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A NONVERBAL APPROACH TO THE THURSTONE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES.

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The Pennsylvania State College
The Graduate School
Department of Education and Psychology
A NON-VERBAL APPROACH
TO THE THURSTONE PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES
A Thesis
by
DANNIE JOSEPH MOFFIE
Submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements
for the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
July, 1 % 0
APPROVED
BY
Head, Department of Education and Psychology
BY;
Professor of Psychology
ACKMOWLEDGMENTS
The writer wishes to extend appreciations to the graduate
students of the Psycho-Educational Clinic of The Pennsylvania State
College who consented to take many of the newly constructed tests
in their experimental form.
Special acknowledgments are due Doctor Robert G. Bernreuter,
under whose supervision this study was conducted.
Doctor Bernreuter1s
advice and suggestions have been valuable in the completion of the
study.
The writer is indebted to Doctor Charles C. Peters who gave
much of his time to explain factor analysis and other statistical
procedures.
Appreciations are extended to Doctor William Lepley, who has
always been willing to give freely of his time.
Doctor Lepley
offered many helpful suggestions.
Finally, the writer takes this opportunity to acknowledge
Doctor Joseph DeCamp, who has been his advisor throughout his graduate
career, and to vdiom he owes his initial interest in psychology.
TABLE OP CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
I
INTRODUCTION ANDSTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM............
1
II
HISTORICALSURVEY .................................
3
A. General Implications . . . . . . . . .
B. Studies Related to the Problem . . . .
Ill
9
METHOD.................
A. Tests U s e d .......................
B. Measures O b t a i n e d .............
..
C. The Subjects ......................
D. Description of Tests ..............
E. Statistical Treatment of Data
1. Intercorrelations
....
. .
2. Factor Analysis. . . .
3V RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS.......................
23
A. Means and Standard Deviations of the Tests
B. Intercorrelations of the Tests . . . .
C. Multiple Factor Analysis of the Correlational Matrix
D. Interpretation of the Factors
V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY .
APPENDIX .
..........
.........
....
.....................
40
43
45
*
LIST OF TABLES
Table
I
II
IH
Page
Distribution of Subjects According to Schools........ 12
Summarized Items of Information on the Thurstone
Primary Abilities Tests - * ......... . . . . . . . .
26
Means and Standard Deviations of Scores Made by
110 Freshman Men on Nineteen Tests
........... 28
IV
Intercorrelations of Scores on Nineteen Tests
Administered to 110 College Men with Probable Errors for
the Various Correlations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
V
Comparison of the Empirical Values of / to the Limiting
Value for Each Factor Extracted
.................... 31
VI
VII
VIII
Original Factor Loadings and Communalities
.........32
Rotated Factor Loadings and Communalities . . . . . . .
33
Table of Raw Scores on Nineteen Tests................ U5
LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS
Photograph
Page
1
Series
A - DeductiveReasoning Form Board.......14
2
Series
B - Deductive Reasoning Form Board . . . . . 14
3
Series
C - DeductiveReasoning Form Board....... 15
4
Series
D - Deductive Reasoning Form Board . . . . . 15
5
Space Test
6
Practice Test (A) and (B) - Memory
7
Test Proper (a ) and (B) - Memory
8
Perceptual Speed T e s t ...........
9
Inductive Reasoning
10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
..
.
.......... 20
............ 20
.22
..................... 23
Lepley Form Board............
.......25
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
Page
1
Plot - Factor I with Factor I I ............
34
2
Plot - Factor I vdth Factor III
35
3
Plot - Factor II vdth Factor III
......... 36
%
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A. Introduction:
Non-verbal performance tests have been used ever since the
beginning of testing.
administer.
final score.
They have been "used because they are easy to
A language handicap has no appreciable effect on the
Furthermore, they offer an interesting situation to
the subject, and they provide the examiner with an excellent means
of observing the subject in action.
Even though they have been extensively used, form boards
have many inherent v/ealcnesses, chief of which is the unreliability
of most of these devices.
This is due to the insufficient length,
and to the presence of chance factors.
In addition, the validity
of these tests has been found to be quite low, especially when com­
pared to the Stanford-Binet.
It seems reasonable to believe that an approach to the
field of performance testing, whether it be for vocational guidance
or for the measurement of intelligence, should be one accomplished
by going back to a more sound basis; that is, by finding those
factors common to the verbal and non-verbal field.
This would even­
tually eliminate the low validity which is at present characteristic
of performance tests.
Performance tests should be constructed so that there is
internal gradation.
The graded series for each factor tested would
tend to eliminate the extreme -unreliabilities now found.
increasing difficulty would be presented.
A task of
An increase in the length
of the test, in itself, would also increase the reliability.
B. Statement of the Problem.
An analysis of the problem immediately indicates that the
final objectives will not be reached by this study.
The ultimate
goal is a long-term one with a research of this type needed as the
initiatory step.
The ultimate hypothesis may be stated somewhat as follows:
If our present conception of intelligence is to be analyzed as con­
sisting of primary abilities, and if these have been shown to be in
the so-called paper-pencil tests of intelligence, may we not apply
this same thought to performance tests of intelligence and ultimately
construct tests in this field measuring these primary abilities?
The problems to be answered by this investigation may be
stated as follows:
1. Is there a general factor present in the performance tests
used in this battery?
2. If not, what factors are measured?
3« Is it possible to have performance tests measure the same
abilities as measured by paper-pencil tests?
4-. Do certain newly constructed performance tests, designed to
measure primary abilities, really measure what they were
arbitrarily named?
CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL SURVEY
A. General Implications:
The main thought which now dominates the present viewpoint
concerning intelligence, i.e., intelligence as composed of separate
factors, may be traced directly to the work of Spearman (21) which
started in the early years of this century.
He discovered that the
correlations between tests tended to fall into a hierarchical system.
Spearman explained this tendency by the hypothesis that all correla­
tions were due to one factor present in every tests.
general factor "g11.
He called this
In addition, Spearman found that each tests had
a second factor, which he called a specific factor "sn.
In order to show this organization, Spearman developed a
statistical technique known as the ”tetrad-difference11 method.
As time went on, it became necessary to expand this theory
in order to explain all of the correlations between tests.
Spearman
and his followers had to use group factors to explain the hierarchical
order.
Spearman’s school, however, tends to explain as much as possible
by the general factor and to use group factors only when it becomes
mandatory.
The theory of ntwo factors” has thus been extended to include
a number of other group factors in addition to "g" and ”sn. These
additional factors are called nv", verbal factor, nm”, mechanical
factor, na”, arithmetical factor, etc.
The two factor method was built upon the hypothesis that
a correlational matrix would show a hierarchical system if care
were taken to eliminate tests which were similar to one another.
It became clear that in order to achieve this goal, the experi­
menter had to place subjective opinion in his system.
It is not
surprising, then, that experimenters wanted to find some method by
which a matrix could be analyzed directly into its factors.
This
has given rise to the multiple factor methods of Thurstone and
Kelley.
Thurstone1s Centroid Method was used in the present study.
B. Studies Related to the Problem;
Thurstone .(23), working on the hypothesis that separate
psychological factors or abilities existed in current psychological
paper-pencil tests, administered a battery of fifty-six different
tests to 24-0 college students.
In preparing the battery, he selected
tests which represent mental activities common in present psycho­
logical tests.
variables.
Intercorrelations were, determined for the fifty-six
The correlational matrix was then analyzed for group
factors by the Thurstone Centroid Method of Factor Analysis.
The
analysis was carried to twelve factors after which rotations produced
meaningful results.
Seven factors were named.
The most recent
interpretations of the factors are given by Thurstone as follows (27)
"Factor P. The tests that call for this ability require
the quick perception of detail in either visual or verbal mat­
erial. This seems to be a perceptual ability which enables
some people to excel in finding detail which is significant
to them or detail which they are seeking. It is probably one
of the factors that are involved in what has been called "quick
5
intelligence." To scan a page to find quickly some small but
significant detail; to classify familiar objects quickly, are
examples of this factor.
"Factor N. This is one of the clearest factors that have
been isolated. It consists in facility with simple numerical
work and is best represented in the tests of rapid calculation.
It is of secondary importance in arithmetical reasoning and in
deciphering numerical code, tasks which call for factors in
addition to facility with numbers as such. It is not yet
known whether this factor can be exemplified in non-numerical
tasks .
"Factor V. This is a verbal factor which is manifested
in tests that involve the interpretation of language. It is
not restricted to mere fluency with words. It reflects an
ability to deal readily and quickly with verbal material.
Those who excel in this factor are probably verbally-minded
in their thinking and problem solving.
"Factor S. This is an ability that is present in those
tests which require the subject to think visually of geometrical
forms and of objects in space. “While none of these factors
can be described in detail as yet, it seems reasonable to
expect that those who have a high rating on ability S should
be able to do well in those studies and in those occupations
that require visualizing or thinking about things in visual
form. Many people think about a problem visually even when
the nature of the problem does not immediately suggest any
necessary visual character.
"Factor M. The nature of this factor was identified by the
fact that all of the tests which require it are tests of
memorizing. The appearance of such a factor seems to give
justification for the belief that a good memory is an ability
independent of other mental powers. It is not yet known,
however, whether the ability to memorize is the same as the
ability to recall experiences which we do not intend to re­
tain for future recall. The present factor M can be tenta­
tively named the ability to memorize.
"Factor I. The tests which require this factor demand
that the subject discover some rule or principle in the material
of the test. The factor does not seem to be restricted to
material which is primarily numerical, primarily visual,
types which were all represented in the tests for this factor.
The ability to discover a rule or principle in the solution
of a problem is usually called induction. People differ mark­
edly in the kind of resourcefulness that is involved in induc­
tive thinking, and the hypothesis that the factor I is assoc­
iated with this kind of ability seems plausible. It is not
known whether this factor is associated with inventiveness
and initiative.
"Factor D. The deductive factor is still only tentatively
6
identified. It is a factor which is present in syllogistic
reasoning and also in some other tests. It is one of several
factors that may be involved in restrictive thinking. In
general description, the factor seems to represent facility
in formal reasoning.n
The next step is quite obvious.
measure each of the primary abilities.
He constructed tests to
The experimental edition*
of the primary abilities battery was used in this experiment.
Morris (14), in an attempt to study factors present in various
performance tests, administered a battery of seventy-seven tests to
fifty-six nine-year old boys.
Intercorrelations were computed for
seventy-seven variables but only thirty-three variables were selected
for a factorial analysis.
The correlational matrix was analyzed by
the Thurstone Centroid Method.
The following conclusions were drawn
from the analysis.
1. "The interrelationships among the performance tests used
were found to range from moderately high positive through
no relationship to moderately high inverse relationship.
2. "The presence of a genera], factor in the correlational
matrix was not disclosed.
3. "Several group factors or abilities were found to account
for the common elements in performance as indicated by
the correlational matrix.
4* "It seems evident from the findings that the tests used
in this battery are largely measures of two primary abil­
ities with some evidence of a third ability, not well
measured by any single test.
5. "There seem to be no tests which do not have some unique
character in addition to their group character in view
of the fact that none of the communalities approach unity.
6. "The psychological nature of the three group factors found
may be described as (a) an ability that requires the
perception of form and space relations, (b) the ability to
make a quick identification of simple perceptual material
when mixed with like or similar material, and (c) the
ability to discover a pattern or rule of procedure. These
traits have been previously described in similar terms by
Thurstone and identified by him as Visualizing, Perceptual
A description of these tests is given .in section D of Chapter III
Speed, and Induction, respectively.
7. "The mental traits as measured by the test battery of the
present investigation are orthogonal, or in other words,
they are independent mental abilities."
This study is significant in the sense that it seems to sup­
plement Thurstone*s findings in a non-verbal field.
Two tests for each of the factors which Dr. Morris isolated
were used in the present investigation.
Factor I:
These were the following:
"Visualizing" (Perception of Form and Space)
1. Healy Picture Completion II
2. Porteus Maze
Factor II:
"Perceptual Speed" (Identification)
1. Profile
2. Cylinder
Factor III:
"Induction" (Rule or Pattern)
1. Seguin
2. Five Figure.
Another study closely related to the present work on intelli­
gence is one conducted by Dr. Murphy (15).
tests to 143 ninth grade boys.
Murphy administered eighteen
Six of the tests were paper-pencil
verbal intelligence tests; six were paper-pencil non-verbal intelligence
tests; and six were paper-pencil mechanical aptitude tests.
analysis was conducted.
The following three factors were needed to
explain the intercorrelations,
expressed synbolically,"
A factor
1).
"mental manipulation of relationships
2)• "mental manipulation of spatial relations,"
and 3). "speed of eye-hand coordination."
Bernreuter (2) has ventured the opinion that the factors
isolated by Murphy are in reality Thurstone's primary abilities,
respectively, "Induction”, "Space”, and "Perceptual Speed.”
Gaw (7) also made an attempt to find what factors or special
abilities are measured by performance tests.
In her study, fourteen
tests selected from the Pintner and Paterson scale, tests from the
United State Army Performance scale, and the Porteus Maze, were admin­
istered to fifty-tv/o boys and fourty-eight girls.
The method used in
her study was to analyze the tests by observations and introspections
given by seven psychologists.
The results of the introspections
indicated that the tests could be classified as measuring reasoning,
memory, and imagery of kinaesthetic and visual types.
That is,
reasoning as measured by the Picture Completion Tests I and II;
memory as found in the Porteus Maze in which analysis and synthesis
are used in planning ahead; and kinaesthetic imagery as helpful in
ten of the fourteen performance tests.
A special ability called
"manual dexterity" was also found, although, probably, in the Goddard
Form Board only.
Gaw also adds that it seems likely that "perception
of form relationships" might depend on a special ability, a possibility
noted in the Dearborn Form Board.
Throughout the historical survey of previous literature, we
have found that the tendency is to explain what tests are measuring in
terms of specific abilities.
In the non-verbal field, we find that
the following three factors seem to occur: 1). "Space", 2).
and 3). "Perceptual Speed."
"Induction",
9
CHAPTER III
METHOD
A. Tests Used:
The tests used in the present battery are the following:
1. Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)-h2. Space (M)*
3. Memory (M)-fr
4-. Perceptual Speed (M)#
5. Inductive Reasoning (M)*
6. Witmer Cylinder
7. Healy Pictorial Completion II
8. Profile
9. Porteus Maze
10. Seguin Form Board
11. Five Figure Form Board
12. Lepley Form Board
13• Perceptual Speed (T)#*
14. Number Facility (T)*5*
15. Verbal Facility (t )^516. Space (T)-^
* These are the five newly constructed performance tests. The (M)
signifies the writer’s tests. The tests have been labeled in
this manner throughout the thesis.
** These are the Thurstone Primary Ability Tests. The (T) signifies
Thurstone1s tests. These have been labeled in this manner thoughout the thesis.
10
17. Memory (T)-**
18. Inductive Reasoning (l)-#*
19* Deductive Reasoning (T)**
A description of these tests is given in section D of this
Tests 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were chosen on the basis of
chapter.
Morris1 (14) study.
isolated were taken.
Two tests from his battery for each of the factors
In addition, the tests had to be particularly
adapted to the age level studied.
The Lepley Form Board was used as
an instrument in order to find what factors a tri-dimensional test
measures.
Superficially, the Lepley Form Board appears to be measur­
ing space.
B. Measures Obtained
The scores obtained for all of the tests given are recorded
in Table VIII in the Appendix.
They were of two types: 1) a score in
seconds, and 2) a raw score bearing an inverse relationship to the
first.
A score in seconds was obtained for the following tests:
1. Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
2. Space (M)
4-. Perceptual Speed (M)
6. Witmer Cylinder
8. Profile
10. Seguin Form Board
11. Five Figure Form Board
12. Lepley Form Board.
11
A raw score, bearing an inverse relationship to the score
in seconds, was obtained for the following tests:
3 . Memory (M)
5. Inductive Reasoning (M)
7. Healy Pictorial Completion II
9. Porteus Maze
13. Perceptual Speed (T)
14. Number Facility (T)
15. Verbal Facility (T)
16. Space (T)
17. Memory (T)
18. Inductive Reasoning (T)
19. Deductive Reasoning (T).
Since the Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M) consisted of
three individual performances, a composite score was determined by
the method of equal variability.
This method is explained in section
D of this chapter.
The total of the sub-tests for each of the Thurstone Primary
Abilities was used as the raw score.
The time in seconds for the shortest of three trials was used
as the score for the "Witmer Cylinder and the Sequin Form Board.
C. The Subjects
The subjects of the study consisted of 110 Freshmen boys at The
Pennsylvania State College taken from the schools of Physical Education,
Industrial Education, and from the Lower Division.*
In Table I are
recorded the number of students taken from each of the three schools.
Table I
Distribution of Sub.jects
According to Schools
Schools
Number of Subjects
Lower Division
Industrial Education
Physical Education
93
9
8
The tests were administered to the subjects in three separate
sessions.
In the first two sessions, the complete Thurstone Battery
was given.** These tests were administered as group tests.
The last
session was devoted to individual testing during which time the
remaining battery was given.
The last session took approximately
one and one-half hours for each subject.
The three sessions were distributed over a period of approxi­
mately four months.
Since the Thurstone tests were given to the Freshman boys as
part of the Vocational Guidance battery, the same subjects were used
* General curriculum for Freshmen and Sophomores who enroll in Liberal
Arts or Education in their Junior year.
** The Thurstone tests were part of the Freshman Vocational Guidance
testing program at The Pennsylvania State College. The program
was conducted by Doctor R. G. Bernreuter.
Industrial Education, and from the Lower Division.*
In Table I are
recorded the number of students taken from each of the three schools.
Table I
Distribution of Sub.jects
According to Schools
Schools
Number of Subjects
Lower Division
Industrial Education
Physical Education
93
9
8
The tests were administered to the subjects in three separate
sessions.
In the first two sessions, the complete Thurstone Battery
was given.#* These tests were administered as group tests.
The last
session was devoted to individual testing during which time the
remaining battery was given.
The last session took approximately
one and one-half hours for each subject.
The three sessions were distributed over a period of approxi­
mately four months.
Since the Thurstone tests were given to the Freshman boys as
part of the Vocational Guidance battery, the same subjects were used
* General curriculum for Freshmen and Sophomores who enroll in Liberal
Arts or Education in their Junior year.
#* The Thurstone tests were part of the Freshman Vocational Guidance
testing program at The Pennsylvania State College. The program
was conducted by Doctor R. G. Bernreuter.
in order to eliminate additional laborious v/ork
It seems reasonable to expect, however, that the factors
found in performance tests at a low age level may not be the same as
those isolated at a higher age level.
For example, a performance
test which measures reasoning at age eleven may measure only space at
age twenty.
D. Description of Tests
A description of the tests used in this battery is given in
this section.
1. Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M): This form board was newly construc­
ted and was designed to measure deductive reasoning.
made in masonite board.
It consisted
Four series of blocks were constructed
to fit the four recesses.
The subject was required to place the
loose blocks back to their proper places in the four recesses.
Each
series became progressively harder.
The first series was not used in the final analysis , since
it was felt that this section was largely a measure of some other
factor.
test.
The test, however, was found to be effective as an introductory
An inspection of the photographs will clarify considerably
the construction of the test.
Photograph 1
Series A - Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
Photograph 2
Series B - Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
Photograph 3
Series C - Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
pm
Photograph 4.
Series D - Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
16
In administering the test, the following directions were
used:
Directions: Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M):
Say: "Turn and look at the wall (window, picture, etc.) so
that you cannot see while I fix the next test." Place the board
with the cross and circle away from the subject. Arrange the pieces
as indicated on the bristol board for series (A). Have subject
again face the table. Say: "Put these blocks back as fast as
you can. Like this (placing the blocks in the circle recess).
Use only one hand. Keep the colored side up." Immediately follow­
ing this demonstration the blocks are returned to their proper
places on the bristol board. "Now you put all of the blocks
(pointing to all the blocks on the bristol board) in the holes
(pointing to the four recesses on the board). Ready. Go ahead."
Record time and moves. The time limit for each series is 15
minutes. When the subject completes series (A), say: "Turn and
look at the wall again (window, picture, etc.) so that you cannot
see while I fix another test like this one." The blocks for
series (B) are then arranged on the bristol board. The board
with the four recesses remains in the same position. Have
subject again face the table. Say: ^Putthese blocks back as fast
as you can. Ready. Go ahead." No demonstration is given for
series (B), (C), and (D). Repeat procedure and instructions
for series (C) and (D).
The number of moves should be based on the following princi­
ples:
1. Placing the block within the hole is counted as a move.
(Correct placement)
2. Actual contact between a block in the hand and any side
of the fitting hole, or with another block already placed, is
counted as a move. Accidental contacts, due to fumblings, slipping,
etc., are not counted.
3. "Visual" arrangements, i.e., turning the blocks around
in various positions above the hole, without fitting them together
is not counted as a move.
4..
a move.
moves.
purpose
beveled
Revising a placement already made in thehole constitutes
If two revisions are made, it should be counted as two
A move should be counted if
the blockis removed for the
of checking its correctnessin regard to straight and
edges.
5. The fitting together of two blocks outside of the hole,
whether correctly or not, is counted as one move. If the two
thus fitted are then placed as a unit in the hole, whether correct­
ly or wrongly, one additional move is scored.
6. If two or more blocks already fitted together in a hole,
either correctly or wrongly, are moved to another position in
the same hole or to another hole as a unit, a single move is
credited. If they are not moved as a unit, the movement of each
block constitutes a move. Casual changes of the position of the
blocks for the purpose of getting them out of the way rather
than for making a definite placement is not counted as a move.
The composite score for series B, C, and D was obtained by the
following formula:
S -
5.10 x (score in secs, for B) +• 1.27 x (score in secs, of C) 4(score in secs, for D)
The formula was obtained by making each test comparable in
weight according to their variabilities.
for series B, C, and D were determined.
The standard deviations
Since the standard deviation
for series D was the highest, it was given a value of one.
In order
to make series B comparable with series D, it had to be multiplied by
the constant 5.10.
1.27.
Series C had to be multiplied by the constant
Each individual score, then, in series B was multiplied by
5.10 and each score in series C was multiplied by 1.27.
series D remained the same.
'^he score in
The composite score for each subject was
thus determined.
2. Space Board (M): This board was designed to measure space as de­
fined by Thurstone.
The board consisted of nine rows of recesses with
five recesses in each row.
The recesses in each row were identical in
shape but were in different rotated positions.
Two series of blocks were constructed.
In series A, two
correct placements for each row v/ere to be madej whereas three correct
placements for each row were necessary in series B.
Two series were
constructed for one board in order to increase the reliability of the
test.
Photograph 5
Space Test (M)
The following directions were followed in administering this
test:
Directions:
Space Test (M):
Say; ’’Turn and look at the v/all (window, picture, etc.'' so
that you cannot see while I fix: the next test.” Then place
before the. subject the board on space with the rov/ on
,
away from the subject. Arrange the blocks ,in,their proper
places on the board. Cover all but the first rov/ with the
bristol board. Have the subject again face the table.
Two series of blocks were constructed.
In series A, two
correct placements for each row were to be made, whereas three correct
placements for each row were necessary in series B. Two series were
constructed for one board in order to increase the reliability of the
test.
Photograph 5
Space Test (M)
The following directions were followed in administering this
test:
Directions:
Space Test (M)s
Say: "Turn and look at the wall (window, picture), etc.’' so
that you cannot see while I fix the next test." Then place
before the. subject the board on space with the row on f
<\^J ;
away from the subject. Arrange the blocks in their proper
places on the board. Cover all but the first row with the
bristol board. Have the subject again face the table.
19
Say: "Place these two blocks (pointing to the two blocks
arranged on the left side of the board) in their proper holes in.
this row (pointing to the five receases in the first row1) as
fast as you can, Alway keep the colored side of the block up.
Use only onehand." When the subject sees what he has to do,
and when theblocks have been arranged again, say:"Start with
the second row and do the same for all the other rows on the
board. Remember, keep the colored side of the blocks up^
Are you ready? Go ahead."
Remove the bristol board and record time. Score is the
total time for the eight rows. Repeat the procedure for
series B. Say: "Start with the first row."
The total score wasobtained by totaling the time
in seconds
for series A andthe time in seconds for series B.
3. Memory (M):
This test consisted of a practice test and a test proper.
The practice test consisted of two boards:
and board B, a recall test.
board A, a learning test,
Board A had two rows of blocks on it,
and boar-d B had one block from each row similar to the blocks on
board A attached, and two loose blocks.
The subject was asked to
associate the two blocks in each row of board A.
After learning
these, board A was removed and board B was placed, in front of the
subject.
The subject was then asked to place the unattached blocks
back in their proper rows.
test proper.
The same procedure was followed for the
The test proper had eight rows of blocks on it.
In a preliminary experiment with twenty-five freshman stu­
dents, it was found, that eighteen seconds would be needed for the
exposure time in the test proper.
Photograph 6
Practice test A and B - Memory (M)
t t: - <«r-\ •
Photograph 7
Test Proper C and B - Memory (M)
Directions: Memory Test (M):
Place before, the subject practice learning board A with the
arrow and triangle away from him. Then say: "Do you see these
two blocks (pointing to the triangle and P )? Each one has a
different block that goes with it. (pointing to the arrow and Q ).
Learn each block and the one that goes with it in the two rows.
Go ahead." Remove practice learning board A and place in front
of the. subject practice recall board B without the arrow and Q .
Place these two blocks on the table near the board. Say: "Place
these blocks (pointing to the arrow and U ) in their proper row
on this board." Any additional methods to have subject learn
the idea of the test may be used. ®hen the subject understands
the procedure, say: "Turn and look at the wall (window, picture,
etc.) so that you cannot see while I fix: a longer test lHce this
one." Test C is now placed in front of the subject with the circle
and star away from the subject. Place a piece of bristol board
over test C. Test D is arranged as indicated on the bristol
board and then covered with the bristol board. Have subject
turn, and then say: "Here is a board with eight rows of blocks
in it. Learn each block in each row and the one that goes with
it. Then I will give you another board where you will put each
block in its proper row. Are you ready? Go ahead." Watch is
started as soon as cover is removed from Test A. Time of exposure
is eighteen seconds. Allow five seconds between replacement of
cover for Test A and uncovering of Test board B.
The score is the number of correct placements.
4-. Perceptual Speed (M)s
space test.
This board was designed somewhat like the
The subject in this test, however, was not required to turn
the blocks around as in the space test.
of different shape.
The recesses in each row were
Since there were five different recesses in each
of the nine rows, it was possible to construct five series of blocks
with nine pla.cements in each series<> Cards were shuffled to determine
which one of the five blocks in each row would be used for each series
Photograph 8
Perceptual Speed Test (M)
Directions: Perceptual Speed Test (M):
Say: "Turn and loolc at the wall (window, picture, etc.) so
that you cannot see while I fix: the next test.11 Place the board
before the subject with the row of the squares away from him.
Arrange the blocks for series A in their proper places on the
left side of the board. Cover all but the first row with the
bristol board. Have subject again face the table. Say: "Place
this block (pointing to the block arranged on the left side of
the board) in its proper hole in this row (pointing to the five
recesses in the first row) as fast as you can. Keep the colored
side of the block up. Use only one hand." When the subject sees
what he has to do and when the blocks have been arranged again,
say: "Start with the second row and do the same for all the other
rows on the board." At the end of series A, say: "You will now
do it over again with another set of blocks. Look at the wall so
that you cannot see while I fix the next blocks." Series B is
then arranged on the board. Have subject again face the table.
Say: "Place the blocks in their proper places. Start with the
first row, ^o ahead." Repeat the sane directions for series
C, D, and E. The total time in seconds for each series is recorded
The total score is computed by totalling the separate times in
23
seconds for each series.
5. Inductive Reasoning (m ): In this test, three different types of
blocks v/ere attached to individual hoards in accordance with a rule.
The subject was asked to complete the pattern with loose blocks
placed near the test.
The test consisted of fourteen test plates
and two demonstration plates.
*
Photograph 9
Inductive Reasoning
Directions:
(M)
Inductive Reasoning (M):
Say: "Turn and look at the wall so that you cannot see while
I fix the next test.” Then place before the subject the test on
induction opened to plate one. Place the loose blocks on the
table between the subject and the test proper. Have subject
again face the table. Say: ^On each board of this test the blocks
have been arranged in a certain order. You are to find the rule
or pattern for each board. When you know the rule complete the
board with these blocks(pointing to the circles, triangles, anl
squares between the subject and the test). Plate 1) and 2) are
24
demonstrated to the subject. Then turn to plate 3) and say:
"All right. Go ahead.” As soon as one cycle has been completed,
or when the examiner feels that the rule has been grasped, record
time and say: "All right, remove the blocks and go on to the next
one." Record time for each board. Time is taken from the moment
he starts to the point at which he has grasped the rule by complet­
ing one cycle.
The score for this experiment was the number correct.
6. Witrner Cylinder: The directions used in the administering of this
test were those given by Bronner, Healy, Lowe, and Shimberg (3, p. 115).
The time in seconds for the shortest of the three trials was used as
the score.
7. Healy Pictorial Completion H ; The procedures used for the adminis­
tering and scoring of this test were those given by Bronner, Healy,
Lowe, and Shimberg (3, p. 52).
Profile: The directions followed for administering this test were
those given by Arthur (1, p. 21).
The score was the time in seconds
needed to complete the performance.
9. Porteus Maze: The revised series was not used in this experiment.
%
The procedures followed for the administering and scoring of this
test were those given by Arthur (1, p. 25-29).
10. Seguin Form Board: The directions used in the administering of
this test were those given by Arthur (1, p. 17).
The time in seconds
for the shortest of the three trials was used as the score.
11. Five Figure Form Board: The directions used in the administering of
this test were those given by Bronner, Healy, Lowe, and Shimberg (3,p.H9)«
The score was "the time in seconds needed to complete the performance*
12. Lepley Form Board; This board is made of an aluminum alloy and
seems to be a measure of tri-dimensional space.
Photograph 10
Lepley Form Board
Directions; Lepley Form Board;
Say: "Turn and look at the wall so that you cannot see
while I fix the next test.” Then place before the subject
the Lepley test with the holes qjp | | V7
Q
away
from the subject. Each block isTio be placed in its proper
place on the bristol board. Have subject again face the
table and say: "Use only one hand. Put these blocks (point­
ing to the blocks in the bristol board) back into their
proper places as fast as you can. Be sure to fill each hole
completely."
The score is the time in seconds needed to place all of
the blocks in the board.
A further description of this test may be obtained from an
unpublished thesis by Lepley (12).
13-19* Thurstone Primary Ability Tests: Since it is almost impossible
to attempt to give a description of each of the Thurstone tests, it
was felt that a table summarizing various details about the tests would
be sufficient.
These facts are given in Table II.
The composite score for each factor v/as used in the present ex­
periment.
This score was obtained by adding the scores on the two or
three tests for the factors in question.- An inspection of Table II
indicates that the only two factors involving three tests are ”In and
"D".
Table II
Summarized Items of Information on The
Thurstone Primary Abilities
Tests
Test
Number
Description
13
Perceptual Speed
14
Number Facility
15
Verbal Facility
16
Space
17
Memory
IS
Inductive
Reasoning
19
Deductive
Reasoning
Tests
Identical Forms
Verbal Enumeration
Addition
Multiplication
Completion
Same-Opposite
Cards
Figures
Initials
Word-Number
Letter Grouping
Harks
Number Patterns
Arithmetic
Mechanical Movements
Number Series
Scoring
Method
R
R
2R
R
2R
R
R
R
R
R :■
R '
R
R
2R
R
2R
Maximum
Possible
Score
118
119
240
150
72
100
115
117
25
20
30
20
30
40
44
60
Statistical Treatment of Data:
1. Tntercorrelations. Pearson, product-moment correlations were
27
obtained.
The Hollerith machine was used in order to facilitate
this work.
Individual scores for the nineteen variables were re­
duced or increased to three digits by either multiplying or div­
iding the score with a constant.
The individual scores for each
test were punched on Hollerith cards,
^he values obtained were
then substituted in the Pearson correlation formula.
The signs of the correlations bearing an inverse relationship
to one another were reflected before the correlational matrix was
constructed.
2. Factor Analysis. The matrix was factored by the Centroid
Method as described in Guilford (10).
In the reflection of signs
for each residual, Thurstone1s (25) method was used.
The analysis
was carried to eight factors even though Thurstone*s empirical
rule indicated the existence of only four.
In order to establish a psychological interpretation, the
axes were rotated graphically.
The original factor loadings for
each test were plotted on perpendicular axes representing one
factor paired with another, while the factors not under consid­
eration were held constant.
The axes were rotated on the basis
of the following two criteria: 1) to make as many of the projec­
tions positive as possible, and 2) to maximize the number of zero
loadings.
In addition, the Thurstone tests were also used as a
criterion for the location of the axes.
The new factor loadings
after each rotation were computed by formulae as given by Guilford (10)*
28
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS
A. Means and Standard Deviations on the Tests
The means and sigmas for the nineteen tests are given in
Table III.
Table III
Means and Standard Deviations of
Scores Made by 110
Freshman Men on Nineteen Tests
Tests
Means
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
682.8
179.4
4.0
142.7
U
15
16
17
18
19
B*
9.$
31.9
64.1
74.6
16.0
11.6
41.9
151.7
155.9
123.5
85.8
130.9
17.1
32.8
60.6
Standard
Deviations
287.5
43.5
2.0
24.5
2.0
6.7
14.5
52.0
1.4
1.4
14.3
53.3
21.9
33.6
20.8
32.7
8.1
7.5
16.2
^ntercorrelations Among the Tests
The intercorrelations of the nineteen tests are given in
Table IV.
These values have not been corrected for attenuation.
An inspection of the table indicates that certain of the
29
correlations are negative although the negative ones are consistently
low.
The correlations among the Thurstone Primary Abilities seem
to correspond to those obtained by Goodman (&), with the highest cor­
relations between factors "I" and "D" and between factors "PM and "S".
A correlation of .34 was found between the newly constructed
test of induction and Thurstone's "I".
Since the relationships of
this test with the other tests in the battery are quite low, it seems
reasonable to believe that the newly constructed test of induction
v/ould fall on the same axis as Thurstone's "I".
An inspection of the correlations for the newly constructed
tests alone will show that there are some high intercorrelations.
The
newly constructed test of induction seems to be the only one which is
independent of the others.
The range of probable errors for the various intercorrelations
is given in Table IV.
C. Multiple Factor Analysis of the Correlational Matrix
The analysis disclosed the presence of four group factors.
fifth factor was carried in the rotations.
The
The fourth and fifth factors,
however, were considered to be insignificant in the final interpretation.
Thurstone's empirical rule to determine the stopping point for
the extraction of factors was used.
Thurstone (23, p. 66) states:
"The rule as given by the relation
(4— {
/
Ps~1~
~ n — 1
n
Table IV
Intercorrelations of Scores on Nineteen Tests
Administered to 110 College Men
with Probable Errors for the Various Correlations
Tests
JA
l35
•JA
8
A
•ML
,.02 .13 .06
.56 03 .42 ♦13
.21 -.01 -.01 -.04
4 .04 ,22 A 1
.05 .14
♦13
10
11
.10 .4-0
.03
-.06 .14
AA .08 AA
.01 .26 zAJl
.22 .04 .34
.01 .09 .07
.26
8
AL
.27
.45
>01
10
Probable Errors
r
P.E.
.00 - .38
.06
.39 - .54
.05
.55 - .67
.04
.48
.10
AA
,06
.18
.10
.14
04
.31
11
12
13
-AA ♦32
.51 .46
,27 .05
AA .36
,00 -03
.38 .23
.00 .11
.46 .17
.01 -.16
.39 .40
AA 03
12 .25
13
JA
-.06
-.01
-.08
.03
.20
.08
.06
-.14
.14
.19
-.04
-.09
JA
14
16
17
15
.09 AA .00
.60 .05
.U
-.01 .16 .13
.10 >44 -.02
05 .01 .24
.03 .35 .15
.14 .00 .06
.01 .37 .01
-.08 -.01 .06
.04 .42 .08
,05 .35 -.11
-.03 .36 -.11
JA ,56 •21
,27 0 3 ,16
15 .01 0O6
~TF .10
17
IS
JA
.34
.20
.25
.34
.07
.08
.16
.19
07
.08
.22
03
.32
_*2L
^2_
18
19
M
where n is the number of variables in the correlational matrix
£PS is the sum of the absolute values of the residuals after
s factors and ^ P s +■ 1 is the sum of the absolute values of
the residuals after (3 + 1) factors. If the relation of the
equation obtains, then there are s significant factors in the
correlational matrix. The summations include the diagonal
terms. The summation i_Ps Includes the adjusted diagonal
terms of the correlation matrix just before the (s + 1) factor
is extracted. The summation ^_PS + 1 includes the diagonal
elements in the residual matrix without adjustment in the
diagonal cells after (s + 1) factors have been drawn."
In Table V are recorded the results of this formula for
^he ratio (n-1) is .94-7. Ahe criterion rose to .940
n
after the fifth factor had been drawn, which is practically identical
each factor,
with the limiting value of .947.
to the eighth factor.
The analysis, however, was carried
The criterion value dropped after rising to
its maximum in factor five.
Table V
Comparison of the Empirical Values of ^
to the Limiting; Value
for Each Factor Extracted
•Factor
Empirical Value of
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
.717
.768
.399
.926
.940
.920
.879
.910
&
Limiting
Value
.947
.947
.947
.947
.947
.947
.947
.947
The original factor loadings for the first five factors and
their communalities are given in Table VI.
In order to produce a body of meaningful data, these five
factors were rotated.
In Table VII are recorded the final rotated
Tabic VI
Original Factor Loadings and Commonalities
(M) Newly Constructed Tests
iTL Thurstone Tests
Tests
1
2
3
4
5
6
7.
8
9
10
11
12
13
34
15
16
17
18
19
Description of Tests
Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
Space (M)
Memory (M)
Perceptual Speed (M)
Inductive Reasoning (M)
Witmer Cylinder
Healy Pictorial Completion II
Profile
Porteus Maze
Seguin Form Board
Five Figure Form Board
Lepley Form Board
Perceptual Speed (T)
Number Facility (T)
Verbal Facility (T)
Space (T)
Memory (T)
Inductive Reasoning (T)
Deductive Reasoning (T)
,
I
.6161
.7734
.3124
.5753
.2490
.4333
.1667
.4332
.1806
.5750
.4624
.5342
•4S94
.2382
.2593
.6491
.1867
.6151
.4873
.
Original Factor Loadings
IV
V
in
II .
-.2364
-.3526
-.1458
-.2718
•4731
-.1289
.1318
-.2940
.3280
-.2593
-.1919
-.4360
-.2059
.4351
.3060
-.2870
.2707
.4627
.3678
.2070
-.0241
.2850
-.0423
-.1040
-.2135
.0997
.2019
-.2864
-.1783
.1371
.2818
-.4993
.2956
.1924
-.1802
.1187
-.0948
-.2487
.0418
.0675
.3202
.0510
-.2022
.2533
.1854
.1287
-.2739
.1043
-.3021
-.1056
-.2327
-=0349
-.2175
-.1411
-.0691
.2457
.1778
.1535
.1213
-.1788
-.1522
.1781
.2206
.1223
-.2951
-.2931
-.1828
-.1313
.0947
.0857
.1681
-.0488
.1691
-.2074
.1688
.0376
Communal ities
h2
.5036
.7423
.3346
.4325
.3692
.3628
.1045
.4186
.3831
.4739
.3779
.5751
.5926
.3629
.2478
.5847
.1701
.6903
.4677
U)
ro
M
Table VII
Rotated Factor Loadings and Communallties
(M) ITe\~iy~^ntruct ed Tests
(T) Thurstone Tests
Description of Tests
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
3
9
10
11
12
13
H
15
16
17
18
19
Deductive Reasoning Form Board (M)
Space (Mi)
Memory (M)
Perpetual Speed (M)
Inductive Reasoning (M)
Witmer Cylinder
Healy Pictorial Completion II
Profile
Porteus Maze
Seguin Form Board
Five Figure Form Board
Lepley Form Board
Perceptual Speed (T)
Number Facility (T)
Verbal Facility (T)
Space (T)
Memory (T)
Inductive Reasoning (T)
Deductive Reasoning (T)
I—
.6736
.8033
.4015
.5969
-.0856
.3620
.0366
.5577
-.1075
.5553
.5033
.7361
.3762
.0231
.0395
.6291
.0316
.2143
.1253
Rotated Factor Loadings
III1V IT
IIV
.0258
-.0509
.1503 -.1548
-.0761
.1730
.1635
.1835
.2316
-.3313 -.0611
.0791
.1309
.0963
.1038
.1522
.04-73
.5333 -.0909 -.1052
.1637 -.1909
.3546
.2025
-.1533
.1609 -.1573
.1453
-.1666 -.0692
.2433
.1154
.4201
.4032 -.0717
.1654
.1318
.2261
.1232
.2573
.0414 ..1364
.1857 -.2534
-.0113 -.0423 -.0935 - U 9 7
.0849
.2650
.0480
.6094
-.3372
.4468 -.1332 -.1157
-.1918
.3856
.0733 -.2214
.2332 -.0621
.3610
.0175
-.2032
.2323
.2067 -.0567
-.1002
.7017 -.1412
.3439
.5733
.0163
.3335
.0505
Coinmunalities
h2
.5035
.7422
.3346
.4323
.3692
.3627
.1045
.4185
.3831
.4739
.3779
.5750
.5927
.3629
.2479
.5846
.1700
.6902
.4675
ao
v_o
34
/
7
x(/3)
r
¥
x</0
3
aicO
X&O)
x«)
«J-)
x(v)
tif)
-J
un)
/_____
-=?—
«//)
-21
s~
6
7
no
-/
U7)
-3l'*01) H'f)
tUi)
MS)
*p)
Figure 1
Factor I**" with Factor 11^
r ./
X(/*} >-
35
>y
7
w)
xtt)
Xt/f)
W)
its)
f
xur)
3x
Ui)
XU3)
Mi*')
m
%L7)
j_
<?
m
y
*(l)
-/
~9~
Figure 2
Factor I1 with Factor II I ®
m
'T
m
„
MY)
(,
XC/i)
m
\p
36
/Of)
/<IH)
XU)
m)
< 1
Figure 3
Factor IIV with Factor H I 17
factor loadings.
The plots for the first three factors are given in Figures
1, 2, and 3«
An inspection of the communalities in Table VI will indicate
that many of the tests have unique characters in addition to their
group characters,
-^he difference, however, between the commonality
and unity may also be due to the unreliability of the tests.
Consider­
ing all communalities below .3000, we find that the Healy Pictorial
Completion II, the Verbal Facility (T), and the Memory (T) tests are
not well accounted for.
D. Interpretation of the Factors
Giving a psychological interpretation to the isolated factors
is perhaps the most interesting phase of factor analysis.
7/ith the
aid of a criterion in the battery of tests, this work is somewhat
facilitated.
A factor loading of .4.000 or above was regarded as signi­
ficant in naming a factor.
Considering those tests in factor I with loadings of .4-000 or
above, we have the follwing:
2. Space (M)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12. Lepley
.3038
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - .7361
1. Deductive
Reasoning (M)
16. Space (T)
4. Perception (M) -
- - - - - - - - - - - ___ ____
.6736
.6291
.5969
8. Profile--------------------------------- .5577
10. S e g u i n ---------------
-5533
11. Five Figure Form Board-------------------------.5088
3. Memory ( M ) ----------------------------------- .4015
It can be readily seen that the common to.sk in these tests
is one involving visual or spatial ability.
Space factor.
This factor was called a
We seem to be justified in calling this factor space
since our criterion value has a high loading on this axis.
It is to be noticed that the newly constructed tests arbitrarily
called tests of Deductive Reasoning, Perceptual Speed, and Memory, are
in reality measuring Space.
The loadings in the first rotated factor
indicate that a general factor does not exist since there are still
ten tests remaining with loadings less than .4000.
By a rotation of 130°, the high loadings of factor II were
shifted into factor III.
T ^ g raade factor II the uncertain factor.
In factor II, the Perceptual Speed Test (T) was the only test
with a loading higher than .4000.
same thing.
No other test seems to measure the
This factor might be considered a specific factor rather
than a common factor.
It was impossible to remove the two negative
values, Memory (M), -.3313, end Number Facility (T), -.3372, in this
factor.
It seems reasonable to believe, however, that these two values
are still within the error range.
The significant loadings in factor III were the following:
18. Inductive Reasoning( T ) -------------5. Inductive Reasoning (M) - - - - - 19. Deductive Reasoning
14* Number Facility (T)
9. Porteus M a z e
(T)
.7017
_____
.5833
--
.5783
----
---
.4468
- -
.4201
This factor
was named
Reasoning.
The newly constructed test
of Induction seems to be measuring a factor common to the two Thurstone
Reasoning tests.
The Porteus Maze has a loading of .4032 in factor IV.
test has a significant loading in this factor.
No other
This indicates that
the Porteus Maze measures some other specific factor in addition to
Reasoning.
Factor V has no significant loadings.
The findings for this experiment are quite contrary to those of
Morris (14)*
The Profile test in Dr. Morris’ study was disclosed in
Perceptual factor, yet it has a high loading as a space factor in this
study.
The fieguin and Five Figure Form Board were shown in his experi­
ment to be measures of Inductive Reasoning.
of Space.
Here, we find them measures
The discrepancy between the two experiments may well be due
to the different age levels of the two groups.
This would indicate
that the same factors would not be present in the same test for differ­
ent age groups.
40
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS
Five non-verbal tests were constructed to measure five of
the seven Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities, (p) Perceptual Speed,
(S) Space, (I) Inductive Reasoning, (D) Deductive Reasoning, and
(M) Memory.
The purpose of the study
wis to
find if these newly
constructed performance tests really measured what they were arbi­
trarily named.
These tests in addition to the V'itmer Cylinder, Porteus Maze,
Profile, Lepley, Healy P. 0. IT, Five Figure, and the complete
Thurstone Primary Abilities Battery * (Experimental Edition) were
given to 110 freshman boys at The Pennsylvania State College.
Pearson product-moment correlations were obtained.
The body
of data comprising nineteen variables was treated by the Thurstone
centroid method of factor analysis.
The Thurstone tests were used
as the criterion to aid in the Identification of the factors.
/
As a result of the study, the following conclusions may be
drawn:
1. The presence of a general factor was not disclosed.
2. It seems evident that the tests used in this battery are
measuring two factors with some evidence of a third.
These
three factors are: (a) Space, (b) Reasoning, and (c) Per­
ceptual Speed.
* The scores on the Primary Abilities Battery were made available from
the Freshman Vocational Guidance Testing program conducted at The
Pennsylvania State College.
3 -The newly constructed performance tests, arbitrarily named
tests of Perception and Deductive Reasoning, measure Space.
Lr. The
newly constructed test of Memory seems to have a signi­
ficant loading in the Space factor.
5. Induction, as located by the criterion, seems to be measured
by the newly constructed performance test of Induction.
This
factor, however, was called Reasoning, since the loadings for
the Thurstone Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning
tests were located on the same axis.
6. The newly constructed Space test had a high loading on the
Space axis.
7. The newly constructed Space test and the new Induction test
indicate that it is possible to measure in a performance test
the same abilities as measured by paper-pencil tests.
8. It seems reasonable to believe that some of the tests had
■unique characters in view of the fact that some of the com­
munal ities were quite low,
In regard to a continuation of possible work in this field, the
following suggestions are made:
1. Additional experimental tests of performance should be constructed
to measure the primary abilities not yet measured, for example,
Memory, Deductive Reasoning, Number Facility, and Verbal Facility.
It seems likely that the last two factors will be difficult of
achievement.
2. A clearer isolation and measurement of the factor on Perceptual
Speed is necessary.
Finally, on the completion of the above suggestions, it would
be possible to combine these tests in a battery to measure,
non-verbally, the basic primary abilities.
43
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Arthur, Grace. A Point Scale of Performance Tests. New York: The
Commonwealth Fund Division of Publications, 1930.
2. Bernreuter, R. G. "On the Nature of Intelligence."
Psychology. 1937, 1, No. 2, 3.
Clinical
3. Bronner, A. F.j Healy, TF.; Lowe, G. M.; and Shimbert, M. E. A
Manual of Individual Mental Tests and Testing. Boston: Little,
Brown and Company, 1932.
4. Carl, G. P. "A New Performance Test for Adults and Older Children:
The Carl Hollow Square Scale." The Journal of Psychology. 1919.
7, 179-199.
5. Cornell, E. L»; and Core, W. W« A Performance Ability Scale. New
York: TForld Book Company, 1934.
6. Garrett, H. E .} Schnick, M. R. Psychological Tests. Methods, and
Results. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1933.
7. Gaw, E. "A Study of Performance
Psychology, 1924, 15, 374-393.
Tests."
British Journalof
8. Goodman, C. H. "A. Study of the Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities
Tests." State College, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State
College, 1939 (Unpublished thesis).
9* Grove, W. R. "Modification of the Kent-Shakow Formboard Series".
The Journal of Psychology, 1939, 7, 385-397
10. Guilford, J. p . Psychometric Methods.
Book Company , Inc., 1936.
New York: McGraw-Hill
11. Leiter, S. D. "The Leiter International Performance Scale."
University of Hawaii Bulletin, 1936, 15, No. 7, 1-42.
12. Lepley, T. M. "Problems of Form
Perception in Three Dimensions."
Berkeley, California: The University of California, 1930
(Unpublished thesis).
13. Mahan, H. C. "A Battery of Performance Tests: The Arthur ScaleRevised". Journal of Applied Psychology, 1934> 18, 645-655
14. Morris, C. M. "A Critical Analysis of Certain Performance Tests."
The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1939, 54, 85-105.
15. Murphy, Laura W. "The Relation Between Mechanical Ability Te-sts and
Non-Verbal Intelligence Tests." Journal of Psychology, 1936, 2,
44
16. Paschall, F. C. "The Witmer Cylinder Test'J Hershey, Pennsylvania:
Hershey Press, 1918.
17. Pintner, R. and Paterson, D. G. A Scale of Performance Tests.
New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1917.
18. Porteus, S. D. The Maze Test and Mental Differences. Vineland,
New Jersey: Smith Printing and Publishing House, 1933.
19. Rockwell, J. G. "Non-Verbal Perception Scale". Minneapolis: The
Educational Test Bureau, Inc., 1933*
20. Spearman, C.
Abilities of Man. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937*
21. Spearman, C. "General Intelligence Objectively Determined and
Measured’! American Journal of Psychology. 1904, 15, 201-293*
22. Thomson, G. H„ The Factorial Analysis of Human Ability. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939*
23. Thurstone, L. L. "Primary Mental Abilities!! Psychometric Monograph,
No. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938.
24« Thurstone, L. L, "A New Conception of Intelligence"
Record. 1936, 17, 441-450.-
Educational
25* Thurstone, L. L. The Theory of Multiple Factors. Ann Arbor,
Michigan: Edwards Brothers, 1932*
26. Thurstone, L, I.. The Vectors of Mind. Chicago:
Chicago Press, 1935-
University of
27. Thurstone, L. L. Manual of Instructions. Washington, D. C.: The
American Council on Education.
i
APPENDIX A
Table VIII
'PA.BIJS V U I
Saw
Cases
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1
320
697
608
896
1332
913
564
420
456
480
827
677
774
329
409
1635
1157
969
721
560
1049
654
604
881
507
1031
587
525
2
129
207
179
122
252
231
163
171
127
145
187
205
189
116
193
165
282
226
188
106
264
186
164
172
123
220
154
164
3
5
5
2
1
4
5
3
6
6
6
0
1
5
8
5
1
3
2
3
6
4
4
5
3
4
4
3
6
4
114
138
139
113
162
161
159
156
129
127
154
159
129
109
123
154
164
141
193
122
156
135
136
145
143
168
133
165
5
10
13
7
11
7
10
11
11
10
11
11
11
9
11
13
12
8
9
11
8
10
10
10
13
10
9
14
9
M
6
25
33
37
23
36
35
37
39
34
29
28
40
26
34
31
26
39
45
34
31
34
33
26
32
24
26
36
31
7
61
69
46
60
65
50 .5
66.5
40 .5
60
53
61.5
61
43.5
50 .5
46
74.5
72.5
61
75.5
50.5
64.5
64
68
73
69
60
93.5
74
Scores
on Nineteen Testa
Tests
8 9
33 17
152 16 .5
67 16.5
66 17
53 15.5
58 16
28 17
45 17.5
32 15
29 17.5
142 17.5
46 15.5
89 15.5
36 16.5
56 18
67 15
160 16 .5
305 17.5
114 13.5
66 15.5
196 16
80 15.5
45 18
35 18
53 15.5
100 15.5
90 16 .5
45 12.5
10
12
11
18
94
10
42 254
11
45 155
10
10
30 107
14
56 235
13
63 198
36 121
11
42
155
11
63
10
135
10
36
90
33 176
11
15
73 253
57 175
11
29
99
11
12
34 101
11 43 181
68 194
14
33 236
12
12
65 288
10
26 104
13 100:! 327
13
55 173
11 67 146
13 26 126
27
90
10
64 133
11
32 208
10
12
73 151
13
203
145
169
192
112
138
147
120
186
148
156
131
158
179
147
154
112
133
182
155
175
174
133
107
137
136
157
174
14
115
164
130
150
63
139
151
72
120
95
102
106
87
131
132
140
172
167
109
161
200
116
216
171
120
71
134
122
15
124
79
105
89
50
99
70
49
84
91
103
99
94
118
64
55
76
59
107
109
128
84
80
80
35
52
63
93
16
209
145
135
154
79
105
151
98
194
131
143
70
118
180
124
186
60
127
131
152
97
106
124
115
164
103
87
127
17
13
6
24
12
10
32
7
9
12
23
15
19
11
28
12
26
17
25
20
12
21
13
20
8
25
8
16
29
18
46
44
32
33
13
28
29
30
34
45
41
37
31
51
45
31
33
34
42
42
33
25
46
43
25
28
32
34
19
49
67
60
86
45
64
71
36
83
71
77
67
48
87
98
42
68
43
70
87
68
55
69
64
48
43
61
47
'EABIiE m i
(continued.)
OasesL X . .
483
29
50
1135
582
51
521
52
55
370
428
54
484
55
962
56
922
57
58
666
1245
39
40
1057
41
690
42
534
45
537
44
518
45
1536
1333
46
814
47
606
48
667
49
528
50
51
442
397
52
55
752
542
54
55
766
I56
316
2
212
131
136
120
136
140
184
210
220
145
338
204
186
152
156
143
211
186
194
218
186
206
159
149
208
188
198
140
3
6
4
1
6
5
4
5
2
3
5
3
4
5
8
1
4
1
5
2
1
4
4
3
5
1
0
8
3
4
192
142
149
144
114
112
152
146
164
134
170
182
174
110
120
139
183
154
135
123
173
150
157
147
140
124
162
108
5
9
11
7
7
7
10
11
12
4
3
7
12
13
13
10
11
8
12
10
10
7
8
8
11
11
12
9
7
6
45
19
24
24
29
38
41
33
29
36
37
33
23
31
35
34
51
53
46
40
33
23
35
42
27
30
45
30
7
67.5
62
50
54
77
60.5
67
93 .5
53
73
40
86 .5
60
65
42
87
38.5
66.5
47
74.5
56.5
85
90.5
58
95
46
37
56
?
43
27
23
82
42
43
57
157
46
88
116
83
76
37
157
48
61
50
213
60
58
36
85
30
65
56
113
47
'Pests
9
15.5
16
14
16 .5
16 .5
15.5
17
17
16
14.5
17
17
15
17
17
17.5
13.5
16 .5
15.5
16
14.5
17
16
17.5
16
16
16
15.5
10
15
12
12
9
10
11
12
12
14
12
12
13
11
13
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
12
12
11
13
12
13
9
11
41
37
54
35
38
26
64
46
55
29
39
51
44
44
31
35
72
68
50
37
36
36
34
22
33
41
34
33
12
127
99
117
136
152
161
145
156
191
155
139
179
103
158
146
103
159
218
243
230
127
185
146
112
121
198
153
108
13
146
151
219
194
189
167
153
139
141
165
131
139
160
154
194
132
136
163
140
143
183
193
153
143
152
153
147
167
14
88
126
75
176
118
143
107
117
85
71
121
96
151
125
170
98
119
143
136
125
98
144
99
124
126
95
94
135
15
98
95
95
121
67
90
64
79
59
74
84
76
108
99
112
67
91
95
90
128
94
104
112
84
103
77
68
67
16
118
127
159
159
188
127
90
103
100
137
78
125
101
138
165
150
70
125
90
82
188
108
146
133
132
137
73
172
V
15
13
8
29
19
17
13
23
4
5
8
25
39
10
16
12
16
13
17
11
7
4
9
16
20
44
7
16
18
34
31
33
38
34
41
35
32
15
21
21
35
27
31
38
39
18
35
35
22
28
35
31
36
28
45
26
30
19
90
68
43
64
41
52
65
37
25
48
57
47
71
64
85
79
55
54
31
53
62
52
60
75
59
58
50
40
4s
3&BLB VIII
(continued)
t
1
2ases
360
57
58
490
307
59
724
60
802
61
62
801
1207
65
369
64
65
1110
859
66
556
67
413
68
734
69
556
70
507
71
597
72
744
73
565
74
711
75
697
76
356
77
78
908
356
79
617
80
896
81
1102
82
716
83
84
330
•
2
126
141
115
209
123
185
219
140
210
256
279
168
120
217
209
196
179
150
152
208
153
157
135
238
218
292
159
139
3
8
4
3
6
4
2
3
8
3
0
0
6
3
3
3
8
6
6
5
0
4
3
3
2
4
2
4
5
4
128
149
108
139
111
129
180
108
172
235
159
130
118
162
132
153
179
142
185
208
128
135
133
156
184
144
107
117
5
10
8
11
9
11
10
8
11
10
10
9
10
10
11
12
12
13
10
9
10
10
11
11
9
9
9
10
8
A
6
30
28
24
35
26
33
30
28
27
27
52
31
30
27
43
29
26
36
30
30
27
30
28
28
30
37
30
30
7
66
78
95
49.5
80.5
80.5
68.5
88.5
53.5
78.5
55.5
66 .5
60
74
46
56.5
48
90
62.5
64.5
85
65.5
78
63
51
53.5
66
74
8
26
26
74
73
92
174
31
49
118
69
130
55
31
276
51
85
53
33
71
258
30
90
66
48
48
106
58
31
Pests
9
16.5
14.5
15.5
14.5
17
12
15.5
17.5
15.5
18
15.5
18
17.5
17
15
14.5
14.5
16 .5
15
18
16.5
14
17
16.5
16.5
16
16 .5
11
10
11
10
11
13
12
12
11
11
11
11
12
11
10
14
11
11
15
11
12
11
10
12
11
10
13
12
10
10
11
44
25
34
67
29
31
43
25
45
47
54
29
38
37
31
35
33
42
29
38
38
40
26
48
40
60
25
26
12
118
102
119
125
152
181
143
129
121
130
177
90
95
191
115
134
180
101
129
280
108
120
99
135
149
221
116
108
160
156
192
135
129
168
152
148
161
130
129
189
183
147
145
129
113
165
148
147
184
180
173
163
134
134
203
149
14
99
136
127
127
76
146
138
111
107
168
125
111
126
150
117
111
110
34
111
124
117
122
115
153
74
125
158
83
15
77
72
106
81
114
67
86
82
69
77
96
72
38
102
90
78
106
107
43
80
94
101
89
75
47
95
103
104
16
165
158
143
91
76
97
136
106
114
80
78
191
187
116
129
106
123
98
163
66
112
155
159
114
109
101
176
163
17
31
15
16
27
25
12
30
23
16
14
3
20
19
21
12
19
21
23
14
14
20
23
36
24
15
19
9
7
18
42
31
42
27
25
29
44
37
20
26
25
46
31
31
34
24
33
39
32
28
54
21
35
38
18
31
33
25
19
61
50
74
72
68
43
85
76
39
82
51
73
76
78
77
64
68
40
67
66
63
47
55
44
40
62
70
75
mm
u n
(oontinued)
1
.131
626
483
861
752
345
476
723
480
500
393
375
345
340
314
372
447
702
.041
969
649
569
.336
405
918
949
2
190
120
261
217
239
137
154
172
138
180
149
124
174
138
180
164
143
170
231
159
158
198
214
136
179
229
3
4
1
5
8
2
6
4
5
3
4
6
5
4
6
6
6
2
6
2
5
4
3
1
6
6
4
4
146
123
153
161
149
142
101
166
121
113
121
99
110
127
127
91
123
138
160
131
145
127
143
125
156
144
5
9
13
6
10
9
11
7
11
11
7
8
6
10
8
11
10
12
7
6
8
11
11
11
10
11
13
A
6
31
29
39
52
39
21
27
34
28
30
28
24
37
26
22
21
21
35
36
32
31
25
33
29
40
31
7
78.5
48
51
77
63
40
37.5
91.5
47
65
66 .5
92
53.5
48.5
44.5
80.5
78.5
66.5
58
50
65.5
85
59
67
54.5
65.5
Taste
8
9
104 15
33 15.5
160 16
29 15
122 17
71 14
48 16 .5
32 17
70 16
60 14.5
36 17.5
42 16
47 15
34 16
40 17
44 17.5
47 17
114 12
95 15.5
35 15
71 17
85 17.5
73 18
56 17
34 16.5
81 14.5
10
13
12
14
12
16
11
11
11
12
9
10
11
10
11
11
8
11
11
12
11
11
11
15
12
12
12
1J
41
32
41
40
63
35
27
38
40
65
41
30
34
60
48
49
31
36
37
25
24
44
51
27
31
63
12
138
90
92
188
212
90
126
167
124
144
103
132
112
83
219
107
117
124
361
116
113
125
207
114
277
166
13
159
185
149
191
137
151
157
169
171
179
191
169
153
138
146
156
170
179
140
154
139
141
145
144
128
158
14
150
177
78
135
99
169
179
243
64
136
152
90
56
129
120
140
172
146
100
99
106
115
96
91
163
132
15
78
127
64
104
58
104
63
121
66
76
76
100
59
85
57
66
116
92
63
71
88
106
103
119
105
63
16
128
165
99
132
119
137
173
165
183
163
136
139
124
153
175
155
167
117
146
133
124
133
131
146
135
170
APPENDIX B
Record Blank
RECORD BLANK
Name
_____ Sex
School__________________
Date
Grade_________ Birth Date
Deductive Reasoning;
Series:
A . _ _ ------ (Time)
— -------- (Time)
r — -------------*--- — --- (Time)
A._________ (Moves)
B._ _ _ _ ( Moves)
C.____
(Moves)
D.____
(Moves)
2. Space:
Serl03:
(Ti!1») »•
.CMOTSS)
«•---------- (Ttoe) B.____ ___(Moves)
3. Memory:
1.
2.
3.
5.
6.
7.
S.
_
lv.
4-. Perceptual Speed:
qOT.iPS. A.------A.
_____ (Moves)
- (Time)
v
} A..
^ _________
MoveS
Series.
c.----- "
(Time)
(Time)
" (Time)
C>________ .(Moves)
D.______
(Moves)
E.
(Moves)
5. Inductive Reasoning:
Plate:
1.__________ (Time) 8.________ (Time)
2.
(Time) 9._________(Time)
3.
“
(Time) 10.______
(Time)
L.
(Time) 11.
. ..(Time)
5.
ZI(Ti^) 12.________ .(Time)
6.
(Time) 13._________(Time)
7.
(Time) 14*_____
(Time)
6. Cylinder: Time: 1st____ 2nd____ 3rd
Shortest trial
50
7. Healy P. C. II:
Piece No.
I
II
III
IV
V
I
II
III IV
V
Value
Piece No.
Value
Total_
8. Feature Profile:
9. Porteus Maze:
Time
Total
10. Sequin Form Board:
Time: 1st
2nd
3rd
Shortest trial
11. Five Figure Form Board:
(Time)
(Moves)
12. Lepley Form Board:
(Time)
(Moves)
Thurstone
Test
Factor
13
Perception
U
Number
15
Verbal
16
Space
17
Memory
13
Induction
19
Deduction
Score
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