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CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHERS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE A STUDY TO FACILITATE A MORE CAREFUL SELECTION OF CANDIDATES FOR TEACHER-TRAINING INAGRICULTURE

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The Pennsylvania State College
The Graduate^School
Department of
Rural Education
CHARACTERISTICS OF
TEACHERS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
A Study to Facilitate a More Careful Selection
of Candidates for Teacher-Training
in Agriculture
A Thesis
by
Fred Eugene Armstrong
Submitted in partial fulfillment
for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
August, 194-0
Approved
July 16, 1940
Head of the Department
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
I
INTRODUCTION............................
1
II
THE PROBLEM.............................
14
Statement of the Problem ...................
Definition of T e r m s
»......... ......
Scope of the S t u d y
.................
Developing the Questionnaires
.......
Selecting the Cooperating Teachers ........
Gathering the D a t a ........
Treatment of the Bata
.....
III
IV
1415
17
18
18
20
22
PHYSIQUE AND HEALTH......................... .
23
Age of the Teacher and Teaching Success ....
Height and Weight of the Teacher and
Teaching Success .....
General Health, Hearing, Eyesight...... .
Physical Handicaps.......
Summary.........
24-
HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE TRAINING OF THE
TEACHER...............................
25
27
31
33
35
High-school Curriculum Completed and
Teaching Success ............
Agriculture Projects Carried and Teaching
Success ......
Membership in the Future Farmers of
America and Teaching Success
..........
High-school Rank and Teaching Success...
College from which the Teacher Originally
Graduated and Teaching Success ........
Degree Received and Teaching Success .......
Age at Graduation and Teaching Success .....
College Curriculum Completed and Teaching
Success .............
Semester Hours of College Credit Completed
in Certain Fields and Teaching Success ...
Grade Points Earned and Teaching Success ...
College Rank and Teaching Success
Post-graduate Studies and Teaching
Success ............ -......... ........
Summary
....................................
35
37
39
40
42
43
43
46
48
62
63
65
67
Chapter
V
Page
FARM EXPERIENCE.......................
72
Number of Years the Teacher Lived on a
Farm Prior to Entering College and
Teaching Success .................
73
Size of Farm on which the Teacher Lived
and Teaching Success
.............
Kind of Farm Work Done and Teaching
Success.......................... .....
Type of Farming and Teaching Success .......
Opinion of the Teacher’s Superiors
Concerning His Farm Experience ...........
Summary
....
VI
OTHER EXPERIENCE.........
PERSONAL TRAITS.........................
93
96
101
103
105
107
107
Ill
114
TEACHING TRAITS ..............................
115
Teaching Facilitiesand Teaching Success ...
School Discipline andSuccess inTeaching ..
Greatest Assets and.Greatest Deficiencies
of the Successful and of the Less Suc­
cessful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture .....
Summary
......
IX
CONCLUSIONS.............................
115
118
120
133
135
/
X
RECOMMENDATIONS.........................
89
89
92
Personality and Teaching Success............
The Teacher's Popularity and Teaching
Success
........
Summary
........
VIII
76
79
92
Social and Business Contacts and Teaching
Success........
Experience in Teaching and Teaching
Success......... ....................
Extra-curricular Activities and Teaching
Success...............................
Number of Appearances Before an Audience
and Teaching Success.....................
Working One’s Way Through College and
Teaching Success .........
Summary
..........
VII
74
139
Chapter
Page
APPENDIX
142
BIBLIOGRAPHY
160
TABLES
Number
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
Page
Age Distribution of Forty-seven Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture ........................
24.
Height Distribution of Forty-seven Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture .............c.o.....
26
Weight Distribution of Forty-seven Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture........... .........
27
Estimate of the General Health, Hearing, and
Eyesight of the Group of Successful and the
Group of Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals ...........
28
Number of Days Twenty-five Successful and
Twenty-two Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Were Absent From
Work Because of Illness in the Past Two
Years
...................
30
Number of Days Twenty-five Successful and
Twenty-two Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Were Absent From
Work Because of Illness in the Past Ten
Years
31
High-school Curricula from which Forty-six
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture Were
Graduated ...................................
36
High-school Rank of Twenty-six Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture ....... ..............
41
Age at which Forty-seven Teachers of Vo­
cational Agriculture Graduated from
College^...................
......
44-
Age at which Forty-seven Men Began Teaching
Vocational Agriculture .......................
45
College Curricula from which Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture Were Graduated .....
48
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agri­
cultural Education Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
.......
50
Number
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII
XXIV
Page
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agri­
cultural Engineering Completed by Fifty
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
...
52
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agri­
cultural Economics Completed by Fifty
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture ....••••
53
Semester Hours of College Credit in
Agronomy and Soils Completed by Fifty
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.....
54.
Semester Hours of College Credit in
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
Completed by Fifty Teachers of Vocational
....
Agriculture
55
Semester Hours of College Credit in Dairy
Husbandry Completed by Fifty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture
56
Semester Hours of College Credit in
Horticulture Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
......
57
Semester Hours of College Credit in
Chemistry Completed by Fifty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture..................
58
Mean Semester Hours of College Credit in
Certain Subjects Completed by Fifty
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
61
Final Grade-point Ratios at The Pennsylvania
State College of Thirty-six Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture
......
63
Final College Rank at The Pennsylvania
State College of Twenty-eight Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture..........
64
Post-graduate Work Completed by Fortyseven Teachers of Vocational Agriculture ..
66
Number of Years Forty-seven Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Lived on Farms
Prior to Entering College...............
73
Number
XXV
XXVI
XXVII
XXVIII
XXIX
XXX
XXXI
XXXII
XXXIII
Page
Size of Farm on which Forty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Lived Prior to
Entering College............
75
Kinds of Farm Work Performed by Fortyone Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
Prior to Entering College ...............
77
Farm Management Responsibilities Reported
by Thirty-two Teachers of Vocational
Agriculture
.................... 78
Order of Importance of Field Crops Grown on
Farms where the Group of Successful Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture Obtained Their
Farm Experience and Order of Importance on
Farms in the Communities where They now
Teach
.........
80
Order of Importance of Field Crops Grown on
Farms where the Group of Less Successful
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture Obtained
Their Farm Experience and Order of Importance
on Farms in the Communities where They Now
Teach
.... .
81
Order of Importance of Live Stock and Poultry
Kept on Farms where the Group of Successful
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture Obtained
Their Farm Experience and Order of Importance
on Farms in the Communities where They Now
Teach
................ ....... .
82
Order of Importance of Live Stock and Poultry
Kept on Farms where the Group of Less Suc­
cessful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
Obtained Their Farm Experience and Order of
Importance on Farms in the Communities where
They Now Teach
......
83
Number of the Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture who Have Had Experience with All or
with a Lesser Number of the Leading Field
Crops Grown in the Communities 'Where They
Now Teach
.....
84.
Number of the Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture who Have Had Experiences with All or
with a lesser Number of the Leading Classes
of Live Stock and Poultry Kept in Communi­
.....
ties Where They Now Teach
85
Page
Number
XXXIV
XXXV
XXXVI
XXXVII
XXXVIII
XXXIX
XL
XLI
XLII
Mean Difference Between Rankings of Leading
Field Crops on Farms Where the Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Obtained Their Farm
Experience and Rankings on Farms in the
Communities Where They Now Teach ....... .
86
Mean Difference Between Rankings of the
Leading Classes of Live Stock and Poultry
on Farms Where the Teachers of Vocational
Agriculture Obtained Their Farm Experience
and Rankings on Farms in the Communities
Where They Now Teach
.... .
87
Years of Teaching Experience Obtained Before
Becoming a Teacher of Vocational Agri­
culture
.... .................
93
Distribution of the Number of Years Fortyseven Men Have Spent in Teaching Vocation­
al Agriculture...................... .
95
Extent to which Twenty-five Successful and
Twenty-two Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Participated in
Certain Extra-curricular Activities
While Students in High School..........
97
Extent to which Twenty-five Successful and
Twenty-two Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Participated in
Certain Extra-curricular Activities While
Students in College
......... .
99
Number of Different Extra-curricular
Activities in which Individual Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture Participated
While Students in College ..............
101
Number of Times Forty-seven Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Appeared Before an
Audience as Speaker, Debater, or in a
Musical or Dramatic Production Prior to
Entering College
........... .
102
Number of Times Forty-seven Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Appeared Before an
Audience as Speaker, Debater, or in a
Musical or Dramatic Production After
Entering College but Before Beginning to
Teach Vocational Agriculture ......... .
103
Page
Number
XLIII
XLIV
XLV
XLVI
XLVII
XLVIII
XLIX
L
LI
Extent to which Forty-five Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Earned Their
Own Expenses While Attending College ......
104
Ratings Given Twenty-five Successful and
Twenty-six Less Successful Teachers of ...
Vocational Agriculture on Selected
Personality Traits by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals ......
108
Weighted Ratings Given Twenty-five Success­
ful and Twenty-six Less Successful Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture on Selected
Personality Traits by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals .......
109
Popularity of Twenty-five Successful and
Twenty-six Less Successful Teachers of Vo­
cational Agriculture as Rated by County
Vocational Advisers and Supervising
Principals .......... ............... .
112
Weighted Ratings of the Popularity of Twentyfive Successful and Twenty-six Less Success­
ful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture as
Given by County Vocational Advisers and
Supervising Principals ......... .........
113
Extent to which Certain Facilities are
Available in the Classrooms in which
Twenty-five Successful and in which Twentytwo Less Successful Teachers of Vocational
Agriculture Teach ..................... .
116
Frequency With Which Twenty-five Successful
and Twenty-two Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Have to Meet Disci­
pline Problems as Estimated by Themselves
and by County Vocational Advisers and
Supervising Principals ................ .
119
Greatest Assets Possessed by Twenty-five Suc­
cessful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
as Listed by County Vocational Advisers and
Supervising Principals ..................
Greatest Assets Possessed by Twenty-six Less
Successful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture as Listed by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals ......
■o
121
124
Number
LII
LIII
Page
Greatest Deficiencies of Twenty-five
Successful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture as Listed by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals
126
Greatest Deficiencies of Twenty-six Less
Successful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture as Listed by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals
129
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The writer wishes to express cordial appreciation to those
teachers of vocational agriculture, county vocational advisers, and
supervising principals who supplied data for this study.
Cordial
appreciation is also expressed to members of the staff of the State
Department of Public Instruction vdao assisted in selecting the co­
operating teachers and who authorized teachers and county vocational
advisers to supply data for the study.
Grateful acknowledgement is extended to Doctor Theodore
F. Struck, of the Department of Industrial Education, and to Doctor
W. A. Broyles and to Doctor W. F. Hall, members of the staff of the
Department of Rural Education for their advice and encouragement.
Special recognition is due Professor Henry S. Brunner, under whose
guidance and direction the study was made.
THE AUTHOR
Fred Eugene Armstrong, Associate Professor of Agricultur­
al Education, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, T. H.; son of Laurence
A. 8nd Letha (Babb) Armstrong; born near Owings, South Carolina,
February 10, 1896; married, Ora Ruth Slaker August 17, 1918.
Attended Honea Path, South Carolina, High School; Bachelor
of Science, Clemson A. and M. College, Clemson College, South Caro­
lina, 1916; Master of Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, 1921; additional graduate work, University of Minnesota,
1932-33, and at The Pennsylvania State College.
Principal and teacher of agriculture, Vidrine, Louisiana,
High School, 1916-17; teacher of vocational agriculture, First
District A. and M. School, Statesboro, Georgia., 1917-18; teacher
of vocational agriculture, Newberry, South Carolina, High School,
1918-20; Instructor, Department of Agricultural Education, Uni­
versity of Minnesota, 192.0-21; Professor of Agricultural Education,
University of Idaho, 1921-26; present position since that time.
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Agricultural instruction of less than college grade has
been available to young men in the United States for almost a centu­
ry.
The agricultural colleges established under the provisions of
the Federal Land-Grant Act of 1862 did not always maintain a pro­
gram of instruction in agriculture that was strictly collegiate in
nature, especially in the early period of their development.
E-
ventually most of these colleges established schools or departments
of which the primary objective was the offering of agricultural
education of secondary school grade.
The University of Minnesota,
the first land-grant institution to lake such action, established
a secondary school of agriculture on the university campus in 1888.
Soon the demand for instruction in agriculture was so great that
agricultural schools of secondary grade were established in con­
gressional districts and in counties of many states, and by 1913
over 2,000 public high schools were offering courses in agriculture.A
In sjjite of the widespread interest in agricultural edu­
cation of high-school grade, there gradually developed a feeling of
dissatisfaction regarding the kind of instruction given in agri­
culture, largely due to poorly prepared and poorly selected teachers.
The Nelson Amendment of 1907 authorized the land-grant colleges to
expend a portion of the funds appropriated in the act for training
Lee, Edwin A., Qb.jectives and Problems of Vocational Education,
New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1928, p. 75*
2
teachers of agriculture, but prior to 1917 only nineteen of the
forty-eight land-grant colleges for white students had actually
begun a teacher-training program.2
With the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act in 1917, the
teaching of agriculture of less than college grade received its
greatest impetus.
Beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30,
1918, the act appropriated gradually-increasing stuns of money to
the states for salaries of teachers, supervisors, or directors of
agricultural subjects, and by 1926, when the maximum amount be­
came available, the states were sharing in an appropriation of more
than $3*000,000.
Each of the forty-eight states accepted the pro­
visions of the act, and immediately began expanding its program in
agricultural education.
With the expansion came a demand for more
and better trained teachers of vocational agriculture.
The Smith-Hughes Act recognized the importance of prop­
erly prepared teachers of vocational subjects, and placed special
emphasis upon teacher-training.
the very title of the act reads:
One of the objectives written into
"to provide for cooperation with
the states in the preparation of teachers of vocational subjects."
Section 5 of the Act provides that after June 30, 1920, no state
shall receive any appropriation for salaries of teachers, super­
visors, or directors of agricultural subjects until it shall have
taken advantage of at least the minimum amount appropriated fir the
training of teachers, supervisors, or directors of agricultural
2
Swanson, H. B., "Teacher Training for Vocational Agriculture,"
Teacher Training Release No. 1, United States Office of Education,
Washington, 1938, p. 2.
3
subjects.
Funds appropriated for the training of teachers of vo­
cational subjects under the provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act
gradually increased from $500,000 in the fiscal year ending June
30, 1918, until the maximum of $1,000,000 was reached in the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1921.
It is to be noted that the appropri­
ations for training teachers of vocational agriculture and for
salaries of teachers, supervisors, or directors of agricultural,
subjects both increased gradually after the passage of the Act,
but that the appropriation for training teachers reached its max­
imum five years before the appropriation for salaries of teachers,
supervisors, or directors attained its maximum.
This arrangement
permitted a gradual expanding of teacher-training facilities to
meet the increasing demands for trained teachers of vocational agri­
culture, and, at the same time, provided reasonable assurance that
men trained as teachers would find employment in the field for which
they were prepared.
In spite of this precaution, however, an over­
supply of teachers of vocational agriculture began to appear shortly
after the fund for salaries of teachers had reached its maximum, but
was relieved, in part, by additional temporary federal appropriations
for salaries of teachers of vocational agriculture under the GeorgeReed Act of 1929 and the George-Ellzey Act of 1934-.
In 1936 federal funds available for salaries of teachers,
supervisors, or directors of agricultural subjects were authorized
to be increased by more than 130 per cent under terms of the GeorgeDeen Act, all of the increase becoming available at once.
At the
same time, federal teacher-training funds were authorized to be in-
K
creased 100 per cent to lake care of the anticipated demand for new
teachers of vocational subjects.
available immediately.
This increase was also to become
Since the act became effective, in most of
the states many high schools not teaching vocational agriculture
previously but located in communities where such instruction is
feasible have added departments as rapidly as qualified teachers
became available, while enrollment in agricultural teacher-training
departments has trebled in many cases.
It is obvious that when the period of rapid expansion ends,
unless other factors affect demand, the number of teachers needed
will be considerably fewer than at the present time and that teachertraining departments will need to train fewer persons as teachers
of vocational agriculture than is now the case.
ready prevails in some of the states.
This condition al­
For example, at the University
of Hawaii more than twice as many students apply for admission to the
curriculum in vocational agriculture as can be placed as teachers of
vocational agriculture in the schools of the Territory.
If the emphasis in teacher-training departments is to be
placed, as soon it must be, upon training fewer, but better qualified
teachers, the selection of candidates who apply for admission to the
pre-employment curriculum will become an important function of the
department.
It is important that we know the qualities that make
for success in teaching vocational agriculture in order that can­
didates who are likely to make successful teachers will be admitted,
while those who are likely to fail will be advised to enter some
other line of work better suited to their peculiar talents.
Publications in the field of education contain many state-
5
ments as to the qualities desirable in a successful teacher.
Dr.
Ade,^ formerly State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Penn­
sylvania, prepared a statement of teacher qualifications intended
mainly for the benefit of school board members, who frequently ask
themselves what manner of person the teacher should be in addition
to possessing a license to teach based upon legally fixed academic
credits.
Dr. Ade's characteristics includes
Good health; sufficient
intelligence to grasp abstract meanings; well-integrated, balanced
personality; refinement and personal culture; a pleasant, effective
voice; ability to make friends; capacity to gain the respect and
confidence of others; a good sense of humor; a big heart; willingness
and capacity to work hard; a careful, thorough attitude with command
of scientific methods and tools of research; a broad, rich back­
ground of experience; varied interests in many fields; good compre­
hension of child life; outstanding leadership capacity; ability to
stimulate and challenge others; executive capacity; and a desire
and capacity to keep on growing and changing with the new developments
in education and society.
Frank Young,4- in studying factors affecting teaching success,
obtained the following data from 1521 teachers of high-school subjects
in Texas:
The principal teaching subject; semester hours of college
credits earned in the teaching subject; semester hours of college
credit earned in education; and the total number of years of teaching
-
3
Ade, Lester K., "Qualifications of the Teacher," American School
Board Journal. 97:23, September, 1938.
^
Young, Frank, "Some Factors Affecting Teaching Efficiency,"
Journal of Educational Research, 32:649-52, May, 1939»
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6
experience.
He concluded:
"The teachers who hold higher degrees are rated
higher than those who hold lower degreesj i.e., M.A.
graduates were rated higher than B.A. graduates, etc.
"The teachers who had had a large amount of train­
ing in subject matter in their field of specialization
were rated higher than those who had had less train­
ing in their field of specialization.
"Likewise, the teachers who had had 24 or more
semester hours training in courses in education were
rated higher than those who had had less than 24
/
semester hours in education.
"According to the ratings given these 1,521 high
school teachers, experience up to five years counts
toward making one a more efficient teacher. Experience
ceased to be a factor at that point. There was con­
siderable improvement the first two years; slight
improvement the next three years; no improvement from
5 to 20; some decline thereafter.
"It would appear quite unfair to base a salary
schedule on training and experience alone. There are
many other factors which should be considered when
one attempts to evaluate the real worth of a teacher.
Intelligence, emotional stability, scholarship, the
habit of work, character, and personality are factors
which are equally as important."
Engelhart and Tucker5 correlated certain traits with the
opinions of pupils as to what constitutes teaching success.
Traits
correlating significantly and positively with quality of teaching
are as follows: Good judgment; clear in explanation; respecting the
opinions of others; sincerity; impartiality; fairness; appreciative­
ness; interest in pupils; broad mindedness; good knowledge of subject;
common sense; promptness; intelligence; sportsmanship; interest in
^
Engelhart, Max D., and Tucker, Ledyard R., "Traits Related to Good
and Poor Teaching," The School Review. 44:23-33, January, 1936.
7
pupil activities; good nature; good enunciation; consideration;
systematic; good organizer; sense of humor; ambition; friendliness;
cheerfulness; industriousness; kindness; widely informed; interest
in teaching; culture; loyalty to school; sociability; poise; polite­
ness; good voice; good pronunciation; purposefulness; good health;
neatness in appearance and in dress; belief in education; refine­
ment; good grammar; strictness.
The teacher of vocational agriculture fills an unusually
difficult position because his duties require hi/m to spend much
time supervising home projects, conducting part-time and evening
classes, advising with community problems, as well as teaching a
full schedule of high school classes.
An idea of the amount of
work a successful teacher of vocational agriculture is expected to
carry may be gained from the activities of the All-Southern Master
Teacher of Vocational Agriculture for 1937.6
During the six years
he has taught, he has had, besides his regular all-day students,
from four to six evening classes each year, a part-time class each
year except one, and has taught seventh-grade students each year.
Although located in a small community, his annual teaching load
has been as high as 300 different individuals in all types of in­
struction,
During 1937, the supervised practice program of the
166 students enrolled in his department included 325 farm enter­
prises, 105 supplementary farm jobs, and 16 improvement projects,
(.•
"All-Southern Master Teacher of Vocational Agriculture for 1937,"
American Vocational Association Journal, 13:164.-5, September,
1933.
8
all of which were carried out successfully.
J. A. Linke^ has this to say about the teacher of vo­
cational agriculture and the work he performs;
"There is no job with a greater challenge to young
men than the job of the teacher of vocational agri­
culture. The challenge, however, comes only to those
who have the vision to see the possibilities for
service thru hard work, both day and night, in dis­
charging the many responsibilities necessary to make
his work really effective.”
So much of the work of the teacher of vocational agri­
culture is advising students, farmers, and others on matters per­
taining to agriculture that many persons regard him primarily as
an agriculturist rather then an educator.
of the teacher*s job, H. H. Hamlin
Discussing this phase
writes as follows;
"Persons engaged in agricultural education usually
regard themselves primarily as agriculturists. Most
of the time they spent in preparing for their work
they spent in farming and in learning agricultural
subject matter. Learning to teach has seemed to be
an easy matter compared with attaining competency in
farming.
"I should like to suggest that this attitude has
been the cause of many of our most serious difficulties
in agricultural education and that a Copernican revo­
lution in our thinking is called for. ... Some day
we may be able to distinguish the real from the sham in
agricultural education and then we shall rate the teacher
of agriculture upon his attainments as an educator.
"Much greater care than at present will have to be
taken in selecting persons with agricultural backgrounds
to prepare for teaching. It must be recognized that a
large part of the persons who take agricultural college
^
g
Linke, J. A., "The Job and the Man," Agricultural Education
8:178, June, 1936.
Hamlin, H. H., "Teachers of Agriculture: Agriculturists or Edu­
cators?" The Agricultural Education Magazine. 10:203, May, 1938.
9
courses have little or no aptitude for or interest in
educational work."
In an attempt to determine a man's worth as a teacher
of vocational agriculture, C. S. Anderson9 prepared a Rating
Scale covering fifteen personal traits and fifteen professional
traits, each of which is to be measured on a five-point scale.
"Personal" traits are as follows;
Appearance and dressj physical
vitality; carriage and posture; balance and poise; control of
emotions; speech, expression and vocabulary; conversation and
versatility; social activities; standards of morality; judgment
of human nature; accuracy in sizing up situations; tactfulness;
initiative and resourcefulness; ability to make difficult decisions;
attitude towards financial obligations.
Dr. Anderson's Scale are;
"Professional" traits in
Agricultural information; subject-matter
organization; instructional methods; discipline and class management;
reaction to helpful suggestions; originality in ideas; ability to
render constructive criticism; co-operativeness; participation in
community activities; participation in school activities; willingness
to assume new and added responsibilities; manner of meeting and
discussing problems with farmers; professional interest and loyalty;
ability to inspire enthusiasm for agriculture; professional improve­
ment program.
That agricultural teacher-training departments are be­
coming interested in improving the quality of teaching in this field
^
— .
Anderson, C. S., "A Rating Scale to Determine a Man's Worth as
a Teacher of Vocational Agriculture," The Agricultural Education
Magazine. 10;234-5> June, 1933.
____________________
10
through a more careful selection of students who are permitted to
take the teacher-training course is indicated by the frequency with
which the topic is discussed in agricultural-education literature.
In 1933, Dr. C. H. Lane‘S pointed out that, in the light of a recent
survey of the supply of and the demand for teachers of vocational
agriculture, the problem confronting the teacher-training departments
was not "how many teachers we may turn out, but how may we improve
the organization of our training establishments so as to improve
facilities for selection and training so that a more uniformly highgrade teacher will result."
Writing on the same problem in 1936, Dr. Sherman Dickinson^
also emphasized the selective function of teacher-training as follows:
"We have far too many poor teachers. The usual and
heartening reply to that is that, 'this is true of all
forms of education and to be expected, so what?' While
I honestly do believe that we have the most capable
group of teachers on the average, I still feel that
they could be much better and must be if our program
is to function satisfactorily.! We still take what comes
to us in our teacher-training institutions and do not
do the best we can to prepare them for one of the most
difficult teaching jobs extant.
"The problem of poor teachers is one that squarely
faces the majority of the teacher-trainers. They are
largely responsible when a poor teacher is accepted
and trained..... The successful teaching of vocational
agriculture requires a man of intelligence, personality,
industry, and integrity. Many difficulties, of course,
confront us in selecting and attracting trainees pos­
sessing these high qualities, but we must do more
than we have towards the solution of this problem."
^
Lane, C. H., "Review of Problems in Vocational Education in
Agriculture," Agricultural Education. 5:139-40, March, 1933*
Dickinson, Sherman, "Needed Adjustments and Direction in Vo­
cational Agriculture," Agricultural Education. 9:54-6, October
1936.
11
Some work has been done in discovering characteristics of
outstandingly successful teachers of vocational agriculture and in
formulating criteria by which a more careful selection of trainees
may be made when admitting students to teacher-training courses.
In 1932, Love,12 working at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
determined qualities which correlate favorably with teaching success
as measured by the rank in efficiency of the department of vocational
agriculture.
He concluded that the following qualities showed some
definite correlation with success in teaching!
Reliability; belief
in profession, affability; promptness; vision; industriousness;
judgment; tact; sincerity; cooperation; enthusiasm; willingness to
assume responsibility; persistence; self control; sense of humor;
confidence; methodicalness; ease of expression; and'good ideas.
The first five qualities showed a higher correlation than the last
five, but the data were not sufficiently extensive to attach any
importance to the order in which they were listed.
Artistic quali­
ties, athletic qualities, and qualities of refinement appeared to
be unimportant.
success were:
Criteria of greatest value in predicting teaching
Rank at the conclusion of the teacher-training work
by staff members, and average quality credits in practice teaching.
Mondart13 obtained suggestions from thirty-nine teacher-
12
13
Love, Harry M., Qualifications for Success in Teaching Agri­
culture . unpublished Master of Science thesis, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia., 1932.
Mondart, Clifford L., An Argument for a More Careful Selection
of Student Teachers by Departments of Agricultural Education
with a Suggested Procedure, unpublished Doctor of Philosophy
thesis, The Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.
1936.
12
trainers in agriculture as to the factors they considered pre­
dictive of teaching success.
The factors, with the number of the
thirty-nine teacher-trainers listing each, are:
High School rank,
25; college standing, 39; scores made on intelligence tests, 25;
farm experience, 39; age and maturity, 33; personality characteristics,
39; physical qualifications, 32; farming abilities, 23; race and sex,
12; religion, 10; habits and attitudes, 39.
Sutherland^*- studies the records of some thirty vocation­
al agriculture teachers of California and attempted to work out
criteria for predicting teaching success.
Some of his findings,
although based upon data admittedly too meager to justify any final
conclusion, are extremely interesting, for, in at least one par­
ticular, they run counter to a generally accepted belief as to
what qualities are essential for teaching success in the field of
vocational agriculture.
farm experience.
Of the men studied, eight had had extensive
The typical teacher in this group was born and
raised on a farm, studied vocational agriculture in high school,
and worked on a farm during summer months while attending high
school and college.
Each had owned and managed a farm for at least
one year sometime after graduating from high school, and several
had worked as cow testers, county agents, horticultural inspectors
or farm foremen.
Only three of the eight developed into above
average teachers of vocational agriculture, while twice that many—
six of the eight— with the poorest farm experience records turned
^
Sutherland, S. S., "Can We Predict Teaching Success?," The
Agricultural Education Magazine. 10:35
August, 1937.
13
out to be superior teachers.
With respect to scholastic records, Sutherland states:
"If we pick teachers with high scholastic records
in their last two years in college, made in subjects
dealing mostly with technical agriculture, the chances
are three to one we will get a superior teacher. The
man who made low grades during these last years has a
little less than a 50-50 chance, three to four, of
making good."
But Mr. Sutherland considers another characteristic an
even better measure for predicting teaching success —
the extent to
which the man engaged in extra-curricular activities while in col­
lege and in high schoolj such as athletics, judging teams, clubs,
student governing bodies, and the like.
Nine of the teachers in­
cluded in the study had activity records well above the average,
while eight had participated to a very limited extent in extra­
curricular activities.
Of the former, every one developed into a
better than average teacherj of the latter, not a single one de­
veloped into a better than average teacher.
that:
Mr. Sutherland concludes
"A student1s record in extra-curricular activities is the
most significant factor we have on which to predict his success as
a teacher."
It is to be noted that there is no general agreement as
to the qualities that make for success in teaching vocational agri­
culture, or as to the characteristics to be considered in admitting
students to teacher-training curricula.
Chapter II
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the Problem -
In this study an attempt will be made to
discover some characteristics found in successful teachers of vo­
cational agriculture with a view to choosing candidates who apply for
admission to teacher-training curricula.
Specifically, an attempt
will be made to answer the following questions:
1.
Does the teacher's physique influence his success
as a teacher of vocational agriculture?
2.
Is the teacher's health a factor in determining
teaching success in this field?
3.
Do limited physical defects prevent a man from
becoming a successful teacher of vocational agri­
culture?
4.
Can the candidate's high school record be relied
upon in predicting his success as a teacher of
vocational agriculture?
5.
Is the student's college record a reliable measure
of teaching success?
6.
Is practical farm experience prior to teaching an
essential factor in the success of the teacher?
7#
May the lack of proper business and social contacts
prevent the man from becoming a successful teacher
of vocational agriculture?
8.
Is previous teaching experience an indication of
success in teaching vocational agriculture?
9.
Is the man who participated extensively in extra­
curricular activities while a student in college
and in high school more likely to become a success­
ful teacher of vocational agriculture than one who
did not?
10.
May we rely upon the fact that a man paid a portion
or all of his own expenses while a student in college
in predicting his probable success as a teacher of
vocational agriculture?
11.
To what extent are twenty-five selected personality
traits predictive of teaching success in this field?
12.
Do teaching facilities available in the school de­
termine the man's success as a teacher of vocation­
al agriculture?
13.
In the opinion of their county vocational advisers
and of their supervising principals, what are the
greatest assets, and what the greatest deficiencies
of a group of outstandingly successful teachers of
vocational agriculture as compared with the great­
est assets and the greatest deficiencies of a
group of less successful teachers?
14«
May any of the above factors be used in selecting
candidates who apply for admission to teachertraining curricula?
Definition of Terms -
By "characteristics" is meant the traits
or qualities possessed by the teachers of vocational agriculture
that make for success or failure in their work.
No claim is
made that this study covers every characteristic of teachers of
vocational agriculture.
It is limited to those enumerated under
"Statement of the Problem" above.
The term "successful teachers" as used here refers to
that part of all teachers of vocational agriculture in Penn­
sylvania falling between the 89th and 100th percentiles (ap­
proximately) when rated for excellence of their work.
The method
of selecting successful teachers is explained in some detail under
"Selecting the Cooperating Teachers," page 18.
By "teachers of vocational agriculture" is meant those
individuals who are giving instruction in all-day, day-unit, parttime, or evening classes in agriculture in public high schools
under provisions of the Smith-Hughes or George-Deen Acts.
The
county vocational advisers, who may also teach classes in vo­
cational agriculture in Pennsylvania, are not included in this
study, but assistant teachers in departments of vocational agri­
culture in the state were considered in determining successful
teachers.
"Vocational agriculture" refers to the work carried
on by a "teacher of vocational agriculture," and the division
in the high school in which the work is done is called a "de­
partment of vocational agriculture," or the "agricultural de­
partment."
A "teacher-training department" is a department of a
college — usually, but not always, the state college of agri­
culture and mechanic arts —
to which is assigned the function
of selecting, preparing, and placing teachers of vocational agri­
culture.
The term "department of agricultural education" is
frequently used as a synonym for "teacher-training department."
"Agricultural education" refers to the work of the "teachertrairung department" and not to the teaching of agriculture in
the "department of vocational agriculture" in a high school.
The "teacher-training curriculum" is the curriculum set
up by the "teacher-training department" to train teachers of vo­
cational agriculture.
It includes work in technical agriculture,
the sciences related to agriculture, English, social sciences,
education and psychology, and other college courses.
The "teacher-training institution" is the university or
college in which the "teacher-training curriculum" is offered.
By "candidates" is meant the students who seek to take
work in the "teacher-training department."
Scope of the Study -
If factors to be used in admitting candi­
dates to teacher-training curricula are to be discovered by ex­
amining the characteristics of successful teachers of vocational
agriculture, it is obvious we must study the characteristics of
outstandingly successful teachers and, at the same time, must
have for comparison or contrast the characteristics of less
successful teachers.
If a given characteristic is present in
both successful teachers and in less successful teachers to an
equal degree, there can be no valid reason for assuming that it
is the thing to which the teacher owes his success.
On the other
hand, if a certain characteristic is found only among the success­
ful teachers or only among the less successful teachers, we may
assume that it has some bearing upon teaching success, or lack of
success.
This study is an intensive investigation of the charac­
teristics of twenty-five outstandingly successful teachers of vo­
cational agriculture in Pennsylvania, and an equally intensive
investigation of the characteristics of twenty-six less success­
ful teachers of vocational agriculture in the same state.
Since it was obviously impossible to contact person­
ally each teacher, county vocational adviser, or supervising
principal participating in the study, the questionnaire method
seemed the most feasible one to use in collecting data.
In all
possible cases data obtained in this way were supplemented by
information about the teacher's high-school and college records
obtained from the office of the Registrar or from the Depart­
ment of Rural Education of The Pennsylvania State College.
18
Developing the Questionnaires -
Two questionnaires were used.
One was submitted to each teacher who cooperated in the study;
the other to the county vocational advisers and supervising
principals of the teachers.
Each questionnaire was carefully
prepared to include such pertinent data as could be supplied
by the person filling it out and was distributed only after it
had been revised several times to meet the constructive criti­
cisms of all staff members of the Department of Rural Edu­
cation, The Pennsylvania State College.
Both forms were so
designed that the data could be supplied by a simple checking
process in a majority of questions.
Both questionnaires used
may be found in the Appendix.
A form used in obtaining data from the Registrar’s
office and from the Department of Rural Education is included
in the Appendix also.
Selecting the Cooperating Teachers -
For purposes of this study,
two sharply contrasting groups of teachers were desired:
One
a group of outstandingly successful teachers of vocational agri­
culture, and the other a group of less successful teachers of
vocational agriculture, each group to contain approximately
twenty-five individuals.
It was also desired that the teaching
experience of the two groups be approximately the same in order
that such experience might be eliminated as a contributing
factor in teaching success.
The two groups were matched for
teaching experience as explained below.
Since county vocational advisers were being asked to
supply information about teachers whom they supervise, they are
not included in this study.
Teachers with less than one year
of teaching experience, who have yet to prove themselves, were
also excluded.
Not counting these two groups, 219 men were
found to be teaching vocational agriculture in Pennsylvania.
They were divided into three groups, according to the number
of years of experience the man had had in teaching vocational
agriculture in the state.
Group I included men with two, three,
or four years of experiencej Group II included men with five,
six, seven, eight, or nine years of experience; Group III included
men with ten or more years of experience.
There were ninety-four
individuals in Group I, sixty-four individuals in Group II, and
sixty-one individuals in Group III.
Five men, all of whom are well acquainted with the
work being done by each of the 219 teachers, individually select­
ed the ten teachers whom they regarded as being most successful
in each of the above groups, and ten teachers whom they regarded
as being less successful in each group.
Two of the men rating
the teachers for excellence of their work are members of the
staff of the State Department of Public Instruction, Harrisburg,
and three were staff members of the Department of Rural Education
of The Pennsylvania State College.
If three of the five men
agreed upon a teacher as being among the ten most successful or
among the ten less successful in his group he was so classified
and has been included in this study.
Thus it resulted that no
teacher has been included in what will later be referred to as
the group of ’’successful teachers” or in the group that will be
referred to as the "less successful teachers" unless there was
20
substantial agreement among the five men that he belonged among
the ten most successful or among the ten less successful teachers
in his particular experience group.
Using the above procedure, twenty-five men were chosen
as successful teachers, and twenty-six men were chosen for the
less successful group.
It is of interest to note that seven, or
7.4-5 per cent, of the teachers with from two to four years’ teach­
ing experience were chosen as successful teachers, and nine, or
9.57 per cent, as less successful teachers.
Of those with from
five to nine years’ teaching experience, ten, or 15.62 per cent,
were designated as successful teachers, and seven, or 10.94- per
cent, as less successful teachers.
Eight, or 13.11 per cent of
the teachers with ten or more years' teaching experience were
listed as successful teachers, and ten, or 16.39 per cent, as
less successful.
Of the entire group of 219 teachers, 11.4-2 per
cent were included in the group of successful teachers, and 11.87
per cent in the group of less successful teachers.
Gathering the Data -
The questionnaire, "Self Survey Form for
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture," was sent to each of the
fifty-one teachers who cooperated in the study.
The form,
"Information about Teacher of Vocational Agriculture," was sent
to the county vocational adviser and to the supervising principal
of each teacher.
Three separate letters of explanation were pre­
pared and signed by Professor Henry S. Brunner, Head of the De­
partment of Rural Education, one of which accompanied the ques­
tionnaire sent to teachers; another, the form sent to county
advisers; and the third, the form sent to supervising principals.
21
A return, stamped envelope was enclosed with each letter.
If a re­
ply had not been received from the teacher, the county adviser, or
the supervising principal within two weeks, a follow-up letter was
sent him.
If no reply had been received within ten days of the date
on which the follow-up letter was mailed, a second letter and an­
other questionnaire were sent.
Four of the teachers who act as principals of their
schools were not asked to fill out the form, "Information about
Teacher of Vocational Agriculture."
two schools each.
Four other teachers work in
Two different supervising principals were asked
to report on each of these.
In all, fifty-one supervising princi­
pals were asked to report upon the teacher of vocational agri­
culture working in their schools, and fifty-one replys were re­
ceived.
County vocational advisers were asked to supply infor­
mation about fifty-one teachers, and fifty-one replys were re­
ceived.
Of the twenty-five successful teachers who were asked to
supply information about themselves, twenty-five replied.
Three
of the less successful teachers resigned shortly after the question­
naire was sent each, and did not return the form.
No reply was re­
ceived from one other teacher in this groupj hence, of the twentysix teachers in the less successful group, only twenty-two supplied
information about themselves.
The teacher*s high-school rank, final rank in his class at
The Pennsylvania State College, college curriculum completed, and
grade points earned in college were compiled from records in the
Registrar’s office or from those available in the Department of
Rural Education, The Pennsylvania State College.
Complete data
were not obtainable for many of the teachers; for those who gradu­
ated from The Pennsylvania State College more than twelve years
ago, and for those who graduated from other institutions.
Each teacher was asked to report the number of semester
hours of college work he completed in nineteen subject-matter fields.
This information was checked against records available at The Penn­
sylvania State College for graduates of that institution, and, in
case of discrepancies, the data obtained at the college were as­
sumed to be correct.
Treatment of the Data -
The implications of the data as to teach­
ing success in the field of vocational agriculture and as to the
selection of candidates for admission to teacher-training curricula
will be discussed under the following:
Physique and health; edu­
cation, including both high school and college training; farm ex­
perience; other experience; personality; teaching traits.
Perti­
nent data, whether obtained from the teachers, county vocational
advisers, or supervising principals, will be discussed under the
appropriate heading.
To the extent that the data lend themselves
to statistical treatment, such will be applied.
Chapter III
PHYSIQUE AND HEALTH
As was indicated previously, the work of a teacher of vo­
cational agriculture requires him to put in long hours and involves
the expenditure of considerable physical and nervous energy.
After
spending a.full school day in the classroom, most teachers use the
remainder of the day to visit projects of their students, to con­
fer with farmers, to gather teaching materials, or to prepare for
the work of the following day.
Many are busy until late at night
with part-time or evening classes; meetings of groups of farmers
or of the local chapter of the Future Farmers of America; consul­
tations with farmers and others at the home of the teacher; the
preparation of teaching and other plans, or the making of required
reports.
All teachers make numerous contacts daily where first
appearances are important.
Teacher-training departments do not ordinarily admit to
teacher-training curricula students who have serious physical handi­
caps or who are in very poor health.
School officials who employ
the teacher ordinarily choose a man with sufficient physical energy
to carry on his work.
It is to be expected, therefore, that the
teachers participating in this study will be in average or better
than average health when compared with a group of normal indi­
viduals, and that a noticeable difference between the successful
teachers and the less successful teachers is significant.
Each teacher was asked to supply information as to his
height and weight.
County vocational advisers and supervising
principals rated each teacher on certain personality traits that
have a bearing upon physique; e.g., "appearance" and "carriage and
posture," but these to.11 be discussed later in the section devoted
to "Personality."
Age of the teacher is discussed in this section
primarily because of its relation to height and weight.
Age of the Teacher and Teaching Success -
Table I shows the age
distribution by five-year periods of the twenty-five successful
teachers and the twenty-two less successful teachers who supplied
this information about themselves.
nearest birthday to May 1, 194-0.
Ages were recorded as of the
The youngest teacher was twenty-
four years of age; the oldest fifty-eight.
Table I
Age Distribution of Forty-seven Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
Number of individuals
:---------------: Successful
Less success­
:
teachers
ful teachers
Age
20 to 24 years
25 n
1
-
29
ii
10
6
30 ti 34
tt
5
2
35 IT 39
n
4
2
40 tt 44
tt
2
5
45 n
49
n
2
4
50 it 54
it
1
1
55 tt 59
tt
-
2
Mean age
33.32 years
39.64 years
As will be noted from a study of the table, the success­
ful teachers are younger, on the average, than the less successful
teachers.
The mean age of the successful teachers is 6.32 years
below that of the less successful group.
Eighty per cent of the
successful teachers are between twenty-four and thirty-nine years
of age, while less than 45 per cent of the less successful teachers
are in the same age group.
The high proportion of the less suc­
cessful teachers in the upper age groupings can be accounted for,
in part, by the fact that eight teachers with ten or more years
of teaching experience were rated as successful, while ten were
placed in the less successful classification.
Of the six less
successful teachers with two to four years of teaching experience,
who reported their age, two are over forty-five years of age.
Of
the seven successful teachers with two to four years of teaching
experience, all are under thirty years of age.
It should be pointed out that county vocational advisers
are not included in this study.
Each of these men reached his
present position by virtue of success in teaching, and all would
classify in the upper age groups.
Height and Weight of the Teacher and Teaching .Success -
Table II
shows the height distribution, and Table III the weight distri­
bution of the forty-seven teachers for whom this information is
available.
Table II shows that only 12 per cent of the successful
teachers are below 5 feet, 8 inches in height, while more than 31
per cent of the less successful teachers are below that height.
Sixty-four per cent of the successful teachers are 5 feet, 10 inches
26
in height or over, while fewer than 37 per cent of the less success­
ful teachers are so classified.
The successful teachers average 1.6
inches taller than the less successful teachers, but this difference
may be traceable to the method of sampling.
Table II
Height Distribution of Forty-seven Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
Number of individuals
Height
Successful : Less successteachers * ful teachers
5 feet, 3 inches
2
2
-
-
-
A
n
5
it
6
ti
-
3
* 7
ti
1
2
8
ti
2
5
9
it
A
2
» 10 it
5
3
5
tt » 11 n
2
3
6
"
it
9
2
5* - 9.92"
51 - 8.32"
5
ii
—
j
5
5
5
5
n
ii
n
5
5
ii
y
t
, 0
Mean height
That there is little difference in the weight of the suc­
cessful teachers and that of the less successful teachers is shown
in Table III.
At first it might be assumed that the very slight
difference in the mean weight of the two groups is significant when
considered with the mean height.
But when it is remembered that the
less successful teachers, as a group, average more than six years
older than the successful teachers, this difference becomes insig­
nificant.
Table III
Weight Distribution of Forty-s.even Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
:
Weight
:
:
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
1 Less success­
: ful teachers
120 to 139 pounds
1
:
2
140
" 159
11
8
:
5
160
" 179
"
8
:
5
180
” 199
"
5
:
7
200
" 219
n
1
:
2
220
" 239
"
1
Mean weight (pounds)
General Health. Hearing. Eyesight -
167.04
:
166.14
Each teacher cooperating in
this study supplied information about his general health, hearing,
and eyesight.
County vocational advisers and supervising princi­
pals rated the general health, hearing, and eyesight of each teach­
er under their supervision on a three point scale.
ratings appears in Table IV.
A summary of the
28
Table IV
Estimate of the General Health, Hearing, and Eyesight
of the Group of Successful and the Group of Less
Successful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture by; County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising
Principals
Successful
teachers
Characteristic
Less success­
ful teachers
No. persons rating
Excel­- : Aver- : Poor
lent : age :
General health
23
26
Hearing
51
-
Eyesight
32
17
1
2
No. persons rating
Excel­- : Aver- : Poor
lent : age :
12
33
4.6
5
22
27
6
2
It appears from the above table that the successful
teachers, as a group, are in somewhat better general health, have
better hearing, and better eyesight than the group of less success­
ful teachers.
Twenty-three county vocational advisers and super­
vising principals gave a rating of excellent on the question of
general health to individual members of the former group, but only
twelve ratings of excellent were given the latter group.
Fifty-
one ratings of excellent were given the successful teachers on
hearing, but only forty-six such ratings were given the less suc­
cessful teachers.
Thirty-two advisers and supervising principals
thought members of the successful group deserved a rating of excel­
lent on eyesight, but only twenty-two gave the same rating to mem­
bers of the less successful group.
Twenty-five successful teachers and tv/enty-two less sue-
29
cessful teachers reported upon the ailments they were suffering at
the time of the survey or from which they have suffered in the past.
Of the former, eight listed frequent colds; one, frequent headaches;
one; liver trouble; two, nervous trouble; one, rheumatism; and three,
tonsilitis..
Of the less successful teachers, eight named frequent
colds; one, frequent headaches; two, gall stones; two, liver trouble;
one, nervous trouble; one, stomach trouble; three, tonsilitis, and
one, ulcers.
None of the county vocational advisers or supervising
principals considers any member of the successful group of teachers
or of the less successful group to be in such poor health that a
successful discharge of his duties as a teacher of vocational agri­
culture is impaired thereby.
One man in the group of successful teachers stated that
his hearing was slightly abnormal, as, also, did one man in the
group of less successful teachers.
None in either group was re­
ported to have such poor hearing that he is handicapped in his
work as a teacher.
Ten of the twenty-five successful teachers wear glasses.
Each man has
had his glasses adjusted within the
pastthree years.
Eight of the
twenty-six less successful teachers
wearglasses.
It
has been five years or more since two of these men have had their
glasses adjusted.
A county vocational adviser reported that one
of the successful teachers is being handicapped in his work be­
cause of poor eyesight.
The number of days
important in
a teacher is absent fromhis work is
determining his efficiency.
Table V shows the number
30
of days twenty-five successful and twenty-two less successful teach­
ers were absent from work because of illness in the past two years.
Table VI gives the same information about the same teachers, but for
the past ten years.
Table V
Number of Days Twenty-five Successful and Twentytwo Less Successful Teachers of Vocational
Agriculture Were Absent from Work
Because of Illness in the
Past Two Tears
Number of individuals
Days absent from work
s
•
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
1 or 2 days
5
4
3
" 4
11
1
2
5
n 6
n
2
1
7 n g
n
-
2
" 10 "
-
-
2
-
9
More than ten days
Total days absent
64
30
It should be pointed out that thirty-one of the sixtyfour days missed by successful teachers in the past two years are
directly traceable to an attack of typhoid fever suffered by one
man.
In spite of this considerable difference in the total number
of days missed because of illness in the past two years, each group
missed approximately the same number of days because of illness
during the past ten years.
31
Table VI
Number of Days Twenty-five Successful and Twentytwo Less Successful Teachers of Vocational
Agriculture Were Absent from Work
Because of Illness in the
Past Ten Tears
:
Days absent from work
1
to
5 days
;
;
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success* ful teachers
7
;
7
6
n 10
n
3
:
2
11
ii
15
n
1
:
2
16
it
20
n
1
:
-
21
it
25
tt
1
*
1
26
ii
30
it
-
•
-
35
it
1
:
1
31
ti
Total days absent
121
:
122
The more serious ailments for which the successful teach­
ers have been treated by a physician include the following;
Ty­
phoid fever, pneumonia, sinus trouble and influenza, pancreatitis,
and grippe.
Less successful teachers have been treated for the
following more serious ailments;
Mumps, gall bladder disorder,
erysipelas, intestinal disorder, grippe, sinus trouble, and an
infected ear.
Physical HanHi caps -
Any physical deformity that distracts the
attention of persons with whom the teacher deals is likely to prove
a handicap to him.
Other defects not immediately apparent may sap
the teacher's vitality and prevent him from giving his best efforts
to his work.
Persons with serious physical handicaps are not ad­
mitted to teacher-training curricula, as a rule, and school of­
ficials hesitate to employ such individuals after they have been
trained.
It is to be expected, therefore, that the more serious
physical handicaps permitted in some other occupations will not
be found among the group of successful or the group of less suc­
cessful teachers.
Any considerable difference between the two
groups must be regarded as significant.
None of the successful teachers reported a physical
defect.
Of the twenty-two less successful teachers, five, or
more than 22 per cent, reported physical defects.
the following:
They include
’'Lamed by broken ankle ;" "hemorrhage of eye;"
"running ear," "sinus trouble;" "gall bladder."
The county vo­
cational advisers noted that four of the successful teachers have
the following defectsi
"Works too hard for the amount of physical
energy he has;" "nervous indigestion at times;" "loud voice;"
"tends to become extremely nervous."
None of the supervising
principals reported physical defects for any of the successful
/
teachers.
The county vocational advisers and supervising princi­
pals noted defects in six of the less successful teachers as
follows.
"Lamed by foot injury" noted by both supervising princi­
pal and adviser, "recent ear operation —
"underweight —
may be normal later;"
too young looking;" "machine gun wounds;" "sinus
trouble;" "ear trouble."
The physical handicaps are more serious, and occur more
frequently among the less successful teachers.
It is probable that
a number of these men may trace their lack of success directly to
this cause.
Summary -
Teachers of vocational agriculture are required to spend
long hours and to use much physical and nervous energy in discharg­
ing their responsibilities.
Teacher-training departments do not
ordinarily admit to teacher-training curricula students with seri­
ous physical handicaps or who are in very poor health, nor do school
officials employ such men.
The group of successful teachers included in this study
average 6.32 years younger than the group of less successful teach­
ers.
Eighty per cent of the former group are under forty years of
age, while 55 per cent of the latter are forty years of age or older.
There is little difference in physique, as measured by
height and weight of the teacher, between the group of successful
teachers and the group of less successful teachers.
This study re­
veals no significant relation betv/een teaching success and physique.
The group of successful teachers are in somewhat better
general health, have better hearing, and better eyesight than the
group of less successful teachers.
As a group, the successful
teachers were absent from work because of illness more than twice as
many days in the past two years as were the less successful teachers,
but were absent approximately the same number of days over a tenyear period.
Physical handicaps are more serious, and occur more fre­
quently among the less successful teachers.
Lack of success in teach­
ing vocational agriculture is probably traceable in many cases di—
rectly to this cause.
35
Chapter IV
HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE TRAINING OF THE TEACHER
To be effective as a teacher of vocational agriculture, a
man must possess:-*1.
Superior skill in the occupation to be taught*
2.
Adequate technical knowledge in the field of agri­
culture and the related field of science.
3.
An understanding of the significance and the demands
of the occupation.
4.
The ability to teach, using the methods of instruction
adapted to this form of vocational education.
If the above demands are to be met, the training given
teachers of vocational agriculture must necessarily be broad and
thorough.
Many teacher-trainers believe that this training should
begin with a course in vocational agriculture in the high school.
Some teacher-training departments give preference to graduates from
the vocational agriculture department when selecting candidates for
admission to teacher-training curricula.
High-school Curriculum Completed and Teaching Success -
Table VII
shows the high-school curricula from which twenty-four successful
and twenty-two less successful teachers of vocational agriculture
were graduated.
The four individuals listed in Table VII as graduates of
the "vocational agriculture and college preparatory" curriculum have
Swanson, H. B., "The Preparatory Curriculum for Teachers of Vo­
cational Agriculture, 1935-36," Teacher Training Release No. 6,
United States Office of Education, Washington, 1938, p. 1.
36
had some training in vocational agriculture in the high school.
Table VII
High-school Curricula from which Forty-six Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture Were Graduated
Number of individuals
Curricula
Successful
teachers
• Less success: ful teachers
Vocational agriculture
7
:
2
Vocational agriculture and
college preparatory
A
•
•
—
Commercial and college
preparatory
1
:
—
Academic
8
:
15
College preparatory
2
;
1
General
2
:
1
Science
-
:
2
Mathematics
-
:
1
One of the less successful teachers who graduated from the aca­
demic curriculum completed one year of vocational agriculture in
high school, and another who graduated from the same curriculum
completed two years of vocational agriculture.
One successful,
and one less successful teacher, both listed as graduates from the
academic curriculum, completed three or more years of day-umt vo­
cational agriculture.
If we consider only those teachers who gradu­
ated from the vocational agriculture curriculum, seven of the nine
developed into outstandingly successful teachers of vocational agri­
37
culture.
The chances seem to be better than three to one that
graduates from teacher-training curricula will be among the out­
standingly successful teachers rather than among the less suc­
cessful when candidates are chosen from graduates of the vo­
cational agriculture curriculum of the high school.
If all
individuals who have had some training in vocational agriculture,
either in all-day or in day-unit classes, are considered, twelve
of the seventeen with such training developed into outstandingly
successful teachers.
The chances seem better than two to one that
candidates with such experience will develop into outstandingly
successful teachers rather than into "less successful" teachers.
Of the twenty-nine individuals who had no training in vocational
agriculture in high school, twelve developed into outstandingly
successful teachers, and seventeen into "less successful" teachers.
If the same proportion holds true when all teachers in the state
are included, the chances seem to be less than even, about three
to four, that such individuals will develop into outstandingly
successful teachers of vocational agriculture.
Agriculture Pro.i ects Carried and Teaching Success -
Each student
who enrolls for a course in vocational agriculture in the high
school is required to complete six months of supervised or directed
practice in agriculture, commonly referred to as a project in agri­
culture.
Each of the seventeen men who had training in vocational
agriculture in high school completed one productive-enterprise pro­
ject each year he was enrolled.
Seven of the twelve successful
teachers developed a long-time project plan as indicated by con-
38
tinuation projects, while only one of the five less successful
teachers developed similar plans.
There is no apparent difference
betvreen the enterprises carried by successful teachers and by less
successful teachers, nor is there a difference in the size of the
projects carried.
The only way by which the quality of the pro­
ject program may be judged now is the average grade given the pro­
jects by the teacher of vocational agriculture, a rather unreliable
device since different teachers use different standards, and the
numbers represented here are small.
An average grade on the entire
project program carried was reported by eleven of the successful
teachers and hy all five of the less successful teachers.
reported by successful teachers are as follows:
B+, B, 93 t 90, 90, 85.
are:
Grades
A, A, A, A-, B + ,
Grades reported by less successful teachers
B+, B, B, 90, 85.
Four of the successful teachers entered the State Project
Contest held annually in connection with the Pennsylvania Farm Show
at Harrisburg, one winning first prize in field corn; one, fourth
in fruits; and another, sixth in dairy records.
One of the less suc­
cessful teachers entered the same contest, winning fourth place in
field corn.
None of the successful or of the less successful teachers
began a project that was dropped before it was completed.
This study shows little difference in the kind or size of
projects carried by successful and by less successful teachers when
they were still students in high school.
The quality of the project
program carried by successful teachers seems slightly above that of
39
the program carried by less successful teachers, although the numbers
are too small to justify any final conclusion.
Membership in the Future Farmers of America and Teaching Success Many of the teachers cooperating in this study graduated from high
school before the Future Farmers of America was organized in 1928,
hence had no opportunity to join a local chapter of the organization,
and even less opportunity of joining a collegiate chapter.
Only
seventeen men in all were enrolled in vocational agriculture; the
others were ineligible to become members of a local chapter.
Of the twenty-five successful teachers, six different indi­
viduals had been members of a local chapter or of The Pennsylvania
State College Collegiate Chapter of the Future Farmers of America.
One of the six had been a member of both local and collegiate chap­
ters.
Two men had acted as secretary and later as president of
local chapters; a third had been president of his local chapter for
two years and of the collegiate chapter for one term; and a fourth
had been secretary of the collegiate chapter.
Two of the less successful teachers had been members of a
local chapter of the Future Farmers of America, but none was a
member of the collegiate chapter at The Pennsylvania State College
or elsewhere.
One of the two was president of his local chapter;
the other held no office.
While it is true that fewer of the less successful teachers
had an opportunity to become members of a local chapter of the Future
Farmers of America because fewer of them were enrolled in vocational
agriculture in high school, they could have joined the collegiate
40
chapter in as large numbers as did the successful teachers.
That
they did not do so indicates their lack of interest in a part of the
teacher-training program which is definitely reflected in the quality
of work they perform as teachers.
High-school Rank and Teaching Success -
For several years a record
has been kept of the high-school ranks of students admitted to The
Pennsylvania State College.
Such rankings are made by the teachers
of the high schools from which the students were graduated.
They are
expressed as thirds or as fifths and designate the particular third
or fifth of the class in which the students were graduated.
Those
ranking above the 80th percentile are said to rank in the upper
fifth of their class; those ranking between the 40th and the 60th
percentiles, in the third fifth, and so on.
Rankings by thirds
are determined in a similar manner.
The high-school rank is available for fifteen successful
and eleven less successful teachers, expressed as fifths with three
exceptions.
The rank of one successful teacher and of one less suc­
cessful teacher is given as the second third of their respective
classes.
In Table VIII, both of these are expressed as third fifths.
One other less successful teacher's rank is given as the first third.
This is expressed as the first fifth in Table VIII.
Very few students who ranked below the second fifth of their
high-school class have been admitted to The Pennsylvania State College
in recent years.
Since data for Table VIII cover the more recent
graduates, it is not surprising that few teachers were recruited from
the fourth or the fifth fifth of their high-school classes.
It is
not to be assumed that the teacher-training department at the col­
lege is restricting enrollment to those who graduated in the up­
per two- or three-fifths of their high-school classes.
Candidates
who apply for admission to the department are already highly se­
lected with regards to high-school rank.
For this reason, our
comparison must be between those ranking in the upper fifth and
those ranking belowj i.e., between those in the first fifth and
those in the second, third, fourth, and fifth fifths combined.
Table VIII
High School Rank of Twenty-six Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
*
Rank in fifths
:
:
Number of individuals
Successful : Less success­
teachers : ful teachers
First
8
:
3
Second
2
:
A
Third
A
:
2
Fourth
_
*
•
-
Fifth
1
:
2
The chances seem to be approximately two to one that
candidates chosen from the upper fifth of their high school class
will develop into outstandingly successful teachers of vocational
agriculture rather than "less successful" teachers.
While the
chances seem to be approximately seven to eleven that candidates who
rank below the first fifth of their high-school class will develop
into outstandingly successful teachers upon completion of the teacher
42
training curriculum.
Most teacher-training institutions permit candidates to
enter the teacher-training curriculum as freshmen or as sophomores.
In others, students enter the teacher-training curriculum as juniors
or even as seniors.
A few institutions permit the candidate to
satisfy professional and other requirements for teaching vocational
agriculture through elective work.
At the University of Hawaii,
candidates begin their work in agricultural education as sophomores,
but a rigid selection is made at the end of the senior year before
they are finally admitted to the fifth, or probationary year of
training.
It will be noted that, in a few cases, selection of candi­
dates for teacher-training curricula can not be based upon the col­
lege record of the student but, in others, such selection is possi­
ble.
College from which the Teacher Originally Graduated and Teaching Suc­
cess -
As is to be expected, nearly all of the teachers cooperating
in this study originally graduated from The Pennsylvania State Col­
lege, the institution designated to train teachers of vocational agri­
culture in the state.
Two of the successful teachers graduated from
other institutions, one from a state teacher’s college, and the
other from a land-grant institution in a middle-western state.
The
graduate of the state teacher’s college enrolled at The Pennsylvania
State College before he began teaching, getting another degree v/ith­
in three years.
Of the less successful teachers, three graduated
from institutions other than The Pennsylvania State College.
One
originally graduated from a state teacher’s college, another from a
-43
denominational college, and a third from a land-grant institution in
an eastern state.
Each of the five has attended summer sessions at
The Pennsylvania State College.
The number of teachers graduating from institutions other
than the state teacher-training institution is too small to justify
any final conclusions being drawn with respect to the college from
which the teacher originally graduated and his success as a teach­
er of vocational agriculture.
Degree Received and Teaching Success -
Without exception, each
teacher cooperating in this study received the B.S. degree before
beginning his career as a teacher of vocational agriculture, hence
it is not possible to draw any conclusion with respect to this
factor.
Age at Graduation and Teaching Success -
The normal person who
progresses through the twelve grades of the public schools and four
years of college without retardation or interruption should be ex­
pected to graduate from college at about age twenty-two to twentyfour.
If he completes the work for a college degree before reach­
ing the age of twenty-one, he has probably been accelerated at some
time in his school career, but graduation from college after the age
of twenty—four does not necessarily mean that the man has been retard­
ed or has failed to pass a grade or subject.
It is possible he drop­
ped out of school at some time to work or for some other reason.
Table IX shows the age at which twenty-five successful and
twenty-two less successful teachers of vocational agriculture completed
the work for a college degree.
The range for the group of successful
teachers is from twenty to twenty-seven years, and for the group of
less successful teachers, twenty to forty-five years.
Table IX
Age at which Forty-seven Teachers of Vo­
cational Agriculture Graduated
from College
:
Age distribution
;
:
20 or 21 years
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
4
: Less success: ful teachers
:
1
22
tt 23
tt
10
24
tt 25
n
6
:
1
26
n 27
n
4
:
7
28
tt 29
tt
1
:
3
30
tt 31
tt
-
:
-
32
it 33
tt
-
:
1
34
li 35
tt
-
:
-
36
tt 37
tt
-
:
-
38
it 39
tt
-
:
1
-
:
1
Over 40 years
7
That more than half of the less successful teachers failed
to progress through the school system in a normal manner is reveal­
ed from a study of the above table.
In some cases this failure un­
doubtedly was due to conditions over which the man had no control,
but the data point
towards the fact that a person who graduates from
college abnormally late in life does not make a good teacher of vo-
45
cational agriculture.
Figures shorn in Table IX attain even greater significance
when studied in connection with Table X which shows the age at which
the men began their careers as teachers of vocational agriculture.
Table X
Age at which Forty-seven Men Began Teaching
Vocational Agriculture
Number of individuals
Age distribution
20 or 21 years
:
:
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
4
1
IT
9
5
22
n
23
24
ti
25
it
7
1
26
IT
27
it
4
2
28
n
29
n
1
2
30
n
31
it
-
1
32
ii
33
IT
-
-
34
n
35
II
-
4
36
ti 37
n
-
-
38
it 39
ii
-
1
40
it 41
n
-
-
42
it
43
ti
-
-
44
ii
45
ti
-
1
46
it 47
it
-
1
48
it
n
-
-
49
Over 50 years
4-6
Eighty per cent of the successful teachers were under
twenty-six years of age and all of them under thirty, when they be­
gan teaching vocational agriculture.
Forty-four per cent of the
less successful teachers were over thirty years of age before they
began teaching vocational agriculture. Of the nine men who began
teaching vocational agriculture after reaching the age of thirty,
all are found among the group of less successful teachers.
A further study of the data upon which Table X is based
reveals the fact that two of the successful teachers began teach­
ing vocational agriculture one full year after graduating from
college, but that eleven of the twenty less successful teachers
waited from one to twenty-two years before beginning their careers
as teachers of vocational agriculture.
Most of these men taught
some other subject in the public schools after graduating from
college, but a few were without teaching experience when they
began teaching vocational agriculture.
These data point to the conclusion that the man who
graduates from college or who begins his career as a teacher of vo­
cational agriculture after reaching the age of thirty has less
chance of becoming outstandingly successful than has one who begins
teaching vocational agriculture at a younger age.
Those individuals
who wait one or more years after graduating from college before be­
coming teachers of vocational agriculture do not, as a general rule,
develop into outstandingly successful teachers.
College Curriculum Completed and Teaching Success —
Most teachers
of vocational agriculture are required to deal with a variety of
problems in agriculture, such as, problems in the field of crop
production, fruit and vegetable production, live stock and poultry
production, farm construction and repair work, soil conservation
and soil improvement, farm management, farm credits and farm fi­
nance, and the landscaping and beautification of the farm home.
For this reason, many specialists in agricultural education feel
that the training of a teacher of vocational agriculture should be
well balanced —
that it should include some training in as many
fields of technical agriculture as possible rather than speciali­
zation in a single field.
Every agricultural education depart­
ment attempts to include in its curriculum a well balanced train­
ing in technical agriculture and in other appropriate fields,
while graduates in agronomy, animal husbandry, horticulture, and
other subject-matter fields receive a specialized training.
The college curricula from which fifty of the teachers
cooperating in this study were graduated is shown in Table XI.
It
should be remembered that teachers who graduated in agricultural
education have had a balanced training in technical agriculture;
those who graduated from other curricula, a specialized training.
Twenty of the thirty-five teachers who majored in agri­
cultural education while in college developed into outstandingly
successful, and fifteen into less successful teachers.
Of the
fifteen teachers who completed other curricula, five were found
among the group of successful teachers, and ten among the group
of less successful teachers.
These data tend to confirm the
belief that graduates of the department of agricultural education
48
make better teachers of vocational agriculture than do men who have
majored in some other department of the teacher-training institution
but who have completed sufficient credits in agricultural education
to qualify as teachers.
Table XI
College Curricula from which Fifty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Were Graduated
.
Curricula
1
:
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
Agricultural Education
20
15
Agricultural Economics
1
1
Agricultural and
Biological Chemistry
-
1
Agronomy
1
-
Animal Husbandry
2
3
Dairy Husbandry
-
2
General Agriculture
-
1
Horticulture
1
1
Science
-
1
Semester Hours of College Credit Completed in Certain Fields and
Teaching Success —
Students enrolled in land-grant institutions
where a teacher-training curriculum is offered are usually re­
quired to designate a particular field in which the major portion
of their work will be completed.
For example, they may elect to
major in agricultural education, animal husbandry, agronomy or in
49
any other curriculum offered in the institution.
Once the major
is chosen, the greater number of the courses completed by the stu­
dent will be prescribed by the department, but a limited number of
courses may be elected by the student to satisfy his own particu­
lar needs.
It is through these electives that students majoring in
technical agricultural fields are able to satisfy the requirements
for a teaching certificate by taking work in the teacher-training
department.
Students majoring in agricultural education are per­
mitted a certain amount of liberty in choosing elective courses in
other departments.
It is to be expected, therefore, that the num­
ber of semester hours earned in various fields by the teachers co­
operating in this study will vary somewhat.
Tables showing the
distribution of semester hours completed by these teachers have
been prepared for those fields showing a sufficient variation to
justify this procedure.
The tables are numbered from XII to XIX,
inclusive.
A distribution of semester hours of college credit com­
pleted in agricultural education is shown in Table XII.
This table
includes only such credits as have been earned in professional
courses in education pertaining especially to vocational education
or to vocational agricultural education.
Credits reported are not
confined to those completed at the undergraduate level, but include
those earned in summer sessions or in the graduate school of The
Pennsylvania State College or other teacher—training institutions
prior to the spring of 194-0*
Not included in the table are credits
completed in psychology and in general education.
The one individu—
50
al who has had no credits in agricultural education graduated from
the teacher-training institution before courses in agricultural edu­
cation were established.
He reported no credits in either general
education or in psychology.
Table XII
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agricultural
Education Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
Number of individuals
Semester hours
: Successful
:
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
A
1
—
n 9
1
2
10
ii
1
3
15
tt 19
3
3
20
it 24
3
6
25
ti 29
5
A
30
n
3A
A
3
35
tt 39
A
2
40
it
AA
2
1
45
it 49
1
-
50
it 54
—
1
0 - 45
8-54
0 to
5
Range, semester hours
Thirteen successful teachers have completed from three to
thirty semester hours in general education.
Nine of these have had
three semester hours eachj two have had six semester hours eachj one
has had eight semester hours; and one, thirty hours.
Thirteen less
successful teachers have completed from three to thirty-five se­
mester hours in general education.
Seven have completed three se­
mester hours each; two, six semester hours each; two, twelve hours
each; one, thirty-three hours; and the other, thirty-five hours.
Two of the successful teachers have had no courses in psy­
chology.
Of the twenty-three who have completed courses in this field,
five completed three hours each; seventeen, six hours each; and one
teacher completed nine semester hours.
Twenty-four of the less suc­
cessful teachers have completed courses in psychology.
Ten teachers
completed three semester hours each; eleven completed six hours each;
one completed seven hours; one, eight hours; and another, fifteen
hours.
In some teacher-training institutions farm shop courses
are offered in the department of agricultural education; in others,
in the agricultural engineering department; in others, in the in­
dustrial education department.
A distribution of the semester hours
of such credits completed ty the teachers cooperating in this study
is shown in Table XIII.
Most of those teachers who have had but one
or two credits in agricultural engineering graduated from the teach­
er training institution more than ten years ago.
It is to be noted
that the more recent graduates have completed ten or more semester
hours in this field.
52
Table XIII
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agricultural
Engineering Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
•
•
Number of individuals
•
Semester hours
Successful
teachers
« Less success: ful teachers
0 to
2
2
5
3
n
5
5
6
6
" 8
8
8
9
" 11
7
5
12
" 14.
2
1
15
" 17
-
-
18
" 20
1
-
Range, semester hours
0-18
0 - 14.
Most of the institutions training white teachers of vo­
cational agriculture offer a special curriculum in agricultural edu­
cation, but in nearly all of them the student is permitted to satis­
fy the requirements for a teaching certificate by electing courses
in the teacher-training department while majoring in a technicalagriculture curriculum.
If the latter plan is followed, the student
will complete a large number of semester hours of technical agri­
culture in the particular field in which he is majoring.
Even when
majoring in agricultural education, the student may concentrate most
of his elective credits in one field of technical agriculture.
Tables XIV to XVIII show the distribution of semester hours
of college credit completed in five fields of technical agriculture,
agricultural economics, agronomy and soils, animal husbandry and
veterinary science, dairy husbandry, and horticulture.
Semester
hours of college credit earned in forestry and in poultry husband­
ry do not show a sufficient range to justify the preparation of
special tables.
Table XIV
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agricultural
Economics Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
:
Semester hours
:
:
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
0 to
2
1
i
2
3
n
5
1
:
3
6
ii
8
3
:
6
9
tt 11
9
i
3
12
it 14
9
:
10
15
tt 17
-
:
-
18
ti 20
1
:
-
21
it 23
-
:
-
24
tt 26
-
:
-
27
tt
29
-
:
30
it
32
1
:
-
33
n
35
-
:
-
36
tt
38
-
:
1
0 -3 1
:
Range, semester hours
0 -3 7
54
Credits completed in farm management are included with
credits in agricultural economics as shown in Table XIV.
Table XV
Semester Hours of College Credit in Agronomy and
Soils Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
•
Semester hours
Number of individuals
• Successful
•
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
0 to
2
-
-
3
tt
5
-
-
6
it
8
1
4
9
n 11
15
14
12
n 14
6
3
15
n 17
2
3
18
ti 20
1
1
0
i
—i
1
t-
6 -1 8
Range, semester hours
Nineteen of the successful teachers have completed courses
in forestry, eighteen of them earning three semester credits each,
and the other man earning twenty-two credits.
Fifteen of the less
successful teachers have each completed three semester hours of
credit in forestry.
Twenty-three of the successful teachers have completed
courses in poultry husbandry with one of these completing only
one semester hour; fifteen, completing three credits each; five,
six credits eachj and two, nine credits each.
Twenty of the less
successful teachers have had courses in poultry husbandry.
Twelve
of these men completed three semester hours of credit eachj six,
six credits eachj one, nine creditsj and one, thirteen credits.
Table XVI
Semester Hours of College Credit in Animal Husbandry
and Veterinary Science Completed by Fifty
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
:
Semester hours
0 to
5
:
:
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
A
-
7
n 9
18
10
14
A
A
10
tt
15
n 19
-
1
20
tt
24
1
-
25
tt
29
-
-
30
tt
34
-
-
35
tt
39
-
-
40
it
AA
1
1
45
tt
49
1
1
50
it
5A
-
1
Range, semester hours
5-4-6
0 -5 3
56
Table XVII
Semester Hours of College Credit in Dairy Husbandry
Completed by Fifty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture
:
Semester hours
*
Humber of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
0 to
2
—
-
3
"
5
A
A
6
"
8
15
13
9
" 11
6
3
12
"14
-
2
15
" 17
-
1
18
" 20
-
2
Range, semester hours
3-10
3-20
57
Table XVIII
Semester Hours of College Credit in Horticulture
Completed by Fifty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture
:
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
4
3
6
9
11
13
10
n 14
9
3
15
n 19
1
2
20
ii
24
-
1
25
n 29
-
-
30
ti
34
-
-
35
tt
39
1
-
Semester hours
0 to
5
tt
i
o
0-39
••
Range, semester hours
.
Number of individuals
Regardless of whether the student majors in vocational
education or in technical agriculture, he will be expected to
complete credits in a number of sciences related to agriculture,
such as, chemistry, botany, bacteriology, and the like.
In most
teacher—training institutions, a number of courses in the sciences
related to agriculture are required of all students before special­
ization is begun, therefore no very wide spread is to be expected
in these fields.
Only one table has been prepared showing the
distribution of credits completed in the sciences, Table XIX.
.
Table XIX
Semester Hours of College Credit in Chemistry
Completed by Fifty Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture
Number of individuals
Semester hours
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
0 to
4
-
:
1
tt
9
2
:
-
10
ti 14
16
:
13
15
n 19
7
:
6
20
tt 24
:
3
25
tt 29
-
:
-
30
tt 34
-
:
-
35
n 39
-
:
1
40
tt 44
-
:
1
7-19
:
3
i
o
5
Range, semester hours
This table shows the semester hours of college credit completed in
chemistry, including agricultural and biological chemistry.
All individuals as shown in Table XIX who completed more
than thirteen semester hours of chemistry have elected courses in
this field beyond those required for graduation from the teachertraining curriculum, or have majored in chemistry.
Twenty-four of the group of successful teachers have
completed courses in bacteriology, four teachers completing three
credits eachj and twenty, four credits each.
Twenty of the less
successful teachers have also completed work in bacteriology.
One of these men completed two credits; another, three credits;
sixteen, four credits each; and two, eight credits each.
Twenty-five of the successful teachers and twenty-four
of the less successful teachers have completed work in botany.
The range for the group of successful teachers is from eight to
seventeen semester hours, and for the less successful group, from
six to seventeen semester hours.
Sixteen of the successful teachers have completed courses
in physics, two of them earning three semester hours each, thirteen
earning five hours each, and the other, nine semester hours.
Eight­
een of the less successful teachers completed courses in physics.
One Tnan completed one semester hour; three completed three hours
each; one, four hours; ten, five hours each; one, eight hours; one,
ten hours; and one, fifteen hours.
Only one successful and one less successful teacher com­
pleted courses in entomology, each man earning five semester hours.
All teachers in both the successful and the less success­
ful groups have completed courses in English.
The range for both
groups is from nine to eighteen semester hours of credit.
In each
case a majority of the teachers completed exactly twelve semester
hours of English, including speech.
Mean semester hours of college credit completed in six­
teen different subjects by the group of successful teachers and
by the group of less successful teachers are shown in Table XX.
At first glance, there seems to be considerable differ­
ence in certain fields between the mean semester hours completed
by successful teachers and the mean semester hours completed by
less successful teachers.
The mean semester hours completed in
agricultural education by the group of successful teachers ex­
ceeds the mean semester hours completed in the same field by the
group of less successful by 2.4-0 hours; the mean semester hours
completed in agricultural engineering by the successful teachers
exceeds that completed by the less successful teachers by 1.60
hours; in agricultural economics, it exceeds by 1.36; in horti­
culture, it exceeds by 1.4-8; in forestry, it exceeds by 1.24-; end
in botany it exceeds by 1.68.
The mean semester hours completed
in general education by the group of less successful teachers ex­
ceeds the mean semester hours completed in the same field by the
successful teachers by 1.92 hours; in dairy husbandry, it exceeds
by 1.72; and in chemistry, it exceeds by 2.$2.
Statistically these
figures are of little value, for in a majority of cases the P.E.
of the mean of the successful teachers overlaps the P.E. cf the
mean of "the less successful ‘teachers*
As an example, "the mean se­
mester hours completed in agricultural education by the group of
successful teachers is 27.08 - I.42, and of the mean for the group
of less successful teachers is 24..68 - 1 .53.
Table XX
Mean Semester Hours of College Credit in Certain
Sub.jects Completed by Fifty Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
Mean semester hours completed
Subj ect
:
Successful
teacherB
Agricultural Education
Less success­
ful teachers
27.08
24.68
General Education
3.08
5.00
Psychology
5.08
5.04
Agricultural Engineering
7.52
5.92
Agricultural Economics
10.52
9.16
Agronomy
11.72
10.92
Animal Husbandry and
Veterinary Science
10.76
11.36
Dairy Husbandry
6.32
8.04
Horticulture
9.56
8.08
Forestry
3.04
1.80
Poultry Husbandry
3.76
3.76
13*48
16.00
3.68
3.40
10.68
9.00
3.2.0
3.88
12.40
12.88
Chemistry, including Agricultural
and Biological Chemistry
Bacteriology
Botany
Physics
English, including Speech
Grade Points Earned and Teaching Success-
The grading system in
use at The Pennsylvania State College isas follows;
A grade of
”3" is given in a subject to denote a numerical grade of 90 to 100,
inclusivej a grade of "2," 80 to 89; a grade of "1," 70 to 79; a
grade of "0," 60 to 69;
n-2," 0 to 44*
a grade of "-1," 45 to 59; and a grade of
Grade points are determined by multiplying the
grade earned by the number of semester hours of credit assigned
the subject.
The final grade-point ratio is determined by dividing
the total number of grade points earned throughout the student’s
undergraduate college career by the total number of semester hours
carried.
Final grade-point ratios were available for nineteen of
the group of successful teachers and for seventeen of the group of
less successful teachers.
State College.
All are graduates of The Pennsylvania
Distribution of the final grade-point ratios of
these thirty-six teachers is shown in Table XXI.
A study of Table XXI shows that three of the teachers had
final grade-point ratios below 1.00, and eight had final gradepoint ratios above 2.00.
All of the former were found in the group
of less successful teachers, and all of the latter; in the group of
successful teachers.
Of the thirteen teachers with grade-point
ratios of 1./+9 or below, eight were in the group of less success­
ful teachers and five in the group of successful teachers.
Of the
twenty-three teachers with final grade-point ratios of 1.50 or
above, fourteen were in the group of successful teachers and nine
in the group of less successful teachers.
63
Table XXI
Final Grade-Point Ratios at The Pennsylvania
State College of Thirty-six Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture
i
Grade-point ratio
*
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less successI ful teachers
.00 to
.49
-
-
n
.99
-
3
1.00
n 1.49
5
5
1.50
ii
1.99
6
9
2.00
ti
2.49
6
-
2.50
tt
2.99
2
-
-
-
.50
3.00
The ability to earn high grades in college courses as in­
dicated by a grade-point ratio seems to be a fairly accurate in­
dicator of future teaching success.
Not every teacher-training
institution can postpone the selection of candidates until suf­
ficient data of this kind are available, for in many institutions
candidates are admitted to the teacher-training curriculum at the
beginning of the freshman year.
College F*n> and Teaching Success -
For several years The Penn­
sylvania State College has kept a record of the particular tenth
of his class in which the student ranked at the time he graduated.
Included in the first tenth are all students ranking above the 90th
percentile, in the second tenth, all students ranking below the
90th but above the 80th percentile, and so on for other tenths.
Such rankings were available for sixteen of the group of success­
ful teachers and for twelve of the group of less successful teach­
ers, all of whom graduated from The Pennsylvania State College.
The distribution is shown in Table XXII.
Table XXII
Final College Rank at The Pennsylvania State
College of Twenty-eight Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture
Number of individuals
Rank in tenths
:
j
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
First
4
-
Second
3
-
Third
2
1
Fourth
1
1
Fifth
1
2
Sixth
1
1
Seventh
3
2
Eighth
-
-
Ninth
1
2
Tenth
-
3
Of the twenty-eight teachers whose final college ranks
are available, seven were in the first or in the second tenth of
their classes and six in the ninth or in the tenth tenth of their
classes.
All of the former were found in the group of successful
teachers and all except one of the latter, in the group of less
successful teachers.
Of the fifteen teachers ranking above the
50th percentile of their classes, eleven were found in the group of
successful teachers, and four in the group of less successful teach­
ers.
Of the thirteen teachers ranking below the 50th percentile of
their classes, eight were in the group of less successful teachers,
and five in the group of successful teachers.
Rank at the end of the student1s undergraduate college
career seems to be a fairly accurate indicator of future teaching
success, but not an Infallible one.
Assuming that rank at the end
of the freshman, s.t the end of the sophomore, or at the end of the
junior year is as accurate a measure of future teaching success, it
would seem that teacher-training institutions should give consider­
able weight to this factor in choosing candidates for teacher-train­
ing curricula.
Post-graduate Studies and Teaching Success -
The amount of post­
graduate training received in institutions of higher learning by
forty-seven of the teachers of vocational agriculture cooperating
in this study is shown in Table XXIII.
Data pertaining to post­
graduate work pursued by the remaining teachers are not available.
Most of the post-graduate work shown in Table XXIII was
completed in the field of agricultural education, general edu­
cation, or psychology, but work in other fields, such as English
end technical agriculture was pursued by a few of the teachers.
The number of semester hours completed is reported with semester
hours of tindergraduate credit in Tables XII to XIX, inclusive.
attempt was made to evaluate the quality of the work performed.
No
Table XXIII
Post-graduate Work Completed by Forty-seven
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
Amount of post-graduate
work completed
*■
:
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
None
2
2
Evening or extension classes
2
-
Evening classes and
summer sesfeion
-
1
One summer session
B
A
Two summer sessions
A
5
Three summer sessions
2
2
Four summer sessions
-
2
Five or more summer sessions
1
1
One semester graduate work
2
-
One semester graduate work
and two summer sessions
1
-
Two semesters graduate work
-
1
Master’s degree
1
2
Master’s degree and one or
more summer sessions
2
2
Of the seven master’s degrees reported in Table XXIII,
the three held by the successful teachers are all master of science,
two of the four held by less successful teachers are master of
science
the other two are master of education.
If work completed in evening or extension classes be
not included, ten of the successful teachers have had only one sum­
mer session, or less, of work in an institution of higher learning
since completing the teacher-training curriculum, while only six
of the less successful teachers have had as little training.
Six
of the successful teachers completed one continuous semester or
more of graduate work, and five of the less successful teachers
have completed similar training.
These data show little or no relation between the taking
of post-graduate work and success in teaching vocational agriculture.
To arrive at a final conclusion it would be necessary to study the
degree of teaching success attained before taking post-graduate
work and the degree of success attained after taking such training.
Summary -
To be effective as a teacher of vocational agriculture,
the man must possess superior skill in the occupation to be taught,
adequate technical knowledge in the field of agriculture, an under­
standing of the significance and the demands of the occupation, and
the ability to teach.
Nine teachers who cooperated in this study were gradu­
ated from a high—school department of vocational agriculture.
More
than three times as many of these were found in the group of suc­
cessful teachers as in the g*oup of less successful teachers.
More
than tv/ice as many of the teachers who had had some training in vo­
cational agriculture were found in the group of successful teachers
as in the group of less successful teachers.
Of the twenty—nine
teachers who had had no training in vocational agriculture in high
school, twelve were found in the group of successful, and seventeen
in the group of less successful teachers.
There is no apparent difference between the kind or size
of agricultural projects carried by successful teachers who took
courses in vocational agriculture in high school and by the less
successful teachers who had similar training.
Quality of the
project program as measured by long-time plans developed is in
favor of the successful teachers.
Few of the teachers had an opportunity to join a local
or a collegiate chapter of the Future Farmers of America.
As meas­
ured by the number of individuals who joined the collegiate chapter
of the Future Farmers of America, interest in the teacher-train­
ing program is higher among the group of successful teachers than
among the group of less successful teachers.
The Pennsylvania State College, from which most of the
teachers cooperating in this study were graduated, has, for a num­
ber of years, selected a majority of its students from the upper
two-fifths of high-school graduating classes.
More than twice as
many of these teachers who were ranked in the upper fifth of their
high-school classes were found in the group of successful teachers
as in the group of less successful teachers.
The number of teachers who were graduated from institu­
tions other than The Pennsylvania State College is too small to
justify any final conclusions being drawn with respect to the col­
lege from which the teacher originally graduated and his success as
a teacher of vocational agriculture.
All teachers received the
bachelor of science degree before beginning their teaching careers.
69
Five of the group of successful teachers were graduated
from college after reaching the age of twenty-five years, while
thirteen of the group of less successful teachers were graduated
from college after reaching the age of twenty-five.
Five of the
twenty-five successful teachers began teaching vocational agri­
culture after reaching the age of twenty-five years, while thir­
teen of the less successful teachers who supplied this information
began teaching vocational agriculture after reaching the age of
twenty-five.
Eleven of the twenty less successful teachers wait­
ed from one to twenty years after graduating from college before
beginning their careers as teachers of vocational agriculture,
while only two of the successful teachers delayed the beginning
of their careers as teachers of vocational agriculture, each wait­
ing one year.
The man who graduates from college or who begins
teaching vocational agriculture after reaching the age of thirty
has considerably less chance of becoming outstandingly successful
as a teacher of vocational agriculture than has one who begins his
career at an earlier age.
Graduating from college with a major in agricultural edu­
cation improves the man’s chances of becoming an outstandingly suc­
cessful teacher of vocational agriculture.
Of the thirty-five
teachers cooperating in this study who were graduated from this
curriculum, twenty were found in the group of successful teachers,
and fifteen in the group of less successful teachers.
Of the fifteen
teachers who were graduated from other curricula, five were in the
group of successful teachers and ten in the group of less success—
ful teachers.
There is considerable variation in the number of semester
hours of college credit completed in different fields by the gjwup
of successful teachers and the group of less successful teachers.
The difference between the mean semester hours completed by the
group of successful teachers and the mean semester hours completed
by the group of less successful teachers is too small in every case
to be of any great statistical significance.
The ability to earn high grades in college as measured
by final grade-point ratio is a fairly accurate measure of future
teaching success in the field of vocational agriculture.
All
teachers cooperating in this study who had final grade-point ratios
above 2.00 were found in the group of successful teachers, while
all teachers who had final grade-point ratios below 1.00 were
found in the group of less successful teachers.
Of the twenty-
three teachers with final grade-point ratios of 1.50 or above,
fourteen were in the group of successful teachers.
Of the thir­
teen teachers with final grade-point ratios of 1.49 or below, eight
were in the group of less successful teachers.
The man’s rank in his class at the end of his under-gradu­
ate career is a fairly accurate measure of future teaching suc­
cess in the field of vocational agriculture. Of the seven teachers
who were ranked in the first or in the second tenth of their class­
es, all were found in the group of successful teachers.
Of the
six teachers who were ranked in the ninth or in the tenth tenth of
their classes, all except one were found in the group of less sue-
cessful teachers*
Of the fifteen teachers who were ranked above
the 50th percentile of their classes, eleven were found in the group
of successful teachers.
Of the thirteen teachers who were ranked
below the 50th percentile of their classes, eight were in the group
of less successful teachers.
This study shows little or no relation between the tend­
ency to tike post-graduate work and teaching success in the field
of vocational agriculture.
Mo attempt was made, however, to meas­
ure the actual effect of the courses pursued.
72
Chapter V
FARM EXPERIENCE
It is assumed by many that much of the work of a teacher
of vocational agriculture requires him to have had practical ex­
perience in farming prior to entering the profession.
He is
brought into close contact with practical farmers of the community
where he teaches, must supervise the agricultural projects con­
ducted by students in his classes, and must make his teaching in
all-day, part-time, and evening classes as practical as possible.
In many states, a man who applies for a position as teacher of vo­
cational agriculture is required to present evidence that he has had
at least two years of satisfactory farm experience after reaching
the age of fourteen before he will be granted a certificate to
teach this subject.
The Pennsylvania State Plan for Vocational
Education provides
"In so far as possible, only farm-reared men will be
eligible for positions as teachers of vocational agri­
culture. In emergency cases, men may be employed who
have had the equivalent of at least two years of suc­
cessful farm experience."
With respect to requirements for admission to the teach­
er-training curriculum, the Pennsylvania State Plan provides the
following:^
1
State Plan for Vocational Education under Smith-Hughes and GeorgeDeen Acts July 1, 1937 to June ?0. 19A2. Part III, "Agricultural
Education," Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Public
Instruction, Harrisburg, p. 15*
^
Ibid. p. 20.
73
•'Insofar as possible, only farm-reared men will be
eligible. In emergency cases men who have had the
equivalent of at least two consecutive years of suc­
cessful farm experience will be accepted as trainees."
Since all teachers who cooperated in this study are em­
ployed in the state of Pennsylvania, and most of them are gradu­
ates of the teacher-training department of The Pennsylvania State
College, it is to be expected that but little variation in the
amount of farm experience they have had will be discovered.
Number of Years the Teacher Lived on a. Farm Prior to Entering Col­
lege and Teaching Success -
Table XXIV shows a distribution of
the years forty-seven teachers of vocational agriculture lived on
farms prior to entering college.
Table XXIV
Number of Years Forty-seven Teachers of Vo­
cational Agriculture Lived on Farms
Prior to Entering College
:
•
Length of time lived
*
:
0 years
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
2
A
1 to 3
n
-
-
A
"
6
n
A
-
7
"
9
it
-
1
10 " 12
ft
-
2
13 " 15
n
3
-
16
"
18
n
6
5
19
"
21
tt
8
6
22
"
2A
n
2
A
One of the two successful teachers who had never lived
on a farm prior to entering college has obtained nine months of
farm experience since that time, but the other man reported no farm
experience of any kind.
Of the four less successful teachers who
had never lived on a farm prior to entering college, one reported
nine months of farm experience since that time; another, eighteen
months; a third, twenty-two months; and the fourth, thirty months.
All teachers with farm experience prior to entering college have
worked on a farm since that time.
Sixteen successful, and fifteen less successful teachers
each have had sixteen or more years of practical farm experience
prior to entering college.
These men may be regarded as having
lived their entire lives on a farm before entering college.
It is
of interest to note that of the remaining seven successful teachers
with some farm experience, one obtained his experience between the
ages of six and ten, and another, between birth and fifteen years
of age.
The three less successful teachers with from seven to
twelve years of farm experience obtained the experience just prior
to entering college.
There is little difference in the number of years the
group of successful teachers lived on farms prior to entering col­
lege and the number of years the group of less successful teachers
lived on farms prior to entering college.
Size of Farm on which the Teacher Lived and Teaching Success - It
would seem that men who lived on the more successful farms of the
state would have a richer background of experience upon which to
draw, and therefore should make better teachers of vocational agri­
culture than men who lived on the less successful farms.
One meas­
ure of the success of the farm is its size and value if compared
with other farms in the same community.
Table XXV shows the size
of farms on which the two groups of teachers lived.
Table XXV
Size of Farm on which Forty Teachers of Vo­
cational Agriculture Lived Prior
to Entering College
:
Size of farm
*
\
0 to
50 acres
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
1
:
—
51
n 100
n
8
:
8
101
n 150
n
3
:
A
151
n 200
n
A
:
A
201
n 250
ti
3
:
-
251
n 300
it
-
:
-
301
n 350
n
1
:
-
351
ii 4-00
n
2
:
1
-
:
1
4.01 or more acres
■
Range, acres
25 - 4-00
:
53 - 600
Mean size, acres
161.73
:
158.83
Table XXV shows that six of the successful teachers lived
on farms that were over 200 acres in size, while only two of the
less successful teachers lived on similar farms.
There is very
little difference, however, between the mean size of farms on which
the group of successful teachers lived and the mean size of farms
on which the group of less successful teachers lived —
less than
three acres.
Twenty-one of the successful teachers and eighteen of the
less successful teachers reported the value per acre of the farm on
which they lived prior to entering college.
There is no appreci­
able difference in the mean value per acre for the two groups.
The mean value per acre for the farms on which the group of suc­
cessful teachers lived was $78.57} for the farms on which the less
successful teachers lived, $78.06.
Twelve of the group of successful teachers reported that
the farms on which they lived prior to entering college were just
average farms for the communities in which they were located, and
eleven reported that the farms on which they lived were better than
average for the community.
One of the group of less successful
teachers reported that the farm on which he lived prior to entering
college was below average in comparison with other farms in the
same community; eight, averagej and nine, better than average.
There is little difference between the farms on which the
group of successful teachers lived prior to entering college and
the farms on which the group of less successful teachers lived if
measured by the size of the farm, and its value per acre in relation
to other farms in the same community.
Kind of Farm Work Done and Teaching Success —
Tables XXVI and
XXVII show the kinds of work the teachers who cooperated in this
77
study performed on the farms where they lived prior to entering col­
lege.
Table XXVI
Kinds of Farm Work Performed by Forty-one
Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
Prior to Entering College
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success­
: ful teachers
Chores, only
2
2
Labor, only
A
A
Management, only
1
-
Chores and labor
5
2
Chores and management
1
-
Labor and management
A
1
Chores, labor, and management
6
9
Kinds of work
:
Six successful teachers and the same number of less suc­
cessful teachers reported doing chores or labor, only.
It will be
noted, however, that slightly more than half of the teachers in
each group reported performing some management responsibilities.
With the exception of the one successful teacher who reported
management responsibilities, only, the work performed by the mem­
bers of both groups of teachers is that customarily done by young
men while growing up on a farm.
Varying degrees of responsibility for managing the farm
were reported by eighteen of the successful teachers and by four—
78
teen of the less successful teachers as shown in Table XXVII.
Table XXVII
Farm Management Responsibilities Reported by
Thirty-two Teachers of Vocational
Agriculture
Number of individuals
Kinds of management
*
Owner
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
-
1
13
8
Partner sharing in profits
1
-
Tenant
-
-
Paid manager
-
-
Laborer with authority to act
1
3
Owner and son of owner
-
1
Owner, son of owner, partner
1
-
Owner, son of owner, paid manager
-
1
Son of owner, partner sharing
in profits
1
-
Son of owner and laborer with
authority to act
1
—
Son of owner
Several of the teachers reported more than one kind of
management responsibility} e.g., the teacher who reported "owner,”
"son of owner," and "paid manager."
This individual probably grew
up on his father’s farm where he had some responsibility for manag­
ing the farm, later became a paid manager of a farm, and still later
operated his own farm.
A majority of both groups of teachers, how-
ever, have had only such managerial responsibilities as would be
assumed by a
young
man growing up on his father’s farm.
There is not sufficient difference in the kind of farm
work done, or the managerial responsibilities performed by the
group of successful teachers and by the group of less successful
teachers to account for the difference in teaching success attained.
Type of Farming and Teaching Success read as follows:
Table XXVIII should be
Teacher No. 1, one of the successful teachers,
obtained his farm experience on a farm where corn was the most
important field crop produced, wheat the second most important,
oats the third most important, timothy the fourth most important,
and clover the fifth most important crop.
This same teacher now
teaches in a community where corn is the most important field crop
produced on farms of the community, oats the second most important,
wheat the third most important, truck crops the fourth most im­
portant, and alfalfa and clover the fifth most important crops.
Table TTTY gives similar information for the group of less suc­
cessful teachers.
It is desirable that data contained in the two
tables be compared.
Table XXX and Table XXXI should be read in the same way
as Tables XXVIII and XXIX.
80
Table XXVIII
Order of Importance of Field Crops Grown on Farms where
the Group of Successful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture Obtained Their Farm Experience and Order
of Importance on Farms in the Communities
where They Now Teach
2
•a
***
3
3
1
1
4 *
**
1
1
A
*
**
3
3
5
6 *
4
2
5
5
4
5
1
1
A
*3-
2
2
3
4
5
8
*
■JK'r
1
2
2
3
4
9
*
•K#
3
2
2
4
1
1
3
4
4
3
11
12
*
*
A
1
3
2
r>
i£
1
3
2
5
5
1
1
2
2
3
4
4
2
3
1
1
*
tt*-
3
3
2
10
4
2
4
4
3
5
5
5
4
2
2
2
5
*
o
4
3
3
3
7
o
o
o
Gj
,0
o
EH
Other
1
1
5
5
Irish
potatoes
*
■3
2
5
10
a)
u 3
(0 bO
rd ©
-P H
O
Timothy
3
2
Clover
2
3
Alfalfa
1
1
Other small
grain
*
*■»-
1
Oats
Corn
•p
aj
<D
J Farm
Teacher No.
Order of importance of field crops grown
5
2
5
5
5
1
3
4
1
5
4
3
2
5
5
5
1
2,5
3
4
4
1
I
13
*
-3HS-
4
5
3
11
1
3
2
1
3
a
2
5
5
1
1
2
2
3
4
1
2
2
1
4
2
3
5
2
4
4
2
1
3
2
2
1
3
«*»
1
4
5
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
3
1
1
2
2
4
3
1
3
5
4
4
3
2
2
1
2
2
3
4
5
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
3
2,5
1
•
12 :*
£
3
4
4
1
•
•
13 :*
:-3Hf
4
5
3
•
14 :*
•■a*
•
15 :*
3
3
4
5
3
1
1
•
«
16 :*
5
3
1
4
4
5
5
1
4
4
3
5
3
2
4
5
2
1
•
•
17 S*
•
•
18 :*
3
•
•
19 :*
•**
•
•
20 :*
:**
•
•
21 !*
:■»*
•
•
22 !*
:•**
:
23 :*
:**
•
•
24 :*
2
2
3
3
•
•
4
5
5
5
3
4
4
4
5
5
1
5
5
25 :*
1
*
**■
2
5
3
4
Farm on which the teacher obtained his experience
Farms in the community where the teacher now teaches.
Table XXEX
11
Order. fi£. Importance of Field Crops Grown on Farms where
the Group, of Legs. ^Successful Teachers of Vnna-h-irmni
ACTicultnre. Obtained Their Farm Experience anri
Order ^f Importance on Farms in the Commu­
nities where They Mow Teach
3
2
5
1
4
5
:
:
: 2
; 3
B *
■a*
2
2
1
3
3
5
:
: 5
C *
1
1
2
2
5
1
2
3
:
i 4
E *
-SHt
2
1
1
2
4
3
3 i
4* ♦
I 5
•
F *
2
1
4
1
1
:
i 3
: 3
3
5
4
4
D ■Sf-
:
*
-SHC-
2
1
I *
*K-
1
2
2
1
4
4
J •St**
1
1
2
4
4
3
*
•SHr
2
4
1
4
1
*
•SHf-
1
1
2
-St■SHE
2
1
1
K
L
M
:
: 4
:4
1 3
: 4
:
:1
5
5
1
2
1
H
1
4
3
G *
4B5-
4
4
5
3
4
:4
5
2
:
:
: 1
: 3
:
; 5
: 3
: 2
S 3
5
5
5
5
2
3,4
: 1 :
5
4
4
: 2
5
:
I 3
: 3 :
3
4
: 5
2
5
o *
O •
8 : •§
•8: E
. E-t
Other
A *
**
m •
S s
hf.P
O M • o
S3
O
. EH
Irish
potatoes
Clover
Alfalfa
grains
Other
small
Com
■8
©
Oats
Farm
Teacher No.
Order of importance of field crops grown
: 3
: 2
: 5
: 2
: 3 *: 5
:
s 2
: 3
:
:
: 5
:
:
: 4
: 3
3
2
5
5
5
J
x
1
: 4- 5
3
4
2
4
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
3
4
3
3
1
5
4
4
2
3
1
1
2
3
3
4
5
2
2
5
4
3
3
1
2
1
2
3
►
» ✓
5
»
•
2
•
K :*
•*»
4
1
3
3
2
5
2
5
2
3
4
3
5
1
1
5
5
•
L :*
3
4
4
5
•
•
M :*
•
3
4
2
5
•
N :*
:#*
•
•
0 :*
•
P :*
:**•
•
Q s*
:**■
5
4
1
2
5
4
2
4
2
5
4
1
1
1
5
4
5
3
5
1
3
1
4
5
•
R :*
4
•
•
S :*
:*«■
•
•
T :*
:-**
***
2
2
2
4
1
1
3
5
3
4
Farm on -which the teacher obtained his experience
Farms in the communiiy where the teacher now teaches
5
Table XXX
Order, of Importance of Live Stock and Poultry Kept on Farms
where the Group, of Successful Teachers of Vnea-H rmal
Agriculture Obtained Their Farm Experience and
Order of Importance on Farms in the Commu­
nities where They How Teach
Dairy
cattle
5
A
1
1
1
1
A
A
2
5
1
1
1
2
3
3
A
2
1
A
5
A
•a*
2
1
1
2
A
5
3
3
6 *
•a*
1
1
3
3
2
A
A
2
7 *
1
1
3
5
2
A
4
3
1
1
2
2
A
A
3
3
1
5
A
3
2
1
1
A
2
3
u
5
5
3
2
A
1
3
5
5
A
1
2
2
1
1
2
5
3
3
A
A
1
1
5
A
2
3
3
2
1
Farm
&
•o
cd
0
fH
x
2 *
**
3 *
A *
■
XX
5
X
XX
8 *
■H*
Goats
Beef
cattle
•
o
S3
Chickens
Order of importance of live stock and poultiy
CQ
0
01
k
o
m
ra
0
H
M
&,
CD
0
3
2
5
5
5
A
2
<D
CQ
3
3
A
2
2
3
3
A
3
2
3
9 *■
5
10 *
11
12
2
1
X
XX
X
XX
5
13 *
A
XX
ft
»
•
3
5
ia
M
O
(3
0
CQ
0
0
o
2
a
&
1
5
5
5
5
5
9
i
«
•
•
•
1
5
4
3
2
1
1
4
3
2
4-
5
5
3
2
4
3
5
5
1
4
1
2
2
1
1
2
5
3
3
4
4
5
4
1
1
4
5
2
3
3
2
4
1
3
4
5
3
2
2
1
5
4
3
5
5
1
1
3
4
2
2
1
1
3
4
3
5
2
4
2
5
•
10 :*
•
2
1
11 :*
3
•
12 :*
5
•
13 :*
•
14 :*
•
15 :*
:■»*
•
16 :*
2
•
17 :*
•
18 :*
1
19 :*
:**
1
20 :*
:■»*
5
21 :*
:* *
22 :*
24
1
:*
* •* *
25 :*
S*#
*
**
3
5
.2
4
2
1
5
5
3
3
4
4
2
1
3
4
5
5
2
3
4
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
4
5
1
1
2
2
5
5
3
3
4
4
4
1
2
1
5
3
4
5
3
3
1
4
5
3
2
4
5
2
1
1
3
4
2
3
4
2
1
2
2
3
4
3
1
2
:-* » •
23 :*
1
1
3
3
5
Farm on which the teacher obtained his experience
Farms in the community where the teacher now teaches
*
Table zJXL
ftrder of Importance of Live Stock and Poultry Kept on Farms
where the Group of Less Successful Teachers of Voca­
tional Agriculture Obtained Their Farm Experience
and Order of Importance on Farms in the Com­
munities where They Now Teach
■
2
.2
4
4
3
3
1
1
4
1
2
3
4
2
3
5
5
3
3
4
4
2
2
5
5
1
1
3
1
4
4
5
5
2
2
1
3
1
1
3
4
5
4
3
5
2
2
1
3
5
1
2
4
3
1
1
2
3
5
4
4
2
4
2
2
3
2
4
3
C
D
E
*
-a-*
*
•a*
jt.
**
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
*
-**
*
■a*
-a•a*
:
-a■a*
■aa-a
*
-aa-
2
4
*
3
5
3
3
1
1
5
2
5
5
4
1
1
1
3
5
4
3
4
1
2
1
1
5
3
2
5
3
4
4
2
1
1
3
4
2
2
4
3
2
-a
•aa-
-3HS-
1
5
5
5
4
5
5
5
•
O
-
O
Turkeys
-a**
CQ
O
CH
Geese
Chickens
B
Sheep
4
3
Mules
2
2
Horses
3
4
Goats
1
1
Dairy
cattle
*
-a-a-
Beef
cattle
A
Farm
Swine
Teacher No.
|
I
Order of importance of live stock and poultry
*
J
K
L
■*
*-x-
**
1
1
2
5
3
4
4
2
3
4
2
2
4
3
1
1
4
4
5
3
3
2
2
1
.2
2
1
3
4
3
5
-x**
5
5
1
1
*
-a#
1
1
4
5
*
•2Ht
1
1
4
4
*
3
1
1
4
4
5
X
*
-5BC-
T
5
3
2
•s
**
-x-x-
S
1
1
4
-*
**
R
1
3
5
1
2
H
Q
5
4
3
*
**•
*
-x-x-
P
2
5
4
3
M
0
1
1
3
.2
4
5
5
3
5
*
4
5
.2
2
4
4
3
3
3
.2
2
4
5
3
3
2
2
3
5
2
2
3
2
5
*
4
Farms on •which the teacher obtained his experience.
Farms in the community where the teacher now teaches.
34
Table XXXII summarizes the data contained in Tables
XXVIII and XXIX in a form to show the number of teachers in each
group who have had previous experience with all five of the lead­
ing crops grown on farms in the communities where they now teach,
or with a smaller number of the leading crops.
Table XXXII
Number of the Teachers of Vocational Agriculture who Have Had
Experience with All or with a Lesser Number of the
Leading Field Crops Grown in the Communities
Where They Now Teach
*
Number of crops
:
:
Experience with five
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
5
: Less success
: ful teachers
:
2
n
n
four
n
it
three
4
:
7
ii
n
two
1
•
•
__
it
ii
one
1
:
1
n
it
none
3
:
1
11
9
It will be noted from Table XXXII that sixteen, or 64
per cent of the group of successful teachers have had previous ex­
perience with four or more of the five leading crops grown in com­
munities where they now teach, but that only eleven, or 55 per cent
of the group of less successful teachers have had similar experience.
The one less successful teacher and the three successful teachers
who have had no previous experience with any of the crops grown in
in the communities where they now teach failed to give information
about their farm experience prior to teaching, end probably have
had none.
Table XXXIII summarizes the data contained in Tables XXX
and XXXI in a form toshow the number of teachers in each group
who have had previous
experience with all five of
the leading
classes of live stock
and poultry kept in the communities where
they now teach, or with a smaller number.
Table XXXIII
Number of the Teachers of Vocational Agriculture who Have
Had Experiences with All or with a Lesser Number of
the Leading Classes of Live Stock and Poultry
Kept in Communities Where They Now Teach
Number of classes of
live stock and poultry
*
:
;
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
Experience with five
3
:
U
four
15
:
9
it
it
n
n
n
tt
tl
It
three
6
two
-
:
2
n
one
-
:
1
n
none
1
:
1
3
Table XXXIII shows that eighteen, or 72 per cent of the
group of successful teachers have had previous experience with four
or with all five of the leading classes of live stock and poultry
kept in the communities where they now' teach, but only thirteen,
or 65 per cent of the group of less successful teachers have had
similar experience.
The mean difference between the rankings of the leading
field crops on farms where the teachers obtained their farm ex­
perience and rankings on farms in the communities where they now
teach is shown in Table XXXIV.
Mean differences in rankings of
the leading classes of live stock and poultry on farms where the
teachers obtained their farm experience and rankings on farms in
the communities where they now teach are shown in Table XXXV.
Table XXXIV
Mean Difference Between Rankings of Leading Field Crops on
Farms Where the Teachers of Vocational Agriculture Ob­
tained Their Farm Experience and Rankings on Farms
in the Communities Where They Now Teach
*
*
Mean difference between
rankings
:
:
Successful I
teachers I
Field crops
Less success­
ful teachers
Com
1.12
:
1.15
Wheat
1.25
:
2.61
Oats
1.12
:
1.47
Other small grains
2.00
:
1.83
Alfalfa
2.75
Clover
1.28
:
1.65
Other legumes
2.40
:
3.00
Timothy
1.75
:
1.93
Irish potatoes
2.00
:
1.62
Tobacco
3*33
:
----
Truck crops
1.83
:
2.80
2.57
Table XXXV
Mean Difference Between Rankings of the Leading Classes of
Live Stock and Poultry on Farms Where the Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Obtained Their Farm Experi­
ence and Rankings on Farms in the Communities
Where They Now Teach
Class of live stock or
poultry
Mean difference between
rankings
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
Beef cattle
2.75
1 .6 2
Dairy cattle
1 .1 2
.85
Goats
3 .0 0
----
Horses
1 .3 3
1 .1 6
Mules
1 .5 0
2 .00
Sheep
1 .9 4
1 .8 2
Swine
1 .1 6
.85
Chickens
1 .5 2
1.2.5
Ducks
1.50
1 .0 0
Geese
1 .0 0
----
Turkeys
1 .0 0
1 .2 0
In obtaining the means shown in Tables XXXXV and XXXV
any difference in the rank of a crop or of a class of live stock
or poultry on the farm where the teacher obtained his farm experi­
ence and the rank of the same crop or live stock enterprise on
farms in the community where the teacher now teaches was regarded
as a positive difference.
As shown in Table XXVIII, corn was
ranked first on the farm where teacher number 8 obtained his farm
experience, while it ranked second on farms in the community where
he now teaches.
Corn was ranked second on the farm where teacher
number 16 obtained his farm experience, while it was ranked first
on farms in the community where he now teaches.
ences were assumed to be the same.
These differ­
In all cases where a crop
or a class of live stock or poultry was not ranked by the teach­
er, it was arbitrarily ranked as sixth in importance.
It appears from a study of the two tables that the
group of successful teachers should be better prepared to teach
corn production, wheat production, oat production, clover pro­
duction, the production of other legumes, timothy production,
truck-crop production, mule production, and turkey production
than is the group of less successful teachers.
The group of less
successful teachers appears to be better prepared to teach al­
falfa production, Irish-potato production, beef-cattle production,
horse production, sheep production, swine production, and the pro­
duction of chickens and ducks than is the group of successful
teachers.
Since the successful teaching of vocational agriculture
does not depend solely upon superior preparation in the fieldcrop enterprises, the factor of type of fanning in which the teach­
er obtained experience prior to the beginning of his teaching ca­
reer seems to have little relation to later success in teaching
in this field.
It should be remembered, however, that the type
of farming with which the two groups of teachers had experience
differs but little from the type of farming in the communities
where they now teach.
Experience with the type of farming found
39
in Pennsylvania might not lend itself to successful teaching of
sugar-beet production in Idaho, to rice production in Arkansas,
or to sugar-cane production in Louisiana.
Opinion of the Teachers Superiors Concerning His Farm Experience Fifty-one county vocational advisers and supervising principals
were asked to state whether, in their opinion, the teachers of
vocational agriculture under their supervision:
(1)
Have had
sufficient practical experience in agriculture to properly pre­
pare them for teaching vocational agriculture;
(2)
have had
sufficient training in technical agriculture to properly pre­
pare them for teaching vocational agriculture.
To the first
question, 92 per cent of the county vocational advisers and super­
vising principals replied that individual members of the group of
successful teachers had had sufficient practical experience in
agriculture, while only 80 per cent of them replied that members
of the group of less successful teachers had had sufficient
practical experience in agriculture.
To the second question, 100
per cent of the replies were in the affirmative for the members
of the group of successful teachers, and only 94- per cent of the
replies were in the affirmative for members of the group of less
successful teachers.
Summnrp- _
Because the state of Pennsylvania requires that each
teacher of vocational agriculture employed either must have been
reared on a farm or have had at least two years of farm experience,
there is little difference between the group of successful teach­
ers and the group of less successful teachers with respect to the
amount and kind of farm experience each has had.
In this study
no attempt was made to compare a group of teachers of vocation­
al agriculture who have had extensive farm experience with a
group of teachers who have had little or no farm experience.
Since there was little difference in the number of
years the group of successful teachers lived on a farm prior to
entering college and the number of years the group of less suc­
cessful teachers lived on a farm prior to entering college, no
deduction was possible concerning this factor and success in
teaching vocational agriculture.
The mean size of farm on which the group of successful
teachers lived prior to entering college was 161.73 acres? on
which the group of less successful teachers lived, 158.33 acres.
The mean value per acre of the farms on which the former group
lived was $78.57 and the mean value per acre of farms on which
the latter group lived was $78.06.
When compared with other farms
in the same community, there was little difference between the
farms on which the group of successful teachers lived prior to
entering college and the farms on which the group of less success­
ful teachers lived.
Most members of both groups of teachers were sons of
farm owners and performed the farm work customarily done by young
men while growing up on a farm.
There is not sufficient differ­
ence in the kind of farm work done to account for the difference
in teaching success attained by the two groups.
Sixty-four per cent of the group of successful teachers
had had previous experience with four, or with all of the five
leading crops produced in the communities where they now teach,
while only 55 per cent of the group of less successful teachers
had had similar experience.
Seventy-two per cent of the group
of successful teachers had had previous experience with four, or
with all of the five leading classes of live stock and poultry
kept in the communities where they now teach, while only 65 per
cent of the less successful teachers had had similar experi­
ence.
The mean difference between the rankings of the leading
crops produced and the leading classes of livestock and poultry
kept on farms where the teachers of agriculture obtained their
farm experience and rankings on farms in the communities where
they now teach does not show sufficient difference to account
for the degree of teaching success attained by the group of suc­
cessful teachers.
Eight per cent of the county vocational advisers and
supervising principals stated that certain members of the group
of successful teachers were deficient in practical farm experi­
ence, while 20 per cent stated that members of the group of less
successful teachers were deficient in practical farm experience.
Six per cent stated that members of the group of less successful
teachers lacked training in technical agriculture, while none
stated that any member of the group of successful teachers lacked
training in technical agriculture.
Chapter VI
OTHER EXPERIENCE
Many factors other than those discussed in preceding
chapters probably influence teaching success in the field of vo­
cational agriculture, but only a few will be considered here.
The choice of those to be considered was determined by the fact
that certain ones may be used in selecting candidates for teach­
er-training curricula.
Social and Business Contacts and Teaching Success -
Fifty-one
county vocational advisers and supervising principals were asked
whether the teachers of vocational agriculture under their im­
mediate supervisions
(1)
Have had sufficient social contacts to
properly prepare them for teaching vocational agriculture;
(2)
have had sufficient business contacts to properly prepare them
for teaching vocational agriculture.
In answer to the first ques­
tion, 100 per cent of the county vocational advisers and super­
vising principals stated that members of the group of successful
teachers have had sufficient social contacts, while only 80 per cent
stated that members of the less successful group have had suf­
ficient social contacts.
In answer to the second question, 88
per cent of the county vocational advisers and supervising princi­
pals stated that members of the group of successful teachers have
had sufficient business training, while 81 per cent stated that
members of the group of less successful teachers have had a suf­
ficient amount of such training.
It is probable that insufficient social contacts play
axx important part in the lack of teaching success attained by the
group of less successful teachers.
of less importance.
Business training seems to be
Certain members of the group of successful
teachers are outstandingly successful in their work in spite of
a lack of sufficient business training, while the group of less
successful teachers is rated almost as high on this factor as is
the group of successful teachers.
Experience in Teaching and Teaching Success -
Five of the group
of successful teachers, and eight of the group of less successful
teachers had had teaching experience prior to the beginning of
their careers as teachers of vocational agriculture.
A distri­
bution of this experience is shown in Table XXXVI.
Table XXXVI
Years of Teaching Experience Obtained Before
Becoming _a Teacher of Vocational
Agriculture
*
Teaching experience
:
:
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
1 or
2 years
2
A
3
"
A
”
2
1
5
n
£
«
1
-
7
J!
g
It
-
1
9
"10
"
-
-
-
2
More than 10 years
Although the number of cases is small, it appears from
Table XXXVI that extensive teaching experience prior to becoming
a teacher of vocational agriculture may cause the man to become
a less successful teacher in this field.
A small number of years
of previous teaching experience seems to have little influence in
making the man an outstandingly successful or a less successful
teacher of vocational agriculture.
Because of the method used in selecting teachers who
cooperated in this study, it is to be expected that little dif­
ference will be found in teaching experience in the field of vo­
cational agriculture between the group of successful and the
group of less successful teachers.
These data are shown in Table
XXXVII.
The mean number of years of experience in teaching vo­
cational agriculture is as follows:
For the group of successful
teachers, 9*00 years; for the group of less successful teachers,
8.18 years.
The mean for the group of successful teachers is in­
fluenced somewhat by teaching experience obtained outside the
state.
Teachers cooperating in this study were chosen from
three experience groups:
Those who had taught vocational agri­
culture in Pennsylvania for two, three, or four years; those who
had taught from five to nine years, inclusive; and those who had
taught for ten or more years.
It is of interest to note that 7.4-5
per cent of al 1 teachers in the state with from two to four years
of experience were chosen as successful teachers, and 9*57 per
cent as less successful teachers; 15.62 per cent of all of those
with from five to nine years experience were chosen as successful
teachers, and 10.94- per cent as less successful teachers; «nri
i3.ll per cent of all of those with ten or more years experience
were chosen as successful teachers, and 16.39 per cent as less
successful.
Using the above as a criterion for judging teaching
success, it seems that a man's greatest teaching efficiency is
reached after he has taught vocational agriculture for four years,
but before he has taught more than ten years.
Table XXXVII
Distribution of the Number of Years Fortyseven Men Have Spent in Teaching
Vocational Agriculture
*
Number of years taught
2 or
:
1
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
*
Less success•
* ful teachers
3 years
3
6
4
11
5
"
6
2
6
n
7
"
6
2
8
11 9
"
1
3
10
n 11
«
1
3
12
tt 13
«
2
1
14
11 15
"
3
5
16
11 17
M
2
-
1
-
18 or more years
Extra-curricular Activities and Teaching Success -
The teacher may,
or may not have participated extensively in extra-curricular ac­
tivities while a student in high school and while a student in col­
lege*
May the fact that he did, or did not he relied upon in pre­
dicting his success in teaching vocational agriculture?
The type of extra-curricular activities participated in
by twenty-five successful and by twenty-two less successful teach­
ers, and the extent to which they participated while students in
high school is shown in Table XXXVIII.
The group of successful teachers and the group of less
successful teachers participated to approximately the same extent
as members of a church, but the group of successful teachers was
more active in church clubs.
The group of successful teachers par­
ticipated to a slightly greater extent in athletics than did the
group of less successful teachers.
The two groups of teachers
participated, approximately, to the same extent in literary socie­
ties, dramatics clubs, and debate clubs.
The successful teachers
indicated a greater interest in agriculture than did the less suc­
cessful teachers when measured by the extent to which they partici­
pated in Future Farmers of America and 4—H club activities.
The
two groups of teachers participated in musical activities to ap­
proximately the same extent.
97
Table XXXVIII
Extent to TOaich Twenty-five Successful and Twenty-two Less Suc­
cessful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture Participated
in Certain Extra-curricular Activities Wh-iy
Students in High School
Number of individuals
Activity
*
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
Church
24
20
Church clubs
11
5
Baseball
12
13
Basketball
12
8
Football
4
7
Soccer
4
2
Other high-school athletics
4
2
Other organized athletics
8
5
Literary society
6
8
Dramatics club
5
8
Debate club
5
2
Future Farmers of America
3
2
4-H Club
3
1
Community club
3
1
Fraternity
2
1
Hiking club
2
1
Dance club
1
2
Orchestra
5
-
Chorus
4
7
Band
3
2
Instrumental or vocal soloist
1
■t.
- 4...■■
.---
98
The type of extra-curricular activities, and the extent to
which the two groups of teachers participated in each while students
in college is shown in Table XXXIX.
The fact that a student participates in certain extra­
curricular activities while a student in college seems to have great
value in predicting his future success as a teacher of vocational
agriculture.
Membership in Alpha Tau Alpha, national honorary
agricultural education fraternity, or in Phi Kappa Phi, national
honorary general scholastic fraternity, or in Gamma Sigma Delta,
national honor society of agriculture, seems almost to guarantee
that the man vdll be successful as a teacher of vocational
agriculture.
It should be noted, however, that membership in one
of these is only possible after he has attained senior standing in
college, which is too late to be of any great value in selecting
candidates for teacher-training curricula.
The man who participates in varsity or other athletics
seems to have a slightly better chance of becoming outstandingly
successful as a teacher of vocational agriculture than one who
does not.
Thirteen different individuals of the group of success­
ful teachers participated in athletic programs while only ten
individuals of the less successful group participated in similar
programs.
Participating in other types of extra-curricular acti­
vities seems to have little value in predicting future teaching
success.
Table XXXIX
Extent to Which Twenty-five Successful and Twenty-two Less Suc­
cessful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture Participated
in Certain Extra-curricular Activities WM i»
Students in College
.
Activity
Church
Church clubs
Alpha Tau Alpha
:
1
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
22
18
8
7
1
H
Social fraternity
9
8
Phi Kappa Phi
A
-
Gamma Sigma Delta
A
-
Grange
A
A
Rural Life Club
3
2
Literary society
1
3
Dramatics club
-
3
Debate club
-
2
Lodges
2
7
Rotary
-
1
Block and Bridle
A
A
Live stock judging team
2
-
Varsity athletics
8
5
11
7
2
5
Club athletics
Musical organization
100
The group of less successful teachers participated just
as extensively, or even more extensively than did the group of suc­
cessful teachers in church and church clubs; in social fraterni­
ties; in the Grange; in literary, dramatics, or debate clubs; in
lodges; and in clubs organized for students majoring in technical
agricultural departments.
Being a member of the college live stock judging team
seems to increase the man’s chances of becoming outstandingly
successful as a teacher of vocational agriculture, but the number
of cases is too small to justify any final conclusion.
The number of different activities in which individual
teachers participated while attending college is shown in Table
XL.
The mean number of activities in which the group of suc­
cessful teachers engaged is 4-.S8, and the mean number in which the
group of less successful teachers engaged is A.4-5-
The range for
the group of successful teachers is from two to nine, and for the
group of less successful teachers, from zero to twelve.
The kind of extra-curricular activity in which the col­
lege student engages is of greater importance in predicting teach­
ing success than is the extent to which he engages in such activity.
101
Table XL
Number of Different Extra-curricular Acti­
vities in Which Individual Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture Par­
ticipated While Students
in College
Number of individuals
Number of activities
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
1
-
2
2
" 3
9
8
A
"
5
6
5
6
»
7
8
A
8
" 9
2
2
10
« 11
-
-
12
« 13
-
1
0 or
:
:
Number of Appearances Before an Audience and Teaching Success —
Twenty—five successful, and twenty—two less successful teachers re­
ported the number of times they appeared before an audience as
speaker, debater, or in a dramatic or musical production before
entering college, and reported the same information for the period
beginning with their entrance into college and ending with the be­
ginning of their careers as teachers of vocational agriculture.
Table XLI shows these data for the period prior to the man‘s en­
trance into college, and Table XLII shows these data for the period
beginning with his entrance into college.
The mean number of times the less successful teachers
appeared before an audience as shown in both tables is markedly af­
fected by the large number of times one individual appeared, there­
fore medians are given for each table.
These medians were cal­
culated from raw scores, not from the frequency tables.
Table XLI
Number of Times Forty-seven Teachers of Vocational Ag­
riculture Appeared Before an Audience as Speaker.
Debater. or in ja Musical or Dramatic Pro­
duction Prior to Entering College
Number of individuals
Number of appearances
:
:
Successful
teachers
: Less success­
: ful teachers
0 to
A
6
:
5
5
n
9
1
:
6
10
it
14
6
:
6
15
n
19
1
20
n 24
3
s
1
25
it
29
2
*
1
30
it
34
2
J
-
35
it
39
-
:
-
4
5
3
Range
0-50
;
0 - 500
Mean
17.2
:
36.0
Median
12.0
:
8.0
40 or more
-
It is of interest to note that one of the group of suc­
cessful teachers and five of the group of less successful teachers
did not appear a single time before an audience as a speaker, de­
bater, or in a musical or dramatic production prior to entering the
profession as a teacher of vocational agriculture.
Table XLII
Number of Times Forty-seven Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture Appeared Before an Audience as Speaker. De­
bater. or in a. Musical or Dramatic Production
After Entering College but Before Begin­
ning to Teach Vocational Agriculture
:
Number of appearances
•
•
Number of individuals
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
0 to
4
12
14
5
9
1
1
10
" 14
6
1
15
" 19
-
-
20
" 24
2
1
4
5
"
25 or more
Range
0-100
0 - 200
Mean
12.7
24.6
4.0
2.0
Median
Appearing before an audience in some such capacity as
discussed above increases the man’s chances of becoming outstand—
ingly successful as a teacher of vocational agriculture.
Working One's Way Through College and Teaching Success -
The ex­
perience gained from working one's way through college is thought
by many to be an asset to the teacher.
The extent to which the
teachers who cooperated in this study earned their own expenses
104
while students in college is shown in Table XLIII.
Table 30,111
Extent to 'Which Forty-five Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Earned Their
Own Expenses While Attending
College
Number of individuals
Per cent of expenses earned
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
100 per cent
2
:
6
75
n
it
7
:
4
50
n
ti
9
:
4
25
it
it
5
:
5
0
it
it
2
:
1
It is to be noted that six, or 30.0 per cent, of the
group of less successful teachers earned all of their own expenses
while attending college, while only two, or 8.0 per cent, of the
group of successful teachers earned all of their expenses.
Ten,
or 50.0 per cent, of the group of less successful teachers earned
75*0 per cent or more of their own expenses while attending college,
while only nine, or 36.0 per cent, of the group of successful teach­
ers earned a similar proportion of their expenses.
Approximately
the same per cent of each group earned half or more of their own
expenses while attending college.
These data point to the conclusion that earning a large
proportion of one's own expenses while attending college does not
improve a man's chances of becoming an outstandingly successful
teacher of vocational agriculture.
Summary -
Members of the group of less successful teachers were
reported not to have had sufficient social contacts by 20.0 per
cent of the county vocational advisers and supervising principals,
while 100 per cent of these supervisory officers considered mem­
bers of the group of successful teachers to have had sufficient
social contacts.
It is probable that a lack of social contacts
plays an important part in the teaching success attained by the
less successful teachers.
*
Nineteen per cent of the county vocational advisers and
supervising principals reported that members of the group of less
successful teachers had not had sufficient business training,
while only 12.0 per cent reported that members of the group of suc­
cessful teachers lacked such training.
Although the number of cases is small, less than five
years of teaching experience in other fields prior to becoming a
teacher of vocational agriculture seems not to influence the man’s
success in this field, but more than eight or ten years of previous
experience may be detrimental.
Because of the method of choosing teachers who cooperated
in this study, there is little difference between the two groups
in the amount of experience in teaching vocational agriculture.
From the number of men chosen from each experience group, it ap­
pears, however, that a man’s greatest efficiency as a teacher of
vocational agriculture is reached after he has had four, but less
than ten years of experience in this field.
106
Extra-curricular activities participated in while a stu­
dent in high school seem to have little value in predicting teach­
ing success in vocational agriculture.
The extent to which college
men participate in extra-curricular activities seems to have but
little predictive value, but membership in certain national honor
fraternities seems to be associated with future success in teach­
ing vocational agriculture.
This factor is of little value, how­
ever, in choosing candidates for teacher-training curricula.
Appearing before an audience as speaker, debater, or in
a musical or dramatic production increases the man’s chances of
becoming outstandingly successful as a teacher of vocational agri­
culture.
Earning more than 75 »0 per cent of one’s own expenses
while a student in college seems to be detrimental to future teach­
ing success, but earning a lesser per cent of his college expenses
seems not to change a man's chances for success in this field.
Chapter VII
PERSONAL TRAITS
For many years school administrators have recognized the
fact that success in teaching is closely related to certain person­
al traits of the teacher.
It is generally agreed that these in­
clude intelligence, health, appearance, speech, conduct, culture,
and social traits.
Some of these have been discussed in other
chapters, but certain other personal traits, selected with a view
of measuring efficiency of the teacher of vocational agriculture,
have been reserved for this chapter.
8£d Teaching Success -
Fifty-one county vocational
advisers and supervising principals rated the teachers who co­
operated in this study on twenty—five selected personality traits,
using a five-point scale.
The ratings given members of both groups
of teachers appear in Table XLIV.
It will be noted from Table XLIV that the ratings given
the group of successful teachers are generally higher than those
given the group of less successful teachers.
On Accuracy, 28 ad­
visers and supervising principals rated members of the group of
superior teachers "excellent;” 17 rated members "good;" 3» "aver­
age;" 3, "poor;” and none, "very poor."
On this same trait, 2
advisers and supervising principals rated members of the group of
less successful teachers "excellent;" 21, "good;" 24, "average;"
3» "poor;" and 1, "very poor."
Table XLIV
Ratings Given Twenty-five Successful and Twenty-six Less
Successful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture on
Selected Personality Traits by County
Vocational Advisers and Super­
vising Principals
•
• Successful teachers : Less successful teachers
; Persons rating as * :
Persons rating as *
•
•
S : G : A : P : VP :
S • G : A : P : VP
Trait
Accuracy
28
17
3
3
-
2
21
24
3
1
Appearance
32
15
4
-
-
4
18
23
6
-
Address
13
30
7
1
-
3
16
20
12
-
Balance
18
26
6
-
-
2
10
29
8
1
Posture 29
18
3
1
-
3
20
25
3
-
Carriage
&
Consideration
18
24
7
-
-
2
22
24
-
2
Control
18
29
4
-
-
2
16
19
12
2
Conversation
11
31
7
2
-
4
15
23
9
-
Discrimination
14
31
6
-
-
1
15
27
7
1
Dress
24
25
2
-
-
6
22
21
2
-
Fairness
26
22
3
-
-
7
27
12
4
-
Honesty
42
8
1
-
-
18
24
7
-
2
Initiative
30
8
-
-
1
21
9
17
3
Judgment
19
13
28
3
1
-
3
15
21
10
2
Morality
42
9
-
-
-
16
3
1
-
Neatness
25
21
5
-
-
7
31
18
21
5
-
Poise
Promptness
26
15
21
29
2
3
1
3
1
3
5
22
22
21
14
5
9
1
Resourcefulness
21
23
7
-
-
2
16
24
18
20
25
2
-
6
30
22
27
3
7
-
15
7
2
Self-confidence
16
18
34
28
Sociability
Systematism
Tactfulness
Vocabulary
Voice
15
11
14
9
2
-
-
5
9
1
-
-
19
3
3 21 23
2 14 21 12
1 12 23 12
1 26 21
3
2 15 24 10
1
2
3
-
* S - Superior; G = Good; A = Average; P = Poor; VP = Very poor
Table XLV
Weighted Ratings Given Twenty-five Successful and Twentysix Less Successful Teachers of Vocational Agri­
culture on Selected Personality Traits by
County Vocational Advisers and
Supervising Principals
1
Trait
.
.
Weighted ratings
Successful
teachers
Less success­
ful teachers
Accuracy
4.37
3.39
Appearance
4.55
Address
4.08
3.39
3.20
Balance
4.24
3.02
Carriage and Posture
4.47
3.45
Consideration
4.22
Control
4.27
3.44
3.08
Conversation
4.00
3.27
Discrimination
4.16
3.16
Dress
4.43
3.63
Fairness
Honesty
4.45
4.80
Initiative
4.43
3.74
4.10
3.00
Judgment
4.27
3.14
Morality
4.82
4.22
Neatness
Poise
4.39
4*44
3.53
3.45
Promptness
4.06
Resourcefulness
4.27
3.41
3.02
Self-confidence
4.43
3.39
•Sociability
4.29
3.43
Systematism
4.18
3.04
Tactfulness
4.12
2.92
Vocabulary
4-08
3-49
Voice
4.10
3.18
—
-----------------------
110
The weighted ratings for each trait appearing in Table
XLV were obtained by multiplying the total ratings of "excellent”
for that particular trait by five, the "good" ratings by four, the
"average" ratings by three, the "poor" ratings by two, the "very
poor" ratings by one, and dividing the sum of these products by the
number of persons who made the ratings.
A "weighted rating" of
5.00 is equivalent to a mean rating of "excellent;" 4..00, to a
rating of "good;" 3.00, to "average;" 2.00, to "poor;" and 1.00
to "very poor."
The weighted ratings facilitate a comparison be­
tween the group of successful teachers and the group of less suc­
cessful teachers.
It will be noted from Table XLV that ratings given the
group of superior teachers all fall between 4*00 and 4.32, while
ratings for the group of less successful teachers fall between 2.92
and 4.2.2.
The group of successful teachers is rated high on the
following traitsi
Morality, honesty, appearance, carriage and
posture, fairness, and poise.
The group was rated low on:
Con­
versation, promptness, address, vocabulary, voice, and tactfulness.
The group of less'successful teachers was rated high on the follow­
ing traits:
cabulary.
Morality, honesty, fairness, dress, neatness, and vo­
The group of less successful teachers was rated low on
the following traits:
Tactfulness, initiative, balance, resource­
fulness, systematism, and control.
The greatest amount of difference
between weighted ratings given the group of successful teachers and
those given the group of less successful teachers was in the follow­
ing traits:
Initiative, resourcefulness, balance, tactfulness, con­
trol, and appearance.
The least difference between the group of
successful teachers and the group of less successful teachers
appeared in the following;
Vocabulary, morality, promptness,
honesty, fairness, and conversation.
The fact that the group of successful teachers pos­
sessed initiative, resourcefulness, balance, tactfulness, con­
trol, and appearance to a considerably higher degree than did the
group of less successful teachers undoubtedly contributed to the
greater success attained.
But the most striking thing that ap­
pears in Table XLV is the rather uniform way in which the suc­
cessful teachers excel in all personality traits evaluated.
Suc­
cess in teaching vocational agriculture seems to (fepend not upon
outstanding excellence in any one or a small number of personal­
ity traits, but general superiority in all of them.
Putting it
another way, there seems to be no one personality trait, the pos­
session of which to an outstanding degree insures success in teach­
ing vocational agriculture.
Lack of outstanding success in teach­
ing vocational agriculture seems to depend not upon the absence of
or near absence of any one personality trait.
The Teacher*s Popularity and Teaching Success -
The county vo­
cational advisers and supervising principals reported upon the
popularity of the teachers of vocational agriculture under their
immediate supervision, basing their evaluations on a three—point
scale.
A summary of these evaluations appears in Table XLVI.
Table XLVI shows that 29 county vocational advisers and
supervising principals rated members of the group of successful
teachers "very popular" with farmers and others in the community,
22 rated them "popular," and none rated members of the group
"unpopular."
Three county vocational advisers and supervising
principals rated members of the group of less successful teachers
"very popular," with farmers and others in the community, 37 rated
them "popular," and 8 rated members of the group "unpopular."
Table XLVI
Popularity of Twenty-five Successful and Twenty-six Less
Successful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture as
Rated by County Vocational Advisers
and Supervising Principals
1
:
Group
Successful
teachers
:
:
. Persons rating * : Persons rating *
: VP : P : UP
*
Less successful teachers
: VP : P : UP
Farmers and others
in the community
29
22
-
: 3
37
8
Teachers in the school
where he works
24
26
1
: 3
40
6
Pupils in his classes
30
21
-
: 1
37
11
Entire community —
community leadership
38
13
-
: 2
29
20
VP - very popular;
P = popular;
UP - unpopular
Weighted ratings of the popularity of the two groups of
teachers appearing in Table XLVII were obtained by multiplying the
ratings of "very popular" by three, the "popular" ratings by two,
and the "unpopular" ratings by one, obtaining the sum of these pro­
ducts, and dividing by the number of persons rating.
A "weighted
rating" of 3.00 in this table is equivalent to a mean rating of
113
"very popular," 2.00 is equivalent to a rating of "popular," and
1.00 to a rating of "unpopular."
Table XLVII
Weighted Ratings of the Popularity of Twenty-five Success,
ful Mid Twenty-six Less Successful Teachers of Voca­
tional Agriculture as Given by County Vocation­
al Advisers and Supervising Principals
:
Group
.
•
Weighted ratings
Successful
teachers
: Less success: ful teachers
With farmers and
others in the community
2.57
1.90
With teachers in the
school where he works
2.45
1.94
With pupils in his classes
2.59
1.76
With entire community —
community leadership
2.75
1.65
It will be noted from Table XLVII that members of the
group of successful teachers attained their greatest popularity as
community leaders, while members of the group of less successful
teachers reached their lowest degree of popularity as community
leaders.
Members of the group of less successful teachers attain­
ed their greatest popularity with other teachers in the schools
where they work, while members of the group of successful teachers
reached their lowest degree of popularity v/ith this group.
It will
be noted, also, that members of the group of successful teachers
are uniformly more popular v/ith all groups in communities in which
they work than are members of the group of less successful teachers.
(
114
Summary -
Members of the group of successful teachers were rated
higher on each of twenty-five selected personality traits by fiftyone county vocational advisers and supervising principals than
were members of the group of less successful teachers.
Personality
as a factor conditioning success in teaching vocational agriculture
is not a matter of outstanding superiority in a small number of
traits, but general excellence in all of them.
The successful teachers are uniformly more popular with
all groups in the community with whom they work than are the less
successful teachers.
Members of the group of successful teachers
attained their greatest popularity as community leaders.
They
were least popular with other teachers in the school in which they
work.
Members of the group of less successful teachers were most
popular with other teachers in the school in which they work and
least popular as community leaders.
I
Chapter VIII
TEACHING TRAITS
A number of miscellaneous factors with which success in
teaching vocational agriculture may, or may not be associated, will
be discussed in this chapter.
For some of these the teacher of
vocational agriculture is directly responsible, but over others
he may exercise little or no control.
Teaching Facilities and Teaching Success -
Twenty-five success­
ful and twenty-two less successful teachers of vocational agri­
culture reported whether or not the classrooms in which they teach
vocational agriculture are supplied with the furniture and other
equipment shown in Table XLVIII.
An examination of Table XLVIII shows that the classrooms
in which the group of successful teachers hold their classes are
somewhat better equipped than are the classrooms used by the group
of less successful teachers.
Demonstration tables for the teach­
ers, magazine files, display cabinets, storage cabinets, running
water, sinks, and equipment for projecting slides and motion pic­
tures are found more frequentlj^in the rooms used by the group of
successful teachers than in those used by the group of less success­
ful teachers.
In answer to the question, "How does the equipment avail­
able for teaching vocational agriculture in your school compare
with the amount and kind recommended by the Department of Public
Instruction, Harrisburg, in D.P.I. Bulletin No. 252?" seven of the
group of successful teachers stated that they had more than the
116
amount recommended, nine stated that they had the amount recommend­
ed, and eight stated that they had less than the amount recommended.
Table XLVIII
Extent to Which Certain Facilities Are Available in the Classrooms in Which Twenty-five Successful and in Which
Twenty-two Less Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture Teach
•
•
Number of
successful
: teachers
•
having
•
•
Kind of equipment
Tables and chairs - pupils
School desks - pupils
Number of
less success­
ful teachers
having
20
17
6
Blackboard
24
9
22
Bulletin-board
25
20
Demonstration table - teacher
15
10
Bulletin file
25
22
Magazine file
23
17
Combination bulletinmagazine file
2
1
Display cabinet Laboratory specimen
15
10
Storage cabinet
23
15
Running water
20
13
Electric lights
25
22
Electricity outlets
22
16
8
6
Gas outlets
Sink
19
Stereopticon
13
5
Film strip projector
18
13
Motion picture projector
17
7
Projector stand
Screen
4
18
5
6
Store room
18
10
U
Two of the group of less successful teachers stated that they had
more equipment than recommended by the Department, seven stated
that they had the amount recommended, and twelve stated that they
had less than the amount recommended.
Fifty—one county vocational advisers and supervising
principals were asked to answer "yes” or "no" to the following
questions pertaining to the facilities and equipment available
to the teachers working under their immediate supervision:
(1)
Does this teacher have adequate classroom space for teaching vo­
cational agriculture?
(2)
Does this teacher have adequate equip­
ment for teaching vocational agriculture?
(3)
Has this teacher
accumulated an adequate supply of corn, grains, insect and weed
specimens, and other supplies for teaching vocational agriculture?
In answer to the first question, forty-nine advisers and
supervising principals replied that members of the group of suc­
cessful teachers had adequate classroom space for teaching vocation­
al agriculture.
No replies were in the negative.
Thirty-nine ad­
visers and supervising principals stated that members of the group
of less successful teachers had adequate classroom space, and
twelve that they did not have.
In answer to the second question,
forty—four advisers and supervising principals stated that members
of the group of successful teachers had adequate equipment for
teaching vocational agriculture, and six that they did not have.
Thirty-five stated that members of the group of less successful
teachers had adequate equipment; sixteen, that they did not have.
In answer to the third question, forty-seven county vocational ad-
118
visers and supervising principals stated that members of the group
of successful teachers had accumulated adequate supplies for teach­
ing vocational agriculture; four, that they had not.
Nineteen
stated that members of the group of less successful teachers had
accumulated adequate supplies; thirty-two, that they had not.
The accumulating of an adequate supply of grain samples,
insect and weed specimens, and other teaching supplies is some­
thing for which the teacher of vocational agriculture is directly
responsible.
He may be responsible indirectly for a lack of ade­
quate equipment, and even for inadequate classroom space.
School
authorities will supply adequate teaching facilities for the man
who is doing an outstandingly successful job of teaching much more
quickly than they will for one who is less successful in his work.
The proportionately large number of advisers and supervising princi­
pals who stated that members of the group of less successful teach­
ers had failed to accumulate adequate teaching supplies points to
the conclusion that the difference between the teaching facilities
available to the group of successful teachers and those available
to the group of less successful teachers is a matter for which the
less successful teachers are responsible, at least in part.
School Discipline and Success in Teaching -
Twenty-five successful
and twenty—two less successful teachers estimated how frequently
they have to meet discipline problems.
Fifty—one county vocation­
al advisers and supervising principals estimated how frequently
these teachers have to meet discipline problems.
summarized in Table XLIX.
The answers are
Table XLIX
Frequency With Which Twenty-five Successful and Twenty-two
Less Successful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture
Have to Meet Discipline Problems as Estimated
by Themselves and by County Vocational Ad­
visers and Supervising Principals
Successful
teachers
Estimates made by
:
s
Less successful teachers
Persons rating * : Persons rating *
*
AW - Almost never;
21
: F
1
Advisers - Principals
4
s
Teachers themselves
: I
VO
VO
AN
I - Infrequently;
:
AN
: I
:
4
IS
:
5
32
: F
14
F = Frequently
A study of Table XLIX shows that the county vocational ad­
visers and supervising principals were of the opinion that members
of the group of less successful teachers had to meet discipline
problems more frequently than did members of the group of successful
teachers, yet members of the group of less successful teachers did
not recognize, or would not admit, that they were having discipline
troubles.
Educators are generally agreed that outstandingly suc­
cessful teachers have to meet discipline problems much less fre­
quently than do less successful teachers, but no successful way
has yet been devised of determining in advance which candidates
for teacher-training courses will have discipline problems and
which will not.
If the candidate has had previous teaching ex­
perience, this factor can be evaluated and should be considered.
120
Greatest Assets and Greatest Deficiencies of the Successful and
of the Less Successful Teachers of Vocational Agriculture —
The
county vocational advisers and supervising principals were asked
to list what they considered to be the greatest assets and the
greatest deficiencies of the teachers of vocational agriculture
working under their immediate supervision.
in Tables L to LIII, inclusive.
The answers are given
121
Table L
Greatest Assets Possessed by Twenty-five Successful Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture as Listed by County Vo­
cational Advisers and Supervising Principals
Greatest assets as listed by
Teacher
Advisers
Principals
Considerable natural abil­
ity - wealth of enthusi­
asm
A very fine public appear­
ance - a fluent speaker
Initiative - hard work
leadership ability
Knowledge of subject - en­
thusiasm - ability to in­
terest others - willingness
to work more than required
Discipline - neatness understands boys
Wide source of information acquired personality ability to handle boys
U
: Personality - planning j good teaching - social
• good future
Systematic work - organizing
ability - thoroughness of
detail
5
; Personality
Spirit of helpfulness to
entire community
6
; Quiet manner - willingness
; to work - ability to meet
; situations and solve
: problems
7
; Agricultural background
: and efficiency
Practical application of
school projects
8
: Personality
Adaptable - an all-round man
Interest in agriculture and
in developing citizens
Community leadership abil­
ity - initiative, resour­
cefulness - morality systematic organization
10
• Experience in farming • sympathetic attitude to. wards students - good
. judgment - diplomatic
Interested in vocational
agriculture to the extent
that he stimulates his
students
122
Table L
(continued)
Greatest assets as listed by
Teacher*
Advisers
11
: A good community worker gets along well
•
•
•
Principals
•
•
■
•
Community activities
12
: Enthusiasm - untiring •
• cooperative - progressive
• - interest in new ideas
•
13
* Personality - fairness •
ability to get discipline
•
14
* Initiative - enthusiasm hard work
•
•
15
Ability to organize work
for the boys to do, and
to let them do it teaches vocationally
Interest in work thoroughness
16
Farm experience - hard
worker — real gentleman
anxious to succeed
Ability to adjust himself
to situations
Fine sense of balance - ex­
cellent disciplinarian ability to get along with
others
17
Practical background farm-reared - initiativesincerely interested in
practical farming
Sincerity of purpose - ex­
cellent preparation for
the position
18
Honest - good worker works for interests of
students and community very dependable
Ability to get along with
students
19
Understands local problems
as a native of the sec­
tion
Ability to inspire pupils
20
Knows well psychology of
farming class
Ability to make contacts
with farmers of the com­
munity
Works at pupil’s level
•
•
:
Perseverence - sincerity integrity - cordiality
123
Table L
Teacher*
(continued)
' Greatest assets as listed by
Advisers
Principals
21
Personality - general
ability
Fine cooperative personalitycompromising attitude Likes to work - has good
ideas - ambitious
22
Maturity - scholarship accuracy - honesty understands value of or­
ganizing class - projects
General knowledge - perso­
nal leadership
23
Has influence with boys
backed with ability
Breadth of practical ex­
perience - teaching ex­
perience - professional
preparation - character
2U
Long experience in same
community - sympathetic understanding towards
boys and their environ­
ment
Thorough preparation
25
Very energetic - does big
things - plans for com­
munity - long experience
Thorough background of
practical experience in
farming, gained by a life
on the farm until his
college days.
=J
124
Table LI
Greatest Assets Possessed by Twenty-six Less Successful Teach­
ers of Vocational Agriculture as Listed by County
Vocational Advisers and Supervising
Principals
Teacher
I
:
Greatest assets as listed by
•
Advisers
Principals
A
: Willingness
•
•
•
• Good in working with indi­
•
• vidual boys on projects
B
: Accurate - methodical
•
•
C
: Accepts suggestions - is
• good worker - makes
: friends easily and well
•
• Personality
: Practical experience as
s a farmer
•
•
D
•
•
• Has interest
•
•
Popularity with farmers
of the community
: Enthusiastic about work
: he likes
«
•
F
: Willingness to work
•
G
: His mature age
•
H
s Ability to plan his work
•
•
•
•
• Knowledge of agriculture •
• willingness to apply his
* knowledge and time
•
I
: Willingness
•
•
•
• Sincerity - ambition •
eager to aid
•
J
t General ambition and de: termination
•
• Ability to accept conditions
•
for what they are
•
K
: Appearance - sociability
•
•
•
•
•
Well prepared - excellent
physique - good cooperator
L
: Farm-reared
•
•
Initiative
M
: Rather pleasing person: ality
•
•
Day-to-day class work done
fairly well — academically
he is satisfactory
E
•
•
•
•
• Knowledge of subject matter
«
•
•
"None outstanding"
125
Table LI
(continued)
Greatest assets as listed by
s
Advisers
Principals
N
: Interest in farming : project program - F.F.A.: practical farm experience
•
•
•
•
•
•
0
: Practical farm experience
•
•
Experience - commonsense
P
: Farm-reared
•
•
Knowledge of subject
Q
: Good, steady work
•
•
•
•
•
•
Interest in, and knowledge
of agriculture
R
: Teaching of accuracy,
: neatness, self-disci. pline - thorough in
i his teaching
•
•
Practicality - mechanical
ability
Excellent background of
: experience - commanding
s personality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
S
•
T
•
•
: Practical farm experience
•
s - consideration for others •
U
: Good first appearance,
: though later, less
: desirable
•
•
•
•
•
V
: His teaching is practical
: - puts teaching into
s practice - fairness : hard worker
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
w
: High moral standards : good health - honesty
• Has ability to mix with
♦
adults
•
X
: Ability to aid pupils in
: applying teaching ma: terials
•
Interest in pupils - ability
•
•
to get along with boys
•
•
Y
•
•
•
• Experience - natural ability
Z
: Willingness to cooperate
•
• KnoY/ledge of subject
•
•
•
•
College graduate - experience
in operating his own farm
”1 can’t see that he has
any"
126
Table LII
Greatest Deficiencies of Twenty-five Successful Teachers of
Vocational Agriculture as Listed by County Vocational
Advisers and Supervising Principals
■her*
Greatest deficiencies as listed by
:_________ Advisers__________ :__________ Principals
1
:
:
:
:
:
Talks too much - too high
opinion of self and excellence of his accomplishments - fails to
make instruction function
2
: Lacks practical farm ex: perience - may be too dy: naraic - somewhat intoler: ant - slightly envious : no farm mechanics
3
: Desire to win prizes
4-
s
: Poor social adjustment s
lacks a sense of humor
5
: Lack of farm experience
: Public-speaking ability
: limited
«
6
: Lacks experience in this
: community
7
: Poor choice of shop and
: chapter activities - al: lows non-vocational actis vities to interfere with
: program once in a while
8
:
9
•
No practical application
: of vocational agriculture
• in all-day classes - lacks
i social contacts - a little
s egotistical
Fails
to a
sion
most
to carry undertakings
successful conclu­
- much influenced by
recent contacts
"I know of none"
: Too many duties for the
; allotted time
Sometimes fails to spark­
plug his projects suffi­
ciently
Somewhat self-centered
127
Table LII
Teacher.
(continued)
Greatest deficiencies as listed by
Advisers
10
11
1
12
1
;
3-5
Principals
s Poor advertiser - husky
•
voice - does not plan
•
•
well enough
2
2
Lacks tact - too out•
•
spoken
2
*
Does not emphasize detailed filing of supplies and teaching
materials
•
2 Considers vocational agri­
2 culture department a separ­
2 ate, water-tight unit, and
2 not a part of whole edu­
« cational program
: "None - the best man
: have ever had"
13
H
*
"Haven't observed any"
Failure to consider indi­
vidual needs of boys little effort to help
boys check on home-farm
activities
Fails to realize that other
subjects must be stressed
: A bit too aggressive
:
"I consider him an all-round
teacher"
"None. I wish I had academic
teachers with the same
qualities"
16
!
vie
17
i Over-ambitious - under: taies too much
: Does not hand in reports
: when due
18
2 His appearance - appears
I distant at first
: Not insisting on best quali: ty of work - lack of proper
attitude towards criticism
19
: Too much political activi• ty mixed with his job as
2 a teacher
:
20
: Sometimes too busy with
2 his own farm
2 Poor use of English lan2
guage - poor speller
"No marked deficiency"
128
Table LII
(continued)
Greatest deficiencies as listed by
Teacher
Advisers
Slightly tiresome at times
in manner of discourse or
methods of conducting
discussion
21
"Needs an assistant"
24
Slightly lacking in
: punctuality
: "None"
t
: Could be more decisive
:
and aggressive
: "I don't know of any"
: Spends too much time on his
:
own outside work
•
•
25
Instead of directing the
boys to do the activity,
he himself is demonstrating
too much
Does many things he should
let the students do - they
watch too much and do too
little of the work
•
»
22
23
Principals
Burns the candle too fast
- should conserve energy
: Language difficulty which is
:
not too serious in this
:
region
129
Table LIII
Greatest Deficiencies of Twenty-six Less Successful Teachers
of Vocational Agriculture as Listed by County Vocation­
al Advisers and Supervising Principals
Greatest deficiencies as listed by
Teacher
Advisers
A
Principals
: Personality - lack of
discipline
Shyness - lack of selfconfidence
B
:
:
s
:
:
Knowledge of agriculture
very limited - inability
to sell himself and his
program - indecisive backwards - poor mixer
C
: Inability to organize and
: plan - tendency towards
: disorderliness
•
E
Lack of knowledge of
technical agriculture lacks tact and poise - cannot maintain discipline lacks "oomph’1
Lacks enthusiasm for teach­
ing - prefers farm manage­
ment
Lack of planning
Lack of time spent on job
and in preparation
Inability to place himself
above the level of his
students v/ithout losing
their respect and con­
fidence
Lacks maturity - talks
too much
Lacks thoroughness - care­
less - irresponsible
Lack of ability to apply
efforts in a manner to
get good results in
teaching
Lack of discipline and
self-confidence
Lack of ability to stimu­
late boys to worth-while
activities
Personality low - discipline
low - inability to stimulate
boys - lack of interest in
school after 4:00 o ’clock
H
: "He is a little hot-headed" : Sociability low - slow
I
: Lack of farm experience
:
130
Table LIII
Greatest deficiencies as listed by
Advisers
Principals
Teacher
J
i
(continued)
Poor judgment - lacks a
modern philosophy of edu­
cation - interested in a
job rather than in rend­
ering service to the com­
munity and the pupils
Lack of definite plans difficulty in getting along
with students and in carry­
ing on projects
Lack of push
Laxity in pushing plans to
completion - students al­
lowed to waste time
K
j
L
i Lacks personality and
: leadership ability
M
Lacks initiative, re­
sourcefulness, self: confidence - too aca: demic in his teaching ! does not socialize
N
i
0
: Personal injury - lacks
i enthusiasm
;
|
!
Poor shop technique
Q
t Lacks push - too easily
5 satisfied
R
s
•
s
!
T
Does not contact parents
enough on project work does not visit projects
enough - is impractical
»
•
•
•
>
Will not accept criticism very set in his own way over estimates his own
ability
Lack of desirable person­
ality and leadership
ability
p
S
: Lack of planning
Lacks initiative, resourcefulness - resents
suggestions - academic
: Lives too far from his
: school
:
:
:
:
Inability to use correct
English - lacks tidiness
- poor organization of
teaching materials
s Needs more initiative
•
•
: Spends too little time
: with farming people
:
:
"An unusually strong
teacher"
131
Table LIII
(continued)
Greatest deficiencies as listed by
Teacher
Advisers
!
Principals
U
Lack of cooperation thoughtlessness
V
: Assumes too much pupil
«
responsibility in his
•
« work
Display of temper - poor
health
W
:
:
:
j
Lacks initiative and
drive - will not do the
best he knows - poor
judgment - procrastination
Lack of practical experience
- inability to get respect
of students
X
Slow in getting work done
Failure to be prompt
X
Talks too much - does not
encourage or permit pupil
responsibility - does not
make work practical,
functional or vocational
for pupils or farmers
"Lack of fault in himself"
z
Lack of teaching person­
ality and a sound philos­
ophy of agricultural
education
Lack of planning and method
of procedure
"Just seems not to be able
to accomplish anything.
In the wrong kind of work,
I believe"
132
Individual members of the group of successful teachers
have been assigned the same numbers in Table L and in Table LII.
Teacher "I" in Table L is the same person as teacher "1" in Table
LII, and so on throughout the two tables.
The same system was
used in connection with Tables LI and LIII.
Teacher "A" in Table
LI is the same person as teacher "A" in Table LIII.
This makes
it possible to study the greatest assets and the greatest de­
ficiencies of each teacher as an individual.
It is intended that Table L be contrasted with Table LI
and that Table LII be contrasted with Table LIII.
A study of Table I* shows that the most frequently list­
ed assets of the group of successful teachers are:
Certain traits,
such as initiative, enthusiasm, and leadership ability indicating
a desirable personality; a rich background of farm experience; a
hard worker; ability to cooperate with others; possesses a good
knowledge of his subject; ability to organize his work; a good
disciplinarian; and long experience in teaching vocational agri­
culture.
Assets most frequently mentioned for the g'oup of less
successful teachers include:
A rich background of farm experience;
willingness to work hard; good knowledge of his subject; a pleas­
ing appearance; and ability to cooperate with others.
It is to be
noted that two supervising principals stated that the teachers
working under their immediate supervision possessed no outstanding
assets.
In listing the greatest deficiencies of members of the
group of successful teachers, it is interesting to note that the
133
county vocational advisers and supervising principals most frequent­
ly wrote, "I know of none," or words to that effect.
Other de­
ficiencies noted rather frequently among the successful teachers
include:
Not aggressive enough} a lack of farm experience} does
too much work outside} does work that the pupils should be required
to do} talks too much} opinionated} not thorough} does not cooperate
with others} not sufficiently prompt, and uses poor English.
De­
ficiencies most frequently listed for members of the group of less
successful teachers are:
Undesirable personality} a poor disci­
plinarian} does not make sufficiently extensive plans} lacks in­
itiative} a lack of ferm experience} does not, or will not help
boys} not sufficiently aggressive} lacks self-confidence} does a
poor job with projects} talks too much} impractical} works too hard
himself} not sufficiently prompt} resents criticism} lacks leader­
ship ability} not sufficiently neat} lacks a sound philosophy of
education} poor health} and lacks enthusiasm for his work.
Summary - That the classrooms in which the group of successful
teachers meet their classes are larger and better equipped than
are the classrooms in which the group of less successful teach­
ers meet their classes is revealed by the list of furniture and
other teaching equipment supplied by the teachers themselves and
by statements from the county vocational advisers and supervising
principals.
As a group, the successful teachers have more equipment,
and have accumulated a more adequate supply of grain samples, weed
and insect specimens, and other teaching supplies than has the group
of less successful teachers.
The fact that teaching facilities are more adequate in
schools where the successful teachers are employed does not neces­
sarily mean that adequate facilities are denied to the less suc­
cessful teachers by school officials.
In many cases, a lack of
adequate facilities is traceable to the teacher himself.
Members of the group of less successful teachers have
to face discipline problems much more frequently than do members
of the group of successful teachers.
When the candidate for ad­
mission to the teacher-training curriculum has had previous
teaching experience, this factor can be used in predicting his
probable future success in teaching vocational agriculture.
The greatest assets and the greatest deficiencies of
the group of successful teachers, and the greatest assets and
greatest deficiencies of the group of less successful teachers
were compiled in four tables.
The assets listed for successful
teachers are more numerous, and are those more definitely as­
sociated with teaching success than are the assets listed for less
successful teachers.
Deficiencies listed for less successful
teachers are more numerous and more serious than those listed for
successful teachers.
Chapter IX
CONCLUSIONS
A summary of the findings appears at the end of each
chapter.
The following general conclusions with respect to the
qualities that make for success in teaching vocational agriculture
are based upon the study as a whole.
1.
Success in teaching vocational agriculture does not
depend upon the physical size of the teacher; is not a matter of
inches and pounds.
The personal appearance of the teacher, his
carriage and posture, his manner of dressing, however, does in­
fluence his success.
2.
Better-than-average health is a prerequisite for suc­
cess in teaching vocational agriculture.
Poor eyesight, poor hear­
ing, or poor general health will seriously handicap the teacher.
3.
Major physical defects should absolutely bar the
man as a teacher of vocational agriculture.
Less serious physical
defects that sap the teacher*s vitality or that distract the at­
tention of persons with whom he deals will greatly interfere with
his success.
4..
Persons who were graduated from the vocational agri­
culture curriculum of the high school have a better chance of be­
coming outstandingly successful as teachers of vocational agri­
culture than do those who were not.
Ability to rank in the upper
fifth of one’s high-school class is another phase of the person’s
high—school record that may be relied upon as a factor predictive
of future success as a teacher of vocational agriculture.
5«
Persons who are graduated from the teacher-training
curriculum or who begin their careers as teachers of vocational
agriculture after reaching the age of thirty have less chance of
becoming outstandingly successful as teachers than have those who
are graduated from the teacher-training curriculum and enter the
profession before reaching the age of twenty-five.
6.
Certain phases of the man’s college record are pre­
dictive of future teaching success.
Among these are:
(a)
Gradu­
ation with a major in the teacher-training curriculum of the col­
lege rather than in some other field
(b) a high grade-point ratio
at the time of graduation, or at the time of admission to the
teacher-training curriculum, and
(c) ability to rank in the upper
fifth of his class at the end of his undergraduate career, or at
the time of admission to the teacher-training curriculum.
7.
Because all cooperating teachers had had approxi­
mately the same amount of farm experience prior to beginning their
careers as teachers of vocational agriculture, these data do not
show whether or not prior farm experience is essential to suc­
cess in teaching vocational agriculture.
They do indicate that
prior farm experience in no way assures success in this field.
8.
A lack of proper social contacts prior to beginning
his teaching career will cause a man to be less successful as a
teacher of vocational agriculture than he would otherwise be.
A
lack of proper business contacts is a less serious matter, but may
cause the man to be less successful.
9.
Less than five years of previous experience in teach-
ing other subjects makes little difference in the success a man at­
tains in teaching vocational agriculture.
More than five years of
such experience may be detrimental to success in this field.
A men seems to attain his greatest success as a teacher
of vocational agriculture after four but before ten years of ex­
perience in this field.
10.
Extensive participation in extra-curricular activi­
ties while a student in high school seems to have little value in
predicting a man’s future success as a teacher of vocational agri­
culture.
The extent to which one participated in extra-curricu­
lar activities in college is of little value in predicting future
teaching success, but the type of activity in which he partici­
pated does have predictive value.
Membership in such national
honor societies as Alpha Tau Alpha, Phi Kappa Phi, and Gamma Sigma
Delta bears a close relation to success in teaching vocational agri­
culture.
Experience gained in appearing before an audience as
speaker, debater, or in a musical or dramatic production is associ­
ated with future teaching success.
11.
Earning more than 75 »0 per cent of his own expenses
while a student in college is detrimental to one’s future teaching
success in this field.
12.
Personality traits definitely influence success in
teaching vocational agriculture.
The type of personality desired
is not a matter of outstanding superiority in a few traits, but
general excellence in, and balance among all desirable traits.
13.
Teaching facilities available in the schools in-
fluenced, but did not determine, the success each man attained.
A
lack of teaching facilities is due, at least in part, to factors
over which the man exercises some degree of control.
1A*
The qualities which county vocational advisers and
supervising principals most frequently associate with teaching suc­
cess in the field of vocational agriculture are:
A desirable
personality; extensive farm experience before becoming a teacher;
ability to get a great deal of work done; ability to cooperate
with others; extensive knowledge of technical agriculture; and the
ability to maintain discipline.
The deficiencies most frequently
noted by the advisers and supervising principals are:
An undesir­
able personality; lack of farm experience; devoting too much energy
to work outside the school; poor teaching technique; failing to co­
operate; and inability to maintain discipline.
15..
There is no one trait or characteristic, the posses­
sion of which to a high degree, will insure success in teaching vo­
cational agriculture.
Success is a matter of a favorable distri­
bution of « n the desirable traits or characteristics.
Inability to attain outstanding success in teaching vo­
cational agriculture may be caused, in certain cases, by the absence
or near absence of a desirable trait, or by the presence of an
undesirable trait in the man's makeup: e.g., the lack of desirable
social, contacts; or the presence of a serious physical disability.
In other cases, lack of success may be caused by an unfavorable
proportion of several characteristics combined in the one individual
139
Chapter X
RECOMMENDATIONS
The following recommendations are made for the benefit
of those charged with the responsibility of selecting and train­
ing prospective teachers of vocational agriculture.
1.
In admitting candidates to teacher-training cur­
ricula, give preference to those who have graduated from vo­
cational agriculture departments of high schools, or, if such
candidates are not available in sufficient numbers, to those who
have had some training in vocational agriculture.
2.
In admitting candidates to teacher-training cur­
ricula, give preference where possible, to those who have gradu­
ated in the upper fifth or in the upper two-fifths of their highschool classes.
Admit as few candidates as possible from among
those who graduated in the lower half of their high-school classes.
3.
Admit no candidates to teacher-training curricula
who have serious physical disabilities.
Candidates with minor
physical handicaps should be admitted and trained only when well
qualified candidates are not available.
4..
Admit no candidates to teacher-training curricula
whose eyesight or hearing is seriously defective, or whose general
health is below average.
In case of doubt, a medical examination
should be required.
The above is not to be construed as barring candidates
with defective eyesight if the defect is corrected with suitable
glasses.
140
5«
Determine the amount of practical farm experience that
is desirable for a teacher of vocational agriculture.
Admit no
candidates who are deficient in practical farm experience, or who
cannot, or will not make arrangements to acquire such experience
while they are students in the teacher-training institution.
6.
Give preference to candidates who will graduate from
the teacher-training curriculum at about age twenty-two to twentysix.
Admit candidates who will graduate after reaching the age of
thirty only when such men have other compensating qualities.
7.
In admitting candidates to teacher-training cur­
ricula, give preference to those with outstanding personality.
In
determining whether the candidate possesses a desirable personality,
obtain ratings on his personality as a whole from the greatest
possible number of persons who know him well, then consolidate
these ratings for an average rating.
Another alternative is to
obtain ratings from several persons on a large number of personal­
ity traits, then consolidate these for an average rating.
8.
In admitting candidates to teacher-training cur­
ricula, give preference to those who have had adequate social and
business contacts.
9.
In admitting candidates to teacher-training curricula,
give preference to those who have taught other subjects for less
than five years.-,
10.
If the candidate has had previous teaching experience,
determine whether he has been able to maintain discipline in his
classes.
If he had not been a good disciplinarian, he probably
will not be outstandingly successful as a teacher of vocational
agriculture, and should not be admitted to the teacher-training cur­
riculum.
11.
If candidates are admitted to the teacher-train­
ing curriculum after completing one or more years of work in the
teacher-training institution, the following may be used in obtain­
ing students with good chances of developing into outstandingly
successful teachers of vocational agricuhnrej
(a)
Give preference to candidates with high gradepoint ratios.
(b)
Give preference to candidates who rank high in
their classes.
(c)
Give preference to candidates who are members
of national honor societies and fraternities.
(d)
Give preference to those candidates who have
made many appearances before an audience as a
speaker, debater, or in a musical or dramatic
production.
(e)Give preference to those men who are not
earn­
ing more than 75*0 per cent of their own ex­
penses while students in college.
12.
In selecting candidates for teacher-training cur­
ricula, every effort should be made to obtain as complete a picture
of the candidate's characteristics as is possible.
APPENDIX
LETTER ACCOMPANYING QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO
COUNTY VOCATIONAL ADVISERS
March 7, 1940
We are rapidly coining to a point in the balance between supply and
demand for teachers of agriculture where we may be able to improve
the calibre of our graduates by applying certain requirements for
entrance to the teacher preparation curriculum. We have in mind
certain criteria in addition to those now employed in the usual
college entrance regulations — qualifications particularly perti­
nent to the job of teaching vocational agriculture.
Professor F. E. Armstrong is devoting this semester to graduate
research and has chosen a problem, the purpose of which is to dis­
cover the relevancy and importance of various characteristics which
might be considered in recruiting trainees in agricultural education
Certainly the only way to determine the relevancy of these factors
is to assemble data about individuals who have been through the mill
Those teachers whose names appear on the enclosed mimeographs have
been sent a form designed to give us certain information about them­
selves. We believe, however, that you are in the best position to
check the enclosed lists. The information forms have really been
boiled down and made as painless as possible. We would be glad to
have your reactions to the completeness and pertinency of the forms
if you would care to criticize them* This latter is not necessary,
of course, but we are counting upon you to check the lists and we
will be grateful if you will check on the teachers and see that
they return their forms promptly.
Sincerely yours,
Henry S. Brunner
Head of Department
143
LETTER ACCOMPANYING QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO
SUPERVISING PRINCIPALS
March 7, 194-0
In the field of agriculture, as in every other field of education,
we are seriously concerned with criteria that may be considered re­
liable in selecting students for the teacher preparation curriculum.
We are fortunate this year in having Professor F. E. Armstrong of the
University of Hawaii on our staff to do graduate research. Professor
Armstrong has chosen a study, the purpose of which is to determine
the characteristics that should be considered in recruiting trainees
for preparation to teach vocational agriculture. In order to es­
tablish the relevancy of certain factors to the job of teaching agri­
culture, an information form has been sent to a representative group
of teachers. There are, however, certain kinds of information which
no man can very well supply about himself. The teacher of agriculture
in your school is one of the men on our list and we believe you are
in the best position to check the enclosed form to complete our data.
We certainly would not ask you to do this if we did not consider the
point of view of the school administrator as the most important we
could use. We will be very grateful for your assistance.
Very truly yours,
Henry S. Brunner
Head of Department
LETTER ACCOMPANYING QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO
TEACHERS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
March 7, 1940
As you know, we are fortunate this year in having Professor F. E.
Armstrong of the University of Hawaii as a member of our staff in
exchange with Dr. C. S. Anderson. Professor Armstrong is devoting
this semester to graduate research and has chosen to study a prob­
lem which is of great interest to everyone in agricultural edu­
cation. It has to do with the characteristics which should be con­
sidered in recruiting students for preparation to teach vocational
agriculture.
It is perhaps unfortunate that we must employ questionnaires to
gather data in studies of this kind. We believe, however, that
the enclosed questionnaire form has been boiled down and made as
painless as possible. While you are making the check marks, we
would be glad if you would also analyze the form for completeness
and pertinency and let us have your reactions. This latter is
not necessary, of course, but we are quite anxious to have very
complete data, and we are covinting upon you to check the form
and return it to us as soon as possible.
Very truly yours,
Henry S. Brunner
Head of Department
H5
INFORMATION
ABOUT
TEACHER OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
Date
1.
Name of school___________
3.
Name of teacher of vocational agriculture
2.
Location
I.- TEACHER'S HEALTH
1.
Eyesight: (check)__Excellent__________ , average__________
poor__________ .
2.
Does he wear glasses?
3.
If so, do you consider them to be properly adjusted?
Yes
, no_________.
U*
Is his eyesight so poor that it handicaps him in his work?
(check) Yes_________ , no_________ .
5*
Hearing: (check)
rather deaf
6.
Is his hearing so poor that it handicaps him in his work?
(check) Yes
, no_________ .
7.
When compared with other teachers of vocational agriculture
whom you know, would you say this teacher's general health is
(check) Superior_________ , average______ , below average__
8.
Is his general health so poor that it interferes with his
duties as a teacher of vocational agriculture? (check)
Yes_________ , no_________ .
9.
Describe any physical defects the teacher has______________ _
(check)
Normal
Yes
, no___________
(check)
, slightly abnormal______
10. Do his physical defects interfere with his duties as a teacher
of vocational agriculture? (check) Yes
, no_________ .
146
II - PERSONALITY
Given below are certain personality traits which may, or may not,
be desirable in a teacher of vocational agriculture* Compare this
teacher with other teachers of vocational agriculture whom you know,
then rate him on each point, using the scale provided. Be sure to
give a rating on each point.
1.
ACCURACY:
Superior___ Good___ Average___ Poor___ Very poor__
2.
APPEARANCE:
Superior__ Good___ Average___ Poor___ Very poor__
3.
ADDRESS:
Superior__ Good__ Average___ Poor___ Very poor__
4.
BALANCE:
Superior__ Good___ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
5.
CARRIAGE
and
POSTURE:
Superior__ Good___ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
6.
CONSIDER­
ATION:
Superior___ Good___ Average___ Poor___ Very poor__
7.
CONTROL:
Superior___ Good___ Average___ Poor___ Very poor__
S.
CONVER­
SATION:
Superior___ Good___ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
9.
DISCRIMI­
NATION:
Superior__ Good___ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
10.
DRESS:
Superior___ Good___ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
11.
FAIRNESS:
Superior___ Good__ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
12.
HONESTY:
Superior__ Good__ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
13.
INITIATIVE:
Superior__ Good__ Average___ Poor__ Very poor__
14.
JUDGMENT:
Superior__ Good__ Average__ Poor__ Very poor__
15.
MORALITY:
Superior__ Good__ _Average__ Poor__ _Very poor__
16.
NEATNESS:
Superior___Good___ _Average__ ,Poor__ _Very poor__
17.
POISE:
Superior__ _Good__ _ Average__ Poor__ _Very poor__
18.
PROMPTNESS:
Superior__ _ Good__ _Average__ Poor__ _ Very poor__
19.
RESOURCEFULNESSi
Superior
Good__ _ Average__ . Poor
_ Very poor__
147
20. SELF—
Superior
CONFIDENCE:
Good
21. SOCIA—
BILITY:
Superior__ Good
22. SYSTEMATIC:
Superior
Average
Poor___Very poor
Average
Good___ Average
23. TACTFULNESS: SuperiorGood
Average
Poor
Very poor
Poor
Very poor
Poor
Very poor_
24* VOCABULARY:
Superior___ Good____ Average__ Poor
Very poor_
25. VOICE:
Superior___ Good____ Average__ Poor
Very poor_
26.
How popular is this teacher with farmers and others in the com­
munity with whom he deals? (check) Veiy popular__________ ,
popular_________ , unpopular_________ .
27.
How popular is this teacher with other teachers in the school
where he works? (check) Very popular_________ , popular_____ ,
unpopular_________ .
28.
How popular is this teacher v/ith pupils in his classes? (check)
Very popular_________ , popular_________ , unpopular_________ .
29.
Tii/hat is his standing as a community leader?
average_________ ,_low_________ .
(check)
High
,
Ill - PREPARATION FOR TEACHING
Has this teacher had sufficient of the following to properly pre­
pare him for teaching vocational agriculture?
Social contacts:
(check)
Yes
, no
•
Business contacts:
(check)
Yes
, no
•
Practical experience in
agriculture:
(check)
Yes
, no
•
Training in technical
agriculture:
(check)
Yes
, no
•
Training in education and
psychology:
(check)
Yes
, no
•
Experience in teaching:
(check)
Yes
, no
•
Does this teacher understand:
7.
The aims and objectives of
vocational education:
(check)
les
, no
8.
How to work with his students:
(check)
les____ , no
9.
How to secure the cooperation
of his students:
(check)
Yes____ , no
10.
How to work with adults in
the community:
(check)
Yes
11.
How to secure the cooperation
of adults:
(check)
Yes____ , no_
, no
IV - TEACHING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
1. Does this teacher have adequate classroomspace forteaching
vocational agriculture? (check) Yes_______ ,no__________ •
2. Does this teacher have adequate equipment__for teaching vo­
cational agriculture? (check) Yes
,no__________ .
3.
Has this teacher accumulated an adequate supply of corn, grains,
insect and weed specimens, and other supplies for teaching vo­
cational agriculture? (check) Yes_________, no___________.
4.
Is the total number of students enrolled in this teacher's
classes too great to permit him to do a good job of teaching
vocational agriculture? (check) Y e s . no
.
5.
Does this teacher have difficulty in finding facilities for
conducting the project work required of his students in vo­
cational agriculture? (check) Yes________ , no_________ _•
6.
Does this teacher understand how to plan his courses in vo­
cational agriculture? (check) Yes_________, no___________•
7.
Does this teacher make adequate daily teaching plans?
Yes_________ , no_________ •
8.
Is the supply of available reference material adequate for
teaching vocational agriculture? (check) Yes
, no
9.
(check)
•
Does this teacher exhibit undesirable mannerisms in his
teaching? (check) Yes
______ > no--------- •
10. Has this teacher the ability to stimulate his students to their
best efforts? (check) Yes________ , no-------- .
149
11.
Does this teacher consider the individual needs of his pupils?
(check) Yes________ , no________ .
12.
Has this teacher the ability to evaluate the results of his
teaching? (check) Yes
, no_________ .
13.
How frequently does this teacher have to meet discipline
problems? (check) Frequently
, infrequently
almost never
.
14* Does this teacher accept criticism gracefully?
Yes________, no_______ .
(check)
15. Is this teacher prompt in answering correspondence, filing
reports, and the like? (check) Yes_______ , no_________ .
16. Does this teacher effectively aid former students of vocation­
al agriculture to become established in fanning? (check)
Yes________ , no_________ .
17. 1/Vhat do you consider to be this man’s greatest asset as a
teacher of vocational agriculture?__________________________
18.
HJhat do you consider to be this man’s greatest deficiency as a
teacher of vocational agriculture?__________________________
150
SELF SURVEY FORM
FOR
TEACHERS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
I - GENERAL
Date_______________ ___
1.
Name of school
___________
2.
Location______ ________
3.
Name of teacher of vocational agriculture
A.
Date of birth________ £.
7.
Year in which you entered the teacher-training curriculum in
Height______ 6.
vocational agriculture__________
______ ________
V/eight_____________
High school from which
8.
you graduated_______________ 9 . Year graduated_____________
10.
High school curriculum completed_____________________________
11.
University or college from which graduated___________________
12.
Year graduated_____________13*
1A.
Degree___________ ______ ___________________________________
Curriculum__________________
II - HEALTH
1.
Eyesight:
(check)
2.
Do you wear glasses?
3.
If so, when were they last adjusted?_________________________ .
A.
Hearing:
(check)
Normal__________
(check)
Yes
,
slightly abnormal______ .
______ , no_______________.
Normal_______ , slightly abnormal__________
rather deaf_________ .
5.
How many days have you been absent from your school work be­
cause of illness during this school year?__________________ _
6.
How many days were you absent from school work last year be­
cause of illness?
_______________________ ..
.... .
151
7 • For what ailments have you been treated by a physician during
the past ten years?
(a)
Days absent from work?__________
0 0 _____________
Days absent from work?__________
(c)
Days absent from work?_____
(d)
Days absent from work?_
(s)_______
Days absent from work?
Place a check mark before each of the following which you have
now or have had in the past:
Diabetes
Fainting spells
Frequent colds
Frequent headaches
Gall stones
Goitre
Heart trouble
Liver trouble
Nervous trouble
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
9.
Paralysis
Rectal trouble
Rheumatism
Stomach trouble
Tonsilitis
Tuberculosis
Tumors
Ulcers
Varicose veins
(.1)
(k)
(1)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
(r)
Describe briefly any physical defects you may have.
state "none"
If none,
III - AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE
1.
2.
How many years of each of the following did you have as a stu­
dent in high school?
(a)
Vocational agriculture (all-day)______ Average_grade____
(b)
Vocational agriculture (day-unit)_____ Average grade_
(c)
General agriculture (Jr. High School)
(d)
4-H club work______________Kind___________________
Average grade_
Agricultural projects CARRIED TO COMPLETION while a student in
high school:
(a)
Kind___________________
(b)
Kind
Scope______________ ___
__________________ Scope_________________ ___
152
3.
(c)
Kind
Scope
(d)
Kind
Scope
(e)
Kind
Scope
Agricultural projects BEGUN BUT NOT CARRIED TO COMPLETION while
a student in high school:
(a)
Kind
Scope
(b)
Kind
Scope
(0) Kind
Scope
4.
Project contests entered and prizes won:
5.
For how many school years were you a member of the high school
chapter F.F.A.?_______ 6. For how many years were you a member
of a collegiate chapter F.F.A.?____________________________ _
7.
Offices held in the high school F.F.A._______________________
8.
Offices held in the collegiate F . F . A . ________________
9.
Colleges attended, including summer sessions:
Name
Major
Years
Degree
10. Give as nearly as you can the semester hours of college work you
have had in each of the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(fi)
(h)
(i)
Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Engineering
Agronomy
Animal Husbandry and
Veterinary Science
Dairy Husbandry
Forestry
Horticulture
Landscape Architecture
Poultry Husbandry
(.1)
00
(1)
(m)
(n)
(0)
(p)
(q)
(r)
<•)
Soils
Agricultural Education
General Education
Psychology
Bacteriology
Botany
Chemistry, including
Ag. Biochem.
Entomology
Physics
English
153
11.
How well did your college course in agriculture prepare you to
teach the type of fanning found in the community where you now
teach? (check) Excellently
, fairly well_____ ,
poorly_____ .
12.
For how many years did you live on a farm prior to entering
college?___________ .
1 3.
You lived on the farm between age_
_and age_
14-. What was the size of the farm?___
15.
Number in order of importance the five chief crops on the farm
where you lived:
J3arley
Buckwheat
>)_
(c)_____ Corn
(d)_____ Oats
(e)_____ Rice
(f)_____ YJheat
(g)_____ Rye
(h)_____ Alfalfa
(i)_____ Beans
(j)_____ Clover
(*)-_
0
16.
acres.
00.
(1).
(m)_
(» ).
(o).
(P).
(q).
(r)_
( 8).
(t).
_0ther legumes
"Timothy
JDther grasses
jCotton
JPotatoes, Irish
_Potatoes, sweet
_Sugar beets
_Sugar cane
JTobacco
_Truck crops
Number in order of importance five classes of livestock kept on
the farm where you lived:
(a).
00.
(c).
(d).
(e).
00.
_Beef cattle
JDairy cattle
_Goats
_Jackasses
_Horses
Mules
(g)_____ Sheep
(h)_____ Swine
(i)_____ Chickens
(j)_____ Ducks
(k)_____ Geese
(1)_____ Turkeys
17.
What kind of work did you do on the farm where you lived?
(check) Chores______ , labor______ , management_________
18.
If you had management responsibilities, were you (check)
owner
, son of owner_____ , partner sharing in profits
______ t tenant
, paid manager_____ , laborer with
authority to act ____ ?
154
19.
Was the farm on which you lived (check) better than average
average_____, below average______ when compared with other
farms in the same community?
20.
What was the approximate value per acre of the land of the farm
where you lived?,_______________
.
21.
Number in order the five crops having the greatest acreage on
farms in the patronage area of the school where you now teach.
(a) _
(b)
(c)... .
(d)
(e)
(f)
<«)
(h)
22.
Barley
Buckwheat
Corn
Oats
Rye
Wheat
Alfalfa
Beans
(1)
(.i)
00
(1 )
(m)
(n)
(0)
(P)
Clover
Other legumes
Timothy
Other grasses
Potatoes, Irish
Potatoes, sweet
Tobacco
Truck crops
Number in order of monetary importance five classes of live­
stock commonly kept on farms in the patronage area of the
school where you now teach.
(a)
0>)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Beef cattle
Dairy cattle
Goats
Jackasses
Horses
Mules
(g)
(h)
(i)
(J>
00
(1)
Sheep
Swine
Chickens
Ducks
Geese
Turkeys
23*
For how many months have you worked on a farm since you first
entered college?__________________________ .
24*
Was it the same farm on which you worked before entering college?
(check) Yes
, no_____ •
25.
What kind of work did you do on the farm where you worked before
entering college? (check) Chores______, labor______________ ,
management_________ .
26.
If you had management responsibilities on the farm where you
worked after entering college, were you (check) owner______ ,
son of owner_____ , partner sharing in profits______,
tenant_____ , paid manager_____ , laborer with authority to
act
__ ?
27.
Of what farm organizations are you a member?
What farm papers, magazines or periodicals do you read
REGULARLY?____________
IV - OTHER PERTINENT EXPERIENCE
Approximately how many times did you appear before an audience
as a speaker, debater or in a dramatic or musical production
BEFORE YOU ENTERED COLLEGE?________________________________
Approximately how many times did you appear as a speaker, de­
bater or in a dramatic or musical production after entering
college but before you began teaching vocational agriculture?
Check each of the following in which you actively participated
as a HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT OR ELSEWHERE BEFORE ENTERING COLLEGE:
(a).
(*).
Church
_Church club (name)
(a).
(°)_
(P).
(q).
(r)_
(c)"
Commercial club (name)
(s).
(t).
(*).
(v).
(d)*
(e).
(f).
(g)-
(h).
(i).
U)_
(k).
(1).
(®)_
_Chorus
_Orchestra
_Band
_Vocal soloist
^Instrumental soloist
JBaseball, high school
"Basketball, high school
Football, high school
Soccer, high school
Community club (name)
Dance club
_Debate club
JDramatics club
JLiterary society
Fraternity
“f .f .a .
_4-H club
__Hiking club
_Stamp club
(w)
Organized sports, not
high school (list)
(x)
Other organizations
(list)
Check each of the following in which you actively participated
WHILE A STUDENT IN COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY:
156
(a) .
(b)
Church
Church club
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Rotary
Kiwanis
Commercial Club
Elks
Masons
Moose
I.O.O.F.
W.O.W.
Dance club
Debate club
Dramatics club
Literary society
Social fraternity
Alpha Tau Alpha
Phi Kappa Phi
Phi Delta Kappa
(R)
(h)
(i)
U)
(k)
(1)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)
(q)
W
5.
(s)
(t)
(*)
(▼>.
(w)
_Phi Beta Kappa
_Garama Sigma Delta
_Block and Bridle
JBcabbard and Blade
Others (list)
(*)'
Varsity athletics
(list)
(y)
Club athletics (list)
(z)
Musical organizations
(list)
To what extent did you earn your own expenses while a student in
college? (check) 100$____ , 75$____ , 50$____ , 25$___ , 0$__
V - TEACHING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE
1.
How much teaching experience had you had BEFORE you began teach­
ing vocational agriculture?___________ years.
2.
How much experience have you had in teaching vocational agriculture?
____________ jyears.
3.
List the schools in which you have taught vocational agriculture;
(a)
School
Years taught; 19__ to 19__ .
(b)
School
Years taught: 19__ to 19___.
(c)
School
Years taught: 19__ to 19___.
(d)
School
Years taught: 19__ to 19__ .
(e)
School
Years taught: 19__ to 19__ .
4.. Check the type of room, or rooms, in which you teach vocational agri­
culture: Combination classroom and shop_____ ,_separate shop_____ ,
combined industrial and farm shop
, separate classroom
,
classroom shared with another teacher_______ .
157
5.
Check each of the following which you have in the classroom
where you teach vocational agriculture:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(k)
(i)
...
Tables and chairs for
pupils
School desks
Blackboard
Bulletin-board
Teacher's demon­
stration table
Bulletin file
Magazine file
Combination bulletin­
magazine file
Display cabinet Lab specimen
(.1)
(k)
(1)
(m)
(n)
(0)
(p)
(q)
(r)
(s)
(t)
(u)
Storage cabinet teaching materials
Running water
Electric lights
Electricity outlets
Gas outlets
Sink
Stereopticon (Standard
or 2” x 2" slides)
Film strip projector
Motion picture projector
Projector stand
Screen
Store room
6.
How does the equipment available for teaching vocational agri­
culture in your school compare with the amount and kind re­
commended by the Department of Public Instruction, Harrisburg,
in D.P.I. Bulletin No. 252? You have (check) more_________ ,
the amount recommended
, less than recommended________ .
7.
How many separate all-day class groups in vocational agriculture
are you teaching this year?___________ .
8.
What other teaching responsibilities do you have? (check)
Social studies______ , sciences_____ , physical education
study hall______ , other
Total periods per week of other work_________________
9.
Did you conduct an evening class last year?
no
.
(check)
,
„»
»
Yes______,
10.
Have you conducted, or do you plan to conduct an evening class
this year (check) Yes
. no_____ •
11.
Did you conduct a part-time class last year?
12.
Have you conducted, or do you plan to conduct a part-time class
this year? (check) Yes______ > no____ ___•
13.
What is the total number of students enrolled in your all-day
classes at the present time?_________
•
14.
What plan of organizing subject matter for your all-day classes
(check)
Yes
,
158
do you use? (check) Cross section of fanning_______ , by
subjects or enterprises______ , other
.
15.
What per cent of all students enrolled in your all-day classes
in vocational agriculture this year had chosen projects on:
August 1______, September 1
, November 1________ ,
January 1_____?
16.
You visited what per cent of the homes of students now enrolled
in your all-day classes in vocational agriculture after the
close of last school year, but before: July 1_____ , August 1
______, September 1______ , November 1
.
17.
As a teaching procedure, do you use mostly (check) textbooks
______, textbooks and other reference books_______________ ,
bulletins and agricultural magazines
, bulletins alone
______ textbooks and bulletins_____________ ?
18.
How frequently are you called upon to assist farmers in your
community'? (check) Frequently_____ , infrequently_______ ,
never
.
19.
Do you prepare an annual plan, including lesson plans, before
school opens in the fall? (check) Yes_____ , no
.
20.
Do you prepare daily lesson plans?
21.
How frequently do discipline problems arise in your classes?
(check) Frequently
, infrequently_____ , never______ .
22.
Is your knowledge of agriculture always adequate to meet the
needs of your students? (check) Yes
» no
•
23.
In what fields of agricultural subject matter do you feel in­
adequately prepared?
________________,... __________
(check)
Yes
, no____
24. Approximately what per cent of the students enrolled in your
all-day classes in vocational agriculture are members of an
F.F.A. chapter?,__________
♦
i
FORM FOR OBTAINING DATA AVAILABLE AT
THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE
Year graduated from The Pennsylvania
Name
State College,
High school rank.
lege,
Curriculum
Final rank in The Pennsylvania State Col­
Final grade point ratio.
Total semester hours in each of the following:
(a).
(b)_
(c).
(d).
(e).
(f).
(g).
(b).
(i).
Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Engineering
Agronomy
Animal Husbandry and
Veterinary Science
Dairy Husbandry
Forestry
Horticulture
Landscape Architecture
Poultry Husbandry
(.i)..
(k)
(1)
(m)
(n)
(o)
(P)
(q)
(r)
(s)
....
Soils
Agricultural Education
General Education
Psychology
Bacteriology
Botany
Chemistry, including
Ag. Biochem.
Entomology
Physics
English
BIBLIOGRAPHY
160
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