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A TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE INTEGRATION OF TWELFTH-YEAR COURSES IN ENGLISH, AMERICAN LITERATURE, AND UNITED STATES HISTORY

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University Microfilms
300 North Zeeb Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
A X erox Education Company
15-1398
1^907
.13
Alexander, Ida Grace.
1940
A teacher's manual for the integration
.A4
of twelfth year courses in English,
American literature, and United States
history...
New York.- 1938.
7p.1. ,219,cI j typewritten leaves,
tables,diagrs.,forms. 29cn.
Pinal document (Ed.D.) - Hew York
university. School of education, 1940.
Bibliography: p.204-219.
A60441
r
■
►
Xerox University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
,io« Doc
-
A TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE INTEGRATION
OF TWELFTH YEAR COURSES IN ENGLISH,
AMERICAN LITERATURE,
AND
UNITED STATES HISTORY
IDA GRACE ALEXANDER
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Education in the School of Education of
New York University
1938
mo
PLEASE NOTE:
S o m e p ag es m a y have
i n d i s t i n c t print.
F i l m e d as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Preface
Introduction .............................
ii
History of the Experiment.................
ii
Content and Organization..............
.
Specific A i m s ............................
Part I
iii
iv
Explanation of the Experiment
Introduction..................... . . . »
1
Experimental Class.....................
1
Theory of Integration in This
Experiment...................
Time Element
Part II
Unit I
Unit II
2
........................
6
Preliminary Procedure .................
6
Use of the Work U n i t ................
7
Extracts from Pupils’ Themes. . . . . .
8
Work Units
Physical Set-Up of Units..............
13
A List of the Study Units
13
. . . . . . .
America's Beginnings (1492-1750). . . .
15
Status of the English Colonies
(about 1760)............
23
Unit III Rise of a New Nation in America
(1763-1788)............
36
Page
Unit IV
Formation of a National Government
(1776-1788). . .
Unit V
43
Establishing a Rural Republic
(1789-1801). . .
Unit VI
50
The Growth of the Nation and the
Development of Democracy (1789-1845)
Unit VII
Economic and Social Differences in
the Nation (1789-1845)..........
Unit VIII Expansion to the Pacific
66
.........
(1840-1860)..........
Unit IX
74
Life in the Rural Republic
(1830-1860)..........
Unit X
58
82
The Crisis over Political and
Economic Differences (1850-1861) . .
Unit XI
War Interrupts National Progress
(1861-1865)..........
Unit XII
89
98
North and South Pay the Cost of War.
106
Unit XIII The Growth of the West (1803-1860) .
115
Unit XIV
National Political Contests
(1876-1896)..........
Unit XV
The Growth of Reform Movements
(1896-1920)..........
Unit XVI
124
131
The Rise of the United States to
World Power (1898-1914) ............
138
Page
Unit XVII
Sharing in the World War and
Planning for Peace.
..........
145
Unit XVIII
The Growth of Business. . . . . . . .
152
Unit XIX
The Development of Transportation
and Communication...................
160
Unit XX
Problems of Labor and Immigration . •
166
Unit XXI
American Agriculture and Its Problems
172
Unit XXII
Development of American Society and
Rise of American Culture............
Part III
177
Tests and Results
Significant Data Concerning Group A •
189
Significant Data Concerning Group B .
190
Class Preparationof Group B .........
191
Limitations
191
.................
Reasons for TestingProgram . . . . .
192
Tests
192
..........
Table I .............................
Comparison of Objective Test
Scores of Group A and Group B
196
Graph 1 .............................
Comparison of Median Scores
of Group A and Group B
197
Graph 2 .............................
Comparison of Percentiles Based
on the Median Scores of Group A
and Group B
197
Table I I ...........................
Comparison of Ratings of Groups A
and B on Essay-Type Test
201
Conclusions . . . . .
202
...............
Bibliography........................
204
Appendix .
220
PREFACE
This manual is for the use of the teacher who is
interested in a planned program of integration in fwelfth
year courses in English, in American literature, and in
United States history.
In this arrangement both subjects
retain their identity.
Through the use of oral and
written composition in both subject fields, the pupil is
given the opportunity to see a composite picture of the
development of his country.
History of the Experiment.
In September, 1935 at Columbia High School, South
Orange, New Jersey, an extensive study of the need for
and the possibilities of an integration between English
XII, American literature and United States history was
begun.
At the end of the year the unit plan here presented
was evolved.
It provides for the integration of these
subjects, yet it preserves at the same time those values
of both which are essential to usual class requirements.
The pupil is given an opportunity to study through ex­
tensive reading, the history of his country’s development
and to interpret his findings through such forms of dis­
course as: debate, discussion, research reports, dramatic
ii
sketches, creative writing, or any other form of pre­
sentation which appeals to him#
In May, 1936, the Board of Education of South Orange,
New Jersey, approved the project and set up a laboratory
or experimental class.
Twenty-three pupils enrolled in September, 1936, for
the combined English-United States history course meeting
two successive periods every school day.
By June, 1937,
the results were gratifying enough to make clear the fact
that the course had already passed from the experimental
stage into the practical.
In September, 1937, twenty-four seniors entered this
class and it Is from this group that the objective and
subjective judgments for this manual are drawn.
Content and Organization
The basic material for this manual falls logically
into four parts.
Part I includes an explanation of the term ‘'Integration11
as it Is used in this experiment, and a description of the
procedure used In the experimental class.
There Is no
attempt made to set up one methodology as better than any
other.
Part II Includes the complete set of twenty-two work
units.
Each unit consists of an Introduction summarizing
the leading Issues of the historical period, topics for
written and oral composition, a vocabulary, a list of
parallel readings abotit the period, and a list of the
iii
1
contemporary literature of the period.
Part III includes the testing program, results of
the tests, and conclusions based on both objective and
subjective Judgment.
Specific Aims
The immediate aims of this experiment in integration
are:
1. To furnish a perspective for the appreciation of
American culture.
2* To help the pupil to realize the close relation­
ship between the history of his country and its
literary expression.
The aims of the testing program are:
1. To discover whether or not the integrated group
has progressed as far in the knowledge of American
literature and United States history as a non­
integrated group of comparable mental level.
2. To discover the status of the integrated group in
relation to other groups of comparable mentality,
chronological age, and class grouping in the
United States*
The writer wishes to acknowledge the whole-hearted
cooperation of the following who assisted so ably in this
experiment:
iv
Mr. John Bosahart, superintendent of the MaplewoodSouth Orange school system, Mr. Curtis Threlkeld, Principal
of Columbia High School, Mr. Maurice Currier, Head of the
English Department, Mr. Ray Sterling, Head of the History
Department, and to Mrs. Elinor Perry Wood of the Educa­
tional Records Bureau, New York City.
v
PART I
EXPLANATION OF THE EXPERIMENT
Introduction
Education should give one the information and skill
to interpret knowledge in relation to life's problems.
Rarely is the individual called upon to interpret infor­
mation in one academic subject alone, but is often called
upon to assemble knowledge and to draw interpretations
and conclusions.
The pupils study English, history, bio­
logy, economics, and various other subjects, yet many may
never see their interrelationship.
It is asking too much
of the pupil to expect him to be able, after studying
isolated subject matter for several years, to synthesize
it himself,
^hus sound curricula must provide adequate
means of establishing these interrelationships.
Experimental Class
With this thought in mind, the experimental class of
twenty-four seniors began to follow the program set up in
the work units in this manual. This integrated group is in
the AB classification established by the school admini­
stration.
Their I. Q.'s range from 118 to 148 and their
chronological age is approximately eighteen years.
The pupils of this group are from homes that enjoy
reasonable financial independence as indicated in the
2
check made by the class guides, dean of boys, dean of
girls, and home room teachers*
As far as Is known, the
boys and girls In this class have no physical deficiencies
now emotional maladjustments.
This statement Is based upon
the reports of the school nurse and school doctor which
reports are filed with the dean of girls and the dean of
boys.
The integrated course was planned so that it would
meet the course of study requirements of both the English
and the history departments of Columbia High School, South
Orange, New Jersey.
Theory of Integration in This Experiment
It is not the purpose of the writer to set up a
complete course of study, nor yet to venture to suggest how
such a course might be formed, but rather to indicate how
a program of integration in English, in American literature,
and in United States history will bring about a better
synthesis simply, and logically.
The term ”integration” as used in this manual will
mean a planned rather than an incidental correlation.
Emphasis will be placed on the fact that neither English
nor United States history is submerged, but both are given
equal attention.
English does not become a mere tool for
history, nor does it lose its creative and cultural as­
pects.
For the pupil, this broadening scope should
3
result in a surer grasp of material and in an increased
power to apply to new situations what he has learned.
The pupil does not see American literature as an
isolated unit, but rather as a portion of certain great
historical movements.
He sees that our literature paints
a picture of the customs, people, places, and periods
through the pen of the dramatist, essayist, short-story
writer, novelist, or poet.
Pages of history come to life
as literature and history merge.
American literature and United States history have
much in common.
Both focus their attention on the social
relationships of men; both use a common language--English;
both try to develop within the pupil significant tastes
and attitudes.
In integrating these two subjects, it is
necessary to keep in mind the fact that pupils are not
only preparing for school and college, but for life, where
facts are of less importance than the ability to use them.
In this integration some of the primary tools from
the English viewpoint ares literature, its forms and
styles, composition techniques, creative ability and ima­
gination, comprehension and evaluation.
Obviously some
of these basic tools will serve for history as well.
Historical fiction reveals the author’s interpre­
tation of the problems and people of various periods in
history.
Biography provides inspiration and understand­
ing based upon the achievement of others.
The author's
personal philosophy is seen in autobiographies, essays,
and poems.
The pupil, through the study of these literary
4
forms, is often faced with the necessity of being tolerant
of points of view other than his own.
Historical material may be read as background or
basic subject matter in order to build increasing tolerance
for and adjustment to change.
The pupil needs a clearer
picture of the facts so often distorted by propaganda in
order that he may see that past achievement is related to
future progress.
In oral and written composition, the pupil should
keep in mind that there are several factors that tend to
make for clear and disciplined thinking.
In writing as
well as in speaking, he must strive for accuracy as well
as interest.
plan.
Material must be presented according to a
Cause and effect, comparison and contrast, coher­
ence, chronological arrangement of data, and the drawing
of inferences from a collection of facts are all parts of
mental orderliness.
Every effort should be made to see
ideas in proportion to their importance.
Mere facts are
seldom enough to make any speech or composition interesting.
It is imperative that facts be of significance.
The dramatic sketch, radio script, poem, oration, and
one-act play are media through which the imaginative pupil
may reveal himself.
Narration, description, exposition,
argumentation, and the precis, together with such forms
as the essay, the letter, and the diary lend themselves
to clear and disciplined thinking and expression.
For each major period in our history beside contem-
5
porary literature read on an individual basis, one out­
standing selection is studied intensively by the class as
a group*
To provide for the different progress and ability
levels, the parallel reading list is varied.
Supplementary
reading provides a chance for evaluation and critical judg­
ment.
Thus by allowing the literature to supply the material
that the history book would not reveal, the picture of the
period is made more complete.
The United States history presents the basic material
for the study of the nation’s development from the period
of exploration and discovery in America up to and includ­
ing the present Recovery Program, together with a considera­
tion of the problems of American democracy which aims to
impress upon the pupil his responsibilities, as a junior
citizen, for the development of better government.
At the
conclusion of this course the pupil should have an intel­
ligent opinion on and an understanding of such questions
as the farmer’s outlook, the expanding interstate commerce,
civil service, railroad consolidation, the price of peace,
increasing powers of the president, the Solid South, social
security, and the growth of society and American culture.
When this factual material is fused with a supple­
mentary reading program, there will emerge a picture of
American life and culture which will help the pupil inter­
pret the present in terms of the past and the future in
the light of the past and present.
No attempt has been made by the writer to set up
6
this type of procedure as superior to any other method,
but a complete explanation of the procedure with regard
to this particular experiment follows.
Time Element
The administration allows two consecutive fortyminute periods per day for this experimental class,
^hich
an arrangement is economical from the standpoint of class
interest and the presentation of subject matter.
Preliminary Procedure
Because study habits are varied and often times in­
efficient, it seems advisable and highly profitable to
\
consider very carefully the problem of how to study as a
fundamental skill before the actual class work begins.
The pamphlet "Study Hints for High School Students"* by
G. Gilbert Wrenn is read and discussed by the class.
Each
member considers his own study habits, and decides what
suggestions will be of greatest benefit.
The budgeting of time, methods of notetaking, uses
of review, and reading for speed and accuracy are con­
sidered.
All the pupils in this particular class were
given the Iowa Silent Reading test, Advanced Form A to
detect deficiencies in silent reading.
Where deficiencies
existed, remedial work was given to bring the pupils up
to their grade level.
For example, some of the pupils
with an initial grade score in reading rate of eighth and
*"Study Hints for High School Students"--Stanford Uni­
versity Press— C. Gilbert Wrenn.
ninth grade-ninth month were able to improve their rate
to better than the sophomore level in college.
This im­
provement in rate of silent reading was made without loss
in comprehension and in each case there was evidence of
marked improvement in comprehension.
It is at this point
that the precis or summary is valuable because of the
necessity for recognizing the central thought and express­
ing it clearly.
Use of the Work Unit
This concludes the preliminary procedure.
Now the
unit of work is placed in the hands of the pupil.
He
prepares his history assignment which forms the basic
material for the class discussion.
In addition to this,
he becomes familiar with the specialized vocabulary listed
in the unit,for these words or phrases are peculiar to the
period.
At the next scheduled meeting of the class, the
instructor discusses any points that need clarification.
Thought-provoking questions are then given the pupils from
which they are to draw implications that require reflect­
ive thinking.
They next carefully consider the oral and written
composition topics that are listed in the work unit.
The
class in divided into two groups, one of which prepares
a written report; the other an oral report.
unit, the procedure is reversed.
On the next
Each pupil selects a
topic and goes immediately to the library for reference
8
material.
It is a necessary part of his work now to
take notes carefully, to credit quoted material, to cite
references, and to plan with precision and accuracy the
material and form of his report.
If he chooses for his written work extracts from a
diary such as might have been written by a resident of
Salem, Massachusetts, during the witchcraft episode, he
studies his material not only for accuracy of detail but
also for a clearer understanding of style and atmosphere.
The following is a portion of a composition written in
diary form by a girl in the experimental class.
September 12, 1692
Last evening as We sate before the Hearth, Sarah,
our Eldest daughter, and John, our Eldest Son, sud­
denly went into violent rages, taring their hair, and
screeching and Howling as if they were mad. Wife
and I were exceedingly alarmed, Fearing that our off­
spring were bereft of their senses. However, in
about an hour, they became calme and we escorted them
to their bed where their sleep was undisturbed. I
trust that God will send no more Such outbursts.
September 15, 1692
My work in the Fields was difficult today, and
I was Indeed anxious to reste after our evening repast
was finished, but it was the Will of God that I
should not recline in my chair, for at about half
past the hour six Sarah and John again developed
fierce fits. This was the first recurrence of the
episode of several nights past. This time Their ve­
hemence was still more awful for in addition they
engaged in putting weird looks upon their Countenances
and in throwing pillows into the Fire. By this time
we were convinced that our poor Childred were in the
power of Evil spirits. Tomorrow we will discover
the truth......
September 16, 1692
After much circuitous Interrogating I discovered
to my horror that my esteemed Sister-in-law was the
9
woman who had inflicted this Evil upon our Everobedient children.
She would call upon sinful
spirits at which time Sarah and John would become
nauseated and violent. In the evening their suffer­
ings would increase.
September 20, 1692
Four days have elapsed. Twice the Children
have visited their Aunt and twice they have had fits.
I went last evening to the Courts and Master Samuel
Sewall assured me that today my beloved Wife's sister
will be called to suffer punishment for her crime....
October 22, 1692
This morning my sister-in-law was ushered into
the Court room with twelve other People. With scant
ceremony, all were tried together. After rendering
several questions, answered collectively, the Judges
presented unanimous Verdicts of guilty. No Person
was called to testify, no protests were allowed.
The light of their lives was dimmed on evidence; to­
morrow that light shall be extinguished. It was with
much sadness in my heart that I half carried my poor
Spouse to her room. While I doubt not that Mary
despises a Witch even as I and that She honors me
for performing my duty, nevertheless, she is much
upset at sacrificing her Sister at the altar of Sin.
May God Be with Her in Her desperate hour of Grief".
Should he choose a dramatic sketch, he must so organize
his material that it will reach a logical climax, delineate
character clearly, and move smoothly to a conclusion.
If
he selects a stump speech, he must reveal the enthusiasm
of the stump speaker and at the same time keep his his­
torical details accurate.
If he decides to interpret his
material through the medium of verse, he must carefully
organize his thought and decide on his metrical form.
The
following poem contains the pupil's interpretation of the
simplicity of the Indian and the ambitious activity of the
white man.
10
The Pioneer
The sun shone down upon the burning plain,
A thund'ring herd of beasts, untamed and free,
Moved like a living sea across the wilds*
Five Indian braves pursued them rapidly,
For on this rough and savage soil men shot
For food and dress the animals which roamed
In countless numbers o ’er the land. Their life
Was rude, uncivilized and free; no thought
Had they that any life could better be
In this or other worlds. They loved the great
Simplicity which measured all they did
Or thought. Advancement toward a complex life
Was not their goal. Forever they desired
To be unruled, at liberty to do
As they should wish, unhampered e'er by laws
That might restrain their passion or their will.
And thus the Red Men lived and worked upon
This land, uncultured, wild, and free
And loving life with heart sincere and true,
Content to keep their simple, modest ways.
#
"it
-H-
-St
The sun shone down upon the glistening plain,
Across the vast expanse a wagon crept.
'Twas but a speck, yet in it lay the hope
And dreams of greater things to come, for here
Were sturdy pioneers who dared to leave
Their homes, their friends, their loves, to
lead a strange
New life. They worked with brave, unselfish
hearts
Preparing things for those who were to come
And reap the harvest of their toil. They wove
With strong and steady hands the destiny
Of what was soon to be one of the great
And noble nations of the earth, a land
Whose sons and daughters fought and bravely died
For liberty and Justice in their life,
Who fashioned from a wild uncultured soil,
A country, civilized, admired, and free,
A true democracy where man meets man
As man, and farmer, banker, laborer,
All three unite in fellowship and love
For their adored, their new, their blessed land."
There is an attempt made in each period of our
history to see what types of literature are being writ­
ten; what their historical significance is; and how
11
their style reflects the patterns of the periods.
Among the selections read intensively by the experi­
mental class are:
Speech on Conciliation— Edmund Burke
Giants in the Earth— Ole Rolvaag
The Crisis— Winston Churchill
The House of Seven Gables— Nathaniel
Hawthorne
The Rise of Silas Lapham— William Dean
Howell
Verse of Our Day, An Anthology— Gordon
and King
The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers—
Addison and Steele
Macbeth and Hamlet— Shakespeare
Since the last three of the works in this list are
in the high school English course of study, and since
they do not integrate with the history of any period
in American history, they are read when the class is
studying the Constitution of the United States, for it
seems advisable at this particular point not to attempt
planned integration.
It seems essential, to the writer at
least, to take up the study of the Constitution section by
section, for the mere reading of it does not explain
what it means today.
In the meantime, the pupil is preparing his parallel
reading material at home.
At the end of every one or two
units as the case may be, each pupil presents an oral sur­
vey and criticism of the book he has been reading,
^'hus
the group benefits by the reading of the entire class, for
each pupil becomes familiar with many more books than he
12
will have time to read and digest.
Part I is concerned with the type of class in this
experiment, an explanation of integration as used in this
manual, and the procedure employed in the management of
the class.
units.
Part II contains a complete series of work
PART II
WORK
UNITS
Physical Set-up
This particular arrangement and placement of material
within the work unit was set up for the pupil's conveni­
ence.
The first few paragraphs present a preview of the
particular period.
The two-column page arrangement permits
the pupil to use the right column for his class notes.
He may also use the back of each page for notes.
This set­
up has been used for two years in the experimental class
and seems to be very satisfactory.
A list of contemporary literature does not appear with
each unit for many times one historical period will be
divided into two or three units.
In such cases one list of
contemporary literature is sufficient for the period.
A List of the Study Units
1. America's Beginnings (1492-1750)
2. Status of the English Colonies (about 1760)
3. The Rise of a New Nation in America (1763-1783)
4. Formation of a National Government (1776-1788)
5. Establishing a Rural Republic (1789-1801)
6. The Growth of the New Nation and the Development
of Democracy (1789-1845)
7. Economic and Social Differences in the Nation
(1789-1845)
14
8. Expansion to the Pacific (1840-1860)
9. Life in the Rural Republic (1830-1860)
10. The Crisis over Economic and Political Differences
(1850-1861)
11. War Interrupts National Progress (1861-1865)
12. North and South Pay the Cost of the War
Progress Is Resumed
13. The Growth of the West (1803-1860)
14. National Political Contests (1876-1896)
15. The Growth of Reform Movements (1896-1920)
16. The Rise of the United States to World Power
(1898-1914)
17. Sharing the World War and Planning for Peace
18. The Growth of Business and the Development of
Government Regulation
19. The Development of Transportation and Communication
20. Problems of Labor and Immigration
21. American Agriculture and Its Problems
22. The Development of American Society and the Rise of
American Culture
/
15
UNIT I
STUDY SHEET
America’s Beginnings
I*32-i7§0
Man’s restless urge to see what lies beyond and his
willingness to face hardships have caused him to open new
worlds. We shall see, in the three centuries following
the voyage of Columbus, a pageant of colorful explorers
in search of the West Indies, ruthless Spanish conquerors
pillaging Mexico and Peru, and commercial companies plant­
ing the see$s of colonization along a most inhospitable
coast.
This period of colonization, as we shall see, was not
one of uninterrupted social and economic development. The
world was too small even in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries for the settlers in America to live an isolated
existence. Religious controversies, political ambitions,
and economic rivalries of European nations reacted upon
America.
Colonial history is not alone the homely story of
the clearing of land and the building of homes; it con­
cerns itself with famous statesmen and with the rise and
fall of empires, with the theory or idea of self-govern­
ment deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Write a letter to someone
at home concerning the trip
you are making to Mexico
City from Spain in 1600.
(I. B. Richman, Spanish
Conquerors. Vol. II.
"Chronicles” •
E. G. Bourne, Spain in
America. "American Nation
Series". Vol. III. ch.
14-16.
E. Channing, History of
the United States, vol. I.
cir: i z s ------
= = ;)
Student’s Notes
16
H. E. Eolton and T.
Marshall,
Colonization of North America,
ch. 2-3-13.)
2. You are a member of the crew of
the Pinta. Write a letter to a
friend in Spain describing the
voyage, discovery and the return
to Spain.
(J. Erendon, Great Navigators
and Discoverers, p. 48.
P. L. Ford, GoTumbus* Writings.
pp. 1-66.)
3. Write a dramatic sketch or a
journal in which you emphasize
the trials of Columbus*s first
voyage, closing with the relief
at the sight of land.
(E. G. Eourne, Spain in America.
"American Nation SeriesT**
Vol. III. ch. 2.
J. Fiske, Discovery of America.
I. pp. 419“4"4'6'.)
4. Write biographical sketches of
the following:
John Winthrop
Thomas Hooker
Roger Williams
William Penn
(S. g . Fisher, The True William
Penn. Dictionary of American
Biography.)
5. Write biographical sketches of
the following:
James cglethorpe Wm. Berkeley
Edmund Andros
Peter Stuyvesant
(H. Van Loon, Ljfe and Times of
Pieter Stuyvesant.
L. Powys, Henry Hudson.
Dictionary of American Biography)
6. As a colonist of the 1600's, write
a letter to a friend in England
criticizing either Berkeley's
rule in Virginia, or Andros's
tyranny in New England. Or as a
member of a colonial committee,
frame a protest to the king
against Berkeley or Andros.
17
(J. Fiske, Old Virginia and Her
Neighbors. It. 55-93.
M. Johnston, Pioneers of the
Old South, ch. 11-13.
U. M, Andrews, Fathers of New
England. ch. 10.
hart1s Contemporaries. I. #71,
#136 «
America II. 223-230.)
7. Write a brief but dramatic de­
scription of the Portuguese ex­
plorations of the period.
(E. P. Cheyney, European Back­
ground of American History.
J. Brendon, Great Navigators
and Discoverers, ch. 4-6.)
8. Explain "Indentured Servitude".
(Callender, Economic history of
the United S t a t e s FP* 44-51.
H. J. Carmen> Social and Econo­
mic History of the “United States.
I . p p . 83-8877
9. Prepare a paper to be read before
the class on the manners and cus­
toms of the Puritans.
(Sparks, Expansion. 48-68.
Hart's Contemporaries. I.
313-339.
C. M. Andrews, Colonial Folk­
ways.
"rChronicles"» Vol. IX. pp. 70-
111.)
10. William Fenn and Pennsylvania
combine to make a very interesting
topic on both the man and the
state. Prepare a paper on the
influence of the former on the
latter.
(Fiske. Dutch and Quaker
Colonle's.' II.~TT4-1V6; 295-316.
hart’s Contemporaries. 65-68:
74-77.)
11. Prepare a descriptive paper on
Magellan’s trip around the world.
18
(Bourne, Spain In America.
11American Nation 5eries,r.
Vol. III. cha. 9.
Fiske, Discovery of America. II.
ch. 7.)-------- -----------12.
B.
Report on the similarity between
the economic life of today and
that of colonial times.
(S. e . Forman, The ^ise of
American Commerce and -industry,
ch. 4-6. pp. 53-38.
C. M. Andrews, Colonial folk­
ways. "Chronicles*'. Vol. ix.
ch. 2-8.
H. TJ. Faulkner, American Econo­
mic History. Rev. Ed. ch. 3-S.)
Oral Composition
1. Describe the life in a south­
western Spanish mission.
(Willa Cather, Death Comes for
the Archbishop.
2. Imagine yourself a guest at a
banquet given for Marco Polo on
his return to Venice. G ive an
account of your impressions of
Marco Polo and his stories.
(Noah Brooks, Story of Marco
Polo.
o .
Synge, Book of -discovery.)
5. Investigate and report on the ad­
vancement of civilization among
the Mayans and the Aztecs.
(J. T. Adams, The Epic of
America.
Lew Wallace, The Fair God.)
4. Compare the voyage of Columbus
with the voyage of Admiral Byrd
to the Antarctic.
(J. V. Jensen, Christopher
Columbus.
£. Byrd, Little America.
Hart1s Contemporaries. II.
pp. 35-46; 44-46.1
19
5-6-7. A Committee of three will re­
port to the class on the activities
of the early discoverers and ex­
plorers. One will take the Span­
ish, another the English and the
third the French.
(I. B. Richman, Spanish Con­
querors.
H. E. Bolton, Spanish Border­
land. ch. 1-4.
W , b . Munro, Crusaders of New
France.
W. Wood. Elizabethan Sea-Dogs.
Frances Parkman, Pioneers of
New France in the New World.)
8. Prepare a well-organized and con­
vincing floor talk on "Why
America Was Discovered in the
Fifteenth Century."
(S. E. Forman, Side Lights on
Our Social and Economic a lstory,
ch. 3-7.)
9. Report on the geographic in­
fluences that have been an aid
and a hindrance to the settle­
ment and the development,
(E, Huntington, pie Red % n 1s
Continent, ch. 2-4.
H. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History. Kev. Ed.
c k ; y d -------10. Prepare a floor talk on the inportance of tobacco cultivation
in the economic system of early
colonial times.
(J. Fiske, Old Virginia and Her
Neighbors»~~T7 167-170; 220;
230-231.
II, 96-98; 157-160; 192-194;
198-199.
Hart’s Contemporaries. I.
#83 and~&8.
S. E. Forman, Side Lights on
Our Sociai and Economic Jlstory,
pp. 54-57.)
20
11. Prepare a floor talk on English
sea power and on the Elizabe­
than seamen.
(Andrews, Colonial Period.
pp. 106-128.
Bourne, Spain in America.
"American Nation Series".
Vol. III. pp.
Green, Foundations of the
American Nation, 23^54.
Wood, Elizabethan Sea Dogs.
"Chronicles", Vol. III.
12. Prepare a descriptive talk on
the notorious pirates of
colonial days.
(M. w. Goodwin, The Dutch and
English on the Hudson.
165-160.
Wissler, Skinner, Wood,
Adventures in the Wilderness.
Hartfs Contemporaries. II.
#85.)
13. Explain Bacon’s Rebellion.
(Fiske, Vol. II. Qld Virginia
and Her Neighbors. ppV 5§-l07.
Hart *s Contemporaries. I.
#71.)
14. Prepare a floor talk on Sir Ed­
mund Andros.
(Greene, Foundations of Ameri­
can Nationality. 166^1971
Fathers of New England,
ch.. 10.
Fiske, Beginnings of New
England, ch. 6.T
15. Prepare a chalk talk explaining
the patroon system in New York.
(M. W. Goodwin, Dutch and Eng­
lish. on the Hudson, pp. 39-51.
J. S. Bassett. A Short His­
tory of the UniTed States.
Rev. T33. pp. 73-74.1
16. Prepare a chalk talk in which
you show the chief points of
difference between English and
Dutch architecture.
21
(Kimball Fiske, American.
Architecture.
Helen W. Reynolds, Dutch
Houses in the Hudson Valley
before T776.
Harold 6. Eberlein, The
Architecture of Colonial
AmerlcaT)
C.
Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9*
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
IS.
19.
20.
21.
D.
Renaissance
nationalism
mercantilism
proprietor
laissez-faire
frontier
monopolies
charter
Armada
corporate
Line of Demarcation
staple crops
proprietary
Royal colony
"Glorious Revolution'
Anglican
indentured
patroon
Dissenter
involuntary
social institutions
Parallel Readings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Messer. marco Polo— D. Byrne
Westward, Ho— C. KingSley
The Fair God— L. Wallace
A Candle in the Wilderness—
I. Batcheller
To Have and To Hold—
M. Johnston
Courageous Companions—
C. J. Finger
If I Were King—
J. H. McCarthy
Death Comes for the Archbishob
W. Cather
Heralds of Empire— A. C.
Laut
22
10. The Scarlet Cockerel—
C, M. Sublette
11. Knickerbocker*s History of
New York— 1"1. Irving
12. Slave Ship— M. Johnston
13. Prisoners of Hope— M. Johnstcjn
14. The House on Cherry Street—
A. E. Barr
15. The Witch— M. Johnston
16. We Begin— Carlisle
17. Shadows on the Rock—
W. Cather
18. 1492— M. Johnston
19. Bow of Orange Ribbon— Barr
20. Trail of the Sword— Parker
21. War Paint and Rouge—
R. W. Chambers
22. Colonial Days in Old New
York— Earle
23. Blue Heron's Feather—
R. S. Holland
E. Literary Growth
(Although there were many
of historical treatises,
lets, and diaries during
colonial period, many of
were not American b o m .
writers
pamph­
the
them
We shall consider the following
men and women and their con­
tributions to this early period
of literature in the light of
the period, its historical action
and the temperament and emotion
of the people and the times.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Captain John Smith (1580-1631)
Col. ffm. Bradford (1674-1744)
William Bradford (1590-1657)
John Winthrop (1588-1649)
Thomas Morton (1575-1646)
Roger Williams (1605-1683)
John Eliot (1604-1590)
Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)
Cotton Mather (1663-1750)
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
John Woolman (1720-1772)
(Dictionary of American Biography*
J. L. Haney, The Story of Our
Literature.
Wm. Irent, B. W. Wells, Colonial
Prose and Poetry)
23
UNIT II
STUDY SHEET
Status of the English Colonies about 1760
Prom the small group which settled at Jamestown, a
self-governing nation grew. The struggle for existence
challenged the settlers and, thrown upon their own re­
sources, they firmly established themselves. Out of hard
work and united effort, the colonies became a land of far­
mers for It was the soil, for the most part, that sustained
them.
We shall see the colonies about 1760 and shall note
their social and economic interests and activities along
with their political Ideas and institutions. In a general
way there was a tendency for the eighteenth century to
frown upon enthusiasm for it was a period of reason. The
spirit of the time was not in the least a romantic one. High
standards and a high decorum marked the ways of this histori­
cal period, and out of this came many of our present-day
institutions. N0t until the end of the century (soon after
the death of Franklin) did the individual romantic spirit
assert itself.
In England In this century we see the growth of poetry
and the rise of the prose novel with Samuel Richardson’s
Pamela, and while Franklin was representing his home state
in England in 1759, another novelist by the name of Henry
Fielding had just written a well-known realistic novel
called Tom Jones. While Franklin was deputy, post-master
general for the colonies in 1775, one Dr. Samuel Johnson
was publishing his famous dictionary in England. America
produced her dictionary in 1828 when Noah Webster brougiht
out his Dictionary, and no novel of early America appeared
until after Franklin's death.
The period was not one that would lend itself to ima­
ginative literature based on the life of the pioneer spirit.
Political rights and practical problems were points on which
a great amount of thought was placed.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignment
A. Written Composition
1. Write extracts from the diary
of a Quaker Maid. You are
Student's Notes
24
from early Philadelphia and you
are from a typical Quaker family
but you may be a little more
modern than the family itself*
Ee accurate in your style.
(E. Charming, History of the
United States. II. pp. 94-126.
frlsher, l*he Quaker Colonies.
Fiske, The Dutch ancf Quaker
Colonies. II. pp. 10-16;
T68-T ftf:i
2. Prepare a brief biographical
sketch of:
Braddock
Champlain
La Salle
Marquette
Pitt
Joliet
Montcalm
Wolf
Count de Frontenac
When you are preparing these
sketches, keep in mind specific
contributions made by each, and
write the material in precis form
(Dictionary of American
Biography.T
3. Explain this statement; "There
was an appreciable transfer of
European culture to the new
world other than that brought by
the English."
(H. I. Priestley, Coming: of the
White Men. "American Life."
Vol. I. ch. 6.
I. B. Fichman. The Spanish
C onqueror s•
Chronicles."
Vol.rr."“
4. Your home Is in a southern sea­
port at this time. Write a col­
orful description of a scene at
the wharf. Include a list of
articles that would be shipped
Into the colony and also those
that would be exported.
(J. T. Adams, Provincial
Society, ch. i9.
MacDonald, Documentary Source
Book of American History•
pp. 55^59; 7£-75.
E. Channing, History of the
United States, il. pp. 7-14;
27-28.
25
5. Report on the duties and the
activities of Benjamin Franklin,
one of the colonial agents in Lon­
don. Be prepared to discuss his
activities from your written re­
port.
(Autobiography-Franklin.
Ogg. Builders of the Republic.
"Pageamt of America11. Vol. VIII
Consultbiographies.5
6. Describe the French and English
in America and the resulting ex­
pulsion of the French.
(Thwaites, R. C., France in
America, ch. 4.
Hart's Contemporaries. I.
#42-43 .------ ------Tyler, L. G., England in
America. American ^ation, IV.)
7. Prepare two arguments, one in
favor of, and one against the
Indian Attitude toward the
Western Movement.
(E. M. Avery, History of U. SS.I.
pp. 338—368.
F. W. Hodge, Handbook of Ameri­
can Indians.)
8. Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on the topic, "Colonial
Government".
(G. M. Andrews, Colonial SelfGovernment . ch. 1.
lil. B. Greene, Foundations of
American Nationality, pp. 176T5ST*cK7 ' S - T I . --A. B. Hart, Formation of the
Union. pp. 2§-3o .
C T T T l s o n History of the
American People. VoT7 II.
ppT 342-35577
9. We have already said that this
was a period of farming for it
was from the soil that the colon­
ists drew their food. Read Let­
ters from an American Farmer by
St. John de CrevecoeurT It is
from these letters that we have
obtained many important facts
26
about the period. Write a
summary of the leading points
that you glean from your reading
and be prepared to present them
orally to the class.
10. Write a letter to a friend de­
scribing a New England town
meeting. Remember your friend
does not know the routine of
this type of meeting, so be sure
to make everything clear to him.
(Hart's Contemporaries. I.
#65.) ------ -------11. Write a letter to a friend de­
scribing the Virginia House of
Burgesses. Keep in mind that
you want to make this clear to
your friend.
(Hart's Contemporaries, II.
#78.)
B.
Oral Composition
1. Report on the Zenger trial. Of
what significance to the present
day United States is this trial
which took place 200 years ago?
(E. Channing, History of the
United States, 13?. pp. 483-489.
H. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
States. I. pp.~T75-1767T
2. Contrast the educational condi­
tions in the early colonies with
those of today.
(C. M. Andrews, Colonial Folk­
ways. Vol. IX, ch. 6.
A . M . Earle, Child Life in the
Colonial Day 3 . ch. 3-6'.
J. -b'lske, Old Virginia and Her
Neighbors. Vol. II. pp.~^45269.
E. B. Greene, Provincial
America, ch. 137}
3. Report on'New England Witchcraft'.'
Trace the origin of the ideas o f ,
witchcraft as well as the example 3
of it.
‘
27
(J. T. Adams, Founding of New
England. pp. 451-455.
T. J." Wertenbaker, First Ameri­
cans. ch. 11.
Ti. "3. Greene, Provincial Ameri­
ca. pp. 25—30.
757 L. Burr, Narratives of the
Witchcraft Oases.
Cotton Mather, ,!Origin of
Witchcraft in New EngTand” and
”Some of the Evidence at the
Wlt'cK Trials” from TrenE and
Wells. Readings from Colonial
American frose and Poetry.
p f r e g t t s g r i -------------
4. Prepare a floor talk in which
you indicate the influence of the
French as explorers, traders,
missionaries, and colonizers in
America.
(W. B. Munro, Crusaders of New
France, pp. 11-133.
S. (3. Thwaites, France in
America, ch. 4.)
5. Francis Parkman, the famed his­
torian, with reference to the
downfall of France in 1763 wrote:
”A happier calamity never befell
a people than the conquest of
Canada by the British arms.”
What did Parkman probably mean?
(Parkman, The Old Regime in
Canada, ch. 15.
Thwaites, France in America,
pp. 124-14371
6. Contrast the recreations and the
general customs of the colonial
days with the present time.
(M. M. Rawson, When Antiques
Were Young: A Sfcory~"df Early
American Social Customs.
T. J. Wertenbaker, First
Americana. ch. 11.
C. id, Andrews, Colonial Folk­
ways. ”Chronicle s.1' Vol. IX.
pp. 110-129.
S. E. Forman, Sidelights on
1
Our Social and Economic 'EfTs•bory. pp. 326-431.
28
J. A, Krout, Annals of Ameri­
can Sports. "Pageant of Americaff. Vol. XV. pp. 9-26.)
7. Defend this statement: ”The
cruelty of war as It can affect
the rank and file Is the heart­
breaking story of the Acadians.”
(E. Channing, An History of the
United States, il. pp. 544-545.
Earths Contemporaries. II.
360-365.
Parkman, A Half Century of
Conflict. I. ch.
Wrong, ibe Conquest of New
France, ch. 7.)
8. Prepare a floor talk on colonial
crimes and punishments.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. I. #44.
Trent and. Wells, Read‘ing3 from
American Prose and Poetry.
John Jos'selyh, rfNew England1s
Laws and Ways an Unsympathetic
vTew”. pp. 61^767)
9. Describe the colonial costumes.
(C. M. Andrews, Colonial Folk­
ways. pp. 70-111.
A. wt. Earle, Costumes of
Colonial Times, pp. 3-42.
A. ~~M. harle. Colonial Lays in
Old New York, pp.' TS8-I&5.T^
10. Discuss the growth of colonial
literature with particular at­
tention to the types and the
subject matter.
(S. T. Williams, The American
Spirit in Letters, ch. 2.
C. M.Andrews. Colonial Folk­
ways. pp. 150-lSO. "Chronicles1
Hart’s Contemporaries. II. #94.
T. J. Wertenbaker, TKe First
Americans. ch. 10.
Also any""of the histories of
American literature.)
11. Prepare a floor talk on the
American libraries and the news-1
papers of the time.
(Beard and Beard, Making of
American Civilization, pp. 616^73-----------------
29
12. Prepare a talk on colonial ships
and men.
(Malcolm Keir, The March of
Commerce. "Pageant of America"
voiTiv:
M. R. 3angs, Old Cape Cod: The
Land, the Men, the pea*
K. Chatterton, Shiips and Way i
of Other Days.)
13. Discuss the colonial inns.
(M, C, Crawford, Old New Eng­
land Inns.)
14. Prepare a report on Early
American culture.
(Michael Kraus, Intercolonial
Aspects of Culture on the Eye
of the 'Revolutl'oh.)
C.
Vocabulary.
1
.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8
.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
D.
paternalism
Tories
Acadians
Whigs
Albany Congress
coercion
Catholic
Cavalier
Puritan
Quaker
Separatist
Established Church
enumerated commodities
Contemporary Literature
The first book to be published as a
result of the efforts of a colonial
writer was A True Relation by John Smith.
The following list of extracts from the
early works of the colonial writers wilL
serve to introduce you to the style,
subject matter, and the philosophy and
religious minds of the time. These w i l .
be found in "Colonial Prose and Poetry"
by William Trent and B. W. Wells.
,
30
PART I
The Transplanting of Culture
1607-1650
Capt. John Smith-pp. 1-33.
Powhatan's Treatment of Smith
Requisites of Colonial Management
Glorious Pains vs. Inglorious Ease
Colonial Opportunities
The Pocahontas Incident
Capture of Pocahontas
Pate of Pocahontas
Indian Hospitality
An Indian Princess
William Bradford-pp. 34-69.
Departure of the Pilgrims
The Compact
Early Difficulties of the Pilgrim Fathers
Christmas Sports
Communal System Abandoned
Morton and Merrymount
Some Strange and Remarkable Passages
Crime Among the Saints
John Winthrop-pp. 90-119.
Puritan Election
Cruel Schoolmaster of 1639
Items from Winthrop's History
Winthrop on Liberty
Letters to and from Winthrop and his wife
John Cotton-pp. 156-182.
Advice to Colonists
Defence of Persecution
Specimens of Scriptural Exposition
Who Should Bear the Keys
Tribute to Cotton
Thomas Morton-pp. 70-90.
May Pole Revels at Merry Mount
Captain Shrimp (Myles Standish) Captures
Mine Host (Morton)
Morton's Pate
31
Francis Higginson— pp. 80-89.
"First Therefore of the Earth of New England
and All the Appurtenances Thereof”
Discommodities
Roger Wiiiiams-pp. 182-213.
To Every Courteous Reader
To Governor Winthrop
To the Town of Province
Extracts from the Famous Letters to Governor
Endicott
Extracts from a Letter Concerning an Inter­
colonial Dispute
Verses
Thomas Hooker-pp. 214-229.
Preface
Hell Torments, How in Some Sort to Judge
Them
God's Mercy and His Justice
God's Endless Mercy
Thomas Shephard-pp. 230-249.
Heretics and Pequots
The Founding of Harvard College
A Domestic Obituary
Selections from the "Meditation and
Spiritual Experience"
Nine Easy Ways to Hell
Judgment and Mercy
"All Shall be in Vain"
Nathaniel Ward-pp. 250-270.
Against Toleration
A Wise State Will Compose not Tolerate
Differences in Religion
Concerning Women* s Fashions
In Praise of Mistress Bradstreet
Anne Bradstreet-pp. 271-287.
Four Ages of Man
Contemplations
Meditations Divine and Moral
32
PART II
Beginning of Americanism
1650-1710
Edward Johnson-pp. 1-19.
Of the First Preparation of the Merchant
Adventurers in Massachusetts
Of the Great Cheerfulness of Their Soldiers
Of the Gracious Goodness of God in f a r i n g
His People’s Prayers in Time of Need,
and the Ship Loads of Goods the Lord
Sent Them in
Of the First Promotion of Learning in New
England
John Eliot-pp. 20-46.
The Daybreaking if not the Sunrising of
the Gospel with the Indians in New
England
From the Indian Grammar Begun
Michael Wigglesworth-pp. 47-60.
The Day of Doom
John Josselyn-pp. 61-76.
New England's Laws and Ways, an unsympathetic
view
The Men of Maine
Daniel Gookin-pp. 77-98.
The Origin of the Indian
Concerning Choice Indian Youths
The Wiles of the Indians
Defence of the Indians
increase Mather-pp. 215-230.
Concerning the Writing of History
Hand of ^od
Preparation for Judgment
Strange Certainties from Scriptures and
History
False Confessions of Witches
33
Cotton Mather-pp. 231-286.
Origin of Witchcraft in New England
Concerning the Devil
Some of the ■^'vidence at the Witch Trials
A Tale of Mutiny and Treasure Trove
The Conversation of Gentlemen
A Herculean Student
Samuel Sewall-pp. 286-326.
Diary of Sewall
Discipline at Harvard
Pangs of Despised Love
Notes on Witchcraft Persecution
Thoughts on Slavery
Colonial Wedding
The Casuistry of the Wig
Selling of Joseph
PART III
Growth of National Spirit
1710-1775 John Wise-pp. 1-10.
Loyalty to Church and State
England’s Hatred of Arbitrary Power
Concerning Rebellion
William Byrd-pp. 21-43.
An Asylum for Runaway Slaves
Religion on the Carolina Frontier
Colonial Convivial Customs
Primitive Dentistry
A Pioneer Miner’s Mansion
New England Primer-pp. 44-75.
Thomas Prince-pp. 120-124.
Items from the Continuation of the Annals
of New Elngland, 1775
34
William Douglas-pp. 125-134.
The Buccaneers
The Spicy Footnote on ^ishop Berkeley
Concerning the General Nature and Constitution
of the British North American Colonies
Jonathan Edwards-pp. 143-189.
Extracts from Edward’s Resolution
Extracts from Edward’s Diary
Poetry of Spirituality
A Four-Year Old Convert
Sinners in the Hftnds of an Angry God
Meaning of Liberty
Benjamin Franklin-pp. 190-236
(Autobiography)
First Entry into Philadelphia
Expanding the Currency
Colonial Post Office
Organizing the First American Library
Franklin's Religion
The Almanacs
The Way to Wealth
How to Conduct a Newspaper
Organizing Education and Public Defence
Franklin Stove
Public-Spirited Projects
Franklin before the House of Commons
Thomas Hutchinson-pp. 251-260.
Mrs. Hutchinson’s Heresies
Her Trial
Her Fate
Religious Observances
John Barnard-pp. 261-274.
New England School Days
Absent Treatment for Scarlet Fever
Philosophic Matrimony
Choosing a College President
Progress of Marblehead
John Woolman-pp. 296-314.
Domestic Events and Scruples of Conscience
Conversation and Thoughts on Slavery
Objections to Dyed Garments
A Vision
35
Philip Vickers Fithian-pp. 315-331.
Life At Princeton, 1770
Reminiscences of a ^ollege Graduate
Virginia Sunday in 1773
William and Mary College, 1774
A Virginia Plantation Mansion
Virginia and New Jersey Contrasted
John Dickinson
Letters from a Farmer
Royal Tyler
The Contrast
Thomas Godfrey
The Prince of Parthia
Sarah Kemble Knight-pp. 327-346.
On Horse Back from Boston to New Y0rk, 1704
t
v
'
36
UNIT III
STUDY SHEET
The Rise of a New Nation in America
Because of a divergence of political ideas and a
conflict of economic policies and interests, England and
the colonies came to open conflict, and in the twenty-year
period between 1763 and 1783, the colonists asserted their
rights and challenged the English idea of control.
John Greene, the English historian, says: "With the
triumph of Wolfe on the Heights of Abraham began the his­
tory of the United States." We shall learn something of the
new British policies resulting from imperial expansion and
of the plan to have the colonists share in the financial
burdens of the mother country. The colonists, because of
their growth and development, resisted the British ideas of
imperialism and mercantilism. We now see in the study of
this period that it was inevitable that the American colon­
ists should resist and resent attempts on the part of Great
Britain to govern them, and that the result could be nothing
else but the American Revolution.
The Revolution was not only a struggle for American
independence, but was a controversy on the age-old subject
of individual liberty and self-government. Because of this
unrest, this period was not conducive to imaginative litera­
ture. Few plays, novels, or poems were written, for the
best minds were occupied with the political problems at hand.
investigational Activities
Classroom Assignments
A. Written Composition
1. Write a precis on the econo­
mic causes of the Revolution.
(E. L. Bogart, Economic His­
tory of the United States.
p p r ' i T B - u r . ---------------
D. R. Dewey, Financial His­
tory of the United States.
cE.2^ 3 .----------------H. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History" ch. V.)
Student’s Notes
37
2. It is not unusual to suppose
that the English and American
political ideas differed. Briefly
summarize the points of difference.
(E. Channing, History of the
United States"! Vol. III.
pp7“57- T O --E. B. Greene, Foundations of
American Nationality, pp."“348336"r4"13-4l"S".
---
Hart’s Contemporaries. Vol. II.
#138, 140-143.
W. M. West. American Democracy,
pp. 75-84.)
3. Explain Washington’s contribution;!
to the Revolutionary War.
(Bernard Fay, George Washington.
Republican Aristocrat.
J. T. Adams. March of Democra­
cy. Vol. I. pp. 10££l3&.
37 M. Wrong, Washington and
His Comrades in Arms7
Other biographies of George
Washington.)
4. Both the American Congress and
the British Parliament had a
right to their own viewpoint in
regard to the right of England
to carry out her policy of mer­
cantilism and imperialism. Jus­
tify the viewpoint of each group.
(Malcolm Keir, March of Com­
merce. pp. 20-61.
T T 7 T Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United"
States'.~T! p p . 133-211.)
5. Write an editorial for one of
the colonial newspapers of this
time demanding a new deal in
British relations or one entitled
"Our Ungrateful Dominion" for a
London newspaper.
(Callender, Economic History,
pp. 85-121.
W. Wilson, Vol. II. Rise of
'
English Policy, pp. 169-T70.)
38
6. As a Virginian, write a letter
to be sent to a friend in Salem
in 1774 describing the reactions
in the southern states to the
Intolerable Acts.
(Greene, Foundations of American
Nationality.)
7. Prepare a paper mentioning the
contributions made by each of the
following men to this historical
period:
Samuel Adams
Frederick North
George Grenville
Charles Townshend
Edward Braddock
Patrick Henry
James Otis
William Pitt
(Fiske, American Diplomacy,
ch. 4
S. D.McCoy, This Man Adams.
George Morgan, ^he 'True
Patrick Henry.
Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.)
8. Imitating the style of Washing­
ton, prepare a diary such as he
might have written expressing his
reactions on important military
maneuvers, problems of maintain­
ing an adequate army, the ques­
tion of supplies, and Arnold’s
treachery.
(J. Fiske, The American Revolu­
tion. Vol7 T. pp". 160-162.
G. la. Wrong, Washington and
His Comrades in Arms.
ppT TTe'JTST.-------Hart's Contemporaries. II.
#178.)
B.
Oral Composition.
1. Show the part that smuggling,
rum-making, and triangillar
trade played in the policy of
mercantilism.
39
(H. J. Carman, Social and
Economic History of the United
States. Vol. I.. 39. pp. 193-
2ii.r
2. Show that the British plan of
taxation as set forth by Gren­
ville and Townshend was consid­
ered as a necessity by some and i
a part of a scheme to bear the
financial burden of the empire
by others. Also show why these
plans were not for the best in­
terests of the empire in the
long run.
(Beer, British Colonial Policy.
1754-itss;
Van Tyne, The Causes of War
of Independence. II-V.
Becker, The Eve of the Revolu­
tion. pp. 130-131; 122-124.
Charming, History of the
United States. III. ch‘. 4.)
3. Prepare a discussion of the
finances of the Revolution.
(Dewey, Financial History of
the United States, pp. 34-376
Charming, A History of the
United States. 111. pp. §74-5W.-------- Van Metre, Economic History
of the United States,
pp. 141-146.
Van Tyne, The American Revolu­
tion. pp. 125: 259-243:
5*53=304.)
4. Prepare a floor talk on Samuel
Adams, the "father of the
Revolution".
(C. Becker, The Eve of the
Revolution, ch. S .
E. E. Sparks, The Men Who Made
the Nation, ch. 2.
R. V. Harlow, Samuel Adams,
Prompt er of the American
Revolution.
5. Historical opinions as presented
by various writers depends to a
certain degree on their own per-
40
sonal point of view. This is
shown in the attitude of various
historians concerning the Boston
Tea Party. Greene, a British
historian, referred to this event
as a "Trivial riot"; Fiske
called it "heroic action” ; Lecky,
another British historian, called
it "crowning outrage". Account
for these interpretations.
(Channing, A History of the
United States, ill. pp. 131t z t .--------Hart’s Contemporaries. II.
#431-433.
Tyler, The American Revolution,
pp. 246-^66.
Van Tyne, Tfre Causes of the War
of Independence"! IjK.
6-7-8-9. A committee of four will
report on the military aspects
of the Revolutionary War and
their significance. These four
topics will he used:
Saratoga
Valley Forge
Clark and the Northwest
Yorktown
(G . M, Wrong, Washington and
His Comrades in Arms.
(Chronicles. jTTlTJ
J. Fiske, The American Revolu­
tion. II. ch. 9.
a . W, Long, American Patriotic
Prose. p p . 33-36. "At Valley
Forge"; pp. 61-64, "Yorktown."
F. a . Ogg, The Old Northwest,
ch. 3—4.
T. Roosevelt, Winning of the
West. II. chT "ST-S.
Hart's Contemporaries. II.
#214. ------ -------Hart's Contemporaries. II.
#198.)
10. Justify the statement: "The
cannon of Washington was not
more formidable to the British
than the pen of the author of
Common Sense."
41
(Hart’s Contemporaries. II.
#186.
------Thomas Paine, Common Sense.
(America, III.) ppT" lSl-157.)
11. Discuss the origin and the his­
tory of the Declaration of Inde­
pendence.
(J. C. Kirkpatrick, The Spirit
of the Revolution, ch. 1-3.
77 Piske. '-Americ'an Revolution.
I. pp. 189-26*7.
G. M. Wrong, Washington and
His Comrades in Arms! ch. 5.
Eartks Contemporaries. II.
#188.)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Minut emen
Loyalists
Common Sense
inflation
privateers
Mason-Dixon line
Intolerable Acts
House of Burgesses
Quebec Act
conciliation
Quartering Act
Writs of Assistance
Committees of Correspondence
Declaratory Act
Sugar Act
D. Parallel Reading.
1. In the Days of Poor Richard—
Batcheller
2. Richard Carvel--Churchill
3. Drums— Eoyd
4. Virginians— Thackeray
5. Carolinian— Satatini
6. Long Knives~C. C. Rggleston
7. Cardlgan— Chambers
8. Erskine Dale, Pioneer— Pox
9. Alice of Old Vincennes—
Thompson
42
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Janice Meredith— Ford
New Ohio— Hale
Let the King Beware— Morrow
Rabble in Arms— Robert
Beyond the Blue Sierras—
Morrow
Oilman of Redford— Davis
In the Valley— H. Frederic
High Wynne, Free Quaker—
Mitchell
Old Town P'olks— Stowe
Trade Winds— Meigs
Arundel— Roberts
Thomas Paine— M. A. Best
Cotton Mather— Ralph and
Louise Boas
Drums along the Mohawk—
Edmonds
Northwest Passage— Roberts
E. Contemporary Liter attire
1.
2.
3.
4.
Diary— Samuel Sewall
Autobiography— Benjamin Frankli i
The Day of Doom— Anne Bradstree ;
The Prince of Parthia—
Thomas Godfrey
5. History of New England—
Winthrop
6. Freedom of the Will— Edwards
■*7. Speech on Conciliation— Burke
■&To be read by the entire
class for intensive dis­
cussion.
43
UNIT IV
STUDY SHEET
Formation of a National Government
1776-1^88
The American Revolution was a political much more
than a social revolution. We shall now follow the troubles
that beset the new nation under the Articles of Confedera­
tion, and we shall see how this troublesome time cleared
the way for the Constitution. We shall see George Washing­
ton as the country's leader, and we shall learn that through
his foresight and clear thinking, the national government
was restored and the new nation was able to remain neutral
during European wars.
Investigatlonal Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition
1. Prepare a composite character
sketch in which you compare and
contrast the type of men who
drew up the Declaration of In­
dependence with the type of
men who framed the Constitu­
tion.
(C. R. Fish, Development of
American Nationality. pp.
33-35.)
2. Write a precis on the reasons
for the failure of the Arti­
cles of Confederation.
(E. Channing, History of the
United States. Vol. III.
ch. 14-15.
H. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History, pp.
175'
-1&C>«
— r
J. Riske, Critical Period
of American History, pp.
ss-iss:----------A. C. McLaughlin, Confedera­
cy and the Constitution,
ch. 4-6.J
Student’s Notes
44
3. Prepare a paper o n t h e commer­
cial and financial conditions
under the Confederation.
(A. C. McLaughlin, Confederacy
and the Constitution, pp. 71737
H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, pp. i7fe-l&6.
J. P'lske, Critical Period of
American History, pp. 163186.)
4. Explain the problems of ratifi­
cation.
(McMaster, United States. I.
ch. 5.)
5. To what extent does the period of
1776 to 1789 show evolution in
government? Prove your points
with evidence.
(Carman, Kimmel, Walker, Hjstorical Currents, pp. 13014471
6. Prepare a paper on the foreign
relations under the Confedera­
tion.
(McLaughlin, Confederacy and
the Constitution, pp. 89-l'07.
Flske, The "Critical Period
of American Bistory. pp. 131I?4'; 154-152.7
7. Write a brief biographical
sketch of each of the following
men. Concentrate your attention
on their contributions to the
historical period in which they
lived.
Benjamin Franklin
John Paul Jones
Patrick Henry
James Madison
Alexander Hamilton
George Rogers Clark
(Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.
E. E. Sparks, The Men Who Made
the Nation.)
45
8.
doubt whether any single law
or law-giver, ancient or modern,
has produced effects of more
distinct, marked, and lasting
character than the Ordinance of
1787.”— Daniel Webster. What was
the Ordinance of 1787? Give
reasons tending to justify Web­
ster's opinion*
(W. i^ac onald, Documentary
Source Book of American distory,
pp. 209-215.
E. B. Greene, Foundations of
American Nationality, pp.
574-658.
A. C. McLaughlin, Confederacy
and the Constitution, ch. 7.
Channing, history of the
United States"! iil. chT 17•)
9. Prepare a report on the relation­
ship of the state government to
the Federal government.
(J. Bryce, American Coamonwealth
Vol. I. pp. 12-15.
C. A. Beard, American Govern­
ment and Politics, pp. VS-^79.);
10. Why does James Bryce say that
great men are not elected to the
presidency? Prepare an argument
to prove this statement true or
false.
(J. Bryce, American Common­
wealth. I • pp. 73-50.)
11. Prepare a paper to be read to
the class on the inaugural of
1789 as contrasted to the latest
one.
(C. G. Bowers, Jefferson and
Hamilton, pp. 6-6.
McMasters, History of the
People of the UnitecT States.
I. pp. 53&-S4T!
Halsey, F. W., Great Epochs
in American History. IV.
pp• 51-61; 65-64.
Sparks, The Men Who Made the
Nation, pp. Ife1-51775
46
B. Oral Composition
1. Report on the reasons for the
importance of the Northwest
Ordinance*
(E. Channing, History of the
United States* III* ch. 17.
*!. B. Greene, Foundations of
American Nationality, pp.
574-678.
W. MacDonald, Documentary
Source Book, pp. 209-215.
A. (5. McLaughlin, Confederation
and the Constitution, ch. 7.)
2. Develop this statement: ”The
adopting of the United States
Constitution by no means in­
dicated the country's unquali­
fied acceptance of or adherence
to democracy.”
(E. E. Sparks. United States.
I. pp. 105-121; i v o -t t t :
Merriam, American Political
Theories, pp. 100-152.)
3. List at least 15 important rights
of.Engli shmen.
( % g n a Charta, Petition of
%ghts, Bill of Rights.)
4. Report on The Federalist and
its authors.
(MacDonald, Documentary Source
Book. The Federalist.
J . Fiske, Critical ?eriod of
American History, pp. 340-353.
3V B. McMasters, History of
the People of the United
States. I. pp. 4*79-484.)
5. Compare the legislative, execu­
tive, and the judicial powers
under the Articles of Confedera­
tion with those under the Consti­
tution.
6. Prepare a floor talk on the
making of the American Constitu­
tion.
47
(M. Farrand, Fathers of the
Constitution! IChronicles, Vol.
XIII.)
chT”6-7.
Elson, Sidelights on American
history. Vol? I.)
7. Prepare a dramatization of the
closing scene of the Convention
based on that topic in Hart's
Contemporaries.
("The Closing Scene of the
Convention", pp. 221-228.)
8. Prepare a floor talk in apposi­
tion to the convention.
(J. Fiske, Critical Period,
ch. 5-6.
McLaughlin, Confederacy and
the Constitution, ch. li-16.
Walker. ^akingThe Nation,
ch. 2-5.)
9.-10-11-12. After every war there
is a period of unrest and re­
adjustment. Four pupils may
pretend that this is the period
after the Revolution and assume
roles of characters who feel
this unrest particularly. There
might well be such characters as:
a Loyalist, an army officer, a
Boston merchant, a Continental
soldier, a ship owner interested
in foreign trade, a small farmer,
a Philadelphia manufacturer and
a Virginia plantation owner
present at the round-table dis­
cussion. The pupils may select
from these characters the roles
that seem most interesting to
them.
(H. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History. I. pp. 550-540.
. Fiske. Critical Period in
American history, pp. 152186
G. S. Caiiender, Selections
,
from Economic ^istory of the
UnTEel IFaTes .TTSS-IeSS.---
.
FpTTSsTVST.T
48
13* A committee of four will divide
itself into two parts, one re­
presenting the large states and
the other the small states. Each
group will present and defend a
constitutional provision in re­
gard to representation suitable
to its own particular interests.
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
democratic
Federalist
Virginia plan
Articles of Confederation
sovereignty
implied powers
"Critical period"
interstate tariffs
Shays rebellion
export duties
Connecticut or Great Compromiso
New Jersey plan
"Judicial supremacy"
intra-state tariffs
D. Parallel Readings
1. Far Past the Frontier—
J. A. Braden
2. America through Women’s Ryes—
M. Beard
3. New Ohio— E. E. Hale
4. The Crossing— Churchill
5. Winning of the West—
Roosevelt
6. Reign of Terror— G. A. Henty
7. Janice Meredith— P. L. Ford
8. Standish of Standish—
J. Austin
9. The Mast9r of Chaos— I.
Batcheller
10. Drums in the Dawn— J. T.
McIntyre
11. ’Where Glory Awaits— Gertrude
Crownfield
49
E. Contemporary Literature
1. Alexander Hamilton
Speech in New York Convention
June 24, 1788
2. Thomas Jefferson
First Inaugural
Character of Washington
3. John Trumbull
McFingal
,
4. Joel Sarlow
Hasty Pudding
5. Francis Hopkinson
Battle of the Kegs
Hail Columbia
6. Rodman Drake
American Flag
7. Philip Freneau
A Prophecy
Ode
Indian Burying Ground
Wild Honeysuckle
50
UNIT V
STUDY SHEET
Establishing a Rural Republic
T78§-T§5T”
When Washington became president our civilization
was largely a rural one, one of freeholders of land, of
the farmer, and of the planter. The population of the
United States in 1790 was about the same as that of Chi­
cago now. Climatic conditions gave to these hardy people
a variety and excitement. Power, mineral and agricultural
resources seemed unlimited.
Daring the period in which the rural republic was
being established, Washington’s services were indispensable.
Political parties began to form; political independence
did not bring isolation from European affairs for our
government was drawn into European politics.
Tnvestigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition
1. Alexander Hamilton has been
called "A Colossus” and Thomas
Jefferson has been called ”A
democrat and aristocrat, and
sometimes autocrat.” Write
a brief sketch of each with
these titles in mind.
(C. 0. Bowers, Jefferson and
Hamilton, ch. 2-5.
H!. J. P’ord, Alexander
Hamilton.
D. S. Muzzey, Thomas Jeffer­
son.
A. J. Nock, Thomas Jefferson.)
Student’s Not e s
51
2. Study the character of the mem­
bers of Washington's Cabinet*
Dramatize the meeting of the Cabi­
net at which the President asked
for advice about the bank bill.
One member of the cabinet will
present Hamilton's argument and
another Jefferson's.
(C. G. Bowers, Jefferson and
Hamilton* ch. 3-4-10.)
3. Prepare a paper to be read to
the class on the mission of
Citizen Genet.
(Charming, History of the
United States. Iv. pp." '127-133.
Fisii. American Diplomacy,
pp. 96-107.
J. S. Bassett, Federal System,
pp. 84-100.)
4. Prepare a paper on the Whiskey
Rebellion. Bring out the ex­
citement and the emotion behind
the rebellion.
(C. A. Beard, Economic Origins
of Jeffersonian Democracy,
pp. 243-249.
E. D. Branch, Westward,
pp. 218-231.
J. S. Bassett. Federal System.
pp. 182-188.)
5. You live in Virginia at this
time. Prepare an editorial for
one of your Virginia papers on
the question of the assumption
of state debts.
(H. J. Carman, Social and
Economic History of tKe^Jnlted
“I . PP* 366—367.
#. S. Commager, Ed. Documents
of American History. #92.)
6. You are against the establishing1
of a United States Bank. Write
an editorial for the newspaper
of your town attacking this act.
Be definite in your arguments
against the bank.
52
(C. G. Bower, Jefferson and
Hamilton, pp. 7,4-7,9.
TTTTTTord, Washington and
His Colleagues.
Chronicles"
Vol. Xlv. ch. 3.)
7. Prepare a paper to be read before
the class on "The Manners and
Customs during the First Forty
Years of the Republic."
(Meade Minnigerode, Lives and
Times.
Meade ^innigerode, Some
American Ladies.)
8. Read Washington’s "Farewell Ad­
dress" and list briefly under
the headings of parts applicable
today and parts not applicable
today the advice found therein.
(Harding, Select Orations. #11.
A. W. Long, American Patriotic
Prose, pp. 105-124.)
9. What did Hamilton really think
of Jefferson? Jefferson of
Hamilton? Study the evidence
carefully and present your
findings without personal bias.
3e sure of your facts.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. III.
#85 and 86.
H. J. Ford, Washington and His
Colleagues. "Chronicled".
Vol. JuV. ch. S.)
10. Why have some historians called
the Jeffersonian "Democracy"
the Jeffersonian "Aristocracy"?
(A.- M. Schlesinger, New View­
points in American History,
pp. 83-TTo T)
11. Capitalism and agrarianism again
were the center of a great qon- «
test at the time of ''Jefferson's
triumph in 1800. Explain why the
election of 1800 is sometimes
called a devolution".
(J. S. Bassett, Short History of
the United States, pp. 28V-255,)
53
H. C. Hockett, Political and
Social Growth of the united
States* pp. 3^5-356.
W. M. West. American Democracy,
pp. 331-336; 355-357.}
12. The doctrine of nullification and
secession was the logical conclu­
sion of the principle of the Vir­
ginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
Explain nullification and seces­
sion. Are the right to nullify
and to secede implied in the
actions of Virginia and Kentucky?
(Bassett. Federal System,
ch. 17-IS":
McMaster, A History of the
People of the >Jnited’~Stat’es. II
pp. 389-403; 41^-427; 464-474.
H, J. uarman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the" UnitecT"
SEaEea. i. g5'4^395T------Channing, History of the United
States. Vol. IV. pp. £ 24- 231',
Schouler, History of the United
States under the 0on 3 1ltution.
I. pp. 464-435."
Hart’s Contemporaries. III.
#101.) -----------
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepare a floor talk on the in­
fluence of Hamilton’s political
philosophy on the national
government of today.
(J. T. Adams. Hamiltonian
Principles.)
2. Prepare a floor talk on the in­
fluences of Jefferson's political
philosophy on our present-day
national government.
(Channing, History of the
United States. VoTT Iv. ch. 9
J. T.' Adams.''Jeffersonian De­
mocracy. ch. id.
A. Johnson, Jefferson and His <
Colleagues.
Chronicles*1•
Vol.XV.
ch. 1-2.)
54
3. Discuss Hamilton’s excise tax
and its results.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History of
the United States. pp. 267-2^5,
A. B. Hart, formation of the
Union. pp. 163-164.
B. 1. Ford, Washington and Hj3
Colleagues. "Chronicles1".
Vol. XIV. pp. 182-187.)
4.
Compare the first inaugural in
1789 and the latest one.
(C. S. Bowers, Jefferson and
Hamilton, pp. 6-3.
E1. A. <3gg, Builders of the Re­
public. pp. 167-170.
McMasters, History of the Peopl*
of the United States. 1. " pp.
638-6417)
5. Explain the means by which the
Federalists sought to retain
their influence in the government
following the election of 1800.
(J. S. Bassett, The Federalist.
System. "American Nation
"Series". Vol X I , ch. 19.
McMasters, A History of the
People of tEe United “States. II
pp. 489753’/'.
Morse. Thomas Jefferson, pp.
171-1857)
6-7-8-9. Four speakers will debate on
the following subject. Two af­
firmative and two negative speak­
ers will present the arguments,
and a chairman will be selected
from the class to preside over
the debate.
Resolution: Hamilton made a
larger contribution than Jeffer­
son to the establishment of
American Institutions.
(J. T. Adams, The Diving
Jefferson.
A. J1. Nock, Jefferson.
H. G. Lodge .""Alexander Hamilton.
F. S. Oliver. Alexander
Hamilton.
Gertrude Atherton, The Conqueroi.
Encyclopedia.)
55
10. Prepare a speech on humanitarianism at the turn of the century.
(H. j. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
State sT'T. p p . 411-423.)
11. Prepare a sketch, either drama­
tic or descriptive, on the social
and economic life of the early
1800’s.
(H. J. ^arman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
States, "f. pp. 401-411.
U. "'j . Bowers, Jefferson in
Power, ch. 1.
0. H. P'ish, The Rise of the
Common Man. R 3 0 - 1 & 5 0 . "Ameri­
can £ife". Vol. Vi.)
12. Discuss the downfall of the
Federalists.
(J. S. Bassett, Federal System,
ch. 19.
McMasters, A History of the
People of the United States.
II. pp. 489-537.
Charming, A History of the
United States. IV. ch. 8.)
13. Discuss the French Revolution.
(J. S. Bassett, The Federalist
System. "American A1ation
Series. Vol. XI. ch. 9, 14,
16.
Hart's Contemporaries. III.
pp. 307--3T1TT
14. Discuss the foreign and the In­
dian relations.
(Foster, Century of American
pp. 136-176.
— ------ , A ^1 story of the
People of tEe United ~5f;ates. I.
pp. 593-604.
Moore, American Diplomacy,
pp• 34-57.)
15. Considering the extent to which t
the Federalists found it neces­
sary to deal with foreign powers,
what is the proper interpretatior
of President Washington's "policy
of isolation"?
56
(J. S, Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 282291; 261-267; 295-296.
J. S. Basgett, Federalist Sys­
tem. "American Nation Series”
ch. 4— 5.
H. J. Ford, Washington and His
Colleagues. "Chronicles.'1
Vol. XIV. ch. 5.)
16. Make a speech such as Hamilton
might have made in defense of
the bank. Remember that this is
a very important part of your
political principles; therefore,
you must make your speech vital
and to the point.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. III.
#82.)
------17. Prepare a speech such as Madison,
Jefferson’s spokesman in the
House, might have made to Hamil­
ton's defense speech. Make
your speech energetic and to the
point.
(Rart’s Contemporaries. III.
fr82 •
C. Bowers, Jefferson and
Hamilton.
cl. J. Pord, Washington and His
Colleagues. "Ciironicles^.
Vol. XIV.
ch. 3.
S. E. 1'orman, The Rise of Amer­
ican Commerce and indusEry.
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
judiciary
precedent
revenue tariff
protective tariff
assumption
Federalists
nullification
Sedition acts
Kentucky and Virginia
Resolutions
excise tax
Spoils system
Bill of Rights
Revolution of 1800
Strict construction
57
15*
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Loose construction
Whiskey Rebellion
Jay and Pinckney
Washington's Proclamation of
Neutrality
Citizen Genet
XYZ Affair
Alien and Sedition Acts
Anti-Federalists
D. Parallel Readings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Dri
The
The
The
and I— 3atcheller
Circuit Rider— Eggleston
Conqueror— Atherton
Man Without a Country—
Hale
The Red City— Mitchell
Spring Came on Forever— 'Aldrich
Backwoods American— G. M.
"ilson
White Leader— C, L. Skinner
The Adventure of Johnny
Apple seed— Henry Chapin
New Road— Merle Colby
Benjamin ^ranklin— The First •
Civilized American—
Philips Russell
Edmund ^urke— J. M. Morley
George Washington— Henry Sabot
Lodge
58
UNIT VI
STUDY SHEET
The Growth of the Nation and the Development
of Democracy
1786-1845
In 1790 more than eight out of every ten people in
America were of English descent; seven out of every hun­
dred were of Scotch-Irish descent; two out of every
hundred were Holland-Dutch, and one out of every hundred
was a French Huguenot. By 1300, a million Americans were
living west of the mountains, and their number was in­
creasing so rapidly that the eastern conservatives were
frightened. By 1820 there were two and a half million
people over the mountains, one quarter of the population
of the United States, and a million more people than
there were in New England. Ey 183C, one-third of the
American people were westerners.
We shall see in this great movement a greater nation
and a growing spirit of nationalism. We shall see also
how Jefferson tried to substitute economic- pressure for
armed force to stay out of war with England. There will
also be evidence to show how the European complications
brought into bein g the ftlonroe Doctrine.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition
1. Prepare a precis on the sub­
sequent events that bear out
the wisdom of Jefferson’s
purchase of Louisiana.
(C. A. and M. F. Beard, Rise
of American Civilization.
Vol. I. pp. 397-402.
F. L. Faxson, History of the
American Frontier, ch. 15.T
2. Write a composition on the
Westward movement. There is a
good opportunity here for a
Student's Notes
59
creative report. This topic
lends itself to a descriptive
theme, a dramatic sketch, a short
story, or a story as told by
some one who travelled west.
(E, M. Roberts, The Great
Meadow.
S. te. White, Daniel Boone. Wild­
erness Scout.
£. Channing, History of the
United States. Vol. V. ch. 2.
F. J1. ^ u r n e r , The Frontier in
American History. '
ch.. 1.)
3. Compare the attitude toward the
War of 1812 in Hew England,
Middle States, and the South.
(K. C. Babcock, Rise of Ameri­
can Nationality, ch. S.
F. Channing, history of the
United States" Vol. IV.
pp. 335-344; 388-390; 448449; 557-564.)
4. Prepare a paper that will include
the following items:
a. The problems created by the
purchase of Louisiana.
b. The states that were carved
out of the area in whole or
in part.
c . Conclude with a summarizing
paragraph in which you state
the importance of these
states in our political and
economic life today.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 296300.
E. Channing, History of the
United States"! Vol. IV. ch.
it :------Fart, Formation of the Union,
pp. 185-187.
F. L. Paxson, History of the
American Frontier, ch. 157)'
5. You are a newspaper reporter at
this time. Prepare an article
on the purchase of Louisiana
such as might have appeared in a
paper that was friendly to the
administration.
(A, Johnson, Jefferson and His
Colleagues. ch. 4.
60
H. Nicolay, Our Nation In the
Euilding. ch. 3.
R. Page, Dramatic Moments in
American Diplomacy" cYiT 677
6. Prepare a newspaper article that
might have appeared in a hostile
New England paper with regard to
the purchase of Louisiana.
(References same as for No. 5.)
7. Write a brief biographical sketch
of each of the following men.
Show in each sketch the contri­
bution that the individual made
to his country.
John Quincy Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton
Andrew Jackson
Benjamin Harrison
(Dictionary of American
Biography.
Morse, Thomas Jefferson.
Morgan, Our Presidents.
Moran, Our American Presidents ,
F. E. sparks, ^h6 Men wlho
Made the Nation.)
8. Prepare a brief biographical
sketch of each of the following
men. Show their individual con­
tributions to their country.
John Marshall
Stephen Decatur
De Witt Clinton
Francis Scott Key
(Dictionary of American
Biography.
Dorothy Bobbe, De Witt Clinton,
Magruder, John T^arshallT)
9. You are a leader in the Hartford
Convention and also a Congress­
man after the collapse of the
government. Write a letter to
the principal paper in your dis­
trict explaining that the con­
vention had no intention of
going beyond a proposal for nul­
lification and certain constitu­
tional amendments. Attempt to
make light of the movement with-j
out departing from the truth.
61
(J. Bassett, Life of Andrew
Jackson. Vol. II. ch. 26.
MacDonald. Documentary Source
Book. # 7 0 0
10. Just as Jefferson’s political
ideas were influential in making
traditional America, so were
Emerson’s ideas to become influ­
ential ones in literature. Write
a paper to be read to the class
on the literature of Emerson's
time, interpreting romanticism,
mysticism and transcendentalism.
(Letters and Addresses of
Thomas Jefferson.
Halleck’s History of American
Literature!*)
11. Up to the time of Washington
Irving there had been little
progress in art and literature.
The writers of the Knickerbocker
school were intensely loyal in
spirit and took their place in
early American literature and
helped to bring literary prestige
to America. Prepare a paper to
be read to the class in which
you show Washington Irving’s
place in our literary history.
(Bliss Perry, The American
Spirit in Literature. "Chron­
icles." Vol. 34.
Wendell, A Literary History
of America.
A. Tassin and A. B. Maurice,
The Story of American Litera­
ture.
E. Channing, A History of the
United States. V. cn.- S’.")
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepare a dramatic report on the
history of the ’’Federal City” of
Washington; its selection and
planning, removal of the capital
from Philadelphia in 1800, the
social life under the Jefferson­
ians, and the burning of federal
buildings in the War of 1812.
62
(M. C. Crawford, Romantic Days
in the Early Republic. ch. 5.
E. E. Sparks, Expansion of the
American People, ch. 15.
W. B. Smith, First Forty Years
of Washington Society,
pp. 5-13; 44-47; 58-74; 94-105;
250-255; 271-274.)
2. Prepare a talk on John Q,uincy
Adams as a diplomat.
(Morse, John Adams.
J. T. Adams,~^he Adams Family,
pp. 140-187.)
3. Prepare an explanation of why
Jefferson found it difficult to
live up to his party platform of
”strict construction of the
Constitution.”
(A. Johnson, Jefferson and His
Colleagues. "Chronicles".
Vol. 15.
C. M. and M. R. Beard, Rise of
American Civilization, pp. S§7402.)
4. Compare the exploits of John Paul
Jones with those of Oliver H,
Perry.
(Phillips Bussell, John Paul
Jones and the Revolution.
Babcock, Rise of American
Nationality, pp. 121-24.
Channing. History of the United
States. Vol." TV. pp. 488-491.)
5-S-7-8. Select one of these two
topics for debate. Two speakers
will prepare arguments on each
side. The chairman will be se­
lected from the class. The class’
will act as the judges.
(a) The United States was justifi­
ed in declaring war a gainst
Great Britain in 1812.
(b) The United States should have
gone to war with France rather
than with Great Britain in
1812.
(Adams, History
.fcits -Halted
States. Vol. VI. ch. 7.
McMasters, History of the People
63
of the United States. Vol. IV
ch. 28.
A. Johnson, Union and Democracy
ch. 12.
A. B. Ilart, Formation of the
Union, pp. 188-189; 1§6-19§;
214-218.)
9. John Marshall is regarded by
many as the greatest chief justic
the United States has ever had.
Prepare a floor talk on why this
is true, and show how he made the
judiciary the supreme department
of government, and how he en­
couraged nationalism.
(Hart's Contemporaries. III.
#135-13?TI
MacDonald, Documentary Source
Book. #72-76.
McMasters, History of the
People of the United States.
Vol. 4. pp. 570-601.
Harding, Select Orations. #14.)
10. Compare and contrast the success
of Jefferson's embargo policy
and the success of the non-im­
portation policy of the colonies
before 1776.
(A. Johnson, Jefferson and His
Colleagues. "Chronicles".
Vol. XV. pp. 144-170.
Hart's Contemporaries. III.
#121, 1227)
11. Prepare a floor talk on the Mon­
roe Doctrine emphasizing the
following points:
(a) The circumstances leading to
its issuance.
(b) The main issues emphasized
by it.
(c) How the doctrine was extended
in its meaning by Theodore
Roosevelt.
(d) Its present significance.
(E. Channing, History of the
United States, pp. 3 4 ^ 3 4 1?1.'
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 375m : ------------------
64
A. C. Coolidge, United States
as a World Power, pp. 951207
A. Johnson, Union and Demo­
cracy. pp. 289-297.
U. U. '-^homas, One Hundred
Years of the Monroe Doctrine.)
12. Prepare a talk on the peace
treaty and the results of the war.
(K. C. Babcock, Rise of Ameri­
can Nationality, ch. 16-11.
B.‘ Channing. History of the
United State3~ ^ol. T7.
ch. 20.
Fish. American Republic, ch.
15 *
Hart13 Contemporaries. III.
pp. 426-433.}
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.
9.
10.
11.
12.
"Peacable Coercion”
negotiation
acquisition
Non-intercourse Act
Monroe Doctrine
embargo
impressment
blockade
Macon Bill
Holy Alliance
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
"Wild Cat" banks
D. Parallel headings
1. Mutineers--C. B. Hawes
2. Invasion— Janet Lewis
3. Marcel Armand--S. L. Bell
4. D ‘ri and I— Batcheller
5. Uut of the Cypress Swamp—
E. Rickert
6. The Raven--James
7. I, James Lewis— G. W. Gabriel
8. Trade Wind— Cornelia Meigs
9. Valiant Wife— Margaret
Wilson
65
E. Contemporary Literature.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8*
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
->22.
The Contrast— Royal Tyler
Andre--Willlam Dunlap
Wieland— C. B. Brown
Arthur Mervin--Brown
Edgar Huntley— C. B. Brown
Knickerbocker's History of
Hew York— Washington Irving
Sketch Book--Washington Irving
Marco Bozzaris— Eitz-Greene ^alleck
The American Flag— Rodman Drake
Thanatopsis--William Cullen Bryant
The Spy— James Fenimore Cooper
The Deerslayer— ^ames fenimore Cooper'
Compensation— Ralph Waldo Emerson
Self-Reliance— Ralph Waldo Emerson
The American Scholar— R. W. Emerson
The Snow-Storm— R. W. -Emerson
The Concord Hymn— R. W. Emerson
Forbearance— R. W. Emerson
Walden— Henry David Thoreau
Twice-Told Tales— Nathaniel Hawthorne
Mosses from an Old Manse— Nathaniel
Hawthorne
House of Seven Gables--N. Hawthorne
■sf-To be studied intensively by the
entire class
66
UNIT VII
STUDY SHEET
Economic and Social Differences in the Nation
-------------- I7Sg-T815-------------There are evidences that the American Revolution had
as one of its results the opening of the country to French
culture and thought. But the breaking up of the landed
estates, the disappearance of the aristocrats, the growth
of sentiment against human slavery, and the separation of
the tax-supported church from the state were among the more
specific results.
Life in New England, the Middle Atlantic States, the
South, and in the area beyond the Alleghanies, as to po­
litical views, to social practices in relation to education
and religion and amusements, was by no means uniform.
Through this period of economic and social differences
one can see that sectionalism was not an unusual outcome.
The doctrine of state rights was a point of controversy.
Out of this changing condition came conflicting ideas with
regard to political parties between 1800 and 1845.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Prepare a brief summary of
the good and the weak points
of the spoils system.
(J. S, Bassett, Life of
Andrew Jackson. Vol. II.
ch. 19.
E. Channing, History of the
United States. Vol. V7
pp7m-sssv"
F. A. Ogg, Reign of Andrew
Jackson. "Chronicle s1'"!
Vo0 5 . )
Student’s Notes
67
2. As one who feels he has the
right to criticize Jackson’s use
of the spoils system, prepare an
editorial for your newspaper.
(Reference the same as those
for #1.)
3. Write a dialogue such as might
have occurred in a country
store over Jackson’s candidacy
for president. Keep the voca­
bulary, the mood, and the en­
thusiasm of the moment.
(J. S. Bassett, Life of Andrew
Jackson. Vol. T I pp. 373407.
F. A. Ogg, Reign of Andrew
Jackson. ”Chronicle s,r.
Vol. XX. pp. 94-112.)
4. Prepare a brief on Webster’s
arguments in opposition to the
doctrine of nullification.
(F. A. Ogg, Reign of Andrew
Jackson. "Chronicles’*.
VoT7"XX. ch. 7.
Harding, Select Orations.
$15 •
M. M. Miller, American Debate
I. ch. 11.
Hart’s Contemporaries. III.
#159.)
5. Prepare a brief on Hayne’s de­
fense of state rights and nul­
lification. From these two
topics the class discussion
will follow in which the merits
of the question will be care­
fully weighed. Be prepared to
read your paper to the class.
(References are the same as
for #4.)
6. You are an anti-Jackson senator.
Write a letter to a friend de­
scribing Jackson’s inauguration.
(C. 0. Bowers, The Party Bat­
tles of the Jackson Period,
ch. 1. P P • 36-48.
F . A . Ogg, Reign of Andrew(
Jackson.
"Chronicles^. Vol.
W.
pp. 113-124.
M. B. Smith, First Forty Years
of W ashington Society, pp. 2812987)
68
7. Investigate and prepare a report
to be read to the class on the
congressional careers of Henry
Clay, John ^ . Calhoun, and Daniel
Webster. Show how each of these
men figured in the sectional con­
troversies.
(E. Charming, History of the
United States"! Vol. V. pp.
151-132“---F. A. Ogg, Reign of Andrew
Jackson. "Chronicles". Vol.
XX. ch. 7-8.
F. J. Turner, Rise of the Mew
West. "American N a H o n Series.
VoTT XIV. ch. 14-1S.)
8. Write an editorial such as
Garrison might have written for
the "Liberator."
(J. Fiske, Critical Period of
American History, pp. 340^543.
Bliss Perry, TKe American
Spirit in Literature. "TJhronicles*.""Vol. 24. pp. 205-234.
J. B. McMaster, History of the
People of the United States. I.
pp. 4*79-484.
H. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the UnltecE
State s • 1. IPIP • 3 S£—356.
J1. J. Chapman, William Lloyd
Garrison.)
9. Prepare a paper on the Missouri
Compromise. Briefly tell some­
thing of its history, its points
and its importance.
(E. Charming, History of the
United StatesT Vol. V. pp.
££3-329.
J. B. McMaster, A History of thje
People of the United States.
Vol. fv. ch. 39'.
Turner, Rise of the New West.
"American Nation Series"7 Vol•
XIV. pp. 149-171.)
10. One historian called Burr "an
American Catiline", another "a
baleful Don Quixote". Justify
these allusions to Burr.
69
(A. Johnson, Jefferson and His
Colleagues.
"Chronicles'".
Vol. XV. ch. 6.
Helen Nicolay, Our Hation in
the Building, ch. 47)
11. Prepare a paper to be read to
the class in which you show how
Jacksonian Democracy affected
American culture.
(Hart's Contemporaries. III.
,
540-544; 531-535.
F. A. Ogg, ffae R e i m of Andrev
Jackson. "Chronicle s77r Vol.
237)
12. Prepare a paper on the important
inventions between 1780 and 1830.
(Malcolm Keir, Epic of Industry.
"Pageant of America"^ Vol. V.
ch. 3.
W, B. Kaempffert, A Popular
History of American Inventions.
T.T
----------------
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepai-e a floor talk showing
that the doctrine of state sov­
ereignty is a doctrine of de­
fense that grows out of the
special economic interests of
the country.
(H. W. EiSon, Sidelights on
American History. Vol.' T7
pp. 362—400.
A. M, Schlesinger, New View­
points in American History,
ch. 3, pp. 58-39; ch. 9.)
2. Investigate and report on the
Aaron Burr conspiracy and trial
for treason.
(S. H. Wardell, and M. Minnegerode, Aaron ^urr.
Helen Nicolay, Our Nation in
the Building, ch. 4.J
3. What kind of men v/ere in Jack­
son’s "Kitchen Cabinet"? What
services did they render, and
for what purposes?
70
(C. G. Bowers, The Party Battles
of the Jackson- Perlod. ch. 6.
77 S. Bassett. Life of Jackson.
Vol. I.)
--------------4. Why was the tariff of 1628 called
the "Tariff of Abominations"?
State the principles asserted by
Calhoun in the South Carolina
exposition.
(F. W. Taussig, Tariff History
of the ^nited States. pp. §5TBSl------------------
G. S. Callender, Selections
from the Economic History of th
Unit eel States. 17 6fe-i860. pp.
5lO-5l3TJ
5. Imagine that you are a political
friend of Andrew Jackson. Pre­
pare a speech such as you would
have delivered favoring his can­
didacy for president.
(J. S. Eassett, Life of Andrew
Jackson.
W. Macdonald, Jacksonian De­
mocracy. "American Nation
Series . Vol. XV.
C, G. Bowers, The Party Battles
of the Jacksonian Epoch.-)
6. Prepare a floor talk on the bank
controversy during the admini­
stration of Jackson.
(H. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
States. II. pp. 157-169.
h.
Elson, History of the
United States, pp. 471-484.
W. MacDonald, Documentary
Source 5ook. pp. S20-329.)
7. Discuss the rise of the Whig
Party in America.
(E. Channing, History of the
United States"! VblT TV.”“cH. 8.
h. 0. Hockett, Political and
Social Growth of tne UnitedStates, pp. 4HU-511.")
8. Show how Jacksonian democracy
differed from Jeffersonian de­
mocracy.
71
(F. A. Ogg, Reign of Andrew
Jackson* "chronicTesH . Vol. XX
pp. 124-136.
W. Macdonald, Jacksonian Demo­
cracy. "American Nation Series"
Vol.XV.
J. T. Morse, Thomas Jefferson.
F. Channing, Jeffersonian Sys­
tem. "American Nation Series",
Vol. XII.)
9-10-11-12. Four speakers will debate
on one of these two subjects.
Two will speak affirmatively and
two negatively. The chairman wilL
be selected from the class.
Resolution;
a. Calhoun's theory of nullifica­
tion was basically sound.
(E, Channing, History of the
United States. V. pp.~?2&-mr.--------J. 3. Mc^asters, A Hjgtory
of the People of The United
ISTaTes." V T T " cKT £37 ^ --b. Jackson1s hostility toward
the bank was justified.
(J. Bassett, Life of Andrew
Jackson. II. ch.” §7, 26.
W. I'iacEonald, Jacksonian
Democracy. "American ation
Series". Vol. XV. ch. 7-11
Dewey, Financial History of
the United States, ch. 9TJ
15. Prepare a floor talk on trans­
portation of this period.
(Railroads)
(J. W. Starr, One Hundred Years
of American Railroading.
“Malcolm Heir, March of Commerce
"Pageant". Vol. IV.
C. F. Carter, When Railroads
Were New.
O . K . Fish, Rise of the Common
Man. "AmericarTLTFe'TTT “ V o T T T l
pp. 78-87.
Hart's Contemporaries. III.
#165. ------ -------14. Explain the relationship between
the growing volume of immigration
from 1800 to 1850 and the in­
creasing nationalistic point of
view.
+
72
(M. W. Jernegan, American
Colonies, ch. 12.
TTirr^hlesinger, Hew View­
points in American History,
ch. X .
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States• pp.
4 5 1 ^ 3 1 -----------C. L. Becker, The United States
an Experiment in Democracy.
cH. 8 .
Hart’s Contemporaries. XIII.
ch. 4.)
15. Prepare a floor talk on America’s
debt to the immigrant.
(G. M. Stephenson, History of
American Immigration. 1820m
-----C. C. Jensen, American Saga.
J. Riis, Making of an American.
A. M. Schlesinger, Hew Viewpoints in American History,
pp. 1-217)
16. Take us on a trip in 1S35 from
a designated eastern city to St.
Louis. How many days would
you allow for the trip? What
baggage would you carry? By way
of contrast, plan a similar trip
for today.
(J. Moody, Railroad Builders.
"Chronicles. Vol. 36. ch. 15.
H. TJ. ^aulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, ch. 14.
H. h. ftiegel, America Moves
West, ch. 18.1
17. Prepare a floor talk on travel­
ing on a canal boat; the Cone­
stoga wagons. Include something
about the development of the tol]
roads in America.
(J. T. Paris, Romance of the
Rivers.
A. B.Hulbert, Path of Inland
Commerce. "Chronicles"7 vol.
TXT. pp. 175-188.
Mc^asters, History of the
People of the HniteT”Stales.
I V T p p T " 3P7^OT71------- --
73
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
15.
14.
15.
nationalism
sectionalism
"Era of Hard Feeling”
Spoils System
rotation in office
state’s rights
"King Andrew"
"pet banks”
"specie circular"
caucus
Gag Resolutions
"The Liberator"
Missouri Compromise
Abolitionist
Tariff of Abominations.
D. Parallel Readings.
1. A Son of the Revolution—
E. S. Brooks
2. Splendid Idle Forties— C.
Athetton
3. Remember the Alamo— A. H. Barr
4. The Mystery of Chimney Rock—
Cheley
5. Trail-Makers of the Middle
B order--Garland
6. Rome Haul--Edmonds
7. G-iants of the Three vYars-J. Barnes
8. Lewis Rand— M. Johnston
9. The Patience of John Moreland-M. Dillon
74
UNIT VIII
STUDY SHEET
Expansion to the Pacific
154^1860 ------This unit shows how the United States annexed a great
region in the Northwest by occupation and compromise and
how the Southwest was won by occupation and war. The
settlement of the Oregon question with England and the an­
nexation of Texas were among the demands of the James K.
Polk campaign. After two years Polk was able to report
that a compromise that was highly favorable to the American
side had been reached with the British. The Mexican War
and the acquisition of the Southwest gave us, with slight
rectification along the border, the continental United
States in its present form.
investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Write a brief of the argu­
ments given by those in
favor of annexing Texas
and of those opposed to the
annexation.
(J. H. Smith, The Annexa­
tion of Texas.
J. '.V.“"Stephenson, Texas
and the Mexican War.
■"t^r o H Ic T ^ T ^ o T rx x IV .
pp. 25-86.)
2. The narrative poem lends it­
self to the story written in
rhythmical form. This his­
torical period is filled
with exciting incidents, any­
one of which would make ex­
cellent material for a
narrative poem. Write a
poem in which you tell the
story of some incident of
this period.
Student’s Notes
75
3. Will you take us on a trip over
the Oregon trail from Missouri
to Oregon? Use your very best
vocabulary. Make the description
vivid and realistic.
(H. W. Morrow, On _to Oregon.
F. Parkman, The Oregon Trail.
W. J. Ghent,T K e ^oaa to
Oregon.)
4. Write a short sketch of the
settlement and the growth of
Astoria.
(W. Irving, Astoria.
K. Coman, -Economic Beginning
of the Far 7/est. Y"ol. II.
pp. 113-1667T”
5. Write a concise account of the
Mormon trek from Omaha to Great
Salt Lake.
(Don Seitz, Uncommon America,
pp. 1-23.
F. L. Paxson, Last American
Frontier, ch. S.
A. o. Laut, Pilgrims of Santa
Fe.
FT L. Paxson, History of the
American Frontier, ch. 3S.
F. Channing, history of the
United States.
Vol. TT
pp. 487-494.)
6. Describe the activities of Sam
Houston.
(G. Creel, Sam Houston.
Marquis James.""'The kaven. A
Biography of Sam Houston.)*"*
7. Describe the activities of
Marcus Whitman and John C.
Fremont.
(A. Nevin, Fremont.
Dictionary of* American Bio­
graphy.
8. Bring to the class a stirring
paper on the defense of the
Alamo.
(A. E, Barr, Remember the Alamo)
9. Write a short biographical
sketch of each of the following.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
#
LIBRARY
o
76
with particular attention on
their contributions to our
history:
Thomas Benton
John C . Calhoun
Henry Clay
James h. Polk
Daniel Webster
(Morgan, Our Presidents, pp.
81-122.
E. Channing, History of the
United States"! Vol. VT pp.
'4S 3T 432”---- -
J. Turner, Hise 0f the Hew West
"American Nation- Series^. Vol.
XIV. ch. 14-19.
E. W. Taussig, Tariff History
of the United states, ch. 2.
"Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy. )
10. Prepare a brief biographical
sketch of each of the following,
with particular attention on
the contribution made to the
history of our country:
Emma Willard
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Lucretia Mott
Lucy Stone
Dorothea Dix
(Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.
Merle Curtis, American Peace
Crusade.
R. U. P'aulkner, Quest for
Social Justice,pp. 222-228.
A. M. Schlesinger, Rise of the
City. "American Life* . “Vol.
Vl. pp. 353-360.
P. W, Slosson, Great Crusade
and After. "American Life'1.
Vol. VIlI. ch. 4.)
11. As the editor of the first paper
in the Texas.Republic, write an
editorial in favor of annexation
to the United States.
(Hart's Contemporaries. III.
#186-188.
Fish, American Diplomacy,
ch. 19-20.
77
McMaster, a History of the
People of the United^tates.
V. pp. 540-555; Vi. pp.
260-270; 458-463; V n . pp.
304-406.)
12. Pretend that you are living in
a period from 1830 to 1860. Tell
the class of the customs, manners
and education of the people of
your social set.
(C. R. rish, The Rise of Common
Man. "American Life". Vol.
VT7)
3. Oral Composition.
1. One of the most interesting
topics of marine history is the
story of the clipper ships in
relation to the development of
our American trade. Prepare a
floor talk on the subject of the
clipper ship and the development
of trade.
(R. D. Paine, Old Merchant
Marine, ch. 5."Chronicles" 36.
Malcolm Keir, March of Commerce. "Pageant of America".
Vol'V IV. pp. 42-48.
F. R. Dalles, Old Ohina Trade.
pp. 118-123.
E. K. Chatterton, Seamen All.
C. C. Cutler, Greyhounds of the
Sea: The Story"~of the American
Clipper Ship.j
2. Prepare a floor talk on the
packet lines.
(R, D, Paine, The Old Merchant
Marine. "Chronicles". Vol. 36.
ch. 6.
F. C. Bov/er, A Century of At­
lantic Travel, pp. 3-5F7
C'.'
Eskew, The Pageant of
Packets.)
3. Prepare a floor talk on how
Texas won her independence.
(G. Creel, Sam Houston.
Woodrow Wilson, History of the
American People. IV. pp. lC2TMl
78
McMaster, History of the People
of the United States. Vol. VI.
pp. 251-270.)
4. Prepare a vivid and descriptive
report on the gold rush to Calif­
ornia, and at the same time
present accurate details.
(A. B. Hulbert. Forty-Niners.
S. E. White. Forty-Niners.
"Chronicles • vol. XXV.
Monasters, History of the
People of the U nfted States.
Vol. VII. pp. "535-5147]
5. Compare and contrast the attitude
of Van Buren and that of Tyler
toward the annexation of Texas.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. III.
#135.
J. H. Smith, The Annexation of
Texas.
N. W. Stephenson, Texas and the
Mexican War. "Chronicle’s"'.'
voYrxxivrr
6. Prepare a floor talk on "Cali­
fornia before the Conquest."
(E, D. Adams, British Interests
and Activities in Texas,
ch. T n
H. J. Smith. Our War with
Mexico. V0i. I„. ch. 17^16.)
7. Tell the class about the Santa
Fe Trade.
(Coman, Economic Beginnings of
the Far ’.Vest. Vol. II. pp.
75-93.
A. C. Laut, Pilgrims of the
Santa Fe. pp. 207.
F. £. Paxson, Last American
Frontier, ch. 4.J
8-9-10-11. Four students will each
defend one of the four possible
solutions for the question of
slavery in the territories.
(.Bogart, Economic Hjgtory of
the United States, ch. 21.
Carr Ison. W es't'ward Extension,
ch. 19.
79
Hart’s Contemporaries» III.
#23-28.
McLaughlin, Readings in the
Histor:/ of the 'American Nat"lon
ch. 36-377)
12. Briefly present the attitude of
Henry Clay, Webster, Calhoun,
Chase, and Seward toward the
Compromise of 1850.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. III.
ch. 3.
Lodge, Daniel Webster, pp.
301-332.
Rhodes, History of the United
States. £» pp. 115-198T)
13. Representing the Hew England
Whigs, deliver a speech attack­
ing Polk's message calling for
war with Mexico.
(Bancroft, Mexico. Vol. V,
Garrison, Westward Extension,
ch. 13-15.
Reeves, Diplomacy under Tyler
and Polk, ch. 11-13.)
14. Talk to the class about the fur
trade and the effects of traders
on the Indians.
(H. J. Carman, Social Economic
History of the~United States.
II. pp. 177-184.
R. W. Porter, John Jacob Astor,
Business Man. '£. pp. 48-74'.
S . Coman. Economic Beginnings
of the Far West. I.)
15. Representing the Missouri
Democrats, defend President
Polk’s stand in his message
calling for war with Mexico.
(Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
#10, 117117)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
reoccupation of Oregon
reannexation of Texas
squatter-sovereignty
"manifest destiny"
Wilmot Proviso
Compromise of 1850
"dark horse"
80
8. "forty-niners"
9. 54-40 or fight
D.
Parallel Readings
1. The Magnificent Adventure—
E. Hough
2. The Covered Wagon— E. Hough
3. Fifty-four Forty or Fight—
E . Hough
4. Ramona— H. H. Jackson
5. The Great Valley— M. Johnston
6. The Light in the Clearing—
Batcheller
7. The Tide of Empire— Peter 3.
Kyne
8* The Heroine of the Prairies—
nargraves
9 * Ranchero--White
10. Grim ^ourney--Hoffman Birney
11. Lords of the Coast— °ackson
Gregory
12. The Wind Blows West— Christine
Parmenter
*13. Giants in the Earth— Ole
Edvaard Rolvaag
*To be studied intensively
by the entire class.
E. Contemporary Literature
1. William Lloyd Garrison
The liberator
2. Henry Clay
Liberty or Death
3. John C. Calhoun
Address to the people of
South Carolina
The Nature of the Union
4. Daniel Webster
Bunker Hill Oration
Imaginary Speech of John Adams
5. Abraham Lincoln
Gettysburg Address
First inaugural
Second Inaugural
6. Henry David 1horeau
Walden
81
7. Ralph Waldo Emerson
The American Scholar
Compensation
. Self-Reliance
Forbearance
8. Harriet Beecher Stowe
Uncle Tom's Cabin
9. Nathaniel Hawthorne
Scarlet Letter
House of Seven Cables
Twice-Told Tales
Mosses from an Old Manse
10. Henry W. Uongfeliow
Poems of Slavery
Evangeline
Hiawatha
Courtship of Miles Standish
11. John Greehleaf Whittier
Slave-Ships
Hunters of Men
Christian Slave
Snow-Bound
Ichabod
12. James ^ussell Lowell
Present Crisis
Fable for Critics
Bigelow Baper
Vision of Sir Launfal
13. Oliver Wendell Holmes
The Autocrat of the Breakfast
Table
Deacon's Masterpiece
Chambered Nautilus
The Last Leaf
The Boys
14. George Bancroft
History of the United States
15. William H. Prescott
Conquest of Mexico
16. Francis Parkman
Oregon Trail
Pioneers of France in the New
World
82
UNIT IX
STUDY SHEET
Life in the Rural Republic
1530-1860
Economic democracy was fast breaking down in the
North and the comparative simplicity of an earlier day
was passing. With the increase and spread of population
came many and varied problems and in order to understand
how the poeple lived and how they faced the problems of
industry, one must carefully study the people In their
environment.
There was evidence that in ^ew England there was a re­
vival of interest In arts and letters. The chief signs of
this Interest were to be found in the works of ^athaniel
Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Greenleaf Whittier,
and many other equally famous writers.
In the South the literary output was small because
the finest minds gave themselves to politics, to law,
and to agriculture. Society was modeled somewhat after
the ancient aristocracy, and was usually filled with
pleasure and was given to seeking entertainment as it
chose.
New England dominated this period of literature;
during this period was seen the rise of the common man
in American life, at a time when literature was being
made, for the most part, by the cultivated and educated.
1nvestigationa1 Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Contrast the careers of the
three editors, Greeley, Hennett
and Bryant, with the leading
newspaper editors of today.
(Dictionary of American
Biography.
W. J. Bleyer, Main Currents
in the History of American
"Journalism.
Student1s Hotes
83
W. J. Bleyer, Cambridge History of American Literature.
VoTT 17 cE.'TjHTol. il# chs.
20, 21; Vol. Ill, °hs. 19, 20.
2. Prepare an explanatory sketch
of the railroad expansion in
this period from 1830-1860.
(H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, ch. 4.
F. L, Paxson, History of the
American Frontier, ch. 14-15.
E. Hjegel. America Moves
West, ch. 18.
J. Moody, Railroad Builders.
"Chronicles" . Vol. 38'.
ch. 1-5.)
3. Write a magazine article about
the Underground Railway.
(J. Macy, Anti-Slavery Crusade.
"Chronicles'1. Vol. 18. ch. 8.
W. H. Siebert, r
Ihe Underground
Railroad from Slavery to Free­
dom.)
4. Show how most of the literature
of this period clearly reflects
the emotions, background, and
historical trends of the times.
(b. Channing, % story of the
United States. Vol. V7
ch._$.
J. d . McMasters, A History of
the People of the~^nlted
States'. VoTT V."
bliss Perry, The American
Spirit in Literature.
"ChronlSTes" #34. ch. 9.
Barrett Wendell, Literary His­
tory of America, ch. 8-9-12.)
5. Prepare an interesting paper on
the subject of the inventive
progress of the period and the
influence of inventions.
(Holland Thompson, Age of
Inventions. "Chronicles".
Voi: ’STT'pp. 110-115.
H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, ch. 10-12.
C. H. Fish. Rise of the Common,
Man. "American LiTe". Vol. 6.
84
D. S. Muzzey, United States
of America. Vol. 1, pp. 4774837T^
6. Prepare a paper on the life and
literature of the South.
(W. E. Dodd, The ^otton King­
dom. "Chronicles." vol. 27.
ch. 1.
T. N. Page, Two Little Confed­
erates.
C. K. Fish, Rise of the Common
Man. ch. 4
7. Prepare a report on Horace Mann
in the lower school.
(E. Channing, History of the
United States. Vol,., V7 ch.9.
J. H . i/ic’Masters, A istory of
the People of the-United
sEateT. ^oT7 T.-------C. R. ^ish, Hise of the Common
Man. "American LT?e Series".
Vol. Vi. pp. 200-227.
E. P. C^^gpigy^ Public Edu­
cation in the United States.
S. E.” Forman, Sidelights on
Our Social and Kconomlc HTsEdry. pp. 416-424.
E. E. Slosson, The American
Spirit in Education.."Chron­
icles" . Vol. 33. pp. 124130.)
8. Report on the effect of immigra­
tion on national life.
(A. i*. Schlesinger, Hew View­
points in American History,
ch. S'.
H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History. ch.__15.
7 7 1 T ®c®asEers, A ^i story of
the People of the~~Unlted
States. VoT7 VTT. pp. 369W . 7
'
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepare an oral report on the
topic, "As Others Saw Us in the
Early Nineteenth Century."
(A. B. Hulbert, Path of Inland
Commerce. "Chronicles7’’.
XXI.
Vol.
85
Hart *s Contemporarie3 . III.
#138, 155, 157.
S. E, Porman, Sidelights on
Our ^oclal and Economic iiisFory.~'"pp. TT&JZs&r-FH-'im.
Charles Dickens, ^artln
Chuzzlewlt. ch. 15-17-22-2333-34, and the Postcript.)
2. Prepare a talk on the remark­
able progress In education
during this period.
(C. R. Fish, Rise of the Commcjn
Man. "American LiTe" . "V'ol".
VT7 pp. 200-227.
L. A. Weigle, American Ideal­
ism. ch. 9.
H a r t 's Contemporaries.
III.
#153.
J. 3. McMasters, A -^istory
of the People of Fhe United
"SFaFes. VoTT Y 7 " p p . T f T
M T
H. J. Carman, Social and
Economic History of the
United States. I. pp. 4781557]-------3. What we re some of the reforms
that were made in this period
of thirty years between 1830
and 1360?
(e . E, Sparks. Expansion of
the American People, ch. 33,
C. 'R. Pish. Rise of the Com­
mon Man.
American Rife11
Vol. Vi. ph. 12.
H. J, Carman, Social and
Economic History of the
United StsTtTs. voT.“TT.
pp. 3#3-SY6.
S. E. x'orman, Sidelights on
Our Social and ^conomlc
History, pp. 229-232.)
4. Discuss religion in the repub­
lic between 1830 and 1860.
(C, R. Fish, Rise of the
Common Man. "American Life”
Vol'.' T C
ch. 9.)
5. Prepare a floor talk on home
life in the 30's and 40*s.
86
(C. R. Fish. Rise of the Com­
mon Man.
American Life1’.
Vol. ^1. ch. 7.
Allan ^evins, American Social
History as Recorded by Britlsl:,
Travellers. pp. 159^8757
M. Mlnnigerode, Fabulous
Forties.)
6. Literature at this time was in­
terpreting the mood and the
philosophy of the period. Se­
lect one or two of the writers
from the "Contemporary Litera­
ture” list and read something
of the life of each in addition
to making a study of the most
representative work from the
writer or writers whom you se­
lect for your study. Prepare
a well-organized character
sketch of the writer and tell
the class about the work you
read. Evaluate the piece of
literature and the man in terms
of the period and their place in
both contemporary and subsequent
literature.
(Bliss Perry, The American
Spirit in Literature. "Chron­
icles”
0. Lowe, Our Land and Its
Literature.
.N. Foerster, and W, W. Pierson,
American Ideals.
J. L. Haney, TEe Story of Our
Literature.
E. 0, Stedman, American An­
thology.)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10,
11.
exploitation
antislavery
proslavery
Black Belt
enfranchisement
Smithsonian Institute
transcendentalism
humanitarianism
corollary
benefactions
Walker Tariff
87
D. Parallel Readings
1.
2.
3.
4.
The -^migrant Trail--G. Bonner
Kennedy Square— F. II. Smith
Gold— S. E. White
Winning of the West--Theodore
Roosevelt
5. Boots and Saddles--Mrs. duster
6. The Passing of the Frontier—
E. Hough
7. Letters of a Woman Homesteader--
E. P. Stewart
8. The Mississippi Bubble--E. Hougl
S. Log of a Cowboy--Adams
10. The Blazed Trail— S. E. White
E. ‘-contemporary Literature
1. Nathaniel Hawthorne
House of Seven Gables
2. Edgar Allan Poe
The Purloined Letter
The Cask of Amantillado
The Tell-Tale Heart
The Pit and the Pendulum
The Fall of the House of Usher
Ulalume
The Bells
The Raven
Eldorado
Annabel Lee
3. William Gilmore Simms
The Yemassee
The Swamp Fox
4. Henry Timrod
A Call to Arms
Ode, Sung St the Decoration of
Graves of the Confederate
Dead
The Cotton Ball
Charleston
5. Paul Hamilton Hayne
Vicksburg
Aspects of the Pines
A Storm in the Distance
6. Herman Melville
Typee
Moby Dick
•t
88
7. Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass
Give Me the Splendid Silent Sun
Mannahatta
Out of the Cradle Endlessly
Rocking
0 Captain ! My Captain 1
A Sight in Camp the Daybreak
Gray and Dim
8. Father Joseph Ryan
The Sword of Lee
The Conquered Banner
89
UNIT X
STUDY SHEET
The Crisis over Political and Economic Differences
Because of differences In climate, soil, and other
natural resources sectionalism developed in the United
States. The South became a distinctly agrarian region
in which large plantations produced staple crops. It
differed from the other sections in its economic organi­
sation, since the negro slave was well adapted to planta­
tion labor.
The North and the South tried to protect their
different economic interests, as well as their social
institutions, through control of the national government.
At this time, in order to better understand the slavery
question and how this problem permeated life from 1340 to
1850, one must carefully consider the social, economic,
and political controversies of the period.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Precis Writing:
a. Summarize the Dred Scott
case.
b. Summarize the reasons for
Stephen A. Douglas's deep
interest in the Pacific
Railway.
c. The Blessing of Slavery.
p. 206.
d. Slave Catcher's Triumph,
p. 198.
^
e. Stephen A. Doughas as the
Volunteer Executioner.
p . 194.
f. Mrs. Stowe's Pernicious
Sentimentality, p. 188.
g. Uncle Tom's Cabin, p. 187.
h. The Future of the South,
p. 179.
Student's Notes
90
I. The Future of the South,
a Rejoinder, p. 181.
(Reference. Allan Kevins.
American Press Opinions.)
2. Prepare a paper on John 3rown's
Raid.
(David Karsner, John Brown,
Terrible Saint.
TH
Commager, Documents of
American History" #189.
J. P. Rhodes. History of the
United Statest from the Com­
promise of l850~ Tl.
pp.^340-372“
J. B. McMasters, History of
the People of the United
Spates. VlTT. pp. 407-425.
#. ^acy, The Anti-Slavery
Crusade. "Chronicles".
Vol. 28. pp. 213-232.
Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
#47-48.1
3. Report on the Civil War in
Kansas.
(J. P. Rhodes, History of the
United States £rom the*7Tompromise of 1859. il.
pp. 166-124.
J. B. McMasters, History of
the People of the Unl-bed.
States. FIiTT pp."214-264.
y. Channing, History of the
United States’! Vi. pp. 148TtqT)-------4. Write a single page character
sketch and description of each
of the following:
Abraham Lincoln
Stephen A, Douglas
Harriet Eeecher Stowe
John Brown
(Nicolay and Hay. Lincoln. II.
ch. 17-25.
Herndon, Abraham Lincoln.
Lord Charnwood, Abraham Lincoln.
Villard, John Brown.
91
Letters and Addresses of
Abraham Lincoln.)
5. Write an essay $fter the style
of political pamphlets setting
forth campaign issues of both
sides at this time.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#44-46.
W. Wilson, American People.
IV. pp. 174-13 Sh
J. A, Woodburn, Political
Parties, ch. 7.1
6. Prepare arguments both for and
against the election of Lincoln
in 1360. Show why the election
would be or would not be good
for the country.
(K. S. Coramager, Lpcuments of
American History, pp. 191^TS4.
iTicolay & ay. Abraham Lincoln.
II. pp. 216-295.
F. W. Chadwick, Causes of the
Civil War, ch. 1-3.
^art~vs Contemporaries. IV.
#44-46.
W. Wilson, American People. IV.
pp. 174-1897}
7. Write a newspaper headline and
an article which might have
appeared after the Bred Scott
decision in a Southern paper.
(Cray and Lowell, Case of
Dred Scott.
W . "KacI'onaId, Documentary
Source £ook. #9l.
J . r . Rhode s, History of the
United Stat.es« from"the Com­
promise of 1850. II. pp.
242-277.'
J. S. Bassett, A Short History
of the United Spate'spp. 497
17971--------------8. Write the same type of headline
and article suited to a northern
paper.
(Same references as #7.)
92
2. As a leading southern Democrat,
write a letter to Douglas,
stating why you cannot support
him for the presidency of 1860.
(F, D. Fite, The Presidential
Election of 1860.
J. T. ^ o d e s . ’tfnited States.
Vol. II. ch. 11.
J. W. Burgess, The Civil War
and the Constitution. “ h T T .
Stanwoodi. History of the
Presidency, ch. 19-20.
J. -Macy. Political Parties in
the United StatesT ''(1846-1861.)
10. Prepare a comprehensive list of
arguments for and against slavery.
(Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
pp. 59-79.
J. Macy, The Anti-Slavery
Crusade. hChronicles."
Vol. 28.
luc^-asters, History cf the
United States, mc I. VI.
pp. £7“l-2S£f.T
11. Carefully consider the back­
ground for Whittier's "Ichabod''. Paraphrase the poem.
Of whom was he writing? Do
you agree with him? Back your
statements up with proof that
you have considered the question
carefully.
(Kennedy, John £. Whittier. Poet
of freedom.
Fliss Berry, The American
Spirit in Literature. "Chron­
icles . Vol. I&. ch. 9.
Clarence Stedman, American
Aftthology. pp. 12§-loC.)
12. Prepare a paper to be read to
the class on the comparison of
the Federal Constitution with
the Confederate Constitution.
(McDonald, Documentary Source
Book, pp. 454-455;"271-279.
<J. W. Eurgess, The Civil War
and the Constitution. chV 'I.
93
Jefferson Davis, Ihe Rise and
Fall of the Confederate
Government. Vol. I. Fart I.
Schwab, The Confederate States
of America.
G. M. Stephenson, The Day of
the Confederacy. ^'-WonicTes".
Yol.^Yxx.)
3. Oral Composition.
1. Row would a group of people
start a new party? investigate
this question thoroughly and
report to the class how a new
party might be started at this
tiirie•.
(A. M. Schlesinger, Rev; Viewpoints in American Ffstory. I,
ch. 12.
J. S. Eassett, Short History of
the United States. pp. 593-5G7.
3." Channlng, History of the
United States" ''cl. VI. ch. 5.)
2. Discuss the Lincoln-Douglas debate.
(J. H. Rhodes, History of the
United States. Vol. lT7
pp. 3&0-SSS.
Putnam, The Political Debates
betv;een Lincoln and Douglas.)
3. Imagine that, you are an anti­
slavery stump speaker. Deliv­
er before the class a speech
such as you might have given
had you been living in 1654.
(H. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
States" il, pp. 47S-484.
J. foacy. Anti-Slavery Cru­
sade.
^hronic 1 e s . Vol.
XXVIII. ch. S.
rlarriet Beecher Stowe,
Uncle Tom1s £abin.)
4. The causes of the war between the
North and the South were much
more complex than is generally
believed. Show this complexity
in a well-organized speech to the
class.
94
(J. T. Aclams, Epic of
America, ch. 9.)
5. Describe the early American
attitude toward slavery.
(J. Macy, Anti-S]avery
Crusade. "Chronicles".
Vol. XXVIII. ch. l-o.
Hart's Contemporaries. III.
#160-181; 184.
U. S. Phillips. American
Negro Slavery.j
6. Y.'hy did "slavocracy" feel as
it did?
(7.r. E. Dodd, The £ottcn
Kingdom. chT S-3-6.
"Chronicles.". Vol. XXVII.
H. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History" ch.' 16.
S. E. lorman, Rise of Ameri­
can Commerce and industry,
ch. 19
7. Give a floor talk on the death
of the ’Vhig party and the
birth of the Republican party.
(J. Macy, The Anti-Slavery
Crusade. "Chronicles".
Vol. jfiCVllI. ch. 7.
C. A. Heard, The American
Party Battle.
hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#35.
J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. 11V pp. 4'550; l#7-le5“.T
8. Discuss "Bleeding Kansas".
(Hart's Cont emporaries. IV.
#36-40.
Greeley, The American Con­
flict. Ill ch. 17.
j. Macy, The Anti-Slavery
Crusade. '"Chronicles^.
Vol. XXVIII. ch. 10-13.
Harding, Select Crations.
#19.
The Crime Against
Kansas.")
95
9. Summarize the events in 1859
that combined to produce the
crisis.
(N. W. Stephenson, Abraham
Lincoln and the Union.
Chronicles". 0 9
10. Present arguments for and
against secession.
(Chadwick, Causes of the Civil
War, pp. 37-53.
Jefferson Davis, The Pise and
Fall of the CpnfederaTe
Government, voi. I. Fart I.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp.
511=516“--------
W. E# Dodd, Expansion and
Conflict, ch. 14.J
11. Study the life and works of
Sidney Lanier. Present a re­
port to the class in which you
incorporate your findings in
summary form. Show by careful
study the place that this poet
has earned for himself in
American literature.
(J. L. Haney, The Story of Our
Literature, pp. 175-178.
Uorman Foerster, gmerlcan
Poetry and Prose.
Norman Foerster, W. W, Pier­
son, American Ideals.)
12. In 1820, Sidney Smith, the
British esiayist made the fol­
lowing attack upon American
society in the Edinburgh Re­
view: Who in the four quarters
of the globe reads an American
book, or goes to an American
play, or looks at an American
painting or statue? What new
substances have their chemists
discovered? Who drinks out of
American glasses? or eats from
American plates?"
96
Prepare a floor talk showing
that by 1850 American culture
had actually made a place in
the world.
(C. A, and M. R. geard, Rise
of American Civilization.
73lTTI pp. 4V9-4&6.
C. PI. Caff in, Story of
American Painting.
C. S. Caffin. American
Masters of Sculpture.
H. J. Carman. History of
the United States. VoT7 I.
ppT 4l0-4£0;" 7^-743.
T. E. Tallmadge, Story of
Architecture in AmericaTT
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
1C.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
dissension
Fugitive Slave Act
Kap.sas-Nebraska Act
secession
Dred Scott Decision
Free Soil Party
Know-Nothing Party
Constitutional Union Party
"Cotton is King”
Liberty Party
slavocracy
"Manifest Destiny"
personal liberty laws
Squatter Sovereignty"
"Popular Sovereignty"
Freeport Doctrine
"ichaboa"
D. Parallel Readings
*1. The Crisis— Winston Churchill
2. Uncle Tom’s Cabin— Harriet
Beecher Stowe
3. Eben Holden— Batcheller
4. The Red Mist— Parrish
5. The Victim— Dixon
6. The Copperhead— Augustus
Thomas
7. Grim Journey— Hoffman Birney
97
8. The American— Louis Lodge
9. Brothers— Robert Raynolds
10. The Wind Blows West—
Christine Parmenter
11. Children of the Market Place—
E, L. ^asters
*To be read by the entire class
for intensive discussion
E. Contemporary Literature.
1. Anti-Slavery Roems— John
Greenleaf Whittier
2. The Conquered Banner— Father
Ryan
5. Thy Symphony--Sidney ^anier
4. Song of the Chattahoochie—
°
Sidney Lanier
5. Marshes of Glynn— Sidney Lanier.
6. Sunrise— Sidney Lanier
7. Old Creole Days— Ceorge Cable
8. Yemassee— William uilmore Simms
98
UNIT XI
STUDY SHEET
War Interrupts National Progress
--------------------~ ” T 5 5 l = I 5 S 5 ----------------- -----------
The armed conflict of 1861-1865 was more than a
struggle between the North and South. Free labor and
slave labor opposed each other; national unity was pitted
against state rights.
The economic system of each sec­
tion had been predetermined long before by the geographic
environment, climate, and soil. Each section fought for
its system and ideals.
Into this picture of sectional conflict came such
problems as the southern blockade, foreign complications
brought on by the war, the suffering and desolation of the
people, the conscription for the army, and the subordina­
tion of all orderly processes of government to the over­
ruling necessities of war. The four years of warfare were
disastrous to the Confederacy. The war was practically
over in 1865 when the issuance of the Emancipation Pro­
clamation insured England’s neutrality. When Lee made
peace with General Grant in April, 1865, at Appomatox,
the struggle was finally over and the permanence of the
Union was established.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
Written Composition,
1. Write a short sketch on the
rise of the Ironclads.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp.
569^570.
E. Channing, History of the
United States"*.' Vol. VI.
pp. 495-510.
J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. Vol. ITT.
pp. 453-501.
W. W. Wood, Captains of the
Civil War. "Chronicles".
Vol. XX3CI. pp. 84-115.)
Student's Notes
99
2. Pretend that you are the mis­
tress of a plantation in
Georgia during the Civil War.
Write a letter to your son,
a brother, or husband at the
battle front.
(Hart's Contemporaries, IV.
#141- 14T:
Stephenson, Lincoln and the
Union. "Chronicles”. Vol.
xxixT
Wilson, The American People.)
3. Prepare the headlines and •write
a feature a rticle for a nor­
thern newspaper on the occasion
of the surrender of the South.
(J. S. Wise, The End of an
Era.)
4. Prepare a dramatic sketch in
which you show some particular­
ly tense situation, some bit of
characterization, or a combina­
tion of the two based upon the
Civil War. Perhaps you might
dramatize the Cabinet meeting
in which Lincoln read his
Emancipation Proclamation.
5. Abraham Lincoln's addresses are
classics of American literature.
Write a report on either his
Gettysburg Address or on the
Second Inaugural Address in
which you try to show that these
speeches are worthy of the place
they have been given in our
literature.
(^ardinp;. Select Orations.
#27-28.
Speeches of Abraham Lincoln.)
6. Seward, Chase, and Stanton were
the brilliant, powerful, jealous
members of Lincoln's cabinet.
Prepare short character sketches
of these three men with parti­
cular attention to their careers.
(Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.
100
Bancroft, Life of William H.
Seward.
”*
A. B. Hart, Salmon P. Chase.
Nicolay, A Short LiTe oT
Abraham LTncoTnT pp. T61165.)
7. Show how the Trent Affair was
concerned with the "Freedom of
the seas". Show also the various
times in American History in
which the "doctrine of the seas"
has been involved.
(F. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. Vol. ITT.
pp':T2o-F4“ .“
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States,
pp. 522-524.
E. Channing, History of the
United States'! Vol. VT.
pp. 352-3fe5.)
8. Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on life in the South at
this time.
(Hosmer. Outcomes of the Civil
War. "American Nation Series".
Vol. XXI. pp. 57-71.
N. W. Stephenson, Abraham
Lincoln and the Union.
HChronicles". Vol. XXIX.
pp. 204-223.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp.
"556^5^2.
U. W. Stephenson, Days of the
Confederacy. "Chronicles".
VoT." XxX. pp. 99-111.)
9. Prepare a story of the Maximillian
affair. (1861-1866)
(J. H. Latane, United States
and Latin America, pp. 193237.
C. R. Fish, American Diplo­
macy. ch. 2T.
Johnson, America1s Foreign
Relations'! il. pp. 51-57.
S. E. Forman, Our Republic,
pp. 450-456.
J. F. Rippy, United States
and Mexico, pp. 252—275.)
101
10. Prepare a paper to be read to
the class on the war powers of
the president.
(W. W. Wood, Captains of the
Civil War. wChronicles".
Vol. X3DCI. ch. 5.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp.
555-566.
C. Beard, American Politics
and Government. Vol. II.
ch. 5T
Whiting, War Powers of the
Government.T
B. Oral Composition.
1. Present an oral report on
women's work during the Civil
War •
(Vaughan, Women's Work in the
Civil War.
Underwood, The Women of the
Confederacy.)
2. Report on the character and the
activities of two of the fol­
lowing men;
Robert E. Lee
U. S. Grant
Stonewall Jackson
Wm. T. Sherman
Jefferson Davis
(W. W. Wood, Captains of the
Civil War. "Chronicles"
Vol.XXXI.
Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.
W. E. Dodd, Jefferson Davis.
Morgan, Our Presidents.
pp. 171-155.
G. Bradford, Lee, the American.
G. Bradford, Union~Tortralts.
G. Bradford, Confederate Por­
traits.
3. Imagine that you were with Lee
at his surrender. Prepare a
dramatic sketch or a descrip­
tion of the scene and his s peech
to his soldiers.
102
(•^ohn Drinkwater, Abraham
Lincoln.
W. Wood, Captains of the
Civil War. "Chronicles.”
Vol. XXXI. ch. 11.
Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#139.)
4. Give a floor talk on the effect
of the Union Blockade.
(J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. V. pp. 396420.
Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#109, ll6 , 133.)
5-6. Two students will present a
contrast of economic and social
conditions, North and South
during the Civil War.
(H. J. Carman, The Social and
Economic History ol the United
S t a t e s ll. pp.- 563-577TI
H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History. 93d ed.
pp. 415-422.
S. E. Forman, Sidelights on
Our Economic and Social Hlstory~ pp. 489-495.
Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
?#81-83.
N. W. Stephenson, Abraham
Lincoln and the Union.
’’Chronicles1'. Vol. X-K-IX.
ch. 1 1 .
N. W. Stephenson, The Days of
the Confederacy. "Chronicles”
ch. 6 .)
7. Report on the unusual circum­
stances surrounding the is­
suance of the Emancipation
Proclamation.
(Greeley, The American Con­
flict. ITT chs. Iu-i27
Hart *s Contemporaries. IV.
pp. 390-411.--------J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. IV. ppT '71- '
75y*2T2-2T5V"
1
103
I. M. Tarbell, Life of Abraham
Lincoln, II. ch. 25.)
8
. Discuss the Draft Riot.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
121
J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. IV. pp. 326332.)
# .
9. Describe Greeley's letter to
Lincoln on the subject of eman­
cipation and tell the class hew
Lincoln replied.
(Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#127.) ------ ------10. Give a floor talk in which you
attempt to reconcile Lincoln’s
emancipation of slaves with
his pledge given in his first
inaugural not to interfere with
slavery in the states where it
existed.
(Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
#127.
H. S. Commager, Documents of
American History" #202, 222.)
11. Discuss the international com­
plications of the Civil War.
(Callahan, Diplomatic History
of the Southern Confederacy.
"Tefferson Davis. Confederate
Government, it. pp. 245"SST.-------
J. W. Hicolay and Hay, Abra­
ham Lincoln. IV. ch. 15.
Foster, A Century of Ameri­
can Diplomacy, ch. 10.
UaVt*s Contemporaries. IV.
#98.
------ ------J. K. Hosmer, The Outcomes of
the Civil War, ch." id'.')
12. Discuss the English and French
opinions on the war.
(K. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
States. II. PP. 549-563.
F^. W. Owsley^ King Cotton.
Diplomacy: foreign Relations
of the Confederate States of
America.)
104
C. Vocabulary*
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Copperheads
Trent Affair
Emancipation Proclamation
Compensated Emancipation
ironclads
D. Parallel Readings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
Hospital Sketches— L. M. Alcott
The Cavalier— G. W. Cable
Swords and Roses— J. Hergesheimer
Many Thousands Gone— J. P. bishop
A Diary from Dixie— M. B. Chestnu;
Around and Beware— MacKinley
Kantor
Gone with the Wind— Margaret
Mitchell
With Malice toward None— H. W.
Morrow
No Surrender— Emma S t e a m e
God’s Angry Man— Leonard Ehrlich
Bright Land— J. A. Fairbank
Children of the Market Place—
E. L. Masters
Bird of Freedom--Hugh Pendexter
The Long Roll— Mary Johnston
Marching On— J. Boyd
Red Badge of Courage— S. Crane
The Battleground— E. Glasgow
Shenandoah (play)--Bronson
Howard
Secret Service (play)— William
Gillette
Gettysburg— E. Singmaster
In the Heart of a Fool— William
A. White
The Man in Gray— Dixon
Man for the Ages— Batcheller
Barbara Frietchie (play)—
Clyde Fitch
Lincoln, the Man of the People—
Edwin Markham
E. Contemporary Literature.
1. Poems of the War— Henry Boker
2. Sheridan’s Ride— Thomas Buchanan
Read
105
3.
4.
5.
6.
Present Crisis— Lowell
Boston Hymn— Lowell
0 Captain I My Captain 1--Whitman
Ode on the Confederate Dead—
Timrod
7. Commemoration Ode— Lowell
8. The Swamp Fox— Hayne
9. The Burial of Lincoln— Kichard
Henry Stoddard
106
UNIT XII
STUDY SHEET
North and South Fay the Cp3 t of the V/ar
The Resumption of National Progress
The Civil V/ar left the South very badly crippled.
It was not only defected but badly crushed. Agriculture
and trade were almost at a standstill, and transportation
by rail was broken down. Plantations were mortgaged, and
their Inevitable breaking up came as farmers bought the
smaller plots that had been plantations and turned to
raising cotton.
Added to all of this, many of the negroes, with more
freedom than they knew what, to do with, entered the pic­
ture and expected tc live a life of ease. Many people
went to the cities, but without a means of livelihood,
they soon found themselves facing starvation, disease, and
death.
Hope for the South lay in the immediate revival of
agriculture, but for several years after the v/ar, only
poor crops were harvested. The South kept up its courage,
and despite all handicaps, produced more cott.cn in 1870
than in 1860.
To understand this period of reconstruction, one must
carefully consider the political and financial reorgani­
zation that followed, along with the corruption, after the
war,
Inve stiga 11ona1 Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1, You are a New York newspaper
correspondent surveying the
conditions of reconstruction
In South Carolina. Prepare
an article for ycur paper.
(Haworth, Reconstrue11on and
Union. ch. 3.
Student's Notes
107
Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
#157.
S. E. Borman, Sidelights on
Cur Social and Sconomic 'i-ijstcry. pp. 493-^6.
W.' vviison, History of the
Airiericen People'.' V. pp. 5564; 72-78; 97-102.)
2. Prepare a paper to be read, to the
class on the subject of the effects
of the Civil VJar on American lit­
erature.
(Bliss Ferry, American Spirit in
Literature, ch. 2-10.
P. H. Boynton, American Litera­
ture .
Barrett Wendell, Literary His­
tory of America. “TcTieVTS,' 2 ,’
T 2V
Fattee, History of /merican
Literature ~3irice~TcYO".
Trent, Tainbric.ge HTsTory of
Americen Literature. To1•
III.)
3. Write a contemporary editorial
on one of the following subjects:
the Military Reconstruction Act;
the ITegro Movement in the South;
the Tenure of Office Act;
President Johnson's acquittal;
Greeley; the "new" South;
Lowell's Centennial Ode.
(Allan Hevins, American Fress
Opinions.
T.. A'; Cunning, Reconstruet ion,
Political and Economic. pp.
t o t^w
:----------------
Bancroft, The Hegro in Folitics.
J. P. Rhodes, History of the
United States. VI. pp. §'£-
TET.-------
Harding, Select Orations,
pp. 443-466.
4. Compose suitable epitaphs for Lin­
coln, Join son, Stevens, Sumner.
108
5. You are a freedman who is barely
able to read and write. Write
a letter expressing your feel­
ings upon being free and what
prospects the future holds for
you.
(Pierce, The freedman1s Bureau.
E. V/. Williams, history of
the Negro face in America.
Vol. II.
C. G. Bowers, The Tragic Era.
W. A. Dunning, Reconstruction.
Political and Economic.J
6
. In your diary you made several
entries in 1861-1367 while you
were a member of the Mississippi
legislature. Read to the class
some of the points you felt were
important to take note of.
(J. W. Burgess, Reconstruction.
and the Constitution.)
7. Prepare a paper on the Alabama
claims.
(W. A. Dunnirg, Reconstruetion.
Political and Economic, pp.
159-170.
Johnson, America *s -orelgn
Relations. II. ch. 24.
J. f. Rhodes, history of the
United States. Iv. pp. &"594; VI. pp. 355-341; 360376.)
8
. Prepare a paper on the extent of
political scandal and corruption
during Grant’s administration.
(S. p. Orth, The Boss and the
Machine. ch. 3.
C. G. Bowers, The Tragic Era.
ch. 13, 22.
E. Stanwood, _A History of the
Presidency. I. ch. 25*77
9. You lived In South Carolina during
the period of reconstruction.
Write a letter showing how carpet
baggers and negro rule were ruin­
ing your state.
109
(T. N. Page, The ITegrc. the
Southerner*g Problem*
W. A. Dunning, Reconstruction.
Folitical and Economic.)
10*
This period has sometimes been
called one of low-tcned public
morality. Tammany Hall's power
at this time extended far. Pre­
pare a paper on the activities
of Tammany Hall.
(W. A. Dunning, Reconstruction,
Political and Economic, ch.
5,'IS"------------Paxson, A Hew Nation, ch. 6 .
J.
Rhodes, 'History of the
United States. vll. ch. 40.
Woodburn, Political Parties and
Party Problems in the united
States" ch. I7TT
11. Prepare a paper cn the subject
of the southern industry after
the Civil War.
(Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
#141-143.
Thompson, The New South.
P. L. Paxson, The Hew Nation.
pp. 192-207.
Broadus Mitchell, The Aise of
Cotton Mills in the South.
T, Ivl. Young, The American Cot­
ton Industry. pp. 54-££.)
B. Oral Composition.
1
. Give a floor talk on the methods
by which the southern whites re­
gained political control.
(W. L. Fleming, The Sequel to
Appomatbx. "Chronicles." XXXII
Vol.
ch. 8 .
H. Thompson, The New South,
ch. 1-3.
C. G. Bowers, The Tragic Era.
ch. 2 4 . ) -------------
2. Prepare a report on the career
of Andrew Johnson.
110
(Howard Beale, The Critical
Years: A Study of Andrew
Johnson^and ReconstruetIon.
L . £ . Stryker. Andrew Johnson:
A Study in Courage*
Hart* s Contemporaries. IV.
#154.
H. S. ‘-■oinmager. Documents of
American HistoryTl
3. Investigate and report on the
career of Thaddeus Stevens.
(C. A. Woodburn, Life of
Thaddeus Stevens.
Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.
C. G. Bowers, Tragic Era,
pp. 65-85.)
4. Why was the war between the
North and the South and its
aftermath a social and eco­
nomic revolution?
(C. A. and M. R. Beard,
Rise of American Civili­
zation. II. pp. 52-121.)
5. Present a floor talk to the
class on the subject of South
Carolina and the Carpetbag rule.
(W. L. Flemings Sequel to
Appomatox.
Chronicles .”XXXII
pp. 221-236.
C. G. Bowers, Tragic Bra,
pp. 348-360.
Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#157.)
6.
investigate the circumstances of
the disputed electoral returns
From Florida, South Carolina,
and Louisiana in the presiden­
tial election of 1876.
(J. T. Adams, Epic of America,
pp. 301—303.
C. G. Bowers, Tragic Era,
pp. 522-540.
J. P. Rhodes, United States
History. Vol. VII. pp. 2272$T.
A. M. Schlesinger, Political
and Social History, pp. 300353.
Ill
7. Compare and contrast the de­
pression of 1673 with that of
1929. Investigate periods of
speculation and prosperity
just before the depressions,
demand for inflation, argu­
ments for golc. stendarc^ problems
of falling prices, unemployment,
and bank and business failures.
(J. r
I. Adams, M . 9 of America,
pp. 277-283; 297-300.
E. L. Bogart, Economic -^istory
of the United States, pp. 385^
4 _ ----------------------------------------------
E. L. Bogart, Readings in the
Economic History of the~TTnlted
States, pp. *7^9-732.
C. S. Pish, Development of
American Nationality,
pp. 440-452.
A. M. Schlesinger, Political
and Social Growth of the
United States, pp. 154-159.)
8
. As a radical senator from the
North, give reasons why you sup­
ported the Reconstruction Act,
the fourteenth amendment, the
fifteenth amendment, and the
conviction of Johnson.
(C. C-. Bowers, The Tragic Era.
W. A. Dunning, Reconstruction.
Political and Economic.)
9. As a conservative senator, explain
why the fourteenth and fifteenth
amendments and the question of re­
construction should be left to
the South.
(References the same as those
for #8 .)
10. Explain the Black Codes.
(W. L. rleming, Sequel of
Appomatox. Chronicle s.”XXXII
pp. 98-iCO.
H. J. Carman, Social and Eco­
nomic History of the United
States. II. pp. 591-594.
C. G. Bowers, The Tragic Era.
pp. 62-64..
112
Howard Beale. Critical Y e a r s ,
pp., 192-194.
J. b . Rhodes, aistory of the
United States from 1650. VI.
pp. 39-42.
H. S. Conmager, documents of
American History. #246-247TT
11. Investigate and report on the
activities of the Ku Klux Klan.
(J. P. Rhodes, History of the
United States from the Com­
promise of 1850. VI.
pp. 291-724.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United states, pp.
327^6337-----------D. L. ’^ilson, Ku Klux Klan:
Its Origin, Growth, and tisbandment.
J1. S. Bassett, Makers of a
Hew Ration, p. "71.
Allan I'-evins, Kmerpence of
Modern America-! pp. 349^353.)
12. Discuss the impeachment of
Johnson.
(C. G. Bowers, The Tragic Era,
ch. 9.
J. U. Randall, The Civil War
and Reconstruction, pp. 76l-
723.— ;
------ --
J. s. Bassett, takers of a
New Nation. pp. 62-68.
J. P. Rhodes, History of
the United Stakes from~The
Compromise of 18507 7l.
pp. 2 6 §-23877
13. Read Edwin Markham's "Lincoln,
the Man of the People" and Walt
Whitman’s "0 Captain I My Cap­
tain I" Paraphrase each, and
characterize Lincoln from these
two poems.
(0. Lowe, Our Land and Its
Literature, pp. 242-244.
p. H. Boynton, Milestones
in American Literature,
pp. 505.)
113
14-15-16-17. Four members of the
class will debate on one of
these two subjects:
(a) Resolved: That the congres­
sional reconstruction plan
and Its enforcement was a
crime.
(J. S. Bassett, Short His­
tory of the United States,
pp. 6b7-6ii.
A. M. Schlesinger, Poli­
tical and Economic His­
tory of the United States.
ppTlUTi^T----------
D. S. Muzzey, United States
Of America. Vol. 11.
pp. “11-15'.
R. G. Caldwell, Short
History of the American
Fe^Te. ~
^7oT7~XT.- - - - pp. 155-164.
R. V. Harlow, Growth of
the United States.
pp. 541-54ST3
(b) Resolved: That Lincoln's
plan of reconstruction
would have brought as much
good to the South as the
Congressional plan.
(J. S. Baggett, Short
History of the United
States.’ pp." 694-607.
A. M. Schlesinger, Poli­
tical and Social History.
pp. lo$-iiF7
W. A. Gunning, Recon­
struction, Political and
HconomicT pp. IS-50.
5. E. Korman, Our
Republic, pp. 663-513.
H. V. Harlow, Growth of
the United States.
pp. 515-537TT
C. Vocabulary.
1. Ku hlux Klan
2. Black Codes
3. tenure
114
4.
5.
S.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
"Jim Crow" laws
Solid South
reconstruction
Freedman's Bureau
amnesty
enfranchise
electorate
impeachment
Carpet-bagger
Scalawag
Alabama Claims
Credit Mobllier
D. Parallel Headings.
1. Confederate Portraits—
G . Bradford
2. Union ?ortr&its--G. Bradford
3. The Rebel Raider--(John Hunt
Morgan)— Swiggert
4. The Sword of Youth— J. J . Allen
5. The 3attleground--C-lasgow
6 . The Deliverance— Glasgow
7. Forever Free— Morrow
8 . Marching Cn— Str&chey
9. Leopard Spots— Dixon
1 0 . The Clansman— Dixon
11. Black Hood--Thomas Dixon
12. Red Rock— Page
13. John March, Southerner—
C. w. Cable
14. The Voice of the People—
Glas gov;
115
UNIT XIII
STUDY SHEET
The West In National Development?
TEe Growth of the VesT^ 1803-I860
This unit is concerned with the development of the
’.Vest through the shaping of the land system, the develop­
ment of transportation, the reduction of the Indians, the
mining and ranching industry, and the rounding out of' the
forty-eight states. It is also concerned with the contri­
butions of the West. Probably the most outstanding con­
tribution of the West was its effect on American democracy.
Life on the frontier required self-reliance, courage, and
perseverence. The frontiersmen were interested in freedom
and believed in equality. They laid aside the restraints
of tradition and contributed new life to American democracy.
The West gave us a literature that was colorful and
courageous. This literature coming out of the pioneering
life lacked some of the more polite conventional qualities
that were to bo found in eastern life, but it was to be
an indigenous literature, something that reflected the
conquest of the unbroken prairie, the prospecting for
gold, and the cutting down of virgin forests.
inve stigatIona1 Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Imagine that you were a news­
paper reporter at the time
that gold was discovered in
California on January 24,
1348. Prepare an article
with fitting headlines for
your paper. Make this ar­
ticle dramatic and correct in
date and detail.
(3. E. White, 'pie FortyNiners. ch. 4.
J.’’3’ he Masters, History of
the People of the United
Abates. VII. pp. 555-5’SO.
i-t-1
s Notes
116
B. Cendrars, Sutter* s Gold,
pp. 75-88.
S. E. Forman, Side Lights In
our Social and Economic his­
tory. pp. 173-179.)
2. Prepare a series of entries
from the diary of a woman home­
steader in which are evidenced
the toil and. hardships, the
joys and sorrows of homestead­
ing.
(E. R. Stewart, Letters of &
Woman Homesteader, ch. 9.
E. Hough, Passing of the
Frontier.
H. G. Hrown, Grandmother
Brown's One Hundred Years.
ch. 5-6.1
3. Prepare a sketch to he read in
class on the subject, "The
Forty-Niner". Reflect the
experiences and hardships in
reaching California, the search
for gold, and the atmosphere of
life in the camps.
(S. E. White, The FortyNiners. ch. 5-*7-£-11.
J. 3. NcMasters, History of
the People of the United
States. VlT7 pp. 590-609.
Hart *s Contemporaries. IV.
#16.)
4. Write an advertisement for an
American or European paper
such as might have been pre­
pared by a western railroad
in the 1870’s to attract the
settlers westward.
(Lavirence Greene, America
Goes to Fress.
J. Moody, Railroad Builders.
"Chronicles1^
Vol. xtoCVIII.
5. The West has always been a ro­
mantic and exciting place in
song and story. Prepare a
paper on "The Passing of the
Wild West".
117
(E. Uo\igh, The Passing of the
Frontier. ch. 1."
T~.
--'orthreat.
nChronic1esff. Vol. XIX. ch. 7.
T. Roosevelt, V.’inn In;: of the
'.Vest. I. ch.
Tv. ch. 5.
TTart13 Contemporaries. II.
rV136-1 37";""11 i .' V;31-3£-34.)
6. Prepare a paper entitled "The
Passing of the P-ed man's Empire."
(E. Hough, The Passing of the
Frontier.
hronicle s^T "T5l.
XXVI. ch. 7-8.
i’. L. Paxson, The Last Ameri­
can Frontier, ch. 20.
F. P. Bechdolt, When the 'Vest
Tas Young.
W. 'Seymour, The Story of the
I
Fed han. pp.’TTJ-SST.l--------- |
7. Write a paper to be read to the
class on the building of the
transcontinental railroads.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States,
pp• 680-583•
F. L. Paxson, The Hjstory of
the American Frontier, pp. 450
470; 494-501.
J. ’V. Starr, One Hundred Years
of American Railroading.
cH." 16-17.)
8. Head something about the life of
Bret Harte and two of his short
stories. Prepare & paper in
which you 3how that his 3tories
reflect his philosophy and the
spirit of the period.
9. The cowboy is the picturesque
figure of the West--a hard-riding
quick-shooting, fun-loving dare­
devil. Prepare a paper on the
contribution of Owen Wister,
Emerson Hough,, Eugene M. Rhodes,
and 0. Henry to the cowboy and
his place in fiction.
118
(£. Hough, The Passing of the
Frontier. "°hronicles"n~7 Vol.
XXVI. pp. 11-56.
E. Hough, The Story of the
Cowboy.
B. D. Branch, restward, ch. 53.
The works of these four authors
10. Read some of the cowboy ballads
and prepare a paper showing theii
place In American literature as
a reflection of American life.
(A. Guiterman,
Sing of the
Pioneer.
I»i. 'Iiarkin, The Singing Cowboy.
J. A, Lomax". Jowboy Songs and
Other Frontier Ballads.
Carl Sandburg, 'The 'American
Song Bag, pp. 37-156;
258-236; 306-326; 388-400.)
11. The union of. the East and the
■Vest by the building of the
transcontinental railroad gave
material for stories of romance
and adventure. Read the follow­
ing stories and prepare a paper
which shows clearly what kind
of material was used in these
stories and the reason for it.
The Great Race
The Cinder Buggy
Santa Re Trail
How Potts Saved the
Right Express
(Alice Cooper, David Fallon,
The March of a Ration,
pp. 286-307.)“
12. Prepare a paper which you will
read to the class on this topic;
"The ’Vest is the most democratic
part of America". Under the
headings of political and eco­
nomic contributions, list evi­
dence to support this assertion.
Is this true today?
(Allan Uevins, Emergence of
Modern America. pp. 365-310.
Malcolm Heir,' The Epic of
America, pp. 88.
"ST J7 Buck, The Granger Move­
ment. "Chronicles1'1. #45.)
119
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepare a floor talk on "The
Romance of the Frontier and the
Pioneer".
(America, III. pp. 35-95.
i . A . Ogg, The Old Northwest.
"Chronicles"^.' Vol. XIX. ch.
1- 2 - 5- 6 .
R. U. raulkner, American Bconomic History, rev. eel. ch. 69-18.
S. E. i orman, The; Rise of
American Commerce and Industry,
ch. 7-14-257)
2. Prepare a floor talk on Daniel
Bcone and the "Old Southwest"
and the "Old northwest".
(H. a . Bruce, Daniel Boone and
the Wilderness road.
T.’ Roosevelt, W'inning of the
West. I. ch. G-V-lO-lTT
II. ch. lc.
C. L. Skinner, Pioneer of the
Old Southwest. ''Chronicles".
Vol. 13.)
•3. Present to the class a talk on
"Trails of the Far West".
(R. Hough, The Way to the Went,
pp. 260-286; 287-310.
Francis Parkman, Oregon Trail.
J. T. Paris, On the Trail of
the Pioneer, ch. 5-7.)
4. Prepare a talk on the results
that have come from the disap­
pearance of the frontier.
(F. L. Paxson, History of the
American Frontier. pp. 544575.
p. J. Turner, The Frontier of
American History, pp. 1 - 3 S 7 7
5. Prepare to report to the class on
the Indian Wars in the West.
(E. Hough, The Passing of the
Frontier.
Chronic 1esT" Vol.
XXVI. ch. 7.
F. L. Paxson, The Last Frontier
pp. 243-323; 355^371.
120
R. E. Riegel, America Moves
'.Vest. pp. 467-494.)
6. Prepare a floor talk on "Sutter's
Sola".
(5. Cendrars, Sutter's Gold.)
7. Compare and contrast the green­
back movement of 1876 with the
demand for inflation in 1933.
(S. J. Buck, The Agrarian Cru­
sade . "Chronicles" . ~‘45.
pp. 77-98.)
8. Sir,cuss the Pony Express.
(Arthur Chapman. The Pony Hxpress.
r . ij. Paxson, His tor;; of the
American rrentier, pp. 465.
’A. P. Cody. Autobiography of
Buffalo BillTJ---
9. Describe the characteristics of
frontier life, including educa­
tion, amusements, methods of
making a living, and the spirit
of coopei’s tion.
(E. Hough, Passing of the Fron-.
tier. ,,Chrcnlcles1TT Vol.
XXVI. pp. 11-56.
F. u. Branch, '.Vestward,
r . P. Bechdoit, 'V’hen "the '.Vest
'7as Youn;;.)
10. Prepare a vivid description of
life in a mining camp during
this period.
(S. E. vYhite, The Forty-Miners.
"Chronicles. Vol. XXV.
pp. 106-118.
Allan Nevins, Emergence of
Modern America"! pp. lG 1^153.
F. L.Paxson, History of the
American Frontier, pp. 448458.}
11. How bad were, the "bad men" on
the western frontier? Consult
biographical accounts of Buffalo
Bill, V/ild Bill Hickok, ’.Yyatt
Earp, and Billy the hid. In a
well-prepared floor talk,
121
characterize these men, and show
what the feeling about them was
at the time.
(Rabin, buffalo Bill and the
Overland Trail.
Allan Levins, Emergence of
Lodern America. pr>. 131-37;
140-141.
Alfred h. Lewis, Wolfvilie
folks.)
12. Prepare a floor talk on the con­
tribution of the West to litera­
ture .
(0. Lowe, Our Land and Its
Literature, pp. 41-51.
c!pieman. W estern Prose and
Poetry.)
13. Lewis Ivlurnfcrd. once wrote: "The
truth is that the life of the
pioneer wan bare and insufficient;
he did not really face nature, he
merely evaded society." Test
this statement by your own read­
ing in the original documents of
the time, and write an essay to
be read to the class expressing
agreement or dissent.
(H. Garland, Ron of the middle
Border.
H. Garland, Laughter of the
Kiddle border.
Alice Cooper and David Fallon,
The Larch of a Nation. PP« 134166; 200-210.J
14. Prepare a paper on ranching in
the Northwest.
(T. Roosevelt, Au tob iography.
Will James, Lone Cowboy.)
C . Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
subsidy
"boomers"
polygamy
squatter
Preemption Law
"Comstock Lode"
122
• Tsrallel headings.
r-1 CMC
r-l I-I H
*1. Giants in the Garth— C. Rolvaag
2. Peder Victorious— G. Ilolvaag
The Horseman of the Plains—
Alt sheoler
4. i.^ Antonia— Gather
5. The Cirl of the Halfway House--h
G. Ramona--H. H. Jackson
7. Tho Glazed 2rr.il--7. R. ’"Lite
S. Ci-.r.arron— Rdna i:erher
9.
The Long. .mives '.VaIked--ICabie
1C. C Pioneers--7.rilia Gather
. Gold— C.
"•’hits
. The Grey Dawn--2. h. White
. Herth of ’.76— 7. Plough
• The *irgin ian--0. Tie tor
. The Ray cf t••o Cattle:nen--Gsjoed
. The Passing of the frontier—
7.
Hough
. Tteel Preferred— Hall
. Youth Rides ’Vest--Irwin
. A Certain Rich Han— White
. The Winning of the Y/est--?.
Roosevelt
. The 1 cr ty-ITIn ers— ’.Yhite
. Pioneers of the Old Scuthwest-Rkinner
. The Last frontier--C. P. Cooper
• The TYaigrants--Johan To jer
. The. ’Hatchers cf trie Plains—
RiGgwell Cullun
. Toilers of the Hills--Vardis
Iisher
. The Overland Trnil--A. C. Laut
. The Cowboy--P. A. Rollins
. Honey in the Horn— H. L. Davis
. Steel of Lmpire— J. H. Gibbons
. Texas Rankerc--VY. P. '"ebb
. hind Blows 'Test---;. Lanham
L . <0
|H r~ rH
t- v) 0) o
rH iH H CO
|H W
C-' CO
tO vi< lO
CV> C2 CO
10
CO
t O JO H C !
CO05 CO tO t tO
•>:-7o be read by the class
for intensive discussion
H
. The Oregon Trail--francis
Parkman
. Roughing It— Hark Twain
. Innocents Abroad--Hark Twain
CO to
O
ontemporary Literature.
123
Tho Gilded A^e-“^ark Twain
Adventures of Tom Sawyer--Twain
Life on the :.'lisr>issippi--Twain
Connecticut Yankee in king
Arthur's Court— Twain
raddin' head. ’.Vilaon--Twain
Outcasts of foker xlat--Bret hart
Luck of hearing ^amp--Bret Harte
M'liss--harte
Gongs of the Sierras— Joaquin
killer
nit Carson's Ride— •J. Miller
Stephen C. xoster
Old - oiks at home
Old Black Joe
hy Old i.entucky Horae
Come "/here My Love
Lies Dreaming
Lew ’"allace
3en Hur
Tho lair Cod
The Hooaier Schooltnaster— Ydward
Rggleston
Ramona--Helen hunt Jackson
Charles i'arrar Browne
Art emus Yard.: His Book
Artemus Yard in London
Loews of hmily Dickinson
I
124
UNIT XIV
STUDY SHEET
National Political Contests
------ 1S78-TB5B-------During this period the United States was concerned
with the parties and the issues in the presidential elec­
tions of 1880, 1884, 1888, and 1892* At this time we shall
not attempt to discuss the great social and economic de­
velopment of the period. The growth of business and govern­
ment regulation of business, the development of transporta­
tion and communication, problems of labor and immigration,
and the problems of the American farmer will be treated in
subsequent units.
In every national election during the twenty years
from Hayes's inauguration to the end of Cleveland's second
term, new demands for reform appeared. This was a period
of loose party ties, and voters shifted with the greatest
independence from one party to another according to their
attitude toward the candidates and the issues. In nearly
every election two or more minor parties nominated candi­
dates. The most important of these third parties were the
Greenbacks in 1880 and the Populists or "People's party"
in 1892.
Inve s11ga tIona1 Activities
Class Assignments
A.
Written Composition.
1. What were some of the most
important political ques­
tions at issue from 1876
to 1896?
(F. L. Paxson, Recent
History of the tin1ted
States.* pp. 46-65; 76lOO; 135-154; 174-183.)
2.
Compare and contrast the de­
pression of 1893 with that of
1929.
Student's Notes
125
(J. T. Adams, -^plc of America,
pp. 317-321.
F. L. paxson, Recent History
of the United States. pp. 1842 S 47 T-----------------
3. Trace the development of the
Monroe Doctrine from Its begin­
ning down to the Venezuela Affaii.
(C. R. Fish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles". Vol. 46. pp. 118; 54-58; 75; 80-89.
C. R. Fish, American Diplomacy,
pp. 1-2; 211-218; 324-334;
353-359; 384-394; 448-450.)
4. Write an editorial on "Public
office is a public trust" for a
paper in Cleveland's time or for
a current paper.
(D. T. Lynch, Grover Cleveland.
Allan Nevins, Grover Cleveland.
Dictionary of American feiography.)
5. Prepare a short biographical
sketch of each of the following:
Chester A. Arthur
James G. Blaine
Grover Cleveland
Benjamin F. Harrison
(Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.
Moran, American Presidents.
G. Bradford. American RorEraitg)
6. Each of the following men played
his part in the growth of our
country. Show by example, descrip­
tion, explanation, or by a com­
bination of these forms of dis­
course just what this part was.
James Watt
Cyrus McCormick
Eli Whitney
Alexander Graham Bell
Ellas Howe
(Dictionary of American Biograpiy
H. Thompson, The Age of Inven- .
tion. "Chronicles' . Vol. 3*7.
C. lies, Leading American In­
ventors.)
126
7. The Greenback Labor party repre­
sents an American attempt to form
a party based upon labor, both
agricultural and industrial.
Why did it fail in the late
1870»s and 1880»s?
(S. J. Buck, The Agrarian Cru­
sade. "Chronicles . ®ol. 45.
ch. 6.
C. R. Lingley, Since the Civil
War, ch. 24.
I>. R. Dewey, Financial History
of the United States, ch. 171 3 .-------------------
H. J. Ford, Cleveland Era.
’Chronicles""! Vol. 44. ch. 9.)
8. Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on the value of third
parties.
(F. E. Haynes, Third Party
Movements in the United States,
ch. 10-18.7”
9. Prepare a paper on the Cleveland
democracy.
(Allan Nevins, Grover Cleveland.
Haworth, United States,
pp. 175-135"!
Rhodes, History of the United
States. Vol. VIII. pp. 240w r r
10. What was our foreign policy dur­
ing the years from 1885 to 1897?
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 74675l.
D. R. Dewey. National Problems,
ch. 7-13-19.
C. F. Fish, American Diplomacy,
pp. 384-407.1
11. Prepare a paper on the topic:
"Great wealth alters the course
of democracy."
(C. A. Beard, Rise of •American
Civilization. IT. pp. 3&S3 5 5 7 ]--------
127
12. Prepare a paper on the history
of the military pension.
(Congressional Digest, November,
1932.)
B. Oral Composition.
1. Discuss the Populist Party, its
purposes, and its contributions,
if any, to American society.
(S. J. Buck, Agrarian Crusade.
"Chronicles". Vol. 45. pp. 125
153.
F. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, pp. 167173.
A. M. Schlesinger, Political
and Economic Growth of the
United States, pp. T61-164;
256-2657)
2. If you are interested in science,
prepare an oral report on the
cyanide process of extracting
gold. Compare this method with
those used previously.
(Remsen, Inorganic Chemistry.
Kendall, Smith's, Elementary
Chemistry.)
3. Compare the attitude of agri­
cultural, industrial, and commer­
cial sections toward protective
tariff.
(J. Hicks, Populist Revolt,
ch. 3.
D. R. Dewey. Financial History,
ch. 167, 180, 181, 187,“192,
196.
Hart's Contemporaries. Vol. IV
pp. 518-525.
J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States. Vol.VIII.
pp. 168-179; 346-351; 418-422.)
4. Discuss the methods and the re­
forms of "Czar" Reed.
(H. J. Ford, The Cleveland Era.
"Chronicles"” Vo'l'. 44'.
D. R. Dewey, National Problems.
ch. 1-15.
128
Everett Kimball, National
Government of the United States
pp. 333-342.)
5. Prepare a talk on the election
of 1884.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 719723:----------------D. R. Dewey, National Problems.
pp. 21-127.
C. R. Lingley, Since the Civil
War, pp. 180-256.
El, Stanwood, TT* 1
Presidency
6. Discuss the Civil Service Reforms.
(C. R. °eard, American Govern­
ment and Politics, pp. 222230.
D. R. Dewey, National Problems,
ch. 2.
C. R. Fish, Civil Service Re­
form. pp. 303-305.
E. E. Sparks, National Develop­
ment . ch. 1 0 0
7. Prepare an oral talk on the Haymarket Riot.
(Allan Nevins, Grover Cleveland,
pp. 345—350.
J. F. Rhodes, History of the
United States Since the Com­
promise of 1850. VIII.
pp. 278-2§5.
Ida Tarbell, The Nationalizing
of Business, pp. 161-168.)
8. Prepare a floor talk on Coxey's
army.
(Adams & Sumner, Labor Problems.
J. B. Andrews, Principles of
Labor Legislation. iiV pp."*l81135 •
New Larned History. Vol. XI.
pp. 9042-43.
R. T. Peck, Twenty Years of the
Republic, pp. 373-373.)
9. Discuss the silver question.
(D. R. Dewey. National Problems,
pp. 223-237; 314-328.
129
Hart1s Contemporaries. IV
pp. 523-538*
F. L. Paxson, Recent History
of the United States, ch. 22.)
10. Prepare a review of the scienti­
fic and religious thought of this
period.
(Beard and Beard, Rise of Ameri­
can Civilization. Vol. II.
pp. 406-423.)
11. Discuss the art, Journalism, and
literature of this period.
(Beard and Beard, Rise of Ameri­
can Civilization, 'Pol. II.
pp. 434-446; 446-460; 460479.)
12. Prepare a report on the topic,
"American Culture in a Machine
Age."
(Beard and Beard, Rise of Ameri­
can Civilization. Vol. II.
pp. 713-800.)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
corporation
"Half-breeds"
rebate
consolidation
"third parties"
"Stalwarts"
Solid South
Civil Service
Pan-Americanism
"American System"
D. Parallel Readings.
1. A Spoil of Office--H. Garland
2. A Lantern in Her Hand— B. S.
Aldrich
3. Senator North— Atherton
4. The Hand-Made Gentleman—
Batcheller
5. Brownstone Front— Gabriel
130
6. The Honorable Peter Sterling—
Ford
7. The Octopus— Norris
8. The Jungle— Upton Sinclair
9. The Pit— Norris
10. So Big— Ferber
11. So Red the Rose--Young
12. The Able McLaughlins— Wilson
13. The Time of Man— Roberts
14. Up from Slavery— looker T.
Washington
15. My Life and Work— H. Ford
16. Ethan Frome— Wharton
17. Eastward Sweeps the Current—
A. S. Malkus
18. Red Rust— C. Cannon
19. Twenty Years at Hull House— Jane
Addams
E. Contemporary Literature.
*1. Rise of Silas Lapham— William
Dean Rowells
2. A Modern Instance— William Dean
Howells
3. Daisy Miller— Henry James
4. The Portrait of a Lady— Henry Jame
5. Janice Meredith— Paul Leicester
Ford
6. The Honorable Peter Sterling—
Paul Ford
7. Little Lord Fauntleroy— F. H.
Burnett
8. Uncle Remus— Joel Chandler Harris
*To be read by the entire class
for intensive discussion.
131
UNIT XV
STUDY SHEET
The Growth of Reform Movements
Rational “Political Reforms
1896-1920
Political conditions in the United States have always
been affected by the major problems of American life. In­
dustrialism, which was responsible for the development of
big business, for the organization of labor, and for the
changes in agriculture, created many problems.
Many issues were raised by big business, with its
organized trusts, the regulation of which occasioned much
political concern. Our financial system likewise has
engaged the attention of political leaders; in the
election of 1892, and again in 1896, it was the subject
of controversy. In 1896 the Democrats favored the free
and unlimited coinage of silver, while the Republicans
insisted that gold should remain the standard.
In order to understand more clearly the reforms of
this period, one must comprehend the accomplishments of
Theodore Roosevelt, and the political philosophy and
idealism of Woodrow Wilson.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Prepare a table showing the
issues on which the Democratic
and Republican parties differed
in each election from 1876 to
1916. List the nominees of each
of the leading parties and de­
signate whether in your opinion
the candidates were conservative
or progressive.
(A. M. Schlesinger, New View­
points in American history,
pp. 266^58^.
E. Stanwood. History of the
Presidency.)
Student1s Notes
132
2. Prepare a biographical sketch of
each of the following with special
emphasis on the contributions of
each to the history of our country:
Theodore Roosevelt
R. M. LaFollette
Mark Hanna
William McKinley
W. H. Taft
Woodrow Wilson
Charles E. Hughes
(Dictionary of American Biography)
3. If a literature is to be called
"national" what must it embody
for the reader? Name three in­
digenous groups in America that
could be found in no modern
European literature, and t ell
why it is so. Incorporate these
answers in a Tonified paper on the
subject of our national litera­
ture.
(0. Lowe, Our Land and Its
Literature, pp. 3 - 1 3 6 0 - 9 1 ;
107-113; 133-143.)
4. Imagine that you Jived in western
Pennsylvania at the time of the
coal strike. Write a letter to
your member of Congress urging
that the national government take
measures to end the strike and to
relieve the condition of the
miners.
(J. F. Rhodes, The McKinley and
Roosevelt Administrations,
pp. 236-247.
Theodore Roosevelt, Autobloraphy. pp. 464-478.
ark Sullivan, Our Times. II.
ch. 24.)
S
5. Write an editorial on Bryan's
"Cross of Gold" speech.
(H. S. Commager, Documents of
American HistoryT)
6. Write an article for a magazine
of that time explaining the Ballinger-Pinchot controversy.
(Howland, Roosevelt and His
Time. "Chronicles". ^ol. 47.
133
F. 0. Ogg, National Progress,)
7-8-9-10-11* A committee of five may
investigate the significance of
the following phrases.
Then each
member of the committee will
prepare an editorial on one of
the phrases as it concerns
Theodore Roosevelt.
”square deal”
"Rough Rider"
"Trust-buster"
"The Meddler"
"Big Stick"
(Theodore Roosevelt, An Auto­
biography. ch. 12-13.
Row l a n d , Roosevelt and His
Times. "Chronicles’*. Vol. 47.
H. t . Peck, Twenty Years of
the Republic.
H . U . Faulkner, Quest for
Social Justice.)
12. Prepare a paper on "The Federal
Reserve System".
(F. A. Ogg, National Progress,
p p . 228-232.
D. S. Muzzey, United States
of America. ITT pp. $46-555.
E. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History, pp. 507513.)
B. Oral Composition.
1. Compare and contrast the Dingley,
the Payne-Aldrich, and the Under­
wood tariff laws.
(Ida Tarbell, The Tariff of
Our Times, ch. l£.
FT"L.' Paxson, Recent History
of the United Ctates. pp. 228229; 365-376; 405-408.)
2. Prepare a report on the progres­
sive movement in Congress.
(F. A. Ogg, National Progress,
pp. 167-209T
134
C. Bowers, Beveridge and the
Progressive Era, pp. 313-367.
F. L. Paxson, Recent History
of United States, pp. 3*733. Prepare a talk on the conserva­
tion of natural resources.
(S. Chase, Tragedy of Waste.
H. J. Howland. Ineodore Roose­
velt and His Times, C h r o n i ­
cles.'" Vol. 47. pp. 130-149.
F. L. Paxson, Recent History
of the United States, pp. 33434371--------------4. Why was the election of 1896
called the "Battle of Standards"?
(S. J. Buck, The Agrarian Cru­
sade. "Chronicles . Vol• 45.
pp. 145-193.
5. J. Bassett, Makers of a
New Nation, pp. 168-1§2.
I . M. barbell, Nationalizing
of Business. cTTTTlTJ
5. Discuss the training, personali­
ty and contributions of Theodore
Roosevelt.
(M, Sullivan, Our Times. II.
ch. 13, 20, 2l. III. ch. 5,
6
E. Looker. White House Gang,
ch. 7, 9, lTTJ
.
6. Prepare an oral report on the
sidelights of Theodore Roose­
velt’s presidency.
(H. T. Peck, Twenty Years of the
Republic . pp. 666-682.
M. Sullivan. Our Times. II.
ch. 13, 20, 2X7“ 111.” ch. 5,
6 .)
7. Discuss the character, ideals,
and personality of Woodrow
Wilson.
(W. E. Dodd, Woodrow Wilson
and His Work.
135
Elson, History of the United
States, pp. 907-925.)
8. Compare the attitudes of the
Republicans and Democrats toward
imperialism in 1900. How do you
explain the difference?
(C. R. Pish, The Path of Empire.
pp. 185-197.
M. Sullivan, Our Times. I.
pp. 4-7.
Hart’s Contemporaries. IV.
#191.)
9. Discuss monopolies and their
control.
(J. Moody, Masters of Capital.
"Chronicles". Vol. 4l. pp. 1134.
P. L. Paxson, Recent History ol
the United States, pp. 29335T.
A. M. Schlesinger, Political
and Social Growth of the tJnltec
States, pp. 192-213.
H. U. Faulkner, Quest for
Social Justice, ch. 2.
S. S. Commager, Documents of
United States History. #3l4,
319-320; 356-363; 375.)
10. Prepare a political speech in
favor of Theodore Roosevelt.
(F. L. Paxson, Recent History
of the United States, pp. 264343.
S. E. Forman, Our Republic,
pp. 674-722.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United S-bates, pp.
514^537*:----------T. Roosevelt. An Autobiography,
pp. 364-547.)
11. Prepare a pre-election speech
in favor of Taft.
(S. E. Forman, Our Republic,
pp. 722-749.
136
R. V. Harlow, Growth of the
United States* pp. 720-733.
0. R. Lingley, Since the Civil
War, pp. 525-550.
D. S. Muzzey, United States
of America, ^ol. II. pp. 4835ll.)
12. Prepare a pre-election speech in
favor of Wilson.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 843872.
R. V. Harlow, Growth of the
United States, pp. 733-754.
D. S. Muzzey, United States of
America. II. pp. 511-568.
k . L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, pp. 393422 . T ^
13. Report on the crusade for pure
foods and drugs.
(M. Sullivan, Our Times. II.
pp. 471—552.
A. Kallet and F. J. Schlink,
100,000.000 Guinea Pigs,
ch. 1-5; 6-9TJ
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
imperialism
16-1
insurgent
lobbyist
injunction
trust
conservation
member bank
"free silver"
" gold standard’
bimetallism
stabilization
"muckrakers"
demonetization
bullion
"Progressive"
137
D. Parallel Readings.
1. Senator North— Atherton
2. Dust of Conflict— Bildloss
3. Get-Rich-Qulck-Wallingford—
Chester
4. The Silent Partner— Phelps
5. The Good Red Bricks— Synon
6. The Boss— Lewis
7. A Certain Rich Man— S. E. White
8. The Thirteenth District—
Whitlock
9. Coniston— Churchill
E. Contemporary Literature.
1. Paul Lawrence Dunbar
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Hymn
2. Bronson Howard
Saratoga
Shenandoah
3. James A. Herne
Shore Acres
4. Stephen Crane
Red Badge of Courage
5. Frank Norris
The Pit
6. Clyde Fitch
The Climbers
The Girl with the Green
Eyes
7. William Vaughn Moody
The Great Divide
8. Percy Mackaye
The Scarecrow
Goethals, the Prophet
Engineer
138
UNIT XVI
STUDY SHEET
The Rise of the United States to World Power
1898-1914
The basis for our foreign policy In the early days of
the Republic was the principle laid down by Washington’s
cabinet in 1793 that it was to our interest to remain
absolutely neutral and to avoid all entanglements with
other nations.
In the latter part of the nineteenth century the Ideas
of nationalism and imperialism were dominant in many parts
of the world. The young American nation, whose policy was
directed in part by nationalists and imperialists, had a
desire for expansion and so acquired additional territory,
some of which was obtained from European nations that owned
territory in America. In 1898 we became involved in a war
with Spain. As a result of this war we acquired from Spain
the Philippine Islands and, as a condition of peace, a
protectorate over Cuba.
We also manifested interest in the Far East, which led
to the announcement of "the open door" policy in regard to
China. Since our interests were now in the Pacific as well
as in the Atlantic a canal across the Isthmus of Panama be­
came desirable, and was presently constructed.
The nations to the south of us have always presented
interesting problems; several times internal difficulties
in Mexico have been of concern to the United States. In
1914 the United States became involved with Mexico and
landed marines at Vera Cruz.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignment
A. Written Composition.
1. Imagine that you were a
newspaper reporter in Cuba
during 1897. Write an
article such as might have
appeared at that time de­
scribing the Spanish cruel­
ties under the Reconcentratlon policy.
Student's Notes
139
(H. T. Peck, Twenty Years of the
Republic.
C. R. Pish. The Path of Empire.
"Chronicles" Vol. 4 6 .“ 5h. 7-12)
2. As an American correspondent for
your newspaper In Cuba, prepare
headlines on a newspaper article
for a city paper covering the
declaration of war against Spain
and three important events of the
war. Be certain that the date of
the paper corresponds with the
date of the event.
(H. T. Peck, Twenty Years of the
Republic.
C. R. Fish, The Path of Empire.
"Chronicles"•' Vol. 46
Hart1s Contemporaries. IV.
#180.)
3. Prepare a paper giving the
details of the Boxer rebellion
in China.
(Hart's Contemporaries.
IV. ^187, 190, 191, 193;
V. #33, 34.)
4. Prepare a character sketch of
Admiral Dewey with particular
emphasis on his contributions
to his country.
(E. E. Ellis, History of Our
Country. Vol. VIII.
ch. lt>7, ch. 108.)
5. Prepare an explanation of the
American policies in the
Caribbean.
(C. R. Pish, Path of Empire
"Chronicles". Vol. 46 ch. 16.
P. A. Magruder, National
Government and IntematTona 1
Relations, ch. 4-6.
C. R. Pish, American Diplomacy,
ch. 31.)
6. It has been said that the doctors
had as much to do with the
building of the Panama Canal as
did the engineers. Prepare a
140
paper on the building of the
canal in which you show why this
statement has been made.
(Mark Sullivan, Our Times.
I. pp. 457-473.
H. J. Haskins, The Panama Canal,
ch. 9-11.)
7. Prepare a paper on John Hay and
the "open door” policy.
(C. R. Fish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles” . Vol. 46.
pp.. 218-231.
Latane, America as a World
Power.
E. E. Sparks, National Develop­
ment. ch. 4.
H. S. Commager, Documents of
American History.#507.1
8.
Prepare a paper entitled
"America in the Pacific".
(C. R. Fish, The Path of Empire.
"Chronicles". Vol. 46. ch. 5
Stevenson, A Footnote to
History.
Foster, American Diplomacy in
the Orient.)
9.
Prepare a report on the diplo­
matic careers of John Hay, and
Elihu Root.
(Dictionary of American
Biography.)
10. Prepare ia report which you will
read to the class on the
building of the Panama Canal.
(S. E. Forman, Our Republic
pp. 708-714.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, pp. 8175 52“------------------
C. R. Fish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles". Vol. 46.
pp. 240-258.)
11. Drama was finding a place for it­
self in the literature of our
country at this time. The stage
was beginning to be recognized
141
Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on the life and contri­
bution made by each of the
following to the American stages
Clyde Pitch
Augustus Thomas
Wm. Gillette
David Belasco
Percy Mackaye
(Arthur H. Quinn, American
Drama Since the Civil War.
Burns Mantle, American Playwriffhts of Today. Dodd.
16S6. 261-262; 263-264;
233-238.)
12. Read Elbert Hubbard’s "A Message
to Garcia." Write a review of
the story to be read to the
class.
B. Oral Composition
1.
Investigate the question of the
ill-feeling of much of LatinAmerica toward the United States,
and try to suggest a way in
which the causes of this illfeeling can be removed and a
better relationship established.
(C. R. Pish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles". Vol. 46
pp. 259-277.)
2. Discuss our relations with
Mexico.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History of
the United States,
pp. 66*7-6^2.
C. A. and M. A. Beard, Rise of
American Civilization. Vol. TT
pp. 51*7-524
A. M. Schlesinger, Political
and Economic Growth in the
tfnited States, pp. 4^3-497.)
3.
Prepare a floor talk on the
United States and Cuban re­
lations.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History
142
of the United States,
pp.” 752-790; 805-807.
J. A. Ogg, National Progress,
pp. 247-2527)
4. Prepare an argument in favor of
this statement; "The SpanishAmerican War was Justifiable."
(C. R. Pish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles". Vol. 46 ch. 7.
H. T. Peck, Twenty Years of the
Republic, pp. 529-558;
558-5527
Hart's Contemporaries.
IV. #1857)
5-6-7-8. Debate. Two students on
the affirmative and two on the
negative may debate on this
topic; Resolved that Theodore
Roosevelt was Justified In his
dealings with Panama and
Columbia.
(J. P. Rhodes, The McKinley and
Roosevelt Administration.
c E T C T T T -------------C. R. Pish, Path of Empire
"Chronicles". Vol. 46.
pp. 259-277.
H. P. Pringle, Theodore
Roosevelt. A Biography
pp. 515—358.
C. R. Fish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles"I Vol. 46
pp. 249-258.
R. W. Page, Dramatic Moments in
American Diplomacy. Ch. 13.)
9. Prepare a floor talk on the sub­
ject of imperialism and emergence
from isolation.
(Elson, History of the United
States, pp. 862, 873-885;
888-893; 911-914.
C. R. Pish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles". Vol. 46 ch. 7-16..
C. R. Fish, American Diplomacy,
ch. 28-32, ch. 64.)
143
10. Compare Theodore Roosevelt’s use
of the Monroe Doctrine with other
interpretations and uses of it.
(C. R. Pish, Path of Empire.
"Chronicles." Vol. 46 ch.. 16.
H. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History. 3d. ed.
pp. 659-663.
J. S. Bassett, Makers of a New
Nation, pp. 285-287.
—
H. S. Commager, Documents of
American History. ^362. 285-386:
363-3667 4TS77
C. Vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5i
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
"yellow press"
Guerrilla War
"the open door"
insular cases
The Hague
autonomy
"yellow peril"
imperialism
"Boxers"
A B C powers
D. Parallel Reading
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Price of Harness— S. Crane
Uncle Sam’s Children— O.P. Austin
Code of the Mountains— C. N. Buck
Filibuster— Gerould
The Long Trail--Garland
Mr. Crewe’s Career— Churchill
Rough Riders— H. Hagedorn
Bright Shawl— Hergesheimer
Across the Isthmus— E. Elsbree
E. Contemporary Literature
1. A Message to Garcia— E. Hubbard
2. Maximilian (poetic drama)—
Carl Sandburg
3. Crucial Instances— Edith Wharton
4. Cuba Libre— J. Miller
5. The Martyrs of the Maine—
R. Hughes
144
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Aguinaldo— E . Shadwell
A Song of P a n a m a - - A. D. Runyon
The Financier— Theodore Dreiser
Masters of Men— Morgan Robertson
The Faith Healer—
William Vaughn Moody
11. The Great Divide—
William Vaughn Moody
I
145
UNIT XVII
STUDY SHEET
Sharing In the World War and Planning for Peace
The end of the nineteenth century saw an earnest effort
made for world peace. Interested people tried valiantly
to make war a thing of the past. Plans were made at the
Hague in 1899 for a permanent court of arbitrations.
Writers pointed out that because of the invention of deadly
weapons and powerful machines of destruction, wars had be­
come so deadly, so expensive, and so destructive, that the
nations of the world could no longer afford them.
America had almost forgotten that war in all Its
horror existed, but was rudely awakened with the realization
that European nations were at each other's throats. Ap­
parently the Central Powers had made the first move toward
war and had refused to delay for any possible mediation.
For more than a century it had been the very heart of
our international policy that we should keep hands off
Europe and that she in turn should keep hands off the New
World. Perhaps no other nation ever struggled so valiantly
against every provocation to remain at peace, until every
possible means of moral suasion had been utterly exhausted.
Once in, however, America devoted herself to helping to win
the war with whole-hearted cooperation.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignment
A. Written Composition.
1. You are an American traveler
in Europe in 1914. You are
aware of the fact that there
is great tension and fear in
the air. Write a letter home
describing the activities and
tension. Or perhaps you
would prefer to imagine that
you are a correspondent on an
American newspaper. If so,
describe the mad scramble by
Americans to secure passage
home.
(Hart's Contemporaries. v.
#166.)
Student's Notes
146
2. After you have read Woodrow Wil­
son's War Message to Congress,
list the Presidents reasons for
declaring war on Germany, and
note evidences of his "fine
idealism".
(America. Vol. XXII pp. 25-33.
New Larned History. XI. pp.
9185-9188.
MacDonald, Documentary Source
Book. #202*1
3. Trace the development of the
doctrine of the freedom of the
seas from the beginning of
American history to the present
time.
(J. T. Adams, Epic of America,
pp. 372-373.
C. R. Fish, American Diplomacy,
pp. 163-170 j""516-315 ;'I'SS'-SflS .
R. D. Paine, Fight for the Free
Sea. "Chronicles11. Vol. 1*7.7
4. Prepare a character sketch of
Colonel House; show in this paper
the part he played in the politics
of the World War.
(C. Seymour, Wilson and the World
War. "Chronicles11. Vo l . "46
5. What Is the status of the League
of Nations at the present time?
(Haworth, The United States in
our Own Times, pp. 485-48$•
F. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States. Ch. 55
0. Seymour. Woodrow Wilson and
the World War."Chronicles*.
VoI."4^TcHr-ll.
R. L. Jones, History of the
Foreign Policy of the United
States, pp. 435^171.
J1. t. Arnold, Cooperative
Citizenship, pp. 64&-654.
F. H. Simonds, Consequences.
■
Atlantic Monthly, Jan. 1934.
6. Prepare a paper on the Big Four.
This paper will be read to the
class.
(C . Seymour, Wilson and the World
147
War. "Chronicles". Vol. 48.)
7. What problem does the freedom of
the press and of speech present
within a country during wartime?
(C. A. & M. R. Beard, Rise of
American Civilization. Vol. II
pp. &S9-645•
P. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, pp. 497-498.)
8. Prepare a report in which you shov
the reasons given by both the
Allied and Central Powers for
entering the war.
(J. S. Bassett, Our War with
Germany.
C. R. Fish, American Diplomacy,
ch. 35.
L. M. Sears, History of Ameri­
can Foreign Relations,
ffart1s Contemporaries. V.)
9. Describe the achievements of the
American navy during the World
War.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History of
the United States, pp. 8§6-9037
J. S. Bassett, Expansion and
Reform, pp. 248-274.
F. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, pp. 489-50^7
szz-'szr.-----
L. Perry, Our Navy in the Wa r .
10. Prepare a paper on the American
army in France.
(C. R. Lingley, Since the Civil
War, pp. 593-60T!
Saworth, The United States in
Our Own Time's, ch. 12
F. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, ch. 54.)
11. Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on "The Nation on a War
Basis".
(C. Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and
148
the World War. "Chronicles".
Vol. 48. c h . 2-8.
C. R. Lingley, Since the Civil
War. ch. 25.
F. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, ch. 48, 5177
B. Oral Composition
1. Prepare a floor talk on "Europe., An
Armed Camp" in the years before
the war.
(C. Becker, Modern History, ch.
20 .
C. J. H. Hayes, A Brief History
of the Great WarT c H T T .
America. Vol. Xi. pp. 37-47.)
2. Discuss the topic "The Army behind
the Army" describing the activ­
ities engaged in by the folks
back home to speed up the war.
(P. W. Slosson, The Great Cru­
sade and After. ^American Life"
Vol. XlT. pp. 52-71.
J. B. McMaster, United States
and the World War. I . p p .
7 S 6 - W 7 380-3857”-418-426; II
51-64; 71-84.)
3. Compare the selective service
method of organizing a fighting
force with the methods used In
previous wars In which the United
States has been concerned.
(F. L. Paxson, Recent History of
the United States, pp. 487-488:
j z s - a w :--------C. Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and
the World War. "Chronicles".
W £ . 48. pp. 48; 126-134.)
4. The United States Shipping Board
was created in order to provide
transportation for troops and war
needs. Show what was accomplish­
ed and how the Board was open to
adverse criticism.
(C. Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and •
the World War. "Chronicles".
Toirwrr
—
149
5. The President on August 4, 1914
asked by proclamation that all
Americans "maintain a strict and
Impartial neutrality". What is
the significance of this speech?
(C. Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and
the World W a r . "Chronicles".
Vol. 46. pp. 36-46.
P. W. Slosson, The Great Cru­
sade and After, ch. 1.
J. S. feassett, Our War with
Germany, ch. 2, 3, 5.
J. B. McMaster, The United
States in the World War. I.
ch. 2-12.)
6. Prepare a report summarizing the
Treaty of Versailles.
(Hart's Contemporaries. V. #193.
H. S. Commager, Documents of
American History. #435-456.
C . Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and
the World War. "Chronicles"•
Vol. 48. ch. 13.
C. R. Lingley, Since the Civil
Wa r , pp. 676-679.
7T*B. McMaster, United States
in the World War. 11. ch. 9
7. Present a talk on the submarine
campaign adopted by Germany.
(C. Seymour, Woodrow Wilson and
the World War. n6hronlcles".
Vol. 48. ch. 3.
W. Wood and R. H. Gabriel, In
Defense of Freedom, pp. 223J. S. Bassett, Our War with
Germany, pp. 39-68.1
8. Prepare a floor talk on the work
of the Committee of Public In­
formation.
(Mark Sullivan, Our Times. V.
pp. 423-440.)
9. Discuss the topic, "Objectors
Conscientious and Otherwise".
(P. W. Slosson, The Great Cru­
sade and After, pp. 67-70.
Mark Sullivan, Our Times. V.
150
pp* 353**364*
J. B. McMaster, The United
States In the World W a r ,
pp. 387^394.)
10. Present the details Involved in
the British and German violation
of neutral rights.
(J. S. Bassett, Short History of
the United States, pp. 873-8757
A . M . Schlesinger, Political
and Social Growth of the United
states. Vol. II.pp. 566-603.)
11. Discuss the Balance of Power and
the League of Nations.
(J. S. Bassett, The League of
Nations.
Duggan, The League of Nations.
C. Seymour, Woodrow~17ilson and
the World W a r . "Chronicles.11
V oT . ~ 4 5
12. Discuss the World War reparations
and debt.
(H. U. Faulkner, American
Economic History! (3d. ed.)
pp. 779-751.
Mark Sullivan. Our Times. VI.
pp. 198-199.)
13. Present an explanation of the
World Court.
(J. I. Arnold, Cooperative
Citizenship, pp. 656-661.
P. C. Jessup, The United States
and the World tfourt.)
C. Vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
armaments
barrage
belligerents
cantonments
ultimatum
"contraband of war"
Zimmermann note
Selective Service Act
"Fourteen Points"
Treaty of Versailles
151
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
A. E. P.
Balance of power
armed neutrality
"open covenant"
"Big Four"
League of Nations
D. Parallel Reading
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Over the Top— Empey
America in France— Palmer
Sergeant York— Skeyhill
Gallipoli— Masefield
Ships Across the Sea— Paine
The Four Horsemen of the
Apocalypse— Ibanez
One of Ours— Gather
Mr. Britling-Sees it Through—
Wells
Falcons of France— Nordhoff & Hall
Journey’s End— Sherriff
What Price Glory— Anderson &
Stallings
Echoes of the War— Barrie
Wings over Europe— Nichols &
Browne
They Also Serve— Kyne
All Quiet on the Western Front—
E. M. Remarque
E. Contemporary Literature
1. Willa Cather
0 Pioneers
My Antonia
2. Upton Sinclair
The Brass Check
3. Robert Frost
4. Amy Lowell
A Dome of Many-Coloured Glass
5. Vachel Lindsay
The Congo
The Chinese Nightingale
152
UNIT XVIII
STUDY SHEET
The Growth of Business and the Development
of Government Regulation
Of all the influences which have made twentiethcentury America so different from the America of the
colonial days, the coming of the Industrial Revolution
is undoubtedly the most important. About 1865 American
business had assumed a modern aspect as a result of many
new inventions, the building of the great railroads and
telegraph systems, improvements in banking, and largescale financing. This growth in business, transportation,
and communication created labor and immigration problems.
Huge corporations were less likely to consider their
workers' welfare and the railroads and telegraph hastened
the end of free western land which had long been the poor
man's refuge. "Trust Busting" began with the Sherman AntiTrust Act of 1890 and in Wilson's administration the
Clayton Anti-Trust Act stressed regulations rather than
the prevention of big business combinations.
In the N.I.R.A. of 1933, our government set out to
regulate industry through the corporation rather than
through the competition of industrial combinations.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Trace the Industrial
Revolution in England
and show its influence
in America.
(E. P. Cheyney, Industrial
and Social History of
England, ch. S.
Forman, Side Lights of our
Social and Economic History,
ppV"gP-3?7)-------------
Student's Notes
153
2. Prepare a paper on "Large Scale
Production".
(E. L. Bogart, Economic History
of United States, ch. 53-29.
77 S. Bassett, A Short History
of the United States, ch. 3J>.
Hart *s Contemporaries• V.
#83-88.1
3. Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on "The House of Morgan."
(M. Josephson, Robber Barons.
J. Moody, The Masters of Capi­
tal. "Chronicles^. Vol. 36.
ch. 1-2-7-9.
J. Winkler, Morgan. The Magni­
ficent .)
4. Prepare a paper on "Epic of
Steel"•
(J. Moody, The Masters of Capi­
tal. "Chronicles". Vol. 38.
ch. 3—5.
B. J. Hendrick, The Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles." VoT7
6s). ch. 3.
Mark Sullivan, Our Times. II.
338-371.)
5. Write a sketch telling of the
inventions that have affected
the textile industry.
(J. S. Ba3sett. Short History
of the United states• pp. 225:
66476567-------------H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History of the tfalted
States, pp. 154-162".
H. Thompson. Age of Invention.
"Chronicles . VoTT 67. pp. 32-
110.)
6. Prepare a paper on the story of
oil in this era.
(B. J. Hendrick, The Age of
Big Business. "Chronicles."
Vol. 39. ch. 2.
J. Moody, The Masters of Capi­
tal. "Chronicles . Vol. 38.
ch. 4.
Mark Sullivan, Our Times. II.
pp. 270-306.)
154
7. Prepare a summary on trusts and
Industrial combinations.
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles” . Vol.
59. PP* 25-57.
E. L. Bogart, Economic History
of the United Btates.~~ ch. 29.)
8. Prepare a paper on the building
of agricultural machinery in the
United States.
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicleaf,r. Vol.
W.
pp7 149-169.)
9. Prepare a paper to be read to the
class on the life and contribu­
tions of:
William Lyon Phelps
Alexander Woollcott
Heywood Brovin
(A. Gillis and R. Ketchum, Our
America. pp. 299-313.
D. t’ante, Living Authors.)
10. Prepare a paper to be read to
the class on the life and contri­
butions of:
Christopher Morley
George Jean Nathan
Henry L. Mencken
(A. Gillis and R. Retchum, Our
America, pp. 235-251.
D. Fante, Living Authors.)
11. Discuss the following statement:
"There is always a conflict be­
tween common human Interests
and machines which is not favor­
able to the creation of good
literature."
(0. Lowe, Our Nation and Its
Literature, pp. 53-66.)
B. Oral Composition.
1. Walt Whitman in his Leaves of
Gras8 said: "The art of art, the
glory of expression, and the
light of letters is simplicity."
155
Show by a carefully prepared
floor talk that this tendency to­
ward simplicity can be found
in the different aspects of the
machine age.
2. Prepare a report on the building
of the first great American
trust.
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles'^ Vol.
59. pp. 25-57.)
3-4-5-6-7. Prepare a report on the
career of some one of the lead­
ers of "big business": Ford,
Rockefeller, Morgan, Schwab,
Carnegie.
(M. Josephson, Robber Barons.
B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles". Vol.
39. pp. 25—68.
J. S. Bassett, Short History
of the United States, no. 736740.
D. R. Dewey. National Problems.
188-202.)
8. Prepare a talk on the develop­
ment of public utilities.
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles".Vol.
W.
pp7 119-148.)
9. What was the N. I. R. A. and on
what grounds was it declared
unconstitutional?
(Consult Readers’ Guide to
Periodical Literature.
Hugh S. Johnson, The Blue
Eagle from Egg to Earth.
S. 5f. Wallace, The frew~Deal
in Action.)
10. Discuss the National Relations
Board.
(Ordway Tead, and H. C. Metcalf,
Labor Relations Under the Re­
lations Act, pp. 196-260.
J1. S. Johnson, Industrial vs.
Craft Unionism. XI• 4 z • 69w n -----------
156
11. Discuss the Tennessee Valley
Authority.
(S. C. Wallace, The New Deal
in Action, ch. 29.
B. J. Hendrick, The Age of Big
Business. ”Chronic lesTr.”*^Vol7
50. ch. 5.)
12. Prepare a talk with the general
theme, "When the Automobile Was
Young .
(H. U. Faulkner, Quest for
Social Justice, pp. 130-136.
M. Sullivan, Our Time. I.
pp. 480-504.)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Industrial Revolution
Trusts
"wildcat" banks
"Big Business"
Partnership
Holding Company
Corporation
Federal Trade Commission
Anti-Trust Acts
N. I. R. A.
D. Parallel Readings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
The ^arbor— Poole
The Melting Pot— Zangwill
The Emigrants— Bojer
Romance of ^abor— Dana
Americans by Adoption— Husband
From Immigrant to Inventor—
Pup in
Babbitt— Lewis
Magnificent Ambersons—
Tarkington
In Times of Peace— T. Boyd
If I Have Four Apples— J. Lawrenc<
Of Time and the River— T. Wolfe
157
E. Contemporary Literature.
(The last five units cover the
subject of government regulation of
business, transportation and communica­
tion, problems of labor and agriculture
and a survey of the growth of American
society and culture.
The contemporary literature list
which follows is not an exhaustive one,
but contains representative "best­
sellers'’ of the last twsnty-five years,
thus bringing our literature list up
to date. The one list will be used for
the last five units.)
Poetry
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
North of Boston— Robert Frost
New Hampshire— Robert Frost
A Further Range— Robert Frost
The American Song Bag— Carl
Sandburg
Smoke and Steel and Slabs of the
Sunburnt--Sandburg
The Harp-Weaver— Edna St. Vincent
Millay
The Buck in the Snow— Millay
Fatal Interview— Millay
Conversation at Midnight— Millay
Collected Poems of Sara Teasdale—
Sara Teasdale
Verse of Our Day, an Anthology—
Gordon and King
Spoon River Anthology— E. L. Mas ten
Selected Poems— Edwin A. Robinson
Selected Poems— Lizette Woodworth
Reese
Silver in the Sun— Grace N. Crowell.
The Golden Summit— Grace N. Crowell.
The Light of Years— G. N. Crowell
Poems, 1911-1936— J. H. Wheelock
Fiction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The Titan— Dreiser
The Genius— Dreiser
My Antonia— Cather
0 Pioneers— Cather
Death Comes for the Archbishop—
Cather
158
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
Shadows on the Rock— Cather
Obscure Destinies— Cather
Main Street— Lewis
Babbitt— Lewis
Arrowsmith— Lewis
Dodsworth— Lewis
It Can't Happen Here— Lewis
Sanctuary— Edith Wharton
Java Head— Joseph Hergesheimer
Gold and Iron— Hergesheimer
Three Black Pennys— Hergesheimer
Bright Shawl— Hergesheimer
Turmoil— Tarkington
Alice Adams— Tarkington
Boston— Upton Sinclair
Mountain City— Sinclair
Thunder on the Left— Morley
Bridge of San Luis Rey— Wilder
Anthony Adverse— Hervey Allen
Action at Aquila— Hervey Allen
Laughing ^oy— LaParge
Years of Grace— Margaret Barnes
Good Earth— Pearl Buck
Lamb in His Bosom— C. Miller
The Rolling Years— Twinbull
Hurricane— Nordhoff and Hall
Mutiny on the Bounty— Nordhoff and
Hall
Pitcairn's Island— Nordhoff and
Hall
Green Light— L. Douglas
White Banners— L. Douglas
Of Time and the River— T. Wolfe
Good-Bye, Mr. Chips— Joseph
Hilton
Lost Horizon— Hilton
The Last Puritan— Santayana
Gone with the Wind— Margaret
Mitchell
Boom Town— Jack O ’Connor
The Citadel— A. J. Cronin
Drums Along the Mohawk— Edmonds
Northwest Passage— K. Roberts
The Years— Virginia Woolf
Non-Fiction
1. The American Singer— 0. Thompson
2. American Village— Edwin Mitchell
3. The Conquest of Culture— M. D. C.
Crawford
159
4. These Foreigners— William
Seabrook
5. American Memory— Henry Beston
6. Louisa May Alcott— Katherine
Anthony
7. Last Flight— Amelia Earhart
8. Hamilton Fish: Inner Story of the
Grant Administration— Allan
Nevins
9. The Story of Alaska— C. L. Andrews
10. The Flowering of New England—
VanWyck Brooks
11. Man the Unknown— Alexis Carrel
12. North to the Orient— Anne Morrow
Lindbergh
Drama
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
What Price Glory?— Anderson
Elizabeth the Queen— Anderson
Mary of Scotland— Anderson
Valley Forge— Anderson
Beyond the Horizon— 0*Neill
Dynamo— O'Neill
The Show-Off— George Kelly
You and I— Philip Barry
The Youngest— Philip Barry
Merton of the Movies— Marc
Connelly and George
Kaufman
11. The Royal Family— George Kaufman
and Edna Ferber
12. First Flight— Lawrence Stallings
and Maxwell Anderson
13. Sun-Up— Lulu Vollmer
160
UNIT XIX
STUDY SHEET
The Development of Transportation and Communication
A large modern nation finds It difficult to mold
itself Into a strongly unified state unless its people
have easy means of exchanging their goods and ideas. Trans­
portation and communication are important for other reasons.
The standard of living may be raised through the exchange
of commodities; famines are averted, in districts where
drought or floods have destroyed the crops, by the importa­
tion of food from more fortunate sections; and the level
of culture is raised by the exchange of ideas. In fact,
it is often said that the progress of civilization may be
measured by the progress of transportation and communi­
cation.
It Is the purpose of this unit to review briefly
phases of transportation and communication already touched
upon, to see a clearer picture of the developments of the
past seventy-five years, and to study certain problems of
government regulations raised by these developments.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1. Prepare a paper on travel
by water, in rivers, lakes
and ocean.
(A. B. Hulbert, Paths of
Inland Commerce. "Chronicles”.
Vol. 21“ ch. '5-7-10-11.
T. W. Van Metre, Tramps and
Liners, ch. 1-2-4-7.
CJ. Ji." Andrews, Colonial Folk­
ways. "Chronicles . Vol. d.
ch. 5.)
2. Compose a song such as was sung
by the Mississippi river men on
flatboats.
Student*s Notes
161
3. Prepare a paper on the story
of the early railroads with
their construction problems and
the opposition displayed toward
the project.
(C. F. Carter, When Railroads
Were New, ch. 1-2.
fe. E. Sparks, Expansion of the
American People, ch. 23.
Hart*s Contemporaries. III.
pp. 165-166.
C. A. Lindbergh, We.)
4. Prepare a report on some one of
the spectacular airplane flights:
Lindbergh to Paris, 1927; Wiley
Post around-the-world flight,
1933; or any others you are
interested in.
5. Prepare a paper on the fortunes
and misfortunes of our merchant
marine by reading of the days
of the packet ships and clippers.
(R. D. Paine, The Old Merchiuat
Marine. "C h r o E T c W T ” TolV
86. pp. 1-199.
W. J. Abbot, American Merchant
Ships and Sailors.)
6. As a correspondent present at the
Kitty Hawk flight of the Wright
Brothers in 1903, write a tele­
graphic report of the event for
a New York paper. Or prepare a
set of headlines and an article
ridiculing the event, or a set
of headlines and an article hail­
ing it as the dawn of man's con­
quest of the air in heavier-thanair machines.
(Magoun and Hodgins, History of
Aircraft.
y, Thompson, Age of Invention.
"Chronicles . VoTT 8V.
7. Prepare a paper on the national
road.
(A, B. Hulbert, Paths to Inland
Commerce.
"Chronicles1'’. Vol.
"ST. cET 8-9.
162
E. E. Sparks, Expansion of the
American People* ch. 22*77
8. Prepare a paper on the old Mer­
chant Marine.
(R. D. Paine, The Old Merchant
Marine. "Chronicles""! VolT
36.
H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, pp. 242-26^;
642-645; 681-684.)
9. Prepare a report on transporta­
tion and communication, 18601900.
(Bogart, Economic History of
the United States, ch. 2*57)
10. Prepare a paper on transporta­
tion and communication, 19001922.
(H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, pp. 334-335;
466-489.
B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles"• Vol.
39. pp. 86-118.)
11. Prepare a paper on the major
problems of the railroad in the
United States since the Civil
War.
(H. U. Faulkner, American Economic History, pp. 325-333:
452-479.
S. E. Forman, Our Republic,
pp. 295-300; 5^6^548; 592-605;
717-719; 745-796; 802-803.)
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepare a talk on the way that
Commander Byrd maintained commu­
nication with the outside world
from Little America.
(R. E. Byrd, Little America.)
2. The National Road and the Erie
Canal contributed to "the con­
quest of the Alleghenies". Give
a floor talk on the importance of
each of these projects and the
163
problems involved; and the effect
upon the East and the West.
(A. B. Hulbert, The Paths of In­
land Commerce. "Chronicles"•
Vol. 21. ch. 8-9.
E. E. Sparks, Expansion of the
American People. ch. £2.
J. T. Fatls, wHen America Was
Young. ch. 15.)
3. Prepare a floor talk on the
building of the first transcon­
tinental railroad.
(J. W. Starr, One Hundred Years
of American Railroading. ch.
15.
C. F. Carter, When Railroads
Were New, ch. 7.
Hart's Contemporaries. IV.
#163.)
4. Prepare a floor talk on how the
"horseless carriage” developed
from a "glorified perambulator"
into a "standardized" automobile.
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles". Vol.
33: cK7 7.
Mark Sullivan, Our I'imes. I.
pp. 475-504.
P. W. Slosson, The Great Cru­
sade and After. 11American Life
Series.* Vol. 8. pp. 219-231)
5. Explain how quantity production,
standardization, and the use of
labor-saving machinery have made
possible the production of an
inexpensive automobile.
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles".“0i#
3§~. pp7 170-187.
Mark Sullivan, Our Times. I.
475-504; IV, 48^57.
P. W. Slosson, The Great Cru­
sade and After. "American L^fe
Series". Vol. 8. pp. 219-31.)
6. Talk on why the development of the
telephone has been distinctly an
American achievement.
164
(B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles”. Vol.
39. PP * 86-118.)
7. Discuss the earliest railroad in
America.
(Hart's Contemporaries. III.
#165-166.
H. U. Faulkner, Economic His­
tory. pp. 325-333.
Forman, Sidelights on Our S o d a ! .
and Economic History, pp. 328333; 335-342.1
8. Prepare a report on the Erie
Canal.
(Forman, Sidelights on Our Social.
and Economic History, pp. 305309."J
9. Prepare a report on the life and
contribution of Guglielmo Marconi,
(Ferdinand Von Zeppelin.
F. L. Darrow, Masters of Science >
and Invention, ch. 2617
10. The pony express played a color­
ful part in the history of our
country. Head ”The Pony Express"
by A. Chapman and report on the I
history of the express.
11. Prepare a floor talk on the
regulation of commerce.
(R. Phillips, American Govern­
ment and Its Problems.!
12. Prepare a floor talk on modern
transportation and communication.
(H. TJ. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, pp. 334-335;
486-489.
B. J. Hendrick, Age of Big
Business. "Chronicles",
vol.
53. pp". 86-118.
H. Thompson, Age of Invention.
"Chronicles • VoTT 37. pp.
128-156; 184-210.)
165
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
rebates
Hepburn Act
toll
turnpike
Esch-Cummings Act (1920)
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Interstate Commerce Act
Reconstruction Finance
Corporation
D. Parallel Readings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
U. P. Trail— Zane Grey
Night Flight— de Saint Exupery
Two Years before the Mast— -Dana
Gloucestermen— Connolly
Life on the Mississippi— Twain
Mutineers--Hawes
From Trail to Railway— Brigham
Stage Coach and Tavern Days—
Earle
Rome Haul— Edmonds
Aladdin— Greenwood
News-hunters— RoIt-Wheeler
Master Builders— Wade
One Hundred Years of American
Railroading— J. W. Starr
Heroes of the Air— C. C. Fraser
166
UNIT XX
STUDY SHEET
Problems of Labor and Immigration
The economic revolution that occurred during the
years following the Civil War was much more than the sub­
stitution of machinery for manual labor on the farm, in the
factory, or in the mill; or than the rise of the trust to
replace the craftsman’s shop. This economic revolution in
the United States produced great cities with crowded tene­
ments, blocks of apartment houses, and far-extended suburbs.
People lived and worked in huge groups, and were educated
in groups. Railroads and manufacturing plants counted
their workmen by the tens of thousands.
The causes of migration have been many; but outstand­
ing among them at all times has been the economic motive—
the desire for more room, resulting.from the pressure of
crowded people upon exhausted soil, and the urge for
better opportunities to secure a living. Religious and
political persecutions and racial prejudices also play their
part in causing people to seek another place to live.
The old immigration in early America had come at a time
when the country was growing and could absorb large numbers;
the new immigrants were crowded into factory cities, each
national group keeping pretty much to itself and preserving
many custons, ideas, and habits of the old country. This
congestion made difficult problems of sanitation, poverty,
and charity relief. Politicians began to exploit the im­
migrants to obtain votes. Thus there rose in America many
problems in the field of labor and immigration that demanded
immediate attention.
Investigational Activities
Class Assignment
A. Written Composition.
1. Selecting any one of the major
nationality groups in the
country today, read widely and
try to understand and explain
one or more of the following:
Student’s Notes
167
(a) general reasons for the
"immigrant invasion;"
(b) immigrant distribution be­
tween rural and urban areas;
(c) distinction between the "oldr
and "new" immigration;
(d) immigrant experiences in the
"land of the free".
(S. P. Orth, Our Foreigners.
"Chronicles". Vol. 35.
E. A. Steiner, On the Trail of
the Immigrant.
F. J. Warne, The Immigrant
Invasion.
£. A. Ross, The Old World and
the New.)
2. A wise leader is very important
to the welfare of a labor union.
Why?
(S. P. Orth, Armies of Labor.
"Chronicles". Vol. 40. pp.
94-111; 127-132; 113-126.)
3. Has labor the moral right to
strike? Liscuss labor’s rights
in the sit-down strike.
(Headers' Guide.
Yellen, American Labor Struggle.
Wiese and Retcker, The Modern
Worker.)
4. There have been many industrial
conflicts. What methods have
been proposed and used in
settling industrial conflicts?
(J. I. Arnold, Problems in
American Life, pp. 90-94.
S. t. Orth, Armies of Labor.
"Chronicles""! ^oT. 40. pp.
168-187.)
5. Prepare a paper on what the im­
migrant has contributed to
American civilization.
(A. H. Eaton, Immigrant Gifts
to American Life.
A. E. S. beard. Our Forelgnb o m Citizens.)
168
6. What are the arguments for and
against the old-age pension sys­
tem?
(E. F. Humphrey, Economic His­
tory of the United States*
pp. 514.
Readers* Guide to Periodical
Literature.)
7. Discuss the policies and methods
of present day unions.
8. Prepare a paper in which you com­
pare the Knights of Labor and
the American Federation of Labor.
(S. P. Orth, The Armies of
Labor. "Chronicles" • "Vol. 40.
ch. 4-5.
M. Beard, Short History of the
American Labor Movement.
pp. 116-126.)
9. Prepare a paper on recent labor
developments.
(Reader*s Guide.
Tead and Metcalf, Labor Rela­
tions under the New Deal.V
10. Prepare a paper on social
security for the workers.
(Reader’s Guide.
Beach and Walker, American
Social Problems, ch. 13.)
11. Prepare a paper on "Public Uti­
lities and Federal Power Projects"
(E. Hungerford, The Story of
Public Utilities.
S. C.Wallace. The New Deal In
Action, ch. 29.
Reader's Guide.)
12. Prepare a paper on "Labor and
the New Deal."
(Reader's Guide.
L. M. Hacker, A Short History
of the New Deal.
Tead and Metcalf, Labor Rela­
tions under the Recovery Acb.)
169
B. Oral Composition.
1. Prepare a short sketch showing
how and why labor and Immigration
are so closely related.
(Jane Addams, Twenty Years at
Hull House.
F.
Orth, Armies of Labor.
"Chronicles".
Vol. 40.)
2. Explain the steps in the natura­
lization process.
(T. A. Magruder, American
Government. ch. 31.)
3. Explain why labor unions say
collective bargaining is neces­
sary to the welfare of labor.
(S. P. Orth, Armies of Labor.
"Chronicles".
vol. 40. pp.
168-187.)
4. Prepare a floor talk on the Com­
mittee for Industrial Organiza­
tion.
(Reader1s Guide.)
5*6-7. A committee of three may re­
port on the Knights of Labor, the
American Federation of Labor, anc
the Department of Labor.
(S. P. Orth, The Armies of
Labor. "Chronicles"• Vol. 40.
ch. 4-5.
M. Beard, Short History of the
American Labor Movement, pp.
116-1267 -------------C. A. & W. Beard, The American
Leviathan, ch. 15.)
8. Prepare a floor talk on labor
and collective bargaining.
(S. E. Forman, The ftjse of
American Commerce and Industry,
ch. 27-2>2.
S. P. Orth, The„Armies of Laboi.
"Chronicle s"• vol. 4 b • ch. 5.
10.)
9. Present a floor talk on the re­
gulation of industry and labor
under the Hew Deal.
(Haynes and Haynes, Problems
170
°f Government. ch. 5.
¥ead. and Metcalf, Labor Rela­
tions under the Recovery Act,
pp. 196-2&0.)
10. Prepare a floor talk on the C. I.
0. vs. A. F. of L.
11. What arguments can be advanced
for and against the ratification
of the pending federal childlabor amendment?
(Reader's Guide.)
12. Prepare a biographical sketch of
Samuel Gompers.
(Louis S. Reed, The Labor
Philosophy of Samuel ^ompers.
dictionary of American 8iography.)
G. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
indentured
textile
Knights of Babor
American Federation of Labor
Homestead and Pullman strikes
epoch
Samuel ^ompers
lockout
"new" immigration
Industrial Revolution
Corporation
Sweat Shop
boycott
injunction
strike
"Gentlemen's agreement"
D. Parallel Readings.
1. The Promised Land— Antin
2. Memoirs of An American Citizen-Herrick
3. The Portion of Labor
4. The Bomb— Harris
5. The Melting Pot— Zangwill
171
6. Steel Preferred— Hall
7. The Honorable Peter Sterling—
Ford
8. The Age of Innocence— Wharton
9. The Americanization of Edward
Bok
10. From Immigrant to Inventor— Pup in
11. The Making of an American—
J. A. Riis
12. Out of the Shadow— R. Cohen
15. Americans by Adoption— J. Husband
14. Depression Island— Upton Sinclair
15. If I Have Four Apples— Josephine
Lawrence
172
UNIT XXI
STUDY SHEET
American Agriculture and Its Problems
Regardless of the fact that the United States Is
blessed with an abundance and variety of rich natural
resources, these same resources become of use to man only
after his physical and intellectual labor have turned
them into wealth. Only a small fraction of our country
was under cultivation when the Constitution was adopted;
but as one generation after another moved forward to clear
the forest, plant crops, and establish new villages and
cities, we see that the frontier moved westward to the
Pacific and that the natural resources were used to bene­
fit mankind.
Time passed and with its passing new machinery was
invented for the farmer, agricultural knowledge was wide­
spread, the plantation system collapsed, and a great
variety of problems faced American agriculture.
Investlgatlonal Activities
Clas3 Assignment
A. Written Composition.
1. Prepare a paper on the
nature of business cycles.
(L. P. Ayers, The Economics
of Recovery.
77 M. diarfe, Strategic
Factors in Business Cycles.)
2. As editor of an agricultural
weekly in 1887, write an edi­
torial in praise of the Inter­
state Commerce Act, but at the
same time point out some of
its weaknesses.
3. Prepare a paper on the Grange.
(S. J. Buck, Agrarian Cru­
sade. ''Chronicles". Vol.
45.)
Student1s Notes
174
4. Prepare a paper on the present
administration’s program on the farm
problem.
(C. A. Beard and Smith, The Future
Comes, pp. 75-91.
O :
Schlesinger, Political and
Social Growth of the United States,
pp. 469-476.
H. A. Wallace, Whose Constitution,
ch. 8-17.
J, S, Buck, Agrarian Crusade.
"Chronicles”. Vol. 45.)
5. Compare the purpose and methods of
the following proposals for farm
relief: McNory-Haugen Bill, Agri­
cultural Marketing Act, 1929,
Export Debenture Plan.
(J. D. Black, The McNory-Haugen
Movement. American Economic Review. 18.
R. A. Sellgman, The Economics of
Farm Relief.
Reader1 s Guide to Periodical
Literature.)
6. Prepare a paper on the subject of
"Public Credit and Reconstruction
Finance Corporation".
(S. C, Wallace, The New Deal in
Action, ch. 7.
6. 6. Johnson, Government in the
United States, pp. 5*79-58^7)
7. Prepare a paper on "The Agricul­
tural Adjustment Act".
(J. S. Davis, Wheat and the A. A. A ,
S. C, Wallace, The New Deal in
Action, ch. 11-15.
Reader's Guide.)
B. Oral Composition.
1. Show why the farmer in the early
1870’s was antagonistic toward the
railroads and their practices.
(S. J. Buck, Agrarian Crusade.
"Chronicles". V o l . 45. pp. 4359.)
175
2. Prepare a floor talk on the
farm problem during President
Hoover's administration.
(S. J. Buck, Agrarian Crusade.
"Chronicles". V o l . 45.
R. C. Engberg, Industrial
Prosperity and the farmer,
ch. 16.)
“
3. Prepare a floor talk on "The
Agrarian Revolution".
(H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, rev. ed.
Mark Sullivan. Our Times. I.
pp. 137-182.
P. deKruif, Hunger Fighters.
S. E. Forman. Side1ights on Our
Social and Economic History,
pp. 83-52.)
4. Present a floor talk on the
problems of the farmer since the
Civil War.
(Reader's Guide to Periodical
Literature.
C. A. & M. R. Beard, Rise of
American Civilization! T o T T I.
ch. 22.
H. U. Faulkner, American Eco­
nomic History, pp. 423-461.)
5. Prepare a floor talk in which
you either criticize or defend
the A. A. A. policy of restrict­
ing agricultural production.
(L. M. Hacker, A Short History
of the New Deal, ch. 2-4.
Tjaret Garrett, "Managed Agri­
culture", Saturday Evening
Post. November 2, lSfcfe.)
6. Explain the "Ever Normal Granary
Plan" for agriculture.
(H. W. Wallace, New Frontiers.
pp. 263-287.
Congressional Digest, December,
1926.
J. E. Boyle,"That Ever-Normal
Granary", Saturday Evening Post,
May 8, 193^.)
176
7. Writers have found the farmer and
farm life very Interesting sub­
jects, Prepare a report on some
of the literature devoted to
these topics.
(Hamlin Garland, A Son of the
Middle Border.
H. Garland. Main Travelled Roads
0. Rolvaag, Giants In the Earth)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Granger Movement
Homestead Act
Share-Crop System
Crop-lien System
"Farm bloc"
Farmers' Alliances
Populist Party
Reclamation
Conservation
Agricultural Adjustment Act.
D. Parallel Readings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
As the Earth Turns— Carroll
Story of a Country Town— Hough
Let the Hurricane Roar— Lane
Vandemark's Folly— Quick
South Moon Under— Rawlins
Iowa Interiors— Suckow
Cotton— Turpin
So Big— Edna Ferber
Red Rust— Cannon
Barren Ground— Glasgow
Gold— Kelland
Cash Item— Catherine Brody
Co-op: A Novel of Living
Together— Upton Sinclair
177
UNIT XXII
STUDY SHEET
The Development of American Society
and
The Rise of American Culture
”The first drudgery of settling new colonies, which
confines the attention of people to mere necessaries, is
now pretty well over; and there are many in every pro­
vince in circumstances that set them at ease, and afford
leisure to cultivate the finer arts, and improve the
common stock of knowledge.”
Benjamin Franklin (1743)
Mankind is concerned not only with the problems of
government and of earning a livelihood, but also with
finding pleasure in a finer and fuller life which ex­
presses itself in religion, in education, sciences, art,
and in literature.
Out of all the problems of a new nation has come a
culture which is American. We see the unimaginative
literature of the colonies, the eighteenth century age
of reasoning that frowned on enthusiasm, the prophetic
foresight of Emerson, the beauty of literature that was
New England’s, the pioneer literature that dramatized
man's escape from conventionalized and aristocratic
society.
We shall see the growth of the public press, the
rise of magazines and the development of American litera­
ture; and we shall see the increasing importance of
American activity in painting, sculpture, architecture,
and other forms of art. American minds received science
and Inventions enthusiastically.
Above all, we shall follow one of America's greatest
contributions to the world— the birth and development of
the idea of free public education as it finally culminated
in school systems extending from the kindergarten to the
great state universities.
178
Investigational Activities
Class Assignments
A. Written Composition.
1
.
Prepare a paper on the numerous
reforms projected In the two
decades from 1850 to 1850.
(C. H. and M. R. Beard, The
Rise of American Civilization.
T O T II. ch. 27.
R. G. Caldwell, Short History
of the American People. Vol. II.
cK.ӣ6-2sn----------
A. M. Schlesinger, Rise of the
City, ch. 11.
ri. u. Faulkner, Quest for Social
Justice, ch. 4-5-7-9.
2. Prepare a report to be read to the
class on the topic "The Scintil­
lating Kaleidoscopic Unparalleled
Heterogeneous Aggregation of Mul­
tiplied Wonders , or "The Early
American Circus".
(E. C. May, "The Circus from
Rome to Rlngllng1**!
M. R.“Werner’s *P. T. Barnum" .
E. C. orman, Sidelights on
Our Social and Economic History,
pp. 441-446TT"
3. Prepare a research paper on our
crime problem.
(F. G. Crawford, State Govern­
ment. ch. 15.
F. «f. Haskin, The American
Government Today, ch. 5.
F. E. Haynes, Criminology.
Reader's GuideTJ
4. Investigate the subject of Ameri­
can periodicals. Prepare a paper
to be read to the class on the
history of our periodicals.
(J. L. Haney, The Story of Our
Literature, pp. 301-309.
Student1s Notes
179
A. Tassin, The Magazine in
America*
Van Doren, Cambridge History of
Afterican Literature. Book IlTT
p p . 299-518.
Trent, Erskine, Sherman.)
5. Compare the educational ideas of
Horace Mann with those of John
Kilpatrick of today.
(H. E. Winship, Horace Mann, the
Educator.
SJ. ')5. 3iosson, American Spirit
in Education. "Chronicles .
Vol. 33.)
6. Prepare a paper on romanticism in
literature.
(Bliss Perry, The American
Spirit in Literature, ch. 8-
10
.
W. J. Long, Outline of American
Literature with Readings.
Part I. ch. 4; Part II. pp.
239-354.)
7. Prepare a biographical sketch of
Joseph Pulitzer. What contri­
butions has he made to our
literature?
(C. A. and M. R. Beard, Rise of
American Civilization. Vol.
II. pp. 460-464; 790-792.
Don Seitz, Joseph Pulitzer.
His Life and Letters.)
8. Prepare a survey of the history
of American medicine.
(H. U. Faulkner, Quest for
Social Justice, ch. 10.
Paul de Kruif, Men Against
Death.
C. A. Beard, A Century of
Progress, pp. 326-356.
S. E. Forman, Sidelights on
Our Social and Economic His­
tory. pp. 474-4777)
180
9. Write a report on the work of the
Rockefeller Foundation.
(S. E. Forman, Sidelights on Our
Social and Economic History,
pp. 508-51Q.
Victor Heiser, ito American
Doctor*s Odyssey.)
10. Prepare a paper on the growth of
education in America after 1800.
(E. P. Oubberly, Public Education
in the United States.
17 U. Faulkner. Quest for Social
Justice.)
11-12-13-14. By way of summary, let us
consider the following groups of
leaders In their own specific
fields. Each pupil will prepare a
paper on the contributions of those
men found in the group he selects.
group A
Wa shington IrvTng
James Fenimore Cooper
Edgar Allan Poe
William Cullen Bryant
George Bancroft
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
John Greenleaf Whittier
Oliver Wendell Holmes
James Russell Lowell
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Herman Melville
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry Thoreau
Group B
Horace Greeley
Samuel F. B. Morse
Cyrus Field
Louis Agissiz
Joseph Smith
Brigham Young
Crawford W. Long
W. T. G. Morton
181
Group £
Marconi
Dwight L. Moody
Edw. McDowell
William Vaughn Moody
Sir Robert Baden-Powell
Walter Damrosch
Daniel Carter Beard
Dr. Dio Lewis
Group D.
John Dewey
Charles W. Eliot
Ezra Cornell
Elihu Yale
Henry Barnard
15. Discuss "Yesterday’s Heroes of
Sports".
(J. A. Krout, Annals of American
Sport. "Pageant of America".
Vol. 15. ch. 5-9.
H. TJ. Faulkner, Quest for Socia .
Justice, pp. 285-287; 2SiO-
2§S.)
16. Discuss "How Modernism in Archi­
tecture Has Influenced Sky­
scrapers" •
(T. E. Tallmadge, The Story of
Architecture in America,
ch. 10-11.
F. Kimball, American Architec­
ture. ch. 12-16.)
17. Discuss "Impressionism", "cubism"
"surrealism .
(S. M. Kootz, Modern American
Painters.)
18. Discuss "Realism in Literature".
(W. J. Long, Outline of Ameri­
can Literature. Part I.
ch. 5. Part II. pp. 355-399.
Bliss Perry, American Spirit
in Literature"! ^Chronicles".
VoiT'sr:
cET io.
H. U. Faulkner, The Quest for
Social Justice, pp. 2i>9-&6*y.J'
182
19. Discuss Eugene O ’Neill in rela­
tion to the field of drama.
20. Imagine yourself a physician of
1820 who has been called upon to
talk upon general health rules
and methods of treatment for
some of the common diseases of
the period. Be prepared to de­
liver this talk from your paper,
to the class.
21. Prepare a paper in which you
show the contributions of Abraham
Lincoln, Mark Twain, Walt Whitman,
and Sidney Lanier to literature.
22. What is an historical novel?
From your knowledge of this type
of novel, prepare a paper in
which you show by use of four or
five of the best examples of
historical novel that you have
read, the place this form has in
literature•
23. Prepare a research paper on the
subject of "American Architecture’
(Thomas E. Tallmadge, The Story
of Architecture in America.
T 7 F. Hamlin. The American
Spirit in Architecture. ""Pa­
geant of America"• Vol. 13.
24. Prepare a research paper on
"American Sculpture .
(Lorado Taft, American Sculpture
Mather, Morey, lenderson, The
American Spirit in Art. "Pascean
of Ame'rTciT". VoTT 127
25. Prepare a paper on modern music.
Study the modern composers,
their style, influence of modern
times on music, and the contri­
butions to be found in music.
26. Prepare a research paper on the
history of the American news­
paper. Trace Its growth from
the early colonial period up to
183
the present time. If the names
of any prominent men and women
appear in this study, he sure to
include them in your report with
a review of their contributions.
(Trent, Erskine, Sherman,
Van Doren, Cambridge History of
American Literature. Book Ilf•
pp. 319-336.
William Dill, History of
Journalism in America.
The
Newspaper*sHFamily 'i-'ree".)
B. Oral Composition.
It is pointed out by Mark Sul­
livan in "Our Times", vol. II.,
p. 1, that "a nation's culture
includes the points of view that
everyone has; individual conduct
and social relations; his attltuda
toward government and other
people; the duty of parents to
children and children to parents;
his standards of taste and of
morals; his store of accepted
wisdom which he expresses in
proverbs and aphorisms; his
loyalties, prejudices, biases,
his rules of conventionality."
We shall consider the various
phases of American culture in
terms of those channels.through
which our culture became Ameri­
ca' s own.
1. The backbone of education in
the common schools of America
was the "Readers". The Readers
were the only text-book used in
all the schools that bore di­
rectly and positively upon the
formation of character or that
provided ethical guidance. In
an oral report show the influenct
of William H. McGuffey on the
American mind of the late 1800* s
and early 1900’s.
(Mark Sullivan, Our Times:
America Finding Herself. pp.l«*
49.)
184
2. The American mind also held
certain Inherited Ideals and a
certain definite outlook on life.
Prepare a floor talk in which
you cite proof that this statemen ;
is true.
(Mark Sullivan, Our Times:
America F inding Her self. Vol.
II. pp. 49-94.)
3. "Eloquence” or “Elocution” was a
national pastime. Present to
the class an oral report on the
importance of public speaking
in the 1880's, 90's, and the
type of "pieces” found most de­
sirable.
(Mark Sullivan, Our Times:
America Finding herself. Vol.
II. pp. 94-119.)
4. Discipline both mental and cor­
poral was found to be a common
practice in early America. Pre­
sent to the class some of the
most interesting points you
found in your survey on this
subject.
(Mark Sullivan, Our T i m e s :
America Finding Herself. Vol.
II. pp. 120-142.)
5. Life was not dull or uninterest­
ing for the people of these
times. They had a lot of fun
playing games, some of which
we have never heard, and others
which are very common even today.
Study the diversions of the
period and prepare an oral report
on the games played then.
6. Edwin‘Markham1s poem, "The Man
with the Hoe" created quite a
furor. Read the poem and the
reference below and present to
the class the important points
you feel they should remember
from the poem and its influence.
(Mark Sullivan, Our Times:
America Finding llerself1. Vol. •
II. pp. 236-254.)
185
7. In Mark Sullivan, Our Times:
America Finding Herself, Vol. II,
pp. 614-649, consider the points
of importance on such subjects
as railroads, automobiles,
clothing, advertising, literatur^,
and the theatre of 1904 and 1905.
Present your findings to the
class in a well-organized oral
report.
8. What does a cross-section of
literature from 1865 to 1900
tell you about the conditions
of American life? Be specific.
9. Explain the subject, "Provincial
America in Literature". Cite
authors and their works by way
of illustration.
(H. W. Mabie, American Ideals.
Character, and Life. pp. 911577)---- ---------10. What is a national literature?
What is the national literature
that is America's and what
writers and works make it so?
(H. W. Mabie, American Ideals.
Character, and Life. pp. 156188.)
11. Discuss the subject of art and
music in America.
(H. W.Mabie, American Ideals.
Character and Life. pp. 109-
mr.--------
J. T. Howard, Our American
Music: Three Hundred Years of
It.)
12. Prepare an Interesting research
paper on the subject of war
songs. Select five or six of
our greatest American war songs,
study the authors, the situation^
that led to the writing of the
songs. Make your selection re­
presentative of our wars, not
of one war alone.
(J. T. Howard, Our American
186
Music: Three Hundred Years of
TT. pp. 117-151; S65-2'/§.)
13. Discuss our American Folk-Music.
(J. T. Howard, Our American
Music: Three Hundred Years of
TT, pp. 404-462.)
14. Prepare a floor talk on John
Singer Sargent and some of his
portraits.
15. Prepare a floor talk on the
change of style in the mode of
dress since the period from
1860 to 1900.
16. Study carefully the great men
and events as commemorated in
the sculpture of Saint-Gaudens,
French, or Barnard. Prepare a
floor talk on this subject.
(Dictionary of American Bio­
graphy.)
17. Explain the artificiality of
life in the United States be­
tween 1865 and 1900. Mention
those things that in your esti­
mation showed a lack of culture.
18. Select any three modern drama­
tists and show what they con­
tributed to the field of the
theatre.
(Arthur H. Quinn, American
Drama from the Civil War to
the Present PBy .
M . G . Mayorga, Short History
of the American DramaT)
19. Make a careful study of any
five of our best magazines.
Study the history of the maga­
zines, the general set-up, the
contributors, and policies.
20. Prepare a floor talk on the
history of radio and the contri­
butions it has made to American
culture.
187
(Malcolm Keir, The Kise of
Commerce, ch. 8.
F. t. Allen, Only Yesterday,
pp. 164-166.
W. A. Orton. America In Search
of Culture.)
21. Discuss the Little Theatre In
America.
(C. D. Mackay, The Little
Theatre in America.
H. U. FauTkner, Quest for
Social Justice, pp. 301-302.
0. S. Coad and Edward Mims,
The American Stage.
W. L. Phelps, TheTwentieth
Century Theatre.)
22. Discuss the American Stage.
(Kenneth MacGowan, Footlights
Across America.)
23. Prepare a talk on the growth of
the movie in America.
(W. A. Orton, America in Search
of Culture. ch. 12.
U7 M. Hacker, and B. B. Kend­
rick, The United States Since
1865. “ pp. 698-69$;
B. J. Lubschez, The Story of
the Motion Picture.)
C. Vocabulary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
suffrage
quackery
aestheticism
transcendentalism
communism
humanitarian!sm
Unitarian
Gothic
monitorial schools
syndicated
mediocrity
literate
partisan
calories
vitamin
"rugged individualism"
188
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Jones-Works law
Cullen Bill
Pure Pood and Drugs Act
hornbook
dame schools
land-grant college
D. Parallel Headings.
1. Dormant Fires— Atherton
2. The Hoosier Schoolmaster—
Eggleston
3. When America was Young— Paris
4. Life of Mary Lyon— C-ilchrist
5. Bare Hands and Stone Walls—
Hussell
6. The Wave— Scott
7. Story of a Pioneer— Dr. A. H.
Shaw
8. The Gentleman from Indiana—
Tarkington
9. The Grandmothers— Westcott
10. In the Heart of a Pool— White
11. Living Drama— Nellie B. Miller
12. Forty Years of It— Whitlock
13. Our American Theatre— Oliver
M. Sayler
14. Story of American Painting—
Charles Caffin
15. Music and Music Makers—
Constance Morse
16. American Opera and Its ComposersL. i!>. Hipsher
17. Early American Homes— N. M.
Isham
18. Modern Composers— G. Pannain
19. The Evening Posts A Century of
Journalism— Allan Nevins
20. Memories of a Publisher—
George H. Putnam
21. How the Other Half Lives—
Jacob Riis
22. American Idealism— Luther Weigle
23. American Plays— A. G. Halline
24. A Certain Rich Man— W. A. White
25. American Jitters— Edmund Wilson
26. What Is America?— P. E. Hill
27. The American Road to Culture—
George Counts
28. Expression in America— L. Lewisoljai
29. Our American Theatre— 0. M. Sayler
30. Behind the Scenes at the Opera— J‘
. Watkins
PART III
TESTS AND RESULTS
Part I contains the underlying philosophy and method
of procedure involved in conducting this experiment in
integration.
units.
Part II includes the complete set of work
Part III explains the bases for selection of a
comparable group for testing, the particular tests given,
and the interpretation of the results, along with certain
conclusions drawn from these results.
The twenty-four boys and girls in the integrated grcup
have been in this experimental class for seven months and
at the suggestion of Dr. Een Wood, a comparison group was
selected against which the integrated group could be
pitted.
From this point the integrated class will be referred
to as A and the comparison or non-integrated group as B.
Significant Data Concerning Group A
A survey of Group A was made to determine basic data
which were to be used in selecting Group B.
From the
home room mark book and personality packets the following
significant information was gleaned*
1. The chronological age of the class was approxi­
mately 18 years.
2. The I. Q's for the class fell between 118 and 148.
190
3. The senior English marks for the class ranged
between 82 and 90; the United States history
marks fell between 81 and 90*
4. Based on the accumulative record of home room
teachers over a period of years, the class
seemed to have no emotional nor social problem
pupils in it*
In order to learn more about Group A, the survey
was further continued to include the judgment of home
room teachers, class guides, the dean of boys and the
dean of girls based on the Haggerty-Olson-Wickman "Behavior
Rating Schedules".
It was found thatj
1. The pupils in Group A come from homes that enjoy
reasonable financial independence*
2. The pupils seem to have presented no tangible
evidence of emotional maladjustment, nor evi­
dence of physical deficiencies.
Significant Data Concerning Group B
The twenty-four pupils in Group B were selected
from a group of eighty-two seniors from the AB classifi­
cation established by the school administration on the
basis of the information collected concerning Group A.
These twenty-four pupils compared to Group A as follows:
1. I. Q's— 118 to 150.
191
2.
Chronological age— 18 years.
3.
Senior English marks between 83 and
4.
United States history marks between 81 and 92.
5.
In the final group individuals wereselected who
90.
had ratings comparable to individuals of Group A.
6. The home room teachers, class guides, dean of
boys, and dean of girls also rated these boys and
girls by the "Behavior Rating Schedule" and in­
formation similar to that gathered for Group A
was collected.
Class Preparation of Group B
The pupils in Group B covered the reading for in­
tensive class discussion that is set up in the English
course of study for Columbia High School.
About seventy-
five percent of both groups will go to college, therefore,
comparable attention has been given to these readings and
to the quality of the oral and written composition.
Both groups have met the requirements of the history
department.
Their text books and reference books, maps,
and class discussions have covered the general set-up of
the department.
Limitations
The writer realizes that there are definite limita­
tions to this selection, such as:
192
1. The size of the experimental group somewhat
limits objective judgment.
2. In the measuring of these twenty-four boys and
girls of Group A and those of Group B by such
criteria as were used, a certain amount of sub­
jective judgment is bound to creep into the
program.
3. The boys and girls in Group B are obviously not
all in one senior English nor United States
history class.
This complicates the objectivity
of selection.
Reason for Testing Program
The writer wished to learn whether or not these
pupils in Group A really had acquired knowledge which was
comparable to or greater than that gained by the boys and
girls in Group B.
The battery of tests selected to point
to objective evidence and information in this respect was
chosen with the thought in mind that since all seniors in
these groups are required to study senior English and
United States history, there would be a comparable basis
of subject matter as a foundation.for these standardized
cooperative tests.
Tests
The battery of tests given consisted of four Coopera-
193
tlve Achievement Tests designed for high schools and college
classes by the Cooperative Test Service of the American
Council on Education.
1. The Cooperative Test in American History measured
the breadth of acquaintance with historical per­
sonages and the understanding of historical and
geographical terms.
No specific dates are re­
quired but the pupil's time perspective was tested
along with his historical Judgment.
To the writer's knowledge, however, there
are no standardized objective tests which ade­
quately measure the pupil's reflective thinking,
his practical application of facts, and his
critical evaluation of the sources of knowledge.
These desirable phases of pupil activity will be
gauged subjectively by teacher Judgment.
2. The Cooperative English Test is composed of three
separate tests: Usage, Spelling, Vocabulary.
This
particular test is not designed to fit the course
of study at any particular class level, but is a
reasonable index of achievement at the secondary
school level.
In addition, the pupil was tested
to determine his ability to select the most co­
herent sentences, and his skill in making changes
in structure.
A recognition of spelling errors in
words of a definite utility was measured along
194
*
with the pupil’s ability to make accurate dis­
criminations im the meanings of words.
S. The Cooperative Literary Acquaintance Test was in­
cluded as a comprehensive measure of the pupil's
acquaintance with the field of literature.
This
test makes no attempt to measure appreciation or
the more subtle phases of understanding.
4. A valid measure of the abilities and the insights
that are involved in the comprehension of literary
materials on the secondary level is offered in the
Cooperative Literary Comprehension Test.
Such de­
vices as figures of speech, symbolism, puns, and his*
torical and classical allusions are presented to de­
termine the pupil’s ability to understand the mode
of literary expression.
5. As an indication of the pupil's ability to organize
material, to write it carefully and interestingly,
an 6 3 s a y - t y p e question was added to this battery
of tests.
It was: "In its broadest sense, the lit­
erature of any country is an expression of the
author’s interpretation of the period.
Select the
type of literary form (drama, novel, essay, poetry,
oration, or short story) that most appeals to you,
and show the influence of religion, politics, social
reform, and economics on the development of that
particular form in our country.n
195
One hour was allotted to this question.
The thought,
form, style, vocabulary, and techniques used in develop­
ing the subject were judged together with spelling, sen­
tence structure, paragraph development, and general
organization by an impartial English teacher who had made
a survey of the test question both from the English and
from the historical point of view.
Results
1. Objective Tests.
The comparative results are all based on the
scaled scores and percentiles of April, regardless of the
fact that the tests were taken in March by both groups
involved in this program.
196
Table 1
Comparison of Objective Test Scores of Group A and Group B
Cooperative
A
Q5
B
fcec ian
A
B
A
d1
B
Pei•oenti le
A
B
Meat i
A
B
56 tQ 66.0
64.C 62.0 .78,0 55.u 60.0 50.0 62.7 61. C
.Literary Acauaintar.ce
71.0 Sb.3
68.C62.0 32.0 5S. o 77 rQ 55.0 67.2 60.1
.Literary Comprehension
73.0 67.fi
53.C64.0
UsaftQ
6fi.O 6 9 . 0
34. J64.0 6r'.7 61.0
.
‘Snellinft
66.7 66.3
62.( 62.0 07.0 57,0 74. f 74.1 51.5 61.2
.Vocabulary
72.7 71.0
t o .; 66.0
.Total
69f? S9.2 66.4 64.0 32.f fii.O 72.0 65.0
A=Integrated
B^on-Iirtegrated
American History
62.0 62.7 68.0 45.0 67.7 65.8
56.0
68.8 -66.1 68.9 64.7
60.0 76.0 61.1 69.2 64.6
65.7 64.4
Table I contains the scaled scores for Groups A and B
on the battery of objective tests.
It is interesting to
note that in six of the seven scaled score medians, Group A
rated above Group B, vhile in the seventh case, spelling,
the scores were identical.
In the percentile ratings, Group A exceeded Group B
in every Instance, and at no time did A fall lower than
ten points above the norm for the country.
In certain
instances the percentile ranking of Group A exceeded that of
Group B by as much as twenty-two points.
197
•H
•H O
b -p
•H
■H
•H O
•rt
So.
£o
Graph 1
•Integrated
-Han-Integrated
Comparison of Median
Scores of Groups A and B
Graph 2
-Integrated
-Han-Integrated
Comparison of Percentiles
Based on Median Scores of
Groups A and B
Graph 1 Indicates clearly the median scores of the
two groups, and Graph 2 shows the percentile differences
In the two classes*
198
It Is Interesting to consider the results of
this testing program as they have been interpreted by
Eleanor Perry Wood of the Educational Records Bureau,
New York City.
Certain points were significant from this
interpretation:
a. So far as the type of information measured by the
Cooperative American History Test is concerned,
the integrated group has not only progressed as
far in knowledge of American history as the non­
integrated group, but has achieved a higher class
record.
b. Reference to the norms established for public
secondary schools of the East, Middlewest, and
West, indicates that the integrated group has
obtained a mean score which is a little more than
one standard deviation above the mean of the
criterion group.
c. In the American history test the median of the
integrated group is exactly the same as the median
established by 1400 pupils from sixty-four private
college preparatory schools in 1937.
The median
of the non-integrated group is two scaled score
units lower.
d. In the Cooperative English Test the median of the
integrated group was significantly above the medians
199
established for corresponding groups of inde­
pendent school pupils.
In almost every instance
three-fourths of the pupils in the integrated
class scored above the Independent school medians.
e. There is a significant difference between Group A
and B pupils in vocabulary, literary acquaintance,
literary comprehension, and American history.
In
vocabulary and literary acquaintance more than
three-fourths of the pupils in Group A have exceeded
the median of Group B.
f. It is apparent that the pupils who have partici­
pated in the experimental integrated program have
achieved superior attainments in the more cultural
aspects of the subjects in which the tests were
given.
2. Essay-Type Test.
Certain criteria were set up for the judgment of
the value of the compositions written on the essay-type
question.
According to the measurements of good writing,
these criteria fell into five classes.
They were:
a. Class I or what might be termed "A” .
This section
would contain those papers having the following
qualities:
(1) Good in both content and form.
(2) Special merit of some sort.
(3) Superior organization.
(4) Greater wealth of material.
200
(5) Effectiveness.
(6) Clarity.
(7) Sufficient detail.
(8) No glaring errors in form.
(9) No serious errors in content.
(10) Grasp of subject matter.
(11) Comprehensive attack on the assigned question.
b. Class II or "B".
(1) Generally good.
(2) Adequate in subject matter.
(3) Reasonably accurate in form.
c. Class III or "C” .
(1) Fair in both form
and content
or
morethan
fair in form, but rather weak in content.
(2) Adequate subject matter in one phase of the
topic, but limited in relation to the entire
question.
d. Class IV or "D".
(1) Inadequate in content.
(2) Fair in organization.
(3) Many errors in spelling and construction.
e. Class V or "E".
(1) Quite inadequate.
(2) Poor content.
(3) Form inferior.
(a) Ranges from poor to good, saying nothing
well.
201
These papers which had been numbered and mixed were
given to Mrs. John Tice for marking.
Mrs. Tice has for
some years been a successful teacher of English and is at
the present, acting as substitute in the Maplewood-South
Orange system.
She was selected to do this checking because
of her experience, good judgment, and analytical ability.
The essay-type question was given to Mrs. Tice a week in
advance of the test in order that she might review the
material covered by the various parts of the question.
According to this judgment the papers fell into
the five groups in the following percentages:
Table II
Comparison of Ratings of Groups A and B on Essay-Type Test
Integrated
Non-Inteerated
zcr/o
33
3
2%
t)/a
I
II
■
333
123
23
2y%
in
2 in i
403
IV
.
V
These tabulations indicate that 53# of Group A was
more than satisfactory in both subject matter and form;
33# were adequate in subject matter but fair in technical
form; 14% were inadequate in both.
In Group B, 8% of the papers were more than satis­
factory in both subject matter and form; 29# were ade­
quate in both of these elements, and 63# were inadequate
in both.
202
Conclusions.
1. Based on Objective Tests.
a. The results of this experiment and testing pro­
gram indicate that Group A has progressed further
in the knowledge of American literature and
United States history than Group B.
b. There is evidence that Group A has exceeded the
norms established by public secondary schools in
the East, Middlewest and West.
c. Prom the American history test there is evidence
that Group A is comparable to pupils of the same
age and mental level in private colleges, and
preparatory schools, which is not true in the case
of Group B.
d. There is evidence to show that Group A has a
higher rating in the more cultural aspects of the
subjects in which the tests were given.
e. In written composition Group A showed marked
superiority to Group B.
2. Based on Subjective Judgment.
The results of this experiment would seem to indi­
cate from subjective observation that:
a. Each subject enriches and supplements the other
and apparently stimulates and awakens pupil interest.
203
b. The integration of American literature and
United States history broadens the pupil’s
conception of people and periods and adds to
his cultural background.
c. It develops better habits of thought and makes
the work in both subjects more functional.
204
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Von Holst, H., Constitutional History of the United States.
1892, 8 volumes.
Wallaoe, F. W., Wooden Ships and Iron Men.
Sully, 1924.
West, W. M., Amerloan Democraey. New York:
Allyn, Baoon,
192'
Wilson, Woodrow, Epochs of Amerloan History. New York:
Longmans, Greene, 1932.
Wise, I. S., The End of an Era. New York:
Houghton, 1899.
216
LITERATURE
Baldwin, C. C., The Men Who Make Our Novels*
New York:
Dodd, 1924*
Bates, Katherine L., American Literature.
New York:
Macmillan, 1900.
Bayton, Percy H., Milestones in American Literature.
New York:
American, 1935.
Bennett, H. G., American Literature.
New York:
American,
1935.
Bayton, Percy H., Some Contemporary Americans.
Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1924.
Blankenship, R., American Literature as an Expression of
the National Mind.
New York:
Holt, 1931.
Blankenship, Russell, Lyman, Rollo, and Hill, H. C.,
American Literature.
New York:
Scribner, 1937.
Boardman, Lester, Modern American Speeches.
New York:
Longman, 1913.
Boas, R. P. and Burton, Katherine, Social Backgrounds of
American Literature.
Boston:
Little, Brown, 1933.
Brownell, W. C., American Prose Masters.
New York:
Serioners, 1923.
Cairns, W. B., History of American Literature.
Oxford, 1930.
Calverton, V. F., The LlDeratlon of American Literature.
New York:
Scribner, 1932.
Canby, H. S., Classic Americans.
New York:
Harcourt, 1931.
217
Cook, Luella, Norvell, G. W., McCall, William A., Hidden
Treasures in Literature.
New Yorks
Harcourt, 1934.
Cooper, Alice, and Fallon, David, lhe March of a Nation.
New York:
Heath, 1935*
Dickinson, T., Making of American Literature.
New York:
Century, 1932.
'Dickinson, T. H., Playwrights of the New American Theater.
New York:
Macmillan, 1925.
Dodge, D. K., Lincoln’s Inaugurals, Addresses, and Letters.
New York:
Longman, 1910.
.Fiske, H. S., Provincial Types in American Fiction.
New York:
Chautauqua Press, 1903.
Foerster, Norman, Chief, American Prose Writers.
New York:
Houghton, 1916.
.Foerster, Norman; Pierson, W. W., American Ideals.
New York:
Houghton, 1917.
Haney, J., Story of Our Literature.
New York:
Scribner,
1923.
,Hatcher, H., Creating the Modern American Novel.
New York:
Farrar and Rinehart, 1935.
Hansen, Harry, Midwest Portraits.
New York:
Harcourt,
1923.
.Howard, J. R., Poems of Heroism in American Life.
New York:
Crowell, 1922.
Jessup, Alexander, American Short Stories.
Allyn and Bacon, 1923.
New York:
218
/Long, A. W., American Patriotic Prose,
New York:
Heath,
1917.
Long,, William, J., Outline of American Literature with
Readings.
New Yorks
Ginn, 1925.
•Lowe, Orton, Our Land and Its Literature.
Hew York:
Harper, 1936.
Macy, J. A., American Writers on American Literature.
New York:
Liveright, 1931.
•Manly, J. M., Rickert E., Contemporary American Literature.
New York:
Harcourt, 1922.
Mantle, Burns, American Playwrights of Today.
New York:
Dodd, 1930.
•Miller, Marion M,, Great Debates in American Hi: tory.
New York:
Current Literature Publish ing Company,
11 vcI'tu r., 1913.
Norton, H dhar.ic-1, Chronicle: of 11 o Pilgri' i Iy-hors .
New York:
Dutton, 1920.
O ’Brien, Edward J., Advance of the American Short Story.
New York:
Dodd, Mead, 1923.
O ’Neill, James M., Modern Short Speeches.
New York:
Century, 1923.
Parker, William, B., Viles, J., Letters and Addresses of
Thomas Jefferson.
New York:
Unit Book Company, 1905.
Pattee, F. L . , Century Readings for a Course in American
Literature.
New York:
Century, 1926.
Pattee, F. L«, New American Literature.
New York:
Century, 1930.
1890-1930,
219
Payne, L. W., History of American Literature.
New Yorks
Rand, 1919,
Payne, L, W., Later American Writers.
New York:
Rand, 1927.
Quinn, Arthur H., History of American Drama from the Beginning
to the Civil War.
New York:
Harper, 1923.
Schweikert, H. C., Adventures in American Literature.
New York:
Harcourt, 1930.
Simons, Sarah E., American Literature through Illustrative
Readings, 1608-1928.
New York:
Scribner, 1915.
Simons, American Literature through Illustrative Readings.
New York:
Scribners, 1928.
Squire, J. C., Contemporary American Authors.
New York:
Holt, 1928.
Stedman, E. Clarence, American Anthology, 1787-1900.
New York:
Houghton, 1900.
Tefft, B. P., Speeches of Daniel Webster.
New York:
Porter, 1854.
Trent, W. P., Wells, B. W., Colonial Prose and Poetry.
New York:
Crowell, 1903.
TJntermeyer, L., Modern American Poetry.
Harcourt, 1936.
New York:
APPENDIX
AM ERICAN COUNCIL O N EDUCATION
COOPERATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY TEST
Form 1937
by
H O W A R D R. ANDERSON, State University o f Iowa
and
E. F. LINDQUIST, State University o f Iowa
Please print:
N a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lost
First
M id dle
Grade or Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A g e . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date of Birth. . . . . . . . .
Yrs.
School. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mos.
City. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex. . . . . . . . .
M . o r F.
Title of the history course you are now taking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instructor. . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Directions: Do not turn this page until the examiner tells you to do so. This examination consists o f three
parts, and requires 90 minutes of working time. The directions fo r each p a rt are printed a t the beginning o f the
p a rt. Read them carefully, and proceed a t once to answer the questions. DO N O T SPEND T O O MUCH TIME
O N AMY O N E ITEM: ANSWER THE EASIER QUESTIONS FIRST: then return to the harder ones, i f you have tim e.
There is a tim e lim it fo r each part. You are not expected to answer all the questions in any p a rt in the time lim it:
b u t if you should, g o on to the next p a rt. If you have not finished Part I when the tim e is up, stop work on th a t
p a rt and proceed a t once to Part II. No questions may be asked a fte r the examination has begun.
By exercising careful judgment and making shrewd guesses you may p ro fita b ly answer questions about which you are
not absolutely sure: but since your score will be the number o f correct answers diminished by a number proportional
to the number of wrong answers, you should avoid answering questions about which you are to ta lly ignorant. Shrewd
guessing based on intelligent inference will improve your score, but wild guessing on questions th a t are entirely
unknown to you will waste tim e which you could better put on other questions in the test, and may result in a large
subtraction from the number o f your correct answers.
Port
Minutes
1
40
II
10
III
40
Total
90
Row Score
Percentile
Scaled Score
(See ta b le on key)
C opyright, 1937, by th e C oop erative Test Service. A ll Rights Reserved. Printed in U . S. A .
437 W e s t 59th Street, N ew Yorlc C ity
- 2 -
Part I
(Time: 40 minutes)
SECTION A: HISTORICAL PERSONAGES
Directions: Each of
personages following
number corresponding
correctly worked out
the following items characterizes or suggests one of the five historical
the statement. In the parentheses following each statement write the
to the name of the person to whom it applies. The first item has been
to show you how to proceed.
0. Was president of the United States during the World
War:
0(1)George Washington,
0(2) Abraham Lincoln,
0(3) Patrick Henry,
0(4) Alfred E. Smith,
0(5) Woodrow W i l s o n
0(S" )
1. Conquered New Sweden:
1(1) Peter Minuit,
1(2) Count Frontenac,
1(3) Sieur de
La Salle, 1(4) Peter Stuyvesant, 1(5) Hernando De Soto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1(
)
2. First explored the Mississippi to its mouth:
2(1) Peter Minuit,
2(2) Count
Frontenac, 2(3) Sieur de La Salle,
2(4) Peter Stuyvesant, 2(5) Hernando DeSoto.
)
2(
3. Did more than any other governor ofNew France to promote Frenchinterests in the
Mississippi Valley:
3(1) Peter Minuit,
3(2) Count Frontenac,
3(3) Sieur de
La Salle, 3(4) Peter Stuyvesant, 3(5) Hernando De S o t o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3(
)
4. Successfully popularized the idea of Pan-Americanism;
4(1) Hamilton Fish,
4(2) John Hay, 4(3) Richard Olney,
4(4) William H. Seward, 4(5) James G.Blaine. 4(
)
5. As secretary of state he secured a peaceful settlement of ourpost-Civil Warclaims
against Great Britain:
5(1) Hamilton Fish,
5(2) John Hay,
5(3) Richard Olney,
5(4) William H.
Seward,
5(5) James G. Blaine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5(
)
6. Beginning his political career as private secretary to Lincoln, he eventually became
one of our greatest secretaries of state:
6(1) Hamilton Fish,
6(2) John Hay,
6(3) Richard Olney, 6(4) William H. Seward,
6(5) James G. Blaine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6(
)
7. Is credited with the restoration of friendly relations between Mexico and the United
States:
7(1) Albert B. Fall,
7(2) Edward L. Doheny,
7(3) Dwight Morrow,
7(4) Herbert Hoover,
7(5) Calvin Coolidge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7(
)
8. Was fined and imprisoned for accepting a bribe while secretary of the interior:
8(1) Albert B. Fall, 8(2) Edward L. Doheny,
8(3) Dwight Morrow,
8(4) Herbert
Hoover,
8(5) Calvin Coolidge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8(
)
9. Failed to develop an effective program for combatting a major period of depression:
9(1) Albert B. Fall, 9(2) Edward L. Doheny,
9(3) Dwight Morrow,
9(4) Herbert
Hoover,
9(5) Calvin Coolidge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9(
)
Go on to the next page.
- 3 10. Was a prominent leader in the Knight3 of Labor organization:
10(1) Samuel Gompers,
10(2) Eugene V. Debs,
10(3) John L. Lewis, 10(4) Henry Ford,
10(5) Terence
Powderly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10(
)
11. Under his leadership the American Federation of Labor developed along conservative
lines:
11(1) Samuel Gompers,
11(2) Eugene V. Debs,
11(3) John L. Lewis,
11(4) Henry Ford,
11(5) Terence Powderly
11(
)
12. The government's attitude at the time of the Pullman Strike was one reason for
his acceptance of socialism:
12(1) Samuel Gompers,
12(2) Eugene V. Debs,
12(3) John L. Lewis,
12(4) Henry Ford,
12(5) Terence Powderly
12(
)
13. Created the New York Central Railroad:
13(1) Jay Gould,
13(2) John D. Rockefeller,
13(3) James J. Hill,
13(4) Andrew Carnegie,
13(5) Cornelius Vanderbilt.......... 13( )
14. Involved in the gold conspiracy which resulted in Black Friday:
14(1) Jay Gould,
14(2) John D. Rockefeller,
14(3) James J. Hill,
14(4) Andrew Carnegie,
14(5) Cornelius Vanderbilt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14( )
15. At the end of the nineteenth century he was the greatest single figure in the steel
industry:
15(1) Jay Gould,
15(2) John D. Rockefeller,
15(3) James J. Hill,
15(4) Andrew Carnegie,
15(5) Cornelius Vanderbilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15(
)
16. Gained fame for his help in managing the finances of the government during the
Revolution:
16(1) Patrick Henry, 16(2) Benjamin Franklin,
16(3) Robert Morris,
16(4) Alexander Hamilton,
16(5) John Dickinson
16(
)
17. Is usually credited with a major role in the drawing up of the Articles of
Confederation:
17(1) Patrick Henry,
17(2) Benjamin Franklin,
17(3) Robert
Morris,
17(4) Alexander Hamilton,
17(5) John Dickinson
17(
)
18. His international reputation and his diplomatic ability combined to make him a
valuable agent in negotiating foreign loans for the new republic:
18(1) Patrick
Henry,
18(2) Benjamin Franklin,
18(3) Robert Morris, *18(4) Alexander Hamilton,
18(5) John Dickinson
18(
)
19. A vindictive leader in the House of Representatives who fought for the adoption of
the radical reconstruction program;
19(1) Edwin M. Stanton,
19(2) William H.
Seward,
19(3) DanielWebster,
19(4) Thaddeus Stevens,
19(5) William J. Bryan. . 19(
)
20. His dismissal from the cabinet was regarded by the House as grounds for moving the
impeachment of the president:
20(1) Edwin M. Stanton,
20(2) William H. Seward,
20(3) Daniel Webster,
20(4) Thaddeus Stevens, 20(5) 'William J. Bryan
20(
)
21. An orator whose early speeches demanded justice for debtor farmers oppressed by
ruthless creditors;
21(1) Edwin M. Stanton,
21(2) William H. Seward,
21(3) Daniel Webster,
2l(4) Thaddeus Stevens, 21(5) William J. Bryan
21(
)
22. Became president of the United States on the strength of his military victories in
the Mexican War:
22(1) Martin Van Buren,
22(2) James K. Polk,
22(3) Zachary
Taylor,
22(4) Winfield Scott, 22(5) John C. Fremont
22(
)
23. Was the first presidential candidate on the Republican ticket:
23(1) Martin Van
Buren,
23(2) James K. Polk,
23(3) Zachary Taylor,
23(4) Winfield Scott,
23(5) John C. Frem o n t
23(
)
24. His administration was severely hampered by a major financial panic:
24(1) Martin
Van Buren,
24(2) James K. Polk, *24(3) Zachary Taylor,
24(4) Winfield Scott,
24(5) John C. Frem o n t
24(
)
Go on to the next page.
-4 25. An arbitrary and brutal early governor of Virginia: 25(1) William Penn,
Edmund Andros,
25(3) Sir Thomas Dale,
25(4) James Oglethorpe,
25(5) Lord Baltimore
25(2) Sir
25(
)
26. Slavery and traffic in rum were both prohibited in the colony which he founded:
26(1) William Penn,
26(2) Sir Edmund Andros,
26(3) Sir Thomas Dale,
26(4) James
Oglethorpe,
26(5) Lord Baltimore
26(
)
27. A boundary dispute between his colony and the neighboring one to the north resulted
in the establishment of the Mason-Dixon line:
27(1) William Penn, 27(2) Sir Edmund
Andros,
27(3) Sir Thomas Dale,
27(4) James Oglethorpe,
27(5) Lord Baltimore . . 27(
)
23. His invention was a significant factor in the defeat of the Confederacy by the North:
28(1) Cyrus McCormick,
23(2) Eli Whitney,
28(3) Elias Howe,
28(4) Jethro Wood,
23(5) Samuel Slater
28(
)
29. Known as the father of the American factory system: 29(1) Cyrus McCormick,
29(2) Eli Whitney,
29(3) Elias Howe,
29(4) Jethro Wood,
29(5) Samuel Slater . . 29(
)
30. Prior to his invention the institution of slavery showed evidence of dying:
30(1) Cyrus McCormick,
30(2) Eli Whitney,
30(3) Elias Howe,
30(4) Jethro Wood,
30(5) Samuel Sla t e r
30(
)
31. An abolitionist organizer and editor who was the presidential candidate of the Liberty
Party:
31(1) Horace Mann, 31(2) Horace Greeley,
31(3) James G. Bimey,
31(4) Charles Eliot,
31(5) Elijah Lovejoy
31(
)
32. In his newspaper he advocated peaceful acceptance of southern secession fromthe
Union:
32(1) Horace Mann, 32(2) Horace Greeley, 32(3) James G. Birney,
32(4) Charles Eliot,
32(5) Elijah Lovejoy
32(
)
33. His efforts led to the establishment of the first state-supported normal school:
33(1) Horace Mann,
33(2) Horace Greeley,
33(3) James G. Bimey,
33(4) Charles
Eliot,
33(5) Elijah Lovejoy
33(
)
34. Following the report of the deposition of James II, he seized control of the govern­
ment of his colony:
34(1) Ethan Allen,
34(2) John Stark,
34(3) Nathaniel Bacon,
34(4) Jacob Leisler, 34(5) John Parker
34(
)
35. The leader of the group which in 1775 captured the fort commanding one entrance to
Lake Champlain:
35(1) Ethan Allen,
35(2) John Stark,
35(3) Nathaniel Bacon,
35(4) Jacob Leisler, 35(5) John Parker
35(
)
36. Commanded the militia which defeated Burgoyne's force at Bennington:
36(1) Ethan
Allen,
36(2) John Stark,
36(3) Nathaniel Bacon,
36(4) Jacob Leisler,
36(5) John P a r k e r
36(
)
37. His conquests enabled the United States to claim the territory west of the Alleghenies
following the Revolution:
37(1) John Jacob Astor,
37(2) Zebulon Pike,
37(3) George Rogers Clark,
37(4) Meriwether Lewis,
37(5) Marcus Whitman . . . . . . . . 37( )
38. Attempted to compete with the Hudson Bay Company in the Oregon country:
38(1) John
Jacob Astor,
38(2) Zebulon Pike, 38(3) George Rogers Clark,
38(4) Meriwether
Lewis,
38(5) Marcus Whitman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38( )
39. Sought the source of the Mississippi and explored the Southwest: 39(1) John Jacob
Astor,
39(2) Zebulon Pike,
39(3) George Rogers Clark,
39(4) Meriwether Lewis,
39(5) Marcus Whitman
Go on to the next page.
39(
)
- 5
SECTION B: HISTORICAL TERMS
Directions; Proceed as in the preceding exercises.
40. Opened an era of yellow journalism;
40(1) Boston News Letter,
40(2) New England
Courant,
40(3) New York Tribune, 40(4) New York Sun,
40(5) New York World . . . 40(
41. Published
Courant,
the first penny edition; 41(1) Boston News Letter,
41(2) New England
41(3) New York Tribune, 41(4) New York Sun,
41(5) New York World . . . 41(
42. The first regular newspaper to be published in British America;
42(1) Boston News
Letter, 42(2) New England Courant,
42(3) New York Tribune,
42(4) New York Sun,
42(5) New York World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42(
43. A southern white who cast his lot with the corrupt state governments of the
Reconstruction era;
43(1) Half-breed,
43(2) Mugwump,
43(3) Carpetbagger,
43(4) Scalawag,
43(5) Copperhead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43(
44. Deserted his own party candidate andsupported theopposition:
44(1)Half-breed,
44(2) Mugwump,
44(3) Carpetbagger, 44(4) Scalawag,
44(5)Copperhead .........
44(
45. A Northerner who opposed the policy of the federal government and sympathized with
the Confederacy:
45(1) Half-breed,
45(2) Mugwump,
45(3) Carpetbagger,
45(4) Scalawag,
45(5) Copperhead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45(
46. Designedto nullify one part of the Compromise of 1850;
'46(1) Emancipation Procla­
mation, 46(2) Personal Liberty Laws,
46(3) Black Codes,
46(4) Fugitive Slave
Law,
46(5) Jim Crow Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46(
47. The North considered these a southern attempt to re-enslave the freedmen:
47(1) Emancipation Proclamation,
47(2) Personal Liberty Laws,
47(3) Black Codes,
47(4) Fugitive Slave Law,
47(5) Jim Crow L a w s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47(
48. Designed to enforce the segregation of races in the South:
48(1) Emancipation
Proclamation,
48(2} Personal Liberty Laws,
48(3) Black Codes,
48(4) Fugitive
Slave Law,
48(5) Jim Crow Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48(
49. Causes a fall in commodity prices;
49(1) Inflation,
49(2) Deflation,
49(3) Fiat
money,
49(4) Bimetallism, 49(5) Specie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49(
50. Based entirely on the credit of the government:
50(1) Inflation,50(2) Deflation,
50(3) Fiat money,
50(4) Bimetallism,
50(5) Specie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 50(
51. The Oriental countries would
like to have thewestern world adopt this: 51(1) Infla­
tion,
51(2) Deflation,
51(3) Fiat money,
51(4) Bimetallism, 51(5) Specie. . . 51(
52. The earliest of the events listed which greatly increased trade between the Orient
and western Europe:
52(1) Crusades,
52(2) Renaissance,
52(3) Reformation,
52(4) Commercial Revolution,
52(5) Spanish
Century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52(
53. A famous English naval victory brought it to a close: 53(1) Crusades,
53(2) Renaissance,
53(3) Reformation,
53(4) Commercial Revolution,
53(5) Spanish Cent u r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53(
54. Caused much civil strife throughout Europe, which in turn motivated the migration of
various groups to the New World:
54(1) Crusades,
54(2) Renaissance,
54(3) Reformation,
54(4) Commercial Revolution,
54(5)Spanish Century .........
Go on to the next page.
54(
-6 55. Jackson defied the Supreme Court in his dealings with these Indians:
55(1) Algon­
quins,
55(2) Iroquois,
55(3) Cherokees,
55(4) Sioux,
55(5) Seminoles
55(
)
56. Were the bitter enemies of the French: 56(1) Algonquins,
56(2) Iroquois,
56(3) Cherokees,
56(4) Sioux,
56(5) Seminoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56(
)
57. Were among the last of the Plains Indians to surrender to the white man:
57(1) Algonquins, 57(2) Iroquois,
57(3) Cherokees, 57(4)Sioux,
57(5) Seminoles.57(
)
58. The commandant of this vessel harried the coasts of England and Scotland:
58(1) The
Constitution,
58(2) The Clermont,
58(3) The Monitor,
58(4) The Oregon,
58(5) The Bon Homme Richard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58(
)
59. First successful steamboat in America:
59(3) The Monitor,
59(4) The Oregon,
59(1) The Constitution,59(2) The Clermont,
59(5) The Bon HommeRichard............... 59(
)
60. The spectacular voyage made by this ship furnished a great impetus to the project for
an isthmian canal:
60(1) The Constitution,
60(2) The Clermont,
60(3) The
Monitor, 60(4) The Oregon,
60(5) The Bon Homme Richard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60(
)
61. Opened a part of the Ohio Territory to unrestricted settlement by the removal of the
Indian menace:
61(1) Treaty of Washington,
61(2) Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo,
61(3) Bryan-Chamorro Treaty,
61(4) Webster-Ashburton Treaty,
61(5) Treaty of
Greenville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 (
)
62. Made provision for the arbitration of an important international dispute:
62(1) Treaty of Washington,
62(2) Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 62(3)
BryanChamorro Treaty,
62(1) Webster-Ashburton Treaty,
62(5) Treaty ofGreenville . . . 62(
)
63. Completed the expansion of the United States westward to the Pacific:
63(1) Treaty
of Washington,
63(2) Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo,
63(3) Bryan-Chamorro Treaty,
63(4) Webster-Ashburton Treaty,
63(5) Treaty of Greenville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63(
)
64. Its consistent application would eventually make the United States responsible for
the internal affairs of the Caribbean countries:
64(1) American System,
64(2) Roosevelt Corollary,
64(3) Pan-Americanism,
64(4) Monroe Doctrine,
64(5) Stimson Doctrine
64(
)
65. First sponsored by Henry Clay as a national program, it soon became the basis of
sectional controversy: 65(1) American System,
65(2) Roosevelt Corollary,
65(3) Pan-Americanism, 65(4) Monroe Doctrine,
65(5) Stimson Doctrine. . . . . . . . . . . 65(
)
66. South America sees in its development a means of checking the imperialistic ambitions
of the United States;
66(1) American System,
66(2) Roosevelt Corollary,
66(3) Pan-Americanism, 66(4) Monroe Doctrine,
66(5) Stimson Doctrine
66(
)
67. An early statement of nullification principles:
67(1) Exposition and Protest,
67(2) Gag Resolution,
67(3) Kentucky Resolutions,
67(4) Freeport Doctrine,
67(5) Ostend Manifesto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67(
68. Virtually advocated nullification of the Dred Scott Decision:
68(1) Exposition and
Protest, 68(2) Gag Resolution,
68(3) Kentucky Resolutions, 68(4) Freeport
Doctrine,
68(5) Ostend Manifesto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68(
69. Announced the right of the United States to accomplish the conquest of Cuba from
Spain:
69(1) Exposition and Protest, 69(2) Gag Resolution, 69(3) Kentucky
Resolutions,
69(4) Freeport Doctrine, 69(5) Ostend Manifesto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69(
Go on to the next page.
- 7 70. Its application in the territory of the Louisiana Purchase seemed to the North to be
the first great violation of the Missouri Compromise:
70(1) Wilmot Proviso,
70(2) Popular Sovereignty,
70(3) Dred Scott*Decision,
70(4) Crittenden Compromise,
70(5) Texas Manifesto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70(
)
71. An unsuccessful last-minute proposal for preventing an open break between the North
and the South:
71(1) Wilmot Proviso,
71(2) Popular Sovereignty,
71(3) Dred
Scott Decision,
71(4) Crittenden Compromise, 71(5) Texas Manifesto. . . . . . . . . . . . . 71(
)
72. Recognized the extreme pro-slavery doctrine of Calhoun and Davis;
72(1) Wilmot
Proviso,
72(2) Popular Sovereignty,
72(3) Dred Scott Decision,
72(4) Crittenden
Compromise,
72(5) Texas Manifesto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72(
)
73. One of the factors which influenced American public opinion to demand war in 1898:
73(1) Trent Affair,
73(2) Chesapeake Affair,
73(3) De Lome Letter,
73(4) Zimmer­
man Note,
73(5) X.Y.Z. Affair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73(
74. Threatened to bring England to the support of the Confederacy:
74(1) Trent Affair,
74(2) Chesapeake Affair,
74(3) De Lome Letter,
74(4) Zimmerman Note,
74(5) X.Y.Z. A f f a i r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 74(
75. Was followed by not only a diplomatic breach but also unofficial war between France
and the United States:
75(1) Trent Affair,
75(2) Chesapeake Affair,
75(3) De
Lome Letter,
75(4) Zimmerman Note,
75(5)
X.Y.Z. Affair................. 75(
76. Empowered to investigate the practices of big business in general:
76(1) Electoral
Commission,
76(2) Federal Trade Commission,
76(3) Interstate Commerce Commission,
76(4) Wickersham Commission,
76(5)Civil Service Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76(
77. Was a temporary body created for thepurpose of settling a nationaldispute:
77(1) Electoral Commission,77(2) Federal Trade Commission,
77(3) Interstate
Commerce Commission,
77(4) Wickersham Commission,
77(5) Civil Service Commission. 77(
78. A temporary fact-finding commission empowered to investigate certain conditions and
make recommendations for their improvement:
78(1) Electoral Commission,
78(2) Federal Trade Commission,
78(3) Interstate Commerce Commission,
78(4) Wickersham Commission,
78(5)Civil Service Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78(
79. Provided for Philippine independence within a period of ten years: 79(1) Foraker
Act,
79(2) Jones Act,
79(3) Hawes-Cutting Bill,
79(4) Insular Cases,
{ 79(5) Platt Amendment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79(
$0. Bore much the same relation to the administration of the dependencies of the United
f States as the Northwest Ordinance did to the organization of the continental terri­
tories of the United States:
80(1) Foraker Act,
80(2) Jones Act,
80(3) HawesCutting Bill,
80(4) Insular Cases, 80(5) PlattAmendment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80(
iL. Cave the United States power tointervene in theinternalaffairs of Cuba:
j 81(1) Foraker Act, 81(2) Jones Act, 81(3) Hawes-Cutting Bill, 81(4) Insular
i Cases,
81(5) Platt Amendment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81(
82. Procured the Canal Zone for the United States;
82(1) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty,
82(2) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty,
82(3) Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty,
82(4) Bryan-Chamorro
Treaty,
82(5) Treaty of Portsmouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82(
83. Resulted from the increased interest in transportation across the isthmus following
the gold discovery in California:
83(1) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty,
83(2) ClaytonBulwer Treaty,
83(3) Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty,
83(4) Bryan-Chamorro Treaty,
83(5) Treaty of Portsmouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83(
84. Because of his part in this, Theodore Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize:
84(1) Hay-Pauncefote Treaty,
84(2) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty,
84(3) Hay-Bunau-Varilla
Treaty,
84(4) Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, 84(5) Treaty of Portsmouth ............. 84(
Go on to the next page.
)
- 8
85. A permanent body having jurisdiction over oases of international law:
85(1) Paris
Pact,
85(2) Locarno Pact,
85(3) Hague Tribunal,
85(4) League of Nations,
85(5) World C o u r t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85(
86. The signing nations agreed to the outlawry of war as an instrument of national
policy:
86(1) Paris Pact,
86(2) Locarno Pact,
86(3) Hague Tribunal,
86(4) League of Nations,
86(5) World Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86(
87. Opposed by many Americans who asserted that membershipin it would involve this
country in wars:
87(1) Paris Pact,
87(2) LocarnoPact,
87(3) HagueTribunal,
87(4) League of Nations,
87(5) World Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87(
88. Organized by the Continental Congress to compel Parliament to repeal its coercive
acts:
88(1) Sons of Liberty,
88(2) Committees of Correspondence,
88(3) American
Association,
88(4) Non-Intercourse Act, 88(5) Albany Plan of Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . 88(
89. Initiated by Samuel Adams in an attempt to bring about greater unity in colonial
opposition to Great Britain:
89(1) Sons of Liberty,
89(2) Committees of
Correspondence,
89(3) American Association,
89(4) Non-Intercourse Act,
89(5) Albany Plan of Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89(
90. Organized in protest against the Stamp Act:90(1) Sons
of Liberty, 90(2)Committees
of Correspondence,
90(3) American Association, 90(4) Non-Intercourse Act,
90(5) Albany Plan of Union............
90(
91. Repealed by Parliament partly because of the pressure brought to bear by English
merchants:
91(1) Quebec Act,
91(2) Sugar Act,
91(3) Declaratory Act,
91(4) Intolerable Acts, 91(5). ... Stamp Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91(
92. Although the measure applied to only one, all the colonies were aroused to united
opposition against England:
92(1) Quebec Act,
92(2) Sugar Act,
92(3) Declaratory
Act, 92(4) Intolerable Acts,
92(5) Stamp Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92(
93. Opposed by the settlers because it interfered with their unrestricted settlement of
the Northwest Territory:
93(1) Quebec Act,
93(2) Sugar Act,
93(3) Declaratory
Act, 93(4) Intolerable Acts,
93(5) Stamp Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93(
94. Lost his civil rights and privileges in 1685:
94(1) Dissenter,
94(2) Huguenot,
94(3) Quaker, 94(4) Catholic,
94(5) Anglican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94(
95. The established religion in the Virginia Colony:
95(1) Dissenter,
95(2) Huguenot,
95(3) Quaker,
95(4) Catholic,
95(5) Anglican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95(
96. The class of immigrant that formed a large part of the population in the New England
colonies:
96(1) Dissenter,
96(2) Huguenot,
96(3) Quaker,
96(4) Catholic,
96(5) Anglican. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96(
97. The states have the sole right to exercise certain powers;
97(1) Ex officio powers,
97(2) Distribution of powers,
97(3) Concurrent powers,
97(4) Enumerated powers,
97(5) Reserved p o w e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97(
98. The Constitution outlines a division of the governing powers between the central
government and the individual state governments:
98(1) Ex officio powers,
98(2) Distribution of powers,
98(3) Concurrent powers,
98(4) Enumerated powers,
98(5) Reserved p o w e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98(
99. The central government and the state governments both exercise certain powers:
99(1) Ex officio powers, 99(2) Distributionof powers,
99(3) Concurrent powers,
99(4) Enumerated powers, 99(5) Reservedpowers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99(
Go on to the next page.
SECTION C: GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS
Directions? Proceed as in the preceding exercises.
100. This strategic position was captured by the British early in the War of 1812:
100(1) Watauga,
100(2) Boonesboro,
100(3) Nashboro,
100(4) Vincennes,
100(5) Detroit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100(
101. The location of the first settlement in the Tennessee country:
101(1) Watauga,
101(2) Boonesboro, 101(3) Nashboro,101(4) Vincennes,
101(5) Detroit . . . .
101(
102. The western terminal of the Wilderness Trail* 102(1)Watauga, 102(2)Boonesboro,
102(3) Nashboro,102(4) Vincennes,102(5) Detroit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102(
103. Because of its proximity to coal and iron sources, this city grew to be the great
industrial center of the new South:
103(1) Independence,
103(2) St. Louis,
103(3) Birmingham,
103(4) Memphis, 103(5) Omaha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103(
104. The usual startingpoint for those who made the great journey over theplains to
the Pacific coast in the fifties;
104(1) Independence,
104(2) St. Louis,
104(3) Birmingham,
104(4) Memphis, 104(5) Omaha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104(
105. An early objective of the Union Armybecause it wasan importantrailroad center:
105(1) Independence,
105(2) St. Louis,
105(3) Birmingham,
105(4) Memphis,
105(5) Omaha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105(
106. The Oregon Trail followed this river: 106(1) Arkansas River,
106(2) Illinois
River,
106(3) Tennessee River,
106(4) Wabash River,
106(5) Platte River. . .
106(
107. George Rogers Clark'3 famous march was made through the
"drowned lands" caused by
the overflow of this river:
107(1) Arkansas River,
107(2) Illinois River,
107(3) Tennessee River,
107(4) Wabash River,
107(5) Platte River ..........
107(
108. The most southern point reached by Marquette and Joliet
in their explorations of
the Mississippi:
108(1) Arkansas River,
108(2) Illinois River,
108(3) Tennessee River,
108(4) Wabash River,
108(5) Platte River ..........
108(
109. Located south of the Nueces River and north of the Rio Grande:
109(1) Vera Cruz,
109(2) Palo Alto, 109(3) Tampico, 109(4) Santa Fe,
109(5) Buena Vista. . . . 109(
110. Located on the Gulf of Mexico directly east of Mexico City:
110(1) Vera Cruz,
110(2) Palo Alto, 110(3) Tampico, 110(4) Santa Fe,
110(5) Buena Vista. . . . 110(
111. After Mexico broke away from Spain, a thriving trade developed between the United
States and northern Mexico with this point as its center:
111(1) Vera Cruz,
111(2) Palo Alto, 111(3) Tampico, 111(4) Santa Fe,
111(5) Buena Vista. . . . 111(
112. The most eastern of the Great Lakes:
112(1) Lake Erie,
112(3) Niagara River, 112(4) Lake of the Woods, 112(5)
112(2) Lake Ontario,
Detroit River .......
112(
113. Connects Lake St. Clair and one of the Great Lakes:
113(1) Lake Erie,
113(2) Lake Ontario,
113(3) Niagara River,
113(4) Lake of the Woods,
113(5) Detroit River . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113(
114. Its southern shore is approximately at the 49th parallel:
114(1) Lake Erie,
114(2) Lake Ontario,
114(3) Niagara River,
114(4) Lake of the Woods,
114(5) Detroit River
114 (
Number wrong 4).
Number right
Subtract
Raw Score = Difference
PART II (Time: 10 minutes)
10
-
-
DATES AND EVENTS
Directions: In each of the following exercises, the four events in the left-hand column are
arranged in the time order in which they occurred. Each of the numbers in the left-hand
column, therefore, corresponds to a definite time interval. Interval (1) is that preceding
the first event, interval (2) is that between the first and second events, and interval (5)
is that following the last event.
In the parentheses following each event in the right-hand column, you are to write the number
of the interval in which it occurred. For example, in the sample exercise, the Boston Tea
Party occurred between the founding of Jamestown and thesigning of the Declaration of Inde­
pendence. The number 3 is therefore written in thefirst parentheses.
The number 1 is
written in the second parentheses, since America was discovered before the defeat of the
Spanish Armada. The sample exercise has been correctly filled out; study it until you are
sure that you understand how to proceed. Note that the same interval may be employed more
than once in the same exercise, as in the sample.
(1) —
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
(2)~
Founding of Jamestown
(3)—
Signing of the Declaration
of Independence
(4)—
Civil War
(5)~
(1)—
Spanish-American War
(2)~
Huerta seized control of the
Mexican government
(3)—
The United States entered
the World War
(4)Japan seized Manchuria
(5)~
U)~
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
(2)~
Centennial Exposition in
Philadelphia
(3)~
Theodore Roosevelt became
president
(4)~
Woodrow Wilson became
president
(5)~
0. Boston Tea Party. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . )
0. Discovery of America by Columbus................ ( / )
0. Stamp Act Congress
115. The arrest of some United States sailors in Mexico
eventually resulted in the seizure of an important
Mexican port by the United States marines ......
{J
)
(
)
116. The secretary of state proclaimed the policy of
the United States to be unfavorable to the recog­
nition of any territorial expansion gained by force. (
117. The president of the United States interpreted the
Monroe Doctrine to mean that the United States
must assume the right of intervention in any
Caribbean country unable to meet its obligations. . (
)
118. In response to the president's appeal, Congress re­
pealed the regulation execrating American coastwise
trade from Panama Canal t o l l s ................. (
119. An act was passed authorizing the use of the pro­
ceeds from public land sales in certain western
states for irrigation projects................. (
120. The rules of the House of Representatives were
changed and the speaker deprived of much of his
oower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(
121. Washington was sent to warn away the French in the
(1)~
Restoration of the Stuarts
upper Ohio v a l l e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
to the English throne
(2)—
_
_
122. All the territory between the Alleghenies and the
Glorious Revolution in England
Mississippi was closed to settlers and land
(3)—
speculators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
Treaty of Paris of 1763
(4)—
123. A concerted effort was made to withdraw the charters
First Continental Congress
of all the self-governing colonies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
Go on to the next page.
)
Clay's compromise tariff
(2 ) ~
Election of Polk
(3)~
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
(4)~
Compromise of 1850
(5)~
ID-
Constitutional Convention
124. The United States and Great Britain agreed to
a division of the Oregon Territory.............. (
125. A proposal was made to exclude slavery from all
territory gained from Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
126. The state of South Carolina declared aspecific
federal law null and void within its borders.. . . (
127. A former vice-president of the United States was
indicted and tried for treason. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
(2 ) ~
128. A new political party grew out of the opposition
to Hamilton's financial program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
Thomas Jefferson was elected
president
(3)~
James Madison was elected
president
(4)~
Hartford Convention
(5)~
129. Congressmen from the South and West, eager for
territorial expansion, voted in favor of war with
Great Britain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(D—
130. The English under the command of Wolfe gained a
decisive victory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
(2 )-
131. A colony was founded at Providence, open to people
of all religious sects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
Founding of Massachusetts
Bay colony
William Pitt became war
minister
(3)~
Declaration of Independence
{
132. The Continental Congress drew up and adopted a
form of government.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
(4)~
Treaty of Paris of 1783
(5)~
( 1) ~
133.
Treaty of Ghent
Henry Clay was instrumental in founding a new
political party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(
( 2) ~
Tariff of Abominations
(3)—
Election of Van Buren
(4)~
Mexican War
(5)~
134.
Two senators, one representing the Southand one the
North, engaged in a famous debate on the nature
of the Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
135.
Texas was annexed to the Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (
(ID-
136. A highly protective tariff measure, which also
introduced the idea of reciprocity, was adopted
Civil War
(2)—
First election of Cleveland
(3)~
Election of McKinley
(4)~
Organization of the N.R.A.
(5)~
137. A commission was established to supervise the
examination and appointment of applicants to
certain federal positions ................
138. A new federal Indian policy resulted in the
dissolution of the tribes and the allotment of
the reservation lands to individuals........
Number wrong 4)_
_Number right
Subtract
Raw Score = Difference
- 12 -
Part III (Timet 40 minutes)
HISTORICAL JUDGMENT
Directions! This part of the test consists of a number of incomplete statements. Each statement
can be correctly completed by one of the four words or phrases which follow it. Examine each
statement and select the word or phrase Y»hich best completes the statement; then write the
number corresponding to this word or phrase in the parentheses after the statement. The sample
exercise has been correctly filled out to show you how to proceed.
000. The first president of the United States was
000(3) Washington, 000(4) Hamilton
000(1) Adams,
000(2) Jefferson,
000( 3 )
139. One of the advantages of the corporation type of business organization is that it
139(1) places an unlimited personal liability upon its officers,
139(2) has a
large, concentrated buying power, 139(3) is dependent upon the life of the indi­
viduals, 139(4) fosters free competition
139(
)
140. An important cause of the English migration to America during the seventeenth century
was
140(1) desire for greater economic opportunity, 140(2) desire for mineral
wealth, 140(3) Portugal’s monopoly of trade with the East, 140(4) desire to
Christianize the Indians
140(
)
141. A guiding principle of the Caribbean Sea policy of the United States as developed in
the first quarter of the twentieth century was to 141(1) waive the right to pro­
tection for the property of United States citizens in cases of internal disorder,
141(2) make tariff reciprocity treaties with these countries, 141(3) secure all the
strategic ports necessary to protect the Panama Canal, 141(4) aid neither the
established government nor the opposition in case of revolution
141(
)
142. In New England there developed a system of small-scale farming by independent farmers
because
142(1) the soil, on the whole, was infertile, 142(2) Negro slaves could
not endure the rigors of a New England winter, 142(3) the Puritans were opposed to
slavery, 142(4) the Indians could not be enslaved
142(
)
143. One of the anticipated advantages of the Federal Reserve System was that it would
143(1) tend to make the currency less elastic, 143(2) tend to centralize the currency
reserves in New York, 143(3) help to minimize the severity of panics, 143(4) pro­
vide for the establishment of branch banks by the large city b a n k s
143(
)
144. One of the principal results of the War of 1812 was
144(1) the rise of the
Republican Party, 144(2) an increased zeal for internal improvements, 144(3) the
defeat of the Jeffersonian Party, 144(4) the destruction of the United States Bank. 144(
)
145. The southern planters were more resentful of the activities of the free-soilers than
of the abolitionists because the former 145(1) insisted on the immediate enfran­
chisement of the Negro, 145(2) would indirectly curb the political power of the
planters, 145(3) opposed the planters on moral grounds, 145(4) were more active
individually. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 ( )
146. One means of financing the World War was by the 146(1) conscription of wealth,
146(2) issuing of paper currency, 146(3) levying of an export tax, 146(4) levying
of an amusement and luxury t a x
146(
)
147. The terms of the treaty which closed the War of 1812 contained 147(1) provisions
for a liberal extension of the territory of the United States, 147(2) no mention
of the questions which were asserted to have been the main causes of friction before
the war, 147(3) a guarantee that England would relinquish the forts in the Northwest
Territory, 147(4) a guarantee on the part of England to abandon the practice of
impressment
147(
)
148. The Ordinance of 1787 provided that
148(1) as soon as the territory should be
organized, the qualified voters might elect a representative legislature,
148(2) slavery might be introduced into this territory, 148(3) the form of terri­
torial government outlined should apply to all additional territory which might be
brought under the United States flag, 148(4) during the first stage of territorialorganization the government was to be in the hands of officials aooointed by
Congress
)
Go on to the next page.
148(
-
13 -
149. Englishmen denied that Americans were without representation, because
149(1) America
had delegates in the House of Commons, 149(2) the colonies had their own assemblies,
149(3) the members of the House of Commons represented all citizens in the British
Empire, 149(4) the colonies were represented in the Continental Congress......... 149(
)
150. The two divergent interests which finally combined in the formation of the Republican
Party were the
150(1) anti-Nebraska Democrats and the Southern Whigs, 150(2) freesoilers and the free-traders, 150(3) anti-Jackson Democrats and the Northern Whigs,
150(4) free-soilers and the protectionists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150(
)
151. One of the economic forces behind the
151(1) prevailing low prices for farm
nental railroads, 151(3) speculative
scrip, 151(4) granting of homesteads
westward movement to the Pacific was the
produce, 151(2) great number of transconti­
interest of many who held quantities of land
under the provisions of the Act of 1787. . . . 151(
)
152. One of the principal and recurrent planks in the Whig Party platform was
152(1) civil service reform, 152(2) a protective tariff, 152(3) the enforcement
of the Fugitive Slave Act, 152(4) free homesteads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152(
)
153. In 1789 the people and the framers of the Constitution acceptedthe doctrine that
153(1) the Constitution was a compact between independent states, 153(2.) ratifica­
tion was by a consolidated people, 153(3) the Union was older than the states,
153(4) "we, the people" meant the people as composing one great
b o d y .......... 153(
)
154. The Greenback Party opposed 154(1) free coinage of silver, 154(2) the expansion
of the currency, 154(3) a bimetallic standard, 154(4) the resunption of specie
payment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 (
)
155. The platforms of the third parties of the period following the Civil War usually
contained, among other things, a demand for
155(1) an international tribunal to
settle disputes between nations, 155(2) unemployment insurance, 155(3) a revision
of the tariff, 155(4) Negro suffrage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155(
)
156. The morale of the Continental army was poor because the
156(1) soldiers were
irregularly paid in depreciated paper money, 156(2) soldiers did not believe in
the cause for which they were fighting, 156(3) majority of the soldiers were
mercenaries, 156(4) higher officers were nearly all Frenchmen ................
156(
)
157. An important factor that aided the Republican Party to remain in power during the
latter half of the nineteenth century was the fact that it 157(1) consistently
presented the best program on all administrative issues, 157(2) had the support
of the southern Negro vote, 157(3) was free from political corruption,
157(4) received credit for saving the Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
157(
)
158. One of the more valid arguments for a high protective tariff in America has been
that it 158(1) lowers the cost of living, 158(2) makes possible the development
of new manufactures, 158(3) protects the farmer even more than the manufacturer,
158(4) keeps production costs low.
158(
)
159. In the era following the Civil War, American agriculture underwent several revolu­
tionary changes, one of which was the
159(1) disappearance of the free-holder,
159(2) gradual disappearance of the renter class, 159(3) introduction of largescale farming in the West, 159(4) introduction of a new type of labor, indentured
servants
159 (
)
160. In the conflict between the representative assemblies in the American colonies and
the royal governors, perhaps the chief advantage of the former was that they
160(1) controlled money grants, 160(2) possessed the favor of the king,
160(3) could impeach the governors, 160(4) could petition Parliament to impeach
the governors
160(
)
161. One factor contributing to the remarkable dominance of big business following the
Civil War was the
161(1) unionization of skilled and unskilled labor,
161(2) high protective tariff, 161(3) United States' foreign policy of isolation,
161(4) release of approximately four million slavelaborers. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . 161 (
)
162 . The increased tide of alien laborers after the Civil War presented a problem to labor
organizers because the immigrants
162(1) were in the main members of the skilled
trades, 162(2) resented the presence of the Negro laborer, 162(3) did not cooperate
because of national antipathies, 162(4) had socialisttendencies
162(
Go on to the next page.
)
- 14 163. One of the causes of the failure of the Knights of Labor was
103(1) failure to
reconcile the divergent interests of skilled and unskilled laborers, 163(2) continued
insistence upon secrecy in their organization, 163(3) too much stress on local
organization, 163(4) too great stress on strikes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163( )
164. One of the economic results of the Civil War was
164(1) an ever-increasing
exportable cotton surolus, 164(2) decreased cotton acreage, 154(3) a decrease
of tenancy, 164(4) diversification of crops in the South. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164( )
165. The establishment of the Providence Colony was brought about by the desire of a group
of settlers to
165(1) emulate the example of the colonists Led by Anne Hutchinson,
165(2) settle where the soil was more fertile and the climate not so rigorous,
165(3) found a Quaker colony in which they could worship unmolested, 165(4) join
Roger Williams, who was expelled from Massachusetts because of his religious views . 165(
)
166. The United States became interested in the purchase of Alaska because of
166(1) the
discovery of valuable mineral resources there, 166(2) her traditional rivalry with
Russia for colonial possessions, 166(3) her fear that the territory might be
acquired by Great Britain, 166(4) her need for more land
166(
)
167. The Tea Act of 1773 was resisted in the
for the East India Company to undersell
the importation of Dutch tea, which was
prices soar "sky high," 167(4) was the
collected
167(
)
168. As a result of the Mexican War, the United States
168(1) acquired Texas,
168(2) acquired the territories then known as New Mexico and Upper California,
168(3) forced Mexico to recognize the Sabine River as our southern boundary,
168(4) acquired the Oregon territory
168(
)
169. A factor tending to promote colonial unity before the Revolution was the
169(1) similarity of economic interests among the colonies, 169(2) absence of
local patriotism and intercolonial jealousies, 169(3) ease of communication,
169(4) influence of a common languageand generallysimilar customs
169(
)
170. One of the significant results of the Louisiana Purchase was the 170(1) precipita­
tion of the Second War with Great Britain, 170(2) wiping out of the national debt,
170(3) control of the Mississippi and its fertile valley by Americans, 170(4) exten­
sion of the territory of the United States to thePacific
170(
)
171. The Dutch colony of New Netherlands was in jeopardy almost from the first because
171(1) the Indians of the Hudson River valley were the allies of the French,
17l(2) most of the settlers of this Dutch colony were of English origin,
171(3) Spain resented the attempt of her former possession to acquire colonies of
her own, 171(4) its eastern frontier was threatened by the British settlers in
the Connecticut River v a l l e y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 (
)
172. One of the characteristics of the new type of immigrant who came in large numbers
after 1890 was that he
172(1) was easily assimilated, 172(2) tended to settle in
rural communities, 172(3) was usually literate, 172(4) tended to settle in the
c i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172(
)
173. The Battle of Saratoga is significant because it
173(1) showed the lack of
discipline in the American army, 173(2) ended the war in the North, 173(3) hastened
the alliance with France, 173(4) seriouslyreduced the ranks of the British troops. 173(
)
174. Jackson opposed the Bank of the United States because he
174(1) believed in fiat
money, 174(2) knew it put grea.t political power in the hands of his enemies,
174(3) upheld the Supreme Court decision that it was unconstitutional, 174(4) was
financially interested in certain rivalbanks
174(
)
175. Alexander Hamilton's financial policy was especially favorable to
175(1) laborers,
175(2) merchants and manufacturers, 175(3) small farmers, 175(4) the former
soldiers of the Revolutionary War
175(
)
176. National government under the Constitution differed from the government under the
Articles of Confederation in that the latter did not have the constitutional power
to 176(1) regulate commerce, 176(2) make treaties, 176(3) build and equip a navy,
176(4) declare w a r
176(
)
colonies because it 167(1) made it possible
the American merchants, 167(2) prohibited
of better quality, 167(3) would make tea
first time such a tax had ever been
Go on to the next page.
-
15
-
177. The Articles of Confederation provided that the supreme authority te vested in
177(1) an executive committee, 177(2) the national congress, 177(3) the states,
177(4) the president. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177(
)
178. One of the factors which led the West to demand war in 1812 was the
178(1) belief
that the Indian attacks on the frontier were incited by the British, 178(2) fear of
the Spanish Empire in the Southwest, 178(3) destruction of our commerce,
178(4) desire for free navigation of the Mississippi and the right of deposit at
New Orleans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178(
)
179. Lincoln was an available candidate for the Republican Party in 1860 because
179(1) he was a radical anti-slavery man, 179(2) his heritage and his principles
made him acceptable to the Northwest, 179(3) he was not a protectionist,
179(4) he was wealthy enough to be able to finance a campaign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179(
)
180. Evidence that the United States had repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary of theMonroe
Doctrine is seen in the
180(1) military intervention in the Dominican Republic,
180(2) transfer of the Virgin Islands from the Navy to the Interior department,
180(3) granting of citizenship to Puerto Ricans, 180(4) withdrawal of the marines
from Nicaragua and Haiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
180( )
181. The geographical features of the land which the English colonized were an influential
factor in the history of the British colonies because the
181(1) location of the
mountains forced them into more compact settlements than the French, 181(2) cold
northern climate caused the chief harbors to be ice-locked part of the year,
181(3) foothills of the great mountain barrier furnished such poor soil that any
great agricultural development was impossible, 181(4) climate differed so radically
from that of the old country that it took a considerable period for the settlers
to become acclimatized
181(
)
182. Among the many changes in
was the
182(1) transfer
state, 162(2) vesting of
new state church, 182(3)
Allegheny region, 182(4)
)
the land system brought about by the American Revolution
of the payment of the quit-rents from the Crown to the
control of the domains of the Crown in the hands of the
inauguration of a free homestead policy in the transabolition of entails and primogeniture
183. Evidence of a change in the public attitude
passage of the Sherman Act is seen in the
Trust, 183(2) provisions for consolidation
183(3) plan for federal operation of Muscle
182(
toward combination in business since the
183(1) dissolution of the Standard Oil
of the railroads in the Esch-Cummins Act,
Shoals, 183(4) Clayton Anti-Trust Act . 183(
)
184. By 1824 the South was opposed to a protective tariff on the grounds that
184(1) foreign manufacturers would not buy American cotton if they could not sell
goods in America, 184(2) the rates on exported cotton were unreasonably high,
184(3) the Constitution denied Congress the right to enact tariff laws, 184(4) such
legislation would raise the price of slaves to the point where importation would be
unprofitable
184(
)
185. A sound economic argument used in favor of the reduction or cancellation of war debts
owed to the United States is that
185(1) it would permit the debtor nations to
increase their imports from this country, 185(2) enough has already been paid to
offset the original capital loaned, 185(3) debt cancellation would automatically
restore all nations to the gold standard, 185(4) it would set a precedent for the
cancellation of other loans made since the World War
185(
)
Number wrong 3 ) __________ Number right
Subtract
Raw Score = Difference
20245-7
AM ERICAN COUNCIL O N EDUCATION
COOPERATIVE
ENGLISH
TEST
(Usage, Spelling, and Vocabulary)
Form 1937
by
STERLING A . LEONARD, M. H. W IL L IN G , and V. A . C. H E N M O N , University o f Wisconsin;
M. F. CARPENTER, E. F. LINDQUIST, and W . W . COOK, State University o f Iowa;
D. G . PATERSON and F. S. BEERS, University o f Minnesota;
GERALDINE SPAULDING, Bureau o f Collegiate
Educational Research, Columbia College
Please p rin t;
N a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Last
First
M id d le
Grade or Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A g e . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date of Birth. . . . . . . . .
Yrs.
Mos.
School or College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . City. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex. . . . . .
M . or F.
Title of the English course you are now taking. . . . . . . . . . . . Instructor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Directions: Do not turn this page until the examiner tells you to do so. This examination consists o f three
parts, and Part I includes three sections. The directions fo r each division are printed a t the beginning o f the division.
There is a tim e lim it fo r each division. If you have not finished a division when the tim e is up, stop work on th a t
division and proceed a t once to the next division. If you should finish before the tim e is up, you may go on to the
next division. No questions may be asked a fte r the examination has begun.
Pages
M inutes
2-3
4-6
7-8
25
15
10
II— Spelling
9-10
10
III— Vocabulary
1 1-14
20
Part
— English Usage
1
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Scaled Score
(Sum o f Scaled Scores fo r Ports:
Total
80
C opyrigh t, 1937, by the C o o p era tiv e Test Service. A ll Rights Reserved. Printed in U .S .A .
437 W e s t 59th Street, N ew York C ity
Percentile
-
2
Part I: English Usage
This part consists of three sections with an indicated time allowance for each section. When
the time is up for each section, go on to the next section at once, even if you have not finished
the section you are working on. If you should finish a section before the time is up, you may go
on to the next section. Specific directions are found at the beginning of each section.
Section 1 (25 minutes)
Directions; This section consists of two short themes in which there are a number of errors in
capitalization, punctuation, and usage. You are to find these errors and Indicate what the
correction should be, as follows:
Punctuation and Apostrophes. If a punctuation mark has been omitted, put it in where it belongs.
See line 6 in the sample exercise below, where a comma has been inserted after the word part.
Draw a small circle around any punctuation which should be taken out.
the comma after the word little is to be removed.
See line 1 below, where
If a wrong punctuation mark has been used, draw a circle around the wrong mark, and put the
correct punctuation beside it. Always encircle the wrong punctuation; do not try to make the
correct mark out of it. For example, if you find a period where there should be a comma, do not
make a comma out of the period, but draw a circle around the period and place a comma beside it.
Notice in line 5 how the period after the word Important has been changed to a question mark.
Errors in the use of the apostrophe are to be corrected in the same way as errors in punctua­
tion. See line 3 below, the word his, and line 5, the word boy’s .
In correcting apostrophe errors, a contraction should not be changed to two words. In line 8 ,
note that the error Is corrected by inserting an apostrophe in I ’m . NOT by writing I_ am.
Capitalization. Wherever you find a mistake in capitalization - either a capital letter which
should be a small letter, or a small letter which should be a capital - draw a heavy vertical
line through the letter which should be changed. Do not write the letter over; the line through
the letter will be enough to Indicate that you think the letter should be changed to a capital if
it is not a capital, or changed to a small letter If it is a capital. In line 2 below, changing
the comma after football to a period makes it necessary to spell his with a capital letter. This
change in capitalization is indicated by the line through Ji.
Usage. Wherever you find a mistake In usage, draw a line through the incorrect word or phrase,
and write the correct word or phrase just above. In cases where the wrong form of a word is
used, write in the correct form of the same word; do not change it to an entirely different word.
Note that, in line 5 below, was has been changed to were. to agree with the plural noun grades.
It would not be right to change the word to are. since this would be an unnecessary change In
the tense of the verb, in addition to the necessary change to the plural form.
Correct each error in the shortest way possible. You will not need to make any elaborate
changes in construction or word order. Make changes only where they are necessary for correct­
ness, not where they would only Improve the diction, sound, on sentence rhythm.
The titles of the themes may contain errors.
Do not overlook them.
Sample Exercise
,
1)
Ever since he was a little0 boy, Back had
,
4AMJL
5) think a boys© grades -wee- importantgf "For
J#
((
2) wanted-tee-play football^, ljiis main interest
6) my party
Jack might have s a i d ^ pie main
3)had always been in ^ports.
The grades on his®
7) business is how to be a first-class half-
4)^eport (fards had been low.
Why should anyone
e) back. I'm not interested in anything else.**
Do not go on to the next page until the examiner tells you to de so.
You may turn back to the directions given above at any time If you are in doubt about how
the corrections should be made.
-
- 3 -
And What Would You have Said
Napoleon and czar Alexander of Russia,
A Missionary to The Indians
In the seventeenth century, in a sleepy
whom the emperor hoped would turn from an
quiet, village in Normandy, lived a young
enemy to a friend, was engaged In a mutual
priest in charge of the parish Church, hu­
admiration society.
mility and kindness was his chief traits.
Though It was officially
called a Peace Conference.
Theres little
When at college however he had longed to be
douht, that Alexander had a sincere regard
one of those, sent to foreign lands.
for Napoleon, whom he thought was a marvel­
his frail health; his superiors wouldn't
ous soldier, and statesman.
leave him go.
Napoleon used
Due to
The pastor's thoughts run often
every scheme device and trick he knew to
on a dear comrade of his College days'.
win Alexander.
friend a Jesuit Father, was doing the work
Backed by Russia, Napoleon
This
might revenge himself, for the Battle of
the young norman had wished for himself. The
Trafalgar.
villagers often hearing there pastor refer
Where lord Nelson had broke the
power of the French Fleet.
Part of his
to his friend.
"Think of my friend In the
plan, was to have various regiments shown
American Wilderness,
was a frequent exclama­
to Alexander, compliments and fine speeches
tion in his sermons,
What if he burst in on
was to be exchanged during the showing. The
we uninspired Christians here!
Russians whom the French had beat in battle
like a spirit sent from above."
would receive all the praise that was due
them.
However some of Napoleon's soldiers
He would be
One bitterly, cold, winter, evening, a man
came to the pastors door.
A man whose face
could not of been properly coached, I know
was scarred by the torments of the Savages.
of one, who said in response to some enthu­
One don't need to know much of Indian torture
siastic remark of Napoleons about russlan
to imagine his awful face.
soldiers, "There all dead now you know.
time, the pastor recognized him.
I wonder what either of the emperors'
were able to say?
After an Instants
"In god's eyes its the face of an angel.
He said piously.
- 4 -
Section 2 (IS minutea)
General Directions; In each of the following Items, read the directions with great care and
think each problem through before beginning to write. You will frequently need to make more
than one change to do satisfactorily what the directions require. Study the sample exercises
and the way in which the changes are made.
A.
Substitute yesterday for tomorrow In the
sentence at the right:
I will go to camp tomorrow.
Here it is necessary to change will go
to went. Make the change as follows:
B.
I will go to camp ^tonor-row.
Bemove the quotation marks and make the
necessary changes In wording:
John said, "I came home about noon."
Here the wording might be: John said
that he came home about noon, and you
would indicate the changes as follows:
C. Add the word and in front of His sister:
John said/^"l)came home about noon.©
Charles is president of the class.
His
sister is class secretary.
a
/
n
j
,f
u
t
Here it is necessary to change the
punctuation after class. and the
capitalization of His. Make the
changes as follows:
Charles is president of the classg^ -Hlssister is class secretary.
You may, if it is necessary, make two sentences instead of one. But always try to make the
fewest possible changes in wording or In form.
*
*
*
1. Show, by changing only one word, that
Rogers gave the lecture:
I did not like the lecture.
2. Revise the following sentence to show,
Jane says that her notebooks are
following Jane says, just what she says,
In her own words, about her own notebooks:
3. Change but to nevertheless:
always handed in on time.
I listened attentively to what he
said, but I thought he was exaggerating.
4.
Add only one word to show that the candy
belonged not to James but to his sisters:
James thought his candy tasted slightly
stale.
Go on to the next page.
- 5 -
5. Change Several to Only one:
Several of the books recently given
me by my parents are on the table.
6 . Rewrite, beginning While picking violets yesterday:
A cross dog drove us from the pasture.
7.
Substitute one of those boys for a boy:
8 . Change every noun to plural number - that
Charles is a boy who dislikes his work.
We heard a boy's, a man's, and a
is. Indicate more than one boy, man, woman,
woman's account of the accident.
account, and accident:
9. Show by changing only one word that the
The boys took the dog to the
veterinary.
dog belonged to the boys:
10. Indicate the exact words of the speaker
She could not go, she said, until
about herself, without making any change
she had written a letter.
in arrangement:
11. Rewrite to include last summer after camp:
I would go to camp if I could afford it.
12. Add i£ waiting to mall it after the
word employer.
I must write a letter for my
Make no other change
employer.
in wording or arrangement.
13. Write on the lines to the right the contractions - shortened forms to represent how the
words are naturally spoken - for the five groups of words underlined in the following
sentence. For instance, for do not you would write don't . You need not copy the sentence;
write only the five contractions.
![ will tell you a story that you have not heard
before, 1^ am sure, for h
is a new one and cannot
have reached you.
So on to the next page.
- 6 14. Omit and without substituting
Many students carry five subjects,
or omitting any other word:
and often these are all difficult ones.
15. Substitute few for one:
Of all the motion pictures I saw
last winter, there was one that I really
enjoyed.
16, Change all the children to each child:
At the Thrift Club all the children
told how much they would like to save
for their vacation camp.
17. Change honors to kind of honors:
It is not every student who receives
these honors.
-
18. Change next week to last week:
They ought to come with us next week.
19. Change it to which:
Last night I read an entertaining
story.
It explained some elements of
the Russian situation.
20. Rewrite to include with sudden alarm:
As I stood thinking I noticed a light moving among the trees.
- 7 -
Section 3 (10 minutes)
Directionsi Read each of the following groups of sentences carefully; then decide which sentence
in each group is better than the other sentences in that group, and put the number of this best
sentence in the parentheses at the right of the group.
1.
2.
3.
4.
When settling down for an afternoon nap, I am greatly disturbed by flies.
While settling down for an afternoon nap, flies are very disturbing to me.
When trying to take a nap in the afternoon, flies disturb me greatly.
I am greatly disturbed by flies settling down for a nap in the afternoon
(
)1.
1. A good gardener near a large city can easily make a living owning a small tract of
fertile land.
2. A good gardener with a small tract of fertile land can easily make a living near a
large city.
3. A good gardener owning a small tract of fertile land near a large city can easily
make a living.
4. When owning a small tract of fertile land a good gardener near a large city can
easily make a living
(
)2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
(
)3.
is a great improvement, thereby producing better government.
is a great improvement, since it brings about better government. . . . (
)4.
To one heated by exercise ice cold orange juice is wonderfully satisfying.
When heated by exercise ice cold orange juice is wonderfully satisfying.
Heated by exercise makes ice cold orange Juice wonderfully satisfying.
Heated exercise makes ice cold orange juice wonderfully satisfying
1. The short ballot
2. The short ballot
ment .
3. The short ballot
4. The short ballot
1.
2.
3.
4.
is a great improvement, consequently bringing about better government.
represents a great improvement, accordingly guaranteeing better govern­
A dog will chase a cat even if it has received scolding and punishment.
A dog will chase a cat even when it is punished for it.
In spite of scolding and punishment a dog will still chase a cat.
A dog will chase a cat even though the dog has been scolded and punished forit.
. . . (
)5.
1. A movie actor today needs to be attractive, having a good voice, and possessing
excellent health.
2. A movie actor today needs to be attractive, have a good voice, and possess excellent
health.
3. A movie actor today needs to be attractive with a good voice, and of excellent health.
4. A movie actor today must needs be attractive and have a good voice, being of excellent
health.............................................................................. ( )6.
1. This university is so large and complicated that I am just a little worried over
finding my way about.
2. This is a large university and it is very complicated and I am not sure that I shall
find my way about and I am just a bit worried.
3. This is a large and complicated university and I am not sure that I shall find my
way about and I am just a bit worried.
4. This university is so large and complicated that I am not sure of finding my way
about in it, which worries me just a little bit..................................... ( )7.
1. The peddler, ready to pack up and run, watched the policeman coming toward him out
of the c o m e r of his eye.
2. The peddler out of the c o m e r of his eye watched the approaching policeman, ready
to pack up and run.
3. Ready to pack up and run out of the c o m e r of his eye the peddler watched the
approaching policeman.
4. Ready to pack up and run, the peddler, out of the corner of his*eye, watched the
approaching policeman............................................................... ( )8.
1. My father gave me one hundred fifty dollars and so I bought a ticket and came to
Madison, renting a room, registering and buying books; and now I am broke.
2. My father gave me one hundred fifty dollars, with which I bought a ticket to
Madison, rented a room, registered, and bought books; and now I am broke.
3. My father gave me one hundred fifty dollars,, so I bought a ticket, came here, rented
a room, registered, and bought books, and now I am broke.
4. With one hundred fifty dollars which my father gave me I bought a ticket, came here,
rented a room, registered, and bought books, now being broke........................ ( )9.
Go on to the next page.
-
1. In order that students may have guidance in selecting subjects is why they are
assigned advisers.
2. Why students are assigned advisers is In order that they may select studies more
wisely.
3. Students are assigned advisers for guidance in selecting studies more wisely.
4. Students are assigned advisers in order to guide them wisely in selecting subjects
of study.....................................................................
8
-
(
)10.
1. We were In a canoe. It was in the evening. The lake was Monona. In a collision our
canoe was overturned.
2. We were in a canoe on Lake Monona one evening when a collision occurred overturning it.
3. An evening collision on Lake Monona overturned our canoe.
4. One evening in a collision on Lake Monona
our canoe
was
overturned...... (
)11.
1. He returned the book now dog-eared and musty without explanation and hurriedly left.
2. He hurriedly left, having returned the book without explaining though now dog-eared
and musty.
3. Though the book was now dog-eared and musty, he returned it without explanation and
hurriedly left.
4. Without explanation he returned the book, though now dog-eared and musty, and hurriedly
left............................................................................... (
)12.
1.
2.
3.
4.
(
)13.
1. Being looked upon as the most important person in the school, the welcoming speech
is generally delivered by the president of the class.
2. Being looked upon as the most important person in the school, the president of the
class usually delivers the welcoming speech.
3. Because of the president of the class being looked upon as the most Important person in
the school, it is usually the case that the welcoming speech is delivered by him.
4. The welcoming speech is generally delivered by the president of the class, this is
because he is looked upon as the most important person in the school.............. (
)14.
1. Some students are sensible enough to budget their time and plan their work, a
practice which is highly recommended.
2. Some students in budgeting their time and planning their work are commended as
sensible for these.
3. Time budgeting and work planning are practiced by some students to be highly
recommended as sensible.
4. Some students budget their time and plan their work, and these are highly
recommended as sensible............................................................(
)15.
The statement here is to the effect that the bank holds a mortgage on the place.
It states in this paper that the bank holds a mortgage on the place.
It says In this paper that the bank has a
mortgage on the property.
This paper
states that the bank holds a mortgage on
the
property
1.
2.
3.
4.
I would have liked to
come
backto college this year, but I couldn't afford to do so.
I would have liked tohave come back to college this year, but I couldn't afford it.
I wanted tohave come back to college this year, but couldn't afford to do it.
Though I couldn't afford to come back to college this year, I would have liked to
have done so.......................................................................(
)16.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The play
The play
The play
If every
would
would
would
child
not of been such a success had every child not done their share.
not have been such a success if every child had not done his share.
have been less of a success If every child would not have done his 3hare.
would not have done his share, the play would not have beena success. . (
)17.
1. Whatever you want to know about how the house was wired, ask the electrician, he will
tell you.
2. How the house was wired the electrician will tell you if you want to know.
3. If you want to know how the house was wired, ask the electrician.
4. If you want to know how the house was wired, the electrician will tell you when you
ask................................................................................(
)18.
1.
2.
3.
4.
When holding similar positions, our salaries should be identical.
If we hold similar positions, our salaries should be identical.
While holding similar positions, our salaries should be Identical.
Upon holding similar positions, the salaries should be Identical
(
)19.
1.
2.
3.
4.
The
The
The
The
(
)20.
farmers are complaining due to high taxes on land.
fanners, due to high taxes on land, are complaining.
farmers are complaining on account of taxes on land are so high.
farmers are complaining because of high taxes on land
Part I:
Maximum Score
=
135
Number Wrong or Omitted ____________
Raw Score
= Difference
Scaled Score
(See Table on Key)
- 9 Part II: Spelling (10 minutes)
Di r e c t i o n s : In each of the following lines of words, select the word that is misspelled and put
its number in the parentheses at the right.
If you think all the words In a line are correctly
spelled, pu t a zero (0) in the parentheses at the right of that line.
By exercising careful judgment and making shrewd guesses you may profitably answer questions
about 7;hich yo u are not absolutely sure; but since y our score will be the number of correct
answers diminished by a number proportional to the number of wrong answers, you should avoid
answering questions about which you are totally ignorant.
Shrewd guessing based on intelligent
inference will improve y our score, but wild guessing on questions that are entirely unknown to
yo u will waste time which you could better put on other questions In the test, and may result
in a large subtraction from the number of your correct answers.
1(1) platinum,
2(1) appetite,
1(2) panels,
1(3) mercury,
2(2) efficiency,
3(1) bulletins,
2(3) vulgur,
3(2) cuntingent,
4(1) excessively,
4(2) detriment,
6(1) incentive,
6(2) immigration,
8(1)
7(2) equipped,
sandwich,
8(2) sleze,
9(1) predjudice,
9(2) proprietor,
10(1) prosecution,
11(1) expedite,
13(1)
pianist,
14(1) sanitarium,
15(1)
copious,
16(1) persuasian,
4(
13(2)petroleum,
5(4) aluminum
5(
....................
6(
7(4) extraordinary ....................
7(
8(4) remembrances
8(
6(4) insite
11(3) existence,
12(2) competitive,
12(3) chaffeur,
13(3) masquerade,
14(2) propaganda,
15(2)cunfide,
4(4) intellect ..................
10(3) prairie,
11(2) exquisitly,
12(1) commodities,
3(
9(3) pronunciation,
10(2) authentic,
....................
9(4) pursuing
............
9(
10(4) facilitates
............
10(
11(4) discipline
............
11(
..........
12(
12(4) attendants
13(4) priviledge
14(3) compulsory,
15(3) distributors,
16(2) politicians,
16(4) partial
17(2) garantee,
17(3) indignant,17(4) intervene
18(1) solemnly,
18(2) procedure,
18(3) supressed,
19(1) strenous,
19(2) statutes,
20(1) rhetoric,
20(2) sympathetic,
22(1) criticism,
23(1) affadavits,
24(1) appendix,
25(1) Indemnity,
22(2) deuce,
18(4) kerosene
19(3) specifically, 19(4) shrewd
20(3) suffrage, 20(4) registrer
21(3) handicapped,
22(3) corredor,
23(2) accidentally,
24(2) complimentary,
25(2) enhabitants,
.............. 14(
15(4) emphasize ................. 15(
16(3) remedied,
21(2) inconvenianced,
............... 13(
14(4) concur
17(1) guidance,
21(1) inaugurate,
2(
................
6(3) incense,
B(3) sanction,
1(
................
5(3) accumulation,
7(3) bankrupcy,
....................
3(4) automatically
4(3) hosiery,
5(2) ultimate,
..........................
2(4) initiative
3(3) bosom,
5(1) negociate,
7(1) deem,
1(4) profan
24(3) doughnuts,
25(3) foursome,
..................
17(
.................
18(
..................
19(
................. 20(
21(4) Indefinitely . . . 21(
22(4) editions
23(3) superintendency,
.............. 16(
....................
23(4) preferred
. . . 23(
24(4) fervent ..............
25(4) damned
22(
................
Go on to the next page.
24(
25(
- 10
26(1)• alphabetical,
27(1) physcians,
26(2) conceded,
27(2) quarantine,
28(1) accommodating,
29(1) muslin,
34(1) consciously,
35(1) logical,
36(1) turnament,
36(2) sonnet,
37(1) hereditary,
37(2) nuisance,
38(1) incidentally,
40(1) provlnshial,
42(1) possessor,
43(1) bazaar,
31(
32(4) lenient ................
32(
36(3) brevity,
34(4) dubious ............
36(4) flourishing ..................
37(4) narrative
etiquette ....................
39(
40(4) syndicate ..............
40(
..................
41(
38(4) inadequat
41(4) cornice
42(4) analyze ................
42(
43(3)
neuralgia,
43(4) centure ................
43(
44(2) consistent,
44(3)
negligent,
44(4) conspiracy
44(
45(1) scholastic,
45(2) suplementary,
46(1) disbursments,
47(1) plausible,
50(1) curriculum,
45(3) ridiculous,
46(2) dissolved,46(3) dormitory,
47(2) gaiety,
48(2) cynical,
49(1) treatise,
42(3) occurences,
............... 37(
38(
39(4)
41(2) fiscel, 41(3) genteel,
36(
........
38(3) intolerable,
39(3) phazes,
................ 35(
35(4) pamplets
37(3) resipient,
34(
43(2) philosophical,
44(1) grevances,
48(1) anum,
35(3) insensible,
42(2) unanimous,
..............
33(4) k i n d e r g a r d e n s............ 33(
40(2) sororities,40(3) sovereign,
41(1) exaggeration,
30(
34(3) confidentialy,
38(2) infinitely,
39(1) interpret,39(2) hideous,
30(4) anniversary ..........
3l(4) advisability
33(3) insignificant,
35(2) itinerary,
27(
28(4) undoubtedly .......... 28(
30(3) aristocrasy,
34(2) discreet,
..........
29(4) s c h e d u l e d .................... 29(
32^2) partisan, 32(3) proficient,
33(2) Juvenile,
27(4) tuberculosis
28(3) warrants,
3l(2) prefase, 31(3) verily,
32(1) interurban,
26(4) conceived............. 26(
obviously,
29(3) innocense,
30(2) antiquity,
31(1) superiority,
33(1) duly,
27(3)
28(2) amunition,
29(2) reckon,
30(1) apparently,
26(3) appologles,
48(3) ukulele,
49(2) mediocre,
46(4) explicit
47(3) systematically,
...............
47(4) sosiology
46(
. . . . . . .
47(
48(4) chattel ..........................
48(
................
49(
49(3) carburetor,
50(2) inexhaustible,
............
45(4) fascination ........ 45(
49(4) vengence
50(3) sanguine,
50(4) auxlliery
.......... 50(
Subtract
(See Table on Key)
-11 Part III: Vocabulary (20 minutes )
Directions: In each Item select the word or phrase which most nearly corresponds In meaning to
the word at the left, and put Its number In the parentheses at the right.
By exercising careful Judgment and making shrewd guesses you may profitably answer questions
about which you are not absolutely sure; but since your score will be the number of correct
answers diminished by a number proportional to the number of wrong answers, you should avoid
answering questions about which you are totally Ignorant. Shrewd guessing based on intelligent
inference will improve your score, but wild guessing on questions that are entirely unknown to
you will waste time which you could better put on other questions in the test, and may result
in a large subtraction from the number of your correct answers.
combustible
1(1) diverting, 1(2) fragile, 1(3) Inflammable, 1(4) gigantic,
1(5) r e d ................................................................ 1(
uncorrupted
2(1) foolish,
2(2) fearful,
boa
3(1) vulture,
3(2) rodent,
sifter
4(1) separator, 4(2) substitute, 4(3) evasion, 4(4) wanderer,
4(5) r e b e l ............................................................. 4(
fraudulence
5(1) turbulence, 5(2) fragment, 5(3) graciousness, 5(4) dishonesty,
5(5) auditorium......................................................... 5(
hearsay
6(1) depravity, 6(2) gossip, 6(3) humor, 6(4) shamelessness,
6(5) u r b a n i t y ........................................................... 6(
bewitchment
7(1) chastisement, 7(2) betrayal, 7(3) music, 7(4) herb,
7(5) e n c h a n t m e n t ........................................................7(
constructive
8(1) acting,
infantile
9(1) healthy,
2(3) twisted,
3(3) swine,
8(2) cut short,
9(2) chaste,
2(4) stark,
3(4) snake,
8(3) servile,
9(3) swooning,
2(5) pure . . .
2(
3(5) e e l .......... 3(
8(4) helpful,
8(5) rapid .
9(4) childlike,
8(
9(5) timorous 9(
aerodrome
10(1) hydroplane, 10(2) circus tent, 10(3) mechanic, 10(4) race track,
10(5) aviation f i e l d .....................................................10(
acetylene
11(1) sediment,
unfathomable
12(1) feather-like, 12(2) immeasurable, 12(3) gallant, 12(4) liberal,
12(5) understandable.....................................................12(
godless
13(1) illegal, 13(2) impious, 13(3) illiterate, 13(4) uncouth,
13(5) timorous
....................................................... 13(
foulness
14(1) remainder, 14(2) serenity, 14(3) filly, 14(4) huntress,
14(5) o f f e n s i v e n e s s ..................................................... 14(
throaty
15(1) conspicuous, 15(2) hexagonal, 15(3) guttural, 15(4) frenzied,
15(5) n e u r o t i c ......................................................... 15(
ashy
16(1) vivid,
facsimile
17(1) axiom, 17(2) portrait, 17(3) duplicate, 17(4) etiquette,
17(5) c o m m a n d ...........................................................17(
coalition
18(1) retaliation, 18(2) alliance, 18(3) triumph, 18(4) mercy,
18(5) compulsion.........................................................18(
explicitness
19(1) retentiveness, 19(2) credulity, 19(3) argumentation,
19(4) preciseness, 19(5) testimony ...................................
11(2) gelatine,
16(2) shy,
11(3) gas,
16(3) pale,
11(4) condiment,
16(4) artificial,
11(5) alloy 11(
16(5) hectic . . 16(
19(
vexatious
20(1) diseased, 20(2) Indefatigable, 20(3) subtle, 20(4) exclusive,
20(5) irritating....................................................... 20{
taut
21(1) compulsory,
resentful
22(1) suspicious, 22(2) abused, 22(3) frugal, 22(4) forgetful,
22(5) i n d i g n a n t ....................................................... 22(
man-of-war
23(1) soldier, 23(2) sailor, 23(3) ambulance, 23(4) vessel,
23(5) m a n d a r i n ......................................................... 23(
scoffer
24(1) town-crier, 24(2) villain, 24(3) taunter, 24(4) bluffer,
24(5) s h r e w ........................................................... 24(
21(2) limpid,
21(3) light,
21(4) tight,
21(5) groveling 21(
Go on to the next page.
- 12
sou'wester
25(1) hart,
25(2) goat,
25(3)
faun, 25(4) storm,
25(5) b o o t s ........
detention
26(1) plagiarism, 26(2) fulfillment, 26(3) negation, 26(4) confinement,
26(5) o b s e r v a t i o n ........................................................26{
backslide
27(1) conserve, 27(2) balance,
27(3) wrestle, 27(4) abandon gradually,
27(5) s h a t t e r ...................... . ................................... 27(
atingle
28(1) tuneful, 28(2) variegated, 28(3) succulent, 28(4) undulative,
28(5) v i b r a n t ........................................................... 28(
ejaculatory
29(1) lengthy, 29(2) exclamatory, 29(3) fervent, 29(4) responsive,
29(5) c o h e r e n t ........................................................... 29(
enrapt
Thrown into
30(1) languor, 30(2) a dungeon, 30(3) sorrow, 30(4) pain,
30(5) e c s t a s y ........................................................... 30(
correlation
31(1) race course, 31(2) coronation, 31(3) reciprocal relation,
31(4) combustion, 31(5) inclosure ......................................
25(
31(
blather
32(1) blame, 32(2) discourage,
32(3) sin,
32(4) talk nonsense,
32(5) a b a n d o n .......................................................... 32(
ostracize
33(1) welcome, 33(2) enter, 33(3) dramatize, 33(4) rectify,
33(5) e x c l u d e ............................................ ..............33(
nagnesia
34(1) iron, 34(2) a cathartic, 34(3) an alloy, 34(4) limestone,
34(5) s o a p ............................................................... 34(
disinclination 35(1) indisposition, 35(2) inability, 35(3) satisfaction,
35(4 ) interpretation, 35(5)adaptability ................................
35(
anonymity
36(1) similarity, 36(2) assemblage, 36(3) namelessness, 36(4) greatness,
36(5) a b n o r m a l i t y ...................................................... 36(
knick-knack
37(1) whip, 37(2) pocketknife, 37(3) vehicle, 37(4) needle,
37(5) b a u b l e ............................................................ 37(
pumpernickel
38(1) pumice,
wolfish
39(1) sarcastic, 39(2) crude, 39(3) rich, 39(4) chagrined,
39(5) r a p a c i o u s ......................................................... 39(
albinism
40(1) excess of albumen, 40(2) astigmatism, 40(3) wings,
40(4 ) lack of pigment, 40(5)r e d o l e n c e .....................................40(
renegade
41(1) deserter, 41(2) publisher, 41(3) soldier, 41(4) fool,
41(5) a t h e i s t ........................................................... 41(
gringo
42(1) foreigner, 42(2) mule, 42(3) baboon, 42(4) politician,
42(5) v e s s e l ............................................................. 42(
juvenescent
43(1) radiant, 43(2) talkative, 43(3) growing young, 43(4) liquescent,
43(5) d y n a m i c .......................................................... 43(
polytechnic
Kind of
44(1) school, 44(2) hospital, 44(3) religion,
44(4) disease,
44(5) s c u l p t u r e ........................................................ 44(
intermissive
45(1) submissive, 45(2) foreboding, 45(3) periodic, 45(4) Semitic,
45(5) we 11- a r r a n g e d .................................................... 45(
innovate
46(1) inter,
mollification
47(1) qualification, 47(2) annoyance, 47(3) battlement,
47(4) appeasement, 47(5)recognizance ....................................
38(2) bread,
46(2) sanctify,
38(3) pommel,
46(3) change,
38(4) metal,
38(5) pulmotor . 38(
46(4) defend,
46(5) refuse
46(
47(
bitumen
48(1) ointment, 48(2) inflammable mineral, 48(3) chloride of sodium,
48(4) gas, 48(5) elasticf l u i d ......................................... 48(
asininity
49(1) bitterness, 49(2) perspicuity, 49(3) turgldity, 49(4) stupidity,
49(5) m u t e n e s s .......................................................... 49(
amort
50(1) lifeless, 50(2) frenzied, 50(3) loved, 50(4) frozen,
50(5) s a r c a s t i c ........................................................ 50(
dogmatical
51(1) intelligent, 51(2) barbaric, 51(3) absurd, 51(4) opinionated,
6l(5) I n s a n e ............................................................ 51 (
incendiary
52(1) hospital, 52(2) incense burner, 52(3) landslide, 52(4) dictionary,
52(5) fire- b u g.......................................................... 52(
Go on to the next page.
- 13 -
Inflectional
pixy
corpulence
urbanity
conflagrant
inappreciable
incommensurate
configuration
abetter
bedlamite
gormandizer
lexicon
daguerreotype
opacity
peptic
brash
insularity
slosh
apexes
Pertaining to
53(1) light refraction, 53(2) vocal modulation,
53(3) punishment, 53(4) wealth, 53(5) anarchy ........................ 53(
)
54(1) pickaninny, 54(2) pictograph,
54(3) vexation, 54(4) rotation,
54(5) f a i r y ............................................................. 54(
)
55(1) obesity, 55(2) death, 55(3) wealth, 55(4) disgrace,
55(5) p u n i s h m e n t ......................................................55(
)
56(1) suavity, 56(2) contemplation, 56(3) thralldom, 56(4) empyrean,
56(5) profanity........................................................ 56(
)
57(1) extravagant, 57(2) talkative, 57(3) white, 57(4) burning,
57(5) over-curious
. . . . . .......................................... 57(
)
58(1) conventional, 58(2) figurative,
58(4) unprofitable, 58(5) rudlmental
)
58(3) infinitesimal,
58(
59(1) irksome, 59(2) convenient, 59(3) beginning, 59(4) contractile,
59(b) I n a d e q u a t e ......................................................59(
)
60(1) wig, 60(2) contour,
60(5) t i n k l i n g
60(
)
61(1) gambler,
61(2) killer, 61(3) conqueror, 61(4) confederate,
61(5) clergyman......................................................... 61(
)
62(1) insect, 62(2) mineral, 62(3) madman, 62(4) barrack,
62(5) p a r a s i t e ......................................................... 62(
)
63(1) gossip, 63(2) soldier, 63(3)detective, 63(4) glutton,
63(5) l a w y e r ..........................................................63(
)
64(1) dictionary, 64(2) typewriter,
64(3) patent medicine,
64(4) paper-weight, 64(5) rostrum .................................... 64(
)
65(1) baroness, 65(2) stencil, 65(3) bulletin, 65(4) machine,
65(5) p h o t o g r a p h ......................................................65(
)
66(1) rapacity, 66(2) pertinacity,
66(5) v e l o c i t y
66(
)
67(1) peppery, 67(2) restive, 67(3) digestive, 67(4) penurious,
67(5) p e r f i d i o u s ....................................................... 67(
)
68(1) brave, 68(2) boisterous, 68(3) impetuous, 68(4) speckled,
68(5) intelligent....................................................... 68(
)
69(1) artificiality, 69(2) arrogance, 69(3) isolation, 69(4) difficulty,
69(5) v a r i a n c e ........................................................69(
)
70(1) blossom,
70(2) wade, 70(3) oven, 70(4) flounder,
70(5) r e c a p i t u l a t e ..................................................... 70(
)
71(1) tangents, 71(2) angles, 71(3) bases, 71(4) heights,
71(5) s u m m i t s .....................................................
71(
)
72(5) horse . . 72(
)
60(4) copy,
66(3) pugnacity,
72(1) boat,
episcopate
73(1) letter, 73(2) epilog, 73(3) bishopric, 73(4) tribunal,
73(5) prayer b o o k ...................................................... 73(
)
74(1) prepare, 74(2) deviate, 74(3) outline, 74(4) result,
74(5) e q u a l i z e ......................................................... 74(
)
75(1) ugliness, 75(2) fearful, 75(3) licentiousness, 75(4) queasiness,
75(5) p e r v e r s i o n ....................................................... 75(
)
76(1) solitude, 76(2) gratitude, 76(3) blackness, 76(4) piquancy,
76(5) w i l d n e s s ........................................................76(
)
77(1) ominous,
77(2) fragrant, 77(3) flagrant, 77(4) shrewd,
77(5) masterful......................................................... 77(
)
78(1) faultiness, 78(2) proximity, 78(3) intoxication, 78(4) Insanity,
78(5) l i m i t a t i o n ....................................................... 78(
)
79(1) pastry,
)
dissoluteness
nigritude
presageful
propinquity
halberd
72(3) pebble,
66(4) obscurity,
gulden
eventuate
72(2) coin,
60(3) delinquency,
79(2) weapon,
72(4) carriage,
79(3) garment,
79(4) fowl,
79(5) stool
. 79(
Go on to the next pa g e .
- 14 -
peccable
80(1) baleful, 80(2) corruptible, 80(3) cheerful, 8014) charitable,
80(5) unimpeachable.................................................... 80(
aloe
81(1) horn,
81(2) Insect,
gauche
82(1) mean,
82(2) backward,
potation
clavier
exculpation
histrionic
pristine
peruke
opprobrious
hyperborean
indign
nubile
bonze
ceruse
)
82(5) awkward 82(
)
)
84(2) organ keyboard,
84(3) cocktail,
84(4) bone,
84(
85(1) exoneration, 85(2) imprisonment, 85(3) punishment,
85(4) excommunication, 85(5) cremation................................ 85(
)
86(1) historical, 86(2) foreign, 86(3) unpretending, 86(4) heterogeneous,
86(5) t h e a t r i c a l ...................................................... 86(
)
88(1) model,
hest
82(4) merry,
. . 81(
84(1) meat platter,
84(5) s o l d i e r
pannikin
barm
82(3) reticent,
81(5) bird
)
87(1) jolt,
jeremiad
81(4) plant,
83(1) beverage, 83(2) request, 83(3) blunder, 83(4) completion,
83(5) p o w e r ............................................................83(
quiddity
sycophant
81(3) granite,
)
87(2) bomb,
87(3) toy,
88(2) pannier,
87(4) cavil,
88(3) panacea,
87(5) bag
88(4) cup,
87(
88(5) barrel
. 88(
)
)
89(1) singer, 89(2) flatterer, 89(3) suitor, 89(4) dignitary,
89(5) e g o i s t .......................................................... 89(
)
90(1) tale of sorrow, 90(2) female servant, 90(3) dance, 90(4) mineral,
90(5) se a w e e d..........................................................90(
)
91(1) brewers' yeast,
91(5) w i r e
)
92(1) barrier,
92(3) command,
93(2) prohibitive,
94(2) perusal,
91(3) astringent,
91(4) lunatic,
91(
92(2) trench,
93(1) primeval,
93(5) d e l a y e d
94(1) wig,
91(2) plowshare,
92(4) axiom,
93(3) false,
94(3) pervasion,
92(5) riddle
92(
)
93(
)
93(4) legendary,
94(4) Invasion,
94(5) fluke
94(
)
95(1) determined, 95(2) timid, 95(3) delicate, 95(4) shameful,
95(5) p l e b e i a n ........................................................95(
)
96(1) southern,
96(5) t o r r i d
96(
)
97(
)
96(2) northern,
97(1) disgraceful,
97(5) c o l d
97(2) Idle,
96(3) eastern,
96(4) western,
97(3) independent,
97(4) abused,
98(1) Nubian, 98(2) marriageable, 98(3) nodular, 98(4) globular,
98(5) tractable........................................................98(
99(1) monk,
99(2) metal,
100(1) white lead,
99(3) pagoda,
100(2) ether,
99(4) contract,
100(3) crystal,
99(5) coin , . 99(
100(4) plumbago,
Subtract
Raw Score = Difference
Scaled Score __
(See Table on Key)
)
)
23378-7
AMERICAN COUNCIL O N EDUCATION
COOPERATIVE LITERARY ACQ UAINTANCE TEST
Form 1937
by
F. S. BEERS, University o f Minnesota
D O N ALD G . PATERSON, University o f Minnesota
and
G . B. SHEPLEY, University of Minnesota
ft
Please print:
N a m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Last
First
M iddle
Grade or Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A g e . . . . . . . . . . . Date of Birth. . . . . . . . . . .
Yrs.
School. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . City
Mos.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex. . . . . . . . . .
M . or F.
Title of the English course you are now taking. . . . . . . . . . . . Instructor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Directions: Do not turn this page until the examiner tells you to do so. This examination requires 40 minutes
o f working time. The directions are printed a t the beginning o f the test. Read them carefully, and proceed a t
once to answer the questions. DO NOT SPEND TO O MUCH TIME O N A N Y ONE ITEM: ANSW ER THE EASIER
QUESTIONS FIRST, then return to the harder ones if you have time. No questions may be asked a fte r the examination
has begun.
By exercising careful judgment and making shrewd guesses you may p ro fita b ly answer questions about which you are
not absolutely sure; but since your score will be the number of correct answers diminished by a number proportional to
the number o f wrong answers, you should avoid answering questions abo u t which you are to ta lly ignorant. Shrewd
guessing based on intelligent inference will improve your score, but wild guessing on questions th a t are entirely
unknown to you will waste tim e which you could b etter p u t on other questions in the test, and may result in a large
subtraction from the number o f your correct answers.
Minutes
Row Score
Percentile
40
Scaled Score
(See ta b le on key)
C opyrigh t, 1937, by the C oop erative Test Service. A ll Rights Reserved. Printed in U .S .A
437 W e s t 59th Street, N ew York C ity
-
Directions: Each
item Is followed by five possible answers.
Its number In theparentheses at the right.
Select the correct answer
and put
1. In mythology,
Venus Is
1(1) the wife of Homer, 1(2) a goddess of love and beauty,
1(3) a goddess of war, 1(4) the mother of Julius Caesar, 1(5) Penelope's daughter .
1(
2. "In the unremembered ages,
From the full moon fell Nokomls," is quoted from
2(1) The Song of Hiawatha.
2(2) Snow-Boundr 2(3) Ta a. Waterfowl- 2(4) Ode on a Grecian U r n . 2(5) The Mermaid
Tavern.................................................................................. 2(
3. Evangeline Is
3(1) a historical novel, 3(2) an essay, 3(3) a long narrative poem,
3(4) an Italian drama, 3(5) a dramatic m o n o l o g ....................................... 3(
4. "Ye goon to Canterbury; God you spede," Is quoted from
4(1) Caedmon,
4(2) Caxton, 4(3) Malory, 4(4) Spenser, 4(5) C h a u c e r ............................... 4(
5. John Alden
5(1) give3 up Priscilla to Miles Standlsh, 5(2) marries Priscilla,
5(3) goes to war, 5(4) commits suicide, 5(5) fights Mexicans......................... 5(
6.
Shylock was a
6(1) poetic soul,6(2) religious heretic, 6(3) philanthropist,
6(4) miser, 6(5) F r e n c h m a n ............................................................6(
7. Sir Gawain was
7(1) a knight of the Round Table, 7(2) a great actor, 7(3) a
general In Napoleon's army, 7(4) the author of Beowulf. 7(5) the son of Othello . .
7(
8.
"Round about the Indian village
Spread the meadows and the cornfields," Is quoted from
8(1) My Last Duchess.
8(2) The Song of Hiawatha. 8(3) The Inner Vision. 8(4) The Last Leaf.
8(5) Jenny Kissed Me.................................................................... 8(
9.
A characteristic collection of stories In a framework Is
9(1) Canterbury Tales.
9(2) Pilgrim'b Progress. 9(3) The Comedy of Errors. 9(4) The Old Wives' Tale.
9(5) Love'a Sacrifice ...............................................................
9(
10. Mr. Peggotty appears In a novel by
10(1) Conrad, 10(2) Hardy, 10(3) Blackmore,
10(4) Dickens, 10(5) Fielding.........................................................10(
11. "Blushing Evangeline heard the words that her father had spoken,
And a3 they died on his lips, the worthy notary entered," is quoted from
11(1) Scott, 11(2) Tennyson, 11(3) Poe, 11(4) Bryant,11(5) Longfellow.............. 11(
12. "Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look;
He thinks too much: such men are dangerous," is quoted from
12(1) King Lear.
12(2) Cato, 12(3) Julius Caesar. 12(4) Trollus and Cresslda, 12(5) The Case
Is Altered............................................................................12(
13. The famous character who set out with his servant and his horse to rid the world
of monsters was
13(1) Shylock, 13(2) Oliver Twist, 13(3) Don Quixote,
13(4) Lorna Doone, 13(5) Daniel Boone............................................... 13(
14. The home of the gods was
14(1) the Isle of Patmos, 14(2) Hades, 14(3) the
Parthenon, 14(4) Mt. Olympus, 14(5) the Rhone ..................................... 14(
15. Portia Is in love with
15(1) Hamlet, 15(2) John Barrymore,
15(3)Chaucer,
15(4) Cyrano de Bergerac, 15(5) Bassanlo ...........................................
15(
16. "It Is not meet, Sir King, to leave thee thus," is quoted from
16(1) Evangeline.
16(2) Leaves of Grassr 16(3) Patterns. 16(4) The Passing of Arthur. 16(5) Doctor
F a u s t u s ............................................................................... 16(
17. The ship's crew are found to be pirates in
17(1) An American Tragedy.
17(2) Typhoon. 17(3) The Nigger of the Narcissus. 17(4) Treasure Island.
17(5) The Marble F a u n ................................................................. 17(
18. "Vainly the fowler's eye
Might mark thy distant flight to do thee wrong," Is quoted from
18(1) The Scarlet
Letter. 18(2) The Chambered Nautilus. 18(3) To a Waterfowl. 18(4) To the Fringed
Gentian. 18(5) The Old Swlmmln’ H o l e ................................................ 18(
19. The story of the lost sheep Is a
19(1) parable, 19(2) miracle, 19(3) poem,
19(4) dream, 19(5) prophecy...........................................................19(
20. The Philistines were
20(1) scribes, 20(2) lawyers, 20(3) enemies of the
Israelites, 20(4) archers, 20(5) Roman converts ................................... 20(
Go on to the next page.
2
-
- 3
21. "But now delay not; take Excalibur,
And fling him far Into the Middle Mere," is quoted from
21(1) The Lotos-Eaters.
21(2) Prometheus. 21(3) My Last Duchess. 21(4) The Passing of Arthur.
21(5) Palace of A r t ........................ ........................................21(
22. Kipling's imagination and knowledge of nature history are apparent In
22(1) Boots.
22(2) The Jungle Books,. 22(3) Captain Hook. 22(4) Peter Pan. 22(5) The Comedy
of E r r o r s ............................................................................22 (
23. The woman who died for love of Lancelot was
23(1) Joan of Arc, 23(2) Elaine,
23(3) Guinevere, 23(4) Juliet, 23(5) Lorna Doone.................................... 23(
24. "Till thou at length art free,
Leaving thine outgrown shell by life's unresting sea!" Is quoted from
24(1) The
Indian Serenade. 24(2) Hark. Hark! the Lark. 24(3) Elegy. 24(4) John Anderson.
24(5) The Chambered Nautilus...........................................................24(
25.
"Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore," Is quoted from
25(1) The Raven. 25(2) My Last Duchess. 25(3) II Penseroso, 25(4) Highland Mary.
25(5) The Rape of the Lock.............................................................25(
26.
"The corn-top's ripe, and the meadow's in the bloom,
While the birds make music all the day," is quoted from
26(1) Annie Laurie.
26(2) My Old Kentucky Home. 26(3) Ben Bolt. 26(4) To a Waterfowl. 26(5) Hymn
to the Night........................................................................... 26 (
27. Blank verse Is without
27(1) pause, 27(2) alliteration, 27(3) accent,
27(4) meter, 27(5) rhyme ...........................................................
28. "Hail to thee, blithe spirit!" is quoted from
28(1) Don Juan. 28(2) Gulliver's
Travels. 28(3) The Chambered Nautilus, 28(4) The Raven. 28(5) Jo aSkylark . . . .
27(
28(
29. The Great Stone Face is
29(1) In the Black Hills, 29(2) a famous piece of
sculpture, 29(3) a short story by Hawthorne, 29(4) a redwood tree, 29(5) a novel
by Poe................................................................................ 29 (
30. The setting of Kipling's Kim Is
30(1) Australia, 30(2) Persia, 30(3) Russian
diplomatic circles, 30(4) Chinese society,
30(5)northern India ...................
30(
31. "Flashed all their sabers bare.
Flashed as they turned in air," is quoted from
31(1) Battle of the Baltic,
31(2) Paul Revere's Ride, 31(3) The Charge of the Light Brigade. 31(4) The
Flight of Love, 31(5) Thanatopsls.....................................................31(
32. Cleopatra killed herself for love of
32(1) Isis, 32(2) Brutus, 32(3) Caesar,
32(4) Antony, 32(5) C h a r m l a n ..................................................... .. 32(
33. "The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear," is quoted from
33(1) Lamentations. 33(2) Genesis. 33(3) The Divine Comedy. 33(4) Psalms.
33(5) The Rubaiyat..................................................................... 33(
34.
Dante's Inferno is most like
34(1) In Memorlam.
34(2) The Frogs. 34(3)
TheCld.
34(4) The Decameron. 34(5) Paradise L o s t ........................................... 34(
35.
Obstinate and Pliable are characters in
35(1) Doctor Faustus, 35(2)Pilgrim's
Progress,35(3) Robinson Crusoe. 35(4) LycldasT
35(5) Don Quixote.................. 35(
36.
A shortpoem reflecting some personal emotion is called
36(1) aballad,
36(2) a lyric, 36(3) an allegory, 36(4) a fable, 36(5) an e p i c ..................... 36(
37.
Julius Caesar's literary fame rests on his
37(1)military reports,37(2) epic
poems, 37(3) ballads, 37(4) novels, 37(5) legal...... treatises..... ............. 37(
38. "Drink to me only with thine eyes," is quoted from
38(1) To Celia. 38(2) Romeo
and Juliet. 38(3) Endymloh and Phoebe. 38(4) The Cotter's Saturday Night.
38(5) Annabel L e e ..................................................................... 38(
39. The Slough of Despond is described in
39(1) Don Quixote. 39(2) Lycldas.
39(3) Robinson Crusoe, 39(4) Doctor Faustus. 39(5) Pilgrim's Progress ............
39(
40. "A night made hoary with the swarm
And whirl-dance of the blinding storm," Is quoted from
40(1) Requiem. 40(2) The
Young May Moon, 40(3) Snow-Bound, 40(4) Barbara FrletcMle, 40(5) Salome........... 40(
41. Alexandre Dumas' most popular novel is
41(1) The Queen Pedauque. 41(2) Made­
moiselle de Maupln. 41(3) The Queen's Necklace, 41(4) Les Miserables.
41(5) The Three Musketeers............................................................ 41(
Go on to the next page.
42. "Horrible Imaginings," Is quoted from
42(1) Macbeth. 42(2) The Lady of the Lake.
42(3) To the Fringed Gentian. 42(4) The Comedy of Errors. 42(5) Loyalties ......... 42(
43. One of the great song writers of the world was43(1) Lovelace,
43(2) Keats,
43(3) Edmund Burke, 43(4) Robert B u m s , 43(5) Addison ............................ 43(
44. "Sweet Auburn) loveliest village of the plain," 1$ quoted from
44(1) The Pioneer.
44(2) In Memorlam. 44(3) Evangeline. 44(4) A Tale of a Tub. 44(5) The Deserted
V i l l a g e .............................................................................. 44 (
45. "Much I marveled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,
Though Its answer little meaning - little relevancy bore," Is quoted from
45(1) The Rape of the Lock. 45(2) Highland Mary. 45(3) Snow-Bound. 45(4) The
Raven. 45(5) My Last D u c h e s s .........................................................45(
46. East Lynne Is notable because of Its
46(1)
lectual stimulation, 46(3) sensory appeal,
power
to evoke emotions,
46(4) humor, 46(5)brevity
46(2)intel­
46(
47. In the Odyssey. Penelope Is
47(1) a giant, 47(2) Menelaus' sweetheart,
47(3) a siren, 47(4) the wife of Ulysses, 47(5) a prophetess........................ 47(
48. Sonnets from the Portuguese was written by
48(3) an unknown author, 48(4) Amy Lowell,
48(1)
Shakespeare,
48(2)
E.B.Browning,
48(5) Schiller ........................ 48(
49. "Whither, midst falling dew,
While glow the heavens with the last steps of day," isquoted from
49(1) America.
49(2) To a Waterfowl, 49(3) Snow-Bound.49(4) The Last Leaf. 49(5) Kim ............ 49(
50. A parson discourses at length in a tale by
50(1) Caedmon, 50(2) Caxton,
50(3) Malory, 50(4) Spenser, 50(5) Chaucer......................................... 50(
51. A wedding guest Is spellbound and constrained to hear a tale In
51(2) Chrlstabel. 51(3) The Ancient Mariner. 51(4) Lochlnvar.
51(1) Don Juan.
51(5) Adonals. . . . 51(
52. "To the moaning and the groaning of the bells," Is quoted from
52(1) Poe,
52(2) Holmes, 52(3) Chaucer, 52(4) Shakespeare, 52(5) Sappho ....................
52(
53. The use of Images to disguise a moral meaning is known as
53(1) simile,
53(2) plagiarism, 53(3) allegory, 53(4) metaphor, 53(5) onomatopoeia ............
53(
54. Chanticleer was a
54(1) cock, 54(2) fairy, 54(3) horse, 54(4) king's fool,
54(5) goat............................................................................ 54(
55. Hell is an Inverted cone with Its apex at the center of the world, according to
55(1) Omar Khayyam, 55(2) Bunyan, 55(3) Dante, 55(4).Caesar, 55(5) Bruno......... 55(
56. In David Copperfleld. Mr. Creakle is a
clerk, 56(3) tyrannical schoolmaster,
56(1) blind newsboy, 56(2) post office
56(4) hero, 56(5) hunchback..................56(
57. One of the most notable early American contributions to English prose was
57(1) Snow-Bound, 57(2) Thanatonsls. 57(3) Evangeline, 57(4) The Rise of Silas
Lapham. 57(5) The Sketch Book....................................................... 57(
58.
"This is the ship of pearl, which, poets feign,
Sails the unshadowed main," Is quoted from
58(1) Riders tg the Sea. 58(2) The
Chambered Nautilus, 58(3) In Memorlam. 58(4) Requiem. 58(S) Evelyn Hone.......... 58(
59. "Come and show me another city with lifted head singing so proud to be alive and
coarse and strong and cunning," Is quoted from
59(1) Amy Lowell, 59(2) Teasdale,
59(3) Sandburg, 59(4) Bodenhelm, 59(5) M i l l a y ..................................... 59(
60. "A parody book of travel" describes
60(1) Ben Hur. 60(2) Fisherman's Luck.
60(3) The Royal Road to Romance. 60(4) Walking Tours. 60(5) Tnnnc.wita Abroad. . . . 60(
61.
"But It's 'Thin red line of 'eroes' when the drums begin to roll," Is quoted from
61(1) Hardy, 61(2) Van Dyke, 61(3) Whitman, 61(4) Kipling, 61(5) Poe..............61(
62.
The supposed author of Piers Plowman Is
62(1) William Langland, 62(2) Spenser,
62(3) Dryden, 62(4) Chaucer, 62(5) M a l o r y .......................................... 62{
63. Muir's The Story of My Boyhood and Youth is notable as a narrative of
63(1) polit­
ical scheming,
63(2) religious development, 63(3) the French Revolution,
63(4) American pioneer life, 63(5) biblical times'................................... 63(
64. In Faust. the character who secures redemption by acts of beneficence to humanity Is
64(1) Mephlstopheles, 64(2) Faust, 64(3) Helen of Troy, 64(4) Anna Karenina,
64(5) Lorna D o o n e .................................................................... 54(
Go on to the next page.
- 5
65. A pestilence 'befell
the Trojanswhenthey settled in
65(1) France, 65(2) Zanzibar,
65(3) Italy, 65(4)Crete, 65(5)Austria ..............................................
65(
66. During what period did Dante write his Inferno?
66(1) The fourteenth century,
66(2) the reign of Julius Caesar, 66(3) the Golden Age of Greece, 66(4) the Trojan
War, 66(5) the time of Christ........................................................ 66(
67. The humanistic trend of the Renaissance Is portrayed In More's
67(1) Robinson^
Crusoe. 67(2) Phlllyp Sparowe. 67(3) Utopia. 67(4) Paradise Lost. 67(5) Comedle
H u m a l n e .......................................................
67(
68. During the reign of what English monarch was the most beautiful translation of the
Bible made?
68(1) Henry VIII, 68(2) Charles II, 68(3) James I, 68(4) Queen
Elizabeth, 68(5) Queen Victoria....................................................... 68(
69. "The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow'r.
And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,
Await alike th' Inevitable hour," Isquoted from
69(1) The Deserted Village.
69(2) Gray's Elegy. 69(3) Essay onMan. 69(4)Evangeline. 69(5)Snow-Bound . . . .
69(
70. "Eternal sunshine settles on Its head," Is quoted from
70(1) The Bella.
70(2) Boots. 70(3) The Raven. 70(4) The Charge of the Light Brigade. 70(5) The
Deserted Village........................................................................70(
71.
Stevenson's humorous struggles with Modestlne are described In
71(1) Peter Pan.
71(2) Treasure Island. 71(3) Gulliver's Travels. 71(4) Travels with a Donkey.
71(5) Kidnapped
71 (
72. Whitman exults In his own physical being in
72(1) 0 Captain! My Captain!.
72(2) Tar. 72(3) Growth of the Soli. 72(4) Song of Myself. 72(5) The Egotist . . . 72(
73. "Under the wide and starry sky,
Dig a grave and let me lie," is quoted from 73(1) Holmes,73(2) Hardy,
......................................
73(3) Poe, 73(4) Masefield, 73(5) Stevenson
73(
74. Songs celebrating the glories or lamenting the sorrows of Ireland are best illustrated
in
74(1) James Barrie, 74(2) Thomas Moore, 74(3) Defoe, 74(4) Burns,
74(5) Teasdale......................................................................... 74(
75. Hermia appears in
75(1) A Midsummer Night's Dream. 75(2) The Winter's Tale.
75(3) Antony and Cleopatra. 75(4) Julius Caesar.75(5) Mnr.h»fc»i.........................75(
76.
77.
78.
Hecate is
76(1) a witch in Macbeth, 76(2)"a ballad, 76(3) the personificationof
Jealousy in The Faerie Queene~ 76(4) a Roman goddess, 76(5) food for the gods .. .
76(
Who sold his birthright for a mess of pottage?
77(1) Paul, 77(2) Esau,
77(3) Cain, 77(4) Omar Khayyam, 77(5) Tolstoy .....................................
77(
Masques were introduced In England as a
78(1) disguise for elaborate machinery,
78(2) form of court entertainment, 78(3) protest against Puritanism, 78(4) milder
form of Greek tragedy, 78(5) series of religious satires ...........................
78(
79. "As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, 0 God!"
is quoted from
79(1) Lamentations. 79(2) Psalms. 79(3) Genesis. 79(4) Daniel.
79(5) Esther.
.......................................................
79(
80. In Riders to the Sea, the Irish woman who has a presentiment of her son's death is
80(1) Becky Sharp, 80(2) Nell Gwyn, 80(3) Mother Machree, 80(4) Ann Hathaway,
80(5) Maurya..........................................................................80(
81. Chaucer's Wife of Bathe
81(1) was acute of hearing, 81(2) had married often,
81(3) was dainty, 81(4) never laughed, 81(5) had trouble riding her h o r s e .........81 (
82. Flute, the bellows-mender, appears in
82(1) King Lear. 82(2) Othello.
82(3) HpiwIat, 82(4) The Tempest. 82(5) A Midsummer Night's Dream................... 82(
83.
A political satire by Dryden is called
83(1) In Memorlam, 83(2) The Cld.
83(3) Le Morte d'Arthur. 83(4) Essay on Man, 83(5) Absalom and A c h l t o p h e l ........ 83(
84. "Hell hath no limits, where we are is hell.
And where hell is, there must we even be," is quoted from
84(2) Don Quixote.84(3) Endvmion. 84(4) Excelsior. 84(5)
84(1)Doctor
Faustus.
Ode on aGrecian Urn . . 84(
85. Swift's most characteristic attitude is
85(1) optimistic, 85(2) didactic,
85(3) pessimistic, 85(4) puritanical, 85(5) sentimental............................ 85(
86. The treatment of Lamb's Poor Relations involves
86(1) veiled irony, 86(2) horrors,
86(3) hopeless anger, 86(4) erotic dreaming, 86(5) romantic love.................. 86(
Go on to the next page.
- 6 87.
The Eve of St. Agnes is a poem about
87(1) romantic love, 87(2) patriotism,
87(3) pensive reveries, 87(4) religious fanaticism, 87(5) warfare ................. 87(
88. Aristophanes was a
88(1) friend of Anatole France, 88(2) medieval poet,
88(3) Greek dramatist, 88(4) Persian philosopher, 88(5) Hindu g o d d e s s ............. 88(
89. Which character is considered Shakespeare's greatest creation?89(1) Iago,
89(2) Aaron, 89(3) Petruchio, 89(4) Falstaff, 89(5) Prince Hal ....................
90.
89(
A bashful hero is betrothed tothe heroine by means of an unusual misunderstanding in
90(1) She Stoops to Conouer. 90(2) Hedda Gabler.90(3) Ghosts. 90(4)
TheCherry
Orchard. 90(5) The Deserted Village...................................................90{
91. "Three years she grew in sun and shower," is quoted from
91(1) Wordsworth,
91(2) Byron, 91(3) Kipling, 91(4) Homer, 91(5) Virgil.............................. 91(
92. In most of his books, H. G. Wells is interested in
92(1) adventures of sailors,
92(2) quixotic characters, 92(3) British colonization, 92(4) science and Invention,
92(5) religious reformation......................................................... 92(
93. The glory of Russian literature is its
93(1) rhymed romances, 93(2) epic poetry,
93(3) prose fiction, 93(4) satirical essays, 93(5)heroic comedies................... 93(
94. Tom Jones is a novel by
94(1) Mark Twain, 94(2) Lawrence Sterne, 94(3) Richardson,
94(4) Henry Fielding, 94(5) T h a c k e r a y ............................................. 94(
95. One of the glories of romantic poetry is
95(1) Beowulf. 95(2) Antigone.
95(3) Sheridan's The Critic. 95(4) Lewis' Castle Spectre. 95(5) Shelley's
Prometheus Unbound....................................................................95 (
96. Medical Essays was written by
96(1) Poe, 96(2) Whitman, 96(3) Holmes,
96(4) Irving, 96(5) Twain........................................................... 96(
97. Bret Harte's realism is impaired by his fondness for
97(1) historical backgrounds,
97(2) too brilliant dialog, 97(3) melodrama, 97(4) sophisticated characters,
97(5) happy e n d i n g s ..................................................................97(
98. The Njals Saga includes an account of
98(1) Greek deities, 98(2) the introduction
of Christianity into Iceland, 98(3) the massacres of the American Indians,
98(4) George Washington's life, 98(5) King Solomon.... .............................. 98(
99. Moliere's one-act satire on the women of contemporary literary groups is called
99(1) The Closed Garden, 99(2) Le Misanthrope. 99(3) Hedda Gabler. 99(4) Le
Menteur, 99(5) Les Precleuses Ridicules.............................................. 99(
100.
Goethe's interest in medievalism with its magic and alchemy is reflected in
100(1) Faust. 100(2) The Flying Dutchman. 100(3) Gargantua. 100(4) Song of
Roland. 100(5) Tristram and I s e u l t .............................. ................... 100(
101. The Argonautlc Expedition concerned
101(1) a war against the Trojans, 101(2) the
exploration of the Spanish Main, 101(3) a search for the golden fleece,
101(4) the search of Orpheus for Eurydice, 101(5) the dethroning of Pluto........... 101 (
102.
Ibsen's A Doll*s House may be classified as
102(3) philosophical, 102(4) psychological,
103.
Cicero wrote
103(1) Histology. 103(2) The Call of Spring. 103(3)
On
theNature
of Things, 103(4) The Brothers. 103(5) De S e n e c t u t e............................... 103(
104.
Whitman's triumphant American democracy is the theme of
104(1) Ethan Frome.
104(2) When Lilacs Last in the Doorvard Bloomed, 104(3) Pioneers! Q Pioneers!
104(4) John Brown'a Body. 104(5) Growth of the Soil................................. 104(
105. The return to the laws
105(2) poetic diction,
102(1) religious, 102(2)romantic,
102(5) picaresque .................... 102(
and rules of the classics is termed 105(1) idealism,
105(3) euphuism, 105(4) neo-classicism, 105(5)romanticism.105(
106. In many of Ibsen's plays we see
106(1; the effects of wise government,
106(2) an ideal social order, 106(3) complex city life, 106(4) a pinched,
hypocritical social order, 106(5) happy marriages................................... 106f
107. A part of The Divine Comedy is called
107(1) Purgatorio, 107(2) Jactitation.
107(3) Jaws of Death. 107(4) II Penseroso. 107(5) Caldonia......................... 107(
108. What Don Quixote took for Mambrlno's helmet was really a
108(1) shoe,
108(2) barber's basin, 108(3) sack of meal, 108(4) gourd, 108(5) stone ...........108(
109. Fat James Sedley creates humor In
109(1) Canterbury Tales. 109(2) The Old Wives'
Tale. 109(3) A Tale of Two Cities. 109(4) Vanity Fair. 109(5) The Decameron. . . ,109(
Go on to the next page.
- 7
110. What character represents the American magnate subdued to New England conditions
and to the domestic hearth?
110(1) Silas Lapham, 110(2) Dr. Kennicott,
110(3) Abraham Lincoln, 110(4) Aaron Burr, 110(5) Clym Yeobright. .............. 110(
111. In what book of the Bible Is mention made of the four horsemen?
111(1) Deuteronomy.
111(2) Revelations. 111(3) Jeremiah, 111(4) Isaiah. 111(5) Acts. .............. 111(
112. "With the pagan folk there's nothing I can do,
They live alone, in their own private hell," was said by
112(1) Othello,
112(2) Peter Lumpkin, 112(3) Mephlstopheles, 112(4) Don Juan, 112(5) Ichabod
C r a n e .............................................................................. 112 (
113. Hippocrates wrote
113(1) The Physician. 113(2) Education in Persia.
113(3) Cold. Snow and Hunger. 113(4) Jean-Chrlstophe. 113(5) The Peasants. . . .
114. One of the great one-act plays is
114(1) Suppressed Desires, 114(2)Trifles.
114(3) Overtones. 114(4) The Goal. 114(5) Riders to the Sea ....................
113(
114(
115. The pathos of rustic life is the preoccupation of
115(1) Hardy, 115(2) Thackeray,
115(3) Meredith, 115(4) Eliot, 115(5) Scott .................................... 115(
116. The success of a good apprentice and the ruin of a thoughtless one constitute the
theme of
116(1) The Merchant of Venice, 116(2) The London Merchant.
116(3) George Dandln. 116(4) The Shepherd's Week. 116(5) Medea................... 116(
117. "A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread - and Thou
Beside me singing in the Wilderness Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow!"
is quoted from
117(2) Browning, 117(3) David, 117(4) Omar Khayyam,
117(1) Amy Lowell,
117(5) Chaucer ............
117(
118. Hlldebrandslled is 118(1) a satirical essay, 118(2) an epic poem, 118(3) a
novel, 118(4) a lyric poem, 118(5) a short story................................ 118(
119. Whose rustic characters are called Shakespearean?
119(2) Hardy's, 119(3) Milton's, 119(4) Shaw's,
119(1) Longfellow's,
119(5) Byron's ................
119(
120. The Old Wives' Tale is
120(1) a tragedy of filial affection, 120(2) Irving's
masterpiece, 120(3) a series of essays, 120(4) a psychological study of two
sisters, 120(5) a famous n e w s p a p e r ............................................... 120(
121. The model who was transformed by hypnotism into a prima donna was
121(1) Isolde,
121(2) Trelawney, 121(3) Camille, 121(4) Trilby, 121(5) Evelina..................121(
122. Agamemnon was written by
122(1) Solomon, 122(2) Plato, 122(3) Rabelais,
122(4) Judas, 122(5) A e s c h y l u s ...................... »........................... 122(
123. Calypso is forced to release Ulysses because of
123(1) Nauslcaa, 123(2) Cyclops,
123(3) the gods, 123(4) Paris, 123(5) O e d i p u s .............. .................... 123(
124. "I vow to God they are sheep and ewes you are charging!"
was said by
124(1) Pirandello, 124(2) Dulcinea, 1-24(3) Don Quixote, 124(4) Sancho Panza,
124(5) Malvolio ...................................................................
124(
125. Conviviality is the theme of many poems by
125(1) Keats, 125(2) Burke,
125(3) Burns, 125(4) Tennyson, 125(5) Longfellow.......... ...................... 125(
126. Samuel Johnson wrote Rasselas. Prince of Abyssinia as an example of
126(1) philo­
sophic meditation on human destiny, 126(2) Brahman religion, 126(3) slavery,
126(4) the insidious effects of narcotics, 126(5) poetic justice ................ 126(
127. "The Sensual and the Dark rebel in vain,
Slaves by their own compulsion!" is quoted from
127(1) Mark Twain,
127(2) Coleridge, 127(3) Shaw, 127(4) Longfellow, 127(5) Ibsen ................
127(
128. Hecuba's child left to perish on Mount Ida was named
128(1) Aeneas, 128(2) Paris,
128(3) Helen, 128(4) Virgil, 128(5) Dante ....................................... 128(
129. The story of the liberation of Jerusalem under Godfrey of Bouillon in the crusades
of the eleventh century is the theme of a heroic poem by
129(1) Tasso,
129(2) Chaucer, 129(3) Milton, 129(4) Bunyan, 129(5) Homer ....................
129(
130. The writings of Turgenev reflect
130(1) the Buddhistic doctrine, 130(2) boister­
ous humor, 130(3) a mixture of farce and pathos, 130(4) early European
civilization, 130(5) deep melancholy ............................................. 130(
131. "The Beautiful Parricide" is the name given the heroine of
131(1) The Prisoner
of Chlllon. 131(2) The Cenci, 131(3) The Inferno. 131(4) The Lady of the Lake.
131(5) Tom Thumb..................................................................... 131(
Go on to the next page.
132. One of Holmes' violent antipathies was
132(1) anatomy, 132(2) Cervantes,
132(3) Christian Science, 132(4) Dante, 132(5) Calvinism........................ 132(
133. Noyes' Sherwood is classified as
133(1) realistic fiction, 133(2) metrical
romance^ 133(3) poetic drama, 133(4) criticism, 133(5) dramatic monolog........
133(
134. Henry James wrote
134(1) realistic dramas, 134(2) epic poetry, 134(3) treatises
on religion, 134(4) psychological novels, 134(5) articles on medicine .......... 134(
135. Meredith was much interested in the problem of
135(1) the position of women,
135(2) religious conflict, 135(3) race hatred, 135(4) the growth of democracy,
135(5) colonization............................................................... 135(
136.
What dramatic character killed his fatherland married his mother?
136(1) Cyrano
de Bergerac, 136(2) Tartuffe, 136(3) Phedre, 136(4) Oedipus, 136(5) Tom Thumb . 136(
137. In Hamlet. "A fellow of Infinite Jest, of most excellent fancy" describes
137(1) Falstaff, 137(2) Macduff, 137(3) Yorick, 137(4) Caliban,
137(5) Petruchio.................................................................... 137(
138. The account of an Italian trial for murder is the plot of
138(1) The Princess.
138(2) Plppa Passes. 138(3) The Ring and the Book. 138(4) The Knight'a Tale.
138(5) Resurrection..........................
138(
139. Which of James' characters resigns his seat in Parliament to become a portrait
painter?
139(1) Tom Jones, 139(2) Count Tolstoy, 139(3) Donatello,
139(4) Sancho Panza, 139(5) Nicholas Dormer....................................... 139(
140.
Solon wrote 140(1) Justice. 140(2) The Rivals, 140(3) Romola.
140(4) Aes
Triplex. 140(5) The Birds............................................................140(
141.
In Dame Care.Paul Meyerhofer finally finds happiness in
141(1) education,
141(2) love, 141(3) music, 141(4) painting, 141(5) politics...................... 141(
142. Of what student, poet, and housebreaker did Stevenson write?
142(1) Robin Hood,
142(2) Guy Rivera, 142(3) Machiavelli, 142(4) Cellini, 142(5) Villon ..........
142(
143. "Female punctuation forbids me to say more,"
is quoted from
143(1) The Rivals.
143(2) Much Ado About Nothing. 143(3) Tono-Bungay. 143(4) The Beggar's Opera.
143(5) A Doll's House .............................................................
143(
144. The tragedy of Quaker persecutions is exhibited in Hawthorne's
144(1) Typee.
144(2) White Jacket. 144(3) The Gentle Boy, 144(4) The Last Leaf. 144(5) Mardl . 144(
145. An unusual character analysis is the center of Poe's
145(1) The Legend of
Sleepy Hollow. 145(2) Llgela. 145(3) The Gold Bug. 145(4) The Bells.
145(5) Kubla K h a n ..................................................................145(
146. A mirth-provoking courtship of the already affianced Dame Custance occurs in
146(1) Gammer Gurton's Needle. 146(2) Ralph Roister Doister, 146(3) The Rivals.
146(4) Corboduc~j 146(5) Abraham and Isaac.......................................... 146(
147. "For now we see through a glass darkly,"
Is quoted from
147(1) Omar Khayyam,
147(2) Solomon, 147(3) Virgil, 147(4) Moses, 147(5) Paul ....................... 147(
148. Cabell's novels are based upon
148(1) Roman drama, 148(2) life idealized,
148(3) biblical characters, 148(4) the Mohammedan religion, 148(5) realistic
experiences...........................................
148(
149. "Pity the wolves who prowl unsleeping
Guarding the pasture from a thief,"
is quoted from
149(1) Elinor Wylie,
149(2) Sandburg, 149(3) Aldington, 149(4) Gertrude Stein, 149(5) Ezra Pound. . . 149(
150. Johnson's Epicene is a
150(1) novel of manners, 150(2) comedy, 150(3) lyric,
150(4) farce, 150(5) t r a g e d y ..................................................... 150(
Number wrong 4)_____________ Number right
Subtract
Raw Score = Difference
20657-7
AMERICAN COUNCIL O N EDUCATION
COOPERATIVE LITERARY COMPREHENSION TEST
Form 1937
by
M. F. CARPENTER, State University o f Iowa
and
E. F. LINDQUIST, State University o f Iowa
Please print:
Name........................
Last
First
Date. . . .
M id d le
Grade or Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A g e . . . . . . . . . . . Date of Birth. . . . . . . . . . .
Yrs.
Mos.
School. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . City. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex. . . . . . . . . .
M. or F.
Title of the English course you are now talcing. . . . . . . . . . . . Instructor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Directions: Do not turn this page until the examiner tells you to do so. This examination requires 45 minutes
o f working time. The directions are printed a t the beginning o f the test. Read them carefully, and proceed a t
once to answer the questions. DO NOT SPEND T O O M U CH TIME O N A N Y ONE ITEM; ANSWER THE EASIER
QUESTIONS FIRST, then return to the harder ones if you have time. No questions may be asked a fte r the examination
has begun.
By exercising careful judgment and making shrewd guesses you may p ro fita b ly answer questions about which you are
not absolutely sure: but since your score will be the number o f correct answers diminished by a number proportional to
the number o f wrong answers, you should avoid answering questions abo u t which you are to ta lly ignorant. Shrewd
guessing based on intelligent inference will improve your score, but wild guessing on questions th a t are entirely
unknown to you will waste tim e which you could better p u t on other questions in the test, and may result in a large
subtraction from the number o f your correct answers.
Minutes
Raw Score
Percentile
45
Scaled Score
(See ta b le on key)
C opyrigh t, 1937, by the C oop erative Test Service. A ll Rights Reserved. Printed in U .S .A .
437 W e s t 59th S treet. New York C ity
- 2 -
Directions; This test consists of literary selections, below each of which are printed several
multiple-choice test items concerning the selection. In each case you are to read the selection
carefully first, and then decide on the basis of the selection which of the words or phrases
given after the incomplete statement best completes the meaning of the statement. Write the
number corresponding to the correct completion in the parentheses at the right.
1)
2)
3)
4)
We've kissed love's sweet, red lips,
And left them sweet and red;
The rose the wild bee sips
Blooms on when he is dead.
5)
6)
7)
8)
Some faithful friends we've found;
But they who love us best,
When we are under ground,
Will laugh on with the rest.
9)
10)
11)
12)
No task have we begun
But other hands can take;
No work beneath the sun
For which we need to wake.
The poet is impressed by our own 1(1) hard luck, 1(2) sufferings, 1(3) unimportance,
1(4) greatness, 1(5) pleasures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l(
)
Love is presented as 2(1) life-giving, 2(2) temporary, 2(3) turbulent, 2(4) cloying,
2(5) bitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2(
)
The dominant mood of the poem is one of 3(1) resentment, 3(2) exultation, 3(3) lack of
interest, 3(4) resignation, 3(5) disappointment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3(
)
4(5) danger. . 4(
)
The poet foresees
4(1) chance,
4(2) old age,
4(3) death,
4(4) failure,
The idea in lines 3 and 4 is repeated in the reference to 5(1) other hands, 5(2) our
task, 5(3) our work, 5(4) our friends, 5(5) the sun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
5(
De gray owl sing fum de chimbly top:
"Who— who— is— you-oo?"
En I say: "Good Lawd, hit's des po'me,
En Iain’t quite ready for de Jasper Sea;
I'm po 1 en sinful, en you 'lowed I ’d be:
Oh, wait, good Lawd, 'twell ter-morror.'
De gray owl sing fum de cypress tree:
"Who— who— is— you-oo?"
En I say: "Good Lawd, ef you look you'll see
Hit ain't nobody but des po' me,
En I liketer stay 'twell my time is free;
Oh, wait, good Lawd, 'twell ter-morror.'"
The speaker is threatened with 6(1) insanity, 6(2) punishment, 6(3) sickness,
6(4) death, 6(5) sorrow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6(
He is inclined to
7(1) deny,
7(2) coax,
7(3) rebel,
7(4) repent, 7(5) submit........ 7(
The "Jasper Sea"
(line 4) is 8(1) an actual body ofwater, 8(2) a place of torment,
8(3) exile, 8(4) a jewel, 8(5). heaven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8(
The expression "en you 'lowed I'd be" in line 5 indicates that the man's sinfulness was
9(1) unforgiven,
9(2) compulsory, 9(3) not serious, 9(4) forgiven, 9(5) expected. . . 9(
The voice of the owl becomes the voice of God because 10(1) the Lord speaks through
others, 10(2) the man believes owls are gods, 10(3) the man is nervous, 10(4) there are
other sounds present, 10(5) an owl stands for
God. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10(
The mood of the poem is 11(1) humorous, 11(2) ominous, 11(3) profane, 11(4) harsh,
11(5) pious. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11(
The passage achieves its effect mainly by 12(1) repetition, 12(2) climax, 12(3) figures
of speech, 12(4) play on words, 12(5) irony. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12(
Go on to the next page.
)
-3 1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
There are two central characters in the
novel, a young newspaperman and his sometime wife, an actress. But with them are
hinted or portrayed the millionaire exporter with a hand in politics and banking, and the hobo who gets a hand-out by
dish-washing; the king of bootleggers,
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
and the Jewish sweat-shop girl; the
youngster who talks psycho-analysis,
and the less worthy but considerably
more likeable youngster who kills himself by booze cum gasoline— they and
a thousand others, the very symbols
and revelations of the new Babylon.
The passage gives an impression of a society that is 13(1) puritanical,
13(2) well organized, 13(3) primitive, 13(4) chivalrous, 13(5) corrupt. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13(
The novel seems to deal with , 14(1) the slums, 14(2) lunatics, 14(3) the aristocracy,
14(4) criminals, 14(5) many classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14(
"Cum" in line 12 means 15(1) poisoned by, 15(2) together with, 15(3) and not,
15(4) used as, 15(5) adulterated w i t h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 15(
"The new Babylon" (line 14) is probably 16(1) New York, 16(2) London, 16(3) Venice,
16(4) Paris, 16(5) R o m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16(
One could date the novel best by the reference to 17(1) the hobo, 17(2) the boot­
legger, 17(3) Babylon, 17(4) the newspaperman, 17(5) the sweat-shop girl. . . . . . . . . . 17(
The city depicted in the novel is called "the new Babylon" because of 18(1) its poli­
tics, 18(2) its similar industrial enterprises. 18(3) the psycho-analytical talk of the
characters, 18(4) its Jewish population, 18(5) its decadent splendor and sordidness. . 18(
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Old Behrman was a painter who lived on
the ground floor beneath them. He was
past sixty and had a Michelangelo's Moses
beard curling down from the head of a
satyr along the body of an imp. Behrman
was a failure in art. Forty years he had
wielded the brush without getting near
enough to touch the hem of his mistress 's
robe. He had been always about to paint
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a masterpiece, but had never yet begun
it. For several years he had painted
nothing except now and then a daub in
the line of commerce or advertising. He
earned alittle by serving as a model
to those young artists in the colony
who could not pay the price of a professional. He drank g m to excess, and
still talked about his coming masterpiece.
Behrman was 19(1) boastful, 19(2) taciturn, 19(3) despondent, 19(4) without interest
in life, 19(5) servile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19(
)
In appearance he was
20(1) commonplace, 20(2) spiritual, 20(3) queer, 20(4) robu.fc
20(5) handsome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 (
)
His work was
21(1) unusual, 21(2) poor, 21(3) equal to Michelangelo's, 21(4) goo:,
21(5) marked by g e n i u s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 (
)
The reference to a satyr conveys an idea of 22(1) friendliness, 22(2) satire,
22(3) sullenness, 22(4) spirituality, 22(5) grossness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
)
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We are practical beings, each of us with
limited functions and duties to perform.
Each is bound to feel intensely the importance of his own duties and the significance of the situations that call these
forth. But this feeling is in each of us
a vital secret, for sympathy with which
we vainly look to others. The others are
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16)
22 (
too much absorbed in their own vital secrets to take an interest in ours. Hence
the stupidity and injustice of our opinions, so far as they deal with the signif­
icance of alien lives. Hence the falsity
of our judgments, so far as they presume
to decide in an absolute way on the value
of other persons' conditions or ideals.
Our being practical
23(1) stupefies us, 23(2) develops new interests, 23(3) increases
our powers,
23(4)leaves us unchanged, 23(5) narrows us. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23(
"Sympathy with" in line 7 means
24(1)comradeship with, 24(2) pity for, 24(3) kind­
ness toward, 24(4) grief over,24(5) understanding of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24(
To be self-centered is 25(1) abnormal, 25(2) stupid, 25(3) natural, 25(4) wise,
25(5) wrong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25(
One usually feels that one's own work is
gible, 26(4) tedious, 26(5) essential.
26(1) difficult,
26(2) easy,
26(3) negli26 (
The writer seems to look upon the situation which he sets forth as
27(1) criminal and
debasing, 27(2) natural and happy, 27(3) inevitable but unfortunate, 27(4) wise
though illogical, 27(5) absurd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27(
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71
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She glanced through the fly-specked
windows of the most pretentious building in sight, the one place which welcorned strangers and determined their
opinion of the charm and luxury of
Gopher Prairie— the Minnieraashie House.
It was a tall lean shabby structure,
three stories of yellow-streaked wood,
the comers covered with sanded pine
slabs purporting to symbolize stone.
To the woman, the Minniemashie House
28(3) repulsive, 28(4) attractive,
11) In the hotel office she could see a
12)stretch of bare unclean floor, a line
13) of rickety chairs with brass cuspidors
14) between, a writing-desk with advertise15) ments in mother-of-pearl letters upon
16) the glass-covered back. Tne dining17) room beyond was a jungle of stained
18) table-cloths and catsup bottles.
19)
She looked no more at the Minniemashie
20) House.
was28(1) interesting, 28(2) amusing,
28(5).terrifying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28(
The writer achieves his effect chiefly by the use of 29(1) figures of speech, 29(2) concrete
details, 29(3) literary allusions, 29(4) balanced sentences, 29(5) unusual words. . . . 29(
The reference to "charm and luxury" in line 5 has a touch of 30(1) irony, 30(2) vulgarity,
30(3) directness, 30(4) simplicity,30(5) eloquence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30(
"Rickety" in line 13 means 31(1) unstable, 31(2) queerly made, 31(3) very old,
31(4) inexpensive, 31(5) mutilated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . .
31 (
The Minniemashie House was a place of 32(1) disease, 32(2) untidiness, 32(3) danger,
32(4) poverty, 32(5) vice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32(
The last sentence acquires emphasis by 33(1) climax, 33(2) understatement, 33(3) balance,
33(4) variety of words, 33(5) a figure of.... speech. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33(
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Such was this heaven-loved isle,
Than Lesbos fairer, and the Cretan
No more shall Freedom smile?
Shall Britons languish, and be men
Since all must life resign,
Those sweet rewards which decorate
'Tis folly to decline,
And steal inglorious to the silent
shore.1
no more?
the brave,
grave.
The "heaven-loved isle" referred to in line 1 is 34(1) any islet, 34(2) the islands
of the blessed, 34(3) Britain, 34(4)
Lesbos, 34(5) Crete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34(
"Languish" in line 4 means 35(1) struggle vainly, 35(2) feel ill, 35(3) feel unhappy,
35(4) do nothing, 35(5) complain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35(
The poet suggests that the thought of death should make men 36(1) indifferent to worldly
glory, 36(2) more courageous in life,
36(3) religious, 36(4)cowardly, 36(5) resigned. 36(
According to the poet, it is folly to
37(1) fight for Freedom, 37(2)undertake anything,
37(3) live energetically, 37(4) resign one's life, 37(5) refuse to fight. . . . . . . . . . 37(
This passage seems written to 38(1) console, 38(2) sadden, 38(3) amuse, 38(4) explain,
38(5) inspire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38(
"Since all must life resign" (line 5) means that everyone must 39(1) be brave,
39(2) serve his country, 39(3) die, 39(4) give up what injures him, 39(5) be calm
.. . 39(
"Steal" in line 8 means 40(1) harden one's heart, 40(2) take possession of, 40(3) get
wrongly, 40(4) pass quietly, 40(5) waste one's powers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40(
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5
Dear Harp of ray Country.' in darkness I found thee,
The cold chain of silence had hung o'er thee long,
When proudly, my own Island Harp! I unbound thee,
And gave all thy chords to light, freedom, and song!
The warm lay of love and the light note of gladness
Have wakened thy fondest, thy liveliest thrill;
But so oft hast thou echoed the deep sigh of sadness,
That even in thy mirth it will steal from thee still.
This passage seems to refer to 41(1) England, 41(2) Wales, 41(3) Germany, 41(4) Ireland,
41(5) France. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 (
The writer is discussing 42(1) his falling in love, 42(2) the political independence of
his country, 42(3) the liberation of the press, 42(4) a revival of poetry,
42(5) a religious revival. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42(
A device employed in this passage is 43(1) eye rhymes, 43(2) climax, 43(3) internal
rhymes, 43(4) repetition, 43(5) feminine rhymes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43(
"Cold chain of silence" (line 2) refers to 44(1) loss of religious freedom, 44(2) lack
of poetry, 44(3) imprisonment, 44(4) unconfessed sins, 44(5) loss of liberty. . . . . . . . . 44(
The last two lines indicate that mirth 45(1) conquers all, 45(2) must be accompanied by
sorrow, 45(3) will always steal away our hearts, 45(4)is pointless, 45(5) has returned. 45(
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I had sent so many memorials and petitions for my liberty, that his majesty at
length mentioned the matter, first in the
cabinet, and then in a full council; where
it was opposed by none, except Skyresh
Bolgolam who was pleased, without any
provocation, to be my mortal enemy. But
it was carried against him by the whole
board, and confirmed by the emperor. That
10) minister was galbet, or admiral of the
11) realm, very much in his master's confidence,
12) and a person well versed in affairs, but
13) of a morose and sour complexion. However,
14) he was at length persuaded to comply; but
15) prevailed that the articles and conditions
16) upon which I should be set free, and to
17) which I must swear, should be drawn up by
18) himself.
"Memorials" in line 1 means 46(1) monuments, 46(2) bribes, 46(3) statements of fact,
46(4) statues, 46(5) souvenirs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46(
"Mortal" in line 7 means 47(1) uncertain, 47(2) certain to die, 47(3) deadly,
47(4) for a time, 47(5) human. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47(
"Versed in" in line 12 means 48(1) discussed in, 48(2) regarded in, 48(3) acquainted
with, 48(4) turned toward, 48(5) feeling poetic about. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48(
"Morose" in line 13 means 49(1) grief-stricken, 49(2) sullen, 49(3) dark,
49(4) unlucky, 49(5) forbidding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49(
"Complexion" in line 13 means 50(1) disposition, 50(2) composition, 50(3) appearance,
50(4) heart, 50(5) color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50(
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There are three dominant labour-unions
in the jungle, all social insects; two
of them ants, never interfering with each
other's field of action, and all supremely illustrative of conditions resulting
from absolute equality, free-and-equalness,
communalism, socialism carried to the (for-
8) give me!) anth power. The Army Ants are
9) carnivorous, predatory, militant nomads;
10) the Termites are vegetarian scavengers,
11) sedentary, negative and provincial; the
12) Attas, or leaf-cutting ants, are vegeta13) rians, active and dominant, and in many
14) ways the most interesting of all.
The least offensive are the 51(1) Termites, 51(2) labour-unions, 51(3) social insects,
51(4) Army Ants, 51(5) Attas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 (
The Termites resemble the Attas in 52(1) being ants, 52(2) eating no vegetable matter,
52(3) eating no flesh, 52(4) staying close at home, 52(5) being dominant........
52(
"Nomads" in line 9 means 53(1) black fellows, 53(2) wanderers, 53(3) youngsters,
53(4) fighters, 53(5) devils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53(
The writer asks pardon for his 54(1) prejudice, 54(2) preaching, 54(3) exaggeration,
54(4) punning, 54(5) dullness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54(
"Scavengers" in line 10 means 55(1) unskilled workebs, 55(2) eaters of fragments,
55(3) slaves and defendants, 55(4) gatherers of refuse,
55(5) parasites........... 55(
"Sedentary" in line 11 means 56(1) dirty, 56(2) tough,56(3) selfish, 56(4) sluggish,
56(5) domestic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56(
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Population, again, and bodily health
and vigor, are thingswhich are nowhere
treated in such an unintelligent, misleading, exaggerated way as in England.
Both are really machinery; yet how many
people all around us do we see rest in
them and fail to look beyond them.' Why,
one has heard people, fresh from reading certain articles of the Times or the
Begistrar-General's returns of marriages
11) and births in this country, whowould
12) talk of our large English families in
13) quite a solemn strain, as if they had
14) something in itself beautiful, elevat15) ing and meritorious in them; as if the
16) British Philistine would have only to
17) present himself before the Great Judge
18) with his twelve children, in order to
19) be received among the sheep as a matter
20) of right.'
The attitude of the writer is one of 57(1) annoyance, 57(2) amusement,
57(3) indifference, 57(4) sympathy, 57(5) doubt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57(
His calling population "machinery" (line 5) indicates that he regards it as a
58(1) blessing. 58(2) burden, 58(3) characteristic of the modern age, 58(4) means to
an end,
58(5) menace to civilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58(
The term "Philistine" (line 16) apparently indicates 59(1) worth of character,59(2)
an
attitude of mind, 59(3) social position, 59(4) religion, 59(5) racial descent.... 59(
To be "received among the sheep" (line 19) means to be 60(1) thought foolish, 60(2) made
gentle, 60(3) sacrificed, 60(4) declared good, 60(5) well clad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60(
To speak of large families as if they represented something beautiful strikes the writer as
61(1) silly, 61(2) generous, 61(3) in bad taste, 61(4) immoral, 61(5) elevating. . . . 61(
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It was this moral isolation which told
so strangely both for good and for evil
on her policy toward the Church. The
young queen was not without a sense of
religion. But she was almost wholly
destitute of spiritual emotion, or of
any consciousness of the vast questions
with which theology strove to deal.
While the world around her was being
swayed more and more by theological beliefs and controversies, Elizabeth was
12) absolutely untouched by them. She was
13) a child of the Italian Renaissance rather
14) than of the New Learning of Colet or
15) Erasmus, and her attitude towards the
16) enthusiasm of her time was that of Lorenzo
17) de' Medici towards Savonarola. Her mind
18) was unruffled by the spiritual problems
19) which were vexing the minds around her;
20) to Elizabeth indeed they were not only
2l) unintelligible, they were a little ridic22) ulous.
Elizabeth regarded as absurd 62(1) the Church, 62(2) moral conduct, 62(3) arguments on
religion, 62(4) serious interest in religion, 62(5) religiousbeliefs................ 62(
The reference to her "moral isolation" (line 1) means that she was63(1) unlike others,
63(2) dishonest, 63(3) cruel, 63(4) impure, 63(5) proud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63(
She was primarily Italian in her 64(1) interests, 64(2) conduct, 64(3) point of view,
64(4) morality, 64(5) descent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64(
"Destitute of" in line 6 means 65(1) unmoved by, 65(2) humble before, 65(3) possessed
by, 65(4) proud of, 65(5) without. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65(
Theology deals with 66(1) human welfare, 66(2) science, 66(3) proper conduct, 66(4) art,
66(5) creeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66(
Lorenzo de' Medici and Elizabeth were alike in 67(1) ability as rulers, 67(2) indiffe snce
to theology, 67(3) enthusiasm, 67(4) morality, 67(5) cruelty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67(
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Hear, ye ladies that despise
What the mighty love has done;
Fear examples, and be wise:
Fair Calisto was a nun;
Leda, sailing on the stream
To deceive the hopes of man,
Love accounting but a dream,
Doted hn a silver swan;
Danae, in a brazen tower,
Where no love was, loved a shower.
"Doted on" in line 8 means 68(1) glanced at, 68(2) made fun of, 68(3) went insane because
of, 68(4) frowned upon, 68(5) loved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The loves of these ladies were alike in 69(1) intensity, 69(2) happiness,
69(3) sacredness, 69(4) queerness, 69(5) sinfulness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69f
The characters mentioned are taken from 70(1) the Arthurian legends, 70(2) Grimm's fairy
tales, 70(3) Greek mythology, 70(4) history, 70(5) the Bible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70(
The writer warns ladies against 71(1) loving earthly things, 71(2) counting love too
important, 71(3) suppressing love, 71(4) loving too deeply, 7l(5) loving too many.
. . 7l(
He makes the point that love is 72(1) sinful, 72(2) cruel, 72(3) trivial, 72(4) foolish,
72(5) unavoidable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 (
1) "Enlarge my life with multitude of days.1"
2 ) In health, in sickness, thus the suppliant prays:
3) Hides from himself its state, and shuns to know
4) That life protracted is protracted woe.
5) Time hovers o 'er, impatient to destroy,
6) And shuts up all the passages of joy:
7) In vain their gifts the bounteous seasons pour,
8) The fruit autumnal and the vernal flower;
9) With listless eyes the dotard views the store,
10) He views, and wonders that they please no more;
11) Now pall the tasteless meats and joyless wines,
12) And Luxury with sighs her slave resigns.
The thing that the man hides (line 3) is 73(1) his knowledge, 73(2) himself, 73(3) his
youth, 73(4) his wealth, 73(5) his sins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73(
"Vernal" in
line8means 74(1) beautiful, 74(2) of spring, 74(3) of summer,74(4) fresh,
74(5) poisonous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74(
"Dotard" in
line9means 75(1) a ruffian, 75(2) a criminal, 75(3) a recluse, 75(4) an
elderly invalid, 75(5) a foolish old person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75(
The meats are tasteless (line 11) because
76(1) they are badlycooked, 76(2)they have
been wrongfully obtained, 76(3) they are old and tough, 76(4)theman has lost his
ability to enjoy them, 76(5) to eat them is considered wic k e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76(
The wines are called joyless (line 11) because they 77(1) drive one insane, 77(2) mock
the man's hopes, 77(3) no longer give pleasure, 77(4) excite the passions,
77(5) intoxicate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77 (
The "slave" mentioned in line 12 is 78(1) the dotard, 78(2) life, 78(3) the bounteous
season, 78(4) time, 78(5) wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78(
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68(
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Once on a time La Mancha's Knight, they say,
A certain bard encountering on the way,
Discoursed in terms as just, with looks as sage,
As e'er could Dennis of the Grecian stage,
Concluding all were desperate sots and fools
Who durst depart from Aristotle's rules.
Our author, happy in a judge so nice,
Produced his play, and begged the knight's advice;
Made him observe the subject and the plot,
The manners, passions, unities; what not?
All which exact to rule were brought about,
Were but a combat in the lists left out.
La Mancha's Knight was 79(1) Don Quixote, 79(2) Roland, 79(3) Cervantes, 79(4) the Cid,
79(5) Sir Launcelot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79(
The two men talked of 80(1) adventure, 80(2) chivalry, 80(3) moral conduct,
80(4) love, 80(5) the d r a m a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80(
Aristotle gave rules for 81(1) lovers, 81(2) soldiers, 81(3) writers, 81(4) clergymen,
81(5) knights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 (
"Just" in line 3 means 82(1) self-denying, 82(2) honorable, 82(3) pleasing,
82(4) upright, 82(5)correct. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82(
"Nice" in line 7 means
83(4) discriminating,
83(1) interesting, 83(2) honest, 83(3) well-behaved,
83(5) pleasant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83(
The last lines imply that the combat was
84(1) contrary to Aristotle's rules,
84(2) listed in the rules, 84(3) disapproved by the bard, 84(4) omitted from the play,
84(5) participated in by the knight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84(
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
115
Abeunt studia in mores (Studies are
transformed into manners). Nay, there
is no stond or impediment in the wit but
may be wrought out by fit studies, like
as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for
the stone and reins, shooting for the
lungs and breast, gentle walking for the
stomach, riding for the head, and the
like. So if a man's wit be wandering,
let him study the mathematics; for in
12) demonstrations, if his wit be called away
13) never so little, he must begin again; if
14) his wit be not apt to distinguish or find
15) differences, let him study the schoolmen,
16) for they are Cymini sectores (hair split17) ters). If he be not apt to beat over
18) matters and to call up one thing to prove
19) and illustrate another, let him study the
20) lawyers' cases; so every defect of the
2l) mind may have a special receipt.
The writer's ideas on physical exercise are 85(1) insincere, 85(2). old-fa3hioned,
85(3) up-to-date, 85(4) scientific, 85(5) not meant tobe takenseriously............. 85(
One whose wits wander is (in the meaning intended in line 10) 86(1) delirious,
86(2) inattentive, 86(3) stupid, 86(4) feeble-minded, 86(5) crazy................. 86(
The writer's ideas on education are 87(1) insincere, 87(2) not meant to be taken
seriously, 87(3) old-fashioned, 87(4) scientific, 87(5) up-to-date. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87(
In line 17, "to beat over matters" means to 88(1) defeat one's opponents,
88(2) misrepresent matters, 88(3) win intellectual success, 88(4) evade the question,
88(5) think things over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88(
In line 18, "to call up one thing" means to 89(1) profit by a mistake, 89(2) protest a
piece of evidence, 89(3) win a case, 89(4) give an example, 89(5) discuss clearly.. . 89(
As used in line 21, "receipt" means 90(1) an income, 90(2) a remedy, 90(3) a plan of
action, 90(4) something received, 90(5) a signed paper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90(
Number wrong 41
_ _ _ _ _ _ Number right.
Subtract
Raw Score = Difference
.
20663-7
i
NEW YORK U N IV E R S IT Y
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
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LIBRARY
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