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A STANDARDIZED INFORMATION TEST IN ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

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*13-3414.
.E3
Shepherd, Hilton D.
v^TJr*
1914-0
A standardized information test in
.SU
economic geopranhy.
299-f. tables, diagr.,forms.
Fina? document (Ed.D.) - N.Y.U.,
School of Education, 191+0.
Bibliography: p.127-128.
A5058I4.
copy 2
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-------------------------------------------Xerox University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
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■
T H IS D IS S E R T A T IO N HAS BEEN M IC R O F IL M E D E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
A
-*
A STANDARDIZED INFORMATION TEST IN
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
HILTON D. SHEPHERD
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Education, ift-the School of Education of
New York University
1939
ia !*
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
indistinct print.
Filmed as received.
University Microfilms, A Xerox Education Company
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER I. THE P R O B L E M .......................... 1
Introduction.................................. 1
Purpose of the S t u d y ........................ 3
Alms of Economic Geography.................... 3
CHAPTER II. CONSTRUCTION OF TEST IN
PRELIMINARY F O R M ............................ 5
Selecting Subject-Matter to be Tested . . . .
5
Textbook Validation ........................
5
Textbook Validation Results Compared With
Another R e s e a r c h ......................... 35
Validation by Analysis of Courses of Study. . 42
Validation by Competent Judges............... 44
Validation by Final Examinations .......... 45
Preliminary Drafting of the Items .......... 47
Editing and Selecting the Items . . . . . . . 47
Construction of True-False Test Items . . . . 48
Construction of Matching Test I t e m s ......... 49
Construction of Multiple-Choice Test Items. . 50
Construction of Completion Test Items . . . . 50
Final Criticism of Test Items . . . . . . . . 50
Set-Up of Preliminary Form................... 51
CHAPTER III. TRY-OUT OF PRELIMINARY FORM . . . . 52
Selection of Students to be Tested........... 52
Scoring of the Try-OutT e s t .................. 53
Analytical Study ofItems ................... 54
Elimination of Items......................... 69
CHAPTER IV. CONSTRUCTION OF FINAL F O R M ......... 85
Content of New T e s t ......................... 85
Difficulty of I t e m s ......................... 85
Subject-Matter Content of Final Form of Test. 87
Sources of Question Content ................ 96
CHAPTER V. ADMINISTERING OF THE TEST IN
HIGH S C H O O L ................................ 100
Selection of Schools........................ 100
Communication With Schools.
........ 100
Mailing of the Test C o p i e s ................ 101
Administering the Test...................... 102
ii
A50554
Page
CHAPTER VI. STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION
OP THE R E S U L T S ............................ 106
Tabulation: Personal-Data Cards............ 106
Sex of Students Who Took Test.............. 107
Ages of Students Who Took T e s t ............ 107
Variability.............................
107
Reliability................................ 110
Validity.................................. 120
Norms...................................... 122
CHAPTER VII. RECOMMENDATIONS.................. 125
Bibliography.................................. 127
Appendix.........
129
Try-Out T e s t .............................. 187
Sample Forms for Communication............ 240
Pinal Draft of Test, Form A .............. 244
Form B .............. 258
Dotson's Letter ........................ 273
lii
LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table I.
Textbook Sources Used in General
Index ’’Lead" Selection Together
With Code and Number of the
"Leads” Used....................
Table II.
Subject-Matter Check List After
Elimination of Subjects Appearing
Less Than Four Times........
9
Table III.
Tabulation of Item-Frequency Checked
Against 10 Textbooks. . . . . . .
7
26
Table IV.
Refinement of 405-Item List to
46-Point Key Index............ 31
Table V.
Textbook Page-Count Developed With
Key I n d e x .................... 36
Table VI.
Subject-Matter Content and Question
Distribution in Try-Out Test Based
on Five Sources of Validation . . 39
Table VII.
Range of Scores for True-False,
Matching, Multiple-Choice, and
Completion Tests Given to 164
Economic Geography Students . ,
56
Table VIII. Frequency Distribution of Scores
Made by 164 Students on Try-Out
Form of Economic Geography Test
60
Table IX.
Table X.
Table XI.
Items in the True-False Test Ranked
According to Difficulty, Based on
Per Cent of Students Correctly
Answering Each Item............
61
Items in Matching Test Ranked
According to Difficulty, Based on
Per Cent of Students Correctly
Answering Each Item. . . . . . .
63
Multiple-Choice Test Ranked
According to Difficulty, Based
on Per Cent of Students Correctly
Answering Each Item............
65
iv
•'">
Table XII.
Table XIII,
^ T-'
w/rrmw.nr-.-*Fmr}P'^*t*U**V+i”9 n v*iH*ma
Page
Completion Test Questions Ranked
According to Difficulty, Based
on Per Cent of Students Correctly
Answering Each Item............... 67
True-False Item Elimination Analysis
Based on Critical Ratio. . . . . .
71
Table XIV.
Matching Item Elimination Analysis
Based on Critical R a t i o ......... 76
Table XV.
Multiple-Choice Item Elimination
Analysis Based on Critical Ratio . 78
Table XVI.
Completion Item Elimination Analysis
Based on Critical Ratio. . . . . .
80
Table XVII,
Percentage of Items Eliminated in
the Construction of the Final Forms
of the Economic Geography Test
Based on Results of Try-Out Test
Given to 164 Students............. 82
Table XVIII.
Items In Try-Out Test With Desirable
Critical Ratios Based on Perfonmaxe
of Upper and Lower Quartiles, But
Not Used Due to Superfluous SubjectMatter Necessary for Content of
Test.........................
. 83
Table XIX.
Ten Items Used to Complete Required
Subject-Matter Content of Economic
Geography Test, and Containing
Critical Ratios Less Than 2.5 Based
on Try-Out T e s t .................. 84
Table XX.
Difficulty Analysis of Items Contained
in Form A of Economic Geography
Test Based on 164 Try-Out Cases . 88
Table XXI.
Difficulty Analysis of Items Contained
In Form B of Economic Geography
Test Based on 164 Try-Out Cases . 92
Table XXII.
Distribution of Subject-Matter in
Forms A and B of Economic Geography
Test Based on Percentage Analysis 97
v
Page
Table XXIII.
Table XXIV.
Table XXV.
Table XXVI.
Name and Population of Cities
in Which Schools Giving
Economic Geography Tests Are
Located and Number of Test
Copies Sent................
104
Name, Location, Enrollment, and
Median Enrollment of the Nine
Schools Giving Test, Number of
Test Copies Sent, and Per Cent
Returned, Arranged According to
School Enrollment. . ..........
105
Number of Boys and Girls and Total
Students Taking Economic
Geography Test in Nine Schools .
109
Range of Ages of Students Taking
Economic Geography Test in
Nine Schools . ................
109
Table XXVII.
Average Score of Each of Nine Schools
Taking Economic Geography Test . Ill
Table XXVIII,
Frequency of Scores of 400 Students
Taking Economic Geography Test
in Nine Schools.............. 112
Table XXIX.
Otis Correlation Chart.......... 114
Table XXX.
Summary of Statistical Results of
Economic Geography Test, Forms
A and B ...................... 114
Table XXXI.
Coefficients of Correlation Between
Teachers* Marks and Scores Made
on Economic Geography Test Given
in Nine High S c h o o l s ........ 123
Table XXXII.
Table of Percentile Scores.. . . .
124
Table XXXIII.
Subject-Matter Check List ........
129
Table XXXIV.
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination
Papers in Upper Q u a r t i l e and 41
Examination Papers in the Lower
Quartile on Each of 276 Items in
the True-False Examination . . .
vi
274
1
Table XXXV.
Page
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination
Papers in Upper Quartile and 41
Examination Papers in the Lower
Quartile on Each of 85 Items in
the Matching Examination......... 281
Table XXXVI.
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination
Papers In Upper Quartile and 41
Examination Papers In the Lower
Quartile on Each of 98 Items in
the Multiple-Choice Examination . 284
Table XXXVII.
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination
Papers in Upper Quartile and 41
Examination Papers in the Lower
Quartile on Each of 81 Items in
the Completion Examination. . . . 287
Table XXXVIII. Bibliographical Sources Which
Influenced Content of TestQuesticns
(True-False)..................... 290
Table XXXIX.
Bibliographical Sources Which
Influenced Content of Test Questions
(Matching)....................... 294
Table XL.
Bibliographical Sources Which
Influenced Content cfTest Questions
(Multiple-Choice) .............. 296
Table XLI.
Bibliographical Sources Which
Influenced Content ofTest Qiestions
(Completion)..................... 298
vii
v. • - - -
-
■— w -7
- , ,. ••
n j y i j a j p i j j ■ f -x^WV«r=t7r.-.-j^
'111* 1
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Introduction
Scientific trends of fact-finding for highly
specialized plans in modern business organization give
a good example for schools to follow similarly in attain­
ing a high level of operating efficiency by seeking
important facts.
Public school administrators need
to know not only how mucfr of a given subject has been
taught, but how effectively the material has been
presented to the pupils, and to what extent one particular
group of students measures up to commonly recognized
standards of efficiency maintained by other groups as
has been tabulated in their testing programs.
Few of the commercial subjects taught today in our
high schools have reliable measuring devices to accompany
^he instructional program.
Some of the authors of text­
books have attempted to design new-type tests even for
economic geography, but none have been standardized. The
commercial teachers desire a standardized test for economic
geography.
It is desirable to explain that "economic
geography" means something different from commercial
geography or general geography.
"The term economic geography
* M,. I'".i
I'V/WJ
2
is more inclusive than commercial geography in that
it includes not only commercial geography, or better
business geography, but also industrial and agricultural
1
geography."
The need for standardized tests for general
geography in the .elementary grades was met years ago, but
no economic geography test for secondary schools has been
developed.
Modern teaching of geography emphasizes the study
of problems in human relationships rather than the more
g
traditional "location" and "place" ideas.
Although it
is much simpler to ask for isolated facts than to test
g
understandings of geographic relationships, considerable
effort has been given to mfeke this a "relationship" test
as well as one which includes some of the more common fact
material.
Testing in economic geography would make it
possible to show also an analysis not only of what the
pupil has learned and how much he has grown in the subject,
but would facilitate important comparisons showing just how
much progress one pupil has made in terms of another pupil,
as well as the entire class.
These conditions of growth
and progress between individuals, and classes between
classes would also serve in part as an indication of some
of the more effective teaching qualities of the teachers,
1.
Herbert A. Tonne, Social-Business Education in the
Secondary Schools, p. llffT
2. P. R. Stevenson, A Problem Test in Geography, Journal
of Educational Research, V (April, 1922), p. 350.
3. F. Lancaster, Measuring Results in Geography, Journal
of Geography, XXX (November, 1931), p. 342.
3
as reflected through the pupils tested.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to construct a test
which will measure achievement in the various divisions
of subject-matter in economic geography showing man and
his environment, namely, transportation, communication,
utilities, and various products of commerce and industry
(sugar, vegetables, cattle, minerals, etc.).
Furthermore, the test will have some value as a means
of classifying and grouping students who have been influenced
by different backgrounds.
These differences are described,
for example, as those which have come about as a result of
previous training in other commercial subjects or socialscience subjects.
Those who have studied junior business
training might react more intelligently than those who
have not had such training.
Aims of Economic Geography
The following list of aims developed from seven text­
books and five courses of study in economic geography would
seem to give a representative picture of what the course
should purpose to develop.'*’
1. To develop a sound body of geographic principles
and show how their functioning affects the economic
life of mankind
2. To remedy such deficiencies as the student may have
in the more significant facts of place geography
1.
Tonne,
ojd.
clt., pp. 109-110.
4
3. To show how mankind is dependent upon geographic
conditions and natural resources
4. To show that geographic conditions among others,
and not fortuitous circumstances, almost always
determine that location of industry, aid that
their marketing problems are often greatly
complicated
5. To develop an interest in and an understanding of
geographic phenomena that constitute the environment
of humanity
6. To create a desire for the wiser utilization of
the geographic environment for the betterment of
human conditions by showing how man has overcome
many of his geographic problems and how he may
solve some of those that still confront him
7. To show how the peoples of different lands are
economically interdependent
8. To create sympathetic understanding of the problems
and conditions of peoples in other lands, and
thereby to secure a clearer insight into the future
of our own country in its relation to the rest of
the world.
9. To give the student a working knowledge of how to
secure geographic information from standard reference
sources
10. To train the student in the use and interpretation
of maps and other geographic aids
It will be noted that these aims are essentially
knowledge aims which are not necessarily undesirable, but
rather fundamental in building up a basis for the attitude
aims which are also quite evident.
CHAPTER II
CONSTRUCTION OP TEST IN PRELIMINARY FORM
Selecting Subject-Matter to be Tested
The first step taken in determining the materials
to be tested was the critical analysis of the subject,
economic geography, as it is taught in high schools today.
An evaluation of this course was made with the idea in
mind that a test in economic geography must necessarily
measure up to certain standards which now exist in school
situations.
In a large measure our schools set the pace.
However, it should be observed that because certain materials
are being taught, they are not necessarily correct in
specifications and may be highly undesirable as determining
facts upon which to build the content of a test.
The
teachers1 personal prejudices for or against certain topics
may render disastrous results.
Textbook Validation
Textbooks are, as a rule, significant indications df
what a teacher of the subject wants, or is willing to accept.
In any event, they represent m o d e m ideas as promulgated
by competent authors in the field of economic geography.
Textbook validation was one of several sources used in
selecting the content for this test. In order to find
representative modern textbooks in economic geography,
6
catalogues were secured from twenty-five publishers and
orders were placed at random for sample copies of the
textbooks chosen.
Ten modern texts were selected; they
are as followss
(in a similar study by Lackey, only six
T
textbooks were used J
Earl C. Case, Modern World Geography
J. F. Chamberlain, Geography and Society
Charles C. Colby, Economic Geography for Secondary
Schools
Clarence F. Jones, Economic Geography
L. 0. Packard, The tTations~~at Work
Douglas C. Rldgley, Influence of Geography on our
Economic Life
Z. C. Staples, Economic Geography
J. Russell Smith, Men and Resources
Eugene Van Cleef, This Business World
R. H. Whltbeck, The Working WorldT
The first step in the use of these modern economic
geography textbooks was the devising of a general index of
items by which each book could be evaluated.
This general
index was constructed by selecting at random from the index
of each textbook certain words, phrases, terms, etc., which
seemed to have possibilities as ’’leads" and which might
later prove to be commonly classified items.
Obviously,
many duplications appeared, and many new terms were brought
in as different authors classified their materials through
their various indexes.
1.
E. E. Lackney, A Scale for Measuring the Ability of
Children in Geography, Journal of Educational
Psychology, (October, 1918;, p.“ 143^
■
7
3,114 items were finallychosen to make up the general
index.
Of this number 1,663 were duplications which
appeared as a result of alphabetizing the complete list.
1,451 items remained to be included in the general index,
the refinement of which is presented below.
Table I shows
the distribution of "rough leads" taken from the various
textbooks.
For simplicity, future reference to these text­
books will be made by code.
TABLE I
Tbxtbook Sources Used in General
Index "Lead" Selection Together With Code and
Number of "Leads" Used
Textbook
(by author)
Case
Chamberlain
Colby
Jones
Packard
Ridgley
Staples
Smith
Van Cleef
Whitbeck
Code
Number of
"Leads" Taken fo]
General Index
Ca
Ch
C
J
P
R
S
Sm
V
W
147
225
155
181
198
920
221
684
202
181
Total
3,114
Less;
Duplications
1,663
1,451
8
A close examination of the 1,451 items contained
in the general index will show many infrequent terms,
and others which are rather common, (see Appendix, p. 129)
Indeed, the total number of points is entirely too large to
be used as a working basis for evaluating the content of
the 10 economic geography textbooks.
Although Ruch says^
that a series of test items obtained by the criterion of
occurence in from 50 to 100 per cent of twenty-five lead­
ing textbooks in a given field certainly can be aaid to
be the most probably representative of general teaching
practice in that subject, it was decided to reduce the
length of the general index by leaving out those items
which did not appear in as many as 4 of the 10 textbooks.
This elimination reduced the number of items in the general
index from 1,451 to 405, as is shown in Table II.
Table III is a reorganization of the 405 items to show
that 26 items were contained in the 10 textbooks. Twentyfive items were contained in 9 textbooks, twenty-five in
8, thirty-two in 7, sixty-three in 6, one hundred six in
5, and one hundred twenty-seven in 4 of the textbooks.
Many of the 405 items shown in Table III duplicate
general subject-matter references and for this reason were
again classified into broader divisions.
1.
Table IV will
G. M. Ruch, Tests and. Measurements in High School
Instruction, p. 3<55.
9
TABLE II
Subject-Matter Check-List
After Elimination, of Subjects Appearing
Less Than Fbur Times.
(Code)
1. Africa
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
2.' Agriculture
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
3. Akron, Ohio
Sm, C,
S, Ca, P,
4. Air Lines, Modern
Sm, R,
C, S, P, V,
5. Air Routes
Sm, R,
S,W,
6. Alabama
S, P, J,
7. Alaska
Sm, C,Ca, P, J,
8. Alfalfa
Sm, R,
9. Alps, Swiss
Sm, R, C, S, P,
C, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
10. Aluminum
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
11. Andes
Sm, S, Ca, Ch, P,
12. Animal life, native
and industries
R, C, Ch, P, W, V,
13. Animals
Sm, R, S, P,
14. Antwerp, Belgium
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
15. Arabia
Sm, C, P, J,
16. Arkansas
Sm, C , P, J,
17. Asphalt
Sm, R, C, S, P,
18. Apples
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W,
19. Arctic Ocean
Sm, R, S, Ch,
20. Asia
R, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
(Continued)
10
TABLE II (Continued)
Sm, R, c, S, Ch, W, V,
CM
CM
Australia
Sm, R, c, S, Ca, Ch, F, w, J, V,
•
•
1—1
01
Atlantic Ocean
23. Automobiles
Sm, R, c, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
24. Baltimore, Maryland
Sm, c, S, P, J,
25. Barcelona
c, s, Ca, p, W, J,
26. Bauxite
Sm, R, c, S, Ch, W, J,
27. Beans
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, J,
28, Beef
Sm, R, C, S, W, J, V,
29. Berlin, Germany
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
30. Birmingham, Alabama
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
31. Black Sea
Sm, S, p, J,
32. Boll Weevil
Sm, R, Ca , J, v,
33. Bolivia
Sm, C, s, P, J,
34. Boston, Massachusett 3 Sm , C , s , P , Ca, J,
35. Boulder Dam
Sm, R, Ca , Ch, w,
36. Brocton, Massachuset-;s
37. Buenos Aires
•
10
CO
Buffalo
Sm, C, S, P,
Sm, s, P, J, V,
Sm, R, c, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
39. Building store
R, s, Ch, w,
40. Burama
c, s, P, J,
41. Cabbages
Sm, R, Ch , W, J, V,
42. Cacao
Sm, R, s, Ch, W, J, V,
43. Cacti
Sm, R, s, p,
44. Calcutta
Sm, c, s, P, J,
45. California
Sm, c, Ca , p, J,
(Continued)
11
TABLE II (Continued)
46. Camels
R, Ch, P, W, V,
47. Camphor tree
Sm, R, Ca, V,
48. Canada
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
49. Canals
Sm, R, S, W, V,
50. Canary Islands
Sm, S, P, J,
51. Cattle
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, J, V,
52. Celery
Sm, R, P, J,
53. Central America
Sm, R, P, J, V,
54. Cereals
Sm, R, S, V,
55. Charcoal
Sm, R, Ca, P,
56. Cheese
Sm, R, Ch, P, J, V,
57. Chesapeake Bay
Sm, C, S, P, J,
58. Chicago, Illinois
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
59. Chickens
Sm, R, J, V,
60. Chicle
Sm, R, Ch, J, V,
61. Chile
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
62. China
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
63. Chocolate
R, C, Ch, P» V,
64. Chromium
Sm, R, P, J,
65. Cincinnati, Ohio
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
66. Citrus fruits
Sm, R, S, Ca , Ch, P, W, J,
67. Clay
R, S, Ch, P,
68. Cleveland, Ohio
Sm, C, S, P, J, V,
69. Climate
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
70. Clothing
Sm, R, P, W, J, V,
(Continued)
12
TABLE II (Continued)
71. Coal
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
72. Cod
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
73. Coffee
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
74. Coke
Sm, R, P, W, J, V,
75. Colorado
Sm, C, Ca, p, J,
76. Columbia River
Sm, C, S, P,
77. Commerce
R, C, S, Ch, W, J, V,
78. Conservation
R, Ca, P, J, V,
79. Continental shelf of ocean
R, C, S, Ch,
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, 1
81. Copra
Sm, R, Ca, P, W,
82. Cork
R, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
83. Corn
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W , J,
84. Corn Belt
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J,
85. Costa Rica
Sm, C, S, P, J,
86. Cotton
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, P, J,
87. Cottonseed
Sm, S, Ca, P,
GO
CO
Sm, R , S , Ch, P , J,
•
80. Copper
Crops
89. Dairying
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch,P, W, J, V
90. Damascus, sowrds of
Sm, R, S, P, W,
91. Dates
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W
92. Denmark
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
93. Denver, Colorado
Sm, C, S, J,
94. Desert snow
R, C, Ca, P , J, V,
95. Dirigibles
S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
(Continued)
I
f
13
TABLE II (Continued)
Sm, C, S, P, J,
96. Dominican Republic
97. Douglas Fir
Sm, R, C, P, W,
98. Dry farming
S, Ca, P, J,
99. Dutch East India
C, S, P, J,
100. Dyes
101. East Saint Louis, Mo
~
R, S, W, V,
Sm, C, P, J,
102. Ecuador
Sm, C, S, P, J,
103. Elbe River
Sm, S, P, V,
104. Electric power
Sm, R, C, P, J, V,
105. Erie Canal
Sm, S, P, J,
106. Erosion
Sm, R, Ca, Ch,
107. Eskimos
Sm, S,
P, J,
108. Essen, Germany
Sm, C,
S, P,
109. Exports
Sm, R,
P,V,
110. Fall, essential for
water power
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, V,
111. Farming
Sm, R,
J, V,
112. Farms
Sm, R,
S,Ch, W,
113. Fertilizers
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P , V ,
114. Fibers
R, S, P, W, V,
115. Figs
Sm, R ,
S ,Ch, P , J, V ,
116. Finland
Sm, S,
P, J,
117. Fisheries
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, W,
118. Fishing
Sm, R,
C, S, J, V,
119. Flax
Sm, R,
C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
120. Floods
Sm, R, Cj[, Ch, P,
(Continued)
TABLE II
121. Flour
(Continued)
C, S, Ca, P,
122. Forests
Sm, R
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, w, J,
123. Fort Worth
Sm, C
S, J,
124. France
Sm, C
S | Co., P , J,
125. Fruits
Sm, R
C, S, Ca, Ch, P> w, V,
126. Fuels
R, 3, S, P, w,
127. Fur
Sm, R
C, S, C&, Ch,
128. Furniture
Sm, R
C, P, w,
129. Galveston, Texas
Sm, C
s, P, j,
130. Gary, Indiana
Sm, C
p, J,
131. Gas
Sm, R
S, Ca, Ch, P,
v,
132. Gasoline
Sm, R
S, Ca, Ch, P,
v,
133. Glasgow, Scotland
Sm, C
s, Ca, P, J,
134. Gloucester
Sm, S
p, J,
135. Goats
Sm, R
ca, Ch, P, w, J, V,
136. Gold
Sm, R
c, S, Ca, Ch,
137. Grand Rapids
Sm, C
S, P,
138. Granite
Sm, R
S, Ch, P,
139. Grapefruit
p
, J, V,
p,
J, V
Sm, R
Ch, P,
140. Grapes
Sm, R
C, S, Ca, Ch, p ,
W, J
141. Grazing
Sm, R
C, Ch, P, W,
142. Great Britain
Sm, C
S, Cfl, P» J,
143. Greece
Sm, C
s, Ca , P, J,
144. Gulf Coast Oil
Sm, R , c, S, P, J,
145. Gums
R,
c, s, w,
146. Hardwoods
R,
c, S, ca, p,
J,
(Continued)
15
TABLE II
(Continued)
147. Havana, Cuba
Sm, C, S, J,
148. Hemlock
Sm, R, Ca, p,
149. Hemp, Manila
R, S, Ch, P, W, V,
150. Hides
Sm, R, C, S, P, W, V,
151. Hollywood, Californiii * Sm, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
152. Hosiery mills
Sm, Ca, P, W, J,
153. Houses
R, C, S, Ca, J,
154. Houston, Texas
Sm, C, S, P, J,
155. Hunting
R, C, Ca, J,
156. Hungary
Sm, C, S, Ca,
157. Idaho
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
158. Illinois
Sm, C, P, J,
159. Imports
Sm, R, p, V,
160. India
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
161. Indianapolis
Sm, C, S, P, J,
162. Indus River
Sm, S, P, J,
163. Industrial Revolutio: i R, S, Ca, P,
164. Industries
165. Inland waters
166. Ireland
Sm, R, S, Ca, P, V,
O
Sm, R, P, W,
ca, P, J,
167. Iron
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
168. Irrigation
Sm, R, C, S, C Cl, P, W, J, V,
169. Jamaica
Sin., C, S, Ca, P ,
170. Japan
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
(Continued)
16
TA3LE II
(Continued)
171. Jersey City, New Jersey
172. Jute
Sm, C, S, J,
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
173. Kansas City, Missouri
Sm, C, S, P, J,
174. Kimberley, South Africa
Sm, S, P, J,
175. Labor
Sm, R,
S, Ca, P,
176. Lakes
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, W, V,
177. Land
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, V,
178. Lead
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, V,
179. Legumes
R , C, S, Ch,
180. Lemons
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, J,
181. Limestone
Sm, R , C, S , Ch, J, V ,
182. Linens
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, ¥, J, V,
183. Liverpool, England
Sm, C, S, P, J,
184. Llamas
R, S, W, J, V,
185. London, England
C, S, Ca, P, J,
186. Lignite
Sm, R,S, P, V/,
187. Los Angeles, California
Sm, C, S, P, J,
188. Lumber
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
189. Lumbering
R, C,
S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
190. Luxemberg
C, S,
Ca, P, J,
191. Machine age
Sm, R, Ca, p,
192. Mahogany
Sm, R, Ch, J,
193. Malayans
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
194. Manchester, England
C, S, Ca, P, J,
(Continued)
17
TABUS II
(Continued)
195. Manganese
Sm, R, J, V,
196. Manufacturing
Sm, R, C, S , Ca, Ch, P , w, J, V
197. Maple sugar
R, S, Ch, P, W,
198. Marble
Sm, R, Ca , Ch, P, V,
199. Markets
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, P, W,
200. Meat
Sm, R, C,
201. Medicines
Sm, R, S, P,
Ca* Ch, P, w, J, V
202. Mediterranean region R, S, Ca, P, J, v,
203. Mediterranean Sea
Sm, R, C, S, P* J, V,
204. Mesopotamia
Sm, c, s, Ca, P,
205. Metals
Sm, R, C, S, W, V,
206. Mexico
Sm, C, S, ^a» P»
207. Michigan
Sm, C, P, J,
208. Milk
Sm, R, Ch , P, W, J, V,
209. Millet
Sm, R, S, p, J, V,
210. Milwaukee
Sm, S, P, J,
211. Mineral fertility
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, w, V,
212. Mineral resources
Sm, R, S, p, W, V,
213. Mining
Sm, R, C, J, V,
214. Minneapolis, Minnesotla
Sm, C, s, P,
215. Mobile, Alabama
Sm, C, P, J,
216. Monsoon regions
R, Ca, Ch , W, J, V,
217. Moscow
Sm, C, S,
218. Mountains
Sm, R, S, Ch, V,
219. Mutton
R, c, s, J, V,
220. Natural gas
R, Ca, Ch , W, J,
(Continued)
18
TABLE II
(Continued)
221. Naval stores
R, Ca, p, w, J,
222. Nebraska
Sm, c, Ca, P, J,
223. Negroes
Sm, Rf P, J,
224. Netherlands
Sm, C, S, Ca,
225. New Bedford
Sm, C, S, Ca, P , J,
226. New England
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
227. New Mexico
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
228. New Orleans
Sm, C, S* P, J,
229. New York City
Sm, R, C , S , Ca, Ch, P, w, J
230. New Zealand
Sm, c, S, P, J,
231. Nickel
Sm, R* W, J, V,
232. Nile River Valley
Sm, R, p, J, V,
233. Nitrates
R, s, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
234. Nitrogen
Sm, R, Ch, P, J,
235. North America
Sm, R, S, Ch, W, J,
236. North Sea and Baltic
Sea Region
R, c, S, Ch, J, V,
237. Nuts
Sm, R, S, P, V,
238. Oats
Sm, R, C , S , Ca, Ch, P, w, J
239. Occupa tions
Sm, R, C, Ca, P, J,
240. Ocean liners
R, s, ff, J,
241. Oceans
R, C, s, w.,
242. Ohio
Sm, R, S, Ca ,p, W, V,
243. Oklahoma
Sm, G, p, J,
244. Olives
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P , J,
(Continued)
19
TABLE II
245 > Ontario
(Continued)
Sm, C S, Ca, P,
246. Oranges
Sm, R
Ca, Ch, P, j,
247. Oregon
Sm, C
Ca, P, J,
248. Oysters
Sm, R
C, Ch, P, W, J, V,
249. Pacific Ocean
Sm, R
S, Ca Ch, W, J, V,
250. Pampas
Sm, R
Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
251. Panama
Sm, C
S, P, J,
252. Paper, mfg.
Sm, R
C, S, Cs, Ch, P, W, J
253. Paraguay
Sm, S
P, J,
254. Paris
Sm, C
S, Ca, P,
25 5. Pawtucket, R. I.
s, C
P, J,
256. Peaches
Sm, R
C, S, Ch, P, W, J,
257. Peanuts
Sm, R
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V
258. Pears, production of Sm, R
P, J, '
25 9. Peas
Sm, R
S, J,
260. Peat
Sm, R
S, Ch, W, V,
261. Pennine Chaine
c , s , P, J,
262. Pennsylvania
Sm, C
Ca, P, J,
263. Petroleum
Sm, R
C, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V
26 4. Peru
Sm, C
S, P, J,
265. Philadelphia
Sm, S
P, J,
266. Philippine Islands
Sm, C
S, Ca, p, J,
267. Phosphate
Sm, R
Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
26 8. Pig iron
R, s , P,
26 9. Pine trees
Sm, R
ca , P,
270. Pineapples
Sm, R
S, Ch,P, W,
W:$
(Continued)
20
TABLE II
(Continued)
271. Pipe lines
R,
272. Plains
R, S,Ch, V,
273. Platinum
R, Ch, P, W, J, V,
274. Plums and prunes
Sm, R, Ca, P, J,
275. Poland
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
276. Population
Sm, R, C, S, Ca , Ch, W, J, V,
277. Pork
Sm, R, S, Ch, V,
278. Ports
R, C, P, J, V,
279. Portugal
Sm, S, CA, p, J,
280. Potash industry
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
281. Potatoes
Sm, R, C, S,
282. Poultry
Sm, R, C, Ch, W, V,
283. Power
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, P, W, V,
284. Precipitation
Sm, R, Ch, V,
285. Printing
$m, R, C, P,
286. Prunes
Sm, Ca, P, J,
287. Puget Sound
Sm, C, S, P,
288. Queensland, Australi i
p,
w, v,
Ch, P, W, J,
Sm, S, P, J,
389. Radio
Sm, R, S, Ch, P, W, V,
290. Railroads
S, R, C, Ch, W, J, V,
291. Rainfall
R, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
292. Raisins
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, J,
293. Rayon
Sm, R, Cg., Ch, J, V,
294. Raw materials
Sm, R, S, P,
295. Redwood
Sm, R, C, Ca, Ch, P,
(Continued)
21
TABLE II
(Continued)
296. Refrigeration
Sm, R, P, V,
297. Reindeer
Sm, R, Ch, W., J, V,
298. Relief (land surface)
Sm, R, P, W, J,
299. Resin
Sm, R, S, Ca, P,
300. Rhine River
Sm, C, S, P, J,
301. Rice
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
302. Rio de Janerio
Sm, C, S, P, J,
303. Rivers
R, S, W, V,
304. Roosevelt Dam
Sm, S, Ca, P,
305. Rosin
Sm, R, S, Ch, P,
306. Rubber
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
307. Ruhr Valley, Gernany C, Ca, P, J,
308. Rumania
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
309. Rye
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
310. Saar Basin
C, S, Ca, P, J,
311. Sahara
Sm, C, S, Ca, J,
312. Saint Joseph, Missouri
Sm, S, P, J,
313. Saint Louis, Missouri.
Sm, C, S, V,
314. Salmon
Sm, R, C, Ch, P, W, J, V,
315. Salt
Sm, R, C, Ca, Ch,. P, V,
316. Sandstone
R, C, Ch, V,
317. Sardines
R,
318. Savannas
Sm, R, W, J,
319. Sawmills
Sm, R, C, P, W,
320. Scandinavia
Sm, C, S, P,
J, v ,
(Continued)
22
TABLE II
(Continued)
321. Scotland
Sm, C, S, C^, P, J,
322. Seals
Sm, R, P, W, J, V,
323. Seattle, Washington
Sm, C, S, J,
324. Sequoiras
Sm, R, Ca, P,
325. Shanghai, China
Sm, C, S, P, J,
326. Sheep
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
327. Sheffield, England
C, S, Ca, P, J,
328. Shipping
Sm, R, C, P, V,
329. Ships
Sm, R, S, W,
330. Siberia
Sm, S, P, J,
331. Silk
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J
332. Silver
Sm, R, C,S, Ch, W, J, V,
333. Singapore
Sm, S, P, J,
334. Sioux City, Iowa
Sm, S, P, J,
335. Slate
R , C, S , Ch, F, J, V ,
336. Soap
Sm, R, C, P,
337. Soil
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, J, V,
338. Sorhgums
Sm, R, Ch, P, V,
339. South Africa
Sm, C, S, J,
340. South America
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J,
341. Soybeans
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W, V,
342. Spain
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
343. Spring Wheat
Sm, R, P,
344. Spruce trees
Sm, R, S, CA , P,
345. Strassfurt, Germany
S, Ca, P, J,
(Continued)
23
TABLE II
(Continued)
346. Steam engine
Sm, R, S, P,
347. Steel
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
348. Stockholm
350. Sugar
Sm, S, Ca, P,
o
Sm, S, Ca, P,
f>
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
351. Sulphur
Sm, R, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
352. Sweeden
Sm, S, Ca , P, J,
353. Swine
Sm, R, S, W, J, V,
354. Switzerland
C, S, Ca, P, J,
355. Tacoma, Washington
Sm, C , S, I,
356. Tagua nuts
R, Ch, J, V,
357. Tea
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
358. Teak
R, W, J, V,
359. Temperature
Sm, R, S, Ch, W, J, V,
360. Tennessee
Sm, C, P, J,
361. Texas
Sm, C , P, J,
362. Textiles
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
363. Tibet
Sm, S, P, J,
364. Tin
R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
365. Tobacco
Sm, R, C, S, Ch,P, W, J, V,
366. Timber
Sm, R, W, V,
367. Tokyo
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
368. Toledo, Ohio
Sm, C, S, J,
349. Suez Canal
(Continued)
24
TABLE II
(Continued)
369. Tractors
Sm, R, P, W,
370. Trade
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
371. Trade routes
Sm, R, C, P, J, V,
372. Transportation
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
373. Truck farming
Sm, R, C, Ca, Ch, P, W,
374. Tundra, plants of
R, S, Ca, J, V,
375. Tungsten
R, S, P, J, V,
376. Turkey
Sm, R, S, Ca, P, J,
377. Turpentine
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
378. United Kingdom
Sm, C, S, P, J,
379. United States
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
380. Uruguay
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
381. Vancouver
Sm, C, S, P, J,
382. Vanilla beans
Sm, R, S, P,
383. Vegetable*
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, W, J, V,
384. Venezuela
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J, V,
385. Venice
Sm, S, Ca, P,
386. Volga River
Sm, S , Ch, P, I,
387. Washington, D. C.
Sm, C, S, P, J,
388. Water
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J,
389. Water wheels
Sm, R, W, V,
390. Waters, inland
R, S, Ch, P, V,
391. Weather
Sm, R, Ca, Ch,
392. West Indies
Sm, C, P, J,
(Continued)
25
TABLE II
(Continued)
393. Whales
Sm, R, S, Ch, P, J, V,
394. Wheat
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
395.. Whitney, Eli
Sm, S, P, J,
396. Winds
Sm, R, S, Ch, V,
397. Wisconsin
Sm, C , P , J,
398. Wood
Sm, R, S, V,
399. Wood pulp
R , S, Ch, J,
400. Wool
.
-Sm,; R,; c,- Sy 0a>, Ch, P, W, J, V,
401. Wyoming
Sm, C , P , J,
402. Yangtze River
Sm, S, Ca, P,
403. Yokohama
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
404. Yugoslavia
Sm, S, Ca, P, J,
405. Zinc
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
I
26
TABLE III
Tabulation of Item-Frequency Checked
Against 10 Textbooks
Appear in
10 books
Appear in
9 books
Appear in
3 books
Aluminum
Africa
Alfafa
Automobiles
Agriculture
Cattle
Australia
Buffalo, N.Y. Citrus fruit
Fertilizers
Copper
China
Goats
Corn
Climate
Coal
Lakes
Dairying
Lumbering
Cod
Forests
Coffee
Malayan
India
Flax
Mineral
Iron
Manufacturing Fruits
fertility
Oysters
Fur
Meat
Gold
Pacific Ocean
New York C.
Peaches
Oats
Grapes
Irrigation
Phosphate
Paper (Mfg)
Potatoes
Jute P.
Power
Railroads
Lead
Rice
Linens
Rye
Rubber
Lumber
Salmon
Silk
Peanuts
Silver
Steel
Petroleum
Sugar
Soil
Textiles
Population
So. Am.
Transport
Sulphur
Sheep
United States Tea
Tin
Turpentine
Wheat
Tobacco
Vegetables
Trade (25)
Wool
Zinc (26)
Water (25)
Appear in
7 books
Asia
Atlantic Ocean
Bauxite
Beef
Cacao
Commerce
Corn belt
Cotton
Dates
Fall,(for
water power)
Figs
Gas
Gasoline
Grazing
Hides
Hollywood, Cali.
Limestone
Marble
Markets
Mediterranean
Sea
Nitrates
Ohio
Pampas
Radio
Raisins
Salt
Slate
Soybeans
Temperature
Truck farming
Venezuela
WHoIas f a 2 )
(Continued)
I
27
TABLE III— Continued
Appear in
6 books
Air lines, modern
Animal life, native
and industries
Apples
Barcelona
Beans
Birmingham, Ala.
Boston, Mass.
Cabbages
Canada
Cheese
Chicago, 111.
Chile
Cincinnati, 0,
Cleveland, 0.
Clothing
Coke
Cork
Crops
Denmark
Desert snow
Dirigibles
Electric power
Fisheries
Fishing
France
Glasgow, Scotland
Great Britain
Greece
Gulf Coast Oil
Hemp, (Manila)
Industries
Land
Mediterranean
region
Metals
Mexico
Milk
Millet
Mineral resources
Monsoon regions
New Bedford
Appear in
5 books
Akron, Ohio
Alaska
Alps, Swiss
Andes
Antwerp, Belgium
Asphalt
Baltimore, M$.
Berlin, Germany
Boll weevil
Bolivia
Boulder Dam
Buenos Aires
Calcutta
California
Camels
Canals
Central Am.
Chesapeake Bay
Chicle
Chocolate
Colorado
Conservation
Copra
Costa Rica
Damascus, swords
Dominican Republic
Douglas Fir
Ecuador
Farms
Fibers
Floods
Fuels
Furniture
Galveston, Texas
Granite
Hardwoods
Hosiery mills
Houses
Houston, Texas
Idaho
Indianapolis, Ind.
Jamaica
Appear In
4 books
Air routes
Alabama
Animals
Arabia
Arkansas
Arctic Ocean
Black Sea
Brocton, Mass.
Building stone
Burma
Cacti
Camphor tree
Canary Islands
Celery
Cereals
Charcoal
Chickens
Chromium
Clay
Columbia River
Continental
Shelf of Ocean
Cottonseed
Denver, Colo.
Dry farming
Dutch E. India
Dyes
E. St. Louis, Mo.
Elbe River
Erie Canal
Erosion
Eskimos
Essen, Germany
Exports
Farming
Finlaa d
Flour
Ft. Worth, Texas
Gary, Indiana
Gloucester
Grand Rapids, Mich
Grapefruit
(Continued)
28
TABLE III— Continued
Appear in
6 books
Appear in
5 books
Appear in
4 books
New England
North America
North Sea aid Baltic
Sea Region
Occupations
Olives
Oranges
Peat
Philippine Islands
Pineapples
Platinum
Poland
Potash Industry
Poultry
Rayon
Redwood
Reindeer
Scotland
Seals
Swine
Trade routes
Turkey
Uruguay
Yokohama
(63)
Japan
Kansas City, Mo.
Labor
Lemons
Liverpool, Eng.
Llamas
London, Eng.
Lignite
Los Angeles, Calif.
Luxemberg
Manchester, Eng.
Maple sugar
Mesopotamia
Mining
Moscow
MountahE
Mutton
Natural gas
Naval stores
Nebraska
New Mexico
New Orleans
New Zealand
Nickel
Nile River Valley
Nitrogen
Nuts
Ontario
Oregon
Panama
Paris, Prance
Pennsylvania
Peru
Plums and prunes
Pork
Ports
Portugal
Relief (land
surface)
Resin
Oums
Havana, Cuba
Hemlock
Hunting
Hungary
Illinois
Imports
Indus River
Industrial
Revolution
Inland Waters
Ireland
Jersey City,N.J.
Kimberley, S.A.
Legumes
Machine Age
Mahogany
Manganese
Medicines
Michigan
Milwaukee
Minneapolis,Minn.
Mobile, Ala.
Negroes
Netherlands
Ocean liners
Oceans
Oklahoma
Paraguay
Pawtucket, R.I.
Pears, production
Pe&s
Pennine Chaine
Philadelphia
Pig iron
Pine trees
Pipe lines
Plains
Precipitation
Printing
(Continued)
29
TABLE III— Continued
Appear in
6 books
Appear In
5 books
Appear in
4 books
Rhine River
Rio de Janerio
Rosin
Rumania
Saar Basin
Sahara
Sawmills
Shanghai, China
Sheffield, Eng. .
Shipping
Sorghums
Spain
Spruce trees
Sweeden
Switzerland
Tokyo
Tundra, plants
Tungsten
United Kingdom
Vancouver, Can.
Volga River
Washington, D.C.
Waters, inland
Winds
Yugoslavia (106)
Prunes
Puget Sound
Queensland
Raw materials
Refrigeration
Rivers
Roosevelt Dam
Ruhr Valley
St. Joseph, Mo.
St. Louis, Mo.
Sands tone
Sardines
Savannas
Scandinavia
Seattle, Wash.
Sequoiras
Ships
Siberia
Singapore
Sioux City, I.
Soap
South Africa
Spring wheat
Strassfurt,
Germany
Steam engine
Stockholm
Suez Canal
Tacoma, Wash.
Tugua nuts
Teak
Tennessee
Texas
Tibet
Timber
Toledo, Ohio
Tractors
Vanilla Beans
Venice
Water wheels
Weather
West Indies
Whitney. Eli
Wisconsin
Hooa pulp
Ylnsizi River (127)
30
show that accuracy in the original list of 405 items
is not lost by reorganizing the groups.
For example,
under the subject of ’'wheat” there are four items taken
from the list of 405 items presented above, which mean
essentially the same.
Humber 54 is "cereals,” 121 is
"flour”, 343 is "spring wheat;" and 394 is the general
term "wheat."
Again, in another illustration, under the
subject of "vegetables" it will be found that the various
numbers
(27, 52, 100, 179, 259, 281, 336, 373, 382,
and 383) correspond with such references as: "beans,"
"celery," "dyes," "legumes," "peas," "potatoes," "soap,"
"truck farming," "vanilla beans," and "vegetables."
The refinement process developed in Table IV groups
405 items into a working pattern of 46 key references.
These 46 references will hereafter be referred to as the
"key index."
This 46-point key index of subject-matter was con­
structed expressly for the purpose of ascertaining whether
or not the foundation for this economic geography test
is representative of the field of economic geography. With
this index each of the ten economic geography textbooks
were measured to ascertain just how much space was given
in each book to each point in the index.
Up to this point much effort has been concentrated
in developing a pattern with which to construct the textbook
TABLE IV
Refinement of 405-Item List to
46-Point Key Index
Item Number
in 405-Group
(Table II)
New Item Number
in"46-Point
Key Index
54, 121, 343, 394
1. Wheat
54, 83
2. Corn
54, 209, 309, 338
3. Oats, Rye, Sorghum
Barley, etc.
73
4. Coffee
357
5. Tea
42, 63
6. Cacao
197, 350
7. Sugar
365
8. Tobacco
27, 38, 52, 100, 179, 259,
336, 373, 382, 383
18, 66, 125, 139, 180, 246,
256, 258, 270, 274, 286
43, 81, 91, 115, 140, 237,
257, 292,
)
9. Vegetables
10. Fruit
’ll. Grapes, olives, figs
54, 301
12. Rice
47, 55, 60, 97, 122, 128,
146, 148, 188, 189, 192,221,
269, 295, 299, 305, 319,324,
344, 356, 358, 366, 377,398
13. Forests, wood,
lumbering
252, 285, 399
14. Paper
306
15. Rubber
32, 70, 86, 87, 395
16. Cotton
(Continued)
32
TABLE IV
(Continued)
Item Number
^ew Item Number
in 405-Group
in 46-Point
(Table II)____________________ Key Index______
119
17. Flax
114, 149, 172
18. Jute, hemp
152, 293, 331
19. Silk, rayon
70, 184, 326, 400
20. Wool
12, 13, 28, 51, 141, 200, 219
277, 297, 326, 353
21. Cattle, grazing,
meat packing
127, 150, 322
22. Leather, fur
56, 89, 135, 208
23. Dairying
59, 282
24. Poultry
72, 117, 118, 134, 248, 314,
317, 393
25. Fish
71, 74, 126, 186, 260
26. Coal
126, 131, 132, 144, 220, 263
271
27. Petroleum, oil, gas,
natural gas
17, 39, 67, 138, 153, 181,
198, 316, 335,
28. Building materials
23
29. Automobile (mfg.)
90, 167, 268, 347
30. Iron and steel
136, 205, 212, 213, 273,
332, 375
31. Precious ores,
and metals
10, 26, 64, 80, 178, 195, 205, 32. Minerals, tin, nickel,
211, 213, 231, 233, 234, 267,
aluminium, zinc, lead,
280, 315, 351, 364, 405
all mining
88, 107, 155, 163, 164, 175,
191, 201, 223, 239, 276,
296, 297
33. Man’s economic position
social problems, races,
population centers
(Continued)
33
TABLE IV
(Cont inued)
Item Number
in 405-Group
(Table II)
New Item Number
i n 46-Point
Key Index
69, 216, 391
34. Climate and weather
2, 9, 11, 35, 78, 79, 94,
98, 111, 112, 113, 106,
120, 168, 176, 177, 211,
218, 250, 272, 291, 298,
304, 310, 318, 337, 369
35. Soil composition,
topography,
conservation,
agriculture
289
36. Communication
4, 5, 19, 21, 31, 46, 49,
76, 95, 103, 105, 110,
165,
232, 236, 240, 241,
249, 278, 283, 287, 290,
300,303, 304, 328, 329,
349, 372, 386, 388, 390,
402
37. Transportation, road,
land, all water ways,
river, lake, ocean,
coastal regions,
77, 104, 109, 110, 128, 152,
159,
191, 196, 199, 283,294,
346,
362, 370, 371, 389
38. Manufacturing,
commerce, trade, power
resources for industrial
purposes
3,6, 7, 16, 24, 30, 34, 36
38, 45, 57, 58, 65, 68, 75,
84, 88, 93, 101, 123, 129,
130,
134, 137, 151, 154, 157,
158,
161, 171, 173, 187, 207,
210,
214, 215, 222, 225, 226,
227, 228, 229, 235, 242, 243,
247,
251, 255, 262, 265, 266,
312, 313, 323, 334, 355, 360,
361, 368, 374, 379, 387, 397,
401
39. Economic values
distinct in the
United States and
Possessions
48, 235, 245, 381
40. Economic values
distinct in Canada
53, 85, 147, 206
41. Economic values
distinct in Central
America and Mexico
(Continued)
34
TABLE IV
(Continued)
Item Number
in 405-Group
(Table II)
New Item Number
in 46-Point
Key Index
33, 37, 61, 96, 102, 169,
193, 253, 264, 302, 340,
392, 380, 384
42. Economic values
distinct in South
America and West
Indies
133, 142, 166, 183, 185, 194
230, 261, 124, 190, 254, 14,
29, 108, 224, 345, 307, 321,
327, 378, 25, 82, 143, 202,
203, 204, 279, 342, 376, 385
92, 116, 320, 348, 352, 156,
275, 354, 308, 404, 217
43. Economic values
distinct in Europe:
15, 20, 40, 44, 62, 99, 160,
162, 170, 325, 330, 363, 367,
403
44. Economic values
distinct in Asia
22, 288, 333
45. Economic values
distinct in
Australia
1, 50, 174, 232, 310, 339
46. Economic values
distinct in
Africa
Great Britain
Prance
Germany, Holland,
Belgium, etc.
Mediterranean countries
Scandinavian countries
Central Europe
Balkan countries
Russia
35
page-count analysis. It should be said here that textbook
validation is not the only desirable one; neither should
the impression be made that it operates independently
as the essential one in this study.
The method has been
presented first in this chapter because of the detail
involved in its preparation, and its foundation possi­
bilities for later interpretations.
Table V gives a complete summary of the textbook
page analysis for each individual book as measured by
the key index.
The table is interpreted as follows:
"S" (Staples, Economic Geography) contains 16j pages on
the subject of "wheat,” "R" (Ridgley, Influence of
Geography on our Economic Life) contains 12 pages, and
"pn (Packard, The nations at Work) contains 9 pages, etc.
Table VI continues the material in Table V by showing the
mean number of pages devoted to the various 46 items in
the key index.
These means are contained in column "1"
of Table VI, which is read as follows: the mean number of
pages devoted to "wheat" was found to be 11.2; to "com,"
6.5; to "rice," 4.3; and "oats, rye, sorghum, etc.," 2.9.
Textbook Validation Results Compared with Another Research
Column "2" in Table VI gives the summary of an
independent study made in the field of economic geography
dealing with page-counts.^"
1.
This study, by Professor Dotson,
Oscar W. Dotson, Textbooks in Economic Geography,
Business Education World. (May, 1938)
36
TABLE V
Textbook Page-Count Developed
With Key Index
n
u
m
b
e
of
r
r> a
K
3
S
S*
R*
P*
C * W*
Ca*
J*
V*
Ctf*
1. Wheat
I6i
12
9
14
v i
22
ioir
4
5
2. Corn
5
6
6
10
9
9
2i
3i
3. Rice
sir
5
5
10
li
6
ii
i
3
4. Oats, Rye,
Sorghum,
Barley
5. Coffee
4i
8|
3
2
ii
2
2
7
4|
4ir
6
3
3i
6. Tea
3i 3
3
4
li
2 i
1
s
2
5 i
4i
16
6
5 i
3i
7. Cacao
4
3
2 i
11
2
12
4
ii
2
8. Sugar
si
7
si
22
1
3
si
3i
8 i
9. Tobacco
5
3i
2 i
10. Vegetables 11
3
6
13
17
12
15i
1 2 i
11
21
15
19
6
1
5
1
15. Rubber
5
6
6
16. Cotton
11
14i
11. Fruit
12. Grapes,
Olives,
figs
13. Forests,
wood,
lumbering
14. Paper
2i
i
s
3 i
\2
20
6
29i 17
2 i
2
20
1
18
2
1
26
23
1
s
l
3i
5
5 i
I2i
i i
v i
2i
12
2 i
lir
3|
2
2
10
5
6
3i
4
3
9
24
9 i
i
17. Flax
4
1
1
18. Jute, hemp
4
^E
2
i
1
2
ie
31
21
si
4a
1
i
Is
1
2
3
2
1
2
3
(Continued)
37
TABLE V (Continued)
n u m b e r
P
R
of
W
c
p a g e s
Ca
J
V
Ch
19. Silk, rayon
6
5
3
12
9
8
5 i
4i
20. Wool
9
3
7
4
2
2
3i
3
7t
i3i
1
2
1
6
21. Cattle, grazing,
10
meat packing
22. Leather, fur,
tanning
5
1
2
8
1
2
23. Dairying
3
9
7
5
5
24. Poultry
2
4
4
x
2
25. Pishing, fish
6|
ni
6 i
9
26. Coal
.5
7
8| isi
9 i
27. fetroleum, oil, IL7
gasoline, natura'
gas
28. Building materialL
6
ei 12s
8
2
3 i
3
12
6
9
5
29. Automobiles (mfg 1 1
23
1
13
3
10
8§
2
1
2
4i
7
3-1
2i
3
12s
4i
3i
ii
1
21-1
5
7*
7
5i
4i
5
3i
4s
4
2i
1
5i
35
3i
30. Iron and steel
■ii
11
14
17
LI
19
16
6
7
31. Precious ores,
and metals
3e
9
6
2
2
1
13
8
5l
rI
32. Minerals, nickel >o4
aluminum, zinc,
all mining, misc •
2
1
1
6
18
10
3
.7
33. Man's economic
position, social
problems, races,
population,
34. Climate and
si
weather
36|
9
26
L4
43s
9-1
3
3
1
2
18
6l
i 6 i
6
21
141
35. Soil composition
topography, agr.
’3i
conservation
36. Communication
4i
I 2 l i
30i
5 i
1
12
L4
59i
1A- 27i
4
141
51
1
(Continued)
38
TABLE V (Continued)
37. Transportation,
all methods,
water, inland,
coastal
38. Manufacturing,
commerce, trade,
also power
39. Economic values
distinct in U.S.
S
R,
P
C
W
Ca
164
294
384
544
234
16
i
s
19
12.
16
i4
10
524
164
11
67|
ioi
4G. Economic values
distinct in Canads
V
Ch
34
8
234
8
134
6
54
304
21
8
lo 4
98
1
16
29
5
7
404
20
5
16
2
lo4
134
I
41. Economic values
134
distinct in Central
America and Mexico
i
4
18
42. Economic values
j 84
distinct in So. Am.
and West Indies
i
1
4
394
4
34
444 8
L44 254
125 36
64 LO
43. Economic values
374
distinct in Europe
1
1054
66
112
44. Economic values
distinct in Asia
1
434
14
41
62
2
4
44
34
X
4
1
2
20
45. Economic values
distinct in
Australia
64
1
4
14
2
46. Economic values
distinct in
Africa
74
1
8
14
24
"S"
"R"
"P”
”Caw
W”
"C”
"J"
MV"
MCh”
11
31| 364
8
15
12
10
Staples, Economic Geography
Rldgley, Influence of Geography on Our Economic Life
Packard, The Nations at Work
Case, Modern World Geography
Whitbeck, The Wording World
Colby, Economic Geography for Secondary Schools
Jones, Economic Geography
Van Cleef, This Business World
Chamberlain, Geography and Society
39
TABLE VI
1. Wheat
11.2
9.8
2. Corn
6.5
8.6
3. Rice
4.3
4.7
4. Oats, Rye,
Sorghum,
Barley
2.9
2.6
5. Coffee
6/0
6 . Tea
5
6
7
8
2.5$ 2.6$ 2.6$
A
Distribution of questions
for try-out test based on
Column 7
Percentage distribution of
questions in Shepherd’s
test based on Columns 1,34£6
bC
d'O
0a
a
OS
a<M
o
OH
•H
01O
-pi
d3
Ho
oo
CM— •
3
4
of
2
lb
©©
Percentage distribution
questions— Staple EXAM
0. W. Dotson's analysis
Mean Wo.pages (page-count)
1
01
•H
09
0$
Points of minor, emphasis
(council of judges;
Percentage distribution of
questions— Ridgley EXAM
Mean number of pages
Shepherd’s page-count
Subject-Matter Content and Question Distribution
In Try-Out Test Based on Five Sources of Validation
14
1.7
.4
1.5
8
-1
1.7
1.1
.9
5
-1
1.7
2.3
.7
3
6.0
.8
1.1
1.4
8
3.6
3.7
.8
.4
.8
4
7. Cacao
4.7
3.8
.8
1.1
1.1
6
8. Sugar
7.6
6.2
.8
1.9
1.8
10
9. Tobacco
2.3
2.3
.8
.6
3
7.5
4.9
2.3
1.7
9
3.3
3.3
3.3
18
1.7
.4
1.1
6
5.0
2.6
4.0
22
.8
.6
3
10. Vegetables
11. Fruit
12. Grapes, olives
figs
13. Forests, wood,
lumbering
14. Paper
-1
A
14.3 12.3
4.7
2.9
-1
17.2 14.4
2.7
2.2
-1
(Continued)
40
5.4
5.1
16. Cotton
.4.3 10.7
17. Flax
1.2
18. Jute, hemp
2.1
19. Silk, rayon
6.1
3.8
Wool
6
7
8
.7
1.2
5
.8 1.9
3.3
18
-1
1.5
.3
2
91
.8
.5
3
5.0
1.1
1.4
8
2.5
.8 1.9
.9
5
2.8
15
1.9
.5
3
.7
1.4
8
.4
.3
2
2.0
11
to
t
•o
21. Cattle, grazing
.2.2 11.7
meat packing
Leather, fur
2.2
•HC
Ot
Pr4 5
2.5
A
7.7
.8
3.1
23. Dairying
6.2
24. Poultry
1.2
.3
-1
25. Fish
8.5
9.0
-1
26. Coal
9.2
7.0
8.2
27. Petroleum, oil
gasoline
28. Building materia] 2.2
29. Automobile (mfg) 3.4
7.1
12.5
5.0
9.2
30. Iron and steel
31. Precious ores
Distribution of questions
for try-out test based on
Column 7
15. Rubber
OrT
cac
Percentage distribution of
questions in Shepherd's tea
aased on Columns 1,3,4,5,6
Points of major emphasis
(council of judges;
3
n
•H
CO
a)
.3
Q r
6a
a
©
b
fc'C
OP
Percentage distribution of
questions— Staples EXAM
0. W. Dotson's
Mean No. pages
2
'
U U I
Percentage distribution of
questions— Ridgley EXAM
Mean number or pages
Shepherd's page-count
1
•
o
CM
analysis
(page-count)
TABLE VI (Continued)
.7
A
A
A
1.7
.8
3.8
2.1
11
.8
3.0
1.7
9
.4
.5
.8
3
4
2.9
1.2
16
6
3.6
A
-1
3,3
3.0
4.2
(Continued)
41
TABLE VI
(Continued)
•P
s
3
no
Ho
wi
•p
t>»©
op H bO
bOo o)©
COO d Pi
CO'-'
©
bO raco
Ort - ©
a P bO
o a)
©ra raP.
+5
o •
gp O o
P®
•a
£
PPi
P
©®
3
•©
©S
SCO
o s
1
•
•<#
to
32. Minerals, nickel 6.7
aluminum, zinc,
all mining
33. Man’s economic 23.0
position, social
problems, races,
population
Climate and
21.0
weather
35. Soil comp.,
17.7
topography,
conservation,
agriculture
36. Communication
5.4
37. Transportation 23.8
Mfg. Commerce
10.2
39. Eco. Values U.S. 33.2
AND Possessions
40. Eco. Values in 12.9
Canada
41. Eco. Values in
Central Am. Mex. 11.0
42. Eco. Values in 20.0
So. Am.and Indie 3
43. Eco. Values in
Europe
L6.3
44. Eco. Values Asia L7.7
5.8
45. Eco. Values In
Australia
46. Eco. Values Afr3fla9.1
433.1
2
4^
ra
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m
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ra ra
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P +3 B
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H OO
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3
8
4
5
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to
6
7
2.5
2.3
1.4
8
A
.0.8
3.4
5.3
28
12.7
A
30.0
4.9
4.9
26
17.2
A
.7.5
2.3
4.1
22
5.3
3.4
7.2
1.3
5.5
2.4
7.7
7
30
13
42
1.1
3.1
17
1.1
3.8
2.5
4.6
14
24
.8 13.5
3.8
1.1
3.8
4.1
1.3
21
22
7
1.1 2.1
lOOjg 10$
11
540
1.5
6.4
21.1
23.7
1.7
1.7
4.2
A
A
A
A
A
.8
-1
-1
-1
24L.3
bi
10$
OK ,
1\
42
contributes to the evaluation of column "1" by showing
close agreement on two points: (1) the tdal items used
in Dotson's "index" were in agreement with the 46-point
key index in all but thirteen cases (2) the mean number
of pages is in close agreement with those shown in column "1".
Items such as "rice," "oats," "coffee," "tea," and "tobacco"
are good examples of close agreement.
These agreements
would seem to indicate that Professor Dotson used some
or all the books examined in this study, but such proof
cannot be had as is shown in his letter, (see Appendix, p.273)
Validation by Analysis of Courses of Study
A source of validation closely related to the text­
book analysis is the analysis of courses of study.
Ruch
says, "On the whole, the analysis of courses of study
is inferior in practice to the textbook analysis, due to
the fact that courses of study in their usable (published)
form are far less detailed than textbooks. Moreover, printed
courses of study tend to deal with general aims, advice,
and principles, and thus k ck the concreteness necessary
for the test builder.^"
Ten courses of study were reviewed
with the possible idea of finding further validation of
this economic geography test.
Most of these courses of
study referred to the topic of geography in general terms
1.
C. M. Ruch, Tests and Measurements in High School, p. 307.
43
of integration with other subjects and it was therefore
impossible to tabulate definite content points.
Here
are the courses of study examined:
Ann Arbor, Michigan, Helping Children Experience
the Realities of the Social- Order. 1933
Arkansas, A ^jitative Course of Study for Arkansas
Schools, 1936
Atlanta, Ga., A New Curriculum at Work. 1938
Denver, Colorado, Social Science. 1926
Kansas, Kansas Program for the Improvement of
Instruction, 1957
Louisiana, The Louisiana Program of Curriculum
Development, 1956
Mississippi, Mississippi Program for the Improvement
of Instruction, 195v
North Carolina, A Study in Curriculum Problems of
the North Carolina puEJTic Schools, 1936
South Dakota, Social Studies Guide, 1932
Texas, Course of Sf.udy for Texas Public Schools, 1939
Furthermore, numerous textbooks dealing in methods of
teaching the secondary school subjects, and commercial
subjects in particular, were reviewed for the purpose of
finding "aims” and "objectives” which might reveal the
details for an item check-list.
Social science materials
were also examined with the same result of getting nothing
definite for validation.
Magaaine sources were also
checked for possible "leads" through the Readerls Guide
(years 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937,
1938, and 1939) and the Education Index
(years 1929,
44
1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938,
1939).
Validation by Competent Judges
The opinions of competent judges are valuable
1
sources of validating a test.
Although this source
was not used primarily as a basic one, it did prove
worthwhile as a stabilizing factor.
Three competent
authorities in the field of economic geography were asked
to review the 46-point key index and express judgment,
independently, for points of emphasis and points of minor
importance as they thought the subject should be taught
in the high school.
Furthermore, these three authorities
were asked to check, and recheck their answers with the
first draft covered to be sure of their reactions after
a brief time interval.
The authorities were?
Mr. Roy
McPherson, Professor of Geography (teacher-training)
State College for Women, Denton, Texas, Miss Joy Adams,
Supervisor of Commercial Studies for Practice Teachers,
Denton Senior High School, Texas, and Mr. Eli P. Cox, Jr.,
teacher of commercial studies, Amarillo Senior High School,
Amarillo, Texas. (See Table VI, pp. 39-41, Columns "3" and "4").
Points of emphasis which were pooled in the summary
report from these three people are shown in Table VI as
"plus 1," and points of minor importance are shown in the
same table as "minus 1."
1.
Ibid., pp. 310-312
45
Validation by Pinal Examinations
The analysis of final examinations in economic
geography is a source of validation similar to the text­
book analysis, and the course of study analysis, but
possesses at least two points of superiority,
In the
first place, a final examination represents a teacher's
effort to bring together the essentials of a course, and
in the second place, the teacher is apt to relate those
essentials in a more or less definite capacity of "use”
for the individual student.
Therefore, the opinion of
a competent person enters into the validation process by
the final examination too.
Columns "5” and ”6 " give in summary form the percentage
of space devoted to the 46-point key index by two well1
2
known final examinations, Ridgley's, and Staples'. Ridgley's
examination is in agreement for item index representation
in all but 17 points.
in all but 4 points.
Staples' examination is in agreement
Columns "5" and "6" contain the
percentage of space devoted to the various items in both
final examinations!
TheSe percentages were used as
stabilizing factors in arriving at an equitable distribution
of subject matter for the economic geography test under
construction.
1.
D. C. Ridgley, Final Test for Influence of Geography
on our Economic .Life, New York: the Gregg Co., 1&38.
2.
Z. C. Staples, Economic Geography Achievement Test N o . 10
(Pinal Examination-^-, Cincinnati: South-Western Co., 1936.
46
Column "7" In Table VI contains the same information
as column "I” except the amounts are expressed in per cent
instead of mean number of pages, and consideration was
given to high and low in columns ,,2,,, ”3,” "4," "g,” and
"6". It should be said here that the influences exercised
by columns "2," "3," "4," ”5,11 and ”6," were not by any
means radical.
For example, on a percentage basis, "com"
6 5
would be assigned 1.5$ (— — — ■) of the total economic geography
433 •1
test questions. The "authorities" indicated that they felt
the "corn" subject should be given special consideration,
and on a percentage basis Ridgley's examination reflected
1.7$ of space attentia^but Staples' examination devoted
only .4$ to the subject of "corn."
No radical changes
were made as a result of the tabulations in columns "2,"
"3 ," "4," "5," and "6," because many of the calculations
revealed insignificant decimal figures.
did, however,
The "columns"
serve a definite purpose....they gave, in
excellent form, a check device against the accuracy of
subject-matter representation in the test.
The number, "540" was chosen arbitrarily as a required
number of questions for the "try-out" test described in
Chapter III.
It was felt by the author that this number
would be large enough to permit rather severe statistical
eliminations and yet have a remaining examination long
enough to allow two forms, which would require enough
f
47
writing time to sample each student’s accomplishments.
Preliminary Drafting of the Items
Column "8” In Table VI might be called a specification
sheet of needed items for the test.
The numbers in the
column indicate the number of required questions for the
try-out test.
’'Fifteen” necessary questions on "wheat,”
for example, is found by multiplying 2.6$ times 540.
Decimal figures of course necessitate using whole numbers
since it would be impracticable to organize 14.04 questions.
In the preliminary drafting of the items, test questions
were written on separate cards, 3x5 Inches, and filed in a
convenient tray-file under guides headed the same as the
46-point key index.
This file represented a tentative set
of questions which were constantly subjected to revision
but were never removed permanently from their subject
classifications.
Editing and Selecting the Items
Over a period of several months test questions were
constructed by the author under the influence of many
sources: textbooks, magazine articles, workbooks, informal
tests, final examinations, lectures, and daily newspapers
and the radio.
Text questions were written down on the
cards first in rough draft and were simultaneously classified
as to possible type by using a card in code.
For example,
a clipped card indicated a "multiple-choice" type of question.
48
A plain card was a 'true-false” type of question, etc.
All cards were then filed according to index caption.
The clipped card feature to distinguish types of test
questions is a natural outgrowth of practice in making
questions.
in a group.
Cards with clipped edges are more easily located
Some materials seem to fit easier into a
’true-false"type of statement rather than a"completion" type..
while others make better"matchlng?' questions, etc..
The first
draft of a question was seldom found to he the final draft.
All cards were constantly subjected to criticism and revision
from day to day.
The meaning of questions was checked for
confusion, grammatical construction, "leads" or "determiners,"
etc.. "A specific determiner may he defined as any clue
afforded hy the phrasing or by the length of a statement
which tends to determine the pupils response in the absence
1
of knowledge.
Altogether there were approximately one
thousand questions finally constructed on the 3x5 inch cards.
This number included four types of questions: true-false,
matching, multiple-choice, and completion.
As mentioned
above, 540 of this group were actually used in the try-out
test discussed in Chapter III. (See Appendix, p. 187)
Construction of True-False Test Items
True-false test items were first constructed to read
as true statements on the cards.
According to Lang, this
2
is the first and fundamental step.
The cards were then
1.
A. R. Lang, Modern Methods in Written Examinations, p. 114.
2.
I. H. Brinkmeyer, Sentence Length as a Determiner in
True-False Statements, Journal of Educational
Research, XXII (1930), p. 110.
49
shuffled and divided into two equal groups, one of which
was to be made false, and the other to remain true.
statements were changed to false statements,
again shuffled.
True
and cards were
This procedure prevented any regularity
in the arrangement of the items.
True-false test cards
were again placed in the file according to subject.
These
locations automatically gave a second prevention of regularity
in order.
Construction of Matching Test Items
In card form, the matching items were constructed
essentially along the same lines as true-false questions.
That is to say, the statements were all made to read true
and were arranged in the test proper in one rather narrow
column to the right of the page.
In a column to the left
of the page, selections were provided.
It was found
desirable to group the matching items in sections of five
questions each.
This plan narrowed the limits within which
choices could be placed and increased the probability of
using choices in the left column which could not be taken
as "possible” or'lead" answers.
The ratio of "choices" to
"questions" was held at eight to five.
There should always
be more choices than questions in a matching test.^
XI
J. S. Orleans. Measurement in Education, pp. 450-451.
50
Construction of Multiple-Choice Test Items
The multiple-choice test items seemed to be peculiar
as to type. 'Many topics covered seemed better suited for
this type because of the answer expected.
Therefore, when
the test question was written on the card, several confu­
sions were writteh along with it.
In final form, four
choices were provided for each question.
Each of the
answers was numbered so that the one chosen as correct
could be indicated by placing its number in the parenthesis
at the right.
>
Construction of Completion Test Items
This type of question was one of the most difficult
to construct and required the greatest amount of revision
before desirable statements resulted.
Each completion
type question was written on the card In the form in which
it would appear when answered.
The answer was designated
by parenthesis around the required word.
The difficulty
came In finding statements which could be answered correctly
in one and only one word or idea.
Final Criticism of Test Items
As mentioned above, all items were constantly subjected
to criticism and revision by the author from day to day.
inasmuch as all statements were in a card form of rough
draft, they could be easily modified or completely
rewritten at random without necessarily affecting other
51
questions In the group.
Dr. Walter Hansen, Professor of Geography, and
Dr. Merle Bonney, Professor of Psychology, Teachers
College, Denton, Texas criticized the questions as they
were finally prepared for the try-out form.
These two
specialists gave the desirable combination of a
psychologist-statistician, and geographer.
Set-Up of Preliminary Form
Following the preliminary drafting of the items as
discussed above, the try-out test was made up in four
parts:
(1) 276 true-false questions, (2) 85 matching
questions, (3) 98 multiple-choice questions, and (4) 81
completion questions.
The distribution of questions in
these four parts was entirely arbitrary, although consid­
eration was given to the amount of time necessary to do
different types of questions, (for example, true-false
questions can be answered much more quickly than completion,
or recall t y p e s a n d more or less standard proportions
as used in other achievement tests.
The complete try-out test as composed in mimeographed
form is included in the Appendix.
Details pertaining to
instructions for taking the four parts, together with questionsamples, are self-explanatory in the form attached.
1.
A. R. Lang, Modern Methods in Written Examinations,
p. 189.
* (See Appendix, p. 187)
CHAPTER III.
TRY-OUT OF PRELIMINARY FORM
Selection of Students to be Tested
Two hundred students were selected for preliminary
experimental purposes to ascertain the strength and
significance of the various 540 items in the try-out
test.
Numerous interferences finally dictated the use
of only one hundred sixty-four students.
Incomplete
test papers due to class absence was the most common
interference in getting complete individual cases.
The
selection of types of testees was purposely made from
various school locations.
Three high schools representing
three sizes, more or less, were chosen in the cities of
Dallas, Austin, and Denton, (Texas).
Inasmuch as two
colleges organized similarly along economic geography
lines, and made up mostly of freshmen and sophomore
students were available, it was considered worth while
to use these students also in the try-out test.
Any
conclusion which would tend to minimize the value of
younger college students would partially be invalidated
inasmuch as the median score of the college students was
actually four points lower than that of the high school
students (based on ungrouped data).
The frequency
distribution given in Table VIII also shows close lines
of agreement in scores made by both groups.
A partial
53
explanation of relatively little difference in scores is
found in the fact that the high school group of Dallas
students is known to he strong, while the college freshmen
and sophomores represent all types of students, hut more
especially those from smaller, and in many cases poorer
high schools.
A summary of the distribution of those who took the
try-out test is given below:
Forest Avenue High School
(Dallas)
Austin High School
(Austin)
Denton High School
(Denton)
State College for Women (mostly freshmen) (Denton)
State Teachers College
11
”
(Denton)
30
29
10
26
69
1 S T
Scoring of the Try-Out Test
The results of the 164 complete cases are shown in
Table VII, which analyzes the data collected according to
the four parts of the test, namely, (1 ) true-false,
(2) matching, (3) multiple-choice, and (4) completion.
The true-false questions were scoredaccording to the
usual plan of subtracting the incorrect questions from
the correct ones.
The other three parts were scored by
dedvicting the number of errors.
Columns "I" and ,,2U
classify the testees into 95 college students and
69 high school students.
Seventy-two boys took the test
along with ninety-two girls.
The extreme right-hand column
of Table VII gives the total scores of each pupil ranked
from the highest to the lowest.
The range is from 324 to 110.
54
Table VIII Is a frequency distribution of the 164
cases showing important comparisons between the two groups
of students, college and high school.
The median, and
upper and lower quartiles are given at the bottom of the
table.
Analytical Study of Items
For analytical purposes the 164 test papers were
divided according to the upper and lower 25 per cent of
the group, and were named in the usual terms of upper and
**
lower quartiles. This quartile classification of cases
based on total scores presumably separates the good and
poor students.
Therefore, students who had scores in the
upper quartile were classified as "good" and those with
scores in the lower quartile were classified as "poor".
•55-
Table XXXIV shows each of the 276 true-false Items as
they were answered by the upper and lower quartiles.
Each
question is detailed precisely in terms of number right,
number wrong, number omitted, and per cent right.
Table XXXV
gives the analysis of upper and lower quartile reaction for
the 85 matching questions.
Tables XXXVI and XXXVII
respectively report the 98 multiple-choice questions and
81 completion questions.
The extreme right-hand column in Tables XXXIV, XXXV,
XXXVI, and XXXVII registers
theaverage
of the per cent
right in the upper quartile
andthe per
cent right in the
lower quartile.
Because these percentages are derived
*(See Appendix, p. 274)
"quartile" is taken to mean a
quartile point
fourth of
,
.^
the class and not
the
55
from two extremes in measurement, they are used as assumed
levels of difficulty rather than precise indications of
exact records from each of the 164 try-out cases on all
540 questions.
Tables IX, X, XI, and XII are in a sense
reversals of the four preceding tables.
For example,
Table IX shows relative difficulty of each question by
classifying all questions within the range of 98.76?o to
13.42^.
Question number ”1” was apparently the easiest
of all because 98.76 per cent of the assumed body of
students answered it correctly.
Other questions are
Interpreted in the same manner.
Obviously, these tables
of difficulty are indispensable as a foundation for
"order of difficulty" as developed in the final form of
the test.
56
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
TOTAL
SCORE
Completion
Score
Multiple
Choice
(Score
Matching
Score
Wrong
Right
Student
ITo.
i
;
1
Range of Scores for True-False, Matching, MultipleChoice, and Completion Tests Given to 164 Economic
Geography Students
I.
IV.
II. III.
,d
©
-p H
■p
•H 5 £°
M SO
pm £«>
F
49
1 . 226
1
177 69
47
31
324
M
80
2 . 195
1
115 82
66
48
311
F
50
3. 2 2 0
6
170 85
98
81
306
M
4. 173
47 56
126 71
62
45
304
40 27
F
5. 209
169 56
40
298
33
M
6 .
194
72 1 0
122
74
56
32
284
M
7. 179
94
3
85 76
69
46
276
M
8 . 164
75 37
89 75
62
48
274
M
9. 181
78 17
103 70
54
272
45
F 1 0 . 175
51 50
124 6 8
47
30
269
F 1 1 . 159
42 75
117 58
54
39
268
F 1 2 . 186
77 13
109 79
52
24
264
M 13. 190
86
0
104 74
49
36
263
M 14. 185
87
4
98 67
61
260
34
M 15. 187
89
0
98 6 6
61
29
254
M 16. 170
95 1 1
75 74
63
42
254
M 17. 178
71 27
107 75
29
254
43
F 18. 191
84
0
107 62
41
43
253
F 19. 174
77 25
97 72
55
27
251
F 2 0 . 190
86
0
104 6 8
43
250
35
F 2 1 . 164
86
26
78 71
60
249
40
M 2 2 . 176
83 17
93 69
51
36
249
F 23. 180
95
1
56
85 6 8
248
39
M 24. 197
78
1
119 79
30
20
248
F 25. 183
93
0
90 69
59
29
247
99
F 26. 176
1
77 72
58
40
247
69 45
F 27. 162
46
93 71
36
246
F 28. 177
87 1 2
90 71
43
41
245
M 29. 2 0 0
73
3
127 41
56
20
244
F 30. 191
85
0
48
106 64
26
244
M 31. 126
31 L19
95 74
43
32
244
M 32. 172
86
18
86
67
48
41
242
90 1 2
M 33. 174
84 65
45
48
242
M 34. 182
92
90 67
2
55
30
242
60 73
F 35. 143
61
83 67
30
241
F 36. 182
93
89 70
1
47
240
34
99
M 37. 177
0
78 67
56
38
239
99
F 38. 177
0
78 78
54
28
238
M 39. 166
94 16
72 6 8
55
40
235
56 69
F 40. 151
38
95 6 6
35
234
F 41. 189
87
0
102
71
37
24
234
(Continued)
Sex
College
H.School]
TABLE VII
57
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
M
p
M
M
p
p
p
M
M
M
M
M
P
P
P
P
M
P
M
P
P
P
M
P
P
P
P
M
F
P
K
M
M
M
P
P
M
P
P
P
M
P
P
M
P
42. 136
43. 182
4,4. 168
45. 172
46. 158
47. 175
48. 175
49. 179
50. 147
51. 164
52. 160
53. 182
54. 178
55. 155
56. 115
57. 187
58. 167
59. 183
60. 176
61. 118
62. 171
63. 176
64. 158
65. 163
6 6 . 181
67. 178
6 8 . 164
69. 168
70. 157
71. 177
72. 169
73. 166
74. 152
75. 152
76. 161
77. 114
78. 169
79. 129
80. 160
81. 145
82. 154
83. 172
84. 170
85. 158
8 6 . 186
38
94
105
104
81
101
102
86
81
1 QL
98
92
98
85
91
89
109
87
86
64
98
102
98
176
88
1
0
63
37
77
74
69
93
0
3
11
66
11
62
62
90
80
70
94
98
58
97
90
54
73
76
79
54
18
2
0
36
0
0
0
5
14
94
7
100
0
79
109
95
98
109
39
4
100
72
99
104
91
108
118
86
98
98
44
82
94
110
95
106
81
90
0
0
3
8
68
47
85
78
65
75
44
34
75
76
71
85
78
51
44
77
64
77
96
0
3
18
16
16
29
5
9
103
34
37
12
9
0
37
0
74
69
65
70
63
65
70
62
69
63
70
53
66
52
66
79
66
65
63
70
59
41
•
66
68
65
55
55
62
72
72
54
63
60
54
53
65
66
69
50
69
56
IV.
©©
Ro
rSrn
TOTAL
SCORE
58
50
55
61
47
46
60
24
60
56
56
50
56
56
42
40
58
41
48
51
44
37
30
54
39
51
55
46
42
34
56
54
50
53
47
42
43
51
45
52
52
39
38
43
15
68
68
86
80
55
53
65
Sen
68
48
. III.
1
W S3
il ©
ss
£
o
SCO
IS*
s
•cH
£3©
Ok
-Po
cdo
Multiple
Choice
Score
•p o
Quitted
i
Wrong
I»
xeg
College
H.School
TABLE VII (Continued)
22
221
28
45
33
29
37
32
39
36
39
34
231
231
230
227
226
226
226
225
223
20
17
27
15
29
39
28
13
32
32
36
41
32
26
37
33
26
16
40
31
15
40
45
27
21
27
11
24
32
37
13
40
8
29
(Conti nued)
222
222
222
221
221
220
219
218
217
216
215
214
213
210
210
209
209
208
208
207
207
207
206
204
203
202
201
201
200
200
199
198
198
187
196
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
11
P
P
M
P
P
P
M
P
M
M
M
F
P
P
M
P
M
M
P
P
P
M
M
30
56
102
0
98
56
104
17
95
66
50
97
1
86
33
107
115
103
99
90
108
93
58
92
0
1
14
14
37
4
13
94
47
111
0
65
91
117
82
12 5
68
37
10
74
12
2
56
1
56
52
110
88
49
118
85
53
100
109
109
117
113
107
65
82
116
117
1
0
22
1
1
2
7
16
95
58
0
11
84
74
72
63
69
58
94
181
71
62
45
55
64
59
60
77
60
62
64
70
61
69
66
45
54
72
82
40
55
25
45
50
55
51
60
53
55
57
57
40
43
46
51
54
44
31
IV.
Canplstiai
Score
81
73
III.
Multiple
Choice
Schre
165
147
174
161
125
162
160
178
157
169
160
159
163
149
164
170
124
137
165
137
173
157
138
150
113
137
165
139
158
138
154
166
166
157
156
153
116
136
160
148
Matching
Score
X
X
M
P
P
P
M
P
P
M
F
M
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
93.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
'd
©
•p
+j
True-PfeQse
Score
U
Right
Sex
F
X
X
M
M
M
Student
No.
'" x
X
X
X
X
X
X
to
§
£?*
(Continued)
II.
I.
1
College
I
iH. Schoo]
58
TABLE VII
22
28
35
42
30
36
51
21
14
28
25
13
66
11
20
63
51
58
64
59
55
58
64
49
57
50
59
41
15
63
64
67
32
33
46
47
44
43
42
42
45
31
55
50
33
53
47
14
33
66
64
62
56
58
56
56
40
50
57
59
73
65
69
59
32
21
50
42
32
42
51
21
38
50
35
49
49
37
34
22
30
27
23
26
18
12
2831
18
35
31
30
38
36
25
31
17
16
33
25
11
37
12
22
29
14
20
31
18
26
40
23
46
7
(Continued)
S!
£4O
<oO
IHCO
194
192
192
191
191
191
191
190
188
188
186
186
185
185
184
183
182
181
181
181
181
180
179
178
178
177
176
174
172
172
171
169
168
168
168
167
167
167
166
166
59
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
162.
163.
164.
ft ©
s
is
0
0
4
30
46
92
24
24
40
30
26
47
60
43
65
30
34
153
161
177
150
150
106
153
151
150
165
158
141
153
153
171
82
157
144
134
158
154
145
139
116
138
156
154
157
123
92
131
142
126
103
92
150
161
147
123
115
85
126
126
14
66
104
123
124
103
105
115
76
123
119
105
0
1
0
0
23
6
3
59
0
0
66
68
126
119
131
77
118
0
1
14
38
13
57
40
32
16
23
34
25
38
37
38
122
129
116
82
113
116
117
119
129
67
95
127
124
98
51
126
115
129
65
0
0
2
21
78
25
2
5
0
24
117
50
7
26
75
133
0
10
0
0
25
36
15
2
5
41
24
36
18
III.
IV.
Canpletdm
Score
X
X
X
F
F
M
F
F
F
F
F
M
M
F
F
M
F
F
F
M
M
M
F
F
F
F
F
M
M
F
M
F
F
F
F
F
M
F
M
F
M
<D
II.
Multiple
Choice
Score
X
3 o.
COS
1
-P
■P
Wrong
X
X
X
s
Right
X
-p
Sex
College
H.School
I.
58
56
70
57
72
45
53
53
56
55
48
48
28
52
44
42
31
50
36
31
26
29
45
33
19
41
23
41
11
28
35
20
61
57
7
68
49
70
51
52
59
60
55
60
73
58
24
42
54
52
21
54
41
66
49
47
4
40
28
47
41
41
36
54
42
33
6
23
28
51
50
27
32
16
43
33
35
40
44
20
35
23
19
40
65
43
22
20
19
19
40
13
18
30
32
30
21
13
11
16
6
20
23
13
35
7
21
31
40
TOTAL
SCORE
(Continued)
Matching
Score
TABLE VII
162
159
159
158
157
157
156
156
156
154
154
152
151
151
149
149
147
146
146
145
140
140
139
137
136
132
127
126
124
124
122
120
8
118
116
114
114
113
19
110
22
5
3
60
TABLE
Frequency Distribution
Students on Try-Out
Geography
Class
Interval
I
VIII
of Scores Made by 164
Form of Economic
Test
[igh School
Students
320-539
300-319
2
280-299
College
Students
Both
1
1
1
3
2
2
260-279
5
3
8
240-259
10
12
22
220-239
9
12
21
200-219
8
16
24
180-199
13
16
29
160-179
3
14
17
140-159
12
9
21
120-139
4
6
10
100-119
3
3
6
69
95
TOTALS
%
156.58
166.75
Median
197.90
198.87
Q3
238.94
231.58
164
61
TABLE IX
Items in True-False Test Hanked. According to Difficulty,
Based on Per Cent of Students Correctly Answering Each Item
Per Cent of
Students Cor­
rect ly Ansna±ig
Item
98.76
96.34
93.90
92.68
91.46
90.24
89.02
87.82
87.80
86.58
85.36
84.14
82.92
81.70
80.48
79.26
78.22
78.04
76.82
75.65
75.60
75.22
74.38
73.41
73.16
71.95
71.94
70.73
69.51
69.50
68.28
67.07
65.85
65.84
64.83
64.62
63.41
62.19
60.97
60.47
59.75
59.72
58.53
57.31
54.87
54.86
Item Numbers
(try-out test)
1
5
28
33
32, 121
215
59
11
24
87
23, 27, 41, 186, 202
8 , 107, 109, 234
6 8 , 80, 93, 110, 155
22, 50, 114, 137, 195, 197
18, 136, 183, 187
39, 64
19
53, 67, 8 6 , 90, 118, 123, 154, 180
16, 171
4
3, 30, 91, 120, 157, 172
189
31, 72, 102, 153, 164
125
6 , 84, 156, 252
224
126, 165, 257, 273
117, 152
52, 85, 177, 253
176, 191, 227, 269
21, 35, 61, 150, 160, 266, 267
49, 6 8 , 70, 112, 190, 204, 221
167, 200, 208, 218, 272
37, 127, 145
36, 138, 182, 236
149, 179
15, 270
20, 34, 62, 65, 103, 158, 211,214,216,
242, 260, 268
131, 132, 148, 198, 251
106, 207
99, 111, 161, 217, 233, 237, 265
9
38, 47, 60, 116, 162, 213,238,254,271
54,56,92,104,128,146,192,203,210,249,2
40, 228, 240, 243, 256
96
(Continued)
TABLE IX
(Continued)
Per Cent of
Students Correctly
Answering Item
53.65
52.43
51.21
49.99
48.77
47.56
47.55
46.33
45.12
45.11
43.90
42.67
41.46
41.45
40.24
40.23
39.02
37.80
36.58
35.36
34.14
32.92
31.70
30.48
29.26
28.04
26.82
25.60
24.39
24.38
23.17
23.16
22.94
21.94
20.72
19.51
19.50
18.29
15.85
13.42
Item Numbers
(Try-out Test)
135, 169, 173, 196, 225, 241, 259
29, 76, 133, 134, 181, 255
75, 82, 8 8 , 140, 175, 212
43, 69, 105, 275
11, 97, 166, 219, 246, 247
132
201
25, 73, 141, 163
48, 51, 122, 226
42
6 6 , £3, 185
147, 206, 231, 239, 274
7, 230, 263
108
94, 142, 193, 199
46, 248
13, 151
229, 245, 264
45, 113
55
235
119, 250
71, 222, 262
26, 115
1 0 , 1 0 0 , 168
2, 14, 144
74, 101, 258
178, 188
63
98
223
17, 57, 170, 205
44
79, 184, 261
81, 209
77
129
159, 194
139
220, 232
63
TABLE X
Items in Matching Test Ranked According to Difficulty,
Based on Per Cent of Students Correctly
Answering Each Item
Per Cent of
Students Correctly
Answering Item
97.68
93.90
91.46
90.24
89.02
88.52
86.58
86.80
85.36
85.26
84.14
82.92
82.42
81.70
80.48
79.26
78.04
76.82
76.72
75.60
74.38
73.01
73.16
71.94
71.84
71.80
70.72
69.75
69.51
69.50
68.28
67.07
66.09
65.85
64.62
63.41
Item Humbers
(Try-out Test)
66
38, 55, 60
37, 77
1, 74
28, 42, 46
5
2, 19, 63, 6 8
27
35, 83
76
9, 52, 72
53
14, 45
21, 41, 51
4, 15, 17, 43, 64
50, 54, 73, 85
40
71
34
39
8 , 48, 56
25
12, 23, 31, 33, 70, 81
49
22
29
57, 58
78
47
61
7
67
75
69
32
65
I
64
TABLE X
(Continued)
Per Cent of
Students Correctly
Ansv/erlng Item
60.97
60.82
58.53
57.31
56.59
56.09
53.65
51.21
49.99
46.33
45.11
42.68
31.78
26.82
23.16
Item Numbers
(Try-out Test)
, 16
26
30, 80
59, 82
6
10
3
44, 84
11
13
36
20
24
18
62
79
65
TABLE XI
Multiple-Choice Test Ranked According to
Difficulty, Based on Per Cent of Students
Correctly Answering Each Item
Per Cent of
Students Correctly
Answering Item
93.90
89.02
85.36
83.53
76.87
75.60
74.38
73.16
71.84
70.72
70.22
69.51
68.29
67.06
65.89
65.85
65.84
65.34
64.62
64.61
63.41
62.19
62.14
59.78
59.75
58.53
57.81
57.31
54.87
53.65
51.21
49.99
49.07
48.92
Item Numbers
(Try-out Test)
17
7, 29
26
24
31
45
72
89
67
3
34
9, 25,
50
37
13
38
62
49
68
20
12, 43
18
16, 47
30
15
81
53, 60
61
4, 40, 46
78, 8 6
80
39, 82, 91
1, 23, 54, 75, 77
27
76
(Continued)
66
TABLE XI
Per Cent of
Students Correctly
Answering Item
48.80
48.77
47.55
46.34
46.33
45.16
43.89
41.86
41.45
39.02
38.17
36.61
36.58
35.36
32.42
29.26
28.38
28.04
26.82
25.61
24.38
23.16
21.63
20.73
19.50
18.29
18.28
15.85
14.63
8.53
(Continued)
Item Numbers
(Try-out Test)
22
19, 55
69
48
58
92
8 , 56
63, 6 6 , 70
65
32, 33, 79, 84
74
28
51, 95
8 8 , 98
10
5, 35, 42, 71
85
36, 52, 93, 94
14
96
83, 97
2, 41
44
57
73
21
64
6
59
11, 87
I
6V
TABUS XII
Completion Test Questions Ranked According
to Difficulty, Based on Per Cent of Students
Answering Each Item
Per Cent of
Students Correctly
Answering Item
93.90
89.02
86.58
82.04
80.48
76.82
71.94
69.50
68.29
67.06
65.84
64.63
63.44
60.97
58.75
59.25
58.53
57.37
57.31
56.09
52.43
51.21
47.55
46.33
43.89
42.68
42.67
41.45
40.23
39.02
37.80
36.58
35.36
34.40
32.97
Item Numbers
(Try-out Test)
12, 13
10
14
17
32, 34
41
54
18
7
31
28
9
1
78
5, 25
27
67
51
57
29
15
21
4, 74
56
60
52
58
36, 62
3
55
43
37
47, 59, 77
20
65
(Continued)
68
TABLE XII
Per Cent of
Students CorrectlyAnswering Item
31.70
30.48
29.26
26.82
25.60
24.38
23.17
21.95
20.73
20.72
19.51
18.29
17.07
15.85
14.63
13.41
12.19
10.97
9.75
8.53
6.09
(Continued)
Item lumbers
(Try-out Test)
2, 39, 44
19, 53
22, 50
75
73
42, 69
49
11, 70, 79, 81
26
6
48
8,
33, 38, 61
16
76
68
35
24, 30, 46, 63
40, 64
23, 6 6
45, 71, 80
72
69
Elimination of Items
Each of the fop types of questions used in the
try-out test, (true-false, matching, multiple-choice,
and completion) were subjected to statistical treatment
which would reflect those items which discriminate betv/een
"good” and ’’poor” students.
The statistical treatment
used was that based on the probable error of 1he percentage
1
frequency given in formula by Eolzinger as:
lr
(1 0 0 -f )
E.f
=
.6745*\ I P
P.
P
N
and
P. E. (dlff.)
r
-y/x)2
*
A direct and easier method can also be found in the following
formula:
P. E. (diff.)
=
_
/ fP l (100
"l~pl ^ fp2 tl0 0 ^~Pg^
---------
IT
N
The item elimination analyses developed in Tables
XIII, XIV, XV, and XVI show the percentage of all students
correctly answering the various items listed, in the first
column of each quartile (Tables XXXIV, XXXV, XXXVI, and
XXXVII are the source for this information).
The upper
and lower quartiles were selected as areas of measurement
inasmuch as these extremes have possibilities in showing
a differentiation between good and poor students.
1.
Critical
Karl J. Holzinger, Statistical Methods for Students
in Education, pp. 243-244.
70
ratios were not calculated for those totals which
obviously revealed on the surface that the ratio would
be too low to use, but in no case were doubtful comparisons
between quartiles omitted.
(This statement explains the
fact that many numbers have been left out in the first
column of Table XIII)
Table XVII shows the number of items originally
assigned to the try-out test, the number of items
eliminated as a result of a low critical ratio, the number
of items eliminated because of superfulous subject matter,
and the percentage of all items eliminated.
Table XVIII is interpreted as meaning that although
the critical ratios of some of the questions were desirable,
the subject-matter in the questions was not needed accord­
ing to Table XXII which sets up subject-matter coverage
for the test.
In the case of a shortage in question-supply to fill
a subject matter specification, it was necessary to select
a question with a critical ratio lower than would ordinarily
be acceptable.
There were ten cases of this lcind as is
shown in Table XIX.
This slight exception in maintaining
very high critical ratios might be considered more desirable
than having a test with insufficient subject-matter content.
Although many of the ratios are 4 ar above, it was found
necessary to hold 2.5 as a working basis to fill subjectmatter needs (with the ten exceptions mentioned above.)
71
TABUS XIII
True-false Item Elimination Analysis Based
6
15
16
IS
20
21
22
23
25
31
32
36
37
39
40
42
44
46
47
50
51
53
55
56
57
58
60
61
62
Upper
Quartile
Lower
Quartile
Right
P. E.
Squared
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Q]_ and
$3
2
3
4
5
7.56
17.47
23.04
•11.83
11.83
21.81
13.83
11.83
7.56
26.42
9.73
78.04
65.85
56.09
65.85
73.17
51.21
51.21
75.60
78.04
31.70
58.53
82.92
58.53
53.65
70.73
48.78
34.14
14.63
26.82
53.65
68.29
29.25
70.73
21.95
48.78
19.51
63.41
41.46
73.17
34.14
19.00
25.00
27.35
25.00
21.81
27.78
27.78
20.52
19.00
24.01
26.94
15.76
26.94
27.56
23.04
27.78
25.00
13.83
21.81
27.56
24.01
22.94
23.04
19.00
27.78
17.47
25.70
26.94
21.81
25.00
26.56
42.47
50.39
36.83
33.64
49.59
41.46
32.35
26.56
50.42
36.67
14.64
14.64
14.64
21.95
14.64
21.96
34.15
49.98
46.56
34.87
54.20
52.35
36.77
49.37
53.26
29.16
49.36
36.87
46.78
52.78
39.28
48.78
47.46
26.96
52.78
12.20
Right
P. E.
Squared
1
92.68
80.48
70.73
87.80
87.80
73.17
85.36
87.80
92.68
60.97
90.24
LOO.00
70.73
78.04
87.80
60.97
56.09
29.26
53.65
53.41
95.12
60.97
85.36
48.78
65.85
26.82
70.73
75.60
95.12
51.21
%
23.04
19.00
11.83
26.42
27.35
22.94
27.56
25.70
5.12
26.42
13.83
27.78
25.00
21.81
23.04
20.52
5.15
27.78
/°
6
12.20
14.64
29.27
31.71
17.08
24.39
17.07
12.19
21.95
14.63
26.83
9.76
26.83
31.71
14.63
26.83
17.07
7.31
7.32
34.14
21.95
17.07
tp
a?
+
Ratio
^3
cF1
Critical
3
%
Difference Be­
tween % Right,
Qq. and Q3
Item
Number
on Critical Ratio
7
8
5.1
6.5
7.1
2.8
2.2
2.1
6.1
3.6
2.5
3.1
5.2
5.8
7.0
6.5
5.7
5.1
7.1
6.0
4.1
7.1
6.8
5.9
7.4
7.2
6.1
7.0
7.3
5.4
7.0
6.1
6.8
7.3
6.3
6.9
6.9
5.2
7.3
1.1
2.9
4.2
5.3
4.3
1.7
3.5
2.8
1.6
3.5
2.4
3.8
1.3
4.9
4.5
2.4
3.9
2.3
1.1
1.1
4.8
4.2
2.3
(Continued)
72
64
67
68
70
72
73
78
79
SO
81
82
83
84
85
88
89
91
92
96
97
98
99
101
102
103
104
106
107
108
109
111
112
114
116
117
118
Upper
Quartile
Lov/er
Quartile
Right
P. E.
Squared
Right
P. E.
Squared
%
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Q,2
_ and
Q3
1
2
3
4
5
6
90.24
85.36
95.12
70.73
80.48
58.53
60.97
29.26
92.68
34.14
65.85
48.78
80.48
73.17
56.09
82.92
90.24
65.85
65.85
53.55
34.14
65.85
31.70
92.58
73.17
75.60
70.73
92.68
51.21
92.68
70.73
87.80
92.68
75.60
92.68
85.36
9.73
13.83
5.15
23.04
17.47
26.94
26.42
22.94
7.56
25.00
25.00
27.78
17.47
21.81
27.35
15.76
9.73
25.00
25.00
27.56
25.00
25.00
24.01
7.56
21.81
20.52
23.03
7.56
27.78
7.56
23.04
11.83
7.56
20.52
7.56
13.83
68.29
70.73
70.73
63.41
68.29
34.14
51.21
14.63
73.17
7.31
36.58
39.02
65.85
65.85
46.34
73.17
60.97
48.78
43.90
43.90
14,63
53.65
21.95
56.09
51.21
39.02
51.21
75.50
31.70
75.60
48.78
46.34
70.73
41.46
48.78
70.73
24.01
23.04
23.04
25.70
24.01
25.00
27.78
13.83
21.81
7.56
25.70
26.42
25.00
25.00
27.56
21.81
26.42
27.78
27.35
27.35
13.83
27.56
19.00
27.35
27.73
26.42
27.78
20.52
24.01
20.52
27.78
27.56
23.04
26.94
27.78
23.04
33.74
35.87
28.19
48.74
41.48
51.94
54.20
36.77
29.37
32.56
50.70
54.20
42.47
46.81
54.91
37.57
36.15
52.78
52.35
54.91
38.83
52.65
43.01
34.91
49.59
46.94
50.82
28.08
51.79
28.08
50.82
39.39
30.50
47.46
35.34
36.87
21.95
14.63
24.39
7.32
12.19
24.39
9.76
14.63
19.51
26.83
29.27
9.76
14.63
7.32
9.75
9.75
29.27
17.07
21.95
9.75
19.51
Ratio
Q3
to
G?
+
Critical
Q1
Difference Be­
tween % Right,
Q]_ and Q3
Item
ITumber
TABLE XIII (Continued)
id:
o?
8
12.20
9.75
36.59
21.96
34.58
19.52
17.08
19.51
17.08
21.95
41.46
21.95
34.14
43.90
14.63
4.7
6.1
5.3
6.9
6.4
7.2
7.4
6.1
5.4
5.7
7.1
7.4
6.5
6.8
7.4
6.1
6.0
7.3
7.2
7.4
6.2
7.2
6.6
5.9
7.0
6.9
7.1
5.3
7.2
5.3
7.1
6.3
5.5
6.9
5.9
6.1
4.6
2.4
4.6
1.1
1.9
3.4
1.3
2.4
3.6
4.7
4.2
1.3
2.3
1.1
1.3
1.6
4.8
2.3
3.5
1.3
3.1
1.7
1.5
6.2
3.1
5.0
2.8
3.2
2.7
5.2
3.1
6.6
4.0
4.8
7.3
2.4
(Continued)
73
Right
%
P. E.
Squared
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Qt and
<*3
3
4
5
87.80
63.41
60.97
60.97
46.34
4.87
46.34
46.34
73.17
70.73
39.02
43.90
34.14
51.21
56.09
53.65
37.70
56.09
51.21
60.97
63.41
73.17
73.17
60.97
53.65
12.19
51.21
31.70
70.73
39.02
65.85
63.41
63.41
65.85
17.07
53.65
46.34
11.83
25.70
26.42
26.42
27.56
17.47
26.42
27.56
21.81
23.04
26.42
27.35
25.00
27.78
27.35
27.56
25.90
27.35
27.78
26.42
25.70
21.81
21.81
26.42
27.56
11.83
27.78
24.01
23.04
26.42
25.00
25.70
25.70
25.00
15.76
27.65
27.56
16.98
33.26
40.25
49.46
53.46
42.47
46.94
53.98
33.64
30.60
36.15
54.29
51.94
54.20
47.87
53.98
53.46
52.35
46.78
46.94
39.53
37.57
29.37
40.25
50.60
32.35
41.61
50.43
42.04
53.36
36.83
37.53
46.22
46.81
40.76
48.17
54.50
6
©
-p
H
121
123
125
127
128
129
131
135
136
137
138
140
141
143
145
146
147
148
149
150
153
154
155
156
158
159
160
163
154
166
171
172
176
177
178
179
181
Right
P. E.
Squared
1
2
A
5.15
95.12
7.56
92.68
13.85
85.36
23.04
70.73
25.90
62.89
24.00
34.14
20.52
75.60
26.42
50.97
87.80
11.83
7.56
92.68
9.73
90.24
26.94
58.53
26.94
58.53
26.42
60.97
75.60
20.52
26.42
60.97
27.56
53.55
25.00
65.85
19.00
78.04
20.52
75.60
13.83
85.36
15.76
62.92
7.56
92.68
13.83
85.36
23.04
70.73
20.52
24.39
13.83
85.36
26.42
60.97
19.00
78.04
26.94
56.53
11.83
87.80
11.83
87.80
20.52
75.60
73.17 ' 21.81
25.00
34.14
20.52
75.60
25.94
58.53
6
7.32
29.27
24.39
9.76
16.55
29.27
29.26
14.63
14.63
21.95
51.22
14.63
24.39
9.76
19.51
7.32
15.95
9.76
26.83
14.63
21.95
9.75
19.51
24.39
17.08
12.20
34.15
29.27
7.31
19.51
21.95
24.39
12.19
7.32
17.17
21.95
12.19
+
cF1
Ratio
Upper
Quartile
to
(3?
Critical
%
Lower
Quartile
«1
©
Difference Be­
tween % Right,
Qq and Qg
TABLE XIII (Continued)
7
8
4.1
5.8
6.3
7.0
7.3
6.5
6.9
7.3
5.8
5.5
1.8
6.0
7.4
7.2
7.4
6.9
7.3
7.3
7.2
6.8
5.1
3.9
1.4
2.2
4.5
4.2
2.0
2.5
4.0
8.5
2.0
3.4
1.3
2.8
1.0
2.2
1.3
3.9
6.9
6.3
2.1
6.1
1.6
5.4
6.3
7.1
5.7
3.5
7.1
6.5
r
7.3
3.1
3.1
3.8
3.4
3.9
2.4
6.8
1.1
3.4
6.9
1
7.4
2.7
3.1
3.5
2.1
5.2
4.1
1.1
2.7
3.6
4.0
1.7
1.6
(Continued)
f
74
s
©
-p
H
182
184
185
186
187
189
190
191
192
195
196
197
19e
199
200
202
203
204
205
207
208
209
210
214
215
216
217
218
219
225
227
228
230
231
233
234
Q3
Upper
Quartile
Lower
Quartile
ef
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Q]_ and
Q3
Right
P. E.
Squared
Right
P. E.
Squared
1
2
5
4
5
82.92
34.14
53.65
90.24
90.24
85.36
70.73
87.80
75.60
87.80
65.85
85.36
80.48
43.90
70.73
95.12
73.17
73.17
29.26
65.85
73.17
56.09
70.73
65.85
97.56
85.36
68.29
90.24
56.09
68.29
85.36
80.48
58.53
58.53
63.41
87.80
15.76
25.00
27.56
9.73
9.73
13.83
23.04
11.83
20.52
11.83
25.00
13.83
17.47
27.35
23.04
5.15
21.81
21.81
22.94
25.00
21.81
27.35
23.04
25.00
2.62
13. S3
24.01
9.73
27.35
24.01
13.83
17.47
26.94
26.94
25.70
11.83
46.34
9.75
34.14
80.48
70.73
56.09
63.41
51.21
39.02
75.60
41.46
78.04
41.46
36.58
60.97
75.60
41.46
60.97
17.07
56.09
58.53
34.14
43.90
58.53
82.92
39.02
51.21
41.46
41.46
39.02
53.65
29.26
24.39
26.82
56.09
80.48
27.56
9.73
25.00
17.47
23.04
27.35
25.70
27.78
26.42
20.52
26.94
19.00
26.94
25.70
26.42
20. 52
26.94
26.42
15.76
27.35
26.94
25.00
27.35
26.94
15.76
26.42
27.78
26.84
26.94
26.42
21.56
22.94
20.52
21.81
27.35
17.47
43.32
34.73
52.56
27.20
32.77
41.18
48.74
29.61
56.94
32.35
51.94
32.83
44.41
53.05
49.46
25.67
48.75
48.23
38.70
52.35
48.75
52.35
50.59
51.94
18.38
40.25
51.79
36.67
54.29
50.43
35.39
40.41
47.46
48.75
53.05
29.30
%
to
a?
+
Ratio
Ql
cF1
Critical
©
.a
Difference Be­
tween fo Right,
Ql and Q3
TABLE XIII (Continued)
6
7
8
36.58
24.39
19.51
9.76
19.51
29.27
7.32
36.59
36.56
6.6
5.5
4.1
2.7
1.9
3.4
4.6
12.20
24.39
7.32
39.02
7.32
10.76
19.52
31.71
12.20
12.19
9.76
14.64
21.95
26.83
7.32
14.64
46.34
17.08
48.78
14.63
29.27
31.71
51.22
24.14
31.71
7.32
7.32
5.9
7.2
5.2
5.7
6.4
6.9
6.3
6 .S
5.7
7.2
5.7
6.7
7.3
7.0
5.1
6.9
6.9
6.2
7.2
6.9
7.2
7.1
7.2
4.3
6.3
7.2
6.1
7.4
7.1
5.8
6.4
6.9
6.9
7.3
5.4
1.1
5.8
5.3
2.1
3.4
1.2
5.9
1.0
1.5
3.8
4.6
1.8
1.9
1.3
2.1
3.0
3.8
1.0
3.4
7.3
2.3
7.9
1.9
4.1
5.4
8.0
3.5
4.5
1.0
1.3
(Continued)
75
%
Upper
Quartile
CD
Ji
.bower
Quartile
is;
s
+5
CD
H
C'
/J
Right
P. E.
Squared
I
Q3
Right
P. E.
Squared
<D +3
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Q-i and
Q3
05 S c ?
CD t H
o
C
k
&
tO
'd
d
cd'£5. ci
0) f! H
CD O’
«H ©
£
« -4J
oT1
Critical Ratid
TABLE XIII (Continued)
8
235
236
238
240
241
242
244
245
246
247
248
249
251
252
255
256
257
259
260
261
264
265
266
267
268
269
271
272
273
274
276
41.46
85.36
63.41
73.17
63.41
65.85
68.29
43.90
56.09
60.97
51.21
70.73
65. £5
87. SO
90.24
70.73
84.36
63.41
65.85
26.82
53.65
70.73
80.48
75.60
75.60
78.04
80.48
82.92
87.80
58.53
70.73
26.94
13.85
25.70
21.81
25.70
25.00
24.01
27.35
27.35
26.42
27.78
23.04
25.00
11.85
9.75
23.04
13.83
25.70
25.00
21.81
27.56
23.04
17.47
20.52
20.52
19.00
17.47
15.76
11.83
26.94
23.04
26.82
43.90
53.65
36.58
43.90
58.53
43.90
31.70
41.46
36.58
29.26
43.90
56.09
58.53
48.76
39.02
58.53
43.90
58.53
17.07
21.95
48.78
56.09
60.97
46.78
60.97
36.58
48.78
56.09
26.82
43.90
21.81
27.35
27.56
25.70
27.35
26.94
27.35
24.01
26.94
25.70
22.94
27.35
27.35
26.94
27.78
26.42
26.94
21.35
26.94
15.76
19.00
27.78
27.35
26.42
27.78
26.42
25.70
27.78
27.35
21.81
27.35
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
•
LIBRARY
•
48.75
41.18
53.26
47.51
53.05
51.94
51.36
51.36
54.29
52.12
50.72
50.39
52.35
36.77
37.51
49.46
40.77
55.05
51.94
37.57
46.56
50.82
34.82
46.94
48.30
45.42
43.17
43.54
39.18
48.75
50.39
14.64
41.46
9.76
36.59
19.51
7.32
24.39
12.20
14.63
24.39
21.95
26.83
9.76
29.27
41.46
31.71
26.83
19.51
7.32
9.75
31.70
21.95
24.39
14.63
25.82
17.07
43.90
34.14
21.71
31.71
26.83
6.9
6.4
7.3
6.9
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.4
7.2
7.1
7.1
7.2
6.2
6.1
7.0
6.4
7.3
7.2
6.1
6.8
7.1
5.9
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.6
6.6
6.3
6.9
7.1
2.1
6.5
1.3
5.3
2.7
1.0
3.4
1.7
1.9
3.4
3.1
3.7
1.3
4.7
6.8
4.5
4.2
2.6
1.0
1.6
4.6
3.1
4.1
2.1
3.8
2.6
6.7
5.2
5.0
4.5
3.8
76
TABLE XIV
Right
P. E.
Squared
c .f
/
3
Right
P. E.
Squared
1
2
3
4
95.12
63.41
90.24
97.56
75.60
78.04
92.68
90.24
70.73
65.85
60.97
87.80
75.60
90.24
43.90
92.68
58.53
92.68
82.92
78.04
85.36
75.60
95.12
63.41
92.68
75.50
82.92
92.00
92.68
51.21
97.56
97.56
80.48
5.15
25.70
9.75
2.62
20.52
19.00
7.56
9.73
23.03
25.00
26.42
11.85
20.52
9.73
27.35
7.56
26.94
7.56
15.76
19.00
13.83
20.52
5.15
25.70
7.56
20.52
15.76
7.56
7.56
27.78
2.62
2.62
17.47
90.24
48.78
70.73
60.48
46.34
oS. 5o
56.09
78.04
41.46
36.58
39.02
73.17
46.34
70.73
19.51
80.48
31.70
70.73
50.37
68.29
60.97
46.34
80.48
53.65
53.65
53.65
63.41
60.97
78.04
41.46
85.36
90.24
70.73
9.73
27.78
23.04
17.47
27.56
26.94
27.35
19.00
26.94
25.70
26.42
21.81
27.56
23.04
17.47
17.47
24.01
23.04
26.42
24.01
26.42
27.56
17.47
27.56
27.56
27.56
25.70
26.42
19.00
26.94
13.83
9.73
23.04
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Q]_ and
q3
5
14.88
53.48
32.77
20.09
48.08
45.94
34.91
23.73
49.98
50.70
52.84
33.64
48.08
32.77
44.82
25.03
50.95
30.60
42.18
43.01
40.25
48.08
22.62
53.26
34.12
48.08
41.46
33.98
26.56
54.72
16.45
12.35
40.51
Ratio
Q3
Lower
Quartile
+
cf1
Critical
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
25
26
27
30
51
52
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
%
Upper
Quartile
Difference Be­
tween % Right,
Q]_ and Q3
Item Number
Matching Item Elimination Analysis Based
on Critical Ratio
6
7
8
4.88
14.63
19.51
17.08
29.26
19.51
36.59
12.20
29.27
29.27
21.95
14.63
29.26
19.51
24.39
12.20
26.83
21.95
21.95
9.75
24.39
29.26
14.64
9.76
39.03
21.95
19.51
31.71
14.64
9.75
12.20
7.32
9.75
3.9
7.3
5.7
4.5
6.9
6.8
5.9
5.4
7.1
7.1
7.3
5.8
6.9
5.7
6.7
5.0
7.1
5.5
6.5
6.6
6.3
6.9
4.8
7.3
5.9
6.9
6.4
5.8
5.2
7.4
4.1
3.5
6.4
1.2
2.0
3.4
3.8
4.2
2.9
6.2
2.3
4.1
4.1
3.0
2.5
4.2
3.4
3.6
2.4
3.8
3.9
3.4
1.5
3.9
4.2
3.1
1.3
6.6
3.2
3.0
5.5
2.8
1.3
2.9
2.1
1.5
(Continued)
77
Upper
Quartile
rQ
'fS,
s
<d
-p
H
40
41
42
44
46
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
51
63
64
65
66
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
75
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
at
/o
Right
P. E.
Squared
Right
P. E.
Squared
1
2
3
4
9.73
9.73
5.15
19.00
7.56
15.76
15.76
9.73
9.73
7.56
2.52
5.15
1.16
9.73
9.73
13.83
26.42
2.62
13.83
5.15
5.15
15.76
1.16
7.56
11.83
19.00
5.15
7.56
5.15
2.62
26.42
7.56
2.62
21.81
21.81
20.52
15.76
21.81
7.56
25.00
7.56
65.25
73.17
82.92
29.26
85.36
65.85
60.97
68.29
73.17
75.60
68.29
63.41
87.80
58.53
51.21
56.09
53.65
85.36
53.65
78.04
65.85
43.90
35.36
80.48
43.90
68.29
58.53
75.60
63.41
82.92
51.21
78.04
85.36
46.34
19.51
41.46
63.41
41.46
78.04
41.46
65.85
25.00
21.81
15.76
22.94
15.83
25.00
25.42
24.01
21.81
20.52
24.01
25.70
11.33
25.94
27.78
27.35
27.56
13.83
27.56
19.00
25.00
27.35
13.83
17.47
27.35
24.01
26.94
20.52
25.70
15.76
27.78
19.00
13.83
27.56
17.47
26.94
25.70
26.94
19.00
26.94
25.00
90.24
90.24
95.12
78.04
92.68
82.92
82 •92
90.24
90.24
92.58
97.55
95.12
100.00
90.24
90.24
85.36
60.97
97.56
85.36
95.12
95.12
32.92
100.00
92.68
87.80
78.04
95.12
92.68
95.12
97.56
60.97
92.68
97.56
73.17
26.82
75.60
82.92
73.17
92.68
65.85
92.68
%
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
Q-i and
%
5
Critical Ratio
^3
Lower
Quartile
|<V +<V
fn
<D
Difference Be­
tween % Right,
Q^ and Q3
j
TABLE XIV (Continued)
6
7
8
5.9
5.6
4.6
6.5
4.5
6.4
6.5
5.8
5.6
5 .3
5.2
5.6
3.6
6.1
6.1
6.4
7.3
4.1
6.4
4.9
5.5
6.6
3.9
5.0
6.3
6.6
5.7
5.3
5.6
4.3
7.4
5.2
4.1
7.0
6.3
6.9
6.4
6.9
5.2
7.2
5.7
4.1
3.0
2.6
7.5
1.6
2.7
3.4
3.8
3.0
3.2
5.6
5.7
3.4
5.2
6.4
4.6
1.0
2.9
4.9
3.4
5.3
5.9
3.7
2.4
6.9
1.5
6.4
3.2
5.7
3.4
1.3
2.8
2.9
3.8
1.2
4.9
3.0
4.5
2.8
3.4
4.6
34.73
24.39
31.54
17.07
20.91
12.20
41.94
48.78
21.59
7.32
17.07
40.76
42.18
21.95
21.95
33.74
17.07
31.54
28.08
17.08
26.63 . 29.27
51.71
30.85
12.99
12.20
31.71
36 .67
37.51
39.03
29.27
41.18
7.32
53.98
12.20
16.45
31.71
41.39
24.15
17.08
29.27
30.15
39.02
43.11
14.99
14.64
12.20
25.03
43.90
39.18
43.01
9.75
32.09
36.59
17.08
28.08
31.71
30.85
14.64
18.33
9.76
54.20
14.64
26.56
12.20
16.45
49.37
26.83
7.31
39.28
34.14
47.46
19.51
41.46
31.71
48.75
14.64
26.56
24.39
51.94
32.56
26.83
78
TABLE XV
fH
©
1
a
©
-p
H
1
2
3
7
8
9
10
13
15
18
20
21
22
23
24
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
a
<1
1)43
JO
5*3
£Q,d
P. E.
bO tO &
Or
Lovrer
Upper
Squared ©•H
oct:
5
Quar tile
Quartile
Totals, ©V- s
U
© £ a!
Qq and
a1
© r-» <
P. E.
P. E.
ft
ft
Ch © <3?
•H
Rinht
Squared Ri.^ht Squared
o-p
S
56.09
34.14
75.60
97.56
58.53
73.17
43.90
80.48
75.60
73.17
75.60
21.95
53.65
63.41
70.73
97.56
58.53
43.90
95.12
75.60
95.12
53.65
48.78
80.48
43.90
34.14
80.48
85.36
73.17
31.70
36.58
73.17
29.26
90.24
73.17
75.60
27.35
25.00
20.52
2.62
26.94
21.81
27.55
17.47
20.52
21.81
20.52
19.00
27.56
25.70
23.04
2.62
26.94
27.35
5.15
20.52
5.15
27.56
27.78
17.47
27.35
25.00
17.47
15.83
21.81
24.01
25.70
21.81
22.94
9.73
21.81
20.52
3
4
43.90
12.19
65.85
80.48
29.26
65.85
21.95
51.21
43.90
53.65
53.65
14.65
43.90
36.58
46.34
73.17
39.02
29.26
82.92
48.78
58.53
24.39
29.26
60.97
14.63
21.95
53.65
46.34
41.46
14.62
21.95
56.09
17.07
60.97
41.46
48.78
27.35
11.83
25.00
17.47
22.94
25.00
19.00
23.78
27.35
27.56
27.56
13.83
27.35
25.70
27.56
21.81
26.42
22.94
15.76
27.78
26.94
20.52
22.94
26.42
13.83
19.00
27.56
27.56
26.94
15.83
19.00
27.35
15.76
26.42
26.94
27.78
5
54.70
36.83
45.52
20/09
49.88
46.81
46.35
45.25
47.87
49.37
48.08
32.83
54.91
51.40
50.60
44.43
53.36
50.29
20.91
48.30
32.09
48.08
50.72
43.89
41.18
44.00
45.03
41.39
48.75
37.84
44.70
49.16
38.70
36.15
48.75
48.30
6
7
12.19 r7.4
21.95 6.1
9.75 6.7
17.08 I1.5
29.27 7.1
7.32 6.8
21.95 6.8
29.27 6.7
31.70 6.9
19.52 7.0
21.95 6.9
7.30 5.7
9.75 7.4
36.83 7.2
24.39 7.1
24.39 6.7
19.51 7.3
14.64 7.1
12.20 4.6
26.82 6.9
36.59 5.7
29.26 6.9
19.52 7.1
19.51 6.6
29.27 6.4
12.19 6.6
26.83 6.7
39.02 6.4
31.71 6.9
17.08 6.2
14.63 6.7
17.08 7.0
12.19 6.2
29.27 6.0
51.71 6.9
26.82 6.9
(Continued)
Critical Ratio
Multiple-choice Item Elimination
Analysis Based on Critical Ratio
8
1.7
3.6
1.4
3.8
4.1
1.1
3.2
4.4
4.6
2.8
3.2
1.3
1.3
5.1
3.4
3.6
2.7
2.1
2.6
3.9
6.4
4.2
2.7
2.9
4.6
1.9
4.0
6.1
4.6
2.8
2.2
2.0
1.9
4.9
4.6
3.9
1
79
©
.©
s
©
-p
H
48
49
50
52
53
54
55
56
58
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
69
72
73
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
83
86
88
92
96
97
98
Q1
Upper
Quartile
%
Right
1
60.97
78.04
95.12
43.90
63.41
63.41
65.85
60.97
58.53
75.60
78.04
80.48
46.34
26.82
56.09
58.53
80.48
65.85
82.92
29.26
60.97
60.97
56.09
68.29
46.34
34.14
75.60
31.70
60.97
41.46
51.21
36.58
39.02
41.46
*3
Lower
Quartile
P. E.
%
• P. E.
Square; 1 Right Squarec
2
26.42
19.00
5.15
27.35
25.70
25.70
25.00
26.42
26.94
20.52
19.00
17.47
27.56
21.81
27.35
26.94
17.47
25.00
15.76
22.94
26.42
26.42
27.35
24.01
27.56
25.00
20.52
24.01
26.42
26.94
27.78
25.70
26.42
26.94
3
31.70
53.65
41.46
12.19
53.65
36.58
31.70
26.82
34.14
41.46
60.97
41.21
36.58
9.75
26.82
24.39
63.41
29.26
65.85
9.75
39.02
36.58
43.90
41.46
31.70
24.39
51.21
17.07
48.78
29.26
39.02
14.63
9.75
29.26
4
24.01
27.56
26.94
11.83
27.56
25.71
24.01
21.81
25.00
26.94
26.42
27.78
25.70
9.73
21.81
20.52
25.70
22.94
25.00
9.73
26.42
25.70
27.35
26.94
24.01
20.52
27.79
15.76
27.79
22.94
26.42
13.83
9.73
22.94
P. E.
Swjuare d
Totals,
Q]_ and
L Q3
5
50.43
46.56
32.09
39.18
53.26
51.40
49.01
48.23
51.94
47.46
45.42
45.25
53.26
31.54
49.16
47.46
43.17
47.94
40.76
32.67
52.84
52.12
54.70
50j95
51.57
45.52
48.30
39.77
53.20
49.88
54.20
39.53
36.15
49.88
<l>+i
n -a
©•H *0
Ops O’
©£ S
©
© H
•H^ O
Q-P
6
29.27
24.39
53.66
31.71
9.78
26.83
34.15
34.15
24.39
34.14
17.07
29.27
9.76
17.07
29.27
34114
17.07
36.59
17.07
19.51
21.95
24.39
12.19
26.83
14.64
9.75
24.39
14.63
12.19
12.20
12.19
21.95
29.27
12.20
£
*
o
7
7 .1
6 .8
5.7
6 .3
7 .3
7 .2
7 .0
6 .9
7 .2
6 .9
6 .7
6.7
7 .3
5•6
7 .0
6.9
6 .6
6.9
6 .4
5.7
7 .3
7.2
7 .4
7.1
7 .2
6 .7
6.9
6.3
7 .4
7 .1
7 .4
6 .3
6.0
7 .1
Critical Ratic
TABLE XV (Continued)
8
4.1
3.6
9.4
5.0
1.3
3.1
4.9
4.9
3.4
4.9
2.5
4.4
1.3
3.0
4.2
4.9
2.6
5.3
2.7
3.4
3.0
3.4
1.6
3.8
2.0
1.5
3.5
2.3
1.6
1.7
1.6
3.5
4.9.
1.7
80
TABLE XVI
cf
a
-p
H
0
Right
- ..
1
1
2
3
4
6
8
9
10
13
14
15
17
18
25
27
28
29
31
32
33
35
36
37
39
41
43
46
47
48
50
51
53
54
55
P. E.
Squared
P. E.
Squared
Totals,
cf
P. E. *Qj and
Right Squared
. q3
3
4
5
Lower
Quartile
70.73
41.46
53.65
58.53
26.82
24.39
70.73
95.12
97.56
90.24
60.97
87.80
85.36
70.73
78.04
78.04
65.85
75.60
90.24
90.24
21.95
51.21
46.34
41.46
87.80
53.65
24.39
41.46
24.39
36.58
68.29
34.14
90.24
48.78
2
25.04
26.94
27.56
26.94
21.81
20.52
23.04
5.15
2.62
9.73
26.42
11.83
13.83
23.04
19.00
19.00
25.00
20.52
9,73
9.73
19.00
27.78
27.56
26.94
1. .83
27.60
20.52
26.94
20.52
25.70
24.01
25.00
9.73
27.78
56.09
21.95
26.82
36.58
14.63
12.19
58.53
82.92
90.24
82.92
43.90
78.04
53.65
48.78
41.46
53.65
46.34
58.53
70.73
79.73
4.87
31.70
26.82
21.95
65.85
21.95
17.07
29.26
14.63
21.95
46.34
26.82
53.65
29.26
27.35
19.00
21.81
25.70
13.83
11.83
26.94
15.76
9.73
15.76
27.35
19.00
27.56
27.78
26.94
27.56
27.56
26.94
23.04
23.04
5.15
24.01
21.81
19.00
25.00
19.00
15.76
22.94
13.83
19.00
27.56
21.81
27.56
22.94
50.39
45.94
49.37
52.64
35.64
32.35
49.98
20.91
12.35
25.49
53.77
30.83
41.39
50.82
§5.94
46.56
52.56
47.46
32.77
32.77
24.15
51.79
49.37
45:95
36.83
46.56
36.28
49.88
34.35
44.70
51.57
46.81
37.29
50.72
6
<3?
<3?
V
7
14.64 7.1
14.51 6.8
26.83 7.0
21.95 7.3
12.19 6.0
12.20 5.7
12.20 7.1
12.20 4.6
7.32 3.5
7.32 5.0
17.07 7.3
9.76 5.6
31.71 6.4
21.95 7.1
36.58 6.8
24.39 6.8
19.51 7.2
17.07 6.9
19.51 5.7
19.51 5.7
17.08 4.9
19.51 7.&
19.52 7.0
19.51 6.8
21.95 6.1
31.70 6.8
7.32 6.0
12.20 7.1
9.76 5.6
14.63 6.7
21.95 7.2
7.32 6.8
36.59 6.1
19.52 7.1
(Continued)
Critical
Ratio
Ql
Upper
Quartile
(H
<D
,0
Difference
Between %
Right,QlQgnd
Completion Item Elimination Analysis
Based on Critical Ratio
8
2.1
2.8
3.8
3.0
2.0
2.1
1.7
2.7
2.1
1.5
2.3
1.7
4.9
3.1
5.4
3.6
2.7
2.5
3.4
3.4
3.5
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.6
4.7
1.2
1.7
1.7
2.2
3.1
1.1
5.9
2.8
1
(Continued)
®
r
+3 Right
H
CD
1
57
58
59
60
61
62
65
66
67
68
69
70
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
68.29
53.65
53.65
53.65
21.95
56.09
58.53
14.63
75.60
19.51
34.14
31.70
29.26
58.53
34.14
24.39
46.34
80.48
26.82
.
T
^
Lower
Quartile
P. E.
%
Squared Right
2
24.01
27.56
27.56
27.56
19.00
27.35
26.94
13.83
20.52
17.47
25.00
24.01
22.94
26.94
25.00
20.52
27.56
17.47
21.81.
P. E.
3
46.34
31.70
17.07
34.14
14.63
26.82
7.31
4.87
41.46
9.75
14.63
12.19
21.95
36.58
19.51
7.31
24.39
41.46
17.07
Squared
P. E. Totals,
QjL and
Squarec
0.3
4
27.56
24.01
15.76
25.00
13.83
21.81
7.58
5.15
26.94
9.73
13.83
11.83
19.00
25.70
17.47
7.56
20.52
26.94
15.76
Difference
Between %
Right,
Q-, and Qfl
r
Q1
Upper
Qtiartile
■
o
c?
<
5
6
7
51.57
51.57
43.32
52.56
32.83
49.16
34.50
18198
47.46
27.20
38.83
35.84
41.94
52.64
42.47
28.08
48.08
44.41
37.57
21.95
21.95
36.58
19.51
7.32
29.27
51.22
9.76
34.14
9.76
19.51
19.51
7.31
21.95
14.63
17.08
21.95
39.02
9.75
rt'.2
'.2
e .6
rt
1' . 2
£>.7
1’ . 0
C>.9
4:.4
e .9
£>.2
€ .2
6 .0
e .5
n'.3
6.5
c .3
e .9
6.7
e .1
CritL
Ratio
TABLE XVI
8
3.1
3.0
5.5
2.7
1.3
4.2
8.6
2.2
4.9
1.8
3.2
3.0
1.1
3.0
2.3
3.2
3.2
5.8
1.5
I
82
TABLE XVII
3
5
4
Type of
Item
Number
Original
Subject
Matter
Superfluous
New Test
Content
Eliminated
Because of
6
Percentage
reduction
(Columns 3and4)
2
of
Items
1
i
Percentage of Items Eliminated in the Construction
of the Pinal Forms of the Economic Geography Test Based
on Results of Try-Out Test Given to 164 Students
I. True-False
276
165
11
100
63.7
85
25
10
50
41,1
98
48
10
40
59.1
81
45
6
30
62.9
540
283
37
220
II. Matching
III. Multiple-Choice
IV. Completion
i—i
a$
A
g
O
hi
o o
•H *H
-P -P
«H Qi
ft M
o
•>:- Ten items with a critical ratio of less than 2.5 were
used to compensate for shortage in subject-matter
content of test. (See Table 3EIX— only two items con­
tained critical ratios less than 2.1)
83
TABLE XVIII
Items in Try-Out Test With Desirable Critical Ratios
Based on Performance of Upper and Lower Quartiles, but
Not Used Due to Superfluous Subject-Matter Necessary
For Content of Test
critical
Item
Number
ratios
IV.
III.
II.
True- Matching Multiple- Completion
False
Choice
3.6
2.8
3.8
10
10
13
17
27
29
29
32
33
34
37
37
42
43
55
60
60
61
64
66
67
72
74
76
77
82
116
137
141
171
209
215
244
3.8
3.2
4.1
3.0
3.4
2.7
2.6
o #7I
4.3
2.7
2.9
2.8
3.5
4.7
3.4
2.7
2.9
5.3
3.7
2.6
2.7
3.4
3.2
2.9
4.2
4.8
4.0
3.4
3.6
3.0
3.4
3.4
84
TABLE XIX
Ten Items Used to Complete Required SubjectMatter Content of Economic Geography Test, and
Containing Critical Ratios Less Than
2.5 Based on Try-out Test
critical
TruePalse
ratios
II.*
IV
Match­
ing
Coupletion
15
2.3
19
2.4
20
2.2
84
2.3
127
1.4
140
2.0
158
2.4
159
2.1
190
1.1
235
(*)”I” sign indicates True-Ealse
"II” "
"
Matching
"III” "
”
Multiple-Choice
”IV" "
"
Completion
CHAPTER IV
ggHSTRUCTION OP PINAL FORM
Content of New Test
After the 283 items were eliminated from the 540
items in the original try-out test, the test was constructed
in final form suitable for the standardization process.
There remained after the elimination process described in
Chapter III, 100 true-false questions, 50 matching questions,
40 multiple-choice questions, and 30 completion questions,
(see sample in Appendix, p.244)
The final test, composed of 220 items, was then divided
into two comparable forms known as Form A and Form B. Each
form was divided into two sections, and each section into
two parts.
The plan for two sections in each form was
drawn up to facilitate giving the test within time allowed
in forty-minute classroom periods.
In each form, section
"1" contained true-false questions and matching questions.
Section "2" was compassed of multiple-choice and completion
questions.
Both sections were designed to take approximately
the same amount of a student's time to write.
Difficulty of Items
Tables IX, X, XI, and XII were used as a basis for
selecting items according to difficulty.
The easier
questions are obviously shown at the top of each of these
86
tables...easier because they were answered correctly
by more students.
The range-of-difficulty factor in
the tables mentioned above should make it possible to
distinguish between the needs, or rather abilities of
different types of students.
Pupils who can answer hard
questions are commonly considered to be more capable
1
than those who can only answer easy questions.
Alternate questions were selected from these tables
(Tables IX, X, XI, and XII) for forms A and B to insure
a reasonable balance between content and difficulty in the
two forms.
Tables XX and XXI show the difficulty analysis
of each of the two forms as rendered by the 164- try-out
students.
The average difficulty of all 110 questions
made up for the 46-point key index for Form A of the test
is 60.04; the average difficulty for Form B is 60.67. These
difficulty figures are based on the percentage of all
students correctly answering each of the various questions
contained In the try-out test.
Inasmuch as question numbers had to be changed when
the try-out questions were converted into the final test,
these changes have been prepared in summary form in two
columns of Table XX.
In other words, under the subject of
"wheat" the try-out test contained two questions:
Number 256,
which was a true-false item as indicated by Roman I, and
1.
B. R. Buckingham, A Brief Method of Evaluating Test
Material, Journal of Educational Research.
XIX, (1929(, p. 159.
Number 15, which was a multiple-choice question as
indicated by Roman III.
("I” stands for true-false,
"11" stands for matching, "III” for multiple-choice,
and "IV” for completion questions)
Under the new numbers
assigned for the final form of the test, number 256 of
the try-out form became number 34 of the Form A in final
form.
The old number 15 became number 8 in the final
form, etc.
(see try-out and final form of test in the
Appendix, p.187)
Sub.iect-matter Content of Final Form of Test
After the rather generous elimination process des­
cribed in Chapter III, It became very important to recheck
the content of both forms of this economic geography test
to ascertain whether the specifications originally de­
veloped in Table VI were retained in the new revised test.
Column ”1” of Table XXII summarizes the required percentage
of necessary subject matter.
Column "2” carries the
decimal number of questions which would be allowed on the
basis of 220 Items. The other columns are self-explanatory.
The ’’total items used” column represents the nearest number
of questions possible within limits of available questions
according to subject.
The distribution of content between forms A and B of
the test is fairly even; two questions on ’’wheat” were
included in Form A and three questions were included in Form B.
It was impossible to get the same number of questions on
each point in each form of the test.
88
TABLE XX
Difficulty Analysis of Items Contained In Form A of
Economic Geography Test Based on 164 Try-Out Cases
Item
aumber in
Try-out
Test
Item
number after
revision
Form A
1. Wheat
1-256
111-15
1-34
III-8
54.9
59.8
2. Corn
1-149
111-96
1-23
111-17
64.6
25.6
3. Rice
II-4
II-8
80.5
4. Oats, Rye,
Sorghum,
Barley
5. Coffee
6. Tea
1-240
1-33
54.9
111-37
1-266
III-3
1-18
67.1
68.3
7. Cacao
1-203
1-31
57.3
8. Sugar
1-198
IV-2
1-26
IV-14
66.0
31.7
9. Tobacco
IV-77
IV-3
35.4
10. Vegetables
1-125
1-191
1-11
1-16
73.2
69.5
11. Fruit
1-153
1-252
II-8
IV-15
1-271
1-10
1-13
11-12
IV-9
1-30
74.4
73.2
74.4
52.3
58.5
1-182
1-106
1-159
III-52
1-231
1-178
11-42
11-84
IV-69
1-22
1-27
1-50
III-16
1-40
64.6
61.0
18.3
28.0
42.7
12. Grapes
13. Forests, wood,
lumbering
14. Paper
15. Rubber
16. Cotton
1-46
II-l
11-24
IV-15
Answered
Correctly
by students
(percentage)
26.6
89.0
53.7
24.4
(Continued)
1
TABLE XX
Item
lumber in
Try-out
Test
IV. Flax
18. Jute, hemp
Item
number after
revision
Form A
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage
20. Wool
1-127
1-190
11-17
III-14
1-21
1-19
70.7
41.5
65.9
67.1
21. Cattle, pack­
ing, grazing
1-202
11-44
1-2
11-23
85.4
53.7
22. Leather, fur
11-72
II-6
84.1
23. Dairying
11-82
11-22
57.3
24. Poultry
1-115
1-45
30.5
25. Fish
1-23
1-196
1-1
1-35
85.4
53.7
26. Coal
1-139
1-84
111-18
1-9
1-12
III-6
70.7
73.2
63.4
27. Petroleum,
gasoline
II-5
11-15
II-2
II-9
89.0
80.5
28. Building
materials
11-34
IV-74
11-11
IV-10
76.8
47.6
29. Automobile
manufac turing
11-65
IV-78
11-20
IV-5
63.4
61.0
30. Iron and steel 1-44
IV-67
IV-57
1-48
IV-7
IV-8
21.9
58.5
57.3
31. Precious ores
and metals
11-49
111-38
11-15
III-4
72.©
65.9
32. Minerals,
nickel, zinc
11-52
II-6
IV-31
II-4
11-21
IV-4
84.0
61.0
67.1
19. Silk, rayon
11-57
111-66
(Continued)
(Continued)
90
TABLE XX
Item
lumber in
Try-out
Test
(Continued)
Item
number after
revision
Form A
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage)
33. Man's economic
position, races,
population
1-136
1-269
1-272
1-158
1-268
1-265
IV-2 5
1-6
1-17
1-20
1-24
1-25
1-28
IV-6
80.5
69.5
65.9
62.2
62.3
59.8
60.0
34. Climate, weather
1-249
1-274
1-248
1-98
11-51
111-47
1-32
1-41
1-43
1-47
II-7
III-7
57.3
42.7
40.2
24.4
81.7
62.2
35. Soil composition,
conservation, agr
1-107
1-241
111-26
1-3
1-36
III-l
84.1
53.7
85.4
36. Communication
1-184
11-76
1-50
1-235
11-69
III-49
III-75
IV-10
1-185
11-83
IV-34
1-49
II-4
1-5
1-44
11-18
III-5
III-10
IV-1
1-39
II-3
IV-2
1-273
11-71
11-48
11-32
11-11
IV-54
IV-58
1-14
II-10
11-13
11-19
11-25
IV-3
IV-11
22.0
85.4
81.7
34.0
65.9
65.9
50.0
89.0
43.9
85.4
80.5
72.0
76.8
74.4
64.6
51.2
72.0
42.7
37. Transportation
38. Mfg. commerce,
trade, power
39. Economic values
distinct in U.S.
(Continued)
91
TABLE XX
Item
number in
Try- out
Test
40. Economic values
in Canada
41. Economic values
in Central Am.
and Mexico
42. Economic values
in South Am.
and W. Indies
43. Economic values
in Europe
44. Economic values
in Asia
45. Economic values
in Australia
46. Economic values
in Africa
11-81
11-22
IV-62
1-253
111-48
(Continued)
Item
number after
revision
Form A
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage
11-14
11-16
IV-12
1-15
111-12
73.2
71.9
41.5
69.5
46.3
1-155
I-3S
1-25
111-31
111-64
1-60
III-55
111-65
111-73
1-4
1-7
1-38
III-2
111-20
1-29
III-ll
111-15
111-18
1-123
111-46
111-23
III-56
1-8
III-9
111-13
111-19
82.9
79.3
46.3
76.8
18.3
59.0
48.8
41.5
19.5
78.0
57.3
50.0
43.9
1-140
1-108
1-37
1-42
51.2
41.5
'
(*) 660.45
(*)
660.45 * 110 = 60.04 (average difficulty
in percentage)
92
TABLE
XXI
Difficulty Analysis of Items Contained in Form B of
Economic Geography Test Based on 164 Try-Out Cases
Item
number in
Try-out
Test
1. Wheat
Item
number after
revision
Form B
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage)
11-25
11-16
111-40
1-228
11-14
11-21
111-10
1-36
73.2
61.0
57.3
54.9
3. Rice
11-78
11-26
11-18
11-27
4. Oats, Rye,
Sorghum,
Barley
5. Coffee
1-37
1-22
59.8
61.0
65.9
1-91
1-8
75.6
6. Tea
IV-55
IV-9
39.0
7. Cacao
1-129
1-50
19.5
8. Sugar
1-68
1-19
82.9
9. Tobacco
III-58
111-15
46.3
10. Vegetables
III-SO
III-9
58.5
11. Fruit
1-210
1-259
1-73
111-24
1-227
1-34
1-39
1-42
III-l
1-15
57.3
53.7
46.3
58.5
69.5
111-76
111-13
48.8
IV-59
IV-10
35.4
1-81
11-61
1-21
1-46
1-49
11-19
1-16
1-46
20.7
69.5
68.3
40.2
2. C o m
12. Grapes, Olive s
figs
13. Forests,
wood, lumber ing
14. Paper
15. Rubber
16. Cotton
(Continued)
TABLE XXI (Continued)
Item
aumber in
Try-out
Test
Item
number after
revision
Form B
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage)
17. Flax
IV-50
IV-13
29.3
18. Jute, hemp
1-109
1-1
84.1
19. Silk, rayon
1-225
1-284
1-38
1-47
53.7
37.8
20. Wool
1-51
1-230
1-44
1-45
45.1
41.5
2l. Cattle, meat
packing,
grazing
22. Leather, fur
1-131
11-40
11-80
1-276
1-30
11-12
11-14
1-35
61.0
78.1
58.5
60.4
23. Dairying
II-7
11-20
68.3
24. Poultry
IV-41
IV-2
76.8
25. Fish
11-85
111-13
11-11
III-4
79.3
65.9
26. Coal
11-41
11-31
IV-3 5
II-5
II-9
' IV-15
81.7
73.2
13.4
27. Petroleum,
gasoline
28. Building
materials
29. Automobile
mfg.
IV-36
IV-2
41.5
IV-18
IV-3
69.5
1-96
1-37
54.9
30. Iron and steel 11-54
11-18
IV-28
II-9
11-25
IV-4
79.3
31.7
65.8
31. Precious ore s
and metals
1-23
65.8
111-14
47.6
1-7
I-11
1-26
1-29
1-31
II-8
11-13
76.8
74.4
64.6
62.2
59.8
79.3
74.4
1-145
32. Minerals, zitic i h -69
nickel
33. Man*s economic 1-16
position, races 1-102
population
1-179
1-216
I-111
11-50
11-56
(Continued)
94
TABLE XXI
(C ont inue d )
Item
number in
Try-out
Test
Item
number after
revision
Form B
1-80
1-156
1-61
1-218
IV-51
11-70
1-20
1-247
11-73
111-20
IV-27
IV-4
1-2
1-12
1-17
1-21
IV-6
IV-14
1-27
1-41
11-10
III-6
IV-5
IV-7
82.9
73.2
84.2
65.9
57.3
22.0
62.2
48.8
79.3
64.6
59.8
47.6
III-50
III-6
68.3
1-112
1-236
1-166
1-163
11-33
11-20
111-62
111-35
1-20
1-25
1-40
1-43
11-16
11-24
III-5
III-18
67.1
64.6
48.8
46.4
73.2
45.1
65.8
29.3
38. Mffc. Com­
11-27
merce, trade, 111-78
power
111-41
II-3
III-ll
III-20
87.8
54.9
23.2
39. Economic
values in
U. S.
1-13
II-l
II-2
III-7
III-8
1-5
1-28
II-4
IV-1
72.0
86.6
92.7
62.2
63.4
80.5
62.2
85.4
80.5
34. Climate,
weather
35. Soil com­
position,
ccnservEfcim
agr.,
36. CamnuniEEt*
tion
37. Transporta­
tion
40. Economic
values in
Canada
1-257
11-19
11-63
111-30
111-81
1-187
1-103
11-35
IV-32
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage)
(Continued)
■
95
TABLE XXI
(Continued)
Item
Item
number In number after
Try-out
revision
Form B
Test
41. Economic values
in Central Am.
and Mexico
Answered
Correctly
by Students
(percentage)
1-114
1-64
1-104
11-21
111-45
111-54
1-3
1-6
1-32
II-6
III-2
III-12
81.7
79.3
57.5
81.7
75.6
50.0
1-31
1-160
111-32
IV-6 5
IV-39
1-10
1-18
111-17
IV-11
IV-12
74.4
68.3
39.0
32.9
31.7
44. Economic values
in Asia
1-18
1-172
1-192
III-3
1-4
1-9
1-33
111-16
80.5
75.6
67.3
43.9
45. Economic values
in Australia
1-138
11-58
1-24
11-17
64.6
70.7
46. Economic values
in Africa
1-117
1-55
11-53
111-97
1-14
1-48
II-5
111-19
70.7
35.4
82.9
24.4
42. Economic values
in South Am.
and W. Indies
43. Economic values
in Europe
(#) 667.45
(*)
667.45
$
110
=
60.07
(average difficulty
in percentage)
96
Sources of Question Content
For the benefit of those who select to use
bibliographical sources for proof of test content, or
pertinence of structure, or tone, Tables XXXVIII, XXXIX,
XL, and XLI have been prepared to show the sources which
influenced the content of the test, (see Appendix, p. 290)
In no case will it be found that a question hes been taken
directly from any one source disignated in the ’'ten” columns,
but rather, these sources were instrumental in formulat­
ing the original rough-draft form of the questions...these
sources were used for ”ideas.”
97
TABLE XXII
Test
Division
and Item
Number in
Form A
2.6
5.7
5
2
1-34 III-8
3
2. Corn
1.5
3.3
3
2
1-23 111-17
1
3. Rice
.9
2.0
3
1
II-8
2
4. Oats, Rye,
Sorghuij,
Barley
5. Coffee
.7
1.5
2
1
1-33
1
11-18,27
1-22
1.4
3.1
2
1
III-3
1
1-8
.8
1.8
2
1
1-18
1
IV-9
7. Cacao
1.1
2.4
2
1
1-31
1
1-50
8. Sugar
1.8
4.0
3
2
1-26 IV-14
1
1-19
.6
1.3
2
1
IV-3
1
111-15
10. Vegetables
1.7
3.7
3
2
1-11,16
1
III-9
11. Fruit
3.3
7.3
8
4
12. Grapes, figs,
olives,
13. Forests,
wood,
lumbering
14. Paper
1.1
2.4
2
4 . I-10,13
II-12 IV-9
1 1-30
1
1-34,39, 42
III-l
1-15
4.0
8.8
5
4
1-22,27,50
111-16
1
111-13
.6
1.3
2
1
1-40
1
IV-10
15. Rubber
1.2
2.6
3
1
1-46
2
1-49 II- 19
16. Cotton
3.3
7.3
5
3
11-1,24
IV-15
2
1-16,46
17. Flax
.3
.7
1
0
18. Jute, hemp
.5
1.1
3
2
11-17
1
1
IV-13
1-1
1.4
3.1
3
1
1-21
2
1-38,47
.9
2.0
3
1
1-19
2
1-44,45
6. Tea
9. Tobacco
19. Silk, rayon
20. Wool
CQ
o
Pb
HI14
Test
Division
and Item
Number in
Form B
Form
1. Wheat
s it
sf&
A
®b
OP ©
b n a>
©t-ICQ
Decimal No.
needed for
220-Itanlfest
Total Items
Used
Distirbution of Subject Matter in Forms A and B
of Economic Geography Test Based on Percentage Analysis
11-14,21 HI1-36
(Continued)
6.2
5
2
I-2
.5
1.1
2
1
23. Dairying
1.4
3.1
2
.3
.7
25. Pish
2.0
26. Coal
27. Petroleum,
gasoline
28. Building
materials
11-23
B
Form
Test
Division
and Item
Number in
B
1-30
II-6
1
1-35
1
11-22
1
11-20
2
1
1-45
1
IV-2
4.4
4
2
1-1,35
2
11-11,111-4
2.1
4.6
6
3
1-9,12 m - 6
3
11-5,9 IV-15
1.7
3.7
3
2
11-2,9
1
IV-2
.5
1.1
3
2
11-11 IV-10
1
IV-3
.8
1.8
3
2
11-20 IV-5
1
1-37
30. Iron and steel 2.9
6.4
6
3
I-48 IV-7,8
3
31. Precious ores 1.2
and metals
2.6
3
2
II-15 III-4
1
11-9,25
IV-4
1-23
32. Minerals, simp 1.4
nickel
3.1
4
3
1
111-14
33. Man’s economic 5.3 11.7 14
position, raoe^
population
7
1-6,17,20,
24,25,28,
IV-6
7
1-7,11,26,29,
31, 11-3,13
34. Climate, and
weather
6
1-32,41,43
47 II-7
III-7
6
1-2,12,17,21
IV-6,14
24. Poultry
29. Automobile
manufacturing
4.9 10. e 12
ii
3
i—i
OJ
2.8
H >
H H
21. Cattle,
grazing,
packing
22. Leather, fur
Form
Test
Division
and Item
Number in
Form
A
A
Form
Percentage
Distribution
Gee Analysis)
Decimal No.
needed for
220-item Test
Total Items
TJsed
TABLE XXII (Continued)
35. Soil compositior
conservation, 4.1
agriculture
9.0
9
3
1-3,36 III-l 6
1-27,41 11-10
III-6 IV-5,7
36. Communication 1.3
2.9
3
2
1-49
III-6
37. Transportation 5.5 L2.1 14
6
1-5,44 II-18 8 I-20,25,40,43
III-5,10
II-16,24
IV-1
III-5,18
(C ontinued)
II-4
1
I
99
40. Economic
values in
Canada
41. Economic
values in
Central Am.
and Mexico
42. Economic
values in
South Am.and
West Indies
43. Economic
values in
Europe
7.7
6
3
16.8 12
7
I-39
3
II-3
IV-2
1-14 IB O 5
13,19,25
IVr3,ll
11-14,16 4
IV-12
Test
Division
and Item
Number in
Form B
Form
B
Test
Division
and Item
Number in
Form A
OfflO
©©02
eftr -QflN
2.4
5.3
o>hco
38.Mfg. Com­
merce, trade
power supply39. Economic
values in US
rH g
e®£!
•htJ i
A
4JQ a!
p£h H
©fn<}
©d
mW <
. 13
Ofc©
feOEH
Form
§3
Total Items
Used
TABLE XXII (Continued)
II-3 111-11,20
1-13 11-1,2
III-7,8
3.1
6.7
7
3
2.5
5.5
6
2
1-15 H I - 4
12
1-3,6,32 II-6
4.6
10.1
7
5
1-4,7,38 2
111-2,20
III-2,12
3.8
8.4
9
4
T-PQ
5
1-10,18
HI-17
fcV-11,12
1-8
4
111-9,13
19
E-4,9,33
111-11,15
18
44. Economic
values in
Asia
4.1
45. Economic
values in
Australia
1.3
2.9
2
46. Economic
values in
Africa
2.1
4.6
6.2
Totals
.00#
220 220 110
9.0
8
4
0
1-37,42
1-5,28 II-4
IV-1
EII-16
2
1-24 11-17
4
I-14,48
H - 5 III-l
110
CHAPTER V
ADMINISTERING OF THE TEST IN HIGH SCHOOLS
Selection of Schools
The selection of school locations was the first major
problem in organizing the testing program for standardization.
Two well-known commercial textbook publishing firms cooperated
In furnishing mailing lists of school locations where
economic geography was successfully taught.
These mailing
lists were the basis upon which a detailed correspondence
schedule was built according to a carefully worked out timing
plan.
Communication With Schools
More than 600 teachers were contacted by postal card
with return form attached.
The card explained briefly the
nature of the proposed testing program and asked those who
were interested to write for further Information. (Samples
of the various forms are contained in the Appendix, p.240 ).
Schools were selected according to size, type, location, and
willingness to cooperate, as expressed by the tone of the
replies.
Contact was established In seven states scattered
from Maine to California.
In every case, close contact was
maintained with the teacher supervising the test. Cooperation
was further guaranteed by keeping each teacher’s principal’s
name and address ready for use.
Almost all correspondence
101
was done by 11air mail" and in those cases where the time
factor was essential in getting information to or from the
teachers, liberal use of the telegraph and long distance
telephone was employed.
These expediencies account for a
high degree of cooperation on the part of the supervising
teachers, and a high percentage of returns.
Mailing the Test Copies
Between the date of May 30 and June 2, 1939, four
hundred and eighty tests were mailed to nine schools in
accordance with their requests by postal card as described
above.
The American Railway Express, and parcel post services
were used altogether in mailing tests.
In those more distant
points where the time factor was important in getting tests to
teachers early enough to allow plenty of time for scoring and
returning before the close of school, parcel post was preferred as
a faster service.
With each package mailed, a full arid complete
set of instructions for both forms of the test were enclosed
together with a grading key.
The instruction sheet covered:
purpose and nature of the test, administration, timing,
collecting, directions for scoring, and mailing instructions.
(A sample of the instruction sheet enclosed is found in the
Appendix, p.241 )
Although teachers were requested to return
only the top shefets and the complete examinations for the
two better pupils and one poorest pupil, all complete
examinations were later called for and were returned to the
author for complete tabulation on all items.
102
Administering the Test
Each package of tests contalmed a combination set of
instructions which told which test to give first and which
to give second.
That is, one teacher was asked to give
Form A first, and then Form B.
The next package mailed
asked the teacher to give Form B first, and then Form A.
This technique was employed to partiC-ly discourage the
"practice element" which might result if all schools selected
to give Form A first and Form B second.
The accuracy and
consistency with which these instructions were carried out by
the teachers is reflected in the various dates which were written
in on the top sheets by the students at the time they took
each form.
Five of the schools which gave the test offered their
geography course on the tenth year of their curriculum.
Three schools offered their course on the eleventh year, and
one on the twelfth year.
These specifications for level
are in line with suggestions made by the State Department of
1
Education in New York State, and also other states such as
2
Mississippi for example, that economic geography is recommended
for either grade ten or eleven.
The fact that the one school
(Kalamazoo, Michigan) reported their geography course offered
1.
2.
The State Department of Education, (The University of the
State of New York), New Requirements for the State
High School Diploma in Business Subjects. Albany: 1934,p.13.
State Bulletin of the Department of Education on High
School Reorganization. (Bulletin 59), 1930, p. 46.
103
on the twelfth year does not necessarily invalidate the
papers from this school, because their grades are not
out of line with those of the other schools as is seen in
Table XXVII.
In fact, the rather low character of scores
reported for this.school is explained more or less directly
by the fact that the teacher wrote the author a letter to
the effect that she was doubtful If her pupils would be
satisfactory for testing purposes since many were classified
locally as "slow" because of low I.Q.’s.
It was assumed when all testing contracts were made
that tests were to be given in schools where pupils had been
instructed for a period of four and a half months, one
semester.
The agreement with the teacher specified this
point.
Table XXIII shows the distribution of locations which
were selected from the original 600 cards distributed
through the United States and from which offers to cooperate
were made by the teachers and selections vare made.
The
city locations range in size from a population of 2,500
to 65,000 inhabitants.
The median size city was 11,000.
The school locations in these cities range in size from 275
pupils to 2,600.
enrollment.
Table XXIV gives the full analysis of
Pour hundred and eighty test copies were mailed
and four hundred were returned.
of 83.3 tests returned.
This, represents a percentage
The median enrollment of the schools
104
in which the tests were given was found to he 650.
The
highest percentage of tests returned by any one school
was 98.0
(Stamford, Conn.).
tests mailed.
No school returned all the
The lowest percentage was 39.1
(Bar Harbor,
Maine).
TABLE XXIII
Name and Population of Cities in Which
Schools Giving Economic Geography Tests
are Located and Number of Test Copies Sent
Population
1. Bar Harbor, Maine
Number
of test
Copies Sent
2,500
23
11,000
2. Cadillac, Michigan
3. Ferndale, Michigan
25,000
55
62
4. Kalamazoo, Michigan
5. Monterrey, California
60,000
10,000
75
30
6 . Newport, Kentucky
10,000
30
7. Poughkeepsie, New York
40,000
50
8. Stamford, Connecticut
65,000
100
8,000
55
9. Ware, Massachusetts
Total Test Copies
480
Median Population
of cities
11,000
105
TABLE XXIV
2,600
75
69
92.0
2. Stamford High
2,200
100
98
98.0
3. Lincoln High
(Ferndale, Mich.)
4. Monterrey High
1,500
62
57
91.9
900
30
9
30.0
5. Cadillac High
6. Newport, High
650
49
625
55
30
24
89.1
80.0
7. Poughkeepsie High
450
50
49
98.0
8. Ware High
400
55
36
65.4
9. Ear Harbor High
275
23
9
39.1
9,600
480
400
Median Enrollment
Per Cent
of test
copies
returned
No. of
Test
Copies
Sent
1. Kalamazoo High
School
No. of
Test
Copies
Returned
School
Enrollment
Name, Location, Enrollment, and Median Enrollment
of the Nine Schools Giving Test, Number of Test Copies
Sent, and Per Cent Returned, Arranged
According to School Enrollment
650
Total Tests Sent
Total Tests Returned
Per Cent of Tests Returned
480
400
8 3 ,5%
CHAPTER VI
STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OP THE RESULTS
Tabulation: Personal-Data Cards
A code system was designed to facilitate the classifi­
cation and tabulation of individual students’ records for
Form A and Form B of the economic geography test.
The data
were collected from the top sheet of each student’s paper
and recorded on convenient 3 x 5
inch cards.
The boys were
designated by regular card forms, while the girls were
designated by the regular cards with the lower left corner
of each card clipped.
This clipping process made sorting
much faster when mixed groups were analyzed.
In the upper
left corner of each card the total score made by the student
on Form A was written above the red printed line on the
card.
Eelow the red line scores for each part of the
test were recorded.
The first line indicated "time-false,”
and the second line "matching," the third, "multiple^choice,"
and the fourth, "Sompletion."
The four lines, of course,
totaled the same as the combined score listed above the
red line for Form A.
The same arrangement was employed
for Form B in the upper right corner of each card.
In the
center of each card, near the top, a code letter represent­
ing the school, for example, ”S” for Stamford High School,
was written together with the student’s age.
In summary,-
a clipped card which reads (above red line) from left to
right, 65, S17, 68, is interpreted as follows: a seventeenyear- old girl from Stamford High School made a score of 65
107
on Form A and 68 on Form B.
Sex of Students Who Took Test
The economic geography test was administered to eight
more girls than hoys.
One hundred ninety-six boys are
compared with two hundred and four girls in Table XXV. This
table also brings out one extreme case, Newport, Kentucky,
where girls on]y took the test.
Ages of Students Who Took Test
The tabulations of ages in Table XXVI shows "fourteen"
to be the youngest and "thirty" the oldest reported in any
school giving the tests.
were age sixteen.
Forty-one per cent of the students
Eleven were fourteen years of age,
forty-four were fifteen, one hundred eighty were seventeen,
fifty-seven were eighteen fourteen were nineteen, one was
twenty-two, and one was thirty.
Variability
"A measure of variability or dispersion is designed
to state the extent to which the individual items of a
frequency distribution differ on the average from the mean
in terms of which the most characteristic size of the
1
variable has been stated.
The mean score of Form A was
found to be 52.43 with a stfndard deviation of 14.40.
The
mean score of Form B was found to be 53.73 with a standard
deviation of 15.45. (Table XXVIII, p., 112)
1.
E. E. Day, Statistical Analysis. pp. 165-166.
108
The range for Form A was found to be 89-17, and
for Form B, 96-19.
The median score (400 cases) for
Form A was found to be 52.58 as compared with the median
of 53.77 reported for Form B.
Table XXVII shows the
average for the nine schools on both forms.
The Qs deviation
for Form A was found to be 62.67 and 65.4 for Form B.
The Qq. deviation for Form A was 42;77 and 43.19 for Form B.
(See Table XXVIII)
The highest average score reported for one school on
Form A was 68.1 and for Form B it was 69.6.
scores were represented by nine cases.
These high
The second highest
combined score was represented by forty-nine pupils, who
averaged 62.0 on Form A and 62.3 on Form B.
The lowest
average scores were represented by sixty-nine cases who
averaged 45.9 on Form A and 46.1 on Form B.
The highest
individual score made on Form A was made by a fourteenpyearold boy, score 89 out of possible 110.The highest
individual score made on Form E was made by a fourteen-yearold girl, score 96 out of possible 110.
The lowest individual
score was made by a sixteen-year-old girl, score 17 out of
a possible 110 on Form A and 19 out of a possible 110 on
Form B.
Table XXVIII is a frequency table and contains
details of distribution of scores.
109
TABLE XXV
Number of Boys and Girls and Total Students
Taking Economic Geography Test
in Nine Schools
Boys
School
1.
2.
5.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Bar Harbor, Maine
Cadillac, Michigan
Ferndale, Michigan
Kalamazoo, Michigan
Monterrey, California
Newport, Kentucky
Poughkeepsie, New Yorlc
Stamford, Connecticut
9. Ware, Massachusetts
Totals
Total
Girls
2
27
29
35
6
0
29
7
22
28
34
3
24
20
44
54
9
49
57
69
9
24
49
98
24
12
36
196
204
400
TABLE XXVI
Range of Ages of Students Taking
Economic Geography Test in
Nine Schools
School
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Bar Harbor, Maine
Cadillac, Michigan
Ferndale, Michigan
Kalamazoo, Michigsn
Monterrey, Calif.
Newport, Kentucky
Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
Stamford, Conn.
Ware, Mass.
Totals
L4
15
16 17 18 19 22
1
1
1
0
0
0
8
0
0
4
10
13
0
2
4
8
3
0
4
23
21
3
2
20
17
63
11
11
0 0
12 3
12 7
35 22
4 1
0 0
9 3
27 5
9 16
30 Total
studarts
0
0
2
9
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
49
57
69
9
24
49
98
36
44 164 L08 57 14
1
1
400
no
Reliability
^Reliability is a basic factor in evaluating a test.
The term refers to the consistency with which a test
1
measures what it purports to measure. Ehe index of this
consistency is taken as the reliability coefficient, which
is merely the correlation between two forms of the same test
given at different times under similar conditions.
The range of measurement in this reliability coefficient
is from .00 to 1.00.
Perfect correlation, or absolute
consistency in reliability is measured by 1.00.
Obviously,
the lower the coefficient, the less reliable is the test.
As has been described above, both forms of this
economic geography test were given to 400 students in nine
high schools located in seven states scattered from Maine
to California.
The results of each test paper were carefully
tabulated on 3 x 5 inch cards (described above) and plotted
on the Otis Correlation Chart.
The Chart shos means, standard
deviations, and the coefficient of correlation with its probable
error.
The coefficient of correlation between Form A and
Form B was . 8 9 4 . 0 0 6 7 .
This indicates a desirable degree
of reliability between the two forms of the test.
Kelley
states that a reliability coefficient of .50 or higher is
satisfactory for group measurement; whereas, one having .90
1.
Karl J. Eolzinger, Statistical Methods For Students in
Education, p. 1677
Ill
TABLE XXVII
School
1 . Bar Harbor, Maine
Number
Cases
of
Average Score of Each of Nine Schools Taking
Economic Geography Test
School
School School Average
Average Average on both
Form A Form B Forms,
A and B
9
68.1
69.6
137.7
2. Cadillac, Michigan
49
46.6
48.1
94.7
3. Ferndale, Michigan
57
57.3
58.9
116.2
4. Kalamazoo, Michigan
69
45.9
46.1
92.0
9
51.1
50.8
101.9
24
50.7
50.6
101.3
7. Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
49
62.0
62.3
124.3
8. Stamford, Conn.
98
50.8
53.4
104.2
9. ^,'are, Massachusetts
36
53.6
57.2
110.8
400
54.0
55.2
109.2
5. Monterrey, California
6
.
Newport, Kentucky
Totals
112
TABLE XXVIII
Frequency of Scores of 400 Students
Taking Economic Geography Test in Nine
Schools
Frequency
Form A
Score
95-99
90-94
35-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
4
9
20
21
26
42
49
59
49
46
26
28
14
6
1.
Totals
Q3
Median
<*1
Mean
Standard Deviation
400
Frequency
Form B
1
4
8
7
22
17
45
33
51
47
49
43
28
27
9
7
2
400
62.67
52.58
65.40
42.77
43.19
52.43
53.73
14.40
15.45
33.77
113
or higher Is needed for Individual diagnosis and
1
classification.
The interpretation to be placed on the probable
error, .0067 is that this probable error marks the upper
and lower limits within which we should expect to find the true
coefficient of correlation if the test were repeated a great
number of times under similar conditions.
If one probable
error should be expanded to include several, the percentage
of chances would be rapidly expanded as seen in the follow­
ing tabulation:
1
2
3
4
P.E.
P.E.
P.E.
P.E.
(.8873-.9007)
(.8806-.9074)
(.8739-.$141)
(.8672-.9208)
50$
82$
96$
99$
of
of
of
of
the
the
the
the
chances
chances
chances
chances.
For example, the chances are SS In 100 that the true
coefficient of correlation would be found between the limits
.8672 and .9208.
Table XXX gives in summary form the various statistical
calculations used in interpreting Form A and Form B of the
test. The standard deviation (sigma) of the distribution
on Form A is 14.40 with a probable error of
.3434. This
statement is taken to mean that the chances are 50 in 100
that 14.40 does not differ from the true sigma more than
.3433 above or below.
1.
Another interpretation deals with
T. L. Kelley, Interpretation cf Educational Measurements,
p. 172.
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115
TABLE XXX
Summary of Statistical Results of Economic
Geography Test, Forms A and B
Form
A
Form
B
14.40
15.45
.3434
.3684
.5088
.5458
Mean
52.43
53.73
Probable Error of Mean
.4856
.5210
Standard Error of Mean
.7200
.7725
Standard Deviation
Probable Error of Standard
Deviation
Standard Error of Standard
Deviation
Probable Error of Difference
in Means
Median
52.58
53.77
Probable Error of Median
.6036
.6530
Coefficient of Correlation
(Forms A and B)
Probable Error of Coefficient
of Correlation
General
A and B
5.77
.894
.0067
116
the true sigma, that sigma which would be had if an
infinite number of measurements of the same test were
made under the same conditions.
Then, the 14.40 sets a
range on each side of the average, 52.43, between which
68.26 per cent of the cases fall, or between 38.03 and
66.83.
(The same method of interpretation would also
apply to Form B)
The formula used in developing the probable error
of the sigma above makes use of the probable error of the
means (described below in another paragraph).^p*
=
*.
6-?4.5----- =
/ 2F
_ vl7J .9.
^ . y2*r
.7071 P.E.m
(Substituting) Form nAn
P.
(.7071)(.4856)
.3434
(Substituting) Form MBn
E .f
=
P. E.r =
(.7071)(.5210)
.3684
The reliability of the standard deviation can also be
stated in terms of the standard error of the standard
deviation.
The following formula calculates the probable
discrepancy between the obtained measure and its theoretically
time value.
1.
Henry E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and Education.
p. 208.
.......
•n
■
117
( f
6
(Form A)
(T
(Substituting, Form A)
-
tfZ
14.4
-
-
14.4
'800
28.28
.5088
(Substituting, Form B ) ^
_
15
.45
.
15.45
^800*
28.28
.5458
The probable error of the mean and the standard error
of the mean are also calculated alcng withthe
standard
deviation and probable error of the standard
deviation.
The standard deviation is taken directly from the Otis
Correlation Chart, while the other formulas are from
IIol zinger.’*’
Standard error of the mean I
(L ,
-
✓x
___f____
^
(Substituting, Form A) ^
_
j t f
14.4o
.
-yioo"
(Substituting, Form B)
_
f
14.40 . .7200
20
15.45
^
r400
15.45 - .7725
20
The probable error of the mean is given by the formula:
P. E.m
=
.6745
_
yif
(Substituting, Form A)
P»E.
= .6745
M1
.4856
1.
(.6745) (.7200)
7 /4 0 0 "
•
Karl J. Holzinger, Statistical Methods For Students
in Education, pp. 232-239.
118
(Substituting, Form B) P.E. =.6745 15*f£= (.6745)(.7725)
"2
-J/^OO
.5210
The interpretation of the probable error for the mean
is as follows: mean of Form A is 52.43— |—
.4856.
One
probable error above or below the mean would stipulate a
range of 51.94-52.92 in which 50$ of the new series of
means would fall if the test were repeated an infinite
number of times under similar conditions.
Furthermore,
these limits could be extended into additional probable
errors, for example:
2 P.
3 P.
4 P.
E.
E.
E.
(51.46-53.40)
(50.97-53.89)
(50.49-54.37)
82$
96$
99$
of the chances
of the chances
of the chances.
The last line of this table would be interpreted to read:
There are 99 chances in 100 that the true mean will be
found in the interval between 50,49-54.37.
Similar cal­
culations could be made in interpretation of the probable
error of the mean for Form B.
Further reliability of the .means of Form A and Form B
can be had by the application of the formula for the probable
error of difference between two uncorrelated means.^
The
formula is given as:
To find whether the difference between the means of the
two groups is significant, that is, large enough to guarantee
1.
Eenry E. Garrett, Statistics in Psychology and Education.
p. 215.
119
that the true difference between the mean abilities of
two groups is greater than zero.
First, the probable
error of each mean is computed.
P. E.
=
*6745
^
x
f
yr
(Substituting, Form A) P. F... = *-6'745 x.
M1
W Z T
r .4856
(Substituting, Form B) P. E.j^r .6745 x 15.45.
.5210
•y^oo"
(Substituting, in P. E.D formula above)
p*
e *d
=
=
]/(.4856)2
-/
.2358
- /■
Y
=
(.5210)2
.2714
.712
The probable error of difference is .712 and the actual
difference between the means is (53.73-52.43) 1.3.
expression
D
P.E.
because it
The
is sometimes called the critical ratio
provides a way of telling whether one
group is significantly superior, on the average, to another
in performing a given task.
The critical ratio applied
to the data above would be:
1.3
(actual difference between means)
-
1.8
.712 (probable error of the difference)
Critical ratio formulas frequently classify the strength
1
of a formula’s results in terms of "above zero."
A result
which reaches 4 indicates complete reliability, i.e., is
significant.
1.
With 4 as a result the chances are 99.7 out
Ibid.. p. 214
.■
'' ' '1
120
of a hundred that the obtained difference is significant,
namely that the true difference is greater than zero.
The critical ratio found above (1.8) indicates that
the difference between these means is not very significant,
for a significant difference between means should shew a
critical ratio of 4 or above as indicated in the paragraph
above.'*'
In other words, It would be considered desirable
that the means of both forms of the economic geography test
be more or less the same.
The calculations above show that
the means for even a great number of cases will in all
probability be very near the same figure.
Validity
The validity of a test refers to the extent to v/hich
It measures what it is intended to measure.
The term also
refers to the general worthwhileness of the test; the degree
to which a test parallels a curriculum and good teaching
practice; the care taken in the preparation of the test
items; and the thoroughness with which non-essentials have
been eliminated.
In brief, synonyms for validity are
goodness, general merit, and worthwhileness.
The validity of this economic geography test is based
on the several sources described in an earlier chapter.
These are: (1) intensive textbook analyses, (2) researches,
(3) opinions of experts, (4) other tests In the field,
Ibid.. p. 217.
121
(5) teachers' marks, and (6) statistical interpretations
for effective items. The most reliable sources taken for
validity of this test are the textbook analyses of recent
publications (checked against courses of study), and the
opinions of competent authorities in the field of economic
geography.
The details of this work are described at length
in an early chapter of this document.
However, it should be said that there are certain
limitations in developing validity.
"The true validity
of an educational or psychological test,” says Lindquist,
"must always remain a hypothetical concept, since there is
never an infallible criterion measure against which the
obtained test scores may be evaluated.”^
The fact that
an examination may be objectively scored does not guarantee
2
that it is a valid test in all its parts.
The statistical processes involved in eliminating items
on which poor students scored higher than good students
in the try-outs has been carefully presented also in an
earlier chapter.
The critical ratio technique was applied
to the upper and lower quartiles of the students taking
the original try-out test.
The high degree of correlation between Forms A and B
is strong evidence of the reliability of the two forms.
1.
E. P. Lindquist, A First Course in Statistics. p. 198.
2.
L. E. Clark, A Method of Evaluating the Units of a Test,
Journal of Educational Psychology. XIX (1928) p. 263.
122
The correlation between the forms was found to be .894
with a probable error of ^
.0067.
Teachers' marks frequently offer a desirable check
against the validity of a test.
That is to say, if the
scores made on a test such as this economic geography test
tend to agree rather closely with those marks given by
teachers, the results would seem to be rather significant.
If two or more independent sources tend to agree, the
apparent agreement would seem to be pertinent as a citation
of validity.
The materials contained in Table XXXI have
been compiled with the idea of showing to what extent there
is agreement between the marks given by teachers and marks
made by the same students on this economic geography tsst,
It will be observed that in two cases coefficients of
correlation were not computed because of the small number
of cases involved.
The Bar Harbor and Monterrey high schools,
it will be remembered, contained nine cases each.
Norms
Table XXXII contains percentile scores for the 400
students who took this economic geography test.
The table
is read as follows: If a student obtains a score of 78 on
Form A, or 80 on Form B, he exceeds 95 per cent of the
students in score on the test.
A student with 73 on Form A
or 75 on Form B is higher than 90 per cent of the students.
A score of 30 on Form A, or a score of 34 on Form B is higher
123
than 5 per cent of the students In the class.
The 50
percentile is the median score, while the 25 and 75
percentiles are the
and Q3 respectively.
In other
words, a student who makes a score of 63 is in the upper
quartile of all students taking Form A.
(He is in the
upper 25 per cent of his class aw measured by Form A)
The same comparison for Form B would require that a student
make
65 or more in order to be included in the upper 25
per cent of his class as measured by the results ofForm B.
TABLE XXXI
Coefficients of Correlation Between Teachers'
Marks and Scores Made on Economic Geography
Test Given in Nine I-Iigh Schools
Coefficients
of Correlation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Bar Harbor, Maine
Cadillac, Michigan
Ferndale, Michigan
Kalamazoo, Michigan
Monterrey, California
Newport, Kentucky
Poughkeepsie, New York
Stamford, Connecticut
Ware, Massachusetts
Probable
Error of "rM
.809
*00000
*00000
.023
.031
.028
*00000
.834
.830
.035
.029
.711
.702
.033
.057
*00000
.869
.801
&
Number of cases inadequate
124
TABLE XXXIIITable of Percentile Scores
Percentiles
Form A
Form B
95
78.3
79.9
90
73.3
75.4
85
68.8
69.8
80
64.9
67.6
75
62.6
65.4
70
60.2
62.5
65
58.1
59.7
60
55.9
57.7
55
54.2
55.7
50
52.5
53.7
45
50.8
51.5
40
48.9
49.4
35
46.9
47.4
30
44.8
45.4
25
42.7
43.1
20
40.5
40.8
15
37.1
37.6
10
33.4
34.0
5
29.6
33.7
CHAPTER VII
RECOMMENDATIONS
As a result of the contacts which this study has
made possible with teachers of economic geography, much
has been learned about the need for tests.
There is a
wide-spread feeling to the effect that tests have been
badly needed for years in the field of economic geography.
Many teachers took time to write personal letters to the
author expressing their appreciation for having this research
organized.
Favorable comments were also made by the
teachers about "student reaction" to the test.
None felt
that the test was too easy I They all were enthusiastic
about the variety of the content.
These teacher-reactions are given for this one purposer
if there is a pressing need for such tests, they should be
made available for school use on a commercial basis.
Several publishers have already expressed an Interest in
this test and it is reasonable to expect that commercial
plans can soon be finished whereby a large-scale circulation
of the test can be made possible.
In a published form, the
test will serve the same purposes as any other standardized
tests which give tralid, reliable, and comparable measures
of definite achievement.
126
It is suggested that this test he used as a tool
with which the teacher can determine grades for the
economic geography fclass.
The test would also have
possibilities in setting up standards for comparative
purposes from year to year, student to student, etc..
The test should be given in more locations and
tested under a number of different circumstances to
ascertain such irregularities as may not have been
discovered in the 400 cases used in this study.
I
r
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brinkmeyer, I. H., Sentence Length as a Determiner In
True-False Statements. Journal of Educational
Research XXII (1930), pp. 110-118
Case, Earl C., Modern World Geography. Chicago: J. B.
Lippincott Company, 1936.
Chamberlain, J. F., Geography and Society. Chicago: J. B.
Lippincott Company, 1938.
Clark, L. E., A Method of Evaluating the Units of a Test.
Journal of Educational Psychology. XIX (1928)pp.263-265
Colby, Charles C., Economic Geography for Secondary Schools.
Boston: Ginn aid Company, 1931.
Day, E. E., Statistical Analysis. Nev: York: The Macmillan
C omp any, 1925. pp. 165-166'
Dotson, Oscar W., Textbooks in Economic Geography, Business
Education World. New York: The Gregg Publishing
Company, (MayT'1938.
Garrett, Henry E., Statistics in Psychology and Education.
New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1937.
Holzinger, Karl J., Statistical Methods For Students in
Education. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1928.
Jones, Clarence F., Economic Geography. New York: Henry
Holt and Company, 1935.
Lackney, E. E., A Scale for Measuring the Ability of Children
in Geography. Journal of Educational Psychology.
(October 1918) pp.- 443-451.
Lancaster, F., Measuring Results in Geography. Journal cf
Geography, (November 1931), Vol. 30. p. 342.
Lang, A. R., Modern Methods in Written Examinations. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.
Mississippi State Department of Education, High School
Reorganization. Bulletin 59. 1930, p. 46.
New York State Department of Education, New Requirements
for the State High School Diploma in Busines3 Sub.jects.
Albany: 1954, p. 13.
127
128
Lindquist, E. P., A First Course In Statistics. New York:
Houghton- M iffTin Company, 1935. p.' 1 9 8 "
Orleans, J. S., Measurement in Education. New York:
Thomas Nelson and Sons, 19377 pp. 450-452.
Packard, L. 0., The Nations at Work. New York: The
Macmillan Company, 1937.
Ridgley, Douglas C., Final Test for.Influence of Geography
,
on our Economic Life, New York: The Gregg Publishing
C omp any, 1938.
Ridgley, Douglas C., Influence of Geography on our Economic
Life. New York: The Gregg Publishing Company, 1938.
Ruch, G. M., Tests and Measurements In High School
Instruction. New York: World Eook Company, 1927.
Staples, Z. C., Economic Geography for Secondary Schools.
Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Company, 1936
Staples, Z. C., Final Examination, Test X, for Economic
Geography. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co.,1238.
Stevenson, P. R., A Problem Test in Geography, Journal of
Educational Research, (April 1922) V., pp. 350-353.
Smith, J. Russell, Men and Resources. New York: Harcount,
Brace, and Company, 1937.
Tonne, Herbert A., Social Business Education in Secondary
Schools. New York: New York University Bookstore, 1932.
Van Cleef, Eugene, This Business World.
Bacon, 1938.
Boston: Allyn and
Whitbeck,- R. H., The Working World. New York: American Book
Company, 1937.
APPENDIX
129
TABLE XXXIII
SUBJECT-MATTER CHECK LIST
1. Aberdeen, Scotland
Ch,
2. Abyssinia
Sm,
S, P,
3. Acapulca
Sm,
S,
4. Adams, John
Sm,
5. Adobe houses
R,
6. Adriatic Sea
P,
7. Africa
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
8. Agave plant
Sm,
S
9. Agricultural machinery
R, P, J,
10. Agriculture
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
11..Akron, Ohio
Sm,
C, S, Ca, P,
12. Air
R, W,
13. Air Lines, modern
Sm,
14. Air pressure
R,
15. Air routes
Sm,
R, S, W,
16. Airplanes
Sm,
R, S,
17.
Alabama
C, S, P,
18.
Alaska
Sm, C, Ca,
R, C, S, P,
19. Albany
Sm,
20. Alberta, Canada
Sm,
21. Alent Indias
J,
22. Alewife
Sm,
23.
S, P,
Alexander the Great
J,
S,
S, P,
P, J,
130
24. Alexandria
S,
25. Alfalfa
Sm, R,
26. Algiers
Sm, P,
27. Allegheny Race
S,
28. Allspice
Sm, S,
29. Almonds
Sm, Ca, P,
30. Alpine people
R, C,
31.
Sm,
C, S, P,
32. Aluminum
Sm,
R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
33..Amarillo, Texas
Sm,
34.
Amazon River
Sm,
C, S, J,
35.
Amazon Valley
Ca,
P,
36.
American
Sm,
Alps, Swiss
C, Ca
Ch, P, W, J,
37. Amerinds (American Indians) R,
39.
Ammunition
Sm,
39.
Andes
Sm,
40. Anemometer
S,
41. Aniakchok Volcano
Sm,
42. Angling
Sm,
43. Angora goats and kids
Sm, R,
44. Animal geography
Sm,
R,
45. Animal life,native
R, C, Ch,
46. Animals
Sm, R,
47. Ansonia
S,
P, W, V,
S, P,
131
48. Antarctica
Sm, R, Ca, P, J,
49. Antarctic Ocean
R, v,
50. Anteaters
R,
51, Antelope
Sm, R,
52. Anthracite
R, s,
53. Anticyclones
R,
54. Antimony
R,
55. Antwert, Belgium
Sm, C, S, Ca, P
r>
56. Apartments
R,
57. Apes
R,
58. Arabia
Sm, C, p, J,
59. Aral Sea
s,
60. Areas
R,
61. Arctic Circle
Sm,
62. Ardennes plateaus
Ca,
63. .Argon
s,
64. Armenia
Sm,
65. Arkansas
Sm, C, p, J,
66. Arkwright, Richard
Ca,
67. Asbestos
Sm, p,
68. Asparagus
Sm, R. J,
69. Asphalt
Sm, R. C, S, P,
70. Apples
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W
71. Apricots
Sm, R, Ch,
72. Aqueducts
R,
p,
v,
73. Arctic fox
R,
74. Arctic Ocean
Sm, R, S, Ch,
75. Artesian water
Sm, R,
76. Ash trees
R,
77. Asia
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch , P, J, v,
78. Aswan Dam
S, P,
79. Atlantic Ocean
Sm, R , C, S, Ch, W, V,
80. Atmosphere
R, Ch,
81. Auburn, Indiana
s,
82. Australia
Sm, R» C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
83. Automobiles
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
00
•
132
R,
85. Aztecs
Sm,
86. Babbitt metal
Sm, R,
87. Babcock Tester
Sm,
88. Bacon
Sm, R, J,
00
(0
•
Axis of earth
Bagasse
R, s, p,
90. Baghdad
R, P, W,
91. Baku, Russia
S, P,
92. Balata
R, J,
93. Balm of Gilead
R,
94. Baltic States
S, Ca, P,
95. Baltimore, Maryland
Sm, C , S, P, J,
96. Bamboo
R, Ch, V,
97. Banana plantations
Sm, R , C , Ch ,
133
98. Bananas
Sm, R, C, S, Cp, Ch, p, w, J, V
99. Banks fisheries
R,
100. Barcelona
s, Ca, P, W, J,
101. Barges
Sm, R, Ch, W,
102. Barley
Sm, R, S, Cfl, Ch, W, J, V,
103. Barographs
R,
104. Barometer
R,
105. Barometric gradient
R,
106. Barter
R, S , Ch,
107. Batum
J,
108. Bauxite
Sm, R, S, Ch, W, J,
109. Bay Rum
W, Sm,
110. Beans
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, J,
111. Bears, polar
R,
112. Beaver
Sm, R, S,
113. Beach trees
R,
114. Beef
Sm, R, C, S, W, J, V,
115. Beeswax
Sm,
116. Beet sugar
C, S,
117. Belfast, Ireland
C , Ca, P ,
118. Belgian, Congo
Ca» R*
119. Belgrade, Yugoslavia
P,
120. Belts
R,
121. Benzine
S, P,
122. Berkshire Hills
S,
123. Berlin, Germany
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
7
134
124.
Berries
Sm, Ca,
125.
Bllboo
Ca,
126.
Billiard Balls
Sm,
127.
Bicycles
Sm, R,
128.
Birch trees
Sm, R,
129.
Birds
R,
130.
Birmingham, Ala.
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
131.
Birth rate
Sm,
132. Bituminous
R, S, P,
133. Black E rth Belt
S,
9
134.
Black Forest, Germany
135.
Black Sea
Sm,
Sm, S, P, J,
136. Blast furnaces
Sm, R,
137. Blizzards
R,
138. Bluefish
P,
139. Blue grass
Sm, R, P,
140. Blue stem grass
R,
141. Boats
R,
142. Bogota
Sm, S, P,
143. Boll weevil
Sm, R, Ca, J, V,
144. Bolvia
Sm, P, J,
145. Books
Sm, R,
146. Booster stations
R,
147. Boots and shoes, rubber
148. Borax
R, C,
R» Ch,
P,
1
135
149. Bordeaux, Prance
S, P,
150. Boston, Mass.
Sm,C, S, Ca, P,
151. BoulderDam
Sm, R, Ca,Ch, W
152.
Brass
Sm,
R, P,
153.
Brazil nuts
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
154.
Bread
Sm,
P,
155.
Breezes
R,
156.
Bremen, Germany
Sm,
157.
Brenner Pass
S,
158.
Breweries
Sm,
159.
Bridles
R,
160.
Bristol,
England
Sm,
161.
British
Columbia
Sm,9 Ca,
© P,9
162.
Broccoli
R, P,
163.
Brockton, Mass.
Sm,
C, S, P,
164.
Bronze
Sm,
R, P,
165.
Bronze A^e
R, P,
166.
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Sm,
167.
Brown race
R,
168.
Brussels sprouts
R, Ca,
169.
Buenos Aires
Sm,
170.
Buda, Colorado
P,
171.
Budapest, Hungary
Sm,
172.
Buffalo
Sm,
173.
Buggies
R,
t
Ca, P,
P,
C,
S, P, J,
R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
136
174. Building stone
R, S, Ch, W,
175. Bulrushes
R,
176. Bunch grasses
R>
177. Bureau of Fisheries
S,
178. Burlap
R, P,
179. Burma
C, S, P,
180. Burros
Sm, R,
181. Busses
R,
182. Bushes
R,
183• Butte
S, J,
184. Butter
R, C, S, Ch, W, J, V,
185. Cabbages
Sm, R,
186. Cacao
Sm, R, S, Ch, W, J, V,
187. Cacti
Sm, R, S,
188. Cairo, Egypt
P,
189. Calcium carbonate
R,
190. Calcutta
Sm, C, S, P, J,
191. California
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
192. Camels
R, Ch, P, W, V,
193. Campagna
P,
194. Camphor tree
Sm, R, (T, V,
195. Campos
R,
196. Canada
Sm, C , S , Ca, P, «T.
197. Canal Zone
Sm, S, P,
198. Canals
Sm, R, S, W, V,
1
137
199.
Canary Islands
Sm,S, P, J,
200.
Candles
R,
S, P,
201. Canneries
Sm, S, P,
202. Canning of foods
R, S,
203. Cantaloupes
Sin, R,
204. Cape Cod Canal
Sm, J,
205. Cape of Good Hope
P,
206. Cape Town
Sm, S,
207.
R,
Capital
208. Carabao (waterbuffalo)
P,
209. Caravan routesof Asia
R,
R,
211. Caraway
R,
212. Carbon
R,
213. Cardamom
R,
214. Cardiff
S, P,
215. Car-heaters
C,
216. Caribou
Sm, R,
217. Carlsbad, New Mexico
S,
218. Carpathians
S, Ca,
219. Carpenters' tools
R,
220. Carpets
R,
221. Carriages
P,
222. Cars
Sm,
223. Carts
R,
225. Cassavas
R>
P,
S, P,
210. Caravans
224. Casein
Ca,
138
226. Cast iron
R,
227. Cattails
R,
228. Cats-claw
R,
229. Cattle
Sm, R, C , S, Ca,
r<
230. Caucasian race
R.
231. Cauliflower
Sm. R,
232. Cedar
Sm, R, c,
233. Celery
Sm, R, P, J,
234. Celotex
R,
235. Celts
s,
236. Cement
Sm, s, P,
237. Census, United States
Bureau of
238. Central America
Sm, R,
Sm, R, P, J, V,
239. Centrosphere
R,
240. Cellulose
R,
241. Cereals
Sm, R, S, Y,
242. Charcoal
Sm, R» Ca> P»
243, Chard, Swiss
R,
244. Chattanooga, Term.
c, s,
245. Chaulmoogra oil
R.
246. Cheese
Sm, R, Ch, P, J,
247. Chemical Industry
Sm, c, P.
248. Chernozems (black eacths) R,
249. Cherries
Sm, R,
250. Chert
R,
139
251.
Chesapeake Bay
Sm, C,
252.
Chestnut Trees
Sm, R,
253.
Chewing Gum
^m,
254. Chicago, Illinois
S, P, J,
Sm, C, S, Ca,P, J,
255.
Chicago Stockyards
S,
256.
Chickens
Sm, R, J, V,
257.
Chicle
Sm, R,Ch, J,
258.
Chile
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
259.
Chilkoot Pass
J,
260.
China
Sm, R,
261.
Chinaware and pottery
P,
262.
Chinch bugs, ravagesof
R,
263.
Chlorophyll
R,
264.
Chocolate
R, C, Ch,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
P, V,
265. Chocolate-brown or dark brown soils
266. Chosen
V,
R,
Sm, Ca, P,
267. Christ Church, New Zealand
S,
268.
Christmas Trees
Sm,
269.
Chromium
Sm, R,
270.
Chrysler Building
P,
271.
Chuquicamata
J,
272.
Cigarettes
Sm, S, P,
273.
Cigar
Sm, P,
274.
Cinchona bark
R,
275.
Cincinnati, Ohio
Sm, C,
P, J,
S, Ca, P, J,
140
276. Cinnamon
R, S,
277. Cities
Sm,
R, S, V,
278. Citrus fruits
Sm,
R, S, Ca,
279. Civil War
Sm, S,
280. Clams
Sm, R, P,
281. Clay
R, S, Ch, P, V,
282. Cleveland, Ohio
Sm,
C, S, P, J,
283. Climate
Sm,
R, S, C R, Ch, P, W, J, V,
284. Clipper ships
Sm, R, P,
285. Clocks
Sm,
286. Cloth
Sm, R, P,
287. Clothing
Sm, R, P, W, J, V,
288. Cloudburst
R,
289. Cloudiness
R,
290. Clouds
R,
291. Clovers
Sm, R,
292. Cloves
R, S,
293. Coal
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
294. Coast Line Influence
Sm,
295. Cobalt
Sm, R,
296. Coca
Sm, R,
297. Cocaine
R*
298. Cocoa
C, Ca, P,
299. Coconuts
Sm, R, Ca,
300. Cod
Sm, R, Ch, P,
Ch, P, W, J,
141
301. Coffee
R,C, S, Ca ,Ch, P, W, J, V,
302.
Coke
Sm, R, P,
303.
Cold Storage
Sm,
P,
304.
Collars and cuffs
Sm,
P,
305.
Colonies
Sm,
S, P,
306.
Colorado
Sm,
C,Ca, p, J,
307.
Columbia River
Sm,
C,S, P,
308.
Combine
Sm, R,
309.
Comets
Sm, R,
W,J, V,
310. Commerce
R, C, S, Ch, W, J, V,
311.
Common year
R,
312.
Communication
P,
313. Compression, heat produced by
R,
314.
Concrete
Sm,
P,
315.
Condensation
R,
316.
Condensation point
R,
317.
Conduction
R,
318.
Confectionary
P,
319.
Confucianism
S,
320.
Congo River
S,
321.
Congress of the U. S.
322.
Connecticut River Valley Sm, S,
323.
Coniferous forests
R,
324.
Conifers
R, Ca,
325.
Conservation
R, Ca, P,
Sm,
J, V,
142
326. Constantinople
S, P,
327. Continental climate
R,
328. Continentalglaciers
R,
329. Continental
R,
icesheet
330. Continental shelf of ocean
R, C, S, Ch,
331. Continental slope of ocean
R,
332.
Continents
R,
333.
Convection
R,
334.
Convectional storms
R,
335.
Cool litteral climate
R,
336.
Cool marine climate
R,
337. Cooperative organizations
Sm, P,
338. Copal varnish
R,
339. Copenhagen
S,
340. Copper
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca,
341. Copra
Sm,
R, Ca, P, W,
342. Cork
R, Ca, Ch, P, W,
J, V,
343. Corn
Sm,
Ch, P, W, J, V,
344. Corn belt
R, C, S, Ca,
Ch, P, W, J, V,
R, C, S, Ca, P, J,
345.
Corrasion
Sm,
346.
Cosmetics
P,
347. Costa Rica
Sm,
C, S, P, J,
348. Cotton
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca,
349. Cottonseed
Sm,
S, Ca, P,
350. Cowboys
Sm,
P, J,
1
143
351. Crabs
R, Ch,
352. Cracow
Ch,
353. Cranberries
Sm,
354. Cream
Sm, R,
355. Creameries
Sm,
356. Creosote
P,
357. Crocodiles
Sm,
358. Crops
Sm, R, S, Ch, P
359. Cuba
Sm, s, Ca,
360. Cumberland Road
R,
361, Cumulus Clouds
R,
362. Currants
Sm, R,
363. Currency
s,
364. Currents, of air
R, s,
365. Customs duties
s>
366. Cyclones
Sm, R, Ch,
367. Cypress trees
Sm, R,
368. Dairy cattle
Sm, R,
369. Dairying
Sm, R, C, S, Ca
370. Dallas, Texas
Sm, C,
371. Damascus, swords of
Sm, R, s, P, w,
372. Dams
Sm, R,
373. Canube Country
Sm, Ca 9
374. Danzig Free State
Ca, P,
375. Date line, international R,
J,
Ch, P, W, J, V,
T
144
376. Date palms
R,
377. Dates
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W,
378. Deccan, India
P, J,
379. Deciduous forests
R,
380. Deep ocean basins
R>
381. Deer
R,
382. Deforestation
R, s,
383. Delhi
s, p,
384. Democracy
Sm,
385. Denmark
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
386. Dentistry
R,
387. Denver, Colorado
Sm, C, S, J,
388. Derricks, oil-well
Sm, R,
389. Desert snow
R, C, Ca, P, J, V,
390. Dew
R,
391. Diamonds
Sm, R, Ch, W, J, V,
392. Dirigibles
S, P,
393. Diseases, tropical
Sm, R, Ca,
394. Dog teams
R,
395. Dogs
R, s,
396. Doldrums
Sm, R,
397. Dolmite Alps
P,
398. Dominican Republic
Sm, C, S, P, J,
399. Donkeys
Sm, R,
400. Dories
R,
145
401. Dot maps
R,
402. Douglas fir
Sm, R,
403.
Drainage
Sm, R,
404.
Drizzle
R, J
405.
Drugs
Sm, R,
406.
Dry farming
S, Ca,
407. Dry summer subtropical regions
C, P, W,
P, J,
R, S, W,
408.
Dublin, Ireland
W,
409.
DuPont Industries
Sm,
410.
Ducks
Sm, R,
411.
Durra
R, S,
412.
Dust particles
R,
413.
Dust storm
Sm, R,
414.
Dutch East India
C, S, P, J,
415.
Dyeing textiles
C, J,
416.
Dyes
R, S, W, V,
417.
Earth
R, Ch,
418. East Saint Louis, Missouri
Sm, C, P, J,
419.
Earthworms
R, Ch,
420.
Ebony
R, P,
421.
Ecuador
Sm, C,
422.
Edinburgh, Scotland
Sm, P,
423.
Eggplant
Sm, R,
S,
P f
J,
424. Eggs
Sm, R,
P,
425. Elba River
Sm, S,
P,
426. Electric power
Sm, R,
C, S, P, J, V,
427. Electricity
Sm, R,
S,
I
146
428. Elephants
R, S, Ch,
429. Elevated railways
R,
430. Elevations, notedmountains
431. Elevators
and passes
R, Ch, P,
432. Elizabeth, New Jersey
S,
433. Elliott Bay
W,
434. Elm trees
R,
435. Elmira, New York
Sm,
436. El Paso, Texas
C,
437. Empire Statee Building
P,
438. Engines
Sm, R,
439. English Channel
440. Environment
C, S, P,
R,
441. Equatorial calms, belt of
442. Equatorial rain forest
R, S, Ch,
R, Ca,
443. Equatorial and tropical regions
R, S,
444.
Equinox
R,
445.
Erie Canal
Sm, S, P, J,
446.
Ermine
R,
447.
Erosion
Sm, R, Ca> Ch,
448. Eskimos
Sm, S, P,
J,
449.
Essen, Germany
Sm, C, S, P,
450.
Estonia
Ca, P, J,
451.
Eureka, California
Ca, P, J,
452.
Evaporafced milk
P,
R,
147
453. Evaporation
R,
454. Evergreen trees
R,
455.
R,
Expansion
456. Explosives
Sm,
R, P,
457.
Sm,
R, P, J,
Exports
458. Exposure, and soil formation
R,
459.
Factories
Sm,
R, P,
460.
Fairbanks, Alaska
Sm,
S,
461. Fall, essential for water power
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, V,
462.
Famine
Ca,
463.
Farming
Sm,
R, J, V,
464.
Farms
Sm,
R, S, Ch, W,
465. Fats, for lard, tallow, and soap
R,
466.
Felt, made by nomads
R,
467.
Ferns
Sm, R,
468.
Fertilizers
Sm, R, C,
469.
Fibers
R, S, P, W, V,
470.
Figs,
Sm, R, S,
471.
Fiji Islands
Sm, C,
472.
Finland
Sm,
473.
Fir trees
Sm, R,
474. Firearms
Sm,
475. Fireworks
P,
S, Ca, Ch, P, V,
Ch, P, J, V,
S, P, J,
148
476. Fish
Sm, R, W,
477. Fisheries
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, W,
478. Fishing
Sm, R, C, S, J, V,
479. Five Year Plan
Sm,
480. Flathoats
R, P,
481. Flax
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W, J, V,
482. Flint
Sm, R, S,
483. Floods
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P,
484. Florence, Italy
P,
485. Flour
C, S, Ca, P,
486. Food
Sm, R,
487. Forage crops
R,
488. Ford, Henry
Sm,
489. Forest fires
R,
490. Forests
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
491. Forestry, scientific
R, J,
492. Formosa
C , S, J,
493. Fort Hope
Sm, Ca,
494. Fort Worth
Sm, C, S, J,
495. Foundries
J,
496. Fox farms
Sm, R,
497. France
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
498. Frankincense
R, S,
499. Freight
Sm, R, S,
500. Freight yards, factories
Sm, R,
149
501.
Frosts
Sm, Ca,
502. Fruits
Sm, R, C, S, Ca,
503.
R, C, S, P, W,
Fuels
Ch, P, W, J,
504. Fur
Sm, R, C,
S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
505. Furniture
Sm, R, C,
P, W,
506. Galicia
S, Ca,
597. Galveston, Texas
Sm, C, S,
508. Gambia
S, P,
509. Gang saws
R,
510. Gary, Indiana
Sm, C, P,
511. Gas
Sm, R, Ch, P, V,
512. Gas meters
Sm,
513. Gasoline
P, J,
J,
Sm, R, S, Ca, Ch,
514. Gazelle
R,
515. Geese
Sm, R,
516. Gelatin
R,
517. Gems, polishing
R,
518. General Electric Company Sm,
519. General Motors Corporation
Sm,
520. Geneva, Switzerland
S, P,
521. Genoa
S, Ca, P,
522. George Washington Bridge Sm,
523. Gila River Valley
Sm, Ca,
524. Gill nets
R,
525. Giraffe
R, J,
526. Glacial drift
Sm, R,
527. Glacial lakes
Sm, R,
150
528. Glaciers
Sm,
R, Ch,
529. Glasgow,Scotland
Sm,
C, S,Ca, P,
530.
Glass
Sm,
P, J,
531. Gloucester
Sm,
S, P, J,
532.
Glue
R,
533. Glycerine
P,
534. Goats
Sm,
535. Gold
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
536. Golden Gate Bridge, Calif.
R, Ca, Ch, P , W, J, V,
Sm, P,
537. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
Sm,
538. Goodyear, Charles
S,
P,
539.
Graf Zeppelin
P,
540.
Grain Chaco
Ca,
P, J,
541.
Grand Rapids
Sm,
C, S, P,
542. Granite
Sm,
R, S, Ch, P,
543. Grapefruit
Sm,
R, Ch, P,
544. Grapes
Sm,
R, C,S, Ca,
545. Grass
Sm,
R, P,
546. Grasshoppers
Sm, R,
547. Grasslands
R,
548. Gravel
R,
549. Gravitation
R,
550. Gravity
R,
551. Gray-brown earths
R,
552. Grazing
Sm, R, C, Ch, P, W, J,
Ch, P, W, J,
C,
151
553.
Greasewood
Sm,
554.
Great Britain
Sm,
555. Great Smoky National Park
556.
Greater Antilles
P,
557.
Greece
Sm,
558. Ground water
R,
559.
Growing season
R,
560.
Guane
R,
561. Guayule
Sm,
562.
Ca,
Guernsey Island
R,
C, S, Ca, P, J,
Sm,
C, S, Ca, P, J,
S, W,
563. Guinea palm
Sm,
R, J,
564.
Sm,
R, C, S, P,
Gulf Coast oil
565. Gulf StreamDrift
R, C,
Ch,
566. Gum trees
Sm, R, P,
567. Gums
Hi, C,
568. Gutta-percha
R, Ch,
569. Hail
R, Ch,
570. Halibut
R,
571. Halifax
Sm,
572. Ham
Sm,
573. Hamburg, Germany
C, S,
574. Hamites
R,
575. Harbors
R, Ch,
576. Hardwoods
R, C,
577. Hare, white
R,
578. Harlem River
Sm,
579. Harnesses
R,
S, w,
R,
Ca,
S, Ca, P,
152
580. Harpoons
R,
581. Hartford, Connecticut
Sm,
582. Harvest
C, J,
583. Havana, Cuba
Sm, C , S, J,
584. Hawaii
Sm, C, S, P, J,
585. Hay
Sm, R, Ch, J,
586. Helium
R,
587. Hemlock
Sm, R, Ca, P,
588. Hemp, Manila
R, S, Ch, P, W, V,
589. Henequen
Sm, S, P,
590. Herds
R,
591. Hereford cattle
P,
592. Herring
R, Ch,
593. Hickory trees
Sm, R,
594. Hides
Sm, R, C, S, P, W, V,
595. Highways
R, C, P,
596. Hill lands
R,
597. Himalaya, Mountains
Sm, S, P,
598. Hohoken, N, J.
Sm, C,
599. Hogan
R,
600. Hogs
Sm, R, C,
6Q1. Hollywood, California
Sm, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
602. Holyoke
S, P,
603. Homes
R»
604. Homestead Acts
Sm,
605. Honey
Sm, R,
606. Hong Kong, China
C, S, P,
"F
153
607. Honolulu
C,
608. Hoover, Herbert
Sm,
609. Horse latitudes
R,
610. Horses
Sm, R,
611.
Sm, Ca, P, W, J,
Hosiery mills
612. House of Representatives
(United States)
Sm,
613. Houses
R, C,S, Ca, P, J,
614. Houston, Texas
Sm, C, S,
615. Huckleberries
Sm,
616.
Hudson Bay
Sm, S, P,
617.
Hull, England
C, S, P,
618. Humid Continental Climate
R, W,
619.
Humidity
R,
620.
Humus
Sm, R,
621.
Hunting
R, C, Ca,
622. Hungary
Sm,
C, S, Ca, P,
623. Hurricanes
Sm,
R, Ch,
624. Hydraulic mining
R, S,
625. Hydroelectric plant*
Sm,
626.
R,
Hydrogen
627. Hydrosphere
R,
628. Hygrometers
R,
629. Ice
R,
630. Iceburgs
C,
631. Iceland
Sm,
P,
R, J,
154
632. Idaho
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
633. Illinois
Sm, C, P, J,
634. Illumination
P,
635. Imperial Valley
Sm, C, Ca,
636. Imports
Sm, R,
P, V,
637. India
Sm, R,
C, S,Ca,
Ch, P, W, J, V,
639. India Ink
639. Indian Ocean
Sm, R,
640. Indiana
Sm, P, J,
641. Indianapolis
Sm, C, S, P, J,
642. Indians
Sm, R,
643. Indo-Aryans
R , Ca, J,
644. Indus River
Sm, S, P, J,
645. Industrial Revolution
R, S, Ca, P,
646. Industries
Sm, R,
S, Ca , P, V,
647. Inland waters
Sm, R,
P, W,
648. Insects
R.
649. Insolation
R,
650. Interior drainage
Ca,
651. Intermediate climates
R»
652. International date line
R, Ch,
653. Interstate Commerce
S,
654. Iodine
S, P, J,
655. Ireland
S, Ca, P, J,
656. Iron
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
657. Iron Age
R,
658. Irrigation
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, p, W, J, V,
155
659. Isobars
R,
660. Isotherms
R, S,
661. Ivory, walrus and narwhal
R, P, V,
662. Jamaica
Sm,
C, S,Ca, P,
663. Japan
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
664. Java, Netherland India
C, S, J,
665. Jersey City, NewJersey
Sm,
C, S, J,
666. Jewelry
Sm,
R, C,
667. Jungle highway
R,
668. Jungles
Sm,
R,
669. Juniper
Sm,
R,
670. Jute
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
671. Kaffir corn
Sm,
R, S,
672. Kalahari Desert
673. Kano, Nigeria
Ca,
q
P,
674. Kansas City,Missouri
Sm,
C, S, P, J,
675. Karafute
Sm,
Ca, P,
676. Kerosene
Sm,
S, P,
677. Kimberley, So. Africa
Sm,
678. Klondike
Sm,
P,
679. Knit goods
Sm,
S, Ca,
680. Kyushu Island
P,
681. Labor
Sm, R, S, Ca, P,
682. Labrador
Sm,
683. Lace
Sm,
684. Lacustrine plains
R,
685. Lake breezes
R,
C,
156
686.
Lake steamer
Sm, R,
687.
Lake Tahoe
P,
688.
Lampblack
R,
689.
Lampblack
R,
690.
Land
Sm,
691*
Land breezes
R,
692. Land of the Midnight Sun
R, C, S, Ca, V,
R,
693.
Lansing, Michigan
Sm, S,
694.
La Plata
Ch,
695.
Lapps
R, P,
696.
Larch
R,
697.
Lard
Sm,
698.
Lariats
R,
699.
Laterites
R,
700.
Latex, rubber
S, P,
701.
Latitude
R, Ch,
702.
Latvia
S,
703.
Lawn mowers
Sm,
704.
Laws, and legislation
Sm,
706.
Sm,
707. Leap year
R,
708. Leather
Sm,
709.
R,
Lebanon cedars
710. Leeds, England
Ca, P, J,
P,
705. Lead
Lead pencils
R, S,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, V,
R, C, S, Ch, V,
C, S, Ca,
157
711. Leghorn chickens
R,
712. Legumes
R , C , S , Ch,
713. Leipsig
Sm, S, Ca,
714. Lemons
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, J,
715. Lettuce
Sm, R, J,
716. Lichens
R,
717. Life regions, climatic
R,
718. Light, speed of
R, C,
719. Li ght ening
R,
720. Lignite
Sm, R, S, P, W,
721. Limes
Sm, R,
722. Limestone
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, J, V,
723. Lincoln sheep
S, P,
724. Linens
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
725. Liners, ocean
R,
726. Linoleum
R,
727. Linseed oil
R, V,
728. Lions
R , S, Ca,
729. Lisbon
P,
730. Lithosphere
R,
731. Liverpool, England
Sm, C, S, P, J,
732. Livestock
Sm, R, V,
733. Llamas
R, S, W, J, V,
734. Llanos
R, J,
735. Lobsters
R, Ch, P,
■
158
736. Loch Achrey
Ch,
737. Locomotives
Sm, R,
738. Lodes, of gold
R,
739. Lofton Islands
Ca, P, J,
740. Logs
R, Ca,
741. Loire Valley
Ca,
742. London, England
C, S, Ca, P, J,
743. Long Beach, California
Sm, S, P,
744. Longitude
R,
745. Longleaf pine
R,
746. Loom
R,
747. Lorraine
C , Ca, J,
748. Los Angeles, California
Sm, C, S, P, J,
749. Lubricating oil
Ca, P,
750. Lumber
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
751. Lumbering
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J,
752. Lumberyards
R,
753. Luxemburg
C, S, Ca, P, J,
754. Lynn, Massachusetts
Sm, S, P,
755. Lynxes
R,
756. Macaroni drying
Sm, S, P,
757. Machine age
Sm, R, Ca, P,
758. Machine agriculture
R, J,
759. Machinery
Sm, R, Ca,
760. Macintosh, Charles
S, Ca, P,
159
761. Mackerel
Sm, R,
762. Madeiria River
Ch,
763. Madrid
Sm, Ca, P,
764. Magallanes, Chile
P,
765. Magazines
R,
766. Magnesium
R,
767. Magnolias
R,
768. Mahogany
Sm, R, Ch, J,
769. Maize
Sm, R, S,
770. Malayans
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
7
7
1
.
Man, races and occupations of
R,
772. Manchester, England
C, S, Ca, P, J,
773. Manganese
Sm, R, J,
774. Manila
C, S,
775. Manufacturers, home
Sm, R,
776. Manufacturing
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
777. Mangels
R,
778. Mangroves
R,
7
7
9
.
Manila hemp
R, C,
780. Maniocs
R,
781. Maple sugar
R, S, Ch, P, W,
782. Maps, dot
R,
783. Marble
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P
784. Mares
R,
785. Marine subpolar climate
R, W,
786. Markets
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, P, W,
160
787. Maryland
Sm, C, P, J,
788. Mass production
P,
789. Mate
S , Ca,
790. Maximum temperature
R,
791. Meat
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
792. Mecca balsam
R, S,
793. Medicines
Sm, R, S, P,
794. Mediterranean peoples
R, S, W,
795. Mediterranean region
R, S, Ca, P, J, V,
796. Mediterranean Sea
Sm, R, C, S, P, J, V,
797. Melanesian negroes
R,
7.98. Melons
Sm, R, C,
799. Merchandise
Sm,
800. Merchant marine
P,
801. Mercurial barometer
802. Mercury (quicksilver)
R'
R, Ca, P,
803. Merino sheep
R,
804. Mesabi Range
S, P, J,
805. Mesquite
Sm, R,
806. Mesopotamia
Sm, C,
S, Ca, P,
807. Metals
Sm, R,
C, S, W, V,
808. Metalware
Sm,
809. Meteors
R,
810. Mexico
Sm, C,
S, Ca, P, J,
811. Michigan
Sm, C,
P, J,
812. Midnight sun, land of
R, Ch,
161
813. Migration ofwind belts
Sm, R»
814. Mileage
R,
815. Milk
Sm, R,Ch, P,
816. Millet
R, S, P, J, V
817. Millinery
Sm,
818. Mile maize
R,
889. Mills
R,
820. Milwaukee
Sm,
S, P, J,
821. Mineral fertility
Sm,
R, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
822. Mineral resources
Sm,
R, S, P,
823. Minerals
Sm,
824. Miners( cabins
R,
825. Minimum temperature
R,
826. Mining
Sm, R,
827. Mink
Sm, R,
828. Minneapolis,Minnesota
Sm, C,
829. Minorca chickens
R,
830. Mississippi Riber
Sm,
S, P,
831. Mobile, Alabama
Sm,
C, P, J,
832. Moderate subpolar climate
R,
C,
S, P,
R,
833. Mohair
Sm,
R,
834. Mohawk Valley
Sm,
835. Moisture
R,
836. Molasses
Sm, R,
837. Molybdenum
R, J,
838. Money, gold as
Sm, R,
839. Mongolians
R, S,
840. Monkeys
Sm, R,
C, S,
P,
W, J, V,
r, J,
1
162
841. Monroe Doctrine
Sm, P,
842. Monsoon regions
R, Ca, Ch, W, j, V,
843. Monsoon winds
R,
844. Montmorenci Falls
P,
845. Morocco
S,
846. Morse, Samuel F.
S, P, J,
847. Moscow
Sm, C,
S, Ca > P.
848. Motion pictures
Sm, C,
P,
849. Motor boats
C, P,
850. Motors, electric
Sm, R,
851. Mount Rainier
Ch,
852. Mountains
Sm, R,
853. Mulberry, Italy
Ca,
854. Mules
Sm, R,
S,
855. Munich
Sm, S,
Ca,
856. Mutton
R, C, S,
857. Myrrh
R, S,
858. Nagoya
S, Ca,
859. Nanking
S,
860. Naples, Italy
Sm, Ca, P,
861. Narwhal
R,
862. National forests
Sm, R,
C,
S, Ch, V,
I
r, v,
i
C, J,
863. National Reclamation Act S, Ca,
864. Natural gas
R, Ca,
Ch,, p, W, J,
865. Naval stores
R, Ca,
P, w, J,
163
866. Navigation
S,
867. Nebraska
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
868. Needle grass
R,
869. Negritos
R,
870. Negroes
Sm, R, P, J,
871. Negroid race
R,
872. Netherlands
Sm, C,
S, Ca,
873. Nev; Bedford
Sm, C,
S, Cs, p, J,
874. New Engladd
Sm, C,
S, Ca, P, J,
875. New Mexico
Sm, C,Ca, P,
876. New Orleans
Sm, P,
877. New York City
Sm, R, C, S, C„, Ch, P, W, J, V,
878. New York Stock Exchange
Sm,
879. New Zealand
Sm, C , S,
880. Newfoundland
Sm, S, P,
881. Newspapers
Sm, R,
882. Niagara Falls
Sm, S, P, J,
883. Nickel
Sm, W, J, V,
884. Nile River Valley
Sm, R, P, J, V,
885. Nitrates
k ,
886. Nitrogen
Sm, R, Ch, P, W, J,
887. Nitroglycerine
V,
888. Nomadism
R,
889. Nomads
R,
890. Non-metals, mining of
R,
J,
J,
S, Cfl, Ch, P, W, J,
164
891. Nordics
R,
892. Norfolk
Sm, C, S,
893. North America
Sm, C, S, Ch, R, W,
894. Northern America
Sm, R, S, P, J,
895. North Sea and Baltic Sea region R, C, S, Ch, J, V,
896. Northern Hemisphere
R.
897. Nurseries
P,
898. Nut trees
Sm, R,
899. Nutmeg
Sm, R, S,
900. Nuts
Sm, R, S, P, V,
901. Oak trees
Sm, R, S, P, V,
902. Oases
R, P,
903. Oaxaca
Sm,
904. Oatmeal
Sm,
905. Oats
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
906. Occupations
Sm, R, C, Ca, P, J,
907. Ocean
R, Ch,
908. Ocean liners
R, S, W, J,
909. Oceans
R, C, S, W,
910. Ocotillo
R,
911. Ohio
Sm, R, S, Ca, P, W, J, V,
912. Ohio River
Sm, S, P,
913. Oil
R, s,
914. Oilcloth
p,
915. Oklahoma
Sm, C, P, J,
165
916. Oakland, California
C, P,
917. Oleomargarine
Sm, P,
918. Olives
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, J,
919. Onions
Sm,
920. Ontario
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
921. Opium
P,
922. Orange Free State
Sm, S, P,
923. Oranges
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, J,
924. Oregon
Sm, C, Cfi, P, J,
925. Orbit, earth’s, plane of R,
926. Ores
Sm, R,
927. Organisms
R,
928. Oslo
Ca, P,
929. Ottawa
Sm, S, P,
930. Otter
Sm, R,
931. Oxen
Sm, R,
932. Oxygen
R, Ch,
933. Oysters
Sm, R,
C, Ch, P,W, J, V,
934. Pacific Ocean
Sm, R,
S, Cfl ,Ch,W, J,
935. Packing houses
Sm, R, P,
936. Paddle wheels
R,
937. Paifct and varnish
Sm, R, P,
938. Paints
Sm, R, C,
939. Palms
R, Ch,
940. Paloverde
R,
V,
166
941. Pampas
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, J, V,
942. Panama
Sm, C, S, F, J,
943. Papaya trees
Sm, R, S,
944. Paper, manufacture of
945. Paraffin
Sm, R, C, S, C , Ch, P, W, J,
V,
R, P,
946. Paraguay
Sm, S,
P, J,
947. Paris
Sm, C,
S, Cg, P,
948. Parks and playgrounds
.R, W,
949. Pasteurization
P.
950. Pasture
Sm, R, V,
951. Patterson, N, J,
C , Ca, J,
952. Pawtucket, R, I.
Ca*
953. Peaches
Sm, R,
C, S, Ch, P, W, J,
954. Peanuts
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P,
955. Pears, production of
Sm, R,
P, J,
956. Peas
Sm, R,
S, J,
957. Peat
Sm, R,
S, Ch, W, V,
958. Pedalfers
R,
959. Pedocals
R,
960. Peiping
c,
961. Peking
s,
962. Penn, William
Sm,
963. Pennine Chaine
C, S, P, J,
964. Pennsylvania
Sm, C, Ca, P, J,
965. Pensacola
Sm, J,
J, V,
T
167
966. Peons
P,
967. People
R,
968. Peppers
Sm, R, S,
969. Peffumes
R, Ch, P,
970. Persian Gulf
Sm, P, J,
971. Petroleum
Sm, R, C, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
972. Peru
Sm, C, S, P, J,
973. Philadelphia
Sm, S, P, J,
974. Philippine Islands
Sm, C, S, Ca, P, J,
975. Phonecia
P, J,
976. Phosphate
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
977. Phosphorus
R, S, Ch,
978. Physical geography
R,
979. Pig iron
R, S, P, W,
980. Pilsen
S,
981. Pine trees
Sm, R, Ca, p,
982. Pineapples
Sm, R, S, Ch, P, W,
983. Pipe lines
R, P, W, V,
984. Pitch (crude turpentine)
R, s,
985. Pitchblende
Sm, R,
986. Placer mining
R, S,
987. Plains
R, S, Ch, V,
988. Plane of earth's orbit
R*
989. Planetoids
R, S,
990. Planets
R, Ch,
168
991.
Plant association
R,
992.
Plant geography
R,
993.
Plantains
Sm, R,
994.
Plantation
Sm, R,
995.
Plantation homes
Sm, R,
996.
Plants
R,
997.
Plateaus
Sm,
998.
Platinum
R, Ch, P, W, J, V,
999.
Plows
Sm,
1000.
Plums and prunes
Sm,
1001.
Plywood
R,
1002.
Podzolic soils
R,
1003.
Poland
Sm,
1004.
Pilarand subpolar
1005.
Polar
bears
10)06. Polarcaps of high
R, V,
R, Ca
C, S, Ca, P , J,
climates R,
R,
pressure
1007. Polar easterlies
R,
1008. Polar ice
R,
R,
1009. Polar aid subpolar climates
1010. Polish Corridor
P# J,
R,
Ca, P,
1011. Political geography
R,
C,
1012. Pomegranates
R,
1013. Ponds
R,
1014. Popcorn
R,
S,
1015. Poplar trees
R,
P,
169
1016#
Population
Sm, R, C,Sj Cg|
1017.
Pork
Sm, R, S, Ch, V,
1018. Port Arthur, Texas
Ch, W, J, V,
S, P,
1019. Port of Authority of N. Y.
Sm, C,
1020.
Porter service
R, S,
1021.
Ports
R, S, p, J, V,
1022.
Portugal
Sm, S, Ca, P, J,
1023.
Potash industry
Sm, C, S, CA , P, J,
1024.
Potassium
R,
1025. Potatoes
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
1026. Pontomac
Sm,
1027. Pottery
Sm,
1028. Poughkeepsie
Sm,
1029. Poultry
Sm,
R, C, Ch, W, V,
1030. Power
Sm,
R, C,S, Ca, P, W, V,
1031. Prague
Sm,
S,
1032.
R, C, S,
Prairieearths
1033. Prairie Schooners
P,
Sm,
1034. Precious metals and s tones
R,
1035. Precipitation
Sm,
R, Ch, V,
1036. Pressure
R,
1037. Prickley pear
Sm,
1038. Printing
Sm,
1039. Prunes
Sm,Ca, P, J,
1040. Pueblo, Colorado
Sm,
R, C, P,
C,
170
1041. Puget Sound
Sm,
1042.
Pumpkins
Sm,
1043.
PirnJab wheat
J,
C, S, P,
R,
1044. Pyrenees Region
S, Ca,
1045. Quaker oats
Sm,
1046.
Quebracho wood
Ca,
1047.
Queen Mary Liner (12ae)
Sm,
1048.
Queensland, Australia
Sm,
1049.
Quicksilver (mercury)
R,
1050.
Rabbit
Sm,
1051.
Raccoons
Sm,
1052.
Races
R, S,
1053.
Racine, Wis.
S,
1054.
Radiation
Sm,
1055.
Radiators
Sm,
1056.
Radio
Sm,
1057.
Radio Corp. ofAmerica
Sm,
1058.
Radiometerograph
R,
1059.
Radishes
R,
P,
p, J,
S, P, J,
P, J,
R,
R,
R, S, Ch
P, W, V,
1060. Radium
R,
1061.
Rafts
R,
1062.
Railroads
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W, J, V,
1063.
Rain
R,
1064.
Rain forest
R,
1065. Rainfall
R, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
171
1066. Rainy season
R,
1067. Raisins
Sm, R,
1068. Raleigh,
SirWalter
S,
P,
1069. Rangoon
C,
S,
1070.
Sm,
Raspberries
S, Ca, Ch, P, J,
1071. Rayon
Sm, R,Ca, Ch, J, V,
1072.
Raw materials
Sm, R,
1073.
Recreation
Sm, R, Ch,
S, P,
1074. Red River Valley
Sm, Ca,
1075. Redwood
Sm, R,
C, Ca^
1076.
Refrigeration
Sm, R,
P, V,
1077.
Refrigerator cars
Sm, R,
1078. Regional geography, defined
1079. Reindeer
1080.
Reliability
Ch, P,
Sm, R, W,
Sm, R,
Ch, W, J, V,
of climate R,
1081. Relief (land surface)
Sm, R, P, W, J,
1082. Reptiles
R,
1083. Reservoirs
R,
1084. Residential districts
R,
1085V .Resin;:
Sm, R>
S, Ca, P,
1086. Rhine River
Sm, C,
S, P,
1087. Rhodesia
J,
1088. Rice
Sm, R,
J,
1089. Rio de Janerio
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J
V,
Sm, C, S, P, J,
1090. Rivers
R,
S,W, V,
I
172
1091. Riviere, Prance
Sm,
1092. Riza
Ca,
1093. Robin Hood
P,
1094. Rocky Ford
Sm,
1095. Rocky Mountain National Park
Sm, .S, J
1096. Rodents
R,
1097. Rome
Sm, S, Ca, p,
1098. Roosevelt Dam
Sm, S, Ca,
1099. Root Crops
R,
1100. Roots (tubers)
R,
1101. Rosin
Sm, R, S, Ch, P
1102. Rowboats, future
R,
1103. Rubber
Sm, R, C , S, Ca
1104. Rubies, synthetic
R,
1105. Rugs,
R, V,
1106. Ruhr Valley, Germany
C, Ca, P, J,
1107. Rumania
Sm, C, S, Ca, P
1108. Running water
R,
1109. Rural life conditions
Ch,
1110. Russian ranch house
R, Ca, w,
1111. Rye
Sm, R, Ca, Ch, : , W, J, V,
1112. Saar Basin
C, S, Ca, P, J,
1113. Sables
R,
Sm, Ca,
1114. Sacramento Valley, Calif
1115. Saddles
R,
Ch, P, W, J,
V,
173
1116. Saguaro (giant cactus)
R,
1117. Sahara
Sm, C,
1118. Sailboats and sailing vessels
S, Ca, J,
R,
1119. Saint Anthony Palls
Sm,
1120. Saint Joseph, Missouri
Sm,
S, P, J,
1121. Saint Louis, Missouri
Sm,
C, S,
1122. Salad oil
P, J,
1123. Salmon
Sm, R,
C, Ch, P, W, J, V,
1124. Salt
Sm, R,
Ca
1125. Salt Lake City, Utah
Sm, S,
1126. Sampans
R,
1127. San Diego, California
Sm, C,
Ch, P, V,
S,
1128. San Francisco, California
Sm, C, S>
1129. Sand
R,
P, J,
1130. Sand dunes
R,
Ch,
1131. Sandals
R,
1132. Sandalwood
R,
1133. Sandstone
R, C, Ch, V,
1134. Sandusky, Ohio
Sm,
1135. Santiago
S, P,
1136. Sardinia
S, Ca,
1137. Sardines
R, P, J * -'
1138. Satellites
R,
1139. Saturated air
R,
1140.Saturation point
R,
J,
174
1141. Savannas
Sm, R,
W, J,
1142. Sawmills
Sm, R,
C, P, W,
1143. Scallops
R,
1144. Scandinavia
Sm, C,
1145. Schenectady, New York
S,
1146. Scotland
Sm, C,
1147.
Scottish lowlands
C,
1148.
Sea breezes
R, Ch,
1149.
Seals
Sm, R,
1150.
Seaports
R,
1151.
Seasons
R, S,
1152. Seattle,
Washington
Sm, C,
S, P,
S, Caj P, J,
P, W, J, V,
S, J,
1153. SemiaridContinental Climate
R,
1154. Semiarid Tropical Climate
R,
1155. Sequiras
Sm, R, Ca, P,
1156.
Sewing machines
P,
1157.
Shaft mining
R,
1158.
Shale oil
S,
1159.
Shanghai, China
Sm, C,
1160.
Shantung
S,
1161.
Sheep
Sm, R,
1162.
Sheffield, England
C, S, Ca, P,
1163.
Shelterbelt
Ca,
1164. Shenandoah Valley
1165. Shipping
S, P,
J,
C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
J,
Sm, S, P,
Sm, R, C, P, V,
175
1166. Ships
Sm, R, S, W,
1167. Shoes
Sm,
1168. Short
R,
1169. Shovels, steam
Sm, R, •
1170. Showers
R,
1171. Shrimps
Sm, R,
1172. Shrubs
R»
1173. Shuttles
R,
1174. Si Riber
s, p,
1175. Siam
s, p, J,
1176. Siberia
Sm, S, P, J,
1177. Silage
Sm, R, S,
1178. Silk
1179. Silver
Sm, R, C, S, C&, Ch, P, W, J,
V,
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W, J, V,
1180. Silviculture
R, V,
1181. Singapore
Sm, S, P, J,
1182. Sioux City, Iowa
Sm, S, P, J,
1183. Sirup
R,
1184. Skins
Sm, R, S, V,
1185. Skunks
Sm, R,
1186. Skyliners
R,
1187. Skyscrapers
R,
1188. Slafe
V,
1189. Slate
R, C, S, Ch, P, J, V,
1190. Slaughtering
Sm,
176
1191. Sledges and dog teams
R,
1192. Sloths
R,
1193. Small grains
R,
1194. Smudge pots
R,
1195. Smudging
R,
1196. Snow
Sm, R, Ch,
1197. Snows torm
R,
1198. Snuff
Sm, S,
1199. Soap
Sm, R, C, P,
1200. Sod house
R,
1201. Soda
Sm, R, P,
1202. Sodium
R,
1203. Soft
R,
1204. Softwoods
R, S,
1205. Soil
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, J, V,
1206. Solar radiation
R,
1207. Solar system
R, Ch,
1208. Solar year
R, Ch,
1209. Soo Canal
S, P,
1210. Sorhgums
Sm, R, Ch, P, V,
1211. South Africa
Sm, C , S , J,
1212. South America
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J,
1213. South Bend, Indiana
Sm,
1214. South Hampton, England
P,
1215. Soybeans
Sm, R, C, S, Ch, W, V,
177
1216. Spain
Sm, C, Ca, p, J,
1217. Spears
R,
1218. Specific zero
H,
1219. Sperm oil
R,
1220. Spices
R, C,
1221. Spillways
R,
1222. Spinning wheel
Sm, R,
1223. Spindles, textile
R,
1224. Spokane, Wash.
Sm, C, S,
1225. Sponges
Sm, P, J,
1226. Spraying of fruit trees
R,
1227. Spring wheat
Sm, R, S, P,
1228. Springs
R,
1229. Spruce trees
Sm, R, S, Ca, P,
1230. Standard tine
R, Ch,
1231. Stars
R, Ch,
1232. Stassfurt, Germany
S , Ca, P , J,
1233. Steam engine
Sm, R, S, P,
1234. Steamers
Sm, R,
1235. Steamship lines
Sm, R,
1236. Steel
1237. Steers, fattening
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
V,
R,
1238. Steepes
R,
1239. Stockholm
Sm, S, Ca,
1240. Stockton
S,
178
1241.
Stockyards
Sm,
1242.
Stone Age
R, P,
1243.
Stores
R,
1244.
Storms
R, Ch,
1245.
Stratosphere
R, Ch,
1246.
Strawberries
Sgi, R,
1247.
Streams
R,
1248.
Street cards
Sm, R,
1249.
Streets and relief of land
1250.
Strip mining
R,
R,
1251. Subpolar low pressure belts
1252. Subtropical climates
R,
Sm, R,
1253. Subtropical high pressure, belts of
1254. Suburban districts
R,
1255. Subways
R,
1256. Sudan
S, P, J,
1257. Sudbury
Sm, S, Ca,
1258. Suez Canal
Sm, S, Ca,
1259. Sugar
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
1260. Sugar maple
Sm, R, P,
1261. Sulphur
Sm, R, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
1262. Sun
R, Ch, V,
1263. Sunflower
Sm, R,
1264. Swamp grass
R,
1265. Swamps
R,
179
1266. Sweeden
Sm, S, Ca, P, J,
1267.
Swine
Sm, R,
1268.
Switzerland
C, S, Ca, P, J,
1269.
Sydney
Sm, S, J,
1270.
Syracuse
Sm, S, P,
1271.
Tacoma, Washington Sm, C, S, J,
1272.
Tagua nuts
R, Ch,
1273.
Tallinn
Ca, P,
1274.
Tallow
R,
1275.
Tamarack
R,
1276.
Tampa,Florida
Sm, S,
1277.
Tapirs
R,
1278.
Tar
R, S,
1279.
Tea
Sm, R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
1280.
Teak
R, W, J, V,
1281.
Telephone
Sm, R, Ch,
1282.
Television
V,
1283.
Temperature
Sm, R,
1284.
Tenements
Sm, R,
1285.
Tennessee
Sm, C,
1286.
Tents
R,
1287. Termites (white ants)
R,
1288. Terracing of slppes
R,
1289.
Texas
1290. Textiles
S, W, J,
J, V,
S, Ch, W, J, V,
P, J,
C, P, J,
Sm, R,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P,
J, V,
180'
1291. Thatch
R, Ch,
1292. Thermographs
R,
1293. Thermometers
R.
1294. Threshing machines R, Ch,
1295. Thunderstorms
R, Ch,
1296. Thyme
R,
1297. Tibet
Sm, S,
1298. Tides, cause of
R, Ch, v,
1299. Tientsin
S, Ca,
1300. Tigers
R,
1301. Tigris River
Sm, S, P,
1302. Timber—
Sm, R, W, V,
1303. Time
R, Ch,
1304. Tin
R, C, S, Ch, P, W, J, V,
1305. Tires
R,
J,
1306. Tires, automobiles Sm, R,
1307. Tobacco
Sm, R,
1308. Tobago
s,
1309. Tokyo
Sm, C, S, Ca, P,
1310. Toledo blades
R,
1311. Toledo, Ohio
Sm, C, S, J,
1312. Toledo, Spain
s,
1313. Tom Thumb
S,
1314. Topography
S,
1315. Tornadoes
R, Ch,
0 ,
S, Ch, P, W, J,
181
1316. Toronto, Canada
Sm,
P,
1317. Torrid Zone
S,
1318. Tomatoes
Sm,
1319. Tools
Sm, R,
1320. Tortillas
Sm, S,
1321. Tourists
Sm, P,
J,
1322. Trans-Andean Railroad
S,
1323. Tropical life
R, C, S,
1324. Tractors
Sm,
R, P, W,
1325. Trade
Sm,
R, C, S, Ca, Ch, W, J, V,
1326. Trade routes
Sm,
R, C, P, J, \
1327. Trade winds
Sm, R,
1328. Tramp steamers
R, S,
1329. Transhumance
R,
1330. Transportation
Sm,
1331. Trappers
R,
R, C, 3, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
1332. Trawls and trawlers
R,
1333. Trees
Sm, R,
1334. Tropical cyclones
R,
1335. Tropics
Sm,
R, S,
1336. Truck farming
Sm,
R, C, Ca, Ch, P, w,
1337. Trucks
Sm,
R, P,
1338. Tsetse Ply
J,
1339. Tubers (roots) of vegetables
1340. Tula district
Ca,
R, Caj
182
1341.
Tuna fish
P, J,
1342.
Tundra, plants of
1343.
Tung tree
Sm, R,
1344.
Tungsten
R,
1345. Tupelo gum trees
R,
1346. Turbans
R,
1347. Turbines
R, P,
1348. Turkey
Sm, R, S,Ca, P,
1349.
Turkeys
Sm, R,
1350.
Turnips
Sm,
R, J,
1351.
Turnpikes
Sm,
P, J,
1352. Turpentine
Sm,
R, Ca, Ch, P, W, J,
1353. Turtles
Sm, P,
1354. Typewriters
Sm, P,
1355. Typhoons
R,
1356. Ulster
S, Ca, P,
1357. United Kingdom
Sm, C, S, P, J,
1358. United States
Sm, R, C,S, Ca,
R, S,Ca, J, V,
S,P, J, V,
1359. Universe, earth’s place in
R, S,
1361. Uruguay
Sm, C, S,Ca, P,
1362. Valencia
Sm, S, Ca,
1363. Valonia
P, J,
1365. Vanaduim
S, P,
R,
Ch, P, W, J, V,
R,
1360. Uplands
1364. Valparaiso, Chile
J,
J,
183
1366. Vancouver
Sm, c, S, P, J,
1367. Vanilla beans
Sm, R, S, P,
1368. Varnishes
Sm, R,
1369. Vatican City
P,
1370. Vegetables
Sm, R* C, S, Ca,
1371. Vegetation
R,
1372. Venezuela
Sm, c, S, Ca, P,
1373. Venice
Sm, s, Ca, P,
1374. Vermont
Sm, P, J,
1375. Vienna
Sm, s, P*
1376. Vines
R,
1377. Vineyards
Sm,
1378. Virginia
Sm, c, P* J,
1379. Volvanlc soils
R»
1380. Volcanoes
Sm, R,
1381. Volga River
Sm, s, Ch, P. J,
1382. Vulcanizing
P,
1383. Wagons
R,
1384. Walnut trees
Sm, R» P,
1385. Walrus
Sm, R,
1386. Warehouses
R,
1387. Wart hogs
R,
1388. Washington, D. C.
Sm, c, s,
1389. Washington Forests Ca,
1390. Watches
Sm, p »
184
1391. Water
Sm, R, C, S, C . Ch, W, J,
1392. Water buffalo, (carabao)
R, W,
1393. Water supply, city
Sm, R,
1394. Water vapor
R,
1395. Water wheels
Sm, R,
1396. Watermelons
Sm, R,
1397. Waters, island
R,
1398. Watts, James
Sm, S,
W, V,
Ch, P^ V,
S ,
1399. Waves, caused by winds
R, Ch, P,
1400.
Wax
P,
1401.
Weather
Sm, R, Ca, Ch,
1402. Weather Bureau, U. S.
Sm. S. Ch,
1403. Weather vane
R,
1404. Weaving
Sm, R,
1405. Wells
R, S, Ca,
1406. West Indies
Sm, C,
P, J,
1407. Whales
Sm, R,
S, Ch,
1408. Wheat
Sm, R,
C, S,
1409. Wheeler Dam
Sm,
1410. Wheeling,West Virginia
1411.
Whirlwinds
1412. White ants
Sm, S,
R,
(termites)
1413. White Gold
R,
1414. Whitney, Eli
Sm, S,
1415. Wholesalers
R, C,
R,
P, J,
Pj J> V,
C t s
Ch, P^ W, J, V,
185
1416.
Wichita
Sm, S,
1417.
Winds
Sm, R,
1418.
Wind vanes
R,
1419.
Windmills
R,
1420.
Wines
Sm, R,
1421.
Winnipeg
Sm, S, P,
1422.
Wire
Sm, P,
1423.
Wisconsin, (state) Sm, C,
1424.
Wisconsin Logging Ca,
1425.
Wolves
Sm, R,
1426.
Wood
Sm, R,
1427.
Woodland
Sm, R,
1428.
Wood pulp
R, S, Ca,
1429.
Wool
Sm, R,
1430.
Woonsocket, R.I.
Ca, P,
1431.
World War
Sm, S, P,
1432.
Wright, Orville
S,
1433.
Writing paper
Sm,
1434.
Wrought iron
R,
1435.
Wyoming
Sm, C,
1436.
Yaks
R, S, J,
S, Ch, V,
C, J,
P, J,
S, V,
J,
C, S, Ca, Ch, P, W, J, V,
P, J,
1437. Yams
Sm, R,
1438. Yangtze River
Sm, S, Ca, P,
1439. Year
R,
1440. Yellowstone National Park
Sm,
186
1441.
Yokohama
Sm, C, S, Ca, p, J,
1442.
Yosemite National
1443.
Youngstown, Ohio
1444.
Yucaton
Sm,
C, S,
1445.
Yucca
Sm,
R,
1446.
Yugoslavia
Sm,
S, Ca , P,
1447.
Yukon
Sm,
S, p,
1448.
Zebra
R,
1449.
Zinc
Park
Sm,
Sm, C, J,
Sm, R, C, S, Ca , Ch, P, W, J, V,
1450. Zurich, Swit§erland
1451. Zion National Park Ch,
S, P,
COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY TEST
Age
Student's name
City
Name of school
Teacher's name
Date of this test
Your classification in school (Grade)
General Directions: This test consists of four parts. You
will take part of the test today, and the other parts later.
Special directions for each part are given at the beginning
of the part. Read them carefully and proceed at once to an­
swer the questions.
The student is not expected to answer all the questions cor­
rectly. Do the best you can. Try to get as many right as
possible. Be very careful not to go too fast and make care­
less errors. Do not spend too much time on any one question
...go immediately from one to another and go back for slow
questions later if time permits. No questions should be asked
the examiner after the test begins.
Part
Part
Part
Part
Perfect Score
I. True-False
276
85
II. Matching
98
III. Multiple-Choice
81
IV. Completion
Total
540
Student's Score
188
P art I .
D ir e c tio n s : Read the fo llo w in g statements and i f you th in k the
answer is tr u e , place a plus sign in the parenthesis provided
a t the extreme r ig h t . I f you th in k the answer should be f a ls e ,
in d ic a te the same by w r itin g a minus sign in the parenthesis
provid ed. I f any p a rt o f a statem ent appears f a ls e , mark the
question f a ls e . I f you are undecided whether the statement is
tru e or f a ls e , do not w rite anything in the answer space pro­
vid e d .
Sample:
0 . R e la tiv e ly l i t t l e kerosene is used to produce
in d u s t r ia l power.
)0 .
1 . The cotton gin gave man a new in d u s t r ia l f r o n t i e r .
)1 .
2 . Experience teaches man to avoid the use of powdered
coal as a source f o r steaming in d u s t r ia l machines be­
cause i t is not as e f f i c i e n t as oth er forms.
)2.
3 . Rapid and e f f i c i e n t r a ilr o a d tra n s p o rta tio n systems
have not been a major in flu e n c e in developing the
d a iry in d u s try .
)3 .
4 . Automobile m anufacturers have attem pted to absorb
losses in the American market by con cen tratin g on
fo re ig n markets w ith double p ric e s .
)4 .
5 . The emphasis on s a n ita tio n in the d a iry in d u s try has
been a strong in flu e n c e in in cre as in g man’ s e f f i c i e n ­
cy ^7 g iv in g him b e tte r h e a lth .
)5 .
6 . The la rg e exports o f wheat and corn from Argentina
and Uruguay compete in European markets w ith s im ila r
products from the U nited S ta te s .
)6 .
7 . Tea m anufacturers increase t h e ir p r o f it s by c o lo rin g
t h e ir product w ith nonpoisonous dyes, thus conform­
ing to the d esires o f tea customers.
)7 .
8 . The lumber In d u s try in the U nited S tates has been a
weak c o n trib u to r to our economic w e a lth .
)8.
9 . Economic b a r te r n a tu r a lly began in the fis h in g stage
o f man's development because o f the a c c e s s ib ility of
the supply.
)9.
189
1 0 . Coal m ining is a p o te n tia l source of eoonomlc support
fo r the Chinese people.
)1 0 .
11. New occupations f o r chemists have been opened up as a
r e s u lt o f the a p p lic a tio n o f chem istry to the reduc­
tio n o f wood to p u lp .
)11 .
12. Trade winds g r e a tly a id commercial vessels because of
t h e ir r e g u la r it y .
)12.
13. Coniferous fo re s ts reward the growers r ic h ly because
they produce v a lu a b le hardwood tre e s .
)1 3 .
14. The people of In d ia are not dependent on wheat f o r
t h e ir l i v i n g .
)1 4 .
15. I t has been estim ated by a u th o r itie s th a t we could
produce s ix ty times as many potatoes as we do now
w ith o u t decreasing any o th er crop.
)1 5 .
16. The land area o f Japan is e n t ir e ly inadequate f o r
the needs o f the people.
)16.
17. C lim a tic con dition s in South America do not encour­
age the w hite ra c e 's s e t t lin g th e re .
)1 7 .
18. The a c c e s s ib ility and abundance o f th e supply o f f is h
encourage la rg e numbers of people in China, Japan,
and northw estern Europe to s e le c t the fis h in g indus­
try .
)1 8 .
19. G re a te r markets f o r cotton have been created as a r e ­
s u lt o f the m ercerizin g process.
)1 9 .
20. Many unfavorable conditions to man found in p la in s country account f o r la rg e p o p u latio n s ettle m e n ts .
)20 .
21. A la c k o f s k ille d la b o r along the A tla n tic Coast
seems to discourage the permanency o f cotton manu­
fa c tu rin g in the s ta te s along the A t la n t ic .
)ZL.
22. The u t i l i z a t i o n o f water-power in M inneapolis has
given cheap power and thus encouraged new in d u s t r ia l
and p o p u latio n se ttle m e n ts .
)22
23 . The fis h in g in d u s try is neglected in the U. S. be­
cause the la b o r supply is not adequate.
)2 3 .
2 4 . We consumers are dependent even on the s o il f o r the
m in erals which are used in the m anufacturing o f our
.
1
190
autom obiles.
)2 4 .
2 5 . The d i f f i c u l t y o f securing land perm its has r e ­
tarded the development o f the n a tu ra l resources
of the tro p ic s .
)2 5 .
26 . The complex demands of our in d u s t r ia l network has
stim u la te d the growth o f our s te e l in d u s try to make
i t s rank now second from the to p .
)2 6 .
27. The abundance of cheap hand la b o r helps make China
and Japan d is t in c t as le a d in g s ilk -p ro d u c in g coun­
tr ie s .
)2 7 .
28. The p re s e rv a tio n and conservation o f our fo re s ts
today w i l l help nature supply our wants tomorrow.
) 28.
2 9 . Our shortage of crude o i l f o r in d u s t r ia l power (here
in the TJ. S .) has encouraged our tra d e r e la tio n s
w ith Venezuela and Mexico.
) 29.
3 0 . A la rg e percentage of the in d u s t r ia l and s c ie n t if ic
w orld today is dependent on German manufacturers be­
cause of t h e ir s k i l l in b u ild in g s c ie n t if ic in s tr u ­
ments.
) 30.
3 1 . Easy access to coal and iro n deposits has made Eng­
land a h ig h ly in d u s tr ia liz e d n a tio n .
)31.
3 2 . Many tru c k farm ers fin d i t p r o f it a b le to operate
t h e ir farms near c i t i e s .
)3 2 .
3 3 . A s c a rc ity o f la b o r has made Texas an unimportant
cotton-grow ing s ta te .
)3 3 .
34 . At a l l lo c a tio n s on the e a rth , a d iffe re n c e o f 15°
o f lon g itu d e w i l l correspondingly a f f e c t one hour
o f man’ s w orking-day schedule.
)3 4 .
3 5 . Rich p r o f it s in our lumber in d u s try have made i t
easy f o r us to d is tin g u is h ourselves as the ’’fo re s t
n a tio n .”
)3 5 .
3 6 . Those who l i v e in the province o f Quebec have added
a v a lu a b le source to t h e ir economic income by develop­
ing asbestos m ining.
)3 6 .
3 7 . A snow cover in w in te r is d e trim e n ta l to w in te r wheat,
th e re fo re farm ers in cold clim ates are forced to sub­
s t it u t e o th er crops.
)37
191
38. Coal power is reoognlzed today as inferior to water
power because it is too expensive to use; therefore,
man has had to turn to other sources for industrial
purposes.
( )38.
39. The nitrate mines in northern Chile are profitable
to man's use in spite of the hardships and incon­
veniences of the source.
)39.
40. The fact that sheep do not breed well to produce
both good wool and good meat brings about a division
of labor in the industry.
)40.
41. Since the U. S. produces approximately half the
world's total supply of raw cotton, southern employ­
ment is greatly benefited.
)41.
42. Because limes endure frost, profits on this crop
are more likely.
)42.
43. Southern people of the United States have found
rice-growing unprofitable.
)43.
44. As early as 1890 the development of the automobile
created a new and vital demand for iron and steel
in the U. S.
)44.
45. Man's supply of sugar cannot be taken from corn.
)45.
46. Japan's international trade centers around the im­
ports of textiles and raw silk.
)46.
47. Manufacturing in Great Britain is independent from
the rest of the world with respect to raw materials.
)47.
48. By plowing around a plot of ground instead of through
it by rows, farmers on poor land inorease their in­
come by raising the productivity per acre.
)48.
49. Because the best of flour is made from spring wheat,
rich in gluten, wheat farmers have been encouraged
to concentrate on methods of growing this particular
crop.
)49.
50. Inaccessibility of pure water supply very often
stimulates a demand for the labor of those who must
pipe the supply from long distanoes.
)50.
51. Little importing of wool is necessary to satisfy our
192
m i l l ' s demands because our domestic supply In th is
country is p l e n t i f u l .
)51.
52. Coal m ining is a good example of how man has found
g a in fu l employment In the v e g e ta tio n of the e a rth .
)5 2 .
5 3 . Often the cost of sending a ton of co al by man­
power from tru c k to c e l la r is g re a te r than the cost
of sanding the same coal many m iles by r a i l * or
boat* because of the economies of long h au ls.
)5 3 .
54. F r u it growers fre q u e n tly lo c a te near mountains be­
cause the motion o f the a i r as I t drain s down slopes
is s u f f ic ie n t to keep the f r u i t from fre e z in g .
)5 4 .
55. R ivers in A fric a p la y an im portant p a rt in A fric a n
commerce.
) 55.
56. Much f ly in g s k i l l is req u ire d in crossing the d i f f i ­
c u lt S ie r ra Nevada Mountains because of t h e ir ex­
treme h e ig h t.
)5 6.
57. The manufacturers of fin e paper are in f l u e n t i a l in
holding up the s tre n g th of the southern pine tre e
in d u s try .
)5 7 .
58. Because e le c t r ic power cannot* as a ru le * be sent
econom ically more than th re e hundred m ile s , employ­
ment has been b e n e fite d in the con stru ctio n work
of many small generating p la n ts .
)5 8 .
59. The a p p lic a tio n o f science to fru it-g r o w in g has
gained f o r C a lifo r n ia the op po rtu n ity to produce
tw o -th ird s of the oranges in the U. S.
)5 9 .
60. The gradual increase in the depth o f coal mines in
Great B r it a in accounts f o r an inorease in mining
costs.
)6 0 .
61. Resort centers have been p r o f it a b ly looated near
la rg e bodies of w ater because the clim ate of the
surrounding region tends to be made steady and
c on stan t.
)6 1 .
62. Canadian wheat growers are forced to take expensive
precautions to prevent t h e ir crops from fre e z in g be­
fo re they r ip e n .
)62 •
63. The p e c u lia r n ature of the ore sm elting in d u s try in
S e a ttle fu rn ish es employment to few people.
)6 3 .
193
64. The people of Mexico do not depend p r im a r ily on
m anufacturing f o r t h e ir economic w e lfa r e .
)64.
6 5 . The la r g e r seotlons of Canada are noteworthy f o r
t h e ir m in eral resources and w ater power which con­
t r ib u t e much to the economic w e ll-b e in g o f the
country.
)6 5 .
66.
I t Is impossible f o r regions of Humid S ubtropioal
Clim ate to support dense p o p u latio n s .
)66 .
6 7 . The sun makes a minor c o n trib u tio n to the economic
a c t i v i t i e s of man.
)6 7 .
68. Our sugar trad e w ith Cuba is a c o n trib u tin g fa c to r
to our p o l i t i c a l r e la tio n s w ith Cuba.
)68.
69. As a r e s u lt o f the mechanical cotton p ic k e r, the en­
t i r e in d u stry o f a g r ic u ltu r e is ap p aren tly on the
verge of re o rg a n iz a tio n .
) 69.
70. The p r in c ip a l coffee-g ro w in g s ta te in B r a z il regu­
l a r l y pays about 60# o f the taxes which support
the Fed eral government.
)7 0 .
71. Glass makers have s u ffered a severe economic s e t­
back as a r e s u lt of the discovery o f im ita tio n cut
g la s s .
)7 1 .
7 2 . France enjoys most o f In d ia ’ s fo re ig n commeroe.
)7 2 .
73. The banana tre e is a more d e lic a te growth than the
cacao tre e and th e re fo re re q u ire s s p eo ial la b o r in
i t s c a re .
) 73.
74. F ra n c e ’ s le a th e r in d u s try is dependent on her supply
o f w ild oats.
)7 4 .
7 5 . Because coffee b e r rie s are not attached d ir e c t ly to
the twigs and branches o f the c o ffe e bush, expensive
hand la b o r must be employed in the h a rv e s t.
)7 5 .
76. The in e v ita b le power o f p o l i t i c a l c o n tro l is a de­
term in er o f Prague's importance as a commercial oent e r o f C zechoslovakia.
)7 6 .
77. The old In d ia n and B u ffa lo t r a i l s were c h a r a c te r is tic
e a rly American tu rn p ik es which f a c i l i t a t e d the ra p id
commercial development of the West.
)77.
194
7 8 . The Trade-Wind L i t t o r a l Clim ate does not fa v o r
tr o p ic a l p la n ta tio n a g r ic u ltu r e .
)78.
79. The fa rm e r’ s economic s e c u rity i s c o n s tan tly th r e a t­
ened by tin y organisms c a lle d ro d en ts, which fu r th e r
the decay of p la n t and animal l i f e .
)79.
8 0 . The moon exercises more In flu e n c e on man’ s economic
a c t i v i t i e s than the sun.
) 80.
8 1. The im p o rtatio n of the rubber tre e to the Americas
gave the in h a b ita n ts a new source o f economic w e a lth .
)8 1 .
8 2 . Savage A fric a n tr ib e s c o n tro l t h e ir a ctio n s through
a crude system of telephone communication.
)8 2 .
8 3 . C lim a tic con dition s have in flu en ced human behavior
so much th a t not one pow erful n a tio n in the world
has i t s c a p ita l c it y looated n e a re r than t h i r t y de­
grees from the eq u ato r.
) 83.
8 4 . Many Chinese economic i l l s could be cured i f China
would take advantage o f her under-developed coal r e ­
sources.
)8 4 .
85. T ra v e le rs in the mountainous regions of South Amer­
ic a , A f r ic a , and Asia are no longer dependent on
human p o rte r s e rv ic e .
)8 5 .
86. V a ria b le weather con dition s experienced in shipping
bananas have caused f r u i t shippers to provide ex­
pensive heatin g and r e f r ig e r a t io n systems f o r the
f r u i t in t r a n s i t .
)86.
87. The b u ild in g o f the Panama Canal was a great com­
m e rc ia l asset to C a lifo r n ia because w ater f r e ig h t
ra te s were reduced.
)8 7 .
88. A shortage o f d e s ira b le home sources o f le a th e r
makes the U nited S tates import more le a th e r than
is exported.
)88 .
89. I r r i g a t i o n is not necessary in the development of
the a g r ic u lt u r a l in te re s ts of lower Egypt.
)8 9 .
90. American farm ers fa v o r the oats crop because i t is
ra th e r f a s t and o th er things can be grown during
the y e a r.
)90.
91. Because c o ffe e cannot be grown econom ically in the
195
U n ited S ta te s , we are forced to bargain w ith other
c o u n tries to buy 40# of the w o rld 's crop.
)91.
92. The f a c t th a t re in d e e r re q u ire a la rg e acreage each
year fo r pasturage I s a lim it in g fa c to r In op erating
t h is in d u s try .
)92.
93. C e rta in Ir r ig a t e d areas of the w estern s ta te s over­
come the handicap o f long distances from im portant
markets by growing o u t-o f-season v eg e tab les , which
are much in demand.
)9 3 .
94. B a rle y is grown e f f e c t iv e ly in C a lifo r n ia as a f o r ­
age crop, being cut fo r i t s grass before i t is r ip e .
)9 4 .
95. In d u s t r ia l u n its choose to use manufactured gas
r a th e r than n a tu r a l gas because they have found i t
contains more h e a t.
)9 5 .
96. Because the American m o to ris t uses only about 5# of
the energy in a g a llo n o f g a s o lin e , i t would seem
th a t we are d is s ip a tin g our o i l resources.
)9 6 .
97. Man-made machines have created such demands f o r iro n
th a t today 90# o f the m etals taken from e a rth are
ir o n .
)9 7 .
98. A irp la n e tra n s p o rta tio n lin e r s are b e n e fite d in high
a ltit u d e s because the upper la y e rs of the atmosphere
con sist la r g e ly o f those gases which a re lig h t e r than
those of the low er atmosphere.
)9S.
99. One o f the prime problems of commerce today is to
c reate in the h e a rt o f the savage a d e s ire f o r more
th in g s .
)9 9 .
100. Both the c lim a te and s o il in A rgentina encourage the
development of wheat farm s.
(
)100.
101. Ocean-going vessels are b e n e fite d by the land breezes
which blow from the sea to the land and e q u a lize the
trad e winds.
(
)101.
102. R e lig io u s f e s t iv a ls and h o lid ays fre q u e n tly encour­
age commerce.
(
)102.
103. P o l i t i c a l in flu e n c e s f i r s t gave Quebec, Canada, a
beginning upon which im portant commercial centers
were l a t e r founded.
( )103.
196
104. Abundant cheap Mexican la b o r a t G alveston, Texas,
has boomed m anufacturing to a h ig her le v e l o f Im­
portance than commerce.
104.
105. Because the American In d ian s were the n a tiv e s of
N orth and South America, we oew much of our s o c ia l
and economic development to t h e ir e a rly in flu e n c e .
105.
106. A prom ising f i e l d o f wood u t i l i z a t i o n is the d is ­
t i l l a t i o n o f both hard and s o ft woods.
106.
107. The prominence o f our country in the in d u s t r ia l
and commercial w orld is due, in la rg e p a r t, to our
immense n a tu r a l w e a lth .
107.
108. C lim a tic co n d itio n s in South A fric a make the r a is ­
ing o f liv e s to c k an u n p ro fita b le phase of a g r ic u l­
tu ra l l i f e *
108.
109.
In d ia b e n e fits commercially by s e llin g la rg e quan­
t i t i e s of ju te to American m anufacturers which are
used in the making of twine and sacks.
109.
110. T ra n s p o rta tio n in Alaska is best provided by sled
and dog power because both are p e r fe c tly su ited to
the c lim a te .
130 .
111. The s u p e rio rity of p u lle d wool over sheared wool
has concentrated the in d u s try on the "p u lled "
v a r ie t y .
111.
112. The development of r a ilr o a d tra n s p o rta tio n in
In d ia has aided m a te r ia lly in in c re a s in g famines
in the cou n try.
112
113. Prance is a t a g re a t commercial advantage because
o f her n a tu r a l harbors.
1D3 .
114. Am erica's d e s ire f o r C e n tra l A m erica's co ffee and
banana exports encourages fa vo ra b le trad e r e la tio n s
between the two c o u n trie s .
114.
115. Since the U n ited S tates imports la rg e q u a n titie s
of eggs, i t would seem th a t our p o u ltry business
is underdeveloped.
115.
116. Tree l i f e and p la n t l i f e on barren slopes would
be d e trim e n ta l to a fa rm er's plan to conserve the
s tre n g th and value o f h is s o il f o r a g r ic u lt u r a l
purposes.
116.
.
197
117. The In tro d u c tio n of I r r ig a t io n works has d isco u r­
aged the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the N ile R iv e r in Egypt.
)117.
118. Because most o f the com grown in the United States
is consumed by human beings, o th er uses have not
been developed.
)118 .
119. The shortage of coal and iro n discourages R u ssia's
fo re ig n commerce.
)1 19.
.
120 Because r iv e r s in Russia are fro ze n over many
months during the y e a r, commercial t r a f f i c cannot
be accommodated advantageously.
)120.
121. The in v e n tio n of the automobile changed the em­
phasis in the r e fin e r y business from kerosene to
g a s o lin e .
)121.
122
i
.The
fru it-g r o w in g in d u s try discouraged s p e c ia l
wage-payment plans based on q u a n tity picked, and
care used in the p ic k in g .
)122.
123. The experience and in d u s try of the Chinese people
n a tu r a lly give them c o n tro l o f the iro n and s te e l
In d u s trie s in Japan.
)123 .
124. Modem pow erful steamships are not a ffe o te d by
winds in determ ining the course a t sea.
)124.
125. Vegetable dyes are fin d in g a popular market be­
cause they are le s s expensive than m in eral dyes.
)1 25 .
126. Because buying, s e llin g , and tra n s p o rta tio n of
goods w holly w ith in one s ta te are not p ro te c ted
by the In t e r s t a te Commerce Commission, s ta te laws
have been devised to take care of the In t r a s t a te
problem.
)1 26 .
127. The development o f a m anufacturing process f o r
a r t i f i c i a l s i l k , known as rayon, has stim u late d a
g re a t demand f o r wood p u lp .
)1 2 7 .
128. Because le s s than h a lf the po pu latio n o f the United
S tates liv e s in r u r a l a rea s , most o f our complex
s o c ia l problems are q u ite n a tu r a lly found in the
o ity a re a s .
)128.
129. E a rly savage t r ib e s found m edical uses f o r cocaine,
which they took from the cacao tre e s .
) 129.
198
130. The o r ie n ta ls have q u ite p r o f it a b ly developed the
Bhang trad e (a n a rc o tic ) by ta kin g an e x tra c t from
hemp.
130.
131. Extensive sheep r a is in g and a g r ic u ltu r e can be
c a rrie d on a t one and the same time and p la c e .
131.
132. The s te e l In d u s try has c o n trib u te d much to modern
developments in C h ile .
132.
133. Rubber and s y n th e tic s used in m anufacturing rad io
sets have boomed the rubber in d u s try .
133.
134. The fis h in g in d u s try created a demand f o r a d i v i ­
sion o f la b o r.
134.
135. Improved processes f o r m anufacturing p r in t e r s '
in k have reduced the demand f o r soy-bean o i l .
135.
136. Commerce is a fa c to r in developing c i v i l iz a t i o n ,
but c i v i l i z a t i o n is not a fa c to r in developing
commerce.
136.
137. Commercial i n a c t i v i t y is fre q u e n tly responsible
f o r weak and in a c tiv e governments.
137.
138. Because the c lim a te in A u s tra lia is not d e s ira b le
f o r s h e e p -ra is in g , A u s tra lia n s have been forced
to e n te r o th er in d u s trie s .
138.
139. Government in s p e c tio n of animals a f t e r they have
been slaughtered is the in e v ita b le r e s u lt of the
work of p u b lic h e a lth a u th o r itie s in try in g to
safeguard our liv e s .
139.
140. A f r ic a 's d is t in c t iv e ir r e g u la r coast lin e is v a lu ­
able f o r tra n s p o rta tio n purposes.
140.
141. Our im p o rta tio n o f cotton has long been the to o l
f o r developing agreeable in te r n a tio n a l r e la t io n s .
141.
142. An abundant supply of s k ille d la b o r has made
F l i n t , M ichigan, the fu rn itu re -m a k in g c it y o f the
w o rld .
142.
143. S c ie n tis ts have been unsuccessful in c re a tin g a
new in d u s try o f c a ttle -fo o d manufactured from
sugar beet p u lp .
143.
I
199
144. The long dry seasons In the north ern p o rtio n of
A u s tra lia have encouraged c a t t le - r a is in g ra th e r
than a g r ic u ltu r e .
144.
145. The s c a rc ity of m in e ra l resources in A u s tra lia
makes th is a very non-progressive country.
145.
146. Tea Is not grown In the U nited S tates to compete
w ith the O rie n t because o f our shortage of cheap
146.
labors
147. Our cotton In d u s try has been s tim u la te d as a re ­
s u lt o f salvaging rags as a c h ie f source o f paper
m a te ria ls .
147.
148. An overproduction of shrimp along the G u lf Coast
has made th is in d u s try one of minor importance.
148.
149. One reason why photographic film s can be manu­
fa c tu re d reasonably is because the e s s e n tia l c e llu ­
lose is taken econom ically from com s ta lk s .
149.
150. Our American lead in the production o f copper is
most d e s ira b le as a s tim u la to r o f American b u s i­
ness a c t i v i t y .
150.
151. West A f r ic a 's v i r t u a l monopoly on the cacao supply
is a strong guarantee f o r West A f r ic a 's economic
s tre n g th .
151.
152. C oncentration and d en sity of po pu latio n areas is
a prime cause of e m ig ra tio n .
152.
153. C a lif o r n ia 's place in the f r u i t and vegetable trad e
has been made strong by C a lif o r n ia 's p e rfe c tio n of
the f r u i t d ry in g process.
153.
154. The discovery of a process f o r canning meats en­
couraged the development o f c a t t le - r a is in g in the
West.
154.
-
155. The absence o f f r o s t in Cuba makes f o r a high
y ie ld o f sugar per a c re .
155.
156. Farmers in the Amazon Basin have s elected the wheat
growing In d u s try because of the cool clim ate in the
Amazon B asin .
156.
157. Because the automobile in d u s try consumes more than
h a lf of our wrought ir o n , i t has indeed exercised
I
200
an Im portant in flu e n c e in developing the wrought
iro n in d u s try .
(
157.
158. The cast system encourages the commercial develop­
ment o f In d ia today.
(
158.
159. Fo rests insure again st serious s o il erosion and
d is s ip a tio n of man's c a p it a l investm ents.
(
159.
160. Commercial development between Spain and France
has been reta rd e d h i s t o r ic a l ly by the Pyrenees
M ountains.
(
160.
161. In d u s t r ia l developments in Germany have been
favo red by an ample supply o f coal f o r power.
(
161.
162. Im portant submarine cable lin e s would be o f l i t t l e
use to fo re ig n c o u n tries in time o f war, because
they are not p ro te c ted by in te r n a tio n a l la w .
(
162.
163. The Panama Canal Zone is made to include the land
on fo u r sides of the Canal to e q u a lize in t e r ­
n a tio n a l r e la t io n s .
(
163.
164. Because peanuts grow on low tr e e s , the h arv es tin g
process is inexp ensive.
(
164.
165. The U nited S ta tes Department o f A g ric u ltu r e 's
standards f o r judging cotton have been In f lu e n t ia l
in r a is in g the value of one o f our most im portant
crops.
(
165.
166. I r r i g a t i o n was unknown in th is country b efore the
day o f the w hite man because v ir g in s o il req u ired
l i t t l e w a te r.
(
166.
167. The la rg e exports o f C h ile make po ssible la rg e
purchases abroad, p a r t ic u la r ly of coal and manu­
fa c tu re d goods.
(
167.
168. Road-making has continued w ith o u t in te rr u p tio n
since the in v e n tio n o f the w heel.
(
168.
169. The "tawing" prooess is used in curing skins—
f a c i l i t a t e s la rg e -s c a le in d u s t r ia l le a th e r ta n n in g .(
169.
170. Because diseased and in ju re d anim als are unwhole­
some f o r human consumption, they are not slaughtered
f o r food purposes.
(
170.
201
171. The h is to ry o f the growth o f c i t i e s shows th a t
e a rly American c e n te rs , o f f o r t s , had l i t t l e or
no in flu e n c e in b u ild in g la rg e c i t i e s .
171.
172. The n ature o f Japan's im portant s ilk In d u s try is
w e ll su ited to the c o u n try's handicap o f being
sm all in s iz e .
172.
173. China's success as a m anufacturing country w i l l
probably be more successful in farm implements be­
cause the country is p r im a r ily a g r ic u lt u r a l.
173.
174. A la c k o f s u f f ic ie n t c a p it a l to fin an ce mining
has disoouraged m in eral production in In d ia .
174.
175. The processes involved in the m anufacturing of
s ilk -g u t fis h in g lin e s are c h a r a c te r is tic of the
s k ille d workmanship of the o r ie n ta ls which should
never f e a r the com petition o f the machine age.
175.
176. The generation of e l e c t r i c i t y req u ire s the economy
of w ater power.
176.
177. Productive grape p la n ts are assured by the a p p li­
ca tio n of s k i l l to the seeding process in the
n u rs e ry .
177.
178. The m anufacturing o f p e n c il erasers from raw rub­
ber is ju s t another example o f how re s o u rc e fu l
manufacturers have developed s yn th e tic processes.
178.
179. The n a tio n a l boundaries set by the mountains f o r
Czechoslovakia have had l i t t l e in flu e n c e in b u ild ­
ing t h e ir d is t in c t n a tio n a l l i f e .
179.
180. Clim ate has l i t t l e
a c tiv itie s .
180.
in flu e n c e in re g u la tin g man's
181. Even i f the farm er could c o n tro l c lim a tic condi­
tio n s , the s o ils of p la in s would s t i l l be i n f e r t i l e
and poor f o r a g r ic u lt u r a l purposes.
181.
182. Inexpensive Japanese la b o r on the A tla n tic coast
favo rs the growth of the redwood tre e in d u s try .
182.
183. The peach-growing in d u stry flo u ris h e s in southern
regions because the c lim ate is s u ita b le .
183.
184. Many s o c ia l problems are brought under immediate
202
o o n tro l today by the p o lic e 's key t o o l— the
te le g ra p h .
( )184.
185. Gum is the most p rize d of the softwoods because
o f i t s e x c e lle n t working q u a lit ie s which enable
m anufacturers to speed up t h e ir production sched­
u le s .
)1 85 .
186. Because almost a l l the known c o a l deposits o f the
world are lo cated in the U n ited S ta te s , employ­
ment in th is country is p l e n t i f u l .
)186 .
187. C lim a tic con d itio n s have in flu e n c e d the lo c a tio n
o f the m a jo rity of the Canadian people in the
m ild e r regions near the s ta te s which border Canada
) 187.
188. Favorable tra n s p o rta tio n ra te s encourage la rg e meat
packers to operate away from the source o f l i v e ­
stock supply.
) 188.
189. Much coal fin d s i t s way in to d is ta n t In d u s tr ia l
centers as a r e s u lt o f economical tra n s p o rta tio n
f a c i l i t i e s brought about by cheap "re tu rn hauls"
encouraged by prime m arketing a c t i v i t i e s .
) 189.
190. The s u p erio r q u a lity of A rgentine wool enables the
growing in d u s try to command a h ig h e r p ric e f o r
t h e ir product in the w o rld 's m arket.
) 190.
191. The American tobacco h a b it has made i t possible
f o r us to reduce the annual per c a p ita consump­
tio n of sugar in the U n ited S ta te s to less than
tw e n ty -fiv e pounds.
)191.
192. C lim a tic con dition s would prevent R u ssia's be­
coming a g re a t wheat-growing co u n try.
)192.
193. The American farm er has provided h im s elf w ith
l i t t l e p ro te c tio n again st the cheap la b o r com­
p e t it io n o f r ic e growers in the O rie n t.
)193.
194. The f a c t th a t the p ric e o f raw s i l k is based upon
i t s te x tu re has created a need f o r s p e c ia liz a tio n
in the buying prooess.
) l9 4 .
195. The r is e and f a l l o f m otorcar sales is watched
c lo s e ly by business men as a means of d e te c tin g
business tre n d s .
)1 9 5 .
196. Fishermen have not been able to conquer the dan­
ger o f banks, or c o n tin e n ta l margins of deep
w ater unfavorable to good f is h in g .
)196.
203
197.
198.
The In v e n tio n o f the steam engine Introduced the
beginning o f the In d u s t r ia l stage In commerce•
( )197.
The abundance o f cane sugar In the U nited S ta tes
has made the demand f o r experim enting w ith sugar
beets n i l .
( )198.
199. Although fo re s ts cover a la rg e area o f Southern
C h ile , lumbering provides l i t t l e employment be­
cause I t Is an ln s lg n lflo a n t In d u s try th e re *
( )1 99.
2 00. F ir e Is unquestionably the g re a te s t s in g le cause
o f fo r e s t d e v a s ta tio n .
(
201. Nearness o f rav m a te ria ls has favored the develop­
ment o f Im portant shoe m anufacturing In d u s trie s
In C h ile .
( )201 .
202. Since la rg e areas o f t h in ly s e ttle d land no lon ger
e x is t f o r hunting purposes In the U n ited S ta te s ,
man has had to provide oth er ways of g e ttin g h is
food supply.
(
)200.
)202.
203. Producing c o u n trie s d e s ire f r ie n d ly r e la tio n s w ith
the U nited S ta tes because we consume more cacao
than any o th er country In the w o rld .
( )203 .
204. Much In te r e s t In A rgentina comes about because many
U nited S tates firm s operate m eat-packing p la n ts
th e re .
( )2 04.
205. Mountains have a pow erful in flu e n c e on neighboring
regions because they s tim u la te p r e v a ilin g winds to
c a rry m oisture over to the leew ard, or s h e lte re d ,
s id e .
( )205.
206. Because wrought Iro n cannot be bent or drawn out
In to w ires or b a rs , a d d itio n a l expensive processes
in i t s m anufacturing must be added.
207. H a w a ii's secondary in d u s try , the p in eap p le, stim u­
la te s u n frie n d ly r e la tio n s w ith o th er producing
c o u n trie s because o f the low p ric e set in H a w a ii.
( )2 07.
208. Rice growers t y p ic a lly seek a cool c lim a te ,
is n a t u r a lly id e a l f o r r ic e growing.
which
209. Trade winds caused by a i r rushing away from the
equator to replace hot a i r r is in g therefrom cause
serious crop damage to regions along the c o a s t.
( )208.
( )2 0 9 .
204
210. The low price of Mexico's grapefruit has forced
Texas oitrus growers to place grapefruit secon­
dary in their cultivation
)210.
211. Generally speaking, coal is plentiful in the
tropics and yet is needed least for heating pur­
poses.
)211 .
212. The religion of Confucianism has been a strong
factor in discouraging commerce in China.
)212 .
213. In the United States the value of the apple crop
exceeds that of any other grown in the temperatezone fruit regions.
)213.
214. The automobile market in Chile Is good for the
American manufacturers, because foreign competi­
tion offers little Interference and prices can
be maintained at a high level.
)214.
215. Canning and refrigeration processes have been
strong influences in the development of salmon
fishing on the Pacific Coast.
)215.
216. The whaling industry attracts fishermen generally
because it requires little capital and a minimum
amount of skill and experience.
)216.
217. Wild rubber (Hevea) plantations have been located
in climates where rainfall is distributed well
throughout the year to insure profitable crops.
)217.
218. When the farmer plans his crop, it is important
for him to know that the total amount of rainfall
is more important to him than the seasons during
which it falls.
)218.
219. Louisiana capital and labor supply are benefited
little by sulphur mining.
)219.
220. Almost every line of industry is affected directly
or indirectly by climate, the sum total of weather
as described at a particular time.
)220 .
221. The effeots of the World War caused the United
States to experience the most rapid industrial
growth ever known in the history of any nation.
)221.
222. Transportation routes of great ocean liners are
205
determined by their measuring latitude, the dis­
tance east or west of the prime meridian.
)222.
223. Because c o m spoils easily, it does not occupy an
Important place in international commerce.
)223.
224. Cheap labor supply in the Orient and Europe makes
it impossible for the United States to compete
with these countries in the production of silk.
)224.
225. The use of the mulberry tree as a source of food
for millions of hookworms in Japan, China, and
India has discouraged hand labor formerly employed
in feeding the worms.
)225.
226. Because sugar is not found in all plants, our
chemists have devised synthetic processes to be
,used in the event plant life is destroyed.
)226.
227. The olive industry in Spain and Italy contributes
little to employment in these countries because
it is an industry of minor importance in world
trade.
)227.
228. Early American settlers guarded the economic
values of their crops and land by building effec­
tive conservation programs.
)228.
229. The olive oil industry has been given much growth
recently as a result of the discovery that this
oil is more valuable than butter as a food.
)229.
230. Because manufacturing of cotton began many years
before the manufacturing of wool, experience has
made the cotton Industry more economical and
scientific in its production processes.
)230.
231. We are somewhat dependent on other countries for
importations of lumber.
)231.
232. The shipping season for oranges is shortened be­
cause this fruit cannot remain on the trees with­
out injury, after ripening.
)232.
233. Cement plants are distributed throughout thirtytwo states in order to avoid heavy transportation
costs Incidental in cross-country hauls.
)233.
234. Brazil's economic strength is made possible by her
producing two-thirds of the world's supply of
coffee.
)234.
205
235. Because no location point in Cuba can be more than
ten miles from the coast, ocean-going vessels are
benefited in having close points of oontact.
)235.
236. Improved transportation and communication have
made man more dependent on his home area for the
essentials of life.
)236.
237. Because coal is mined commercially in twenty-five
states of this country, hundreds of thousands of
people are benefited by the mining payroll.
)237.
238. The airplane has great possibilities in the future
development of valuable mining regions in the Polar
Climates.
)238.
239. Although we lead the world in the value and quan­
tity of fish products, we import more than we ex­
port.
)239.
240. Although rye is superior to wheat in quality as
a bread maker, its price is too high to enoourage
a brisk bread market.
)240.
241. Successful cooperative organizations have solved
the problems of Italian agriculture.
)241.
242. Barley cereal is used extensively in hospitals
because of its unusual food content.
)242.
243. Without conservation, our fish resources are in
grave danger of being reduced to the point where
they are of little or no economic value.
)243.
244. The Chinese people improve public health by putting
tea leaves in their drinking water for purifica­
tion.
)244.
245. Because sea-island ootton can be easily separated
from its seeds, the expense of the ginning process
is reduoed.
)245.
246. Accessibility of land locations accounts for
approximately three-fourths of the people of the
United States living in places one thousand feet
above sea level or less.
)246.
247. Mountain slopes make undesirable agricultural
lands because of the expense of irrigating the
higher levels.
)247.
207
248. Westerlies are much more regular and steady In
their speed than trade-winds and therefore assist
ooean-golng vessels.
)248.
249. Scientists hold little hope In the possibility of
using the sun's energy directly in man-made ma­
chines.
)249.
250. Sunshine enables grapes to store abundant starch
food.
)250.
251. Wool manufacturers have entered new specialization
by developing a process of reclaiming old wool from
woolen rags, cuttings from tailors, and mill waste,
all of which has a ready market.
)251.
252. The peaoh is an Insignificant fruit crop In the
south because labor laws specify a wage payment
plan too high to leave any profit In the Industry.
)252.
253. Banana plantations In Costa Rica are green twelve
months of the year because they have killing
frosts.
)253.
254. So Important is climate on man's fruit crops that
in Ideal locations, the banana plant very often
grows to be twenty feet tall within a few months.
)254 •
255. Because the transportation cost for sending lumber
from the mill to the market has steadily Increased,
there Is a pressing need In the United States for
an inexpensive lumber substitute.
)255.
256. Weeding Is necessary In growing wheat because the
weeds come up more rapidly than the wheat and de­
stroy the wheat crop.
)256.
257. The great variety of goods manufactured from rub­
ber requires many prooesses In the factory and a
complicated division of labor.
)257.
258. The oil Industry helps make India the most densely
populated area in the Eastern Hemisphere.
)258.
259. Irrigation is necessary to produce oranges In
Florida, if the growers are to overcome dry sea­
sons.
)259.
260. Beoause high-grade cotton goods, such as laces,
a
208
gauze, and muslins are manufactured from long fi­
ber cotton plants, specialization in growing this
type of cotton has resulted.
261. Because gold does not exist in all continents,
other valuables must be discovered or cultivated.
( )261.
262. The people of the United States are brought into
international trade because they import ten times
more rice than they export.
( )262.
263. The chief handicap to the growth of sugar and cot­
ton in Australia is the lack of good soil.
( )263.
264. Most of the people of Mexico and Central Amerloa
have settled in the interior regions because lands
are less expensive and more productive there than
265. For more than four centuries European culture and
business methods have dominated the affairs of
people throughout the world.
)265.
266. The discovery of the economic value of tea as a
beverage has placed the industry far above its for­
mer position of importance as a medicine.
)266.
267. Many American citrus growers use the "contract
plan" in selling their fruit because it fits their
supply, labor, and general methods of doing busi­
ness .
)267.
268. There is an abundant source of water power in
Switzerland which facilitates manufacturing.
)268.
269. A need for government arose rapidly when land
ownership passed from common village ownership
to individual ownership.
)269.
270. Although light from very distant stars requires
more than 100,000,000 years to reach the earth,
it has an important bearing on man's activities.
)270.
271. The olive tree does not thrive in regions of dry
summer subtropical climate and therefore requires
man's constructing an irrigation system.
)271.
272. The Mongolian race ranks above the white race in
numbers and in importance in commerce because it
is an older and more enterprising race.
)272 •
209
273. The postal system In the United States does not
provide banking facilities for the people who use
the service because the funds might be dissipated
through government expenditures.
( )273.
274. The earth rotates on its axis from east to west
to give man the law of gravity upon which to
build.
( )274.
275. Limestone is perhaps the most widely used build­
ing stone because of its accessibility and de­
sirable working qualities.
( )275.
276. Denver, Colorado, is well-known as a meat-packing
center employing thousands of summer vacationers
at very low wages.
( )276.
210
Part II.
Directions:Read each
statement In the column at the right
and find In
the column at the left the word or expression
which matches it. Write in the parentheses after the state­
ment the number of the word or expression that matches it,
as shown in
the sample. Thus, in Sample a the expression
that matches Communication was greatly advanced by one im­
portant invention in 1844, is the telegraph and that is No. 2;
so a 2 is placed in the parentheses. Check your answers to
both Part I and Part II if you have time after finishing this
part.
Samples
1. Telephone
2. Telegraph
a. Communication was greatly advanced
by one important invention in
1844.
(2)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
1. The invention of the machine
revolutionized wheat farming
in the United States.
( ) 1.
2. Indispensable protection in
building early American rail­
roads.
( ) 2.
3. Mexico's important industry
which encourages little scien­
tific research.
( ) 3.
4. Encourages economic activities
in the Philippines by buying
most of the exports.
( ) 4.
5. Contributes to the economics of
transporting crude oil from the
fields to the refineries and
shipping ports.
( ) 5.
land rights
the gin
cultivator
the sugar beet
agriculture
Central America
United States
a pipeline
211
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
low planting costs
Wisconsin
Iowa
manganese
copper
distribution of
pollen
7. rice
8. cotton
6. Quality in iron and steel
products determined by
mixture with important
element
( ) 6.
7. Favorable climatic condi­
tions, ample pasturage,
and an organized market
give one state leadership
in the dairy industry
( ) 7.
8
.
One determining factor in
successful apple culture
9. Distinct advantage which
favors sugar industry in
Cuba
10. Characteristic crop fitted
to Egyptian labor and
natural conditions
1. better milk
2. crude oil
3. amateur photogra
phers
4. the NEW YORK market
5. more milk
6. specialized work­
men
7. gasoline
8. denatured alcohol
(
) 8.
( ) 9.
(
)10.
11. The camera industry in Roches­
ter, N. Y., gives employment
to many
(
)11 .
12. The development of Paterson,
N. J., as our leading silk
manufacturing city was easy
because of the city's near­
ness to
(
)12.
13. Dairymen select the Holstein
because they give
( )13.
14. Power used extensively for
locomotives in the Southwest
because of accessibility of
supply
( )14.
15. Refining processes applied
to crude oil give it a new
expensive form recognized
commonly as
( )15.
212
1*
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
vulcanizing process 16. Principal Item which builds
human porter
up the Canadian export trade
airplane
com
17. Charles Goodyear made new
coal
Industrial uses of rubber by
iron ore
oombining It with sulphur and
balloon
other chemicals to give us
wheat
the
( )16.
( )17.
18. Minnesota’s economic wealth
comes naturally because she
contributes about 60# of our
( )18.
19. New frontiers in transporta­
tion were opened up when the
Wright Brothers designed the
first
( )19.
20. Very expensive, yet at times
indispensable in men’s travels
is the
( )20.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
make it pay
seasons
locomotives
coal
sisal hemp
forests
market
are older
21. Much of Mexico’s economic gain
comes through her exporting
large quantities of
( )21.
22. The natural asset which has
and continues to give Canada
great economic security
( )22 .
23. The U. S. leads other nations
in air-mail business today be­
cause our commercial interests( )23.
24. The locomotive manufacturing
industry in Philadelphia profits
much by a location near the
( )24.
25. Durum varieties of wheat are
chosen by farmers to conform
to the
( )25,
213
1. oil heaters
2. through contact
with other parts
of continent in
time of war
3. potatoes
4. wheat
5. smudging processes
6. against famines
7. submarine oable
8. rice
26. Characteristic industry cul­
tivated by India's very lowincome group
( )26.
27. International trade benefited
much by Cyrus W. Field's in­
vention of the
( )27.
28. Growers protect their fruit
from frost byusing
( )28.
29. Because of Its rich food sup­
ply of starch, many growers
specialize in
( )29.
30. Railroad transportation lines
in India today offer great
security.
( )30.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
gasoline
Germany
wheat
west
cotton
the United States
South
tung oil
31* Because of the abundant eastern
supply in the U. S., coal moves
to profitable markets in the ( )31.
32. Raw materials, skilled labor,
and selling genius, center the
world's great manufacturing
business in
( )32.
33. The denatured alcohol indus­
try affords great future pos­
sibilities in replacing our
dissipated supply of
( )33.
34. The building industry has stim­
ulated the paint industry and
this in turn has created a heavy
demand for
( )34.
35. The great Canadian plains favor
her production of
( )35.
214
1. government sub­
sidies
2. transportation
5. climate
4. tax rates
5. wheat
6. coffee
7. c o m
8. grape crops
36. Nearness to supply makes
Sydney, Australia, the great­
est auction market in the
world for
( )36.
37. The State of Louisiana is
able to produce 90# of the
United States1 sugar crop be­
cause of her favorable
( )37.
38. The wine industry has tradi­
tionally found easy existence
in Prance because of her abun­
dant
( )38.
39. Brazil holds an important po­
sition in international trade
largely because of
( )39.
40. Strategic location points for
stockyards enable a lower cost
of raw materials by reducing
the costs of
( )40.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
gum
man-made synthetic
hickory
boat
cottonseed
llama
rail
mineral
41. Industrial power for the most
part is dependent upon coal
which is a
( )41.
42. Industrial scientists have ex­
panded the value of cotton by
utilizing its by-product
( )42.
43. Good prices can be maintained
for one very fine hardwood be­
cause of its value in manu­
facturing wheels, spokes, and
tool handles; it is
( )43.
44. Almost indispensable in man’s
travels in very high altitudes
is the
( )44.
45. Bus transportation rates and
schedules are strongly in­
fluenced by competition re­
sulting from routes by water,
and
215
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Chicago
imports
feeding process
drying process
Philadelphia
exports
agriculture
publishing in­
dustry
46. Apple growers in New York
State avoid losses from
spoilage by surplus crops
by using the
(
)46.
47. The habits and conduct of
millions of people are con­
trolled through New York
City's great
( )47.
48. The industrial and commer­
cial interest of the Middlewest have made our second
largest city
( )48.
49. Although diamonds have little
real use, they add substan­
tially to the economic value
of Brazil's
( )49.
50. The lives of most human beings
in the world are dependent
upon
( )50.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
overflowing
saleable
iron
temperature
machine culti­
vation
6. tin
7. draining moun­
tain slopes
8. specialized
labor
51. Scientific agriculture takes
into consideration the length
of the growing season as de­
termined best by
( )51.
52. Bolivia holds an important
world position in trade be­
cause she contributes approxi­
mately one-fourth of the total
supply of
( )52.
53. The chief value of the Nile
River lies in the fact that it
frequently benefits the sur­
rounding territory by
( )53.
54. Three possible ways for mining
iron ore call for three types
of
( )54,
55. The Orientals use an inexpen­
sive Indigo dye to make their
cheap cotton goods more
( )55.
216
1. human beings
2. economical trans­
portation
3. pineapple fiber
4. rainfall
5* race horses
6* hogs
7. jute produoers
8. capital
56. Elevations above and below
sea level* measured In terms
of altitude, frequently de­
termine the home location of( )56.
57. The demand for a cheap tex­
tile known as burlap has
boomed the industry for
( )57.
58. Agriculture in Australia is
greatly retarded because of
a lack of adequate
( }58.
59. Alaska's mineral resources
are greatly underdeveloped
today because of a lack of
( )59.
60. Pasturage and favorable cli­
mate have helped make Ken­
tucky the state of fine
( )60.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
have been solved
the concrete age
are inevitable
reduced
chicle
the steel age
Increased as a re­
sult of the mixture
8. stimulated
61. By centralizing the rubber
manufacturing industry in
Akron, Ohio, scientific re­
search can be more effective­
ly.
( )61.
62. Man has given the iron age
greater utility by supple­
menting it with
( )62.
63. Advertising has not only
created a bigger demand for
chewing gum, but at the same
time has developed the de­
mand for
( )63.
64. By mixing chicory with coffee
the manufacturer's profits
are
( )64.
65. Because Detroit is the great­
est automobile manufacturing
city in the world, labor prob­
lems
( )65.
217
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
tanning industry
compass
cotton
tea
manufacturing
low
gasoline motor
high
66. Our trade relations with
Japan are somewhat concerned
with the buying of
( )66.
67. The Chrome Process has made
possible many improvements
and economies in the
( )67.
68. Prance is the greatest ironproducing country in the
world and yet does not hold
a similar position in im­
portance in
( )68.
69. The hazards of transportation
by water were greatly reduced
by the invention of
( )69.
70. Since the pottery industry
requires a minimum amount of
raw material and a maximum
amount of skilled labor,
wages in this industry might
be
( )70.
1. should be higher
2. provided from out­
side sources
3. should be lower
4. food possibilities
5. industrial possi­
bilities
6. sea-island cotton
7. legumes
8. the Shoshone Irri­
gation Project
71. The soybean's importance is
the result of Henry Ford's
research into its
( )71.
72. Because Boston is the lar­
gest leather market in the
U. S., pay rolls
( )72,
73. The productivity of Wyoming
agricultural areas has been
materially raised by
( )73.
74. Bad weather is frequently
detrimental to the dairy in­
dustry because often feed must
be
( )74.
75. The strength and safety of
automobile tires depends in
part on a successful crop of( )75.
218
more words are permitted 76. The night letter Is an
Inexpensive form of com­
they cost less to raise
munication because
( )76.
crude oil
he Is Inexpensive
77. M o d e m progress In tele­
the climate Is too dry
vision communication to­
the wireless
day must go baok to the
the address Is not
counted
basic contributions of
( )77.
8. helium
78. The buffalo Is used ex­
tensively In cultivating
rice fields In India be­
cause
( )78.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
79. The difficulties of trans­
porting heavier than air
communication machines
have been overcome by man'
resourcefulness in
( )79.
80. Australia has substituted
the sheep industry for
agriculture because
( )80.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
meat
is not overcrowded
spinning wheel
electrical souroe
loom
limited capital
lard
hinterland
81. The population distri­
bution of the Winnipeg
area looks favorable to
a business man because
this is the world's
largest undisputed
( )81.
82. The cheese industry in
certain densely populated
areas of Europe has grown
rapidly where the people
have discovered its value
as a desirable substitute
for
( )82.
83. The efficiency of our
m o d e m power supply is
much dependent on the
( )83.
84. A machine which has meant
much to create jobs and
profits in the cotton in­
dustry.
( )84.
85. Fishing as an industry
attracts many because it
requires
( )85.
219
Part III.
DirectIona: Each of the following questions Is followed by
four alternative answers, of which only ONE Is correct. Se­
lect the one which Is correct and put Its number In the pa­
rentheses at the right, as shown In the sample. Check an­
swers If time permits.
Sample: In total number of navigable miles, transportation
values of the streams of South America are exceeded by—
(1)those of North America (2) those of Europe (3) those of
Asia (4)those of Africa
(2)
1. Ranchmen Increase their income by specializing In that
Indispensable raw material necessary In the manufac­
turing of parchments, which is—
(1) paper (2) wood fiber (3) sheepskin (4) calf
skin
( ) 1.
2. American oil companies owe much of their economic suc­
cess to the brisk export business of kerosene to—
(1) Europe (2) Asia (3) Africa (4) Central
America
( ) 2.
3. Mid-western Industrial cities are now able to reduce
manufacturing costs by burning natural gas transported
from Texas oil fields in—
(1) large drums (2) high pressure tanks on flat
cars (3) pipelines (4) concentrated liquid form ( ) 3.
4. The commercial development of Canada has been retarded
because of Inaccessible water routes due to the fact
that the rivers—
(1) are too shallow (2) contain many rapids (3) are
icebound most of the time (4) are located too far
away from important commercial centers
( ) 4.
5. Beef exports in the U. S. have shown a decrease because—
(1) the demand has increased here at home (2) for­
eign prices have decreased (3) production has in­
creased in other countries (4) rigid tariff regu­
lations have recently been enacted
( ) 5.
6. Because of desirable trade conditions, one city has
taken the lead in developing commerce in Alaska: this
city is—
(1) Skagway (2) Nome (3) Fairbanks (4) Sitka
( ) 6.
220
7. The moving picture industry operates more economi­
cally in California because—
(1) the climate permits a full year's work sched­
ule (2) land is cheap (3) State laws and regu­
lations are favorable (4) talent is cheap
( ) 7.
8. Ranching is discouraged in China because—
(1) the land is too valuable to be used for graz­
ing (2) the Chinese do not eat meat (3) the
climate is unhealthful for cattle (4) too much
investment would be required in getting started ( ) 8.
9. Water routes generally do not favor low transporta­
tion rates in the interior of the Pacific Coast region
because there is only one important navigable river—
(1) the Columbia (2) the Sacramento (3) the
Deschutes (4) the Rogue
( ) 9.
10. Rome dontinues to be a great city today because of
the influence exercised through its headship of the
Catholic Church under the direction of—
(1) Pope Pius XII (2) Pope Pius XIII (3) Pope
Pius X (4) Pope Pius XI
( )10.
11. Agricultural interests in Egypt are stimulated by the
urge to produce their principal food crop for human
consumption—
(1) c o m
(2) wheat (3) potatoes (4) barley
( )11 •
12. Semi-perishable goods find easy markets today by
using fast railroad service with maximum schedules
between San Francisco and New York requiring—
(1) 1 day (2) 4 days (3) 6 days (4) 8 days
( )12.
13. The operations of the fishing industry are influenced
by the habits of the fish, for example, salmon—
(1) spawn anywhere (2) return to the river of their
birth to spawn (3) spawn only under artificial
control conditions (4)- spawn only in waters where
there is a variety of plant life
( )13.
14. A mineral which promises to give Brazilians plenty of
employment and income in the future is—
(1) iron ore (2) coal (3) oil (4) sulphur
( )14.
15. Nearness to raw materials and cheap power have made—
(1) Denver (2) Minneapolis (3) Fort Worth
(4) Chicago the greatest flour-producing city in
the world.
( )1 5 .
221
16. American farmers solve some of the problems of soil
dissipation by learning to use systems of—
(1) machine cultivation (2) erosion (3) rota­
tion of crops (4) improved methods of cultiva­
tion
( )16.
17.
The one natural condition of plant lifewhich man
can regulate and control is—
(1) drought (2) rain (3) hail storm (4) con­
servation of soil
( )17.
IS. Goal came into commercial importance as a result
of—
(1) cheap labor conditions (2) the discovery of
abundant new supplies (3) the need for a special
fuel for use in making steam (4) a shortage in
the oil supply
( )18.
19. Pew
products manufactured in
thePacificCoastStates
find eastern markets because—
(1) tariffs are too high (2) goods are shipped
to the Orient (3) goods are marketed in Mexico
(4) the goods are consumed locally
( )19.
20. The natural resource which means the most to the
lives of the people of the United States is—
(1) soil (2) iron (3) sulphur (4) oil
(
)20 .
21. The short time of— (1) 6 days (2) 10 days (3) 16
days (4) 24 days required to travel from New York
to San Francisco by water enables a lower freight
rate and encourages more commerce
(
)21 .
22. Troy, New York, is widely known to the business world
as a manufacturing center where specialized labor
and methods are applied to the manufacturing of—
(1) collars, cuffs, and shirts (2) rubber products
and automobile tires (3) tobacco products
(4) automobiles and accessories
( )22 •
23. Japan is handicapped in developing the manufacturing
of pig iron because of—
(1) a lack of sufficient iron ore in Japan proper
(2) inadequate fuel for heating ore (3) a short­
age of skilled labor (4) a shortage in use for
the supply
( )23.
24. Because the American market is crowded with other
fruits, our surplus apples find a ready market in—
(1) England (2) Spain (3) Ireland (4) Australia
( )24.
\
222
25. Ocean-going traffic scheduled between New York and
Calcutta is directed by way of Suez because the route
is—
(1) more scenio (2) shorter (3) milder in climate
(4) better situated to utilize "extra hauls"
( )25.
26. Much of the poor land in Virginia and North Carolina
is the result of—
(1) poor tools for cultivation (2) soil exhaustion
resulting from lack of rotation (3) excess ferti­
lization (4) shortage in the labor supply for
cultivation
( )26.
27. Specialization in the iron Industry has created many
separate and distinct types or divisions of labor, but
all date back to one basic classification—
(1) cast iron (2) pig iron (3) wrought iron
(4) crucible iron
( )27.
28. The manufacturing of that fine white pottery called
porcelain has oome into prominence because of its
protective value—
(1) in sanitation (2) in bathtubs (3) as a noncon­
ductor of electricity (4) in manufacturing fine
art goods
( )28.
29. The difference between life andstarvation on a
Southern farm is often determined by theboll weevil,
which is—
(1) a machine used for picking cotton (2) an lnseot dangerous to the cotton plant (3) the seed
portion of the cotton plant (4) a spraying
process used to combat Insects which damage the
cotton plants
( )29.
30. Crowded conditions in foreign countries create many
undesirable situations unknown to Americans, for
example, the average population density of Italy
is—
(1) about the same as that of the United States
(2) many times greater than that of the United
States (3) less than that of the U. S. (4) sev­
eral times less than that of the U. S.
( )30.
31. The United States and South America now experience
mutual commercial benefits as a result of quick air
, connections provided by—
(1) Pan-American Airways (2) American Transconti­
nental (3) Delta Airways (4) Transcontinental ( )31.
I
223
32. Italy has been handicapped in developing manufac­
turing because of a shortage of—
(1) labor (2) raw materials (3) marketing
facilities (4) coal
( )32.
33. Leadership in the vegetable-canning industry has
given—
(1) Breighton, Colorado (2) Los Angeles, Cali­
fornia (3) Baltimore, Maryland (4) Seattle,
Washington, increased buying power
( )33.
34. Prance exports little, if any, wheat because—
(1) wheat is not grown in Prance (2) the quality
is too poor (3) tariff regulations are too high
(4) the country consumes more wheat than it pro­
duces.
( )34.
35. Ships anchor in San Francisco Bay rather than on
the Pacific side of the city because—
(1) this location affords greater protection
from storms (2) docking rates are cheaper
(3) the Pacific side is more congested (4) the
business section of the city is more accessible
( )35.
36. The farmer has found new profits in the by-products
of corn used as—
(1) food for feeding live stock (2) cellulose
(3) glucose (4) a synthetic base for rubber
( )36.
37. Because nature has provided the idealistic con­
ditions for a profitable crop, most of the land un­
der cultivation in the Hawaiian Islands is devoted
to—
(1) sugar cane (2) tobacco (3) hemp (4) coffee( )37.
38. Platinum is indispensable in certain manufacturing
processes because it—
(1) closely resembles gold (2) is yellow in
color (3) melts at a low temperature (4) re­
sists the action of acids
( )38.
39. Grapefruit growing has became so highly indus­
trialized that a world market has been created,
seeking the greatest supply from—
(1) California and Texas (2) Texas and Florida
(3) Florida and California (4) Florida and
Porto Rico
( )39.
224
40. Statistics during the last ten years show Russia
planning her economic activities to—
(1) gradually minimize wheat growing as an in­
dustry (2) steadily try to regain her former
importance as a wheat-grower (3) give up wheat
growing as rapidly as possible and substitute
something else (4) substitute cotton for wheat
( )40.
41. The most important factor in the study of the
management and operations of commerce and Industry
is—
(1) man (2) power (3) transportation (4) capi­
tal
( )41.
42. Living habits, clothing, food, and general health
are affected by the climate of Southern California,
which is—
(1) dry summer subtropical (2) humid subtropical
(3) humid continental (4) marine west coast
( )42.
43. A farmer's ability to select and cultivate certain
types of—
(1) relief (2) organisms (3) vegetation
(4) moisture, determines the color-composltion
of the soil with which he works
( )43.
44. The forests of Washington are at greater danger of
fire in summer than in winter because—
(1) there is less rain in the summer (2) there
are many careless tourists (3) protective laws
are less strict in summer (4) summer heat waves
encourage fire.
( )44.
45. The language most commonly used by American exporters
with the people of South America Is—
(1) French (2) German (3) Spanish (4) Italian ( )45.
46. Social problems in Japan are aggravated by a dense
population; the average farm usually contains—
(1) less than two acres (2) four to six acres
(3) ten to twenty acres (4) more than twenty
acres
( )46.
47. The farmers of Southern California have absorbed
the losses resulting from dry summers—
(1) by selecting crops which require little
moisture (2) by more intensive cultivation during
the winter rain season (3) by irrigation (4) by
intensive fertilization during the winter
( )47.
1
225
48. Although the oil industry has had popular attention
in Mexico, this country is still able to retain its
position as the world’s greatest producer of—
(1) gold (2) silver (3) lead (4) nickel
( )48.
49. The Suez Canal had an important bearing in stimu­
lating commerce in—
(1) Mediterranean cities (2) State of New York
(3) Central America (4) the states located in
the middle western part ofthe United States
( )49.
50. The machine which has speeded up trading on the
stock market by furnishing up-to-the-minute reports
is the—
(1) mimeograph (2) stock-ticker (3) radio-beam
wave (4) stenotype
( )50.
51. Much of our building industry is dependent for soft­
wood on such trees as—
(1) oak (2) maple (3) gum (4) spruce
( )51.
52. Our imports of Ebony create significant trade re­
lations with—
(1) Central America (2) Canada (3) West Indies
(4) East Indies
( )52.
53. Families of low income frequently substitute legumes
for meat because—
(1) they have a meat-like flavor (2) they are
quicker to prepare and have the same flavor (3) di­
gestion is easier (4) they contribute proteins,
or foods containing nitrogen
( )53.
54. Manufacturing in Argentina is encouraged by—
(1) the presence of highly skilled labor (2) low
and adequate transportation rates throughout the
country (3) governmental favors (4) an abun­
dance of raw materials in agricultural regions
( )54.
55. Suger-beet culture began in Europe**
(1) as a result of an accidental discovery (2) as
a result of France’s being blockaded from her canesugar supply during the Napoleonic Wars (3) as a
result of a greater diversification program for
agriculture (4) as a laboratory practice program
for bacteriologists
( )55.
226
56. The social and economic development of China has
been stimulated by improved transportation, although
their railroad system even today elosely resembles
that of—
(1) Texas in 1820 (2) the United States in 1850’s
(3) modern Europe (4) the Amazon Basin today
( )56.
57. Water commerce in the United States today is depen­
dent in large measure on our—
(1) 10 (2) 40 (3) 60 (4) 80 shipcanals
( )57.
58. The growing season required for tobacco is compara­
tively short; therefore,
(1) the farmer's income is very great (2) un­
employment is made a real problem (3) the far­
mer can plant other crops (4) a minimum amount
of capital is required
( )58.
59. A substantial business with consistentemployment
for those engaged in it is the history of the tan­
ning business in—
(1) New York State (2) Vermont (3) Massachu­
setts (4) Pennsylvania
( )59.
60. The city of Baltimore has grown to be a great can­
ning center because—
Tl) the canneries have more or less regular pro­
duction of oysters in the winter and vegetables
in the warmer seasons (2) labor supply is un­
usually cheap and intelligent (3) government
regulations and taxes are very low (4) the mar­
ket is comparatively new in this area
( )60.
61. The tobacco industry can operate more efficiently
by making snuff as a by-product from—
(1) the dust particles of tobacco (2) a plant
which closely resembles cacao (3) the coffee
plant (4) from dust particles taken from tea
( )61.
62. Most railroads terminate at Oakland rather than
San Francisco because—
(1) the city is smaller (2) San Francisco's
transport codes are too rigid (3) passengers
prefer a scenic bus route (4) a long detour
around the bay is avoided
( )62.
227
63. Two common metals which the United States uses In
large quantities, but for which we must go Into
foreign markets for are;
(1) silver and gold (2) tin and nickel
(3) aluminum and lead (4) zinc and copper
( )63.
64. Argentina possesses a decided advantage over the
United States as a wheat producing country because—
(1) her wheat-producing areas are nearer the
ocean (2) labor is much cheaper (3) the cli­
mate is more favorable (4) individual wheat
farmers are better organized
( )64.
65. The United Kingdom is brought into many channels of
international trade because it imports nearly all
of its—
(1) steel (2) food (3) wool (4) coal
( )65.
66 . Although the poorest of all fibers is—
(1) jute (2) hemp (3) pineapple cloth (4) rayon,
it has a brisk market and benefits the producers
with employment and a living wage
( )66.
67. The city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, has grown unusually fast
because of—
(1) governmental assignments of freeland nearby
(2) no tax plan for the city budget
(3) thedis­
covery of oil (4) the advertising which Will
Rogers gave the city
( )67.
.
68 Although American fur manufacturers have made all
sorts of attempts at imitations, most of the Chin­
chilla fur must be imported from—
(1) Africa (2) Europe (3) South America
(4) Central America
( )68.
69. Prance occupies an unique position in world trade be­
cause she produces half the worldfs supply of—
(1) iron (2) potash (3) beauxite (4) sulphur ( )69•
70. Southern California occupies an important position
in the competitive winter vegetable market because
of advantages afforded her through—
(1) refrigeration (2) lower transportation rates
(5) cheap labor available (4) cooperative growing
associations
( )70.
228
71. The State of— (1) Tennessee (2) Nevada (3) Alabama
(4) California, gives us the Muscle Shoals Dam which,
through its electric power, is a potent factor in
the industrialization of the South.
( )71.
72. Power, machinery, and hand labor go into the process
of removing sugar from sugar-beets by grinding the—
(1) beet tops (2) beet leaves (3) roots of the
plant (4) pulp of the beet body
( )72.
73. Leadership in sugar-beet production has enabled—
(1) the United States (2) Germany (3) Prance
(4) Denmark, to minimize foreign trading in the
sugar market
( )73.
74. Specialized labor operating specialized machines
make Holyoke distinctly—
(1) the paper manufacturing city (2) the center
of a large glass industry (3) capitol city of
Massachusetts (4) the financial center of the
State
( )74.
75. Rapid surface transportation in New England has been
slightly retarded because the country is generally—
(1) mountainous (2) level and rolling (3) low
and fertile (4) hilly and rugged
( )75.
76. The government is thoroughly justified in appropri­
ating funds for the protection of forests because
fires damage the soil structure by—
(1) burning out important minerals (2) removing
clay from the soil (3) adding undesirable chemi­
cals to the soil (4) bringing up undesirable ele­
ments from the lower soil levels.
( )76.
77. A new industry, more profits, and new jobs are the
results of finding an important use for pineapple
fiber; it is—
(1) for fertilization (2) for animal food (3) for
manufacturing pineapple cloth (4) for manufac­
turing baskets
( )77.
78. The invention of new labor-saving machines will
gradually affect the two million people on the earth
by—
(1) giving all more wealth (2) creating a new and
brisk demand for machJ.;ie-made goods (3) reduce
employment and thus lower family income(4) rais­
ing the tax rate for government support
( )78.
229
79. Water power generated at Niagara Palls motivates—
(1) the industries of the United States (2) the
industries of Canada (3) the industries of the
United States and Canada (4) the industries of
New York State only
( )79.
80. For centuries, Mexico’s wealth of silver and— (1) oil
(2) cotton (3) gold (4) grain, has been more
profitable economically than manufacturing.
( )80.
81. Although— (1) the Philippine territory (2) the
Pacific Island (3) the Territory of Alaska
(4) the Panama Canal Zone, is the largest sub­
unit under the United States government, its
natural resources have been more productive
than the original cost of the sub-unit
( )81.
82. Technical employment is found in abundance in
Schenectady, New York, because this city is ex­
tensively engaged in manufacturing—
(1) electric machinery
(2) farm implements
(3) oil well machinery
(4) automobiles
( )82.
83. The— (1) coconut (2) rice (3) abaca (4) sugar
beet, food crop of the Philippine Islands
would be an important life factor in the event
that the Philippines were cut off from foreign
trade sources
( )83.
84. Although the banana plant has a weak stem, ex­
pensive man-made supports are avoided because—
(1) the bananas are not very heavy during growth
(2) all sides of the plant are well balanced
(3) atmospheric conditions absorb a certain
amount of the weight (4) the climate is rela­
tively free from wind
( )84•
85. Because of their drought-resisting qualities, durum
wheats give greater utilization for such agricul­
turally poor areas as—
(1) the Great Plains (2) the Middle-West (3) New
England States (4) GulfStates area
( )85.
86. Because the United States consumes more coffee than
any other country, it is—
(1) sold cheaper here than in any other country
in the world (2) it is one of our leading im­
ports (3) an important source of government
revenue (4) a weaker nation fromthe health point
of view
( )86.
230
87. Climatic conditions along the coastal plains of Peru
are influential in developing the significant indus­
try of—
(1) cattle raising (2) banana raising (3) cotton
raising (4) rubber growing
( )87.
88. The dairy industry in Southern Ontario and Quebec has
distinctly favored by—
(1) mild winters which permit more grazing (2) low
tariffs for exports (3) accessibility to city mar­
kets (4) cheap labor
( )88.
89. (1) Benjamin Franklin (2) Charles Macintosh (3) Eli
Whitney (4) Robert Fulton, revolutionized the cotton
industry with his cotton gin.
( )89.
90. People who live in the banana-growing country must
have their doors and windows screened because—
(1) protection from the natives must be assured
(2) dangerous snakes might intrude (3) the mos­
quitoes in the area carry a contagious disease
(4) the screens filter the intense sun rays
( )90.
91. The invention of the steam engine revolutionized the
industrial world through—
(1) cheap power (2; creating a new demand for coal
(3) creating a market for the by-products of coal
(4) encouraging hand labor
( )91.
92. The growth of Cleveland, Ohio, can be accounted for
by the presence of—
(1) oil (2) rich iron deposits (3) favorable
transportation facilities (4) water-power
( )92.
93. Our machine age is dependent for most of its power on—
(1) coal (2) petroleum (3) natural gas
(4) water
( )93.
94. The reindeer-raising industry of Alaska has little
contact with the foreign markets because it is designed
for—
(1) local use (2) the benefit of tourists along
scenic routes (3) a heavy war-time reserve (4) the
preservation of wild life in the interior of the
Territory
( )94.
95. Compared with sorghums, corn cultivation requires—
(1) about the same amount of moisture (2) much
less moisture (3) more moisture (4) much more
231
moisture plus machine cultivation, and there­
fore is not suited for certain climates
( )95.
96. Cattle are raised in India chiefly because of their
value for—
(1) work (2) exporting (3) religious offerings
(4) food
( )96.
97. The world area suitable for coffee culture is—
(1) greater than that needed for the world demand
(2) less than that needed (3) equal to that
needed (4) rapidly being dissipated
( )97.
PART IV
Directions; Write the answer In the blank space at
the end of each problem or statement. Check answers
if time permits.
Sample: The development of the Pacific Northwest
would likely have not been made possible If it had
not been for our interest In the ¥
industry.
Lumbering
1. Reasonable railroad transportation rates are
assured American tourists because ¥
ownership
stimulates competition___________________ _______
2. The United States Government encourages ¥
production of sugar by discriminating against
foreign imports by means of tariff.
_______
3. The success of the ¥
industry is directly
dependent upon the success of the iron
Industry.
_______
4 . .Most irrigated land is located near a mountainous
section because the rainfall in mountainous
regions is ? than that in lowlands.
_______
5. Improved methods of production and ? have
been the main factors in giving us a cheap .
and abundant fruit supply throughout
the world.
6. Stoppage of the ¥ supply for our machine
age would result in the downfall of our
present civilization.
7. The Isthmus of Panama creates international
relations because it is the connecting point
between South America and ¥ America.
8. The economic importance of a combination of
copper and tin bear specifically on the
closely related ? Industry.
__
9. The development of syiithetics for building
purposes is now dependent upon the passing
of our virgin forests which have been giving
us ¥ lumber prices.
__
233
10. Ilost of the sawmill towns are located on
the lowlands, and near navigable ? In
order to get the benefit of cheap
transportation.
10.
11 . There are limited profits in Cuba’s cane
crop, compared with other areas, due to a
scarcity of
?
11.
12 . Chicago’s strategic location in the agri­
cultural section of the United States makes
it easy for this city to lead all other
cities in the manufacturing of
?
implements.
12.
13. Manufacturing in China is done mainly by
?
thus creating employment which might
otherwise be impossible with machinemethods._______13.
14. Certain types of soil known as ? have
special economic values because of their
utility in making bricks.
14.
15. The orange and lemon groves are placed on
the upper Piedmont slopes because such a
position greatly decreases the hazard of __________15.
16. Labor costs in the dairy industry have been
materially reduced by the invention and
use of a milking machine known as the
_________16.
17. British commercial life is much dependent
upon the buying and selling activities
generated in ? the largest city in the
British Empire.
_________17.
18. Our foreigh contracts for importing lumber
are usually made with our very near
neighbor.
?
18.
19. Even though hard tropical woods were suitable
for our building industry, the ?
costs
would limit wide-spread use in this
country.
19.
20. There are reasons to believe that the moon
has ? to do with weather and crops.
________ 20.
234
21. The most popular .markets for American
exports are Canada and
21
.
22 . Much of Great Britain’s industrial leader­
ship is responsible to her ?
manufac­
turing.
22
.
23. Climatic, as well as commercial reasons,
account for the fact that sixty per cent
of the people of Canada live in the $
lowlands.
23.
24. A lack of unification in population
elements perhaps explains the fact that
the least economically progressive countries
of all Europe are those of the
?
Peninsula.
24.
25. Private owners of railroads in the United
States are subject to control policies
set up by the ? Commerce Commission.
25.
26. The
the
a
the
26.
growth of the motor vehicle industry in
United States has been accompanied by
?
in the number of companies in
industry.
27. The economic value of farm land depends a
good deal upon its accessibility to a
good
?
27.
28. The iron industry in Birmingham has been a
source of much strength in revealing the
commercial strength of the
?
states.
28.
?
race has historically led
29. Because the
the world in commerce, it has also gained
nolitical nositions of importance.
29.
30. The expansion of the steel industry has
heen greatly influenced by the creation of
a new, superior quality of steel through
the
?
furnace method.
30.
31. Phosphate has come into a valuable economic
place in the South where it is used
expensively as a ____ ?
51.
1
235
32. I.Iore than sixty-two per cent of Canada’s
imports are from the
?
33.
Without as much as
?inches
of rain
distributed throughout the year, a land
owner had better substitute another
industry foragriculture.
34. Important industrial users of natural gas
are dependent upon the activities of
the
?
drilling industry.
35.
The turning of our present machine age is
dependent largely upon?
as
a source
of energy..
52.
35.
54.
55.
33. Liodern ocean-going vessels are dependent
upon the
?
Industry as a source
of power.
56.
37. Connections for transportation and commu­
nication account for the development of
Alaskan cities along the southern
?
regions.
37.
38. The banana market has been brought to a
high level in the United States because
of the advertising which has taught the
people that it is valuable as a food
because it contains
?____ .
38.
39. Exporters find Spanish and
?
most
valuable in trading with Brazil.
39.
40. Because Canada is recognized as having
virtually gained a monopoly on the supply
•
she en3°ys certain advantages
in her international trading.
40.
41. Because hens lay
?
quantities of eggs
in the spring, the market price per dozen
freqviently goes down.
__________41.
42. The Gunnison Irrigation Project has defi­
nitely contributed to the yield per acre
on lands of
?___ .
42.
236
43. Corn producing areas may "be extended if new
varieties can be found which will mature
in a
?
season.
43,
44. Nearness to supply, added to marketing
facilities account for the city of
?
leading the fresh-fish market in
New England.
44.
45. The security element accounts in part for
the ninety per cent of the world’s popula­
tion being located on
1
lands.
45.
46. International agreements are frequently
controlled through the language of
diplomats which is
?
.
46.
47. Most of our foreign trade relations in
Western Europe are with Germany and
?
47.
48. The Soo Canal facilitates still lower
water freight rates in the Great Lakes
Region by connecting Lake Superior
and
?
48.
49. Boston’s capital, plant equipment, and
abundant raw materials are essential In
operating a great show manufacturing
industry, but without
?
all of
these are useless.
49.
50. The paint industry's necessary linseed
oil is dependent on skillful extractions
from
?
seed.
50.
51. Because the thermometer drops approximately
three degrees every time an airplane
ascends one
?
feet into the air, the
extreme higher regions are less desirable
for transportation because of the severe
cold.
51.
52. Our chief competitor for the sale of many kinds
of manufactured goods in the Orient is ?___________52.
53. Commercial traffic on the rivers in India
is discouraged somewhat by the services
offered by the
?
lines.
53.
237
5 4
5 5
5 6
.
.
.
5 7 .
5 8
5 9
.
.
The total value of the mineral resources
produced in Alaska has heen
?
than
the amount paid for the Territory by the
United States.
54.
The coffee manufacturing Industry has
heen able to reduce operating costs by
removing the outer skin, or pulp of the
cdffee berries by the use of
?
55.
Banana trees are frequently grown between
the rows of coffee trees to afford protec­
tion from the
?
and wind.
56.
Steel had an important bearing first In the
development of
?
transportation in
the United States.
57.
Many areas in Tropical America specialize
in the production of a single commodity,
and to a large extent depend on trading
with
?
for the things they use
themselves.
58.
The wood pulp necessary for our big pub­
lishing business in the United States comes
from the principal markets of
?
59.
60. Mew York City is the most concentrated
manufacturing district because It Is the
greatest receiving, and
?
point
in the nation.
60.
61. Kew markets have been created as a result
of the work of food specialists, in finding
?
a desirable substitute for meat.
61.
62. Valuable metals located in less accessible
parts of Canada can now be reached
by
?
, thus pointing to the
possibility of another specialized
Industrv in transportation.
62.
63. Because their production methods are
inexpensive, we import millions of pounds
of peanuts every year from the
?
63.
238
64. The building of a railroad bridge at the
city of Quebec has been commercially
beneficial by connecting this city
with
?
ports.
64.
65. Italy has lost most of its ancient importance
as a commercial center since the rounding of
the Cape of Good Hope, and the discovery
of
?
65.
66 . The growth of the iron industry has created
correspondingly a boom for the
?
Industry because this mineral is often
used as a flux in smelting iron.
66.
67. The mining of two tons of iron ore is
necessary to supply the material for
manufacturing
?
ton of pig iron.
67.
58. Cotton-picking labor is paid for on the
basis of
?
pounds than are contained
in a bale after ginning.
CO
CO
69. Now markets have been created as a result
of changing the form of cotton to make it
resemble silk cloth by a process
called
?
69.
70. The physical factor which has the greatest
influence on commerce is
?
.
70.
71. The industry which is most dependent on
the production of sulphur Is the
?
industry.
71.
?
inches of
72. Because the minimum of
rain each season are required to grow rice,
many land-owners have been forced to
soecialize in other crops.
72.
73. Henry Ford's utilization of the soy bean
has meant much in developing this industry
in
?
where the larger part of the
world's cron is produced.
73.
74. Building engineers are dependent on the
supply of cement, gravel, sand, and small
stones to make their fundamental working
material known as
?
.
74.
239
75. Our balance of trade with South American
countries has suffered a great deal due
to the faults of our American Business
?
75
76. Because almost half the world’s supply
of phosphate is produced In the State
of
?
, we enjoy distinct advantages
through our semi-monopolistic position
in the world's market.
76
77. As a source of revenue, our tobacco
business is second only to the
?
tax as a contributor to our Federal
Government.
77.
78. Labor, capital, raw materials, and a ready
market have made the automobile industry
our
1
industry in America today.
78.
79. The Christian
ence aimed at
and political
center of the
79.
religion was a strong influ­
a change in the commercial
life of
?
the ancient
Hebrew religion.
80. T/heat is raised largely as a
?
crop.
81. In terms of thousands of dollars, our
leading exporting business is centered around
the disposition of surplus cotton, machinery,
and
?
.
80.
81.
NORTH TEXAS STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE
Department of Business Education
Denton, Texas
Dear Commercial Teachers
*
I am organizing a research project which will ultimately result
in a major contribution to the teaching of commercial
(economic) geography by providing a desirable testing scale.
I should like to give your school an opportunity to participate
in giving the tests. There is absolutely no cost to your
school; all expenses are prepaid.
If you are interested, fill out the attached card and return
it to me. Answer all questions, and please let me hear from
you by return if you care to be included in this free service.
Hilton D. Shepherd
Assistant Professor of Business Ed.
!"es, I would like to cooperate in giving your economic
'commercial) geography tests to my high school pupils.
address
Name
Possible address this summer
JAme of school
'
>fgg 'of y prir tifgK "gc rrggl"
(enrollment;
rr6'5iKg"'g&'tiir-6f y o u r scri m u i
~
prmcipAI's NameNumber of test copies you
- will give (no. of pupils)
"Latest possible date you Would
be willing to give the tests
240
NORTH TEXAS STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE
Department of Business Education
Denton, Texas
May 24, 1939
Memorandum to:
I appreciate very much your expressed interest in giving my
tests in economic (commercial) geography. An acknowledgment
should have been sent earlier, but numerous last-minute
details have prevented.
Several conditions about the tests may not be clear, and this
is my reason for writing you this note. The project is all
surrounding the process of standardization as you probably
know, and unless certain condition^ are complied with, the
results will be of no value to us. Here are the conditions:
1. Both forms "A" and "B" of the test must be given to the
same students,
(the maximum amount of time required
for each form is two, forty-five-minute classroom periods)
2. The tests are to be graded by the teacher, or agent,
and the top name-sheet with grade returned to me here at
Teachers College. I shall supply you with a "key" with
which to check the papers.
3. The complete examinations taken by the best student and
the complete examinations taken by the poorest student
must be returned to us.
4. Dotailed instructions for conducting the tests will be
supplied with the tests which, of course will bo free
to you including postage.
You will find in tho onclosed sample sheet an illustration of
the type of questions wo are using. Each form, Form "A" and
Form "B" will contain four parts, truo-falso, matching, multiplechoice, and completion questions.
If the above conditions aro satisfactory with you, please write
mo a note to this effect at this bottom of this letter and return
in the enclosed addressed cnvolope. Since our mailing schedule
is under considerable pressuro now for time, let me hear from
you by return, please.
Very sincerely yours,
Assistant Professor of
Business Education
P. S. In the event our printing schodulo is delayed a fow days,
what would bo the latest possible date you could feogin
the tests and allow a maximum number of four days?
sh efh ero 's com m ercial geography t u t
#
MANUAL OF DIRECTIONS
PURPOSE AND NATURE or THE. TEST
THE PURPOSE IN SEVTINS Up THESE MATERIALS IS TO ORGANIZE A RELIABLE
MEASURE OP ACHIEVEMENT IN COMMERCIAL (SOMETIMES CALLED "ECONOMIC")
GEOGRAPHY FOR BOTH PRIVATE AND PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. fHE QUESTIONS ARE DESIGNED TO COVER A FULL COURSE
IN COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY AS REPRESENTED BY ONE SEMESTER'S MORE. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CONTENT AS REPRESENTED
THROUGH THE QUESTIONS IS IN HARMONY MITH THE CONTENT OF NINE-WELlrHtNOMJ TEXTBOOKS, RECOMMENDATIONS OF
TEACHERS OF THE SUBJECT, AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTIONS AS TAKEN FROM OTHER EXAMINATIONS GIVEN BY TEACHERS.
OUTLINES OF COURSES OF STUDY NERE ALSO CHECKED. THE AUTHOR HAS THIEDTO MAKE THIS TEST REPRESENTTHE
FIELD ANDSINCERELY BELIEVES ANY YEACHER HILL FIND IT SUITABLE FOR USE EVEN AS AFINALEXAMINATION
IF
HE SO DESIRES.
Th e t e s t i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o t m o Fo r m s , t h e y a r e ! Fo r m "A" a n d Fo r m " V
each form c o n t a i n s t no
SECTIONS. EACH SECTION CONTAINS THO PARTSI SECTION I CONTAINS FAATS I AND II. SECTION II CONTAINS FARTS
III AND IV.
SECTION I , FART I, A TRUE-FALSE TEST OF 110 QUESTIONS
S e c t i o n I, f a r t II, a m a t c h i n g t e s t o f 35 q u e s t i o n s
S ection
Section
II, f a r t III, a m u l t i p l e -c h o i c e t e s t
II, f a r t IV, a c o m p l e t i o n t e s t o f 27
of
questions
questions—
-t o t a l q u e s t i o n s *
201
for
THE SANE NUMBER ALSO FOR
FORM
FORM
"A"OF THE TEST IS RECOGNIZED BY THE Y 8 U 6 M
TOP SHEET.
"B" OF THE TEST IS RECOGNIZED BY THE
TOP SHEET.
U K
Ea c h
f o r m o f Sh e p h e r d 's Co m m e r c i a l G e o g r a p h y t e s t r e q u i r e s
b e g i v e n t o s e c t i o n I, a n d to m i n u t e s t o S e c t i o n II.
BOTH FORMS
MUST BE GIVEN.
FORM "tf*
FORM "Sf
(SECTION II IS SEPARATED IN ORDER TO MAKE
IT EASY FOR YOU TO GIVE THE TEST IN TNO PERIODS
(SECTION II IS ALSO SEPARATED FOR YOUR.CON­
VENIENCE IN GIVING DURING TNO PERIODS)
SO
minutes norking time,
to
minutes
should
ifc MINUTES
TOTAL TIME REQUIRED IS
APttlJiiaJAPiM flf.TtlOtSI It IS SUGGESTED THAT YOU 61 VS FORM ,
FIRST*’AMO THEN GIVE FORM
*
FARTS I AND II OF EACH FORM SHOULD BE GIVEN THE FIRST SITTING, AND
FARTS III, AND IV THE SECOND SITTING. EACH STUDENT SHOULD BE PROVIOED WITH AT LEAST TNO SHARPENED
AND MEANS FOR ERASING.
PENCILS
THE PERSON GIVING THE TEST SHOULD SAY!
ME ARE NON GOING TO GIVE YOU A TEST IN COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. AS SOON AS YOU RECEIVE A COFY
OF THE TEST? READ THE INSTRUCTIONS ON THE FIRST PAGE AND 00 WHAT YOU ARE INSTRUCTED TO DO...
FILL IN THE BLANK SPACES HHERE YOU ARE ASKED TO WRITE NAME, AGE, DATE, SCHOOL, ETC.
G i v e e a c h s t u d e n t o n e p a p e r , r i g h t s i d e u p . Do n o t d i s t r i b u t e e x t r a
STUDENTS HAVE FILLED IN THE BLANKS ON THE FRONT OF EACH TEST, SAY!
copies of the test.
Af t e r
all the
THIS TEST CONSISTS OF FOUR PARTS. YOU HILL TAKE THO PARTS TODAY AND THO FARTS UTER. THE
TIME LIMiT FOR EACH HALF OF THE TEST HILL BE to MINUTES. SPECIAL DIRECTIONS ARE GIVEN HITH
SAMPLES AT THE BEGINNING OF EACH FART. READ THU CAREFULLY AND PROCEED AT ONCE TO ANSWER THE
QUESTIONS.
YOU ARE NOT EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS? BUT 00 THE BEST YOU CAN AND TRY
TO GET AS MANY RIGHT AS POSSIBLE. DO NOT 60 TOO FAST AND MAKE MISTAKES, YET, YOU SHOULD NOT
SPEND TOO MUCH TIME ON ANY ffii QUESTION. DO NOT ASK THE TEACHER ANY QUESTIONS AFTER THE TEST
BEGINS.
HHEN I SAY "BEGIN". YOU ARE TO TURN OVER THE PAGE TO FART I, READ THE DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY AND
START. TRY TO FINISH ALL OF PART I IN to MINUTES. IF YOU SHOULD FINISH BEFORE I CALL TIME (jO MINUTCs)
GO ON TO PART II. YOU ARE SUPPOSED TO ALLOM 10 MINUTES FOR FART II. IF YOU FINISH FART II B tF O R I
THE TIME IS UP, GO BACK OVER YOUR UORK IN PART I, AND THEN IF YOU STILL HAVE TINE, CHECK OVER FART II.
DO N O T 60 ON TO
PART III.
NON TURN THE PAGE AND BEGIN THE TEST.
HRITE ON THE BLACKBOARD THE TIME IT 13 AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TEST AND MRITE UNDER IT THE TIME IT MILL
BE 50 MINUTES LATER, AND ALSO to MINUTES LATER— SOMETHING LIKE THIS SAMPLE!
S T A R T
9
1
05
B EG IN FART I I
9
1
35
S T O P
9
!
>5
AT THE END OF JO MINUTES, SAY!
ALTHOUGH YOU HAVE NOT FINISHED FART I, STOP WORK ON THAT FART AND GO ON TO FART II. FINISH
FART I LATER, IF YOU HAVE TIME.
AT THE END OF ID MIHUTES (ALLOMINO 10 MINUTES FOR FART ll) SAY!
STOP.
Co l l e c t
TIME IS UP, CLOSE YOUR TUT PAPERS
the test
p a p e r s at o n c e .
242.....
TO A D M INISTER THE SECOND
PAP.T
OP THE
TESTi
BEO IN 80M E TK IN 6 L IK E T H IS t
WF. m i l NON CONTINUE WITH THE SECOND HALF OF THE TEST- MS SHALL NON PASS OUT FARTS III* AND IV.
DO HOT OPEN .THE TESTS UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO. WRITE YOUR NAME IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER AS
DiRi'CfED. (1HI 3 SECTION HAS A WHITE FRONT, 3UT IS A PART OF THE COLORED FORM) YOU HILL
BE .*1.LOWED If MINUTES TO COMPLETE PAST III. AND 25 MINUTES TO COMPLETE PART IV. HOWEVER. IF
YOU FINISH P&RT III BEFORE THE TIME IS ANNOUNCED, GO AHEAD TO PART IV. IF YOU HAVE EXTRA TIME,
CORRECT YOUR HGSK.
READY? EEGIII1
Mr li e
H R IT E
THE TINE IMMEDIATELY
THE TIME FOR "START"
A f THE
ON THE BLACKBOARD, AS EXPLAINED FOR THE F IR S T HALF OF THE TEST ABOVE.
(A DD 15 M INUTES AND W R IT E )
H R IT E THE F IN A L
T IN E .
BEGIN PART IV.
"STOP"
END OF >K> M IN U TES ALLOWED NOR THE TNO FARTS SAYS
S T 0P I
TIME IS UP. CLOSE YOUR PAPERS.
HAVE THE PAPERS COLLECTED IM M ED IA TELY.
D lg K T jp M S FQft SCORI NG
A k e y i s s u p p l ie d a s a s e t o f s u s e E s re o
C M E OF THE TEST I S PERFECTLY S E T .
PLACE
answ ers.
T h e a l l io n m e n t f o r t h e
THE KEY TO
THE RIQHT OF THE
TEST ANSWERS AND DRAM A HORIZONTAL LINE ON THE TEST BOOKLET AFTER EACH RIGHT ANSWER. WRONG ANSWERS
NEED NOT BEMARKED EXCEPT IN PART I.
IN PART I WRONG ANSWERS MUST BE MARKED. A DESIRABLE METHOD
IS TO PUT A CROSS
AFTER EACH WRONG ANSWER.
A f t e r s c o r iw q t h e f i r s t p a r e ,
CONTINUE W ITH THE MARK I MB.
IN GRADING
fold
the
answ er
sheet
(
key)
,
or
s l ip
it
unoer
the
student' s
paper
and
THE ALIIGNHENT OF THE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ARE SET FOR JCfiUB. CONVENIENCE
IMPORTANT! AFTER MARKING THE PAPERS? COUNT THE RIGHT ANSWERS, WRONG ANSWERS, AND OMITTED ANSWERS.
IN PART ! AND ENTER THE NUMBERS IN THE SPACES PROVIDED AT THE END OF THE TEST (PABE 5)
ADO THE NUMBER OF RIGHT, WRONG, ANO OMITTED ANSWERS AT THE LEFT, TO SEETHAT THE SUM EQUALS Stti AS A CHECK.
THEN SUBTRACT THE NUMBER WRONG FROM THE NUMBER RIGHT
TO GET THE SCORE.HRITE THESCORE ON THE FRONT
COLORED SHEET IN THE SPACE PROVIDED.
IN PART II THE SCORE IS THE NUMBER RIGHT. AFTER YOU HAVE COUNTEDTHE NUMBERRIGHT, ENTERTHEFIGURE
AT THE END OF THE TEST WHICH HILL BE PABE 7 (FOR SECTION I) MAKE THESAMECALCULATIONS FOR PAHTSMI
AMD IV.
RECORD ALL SCORES ON THE FRONT OS EACH COLORED SHEET IN THE SPACE MARKED! "STUDENT'S SCORg*
YOUR HELP HERE P L E A S Ell!
You
NEED
Th e r e
JJfll SEND
are
tw o
I.
ALL THE PAPERS BACK TO
t h in b s
to
be returned
THE c o l o r e d t o p s h e e t s
( T H IS A P P LIE S TO FORM
in
w it h
H. 0.
the
Po s t a b e - P
brades
>105 M ARIETTA
SHEPHERD,
for
a io
envelope.
A L L
students
S TR E E T, DENTON, TEXAS
H ere
(
they
w it h
aret
all
da ta
f il l e d
o ut)
"A" YELLOW SHEETS, AND FORM "B" BLUE SH EETS)
Z. THE COMPLETE TEST COPIES (BOTH FORM "A" AND FORM "B"> FOR TKE TWO BEST STUDENTS.ANO THE
COMPLETE TEST COPIES , BOTH FORMS, FOR THE ONE POOREST STUDENT ( I N EACH FORM)
( i n OTHER WORDS, THREE COMPLETE TEST PAPERS H IL L BE RETURNED OUT OF FORM "A" AND
THREE COM PUTE TEST PAPERS H IL L BE RETURNED FOR FORM "B"
— THE THO BEST AND THE
ONE
POOREST
RETURN GRADES JUST AS PROMPTLY AS THEY CAN BE GRADED
BE PROVIDED.
POSTAGE IS PAID AND THE RETURN FORM WILL
\
i
243
SHEPHERD'S COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY TEST
(Samples)
True-False Questions
1. The ootton gin gave man a new industrial frontier.
(
)1
2. Coal mining is a potential source of eoonomio support foi* the
Chinese people.
( )2
3. New
oooupations for
ohemists
have been opened
up asaresultof
the application of chemistry to the reduction of wood topulp.
( )3
4. It has been estimated by authorities that we oould produce sixty
times as many potatoes as we do now without; decreasing any other crop.
4.
5. The land area of Japan is entirely inadequate for the needs of the
people.
5.
6. Many unfavorable conditions to man found in plains-eountry aooount fer
large population settlements.
6.
Matching Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
gasoline
Germany
wheat
west
31. Beoause of the abundant eastern supply in the
United States, coal moves to profitable markets
in the
(
32. Raw materials, skilled labor, and selling genius,
oenter the world's great manufacturing business in(
31.
)32.
c*
. . ,
33. The denatured aloehol industry affords great future
6. the United States
possibilities in replacing our dissipated supply of
)33
7• South
8. tung oil
34. The building industry has stimulated the paint indust: rv
and this in turn has created a heavy demand for
)34
35. The great Canadian plains favor her production ef
)35
Multiple-Choice Questions
2. American oil companies owe much of their eoonomio success to the brisk
export business of kerosene to—
(l) Europe (2) Asia
(3) Afrioa
(4) Central America
4. The commercial development ef Canada has been retarded beoause of inacces­
sible water routes due to the fact that the rivers--
) 2.
) 4.
(1) are too shallow (2) contain many rapids (3) are icebound most of
the time (4) are located too far away from impertant commorcial centers
16.
Amerioan farmers solve some of the problems of soil dissipation by
learning to use systems of—
(1) machine cultivation (2) erosion
methods of cultivation
79.
(3) rotation of crops
)13.
(4) improved
For centuries, Mexico's wealth of silver and— (l) oil (2) ootton (3) gold
has been more profitable economically than manufacturing.
4) grain,
)79
Completion Questions
1. Reasonable riilroad transportation rates are assured Amerioan tourists
beoause
?
ownership stimulates competition.
1.
12. The Isthmustf Panama oreates international relations beoause it is
.the connecting point between South America and
7
Amsrioa.
12
14. Certain types of soil known as 7
have special eoonomio values
beoause of their utility in making Tricks.
14
18. Our foreign oontraots for importing lumber are usually made with
our very near neighbor,
7____ .
1 ;.
Pinal Form
Economic Geography Test
with cross-check
item numbers from
try-out
test
244
FORM “A"
•h
PART I,
SECTION I
DIRECTIONS.
Read the following statements and if you
think the answer is true, place a plus
sign in the parentheses provided at the extreme right.
If you think the answer should be false, indicate the
samw by writing a minus sign in the parentheses provided. If any part of a statement appears false, mark
the question false. If you are undecided whether the
•p !h statement is true or false, do not write anything in
1-1+3 the answer space provided.
+>
©©
-g43
|-p
o
SAMPLE:
0. Relatively little kerosene is
used to produce industrial
power.
(/)
23
1. The fishing industry is neglected in the U. S.
because the labor supply is not adequate . . . ( ) 1.
202
2. Since large areas of thinly settled land no
longer exist for hunting purposes in the U. S.,
man has had to provide other ways of getting
his food supply............................. ( ) 2.
107
3. The prominence of our country in the indus­
trial and commercial world is due, in large
part, to our immense natural wealth........... ( ) 3.
5-55
4. The absence of frost in Cuba makes for a high
yield of sugar per acre...................... ( ) 4 .
50
5. Inaccessibility of pure water supply very often
stimulates a demand for the labor of those who
must pipe the supply from long distances. . . .( ) 5.
136
6. Commerce is a factor in developing civilization,
but civilization is not a factor in developing
commerce.
......................... ( ) S «
39
123
7. The nitrate mines in northern Chile are prof­
itable to man's use in spite of the hardships
and inconveniences of the source
( ) 7.
8. The experience and industry of the Chinese
people naturally give them control of the
iron and steel industries in Japan............ ( ) 8.
245
(FORM "A" CONTINUED)
189
9. Much coal finds Its way Into distant indus­
trial centers as a result of economic trans­
portation facilities brought about by cheap
"return hauls" encouraged by prime marketing
activities.................................. ( ) 9.
153
10. California's place in the fruit and vege­
table trade has been made strong by Califor­
nia's perfection of the fruit drying process..( ) 10.
125
11. Vegetable dyes are finding a popular market
because they are less expensive’than mineral
dyes.
.............................. ( ) 11.
84
252
12. kany Chinese economic ills could be cured
if China would take advantage of her under­
developed coal resources
( ) 12.
13. The peach is an insignificant fruit crop in
the South because labor lav/s specify a wage
payment plan too high to leave any profit
in the industry
( ) 13.
273
14. The postal system in the United States does
not provide banking facilities for the people
who use the service because the funds might
be dissipated through government
expend!tures
( ) 14.
253
15. Banana plantations in Costa Rica are green
twelve months of the year because they have
killing frosts.............................. ( ) 15.
191
16. The American tobacco habit has made it possi­
ble for us to reduce the annual per capita
consumption of sugar in the United States
to less than twenty-five pounds.............. ( ) 16.
269
17. A need for government arose rapidly when land
ownershin passed from common village owner­
ship to Individual ownership.
( ) 17.
166
18. The discovery of the economic value of tea
as a beverage has placed the industry far
above its former position of importance
as a medicine............................
()18.
246
(FORM "A" CONTINUED)
190
19. The superior quality of Argentine wool enables
the growing industry to command a higher
price for their product In the world's
market......................................( ) 19.
272
20. The Mongolian race ranks above the white
race in numbers and in importance in commerce
because it is an older and more enterprising
race
( ) 20.
127
21. 'The development of a manufacturing process
for artificial silk, known as raycn has
stimulated a great demand for wood pulp. . .
( ) 21.
22. Inexpensive Japanese labor on the Atlantic
coast favors the growth of the redwood
tree industry
( ) 22.
23. One reason why photographic films can be
manufactured reasonably is because the
essential cellulose is taken economically
from corn stalks
( ) 23.
182
149
158
24. The cast system encourages the commercial
development of India today............. . . ( ) 24.
268
25. There is an abundant source of water power
in Switzerland which facilitates manufacturing ( ) 25.
198
26. The abundance of cane sugar in the United
States has made the demand for experimenting
with sugar beets nil .....................
. ( ) 26.
106
27. A promising field of wood utilization is
the distillation of both hard and soft woods.
( ) 27.
28. For more than four centuries European
culture and business methods have dominated
the affairs of people throughout the world..
( ) 28.
29. The gradual increase in the depth of coal
mines in Great Britain accounts for an
increase in mining costs
( ) 29.
265
60
271
30. The olive tree does not thrive in regions of
dry summer subtropical climate and therefore
requires man's constructing an irrigation
system
( )30.
247
(FORM "A" CONTINUED)
203
31. Producing countries desire friendly rela­
tions with, the United States because we
consume more cacao than any other country
in the world.............................. (
249
32. Scientists hold little hope in the possibil­
ities of using the sun's energy directly
in man-made machines...................... (
240
33. Although rye is superior to wheat in quality
as a bread maker, its price is too high to
encourage a brisk bread market............. (
256
34. Weeding is necessary in growing wheatbecause
the weeds come up more rapidly thanthe wheat
and destroy the wheat crop.................(
196
35. Fishermen have not been able to conquer the
danger of banks, or continental margins of
deep water unfavorable to good fishing. . . (
241
36. Successful cooperative organizations have
solved the problems of Italian agriculture. (
140
37. Africa's distinctive irregular coast line
is valuable for transportation purposes. .
(
25
38. The difficulty of securing land permits has
retarded the development of the natural
resources of the tropics...................(
185
39. Sum is the most prized of the softwoods be­
cause of its excellent working qualities
which enable manufacturers to speed up their
production schedules...................... (
231
40. We are somewhat dependent on other countries
for importations of lumber.................(
274
41. The earth rotates on its axis from east to
west to give man the lav/ of gravity upon
which to build............................ (
108
42. Climatic conditions in South Africa make the
rAising of livestock an unprofitable phase
of agricultural life...................... (
248
(FORM "A” CONTINUED)
248
43. Westerlies are much more regular and steady
in their speed than trade-winds are, there­
fore, assist ocean-going vessels
( ) 43.
235
44. Because no location point in Cuba can be
more than ten miles from the coast, ocean­
going vessels are benefitted in having close
points of contact.
.............7 . . ( ) 44.
115
45. The fact that the United States imports large
quantities of eggs indicates that our poultry
business at home is underdeveloped......... ( ) 45.
178
46. The manufacturing of pencil erasers from
raw rubber is just another example of how
resourcefiil manufacturers have developed
synthetic processes.....................
SB
44
( ) 46.
47. Airplane transportation liners are benefited
in high altitudes because the upper layers
of the atmosphere consist largely of those
gases which are lighter than those of the
lower atmosphere
( ) 47.
48.
As early as 1890 the development of the a^^tomobile created a ndw and vital demand for
iron and steel in the United States. . . .
( ) 48.
184 49. hany social problems are brought under imme­
diate control today by the police's key tool,
the telegraph
( ) 49.
159. 50. Forests insure against serious soil erosion
and dissipation of man's capital investment.( ) 50.
If you finish this part of the test before the
time is up, continue with Part II.
Number right........
Number wrong........
Number omitted.......
Total should be
50
Number right minus number wrong_____
(Score)
249
FORM "A"
'H
try-out test
ti
PART II
SECTION I
DIRECTIONS. Read each statement in the column at the
right and find in the column at the left
the word or expression which matches It. Write in
the parentheses after the statement the number of the
word or expression that matches it, as shown in the
sample.
SAMPLE:
1. Telephone
Communication was greatly advanced by
2. Telegraph
one important invention in 1844. . . ( ) 0.
42
83
76
52
1. the volume is
greater
2. stock rights
3. a pipeline
4. flax
5. cottonseed
6. electrical
sources
7. more words are
permitted
8. tin
1. Industrial scientists have
cotton by utilizing its
by-product.
.......... (
2. Contributes to the economies
of transporting crude oil
from the fields to the refin­
eries and shipping ports. . (
3. The efficiency of our modern
power supply is greatly
dependent upon.............. (
4. The night letter is an inex­
pensive form of communication
because.................... (
5. Bolivia holds an important
world position in trade be­
cause she contributes approx©
imately one-fourth of the
total supply of............. (
) 1.
) 2.
) 3.
) 4.
) 5.
250
(FORM "i "
72
51
4
15
71
34
8
48
1.
2.
3.
4.
gasoline
gum
temperature
good working
conuicions
5. Canada
6..United States
7. industrial
possibilities
8. sood roads
PART II
SECTION I
CONTINUED)
6. Because Boston is the larest leather market in the
United States, this city
should enjoy.............. (
7. Scientific agriculture takes
into consideration the
length of the growing sea­
son as determined best by..(
8. Encourages economic activi­
ties in the Philippines by
buying most of the exports (
9. Refining processes applied
to cr'ade oil give it a new
expensive form recognized
commonly as. .
......... (
10. The soybean's importance
today is the result of Henry
Ford's research into its. .(
1. tung oil
2. distribution 0f
pollen
3. Chicago
4. hinterland
5. exports
6. St. Louis
7. city
8. imports
1
1
.
1
2
.
1 3
.
) 6.
) 7.
) 8.
) 9.
) 10.
The building industry has
stimulated the paint indus­
try and this in turn has cre­
ated a heavy demand for... ( ) 11.
One determining factor in
successful apple culture.. ( ) 12.
The industrial and commercial
interests of the I.IiddleY/est have made our second
largest city.............. ( )
The population distribution
of the Winnipeg area looks
favorable to a business man
because this is the world's
largest undisputed. . . .
( )
Although diamonds have little
real use, they add substan­
tially to the economic value
of Brazil's .............. ( ■£
1 3 .
81
1
4
.
1 4 .
49
1 5
.
1 5 .
1
251
(FORI,! "A"
22
57
69
1. forests
2. jute pro­
ducts
3. are protec­
ted by unions
4. Germany
5. the U. S.
6. the compass
7. are inevitable
8. exports
32
44
84
11
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
butter
automobiles
manganese
flax
loom
specialized
workmen
7. llama
8. meat-
SECTION I
CONTINUED)
The natural asset which has
and continues to give Canada
great economic security.. . (
The demand for a cheap tex­
tile known as burlap has
boomed the industry for ... (
The hazards of transporta­
tion by water were greatly
reduced by the invention of (
Raw materials, skilled labor,
and selling genius, center
the world’s greatest manufac­
turing business in . . . . (
20. Becau.se Detroit is the great­
est automobile manufacturing
city in the world, labor
problems...............
(
1 6
1 7
1 8
1 9
65
82
PART II
.
) 16.
.
) 17.
.
) 18.
.
) 19.
) 20 .
21. Quality iron and steel pro­
ducts are determined by mix­
ture with one important
element...............
( )
22. The cheese industry in cer­
tain densely populated areas
of Europe has grown rapidly
where the people have discov­
ered its value as a desirable
substitute f o r ............ ( )
23. Almost indispensable in man’s
travels in very high alti­
tudes is t h e .............. ( )
24. A machine which has meant
much to create jobs and
•orofits in the cotton indus­
try ...................... ( )
25. The camera industry in Roches©
ter, N. Y. gives employment
to m a n y
( )
If you finish this part of the test before the time is up,
check over your paper.
Number right........
(Score)
21 .
22 .
23.
24.
25.
Name
Section
Total time used in writing
Section II
FORM "A"
g
*H-g
©
© -p
>9
g-g
PART III.
MULTIPLE-CHOICE
DIRECTIONS. Each of the following questions Is
followed by four alternative answers, of which
only ONE Is correct. Select the one which is
correct and put Its number in the parentheses at
the right, as shown in the sample. Your score
will be based on the number of correct answers.
Omissions are counted as incorrect answers.
SAMPLE:
In total number of navigable miles,
transportation values of the streams of South
g >, America are exceeded by (1) those of North Amer® £ ica (2) those of Europe (3) those of Asia
h
(4) those of Africa............................. (2)
a
26
31
37
o
0.
1. Much of the poor land in Virginia and North
Carolina is the result of— (1) poor tools for
cultivation (2) soil exhaustion resulting
from lack of rotation (3) excess fertiliza­
tion (4) shortage in the labor supply for
cultivation................................ ( )
1.
2. The United States and South America now ex­
perience mutual commercial benefits as a re­
sult of quick air connections provided by—
(1) Pan-American Airways (2) American Trans­
continental (3) Delta Airways (4) Trans­
continental................................ ( )
2.
3. Because nature has provided the idealistic
conditions for a profitable crop, most of the
land under cultivation in the Hawaiian Islands
Is devoted to— (1) sugar cane (2) tobacco
(3) hemp (4) coffee....................... ( )
3.
253
(FORM "A" CONTINUED)
38
4. Platinum is indispensable in certain manu­
facturing processes because it— (1) closely
resembles gold (2) is yellow in color
(3) melts at a low temperature (4) resists
the action of acids............................. 4.
49
5, The Suez Canal had an important bearing in
stimulating commerce in— (1) Mediterranean
cities (2) State of New York (3) Central
America (4) the states located in themiddle
western part of the United St a t e s . ......... ()
5.
6. Coal came into commercial importance as a re­
sult of— (1) cheap labor conditions (2) the
discovery of abundant new supplies (3) the
need for a special fuel for use in making
steam (4) a shortage in the oil supply. . .( )
6.
7. The fanners of Southern California have ab­
sorbed the losses resulting from dry summers
— (1) by selecting crops which require little
moisture (2) by more intensive cultivation
(3) by irrigation (4) by intensive fertili­
.............. ( )
zation during the winter.
7.
8. Nearness to raw materials and cheap power
have made— (1) Denver (2) Minneapolis
(3) Fort Worth (4) Chicago, the greatest
flour-producing city in the world......... ( )
8.
9. Social problems in Japan are aggravated by
a dense population; the average farm usually
contains--(l) less than two acres (2) four
to six acres (3) ten to twenty acres
(4) more than twenty acres............... ( )
9.
18
47
15
46
75
10. Rapid surface transportation in New England
has been slightly retarded because the coun­
try is generally— (1) mountainous (2) level
and rolling (3) low and fertile (4) hilly
and rugged................................ ( ) 10.
55
11. Sugar-beet culture began in Europe— (1) as a
result of an accidental discovery (2) as a
result of France's being blockaded from her
cane-sugar supply during the Napoleonic Wars
2 54
(FORM "A" CONTINUED)
(3) as a result of a greater diversification
program for agriculture (4) as a laboratory
practice problem for bacteriologists. . . . ( ) 11 .
48
12. Although the oil industry has had popular
attention in Mexico, this country is still
able to retain its position as the world's
ireatest producer of— (1) gold (2) silver
,3) lead (4) nickel...................... ( )
12 .
56
13. The social and economic development of China
has been stimulated by improved transporta­
tion, although their railroad system even to­
day closely resembles that of— (1) Texas in
1820 (2) the United States in 1850 (3) mod­
ern Europe (4) the Amazon Basin today. . . ( ) 13.
66
14. Although the poorest of all fibers is—
(1) jute (2) hemp (3) pineapple cloth
(4) rayon, it has a brisk market and bene­
fits the producers with employment and a
living wage................................ ( )
14.
65
15. The United Kingdom is brought into many
channels of international trade because it
imports nearly all of its— (1) steel (2) food
(3) wool (4) coal......................... ( ) 15.
52
16. Our imports of Ebony create significant
trade relations with— (1) Central America
(2) Canada (3) West Indies (4) East Indies( ) 16 .
96
17. Compared with sorghums, corn cultivation re­
quires— (1) about the same amount of moisture
(2) much less moisture (3) more moisture
(4) much more moisture plus machine cultiva­
tion, and therefore is not suited for certain
climates......... .......................... ( ) 17.
73
18. Leadership in sugar-beet production has en­
abled— (1) the United States (2) Germany
(3) France (4) Denmark, to minimize foreign
trading in the sugar market.
18.
i
255
(FORM "A” CONTINUED)
23
19. Japan is handicapped in developing the manu­
facturing of pig iron because of— (1) a lack
of sufficient iron ore in Japan proper
(2) inadequate fuel for heating ore (3) a
shortage of skilled labor (4) a shortage in
use for the supply......................... ( ) 19.
64
20. Argentina possesses a decided advantage over
the United States as a wheat-producing coun­
try because— (1) her wheat-producing areas
are nearer the ocean (2) labor is much cheap
er (3) the climate is more favorable (4) in
dividual wheat farmers are better organized.(
) 20 .
If you finish this part of the test before the time is up,
check over your paper.
Number right...........
(Score)
256
FORM. "A”
PART IV.
SECTION II
COMPLETION
^ J®
DIRECTIONS. Write the answer in the blank space
at the end of the problem or statement. Check
answers a second time if you finish before the
time is up.
© -p
'§43
gg
i
© £*
43 +3
H
10
34
SAMPLE: The development of the Pacific Northwest
would likely have not been made possible if it
had not been for our interest in the
?
industry..............
lumbering
( )
1.
1. Most of the sawmill towns are located on the
lowlands, and near navigable
?
in order
to get the benefit of cheap transportation
2. Important industrial users of natural gas
are dependent upon the activities of the
?
industry............ _.
( )
1.
( )
2.
54
3. The total value of the mineral resources pro­
duced in Alaska has been
?
than the
amount paid for the Territory by the United
States
( ) 3.
31
4. Phosphate has come into a valuable economic
place in the South where it is used exten­
sively as a ~ ?
78
( ) 4.
5. Labor, capital, raw materials, and a ready
market have made the automobile industry our
?
industry in America today............
( ) 5.
25
6. Private owners of railroads in the United
States are subject to control policies set
up by the
?
Commerce Commission........
....... T7T77
67
( ) 6.
7. The mining of two tons of iron ore is neces­
sary to supply the material for manufacturing
?
ton of pig iron
( ) 7.
257
(FORM "A" CONTINUED)
57
8. Steel had aii Important bearing first in the
development of
?
transportation in the
United States..............
( ) 8.
15
9. The orange and lemon groves are placed on
the upper piedmont slopes because such a po­
sition greatly decreases the hazard of
?
...........................
( ) 9.
74
10. Building engineers are dependent on the sup­
ply of cement, gravel, sand, and small stones
to make their fundamental working material
( ) 10.
known as...................
58
11. Many areas in Tropical America specialize in
the production of a single commodity, and to
a large extent depend on trading with
?
for the things they themselves use.........
( ) 11 .
62
12. Valuable metals located in less accessible
parts of Canada can now be
reached by
?,
thus pointing to the possibility of another
specialized industry in transportation.....
( ) 12.
77
13. As a source of revenue, our tobacco business
is second only to the
?
tax as a con­
tributor to our Federal Government..........
( ) 13.
2
14. The United States Government encourages
?
production of sugar by discriminating against
foreign imports by means of tariff.........
( ) 14.
69
15. New markets have been created as a result of
changing the form of cotton to make it re­
semble silk cloth by a process called
?
..........................
( ) 15.
If you finish before the time is up, recheck your paper.
Number right...... .
Score, Section II, Part IV
258
FORM "B"
•H+j
u ©
g-g
o
g^
PART I, SECTION I
DIRECTIONS. Read the following statements
and if you think the answer Is true, place
a plus sign in the parentheses provided at
the extreme right. If you think the answer should be false, indicate the same by
writing a minus sign in the parentheses provided. If any part of a statement appears
false, mark the question false. If you are
undecided whether the statement is true or
false, do not write anything In the answer
space provided.
H
SAMPLE: 0. Relatively little kerosene is
used to produce Industrial power.......... ( )
109
80
114
18
187
64
16
0.
1. India benefits commercially be selling
large quantities of jute to American manu­
facturers which are used In the making of
twine and sacks........................... ( )
1.
2. The moon exercises more influence on man’s
economic activities than the sun. . . . . . ( )
2.
3. America's desire for Central America's
coffee and banana exports encourages favor­
able trade relations between the two coun­
tries.................................... ( )
3.
4. The accessibility and abundance of the sup­
ply of fish encourage large numbers of peo­
ple in China, Japan, and northwestern Europe
to select the fishing industry. . . . . . . ( )
4.
5. Climatic conditions have influenced the lo­
cation of the majority of the Canadian peo­
ple in the milder regions near the states
which border Canada....................... ( )
5.
6. The people of Mexico do not depend primari­
ly on manufacturing for their economic wel­
fare
. .( )
6.
7. The land area of Japan is entirely inade­
quate for the needs of the people......... ( )
7.
■
259
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
91
172
8. Because coffee cannot be grown economically
in the United States, we are foroed to bar­
gain with other countries to buy 40$ of the
world's crop.............................. ( )
8.
9. The nature of Japan's important silk indus­
try is well suited to the country's handi­
cap of being small in size................ ( )
9.
31
10. Easy access to coal and iron deposits has
made England a highly industrialized nation( ) 10.
102
11. Religious festivals and holidays frequently
encourage commerce........................ ( ) 11.
156
12. Farmers in the Amazon Basin have selected
the wheat growing industry because of the
cool climate in the Amazon Basin........ .. ( ) 12.
257
13. The great variety of goods manufactured
from rubber requires many processes in the
factory and a complicated division of la­
bor
( ) 13.
14. The introduction of irrigation works has
discouraged the utilization of the Nile
River in Egypt
( ) 14.
117
227
15. The olive industry in Spain and Italy con­
tributes little to employment in these
countries because it is an industry ofminor
importance in world trade
( ) 15.
21
16. A lack of skilled labor along the Atlantic
Coast seems to discourage the permanency of
cotton-manufacturing in the statesalong the
Atlantic
( ) 16.
61
17. Resort centers have been profitably located
near large bodies of water because the cli­
mate of the surrounding region tends to be
made steady and constant
( ) 17.
260
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
160
18. Commercial development between Spain and
France has been retarded historically by
the Pyrenees Mountains
( ) 18
68
19. Our sugar trade with Cuba is a contributing
factor to our political relations with Cu­
ba.........................................( ) 19
112
20. The development of railroad transportation
in India has aided materially in increasing
famines in the country.................... ( ) 20
218
21. When the farmer plans his crop, it is im­
portant for him to know that the total
amount of rainfall is more important to
him than the seasons during which it falls.( ) 21
37
145
22. A snow cover in winter is detrimental to
winter wheat, therefore farmers in cold
climate are forced to substitute other
crops
( ) 22
23. The scarcity of mineral resources in
Australia makes this a very non-progressive
country
. . . . . . . ( )
23
138
24. Because the climate in Australia is not de­
sirable for sheep-raising, Australianshave
been forced to enter other industries.
.. ( ) 24
236
25. Improved transportation and communication
have made man more dependent on his home
area for the essentials of life.......... (
179
20
103
) 25
26. The national boundaries set by the moun­
tains for Czechoslovakia have little In­
fluence In building their distinct national
life...................................... ( ) 26
27. Many unfavorable conditions to man found in
plains-country account for large population
settlements.............................. (
) 27
28. Political influence first gave Quebec, Canada,
a beginning upon which important commercial
centers were later founded
( ) 28
261
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
216
29. The whaling industry attracts fishermen
generally because It requires little capi­
tal and a minimum amount of skill and ex­
perience...........
( ) 29.
131
30. Extensive sheep raising and agriculture can
be carried on at one and the same time and
place.....................
( ) 30.
111
31. The superiority of pulled wool over sheared
has concentrated the industry on the "pulled"
variety.
..................... ( ) 31.
104
32. Abundant cheap Mexican labor at Galveston,
Texas, has boomed manufacturing to a higher
level of Importance than commerce......... ( ) 32.
192
33. Climatic conditions would prevent Russia's
becoming a great wheat-growing country. . .( ) 33.
210
34. The low price of Mexico's grapefruit has
forced Texas citrus growers to place grape­
fruit secondary in their cultivation inter­
( ) 34.
ests.....................
276
35. Denver, Colorado, is well-known as a meat­
packing center employing thousands of sum­
mer vacationers at very low wages......... ( ) 35.
228
36. Early American settlers guarded the economic
values of their crops and land by building
effective conservation programs........... ( ) 36.
96
37. Because the American motorist uses only
about 5% of the energy in a gallon of gaso­
line, it would seem that we are dissipating
our oil resources......................... ( ) 37.
225
38. The use of the mulberry tree as a source of
food for millions of hookworms in Japan,
China, and India has discouraged hand labor
formerly employed in feeding the worms. . .( ) 38.
259
39. Irrigation is necessary to produce oranges
In Florida, If the growers are to overcome
dry seasons................... . . . . . . ( )
39.
262
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
166
40. Irrigation was unknown in this country be­
fore the day of the white man because virgin
soil required little water
( ) 40
247
41. Mountain slopes make undesirable agricul­
tural lands because of the expense of irri­
gating the higher levels................... ( ) 41
73
42. The banana tree is a more delicate growth
than the cacao tree and therefore requires
special labor in its care.
( ) 42
163
43. The Panama Canal Zone is made to include
the land on four sides of the Canal to
equalize international relations........... ( ) 43
51
44. Little importing of wool is necessary to
satisfy our mills' demands because our
domestic supply in this country is plenti­
ful
( ) 44
230
45. Because manufacturing of cotton began many
years before the manufacturing of wool, ex­
perience has made the cotton industry more
economical and scientific in its production
processes
( ) 45
46
46. Japan's international trade centers around
the imports of textiles and raw silk. . . .( ) 46
264
47. Most of the people of Mexico and Central
America have settled in the Interior regions
because lands are less expensive and more
productive there than in other regions. . .{ ) 47
55
48. Rivers in Africa play an important part in
African commerce........................... ( ) 48
81
49. The importation of the rubber tree to the
Americas gave the inhabitants a new source
of economic wealth.........................( ) 49
129
50. Early savage tribes found medical uses for
cocaine, which they took from the cacao
. trees
. . . . ( )
50
r
263
(FORM "B11 CONTINUED)
If you finish this part of the test before
the time is up, continue with Part II.
Number right...........
Number wrong...........
Number omitted.........
Total should be 50.
Number right minus number wrong
_____
(Sc ore)
FORM "B11 PART II
SECTION I
DIRECTIONS. Read each statement in the column
at the right and find in the column at the left
c
the word or expression which matches it. Write
■n n *n tiie parentheses after the statement the num* © ber of the word or expression that matches it,
Jo43 as shown in the sample.
a
a o SAMPLE:
S
jS£ 1. Telephone 0. Communication was greatly adh
2. Telegraph
vanced by one important in­
vention in 1844.............. (2)
19
63
27
35
53
1. chicle
2. submarine
cable
3. rice
4. steamboat
5. wheat
6. overflow­
ing
7. connecting
lnexpensive ship­
ping
routes
8. airplane
0.
1. New frontiers in transportation
were opened up when the Wright
Brothers designed the first. .( )
2. Advertising has not only cre­
ated a great demand for chew­
ing gum, but at the same time
has developed the demand for. ( )
3. International trade benefited
much by Cyrus W. Field's in­
vention of the............... ( )
4. The Great Canadian Plains favor
the production of
( )
4,
5. The chief value of the Nile
River lies in the fact that
it frequently benefits the
surrounding territory by. .
5.
( )
265
(FORM HBM CONTINUED)
21
41
50
54
6. Much of Mexico's agricul­
1. Shoshone
tural wealth comes through
Irrigation
her exporting large quan­
Project
2. agriculture
tities of
. .(
3. crude oil
4. sisal hemp
7. Industrial power for the
most part is dependent upon
5. a mineral
6. specialized
coal which is.............. (
labor
7. limited capi­ 8. The lives of most human
tal
beings in the world are de­
pendent upon the industry of(
8. T. V. A.
Project
9. Three possible ways for min­
ing iron ore stimulate three
.........
. (
types of. .
.
)
6
)
7.
)
8
j
9.
.
75
10. The productivity of Wyoming
agricultural areas has been
materially raised by the. . ( ) 10 .
85
1. specialized 11. Fishing as an industry
labor
attracts many because it re­
2. limited
quires.
( ) 11 .
capital
3. transporta­ 12. Strategic location points
tion
for stockyards enable a lower
4. human beings
cost of raw materials by re­
5. South
ducing the costs of
( ] 12 .
6. gasoline
7. We st
13. Elevations above and below
8. seasons
sea level, measured in terms
of altitude frequently deter­
mine the home location of. .( ] 13.
40
56
25
14. Durum varieties of wheat are
chosen by farmers to conform
to the
( ] 14.
31
15. Because of the abundant east­
ern supply in the United
States, coal moves toprofit­
able markets in the
( j 15.
266
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
33
58
78
1. California
2. curtailed
3. sulphur
mines
4. Wisconsin
5. stimulated
6. gasoline
7. rainfall
8. he is inexpensive
61
16. The denatured alcohol indus­
try affords great future pos­
sibilities in replacing our
dissipated supply of........ ( ) 16.
17. Agriculture in Australia is
greatly retarded because of
a lack of adequate.......... ( ) 17.
18. The buffalo is used exten­
sively in cultivating rice
fields in India because. . . ( ) 18.
19. By centralizing the rubber
manufacturing industry in
Akron, Ohio, scientific re­
search can be more effective­
ly
( ) 19.
20. Favorable climatic conditions,
ample pasturage, and an or­
ganized market give one state
leadership in the dairy in­
dustry...................... ( ) 20 .
16
26
80
20
18
1. lead
2. rice
3. human
porter
service
4. wheat
5. the climate
is too dry
6. labor costs
are too
high
7. tobacco
8. iron ore
21. Principal item which builds
up the Canadian export trade.( ) 21 .
22. Characteristic Industry cultivated by India's very low
Income group................. ( ) 22 .
23. Australia has substituted the
sheep industry for agriculture
because............ . . . . ( )
23.
24. Very expensive, yet at times
indispensable in man's travels
is the...................... ( ) 24.
25. Minnesota's economic wealth
comes naturally because she
contributes about 60$ of our.( ) 25.
If you finish this part of the test before the time
is up, check over your paper.
Number right
.....
(Score)
267
Name___
Section
Total time used in writ
ing Section II
FORM "B"
PART III.
SECTION II
MULTIPLE-CHOICE
DIRECTIONS. Each of the following questions is
followed by four alternative answers, of which only
ONE is correct. Select the one which is correct
c and put its number in the parentheses at the right,
^ roas shown in the sample. Your score will be based
on the number of correct answers. Omissions are
&
counted as incorrect answers,
a -p
3 rs
o SAMPLE: In total number of navigable miles, transg >, portation values of the streams of South America
are exceeded by (1) those of North America (2) those
h
of Europe (3) those of Asia (4) those of Africa. (2)
24
45
50
13
0.
1. Because the American market is crowded with
other fruits, our surplus apples find a ready
foreign market in— (1) England (2) Spain
(3) Ireland (4) Australia
(
) 1.
2. The language most commonly used by American
exporters with the people of South America is
— (l)French (2) German (3) Spanish (4) Ital­
ian.......................................... (
) 2.
3. The machine which has speeded up trading on
the stock market by furnishing up-to-the-minute
reports is the— (1) mimeograph (2) stockticker (3) radio-beam wave (4) stenotype. . ( )
4. The operations of the fishing industry are in­
fluenced by the habits of the fish, for exam­
ple, salmon— (1) spawn anywhere (2) return
3.
268
(FORM "E” CONTINUED)
to the river of their birth to spawn (3) spawn
only under artificial control conditions
(4) spawn only in waters where there is a vari­
ety of plant life
( ) 4.
62
5.
Most railroads terminate at Oakland rather than
San Francisco because— (1) the city is smaller
(2) San Francisco's transport codes are too
rigid (3) passengers prefer a scenic bus route
(4) a long detour around the bay is avoided. .( ) 5.
20
6.
The natural resource which means the most to
the lives of the people of the United States is
— (1) soil (2) iron (3) sulphur (4) oil. . ( ) 6.
30
7.
Crowded conditions in foreign countries create
many undesirable situations unknown to Ameri­
cans, for example, tjie average population
density of Italy is— (1) about the same as that
of the United States (2) many times greater
than that of the United States (3) less than
that of the United States (4) several times
less than that of the United States.......... ( ) 7.
81
8.
Although— (1) the Philippine Territory (2) the
Pacific Island (3) the Territory of Alaska
(4) the Panama Canal Zone, is the largest sub­
unit under the United States Government, its
natural resources have been more productive
than the original cost of the sub-unit. . . . ( ) 8.
60
9. The city of Baltimore has grown to be a great
canning center because-'-(l) the canneries have
more or less regular production of oysters in
the winter and vegetables in the warmer seasons
(2) labor supply is unusually cheap and intelli­
gent (3) government regulations and taxes are
very low (4) the market is comparatively new
in this area................................. ( ) 9.
40
10. Statistics during the last ten years show
Russia planning her economic activities to—
(1) gradually minimize wheat-growing as an in­
dustry (2) steadily try to regain her former
importance as a wheat-grower (3) give up wheat
growing as rapidly as possible and substitute
269
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
something else (4) substitute cotton for
wheat....................................... ( ) 10.
78
11. The invention of new labor-saving machines
will gradually affect the two million people
on the earth by— (1) giving all more wealth
(2) creating a new and brisk demand for
machine-made goods (3) reduce employment and
thus lower family income (4) raising the tax
rate for government support................. ( ) 11.
54
12. Manufacturing in Argentina is encouraged by—
(1) the presence of highly skilled labor
(2) low and adequate transportation rates
throughout the country (3) governmantal
favors (4) an abundance of rav/ materials In
agricultural regions.........................( ) 12.
76
13. The government is thoroughly justified in
appropriating funds for the protection of
forests because fires damage the soil struc­
ture by— (1) burning out important minerals
(2) removing clay from the soil and adding
undesirable chemicals to the soil (4) bring­
ing up undesirable elements from the lower
soil levels
( ) 13.
69
14. Prance occupies a unique position in world
trade because she produces half the world's
supply of— (1) iron (2) potash (3) beauxite
(4) sulphur
( ) 14.
58
15. The growing season required for tobacco Is
comparatively short; therefore, (1) the farm­
er's income is very great (2) unemployment is
made a real problem (3) the farmer can plant
other crops (4) a minimum amount of capital
is required................................. ( ) 15.
8
16. Ranching is discouraged In China because—
(1) the land is too valuable to be used for
grazing (2) the Chinese do not eat meat
(3) the climate Is unhealthful for cattle
(4) too much investment would be required in
getting started
( ) 16.
270
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
32
17. Italy has been handicapped in developing
manufacturing because of a shortage of—
(1) labor (2) raw materials (3) marketing
facilities (4) coal......................... ( ) 17.
35
18. Ships anchor in San Francisco Bay rather than
on the Pacific side of the city because—
(1) this location affords greater protection
from storms (2) docking rates are cheaper
(3) the Pacific side is more congested (4) the
business section of the city is more accessi­
ble
( ) 18.
97
19.
Cattle are raised in India chiefly because of
their value for— (1) work (2) exporting
(3) religious offerings (4) food
( ) 19.
41
20.
The most important factor in the study of the
management and operations of commerce and In­
dustry Is— (1) man (2) power (3) trans­
portation (4) capital....................... ( ) 20.
If you finish this part of the test before the
time is up, check over your paper.
Number right.
.......
(Score)
271
FORM "B"
PART IV. SECTION II
COMPLETION
DIRECTIONS. Write the answer in the blank space
at the end of the problem or statement. Check
03 answers a second time if you finish before the
£ ® time is up.
,a
3 s SAMPLE: The development of the Pacific Northwest
^ would likely have not been made possible if it
a > * had not been for our interest in the
?
industry......................
lumbering
( )
32
1. More than sixty-two per cent of Canada’s im­
ports are from the
? ...._________________ ( )
0
.
1.
41
2. Because hens lay
?
quantities of eggs in
the spring, the market price per dozen fre­
quently goes down__________ _.________________ ( ) 2.
18
3. Our foreign contracts for importing lumber
are usually made with our very near neighbor.
...........................
( )
3.
28
4. The iron industry in Birmingham has been a
source of much strength in revealing the com­
mercial strength of the
? ............ .
....................... t t t t ;
( ) 4.
27
5. The economic value of farm land depends a
good deal upon its accessibility to a good
?
51
4
36
( ) 5.
6. Because the thermometer drops approximately
three degrees every time an airplane ascends
one
?
feet into the air, the extreme higher
regions are less desirable for transportation
because of the severe cold..
( ) 6.
7. Most Irrigated land is located near a mountain­
ous section because the rainfall in mountain­
ous regions is
?
than that in lowlands...
tttt:.......
( )
8
. Modern ocean-going vessels are dependent on
the
?
industry as a source of power.....
....7777
( )
7
.
8.
272
(FORM "B" CONTINUED)
55
9. The coffee manufacturing industry has been
able to reduce operating costs by removing
the outer skin, or pulp of the coffee berries
by the use of
?
( ) 9.
59
10.
The wood pulp necessary for our big publisbring business in the United States comes from
the principal markets of
?.. ..............
....................... T T T ^
( ) 10.
65
11. Italy has lost most of its ancient importance
as a commercial center since the rounding of
the Gape of Good Hope and the discovery of
?
( ) 11.
39
12.
Exporters find Spanish and
? most valuable
in trading with Brazil......_________________ ( ) 12.
50
13.
The paint industry’s necessary linseed oil is
dependent on skillful extractions from
?
seed.........
( ) 13.
70
14.
The physical factor which has the greatest
influence on commerce is
?.. ..............
..............................................( ) 14.
35
15.
The turning of our present machine ageis de­
pendent largely upon
?
as a source of
energy.....................
( ) 15.
If you finish before the time is up, recheck your
paper.
Number right
5.1?j y j
e
------------- (5core.
F o r m iJ ec!io?
h b h # p arfc
273.
Florence, Alabama
February 14, 1939
Mr. Hilton D. Shepherd
North Texas State Teachers College
Denton, Texas
Dear Mr. Shepherd:
I do not have a key to the textbooks be­
cause I sent that to Dr. Ridgley. I agreed
with the publishers and the authors of the
texts that I would not disclose their identi­
ty.
I have underlined topics which were com­
mon in all the texts and also some which only
a few gave attention to.
I found that all the books were written
from a different approach. Some were full of
illustrations, such as pictures, maps, etc.,
and others only had a few of these. I found
that the latest books were written in a dif­
ferent style— not the dry type, but the "story
book" type which made the child interested in
what he was reading.
I have drawn lines and written several
remarks about the study on a copy which I am
sending you, I hope what I have underlined
and written In this letter will assist you.
All the information that I could give
you can be taken from that report.
Sincerely yours,
Oscar W. Dotson
owdjwhc
274
TABLE XXXIV
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
24
2
7
1
8
21
5
10
25
5
20
14
30
8
5
33
4
5
9
4
3
1
1
11
24
3
1
22
9
4
0
1
11
17
1
0
5
1
6
0
0
4
1
6
5
0
0
10
2
4
0
0
1
3
2
2
2
2
2
5
3
1
1
2
0
0
0
©
4
2
%
Lower Quartile
-p to
a
o
"bO
O *H
O t*
Right
97.56
29.26
92.68
68.29
97.56
80.48
39.02
85.36
60.97
26.82
87.80
51.21
41.46
21.95
70.73
87.80
19.51
87.80
80.48
73.17
85.36
87.80
92.68
92.68
60.97
34.14
90.24
95.12
41.46
78.04
90.24
100.00
97.56
63.41
53.65
41
11
39
34
39
27
18
34
24
13
36
19
15
14
23
27
11
30
31
21
21
31
32
34
13
11
33
38
26
30
24
34
36
25
34
0
27
9
7
1
11
19
7
11
26
4
21
20
26
16
14
30
9
8
18
15
4
8
6
23
27
7
3
12
9
16
7
4
12
5
No
Omitted
40
12
38
28
40
33
16
35
25
11
36
21
17
9
29
36
8
36
33
30
35
36
38
38
25
14
37
39
17
32
37
41
40
26
22
No
Omitted
No
Wrong
1.
Upper Quartile
No
Right
Item
Number
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination Papers in Upper
Quartile and 41 Examination Papers in the Lower
Quartile on Each of 276 Items in the True-False
Examinati on
0
3
0
0
1
3
4
0
6
2
1
1
6
1
2
0
0
2
2
2
8
6
1
1
5
3
1
0
3
2
1
0
1
4
2
%
Right
100.00
26.82
73.04
82.92
95.12
65.85
43.90
82.92
58.53
31.70
87.80
46.34
36.58
34.14
56.09
65.85
26.82
73.17
75.60
51.21
81.21
75.60
78.04
82.92
31.70
26.82
80.48
92.68
63.41
73.17
58.53
82.92
87.80
60.97
82.92
Average
(TOTAL)
% Right
Based on
QR aid Qx
98.78
28.04
85.36
75.61
96.34
73.16
41.46
84.14
59.75
29.26
87.80
48.77
39.02
28.05
63.41
78.82
23.17
80.48
78.04
62.19
68.29
31.70
85.36
87.80
46.33
30.48
85.36
93.60
52.44
75.60
74.39
91.46
92.68
62.19
68.28
(Continued)
275
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
Upper Quartile
©
p
+5
p
•H
■tb
%
OH
Og
Right
FT"!
To
Trong
Ctem
No
!
TABLE XXXIV (Continued)
29
32
26
36
25
36
23
21
12
16
22
26
17
28
39
25
29
35
24
20
27
11
29
37
31
39
21
5
37
22
19
35
39
15
29
11
33
24
8
19
23
9
25
12
38
9
3
9
0
0
15
0
15
12
4
0
5
15
3
17
3
28
1
23
2
19
0
15 • 0
19
5
8
5
1
1
14 2
12 0
5
1
6
11
18
3
11
3
27
3
10
2
4
0
5 •5
1
1
17
3
24 12
2
2
5
4
21
1
6
0
2
0
24
2
5
7
24
6
4
4
14
3
24
9
16
6
12
6
31
1
3 13
8
21
0
3
70.73
73.04
63.41
63.41
60.97
87.80
56.09
51.21
29.26
39.02
53.65
63.41
41.46
68.29
95.12
60.97
70.73
85.36
58.53
48.78
65.85
26.82
70.73
90.24
75.60
95.12
51.21
12.19
90.24
53.65
46.34
85.36
95.12
36.58
SO .73
26.82
• 80.48
58.53
19.51
46.34
56.09
21.95
60.97
29.26
92.68
Lower Quarti±e
•ti
©
p
-p
M
CJ p
o •H
£o
i
O *H
0(4
Right
F3r=
24
11 6
58.53
19 0
22
53.65
18 1
22
53.65
18 1
22
53.65
20
17 4
48.78
34
5 2
82.92
14
19 8
34.14
20
48.78
17 4
6
33 2
14.63
26 1
14
34.14
29 1
11
26.82
22
15 4
53.65
20
48.78
15 6
27
12 2
65.85
28
8 5
68.29
12
25 4
29.26
28
10 3
68.29
29
8 4
70.73
16 2
23
56.09
9
31 1
21.95
20
18 3
48.78
8
30 3
19.51
26
13 2
63.41
36
87.80
'4 1
17
18 6
41.46
30
7 4
73.17
14
26 1
34.14
23 3
36.58
15
28
12 1
68.29
29
8 5
70.73
20 4
17
41.46
9 3
29
70.73
9
29
3
70.73
26
13 2
63.41
26
9 6
63.41
15
26 0
36.58
28
11 2
68.29
14
23 4
34.14
14
23 4
34.14
16 2
23
56.09
20
12 9
48.78
7
32 2
17.07
21
11 9
51.21
30 5
6
14.63
30
10 1
73.17
p o
%
(Continued)
m
Right
64.63
65.85
58.53
58.53
54.88
85.36
45.12
49.99
21.95
36.58
40.23
58.53
45.12
67.07
81.71
45.11
69.51
78.05
57.31
35.36
57.32
23.16
67.07
89.02
58.53
84.15
42.67
24.39
79.26
62.19
43.90
78.04
82.93
49.99
67.07
31.70
74.39
46.33
26.83
51.21
52.44
19.51
56.09
21.94
82.92
276
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
14
27
20
33
30
32
35
23
34
29
37
27
35
14
24
27
22
14
27
11
13
38
30
31
19
29
38
21
38
35
29
36
16
38
11
31
38
35
13
32
39
19
38
21
35
26
12
17
8
8
8
6
16
7
9
4
11
5
19
11
13
15
27
11
28
23
3
5
8
20
6
3
18
2
4
7
2
23
2
30
8
3
5
24
8
2
18
1
20
5
1
2
4
0
3
1
0
2
0
3
0
3
1
8
6
1
4
0
3
2
5
0
6
2
2
6
0
2
1
2
5
3
2
1
0
2
0
1
4
1
0
4
2
0
1
34.14
65.85
48.78
80.48
73.17
78.04
85.36
56.09
82.92
70.73
90.24
65.85
85.36
34.14
58.53
65.85
53.65
34.14
65.85
26.82
31.70
92.68
73.17
75.60
46.34
70.73
92.68
51.21
92.68
85.36
70.73
87.80
39.02
92.68
26.82
75.60
92.68
85.36
31.70
78.04
95.12
46.34
92.68
51.21
85.36
(Continued)
Loiwer CQuartile
Average
•d
Tt o t a l ;
©
% Right
-p
-p
•p %
Based on
OH
OS Right
^3 & Qi
SO
3
36 2
7.31
20.73
36.58
15
22 4
51.21
16
22 3
43.90
39.02
27
12 2
65.85
73.17
27
11 3
65.85
69.51
32
8 1
78.04
78.04
36
87.80
86.58
4 1
19
18 4
46.34
51.22
30
7 4
73.17
78.04
35
4 2
85.36
78.05
25
10 6
75.60
60.97
20
15 6
48.78
57.32
33
7 1
80.48
82.92
19
18 4
46.34
40.24
22
17 2
56.09
53.65
18
21 2
43.90
54.87
18
21 2
43.90
48.78
6
33 2
24.38
14.63
22
16 3
53.65
59.75
13
27 1
§1.70
29.26
9
28 4
26.82
21.95
23
18 0
56.09
74.39
21
15 5
62.19
51.21
16
24 1
39.02
57.31
22
17 2
49.99
53.65
17 3
21
51.21
60.97
9 1
75.60
31
84.14
31.70
13
26 2
41.46
75.60
7 3
31
84.14
33
6 2
80.48
82.92
20
48.78
15 6
59.75
19
19 3
46.34
67.07
14
26 1
36.58
34.14
29
10 2
• 70.73
81.72
14
25 2
34.14
30.48
20 4
17
41.46
58.53
20
17 4
48.78
70.73
29
11 1
70.73
78.03
14
24 3
34.14
32.92
30
10 1
73.17
75.62
36
87.80
3 2
91.46
18
19 4
43.90
45.12
26
10 5
63.41
78.04
56.09
25
14 2
60.97
25
15 1
60.97
73.17
(Continued)
No.
Wrong
Upp<p r Quart,ile
'd
-©U of
+3
-p /
°
Right
Or!
OS
£50
No.
Wrong
Item
No.
TABLE XXXIV
277
TABLE XXXIV
OH
28
29
28
14
26
31
19
22
22
25
36
38
37
5
24
24
17
25
9
31
25
22
27
32
31
15
29
35
34
38
35
31
29
10
35
25
25
25
32
29
24
28
9
21
6
bO
a
•o
12 1
10 2
13 0
22 5
9 6
9 1
15 7
5 14
15 4
12 4
5 0
3 0
3 1
35 1
15 2
13 4
18 6
12 4
28 4
6 4
15 1
18 1
12 2
6 3
9 1
23 3
10 2
3 3
7 0
3 0
5 1
8 2
7 5
31 0
5 1
12 4
12 4
15 1
9 0
11 1
16 1
7 6
31 1
11 9
35 0
%
Right
68.29
70.73
62.89
34.14
63.41
75.60
46.34
53.65
53.65
60.97
87.80
92.68
90.24
12.19
58.53
58.53
41.46
60.97
21.95
75.60
60.97
53.65.
65.85
78.04
75.60
36.58
70.73
85.36
82.92
92.68
85.36
75.60
70.73
24.39
85.3660.97
60.97
60.97
78.04
70.73
58.53.
68.29
21.95
51.21
14.63
Lower QuartsLie
©
bf p
-p
•g ••H %
Ok o S
I6-1V~' Right
No.
Right
■p
.*§>
uar tile
No.
Omitted
r~pt
(Continued)
31
25
19
2
24
19
20
21
21
19
30
29
16
8
18
14
16
21
14
25
22
13
23
21
25
17
29
26
30
30
25
31
22
5
21
24
23
13
29
30
16
26
15
23
13
8
13
20
34
10
20
14
16
16
18
8
9
22
31
13
24
21
16
25
13
18
25
15
14
10
15
9
13
8
9
15
7
15
35
15
13
14
25
11
9
23
11
24
13
27
2
3
2
5
7
2
7
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
5
3
4
4
2
5
1
3
3
6
6
9
3
2
3
2
1
3
4
1
5
4
4
3
1
2
2
4
2
5
1
Average
(TOTAL)
75.60
71.94
60.97
65.85
46.34
54.62
4.87
19.50
58.53
60.97
46.34
60.97
48.78
47.56
51.21
52.43
51.21
52.43
46.34
53.66
73.17
80.48
70.73
81.71
39.02
64.63
19.51
15.85
43.90
51.21
34.14
46.84
39.02
40.24
51.21
56.09
34.14
28.05
55.09
55.04
53.65
57.31
37.70
45.68
56.09
60.97
51.21
64.62
60.97
68.29
41.46
39.02
70.73
70.73
63.41
74.38
73.17
78.05
73.17
82.93
60.97
73.16
75.60
75.60
53.65
62.19
12.19
18.29
51.21
68.29
58.53
59.75
56.09
58.53
31.70
45.38
70.73
74.39
73.17
71.95
39.02
48.77
63.41
65.85
36.58
29.27
56.09
53.65
31.70
23.17
(Continued)
278
(Continued)
Lower Q.uartile
No.
Wrong
xS
No.
Right
No.
Wrong
e
© •
-P o
H fe:
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
183.
189.
190.
191.
192.
193.
194.
195.
196.
197.
198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
215.
Upper Quar tnL ie
T)
©
+3
-P
X}
-P
%
.bO
Right
M*
87.80
36
0
5
36
2
87.80
3
20 18
48.78
3
21 18
51.21
2
20 17
48.78
4
0
75.60
31 10
30
6
73.17
5
14 25
2
34.14
9
31
75.60
1
33
6
80.48
2
24
7
0
58.53
6
34
1
82.92
33
6
2
80.48
27
0
14
34.14
22 14
5
53.65
37
3
90.24
1
37
3
1
90.24
10 31
0
24.39
35
3
85.36
3
29
7
5 •70.73
36
87.80
3
2
31 10
0
75.60
15
24
36.58
2
3 36
2
7.32
36
4
87.80
1
27 12
2
65.85
35
3
3
85.36
33
6
80.48
2
18 19
43.90
4
29 12
0
70.73
17 19
41.46
5
39
2
0
95.12
30
8
3
73.17
30 11
0
73.17
12 26
29.26
3
17 19
41.46
5
27 10
4
65.85
30
8
73.17
3
23 12
6
56.00
29 11
70.73
1
24 14
3
58.53
22 15
4
53.65
24 14
3
58.53
27 12
2
65.85
40
1
0
97.56
I
TABLE XXXIV
27
26
24
25
22
26
27
7
22
31
19
19
33
4
14
33
29
11
23
26
21
16
18
12
31
17
32
17
15
25
22
31
17
25
7
18
23
24
14
18
27
20
24
24
34
12
13
14
13
15
12
9
31
15
8
20
17
6
34
23
7
8
28
13
11
15
22
21
26
7
21
6
21
23
13
15
7
19
11
30
16
15
14
19
21
11
14
13
13
6
©
•p
•p
of
7o
Average
xtota L)
% Right
Basea on
Right
2
65.85
2
63.41
3
58.53
60.97
3
4
53.65
63.41
3
5
65.85
3
17.07
4
53.65
75.60
2
2
46.34
5
46.34
2
80.48
3
9.75
4
34.14
80.48
1
4
80.73
2
26.82
56.09
5
4
63.41
5
51.21
3
39.02
2
43.90
29.26
3
3
*75.60
41.46
3
3
78.04
3
41.46
36.58
3
3
60.97
4
53.65
2
75.60
41.46
5
5
60.97
4
17.07
7
43.90
3
56.09
3
58.53
8
34.14
43.90
2
3
65.85
7
48.78
4
58.53
4
58.53
1
82.92
(Continued)
76.82
75.61
53.65
56.09
51.20
69.51
69.51
26.60
64.63
78.04
52.43
64.63
80.48
21.95
43.89
85.36
80.49
25.62
70.72
67.07
69.50
67.31
40.24
18.29
31.70
53.65
81.70
65.97
40.24
65.85
47.55
85.36
57.31
67.07
23.16
42.58
60.97
65.85
45.11
57.32
62.19
51.21
58.53
62.19
90.24
279
Upper
-p
£
g
© • • bO
•PO cm
HUh SK
216. 35
217. 28
218. 37
219. 23
220. 5
221. 28
222. 11
223. 9
224. 29
225. 28
226. 20
227. 35
228. 33
229. 16
230. 24
231. 24
232. 5
233. 26
234. 36
235. 17
236. 35
237. 24
238. 26
239. 18
240. 30
241. 26
242. 27
243. 24
244. 28
245. 18
246. 23
247. 25
248. 21
249. 29
250. 14
251. 27
252. 36
253. 37
254. 25
255. 20
256. 29
257. 35
larti le
•u
©
-p
to
-p
£
%
•o
•*H
O g
Right
S30
No.
Right
TABLE XXXIV
6
8
4
17
34
11
25
31
11
12
17
5
7
21
12
14
53
10
4
19
5
12
12
19
9
10
10
14
8
18
14
14
10
10
24
9
4
1
12
15
10
3
16
21
17
17
6
27
15
10
30
16
17
22
12
15
10
11
6
23
33
11
18
25
22
17
15
18
24
21
18
13
17
15
12
18
13
23
24
20
23
23
16
24
Qx
0
5
0
1
2
2
5
1
1
1
4
1
1
4
5
3
3
5
1
5
1
5
3
4
2
5
4
3
5
5
4
2
10
2
3
5
1
3
4
6
2
3
85.36
68.29
90.24
56.09
12.19
58.29
26.82
21.95
70.73
68.29
48.78
85.36
80.48
39.02
58.53
58.53
12.19
63.41
87.80
41.46
85.36
58.53
63.41
43.90
73.17
63.41
65.85
58.53
68.29
43.90
56.09
60.97
51.21
70.73
34.14
65.85
87.80
90.24
60.97
48.78
70.73
85.36
(Continued)
Lower Quartile
©
to
•p
•p
£
•o
%
Ok
o g
Right
SO
U3E23
2
17
3
23
1
19
5
32 '
3
11
3
19
7
29
2
9
2
21
4
17
7
15
4
4
25
22
4
28
3
27
3
32
3
12
6
4
4
22
8
18
5
12
4
11
8
18
6
20
6
15
8
10
7
14
6
15
8
19
9
13
11
21
6
18
11
16
7
22
6
11
7
11
6
13
8
10
8
11
7
19
6
8
9
39.02
51.21
41.46
41.46
14.63
65.85
36.58
24.39
73.17
39.02
41.46
53.65
29.26
36.58
24.39
26.82
14.63
56.09
80.48
26.82
43.90
60.97
53.65
41.46
36.58
43.90
58.53
51.21
43.90
31.70
41.46
36.58
29.26
43.90
31.70
56.09
58.53
48.78
56.09
56.09
39. OS
58.53
(Continued)
% Right;
Based on
%
& Q-l
62.19
59.75
65.85
48.73
13.41
67.07
31.70
23.17
71.95
53.65
45.12
69.51
54.87
37.80
41.46
42.67
13.41
59.75
84.14
34.14
64.63
59.75
58.53
42.68
54.88
53.65
62.19
54.87
56.09
37.80
48.78
48.77
40.24
57.31
32.92
60.97
73.16
69.51
58.53
52.44
54.37
71.95
280
TABLE XXXIV
5
26
27
11
14
17
22
29
33
31
31
32
25
33
34
36
24
21
29
32
12
11
26
21
19
15
11
7
2
8
5
12
5
5
3
13
15
10
4
3
3
4
5
5
4
1
1
8
2
3
4
3
2
2
4
5
2
Right
12.19
63.41
65.85
26.82
34.14
41.46
53.65
70.73
80.48
75.60
75.60
78.04
60.97
80.48
82.92
87.80
58.53
51.21
70.73
7
18
24
7
12
17
9
20
23
25
20
25
27
15
20
23
11
20
18
27
18
10
27
23
16
25
11
11
7
13
8
7
16
12
10
21
12
15
%
No.
1Omitted;
Mo.
J
Omitted
258.
259.
260.
261.
262.
263.
264.
265.
266.
267.
268.
269.
270.
271.
272.
273.
274.
275.
276.
bO
;
.§
Ofc
tsig:
No.
Wrong
•p
4a>
OH
i?3K
Lower Quartile
No.
Right
Item
Mo.
Upper Quartlie
(Continued)
7
5
7
7
6
8
7
10
7
9
8
8
7
10
9
O
9
9
8
jasea ot
;
Right (£3 & %
<
17.07
43.90
58.53
17.07
29.26
41.46
21.95
48.78
56.09
60.97
48.78
60.97
65.85
36.58
48.78
56.09
26.82
48.78
43.90
14.63
53.65
62.19
21.95
31 .70
41.46
37.80
59.75
63.29
68.28
62.19
69.50
63.41
53.53
65.85
71.95
42.67
49.99
60.36
281
TABLE XXXV
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination Papers in the Upper Quartile
and 41 Examination Papers in the Lower Quartile in Each
of 85 Items in the Matching Examination
Upper Quartile
Item
Number
,r
l
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
Lower Quartile
No.
No. . ■%
jNo.
No.
No.
No.
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
38
39
.26
37
40
31
32
38
37
29
27
35
25
35
36
31
37
18
38
24
38
34
32
17
35
31
39
37
29
26
38
31
34
38
1
2
15
3
1
9
9
3
4
12
13
6
16
5
5
9
4
21
3
17
3
7
9
21
5
7
1
3
11
14
2
8
5
2
2
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
92.68
95.12
63.41
90.24
97.56
75.60
78.04
92.68
90.24
70.73
65.85
85.36
60.97
85.36
87.80
75.60
90.24
43.90
92.68
58.53
92.68
82.93
78.04
41.46
85.36
75.60
95.12
90.24
70.73
63.41
92.68
75.60
82.92
92.68
36
37
20
29
33
19
24
23
32
17
15
35
16
33
30
19
29
8
33
13
29
25
28
18
25
19
33
36
30
22
22
22
26
25
4
3
20
11
7
20
16
16
8
23
25
5
24
7
10
20
11
32
7
26
10
14
11
22
14
19
6
3
9
17
16
16
11
11
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
5
87.80
90.24
48.78
70.73
80.48
46.34
58.53
56.09
78.04
41.46
36.58
85.36
39.02
80.48
73.17
46.34
70.73
19.51
80.48
31.70
70.73
50.96
38.29
43.90
50.97
46.34
80.48
37.80
73.17
53.65
53.65
53.65
53.41
30.97
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Qx and Q3
90.24
92.68
56.10
80.48
89.02
60.97
68.29
74.38
84.14
56.10
51.21
85.36
49.99
82.92
80.49
60.97
80.48
31.71
86.58
45.11
81.71
71.94
73.17
42.68
73.16
60.97
87.80
89.02
71.95
58.53
73.17
64.62
73.17
76.82
(Continued)
282
TABLE XXXV (Continued)
Upper Quartile
:tei
lEibi
35
36
37
36
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
Lower Quartile
at
at
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
/o
p
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
38
21
40
40
33
37
37
39
34
32
35
38
30
34
34
37
37
38
40
39
41
37
37
35
25
40
35
11
39
39
34
41
27
38
36
32
39
38
39
40
25
1
15
0
0
7
3
3
1
6
8
5
1
9
5
6
3
4
2
1
2
0
3
4
6
16
1
4
29
1
2
6
0
12
2
5
8
2
2
2
1
15
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
0
1
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
92.68
51.21
97.56
97.56
80.48
90.24
90.24
95.12
82.92
78.04
85.36
92.68
73.17
82.92
82.92
90.24
90.24
92.68
97.56
95.12
.00.00
90.24
90.24
85.36
60.97
97.56
85.36
26.82
95.12
95.12
82.92
LOO.00
65.85
92.68
87.80
78.04
95.12
92.68
95.12
97.56
60.97
32
17
35
37
29
27
30
34
32
12
33
35
27
27
25
28
30
31
28
26
36
24
21
23
22
35
22
11
32
27
18
35
28
33
18
28
24
31
26
34
21
5
18
2
1
9
11
7
3
5
23
4
2
10
10
12
9
7
6
9
11
1
12
16
13
15
2
13
25
3
8
18
1
8
2
18
8
12
4
10
2
16
4
6
4
3
3
3
4
4
4
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
5
4
4
6
5
6
6
5
5
5
6
5
5
5
6
5
5
4
78.04
41.46
85.36
90.24
70.73
65.85
73.17
82.92
78.04
29.26
80.48
85.36
65.85
65.85
60.97
68.29
73.17
75.60
68.29
63.41
87.80
58.53
51.21
56.09
53.65
85.36
53.65
26.82
78.04
65.85
43.90
85.36
68.29
80.48
43.90
68.29
58.53
75.60
63.41
82.92
51.21
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Ql and Q3
85.36
46.34
91.46
93.90
75.60
78.05
81.70
89.02
80.48
53.65
82.92
89.02
69.51
74.38
71.95
79.26
81.71
84.14
82.92
79.27
93.90
74.38
70.73
70.73
57.31
91.46
69.50
26.82
86.58
80.49
63.41
92.68
67.07
86.53
65.85
73.16
76.83
84.14
79.26
90.24
56.09
(Continued)
283
TABLE XXXV (Continued)
Upper Quartile
Lower Quartile
Item
Number
af
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
%
P
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
38
40
30
11
31
34
30
38
27
38
3
1
11
30
9
4
10
1
13
2
0
0
0
0
1
3
1
2
1
1
92.68
32
97.56
35
73.17
19
26.82
8
75.60
17
26
82.92
73.17 . 17
92.68
32
17
65.85
27
92.68
5
2
17
27
18
7
16
1
17
4
4
4
5
6
6
8
8
8
7
10
78.04
85.36
46.34
19.51
41.46
63.41
41.46
78.04
41.46
65.85
Average
Per.Ct.
Right
Based on
Qp and Q3
85.36
91.46
59.76
23.16
58.53
73.17
57.31
85.36
53.66
79.27
284
TABLE XXXVI
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination Papers in the Upper Quartile
and 41 Examination Papers in the Lower Quartile on Each
of 98 Items in the Multiple-choice Examination
Upper Quartile
Lower Quartile
Item
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
/°
%
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
23
14
31
24
11
5
40
24
30
18
4
25
33
11
31
26
39
30
16
31
9
22
26 ’
29
29
40
24
18
39
31
39
22
20
33
18
18
27
10
17
30
36
1
17
11
23
37
16
8
30
10
15
2
11
25
10
32
19
14
12
11
1
17
23
2
10
2
19
21
8
22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
56.09
34.14
75.60
58.53
26.82
12.19
97.56
58.53
73.17
43.90
9.75
60.97
80.48
26.82
75.60
63.41
95.12
73.17
39.02
75.60
21.95
53.65
63.41
70.73
70.73
97.56
58.53
43.90
95.12
75.60
95.12
53.65
48.78
80.48
43.90
18
5
27
23
13
n
O
33
12
27
9
3
28
21
11
18
25
38
22
24
22
6
18
15
19
28
30
16
12
34
20
24
10
12
25
6
21
33
13
15
26
32
7
27
13
29
35
11
19
24
19
15
2
17
13
16
29
17
22
15
9
5
18
21
4
15
13
26
24
12
27
2
4
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
3
3
2
1
6
4
1
1
2
4
3
6
6
4
7
4
6
7
8
3
6
4
5
5
4
8
43.90
12.19
65.85
56.09
31.70
19.51
80.48
29.26
65.85
21.95
7.31
68.29
51.21
26.82
43.90
60.97
92.68
53.65
58.53
53.65
14.63
43.90
36.53
46.34
68.29
73.17
39.62
29.26
82.92
48.78
58.53
24.39
29.26
60.97
14.63
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Q]_ and Q3
49.99
23.17
70.72
57.31
29.26
15.85
89.02
43.90
69.51
32.92
8.53
64.63
65.85
26.82
59.75
62.19
93.90
63.41
48.77
64.63
18.29
48.77
49.99
58.54
69.51
85.36
46.08
36.58
89.02
62.19
76.82
39.02
39.02
70.73
29.26
(Continued)
285
TABLE XXXVI (Continued)
Upper Quartile
Lower Quartile
Item
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
%
%
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
14
33
35
1
30
13
15
30
12
37
30
31
25
32
39
11
16
26
26
27
25
9
24
6
31
32
33
19
11
23
24
33
27
27
18
5
34
12
10
25
25
23
26
8
6
40
10
26
25
10
28
3
10
8
15
8
1
28
20
13
13
11
14
30
15
33
8
7
5
20
28
16
14
4
12
10
20
33
4
26
28
13
12
14
1
0
0
0
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
4
2
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
34.14
80.48
85.36
2.43
73.17
31.70
36.58
73.17
26.26
90.24
73.17
75.60
60.97
78.04
95.12
26.82
43.90
63.41
63.41
65.85
60.97
21.95
58.53
14.63
75.60
78.04
80.48
46.34
26.82
56.09
58.53
80.48
65.85
65.85
43.90
12.19
82.92
29.26
24.39
60.97
60.97
56.09
9
22
19
0
17
6
9
23
7
25
17
20
13
22
17
19
5
22
15
13
11
8
14
6
17
25
21
15
4
11
10
26
30
12
16
9
27
4
9
16
15
18
25
13
13
33
16
26
21
8
28
8
15
12
21
12
18
15
21
10
18
15
20
21
19
25
15
9
13
18
27
21
21
7
11
20
14
19
7
27
21
15
14
13
7
6
8
8
7
6
7
9
7
7
7
6
7
7
6
7
15
9
8
13
10
12
8
10
9
7
7
8
10
9
10
8
0
9
11
13
7
10
11
10
12
10
21.95
53.65
46.34
0.00
41.46
14.62
21.95
56.09
17.07
60.97
41.46
48.78
31.70
53.65
41.46
46.34
12.19
55.65
36.58
31.70
26.82
19.51
34.14
14.63
41.46
60.97
51.21
36.58
9.75
26.82
24.39
33.41
73.17
29.26
39.02
21.95
35.85
9.75
21.95
39.02
36.58
43.90
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Ql and Q3
28.05
67.06
65.85
1.21
57.32
23.16
29.26
64.63
21.67
75.60
57.32
62.19
46.33
65.85
68.29
36.58
28.04
58.53
49.99
48.78
43.89
20.73
46.33
14.63
58.53
69.51
65.84
41.46
18.29
41.45
41.46
71.94
69.51
47.56
41.46
17.07
74.38
19.51
23.17
49.99
48.78
49.99
(Continued)
286
TABLE XXXVI (Continued)
Upper Quartile
Lower Quartile
Item
Number
at
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
%
/°
Right Wrong Omitterl Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
28
19
14
31
21
13
14
9
25
3
17
31
22
21
11
12
14
15
16
17
9
18
22
4
14
22
20
24
7
29
15
1
9
10
20
19
17
25
15
14
4
4
5
6
6
6
7
8
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
1
10
10
68.29
46.34
34.14
75.60
51.21
31.70
34.14
21.95
60.97
7.31
41.46
75.60
53.65
51.21
26.82
29.26
34.14
36.58
39.02
41.46
17
13
10
21
18
7
18
11
20
4
12
29
20
16
12
11
16
6
4
12
17
18
21
17
13
23
13
19
11
25
19
2
10
15
17
20
14
23
26
15
7
10
10
13
10
11
10
11
10
12
10
10
11
10
12
10
11
12
11
14
41.46
31.70
24.39
51.21
43.90
17.07
43.90
26.82
48.78
9.75
29.26
70.73
48.78
39.02
29.26
26.82
39.02
14.63
9.75
29.26
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Ql and Q3
54.88
39.02
29.26
63.41
47.55
24.39
39.02
24.39
54.87
8.53
35.36
73.17
51.21
45.12
28.04
28.04
36.58
25.60
24.38
35.36
287
TABLE XXXVII
Scores Tabulated on 41 Examination Papers in the Upper Quartile
and 41 Examination Papers in the Lower Quartile on Each
of 81 Items in the Completion Examination
Upper Quartile
Lower Quartile
Item
Number
of
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
%
/»
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
29
17
22
24
25
11
27
10
29
39
10
39
40
37
25
7
36
35
13
12
21
13
4
5
29
9
32
32
27
4
21
37
8
37
9
9
19
14
12
15
26
12
21
8
1
21
0
1
3
12
20
1
3
26
27
17
17
24
29
11
28
6
8
10
21
2
2
27
1
29
3
5
5
5
1
4
2
10
4
1
10
2
0
1
4
14
4
3
2
2
3
11
13
7
1
4
3
1
4
16
8
2
6
3
3
70.73
41.46
53.65
58.53
60.97
26.82
65.85
24.39
70.73
95.12
24.39
95.12
97.56
90.24
60.97
17.07
87.80
85.36
31.70
29.26
51.21
31.70
9.75
12.19
70.73
21.95
78.04
78.04
65.85
9.75
75.60
90.24
19.51
90.24
21.95
23
9
11
15
24
6
29
5
24
34
8
38
37
34
18
7
32
22
12
16
21
11
4
5
20
8
17
22
19
6
24
29
7
29
2
9
19
19
23
11
27
12
22
10
3
23
0
2
2
11
17
2
11
24
21
11
13
16
18
13
20
14
13
10
12
3
3
24
3
27
9
13
11
3
6
8
0
14
7
4
10
3
2
5
12
17
7
8
5
4
9
17
21
18
8
13
10
6
12
23
14
9
10
9
12
56.09
21.95
26.82
36.58
58.53
14.63
70.73
12.19
58.53
82.92
19.51
92.68
90.24
82.92
43.90
17.07
78.04
53.65
29.26
39.02
51.21
26.82
9.75
12.19
48.78
19.51
41.46
53.65
46.34
14.63
58.53
70.73
17.07
70.73
4.87
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Ql and Q3
63.41
31.70
40.24
47.55
59.75
20.72
68.29
18.29
64.63
89.02
21.95
93.90
93.90
86.58
52.43
17.07
82.92
69.51
30.48
34.14
51.21
29.26
9.75
12.19
59.76
20.73
59.75
65.84
56.10
12.19
67.06
80.49
18.29
80.48
13.41
(Continued)
288
TABLE XXXVII (Continued)
Upper Quartile
Lower Quartile
Item
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
%
%
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
21
10
6
17
2
36
9
22
14
3
10
17
10
10
15
28
18
14
37
20
13
28
22
22
22
9
23
4
4
24
6
31
8
14
13
2
2
12
24
14
18
13
29
16
27
3
12
14
17
24
20
19
24
26
19
10
18
14
3
6
26
10
14
10
15
20
11
19
28
6
24
5
25
15
19
19
26
23
8
14
2
9
6
8
12
2
20
5
10
14
11
5
7
5
7
3
5
13
1
15
2
3
5
9
4
12
7
18
9
11
11
5
8
12
9
20
13
6
9
13
51.21
46.34
14.63
41.46
4.87
87.80
21.95
53.65
34.14
7.31
24.39
41.46
24.39
24.39
36.58
68.29
43.90
34.14
90.24
48.78
31.70
68.29
53.65
53.65
53.65
21.95
56.09
9.75
9.75
58.53
14.63
75.60
19.51
34.14
31.70
4.87
4.87
29.26
58.53
34.14
13
11
9
9
7
27
11
20
12
4
7
12
6
9
9
19
17
11
22
12
25
19
13
7
14
6
11
6
5
3
2
17
4
6
5
5
3
9
15
8
19
16
15
15
16
3
10
9
7
17
11
15
21
19
20
7
12
9
6
5
13
S
8
10
12
13
12
10
18
15
16
5
20
25
13
12
15
13
5
11
9
14
17
17
18
11
20
12
22
20
23
14
14
13
12
15
12
21
13
24
13
14
20
24
15
22
18
25
18
23
23
19
17
10
23
24
23
19
21
22
31.70
26.82
21.95
21.95
17.07
65.85
26.82
21.95
29.26
9.75
17.07
29.26
14.63
21.95
21.95
46.34
41.46
26.82
53.65
29.26
60.97
46.34
31.70
17.07
34.14
14.63
26.82
14.63
12.19
7.31
4.87
41.46
9.75
L4.63
L2.19
L2.19
7,31
21.95
36.58
L9.51
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Qx and Q3
41.46
36.58
18.29
31.70
10.97
76.83
24.38
27.80
31.70
8.53
20.73
35.36
19.51
23.17
29.26
57.32
42.68
30.48
71.94
39.02
46.34
57.31
42.68
35.36
43.89
18.29
41.46
12.19
10.97
32.92
9.75
58.53
14.63
24.38
21.99
8.53
6.09
25.60
47.56
26.82
(Continued)
289
TABLE XXXVII (Continued)
Upper Quartile
Item
Number
76
77
78
79
80
81
Lower Quartile
0/
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
/o
%
Right Wrong Omitted Right Right Wrong Omitted Right
10
19
33
11
1
10
22
18
3
15
32
19
19
4
5
15
8
12
24.39
46.34
80.48
26.82
2.43
24.39
3
10
17
7
6
8
11
10
9
9
20
9
27
21
15
25
15
24
7.31
24.39
41.46
17.07
14.63
19.51
Average
Per Ct.
Right
Based on
Qx and
15.85
35.36
60.97
21.94
8.53
21.95
290
TABLE XXXVIII
Bibliographical Sources Which Influenced Content
of Test Questions
True-false
Question
Number
p
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14
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Page Numbers
10
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41
261
23
132
289
353
20
249
585
289
155
159
99
650
176
375
19
23
IV-I
127
(Continued)
291
TABLE XXXVIII (Continued)
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Page Numbers
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235
273
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IX-II]
17
41
369
13
294
I-II
42
307
107
261
585
38
21
305
162
64
250
235
157
144
45
II-II
(Continued)
292
TABLE XXXVIII (Continued)
Page Numbers
CD
P
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1
52
53
54
55
56
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59
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61
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63
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68
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71
72
73
74
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76
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129
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368
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140
74
79
34
104
235
171
28
428
251
255
X
x
80
VII-I
29
x
(Continued)
293
TABEE XXXVIII (Continued)
Page Numbers
H
True-false
Question
P
0
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ra
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N um ber
EH -P
44
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d
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81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
VII-IV
316
410
161
24
562
IX-IV
259
37
IVIII-II
72
23
351
156
588
89
54
451
169
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294
TABLE XXXIX
Bibliographical Sources Which Influenced Content
of Test Questions
Page Numbers
ra
o£
H ra
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X
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sa
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X
U -P
Matching
Question
Number
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241
II-II
54
127
78
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
127
13
118
166
111
114
237
V-IV
505
643
90
VII-IV
III-C
IV-III
236
(Continued)
295
TABLE XXXIX (Continued)
Page Numbers
I,latelling
Question
Number
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X f
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10
24
25
26
27
28
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30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
118
619
III-C
68
I-IV
IV-B
375
118
III-C
75
245
28
162
IX-11
103
70
261
346
64
V-II
II-I
266
151
335
II-II
405
296
TABLE XL
Bibliographical Sources Vfhieh Influenced Content
of Teat Questions
©
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