t i t u e leur h e r i t i e r .
M. B r o s s e t t e o p po s e
quelques d i f f i c u l t e s a u s en t i m e n t de ce Jesuite, & en p r o p o s e
un n o u v e a u h i e n etre le t o m h e a u d ' u n A m an du s , qui selon une
i ns c ri p t i o n r a p p o r t e e p a r M. Sp on C A n t i q u i t e s de Lyon, pag.
125], en e r i g e a u n a sa so^ur h i e n aimee.
Le t o m h e a u des
deux Amans est c e l e h r e dans le R o m a n d'Ast r ee , o u I'on voit
qu'on le f a i s o i t s e r v i r a la r e l i g i o n de I'araitie.
In the q u o t a t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s
and P e r i a n d r e ' s
is given as
coupee."
friendship
account
and vo w on the
"hors de l a por te
In P i g a n i o l
f r o m the
qui
a pris
S t e r n e f o u n d all
tomh,
of H y l a s ' s
the l o c a t i o n
son nom de la p i e r r e
the detai l s
necessary
1. IV, 80-81 (vii, 31).
2. IV, 1 0 0 -0 1 (vii, 40).
3. Op., c i t . . I, 264-65.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
71.
for the a c c o u n t
fore he
of t he
ne v e r we nt
from what
two l o ve rs and. their
ne a r
Itinerary
the
told h i m
five ye ar s ,
that
the
facts.
others;
there­
as God
He n e v e r
in fact,
tomb h a d b e e n gone
con­
sin c e his
some
fifty-
was no r e a s o n for h i m to cross the S a o n e
1
the locat io n.
H e m e r e l y bui lt up the story of his
visit
gre at est
th e r e
frustration
out
Hi 8 r e m a i n i n g
the
an d the
an d
He k n e w as well
he h a d t a k e n the
sulted the a n t i q u a r y S p o n
g u i d e —b o o k
site.
tomb,
C h i n e s e book.
u n iqu e
of the
facts
frustration
in the N o u v e a u V o y a g e .
c o n c e r n e d the l i b r a r y a n d
P i g a n i o l h a d c a l l e d this b o o k
en F r a n c e . . . u n e H i s t o i r e
to
G e n e r a l e Ae
“un L i v r e
la C h i n e
en
trente
Volumes
teres
im p r i m e s a P e k i n , en b e a u papier, & en b e a u x carac 2
Chin oi s, " an d S t e r n e seem s to be m a k i n g fun of this
statement
concerning
thirty v o l u m e s
of the
the T a r t a r e a n ) but
Chi ne se
wi t h
l a n g u a g e w h e n he
general
in the
3
too."
character
4
choli c—— .11 he f a i l e d
ing,
the
history
Chinee*
Since
l a ng ua ge,
11all
the book.
one e x c e p t i o n
for
the on l y time
cion of the J e s u i t s
brought
about
an d
the J E S U I T S
see
of i m p o r t a n c e ,
of “ the
of C h i n a , w r o t e
to
contemporary event
spe aks
Here
in this
in
(not
in
in the
h a d got the
Sterne
was
the book,
case th e
5
in 1762.
Since
allud­
to a
su p p r e s the J e s u i t s
1. S k i p p o n v i s i t e d the t o m b in the l a t t e r pa rt of the 17 t h
century; 11 It se em s to h a v e b e e n some H o m a n B u i l d i n g , an d
is bui lt of g r e a t S t o n e , "
O p . c i t . II, 716.
2. Q p .c i t . I, 252.
3. IV, 77 (vii, 30).
4. IV, 100 (vii, 39).
5. See L e t t e r No. 85, to Ga r r i c k , Mar. 19, 1 7 6 2 , pp. 157 and
159 n.5.
Als o No. 86, to L o r d F a u c o n b e r g , Apr. 10, 1762,
p. 161, n.2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
had b e e n
condemned
their l i b r a r y
fectly a w a r e
The m e n t i o n
other
to ex t i n c t i o n ,
s h o u l d be
of the
closed;
situati on,
of the b o o k
it
nor
is not
surprising
co ul d Sterne,
hav e b e e n at all
that
who was p e r ­
ast o n i s h e d .
in P i g a n i o l g a v e hi m the h i n t
for a n ­
frust r a t i o n .
From Paris
the same m a n n e r
Paris,
ex cept
along
the way.
and Lyons,
to Ly on s
he
the same p u r p o s e
he was
s a t i r i z i n g th e
a scene
Bu t
in
tr av el
seen,
up on
travellers
The L y o n s
general,
as he
in travel.
upon Piganiol.
Saint-Denis,
The
nize and a p p r e c i a t e
could hardly
the
in an episo de
us ing
t hem into
experiences
the d e t a i l s
of h i s
in l a r g e part,
tr av el
in this p o r t i o n
c o n c e r n s T r i s t r a m Sha ndy,
an d S t e r n e
for
at
of c r o s s - a c c i d e n t s
sa ti re u p o n
less
not
or at F o n ­
the time,
In his
he d e p e n d s
is c e r t a i n l y
episode
For
towns
chapter
c o n c e i v e d an d f i t t i n g
series
to
also d i d in his
c h a p t e r he b r i n g s
the
at L y o n s
but
writer,
is m a k i n g at
in
on A u x e r r e
In the Cal a i s
gui d e - b o o k .
to a c l i m a x
sightseeing
have
travels
first.
the A u x e r r e
suggested by his
those
of P i g a n i o l ,
at M ontre ui l,
J o u r n e y he
with w h i c h he m e e t s
tended
as at
already completely
Ly ons he b r i n g s
chapter s,
l i b e r a l use
the way,
from the
characters
on his
fewer d e t a i l s ab ou t
In the i m p o r t a n t
quite
separate
introduces
he h a s m a d e
tainebleau.
carries
in w h i c h he h a d t r a v e l l e d f ro m Ca l a i s
that
comments a l o n g
St e r n e
in­
as
we
w r i t e r s an d
of the book.
not travellers
in
exp e c t his p u b l i c to r e c o g ­
sly b o r r o w i n g s
f r o m h is
guide-book.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Indeed,
it
the p a r o d y
vel.
change
is f a ir
to
of t r a v e l
F ro m L y o n s
in his
to
say that he was by
writings
this time w e a r y
and the u n s e e i n g mo de
the end of his
j o u rney th er e
of
of
tra-
is a m a r k e d
me tho d.
The voyage
d o w n the Rhone,
a l t h o u g h rapid,
is not u n ­
ap preci ate d.
W ith what v e l o c i t y , c o n t i n u e d I, cl a p p i n g m y hands together,
shall I fly d own the r a p i d R h o n e .1 with the VI VA RE S on my
right hand, and D A U P H I N Y on my left, sc a r c e see ing the
ancient ci ti es of VIENNE, V a l e n c e , and V i v i e r e s .2
Wh a t a
flame wi ll
it r e k i n d l e in the lamp, to s n a t c h a b l u s h i n g
&rape from
the H e r m j t a g e 2 and Cote r o t i . as I shoot by the
foot of themj a n d w h a t a fresh spring in th e blood.1 to b e ­
hold u p o n the b a n k s a d v a n c i n g an d retiring, the castle of
romance, w h e n c e c o u r t e o u s k n i g h t s have w h i l o m e r e s c u e d the
d i s t r e s s 'd - - - a n d see v e r t ig in ou s, the rocks, the m o u n t a i n s ,
the cat ara cts, a n d all the h u r r y w h i c h N a t u r e is in w i t h all
her great works a b o u t h e r . ®
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
"Ce trajet se fait en p e u de temps, a c au se de la r a p i d i t e
de ce fleuve."
N o u v e a u V o y a g e I, 347.
Nugent w r i t e s of Valence: "It is a p l a c e of great a n t i ­
quity, said to h a v e b e e n a c o l o n y of R o m a n s . "
g r a n d Tou r
IV, 182.
A n d of Vienne: "This is one of the most antient
towns in E u r o p e ." p. 179.
"Tain or Thien" est sur le R h o n e & p r i n c i p a l e m e n t c o n n u
par see vins q u ' o n n o m m e Vins de l ' H e r m i t a g e .
Nouveau
V o y a g e I, 35 3.
Wright o b s e r v e s u p o n p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Vienne: "Not far from
h e n c e is m a d e th
Cote rote [sicj Wi ne ," an d goes on to e x ­
p l a i n the origir of the name.
O b s e r v a t i o n s , pp. 12-13.
IV, 72-73 (vii, 29).
Cf. Millard: " . . . w h e n y o u get a
little b e l o w L yo n s , y o u will be h i g h l y d e l i g h t e d w i t h
v a r i ou s an d b e a u t i f u l pr os pe c t s ; the h i l l s on e ach side
are i m m e n s e l y hi gh; c a s tl es on the very summit of sev er al
of them, which, t h o ' b a r r e n in th e m s e l v e s , are made (by
in d u s t r i o u s h a r d labour) as fe rt ile as the island of
Calypso: h e r e p e a c h e s , figs, almonds, pl u mb s, n e c t ar ines ,
p o m e g r a n a t e s , and, in short, all the fruit that can f l a t ­
ter the taste, or p l e a s e the eye, are in the g r e a t e s t a b u n ­
dance; a n d v i n e s h e a v i l y l o a d e d und er t h e i r pu r p l e produce,
a r t f u l l y h a n g i n g in f e s t o o n s fro m tree to tree, a n d i m ­
p o s i n g on their m o r e sturdy neighb ors, a fa t ig ue w h i c h the ir
own w e a k n e s s r e n d e r s t h e m in c a p a b l e of s u p p o r t i n g . " The. _Gen_t_le.—
ma n's G u i d e , p. 145.
E v e n S m ol le tt a d m i r e s "the r o m a n t i c
b e a u t y of the p r o s p e c t . " T r a v e l s . p. 78.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Although Sterne
cept
finds notiling to c o n n e c t
to nent ion that
and that
the D u k e
the m i s t r a l b l o w s
upon at A v i g n o n ex —
1
of O r m o n d ' s old dous e is there
down
the R h o n e
cl imate
of f a n t a s y and p e r s p i r a t i o n
2
ch iv alr y a n d r o m a n c e ” has its w a r m i n g
travels
the
on m u l e - b a c k ac ro ss
Garonne,
which
ot he r
travel w r i t e r s
it into a city.
famous
fairs
Francis can s,
He
of t r a v e l l i n g
e x p ands
of B e a u c a i r e
changes.
to do,
and Tar a s c o n ,
In j o u r n e y i n g
ing to his w r i t i n g s ,
Having
country
a n d turns
for the
w it h a couple
figs.
of
B e t w e e n Ntmes
f o l k on the road,
d a nc e t h r o u g h M o n t p e l l i e r ,
Carcassonne,
to
to e n j o y the p l a i n w i t h
w it h an old g o s s i p s e l l i n g
then c o n t i n u e s his
As he
from the R h o n e
d i d not k n o w what
wi t h the
l a n d of
effect u po n him.
talks w i t h a ma n m a k i n g drums
and L un el he d a n c e s
Narbonne,
he
"this c l e a r
...this fe rtile
southern France
his w h o l e t h e o r y
left D e a t h far beh ind,
valley,
Pezenas,
and
Beziers
C a s t e l n a u d a r y , to Toulouse.
from Ca la is
to T oulo us e,
u s e d th ree m e t h o d s
Sterne,
of travel.
accord­
From Calai
to Ly ons he t r a v e l l e d by p o s t - c h a i s e .
Hi s chaise, w h i c h he
3
bought in Paris, he a s s e r t s to h a v e b e e n w r e c k e d o u t s i d e of
Lyons;
w h e r e u p o n he
t ook p a s s a g e by boat
d own
the R h o n e
to
1. Jame s B u t le r, se cond D u k e of O r m o n d e (1 66 5— 1745) spent the
l a t t e r y e a r s of hi s l i fe c h i e f l y at Av ign on.
An i l l u s ­
trious E n g l i s h g e n e r a l (cf. T...S.. IV, 46 (iv, 22); JE..S,. IV,
155 (viii, 19)), he h a d b e c o m e i d e n t i f i e d with the J a c o ­
bite cause in 1 7 1 5 and was f o r c e d into exile.
L a d y Mary
W o r t l e y M o n t a g u w r o t e from A v i g no n: "All the E n g l i s h w i t h ­
out d i s t i n c t i o n see the D u k e of O r m o n d . . . H e keeps an a s s e m ­
bly wh er e all the best c o m p a n y go t w i c e in the week."
Ibfil**
t e r a . J u l y 19, 1742, II, 122.
2. T.£. IV, 114 (viii, l).
3. L e t t e r No. 93, to Mrs. St erne, Ju ne 7, 1762, pp. 172-73.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Avignon.
F ro m A v i g n o n
to T o u l o u s e lie t r a v e l l e d on m u l e b a c k
with a " v o i t u r i n "
as his
guide.
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n he
says n o th in g,
gives h i m s uc h a d e l i g h t f u l
he m a ke s
travel,
tage
is o f t e n
is travelling.1 on ly
plies not
roads
as
so m u c h
to that
In this
to the
concerned
Almost
in part
impositions
kee per s
After
the
impeded
traveller's
account
of
pro gr es s.
Chaise—
"What a va st
ad va n-
Sterne's remark a p ­
shadele ss,
conscious
stone-paved
j o u r na l
ar e
and t r i b u l a ­
C h a nnel p a s s a g e
officers,
was a n x i o u s
to
to
progress
or l e t t e r s
of the t r i a l s
c u s to ms
in no m o o d
reference
the E n g l i s h m a n ' s
an u n c o m f o r t a b l e
traveller
and was
of his
disposition.
makes
of the p o r t e r s ,
at Calais,
soon as p o s s i b l e
every
w i t h the
tions of the road.
the
temperature
which
of
in e n j o y i n g his p l a i n that
c o m m e n t e d upon.
1
it h e a t s one!"
comment Sterne
as a m e a n s
t r a v e l l i n g by m u l e
slowness
of the t o u r i s t ' s
the p e t t y d i f f i c u l t i e s
in France.
while
freedom
no c r i t i c i s m of the
ho w e v e r ,
Of the boat
and
and
inn­
to r e a c h P a r i s
tolerate
delay.
as
Most
of the E n g l i s h ,
t h e r e f o r e , t r a v e l l e d by post, for the F r e n c h
2
s t a g e c o a c h was ve r y slow.
A l t h o u g h the r o a d s wer e good, they
were h e a v i l y p a v e d a n d t h e r e f o r e h a r d on
the light E n g l i s h
1. IV, 28 (vii, 11).
2. "Th e r e is what t h e y call a stage c o a c h f rom C a l a i s to
Paris, by w h i c h y o u m a y s e n d y o u r trunk; but by no m e a n s
t h i n k of e n t e r i n g into th i s d i s i n g e n u o u s F r e n c h i nven ti on ,
w h i c h is m o r e l i k e N o a h ' s Ark, t h a n an y th in g else I can
c o m pa re it, a n d is s e v e n days on its j o u r n e y to P a r i s . " The.
G e n t l e m a n »s G u i d e . pp. 21-222.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
chaises.
chase,
The u s u a l
a chaise
He then h a d o n l y
entertainment
procedure
in C a l a i s
on the
jou r ne y .
F r e n c h post
ments.
By
to hire,
carry
the
to p a y for his h o r s e s
thirty-two-post
T h e Englishman- w a s
of his
to
was
or p e r h a p s p u r ­
traveller
to Paris.
and p o s t i l i o n s
trip.
2
s e l d o m s a t i s f i e d w i t h the
Although Philip
Thicknesse praised
service, ** o t h e r s w e r e
comparison with travel
and
conduct
the
d i s p a r a g i n g in their
in E n g l a n d
com­
they f o u n d m u ch
to c ri ti c iz e .
The E n g l i s h c ar r ia g e s , hors e s, h a r n e s s , and r o a d s are m u ch
"better; a n d the p o s t i l i o n s are more o b l i g i n g and alert.
The
reason is p l a i n and ob v i o u s .
If I am i l l - u s e d at the posthouse in E n g l a n d , I can be a c c o m m o d a t e d e l s e w h e r e .
The p u b ­
licans on the r o a d are s e n s i b l e of this, and t h e r e f o r e they
vie w i t h e a c h o t h e r in g i v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n to t ra v e l l e r s .
But in F r a n c e , w h e r e the post is m o n o p o l i z e d , the p o s t - m a s ­
ters and p o s t i l i o n s , k n o w i n g that the t r a v e l l e r d e p e n ds intirely u p o n them, are the more n e g l i g e n t and re m is s in their
duty, as w e l l as the m o r e e n c o u r a g e d to i n s o l e n c e and i m p o ­
sition.
The h e a v i n e s s
of the v e h i c l e s
were p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e
1.
2.
3.
4.
8.
a nd the
to
the
smallness
E n g l is h ,
5
of the h or s e s
but
d e s p i te
fre-
"The p o s t - h o u s e s on this r o a d o n l y f i n d y o u horses; so y o u
must h a v e a c h ai se at C a l a i s to ca r ry y o u to Paris; the
p ri c e is f r o m two g u i n e a s an d a half, to t h r e e guineas, a c ­
c o r d i n g to t h e i r g o o d n e s s . ” Th e G e n t l e m a n *s G u l d e . p. 18.
I.E. by A m i e n s and C h a n t i l l y .
" N o t h i n g can be more e x p e d i t i o u s nor b e t t e r c o n d u c t e d than
the p o s t s in F r a n c e . " O b s e r v a t 1 ons on t he F r e n c h Nat i o n , p . 84.
S mo l l e t t , T r a v e l s . pp. 339 — 40.
The G e n t l e m a n * s Gulde copies
this p a s s a g e almost v e r b a t i m w i t h o u t a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t , pp.
17-18.
H e r e is a case of " stolen rema rk s . ”
"The F r e n c h v e h i c l e s for t r a v e l l i n g a p p e a r v e r y u n p r o m i s i n g
to an E n g l i s h m a n ; t h ei r t i m b e r s seem to c o n s t i t u t e a s u f ­
f i c i e n t l o a d w i t h o u t the p a s s e n g e r s or the ba g g a g e , es­
p e c i a l l y as the F r e n c h h o r s e s are but small; and t h e i r
springs, w h i c h are p l a c e d b e h i n d to d i m i n i s h the shocks u p o n
the s t o n e p a v e m e n t s of t h e i r great roads, v e r y m u c h r e s e m b l e
the h a m m e r s of a f u l l i n g m i l l . " — The E e v e r e n d W i l l i a m Jones,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
quent
been
breakdowns
less
E n g l i s h we r e
those
notoriously
come
tried
to
who
wer e
to t h r o w a w a y m o n e y
and the p a y m e n t
a monopoly
tions
were never
were
advantage
and
the
all E n g l i s h m e n
at every turn.
or could not a f f o r d
intricate
amou nt
to
ove rc harg e,
innkeepers
were
set of r e g u l a ­
to be paid in e v er y
of cir cu ms t a n c e s ,
trying
to lay
money,
sur­
Th e
The F r e n c h p o s t - r o u t e s
s a t i s f i e d w i t h what
attempted
cheating,
c o n s t a n t l y w r a n g l i n g over in n- b i l l s
the exact
the
of them
thrifty
g o v e r n e d by an
combination
fior we re
and Par is
c o n c l u s i o n that
by n a t u r e
which a d j usted
ters we r e not a b o v e
who
take
for the
l a v i s h w i t h their
to the
they w o u l d ha v e
d i s o b l i g i n g p os tili on s.
of po s t i l i o n s .
and were
conceivable
it not b e e n
a n d ra pa c i o u s ,
having
were rich,
Henc e
s e c o n d h a n d vehicle s,
complaining had
ly i n n k e e p e r s
French,
of the
but the p o s t - m a s *
a n d the p o s t i l i o n s
was given them.
and p o s t i l i o n s
a tax on the Eng li sh.
the only ones
At bot h Calais
the
t r a v e l l e r was p l a g u e d by p o r t e r s , guides, and
1
valets de p l a c e . and at e v e r y stage a l on g the way by a t h r o n g
of me n i a l s a n d b e g g a r s .
t ra ve ll er
5.
1*
notes,
were
The beggars,
far mor e
as p r a c t i c a l l y eve r y
numerous
and t r o u b l e s o m e
in
(cont'd f r o m p. 76) O b s e r v a t i o n s ift a JPttrttftE ±2. Ear la.
l a y .flJL F l a n d e r s .
the M o n t h & £ AU£UB.l.t 1 ? 7.§. I. 32:
q u ote d by Mead, The G r a n d T o u r A a t h e E i g h t e e n t h C g B t U f y .
p. 53.
Cole m e n t i o n s b o t h the "under size" of the h o r s e s
and the s u r l i n e s s a n d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the pos til io ns .
E&X.L& alaur-aal. pp. 326-27.
Cf • Thi ckne 8 se 1e a c c o u n t of h o w p o s t i l i o n s
sell
txxeir
E n g l i s h c h a r g e s u p o n a r r i v i n g at P a r i s to c e rtai n hote ls,
where the v a l e t s de p l a c e take over the task of m u l c t i n g
his p o ck et s.
U s e f u l H i n t s . pp. 125-26.
Sterne e m plo ys
one at Lyo ns ,
IV, 77 (vii, 30).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Latin
cou n t r i e s
th a n
from the c l a m o r i n g
was apt
cause
to make
e i th er
sulted
the
Sterne,
chaise,
"nat io na l
chaise,
or to the R o m a n C a t h o l i c
in all,
the E n g l i s h m a n ,
free
r e f l e c t ! o n . . .Th a t
F.r eijcfa ftpst_-g.kfti.fi.fe, u p o n
Church,
which en­
as he t r a v e l l e d
in no
the F r e n c h people.
of his
journey
f r o m these ve xati ons .
down for
the
which r e ­
of v e x a t i o n s w h i c h put h i m
who made the m a j o r part
was not
the E n g l i s h m a n
of the go ve rn ment ,
favorably upon
chaise ha d b r o k e n
liberating himself
r e f l e c t i o n ” and a t t r i b u t e
absolutism
e n c o u n t e r e d a series
mo od to comment
post
a “national
All
an d after
t hr o n g a r o u n d his
in po v e r t y ,
c o u r a g e d it.
along,
to
in E n g l a n d ,
the
t e nt h time,
A f te r
in a
his
he ma d e his
something
is alw ay s w r o n g in fi
1
s e t t i n g o u t .“
R u t i n s t e a d of
first
gr o w i n g a n g r y a n d c u r s i n g , h e m a d e
a di ff e r e n t
resolution:
...I take the m a t t e r c o o l l y b e f o r e me, a n d consider, that
some tag, or rag, or jag, or bolt, or b u ck le, or b u c k l e ’s
tongue, will ever be a w a n t i n g , or want alterin g, tr av e l
where I w i l l - - s o I nev er chaff, but take the good and the
bad, as they fall in my road , a n d get o n . . . 2
In ord er to p e r s u a d e
and-twenty
with less
at the
1.
2.
3.
sous p i e c e a g a i n s t
he j i n g l e d "a four 3
th e g l a s s . ”
Th u s he ar r i v e d ,
e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d m u c h less
same
postilions
the b o y to hurry,
s y s t e m as S m o l l e t t .
lazy,
lo un g i n g ,
The
gre ed y,
strain upon
latt e r
and
the nerves,
considered
impertinent.”
IV, 23 (vii, 8).
Ibid.
I b t a. , P. 24.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
“ the
79.
If y o u chide t h e m f o r l i n g e r i n g , t h e y will co n t i n u e to d e l a y
y o u the longer! if y o u c h a s t i s e then w i t h sword, cane, cudgel,
or h o r s e - w h i p , they w i ll e i t h e r d i s a p p e a r e n ti r el y , and leave
y o u w i t h ou t r e so u rc e ; or they will f i n d means to take v e n ­
geance by o v e r t u r n i n g y o u r c a rr i a g e .
The best m e t h o d I k n o w
of t r a v e l l i n g w i t h a n y d e g r e e of comfort, is to a l l o w y o u r ­
self to b e c o m e the dupe of i m p o s i t i o n , a nd s t i m u l a t e t h e i r
en de a v o u r s b y e x t r a o r d i n a r y g r a t i f i c a t i o n s .
I l a id down a
r e s o l u t i o n (and kept it) to give no more than f o u r and t w e n t y
sols per post b e t w e e n t he two p o s t i l i o n s ; but I am n o w p e r ­
s uaded that f or t h r e e - p e n c e a post more, I s h o u l d have b e e n
much b e t t e r served, and s h o u l d h a v e p e r f o r m e d the j o u r n e y
with much b etter pleasure.
Even wh e n his
angry,
deed,
but
chaise
figures
Sterne
is w r e c k e d ,
S te r n e
h o w he w i ll b e n e f i t
t reats
his
er than l a m e n t a b l e .
He
misfortunes
leaves
on
does not
by the
become
accid en t .
the r o ad as
p
In­
comic r a t h ­
the b a d inn at A b b e v i l l e
at f o u r
in the m orning:
b r i n g out the
HolloJ Hoi --- the w h o l e w o r l d ' s asleepj
h or s es --- g re a s e the w h e e l s --- tie on the ma i l ---- and
drive a nail into that m o u l d i n g --- I'll not lose a mom e nt
The b u s i n e s s
w is h es
of p a y m e n t ,
to sleep.
Sterne
however,
is t o r m e n t i n g
^
---
to one who
t h e r e f o r e w r a p p e d up the
exact
sum
1. T r a v e l s . p. 341.
G o l d s m i t h o b s e r v e s that the p o s t i l i o n s
e x p e c t e d r o u g h u s a g e : "If we g e n t l y d e s i r e d t h em to make
m or e speed, t h e y t o o k not the le a st notice; k i n d l a n g u a g e
was what they h a d by no m e a n s b e e n u s e d to.
It was p r o p ­
er to speak to t h e m i n the tones of anger, a n d s o m e t i m e s
it was e v e n n e c e s s a r y to u s e b lo w s .
H o w d i f f e r e n t these
f r o m the c o m m o n p e o p l e of E n g l a n d , w h o m a b l o w might in­
d uce to r e t u r n the a f f r o n t s e v e n f o l d ! these p o o r p eople,
however, f r o m b e i n g b r o u g h t up to vile usa g e, lose all
the res p ec t w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d h a v e f o r t h e m s e l v e s .... The
e n t h u s i a s m fo r l i b e r t y an E n g l i s h m a n feels is n e v e r so
st r o n g as w h e n p r e s e n t e d b y such p r o s p e c t s , as t h e s e . "
"Letter f r o m a T r a v e l l e r , " in the B e e . Ho, 1, W o r k s V, 25.
2. IV, 7 2 - 7 4 (vii, 29).
3. IV, 3 0-31 (vii, 13),
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in p i e c e s
of paper,
thus
a n t i c i p a t i n g the p r a c t i c e
of T h i c k ­
ness e :
...in o r d e r to a v o i d the d i f f i c u l t y of g e t t i n g change, and
c o u n t i n g the p o s t - m o n e y out each stage, w h i l e one is beset
on e v e r y side toy the most a u d a c i o u s b e g g a r s in the world, 1
put up, p r e v i o u s to my l e a v i n g St. Germa in ' s, t h i r t y - f o u r
p a c k et s of mo n ey , a c c o r d i n g to the n u m b e r of posts a n d
posts & demi e I h a d to travel, a d d i n g to e a c h pac k et what I
i n t e n d e d to g i ve t h e p o s t b o y s , a n d d e t e r m i n i n g to give n e i ­
ther m o r e nor le s s . ^
This
scheme
insufficient
po st e
f ails
case
p o u r b o i r e . a defective
and poste &
be dealt
in S t e r n e ' s
demie.
T h e n also
for v a r i o us
r e a s o n s , — an
coin,
or c o n f u s i o n
there
are
of a
the b e g g a r s
to
with:
Monsieur
Cure o f f e r s y o u a p i n c h of s n u f f — or a poor
soldier shews y o u his l e g
or a s h a v e l i n g his b o x —
or
the p r i e s t e s s of the c i s t e r n w i l l w a te r y o u r w h e e l s --they do not w a n t i t
but she swears by h e r p r i e s t h o o d
( t hr o wi n g it back) that t h e y d o . . . 2
The o nly w ay to
a v o i d such v e x a t i o n s , as St e r n e sugge s ts , is
3
to travel by a v a n c e - c o u r i e r , but s ince h e h a d none, he was
fo rc e d
to wake up
at
intervals,
until
a postilion's
objec­
1* U s e f u l H i n t s . pp. 250-51.
2. IV, 37 (vii, 16).
3. Of. T h i c k n e s s e : "As to y o u r servant, y o u w ill find h i m of
g r e a t e r s e r v i c e on h o r s e b a c k , t h a n he can be in the c a r ­
r i a g e and if y o u h a v e a two w h e e l chaise, the e x p e n c e is
the same; but y o u must p r o v i d e h i m w i t h a s a d d l e and
s t r o n g boots, a n d w h e n he is m o u n te d, the horse, w ithout
guid i ng , w i l l c a r r y h i m to the next post; a nd b e f o r e the
c ha i s e arri v es , t he f r e s h h o r s e s will b e r e a d y and w a i t ­
ing in the h i g h w a y , by w h i c h y o u will not be d e l a y e d more
t h a n three m i n u t e s , and can go two or t h r e e p o s t s in a
day f arther; y o u will also be r e l i e v e d from the i m p o r t u n ­
ity of c o m m o n b e g g a r s , w h i c h is not the least i n c o n v e n i e n c e
in this country, w h e r e they are in g r e a t e r n umber, a n d m o re
t r o u b l e s o m e t h a n in E n g l a n d . "
O b s e r v a t 10.0-8. _2J1 t.fa.3
Nat i o n . p. 112.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
81.
1
tions
to a p e r f e c t l y
p a s s i o n an d led h i m
Sterne
observations
on
good. t w o — sous p i ec e
to f o r m u l a t e his
d oes not
the
t h r e w h i m into
principle
a l l o w to p a s s u n n o t i c e d
comparative
speed of travel
a
of spleen.
the frequent
in Fr a n c e
and E n g l a n d . '
Now I h a t e to h e a r a person, e s p e c i a l l y if he he a traveller,
c o m p l a i n that we do not get on so fast in Fr an c e as we do in
E n g l a n d : w h e r e a s we get on m u c h faster, consid eratis c o n s i d e r a n d i s : t h e r e b y a l w a y s m eaning, that if y o u w e i g h their
v e h i c l e s w i t h t h e m o u n t a i n s of b a g g a g e w h i c h y o u lay b o t h
b e f o r e a n d b e h i n d u p o n t h e m - — and then c o n s i d e r their puny
horses, w i t h the v e r y l ittle they give t h e m - - * t i s a w onder
they get on at a l l . , . 2
Thus he
exacts hu mo r
and c a rr i ag e s.
One
out
o t he r
of the c o m m o n p l a c e s
observation
h o r s e s - - t h e i r p e c u l i a r motion.
the
the
on F r e n c h ho rs e s
is made u p o n F r e n c h
S te r n e l e a v e s A b b e v i l l e
t h i l l - h o r s e t ro tt i ng , a n d a sort
3
other."
This, with a r e f e r e n c e
" wi t h
of an up and a do w n of
4
to the
c r a c k i n g of whips
5
and the p r o f a n i t y
of F r e n c h
coachmen
completes Sterne's
1.
2.
3.
re­
IV, 38 (vii, 16).
IV, 47 (vii, 20).
IV, 34 (vii, 15). T his r e m a r k
is p a r a l l e l l e d by a much
e a r l i e r t r a v e l l e r : "Their h o r s e s [are] little, and so
s t r a n g e l y put t o g e t h e r that s c a r c e any of them can either
trot or gallop, a n d 'tie e a s i e r to t e a c h an E n g l i s h h o r s e
to d an ce than one of them to amble, for they can only go
the pas, w h e n c e t h e i r c o a c he s and all m a n n e r of voit ur e ,
is so s l ow as 'tis i n t o l e r a b l e . "
J o h n Clenche, A T o u r in
■France and I t a l y . made
£ £ E n g l i s h ftepfrlgaaa, London,
1676, q u o t e d by Mead, The G r a n d T our _i_a the Ei ght eenth
Cent u ry , p. 21.
4.
IV, 39 (vii, 17).
5.
IV, 40 (vii, 17);
IV,48 (vii, 20).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
82.
marks u p o n p o s t i l i o n s
The
arises
final
in his
ing d e c i d e d
to
sail
d o wn
m o r n i n g of his
conversation
abandon
that m e t h o d of travel.
the Rhdne,
d e p a r t u r e f r o m L yo ns
who
the next p o s t
d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h St er n e has w i t h p o s t i n g
effort
to
post-office
a nd t h ei r v eh i c l e s .
comes
out of
to
c o l le c t
the
city,
it is "brought out
other t r a v e l l e r ,
m u st p a y fo r
he
is c o n f r o n t e d on
"by a c o m m i s s a r y of
six livres,
a post
that
f o ur
royal.
Sterne,
In the
to no
Sterne's
T h is
humorous
comment
posts w e r e
upon
for he must
strict
although
Sterne,
c o m m i s s a r y is
in the p e r s o n of T ri s tr a m,
"by a se r ie s
not
the
complain
g r e a t l y of
of
the c h a i s e s
dealing with postilions,
substantially different
but
"fic k le ­
r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h the
t hwar t ed in his t r a v e l s
ellers,
His
c o n d u c t e d in P r a n c e , ^
Thus,
breakdowns
pa y for his
e n c o u n t e r w i t h the
the
ensuing
the next post "beyond the point
p r o te st s
n e s s . 11
the
as w o u l d any
a b a n d o n e d p o s t i n g as a m e a n s of travel.
avail,
the
sous for
where he h a s
are
Hav­
t r i a l s of
and
the F r e n c h ,
road.
a nd
he does
The f r e q u e n t
encountered
commissaries
in
are not
those u n d e r g o n e by o t h e r t r a v ­
i n s t e a d of b e i n g m ad e
peration against
the
the d i f f i c u l t i e s
"beggars,
from
of vexations",
is
the o p p o r t u n i t y for v i t u ­
t h e y are
given a h u m o r o u s
turn
1. S m o l l et t makes a t y p i c a l r e m a r k c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e r e g u l a ­
tions,
"The post is f a r m e d f r o m the king, who lays t r a v ­
el le r s u n d e r c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r his own b e n e f i t , and has
p u b l i s h e d a set of o p p r e s s i v e o r d o n n a n c e s , w h i c h no s t r a n ­
ger n o r n a t i v e da re s t r a n s g r e s s . "
T r a v e l s . p. 69.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in the n a r r a t i o n .
was r i d
e ve n of t h e s e p e t t y
Languedoc he
theory
Upon reaching
and
according
Sterne
on the p l a i n s
of
to an e n t i r e l y
new
of travel.
clined the
o cc a si o n s ,
In this
diffe r en t .
their manners
refusal
No E n g l i s h
he wa s
the gayety,
remark upon
of
a wa r e
the
the
of women.
absolute
c ountry,
of c om m e r c e .
throughout the
century
does not p arody,
as
The monotony
in the
pointedly neglects.
We
and h i n t s r e f e r r i n g
can,
to the
and
institu­
from the E n g l i s h - -
of them went
and
(and
F r e n ch ,
of t h e s e
find
t he i r
to the
i r r el i gi o n) ,
and
observations
which Sterne
of the g u i d e - b o o k s ,
however,
on to
its r e l a t i o n
t h em a t r i t e n e s s
case
French char ­
f a i l e d to c o m m e n t u p o n
Most
religion
gave
de­
the f r e e d o m of c o n v e r s a ­
government,
the
Sterne
of b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y
of F r e n c h s o c i e t y
the p o l i s h e d m a n n e r s ,
a n d the p o s i t i o n
the s t a t e
seen,
and c u s t o m s
traveller had
the o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s
poverty
as we h a v e
o p p o r t u n i t y to g e n e r a l i z e u p o n the
or to d e s c r i b e
tions.
tion,
troubles,
conducted himself
On several
acter
s o u t h e r n France.
isolated
customs,
but
remarks
and
their
government.
During
the
argument
w i t h the
s everal r e f e r e n c e s
are m a d e
to the F r e n c h g o v e r n m e n t .
a b s o l u t e head,
S t er n e
wishes
1.
88
IV,
the king,
is
called a "very honest
h i m "all h e a l t h
(vii,
c o m m i s s a r y at L y o n s
and p a s t i m e
in the
Its
man,"
wor ld . "
34).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and
Although, the p o p u l a r i t y
in France,
is h e r e
on the wa ne
the e n l i g h t e n e d E n g l i s h
1
o p i n i o n that L o u i s XV was a g o o d - n a t u r e d soul.
In r e l a t i o n
to the p o s t
Sterne
of L o u i e le B i e n —Airne was
regulations
repeating
the
sub je ct
of t a x a t i o n
is a l l u d e d
to.
...had y o u first t a k e n my p o c k e t , as y o u do with y o u r own
p e o p l e — an d th e n left me h a r e a - - ' d a f te r -- I h a d b e e n a
beast to h a v e c o m p l a i n •d--2
The
gabelle
--And
chus e ----But
is slyl y m e n t i o n e d :
I take
salt
I do not
to my p i c k l e d herring,
for the
salt;
And the m u l t i t u d e
said
to fall
it,
if I
short
w h e t h e r y o u do or no.
I (I k n o w ) —
of t a x a t i o n s
the c o m m i s s a r y ’s s t a t e m e n t
are not
I,
chuse—
— B u t y o u must pay for
Aye!
said
is h i n t e d at
in his
that the r e v e n u e s
t h r o u g h his
of the
reply
to
fermiers
f ickleness:
---0 by h e a v e n s .' c r i e d I— -i f f i c k l e n e s s is t a x ab le in
F r a n c e --we h a v e n o t h i n g to do but to make the best p e a c e
with y o u we c a n —
AND SO T H E P E A C E WAS
A n d if it
c o r n e r - s t o n e of
hanged.4
MADE;
is a b a d o n e — as T r i s t r a m S h a n d y l a i d t h e
i t - - n o b o d y but Trie tram S h a n d y ought to b e
1. T h i c k n e s s e , w h o h a d met the king, a d m i r e d the " h a n d s o m e
g o o d l i n e s s " of his c o u n t e n a n c e , and c o n s i d e r e d hi m a " h u ­
mane and g e n e r o u s p r i n c e . "
U s e f u l H i n t s , p. 37; Ql>E6r Y £ ~
tions on the F r e n c h N a t i o n . p. 49.
In the l at t e r w o r k he
o b j e c t s to "the many, c o o k ’d up s t o r i e s w h i c h are c o n t i n u ­
a l l y in the E n g l i s h Inews-papers r e f l e c t i n g so o f t en on
the s e v e r i t y a n d i n j u s t i c e of so h u m a n e a p r i n c e as the
K i n g of F r an c e. " p. 174.
2.
IV, 91
(vii, 35).
3.
IV, 89
(vii, 34).
4.
IV, 93
(vii, 35).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
85.
In this ta l k of p e a c e
t h er e
seems
generally u n sa tisfacto ry Peace
which wer e
part
signed
of her
Pitt we re
crushed,
in 1763.
colonial
empire,
as the ir m i n i s t e r
stitutes
against
does not use,
S t e rn e
tiles
and
first,"
vows
make s
the
a n d the E n g l i s h
articles
of
followers
of
P r a n c e was not c o m p l e t e l y
1
h a d planned.
Thi s hint, a l o n g
of the J e s u i t s
Ster ne '8 allusions
Protesting
of Paris,
to th e
P r a n c e was not p l e a s e d to lose
d i s a p p o i n t e d that
with the s u p p r e s s i o n
to be r e f e r e n c e
m e n t i o n e d above,
to c o n t e m p o r a r y
paying
that he
con­
events.
for t r a n s p o r t a t i o n whi ch he
"will
go to a t h o u s a n d B e b -
a s p i r i t e d apostro p he :
0 England.1 England.' t h o u l a n d of liberty, a n d climate of
good sense, t h o u t e n d e r e s t of m o t h e r s — a n d g r ea t es t of
muses, c r i e d I, k n e e l i n g u p o n one knee, as I was b e g i n n i n g
my a p o s t r o p h e . ^
L i b e r t y h a d b e c o m e b y the
hold
word
people
in E n g l a n d .
eighteenth
century a house­
Indeed
w orshipped without
it wa s a f e t i s h w h i c h the
3
k n o w i n g what it mean t .
The t r a v e l ­
1. Por an a c c o u n t of the term s of this p e a c e and the r e s u l t ­
ing d i s p l e a s u r e in E n g l a n d , see W.E.H. Lecky, ^ Hi story
oj. En g l and Jji t h e E i g h t e e n t h CgfitttTJT-. L o n d o n 1910, 7
vols.
Ill, Ch. ix, 2 0 7 - 2 3 2 .
2. IV, 90 (vii, 34).
Cf. S e r m o n on the A b u s e s of Conscience,
I, 233 (ii, 17).
" . . . b u t like a B r i t i s h judge in
this la n d of l i b e r t y a n d g o o d sense..."
The p h r a s e "good
sense" does not a p p e a r in the v e r s i o n i n c l u d e d in the
Sermons.
No. 27, X, 117.
3. Thi 8 fact is r e c o g n i z e d by G o l d s m i t h in the four th n u mb e r
of the C i t i z e n of the W o r l d , where he p i c t u r e s an i m ­
p r i s o n e d debtor, a soldier, and a p o r t e r c o n v e r s i n g about
a t h r e a t e n e d i n v a s i o n by the French.
" Liberty," r e m ar k s
the Chinese, "is e c h o e d in all the ir a s s e m b l i e s ; and
t h o u s a n d s might be f o u n d r e a d y to offer up their l i ve s for
the sound, t h o u g h p e r h a p s not one of all the n um b e r und e r-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ling E n g l i s h m a n ,
dom,
was
s er v i l i t y
tille
sure
t he re f or e ,
to c o m p a r e E n g l i s h l i b e r t y w i t h
of the
Frenc h ,
who m i g h t
(as V o l t a i r e h a d been)
mere whi m
numer o us
of an
influential
comparisons
the p o p u l a r
p r o u d of his h e r i t a g e
are
dramatist,
be t h r o w n
the
of f r e e ­
forced
into the B a s ­
w i t h a let t re de cach et by
1
noble.
T y p i c a l of these
several passages
Samuel
Foote.
in
the
works
the
of
In The E n g l i s h m a n S e -
3.
(coat'd from p. 85) s t a n d s the m e an in g ."
W or k s III, 103.
G o l d s m i t h does not d e n y that the E n g l i s h are the f r e e s t
p e o p l e in t he w o r l d a n d e x p l a i n s in a late r p a p e r "in
what that f r e e d o m p r i n c i p a l l y consis t s. "
No. 50, W o r k s
IV, 16-17.
F i e l d i n g h a s w o r ds to the same effect: "The
whole m i s c h i e f w h i c h i n f e c t s this part of e c o n o m y a ri s e s
from the v a g u e a n d u n c e r t a i n use of a w o r d c a l l e d l i b e r ­
ty, of which, as s c a r c e a n y two me n with w h o m I h a v e ever
c onversed, s e e m to h a v e one and the same idea, I am i n ­
c l i n ed to d ou b t w h e t h e r t h e r e be any simple u n i v e r s a l
n o t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by this word, or w h e t h e r it c o n v e y s
any c l e a r e r or m o r e d e t e r m i n a t e idea, than some of those
old P u n i c c o m p o s i t i o n s of s y l l a b l e s , p r e s e r v e d in one of
the c o m e d i e s of P l a u t u s , b u t at p re se n t, as I conceive,
not s u p p o s e d to be u n d e r s t o o d by any one."
V o y a g e to
ULSLkaa. pp. 74-75.
1. The F r e n c h t h e m s e l v e s r e c o g n i z e d an d a d m i r e d the E n g l i s h
p a s s i o n for li b e r t y .
"O n voit i c i .[ E ng l a n d ] u n e s p r i t
de L i b e r t e que le G o u v e r n e m e n t favorise.
Si tout ce que
j ' e n t e n s di re de ce G o u v e r n e m e n t est vrai, les A n g l o i s
p e u v e n t se v a n t e r d ' a v o i r u n g r a n d a v a n t a g e sur d ' a u t r e s
N ations; c'est en A n g l e t e r r e que c h a c u n est m a i t r e de
se8 Biens; c ' e s t o u 1 'on p e u t p a s s e r la vie sans souffrir de la p a r t des G r a n d s , & si 1 ' on veut sans les conn o it r e. "
B. L. de Mural t , L e t t r e s sur lea. A n g l o i s
les F r a n c o i s et sur les V o i a g e s (1728). fed. p a r C h a r l e s
Gould, p. 105.
Se e also, M o n t e s q u i e u , P e r s i a n L e tt e rs ,
tr. by J o h n D a v i d s o n ,
L e t t e r No. 105, p. 236; and J.
Texte, J e a n - J a c a u e s R o u s s e a u aa.4
Spirit
in L i t e r a t u r e , tr. by J.W. Matt h ew s, int., p. xiii.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-£rom ZuMLLfi,, Crab g i v e s
sol e mn w a r n i n g
to y o u n g Buck:
...as it is y o u r h a p p i n e s s to be b or n a Brit o n, let it be
y ou r bo as t ; k n o w that the b l e s s i n g s of l i b e r t y are y o u r
b i r t h — right, w h i c h w h i l e y o u pr e s e r v e , o t he r na ti o ns m a y
envy or fear, but can n e v e r c o n q u e r or c o n t e m n you.
Be­
lieve, that F r e n c h f a s h i o n s are as ill s u i t e d to the genius
as t he i r p o l i t i c s are p e r n i c i o u s to the p e a c e of y o u r nativ
land.1
The
F r e n c h also w e r e
p erty
l a c k i n g in "b o n s — 8 e n s ," a co mm o n pro —
2
of the E n g l i s h .
In this a d d re s s to his nat i ve land,
there f or e ,
Sterne
commonplace
is r e i t e r a t i n g
comparisons
Ste rn e h a s
of the E n g l i s h a n d the French.
one c o m m e n t
speaking.
When
they main tain
Paris h a v e
seen
everything,"
stood";
but he d o e s
and exact
in a c o m i c a l f a s h i o n the
not
to m a k e
that
on the Fr e n c h way of
those
"who h a v e
seen
they are " c e r t a i n l y m i s u n d e r ­
know whether
way of s p e a k i n g w i t h o u t
it
is t heir p r e c i s e
sufficient
explana ti o n,
or the E n g l i s h l a c k of c r i t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e Fre n ch
3
language.
L a t e r he g i v e s an e x a m pl e of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g
b a s e d on t he F r e n c h t r a d i t i o n
St er n e a t t e m p t s
commissary,
fire.
to u s e
irony
he d i s c o v e r s
To his
of p o l i t e
in his p r o t e s t a t i o n s
that
his
sarcastic politeness
with a deep bow,
and
Sterne
compliment.
remark
the
observes
When
to the
c o m p l e t e l y mis s es
commissary replies
to h i m s e l f
that
the
1. Act II, W o r k s I, 124.
Mr. S h a n d y b e l i e v e d " th e r e was
l i t t l e d a n g e r . . . o f l o s i n g our l i b e r t i e s by g.fftnftk p o l i ­
ticks or F r e n c h i n v a s i o n s . . . "
I, 77 (i, 18).
2. Cf. Mur alt, Let t res sur le s A ng 1 o i s. _2_k 1ft 8 frflflgfti 8 » P •
168.
The F r e n c h w e r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y v o l a t i l e and w i t t y
as o p p o s e d to E n g l i s h p h l e g m and good sense.
3. IV, 4 1 - 4 2 (vii, 18).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
fr e n c h have
a s e r i o u s c ha r ac t e r .
this r e m a r k
is u n u su al .
was
more
that
t h ey w e r e
a gay,
typifies
c u s t o m a r y o p i n i o n of the Fr e n c h
1
i r r e s p o n s i b l e race.
Sterne is
w h e n he o b s e r v e s
the
spirit
and that
that
11the F r e n c h have a g a y way
3
is Great."
The
the
famed politesse
co m mi s sa ry ,
on truth,
The
in the o r d i n a r y man n er
ing of the w h i p
Although founded
crack2
of the F r e n c h n a t i o n
of t r e a t i n g e v e ry
of the French,
l e a d s St e rn e
that the
thing
e x e m p l i f i e d by
to refer to P a r i s as "the
4
S CHOOL
OF U H B A N I T Y h e r s e l f . "
of rem ar k s
mer,
"the
P aris
is also the
c o n c e r n i n g the F r e n c h way of living.
time
ofsallads.
too
much
It is s u m ­
0 rare.' s a l l a d a n d s o u p - - s o u p
and s a l l a d — s a l l a d a n d soup,
'Tis
inspiration
e n c o r e ---
for sinners."
5
1. The l e v i t y of the F r e n c h c h a r a c t e r was c o n t i n u a l l y o v e r ­
e mphasized.
Dr. Veryard, for example, w r o t e that "the
F r e n c h are g e n e r a l l y s p ea k i n g , v e r y c u r i o u s , c onfident,
i nq u isitive, c r e d u l o u s , f ac e ti o u s , r a t h e r w i t t y t h a n wise,
eternal b a b b l e r s - - a n d in a word, they are at all times
what an E n g l i s h m a n is w h e n h e' s h a l f drunk."
Q u o t e d from
A & A c c o u n t .&£ d i v e r s c h o i c e Sfim.ftElSft
iJL A j<?uriLfiX
thr ou g h the L o w C o u n t r i e s . graft S.ft. -li-SlX. -&SUd Par*. -2-£
S p a i n . L o n d o n 1701, p. 107, by Maxwell, E n g l i s h Travellers.
-La France, p. 39.
2. IV, 39 (vii, 17).
3. IV, 45 (vii, 18).
4. IV, 39 (vii, 17).
S t e r n e w a s re a l l y f a v o r a b l y i m p r e s s e d
by the u r b a n i t y of the French.
«I
a m v e r y well p l e a s e d
w i th P a r i s - - i n d e e d I meet w i t h so m a n y c i v i l i t i e s amongst
the p e o p l e h e r e that X must sing t he i r p r a i s e s - — the F re n c h
have a g reat deal of u r b a n i t y in their c o m po s it io n , and to
stay a li t tl e t ime a m o n g s t them will be a g re ea b le . "
Let­
ter No. 96, to L a d y D., J u l y 9, 1762, p. 178.
5. IV, 40 (vii, 17).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The
stre et s
Sterne
are l i n e d w i t h
imagines
live at P ar i s ,
that
all
cook-shops
the b a r t e r s
and t a r t e r s h o p s , and
and
cooks h a v e
come
to
c e r t a in of m a k i n g t h ei r fortunes:
the F r e n c h love good e a t i n g — — t hey are all g o u r m a n d s we
shall r an k high; if t h e i r god is their h e l l y
t h e i r cooks
must be gentle m en : and f o r a s m u c h as the neriwi g m a k e t h the
m a n . and the p e r i w i g - m a k e r m a k e t h the periwi g - - e r g o . w o u l d
the b a r b e r s say, we shall r ank h i g h e r s ti l l- - we shall be
above y o u a l l — we shall be Cani touls at least — n a r d i 1 we
shall all w e a r s w o r d s --References
frequent
to the f o o d and dress
in E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e ,
parison wit h
the E n g l i s h .
T a t l e r . "was the diet
who wo n the
fields
Reef
once
of the P r e n c h
more
are
in d e r o g a t o r y
and mutton,
w h i c h b r e d that h a r d y
com­
a c c o r d i n g to the
race
of mortals
of C r e s s y a n d A g i n c o u r t . . .
I w o u l d d e s i r e my r e a d e r to c o n si de r , what w o r k our c o u n t r y ­
men w o u l d h a ve made at B l e n h e i m and R a m i l l i e s , if they h ad
been fed w i t h f r i c a s s e e s and ragouts.**
This p r e f e r e n c e for
English.
Smollett
economy.
People
o rd e r
of
effeminate
tries
fare
to a c c o u n t
was
to
the
for it on g r o u n d s of
r ank w e r e w i l l i n g to
to a p p e a r w e l l - d r e s s e d ,
inexplicable
starve,
and t h e r e f o r e
he
says,
in
"they live u pon
1. P. 41.
In a note S t e r n e e x p l a i n s a Ca p i t o u l to be "Chief
M a g i s t r a t e in T o u l o u s e , &c.
&c. & c . " This i n c o m p l e t e
s t a t e m e n t w i t h the et c e t e r a s s e e ms a n o t h e r j i b e at the
g u i d e - b o o k s and t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n of local o f f i c e s .
Mil­
l a rd says the h a n d s o m e town h al l at T o u l o u s e "is c a ll e d
the Capitol; f r o m w h e n c e the A l d e r m e n are c a l l e d Capitouls: eight of t hese are a n n u a l l y elected: t h e y h av e the
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c r i m i n a l justice; but can r e s o l v e on
n o t h i n g w i t h o u t c a l l i n g a c o u n c i l of c i t iz e ns , w h i c h is
alw ay s c o m p o s e d of t h o s e who h ave b e e n C a p i t o u l s , a nd is
n e a r l y equal to our g r a n d j u r y . " The G e n t l e m a n 1s G u i d e .
p. 186.
S terne a p p a r e n t l y p i c k e d up the term d u r i n g his
stay at T ou l ou se .
2. No. 148, o£. c i t . . Ill, 179, 181.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
90.
1
soupe
a nd boui ll e ,
p e c u l i a r i t y of the
hair)
was
f ir m l y
The Abbe Le B l a n c
p e r f o r m a n c e at
f i s h and
sallad."
The n o t i o n
F r e n c h diet a n d dress
fixed
gives
a London
in th e m i n d s
of the
(especially
of the
of the E n g l i s h public.
an a m u s i n g ac c o u n t
of a fir st
night
theatre:
The autho r , h a v i n g by f l a t t e r y b e g u n to tame this wi l d a u ­
dience, p r o c e e d e d i n t i r e l y to r e c o n c i l e it b y the first
scene of hi s p e r f o r m a n c e .
T w o a c t o r s came in, one d r e s s e d
in the E n g l i s h m a n n e r ve r y d ec e n t l y , and the o th e r wi t h
b l a c k eyebrows, a r i b a n d of an ell l o n g un d e r hi s chin, a
b a g - p e r u k e i m m o d e r a t e l y p o w d e r ' d , and his nose all b e d a u b e d
with snuff.
What E n g l i s h m a n c o u l d not k n o w a F r e n c h m a n by
this r i d i c u l o u s picture.'
The c o m m o n people of L o n d o n t h i n k
we are i n d e ed such sort of folks, a n d of their own a c c o r d
add to our real f o l l i e s all that t h e i r auth or s are p l e a s e d
to gi v e us.
But w h e n it was found, that the m a n thus
equipped, b e i n g als o l a c e d d o w n every seam of his coat, was
n o t h i n g bu t a cook, the s p e c t a t o r s were e q u a l l y c h a r m ' d and
surprized.
The a u t h o r h a d t a k e n care to make h i m s p e a k all
the i m p e r t i n e n c i e s he c o u l d d e v i s e , and for that r e a s o n , all
the i m p e r t i n e n c i e s of his f a r c e wer e excused, a n d the merit
of it i m m e d i a t e l y d e c i d e d .
T h e r e was a long c r i t i c i s m u p o n
our manners, our c us t om s, a n d a bo v e all, u p o n our cookery.
The e x c e l l e n c e and v i r t u e s of E n g l i s h b e e f we r e c r i e d up,
and the aut h or m a i n t a i n ' d , that it was o w i n g to the q u a l i ­
ties of its Juic e that the E n g l i s h were so c o u r a g e o u s , and
had such a s o l i d i t y of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , w h ic h r a i s ' d th e m
above all the n a t i o n s in E u r o p e : he p r e f e r r e d the noble old
E n g l i s h p u d d i n g b e y o n d all the finest r a g o u t s that were ever
i n v e n t e d by all the g r e a t e s t g e n i u s s e s that F r a n c e has p r o ­
duced; a n d all t h e s e i n g e n i o u s s t r o k e s wer e l o u d l y c l a p p ' d
by the a u d i e n c e . ^
1. T r a v e l s . pp. 27-28.
2. L e t t e r s on the E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h
f i t , L o n d o n , 1747,
2 v o l s . , II, 3 1 6 -1 7 .
But f a s h i o n d e m a n d e d a k n o w l e d g e of
F r e n c h c o o k e r y a n d dress.
A c c o r d i n g to Foote, E n g l i s h
b a r b e r s , t a il o rs , a n d m i l l i n e r s went to F r a n c e to stu d y
the f a s h i o n s , w h i l e r a s c a l l y F r e n c h cooks and v a l e t s were
imported.
The E n g l l s h m a n i n P a r i s . Act I, sc. 1.
See
al so G i l l y W i l l i a m s ' s l e t t e r to G e o r g e Selwyn: " Y o u would
l a u g h at our c o l l e c t i o n , t h o u g h I a s s ur e y o u we are mu c h
o b l i g e d to F r a n c e fo r s e n d i n g us t w ic e a - w e e k some ve r y
e x t r a o r d i n a r y exoti c s.
B a r b e r s , m i l l i n e r s , b a r o ns , countB,
a r r i v e here till thei r f i n a n c e s are so e x h a u s t e d , that
they d e c a m p u p o n the s t a g e - c o a c h , a n d not jLn it."
J u l y 30,
1764.
Geor g e S e l w y n a n d h i s C o n t e i a n o r a r i M I. 290.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It is not
surprising,
food
and the
list
of first
then,
th&t S t e rn e
should mention
numerous barbershops
a nd c o o k - s h o p s
1
of Paris,
impressions
O f the d i f f e r e n t
c l a s s e s of F r e n c h
the
in his
s o c i e t y Sterne
has
l i t tl e to say.
We a r e m i l d l y awa r e of the e x i s t e n c e of
2
3
b e g g a r s and p r i e s t s and o t he rs w h o m he me e t s up on the road,
but
ther e
is no m e n t i o n of the
fundamental
to F r an ce ,
that he met
a marquis,
Once,
but
i mportant
to be
Ster n e
people
notes
"th ey
When he goes
f in d s
around a May-pole
to
"The F r e n c h women,
2.
3.
4.
of his
mule.
are all Dukes,
in p a r t i c u l a r
c h a i s e - v a m p e r , he
1.
Sterne
one
is,
as m u c h as
F r o m this
Marquisses,
that
e v e r y o n e has go n e
the bye,
the N a t i v i t y
and
of the
for f estivals
to r e t r i e v e his r e m a r k s
celebrate
by
a s se r ts
characteristic
of s o u t h e r n F r a n c e ,- - t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y
and dances.
that
sure,
distinctions
that he m i s t o o k h i m for an i n n ­
k e e p e r and h a n d e d h i m the b r i d l e
m i s c h a n c e he c o n c l u d e s
4
Counts" at A vi g no n .
social
from the
out d a n ci n g
of the Virgin.
love M a y - p o l e s A .1& f o l i e --
t he i r m a t i ns ,"
and
this
situation
causes
One oth er r e f e r e n c e to fo o d is m a d e - - t h e F r e n c h cafe au
lait.
S t e r n e h a s for b r e a k f a s t at L y o n s "two dish es of
m i l k coffee ( w h i c h b y the bye is e x c e l l e n t l y good for a
c o n s u m p t i o n , bu t y o u mus t b o i l the m i l k a n d coffee tog e t h e r - - o t h e r w i 8 e 'tis o n l y coffee and m i l k ) . . . "
IV,
76 (vii, 30).
IV, 37 (vii, 16).
IV, 37; IV, 90 (vii, 34).
IV, 105 (vii, 41).
S m o l l e t t h a d a s i m i l a r a d v e n t u r e on
the r o a d f r o m P a r i s to Lyons.
T r a v e l s . pp. 72-74.
Cf.
Cross, L i f e . pp. 3 2 4 - 2 5 , wh e r e the s t o r y is b r i e f l y (and
e r ro n e o u s l y ) told, a n d r e l a t e d to that of Sterne.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
S terne
to suggest
that
iiay-poles, 11 (as w o o d
upon
the E n g l i s h
is a l it t le
the E n g l i s h w o u l d h a ve
ascendency
over
them.
send, the F re n c h a l o a d of
scarce
no trouble
He rescues
his
sink
into the F r e n c h w o m a n ' s h e a d and
on.
On
the r o a d b e t w e e n
are d a n c i n g by the r o a d s i d e
As the p ip e
Cxascon ro u nd e l a y ,
"sun-b u rn t
The
at
the
a n d tabor p l a y
Sterne
daughter
T his h a p p y
descends
of La bo ur "
faculty
a m u se me n t
was n o t e d by
of Lyons,
according
in m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r
remarks b ef o r e they
2
confuse her, an d pa s s e s
Ni n es an d Lunel he has a n o t h e r
counter w i t h f e s t i v e p e as an t s.
work.
in France) ," w h e r e ­
of
other
co un t ry nymphs a n d
en­
swains
c o n c l u s i o n of the day's
and the maidens
sing
a
from his mule
Nanette
to j o i n the
3
in the dance.
the F re n c h for sp o n t a n e o u s
tr av e l
to Hi l l a r d ,
writers.
a r e as c apable
The
city-folk
of it
as the
pe as a nt s .
The i n h a b i t a n t s of L y o n s c r o s s i n g into D a u p h i n e is o n ly done
by way of r e c r e a t i o n , as they in so short a time t r a n s p o r t
t he m se l v e s f r o m the town to the country.
It is h i g h l y en1.
IV, 96-97 (vii, 38).
S t e r n e h a d cause to k n o w o f the
s c a r c e n e s s of wood.
"Ve h a v e h a d b i t t e r cold w e a t h e r
h e r e these f o u r t e e n d a y s — " he wri te s J o hn H a l l - S t e v e n son from T o u l o u s e , " w h i c h h a s o b l i g e d us to sit w i t h
whole p a g e l l s of w o o d l i g h t e d u p to our n o s e s — 'tis a
dear a r t i c l e . . . "
L e t t e r No. 100, Oct. 19, 1762, p. 187.
2. This may or ma y not be i n t e r p r e t e d as c a s t i n g doubt u po n
the i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y of the F re n c h women in general.
S m o l l e t t m ak e s a t y p i c a l l y d i s p a r a g i n g r e m a r k on this
s u b j e c t i "In what m a n n e r the insides of their h e a d s are
f urnished, I w o u l d not p r e s u m e to judge from the c o n v e r ­
s a t i o n of a v e r y few to w h o m I h a v e h a d access, but f r o m
the n a t u r e of their e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h I h a v e h e a r d d e ­
scribed, a nd the n a t u r a l v i v a c i t y of t h ei r tempers, I
s h o u l d expect n e i t h e r sense, s e nt i me nt , nor d i s c r e t i o n .
T r a v e l s . pp. 57-58.
3. IV, 10 9- 1 2 (vii, 43).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tert a i n i n g to see tiie v a r i o u s inven t io ns t he s e h a p p y p e o p l e
find out to a m u s e t h e m s e l v e s ; and when tired, down t hey sit
on the green, a n d r e g a l e w i t h their cold c o l l a t i o n (which
they al wa y s take w i t h them) in the most p e r f e c t t r a n q u i l l i ­
ty , till the du s k of t-he evening; then r e t i r e home, singing,
c a p e ri n g and dancing; a nd c o n v i n c i n g the t h o u g h t f u l p h l e g ­
matic E n g l i s h , who h a p p e n to be spectators, that t h e y k n ow
how to t aste the e n j o y m e n t s of this l i f e . 1
The p r a c t 1 c a l —m i n d e d S m o l l e t t
waste
of time
considered
e n c o u r a g e d b y the
t hese a m u s e m e n t s
a
church.
The & reat p o v e r t y of the p e o p l e here (i.e. Nice), is o w in g
to t h e i r r e l i gi o n.
H a l f of t h e i r time is lost in o b s e r v i n g
the great n u m b e r of f es ti v al s ; and h alf of th e ir s u b st a nc e
is g i v e n to m e n d i c a n t f r i a r s and p a r i s h p r i e s t s .
But if
the c hu r c h o c ca s i o n s t h e i r indige n ce , it likew is e , in some
measure, a l l e v i a t e s the h o r r o r s of it, b y a m u s i n g t hem with
shows, p r o c e s s i o n s , a n d e ve n those f ea s ts w h i c h a f f o r d a
recess from labour, in a cou n tr y w he r e the c l i ma t e d i sp o se s
them to idleness.
If the p e a s a n t s in the n e i g h b o u r h o o d of
any chapel d e d i c a t e d to a saint, w h os e d a y is to be c e l e ­
brated, h av e a m i n d to m a k e a feat i n . in other words, a fair
they a pp l y to the c o m m a n d a n t of Nice for a license, w h i c h
costs them about a F r e n c h crown.
This b e i n g obta i ne d, they
asse m bl e after serv i ce , m e n a n d women, in t he i r b e s t apparel
and d ance to t h e m u s i c k of fiddles, and p i p e and tabor, or
r ather p i p e a nd drum.
T h e r e are h uc k st e r s ' stands, w i t h
p e d la ry ware a n d k n i c k - k n a c k s for p r e s e n t s ; cakes a n d bread,
1 i oueurs an d wine; a n d t h i t h er g e n e r a l l y r e s o r t all t h e c o m ­
pany of Nice.
I h a v e s ee n our w h o l e n o b l e s s e at one o f thes
fest i n s . kept on the h i g h w a y in summer, m i n g l e d w i t h an i m ­
mense c ro w d of p e a s a n t s , mules, and asses, c o v e r e d w i t h
dust, and s w e a t i n g at e v e r y p o r e with the e x c e s s i v e heat of
the weather.
I s h o u l d be m u c h p u z z l e d to tell w h e n c e t heir
e njoy m en t ar is es on s u ch o c ca si o ns ; or to e x p l a i n t h e i r m o ­
tives for g o i n g thit h er , u n l e s s t hey ar e p r e s c r i b e d it for
pennance, as a f o r e - t a s t e of pu r ga t o r y .
But S t e r n e
peasants,
nor does
does
he
not
consider
the p o v e r t y
of the
s t a n d by as does M i l l a r d a n d r e f l e c t
The G e n t l e m a n 1s ftujdq, p. 143.
T r a v e l s . pp. 1 7 4 - 1 7 5 .
T h e reader will be r e m i n d e d
G o l d s m i t h ' s t r a v e l l e r , p l a y i n g for the d a n c i n g
" w i t h t u n e l e s s pipe, b e s i d e the m u r m e r i n g Loire.
T r a v e l l e r , " Works. I, 28.
of
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The
94.
upon
the h y p o c h o n d r i a c
with
the
disposition
i $ jd£. v i v r e of the
participant
It
in this
that
scattered through the pages
the
spirit
are
shrewd,
meet
all
a few F r e n c h
d eveloped.
momentary object
there
of the
Som e
are
of S t e r n e ' s
and
the w h o l e
rather
than her p e r s o n a l i t y .
The
the
remarks
nor N a n e t t e
a t te n t i o n ,
the
Th e
S t e r n e ’s v a l e t
In c o n s i d e r i n g the
in a w o r k
of f i c t i o n ,
and
are not
wherever
some
we
at all
than the
in ea ch epis o de
of th e y o u n g w o m a n
c o m m i s s a r y m a y he
e n c o u n t e r e d at L y o n s has
1
as any of these humans.
we
is no
Although
is more
and
sex
ass
literature,
turn.
characters
F r e n c h p e t t y o f fi c i a l ,
as travel
fall
c o mmonplace,
a humorous
emphasizes
a n o th er w o r d a b o u t h i m ?
of k n o w l e d g e
of S h a n d e a n s u g g e s t i v e n e s s w h i c h
colors
name.
let
their
Janatone
is a c e r t a i n a m o u n t
s ider e d a t y p i c a l
filled
an a c t i v e
s e v e n t h h o o k the re
of t h e m a r e
given
f ig u r e s ,
Neither
he b e c o m e s
in thes e h i t s
Sterne has
m o v e d him.
hu t
South,
hut
r u s t i c mirth.
is to he n o t e d
guiding principle.
of the E ng l i s h ,
seventh hook
must
that
remember
Sterne
hut
who
Francois
con­
can say
is a mere
as m u c h p e r s o n a l i t y
of T r i s t r a m Sh an d y
that
it is i n s e r t e d
is u n d e r no
obligation
1. T h e s e b e a s t s w e r e ve r y n u m e r o u s in Franc e .
S t e r n e ma y
h a v e b e e n l e d to set this e n c o u n t e r at L y o n s b e c a u s e of
the p o s t - a s s e s there.
N u g e n t speaks of S a i n t - S a p h o r i n ,
a small t o w n a b o u t sev e n m i l e s a b o v e Vienne, " f a m o u s for
its p o s t - a s s e s , w h i c h go fro m h e n c e to L y o n s . a n d p e r ­
form thei r stag e s as w e l l as hors e s, but will not be
d r i v e n an in c h f a r t h e r by any mea n s w h a t e v e r . "
T o u r . IV, 179.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to
tell
e v e r y t h i n g that h a p p e n e d to h i m
to
s ob e r fact.
None
T r i s t r a m a liar.
ing the
over
truth.
othe r
of his
One d o e s not
S t e r n e had,
travellers
based
would
thin k of c a l l i n g
u p b r a i d a clown
t h er e fo re ,
in b e i n g able
i n t e r e s t i n g in w h a t e v e r
course,
readers
or to c o n f i n e h i m s e l f
tell­
a de f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e
to m a k e his n a r r a t i v e
w ay h e desi re d .
on reality,
for not
but he w a s
His
free
account
was,
to e m br o id e r
of
as he
wished.
We k n o w as
a matter
a b s o r b i n g w ee k s in
and yet
we are
Paris
told
that
of fact that
Stern e
d u r i n g his f i rs t
he
leaves
aft er
spent eight
s o j ou r n abroad,
" s p e n d i n g three
1
days
and two n i g h t s
first p r i n c i p l e
a m o n gs t
of fli gh t
them."
f r o m d e a t h he
t h e r e f o r e he s a v e d his P a r i s i a n
Sterne was n e v e r
Nativity
v amp e r
of the
in quest
from P a r i s
Virgin,
w h o m he n e v e r
no m e n t i o n
B e a u c a i r e his
1.
IV, 47
the b o a t
fact
to visit
Furthermore
in h i s
outside
in th e
j o u r ne y
letters.
may
so that he
the E h o n e ,- - t h e r e
S o m e w h e r e near
v e h i c l e d i d b r e a k down:
(vii,
wife
His cha i se
of L yo n s
tri p down
the
the chais e -
a c c o m p a n i e d by his
once m e n t i o n s .
have been wrecked
of th e
was
and
for later use.
e i g h t h of September,
w h e n he p r e t e n d s
of his r e m a r k s .
was e n a b l e d to t a k e
cou ld not tarry,
experiences
on t h e
to T o u l o u s e S t e r n e
and daughter,
or may not
in L y o n s
In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s
19).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
is
Can y o u c o n c e i v e a worse a c c i d e n t than that in such a journey, in the h o t t e s t day and hour of it, four miles from
either tree or shrub w h i c h could cast a shade of the size
of Eve *8 fig l e a v e s - - t h a t we should br ea k a hind w heel into
ten t h o u s a n d pieces, a n d be o b l i g e d in c o n s e q u e n c e to sit
five h ou rs on a g r a v e l l y road, with ou t one drop of w a t e r or
p o s s i b i l i t y of g e t t i n g a n y — —To m e n d the matter, my two
p o s t i l l i o n s were d o u g h - h e a r t e d fools, and fell a - c r y i n g —
N o t hi ng was to be done.
B y heaven, q u o t h I, p u l l i n g off my
coat a n d w a i s t c o a t , s o m e t h i n g shall be done, for I'll
thrash y o u b ot h w i t h i n an inch of y ou r l i v e s — — and then make
you take e a c h of y o u a horse, and ride like two d e v i l s to
the next post for a cart to c a r r y my baggage, and a wheel
to carry o u r s e l v e s — Our b a g g a g e w e i g h e d ten q u i n t a l s - - 'twas
the fair of B a u c a i r e — — all the w or l d was going, or r e t u r n i n g —
we were a s k ' d by e v e r y soul who p a s s ' d by us, if we w e r e g o ­
ing to the f air of B a u c a i r e — No wonder, q u o t h I, we h a v e
goods enough.' y p u s avez r a i s o n me a a m i s - - " 1
incident,
well
enough
in T r i s t r a m S h a n d y t d o e s
there.
If S te r n e
were
told as it stands
not
agree w i t h the
travelling
and with his u n m e n t i o n e d f a m i l y
d i g n i t a r y on the o c c a s i o n
3
ling post, and, as far as
he h a d p u r c h a s e d
c er t ai nl y not
baggage
taker"
facts
in s e r t e d
as re l at e
on a mule with a v o i t u r i n
in a chaise,
o f the accident?
can be
4
in P aris.
This
to be
o
t p.
This
told,
where
S terne
was
that
is travel
in the same v e h i c l e
f o u r - w h e e l e d chariot
is
the
c h a i s e "all laid h i g g l e d y - p i g g l e d y w i t h my
5
in a cart" and s o l d to the " v a m p i n g c h a i s e - u n d e r -
at Lyons,
b ut
Sterne
was t here
c a r r y i n g out the
fic­
1. L e t t e r No. 99, to Foley, Aug. 14, 1762, p. 183.
T hi s
t h r e a t e n e d t r e a t m e n t c o r r e s p o n d s w i th that f o u n d n e c e s ­
sary by G o l d s m i t h , w h i l e S t e r n e m a i n t a i n e d inhis
writ­
ing that he b r i b e d the p o s t - b o y s to behave.
2. Cf. IV, 1 0 2
(vii, 41); IV, 106 (vii, 43).
3. He may h a v e
done o c c a s i o n a l l y as he p r o m i s e d in a le tt e r
to his wife; " s o m e t i m e s I shall take a b i d e t - — (a l i tt l e
post horse) and s c a m p e r b e f o r e — — "
No. 93, J u n e 7, 1762,
p. 173.
4. Cf. d e s c r i p t i o n in l e t t e r cited above.
5. IV, 72 (vii, 29).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tion
that he was
done
in T r i s t r a m S h a n d y
up to L y o n s
anotner
self
free
conclude
can we
is
to h a v e
of po s t
the p l a i n s
the b o o k
to h a v e
moved this real a c c i d e n t
commissary
roads,
over a rule
w h i c h he
2
d o w n the Rhone,
to float
of L a n g u e d o c
u n h a m p e r e d by his ch a is e
w i t h the peo pl e .
he was able to
3
on a n e w a n d r e f r e s h i n g note.
Neither
feel c e r t a i n
quis at Avignon.
seems
or else to h ave t a k e n
1
serious, thus l e a v i n g h i m —
it m o r e
to a r g u e w i t h the
to l o i t e r
What he
it d i f f e r e n t l y
and m a d e
in his h o o k
and c r os s
and
a n d told
accid e nt
free
found
t r a v e l l i n g alone.
that
We k n o w
Thus
Sterne unwittingly
that
a s i m i l ar
insulted a mar­
story h a ppened
to
Smollett
time
a n d that S m o l l e t t was at M o n t p e l l i e r at the same
4
as Sterne.
W h e t h e r they met or not is immate ri al , for
S t er n e
co ul d e a s i l y h a v e h e a r d
small E n g l i s h
society
it u p o n him se lf ,
The
dent
object h er e
from
Ca l a i s
there,
or h e m i g h t
is not
the
p r o v i d e d that
have picked
to e x a m i n e
to T o u l o u s e
story r e p e a t e d
Smollett had
t old
it up elsewh er e .
the v e r a c i t y
as r e l a t e d
in the
of each
inci­
in Tri stram S h a n d y .
1.
" A f t e r m a n y t u r n i n g s (A l i a s di g r e s s i o n ) to say n o t h i n g
of d o w n r i g h t o v e r t h r o w s , stops, and delays, we h a v e a r ­
r i v e d in t h r e e w e e k s at T o u l o u s e . "
No. 93, to Foley,
p. 182.
2. The c o u n t r y c o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d from the road as well
as the river.
3. T h e r e is also the p o s s i b i l i t y that the o r i g i n a l c h a r io t
m a y h a v e b e e n w r e c k e d , and that Sterne and his fa m i l y
m a y h a v e f l o a t e d d o w n the R h o n e and t he n h i r e d a c h a i s e
at A v i g n o n to c a r r y t h e m to T ou l ou s e.
I doubt this,
h owev e r.
T h e r e is no m e n t i o n of any of t h e s e c i r c u m ­
s t a n c e s in h i s let te r s, a n d we h a v e a l r e a d y seen that
S t e r n e does not s t i c k to f a c t s in his narra ti ve .
4. Cf. Cross, Li f e . pp. 3 3 9 - 4 0 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
98
"but to p o i n t
Cross
out
that
is m i s l e a d i n g
of Tri stram
Upon
Sterne h a d
so m u c h of the
a c c o u n t of
as the
Sterne's
not
by blunt
the th eo ry b e h i n d
dur in g his
travel.
travel a c c o u n t s
trip
as a d i ff e re nt
s a t i r i z e d the
the w h o l e
in a m an ' s
s e v e n t h "book
first
ordinary
a t t a c k s on his folly,
i mpor ta nc e
life
A lso
by p a r o d y
sort
of Tri s t r a m S h a n d y . that of the
of
c r o s s - a c c i d e n t s , to T r i s t r a m
he ma d e f u n
and
of
satire.
the
He
guide-books
e it h e r
occa s io n
to
describe
people.
T hi s
the
Lyons
the p r i n c i p l e
death,
free
however,
from o r d i n a r y
1. Cf.
of
but
of
after
tra ve l b y
environment
or
the
the f ir s t part
of
the
the f r u s t r a t i o n s
s p l e e n was
to
develop
a new
in c o n s c i o u s
e s p e c i a l l y his
ch.
threat
of
t he o r y of t ravel.
differentiation
t r a v e l — w r i t e r s , who
at
completely
an d b y r e m o v i n g T r i s t r a m f r o m the
he w a s
did this,
a v o w e d h a s t e he h a d little
e i t h e r his p h y s i c a l
j o u r n e y to Pa ri s ;
of t r a v ­
in m o c k e r y or in a n e w and
is p a r t i c u l a r l y true
book,
abandoned,
of his
and
s ho w e d h i m s e l f
ellers and
employed them
of t r a v ­
but by a p p l y i n g
the c u s t o m a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s
Because
abroad,
v a r i e t y of
thoroughly familiar with
hum or o us way.
that
the s e v e n t h h o o k of Tri s t r a m .
distinguished himself
He h a d
and
truth.'1’
completing
travel w r i t e r .
eller,
and f i c t i o n are m i n g l e d ,
in r e a d i n g
into his
and r e l a t i n g it
fact
were unable
to
He
of his w o r k
cope w i t h
14.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
plains.
Moreover
tlae S h a n d e a n a t t i t u d e
book did not a l l o w h i m m u c h time
the a c c o un t
there
but
of the
a premonition
lay as i d e
for
which, p e r v a d e d
sentiment.
Only
ass a n d of the L a n g u e d o c i a n dance
of what wa s
to come.
the h o o k to await the
The re a d e r
fulfilment
the
in
is
could
of S t er n e' s
promise
to r e c o u n t the a d v e n t u r e s of Mr. S h a n d y and Uncle
1
Toby a b r o a d or the p u b l i s h i n g of his c o l l e c t i o n of "PL A IN
2
STORIES.M
F r o m th e s e v e n t h b o o k of Tri stram S h a nd y it is
evident
that
remained
1.
2.
IV,
IV,
he k n e w h o w not
to b e
see n
if he
to w r i t e
a travel book,
but
r e a l l y k n e w how.
65-6 6 (vii, 2?).
107 (vii, 43).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
it
Ill
THE
G E N E S IS
OF T H E S E N T I M E N T A L
JQUHNEY
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Even while
c o m p o s i n g his
shortly after
Shandy.,
mind a s e c o n d
w i nt e r he
his first
expedition.
threatened
installment
trip abroad,
the
of
Sterne had
in
s ev e r e c o u g h of the
1
set out for Paris, an d he even
to
At
fo ur t h
first
t oy e d w i t h t h e i d ea of a c t i n g as g o v e r n o r for 11some eros
2
my Lo r d . "
W i t h the two v o l u m e s of g r l s t r a m finished, he
wrote
Foley;
y e a r — at
"I h a v e
least
some t h o u g h t s
I shall
not
d ef e r
to G a r r i c k he m e n t i o n e d his p l a n s
where
I shall
s p r i n g game,
September
avail m y s e l f of the
time
on the
for "a t ou r r o u n d
is
in the d i c e . - - -
I quit E n g l a n d ,
of the vintage,
Italy,
that
w h e n all
I may
nature
so s a u n t e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y for a y e a r or so,
4
side the Alps."
F ro m this l ast it b e c o m e s
that to his
the d e s i r e
to
and
ot h er
e vident
Italy this
3
it above a n o t h e r . "
And
or the duce
In the b e g i n n i n g of
is joyous,
of g o i n g
for r e n e w e d h e a l t h he h a d a d d e d
in a c o u n t r y w h i c h
5
he h a d f o r m e r l y i n t e n d e d to v i si t but h a d f a i l e d to reach.
6
The b e a r - l e a d i n g s c h e m e he gave up as too c o n f i n i n g , but
the lure
to
quest
seek n ew lit er ary material
of a w a r m c l i m a t e
was
too s t r o n g
to resist.
1.
2.
3.
In
L e t t e r Ho. 128, t o Foley, Aug. 26, 1764, p. 222.
L e t t e r No. 132, to Foley, Sept. 29, 1764, p. 228.
L e t t e r No. 136, to Foley, Nov. 16, 1764, p. 234.
Cf.
L e t t e r No. 135 to H a l l - S t e v e n s o n , Nov. 13, 1764, pp. 23233.
4. L e t t e r No. 137, Mar. 16, 1764, p. 235.
5. L e t t e r s No. 106, 107, to Foley, Apr. 18 and Apr. 29,
1763, pp. 193-94.
6. L e t t e r No. 149, to J o h n W o d e h o u s e (?), Sept. 20, 1765,
p. 257.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
O c to b er ,
1765 he
On this
ferently
set his
face
trip S t e r n e
t ha n befo r e.
He
"towards
the Alps."
conducted himself
s t a y e d only a b ou t
somewhat
ten days
dif­
in
Paris,
w h e r e he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h W i l k e s and Foote and "Fish"
2
C raufurd.
L e a v i n g the al mo s t em p ty town, he j o u r n e y e d
s o u t h w a r d t h r o u g h the B o u r b o n n a i s
through
over
the m o u n t a i n s
the p l a i n s
to Lyons, and t hence
3
of S a vo y to Turin.
He p a s s e d sl ow l y
of L o m b a r d y
to Florence,
to Borne,
and
then
4
to H a p l e s.
H er e he
found
"new p r i n c i p l e s
of health,"
and
u po n h i s r e t u r n
to Borne for H o l y W e e k was s ensible of h a v i n g
5
a j o l l y l a u g h i n g w i n t e r of it."
P a r t l y b e c a u s e of
"pass'd
a change
because
plan
in the p l a n s
of his
desire
of h is t r a v e l l i n g
c o m p a n i o n an d p a r t l y
to see his d a u g h t e r ,
of r e t u r n i n g h o m e t h r o u g h Vienna,
h e a b a n d o n e d his
B e r l i n,
and Holland.
I n s t e a d he e n t e r e d u p o n a " w i l d - g o o s e
chace"
over
France,
Sterne
and L y d i a
finally
c a t c h i n g up w i t h Mrs.
the F r a n c h e - C o m t e
short
Paris,
in the l a t t e r p a r t
v i s i t w i t h his
w he r e he
a ffairs,
f a m i l y he
tarried
Sterne
in the
in
After a
continued through Dijon
o n ly l o n g e n o u g h
and r e a c h e d L o n d o n
While
of May.
southern
to
to wind up his
e a r l y part
of June,
1766.
was
occupying himself with "operas—
6
P u n c h i n e l l o s — f e s t i n o s a n d m a s q u e r a d e s " at Naples, there
1.
Cross, L i f e . p. 391.
2.
L e t t e r No. 152, to Foley, Oct. 19, 1765, p. 261.
3. L e t t e r s No. 153, 154, to P a n c h a u d , Nov. 7 and Nov. 15,
1765, pp. 262-63.
4.
L e t t e r No. 157, to d a u g h t e r Ly d ia , Feb. 3,
1766, p. 267.
5.
L e t t e r No. 162, to Dr. Gem, Mar. 30, 1766, p. 275.
6.
L e t t e r No. 158, to H a l l - S t e v e n s o n , Feb. 5,
1766, p. 269.
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a p p e a r e d in L o n d o n
F:Q.ft.S
°^
previous
MlL»
Yor i ck.
tour
a seasonable
until
“ready
O c c a s i o n for
the s u m m e r
p l et e by the
time of his
how m u c h
d e p a r t u r e for
was r e p r i n t e d v e r b a t i m
from
the
question
Sterne
delivers
of travel.
d e l i v e r y of
"The Abuses
(without
expended
the freq ue nt
The
In r e v i s i o n u p o n
i n t e r e s t i n g to us
sermons,
" The P r o di g al
Son."
se rm o n f o l lo w s his usual p a t t e r n
l e s s o n — — an e l a b o r a t i o n u p o n a s c r i p t u r a l
in w h i c h the
characters
st or y
are b r i e f l y but v i v i d l y portrayed,
with the a d d i t i o n o f p o s s i b l e m o t i v es
moral
in
a very d e f i n i t e m e s s a g e u p o n
of r e l i g i o u s
and of s uitable
of
know.
is p a r t i c u l a r l y
r e l a t i o n to one of th e u n d a t e d
In this p i e c e
for the press
s e c o n d b oo k of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y . but
the r e m a i n i n g e l e v e n we do not
T his
s e r m on s
one of which,
time and l a b o r S t e r n e
the d a n g e r s
for we find
3
c o n c e r n i n g the preface.
The
We can date the o r i g i n a l
sermons,
com­
Italy,
i.~ p r e p a r i n g these
cannot be estima t ed .
inter r up t io ns )
serious w o r k on his
E v i d e n t l y t h e y were b a r e l y
f r om P a r i s
of w o r k d o n e
C on s c i e n c e , "
Labour, when I see
2
their a p p e a r a n c e , ” but it was not
child re n ,"
twelve
of The S e r -
w i th a m onths
of 1765 that he b e ga n
him w r i t i n g B e c k e t
four of the
third and f ou r th v o l u me s
The 8© sermons he h a d d e c l a r e d on his
to b e
"ecclesiastick
amount
the
reflections.
a n d h i d d e n tho u gh t s
In t e l l i n g the story,
1. On Jan. 21, 1766.
Cf. Cross, L i f e , p. 371.
2. L e t t e r No. 104, to Bec k et , Mar. 12, 1763, p.
3. L e t t e r No. 152, Oct. 19, 1765, p. 261.
192.
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Ster n e
c r e a te s
in h i s
imagination
"the
i n t e r e s t i n g and
1
p a t h e t i c p a s s a g e s ... left
He p i c t u r e s
fears
of his
scene.
he
the
departure
family,
k no w n
that
befalls
out the path o s
aside
father's
house.
fashion.
Prom
w i t h "some
fatal p a s s i o n w h i c h l e d h i m , — — and
read,
example,
of th e
wanderer,
The
a nd
reunion
this well-
reflections upon
so m a n y t h o u s a n d s
all he h a d t o g e t h e r . and take
2
.journey into ja far c o u n t r y ."
T h e p a s s a g e is so curious
and so
the
the gr i e f and
the u n f o r t u n a t e
in a t e n d e r
story S t e r n e turns
after
his
of the p r od i g a l ,
r e t u r n to h i s
is t h e n d e s c r i b e d
s u p p l i e d by the heart."
and p o i n t s
But disaster
is f o r c e d to
to be
t_2. g a t h e r
illuminating
that
as to S t e r n e ' s
it m e r i t s
quoting
in its
at t i t u d e ,
and so seldo m
entirety:
The love of v a r i e t y , or c u r i o s i t y of s e e i n g n e w things,
w h i c h is the same, or at l e a s t a s i st e r p a s s i o n to it,--seems wove into the frame of eve ry son an d d a u g h t e r of
Adam; we u s u a l l y s p e a k of it as one of n a t u r e ' s levities,
t h o u gh p l a n t e d w i t h i n us for the s o l i d p u r p o s e s of c a r r y i n g
f o r w a r d the m i n d to f r e s h i n q u i r y a n d k n o w l e d g e ; strip us
of it, the m i n d (I fear) w o u l d doze for ever over the p r e s ­
ent
page; and we s h o u l d all of us rest at ease with s u c h
obje c ts as p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s in the p a r i s h or p r o v i n c e
where we f i r s t d r e w brea th .
It is to this sp ur w h i c h is e v e r in our sides, that we
owe the i m p a t i e n c e of this d e s i r e for t ra v el l in g: the p a s ­
sion is no w a y b a d , - — but as o t h e r s a r e ,
in its m i s m a n a g e ­
ment or e x c e s s ;
o r d e r it r i g h t l y , the a d v a n t a g e s are w o rt h
the p u r s u i t ;- - - t h e c h ie f of w h i c h a r e - — to l e a r n the la n g u a g e
the laws and. custo m s, and u n d e r s t a n d the g o v e r n m e n t and i n ­
terest of o t he r n a t i o n e ,- - - t o a c q u i r e an u r b a n i t y a n d c o n f i ­
dence of b e h a v i o u r , and fit the m i n d m o r e e a si l y for conv e r-
1. S e r m o n No. 20,
2. I b i d . , p. 329.
IX,
320.
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s at i on and. di scour 8© — —— t o take us out of the c o m p a n y of our
aunts and g r a n d m o t h e r s ( a n d from the t r a c k of n u r s e r y m i s ­
takes; a n d b y s h o w i n g us n e w objects, or old ones in n e w
lights, to r e f o r m our j u d g m e n t s — — —by t a s t in g p e r p e t u a l l y
the v a r i e t i e s of natu r e, to k n o w what i s g o o d — — an d by o b ­
s erv i ng the a d d r e s s and arts of man, to c o n c e i v e what is
s i n c e r e ,“ - “ and by seeing the d i f f e r e n c e of so m a n y v a r i o u s
h u m o ur s a n d m a n n e r s ,— — —'to l o o k into o u r s e l v e s and form our
own.
This is some part of the cargo we might r e t u r n with;
but the i m p u l s e of s e e i n g n e w sights, a u g m e n t e d w i t h th a t of
g e t t i n g c l e a r from all l e s s o n s b o t h of w i s d o m and r e p r o o f at
home
c a r r i e s our y o u t h too early out, to t u rn this v e n t u r e
to m u c h a c c o u n t ; on the c on t ra ry , if the scene p a i n t e d of
the p r o d i g a l in his travels, lo o ks m o re like a copy than an
o r i g i n a l ,— - w i 11 it not be w e l l if such an a dv e n t u r e r , w ith
so u n p r o m i s i n g a s e t t i n g o u t ,- - w i t h o u t c a r t e .— w i t h ou t c o m ­
pass,
be not cast a w ay for e v e r , - - a n d may he not be said
to e sc a pe w e l l
if h e r e t u r n s to his country, only as n a k e d
as he first left it?
But
s c h o l a r . ---
y o u will
s e n d an a b l e pilot
w i t h y ou r
s o n — -a
If w i s d o m can s p e a k in no other l a n g u a g e but G r e e k
or L a t i n ,
y o u do w e l l
or if m a t h e m a t i c s will m a k e a man
a g e n t l e m a n , - - o r n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y but t e a c h hi m to m a k e a
bow,
he m a y be of some s e r v i c e in i n t r o d u c i n g y o u r son
into good s oc i et i es , and s u p p o r t i n g hi m in them w he n he has
d o n e — but the u p s h o t will be g e n e r a l l y this, that in the most
p r e s s i n g o c c a s i o n s of a d d r e s s —
if he is a m ere man of r e a d ­
ing, the u n h a p p y y o u t h w i ll h a v e the tu t or to c a r r y , - - a n d not
the tutor to c a rr y him.
B u t y o u will a v o i d this extreme; he shall be e s c o r t e d
by one who k n o w s the world, not m e r e l y f ro m b o o k s — but from
his own e x p e r i e n c e :- - - a m a n w h o has been e m p l o y e d in such
services, a n d t h r i c e m a d e the tour of E u r o p e . with s u c c e s s .
T h a t is, w i t h o u t b r e a k i n g his own, or his p u p i l ' s
neck;
for if he is s u c h as m y eyes h a v e seeni some b r o k e n
Swiss v al e t de c h a m b r e .— some g e ne r a l u n d e r t ak er , wh o will
p e r f o r m t he j o u r n e y in so m a n y months, "IP GOD P E R M I T " - —
much k n o w l e d g e will not a c c r u e ; - — some p r o f i t at l e a s t , - — he
will l e a r n the a m o u n t to a h a l f p e n n y , of e v e r y s tage from
Calais to R o m e ; — -— he w ill be c a r r i e d to the b e s t i n n s , - —
i n s t r u c t e d w h e r e t here is the best wine, a n d sup a l i v r e
cheaper, t h a n if the y o u t h h a d b e e n left to make the tour
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and the b a r g a i n h i m s e l f .— —L o o k at our governori
y o u : — — — see, he is an inch taller, as he relates
tages. --And here
e n d e t h his
p r i d e — — —his
I beseech
the a d v a n ­
knowledge,
and
his us e .
But w h e n y o u r son gets abroad, he will be tak en out
of his hand, b y his soci et y w i t h m e n of r a n k and letters,
with wh o m h e . w i l l pas s the g r e a t e s t part of his time.
Let me observe, in the first p l a c e , — -that company
w h i c h is r e a l l y good, is v e r y r a r e , — -a n d very shy: but y o u
have s u r m o u n t e d this d i f f i c u l t y ; and p r o c u r e d h i m the best
lett e rs of r e c o m m e n d a t i o n to the mo st emin en t a n d r e s p e c t ­
able in eve ry capital.
A n d 1 answer, that he will o b t a i n all by them, which
c o u r t e s y s t r i c t l y s t a n d s o b l i g e d to p a y on such occasions,
but no more.
T h e r e is n o t h i n g in w h i c h we are so m u c h deceived,
as in t h e a d v a n t a g e s p r o p o s e d from our c o n n e c t i o n s and d i s ­
course w i t h the liter at i , & c . , in f o r e i g n parts; e s p e c i a l l y
if the e x p e r i m e n t is ma d e b e f o r e we are m a t u r e d by yea r s or
study.
C o n v e r s a t i o n is a traffic; and if y o u enter into it,
w i t h o u t some s t o c k of k n o w l e d g e to b a l a n c e the a c c o u n t p e r ­
p e t u a l l y b e t w i x t y o u , - - t h e t r a d e drops at o n c e : — and thi s is
the r e a s o n , - — h o w e v e r it m a y be b o a s t e d to the contrary, why
t r a v e l l e r s h a v e so l i t t l e ( e s p e c i a l l y good) c o n v e r s a t i o n
with n a t i v e s , - — o w i n g to their s u s p i c i o n , - - - o r p e r h a p s co n ­
viction, that t he r e is n o t h i n g to be e x t r a c t e d from the c o n ­
v e r s a t i o n of y o u n g i t i n e r a n t s , w o r t h the t r o u b l e of their
bad l a n g u a g e , — or t h e i n t e r r u p t i o n of t h e i r visits.
T he p a i n on these
the c o n s e q u e n c e of w h i c h
an e a s i e r soci e ty ; a n d as
ever l y i n g in w a i t , — the
p r o d i g a l r e t u r n s the same
in the Gospel.
o c c a s i o n s is u s u a l l y r e c i p ro c al ;
is, that the d i s a p p o i n t e d y o u t h seeks
b a d c o m p a n y is alw a ys ready, and
c a r e er is soon finished; a n d the p o o r
ob je c t of pity, w i t h the p r o d i g a l
1. S e r m o n No. 20, IX, 329-33.
In w r i t i n g this passage,
S t e r n e ma y h a v e h a d in m i n d c e r t a i n c o m m e n t s m a d e by his
f a v o r i t e p h i l o s o p h e r , Locke, in the t r e a t i s e .? oflfi T h QUfiht 8
c o n c e r n i n g E d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to L o c k e the a d v a n t a g e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Unfortunately
under what
V/as this
it is
circumstances
s e rm on on
im p os s iD l e
this
to d e t e r m i n e
p a s s a g e was
written.
as Cross s u ggests in one
1
Pluce, " p r e p a r e d s ol e ly for the press," or as in an o th er
2
" r e v i s e d and r e d e c o r a t e d , " or was it p r i n t e d as it was first
delivered?
no p r e a c h i n g
Sterne,
the P r o d i g a l
first
whe n and
we must
Son,
remember,
h a d do ne p r a c t i c a l l y
3
since his d e p a r t u r e far; P rance in 1762.
If we
(cont'd fro m p. 105) of t r a v e l l i n g "may be r e d u c e d to
these two: first language; sec o nd ly an im p r o v e m e n t in
w i s d o m and p rudence, by s e e i n g men, a n d c o n v e r s i n g w i t h
p e o p l e of tempers, customs and ways of living, different
from one another, and e s p e c i a l l y from t h os e of his p ar i sh
and n e i g h b o r h o o d . "
W o r k s (1812), IX, 201.
Locke c o n ­
tends that a y o u n g g e n t l e m a n s h o u l d go a b r o a d either very
young, u n d e r a tutor, to l e a r n the lang u ag e , or later,
w i t h o u t a governor, "when he is of age to g o v e r n himself,
and m a k e o b s e r v a t i o n s of wha t he finds in other countries
w o r t h y his notice, and that might be of use to h i m after
his return: and wh en too, b e i n g t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d with
the laws a n d fashions, the n at u r a l and moral a d v a n t a g e s
and d e f e c t s of his own country, he ha s s o m e t h i n g to e x ­
chang e with tho s e abroad, fr om whose c o n v e r s a t i o n he hope d
to r e a p any k n o w l e d g e . "
B ut as it is, the y o u n g t r a v e l ­
ler comes b a c k w i t h a d m i r a t i o n only for the v i ce s of other
nations, a c q u i r e d in his first taste of liberty.
He doeB
not a s s o c i a t e
wi t h p e o p l e of condition.
"...Yet I ask,
a m o n g our y o u n g m e n that go a b r o a d u n d e r tutors, What one
is t h e r e of an hundred, that ever v i s i t s any p e r s o n of
q uality? m u c h less m a k e s an a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h such, from
whose c o n v e r s a t i o n he m a y l e a r n what is goo d b r e e d i n g in
that country, and what is w o r t h o b s e r v a t i o n in it; though
from such p e r s o n s it is one m a y l ea r n m o r e in one day
than in a y e a r ' s r a m b l i n g from one inn to another.
Nor
i n d e e d is it to b e c o n si d er e d; for m e n of w o r t h and parts
will not e a s i l y a dmit the f a m i l i a r i t y of boys, who yet
n e e d the care of a t u t o r . . . " p. 203.
It cannot be said
that S t e r n e f o l l o w e d L o c k e ' s w o r d i n g or order of ideas,
but he could ha v e found m o s t of his own r e f l e c t i o n s s o b e r ­
ly e x p r e s s e d in Some T h o u g h t a c o n c e r n i n g
^
i fe . p. 372.
2. Itlf e . p. 380.
3. On S t e r n e 's r e l u c t a n c e to p r e a c h further, see L e t t e r No.
108, to the A r c h b i s h o p of York, May 7, 1763, p. 196 and
No. 133, to the same, Oct. 30, 1764, p. 229.
The sermon
on H e z e k i a h is the only one in this c o l l e c t i o n whic h we
k n o w was p r e a c h e d after this time.
Cf. L e t t e r No. 122,
to Lydia, M a y 15, 1764, p. 212.
He p r e a c h e d once more,
b e f o r e the D u k e of York, in 1766 after his return.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
107.
accept
p ri o r
C u r t i s ’s c o n c l u s i o n that St e r n e did not go a b r o a d
1
to 1 7 6 2 and i n te r p r e t ari g ht the tone of the whole
passage,
either
which
Sterne
is that
of an e x p e r i e n c e d a ut h or i ty ,
r e v i s e d or c o m p o s e d the wh o le
tion d u r i n g or a f t e r his
that
Sterne,
with
indica t es ,
p u pp i e s
likely,
as S t e r n e ' s
trav el , "
as
Son.
valedictory
to
the
ideal
m uch
what
is said.
th e d i f f i c u l t i e s
is s a i d
that
The t o n e
this
composed
of the
to
already
the
ser­
t r a v e l l i n g "as
of the
contem­
of education.
and the a c t u a l
and S t e r n e
involved.
is r e m a r k a b l e
m e t h o d of e x p r e s s i o n to m a k e
to t h e
as a me a ns
of tr a v e l
of c o n v i c t i o n
would have
At any rate,
p r a c t i c e has a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d ,
he u n d e r s t a n d s
to be d o u b t e d
to cho os e from,
statement
G r a n d Tour
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the
it is
a b r o a d le d h i m
against
a f ai r l y c o m p l e t e
for p u b l i c a ­
the p o s i t i o n
on c o n t e m p o r a r y t r a v e l
s e r m o n on the P r o d i g a l
porary objections
The
More
hi s own o b s e r v a t i o n s
add the r e f l e c t i o n s
mon s t an ds
But
s w i m m i n g in his brain,
an e n t i r e l y n e w piece.
c o m p le t e
trip.
a w h ol e b a t c h of s e r m o n s
and o th e r p r o j e c t s
p a ss a g e
first
then
It
shows
is not
as the way
that
so
in w h i c h it
combines with a lively
sermon a forceful
warning
to y o u n g E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r s .
When
he was
mind
1.
more a n x i o u s
was
Cf.
Sterne
s t o r e d with
s u n r a . Ch.
returned
than ever
f r o m his
to w r i t e his
enough material
I, p . 12,
eight-months
travels.
f r o m his
journey,
His
experiences
n.l.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and
observations
creation
ning.
of the
But
in two f o r e i g n
before
commencing
amours
tion,
wa s
found,
this
not
the u s u a l
task,
to conc l ud e .
he
he h a d the
The
c o mp e l l i n g .
T r i s t r a m in t h e m i d d l e of July,
of p r o d u c i n g
to p r o v i d e
for the
s e p a r a t e w o r k w h i c h he h a d long b e e n p l a n ­
My U n c l e T o b y ' s
he
countries
Shandean
W h e n he
story
of
inspira­
sat down
soon a b a n d o n e d
the
to
idea
two v o l u me s .
...At p r e s e n t Z am in my p e a c e f u l retreat, w r i t i n g the n i n t h
v o l u me of T r i s t r a m — I shall p u b l i s h but one this year, a n d
the next I shall b e g i n a ne w w o r k of four volumes, w h i c h
when f i ni s h' d , I shall c o n t i n u e T r i s t r a m wi t h fre s h s p i ri t .^
The n e w w o r k a l l u d e d
to here
is b e y o n d doubt
the Sentim e nt al
J o u r n e y . w h i c h he
i n t e n d e d to p u b l i s h in four volu me s,
on F r a n c e
on
lisher
that he
s i ck n es s
it,
and two
and he
unwilling
sions
Milan,
it,
A l t h o u g h he
if he
of h i s
n i n t h volume,
as we n o w h a v e
in the
the plan,
"miscarried"
Th e
est
l at e r t o l d his pub2
w o u l d b r i n g f o r t h t w o v o l u m e s of T r i s t r a m .
defeated
Italy.
shows
which
signs
ever s e r i o u s l y
3
t e n t h volume.
to ke e p
fro m
of S t e r n e ' s
a statement
of p o o r m a d Mari a .
He
inserting among
of that b o o k a n a n e c d o t e
entertained
concludes Tristram S h a n d y .
w r i t i n g of h i6 t r a v e l s .
1. L e t t e r No.
p. 284.
2. L e t t e r No.
3. L e t t e r No.
p. 294.
two
was
increasing
eit h er u n a b l e
the f r e q u e n t
of the fa te of his
of his p r i n c i p l e
of trave l ,
digres­
a n d th e
Jul y 23,
or
laundry
In the t w e n t y - f o u r t h c h a p t e r he
(?),
inter­
in
story
starts
169,
to S d w a r d S t a n l e y
1766,
171,
177,
to B e c ke t , Aug. 30, 1766, p. 288.
to W i l l i a m C o m b e (?), Jan. 7-9, 1767,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
an i n v o c a t i o n
to the
did sit u p o n the
calls
torn
’’Spirit
of sweetest humour,
who erst
1
e a sy pen of my b e l o v ’d C E B V A N T S S ," and
the a t t e n t i o n of that spirit to the b r e e c h e s he h a d
2
at Lyons.
F r o m this m e n t i o n of his clothes he pa s se s
on to his
shirtB
dress at Milan"
shirts.
Here he
and
cut
tells h o w
off the
"a cu n n i n g g ypsey
forelaps
of five of his
in p rint
as h a v i n g
the g.t. J a m e s 1s C h r o n i c l e . J u n e 14-17,
following
six
was u t i l i z i n g an incident which had a l ­
ready b e e n m e n t i o n e d
the
of a l a u n ­
happened
1766
to him.
In
there a p p e a r e d
anecdote:
Tj2 the P r i n t e r of the S. J. Chronicle.
Sir, B e f o r e the c e l e b r a t e d T r i s t r a m S h a n d y r e t u r n e d from
France, h i s l a u n d r e s s b r o u g h t home his S h i r t s comp l et e in
Number, but w h e n he came to hi s L o d g i n g s in Town, a n d was
going to dress, the S e r v an t p u t t i n g one to the air, b e h o l d
both the laps w er e cut off.
On E x a m i n a t i o n the W h o l e were
found d e f i c i e n t in the same Manner.
Now, Mr. Bald wi n , is
it not v e r y l i k e l y that the L a u n d r e s s , b e i n g far a d v a n c e d
in h e r P r e g n a n c y , m i gh t take it in her Head, that s uch soft
L i n e n w o u l d m a k e e x c e l l e n t B a b y - C l o t h e s to w r a p the little
dear C r e a t u r e in, a n d by this K i n d of f o r t u n a t e C i r c u m ­
s tance w o u l d inherit the same Wit and H u m o u r as that r e ­
n o w n e d Author?
Y o u r hum b le Servant, B i s i b i l i s . *
The
story was p r o b a b l y r e l e a s e d by S te r n e u p o n his
E ngland,
but
its p r e v i o u s
appearance
in p r i n t
r e t u r n to
did not p revent
1.
IV, 273.
S t e r n e seems to h a v e c o n s i d e r e d C e r v a n t e s his
f a v o r i t e a uthor, s u p e r i o r to Babel a is .
Cf. H ...by the
a shes of my d ea r B a b e l a l s . a n d d e a r e r Servant e s !"
II, 58 (iv, 19).
C e r v a n t e s fits S t e r n e ’s m o o d of s e n s i ­
b ility, w h e r e the b o i s t e r o u s B a b e l a i s of c ourse does not.
N a t u r a l l y he w o u l d not in v o k e B a b e l a i s p r e p a r a t o r y to
t e l l i n g the d e l i c a t e story of Maria, a n d in the ^,gatltt9A~
tal J o u r n e y hi s n ame a p p e a r s only once (V, 344).
2. Cf. £.£. IV, 86 (vii, 31).
3. Q u o t e d by Curtis, Lett e r a . p. 278, n.3.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
him f ro m t e l l i n g it ‘b r i e f l y in his
T hi s
reference
to
the
n i n t h volume.
cross-accidents
encountered
during t ravel "brought to
Ster ne ' s m i n d a train of v e x a t i o n s
which led h i m to e x p r e s s
more
book his n e w t h e o r y of
definitely
than in the s e v e n t h
travel.
And yet, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g all this, and a p i s t o l t i n d e r - b o x
which was m o r e o v e r f i l c h ' d f r o m me at Si e n n a . and twice
that I p a y ' d five P a u l s f o r two hard eggs, once at R ad d i coffini and a s ec o nd time at C a p u a --! do not th i nk a j o u r n ey
through F r a n c e and I t a l y , p r o v i d e d a man keeps his temper
all the way, so b a d a t h i n g as some pe o p l e w o u l d make y o u b e ­
lieve: there must be ups and d o w n s . or how the duce sh ou l d
we get into va ll i e s w h e r e Na t ur e spreads so m a n y tables of
e n t e r t a i n m e n t . - - 'Tis n o n s e n s e to i m a g in e they will lend y o u
their v o i t u r e s to be s ha k e n to p i e c e s for nothing; and u n ­
less y o u p a y tw e lv e sous for g r e a s i n g y o u r wheels, h o w s hould
the poor p e a s a n t get b u t t e r to his b r e a d ? — We r e a l l y expect
too m u c h — a nd fo r the l i v r e or two above p a r for y o u r suppers
and b e d — at the most t h e y are but one s h i l l i n g a n d n i n e - p e n c e
half p e n n y —
who w o u l d e m b r o i l their p h i l o s o p h y for it?
for
h eaven's a n d for y o u r o w n sake, pa y it— pay it w i t h b o t h
hands open, rather than leave Pi sappoi ntment s i t t i n g d r o o p i n g
upon the eye of y o u r f a i r H o s t e s s and her D a m s e l s in the
gate-way, at y o u r d e p a r t u r e — and b e s i d e s , my dear Sir, y o u
get a s i s t e r l y k iss of e a c h of 'em w o r t h a p o u n d — at least
I d id
1
1. T...S. IV, 274-75 (ix, 24).
The I t a l i a n inns w e r e wo r se
even than those of s o u t h e r n Fra nc e .
F r o m B u r n e t to S m o l ­
lett and Sharp the E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r s were o u t s p o k e n in
their c om p l a i n t s .
In the l a t t e r p art of the s e v e n t e e n t h
century B u r n e t w r o t e of the j o u r n e y f r o m F l o r e n c e to
Romes "The Inns are w r e t c h e d , and ill f u r n i s h e d b o t h for
L o d g i n g and Diet.
T h i s is the p l a g u e of all I t a l y , w he n
once one h a t h p a s s e d the A p p e n i n e s : for, e xcept in the
great Towns, one r e a l l y s u f f er s so m u c h that way, that
the P l e a s u r e of T r a v e l i n g is m u c h a b a t e d by the I n c o n ­
v e n i e n c e s that one m e e t s in ev e ry Stage t h r o u g h w h i c h
he p a s s e s . "
A n d f r o m R o m e to N a p l e s he f o u n d that "...
tho ug h in some b i g Towns, such as C a p u a , there is but
one I n n , yet even that is so m i s e r a b l e , that the best
R o o m and Be d in it, is so bad, that our Foo tmen in E n g ­
land w o u l d make a g r i e v o u s O u t c r y if they w e re no b e t t e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
If one
is
the road.
with an
in a p l e a s a n t
This principle
illustration.
Italy the
mood,
thought
most p e r f e c t
state
Not
of Un c le
one
can e n j o y
of e n j o y m e n t
far
of bounty
Sterne
f rom M o u li n s
Toby's
everything
am o u r s
a l on g
substantiates
on h i s way
to
h a d put h i m "in
and good-will,"
the
and he v i b r a t e d
( cont'd from p. 110) lodged; nor is t h e r e any thing to be
h a d in them; the Wine is i nt o l e r a b l e , the B r e a d ill Baked,
no Victuals, e xcept P i g e o n s , a n d the Oyl is rotten.
In
short, except one c a r r i e s his w h o l e P r o v i s i o n from R o m e
to N a p l e s : he m u s t r e s o l v e to i nd u re a g o o d deal of M i se ry
in the four d ay s J o u r n e y that is b e t w e e n those two
places."
Some L e t t e r s
pp. 184-85, 197.
Conditions
did not im pr o ve in the co u rs e of s e v e n t y - f i v e years.
S h a r p e x c l a i m s w i t h disgust: " Gi ve what scope you p l e a s e
to y ou r fancy, y o u w i l l n e v e r ima gi n e h a l f the d i s a g r e e ­
a b l e n e s s that ItfilIan beds, I t a l i a n cooks, I talian p o s t h o r s es , I t a l i a n p o s t i l i o n s , and Itali an na s t i n e s s offer
to an S n ^ l l s h m a n in an a u t u m n a l Journey; m u c h more to an
lftfll4-g.fr w oman."
L e t t e r s f r o m I t a l y , p. 43.
To as s i s t
the r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , he f o l l o w s with a d e t a i l e d a c ­
count of the d i r t y s t r a w beds, fi l t h y covers, d i s a g r e e ­
a b le food, and vermin, pp. 43-46; cf. a l s o pp. 63-64, 68,
186.
S m o l l e t t p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the p u b l i c hou s es f r om
R a d i c o f a n i to M o n t e f i a s c o n e : " . . . t h e y are in all respects
the most e x e c r a b l e that e ver I entered.
I will v e n t u r e
to say that a c o m m o n p r i s o n e r in the M a r s h a l s e a or K i n g 's B e n c h is m or e c l e a n l y a n d c o m m o d i o u s l y l o d g e d than we were
in m a n y p l a c e s on this r o a d . . . . I repeat it again; of all
the p e o p l e I ever knew, the It a l i a n s are the most v i l l a i n ­
ously rapacious."
T r a v e l s . pp. 2 91-92.
B e c a u s e of the
h a r d s h i p s of h i s I t a l i a n e x p e d i t i o n S m o l l e t t was "for
two m o n t h s c o n t i n u a l l y a g i t a t e d e i t h e r in m i n d or body,
and v e r y o f t e n in b o t h at the same time."
. p. 307.
T ha t most t r a v e l l e r s w e r e i r r i t a t e d by such c o n d i t i o n s
as these in F r a n c e as well is i n d i c a t e d by T h i c k n e s s e :
" A s t r a n g e r m u st h a v e a g r e a t deal of money, or a great
deal of p h i l o s o p h y , in t r a v e l l i n g in this country, or
the t e m p e r he w i l l b e c o n t i n u a l l y kept in, by m an y i m ­
p os i ti on s , will h a r d l y c o m p e n s a t e for the v a r ie t y that
is to be seen as he p a s s e s . "
O b s e r v a t i o n s o n tfr.6 fT.gAff.fr
N a t i o n - p. 20.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in h a r m o n y
w i t h the
were r o u g h
or
saw or h a d
to do with,
either
of
smooth,
Maria,
beautifully,
This
of i n c i d e n t
shadowing
as more
it ma d e
and her
c a us e s
an e x c e l l e n t
"so
whether
no d i f f e r e n c e ;
the roads
every t h i n g
I
sad story,
w h i c h he
tells
so
h i m to e x c l a i m upo n r e a c h i n g town:
inn at Moul i n s .111
method
of t r a v e l l i n g
in w h i c h
it r e s u l t s
of the S e n t i m e n t a l
or less
that
t o u c h ' d u p o n some secret s p ri n g
1
or r ap t u r e . "
In this state of m i n d he
sentiment
encounters
"What
chaise,
for p l e a s u r e an d the
certainly
Journev.
sort
is a s t r o n g f o r e ­
Cross
c o ns i de r s
it
of an " a d v e r t i s e m e n t . "
The S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y . w h i c h h a d b e e n in his mind the p r e ­
vious summer, was c l e a r l y d e l a y e d a year, that he might p r e ­
pare the way f o r its p u b l i c a t i o n b y t a l k about it and a p r e ­
l i m i n a r y list of s u b s c r i b e r s .
N o t h i n g cou ld have serve d his
p u r p o s e better, w h e t h e r the act was p r e m e d i t a t e d or not,
than his s l i p p i n g into T r i s t r a m S h a n d y an e p is o de of his
f o r t h c o m i n g travels, in p r e c i s e l y the same m a n n e r as he gave
the p u b l i c a tast e of Y o r i c k ' s s e r mo n s y e a r s before, when he
let T r i m r e a d one to Dr. S l o p . 2
Whatever
was
ma y h a v e b e e n S t e r n e ' s
experimenting along
though
the
last b o o k
to the rest,
plentiful
the
of a s i n g l e v o l u m e
1. IV, 275.
2. L i f e . p.
l in e s
of Tri 6 tra m
inclusion
digressions
with T r i s t r a m . at
the
actual
purpose,
of his
is not
noticeably
of suc h an e p i s o d e
least
to i n d i c a t e
temporarily,
certainly
final work.
and the p u b l i c a t i o n
se em
he
for
Al­
inferior
among
the
the
first
time
an i m p a t i e n c e
to be
done
so that
the a n t i c i p a t e d
425.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
113.
travels
could, be written.
Sterne
mater i al w h i c h h a d b e e n s t o r e d
since
the first
memorable
Several
mood w h i c h
genesis
the
of the
whole
to
employ
the
for l i t e r a r y
use
to Paris.
be e n
work eventually
a n xi ou s
in bis mind
visit
r e a s o n s ha v e
was
suggested
took.
idea in the
Mr.
for the
Curtis
seventh book
form
sees
and
the
of Tri stra m
Sfrftndy.»
One of the most b r i l l i a n t sect io ns of T r i s t r am S h a n d y . vol.
vii, was in s u b s t a n c e a b u r l e s q u e of the F r e n c h g u i d e b o o k of
this p e r i o d , the K o u v e l l e D e s c r i p t i o n de 1_£ F r a n c e , by
P i g a n i o l de l a Force.
As F i e l d i n g by w r i t i n g a b u r l e s q u e
of P a m e l a h a d s t u m b l e d up o n J o s e p h A n d r e w s . so S t e r n e by
r i d i c u l i n g P i g a n i o l de la F o r c e appe a rs to h a v e d i s c o v e r e d
the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y .1
But
in our
seen that
The m o o d
D u r i ng
Sterne's
of h i s
the
J o ur n ey
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of this s e c t i o n
purpose
the re was
sentimental
a p pe a r e d ,
va r i o u s
i m p r e s s i o n a b l e bra i n.
definitely
w o r k is only
thr e e y e a r s w h i c h
it has
"H i n t s
satiric.
f a i n t l y suggested.
elapsed before
f o r c e s wer e at
already been
the
wor k
an d pr o j e c t s "
Sentlmental
in S t e r n e ' s
for
a travel
work h a d b e e n f l o a t i n g t h r o u g h his m i n d fro m the
he first
able
set
that he
travels
foot
in
the r e a l m
should utilize
in some
other
different
sary
nature
to go b a c k
L e t t e r s . p.
the m a t e r i a l
way than
sev en t h b o o k of S h a n d y .
of L o u i s XV.
time wh e n
It was
gathered
the l a u g h i n g s at i r e
Therefore,
in v i e w
of the
inevit­
in his
of the
totally
of the S ent i m e nt & l J o u r n e y . it is not
to
232,
the p a r o d y
of P i g a n i o l and d e s c r i b e
n.4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
neces­
the
114.
Sent i m e n t a l J o u r n e y
Between
and ff.ri 8
as the a c c i d e n t a l
the p u b l i c a t i o n
Shandy
book by an
the a u t h o r
took
i mportant
author,
the T r a v e l g
t h ro ug h F r a n c e
and
with E n g l i s h
law,
mood
to g i v e
the
to enjoy his
and u n o b l i g i n g .
As
the d i s c o m f o r t s
a wearisome
and
S t e rn e
est.
his
therefore,
striving.
Like
1763-65.
often
insolent
of c o m p l a i n t s
suffered
nor
are his
may be
of
are
against
in travel.
of t r a v e l
"the r e a c t i o n
Smol­
o bj e ct i on s
take n as the
w r i t i n g with w h ic h
b o o k to that of
considerable
inter­
of S t e r n e ’s m i n d upon
of v i e w for
Smollett's,
in no
shrewd observations
ha s b e e n a m a t t e r
the poin t
was
in the yea r s
The r e l a t i o n of his
Cro8 s believes
work has
en c o u n t e r
author
the r o a d was
series
c o m p l a i n i n g type
S m o l l e t t ’s gav e h i m
been
journey
but his r e m a r k s
t o o k issue.
Sterne,
s pl e ne t ic
entirely unappreciative,
of the
his
w h i c h he h a d long
travels
were
to deal
with o b s e r v a t i o n ,
p e r s o n a l a n d direct, r a t h e r than w i t h
1
c i d e n t , c om i c or ex c i t i n g , . ."
To S e c c o m b e the
1* Li f e . p.
and
the d e a t h of
an u n f o r t u n a t e
impositions
wholly u n j u s t i f i e d ,
epitome
D e p r e s s e d by
wi t h a l o n g
a r e su l t
E n o u g h of this
travel
idea of the p l e a s u r e w h i c h
sick a n d
continental
interspersed with
is not
an
e x a s p e r a t e d by
The t r e a t m e n t h e met
lett
(1766).
in t r a v e l l in g.
his d a u g h t e r
VII-VIII
a p p e a r e d an
11 aly of T obias S m o l l e t t
already b e e n q u o t e d
of T r i s t r a m S h a n d v
there
IX
important
result.
462.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in-
Journex
is
an e f fo r t
•spleen and
"to
counteract
ja u n d i c e , 1 11 and in a d d i ti o n:
of Smollet t • s b o o k was
to whet
c o rd i ng the
of
Travels
adventures
through France
a Sentimental
is no
his trav el s w h e t h e r
is w h e t h e r
douht
Cross
That
have
to go
that hut for
S t e r n e w o u l d have
as
to w r i t t e n
while
complaining and
trips
a b r o a d mus t h a v e
for
same.
like o t h e r
the que s­
The
author
certainly needed
t r a v e l l e r s b e f o r e him,
"p e r s o n a l
to
and d i r e c t " could
Sterne.
s ho w n in B o o k VII,
accounts
S t e r n e was
with
the p r o t e s t ­
represents.
to f i n d men who
complained while
He did not
galloped
g a ll o p i n g .
acquainted him with
c o m fo r t
c o m po s ed
f o r w r i t i n g his p e r s o n a l o b s e r ­
of m e t h o d
is
the
of Tri s t r a m S h a n d y
traveller whom Smollett
li sh d e m a nd s
So
effect
for re ­
h a d w r i t t e n or not;
observations
revelation
a l re a dy f a m i l i a r ,
ing type of
that
s ug g e s t s ,
Smollett,
had made n u m e r o u s
no
road.
they w ould have been
no hint,
have b e e n
hi s ow n an p e t i t e
the o p e n
Smollett
and Opin io ns
vations,
"Another
of
a n d I t a l y we migh t have h a d n e it h er
of The L i f e
as
effects
J o u r n e y n o r a H u m p h r y C l i n k e r . 1,1
There
tion
the ill
and c o n v e n i e n c e .
The
the p e t u l a n t
two
Eng­
A l r e a d y he had
T r a v e l s t h r o u g h F r a n c e and 11 a l y . int., p. 3C.
In this
c o n n e c t i o n M. J o l i a t o b s e r v e s : "Sterne avait eu, depuis
son s e j o u r a T o u l o u s e , l ' i d e e d ' e c r i r e , lui aussi, un
livre de voya ge s , et dans u n des v o l u m e s de Tri stram
S h an d y il e s s a y a ce geure en t i r a n t sa m a t i e r e du^
p r e m i e r v o y a g e qu ' i l avait fai t en 176 3 de P a r i s a
A vi g n o n , et dans le L a n g u e d o c .
M a i s ce n'est qu'apres a v o i r lu en 1766, les V o y a g e s de S m ol l et t, qu*il
vit c l a i r e m e n t ce q u ' i l a v a i t a f a i r s . "
S m o 1 le11 et la
F r a n c e . p. 116.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
r e j e c t e d the p r i n c i p l e
lish M a l a d y t h e
to accept
the
of t r a v e l l i n g a c c o r d i n g to the
spleen.
t h e o r y , as
of i n s p i r a t i o n
It
is not necessary,
e x p r e s s e d by
"Eng­
therefore,
Cross and Seccombe,
t h r o u g h r e a c t i o n aga i ns t
S mo l le t t' s
dis-
cont e n t .
Before
in i t i a t e d
Smollett's Travels
in the last part
Sh.Q;Rdy, the p r a c t i c e
of the
of e n j o y i n g
Ste r ne had
s e v e n t h b o o k of Tristr«»r
everything
This
IX,
f o r m u l a t e d e ve n p r i o r to the p u b l i c a t i o n of B o o k
VII.
Several
Sterne
typical
months
gave a d v i c e
given a fuller
that he p o s si b ly
could.
was
principle,
were published,
a ft er his
return
expression
from the first
to a y o u n g w o m a n g o i n g abroad.
sentimental
manner
he w ro te M i s s T u t i n g not
w h i c h he
to fret
for
in B o o k
e m p l o y e d with
trip
In the
the sex,
those left behind:
The heart m ust be c h e a r f u l [sic] a n d free from de s i r e s d u r ­
ing all this P i l g r i m a g e in s e a r c h of h e a l t h — uo h a r d jostlings in y o u r j o u r n e y m u st d i s t u r b ei t h e r body or m in d one
m o m e n t — if y o u h a v e left a P h i l a n d e r - - t h i n k not about h i m —
You must smile u p o n i n c o n v e n i e n c y and i m p o s i t i o n s — u p o n bad
inns--& what w i ll h u r t y o u m os t of all b e c a u s e most co n t r a r y
to y o u r n a t u r e — u p o n u n f e e l i n g l o o k s . ^
Prom this
it
is e v i d e n t
ment al J o u r n e y was
We c an n o t
that
the p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d the S e n t i ­
in S t e r n e ' s
d e ny that
m i n d b e f o r e he r e ad Smollett.
the p u b l i c a t i o n
in the same year
1. T..S. IV, 46 (vii, 19).
Por an i n t e r e s t i n g summary of the
l i t e r a r y e v i d e n c e on sp l e e n as t y p ic a l of the Engl is h ,
see O s w a l d D o u g h t y ' s article, "The E n g l i s h M a l a d y of the
1 8 t h C e nt u r y . " R.E.S. II (1926, 257-69.
At one point
S terne m a i n t a i n s that Tris t r a m
was wri t te n a g a ns
the spleen.
T..S,. IV, 246 (iv, 22).
2. L e t t e r No. 129, Aug. 27, 1764, p. 224.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
117.
of the work of S m o l l e t t
Xl.ft.Lz. of Dr,
his
travel book ,
a n d the
Samuel
Sharp,
m a y have gone
o p i n i o n that his
w o r k was
But
by
we must not,
Smelfungus-Mundungus
passage
draw s w e e p i n g c o n c l u s i o n s as
just
far
to be
attaching
equ al ly
s pl e n e t i c L e t t e r s
as Ste r ne nas p l a n n i n g
in r e i n f o r c i n g his
otherwise--an
too muc h im po r t a n c e
in the
Sentimental
to the direct
these bo o k s u p o n Sterne.
Here
have
He may h a v e h a d
found a s u g g e s t i o n .
when he w r o t e
tribulations
in
Italy.
P o s s i b l y h e was
M a r i a , said
comparison
in one
than an
who
the pulpit.
anecd o te s .
old
is "not
Capuchin
IV,
this pair
The
278
he may
in mind
of his
t h i n k i n g of Smoll e tt
good
f a t h er
(ix,
do y o u
in d i f f e r e n t
vein
In t y p i c a l P r o t e s t a n t
fash i on
a more u n c o u t h and g r o t e s q u e
in the h a b i t
a Swi ss
w h e n e v e r he b e h e l d
tion as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n
1.
read,
I softly---What resemblance
there
wept
of
some time at me, and then at
then at her goat again, and
way of i l l u s t r a t i o n he r e p e a t e d
a peas a nt
influ e nc e
as he
of m a n and goat was made
of S m o l l e t t ' s
he r e m a r k e d th a t
animal,
Journey.
the end of the M a ri a episode:
M A B I A l o o k ' d w i s t f u l l y for
her g o a t — and t h e n at m e - - a n d
so on, a l t e r n a t e l y ---
This
and there
to the
in the n i n t h b o o k of T r i s t r a m Shand v
when he wrote n e a r
--Well,
find?1
original.
of his
officer's
sto r y
a certain Capuchin
c o n s i d e r e d this
of d i v i n e
order."
fav o r
By
of
in
sig n of d e v o ­
in the peasant.
24).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
One
118.
day a f t e r
the u s u a l
the p a r t i c u l a r
outburst
source
of te a r s
the
monk inquired
into
of i n s p i r at i on .
Ah, father.' (cried the p e a sa nt ) I never see y o u hut I think
of a v e n e r a b l e goat, w h i c h I lost at Easter.
We were br e d
up t o g e t h e r in the same family.
He was the very p i c t u r e of
y o u r r e v e r e n c e — one w o u l d swe ar y o u were brothers.
Po o r
Ba ud o u i n i he d i e d of a f a l l - - r e s t his soul.1 I w o u l d w i l l ­
ingly pay for a c o u p l e of m a s s e s to pr a y hi m out of p u r g a t o r y .1
Ste rn e p e r h a p s
was
l e d by
clesiastical person
l i g h te r
touch,
pen se but h i s
this p a s s a g e to
to a goat.
in a h u m o r o u s
If so,
fashion,
liken hi s own
he did
a n d at no one's
was
conscious
of the
projected work would differ from Smollett's
Not
only was
but
also
the
importance
it to d i f f e r
f r o m his
own.
f r o m the works
Early
of o r i g i n a l i t y
in his
m a r k e d of t h e
an eas/ m a t t e r
well.
its
conventional
for
of hi s
not
V eh i c l e . "
only
in his
Tristram depended
i n i ti a l
success.
that his
and the others.
of other w r i t e r s
sermon he h a d r e ­
Charity,
"that
it
is not
to d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f
s u b je c t] ,
Sterne
by a n y t h i n g
therefore
s e r m o n s bu t
in it
except
strove
the
to be
in o t h er w r i t i n g s
in l a r g e pa rt u p o n
Whe n this
fact
s e e k i n g recogni t io n .
published
subject
a new-comer
in p r e a c h i n g on the
different
ex­
c a r e e r he h a d r e a l i z e d
to those
In the d e d i c a t i o n of his f i r s t
novelty
it w i t h a
own.
Certainly Sterne
[i.e.
ec ­
its n o v e l t y
vehicle became hack ne ye d
1. jLtavel?. pp. 2 0 - 2 1 .
2. No. 5, "The Case of E l i j a h a n d the W i d o w of Z a r e p h a t h
C o n s i d e r e d , " D e d i c a t i o n , IX, 69.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as
for
119.
and iiis i n s p i r a t i o n
new travels,
different.
flagged,
published
W i t h this
it is to be
expected
i n t e n t i o n he
desire
long n o v e l m a y h a v e
criticism.
his
s e p a r a t e l y f r o m T r i s t r a m . s h o u l d be
sat
d o wn
to his
--I shall not b e g i n m y S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y till
C o x w o u l d - - I h a v e l a i d a p l a n for s o m e t h i n g new,
of the b e a t e n t r a c k . *
Sterne's
that
to c h a n g e
from
been prompted
Throughout
I get
quite
the m a n n e r
in p art by
task,
to
out
of his
contemporary
the p e r i o d of the p u b l i c a t i o n of
Trlstram Shandy
t h er e h a d b e e n m a n y a n i m a d v e r s i o n s a g a i n st
the
and
indecencies
a f f e c t a t i o n of
careless
c r i ti ca l k nocks.
part
spoken
he h a d
the f a s t i d i o u s .
in t h e i r r e m a r k s
clergyman-buffoon.
d i sa p p r o v a l ,
n ovels
Sterne
Uany
against
H a d not
letters
was
s en s i t i v e
sensibilities
of t h e s e r e a d e r s
the
improprieties
Sterne been
to t h o s e
who
Despite
an
to
for "the l a u g h i n g
s h o c k e d the
he w o u l d not h a v e d e v o t e d
or in his
has b e e n
contempt
of h i s work.
In w r i t i n g T r i s t r a m
of the world,"
chaste and
irregularities
of the
were
out­
of a
d i s t u r b e d by
their
so m u c h s p a c e
in his
c r i t i c i z e d him.
It
s u g g e s t e d that his
to a c c o u n t
for the
tone
c o n c e r n m a y h a v e b e e n s uf f ic i e n t
2
of the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y .
Since
1. L e t t e r No. 183, to Lydia, Feb. 23, 1767,, p. 301.
See
a ls o No. 182, to Pa n c h a u d , Feb. 20, 1767, p. 300: " Im
g o i n g to p u b l i s h a S e n t i m e n t a l
qutBAZ
flraRSft &
I t a l y - - . ..twil be an o r i g i n a l . . . "
T h i s is the first
m e n t i o n of the t i t l e of the work.
2. " S t e r n e ' s d e c i s i o n to i n t e r p o l a t e the Sentime.nt.al $ QWTflfljC
b e t w e e n the i n s t a l l m e n t s of T r l s t r a w Sfaaafly
H a v e been
i n f l u e n c e d b y the c o n c l u s i o n of G r i f f i t h ' s r e v i e w of the
s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h vols. of S h a n d y . . ."
Curtis, ed.
t e r s . p. 285, n.3.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
120 .
we are
concerned
In this c h a p t e r w i t h
to the w r i t i n g
of the S e n t i m ent al
this
is neces sa r y.
criticism
the i m p u l s e s w h i c h
J o u r n e y .an
B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the op i n i o n s
e x a m i n a t i o n of
of S t e r n e ' s
pressed by his
c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , let us note b r i e f l y
ary b a c k g r o u n d
from whi ch t h e y sprang.
to say that as
a tendency
the
eighteenth
to re l y
It is
led
works
the
ex ­
liter­
platitudinous
centu ry progre s se d ,
less u p o n r e a s o n and more u p o n
t h e r e was
feeling.
1
In S t e r n e ' s
time the m o v e m e n t was
The a p p r e c i a t i o n of nature,
man's
i n d i v i d u a l i t y was
of the r o ma n ti c past,
stil l
m a i n t a i n e d by the A u g u s t a n s
ence.
People
p r im a r i l y
still
for the
way to edif y
tentative,
were
believed
to b e
harsh satire,
but b y a f f e c t i n g
instinctively
good,
p a t h et i c
stor i es
of v i r t u e
If the r e a d e r wer e
examples.
To
erring,
influ­
but
diffe re nt .
the m e t h o d of
The p r o p e r
i l l u s t ra t io n s.
fail to be
or by
S i nc e m a n was
s t i r r e d by
r e w a r d e d a f t e r l o n g s uffering.
he
shed a te ar o v e r
of e f f e m i n a c y but
and the old rules
by dry p h i l o s o p h y
c o u l d not
a n d of
exerting their
of mank i nd ,
not
stage.
l i t e r a t u r e was w r i t t e n
somewhat
the r e a d e r was
he
still
that
instruction
i n s t r u c t i o n was now
in a t r a n s i t i o n a l
of g o o d n e s s
w o u l d be c o r r e c t e d by m o v i n g
one's
f i c t i o n was
of h e ar t.
not a sign
H u m o r was p e r m i s s i —
1. W i t h the b a c k g r o u n d of this movement, and its p h i l o ­
s o ph i ca l b a s i s in the w r i t i n g s of Locke, Sh a f t e s b u r y ,
and the Deists, we shall not be c o n c e r n e d except as it
i n f l u e n c e s Sterne.
The g e n e r a l subject ha s b e e n a d e ­
q u a t el y d i s c u s s e d b y others.
Cf. B i b l i o g r a p h y .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
121.
ble,
but
tion.
must
its p u r p o s e
was
As l i t e r a t u r e
therefore
to be h e l d
course
dence
to give p i q u a n c y
was w r i t t e n f or a m o r a l
c o n t a i n no
in s c o r n
there were
or whose
acute.
But
indecencies.
while
vir tu e was
d i s s e n t i n g voices
in the g o o d n e s s
average
T r i s t r a m S h a n d y w e re
those
it
introduced
to be applauded.
from those wh os e
somewhat
of the e x i s t e n c e
the p r i n c i p l e s
instruc­
purpose,
V i c e was
of man was b e l o w the
awareness
roughly
to the
Of
confi­
lofty
of evil was more
of c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e d to
of moral
e d i f i c a t i o n t h r o ug h e n ­
tertainment.
The
critics
two groups.
First
of T r i 8 tram S h an d y m a y be d i v i d e d
t h er e are the i n d i v i d u a l
amateur,
whose opinions
sations,
letters,
of the b o o k are
a n d diaries,
N a t u r a l l y an
between
The
have a l r e a d y h e a r d
turn,
comments
of most
b e l o n g in the
consciousness,
excep t io n
it
Triatram Shand y.
these
is c u r i o u s
interrelation
often repeat
while
r ea d of the
exists
what
they
the amateurs,
critics.
men o f l e t t e r s
c ri t ic i s m s
in
The
of the day
Gray's
pen et rated Sterne's
to note that
the well-known
humour
in c o n v e r ­
group.
or not
of Gray,
fun in it, &
they h a v e
of the p r o m i n e n t
first
Whether
c ritics
6 ai d of the book,
r e l y u p o n what
recorded
mostly
and s e c o n d l y there are the
professional reviewers.
the two g roups.
critics,
into
comment
literary
with
the single
figures
that " t h e r e
s o m e t i m e s hit & s o m e t i m e s
censured
is m u c h good
mist"
and his
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
pleasurable
e x p e c t a t i o n of t h e next tw o v o l u m e s are m ild
1
enough a p p r o b a t i o n , but he is e n t h u s i a s t i c c o m p a r e d w it h the
rest.
T h e r e were
against
Sterne,
two
one
Ho ra c e W a lp o le ,
serious
charges
of d ullness,
unlike
and
the g e n e r a l i t y
l a i d by this g r o u p
the o t h e r
of i mm o ra li t y
of readers,
was not
amused.
At present, n o t h i n g is t a l k e d of, n o t h i n g admired, but what
I cannot h e l p c a l l i n g a very ins i pi d and t e d i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e
it is a k i n d of novel, c a l l e d The L i f e a n d O p i ni o ns of T r l a frram S h a n d y : the gr e at h u m o u r of w h i c h c o n s i s t s in t h e whole
n a r r a t i o n always g o i n g b a c k w a r d s .
1 can c o n c e i v e a man s a y ­
ing that it w o u l d be d roll to w r i t e a b o o k in that manner,
but h a v e no n o t i o n of h i s p e r s e v e r i n g in e x e c u t i n g it.
It
makes one smile two or t hr e e times at the b e g i n n i n g , but in
r e c o m p e n s e m a k e s one y a w n for two hours.
The c h a r a c t e r s are
t ol e r a b l y kept up, but the h u m o u r is f o r e v e r a t t e m p t e d and
m i s s ed . ^
But
this
r ea d in g p u b l i c
c h a r g e was
less
serious.
As long as the
f o u n d S h a n d e i s m e n t e r t a i n i n g ra t he r
than
dull,
Sterne h a d n o t h i n g to w o r r y about.
E v e n Dr. J o h n s o n
3
could not a l l o w that S t e r n e was dull.
Bu t the great moral4
ist h a d no use for the m a n or his work.
R i c h a r d s o n , the
moral
tendencies
critics,
was
of w h o s e w r i t i n g s
indignant
at
the
were
a c c l a i m e d b y most
indecencies
of Sterne.
To
1. L e t t e r to W h a r t o n , June, 1760, II, 681.
2. To Sir D avid D a l r y m p l e , Apr. 4, 1760, L e t t e r s IV, 36970.
3. B o s w e l l r e c o r d s a c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n J o h n s o n a n d G o l d ­
smith.
"Johnson: 'May, Sir, any man who has a name, or
who has the p o w e r of p l e a s i n g , will be very g e n e r a l l y
i n v i t e d in L o n d on .
The man, Sterne, I h a v e b e e n told,
has h a d e n g a g e m e n t s for three m o n t h s . ' Goldsm it h : 'And
a v e ry dull f e l l o w . * J ohnson: 'Why no. S i r . IH Life. II,
222 (1 7 7 3 )
4. I b i d . . I I , *222, n. 2; II, 449; IV, 109.
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123.
the
i n q u i r y of the R e v e r e n d Mr.
and
Mann,
Hildes le y,
Bishop
of Sodor
he r eplied:
Who is this Yori c k? y o u are p l e a s e d to as k me.
Y o u cannot,
I imagine h a v e l o o k e d into his hooks: e x e c r a b l e I cannot
but call them; for I am t o ld that the t h i r d and f o u r t h
volume s are worse, if p o ss i b l e , than the two first; which,
o n l y , I h av e h a d the p a t i e n c e to run through.
One ezten ua ting ci r c u m s t a n c e a t t e n d s his works, that they are too gross
to be i nflaming.
There
f o l lo ws
a letter
lady , as w r i t t e n
c o n t a i n i n g "the
to a n o t h e r
prot es ting a g a i n s t
the
lady,
her f r i e n d
f oo l i s h n e s s ,
c h a r a c t e r s and
grette d that
not
which
one gave h i m —
conscious
outs p ok en
of t h e i r
own p r o p r i e t y ,
Elizabeth Montagu had been
to a c e r t a i n
but,
sermon.
U u r d rethe advice
such & ffl&flner.
Ihftt
2
l a u g h w A U a jhift."
The B l u e - S t o c k -
i n d ec e nc ie s .
genius,
and grossness,
of f o l l o w i n g
Sterne's
his
aga i ns t
country,"
laughing i n
V irgiq? ajad £Eie&S.fi might
ings,
" c ap a bl e
the
of a y o un g
in t h e
indecor u m,
and co ininending only the
S t e r n e was
sentiments
w ere p a r t i c u l a r l y
His
co u si n Mrs.
extent
a patron
of
she a s s e r t e d v i r t u o u s l y ,
...I a s s u r e y o u h i s witt n e v e r a t t o n e d w i t h me for the in­
de ce n cy of his w r i t i n g s , nor c o u l d the q u i n t e s s e n c e of all
the witt e x t r a c t e d f r om all t he most c e l e b r a t e d b e a u x esprits that ever existed, m a k e am e nd s for one o b s c u re period.
And Mrs.
D e l a n e y w r o t e of T r i s t r a m :
1. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e (1804), V, 146.
Sept. 24, 1761.
2. L e t t e r No. 21, to Mason, Mar. 30, 1761.
<?9 rr9 6P9flfl9flff.fi. £-£
R i c h a r d H u r d and W i l l i a m M a s o n . ..p. 53.
3. To (?), 1768, I , 197.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It jl.&g. oot and will no t enter this house, e s p e c i a l l y n ow
your account is a d d e d to a v er y had one we h a d h e a r d b e ­
fore.
A l t h o u g h m a n y of these protests
d r o w n e d in the
peared
loud
in L o n d o n
a c c l a i m w h i c h g r e e t e d Ste r ne w h e n he ap
society,
r e a c h e d his ears
the discordant
to at ta ck him p ublicly.
(March 11-13,
w h i c h a c c u s e d Sterne
d e ce n ci e s
from the vile
visiting;
and in the P ub l i c L ed g e r
spondent
"Davus"
Church.
Out
Indig n an t
After
of the last b o o k of T r i s t r am there a p p e a r e d
in L l o y d 1s E v e n i n g Post
signed "Censor"
note must h a ve
b e f o r e m a n y months ha d passed.
rea de r s u s e d the n e w s p a p e r s
the p u b l i c a t i o n
must have b e e n
wit
requested
of this
last
1767)
a communication
of p l a g i a r i z i n g his
in
of the count r ie s he h a d b e e n
of M a r c h
intervention
30,
a corre­
on the part
l et t e r there a r os e
of the
a f utile p e t i ­
tion to the A r c h b i s h o p of Y o r k c o n t a i n i n g a "hint" that
2
Sterne be u n f r o c k e d .
S t e r n e could h a r d l y have b ee n u n a w a r e
of such a c o n c e r t e d
The most
eminent
Tr i strain S h a n d y was
ter in the C i t i z e n
Taste
for O b s c e n e
R i d i c u le d. "
effort
to p ur i f y
author
to p u b l i s h an a t t a c k u p o n
O l i v e r Goldsmith.
of the W o r l d
and Pert
the clergy.
The
fifty-third
is e n t i t l e d
Novels,
such as
let­
"The A b s u r d
'Tristram S h a n d y
In it G o l d s m i t h l eaves no do u bt
as to his
o pinion of Sterne.
1. To Mrs. Dewes, Apr. 24, 1760.
Autobiography
s p o n d e n c e . Ill, 588.
2. Q u o t e d by Cross, L i f e . pp. 423-24.
-Go
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It has b e e n observed., and I b e l i e v e with, some truth, that it
is very d i f f i c u l t for a dunce to ob ta i n the r e p u t a t i o n of a
wit; yet, by the a s s i s t a n c e of the f ig u r e bawdy, this m a y be
easily e ffected, an d a b a w d y b l o c k h e a d o f t e n pa s se s for a
fellow of smart p a r t s and p r e t e n s i o n s .
E v e r y object in
nature helps t h e jokes forward, w i t h sca rc e any effort of
the ima gi n at i on .
If a l ad y stands, s o m e t h i n g v e ry good may
be said u p o n that; if she h a p p e n s to fall, w i t h the h e lp of
a little f a s h i o n a b l e prurien c y, there are f or t y sly things
ready on the o c c a s i o n .
But a p r u r i e n t jest has always b ee n
found to give the most p l e a s u r e to a few old gentle m en , who,
b e i n g in some m e a s u r e dead to other sensati o ns , feel the
force of the a l l u s i o n with d o u b l e v i o l e n c e on the o r g a n s of
risibili t y .^
He
then goes
bawdiness,
not
on to show why
and
constitute
a f f e c t a t i o n of
difficult
to c o n s i d e r
censure
each
as
At first
There
s ermons u n d e r
writer
for
the
do
it
with S h a n d y .
T h e y had
a p p e a r e d and app r ov e
t h e y were
were b l e m i s h e s ,
w ho l e
was
the reviewers,
or
a m u s e d by the no ve l t y
to be
it was
sure,
in such a
a b o o k of " u n —
a c c l a i m e d "a w ri t e r
in­
ingenious
the p r e s e n t r a ce
his
notably
task in d e a l i n g
r h a p s o d i c a l piece, bu t on the
2
common merit," and the au t h o r
f i n it el y more
c uriosities,
f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the re ad e r
critics,
installment
in detail.
of the work.
typographical
r eal humor.
Other professional
had a more
the
and e n t e r t a i n i n g than any other of
3
of n o v e l i s t s . "
But w he n S t e r n e p u b l i s h e d
the title
of S e r m o n s
M o n t h l y R e v i e w was
of p u b l i c a t i o n he
considered
1. W o r k s IV, 28-29.
2. A n n u a l R e g i s t e r . Pt. II,
3. M o n t h l y R e v i e w XXI (Dec.
"the
of Mr.
scandalized.
g r e at e st
The
outrage
ma nn e r
against
vol. Ill (1760) , 247
1759) , 571.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
126.
Sense
and D e c e n c y ,
tablishment
that
his p r e l i m i n a r y
a rather
selves,
of the
but
was
even
outburst
first
of i n d i g n a t i o n he s e t t l e d down
appreciative
that
the
r e v i e w of the
the
To the
of our duty,
of c h a r a c t e r .
critics
to a n i m a d v e r t
What
sermons
es­
to
them­
M o n t h l y R e v i e w was
suggestive passages
a c l er g ym an .
"a par t
propriety
since the
w hi c h w o u l d scar c e
1
in the days of pagan i sm ."
After
ever a f t e r w a r d s
fact
w r i t t e n by
offered
of C h r i s t i a n i t y — — an o u t r a g e
have b e e n t o l e r a t e d
write
has b e e n
conscious
in Tr i s t ram w e r e
of this
journal
on any flagrant
w o u l d be venial
it
im­
in the f a r c i c a l
Author
pen
of the Minor, w o u l d b e h i g h l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e fr o m the
2
of a D i v i n e . "
In this m o o d they t a x e d the t h i r d a n d
fourth v o l u m e s
not
of S h a n d y
mend his wa y s
comp l ai nt
obl ig e d
of
ought
in v o l u m e s
we not
dullness.
and divine
to h a v e
o bs c e n i t y as wit,
an author,
i n de c e n c y ,
the
"by p r o f e s s i o n
and expressly
such a one,
did
they b r o u g h t
d o c t r i n e s he t e a c h e s ,
censured
and
Since S t e r n e
five a n d six,
immorality against
to d i s c o u n t e n a n c e
by those p u r e
with
commanded
to a v o i d
if he
it;
introduced
e n c o u r a g e d the d e p r a v i t y of y o u n g
and
3
u n f l e d g e d vice,
But
this
c ha r a c t e r
1.
2.
3.
time
by
the
libidinous
c h a r ge
of d u l l n e s s
of U n c l e T o b y was
Vol. X X I I (May,
Vol. X X I V ( F e b .
Vol. XX V I (Jan.
ideas a nd
commended
indecent
a l l u s i on s ?"
was not r e p ea t ed .
in p ar t ic u l a r ,
1760), 422.
1761), 102.
1762), 31-32.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and
Th e
the story
of Le F e v e r was
quoted
in full
with
signif i ca n t
c ojninen t .
Since Mr. S t e r n e p u b l i s h e d his Sermons, we have b e e n of
opinion, that his e x c e l l e n c e lay not so m u c h in the h u ­
morous as in the p a t h e t i c ; a n d in this opin io n we have
been c o n f i r m e d by the above stor y of Le Fever.
We a p ­
peal to the H e a r t of e v e r y H e a d e r w h e t he r our Judgment
is not r i g h t ? 1
When
the
seventh a nd
vie we r was l i k e w i s e
S te r ne ' s
acco un t
eighth volumes
were published,
the r e ­
enthusiastic
over c e r t a i n passages.
2
of his m a n n e r of e n j o y i n g his plai ns was
l oudl y accla i me d:
A d m i r a b l e i - - M r . Shandy, y o u u n d e r s t a n d the art,
art of t r avelling, b e t t e r t h a n an y other mortal
or h e a r d of.'®
The
e p is od e of the L a n g u e d o c i a n d a n c e
g r e a tl y a d m i r e d d e s p i t e the
the true
I ever knew
is q u ot e d in full
slit p e tt ic o at .
and
"&ive me thy
4
hand,
dear Shandy.’ give m e
The n he
came to th e
whi ch U n c l e T o b y
eye
amours
removes
th y heartj"
cried the reviewer.
of U n c l e Toby.
the m o t e
from
The p o r t i o n
in
the W i d o w W a d m a n ' s
is r ep ri n te d :
Never was any t h i n g m o r e b e a u t i f u l l y simple, m o r e natural,
more t o u c h i n g .
1 0 Tristram.1 that ever any g r o s s e r colo ur s
should daub and d e f i l e that p e n c i l of thine, so a d m i r a b l y
fitted for the p r o d u c t i o n of the most d e l i c a t e as well as
the most m a s t e r l y p i c t u r e s of men, manners, and s i t u a ­
tions.'
Richardson
the d e l i c a t e , the c i r c u m s t a n t i a l
R I C H A R D S O N himself, n e v e r p r o d u c e d any t h i n g equal to the
amours of U n c l e To b y and the W i d o w Wadmani
1. Vol. XXVI (Jan. 1762), 41.
2. U.S. IV, 108 (vii , 43).
Cf. .gup.tfet Ch.
3. Vol. XXXII (Feb. 1765), 108.
4. P. 130.
5. P. 136.
II, p . 52.
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But the
story of the Abbess
of A n d o u i l l e t s
is d e c r i e d as b e ­
ing as bad as "b r o a d R o c h e s t e r . 11 and the p a s s a g e on the "re1
ligious way of writing" is c a l l e d a "de gr e e of impiety" of
which the most p r o f l i g a t e
And in c o n c l u s i o n S te r n e
c o m m o n sold i er
is u r g e d
w ou l d be
incapable.
to reform.
Give up y o u r L o n g Noses, y o u r Q u e d l i n b e r g s , and your A n ­
d ouil le ts .- - D r . Slop indeed, is a great character: but,
try your s t r e n g t h a n o t h e r way.
One of our g en t l e m e n once
remarked, in p r i n t . Mr. S h a n d y — that he tho u gh t your e x c e l ­
lence lay in the P A T HE TI C .
I t hi n k so top.
In my opinion,
the little story of Le Pevre has done y o u more honour than
every thing else y o u h ave wrote, except y o u r Sermons.
Sup­
pose you were to st r ik e out a ne w plan?
Give us none but
amiable or worthy, or e x e m p l a r y c h a r ac t er s ; or, if you will,
to e n l i v e n the drama, t h r o w in the i n n o c e n t l y humorous...
Paint Na t ur e in her l o ve l ie s t d r e s s — her n a t i v e simplicity.
Draw n a t u r a l s cenes, and i n t e r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s — In fine,
Mr. Shandy, do, for surely y o u can, e xc i t e our passions to
laudable p u r p o s e s — awake our a f f e c t i o n s , engage our he a r t s - arouze, transport, refine, i m p r o v e us.
Let morality, let
the c u l t i v a t i o n of vi r t u e be y o u r a i m — let wit, humour,
elegance and p a t h o s be the means; and the g r at e fu l ap p l a u s e
of m a n k i n d will be your r e w a r d . 2
This p a s s a g e
towards
Shandy.
of his writings,
only his
at the
is t y p i c a l
While
the r e v i e w e r s
they c o u l d not
ta l e n t s were
appearance
however,
cease
or
story
right purpose.1
the
f a t e d to be
IV, 115 (viii, 2).
I b i d . . pp. 138-39.
q u o t e d by
ture.
See s u n r a . p . 119, n . 2
indece n cy
a p p l a u d his genius.
to the
to a d m i r e
attitude
d e p l o r e d the
of the n i n t h v o l u m e
of the Uncle T o b y - W i d o w W a d m a n
1*
2.
but
cultivated
with a sigh that S t e r n e was
does not,
of the m a t u r e
But
r e v ie w er r e a l i z e d
a Harlequin.
to lament.
are praised,
Cur t is
If
He
T ou c h e s
and
to p r o v e his
the
conjec­
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
whole
of the
Maria
story,
is q u o t e d a p p r o v i n g l y .
at the
story
from the
Invocation
to the end,
He c o n c l u d e s w i t h a p a r t i n g
of the p a r i s h bull
as "dull,
gross,
shot
and v u l ­
gar.”
--0 what p i t y that N a t u r e s h o u l d thus c a p r i c i o u s l y h a ve
e m b r o i d e r e d the c h o i c e s t flow e rs of genius, on a p a u l t r y
g r o u n d w o r k of buffoonry.^The
c r i t i c i s m of the M o n t h l y R e v i e w has b e e n f o l ­
lowed t h r o u g h as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
The
Crit i cal R e v i e w
of the m a g a z i n e
is a li t tl e more
tolerant
critics.
of the p r u r i ­
ency.
With r e s p e c t to the m or al t e n d e n c y of the work, and the
d e c en cy of e x e c u t i o n , we shall r e f e r the r e a d e r to the o b ­
s er v at io n s of o t h e r critics, who h a v e taken the tr ou b le to
discuss these p a r t i c u l a r s : our b u s i n e s s shall be to c o n ­
sider how far the p e r f o r m a n c e cond uc e s to the e n t e r t a i n m e n t
of the r e a d e r . 2
The
final
c o m m e nt
on T r i a t r a m
is that S t e r n e ' s
wit
"may be
termed generi c al . 11
We wish, h o w e v e r , that it h a d b e e n a l it t l e b e t t e r a c ­
c o m m o d a t e d to t h e e ars of i nn o ce nc e , v l r g i n i b u s p u e r i s o u e :
but, perhaps, of all the a u t h o r s who h a v e e x i s t e d since
the days of R a b e l a i s , n o n e can w it h m or e J u s t i c e t h a n T r i s ­
tram put his arms a - k i m b o , strut t h r o u g h his room, a n d say,
3
None but m y s e l f can be my parallel.
By
far the
m o st a d m i r e d e p i s o d e s
story of Le F e v e r
a n d the
was
Critical
1.
2.
o•
4.
te r me d by the
Vol.
Vol.
Vol.
Vol.
story
of Maria.
in S t e r n e were
That
the
of Le Fev
R e v i e w " b e a u t i f u l l y p at h et i c, "
XXVI (Feb. 1757), 102.
XIII (Jan. 1762), 66.
XXIII (Feb. 1767) , 138.
XIII, 68.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and was
q u o t e d at l e n g t h by
h.Odd-Q.n. M&&&Z.1.QS as well,
ciaria was
The p a r t s
then,
Sterne
or
in n o c e n t humor.
the
came
the
fore
i g n or a nt
then
this
But
there
to prove
sort
to a s s u m e
of his
that
of or i n d i f f e r e n t
of his
are an a mp le n u m b e r
he was
to the
he was
there
of his
work,
c r i t i c s has b e e n pointless.
of p a s s a g e s
in S t e r n e ' s
c o n c e r n e d w i t h the matter.
his i n d i f f e r e n c e ,
very
act of m e n t i o n i n g
his critics
that
he
work
Indeed,even
s h o w e d by the
he was
aware
of
strictures.
This unconcern
assumedtowards
his
they
ce a s e d to lament
censures
he was p r o t e s t i n g
cere.
flavored
b e c a u s e S t e r n e di d not
when
their
wit was
from his w r i t i n g s
they n e v e r
and
f o r c e d to deplore
of wit he k n e w w o u l d offend,
consideration
that
realized
e x t r e m e l y well,
they w e r e
touch
but
critics
e ither
of s e n s i b i l i t y w e r e g r o w i n g on a dung-hill.
If we are
eliminate
These
so m u c h
prurient
to despa i r,
flo we r s
taste
with w h i c h
Of e l i m i n a t i n g this
that
with
a p p r e c i a t e d by the r e ­
such p a s s a g e s
of the p u b l i c
salaciousness
gradually
of T r i s t r am most
c o u l d w r it e
as g u a r d i a n s
the
encounter
were those w h i c h a f f e c t e d the heart
t h r ou gh pa th o s
that
while T r i s t r a m ' s
r e p r i n t e d in the L o n d o n M agaz ine a nd the R o y a l
■M.flgftZ.l-B.3«
viewers,
the G e n t l e m a n * 8 K a g a 2 ine and. the
the
and the
solemn
moralists
One of his m a n y t r i c k s
story
so as
sportive
with
a t t i t u d e w h i c h he
were
not
the r e a d e r
to force the r e a d e r ' s
wholly
insin­
was to tell
imagination
to supply
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the real
i n d e ce n ci e s.
S u g g e s t i v e n e s s was a part
ism, and
to ch a ng e his
Shandaic
the h o o k w o u l d have m e an t
more,
he was at
first
in the c ourse of
1
to e m a s c u l a t e his works.
Further­
as a m a t t e r
i n d i g n an tl y
c ha r a c t e r
s u r r o u n d e d hy an a d m i r i n g crowd of men
of the w o r l d who r e l i s h e d this
that,
of Shande-
sort
of h u m a n nature,
of humor.
many
He also knew
of those who
t al ke d
of his h o o k in p u b l i c w o u l d c o nt i nu e to r ea d it
in the p r i v a c y
make p e o p l e
of t he i r b e d - c h a m b e r s .
laugh,
he
considered
And his purpose,
conducive
to the h e a l t h
to
of
his readers.
Hut
S t e r n e h a d a more
his n at u r e w h i c h was
writings.
Although
could scheme with
upon
gether
and sold
theless
sure.
in his
"The
the host
a f f e c t e d by m o ra l
in the
to w r i t e
o f e ach o t h e r ' s
for a p r o f i t
s c r i b b l e r s use me
imitations
se n s i t i v e
side to
s trictures u p o n his
an e x p o s t u l a t o r y letter
works,
to be p r i n t e d to2
divided,
never­
to be e q u a l l y
c h a r a c t e r as p r i e s t
of l ew d
m or e
f lush of his P a r i s i a n t r i u m p h he
Crebillon
the I n d e c o r u m s
serious,
ill,"
he was
d i s t u r b e d by
cen3
he w r o t e W arburton, and
c a u s e d h i m to wish he h a d never
4
written.
"God f o r g i v e me,
for the V o l u m e s
of B i b b a l d r y
I've
1. The a p p r o v a l of " m e n of wit, a n d some others whom I e s ­
teem as s o u n d criticks" c o n v i n c e d St e rn e of "the folly
of an a t t e m p t of c a s t r a t i n g m y b o o k to the p r u di s h
h u m o u r s of p a r t i c u l a r s . "
L e t t e r No. 47, to Dr.**
,
Jan. 30, 1760, pp. 90-91.
2. L e t t e r
No.87,
to Garrick, Apr. 19, 1762,
p.162.
3. L e t t e r No.
61, June 9, 1760, p.
112.
4. L e t t e r No.
63, to same, June 19, 1760,
p. 116.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
132.
been the cause o f , " he
he could not
hope
exclaimed.^
to p l e a s e
Ee realized,
however,
that
everybody,
I shall "be a t t a c k e d and pelted, either from altars or gar­
rets, w r i t e what I w il l — and "besides, must expect to have
a party a g a in s t me of m a n y h u n d r e d s - - w h o either do not--or
will not l a u g h . - - ' T i s e n o u g h if I divide the w o r l d ; - - a t
least I will rest c o n t e n t e d w i t h it.
But
unnoticed.
wrote
the
ed by the
Sterne was not
In the
l et t e r
content
t h ir d volume,
q u o t e d above,
c r i t i c i s m of his
to allow c r i t i c i s m to p ass
a l r ea d y
c o m p o s e d w he n he
he r e g i s t e r e d a protest,
prompt­
Sermons.
--You Messrs, the M o n t h l y reviewers] how could you cut and
slash my jerkin a s ^ y o u d i d ? - - h o w did y o u know, but y o u w o u l d
cut my l i n i n g too?
He then r e f e r r e d
to
the
admired sentimental
Toby and the f l y as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
towards
the
critics.
i ncluded r e m a r k s u p o n
particular
man,
critics
c r i t i c i s m of his work.
a page b l a n k for
of his k i n d l y atti t ud e
In each i n s t a l l m e n t
the
the r e a d e r ' s o wn
e p i so d e of U n c l e
t h e r e a f t e r Sterne
in g eneral
and u p o n
the
In the sixth b o o k he
left
sk et c h of the W i d o w Wad-
and exclaimed:
Thrice h a p p y book] t h o u wilt have one page, at least, w i t h i n
thy covers, w h i c h M A L I C E w i l l not bl a c k e n , and w h i c h I G N O R ­
ANCE cannot m i s r e p r e s e n t . ^
1. Le t te r No. 64, to M a r y M a c a r t n e y , June, 1760, p. 118.
2. L et t e r No. 70, to S t e p h e n Croft, Dec. 25, 1760, p. 126.
3. 2..S.. II, 11 (iii, 4).
A r e f e r e n c e to the w a y the c rit­
ics s t o r m e d and r a g e d at h i m "as some of y o u did last
M ay , " m a k e s it clear that he is r e f e r r i n g to the r e v i e w
of his Sermons in the M o n t h l y R e v i e w for May, 1760.
4. £.S. Ill, 228 (vi, 38).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
133.
The p o s i t i o n of the
i n t e r j e c t o r y "Out
with
it.'" in the t e a r ­
ing of his p an t s at L y o n s was r e f e r r e d to the r eviewers of
1
his br e e c h e s , and his rema r ks , r e m o v e d from the curls of hie
c h a i s e - v a m p e r 1s wife, when p u b l i s h e d ,
2
s ti l l. "
C l e a n writing, he p r e t e n d e d
ent
upon
c l e a n d r e s a ; yet
clean
shirt
cis'd,
and
m e , for
months
every
he
c on f ou nd e d,
what
I wrote
c h ap t e r
w o u l d take
the
spirit
Sterne
But
"was m o r e abus'd,
cursed,
hands
criti­
shaken at
devil,
4
provided
some " d a m n ' d
it there.
of
w h il e
task of r evision;
6
c an too."
in a m o n t h d u r i n g w h ic h he w ore a
to the
maintained
t h r o u g h o u t Tri atram
i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h he
"violations
replied,
is d e p e n d ­
one month, than in all the o t h e r
3
together."
His final thrust was to
ly e n o u g h to W a r b u r t o n .
him to b e w a r e
IX,
twisted
in that
Altogether Sterne
Shandy
in B o o k
a n d ha d m or e m y s t i c
of that y e a r put
send a whole
critic"
day,
“will be worse
The Bishop
of G l o u c e s t e r ha d a d v i s e d
5
of d e c e n c y an d good manners," but
seemingly consenting
"Laugh,
th o u g h S t e r n e
asserted r es ol ut e­
my lord,
continued
I will,
to the d ifficult
and as loud as
to l a u g h and to poke
1. S.-S.- IV, 86 (vii , 32) .
2.
IV, 98 (vii , 38) .
3. i.S,. IV, 253 (ix, 13) .
4. £ . IV, 290 (ix, 26).
5. L e t t e r No. 62, W a r b u r t o n to Sterne, J u n e 15, 1760, p.
6. L e t t e r No. 63, to W a r b u r t o n , June 19, 1760, p. 115.
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I
fun
113.
134.
at the r e vi e we r s,
t he r e
is "beneath the h u m o r o u s
S ha n dy a note
of p e t u l a n c e ,
The e x i s t e n c e
of this
For one
thing,
attitude
of e x a s p e r a t i o n w i t h the
irritation
as C u r t i s h a s
is borne
indicated,
out
in
critics.
by his letters.
he was d i s p l e a s e d
that his c o n t e m p o r a r i e s r e f u s e d to c o n si d er T r l a t r a m a serious
1
work.
The s e r m o n "The A b u s e s of Co n sc i e n c e Consid er e d" was
r e p r i n t e d in the
fourth volume
an a d v e r t i s e m e n t
stating
that
the b o d y of a iporal work,
it h a d "alre a dy
m or e
T r i s t r a m he ha d w r i t t e n to the
ly,
that his was
"a c a r e l e s s
g o o d - h u m o u r e d S h a n d e a n book,
of his S e r m o n s p r e f i x e d with
a p p e a r e d in
2
read than u n de r s t o o d . "
In
same
effect,
though humorous­
k i n d of a civil,
nonsensical,
w h ic h will do all your h ea r t s
goo d --3
And all your h e a d s
A 8 time
went
on,
too ,— provided you understand
the c o n v i c t i o n g r e w u p o n S t e r n e
work was m i s u n d e r s t o o d
and
that he h ad b e e n
it."
that his
w r o n g l y abused.
*n Tri s tram S h a n d y . the h a n d l e is taken w h i c h suits their
[i.e. the r e a d e r s ' ] p a s s i o n s , their i g no ra n ce or s e n s i b i l ­
ity.
T h e re is so l i t t l e t ru e f e e l i n g in the h e r d of the
w o r I d . that I w i sh I could h a v e got an act of pa r li ament,
when the b ooks f i rs t a pp e a r ' d , "that none but wise men
should l o o k into them."
It is too m u ch to w ri te books and
find heads to u n d e r s t a n d them.
The world, however, seems
to come into a b e t t e r t e m p e r about them, the p e o p l e of
genius h ere being, to a man, on its side, an d the r e c e p ­
tion it has met w i t h in France, Italy, a n d Germany, hath
1. L e t t e r No. 142, to E a r l of E f fi n gh am ,
247 and 248, n.3.
2. S e r m o n s . No. 27, X, 97.
3. T.S.. Ill, 17 0- 7 1 (vi, 17).
May 29,
1765,
pp.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
e n g a g' d one part of the w o r l d to give it a sec on d reading,
and the o th e r part of it, in order to be on the strongest
side, hav e at l e n g t h a g r e e d to speak well of it t o o . 1
This
is his
final w o r d upon T r i s t r a m .
in si s t e n c e u p o n the m o r a l i t y of the wor k has
the n a t u r e
of an a f t e r t h o u g h t ,
that he w i s h e d
bu t
the w o r l d to h o l d
We must
remember
this
s o m e t h i n g of
it i l l u s t r a t e s the opi n io n
of him.
Sent 1m e n t a l J o u r n e y , he m a d e h i s desire
b at i o n of the p u b l i c mo r e
P e r h ap s
While
c o mp o s i n g the
for the moral a p p r o ­
clear.
that
when Sterne
came
to writ e the
Sent imen t al J o u r n e y . he was
a sick man.
H i s nat ur al
b i l i t y was
ev e r - p r e s e n t
s h a d o w of death.
i n c r e a s e d by t h e
A l t h o u g h he h a d
sported over
them,
serious dou b ts
man who
suffered
as
is aware
may l o o k b a c k
he must
to
of the fact
ac co m pl i s h m e n t s .
hopes
upon
w h i c h will
that his
life
what
of his
consider
improve
this
in the eyes
of a s e n t i m e n t a l
229,
to Dr.
of his
of fame,
he
t h i n k of him.
to d ev o t e
of the world.
nature.
A
lon g to live
degree
opinion.
f i l l e d wit h
frame.
the value
p o s t e r i t y will
to h i m he may wish
entertained
frail
that h e has not
a t t a i n e d any
g o o d - n a t u r e d b o o k of t r a v e l s
1. L e t t e r No.
time ha v e
n e w w o r k w o u l d be his finest,
would r e d e e m h i m
s ervations
this
a nd
If he h a s
W h a t e v e r time r e m a i n s
while tasks
by
illnesses b e f o r e and ha d
the d u r a b i l i t y
over his
may then r e f l e c t
severe
sensi­
to w o r t h ­
So Sterne had
a n d that
it
He would write a
i nc i de n ts and o b ­
Nothing
John E u s t a c e , Feb.
like
9,
it ha d ever
1768,
p.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
411.
appeared, before.
Purthernore
i m p ro v e
the h e a r t
the
tone
of the book: w o u l d be
such as
to
of the reader.
Thu s he w o ul d
satisfy
the d e m a n d
for n o v e l t y
and
During
composition
of the S ent i me ntal
for m o r a l i t y at the
same
t ime .
Sterne
was
the
in a p e c u l i a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l
in love w i t h
the
pany,
Elizabeth
a Mrs.
wife
Eli za of his book.
of an o f f i c i a l
Draper,
T he
story
married parson
of f i f t y - f o u r
t w e n t y - t w o has
oft en b e e n
r id i c u l o u s
tunity,
one.
as m u c h
philandering
and
was so far as
was
called sincere.
W h e n he met
ly man.
the m a n y
Despite
the
exception
of Mrs.
in m a n y way s
associations
it is a
Mrs.
could.
as it almost
but
Draper,
so as
This
certainly
it can h a r d l y be
S t e r n e was a l o n e ­
that his
1767,
with w o m e n
as he
concer n ed ,
James,
fame as a w r i t e r
he h a d no one,
in w h o m he
could
w i t h the
confide.
His w i fe ' s
decision
d esertion,
a n d his b e l o v e d L y d i a r e m a i n e d w i t h her mother.
He was
Draper,
spirit.
to r e m a i n
sickly,
i n c l i n a t i o n or the o p p o r ­
friends
had p r o c u r e d h i m by the y e a r
p o ss i bl e
and
c a l l e d innocent,
continence
i m m o r t a l i z e d as the
the m e d i o c r e y o u n g lady of
emotional pleasure
can b e
India C o m ­
of the d e v o t i o n of th e
S t e rn e h a d m a n a g e d his
to extra c t
He ha d f a l l e n
of the East
w h o m he
told,
W h e n he h a d
state.
J ourne v
a b ro a d a m o u n t e d p r a c t i c a l l y
s i c k a nd n e e d e d comfort.
and
He r
in h e r he
case
was
At
to
the J a m es e s he mot Mrs.
saw,
or f a n c i e d he
that
of a frail,
saw,
a sympathetic
sensitive young woman
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
who must
off,
l eave
her
c h i l d r e n a nd f r i e n d s
u n h e a l t h y l a n d and
a husband whom
S t e r n e 1s was
that of a l o n e l y
with w hom
share his
to
the a t t e n t i o n s
of
much e n c o u r a g e m e n t .
into
At
a foolish passion.
in early April,
1767,
in w h i c h e ac h was
ly the e m o t i o n s
Sterne's
account,
emotional
of August,
the
tone,
and m o o d of
the author r e g a r d e d Mrs.
B efore
da i ly h a p p e n i n g s
a great
she depa rt ed ,
deal
of diaries
and e s p e c i a l ­
A part of
to Eli z a . survives,
c o n c e r n i n g Sterne's
to the b e g i n n i n g
and c h i l d r e t u r n e d to
this J o u r n a l
h is t or y l y i n g b e h i n d a n d thus
developed
an e x c ha ng e
the m i d d l e of A p r i l
whe,n_his w i fe
f l a t t e r e d by
she f i n a l l y s a i l e d for India
n o w c a l l e d T he J o u r n a l
state f r o m
love.
gave him too
d u r i n g t h e i r se p ar a ti on .
A c c o r d i n g to C r os s
style,
She was
attachment
he h a d a r r a n g e d
and from it we may l e a r n
to a far-
s e e k i n g some one
and per h ap s
any rate his
to r e c o r d
felt
emotion.
gen i us
When
she did not
sentimentalist
pent-up
a man of
and r e t u r n
is
“the
Coxwold.
e m ot i on a l
e x p l a i n i n g in a m e a s u r e
the
the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y . of w h i c h
D r a p e r as
Sterne wrote
the m ain i n s p i r a t i o n . " ^
to her:
Were your h u s b a n d in E n g l a n d , I w o u l d f r e e l y give hi m five
h u n d r e d p o u n d s (if m o n e y c o u l d p u r c h a s e the a c q u i s i t i o n )
to let y o u o n l y sit by me two h ou rs in a day, w h i l e I wrote
my S e n t i m e n t a l Jour n ey .
I am sure the w o r k w o u l d sell so
much the b e t t e r for it, that I s h o u l d be r e - i m b u r s e d the
sum more than seven t imes t o l d . ^
L i f e . p. 440.
2. L et t e r No. 189,
M a r c h 1767,
p.
313.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
138 .
l at e r
And.
in the J ournal
t
June 3 d — Cannot w r i t e my T ravels, or give one half hours close
a t t e n t i o n to them, u p o n Thy Acct my de a re s t f r i e n d — Yet write
I must, &
what to do w it h You, whilst I w r i t e — I declare, I
k n o w
n o t — — I want to have y o u ever b ef o r e my I m a g i n a t i o n ——&
cannot keep y o u out of my he ar t or h e a d . 1
This
journal
Its v al u e
is a d r e a r y
is to
the
a ffair
student
somet h in g of S t e r n e ' s
of Sterne
e motional
c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e S e n t i m e n t a l
The
first
s cratches
poorly written.
ful feelings"
It
was
piece
in the J ournal he
artistic
let
2.
the J ournal
overflow
Journey
is
of p o w e r ­
to the
con­
o r d i n a r i l y a very careful
himself
fa n cy
Ste rn e
was
go w i t ho u t
It
was
to i m a g i n e
is fair
the r e a l i t i e s
any
attempt to e x ­
to say that when
in a sort
of a d ream world.
situations
and to a n t i c i p a t e
the h a p p i n e s s w h i c h c o u l d n e v e r be his.
escaped
the blobs and
a n d his p r o t e s t a t i o n s
discipline.
c o m m u n i n g w i th El i za ,
He a l l o w e d his
is the great
t r e a t e d as an a r t i s t i c
2
w o r k e d over a n d r e v i s e d and polished, but
s h o u l d be,
ercise
Despite
at revisi o n,
St e rn e was
Th e Sent i m e n t a l
of
c om p a r i n g the
Journey
the " s p o n t a n e o u s
in Sterne,
trary n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ,
writer.
one u p o n
quality.
indicating attempts
to k n o w
Journey.
the Sent imental
in the a r t i s t i c
who w ishes
state d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d
t h i n g to impress
J.av-.ra.al ip. E l i z a w i t h
difference
if r e a d as a work of art.
of l o n e li n es s ,
L e t t e r s . "The J o u r n a l to E l i z a ,"
Cf. Cross, Li f e . pp. 471-76.
By
this means he
illness,
and m a r i ta l
p. 350.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
discontent.
In the J ournal he
full his u n h e a l t h y
seems
sentimentality,
so that
he was
able to s u b l i m a t e
vels.
Thus p u r i f i e d of m aw k i s h n e s s ,
there are done
without
so as
the autho r 's
the gentl e r
in the
to the
intervals
to extract
the
se ntimental
the most
level
e m o ti o n possi b le
of art.
lay a p s y c h o l o g i c a l
episodes
But
behind the
sta te which a b e t t e d
i n t e n t i o n of w r i t i n g a m or a l w o r k appea l in g to
emotions.
The re
is,
moreover,
sidered his m a n n e r
mood was
indulged
the t e n d e n c y and to write his t r a ­
d e s c e n d i n g b e l o w a hi g h
Se n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y
to h a v e
such as
ample
of w r i t i n g
evidence
that Sterne c o n ­
of the i n s t r u c t i v e
to cau s e him to wi sh
sort.
His
to edi f y the world.
I shall live this y e a r at least, I ho p e [he wrote the e m a n c i ­
pa t e d negro Ignat iu s S a n c h o j , be it but to give the world,
before I quit it, as go o d i m p r e s s i o n s of me, as y o u have,
Sancho.
I w o u l d onl y c o v en a nt for just so m u c h h e a l t h and
spirits, as are s u f f i c i e n t to car ry my pen thro' the tas k I
have set it this s u m m e r . - - B u t I am a r e s i g n ' d being, Sancho,
and take h e a l t h a n d s i c k n e s s as I do light and darkness, or
the v i c i s s i t u d e s of s e a s o n s — that is, just as it plea se s God
to send then — and a c c o m m o d a t e m y s e l f to t h e i r p e r i o d i c a l r e ­
turns, as well as I c a n — only t a k i n g care, w h a t e v e r b e f a l l s
me in this silly w o r l d — -not to lose my t e m p e r at it.
His w o r k went
on slowly,
however,
for
in early J u l y he told
the Jameses:
I am now b e g i n n i n g to b e t r u l y b u s y at my S e n t i m e n t a l J o n r —
J o u r n e y —— the p a i n s a n d s o r r ow s of this life h a v i n g r e t a r d e d
its p r o g r e s s - - b u t I shall make ug my lee-way, and overtake
every body in a ver y short time.
1. L e t t e r No,
2. L e t t e r No.
203,
204,
Ju n e 30, 1767, p. 370.
J u l y 6, 1767, p, 375.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
140 .
Ana so he l a b o r e d on,
es se n t i a l
goodness
anxious
to con vi nc e
the world
of the
of his heart:
...My S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y will, 1 dare say, co n v i n c e y o u that
my f e e l i n g s are from the h e a r t and that that h eart is not the
worst of molds.
E ve n more
expli c it
in a l et t e r
to Mrs.
con ce rning his
in t e n t i o n
is his
postscript
James:
My S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y w ill p l e a s e Mrs J[ames3, and My L y d i a - I can a n s w e r for t h o s e two.
It is a subject w hich works well,
and suits the frame of m i n d I h a v e been in for some time
pas t- - I told y o u my d e s i g n in it was to teach us to love the
world a n d our f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s b e t t e r than we do — so it runs
most u p o n those g e n t l e r p a s s i o n s and affections, w h i c h aid so
much in it.
Adieu, and m a y y o u and my w o r t h y fr ie n d Mr
J[ames] continue e x a m p l e s of the doct r in e I t e a c h . 2
T hat
than
in hi s l e t te r s
Griffith,
hold
Sterne
expressed
is b o r n e
same doctrine
out by the
w h o m S t e r n e h a d met
of B i s h o p Browne.
Griffith,
this
During
at
his
testim o ny
Scarborough
stay there,
elsewhere
of R i c h a r d
in th e h o u s e ­
a c c o r d i n g to
S t er ne
. . . c o m m u n i c a t e d a m a n u s c r i p t to us, that he means soon to
publish.
It is s t i l e d a S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y t h r o u g h E u r o p e,
by Yoric.
It has all the H u m o u r and A d d r e s s of the b est
P arts of T r is t ra m, a n d ie q u it e free from the G r o s s n e s s of
the worst.
T h e r e is but about H a l f a Volume wrote of it
yet.
He p r o m i s e s to spin the i d e a t h r o u g h several Volumes,
in the same c haste Way, a n d c a l l s it his W o r k Qf R e d e m n t i o n :
for he hae but l i t t l e S u p e r s t i t i o n to a p p r o p r i a t e d E x p r e s ­
sions. 3
1. L e t t e r No. 214, to S ir (?) W i l l i a m Stanhope, Sept. 27,
1765, p. 395.
2. L e t t e r No. 218, Nov. 1767, pp. 400-01.
3. Q u o t e d by Miss J.M.S. T o m p k i n s , "Triglyph and T r i s t r a m , "
T L S . July 11, 1929, p. 448, f r o m the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e of
G r i f f i t h and his W i fe e n t i t l e d A S e r i e s
frgflUlag Let.teXfi..
b e t w e e n H e n r y and F r a n c e s . 1786, 6 vols. , V, 86.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
141.
The
new book Sterne
and clean.
wrote
considered,
If e v e r he
got
as did G ri f f i t h ,
the b o o k . f r o m
both witty
the p r i n t e r ,
he
Sir George Macartney,
. . . I shall h a v e the h o n o u r of p r e s e n t i n g to y o u a c o u p l e
as. cle.an b r a t s as e v e r ch a s t e b r a i n conce iv 'd - - t h e y are
f r o l i c k s o m e too m a t s c e l s n 1e n m e e h e . .-1
of
Even
work,
t h o u g h he m i g h t
he r e a l i z e d
new book,
that
c l a i m Tris tram S h a n d y
it w o u l d
however,
was
n e v e r be
sure
to b e
The w o m e n w i l l r e a d t h i s b o o k
in the b e d - c h a m b e r . 2
He
felt
purpose
that he h a d a c h i e v e d
of b e c o m i n g a m o r a l
F r o m all
Journey
came
to
of w r i t i n g his
shown
this
take
travels
run of t r a v e l
what
t he s e
other
pleasurable
Sterne
ity,
was
f ou nd one
a n d his
one
of the m a r k s
s e e k i n g out
223,
230,
Sterne had had
he
greatest
of h i s
and
Having
occurred
to him
of d oing
f a i l e d to d o - - o f w r i t i n g
a
e n j o y e d h i m s e l f abroad.
pleasures
gen i us .
in his
sensibil­
To
travel,
episodes
therefore,
i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h a p p e a l e d to
D ec. 3, 1767,
to L.S. E sq . ,
idea
was d e t e r m i n e d to m a k e his
scheme
had
the
sc o rn fo r the
in the w r i t i n g of s e n t i m e n t a l
experiences
1. L e t t e r No.
2. L e t t e r No.
The
the Sent iment al
f i r s t P a r i s i a n visit.
s h o w i n g h o w he
ability
see h o w
it did.
writers,
of h i s
and Tristram
writer.
of T r 1 stram his
travellers
account
accepted.
in the p a r l ou r,
since his
an o r i g i n a l p e r f o r m a n c e .
The
in the S ent iment al J o u r n e y his
f or m
in the s e v e n t h b o o k
general
c o n s i d e r e d as such.
e v i d e n c e we may
the
to be a m o r a l
p. 405.
(?) Feb.
17,
1768,
p.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the
412.
heart,
w o u l d be b o t h n o v e l
cessfully
If the
pose,
in this
writings
so did
critics
The
fitted
idea
held
of b e i n g
l o v e - a f f a i r put
me n t a l
fash i on .
in a be y a n c e ,
he ig h te ne d by
and S harp
indecorums
He
of T r l s t r a m .
o f his
work.
pur­
The
t he y
sc he m e
seemed
for
to want?
something d i f ­
to gain him th e r e p u t a t i o n w h i c h
a moral
writer.
h i m in the m o o d
therefore
and his
suc­
and p r a i s e d his s e n s i b i l i t y .
the p u b l i c what
suited
experimented
s t r e n g t h e n e d his
criticism
in w e l l w i t h his
a n d also was
he desir e d,
his
give
He
in the n i n t h b o o k
contemporary
d e c r i e d his
then,
ferent
direction
of S m o l l e t t
the
Why not,
a n d apropos.
to w r i t e
c o m b i n e d his
i n he r en t
circumstance,
B o t h his
in the
travel
sensibility,
to form a n o v e l
illness
and
senti­
data,
long
now
piece
of l i t e r a r y
artistry.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IV
THE
SENTIMENTAL
JQUENEY
CONSIDERED
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A.
Criticism
teen
to
a g re a t
see
the
THE NEW T HEORY
of the
deal— has
w o r k as
Sent i ment al J o u r n e y - - a n d
been
left
a whole.
Too
incomplete
often the
by
ther e has
the f a i l u r e
c r it ic s h a v e
con­
sidered
it as the a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n of a s e n t i m e n t a l "im1
p r e s s i o n i s t " who h a s c o m p i l e d for the d e l e c t a t i o n of his
2
r e a d e r s a b e a u t i f u l " s e r i e s of v i g n e t t e s . "
Su c h an a t t i t u d e
results
in a n e g l e c t
France.
On
the
of the b a c k g r o u n d of a c tu a l
o t h e r hand,
the w r i t e r s
travel
on t r a ve l
literature
have t a k e n up the b o o k g i n g e r l y , as if not c e r t a i n of
3
genre.
T h e y t o u c h u p o n the b o o k only in spots, wher e
Sterne's
this
the
facts
manner
close
literary
th e
connection
antecedents
but
thesis
they n e g l e c t
These
in part,
fit
other
woefully
thorough und ers tandin g
are t r y i n g
the b a c k g r o u n d o f
of the
estimates
they
Sentimental
in
its
to prove.
sensibility
Journey with
In
and
its
than trav el books.
of the
Sent iment al J o u r n e y
incomplete.
of the b o o k
The proper
is to
tre at
are true
method
for
a
it b o t h as
1. This t e r m is a p p l i e d to S t e r n e by S i c h e l , S t e r n e . & § .t/hdy.,
L o n d o n 1910, p. 173; a n d by Cross, W o r k s . int. to the
S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y . V, xxiii.
2. S i d n e y Lee, " S t e r n e , " D.ii.JB* LIV, 219.
3. "The Sen t iment al J o u r n e y is no o r d i n a r y b o o k of travel,
in that it c o n t a i n s no a c c o u n t of m a n n e r s and customs,
or d e s c r i p t i o n s of p l a c e s a n d a n t i q u i t i e s ; it is r a t h e r
a s e r i e s of i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c p i c t u r e s on a b a c k g r o u n d of
h u m o u r a n d s e n t i m e n t , f a n t a s t i c in f o r m a n d spirit, yet
r o o t e d in l i f e an d fact."
M a x w e l l , E n g l i sh Tjl&iSAi-fiXJi.
in F r a n c e 16 9 8 - 1 8 1 5 . L o n d o n , 1932, p. 102.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
144.
literature
sensibility
that
to
the
together
idea,
and of s e n s i b i l i t y .
is so b o u n d up w i t h
separate
ing b o t h
a new
of t r a v e l
two
is
Sterne's
The
element
sch e me
impracticable.
of t r a v e l
O n l y by
can we d e m o n s t r a t e h o w Sterne,
transformed
commonplace
material
of
consider­
i n s p i r e d by
into s o m e t h i n g
origi n a l .
The
b ooks
caution
is p a r t i a l l y
J o u r n e y by
more r e c a l l
a ccount
mingling
the
of his
fact
that
in the
the b o o k
S t e r n e w as
travels
and
wh o ha v e w r i t t e n u po n t r a v e l
justified
fact
that
of t h o s e
not
a ft e r
fict i on .
case of the S e n t i m e n t a l
is u n u su a l.
once
writing a straightforward
the manner
Yet
Let us
in some
of his
cases
time but
was
the t e n d e n c y
to
consider
the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y as a u t o b i o g r a p h y has b e e n
1
irresistible.
T h e p r o b l e m of a u t o b i o g r a p h y in the S e n t i m e n ­
tal J o u r n e y
is an
interesting
one,
but
difficult,
for
it
is
E v e n C r o s s go e s too far in a c c e p t i n g d e t a i l s from the S e n ­
t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y as b i o g r a p h i c a l truths.
B u t o th e r w r i ­
ters h a v e gone to the e x t r e m e .
John Poole, a n i ne teenth
c e n t u r y i d o l a t e r of S t e r n e who t r i e d to r e t r a c e e x a c t l y
his f o o t s t e p s t h r o u g h P r a n c e , wrote: "I am t h o r o u g h l y p e r ­
s u a d e d that M a d a m e
( t h o u g h who she was seems h o p e l e s s
n o w to i n q u i r e ) , was a r e a l p e r s o n a g e ; that e v e r y ini ti a l
in the 'Jour n ey * r e f e r s to a r e a l c h a r a c t e r w h o m S t e r n e
h a d met; a n d that e v e r y i n c i d e n t he r e l a t e s is f o u n d e d on
fact."
T h e L o n d o n M a g a z i n e a n d Rev.i.e.w I n.s., J a n. - Ap r .
1825, 39.
A m o r e r a t i o n a l v i e w is t a ke n b y B a b ea u :
Si
1 1on p eu t s i g n a l e r dans le V o y a g e sent i m e n t a l de S t e r n e
une
m e p art de f
fi
i c t i o n , on p e u t d i
ir
re
e aussi que, dans
aans see
■ifferents v o y a g e s en P r a n c e cet ecrivain, p l e i n d ' h u m o u r
d:
eit
* de f i n e s s e , a t r a c e p l u s d ' un e e s q u i s s e d 'a p r e s ^ n a t u r e ,
it que les c a r a c t e r e s q uu'1i l met en scene ont ete r e e l l e —
et
ment o b s e r v e s par lui."
V o v a e e u r s en JlnaiLSLS.* P» 211.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
145.
many
times
fact
ings
impossible
and w h i c h
of two
is fiction.
journeys
suit his
purpose.
ters
o t h er
and
re a l l y
has w r i t t e n
actual
in the
some w e r e
of the
Often,
themes
but
he
them
in
can d i s c o v e r
from
let­
it
is
an d what
instructive
and opinions
Sterne
to c o m ­
with what
The
in d i f f e r e n t
of c o m p o s i t i o n ,
th e re
ar e
from the
he
were
imagin­
It is s u r p r i s i n g h o w m a n y
To
is
o f te n d i f f i c u l t ,
borrower.
Yet a l a rg e part
J o u r n e y came not
various
repetitions
context,
t h r o w light
and w il l b e p o i n t e d
evidences
that
old S h a n d e a n
or
out
from
of p h r a s e s
on S t e r n e ' s
in t h e i r
Sterne never
freed him­
te c hn i q u e .
resulting affectation
of c a r e l e s s n e s s ,
S te r n e h a d a s t u d i e d p l a n - - a w e l l - d e f i n e d
t h e o r y of t r a v e l
and an
plan
explicit
tors h a v e
plains
why
failed
the
"observations"
the S e n t i m e n t a l
o f te n
Despite
to
us e o f them u n c o n s c i o u s l y ,
was a g r e a t
and ideas,
entirely
t hem
over d e l i b e r a t e l y ,
from h i m s e l f .
self
is
the h a p p e n ­
e m p l o y e d h a d b e e n u s e d before.
S t e r n e m ad e
we know,
Also
we
incidents
altering
really happened,
unoriginal.
others but
place.
howev er ,
the
combining
and he was
of S t e r n e ' s
w h i c h he
of his b o r r o w i n g s
method
one.
of
Journey.
quite
took
Sterne,
S t e r n e was
experiences
some
determine whether
whether
w h ic h
Whenever possible,
Although
ary,
into
s o u r c e s what
thought.
pare S t e r n e ' s
to a s c e r t a i n
motive
for w r i t i n g .
to take
into
This
full a c c o un t ,
the S ent imental J o u r n e y
the c o m m e n t a ­
although
it
is a t r a v e l b o o k w i t h
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ex­
a
146.
d i f f er e nc e .
Given Sterne's
state
p o s i t i o n and his
a v o w e d pur p os e ,
travel
intentionally
d a t a w er e
nary
themes
of s e n s i b i l i t y
ever
the o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t e d
thoroughgoing
melange
sensibility
of fact
Let us
ture.
fancy,
turn
first
ne n e e d not
a s ta t em e nt
to
and h i s
recur
same
Senti m en t al J o u r n e y .
idea
at
the time
we can see w h y
t r a n s f o r m e d and
deliberately
itself.
commonplace
Sterne's
why the
fi tt e d
to
of c o m ­
the u s u a l
In fact,
g i ve s u n i t y
of the
in w h e r ­
Sterne's
the
s trange
and the
explicit
ordi­
original.
statements
con­
comments upon
to h i s
of h i s p u r p o s e
has w r i t t e n the
Bissy,
a l o ne
and
c e rn i n g his p u r p o s e
were
of m ind
letter
other travel litera1
to Mrs. J ames to seek
in j o u r n e y i n g
in a l m o s t
as h e does,
the same
In d e s c r i b i n g h i s
tour
words
for he
in the
to the Count
de
he rem ar k s:
'Tis a quiet j o u r n e y of the h e a r t in p u r s u i t of NA T U H E and
those a f f e c t i o n s w h i c h a r i se out of her, w h i c h make us love
each o t h e r - - a n d the world, b e t t e r t h a n we d o . ^
This
is the d o c t r i n e
follows
well,
through
and near
the
the
of the
book.
sentimental
That
b e g i n n i n g he
in a P r e f a c e h o w h i s
it was
traveller which Sterne
o ri g i n a l ,
t oo k o c c a s i o n
work d i f f e r e d from
those
he k n e w
full
to d e m o n s t r a t e
of other
travel­
lers.
The position
of this p r e f a c e
w i t h i n the w o r k
is rem-
1. See above. Ch. Ill, p. 140.
2. V, 281.
Cf. c o n c l u s i o n to the story of the d ead ass:
" S h a m e on the w o r l d ' . . . D i d we l o v e e a c h other, as this
poor soul b u t l o v e d h i s a s s — — 't w o u l d be s o m e t h i n g . " p.
142.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
i n i s ce n t
of the A u t h o r ' s
subst a nc e ,
h o w e v er ,
for S t e r n e
h ere
himself
the
serves
In r e a l i t y
and travelling.
in the
way
restrains
"with
sometimes
from
want
from the
an
us
b e y o n d her
of l a n g u a g e s ,
difference
lie u n d e r
so m a n y
our
power
lim i ts ,
impediments
own sphere,
as
It will a l w a y s
has,
follow
he
ob­
travel.
to be
but
't is
sure,
so o r d e r e d
an d d e p e n d e n c i e s ,
customs,
amounts
and
that
we
our s e n s a t i o n
to a total
f r o m hence,
that,
and habi t s,
in c o m m u n i c a t i n g
often
es­
of s p r e a d i n g our h a p p i ­
connections,
in e d u c a t i o n s ,
Son,
of s u c c e s s f u l
f ro m w a n d e r i n g ,
imperfect
an
Assuming temporarily
the d i f f i c u l t i e s
who
Its
and p la c e s
it c o n s t i t u t e s
on the P r o d i g a l
ness
bility.
travellers
sermon
e n d o w e d us
out of
among
Shandy.
of an i n t r o d u c t i o n
of the
Nature,
tone
to T r i s t r a m
in the n a t u r e
c ategory.
travellers
serious
is m o r e
differentiates
in a n e w
say u p o n
Preface
impossi­
the b a l a n c e
of s e n t i m e n t a l c o m m e r c e is a l w a y s a g a i n s t the e x p a t r i a t e d
2
adventurer."
T h e ideas h e r e e x p r e s s e d on t ravel ar e s e e m ­
ingly
in a c c o r d w i t h
difference
phrases
is to be
f ou n d
as " s p r e a d i n g
sensations,"
are
t h os e
in the
in the u s e
our h a p p i n e s s , "
an d " s e n t i m e n t a l
employed with
the
sermon,
theory
in the P r e f a c e
of such
" c o m m u n i c a t i n g our
commerce."
of
but a s i g n i f i c a n t
Such expressions
sentimental
travel
in mind.
1. T..S,. II, 6 1 - 7 8 (iii, 20).
2. V,
3 1 — 32.
T h e com me nt w h i c h f o l l o w s ec ho e s a s i m i l a r
p a s s a g e in the sermon, b e g i n n i n g " C o n v e r s a t i o n is a t r a f ­
fic..." Q u o t e d above, Ch. Ill, p. 105.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
To
his P r e f a c e
causes
and
var io u s
able
idle
off his
new theory
investigates
the r e s u l t i n g
heads
By p o i n t i n g
ness,
set
form part
the
from the
causes
rest,
St e r n e
of t r a v e l l i n g .
classification
in
These
of t r a v e l l e r s
under
of a s c h e m e b o t h a m u s i n g and origi n al .
out the r e a s o n s
c u r io si t y,
for m o s t m e n ’s j o u r n e y i n g - - s i c k 1
e d u c a t i o n , c h e a p living, e t c . - - h e is
to s h o w h o w he b e l o n g s
in a class by himself.
A nd last of all (if y o u p l ea s e ) The S e n t i m e n t a l T r a v e l ler ( m e a n i n g t h e r e b y m y s e l f ) , who h a v e travell'd, and of
w h ic h I a m now s i t t i n g down to give an a c c o u n t - - a s m u c h
out of N e c e s s i t y , a n d the be so in de Vo
as any one in
the class.
I am well aware, at the same time, as b o t h my tr a ve l s and
o b s e r v a t i o n s will b e a l t o g e t h e r of a d i f f e r e n t cast f r o m any
of my f o r e - r u n n e r s ; that I m i g h t h a v e i n s i s t e d u p o n a w h o l e
nitch e n t i r e l y to m y s e l f - - b u t I s h o u l d b r e a k in u p o n the
c o nf i ne s of a V ain T r a v e l l e r , in w i s h i n g to draw a t t e n t i o n
t o w a r d s me, till I h a v e some b e t t e r g r o u n d s for it, t h a n the
mere N o v e l t y of my V e h i c l e .^
M i l l a r d p r i d e d h i m s e l f on h a v i n g spent only 150 p o u n d s in
Id m o n t h s in F r a n c e.
T h e frentleman1s & u i d e . p. 3.
Sterne,
who n e v e r h a d too m u c h m o n e y , felt the n e c e s s i t y to save
w h i l e abroad.
" W h e n we are got to T o u l o u s e [he w r o t e his
wife}, we must b e g i n to t u r n the penny, and we may, (if
y o u d o n ’t game much) live very c h e a p . ” l e t t e r No. 93,
J un e 7, 1762, p. 172.
H e l a t e r r e j o i c e d at the l ow cost
of l i v i n g at T o u l o u s e .
Cf. L e t t e r No. 99, to Foley, Aug.
14, 1762, p. 183; L e t t e r No. 1 0 0 , to H a l l - S t e v e n s o n , Oct.
19, 1762, p. 187; L e t t e r No. 113, to L o r d F a u c o n b e r g ,
'Sept. 30, 1763, p. 201.
He was n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u a l l y
in f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s w h i l e in the s ou th of France, a c i r ­
c u m s t a n c e w h i c h m a y a c c o u n t for his r e m a r k h er e on the
f o l l y of the " S i m p l e T r a v e l l e r . "
V, 33-34.
Pp. 34-35.
H e a d ' s n o t e on this p a s s a g e in his e d i t i o n of
the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e v (The S c h o l a r t i s Press, Lon do n ,
1929, p. 226, n . 6) s hows c o n c l u s i v e l y by r e f e r e n c e to the
first e d i t i o n t h at S t e r n e m e an t " The T r a v e l l e r s of N e c e s ­
sity" to be the g e n e r a l h e a d u n d e r w h i c h the S e n t i m e n t a l
T r a v e l l e r was to b e i n c l u d e d .
T h e C ross text is h e r e in
error.
The p h r a s e " N o v e l t y
ax. V ehi cle" will be r e c o g ­
n i z e d as b e i n g r e p e a t e d f r o m the d e d i c a t i o n to his C h a r i t y
S e r mo n, q u o t e d a bove, Ch. Ill, p . 118.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
And. so S t e r n e
out his
new,
makes
intention
quite
out
explicit
s t a t e d in his
of the b e a t e n
Sterne
then
t r a ve ls b y a s s e r t i n g
continues
that,
ing the d e s i r e d k n o w l e d g e
ter
to r e m a i n
at home,
t ra v e l m a y be
to the r e a d e r t ha t he
l e t t e rs
1
track."
his
and
of w r i t i n g
discussion
s u c h are
has
"something
of the v a l u e s
the c h a n c e s
i m p r ov em e nt ,
against
one w o u l d
w h e r e p r a c t i c a l l y all
carried
of
gain­
do b e t ­
the b e n e f i t s
of
obtained:
- - A n d indeed, m u c h g r i e f of h e a r t has it oft a n d m a n y a time
cost me, when 1 h a v e o b s e r v e d h o w m a n y a foul s tep the i n ­
q u i s i t i v e T r a v e l l e r ha s m e a s u r e d to see sig h ts and l o o k into
d i s c o v e r i e s ; all which, as S a n c h o P a n c a s a i d to D o n Quixote,
they m i g h t h av e seen d r y s h o d at h o m e . 2
Here,
as
in the
negative
side,
he s t a t e s
officer
at
sermon
the p e r i l s
later,
the
on the P r o d i g a l
in wo r ds
Son,
of t r a v e l l i n g .
spoken
he
sets f o r t h the
The pos itive
to T o r i c k by the
side
old P r e n c h
theatre:
The a d v a n t a g e of travel, as it r e g a r d e d the s p a v o i r v i v r e ,
was by s e e i n g a g reat deal b o t h of m e n an d m a n n e r s ; it
taught us m u t u a l t o l e r a t i o n ; a n d m u t u a l t o l e r a t i o n , c o n ­
c l u d e d he, m a k i n g me a bow, ta u gh t us m u t u a l l o v e . 3
This
us,
attitude
although
of f o r b e a r a n c e ,
s p o k e n by the
Y o r i c k takes p a i n s
Prench
officer,
is h is
to
inform
own
"way
1. Q u o t e d above. Ch. Ill, P. 119.
2. V, 36-37.
S a n c h o ' s r e m a r k is to be f o u n d in Dpft .Qv-1 iS.fi1ft
II, iii, ch. 5.
T h e p h r a s e " d r y s h o d at h o m e " r e c a l l s his
c e n s u r e of A d d i s o n q u o t e d a b o v e (Ch. II,p.US)t " . . . t h e r e
is not a g a l l o p e r of us a l l who might not h a v e g on e on
a m b l i n g q u i e t l y in his o w n g r o u n d (in case he h a d any),
a n d h a v e w r o t e all he h a d to write, d r y s h o d , as well as
no t .
3. V, 216.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
150.
of t h i n k i n g ," o n l y b e t t e r
s omewhat
made
differently
in the
expressed.
the s t a t e m e n t
sermon.
Th e r e h e
manner
of the p h i l o s o p h e r s
Locke,
but
ly love.
here
the
Sterne
other--and
is
or r e p r o a c h .
" Natu r e, "
q uieter
ways
a n d to s e e k
affections
with the g e n t l e r
the
out
were
sex.
wish...to
spy
different
disguises
the
often
over
the r o u g h
m e n b r e a k out
t r a v e l l e r ha s
quieter
into
time
affections.
f o u n d by S t e r n e
of t he i r h e a r t s ,
of c u s t om s ,
as
do."
climates,
spots,
lamenta­
to p u r s u e
These
in a s s o c i a t i o n
As Y o r i c k t o l d the Count,
nakedness
such
to " ma k e us love e a c h
the t r a v e l l e r
The tolerant
theorists
the
toleration and b r o t h e r ­
t h a n we
of f r i c t i o n w h e n m o s t
of t r a v e l
s p e a k i n g mo r e a f t e r
is u p o n
better
sum up
of the p u r p o s e
educational
s h o w i n g us
Tolerance helps
tion
and
emphasis
the world,
the m o m e n t s
was
T h e s e wo r d s
he " c o u l d
and through
a n d r e li g i o n ,
the
find
out what
am
is g o o d in t h e m to f a s h i o n my own b y — and t h e r e f o r e
1
I come."
In t h e s e w o r d s h e g i v e s a sti ll d i f f e r e n t twist
to his
sober
declaration
of the p u r p o s e
in the
of t r a ve l as
s e r m o n o n the P r o d i g a l
being
"to l e a r n
the
So n
languages,
V, 280.
C o m p a r e this s e n t i m e n t a l e x p r e s s i o n w i t h the Shan*
d e a n a c c o u n t of M o m u s ' s glas s , t h r o u g h w h i c h one mig h t
v i e w the soul " s t a r k n a k ed . "
I, 1 1 9 - 2 1 (i, 23).
The e x ­
p r e s s i o n " n a k e d n e s s " etc. u s e d in the J o u r n e y d e r i v e s from
a bit of b i b l i c a l p h r a s e o l o g y w h i c h S t er n e has u s e d just
previously.
Y o r i c k says he h a s not "co m e to spy the n a k e d ­
ness of the land," to w h i c h the Count adds, "jLi
» I
dare say that of our w o m e n . "
The b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e is
Gen. 42:9: "Ye are spies; to see the n a k e d n e s s of the land
ye are come."
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the laws a nd c u s t o m s , and u n d e r s t a n d t h e g o v e r n m e n t 11• . .
1
etc.
Yo ri ck *s e n c o u n t e r s w i t h the f e m i n i n e h e a r t c o m p r i s e
a large
p a rt
of the
Un li x e
other
Ste rn e
explores
effect
of the
travellers,
pressly
Wear
that
the
who
adventures
individual
Sterne's
from other
of his J o u r n e y .
t a l k m u c h of "men and manners, H
man
e n c o u n t e r u p o n his
In fact,
distinction
sentimental
or w o m a n a n d r e c o r d s
own
feelings.
impressionable heart
observers.
Yorick's heart
The reader
figures
the b e g i n n i n g he w r i t e s:
the
largely
"I w r i t e not
is his
chief
is told e x ­
in the
tour.
to a p o l o g i z e
the w e a k n e s s e s
an
acc ou n t
st ri k es
four,
more
of m y h e a r t in this t o u r , - - b u t to give
2
of them."
A n d w h e n the t o wn c l o c k of Calais
for
r e m i n d i n g h i m that h e h a s b e e n
t h a n an hour,
he
in the
city but
little
o bs e r v e s :
What a l a r g e v o l u m e of a d v e n t u r e s m a y be g r a s p e d w i t h i n this
li tt l e span of life, by h i m who i n t e r e s t s his h ea r t in e very
thing, and who, h a v i n g eyes to see what t ime and c ha n c e are
p e r p e t u a l l y h o l d i n g out to h i m as he j o u r n e y e t h on h is way,
m isses n o t h i n g he c a n f a i r l y lay h i s h a n d s on.
B y this
to be
exclamation
e n j o y e d by
the
St e r n e
means
to s h o w h o w m u c h t h e r e
sensi ti ve heart
which keeps
itself
is
ever
1. S e r m o n No. 20, IX, 3 29 - 3 0 .
T h e r e is one p a r a l l e l i s m of
p h r as in g .
In the s e r m o n he writ e s: " . . . b y t a s t i n g p e r ­
p e t u a l l y the v a r i e t i e s of nature, to k n o w what js g o o d
and by o b s e r v i n g the a d d r e s s a n d arts of man, to c o n c e i v e
what is sine e r e .- - a n d by s e e i n g the d i f f e r e n c e of so many
v a r i o u s h u m o u r s a n d m a n n e r s , - — to l o o k into o u r s e l v e s and
f o rm our own." p. 330.
2. V, 49.
3. V, 97.
S t e r n e ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the d u r a t i o n of time is d e ­
r i v e d f ro m Loc k e.
See e s p e c i a l l y £.iL« U » 56 and n. (iii,
18) .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
open
to
impr es s ions
in 11an a B s a y u p o n h u m a n nature,"
not upon
things.
A b an o b s e r v e r S t e r n e
aware
of the
ment u p o n
his r e a s o n
small
thi n gs
the b a r b e r ' s
for m a k i n g
professes himself
which went
figure
on ab o ut
of s p e e c h le a ds
to be a c u t e l y
him.
H is
com­
him to state
it:
I th i nk I can see the prec ise a n d d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m ar k s of
nati o na l c h a r a c t e r s more i n t h es e n o n s e n s i c a l mi nut i a e .
than in the most i m p o rt an t m a t t e r s of state; where great
men of all n a t i o n s t a l k an d s t a l k so m u c h alike, that 1
would not give n i n e - p e n c e to c h u s e a m o n g s t t h e m . 1
Such a t h e o r y
trasts
of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g n a t i o n a l
con-
the us ual m e t h o d s of t r a v e l l e r s in m a k i n g
2
S t e r n e h a d a l r e a d y p r o t e s t e d a gainst
reflections."
greatly with
" n at i on a l
such a p r oc e d u r e ,
tive
characteristics
side
a n d as
in I r i s t r a m . he
is u su a l
gives
w h e re he
the
s h o w e d the nega-
affirmative
in the S ent i-
msfiAal J o u r n e y .
T hi s
Sterne
method
m ai n ta i n s ,
of c a r e f u l
w i l l be
observation
successful
of mlnut i a e .
anywhere,
even
in a dee
ert,
I pity the m a n who c a n t r a v e l f r o m D a n to B e e r s h e b a .
and
cry, 'T is all b a r r e n - - - a n d so it is, and so is all the
world to him, who w i l l not c u l t i v a t e the f ru i t s it offers.
I declare, sa i d 1, c l a p p i n g m y h a n d s c h e e r i l y t o g e t h e r , that
was I in a d e s e r t I w o u l d f i n d w h e r e w i t h in it to call
1. V, 174.
2. Cf. above, Ch. II, p p . 3 7 - 3 8 .
3. A b i b l i c a l phr as e , J u d g e s 20:1, w h i c h h a d s tu ck in Sterne
s
mind.
Cf. 2..S., IV, 142 (viii, 16): " . . . s h e
might h a v e t r a ­
v e l l e d w i t h it, a l o n g the lines, f r o m D a n to B e e r s h e b a . . .
(vii
27).
4. Cf. T S
IV
64 (vii. 27), c o n c e r n i n g hr. S h a n d y ' s travels:
" . . . h i 7 r e s e a r c h e s biing of s u c h a nature, that they w o u l d
h av e f o u n d fruit e v e n in a dese rt . "
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
153.
forth m y a f f e c t i o n s - - ^
In this p a s s a g e S t e r n e
h a d first
set
reference
to t r a v e l l e r s
tal t r a v e l l e r
tions
do wn
recurs
of thoug h t
w h i c h he
in the
s e v e n t h h o o k of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y in
2
w r i t i n g u p o n plains.
The s e n t i m e n ­
can a l w a y s
w h e r e v e r he goes,
or a w o m a n
to a line
find
something
whether
in a m u l b e r r y
to a r o u s e his
it he a cypress,
emo­
or a m y r t l e ,
tree.
The man who e it h e r d i s d a i n s or f ea r s to w a l k up a d a r k entry,
may he sn e x c e l l e n t g o o d man, a n d fit for a h u n d r e d things;
hut he will not do to ma k e a g o o d s e n t i m e n t a l trave ll e r.
I
count l i t t l e of the m a n y t h i n g s 1 see pa s s at h r o a d n o on -d a y,
in larg e and o p e n s t r e e t s , - - K a t u r e is shy, a n d h a t e s to act
b e f o r e s p e c t a t o r s ; hut in such an u n o b s e r v e d corne r y o u s o m e ­
times see a s i n g l e short scene of hers, w o r t h all the s e n t i ­
ments of a d o z e n F r e n c h p l a y s c o m p o u n d e d together.
And
so
scribe,
The
“ or r a t h e r
to V e r s a i l l e s ,
nothing
ordinary traveller
of the
w o n d er s
nary
on the r o a d
s u bu r bs
sights a n d g i v e s
I look
finds n o t h i n g to de,4
for in t r a v e l l i n g . "
given
a lengthy description
would have
of Pari s ,
of V e r s a i l l e s ,
which
Yorick
the
but
us
road,
Yorick
and
the a p p r o a c h to t h e
is not
interested
i n s t e a d an a c co un t
of the
in o r d i ­
caged
1. V, 98.
2. Cf. IV, 1 0 5 - 1 0 8 (ch. 4 2 - 4 3 ) .
3. V, 361.
S t e r n e h a d a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d in ter ms s u g g e s t i v e
of this p a s s a g e h o w the s e n t i m e n t a l t r a v e l l e r is able to
e n j o y h i m s e l f on a plai n ; M - - I n short, by s e i z i n g e v e r y
handle, of w h a t e v e r size or s h a p e so ever, whic h c h a n c e
h e l d out to me in this J o u r n e y — I t u r n e d my
into a
ci t v ... I am c o n f i d e n t we c o u l d h a v e p a s s e d t h r o u g h P a l l ”
Mall, or St J a m e s »s S t r e e t for a m o n t h toget he r , w i t h
fewer a d v e n t u r e s — — and s e e n le s s of h u m a n nature."
IV, 108 (vii, 43).
4. V, 251.
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154.
st&rling.
B ut
there
must
in this
not
appear
for F r a n c e
at
his
acti on s .
abrupt
wanderings
the
the C o r d o n B l e u .
he
And
on
to
elects
think
I set
see the
there,
the name
will vi s it
When
to r e t i r e
out
observes
of
that his
Y o r i c k learns
that
a d m i t t e d to the
to th e n e a r e s t
of V e r s a i l l e s ,
number
T hi s
is the
to M a d a m e
but
of n o b i l i t y
de B i s s y
the p r e v i o u s
to pay a v i s i t
is t ypical
hotel,
is a f a t a l i t y in it--I sel1
for."
He c h a n g e s his mind
of the C ount
since
departure
there
the
him instead.
tered his p l a n s
intended
occasion Sterne
si g h t s
m an h a p p e n i n g to m e n t i o n
His
of the b o o k
two h o u r s b e f o r e b e i n g
"I
to the p l a c e
and d e c i d e s
too much m e t h o d .
very b e gi n n i n g
to w a i t
de C h o is e ul ,
dorn go
to be
sentimental adventures,
are g o v e r n e d by chance.
he will h a v e
Due
s e a r c h i n g after
occurs
the
coach­
residing
to him.
t h i r d t i m e he has
evening,
He
al­
for he o r i g i n a l l y
de H a m b o u l i e t .
[sicj
2
"— But
This
I am g o v e r n e d b y
circumstances--I
a f f e c t a t i o n of c a r e l e s s n e s s
reminds
cannot
go v er n
one
the a t t i t u d e
of
them."
a s s u m e d in T r l « t r a m . w h e r e he d e c l a r e s that h i s p e n governs
3
him, but it is all t h e p a r t of the s e n t i m e n t a l t r a v e l l e r to
h ave not
St er n e
too m u c h m e t h o d
fortune
favors
the
in his
type
wanderings.
According
of t r a v e l l e r he
to
re p re s en t s.
1. V, 260.
2. Cf. L e t t e r No. 106, to Foley, Apr. 18, 1763: " . . . i n all
th in g s I am g o v e r n e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " pp. 193-1S4.
3. JT.S.. Ill, 1 3 3 (vi, 6); cf. L e t t e r No. 213, to (?) Sir
W i l l i a m S t a n h o p e , Sept. 19» 1767, p. 394.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
155.
That he
quis
should have been
at S e n n e s
d 'E* * * * r e c l a i m e d his
at
s w o r d "was
the time
an
wh e n
inci de n t
the M a r ­
of g o o d
fortune
w h i c h w i l l n e v e r h a p p e n to a n y t r a v e l l e r , b ut a sen1
t imental one.*'
He c a n f i n d p l e a s u r e almo s t a n yw he r e, and
he can trust
tion
his
to
take h i m
is of a p a r t i c u l a r l y
Naturally
travel
without
t raveller.
t elli ge nt ,
Sterne
making
There
are
interrupted
cannot
type
inquisitive
and a simple
o n e who
one
de sobli e e a n t .
who
with the m e d d l i n g pair.
agai n st
a theory
of
the o r d i n a r y
against
the u n i n ­
like
sheep.
Th u s Y o r i c k
is
p r e f a c e by two E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r s ,
inquires
does
emo­
of E n g l i s h m a n who b l u n d e r e d r o u n d
wonders
But he
forth such
l i t t l e hits
together
in w r i t i n g his
set
the
sort.
protests
several
herding
to the p l a c e w he r e
enjoyable
direct
unobservant
the c o n t i n e n t ,
an
whim
into
the m o t i o n
at a p r e f a c e
not
11As
of the
chaise
being written
r e m a i n long
an E n g l i s h m a n
in a
in c o n v e r s a t i o n
does not
travel
2
Ao
see E n g l i s h m e n : J. r e t i r e d
from b e i n g u n s o c i a l ,
chance a c q u a i n t a n c e
but
with
In a n o t h e r p l a c e
he
t o jay. r o o m .M
is
Sterne
after different
game
is far
than
a
stray Englishmen.
Sterne
remarks
upon
the u s u a l
tutor
or g o v e r n o r
of the t r a v e l l i n g
c o m p a n i o n of the E n g l i s h m a n .
When Wisdom
reproaches
for h a v i n g made
choice
in s e l e c t i n g L a F l eu r
...and do not
1. V,
2. V,
Yorick
one h a l f of ou r
as his valet,
he
a foolish
exclai m s:
g e n t r y go wi t h a h u m d r u m
272-73.
38.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
"Fsha.1
156.
p ag n o n _du voya.ge
devil
and
same round,
1
to pa y b e s i d e s ? ”
all
Some
of
Italy w i t h o u t
the e f f o r t
found.
the
the g e n t r y went
any profit,
and
settled
In s e l e c t i n g
of c h a i s e s
and h av e
the
full
the p i p e r
r o u n d of F r a n c e
some,
St e r n e knew,
in the
first
enjoyable place they
a chaise,
Y o r i c k f inds
and B.
ti r ed
too d ea r
g e n t l e m e n who b e c a m e
cared to
French
see n o t h i n g
society
center
grandeur
and
The a c c o u n t
the b e h a v i o r
of F r e n c h
the
e nt r y
capital,
society,
g l o r y that
of his
grand
at the
or p o s ­
that
they
else.
In e n t e r i n g the F r e n c h
at the
capital
of
in all re-
so e n a m o u r e d of,
in the
and
a couple
to go the
t o u r , but h a d g o n e no f u r t h e r than Paris, so were
2
spects as g o o d — as n e w — "
This is a p a s s i n g hit
sibly b o r e d with,
the
but
" p u r c h a s e d by my L o r d A.
young E n g l i s h
and
Y o r i c k was
the f o u n t a i n - h e a d
arriving
of the
was p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y France,
contains
significant
of s u c h E n g l i s h t o u r i s t s
c o m m en t
as my L o r d A.
upon
a n d B.
W h e n a man can c o n t e st the point by dint of e quipage,
and c ar r y on all f l o u n d e r i n g b e f o r e h i m w i t h h a l f a d o ze n
la ck i es a n d a c o u p l e of c o o k s - - ' t is v e r y well in s u c h a
p la c e as P a r i s - - h e ma y d r i v e in at w h i c h end of a street
he will,
A p o o r p r i n c e w ho is w e a k in c a v a l r y a n d w h o s e w hole
i n f a nt r y does not e x c e e d a s i n g l e man, h a d b e s t quit the
field; and s i g n a l i z e h i m s e l f in the cabinet, if he can get
u p into it--I say u p
Into i t - - for there is no d e s c e n d i n g
1. V, 110.
See the se r m o n on the P r o d i g a l
Ch. Ill, pp. 1 0 3 - 05 ,
2. V, 83-84.
S o n a n d above,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p e r p e n d i c u l a r a m o n g s t 'em with, a
I a m - - w h a t e v e r ma n y m a y think.^
Sterne h e r e
strikes
anx io u s
soc ia l
for
make a d i s p l a y
upon
two
desires
distinction
to a t t r a c t
*Me vo i c i me s enf a n s 1— h e r e
the
of th e E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r
in Paris.
The
a t t e n t i o n of
first
the
was
to
French.
The n u m b e r of s e r v a n t s that the t o u r i s t r e g u l a r l y ke pt in his
emp lo y was n a t u r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a g o o d i n d e x of his w e a l t h
and social i m p o r t a n c e .
E v e n t h o u g h he m i g h t not hav e t a k e n a
servant a b r o a d w i t h him, his first care on a r r i v i n g at P a r i s
or T u r i n or Borne, if he w i s h e d to m a i n t a i n his social p o s i t i o n ,
was to s e c u r e one or mo r e a t t e n d a n t s — at least a valet, a n d a
f o o t m a n .2
Yorick,
who
is not
chaise,
and
a portmanteau,
no d i s p l a y
rich,
has
wer e p o s s i b l e
o n l y L a Fleur,
and
or
if
a man mig h t
distinguish himself
charm.
difficulty,
The
society.
I n his
perpendicular
his
Th e
’em,"
Good
result
traveller
these
was
are
an d m e r e l y
the
on any
show.
to a t t r a c t
c ab i n e t , "
if
a t t en t io n,
by his
to g a i n a d m i s s i o n
impossibility
Yet
social
to g o o d
of " d e s c e n d i n g
S t e r n e is r e f e r r i n g , as he did in
3
Son, to the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g
company,
was
took u p w i t h F r e n c h m e n
But
"in
however,
s e rm on on the P r o d i g a l
to enter.
it f a i l e d
r e m a r k s u p o n the
amongst
an i n t r o d u c t i o n .
c a n n ot put
a twelve-guinea
that
of b o g u s
Sterne
knew,
rar e
and hard
the u n i n i t i a t e d E n g l i s h m a n
gentility
or w i t h his
only p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s
supplement
was
Sterne's
own kind.
to the u n w i s e
ope n a t t a c k s
upon
1. V, 169.
Th e c o n t r a s t of f i e l d a n d
is a f a v o r i t e
with Sterne, Cf. T...S*
23 4 (ii, 17); 17, 67 (vii, 27);
S e r m o n No. 16, IX, 262; a n d the
V, 258.
2. Mead, The G r a n d T o u r A a the E i g h t e e n t h £ sjl LB£X, P- 202.
3. No. 20, see e s p e c i a l l y IX, 332.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
158.
travel
writers.
complaining
Tobias
even
Most
type,
S m ol l e t t .
odo ro u s
the m o s t
After
in a desert,
t ack u p o n
and
opposed
to
Sterne's prin ciples
complaining
t e l l i n g h o w he w o u l d
Sterne proceeds
the S c o t t i s h p h y s i c i a n
soubriquet
among
the
t h e s e was
enjoy himself
to m ake his
to whom he
wa s
celebrated at­
gives
the m a l ­
of S m e l f u n g u s .
The l e a r n e d S M E L F U N G U S t r a v e l l e d f ro m B o u l o g n e to P a r i s —
from P a r i s to R o m e — a n d so o n - - b u t he set out w i t h the
sp le e n and j a u nd i ce , a n d e v e r y o b j e c t he p a s s ' d by w as d i s ­
c o l o u r e d or d i s t o r t e d - - H e w r o t e an account of them, but *t
was n o t h i n g but the a c c o u n t of his m i s e r a b l e f e e l i n g s . ^
The
woes of S m o l l e t t d u r i n g hi s t o ur we h a v e a l r e a d y dis2
cussed, and the " s p l e e n , " w h i c h s e e m e d to be h i s p r i n c i p l e
of travel,
Sterne had long since
Nor was
Thicknesse
Sterne
was b i c k e r i n g ,
opportunity
only
in b o t h his b o o k s
tor was u n n e c e s s a r i l y
n esse
the
to
show
traveller
observed
critical
while
r e no u nc ed .
an d
Sterne
the vast
to
a t t a c k S mollett.
the S c o t t i s h doc3
complaining.
But Thi c k-
was
that
taking advantage
difference between
another
of an
type
1. V, 98-99.
Th e p h r a s e " m i s e r a b l e f ee l i n g s " is u s e d by
S t e r n e at the b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d of the J o u r n a l E l i z a :
"tis a D i a r y of the m i s e r a b l e f e e l i n g s of a p e r s o n s e p a ­
r a t e d f r o m a L a d y for w h o s e S o c i e t y he l a n g u i s h ' d — "
P r e f a c e , L e t t e r s . p. 322; "at p r e s e n t all I can w ri t e
w o u l d be the H i s t o r y of my m i s e r a b l e f e e l i n g s - - " Aug. 4,
p. 387.
His p r o t e s t a g a i n s t S m o l l e t t ' s r e c o u n t i n g his
" m i s e r a b l e f e e l i n g s " r e i n f o r c e s the o p i n i o n that the
J o u r n a l was a s a f e t y v a l v e t h r o u g h w h i c h m o s t of S t e r n e ' s
m a w k i s h n e s s e s c ap e d, l e a v i n g the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y the
w o r k of art it is.
2. See above, Ch. Ill, p. 114.
3. O b s e r v a t i o n s on the F r e n c h N a t i o n , p. 104; UBgfH.iL
>
pp. 4-5.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
159.
of t ravel b o o k a n d h i s
specific
instances
own.
To
clinch his
point,
he
r e l a t es
of S m o l l e t t ’s ill-humor.
I met S m e l f u n g u s in the g r a n d p o r t i c o of the p a n t h e o n - - h e
was just c o m i n g out of it--'T. Xs. n a t h i n e b u t
huee co c k ­
pit , said h e — — I w i s h y o u h a d s a i d n o t h i n g w o r s e of the
Venus de M edicis, r e p l i e d 1— for in p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Florence,
I h a d h e a r d he h a d f a l l e n foul u p o n the g o d d e s s , a n d u s e d her
worse than a c o m m o n s t r u m p e t , wi t h o u t the l e a s t p r o v o c a t i o n
in n a t u r e . ^
If S t e r n e e v e r met S m o l l e t t a broad, it was not in Italy but
2
in M o n t p e l l i e r .
W h a t he is d o i n g in the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y as the note
(V i de
S—
’s T r a v e l s )
d i c a t e s — is r e f e r r i n g
A mo n g
the
Smollett
r el i c s
did not
a fter
to p a s s a g e s
of a n t i q u i t y
appreciate
w or d '’cockpit'’ i n ­
in S m o l l e t t ' s T r a v e l s -
on the
was
the
I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a wh i ch
the P a n t h e o n :
I was m u ch d i s a p p o i n t e d at sight of the P a n t h e o n , which,
after all that h a s b e e n s ai d of it, l o o k s like a h u g e c o c k ­
pit, open at the top.
T h e p o r t i c o w h i c h A g r i p p a a d d e d to
the buildi n g, is u n d o u b t e d l y v er y noble, th ou gh , in my
opinion, it c o r r e s p o n d s bu t ill with the s i m p l i c i t y of the
edifice.
W i t h all my v e n e r a t i o n for the a n t i e n t s , I cannot
see in what the b e a u t y of the r o t u n d a c o n s i s t s .
It is no
more than a p l a i n u n p i e r c e d c y l i nd e r, or c i r c u l a r wall,
with two f i l l e t s a n d a corn i ce , h a v i n g a v a u l t e d r o o f or
cupola, open in the c e n t er .
I m e a n the o r i g i n a l b u i ld i ng ,
without c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v e s t i b u l e of A g r i p p a .
W i t h i n side
it h a s m u c h the a ir of a m a u s o l e u m . . . I v i s i t e d it s e v e r a l
times, and e a c h t i m e it l o o k e d more a nd m o r e g l o o m y and
s e p u l c h r a l .®
As a judge
somewhat
of s t a t u a r y he
is
equally unconventional,
though
apologetics
W it h r e s p e c t to the
M ed ic is...I believe
famo us Venus Pontia, commonly calle d
I ought to be e n t i r e l y silent, or at
1. V, 99.
2. See Cross, L i f e . pp.
3. T r a v e l s . pp. 2 6 8 - 6 9 .
401-02.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
least c o n c e a l my r eal s e n t i m e n t s , w h i c h will o t h e r w i s e a p ­
pear e q u a l l y a b s u r d and p r e s u m p t u o u s .
It must he want of
taste w h i c h p r e v e n t s my f e e l i n g that e n t h u s i a s t i c a d m i r a ­
tion w i t h w h i c h o t h e r s are i n s p i r e d at s ight of this stat ue .. .
I cannot h e l p t h i n k i n g that t h e r e is no b e a u t y in t he f e a t u r e s
of Venus; and that the a t t i t u d e is a u k w a r d a nd out of c h a r a c ­
ter.
It is a b a d p l e a to u r g e that the a n t i e n t s a n d we di f f e r
in the ideas of beauty.
We k n o w the contr a ry , f r o m their
medals, b us t s, a n d h i s t o r i a n s .
W i t h o u t a l l doubt, the limbs
and p r o p o r t i o n s of t h is s t a t u e are e l e g a n t l y formed, and ac­
c u r a t e l y d esigned, a c c o r d i n g to the n i c e s t r u l e s of s y m m e t r y
and p r o p o r t i o n ; and the b a c k p a r t s e s p e c i a l l y are e x e c u t e d so
h a p p i l y as to e x c i t e the a d m i r a t i o n of the most i n d i f f e r e n t
spect at o r .^
Although frequently unconventional
chance h e r e
lis he d
told
offered
to r i d i c u l e
a man who
criticism by being unappreciative
Sterne
se iz e s
d a r e d flout
the
estab­
of what he has b e e n
is b e a u t i f u l .
At T u r i n S t e r n e met
tale
h imself,
of
spoke
nibals
sorrowful
of m o v i n g a c c i d e n t s by
which each other
flay'd alive,
mew at
adventures
every
Shakespeare
eat;
Smelfungus
he h a d
on c e
more,
to tell,
f l o o d a n d field,
t he
" a n d a sad
' w h er e in he
and of the
can­
Anthropophagi'--he h a d b e e n
and b e d e v i l ' d ,
stage he h a d
in his
an d u s e d w o r s e t h a n St B a r t h o l o 2
c ome a t — "
H e r e S t e r n e qu o te s
derision
of S mo l l e t t .
In t e l l i n g of his
1. T r a v e l s . pp. 23 5 - 3 6 .
H e l a t e r r e m a r k s that he is no great
Judge in a r t i s t i c m a t t e r s a n d lays h i m s e l f o pe n to r i d i ­
cule; b ut even t h o u g h " t h e r e is s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n co m m o n
sense r e q u i r e d to d i s c o v e r a n d d i s t i n g u i s h the m o s t d e l i ­
cate b e a u t i e s of p a i n t i n g , " he is a c c u s t o m e d to s p e a k his
m i n d f r e e l y on all s u b j e c t s w h i c h come
u n d e r his o b s e r v a ­
tion, pp. 240-41.
2. V, 99.
S m o l l e t t ' s o n l y l e t t e r f r o m T u r i n tells of a t r y ­
ing j o u r n e y over the m o u n t a i n s from N i c e to Turin.
Its
tone is not so a n t a g o n i s t i c and full of c o m p l a i n t s as one
m ig h t expect.
T r a v e l s . pp. 315-22.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
triumph
ove r
the h e a r t
conversations
of D e s d e m o n a ,
Othello
remarks
of his
w i t h hers
W h e r e i n 1 spa k e of m o s t d i s a s t r o u s chanc es ,
Of m o v i n g a c c i d e n t s by f l o o d a nd field,
•
•
a
A n d of the C a n n i b a l s that e a c h othe r eat,
The A n t h r o p o p h a g i , a n d m e n w h o s e h e a d s
Do grow b e n e a t h their s h o u l d e r s . 1
Apparently
tury
this p a s s a g e
to r i d i c u l e
s p e a k i n g of
employed
extravagant
travel
Wortley Montagu,
was
cen­
travellers,
literature,
referring
in the e i g h t e e n t h
to
quotes
for S h a f t e s b u r y ,
2
f r o m it, and L a d y M a r y
a Lady"**,
writes
to t h e
Count­
ess of Mar:
She is v e r y a n g r y that 1 w o n ' t lie l i k e o t h e r t r a v e l l e r s .
I v e r i l y b e l i e v e she e x p e c t s I s h o u l d t e l l h e r of th e
A n t h r o p o p h a g i . men whose heads g r o w b e l ow their shoulders.
S t er n e
therefore had precedent
for
the a p p l i c a t i o n of the
Shakespearean passage.
--I'll
better
tell
tell
it,
it,
c r i e d S m e l f u n g u s , to the world.
s a i d I, to y o u r p h y s i c i a n . 4
In
these
fe w w o r d s
t r o u bl e w i t h S m o l l e t t - - h i s
later m a d e
the
sa me
Sterne
hits
chronic
accusation,
but
You had
b r i e f l y u p o n the m a i n
ill-health.
with
le ss
Thicknesse
grace.
1. Act I, 8 c . iii, 11. 1 3 4 - 35 , 143- 45 .
T h e s o u r c e is p o i n t e d
out in H e a d ' s e d i t i o n of the S e n t i m e n t al J o u r n e y . p. 227,
n. 15.
2. “A d v i c e to an A u t h o r , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I, 224, q u o t i n g 11.
140, 142-46.
3. Jan. 16, O.S. 1717, L e t t e r s I, 146.
4. V, 99.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It can be no e n t e r t a i n m e n t to the p u b l i c to be m i n u t e l y i n ­
formed h o w a^^.i.SJL.8. 'Passed, u p w a r d s or d o w n w a r d s . w h e n our
t r a v e l l e r was sick; yet a t h i r d part of Mr. S m o l l e t t ' s t r a v ­
els are a d e t a i l of w h a t p a s s e d b e t w e e n him, his cl o s e s t o o l ,
and his p h y s i c i a n , m a t t e r s w h i c h ought to h a v e b e e n c o n f i n e d
to a b e d c h a m b e r , not e x p o s e d at a b o o k s e l l e r ' s shop.
For
the m i s f o r t u n e is, tha t t h o u g h the D o c t o r was, I b e l i e v e , very
sick, I do not fi n d that his r e a d e r s wer e ver y s o r r y . . . f o r
whoever r e a d s the s q u a b b l e s , q u a rr e ls , d i s p u t e s , &c. & c . of
Dr. S m o l l e t t a n d h i s f a m i l y fr o m D o v e r to Home, a n d from Home
to Dov e r, w i l l be apt to t h i n k w i t h me, that some a l t e r a t i o n
should be m a d e to the t i t l e - p a g e of his book, and that m o r e
p r o p e r l y it s h o u l d b e i n ti t le d , 'QUARR E LS t h r o u g h F r a n c e and
Italy for the cure of a p u l m o n i c d is o rd e r, by T.S. M . D . ' 1
Set b e s i d e
this
criticism,
the
Smelfungus
passage
seems
mild
indeed.
Sterne
lers by
turning
continues
his attack upon
to a n o t h e r
exam pl e ,
ill-natured
2
Mundungus.
t r a v el -
M u n d u n g u s , w i t h an i m m e n s e fortune, m a d e the w h o l e tour, g o ­
ing on f r o m R o m e to N a p l e s — fro m N a p l e s to V e n i c e — from
Veni c e to V i e n n a — to D r e s d e n , to B e r l i n , w i t h o u t one g e n e r o u s
c o n n e c t i o n or p l e a s u r a b l e a n e c d o t e to tell of; b u t he h a d
t r a v e l l ' d s t r a i g h t on, l o o k i n g n e i t h e r to his righ t h a n d or
his left, les t L o v e or P i t y s h o u l d s e d u c e h i m out of his
road.3
A c c o r d i n g to
Sharp,
there
tradition,
whose Letters
this
fr o m
is no c e r t a i n p r oo f,
is a r e f e r e n c e
Italy appeared
as
in the
case
to Dr* S a m u e l
4
in 1766.
Although
of S m o l l e t t ,
yet
it
U s e f u l H i n t s . pp. 4-5.
It is i n t e r e s t i n g to note, a l t h o u g h h a r d l y c o n v i n c i n g of
any i n d e b t e d n e s s , that in S t e e l e ' s p l a y T h e F u n e r a l
(1701), w h i c h c o n t a i n s a s e r v a n t n a m e d T r i m wh o has b e e n
in F l a n d e r s w i t h his m a s t e r , t h e r e is m e n t i o n e d a s o l d i e r
of th e n a m e H u m p h r y U u n d u n g u s .
Act IV, sc. iii.
3. V, 99-100.
4. See Cross, L i f e , p. 461.
2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
is p r o b a b l e
passage.
that
Sharp
W i t h that
el books
is the
traveller
of S m o l l e t t
of the time,
his
referred
was
among
to in this
the
he w r o t e
chief t r a v ­
of Italy (a g o o d part
1
i t in e ra r y m e n t i o n e d by S t e r n e ) , and his c o m m e n t s are
main d i s p a r a g i n g .
In fact,
was m o v e d
a book
to w r i t e
v i n d i c a t i n g his n a t i v e
Sharp.
task,
Sharp,
"as he
when he
he
was
Johnson's
on
Italy
country
contended,
l a id u n d e r
enteredlt;
Italian l a n g ua g e;
that
was
2
is
mainly
totally
th re e most
to
say,
in the
friend Joseph Barett i
for
from the u n j u s t
was
of the
of
c r i t i c i s m of
u n f i t t e d for his
capital
he was
of no h i g h rank;
the p u r p o s e
disadvantages
i g n o ra n t
a n d was
of the
afflicted with
bo d i l y d i s o r d e r s . "
This
is the
upon p a r t i c u l a r
in c o mm e nt s
of other
should
travel
which
to l o o k
direct
bo o ks ,
serve
t r a v el l er s.
like
only
to
but
a t t a c k w h i c h St e r n e m a k e s
from t i m e to time he
slips
d i f f e r e n t i a t e his w o r k from
those
W h e n Y o r i c k tells
into
women's
hear t s,
the Count
that he
he adds:
It is for this r e a s o n . . . that I h av e not s e e n the P a l a i s
R o y a l — nor the L u x e m b o u r g — n o r the F a c a d e of the l o u v r e - 1.
If S t e r n e is t h i n k i n g of Sharp, he m a d e up this list m o s t ­
ly for the s o u n d of t h e names.
S h a r p t r a v e l l e d from
G e n e v a to V e n i c e to R o m e to N a p l e s to R o m e to F l o r e n c e to
T u r i n to L yons.
Se e L e t t e r s f r o m I t a l y . pp. 1, 43, 63,
184, 221, 263, 286.
I f in d no e v i d e n c e , e i t h e r in hi s
b o o k or in the a c c o u n t of his life (SL.JSU.&• ^1, 414 — 15) ,
that Sharp h a d "an i m m e n s e f o r t un e ."
2.
iLc count of the M a n n e r s and gTAg.tqins.
s e r v a t i o n s on t h e M i s t a k e s £.£ S.2P.SL .
T rftY9llg.E.g.» W i t h
to that C o u n t r y . L o n d o n , 1768, 2 v o l e . , I, 4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
nor h a v e a t t e m p t e d to swell t he c a t a l o g u e s
tures, stat ue s, a n d c h u r c h e s - - - l
Here he
books
sets his
which
pert.
most
the
works
The
mired f a p a d e
tures,
and
fact-recording gu ide­
copied
as Le R o u g e ’s Les
one
might
"buildings of P a r i s
c o n t a i n e d in them.
of the L o u v r e
For
or p a r a p h r a s e d
Curiositez
"The
in
de P a r i s
find d e s c r i p t i o n s
and c a t a l o g u e s
instance,
g rand front
of
of the
the m u c h
is d e s c r i b e d at l e n g t h b y
in a p a s s a g e w h i c h c o m m e n c e s ;
and a h a l f
the
writers
Grand Tour
important
of art
off f r o m
tr a v e l
In s u c h w o r ks
or N u g e n t ' s
all
work
we h av e o f p i c ­
is 2?
ad­
Nugent
toises
in length,
c o n s i s t i n g o f t hr e e a d v a n c e s t r u c 2
two p e r i s t y l e s . "
A n d B r i c e r e f e r s to " L a s u p e r be
fapade de L o u v re , le plus joli m o r c e a u d 'a r c h i t e c t u r e q u ’il
3
ait du mond e. "
Most w r i t e r s of o th er than o u t - a n d - o u t guide
books d i s c l a i m e d any a t t e m p t
us ua l l y
to
catalo g ue ,
although
c o n t r i v e d to i n se r t l e n g t h y d e s c r i p t i o n s
4
b o r r o w e d facts.
T h e y t r a v e l l e d , they a s s e r t e d ,
t he y
containing
to l e a r n
1. V, 280-81.
2. SLS.- c i t . , IV, 57.
3. D e s c r i p t i o n d e P a r i » .1 . 142.
The Englis h travellers a p ­
p r e c i a t e d it, w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s .
W ri g h t r e m a rk s; " T he
Front of it is v e r y fine, b u t seen to d i s a d v a n t a g e by
R e a s o n of the N a r r o w n e s s o f the Street it s t a n d s in."
O b s e r v a t i o n s in T r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h Fr_ance an d I t a l y . p. 5.
Cole a d m i r e d the f a p a d e but d i s l i k e d the r oo fs .& X& MjUk~
s a r d e . P a r i s J o u r n a l . p. 152.
4. Cf. above, Ch. II, p. 33 or such a d e c l a r a t i o n as Sharp's;
"I n e v e r t r o u b l e y o u w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s of c h u r c h e s a n d
p a l ac es , but, r a t h e r w i t h the customs a n d m a n n e r s of the
p e o p l e I visit; yet I c a n n o t f o r b e a r m e n t i o n i n g the ducal
p a l a c e at F I o r e n c e . . .11 etc.
L e t t e r s f r o m I t_al,y. pp. 23940.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
about m e n a n d m a n n e r s .
Goldsmith's
Chinese
S terne
most,
than
The
following
traveller,
but
co m m e n t ,
is p e r h a p s
it c o n t a i n s
a r e m a r k of
a little
a typical
clo se r
assertion
to
against
cat a l o g u i n g :
Let E u r o p e a n t r a v e l l e r s cross seas a n d d e s e r t s me re ly to
m eas u re the h e i g h t of a m o u n t a i n , to d e s c r i b e the c a t a ­
ract of a river, or tell the c o m m o d i t i e s w h i c h e very c o u n ­
try may p r o d u c e : m e r c h a n t s or g e o g r a p h e r s , p e r h a p s , may
find p r o f i t b y s u c h d i s c o v e r i e s , but w ha t a d v a n t a g e can a c ­
crue to a p h i l o s o p h e r f r o m s u c h a c c o u n t s , who is d e s i r o u s
of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the h u m a n h e a r t , who s e e k s to k n o w the men
of every co u n t r y , who d e s i r e s to d i s c o v e r t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s
w hi c h r e s u l t f r o m climate, r e l i g i o n , p r e j u d i c e , and p a r ­
tiality.^
Sterne
was
far
see p e rs on s ,
not
a g r ee
pher who
not
original
things.
with practice,
adheres
thermore,
to
it was
to k n o w "men"
The
satirized by
seen
from
But
most
the p r i n c i p l e s
the w i s h
theorizing
in the P a r i s
s a y i n g t hat
novel
to l o o k
in w h i c h
he
of t h e s e
and Sterne
entirely
Sterne
in
is one
j o u r n e y e d to
declarations
did
travelling philoso
w h i c h he
l ays down.
Fur­
f o r h i m to a d d to the d e s i r e
into w o m e n ' 6
most
in m e n t i o n i n g
h earts.
travellers
the n u m b e r
indulged
of d w a r f s
is
to be
streets.
A m e d i ca l t r a v e l l e r m i g h t say, 't is o w i n g to u n du e b a n d ­
a g e s — a s p l e n e t i c one, to want of a i r — a n d an i n q u i s i t i v e
traveller, to f o r t i f y the s y s t e m , may m e a s u r e the height
of t heir h o u s e s - - t h e n a r r o w n e s s of their streets, and in
how f ew f eet s q u a r e s u c h n u m b e r s of the B o u r e o i s i e eat a n d
sleep t o g e t h e r . 2
According
to
this
1. "The C i t i z e n
2. V , 20 8 .
distinction,
of the W o r l d , "
Smollett
No.
8,
must
Works
be
III,
considered
114.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as e m e d i c a l
l ieved
cause
the
traveller
rather
"accursed bandages"
of m u c h d e f o r m i t y
than
a splenetic
used
in P r a n c e
one,
in s w a d d l i n g to be
and
may have
traveller's
been moved
t h e o r y by
two
to his
cause of the
so frequent
s t at e me nt of the
curiously
the
Italy,
I take this a b o m i n a b l e p r a c t i c e to be one great
bandy legs, d i m i n u t i v e b o d i e s , a n d l a r g e heads,
in the s o u t h
of Pra n ce , a n d i n I t a l y . 1
Sterne
for h e b e ­
inquisitive
j o i n e d clau s es
in T h i c k -
nesse 1s Ob aer vat 1 on_s on th e F r e n c h N a t i o n :
I cannot a c c o u n t for it, but t his k i n g d o m a b o u n d s m o r e w i t h
h uman d e f o r m i t y , t h a n a n y p a r t of the w o r l d I h a v e ever seen;
and I m u s t n o w r e m i n d y o u to b e p a r t i c u l a r l y car e fu l h o w y o u
walk in the s t r e e t s of P a r i s , the n a r r o w n e s s of which, the
great n u m b e r of coaches, carts, c a b r i o l e t s , a n d v a r i o u s k i nd s
of v o i t u r e s ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m u l t i t u d e of pe o p l e c r o w d i n g
t h r o u g h e v e r y street, r e n d e r w a l k i n g in P a r i s v e r y d a n g e r o u s . ^
Sterne
does
not
p asses
directly
stop
to t h e o r i z e
on to a
sentimental
In d e s c r i b i n g near
Italy,
S t e r n e has his
as
last
the
in T r i s t r a m S h a n d y . but
episode.
e n d of his
fling
at the
b o o k his p a s s a g e
compl ai ning type
travel w r i t e r .
In a c c o r d a n c e
with his princ ip le
his t r a v e l s ,
apostrophizes
the "poor,
he
h o n e s t " m o u n t a i n e e r s , a nd
pa t i e n t ,
in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h
int<
of
of e n j o y i n g
quiet,
the h a r d s h i p s
of
p. 255.
P. 80.
In hi s se c o n d b o o k o n P r a n c e T h i c k n e s s e h a z a r d s
an u n s c i e n t i f i c g uess as to the c ause of d e f o r m i t y .
Use­
ful H i n t s , pp. 49-50.
P r a c t i c a l l y all t o u r i s t s c o m m e n t e d
on the c r o w d e d c o n d i t i o n s of P a r i s streets, gave t h e d i ­
m e n s i o n s of the city, and c o m p a r e d its size to Lon d on .
"The c it y of P a r i s is s a i d to b e five leagues, or f i f t e e n
miles, in c i r c u m f e r e n c e ; a n d if it is r e a l l y so, it must
be m u c h m o r e p o p u l o u s than L o n d o n ; for the st r ee ts are
very na rr o w, and the h o u s e s v e r y high, w i th a d i f f e r e n t
f a m i l y on e v e r y floor.
S m o l l e t t , T r a v e l s . p. 49.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
167.
their r oad s
observes;
Let the w a y — w o r u t r a v e l l e r vent his c o m p l a i n t s u p o n t h e s u d ­
den turns and d a n g e r s of y o u r r o a d s — y o u r r o c k s , - - y o u r
p r e c i p i c e s - - t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of g e t t i n g u p - - t h e h o r r o r s of
getting d o w n — m o u n t a in s i m p r a c t i c a b l e — and cataracts, w h i c h
roll down g r e a t s t o n e s f r o m t h e i r summits, a n d b l o c k his
road u p - — 1
d ei n g
way
the u n c o m p l a i n i n g type,
is b l o c k e d b y
full h o u r s w h i l e
with his
a huge
stone.
the p e a s a n t s
voiturin
"a l i tt l e
he p r o t e s t s
decent
through
kind
He
not
at all w h e n his
waits p a t i e n t l y
remove
two
it a n d then p r o c e e d s
the "wet and t e m p e s t u o u s
of an
for
i n n ” five m i l e
n i g h t ” to
short of t h e i r
in ­
tended lodg i ng s.
Although
h a r d i n e s s — or
at the
the
a v e r a g e E n g l i s h m a n w o n d e r e d at
foolhardiness--of
s c e n e r y was u s u a l l y
eighteenth century
some
sight
usually
f r i g h t e n e d by t h e
G ra n d e
of t he
t hat
that
found
worse
the
1.
it w a s
but
where
Gray was
HS c i t u a t e
and
the
in steps,
in the
D u r i n g the
a feeling
traveller
to cross
was
them.
In
John Clenche
later
most
w r ot e
thrilled with
solitary place
amongst h o r r i d mountains,
way from
with
his w o n d e r
developed
the
of h a v i n g
in th e w o r l d ,
than the A l p e s ,
side of r o c k s
idea
souls
seventeenth century
Chartreuse,
admiration,
can be
poetic
of r u g g e d m o u n t a i n s ,
the latter h a l f
of the
t i ng ed with horror.
more
for the
the m o u n t a i n e e r s ,
the
C h am b e r y ,
continual
hewn
out
precipices,
V, 410.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
of
r o a ri ng
to r re n t
in the b o t t o m ,
and t hrough
the m e l a n c h o l y
1
shade
of p i n e s
and
fir-trees.”
Mary W o r t l e y M o n t a g u
Yet
f o u n d th e
as e a r l y
sight
as 1 718 L a d y
of the m o u n t a i n s
2
"solemnly
By the
entertaining,"
time
preciate
pe rs o n
of S t e r n e E n g l i s h
some
hardships.
although
of
writes
me y o u
one
o b j e c t e d to
travellers
the p r o s p e c t s but
Sharp
"tells
she
were
of his
s h u d d e r e d at
were
still
friends
the
cold.
r e a d y to
fearful
ap­
of the
that a n o t h e r
our p a s s a g e
over
the A l p s ."
I k no w y o u r a v e r s i o n to a l t i t u d e s , a n d c o n c e i v e y o u w o u l d be
giddy, if not t e r r i f i e d , in l o o k i n g d o w n s uc h p e r p e n d i c u l a r
depths and p r e c i p i c e s .
S o m e p a r t s of the A l p s e x h i b i t a
most d e l i g h t f u l a n d t r e m e n d o u s p r o s p e c t , and w e r e the first
great o b je c t I me t w i t h a m o n g the m a r v e l l o u s . 3
Smollett
te l ls
of " f r i g h t f u l
of " f r i g h t f u l m o u n t a i n s
precipices,"
which h a d we l l
he can m a k e
that
their
of r u s h i n g r i v e r s
n i g h d e p r i v e d us
and of " V a l a n c h e s "
three
travellers
which
steps
were
experiences
venturers
to t h o s e
preciates
the
in
c ru s h
on
the
of the
at
home.
snow,"
"the n o i s e
sense
of
of h e a r i n g , "
the
t r a v e l l e r to d e a t h " b e f o r e
4
ro ad . "
T h e r e is l i t t l e doubt
i n c l i n e d to
order
covered with
exaggerate
the p e r i l
to m a k e t h e m s e l v e s
B a r e t t i , for
of
seem b o l d
instance,
ad-
de-
dangers:
1. A r.Q.\yr
F r a n c e an d Italy, a i X
.&£ E n g l i s h frgbtlgmajB,
Jjl
London, 1679, p. 20.
Q u o t e d f r om M ea d , Th^e G r a n d
JLkS. E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , p. 241.
2. L e t t e r to Mrs. T h i s t l e w a i t e , Sept. 25, O.S. 1718, L e t t e r s
I, 265.
3. L e t t e r s from I t a l y . p. 67.
4. T r a v e l s , pp. 315, 317- 1 8, 320.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
169
And & n r o p o s of m ou n t Cenis, let no on e be f r i g h t e n e d "by the
dismal a c c o u n t s , so f r e q u e n t in the h o o k s of t r a v e l - w r i t e r s ,
of the h a d r o a d s o v e r the d a n g e r o u s p r e c i p i c e s t h r o u g h S a v o y
and the A p e n n i n e s ,
T h e s e d a n g e r o u s p r e c i p i c e s exist n o w h e r e ,
hut in the i m a g i n a t i o n of the t i m o r o u s ,
Sterne,
of
course,
refuses
though he h a s n o t h i n g
or the b e a u t i e s
of
good
the
to he
to
a
"way-worn
say ahout
s c en e ry ,
he
t r a v e l l e r , " and
the m o u n t a i n
attacks
thos e
road s
who
complain
of them.
With
travel
is
this
remark
complete.
he had e s t a b l i s h e d
in w h i c h he h a d
again in
ited as
in his
the
th e y
j ourn e y of
or in f r o n t
of
It mu st
the S e n t i m e n t a l
1. M a n n e r s
2. Ch. 24.
ridiculed
as
2
The
their
the
the
and in
is he st
not
theory
to
of
complain
s e v e n t h h o o k of S h a n d y .
and
that f e w t r a v e l l e r s p r o f ­
e x p e r i e n c e s he h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d
Son.
But
formulated
in
deserts,
the L o u v r e .
of his
catalogue writers,
fa ct
development
in
his
the
travel
t h a n on
in
Journey
And
so
coach-houses,
the h i g h r o a d
theories
e v e n w h e r e he
he
the
literature.
applied
rather
of o t h e r s ,
t h e o r y of
Sentimental
B y p u t t i n g his
t he wor k,
the p r o c e d u r e
tion at leas t ,
end of
it
careful observation,
throughout
c r it i ci z e
that
the P r o d i g a l
the h e a r t
in dark a l l e y s ,
fact
the
should by
t h e o r y of
p ra c t i c e
at
ninth hook.
is an e n t i r e l y n e w
is his
The
also
s e r m o n on
S t e r n e ’s e x p o s i t i o n
d o e s not
is m a k i n g ,
into
directly
by i m p l i c a ­
a contrast.
always
Journey
and Customs
he
as
of
remembered
a w o r k of
I t a l y . p.
that
S t e r n e was w r i t i n g
redemption,
and that
314.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in
170.
it he w i s h e d
only
spasmodically
Sterne h a d
the
to s t r e s s
an
in T r i s t r a m .
created a character
supposed
s u bj e ct
of
inextricably associ at ed
ter.
aspect
Sterne
for obv io us
whose
world has
he
wrote near
imagined,
was m y s e l f
because
more S h a n d e a n
n a t u r e d w o r l d we
live
and
travelled
the
the
of T r i s t r a m ,
o p in i on s
author
mi n d w i t h
were
h i m s e l f was
that
charac­
as T r i s t r a m Shan d y,
"I ha v e
end
of his
I really
a n d we are
ever
and
to d i s ­
l o n g bee n
a senti­
life,"...the
I wrote Tristram
than
in,
and
revealed
in h i s n e w m o r a l w o r k
a ss o c i a t e h i m s e l f f r o m S h a n d e i s m .
mental b e i n g , "
life
in t h e p u b l i c
he w i s h e d
character
In the p e r s o n
the book ,
ha d a l r e a d y
reasons
of his
Shandy,
was—
that
'tis
ofte n p a i n t e d
I
a good-
in dive r s
1
colours
according
to
Had he p u b l i s h e d his
would have b e e n
another
Yorick.
ideas
book
thought
To be
sure,
that p s e u d o n y m
the
e a c h one f r a m e s
as the
t r a v el s
of as T r i s t r a m .
character— already
he h a d p u b l i s h e d his
acter
the
of L.
sermons
as
he
chose
of P a r s o n
Y o r i c k i n d i c a t e d a jester,
as by Yorick,
sketched
but
he h a d c h o s e n
for h i m s e l f in w r i t i n g to E l i z a ,
of the P a r s o n ,
head."
Sterne,
He t h e r e f o r e
created by him--that
na m e
in his
a n d the
in T r i s t r a m . s u i t e d his
char­
pur­
pose a d m i r a b l y .
T h e fact that he h a d k i l l e d h i m off in the
2
first b o o k m a d e no d i f f e r e n c e , for he was still v e r y m u c h
alive
(and p r o p e r l y
so,
a c c o r d i n g to the
chronology)
at
the
1. l e t t e r No. 221, to th e E a r l o f
, Nov. 28, 1767, pp. 402OS.
2. The date of Y o r i c k ' s l a m e n t e d d e m i s e is set a b o u t 1749.
Cf. T.. j§.. I, 38 (i, 10): " A b o u t t en y e a r s a g o. . ." etc.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
end of the work,
w h e r e he ha s
the v e r y last
word,
Sterne
is g e n e r a l l y
s u p p o s e d to h a v e d r a w n in Y o r i c k a p o r t r a i t
2
as a c le r gy m a n ,
a m a n wh o se gaie t e de coeur was
of
himself
ir­
revocably opposed
to g r a v i t y
ly g o o d a n d h i g h l y
p e r s o n a l i t y as he
press u p o n
whose h e a r t was i n s t i n c t i v e 3
impressionable.
This is S t e r n e ' s own
saw
the r e a d e r
centiousness
attached
did not r e c o g n i z e
free h i m s e l f
to
that
of l i ­
If the r e a d e r
sketch of Y o r i c k
in the
to i m ­
f r o m the taint
of T r i s t r a m .
in the
would
then,
J o u r n e y , a n d it
is the
is t h r o u g h
we l o o k u p o n France.
the author,
trols
the one w h i c h he w i s h e d
sentimental
in Tri s tram
p a r s o n of his
travels,
Yorick,
that
and
to
Sterne
S h a n d y . c e r t a i n l y he
moral
it,
but
the
presented.
moreover,
is
b i li t y and h o w
eyes
The
identity
complete.
his t r e a t m e n t
of
w o r k into w h i c h
First,
Sterne's
the F r e n c h ,
this m a t e r i a l
Sterne
chose,
of the
of th e
let us
is
as
Sent iment al
sentimental parson
of the
Sterne's
observer
and
sensibility con­
d a t a a n d col or s
considering
it a f f e c t s
fi g ur e
the
s e l e c t i o n of t r a v e l
Bu t b e f o r e
central
the m a t e r i a l
the n a t u r e
of that
adventures
of the r o a d or
outline briefly
sensi­
the
frame­
fitted.
was n a t u r a l
for a t r a v e l
1. C f . 2 . IV, 306 (ix, 33): " A C O C K and a BULL, s a id Y o r i c k —
A n d one of the b e st of the kind, I ev e r h e a r d. "
2. Cross, Lif e . p. 61.
3. £.S.. I, 39-65 (i, 11-12).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
172.
writer,
self,
the
first
continually
m ethod
person
in d e l i v e r i n g his
introduced,
in T r i s t r a m , h u t
most
was
narrative.
a major part
of the s t o r y
The
of his
literary
c o n c e r n i n g Mr.
1
S ha n d y and U n c l e T o h y
In the
t ol d
in the
Se n t i m e n t al J o u r n e y , h o w e v er ,
c ont i nu a ll y.
Except
is r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y
Sterne
customary
does
letter
stead he
retains
does not
number
or subject
place
h a d to he
for a few S h a n d e a n
self
is p r e s e n t e d
s ur v iv a l s ,
everything
to Y o r i c k ' s heart.
not a d o p t
f or m
in the Sent i m e n t a l
for r e l a t i n g
the
short
them,
hut
gives
sometimes
travel
chapters
under discussion,
is given,
the
t h i r d p erson.
experiences.
the
In­
of Tri st r am S h a n d y .
t it l es
or both.
only
Journey
He
a c c o r d i n g to the p l a c e
Sometimes
the s u bj e ct ,
o n ly
the
occasionally
the
place
and then the s u b j e c t , m o r e o f t e n th e s u b j e c t a n d t he n
2
the place.
This a r r a n g e m e n t h a s g i v e n r i s e to t h e i d e a that
Sterne
jec ti o n
is w r i t i n g
a series
to a p p l y i n g
as it is r e a l i z e d
this
t ha t
tially d i f f e r e n t
from
ters
th e
gave S t e r n e
of " v i g n e t t e s . "
term
to some
the m e t h o d
that
There
of the c h a p t e r s , s o
of d i v i s i o n
of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y .
opportunity
is no
"for s e t t i n g
is not
long
essen­
Short
off,
ob­
chap­
as
I
3
g e ne r a l l y do,
at a l i t t l e
distance
from the
subject."
T he y
1. The travel p o r t i o n s - - t h e s e v e n t h b o o k (with the e x c e p t i o n
of the s tory of the A b b e s s of A n d o u l l l e t s ) a n d the M a r i a
e p i s o d e in the l a s t b o o k - - a r e in the f i r st pe rs o n .
2. For example: " M o n t r i u l " ; "The B i d e t " ; " N a m p o n t / T h e D e a d
Ass"; "The W i g / P a r i s . "
3 - 1-1. H I , 191 (vi, 23).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
are thus
does,
admirably
wi t h
that as
great
over
The
than a q u a r t e r
chapters
so
and
to chapter.
of
of c h a p t e r s
the
seventy
the t e x t
along
text
are
tenth
of t h e
text
de a l
Three
quarters
devoted
with
Sterne
only
to Par i s;
to Par i s;
w as not
to
episodes
signifi­
Calais;
twelve
the text
con­
thirty-three
seven
the j o u r n e y
a quarter
is
out
a n d s l i g h t l y le ss
t h a n a s e v e n t h of
of th e b o o k are t a k e n up
while
J ournev
apportioned
the r o a d
pointed
to l o c a l i t y
chapters
are
as S t e r n e
it s h o u l d h e
from chapter
and h a l f the
the road.
But
scenes,
Sentimental
a little more
cities,
shifting
the
of
cern h a p p e n i n g s
in two
in
assignment
Eighteen
to
suddenness.
in T_ri a tram
are c a r r i e d
cant.
adapted
chapters
chapters
fr o m P a r i s
and a
to Savoy.
with the happeni ng s
deals
w i t h the
w r i t i n g his " pl a in
events
st o r i e s , "
of
de-
1
spite his
mode
promise,
of travel,
few i n d e e d
his
an d t h e
rout e ,
details
and
in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h
w h i c h he r e c o r d s
the s p e e d
of his
of h i s p r o g r e s s
thos e r e c o r d e d b y
are
other t r a v e l ­
lers.
We must
remember
Senti m en t a.l J o u r n e v
products
of h i s
Paris,
he
sees
having
come
the
fit
to
to F r a n c e
IV,
107
(vii,
S t e r n e was
events
imagination.
Dover before r e al i z i n g
1.
tha t
of two t o u r s
For
i n f o r m us
without
combining
insta nc e ,
of the
in the
an d also
after
reaching
circumstance
a pas sport- — h o w he h a d
that E n gl an d
was
still
some
of h i s
com e
to
o f f i c i a l l y at
43).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
174.
war w i t h France,
gre at e st
Calais
shift
quest
in the
in 1762,
til 1763.
for,
War,
but at
as does
se c o n d t ri p a b r o a d
T he
B e i n g d e n i e d the
may
s p e a k of a
ob ta i n it,
made the
hours,
was
s i t ti n g
l7~v,
and h e a d e d
for
time w i t h o u t
at
success
dinner
had
went
c e a s e d in the
not
that
t o ur
in t h e
Italy.
H o te l
salons,
Furthermore,
is f i c t i t i o u s ,
that
for we
city.
may be g i v e n b riefly.
with
which a traveller
visited,
to C a l a i s
sick,
first
it was not u n t i l
channel port
crossing
one,
in g e t t i n g
to hi s
he n e v e r v i s i t e d
authority
being
sig ne d u n ­
we f i nd h i m c r o s s ­
that
to
in R e n n e s
t he
to P a r i s
in the Paris
Journey
c o u n t r y w h i c h he h a s
twenty-one-mile
this
he
of Y o r i c k ' s
rightful
trip
such difficulties
a n d we k n o w
that
certain
outline
first
may h a v e
a c t u a l l y h a d to a p p l y for
of hi s
of h a v i n g b e e n
may be r e a s o n a b l y
These
to
a s e r i o u s m a t t e r to l a c k a
Sentimental
t o w a rd s Tu ri n ,
h a d b e en left
circumstance belongs
the a c c o u n t
in his
c r o s s e d to
of p e a c e w e r e
that h e h a d
the end of the
his a c c o u n t
at Paris.
of his
Sterne
This
turn b a c k
but
although hostilities
We k n o w that
ing S a v o y
his
count,
therefore be
it as he pr e t e n d s .
tour,
of a F r e n c h
the a r t i c l e s
is d o u b t f u l
to
and h o w he h a d
circumstances
It w o u l d
p assp or t.
it
knowledge,
euite
a ct u al
Seven Years*
but
for
reluctant
for h i m s e l f u p o n a r r i v i n g
b ee n the
early
h o w he was
a n d at
he
decided
of Dover.
in less
three
d'Angleterre
to
He
th a n
six
o'clock
of K. D e s s i n .
3.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Despite
the w e a l t h of
sta;r in the
adventures
town a m o u n t e d o n l y
first
night
he
the
spent
had the e x p e r i e n c e
s e v e n t h h o o k of T r i s t r a m
at
Montreuil
with
the d e a d
2
The
usual
ass
time of
The
at P a r i s
the
f rom Ami e ns
to P a r i s
a r r i v i n g late
there is none;
and of
the d i f f i c u l t i e s of
a few g o o d - n a t u r e d
are
the h i r i n g of L a F l e u r
w ou l d a ppeal
the
beggars
The
reckoned,
the
to
events
the first
t ended the
wards,
the
and of
exact
but
hints.
and
of the
of his f i r s t
and on his
Of
a l o n g the 7/ay
travel
events
travel l er ,
there
are
of the trip
a kind which
the
account
of
the d e a d ass.
time
three
encountered
thea tr e ,
travelled
at night.
two e p i s o d e s of
sentimental
the m a j o r p art
d ay he
The m a i n
in j o u r ­
or on the
c ould h a v e
s c e n e r y or of towns
but
The
j o u r n e y b y post was
Sterne
d e s c r i p t i o n of n a t u r a l
Shandy.
s e c o n d night he
but b y p u s h i n g on,
a day,
same
and its m a s t e r
three days,
in
"by the
and the f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g
very next post, N a m p o n t .
3
at A m i e n s ,
a n d the t h i r d e i t h e r
road not far off.
his
an h o u r , 1
set out for P a r i s
n e y i n g to the
spent
in Calais,
to a little o v e r
Slightly a f t e r f o u r o ' c l o c k he
route d e s c r i b e d in
experienced
fell
stay at P a r i s c a n n o t
of
days
chapters
conc er n s
in that m e t r o p o l i s .
the b a r b e r and
in w i t h
return home
the P a r i s
be
the fllle
the
de
d i s c o v e r e d his
On
grisset,
chambre
at­
after­
difficulties
1. v, 97.
0
v. 119.
3, v, 166.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
176.
over
the l a c k
Versailles
of a p a s s p o r t .
and
be t e m p t e d by
the
the
tling. a d i s p u t e
not
be
Fleur
Count
consecutive,
After
sequence.
t h is
Yorick
visited
r e t u r n e d to his r o o m
c h a m b r e . and retired after
the l a n d l o r d .
was
a holiday and
ment.”
de B i s s y ,
f i l l e de
with
O n the s e c o n d d a y he
a Sunday,
stayed
The
s o l v e d the
set­
w h i c h may
and Y o r i c k g r a n t e d La
at h o m e
d ay we l o s e
t h i r d day,
to
to la b or
o ver
the
"Frag­
t r a c k of t h e d e f i n i t e
riddle
t ime
of t h e w e l l - d r e s s e d b e g ­
gar and t r i u m p h e d in the P a r i s sa l on s "for t h r e e w e ek s to1
gether" b e f o r e s i c k e n i n g of the l i f e and t u r n i n g s o u t h w a r d
t ow a r d s
the " c h i l d r e n
of n a t u r e . "
The P a r i s b a c k g r o u n d
very
s k e t c h y but
adequate
t r a v e l l i n g to see
the
of
for
the Sent i m e n t a l
Sterne's
"sights,"
and
m e n t i o n e d only e n o u g h b u i l d i n g s ,
give
an air
of a c t u a l i t y to h i s
interested may tr ac e
as he w a l k e d h o m e
c h a m b r e . but
Having
1. V,
as
taken
at P ar i s,
to d e s c r i b e his
On his
f r o m the
way to L yons,
bridges,
%u a i
Conti
of
to
Sterne
the
up h a l f his
this
th e
t i me
Anyone
w i t h the
could have
to
who
Yorick's
he
is
s t e ps
f l l le jlfi
f o u n d his
city.
b o o k in r e c o u n t i n g the
S t e r n e h a d but
from
was not
and streets
narrative.
de
He
is
in a m o d e r n n o v e l
of P a r i s
a guide
journey
purpose.
old map
no c o n t e m p o r a r y
b o o k of m u c h use
happenings
on an
as
Journey
little
French
through
space
capital
Moulins
in w h i c h
into
Italy.
instead
375.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
Dijon,
as
in T r i s t r a m
S h a n d y . he r e c o r d e d
wit h M a r i a near M o u l i n s
on
the asce n t
of Mont
only an e n c o u n t e r
and a s u p p e r w i t h a p e a s a n t
Tarare.
This
family
time he d i d not
tarry
at Lyons,
able
where p r e v i o u s l y T ri st ra m h^d undergone a remark1
series of f r u s t r a t i o n s , bu t p r e s s e d on t o w a rd s Italy.
In m a k i n g
l ay e d
road
the
tri p
"between
and h a d
decent
scene
the m o u n t a i n s to Turin, he was de2
and M a d a n e ” by a hug e sto n e in the
St M i c h a e l
to
k i n d of
across
stop
an
short
inn by
of the b o o k
of his
destination
the r o a d s i d e . ”
t o o k place.
He r e
"at
a little
the final
A l t h o u g h we k n o w that
Sterne
in j o u r n e y i n g into Ita ly was h e l d at Pont de B e a u v o i s i n by a
3
flood, the i n c i d e n t h e r e r e c o r d e d as h a v i n g h a p p e n e d to h i m
seems
rathe r
to h a v e
b e f a l l e n his
friend John
"Pish"
Crau -
4
furd.
tion,
a brup t
An d
so w i t h
the most
a Shandean
original
anecdote
travel b o o k of
of b o r r o w e d
its
inspira­
time com e s
to
an
c o n c l us i on .
B.
The
t imen t al
S E N S I B I L I T Y — ITS
controlling
Journey
fact o r
in
the
PHYSICAL
composition
is S t e r n e ’s s e ns i b i l i t y .
Not
NATURE
of the S e n ­
only do e s
it
!• 3L..S.. VII, 30-40.
O f his s e c o n d trip to Lyons, on his way
to Italy, S t e r n e h a d writ te n : 11I h a d an a g r e e a b l e J o u r n e y
to Lyons, a n d a j o y o u s time there."
L e t t e r No. 153, to
P a nc h au d , Nov. 7, 1765, p. 262.
2. V, 410.
3. L e t t e r So. 154, to P a n c h a u d , Nov. 15, 1765, p. 263.
4. The s t o r y has b e e n t o l d by C r a u f u r d ’e valet, J o h n M a c ­
donald, M e m o i r s of an E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y F o o t m a n , ed. by
Joh n B e r e s f o r d , L o n d o n , 1927, pp. 86-87.
Cf. Cross, Life,
pp. 392- 9 3 w h e r e the a n e c d o t e is r e l a t e d in a b r i d g e d form
an d ci t e d as a source.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
c ontrol
cant
the
selection
o m i ss i on s ,
opinions
hut
of m a t e r i a l ,
also
w h i c h he has
it c auses h i m
expressed
s ev e nt h h o o k of T r l s t r a m or
as f e e l i n g b e c o m e s
ty br i n g s
a bo u t
the
have a d i s t i n c t l y
themes may h a v e
drawing upon
to make
m ore
observations.
It
that
is,
of the S e n t i m e n t a l
F irst
which
Sterne
can b e
some
of t h e s e
shown
for m a t e r i a l
which
to be
calculated
than d e p e n d i n g u p o n his o wn
in the
light
a ‘'sen t im e nt al "
W he n he w r o t e
that h e a r t
is not
that
me w re t c h e d ,
yet
the w o r st
I w o u l d not
the g r o s s e s t
sensualist
ever
his
feelings
" P r a i s e d be G o d f o r m y sensibility.'
the
situations
c o n s i d e r e d his
ney w o u l d " c o n v i n c e y o u that m y
not
sensibili­
of S t e r n e ’s
c o n s i d e r p r a c t i c a l l y all the h a p p e n i n g s
to write
valued possession.
and that
his
Journey.
of all,
enabled him
literature
in the
Furthermore,
Although
Sterne
therefore,
we must
or
with
either
t h a n fact,
quality.
feel r a t h e r
to d i f f e r
l etters.
of ideas
in fact,
contemporary
the r e a d e r
sensibility
important
literary
l e a d i n g to s i g n i f i ­
e ls e wh er e ,
in his
inclusion
a basis
thus
s e n s i b il it y ,
journey,
his most
SentImental
Jour-
are
from the heart,
1
of m o l d s - - " he added:
Though
it has
often made
e x c h a n g e it for all the p l e a s u r e s
2
felt."
S u c h a p o s s e s s i o n was
c o m m o n lot.
A l t h o u g h m a n y m i g h t have
3
of s e n s i bi l it y ,
S t e r n e b e l i e v e d the r e a l m a n
some p o r t i o n
of f e e l i n g
to
1. Q u o t e d above, Ch. Ill, 140.
2. L e t t e r No. 214, to Sir W i l l i a m S t an h o p e , Sept. 27, 1767,
p. 396.
3. See the " D e a r s e n s i b i l i t y " p a s s a g e q u o t e d below, p. 184.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
179.
be one
of a s e l e c t
few.
Thus,
when a r e m a r k of M a d a m e
de
I,*** *8 causes Y o r i c k
few who
feel
to blush, he l e a v e s the m o t i v e "to the
1
to a n a l y s e . "
A n d in the J o u r n a l to E l i z a he
observes:
What a stupid, s e l f i s h , u n s e n t i m e n t a l set of B e i n g s ar e the
B u l k of our SexJ by H e a v e n ! not one man out of 50, i n f o r m e d
with f e e l i n g s — or e n d o w ' d e i t h e r with h e a d s or h e a r t s able
to p o s s e s s and fill the m i n d of such a B e i n g as thee, with
one V i b r a t i o n like its o wn.^
It was
therefore
the extent
a matter
of hi s
these,
Journey
we may
sists but
two
Count,
and l oses h i m s e l f
cares
S terne
of the w o r l d
to make
sensibility
significant
to d e m o n s t r a t e
are
declarations.
By
Th e
picks
Sterne's
of the e c l e c t i c
first
up
occurs
a copy
in the d rama.
in
in the S e n dissecting
sensibility
composition
w h e n Y o r ic k ,
con­
of the
left
of M u c h Ado ab out N o t h i n g
T hi s
in the p l e a s u r e s
a long de claration
w h ic h he p o s s e s s e d
there
o n l y of what
something
Sent i ment al J o u r n e y .
alone by the
of his
s h o w not
also
with h i m
feelings.
Of the n a t u r e
t imental
of p r i d e
power
of the
of f o r g e t t i n g the
imagination
p r a i s e of this
causes
faculty,
to a h i g h deg re e .
Sweet p l i a b i l i t y of m a n ' s spirit, that can at o n c e s u r r e n d e r
i tself to il lu s i o n s , w h i c h c h e a t e x p e c t a t i o n and s o r r o w of
their w e a r y m o m e n t s i- — —L o n g — — l o n g since h a d he n u m b e r ' d out
my days, h a d 1 not t r o d so g r e a t a part of t h e m u p o n this
e n c h a n t e d ground; w h e n m y way is too r o u g h for m y feet, or
too steep for my s trength, I get of f it, tosome s m o o t h
vel-
1.
2.
V, 66.
June 25, pp. 3 6 4 - 6 5 . Cf. L e t t e r No. 229, to Dr. J o h n E u s t a c e ,
Feb. 9, 1768: " T h e r e is so l i t t l e true f e e l i n g in the
h e r d of the w o r l d . .." p. 411.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
vet p a t h w h i c h f a n c y h a s s c a t t e r e d over w i th r o s e b u d s of d e ­
light; and h a v i n g t a k e n a few turns in it, come b a c k
s t r e n g t h e n ’d a n d r e f r e s h 'd - - W h e n evils p r e s s sore u p o n me,
and there is no r e t r e a t f r o m t h e m in this world, t h en I take
a new c o u r s e — I l e a v e i t - - a nd as I h a v e a c l e a r e r i de a of the
e lysian f i e l d s t h a n I h a v e of h e a v en , I f o rc e myself, like
/Eneas, into t h e m — I see h i m m e e t the p e n s i v e shade of his
f o r s ak e n Dido, a n d w i s h to r e c o g n i z e it--I see the i n j u r e d
spirit w a ve h e r head, a nd t h e n t u r n off s i l e n t f r o m t h e au t ho r
of her m i s e r i e s a n d d i s h o n o u r s - - I lose the f e e l i n g s for m y s e l f
in h e r ' e , a n d in t h o s e a f f e c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e wont to m a k e me
m ourn for her w h e n I was at school.
S.urgl.y tfrig JL§. hflt w a l k i n g i_a
v a i n s h a d o w — n o r d o es man
di souiet hims elf in v a i n b y it — he o f t e n e r does so in t r u s t ­
ing the issue of h i s c o m m o t i o n s to r e a s o n on ly - -I can s a f e l y
say for m yself, I was n e v e r able to c o n q u e r any one single
bad s e n s a t i o n in my h e a r t so d e c i s i v e l y as by b e a t i n g up as
fas as 1 could for some k i n d l y a n d g e n t l e s e n s a t i o n to fight
it u p o n its o w n ground.^While w r i t i n g the
S ent i m e n t al
of m i n d that r e q u i r e d
pointed
out
in e d i t i n g
J o u r n e y . St e r n e
an e s c a p e
the
m ec ha n i s m .
neces si ty of
2
sick a n d t r o u b l e d mi n d.
T h a t he
certain
future
ness,
days
in a state
As Mr.
C u r t i s has
J o u r n a l .kfi. E l i z a , this p a s s a g e
an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e
made
was
by m a n y p a s s a g e s
such a d r e a m w o r l d
was
to his
s e e k i n g this r e f u g e
in t h e J o u r n a l .
which will br i n g him
is
Imagining
and Eliza together
is
the
in h a p p i ­
he writes;
--dear E n t h u s i a s m ^ — t h o u b r i n g s t th i ng s f o r w a r d s in a moment,
w hich Time k e e p s for A g e s b a c k — -I h a v e y o u ten t i m e s a day
b e s id es m e — I t a l k to Y o u E l i z a , for h o u r s t o g e t h e r - - I take
your C o u n c i l — I h e a r y o u r r e a s o n s — I a d m i r e y o u for themj
to this m a g i c of a w a r m Mind, I owe a.l^ t h a t ' s w o r t h l i v i n g
for, d u r i n g this S t a t e of our T r i a l - S uch p r a i s e
of e n t h u s i a s m
1. V, 291-92.
2. L e t t e r s . p.
3. June 12, p,
353,
356.
is r e m a r k a b l e
when
one
considers
n .2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
what
Sterne
has to
say on the
e n t h u s i a s m of the M e t h o d i s t s
subject
leads
in his
their
sermons.
feeble minds
The
astray
1
and
subjects
them to g r o s s
the J o u r n a l he
is t a k i n g
errors.
the
term
It is a p p a r e n t
en thus i asm not
of the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y A n g l i c a n divine,
modern meaning,
and
fact,
this
passage
later
exclamation
as e q u i v a l e n t
on
enthusiasm
to his
that
in t he
but m o r e
sense
in the
sen si b il it y .
is the r a w
in
In
substance of
the
2
And b o t h h a v e
m u c h in
the p l i a b i l i t y
common with
of t he
Elsewhere
the
in the J o u r n e y b e g i n n i n g " Dear
the p r e s e n t
declaration
on
spirit.
in the J o u r n a l S t e r n e r e m a r k s
sustaining power
sensibilityj"
of the
to E l i z a u p o n
imagination:
- - p o s s i b l y y o u m a y b e p r e c i s e l y e n g a g e d at this v e r y hour,
the same w a y — and t e l l i n g me some i n t e r e s t i n g S t o r y about
your h e a l t h , your, s u f f e r i n g s — y o u r h e a r t a c h e s — a n d other
Sensations which f ri en ds h i p - - a b s e n c e & U ncertai nt y create
w i t h i n You. for my own p a r t m y d e a r Eliza, I am a prey to
every t h i n g in its turn, & was it not for that sweet c l ew
of hope w h i c h is p e r p e t u a l [ l y 3 o p e n i n g me a W a y w h i c h is to
lead me to thee t hro all t h i s L a b y r i n t h - - w a s it not for
this, my Eliza.' h o w c o ul d I f i n d rest for this b e w i l d e r e d
h ea r t of m i n e ? ®
The
first
part
his
feelings
of this
quotation
for h i m s e l f
indicates how Sterne
in h er s , "
as he
did
in the
" lo s t
case
1.
of
Cf. S e r m o n No. 14, " S e l f - E x a m i n a t i o n , " IX, 234-35.
S t er ne
h e r e a d o p t s the c o n v e n t i o n a l e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y v i e w ag a i n s t e n t h u s i a s m , w h i c h is d e s c r i b e d by O l i v e r Elton,
" R e a s o n a n d E n t h u s i a s m in the E i g h t e e n t h Cent ur y ," See.ayg.
and S t u d i e s by M e m b e r s of t h e E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n X (1924),
122-36.
2. V, 395.
3. J une 27, pp. 365-66.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
182.
1
Dido.
The
greater
forced
into fancy:
the c ares
of the
world,
the more he was
hut a B o o k to w r i t e - - a W i fe to r e c e i v e & make Tr e a t i e s w it h - an e state to s e l l - - a P a r i s h to s u p e r i n t e n d - - a n d a d i s q u i e t e d
heart p e r p e t u a l l y to r e a s o n with, are e t e r n a l calls u p o n m e —
& yet I h a v e y o u more in m y m i n d than e ver a n d in p r o p o r t i o n
as I am thus torn f r o m y o u r embr&ces--_I c l in g the c lo s e r t o
the Idea of y o u .2
If there
is still
this p a s s a g e
in the J o u r n e y
the J o u r n a l ■ the
sipate
it,
any d o u b t
for
reference
that
the
Sterne
is
state of m i n d
to t h e e l y s i a n
in the J o u r n a l
considering
he
in
described
fields
in
should d i s­
writes:
But all our p o r t i o n is E v i l now, & all our h o u r s g r i e f — I
look f o r w a r d s t o w a r d s the E l y s i u m we h a v e so o f t e n a n d r a p ­
turously talk'd o f—
He even p r e p a r e s
a retreat
for his
future
life
with Eliza:
...it shall be as s e c l u d e d as the e l y s i a n f i e l d s — r e t i r e m e n t
is the n u r s e of L o v e and k i n d n e s s - - & I will Woo & caress
thee in i t — ^
S te r ne
pathetic
was
aspects
Tristram.
a g re a t b o r r o w e r
of the A E n e i d
of his
...was
Greeks
g r i e f for
and
the fall
and the
had already been employed
In the S en t im en t al J o u r n e y he
school he m o u r n e d for Dido,
tell
from hims e lf ,
in
tells how w h en at
in T r i s t r a m h e has U n c l e
Toby
of Troy:
I not as m u c h c o n c e r n e d for the d e s t r u c t i o n
and T r o i a n s as any bo y of the wh o le school?
of the
Had I
1.
Cf. his S h a k e s p e a r e a n e x p r e s s i o n of e m o t i o n u p o n r e a d i n g
her p a c k e t of l etters: 11111 love thee £s? iL&g. i^angg.Ufi.
jfchou h a s t i2a s t . "
J u l y 27, p. 381.
2. J u l y 7, p. 376.
3. Apr. 16, p. 323.
4. J ul y 5, p. 374.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
183.
not t h re e
b i t c h for
Nor
He
strokes
it?
is this
speaks
r eader
the
of a f e r u l a give m e . . . f o r
only
i d e a w h i c h he r e p e a t s h e r e
occasionally
of the p a s s a g e
ginning
of
the t r a v e l s
tram he p r a i s e s
his
calling Helen a
in t o ne s
in the
S ent imental
related
o w n g oo d
strangely
f r o m Tr i s t r a m .
familiar
J o u r n e y .,
in the s e v e n t h b o o k
to any
At
the b e ­
of T r i s ­
spirits:
I h ave m u c h - - m u c h to t h a n k 'em for: c h e e r i l y h a ve ye m a d e me
tread the p a t h of l i f e w i t h all the b u r t h e n s of it (except
the cares) u p o n my back; in no one mom e nt of my ex i st e n c e ,
that I re m e m b e r , h a v e ye once d e s e r t e d me, or t i n g e d the o b ­
jects w h i c h came my way, e i t h e r w i t h sable, or w i t h a sic k ly
g reen.^
Among
the r e a l i t i e s
to t ravel
of l i f e he r e a l i z e d that
such a p ath
as he h a d m a r k e d out,
few c o u l d hope
for
in a s e r m o n
he decl a re d ;
I own th e re are i n s t a n c e s of some, who seem to pass t h r o u g h
the w o r l d as if all t h e i r p a t h s h a d b e e n s t r e w e d w i th r o s e ­
buds of d e l i g h t ;- - b u t a l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e w il l c o n v i n c e us,
'tis a fatal e x p e c t a t i o n to go u p o n . ^
In this
lelism
paths
serious
of ph r a s e ,
if not
and S t e r n e
strengthening
reader will
a c o n t r a d i c t i o n of
strewn with r ose bu ds
the i m a g i n a t i o n ,
their
d e c l a r a t i o n the
of d e l i g h t
detect
a paral­
idea.
These
c o u l d be
w i s h e d to t r e a d
trod
them
only
often
in
for
a n d r e f r e s h i n g effect.
1. T.S.. Ill, 2 1 2 (vi, 32).
2. IV, 6 (vii, 1).
T h e w h o l e i d e a of the S e n t i m e n t a l .([<?.arney p a s s a g e s ee m s p r e s a g e d l a t e r in the same b o o k w h e n
he de c l a r e s : " . . . i n t o w h a t a d e l i c i o u s riot of t h i n g s am
I r u s h i n g ? I--I wh o m u s t be cut short in the m i d s t of my
days, a nd t a s t e no m o r e of 'em t ha n what I b o r r o w from
my imagination."
IV, 3 4 (vii, 14).
'
3. S e r m o n No. 15, " J o b ' s E x p o s t u l a t i o n w i t h his W ife," IX,
253.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
184.
As usual,
a n d his
»
sensi b il i ty , a fact w h i c h is e m p h a s i z e d by the s c r i p t u r a l
1
quotation, “S u r e l y this is not w a l k i n g in a v a i n s h a d o w . . . "
In r e al it y ,
ideas
then,
and b i t s
expression
Sterne
the
Is
c o n f o u n d i n g his
whole
of p h r a s i n g
passage
Later
in
of his
encounter
with Ma ria
Sterne
sensibility.
causes
of his
own
c o m b i n e d into an
sensibility.
the J o u r n e y
in p r a i s e
is a p a s t i c h e
w h i c h Ste rn e has
of t h o r o u g h g o i n g
religion
him
The
mak es
effect
another exclamation
u p o n Y o r i c k of the
to cry its pr a i s e s ;
D e a r s e n s i b i l i t y j s o u r c e i n e x h a u s t e d of all t h a t ' s p r e c i o u s
in our joys, or c o s t l y in o u r sorrows! t h o u c h a i n e s t thy m a r ­
tyr do w n u p o n his b e d of s t r a w — and 11 is t h o u who l i f t ' s t h i m
up to H E A V E N — E t e r n a l f o u n t a i n of our f eel i n g s 't is h e r e I
trace t h e e - - a n d this is thy " d i v i n i t y w h i c h stirs w i t h i n m e "--not, that in some sad and s i c k e n i n g m o m en ts , " m y soul s h ri nk s
back upon h e r s e l f . aa & startles
destruction"
mer e p o m p
of w o r d s J - - b u t that I feel som e g e n e r o u s c a r e s b e y o n d m y s e l f
all comes f r o m thee, g r e a t - — great S E N S O R I U M of the world.'
w hic h v i b r a t e s , if a h a i r of our he a d s b u t falls u p o n the
ground, in the r e m o t e s t d e s e r t of thy c r e a t i o n - - - ^
1. Ps. 39:6. S t e r n e m i s q u o t e s ; " S u r e l y ev e r y m a n w a l k e t h in a
v ain shew; s u r e l y t h e y a r e d i s q u i e t e d in vain."
The vers e
is u s e d ( w r o ng l y aga in ) in S e r m o n No. 22, "The H i s t o r y of
Ja c o b C o n s i d e r e d , " X, 18.
L a d y M a r y W o r t l e y M o n t a g u also
makes use of th i s w e l l - k n o w n s c r i p t u r a l p a s s a g e ; "Does not
K i n g D a v i d say s o m e w h e r e t h a t Man w a l k e t h in & v a i n s h e w ?
I t h i n k he does, a nd I a m s u r e this is p e c u l i a r l y tru e of
the F r e n c h m a n — -but he w a l k s m e r r i l y and seems to e n j o y the
vision, and m a y he not t h e r e f o r e be e s t e e m e d m o r e h a p p y
than our s o l i d t h i n k e r s . . . " to Pope, 1718.
L e t t e r s I, 275.
2. V, 395-96.
The italicized words " d i v i n i t y
Jifi" and
s o u l . . .d e s t r u c t i o n " S t e r n e h a s i n t r o d u c e d f r o m A d d i s o n ' s
Cat o ;
.
W h y s h r i n k s the soul
B a c k on h e r s e l f , a n d s t a r t l e s at d e s t r u c t i o n ?
•Tis the d i v i n i t y t h a t sti r s w i t h i n us.
(Act V, sc. i, 11. 5-7).
S o u r c e p o i n t e d out b y Read, ed.
S ent i ment al J o u r n e v . p. 230, n.46.)
A p p a r e n t l y he h a s done
this for the p u r p o s e of b r i n g i n g the r e a d e r up shor t w i t h
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
185.
This
exclamation
is of m u c h
s e ns i toi 1 i t y 11 p a s s a g e .
u pon the value
on the point,
the
In it,
in v a r i o u s
"Sternal
convinced
These
S te r n e ' s
nature.
"vibrates"
to
b een
that
wo r d s
the
touches
The p o w e r s
are a l l o t t e d
s e n s i b i l i t y was
of
of
to
but
of
S t e r ne
a m o n g the g r e a t ­
sensibility
distinguishing
The
erotic,
"sensation,"
importance
the p h y s i c a l ,
touched upon
p l i a b i li ty "
origin.
from a c le r gy m an ,
its p h y s i c a l ,
of the
indicates
with
coming
s h o w t hr e e
b i l i t y upon the body.
course,
t h o u gh he
from heaven and
declarations
sensibility,
Th e us e
less
God h a d to grant.
two
are s u f f i c i e n t
divine
insists
T h e s e r e f e r e n c e s to H e a v e n as the
1
of our f e e l i n g s ] " and " g r e a t S E N S O R I U M
the w o r l d ] " se e m s t r a n g e
est gifts w h i c h
Sterne
“ sweet
ways.
fountain
was e v i d e n t l y
as the
as an escape,
its
feel i ng o u t s i d e o n e s e l f come
many
however,
of s e n s i b i l i t y
and more upon
same n a t u r e
erotic
is less
of t h e
element,
to S t e r n e ' s
as p e c t s
of
and religious
"sensorium,"
effect
connected,
r e l a t i o n of
f e e l i n g for Eliza.
and
of s e n s i ­
c o n s p i c u o u s here,
in d e m o n s t r a t i n g the
passage
taken t o g e t h e r
of
but
has
the " sw e e t
A n d the
(cont'd fr o m p. 184) the p h r a s e " - - - m e r e po m p of words.'"
w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s the s i n c e r i t y of what follows.
Cf. his
d i s q u i s i t i o n on "tw o sor ts of e l o q u e n c e , " one of w h i c h
" c on s i s t s c h i e f l y in l a b o u r e d and p o l i s h e d p e r io d s, an
o v e r - c u r i o u s a n d a r t i f i c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t of figures,
t i n s e l l ' d ov e r w i t h a g a u d y e m b e l l i s h m e n t of words, w h i c h
glitter, but c o n v e y l i t t l e or no light to the u n d e r s t a n d ­
ing," and the o t h e r a " s u r p r i s i n g m i x t u r e of s i m p l i c i t y
and majesty" such as is f o u n d in the S c r i p t u r e s .
Sermon
No. 42, " S e a r c h t h e S c r i p t u r e s , " X, 329-30.
1. Cf. " E t e r n a l f o u n t a i n of h a p p i n e s s ] "
V, 154.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
186.
conception
of its
divine
scriptural
quotation
a fundamental part
Perhaps
virtuous
i n c re as e
the most
feelings
the p l e a s u r e
the Sent imental
go od d i n n er
sho w that
St e r n e
introduction
considered
of
sensibility
of r e l i g i o n .
S t e r n e ’s s e n s i b i l i t y
The
o r i g i n and the
evident
dist in gu ishing mark
is its r e l a t i o n to the p h y s i c a l
affect
the body
greatly.
J o u r n e y . Sterne
Thus,
in
of
self.
such a way as
to
at the b e g i n n i n g
of
sits at
table
filled with a
and k i n d l y t h o u g h t s towards t he F r e n c h k i n g a n d
men in g e n er a l.
Why,
he w o n d e r s ,
do m e n
quarrel
over
worldly
goods?
W hen m a n is at p e a c e w i t h man, h o w m u c h l i g h t e r t h a n a f e a t h e r
is the h e a v i e s t o f m e t a l s in hi s hand.1 he p u l l s out his purse,
and h o l d i n g it a i r i l y and u n c o m p r e s s ' d , look s r o u n d him, as if
he soug h t for an o b j e c t to s h a r e it w i t h . - - I n d oi n g this, I
felt ev e r y v es s e l in my f ra m e d i l a t e — the a r t e r i e s b e a t all
c h e e r i l y toget he r , a n d e v er y p o w e r w h i c h s u s t a i n e d life, p e r ­
f o r m e d it w i t h so l i t t l e frict io n , that 't w o u l d h a v e c o n ­
f o u n d e d the most o h v s i c a l o r e c i e u s e in France: w i t h all her
m a t e r i a l i s m , she c o u l d s c a r c e h a v e c a l l e d me a m a c h i n e
I ’m
c onfident, said I to m y s e l f , I shou l d h a v e o v e rs et h e r creed.
Such a d o c t r i n e w a s r e l a t e d in part to the d o c t r i n e s of
2
S h a f t e s b u r y and of Loc ke , w h o s e " s e n s a t i o n a l i s m " S t e r n e h a d
1. V, 7-8.
2. S h a f t e s b u r y was not e n t i r e l y to b l am e , for his was a l o f t y
c o n c e p t i o n of h u m a n i t y .
"B y his own theory, v i r t u e , a c ­
c o r d i n g to S h a f t e s b u r y , was its own reward, a n d t h e r e was
c o i n c i d e n t to v i c e a k i n d of inner r e p u l s i o n tha t was a n y ­
t h i n g but p l e a s u r a b l e .
T h a t he m e a n t t h e r e b y to s u g g e s t
the p e r f o r m a n c e of v i r t u o u s acts, the e x e r c i s e of c o m p a s ­
sion, and the d i s p e n s i n g of b e n e f a c t i o n s for the sake of
the t i t i l l a t i v e r e a c t i o n w o u l d b e u n t h i n k a b l e , so c h a s t e
and a u s t e r e was hi s c o n c e p t i o n of virt u e; but that he di d
in r e a l i t y g i v e a b e t m e n t to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the f e e l ­
ings for their o w n sake is b e y o n d p e r a d v e n t u r e . "
W.E.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
absorbed..
But
even, m o r s
the
f i r m ed hi m in h i s b e l i e f .
his
lif e a si ck man,
nave
made his
fects
than a s c h o l a r
ing of
and his
in w o r k i n g t o w a r d s
c au s e d by v i r t u o u s
thought.
J ournev
In one
is that
re m e m b e r ,
condition
to
"blood"
frame,
was
all
seems
to
ef­
e x p r e s s e d at
a par t
of his- first
a n d " ar t er i e s "
and the
but t h e fac t must
batch
feel­
be m e n t i o n e d
of S t e r n e ’s s e n s i b i l i t y . 1
of t he p l e a s i n g p h y s i c a l
is al s o
con­
of a p h y s i c i a n r a t h e r
t h r o u g h hi s
resul ts ,
thoughts
s e ns e s
to the p h y s i c a l
a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g
This doctrine
Sent i m e nt a l
sensitive
frequent references
which
we mu st
own
the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S t e r n e ' s
and "vibrations"
" ha r mo ny "
of his
consumptive
The problem
to d e t e r m i n e
a n d his
and "pulse"
Sterne,
body peculiarly
of e m o t i o n s .
disease
evidence
sensations
the b e g i n n i n g
of the
of S t e r n e ' s r e l i g i o u s
of p u b l i s h e d s e r m on s
he
h ad writt en ;
S h o u l d not c h a r i t y a n d g o o d - w i l l , l i k e the p r i n c i p l e of life,
c i r c u l a t i n g t h r o u g h the s m a l l e s t v e s s e l s in eve r y member,
ought it not to o p e r a t e as r e g u l a r l y u p o n you, t h r o u g h o u t ,
as we ll u p o n y o u r w o r d s as u p o n y o u r a c t i o n s ? 2
( c o n t ’d fr om p. 186) A l d e r m a n , " S h a f t e s b u r y a n d the D o c ­
t r i n e of B e n e v o l e n c e in th e E i g h t e e n t h C en t ur y ," T r a n s ­
a c t i o n s of the Wi s c on s i n A c a d e m y of S c i en c es . AlJLs.. ftfr.4.
L e t t e r s X X V I (1931), 156.
See al so the same a u t h o r ' s
" S h a f t e s b u r y a n d the D o c t r i n e of M o r a l Sen se in the
E ig hteenth Century,"
XLV I (1931), 1 0 8 7 - 9 4 ; and
C .A. Moore, " S h a f t e s b u r y and the E t h i c a l P o e t s in E n g ­
land, 1 7 0 0 - 1 7 6 0 , " P .M.i. ^ . X X X I (1916), 2 6 4 - 3 2 5 .
1. S t e r n e '8 c o n c e r n for his b o d i l y c o n d i t i o n a c c o u n t s for the
m a n y r e f e r e n c e s to h e a l t h in his w r i t i n g s .
See e s p e c i a l l y
Mr. S h a n d y ' s a p o s t r o p h e to h e a lt h, .X..S,. Ill, 97 (v, 33).
A l s o IV, 5-6 (vii, l ) . L i b e r t y a n d h e a l t h are l i n k e d as
s i s t er p a s s i o n s in
I, 149 - 5 0 (ii, 4) an d .S.jI. V, 242.
2. S e r m o n No. 11, " E v i l - S p e a k i n g , " IX, 180.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
188.
Elsewhere
that
in his
sermons
he
soul a n d b o d y m u t u a l l y
e x p r e s s e d the
affect
one
firm c o n v i c t i o n
another.
A n d if it was n e c e s s a r y here, or th e r e was time to r e f i n e
upon t h i 8 d o c t r i n e , one m i g ht f u r t h e r maintain, e x c l u s i v e of
the h a p p i n e s s w h i c h the m i n d i t s e l f feels, in the e x e r c i s e of
this virtue, that the v e r y b o d y of m a n is never in a b e t t e r
state t h a n w h e n he is most i n c l i n e d to do go od o f f i c e s : - - that
as n o t h i n g mo r e c o n t r i b u t e s to h e a l t h t h a n a b e n e v o l e n c e of
temper, so n o t h i n g g e n e r a l l y is a s t r o n g e r i n d i c a t i o n of it.
And what see ms to c o n f i r m this opinion, is an o b s e r v a t i o n ,
the t r u t h of w h i c h m u s t b e s u b m i t t e d to every one's r e f l e c ­
ts on — n a m e l y — that a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n and a b a c k w a r d n e s s to do
good, is o f t e n a t t e n d e d , if not p ro d u c e d , by an i n d i s p o s i t i o n
of the a n i ma l as we l l as r a t i o n a l part of us i— So n a t u r a l l y
do the soul an d bod y, as in o t h e r case s so in this, m u t u a l l y
b ef r i e n d , or p r e y u p o n e a c h other.
And indeed, s e t t i n g a si d e
all a b s t r u s e r r e a s o n i n g u p o n the point, 1 cannot c o n c e i v e but
that the v e r y m e c h a ni cal m o t i o n s w h i c h m a i n t a i n life, m u s t be
p e r f o r m e d w i t h m o r e e q u a l v i g o u r and f r e e d o m in that m a n who m
a great a n d g o o d s o u l p e r p e t u a l l y i n c l i n e s to s h o w m e r c y to
the m i s e r a b l e , th a n t h e y ca n b e in a poor, sordid, s e l f i s h
wretch, wh o s e l i t t l e c o n t r a c t e d h ea r t m e l t s to no m a n ’s a f ­
f liction; but s i t s b r o o d i n g so i n t e n t l y over its own p l o t s
and concerns, as to s ee and feel n o t h i n g b e y o n d h i m s e l f . . .
W ha t d i v i n e s say of the mind, n a t u r a l i s t s hav e o b s e r v e d of
the body; that t h e r e is no p a s s i o n so n a t ur a l to it as love,
w h i c h is the p r i n c i p l e of d o i n g g o o d. ^
And
Sterne
so by k e e p i n g his
is a m p l y
heart
o p e n as he t r a v e l s
r e w a r d e d by h e a l t h a n d
along,
goo d spirits.
The p l e a s u r e of the e x p e r i m e n t has k e p t my sense a n d the best
part of m y b l o o d a w a k e , a n d l a i d the g r o s s to sleep.
Th i s
differentiates
traveller
his
as S m o l l e t t ,
work
f r o m that
w h o m he
tel ls
of
such a s p l e n e t i c
3
to see a p h y s i c i a n .
1.
On
S e r m o n No. 5, "Th e Cas e of E l i j a h and the W i d o w of Z a r e p h a t h C o n s i d e r e d , " IX, 8 3 — 85.
Cf. S e r m o n No.
15, " J o b ' s
E x p o s t u l a t i o n w i t h his Wife, " IX, 252.
2. S.. £. V, 98.
3. The same a d v i c e of s e e k i n g m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d
S m o l l e t t is o f f e r e d b y S t e r n e in hi s sermons to the M e t h o d ­
ist, who in his p s y c h o p a t h i c s t a t e is "a fitter s u b j e c t for
t r e a t m e n t of a P h y s i c i a n th a n a D i v i n e . "
S e r m o n No. 25,
" H u m i l i t y , " X, 74.
Cf. S e r m o n No. 38, "On E n t h u s i a s m , "
X, 285.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
several
occasions
ple as u re
lady
join
t h r o u g h his
J o u r n e y S te r n e
f r o m his f e e l i n g for others.
in a r g u m e n t
while Y o r i c k
contends
against
Yorick,
against
it,
When
derives
physical
the m on k and the
p r o t e s t i n g his
i nn o c e n c e
he declares:
I k n e w not that c o n t e n t i o n c o u l d "be r e n d e r e d so sweet
p l e a s u r a b l e a t h i n g to the n e r v e s as I then felt it.l
Such a c o u r t e o u s
dispute
in s w e e t e n i n g s o c i a l
is
c l o s el y akin to
relationships,
and
the f l a t t e r y u s e d
and of f l a t t e r y
Sterne
remarks:
D e l i c i o u s essence! h o w r e f r e s h i n g art t ho u to nature! how
s t ro n gl y are all its p o w e r s and all its w e a k n e s s e s on thy
side! h o w s w e e t l y dost t h o u m i x w it h the blood, and help
it t h r o u g h the most d i f f i c u l t a nd tortuous p a s s a g e s to the
h e a r t !^
These p e r h a p s
are o d d w o r d s
in the p u l p i t
that
b uilt u p o n one of
i s ), — s e l f - l o v e , "
the
the h u m a n h e a r t .
flattery,
he w o u l d
"the M o r a l
d e c e i t f u l of h u m a n p a s s i o n s —
they are
s erver of
that
had remarked
“f l a t t e r i n g p r o p e n s i t y w i t h i n u s . . . i s
the m o s t
but
for a c l er g y m a n who
never,
Virtues
nat ur a l ones
In r e a l i z i n g the
like
are
(that
to a close o b ­
importance
the cyni ca l M a n d e v i l l e ,
of
assert
the P o l i t i c a l O f f s p r i n g w h i c h
A
Flattery begot upon P r i d e , "
that
f l a t t e r y has
f e el i ng s
fore,
but
its p l e a s a n t
w h i c h it b r i n g s
to
i n s t e a d he
a s p e ct s
it
the a t t i t u d e
in the p l e a s u r a b l e
the flatte re d .
in o r d i n a r y i n t e r c o u r s e ,
t ak e s
conta i ns
W h e n used,
there­
nothing objection­
able.
1.
2.
3.
4.
V , 66.
V, 367.
S er m o n No. 34, "Trust in God," X, 214.
F a b l e of the Bees. ed. b y F . B . K a y e , O x f o r d ,
1924,
2 vols.,
"inquiry ,“’rT , “ BTT
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
It was
S t e r n e ’s wish, in his
these p l e a s u r a b l e
could not
was
emotional
c o n t i n u a l l y be
states
there are
And so,
always
when
to rec o ve r
pleasant
his
i n tr o du c e
Sterne
bound
is p ut
the
of
“T h e r e
ebbs
the
i s ,"
of
states
Naturally
he
if he
of humor,
scheme
tried.
t ra v el l er ,
if he will but
seek
he al w ay s
but
them.
contrives
says Yorick,
the
"no r e g u l a r
1
of our h u m o u r s . "
It is,
Sentimental
Yet
in a h i g h l y
Journey
of d i s c o r d and h armony.
i r r i t a t e d b y r e c o l l e c t i o n of
a good d in ne r
sits
the
of
but his
enjoy himself
disconcert
a n d f lo w s
d 1a u b a i n e . but
as he
of delight,
as m a n y
by o v e r c o m i n g or s u p e r s e d i n g u n ­
scheme
alternately
is first
to
out
good s p i r i t s
elements.
p a rt
co ul d
counter-irritants
Sterne
reasoning upon
however,
are
as possible.
in a state
to s h ow ho w a t r a v e l l e r
Certain h a p p e n i n g s
tour to i n d u c e
mood,
Thus
the dro i t
and k i n d l y t h o ug ht s
charitable
to
one
succeed.
in which,
had he b e e n K i n g of F r a n c e ,
he w o u l d r e a d i l y h av e p r e s e n t e d
an or p h a n
portmanteau,
w i t h his f a t h e r ' s
humor by his
f irst
mood he f i n d s
encounter with
the d e s o b l i g e a n t
he is
the F r a n c i s c a n .
Ma da m e
a nd his
of
with
the
a f t e r his
agreeable
t 8 t e — a — t§te w i t h
r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h the F r a n c i s c a n
disobliging
vehicle
arouses
a
"disagreeable
1." V, 11.
2.
V,
of
%
but
the sight
out
In this
"in t o l e r a b l e h a r m o n y "
p
his f e e l i n g s ,
de L***
t h ro wn
27.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
191.
1
s e n s a t i o n 1 w i t h i n him.
cycles,
eac h b e g i n n i n g
Various
a l o n g the r o a d
motion
of t h e
the b e g g a r s ,
than
ever
tinues
lash to
c a u s e hi s
he l e a p s
I got
ass an d his
and
experiences
chaise.
merrily
Thus
into
he
to w h i c h Y o r i c k
sensitive
frame
his
way.
is
two
subjected
to rea c t
E x h i l a r a t e d b y his
into
completes
e n d i n g with pleas u re .
to the
encounter with
post-chaise
a post-chaise
on his
master,
at C a l ai s
After
" wi t h more ease
2
in my life," and c o n ­
the
episode
Y o r i c k 1& p o s t i l l i o n
give s
of the
dead
"an u n f e e l i n g
each
of h i s b e a s t s , a n d sets off c l a t t e r i n g like a
3
thousand devils,"
but Y o r i c k ' s soul c r i e s out for "gra v e
and quiet
movements"
had e x p e r i e nc ed whe n
running
ship
through his
of m o t i o n
theories
and
and
occurs
to h a r m o n i z e
with
it,
such as T r i s t r a m
jogging a long with Uncle Toby's amours
4
head.
T h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n ­
emotion
several
is one
times
of S t e r n e ' s
favorite
5
in Tris tram S h a n d y .
But
1. V, 83. T h i s d i s c o r d or h a r m o n y w i t h an e x t e r n a l obje ct or
w i t h h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s is e m p h a s i z e d l a t e r w h e n a f t e r p a r t ­
ing w i t h t h e fille de c h a m b r e at the gat e of the hotel,
S t e r n e f i n d s it i m p o s s i b l e to r e t u r n to h i s room, as any
one who " k n o w s the hea rt " w o u l d r e a l i z e at once:
" — it
was t o u c h i n g a c o l d k e y w i t h a flat t h i r d to it, u p o n the
c l o s e of a p i e c e of m u s i c , w h i c h h a d c a l l ' d f o r t h my a f ­
f e c t i o n s - - " p. 319.
S u c h ima ge s fr om m u s i c or from p a i n t ­
ing are c o m m o n in S t e rn e , who c o n f o u n d s the arts g l o r i o u s l y .
2. V, 133.
3. V, 145.
4. T.S.. IV, 275 (ix, 24).
5. " - - T h a t b r i s k t r o t t i n g and sl o w a r g u m e n t a t i o n , like wit
and j u dg m en t, w e r e two i n c o m p a t i b l e m o v e m e n t s . "
I,
33 (1, 10).
" T h e m o t i o n [of the c h a i s e ] was most r a p i d —
m o 6 1 i m p e t u o u s — — 't w a s c o m m u n i c a t e d to my b r a i n —— my h e a r t
p a r t o o k of it."
Ill, 7 (v, 1). " W h e n the p r e c i p i t a n c y of
a m a n ' s w i s h e s h u r r y on his ideas n i n e t y time s f a s t e r than
the v e h i c l e he r i d e s i n - " W O e h e to t r u t h ! 1* IV, 22 (vii, 8).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
192.
these
quiet
from his
Later,
movements
m o o d of
season
dejects
his
the tale,
of
tion u p o n
further
the
one of his
also
into
journey
enjoyment
been
the
for a gallop.
e n j o y i n g the l o v e l y
"languid"
he
is
as he w r i t e s
"totally u n ­
the b e a u t i f u l
Sterne's belief
registered
jarred
encounter with Maria
continues,
of
he has t e e n
a preference
w h e r e Y o r i c k h ad
soul w e r e
sermons
get u n t i l
His p u l s e b e a t s
and as his
It wa s
not
the B o u r t o n n a i s ,
spirit.
f itted" f o r
does
sensibility
near Uoulins,
vintage
he
that
the
countryside.1
effects
visibly upon
of e m o ­
the body.
In
he wrote:
...In the p r e s e n t sta t e we are in, we f i n d suc h a s t r o n g s y m ­
p ath y and u n i o n b e t w e e n ou r souls and bodies, that the one
cannot be t o u c h e d or s e n s i b l y a f fe ct e d, w i t h o u t p r o d u c i n g
some c o r r e s p o n d i n g e m o t i o n in the o t h e r .- - N a t u r e has a s s i g n ' d
a d i f f e r e n t look, tone of voice, a n d gesture, p e c u l i a r to
every p a s s i o n a n d a f f e c t i o n we are subject to; and, t h e r e f o r e ,
to argue a g a i n s t th i s stric t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w h i c h is h e l d b e ­
tween our soul s a n d b o d i e s , — is d i s p u t i n g a g ai n st the fra me
and m e c h a n i s m of h u m a n n a t u r e . - - W e are not angels, but- men
c lothed w i t h b o d i e s , and, in some measure, g o v e r n e d by our
i m a g i n a t i o n s , that we h a v e n e e d of all these ex t e r n a l helps
w h i c h n a t u r e has m a d e the i n t e r p r e t e r s of ou r t h o u g h t s . ^
This
c o n c e p t i o n of
to S t e r n e ' s
f anat i c w e r e
relation
of body
and
soul
is f u n d a m e n t a l
sensibility.
There
in Sterne,
the
is,
The
however,
n o t h i n g of
r o l l i n g eyes
abominable
the r e l i g i o u s
and m u s c u l a r
enthusiast
contortions
of
the
to him.
When a p o o r d i s c o n s o l a t e d d r o o p i n g c r e a t u r e is t e r r i f i e d f r o m
all e n j o y m e n t , - - p r a y s w i t h o u t c e a s i n g till his i m a g i n a t i o n is
1. V, 381, 395.
2, S e r mo n No. 43,
"Worship,"
X,
344-45.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
h e a t e d , - - f a s t s and m o r t i f i e s
a n d mopes, till his b o d y is in
as bad a p l i g h t as his mind; is it a won de r , that the m e c h a n i ­
cal d i s t urb s.n c e s and c o n f l i c t s of an em p t y belly, i n t e r p r e t e d
by an e m p t y head , s h o u l d be m i s t o o k for w o r k i n g s of a d i f f e r ­
ent k i n d f r o m wh at t h e y are?^
Although Sterne does
not b e l i e v e
frame
exist
"that
a t ru l y
religious
2
of m i n d
his own
should
without
outward manifestations
some
outward mark
were of a gentler,
of
it,"
more r e ­
fined nature.
This
in the
theory
is
behind Sterne's method
Sent iment al J o u r n e y .
gestures
and
they r e c o r d
tones
t he
stat e
T ri s t r a m S h a n d y or
posturing
of v o i c e
of a c t u a l i t y ,
an d
J o u r n e v . w h e r e he
the
has
a real
occasion
For
interest
the O o e r a - C o m i a u e . "if ton es
c e r t a i n l y t h e y have,
As they
search
is sure
sam e d e v i c e
takes
Any
m a k e s use
s e r v a t i o n to s e n s i b i l i t y .
the g r i s s e t
soul.
sermons
of w h i c h S t e r n e
unless
noting
of lo o k s
is b a s e d u p o n the b e l i e f
of the
the
His d e l i c a t e
of o b s e r v a t i o n
that
careful reader
to n o t i c e
the
and
of
constant
in c r e a t i n g an i m p r e s s i o n
is u s e d
in the Sent i m e n t a l
to r e l a t e
example,
he
this c a r e f u l
feels
ob­
c e r t a i n that
in d i r e c t i n g h i m p r o p e r l y to
and m a n n er s h a v e
to h e a r t s w h i c h
in v a i n for a p a i r
of g l o v e s
a m e an in g ,
shut
which
which
3
them out--"
fit,
he r e ­
marks :
1.
S e r m o n No. 25, " H u m i l i t y , " X, 74.
Cf. S e r m o n No. 14, "SelfE x a m i n a t i o n , " IX, 234-3 5; No. 37, " P e n a n c e s , " X, 255; No.
38, " O n E n t h u s i a s m , " X, 269ff.
Cf. a l s o c e r t a i n p a s s a g e s
in T r i s t r a m ; II, 129 (iii, 38), "W h i t e f i e l d •s d i s c i p l e s " ;
IV, 2 2 3 (ix, 1), Mrs. S h a n d y a n d d e v o t i o n a l tracts.
2. S e r m o n No. 43, " W o r s h i p , " X, 352.
3. V, 180.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
194.
There are c e r t a i n c o m b i n e d l o o k s of simple s u b t l e t y
where
whim, and sense, a n d s e r i o u s n e s s , and n o n s e n s e are so
blended, that all the l a n g u a g e s of Babel set l o o s e t o g e t h e r
could not e x p r e s s t h e m - - t h e y ar e c o m m u n i c a t e d and c a ug h t so
i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , that y o u c a n s c a r c e say w h i c h p a r t y is the
inf e c t o r . 1
And
in the
t h e a t r e he r e ad s t h e
through his
movements,
mi n d of t h e F r e n c h
t h o u g h not
a word
of f i c e r
is spoken.
There is not a s e c r e t so a i d i n g to the p r o g r e s s o f sociality,
as to get m a s t e r of this short h a n d . and be q u i c k in r e n d e r ­
ing the s e v e r a l turns of l o o k s a n d limbs, w i t h all t he i r i n ­
flections a n d d e l i n e a t i o n s , into p l a i n words.
F o r my own
part, by l o n g h a b i t u d e , I do it so m e c h a n i c a l l y , that w h e n I
walk the s t r e e t s of L o n d on . 1 go t r a n s l a t i n g all the way; and
have more than o n c e sto o d b e h i n d in the circle, wher e not
three wor ds h a v e b e e n said, and h a v e b r o u g h t off t w e n ty d i f ­
ferent d i a l o g u e s w i t h me, w h i c h I could h a v e f a i r l y w r o t e
down a n d s w o r n to. ^
It was
thus,
he
cicisbeo
to
with the
fille
says,
de
half
L* * * 9
1. v,
of those
to e n j o y p l a y i n g the
at Milan.
His
the b o o k s e l l e r s ' s
W h e n he p u t s
me
thankful
i t s e l f d o w n — — the b o d y
shop l e a d s
a crown
more a humble
quiet,
encounter
in h e r
courtesy
than a
sinkin g s,
does no m o r e
to
where
th a n
tell
I never gave
a girl a c r o w n in my li f e w h i c h g a v e me
3
the p l e a s u r e . "
The l o o k of r e s i g n a t i o n u p o n the face
the
l o o k of s o r r o w u p o n
the
face
of Madame
de
a n d the
193.
V, 2 00-01.
ject, III,
5. V, 223.
2.
gi rl m a d e
one
bows
of the monk,
**
in
of m o v e m e n t .
't w a s
the s p i r i t
it.
chambre
M the y o u n g
low o n e —
was able
the M a r q u i s i n a di F***
a nother r e a d i n g
purse,
that he
Cf.
Mr.
Shandy's humorous
o p i n i o n on
the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
sub-
carefully
h app y
was
described
look never
a constant
varying
less
changed,
source
feelings
when L a F l e u r
are
hears
in F r a n c e
c o n c e r n by
to d e n o t e
character.
and h is
of h a p p y
shown
during
inspiration
steps
he
philosophy"
1
Yorick, his
to
gestures.
master's
wartime,
taking three
"complexional
in h is
of his
A lt ho ug h La Fleur's
plight
For
example,
in b e i n g p a s s p o r t -
instinctively
sho ws his
t o w a r d s h i m " w i t h tha t
sort
of
2
movement
Upon
model
this r e a d i n g
his
the D u e
ways
w h i ch a good
face,
Choiseul,
in w h i c h h e
is
gestures
Yorick
As he
j o u r ne ys
to V e r s a i l l e s
address
w r on g .
is ab l e
one."
to
to
see
in his m i n d the v a r i o u s
the Due.
He mu s t
ton e
a distress'd
and
he r e h e a r s e s
might
and
to succour
Th i s
procedure,
wait and r e a d
of s p e e ch ,
and then
he
the Due ' s
formulate
his
accordingly.
The
e m o ti on s
Whi le
all
posture,
petition
of look s
own b e h a v i o r .
de
r eflects,
soul m a k e s
is
othe r
emphasis
one
countered along
or
enjoyment
of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mar k s
travellers
read t h r o u g h h i s
treatment
u p o n the p h y s i c a l
sign
the
read
inscriptions
language
way.
criticized
While
the hear t s
others
the h a b i t s
of the t en d e r
of S t e r n e ' s
on b u i l d i n g s ,
of
t h o s e he
complained
and c u s t o m s
work.
S t er n e
en­
of m i s ­
of the
natives,
1. V, 115-1 6 .
T h e p h r a s e " c o m p l e x ! o n a l p h i l o s o p h y " is f o r e ­
s h a d o w e d in t h e sermons.
Cf. No. 15, " J o b ' s E x p o s t u l a t i o n
with his W i f e " : " . . . s u c h a c o m p l e x i o n a l ease a n d h e a l t h of
h e a r t . . . " IX, 252; and No. 19, " F e l i x ’s B e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s
Paul, E x a m i n e d " : " . . . s o m e t h i n g of his own c o m p l e x i o n a l
tint and c h a r a c t e r . " IX, 30 9.
2. V, 233.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sterne
ever
rejoiced
open.
among
the
in l i t t l e
There
were
dramatists,
of s e n s i b i l i t y a n d
but
none
extract
self.
of S t e r n e ' s
by
some.
limbs
of
these
to p o r t r a y
notably
characters
from c e r t a i n
of e m o t i o n
libe ra l use
as
time,
of
i n d i c a ti o ns
was
to
situations,
the p h y s i ­
tears
and
swell
of emotion,
but
l a c k the d e l i c a t e p a r t i c u l a r i t y
of e m o t i o n a l
feelings
effe ct s u p o n his
was u n d e r s t o o d well
body.
e n o ug h
Mandeville,
" w h e t h e r he
two p a s s i o n s
most
s e nt i me n t
manifestations
of the
anxious
They made
recording
The m e c h a n i s m
as
same r e l a t i o n
ing h e a r t s a n d t r e m b l i n g
these g e n e r a l
to whic h hi s h e a r t
o th e r a u t h o r s
just
achieved the
cal a n d moral
incidents
of the
will
w h o b e l i e v e d the p a s s i o n s g o v e r n e d man
2
or no," n o t e d the p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s of the
w h i c h he
c o n s i d e r e d as c o n t a i n i n g the
seeds
of
s o - c a l l e d virtues.
W h e n a ma n is o v e r w h e l m ' d w i t h Shame, he o b s e r v e s a s i n k i n g
of the Spirits; the H e a r t fee ls cold a nd c on d e n s e d , and the
B l o o d flies f r o m it to the C i r c u m f e r e n c e of t h e Body; the
Face glows, the N e c k a n d P a r t of the B r e a s t p a r t a k e of the
Fire: He is h e a v y as Lead; the H e a d is h u n g down, a n d the
E y e s t h r o u g h a M i s t of C o n f u s i o n are fix' d on the Ground:
No Injuries can m o v e him; he is weary of his Being, an d
h e a r t i l y w i s h es he c o u l d m a k e h i m s e l f invisi bl e : B u t when,
g r a t i f y i n g his Vanit y , he ex u l t s in his Pride, he d i s c o v e r s
quite c o n t r a r y S y m p t o m s ; his S p i r i t s swell a n d fan t h e A r ­
terial Blood; a m o r e than o r d i n a r y W a r m t h s t r e n g t h e n s and
1. Ni coll o b s e r v e s that L i l l o ' s The F a t a l C u r i o s.i tyr (1736)
"is the first p r e s e n t i m e n t of that p e c u l i a r e m o t i o n seen
at its full in the w o r k s of L a u r e n c e Ster n e, w h e r e r e ­
f i n e m e n t u p o n joy or s o r r o w is i n du l ge d in l u x u r i o u s l y . "
A H i s t o r y of E a r l y E i g h t e e n t h C e n t ur y D_E.ftm& IZQ-fl.-176.Q..
C ambr id ge , 1925, p. 121.
2. The F a b l e of the Bees. I, 39.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
dilates the Heart ; the E x t r e m i t i e s are cool; he feels light
to h i ms e lf , and i m a g i n e s he could tread on Air; h i s H e a d is
h eld up, his E y e s r o l l ' d a b o u t wit h S p r i g h t l i n e s s ; he r e ­
joices at h i s Being, is p r o n e to Anger, and w o u l d be g l a d
that all the W o r l d c o u l d take n o t i c e of him . l
But
there
c ou l d be l i t t l e
Kandeville
and S t e r n e .
could h a r d l y
his
appeal
own f e e l i n g s
the p r i n c i p l e s
s y m p a t h y b e t w e e n the d o c t r i n e s
of
A s y s t e m b a s e d on s e l f - i n t e r e s t
to P a r s o n Yorick,
fro m any
taint
were known
who w i s h e d
to
of m a t e r i a l i s m .
to both,
Sterne
divorce
Although
applies
them dif­
ferently.
C.
S E N S I B I L I T Y — LO V E OP WO M E N
One e l e m e n t
no p l a c e
woman.
in the
ordinary
Possibly
the c h a n c e s
other
are that
The t r a v e l l e r m i g h t
m ad a m e
of wo m a n was
pleasure
effect
but hi s
1. The
they
wer e
and
always
of w h i c h h i s
Fable
complaints
but
of
r eticence*
heart
sensibility
of m a k i n g
of all
He wa s
was
open
in s e a r c h
is love.
and b r o u g h t
is made a par t
which
w i t h her
good,
was capable.
love b r o u g h t
of the Bee_& I,
the b i l l
instinctively
the t e n d e r e s t
in his
of
but
p r o u d of.
not his d e a l i n g s
suc h
of lo v e u p o n h i s h e a r t
manner
not aff a ir s to b e
r e c o r d his
k n e w no
e m o ti o ns ,
of love
t r a v e l l e r s h a d thei r l o v e a f f ai r s,
w h o s e heart,
experience,
of t e n d er
love
Sterne,
sensibility which could have
t r a v e l b o o k was that
the h o s t e s s b r o u g h t ,
daughter.
to all
of S t e r n e ' s
The
the h i g h e s t
Th e b e n e f i c e n t
of his
religion,
certain delicate
67-68,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ple as
198.
ures
to his p h y s i c a l
sort
of e r o t i c i s m .
She
that
necessity
of d r i n k to
covers
that
Y o r i c k the
night,
b e i n g w h i c h form
trouble
tude t o w a r d s
to S t e r n e
seems
a c u l t i v a t e d dr u n k a r d .
La Fleur
he m a k e s
of l o v e
in S t e r n e
a
“ is a l w a y s
love.
The
case
a l m o st
ahin
to
When Yorick dis­
in love,"
a fact w h i c h saves
of p u t t i n g hi s b r e e c h e s
significant
a peculiar
declaration
of L a Fl e u r
u n d e r his
of his
is hi s
h e a d at
own a t t i ­
own:
. . . h a v i n g b e e n in love, w i t h one p r i n c e s s or another, almo s t
all my life, and I h o p e I shall go on so till I die, b e i n g
firmly p e r s u a d e d , that if ever I do a m e a n action, it must
be in some i n t e r v a l b e t w i x t one p a s s i o n and another: whilst
this i n t e r r e g n u m lasts, I a l w a y s p e r c e i v e my h e a r t l o c k e d
u p — I can s c a r c e fi n d in it to giv e M i s e r y a sixpence; an d
t h e r e f o r e 1 a l w a y s get out of it as fast as I can, a n d the
mome n t I am r e k i n d l e d , I am all g e n e r o s i t y a n d g o o d - w i l l
again; a n d w o u l d do a n y t h i n g in the world, e i t h e r for or w i t h
any one, if t h e y w i l l but s a t i s f y me t h e r e is no si n in it.
But in
not m y s e l f . ^
This
examp l e
goodness
effects
an d not
a confession
this
sure
I am
commending
p r o f e s s i o n of p h i l a n d e r i n g S t e r n e
of his
beneficent
love
saying
of
Laurence
of hea r t,
although
love u p o n him,
Ster ne .
the p a s s i o n —
t o o k to be
in d e s c r i b i n g the
he p r e t e n d s
We h a v e
an
in one
to p r a i s e
of his
letters
of h i s meth o d:
1 am g l a d y o u a r e in l o v e — — *twill cure y o u (at least) of th e
spleen, w h i c h has a b a d effect on b o t h m a n a n d w o m a n — -I m y ­
self must eve r h a v e so m e d u l c i n e a in m y h e a d — — it h a r m o n i s e s
the soul — a n d i n - s o m e cases I first e n d e a v o u r to mak e the
lady b e l i e v e so, or r a t h e r 1 b e g i n fir st to m a k e m y s e l f b e ­
lieve that I am in l o v e — ^
1. V, 120.
2. L e t t e r No.
p. 256.
148,
to
(?)
J o h n tfodehouse,
(?)
Aug.
23,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1765
We find
in this
epistolary passage
S e n t i m e n t a l .«Io.u;rn$y, that
from love he
derives
spleen,
he
ing out
of love,
and m a ke s
says
letter,
he w r i t e s
h i m apt
to
commit
a s s e r t i o n he m a k e s
and b e n e v o l e n c e ,
of w h i c h we
Later
declaration
on
in the
and that
It is o p p o s e d to the
the
soul.
a me a n action,
w hi l e b e i n g
1
a n d g o o d will a g a i n . M
a connection between
Be­
heart
in
In
lov e
sp e c i f i c v i r t u e , t h e p h y s i c a l b e n e f i t s
occasion
in his
of his
in love,
and h a r m o n i z e s
apparent
a le s s
shall have
effect.
ideas as
in the J o u r n e v . locks up his
love m a ke s h i m 11all g e n e r o s i t y
this
same
S t e r n e h a s to be
a salutary
in the
the
Journey
attitude
further
Sterne
towards
to discuss.
makes a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
women,
whe n he
exclaims
to the Count:
God b l e s s th e m a l i i . . . t h e r e is not a m a n up o n ear th who loves
them so m u c h as I do: a f t e r all the f o ib l es I ha v e seen, and
all the s a t i r e s I h a v e r e a d a g a i n s t them; b e i n g firml y p e r ­
s u a d e d that a man, who has not a sort of a f f e c t i o n for the
who le sex, is i n c a p a b l e of ever l o v i n g one as he o u g h t . 2
But
Sterne
contrives
collectively.
He
to lo ve t h e m
studies
individually
thei r h e a r t s
as well
as
i n s t e a d of the Louvre.
--I c o n c e i v e e v e r y fair b e i n g as a temple, a n d w o u l d r a t h e r
enter in, a n d see th e or i g i n a l d r aw i n g s , an d l oo s e sk e t c h e s
h u n g up in it, t h a n the t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f R a p h a e l itself.
T his
biblical
is i n t e n d e d to
ima g e
of a fair b e i n g
emphasize
the
c o n c e i v e d as a t e m p l e
innocent,
religious
aspect
of
1. T h i s i d e a of c o n q u e r i n g a b a d s e n s a t i o n by a g o o d one is
e x p r e s s e d a l s o in the p a s s a g e on the 11Sweet p l i a b i l i t y
of m a n * s sp i r i t , " q u o t e d above.
2. V, 279.
3. V, 2 0 8 - 8 1 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
200.
1
his love
for women.
A l t h o u g h S t e r n e ha s
women
in his
Journey
point
out
Eliza
(and th e re f o r e ,
during
the
pleasing
of the
heart,
c o u r se
of
experiences
he takes
it that he
with various
opportunity
to
is in lov e w i t h
p r e s u m a b l y , "all g e n e r o s i t y a n d g o o d
will").
He r name a p p e a r s
2
the hook.
These mentions
in five d if f e r e n t
of E l i z a
places
are p a r a l l e l e d
through
in T r i s ­
tram S h a n d y hy r e f e r e n c e s to Jenny, hut whi le J en n y in the
3
4
first p a r t of T r i s t r a m m a y hav e b e e n Miss F o ur w an t e l l e , the
5
Jenny of the a p o s t r o p h e to time in the last h o o k is l i tt l e
more
th an a symbol.
and her
On the o t h e r hand,
identity was
no
in t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p
sec re t
Sterne
E l i z a was Mrs.
a mo n g S t e r n e ' s
a n n o u n c e d his
Draper,
friends.
intention
of
Early
cele­
b r a t i n g h e r name.
Wot Swif t so l o v e d his S t el la , S carron his Maint e n o n , or
W a l le r his S a c h a r i s s a , as I will love, an d sing thee, my
wife elect.'
All t h o s e names, emine n t as they were, shall
give p l a c e to thine, E l i z a . ®
The m i n i a t u r e
which
she g a v e h i m b e f o r e
she
sailed plays
a
1. "It is a p l e a s i n g a l l u s i o n the S c r i p t u r e makes u s e of in
c a l l i n g us s o m e t i m e s a house, and s o m e t i m e s
a temple, a c ­
c o r d i n g to the m o r e or less e x a l t e d q u a l i t i e s of the
s p i r i t u a l quest w h i c h is l o d g e d w i t h i n us."
S e r m o n Ho.
17, "The Case of H e z e k i a h and the M e s s e n g e r s , " IX, 28081.
Cf. J o h n 2:21; I Cor. 3:16; II Cor. 6:16; 6:19.
2. V, 4, 153-54, 259, 344, 391.
3. Cf. I, 74, 8 2 - 8 3 (i, 18)•
4. Cf. Cross, L i f e . p. 199.
5. IV, 2 4 1 - 4 2 (ix, 8).
6. L e t t e r No. 192, Mar. 1767, p. 319.
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large part
Once,
home
in the
abject
w h e n he was
w i t h a dose
s e n t i m e n t a l i t y of the J o u r n a l .
sicker than usual
of J a m e s ' s p o w d e r
and h a d r e m a i n e d at
inside him,
he wrote:
..,l e a n d the w h o l e d a y w i t h my h e a d u p o n my hand; s i t t i n g
most d e j e c t e d l y at t h e T a b l e w i t h my E l i z a ' s P i c t u r e b e ­
fore m e — s y m p a t h i z i n g & s o o t h i n g m e — 0 my Bramine.' my
Friend] m y Help-mate.*But the p o r t r a i t
was
not
kept
s a c r e d to t he s e
lonely
com —
m unin g s .
- - s t ai d two d a y s on t h e r o a d at the A - B i s h o p s of Y o r k s- shewed his G r a c e & h i s L a d y and Sist e r yr p o r t r a i t — with
a short but i n t e r e s t i n g S t o r y of my f r i e n d s h i p for the
O r i g i n a l .^
The r e s u lt
name
of h i s
into h i s
idolatry
in his ve r y
her p or t r a i t .
fears
to
incorporate
the
picture
an d
work.
— I ha v e a p r e s e n t
i m m o r t a l i z e d in m y
Thus
is
of a p or t r a i t , (which by the by,
Sentimental Journey)...3
fir s t
In his
that he w i l l
chapter
concern
St e r n e
I have
introduces Eliza and
over the droit. d 1a u b a i n e
Yoricl
lose everything.
- - Ev e n the l i t t l e p i c t u r e w h i c h I h a v e so l o n g w o r n an d so
often have to l d thee, E l i z a , I w o u l d carry w i t h me into my
1. Apr. 16, 1767, p. 323.
See also Apr. 25, pp. 3 3 0 - 3 3 1 ;
June 4, pp. 3 5 0 - 5 1 ; Ju n e 22, p. 364, J u l y 6, p. 374.
2. (y) May 28, p. 346.
See also M a y 16, p. 339; and J u n e
26: «— d i n e d w i t h a l a r g e p a r t y — shewd yr P i c t u r e f r o m
the f u l l n e s s of my h e a r t — h i g h l y a d m i r e d — " p. 365.
Also J u l y 13, p. 3 7 9 and July 14, p. 379.
3. June 13, p. 357.
See also June 17: "I h a v e b r o u g h t yr
name E l i z a an d P i c t u r e into m y work- — w h e r e they w i l l
r e m a i n —— w h e n Y o u & I are at rest for e v e r - — " p. 358.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
202.
grave,
would have been
The r e m a r k a b l e
thing
n a l is d i s c i p l i n e d
m enta l
not
the
the
avowed
that
into the
out-and-out
only records
all
the m a w k i s h n e s e
refined utterance
“ I steal
of h e r
thinking
something
a more
borrowing
references
inspiration,
bo o k he was
mental
is
from my neck .^
of the
of t h e
Jour­
Senti­
-Lau r n e y .
T he
obey
torn
of i de a s
Journey
in S t e r n e ' s
relations
of
the
howe v er ,
the work.
are
She was
the
c o m p o s i t i o n of his
2
co n s t a n t l y .
He a s s e r t e d that
day f r o m my s e n t i m e n t a l
impulse
in w r i t i n g
w o r k e d b o t h ways.
several
The Jou rn al
introduction
every
sentimental
influence upon
and during
of her
to E l i z a ,
themes
There
w h i c h seem
J o u r n e y — to
3
to you--" b ut the
are
to h a v e
in the S e n t ! their
origin
with Eliza.
to E l i z a
theme
su p p l i e s
a possible
of c o m p a n i o n s h i p
clue
to the
4
in a chaise.
1. V, 4.
Th a t he r e a l l y d i d w e a r the p i c t u r e a r o u n d his nec k
may b e i n f e r r e d f r o m a l a t e r entr y in the J o u r n a l : "I
v e r i l y t h i n k m y E l i z a I shal l get this P i c t u r e set, so as
to w e a r it, as I first p r o p o s e d — abt my n e c k — I do not
like the p l a c e tis i n — it shall be n e a r e r my h e a r t — T h o u
art e v e r in its c e n t r e - - ” J u l y 14, pp. 379-8 0 .
He d i d
not, t h e r e f o r e , h a v e the p i c t u r e a r o u n d his n e c k w h e n he
w r o t e the o r i g i n a l r e f e r e n c e to it in the Journey.
Of
c o u r s e he n e v e r t o o k the p i c t u r e a b r o a d w i t h h i m at all,
since he d i d not k n o w Mrs. D r a p e r u n t i l 1767.
In r e a l i t y
he was m u c h m o r e a f r a i d of h is w i f e t h a n t h e F r e n c h king.
"She t a k e s b a c k s i x t e e n h u n d r e d p o u n d s int o f r a n c e w i t h
h e r , ” he w r o t e Mrs. James, " — — and wil l do me the hon ou r,
l i k e w i s e to s t r i p me of e v e r y t h i n g I h a v e — — except
Eliza's picture."
L e t t e r No. 208, Aug. 10, 1767, p. 389.
See also J o u r n a l . Jun e 2, p. 348.
2. Cf. above, Ch. Ill, 137-38.
3. J o u r n a l . J u l y 3, p. 372.
4. See bel o w, pp. 255- 5 6.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sterne
writes
fro m C o x w o l d u n d e r
the
date
of June
9th:
I k e e p a p o s t C h a i s e & a c o u p l e of fine horses, & take the
Air e v e r y d ay in it--I go o u t — & r e t u r n to
my Cotta g e
ElizaJ a l o n e — 'ti6 m e l a n c h o l l y , what s h o u l d be m a tt e r of en ­
joyment; & the m o r e so for that r e a s o n — I ha v e a t h o u s a n d
things to r e m a r k & say as I r o l l a l o n g — but I want You to
say them t o- - I c o u l d s o m e t i m e s be wis e & often W i t t y - - b u t I
feel it a r e p r o a c h to be the l a t t e r whilst E l i z a is so far
from h e a r i n g m e - - & W h a t is W i s d o m e to a f o o l i s h w e a k heart
like m i n e 1
The m a t t e r
of the
chaise does
not
stop here.
A week later
he records:
My c h ai s e is so l a r g e — so h i g h — so l o n g - - s o wide — so C r a w ­
ford's l i k e , — that I am b u i l d i n g a coac h h o u s e on p u r p o s e
for i t — do y o u d i s l i k e it fo r this g i g a n t i c k S i z e ? - - n o w I
remem b er , I h e a r d Y o u once s a y - - Y o u h a t e d a small post
C h a i s e — w h i c h y o u m u s t k n o w d e t e r m i n e d my C h o i c e to this--^
The
improvement
of his h e a l t h l e a d s him to a t t e m p t
a journey
in i t :
--set out for C r a s y C a s t l e to m o r r o w m o r n i n g — wh e r e I stay
ten d a y s — take m y s e n t i m e n t a l V o y a g e — and this Jou rn a l with
me, as c e r t a i n as the first two wheels of my C h ar i o t - - I
cannot go on w i t h o u t t h e m — °
A n d on
the ne xt
day he
sets
d o w n the
f ollowing:
Ive b e e n as far as Y o r k to da y wi th no Soul w i t h me in m y
Chase, b u t yr P i c t u r e — for it has a Sonl. I t h i n k — or s o m e ­
thi ng lik e one w h i c h has t a l k ' d to me, & b e e n the best C o m ­
pan y I ever t o o k a J o u r n e y w i t h (always e x c e p t i n g a J o u r n e y
I once t o o k w i t h a f r i e n d of Y ou r s to Salt hill, & E n f i e l d
W a s h - - T h e p l e a s u r e I h a d in t h o s e J ou r n i e s , h a v e left lm.p r e s s i o n s u p o n m y Mind, w h i c h w i l l last m y L i f e — —
And under
the
1. AaaKftftl.
2. P. 358.
3. J u n e 21,
4. p. 364.
P*
da te
of June 24-th:
354«
p. 364.
fhe "friend
of y o u r s "
is E l i z a h e rs el f .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as p le a s a n t a J o u r n e y as I am c a pa b le of t a k i n g Eliza.' w i t h ­
out t h e e - - t h o u shalt take it w i t h me, w h e n time & tide serve
hereafter, & e v e r y other J o u r n e y w h i c h ever gave me pl e a s u r e ,
shall he r o l l e d ov e r a g a i n w i t h thee b e s i d e s me.^
These r e f e r e n c e s
at the t i m e
C oxwo l d
explain
written
the p r e s e n c e
the d e s o b li g e a n t .
in his
chaise
ionship may w e l l h a v e
inventor
chaise
His
and h i s
p r o m p t e d his
in the J o u r n a l
c o n c e r n i n g Mrs.
post-chaise
significant.
is
here b e t w e e n
the J o u r n a l
is in
seem t h e r e f o r e
ser ti o n that
b e h i n d and
the
loneliness
instance
the J ournal JL2. E l i z a
a f fa i r
adventures
J o u r n e y . so a c t u a l
compan­
the
the r e m a r k
of a small
verb al p a r a l l e l s
in a chaise.
corroborating
is "the
thus e x p l a i n i n g
mood for his
dislike
idea of c o m p a n i o n s h i p
to h a v e an
Sterne's
Draper's
about
a n d the Sent iment al J o u r n e y ; the
in a measu r e
2
m ood of the Sen t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y ."
As
as he d r o v e
In this r e s p e c t
are no
book
the r e f l e c ­
exclamation against
Draper's
There
to E l i z a
of his
in that wo r k of
d e si r e for Mrs.
of a o n e - s e a t e d m a c h i n e .
connection
in c o n f i d e n c e
w h e n he was b e g i n n i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n
may ver y wel l
tions u p o n
to his
emotional
the
w i t h E l i z a seems
of t h e heart
happenings
Cross's
in the
style,
to ha v e
only
We
as­
history
tone,
set
and
the
S ent i m e n t a l
in their r e l a t i o n s h i p
see m to
1. P. 364.
A p p a r e n t l y S t e r n e r e a l i z e d that this w a s w i s h f u l
thinking.
He
r e q u e s t s his d a u g h t e r to " w r i t e to me
from
Par is that I m a y come a n d meet y o u in my p o s t - c h a i s e with
my l o n g - t a i l e d h o r s e s — an d the m o m e nt y o u ha v e b o t h put
your feet in
it, call it h e r e a f t e r y o u r s . "
L e t t e r No.
210, Aug. 24, 1767, p. 392.
2. Q u o t e d above. Ch. Ill, 137.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
205.
be
One
involved
in v a r i o u s of
of t h e s e
Apprehensive
the
is t/he e x c h a n g e
of his
he w r o t e E l i z a
episodes
of
w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s .
snuff-boxes
w i t h the friar.
wife's p r ed a to ry descent
fro m France,
in th e J o u r n a l :
In short I sha ll be p l u c k ' d b a r e - - a l l but
Snu ff B o x & y o u r oth er dea r P r e s e n t s . ^
of y o u r P o r t r a i t
And later:
&
f■
T h e n in the m o r n i n g , with my S n u f f open at the T op of this
sheet, — & y o u r g e n t l e sweet face o p p o s i t e to mine, & sa y i n g
11what I w r i t e wi l l be c o r d i a l l y r e a d . "2
T he p i c t u r e
is d e f i n i t e l y
ney but
the
so,
it
s en t e d
tende r
b o x was
not
is q u i t e
a s s o c i a t e d with E l i z a
s n u f f box.
possible
Yet
that
though
among
in the J o u r -
Sterne nowhere
the g i f t s
says
w h i c h he p r e ­
to E l i z a was a snuff -b o x, and that they e f f e c t e d a
3
exchange.
A f u r t h e r m o t i v e for i n t r o d u c i n g a s n u f f ­
supplied him
in a n o t h e r present.
L o r d S p e n c e r has l o a d e n d me w i t h a grand E c r i t o i r e of 40
G u i n e a s — I am to r e c i e v e [sicj this wee k a fo u r t y G u i n ea p r e s e n t of a g o l d s n u f f Box, as fine as P a r i s can f a b r i c a t e
o n e — w i t h a n I n s c r i p t i o n on it, m o r e v a l u a b l e , t h a n the B o x
i t s e l f — I h a v e a p r e s e n t of a p o r t r a i t (Wh ic h by the by, I
have i m m o r t a l i z e d in my S e n t i m e n t a l Journey) w o r t h them
both.4
A n d later,
after
r e c e i v i n g his box,
he
i n f o r m e d Mrs.
1. J u n e 2, p. 348.
2. June 27, p. 365.
3. H I k i 8 s y o u r P i c t u r e — — your S h a w l — — & ever t r i n k e t
c h a n g e d w i t h Y o u - - e v e r y d a y I live."
J u l y 6, p.
" E v e r y t r i n k e t y o u gave or e x c h a n g e d w i t h me has
force."
J u n e 12, p. 356.
4. Ju n e 13, 357.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
James:
I ex­
374.
its
I have just r e c e i v e d as a p r e s e n t f r om a right H o n o r a b l e --a most e l e g a nt g o l d S n u f f [box] f a b r i c a t e d for me at P a r i s —
I w i s h E l i z a was h e r e - -I w o u l d lay it at her f e e t — —h o w e v e r X
will e n r i c h my g o l d Box, w i t h he r p i c t u r e , 1
Both
references
St er n e
the
to the ne w b o x are
c o u l d v e r y well
i m p r e s s i o n that
toise
a n d not
m en t a l
gold)
have
c o n n e c t e d with Eliza,
conveyed
to the h o n o r a b l e
donor
it was his b o x
(though d e s c r i b e d as
which prompted
the
incident
but
tor­
in the S e n t i ­
Journey.
According
became
v ery
dear
to Y o r i c k
the b o x w h i c h
the
friar gave him
to him.
I g u a r d this box, as I w o u l d the i n s t r u m e n t a l pa r ts of my
r e li g io n , to h e l p my m i n d on to s o m e t h i n g bett e r: in truth
I s e l d o m go a b r o a d w i t h o u t it: a n d oft a n d m a n y a time h a ve
I c a l l e d up b y it the c o u r t e o u s spi ri t of its owner to r e g u ­
late my own, in the j u s t l i n g s of the w o r l d . 2
T w ic e
When
Sterne
g i v e s us
i n st a n c e s
of the
s h o r t l y a f t e r he has a c q u i r e d
more b y
the
tic re p ly ,
simple
he
t ra v e l l e r ,
and
it,
influence
Yorick
is t e m p t e d
is r e s t r a i n e d by the
friar's
of this box.
is a n n o y e d
to m a k e
once
a sarcas­
gift:
Upon p u l l i n g out m y p o o r m o n k ' s l i t t l e h o r n b o x to take a
p i n c h of snuff, I m a d e t h e m a quiet bow, a n d w i s h e d t he m
a good p a s s a g e to D o v e r . ®
A nd la te r ,
w h e n he
is
confronted
in t h e P a r i s
theatre by
the
1. L e t t e r No. 208, Aug. 10, 1767, p. 388.
2. V, 67.
Cf. S e r m o n No. 25, " H u m i l i t y " : "The great b u s i n e s s
of man, is the r e g u l a t i o n of h i s spirit; the p o s s e s s i o n of
s u c h a f ra me a n d t e m p e r of mind, as w i l l l e a d p e a c e a b l y
t h r o u g h this world, and in the m a n y w e a r y stages of it,
a f f o r d us, w h a t we shall be sure to s t a n d in n e ed o f , --R e s t u n t o our ^ clu Ia . "
X, 5 9.
3. V, 72.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
disagreeable
spectacle
f e e li ng German,
Sterne
of
the
dwarf discommoded, by the u n ­
introduces
the box again.
I was just then t a k i n g a p i n c h of snuff out of my m o n k ' s
little h o rn b o x - - A n d h o w w o u l d thy meek and co u r t e o u s
spirit, my dear monk! so t e m p e r ' d to b ea r and f o r b e a r how s w e e t l y would it h a v e lent an ear to this poor s o u l 's
c o mp l a i n t -1
The
comparison
Sterne's
are
of the b o x w i t h
religion
significant
supreme
and the
when
mention
i n s t r u m e n t a l parts"
of spiritual
one r e c a l l s his d e v o t i o n
gift--her picture.
the b o x u p o n his
"the
spirit,
In showing
of
exaltation
to E l i z a ' s
the g o o d
influence
he ma y be p ay i n g t r i b u t e
of
to t hat
of
E l i z a u p o n him.
Mr.
J ournal
Cross,
in p o i n t i n g
out p a r a l l e l i s m s b e t w e e n
to E l i z a and the S ent imental
the
J o u r n e y . observes:
In the j ournal, he p l u c k s up the briars a l o n g the p a t h w hi ch
Mrs. D r a p e r will s o m e ti m e t r e a d by his side; in the S en t im e nt a l J o u r n e y . it is a n e t t l e or two g r o w i n g u p o n the gr av e
of a p o o r F r a n c i s c a n w h o s e f e el i ng s he has w o u n d e d . ^
But C r o s s
indicate
about
which Sterne
the
does not
3
this t i m e , i n
"ghostly
Cordelia"
all p r o b a b i l i t y
faster
dead
the e x p e r i e n c e
than
"pulling
letter r e a d d r e s s e d
tells
of his
to E l i z a
communion with
a m o n g the r ui n s of B y l a n d Abbey.
here he p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f
since
the
is only a bit
s i t t i n g on the gr a ve
out m y h a n d k e r c h i e f
I could wipe
them
off."
Her
&
and
of fancy,
In
but
of a n u n l o n g
d r o p p i n g te a rs
spirit asks
if he
1. V, 211.
2. L i f e . 460.
Cf. J o u r n a l . June 12, 1767, p. 356.
3. T h e p r o b l e m of the f i rs t i n t e n d e d r e c i p i e n t of this l e t t e r
i 8 a d i f f i c u l t one, as l i k e w i s e is that of why S t e r n e r e ­
d i r e c t e d it.
See Curtis, L e t t e r s . p. 362 n.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
208.
would lie the r e
forever.
--0 heaven.1 6aid I l a y i n g my h a n d u p o n m y heart — an d w i l l not
you, Yorick, mi x y o u r a s h e s w i t h us t o o ? — -for ever my Coreliai
and some k i n d h e a r t e d S w a i n shall come and w e e d our grav es , as
I have w e e d e d thine, and w h e n he has done, shall sit at our
feet and tell us the S t o r i e s of his p a s s i o n s and his d i s a p ­
p o i n t m e n t s .1
The
passage
value
of
firmly
is p l a y f u l
the g r a v e a n d
fixed
tal J o u r n e y
r a t h e r t h a n pathetic,
the w e e d
in his min d.
is an e x a m p l e
There
is also
Its
t e m p t i n g e n c o u n t e r w i t h the
room was
girl
i n s p i r e d hy
sews a few
introduction
into
suggest ion that
fille
de c h a m b r e
to r e p a i r
the
seems
the Sent i m e n -
o pp ortunism.
one par t of his
in his h o t e l
an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h Eliza.
stitches
the e m o t i o n a l
to he p l u c k e d t h e r e f r o m
of S t e r n e ' s
a faint
hut
stock he
As the y o u n g
is wear i ng ,
2
“her h a n d p a s s i n g
in
Yorick's restraint
that
this
Eliza's
emotion
gif ts
give n him,
silence
is a l m o s t
acro ss
overcome.
is c o n n e c t e d wit h
to S t e r n e .
my n e c k in the m a n o e u v r e , "
Speaking
It is c o n c e i v a b l e
the o c c a s i o n of one
of the p r e s e n t s
of
she h a s
he says:
I say n o t h i n g of a g o l d S t o c k h u c c l e & B u t t o n s - - t h o ' I rat e
them a b o v e rubies, b e c a u s e the y w e r e C o n s e c r a t e d by the h a n d
of F r i e n d s h i p , as she f i t te d them to me.®
If there
that
is a c o n n e c t i o n here,
Sterne's
regard
it
c on fi r ms
the
supposition
for E l i z a was not c o m p l e t e l y s p i r i t u a l .
1.
L e t t e r No. 201, (?) J u n e 18, 1767, p. 361.
This s e n t i m e n ­
tal idea was a f a v o r i t e w i t h Sterne.
Cf. his d e s i r e to
wee d T r i m ' s g r a v e and U n c l e T o b y ' s b o w l i n g green, below,
p. 282.
2 * P * 311«
... i.
3. J o u r n a l .June 13, p. 357.
The w o r d " C o n s e c r a t e d " h a s be e n
s u b s t i t u t e d for t h e o r i g i n a l " f a s t e n ' d , " w h i c h S t e r n e
c r o s s e d out.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
209.
As has
already been mentioned
"Sweet p l i a b i l i t y "
st sort
of e s c a p e
of it was
attitude
passage,
from
carried
on
the
his
cares
in the
and physica l
desire
soft
consists
looks,
a quiet
these
encounters
Cross
expresses
b ut
A gr e at
combination
the grieset,
the
of a h o l d i n g of hands,
tear,
too,
and
Eliza
the a t t e n d a n t
is p r o b a b l y
the
his
of f a t h e r l y
w h i c h he s e e m s
A n d so his
deal
apparently
to h a v e
love-making
J o u r n e y . .as e x e m p l i f i e d in Y o r i c k ' s
the l a d y o f B r u s s e l s ,
and Maria,
world.
ima gi na t io n ,
r e g a r d e d as p e r f e c t l y h o n o r a b l e .
the S e n t i m e n t a l
for E l i z a a f f o r d e d him
of the
t o w a r d s E l i z a is a curious
protectiveness
with
love
in d i s c u s s i n g the
fllle
de
in
sc e n e s
chaabre.
an e x c h a n g e
of
sensations.
inspiration.
Of
As
it;
Eliza, her m i n i a t u r e a lw a y s o p p o s i t e to h i m on his d es k when
he t o ok p e n in hand, sat for the s l i g h t l y v a r i e d p o r t r a i t s
of the b r o w n lady, t he g r is se t , a n d the f i 1 1 e de c h a m b r e of
the S ent i m e n t a l J o u r n e y . all of wh o m a w a k e n p r e c i s e l y the
same sexual e m o t i o n s , n e v e r q u it e gross, but s o m e t i m e s s u g ­
g e s t i v e of g r o s s n e s s . ^
In one p l a c e
French method
definition
Sterne
p r e s e n t s us,
of m a k i n g l ov e by
of love,
typical
in c o n t r a s t
sentim en t s,
with his
to
the
own
of his p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h m i n u t e
impressions:
A course of small, quiet a t t e n t i o n s , not so p o i n t e d as to
a l a r m — — nor so v a g u e as to be m i s u n d e r s t o o d — — w i th n o w and
then a l o o k of k i n d n e s s , a n d l i t t l e or n o t h i n g s a i d u p o n
it— — l ea v e s n a t u r e for your m i s t re ss , and she f a s h i o n s it to
her m i n d - - 2
2.
S.J.
P. 460.
V, 88-89.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I i is a l so
tions
typical
i n e v i t ab l e.
der and d e l i c i o u s
where
that he
t here
p rotests,
sh o ul d
In T,r i strain S h a n d y he
sentiment
al wa y s
speaks
sensa­
of "that
ten­
w h i c h ever m i x e s in fr ie n ds h ip ,
1
of sex."
Yet these feeli ng s , he
is a d i f f e r e n c e
are
consider pleasurable
innoc en t .
I h a d r a t h e r r a i s e a g e n t l e flame, than h a v e a d i f f e r e n t one
r a i s e d in me.
Now, I t ake H e a v ' n to w i tn e ss , after all this
b a d i n a g e my h e ar t is i n n o c e n t . ^
And so he
de L***
is u s u a l l y
quite
open
in his d ealings.
Of M a d a m e
he r emarks:
I p i t i e d her f r om my soul; and t h o u g h it may seem r i d i c u l o u s
e no u gh to a t o r p i d h e a r t — I c o u l d have t a k e n her into m y arms,
and c h e r i s h e d her, t h o u g h it was in the open street, w i t h o u t
blushing.®
He
feels
the g r i s s e t ' s p u l s e
i m a gi ne s E u g e n i u s ,
in an open
or the world,
may
f ir s t
nothing
to
meets
the
despite
what
he
say.
--So m u c h the bet t er : for w h e n my views
I care not if all t h e w o r l d saw me feel
When he
shop,
are direct,
it.4
Eugenius,
f i 1 1 e de c h a m b r e . he l i k e w i s e has
conceal b e c a u s e
of his
innocence.
When a v i r t u o u s c o n v e n t i o n is m a d e b e t w i x t man and woman, it
s a n c t i f i e s t h e i r m o s t p r i v a t e walks: so n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g it
was dusky, yet as b o t h our r o a d s lay the same w a y , we m a d e
no s c r u p l e of w a l k i n g a l o n g the Quai de Conti together.
His p a r t i n g
from M a r i a
1. I, 83 (i ,18).
2. L e t t e r No. 213,
1767, p. 394.
3. V, 61.
4. V, 183.
5. V, 224.
to
is also
(?)
of a p u b l i c
Sir W i l l i a m
sort.
Stanhope,
Sept.
19,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T h o 1 I h a t e s a l u t a t i o n s a n d g r e e t i n g s in the marketp la c e, yet
v.’hen re got into the m i d d l e of this, I s t o p p ' d to take my
last l o o k and last f a r e w e l l of M a r i a . 1
This
procedure,
not he
most
which
sanctioned
confidence
One
amounts
al m os t
as p r o p e r
conduct
2
i n no c e n c e .
in his
a.spect of
manifested
in his
protective
i n s ti n ct
S t e r n e ' s love
desire
is
to
s h o wn
to
e xh i b i t i o n i s m ,
unless
Sterne
for w o m e n
c h e r i s h and
had the
ut-
is c e r t a i n l y
c o m f or t
in some m e a s u r e
could
them.
towards
His
the
f i 1 1 e de cha mb r e w h e n he a d v i s e s h e r to t r e a s u r e her y o u n g
3
heart,
and t o w a r d s the lady of B r u s s e l s w h e n he wis he s to
fort her
t owards
grief
and w i p e
Maria,
away her
for w h o m he f eels
The h e a r i n g of
a sad
tale
tears,
4
an almost
such as M a r i a ' s
an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s y m p a t h y ,
and
this
most
gives
sympathy,
is
y o u n g wo m an .
i d e a of w i p i n g away a w o m a n ' s
esp ec i al
passion
kn ig h t
to have
a pp e a l
to
S terne.
romance have
wiped
a tear
enjoyable
"Nor w o u l d
gone f u r th er ,
f r om
d evotion.
the l i s t e n e r
a l t ho ug h
a woman's
al­
when felt for
tear has
In s p e a k i n g of U n c l e T o by ' s
in Tri s t r a m . he wrote:
of
c l e ar ly
fatherly
ways p l e a s u r a b l e ,
The
particularly
but
com-
the most
a
an
com­
courteous
at least u pon one leg,
5
eye";
a n d the d e vi c e is
1. V, 391.
2. But in m a k i n g this point, we s h o u l d not forget the e n ­
c o u n t e r w i t h M a d a m e de L*** in the s e c l u d e d desobli g e a n t .
or, in p a r t i c u l a r , that w i t h the f i l i e de chambre in his
h o te l room, w h e r e his i n n o c e n c e u n d e r g o e s a severe trial.
3. V, 222.
4. V, 152.
T.S.. IV, 228 (ix, 3).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
used t w i c e
de L***
in t h e .S § nt in^e n t al J o u r n e y . in
and
to Eliza.
he aw ak e ns
until
of M ad a me
of Maria.
Sterne's
ings
tlie cases
lachrymos it y reaches
H e r e he w e e p s
"With
the b o s o m
buckets
of my
the day w h e n he r e c e i v e s
an a c c o u n t
of E l i z a ' s
sit by her
and
its h e i g h t
in his
writ­
from the m o r n i n g when
shirt
a packet
Bteepea
in tears,"
of l etters
containing
s u f f e r i n g s on s h i p b o a r d and is m o v e d to
2
"a s y m p a t h y a b o v e T e a r s ."
It is the h e i g h t of his d e s i r e to
s m o o t h her brow,
tears but dry up
moreover,
definite
both p a s s a g e s
Madame
the S o u r s e
de L * * *
ing a n o t h e r ' s
evidence
in the
only wipe away thy
3
of them for e v e r — "
T h e r e is,
that
Sent i m e n t a l
he r e p r o a c h e s
g r i e f w h e n his
"&
not
he
is
thinking
Journey.
his h e ar t
present
of E l i z a
In the
case
for t h i n k i n g
love
in
of
of s o o t h ­
is Eliza.
It h a d ever, as I t ol d the reader, b e e n one of the s i n g u l a r
b l e s s i n g s of m y life, to b e al mo s t ev e ry h o u r of it m i s e r a b l y
in love w i t h some one; a n d my last flame h a p p e n i n g to b e
b lo w n out b y a w h i f f of j e a l o u s y on the s u d d e n turn of a c o r ­
ner, I h a d l i g h t e d it up a f r e s h at the pure taper of E l i z a
but about t hr e e m o n t h s b e f o r e — s w e a r i n g as I did it, that it
sho ul d last me t h r o u g h the w h o l e j o u r n e y - - 4
5
He t hi n k s of t h e i r t e n d e r par ti n g, looks at the p i c t u r e w h i c h
1. L e t t e r No. 193, (?) Mar. 30, 1767, p. 320.
2. J o u r n a l . Aug. 1, p. 384.
3. -Jp-urnal, Aug. 3, p. 386.
4. V, 152-53.
T h e i d e a of k i n d l i n g the f l a m e is c a r r i e d over
from the p a s s a g e to w h i c h he r e f e r s w i t h th e w ords "as I
told the r e a d e r , " wh e re he says "and the m o m e n t I am r e ­
k i n d l e d . . . " p. 120.
Th e t a pe r image is u s e d in a p a s s a g e
in the s e r m o n s q u o t e d below, p. 230, n.3.
5. Cf. J o u r n a l . J u n e 10, p. 355, and p. 359, n . 2.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
213.
1
she h a d
kiss,
t ie d a r o u n d h i s
an d vows
that
neck,
he w i l l
a n d w h i c h he
not
visit
is now a s h a m e d to
M adame
de L* * * at
£ rus s e l s .
The
sits
they
his
c ase
of M a r i a
is m o r e
s t r o n g l y marked.
As he
by her, w i p i n g a l t e r n a t e l y h e r tears and then his as
2
fall, he d i s c o v e r s a p r o o f of his soul's e x i s t e n c e in
f eelings.
the d e s i r e
only
in the
for p r o t e c t i n g and
c o m p a s s i o n do
lel the
Not
the
details
w i p i n g a w ay of te a rs "but in
cherishing
which
the wind
a r d uo us
trip to
to t h e
India
When Y o r i c k h e a r s
of his
to
the
Even
famous
s h o r n lamb,"
story
of M a r i a ' s
e x p r e s s i o n " God
may be l i k e n e d to Eliza'
o v er w h i c h St e rn e
of M a r i a ' s
the
felt
s u f f e ri n gs ,
<
a co
t empers
l e a d s up
ob j ec t
of h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h E l i z a p a r a l ­
story of Y o r i c k a n d Maria.
w anderings,
the
so m u c h concern.
he w i s h e s
to protect
her:
S h or n indeed.' a n d to the quick, said I; and wert t h o u in my
own land, w h e r e I h a v e a cott a ge , I w b u l d take thee to it and
s h el t e r thee; t h o u s h o u l d s t eat of my own bread, and d r i n k of
my own c u p . . .4
A nd
in s a y i n g
farewell
to her,
he r e p e a t s
the
same
sentiment
1. She h a d not d o n e so.
As we h a v e seen, he was c o n t e m p l a t ­
ing h a v i n g the p i c t u r e set " so as to w e a r it, as I first
p r o p o s e d — about m y nec k ."
J u l y 14, pp. 379-80.
2. V, 382.
3. Cf. his S h a k e s p e a r e a n p h r a s e u p o n r e c e i v i n g her p a c k e t of
l e t t e r s f ro m Iago: »'111 love thee for. Ik e d a n g e t A t.hpn,
h ast o a s t . . . I ' l l p i t y t h e e — as no man ever p i t i e d Wo m a n - - "
J o u r n a l . J u l y 27, pp. 381-82.
4. V, 3 86.
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and. i n t r o d u c e s
the
n a me
of El iz a :
Could the t r a c e s be ever w o rn out of h er brain, and t h os e of
E l i z a out o f mine, she s h o u l d not o nl y eat of my b r e a d and
drink jof my; ojrn gup, but M a r i a s h o u l d lie in m y bosom, and
oe unto me as a d a ug h t e r ,
Sterne h a d
the
same
d es i r e
to s h e l t e r E l i z a
in his Y o r k s h i r e
co 11 a g e :
I w o u l d not p a r t w i th the I m ag i n a t i o n , of h o w h appy I am to
be w i t h thee, for all the o f f e r s of p r e s e n t Interest or H a p ­
piness the w h o l e w o r l d c ould tempt me with; in the l o v e l i e s t
Cottage that L o v e & H u m i l i t y ever d welt in, with thee a l o n g
with me, I c o u l d p o s s e s s more r e f i n e d C ontent, than in the
most g l i t t e r i n g C o u r t ; & w i t h thy L o v e & fidelity, t a s t e
truer joys, my E l i z a i & m ake thee also p a r t a k e of more,
then all the s e n s e l e s s p a r a d e of this silly w o r l d co u ld c o m ­
p e n s a t e to e i t h e r of u s - - ^
He and E l i z a w o u l d
fi n d
in each o t h e r m u t u a l
comfort:
0 Eliza.' that m y w e a r y h e a d was l a id u p o n thy l a p
( 1tis all
that's left for i t )
or that I h a d thine, r e c l i n i n g u p o n my
bosome, a nd t h e r e r e s t i n g all its d i s q u i e t u d e s ; - - - m y B r a m i n e
the w o r l d or Y o r i c k m ust perish, b e f o r e that f o u n d a t i o n
shall fail thee.'3
Despite
the
feeling
for h e r
he s u g g e s t s
what
as
fact
here
that
s ee m s
calls E l i z a his
to have b e e n
in the case
a daughter.
Spectator's
he
mistress)
He
in part
of Maria,
suggests
h a v e more
that
joy
“ wife
elect,"
pate rn al ,
and
he r e g a r d s E l i z a
she
"would
in p u t t i n g
his
as
some­
(like the
on an old man's
1.
2.
V, 391.
J o u r n a l . Apr. 27, p. 333.
Cf. also Aug. 3: " W i t h thy sweet
B u r d e n in my Arms, I could get up fast the hill of p r e f e r ­
ment, if I c h o s e it
but w i t h o u t t he e I feel L i f e l e s s --and if a M i t r e was o f f e r ' d me, I c o u l d not h a v e it, t il l I
c ould h a v e t h e e too, to make it sit easy u p o n my b r o w — — ' p.
386.
S t e r n e t h o u g h t so well of this p a s s a g e that he r e ­
w o r k e d it into a n e x p r e s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g h i s d aughter.
Let­
ter Ho. 224, to A. Lee, Dec. 7, 1767, p. 406.
3. May 12, p. 338.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
slipper,
than a s s o c i a t i n g
with
the
gay,
th e v o l u p tu o us ,
and.
the young,"
It is
tion
that
make use
characteristic
in e x p r e s s i n g his
of b i b l i c a l
calls to his m i n d
up in h is
It did eat of his
lay in his boso m ,
Not
content
situation,
with
the p a r a b l e
The
method
for
image
only a l i t t le
of c o m p o s i -
a woma n he
ewe
should
of the shorn lamb
wh i c h N a t h a n
f a m i l y with gre a t
told D a v i d
biblical
the
care:
reference
i m m e d i a t e l y adds
of
lamb w h i c h he
own meat, a n d d r a n k of his own cup,
a n d was un to h i m as a d a u g h t e r . ^
one
Sterne
feelings
langu ag e .
poor man who p o s s e s s e d
brou g ht
of S t e r n e ' s
in
another
and
such a s e n t i m e n t a l
one.
Adieu, p o o r l u c k l e s s m a i d e n i — Imbibe th e oil and wine wh i c h
the c o m p a s s i o n of a s t r an g er , as he j o u r n e y e t h on his way,
n ow p o u r s into thy w o u n d s - - t h e B e i n g who h a t h twice b r u i s e d
thee can on l y b i n d t h e m up f o r e v e r . ^
In this p a s s a g e
the r e a d e r will r e c o g n i z e
the p h r a s i n g of
the
story of t h e G o o d S a m a r i t a n .
But a c e r t a i n S a m a r i t a n , as he j o ur n e y e d , c a m e w h e re he was:
and whe n he s a w him, he h a d c o m p a s s i o n on him, and went to
him, and b o u n d u p h i s wound s , p o u r i n g in oil and wine, a n d
1. L e t t e r No. 192, Mar. 1767, p. 319.
Se e also Cu r t i s ' s
no t e on this p a s s a g e , e x p l a i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the
m e n t i o n of t h e S p e c t a t o r (No. 449), w h e r e "Fid el i a, who
shuns s u i t o r s to h e l p on *an o ld m a n ' s s l i p p e r ,1 is d e ­
p i c t e d as a m o d e l of filial d e v o t i o n . " n.2.
2. II Sam. 12:3.
S t e r n e m a k e s this b i b l i c a l story the ch i e f
i l l u s t r a t i o n of S e r m o n No. 4, " S e l f - K n o w l e d g e , " of w h i c h
the text is II Sam. 12:7; see e s p e c i a l l y IX, 59, w h e r e
the b i b l i c a l v e r s e q u o t e d he r e is r e p e a t e d .
3. V, 391.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
set h i m on his
care of him.
own beast,
Once &£,ain r e l i g i o n
This
peculiar
in his
fesses
soft
for
to h a v e
pressure
sensation
women
kadame
the
minutely
B l us h es ,
vicarious
the door
into h is
pleasure
of the
arms
gentle
in the
he
his
A l t h o u g h he
looks,
feels
the
with
every
relation with
does
open street,
f r o m h o l d i n g her hand.
coach-house,
to the
w h i c h he p r o ­
of arteries,
characterize
in the Sent iment al J o u r n e y .
de L ***
a clue
pleasures
the p u l s a t i o n
recorded,
took
is m o r e than once
2
of impotence.
Such a condition
in love.
of ha n d s ,
and
There
sort of p h y s i c a l
found
to an inn,
is p o s s i b l y
he al t h.
a suggestion
him
w i t h S t e r n e ’s s e n s i b i l i t y .
instinct
of S t e r n e ' s
writings
may a c c o u n t
is c o n n e c t e d
protective
state
and. b r o u g h t
As he
he
not
derives
leads
"a p l e a s u r a b l e
take
her
to
ductility
1. L u k e 10:3 3 - 3 4 .
The st o ry of the Good S a m a r i t a n is the
great a r g u m e n t u s e d for b e n e v o l e n c e in S e r m o n No. 3,
" P h i l a n t h r o p y R e c o m m e n d e d ," of w h i c h the text is L u k e
1 0:3 6 - 3 7 .
V e r s e s 33 a n d 34 are r e p e a t e d in IX, 43.
In
i m a g i n i n g the t h o u g h t s of the G o o d Sa m ar i t a n , S t e r n e
m a k e s a s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n for w h i c h t h e r e is no clue
in the B i b l e : " . . . a n d if I can do n o t h i n g else, — I shall
sof te n his m i s f o r t u n e s by d r o p p i n g a tear of p i t y o v er
them." IX, 48.
T h a t S t e r n e l i k e d the i m a g e ry of this
p a r a b l e is to be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m the fact that he u se d
it a g a i n in S e r m o n No. 5, IX, 94.
Cf. also J5..J. V, 60,
w h e r e Y o r i c k is s p e a k i n g of his p a i n in l o s i n g the la d y' s
hand: "The m a n n e r in w h i c h I h a d lost it c a r r i e d n e i t h e r
oil nor wine to the w o u nd. "
2. In the J o u r n a l he w r i t e s : " ...I h av e h a d no c o m m e r c e w h a t ­
e ver w i t h the S e x — —not e v en m y w i f e . . . t h e s e 15 Y e a r s — Apr. 24, p. 329.
R e p e a t e d in a l et t e r to the E a r l of
S h e l b u r n e , M a y 21, 1767, p. 343.
Cf. T..S.. IV, 74 (vii,
29).
A n d in the S e n t i m e n t a l J
h
e
p a y s t r i b u t e to
the m a s t e r of the h o t e l "for an act he dowlfl- not do, or
t h i n k of."
(Italics S t e r n e ' s ) V, 328.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
217
at>out her,
which
spread
a calmness
over
all my
s p i r i t s ---
C-ood God.* h o w
a m a n m i g h t l e a d such a c r e a t u r e as this round
1
with him]"
W h e n she d i s e n g a g e s her hand, he gives
the w o r l d
19a m i s e r a b l e
that
picture.,,of
the
weakness
of m y heart,
b y owning
it
have
s u f f e r e d a pain, w h i c h w o r t h i e r occas i on s co ul d not
2
inflicted— "
W h e n the l a dy c h a r i t a b l y r e s t o r e s it to
him,
the p u l s a t i o n
and u p o n
a slight
se ns a ti o n"
ing his
lips;
attempt
in his
to
co n ve y s
squeeze
to her his
her hand,
emotion,
only a "subtle
palm
with
the
monk,
to h a v e
let
it
the b l o o d
from her,
"she
arteries
w a r n e d h i m in time to p r e v e n t his los3
p r i z e a s e c o n d time.
He h o l d s it all t h r o u g h the r e ­
encounter
decent
of his
and
"so
go,
long
without
spirits,
as
e nc ou nter with
It is p r e f i x e d w i t h
the d e f i n i t i o n
first
pressing
in­
it to m y
suffered a revulsion
4
I di d it."
A n d in p a r t i n g
to ki s s h e r h a n d twice,
s e n s i b i l i t y m i x e d w i t h a conce r n,
5
and b i d adieu."
The
it w o u l d h a v e b ee n
which had
c r o w d e d b a c k to her,
s u f f e r e d me
that
the
she got
grisset
a sentimental
a n d w i t h a l o o k of
out
of the chai se --
is of the same
apostrophe
of l o v e p r o p o s e d by Y o r i c k
sort.
reminiscent
to M a d a m e
of
de L***,
1. V, 54.
2. V, 60.
3. T h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e p l e a s u r a b l e s e n s a t i o n s in the
c o n t a c t of the m a l e and f e m a l e h a n d s is a n t i c i p a t e d in
the a c c o u n t of U n c l e T o b y and W i d o w W a d m a n e x a m i n i n g
the map.
1. S.. IV, 1 4 2 - 4 3 (viii, 16).
4. V, 71.
5. V, 94.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
218.
"a c o u r s e
of small,
quiet
a t t e n t i o n s . . .with n o w an d th e n a
lo ok of k i n d n e s s " :
Ha il ye small sw e e t c o u r t e s i e s of life, for smo o th do ye
make t h e r o a d of it.' like g r a c e a n d "beauty which begat in ­
c l i n a t i o n s to l o v e at first sight: 't is ye who open this
door an d let the s t r a n g e r in.l
By r e m a r k i n g
therefore
that
her
s h o u l d be
g o o d n a t u r e mus t
reflected
gain w i l l i n g p e r m i s s i o n
is a more
Because
delicious
of the
most
others
that he
Later,
they
feels
to feel her pulse.
theory
when
trying
exchange
that
glances.
"she
Likewise
characterized by
Yorick's
his arm.
look'd
the
a n d as
Anywhere
century
Yorick
into
my
encounter
loses
soul
wit h the
delicate
w i t h women.
and
fi11e
she
and
believed
w h i c h fit,
exchan g e,
2
reins."
and
.de c h a m b r e is
little p l e a s u r e s
He h e l p s
the y w a l k along,
el se but
every
very hea r t
the
in so doing.
of gloves
at
this
whi c h S t e r n e
accepted--he
to the
to
of hands.
flow of b l o o d a n d
to fi n d a p a i r
the u s u a l
relations
her p o c k e t ,
close
vainly
the
and
contrives
Presumably
of p h y s i o l o g y
eighteenth
was g e t t i n g v e r y
he
than a mere h o l d i n g
relation between
of the
constitutional
in the blood,
sensation
c h a r a c t e r — an a n c i e n t
be
h e r put
of
the b o o k s
instinctively
in
takes
P a r i s he w o u l d hav e g i v e n he r
in
3
parting "a kiss
Later
1.
2.
3.
Yorick
of charity,
conducts
her
as
warm
to his
and h o l y
as an apostle."
bed- ch amber while
V, 179.
V, 194.
V , 227 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
he w r it e s
a suitable
reply
to M a d a m e
phere m a d e
suggestive
goes the p l e a s i n g
of r e s t i n g
hand pas s
ing the
until
buckle
neck
of h e r
t he
upon the bed.
At
and in the n e x t
in an atmos
to the bed, he u n d e r1
of b l u sh i ng , of h o l d i n g hands,
of h i s h a n d u p o n her lap,
his
finally
The r e,
by the r e f e r e n c e
sensations
the b a c k
across
de H a m b o u l i e t .
as she
shoe.
The
sews his
thi s
p oi n t
castigates
are
a n d of
fix­
increased
is p l a c e d h o r i z o n t a l l y
Sterne breaks
the
stock,
temptations
f_i H e. .dfe c h a m b r e
of f e e l i n g her
reader
for
off the
th i n k i n g
chapter,
ill
of
him.
Apparently
in terms
of th e u n h e a l t h y
middle-aged
tions
the b o d i l y
lous,
which
of hi s
heart.
but
The
is a l m o s t
his
fact
Eliza s u p p l i e s
bring pure
sensitive
thought
of su c h e n c o u n t e r s
i m a g i n a t i o n of
them,
" t o r p i d heart "
to the
that
erotic
sensibility."
sensations
The r e a d e r
never
engendered
"dea r
To t h e
to admit
Sterne
but r a t h e r
the
as
S e xu a l d e s i r e
enjoy me n t
illustra­
is
sublimated
to an i n n o c e n t
suc h em o t i o n s must
soul
sick and
seem
ridicu­
th e y b r i n g e x q u i s i t e p l e a s u r e
f o r c e d to a d m i r e S t e r n e ' s
sensibility
is a " t o r p i d h e ar t ."
tha t
one
the se
episodes
are a s s o c i a t e d wi t h
g o o d r e a s o n w h y othe r t r a v e l l e r s
did not
1. " T h e r e is a so r t of a p l e a s i n g h a l f - g u i l t y blush, w h e r e
the b l o o d is m o r e in fault th a n the m a n — ’T is sent i m ­
p e t u o u s f r o m the hear t, a n d v i r t u e flies a f t e r it— “ not
to call it back, but to m a k e the s e n s a t i o n of it m o r e
d e l i c i o u s to t h e n e r v e s - - 1t is a s s o c i a t e d . "
V, 308.
S t e r n e is a c o n n o i s s e u r of b l u s h e s .
Cf. T...S..
158
(ii , 5).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
or
write
in s u c h a m a n n e r .
never b e f e l l
have b e e n
Yorick
ments
The
nection with his
events
as he
this
sat
respect
his
compared with
is t h a t
study
shows
and
that
for Eliza.
Sterne
fi ve y e a r s
in his
that
these
or that,
examination
feelings
or
travels,
in e a c h ca s e
therefore,
of two
is p r o b a b l e
adventures
if they
c h a n g e d b y p a s s i n g t h r o u g h his
above
ere p r e s e n t
clusion,
in h i s
completely
s e n s i b il it y .
It
that
The most
p r e v i o u s but
ele­
some
con­
likely
con­
r e l y i n g u p o n the
u p o n his
imagination
w i t h E l i z a ' s p i c t u r e b e f o r e him.
travels
are
contemporary
closet
travels
accounts
they
erotic
the same
e a c h has
was not
did,
and
In
c a nn ot be
of a d v e n t u r e s
of the
open
road.
D.
More
fundamental
manifestations
effects
his
sermons
have
he
are
of
gives
f lections.
of t h e
T he s e
sensibility than
or the r e g i s t e r i n g
the r e l i g i o u s
principles
it
that he b e l i e v e d
took a m p l e
eyes
to S t e r n e ' s
eroticism
is
evident
a religious basis,
The
use
S E N S I B I L I T Y AND R E L I G I O N
and
opportunity
fact
that
Indeed,
sermons
sermons,
he
it.
Fr o m
sensibility
to
w o r k of r e d e m p t i o n
to p r e a c h a c c o r d i n g l y .
Sterne looks
him legitimate
of p h y s i c a l
which guide
in w r i t i n g his
these
at F r a n c e
o c c a s i o n to
as we h a v e
already
through Yorick's
indulge
seen,
he m a d e
which were published under
told Eliza,
" c a me
all h o t
in m o r a l
frequent
Yorick*s
fr om
re­
name.
the h e a r t , "
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
while
Shandy
fore,
that
them.
The
ney
“came
in his
from
“ journey
principles
are o f t e n
of p h r a s i n g .
same,
It
is h a r d
any
for S t e r n e
accepted
but
even
where
there
one
question
natural,
the
of his b a s i c
there­
s h o ul d r e c u r
and
to
in the J o u r -
is no p a r a l l e l i s m
in t h e s e
of f u n d a m e n t a l
without
he
in the s e r m o n s
to d i s c o v e r
expression
certainly
It was
of the heart"
stated
th e
the p u l p i t
church,
the head."
wr i t i n g s
religious
tenets
ide a s
for
doct ri n e,
of his
is that m a n
is
n a t u r a l l y good, c r e a t e d so and p e r v e r t e d o n l y by his own
2
error.
M an s h o u l d act righ tl y , from i n s ti n ct , r e s p o n d i n g
to his
natural
apt o n l y
deal
inclination.
to l e a d h i m
astray.
R e a s o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g
Accordingly
of t a l k in Y o r i c k ’s w a n d e r i n g s
about
the re
are
is a great
"impulse"
and
" n a t u r e ."
he
Thus,
when
Yorick
is c e r t a i n
that
she
first
sees
is v i r t u o u s
the l a d y
of B r u s s e l s ,
a n d refined.
When t h e h e a r t f l i e s out b e f o r e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g , it saves
the j u d g m e n t a w o r l d of p a i n s — I was c e r t a i n she was of the
b e tt e r o r d e r o f b e i n g s .
In S t e r n e ' s
alone,
fo r
opinion
in one
the
of his
judgment practically
sermons
never
operates
he r e m a r k s !
The j u d g m e n t s of the m o r e d i s i n t e r e s t e d an d i m p a r t i a l of us
r e c e i v e no s ma l l t i n c t u r e f r o m our a f f e c t i o n s ; we g e n e r a l l y
consu l t the m in all d o u b t f u l points, a n d it h a p p e n s we l l if
1. L e t t e r No. 180, (?) late Jan. 1767, p. 298.
2. See S e r m o n No. 9, "The C h a r a c t e r of H e r o d , "
3. V, 53.
IX,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
144.
the m a t t e r in q u e s t i o n is not almost
trator is c a l l e d into the debate.
So S t e r n e d e s c r i b e s
himself
i n t u i t i v e l y — as the
man
bei ng k i n d a n d
preciation
an act
charitable,
of good.
of k i n d n e s s
Brussels,
Madame
her p a s s a g e
say that
leaps
Sometimes
on
chaise
Before
ther e
pulse
"dirty
and h i s
Caution
and H y p o c r i s y
of scand a l,
career
chur c h.
in th e
But
T h e lady of
of p o s s i b l e
thes e
to offer
i n t e r r u p t s him
of an o f f e r
w a r n s him
dan ge r .
and P r i d e
to
of
to ri d e thus
s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n his
Avarice
Meanness
c ha r a c t e r
can even a n t i c i p a t e
to a sk the lady
passions."
arbi­
instinctive a p ­
a presentiment
is a m o m e n t a r y
an d C o w a r d i c e
and
the
Th e heart,
so as Y o r i c k starts
to Amiens,
Yorick decides
far with him,
forth in
of a n o t h e r .
does
u s u a l l y has
2
fro m a man.
estimates
should.
the heart
the part
de L***,
in his
a man who
sensibility
a woman
kindness
pense,
of
as
settled before
im­
of the
ex­
Discretion
of ha rm
"bad p r o p e n s i t i e s "
to his
are
to
no avail;
...as I g e n e r a l l y act from first impulse, a n d t h er e fo r e s e l ­
dom l i s t e n to t h e s e cabals, w h i c h serve to no purpose, that
I k n o w of, b u t to e n c o m p a s s the heart w i t h a d a m a n t — I tu r n ' d
i ns t a n t l y a b o u t to the l a d y — 2
TT
S e r m o n No. 19, " F e l i x ' s B e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s Paul, E x a m i n e d , "
IX, 313-14.
2. V, 93.
3. V, 73.
T he r e f e r e n c e to the c h u r ch a n d his p r e b e n d recall
the p o r t r a i t of Y o r i c k at the b e g i n n i n g of £rj s.tXfiffi §h&n£.X.
whe re he is r e p r e s e n t e d as h a v i n g a g o o d h e a rt but l a c k i n g
d i s c r e t i o n (i, 1 1 - 1 2 ) .
T h e r e J o h n H a l l - S t e v e n s o n is r e p ­
resented
u n d e r the n a m e of E u g e n i u s as t h e a d v i so r of
b o t h Y o r i c k an d T r i s t r a m p a r t i c u l a r l y in m a t t e r s of d i s ­
cretion.
In the S e n t i m e n t a l JgJ2T.ft.S2. h e is cited twice in
this c o n n e c t i o n .
Cf. V, 183, 238-39.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
223
Here s t e r n e
s t a t es d i r e c t l y his r e l i a n c e on impulse.
And
1
as Mr. C r o s s ha s noted , he lists Caut i on and D i s c r e t i o n
here,
as "bad p r o p e n s i t i e s "
The
iirst
and this
impulse,
one
a l o n g w i t h two
of the
one of g e n e r o s i t y ,
is the te s t
stead of l i s t e n i n g to the
In h i r i n g L a
and
and a g a i n he doe s right ,
come s
from the
sins.
heart,
the one he g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s
cabals
Fleur,
s e v e n dea dl y
of reason.
Y o r i c k acts
for,
in­
on i m p u ls e
as he says,
once
"I h a d never
more,
less
r ea s o n to repen t of the i m p u l s e s w h i c h g e n e r a l l y do d e t e r m i n e
2
me."
Y o r i c k h i r e d L a F l e u r not b e c a u s e of his q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,
which wer e b e a t i n g a d r u m
cause
of his
It is e n o u g h
for heaven.' ... and ought
in t e n t i o n s ,
they are,
comes
for
mas te r
readily
to w r i t e
forgives
impl ic i t
1. W o r k s Int.
2. V, 115.
3. V, 111.
4. V, 160.
him,
the h e a r t
L a t er ,
but b e ­
the t r o u b l e
that h e l l
is p a v e d with
for heaven.
who b e l i e v e s
rather
to M a d a m e
And
than from
conscious
de L***,
that his
Yorick
was
in no fault,"
of
the
letter.
writing
in the h e a r t
I,
xli.
so
that m o r a l i t y
"his heart
t ru s t
p.
e n o u g h for m e — u
w h e n La F l e u r p r e s u m e s
a letter
since
to be
enough
of s e n t i m e n t
from
of the will.
wishes
not b e l i e v e
sin ce t h e y a re
the m a n
puts h i m s e l f to
this
does
instinctively
e xe r c i s e
splatterdashes,
"good dispositions."
Apparently Sterne
good
and m a k i n g
and
Indeed
is o c c a s i o n a l l y a c au s e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
224.
tr oub 1 e , for
the
allow,
Sterne
When
heart
goes
further
than r e a s o n
r e c a l l s E l i z a to
go to B r u s s e l s
to h e a r
a n ex tr av a g a n t
statement.
Madame
overcome
de L * * * ' s
can
safe ly
his d e s i r e
sad story,
to
he m a k e s
E t e r nal f o u n t a i n of h a p p i n e s s ] said I k n e e l i n g u p o n the
ground- -be t h o u m y w i t n e s s — a n d every p u r e spirit w h i c h
t ast e s it, be t h o u my w i t n e s s also, that I w o u l d not trav el
to Bru s sels , unles-s E l i z a went al o n g w i t h me, did the r o a d
lead me t o w a r d s h e a v e n .
In t r a n s p o r t s of this kind, the heart,
under s t anding, wi l l a l w a y s say too m u c h . l
in spite
The
is very u n o r t h o d o x ,
address
of su c h
to say the l e a s t ,
sent e nc e th e
had u s e d
Levite
the
head
in t h e
can
instead
fo r
sermons
an a p o l o g y .
The
concluding
same d e v i c e he
the
story o f the
He h a d b e e n d i s c u s s i n g
circumstances
imagine
in the
in c o m m e n t i n g u p o n
concubine.
extenuating
to th e D e i t y
and Sterne recognizes
necessity
an d h i s
spirits"
a remark
in the
which "gentle
case
of those
of the
in g e n e r a l
and v i r t u o u s
who
err
fr o m the
of t h e heart:
Here then let us s t o p a m o m e n t and gi ve the story of the
L e v i t e a n d his C o n c u b i n e a s e c o n d he a r i n g : lik e all
others, m u c h of it d e p e n d s u p o n the t el l i n g ; and as the
S c r i p t u r e h a s le f t us no k i n d of co m m e n t u p o n it, 'tis a
story on w h i c h the he art ca nn o t be at a loss for what to
the d a n g e r
say, or the i m a g i n a t i on f o r wha t to s u p p o s e
is, h u m a n i t y m a y say too m u c h . ^
In the
same m a n n e r
own h u m a n i t y ,
vowing
the
says
extent
1. V, 154.
2. S e r m o n No.
18,
Yo r i c k ' s
sensitive
to o m u c h w h i l e
of his
IX,
heart,
b u o y e d by
rhapsodizing
faithfulness,
and
its
over E l i z a
causes h i m
287.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to
and
make
225.
an a l mo s t
sacrilegious
lows this
statement
state m en t .
The
fact
to stand, is e x e m p l a r y
that S t e r n e
al­
of his "belief that
r e l i gi o n .is. s e n s i b i l i t y .
T he
careful
doctrines
method
barbe r 's
use
of s e n s i b i l i t y
of o b s e r v a t i o n .
of h y p e r b o l e ,
distinguishing national
rather
than
affairs
so m u c h a l ik e ,
that
fit
in well w i t h Sterne's
In c o m m e n t i n g
upon
he r e m a r k s u p o n the
characters
of state,
Fren c h
i m p o r t a n c e of
a c c o r d i n g to m i n u t i a e
"whe r e
I w o u l d not
the
great
me n talk a n d stalk
give n i n e - p e n c e
to
chuse
1
amongst
them."
the usu al
tions,"
one's
methods
but
the h e a r t
Such
al s o
an d
of
of t r a v e l l e r s
been e x p r e s s e d
the s e r m o n s
the
In p u b l ic
real
away
ring to the b e h a v i o r
feet,
he
in m a k i n g
the d o c t r i n e
among
laid
contrasts
supplements
true m o t i v e s .
may d i s c o v e r his
a t h e o r y not onl y
heart.
Take h i m
one
in private,
charac t er .
This
the " s w e e p i n g s
g r e a t l y with
" na t i o n a l
reflec­
of j u d g i n g
from
can pos e a n d hide
u na w a r e s ,
and you
theory had already
of the A u t h o r ' s s t u d y " —
to be p u b l i s h e d p o s t h u m o u s l y .
of P e t e r
when Chri s t
offered
Refer­
to w a s h his
observed:
I w o u l d s o o n e r f o r m j u d g m e n t of a man's temper, f r o m his b e ­
h a v i o u r on s u c h l i t t l e o c c u r r e n c e s of lif e as these, than
from the m o r e w e i g h e d and i m p o r t a n t actions, w he r e a ma n is
more u p o n his g u a r d ; — —has m o r e p r e p a r a t i o n to d i s g u i s e the
true d i s p o s i t i o n of his hea r t, and mor e t e m p t a t i o n w h e n d i s ­
g u i s e d to i m p o s e it on o t h e r s . 2
1.
2.
V, 174, q u o t e d above, p. 152..
S e r m o n No. 31, "St. P e t e r ' s C h a r a ct er , "
X,
170-71.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
226.
This
theory
Sterne
applies
throughout
his S e n t i m e n t a l
Jour-
JX §X •
Such
but
it
If he
ly,
an a n a l y s i s
indicates
examines
how
is he
instance,
a
flaw in the
the v a l u e
when
Yorick
to p ut
one's
scious
diplomatist,
Sterne
of a c t i n g a c c o r d i n g
is in p u r s u i t
r e a d er
nature?"
forty
text,
the
In o t h e r
as God,
a great p o i n t
to nature.
most
order
who
use
that
of a p ­
" - - A hea r t
of
on its
of conduct
he
tells
apparent,
fashion,
a n d the
"What
J o u r n e y . the n e c e s s i t y
the
word
acting according
vari e s
is as an
to n a t u r e
intended him
us,
is "writ
is
some
of an
with co n­
equivalent
d e t e r m i n e d by the First
c r e a t e d man good,
deter­
the w o r d occurs
the m e a n i n g
For
a self-con­
journey,
is by no means
Although
of t h i n g s as
words,
own?
a n a l ys i s
the word
in P i l a t e
close­
impulsive.
in his
Although
Sentimental
f r eq ue n t
one b e c o m e s
And his
considers
so
situation before
r a t h e r than
t e m p t e d to ask,
in the
ways
he tells himself:
at ease,
rational
w h e n one
in his
the vario us
stu dy the
of " N A TU R E. "
is obvi o us .
for th e
1. V,
Yet
times
answ e r
to
the p r e c i s e m e a n i n g
may be
analyzer.
into no e x t r e m e s . - - 1tie ever
hear t
makes
spontaneity
Choiseul,
Y o r i ck , flies
1
c e n t e r - - 11
If one h a s
mining
s e n s i b i l i t y of the
considers
at ease,
be ve ry acute,
of th e s e u n g u a r d e d a c t i o n s
to m a i n t a i n any
p r o a c h i n g the Du e de
large,"
of s e n s i b i l i t y may
Cause.
wo u l d b e
acting
to act.
Often
259.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
227.
then
the w o r d
implies
instinct
as a g a i n s t
a f f e c t a ti on .
When
1
Sterne
he
terms La Fleur
seems
weeks
to h a v e
this
in the P a r i s
"Nature"
In this
rather
case
his h o p e s
Sterne
I wish she m a y
of a r t . 3
a coxcomb
distinction
salons,
than
for his
"more
tho se
in mind.
Y o r i c k lon g s
of "Art,"
ever r e m a i n a c h i l d
remarks
f requent
occurrence
of a r t ,M
a f t e r thr ee
for the c h i l d r e n
and
in c o n t r a s t
than
So,
of
2
takes his leave.
r e p e a t s p h r a s e s he u s e d
daughter
Later he
of n a t u r e
in s p e a k i n g
of
to F r e n c h manners:
of n a t u r e
1 hate
children
h e a r t is su ch "That N a t u r e must
4
have h a d the c h i e f h a n d in it,"
and that N a t u r e "breat h es "
5
in all h i s d a u g h t e r ' s " c o m p o s i t i o n . "
Le t t e r s , he says,
6
7
shou l d be w r i t t e n n a t u r a l l y ,
i.e. fro m the heart.
The
head"
head."
m ak e s
Here
s en s i b i l i t y ,
able to art
This
that E l i z a ' s
nature
of the p h r a s e
equ al
we h a v e
" f r o m the h e a rt , "
a r r i v e d at
for n a t u r e
" f r o m the hear t
and the
a doctrine
heart
are
and not
and art,
the
" f r o m the
of t h o r o u g h g o i n g
of cours e p r e f e r ­
and the head.
love
or the a s s u m e d was
o f the n a t u r a l
a part
in o p p o s i t i o n to
of r e l i g i o n
as well
as
the
forced
s e n ti m en t
1.
2.
3.
4*
5.
6.
V, 116.
V, 376.
L e t t e r No. 96, to L a d y D . , J u l y 9, 1762, p. 179.
J o u r n a l . J u n e 13, p. 35 7.
L e t t e r No. 215, to P a n c h a u A , Oct. 1, 1767, p. 396.
L e t t e r No. 122, to Lydia , M a y 15, 1764, p. 212; L e t t e r
No. 183, to same, Feb. 23, 1767, p. 316.
7. L e t t e r No. 191, to Eliza, M a r c h 1767, p. 316; L e t t e r No.
201, to same, Jun e 8, 1767, p. 362.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
228.
to Sterne.
plicity
proud
He
observed
is the
g re a t
friend
of his
sermons
of nature,
and
if
that
"Sim­
I w o u l d be
of
simple
a n y t h i n g in this s i l l y world, it w o u l d be of this
1
alliance."
T h i s p r e f e r e n c e for the s i mp l e life takes
him fro m the P a r i s
shall p r e s e n t l y
Theology
for Sterne.
s a lo n s
see,
true
of the
Whether
ellin g E n g l i s h m a n ,
The
in o n e
happiness
was to be
is a p e a s a n t
should try
Christian religion,
cotta g es ,
gloomy hell-fire
one
one
to p e a s a n t
sort
where,
we
found.
has
or a savant
no a p p e a l
or a t r a v ­
to e nj o y life u p o n
he b e l i e v e s ,
as
is d e s i g n e d
earth.
to p r o m o t e
terrestrial happiness.
He cal ls Go d the " E t e r n a l f o u n t a i n
2
3
of h a p p i n e ss ." 1 a n d "the f o u n t a i n of joy," and he p i t i e s those
who
see m u n a b l e
find b o t h
When he
to
derive
pleasure
f r o m life.
in the Sent i ment al J o u r n e y and
exclaims
in t h e J o u r n e y
T h i s b e l i e f we
in the
that he p i t i e s
sermons.
"the m a n who
4
can t r a v e l
from D an
he may ha v e h a d
discusses
the
t_o B e e r s h e b a . and cry
in m i n d
extreme
a passage
asceticism
from
'Tis
the
all barr e n, "
sermons,
of the J e s u i t
w h e r e he
Sanchez:
I pit y the me n w h o s e n a t u r a l p l e a s u r e s a r e b u r d e n s , a n d who
fly f r o m joy (as t h e s e s p l e n e t i c and m o r o s e souls do) , as if
it was r e a l l y an e v i l in i t s e l f . ^
The
splenetic princi ple
1. S e r m o n
2. V, 154,
3. S e r m o n
4. V, 98,
5. S e r m o n
of t r a v e l
Sterne
does
not
approve,
No. 24, "P r i d e , " X. 57.
q u o t e d above, p. 185, n.l.
No. 22, " T h e H i s t o r y of J a c o b C o n s i d e r e d ,
q u o t e d a b ov e , pp. 152-53.
No. 22, X, 18.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
X,
11.
and he
therefore
who
s eem
ous
souls
attacks
those,
to h o l d by it.
of S m e l f u n g u s
sion of p i t y
for
their
The
such as S m o l l e t t
outburst
and M u n d u n g u s
against
clo se s
a nd Sharp,
the u n g e n e r ­
with
an e x p r e s ­
failings.
Peace to them.1 if it is to be f o u n d , but h e a v e n itself, was
it p o s s i b l e to get t h e r e w i t h such tempers, w o u l d want o b ­
jects to give i t — e v e r y g e n t l e spirit w o u l d come f l y i n g
upon the w i n g s of L o v e to h ai l their a r r i v a l - - N o t h i n g would
the s ouls of S m e l f u n g u s a n d M u n d u n g u s h ea r of, but fresh
anthems of joy, f r e s h r a p t u r e s of love, a n d fresh c o n g r a t u ­
lations of their c o m m o n f e l i c i t y
1 h e a r t i l y p i t y them;
they h a v e b r o u g h t up no f a c u l t i e s for this work; a nd was the
h a p p i e s t m a n s i o n in h e a v e n to be a l l o t t e d to S m e l f u n g u s and
M undungus, they w o u l d be so far from b e i n g happy, that the
souls of S m e l f u n g u s a n d M u n d u n g u s w ould do p e n a n c e there to
all e t e r n i t y . 1
In this
case
ligious
thought
but also
w as b r o u g h t
taken
death,
also
into his
of his
noted
J o u r n e y not
the v e ry w o r d i n g
tuted the n a m e s
polluted
over
o nly h o w S t er n e' s
sentimental
sermons.
In the
f r o m a s er mo n no t p u b l i s h e d un t il
it w i l l b e
to the Sent i m en t a l
but
to s h ow not
the v e r y p h r a s e o l o g y
ing p a s s a g e ,
Sterne's
it is p o s s i b l e
that
only the
at the end,
of S m e l f u n g u s
S t e r n e has
work,
follow­
after
transferred
i de a of the
w h e r e he has
and m u n d u n g u s
re­
sermon
substi­
for "a gross and
spirit."
How t h e n can we i m a g i n e that an i l l - d i s p o s e d soul, whose
c o n v e r s a t i o n n e v e r r e a c h e d to heaven, but w h os e a p p e t i t e s
and de s i r e s , to the last hour, have g r o v e i l 1d u p o n this
u n c l e a n spot of e a r t h ; - - h o w can we im ag in e it sho ul d h e r e ­
after t a k e p l e a s u r e in GOD, or be able to t a s t e joy or
s a t i s f a c t i o n from h is p r e s e n c e , who is so i n f i n i t e l y pure
that he e v en p u t t e t h no trust in his s a i n t s , - - n o r are the
1.
V,
100.
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230.
h e a ve ns t h e m s e l v e s (as Job says) clean in hi s s ig h t. - - T h e
c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s has l e d some w r it e rs so far, as to
say, with some d e g r e e of i r r e v e r e n c e in the e x p r e s s i o n , - that it was not in the p o w e r of GOD to make a w i c k e d man
happy, if the soul was s e p a r a t e d from the body, wit h all
its v i c i o u s h a b i t s a n d i n c l i n a t i o n s u n r e f o r m e d ;--wh i ch
thought a ve r y able d i v i n e in our churc h has p u r s u e d so far,
as to d e c l a r e his b e l i e f , — — that could the h a p p i e s t man s io n
in h e a v e n be s u p p o s e d to be a l l o t t e d to a g r o s s and p o l l u t e d
spirit, it w o u l d be so far fro m b e i n g h a p p y in it, that it
would do p e n a n c e t h e r e to all e t e r n i t y :- - b y w h i c h he meant,
it w o u l d car ry s u c h a p p e t i t e s a l o n g with it, for which there
could b e f o u n d no s u i t a b l e o b j e c t s . ^
A natu r al
lacked,
By use
some
g o o d temper,
can go
far
S m e lf u ng us
in a l l e v i a t i n g
of it S t e r n e
good
s u c h as
is a b l e
eve n a m o n g
the
to
ills
the
and Mundungus
sorro w s
imagine,
of this world.
t e m p o r a r i l y at least,
of impris on m en t .
B e s h r e w the s o m b r e p e n c i l , said I v a u n t i n g l y - - f o r I envy not
its power, w h i c h p a i n t s the evils of life with so hard and
dea dl y a co l ou r i n g .
T h e m i n d sits t e r r i f i e d at the objects
she ha s m a g n i f i e d h e r s e l f , a n d b lack e ne d: r e d u c e them to
their p r o p e r size a n d hue, she o verlooks t h e m - - 2
To be
sociable,
to b e
t h r o u g h the w o r l d
of g o o d
content
cheer,
to go
uncomplaining
w i t h God's plenty*^--these were
1.
2.
S e r m o n No. 29, "Ou r C o n v e r s a t i o n in H e a v e n , " X, 141-42.
?, 240.
He is e x p a n d i n g a figure a l r e a d y e m p l o y e d in one
of the s e r mo n s: "Gi v e but the outli n es o f a s to r y, -- l et
S n l e e n or P r u d e r y s n a t c h the pencil, a n d they will f i n i s h
it wi t h so d i r t y a c o l o u r i n g , that C a nd o ur a n d Coprb GS2L
will sit in
t o r t u r e as th e y l o o k at it." S e r m o n No. 18,
" The L e v i t e
and h i s C o n c u b i n e , " IX, 286.
3. Cf. a c u r i o u s p a s s a g e in th e Sermons: " - - - G r a n t me,
g r a c i o u s God.' to go c h e e r f u l l y on, the r o a d w h i c h thou
has t m a r k e d o u t ; --- 1 wi s h it n e i t h e r m o r e w i d e nor m o r e
s m o o t h : - - - c o n t i n u e the light of this d i m ta p e r tho u hast
put into m y h a n d s : — - — I wi ll kneel up o n the g r o u n d seven
t ime s a day, to s e e k the bes t t r a c k I can w i t h it--— and
h a v i n g done
that, Iwi ll t r u s t m y s e l f and the issue of
my j o u r n e y to thee, who art the f o u n t a i n of joy
will sing songs of c o m f o r t as I go a l o ng . "
S e r m o n No.
22, "The H i s t o r y of J a c o b C o n s i d e r e d , " X, 11.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
principles
of
i ncor po ra t e
trate how
religion
t h e m into
Sterne
As u p o n
rhapsodies,
so
temptations.
and fight
chambre
in a v e r y
chapter
in
it
him a m o r a l
he
"book serves
the heart
is b e t t e r
them
Sterne
to
as b e s t
may
sees fit
further
say too
to
lesson
experience
one
to
to
illus­
m u c h in its
can than
these
to be
has p l a c e d Y o r i c k and
compromising
Shandean
turning the p a g e
that
e n j o y i n g the w o r l d a man may feel n u m e r o u s
But
When
and
f r o m his p r e d e c e s s o r s .
occasion
in
Sterne,
a travel
differs
against
apathetic.
to
s i t ua t io n ,
he b r e a k s
A f t e r f o r c i n g the
speculate
as to what
subject
of
entirely
the f i 1 1 e de
fashion.
on the
temptations
off
the
r e a de r w h i l e
h a pp e n e d ,
he reads
t em p ta t io n :
Y e s - - a n d t h e n — Y e w h o s e c l a y - c o l d heads a nd l u k e w a r m
hearts can a r g u e d o w n o r m a s k y o u r p a s s i o n s , tell me, wha t
trespass is it that m a n s h o u l d have them? or h o w his spiri t
stands a n s w e r a b l e to the F a t h e r of s p ir i ts but for his c o n ­
duct u n d e r them.
If N a t u r e h a s so w o v e the web of k i n d n e s s that some
threads of l o v e a n d d e s i r e are e n t a n g l e d w i t h the p i e c e must the w h o l e w e b be rent in d r a w i n g them o u t ? — Whip me
such stoics, g r e a t G o v e r n o r of n a tu re ! said I to m y s e l f —
W herever t hy p r o v i d e n c e s h o u l d p l a c e me for the trials of
my vi rtue — w h a t e v e r is m y d a n g e r — w h a t e v e r is my s i t u a t i o n - let me fee l the m o v e m e n t s w h i c h rise out of it, and w h i c h
b e l o n g to me as a m a n — a n d if I g o v e r n th e m as a good one, I
will trust the i s s u e s to thy justice: for t h o u hast m a d e us,
and not we o u r s e l v e s . ^
The sin,
he
late one' s
implies,
spirit.
is o n l y in y i e l d i n g ,
Th e
stoics,
who
in f a i l i n g to r e g u ­
represent
to S t e rn e
1. V, 315.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
those
232.
who do not
under
feel r a t h e r
sufferings,
cold h e a d s
slight
are
t h an t h o s e who h e a r
an
inferior
and lukewarm hearts"
si n ce
the s t o i c s
they
feel
is m a d e
sort
whose
no t e m p t a t i o n s .
in the S e r m o n s ,
up h e r o i c a l l y
of h e i n g w i t h "c la yclaim
when d w e l l i n g u p o n the
of Job, h e p r a i s e s his
firmness,
"not
stoical
a just
a
s t u p i d i t y , but
providence
all his
and a persuasion
1
dealings."
But
without
one m a y f i n d
r el i gi o n.
through
Twice
he
of his
battling
presents
such p e r f e c t
happiness.
s e v e nt h b o o k
of S h a n d y
and
In the
of G o d 's
goodness
in
Sterne b el ie ve s
joy s o m e t h i n g
a rustic
which results
sense
justice
te m pt at i on s ,
innocent
is
S u ch an a t t a c k on
afflictions
from
to v i r t u e
dance
closely
a k i n to
as a scene
Languedocian
dance
in
of
the
T r i s t r a m exclaims:
Just D i s p o s e r of our Joys a n d s o r r o w s ...w hy c o u l d not a ma n
sit down in the la p of c o n t e n t h e r e — and dance, a n d sing,
and say h i s p r a y e r s , and go to h e a v e n w i t h this n u t - b r o w n
maid T 2
A n d in the
n at u r e
S e n t i m e n t al J o u r n e y Y o r i c k e m p h a s i z e s
of the
joyous
the
exalted
o cc a si o n.
1.
S e r m o n No. 15, " J o b ' s S x p o s t u l a t i o n w i t h hiB Wife," IX,
2 48-49.
In t h i s s ermon, w i t h its a t t a c k u p o n the " p e d ­
a n t r y of p h i l o s o p h y , " is to be found the g e rm of the
c o n t r a s t i n g l a m e n t a t i o n s of Mr. Sha nd y and C o r p o r a l T r i m
u p o n the d e a t h of the u n f o r t u n a t e Bobby.
Trim's natural
f e e l i n g s s u r p a s s in v a l u e Mr. S h a n d y ' s b o o k i s h stoicism.
Cf. also S e r m o n No.
20, " T h e P r o d i g a l Son," for an e x a m p l e
of the " co l d St o ic "
who acts " su ll e nl y " in the p r e s e n c e of
joy.
IX, 327.
2. I V , 111 ( v i i , 43).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
233.
It was not till tlie m i d d l e of the second dan c e, wh e n for
some p a u s e s in t h e m o v e m e n t w h e r e i n they all s e e m ' d to look
up, I f a n c i e d I c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h an e l e v a t i o n of spirit
d i f f e r e n t fro m that w h i c h is t h e cause or the e f fe c t of
simplicity.
In a word, I thou gh t I b e h e l d R e l i g i o n m i x i n g
in the d a n c e
bu t as I h a d n e v e r seen her so engaged, I
should hav e l o o k ' d u p o n it n o w as one of the i l l u s i o n s of
an i m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h is e t e r n a l l y m i s l e a d i n g me, h a d not the
old man, as s o o n as t h e d a n c e ended, said, that thi s was
their c o n s t a n t way; a n d that all his life lo n g he h a d made
it a rule, a f t e r s u p p e r w as o v e r , to call out his family to
aance and r e j o i c e ; b e l i e v i n g , he said, that a c h e e r f u l and
c o n t e n t e d m i n d was the b e s t sort of thanks to H e a v e n that an
i l l i t e r a t e p e a s a n t coul d p a y - --Or
a learned prelate
This passage,
divine
worship,
a daring
which
said
seems
to make
caused Virginia Woolf
Woolf's
for
I.1
joy a form
to r e m a r k that
of
H it was
to p e r c e i v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p
2
between religion and pleasure."
The g e n e ra l e x c e l l e n c e of
Mrs.
thing
either,
a clergyman
criticism notwithstanding,
of
orthodox
for the
t re n d
centu r y
was a w a y f r o m g l o o m a n d hell-fire.
f o l l o w e d in t h e m a i n
defending
d u c i n g the
"an
the
pulpit
ide as
set
a u t h o r ... c h a r g e d as
way of wit
oratory
she
and humour
is
in err or here,
in the e i g h t e e n t h
forth by
The preachers
Shaftesbury
too p r e s u m p t u o u s
for
in
intro­
into r e l i g i o u searches'1!
1st Th a t wit a n d h u m o u r a r e c o r r o b o r a t i v e of r e l i g i o n , and
p r o m o t i v e of t r u e faith.
2nd T h a t th ey a r e u s e d as p r o p e r mea ns of thi s k i n d by the
holy f o u n d e r s of r e l i g i o n .
3rd T h a t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e da rk c o m p l e x i o n a n d sour
h u m o u r of some r e l i g i o u s t ea c he r s, we may oe j u s t l y said
to have in the m a i n a w i t t y a n d good-hu mo u re d- r el i gi o n.
2. Ed. S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y (World's C l a s s i c s ) , L o n do n ,
i n t ., p. x v i .
3. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s II, Misc. ii, 217.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1928,
234.
This
congenial
one p l a c e
religion
of it
kind
he g i v e s
than k s
to G o d
so c o u r t e o u s , - * s o
carries
natures,
i d e a is f o l l o w e d by S t e r n e
and
it to heal
our s p i r i t s ,
that
sermons.
thou, hast
g o o d t e m p e r *d ,“ — that
a balm along with
sweeten
" “ “ that
in his
g iv e n us a
ev e r y p r e c e p t
the s o re n es s
we might
In
of
our
live w i t h s u c h
intercourse
g eth e r
in th is world, as will fit us to exist to1
in a b e t t e r , 11
E l s e w h e r e he u p b r a i d s the e n t h u s i a s t
who c o n c e i v e s
of r e l i g i o n
in t e r m s
of u n h a p p i n e s s
a n d sorrow:
See his c o u n t e n a n c e o v e r s p r e a d wi t h a m e l a n c h o l y g l o o m and
d e s p o n d e n c e ; — as if r e l i g i o n , w h i c h is e v i d e n t l y c a l c u l a t e d
to make us h a p p y in this life as well as the next, was the
parent of s u l l e n n e s s and d i s c o n t e n t . 2
And the p e r f e c t
found
upon
in the
the
counterpart
sermon
joyous
of
the p e a s a n t
on the P r o d i g a l
celebration
W h e n the a f f e c t i o n s
name for R e l i g i o n .
Son,
dance
is to be
whe re S t e r ne
c o m me n ts
s t a g e d u p o n the p r o d i g a l ' s
so k i n d l y
b r e a k loose,
Joy
return.
is anot h er
We l o o k up as we t a s t e it: the cold S to i c with o ut , when he
hears the d a n c i n g a n d music, ma y ask s u l l e n l y (with
the eld e r
brother) What it m e a n s ? and r e f u s e to enter: but the h u m a n e
and c o m p a s s i o n a t e all fly i m p e t u o u s l y to the b a nq u et , given
for a Bon who was lost a n d 1 s f o u n d . G e n t l e spirits, light
up the p a v i l i o n w i t h a s a c r e d fire; and p a r e n t a l love and
filial piety, l e a d in the m a s k w i t h riot and wild festivity.' —
Was it not for this that G o d g a v e men m u s i c to s t r i k e upo n
the k i n d l y p a s s i o n s ; that N a t u r e taught t h e feet to dan c e in
its m o v e m e n t s , and, as c h i e f g o v e r n e s s of the feast, p o u r e d
forth win e into t h e goblet, to crown it w i t h g l a d n e s s ? 3
L e v i t e and his C o n c u b i n e , " IX, 301.
s e rmo n No. 18, " Th
c f . S e rmon No. 2, "The H o u s e of F e a s t i n g a n d the H o u s e of
M ou r n i n g
escr i bed " IX, 19-21, wh e r e he d e n i e s that sorr 0 w is bet ter t han l a u g h t e r and m a i n t a i n s that the "Best
o f B e ings" int ends that we s h o u l d e n j o y this world.
2. S eSrmon
e r m o nNo.
No. 38,
38, »"O
Onn E n t h u s i a s m , " X, 282-83.
3. S eSrmon
e r m o nNo.
No. 20
20,, IX,
IX, 327.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
235 .
This r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the
is b a s e d
on t h e u n - c a l v i n i s t i c b e l i e f that
l igion does not
provided
it
ourselves,
is b e t t e r
is
interfere
world
should
it
but
the
that S t e r n e
to enjoy
T his
alike
one,
and
attitude
and c e r t a i n l y
travels.
is not
s u r p r i s i n g that
such a b o r r o w e r
f r om the B i b l e
o wn ser mo ns
in the
Sterne
was
purpose.
sermons
for a n o t h e r
shall
recourse
“ work
see
as we go along,
c o n s i d e r e d his
com­
is s i g n i f i c a n t
w r i t i n g his
We
or s h o u l d lift
when
it
of redemp t io n "
still
and the
sensibility
to the
further
evi­
conclusion
a fundamental
of his r e l i g i o n .
religion
Although Sterne
concepts
m ore
earth
w o u l d e nj o y his
of this b o r r o w i n g
A jo y o u s
one.
of heaven.
and bishop
f r o m his
with an a v o w e d m o r a l
part
joys
f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h he has
is c o n s i d e r e d that
must be
is our duty
on
who
a nd p h r a s i n g u s e d
dences
here
re­
a “ cheer fu l a nd c o n t e n t e d mind"
employ phrases
occasional p assage s
enjoyment
it
spirit
the C h r i s t i a n
t ha n a g l o o m y and s p l e n e t i c
for the
of s e n t i m e n t
Of c o u r s e
posi t io n,
Thus
s h a r e d by p e a s a n t
by the man
as S t e r n e
In fact,
if p o s s i b l e .
in this
s hould be
w i t h m a n' s
innocent.
has a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n
ideas
f e s t i v e a n d the r e l i g i o u s
Anglican
does not
in s u ch a m a t t e r
fundamental
religious
clergyman
protestations
must
hesitate
as love,
country
follies
French
not d i s p u t e
We m i g h t
Catholic
the w i l l f u l
to d i s p u t e
he does
beliefs.
in a R o m a n
against
of n e c e s s i t y be a tole r an t
e xpect
their
from an
a number
of the R o m i s h
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
236.
church.
Englishmen,
as a rule,
religion
either
horror
thing,
as we h a v e
Church,
along
poverty
of
from the
monks
The
with
already
with
the
of the
an d f r i a r s
s e e k i n g of al m s
source
of v e x a t i o n
p r i n c i pl es .
F ranc e but
Whi le
most
in
in A u s t r i a ,
The G e n t l e m a n *s G u i d e
louse,
of
where
Citeau,
Sterne
the r i c h C o r d e l i e r
monks
in F r a nc e )
do w i t h a m o s t
into
in p l e n t y
its p a r a s i t i c
the
for the
who
drawn
of
starved.
orders
was
disputed
c o n s i d e r e d true not
a
their
only
in
C a t h o l i c i s m pr ev a il e d.
Hume admired
the m a g n i f i c e n t
of la zy R a s c a l s of Monks
2
in the W o r l d . "
In F r an ce
spoke
orders
while the p e o p l e
to E n g l i s h t r a v e l l er s ,
a set
that
was r e s p o n s i b l e
b y the vari ous m e n d i c a n t
splendid Misery
the m o n k s
and
Italy and wherever
"where
they felt
Its r i c h n e s s a n d p a g e a n t r y w e r e
This, s i t u a t i o n was
travelling
c o nv e nt s
observed,
needy,
lived
the R o m a n C a t h o l i c
1
or a m u s e d contempt.
For one
government,
the p e o p l e .
fu n d s
regarded
live
the
i n (the
author
of
in w h i c h dwell
3
"those useless muckworms."
A n d at T o u ­
remained
monks
of the s p l e nd o r
for some time,
"liv e
(like several
e n t i r e l y by b e g g i n g ;
undaunted,and
Millard
indec e nt
o n e ’s c h a m b e r w i t h o u t k n o c k i n g at
told how
other o r d e r s
of
which they
in g e n e r a l
as s ur a n c e ;
bolting
the
door,
and t r e a t -
4
ing a d e n i a l
1.
w i t h th e
greatest
i ns ol e nc e ."
"A p e r p e t u a l c o m e d y , " says Smollett, T r
but he d o e s not laugh.
2. L e t t e r No. 64, to Jo h n Home, Apr. 7, 1748,
3. P. 137.
4. P. 185.
If E n g l i s h m e n
» PP • 28 — 29,
I, 125.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
237.
gave to m e n d i c a n t
they gave
to
both
and h a d
pecuniary
with the
same
attitude
ri d
of them.
as an A n g l i c a n c l e r g y m a n
of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y f h a d
Church,"
sions
it was
o t he r b e g g a r s — in order to he
Stern e ,
thor
friars,
ev e n
system,
in one
sp ok e n a g a i ns t
and as
that
the
au­
the " H o m i s h
ser mo n d e f i n e d " p o pe r y"
as
"a
well
and weakness,
c o n t r i v e d to o p e r a t e u p o n m e n ’s pas 1
w h i l s t t h e i r p o c k e t s are o 1pi e k i n g . .."
The s e r m o n
on C o n s c i e n c e p r i n t e d in T r 1 atram is by no m e a n s
2
c o m p l i m e n t a r y to the C a t h o l i c s nor is the p o r t r a i t of a d e ­
vout
m e m b e r of that r el i g i o n , Dr. Slop.
The curse of E r n u l 3
4
phus. S l a w k e n b e r g i u s 1s Tale, and the s to r y of the A b b e s s of
Andotiillets
may
Catholics.
There
against
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
monastic
be
c o n s i d e r e d in part
are
also
5
orders.
in this
as
satire
wo r k s e v e r a l
In the S e r m o n s
he
against
the
exclamations
also
atta ck s
S e r m o n No. 19, " F e l i x ’s B e h a v i o u r t o w a r d s Paul, E x am in e d, "
IX, 314-15.
T h e s a m e d e f i n i t i o n is r e pe a t e d , No. 37,
" P e n a n c e s , ” X, 260.
For a n o t h e r a t t a c k see No. 14, "SelfE x a m i n a t i o n , " IX, 232-34.
I, 2 0 2 - 3 3 (ii, 17).
"S ee what scenes of cruelty, murders,
rapines, b l o o d s h e d , h a v e all be e n s a n c t i o n e d by a r e l i g i o n
not s t r i c t l y g o v e r n e d b y m o r a l i t y . "
I, 227.
T he I n q u i s i ­
tion is al s o i n v e i g h e d a g ai n st in IV, 230 (ix, 4), an d
S e r m o n No. 10, " J o b ' s A c c o u n t of the S h o r t n e s s and T r o u b l e s
of Life, C o n s i d e r e d . "
II, 26 ff (iii, 11).
II, 149-96.
" S h a ll we be d e s t i n e d to th e days of e t e rn i ty , on h ol y d a y s , as well as w o r k i n g - d a y s , to be s h e w i n g the .rel
of l e a r n i n g . as m on k s do the r e li c ks of th e i r s a i n t s — w i t h ou t w o r k i n g o n e - — one sing le m i r a c l e w i t h them?" Ill,
8 (v, 2).
U n c l e T o b y ' s ma p "with its s t i g m a t a a n d pr.i.S.k a 11
he v a l u e s " m o r e t h a n a l l the relicks of the ^ 9pl.g.h church."
IV, 145 (viii, 17).
See al s o Mr. S h a n d y a g a i n s t "the whole
order o f Nu n s a n d B e g u i n e a . a set of silly, fusty, b a g ­
g a g e s — " IV, 206 (viii, 34).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
238.
the m o n k s :
jj>,Q.£.r.Q.g is. kg.'frt
th a n l a u g h t e r — for a crack-hrain'd. o r d e r
C a r t h u s i a n m o n k s , I grant, hut not for m e n of the w o r l d . ^
And
s p e a k i n g of the
Let the t o r p i d m o n k
God spee d h i m . 2
He even
begets
subscribes
need of c o m p a n i o n s h i p ,
seek h e a v e n
to
comfortless
the p o p u l a r
doctrine
he
of
cries:
and alone.
that
Catholicism
p o ve r ty :
So that in m a n y c o u n t r i e s w h e r e p o p e r y r e i g n s , - - b u t e s p e c i a l ­
ly in that part of Italy w h e r e she has r a i s e d her t h r o n e , —
though, by the h a p p i n e s s of its soil and climate, it is
ca­
pable o f p r o d u c i n g as great v a r i e t y a n d a b u n d a n c e as any c o u n ­
try u p o n e a r t h ; - - y e t so s u c c e s s f u l ha v e its spir it ua l d i r e c ­
tors be e n in t h e m a n a g e m e n t and r e t a i l of its b l e s s i n g s , —
that they h a v e fo u n d m ea n s to allay, if not enti r el y to d e ­
feat, the m all, b y one p r e t e n s e or o t h e r . — Som e b i t t e r n e s s
is o f f i c i a l l y s q u e e z e d into e v e r y m a n ' s cup for his soul 1s
health, till, at length, the w h o l e i n t e n t i o n of nature and
p r o v i d e n c e is d e s t r o y e d . - - It is not su r pr is i ng , that w h er e
such u n n a t u r a l s e v e r i t i e s are p r a c t i s e d a n d h e i g h t e n e d by
other h a n d i c a p s ,--t h e most f r u i t f u l la n d s h o u l d be barren,
and wear a face of p o v e r t y and d e s o l a t i o n ; — or that m a n y
t housands, as h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d , s h o u l d fly the r i go ur s of
such a g o v e r n m e n t , a nd see k s h e l t e r r a t h e r amongst the rocks
and deserts, t h a n lie at the m e r c y of so m a n y u n r e a s o n a b l e
t a s k - m a k e r s , u n d e r w h o m they ca n h o p e for no other r e w a r d of
their i n d u s t r y ,--but r i g o r o u s slavery, m a d e still worse by
the t o r t u r e s of u n n e c e s s a r y m o r t i f i c a t i o n s .3
Cross
is of the
of the sermons,
" the
for
opinion
in the t h i r d a n d
published after
old h a r a n g u e s
survivals
that
against
Sterne's
first
the C h u r c h of Ro m e
that w e r e a l l o w e d
to
fourth v o l u m e s
trip abroad,
fell o u t . . . save
stand, 11 and that the
1.
S e r m o n No. 2, "The H o u s e of F e a s t i n g an d the H o u s e
M o u r n i n g D e s c r i b e d , " IX, 19.
2. S e r m o n No. 18, "The L e v i t e a n d hi s C on c ub i ne ," IX,
3. S e r m o n No. 37, " P e n a n c e s , " X, 261-62.
of
290.
I
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
239.
luethodists
of P a r s o n
i n s t e a d of the S o m a n Ca t h o l i c s b e c a m e the object
1
Y o r i c k 1s cens ur e ."
T h e i n f er en c e h er e is that
S t e r n e ' s mind, was broadened, into
tion w i t h
lem
pe o p l e
of the
is a d i f f i c u l t
r e l i g i o n he had a t ta c ke d.
one.
Practically
were w r i t t e n b e f o r e he w en t
tude
oi
c o u l d be
effected
checki n g.
printed
The
in the
tolerance by actual a s s o c i a ­
abroad,
an d any
on the A bu s es
second batch
for
the
sake
from a true a p p r e c i a t i o n of
the
breaks
an d i n t e r r u p t i o n s
naturally unaltered.
But
the
second pair
Catholics
eliminate
"pecuniary
fif te e n
in this
f rom S e r m o n No.
system"
sermons
'(
of r e a d e r s
re­
who
might
by
in Tris tram S h a n d y . was
of volumes,
in the first
sermons
no way
its e x c e l l e n c e
19 the d e f i n i t i o n
six
in a t t i ­
w h ic h we have
if S t e r n e were b e i n g
In fact,
there are
ch a ng e
of C on s c i e n c e ,
be p r e v e n t e d
frequent
prob­
all of S t e r n e ’s s ermons
o n l y by r e v i s i o n s
sermon
The
lenient
with
why did he not
of p o p e r y
as a
two v o l u m e s
of
c o n t a i n i n g pa s s a g e s
w h ic h may be
a ga i ns t
c o n s i d e r e d a t t a c k s on the Ch u r c h of Home, and one
2
the M e t h o d i s t s .
A m o n g the twe l ve s e r m o n s c o m p r i s i n g
1. L i f e , p. 373.
2. A g a i n s t C a t h o l i c i s m : S e r m o n No. 2, "The H o u s e of F e a s t i n g
and the H o u s e of M o u r n i n g D e s c r i b e d , " IX, 19, a b r i e f r e f ­
e r e n c e to the C a r t h u s i a n s ; No. 5, "The Case of E l i j a h and
the W i d o w of Z a r e p h a t h C o n s i d e r e d , " IX, 90; a b r i e f r e f ­
e r e n c e to "the d i s l o y a l s e d u c t i o n s of P o p e r y " ; No. 6,
" P h a r i s e e and P u b l i c a n in the Temp le ," IX, 1 0 6 -0 9 , against
the i m p o r t a n c e of o u t w a r d c e r e m o n i e s in the Ca t h o l i c
Church; No. 9, "The C h a r a c t e r of Her od , " IX, 141, a brief
r e f e r e n c e to " R o m i s h d r e a m e r s " ; No. 10, " J o b ’s A c c o u nt o
the S h o r t n e s s and T r o u b l e s of Life, C o n s i d e r e d , " IX,
70, a g a i n s t the c r u e l t y a n d p e r s e c u t i o n s of the " R o m is h
C h u r c h and h er t y r a n t s " ; No. 14, " S e l f - E x a m i n a t i o n ,
,
232- 3 4, a g a i n s t b u y i n g f o r g i v e n e s s for o n e ' s sins.
The
a t t a c k u p o n C a t h o l i c i s m in S e r m o n No. 14 is i m m e d i a t e l y
f o l l o w e d b y one on M e t h o d i s m , IX, 2 3 4 — 35.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2:4 0 .
th i r d
the
tacks
and
fourth
against
volumes
Catholicism
there
a re
five
only
one
against
and
containing
at-
the
Method-
say
that
1
is ts
Ca n d
Sterne
from
Quakers).
had
the
against
Shandy
How,
transferred
Church
of
Rome
Catholicism
as
in
It
tolerant
those
may
of
be
his
to
then,
enmity
previous
individual
Mr.
through
to
his
that
t he
last
European
by
than
Furthermore,
Sterne
Catholics
Cross
of c r ee d s o t h e r
Methodism?
continue
surmised
can
was
his
his
t he
three
o wn
quips
books
of
tours.
rendered
more
acquaintance
with
2
France,
to
the
certainly
Catholic
France
has
but
and
he
could
doctrines.
Italy
established
in
as
the
the
Yet
guiding
must
not
dispute
people,
show
his
affection
Having
chosen
to
introduce
work,
he
therefore
man.
He
is
manners.
no
His
makes
"torpid
head
has
if he
peaceful,
J o u r n e y . he
but
never
monk,"
the
is
to
principle
the
them
at
as
t he
attractive
either
soft,
of
religious
for
as
become
mild
of
he
of the
fellow
beginning
as
that
Sentimental
dogma
his
through
mood
the
f r o m .his
look
reconciled
travel
appreciative
a friar
him
have
men.
of
possible
his
as
appearance
one
of
a
or
those
1. A g a i n s t C a t h o l i c i s m : S e r m o n No. 18, " The L e v i t e and his
C o n c ub i ne , " IX, 290, b r i e f r e fe r e n c e to the " t o r p i d monk";
No. 19, " F e l i x ’s B e h a v i o u r towards Paul, E x a m i n e d , " IX,
314-15, d e f i n i t i o n of p o p e r y as "a p e c u n i a r y system"; No.
21, " N a t i o n a l M e r c i e s C o n s i d e r e d , " IX, 347, b r i e f r e f e r ­
ence to "the arts of J e s u i t r y " ; No. 22, "The H i s t o r y of
Jacob C on s idered,” X, 17-18, against S a n c h e z the Jesuit;
No. 27, "The A b u s e s of C o n s c i e n c e C o n s i d e r e d , " X, 106-07,
a g a i n s t Co n f e s s i o n , X, 114-16, against the Inquisition.
The M e t h o d i s t s and Q u a k e r s are a t t a c k e d in S e r m o n No. 25,
" Hu m i l i t y . " X, 70-75.
2. M a n y of the F r e n c h of his a c q u a i n t a n c e in P a r i s w ere treethinkers.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
241.
p a i n t e d by
Gui do fieni , an d "fr e e
from all
comriionplace ideas
1
of fat
contented
ignorance
would h a v e b e c o m e
His
grace
p er s o n
that
l o o k i n g d o w n w a r d s u p o n the
a Bramin "upon
and h u m i l i t y are
and cond uc t
likewise
of the m o n k are
even a violent
a nt i— Catholic
Yorick nevertheless
quest,
the p l a i n s
of
earth,"
2
Indostan."
i m pressive.
Both
so d e l i c a t e l y
could not ha v e
was u n m o v e d by
for he " h a d p r e d e t e r m i n e d not
the
sketched
found fault.
the friar's
re­
to give him a single
3
sous."
He
r e q u es t
for
others
aged,
advances
and
the
to k e e p
Before
our
own
are m o r e
this
the monks
claims--"the
i n f i r m — the
upon
alive
conventional
Although
who have p r i o r
in d i s t r e s s
work.
alms.
the
arguments
against
may be poor,
lame,
the
there are
the blind,
the
c a p t i v e ...an d I h a v e left thousands
4
shore— "
T h o s e who strive by labor
deserving
attack
the
than the monks,
Franciscan
who do not
r e t i r e s gracefully,
5
for " N a t u r e
see m ed
to h a v e
d o n e with h e r
resentments
in him."
1. V, 12.
2. The p h r a s e c o m p a r i n g the F r i a r to a B r a m i n is e vidently
i n s p i r e d by the fact that S te r n e and Mrs. D r a p e r had e m ­
p l o y e d the f i c t i t i o u s n a m e s of B r a m i n and Br a m i n e as
well as Y o r i c k and Eliza .
T h e Indian c o n n e c t i o n s of Mrs.
D r a p e r account for the terms, the a p p e a l of w h i c h to
S t e r n e is e x p l a i n e d by the s e n t i m e n t a l light in which she
l o o k e d u p o n these p r i e s t l y c h a r a ct e rs : "The B r a h m i n s are
easy, plain, u n a f f e c t e d sons of simp le n a t u r e — -there 1s a
s o m e t h i n g in t h e i r C o n v e r s a t i o n & M an n e r s , that e x c e e d ­
ingly touches me. " W r i g h t a n d Sclater, Sterne's. E 1 4.Z.& .
L o n d on , 1922, p. 98.
3. V, 14.
4. V
17 — 18
5. V \ 19.
In one of his s e r m o n s S t e r n e d e n i e s that real h u ­
m i l i t y can be f o u n d in the C a t h o l i c Church.
No. 6,
" P h a r i s e e and P u b l i c a n in the T e mp l e, " IX, 106-07.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Then Yorick,
reflecting, u p o n
is sorry
for his
oi humor,
as he
c. 1auc a i.n e . and
Tne
words
w as
the
and w o u l d u n d o
"by his
He
upon
the
to a p o l o g i z e
reconciliation
does
treated
them.
reflections
is l a t e r m o v e d
sentimental
w a y he h a d
not
is put
man,
out
dr o i t
for h i s
mean
the
that
cond uc t.
Sterne
ac —
1
cents
the C a t h o l i c
phasizes
his
feeling
a t olerance,
The
book,
with
caused
by
at
another
the
dwarf
another
in the u p p e r
Abbes
loges
an a c t u a l
I f i n d no
It must
we kno w
reference
t o w ar d s
to
however,
The
in
cl e r i c
seated
This
is a p ­
of Sterne,
literature
an e s t a b l i s h e d
is
s h o u t i n g "H a u s s e z
of gris s et s .
the pa rt
the
disturbance
Qpera- Comiaue
part erre
in the
indirectly
stated later
an u n f o r t u n a t e
on
em­
Church.
in the
a couple
but
and
Catholicism.
German
observation
own,
men
is d i r e c t l y
1 1Ab b e 11 at
behind
of his
Catholic
c a u s e d by t h e
to h a v e
for
of the
custom.
time.
The
t h e m s e l v e s to p u b l i c r i d i c u l e
2
to p e t i t - a a i t r e s h i c . As a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the
c hu r c h Sterne,
friar,
exposed
t h r o u g h P a r s o n Yorick,
inveigh against
of the
of t h e
an d the
equa l
wi l l
corroboration
h a v e been,
by a s p i r i n g
of g o o d
least ,
1es mains . Monsieur
which
the
i d e a of t o l e r a n c e
f o l l o w e d by
parently
f a i t h as
he
these
might
i r r e l i g i o u s abbes,
carefully
refrains
from
be
expected
to
in the
case
but
as
any
quarrel
with
the
1~. It s h o u l d be n o t e d that a l t h o u g h Y o r i c k e x c h a n g e s s n u f f ­
b ox e s wi th th e friar, th e r e is no m e n t i o n of m s h a v i n g
g iv e n h i m the d o n a t i o n for w h i c h he was o r i g i n a l l y ask e .
2. Cf. M u r a l t , L e t t r e s sur lea. Anglo. La.
p ranb<?-A-£. p p *
218-19.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
243.
Catholic
religion,
cry "a n
illiberal
"rem a in s
told b y
tea ch us
the
officer
during his
urable
sensations
fi r s t
meal
in France,
through
I should have
tions
w h i c h hi s
nations
of
matter
ciety,
bac h
1.
2.
others,
who
of the
cry,
is
travel
is to
with
the r e l i g i o n
i r r e l i g io n.
experiences
with
pleas­
man,
he
c o n f o u n d e d the most
w i t h all h e r
materialism,
she
a m a c h i n e — I'm confid en t , said I
1
o v e r s e t h e r creed."
And the e m o ­
not
w i t h the p o o r
be a c c o u n t e d
for
mad Maria
f r o m any
fill
combi­
a n d motion.
one
as S t er ne ,
and
joined
was
of the
Yorick,
their
he
I am p o s i t i v e I h a v e a soul; n o r can all
w h i c h the m a t e r i a l i s t s h a v e p e s t e r e d the
vinc e me to the c o n t r a r y .
Materialism
one
t e r m the
me
encounter
"could
to
" wo u l d have
to
love."
a f e e l i n g of p e a c e
sensations
called
of
quarrel
exception
to myself,
is sur e
not
take
or eci eus e in F r a nc e :
hi m he
crudity
dees
ph.v sical
wi t h
the
the p u r p o s e
does
tha t
scarce have
church,"
and "mutual
believes
could
his
of
th a t
Sterne
the
officer
then disappearing.
toleration"
he
French
against
manners"
though
of the Fren c h,
A'hen,
th e
the e x p l a n a t i o n
"mutual
Sut
causes
sarcasm
of G o t h i c
is s h o c k e d b y
then
and
of the
who
wa s
in d e m o l i s h i n g
V, 7-8.
Sterne's
w o u l d se e m to be:
V, 382.
fashions
frequented
well
the
aware.
the b oo k s with
w o r l d ever c o n ­
of the
the
salons
There
established
day
of B a r o n
m e n and w o m e n
s y s t em s
philosophical proof
"I feel; t h e r e f o r e
in t r e n c h
so­
d'H ol alike
of r el i gi o n,
of h i s
I am.
existence
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244.
m ai n l y b e c a u s e
fashionable
it was
the
thing
to do.
p h i l o s o p h i z i n g Tfalpole
This
found
manner
of
boring.
I forgot to tell y o u Che w r o t e G e o r g e S e l w y n ] that I s o m e ­
times go to B a r o n d ' O l b a c h ' s ; but I h a v e l eft off h i s d i n ­
ners, as t h er e was no b e a r i n g the aut h or s , and p h i l o s o p h e r s ,
and savant.s. of w h i c h he has a p i g e o n h o u s e full.
T h e y soon
t ur n e d my h e a d w i t h a ne w s y s t e m of a n t e d i l u v i a n d e l ug e s,
w h i c h they h a v e i n v e n t e d to p r o v e the e t e r n i t y of mat te r .
The B a r o n is p e r s u a d e d that P a l l M a l l - i s p a v e d w i t h l a v a or
deluge stones.
In short, n o n s e n s e for n o n s e n s e , I like the
J e s ui ts b e t t e r t h a n t h e philosophers.-*By his
statements,
at the
expense
Parisian
of his
of the
salons,
to s e p a r a t e
then,
Sterne
e m p h a s i z e s hi s
learned ladies and gentlemen
from
wh o se
ungodly
BENEVOLENT
As
a p r a c t i s i n g Christian,
time,
not
sympathy
a preacher
he
is a n x i o u s
BELIGION AND LITERARY TRADITION
m a de m u c h
taught
an a c t i v e
doctrines
of the
himself.
E.
religion
Christianity
Sterne,
of the v i r t u e
only a tolerance
for
all
like m an y
of b e n e v o l e n c e .
of o t h e r
fellow creatures
he e x p r e s s e d h i m s e l f
creeds
this
doctrine
idea w a s
fashionable
clearly upon
of b e n e v o l e n c e ,
m e n t a l J o u r n e y . was
eighteenth
century.
1. L e t t e r No.
2. S e r m o n No.
as well as
frequently
v e ry p r e v a l e n t
The glorification
of the
As
belong
dis­
T he
in the S e n t i -
middle
1077, Dec. 2, 1765, VI, 370.
3, " P h i l a n t h r o p y R e c o m m e n d e d , "
but also
this princi pl e .
r el ig i o u s .
employed
in the
His
in distress.
M i s f o r t u n e s are of no p a r t i c u l a r tribe or nation, but
to us a l l ; - - a n d h a v e a g e n e r a l c l a i m u p o n us, without
t i n c t i o n of climate, c ountry, or r e l i g i o n . 2
But
others
of the
Christian
IX,
47.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
vir-
tues of
charity
ing w i t h
and "brotherly love
the p o p u l a r i ty of
the d o c t r i n e s
of n a t u r a l
were established,
misfortunes
a nd p l e a s i n g .
active
trine
in o t h e r words,
on
the p a r t
practice
of
charity
E a r l y in his
the
subject
in
the p l e a s u r e s
desire
be­
Once
of v i r t ue
for
the
to a l l e v i a t e
sentiment
the i n t e r e s t
charity
centu r y E n g l a n d ,
into
the
a fashionable,
their
rather
of
and an
the
d oc­
growing theories
luxurious
than
feeling
the v i g o r o u s
society.
c ar e e r S t e r n e h a d p r e a c h e d a serm o n on
“P h i l a n t h r o p y He co m m e n d e d , 11 in w h i c h bo t h the
instinctiveness
and
are d e s c r i b e d .
In c o m m e n t i n g u p o n
Samaritan,
into
Shaf t e s b u r y .
considerable
fitted readily
of the m a n of
of
come
"benevolence — w e r e "both n a t u r a l
in e i g h t e e n t h
an d b e c a m e
to ha v e
kindly feelings
the
A l t h o u g h there was
of b e n e v o l e n c e
sensibility,
and
that
along with
reform movement
of
doctrines
goodness
it f o l l o w e d
of o t h e r s
s u f f e r i n g s — or,
the
seems
the p l e a s u r a b l e
emot io n s
the
which
stor y of
the
it arouses
Good
he remarks!
The re is s o m e t h i n g in o u r n a t u r e w h i c h e n g ag e s us to take
part in e v e r y a c c i d e n t to w h i c h man is subject, f r o m what
cause s o e v e r it may hav e h a p p e n e d ; but in such c a l a m i t i e s
as a man has f a l l e n into t h r o u g h mere m i s f o r t u n e , to be
c h a r g e d u p o n no f a u l t or i n d i s c r e t i o n of hi m s e l f , there is
s o m e t h i n g then so t r u l y i n t e r e s t i n g , that at the first
sight we g e n e r a l l y m a k e t h e m our own, not a l t o g e t h e r fro m
a r e f l e c t i o n that the y m i g h t h a v e b e e n or may be so, but
o f t e n e r f r o m a c e r t a i n g e n e r o s i t y and te nd e r n e s s of n a t ur e
w h i c h d i s p o s e s us f o r c o m p a s s i o n , a b s t r a c t e d f r o m all con ­
s i d e r a t i o n s of self! so that w i t h o u t any o b s e r v a b l e act of the
will, we s u f f er w i t h the u n f o r t u n a t e , and feel a w e i g h t u p ­
on our s p i r i t s we k n o w not why, on s e e i n g the most c o mm o n in­
s t a n c e s of thei r d is t r e s s . But w h e r e the s p e c t a c l e is u n c o m m o n
ly t ra g ic a l, and c o m p l i c a t e d w i t h m a n y c i r c u m s t a n c e s of m i s e r y
the m i n d is then t a k e n c a p ti v e at once, and w e r e it i n c l i n e d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to it, has no p o w e r to m a k e r e s i s t a n c e , hut s u r r e n d e r s i t ­
self to all the t e n d e r e m o t i o n s of p i t y and d e e p c o n c e r n . ^
This
condition he
reinforces
with a
simile:
In b e n e v o l e n t n a t u r e s the i m p u l s e to p i t y is so sudden,
that like i n s t r u m e n t s of m u s i c w h i c h obey the t o u c h - - t h e
o b j e c t s w h i c h a re f i t t e d to e x c i t e suc h i m p r e s s i o n s w o r k
so i n s t a n t a n e o u s an effe ct , th at y o u w o u l d t h i n k the will
was s c a r ce c o n c e r n e d , ana that the m i n d was a l t o g e t h e r
p a s s i v e in the s y m p a t h y w h i c h he r own g o o d n e s s has e x ­
cited.
The t r u t h i s - - t h e sou l is g e n e r a l l y in suc h cases
so b u s i l y take n u p a n d w h o l l y e n g r o s s e d by the obj e ct of
pity, that she d o e s not a t t e n d to h e r own o p e r a t i on s , or
take l e i s u r e to e x a m i n e the p r i n c i p l e s u p o n w h i c h she a c t s . "
The p l e a s u r e p r o d u c e d by t h e f e e l i n g
S ter n e
a proof
of
its
fundamental
of c o m p a s s i o n
is to
nature.
I t h i n k the r e n e e d s no s t r o n g e r a r g u m e n t to p r o v e h o w u n i ­
v e r s a l l y and d e e p l y the s e e d s of thi s v i r t u e of c o m p a s s i o n
are p l a n t e d in the h e a r t of man, th a n in the p l e a s u r e we
take in s u c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of it; an d t h o u g h some m e n h a v e
r e p r e s e n t e d h u m a n n a t u r e in o t h e r c o l o u r s (tho ug h to what
end I k n o w n o t ) , y e t the m a t t e r of fact is so s t r o n g a g a i ns t
them, that from the g e n e r a l p r o p e n s i t y to pi ty the u n f o r t u ­
nate, we e x p r e s s that s e n s a t i o n by the wo r d H u m a n i t y . as if
it was i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m our n a t u r e .
T h a t it is not i n ­
s e p a r a b l e . I h a v e a l l o w e d in the f o r m e r part of this d i s ­
course, fr o m s u c h r e p r o a c h f u l i n s t a n c e s of s e l f i s h tempers,
w h i c h see m to t a k e p a r t in n o t h i n g b e y o n d t h e m s e l v e s ; yet I
am p e r s u a d e d , a n d a f f i r m ’tis sti ll so grea t and n o b l e a
part of our n a t u r e , that a m a n m u s t do gre at v i o l e n c e to
h i ms e lf , a n d s u f f e r m a n y a p a i n f u l conflict, b e f o r e he has
b r ou g ht h i m s e l f to a d i f f e r e n t d i s p o s i t i o n , ®
Benevolence
cludes
is to S t e r n e
by a s s e r t i n g
the
chief
of virtues,
for he
con­
its p r e e m i n e n c e :
A c h a r i t a b l e a n d b e n e v o l e n t d i s p o s i t i o n is so p r i n c i p a l and
r u l i n g a pa r t of a m a n ' s c h a r a c t e r , as to be a c o n s i d e r a b l e
test by i t s e l f of th e who le fra me a n d t e m p e r of his mind,
wit h w h i c h all o t h e r v i r t u e s and v i c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y rise and
1.
2.
3.
S e r m o n No.
IX, 45.
IX, 49.
3,
IX,
38-39.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
fall, and will a lm o s t n e c e s s a r i l y be c o n n e c t e d . — T el l me
t h e r e f o r e of a c o m p a s s i o n a t e man, y o u r e p r e s e n t to me a man
of a t h o u s a n d o t h e r g o o d q u a l i t i e s — - on w h o m 1 can d e p e n d — — —
whom I m a y s a f e l y t r u s t w i t h my w i f e - — m y children, m y f o r ­
tune a n d r e p u t a t i o n . 1
This
had
power
t h a n k e d G od
Sterne
in the
exhibits
f e e l i n g for
from
those
such
significant
others
of other
"communicating
sentimental
exclamation
continually
this
search
of f e e l i n g o u t s i d e
our s e n s a t i o n s "
Sterne
ist" E p i c u r u s
w h i c h he
Sensibility,"
journey.
It
In the P r e f a c e he ha d
as "spreading our h appiness"
does not
in m a k i n g
idea a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e l i g i o n .
the W i do w ,
his
for
is
w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s his w o r k m o s t
phrases
of h a p p i n e s s
to 11D e a r
throughout
travellers.
traveller
oneself,
remarks
"maintained,
that
with d e l i b e r a t e
journey
ot h e r s happy.
In his
even
that the
and
intent.
s e l f i s h l y but
This
best
"professed
way
The
in
too was an
s e rm o n on E l i j a h
the
u sed
and
sensual­
of e n l a r g i n g
2
human happiness
As he
points
was,
out,
by a c o m m u n i c a t i o n of
this
it to others."
is c e r t a i n l y not a s e l f i s h p l ea s ur e .
In g e n e r a l spirits, c o m p a s s i o n is s o m e t i m e s m ore t h a n a
b a l a n c e for s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n .
For, as GOD c e r t a i n l y
i n t e r w o v e that f r i e n d l y s o f t n e s s in our n a t u r e to be a
c h e c k u p o n too g r e a t a p r o p e n s i t y t o w a r d s self-lov e. . .
4
A n d so he a t t a c k s a v a r i c e a n d i n d u l g e s in b e n e v o l e n c e w h e r e v e r
1.
2.
3.
4.
IX, 51.
S e r m o n No. 5, IX, 83.
IX, 73.
In a s e r m o n on the " I n q u i r y a f t e r H a p p i n e s s " he d ra w s a
s c o r n f u l p i c t u r e of a m iser, " a p oo r t r e m b l i n g wretch,
shut up f rom all m a n k i n d — — s i n k i n g into u t t e r conte mp t ;
s p e n d i n g c a r e f u l d a y s and s l e e p l e s s n i g h t s in p u r s u i t of
what a n a r r o w and c o n t r a c t e d h e a r t can ne v er enjoy.'
S e r m o n No. 1, IX, 15.
Cf. L e t t e r No. 105, to i o l e y , I4e,r.
29, 1763, p. 192.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
248.
po ss i b l e .
As k the m a n wh o has a tear of t e n d e r n e s s a l wa y s r e a d y to shed
over the u n f o r t u n a t e ; who, withal, is ready to d i s t r i b u t e and
w i l l i n g to c o m m u n i c a t e ; a s k him if the best thi ng s , w h i c h wits
have said of pl e a s u r e , h a v e e x p r e s s e d what he ha s felt, when,
by a s e a s o n a b l e kind n es s , he h a s m a d e the h e a r t of the w i d o w
to. s
for j o y . M a r k then the e x p r e s s i o n s of u n u t t e r a b l e
p l e a s u r e and h a r m o n y in his l o o k s . i
T h e r e f o r e he
of his
is able
charity
beggars
in P r a nc e ,
of M o n t r e u i l ,
To mos t
post
were
tically
mentions
one
to e x t r ac t
travellers
of the
distribution
first
public
of sous
act"
among
the
an e x q u i s i t e pleasure.
worst
every E n g l i s h m a n
them
the
from "the
the
swarms
vexations
of b e g g a r s at
of the road.
ever y
Prac­
who r e c o r d e d his e x p e r i e n c e s
disapprovingly.
Cole makes
the
typical
abro ad
remark:
It is i n c r e d i b l e h o w t r o u b l e s o m e the b e g g a r s are to you: if
y o u stop in a Coach, or Po st Chaise, y o u have p r e s e n t l y ten
or a d o z e n abou t y o u . 2
Indeed,
in the
travels, Sterne h a d
3
t r e a t e d them lightly, as a n ui s a n c e .
But now, t r a v e l l i n g
4
u p o n his p r i n c i p l e of en j oy m e n t , and in a m o o d of " g e n e r o s i t y
a n d g o o d will,"
charitable
first
a c co u nt
he a d v i s e s
of hi s
the
gentle
traveller
to be
to the p o o r u n f o r t u n a t e s .
Let no m a n say, "let th em go to the d e v i l " - - ltis a cruel
j o u r n e y to send a few m i s e r a b l e s , and they h a v e h a d s u f ­
f e r i n g s enow w i t h o u t it: I a l w a y s t h i n k it b e t t e r to take
a few sous out in my hand; and I w o u l d coun s el ever y
1. IX, 82.
II
C f . a b o v e , Ch
2. Pari.s. J o u r n a l . p* 45.
Ch.
quot
ed
a
b
o
v
e
,
3. I.S.. IV, 37 (vi i , 16) ,
4. T.S.. IV, 274 (i x , 24) .
77-78.
I I . 80.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24 9.
gent l e t r a v e l l e r to do so li k e w i s e ; he n e e d not be so exact
in s e t t i n g d o w n his m o t i v e s for g i v i n g t h e m — T h e y will be
register'd elsewhere.^
Sterne's
contrary
at all,
to the
practice
precedent.
above was
among
the
eighteenth
t imen t al
passage
The
Jr.
on t h e
doctrine
to e x c l a i m
lightness
but he
of
in The
in w o r d s
of metals
case
is
gave,
if
is not
with o ut
outlined
sentimental
Forty-six years
find S t e e l e
who
of b e n e v o l e n c e
instigators
century.
in this
travellers,
of a n n o y a n c e ,
chief
J o u r n e y . we
causing Bevil
in b e n e v o l e n c e
of other
to r i d t h e m s e l v e s
literary
in the
indulgence
before
scenes
the S e n -
C on s c i ous L o v e r s
fo re sh ad ow i ng Sterne's
to the m a n
whos e h ea r t
is
at peace;
If p l e a s u r e be w o r t h p u r c h a s i n g , h o w great a p l e a s u r e is it
to him, who h a s a true t a s t e of life, to ease an a c h i n g
heart; to see t h e h u m a n c o u n t e n a n c e l i g h t e d up into smi l es
of joy, on the r e c e i p t of a bit of ore w h i c h is s u pe rf l uo u s,
and o t h e r w i s e u s e l e s s in a m a n ' s p o c k e t . ^
A n d by
the
1 7 6 0 's the
in l i t e r a t u r e
at least,
G o l d s m i t h w r o t e T he
capitalizes
count
pensing
it
upon
of his
theory
of his
the g r e a t e s t
eight
indiscriminate benevolence,
h a d g r o w n to
Good N a t u r e d M a n
this
charity
of
fashionable
to
possible
against
belief
the b e g g a r s
sous
such proportions
is
in the
Stern e
detailed ac­
of M o n t r e u i l .
is p r o t r a c t e d
enjoyment,
it.
so as
is d e s c r i b e d
t ru l y s e n t i m e n t a l .
1. V
127.
2. Act II,
L ondo n ,
sc. ii, R i c h a r d S t e e l e . ed.
1894, pp. 310-11.
by
G.A.
The
dis­
to obt a in
a n d the m a n n e r
the g i v i n g
that
The
in w h i c h
first
Aitkin,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
from
sou
250 .
is given :o the geaisal 'oeggar who had nitadratra in favor of
*h s si giit p oor women,
Two more are pres en t ed
little d w a rf i sh b r i s k fellow*
hi a!,
who
To r ic k puts a couple of sous
pinch of
to * a too?
offers snuff to those a'oout
in his box and takss a
snuff from it.
He felt the weight of the second obligation more than of the
first--*t was doing him an h o n o u r - — the other was only doing
him a c h a r i t y
and he rads me a b o w down to the ground for
it .
-
Two more are given to an old soldier,
the king.
Ano t he r
remaining two,
who
in response
is given to a poor crippled woman and the
one each,
for the form of a d d r e s s — Mon chsr
et tr e s chari table Monsieur and Mr Lord Anglo i s .
“ in the eagerness
Yorick discovers
stands
a little
cheers
of giving,*
But having,
d istributed all his sous,
that he has negle ct e d a oeuvre honteum who
a n a r t , aooaren ti y ashamed to ask alms,
‘
wiping
.
■
2
Ba tear from a face which I thought had seen better days.*
The “powers
of nature*
so stir Y o r i c k that he
impulsively
dips into his purse a n d gives a sum much larger than he can
afford.
As he moves
paniment
of a
chorus
off towards his chaise to the a c co m ­
of blessings
from the other beggars,
the oauvr e hont eux is overpowered by his
to speak,
turns
aside to wipe a t ear from his
little handkerchief:
1.
V
feelings,
and unable
eye with a
“ — And I thought he thanked me more than
129.
2. V, ISO.
The reverse
theme with Sterne.
of fortune
is a favorite
sentimental
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
251.
1
them
a l 1 . H
Thus,
to a most
with
a f u r ti v e
sentimental
a nd most
t h o u g h he u n d o u b t e d l y
other p la c e s
in France,
*ith
s e nt i m e n t
to m a k e
very
great.
Despite
ing the g e n t i l i t y
dress,
we may be
the
S t e r n e has
the
fact
t ha t
of F r e n c h b e g g a r s
c e r t a i n h e has
Beggars
money,
sentiments.
And
given nothing?
nor
all;
the
fair
are
sex,
of t h e eight
epis o de
an
he
joys
o p p or tu n it y ,
moreover,
Sterne
looks
1.
2.
where
shows his
into M a d a m e
V, 130.
See below,
p.
Sterne
for
for
c o n tr i bu t ed ,
of t h e m
d e v o t i o n to
to
only
e m p h a s i z e by
opportunity.
at
one
the
in F r a n c e the
In s e i z i n g
off his
work
such
from
type.
financial
sympathetic
aid
is out
religious
de L * * * 1s c o u n t e n a n c e
in
nine to w ho m he
which
to set
their
to r e j o i c e
to t h i n k
to
of ad-
in c o l l e c t i n g
us
all his
m eans
he m e a n s
in o b s e r v ­
overdrawn
so far as we know,
ha s a m p l e
the c o m p l a i n i n g ,u n g e n e r o u s
Also,
that,
account
episode
alone
joy he has
of the
of b e n e v o l e n c e ,
traveller
of the
causes
we are not
contributes,
W hat
so p a c k e d the
interested
to w h o s e
Obviously
women.
and
deliberately
s o r ro w s
we to c o n s i d e r
are the
charitable
of the
in M o n t r e u i l
a n d t heir m a n n e r
are
episode
Al­
is not
if S te r n e
of the b e g g a r s
what are we to t h i n k
has
he
the
conclusion.
improbability
of feeli n g.
the h a p p i n e s s
br i ng s
improbable
refinement
not
S te r n e
enc ou nt ered beggars
many
as
tear,
of the question,
c h ar a ct e r.
W h e n he
a n d sees t h e r e
298.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
"a
252.
w i d o w 1a l o o k , 11 lie is m o v e d
instinctively
her,
cause
and w i s h e s
to
a s k the
to compassion, for
of h er g r i e f
in the
words
of Ssdras:
- -11W hat, a i l e t h thee? and wh y art th o u d i s q u i e t e d ? and why is
thy u n d e r s t a n d i n g t r o u b l e d ?”
In a word, I felt b e n e v o l e n c e
for her; and r e s o l v ’d some w a y or other to t h r o w in my mite
of c o u r t e s y — if not of service.^A l t h o u g h b e n e v o l e n c e b e c a m e a cant word in the e i g h t e e n t h
2
century, S t e r n e ’s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s alm o st u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d
it as
he
the c a r d i n a l
could
expect
to a w a k e
sensibility a note
Since
virtue
w h i c h he
in the
of s ym p a t h y ,
a sad t a l e
awakens
considers
reade r by
his
seeks
W h e n Mad am e
him her
sad
story
Yorick breaks
if ever he
into a
s h o u l d pass
significant
e x p r e s s i o n of
compassion,
plea su re ,
s i t u a ti on s .
this
and
a n o d of a p p r o v a l .
ing of b e n e v o l e n c e b r i n g s h i m
out w o e f u l
it to be,
Sterne
an d a f e e l ­
deliberately
de L***
promises
t h r o u g h B ru s s e l s ,
d e c l a r a ti o n;
Then I will meet thee, said I, fair spirit.' at B r u s s e l s — 't
is only r e t u r n i n g f r o m I t a l y t h r o u g h G e r m a n y
to Holland,
by the rou te of F l a n d e r s , h o m e — -'t will s c a r c e be ten pos t s
out of my way; but w e r e it t e n thousand! w i t h what a mor al
delig h t will it c r o w n my j o u r n e y , in s h a r i n g in the s i c k e n ­
ing i n c i d e n t s of a tal e t o l d me by such a suffe re r ! to B e e
her weep! and t h o u g h I ca nn o t dry up the f o u n t a i n of her
tears, what an e x q u i s i t e s e n s a t i o n is th e r e s t i l l left, in
1.
2.
V, 55. T h e b i b l i c a l q u o t a t i o n is from 2 E s d r a s , 10;31.
See W.E. A l d e r m a n , " S h a f t e s b u r y and the D o c t r i n e of B e n e v
ole nc e in the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , ” T r a n s a c t i o n s
W i s c o n s i n A c a d e m y of S c i e n c e s , AEJLS.* &hd. LettftF-B. XXVI
(1931), 137-59; a nd C. A. Moore, " S h a f t e s b u r y and the
E t h i c a l P o e t s in E n g l a n d , 1700-1 76 0 ,"
XXXI
(1916), 264-325.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
w ip i n g them a w a y from off the c he e ks of the first and f a i r ­
est of women, as I'm s i t t i n g w i t h my h a n d k e r c h i e f in my h a n d in
s ilence the w h o l e n i g h t b e s i d e h e r r A
S t e r ne ' s
c o n c e p t i o n of the e f f e c t s of a sad tale ha d a p p e a r e d
2
in his s ermons, as d o e s the p h r a s e " m o r a l del i gh t " in c o n n e c —
3
tion w i t h b e n e v o l e n c e .
A n d in other cases he shows that his
f e e l in g
is r e f i n e d ,
curiosity.
that
than
In that
based
on
of the
sympathy
Chevalier
rather
de
Louis,
he remarks
"s u ch
a r e v e r s e in m a n ' s life a w a k e n s a b e t t e r p r i n c i p l e
4
curiosity,"
A l s o he sh ow s an e a g e r n e s s to know the
story by w h i c h
the w e l l - d r e s s e d b e g g a r
women,
out
but
n ot
of enquiry,
tion of
"—
'T is
To
Sterne
seemed
the
deliberate
to r e q u i r e
and Methodists
such a p r i n c i p l e
as if t h e k i n d A u t h o r
seeking
an apology.
for t h e i r
"cast
the
gratifica-
of s o r r o w f u l
condemning
asceticism,
so b l a c k
of it h a d
out
In
of
so lo w a p r i n c i p l e
I w o u l d not p u r c h a s e
5
a t w o - s o u s p iece."
w ith
Catholics
of curiosity.
s o f t e n e d the h e a r t s
in g e n e r a l ,
it
ventures
that
St.
than vulgar
ad­
the
he h a d w r i t t e n
a s h a d e u p o n religion,
c r e a t e d us
on p u r p o s e
1.
2.
to go
V, 152.
Cf. also No. 10, " J o b ' s A c c o u n t of the S h o r t n e s s a n d
T r o u b l e s of L i f e C o n s i d e r e d , " IX, 169; No. 22, "The H i s ­
tory of J a c o b C o n s i d e r e d , "
X,
4.
3. No. 23, " T he P a r a b l e
of th e R i c h M a n a n d L a z a r u s C o n ­
sidered" : "Yet let h i m try the e x p e r i m e n t . . .he will feel
what is m ea n t b y that m o r a l d e l i g h t a r i s i n g in the m i n d
from the c o n s c i e n c e of a h u m a n e acti on . " X, 35.
A n d No.
26, " T e m p o r a l A d v a n t a g e s of R e l i g i o n " : " - - y e t let any
one try the e x p e r i m e n t , a n d he will see what is meant by
that m o r a l d e l i g h t a r i s i n g f ro m the c o n s c i e n c e of w e l l ­
doing."
X, 124.
4. V, 264.
5. V, 332.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
254.
mourning,
sent us
all
into
our l i v e s
the world,
of a d v e n t u r e s
he
is u n a h l e
l eague
make an
full
of
poor
as
in s a c k c l o t h
an
s a i n t - e r r a n t s , in quest
1
affliction."
Thus, w h e n
"i m p u l s e "
Maria,
so a f f e c t i n g
and a s h e s , - — an d
so m a n y
sorrow and
to r e s i s t
to v i s i t
had t o ld
long,
to turn a s i d e h a l f a
of w h o m his f r i e n d Mr.
a tale,
Yorick
feels
Shandy
it n e c e s s a r y
to
explanation.
*T is going, I own, l i k e the K n i g h t of the W o e f u l C o u n t e ­
nance, in q u es t of m e l a n c h o l y a d v e n t u r e s
but I k n o w not
how it is, but I am n e v e r so p e r f e c t l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e
e xist e nc e of a soul w i t h i n me, as when I am e n t a n g l e d in
t h e m .2
In a p o l o g i z i n g
h ave
in m i n d
of p h r a s i n g
Such
feeling
was
appearance
els,
seeking
statement
3
s ug g e s t s .
a sympathy
of the
out
in the
sorrow,
sermon,
in p a r t i c u l a r
in g e n e r a l .
interested
looking
rather
for
the
for m a n
chiefly
thus
The
was not
e a r t h but
into h e a r t s ,
in
found
results
in a
in the p h y s i c a l
So he t r a v ­
or n a t i o n a l i t y
In this
sense he was
a cosmopolitan,
an
lish travellers
were
F or exa m pl e ,
he
is
so m o v e d by M a d a m e de H a m b o u l i e t *s f j 1
Vira that
he
feels
de c h
internationalist
to
in w h i c h S t e r n e
of c r e e d
a n d rivers.
seems
the p a r a l l e l i s m
the h um a n heart.
regardless
t h an u p o n m o u n t a i n s
as
instances
"nature"
to be
Sterne
fiercely
in a day w h e n m ost E n g ­
natio na li stic and patriotic.
for h e r
not d e s i r e but
" cons angui n i
1. S e r m o n No. 37, " P e n a n c e s , " X, 254-55.
2. V, 380.
..
3. D o n Q u i x o t e is s u b s t i t u t e d for " s a i n t - e r r a n t s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
255.
ty"
and looks
Tut.'
said
In this
I,
are
rather
doctr i ne
face
we not all
absurd
of the
e mo t io na l
to the
into h e r
sta t e
to det ec t
a "family
1
l i k e n e s s " ---
relations'/
f a s h i o n he
is e n a b l e d to
brotherhood
of man. Prompt
of h i s
year
last
of life,
introduce
ed by
h e had
the
the h i g h l y
exclaimed
Jameses:
--but
g o o d god.1 are we not all b r o t h e r s
are f r i e n d l y and v i r t u o u s a n d g o o d ? 2
A n d in a s e r m o n
entitled
" F o l l o w Peace"
and
sisters,
the Rev.
Mr.
who
Stern e
ha d d e cl a re d:
--For, as men, we are a l l i e d t o g e t h e r in the n a t u r a l b o n d
of b r o t h e r h o o d , a n d are m e m b e r s one of a n o t h e r . - - W e hav e
the same F a t h e r in h e a v en , who m a d e us and t a k e s care
of us
a l l . - - O u r e a r t h l y e x t r a c t i o n too is ne a r e r alike, than the
pride of t h e w o r l d car es to b e r e m i n d e d of: — for A d a m was
the fath er of us all, and E v e the m o t h e r of all l i v i n g . -The p r i n c e a nd the b e g g a r s p r u n g from the same stocks, as
wide a s u n d e r as the b r a n c h e s a r e . ^
Suc h a d o c t r i n e
was,
after
all,
a fundamental
one
of the
Christian religion.
Sterne
ordinarily
lows hi m
it
himself had a.natural
is
only when Y o r i c k
to be a l o n e
an old d e s o b l i g e a n t
tude.
for long.
in M.
D i s s a t i s f i e d by his
Yorick found
the
is out
of company,
of s o r t s
Dessin's
coachyard
treatment
suitable
and
that he a l ­
It is thus tha t he ma k e s
a symbol
of the b e g g i n g
d e s o b l i g e a n t . so c a l l e d b e c a u s e
only one p a s s e n g e r ,
1. V, 226.
2. L e t t e r No.
3. S e r m o n No.
love
to his moo d
226, Dec. 28, 1767,
41, X, 319-20.
p.
of
of s o l i ­
friar,
it c a r r i e d
and c l i m b e d
408.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in to
r. i s preface.
write
W h e n the
c hos e n s u c h
navir-g
that
"it
mits
that
a place
would have
he has
s i m pl e
for
traveller
composition,
been better...in
written himself
wonders
Yorick
at his
ob s e r v e s
1
a Vis s. V i s ." and a d ­
"pretty
well
out
of con-
£L,
ce i t
with
tomary
d e s ir e
licious
the
the v e h i c l e .
for
encounter
coach-house
In this
comp a ny .
with
manner
Later,
the
lady
a duplicate
of
he
e x p r e s s e d his
in the m i d s t
of B r u s s e l s ,
of his
cus­
de­
he d i s c o v e r s
the de sob 1 i aeant
in
in the yard:
--the very sight of it s t i r r ' d up a d i s a g r e e a b l e s e n s a t i o n
w i t h i n me now; end I thou gh t ft was a c h u r l i s h b ea s t into
whose h e a r t the idea c o u l d first enter, to c o n s t r u c t such
a machine; nor h a d I m u c h m o r e c h a r i t y for the man who
could think of u s i n g i t .^
His n a t u r a l
repulsive
friendliness
this
symbol
of solit ud e
to him.
L at e r Y o r i c k
l on e li n es s.
tends
no w m ak e s
W h e n he
to k n o w no
one,
experiences
first
and
an u n c o m f o r t a b l e
arrives
sta n ds
at P a r i s ,
looking
feeling
of
where he p r e ­
f r o m his hotel
w i n d o w u p o n the w h o l e w o r l d " r u n n i n g at the ring of pl e a s 4
ure," he feels d e s p o n d e n t .
T h e w o r l d of g a y e t y is not for
such as he,
k i n d gris se t
thought
who
suited
of a b a r b e r ' s
of his
and r e s o l v e s
is b e t t e r
letter
to wa i t
of
to c o n v e r s a t i o n
wife."
He
introduction
u p o n her.
"wit h
is r e s t o r e d b y
to M a d a m e
But b e f o r e
the
de R a m b o u l i e t
he doe s
1. V, 38.
2. V, 41.
3. V, 83.
.
4. V, 170.
S a m e e x p r e s s i o n u s e d in d e s c r i p t i o n
L a n g u e d o c i a n dance , T,.^,. IV, 109 (vii, 43).
some
so,
of the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
he has
an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h
In the
stone
shop
under
the
Sterne
sad
foot
h ind,... sits
a " k i n d g r i s s e t ,11 a s h o p k e e p e r ’s wife.
fate
of M o n s i e u r
an d who
"i n
commerceless
to a s i g n i f i c a n t
some
in his
1 e M a r i . who
is but
d a r k a n d dismal
a
room b e ­
t h r u m n i g h t - c a p , " leads
exclamation
of s e n s i b i l i t y :
— S u r e l y — s u r e l y , man.' it is not good for thee to sit alone
thou wast m a d e for social a n d g e n t l e g r e e t i n g s , and this im
p r o v e m e n t of our n a t u r e s f r o m it, I a p p e a l to as m y e v i ­
dence .^
The
phrase
of G e n e s i s
g o o d that
meet
opening
for
the
him."
man
clause
2:18:
"And
s h o u l d be
Again
of
this
exclamation
the L o r d God
alone;
we h a v e
I will
said,
ma k e
sensibility with
the
turning
sermons,
confirmation:
we
It
him
a s u g g e s t i o n that
c o n n e c t i n g his
to his
is a p a r a ­
find
is not
an h e l p
S t er n e
C h r i s t i a n relig io n ,
is
and
No doubt, t h e r e are a g o o d m a n y h a n d s o m e t h in gs said
u p o n the swee ts of r e t i r e m e n t , & c . . . y e t still "ii _i_s. not
g o o d for m a n to be a l o n e :" nor can all w h i c h t he coldh e a r t e d pedant stuns our ears w i t h u p o n the subject, ever
give one a n s w e r of s a t i s f a c t i o n to the mind; in the mid s t
of the l o u d e s t v a u n t i n g s of p h i l o s o p h y , N a t u r e will have
her y e a r n i n g s for s o c i e t y a n d f r i e n d s h i p ;- - a goo d hear t
wants some o b j e c t to be k i n d t o — and the bes t part of our
blood, an d the p u r e s t of ou r s p i ri t s, s u f f e r most u nd e r
the d e s t i t u t i o n .
L e t the t o r p i d m o n k s e e k h e a v e n c o m f o r t l e s s and a l o n e . —
God s p e e d him!
F o r m y own part, I fear I s h o u l d n e v e r so
find the way: Let me be w i s e a n d r e l i g i o u s — but let me be a
MAN: w h e r e v e r thy P r o v i d e n c e p l a c e s me, or w h a t e v e r be the
r o a d I take to get to t h e e — g i v e me some c o m p a n i o n in my
j ourney, be it on l y to r e m a r k to, H o w our shad ow s l e n g t h e n
as the sun goes d o w n ; — to wh o m I ma y s a y , How f re s h is the
face of nature!
H o w sweet the f l o w e r s of the field.'
How
d e l i c i o u s are the se fruits.'^
1. V, 189.
2. S e r m o n No.
18,
" T h e L e v i t e a n d his
Concubine,"
IX,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
290.
253.
The
second paragraph
to the
monk,
of this p a s s a g e ,
m i g h t ha-ve b e e n c o p i e d
ney . so n e a r l y a k i n
This
is it
liking
u n t o u c h e d by
e x ce pt
for the r e f e r e n c e
into t h e S e n t i m e n t a l
in f e e l i n g an d m a n n e r
for the
snobbishness.
company
On
of o t h er s
Jour­
of e x p r e s s i o n .
is a p p a r e n t l y
one o c c a s i o n S t er n e
comforts
1
h i m s e l f w i t h th e
and t h r o u g h o u t
clas s es
sentimental
his
stay
of p e o pl e .
circumstance,
co t t a g e s
beggar
it b e c o m e s
selected
evident,
their
a series
emotional
u p o n o b s e r v a t i o n but
The
Sterne,
who
q ue s ti o n.
1.
there
of p e a s a n t
idealization
accepted
literary
"... as if m a n to m a n w a s
s u r f a c e of the g l o b e . . . "
in the
salons.
employed,
w h i c h have
knowledge
life
t h em e s
of his
been
of P r a n c e
for
The
foun d
that
discontent
J
social
th e y
is ignored.
social
that
there.
numerous
fact
feel­
except
in the S e n t i m e n t a l
of the m o s t
of an y
of s e n s i ­
capacity
are to be
the e s t a b l i s h e d
W h e n Y o r i c k turn s
Sterne has
of
v a l u e a n d w h i c h are b a s e d not
a n d d w a rf s
is no t r a c e
fin d p l e a s u r e
in the P a r i s i a n
u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d and most a b u s e d
see,
freely w i t h all
situations
in p r e — R e v o l u t i o n a r y Prance.
the mos t
shall
an
of man,
for any v i c t i m
can
as
illustrations
of o l d s o l d i e r s
constitutes
class
of
to the r e a d e r ' s
The picture
nev
and
as well
upon popular
following
ing a d d l i t t l e
a number
sympathy
or n o b l e m a n ,
peasants
m ix e s
in c h o o s i n g his p a r t i c u l a r s ,
for
bility.
of the Q u a l i t y
in F r a n c e he
He manifests
of h u m b l e
Yet
thought
were
As
we
in
order
in P r an c e
without
into a l i t t l e
farmhouse
of f
not equal
V, 258.
t hr o u g h o u t
the
the w h o l e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
259.
road on
the
ascent
complet e r u s t i c
without
farm,
of Mon t
simplicity
a single
couple,
the
sim pl e
them,
and the
d a n c e — all
litt l e
note.
old
c h i l d r e n abo ut
he
e n c o u n t e r s a sc e n e
and h ap p in e ss .
discordant
the h o s p i t a b l e
joy ou s
l a r a re ,
these
The
The neat,
w i t h their
supper
d e t ai ls
are
prosperous
litt l e
c h i l dr e n and g r a n d ­
("a feast
combine
of
of love"),
to make a p e r f e c t
idyll.
With
this
appealing
s c en e St e r n e
il l u s t r a t e s the
joys
/
of the p e a s a n t
of w h i c h he
to s e n s i b i l i t y .
S te r n e ' s
scheme
spoke
Such a picture
for a r o u s i n g
a m or a l
work.
It
is a l e s s o n
livered
in his
sermon
on the
the
at the e nd
of the a p o s t r o p h e
fits e a s i l y not only
em o t i o n s
into
but
also
for w r i t i n g
in c o n t e n tm e nt ,
such
as h e
" D u t y of S e t t i n g B o u n d s
to
de­
our
Desires":
Great, a n d i n e x p r e s s i b l e m a y be the h a p p i n e s s , w h i c h a m o d e r ­
ate f o r t u n e an d m o d e r a t e d e s i r e s w i t h a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of v i r ­
tue will secure.
M a n y ar e the sile nt p l e a s u r e s of the h o n es t
p easant, who r i s e s c h e e r f u l to his l a b o u r ; — why s h ou ld they
n o t ? - - L o o k into his house, the seat of e a c h man' s h a p p i n e s s ;
has he not the same d o m e s t i c e n d e a r m e n t s ,— — the same joy and
comfort in hi s c h i ld r en , and as f l a t t e r i n g h o p e s of t h e i r
doi ng well, to e n l i v e n his h o u r s a n d g l a d d e n his heart, as
y o u c o u l d c o n c e i v e in the h i g h e s t s t a t i o n ? - - A n d I m a k e no
doubt in general, but if the true state of his joys a n d s u f ­
ferings, c ou l d be f a i r l y b a l a n c e d w i t h t h o s e of his be t t e r s ,
w h et h er a n y t h i n g w o u l d a p p e a r at the foot of the account,
but what wou ld r e c o m m e n d the m o r a l of this discourse.
Add to this
1.
the
literary
popularity
of the
theme as
one
of
S e r m o n No. 13, IX, 223-24.
S t er ne thought so well of the
p a s s a g e that he i n c o r p o r a t e d it almost w o r d for w o r d in a
s e r m o n not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l af t e r his death.
No. 44, ’The
W a y s of P r o v i d e n c e J u s t i f i e d to Man," X, 364-65.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
260.
sensibility
ing the
and. the
fact
g.e n frj.roe n t J o u r n e y
i m a g i n i n g the
idyllic
there,
and
can
nature
i nto
we
with
J ust
is a n o t h e r
the
Sterne
living
existence
see w hy h e
the S e n t i m e n t a l
experiences
living
that
those
That
is u n d o u b t e d ,
he
but
w h i c h he
Journey
of art
city.
which k e p t h i m
in th e
c o u n t r y — he h a d
rest h i s
sickly
quiet
necessary
fame,
Sterne
he
composition.
But
the
T h e r e was
the city
and
hand was
completed.
amusing passage
always
social world
glad
he
away
to
reasons
of his
f o u n d the
an d
first g a i n i n g
to r e m a i n
the p r o s p e c t
In T r i s t r a m S h a n d y
went
to get
a n d the p e a c e
content
Yorick
Yorkshire
business
w h e n the p i e c e
which expresses
for
life
in his
after
find
salons.
l e ss m o n e y th e re ,
c o u l d n e v e r h a ve b e e n
country-dweller.
the
constitution demanded,
for
antidote
T h e r e w e re p r a c t i c a l
spent
of w r i t ­
children of
of c o u n t r y
s e e m e d a lw a y s
of the
to a t t e n d ,
these
in the P a r i s i a n
love
t ime
and Eliza might
found pleasure
he
the
Coxwold cottage
as an
excitement
holdings
at
in his
introduces
how deeply Sterne's
story.
was
there
simply
of e s c a p e
to
of w r i t i n g at
appears
an
his a t t i t u d e ;
...for t h e six m o n t h s I'm in the country, I'm u p o n so small
a scale, that w i t h all the g o o d t e m p e r in the world, I o u t ­
do EonsflflBii. a b a r l e n g t h - - f o r I k ee p n e i t h e r m an or boy,
or horse, or cow, or dog, or cat, or any t h i n g that can eat
or drink, e x c e p t a t h i n poor p i e c e of a V e s t a l (to k e e p my
fire i n ) , and w ho h a s g e n e r a l l y as b a d an a p p e t i t e as m y ­
s e l f — but if y o u t h i n k this m a k e s a p h i l o s o p h e r of m e — I -l
w o u l d n o t , m y g o o d people.' give a rush for your judgme nt s .
1.
IV,
25 9
(ix,
17).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
This,
St e r n e 'b
pher,
s ho w s
only r e f e r e n c e
no p a r t i c u l a r
to the
French
natural
philoso­
for h i m or his d o c t r i n e s .
1
Yet he a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y r e a d R o u s s e a u , an d the v i n t a g e s c e n e
2
a n d s u p p e r d e s c r i b e d in .L& N o u v e l l e H e l o i se m a y h a v e
strengthen ed his
l ife as
find l i t e r a r y
love
conception
a literary
Sterne
examples
widespread
in the
been
some
for the
3
laid.
Sterne's
in Th e
o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s
and
of cour s e,
of r u r a l
eighteenth
by
have
from
cent ur y .
the
time
quick acceptance
of R o u s s e a u
Numerous
had
writers
concerning
the
to
cares
to R o u s s e a u
The
appeal
Although
of S t e r n e
of
it h a s
always
the g r o u n d w o r k
in E n g l a n d h a d b e e n
of c o u n t r y life.
Beverley,
to
of the w o r l d was
expressed sentiments
joy s
G a m e s t er c a u s e s Mrs.
to g o
happiness.
retirement
degree,
g am bl in g husband,
of c o u n t r y
theme.
d i d not,
in a c o t t a g e
so to
fondness
such as
E d w a r d M o o re
wh e n b e g g a r e d b y her
exclaim:
P o v e r t y ha s no s u c h t e r r o r s in it as y o u imagine.
There's
no c o n d i t i o n of life, s i c k n e s s a n d p a i n e x ce p t e d , w h e r e h a p ­
p i n e s s is e x c l u d e d .
Th e n e e d y pe a s a n t , who r i s e s e a r l y to
his labo ur , e n j o y s m o r e w e l c o m e rest at night for 't.
His
b r e a d is s w e e t e r to him; his home h a pp i er ; his f a m i l y d e a r ­
er; h is e n j o y m e n t s surer.
T h e sun that r o u s e s him in the
morn i ng , sets in t h e e v e n i n g to r e l e a s e him.
All s i t u a t i o n s ^
h a v e t h e i r c o m f o r t s , if s we e t c o n t e n t m e n t dwel l in the heart.
1. The C a t a l o g u e of the s a l e of b o o k s in w h i c h S t e r n e ' s l i ­
b r a r y wa s i n c l u d e d c o n t a i n s b o t h l a N Q . p . y P 5 4 - 9 8 ft and
Emile.
Items 2184, 1558.
2. C i n q u i e m e P a r t i e , L e t t r e VII, de S a i n t - P r e u z a ^ y l o r d
Edouard.
" O r d r e et g a i e t e qui rfegnent chez M. de W o l m a r
da n s le terns des v e n d a n g e s . "
3. T e x t e , J. , J - J . R o u s s e a u an d jkks. C
P
tfi.fi S P l E-l.V- -iii
Lit e r a t u r e . L o n d o n and N.Y. , 1899, pp. 292ff.
4. Act I, sc. i. Poems..
p. 4 22.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The
closeness
of this
Sterne ’ s sermo n on
exclamation
the
s u b j e ct
cl os e r
to ”The
Ways
Sterne
repeats
the p a s s a g e
prefixes
quotation
is marked,
of P r o v i d e n c e
his r e m a r k s
to t h e
but
Justified
of r i c h e s
is even
to M a n ,H w h e r e
f r o m the p r e v i o u s
on the v a l u e
it
f ro m
sermon
w i t h the
and
ex-
c lamation:
AlasJ if the p r i n c i p l e s of c o n t e n t m e n t are not w i t h i n u s , - the h ei g h t of s t a t i o n an d w o r l d l y g r a n d e u r will as soon add
a cubit to a m a n ’s s t a t u r e as to his happiness.
And
in
conclusion
joys
and
only
this:
he
sufferings
adds
with
that
those
the b a l a n c i n g
of his
of the p e a s a n t ' s
betters
would prove
-- th a t the r i c h m a n h a d the m o r e m e a t , — but the po o r man the
b e t t e r stomach; — the one h a d m o r e l u x u r y , — more able p h y s i ­
cians to a t t e n d and set h i m to r i g h t s ; — tne other, m o r e h e a l t h
a nd s o u n d n e s s in his bones, and less o c c a s i o n for their h e l p , —
that, a ft e r t he s e two a r t i c l e s b e t w i x t them were b a l a n c e d , -in all other t h i n g s they s t o o d u p o n a l e v e l !--that the sun
s h i n e s as w a r m , — — the air b l o w s as fresh, and the e a rt h b r e a t h e s
as fragr a nt , u p o n the one as the o t h e r ; — and that t h e y h a v e an
equal share in all t h e b e a u t i e s a n d real b e n e f i t s of n a t u r e . 2
The
expression
Sterne
the
was
familiar
two h a d
istic
in S t e r n e
of
w i t h the
a common
source.
More popular
writers
the
ideas of Moore
passage
Ye g e n e r o u s
had m u c h
to
say
Britons,
life.
1.
67»
l ab or
^9
indulged
Thomson,
who
3
the plow,
venerate
concerning happy
1. P. 363.
2. P. 365.
3. " T ne S e a s o n s , ” S p r in g ,
in The. G am e s t e r
than M o or e h a d
li t tl e p i c t u r e s of c o u n t r y
suggests
or that
in i d e a l ­
advised
and rural mirth.
T
^•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
that
the c o u n t r y
dweller
happy
am i d his
fam ily he wrote:
.
.
N o r p u r p o s e gay,
A m u s e m e n t , d a n c e s , or song, he s t e r n l y scorns:
For h a p p i n e s s a n d true p h i l o s o p h y
Are of the s o c i a l still, an d s m i l i n g k i n d . 1
And G o l d s m i t h
such as that
drew
several pictures
of his b r o t h e r ' s
of the
rustic household,
home:
.Blest be that spot, wh e r e c h e e r f u l g u e s t s r e ti re
To p a u s e f r o m toil, and t r i m t h e i r e v e n i n g fire;
B l e s t that a b o de , where want a n d p a i n repair,
A n d e v e r y s t r a n g e r finds a r e a d y chair;
Blest be t h o s e feast s w i t h s i m pl e p l e n t y crown'd,
Where all the r u d d y f a m i l y a r o un d
Laugh
at the jes ts or p r a n k s that n e v e r fail,
Or s i g h w i t h p i t y at some m o u r n f u l tale;
Or p r e s s the b a s h f u l s t r a n g e r to h i s food,
A n d l e a r n the l u x u r y of d o i n g g o o d . ^
T hes e
examples
of r u r a l b l i s s
It is a t h e m e r e a d i l y
The h e i g h t
comes
his
T he
of the
c o m p r i s e d his
famil y " u p o n
dance.
the
which
adaptable
of Y o r i c k ' s
after p a r t a k i n g
draught
the
enjoyment
in the
supper,
when
f a r mh o us e
and d e l i c i o u s
the
a little esplanade before
dance
same as Stern e 's .
to s e n s i b i l i t y .
sweet m o r s e l
des cription which
Languedocian
are m u c h
old man g a t h e r e d
the house"
for a
'follows i n v i t e s c o m p a r i s o n
in the s e v e n t h b o o k
of Tristram.
with
In­
stead of the lam e y o u t h " w h o m A p o l l o h a d r e c o m p e n s e d w i t h a
S
pipe," there is the ol d m a n p l a y i n g his v i e l l e wit h stif f
fingers,
and i n s t e a d
of the
girl
"who
had
s t o l e n her v oi c e
1. "The S e a s o n s , " A u t u m n , 11. 1344-47, W f I .
145.
See
also Summer, 11. 352-70; Autumn, 11. 1 2 21 - 34 ; Winter, 11.
6 1 7- 2 9
2. "The T r a v e l l e r , " Work s I, 20.
The s a m e idea is to be
found in T h e D e s e r t e d Y&llgrfig a n d X frg. Y.1<?&£ .2— uaikfi— 4-Sia*
3. IV, 110 ( v i i , 43).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
264.
from h e a v e n , 11 t h e r e
her
with
c r a c k e d voice,
satisfactory.
there
are
is no
sce n es
Journey
This
drawing
the
in two hooks,
he d e s c r i b e s
witnessed
ability
to
such
them.
skirt
softer,
joins
is none
not
that
Although
one
the F r e n c h
despite
seldom allowed
described
Voltaire
an d E n g l i s h
to the
French,
he
sm a l l
farme r.
him.
and
Both
peasants
for the
seriously
were
their
that he
n o t e d for
the
similar­
scenes
troubles,
th em even
a vast
less
sentimental.
treats
in the S ent iment al
o bserved,
French
douhts
the
tune
in the S e n t i m e n t a l
tone m o r e
Sterne
in the
participate,
to p l a g u e
hut
the
that
sin g a n d d a n c e
and l u x u r i e s
as
Yorick does
happiness,
fact
who
the l i t e r a r y p r e c e d e n t s
are
of the p e a s a n t s
was,
is
woman
the m u s i c
w i t h slit
of p e r f e c t
the
old
hut
tim e
Nanette
Despite
ly
is the
ever
their
the p o v e r t y
small
comforts
Journey.
There
difference between
O f the E n g l i s h
which
the
in c o n t r a s t
remarks;
Le P a l s a n n ’a p o i n t les p i e d s m u e r t r i s pa r des sabots, il
mang e du p a i n blanc, il est b i e n vetu, il ne craint p o i n t
d 1a u g m e n t e r le n o m b r e de ses b e s t i a u x ni de c o u v r i r son
toit de tuiles, de p e u r que 1 *on ne h a u s s e ses i m p ot s 1 1an —
nee d'apre s .
II y a ici b e a u c o u p de Pal. sans qui ont e n ­
v i r o n d e u x cent m i l l e fr a n c s de bien, & qui ne d e d a i g n e n t
pas de c o n t i n u e r a. c u l t i v e r la t e r r e qui les a e nr i ch is , &
dans l a q u e l l e ils v iv e n t l i b r e s . ^
English travellers
p l o r e d the
F re n c h
1.
2.
depths
people
were
as
a rul e n o t e d
of p o v e r t y
this d i f f e r e n c e
into w h i c h
s u n k in a l a n d
the mass
of plenty.
IV, 111 (vii, 43).
L e t t r e s P h i 1 o s onhi a ue_&. ed. pa r G u s t a v e
1909, 2 vols. L e t t e r No. 9, I, 107.
and d e ­
of
the
Of this
Lanson,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
atti-
265.
tu.de the
comment
of T h i c k n e s s e
is a good
example*
p- tr>i
p
Were the p oo r d a y - l a b o u r e r s and v i a n e r o n s capable, by t he ir
labour a n d i n du s t r y , to k e e p t h e m s e l v e s , their f a m i l i e s , and
their l i t t l e h a b i t a t i o n s , in the same neat, sim p le m a n n e r
that the i n d u s t r i o u s part of the p oo r in E n g l a n d do, P r a n c e
would be the m o s t d e l i g h t f u l c o u n t r y in the world, e i t h e r to
pass through, or to r e s i d e in; but the e x t r e m e p o v e r t y of
the poor, and the d a y - l a b o u r e r s in p a r t i c u l a r , r e n d e r s their
v il l a g e s , nay, e v e n t h e i r great towns, v e r y filthy.
The
f erm i er s g e n e r a u r o p p r e s s them b e y o n d c o n c ep t io n , and they
toil from m o r n i n g to night, e x p o s e d to t h e i n c l e m e n c y of all
weat h er s, and yet l i v e a m u c h m o r e w r e t c h e d life than any of
the A f r i c a n slaves, in our colon ie s , or in their own.
But
their l i v e l y d i s p o s i t i o n b e a r s them t h r o u g h all w i t h c h e e r ­
fulness, a n d t h e y c o n s i d e r they are g e t t i n g their OWN bread,
while they are, in fact, t o i l i n g for w re t c h e s , who d e s e r v e
ot the name of men.
The l u x u r y in w h i c h the f e r m i e r s
e a e r a u x l i v e in F r a n c e is s c a r c e credible.'
The p o v e r t y and
irt of the p o or is e q u a l l y as offensi v e.
But
Sterne
pressed
has
other
no w o r d for this
observers
of the
p assed.
At P a r i s
he
g eneral,
upon his
ability
to the m i s e r y w h i c h
discordant
n ot e
the
starving
dirty,
His p e a s a n t s
companions
may have
the
to
one
caused.
healthy,
or to
introduce
w ho m h e m u st h a v e
seen.
a n d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t — fit
traveller.
in the B o u r b o n n a i s
some
It w o u l d h a ve b e e n a
of his h o s t s
unfortunates
a sentimental
possessed
t h r o u g h w h i c h he
L a P opelinifere, the farmer2
c o l l e c t taxes, w ithout re f e r e n c e
system
to a t t a c k
Although
country
poverty which d e ­
compliments
a r e h ap py ,
for
extreme
measure
and Lyonnais
of the
j oys
the peasant
of p l e n t y , in
1. U s e f u l B i n t s , pp. 40-41.
Cf. pp. 54-55, 179-80, where
Cf. S m o l l e t t ’s
the same sort of o b s e r v a t i o n is r e p e a t e d .
c
of
the
F
r
e
n
c
h
B ev o l u t i o n ,
statement supposedly propheti
T r a v e l s . p. 71.
A l so pp. 80, 174.
2. V, 372.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the m o u n t a i n s
Sterne
joys
of
of S a v o y
is able
to m a k e
the
sit uation was
a sentimental
di ff e r e n t .
Yet h ere
exclamation upon
the
scantiness.
Poor p a t i e n t , quiet, h o n e s t peop le J fear not: your p o ve rt y ,
the t r e a s u r e o f y o u r simple v i r t u e s , will not be e n v i e d yo u
by the world, nor w i l l your v a l l i e s b e i n v a d e d b y it.-Hature] in the m i d s t of thy d i s o r d e r s , t h o u a r t still f r i e n d ­
ly to the s c a n t i n e s s thou h a s t c r e a t e d — w i t h all thy g r e a t
works a b o u t thee, lit t le h a s t t h o u left to give either to
the s c y t h e or to the s i c k l e - - b u t to that li t tl e thou g r e a t ­
est s a f e t y and p r o t e c t i o n ; a n d sweet are the d w e l l i n g s which
stand so s h e l t e r e d . 1
It was
always
as they w e r e
content
to
found a m o n g
a s o u r c e of w o n d e r
to m o u n t a i n o u s
c ountry,
eke o ut a l i v i n g in
the rocks.
waged against
Sharp
n a t u r e by the
to E n g l i s h m e n ,
to
see the p e a s a n t s
the f e w f e r t i l e
was
i m p r e s s e d by
inhabitants
unaccustomed
of this
spots
the
to be
stru gg l e
" dismal b a r ­
ren d i s t r i c t " :
T h e r e is so m u c h rocky a n d b a r r e n g r o u n d in S a v o y . p a rt ic u la r
ly t o w a r d s M o u n t C e n i s . that t h e l ea st spot of earth capable
of p r o d u c i n g c o r n or grass, d o e s not l i e u n c u l t i v a t e d , and
y o u see all t h r o u g h t h e c o u nt r y, one or the other g r o w i n g on
the s l o p e of t h e rocks, w h e r e v e r the p e a s a n t can find a
l i t t l e p i e c e o f f l a t surface, w i t h a d e p t h of soil sufficient
1.
V, 409.
T h e r e is in th e s e r m o n s a p a s s a g e w h i c h c o m m en ts
l i k e w i s e on t he v i r t u e s of h o n e s t pove r ty .
A c c o r d i n g to
S terne, the w o r s t ill of p o v e r t y is the s hame and d i s ­
g r a c e a t t a c h e d to it by the world: " W i t h o u t this t a x of
infamy, p o ve r ty , with all the b u r d e n s it lays u p o n the
f l e s h — — so l o n g as it is v i r t u o u s , co u ld n e v e r b r e a k the
s p i r i t s of a man; all its h u n g er , and pain, and nakedness,
are n o t h i n g to it, they h a v e some c o u n t e r p o i s e of good;
a nd b e s i d e s they are d i r e c t e d by P r o v i d e n c e a n d must be
s u b m i t t e d to."
S e r m o n No. 16, "The C h a r a c t e r of Shzmei,
IX, 264-65.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to admit of v e g e t a t i o n .
M a n y of t h e s e p i e c e s of la nd a re
not bigg er , an d m a n y are l e s s t h a n the h a l l of an
old E n g ­
lish c o u n t r y m a n s i o n - h o u s e ; but in some p l a c e s , th e y are
numerous, and, b y h a n g i n g one over th e other, fro m the top
to the b o t t o m of the hill, m a k e a p l e a s a n t picture.^The r e m a r k a b l e
content
thing
with their
S e l wy n of
an
to the E n g l i s h was that
lot.
observation
T h e E a r l of C a r l i s l e
on
M o u n t Col
the p e o p l e
wrote
seemed
to G e o r g e
di Tenda:
Yet it is w o n d e r f u l to see, f r o m a cottage w h o s e top just
e merg e s out of the snow, a d o z e n c h i l d r e n r o l l i n g out of
the door; the w h o l e f a m i l y w i t h loo k s of m o r e h e a l t h and
content — t h o u g h the y do not k n o w that the next h o u r may
not cut off t h e i r s u p p l y of b r e a d for
d a y s - - t h a n in any
c o m p a n y y o u h a v e b e e n in thi s year, not e x c e p t i n g
the c o f ­
f e e - r o o m at W h i t e ' s , the t e m p l e of Content.’S
This
flict
a d m i r a t i o n of h o n e s t
poverty
with nature had already become
Goldsmith,
for ex a m p l e ,
1 er c o m m e n t s
upon
the
in his
struggle
survey
in
const an t
a literary
of E u r o p e
for e x i s t e n c e
con­
theme.
in T h e T r a v e l-
in the A l p i n e
regions:
N ature, a m o t h e r k i n d a l i k e to all,
S t i l l g r a n t s her b l i s s at L a b o u r ' s e a r n e s t call;
W i t h f o o d as w e l l the p e a s a n t is s u p p l i e d
On I dr a ' s c l i ff s as A r n o ' s shelvy side;
A n d t h o u g h the r o c k - c r e s t e d summits frown,
T h e s e rocks, by custom, turn to beds of down.
And
of the h a p p y
Sw i s s he rema rk s :
Thus e v e r y g o o d h i s n a t i v e w i l d s impart
I m p r i n t s the p a t r i o t p a s s i o n on his hear t ;
A n d e v ' n thos e ills that r o u n d his m a n s i o n rise,
E n h a n c e the b l i s s his s c a n t y fund supp li e s.
.Dear is that s h e d to w h i c h h is soul conforms,
^
A n d de a r that h i l l w h i c h lifts him to the storms.
1. L e t t e r s from J i a i i . P2. Jan. 24, 1768.
George
242.
3. IflXteS. 1, 22.
4. I b i d . , pp. 26-27.
300•
pn d His
Contemporaries. II ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T h er e
is
in t h e s e
simplicity
of c o u n t r y
clamation upon
Sterne
lines
the
in
peasantry
Another
type
a t he m e w h i c h
of the
servant
Trim.
But
s ame
interests
Toby's
of the
in the
these
and quirks
his m i l i t a r y
life
of t he i r
lower
after
an
cla s se s
L a Fleur.
dealt
ideal
U n c l e Toby,
feeling.
T r im
and
requests
his
and
and
of c h a r a c t e r .
Yorick
similar
is one
is r e w a r d e d by as
services,
Yorick,
of
saw the
set
The
forth
in
relations
of
Journey
with
t ou ch u pon
in T r i s t r am
Toby
of the
T ri m
L a Fleur,
is.as k i n d
a holiday,
is
ext e nt
retired
though
Yet
and C o r ­
same nation,
f a i t h f u l l y p e r f o r m i n g his
Yorick
that
time
a l a r ge
is p i c k e d up by Y o r i c k en p a s s a n t .
tween L a F l e u r
peopl e ."
thoroughly
of U n c l e
two w er e
a n d h a d to
subordinate;
ex­
relationship between
characters
latter
in hi s
honest
who w e r e
rugged
light.
had already
profession,
service
others
v alet,
portrayed
and
for the
quiet,
in the Sent imental
Sterne
S h a n d y . where he
p o ra l
pa t i e n t ,
and m a n y
of Y o r i c k ' s
feeling
e x p r e s s e d by S t e r n e
sentimental
Yorick and La Fleur
master
same
the m e t r o p o l i t a n
in this
the p e r s o n
l if e
"poor
an d G o l d s m i t h
involved
the
the same
into U n c l e
d ut i e s as
formerly
there
a soldier,
is a bond b e ­
to that b e t w e e n T r i m a n d
temperament.
to L a F l e u r
B o t h are m e n
as U n c l e T o b y
faithful
service.
despite
the fact
is
of
to
W h en L a Fleur
that
he n eeds
lets h i m go.
But we must f e e l . not a r g u e in t h e s e e m b a r r a s s m e n t s
sons a n d d a u g h t e r s of s e r v i c e part w i t h l i b e r t y , but not
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the
269.
w i th n a t u r e in t h e i r co n t r a c t s; they are f l e s h and blood,
and h a v e t h e i r l i t t l e v a n i t i e s a n d w i s h e s in the m idst of
the h o u s e o f b o n d a g e , as well as t h ei r t a s k m a s t e r s — no
d oubt t h e y h a v e set their s e l f - d e n i a l s at a p r i c e — and
t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s ar e so u n r e a s o n a b l e , that Z w o u l d often
d i s a p p o i n t them, b u t that t h e i r c o n d i t i o n puts it so m u c h
in my p o w e r to do it.
B e h o l d --B e h o l d . I. am thy
the p o w e r s of a m a s t e r - - l
Once more S t er ne
ing.
He k n o w s
ters
whenever
tion
cannot
blood,"
c a u s e s Y o r i c k to
their
services
are r eq u i r e d ,
overcome
his
quotation
obedience
is u n a b l e
Such a
theme
had
long been
i dea of
the
kindly
general
Steele
to
servants,
to h i s
and
"journey
feel­
their m a s ­
as "flesh and
of his
own.
as r e p r e s e n t e d in
2
thy s ervant," so m ove
his
of s e n s i b i l i t y
of the
rightful
was not
relation
k n o w n to writers.
treatment
in h i s
for
of
this r e f l e c ­
and d e s i r e s
I am
to e x e r c i s e
a plea
once
of L a Fleur,
o r i g in a l with
of m a s t e r and
turn S t e r n e
3
of th e heart."
the
f i t t e d in well with
of the time.
in the G u a r d i a n
authority.
F urthermore,
of s e r v a n t s
a u r a of s e n s i b i l i t y
had made
but
for L a F l e u r
feelings
"Behold,
possibilities
servant
the
feeling
with
the b i b l i c a l
The
reason
are p a i d to a t t e n d
and
Sterne.
aside
servants
a fellow man
t hat he
set
me at
that
The h u m i l i t y
him
servant — d i s a r m s
(ho.
Years
87)
f o u n d the
before,
for k i n d n e s s
idea a d ap t a b l e
1• V
3 3 9 —40•
2. A * c o m b i n a t i o n of "I am thy serva nt , " Ps. 116:16; Fs. 119:
125; a n d Ps. 143: 1 2; and "Behold, my s e r v an t ," Isa. 42:1;
Isa. 52:13.
3. T h e l i t e r a r y a d v e n t u r e s of two m e m b e r s of the And re w s
f amily, P a m e l a a n d Joseph, might be c o n s i d e r e d in part as
ca se s for the g o o d t r e a t m e n t of serv an ts .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
270.
When Yorick remarks
that
L a Fleu r " h a d
set
out
early
in life,
as g a l l a n t l y as most F r e n c h m e n do, wit h s e r v i n g for
1
a few year s, " he is a l l u d i n g to the most u s u a l c a r e e r of
Frenchmen
of all
classes,
the
army.
Walpole
comments:
You w o u l d not e a s i l y gue s s at t h e i r n o t i on s of h o n o u r : I'll
tell y o u one: it is v e r y d i s h o n o u r a b l e for any g e n t l e m a n
not to be in the army, or in the kin g 's s e r v i c e as they call
it, a n d it is no d i s h o n o u r to k e e p public g a m i n g - h o u s e s .^
Walpole
and M i l l a r d b o t h re f e r
classes
as well f l o c k e d
into
to
the
the gentry,
service
but
of the
the
poor er
king.
In one of the Inns we were s e r v ' d by a p o o r Fell ow , who
f r i s k ' d about w i t h all the V i v a c i t y imaginable: He t o l d
us he h a d H u i t e n f a n s . & p oi n t d 'A r g e n t . E i g h t Children,
and no Money: I a s k ' d him, wh a t he meant to do w i t h them
all?
Oh, tous po u r 1 e R o i : All for the King.
For, n o t ­
w i t h s t a n d i n g the great T y r a n n y they labour under, the
G l o r y of the ir G r a n d M o n a r a u e is their p e r p e t u a l Theme.*'
In a d d i t i o n
military
to L a F l e u r S t e r n e
life,
an old s o l d i e r
c a m p a i g n ' d and w o r n
lie r
out to
g iv e s us o t h e r
examples
of
a m o n g the b e g g a r s
death
"who h a d been
4
in the service," the C h e v a ­
de St Lo u i s
has b e e n
who has to sell nat es b e c a u s e his regiment
5
d i s b a n d e d , the " l i t t l e F r e n c h deb onnai re captain"
1. V, 110.
2. L e t t e r No. 15, to West, Apr. 21, 1739, C o r r e s p o n d e n c y I,
27.
Cf. also M i l la r d: "The n o b i l i t y or g e n t r y of France,
n e v e r app ly t h e m s e l v e s to trade, or m e r c h a n d i z e ; the
church, and army, b e i n g b e t t e r s u i te d to their genius."
T he G e n t l e m a n 's Guide, pp. 210-11.
3. W r i g h t , O b s e r v a t i o n s in t r a v e l l i n g .tLhj.flagfr ffr.a nfcg. P-*l4
LVftlJL. P» 3.
4. V, 129.
5. V, 265-66.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
271.
1
who a d d r e s s e s iiad&me de L***,
2
officer" in the t h e a t r e *
The
last
named
lis h
travellers.
that
the o l d e r F r e n c h
son h a d n o t e d
pertinent
Sm o l l e t t
army
is a t y p e
There
that
and m u c h
a n a the
seems
officers
th e
'‘k i n d l y
old
French
g e n e r a l l y o b s e r v e d by E n g ­
to hav e
wer e
beena common
likable
fell o ws .
older F r e n c h m e n a p p e a r e d le s s
more
e m p h a s i z e d the
p l e a s a n t tha n
the y o u n g e r
truth
ide a in the
of this
opinion
Addi­
im3
ones,
and
case of
o fficers:
I h a v e o f t e n h e a r d it obse rv e d, that a F r e n c h o f f i c e r is
g e n e r a l l y an a g r e e a b l e c o m p a n i o n when he is t u r n e d of fifty.
W i t h o u t all doubt, by that time, the fire of his v i va c it y ,
whi ch m a k e s h i m so t r o u b l e s o m e in h is y o u th , will be c o n ­
s i d e r a b l y abated, a n d in othe r respects, he must be i m ­
p r o v e d by his e x p e r i e n c e . 4
Sterne makes
ant
type
balances
French
use
of t h i s a c c e p t e d
of F r e n c h
the
sketch
o p i n io n
c h a r a c t e r a n d one w h i c h
w h i c h he h a s
drawn
to p r e s e n t
in a way
of the
a pleas­
counter­
little
debonair
captain.
The auth or
m a d e his m a r k
of
the S e n t iment al Journey. h a d already
in p o r t r a y i n g
sion to r e m i n d us.
old
soldiers,
U p o n m e e t i n g the
as he takes
occa­
old F r e n c h offi ce r
1.
2.
3.
in
V, 78-79.
V
1 99
“T h e i r old m e n in p a r t i c u l a r are, I b e l i e v e , the most
a g r e e a b l e in the w o r l d. "
F r o m A d d i s o n ' s t r a v e l letters
q u o t e d in the " G u a r d i a n , " No. 101, ILfc-fi.
it 1 6.ft 4 g fifty 4 fikfi.
XVII
222
4. T r a v e l s . p. 134.
T h i c k n e s s e o bs e r v e s p r a c t i c a l l y the
same thing, s e t t i n g the age at forty i n s t e a d of fifty.
Ob se rvat ions on t h e F r e n c h N a t i q n , 14-1^.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
272.
tne
t h e a tr e ,
Yorick
e xc l ai ms :
I love the c h a r a c t e r , not o n l y b e c a u s e 2 h o n o u r th e m a n
whose m a n n e r s are s o f t e n e d by a p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h m a k e s
c&d nen worse; but that I once k n e s one — for he is no
m c r e - - a n d why s h o u l d I not r e s c u e one p a g e fro m v i o l a t i o n
cy w r i t i n g his name in it, a n d t e l l i n g the w o r l d it w a s
C a p t a i n T o b i a s S h a n d y , the d e a r e s t of ny f l o c k and f r ie nd s ,
whose p h i l o s o p h y I n ev e r t h i n k of at this l o n g d i s t a n c e
from his d e a t h - - b u t m y eyes g u s h out with t e a r s . -
Tne
character
of U n c l e
bility,
and S t e r n e
pliment
in m a k i n g
well
tried
sponse
Toby
was
was p a y i n g
this
literary
in
work.
Th e y
little
anecdotes
creating
The
periodicals
strument
are
the mo r a l
reinforced,
The
S t er ne
for
officer
old
its
sensi
a high
soldier
com­
was
a
kne w w o u l d a w a k e n
tale
for he
flexible
this
in the Sent iment a l
of the u p p e r
the k a r q u i s
d'L****.
a chevalier
n ea t n e s s ,
class,
The
is p e r f e c t
modesty,
by the
insta n ce s
of s e n s i b i l i t y ,
hands,
re­
in
and gravity
sentimental
introduction
of t r u e
popularized
a ready
are
Chevalier
the
by
de St.
Louis
*he
199.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
of two
se n t i m e n t a l kind.
of the C hevalier,
in­
to link
of the pfiti bE d S X wk o
its
such
e x a m p 1 es
tales
of
feeling.
emotional
The p u r e s t
Journey
story
are mos t
was able at wi ll
scheme.
the
employed,
of S t e r n e ' s
moreover,
into his
members
tone
the So e ct at o r . b e c a m e
in S t e r n e ' s
type
cleverly
embodying notable
little
as
themes,
specimens
V,
French
connection.
theme w h i c h
literary
useful
1.
the
admired
in e v e r y reader.
These
also
greatly
and
is
Tne
sis
plicity
w i t h w h i c h he
nouement,
bine
with
tells hi s
the F r e n c h k i n g
to make
an e x c e l l e n t
sensibility.
A l t h o u g h no
of so d i s t i n c t
is s l i g h t
Sterne
it
whole
learning
to be
eit he r
to
fundamental
is to be
de­
ex m a c h i n a . c o m ­
lit tl e
tale
found,
the
of
ta l e
the p r o b a b i l i t y of
in the way
w h i c h he
had a basis
is
its
describes
in fact
or abroad,
show o n c e m o r e his
goo d
which
or he m a y have
tenderness
clear,
that of the
a sad tale
and the jo y
f o r t u n e ha v e a l r e a d y b e e n
to S t e r n e ' s
quite
as
the h a p p y
deus
of the
that
at h o m e
of h e a r i n g
of a n o t h e r ' s
s ame n a t u r e
the
and
for
of veter an s ."
effect
the p r i n c i p l e
type
to S t e r n e
entirely
corps
The
source
It may have
discovered
composed
"the
indeed.
as
example
a literary
having been revealed
story,
s e n s i b i l i t y . As
he tells
if
a n o t h e r story
of
shown
to mak e
of the
C h ev a l i e r :
As I h a v e t o l d this
to p l e a s e the reader, I b e g that he will
a l l o w me to r e l a t e another, out of its order, to p l e a s e mys e l f — the two s t o r i e s r e fl e ct l ig h t u p o n each other — and 't
is a p i t y th e y shou l d be parted.
With
tive,
this
reference
he p a s s e s
The
with
a man
meaning
name
1.
and
to the S h a n d e a n m e t h o d of h a n d l i n g narra
to the
two
stories
of r a n k who
circumstance
fortune.
story of the
are
connected
is f o r c e d to
in F r a n c e — — and
But
sword of the M a r q u i s
in that b o t h deal
stoop
to t r a d e — —a d e ­
who r e c o v e r s h i s
since we know that
Sterne
was
V, 267.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
good
never
2 74.
in R e n n e s ,
trav e ls
quis
we
ends
d'E****
can
see
there.
that
Cross
is " p u r e
the
actual
says
that
c o n n e c t i o n w i t h his
the
story
of the M a r ­
fiction":
It was a t o u c h i n g sto ry w h i c h S t e r n e h e a r d or r e a d of s o m e ­
where, and r e l a t e d b e c a u s e it f i t t e d into his e m o t i o n a l
s c h e m e .I
And Curtis
anecdote
in his
edition
may have
been
of the L e t t e r s
furnished
s ug ge s ts
St er n e by
that
a certain
this
dign i -
2
tary of R e n n e s
mor e
likely
young man
father,
source.
own u n c l e ,
his u n c l e
in h is
In F o o t e ' s
of r a n k o b j e c t s
his
consoles
who m he met
as
travels.
p l a y The
Mino r
to m a r r y i n g his
has no
title
and
But
th e r e
(1760)
is a
a
c ou s i n b e c a u s e her
is a tr a de s m a n .
He
follows:
Why, then, not t o t a l l y to d e s t r o y you r hopes, I do r e c o l l e c t
an edic t in f a v o u r of B r i t t a i n y ; that whe n a m a n of d i s t i n c ­
tion e n g a g e s in commer c e, his n o b i l i t y is s u f f e r e d to sleep.
A n d u p o n his q u i t i n g the c o n t a g i o u s connec ti o n, he is p e r ­
m i t t e d to r e s u m e his rank.
Sterne
in all p r o b a b i l i t y
p l a y at
the
time
of his
certain
that he met
saw or r e a d T h e M i n o r . a p o p u l a r
coming
Foot e
to London,
in P a r i s
casion Foote may have
told him
S ent i m e n t a l
At any rate,
Journey.
f r i e n d of S t e r n e ' s , w a s
aware
the
of the
and it is a l m o st
4
in 1765.
Up o n that o c ­
anecdote
related
in the
a n o t h e r E n g l i s h author,
custom,
and
it may
a
well
1. L i f e , p. 391.
2. I, p. 278, n . 2.
3. Act II, The Works of S a m u e l Fppt.fe. JLsil* , E di n b u r g h , 179b,
2 vols.
II, 255.
4. L e t t e r No. 152, to Becket, Oct. 19, 1765: "Mr. Wilk s and
Foot are here , " p. 261.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
have
seen
he
:;u:t e a l y
who
th e re
cucn p r o b a b l y
fihen the
lets
brought
are
are
fall
s tory
emb el l i shzent s
the
It&rauis,
the
a os e nt
to S t e r n e ' s
which
in the
the p l a c e
S t e rn e' s
Unalo n e,
s e n t i m e n t al c o n c l u s i o n
observing a little
a tear u p o n
are
Bind.
rust
upon
and d e c l a r e s
the blade,
n I shall
find...
w
sons
of
other
envy
way
f eelings.
Sterne
not
conjures
up
in the
a hypothetical
sermon
f
the
Inquisition,
*
imagines
f
of i m p r i s o n m e n t
and
only displays
w ho m he p r e t e n d s
3
so
the t r i a l s
had
sympathy
situation
for
along
for
a victim
retirement
of a p r i so n er .
in the B as t i l l e ,
he
resark
every v i c t i m of
the way but
its p a t h et i c
of C o n s c i e n c e
imagined
in the
Y o r i c k 1s c o n c l u d i n g
to m e e t
on the A b u s e s
Iri s t r & e S h a n d v he
f
it off,"
of his
circumstance
As
to get
published
even
effect.
in
of the t o rt u re s
of
of his Paris
room Yorick
W o r r i e d by the
possibility
"was
g o i n g to b e g i n with
the m i l l i o n s
but
of my f e 1 1 o w - c r e a t u r e s , b o r a to no i n h e r i t a n c e
4
s l a v e r y , " but i n s t e a d he c h o o s e s to p o r t r a y a single c a p ­
tive.
He
f resh
air;
answered;
imagines
his
his
his w a s t e d a p p e a r a n c e - - t h i r t y years
d e f e a t e d h o p e s — his p r a y e r s
l o n e l i n e s s — bereft
w i t h ou t
for f r e e d o m u n ­
o f family:
1. Le F e v e r ' s s w o r d is u s e d s e n t i m e n t a l l y by Sterne in T...S..
Ill, 1 5 9 - 5 1 (vi, 12).
2. V, 2 73-74.
5. I. 2 2 7 - 3 1 (ii, 17).
4. T h i s p h r a s e is p i c k e d up fr o m the s er m o n "Job's A c c o u n t of
the T r o u b l e s a n d S h o r t n e s s of Life, C onsidered": " k i l l i o n s
of our f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s , b o r n to no i n h e r i t a n c e but p o v e r t y
a n d t r o u b l e . . . " No. 10, IX, 172.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
276.
But h e re my h e a r t
with a n o t h e r p a r t
He p i c t u r e s
geon,
him
keeping
chsins
B e g a n to b l e e d — a n a
of the p o r t r a i t ,^
s i t t i n g on s t r aw
a calendar
rattling
as he
in the
with l it t l e
moves
I was
f or c e d
cor n er
notched
to go
of his
sticks,
on
dun­
his
slig ht l y.
He gave a d e e p s i g h - - I saw the iron e n t e r into his soul--l
Burst into t e a r s - - I c ou ld not s u s t a i n the p i c t u r e of c o n ­
finement w h i c h m y f a n c y ha d d r a w n — 2
In a f e w w o r d s
possible
He runs
Sterne
pathos
quickly
out
on the m o r r o w
oBserve,
to
predicament
of
prisoner
as an
picture
excuse
over
to
afflictions
to v i s i t
trouble
of one.
for B r i n g i n g
them,
passes
all
the u n f o r t u n a t e p risoner.
un t il he h i m s e l f
the Cue de Ch o i s e u l
solicit his passport.
a mental
and h a v i n g wept
3
to them.
the v a r i o u s
and r e s o l v e s
no a c t u a l
But m e r e l y
to s q u e e z e p r a c t i c a l l y
of the p light
over
is m o v e d to t e a r s
co nt r i v e s
There
is,
we should
the s e n s i t i v e reader,
S t e r n e has u s ed Y o r i ck ' s
in
these reflecti o ns ,
on w i t h o u t
fur th e r r e f e r e n c e
1.
2.
V, 246.
V, 246- 4 7.
H e r e he once m o r e has e m p l o y e d a B i b l i c a l
p h r as e.
In d e s c r i b i n g the a n g u i s h of J o s e p h ' s i m p r i s o n ­
ment, he t e l l s us, a c c o r d i n g to the P s a l m i s t , " that his.
feet w e r e h u r t w i t h f e t t e r s . and the iron e n t e re d .e.y;&n
into his s o u l . 11
(Sermon No. 12, " J o s e p h ' s H i s t o r y C o n ­
s i d e r e d , ” IX, 201.
Cf. Ps. 1 0 5 : 1 8 . )
He speaks, as of
the p r i s o n e r in t h e J o u r n e ? . of J o s e p h ’s a f f l i c t i o n B e ­
ing " r e n d e r e d still s h a r p er By the d a i l y e x p e c t a t i o n of
B e i n g r e m e m b e r e d By P h a r o a h ’s c h i e f B u t l e r , and the disa p p o i n t m e n t of f i n d i n g h i m s e l f u n g r a t e f u l l y forgotten.
(I b i d . . V, 2 0 0 -0 1 .
Cf. iL.J,. • "I B e h e l d his B o dy w a s t e d
a w a y w i t h l o n g e x p e c t a t i o n a n d c o n f i n em en t , a n d f®l* what
k i n d of s i c k n e s s of the h e a r t it was w h i c h a r i s e s from
hope deferr'd."
V, 245-46.)
3. O t h e r a u t h o r s m a d e use of this p a t h e t i c theme.
or ex
ample, Mrs. B e v e r l e y , in Tjqe Gamest.SX, exclaims for her
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
277 .
Among
of b e i n g s
fault
the u n f o r t u n a t e s
suffering
of t h e i r
from
whom Sterne
a physical
o w n — — the d w a r f s ,
who
meets
affliction
wer e
is
a class
which
so n u m e r o u s
is no
in
I
Paris.
I feel some p r i n c i p l e s w i t h i n me, w h i c h i n c l i n e m e to h e
m e r c i f u l t o w a r d s this poo r b l i g h t e d part of my s p ec ie s ,
who h a v e n e i t h e r s i z e or s t r e n g t h to get on in the w o r l d . —
I cannot h e a r to s ee one of t h e m trod upon; and h a d s c a r c e
got s e a t e d b e s i d e m y old F r e n c h officer, ere the d i s g u s t
was e x e r c i s e d by s e e i n g the v e r y t hi n g h a p p e n u n d e r the box
we sat i n . 1
The e p i s o d e
has b e e n
of t h e
su g ge s t e d ,
l ari t y b e t w e e n
cases
the
dwarf
and
was
taken
two
a litt l e m a n
the
in a t h e a t r e
the s t a g e by a v e r y
large man
the b i g
has
ment.
but
all
fellow,
So mu c h
other
who
it
the t h e a t r e , it
2
f r o m Scar r on , but the s i m i ­
accounts
no
in
is slight
is
in front,
that
d i f f er ,
indeed.
obstructed
f e e l i n g for
is p o s s i b l e
circumstances
German
in hi s v i e w
and becomes
the
Ster n e
In b o t h
of
a n g r y at
o t h e r 1s p r e d i c a ­
t o o k f r o m Scarron,
an d the
comic m i x - u p
( c o a t ' d from p. 276) h u s b a n d , who has b e e n i m p r i s o n e d :
"My p o o r B e v e r l e y too.
W h a t must he h a v e felt.’— -Th e
v e r y thought d i s t r a c t s me! To hav e h i m tor n at m i d n i g h t
f rom me!
A l o a t h s o m e p r i s o n his h a b i t a t i o n !
A cold
d amp r o o m his l o d g i n g !
The b l e a k winds, p e r h a p s , b l o w ­
i n g u p o n his p i l l o w !
No f o n d wife to lull h i m to his
rest! and no r e f l e c t i o n s b u t to w o u n d a n d tea r him!
'T is too h o r r i b l e . "
A c t V, sc. ii, Poems,. ?ftb.le.&, ££&
P 1 a y s . b y E d w a r d M o or e , Lond on , 1756, p. 487.
1. V, 209-10.
S t e r n e c e r t a i n l y saw a n u m b e r of d w a r f s in
Pari s .
See above, pp. 165-66.
2. F i r s t s u g g e s t e d by F e r r i a r , I l l u s t r a t i o n s .pjf S,t.e.r n e., 2nd
e d . , London, 1812.
2 vols.
I, 66.
The p a s s a g e in Scar
r o n is in the R o m a n comi que. Ft. II, ch.xvii,
e que se
p a s s a entre le p e t i t R a g o t i n et le g r a n d B a g u e n o d i e r e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
which r e s u l t s
sentimental
in the R o m a n
denouement
ing of the
story
the p l i g h t
of
German.
his
" m e e k an d
"how inhuman"
the p o o r
emphasizes
dwarf
against
into
and tell s
is.
the
his
sen timent — feeling
snuff-box
spirit"
situation
Throughout
and feeling
the m o n k ' s
courteous
the
is e n t i r e l y u n l i k e
in the J o u r n e y .
Sterne
He b r i n g s
eomique
At
for
the boorish
pla y
to r e c a l l
the F r e n c h
one point
tell­
o f f ic e r
he r e m ar ks :
An i n j u r y s h a r p e n ' d b y an insult, b e it to w h o m it will,
makes e v e ry m a n of s e n t i m e n t a party: I c o u l d have l e a p ' d
out of the b o x to h a v e r e d r e s s e d i t — ^
And w h e n
the w r o n g
c l a p p i n g my h a n d s
order
is r e c t i f i e d ,
together..."
to a v o i d a n y
f e n d i n g gia n t
impugnment
is m a d e
The m e n t a l l y
r u s t ic
setting near
The s t o r y
of M a r i a
afflicted
had attracted
considerable
he
stil l
could draw
fortunate
girl.
a familiar
theme.
Grandison's
and g r i e f
evo k e
in the
From Hamlet's
C l e m e n t i n a the list
the
Ophelia
of g i r l s
And despite
of­
ill-
in a
of T r i s t r am
and Sterne
the
wh en
in
the p o o r m a d Maria.
ninth book
admiration,
from
sympathy
felt
situation
in e x h i b i t i n g m a d n e s s ,
is a l e n g t h y one.
that,
then no to ri ou sl y
2
of a F r e n c h m a n .
also
more pathos
For
noted
I,
a race
Yorick meets
as r e l a t e d
said
of F r e n c h p o l i t e n e s s ,
instead
Moulins
is noble.'
It s h o u l d be
a Germ an ,
manne re d and phlegmatic,
"This
he was
that
of t h e u n ­
employing
to Sir C h a r l e s
d r i v e n m a d by love
the p o p u l a r i t y
2. B u t this a f f r o n t is c o m p e n s a t e d by the fact
m e n t a l o w n e r of the d e a d ass is a German.
Reproduced with permission of the oopyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
that
permission.
the
of
senti
excur s io n s
to B e t h l e h e m H o s p i t a l
the insane,
there
arose
of s y m p a t h y
for the
in the
to l a u g h at
eighteenth
demented.
Early
ary p o p u l a r i t y of the
A nd
Ma d
truly,
folks,
The v i s i t
century Steele
for thos e who
suffer
h a d n o t e d the l i t e r ­
among writers
of s e n s i b i l i t y ;
to b r i n g s o r r o w to a crisis,
and m u r d e r e d babes, are s h r e w d devices.
of the
t he r e f o r e be
theme
of
century a feeling
in the
wrote an ess ay on m ad n e s s , e v o k i n g p i t y
1
i t . and "by the time of S t e r n e S h e n s t o n e
the a n t i c s
sentimental
Yorick
e x p e c t e d to r e s u l t
to the poor girl m i g h t
in p a t h o s
and
a liberal
flow
of tears.
Sterne
a ccount
makes
of Maria,
the emotion.
We
a few
changes
are
that
for
little
dog
"kept
the
be u n f a i t h f u l .
ference
t o u c h to the
tied by
And from
in the m o o d
feels
loss
steps , "
p e r f ec t
of b o u n t y
pleasure
in the
Shandy
he
episode
approaches
fath er
senses,"
goat
and
which
is r e p l a c e d by a
girdle"
lest
it
is a g r e a t
too
dif­
Although
in $haft43f T r i s ­
and goes
away " w i t h b r o k e n
the s t o r y
and good-will,"
Dodsley's
s e co n d
to h e i g h t e n
The
the b e g i n n i n g t h e r e
inn at M o u l i n s .
1.
No. 79.
2. E p i l o g u e to Robt.
of M a r i a ' s
a s t r i n g to her
in his
the girl 's
to herse lf .
h e a r t - a c h e ,"
and i r r e g u l a r
state
se e m d e s i g n e d
of n a r r a t i o n .
"a n h o n e s t
c h a ng es
i n f o r m e d that
she has com e a l i t t l e m o r e
gave a h u m o r o u s
tram
which
f i r st
has d i e d "of a n gu i sh ,
significant
"in the m o s t
a n d later
In the «?
finds
m
g l e c n .?.
Reproduced with permission o f * , copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
permission.
J
Yorick's
heart
pulse beats
seem'd, only
even s e e i n g
Yorick
"languid."
to be
the p o o r
tuned
damsel,
is t o t a l l y u n f i t t e d
beautiful
tears
countryside.
an d the
Maria.
a mount
In T r i s t r a m
as he wri t es , L a Fleur, "whose
1
to joy," sh e ds a tear w i t h o u t
and upon moving
for
But
the
the
Shandy
not
enjoyment
greatest
of t im e a n d
on his way,
emotion
a tear
of the
still
difference
spent
falls,
is in the
in c o m f o r t i n g
but
in the Senti
mental
J o u r n e y Y o r i c k ' s h a n d k e r c h i e f b e c o m e s "stee p 'd too
2
much to be of use," and m u s t b e w a s h e d in the stream and
dried
use
in M a r i a ' s
b osom.
of b i b l i c a l
instinct
The
passages
copious
and the a s s o c i a t i o n
with his b e l o v e d E l i z a m a k e
the
J ourney
that
the
fact
that
condition.
which
year
sensibility
of his
themes
same
shows
forsa k es
account
girl
more
of M a r i a
in the Sent iment &1
in T r i s t r a m ffhandy,
in p r a c t i c a l l y
clearly
the
obtained upon Sterne's
the
des p it e
same
increasing hold
mind
in the last
life.
deliberate playing upon
is e x e m p l i f i e d o n ce
good f r i a r
of the
is the
Nothing
The
1. V.
2. V,
g re atly from
it
the
in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h his p r o t e c t i v e
for the p o o r m a d girl,
differ
s h e d d i n g of tears,
of Calais.
To
again
sentimental
in S t e r n e ' s
acc o un t
a r o u s e the r e a d e r ' s
chronology and rehearses
fri ar ' s
familiar
life a n d t h e n his
first
of the
emotions,
the m e l a n c h o l y
subsequent
fate.
He
381.
387.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
he
facts
feels
281.
a “ damp"
on his
u p o n his
last
L o r e nz o
and h ad
had so u g h t
plucking
trip
through
out h i s
a few
But I am w e a k
but p i t y me.l
And
into
the r e
enough,
not
that
D ea t h
is a t he m e
Hou se
of F e a s t i n g
usually
a sc e n e
for th e
the r e a d e r
inquired
snuff-box
emotions
at
House
of a scene
He
capacity.
but
a grave h a d
In his
in hand,
overwhelmed
He
to smile,
e p i s o d e s — with
expected,
approbation.
its powers,
sermon
there
He
that
on “T h e
of H o u r n i n g D e s c r i b e d "
"where
then
ii
e n d e d his l i t t l e
or pity,
that
for F a t h e r
I b e g the w o r l d not
pathetic.
and t h e
sit,
of tea r s
emotional
laughter
always
effect
and
to
u n t i l his
a '‘f l o o d
of his
he h a d
inform
he w a s d e a d a n d b u r i e d .
stray nettles,
a demonstration
and m o u r n i n g
grave,
so S t e r n e
e x p l a i n e d the
Calais
as a woman;
kne w v e r y w e l l
in h a v i n g to
l e a r n e d that
him a nd he h u r s t
shrewdly
spirits
he h a d
is l a m e n t a t i o n
dead."
In this g l o o m y m a n s i o n full of sh a d e s a n d u n c o m f o r t a b l e
damps to s e i z e the s o u l — see, the light a n d easy heart,
whi ch n e v e r k n e w what it w as to t h i n k b e f o r e , h o w p e n ­
sive it is now, h o w soft, h o w s u s c e p t i b l e , h o w full of
r e l i g i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s , h o w d e e p l y it is s m i t t e n with
sense a n d w i t h a love for v i r t u e . ^
He knew,
a l o n g w i t h Young, that "a d e a t h - b e d * s a d e t e c t o r of
3
the he a r t , " and h a d w r i t t e n a p r o t r a c t e d a c c o u n t of the d e a t h
V . 68*
^
S e r m o n No. 2, IX, 32.
C o m p a r e t he p h r a s e
uncomfortable
d a m p s to se i z e the soul" w i t h the .S. J.. *• I feel a d a m p
u p o n my sp i r i t s . "
V, 67.
„
3. " N i g h t T h o u g h t s , " Nigh t ii, 2 & e P.ogt
Y o u n g , ed. b y the Rev. J o h n M i t f o r d , L o nd o n, 1896, 2 vols.
I, 34.
2.
Reproduced with p e n s i o n o f * , copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
282 .
of Le F e ve r w h i c h
case
gained universal
of the f r i a r he h a d
of T r i m
and of U n c l e
Toby
admiration.
deliberately
in ord e r
As
in the
a n t i c i p a t e d the d e a t h s
to p a y
th e m
sentimental
tribute.
T he
C o r p o r a l ---
--Tread lightly
was yo u r k i n s m a n :
on h i s
ashes,
ye m e n
of g e n i u s , — for he
W e e d his g r a v e clean, ye m e n of g o o d n e s s , - - f o r he was
your b r o t h e r . - - O h corporal.' h a d 1 thee but n ow , - - n o w , that
I am able to g i v e t h e e a d i n n e r a n d p r o t e c t i o n ,- - h o w w o u l d
I c h e r i s h thee! t h o u s h o u l d ' s t w e a r thy
llontero-cap e v e r y
hour of the day, a n d e v er y day of the week, an d when it
was w o r n out, 1 w o u l d p u r c h a s e the e a c o u p l e like i t :- - Bu t
alas! alas! alas! n o w that I can do this in spite of t h e i r
r e v e r e n c e s - - t h e o c c a s i o n is l o s t - - f o r t h o u art g o n e ; - - t h y
genius fled up to t h e stars f r o m w h e n c e it c a n e ; — and that
warm h e a r t of th i n e , w i t h all its g e n e r o u s a n d open v e s ­
sels, c o m p r e s s e d into a clod of the v a l l e y !
— B u t w h a t - - w h a t is this, to that f u t u r e a n d d r e a d e d
page, w h e r e I l o o k t o w a r d s the ve l v e t pall, d e c o r a t e d wi th
the m i l i t a r y e n s i g n s of thy m a s t e r — the f i r s t - - t h e f o r e ­
most of c r e a t e d b e i n g s ;- - w h e r e , I shall see thee, f a i t h f u l
servant! l a y i n g h i s s w o r d and s c a b b a r d w i t h a t r e m b l i n g
ha nd acr os s h i s c o f f in , and t h e n r e t u r n i n g p a l e as ashe s to
the door, to t a k e the m o u r n i n g h o r s e by the bridle, to f o l ­
low hi s hears e , as he d i r e c t e d t h e e ;- - w h e r e — all my f a t h e r ' s
systems shall be b a f f l e d b y h i s sorrows; and, in spit e of
his p h i l o s o p h y , I s h a l l b e h o l d him, as he i n s p e c t s the l a c k ­
ered plate, t w i c e t a k i n g his s p e c t a c l e s f r o m o f f his nose,
to wipe away t h e d e w w h i c h n a t u r e has shed u p o n the m
-W h e n
I shall see h i m c a s t in t h e r o s e m a r y w i t h an air of disc o n s o l a t i o n , w h i c h cri es t h r o u g h m y ears,
— — 0 Toby! in w h a t c o r n e r of the w o r l d sha l l I s e e k thy
fe l l o w ? 2
Sterne
was,
therefore,
nev no
stranger
to
at the
the art
time
of the S.gnt.imsnt a iL J o u r —
of e m o t i o n a l i z i n g death.
1. l.s. III (vi, 6-10).
S ee also the a c c o u n t
Ill, 196-97 (vi. 25).
2
and
g
r
a
v
e
of
Yorick.
I, 52-55 (i, 12;.
bed
.
of the de a t h -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright
owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Sterne's
sentimentalizing
feeling for th e h u m a n race.
has a s e n t i m e n t a l
th e road.
the owner
of the
to b o l t
is
bridle b e s i d e
been dinner
tells his
made
which
the m a s t e r
has
Th e
from M o n t r e u i l
owner
of a d e a d ass
a n d L a Fle ur
enter N a m p on t ,
seen
s i t t i n g by t h e door of
mourning
over
the inn w i t h the
crust w h i c h w o u l d h a v e
a n d his b e a s t .
A crow d gathers,
the loss
sons,
o f his
of a vow for th e
their
is r e fu se d ;
has b e e n
La Fleur
first
tries
merciful.
But
c r e a t u r e ’s l i f e
the
the
companion­
by a c c i d e n t
to comfo r t
an d Y o r i c k with
a n d he
the p i l g r i m a g e
one spared,
separation
generous
shortened the
the
to
Yorick
a n im a l w h i c h ha d c a u s e d L a F l e u r ' s
story--of
by death.
is not l i m i t e d
dead
for h i m
ship of the ass,
money,
When Y o r i ck
him,
in p a y m e n t
One post
encounter w i t h the
seen u p o n
horse
of d e a t h
the
owner
a n d now
h i m wi t h
thought
fears
and has m u c h to
that
that
answ er
he
for.
Shame on the world.1 s a i d I to m y s e l f - - D i d we love each
other, as this p o o r soul but l o v e d his a s s- -' t w o u l d be
something.
Thi 8 s e n t i m e n t a l
m uc h d i s p a r a g e d .
It
m a c a r o o n - e a t i n g ass
Sir L e s l i e
Stephen
episode
invites,
in the
of
has been m u c h a d m i r e d a n d
course,
c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the
2
s e v e n t h b o o k of % r j g %Esg., w h i c h
greatly preferred:
T he r e is, for e x am p le , the f a m o u s donkey, an d it is curious
to c o m p a r e t h e d o n k e y fed w i t h m a c a r o o n s in
y ^ s frXftm ?hg,ndy.
with the d e a d d o n k e y of the S e n t i ment.al jJ.PVTneY-» whos e
1. V, 142.
2. Ch. 33.
Reproduced with p e n s i o n of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
weeping m a s t e r la ys a crust of b r e a d on the n o w v a c a n t h i t
of his bridle.
It is o b v i o u s l y the same donkey, an d S t e r n e
has r e f l e c t e d that he can s q u e e z e a l i t t l e m o r e p a th o s out
of the a n i m a l b y a c t u a l l y k i l l i n g him, a n d p r o v i d i n g a s e n ­
timental mast er .
It seems to me that, in t r y i n g to h e i g h t ­
en the effect, he h a s just c r o s s e d the d a n g e r o u s limit w h i c h
divides s y m p a t h e t i c fr o m d e r i s i v e l au g h t e r ; a n d w h e r e a s the
m a c a r o o n - f e d a n i m a l is a p o s s i b l e , s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d beast,
he b e c o m e s (as h i g h e r b e i n g s h a v e done) a h u m b u g in his
p a l p ab l y h y p o c r i t i c a l e p i t a p h . 1
Sterne
is n e v e r a v e r s e
p u s h in g
ly the
tween
same
the
liaria.
tram,
part
a go o d p o i n t
a little
donkey."
There
two d o n k e y
The
to r e c u r r i n g themes,
for
in T r i s t r a m S h a n d y .
sentimental
But
upon our
cartes
what
There
obvious­
difference
be­
the ac c o u n t s
is quit e d i f f e r e n t
the m a s t e r ' s
Sterne does
for
had r e n e w e d
v i vi n g the
is
of
from T r i s ­
g r i e f has no
counter­
is a c o n t r a s t
of comic
a nd
in b o t h c a s e s
is to p l a y
intent.
sympathy
tonists
it ma y be
say "it
than b e t w e e n
master
sympathy
far to
is a mu ch g r e a t e r
episodes
sentimental
and the
too
but
animals.
the
animals
The
seventeenth
i d e a of k i n d n e s s
old d o c t r i n e of
denied
do
centu ry Pla-
to anima l s
the P y t h a g o r e a n s .
in r e ­
Although De s ­
souls, L o c k e a l l o w e d the p o s s i b i l i t y ,
and m u c h
e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y s p e c u l a t i o n is c o n c e r n e d w i t h
2
this point.
B u t w h e t h e r or not it was b e l i e v e d that a n i m a l s
had the p o s s i b i l i t y
kindness
1.
2
towards
"Sterne,"
XV
83
of
im mo r t a l i t y ,
t he r e was
a demand
for
them:
Hours
in
a Library.
See C
A
Moore
"Shaftesbury
I n s l a i d t ’l T O S - ? 7 6 0 . 298 and n.
London,
1907,
4 vole.
an d the E t h i c a l P o e t s in
(1916). 264-325; esp.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I cauuot [ w r o t e P o p e in the G u a r d i a n ! t h i n k it e x t r a v a g a n t
to imagine, that m a n k i n d a r e no less in p r o p o r t i o n a c c o u n t ­
able for the ill u s e of t h e i r d o m i n i o n over c r e a t u r e s of
the l o w e r r a n k of b e i n g s , t h a n for the e x e r c i s e of t y r a n n y
over t h ei r own s p ec i es .
T h e m o r e e n t i r e l y the i n f e r i o r
c r e a t i o n is s u b m i t t e d to our p o w er , the m o r e a n s w e r a b l e we
should seem for our m i s m a n a g e m e n t of it; an d the rather, as
the v e r y c o n d i t i o n of n a t u r e r e n d e r s these c r e a t u r e s i n ­
capable of r e c e i v i n g any r e c o m p e n s e in a n o t h e r lif e for
their i l l - t r e a t m e n t in t h is . 1
Apparently,
by
of k i n d n e s s
to a n i m a l s h a d b e c o m e
whose
the
sensibility
portion
of
common
time
was
when
S t e r n e was
a fashion,
usually held
sense,
remarks
writing,
the
doctrine
for G o ld s mi th ,
in c h e c k by a l i b e r a l
in the
Citizen
of the W o r l d :
The b e t t e r sort h e r e p r e t e n d to t he u t m o s t c o m p a s s i o n for
a n i m a l s of e v e r y kind; to h e a r t h e m speak, a s t r a n g e r
w o u l d b e apt to i m a g i n e t h e y c o u l d h a r d l y h u r t the gnat
that s t u n g them; they seem so t e n d e r , and so ful l of pity,
that one w o u l d t a k e t h e m for the h a r m l e s s f r i e n d s of the
whol e c r e at io n , t h e p r o t e c t o r s of the m e a n e s t insect or
r e p t i l e that was p r i v i l e g e d w i t h e x i s t e n c e .
A n d yet (would
yo u b e l i e v e it?) I h a v e seen the v e r y m e n w h o h a v e thus
b o a s t e d of their t e n d e r n e s s at the same t i m e d e v o u r i n g the
f le s h of six d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s t o s s e d up in a f r ic as s e e .
S t r a n g e c o n t r a r i e t y of c o n d u c t ; they pity, a n d t h e y eat the
o b j e c t s of the i r c o m p a s s i o n ! *
Sterne
must have
he w r o t e
the
account
had a definite
sketch
of F i e l d i n g ’s The
column
been
aware
of the
of the d e a d
fashionable
ass.
In fact,
in m i n d as he c o mp o se d .
Covent
c o n t a i n i n g c ou r t
G a r d e n J o u r n a l t h er e
proceedings
the
feeling
whe n
he m a y ha v e
In one n u m b e r
appeared
in a
f o l l o w i n g note.
W e d n e s d a y a s t o l e n As s was r e c o v e r e d by a s e a r c h Warrant,
and p r o d u c e d b e f o r e the J u s t i c e ; w h e n J o s e p h Wood, a very
1.
2.
Ho. 61- The B r i t i s h EssayiS-tA. London, 1823, 45 vols.
XVII, 29-30.
A
Ho. 15, W o r k s III, 137-38.
U n c l e Toby, we recall, w ou l d
n ot ha r m a fly.
s
Reproduced with permission o , the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
286 .
old M an a n d
the M a s t e r
of the Ass
swore
as
follo ws :
Sir, this is my Ass, I s h o u l d k n o w him a m o n g all the
Asses in the World, a n d he w o u l d k n o w me, w o u l d s t not
thou, poo r Duk e T
Sir, we hav e l iv e d t o g e t h e r t h e s e man y
Years, ay that we have, as a Ma n an d Wife, as a Man may
say; for Sir, I l o v e my Ass as my Wife; the best twenty
H o r s es in the World, no no r a K i n g ' s H a n s o m to boot,
s h o u ld not buy my p o o r Ass.
Poor DukeJ
T h o u hast ha d
many an e m p t y M e a l s i n c e I saw thee, and so has thy M a s ­
ter too for Want of thee.
For Sir, I do not love him
without S e a s o n .
P o o r t h i n g he has got me m a n y a good
M e a l ’s Meat, and m a n y a g o o d one he will get me I hope.
Poor Duke!
We sha ll n e v e r part more, I hope, whilst I
live.^If it is too m u c h
to
teen y e a r s b e f o r e
Sterne
a c t u al
source,
of the
existence
master
for his
ass.
Three
tim es
say that
it m a y
of
be
wrote,
said
a story
more
such an account,
s h o u l d be
that
fif
c o n s i d e r e d an
the p a s s a g e
c o n c e r n i n g the
published
is i n di ca t iv e
a f f e c t i o n of a
in the J o u r n e v
S t e r n e shows feeling
2
for i n f e r i o r c r e a t u r e s — for a c a g e d starling, for a lost and
3
4
dy i n g sheep, an d for a h o r s e w h i c h has lost its shoes, but
1.
No. 15, Feb. 22, 1752, p. 2.
Taken from a photostatic
cop y in p o s s e s s i o n of Ya le U n i v e r s i t y .
The ass in this
case, we m u s t not e , does not die, but is r e u n i t e d w i t h
its owner.
In the next n u m b e r a r e a d e r who descr i be s
h i m s e l f as a " g o o d n a t u r e d man" w r i t e s in to expre s s his
a p p r e c i a t i o n of th e story.
He a s s e r t s that he takes
p l e a s u r e in t h e h a p p i n e s s of others, f r e q u e n t s scenes of
i n n o c e n t mirth, joll it y , and h a p p i n e s s , and helps the
unfortunate.
T h e r e is a s a t i r i c t o n e to this s u p po se d
l e t t e r w h i c h i n d i c a t e s F i e l d i n g ' s o p i n i o n of b o a s t i n g
benevolence.
T h i s par t of £ 1 ^ g 9 v e a l SarjgjLS
h*8
b e e n r e p r i n t e d , ed. by G-. E. Jensen, N e w Haven, 1
,
v o 18.
1 , 236.
2. V, 240-53.
3. V, 396.
4. V, 399.
Reproduced with p e n s i o n o tth e copyright owner. Further reproduction p r o h ib it without p e n s i o n .
287.
these
instances
are
p lea for a n i ma l s.
see,
has
to a l l o w
has
not
The
a different
so t r e a t e d
case of the
origin.
the p o s t i l l i o n to
cast th e
of g e t t i n g
shoes
to mak e
starl in g,
Yorick's
continue
from b o t h
off the r o a d
as
into
a systematic
as we
kindness
a ft e r the
his
forefeet
the
little
shall
in r e f u s i n g
thill-horse
is u s e d as a m ea n s
F r e n c h f ar m h o u s e
1
w h i c h he w i s h e s
p e a s an t
flock
mourning
is
lost
mourning
of the
over
A n d the p i c t u r e of the ro u g h
the lost
i n s p i r e d m a i n l y by
scribing his
of the
to d e s c r i b e .
and wounded
the b i b l i c a l
sheep of a n o t h e r ' s
imagery u s e d
in d e ­
t e n d e r n e s s for Maria, r e i n f o r c e d by the para b le
2
sheep.
S t e r n e has a d d e d a s e n t i m e n t a l p e a s a n t
over
a dying
s h ee p m e r e l y
" D e ar S e n s i b i l i t y "
p as s a g e .
to h e i g h t e n
He
the effect
t o u c h e s u p o n the
1.
theme
Cf. T..S.. Ill, 18 (v, 2): " - - B u t he w a nt s a shoe, poor
creature.* said O b a d i a h . - - P o o r creature.' sa id my Uncle T o b y
v i b r a t i n g the n o t e b a c k again, lik e a string in unison."
T h e F r e n c h w e r e n o t o r i o u s l y b a d in the ir treat me n t of
h o r s es .
In one of his l e t t e r s S t e r n e tells of an incident
n e a r P a r i s in w h i c h the h o r s e he h a d h i r e d d r o p p e d d e a d on
the road, a n d he w as f o r c e d to u s e L a t i n to e x p l a i n "that
the p o o r b e a s t h a d to do w i t h a w o r s e bea s t than himself,
n a m e l y his m a s t e r . who h a d d r i v e n him all the day b e f o r e
(Jehu like) and that h e h a d n e i t h e r h a d corn, or hay,
t h e r e f o r e I was not to p a y for the h o r s e . . . "
L e t t e r No.
96, to L a d y D . , J u l y 9, 1762, p. 178.
2. L u k e 15:4-6.
U s e d in S e r m o n No. 20, "The P r o d i g a l Son,
IX, 328.
S y m p a t h y for "the b l e a t i n g kind" was in a c c o r d
w i t h the f e e l i n g for a n i m a l s d i s c u s s e d above.
For i n ­
stance, T h o m s o n wrote:
the b e a s t of prey,
B l o o d - s t a i n e d d e s e r v e s to bleed: but you, ye flocks,
What h a v e he done; ye p e a c e f u l people, what,
To meri t death?
"The S e a s o n s , " Spring, 11. 357- 60 .
1 Q.
VXfi. I. i 4 *
Reproduced with pemrission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
288 .
of k i n d n e s s
tration of
to
animals
the g o o d n e s s
The
caged
of the b i r d
r u p t e d by the
get
is p e r h a p s
so,
tne most
indulged.
curi o us
The
in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h S t e r n e * 3
little
u p o n the
cry of t h e
He
illus­
of h i s heart.
As h e m e d i t a t e s
out.*1
do
a c r u s a d e r "but as a n o t h e r
in w h i c h S t e r n e
is m a d e
i m p r is o nm e nt .
as
starling
of s e n t i m e n t a l i t y
I can't
not
tries
immediately
t h o u g h th e b i r d
seems
to
introduction
tho u gh t
subject,
c a g e d bird:
piece
he
is
"1 can't
upon
inter­
get
free hi m but
anxious
out—
is
unable
to
to escape.
"I
vow
h a d my a f f e c t i o n s m o r e t e n d e r l y a w a k e n e d , ” ex1
Yorick.
The b i r d is b r o u g h t in p a r t l y as a s y m b ol
1 never
claims
connection
with
imprisonment.
their nam e
w i t h the O l d E n g l i s h w o r d
and the b i r d had b e e n
imprisonment
Yorick
of his
ing w i t h
ling
as
the
symbolic
the
coat
foolishness,
years
and
for
of
of h i s
as a crest
of a r m s
the
1. V, 241.
2. Cross, Life.. pp.
as proo f .
coat
employed
employs
to h i s
But
arms
This,
of the
frequently
Sterne,
the
to
in d e a l ­
cag ed
star­
Yoricm pretends
at this time
of course,
of a r m s h a d b e e n
is one
s ta r l i n g .
2
of arms.
The
a s t ro n g r e m i n d e r
or rath e r,
confinement.
associated
st e a r n . meaning
therefore
fate;
family had
t h e i r coat
imprisonment,
its p r i n t i n g
w hi c h S t e r n e
is
impending
theme
he a d d e d the b i r d
p ri n t s
placed upon
of the b i r d
own
Sterne's
in
in the
typographical
that
and
is m e r e
family
tricks
in j^r i s t r fern SJi&ndx*
2-3.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
for
289.
In
plight
of
current
th e
feeling
the
theme
caging
of
poor
of
his
affections
bird,
Sterne
sensibility.
wild
tenderly
had
awakened
touched
Thomson
had
upon
by
the
another
spoken
out
against
birds:
B e not t h e m u s e a s h a m e d , h e r e to b e m o a n
He r b r o t h e r s of th e grove, by tyrant man
I n h u m a n caug h t , a n d in t h e n a r r o w cage
F r o m l i b e r t y c o n f i n e d , a n d b o u n d l e s s air.
D u l l are the p r e t t y s l a v e s , t h e i r p l u m a g e dull,
R a g g e d , a n d a ll its b r i g h t e n i n g l u s t r e lo st ;
N o r is t h a t s p r i g h t l y w i l d n e s s in t h e i r n o t e s ,
Wh ich, c l e a r a n d v i g o r o u s , w a r b l e s f r o m the be ech .
O h th en , y e f r i e n d s o f l o v e a n d l o v e - t a u g h t song,
S p a r e the soft tri be s, the b a r b a r o u s art forbear!
If o n y o u r b o s o m i n n o c e n c e c a n w i n ,
M u s i c e n g a g e , or p i t y p e r s u a d e .
B u t let n o t c h i e f the n i g h t i n g a l e lament
H e r r u i n e d care, too d e l i c a t e l y f r a m e d
T o b r o o k t h e h a r s h c o n f i n e m e n t o f t h e c a g e . 3And
the
b ert
same
pathetic
motif
is
sounded
in
an
image
of
Cuth-
S h a w *s :
Thus
the p o o r bir d , b y some d i s a s t r o u s fate
C a u g h t a n d i m p r i s o n ' d in a l o n e l y cage,
T o r n f r o m its n a t i v e fi e l d s , a n d d e a r e r mate,
F l u t t e r s a w h i l e , a n d s p e n d s its l i t t l e rage:
B ut , f i n d i n g a l l its e f f o r t s w e a k a n d v a i n ,
No m o r e it p a n t s a n d r a g e s f o r t h e p l a i n ;
M oping awhile, in sullen mood
D r o o p s the s w e e t m o u r n e r — — b u t , ere long,
P r u n e s its l i g h t w i n g s , a n d p e c k s its food,
A n d m e d i t a t e s the song:
S e r e n e l y s o r r o w i n g , b r e a t h e s its p i t e o u s case.
A n d w i t h its p l a i n t i v e w a r b l i n g s s a d d e n s all the place.
But
ling
1.
2.
when
he
despite
first
Y o r i c k ’s
hears
its
serious
pathetic
efforts
to
free
notes,
we
learn
the
star­
when
" T h e S e a s o n s , " S p r i n g , 11. 7 0 2 - 1 6 , W o r k s I, 25.
" M o n o d y to t h e M e m o r y o f a Y o u n g L a d y "
(1768), P o e m s of
-g-Uthbert S h a w &. T h o m a s R u e s e l l . ed, b y E r i c P a r t r i d g e ,
L o n d o n , 1 9 2 5 , p. 95.
Reproduced will, permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
he
relates
its
fo r
his
master
him
loose
but
carried
cage
and
all,
him,
to
the
hear
subsequent
hands
of
of
him,
narration
the
a
currency
ployed
in
related
one
or
of
facts
by
the
fully
they
are
lords
of
to
and
get
for
A
contemporary
tour
derive
have
proves
but
the
of
Sterne
open
penned,
illustrations
road
of
but
from
reflect
world
and
our
fellow-creatures
When
Sterne
French
engages
character,
in
his
desire
actual
one
was
Although
fact,
fact
Sterne's
AND
em­
the
imagination,
and
DEPENDED
been
his
the
his
Con­
recording
man
FRENCH
his
of
was
of
THE
in
we
lost.
every
sensibility.
basis
last
literary
ha.d a l r e a d y
authors.
the
th e
practically
other
not
as
in
found
in­
unfortunate
to
of
be
th e
let
passed
when
effect.
be
to
sly h u m o r
with
of
may
and
bird
brought
completely
products
episodes
conceived
is
and
then
the
the
attempt
sentimental
slight
that
creations
from
In
dealing
and
a
bird
commoners,
number
theme
bought
tour
The
out.
episodes
episodes.
his
his
sensibility
these
nay
all
England.
striving
evidence
these
and
to
wants
of
through
is
F.
toms
further
statement
previous
the
no
him
element
scenes
brotherhood
love
made
this
a
two
of
Yorick
S t e r n e ’s w r i t i n g s ,
to
cumulated
Fleur
various
series
of
La
back
conscious
firmation
that
that
still
This
shows
and
history
ac­
no t
the
aided
However
beauti­
remains
that
the
study.
theory
"to
better
of
They
th e
teach
us
to
than
we
do."
CRITICIZED
analysis
comments
are
Reproduced with p e n s i o n of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
of
French
controlled
permission.
by
cus­
this
sane
t h e o r y of
travel w r i t e r s
kindness
may
approach
to
Sterne,
he
life
in part
the
aim is
an i n s t i n c t i v e l y
channel,
a defence
censure
international
In
fr om
Unlike
o th e r
to the F r e n c h .
a reasoned purpose
the u n j u s t
motion of
generally kind
across
is
H is
ter f r o m
is
r e su l t
there
comment.
the b r o t h e r h o o d of man.
hut,
as
in hi s
of F r e n c h
of o t h e r
This
sympathetic
is usual w i t h
seemingly
c u st om s
touris t s,
random
and c h a r a c ­
and the p r o ­
good will.
giving a favorable
presentation
of the French,
«
Sterne
There
do e s
not
can be
counter
not
assume
no
d ou b t
only
to
the p o s i t i o n of i m p a r t i a l
that
This
of the F r e n c h .
On
is not
the
realities
to
But
say
c ontrary,
consequence
whi ch he wa s
ha d said,
such censure
and is
the F r e n c h h a d
The
of
ra r e l y
He runs
to certa i n
he
edits
of
life under Loui s
that he mak es
he has m u c h
to
be r e g a r d e d
the
no
truth
so
criticisms
rema r k
con­
as c o m p l e ­
t o u c h e s u p o n m a t t e r s of
e x p r e s s e d in the h u m o r o u s
the m a s t e r .
Yorick* s a c c o u n t
in the
a l w ay s
truth.
of othe r s but
c e rn i ng t h e i r f a i l i n g s w h i c h cannot
mentary.
the
Furthermore,
the u n p l e a s a n t
le Bien Aim e.
colors
the o p i n i o n s
of his o w n o b s e r v a t i o n s .
as to e x c l u d e
he
reporter.
C o n s i d e r i n g what
go od r e a s o n
other
vei n of
travellers
to be p l e a s e d w i t h
them.
individual Frenchmen
Sentimental Journey
are
who se
characters
are
sketched
in the mai n p l e a s a n t l y por-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
trayed.
L a Fleu r,
his nation.
He
Englishman
could
heart.
His
for
example,
is n o t
o n l y as
wish,
lack
but
is c e r t a i n l y
satisfactory
in a d d i t i o n he
of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as
a compliment
a s e r va n t
as
is a f e l l o w
a valet
is more
to
an
of goo d
than
c o m p e n s a t e d b y the fact that he has "all the d i s p o s i t i o n s
1
the w o r l d, " a n d that he h a d a " f e s t i v i t y " of t e m p e r w h i c h
2
" s u p p l i e d all d e f e c t s . "
His m e r r i m e n t , his a n x i e t y to
please,
a n d his
approval
instinctive
of t h e
reader
Yorick's
go o d
of o t h e r
travellers.
s o l i c i t u d e for his m a s t e r
and cause Yorick
win
in
the
to treat him h a n d ­
somely.
the lot
hire
a regular
vants
a fact
v al e t
abroad with
fortune
upon
them.
which practically
de p l a c e .
These
fellows
in hi s s e l e c t i o n c o n t r a s t s
Men
of m e a n s
the road,
English
but
ordinarily
brought
servants
d i d not
their
own ser
s e l d o m k n e w French,
n e c e s s i t a t e d the h i r i n g
were usually rascals
were u n f a v o r a b l y m e n t i o n e d by E n g l i s h
wi t h
of a valet
a n d as a rule
travellers.
Yet
even
3
Smollett
s u b m i t t e d to
is f o r t u n a t e
in b e i n g
the
necessity
abl e to h i r e
of h i r i n g
one.
su c h a val e t
Yorick
as L a Fleur
1. V, 111.
2. V, 115.
3. T r a v e l s . p. 46.
But he a d m i t s that " t h o s e f e l l o w s are
v e r y h a n dy , u s e f u l and o b l i g i n g ; and so far honest,
that t h e y will not s t e a l in the u s u a l way," p. 47.
Cole
was a c c o s t e d at the C u s t o m H o u s e b y e val et who w n 6 60
p r e s s i n g in his a t t e n t i o n s that Cole c o u l d not r e f u s e to
h i r e h i m — at a l i v r e a day.
He r e w a r d e d his e m p l o y e r by
g e t t i n g d r u n k a n d c a u s i n g troub l e.
P&r.lS. J o u r n a l, pp.
32-34.
Cf. above, Ch. II, 77 & nd n *1 *
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
to go the w h o l e
ler is u s u a l l y
have
fitted
tour
w i t h him,
lucky.
into
the
scheme
Yet t h e r e
an
is abou t
then the
And. a s c o u n d r e l l y
It is p r o b a b l e
upon an o r i g i n a l ,
hut
sentimental
val et
of the Sent iment a l
trave
would hardly
Journey.
that
the p o r t r a i t
of L a F l e u r
is b a s e d
actu a l
f r e n c h valet
whom Sterne
employed
La
Fleur
a l i t e r a r y ai r
of
the
servant
of
2
French
comedy,
Sterne
t o u c h e d up
the
from
sentimental
in fact.
the
so as
of his
journey.
is not
The
n a m e was
original
scheme
La Fleur
basi s
w h i c h his
the
choice
drawn.
to be
only agreeable
of a friar
Undoubtedly
in h a r m o n y w i t h
character having a
as an i n t e r r u p t i o n
at
Calais m a y h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d b y an a ct u a l h a p p e n i n g , for
3
Cross p o i n t s out that Mrs. P i o z z i 1s O b s e r v a t i o n s and R e f 1 ections m a d e
in the
course
and G-ermanv c o n t a i n s
at C a l a i s
in 1775,
with her husb an d
friar,
an a c c o u n t
when,
an d Dr.
k n o w n as F r i a r
of .& J o u r n e y
through
of a F r a n c i s c a n w h o m
as M r s . T h r a l e ,
Johnson.
Felix,
F r a n c e , It a l y ,
The
she was
character
corresponds
she
saw
travelling
of this
w i t h that
1.
of Sterne*
T h e r e e x i s t s an a c c o u n t of S t e r n e ' s tr i p s u p p o s e d l y told
by L a Fleur, E u r o p e a n M a g a z i n e . Sept., Oct., Nov. 1790.
Of. Cross, L i f e , p . 401, n .
2. Cf. Cross, I b i d . i k s C r i t i c a l figvjew in its i l l - n a t u r e d
a c c o u n t of the S e n t i m e n t a l J p w r n e y t h o u g h t the character,
u n l i k e the rest, h a d some meani ng , but c r i t i c i z e d it as
unoriginal.
" W h o does not see that t h i s c h a r a c t e r of La
F l e u r is p i e c e d out w i t h s h r e d s w h i c h Mr. Y o r i c k has ^ r ~
b a r o u s l y cut out an d u n s k i l l f u l l y put t o g e t h e r f r o m other
n o v e l s ? " X X V ( J a n . - J u n e 1 7 6 8 ), 184-85.
3. LAIA, pp. 384-85.
Reproduced with p e n n o n o , the copyright owner. Funher reprod„«ion p r o v e d without permission.
Father L o r e n z o .
cans
At
in C a la i s,
D e s s i n ’s,
an y rate,
and. t h e
a n d a s k al m s
Dessin,
to have t e e n
the
the r e was
fri a rs
did
come
a conv e nt
to t he
of F r a n c i s ­
inns,
s u c h as
of the E n g l i s h guests.
of the H o t e l d 1A n g l e t e r r e , we k n o w
1
a c t u a l person.
A l t h o u g h Sterne, in a buyer'
an
keeper
frame
of mind, t h i n k s D e s s i n looks first "like a J e w - - t h e n a
2
Turk," he is r e p r e s e n t e d in the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y as a
typically po li te
t ra v e l l e r s
Frenchman.
As a m a t t e r
of fact,
the E n g l i s h
found him good-natured.
In a d d i t i o n
3
to the c o mm e nt of T h i c k n e s s e , we h a v e the t e s t i m o n y of Cole
4
that he was "a v e r y civil a n d o b l i g i n g man," and the r e c o r d e d
fact
that
seem to h a v e
th e E n g l i s h
of his H o t e l
On
subscribed generously
5
d'Angleterre.
several
favorably members
way
from th e
de C o n t i
only
there
loves E n g l i s h
in his b o o k S t e r n e m e n t i o n s
of F r e n c h s o c i e t y whom he h a d met.
theatre
the Qua i
set
occasions
for t h e f o u n d i n g
Y orick stops
to p u r c h a s e
is b e i n g b o u n d
in a b o o k s e l l e r ' s
a set
of S h a k e s pe a re .
for the
Count
de B***,
On his
shop
on
The
"wh o
and what is more to his honour, M o n si eu r
6
he l ov e s the E n g l i s h too."
In t h e s e word s S t e r n e pay s a
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
b o ok s ;
For an a c c o u n t of this u n s c r u p u l o u s i n nk e e p e r w h o m Ste rn e
gave i m m o r t a l i t y in his s e n t i m e n t a l work, see Curtis,
Let t e r s . p. 177, n.4.
In a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to hi s w i f e d u r i n g his first tr ip
a b r o a d S t e r n e r e f e r s to D e s s i n as "a T u r k in grain.
L e t t e r No. 95, J u n e 17, 1762, p. 177.
"A d e c e n t l a n d l o r d . "
O b e e r v a t j o M £Jk
FrgftS-H Nat 1 .
p . 2.
P a r i s J o u rn a l, p. 358.
Curtis, L e t t e r s . pp. 177-78, n.4.
V, 221.
Reproduced with permission o f * , copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
295.
c om p li m en t
to
the l i t t e r a t e u r
Claude
de T h i a rd ,
com te
de B i s -
sy,
to w h o m he h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g his first s o c i a l
1
t riumphs at Paris.
W h e n at V e r s a i l l e s in quest of a p a s s ­
port,
Yorick
enters
&n i n t r o d u c t i o n
meeting with
has
changed
letters
than
the
any
into
from
the
Shakespeare.
C ou n t
from his
Count
and the
actual
was
Furthermore
of the
These
gaining
and
claims
circumstances
of his
when
p as sp o rt
According
a book dearer
pla ys
Count
of the
experience.
reading
of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s
’T was an odd
Bissie, w h i c h
tram. ^
the p r e s e n c e
Sterne
to his
to S t e r n e ' s
heart
they met:
i n c i d e n t w h e n I was i n t r o d u c e d to the Count de
I was at his d e s i r e — I f o u n d him r e a d i n g T r i s ­
Sterne
w as
assured
of his
passport
by others
than
the C o u n t :
1iy a p p l i c a t i o n to the Count de C h o i s e u l goes on swimmingly,
for not only iir. P e l l e t i e r e ... but the Count de L i m b o u r g h - the B a r o n d ' H o l b a c h , has o f f e r e d any secu r it y for the i n ­
o f f e n s i v e n e s s of my b e h a v i o u r in F r a n c e — w
This
transformation
caution
of det ai l
in d r a w i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l
Journev.
p assport.
In the J o u r n e v
He has
little
it
OT.
L e t t e r No. 83, to
15 3 , n . 8 .
2. I b i d . . p. 151.
3. I b i d .
p. 151.
Later
from C h o i s e u l for his
to Ga r r i c k , Apr. 19,
is
why we must
fact s
" c o me
Garr ic k ,
use
extreme
from the S e n t i m e n t a l
the Count
difficulty,
p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f as h a v i n g
TI
sho w s
who
obtains
Yorick's
s i n c e Y o r i c k had r e ­
laughing
all
Jan.
1?62,
31,
the way
pp.
from
151
and
he s o l i c i t e d p a s s p o r t s in p e r s o n
wif e a n d d aughter.
L e t t e r Jo. o7,
1762, p. 163.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
296 .
London
to P a r i s , "
a nd C h o i s e u l
is
of the
o p i n i o n that
" un
1
h_oj£_gi.e. ,a.ui .rit Jig. s e r a d a n g e r e u x . "
tion
is
inaccurate
dropped
along
thinking
j our n
not
the way.
of his
in P a r i s ,
of his
if we r e c a l l
In this
literary
but
is a p p a r e n t l y
of his
d r aw n m o s t
society,
representa­
w h i c h he has
i n s t a n c e he
journey
with French
Yorick's
the tea rs
from w h i c h he has
encounters
But
first
so­
of the d e t a i l s
a n d of w h i c h he
wrote:
I l a u g h ’till I cry, a n d in the same t e n d e r m o m e n t s cry
’till _I l a u g h .
I s h a n d y it m o r e t h a n ever, an d v e r i l y
do belie ve , th at by me re S h a n d e i s m s u b l i m a t e d by a
l a u g h t e r - l o v i n g p e o p le , I fenc e as m u c h a g a i n s t i n f i r m i ­
ties, as I do by the b e n e f i t of air and c l i m a t e . 2
The chapter
visit,
w h e n the a u t h o r
Parisian
prominent
can be
on the P a r i s
society
as
of T r i s t r a m was
something
persons mentioned
identified.
salo ns
"The
was
admitted
of a lion.
in this
old M a r q u i s
i n s p i r e d by
into
Certain
chapter
of the
only by
de 3 * * * , "
this
the
initi a ls
a g e d dandy
who
i n v i t e s Y o r i c k to supper, is the Due de Biron, M a r e c h a l
3
de France,
" M o ns p * * * the f a r m e r - g e n e r a l " w h o s e c o n c e r t s
Sterne
attends
is L a P o p e l i n i e r e , a c o n n o i s s e u r and m i l l i o n —
4
aire p a t r o n of the arts, an d M a d a m e de V ** * is p r o b a b l y Ma-
1• V
293
2. L e t t e r Ho. 87, to Garrick, Apr. 19, 1762, p. 163.
Th e
v i r t u e s of l a u g h t e r are m a i n t a i n e d at l e n g t h in ffr} gt r.agi
S h a n d y . Ssp. II, 3 0 2 - 0 3 (iv, 32).
3. Cross, Lif e . p. 306.
,
,,-r
4. L e t t e r Ho. 84, to Mrs. Sterne, Mar.
17,
176<i, pp. lbo ,
156, n .7.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright o w n er Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1
dame
de Vence,
reputedly
Sterne
n i f ic en t
At one
figure
time he
humanity
does
no t
a descendant
fail
of M a d a m e
to c o m m e n t
in a m a g n i f i c e n t
upon
s o c i e t y — the
de Sev ig n e.
the most
mag­
F r e n c h king.
drinks
the h e a l t h of L o u i s and h o n o r s “ the
2
t e m p e r" and t h e m i l d n e s s of the B o u r b o n
of his
blood,
t h e r e b y r e p e a t i n g an o p i n i o n a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d in his
3
travels.
A n d l a t e r he r e s t a t e s this s a m e i d ea when Y o r i c k
insists
will
that
not
“ the K i n g
harm a poor
Except
sons
for
actually named
others
ad d
only
ly f i c t i t i o u s .
make
a “ national
larly
French
is a g o o d - n a t u r ' d
4
p a s s p o r t l e s s fo r ei g ne r .
L a Fleur,
the most
are D e s s i n
an a i r
The
of F r a n c e
and
of fact
encounter
reflection,"
in S t e r n e ' s
important
the
Count
and g e n t i l i t y
w ith M a d a m e
but
sketch
there
of the
soul"
and
of t he s e p e r ­
de B issy.
The
to a w o r k p a r t ­
de V***
is u s e d to
is n o t h i n g p a r t i c u ­
old beau,
the
finan­
cier,
the w o m a n who c o n s i d e r s h e r s e l f a wit, or the y o u n g
5
dandy, all of w h o m m i g h t h a v e b e e n m e m b e r s of E n g l i s h society.
One
cannot
any n o t a b l e
TT
2.
3.
4.
5.
say that
c o m m en t
t h e se
upon
characters
themselves
give r i s e
to
the French.
Cross. L i f e , p. 307.
M a d a m e de q,*** is u n i d e n t i f i e d , and
the n a m e Co un t F a i n e a n t is an o b v i o u s f a b r i ca t io n .
V, 7.
D i d S t e r n e k n o w that h e a l t h s w e r e not c u s t o m a r i l y
d r u n k in F r a n c e ?
Cf. A b b e Le Bl a n c , Letters. .oil
JEjiJ.1 i sh a n d F r e n c h Nat ions. I, 326-27; and T h i c k n e s s e , V g e f u l
H i n t s , p. 263.
_2L.iL. IV, 88 (vii, 34).
See above, Ch. II, 83-84.
V
233
E x c e p t that the y o u n g d a n d y e m b r a c e s Y o r i c k
a r d o r than e v e r I was e m b r a c e d b y m o r t a l man.
V, o o.
Reproduced with permission o , the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
298.
Sterne
French.
is q u i c k to a p p r e c i a t e
The polish
for w hi c h t h e y h a d
t ically
of t he i r ma n n e r s ,
th e ir
l o n g "been r e n o w n e d ,
it.
degree.
W h e n the b e g g a r s
"poor t a t t e r ' d
dispensed
soul,"
among
eight
" d i s q u a l i f y i n g bow"
terre"
Even
men
more
classes
gather around Yorick's
the
small n u m b e r
and eight
effective
h a d s h o u t e d PI ace aux
faire.
is duly noted.
the p o o r e s t
seeing
of the
savoir
e very F r e n c h m a n d e s c r i b e d by h i m has this
to & n o t i c e a b l e
with
the v i r t u e s
women,
than
Prac­
oolitesse
are
endowed
chaise,
of sous
one
to be
withdraws with a
if the M w h ol e p a r ­
dame s .
Just Heaven.1 for what w i se r e a s o n s hast t ho u o r d e r e d it,
that b e g g a r y an d u r b a n i t y , w h i c h are at s uch v a r i a n c e in
other c o u n t r i e s , s h o u l d f i n d a way to b e at u n i t y in this?
A l t h o u g h he d o e s n o t e
was not
the
first
to
an u n i q u e m a n i f e s t a t i o n
observe
even to the b e g g a r s .
G ol dsmith h a d made
that
Without
of it,
French politeness
a sking
G o d the
Sterne
extended
re as o n why,
the remark;
In other p l a c e s a t r a v e l l e r is a d d r e s s e d w i t h a p i t e o u s w hine
or a s t u r d y s o l e m n i t y , but a F r e n c h b e g g a r shall ask y our
c h a r it y w it h a very g e n t e e l bow, and t h a n k y o u for it with a
smile a n d a s h r u g . 2
But S t e r n e
records
the
fact
in a s e n t i m e n t a l
fashion,
so as
to p r a i s e t h e F r e n c h nation.
All E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r s
tween
their
is no
e xc e pt io n .
1• V
X2 8
2. " C i t i z e n
own m a n n e r s
Early
and
in F r a n c e
those of
m a de
comparisons b e ­
the French,
and S terne
in the J o u r n e y he makes a cl e ve r dis-
of the W o r l d , "
No.
78,
9 **&-£■»
, 120
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tinction "between the
French.
When
of the E n g l i s h
Y o r i c k r e p r e s e n t s M. D e s s i n
be d i s t r e s s e d by
man r e p l i e s
social p o i s e
the p l i g h t
of the
as
a n d the
a man
who
should
d e s o b l j g e a n t . the F r e n c h ­
in kind.
I have a l w a y s o b s e r v e d [ r e m a r k s Sterne], wh e n th e r e is as
much s.our, as sweet in a co mp l i m e n t , that an E n g l i s h m a n is
e t e r n a l l y at a lo ss w i t h i n hims el f , w h e t h e r to take it or
let it alone: a F r e n c h m a n n ev e r is.^
Here he
indulges
outward
ease
English.
of
in a " n a t i o n a l
the F r e n c h w i t h the
He h a d
he d e s c r i b e d the
sary
in the
reflection,"
already used
encounter
seventh book
lack
a scene
c o m p a r i n g the
of a s s u r a n c e
similar
to this
of the
when
between Tristram
a n d the com mi s2
of T r i s t r a m S h a n d y . T h e r e T r i s ­
t r a m ’s i r o n i c a l l y p o l i t e b o w
cerity
is r e t u r n e d " w i t h all the sin3
g o o d b r e e d i n g , " just as Y o r i c k ’s c om pl i m e n t
of g r a v e
c o n t a i n i n g "as m u c h s our as
with a b o w by M.
Although
proba t io n ,
it
fence.
s u c h an a c c o u n t
is h a r d l y
His portrait
for
answer
to the
maitre.
e x a m pl e ,
of F r e n c h m a n n e r s
c a l c u l a t e d to v i n d i c a t e
remarks
Sterne's mood
tain,"
in go o d fait h
Dessin.
from the d i s p a r a g i n g
however,
s w e e t " is t a k e n
of oth e r
of t o l e r a n c e
of the
charges
leads
At
times,
to a s p e ci f ic
debonnaire
de­
cap­
it seem s
a definite
of o th e r E n g l i s h m e n a g a i n s t
the petit.
W he n Y o r i c k wishes
that
ap­
the F r e n c h
travellers.
" l it t le F r e n c h
is so f a v o r a b l e
shows
to i n q u i r e
of the
lady of B r u s -
1. V, 42-43.
2. Cf. above. Ch. II, 8 ?.
3. IV, 8 8 - 8 9 (v i i , 34).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owher. Further reproduction prohibited without permissioh.
300.
sels her
name,
her
her d e s t i n a t i o n ,
plexed,
the
it is H the
and r a p i d
home,
condition,
Frenchman
easiest
thing
deductions
an d he r name,
for
poin t
delicacy prevents.
l i t t le
out w a i t i n g
her
As he
sta nd s
and
there
per­
happens
a lo n g to show h i m that
1
world."
B y adro it q u e s t i o n s
in the
he l e a r n s
the
asks w h e t h e r
an answer,
of d e p a r t u r e ,
lady's
nationality,
she has a husband,
dances
off down the
her
and w i t h ­
street.
Had I s e r v e d _ s e v e n y e a rs ' a p p r e n t i c e s h i p to good b r e e d i n g
[says Y o r ic k j, I c o u l d not h a v e d o n e as m u c h . 2
Although
mark
the re
is h u m o r
it b e c o m e s
the F r e n c h
natural
evident
manner
must
While
that
and
agree,
does
friendliness
e v e n if he
all E n g l i s h m e n
from this last
not
disapprove
re­
of
He has p r e s e n t e d an e x a m p l e
with w h i c h
is i n c a p a b l e
recognized
forwardness
of t h e F r e n c h m a n ,
than
of g o o d - b r e e d i n g .
a sign
p or t r a i t ,
Sterne
of a dd r es s .
good breeding
s en t im e nt
in thi s
many
this
of them
Sm ol l e t t ,
a man
of
of it.
vivacity and
thought
for
of
it
other
instance,
3
ridiculed
that
the
the
education
French were
of
"the
the
net i t-mait re and c o n c l u d e d
greatest
ego is t s in the world."
...The m o s t i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l talks in c o m p a n y w i t h
the same c o n c e i t and a r r o g a n c e , as a p e r s o n o f th e g r e a t e s t
impor tan ce.
H e i th e r c o n s c i o u s p o v e r t y nor d i s g r a c e will
r e s t r a i n h im in the leas t e i t h e r from a s s u m i n g his full share
of the c o n v e r s a t i o n , or m a k i n g his a d d r e s s e s to the finest
lady, w h o m he has the s m a l l e s t o p p o r t u n i t y to approach: nor
is he r e s t r a i n e d by a n y o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r .
It
is all one to h i m w h e t h e r he h i m s e l f has a wife of his own,
1.
2.
V,
7,
78.
79.
3.
Travels.
pp.
60-62.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
301.
or the l a d y a h u s b a n d ; w h e t h e r she is d e s i g n e d for the c l o i s ­
ter, or p r e - i n g a g e d to his best f r i e n d a n d b e n e f a c t o r .
He
takes it for g r a n t e d that his a d d r e s s e s ca n but be accepta b le ;
and, if he m e e t s w i t h a repulse, he c o n d e m n s he r taste; but
never d o u b t s h i s o w n a u a l i f i c a t i o n s .1
On this
point
Thicknesse
seems
for
once
to agree
with S m o l ­
lett:
The m a n n e r s of the c o m m o n run of F r e n c h m e n , who call t h e m ­
selves g e n t l e m e n , a r e so far f rom b e i n g a g r e e a b l e , that
they are to a n E n g l i s h m a n h i g h l y d i s g u s t f u l .
A Frenchman
will j o in s t r a n g e r s , m e n or women, or both, and offer to
shew y o u the town; if y o u do not accept his p o l i t e offer,
he is o ff e n d e d ; if y o u do, y o u have, p e r h a p s a v e r y d i s ­
a g r e e a b l e a c q u a i n t a n c e in h i m as l o n g as y o u stay in the
town; he will v i s i t y o u at all hours, e i t h e r in b e d or up;
and e ve n e n t e r y o u r A p a r t m e n t w i t h o u t k n o c k i n g , if y o u p e r ­
mit h i m to a n y d e g r e e of intimacy.
A s t r a n g e r , therefore,
cannot be too c a u t i o u s ho w he m a k e s a c q u a i n t a n c e in France,
e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e he inte n ds s t o p p i n g any t i m e . 2
Sterne
d r aw s
with his
the
instead a good-natured
intention
ill-natured
criticism
Contented
a matter
odd
travel,
of b e c o m i n g
or o f fe n s i v e .
self,
unlike
customs.
he
of e n j o y i n g his
is
Smollett
fitted
into
and the
like
the
at
opposed
first
sight
h i m to ad ju s t
s eems
to
is often
to d i f f e r e n t
captain,
in a c c o r d
as Smollett.
to Sterne,
allows
rest,
the b a c k g r o u n d
and
travellers
according
tolerance
q ui t e
travels
a c c u s t o m e d to w hat
His
L a Fleur,
of s u c h
sketch
only
seems
him­
manners
a c oxcomb
and
until
of F r e n c h behav i or :
— But he s e e m e d at first sight to be m o r e a coxcomb of nature
t h a n of art; an d b e f o r e I h a d b e e n t h r e e ^ d a y s in P a r i s with
h i m — — he s e e m e d to be no c o x c o m b at all.
1. T r av e 1 s . p. 66.
Cf. pp. 62-63.
2. O b s e r v a t i o n s on. the FredS-fe JLS-£-Lo&. PP
3. V, 116.
15-16.
Reproduced with permission of .he copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
302 .
The
same
thing happens
French women.
in the m a t t e r
The
little
anecdote
s cend i ng
f r om her
cha i se
is
as a bi t
of S h a n d e i s m ,
s trongest
facts;
defences
but
of M a d a m e
indelicacy
in r e a l i t y
it
customs.
c asual
is one
He
of the
de R a m b o u l i e t
c o n s i d e r e d b y the
of F r e n c h
he p a l l i a t e s
of the
de­
reader
of S t e r n e ’s
cannot
deny
the
them a c c o r d i n g to the t h e o r y of " m u t u a l
t o l e r a t i o n ” and " m u t u a l
enunciated
T ri s tr a m,
l o v e ” w h i c h the F r e n c h o f f i c e r ha d
1
p r e c e d i n g page.
U s i n g the i m a g er y of
on t h e
Sterne
remarks;
It is a li k e t r o u b l e s o m e to b o t h the ri d er and his b e a s t - if the l a t t e r goes p r i c k i n g u p his ears, an d s t a r t i n g all
the w a y at e v e r y ob je ct w h i c h he n ever saw b e f o r e - - I have
as l it t l e t o r m e n t of this k in d as any c r e a t u r e alive; and
yet I h o n e s t l y confess, that m a n y a t h i n g gave me pain, and
that I b l u s h ' d at m a n y a w o r d the first m o n t h - - w h i c h I found
i n c o n s e q u e n t a n d p e r f e c t l y i n n o c e n t the s e c o nd . ^
He then
tells
Rambouliet,
that
he
while
si g na l
anything,
h o w the
the d r i v e r
freedom
avoidance
in p o l i t e
company.
grossness
of b o t h
1.
2.
V",
V,
in her
to stop.
requests
if she wants
in this r e s p e c t
a c c u s t o m e d as
of any r e f e r e n c e
French and
chaise,
de
11
of F r e n c h w om e n
Smollett,
Madame
W h e n he asks
" H i e n jaJUL
s a v a g e l y a t t a c k e d by E n g l i s h m e n ,
complete
and v i r t u o u s
r i d i n g w i t h hi m
she r e p l i e s ;
The
v e ry p r o p e r
they w e re to
to the n a t u r a l
as usual,
was
func ti on s
is e n r a g e d by
Italians;
216.
217.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright o w ner Further reproduction prohibited without permission
the
i
30 3 .
Indeed the y are u t t e r s t r a n g e r s to what we call c o m m o n
decen c y; and I c o u l d give y o u some h i g h - f l a v o u r e d i n ­
stances, at w h i c h ev e n a n a t i v e of E d i n b u r g h w o u l d stop
his nose.
T h e r e are c e r t a i n m o r t i f y i n g v i e w s of h u m a n
nature, w h i c h u n d o u b t e d l y o u g h t to be c o n c e a l e d as m u c h
as p o s s i b l e , in o r d e r to p r e v e n t g i v i n g offence; and
n o t h i n g can be m o r e absurd, than to p l e a d the d i f f e r e n c e
of c u s t o m in d i f f e r e n t co u nt r i e s , in d e f e n c e of t h o s e
u s ag e s w h i c h c a n n o t fa i l g i v i n g d i s g us t to the org an s
and se n s e s of all m a n k i n d .
W i l l c u s t o m e x e m p t from the
i m p u t a t i o n of g r o s s i n d e c e n c y a F r e n c h lady, w h o shif ts
her f r o w s y s m o c k in p r e s e n c e of a mal e v isitant, and
talks to him of h e r 1 a v e m e n t . h e r m e d e c i n e . a n d he r
bidet I An I t a l i a n s i g n o r a m a k e s no s c r u p l e of t e l l i n g
you, she is suc h a day to b e g i n a course of p h y s i c for
the o o x . . . I h a v e k n o w n a l a d y h a n d e d to the doo r of o f ­
fice by her a dm i r e r , who s t o o d at the door, a n d e n t e r ­
t a i n e d her w i t h b on m o t s all the time she was within.
But I s h o u l d be g l a d to k n o w , w h e t h e r it is p o s s i b l e for a
fine l a d y to s p e a k a n d act in this mann er , with o ut e x c i t ­
ing ideas to he r own d i s a d v a n t a g e in the m i n d of any m a n
who has any i m a g i n a t i o n left, a n d enjo y s the enti re use
of his senses, h o w s o e v e r she m a y be a u t h o r i z e d b y the c u s ­
toms of her c o u n t r y ?
T h e r e is n o t h i n g so vile or r e p u g ­
nant to nature, but y o u m a y p l e a d p r e s c r i p t i o n for it, in
the c u s t o m s of some n a t i o n or other,''Because
sage,
of the
repeated reference
it m a y be
of S m o l l e t t
surmised
in h i s
that
vindication
Sterne
is t h i n k i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y
of F r e n c h
women,
lishmen had made
similar
be e n
Yorick takes
similarly
observations
2
s h o c ke d .
But
to "customs'1 in this p a s ­
but m a n y E n g ­
to S m o l l e t t ’s and had
a far d i f f e r e n t
1. T_rayelg., p. 35.
.t
2. U i l l a r d is p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f e n d e d by t a l k of
glyst er s.
T h e (Gentleman’s G u i d e , pp. 172-73.
Col e is s h o c k e d b y a
F r e n c h f e m a l e s e r v a n t wh o us e s a c h a m b e r p o t poux fftlr-g.
l a c h e r 1 »Eau in front of the p a s s e n g e r s a b o a r d the c h a n ­
nel p a c k e t .
P a r i s J o u r n a l . pp. 362-63.
W a l p o l e is d i s ­
g u s t e d by the m e n t i o n of a c h a m b e r p o t and uae. ev a g u a t l Q.Q
feti de at a F r e n c h d i n n e r table.
L e t t e r No. 1 0 ?° • *°
Gray, Nov. 19, 1765, VI. 352.
Thicknesse
S m o l l e t t c o n c e r n i n g the a d m i r e r in a F r e n c h la J
c h a m b e r and c o n cl u de s; "Nor will y o u r p r e s e n c e d e p r i v e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
attitude
in an
amusing declaration:
G rieve not, g e n t l e tr a ve l l e r , to let M a d a m e de B a m b o u l i e t
p-ss o n — And, ye fair m y s t i c nymphs.* go e a c h one p l u c k
your r o s e . a n d s c a t t e r them in y o u r p a t h - - f o r M a d a m e de
R a m b o u l i e t d i d no m o r e — I h a n d e d Ma da m e de Ramtoouliet out
of the coach; and h a d I b e e n the pri e st of t he ch as t e
C AS T AL I A, I c o u l d not h a v e s e r v e d at her f o u n t a i n w i t h a
more r e s p e c t f u l d e c o r u m . ^
The g e n t l e
custom,
traveller,
but
to a c c e p t
an a t t i t u d e ,
of p r e v i o u s
character
of the
set 's b e n i g n i t y
that
he
French.
fit.
d u r i n g the
and w i s h e s
tolerantly.
Such
was u n p a r a l l e l e d in the works
of the
The
attempted
takes
S t e r n e m ak e s
is m o v e d by the
of gloves,
but
p o s t u r i n g and
f i t t i n g so
a co u p l e
she h a d a s k e d
grisset
Yorick
to b u y a p a i r
f in d any w h i c h
pleasure
as Y o r i c k does,
this F r e n c h
travellers.
ther d e f e n c e
glances
it,
is not to c o m p l a i n at
S t e r n e k n e w well,
In the
to
then,
of p airs
she
a fur­
gris­
is u n a b l e
exchange
of
add to Yorick* s
regardless
of size
a l i v r e more.
( c o n t ' d f r o m p. 303) h e r f r o m a t t e n d i n g to the calls of
n a t u r e , about w h i c h she will t a l k to y o u in as p l ai n
t er m s as Dr. S m o l l e t : but this is custom, and the fashion
of the cou n tr y, a n d d on e b y the most v i r t u o u s o f the
women.”
U s e f u l H i n t s , pp. 61-62.
On the fai lu r e of the
F r e n c h a n d I t a l i a n s to m a k e p r o p e r use of such s a n i t a r y
f a c i l i t i e s as p r i v i e s , see T h i c k n e s s e ,
o_p_. cit. ,p. 180,
S m o l l e t t , T r a v e l s . p. 106; Millard, JLhg. Qsft M swj &r L s .
pp. 1 88-89; Sharp, Letters, tr.&ffi.
. P* 3 5 «
In 2xAJ."
t r a m S t e r n e h a d r e m a r k e d of P a r i s that "the w a l l s are
b e s h - t , 1' and that t h e r e f o r e , since P a r i s is " the SCHOOL
of U R B A N I T Y h e r s e l f , " no one gave the wall.
IV, 39-40
(vii, 17).
V, 218.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
305.
Do y o u think, m y d e a r Sir, said she, that I co ul d ask a
sous too m u c h of a s t r a n g e r — and of a s t r a n g e r whose
p o l i t e n e s s , m o r e t ha n his want of gloves, has done me
the h o n o u r to lay h i m s e l f at my m ercy? — M 1en cro?ez c a p s b l e ?1
This
is S t e r n e ' s
were
always
b ooks
answer
cheated
of the time
by F r e n c h
are
tortions p r ac ti ce d by
English.
to the c o m p l a i n t s
that
sh o pk e ep er s .
w as
asked
for trin ke t s
agai n st
against
Millard advised Englishmen never
a th i rd of what
Th e travel
f i l l e d with w a r n i n g s
French merchants
by
the E n g l i s h
the
ex­
the u n w a r y
to give more than
2
shopkeepers, and
3
Smollett
That
found P a r i s i a n t r a d e s m e n
t he r e
their
were
feminine
female
charms
Reverand William
Du Lac's
Cole,
expensive
shopkeepers
in p r o m o t i n g
c o m p l e t e l y without
who m a d e
g ood use
sales
a t t e s te d by
who w i t h H o r a c e
China
ethics.
is
Walpole
of
the
v i s i t e d Madame
Shop,
Where the M i s t r e s s was as t e m p t i n g as the T h i n g s she sold, &
where a y o u n g e r M a n t ha n m y s e l f would r u n a great R i s k of
l o s i n g what is of m o r e v a l u e than Money, except he was
m u c h u p o n his Guard: so t hat it is no w o n d e r that such a
Shop was t h r o n g e d w i t h C u st om e r s , or that the M i s t r e s s of
it mi gh t b o l d l y set what P r i c e she t h o u g h t p r o p e r u p on
h e r C o m m o d i t i e s : for b o t h her Person, t h o ' d r a w i n g towards
40, as well as I c o u l d judge, v o ic e & manner, were so e n g a g ­
ing, that it was a l m o s t next to i m p o s s i b l e to refuse her
what she a s k e d fo r them, or to go away w i t h o u t p u r c h a s i n g
s o m e t h i n g b o t h to ’r e m e m b e r where y o u b o u g h t it, as well as
the M a n u f a c t u r e i t s e l f . 4
Sterne
takes
such
a grisset
and make6 h e r p e r f e c t l y honest.
1. V, 195.
2. T h e G e n t l e m a n 18 G u i d e . p . 16.
3. T r a v e l s . p. 54.
4. P a r i s J o u r n a l . pp. 233-~4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A s eat i merit al t r a v e l l e r ,
ly to be
cheated,
pleasure,
for
su ch as
but
he
may
this
in his
case
Yorick
quarreling
ove r
worldly
from his
gest
that
Yorick,
forick
knowing
with a sense
fellow.”
There
I was
is
takes
might
that
buy
he
he
with
goods,
he
advantage
but
reflects,
wha t
for
woman.
distaste
with a will.
ejecting Yorick
of his p o s i t i o n
of his
the host
to s u g ­
acquaintance.
of extortion,
good will
agrees
to be a "di rt y
the e x po s ur e
was m o r e of s p l e e n t h a n p r i n c i p l e in my project,
sic k of it b e f o r e the execut i o n .-
Yorick
is not
n o t h i n g wh e n
her " p a t i e n t
" simple
splenetic,
the
grisset
and
d e s p i t e his r e s o l u t i o n
displays
her
like­
some rare
with his
submits
of a m i l l i n e r
is a v i c t i m
find
is not
a beautiful
a case
of t r i u m p h at p r o v i n g
But,
saying,
sh o p p i n g
cheated,
at P a r i s d i s c o v e r s
lodgings,he
to be
t e t e - a - tete
In one
Vi'hen his h o s t
seems
wares,
he
do?
and
to b u y
is m o v e d by
s w e e t n e s s ” and a manner not " a r t f u l , ” but
2
caressing.”
A l t h o u g h he feels that he is being
and
3
cheated, he b u y s
a pair
of ru f f l e s
for three Lou is
d 1o r a J
If there is not a fund o f h o n e s t c u l l i b i l i t y in man, so much
the w o r s e — — my h e a r t r e l e n t e d . . .Why shou ld I c h a s t i s e one
for the t r e s p a s s of a n o t h e r ?
If thou art t r i b u t a r y to this
tyrant of an host, t h o u gh t I, l o o k i n g up in her face, so
much h a r d e r is thy b r e a d . ^
1. V, 327.
2. V, 327.
3. Gf. ki l l a r d , who a d v i s e s E n g l i s h m e n in resp ec t to b u y i n g
c loth e s, e s p e c i a l l y lac e ruffles, to "be cautious n e v e r
to buy t h e m e i t h e r of m i l l i n e r s , or the peo p le that go
about.
The first will charge triple thei r v a l u e ; tne
last will give y o u goods w or t h nothing.
Gqnt l_e.m a q ._a.
G u i d e . p . 6 6.
4. V, 327-28.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
He ho l d s
no g r u d g e
apologies.
act
in
is not
This
the
is
even t
a case
against
the way
that
These
small
as are m a n y of the
at w h i c h
Fo r
is
the g e n t l e
France
turned
to
disturbances
little
exam p le ,
are
travellers.
While
of a p p e a r i n g
well-dressed
11s t a r v e
to p u r c h a s e
fine
the
or
"if y o u d i n e
high,
wh i c h y o u are
Smollett's
should
belongs
among
the
or f a l l i n g r o c k s - account.
in the m a i n
o v er lo o ke d ,
m a d e by E n g l i s h
the
f o o d a n d dr e s s of the French,
1
fun in Tri s t r a m . are a c c e p t e d w i t h ­
Smollett
Journey.
Yet
similar
observes
in F r a n c e
w i t h i n doors ,
that
in his
to those
letters
of
other
c o n c e r n i n g the n e c e s s i t y
that
the n o b l e s s e
of
they may hav e w h e r e w i t h a l
cloaths,
on the
an d a p p e a r d r e s s e d once a day in
2
r a m p a r t , " S t e r n e says that at Paris,
on an onion,
y o u must
traveller
carping criticisms
in the S e n t i m e n t a l
church,
but
exchange mutual
S u c h an o c c u r r e n c e
sentimental
we find h i m m a k i n g b i t i n g r e m a r k s
Boulogne
they
i m p o s e d upon.
against
Sterne had poked
out c o mm e nt
that
and
of th e r o a d — the b e g g a r s
and g e n e r a l l y m a y be
travel le rs .
he
for w a r
pet ty n u i s a n c e s
the man,
not b e t r a y
well
or
strictures,
ill
and
it
la y
in a g a r re t
seven s t o r i e s
in y o u r
look'd
against
cloaths, a c c o r d i n g to
3
on."
A n d w i t h a n o t h e r of
a French
fashion "which
1. See above, Ch. II, 88-91.
2. l£&vsJL&, PP. 27-28.
See al s o pp. 2 1 3 - 1 4
3. L e t t e r No. 93, to Mrs. Ster n e, June 7, 1762, p.
C u r t i s s u p p l i e s the abo ve q u o t a t i o n from S m ol l et t
note to this pass ag e , p. 173, n.4.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as
seems
a
S
SO 8 .
to me
to
carry h um an
affectation
of folly
and
extravagance;
faces
the
ladies
of
have t e e n
in
"...throw
all
to the
f a r th e st
ve r g e
the m a n n e r in w h i c h
1
ar e p r i m e d and p a i n t e d , " he a p p e a r s
sympathy.
your
that
very
To his
rouge
pots
is,
the
to
d a u g h t e r L y d i a he wrote:
into the S o r g u e
before
y o u set
2
o u t * * 1 will h a v e
F r an c e
all
the
t on e d h i m s e l f
least,
for
Such
speaks
of his
retr a ct
or
Calais,
which
of h i s
a whole,
French
would
rule.
that
are
if he
At times
n a ti o na l
the r e su lt
to p a l l i a t e
thesis
comme n t
upon
s h o u l d die
the
at
order
that
24,
1767,
pp.
of
reference
dinn e r
night,
cl a i m his p o s s e s s i o n s a c c o r d i n g
Aug.
them
commi t s him.
occasional
Y o r i c k sits
or
do not d e s t r o y
at
the
to the
d r o 1 1 d 1a u b a i n e .
1. T r a v e l s . p. 56.
2. L e t t e r No. 210,
either
w h i c h pr e v e n t s
therefore
to w h i c h his
As
accus
that S t e r n e
or t h e i r
doe s m a k e
in
j o u r n e y at
French.
him promptly
no
must have
do not m e a n
customs
They
he
he
sin ce
not m e n t i o n rouge.
of humor,
S t e r n e m ak e s
he r e a l i z e s
French king
sense
s er i o u s l y .
s o c i e t y as
does
howe ve r ,
causes
presentation
Although
to a u t o c r a t i c
their
But
literary
c r i t i c i s m of the
censures,
sentiment,
from b e i n g t a k e n
French
all
faces,
in his
of o m i s s i o n
against
These
the f a v o r a b l e
in E n g l a n d . "
S ent iment al J o u r n e y
avoids
them,
on
circumstance,
openly
character.
put
p a i n t e d their
instances
deliberately
he
rou ge
ladies
to
the
no
391--0.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
303.
Ungenerous.' to seize u p o n the w r e c k of an u n w a r y p a s s e n ­
ger, w h o m y o u r s ub j e c t s h a d b e c k o n ' d to the i r c oa s t - - b y
h e a v e n ! SIRE, it is not well done; and m u c h does it grie v e
me, 1tis the m o n a r c h of a p e o p l e so c i v i l i z e d and courteous,
and so r e n o w n e d for s en t im e nt and fine f e e l i n g s that I have
to r e a s o n w i t h - - 1
S t e rn e h e r e
n o te s
of the F r e n c h
that
the
an d the
d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n the
severity
the
reader
does
supplies
a not e
s t a t i n g that
(Swies
and S c o t c h
v i r tu e
of
profit
of t he s e
2
this
not m i s s
except e d)
law,
of
the point
"aH
dying
t h o u g h the
contigencies
their
the
laws.
of
being
To
make
the passage,
effects
in France,
heir
famed n o i it e ss e
be u p o n
farmed,
sure
he
of strangers,
are
the
seized by
spot--the
there
is no r e-
d r e s s ."
Many English
s ciou s
of this
plated
settling
law.
traveilers
When
in France,
in F r a n c e
were
acutely
the R e v e r e n d W i l l i a m Cole
Horace
Walpole
con­
contem­
r e m i n d e d him;
D o y o u k n o w that the K i n g of F r a n c e is heir to all strangers
who die in his domin i on s , by what they call the Droit d ’Aubaine ?
S o m e t i m e s by great i n t e r e s t and favour, persons have
o b t a i n e d a r e m i s s i o n of this right in t h e i r lifetime; and
yet that, e v e n that, has not s e c u r e d their effe c ts from B e ­
ing embezzled.*^
This
advice
were
s e i z e d aft er her
missi o n,
2.
and
the sto ry
sufficiently
of L a d y
Sa n d w i c h ,
death despite
whose p o s s e s s i o n s
her h a v i n g o b t a i n e d a r e ­
f r i g h t e n e d Cole,
who
V* 4.
A l t h o u g h S te r n e uses the plural,
the ter m is s i n g u l a r — dro x t_ d 1fiub a i.s.S.»
3. L e t t e r No. 1012, Mar. 9, 1765, VI, 196.
spoke
wi t h hor r or
the usual
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
form
of
310 .
of "That
inhospitable, barbarous
& G o t h i c L a w of the Droit
1
d 1A u b a i n e.."
The s p l e n e t i c S m o l l e t t ha d no p a t i e n c e with the
f r e n c h leg a l
logne
into
for
system.
examination
one of his
When his
book s
were held up at B o u ­
by the 11c h a m b r e
frequent
attacks
s y n d i c a l e .11 he b u r s t
u p o n the
country:
This is a s p e c i e s of o p p r e s s i o n w h i c h one w o u l d not expect to
meet w i t h in France, w h i c h p i q u e s itself on its p o l i t e n e s s
and h o s p i t a l i t y : but the t r u t h is, I k n o w no count r y in w h i c h
s tr a n g e r s are w o r s e treated, w i t h resp ec t to their e s s e n t i a l
concerns.
If a f o r e i g n e r d i e s in France, t he King seize s all
his effe c ts , eve n t h o u g h his heir sh o u l d be u p o n the spot;
and this t y r a n n y is c a l l e d th e droi t d 1a u b a i n e . f o u n d e d at
first u p o n the s u p p o s i t i o n , that all the esta t e of f o r e i g n e r s
r e s i d i n g in F r a n c e was a c q u i r e d in that kingd o m, and that,
t he r ef or e , it w o u l d be u n j u s t to conve y it to a n o th e r country,
if an E n g l i s h p r o t e s t a n t goes to Franc e for the b e n e f i t of
his health, a t t e n d e d by h i s w i f e or h i s son, or both, a n d dies
wi th the e f f e c t s in the h o u s e to the a m ou n t of a t h o u s a n d
guineas, the k i n g seize s the whole, the f a m i l y is left d e s t i ­
tute, a n d the b o d y of the d e c e a s e d is d e n i e d C h r i s t i a n bur ia l .
The Swiss, b y c a p i t u l a t i o n , ar e e x e m p t e d from this despotism,
and so are the Scot s .. . ^
Stern e ,
u p o n this
like
law d u r i n g
Smollett,
his
a sick man,
residence
must hav e m e d i t a t e d
in France.
In fact,
his
1. Z a i l L s. J.o u r n a l . p. 83.
2. T r a v e l s . pp. 9-10.
T h i c k n e s s e , who took every o c c a s i o n to
d i s a g r e e wi t h S m ol l et t, comme nt e d: "Mr. Smol le t [sic] some
whe re says, if a s t r a n g e r di e s in France, all his e f f e ct s
are s e i z e d for the k i n g ' s use.
This a s s e r t i o n a l a r m e d me
e x c e e d i n g l y ; for t h o u g h I h a v e not m u c h to be seized, I
ha v e m o r e tha n I can in j u s t i c e to my fam il y r i s q ue up o n
my ow n life.
I t h e r e f o r e mad e it m y b u s i n e s s to e n q u i r e
s t r i c t l y into this matt er , and have r e a s o n to b e l i e v e it
is neve r done but when a s t r a n g e r dies p o s s e s s e d of h o u s e s
or land, but that the i r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s are not m e d d l e d
with."
O b s e r v a t i o n s on the F r e n c h Katiaa. p. 71.
Since
T h i c k n e s s e cites e x a m p l e s to prov e his case, the o p e r a t i o n
of the law must h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t e r r at i c and d e p e n d e n t
u p o n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s in i n d i v i d u a l cases.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
311.
way of
is
introducing
suggest ive
t h o u gh
of S m o l l e t t ' s
objections
are not
it iiere, in
to
infrequent,
the
to F r e n c h p o l i t e n e s s ,
1
of p e r s o n al injury.
Al —
tone
law
Sterne
c on t r a s t
and d i s p a r a g i n g r e f e r e n c e s
seems
to have
Smollett's
to it
outburst
in mind.
He is i n t r o d u c i n g at the very b e g i n n i n g of the
2
book a r e c o g n i z e d c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t the French; but his is a
sentimental
mony.
journey,
Under
the
and he
influence
the F r e n c h kin g
disappears,
ho no r s his
nature.
stance
good
of Y o r i c k ' s
soon resolves
discord
into h a r ­
of a g o o d meal his r e s e n t m e n t
and he
Th u s
tolerance
the
which
drinks
at
his h e a l t h a n d
criticism
e c l ip s es
ends
in an
the effect
in­
of his
prot e s t .
The
ter
of
the
king,
French
p as s p o r t
Yorick
"for
all
the k i n g s
that
no
one
can
however,
symbolizes
government.
insists
that
of F r a n c e
oppose
So,
he
the
when
in the m a t t e r
charac­
of the
l e av e his lo d g i n g s
3
in the world," La F le u r w h i sp e rs
the k i n g
shall
autocratic
not
of France.
In these
wor ds we
1. O b s e r v e the s i m i l a r i t y of p h r a s i n g of S t e r n e ' s note: "All
the e f f e c t s of s t r a n g e r s (Swiss and S c o t c h excepted) d y ­
ing in F r a n c e , a r e s e i z e d by v i r t ue of this law t h o u g h
the h e i r be on th e s p o t — — " and Sm ol l e t t ' s : "If a s t r a ng er
dies in F r a n c e , the k i n g s e i z e s all his effects, eve n
t h o u g h hi s h e i r s h o u l d b e up on the spot..."
The m e n t i o n
of the e x e m p t i o n of the S c o t c h and Swiss is in S m o l l e t t
as in S t e r ne , but not the r e f e r e n c e to the f a r m i n g of the
profits.
B o t h r e f e r to the r e p u t e d p o l i t e n e s s of the
F r e n c h in c o n t r a s t to the law.
2. As d i d S m o l l e t t — b e g i n n i n g of L e t t e r II.
3. V, 234.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
312.
have
aa o b v i o u s
suppression
ling's
reference
is r e f l e c t e d
"little
song
to F r e n c h despo t i su.
later
This
in the r e m a r k that
of lioe r ty "
is "in an u n k n o w n
state of
the
star­
language
at Paris. 11
Th e
paratory
appearance
to S t e r n e ' s
and li b e r t y .
s i p a te d
The
spirits";
upon the B a s t i l l e
of the
sentimental
plight
in the
wor k
exclamation upon
of the b i r d
and his
is
starli n g
calls
comfortable
ho m e
sche m e
is p r e ­
slavery
all his
"dis­
of r e a s o n i n g
ov erthrown.
D i s g u i s e t h y s e l f as t h o u wilt, still, Slav er y ! said l--still
thou art a b i t t e r draught.' and t h o u g h t h o u s a n d s in all ages
have b e e n m a d e to d r i n k of thee, thou art no less b i t t e r on
that account. — 'T is thou, t h r ic e sweet and g r a c i o u s goddess,
a d d r e s s i n g m y s e l f to L I B E RT Y, w h o m all in p u b l i c or in p r i ­
vate worsh i p, w h o s e tas te is grate fu l , a n d ever will be so,
till N A T U R E h e r s e l f can c h a n g e — no tint of word s can spot
thy s n o w y m a n t l e , or chym i c p o w e r tur n thy s c ep t re into
i r o n — w i t h t h e e to smile u p o n h im as he eats his crust, the
swain is h a p p i e r than his monar ch , f r o m w h o s e court t h o u art
e x i l e d — G r a c i o u s h e a v e n ! c r i e d I, k n e e l i n g d o w n upo n the last
step but one in m y ascent, gra n t me but h e a lt h , t h o u great
B e s t o w e r of it, a n d give me but this fair g o d d e s s as my co m­
p a n i o n — a n d s h o w e r d o w n thy mitres, if it seems g o o d toothy
p r o v i d e n c e , u p o n t h o s e h e a d s w h i c h are a c h i n g for them.
This
utterance
is u n d o u b t e d l y p r o m p t e d by
French s l av er y and E ng li sh
which u s e d
galleys
lishmen
exclamations
to
a6
liber t y.
a common
the
A system
contrast
of o p pr es s io n
form of p u n i s h m e n t
of hor r or .
Millard
of
moved E n g ­
is a t y p i c a l e x ­
ample.
It is i m p o s s i b l e for an E n g l i s h m a n to see, w i t h o u t the g r e a t ­
est p i t y a n d c o m p a s s i o n , thos e poor u n h a p p y m e n ca l l e d galley
1.
2.
V,
V,
252.
242.
Reproduced with permission of .de copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
313.
s l a v e s , c h a i n e d b y t h e l e g t o g e t h e r , a n d the c h a i n s o f a
m e r c i l e s s w e i g h t , m a n y of w h o m h a v e b e e n g u i l t y of no
o t h e r c r i m e t h a n s m u g g l i n g t h r e e or f o u r p o u n d s of t o b a c ­
co, or salt, or p e r h a p s k i l l e d a p a r t r i d g e , p h e a s a n t , or
hen, (to h i n d e r t h e i r f a m i l i e s f r o m s t a r v i n g ) on t h e e s ­
tate of som e t y r a n n i c a l d e s p o t i c s e i g n e u r ,
And
Smollett,
upon
sight
of
the
galleys
at
Ville
Tranche,
declared;
T h i s is a s i g h t w h i c h a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t , s e n s i b l e of the
b l e s s i n g he e n j o y s , c a n n o t b e h o l d w i t h o u t h o r r o r a n d c o m ­
passion. 2
In c o m m e n t i n g u p o n
slavery,
m n g l i s h m & n 1s b l e s s i n g ,
English
or F r e n c h .
His
accusation
of t h e
passage
sentimental
of
Indeed
sensibility.
identical
Consider
how many
Since
the
could be
Some
time
Sancho
a sad
1.
2.
3.
with
but
does
so
is,
alludes
without
rather
as
to t h e
using
therefore,
serves
exclamation
of
likewise
n ot
the
a direct
a typical
it,
one
is
filled
Sterne
of his
uses
with
the
stuff
phraseology
sure
of
before,
slavery
its
he
in r e f e r e n c e
Shade
upon
th e
was
emotional
sermons:
abhorrent
value
had written
to
slavery
World,
the
that
That
of
a lmost
s l a v e r y , — w h a t it i s , - - h o w b i t t e r a d r a u g h t ,
m i l l i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e to d r i n k i t . . . ^
i d e a of
words
writing.
opening
that
he
comment
French
this
In
but
Sterne
so
as
and
to E n g l i s h m e n ,
a
literary
theme.
e m a ncipated negro
11in
serious
great
a part
tr uth,
of
Sterne
it,
Ignatius
it casts
are
T h e Gent 1 e m a n * s Gui de « pp» 1 5 7 - 5 8 .
T r a v e l s . p. 127.
S e r m o n No. 10, " J o b ' s A c c o u n t of t h e S h o r t n e s s a nd T r o u b l e s
of Li f e , C o n s i d e r e d , " IX, 169.
In a n o t h e r of his s e r m o n s
S t e r n e r e f e r s to s l a v e r y as " w o r s e t h a n d e a t h . "
Sermon
12, " J o s e p h ' s H i s t o r y C o n s i d e r e d ,- - F o r g i v e n e s s of I n j u r i e s ,
IX, 200.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and h a v e
"been so l o n g b o u n d in c h a i n s of d a r k n e s s &
in
1
oi k i s e r y , " a n d h e o b l i g e d h i m b y i n c l u d i n g in t h e n e x t
stallment
of T r 1 s t r a m a r e f e r e n c e
2
soul, w h i c h is l e d u p to b y
to
negro
Trim's
Nothing,
ment for
ty.3
the
existence
of
remark upon
Chains
in­
the
freedom:
c o n t i n u e d t h e C o r p o r a l . c a n be so s a d as c o n f i n e ­
l i f e — or so s w e e t , an' p l e a s e y o u r h o n o u r , as l i b e r ­
It h a s
apostrophe
4
Shandy how
to
already
been
shown
in
connection
land
of
liberty"
"England.1 t h o u
commonplace
century England.
the
Sterne,
term
"liberty"
moving
wa s
naturally
with
Sterne's
in T r i s t r am
in e i g h t e e n t h -
from
the
subject
5
of
slavery
"fair
to
that
goddess"
liberty
are
obvious
that
is n o t h i n g
so
at
he
of
liberty,
Liberty.
Such
common
the
in
is m e r e l y
all
unusual
has
Yorick
kneel
to
address
apostrophes
literature
utilizing
in t h e
to E n g l a n d and
6
of t he t i m e t h a t
a well-tried
idea
which
he
the
to
it
is
theme.
There
expresses
of
1.
2.
3.
L e t t e r No. 1 7 0 A , J u l y 27, 1 7 6 6 , p. 286.
IV, 2 3 4 - 3 5 (ix, 6).
IV, 230 (ix, 4).
The c o r p o r a l d e s c r i b e s f r e e d o m with a
f l o u r i s h of h i s s t i c k .
4. S e e a b o v e , Ch. II, 8 5 - 8 7 .
L i b e r t y is m e n t i o n e d as a p a r t
of t h e E n g l i s h h e r i t a g e in t h e s e r m o n on " T h e A b u s e s of
Conscience"
p u b l i s h e d in .T..S. I, 2 3 3 (ii, 17) , a n d in S e r ­
m o n No. 21,
" N a t i o n a l M e r c i e s C o n s i d e r e d , " IX, 347.
5. A d e v i c e u s e d in T r i s t r a m : " k n e e l i n g u p o n one k n e e . . . "
IV, 90 (vii, 34).
6. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e l i n e s of P o p e :
Fair Liberty, B r i t t a n i a ' s goddess, rears
Her c h e e r f u l head, a n d le ad s t he g o l d e n years.
" W i n d s o r F o r e s t , " W o r k s . ed. E l w i n a n d C o u r t h o p e , I, 345.
A l s o the e x c l a m a t i o n of y o u n g W i l m o t in L i l l o ' s Fg.t_ai
C ur i o s i t y : " . . . 0 England.' E n g l a n d !
T h o u seat of p l e n t y ,
l i b e r t y and h e a l t h . "
A c t I, sc. iii, 11. 19-20.
T&£
d o n M e r c h a n t a n d F atal. C u r x o s i t y . p. 168.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
31b
w o r s hi p
pier
of L i b e r t y ,
than a king.
The p a s s a g e
criticism
French
of the
upon
character
vantage
of
sparingly,
and makes
in
a
of
side
two
peasant
m ore
being h a p ­
a familiar
chord.
considered primarily
French.
one
by
side
variety
he
amusing
passage
in
the
as
merits
a
was
customs
to
the
or
t his
character
of
the
general
in­
traits
of
disad­
device
traditional
contrasting
in T r i s t r a m
one
great
uses
the
of
travellers
similarity
English
early
All
Sterne
follows
with
of
era.
usually
distinction, —
th e
liberty
certain
Although
Concerning
relative
as
Sterne's
respect
common
the
a point
nations,
character
an
be
comparing
of t h e E n g l i s h
ten
f ree
s o u n d i n g once
such
writers
the
the
of
on
setting
of
is
of the
Fren c h.
and English
by
in that
therefore,
practice
employed
sisted
He
cannot,
The
ly
or
method
the v a r i e t y
the
Sterne
French.
had
writ­
S h a n d y . showing
the
1
idea
to b e
character
in
was
the
an
he
old
felt
Sent ime ntal
afflicted
one.
Concerning
much more
J ourney.
the
strongly
On h i s
sameness
than
first
he
of Fr ench
allows
trip
to
to
appear
France
he
with boredom.
I b e l i e v e , t h e g r o u n d w o r k of m y e n n u i is m o r e to t h e e t e r ­
n a l p l a t i t u d e of t h e F r e n c h c h a r a c t e r s - - l i t t 1 e v a r i e t y , no
o r i g i n a l i t y in it at a l l — t h a n to a n y o t h e r c a u s e
for
c i v i l i t y i t s e l f , in t h a t u n i f o r m , w e a r i e s a n d b o d d e r s one
to d e a t h — If I do n o t m i n d , I s h a l l g r o w m o s t s t u p i d a n d
sententious— 2
1.
2.
FT 1 0 3 - 0 4
Letter
No.
100,
(i.
21).
Cf.
I, 4 2
(i,
to H a l l - S t e v e n s o n , Oct.
11);
19,
II.
63
1 ?62,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
( m ,
p.
186.
That
this
feeling
attested by
is
another
not
based, m e r e l y
letter
written
upon
a passing
fifteen
months
mood
is
later.
I am p r e p a r i n g , m y d e a r Mrs . F. to l e a v e F r a n c e , f or I am
h e a r t i l y t i r e d of i t - - T h a t i n s i p i d i t y t h e r e is in F r e n c h
characters has d isgusted your friend Y o r i c k . 1
D i d e r o t ’s F i l s
Haturel
separation
in
lish
"for
stage
the
he
condemns
character,"
t he
very
and
reason
for
being
therefore
which
"without
unfit
recommends
for
it
much
the E n g
to a
2
French
one."
French
Sterne
the h e a r t "
softens
Such
tributed
cannot
without
this
to
outspoken
allow
by
before
a
appear
"quiet
he
wrote
C h r o n l c l e . April
peared
following
which
the
16-18,
version
in a
dislike
modification.
simile
the L o n d o n
the
of
considerable
opinion
him
to
expressions
had
of
therefore
already been
(p.
t he
journey
He
Sent imental
1765
for
at­
J ourn e y .
373),
there
In
ap­
of S t e r n e ’s c o m p a r i s o n :
T h e y t e l l us a p l e a s a n t a n e c d o t e r e l a t i n g to Mr. S t e r n e w h e n
he w a s in P a r i s : A F r e n c h G e n t l e m a n a s k e d him, If h e h a d
f o u n d in F r a n c e no o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r s t h a t he c o u l d m a k e use
of in h i s h i s t o r y ?
£ o . r e p l i e d he, T h e F r e n c h yese.ffib.ljg. pJLd
n i e c e s o f c o i n , w h o s e i m o r e s s i on i s w o r n out b y r u b b i n g . 3
This
simile
expressing
combines
with
likening
the
another
French
to
the
similarity
showing
smooth
th e
of F r e n c h
variety
character
he
of t h e E n g l i s h ,
King William's
shillings
and
the E n g l i s h to a n c i e n t m e d a l s w h i c h , p r e v e n t e d f r o m r u b b i n g
&
4
together, r e t a i n t h ei r or igi nal sharp impressions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
L e t t e r No. 120, to Mrs. F., Feb. 1, 17 64,
L e t t e r No. 87, to G a r r i c k , Apr. 19, 1762,
Q u o t e d b y C u r t i s , L e t t e r s , p. 188, n. 10.
V, 303.
p.
p.
^09.
162.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
317.
T he
to be
due
Bissy
asks
f ind
to
to be
their
Yorick
them
opinion
similarity
urbane,
which
said
he
for
of F r e n c h
excessive
his
politeness.
opinion
p o l i s t— h e
is
forced
urbanity,
character
of t h e
" to
defend.
there
is,
Y/hen t h e
F r e n c h — does
replies,
to
S t er n e "believes
an
say s,
he
there
"a
de
not
excess,"
While
he
Count
an
is m u c h
certain
line
1
of p e r f e c t i o n "
which
the F r e n c h
exceed:
S h o u l d it e v e r b e t h e c as e of t h e E n g l i s h , in the p r o g r e s s
of t h e i r r e f i n e m e n t s , to a r r i v e at the s a m e p o l i s h w h i c h
d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e F r e n c h , if w e d i d not l o s e the o o l i t e s s e
du c'oeur. w h i c h i n c l i n e s m e n m o r e to h u m a n e a c t i o n s , t h a n
c o u r t e o u s o n e s — w e s h o u l d at l e a s t l o s e t h a t d i s t i n c t
v a r i e t y a n d o r i g i n a l i t y of c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s
them, n o t o n l y f r o m e a c h o t h e r , b u t f r o m all t h e w o r l d b e ­
side s . 2
The
mentioned,
part
of
strictly
the
types
to h a v e
also
out
was
somewhat
English
a
was
social
at
least,
that
in F r a n c e
peculiar
2.
3.
to
outside
pointed
1.
the
traditional
characters:
spread
believed
itself
tha t
of
the
French,
praiseworthy,
but
the
that
code,
it w a s
the
appear
it w a s
than
politeness
much
French
much
in E n g l a n d ,
ove r
the
easier
"Universal
all
the English
overdone.
to
where
made
were
feeling
By
on t h e
conforming
themselves,
same.
from
Goldsmith
formulate
literary
there
so m a n y
sameness
t he
already
whole
are
of
character appears
3
continent."
He
fundamentally
more
V, 302.
Cf. T.S.. IV, 70 (vii, 23): " T h e r e is b u t a
t a i n d e g r e e of p e r f e c t i o n in e v e r y t h i n g . . . "
Pp. 3 0 2 - 0 3 .
" P r e s e n t S t a t e of P o l i t e L e a r n i n g , " ffork& III, 80.
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
polite
cer­
For
years
polish
of
classes,
hope
The
fend
English
French
ably
manners,
and m a n y
that
they
the
which
of h i s
of t h e
had
obtain
Englishman,
manners
had been
young men
might
patriotic
superiority
that
travellers
marvelling
extended
been
sen t
something
therefore,
country
French.
in
Some,
even
Gallic
fe l t
like
of
the
basic
politeness.
G o l d s m i t h ’s C h i n a m a n
In
walks
in
"The
the
Citizen
rain
with
of
lower
in
the
s avo i r - f a i r e .
upon
to
de­
supposed
Smollett,
F r e n c h w e r e a l m o s t a l l -petits - m a i t r e s
1
rude, b u t the l e s s r a b i d o p i n i o n was that
the
the
called
t he
had more
to
to P a r i s
of
face
at
professed
and
intoler-
the E n g l i s h
the W o r l d "
a Frenchman
and
an E n g l i s h m a n .
T h e E n g l i s h m a n s e e i n g me s h r i n k f r o m th e w e a t h e r , a c c o s t e d
me thus; " P s h a w , m a n , w h a t d o s t s h r i n k at? h e r e , t a k e thi s
coat; I d o n ' t w a n t it; I f i n d it no w ay u s e f u l to me; I
h a d as l i e f be w i t h o u t it."
T h e F r e n c h m a n b e g a n to s h o w
h i s p o l i t e n e s s in t u r n .
"My dear
F r i e n d , " c r i e d he, " w h y
w o n ' t y o u o b l i g e me b y m a k i n g u s e of m y c o a t ?
Y o u see h o w
w e l l it d e f e n d s m e f r o m t h e r a i n ; I s h o u l d not, c h o o s e to
p a r t w i t h it to o t h e r s , b u t to s u c h a f r i e n d as y o u I c o u l d
e v e n p a r t w i t h m y s k i n to do h i m s e r v i c e . "2
The
Chinaman
Apparently
this
ne r s .
When
Ramsay
to
English,
1.
2.
prefers
in
is
h is
imitate
perhaps,
a
the
genuineness
fairly
common
youth Hume
was
French manners,
have
more
of t h e
of E n g l i s h
defence
advised
"For
real
politeness.
of E n g l i s h
by
(says
man­
the C he v a l i e r
he) t h o 1 the
politeness
S e e h i s s l a n d e r o u s d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t y p i c a l
.SL&itrfe, T r a v e l s . , pp. 5 9 - 6 3 .
" T h e C i t i z e n of t h e W o r l d , " No. 4, WQ.fks H i ,
of t h e
x>? 1 1 fc
10o.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
319.
Heart,
sing
yet
the
French
certainly have
a "better w a y of e x p r e s ­
i t , 11 the y o u n g p h i l o s o p h e r
at l e n g t h
to p r o v e
in t h i n k i n g
thus.
politesse du
G o ld s mi t h,
Sterne,
in
insisting upon
co_eur. is m a k i n g the
a l th ou gh he
While
the
feren c e b e t w e e n
Yorick's
the
f o u n d it n e c e s s a r y to arg u e
1
o pp os i te .
But he was the e x c e p t i o n
opinion
the
comment
is not
same
so h a r s h u p o n
e x p r e s s e d to the
F r e n c h and E n g l i s h
upon
the F r e n c h fault
astonishment
3
p l a i s a n t e z — " and h i s
sort
the E n g l i s h
of d e f e n c e as
the French.
Count
is c o m m o n
of
of the
dif­
enough,
seriousness
is u n ­
u su a l , as the
of the Count — 11k o n -D i e u .1. . .Mai s
vous
anxiety
to h e a r
In this
opinion,
are i n t e n d e d
to
indicate.
marks,
Yorick has
he h a d
called
who h a d "a gay
he h a d
also
case of the
was
th e m
way
"the
reasons
as the Count re4
him.
But t ho u g h
conventionally
of
referred
treating
in h i s
" A l a u g h t e r - l o v i n g people,"
6
e v e r y t h i n g that is Great,"
to t h e i r
commissary
indulging
w h o l e w o r l d a g ai n st "
Yorick's
" s e r i o u s c h ar a ct e r" in the
7
of posts.
O n e m i g h t say that S t e r n e
lo v e
of p a r a d o x
in e x p r e s s i n g w i t h o u t
1. L e t t e r Ho. 4, to M i c h a e l R a m s ay , Sept. 12, 1734.
II, 19-20.
2. Cf. hi s l e t t e r to L y d i a on h e r p r o j e c t e d r e t u r n to E n g ­
land: "I w i l l s h e w y o u more rea l p o l i t e s s e s than any y o u
have
met w i t h in F r an c e, as m i n e wil l com e warm from the
h e a rt ."
L e t t e r Ho. 210, Aug. 24, 1767, p. 391.
His c e n ­
sure in the S e n t i a e n t a l J o u r n e y of F r e n c h p o l i t e s s e is
by no m e a n s so strong.
3
v
A4! Cf. above, Ch. II, 88.
5. L e t t e r Ho. 87, p. 163.
6. £.S..
IV, 45 (vii, 18).
7. T_. S..
IV, 89 (vii, 34).
Cf. above. Ch. II,
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without
permission.
explanation
the
opposite
to t h e
French
"a volatile,
giddy,
were
Senti.m_e.nt_al J o u r n e y
to r e t u r n
to d i n e
the Count,
w i t h him,
out
any a m p l i f i c a t i o n
not
consider French
mentioning
it as
the F r e n c h
serious
that
of
Yet,
that
the
left,
expect
would
so far
statement.
seriousness
one
t hat
We h a v e
him
free
He,
Yorick
as we know,
with­
of course,
would
a fault,
nor did Y o r i c k
to t h i n k
it
t h em
from
intention
h a d a real
already quoted
b o r e d after
so.
in
To b e l i e v e
such a c c u s a t i o n s
he was
making uncomplimentary
of co m p l i m e n t ,
as
in P a r i s
remarks
lett e rs
in F r a n c e
continent
of the
the
to s h o w
for
some
time.
his f e e l i n g a g a i ns t
F r e n c h must
in 1765,
about
it
grievance against
f r o m his
remaining
to t h e
platitudes"
While
sly
St er n e
s e c o n d v isit
"eternal
marked.
of the
d e s p i t e his
he b e c a m e
U p o n his
is
invites
w a r w i t h the p o w e r , it were well if we w e r e at
m a n n e r s of F r a nc e .
A l and of le v i t y is a l a nd
s e r i o u s m i nd is the n a t i v e soil of e v e r y v i r ­
s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r that does true honor to m a n ­
probable
French.
a l t h o u g h he
the m o r a l i s t E d w a r d Young:
As we a re at
war w i t h t h e
of guilt.
A
tue; a n d the
kind. ^
seems
a c c e p t e d o p in i o n that the
1
u n t h i n k i n g peopl e ."
In the
the
h ave b e e n
Walpole
was
dullness
more
there
of F r e n c h
society.
I a s s u r e you, y o u may come h i t h e r v e r y safely, a n d be in no
d a n g e r from mir th .
L a u g h i n g is as m u c h out of f a s h i o n as
1.
2.
S m o l l e t t , T r a v e l s . p. 30.
P r e f a c e to N i g h t vii,
P <?e t i <? ft.3-.W q e & s -£l£ S<i.
w a s 4 Xan &s .
ed. b y the Sev. J o h n M i t f o r d ,L o n d o n , 1896, 2 vols.
i,
135-36.
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
321.
pant ins or b i l b o j u e t s .
Good, folks, they h a v e no time to
laugh.
T h e r e is God. and the K i n g to he p u l l e d down first ;
and m e n a n d wo me n , one and all, are d e v o u t l y e m p l o y e d in
the d e m o l i t i o n .
T h e y t h i n k me very p r o f a n e , for h a v i n g
any "belief left.
B u t this is not m y only crime: I h a v e
told them, and am u n d o n e "by it, that they have t a k e n f ro m
us to a d m i r e the two d u l l e s t thi n gs we had, w h i s k and
Hi ch ar a s o n - - it is v e r y true, a n d they w a n t n o t h i n g but
Ge or g e G r e n v i l l e to m a k e their c o n v e r s a t i o n s , or r a t h e r
d i s s e r t a t i o n s , the m o s t t i r e s o m e u p o n the e a r t h. ^
That
his
observations
were
extraordinary
was a p p a r e n t
to
Walpole:
H o w e v e r , as I thi nk this will be my las t expeai tion across
the sea; I e n d e a v o u r and i n t e n d to see as m u c h as I can.
This is no v e r y d i f f i c u l t task, as v a r i e t y c e r t a i n l y does
not c o m p o s e the l if e of the F rench.
They l ive by the clock,
by the almanac, an d b y custom.
I th i nk I c o ul d w i t h great
truth w r i t e t r a v e l s to Paris, that w o u l d t o t a ll y c o n t r a d i c t
all i de a s r e c e i v e d of the F r e n c h in E n g l a n d . . . I like m a ny
of the people, a n d w i t h great r e a s o n . . . b u t t h e r e w a n t s that
s i n g u l a r i t y wh ic h, h o w e v e r , u n r e a s o n a b l e , m a k e s e v e r y E n g ­
l i sh c h a r a c t e r a n o v e l t y . 2
Walpole's
constitutional
ennui
t i o n — he was b o r e d e v e n w i t h
3
him l a u g h - - b u t it w o u l d seem
ity of the
French
which
must
be t a k e n
Sterne,
that
who
into
"never
could"
he hit h e r e upon
s t r u c k Sterne
as
considera­
a fault.
make
the
qual­
The
travel
L e t t e r Ho. 1064, to T h o m a s Brand, Oct. 19, 1765, VI, 332.
Cf. also No. 1046, to L a d y Hervey, Sept. 3, 1765, VI,. 287.
S t e r n e w as no a d m i r e r of the Savan ts .
S e f e r r i n g to the
B a r o n d ' H o l b a c h , h e writes: "The B a r o n
is one of t h e most
l e a r n e d n o b l e m e n here, the g r e a t e s t p r o t e c t o r of the wits,
a n d the S c a v a n s w h o are no wits..."
L e t t e r No. 83, to
G arrick, Jan. 1, 1762, p. 151.
L e t t e r No. 1069, to L a d y M a r y Coke, Nov. 17, 1765, VI,
349.
Cf. a l e t t e r w r i t t e n l at e r to Gray: "The g e n e r a l i t y
of the m e n h a v e t a k e n up gravi t y, t h i n k i n g it was p h i l o s o ­
p h y and E n g l i s h , a n d so h a v e a c q u i r e d n o t h i n g in the room
of t heir n a t u r a l l e v i t y and c h e e r f u l n e s s . "
L e t t e r No.
1090, Jan. 25, 1766, VI, 403.
See L e t t e r No. 1064, to Brand, Oct. 19, 1765, VI, 333.
A l t h o u g h he d i s l i k e d T r i s t r a m , the .5 t i m<?nt
JQ^r.qe_y.
f o u n d f avor in his c r i t ic al judgment.
L e t t e r No. 1208,
to G e o r g e M o n t a g u , Mar. 12, 1758, VII, 175.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
322.
book w h i c h W a l p o l e
written,
and
with the
novelty
j o k i n g l y p r o p o s e d was,
it r e m a i n e d
of t h e
for S t e r n e
remark
to
that
of course,
impress
never
the w o r l d
the F r e n c h
"are
too
s er i o u s ."
Proof
that
of the F r e n c h
salons
an e x c l a m a t i o n
When Yorick
gai ly
to
giv es
is t h i n k i n g m a i n l y
in this
concerning
joi n
de B i s s y ' s
Sterne
remark
and
several
in
class.
an d he d e p a r t s
the b o u l e v a r d s
of h e r
coteries
f o u nd l a t e r
of L a F l e u r ' s
a Sunday holiday
in a p a r t y u p o n
ma i d
is to be
the p e o p l e
La Fleur
of the
friends,
with the
Count
Y o r i c k exclaims:
H a p p y p e o p l e ! that o n c e a w e e k at least are sure to lay down
all y o u r c ar e s t o g e t h e r , and d a n c e and sing, and sport away
the w e i g h t s of g r i e v a n c e , w h i c h b o w dow n the spirits of
other n a t i o n s to t h e e a r t h . 1
At
first
that
glance
he ha s
made
s e r i o u s — but
to
the
ferring
to the
In this
of the
el l e t t e r s
care
seems
in d i r e c t
at V e r s a i 1 1 e s - - that
of the
sava n t s and t h e i r
lower
c o nt ra s t
the F r e n c h are
Count
like,
wit h
too
de B i s s y he
wh i l e
here he
is r e ­
is r e ­
classes.
opinion
"natural
supported by
remark
in the p r e s e n c e
ferring
that
this
of the
c o m m o n people,
a corollary
vivacity"
of the F r en ch ,
he is well
oth er E n g l i s h m e n .
in the G u a r d i a n . the
According
poor
to A d d i s o n ' s
to
trav­
In F r a n c e do not k n o w what
is.
It is not in the p o w e r of want or s l a v e r y to make t h e m m i s e r ­
able.
T h e r e is n o t h i n g to b e met w i t h in the c o u n t r y , but
1. V,
340.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
323.
1
mirth
and poverty.
S m ol l et t ,
of the
as
usual,
French
parently
for he
Every
sings,
ill-humored
common people
they laid
sees
is
one
t h e ir
for
c ar e s
in t h e i r t e m p e r
laughs,
in o b s e r v i n g the
enjoying
a s i d e more
a c a u se
and starves.
capacity
themsel v es .
Ap­
t h an "once
of their
a week,"
poverty:
...They are very s lothful, w i t h all t h e ir vivacity; and
great n u m b e r of t h e i r h o l i d a y s not only e n co u r a g e s this
d i s p o s i t i o n , but a c t u a l l y r o bs t h e m of one h a l f of what
their l a b o u r w o u l d o t h e r w i s e p r o d u c e . ^
Goldsmith
at t h e i r
is m o r e
charitable,
capacity
for
for,
enjoyment
like Addison,
in the
face
the
lazy
he w o n d er s
of care.
That l e v i t y for w h i c h we are apt to d e s p i s e this n a t i o n is
p r o b a b l y the p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of their happi n es s.
An a g r e e ­
able o b l i v i o n of past p l e a s u r e s , a f r e e d o m from s o l i c i t u d e
about f u t u r e ones, a n d a p o i g n a n t zest for every p r e s e n t e n ­
joyment, if t hey be not p h i l o s o p h y , are at least e xc e l l e n t
subs t i tut e s .®
This
differs
apostrophe.
hardly
at
Add
such
to
all
misfortunes
of others,
Sterne.
is no w o n d e r
natural
It
sp ir i t
f ro m
a way
the
of life
a nd we h a v e
then
of e n j o y m e n t
substance
that
a symp a th y
a lmost
he
of S t e r n e ' s
for the
the p h i l o s o p h y
apostrophizes
of the F r e n c h
of
the
and c r i t i c i z e s
the
4
fashionable
tendency
Besides
votes
towards
s er i o u s n e s s .
c o m m e n t i n g u p o n F r e n c h man n er s ,
considerable
attention
to F r e n c h ways
Sterne
of tho ug ht
1. " G u a r d i a n , " No. 101.
B r i t i s h e s s a y i s t s XVII, 223.
2. Tiravels . p. 47.
3. " P r e s e n t S t a t e of P o l i t e L e a r n i n g , " \7orks III, 39.
4. In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e h a p p y se r v a n t s S t e r n e p r e s e n t s
-**
—
•
H
r T T
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
de­
and of
»
7n
a
expression.
Some
while
contain
others
L'.ontreuil
that
thinks
an E n g l i s h
the
motive,
remarks:
He
t a k es
the
he
night
these
French
calls
"two
observations
a slight
had
before,
"Taut
Yorick,
pis,
to
in T r i s t r a m
the
t ant
t he
e cu
to
the
suspects
oi s a n d
had
by
adding
f ille
distinction
t ant
at
de
an u l t e r i o r
1
J s n a t o n e ."
between
m ie u x . which
in F r e n c h
let
amusing,
landlord
generosity
the
hinges
Sterne
merely
kademoi s elle
introduce
greatest
Shandy
an
who
pour
are
When
English
presented
expressions
of
sting.
illustrate
occasion
two
'While
to
Lord
c h a mb re
then
of
drop
conversation."
an
occasional
2
remark
on the
is m o r e
precise.
seemingly
ing
dramatist,
is
cellent
their
such
1.
2.
3.
To
language,
illustrate
contradictory
anecdote
which
French
concerning
and David
probably
characteristic
an a n e c d o t e
frequent
Sterne
the
John
names
Hume,
of
the
Se n t i m e n t a l
expressions,
the
3
authentic.
illustration
in the
the
a
sly
of t h e s e
relates
Home,
the
an
amus­
poet
philosopher
and historian,
In a d d i t i o n
to
French
adroitness
contains
of
use
J o u r n e y he
manner
of
in r e t r i e v i n g
dig
at
the
being
and
an
ex­
speaking,
and
a
f&u^s. £■£-.§,.
inane
politenesses
V, 104.
T h i s is h i s o n l y r e f e r e n c e to t h e i n n k e e p e r ' s
h a n d s o m e d a u g h t e r , w h o s e p o r t r a i t h e h a d d r a w n as he
c h a n g e d h o r s e s in h i s p r e v i o u s t r i p t h r o u g h l&ontreuil.
T.S.. IV, 2 6 - 2 7 (vii , 9) .
Cf. abo v e , Ch. II, 87.
W h e n S t e r n e w a s in P a r i s , r e t u r n i n g f r o m the s o u t h oi
F r a n c e (March-iday 1 7 6 4 ) . he h a d met H u m e a n d h a d a t t e n d e d
a d i n n e r at t h e E n g l i s h A m b a s s a d o r ' s .
Cf. Cross, hj_f g ,
p. 348; L e t t e r lie. 126, J u l y 1764, to ( r )
W i l l i s m Com be,
p p . 2 1 8 -19.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
which
exist
haps,
than
in the
whe n La Fleur
Yorick discourses
"like
or the
upon
is
thrown
thre e F r e n c h
the p o s i t i v e ,
a greater
extent,
second.
But
superlative.
write,
w or d s
but
whole
talks
fall,
when
swear-words
comparative,
and
of d i f f e r e n t
s up e rl at i ve ,
in,
which
with
is r e m i n i s c e n t
of the
two w o r d s
is l i k e w i s e r e l u c t a n t
humorous
and is
lers made,
no t
against
Sterne
ru n s away,
word Sterne
i n s t e a d he m a k e s
story,
also
one
of
em­
and the c o m p a r a t i v e — P e s t e .
1-- up on his
the h o r s e
This
to e x c l a i m
speech,
per­
f r o m h i s horse,
o th e r
plo ys u p o n his
1.
2.
to
of w h i c h serve for e v e r y u n e x p e c t e d throw
1
in life."
T h e first of t h e s e - - L i a b l e .'--La Fle u r
dice
T he
language
in any other.
Later,
force
French
he us e s
c a n no t b r i n g h i m s e l f
an a p o s t r o p h e
are
a t h i r d — the
"not
a n d p l e a for
to b e
its r e f e r e n c e
had
to th e
of the p a s s a g e
to
d e ce n t
in France."
French
freedom
of
in T r i s t r a m whe r e he
which make
to w r i t e
a serious
the French
F r e n c h p o s t - h o r s e s go an d
2
them.
But the tone is
complaint,
grossness
remarks upon
the
s u c h as other
of
travel­
speech.
e x c e s s i v e use
of h y p e r -
V, 134.
IX, 48 (vii, 20):
-- My ink b u r n s my f i n g e r s to try — an d wh en I h a v e —
'twill h a v e a w o r s e conseq.uence — — it will b u r n (I fear)
my paper.
--No; — I dare not —
Th e u m n e n t i o n a t l e w o r d in the Sent iment.al. Jouri;%y. is p r o b ­
ably the s e c o n d of the two w h i c h f i g u r e in the sto r y of
the A b b e s s of A n d o u i l l e t s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
I
326.
b ole
in F r e n c h
buckle
spe ec h .
on his n e w
When Yorick
w i g w il l
not
ob s e r v e s
stand,
that
the F r e n c h
a certain
barber
re­
plies:
Y o u ma y i m m e r g e i t . . . i n the
Yn'hat a g reat s c al e is e v e r y
t h o u g h t I— 1
An
Englishman,
a p ail
"the
for
of water.
grandeur
the
cause
continues
Bu t
He
trip
case
co u ld h a ve
the wig
work
o cean
sea,
that
i t p e r f o r m s. 11
an o b s e r v a t i o n
o nly
of
expression
in the
in the
from the
sta n d- city.'
thought
of the F r e n c h
therefore,
mo r e t h a n
into h i s
it will
in this
wor d : and less
of P a r i s
concludes,
press ion p r o f e s s e s
first
the
of d i p p i n g
of the d i s t a n c e
incorporating
Y o r i ck ,
is mor e in the
experiment
practicable.
his
in
ocean, an d
t h in g u p o n
2
t h i n g . 11
is, b e ­
completely
im­
"T h e F r e n c h
ex­
Sterne
is h e r e
already made
on
abr o ad :
H e r e ev e ry t h i n g is h y p e r b o l i z e d — and if a w o m a n is but s i m ­
p l y p l e a s e d — 1tis Je suis c h a r m e e — and if she is c h a r m e d 't
is n o t h i n g less, t h an that she is r a v i - sh 1d — and w h e n ye,.Y.i.~
sh'd, (which m a y h a p p e n ) th e re is n o t h i n g left for her but
to fly to the o t h e r w o r l d for a m e ta p h o r , a n d swear o u 1elle
etoit t out e ext as i e e — w h i c h m o de of s pe a k i n g , is by the bye,
h er e c r e e p i n g in t o use, a n d t h e r e is s ca r c e a w om a n who
u n d e r s t a n d s the b o n t o n , but is s e ve n t i m e s in a day in down
r ight e x t a s y - — that is, the d e v i l 1s in her — by a small m i s t a k
of one w o r l d for t h e o t h e r — 3
Although perhaps
an e x p e r i e n c e
seem*’that
on o ne
w ith
of his
a barber
he h a d r e w o r k e d
1. V, 173.
2. V
174 .
3. L e t t e r No.
87,
to
tr i ps
abroad Sterne had
as he h er e
the
G arrick,
describes,
observation
Apr.
19,
on
1762,
such
it w o u l d
the F r e n c h
pp.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
161-62.
way
327.
of s p e a k i n g
from
the
comment
characteristic
of S t e r n e
anything
h u t he was
good;
comment.
system
in " m a k i n g t he i r
a Fault,
tho
not
S u c h an
ar e not
the o n l y one
too
the P o n t
there
Keuf,
occu r s
an
is
such
a
of e x a g g e r a t i o n
erred,
he
thought,
which
1
to be b e l i e v ' d , . . "
design'd
the N o t a r y
They
remote
from Truth;
of e x p r e s s i o n
in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the p r i d e
When
It
to m a k e
n o t e d the use
exaggerated manner
p u b l i c works.
letter.
h i m s e l f w h e n e v e r he has
of c o m p l i m e n t s .
Civilities
they
in this
to r e p e a t
Hume ha d long before
in the F r e n c h
St er n e
made
is n o t e d by
of the F r e n c h
in the F r a g m e n t
eulogistic
is
in th e i r
walks
t o w ar d s
p a s s a g e u p o n the
edifice.
O f all the b r i d g e s w h i c h ever we re built, the Po nt N e u f
must own, that it is the n o b l e s t — the finest — the g r a n d e s t —
the l i g h t e s t — the l o n g e s t - - t h e b r o a d e s t that ever c o n j o i n e d
l a n d and la nd t o g e t h e r u p o n the fa ce of tne t e r r a q u e o u s
globe —
B v this it seems
b e e n ja, F r e n c h m a n .2
In the
at
italicized
as
sentence
the b o a s t i n g p r i d e
pride
had become
mock letter
ca us e s
if the
Sterne
a French
the F r e n c h m a n
of the
employs
of the F r e n c h
a joke a m o n g
"from
author
iron y
to his
had
to p o k e
in the brid g e.
the E n g l is h .
gentleman
f r a gm e at
Fielding
friends
pot
fun
This
in his
in Paris,
to write:
A f t e r t a k i n g a s u r v e y of the N e w Bridge, w h i c h m u st be g r e a t ­
ly a d m i r e d by all w h o ^ h a v e not seen the P o n t - n e u f , we past by
a row of b u i l d i n g s . . . * 5
I , 20.
2 . V , 350 .
3. O p . c i t . , W o r k s
XII,
233.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
328 .
An d
Cole
notes
in his
Journal:
The B r i d g e s over the S e i n e at P ar i s are ah out 5 or 6, &
n o t h i n g r e m a r k a b l e for their beauty: t h o 1 to hea r the
D e s c r i p t i o n s of the P o n t - K e u f , & the P o n t - R o y a l , one
wou ld s u p p o s e that t h e r e were not two suc h B r i d g e s to be
met w i t h any w h e r e . 1
VYhen one
turns
to
su c h a guide b o o k as B r i c e ' s
1 a V i 1 1 e de P a r i s . the r e a so n
evident.
O f the P o n t
De s c r i p t i on de
for this E n g l i s h s a r c a s m b e c o m e s
Re uf B r i c e
writes:
P e r s o n n e ne peut d i s c o u v e n i r que ce pont ne soit
plus b e a u x & des m i e u x ordonnez de toute 1 'Europe.
ques choses que l ' o n p u i s s e v a n t e r a i l l e u r s dans ce
d'edif i ce , il est c e r t a i n que cet o u v r a g e l ' e m p o r t e
tous ceux dont on a c o n n o i s s a n c e ...
un des
Q,uelgenre
sur
On doit e n c o r e c o m p t e r entre les g r a n d e s b e a u t e z du Pont
Neuf, la vue i n c o m p a r a b l e qui s'y d e c o u v r e qui pass e pour
un e des plus m a g n i f i q u e s du mond, si on veut croire ceux
qui ont vu t o u t e 1 'Europe, & les pays les plus eloignez.
Sterne's
gibe
chapters
of the
the
opinion
at
the
seventh book
that
the
These remarks
fer from thos e
moderate.
the F r e n c h mind,
his r e m a r k s
tend to
up on
which
was
a secure
stems
composed
in that
knowledge
observations
from
of the Par is
I- Par i s J o u r n a l . p. 48.
2. De sc r ip ti on d e .. .P aril III,
tone
is more
of the w o r k i n g s
of
are r e f i n e d of the
and prejudice.
of d i s a p p r o v a l .
comme n t
in
of s p e a k i n g d i f ­
c o m p l i m e n t a r y and at
follow traditional patterns
a critic a l
us
in a S h a n d e a n mood.
the
ignorance
are b y no m e a n s a l wa y s
pla ce Y o r i c k m a k e s
spirit
the F r e n c h m a n n e r
tourists
Sterne's
is in the
of T r i s t r an an d confirms
Fragment
of ot h e r
Based upon
gross r a i l l e r y
French here
upon
But
times
In one
the F r e n c h w a y
238 .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
thinking.
When
th e
Y o r i c k an d
S h a k e s p e a r e ’s jester,
't is c e r t a i n
bine --This
wit
th e
remark makes
and E n g l i s h
The
versely
Madame
u tt e r
Cou n t
fails
French
the
good
sen se
strangers,"
cumstances,
th e
reflecting upon
c on c ei v e
and
better
When
a t r i c k of f o r t u n e
lady
replies
com­
rationality.
love.
s h o u l d have
than they
distinction between French
of the E n g l i s h ,
in conne ct i on wit h
what
he r e m a r k s :
conventional
rationality
de L* **
to d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n P a r s o n
come
howev e r,
Yorick
it
ob serves
is that
together
that he
is n o t e d ad-
spoils
under
the
they,
such
to
"two
cir­
s i t u a t i o n by
it:
Y o u t h a n k f o r t u n e , c o n t i n u e d s h e — y o u h a d r e a s o n — the heart
k n e w it, a n d was s a t i s f i e d ; and who but an E n g l i s h p h i l o s o ­
pher w o u l d h a v e sent n o t i c e of it to t h e b r a i n to r e v e r s e
the j u d g m e n t . ^
In a s i t u a t i o n of
superior
sentiment,
to the b r a i n ,
the
and f e e l i n g
l a b e l l e d as a p h i l o s o p h e r ,
E n g l i s h - - g r a v e , sensible,
for
to the m a n
of
to
infers,
thought.
the he a r t
Yorick
is
is
so the
F r e n c h thou gh t of the
3
and r e f l e c t i v e .
Although French­
men a dmired these E n g l i s h virtues
f au l t s
lady
in m a n y
ways
they w o u l d be
feeling.
1. V, 286.
2. V, 59-60.
3. W h e n this t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w is t a k e n into c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
we ha ve l i t t l e r e a s o n for saying, as does Mr. H e r b e r t
H e a d in his e d i t i o n of the S ent i mental. Jop.rn,g.y , that
this p a s s a g e is " p r o b a b l y a sly dig at Hume." p. 226,
n .6.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
330 .
But
the
love-niakers.
time,
French
W h e n he
a recurrence
c o a i g u e ." Y o r i c k
cause h i m
love
"T
the
is
1’he
their
lady's
They
were
because
an d
of
the
"comic
m o m en t ,
use"
and
Smollett
an offer
the
the F r e n c h m a n
in
alo ne
seems
of his
Yorick
as
a second
to the
a Frenchman's
lady
gallantry
11b i e n
would
" — to m a k e
p e r s o n the
second."
lady.1
observation upon
to be m a s t e r s
of t h e i r a b i l i t y
left
of th e o p p o r t u n i t y
is a c o m m o n
reputed
c o n d e m n e d by
lady are
that
f o r t . replied
remark
are
situation which
observes
to m a k e
first
themselves
in the
art
of m a k i n g
s p e a k i n g p ol i t e l y .
is taught
the F r en c h.
the t e c h n i q u e
lo v e
According
" f r o m his
to
early
y e a r s 11:
He learns, like a p a r r o t , by rote, the who le c i r c l e of F r e n c h
c o m p l i m e n t s , w h i c h y o u k n o w are a set of p h r a s e s , r i d i c u l o u s
even to a proverb; an d the se he t h ro w s out i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y
to all women, w i t h o u t d i s t i n c t i o n , in the e x e r c i s e of that
ki n d of a d d re s s, w h i c h is h e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e name of
g a l l a n t r y : it is no m o r e t h a n his m a k i n g love to e v e r y w om a n
who will give h i m the h e a r i n g .
It is an e xe r c i s e , b y the
r e p e t i t i o n of w h i c h h e b e c o m e s very pert, v e r y fa m i l i a r , and
ve r y i m p e r t i n e n t . 2
Like
Smollett
in real
feel in g .
reputation,
the w o r s t
— To
To
do
Sterne
think
this
know
set
He
1. V, 87.
2. T r a v e l s . p.
3. V, 87-88.
th e s e
believes
that
little
first
compliments
the French,
of m a k i n g love,
of m a r k s m e n
of m a k i n g
at
believes
love
sight
that
by
a n d are
to be
lacking
despite
their
"in
ever
tried Cupid's
3
s ent JLment s .*
is to p r e s e n t
"th e
offer
61.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tru th
patience."
and
them­
selves w i t h
it,
to te
sifted
with all
their oours a n d
contres.
1
by ail u n h e a t e d mind."
In this
peating
made.
criticism
economically
In a l e t t e r
comme n ts
of F r e n c h
observations
written
c o n c e r n i n g his
love-making Sterne
w h i c h he h i m s e l f h a d
a f t e r his
first
trip abroad,
is r e ­
already
he
own l o v e - m a k i n g ;
I car ry on m y a f f a i r s quite in the F r e n c h way, s e n t i m e n t a l ­
ly- - "JLijyLfiliJL” (say they) 11n 1e s t r ien sans sent i m e n t . 11—
How n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e y m a k e such a p o t h e r about the w o r d .
they hav e no p r e c i s e idea a n n e x ’d to it— 2
A nd
in the last
book
of Iris tram he
with U n c l e T o b y ' s
amour
b u l k of the w o r l d
lie u n d e r - - b u t
to a man,
who
believe
P RE S E N C E ,
'that
The
set
sentiments
especially noticeable
r e m a rk s
that
"a s i n g l e
the s e n t i m e n t s
"a c o n d e m n a t i o n of an error w h i c h the
in it,
the F r e n c h , every one
almost
t a l k i n a of love
1 w o u l d as soon
the same r e ce ip t .
i n t r o d u c e d in c o n n e c t i o n
of
'em
as m u c h as the R E A L
is m a k i n g
it .'
about m a k i n g a b l a c k - p u d d i n g by
w i t h w h i c h the F r e n c h ma de
in their
short
drama.
Accordingly
s c e n e ” of N a t u r e
of a d o z e n F r e n c h pla y s
love
were
Sterne
is " w o r t h
compounded
all
together—
and yet they are ab solut elv fine; — a nd w h e n e v e r I h a v e a
more b r i l l i a n t a f f a i r u p o n my hand s than common, as they
suit a p r e a c h e r j u s t as w e l l as a hero, I g e n e r a l l y m a k e
my se r m o n out of 'em— — and for the t e x t — — " C a p p a d o c i a ,
1. V, 88.
2. L e t t e r No. 148, to ('() J o h n W o de h o u s e , (?) Aug. 23, 1765,
265.
3 . 3L.S.. IV,
282 (ix, 18).
Cf. this last, sent e nc e w i t h the
S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y : "I s h ou ld as soon think of m a k i n g
a g e n t e e l suit of cloaths out o f r e m n a n t s . ” P« •88.
Reproduced wild permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Pontus end Asia, P h r y g i a and P a m p h y l i a " - - i s as good as any­
one in the B i b l e . 1
In his
letters
Sterne
d r am a.
Diderot's
ges ti v e
of this
h ad b e e n m or e u n k i n d
F 11 s_ Nat ur e 1 he
to the F r e n c h
criticizes
in words
sug­
pass a ge :
It has too m u c h se n t i m e n t in it, (at least for me) the
speeches too long, a n d sav o ur too m u c h of p r e a c h i n g —
this m a y be a s e c o n d reason, it is not to my taste.^
Yj'hile in the l e t t e r
he
is o u t s p o k e n
in the S ent iment al J o u r n e y he
satiric
fits
comment
t hem
biblical
that
texts,
is m o r e
the d i d a c t i c
for the pulpit.
against
Y o r i c k can s u p p l y
sub t le
element
Although
the p r ea c hi n g,
of these plays
the p l a y s
one by
in m a k i n g
contain no
t a k i n g a verse
of
the B i b l e
list
w h i c h b y it s e l f has no m e a n i n g , except for being a
3
of names.
As a m a t t e r of fact, s i nc e S terne was i n ­
corporating
a great
laental J o u r n e v . his
is unjust,
d ra m a t i s t s ,
crime
of his
criticism
b u t his m a n n e r
of the F r e n c h
the c a p i t a l
deal
own p r e a c h i n g
in the S ent i-
of F r e n c h p l a y s
on this b asis
of p r e a c h i n g
who
is d i f fe re n t
certainly deserved
4
from that
ce ns u r e
for
of dullness.
1. V, 361.
2. L e t t e r No. 87, to Garrick, Apr. 19, 1762, p. 162.
3. Cf. A c t s 2:9-10.
4. In D i d e r o t ' s play, c o n d e m n e d abbve, t h e r e is one " s e n t i ­
ment" v e r y s i m i l a r to one of S te r n e ' s .
D o r v a l o b s er v es
to Clai r ville on the subject of women: " Mon ami, leur
ame est s e m b a b l e au cristal d ' u n e onde pure et transp a r e n t e , ou le s p e c t a c l e ^ t r a a q u i l l e de la nature s 1est
pei nt . "
Act I, sc. vi , 0Evre.fi
completes. A_g. Did.ar.Q_t.,
Paris, 1821, IV, 26.
Cf. S t e r n e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of a
w o m a n ' s heart as a "temple," h u n g w i t h n a tu r e' s dr a w i n g s
within.
V, 281.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
This
mild
censure
indeed when
of t he
F r e n c h way
c o m p a r e d w i t h the
In m a k i n g a c l e v e r d i s t i n c t i o n ,
of his
own heart,
making
than
the
which
gallant
Sterne's
leads
h i m to b e
women.
the
very
cou nt e r
of
Parisian
wits
fashionable
and
Sterne
c a p a b le
is
of S mollett.
extols
of m o re
in love and
sparing
in his
he
p ok e
d oe s
society.
with Madame
diatribes
love
the g o o d n e s s
delicate
love-
F r e n c h m a n or the E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r .
interest
Nevertheless
la di e s
is
of e x p r e s s i n g
in one
s a v a n t s . he m ar k s
Frenchwoman's
feminine heart
criticism
fun at t h e
Preparatory
de V * * *
the
of F r e n c h
pretensions
to d e s c r i b i n g his
of the
the
cot eries
stages
of
en­
of
of the
career.
T h e r e are t h r e e e p o c h a s in the empire of a F r e n c h w o m a n —
She is c o q u e t t e — t h en deist — then devot e : the empire d u r ­
ing th e se is n e v e r l o s t — she o nly cha n ge s h e r subjects:
w he n t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s or m o r e h av e u n p e o p l e d her
d o m i n i o n s of the s l a v e s of love, she r e p e o p l e s it w it h
the s la v e s of i n f i d e l i t y — and t hen w i t h the slaves of
the church.-1T h is
clever distinc ti on ,
least
based
French
l a c k of
women
on fact.
the
strictly
In c o m p a r i s o n w i t h
in p o l i t e
shyness,
if not
society
freedom
all
seemed
of their
a c cu r at e ,
is at
th e E n g l i s h
the
c o q u et t is h .
conversation,
Their
which
so
i m p r e s s e d E n g l i s h m e n , were, as S m o l l e t t o b s e r v e d , m a t t e r s of
2
cu st o m and e d u c a t i o n in a di ff e r e n t society.
This d i f f e r e n c e
Sterne
1.
2.
had noted
V, 373.
T r a v e l s . pp.
in t h e
case
of
the grisset,
who,
57-58.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
w he n her
husband
entered
r e m a r k e d that
replied
that
suddenly
" ’t was
Monsieur
as Y o r i c k was
n o b o d y but
her h u s b a n d , "
I to m y s e l f , as he went
of this w o m a n ] 1
In these
Sterne
Frenchmen
women.
showed
Other
of s u r p r i s e
of
and
women h a v e
mo r e
his
letters
n o t h i n g but
in the
case
c oq ue try without
we k n o w
suspicious
of
lett e rs
his
to
f r e e d o m whi c h
custom
allowed
that
t he i r
the
monarchy
is
sal i o u e .11 the
privileges.
Although
of
the
to the la c k of j e a l o u s y
man
h a d n o t e d this w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s
2
i n d i g n a t i o n , but S t e r n e m e r e l y observes that
"where
fact
r e f e rs
o u t - - a n d can this
travellers
in Fran ce ,
the
The h u s b a n d
" d i d h i m too m u c h h o n o u r . "
Good God] s a i d
be the h u s b a n d
words
c o u n t i n g her pulse,
the
that
of M a d a m e de
V***
approving
di s a p p r o v i n g ,
Sterne,
principles
or
like m o s t E n g l i s h m e n ,
of F r e nc h women.
d a u g h t e r L y d i a he
he r e c o r d s
In one
delivered himself
from
was
of his
of a p ie c e
of f a t h e r l y advi c e;
— I h o p e y o u h a v e not f o r g o t t e n my last r e qu e st , to ma k e no
f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h t h e F r e n c h w o m e n — not tha t I t h i n k ill of
them all, but s o m e t i m e s w o m e n of the b e s t p r i n c i p l e s are
the most ins inuat ina — nay I am so j e al ou s of y o u that I
s h o u l d be m i s e r a b l e w e r e I to see y o u h a d the least g r a i n
of c o q u e t t r y in y o u r c o m p o s i t i o n . ^
But
Sterne
v
—
—
-
is not
w r i t i n g the
Sent i m en tal.
Q h h h $ X to d i s p a r a g
.
2.
"For y o u m a y r e a l l y cou rt a F r e n c h m a n ’s wife b e f o re his
face w i t h o u t his b e i n g the least j e a l o u s . "
Millard,
TJlS. -Gentleman 's Guide.. p. 210.
3. L e t t e r No. 122, M a y 15, 1764, p. 212.
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
335.
F r e n c h man n er s ,
end
t h e r e f o r e he
says n o t h i n g
a gainst
coquet­
ry.
The
extremes
ot he r s b e s i d e s
of c o q u e t r y
S t e rn e .
and A evoti am were
Thicknesse,
for
example,
n o te d "by
wrote:
The w o m e n of f a s h i o n are l i b e r t i n e s in t h e i r youth, and of
co ur s e d e v o t e e s in old age.
So soon as t h e y find t h e m ­
se lv e s n e g l e c t e d by the men, their p a s s i o n s take ano t he r
turn; and like the e n t h u s i a s t i c M et h od is t , t h e y fancy t h e m ­
selves in love w i t h J e s u s C h r i s t . 1
But
Thicknesse
later
was
not
took occasion
c ontent
to
s ho w his
with s tating
the
fact.
He
d i s a pp r ov al .
What is v e ry s i n g u l a r is, that P ar is a b o u n d s with a great
n u m b e r of m a r r i e d women, from t h i r t y - f i v e to f or t y- f i v e
y e a r s of age, who are as notori oua for t h e i r devotion, as
for their i n c o n t i n e n c e .
I know a c e r t a i n m a r r i e d c ------sse,
t u r n e d of forty, who one while spends all h e r m o r n i n g s in
p r a y e r and c o n f e s s i o n , and all the a f t e r n o o n with a y o u n g
l over 1 At a n o t h e r time, her old c o n f e s s o r h a s her all to
himself' for a w h o l e mo n th , then he is d i s c a r d e d , and the
l o v e r gains g round.
In short, love and r e l i g i o n ebbs and
flows like the i r r e g u l a r tides after an e ar t h q u a k e .
Th e
comments
was not
Sterne
so
was
of T h i c k n e s s e
clear-cut
aware
that
as St e r n e m ak e s
the
among French women
of all
Tr ist ram S h a n d y he
said
e li tt l e
1*
2.
ind i ca t e that
character
ages.
the d i s t i n c t i o n
it h e r e
of t h e
In the
for effect.
d e v o t e was general
seventh book
of the y o u n g J a n a t o n e that
of the devot e : but
that,
sir,
of
"She has
is a terce to a nine
U s e f u l H i n t s ,p. 55.
U s e f u l H i n t s ,pp. 157-58.
S m ol l et t r e m a r k s u p o n the
great n u m b e r of d e v o t e e s and d o u b t s t h e i r s i n c e r i t y .
"For my part, I n e v e r k n e w a f a n at i c who was not an
h y p o c r i t e at b o t t o m . "
g r a v e l s . p. 41.
Cf. p. 28.
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproductiop prohibited without permission.
1
in y o u r
alent
to
favour— "
a mo n g F r e n c h
say
tends
women.
a wor d against
t a k e n up
(as
wavers,
In
them,
of the
is m e r e l y
devote
one
various
been
insertion
coquetry and devotism
affectation
letters
prev­
he h e s i t a t e d
I hate borrowed, c h a r a c t e r s
by
society.
among
Various
but
a deist
seems
people
France.
of
as
to be
q u a l i t y at
"w i t h
an
w i t h a th e i s m .
this
Sterne's
ti me
deiste
Apparently
If W a l p o l e
freethinking
de V***
who
own
then prevalent
the
of the
were
when
woman
is not
according
to
step b e t w e e n
i d e a , — a dig
in F r e n c h
fashionable
Sterne
visited
the d i f f e r e n c e ,
he does
and the p h y s i c a l
w h o m he m e n t i o n s
deism
m a y be
salo n s
H a p p i l y for them, pour souls.1 t h e y
so far into t h in k i n g .
T he y assent
French
intermediate
all he r m a t e r i a l i s m "
b e g i n n i n g of the book.
one
five years.
of f r e e t h i n k i n g
distinguish between the
judge,
for
T h o u g h he m a y h a v e k n o w n
oreci euse
Madame
is a c o q u e t t e
of d e i s m
sorts
s h o w i n g ho w
stages.
the p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m
mous
the
of his
"only
implied
class,
should have
The
not
disliked
a woman
between the
her age
at
he
does h e r shift) for the p u r p o s e she in2
to e f f e c t u a t e . "
But the d i s l i k e of a f f e c t a t i o n in
the J o u r n e y
yet
Actually
was
to h i m
at the
synony­
a c c e p t e d as a c o m p e t e n t
did not
go very
deep;
are not c a p a b l e of g o i ng
to a great deal, b e c a u s e
1.
IV, 27 (vii, 9).
Cf. S..i. V, 222, where he o b se rv e s that
the fille de c h a m b r e was a p p a r e n t l y in the s e r v ic e of
"so me d e vo u t w o m a n of f a s h i o n . "
2. L e t t e r No. 149, to (?) J o h n W o d e h o u s e , (?) Sept. 20,
1765, p. 258.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
337.
it is the fash i on , a n d b e c a u s e they d o n ' t k n o w h o w to c o n ­
t rad i ct .
T h e y are a s h a m e d to d e f e n d the H o n a n C a t h o l i c
r e l i g i o n , b e c a u s e it is q u i t e e x pl o de d; but I am c o n v i n c e d
t h ey b e l i e v e it in t he i r h e a r t s . 1
That
t h ei r
going
conversion,
is a t t e s t e d b y
transitional
power
tery
be
he
It r e s o l v e s
is a d e v i c e
considered
l ov e
scores
over
the
a humorous
a n d re l i g i o n .
similar
coquette
and
into an
hits.
and
La Fleur's
scattered
taken
of the
the use
It may,
promise
a
c an n o t be
of t h e F r e n c h
In s e v er al
thorough­
d e i s m as
illustration
f o rs w ea r s.
censure
not
the devot e .
de V***
the h u m a n heart,
soon
was
represents
of M a d a m e
itself
w h i c h he
as
perversion,
w h e n he
conversion
of f l a t t e r y
towards
Sterne
stage between
Yorick's
seriously.
or r ather,
of f l a t ­
h owever,
attitude
i ns t a n c e s
to b r i n g
all
the
wenches
of M o n t r e u i l p a r d o n s from R o m e m a y be taken as a gibe
2
at t h e i r r e l i g i o n .
T h e use of the w o r d d i a b 1 e for "small"
3
v e x a t i o n s such as " cu ck o l d o m " c o m m e n t s u p o n their r e p u t e d l y
l o o s e m o r al s .
kissed
the
in P a r i s
the
And Yorick's
f i 1 1 e de
"none kiss
French manner
a m u s i n g to most
to be
1.
noti c ed ,
L e t t e r No.
2. v, 119.
3. v, 13b.
4. V. 227.
of
statement
he w o u l d have
chambre
each
in p a r t i n g but for the fact that
4
o th er but men," m e n t i o n s j o k i n g l y
ceremonious
Anglo-Saxons.
are all m a d e
10 90,
that
to Gray,
gr e e t i n g ,
But
these
in p a s s i n g ,
Jan.
25,
which
l it t l e
still
giDes,
w i t h ou t
1766,
VI,
seems
it
emphasis,
is
for
403.
<
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
338.
Sterne
does
ever he
ment s
not
seems
upon
the F r e n c h
woman,
against
nationalities
The
of
J o u r n e y . where
He
r e v ea l
had
(although
1.
of his
"three
light
Wher­
com­
epochas"
and b a nt er i ng ,
make people
of all
called
because
their
of p h r a s e s
from hi m s e l f .
the
sensibility
t h em e s
some
an d
His
he h a n d l e
occasionally
he
and
attest,
method
the n a r r a t i v e
to the
it
was his
unacknowledged
in the Sent.imental
creative
frequently
narrative
that
of his
F ur t h e r m o r e ,
ideas
of
of the S h a n d e a n mann e r
of his h e a l t h his
height,
in
entirely
in Tri stram
tnefts),
Indeed,
freed h i m s e l f
something
tod a y
h a d w r i t t e n b e f o r e him.
he r e s o r t s
case
S ha n d e i s m .
iven
shown
who
only does
French.
the
which
never
habits.
always
Not
f o i b le s
suggests
not
deal
or
is alwa y s
work Sterne
b o r r o w i n g w o u l d be
recurrence
in the
speaking
tone
satire
reworked
to b o r r o w
at
of
little
old S h a n d e a n
of c o m p o s i t i o n .
nab it
way
as
wit h the
human.
use
w h i c h he has
sever e
satiric,
the
the
w r i t i n g his m o r a l
from his
to seem
slightly
of the F r e n c h
directed
wish
to
p ow e r s
relied upon
as
those
the f r eq ue n t
he b o r r o w e d
is often
suit
old S h a n d e a n
were
a great
same.
1
himse l f,
but
tricks
the
of direct
Cf. p o s i t i o n of o r e f a c e w i t h i n wo r k wi t h that of
t r a m * 1 1 . 6 1 - 6 8 (iii, 20).
Also his t e l l i n g of story
of the M a r q u i s d ' S * * * * to p l ea s e himse l f.
T h e r e is
p l e n t y of p r e t e n s e of c a r e l e s s m a n a g e m e n t , an a t t it ud e
w h i c h suits s e n s i b i l i t y as well as S handeism.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
339.
1
borrowings
2
and
indecent
b l i n 6 s with th e
These
Sterne's
his
work,
b o o k fr o m
chronicler
flexibility
adepts
Shandean
earlier
t ravel
handed
reader
deftly
c o n s t i t u t e d the
T he
and t h e
rest
sensibility.
of the
time
trations
siders
touches,
serve
those
although
still
Stern e' s
figures
greatest
lies
It
is m o r e
such l i t e r a r y
by u s i n g
like
of t r a v e l
in the S h a n d e i s m but
fair to
say that
c o m p r e s s e d so m a n y
fact,
Th e h e a v y -
th e i r
S a l a d i n 's sword
of d e t a i l w h i c h
and of the
French
single d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n S t e r n e ' s
not
is
Even
amorphous mass
accepted opinions
of
h a d none of the
a f t e r po i n t
wit
a n d qui b-
to d i f f e r e n t i a t e
t r a v e 1 1 er s .
S t er n e' s .
t h r o u g h the
satire
reminiscent
further
of othe r
p r o v e d point
of e m o t i o n s
this
and the
of m o o d w h i c h was
pens as b l u d g e o n s .
in c u t t i n g
pedantic
4
critic.
of facts a n d
as S m o l l e t t
3
a llusions,
into
in the a m o u n t
no other p r o s e
varying
so few pages.
the more one r e a l i z e s
book
expressions
The m o r e
that
of
author
and
one
illus­
con­
such a result
1. E.g. " F r a g m e n t " on power of lo ve (V, 123-24) ta k e n w i t h ­
out a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t from the c h a p t e r on " A r t i f i c i a l A l ­
l u r e m e n t s " in B u r t o n ' s Anat omy o f M e l a n c h o l y . T h e " F r a g ­
ment" s u p p o s e d l y t r a n s l a t e d f r o m "th e old F r e n c h of
R a b e l a i s ' s time" (V, 344) is not a b o r r o w i n g but an i n ­
s t a n c e of the S h a n d e a n m e t h o d , or l a c k of m eth od , in
interpolation.
2. E.g. p a s s a g e on B e v o r i s k i n s , V, 297-98.
3. E.g. Mr. S h a n d y ' 3 t h e o r i z i n g on n u m b e r of dwa rf s in Paris
(V, 208), and the m e n t i o n of G r u t e r and Spon l a b o r i n g
ove r "a n o n s e n s i c a l i n s c r i p t i o n . " (V, 344).
4. E.g. a n e c d o t e c o n c e r n i n g r e c e p t i o n of St e r n e ' s serm o ns by
an i m p o r t a n t c h u r c h m a n (V, 286) and p r o t e s t a g a i ns t the
r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n in fina l a n e c d o t e (V, 416.
Cf. JE...S.
II, 105-06 (iii, 31)).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owher. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
340 .
coul d de
not
achieved
tne b o o k has
Sterne
the 5 ent i m en ta l
love,
love,
material
his
love
one
c ar r y
is not,
out
c o lo r s
much
and m o r a l s
a n d the
do.
of
the
little
of
Although
play,
"a l l
separation
indelibly
on the m ea n s
instruction,
intention
t h a n we
or
in
the
the v a r i e d
and methods
of
F r e n c h nation,
illustrative
foreign
the p e r ­
anecdotes
tells.
g l a ss e s has
as others.
the
only
of T r i s t r a m
p r o a c h by
the same
the same
to c o m p a r e
on the t h e o r y
of
Even
of the
enjoyment
dance
Maria,
are d i s s i m i l a r
Not
opinions
modified and
epistolary
of t h e i r
women
fin d s
of b o r e d o m
its wa y
Journey
into
or
the
own.
S t er n e
contro­
travel,
of his
with the French
the
sensa­
encounter with
concerning
None
ap­
of T r i s t r am Sh.afl.d_y.
pleasurable
o n l y has
of o t h e r s
s o f t e n e d his
expressions
to P a r i s
Sentimental
of the
well
in the
journey
the e p i s o d e s
in mood.
as
an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t
such as the L a n g u e d o c i a n
of the
from h i m s e l f
and the
tions,
v e r t e d ma n y
through pleasantly
the c h a p t e r s
on C a l a i s
m a n ca n m a k e
road.
mad e
to d i f f e r
corresponding portions
to see ho w
written
of o b s e r v a t i o n s
led Sterne
One has
seventh book
he h a s
his
like D i d e r o t ' s
without
Whether
of m o r a l
another better
presents
The r e c o r d i n g
with
to
sensibility
w h o m he meets,
tinted
as a p i e c e
throughout,
the m a n n e r s
w h i c h he
value
J ournev
w h i c h he
travel,
a t h o r o u g h g o i n g plan.
seriously
love,
character,"
sons
much
attempted
t e a c h i n g us to
o n l y by
bu t
frank
or d is t ru s t
S e n t i m e n t_al_ J our ng.y.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
341.
There
the
the m a i n
offending opinions
a favorable
These
comments
bility
kindly
an d e x p r e s s e d
of S t e r n e ' s
Sterne
neglect
trav e l
b a s e d on
journey
book.
t r av el s
some
tak e
into
consideration
Sterne's religion
to b e
set
one who
style
reads
is not,
of his
the
in
of s e n s i ­
make
it
the
To
is
to
as man y
framework
of a
pictures may
is
static
continuous
be
and does
function
calling
into
That
however,
Sterne
of E n g l i s h p r o s e
the r u e l l e
periences
even
our p u r p o s e
w o r k ha s b e e n
she
these
directed
When
of
forth the
details
to
as a s e n t i m e n t a l
commonplace
establish
his
O ur
t o w a r d s his
the
seem
a l i t e r a r y arti s t,
writers.
the b e d s
i n t e r r up te d forever
an d e x p e r i e n c e s
an d a p p r e c i a t i o n
the fi 11 e. de
between
facts
the
was
with understanding
a tr av e l writer.
tress,
the
in w h i c h all
down m a k e s ,at ti m e s
the h i e r a r c h y
ly
w i th i n
the term
of s e n s i b i l i t y
fresh and unusual.
It
style,
wi t h
portrayed.
The
are
theme s
together
in
author.
a difference.
of h is l i t t l e
truthfully termed "vignettes,"
not
with
give
they a r e
and hav e done w i t h
as p o s s i b l e
And while
as
inimitable
p l a n of k n i t t i n g
sensations
and of the
contemporary
in S t e r n e ' s
conscious
pleasurable
French
so as to
interspersed
an " i m p r e s s i o n i s t "
the
transmuted
of the
opini on s ,
and anecd ot es
account
call
ide a
are
rank
deny.
a m o ng
examination
accomplishments
c h am b re
account
With
as
stole b l u n d e r i n g ­
of Y o r i c k
t ra v el l er .
will
no
and her m i s ­
of S t e r n e ' s
ex­
our d i s c u s s i o n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
342.
the H a p p e n i n g s
of the
need
for
a summary
11who
have wr ot e and
Sentimental
of his
achievements
better
attests
w i t h ou t
his
S uch
partaking
followers
continuation
propriate
piece
of the
as an
others — as
l a y e d by
any
business
indeed.
ping
continued
of p o r n o g r a p h y
field
stand,
myself
"arms
it
s e em s that
principal
t h o u g h his
reason
to w h i c h
method might
be
to all
for this
Sterne
gave
imitated,
1. T h e C r i t i c al H e v i e w X X I I I
above, Ch. Ill, 129.
While
ways
sensibility.
as H a l l -S t evens o n 1s
is
completely
Where
emotional
a-kimbo,"
the p e r s o n a l i t y
of his
his
and b e c a m e
Yorick,
work
or his humor,
sensibility
effect.
the
world,
unique
full
( Ja n .- J un e
unal-
of F e e l i n g , for
Considering
could
■
"None but
quality
e xpression.
result,
ex­
of a d r i p ­
like T ristram,
the
inap­
a serious
p l a s h with the dull r e g u l a r i t y
and say
1
can be m y p a r a l l e l . "
The
imitators.
of the n o v e l — it was
whimsicality
faucet — and w i t h as much
the a f te rm a t h ,
of S t e r n e ' s
feeling
In M a c k e n z i e ' s The M a n
tears
of those
their pedestrian
J ou r n e y
of Sterne.
in the
of
the na t u r e
Sentimental
Sternian
is
gall or>1a and wr ot e . 11
quality
of Y o r i c k ' s
imitation
affected
the
writers
misunderstood
a humorless
ample,
the u n i q u e
either
ranks
there
CONCLUSION
than a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h his host
m an y E n g l i s h t r a v e l
complete,
in th e
gallo o 1d or who h av e
&.
Nothing
J ourney
is
in
Al­
because
1767) , 138.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
See
of
545.
the d e p e n d e n c e
upon
No c o n t e m p o r a r y
S h an a ea n ,
definitely
and
for all
parson,
and therefore
this
or the
o ri g i n a l i t y ,
stud y has
attempted
eighteenth-century modes
is h o p e d
that
ha s m a d e p o s s i b l e
the
to
this
imitation
ap­
Sent iment al J o u r n e v .
ideas
current
to sh o w his
of thought
the e s t a b l i s h m e n t
a better
no
same.
Sterne belonged very
to his age and r e l i e d up o n
This
it
c o u l d n e v e r be
f i g u r e bo re m u c h r e s e m b l a n c e
either I r i s t r a m S h a n d y
Yet
ta i n
literary
sentimental
proximated
time.
self-expression,
in his
relation
to
end l i t e r a r y
cer­
themes,
of this r e l a t i o n s h i p
understanding
of his
accomplish­
ment.
There
remain,
investigation.
forming
ter.
and
the
One
is the
Cervantic
Another
T h i rd l y,
u p o n his E n g l i s h
inimitable
humo r
there
is
the
quality
of Tris tram
izing
characters and m a n a g in g
inevitably
importance
Not
by
time but
only
al s o by
in
to H a r t l e y ' s
sensibility
t h e or y
of S t e r n e ' s
and follo we rs .
of v i b r a ­
influence
Despite
the
an d the S e n t i m e n t a l J o u r n e y
deal
to tea ch
in the way
dialogue.
of his
gen i us
c o n s i d e r i n g his
t r a c i n g the
further
of C e r v a n t e s
of S t e r n e ' s
to a m u c h - n e e d e d
a n d the
for
in the o p e n i n g c h a p ­
question
contemporaries
a u t h o r h a d a grea t
style
nat ur e
of r e l a t i o n
problems
in f l u e n c e
mentioned
their
would lead
several
exact
is the p h y s i c a l
the p o s s i b i l i t y
tions.
however,
of v i s u a l ­
Such a consideration
study
of his
for h a n d l i n g
p ro s e
words.
w o r k in the light
development
of his
of his t r a v e l writings
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
from the y e a r
method
of
1762,
we ha v e
composition.
tried
In the
to
illuminate
seventh book
saw the S h a n d e a n
s pi r i t
satire
thorough dissatisfaction
indicated
ing m o d e
of t r a v e l
the t e n t a t i v e
towards
the
effort
we
the e x p e r i e n c e s
creative
Tristram's
him
an
waning
life
interest
his
state,
sentimental
write his
of his
rise
fly
made,
the
We
f re s h w i t h i n
slo w u n f o l d i n g of
when restlessness
also
on by hi s
caused
U p o n his r e t u r n
new m a t e r i a l
we
and a
o b s e r v e d the p e c u l i a r
sickly
w h i c h put
constitution
him
and
in the m o o d
to
travels.
boo k the
criti ci s m.
s u p p o r t e d by r i g o r o u s
J ournev
f e r m e n t a t i o n , when
to u t i l i z e
for Eliz a,
i r r e s p o n s i b l e hands,
denial
sort of travels.
continent.
in T r i s t r a m .
love
of the b o o k
t r i p a b r o a d wer e
eagerness
brought
part
p e r i o d of
when
the
resu l t, we p e r ce i ve d , wa s
new
first
we
w i t h the p r e v a i l ­
Sent i m e at a l
Journey
was m u c h in e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y
to s e r i o u s
ment al
of a
of T r i s t r a m
Nevertheless,
t he last
to the
sentimental
There
a grave
in
g r e w we a ri s o m e ,
As a t r a v e l
found.
The
c o n s i d e r e d the
increasing
emotional
ma d e
consciousness,
once m o r e to
found
writing.
formulation
Next
his
tr i u m p h a n t .
Sterne's
The
enforcement
of h u m a n r i g ht s .
many E n gli sh
Prance
concentration
the p r e p o s t e r o u s
By
censures
the time
to
give
of a u t h o r i t y
division
of u n j u s t
is not p r o ­
of wealth,
laws,
constituted
of the £ §Jit-i.~
of the F r e n c h h a d been
but u n c o m p r e h e n d i n g l y , i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y ,
in
without
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a
545 .
sense
ture
for the u n s o u n d n e s s
as
needed
a whole.
only
to be
essentials.
by
contemplating
some
e x a g g e r a t e d the
description
mainly
but
old F r e n c h
expressed
cellence
unjust
officer
it half
in the
to say,
theories
on
t han B a r e t t i ' s
ignoring
the
the problem,
detail
almost
social g races,
main,
he
be
as m u c h
as
he
others
a penetrating
qualitative
he was u n r i v a l l e d by
of a f o r e i gn land.
we
ex­
in w h i c h
d e n i e d that
gave
In his
of a p p r o b a t i o n
noting
any
An d where
his
can g e n e r a l l y a p p l y
for the
sentiment
of the
and
say that the ot h e r s " c o u l d not h a v e
1
so well."
When the g e n e r a l level of e x ­
Journey
is
c o ns i de r ed ,
d oe s Yfilliam Lyons P h e l p s,
the
c a us e
of l i t e r a t u r e ,
one
thing,
we h a ve b e e n
w h i c h w o u l d have
to that
w o r k as
m
r 2i7.
2. T.he A d v a n c e of
upon
m a de b e f o re ,
Italy,
of tr av e l
over non-
side of the p i c t u r e
in the
critic
d e a t h did no hurt to
2
e n o u g h of him.
For
two v o l u m e s
France
excellences
Sentimental
as
a s s u m e d that
little
significant
own w o r d s
struc­
and b i c k e r e d
charact e r.
observations had been
Sterne's
t ourists
economic
it cannot
faul t s,
eighteenth-century
and
Although
of t h e
of F r e n c h
social
the k n o t by
the p l e a s a n t
excelled.
heightened
of sm al l
cut
He dwelt
French
critical
l ik e E n g l a n d ,
Sterne
clusively.
the
The
of the
c o u n tr y
an a p o l o g y
that
that
a p p l i e d the
the
Sterne's
we h a v e
d e p r i v e d of
and s e r v e d
for
it seems
the
same
far b e t t e r
Ital i an people.
t h e E n e l i sh Novel . New York,
1916,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p.
72.
346.
Although
and
justly
to
be
He
wrote
full
said
of
for
lacking
for
his
doctrines
in
a
violent
horseplay
passions
and
coupled
was
in
human
In
a
of
and
with
idealistic,
ligion
to
narrow
nations.
To
that
alone,
he
age,
and
sympathy
time
those
man
offered
though
we
may
scorn
of
benevolence,
for
the
world
for
of
His
who
not
the
fellow
and
pietism"
preached
from
and
teaching,
the
is
not
much
love.
hard-riding,
of
"the
influence
vastly
of
a
his
superior
Richardson.
view
motive—
of
of
its
today.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Al­
passivity
insistence
without
re­
self-
benevolence.
the
be­
was
principles
ridicule
in
is
understending
that
pleasures
man,
mutual
humor
compelling
a motive
Y o r i c k ’s
one's
act
and
there
a humanizing
protested
a more
of
such
he
criticized,
exaltation
had
"unctuous
would
enjoyment
feeling
tolerance
herd-drir.king
patriotism
been
fibre,
f u n d -of d e l i c a t e
th e
the
upon
of
affections"
a
has
intellectual
cruelty.
interest,
his
sensibility
so,
gentler
tween
S t e r n e ’s
meaning
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
347.
T h i s is n o t in t e
ed as a n e x h a u s t i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y of
l a u r e n c e S t e r n e , or o f e
hteenth-century travel literature
or s e n s i b i l i t y .
It C O nt
ns o n l y t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h h a v e
pr ov ed h e l p f u l in th e C O
e p t i o n or e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y .
For c o n v e n i e n c e , t h e s e works have b e e n l i s t e d und e r five h e a d ­
ings, a p r o c e d u r e w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s a r b i t r a r y gr ou p i n g .
W o r k s on n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d on t h e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e
of t r a v e l h a v e b e e n p l a c e d under T r a v e l W r i t i n g s .
Correspon­
d e n c e c o n t a i n i n g t r a v e l l e t t e r s a n d c r i t i c i s m s o f S t e r n e is
l i s t e d under E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Works other than Travel W r i t ­
ings.
T h e r e v i e w s in e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p e r i o d i c a l s are i n ­
serted under c r i t i c i s m of Sterne, a group containing also
t h o s e m o d e r n c r i t i c i s m s of S t e r n e w h i c h s e e m m o s t i l l u m i n a t i n g .
I
Works
by
Sterne
.The W o r k s a n d L i f e o f L a u r e n c e S t e r n e . ed.
New York, 1904.
12 vols.
Letters
Vols.
I-IV,
The
Vol.
V ,
£
Vols.
IX-X,
The
_o£ L a u r e n c e
Life
and
Opinions
Sentimental
Sermons
S t e r n e . ed.
Journey
by
Wilbur
p f Tr i s tram
thr ough
L.
Cross,
Shandy.
France
and
11 a]
o f M r . Yor i c k .
by
L.
P.
Curtis,
Oxford,
1935.
II
Travel
Writings
A d d i s o n , J o s e p h , " R e m a r k s o n S e v e r a l P a r t s o f I t a l y , & c . in
- the Y e a r s 1 7 0 1 , 1702, 1 7 0 3 , " T h e Mi s c e l l a n e o u s W o r k s
o f Jo s e p h A d d i s o n . ed. b y A . C . G u t h k e l c h , L o n d o n ,
1914.
2 vols.
II, 1 2 - 2 3 5 .
B a r e t t i , G u i s e p p e M a r i o , A n A c c o u n t o f the. M a n n e r s a n d Cv,frt<?nU L
o f It a l y ; w i t h O b s er v a t i o n s o n the. M i s t a k e s .of S pme.
T r a v e l l e r s . w i t h r e g a r d t o t h a t C o u n t r y . L o n d o n , 1 7 6 ty
2 vols.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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