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AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEORY OF INDEPENDENT ABILITIES WITH RESPECT TO TESTS OF APPARENTLY DIVERSE ABILITIES

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Xerox University Microfilms
3 00 North Z e e b Road
A nn Arbor, M ichigan 48106
nvn.o'V1'
LD3907
.0 7
1940
. 1.16
Ilorrow, Robert S
An analysis of the theory of indepen­
dent abilities with respect to tests of
apparently diverse abilities...
New
York, 1940.
114,ells typewritten leaves.
tables,
diagrs.
29cn.
Thesis (Ph.D.) - New York university,
Graduate school, 1940.
Bibliography; 7p. at end.
A54460
Shelf
Xerox University Microfilms,
List
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A TIO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R EC EIVED .
L ib ra r y
N. Y.
UhivJ
AN ANALYSIS OF THE THEORY OF INDEPENDENT ABILITIES WITH'
RESPECT TO TESTS OF APPARENTLY DIVERSE ABILITIES.
R obert S. Morrow
Submitted, in p a r t i a l f u lf illm e n t of th e req u ire m en ts f c r
th e degree of do cto r of p h ilo so p h y a t New York U n iv e r s ity
Kay, 1940
The w r i t e r i s Host g r a te f u l to tho^-c who a id e d him in
c a rry in g out t h i s in v e s tig a tio n . He i s p erm an en tly
in d e b te d to A ss o c ia te P ro fe s s o r Thomas N. J e n k in s o f
th e Departm ent of P sychology cf W ashington Square
C o lleg e, New York U n iv e rs ity , f o r in d is p e n s a b le
s u p e rv is io n o f th e ex p erim en t. He w ish es to thank
P r o f e s s o r P r e s le y D. S to u t, Chairman o f th e Psychology
D epartm ent, ’W ashington Square C o lleg e, f o r making
a v a ila b le th e com plete f a c i l i t i e s o f th e d ep artm en t.
CONTENTS
I.
II.
The Problem
-
p. 4
1.
T e n ta tiv e S tatem ent of th e Problem - - - - - - - - - - -
4
2.
H is to r ic a l Survey o f th e Problem - - - - - - - - - - - -
4
2.
F in a l Statem ent <£f th e Problem - - -
The Experim ent
-
- - - - - - -
-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1. S u b je c ts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
—
39
__
39
2 . P ro ced u re - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
39
3. M a te ria ls - - - - -
—
36
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
---- - - - 41
a) I n te llig e n c e T e s t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
42
b) Music T o rts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
45
c) A rt Judgment T e st - - -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- - - - -
-
48
d) C le r ic a l A b ili ty T e st - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
48
e) M echanical A b i l i t y T e s ts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
49
f ) T eats 01 M a n ip u lativ e A b i l i t y - - - - - - - - - - - -
52
4 . Summary o f the E x p erim en tal P ro ced u re - - - - - - - - - -
53
I I I . The R e s u l t s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
55
1 . The Frequency D is tr ib u t io n s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
55
2 . The I n te r c o r r e ln ti o n s Among th e T e s ts - - - - - - - - - -
84
3. F a c to r A n aly sis o f th e C o r r e la tio n s - - - - - - - - - - -
93
IV. D isc u ssio n o f th e R e s u lts - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
104
Recommendations f o r F u rth e r Study - - - - - - - - - - - - -
110
V. Summary and C onclusions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - VI.
V II.
Appendix - - B ib lio g ra p h y
- -
- -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
112
115
H9
4
I . THE PROBLEM
T e n ta tiv e S tatem en t o f th e Problem
I t i s th e o b je c t o f th e p re s e n t stu d y to determ in e w hether
human a b i l i t i e s a s m easured by s p e c ia l t e s t s a r e independent o r
in te rd e p e n d e n t and th e e x te n t o f such r e l a t i o n s h i p .
More p a r t i ­
c u la r ly th e problem is to f in d by means of c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a ly s is
and th e f a c t o r i a l a n a ly s is te ch n iq u e th e d eg rees o f r e la tio n s h ip
among c e r t a i n t e s t s of i n t e ll ig e n c e , m u sic al a b i l i t y , a r t i s t i c
judgm ent, c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y , m echanical a b i l i t y , and m a n ip u la tiv e
a b ility .
H is to r ic a l Survey of th e Problem
The stu d y o f human a b i l i t y is u n d o u b ted ly a s o ld a s l i f e
its e lf.
H o llin g w o rth (3 0 ), P e te rs o n (5 4 ), and H u ll (3 1 ), among
o th e r s , w r ite o f th e i n t e r e s t which P la to had in a p titu d e s and
of h is d e s ir e to in v e n t the means f o r d is c o v e rin g s p e c ia liz e d
a b ilitie s .
F a c u lty P sychology devoted much e f f o r t tow ards
d e s c rib in g , c l a s s i f y i n g and e x p la in in g th e v a rio u s a b i l i t i e s .
Y et, d e s p ite t h i s l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t , it* w as n o t u n t i l com­
p a r a t iv e l y r e c e n t y e a rs th a t th e approach to th e problem h as
been p r e d ic a te d on a p ro p e r, s c i e n t i f i c b a s is .
I t took th e
5
combined, c o n tr ib u tio n s o f th e work o f Gal to n end C a t t e l l , th e
in v e n tio n o f th e c o r r e l a ti o n c o e f f i c ie n t by P earso n , and th e
ex p erim en ts o f B in e t to h e lp lau n ch th e stu d y o f a b i l i t i e s in to
th e ch an n els o f s c i e n t i f i c p ro c e d u re .
The g r e a t e s t im petus to
th e stu d y w&s g iv en d u rin g th e p e r io d of th e W orld War, when
i t became n e c e ssa ry to c o n s tr u c t more ad eq u ate m easures of
a b ility .
The approach which i s most o f te n u se d in th e stu d y of
a b i l i t i e s i s th e c o r r e l a t i o n a l e n a ly s is among s e v e r a l of th e
v a rio u s a b i l i t i e s .
One o f th e f i r s t ex p erim en ts alo n g th e s e
l i n e s was by W is s le r (9 5 ),
who conducted a com prehensive
a n a ly s is among th r e e c a te g o r ie s o f t e s t s - p s y c h o lo g ic a l t e s t s ,
which were m ain ly t e s t s o f q u ick n ess and accu racy ( i . e . , r e a c tio n ­
tim e t e s t s ) , academ ic t e s t s , which c o n s is te d c h i e f ly of c o lle g e
g rad es and o f s c h o la s tic achievem ent t e s t s ( i . e . , r a te o f read ­
in g ) , and v a rio u s p h y s ic a l and p h y s io lo g ic a l t e s t s .
The low
i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s acng th e t e s t s caused th e a u th o r to conclude
t h a t " . . . th e re i s no ev id en ce o f im p o rtan t f u n c tio n a l r e l a t i o n s
between the a c t i v i t i e s employed" and, a l s o , t h a t " th e s e t e s t s
muet be m easures o f s p e c ia l a b i l i t i e s . "
Three s tu d ie s , w hich were contem porary w ith th e W is s le r
in v e s t ig a t io n , se rv e d to confirm h i s g e n e ra l r e s u l t s .
The ex -
6
p e rim e n ts by Sharp (6?) »nd Seashore (59) p re c e d e d th e W issle r
experim ent w h ile th e study by B agley (? ) a p p ea red alm ost sim ul­
ta n e o u s ly .
Sharp in v e s tig a te d th e r e l a t i o n s among th e d if f e r e n t
t e s t s o f memory, m ental im agery, p a s s iv e im ag in a tio n and c o n stru c ­
tiv e im a g in a tio n ( e . g ., m echanical and l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y ) , a t te n ­
ti o n , o b s e rv a tio n and d e s c r ip tio n , t a s t e s an d te n d e n c ie s (o r th e
s o - c a ll e d a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c ia tiv e a b i l i t i e s - m u sic, a r t , l i t e r a ­
tu re ).
She found, through th e u se o f cru d e s t a t i s t i c a l m ethods,
th a t th e r e was a " la c k of correspondence" among th e t e s t s .
S eash o re, to o , employed th e c ru d e r s t a t i s t i c a l methods o f th e
p e r io d in f in d in g a la c k o f f u n c tio n a l r e l a t i o n s between g en era l
m ental a b i l i t y , o r in t e ll ig e n c e , and t e s t s o f h e a rin g , p it c h ,
rhythm , time sen se, motor a b i l i t y and r e a c tio n tim e.
B agley
c o r r e l a te d m en tal a b i l i t y , (m easured by r e a c tio n tim e, c la s s
s ta n d in g s o f school c h ild r e n and the t e a c h e r 's e s tim a te s ) w ith
motor a b i l i t y a s m easured by s tr e n g th , r a p i d i t y and accu racy of
v o lu n ta ry movement and s te a d in e s s .
His two g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n s
were t h a t th e r e i s " . . . a g e n e ra l in v e rs e r e l a t i o n between m otor
and m e n tal a b i l i t y ; th o se who a r e th e 'b r i g h t e r ' p u p ils and th o se
who have th e q u ic k e r r e a c tio n tim es b e in g , a s a r u le , d e f ic ie n t
in m otor a b i l i t y , w h ile th o se who a r e b e s t developed p h y s ic a lly ,
who a r e th e s tr o n g e s t, who have developed m otor 'c o n t r o l ' to th e
g r e a t e s t e x te n t, a r e g e n e r a lly jie f ic ie n t in m e n tal a b i l i t y " and
th a t th e r e seems to be " . . . l i t t l e d i r e c t r e l a t i o n between m en tal
7
a b i l i t y a s r e p r e s e n te d by r e a c tio n tim es, and m en tal a b i l i t y a s
r e p re s e n te d by c l a s s s ta n d in g s , ex ce p t th a t e x c e lle n c e in e i t h e r
of th e se d ir e c tio n s i s a p t to be accompanied by a d e f ic ie n c y in
motor a b i l i t y . "
At about t h i s same tim e, Thorndike began to develop a
s e r ie s of im p o rtan t r e s e a rc h e s which c u lm in ated in th e formu­
l a t i o n o f h i s m u l tip l ^ - f a c to r th e o ry o f a b i l i t i e s , (a )
A ik in s ,
Thorndike and H ubbell (1 ) gave to 240 elem en tary sch o o l c h ild r e n
v a rio u s ta s k s o f "m ental f u n c tio n s ," such a s a r ith m e tic p ro b lem s,
s p e llin g problem s, fo llo w in g d ir e c tio n s , re a d in g , word a s s o c ia ­
ti o n t e s t s , e t c . , and r e p o r te d i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t w ere, on
th e w hole, low o r s l i g h t , and su g g ested t h a t " . . . a p r i o r i , i t
i s more r a ti o n a l to lo o k on th e mind a s a m u ltitu d e o f p a r ti c u ­
l a r c a p a c it ie s , p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c ia tio n s and p a r t i c u l a r a c t s , a l l
o f which may be h i ^ i l y in d ep en d en t of each o th e r ."
T his was r e ­
a ffirm e d l a t e r by Thorndike {80) when he a v e rre d t h a t th e c o rre ­
l a t i o n s " . . . confirm th e sta te m e n t th a t th e mind must be re g a rd e d
n o t as a f u n c tio n a l u n i t o r even a s a c o l le c t io n o f a few g e n e ra l
f a c u l t i e s which work ir r e s p e c t i v e of p a r t i c u l a r m a te r ia l, b u t
(a ) The s e r i e s o f re s e a r c h Ty Thorndike and Woodworth (84) on
tr a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g seemed to be r e la te d d i r e c t l y to th e develop­
ment o f th e th e o ry s in c e th e t r a i n i n g o f one f u n c tio n d id n o t a f ­
f e c t any o th e r f u n c tio n . Thus, th e y in f e r r e d an independence of
m ental f u n c tio n s .
8
r a t h e r a s a m u ltitu d e o f fu n c tio n s each o f w hich
iB
re la te d
c lo s e ly to o n ly a few o f i t s f e llo w s , to o th e rs w ith g r e a t e r
and g r e a t e r d eg rees of rem oteness and to many to so a l i g h t a
degree a s e lu d e s m easurem ent."
He w arned a g a in s t th e a d o p tio n
o? a f a c u l t y psychology "by say in g t h a t , "The sc ie n c e of educa­
ti o n sh o u ld a t once r i d i t s e l f o f th e m ind a s a s o r t o f m achine,
d if f e r e n t p a r t s o f w hich sen se, p e r c e iv e , d is c r im in a te , im agine,
remember, c o n c e iv e , a s s o c ia t e , re a so n ab o u t, d e s ir e , choose,
form h a b i t s , a tte n d to ."
P e te rs o n (54) c o r r e c t ly p o in ts o u t
th a t t h i s view , t h a t i s , th e m u l t i - f a c t o r th e o ry , had a g r e a t
d e a l o f in flu e n c e on American psy ch o lo g y .
In h i s ex p erim en ts on i n t e l l i g e n c e , B in e t (8 ) was in
acc o rd w ith th e c o n te n tio n th a t m ental f u n c tio n s were inde­
p en d en t.
He i n s i s t e d , however, th a t th e se f u n c tio n s w ere com­
p le x r a th e r th a n sim ple sen so ry c a p a c i t i e s .
The sum o f a s many
o f th e se com plex, d is p a r a te f u n c tio n s a s co u ld be a s c e r ta in e d was
i n t e l l i g e n c e , acc o rd in g to B in e t. (b)
Spearman, on th e o th e r hand, fo rm u la te d th e tw o -fa c to r
th e o ry in com plete o p p o s itio n to th e th e o r ie s o f Thorndike and
(b ) T h is co n cep t o f i n t e ll ig e n c e rem ains u n a lte r e d , on th e w hole,
v i z . , th e p re s e n t ty p e s o f t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , in d iv id u a l a s
w e ll a s g ro u p . A lthough W echsler (93) fa v o rs th e tw o -fa c to r
th e o ry o f Spearman, he models h is t e s t a lo n g th e u s u a l p a t t e r n .
9
B in e t.
In h is e a r l i e s t stu d y , Spearman (6 6 ), a f t e r c r i t i c i z i n g
th e ex p erim en ts p r e v io u s ly c o n s id e re d , so f a r a s such f a c t o r s
a s ex p erim en tal c o n tr o ls and th e f a u l t y employment o r la c k o f
employment o f s t a t i s t i c a l m ethods i s concerned, c o r r e l a te d t e s t e
of p it c h d is c r im in a tio n ( c a l l e d "m usical t a l e n t " ) , sen so iy d is ­
c rim in a tio n ( v is u a l or l i g h t d is c r im in a tio n and w eig h t d i s c r i ­
m in a tio n (va s a a l. ax. l i g h t dlsgxim inatA an and w eig h t d is c rim in a.
tie * )- w ith fo u r c r i t e r i a o f i n t e ll ig e n c e - g ra d e s , r a t i o o f c l a s s
sta n d in g to c h ro n o lo g ic a l ag e, te ach ers* e s tim a te s , and s tu d e n t s '
e s tim a te s o f one a n o th e r.
The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n were
a rra n g e d in to h ie r a r c h ie s and a f t e r exam ining th e s e h ie r a r c h ie s
he concluded t h a t " . . . a l l "branches o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y
have in common one fundam ental f u n c tio n (o r group o f f u n c tio n s )
w hereas th e rem aining o r s p e c if i c elem en ts o f th e a c t i v i t y 3eem
in ev ery case to be w h olly d if f e r e n t from th a t in a l l th e o th e r s ."
This was th e tw o -fa c to r th e o ry o f Spearman, (c )
The
c o n f l i c t betw een t h i s th e o ry and th e m u ltip le f a c t o r th e o ry o f
Thorndike l e d to a g r e a t d e a l o f ex p e rim e n ta tio n in su p p o rt o f
one th e o ry o r in o p p o s itio n to th e o th e r .
M oreover, th e i n ­
v e n tio n o f new s t a t i s t i c a l d e v ic e s ( f o r in s ta n c e , th e b i - f a c t o r
(c ) The te rm 'tw o -fa c to ry th e o r y ' was n o t U9ed by Spearman u n t i l
h i s a r t i c l e in 1914 (6 7 ).
10
and m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a l y s e s ) , th e e la b o r a tio n of te c h n iq u e s and
m ethods, th e fo rm a tio n o f new t e s t s , and th e l i k e , seemed to
evolv e d i r e c t l y from th e c o n tr a d ic tio n betw een th e two t h e o r i e s .
Much r e s e a rc h was con d u cted in the e f f o r t to su p p o rt e i t h e r
one of th e th e o r i e s .
Two in v e s tig a tio n s which i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s
ty p e of su p p o rt were th o s e o f B u rt (14) and Brown (1 2 ).
B u rt ad­
m in is te r e d e le v e n t e s t s com prising f iv e c a te g o r ie s o f a b i l i t i e s sen so ry t e s t s (to u c h , w eig h t, v is io n , p i t c h ) , t e s t s o f sim ple
m otor a b i l i t y (ta p p in g and c a rd d e a lin g ) , s e n s o ii-m o to r t e s t s
(c a rd s o r tin g and a lp h a b e t f in d in g t e s t s ) , a s s o c ia tio n t e s t s ,
immediate m e m o r y ,( i.e ., nonsense s y lla b le s ) and t e s t s o f volun­
ta r y a t t e n t i o n ( d o tt in g i r r e g u l a r c i r c l e s ) .
He c o r r e l a te d th e s e
a b i l i t i e s w ith i n t e l l i g e n c e , em ploying th e same c r i t e r i a a s
Spearman, th a t i s , te a c h e r and s tu d e n t r a t i n g s , g ra d e s, e t c .
The h ie r a r c h ie s o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w hich he o b ta in e d
caused him to a g re e s u b s t a n t i a l l y w ith th e c o n c lu sio n s o f Spearman.
Brown, on the o th e r hand, o b ta in e d i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among "sim p le
m ental a b i l i t i e s " ( a d d itio n , memory, a s s o c ia t io n tim e, g ra d e s , e t c . )
and re p o r te d from th e groups of c o r r e l a ti o n c o e f f i c i e n t s th a t "not
one of them shows th e 'h i e r a r c h i c a l arran g em en t1" , th e re b y c o u tra v e r tin g Speanaan and a g re e in g e s s e n t i a l l y w ith T horndike.
A la r g e p o r tio n o f t h i s work was p erfo rm ed by th e p ro ta ­
g o n is ts th e m se lv e s.
T horndike, Lay and Dean (83) c o r r e l a te d t e s t s
of v is u a l and w eig h t d is c r im in a tio n w ith i n t e l l i g e n c e , a s m easured
11
toy g ra d e s , te a c h e r and s tu d e n t r a t i n g s , and so f o r t h .
They r e ­
p o r te d th a t " . . . the most p ro b ab le r e l a t i o n between th e f a c t o r
common to a l l sen so ry d is c r im in a tio n s and th e f a c t o r common to
i n t e l l e c t judged in th e se th r e e ways i s , from o u r d a ta , n o t 1 .0 0 ,
tout .2 2 ."
T^ey co n cluded, a l s o , th a t " In g e n e ra l th e re i s e v i­
dence o f a complex s e t of toonds betw een th e p s y c h o lo g ic a l eq u i­
v a le n ts o f tooth what wc c a l l th e fo rm al s id e o f thought and what
we c a l l i t s c o n te n t, so t h a t one i s alm ost tem pted to r e p la c e
S pearm an'8 sta te m e n t toy th e e q u a lly e x tra v a g e n t one th a t th e re
i s n o th in g w h atev er common to a l l m ental f u n c tio n s , o r to any
h a l f o f th a n ."
Simpson (6 4 ), a s tu d e n t o f T horndike, gave to
two groups o f s u b je c ts f i f t e e n s e p a ra te t e s t s , m easu rin g th e
s ix d i f f e r e n t m ental a b i l i t i e s o f sen se d is c r im in a tio n , m o to rc o n tr o l, e f f ic ie n c y in p e r c e p tio n , e f f ic ie n c y in a s s o c ia tio n ,
memory and a b s tr a c tio n .
He con clu d ed from th e r e s u l t s th a t
"Ytfe f in d no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r th e view th a t 'g e n e r a l i n t e l l i ­
g en ce' i s to toe e x p la in e d on th e b a s is of a h ie ra r c h y o f m en tal
f u n c tio n s , th e amount o f c o r r e l a t i o n in each c a se toeing due to
th e degree of c o r r e c tio n w ith a common c e n t r a l f a c t o r ."
B onser
(1 0 ), a n o th e r o f T h o rn d ik e 's s tu d e n ts , g o t s im ila r r e s u l t s .
McCall (3 7 ), a lso a Thorndike s tu d e n t, i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d e d u c a tio n a l
t e s t s , g ra d e s , te a c h e r and s tu d e n t r a t i n g s , com prehension o f p ro ­
v erb t e s t s , and so f o r t h , and o b ta in e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s
12
o f from - .6 3 to .9 8 .
His g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n was th a t th e
" . . . c o r r e l a t i o n between columns o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s
does not c o rro b o ra te Spearm an's im p o rtan t 'Theorem o f th e Uni­
v e rs a l U n ity o f I n t e l l e c t i v e J u n c t i o n . '"
He a ls o s ta t e d in
c o n c lu sio n t h a t " . . . in no way can a c o r r e l a t i o n ta b le be so
c o n s tru c te d from our c o e f f i c i e n t s as to s a t i s f y B u r t 's 'H ie ra rc h y
o f th e S p e c ific I n t e l l i g e n c e s . " 1
In o p p o s itio n to th e s e th e o r i e s , Spearman, to g e th e r w ith
h is s tu d e n ts , conducted a s e r ie s o f e x p erim en ts, th e r e s u l t s o f
which c o n tro v e rte d th o se of T horndike.
In o n e , Spearman and
K rueger (70) o b ta in e d c o r r e l a ti o n s anong touch d is c r im in a tio n ,
tone d is c r im in a tio n , ad d in g , le a r n in g numbers by h e a r t , an d
Ib'Dinghaus ' M u tila te d Tejit.
T h eir c o n c lu sio n was th a t th e
s iz e o f th e d if f e r e n t p o s itiv e c o r r e l a ti o n s was to be e x p la in e d
on th e b a s is o f the degree o f co n n ec tio n w ith a h y p o th e tic a l
common c e n tr a l f a c t o r .
In an o th er ex p erim en t, Spearman and
H art (71) s u b je c te d to a n a ly s is by a new te ch n iq u e ( th e i n t e r columnar c o r r e l a t i o n , c a l le d " c o r r e la tio n o f c o r r e la tio n " by
Thorndike (d) ) th o se exp erim en ts which were r e p o r te d a s r e ­
f u ti n g S pearm en's th e o ry .
In clu d e d in th e a n a ly s is were th e
s tu d ie s by Brown, T horndike, Ley and Dean, and B onser.
Sub­
s t a n t i a t i o n of th e Spearman th e o ry was con clu d ed a s a r e s u l t
(d)
F o reru n n er to th e l a t e r t e t r a d m ethod.
13
o f th e a n a ly s is .
In s t i l l a n o th e r in v e s t ig a t io n , Spearman (67)
su b jected . Sim pson's r e s u l t s to t h i s newer tre a tm e n t and s t a t e d ,
a s a consequence, th a t " . . . th e n e t r e s u l t , th e r e f o r e , o f ap p ly ­
in g th e new e x a c t method in a p e r f e c t l y p l a i n and im p a rtia l
manner to the ex p erim en tal d a ta o f Simpson and Thorndike i s a
com plete c o n firm a tio n of th e th e o ry of two f a c t o r s .
The oppo­
s i t e c o n c lu sio n a r r iv e d a t by th e c e in v e s t ig a t o r s them selves
p ro v e s to have been m erely an i l l u s o r y p ro d u c t of th e o ld e r
d e f e c tiv e m ethods, and to v a n ish on removal o f th e d e f e c ts ."
S ta te d more sim ply by Spearman (6 8 ), the tw o -fa c to r th e o ry
claim e d th a t "In any p a r t i c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l perform ance, th e r e
a r e two f a c t o r s a t w ork.
The one i s a s p e c if i c a b i l i t y f o r th e
perform ance in q u e s tio n , w ith a l l i t s p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s .
The
second i s 'g e n e r a l a b i l i t y . 1 W hile th e range o f th e s p e c if i c
f a c t o r i s ex ceed in g ly narrow , t h a t o f th e g e n e ra l (g ) f a c t o r i s
u n i v e r s a l ."
I t seemed alm ost in e v ita b l e , a c c o rd in g to the ex p erim en tal
c irc u m sta n c e s, th a t th e se two extrem e sch o o ls should m odify t h e i r
p o s itio n s .
F i r s t of a l l , th e re w ere the in c o n s is te n c ie s in th e
r e s u l t s which ap p eared w ith in each group.
For in s ta n c e , Spearman
g o t group o r o v erla p p in g f a c t o r s in a d d itio n to h i s g e n e ra l and
s p e c if i c f a c t o r s .
The group f a c t o r s a r e in te rm e d ia te between
th e s p e c if ic and g e n e ra l f a c t o r s .
A ccording to Spearman,
"O v erlap p in g s p e c if ic f a c t o r s h»ve s in c e o f te n been spoken o f
14
a s 'g ro u p f a c t o r s . '
They may be d e fin e d a s th o se which o c c u r
in more th a n one b u t l e s s th a n a l l o f any g iv e n s e t o f a b i l i t i e s .
Thus, th e y in d ic a te no p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c te r s in any c f th e
a b i l i t i e s th e m selv es, b u t o n ly some k in s h ip betw een th o s e w hich
happen to be ta k e n to g e th e r in a s e t .
Any elem ent w h atev er
in
th e s p e c if ic f a c t o r o f an a b i l i t y w i l l be tu rn e d in to a group
f a c t o r , i f t h i s a b i l i t y i s in c lu d e d in th e same s e t w ith some
o th e r a b i l i t y which a ls o c o n ta in s t h i s elem en t.
The m ost t h a t
can be s a id i s th a t soma elem en ts hAve a b ro a d e r range th a n
o th e r s , and th e r e f o r e a r e more l i k e l y to p la y th e p a r t o f group
f a c t o r s ." (e )
M oreover, Spearman l a t e r re co g n ized th e e x is te n c e
of fo u r o th e r g e n e ra l f a c t o r s in a d d itio n to g - a c o r c le v e r ­
ness f a c t o r ; a w o r w i l l f a c t o r ; a f a c t o r th a t " . . . a p p e r ta in s
to the o s c i l l a t i o n s o f m e n tal e f f ic ie n c y ( th e s e b e in g p ro b a b ly
m a n ife s ta tio n s o f f a t i g u e ) ; " a f a c t o r r e l a t e d to m ech an ical
a b i l i t y ( " i n s t i n c t to p la y w ith m echanical to y s " ) .
On th e o th e r hand, Thorndike and h is c o lla b o r a to r s got
r e s u l t s which com pelled them to make c e r t a in co n c e ssio n s inth e d ir e c tio n of Spearman.
As exam ples, one may c i t e a few
comments from Thorndike and h i s co -w o rk ers.
Simpson (63)
(e ) Among th e group f a c t o r s p o s ite d by Spearman a r e ; l o g i c a l ,
m ech an ical, a r it h m e t ic a l , s o c ia l and g e o m e tric a l a b i l i t i e s ,
m u sical a p p r e c ia tio n , r e a c tio n - tim e , v is u a l- a u d ito r y im agery,
g e n e ra l m em o risatio n , s e n so ry , v e rb a l and n o n -v erb al sym bolic
memory.
15
re p o r te d th a t th e r e was found to be " . . . j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r th e
common assum ption th a t th e re i s a c lo s e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n among
c e r t a i n m ental a b i l i t i e s , and c o n seq u en tly a som ething t h a t may
be c a l l e d ‘g e n e ra l m en tal a b i l i t y ’ o r ‘g e n e ra l i n t e l l i g e n c e ; '
and th a t on th e o th e r hand c e r t a i n c a p a c it ie s a r e r e l a t i v e l y
s p e c ia liz e d and do not n e c e s s a r ily im ply o th e r a b i l i t i e s ex cep t
to a v ery li m ite d e x te n t."
McCall (38) s t a t e d th a t th e re i s an
" . . . o b je c tiv e ly and p r a c t i c a l l y m easurable som ething, w hich
c o n s t i t u t e s the co re o f m ost a p t itu d e s .
I t i s o v e r la id w ith
v a rio u s in c id en ta l! a b i l i t i e s , and f u r th e r e d o r r e ta r d e d by
em o tio n al o r p h y s ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e in d iv id u a l."
W ith r e g a rd to T horndike, he in d ic a te d a s f a r back a s
1914 (81) te n d e n c ie s tow ard a m o d ific a tio n in h is th e o ry .
At
t h i s tim e he began to reco g n ize th r e e m en tal le v e ls of s e n s i­
t i v i t y , a s s o c ia tio n and a n a l y s i s .
These l e v e l s were s im ila r
to th e group f a c t o r s in th a t t e s t s of th e same fu n c tio n o r
l e v e l w ould be ex p ec ted to c o r r e l a t e more c lo s e ly th a n t e s t s
o f d if f e r e n t m ental l e v e l s .
In a l a t e r r e p o r t, Thorndike (82)
o b ta in e d th e c o r r e l a t i o n s among many of th e army t e s t s , in ­
c lu d in g v e rio u s t e s t s o f in t e l l i g e n c e , manual and m ech an ical
a b ility ,
^e concluded th a t th e r e s u l t s were " . . . o b v io u sly
in b e t t e r agreem ent w ith th e view s of Thomson, th e q u d if ie d
s ta te m e n ts o f Spearman in th e 1912 p a p e r w ith H art, and th e
16
s ta te m e n ts of th e a u th o r (1914) th a n w ith a r i g i d , u n q u a lif ie d
form of Spearman’ s d o c tr in e ."
He s t a t e d f u r th e r th a t th e
c a s e s " . . . su g g est t h a t a 'num bers a s c o n te n t1 f a c to r and a
's p a t i a l r e la tio n s as c o n te n t' f a c t o r a c t in a fa s h io n midway
betw een n e a rly com plete g e n e r a lit y and n e a r ly a b s o lu te s p e c i f i c ness.
1 b e lie v e th a t su g g e stio n s o f f a c t o r s r e f e r r in g to th e
'fo rm ' o f c o g n itiv e p erform ances such a s 't o keep in mind f o r
a lo n g tim e ' o r 't o u t i l i z e a la r g e amount o f co n te n t to g e th e r
f o r one p u r p o s e ,' o r 't o b reak up a g ro s s t o t a l co n te n t in to
e le m e n ts’ w ill sp p eer in a c im ile r way in th e c o r r e l a ti o n s ,
p a r t i a l c o r r e l a ti o n s , and c o r r e l a ti o n s o f th e c o r r e la tio n s o f
c o g n itiv e p erfo rm an ces."
Then a g a in , th e work of b o th groups was so p r o l i f i c ,
in te n s e and co n v in cin g a s to conduce c e r t a i n stro n g doubts
a g a in s t a dogmatic s ta n d ,
Most im p o rta n t, however, was th e
re s e a rc h of th e presum ably u n p re ju d ic e d w orkers such a s Thomson.
Thomson (75) was a b le to d em o n strate ac c o rd in g to h is famous
d ic e -th ro w in g ex p erim en ts th a t h ie r a r c h ie s o f co rrelatio n co­
e f f i c i e n t s s im ila r to th o se o b ta in e d by Spearman a s c o n c lu siv e
evid en ce f o r a g e n e ra l f a c t o r co u ld a ls o be o b ta in e d when a
common o r g e n e ra l f a c t o r was n o t known to be p r e s e n t.
*n
l a t e r p a p e rs (76 , 77 , 78) he p r e s e n te d two v e ry im p o rtan t p o in t s .
The f i r s t was th a t n o th in g b u t a p e r f e c t h ie ra rc h y o f c o r r e l a ti o n s
c o u ld be a c a e p te d a s p ro o f o f a g e n e ra l f a c t o r , and, seco n d ly ,
17
th a t in te rm e d ia te betw een th e g e n e ra l and s p e c if i c f a c t o r s w ere
the q u a s i-g e n e ra l o r group f a c t o r s .
H ull (31) in tu r n ad v o cated a fo u r th im p o rtan t th e o ry
re g a rd in g th e n a tu re o f a b i l i t i e s .
He s t a t e d th a t "The w r i t e r 's
view of th e c o n s t i t u t i o n of a p titu d e s and t e s t s may b e s t be
c h a r a c te r iz e d a s a s t r i c t g ro u p -fp c to r th e o ry .
I t a g re e s w ith
Thomson in n o t assum ing any u n iv e r s a l f a c to r o r d e te rm in e r
ru n n in g th ro u g h a l l p o s s ib le human a c t i v i t i e s .
I t d i f f e r s , on
th e o th e r hand, n o t o n ly from Spearman and Thorndike, b u t from
Thomson a s w e ll, in r e j e c t i n g
s p e c if ic o r u n ique f a c t o r s .
As
to th e u n iv e r s a l f a c t o r , i t may be re g ard ed a s d o u b tfu l w hether
Spearman h im se lf h a s e v e r b e lie v e d h i s g e n e ra l f a c t o r to be a
c o n s titu e n t o f ev ery p o s s ib le a p titu d e o r a b i l i t y .
He seems
r a th e r to l i m i t i t to th o se a c t i v i t i e s which a re ' i n t e l l e c t u a l 1.
For example, he rem arks t h a t ' a l l branches o f i n t e l l e c t u a l
a c t i v i t y have in common one fundam ental f u n c t i o n . 1 ( i t a l i c s H u l l 's ) .
I t i s q u ite o b v io u s, of c o u rs e , th e t i f th e re were numerous noi>i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s w hich did n o t in v o lv e t h i s g e n e ra l i n t e l ­
le c t u a l f a c t o r , th e l a t t e r w ould a c tu a lly be n o th in g more th a n a
w id e-ran g e group f a c t o r so f a r a s a r e a l l y com prehensive th e o ry
o f a p titu d e s i s con cern ed .
In re g a rd to the s p e c if i c f a c t o r s i t
may be s a id t h a t i f we assume even a s in g le unique f a c t o r o r de­
te rm in e r to be in v o lv ed in each o f th e m u ltitid in o u s a c t i v i t i e s
th a t a human b ein g i s c a p a b le of p erfo rm in g , i t would im ply a
p r o d ig a l it y o f s p e c ia l o rg a n ic mechanisms q u ite out o f harmony
16
w ith what we know o f b io lo g ic a l economy.
M oreover, once group
f a c t o r s have been p o s tu la te d , th e r e seems no p a r t i c u l a r re a so n
f o r assum ing th e e x is te n c e of s p e c if ic f a c t o r s ."
The re s e a r c h in m en tal a b i l i t i e s c o n tin u e d alo n g th e
g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n o f su p p o rtin g o r r e p u d ia tin g any one o f th e s e
fo u r th e o r i e s , t h a t i s to say , th e th e o r ie s o f T horndike, Spearman,
Thomson, o r H u ll.
In the m ain, however, m ost s tu d ie s were d ir e c te d
a lo n g th e more sim ple l i n e s of c o r r e l a ti n g t e s t s of in t e ll ig e n c e
w ith some s p e c ia l t e s t of a b i l i t y such a s m u sical o r m echanical
a b ility .
A nother s im ila r approach was to c o r r e l a t e th e t e s t and
s u b - te s ts w hich presum ably m easured th e same a b i l i t y .
S in ce th e se
re p r e s e n te d th e tr e n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y from th e W orld War p e r io d on,
th e most im portant o f th e se re s e a rc h e s a r e n s re c o n s id e re d .
The stu d y of m u sic al a b i l i t y c o n s is te d m ainly o f s tu d ie s
of th e r e la tio n s h ip s between m u sical a b i l i t y and in t e l l i g e n c e ,
in c lu d in g school achievem ent.
In alm ost a l l o f th e in v e s tig a ­
tio n s th e te c t s of m u sic al a b i l i t y u se d vsrere th e Seashore M easures
of M usical T a le n t.
M u rsell (47) ta b u la te d m ost of th e im p o rtan t
re s e a rc h e s on th e r e la tio n s between t e s t s o f in t e ll ig e n c e and th e
Seashore t e s t s .
I t can be seen from h is ta b le th a t alm ost a l l th e
c o r r e l a ti o n s a re p o s i t i v e .
The range is from - .3 8 between Consonance
and Thorndike I n te l li g e n c e T est to .58 between P itc h and Terman
Group and T hurstone P sy c h o lo g ic a l E xam inations.
The p r e s e n t w r i t e r
av era g ed a l l th e c o r r e l a ti o n c o e f f i c ie n t s to f i n d an averag e r o f
.15 betw een i n t e ll ig e n c e t e s t s and music t e s t s .
T h is ig c o n s id e ra b ly
19
low er th a n th o se c a se s where a v e ra g e s were r e p o rte d f o r th e co r­
r e l a t i o n between th e t e s t s o f m usic and in t e l l i g e n c e .
The r e la tio n s h ip s among th e components of m u sic al
a b i l i t y o f f e r e d an o th er approach to th e a n a ly s is of m u s ic a lity .
Seashore (61) seem ingly was th e f i r s t to an aly ze m u sical a b i l i t y
in t h i s
fa s h io n
’"hen he s tu d ie d th e c o r r e l a ti o n s o f sev en teen
v a r ia b le s which were c o n s id e re d r e l a t e d to m u sical a b i l i t y .
A ll th e re p o rte d c o r r e l a ti o n s w ere g e n e r a lly low .
I t w ould
ap p ea r th a t th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d se rv e d a s th e b a s is upon
which Seashore developed h i s "M easures o f M usical T alen t" in
1919, th e y e a r fo llo w in g .
That m u sic al a b i l i t y i s a c o n g e rie s
of s e p a ra te t a l e n t s , s ix o f which a r e most im portant and th e r e ­
by in c lu d e d in h is m easu res, se rv e d a s th e fundam ental p h ilo so p h y
in t h e i r c o n s tr u c tio n , ( f )
Brown (1 1 ), Such and S to d ’a rd (5 6 ), M u rsell (4 8 ), and
Drake (21) i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d th e s c o re s of th e Seashore t e s t s .
These r e s u l t s a re p re s e n te d in ta b le VII (p . 9 2 ) .
Drake p e r­
form ed a tw o -fa c to r a n a ly s is of e ig h t t e s t s , in c lu d in g f iv e o f
th e Seashore t e s t s , and found one common f a c t o r p lu s f iv e ad­
d it io n a l group f a c t o r s .
Manzer and llaro w itz (39) gave th e
Ewalwasser-Dykema t e s t s to c o lle g e s tu d e n ts and concluded from
(f)
Seashore haB more r e c e n tly g iv e n ev id en ce o f d e v ia tin g from
h i s e a r l i e r atomism. His p re s e n t p o s iti o n , however, in d i c a te s
u n w illin g n e s s to abandon co m p letely th e e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e .
20
th e v ery low, n lth o u g h p o s iti v e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (ran g e from
.0C0 to .3 6 8 ), th a t m u sical a b i l i t y was a complex o f s e p a ra te
a b ilitie s .
In "The A b i l i t i e s o f Man," Spearman re p o rte d th a t
" th e a b i l i t i e s to a p p r e c ia te , f o r in s ta n c e , th e r e l a t i o n s o f
p i t c h , lo u d n e ss, and rhythm have extrem ely low i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s ;
no more, in f a c t , th a t must be a t t r i b u t e d to g a lo n e ."
C a r r o ll (16) m easured th e r e l a t i o n s among th e Hevner
Music A p p re c ia tio n T e st, th e M eier-S eash o re A rt Judgment T e s t,
and the C a r r o ll P ro se A p p re c ia tio n T e s t.
The c o n c lu sio n was
th a t th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s 11 . . . in d ic a te s tr o n g ly th a t th e
r e la tio n s h ip e x i s t in g among th e c a p a c it ie s to a p p r e c ia te a r t ,
l i t e r a t u r e and m usic i s v e ry s l i g h t .
L ite r a t u r e and a r t show
a somewhat g r e a te r ten d en cy to v a ry to g e th e r then do li te r a t u r e *
and m usic, o r a r t and m u sic ."
Morrow (45) gave f iv e of th e most
r e l a i b l e Kwalwasser-Dykema Music T e s ts , th e M eier-S eashore and
Lewerens A rt t e a t s , and th e S te n q u is t M echanical P ic tu r e T e st
No. I I to c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .
The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and f a c t o r
a n a ly s is re v e a le d no o u ts ta n d in g r e l a t i o n s between th e music
t e s t s and th e t e s t s o f th e o th e r a b i l i t i e s .
The i n t e r c o r r e ­
l a t i o n s among th e m usic t e s t s th em selv es were r a th e r low.
The
T hurstone c e n te r o f g r a v ity f a c t o r i a l a n a ly s is in d ic a te d th e
p re se n c e o f a s o - c a lle d group f a c t o r f o r th e m u rir t e s t s .
group f a c t o r s were m a n ife s te d .
O ther
I t was shown th a t th e t e s t s of
a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y andm echarical a b i l i t y w ere more c lo s e ly i n t e r ­
r e l a t e d th an th e t e s t s of th e o th e r a b i l i t i e s .
There was con­
s id e r a b le o v erla p p in g in d ic a te d in th e c o r r e la tio n s and th e
31
f a c t o r lo a d in g s .
The s tu d ie s of a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y were e s s e n t i a l l y l i k e
the ex p erim en ts in m u sic al a b i l i t y .
As exam ples, E ld e rto n
(22) c o r r e l a te d draw ing a b i l i t y w ith i n t e l l i g e n c e , g rad es in
school s u b je c ts , m anual t e s t s , and c h a r a c te r r a t i n g s .
The
h ie r a r c h ie s of i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were v e ry low , th e c o e f f i c i e n t s
ran g in g from .0 6 to .2 6 .
The g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n w as, n e v e rth e ­
l e s s , th a t "Drawing i s more c lo s e ly r e la te d to g e n e ra l i n t e l l i ­
gence th a n even th e s u b je c ts l i k e w r itin g , geography and manual
w ork, more c lo s e ly a s s o c ia te d w ith th e e f f e c t i v e u se o f th e hand."
Karwoski and C h riste n se n (24) c o n s tr u c te d t h e i r own t e s t o f a r t i s ­
t i c a p p r e c ia tio n and found i t to c o r r e l a te .299 f o r g i r l s and .264
f o r boys w ith th e T h u rsto n s P s y c h o lo g ic a l T e st No. 4 .
M eier (41)
r e p o r te d r e s p e c tiv e c o e f f i c ie n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f - .1 4 6 ^*.09 and
- .0 1 8 - .0 3 , betw een th e M eier-S eash o re A rt Ju d g n en t T est an d th e
Terman Group and Thorndike I n te l li g e n c e T e s ts .
In c o n tr a d is tin c ­
t i o n to t h i s , Farnsw orth and Hisumi (23) r e p o r te d a c o r r e l a t i o n
c o e f f i c i e n t o f .079 - .0 6 between the M eier-S eash o re A rt Judgment
and the Thorndike I n te llig e n c e t e s t s .
C a r r o ll and l u r i c h (18)
compared th e M eier-S eash o re and th e McAdory A rt t e s t s w ith
re s p e c t to i n t e l l i g e n c e , a s m easured on th e c o lle g e le v e l by
th e M ille r Ana lo g ie s T e s t, w ith r e s p e c t to g ra d e s in a r t and
n o n - a r t s u b je c ts , and w ith r e s p e c t to two extrem e groups o f
b r ig h t and d u ll c h ild r e n .
T h eir th r e e m ain c o n c lu sio n s were
t h a t , in th e f i r s t p la c e , " . . . a s t r a c t in t e l l i g e n c e has l i t t l e i f any r e la tio n s h ip w ith c r i t i c a l a b i l i t y in a r t on th e c o lle g e
22
l e v e l ; " and a l s o , " . . . a b s t r a c t in t e ll ig e n c e a t th e extrem es
seems to a f f e c t a r t judgment a b i l i t y ; " an d , f i n a l l y , » . . .
g i f t e d c h ild r e n a r e s u p e rio r to b o r d e r lin e c h ild r e n in a r t
Judgment a b i l i t y , b u t n o t so s u p e rio r a s th e y a r e in a b s t r a c t
i n t e l l i g e n c e ."
B egarding th e r e l a t i o n s among th e d i f f e r e n t t e s t s of
a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , C a r r o ll (1 ?) re p o rte d a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c ie n t
of .27 betw een th e McAdory and M eier-S eash o re A rt Judgm ents t e s t s .
In a more in te n s iv e in v e s tig a tio n , Dewar (20) i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d th e
r e s u l t s on th e McAdory A rt T e s t, the M eier-S eash cre A rt Judgment
T e s t, th e B u rt-B u lle y A rt T e s t, th e B u rt P ic t u r e P o s tc a rd s A rt
T e s t, a group in t e ll ig e n c e t e s t , and a r t te a c h e r s ' e s tim a te s .
F a c to r a n a ly s is o f th e c o r r e l a ti o n s was p erfo rm ed by means o f
th e Spearman " s a tu r a ti o n of c o e f f ic ie n ts " m ethod aid th r e e methods
of f a c t o r i a l a n a ly s is d ev ised by B u rt.
The c o n c lu sio n was th a t
" . . . a l l th e c h ie f m ethods o f f a c to r a n a ly s is p o in t to a s in g le
g e n e ra l f a c t o r a s m ainly re s p o n s ib le f o r th e o rd e rs g iv e n .
Some
evidence i s a ls o found f o r s p e c if ic f a c t o r s s u g g e s tiv e o f d if ­
f e r e n t ty p e s o f a r t i s t i c a p p r e c ia tio n , a p p a r e n tly r e l a t e d to
th o se f i r s t d e s c rib e d by B ullough; b u t, h e re a s else w h e re , th e
s p e c if i c f a c t o r s te n d to be swamped by th e g e n e ra l f a c t o r ."
Jo n e s (32) r e p o r te d a c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a ti o n o f .69
between th e a b i l i t y to draw and th e a b i l i t y to ju d g e draw ings
which he c a l l e d p e rc e p tio n o f p e r s p e c tiv e .
Morrow (45) confirm ed
t h i s by r e p o r tin g a r e la tio n s h ip o f r 3 .4 8 between th e a b i l i ty
to judge a r t , a s m easured by th e M eier-S eash o re A rt Judgment
23
T e st and o r ig i n a l o r c r e a tiv e a b i l i t y in a r t , a s m easured by
th e O r ig in a l it y of Line Drawing T est of th e Lewerenz T e s ts in
Fundam ental A b i l i t i e s of V isu al A r t.
The r e la tio n s h ip between draw ing a b i l i t y and in t e l l i g e n c e
h a s lo n g been o f i n t e r e s t to the p s y c h o lo g is t.
B in e t, f o r
in s ta n c e , reco g n ized th e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r such a r e la tio n s h ip
and in c lu d e d two draw ings in h is s c a le , th e sq u are a t th e f o u r th
y e a r and th e diamond in th e se v e n th .
That Teiman a g re e d w ith
t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s ap p aren t in th e in c lu s io n o f th e s e item s in
th e r e v is io n s o f th e t e s t .
Goodenough was in s im ila r agreem ent
when she e la b o r a te d th e t h e s i s th a t the a b i l i t y of c h ild r e n to
draw was a m easure of t h e i r g e n e ra l in t e l l i g e n c e and n o t a
m easure o f a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y .
Tj-i8 p h ilo so p h y s e rv e d a s th e
b e s is upon w hich she c o n s tru c te d th e famous "Drawing A Man"
S cale o f I n te llig e n c e (2 6 ).
A more r e c e n t stu d y o f th e r e ­
la tio n s h ip between drawing a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e was conducted
by M ille r (4 3 ).
A s e r ie s of tw enty draw ings was c o n s tr u c te d and
g iv e n to 100 c h ild r e n in each g rad e (w ith age c o n s ta n t) from th e
p re -s c h o o l th ro u g h th e sev en th .
Average c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .7 5 , .7 2 ,
and .69 were fou n d r e s p e c tiv e ly between t h i s s c a le and th e P in tn e r Cunningham P rim ary M ental T e st (k in d e rg a rte n and f i r s t g ra d e ), th e
O tis P rim ary T est (seco n d to f i f t h g ra d e s) and th e Henman-'': e l son
T e st ( s ix th to sev en th g ra d e s ).
24
The most com prehensive in v e s tig a tio n of c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y
was made by Andrew (5),w ho gave to a h ete ro g e n e o u i group o f
216 women and 124 men a s e r i e s of t e s t s , in c lu d in g th e P re s se y
S e n io r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and V e r if ic a tio n T«st (vjhich m easures
academ ic a b i l i t y ) , th e M innesota C le r ic a l, th e O’Connor F in g e r
and Tweezer D e x te r ity T e s ts , th e p la c in g p o r tio n o f th e Minne­
s o ta Manual D e x te rity T e s t, th e M innesota S p a tia l R e la tio n s ,
th e M ichigan F e a tu re s D isc im in a tio n T e s ts , Number and L e t te r
C a n c e lla tio n and S u b s titu tio n T e s ts , V e rify in g A rith m e tic
and S p e llin g , Number Group Checking, and a t e s t in ad d in g .
A n a ly sis o f th e i n t e r c o r r e la tio n s in d ic a te d t h a t th e range
o f c o e f f i c i e n t s was from .0 0 to .8 4 . w ith an av erag e o f .2 7 ,
w hich in d ic a te s th e tendency f o r d e s ir a b le t r a i t s to be p o s i­
t i v e l y c o r r e l a te d .
She concluded th e c o r r e l a ti o n a l a n a l y s i s ,
however, w ith th e statem en t t h a t "T his t e s t b a t te r y is m easur­
ing a t l e a s t fo u r r e l a t i v e l y independent f a c t o r s , th o se of
academ ic, c l e r i c a l , s p a t i a l and d e x te r ity a b i l i t i e s . "
(g)
Andrew s u b je c te d th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s to a T h u rsto n s
m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly s is a s w e ll a s to a Spearmraa b i - f a c t o r
te tr a d a n a ly s is .
Ana ly s e s were perform ed f o r a l l th e t e s t s ,
(g) Andrew conducted h e r re s e a rc h a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota,
w here th e " th e o iy o f unique tr a itR " h a s been g iv en i t s most
s tre n u o u s s u p p o rt.
25
f o r th e t e s t a which a lle g e d ly m easure c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y and f o r
a. group o f d i f f e r e n t t e s t s given to a "homogeneous" p-roup of
employed c le rie & l w orkers and to a "heterogeneous" group o f
unemployed c l e r i c a l w o rk ers.
The main fin d in g s were t h a t : (1 )
fo u r f a c t o r s a r e s u f f i c i e n t to account f o r th e c o r r e l a t i o n a l
m a tr ix .
The f i r s t f a c to r "seems to be m easu rin g a g e n e ra l
a b i l i t y f a c t o r , one which em phasizes a b i l i t y in c l e r i c a l t e s t s . "
th e second f a c t o r "seems to be m easuring speed in sim ple d is ­
c rim in a tio n s , en a b i l i t y which i s independent o f academ ic a b i l i t y
f o r t h i s g ro u p ."
The t h i r d f a c t o r "may be b e s t d e s c rib e d a s a
s p a t i a l a b i l i t y f a c t o r " , and th e f o u r th f a c t o r " i s e v id e n tly
speed in m otor a b i l i t y . "
(2) C le r ic a l a b i l i t y i s a s p e c if i c
o r u n iq u e a b i l i t y ?/hich i s r e l a t i v e l y independent o f s p a t i a l ,
academ ic, and d e x t e r ity a b i l i t i e s , each o f which i s in i t s
own re s p e c t a s p e c if ic a b i l i t y .
(3 ) M u ltip le f a c to r a n a ly s is
in d ic a te s t h a t a common f a c t o r runs through a l l of th e t e s t s
and, in a d d itio n , th e r e a r e m inor group f a c t o r s .
In th e a n a ly s is of m echanical a b i l i t y , P e r r i n 's e a r l y
re s e a rc h (53) is im p o rtan t and m e rits c o n s id e r a tio n .
M echanical
a b i l i t y and m otor a b i l i t y were th o u g h t to be synonymous a t th a t
tim e, (h)
P e r r i n gave th r e e "complex" and fo u rte e n "sim ple"
m otor t e s t s to 51 u n iv e r s i ty s tu d e n ts .
The re p o rte d i n t e r -
(h )
The problem o f th e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een m echanical
a b illity is s t i l l d eb ated as can be d is c e rn e d from a stu d y o f th e
lite ra tu re .
and
motor
I
26
c o r r e la tio n s among a l l th e sim p le, a l l th e com plex, and. the
sim ple and complex t e s t s w ere r a th e r low.
The c o r r e l a ti o n s
w ith the Army Alpha I n te l li g e n c e T e st, g rad es and c h a r a c te r
r a tin g s were s im i la r l y low .
P e r r in , th e r e f o r e , concluded
th a t "Motor a b i l i t y i s n o t g e n e r a l, but th a t i t is somewhat
d e f i n i t e l y s p e c ia liz e d ."
In c o n tr a s t to t h i s , C a rte r (19) i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d e ig h te e n
v a r ia b le s , in c lu d in g s e v e r a l d if f e r e n t m ech an ical a b i l i t y t e s t s
as w e ll as t e s t s o f p h y s io lo g ic a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y ,
g ra d e s, i n t e r e s t in v e n to r ie s , and perform ance in shop work.
The c o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c i e n t s and t e t r a d a n a ly s is cau sed C a rte r
to conclude t h a t "The w r i t e r b e lie v e s th e re i s no g e n e ra l
f a c t o r o f m echanical a b i l i t y ; n e ith e r a re m ech an ical a b i l i t i e s
as m easured by th e se t e s t s
co m p letely s p e c i f i c , in s te a d th e re
i s g r e e t p r o b a b il it y th a t th e re a r e group f a c t o r s w hich over­
la p .
These r e s u l t s a re c l o s e l y in acco rd w ith th e th e o ry o f
Thomson."
One of th e most com prehensive in v e s tig a tio n s of a
s in g le a b i l i t y was th e M innesota stu d y o f m ech an ical a b i l i t y
te s ts .
The a u th o rs , P a te rs o n , E l l i o t t , A nderson, Toops, and
H eid b red er, (51) r e s t r i c t e d th e term m otor a b i l i t y " to r a th e r
sim ple fu n c tio n s o f i s o l a t e d m uscles o r m uscle g ro u u s;" whereas
th e term m echanical a b i l i t y was a p p lie d to "w hatever c a p a c itie s
and a b i l i t i e s a r e n e c e ssa ry f o r c e r t a in k in d s of work - sp e c i­
f i c a l l y , work th a t in v o lv e s th e m a n ip u latio n of t o o l s , the
o p e ra tio n of m ach in ery , and th e p lan n in g and e x e c u tio n o f
27
p ie c e s o f work which in v o lv e th e s e and s im ila r a c t i v i t i e s . "
In t h i s stu d y , th ey c o n s tru c te d , v a lid a te d and found r e l i a b i l i t i e s
f o r d i f f e r e n t a s p e c ts o f m ech an ical a b i l i t y .
On t h i s b a s is , o ld e r
t e s t s w ere improved or r e v is e d and new ones c o n s tru c te d .
In th e
p re lim in a ry p o r tio n s th e y c o r r e l a t e d such f a c t o r s as i n t e ll ig e n c e
t e s t s c o r e s , g rp d ss, age. economic and s o c ia l f a c t o r s , a t t i t u d e s
and i n t e r e s t s , and so on.
Zero o rd e r, p a r t i a l and m u ltip le co r­
r e l a t i o n s were u sed , and th ey co n clu d ed from th e r e s u l t s th a t
"M echanical a b i l i t y , a s m easured by th e perform ance b a t t e r i e s ,
was found to be unique w ith r e s p e c t to in t e ll ig e n c e and a ls o
w ith r e s p e c t to motor a g i l i t y , when th e f a c t o r s o f age and
w eig h t, w hich a r e p o s iti v e ly c o r r e l a t e d w ith m otor a g i l i t y , a re
h e ld c o n s ta n t.
Thus, th r e e m easures o f a b i l i t y u t i l i z e d in t h i s
re s e a rc h - m echcnical a b i l i t y , m otor a b i l i t y , and in t e ll ig e n c e f u l f i l l reaso n ab ly w e ll +>>e req u ire m e n ts of u n iq u e t r c i t s . "
I t was ir. t h i s study by th e M innesota group t h a t th e
th e o ry o f unique t r a i t s ( i ) re c e iv e d i t s s p e c if ic fo rm u la tio n .
A t r a i t is judged u n ique when i t m eets two s t a t i s t i c a l r e q u ir e ­
m ents.
A.s s ta t e d by th e se in v e s t ig a t o r s , th e c r i t e r i a a r e :
" f i r s t , th e t r a i t a s te s t e d must c o r r e l a te p o s iti v e ly w ith a t
l e a s t one c r i t e r i o n o f human en d eav o r.
Second, i t must g iv e
c o r r e l a ti o n s as low a s p o s s ib le w ith a l l o th e r u n iq u e t r o u t s .
( I ) The w r ite r p r s f e r s not to U3e th e term "unique t r a i t s " and
p r e f e r s in i t s p la c e th e e x p re s s io n "in d ep en d en t a b i l i t i e s " be­
cause o f th e co n fu sio n which o f te n accom panies th e words "unique"
and " t r a i t s . " The w r i t e r h a s , a l s o , atte m p te d to a v o id w herever
p o s s ib le such term s a s a p t itu d e , c a p a c ity , u n ite .ry , e t c . , f o r
s im ila r re a s o n s .
P o s iti v e c o r r e l a ti o n s w ith th e c r i t e r i o n show th a t th e t e s t in
q u e s tio n m easures what i t p u r p o r ts to m easure; th a t th e r e i s
some corresp o n d en ce "between th e t r a i t as te s t e d and th e c r i t e r i o n
to which i t i s r e f e r r e d ;
in f a c t th e t r a i t i s i d e n t i f i e d and
d e fin e d in term s o f th e c r i t e r i o n w ith w hich i t g iv e s h ig h
p o s iti v e c o r r e l a t i o n .
o th e r t r a i t s mean t h a t
On th e o th e r hand, low c o r r e l a ti o n s w ith
he t e s t i n q u e s tio n i s m easuring th e
p a r t i c u l a r t r a i t i t a tte m p ts to m easure r a th e r th a n som ething
e l s e , th a t th e t e s t has s u c c e s s f u lly i s o l a t e d th e t r a i t in
q u e s tio n ; in o th e r w ords, th a t th e t r a i t i s unique w ith r e s p e c t
to o th e r s .
To sum up th e m a tte r , p o s iti v e c o r r e la tio n s w ith the
c r i t e r i o n t e l l what the t r a i t i s ; low c o r r e l a ti o n s w ith o th e r
t r a i t s show th a t i t h as been s u c c e s s f u lly d is e n ta n g le d from
i t s n o n - e s s e n tia l co n co m ita n ts."
Murphy (46) gave to 143 n in th -g ra d e boys f iv e p a r t s of
th e German Group T est of M ental A b ili ty , the Kuhlnan-Anderson
I n te l li g e n c e T e st ( t e s t no. 3 2 ), th e K evised Army B eta, th e
L ik e r t and Quasha R evised M innesota P ap er Form B oard, th r e e
p a r t s o f th e MacQ.uar r i e T est o f M echanical A b ili ty , and two
p a r t s o f th e D e tr o it M echanical E xam ination f o r Boys.
The
Terman and Kuhlman-Anderson were v e rb a l t e s t s ; th e Army B eta
n o n -v e rb a l; th e o th e rs t e s t e d m echanical a b i l i t y .
She o b ta in e d
th re e f a c t o r s , which a f t e r r o t a t i n g the axes were c a lle d
" . . . a f a c t o r dependent on th e m ental m a n ip u la tio n o f r e l a t i o n ­
sh ip s e x p re sse d sy m b o lic a lly ; a f a c t o r c a l l i n g f o r speed o f
hand-eye c o o rd in a tio n ; and a f a c t o r dependent upon th e m en tal
m a n ip u la tio n s o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s . "
I t was found, to o , th a t
"The n o n -v erb al in t e l l i g e n c e t e s t u sed , th e K evised B eta Examina­
t i o n , i s m easuring th o se t r a i t s w hich the m ech an ical a p titu d e
t e s t s m easure r a th e r th a n th e t r a i t which the v e r b a l t e s t s a re
m easu rin g ."
Most im p o rtan t of th e f in d in g s , however, was th e
f a c t th a t " I t was d is c lo s e d th a t the t r a i t w hich hasbeen c a l le d
m ecnanical a b i l i t y i s n o t a u n it a r y t r a i t , b u t r a th e r a complex
o f t r a i t s B and C."
That is to say, th e hand-eye c o o rd in a tio n
f a c to r and th e s p a t i a l f a c t o r a re th e ones th a t a r e r e f e r r e d to .
Buxton (15) a d m in is te re d t h i r t e e n t e s t s o f d i f f e r e n t
ty p e s o f m otor a b i l i t y - r o t o r , cube, and spool p ack in g , t h r u s t ­
ing and s ta t io n a r y s te a d in e s s , t r i p l e , tw o-bar ta p p in g an d w r i s t t a r n ta p p in g , snd m o t i l i t y and p u r s u it r o t o r .
A T hurstone c e n te r
of g r a v ity f a c t o r i a l a n a ly s is o f the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s y ie ld e d
s ix f a c t o r s , o f w hich o n ly th re e were s i g n i f i c a n t .
C e r ta in
narrow group f a c t o r s w ere o b ta in e d b u t i t was n o t p o s s ib le from
the r e s u l t s to prove o r d isp ro v e th e e x is te n c e o f a g e n e ra l f a c t o r
(o r f a c t o r s ) in m otor a b i l i t y .
On the o th e r hand, M orris (44) gave to 56 n in e -y e a r o ld
boys 34 d if f e r e n t perform ance t e s t s o f m ental a b i l i t y , in c lu d in g
common t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , m echanical a b i l i t y and manual
d e x t e r ity .
Of th e 77 v a r ia b le s w hich were in c lu d e d in th e 34
t e s t s , o n ly 33 were chosen a f t e r th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r th e
f a c to r ia l a n a ly s is .
These v a r ia b le s were most d is c r im in a tiv e and
f r e e from obvious co n tam in a tio n by o th e r f a c t o r s .
He o b ta in e d
fo u r f a c t o r lo a d in g s and e lim in a te d one a f t e r r o t a t i o n .
These
were " . . . an a b i l i t y which r e q u ir e s th e p e r c e p tio n o f f o r a
and space r e l a t i o n s ; th e a b i l i t y to make a q u ick i d e n t i f i c a ­
ti o n o f sim ple p e rc e p tu a l m a te r ia l when m ixed w ith li k e or
s im ila r m a te r ia l; and the a b i l i t y to d is c o v e r a o a tte r n o r
r u l e o f p ro c e d u re .
These t r a i t s have been p r e v io u s ly d e s c rib e d
in s im ila r term s by T hurstone an d i d e n t i f i e d by him a s V is u a liz ­
in g , P e rc e p tu a l Speed and In d u c tio n , r e s p e c tiv e ly ."
He con­
c lu d ed , m oreover, th a t " th e p resen ce o f a g e n e ra l f a c t o r in th e
c o r r e l a t i o n a l m a trix was not d is c lo s e d ."
H a r r e ll (27) gave a b a t te r y o f in d iv id u a l and group t e s t s
o f m echanical a b i l i t y to 91 c o tto n m i ll m achine f i x e r s .
The
T h u rsto n e c e n tr o id f a c t o r a n a ly s is y ie ld e d f i v e f a c t o r s , which
he la b le d p e rc e p tio n of d e t a i l ( P ) , v e rb a l r e l a t i o n s (V ),
v is u a l iz i n g s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s ( S ) , manual a g i l i t y (A ), and
y'u ith (Y ).
The su rv ey of re s e a rc h in in t e ll ig e n c e m ust o f n e c e s s ity
be c o n fin e d to th o se in v e s tig a tio n s which a re p e r tin e n t to th e
problem c o n s id e re d in th e p re s e n t stu d y .
As h as a lre a d y been
in d ic a te d , the e a r l i e r re s e a rc h e s were conducted m ainly by
T horndike, Spearmen and t h e i r c o lle a g u e s .
The l a t e r s tu d ie s
c o n tin u e d to be s u b s ta n tia tio n s o r r e f u t a t i o n s o f th e m u ltif a c t o r th e o ry o f T horndike, o r th e tw o -fa c to r th e o ry of Spearman, ( j )
In most in s ta n c e s , th e o r i e n t a t i o n rem ained th e same, w h ile th e
( j ) Spearman m d d ifie d h i s th e o ry to in c lu d e group f a c t o r s in a d d itio n
to th e g e n e ra l and s p e c if ic f a c t o r s .
31
a d d itio n o f new m a te r ia ls and new tech n iq u es "brought to a sharper
fo c u s the c o n flic t? , among th e se t h e o r ie s .
T^ua, th e Thurstone
th eory o f prim ary a b i l i t i e s superceded the th e o ry of T horndike.
In su p p o rt of th e Spearman tw o -fa c to r th e o ry was th e work
of W ilson (9 4 ), who a d m in is te re d a b a t te r y o f e ig h t t e s t s , con­
s i s t i n g o f memory f o r d i g i t s , number s e r i e s , a r ith m e tic a l problem s,
p i t c h d is c r im in a tio n , o p p o s ite s , d e fin in g w o rd s, com pleting sen­
te n c e s and co m p letin g p ic tu r e s .
The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and Spearman
t e t r a d d if f e r e n c e s in d ic a te d the p resen ce of a c e n t r a l f a c t o r p lu s
s p e c if i c and group f a c t o r s .
Brown and Stephenson (13) gave tw enty-tw o d i f f e r e n t t e s t s
of v e r b a l, n o n -v erb al (m ainly n u m erical) and p e rc e p tu a l ( v i s u a l and
a u d ito r y , i . e . , P itc h D is c rim in a tio n T est o f Seashore Music T e s ts ) .
Each o f th e s e was u se d presum ably to m easure "n o n -o v erlap p in g "
a b i l i t i e s .-
They re p o r te d s u b s ta n tia tio n of th e b i - f a c t o r th e o ry
o f Spearman, in c lu d in g a group f a c t o r f o r the v e rb a l m a te r ia l.
In a s e r i e s o f th r e e r e p o r ts , Stephenson (72, 73, 74)
f u r th e r c o rro b o ra te d th e th e o ry o f Spearman when he perform ed
s e p a ra te t e t r a d a n a ly se s of th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among th e
e ig h t v e rb a l t e s t s , th e e ig h t n o n -v erb al t e s t s and th e v e r b a land n o n -v erb al i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i n s .
Under the d i r e c t s u p e rv is io n of P r o f e s s o r G a r r e tt , a
s e r ie s of ex p erim en ts were conducted a t Columbia U n iv e r s ity
w hich were in d i r e c t c o n tr a d ic tio n to th e theory of Spearman.
Schneck (58) s t a r t e d th e s e r ie s by g iv in g f iv e v e rb a l and fo u r
n u m erical t e s t s to a group o f c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .
i
!
A fte r a n a ly z in g
th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and t e t r a d d if f e r e n c e s he found th a t two
g e n e ra l f a c t o r s were p r e s e n t, one re p re s e ttin g v e rb a l a b i l i t y
(V f a c t o r ) and th e o th e r r e p r e s e n tin g nu m erical a b i l i t y (N
fa c to r).
little
Ih e v e rb a l and nu m erical a b i l i t y were found to have
in common, s in c e the c o r r e l a ti o n between V and N was
found to be .2625.
A n a s ta s i in two s e p a ra te re s e a rc h e s found h e r s e l f in
s u b s ta n tia l agreem ent w ith th e g e n e ra l c o n c lu sio n s o f Schneck.
In one study (3) e ig h t memory t e s t s p lu s t e s t s of v o c a b u la iy ,
a r ith m e tic re a so n in g and th e M innesota P aper Form B oard,
s e r i e s A and B, w ere given to a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group
of c o lle g e s tu d e n ts .
From the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y
th e s iz e of th e average i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f th e memory t e s t s ,
from th e t e t r a d c r i t e r i o n , and from the c o r r e la tio n s of each
t e s t w ith th e c e n t r a l f a c t o r w hich th e o th e r methods p ro v ed
e x is te d , she was ab le to prove th e a c tu a l p resen ce of a c e n t r a l
f a c t o r in th^nemoiy t e s t s .
M oreover, t h i s f a c to r was independent
of th e non-memory t e s t s ; th a t i s th e V and N f a c t o r s of Schneck.
In th e l a t e r stu d y ( 4 ) , she c o rro b o ra te d th e se f in d in g s .
B u t,
when d i f f e r e n t t e s t s of memory were in tro d u c e d in to the stu d y ,
i t was found th a t th e common f a c t o r was n o t p re s e n t in a l l
form s o f memory.
I t would seem, th e r e f o r e , th a t th d memory
f a c t o r was a group f a th e r th an a g en era l f a c t o r .
Smith (65) gave f o u r te e n n u m erical, v e rb a l and s p a t i a l
t e s t s and an aly zed th e r e s u l t s by means o f th e tw o -fa c to r t e t r a d
a n a ly s is and th e H o te llin g method of m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a l y s i s .
32
I t was shown th a t th e t e s t s c o n ta in e d " . . . a g e n e ra l f a c t o r ,
m u ltip le o v e rla p p in g group f a c t o r s o f v a rio u s o rd e rs and v a rio u s
degrees of p o te n cy , and s p e c i f i c s ."
The su g g e s tio n was made th a t
th e g e n e ra l f a c t o r may he " th e a b i l i t y t r see r e la tio n s h ip s ,
though the r e la tio n s h ip s in v o lv ed may d i f f e r in k in d and in
decree o f c o m p le x ity ."
S c h i l l e r (57) p e r f o m e d t e t r a d f a c t o r a n a ly s is o f th e
i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w hich r e s u l t e d from th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f th r e e
num erical t e s t s , fo u r v e rb a l t e s t s , and f iv e n o n -v e rb a l, s p a t i a l
o r perform ance in t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s .
Three f a c t o r s , r e p r e s e n tin g
v e r b a l, n u m e rical, and s p a t i a l a b i l i t y were found.
A lthough a
s in g le common f u n c tio n seemed to run through a l l th e t e s t s ,
th e re ap p eared to be some a d d itio n a l ev id en ce f o r th e p o s s i b i l i t y
of independent e x is te n c e o f th e se f a c t o r s .
G a r r e tt (25) perform ed m u ltip le f a c t o r i a l a n a ly se s of
th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d in th e s tu d ie s of Schneck, A n a s ta s i and
S c h ille r.
In a d d itio n to su p p o rtin g t h e i r g e n e ra l r e s u l t s ,
G a rre tt was a b le t '
re v e a l a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio n , such as th e
i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n m inor f a c t o r s , through th e u se o f th i s
more advanced te c h n iq u e .
By means of th e m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly s is ,
he was a b le to prove the im p o rtan t f a c t in each case th a t th e group
f a c t o r s found by th e se re s e a rc h e s were in a l l c a se s i n t e r r e l a t e d
and were n o t e x i s t i n g in d e p e n d e n tly as had been th o u g h t.
Jo rg en so n (33) d is a g re e d w ith th e Spearman th e o ry o f two
f a c t o r s when he found by means o f t e t r a d a n a ly s is a number o f d if ­
f e r e n t group f a c t o r s in s te a d o f a common f a c t o r f o r a b a t t e r y o f
t e s t s w hich c o n ta in e d th e Army A lpha, O tis T est f o r B u sin ess E sta b -
34
lish m e n t8 , Thurstone C le r ic a l , T hurstone T ec h n ical In fo rm a tio n ,
MacQjiarrie M echanical and a te a c h in g a p titu d e t e a t .
Aa a r e s u l t of a f a i r l y in te n s iv e in v e s tig a tio n of v a rio u s
v e rb a l and perform ance in t e ll ig e n c e t e s t s by means of th e t e t r a d
f a c t o r a n a ly s is , th e T hurstone c e n te r o f g r a v ity m u ltip le f a c t o r
a n a ly s is and th e method d ev ised by H o te llin g , A lexander ( 2 ) was
a b le to dem onstrate th e e x is te n c e of f iv e f a c t o r s .
was th e g e n e ra l in t e ll ig e n c e f a c t o r .
v e rb a l a b i l i t y f a c t o r .
The g, f a c t o r
The v f a c t o r he c a l l e d th e
The f f a c t o r he la b e lle d th e p r a c t i c a l
a b i l i t y f a c t o r , and s t a t e d t h a t i t was " p e c u lia r to perform ance
te s ts ."
The x f a c t o r was th e s o - c a lle d p e r s is te n c e f a c t o r an d
the z_ f a c t o r a f a c t o r im p o rtan t in sch o o l achievem ent.
He ad­
v o cated the dynamic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among the d if f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s
by s t a t i n g th a t "These s o - c a ll e d fu n c tio n a l a b i l i t i e s a re not
independent t r a i t s .
They a re each th e r e s u l t a n t o f more th a n
one f a c t o r , an d th e y a r e a l l d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d to one a n o th e r."
P rev io u s to th e p u b lic a tio n of th e in v e s tig a tio n by
A lexan d er, T h u rsto n e (85) r e p o r te d a study in which he u sed
some o f A le x a n d e r's u n p u b lish e d d a ta .
He found th a t h is method
o f m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly s is gave him two g e n e ra l f a c t o r s re p re ­
s e n tin g v e rb a l a b i l i t y an d m an ip u lato ry a b i l i t y .
In th e same
r e p o r t he s u b je c te d th e d a ta o f Brown and Stephenson to m u ltip le
f a c t o r a n a ly s is and found a f a c t o r f o r v e rb a l a b i l i t y and a
f a c t o r f o r v is u a l form p e r c e p tio n .
36
In an o th e r r e p o r t, T hurstone (86) gave to 240 s u b je c ts a
p ro d ig io u s b ;- tte r y o f f i f t y - s i x p s y c h o lo g ic a l t e s t s , c o n s is tii®
o f th e ty p e s o f v e r b a l, n u m erical and v is u a l ta s k s th a t a re
found in in t e ll ig e n c e t e s t s .
M u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly s is in d ic a te d
seven prim ary f a c t o r s and two te n t a t i v e o n es.
He la b e le d th e
p rim ary f a c t o r s v is u a l , p e r c e p tu a l, n u m e ric a l, complex v e rb a l
r e l a t i o n s , s in g le and is o la te d w ords, memory, and in d u c tiv e .
The te n ta ti v e f a c t o r s he i d e n t i f i e d a s p ro b le m -so lv in g and
d e d u c tiv e .
These p rim ary a b i l i t i e s are in essen ce independent
group f a c t o r s .
One o f the m ajor co n c lu sio n s w as, "We cannot
r e p o rt any g e n e ra l common f a c to r in th e b a t t e r y of f i f t y - s i x
t e s t s th a t have been a n aly zed in th e p r e s e n t stu d y ."
I t is
o f i n t e r e s t to n o te , in t h i s co n n ec tio n , th a t Spearman (69)
perform ed a t e t r a d a n a ly s is of thesejplata and r e p o r te d th e
p resen ce of a g f a c t o r .
Woodrow (96) s im i la r l y perform ed a v ery in te n s e stu d y
by g iv in g f if t y - t w o d if f e r e n t m ental t e s t s , in v o lv in g v a rio u s
t e s t s and s u b - te s ts of g en era l in t e l l i g e n c e , s o c ia l in t e ll ig e n c e ,
m u sic al a b i l i t y (S e a sh o re ), achievem ent in c o lle g e co u rse , a t ­
te n tio n t e s t s , and so on.
He an aly zed the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s
by means o f th e T hurstone m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly s is and o b ta in e d
te n f a c t o r s , s ix o f which had s ig n if ic a n c e .
These were v e r b a l,
v i s u a l - s p a t i a l , n u m erical, a t t e n t i o n , m u s ic a l,a n d a su g g ested
memory f a c t o r .
There were in d ic a tio n s o f much o v e rla p p in g in
th e v a r ia b le s which oom prised th e f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y beyond
the second f a c t o r .
36
fin a l Statement o f the Problem
In summary of the foregoing, two fa c ts seem to stand
out c le a r ly .
The f i r s t fa c t in d ica tes almost un iversal agree­
ment regarding the e x isten ce of broad group fa c to r s.
The
second fa c t, however, in d ic a te s disagreement regarding the
nature o f these group fa c to r s.
S p e c ific a lly , the controversy
seems to revolve about the question o f whether these fa c to r s
are in ter r ela ted or whether they e x is t independently.
Thurstone,
whose theory of primary a b i l i t i e s has taken the place o f the
m ultiple fa c to r s theory o f Thosndike, subscribes to a theory
of independence among the primary group fa c to r s.
This theory
i s in many respects sim ilar to a fa c u lty psychology based, o f
course,on s c ie n t if ic structure.
In Spearman's tw o-factor
theory, on the other hand, the group fa c to r s are not at a l l
independent since they are tie d together by means o f the general
fa c to r .
At present, there arm ardent proponents o f both view s,
these being supported by both experimental and a n a ly tic evidence.
K elley (35) assumes a p o sitio n which i s c lo se to the
Thurstone point of view when he conceives mental t r a it s as
c o n ste lla tio n s of a b i l i t i e s and rela ted phenomena capable o f
independent fu nctioning.
The theory o f "unique tra its"
p o site d by the p sy ch o lo g ists a t the U niversity o f Minnesota
*
i
!
•
3?
a g re e s q u ite w e ll w ith th e T hurstone th e o ry o f "p rim ary
a b ilitie s ."
A lexander a p p a re n tly su p p o rts th e tw o -fa c to r
th e o ry .
Somewhere between b o th th e s e extrem e th e o r ie s is th e
sam pling th e o ry o f Thomson ( ? 9 ) , ( c a l l e d " d o c trin e o f chance"
by Spearm an), w hich co n ceiv es o f th e mind s s made uo o f an
i n f i n i t e number o f n e u ra l bonds (somewhat s im ila r to th e
T horndike bonds) w hich may e x i s t in d e p e n d e n tly , o r as "su b ­
po o ls" o f th e v a rio u s bonds.
Thomson p r e f e r s t h i s e x p la n a tio n
to one in v o lv in g f a c t o r s o r f a c u l t i e s .
Tryon (92) ad v o cates
a s im ila r p o in t o f view w ith th e gene as th e b a s is ; so th a t
th e re a re as many in dependent f a c t o r s a s th e re a r e independent
g e n e tic elem en ts.
Hence, th e o b je c t o f th e p re s e n t stu d y i s to d eterm in e
w hether te s t e d a b i l i t i e s , such a s m usic, c l e r i c a l , m ech an ical,
and so f o r t h , which a re c o n s id e re d to be s p e c ia l and d is p a r a te
a b i l i t i e s , a r e a c t u a l l y independent o f one a n o th e r and th e
p o s s ib le e x te n t of such independence, o r dependence.
The
w r i t e r found in h is p re v io u s r e s e a rc h in v o lv in g t e s t s o f m usic,
a r t and m echanical a b i l i t y , t h a t th e se a b i l i t i e s were n o t
s e p a ra te and in d ep en d en t.
Much o v erla p p in g was r e p o rte d ,
i n d ic a tin g th e need f o r f u r th e r in te n s iv e in v e s tig a tio n .
H ie ra rc h ie s ap p ea red w ith in th e c o r r e l a ti o n s and th e f a c t o r
lo a d in g s .
38
C e rta in s p e c if ic q u e s tio n s would n a t u r a l l y a r i s e , such
as;
Are th e se s o - c a lle d s p e c ia l a b i l i t i e s complexes o f d i f ­
f e r e n t t e s t s h e a rin g th e same name as S eash o re p o s tu la te s
f o r h is m usic t e s t s , o r a re th e re c e r t a i n (gro u p ) f a c to r s
w hich a re common to them?
Are a l l th e t e s t s in th e b a t te r y
in c lu d e d in such a group f a c t o r , i f i t he proven to e x i s t ,
o r a re o n ly c e r t a i n chosen ones inclu d ed ?
Does s u p e r io r ity
in a s in g le a b i l i t y s ig n if y i n f e r i o r i t y in th e o th e r a b i l i t i e s ,
o r th e converse?
And, most im p o rtan t o f a l l , a r e th e se group
f a c t o r s (o r p rim ary a b i l i t i e s ) independent o f one an o th e r o r
do th e y e x i s t in c e r t a i n dynamic r e la tio n s h ip s ?
A c tu a lly ,
th e problem i s to in v e s tig a te by c o r r e l a t i o n and f a c t o r i a l
a n a ly s is th e r e la tio n s h ip s among t e s t s o f in t e l l i g e n c e ,
m u sic, a r t judgm ent, c l e r i c a l , m echanical and m a n ip u la tiv e
a b ility .
i
I*
V.
39
I I . THE EXPERIMENT
S u b je c ts
E ig h ty male s tu d e n ts from u n d e rg ra d u a te c o u rse s in
g e n e ra l psychology a t Brooklyn C ollege and a t th e 'Washington
Square C o lleg e of New York U n iv e r s ity were g iv e n th e com plete
b a t te r y o f t e s t s u sed in t h i s s tu d y .
The age ran g e of th e s e
s u b je c ts was from f i f t e e n y e a r s , n in e m onths, to tw en ty -fo u r
y e a r s , two m onths, w ith th e median age a t e ig h te e n y e a rs ,
fo u r m onths.
The socio-econom ic s ta t u s of th e v a s t m a jo r ity
of th e s u b je c ts wss e s s e n t i a l l y th e same, s in c e most o f them
came from th e u pper w orking c l a s s and low er m iddle c l a s s ty p e
of home environm ent.
A ll were b o rn in th e U n ite d S ta t e s .
They u s u a lly had one o r b o th p a r e n ts who were b o rn in t h i s
c o u n try , and th e y were m ain ly of th e Hebrew c u l t u r a l back­
ground.
P ro ced u re
Because o f th e f a c t th a t many o f th e t e s t s co u ld be ad­
m in is te r e d to groups a s w e ll a s in th e in d iv id u a l form, and
a ls o because o f th e f a c t th a t a co n scio u s e f f o r t was made to
40
avoid, adherence to a p a r t i c u l a r sequence o f a d m in is tr a tio n ,
th e te s t i n g p ro ced u re v a r ie d and mas v e ry d if f e r e n t f o r v a rio u s
s u b je c t s.
w hether th e t e s t s -were tak en in d iv id u a lly o r in
groups depenaed upon th e number o f s u b je c ts a v a ila b le a t a
p a r t i c u l a r tim e.
i ‘he groups nev er exceeded s ix , and w ere
u s u a lly two or th r e e in number.
Some s u b je c ts took a l l th e
p e n c il- p a p e r t e s t s in group form ; o th e rs to o k some o f th e s e
t e s t s in group and in d iv id u a l form ; w h ile most took a l l th e
t e s t s in d iv id u a lly .
The t e s t i n g program was ap p ro x im ate ly s ix h o u rs lo n g .
Depending upon th e s u b je c t s ' co n v en ien ce, th e program was a d ­
m in is te r e d in th r e e s e s s io n s , two s e s s io n s , o r s ix s e s s io n s .
The p ro ced u re m ost o fte n fo llo w ed , however, was a tw o-hour
s e s s io n , r e p e a te d th r e e tim e s ,
-he p a t t e r n o f a d m in is tr a tio n
o f the t e s t b a t t e r y depended upon f a c t o r s which h e lp e d c r e a te
maximum m o tiv a tio n o r f a c i l i t a .t e d th e t e s t i n g program .
F or
in s ta n c e , i f th e i n t e r e s t o f th e s u b je c t c o u ld be m a in ta in e d
by w ith h o ld in g th e music o r in t e ll ig e n c e t e s t u n t i l th e end,
t h i s p ro ced u re would be u s e d .
In many c a s e s i t became n eces­
s a ry to a d m in is te r th e s e t e s t s f i r s t in o rd e r to aro u se th e
c u r io u e ity and i n t e r e s t o f th e s u b je c t.
Most of th e 30 -
e a l l e d m echanical a b i l i t y t e s t s w ere in d iv id u a l t e s t s and
w ere a d m in is te re d m ainly a t th e end of th e p ro c e d u re .
The p h ilo so p h y u n d e rly in g such a v a r ie d t e s ti n g te c h ­
n iq u e r e c e iv e s su p p o rt in th e argum ent th a t t h i s i s n o t an
41
experim ent w hich p u rp o rts to determ in e th e r e s u l t s o f th e
d i f f e r e n t t e s t s u n d er v a rio u s t e s t i n g c o n d itio n s hut in s te a d
i s h a se d upon th e a c c e p te d assum ption th a t group t e s t s can he
a d m in is te re d in d iv id u a lly and to groups w ith o u t a f f e c t i n g th e
r e s u l t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y as w e ll a s upon th e j u s t i f i c a t i o n fcr
any te ch n iq u e which w i l l a s s i s t in b r in g in g fo rth ; maximum
r e s u l t s on each o f th e t e s t e d a b i l i t i e s .
S ince t h i s i s an
a n a ly s is o f th e r e l a t i o n among d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , i t i s
m ost im p o rtan t to u se te c h n iq u e s which would produce th e
maximum e x p re ssio n s o f th e s e a b i l i t i e s .
In th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e t e s t s , the r u le s and
r e g u la tio n s f o r p ro p e r t e s t i n g were s t r i c t l y ad h ered to ,
such a s u s e o f new m a te r ia ls , and o r ig i n a l t e s t i n s tr u c tio n s ,
e lim in a tio n of c o n d itio n s f o r copying and annoyances, and so
fo rth .
M a te ria ls
Many f a c t o r s e n te r e d in to th e
s p e c if i c
s e le c tio n o f
th e
t e s t i n g m a te r ia ls u se d in t h i s ex p erim en t. Out­
s ta n d in g among th e many b a s e s f o r s e le c tio n w ere th e e x te n t
to which th e t e s t s were c o n s id e re d to be d i s t i n c t and s e p a ra te
m easures
o f th e s p e c if ic a b i l i t i e s ,
che v a l i d i t y and
o f th e t e s t s , th e le n g th and d i f f i c u l t y
re lia b ility
of a d m in is tr a tio n o f th e
42
t e s t s , th e r e p u ta tio n which th e s e t e s t s had among v a rio u s psy­
c h o lo g is ts , (te) th e u se o f th e t e e t s in p re v io u s r e s e a r c h ,
and
th e p e rs o n a l e x p e rie n c e s o f th e ex p erim en ter w ith th e se and
o th e r t e s t s .
1 . I n te l li g e n c e T est
The t e s t o f in t e ll ig e n c e u sed vras th e 1938 e d i tio n o f
the American C ouncil on E d u catio n P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam ination f o r
C ollege Freshmen "by T hurstone and T hurstone (9 0 ) .
T his t e s t
c o n s is ts of s ix s e p a ra te t e s t s , two su b sc o re s and a g e n e ra l
s c o re .
Each o f th e su b sco res c o n ta in s th r e e o f th e t e s t s .
The
0 ,-sccre, w hich i s th e f i r s t su b sc o re, co m p rises th e th r e e q u a n ti­
t a t i v e t e s t s ; th e o th e r su b -sc o re , th e L -s c o re , i s th e t o t a l o f
th e th r e e l i n g u i s t i c t e s t s .
The g e n e r a l, o r g ro s s sco re is th e
t o t a l o f th e s ix t e s t s o r o f th e two s u b sc o re s .
F iv e o f th e s ix t e s t s were p r e s e n t in p re v io u s e d i tio n s
of th e e x am in atio n .
A ccording to th e T h u rsto n e s, th e se f iv e
t e s t s w ere in c lu d e d in experim ents w ith f a c t o r a n a ly se s to
determ ine p rim ary m en tal a b i l i t i e s and j u s t i f i e s , th e re b y ,
t h e i r gro u p in g to g e th e r w ith th e a d d itio n a l t e s t in to th e two
(k) P a l l i s t e r (50) conducted a study in w hich 38 a p p lie d psy­
c h o lo g is ts w ere a sk e d t h e i r o p in io n s on 53 w ell-know n t e s t s . The
p e r cen t who r e p o r te d th e t e s t s a s " e f f i c i e n t " o r " i n e f f i c i e n t , "
to g e th e r w ith some p e r ti n e n t rem arks, w ere in d ic a te d . Almost a l l
o f th e t e s t s u se d in the p re s e n t stu d y r e c e iv e d h ig h ly e f f i c i e n t
ra tin g s .
i
43
g e n e ra l subccore c l a s s e s .
They contend, how ever, t h a t th e s e
two su b sco res " . . . do n o t r e p r e s e n t p rim ary m e n tal a b i l i t i e s ,
h u t th ey r e p r e s e n t two groups o f a b i l i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r
c o lle g e c u r r ic u la th a t a r e dom inantly l i n g u i s t i c o r te c h n ic a l."
So f a r a s th e v a l i d i t y o f th e t e s t s a r e co n cern ed , no
s e p a ra te v a l i d i t i e s a r e r e p o r te d but th e a u th o rs say a p ro p o s
o f th e whole t e s t , "A number of s tu d ie s have been made o f th e
r e l a t i o n betw een th e p sy c h o lo g ic a l ex am in atio n and
s c h o la r­
s h ip and th e c o r r e l a ti o n s a re u s u a lly in th e neighborhood of
.5 0 ." (91)
They p r e s e n t th e r e s u l t s of a stu d y a t th e Uni­
v e r s i t y o f Chicago which serv e to co nfirm t h i s c o n c lu s io n .
The r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r th e s e p a re te t e s t s a s w e ll a s th e cubsc o re s and g ro s s o r t o t a l t e s t sco re a r e g iv e n by Seder ( 6 2 ) .
T h ese
r e l i a b i l i t i e s , a s taker, from S eder, to g e th e r w ith th e
t e s t d e s c r ip t io n s ,a r e a s fo llo w s :
(1 )
The A rith m e tic R easoning T est m easiires th e
a b i l i t y to so lv e sim ple problem s in a r it h m e t ic .
The t e s t
i s given f o r fo u r m in u te s, fo llo w in g a s im ila r p r a c t ic e
p e rio d .
The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s .7 9 3 .
(2 )
The A n alo g ies T e s t, which i s g iv en f o r fo u r
m inu tes a f t e r a s im ila r p e r io d o f p r a c t ic e tim e , m easures th e
a b i l i t y to u n d e rs ta n d th e r e la tio n s between g e o m e tric a l f i g u r e s .
The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s .8 2 5 .
44
(3 )
The Number S e r ie s T e st i s g iven f o r te n m in u tes
a f t e r a fo u r-m in u te p r a c t ic e p e r io d .
I t m easures th e a b i l i t y
to comprehend a r ith m e tic a l and g e o m e tric a l number s e r ie s -
The
r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s .7 9 7 .
(4 )
The Q -score r e p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l sc o re o f th e f i r s t
th re e t e s t s and i t h as a s e p a r a te r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f
.8 5 6 .
(5 )
In th e Com pletion T e st a d e f i n i t i o n o f a w ord i s
g iv e n , th s number o f l e t t e r s in t h i s word, and th e f i r s t l e t t e r s
o f f iv e d i f f e r e n t w ords.
The s u b je c t is to determ in e w hich o f
th e s e f i v e w ords b e s t f i t s th e d e f i n i t i o n .
The t e s t i s g iv e n
f o r fo u r m in u tes a f t e r th r e e m in u tes of p r a c t i c e .
The r e l i a b i l i t y
c o e f f i c i e n t i s .7 8 7 .
(6^
The A r t i f i c i a l Language T est m easures th e f a c i l i t y
w ith which a new language i s le a r n e d .
I t i s g iv en f o r seven
m in u te s, fo llo w in g a six -m in u te p r a c tic e p e r io d , and h a s a
r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .9 5 5 .
( 7)
The Same-Opposite T e st m easures v o cab u lary by means
o f synonyms and antonyms.
I t i s g iv en f o r f iv e m in u tes a f t e r a
tw o-m inute p r a c t i c e p e rio d , and has a r e l i a b i l i t v c o e f f i c ie n t
o f .9 2 4 .
(8J
The L -sco re r e p r e s e n ts th e t o t a l sc o re o f th e l a t t e r
th r e e o f l i n g u i s t i c t e s t s , and h as a s e p a ra te r e l i a b i l i t y co ef­
f i c i e n t of .9 5 3 .
45
(9 )
te s ts .
The G ross Score i3 th e t o t a l of th e s ix In d iv id u a l
I t s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s .9 5 2 .
A ll of th e t e s t s a r e p re s e n te d in th e u s u a l m u ltip le
ch o ice type of arran g em en t.
2.
Music T e sts
The Seashore M easures of M usical T a le n t (60) c o n s is ts
o f s ix d o u b le -fa c e d phonograph re c o rd s , each re c o rd m easu rin g
a fundam ental and e s s e n t i a l c a p a c ity o f m usic, namely, p i t c h ,
i n t e n s i t y , tim e, consonance, to n a l memory, and rhythm .
S eashore
s t a t e s th e se s ix m easures " . . . do not c o n s t i t u t e a com plete
survey of m u sical t a l e n t , a s may be seen in th e a n a ly s is o f a
m u sical mind and in v e n to ry o f t a l e n t s in th e te x t book, b u t
th ey a re s p e c if ic m easures o f th e se six b a s ic c a p a c i t i e s .
i s what makes them s c i e n t i f i c .
That
They do not m easure th e m u sic a l
mind as a w hole, but they do m easure s p e c if ic and fundam ental
t r a i t s o f m u sic al h e a r in g .
C orrespondirg m easures of th e
c a p a c ity f o r th e m otor a s p e c ts o f th e se f a c t o r s in s in g in g
and p la y in g a re a v a ila b le in any la b o ra to r y , aa a re a ls o
m easures o f c a p a c it ie s a t th e l e v e l s of memory, im ag in atio n ,
th in k in g , complex m otor s k i l l s , f e e l in g , and th e e x p re s s io n
of f e e l i n g .
B ut th e s e s ix m easures a re b a s ic and most r e a d i ly
a v a i la b l e , and sh o u ld be th e f i r s t in any s e r ie s of m easures c f
m u sical t a l e n t . "
These s i x c a p a c it ie s a r e :
46
(1 )
The Sense o f P itc h T e s t.
The s u b je c t in d ic a te s
w h eth er th e second o f two to n e s i s h ig h e r o r low er in p i t c h ,
th e degree of d i f f i c u l t y ra n g in g downward from t h i r t y v ib r a ­
ti o n s to o n e - h a lf .
(2 )
The Sense of I n t e n s i t y T e s t.
The s u b je c t com pares
two to n e s which d i f f e r in lo u d n e ss and in d ic a te s w h eth er th e
second is s tro n g e r o r w eaker than th e f i r s t .
The d if f e r e n c e s
a re ran g ed from one to f iv e audiom eter u n i t s .
(3 )
The Sense o f Tjjse T e s t.
The s u b je c t in d ic a te s
w hether th e second i n t e r v a l of tim e between two c l i c k s i s
lo n g e r o r s h o r te r th a n th e im m ediately p re c e d in g i n t e r v a l o f
time betw een th e c l i c k s .
The range of d if f e r e n c e s i s from two
h u n d red th s of a second to tw enty h u n d red th s.
(4)
The Sense of Consonance T e s t.
The s u b je c t i n d i c a te s
w hether th e second o f two com binations of two to n e s each i s
b e t t e r o r w orse in consonence o r harmony th a n th e p re c e d in g
com bination.
(5 )
The Tonal Memory T e s t.
The s u b je c t h e a rs a s e r i e s
of to n e s p la y e d tw ice and in d ic a te s by number which to n e was
changed in th e second p la y in g .
The degree o f d i f f i c u l t y de­
pends upon th e number o f n o te s in th e span, w hich ra n g e s from
two to s ix .
(6 )
The 8ense o f Rhythm T e s t.
The s u b je c t in d i c a te s
w heth er th e necond o f two rhythm ic p a tte r n s i s th e same a s o r
d i f f e r e n t from th e f i r s t p a t t e r n .
i
J
i;\
47
M u rse ll (47, pp. 292 and 295) hap two s e p a ra te ta b le s
w hich a r e e x c e lle n t summaries o f a l l the a v a ila b le r e s e a rc h
on th e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e Seashore Music T e s ts .
The number and type of s u b je c ts , th e c r i t e r i a u se d ,a n d th e
in v e s t ig a t o r s a r e g iv en f o r each of th e t e s t s .
The p r e s e n t
w r ite r av erag ed a l l th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and a l l th e
v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s re p o rte d below f o r each t o s t .
The P itc h T est h as a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t w hich
ran g es from .51 to .9 0 , w ith an average o f .72 ( 1 ) , and a
range o f v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s from .01 to .6 0 , w ith th e
averag e o f .2 6 .
The I n te n s ity T est h a s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s
which range from .4 0 to .9 4 , w ith th e c a lc u la te d average a t .69
and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s which range from .07 to .4 9 , w ith
averag e a t .2 0 .
In th e Time T e s t, th e ran g es in r e l i a b i l i t y
and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a re .41 to .8 1 , and - .1 4 to .3 6 , r e s ­
p e c tiv e ly , w ith th e r e s p e c tiv e av erag es of .56 and .1 3 .
In Con­
sonance, th e r e s p e c tiv e ran g es in th e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y
c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e .26 to .68 a n d ^ 2 7 to .2 9 , w ith r e s p e c tiv e
av era g es of .5 0 and .0 0 .
The Tonal Memory T est has a r ange
of r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s from .59 to .9 0 , w ith av erag e o f
(1 )
In d eterm in in g th e average r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e P itc h T e s t, a s
as o f th e o th e r s , th e stu d y by McGinnis w ith n u rs e ry school
c h ild r e n was n o t in c lu d e d because th e t e s t s were m o d ified f o r t h i s
u se a s w e ll a s th e f a c t th a t t e s t s given to such young c h ild r e n
have q u e s tio n a b le r e l i a b i l i t y , th e s t a t i s t i c s n o tw ith s ta n d in g .
w e ll
48
.81 and a ran g e o f v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s from .0 5 to .6 5 , and
an av erag e o f .3 5 .
In th e Rhythm l e s t th e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t s
a re ran g ed from .28 to .6 4 , and have an av erag e of .4 5 , w h ile the
v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a re ran g ed from - . 1 5 to .2 5 , and have an
av erag e of .0 8 .
T^us, i t i s seen th a t th e m a jo r ity of th e t e s t s ,
w ith th e e x c e p tio n of Rhythm and Consonance, a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y
v a l i d and r e l i a b l e f o r ex p erim en tal u s e .
There i s a p p a re n tly
c o n s id e ra b le doubt about some of the o th e r s .
3.
T est o f A rt Judgment A b ility
The M eier-S eashore A rt Judgment Te3t (42) p u rp o rtin g to
m easure in a " v a lid and r e l i a b l e manner c e r t a i n im p o rtan t as­
p e c ts of a e s t h e t i c judgment o r
t e s t , th e s u b je c t
in s i g h t ," was u s e d .
In t h i s
s e le c te d the b e t t e r o f a p a i r of s im ila r
p i c t u r e s th a t d if f e r e d on ly in one r e s p e c t; th e s u b je c t was
inform ed co n cern in g th e n a tu re o f the d if f e r e n c e .
c r i t e r i a in d ic a te d a s a t i s f a c t o r y v a l i d i t y .
The v a rio u s
The c o e f f i c ie n t s
of r e l i a b i l i t y ranged from .71 to .8 5 .
4.
C le r ic a l A b ility
C le r ic a l a b i l i t y was m easured by th e M innesota. V o catio n al
T e st f o r C le r ic a l
J o r k e r s ( 6 ) . The t e s t c o n s is te d of two p a r t s ,
s number checking and a name checking t e s t .
hundred item s in each t e s t .
There
were two
In th e number ch eck in g t e s t th e
s u b je c ts were given e ig h t m in u tes to check th e p a i r s o f numbers
49
t h a t w ere th e same, th e number of d i g i t s ra n g in g from th r e e
through tw elv e.
In th e name ch eck in g t e 3 t th e s u b je c ts checked
f o r seven m in u tes th e p a i r s o f names th a t w ere e x a c tly th e seme.
These names had a ran g e o f l e t t e r s from 3 even th ro u g h s ix te e n .
The t e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y was .8 5 , and
th e odd-even c o e f f i c i e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y , .9 0 .
The v a l i d i t y co­
e f f i c i e n t s b ased on p e rs o n a l h i s t o r y r a ti n g s w ere about .6 5 ,
w h ile s u p e r v is o r s ' r a ti n g s end t e s t s c o re s gave c o e f f i c i e n t s
o f a p p ro x im ate ly .2 7 .
Combined r a ti n g s , o b ta in e d by w e ig h tin g
p e rs o n a l h is to r y and s u p e r v is o r s ' r a ti n g s e q u a lly , c o r r e l a te d
ab o u t .60 w ith th e t e s t s c o re s .
The Thurstone C le r ic a l T est was a lso g iv en b u t was
d is c a rd e d I n t e r becau se o f th e ex trem ely h ig h d eg rees o f
skewness w hich in d ic a te d th a t the t e s t s were to o sim ple f o r
th e group s tu d ie d .
5.
M echanical A b ili ty T e sts
Three t e s t s were u se d to m easure m ech an ical a b i l i t y .
A ccording to Bingham ( 9 ) , th e M innesota in v e s tig a tio n o f mechani­
c a l a b i l i t y in d ic a te d
th a t "No one t e s t , how ever, i s a h ig h ly
v alid , m easure o f m echanical a p t itu d e .
A b a t t e r y made up o f th e
M innesota P ap er Form Board, S p a tia l H e la tio n s , and M echanical
Assembly T e s ts was found to p r e d i c t , w ith an e f f ic ie n c y 23$
b e t t e r th a n chance, th e q u a l ity of work done in sch o o l shop
c o u r s e s ."
These were the t e s t s th a t were u se d , th e r e f o r e , to
m easure m echanical a b i l i t y .
50
The L ik e r t and Quasha R ev ised M innesota P ap er Form B oard
(36, 55) was g iv en in o rd e r to m easure th e a b i l i t y to p e rc e iv e
and a n aly ze s p a t i a l o r g eo m e tric a l p a t te r n s in two d im en sio n s.
This t e s t d id n o t p erm it manual m a n ip u la tio n o f th e f i g u r e s .
In s te a d o f t h i s th e s ix ty - f o u r p i c t o r i a l d e s ig n s , which w ere
a d m in is te re d f o r tw enty m in u te s, were supposed to he m a n ip u la te d
m e n ta lly .
(Bingham s t a t e s th a t of e l l th e p e n c il-a n d -p a p e r t e s t s
exp erim en ted w ith in th e M innesota in v e s t ig a t io n , th e P a p e r Form
Board gave th e most dependable d a t a .)
was g iv en to a l l the s u b je c ts .
S e rie s BB o f t h i s t e s t
So f a r a s th e v a l i d i t y o f th e
t e s t i s co n cern ed , i t h as a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .75
between th e o r ig i n a l end r e v is e d form s o f th e t e s t , v/hich
c o r r e c te d f o r u t t e n tu a t io n , i s .9 4 and y ie ld s c o r r e l a ti o n s
of .49 and .3 2 , r e s p e c tiv e ly , betw een th e r e v is e d t e s t and
g rad es in m echanical drawing and d e s c r ip tiv e geom etry.
The
r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t f o r a s in g le form o f th e t e s t (BB) i s
.8 5 .
The M innesota S p a tia l R e la tio n s T est (51) i s a ls o a
m easure o f two dim ensional s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s .
In c o n t r a s t to
th e P ap er Form Board T est t h i s i s an a p p a ra tu s t e s t and i s a d ­
m in is te r e d in d iv id u a lly .
The te«?t c o n s is ts o f fo u r form b o ard s
(A, B, C, D) which c o n ta in two s e t s of f i f t y - e i g h t p ie c e s o f
d i f f e r e n t s iz e and form .
The s h o rt form , w hich u t i l i z e s two
of th e b o ard s (A and B) and one s e t o f b lo c k s was u sed in th e
51
in v e s t ig a t io n .
The t o t a l tim e u sed to p la c e th e p ie c e s in to
t h e i r p ro p e r p la c e s o f "both h o ard s was tak en a s th e c r i t e r i o n
f o r d eterm in in g speed and a cc u racy in th e d is c r im in a tio n of
s iz e and shape.
A low tim e sc o re in d ic a te d s u p e rio r a p t itu d e .
P a te rs o n , S c h n e id le r and W illiam son (52) r e p o r t r e l i a b i l i t y
c o e f f i c i e n t s ran g in g from .84 to .91 f o r th e t o t a l t e s t a s
w e ll a s s a t i s f a c t o r y v a l i d i t y .
^'he M innesota M echanical Assembly T e s t (51) i* a
r e v is io n o f th e S te n q u is t M echanical Assembly Box, and r e p r e s e n ts
a d ecid ed improvement ov er i t .
The lo n g e r form of th e M innesota
T est c o n ta in s t h i r t y - t h r e e common m echanical o b je c ts w hich a r e
p la c e d in a s im ila r number of compartments o f th r e e boxes
(A, B, C).
The s h o r te r form of th e t e s t c o n s is ts of two such
boxes ( s e t I and I I ) , w ith te n c o n triv a n c e s in each .
The
s h o r te r form, c o n s is tin g o f th e two boxes, was u se d in th e
p re s e n t stu d y .
There i s s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n from a l l
th e a u t h o r i t i e s f o r th e u s e o f th e s h o r te r form o f th e t e s t .
The e x te n t to which each of th e te n s e p a ra te and d is a s ­
sembled d ev ices i s assem bled c o r r e c t ly w ith in a s p e c if ie d p e rio d
o f time a l l o t t e d to th e assem b lin g o f each item i s c o n sid e re d
th e s c o re .
The t o t a l tim e f o r box one i s tw enty-one m in u te s ,
and f o r th e second box, sev en te en m in u tes, tw enty seco n d s.
D e s c rip tio n s f o r c o r r e c t and o b je c tiv e s c o rin g a r e g iv e n .
sc o re i s th e t o t a 1 f o r th e tw enty s e p a ra te o b je c ts .
The
The maximum
sco re p o s s ib le i s 2 0 0 , s in c e each box i s e v a lu a te d on th e b a s is
52
o f 1 0 0 , and each item sco red e q u a lly on th e b a s i s o f 1 0 , r e ­
g a rd le s s o f d eg ree o f d i f f i c u l t y or th e number of component
p a r t s of each s e p a ra te o b je c t.
P a te rs o n , E l l i o t t , A nderson,
Toops and H eid b red er (51) re p o rt a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f
.63 between th e two boxes.
The c o e f f i c i e n t i s in c re a s e d to
.77 by means of th e Spearman-1 rown c o r r e c tio n fo rm u la.
The
v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s between th e t e s t and th e fo llo w in g
c r i t e r i a a r e : .55 f o r q u a lity , .24 f o r q u a l ity - q u a n tity , .35
f o r in fo rm a tio n , and .53 f o r q u a lity and in fo rm a tio n .
6.
T e a ts of M an ip u lativ e A b ility
Two t e s t s of m a n ip u la tiv e a b i l i t y were u se d .
These were
the li n g e r and Tweezer D e x te rity T e sts of O'Connor (4 9 ).
The
ii n g e r D e x te rity T e s t, as in d ic a te d by i t s name, m easures th e
d e x te r ity of d e f tn e s s of th e f in g e r s in p ic k in g up th r e e sm all
m etal p in s a t a tim e from a tr a y c o n ta in in g ap p ro x im ately th r e e
hundred s im ila r p in s and p la c in g them in p ro p e r o rd e r in to one
o f one hundred h o le s of a m etal p l a t e .
The s o le c r i t e r i o n i s
the time re q u ir e d f o r f i l l i n g a l l the h o le s , th e tim e in seconds
being tak en f o r each h a l f of f i f t y h o le s .w eig h ted f o r p r a c t i c e
e f f e c t f o r th e second h a l f , and th e av erag e of th e two u se d as
th e sco re f o r th e t e s t .
Hines and O'Connor (29) r e p o r t a t e s t
r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t o f .60 a s w e ll a s s a t i s f a c t o r y
v a l i d i t y , w h ile Hayes (28) r e p o r ts a c o r r e c te d s p l i t - h a l f r e -
53
l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c ie n t of . 8 6 .
P a te rs o n , S ch n eid l* r and
W illiam son r e p o r t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .90 and .9 3 .
In th e Tweezer D e x te r ity T e s t, w hich m easures d e x t e r ity
in the m a n ip u la tio n o f a sm all t o o l , s p e c i f i c a l l y the fo rc e p s
o r tw eez er, th e s u b je c t p ic k s up one of th e p in s from a tr a y
o f about one hundred p in s and p u ts each in tc th e m e tal p l a t e
o f one- hundred sm all h o le s in a d ir e c te d o r d e r .
The
sco re
i s th e tim e, in seconds, w hich i t ta k e s to f i l l a l l th e h o le s .
No r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a re r e p o r te d f o r th is
p o r tio n o f th e t e s t , h a t P a te rs o n , S c h n e id le r end W illiam son
s t a t e , "A lthough no ex ac t f ig u r e s a re a v a i la b l e , th e re a r e
s u b s t a n ti a l in d ic a tio n s th a t t h i s d ev ice y ie ld s r e s u l t s which
a r e e q u a lly a s c o n s is te n t a s th o se secu red when th e r e v e rs e o f
o f th e b o ard i s u sed f o r m easu rin g d e x t e r ity w ith th e f in g e r s ."
Summary o f th e E x p erim en tal P ro ced u re
E ig h t t e s t s com prising tw e n ty -th re e s e p a ra te and d is ­
t i n c t v a r ia b le s were a d m in is te re d to e ig h ty m ale c o lle g e s tu d e n ts
in a f a i r l y random p r e s e n ta tio n .
Twese v a r ia b le s a r e l i s t e d in
th e nu m erical o rd e r in which th e y w i l l be known and u se d in th j
tre a tm e n t o f th e r e s u l t s .
They a re a s fo llo w s : -
1. A rith m e tic S easoning (T hurstone I n te l li g e n c e )
2 . A n alogies (T hurstone I n te l li g e n c e )
3. Number S e r ie s (T h u rsto n e I n te llig e n c e )
54
4 . Q-Score (T h u rsto n e I n te l li g e n c e )
5 . Word Com pletion (T hurstone I n te l li g e n c e )
6.
A r t i f i c i a l Language (T hurstone I n te l li g e n c e )
7 . Sam e-Opposite (T hurstone I n te l li g e n c e )
8.
L -Score (T h u rsto n e I n te llig e n c e )
9 . G eneral Score o r T o tal T h u rsto n e I n te l li g e n c e Score
10. Seashore P itc h
11. Seashore I n te n s i ty
12. Seashore Time
13. Seashore C0nsonance
14. S eashore T o ta l Memory
15. Seashore Rhythm
16. M eier-S eash o re A rt Judgment
17. M innesota Humber Checking
18. M innesota l\Tame Checking
19. R ev ised M innesota P aper Form B oard
20. M innesota S p a tia l R e la tio n s (S h o rt Form)
21 . M innesota Assem bling T est (S h o rt Form)
2 2 . C'Connor F in g e r D e x te rity
23 . O'Connor Tweezer D e x te rity
sJ
A-
55
I I I . THE RESULTS
The E recuency D is tr ib u tio n s
The o r ig i n a l sc o re s o f th e e ig h ty s u b je c ts fo r th e
tw e n ty -th re e v a r ia b le s a r e p re s e n te d in appendix I .
The h isto g ra m s r e p r e s e n te d in th e fo llo w in g g rap h s
in d ic a te the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of th e sc o re s o b ta in e d f o r each
o f th e v a r ia b le s th a t were u se d in th e stu d y .
The ran g e,
a r ith m e tic mean, m edian, s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n , skewness and
k u r t o s i s accompany each f i g u r e .
from G a r r e tt (2 4 ).
The s t a t i s t i c s were ta k en
Of th e s e , th e moot im p o rtan t form ulae
a r e f o r skewness and k u r t o s i s .
These a r e : -
sk * *90 + p 10 " p 50
2
Ku s
Si
(P 9 O « P io )
27779
r r *
Table I i s a summary o f the f in d in g s .
The sv ab o ls
u s e d in th e t a b l e a s w e ll a s in th e f i g u r e s a r e as fo llo w s ;
56
S.D. » Standard, d e v ia tio n
Pgg s
9 0 th p e r c e n til e
(<3
•
7 5 th p e r c e n t i l e
Ql
<= 2 5 th p e r c e n til e
P^q a
1 0 th
Sk
Skewness
=
p e rc e n tile
<^sk ® S tan d ard d e v ia tio n o f skewness
Sk_ <7 sk
R a tio o f skev«nesr to i t * s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n .
This i s need to in d ic a te th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f
th e e x te n t o f skew ness.
Ku 3
K u rto s is
<f)ssx ~
S tan d a rd d e v ia tio n o f k u r to s is
Ku
^ku
R atio of k u r to s is to i t s s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n .
I t i s u se d to in d ic a te s ig n if ic a n c e o f th e
e x te n t o f k u r t o s i s . The Ku (kur'tbaifc)
in t h i s in s ta n c e r e p r e s e n ts th e d e v ia tio n
from normal kurtosis,(inesokuf.tosis'}"-w hich i s .263.
The p e r c e n t i l e s a r e u se d in th e c a l c u la tio n of k u r to s is and
skew ness, a s can be seen from th e fo rm u lae.
E xam ination of th e freq u en cy d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n d i c a te s th a t
most o f th e v a r ia b le s s a t i s f y th e c r i t e r i a o f a normal c u rv e .
Only two v a r ia b le s a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y skewed.
These a r e th e
T hurstone Same-Opposite T e s t, an d th e M innesota S p a tia l Re­
l a t i o n s T e s t.
A lthough th e skewness f o r th e M innesota
S p a tia l R e la tio n s T est i s p o s i t i v e , i t i s to be remembered
in t h i s t e s t , a s w e ll a s in th e O'Connor F in g e r and Tweezer
T e s ts , th a t a low s c o re , in c o n t r a s t to th e o th e r v a r ia b le s ,
in d ic a te s s u p e rio r perform ance; so t h a t i f th e arrangem ent
57
o f th e sc o re s on th e M innesota S p a tia l R e la tio n s w ere s im ila r
to th e arrangem ent f o r th e o th e r v a r ia b le s , th e skewness would
r e a l l y have been n e g a tiv e .
Hence, th e Same-Opposite and
M innesota S p a tia l R e la tio n s t e s t s ap p ear to be too sim ple
f o r th e s u b je c ts u se d in t h i s ex p erim en t.
The P itc h and
I n te n s i ty p o r tio n s of th e S eashore Music t e s t s show f a i r l y
h ig h d eg rees o f n e g a tiv e skew ness.
W ith r e s p e c t to k u r t o s i s , no s i g n i f i c a n t "peakedness"
i s re v e a le d f o r any o f th e v a r ia b le s .
However, th e T h u rsto n e
llnmber S e r ie s , th e Seashore Rhythm, and th e M innesota A ssem bling
er
T e s ts in d ic a te s l i g h t l y hig h Ad eg ree s o f p la ty k u r to s is w h ile the
M eier-S eash o re A rt and th e M innesota S p a ti a l R e la tio n s t e s t s
show s l i g h t l y h ig h d eg rees o f le p to k u r to s is .
On th e b a s is of th e fo re g o in g i t can be 3 een t h a t mos t
o f th e m a te r ia ls u se d in t h i s stu d y conform , on th e w hole, to
th e d i c t a t e s of th e normal cu rv e c r i t e r i a .
The p o s s ib le ex­
c e p tio n s seem to be th e M innesota S p a tia l R e lr tio n s T e s t, w hich
i s v ery h ig h ly skewed and somewhat s i g n i f i c a n t l y le p t o k u r t i c ,
an d th e T hurstone S en e-O p p o sites T e s t, w hich i s v e ry skewed.
A propos t h i s l a t t e r t e s t , T hurstone r e p o r ts s im ila r fin d in g s
f o r i t , s t a t i n g th a t i t was to o easy f o r th e more than 9 ,0 0 0
s tu d e n ts th roughout th e c o u n try who to o k i t , and in d ic a tin g
t h a t i t would be m o d ifie d in subsequent e d i tio n s .
F ig u re I
D is tr ib u t io n s of S co res in th e Thurctone A r ith . Rensoning T est
H = 00
Score
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
14'
12
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
F re q .
1
2
1
1
2
2
8
c
6
12
10
14
8
6
2
Frequency
4
5
6
7
Range - 4-19
Mean = 9.01
Median = 8 . 5 0
C = .01
S.D. * 3.12
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Score
P90 = 12.50
Sk -1 .2 3
Q3 = 10.40
<Tsk
<£L » 6.29
Ku = .294 = P la ty k u r tic
P10 a 5.50
CTlcu = .031
Sk = .50
Ku - 1.0 0
0 s k = .406
TOT
Figure II
D is tr ib u tio n s of Scores in th e Thurstone A nalogies Test
N = 30
S core
18
17
16
15
14
13
14-1
12
11
10
9
12-
1C-
Frequency
76-
32_
4
Sange = 0-18
Mean - 13.16
Median = 13.35
0 = 1 .1 6
S .D .- 3 .90
5
t— i— i— i— j— i— '— r i' |>— r—
8 ’9 10 11 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Score
P90-16.67
— ■=. - .3 4
Q3 =15.42
08k
Q1 =10.50
Ku = .25 0 = L ep to k u rtic
P10 = 7.50
<fku=. 031
Sk = -1 .7 8
Ku
.42
<Tsk =.528
(TrC U
6
7
14
7
6
3
nA
3
2
4
7
2
6
-
0
9-
11
8
C
4
r?
V
2
•a.y
11 =
F re e .
5
9
1
1
1
1
Figure III
D istr ib u tio n o f Scores in the Thurstone Ko. S eries Test
N = 80
Score
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
12t
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
1L.
10 .
**i 7iD
*2
® 64
o
2_
1-
T
8
Hr.rge =3-19
Mean = 1 0 . 6 6
Median = 1C.11
C = - 1 .3 4
S.D. = 3.72
— i— i— i— i— i— i— i— — — r
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Score
P90 = 15.40
Ku = .311 Q3 = 12.71
— , 031
Q1 = 7.17
Ku___ 1 . 5 5
P10 = 6.50
tfku "
Sk - .84
tfik = .52
Sk _ 1.62
tfsk
Freo
2
5
2
6
7
7
9
7
2
12
10
3
3
Figure IV
D is tr ib u t io n
T hurstone £
N = 80
Scores
ir e ± .
1
1 0 -t
9- ■
8- -
7-.
Frequency
5-.
n
1!3 1*5 I1? 19 i l ^3 i s 27 29 31 33 .^5 ^7 39 414& 45 47 49 i l 53
Score
P90 = 44.50
Hr.rge - 1 2 - 5 1
Ku = .266 = M eaokurtic
QJ3 - 38.50
Menn = 32.82
tfk u = .031
Median = 32.29
qj. = 26 .8 0
Ku _ .10
Sk = .21
C = .6 8
<Tku
^ ■ k - 1.27
S.D. = 8.46
Sk _ .17
f sk
Figure V
D istr ib u tio n o f Scores in Thurstone Completion Test
Score
26
25
24
23
22
F req .
1
1
1
2
1
21
3
20
19
15
17
16
15
14
13
2
12
11
10
S
3
5
4
5
5
8
8
3
6
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
6_
£ requency
)
4 51 ^7*
Range = 1-26
Mean ** 14.06
Median = 13.20
C - - .9 4
S.D. - 5.28
& 4 ll0 i l l b l b l ,4 lf e J ,6 lV lle i 9 2 'o i l ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 i6 27
P90 *» 20.33
33 = 17.67
01 - 1C. 50
P10 s 6.50
— .2 2
^ s k = .801
Sk _ .27
(fsk
Ku = .260 »
<fku = . 031
Ku - .10
<Tku
Figure VI
D is tr ib u tio n o f Scores in the Thurstone A r t i f i c i a l Language Test
8
Score Freq,
37-8 '
3
35-6
5
2
33-4
31-2
5
4
29-30
27-8
5
6
25-6
9
23-4
2 1 -2
3
19-20 1 0
6
17-18
15-16
5
7
13-14
1 1 -1 2
4
5
9-10
7-8
5-6
1
3 -4
-
2 ...
3
Range » 3-38
Mean * 2 2 .1 0
M edian = 21.34
C a 2 .5 0
S.D.= 8.12
♦
$ l i ife ih iV ife 2 i i z 2 b 2*7 29 31 33 3^ 37 39
Score
P90 a 34.50
KU » , 264 = M esokurtic
(p m - .031
Ci3 = 2 7 .6 0
qx T. 15.20
Ku = .03
P10 a 11.00
Q-kk
Sk = 1.41
(fsk a 1 .3 6
§k_ a 1 .0 4
(Jek
C-
Figure VII
D istr ib u tio n of Scores in Thurstone Same-Cpoosite T est
N - 80
S core F re
49-50 33
47-8 18
4J>-6
43-4
41-2
39-40
37-8
35-6
33-4
31-2
29-30
27-8
25-6
23-4
21-2
19-20
17-18
15-16
13-14
11-12
9-10
3432.
30 ■
2826*
24.
22.
Frequency
2018.
16-
14-1
12
10 8
-
6
-
4 2
-
&
^3 1*5 1*7 ^9 k
Range - 10-50
Mean = 45.66
Median = 47.22
C a 2.16
S.D.= 6.38
ihs if
d s, Jh? bk
Score
P90 = 49.53
(^3 - 48.78
q i » 43.78
P10 = 39.00
Sk = - 2 .9 5
<fsk = . 610
Sk s 4 .8 3
(fsk
3J:1 h
.
i— i— i— I— F— i— r
3 5 ^37
7 ^39 41 43 45 47 49 51
35
Ku - .274 - P la t y k u r tic
(j"ku s* .031
Ku a .35
F ig u re V III
D is tr ib u t io n of T hurstone L - S cores
E « 80
Score F re q .
108-110 1
105-107 3
102-104 3
99-101 5
6
96-8
5
93-5
90-2
87-9
5
84-6
9
81-3
78-80 11
75-7
4
5
72-4
69-71
3
1
66-8
6
63-5
60-2
57w9
3
54-6
1
51-3
48-50
1
2
45-7
11 -r
10
9 -■
8
-■
iCouaabaj^
7
6
-•
5 -•
4 -•
4fe 4fe 51 54 5*7 60 63 6fe 6 ^ 7% 7*5 7% gfi ^4 8*7 ^0
Score
Esnge - 46-109
Mean = 81.94
Median ~ 81.00
C
= 2 .9 4
S.D. = 14.73
P90 a 99.20
Q3 = 93.80
01 a 72.80
P10 = 62.50
Sk s - .1 5
G sk = 2 .1 3
Sk
- - .0 7
tfe k
^ 6 9 & oi
10*5 108 111
Ku a .286 = P la tjr k u r tic
tfk u - .031
Ku = .7 4
(fko.
F ig u re IX
D is tr ib u t io n o f T hurstone In te llig e n c e - G e n e r a l Scores
IT = 8 0
Score E iss ,
l
155-9
150-4
3
2
145-9
4
140-4
135-9
5
7
130-4
125-9
5
120-4
5
7
115-19
8
110-14
11
105-9
6
100-4
4
95-9
90-4
4
2
85-9
80-4
1
2
75-9
70-4
1
65-9
50-4
1
55-9
1
11-.
10 .
9..
8 ..
7..
Frequency
6 ..
5..
4..
3..
2-.
1 ..
" i i r~
75
85
Range = 59-157
Mean - 114.88
Median = 113.33
C = 7.88
S.D. = 20.90
—f— t— i— r
95
105
115
Score
P90 = 141.50
0,3 a 130.45
Qi = 102.33
P10 = 89.50
Sk = 2.12
f i k = 3.01
Sk
a .70
(fs k
!— I— 1— i— I— r— I”
125 135
145
155
Ku - .270 = P la t y k u r tic
(Jku = .031
Ku - .23
(peu
Figure X
D istr ib u tio n of Scores in the Seashore P itc h Test
N = 80
Score F re o .
90-92
1
8
87-89
7
84-86
12
81-83
6
73-80
75-77
5
8
72-74
F
69-71
w
66-68
3
65-65
5
60-62
1
57-59
3
7
54-56
51-53
1
48-50
3
45-47
1
2
42-44
2
39-41
12 •,
11
-
10
-
9 2
8
-|
•s.9
US
O
*<
7J
6 .
4-
2-
1
.
39
Id
Range » 39^91
Mean » 71.43
Median a 73.63
C = 1 .4 3
S.D. s 13.548
T
T “
57
"T"'"I...
63
Score
P90 = 86.31
0.8 = 82.00
Q1 = 62.50
P10 = 50.50
Sk - - 5 .2 2
C sk = 2 .0 7
Sk
S3 -2 .5 2
(fsk
T "
69
-I—
75
81
87
93
Xu = .272 = P l a t y k u r tic
(pku - . 031
Xu a .29
(Pax
Figure XI
D is tr ib u tio n o f S cores in S eash o re I n te n s i ty Te 3 t
N a SO
Score
97-8
95-6
93-4
91-2
89-90
37-S
85-6
83-4
81-2
79-80
77-3
->5-6
73-4
71-2
69-70
67-S
65-6
63-4
61-2
59-60
13
12
-
11
-
10
-
3 -
Frequency
6.
4,
3-
59
6a
Sange - 59-97
jilesn a 36.50
Median a 88.25
C a -1 .0 0
S.D. = 8.24
57 mr~ n
-i— i— r—
75
79
83
Score
P90 = 9 4 .5 0
32 = 92.50
a 81.75
P10 = 75.50
SjC a "*3.25
tf”sk a 1 . 1 0
Sk _ - 2 .9 5
I I" I I
87
91
95
1
99
£u a .284 z P la t y k u r t i c
<fku = .031
Zu
(Tku z .6 8
Freq,
2
8
10
13
8
6
5
7
7
3
3
m
m
1
2
2
1
a*
m
m
2
Figure XII
D istrib u tio n . o f Scores in Seashore Time Test
Score ffreci.
90-92
1
87-89
5
7
84-86
9
81-83
78-80 13
75-77 17
72-74 10
69-71
7
66-68
5
1
63-65
60-62
1
1
57-59
54-56
51-53
1
1
48-50
45-47
42-44
39-41
36-38
33-35
30-32
1716.
15.
14,
13.
12.
11 .
10
,
requency
•*i
o
97.
6
54
4
3.
2
36
“
Range - 30-91
'viean = 75.67
MediaiF376.28
C = 2 .6 7
S.D. = 9 .1 5
r1 F
49
'
54
66
Score
P90 = 85.14
Q2 a 80.67
01 = 73.60
P.10 = 66.20
Sk = - .6 1
<fsk = 1 . 1 0
Sk_ a - . 5 5
tfek
k
'
h
' 76
' 8i
'
90
Xu - .240 a L e p to k u rtic
(fku = .031
Ku = • 74
(fku
fi!
!
Figure XIII
D istr ib u tio n o f Scores in Seashore Consonance Test
N - 30
Score
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
10
F re q .
2
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
9
8
7
Frequency
6
5
4
3
O
21
Score
Range - 21-40
iiean a 32.51
Liedian =» 32.50
C = 1.51
S.D* — 3.66
P90 a 36.57
<^3 = 34.83
C& = 30.50
P10 = 27 .5 0
Sk = - .4 6
(J”sk — . 53
Sk - - .3 7
tfbk
Ku a .239 = L e p to k u rtic
<fhi = .031
Ku - .77
( f ku
Figure XIV
D istr ib u tio n of Scores in Seashore Tonal Memory Test
N a SO
10
9
8
7 .
4^ 6s-*'.
bnO
£a>
i s j
Score F ree
48-48
4
45-46
6
43-44
4
41-42
5
39-40
5
37-38
5
35-36 1 0
33-34
6
31-32
5
29-30
5
27-28
7
25-26
8
23-24 2
2 1 -2 2
5
19-20
1
17-13
15-16
1
4 .
3 .
2
.
1 -
15
Range = 15-43
Mean - 33.82
Median = 33.67
6 =
.32
S.D. = 8.00
19
h
’ h
Score
P90 = 4 4 . 6 7
t*3 a 39.60
a 26.86
PIC = 23 .0 0
SI: = .21
sk = 1 .2 6
Sk = .15
C sk
“*
o5T
39 * 4^
TT
Xu - .294 ~ P la ty k u r tic
(Jku = .031
Ku — 1 .0 0
(f ku
Figure XV
D is tr ib u t io n o f S cores in Seashore Hhythm T est
N = 80
lO -i
98
-
76-
Frequency
c_
4-
a.
n
■
1
-
25
'
Hange - 25-49
Mean = 39.46
Median - 33.80
C a .46
S.D. = 4.9 6
29 ’
t — — i— i— r~1 — i— i— r T 1“ t — r~
33
35
3?
39
41
43
45
S ccre
T90 = 45.50
(£5 = 42.67
<41 a 35.50
F1C = 33.40
Sit = .65
= *70
3k
- .93
(Jsk
Zv. f b =
Ku tf ’ku
Score
49
48
47
48
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
35
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
47
F reo.
1
2
3
4
3
4
9
4
4
4
10
4
4
8
5
5
—
1
2
2
_
1
49
Figure X?I
D is tr it iu ti c n of S cores in M eier- 8 e a s h c re A rt Judgment T ert
N S 80
to co ro oi 4^ -J cn
Score
109-110 3
107-108 3
105-106
103-104 4
101-102 3
99-100 2
6
97-98
95-96 11
5
93-94
91-92 10
89-90
87-88
85-86
83-84
81-82
79-80
77751
73-
10
6
.
-ID
■
en> 5
op
4_
2
.
"t ?
Hange = 73-110
Keen a 91 .8 4
.Median = 91.70
C a 3 .6 6
S.D. = 8 .6 4
H bI
r-i i
r-el
S core
P90 = 103.00
^3 = 96.33
Cil = S6.5C
P10 = 79 .0 0
Sk = - .7 0
(fkk = 1 .3 9
Sk a - .5 0
(Jsk
—r
93
—
97
1
101
105
Xu = .205 = L e n to k u rtic
(pTi a .031
Ku - 1.55
1C-i
i£0U8nb<jJ£
7-
Figure XVII
D is tr ib u tio n o f Scores in M innesota C lerica l Number Checking T est
N = 80
Score F re q .
170-174 l
165-169 160-164 155-159 150-154 4
145-149 2
140-144 5
135-139 5
130-134 7
125-129 10
120-124 7
115-119 1
110-114 7
105-109 9
100-104 6
95-99
5
90-94
3
85-89
3
2
80-84
75-79
1
70-74
1
65-69
60-64
6-
5432
-
1-
60
70
8C
?h ' l b o ' i i o ’
120
1 i'oo '
i'140
150
“ I---16^
170
Score
Barge = 64-172
Hean = 117.45
Median = 119.70
C - - 4 .5 5
3.D. — 21.15
P90 = 143.00
03 =» 131.81
01 = 102.33
P10 = 89.50
3k = - 3 .4 5
(fsk = 3.10
Sk » -1 .1 1
(Jsk
Xu * .276 ** P l e t y k u r t i c
(jlcu «• .031
Xu a .42
(TtoT
Figure XVIII
D is tr ib u tio n of Scores in Minnesota C lerica l Name Checking Test
N a 80
8
Score F r e q .
190-194 1
185-189 180-184 4
175-379 3
1?0-174 5
165-169 3
160-164 3
155-159 6
150-154 3
145-149 2
140-144 5
135-139 2
130-134 6
125-129 7
120-124 8
115-119 5
110-114 3
105-109 4
100-104 2
95-99
2
90-94
1
85-89
2
80-84
75-79
2
70-74
65-69 60-64
1
"I
6 Frequency
4 -
2
-
— — — i— '— i— i— i— i— I— i— i— |— i— i— |— i— i— i— i— i— r
60
70
30
fipriCTR 3 60—194
Mean = 135.75
Median - 131.50
C = 3.75
3.D. = 28.60
90
100
110 120 130
Score
£90 = 174.50
03 = 158.17
Q1 a 117
P10 = 99.50
Sk = 5.50
(Jsk = 4.35
Sk « 1.26
(Jsk
140 150
ISO
170
180 190
Eu = .274 a P la t y k u r tic
6"ku = . 031
Eu n .35
(j-ku
Figure XIX
D istritru tio n o f Scores in R evised Minnesota Paper Form Board
Score F req,
61-63
1
58-60
55-7
3
1
52-4
6
49-51
46-8
10
13
43-5
40-2
8
12
37-9
12
34-6
31-3
23-20
4
op
M
/D—or
j.•e
3
2 3-4
19-21
16-18
1
10 -
o-
SS-i
(D
>f.9
!T)
9 65432*
1-
Range : : 17-63
Mean - 40.22
Median = 39.75
C =» - .7 8
S.D. = 8 . 2 6
“ i— |— i— r— »— i— i— r - "1— T— r—
16 IS 22 25 28 21 34 3? 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64
Score
(jsk - 1 .3 5
Ku c .222 - L e p to k u rtic
P90 = 52.50
*3 = 45.30
Sk - .8 4
(j lcu = -031
^sk
Ku - 1.00
= 34.50
tf k u
P10 = 29.25
Sk = 1.13
Frequency
F ig u re XX
D is tr ib u tio n o f Time S cores in M innesota S p a tia l d e la tio n s T est(B o ard s A
com bined).
Iff = 30
Score
950-74
925-49
900-24
875-99
850-74
825-49
300-24
775-99
12 -»
750-74
725-49
700-24
11 675-99
650-74
625-49
10 600-24
575-99
550-74
9525-49
50CV.24
475-99
450-74
425-49
400-24
7375-99
350-74
6-
32-
350
400
t—
r
460
Range = 372-957
Mean ■> 556.75
Median = 515.67
C = - 5 .2 5
S.D.= 1 3 0 .CO
500
t
5510
— r -
eoo
1— I— r
700
i— r
750
800
850
900
Score
P90 = 749.50
^3 = 599.50
Q1 = 471.75
P10 = 427.50
Sk = 72 .8 3
(fsk = 18.65
Sk - 3.91
tf s k
Ku » .198 a L e p to k u rtic
(Tku = .031
Ku - 2 .1 0
(T1™
& B,
F re^ .
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
4
2
3
7
2
8
9
12
8
7
4
1
2
F ig u re XXI
D is tr ib u t io n of S co res in th e M innesota Assembly Box
(T o ta l boxes 1 & 2. Combined)
N = SO
C
MC
M
Score -creq.
196-200
191-95
186-90
3 81-85
176-80
171-75
156-70
3
161-65
156-60
4
9
151-55
146-50
141-45
136-40
131-35
4
126-30
3
v
121-25
116-20
3
2
111-15
106-110
1
101-1C5
9 6 -ICO
91-95
86-90
81-85
76-80
**1—7C
6S-70
<0 C
O O-
9
8-
6-
Frequency
54-
1
,
—
ob
,—
76
- i—i—r86 96
Senge = 68-200
Mean = 156.00
Median = 157.50
C = 3.0 0
S.D. = 23.2 5
T
106
I'lS 11&6 ' 136 '
Scor°
P90 = 184.17
qp = 175.63
QX = 136.67
P10 = 121.00
31c = - 1 .9 1
tf’sk - 3 .6 6
Sk - - 1 .3 4
iW
h e 1 196
1^6 ' i'o6* lie 11
Ku = .308 ~ P la t v k u r tic
( ) \ u s .031
Ku - 1 .4 5
(pCa
!-*
i:
t.s
Figure XXII
D is tr ib u tio n o f Time Scores in ths O'Connor Finder D ex terity Test
N * 80
Score F ree,
391-400 1
381-390 —
371-380 1
361-370 X
351-360 341-350 —
331-340 —
321-330 1
311-220 301-310 2
291-300 o
281-290 8
271-280 8
261-270 7
251-260 10
241-250 11
331-2.10 11
221-230 4
211-220 7
201-210 4
191-200 2
11
10
g
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
191
211
231
F-ange - ''96-394
Kean = 256.00
&€dian = 251.00
C
= -9 .5 0
S.D.
= 36.70
251
271
291
Score
311
P90 = 290.50
Q3 = 275.00
QX « 232.70
P10 = 212.90
Sk = .70
tf s k = 4.50
-16
Q sk
331
351
371
391
Ku a .273 = P la t y k u r t i c
0"ku = . 031
Ku = .32
0 -k u
Figure XXIII
D istr ib u tio n o f jJime Scores in the O'Connor Tweeter D ex terity T est
H = 80
10
Score
Free
2
636-650
621-635
606-620
1
591-605
576-590
561-575
4.
546-560
531-545
516-530
i
501-515
486-500
i
471-495
5
456-470
4
1
441-455
8
*26-440
6
411-425
396-410
10
10
381-395
10
366-380
C
w
351-365
336-350
5
5
321-335
306-320
1
2
3Q1-305
-
9 _
8 _
6_
Frequency
5.
1-
291
—J w
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321
^ T 1 38'l ' 411 ' d l ' 471
Score
Range - 291-645
lleen = 403.90
H elie n = 393.50
C = -2 9 .1 0
S.D. = 64.50
F90 = 476.00
Q3 = 430.70
Q1 = 362.20
PIC = 335.50
Sk a 12.25
sk = 8 .1 4
Sk g 1 .5 0
sk
501
—j— \— i— r
531
561
591
621
651
Ku s .244 = L e p to k u rtic
ku - .031
Ku - .61
ku
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So f a r a s th e g e n e ra l s c o re s fo r th e v a r ia b le s a r e con­
cern e d , th e y ap p ear to he in co n fo rm ity w ith th e norms f o r th e
same t e s t s w hich w ere r e p o rte d in o th e r in v e s t ig a t io n s ,
fo r
in s ta n c e , Marowitz (40) in a p re v io u s stu d y o b ta in e d th e re s ­
p e c tiv e ran g e, mean, and sta n d a rd d e v ia tio n o f ? l to 110, 39.07
and 4 .0 0 f o r 112 s u b je c ts on the M eier-S eash o re A rt Ju d g n en t T e st.
This compares fa v o ra b ly w ith th e re s p e c tiv e ran g e, mean and
s ta n d a rd d e v ia tio n o f 73 to 110, 91.84 and 8 .5 4 o b ta in e d in th e
p re s e n t in v e s t ig a t io n .
There ap p ea rs to be s im ila r agreem ent
when com parisons a r e made w ith the norms o b ta in e d in o th e r
e rp e rim e n tc .
Prom Table I I , which compares th e p re s e n t norms
w ith th o s e th a t a.re a v a ila b le th ro u g h o th e r s tu d ie s , i t i s
a p p a re n t th a t th e se s c o re s do n o t d i f f e r a p p re c ia b ly from th e
s c o re s o b ta in e d in th o s e o th e r s tu d ie s .
T his would in d ic a te
th a t random s e le c tio n p ro b ab ly o b ta in e d in th e ch o ice o f sub­
j e c t s u s e d in th e p re s e n t s tu d y .
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TABLE I I
V a r i a b i l i t y for the P re s e n t Scores
Other Comparable S t u d i e s *
v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e s that c o m p a r a ti v e data
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84
3-'h e I n te r c o r r e la t io n s Among th e T e ste
The c o r r e la tio n a l a n a ly s is h as been alm ost in d is p e n s ib le a s
an a id in stn d y in g "m ental" a b i l i t i e s .
The degree of r e la tio n s h ip s
among th e a b i l i t i e s is re v e a le d through t h i s te c h n iq u e .
H ie r a r c h ie s
o f r e la tio n s h ip s in d ic a te the p o s s ib le p resen ce of common o r group
fa c to rs .
The i n t e r c o r r e la tio n s among a l l th e v a r ia b le s are shown in
ta b le I I I .
The c o e f f ic ie n ts o f c o r r e l a t i o n range from - .2 7 5 betw een
th e M innesota C le r ic a l Name Checking and th e M innesota A ssem bling
T e s ts to .9 4 4 between th e T h u rsto n e L -S core and th e T hurstone G ross
S co re.
However, i f th e
, L- an d G ross S cores a re e lim in a te d from
th e ta b le of in t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , a s seen in ta b le IV, th e h ig h e s t
c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f ic ie n t th e n becomes .625 betw een th e Number
Checking an d Name Checking t e s t s o f th e M innesota C le r ic a l .
view of th e f a c t th a t the
In
L - , and G ross S cores have a somewhat
dubious c h a r a c te r , i t ap p eared more f e a s i b l e to do th e co m putations
w ith o u t them &b w ell a s w ith them in c lu d e d .
I t . w i l l be observed from t a b le IV th a t th e c o r r e l a ti o n s a r e
m a in ly p o s i t i v e , although r a th e r low, th e re b y in d ic a tin g s l i g h t
d eg rees o f i n t e r r e la tio n s h ip s among th e a b i l i t i e s te s t e d .
The
h ig h e s t in tm r c c r r e la tio n s app ear to be among th e t e s t s , w hich a r e s a id to be
components of th e same a b i l i t y .
o v e rla p p in g th ro u g h o u t.
There i s , however, c o n s id e ra b le
The mean o f the c o r r e l a t i o n a l m a trix , t h a t
i s , th e mean o f a l l th e c o r r e l a ti o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , in ta b le IV i s
.1 4 8 .
The Eean of th e c o r r e l a ti o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of th e s ix i n t e l ­
85
lig e n c e s u b - t e s t s i s .3 3 9 .
The mean o f m usic s u b - te s ts i s .275.
The mean o f th e m echanical b a t te r y , w hich i s composed o f th e two
s p a t i a l t e s t e and th e assem bling box, i s .336} th e mean o f th e
th re e m echanical and the two m a n ip u la tiv e t e s t s tak en to g e th e r
i s .2 9 6 .
The c o e f f i c ie n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between th e number and
name ch eck in g t e s t s i s .625, aibd th e c o e f f i c ie n t o f c o r r e l a ti o n
between f in g e r and tw eezer d e x te r ity i s .3 4 9 .
T hat th e c o r r e la tio n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e h ig h e r f o r the
to
t e s t s which m easure th e same a b i l i t y th a n w ith t e s t s m easu rin g
A
th e d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s may be seen in ta b le 7 .
In t h i s ta b le
a r e p r e s e n te d th e mean c o e f f i c ie n t s o f c o r r e l a ti o n o f th e t e s t s
of th e same a b i l i t y tak en to g e th e r as w e ll a s th e mean c o rre ­
l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r d if f e r e n t co m binations c f r e la tio n s h ip .
T his seems to c o n tr a d ic t th e f in d in g s in a p re v io u s
stu d y by th e p r e s e n t w r i t e r where i t was r e p o r te d th a t th e
t e s t s w hich b e a r th e came name " . . . a re n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y
d if f e r e n t from th e in t e r c o r r e le tio n s among th e te 3 te th a t .
a r e p a r ts of th e o th e r gro u p s.
That i s , th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s
among the 'm usic* t e s t s them selves do n o t seem to be in any
o u ts ta n d in g manner e i t h e r h ig h e r o r low er th a n th e c o r r e la ­
tio n s of th e s e t e s t s w ith the t e s t s o f th e ’a r t* and 'm echani­
c a l ' g ro u p s.
The same may be s a id o f th e t e s t s w ith in th e a r t
and m ech an ical a b i l i t y b a t t e r i e s . "
The d if f e r e n c e in r e s u l t s is
most p ro b a b ly due to th e d iffe re n c e in t e s t m a te r ia ls u se d .
On
th e w hole, th e p r e s e n t m a te r ia l ap p ea rs s u p e r io r , 3 ince i t was
s e le c te d more c a r e f u l l y .
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Judgment, C lerical
III
TABLE
the Tests of I n te llig e n c e , Musical A b ility , A rtis tic
Mechanical A b ility , and Manual A b ili ty .
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In te r c o r re la tio n s
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In te r c o r re la tio n e
T/BLE IV
Among the Teste of I n te llig e n c e , Musical A b ility , A r tis tic
Mechanical A b ility , end Manuel A b ility .
(With Thurstone
L-, and Gross Scores Om itted)
Judgment, C lerical
A b ility
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88
TABLE V
Mean C o e f f ic ie n ts o f C o r r e la tio n o f T e sts M easuring
A spects o f Same A b i l i t y and o f D if f e r e n t A b i l i t i e s .
I n te r c o r r e la t io n s
Hana-o o f r ' s
Mean r
I n t e l l . te s t 3 alo n e
Music
"
"
Mech.
"
"
(U e c h .-J la n ip u la tiv e )T e s ts
I n t e l l . & Music
"
& A rt
"
& C le r ic a l
11
& Meek.
"
& M anipulat iv e
(" & Mech.-LIanrp. )Ccm‘o ined
Music & A rt
"
& C le r ic a l
"
& Mech.
M & Manip.
(" & M ech.-M anip.) Combined
A rt & C le r ic a l
"
& Mech.
" & Manip.
(" _& M ech.-M anip.)Combined
C le r ic a l & Mech.
11
& Manip.
( " £ M ech.-M anip./Combined
Mech. & Manip.
.1 9 ?
.049
.228
.058
- .1 1 0
.077
.063
-.1 5 6
- .1 7 1
-.1 7 1
.036
- .0 2 5
- .2 2 3
- .0 5 8
- .2 2 3
- .0 1 2
.195
.033
.033
-.2 7 5
-.1 4 7
- .2 7 5
.058
.339
.275
.336
.296
.125
.168
.257
.090
-.0 2 5
.044
.117
.134
.10?
.034
.078
.065
.246
.163
.213
-.0 1 5
-.0 9 9
-.0 4 9
.267
- .4 7 6
-.5 1 9
-.4 4 9
-.4 4 9
- .4 0 ?
- .3 1 3
- .5 7 0
- .3 0 3
- .1 6 2
- .3 0 3
- .1 6 8
- .3 5 1
- .3 6 5
-.2 1 2
- .3 6 5
- .1 4 2
-.2 9 0
-.2 9 3
-.2 9 3
- .1 8 0
- .0 2 9
- .1 8 0
- .3 9 0
89
C e rta in h ie r a r c h ie s stand, f o r th p ro m in e n tly in ta b le V.
ih e r e la tio n s h ip s between i n t e ll ig e n c e and c l e r i c a l number and
name ch eck in g , a r t judgment and m echanical a b i l i t y , end m echanical
and m a n ip u la tiv e a b i l i t y a re most o u ts ta n d in g .
In a s im ila r way
c e r t a i n n e g a tiv e r e la tio n s h ip s a re m a n ife s te d .
For in s ta n c e , th e
m a n ip u la tiv e t e s t s show no r e la tio n s h ip s w ith any of th e a b i l i t i e s ,
save m echanical a b i l i t y , and, to come e x te n t, a r t judgm ent.
C e rta in p re v io u s c o n c lu sio n s a r e s u b s ta n tia te d from
ex am in atio n o f th e c o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e s .
Andrew and P a te rs o n (6)
re p o rte d a c o r r e l a ti o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .7 7 between th e c l e r i c a l
number and name checking t e s t s g iv en to c o lle g e sophomores which
compares fa v o ra b ly w ith r = .625 h e re o b ta in e d .
in d ic a te d th a t th e averag e c o r r e l a t i o n
E a r l i e r , i t w as
c o e f f i c ie n t between
i n t e ll ig e n c e and music t e s t s a s taken irom s e v e r a l d if f e r e n t
s tu d ie s was .1 5 .
T^ip ap p ea rs to be co n firm ed by th e p re s e n t
averag e c o r r e l a ti o n o f .325 between th e m usic and in t e ll ig e n c e
te s ts .
In a p rev io u s stu d y (4 5 ), th e p re s e n t a u th o r showed t h a t
the r e la tio n s h ip between a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y and m echanical a b i l i t y
wes g r e a t e r th a n r e la tio n s h ip s between a r t and m usic, and m usic and
m echanics.
This ap p ea rs v e r i f i e d from th e r e s u l t s .
The r e p o r t
of r e l a t i v e l y low r e la tio n s h ip between m usic and a r t , which th e
w r i t e r made p re v io u s ly , i s a ls o c o rro b o ra te d .
90
T ab les Vi and VII
show
th e s e p a ra te i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s found
h e re among: th e T hurstone I n te llig e n c e T e sts and a ls o among th e
Seashore Music t e n t s w ith th o se re p o rte d by o th e r re s e a rc h w o rk ers.
I " ta b le VI th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o b ta in e d in t h i s stu d y among th e
in t e ll ig e n c e v a r ia b le s a r e compared w ith th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s re ­
p o rte d b y Thurstone f o r 300 c o lle g e s tu d e n ts on th e same t e s t s .
The mean r ' s o f .414 f o r th e s ix i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , th e Q,, L, and
Gross sc o re s o m itte d , compare fa v o ra b ly w ith th e av e ra g e of .339
re p o rte d in ta b le V.
The o n ly se rio u s d if f e r e n c e s ap p e a r f o r th e
Seme-Opposite t e s t w hich was shown to be v ery h ig h ly skewed, and
r e a l l y u n f i t f o r e x p e rim e n ta l u s e .
each c o r r e l a t i o n .
Two f ig u r e s a r e r e p o r te d f o r
The to p f ig u r e i s th e c o e f f i c ie n t o f c o rre la /-
t i c n r e p o rte d by T h u rsto n e w h ile th e low er f ig u r e r e p r e s e n ts th e
p re s e n t f in d in g s .
From ta b le V II i t i s e v id en t t h a t th e re i s s u b s ta n tia l
agreem ent between th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s which w ere found in t h i s
in v e s tig a tio n and th e s e r e p o r te d by o th e r w o rk ers.
The av erag e
of a l l th e music i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h i s stu d y i s .2 7 5 .
mean i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i s .3 0 1 .
D ra k e 's
The means of the r ' s r e p o r te d by
M u rse ll, Such and S to d d a rd , and Brown, a re r e s p e c t iv e l y .302,
.4 1 , and .1 9 .
The g r e a t e s t range is found in th e consonance
t e s t where th e re i s a lso th e g r e a te s t u n r e l i a b i l i t y .
91
TABLE VI
A Comparison o f th e I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s A^ong th e T hurstone I n te l l i g e n c e
S u b -T ests R eported Here 7.’i t h the R e s u lts R ep o rted by T hurstone e t a l . ( 9 l )
(The upper f ig u r e i n each box re p r e s e n ts th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r te d
by 1'hur atone; th e l o r e r f ig u r e r e p re s e n ts th e c o r r e la tio n s in t h i s s tu d y .)
V ariab le
1.
A rith m etic
2 . A nalogies
S. Ho. S e rie s
4.
Or- Score
5. Completion
6. A r t i f . Lane.
3
.396
.290
5
.493
.556
.412
.438
4
.697
.762
.861
.747
.771
.837
5
.344
.376
.384
.339
.297
.287
.437
.418
6
.312
.252
.420
.401
.369
.476
.478
.521
.535
.414
7
.313
.197
.462
.286
.362
.202
.477
.267
. 645
.300
.269
'
7. Same-Onoosite
8. L-Score
9 . Grose Score
8
9
.378 .551
.420 .600
.507 .709
.465 .639
.38S TB15S" —
.465 .664
.552 .798
.567 .816
.816 .764
.695 .677
.826 .7 8 4 '......
.816 .787
Vfl'SB" . 831
.694 .622
.943
.944
92
TABLE VII
A Comparison o f th e I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s ^Saong th e S eashore Music
T e sts R ep o rted Here 'w ith th e R e s u lts R eported hy Brown (1 1 ),
Ruch and S to d d ard (5 6 ), M u rsell (4 8 ), and Drake ( 2 1 ).
(The l e t t e r s p re c e d in g th e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e th e i n i t i a l s of
th e i n v e s t ig a t o r s . The t i n i n i t i a l e d f i f t h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i­
c i e n t s r e p r e s e n t th e r ' s o f t h i s s tu d y .)
V a ria b le
1 . P itc h
2 . I n te n s i ty
3 . Time
4 . C0rsonance
5. Tonal Memory
6. Rhythm
, 2__________3_________ 4__________ 5__________ 6
(B) .52
(B) .29
(B) .25
(B) .20
(B) .16
(H) .78
(B) .32
(R) .30
(B) .52
(H)
(M) .22
(M) .30
(M) .49
Ui) .2 4 (H) .33
(D) .521 (D) .286 (D) — (D) .314
(D) .296
.337
.187
.519
.381
.334
(B)--.0 4
( b ) .00
( b ) .23
(B) .40
(R) .20
(H) .23
(B) .24
(B) —
(M) .32
(M) .51
(1£) .28
GO .21
(D) .389 (D)
(D) .153 (D) .176
.060
.126
.202
.319
(B) .09
(B) .20
(B) .00
(B) .48
(B) .28
(K)
(M) .23
0 0 .29
(M) .09
(D) .239 (D) .244
O) —
.132
.366
.253
(B) .22
(B) .00
(B) .75
(B) ------(M) .55
GO .09
(D)
(D) ------.258
.049
(B) .33
(B)
(M) .38
(D) .341
.506
93
Fa c to r A n a ly s is o f th e C o rre la tio n s
Methods o f f a c t o r a n a ly s is r e p r e s e n t a h ig h ly u s e fu l
tech n iq u e f o r stu d y in g th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f a b i l i t i e s .
C o n cretely ,
t h i s h as meant th e re d u c tio n o f t e ^ t p erform ances in a wide v a r ie ty
of s i t u a t i o n s to a r e l a t i v e l y sm all number o f e x p e rim e n ta lly de­
te rm in ed and o p e r a tio n a lly d e fin e d re f e r e n c e a b i l i t i e s , such a s
v e rb a l a b i l i t y , num erical a b i l i t y , and th e l i k e .
I t is p a rtic u la rly
u s e f u l in c a s e s such as th e p re s e n t w here th e re i s c o n sid e ra b le
o v e rla p among th e c o r r e l a ti o n s .
In th e f a c t o r a n a ly s is tech n iq u e
th e v a s t number o f c o r r e la tio n s a r e reduced to a r e l a t i v e l y em ail
number o f fundam ental a b i l i t i e s .
The T hurstone " c e n te r of g ra v ity " method o f f a c t o r i a l
a n a ly s is (87) was u sed to determ in e th e lo a d in g s f o r th e fo u r ex­
t r a c t e d f a c t o r s in ta b le s V III, and IX.
The T hurstone method of
f a c t o r a n a ly s is i s a p p lic a b le to a la r g e number o f f a c to r s and
v a r ia b le s , and i s n o t dependent upon th e absence o f group f a c t o r s
fo r i t s a p p lic a tio n .
M oreover, i t aims to g iv e a more com prehensive
a n a ly s is th an t e t r a d a n a ly s is o*" the f a c t o r s in v o lv ed sin ce th e
f i r s t f a c t o r lo a d in g s a re supposed to g iv e th e same in fo rm atio n
as te tr a d a n a ly s is .
In ta b le V III a re p re s e n te d th e f a c t o r s w ith th e T hurstone
2,-, Ir-, and G ross sc o re s in c lu d e d w h ile in t s b l e IX th e se v a r ia b le s
94
have been ex clu d ed .
S ince th e s e th re e v a r ia b le s w ere d eterm in ed
through p re v io u s f a c t o r a n a ly s is i t was decid ed to t r y an a n a ly s is
w ith th e se v a r ia b le s o m itte d .
The symbol h
s ta n d s f o r th e communality of th e t e s t , w hich
re p r e s e n ts th e sum o f th e sq u are o f th e f e c t o r lo a d in g s f o r each
v a r ia b le .
I f th e com m unality i s equal to u n it y th e r e a r e no s p e c if i c
f a c t o r s p r e s e n t.
The v a r ia n e e , o r what Thurstone c a l l s th e "u n iq u e­
ness" of a te a t e q u a ls 1 -h ^ .
T his in d ic a te s th e e x te n t to whidi
s p e c if ic f a c t o r s ( in c lu d in g th e
sam pling e r r o r s ) a r e p r e s e n t.
The f a c t o r lo a d in g s sq u ared in d ic a te th e p e rc e n ta g e s o f v a ria n c e
in each t e s t a t t r i b u t a b l e to each f a c t o r .
The sum o f th e f a c t o r
lo a d in g s squared f o r each f a c t o r d iv id e d by th e number o f v a r ia b le s
in d ic a te s th e t o t a l v a ria n c e f o r each f a c t o r .
T his c o r r e s ­
ponds w ith th e sum o f th e communality (h^) d iv id e d by th e number
o f v a r ia b le s .
The f a c t o r lo a d in g s in b o th ta b le s rem ain r e l a t i v e l y unrm odif le d w hether or n o t th e q - , L -, and Gross sc o re s a r e in c lu d e d .
These v a r ia b le s show co m m u n alities th a t approxim ate u n ity .(m )
would in d ic a te th e la c k of s p e c if i c f a c t o r s in th e se v a r ia b le s .
^ h is
It
i s a commentary on th e alm o st p e r f e c t w e ig h tin g g iv e n to th e se v a r ia b le s
by '^'hurstone.
They r e p r e s e n t th e h ig h e s t lo a d in g s in f a c t o r one o f
ta b le V III.
(m) That th e co iw p u n alities f o r th e q- and L -S cores ex ceed u n i t y by
v e ry sm all amounts i s p ro b a b ly due to such f a c t o r s a s e r r o r s in ap p ro x i­
m ating numbers, p ro b a b le e r r o r s in w eig h tin g , e t c .
95
TABI2 V III
F a c to r L oadings f o r A ll V a ria b le s
(Four F a c to rs , D eterm ined by T hurstone C e n tro id Method)
N “ 80
F a c to rs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Q
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
I
.562
.578
.648
.776
.539
.655
.416
.764
.890
.486
.375
.422
.114
.540
.263
.377
.355
.500
.457
.361
.138
.162
.14 3
II
.191
.248
.316
.352
.252
.369
.277
.479
.448
-.4 7 4
- .3 4 4
-.1 0 8
-.2 9 4
-.1 8 9
- .1 4 3
-.1 8 9
.245
.332
-.2 5 5
-.3 6 7
- .4 3 3
-.3 6 0
-.3 8 3
III
.329
.204
- .0 4 7
.252
.169
-.2 0 3
-.0 7 1
-.1 1 9
.153
- .1 9 4
-.1 5 9
-.2 1 3
- .2 1 3
-.5 6 1
- .4 4 5
.105
-.3 1 2
- .3 3 6
.083
.415
.427
.396
.361
IV
-.2 6 3
-.1 6 7
- .4 0 6
-.4 9 1
.147
.197
.149
.313
.130
-.2 1 1
-.0 1 5
-.1 8 2
- .0 0 7
-.2 0 2
-.0 5 9
.293
.131
.290
.034
.046
.264
.119
.007
I2
.316
.334
.420
.602
.291
.429
.173
.584
.792
.236
.141
.178
.013
.292
.069
.142
.126
.250
.209
.130
.019
.026
.020
II2
.036
.062
.100
.124
.064
.136
.077
.229
.201
.225
.118
.012
.085
.036
.020
.036
.060
.110
.065
.135
.233
.130
.147
2.2s
5.792
2.442
S.*2
N
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
T hurstonei A r ith .
ii
A n alogies
ti
No. S e rie s
ii
Q,-Score
ii
Com pletion
ii
A r t i f . Lang.
ii
Same-Opposite
h
L-Score
;i
d ro ss Score
S eashore P itc h
ti
In te n s ity
H
Time
H
Consonance
•1
Tonal Memory
n
Rhythm
.2518
1.863
.1062
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
III2
.108
.042
.002
.064
.029
.041
.005
.014
.023
.038
.025
.045
.045
.315
.198
.011
.097
.113
.007
.172
.182
.157
.150
.0810
IV2
.069
.028
.165
.241
.022
.039
.022
.098
.017
.045
.000
.033
.000
.041
.003
.086
.017
.084
.001
.002
.070
.014
.000
h2
.529
.466
.687
1.031
.406
.645
.277
.925
1.0 3 3
.544
.284
.268
.144
.684
.290
.2 7 5
.300
.557
.282
.439
.504
.327
.297
1.097
11.1 9 4
.0477
.4866
M eier-S eash o re A rt
M innesota No. Checking
"
Name
"
"
P ap er Form Board
11
S p a tia l R e la tio n s
"
Assembly Box
O'Connor F in g e r D e x te r ity
"
Tweezer
"
96
TABLE IX
F a c to r Loadings f o r V a r ie tie s w ith T h u rsto n e g, and L and
Gross S cores O m itted .
( lo u r F a c to rs , D eterm ined by T hurstone C e n tro id Method)
N a 80
F a c to rs
1
2
3
5
6
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
13
19
20
21
22
23
I
.486
.495
.566
.445
.559
.299
.566
.438
.430
.157
.583
.304
.400
.361
.485
.505
.429
.190
.199
.186
II
.089
.231
.426
.188
.433
.312
- .2 6 0
- .1 9 4
.102
-.1 8 0
.194
.199
- .1 7 4
.367
.489
- .2 0 4
-.4 5 9
-.6 3 1
-.4 5 9
- .4 7 3
III
.441
.260
.159
.280
- .0 1 1
.221
—.333
-.1 7 0
-.0 9 6
- .3 7 4
- .4 5 3
- .3 7 6
.186
- .2 0 8
-.1 7 1
-.0 6 6
.209
.233
.239
.106
IV
- .2 6 3
.172
- .2 8 1
.072
.252
.201
- .2 2 6
- .2 0 8
.049
.172
- .2 0 2
- .1 9 0
.185
.119
.161
.199
.121
.163
- .1 6 2
- .1 8 4
£K2
£K 2
N
1 . T hurstone A r ith .
2.
11
A n elo g ies
3.
"
No. S e rie s
5.
"
Com pletion
6.
"
A r t i f . Lang.
7.
11
Same-Oppo s i t e
10. Seashore P itc h
11.
"
I n te n s i ty
12.
"
Time
13.
"
Consonance
14.
"
Tonal Memory
15.
"
Hhythm
I2
.236
.235
.320
.198
.312
.089
.320
.192
.185
.025
.340
.092
.160
.130
.235
.255
.184
.036
.040
.035
II2
.008
.053
.181
.035
.187
.097
.068
.038
.010
.032
.038
.040
.030
.135
.239
.042
.211
.398
.211
.224
2.2 7 7
3.619
.1810
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22 .
23.
.1139
III2
.194
.068
.025
.078
.000
.049
.111
.029
.009
.140
.205
.141
.035
.043
.029
.004
.044
.054
.057
.011
3.326
.0663
IV2
.069
.030
.079
.005
.064
.040
.051
.043
.002
.030
.041
.035
.034
.014
.026
.040
.015
.027
.026
.034
.706
.0353
h2
.508
.386
.606
.316
.555
.275
.550
.301
.206
.226
.624
.309
.259
.322
.529
.341
.454
.514
.334
.304
7.929
.3965
M eier-S eashore A rt
M innesota jfo. Checking
"
Name
"
"
P aper Form B o a rd (re v .)
11
S p a tia l R e la tio n s
"
Assembly Box
O'Connor P in g er D e x te rity
"
Tweezer
11
97
Four f a c t o r s ar*» a p p a r e n tly e f f i c i e n t in b o th in s ta n c e s to
accoun t f o r th e c o r r e l a t i o n a l m a trix .
I t was d e c id e d to s to p a f t e r
th e fo u r th f a c t o r b ecau se th e f a c t o r r e s id u a ls were a l l ap p ro ach in g
z e ro .
F a c to r one seems to be a g e n e ra l f a c to r .
th e v a r ia b le s , a lth o u g h in v a ry in g d e g re e s.
I t i s p r e s e n t in a l l
In ta b le IX f a c t o r one
a cc o u n ts fo r e ig h te e n p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l v a ria n c e o f th e t e s t s ;
f a c t o r two f o r a p p ro x im ate ly elev en p e r cen t; f a c t o r s th r e e end
fo u r fo r seven and f o u r p e r c e n t, r e s p e c tiv e ly .
In a l l , th e fo u r
f a c t o r s account fo r about f o r t y p e r cen t of the v a r ia n c e .
The com-
m u n a litie s in d ic a te th a t from about tw enty-one p e r c e n t to s i x t y two p e r cen t o f the v a ria n c e of th e in d iv id u a l v a r ia b le s i s ac­
co unted f o r by the f o u r f a c t o r s .
T h erefo r?, i t co u ld be s t a t e d
w ith much c e r t a i n t y th a t s p e c if i c f a c t o r s are p r e s e n t.
A lthough a l l of th e e ig h te e n v a r ia b le s a r e p o s i t i v e l y
lo a d e d w ith th e f i r s t f a c t o r , i t ccn be seen th a t th e r e a r e l a r g e
d if f e r e n c e s i n some o f th e w e ig h tin g s .
u 'lth th e Q-, L ,- and Dross
s c o re s o m itte d , as in ta b le IX, th e re i s no d e f in i te h ie r a r c h y of
h ig h lo adings* th e re b y in d ic a tin g th a t th e f i r s t f a c t o r i s a g e n e ra l,
i n te g r a tin g f a c t o r .
fa c to r.
There a r e some c o n sid e ra b ly low lo a d in g s in th is
These a re f o r th e m a n ip u la tiv e t e s t s , in c lu d in g th e Mechani­
c a l A sse m b lin g Bex, which in v o lv e s work w ith the h a n d s.
The two
extrem ely u n r e li a b le t e s t s , th e Consonance t e s t and th e Same-Opposite
t e s t s a ls o r e v e a l low f a c t o r lo a d in g s .
Andrew a lc o g o t th e lo w e st
f a c t o r lo a d in g s fo r th e F in g e r and Tweezer D e x te rity t e s t s in th e
f i r s t fa c to r.
In a d d itio n , she a lso re p o rte d h ig h p o s i t i v e lo a d in g s
98
f o r the o th e r v a r ia b le s an d s ta t e d th a t th e f i r s t f a c t o r " . . .
seems to h e m easuring a g e n e ra l a b i l i t y f a c t o r , one which entp h a s iz e s a b i l i t y in c l e r i c a l t e s t s . "
The second f a c t o r h as ex trem ely h ig h n e g a tiv e lo a d in g s
f o r a l l th e m echanical and m a n ip u la tiv e v a r ia b le s .
The h i p e s t
p o s i t i v e lo a d in g s a r e f o r th e C le r ic a l Number, and Name Checking
t e s t s , and th e T hurstone Number S e r ie s , A r t i f i c i a l Language, and
Same-Opposite t e s t s .
I t i s n e c e ssa ry to remember t h a t n e g a tiv e
and p o s i t i v e s ig n s may be changed a r b i t r a r i l y in a c e n tr o id f a c t o r
a n a l y s i s , w ith o u t a l t e r i n g th e r e s u l t s .
The second f a c t o r would,
th e r e f o r e , ap p ear to be a f a c t o r r e l a t e d to m ech an ical and mani­
p u la tiv e a b i l i t y .
T h is h ie ra rc h y betw een C le r ic a l Number and wame
Checking a s w e ll as th e r e la tio n s h ip between th e s e a b i l i t i e s and
some of th e in t e ll ig e n c e s u b - te 3 ts ap p ears to be v e r i f i e d .
It
would seem th a t th e second f a c t o r com prised two " s u b - f a c to r s ."
One combines th e group f a c t o r s of m echanical and m a n ip u la tiv e
a b i l i t i e s and th e o th e r em braces to an a p p re c ia b le e x te n t th e
in t e l l i g e n c e and c l e r i c a l group f a c t o r s .
F a c to r th r e e a p p a re n tly h as i t s h ig h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s ,
on the w h o le, w ith the t e s t s of m u sical a b i l i t y i f th e sig n s a re
in te rc h a n g e d .
There seems tn be a s l i g h t co rresp o n d en ce between
m usical a b i l i t y and c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y as w e ll a s betw een in t e ll ig e n c e
and m e ch a n ic a l-m a n ip u la tiv e a b i l i t y .
99
F a c to r fo u r shows few h ig h lo a d in g s .
S0me o f th e f a c t s
re v e a le d in t h i s f a c t o r , n e v e r th e le s s , a re t h a t th e a n a lo g ie s
t e s t may he c o n s id e re d a s much v e rb a l a s i t i 3 q u a n t ita t iv e
( p a r t of th e 0 ,-S co re).
Also re v e a le d i s th e c o n s is te n t r e ­
l a tio n s h ip between th e A rt Judgment t e c t and th e M echanical
and M an ip u lativ e t e s t s .
A lso , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l b e i t low,
betw een c l e r i c a l and a r t judgm ent,and c l e r i c a l and m echanical
a b i l i t i e s a re d is c lo s e d .
The degree o f r e la tio n s h ip betw een f a c t o r s can be de­
term in ed s t a t i s t i c a l l y by f in d in g th e c o s in e s of th e an g le s
betw een th e v e c to rs which a re e x p re s s io n s o f th e f a c t o r lo ad ­
in g s .
The f a c t o r lo a d in g s a r e p l o t t e d on a g e o m e tric a l s tr u c t u r e
in a manner c o n tin g e n t upon th e number o f f a c t o r s which have been
o b ta in e d .
T>«us i f o n ly two f a c t o r s a r e o b ta in e d th e f a c t o r w e ig h ts
o f each v a r ia b le a re p l o t t e d e« x end jr c o o rd in a te s w ith r e fe re n c e
to th e c e n tre id axes I and I I .
I f th r e e f a c t o r s e re o b ta in e d th e
g e o m e tric a l p a t t e r n i s a sphere in w hich th e f a c t o r s a re a l l o rth o ­
g o n a l, th a t i s , in r i g h t angle r e la tio n s h ip to one a n o th e r.
F ig u re 24 r e p r e s e n ts r tw o -d im en rio n al r e la tio n s h ip betw een
f a c t o r s I and I I , w ith com plete d is re g a rd to f a c t o r s I I I and IV.
In
o th e r w ords, i t i s a s i f th e f i r s t two f a c t o r s w ere th e on ly t r u l y
s ig n ific a n t fa c to rs .
The tw enty v a r ia b le s from ta b le IX a re p l o t t e d
w ith r e s p e c t to th e two f a c t o r s .
The d o tte d l i n e Pp i s drawn th ro u g h
the elev en c o o rd in a te s a s th e av erag e o f th e p o s iti v e x and y c o o rd in a te s .
P2 i s th e av erag e o f th e nin e n e g a tiv e c o o r d in a te s .
The an g le (0)
100
F ig u re XXIV
R e la tio n s h ip "between F a c to rs I an d I I
(V a ria b le s Q,-, L -, and Gross Scores O n itt e d .)
IX
17
I
16
23
22
21
-II
< 0 X = 76°
C os.01 = .242 = r 12
101
F ig u re xXV
R e la tio n s h ip Between f a c t o r s I and I I I
(V a ria b le s C$-, L -, and Gross Scores O a i t t e d .)
22
20
1?
13
15
C os.fa* -500
102
between the two vectors i s approximately 76 degrees.
The co rrela tio n
between fa cto rs I and I I , which i s the cosin e o f a 76 degree angle,
i s therefore .242.
This would in d ic a te that the suggested or surw
mised "primary a b ilitie s " which are represented in fa cto rs I and II
are somewhat related rather than independent.
Complete Independence
i s indicated only when the vectors are orthogonal rather than oblique.
In other words, two fa cto rs are independent when the angle between
th eir a b ilit y vectors i s a right angle (90 degrees) thereby making
the cosine o f the angle equal to sero .
Figure 25 in d ica tes the
co rrela tio n between fa c to r s I and I I I .
The angle between the direc­
tio n cosin es i s approximately 60 degrees, corresponding to a cor­
r ela tio n o f .500.
With respect to a th ree-fa cto r rela tio n sh ip i t is necessary
to describe the twenty variab les in a tri-dim ensional stru ctu re.
The fourth fa cto r appears to be r e la t iv e ly in sig n ific a n t and i s
therefore om itted.
The factor loadings are p lo tte d on the surface
o f a three-dimensional sphere.
Figure 26 shows a b ir d 's eye view of
the pattern o f the augmented fa c to r loadings p lo tte d on the surface
of a sphere, a x is I being considered as perpendicular to the surface
o f the paper.
From th is figu re i t can be seen that simple structure
i s not obtained because o f the d if f ic u lt y in confining the loadings
w ith in a rig h t sp erica l tr ia n g le .
D istin ct and clea r-cu t b lu ster s
are absent, revealing minor ones on ly .
The lack of simple structure
makes i t d if f ic u lt to measure the r e la tio n s among the three fa c to r s.
I t i s apparent, however, that the fa c to r s are not orthogonal.
fo r e , fa cto rs I , I I , and III are apparently in ter r ela ted .
There­
103
F ig u re XXVI
The R e la tio n s Among ■•’a c to r s I , I I , and I I I
( V a ria b le s Cfc-,
and Oross S co res Om itted;
consider pattern of poin ts as a bird's, eye
view with Axis I perpendicular to surface
o f ch a rt.)
I ll
.21
ill
.19
.12
.17
.10
.15
.1 4
-III
18
104
IV. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
The p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a ti o n s among th e a b i l i t i e s te s t e d ,
the tendency tow ard h ie r a r c h ic a l fo rm a tio n , th e o v e rla p p in g
among th e c o r r e l a ti o n s ana th e f a c t o r lo a d in g s , and th e c o r ­
r e la tio n s among th e f a c t o r s which a r e p r e s e n t in th e se a b i l i t i e s
tend to d em o n strate t h a t a b i l i t i e s in s te a d of e x i s t i n g independent­
ly a re in dynamic r e la tio n s h ip w ith one a n o th e r.
P o s itiv e c o rre ­
l a t i o n s a r e re p o r te d in alm ost a l l b io m e tric a l and p s y c h o lo g ic a l
s tu d ie s .
However, no f u r th e r c o n s id e ra tio n i s g iv e r to t h i s f a c t
o th e r than to subm it a s an e x p la n a tio n th e r a t h e r vague h o p o th e sis
th a t n a tiir a l s e le c tio n fa v o rs p o s iti v e c o r r e l a t i o n s o r th a t "d e­
s ir a b le q u a l i t i e s in mankind ten d to be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e la te d ."
Even i f Thomson w ere c o r r e c t in t h i s Lamarckian h y p o th e sis i t
ought n o t to p re c lu d e th e concept o f f u n c tio n a l r e l a t i o n s o f
the a b i l i t i e s .
Yet h i s sam pling th e o ry seems t c e x i s t in t o t a l
d is re g a rd o f t h i s f a c t .
The c o n s is te n t app earan ce of p o s iti v e
c o r r e la tio n s betw een a b i l i t i e s , even though th e c o r r e l a ti o n s
ere o fte n e x tre m ely low, in d ic a te s th a t th e e x p la n a tio n m ust
exten d beyond th e sim ple realm of chance r e l a tio n s h ip .
Accord­
ing to th e sam pling th e o ry o f Thomson, " . . . each t e s t c a l l s upon
a sample o f th e bonds which th e mind can form , and th a t some o f
th ese bonds a re common to two t e s t 3 a rd cause t h e i r c o r r e l a ti o n ."
105
I t i s ‘A'flomson's b e l i e f that, th e t o t a l mind i s n o t in v o lv e d in tn e
r e la tio n s h ip s betw een a b i l i t i e s b u t r a t h e r t h a t th e a b i l i t i e s
sample on ly sm all re g io n s (s u b -p o o ls ) of th e mind.
In th e stu d y o f c l e r i c a l number and name ch eck in g , Andrew
re p o r te d a l l c o r r e l a ti o n s as p o s i t i v e .
T his in d ic a te d " th e
e x is te n c e of a g e n e ra l f a c t o r , w h ile r e l a t i v e l y h ig h c o r r e l a ti o n s
in d ic a te th e p resen ce of group f a c t o r s , o r in o th e r words o v e r1.s p u in g .11 She s t a t e d a ls o th a t m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly s is " . . .
in d ic a te s th a t a common f a c t o r ru n s through a l l th e t e s t s and
in a d d itio n th e re a r e m inor group f a c t o r s ."
D e sp ite th e se s t a t e ­
m ents A ndrew's g e n e ra l co n c lu sio n was th a t th e M innesota C le r ic a l
T e st " i s m easuring a s p e c if ic a b i l i t y which i s r e l a t i v e l y in d e­
p en d en t of s p a t i a l , academ ic, and d e x t e r ity a b i l i t i e s . "
The
e x is te n c e o f h ie r a r c h ie s among th e a b i l i t i e s was g iv en l i t t l e
c o n s id e r a tio n ex cep t by p r o f e s s o r Spearman and h is c o lle a g u e s .
The c o r r e l a ti o n s among th e f a c t o r s found in the p re s e n t
in v e s tig a tio n seem to be amply confirm ed in o th e r s tu d ie s .
G a r r e tt found in m u ltip le f a c t o r a n a ly se s o f th e r e s u l t s in v o lv ­
ing d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s t h a t p o s iti v e c o r r e l a ti o n s e x is te d between
th e group f a c t o r s which had been i s o la te d .
Thus, in one a n a l y s i s ,
he fo u n d a c o r r e l a ti o n o f .225 betw een th e n u m erical and v e rb a l
fa c to rs.
In a n a ly s in g a second group of d a ta he r e p o r te d r e s p e c tiv e
c o r r e l a ti o n s o f .825 betw een th e v e rb a l and n u m erical f a c t o r s , .273
betw een th e v e rb a l and non-language (perform ance) f a c t o r s , and .296
betw een th e n u m erical and nour-language f r c t o r s .
He found in
106
a n a ly z in g th e A n astp g i s tu d ie s , how ever, th a t th e memory f a c t o r
was independent o f b o th th e v e r b a l and nu m erical f a c t o r s .
The
a n g le s were o rth o g o n a l, th e c o r r e l a ti o n s b ein g .0 0 and - .0 8 5
betw een th e memory f a c t o r and th e n u m erical and v e rb a l f a c t o r s ,
r e s p e c t iv e l y .
Morphy found th e p rim ary t r a i t s , i n th e in v e s tig a tio n
o f th e r e l a t i o n between m echanical a b i l i t y and in t e ll ig e n c e
were " o b liq u e r a th e r than o rth o g o n a l" , w h ile M o rris, in con­
t r a s t , r e p o r te d th a t th e "m ental t r a i t s . . . . a r e o rth o g o n a l,
o r in o th e r w ords,
th ey a re independent m e n tal t r a i t s . "
The r e s u l t s o b ta in e d h ere in d i c a te th e p resen ce o f
s p e c if i c and group f a c to r s which s r e c o o rd in a te d through th e
p re se n c e o f a common f a c t o r .
In t h i s r e s p e c t, th e se f in d in g s
seem to be analogous to th e 36 of Spearman.
The s p e c if ic f a c t o r s
a r e re v e a le d in th e r a th e r low co m m unalities w h ile the group
f a c t o r s pro chown in th e is o l a t e d f a c t o r s ,
f a c t o r one, th e
c : n f i g u r a t i o n a l o r c o o rd in a tin g f a c t o r , i n t e g r a te s the a b i l i t i e s
in to o rd e re d a c t i v i t y .
I t i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r w h eth er th e g . f a c t o r of Spearman
i s s im ila r to th i3 c o n f ig u r a tio n a l f a c t o r , s in c e Spearman has n ev er
com m itted h im se lf s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h i s p o in t .
I t does ap p ea r,
however, th a t th e g f a c t o r i s th e sum o f a l l th e f a c to r s in s te a d
o f one which in t e g r a te s the m ental f u n c tio n s .
On th e b a s is o f t h i s , th e r e f o r e , th e s p e c if ic f a c t o r s a r e
s e p a r a te and in d e p en d en t.
They a r e r e l a t e d o n ly through th e
10?
a d d itiv e p ro c e s s , th e g f a c t o r , which i s p re s e n t to some d egree
in a l l th e s p e c if ic and group f a c t o r s h u t does n o t c o - o r d in a te
them.
Thus, th e Spearman tw o -fa c to r th e o ry r e p r e s e n ts a s t a t i c
system and i s a p p a r e n tly in com plete f o r e x p la in in g th e r e c u l t s
o b ta in e d h e re .
More ad eq u ate agreem ent w ith th e r e s u l t s , how­
e v e r is found i f one a c c e p ts A lex an d er’ s m o d ific a tio n o f th e
th e o ry whereby he em phasises the in se p a ra b le q u a l ity o f th e
group f a c t o r s a s w e ll a s th e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among th e s e
fa c to rs.
The 'p rim a ry a b i l i t i e s ' o f T hurstone and th e 'u n iq u e
t r a i t s ' o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f M innesota group a r e r e p r e s e n ta ­
t i v e of a m ech an ical and a to m is tic e x p la n a tio n .
The in dependent
e x is te n c e of a b i l i t i e s ac c o rd in g to th e se e x p la n a tio n s i s in d i­
c a tiv e of a b e h a v io ra l anarchism whereby each a b i l i t y i s is o l a t e d
and s p e c if i c .
That a b i l i t i e s a r e by no means a b s o lu te ly s p e c if ic
and d iv e rs e i s a p p a re n t in th e e x is te n c e o f c o n s id e ra b le o v er­
la p p in g o f f u n c tio n .
I f what is commonly c a l le d m ental a c t i v i t y i s re g a rd e d
a s the o rd e re d and in t e g r a te d e x p re s s io n s o f th e t o t a l p e r s o n a li ty ,
th e n th e se e x p re s s io n s a s a consequence must be c o n s id e re d a s in
f u n c tio n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p in s te a d o f s t a t i c and i s o l a t e d phenomena.
Modern p s y c h o lo g ic a l knowledge in d ic a te s th a t th e b e h a v io r o f
th e organism i s n o t e c o n g e rie s o f d is p a r a te f a c u l t i e s b u t r a t h e r
an organism ic u n it y in which th e r e i s dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between
fu n c tio n a l and s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c ts .
The perform ance o f an a c t by
an in d iv id u a l in v o lv e s th e t o t a l p e r s o n a lity .
Thus e x c e lle n c e
108
in an a b i l i t y such
ps
an a r t i s t i c f a c u l ty .
ju g g lin g .
a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y can n o t be a t t r i b u t e d to
Such an e x p la n a tio n wo’u ld be mere word
An e x p la n a tio n more in k eep in g w ith most r e c e n t
e x p e rim e n ta tio n w ould a t t r i b u t e such b e h a v io r to circ u m stan c es
which fa v o r th e a p p o rp rin te com bination o f env iro n m en tal and
h e r e d i ta r y f a c t o r s e x p re sse d th ro u g h th e t o t a l o r g a n iz a tio n cf
th e p e r s o n a li ty .
I n s ig h t in to th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f a b i l i t i e s i s o f f e r e d
by th e f a c t o r a n a ly s is te c h n iq u e .
P r a c t i c a l l y a l l o fth e
e x p erim en tal a n a ly se s c o n tr a d ic t the c o n c e p tio n o f independence
among human a b i l i t i e s .
T hurstone a s s e r t s , "The co sin e o f th e
a n g u la r s e p a ra tio n o f each p a i r o f p rim ary t r a i t v e c to rs i s
th e c o r r e l a t i o n betw een the co rresy o n d ih g p rim ary t r a i t s in
th e experim en tal p o p u la tio n .
I t v.’i l l p ro b a b ly be found th a t
th e s e c o r r e l a ti o n s a re p o s iti v e ."
In frhe V ecto rs o f Mind
he in d ic a te s s e v e r a l s tu d ie s w ith p o s iti v e c o r r e l a ti o n s among
th e " t r a i t s . "
In a s e p a ra te stu d y o f v o c a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s ,
a f t e r h av in g f a c to r e d out e ig h t p rim ary i n t e r e s t s , T h urstone
3t s t e s ,
"These r e fe re n c e f a c t o r s a re n o t a l l u n c o r r e la te d .
S ev eral of them have in t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .25 o r .30 in th e
ex p erim en tal p o p u la tio n but most of them have zero oo r r e l a ti o n s ."
A lthough th e th e o ry of p rim ary m ental a b i l i t i e s seems
to have been founded upon th e id e a t h a t a b i l i t i e s a re in d e -
109
pend en t (o rth o g o n a l), ^ h u rsto n e (89) has o f l a t e g iv e n de­
f i n i t e in d ic a tio n s of d e v ia tin g fro n t h i s b e l i e f .
He say s,
"Among s t a t i s t i c i a n s and p s y c h o lo g is ts th e re i s a r a t h e r
g e n e ra l b e l i e f t h a t i f human t r a i t s a re to be acc o u n te d f o r
by any k in d o f f a c t o r s , th en th e se f a c t o r s must be u n c o rre le te d .
The g e o m e tric a l r e p r e s e n ta tio n o f u n c o r r e la te d f a c t o r s
i s s s e t of o rth o g o n al re fe re n c e v e c to r s .
This b e l i e f has i t s
o r ig in in th e s t a t i s t i c a l and m ath em atical convenience of u n c o r r e l a te d f a c t o r s and a ls o in our ig norance of th e n a tu re o f
th e u n d e rly in g s tr u c t u r e o f m en tal t r a i t s .
S in ce we know so
l i t t l e about them and sin c e i t i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y co n v en ien t
to use u n c o r r e la te d re fe re n c e t r a i t s , th e in s is te n c e on o rth o ­
g o n a lity can be u n d e rsto o d , b u t i t cannot be j u s t i f i e d . "
He
s t a t e s a t v a rio u s tim es th a t f a c t o r a n a ly s is " . . . assumes
th a t a v a r ie ty o f phenomena w ith in th e (m en tal) domain a re
r e l a t e d and t h e t th ey a r e d eterm in ed , a t l e a s t in p a r t , by
a r e l a t i v e l y sm all number of f u n c tio n a l u n i t i e s , o r f a c t o r s " ;
o r th a t " . . . mind i s n o t a p a t te r n le s s m osaic c f an i n f i n i t e
number o f elem en ts w ith o u t f u n c tio n a l g ro u p in g s" ; o r "The
f a c t o r s a re p ro b a b ly f u n c tio n a l g ro u p in g s, and i t i s a d is ­
t o r t i o n to assume th a t th e y m ust be ele m e n ta l"; and f i n a l l y ,
" . . . th e r e s u l t s p o in t to th e co n clu sio n th a t mind i s not a
s t r u c t u r e l e s s m ass, b u t th a t i t i s s tr u c tu r e d in to co n stella^ ti o n s o r g roupings of p ro c e s s e s th a t can be i d e n t i f i e d .
no
a s d i s t i n c t f u n c tio n s in th e t e s t p erfo rm an ces.
These a r e what
I have c a l le d p rim ary m ental a b i l i t i e s o r t r a i t s . "
T hat th e se p rim ary a b i l i t i e s a r e independent a t l e a s t
in p a r t s t i l l rem ains th e t h e s i s o f T h u rsto n e .
In o p p o s itio n
to t h i s , however, i t i s re c o g n ise d th a t human a b i l i t i e s do n o t
fo llo w th e s o - c a lle d a ll- o r - n o n e h y p o th e s is .
In s te a d th e
p re se n c e o f th e s e a b i l i t i e s i s shown to e x i s t in a l l c a s e s in
v a ry in g d e g re e s, depending upon d i f f e r e n t h e r e d i ta r y end en­
v iro n m en tal f a c t o r s .
Tyjese a b i l i t i e s a re dynamic ex p re ssio n s
o f th e t o t a l p e r s o n a lity ; hence they e x i s t in f u n c tio n a l re ­
la tio n s h ip to each o th e r .
T his ap p ears to have been 3hown in
th e p r e s e n t in v e s tig a tio n .
Recommendations f o r F u rth e r Study
Two b ro ad s tu d ie s a r e su g g e s te d -from the r e s u l t s in
th e in v e s t ig a t io n .
F i r s t , to r e p e a t t h i s stu d y w ith d i f f e r e n t
groups o f s u b je c ts in o rd er to a s c e r t a in w hether th e f a c t o r
p a t t e r n s w hich a re found a re c o n tin g e n t o n ly upon the co m p o sitio n
o f th e s u b je c ts .
F0r exam ple, th e same b a t t e r y co u ld be g iv en to
a group o f g i r l s , o r to a group o f boys s im ila r to th e p r e s e n t
one ex cep t in th e m a tte r o f c o l l e g i a t e tr a i n i n g , o r e l s e , to a
more h etero g en eo u s group, and so on.
The second broad stu d y i s
to d eterm in e th e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of h e r e d i ta r y and environm ental
I ll
f a c t o r s on a s in g le a b i l i t y , such as m u sic a l a b i l i t y ,
In o rd e r
to stu d y th e d if f e r e n t f a c t o r p a t t e r n s , f a c t o 1" a n a ly s e s w ould
be perform ed on th e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s given to such groups e s
m u s ic ia n s , music and non-m usic s tu d e n ts , p a r e n ts and c h ild r e n ,
young and o ld groups, groups w ith d i f f e r e n t c u l tu r a l and so cio ­
economic s t a t u s , ar.d so f o r t h .
Tvie p a t t e r n s r e s u lt in g from
d if f e r e n t music t e s t s would a lso be s tu d ie d .
F or example,
th e S eash o re, th e Kwalwasser-Dykema, and th e Drake t e s t s
would be a d m in iste re d to a group o f s u b je c ts and th e p a t t e r n
of f a c t o r s an aly zed .
112
v.
summart a n d
c o n c l u s io n s
E ig h ty r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous male c o lle g e s tu d e n ts were
g iv en in a random manner e ig h t d if f e r e n t t e s t s of a b i l i t y which
c o n s is te d of tw e n ty -th re e v a r ia b le s .
The in t e ll ig e n c e t e s t was
th e 1938 e d itio n of th e T hurstone .American Cour', i l on E d u catio n
P s y c h o lo g ic a l Exam ination f o r C olles'e Freshmen.
The Seashore
M easures of M usical t a l e n t com prised the music b p tte r y .
The
M eier-S eashore A rt Judgnent T e st was used to m easure a r t i s t i c
a p p r e c ia tio n ,a n d th e M innesota V o catio n al T est f o r C le r ic a l
'.Yorkers was the t e s t of c l e r i c a l number and name ch eck in g .
In
th e m echanical a b i l i t y b a t t e r y were th e Likert-C Juasha r e v is io n
o f th e M innesota P ap er Form Board, th e s h o rt form o f th e
M innesota S p a tia l .R elatio n s T e s t, and the s h o rt form of th e
M innesota Assembly T e s t.
The t e s t s o f manual a b i l i t y w ere
th e O'Connor F irm er and Tweezer D e x te rity T e s ts .
In summary th e s a l i e n t fin d in g s o f th e p re s e n t ex­
perim ent seem to be th e fo llo w in g :
1.
The freq u en cy d i s t r i b u t i o n s in d ic a te th a t alm ost
a l l of th e v a r ia b le s s a t i s f y th e normal curve c r i t e r i a .
The
o n ly v a r ia b le s which a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y skewed a r e th e T h u rsto n e
Same-Opposite and th e Minreesota S p a tia l R e la tio n s t e s t s .
Sig­
n i f i c a n t k u r to s is i s n o t in d ic a te d f o r any of th e v a r ia b le s .
However, th e T hurstone Number S e r ie s , th e Seashore Rhythm, and
113
th e Minnesota. Assent)] ine- te s t 9 m a n ife st s iz e a b le d eg rees o f
p ln ty k u r to s is w h ile th e M eier-S eash o re A rt and th e M innesota
S p a tia l R e la tio n s t e s t s in d ic a te somewhat h ig h d eg ree s o f
le p to k u r to s is .
2 . W herever com parative r e s u l t s a r e a v a i la b l e th e
sc o re s o b ta in e d h e re a r e in g e n e ra l agreem ent w ith th e ones
re p o r te d in o th e r in v e s t ig a t io n s .
This o b ta in s f o r th e in ­
t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a s w e ll a s f o r th e norms.
3. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among th e v a r ia b le s a re on
th e whole p o s i t i v e b u t low.
There i s c o n s id e ra b le o v e rla p p in g
throughout th e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s .
The h ig h e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s
appear among th e t e s t s which b e a r th e name o f th e same a b i l i t y
( i . e . , th e i n t e ll ig e n c e t e s t s ) .
H ie ra rc h ie s among c e r t a i n o f
th e a b i l i t i e s a r e a p p a re n t.
4.
Four f a c t o r s a r e found by means o f th e T hurstone
" c e n te r of g r a v ity 4' te c h n iq u e , o f which th re e seem to be im­
p o r ta n t .
F a c to r one seems to be a general , i n t e g r a ti n g f a c t o r .
The second f a c t o r seems to be made up o f two " s u h - f e c to r s
one combining th e group f a c t o r s of th e m echanical and manipu­
l a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and th e o th e r combining th e in t e l l i g e n c e and
c l e r i c a l group f a c t o r s .
F a c to r th r e e in d ic a te s r e la tio n s h ip s
between m u sic al a b i l i t y and c l e r i c a l a b i l i t y as w e ll a s betw een
in t e ll ig e n c e and m echanical a b i l i t y .
C o n s is te n t r e la tio n s h ip
between a r t judgm ent a b i l i t y and m echanical a b i l i t y ap p e a rs
in th e f a c t o r s .
fa c to rs.
There i s c o n sid e ra b le o v e rla p p in g among th e
They seem to be i n t e r - r e l a t e d in s te a d o f co m p lete ly
114
in d ep en d en t o f each o th e r.
By v ir t u e of th e s e f in d in g s , i t would ep p ear th a t th e
Spearman end T hurstone th e o r ie s a r e in a d eq u ate f o r e x p la in in g
th e r e la tio n s h ip s e x p ressed in t h i s st\id y .
B ath er must one
conclude w ith the h y p o th e sis th a t th e a b i l i t i e s h ere te s te d
a re n o t d is p '-ro te and s t a t i c a b i l i t i e s , h u t th a t th ey a re
in stead , f u n c tio n a l and dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s w ith in th e
t o t a l p e r s o n a li ty ,
in
closer
^ h is o rg an ism ic c o n ce p tio n seems to he
co n fo rm ity to modern p sy c h o lo g ic a l th e o ry than th e
p r e v io u s ly r e p o rte d a to m is tic h y p o th e se s.
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Appendix I
for the Twenty-three
Scores
of O riginal
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 . A ik in s , H .A ., T horndike, E.L. and H u b b ell, E.A. 1902. Cor­
r e l a t i o n s among p e r c e p tiv e end a s s o c ia t iv e p ro c e s s e s .
P sy c h o l. R e v .,9 , 374-82.
2 . A lexan d er, W.P. 1935. I n te l li g e n c e , c o n c re te and a 'b s tr a c t: a
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