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A survey of the practices pertaining to the school experiences common to the public high school population of Nebraska and a proposed high school core curriculum

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NAME AND ADDRESS
DATE
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A SURVEY OF TtE PRACTICES
PRRTAINIRG TO THE SCHOOL EXPERIENCES
COiffliGN TO m
PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL
POPULATION OF ffiEBHASKA AID A PROPOSED
HIGH SCHOOL CORE CURRICULUM
By
ALBERT L . BI2HN
A T h esis
P rsso n to d to th e F a c u lty o f th e
O raduota C ollege o f th e U ni'T eraity o f Ifebm ska
I d P a r t i a l F u l f i l l o a n t o f B eq u ireaen to
f o r th e Degree o f D octor o f P h ilo so p h y
Department o f Secondary E d u catio n
L in c o ln , Nebraska
A ugust, 1940
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UMI Number: DP13676
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TABLE OF CONTESTS
chapter
paos
TABLE o r o o w i s m s ................................ ....................... ...
LIST OP TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........................
1
ii
III
i
▼
.< ....................................................................................
1
Spiting fo r the Study
........................................
The Problem Stated
...............
Cor* Ourrioulun Defined
. . . . . . . . .
Approach to the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitation* of the Study ............................. . . . . .
1
3
4
4
7
hi ® school coaarcuuw in m ; p a s t ............................
Curriculum in Early Nebrask* . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subject Offering* in the United States 1890-1934 . .
9
11
15
E n g l i s h .....................
F o reig n Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.....................
M athem atics
S c ie n c e s • * .........................
S o c ia l S tu d ie s
.........................
A g ric u ltu re
..................................
Horn K o o n o m io s .....................
I n d u s t r i a l A rts .
.........................
ttu sic .
..........................................
.......................................................
Non-Academic F ie ld s
Commercial * r t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S e n a r y o f O ffe rin g s end R e g i s t r a t i o n s ..........................
18
19
30
33
35
37
S3
36
as
30
31
38
THE COKE CURKICULUM IN NEBRASKA................................................
E n g lish a s a F a r t o f th e Core C urriculum . . . . . .
E n g lish i n Orade Nine .
....................
E n g lish i n Grade T e a ........................
E n g lish In Orade E leven . . . . . . . . . .................
E n g lish i n Orade Twelve
..............................
O th er E n g lish Courses ...................... . . . . . . . . .
S e n a ry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The S o c ia l S tu d ie s and th e Core C urriculum ' . . . . .
American H is to ry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B o rid H is to ry .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . .
Community C i v l o s .....................
•
Democracy
..........................................................................
C itiz e n s h ip • • .......................... . . . . . .
A m ericas C itiz e n s h ip . . . . . ................................... .
S o c ia l S cien ce
..............................
35
37
37
40
44
47
50
58
53
53
56
59
61
63
63
63
INTRODUCTION
m
i
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C lT iO * ..................................................................
.".aeriean Government • . ............................................
S o c ia l Problem s . . .
. . . . . .
70
S ocio lo g y . . . . . . ................................................................
70
P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ...................................................
I n te r n a tio n a l H a la tio n s ,
. . . . .
72
Economics . . . . . . . . ...................... . . . . . . .
72
Geography . . . . . . . . . . . .
.................. . . . .
74
Stannary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
The Cora C u rrio u lu a and M athem atics
..........................
77
A lgebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................................
77
Advanced A l g e b r a .......................................................
Geotastry
................................................
G eneral M a t h e m a t i c s ..............................................
A r i t h m e t i c ..........................................................................................
84
Suaaary . . . . . . .................. . . . . . . .........................
85
S elenee In th e Core C urriculum . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
86
G eneral S cience . . . .................. . . . . . . . . . .
B i o l o g y .............................................................
P h y sio s . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
94
C h en ietry ........................................................................
P h ysiology
.....................
96
Bw m *ry
......................... . . ...................... *
97
F o reig n Languages and th e Core C urriculum • • • • * •
98
L a tin .
...............................................
98
L a tin 1 1 ......................................
. .
99
O ther f o r e ig n Languages . . . . . . . ............................. 100
Has O o m e ro ia l A rts i n th e Core C urriculum * .......................100
J u n io r B u sin e ss T ra in in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100
T ypew riting . . . . ............................................
iv
Advanced Typewriting ............... . . . . . . . . . . .
105
Bookkeeping . . . .................. . . . . . . . . . . . .
O ther C esM sreiel A rts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at— r y ..............................................................
O r ie n ta tio n and V ocations i n th e Core C u rrio u lu a • . .
105
106
otbkb p h a se s o r tu b
msmmk h ig h
s c h o o l c o b s c o » h ic u u w
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72
80
81
88
9
95
105
10
108
iu
S eai-V o catio n a and th e Core C u rrio u lu a . . . . . . . .
114
I n d u s t r i a l A rts
............................................ 114
............................
115
B eginning Haas Economise
A g ric u ltu re . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
117
C otsunr? Goods *
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
119
B asic . . . . . . .................. . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
S o ra a l T ra in in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
121
S a fe ty
...................................................................
P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n ....................................... ............................. 122
Suonary
......................................................... 124
ii
6
6?
121
$an-.»oadassic K xparienoss . . .
.....................
125
................................... 128
R eg ain r School Assembly P e rio d s .
E x tr a - C u r r ic u la r A c t i v i t i e s .................................................... 127
Length o f School Say
.........................
128
Group Guidance •
ISO
M iscellan eo u s E x p erien ces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
135
The Hume Room
^ ...................... 134
Susnary .......................... . . . . . . . . . . . .................. 137
v
m m ic m m
m
P ro b le m o f R e o rg a n is a tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The P r a c t i c a l S u b je c t* ...................... . . . . . . . . .
The 3 m .il sch o o l*
.....................
R e o rg a n iz a tio n A c tiv ity I n S sb raak s . . . . . . . .
C o n tro llin g f a c to r * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C aring f o r In d iv id u a l D iffe re n c e s . . . . . . . . .
Guidance • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . *
‘Beaching Sethods and R e o rg a n isa tio n . * • • . . . •
..................................
Tenure •
O th er f a c to r * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C urriculum Development During th e P e rio d 1934-40 • • •
C ourses Added and C ourses Dropped . . . . . . . . .
Grade Placem ent fro n d s
Language* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S c ie n c e s * ......................................
M athem atics ........................... .
. . . . . . .
S o c ia l S tu d ie s • •
• • . » • . . . • • . .
Combs r o l a l A rts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O ther S u b je c ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods o f P rocedure in C u rrio u lu a R e o rg a n isa tio n . .
SuMMary
.........................
is o
141
141
142
143
144
147
148
149
ISO
1S1
161
152
155
155
155
155
157
158
151
151
153
71
GgNElttX. COHGLUalOfiS. - A F&DF0BE& COBS CURRICULUM
ro a mamusKk mm sc h o o ls
High S chool CurrioulUB Heeds i n Sebraeka . . . . . . .
R e o rg a n isa tio n o f Knowledge • • * • • . . . « • . « *
P ro b le m f o r H*&r«sku S ig h Schools . . . . . . . . . .
A Core C urriculum For Se&racko Sigh S chools . . . . .
E n g l i s h ...........................................
S s th e n a tie s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F o reig n Languages . . . . . .................. . . . . . . .
S o c ia l S tu d ie s . . . . . . . . . . . . .
......................
i & m i e .........................
P h y s ic a l E d u catio n
..............................
A rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COBBereiel .................................................... . . . . . . . .
I n d u s t r i a l A rte . . . . . . . . . . . .
......................
158
171
174
179
ISO
182
185
184
185
185
187
187
188
. ................. 155
Hi
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S c i e n c e .....................
168
L i b r a r y ........................................ . .
189
Coavoctitlooii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
190
C ounseling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
191
H e alth
......................................
198
.....................
198
Sw am r?
C onclusions . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
194
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s end R e e a n n e B d e tie n s ........................................196
BXBLXOOftAPtnr..............................................................................................
198
APFSHDIX..............................
800
APPENDIX A.
In q u iry on Core C u rric u la i n BObraske Scftoole • . . 801
APFfSDIX B.
A Study i n Secondary X dueatlon
AOTSOIX C.
APPSSDIX 0 .
. . . . . . . . .
. 809
C ooperating C o a su n itie e i n th e Study f o r a
Proposed Core C u rrio u lu a i n Nebraska . . . . . . .
811
C ooperating Softools in th e s tu d y o f th e Core
C u rrio u lu a i n Nebraska « «
. . . . . . .
818
It
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LIST OF TABLKS
TABLE
I
n
III
FAOS
NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF COOPERATING SCHOOLS . . . . . .
OMAHA CSNTRA1 HIGH SCHOOL KNROL1MESTS
COKE SUBJECTS IN NEBRASKA .
.
6
................................... 13
............................................................ 36
I?
NATURE OF CONTENT IN NINTH GRADE E B lIaH COURSES....................... ST
7
HASS Of ORGANIZATION USED IN TEACHING S8QLISH I ....................... 99
fl
NATURE 0? CONTENT IN TENTH GRADE ENGLISH COURSES.......................61
711
T in
IE
X
XI
XXX
xnx
PLANS OF ORGANIZATION USED IB TEACHING ENGLISH I I
. . . .
NATURE o r CONTENT IS ELEVENTH GRADE ENGLISH COURSES
63
. . .
PLANS OP ORGANIZATION USED IS TEACHING ENGLISH I I I . . .
69
.
66
NATURE 07 CONTEST IB TWELFTH ORADE XS9LX3H COURSES . . . .
69
PLANS OF ORGANIZATION USED IS TEACHING ENGLISH 17
69
. . . .
NATURE OF CONTENT Hi AMERICAN BISTORT COURSES...........................56
PLANS o r ORGANIZATION USED IB TEACHING AMERICAN HISTORY .
95
XZ7
BATUMI 07 CONTENT IN WORLD HISTORY COURSES . . . . . . . .
97
XT
PLAN? OF ORGANIZATION USED IB TEACHING OHLD BISTORT . . .
98
XVI
XVII
xvm
XIX
PLANS OF ORGANIZATION USED IB TEACHING OCKRUBITY CIVICS
PLANS o r ORGANIZATION USED IB TEACHING AMERICAN
CITIZlNaHIP ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
60
68
NATURE o r COBTEBT IB CIVICS COURSES................................................66
PLANS Of ORGANIZATION USED IN TEACHING C IV IC S ........................... 66
XX
NATURE o r CUBTENT IB AMERICAN OOVBBSttiSNT COURSES . . . . .
6V
XXI
PLANS Of OBQASIZATIOff USED IB TEACHING AMERICAN
(XBBflKMB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
7
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H IT
TUSK DEVOTED TO ASSEMBLY PERIODS .
........................................ 18?
XL7 LBNUTH OF 30H00L DAT..................................................................... 138
XLTI
lir a
23.TXII
TIME DETOTKD TO CROUP OUZDASCE...................................................138
OTHER OUXWR EXPERIENCES
........................................133
THE B3MS HOOK..........................
135
XXXXX MINUTES PER WEEK IN SOME BOOM OR ADVISORYCROUP . . . . .
1
U
III
U II
TREND IN ELBOTIVRS VERSUS CONSTANTS.................................. 138
CURRICULUM REORGANIZATION IB NEBRASKA............................. . . 158
NEWCOURSES ADDED...............................................................
COURSES DROPPED
171
LYII
m il
153
................................................... . . 155
117 TREND IB GRADE PLACEMENT
IT
133
........................................158
CONTRIBUTORS HI CURRICULUM REORGANIZATION I I NEBRASKA . . 138
PROPOSED PROGRAM OF STUDIES.....................................
DESIRABLE DISTRIBUTION 07 EMPHASIS IN ENGLISH COURSES
175
. . 181
A PROPOSED CORE CURRICULUM TOR NEBRASKA SECONDARY
SCHOOLS................................................... ...................183
T il
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GBAPISft I
mTRQDWTICai
Perhaps, the most strik in g phenomena in Amerioan public educa­
tio n la recent years have been the development o f, and tha new challenge
to , aaaoadaay education. With aa tw r larg er number of pupils enrolling
la the high schools, many of whosi show ao apaalal aptitude fo r learniag
from the printed page, adm inistrators and teaahere hare found i t
aeaesaary to deriee methods by whieh suoh pupils say hare th e ir time
la eahool employed to advantage. Sapid so cial, p o lltle a l, eoonomlo, and
teehaologleal ohaagee hare rendered obeolete aaoh of the ourrioular
oonteat of a few yeara ago. laereaeed knowledge of the nature of youth
eaueee etudeate of eduoation to ohalleage the effeetlreaeee of praetleee
la teaching and adm inistration whieh formerly were highly regarded. A
growing re a lisa tio n of the aeeeealty of train ing individuals to lir e la
a deaoeratio society has oaueed educators to examine erery aspect of
the school, so th at the contributions nay be fu lly rea lise d . The Im­
portance of the secondary school in the U rea of young people, as
witnessed by the In sisten t need fo r train in g to enable the individual
to cope with the problems which confront him, and the actual and poten­
ti a l value of the secondary school in giving th is train in g , hare eomblasd to make the nation conscious of the fact th at the secondary
school must be Improved.
The amount of energy, time, and money devoted to the problems
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o f a s solidary e d u c s tio n d u rin g th e l a s t decade s u rp a ss e s a n y th in g o f &
s im ila r n a tu re t h a t has a v e r been known.
Laym n sad la y com m ittees e ra
»
g iv in g a t t e n t i o n to secondary ed u catio n } numerous ind ep en d en t i n v e s t i ­
g a to r s e re s tu d y in g one a s p e c t o r a n o th e r o f i t } sch o o ls o f e d u c a tio n
i n th e u n i v e r s i t i e s a re a c t i v e ; and groups o f in d iv id u a ls , o fte n sub­
s id is e d by one o f th e ed u e& tio n si fo u n d a tio n s have u n d e rta k e n , o r a re
u n d e rta k in g , n a tio n w id e , com prehensive in v e s t ig a tio n s which le a v e un­
touched p r a c t i c a l l y no a re a o f th e secondary s c h o o l.
The l i t e r a t u r e
r e s u l t i n g from th e s e a c t i v i t i e s I s th e most e x te n s iv e and th e most
s c i e n t i f i c t h a t has e v e r been produced*
T h ere.have b e en , a l s o ,
innum erable a d a p ta tio n s and experim entation® i n l o c a l s c h o o ls , u n d er­
ta k en by te a c h e rs end a d m in is tra to rs d e s iro u s o f im proving th e le a r n in g
s i t u a t i o n s enoo u n tered by y o u th .^
L ess th a n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f th e Jtebraska secondary sohool adm ini­
s t r a t o r s and members o f t h e i r f a c u l t i e s have g iv en s p e c i f i c c o n sid e ra ­
tio n to a co re o f e x p e rie n c e s from which i t was hoped t h a t s im ila r
le a r n in g s would r e s u l t f o r a l l s tu d e n t s .
One hundred e ig h ty -s e v e n r e ­
p o rte d t h a t th e y had g iv e n s p e c if ic c o n s id e ra tio n to such e x p e rie n c e s
w hile 195 re p o rte d n e g a tiv e ly *
U n til Hebraaka e d u c a to rs a r r iv e a t a
s ta g e i n t h e i r th in k in g where th e y w ill g iv e some c o n s id e ra tio n to
t h i s problem , d iv e rg e n t p a th s w ill c o n tin u e to be tra v e le d in an e f f o r t
to re a c h th e same g o a l.
S o c ie ty has a r i g h t to demand and e x p ec t i t s
c itiz e n s to have c e r t a i n common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
These can be a c q u ire d
1 B u lle tin o f C a l i f . S t a te D ent, o f | 4 . Mo. 5 , 1939.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s
by ooeanon school experiences or in other word* by e eore ourriculua.
In oae aenee tbere ie nothing new about eore ooureee. They ere
nsrely required courses, constants, i f you w ill, in eeeh student *•
sohedule. The th eo rist singles then out as the school's responae to
the need of unity and eontlnulty in society; as la g lis puts l t i
In the u n its whieh go to sake up soelety there are always eleaeuts
of hoaogenelty and elsnents of heterogeneity, on the aalntenanee
of the proper equilibrlun between those eleaeats depend the existence,
continuity, and progress of soelety and the problen in any society
is twofold: (1) to develop out of the heterogeneous raw n o ta ria l
the degree of henoganelty. . .which is necessary for the pemnnssee
of the society; and (8) to provide th at the nani— efficiency nay
re su lt from individual differences in cap acities, in te re sts, and
a b ilitie s , as w ell as frost the adaptation of individuals to the
widely d ifferen tiated needs of soelety. Between these two needs
of m oiety there suet always be a certain aaount of antagonise and
c o n flic t, but i t is an erro r to conceive that we nust choose be­
tween then because of a certain opposition of function. Rather we
suet conceive th at they are both necessary aad th a t th e ir re la tio n
is supplenental fa r sore than antagonistic. In any soelety there
is need of a certain aaount of unity of thought, of feelin g s, of
Id eals, of standards, of conduct. Such unity is acre necessary in
a deaoeraey such as ours than in any other m oiety. But i t is aim
tre e that individual differences and the d ifferen tiated seeds of
nodern society deaand recognition. Brace the factors of Integration
rad of d iffe re n tia tio n m e both isportant aad n either can be neglect­
ed without incurring the gravest social dangers.*
THE PROBLEM STATED
The Scope oowaittee, appointed by the Sebraska S tate Superin­
tendent of Public in stru ctio n , has beeoas an active participant in the
novaaeat to iaprove secondary education in Nebraska, i t is in the
in te re st of th is
p h a se
of education that the present study is aad*.
* la g lis , Alexander, P rinciples of Secondary Education (1918),
pp. 347-348.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I t i s hoped t h a t through on in v e s tig a tio n o f p a s t and p re s e n t
p r a c t i c e s , l i g h t may ha shad upoa what should ha th e common sohool
e x p e rie n c e s o f boys and g i r l s in N ebraska h ig h sc h o o l* .
A fte r d e te r*
m ining w hat s u b je c t* aad e x p e rie n c e s should he common t o e l l , th e en ­
richm ent o f th e secondary c u rric u lu m sh o u ld fo llo w .
D m purpose o f t h i s s tu d y th e n i s tw o -fo ld * F i r s t , i t i s t o show
th e oore c u rric u lu m o f N ebraska h ig h sch o o ls*
Second, i a th e l i g h t o f
common p r a c tic e s i a Nebraska and th e f e l t needs o f p u p il£ , le y e e n , end
o th e r s , to g e th e r w ith the p r a c tic e s i a o th e r s t a t e s , a co re c u rric u lu m
w ill be recommended f o r th e youth o f N ebraska.
cork curriculum be? iked
The t a r n c u r r io u lu a has had th re e d i s t i n c t u sag es l a o u r educa­
tio n a l h is to ry .
F i r s t , i t r e f e r r e d to a s e r i e s o f c o u rses le a d in g to
a d e f i n i t e o b je c tiv e a s p re p a ra tio n f o r a p o s itio n o r p re p a ra tio n f o r
f u r th e r e d u c a tio n .
I n th e second p la c e , th e te n s h as been u sed to
apply to th e s u b je c t m a tte r o r m a te r ia ls to be le a r n e d .
The t h i r d ,
and new moat g e n e r a lly acc e p ted u se o f th e term , a p p lie s to th e e x p e r­
ie n c e s o f th e le a rn e r*
The o r i g i n o f th e word from th e L a tin i a ra c e
c o u rs e , o r th e ra c e i t s e l f , and r e f e r s to a p la c e o f deeds o r a s e r i e s
o f deeds*
As a p p lie d t o e d u c a tio n in t h i s s e n s e , I t r e f e r s t o a s e r i e s
o f th in g s which c h ild r e n must do o r e x p e rie n c e t o develop th e a b i l i t i e s
demanded by modern l i f e *
As C asw ell and Campbell sa y :
’"C urriculum i s
h e ld t o be composed o f a l l th e e x p e rie n c e s e h iid r e n have u n d er th e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
guidance o f te a c h e r s ." 15 I t o u s t be k e p t i s mind t h a t th e t o r s i s
n o t r e s tr ic te d . to o u tlin e s o f a u b ja c t m a tte r , r e fe re n c e s to book
m a te r ia l, o r t o vh&t l a re c o rd ed i a ooureee o f s tu d y .
The develop*
n e a t o f th e c u rric u lu m re v e a ls th e changes i a th e philosophy o f
e d u c a to r* .
As d e iliw d f o r t h i s in v e s t ig a ti o n , th e co re cu rric u lu m i n a
g iv en sc h o o l in c lu d e s t h a t body o f e x p e rie n c e s ( s u b je c t n a t t e r , a c t i v i ­
t i e s , nod th e l i k e ) i n which a l l s tu d e n ts p a r tic ip a te *
Thus, i t would
in c lu d e a l l re q u ire d co u rsea and re q u ire d e x p e rie n e e s »uoh as hone
roots o r a d v iso ry s e c tio n s , a s s e m b lie s , e t c e t e r a ,
t h i s d e fin itio n
does n o t imply t h a t a l l s tu d e n ts w i l l h a re i d e a t i o e l e x p erien ces*
S tu d e n ts and te a c h e rs nay s e l e c t e x p e rie n e e s fro st " th a t body o f
e x p e rie n c e s i n which e l l s tu d e n ts p a r ti c ip a t e * i n acco rd w ith In d iv id u a l
n e e d s.
I n t h i s s tu d y , u n le s s o th e rw ise in d ic a te d , g ra d e s n in e , t e n ,
e le v e n , and tw elve a re r e f e r r e d to when u sin g th e t e n s seco n d ary o r
n ig h schools*
approach to
m s problem
The co re c u r r io u lu a o f Nebraska h ig h sc h o o ls whs d eterm in ed by
th e u.-*e o f q u e stio n n a ire s *
(See Appendix a , page £ 0 1 ).
a
d e ta ile d
in fo rm a tio n b lan k was s e n t to 7*0 s e p a ra te h ig h sohoou u n i t s i n
■3 C asw ell, H o llis L . and Cam pbell, Doate S . C urriculum Develop­
m ent. American Book Company, 1939, p . 99*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
6
Itebreska, four hundred seventy usable rep lies or 63,01 per oeat of the
to ta l were returned. The d istrib u tio n of the p articip atin g aehools Is
shown below.
TABIX I
maaite amo eisra m m o it or oooperatiko scicois
School enrollment
150
151
301
401
cur less
to 300
to 490
or men
Total
Gooperatlag schools
» of to ta l
881
88
10
SI
40.8
78.81
76.18
95.40
470
63.51
Upon these data current practices re la tire to the common ex*
perienees were determined.
In addition to th is , information concerning
the content of the required courses was received, also grade placements,
minutes per week in class, number of periods per week, length of eonrses,
and whether the eonrses were new or revised daring the past fiv e years.
The plans of organisation used in the presentation of these courses
has revealed the trend in the methods of presentation.
The a c tiv ity w ithin the sta te in eurrioulum adjustment is seen
as a re su lt of the responses to inquiries found on page 6 of the in­
strument used in the survey. The manner in which curriculum re­
organization work has been carried forward during the past fiv e years
is also revealed by the rep lie s to th is section. The remainder of the
instrument is concerned with a picture of the common experiences other
than those of the classroom.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Aa e ffo rt has been aad* to determine whet experiences should bo
comma to a l l boys aad g irls a t tbo high aobool le v e l.
Ia chapter alx
of th ia study, the re su lts of th is attew pt are presented. The w riter
Is aware of n an 's H alted knowledge of tho asods of youth, aad there­
fore tho reeoanenAations are basod upon tho oplaloas of 958 boys aad
g irls oho aro seniors la 16 Mebraska high schools, aad the oplaloas
of 876 teachers and 58 laymen,
(See Appendix B fo r the Instrument
used). Bore than one thousand of these lastruneats were seat to twenty
representative towns ia SCbraska,
(see Appendix 6 fo r l i s t of towns
Included}. The re m its of the opiaioaaalres, subjective though they
are , are the basis upon which the necesnaadations are made. I t is the
conviction of the w riter that the opinions of high school seniors, th e ir
teachers and laymen n a rit sore consideration than the opinions of those
individuals who are not ia actual contact with a cross ssetlon of tho
youth population. The w riter is well aware of the magnitude of the
problem of determining those school experienees whieh should be comma
to a ll high school boys aad g ir ls .
I t was, therefore, with a singled
feeling of hum ility aad weakness th at the fin a l chapter was attempted.
The findings are presented with the hops th at an additional ray of
lig h t night be shed upon the solving of th is probles,
LDUTAIIOHS Of THK STUB*
10 e ffo rt has been nade to analyse the constants of the large
and m a ll achools. B reteraits* ia a recent study revealed th a t tbs
* B retern lts, 1. A .t *The Bourse Offerings of Selected Three,
four, and Six-Ybar High Schools la Scbraska." An abstract of fie ld
Study Ho. 8, Colorado S tate College of gducatioa, p . 3, 1939.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
ty p e *nd number o f c o u rs e s , whieh a r e c o n s ta n t, wary w ith th e s i z e o f
th e h igh school*
T h is same w r ite r found t h a t th e l a r g e r sc h o o ls g e n e r­
a l l y r e q u ir e few er s p e c if ie d s u b je c ts f o r g ra d u a tio n *
S im ila r e x p e rie n c e s m y be th o r e s u l t s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u rse s i n
th e seme o r d i f f e r e n t com m unities, b u t i t I s beyond th e scope o f t h i s
stu d y to determ ine w hether any two c o u rse s m ight b r in g about th e same
d e s ir e d knowledge o r a ttitu d e *
U n til th e e f f e o t o f a course upon boys
and g i r l s i s m easured, th a wisdom o f r e q u ir in g i t o f a l l sh o u ld be
d e t a r s i a e l by the o p in io n s o f th o se who h a re ex p erien c e d such a course*
A t h i r d li m i t a t i o n o f th e stu d y I s th e a u th o r 's I n a b i l i t y to
determ ine why th e c o n s ta n ts v a ry from one community to an o th er*
L e g is ­
l a t i o n seems t o in flu e n c e th e co re curriculum * in many s ta te s .®
T h is
may e x p la in th e v a r ia tio n s t h a t e x i s t between s t a t e s , b u t n o t w ith in
th e some s t a t e .
Much o f th e l e g i s l a t i o n c i t e d in th e ts-orka o f Ten Den
B rin k , and O ish , re q u ire v a rio u s c o u rse s t o be ta u g h t, but seldom do
th e s e lew s s p e c ify t h a t th e p u p ils must ta k a th«>* f o r g rad u atio n .®
A
stu d y showing th e r e l a t i o n betw een th e c o u rse s o ff e re d and th » c o u rse s
ta k e n would h e lp r e v e a l th e in flu e n c e o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n .
® Tan Ben B rin k , John J o e , "A Review Of S ta te l e g i s l a t i o n P e r ta in ­
in g To Secondary C u rric u lu m I n The S ta te s Com prising The N orth C e n tra l
A ss o c ia tio n Of C o lle g es And Seoondory Schools** U npublished Ph.D.
d i s s e r t a t i o n , N ebraska S ta te U n iv e r s ity , 1939.
6 O ish , I r a M., "a Heview Of S ta te l e g i s l a t i o n P e r ta in in g To The
Secondary School C u rric u lu m I n The S ta te s Com prising The S o u th ern A sso ci­
a tio n Of C o lle g es And Secondary Schools Aad An A n a ly sis And Comparison
W ith S im ila r Dots Of The S ta te s C om prising Th® N orth C e n tra l A ss o c ia tio n * .
U npublished Ph.D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Nebraska S ta te U n iv e rs ity , 1939.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
<numa n
YSC BIOS 80HD0Z. afBSXOQZXM IB TSS PAST
Load Bofom Bohmmq axaapllflad hia philoaophy ia .M ia , aad
bafora Pastaloaai tq e u tM Ala tbaarlaa rolattva to tba daairabla
aaparlaaoaa for youth, aaa n a partarbtd about what afcould ooaatituta
« praotiaal Baakgrouad te r l i f e ,
■Bat do « taaah? B a t am tba daairabla aobool axparlaaaaa
of youth ia tba aaaoadarp aaboola wbiob aBoald ba a naann to a ll?
that
ahall aoaatitata tba aom eurriaulua? Laglalatora, layuwa aad aahool■aa Bam attam tod to
cope
witB thia pi«U«a for m ay yaara. La*iala-
tlm aotiea affaotiac tba e a r r in lw appaara darlag aaoB awtooodlag
biaaalaa. Arkaaaaa aad Yonaoat praaarlba tBa toaoBiaf of tBa offoota
of aloobolia drinko.1 Tba Yaaaoat laflalatora raqutraa tbat bidb
aabool iaatm otioa ahall Ba d m
ia p o litio a l aoiaaeaj baaltb aad
phyaiaal adaoatioa) aaalology, iaaludtag tba affaata of aiaoBeiio
drloka aad aam otioa n Baaaa aoalatyi team tota l aubjaatai aad
aaahaalaal art a.* Ooarna hoaaaty, w n l lt f , oourtasy, obadlaaaa to
law, rnapaot for tba aatioaai fla g , tba ooaatitwtioa of tba atata,
raapaat for paroata aad tba bom, tba Algalty aad aaooaaity of boaoat
la ter , aad otbar 1aaaoaa o f a ataadyias la flaaaaa, abiab taad to proaota
r
BaUatia
X E E la u W ag& m k
1959, Bo , i i , Ballad Statoa Popartwant o f latarlar, p. IT,
11 JBEH» *• **•
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
w
•ad develop an upright and desirable oitisen ry i n a lto required**
Mm swohmot tin legi&la tio n n ^ o lm t ho tooohlng of h iito iy
oivios, including the co n stitu tio n , ia a ll public high schools and
•bat* tsaohers* collages. Bar laws also require the teaching of tba
Ita lia n language ia any high sahoel having so t fewer than ISO pu pils,
upon tho w ritten request of parents or guardians, i f the enrollnent ia
not f o u r titan SB properly-qualif lad p u p ils.4
M ississippi prescribes the following subject* ia the high aohool
ctrrio u lu at
"ttathouatioe, English, h isto ry , aad oooial science, para
^n<t applied io lto M | including ag ricu ltu re, bans eeoHoi&ics,
nanusl
a ria , safety on tha highway*, aad ouch other subject* as stay bo added
by the sta te board of education#*®
Montana requires a ll public aohoeXs to give in stru ctio n ia
"ausio, a r t, elementary ag ricu ltu re, including cooperative economies.*4
Pertiw raere, tha lag islatu ro proscribed tha obeorvanoo of C onstitution
Day,
In Bair Banpshire, history tsaohars m ist in stru ct th e ir paptts
re la tiv e to tho laws governing elections aad voting* An olootivo course
of instru ctio n in aaoparativa nark#ting and consumers* oooporativas must
be provided in North Dakota high sohools.7
r m
¥ ; i »*
4 A Heview Of Eduoatioaal hasislshitm 1§87 and 1088, B ulletin
u » , i..~ a r g H « r m i ,
a ■
.~ n ^
8 .Ibid* p . 18.
6 IWd* P* 18.
7 Ib id . p . 18.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
11
la the United s ta te s , education bss been largely the responsi­
b ility of the s ta te . rrovin cialian has been much ia evidence, since
the sta te s hat’s , to a large degree, passed the control aad responsi­
b ility fo r the schools to sub-divisions of the s ta te . A heterogeneous
^
u
system has developed with school experiences of pupils d ifferin g rm stly
from ooaaninity to oaaosuaity. In e a rlie r tia e s , a conmon set of exper-
~T>
~
lenses was f e lt to be unnecessary, since transportation and coanunlca­
tio n kept the m ajority of the people nearer the places of th e ir b irth .
Sapid transportation and widespread commnleation has mads i t necessary
fo r the schools to prepare world c itiz e n s. To do th is , provincialism
oust be broken down. Sose school experiences m at be coonon to a l l
pupils in each community and those of one con—unity with another.
A. OUBEI0ULUM nr «*«.v uwammrA
The teacher* s in te re st and a b ility almost always determined
what mis taught In the f i r s t Hebraska schools, ho e ffo rt was made to
f i t the Instructional program to the needs of the T erritory, not a
single instance of a course in agriculture was recorded. Business
courses were v irtu a lly unknown. Ancient history was almost always
taught in advanced classes, hut never a course la American govern­
ment, or co nstitu tion , and vocational courses were unknown.8
In 106? the board of education ia Hebraska 01ty prescribed the
' 8 Beggs, Walter Keaton, "fro n tie r Education In Nebraska." Un­
published Ph.D. d issertatio n , Nebraska s ta te U niversity, 1939, pp. 86061.
O «
JLX
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
following subject* fo r the curriculum in the high sehool departmentt®
Arithmetic from decimal fractio ns
English grammar
Eigh sehool geography
F ifth reader
Rhetoric
natural philosophy
Algebra
Latin
Orotic
In the f ir s t year of I ts existence, Omaha Central High School
In 1871-72 offered English analysis, algebra, geometry, natural
philosophy, Greek: and lo tin . The la s t two were liste d as optional.
By 1882-85 there was a d ifferen tiatio n In courses and a considerable
lib e ra lity in the offerin gs. Algebra and rhetoric were season in aU
courses a t the ninth-grade le v e l. Geometry was a constant in grade
te a .
In grades eleven and twelve, no subjects were required of a l l
pup ils.10
For the year 1869-90 textbooks were indicated in the following
subjects:
Algebra
H istoric
Physiology
Zoology
Botany
Drawing
Stenography
Snglish L iterature
Oivios
General History
® M d . p." 148.
*0 Masters, Joseph a ,, "Tracing the Developewat of Nebraska'a
F irs t High School OLacs", wtowSits
Journal. X? (March, 1935),
p. 93.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Gteology
Physios
Chemistry
Astronomy
Geometry
Trigonometry
Bookkeeping
Cassmrelsl Arithmetic
Roman History
8 n te History
Sngllsh History
United S tates Bistory
Latin
Greek
German
F e litie a l Seoaomy
The 137 graduates la 1909 show a d istrib u tio n of in te re sts as
follows: O lassleal Course, 10; Latia-Xnglish Course, 99; OenamBagllsh Course, 15; Freneb-fnglish Course, 3; Selected Course, 68;
Ingliah Course, 4; Commercial Course, 7; Manual Training Course, 11,
"The table below w ill show the very wide expansion of the
high sehool eurrlottluns and the ebb and flow of sub je sts expressing
the needs and demands of the oamplezity of modern times and the
wishes and desires of the students:"11
TABU I I
OMAHA OEBTBAL BZQH SCHOOL HHROLUQCTfS
3135
Inglish
Baglish U
Nnthmsatiss
Amerleaa History
1990
0
1497
831
1990
17
1449
410
^ I b i d .pT 98
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1884
88
1199
948
u
TABLE I I (o o n tin a a d )
OMAHA CBKTBAL B lffi SCHOOL RHK3LLHEETS
„.r,int«TT,
"**T
KBPTLVff
JtPPVNpw
Engliah Hlatory
sia to ry •••*••••••»*••••<
iSiiW i European B istory •••••*« •.
..............*«•
ClvSas
BoAarn. PrOblans •■«••••••••*«•••«
I m m I i i *•••*•••••••*•••••••*»<
Latin
Spanish
Canaan •••*••»•«#•••••••••»•••«•<
A |« la«
Biology ....................................... .
Zoology
O aslocy........ ........................ ..........
A gristtltura ••••••••••••••«••«•»<
Agnriignvfegr *•••*•••»••«•••••••«
Bom Baaaonlos •••••••••••••* •••«
Jwsrnaliam
Dabata
PitfLii Speaking
T rie iile n
Typewriting ....................
TtiiVhwrj&ag •#•****
PfmHHmhtr •••••IlM llM dM M M I
ATS IhrtllB i
B uriiu ft Training «••••*••••••*•*
Ckanasrelal Arltfanatle ••••••••«•«
BXaaantary Solaaoa
Bonaal Karlane
History of Dram
A rt
ttsahsttleel Sewing •«••••*••••••«
Kamal Training ••••••••••••••••«
O irla’ ^
A Cappella Choir
Olaa Olnb
V»iM ............. m m . .........................
* ••••••# ••
$4
14
548
m
m
IBS
88
m
m
881
0
0
88
188
884
0
0
0
88
88
840
48
18
48
170
848
44
88
78
88
84
71
108
0
0
116
88
44
576
0
0
874
48
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
n
808
187
SO?
88
84
809
808
868
44
0
88
188
888
0
0
0
0
84
888
88
81
88
187
868
801
80
48
0
88
88
88
0
0
HO
in
80
188
0
181
847
109
16
TABU 1Z (oontlnued)
GKAHA 0%9BA1> HKJB SCHOOL EHH0LLMEHT3
— B H 3 T 19S6*Sd J J 8 4 - «
Subjeat...... _... ...................................
Music Appreciation ........................ .
History of Musie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baraoay .................................................
Orcheatra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Olrls* B and........................................
M ilitary ................................... .
Athlatiaa**llo d a fla lte d a t a ...........
44
98
87
79
84
800
880
98
49
98
48
0
444
400
A new In terest nanlfested its e lf p articu larly is the secondary
fie ld a t tits tu n of the tw entieth century. The sources offered la
1900 differed l i t t l e tvm those offered during the preeedlag treaty*
f ir e year*. They rere designed p ria a rily to prepare atudoata fo r
college, mad therefore Bad
by
b M o re
fire d by tra d itio n . Haporta flla d
aahool adm inistrators with tha O alreralty examiner la 1904 show that
90 par aaat of our high aahool atudoata rere enrolled la Vaglish,
91.4 par reat la higher mathaaMtie s , 91.9 per
M at
la the natural
sciences, 79.4 per aaat la Latin or foreign language, 77.7 per aeat
la fin e a rta , end 70 par reat la the aoaial sciences.**
B. StfBJXCT omRZBOS IN TBS W W ® STATES
1990*1964
The percentage of atudenta enrolled in the trc d ltio n a l aeedenla
"" i t M erits,' B. D ., *Qhangea In The Mebraska High Sehool Ourrleu*
luas,* Habraaka Educational Journal. XT (March, 19% ), p. 94.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1*
courses declined stead ily frcaa 1904 to 1919. There ana a 5 per cent
decrease in English, 19 por ooat la forolgn language, 14 por ooat la
natheaatics, sad a por ooat la ooolal sciences. These dooroaooo were
caused bp tho latrodaotloa aad development of melt subjects ao
a r ts , hoae economics, ag ricu ltu re, aad oon—ro la l a rta . By 1919, Si
por ooat of tho otadoato woro oarollod la tho various praotloal a rta
courses aad 7 por ooat la nom al train in g . During tho next dooado, tho
earollaoat porooatago dooliaad la a l l tho academic subjects except
English. Foreign language dooliaad 12 por ooat, mathematics 8§ por
ooat, aoolal aoloaooo 3 por ooat, aad aa ta ra l aoloaeoa 44 par ooat.*9
Tho doollao la foreign laagaago aad mathematics continued a fto r
1929, tho former showing a 9 por ooat loaa aad tho lo t to r 2 par ooat.
English, aoolal aoloaooo, aad praotloal a rta show aa iaoroaao of 0 por
ooat, 7 por ooat, aad 1 par ooat, respectively, by 1934.**
Tho subject offoriaga aad eobjoot roglatratloaa reveal tho
trooda la curriculum development. humorous atadloa have boon aado by
tho Offloo of Education of subject traada la tho public high aohoola
of tho Unitod S tates, Animal atadloa wore aado from IMG to 1900.
Studies alaoo th at tiao woro aado in 1910, 1918, 1922, 1928, and 1934.
A ll atadloa up to aad 1nolading 1918 woro roportod In tho annual re porta of tho Coaai as loner of Xduoatlon. The findings of tho 1922 aad
1928 atadloa woro given la tho Bioanial Survey of gdaoatioa fo r thoao
years. la tho f i r s t study, la 1890, L atin, Chart:, VTonah, Osman,
20. 0, United sta to a Department of In te rio r, Offloo of Xduoatlon, 1938,
pp. 1*27.
MMl* PF*«®-W*
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If
algebra, gsom try, physios, ehanlstry, aad history « m reported. By
1895 trlgonoaetry, astronomy, phyaioal geography, oology, physloljgy,
psychology, aad rhetoric had been addad to the Ofrics of kdueatian l i s t ,
la th s 1910 tahlas the data oa Spanish, zoology, botany, ag ricu ltu re,
aad doaostio econonqrj sod la 1918 gaaaral biology, la d a strla l train in g ,
manual trai& iag, drawing, vocal m a le, aad bookkeeping wars addad,
ftas H at of subjects raportsd oa la tha
Bdusatlon ia
1962 was aore
survey of
thaa double that of 1918. Tha additions
wars p riaalp ally la tha fia ld s of sooial stad ias, shop stad ias, and
e e n s re la l work.
Ia 1988 a to ta l of 158 subjects wars lis ta d in tha Biennial sur­
vey of Education: and six years la ts r , tha survey iaaladad 206, 3 of
which aara alaost universally offarad, while 98 vara offarad in favor
than 18 sta ta s .
Mo groat variety of offerings was present in ths ourrieuluns of
Aaerican high sohools at tha turn of tha tv aatlath oaatvy, Only aboat
a soars of subjects vara widely represented Is tha offerings of kaarlaan
I t is inpossible to deteralne ju st what sub jssts vara
offarad in 1095 or a t tha present• I t is , hossrer, possible
to sta te
d efin itely th at there aara a t le a st sixteen sttbjeets offarad in the
foxasr year and a t le a st 206 ia the la tte r .1®
^ Unless otherwise indieatad, tha s ta tis tic s used ia th is
ohaptar are taken frofc tha United S tatas Department of the In te rio r,
Offlaa of Sdttsation, Biennial Surveys c f Iduoatloa. S ta tls tle s
rela tiv e to subjeot offerings and enrolliuw ta, from th is source, have
bean used to show p ractises throughout tha United S ta ta s, up to tha
period under consideration.
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ia
(a) English
Ho data concerning English ware gathered u n til 1895* when
rhetoric appeared and was taken by about one-third of tha pup ils.
In
1900 sera than fo u r-fifth s of tha pupil® vara registered la classes of
rhetor!o or English lite ra tu re —the la tte r haring beau added to the l i s t
In 1B98. Through 1910 and 1915, nearly everyone was required to tabs
four years of English. A fter tha ea r, xany sohools raduoed th e ir re quireaents, allowing pupils eonsldarahle opportunity fo r eleotion of
epeeial English subjects during the senior year.*®
Zs 1934, of every 1000 pupils registered In regular English
olasses in the la s t four years of the high school, 353 were taking f i r s t year English; 281, seeond-year English; 829, third -year; and 157, fourthyear.** Publie speaking, draxatie a rt and journalise are special sub­
je c ts related to English which are taught in high sohools. Special
courses in lite ra tu re are also found in the more advanced years; as
are special courses in composition, novel, and Short s to rie s, S ts
la tte r three courses are aore frequently taught fo r a h air year than
fo r a f u ll year. Special courses in English occur infrequently in the
programs of high schools la Heir England and the southern s ta te s ; they
are found aost often in the le s t, especially on the P acific coast.
^
gcgjatratloas m M ak gohogj ISM ftltft. »«**«iil1
Ho. 6, United S tates Bepartaeat of In te rio r, Office »f Education, 1958,
pp. 1-*?.
** Office of Education B u lletin , 1935, Ho. 8, Chapter 5,
S ta tis tic s of Public High Schools, 1933-34.
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19
(b) foreign Language
Latin has naintainad lt« position as ths principal foreign
language la ths curriculum* of American high sohools, even though tha
decline in reg istratio n s has bssa steady sines ths peak ia 1910* french
took ssoond pXaee daring th s war, when Osman was p ractically elim inated
from th s htgb sehool curriculum*. Bines 1988 Osrwan has been ooxing
bask into ths high sohools, bat reg istra tio n s in th s sabjest are s t i l l
re la tiv e ly unimportant.10
Omsk was taken by an appreelable number of pupils ia ths early
years; but i t has now almost disappeared as a high sehool sub je s t.
Spanish gained rapidly a fte r a le ts s ta r t.
I ts most rapid gain same
between 1919 aad 1989. The re g istra tio n dropped o ff m aterially be­
tween 1988 and 1934. Ita lia n , whleh is next in lin e , had a reg istra tio n
Of slig h tly over 10,000 In 1934.**
I t is sign ifican t to note that the to ta l Latin reg istra tio n in
the f ir s t year is somewhat more than one-fourth as large as the English
reg istra tio n in th at year, th at the seeoad-year reg istra tio n in Latin
is somewhat under one-fourth of the English re g istra tio n fo r the second
year, aad th at in the th ird year the ra tio is one reg istra tio n in Latin
to seek 14 or 17 reg istratio n s in English. More than 63 per sent of
the seeondary sohools were offering Latin ia 1934; about 16 per sent
of the high sehool pupils in the la s t 4 years were registered ia Latin
classes. A d ifferen t picture would lik ely appear, i f more pupils were
given an opportunity to en roll in Latin o lasses. This would be
**gflg&jt flfti
la ffife gfftrel. nwtifc&
»*“**•**»
Bo. 6, United S tates Department of In te rio r, O ffice of Education, 1938,
p . 4.
*» Ib id . p . 4.
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ao
p articu larly tru e v ita th ird end fourth year Latin.
Approximately 35 por cent of tho schools woro offering Preach
and about 11 por oont of tho pupils woro taking i t ia 1934. On* oohool
in every 4 offorod Spanish, and 1 sehool in every 19 offered Osman.
Spanish was pursued by 4 por oont of tho pupils, and Qeman by S.5 por
m a t.
Ita lia n ranked next in inportaaso. Greek was reported by 19
sohools ia 8 sta te s in 1934. L atin, French, Spanish and Osman aecouatod fo r 99 por sent of tho e n tire forclga-lnaguagc reg istra tio n ! 48 per
sent of tho reg istra tio n was in Latin alone in 1934.
S lig htly mare than half of the first-y e a r pupils were registered
fo r Latin in 1934, and slig h tly le ss than h alf of the second-year
pu pils. Only one-eighth of the third-year pupils were registered fo r
a foreign language; while the re g istra tio n among fourth-year pupils
was even m a ile r,
Sohools in New England and la the Middle A tlantic sta te s rank
highest in Latin and Trench re g istra tio n s; O aliforala and the eastern
part of the United S tates rank highest in foreign language offerings
aad re g istra tio n s. The northeastern p art of the M ississippi Valley
shows high reg istratio n s in Latin but net in Frenoh; while a masher
of Sew England and southern sta te s record higher reg istra tio n s ia
Trench than ia L atin. Spanish is found so st popular along the liexleaa
border, outstripping a l l other foreign languages ia O aliforala, Arisons,
Sew Mexieo, Texas, Colorado, and Nevada. H istorical and geographical
associations tend to account fo r the high reg istratio n s in Frenoh
recorded by Maine aad Louisiana, and in Osman by schools in Pennsylvania
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81
asd In ths a ta tss of tha northern M ississippi Tailor*
(«) Katheaatios
Algebra aad geoaetry wars included among tha alas subjects la
1M0( aad by 1895, trigoaoaetry aad astreaoay had haaa addad. Tha fo ras r two reached th e ir paak la percentage of students reg istered aa ooapared to tha to ta l enrollment about 1908 aad 1910. There has haaa a
p ersisten t daellna a&aaa th a t tla a . To aoaa axtaat tha daaliaa la
algebra aad geoaetry la halaaaad by aaa reg istra tio n s la gaaaral
aath saatles. Tha am ber of pupils talcing gaaaral aathaaatiee la high
aohool haa never haaa very largo, aad I ts e lf shoosd a daellna not
only ia psroentags hat also ia aetual numbers between 1988 and 1984.*°
Trigonometr y never was pursued by large nahbers of high sehool
pupils; aad astroaoay, ehloh had nearly twiee as naay reg istratio n s
as trigonoaetry la 1898, had alaoat disappeared as a high sehool sab*
Jest.**
Advanced a rith a e tle uas offarad ia one-fifth of tha high sohools
la 1984, i . e . , la grades a la s, te a , eleven, aad twelve, fteglstratlons
are rath er w a ll aad are aore often than not la half-year courses. Ad­
vanced a rith a e tle was aore prevalently offered la tha South aad aore
p articu larly In sta te s where the 11-pear sehool systca Is predoaiaeat}
ho m a . p . 6 .
81 ***** p * 8.
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£3
reg istratio n * are eat larg e, however, in any a ta te .*8
More than 90 per eeat of the sehoole were offering algebra ia
1934 and 28.7 per eeat of the pnplls were taking i t .
la great la d ifferen t s ta te s ,
The variatio n
there algebra ia required, the re g istra ­
tio n s are as high as m e among every three pupils i and m ere i t approaches
being an electiv e, i t is as low as one among every seven or eight en­
ro lled ia the la s t four years. One-third of those completing elm entary
algebra oontinue into advanced algebra.
Advanced algebra is most fre ­
quently a half-year su b ject| but even so, aore than tw o-thirds of the
pupils taking advanced algebra study i t for a fu ll year. Mere than
30 per cent of the to ta l enrollment in 1934 were taking courses in
elm entary or advanced algebra.
Plane geom try is next to algebra, both ia offerings aad re g istra ­
tions ia aathenatieal subjects a t the high school le v e l. Between onef if th and one-sixth of the schools do not o ffer plane geom try. The
re g istra tio n is about two-thirds of th at in algebra. The subject is
usually taught in the second year of the 4-year course. About 35 per
cent of the tenth-grade reg istra tio n s are enrolled fo r geoaetry. The
large m ajority or plane geom try pupils do not enter solid geom try
courses—only m e in seven or eig h t, to be sp ecific. Solid geom try is
generally a one-semester course.
:.......Hi B u lletin 1938, ho. 8, Offerings and Jhw dstratim s
High
school Subjects 1983-84. United S tates Department of the In te rio r,
Office o f l& catlo tt, tab le 3, p . 48.
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83
Oeneral aathesuities has sot Bade i ts way extensively into the
programs o f Ameriean high sohools a t any le v e l.
I ts reg istra tio n s Ia
tho la s t 4 years are oaly about one-eighth of ths number taking algebra.
Fire other matheaatles subjects are oooasionally encountered:
trigonometry in a l l sta te s , generally as a half-year eouroe; eurveying, la aore than one sta te { and banking and aeoounting (these are
usually viewed as belonging to the oomeroi&l f ie ld ).
Sot aany more than h alf of the pupils registered in the la s t
four years of high sehool were taking sath esaties in 1834. On the
assumption th at most of the reg istratio n s in algebra, advanced a rith a e tle ,
and general aatheaatios are in the ninth grade, i t is safe to My th a t
froa 80 to 85 per eeat of the pupils in the f ir s t year of the 4-year
oourse are registered in nathanatios, The percentage drops rapidly
in sneeeeding years,
(d) seleases
Solesee ease into the ourrieuluas of Aaeriean eeeondary sohools
a t a aneh la te r date than did the e lassles and aath«aatles. The pereentage tread of physios has been generally downward, Ghealstry stopped
i t s pereeatage deeline about 35 years ago, and has siase displayed a
teadeney to r is e .
I t ia now studied by wore pupils than is physles.*9
Physical geography, geology, aad physiology have given any to
newer emphases in seienee, Oeneral seienee and hygiene have, to a
great ex ten t, absorbed thoM early seieaoas. Sim ilarly, the oaatent
** Ib id , p . b8.
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24
of botany aad zoology whioh baa aurvl-rad la sow to b« found la biology
courses. biology and general aolaaee bays enjoyed tremendous lnereases
during tbo past th irty yeara,
Mora than 54 par aaat of the firs t-y e a r rag latraata are found
taking general seienee.8* This ia nearly 18 par aaat of the to ta l
enrollment in the la a t 4 yeara.
The plaecnent of biology ia always in tha la a t four yeare-«ttsually in the aeaond year of the four-year aahool. I ts sta tu s, when ccopared with the to ta l enrollment in tha seoond year, la about tha sans
aa th at of gsaaral aalanae, with sore than S3 par aaat of tha p o ten tial
reg istra n ts taking tha subject.
I f the related subjeats, botany and
neology, are laoladed tha percentage ris e s to 59. B elatirely few
pupils do not a t some tin e la ths high aahool course study one or more
subjests in tha blologioal soieaae group, slnoe tha reg istra tio n s in*
elute nearly 25 per aaat of tha to ta l enrollment of tha la a t four years
i f physiology, nature study, hygiene, and sanitation are added to those
of biology, botany, and soology.
Obm istry or physios a ttra c t nore than a th ird of the ecabined
reg istra tio n in the la s t two years. These subjects are with rare ex­
ceptions taught fo r a f u ll
y e a r . 85
physical geography en rolls only
1.59 par cant of the enrollnent la tha la s t four y e a n , aad a l l other
physical selaneea are negligible.
W Ib id . P. 80.
® Ibid . p• 52.
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25
A ty p ical pupil takas two m I iium subjects during tha la a t four
yeara.8* These ohoieaa tuualljr ara Bade from general science, biology,
chemistry, aad physios. These four account for n e a r ly nine-tenths of
the seienee reg istra tio n s.
Eotieeable variations appear among the sta te s with respeet to the
aaphasia plaoed upon the seienee subjects. Ths g reatest range occurs
in general seienee* where the pereentage of the to ta l enrollment reg is­
tered In ths subject varies fro* 2.8 per sent in Indiana to 28.3 per
eeat la abode Island.97 In biology, the range is fro* 6.4 per east
la Sew York to 25.9 per sent in West V irginia. The range ia chemistry
i s from 2,8 per eeat in Iowa to 12 per cent in Maine. In physics, the
range is from 2.1 per sent in Louisiana and V irginia to 13.5 in Iowa.
(e) Social Studies
The pereentage of pupils taking histo ry doubled between 1890
aad 1910} i t has declined slnoe th at tia e , while other social studies
subjects have been gaining in favor. Since the breakdown of history
into individual subjects, about 1915, American history has been holding
i t s own. English history has been almost elim inated, and one-year
courses in world history have become the p ractice. The f a c t th a t
American history is usually a required subject has caused the enroll**
meat pereentage to remain unchanged.
W Ib id . p. 86.
87 Ib id« P* 30.
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£6
In 1920 there m e twice as many pupils studying eeemunity civ ics
as were studying c iv il government. Problems of American democracy
has gained very vapidly during tha la s t few years—soaevhat a t the ex­
pense of sociology, economies, and o ir il government. Oourses in
American history hare been reorganised to include aore extensive study
of movements than of Isolated events. Consideration of so cial,
governme n ta l, and eeonoaio problems is one of the prevailing motives
in ths high sehool ourriculum.
Advanoed oourses in American history are usually offered in one
or the other of the la s t two years of the high sehool. I t is pertinent
to note th at aore than six-sevenths of the potential reg istra tio n is
taking the subject.
foreign history is usually studied during the e a rlie r years of
th s high sehool, and consequently has a larg er possible re g istra tio n ,
th e combined reg istratio n s in various types of foreign histo ry is as
large as la American history.*® World history has been gai ning a t the
expense of the two-year sequence of ancient, medieval, aad modern.
Xngllsh history is offered in le ss than four per cent of the sohools.
P ractices among sta te s vary widely with regard to offerings.
Ancient history (and to a le sser extent, medieval and modern history)
are especially strong in the Hew lagiand region and in certain southern
sta te s; world history has i t s greatest assendency in Mem of the western
and middle-western sta te s .
W Ib id . pp. 84-86.
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£?
Government ooursee are usually offered fo r a half year; and I f
the reg istratio n s in the store advanced oourses in c iv il government are
added to those in community government, the to ta l w ill be very near
th at of advanced American h isto ry .
Problems of democracy is one of the most rapidly growing subjects
in the high sehool ourrioulum. i s 1934 i t ranked between economic* aad
sooiology In the l i s t of social stad ias. Economics outnumbered sociology about two to one in i ts re g istra tio n s.
In the la s t four years of high school, the to ta l reg istratio n s
In social studies are more than three-fourths of the to ta l enrollment•
Since half-year oourses are numerous an adjustment may seem advisable.
I f 2 h alf years are counted as one, the combined reg istra tio n s are ap­
proximately two-thirda of the enrollm ent. Over half of the re g istra ­
tions are in h isto ry , o n e-fifth ia o iv ies, a te .
(f) A griculture
SaroU aents in the study of agriculture were negligible u n til
a fte r 1919, even though the Scdth-Hugbcs ae t eas passed in February,
U1F. Only three schools were approved la the year following ths pass­
ing of the Smith-Bughss a e t; but by 1989, more than 9000 students av ail­
ed themselves of agriculture courses.
A griculture taught la the high schools is , in the large m ajority
of eases, vocational. About 3.9 per cent of the pupils are enrolled fo r
agriculture courses.
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(g) Ban* Economies
Cooking and turning had bM& Introduced into scan ourriculuas
prior to the passage of the Saith-Bighea sot* Curing ths ten-year
period 1919-1929, enrollments diminished in Nebraska by aore than
I per oeat in home eoonoaios. Since 1989, home eoonomios has become
v ita lise d by planing major emphasis on family life } aad them has bean
a resultant increase in enrollment.
In 1934, le ss than one-fifth of the to ta l reg istra tio n s in home
economies were in oourses for which the Federal government made re­
imbursements. Focational home economies accounts for le ss than 18,5
per cent of the to ta l re g istra tio n s, Judging by ths names aad prevalenae
of courses, instructio n in how to prepare food aad hoar to sew is ap­
parently dominant in home economics work.
(h) In d u strial Arta
Manual train in g readied the peek of i t s popularity in 1919.
A griculture and commercial a rts hare probably increased th e ir enroll*
meat a t the expense of manual train in g . The commercial a rts hare sheen
a phenomenal growth. In 1904, 12.4 per cant of the students were en­
ro lled in commercial a r ts . Boat of these were taking bookkeeping.
Accounting, commercial law, typew riting and shorthand were net introduced
u n til a la te r d ate. The enrollment in the commercial a rts has kept
paee with the increased high school enrollment since the World war.
Only about o n e-fifth of the pupils were taking shop courses of
various kinds la 1934. In the la s t 4 years of high school, re g lstre -
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29
tio a s in meohaniaal Graving were slig h tly higher than la in d u strial
a rts ; ths two subjects were well la advaaoa of a ll others, aad together
comprise th re e -fifth s of the reg istra tio n s la shop subjsets a t th is
le v el, le ss than one-fourth of the schools are offering mechanical
drawing; aad a few more than one-fourth are offering in d u strial arts*
Third la reg istratio n s ia woodwork, a subject which in many schools
ia very sim ilar to what other schools report as in d u stria l a r ts .
Oeneral shop follows woodwork In amber of re g istra n ts; only
about o n e-fifth as many taking i t as are pursuing in d u strial a r ts .
Other shop oourses include printing, machine shop, auto meehaales,
and aleetrie& l work. The number of vocational subjects is large and
growing; but tbe reg istratio n s are small for the nation as a whole.
(i) Music
Music has not grown as might be expected. The drop la enrollment
la 1994 may be attrib u ted to the depression, as many schools elim inated
music along with a rt and physical education. They were often spoken of
as the " f r ills " .
Instrumental music reaches about 4 per eeat of the pupils a t
the high school le v e l.
Za cot a few sta te s, the number of schools
offering instrum ental music approximately equals or exceeds the number
offering vocal music. The smaller classes in instrum ental music leave
the re g istra tio n s much lower than in vocal music, despite the fa c t th at
ia some sta tes not much difference appears in the number of o ffe r lag s.
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so
(j) Non-Acade c ic Fields
Non-aoadamic s u b je c ts auide t h e i r d e b u ts in to th e cu rricu lu m *
o f American hi$b sc h o o ls a t a l a t e r d a te th a n d id m ost o f th e s u b je c ts
re p re s e n te d i n th e f iv e isa jo r academic f i e l d s .
a p p ea r v-ara a g r ic u ltu r e and homo econom ics.
Among th e f i r s t t o
Manual t r a i n i n g , draw ing
and a r t , m usic, and bookkeeping fo llo w e d .
E nrollm ent l a a g r io u ltu r e was h ig h e r in 1934 th a n a t any p re v io u s
tim e .
Horae economics has g a in ed c o n s is te n tly s in c e 1910; t h e pereentage
r i s e between 1928 and 1934 b e in g s l i g h t .
I n d u s t r i a l s u b je c ts , u n d er
which a re in c lu d e d a l l work i n tr a d e s and in d u s try a s w e ll a s in d u strial
a r t s , have a ls o had c o n s is te n t in c r e a s e s o v er th e l a s t 20 y e a r s .
B ata i n th e com m ercial f i e l d are c o n fin e d la r g e ly t o th e period
beginning with 1922. Bookkeeping and penmanship have experienced the
greatest recessions; while typew riting, office p ractice, commercial
law, and elementary business train in g show increases. Shorthand has
rem itted about stationary; while ooansroial arithm etic and commercial
geography rose in rela tiv e standing between 1922 and 1928, but dropped
bach between 1928 aad 1934.
R egistrations in drawing and a r t, including meehaaioal drawing,
reveal an irreg u lar tread. Music shows somewhat sim ilar c h a ra cte ristic s,
although i t ie more stable th a n drawing aad a r t. The fin e a rts general­
ly have not been gaining over the la s t 20 years i f one compares th e ir
reg istratio n s with the to ta l number of pupils enrolled in high sohools.
Physical education has had the most rapid ris e ia re g istra tio n s,
outstripping even such subjects as American democracy and elementary
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81
boslasss train in g .
Tha enrollment la tho la a t 4 years of tha high aahool show more
than h alf of tha pupils la physical education. only 10.6 pax* aaat
of tha boys aad g irls of Arkaasaa aad Borth Carolina ara aaro llsd la
physios! education; la C alifornia, i t is 99.7 psr aa at. i t appsars
th at ragloas most highly In du strialised have baaa nest aagar to in ­
troduce i t while ag ricu ltu ral arsaa have aot baaa so keenly ia favor
of physlsal education.
About 6*9 par aaat of tha popils ia tha la s t four ysars ara
rag lstsrad fo r hyglsaa aad sa a ita tio a . M ilitary saiaasa has oaly a
few aara than 50,000 reg istra n ts among a to ta l of foar aad a h alf
a lllio n p opils. C alifornia, Illin o is , Masssahoeatts, niahigan, aad
Texas hats w s l of th s sohools offering m ilitary saiaasa, aad mast of
th s popils enrolled, in 19 s ta te s , ao sehesls o ffer m ilitary saiaasa.
freehand droving is tha leader ia reg istratio n s la the la s t fear
years o f the high sehool aaong drsvlag and a rt subjects. i t is taken
by ahowt 5.5 par aaat of the pupils a t ths high sehool le v e l.
In tha
la s t foar years of tha high aahool, o ae-tv elfth of tha popils euro tak­
ing a rt eeorses exclusive of aaahaniaal drawing. With meohanieal draw­
ing included, over 15 par seat ears registered la a r t eeorses. In tha
two sta te s of Mew York aad lashiagtam , the ert-erart-d eaig a oourses
ears aara amorous than the freehand drawing oourses.
(k) Oc—src la l Arts
In ths la s t four years of high aahool, aenamraial-sObJaat
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S£
r e g i s t r a t i o n s e ra e x te n s iv e .
Cowwarcisl work hero ta k e s a p o s itio n
among th a im p o rtan t f i e l d s , u n d er E n g lish and s o c i a l s t u d i e s , b u t
ab o u t oa a p a r w ith s c ie n c e , and somewhat h ig h e r th e n o th e r s u b je c t
fie ld s .
O n e -six th o f th e p u p ils e n r o lle d e re ta k in g ty p e w r itin g .
Rhode
I s la n d le a d s w ith 2 7 .1 p e r c e n t, and N orth C a ro lin a t r a i l s w ith 4 .6
p er c a n t.
The r e g i s t r a t i o n i n sh o rth an d l a n o t much o v er h a l f a s la r g e
a s th e r e g i s t r a t i o n i n ty p e w ritin g .
The r e g i s t r a t i o n s a r e , a s a r u l e ,
low i n th e so u th and l a s t a t e s w ith few la r g e o i t i e s .
S ince 1928 bookkeeping h as been lo s in g in r e l a t i v e p o s i tio n , b u t
i a 1934 i t was s t i l l second t o ty p e w ritin g *
in g i s
Elem entary b u s in e s s t r a i n ­
f o u r th i n r e g i s t r a t i o n s aaong commercial s u b je c ts o ff e re d In th e
l a s t 4 y e a rs o f th e h ig h sehool*
I t has g ain ed v e ry r a p id ly s in c e 1928.
C o m s r e la l a r i t h a e t l e , cornier c l a l geography, and e o s u e re ia l law a re th e
n ex t th r e e s u b je c ts i n o r d e r , so c o rd in g to th e nuaber o f t h e i r r e g i s t r a ­
tio n s .
C o m s r e la l a r ith m e tic i s o o a t f r e q u e n tly a f u l l - y e a r s u b je c t;
th e o th e r s a re u s u a lly h a lf - y e a r o f f e r i n g s .
No o th e r e o n u s ro ia l s u b je c t
a t t r a c t s a s many a s 1 p e r e e n t o f th s p u p ils e n r o lle d .
3UMMAHY OF REGISTRATION TRENDS
1 . O n tll th e p e rio d which ended i a 1918, n e a r ly a l l h ig h sch o o l
p u p ils were re q u ire d to ta k e fo u r y e a rs o f E n g lis h , b u t a f t e r th e w ar,
many sc h o o ls
2 . In
reduced t h e i r r e q u ir e a s n ts in t h i s f i e l d .
1934, ap p ro x im ately Id p e r e e n t o f th e h ig h seh o o l p u p ils
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33
were ta k in g L a tin ; 11 p a r c e n t war® ta k in g F renoh; 6 p e r c e n t were
ta k in g S p a n ish ; t p ar e e n t were ta k in g German; and .88 p e r e e n t were
ta k in g I t a l i a n .
3* M athem atics a s a s u b je c t f i e l d ro s e i n th e p e re en ta g e o f
p u p ils r e g i s t e r e d u n t i l 1910, b u t h as s in c e t h a t tim e shown a re c e s s io n
which hue ece le r a to d w ith th e y e a r s .
To some e x te n t th e d e c lin e in
a lg e b ra and g e o a e try h as been b a lan c e d by new r e g i s t r a t i o n s i n g e n e ra l
m ath em atics.
The t o t a l o f e l l p u p ils r e g is te r e d f o r m athem atics i s
n o t much mere th e n h a l f o f th e number e n r o lle d i n th e h i # s e h o o l.
4* Soience ro s e r a p id ly in fa v o r d u rin g th e l a s t decade o f th s
n in e te e n th c e n tu ry , th e n dropped i n r e g i s t r a t i o n i n 1910, and h as h e ld
f a i r l y s te a d y f o r th e l a s t 25 y e a r s .
3.
There h as been an in c re a s e d em phasis on s o c ia l s t u d i e s .
t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n s e re a o re th e n th r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e t o t a l e n ro llm e n t.
§•
a g r i c u l t u r e , homo econom ics, and eo am ereial a r t e h e re had
ste a d y In c re a s e s s in c e 1982.
Manual tr a in in g has l o s t eons o f i t s
p o p u la rity due to th e r i s e o f a g r ic u ltu r e and o o m e r e la l a r t e .
Music
h a s reco v ered some o f i t s lo s s e s s u ffe re d a f t e r 1989.
From th e fo reg o in g rem ark s, i f we may g e n e r a lis e , we fin d what
th e ty p i c a l p u p il ta k e s a s he p ro g re s se s th ro u g h th e l a a t 4 y e a rs o f
h ig h s e h o o l.
The ty p ic a l p u p il ta k e s 3 y e a rs o f E n g lish and i s l i k e ­
l y to ta k e e f o u r th .
Se ta k e s 8§ o r 3 y e a rs o f s o c ia l s c ie n c e , which
w ill in c lu d e .•merioan h i s t o r y , some fo r e ig n h i s t o r y , and a co u rse o f
some k in d i n problem s o f governm ent, s o c io lo g y , and econom ics.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
He
The
34
ta k e s 2 / e a r s o f s e ie n e e , 2 y e a rs o f commercial w ork, end p ro b ab ly
ta k e s £ y e a rs o f m «the»> tio s, alth o u g h he may o o t pursue n s t h e m t i c s
beyond one y e a r .
The g i r l who p u rsu es th e ty p i c a l p a t t e r n ta k e s a y e a r o f home
econom ics; she may i n a d d itio n ta k e a y e a r o f sons k in d o f i n d u s t r i a l
tra in in g .
w ork.
The boy l a l i k e l y to r e g i s t e r f o r a y e a r o f shop o r i n d u s t r i a l
P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n i s ta k e n f o r 2 y e a r s , and m usic f o r 1 y e a r .
Z f a f o r e ig n language i s e le c te d a t a l l , i t i s pursued f o r 2 y e a r s ,
Drawing and a r t a re more l i k e l y t o be o m itte d from th e program th a n
i s fo r e ig n la n g u ag e , and a g r ic u ltu r e a o re l i k e l y th e n e i t h e r o f th e s e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER H I
THE COM CURHXCOLBi IK HSBRAS£»
Wide d if f e r e n c e s c h a r a c te r iz e th a co re cu rric u lu m i n N ebraska
h ig h s c h o o ls ,
^bout e ig h ty s u b ja c ts ar* deeaad w o rth y , i n one o r a o re
com m unities, o f b ein g a p a r t o f tho re q u ire d e x p e rie n c e s o f th e h ig h
sch o o l p u p ila I n t h i s s t a t s ,
U ndoubtedly some oo u rses d i f f e r o n ly i n
name, e . g . , American government and c i v i c s .
n e v e r th e le s s , T able I I I
e x s ts p llf ie s d iv e rs e th in k in g o f sohool a d m in is tra to rs o v e r th o s t a t e .
The l i s t o f co re s u b je c ts r e v e a ls th e in flu e n c e o f academ ic
tr a d itio n a lis m , b u t i t should be n o te d t h a t th e l i s t in c lu d e s many sub­
j e c t s which a re d e f i n i t e l y co t c o n sid e re d c o lle g e p re p a ra to ry in c h a r­
a c te r.
T his i s a f a r c ry from th e day when th e o f f e r in g s d if f e r e d b u t
s l i g h t l y from community to community.
Fundam entally, ev ery community i s p re p a rin g boys end g i r l s f o r
p la c e s i n o u r s o - c a lle d dem ocracy.
The p re s e n t stu d y r e v e a ls t h a t French
i s c o n sid e re d w orthy o f a p la c e in th e co re cu rric u lu m i n one community,
w h ile i n a n o th e r , norm al t r a i n i n g I s re q u ire d o f e v ery o n e , e t c .
The
c o n s ta n ts seem to depend upon th e whims o r c a p ric e s o f th e t r a n s i e n t
a d m in is tra to rs r a th e r th a n th a needs o f a changing community.
A c a r e f u l a n a ly s is o f th e o f f e r in g s f u r t h e r r e v e a ls a look o f
u n ifo rm ity i n th e th in k in g o f e d u c a to rs , even when agreem ent i s re a ch e d
a s to what s u b je c ts should be a p e r t o f ev ery c h i l d ’s h ig h school
ex p erien ce*
a
y e a r o f n ln th -g re d e ffngliah i s o ff e re d a s a p a r t o f th e
Core c u rric u lu m by 9 3 .6 p e r e e n t o f th e h ig h sc h o o ls o f N ebraska.
However,
i t i s i n th s c o n te n t, n o t i n th e s u b je c ts o ff e re d t h a t th e v a r i a t i o n a r i s e s .
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38
IABLB 111
com SUBJECT 121 HBB8A8KA
Subjoote roquirod fo r graduation
ia o n or aero Bebraeka
Adn m d Physical Solanos
A griculture
Algebra X
M fA n XX
A lC rtit XXX
A m rlm a (itifoimonti
Im tM S History
A rlttn atlo
A rt
AthlstiOi
Biology
Botany
Boy*t physical Bdueation
Business ir iti m tlo
Businaas Inglieh
Business lif t
Business f n ls iiig
Chssdstry
Q ittM M ftii
Cirioo
On—tr o lil Cirioo
Comerolal Lon
CcmAuaar
COOOh
Bsnsswsiy
jftriMnttn
SWOBfloSWI
Bnglish X
English XX
English XXX
m $ iiii XT
E thics mad A rt
Bnrspsan H istory
Twnsh
Qanarnl Bathswatise
(^nnn^l Boisnos
Oirls* Cttoo Clvto
G irls' Ifcysioal Education
History
V
jM jk ^B
^OOoOiNMiM
ammr
SOwwt
tnA
l fstar
li
*t
i
Sans Saoasniss XX
Journalis*
Junior Business Training
L atin X
L atin XX
Man and tho Motor Car
Mutual Training X
jfffTTiftl Training xx
M ilitary P rill
Basis
Somal Training
O rioatation and Quidaaeo
Pedagogy
Physical aad Shtural Soianoo
Physios
Physiology
M i t l t t l »*<«>—
Professional Training
Belated A rt
Solatod «o<-Qnfo
B atins!
Rural Sociology
Salsaae&shlp
•
n o w
w w ^ n o
^ rw n p n w w
Sooial ProUoaa
Sooial Solano#
Sooiology
Spanish
Speech
frying I
typing XX
Tooationo
World Hiotory
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37
4 . 1SGLXSH AS k iViKT OF THIS COBS COERICULOM
(a ) E n g lish i n Grade B ias
The number o f m inutes demoted t o E n g lish a t th e ninth-grad®
l e v e l v a r ie s from. 106 t o 360 p e r w eek.
Of tb s 440 sc h o o ls r a p o r tin g
S n g llg h I a s s p s r t o f th o c o re , 288 r e q u ir e 800 m in u te s, 54 re q u ire
225, and 83 r e q u ir e 300 p e r week.
days a w eek.
Tho r u s t m a jo rity {486} maet f i r e
I t th e r e f o r e ap p ears t h a t 40~mlaute p e rio d s a re such more
common th a n any o th e r .
A d e f i n i t e e f f o r t h as been s&de i n th e s t a t e d u rin g th e p a st
f i r e y e a rs to a l t e r th e n in th -g ra d e E n g lish c o u rs e s .
One hundred t h i r t y -
th re e sc h o o ls re p o rte d t h a t r e v is io n s had been sad® d u rin g t h a t t i s e .
During th e same p e rio d , 33 re p o rte d new c o u rs e s .
T h is re c o rd re v e a ls
an u n w illin g n e s s t o m a in ta in th e s ta tu e quo d u rin g th o se
tia e s .
«g
T able XT below r e v e a lc where th e em phasis i s be in s p la c e d .
TA0LS I t
8ATORE OF
IB BIMRS OHAfi* SMGLIdS C C M
3gblegt B a tte r Emphasised
G ra sa a r and L i te r a tu r e
C om position, O rel E n g lis h , and L i t e r a t u r e
Com position and L i t e r a t u r e , C ra m e r
Com position
L i te r a tu r e and Com position
C o n stru c tiv e E n g lish
Croup G uidance, O r ie n ta tio n , Grammar, L i te r a tu r e
C om position, Grammar
Grammar, L i t e r a t u r e , C om position, S p e llin g
Grammar
Timea B antlonod
29
18
50
43
108
46
1
35
4
20
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m
XAJLS IT (oontinaad)
8ATUK1 OF COHTKST Iff HUTCH QUADS BKCLISK COURSES
" piff'T1"fll 11
Ta K n B i t f H B a B g r '"
11 '* V tS S W F l£ S F
L itom ture, Composition* Oriontation* Ouidnnco
Rhetoric
Caopooititm, Qwawwr* L iterature* Btiqnotto
Vori&ook
L iteratu re
Qmmmr and Hhetorio
Itmdeewatsl Prinolples of
Sooial Living
Conroe o f Study
fOefcaiMd
Vwg-Hah BMMHEXtloXS
oXttftwn tad Rhetorio
gpyl^ tw*
I
9
9
I
9
9
1
X
X
X
9
\
Fundononfcala
Cremer* n>nf»iuij Sruota r o
on ftoil1 th
X
X
X
I t Should bo notod th a t Sable IT rwvonla te n t tho mpfcaeie n t
tho ninth-grade level appears to to on ooapoeition, lite ra tu re , gram er,
ond rhetoric* reepeotlvely* Of tho 470 oohoolo inoiudod in th ie etady,
440 (or 93*0 por oost) require Sngiieh during tho ninth year* Shrew
hundred eight(y*five attempted to dooerlbo the content o f th o lr oonrooo*
Cenpoaltlon wee mntionod 997 theee, olthor oXono o r in oonbinotion
w ith mom eth er phnoo of tho eubjeeti lite ra tu re 216 tlno oi grawaar 146
tlnw if ond rhetorlo 99 tinea*
Tho «a$haale a t th io level lo apparently
on aonpoeitien ond lite ra tu re * but u n til oonoooo analySee tho tin t do*
Totod to «Mhf i t i t ii^ e w iU t to dateradne t o exaot docroo of th io
owptnoli i
M jf p u s i of orgpaujtf&iQ& u t w iag fouovM i Xno w n tN o i pxoxx
U s o U L ttid lf th* Bost OQBBttemo bat i t lio k i ttuah of hivimr a noaamlsr*
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39
The reader's attention is directed to Table V. A alKil&r table is fre­
quently referred to in the following pages. I t ie worthy of note that
the to ta l methods used greatly outnumber the schools requiring English X
as a common experience. Many eohools reported the use of several pleas
of orgeniactiOB, which fa st accounts fo r the supposed discrepancy.
(has hundred th irty schools mentioned the textbook ss determining the
plan of organisetion. This is 26.4 per cent of the plans suggested.
I t is the opinion of the w riter that some of the other plans are
based upon textbooks and th a t, in re a lity , textbooks ere playing a
greater part in the teaching of English X then Table ? indicates.
Table ?
PLa&3 or OKOAKl&ffXGK USSD IS TEAOiXMS XKGU3B I
1. Primarily organised around tw its of work. (If
th is plan Is indicated as being used in a particu­
la r course, come other plan should also be in­
dicated which w ill reveal the focus of the units,
such as children's in te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or others.)
68
2. Primarily organised »round a re a s or aspects of the
social or natural environment (weather, phase of
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch ia history,
or phase of economic l if e .)
9
3* Primarily organised around pupil experiences, in te reste, purposes, or needs.
84
4. Primarily organised around centers of in terest or
phases of the groupculture within which the stu­
dents* in terests ere centered, such m "community
lif e " or "our changing industrial c iv ilisatio n ."
(This plan combines 2 sad 3 above.)
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6
m
TABLE 7 (oontinued)
PLASS OF OHOAITIM.XIOS USSD IB SB&CBZ10 BS&XSB I
Plans of Organisation
ziaw m attaM f
6* Prim arily organised around a statement of alas
or ebjcotivas of tha aduoational program o f tha
school.
89
d* Prim arily orgaaltad around a atataaaat o f alsta or
objectives fo r tha individual course*
84
7* Prim arily organised around central themes o r generali*
gabions auoh as *Btt XnterdependcMO Tbawa*1*
8
8* P riso rily organised around sooial functions which ara
eoesson to sc a t ao o latiat auoh as (l)th e protactio n of
li f e and property* (8)the production o f goods and aorvirna* (8) transportation and oaawanioatlen, ato*
8
9* Prim arily organised around the usual subject n a tte r o r
content of aouraaa by th is t i t l e o r w ith M odifications
aadc by the looal staff#
78
10* Prfsaurily organised around problem* o f present-day lif t*
19
U * P ria arily organised around the plan of a textbook*
18* P ria arily organised around tbs cardinal principles of
180
14
(b) Snglish la Q ndt ?«b
Tha lack of uniformity 1* fu rth er revealed in th« case ©f the
404 schools roquiria* £ng.lsfe II* Table 71 below shews the m a t
difference ia esphaala a t th is level*
English XI la taught almost
an tirely a t the tenth-grade level* The exceptions usually ara la
these schools which altern ate offerings ftron year to year* The range
f a r sasfber of Minutes par weak la again 108 to 880* there vara 198
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41
sohoole reporting 200, 62 reporting 286* and 74 reporting 300 minutes
par seek# D iis leases a to ta l of $$ schools ia ehleh a varying saounfc
o f tin e in devoted to th is subject*
English IZ is required by 86*9 par eo&t of the school* lnoludod
in th is study# but only 662 saang 404 sohools attsapted to describe
the content of th is course*
Zt is in terestin g to nots th a t composition
mas noBtioasd 298 tines# e ith e r alone or la oonibination w ith other
phasesf lite ra tu re 273 tin e s i grenwar 99 tin e s f and rh eto ric only 33
times* ®»bl* 71 shoes the oosfbimtions enphasised and the number of
tin e s stuli eas mentioned •
TABUS rz
KATURE OF CQKTBKT ZB TSfflB fflUOB BHCI.I8H COURSES
fR ST S53o553f
Oyseamjr* Anerioan L ite re tin e , *m?i4 ffiniiffftiMtto n
L iterature
C op o iitio n
CoMBesitioa. Orel Snellah. TIfiarsfrure
IWnH|uaiB4 dA
A*M*8
w )i|¥il.w w l m
w ffw ndife
Cfcwwp ^^riWiu®wi
Gtreamar* L iterature* Composition, Spelling
GrenMr*
L iterature
W
H w ri judwmvmv
(NMMffl&Uffll
O
w
rtw
iU
ii A
p
p
r
M
la
tlo
n
Lite ra tu re , Flays# and Composition
USstdbeOk “"'i T-i'tiois(nir«
<Br*ififtifj OMpositdsn
♦ AtAhre^M e^ktcc^^^e
^e
J#*lrawVliw4IUPV|f lttflkheeAMej^edl
l l l f v w ra O
Oosposition, L iteratu re, Busiaeee Bnglish
(reposition*
Oramer, C lassies
Yrt, , | Mme ,|
JGEWvNrabV
Course o f Study
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
166
U
17
1
1
18
8
27
24
5
11
1
28
6
2
2
8
1
1
48
She
tendenoy te — to en iat w ith English II th a t m e eel*
dent la the ease of English I in regard to ooureo reviaionj hot the**
I t leee of e tendenoy toward in stitu tin g * new ooureo a t th ie level#
S hit la undoubtedly due to the eusteai of introducing rawsdial reeding
eoureee e t the ninth-grade level* Only eighteen neer courses were re*
ported in the 404 school■ repairing English II of e ll pupils*
A ocaparison of Seblee V end t i l ebom the a lia lla rity In the
plena of organisation end e ooaparieon of Seblee IV end VI do the m i
ea fa r ee ooateat ie concerned*
UU3LE VII
FLAM OF 0R0AKX3AZI0H USED III 7BACBI80 BSOLISH 11
1* F rtaerily organlaed around taaita of work* ( if
th ie plea la ladleeted ea being need in a portlets*
la r course, tone other plan should elao be in*
dieeted ufaioh w ill reveal the fooua of the u n ite,
t a d ea children* a in te re sts, or arena of experi­
ence, or others*)
it
8* Pria a rily organlaed around arena or aepeote of tho
aooiel or natural environment (weather, phase of
business, a aooiel in stitu tio n , epooh ia h isto ry ,
or phnae o f eeononie life * )
8
8* F rln erily organised around pupil experiences, inter*
s e ts , purposes, or needs*
4* frte a rily organised around eeatere o f in te re st or
phases o f the group culture w ithin vhioh the atu*
dents* In terests ere oentered, suoh ea M
osaaaanity
lif t* o r *our changing in d u strial c iv ilisa tio n ”*
(Ehi* plan oonbinee 8 end 3 above*)
8* P rie arily organised around e sta t - an t of sin s
or objectives of the eduoetioael progran o f the
aehool*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TO
8
88
43
? m s f i x (c o n tin u e d )
v u m of OihXiHiskfioji Ooso m tkaohxnx s m i a s ix
-~I7-Z
fern .9 1 ,teaMlaaka. __ _
6 . P r im a rily o rg a n iz ed around a sta te m e n t o f a l a s o r
48
o b je c tiv e s f o r th a in d iv id u a l o o u rs a .
? • P rim a rily o rg a n iz e d around c e n t r a l themes o r g e n e r a l! n a tio n s suoh a s *H*s In te rd e p e n d en c e H um e*.
4
8 . P r i a a r i l y o rg an ized around s o c ia l fu n e tio n a which a ra
1
common to a o a t s o o ia t ia s such a s ( l ) t h a pareta c t io n o f
U f a and pro p a r ty , ( 2 ) th s p ro d u c tio n o f goods and s e r irle a s , ( S ) tr a n s p o r ta tio n and com m unication, a t e .
9 . P rim a rily o rg a n iz e d around th a u s u a l s u b je c t n a t t e r o r
c o n te n t o f c o u rs e s by t h i s t i t l e o r w ith a to d ifin a tio n s
aade by th e l o c a l s t a f f .
70
1 0 . P rim a rily o rg a n iz ed around problems o f p re s e n t-d a y l i f e ,
IS
11* P rim a rily o rg a n is e d around th e p la n o f s textbook*
118
12. P rim a rily o rg a n iz e d around th e c a r d in a l p r in c ip le s o f
15
e d u c a tio n .
lb s p la n s o f o rg a n iz a tio n used by te a c h e rs o f E n g lish XI d i f f e r
b u t s l i g h t l y from th o s e used by te a c h e rs o f E n g lish X*
P la n s number
one, t h r e e , s i x , u ln a , and e le v e n were m entioned a t o t a l o f 368 tim es*
A il o th e r p la n s were m entioned o n ly 76 tim e s .
An a n a ly s is o f th e se
p la n s , most f r e q u e n tly m entioned, a g a in r e v e a ls th e in flu e n c e o f th e
textbook*
A nother ite m o f I n t e r e s t i s th e a t t e n t i o n b e in g g iv e n to
p u p il e x p e rie n c e s , i n t e r e s t s , p u rp o se s, and n e e d s .
t h r e e , f a b le 7X1)*
(See p le a number
S ince so much em phasis i s p la ce d on co m p o sitio n
a t t h i s l e v e l , i t seems t h a t th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p la n number e ig h t a re
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
44
boiag o w I m M i
(«} English la Qrsdo HLofron
8orsnty-four par ooat of the Mhe«i« importing rsquirod English
HZ o f a l l pupils* Bui offorlngs undor tho t i t l o English I II aro h o t*
dioorslflod than o lth o r of tho prooodiag S a d i tit oouroos* Jhors i*
l i t t l o doubt th a t thoro i» Zoos difforsneo thou tho dosoriptlons la*
dlosto*
L itoraturo alono aad la oonjunotion w ith oonposition elaino aoafe
o f tho tla s dowtod to tho study of English a t th is lovol*
I t was « e -
tionod 171 tin ts* o lthor slono o r ia combination with other phases o f
English* Composition was aontioMd ISO tin ts* grasnsr 48* and rhetoric
28 tin ts* L itoraturo was mentioned alone 1S1 tin s* (or 44*4 par ooat
o f the total}* tho th ird ysar of tho h i$ i sohool Is apparently tho
le a sl Host widely asooptod as tho propor plaoo to owphaslso literatu re*
English I I I is taught In g n d n eleven and twelve* Zhroo hunArod twenty*
eight sohools roportod requiring English 1X1 In tho th ird ysar* while
77 roportod I t as holag required during tho fourth ysar* Slaoo only
M i sohools require i t of d ll pupils* tho roador w ill observe tho
disorepanoy duo to reports short both eleventh and tw elfth ysar pupils
aro perm itted in tho iaao olass*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
tabus m i
MAim OF C0HT8NT H SLBVBHIH (MADE BBCLISH CQUBSES
Oreaaar and English L iterature
Conpositlca, Awsrioan L ite ra tu re , Business English
Conposiiion and L iterature
L iteratu re Surrey, Oronnar Beets*
L iteratu re
r, Coapoeltioa, L iterature
L iteratu re, Constructive
Cowposition, Oraanar, L iteratu re Spell lug
Ges^ositloa
L iterature
L iteratu re , Rhetoric
Coapesition, O rel, Anerioan L iterature
Public Speaking and w riting
L iterates* and Creative w riting
O ral, firasne
Qraasar a*1** Journalise
O renatlee, Debate, Speeeh
Business
**»
Oral end QrssMtr
Caapoeition, Bhetorio, Oranaar, L iterature
O ral, Senate
L iteratu re, Beading
t> itio n , Oreenar
L iteratu re, Orawwar
C(Mewe>ltilon»
*■
®r*mmr$ c* * ati* t
IS
8
79
la*U *h
LitMr&tw*v Dtobmh
SrasseiF
Oral
L iterature and Bene Writing
Table IX indicates the plane of orgwaisation used in the teaehlag of Bagliah i n .
A ttention le directed to the e ta ila rity ia the
plana of organisation fo r teaching English a t the various le v e ls. Plans
one, th ree, six , nine, and eleven are m e t frequently nentioned* they
were asntloned a to ta l of 808 tin e a , vhich is 78,6 per cent o f the to ta l
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40
fo r a ll plant*
Ths taxtboak plan alons aooounts for 108* o r 88 par
oant of 13m» to ta l p lan t aantioasd* A ttention ia again oallsd to t o
fa s t th a t sohools frequently indicate th a t several plant of organisation
a r t used*
IX
HJUB OP 0HQAHI2ATI01 USSD IS TlSACHIHa BSXI8H 111
'■'w ,,'.,-.'',gfV V ^T Tg^ U JrA%‘l'^
......
1* P rim rU y orp alM d around unit* of w rk* ( If
a partiouia r ©ourae, tone other plan thould a lto bo in dioatod toioh w ill ravaal to t foaus of to t m itt*
tush a t ch ild ren 's in te re sts, or a r ta t of atpari*
mot* or others*)
4$
8* Prim arily organised around artaa or aspects of to t
eooial o r natural environment (weather, phatt of
business, a tooial in stitu tio n * tpooh in h istory,
or phase of aoonemio lift* }
7
S* Prim arily organised around pupil esper le a sts , in ter*
o ata, purposes, or needs#
4* Prim arily organised around tta to r t of in to rta t o r
phasto of to t group o u ltu rt w ithin thloh tha ttw*
dents* in taraata a r t eantarad, tuah a t "eonaunlty
lif t* or *our changing in d u strial c iv ilisa tio n ,"
(Shit plan ocabinet 8 and 0 about*)
64
0
6* Prim arily orgaalttd artm d a ttotonsm t of aiaa
o r ebjaotivat of tha educational program of to t
tahaol*
68
6* Prhnarily organised around a atataasnt of aiaa or
objectives
44
7# Prim arily organised artm d cen tral thaawt or general 1cations tuah a t *The Interdependence Thant**
1
8* Prim arily orgaal t t d around to o ial functions whioh ara
semen to swat to o iatlaa tuoh a t (1) to t protootion of
8
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
47
TABLE IX (continued)
FLANS OF ORGANIZATION USED IN TEACHING ENGLISH I II
S&ane o i orranisaiion
Tinea M u o n s !
l if e and property* (2)the prodnetion o f goods wad cer­
vices* (3)transportation and oesnuaieatien* ate*
9* Prim arily organised around 1he usual subject n a tte r or
•ootent of ooureee by te le t i t l e or w ith modifications
made by the local staff*
S3
10* Prim arily organised around problems of present-day life *
10
11* Prim arily organised around the plan of a textbook*
12* Prim arily organised around the cardinal principles of
education*
UNI
12
(4) English ia Grad# Twelve
Approximately AS per east* or £10 of the cooperating schools*
require English IT fo r graduation* The aajo r emphasis la again on
composition and lite ra tu re *
The combinations are H ated ia Table X*
I t n ill be noted th a t literatu re* e ith e r alone or in ooabinatloa w ith
some of the other phases of English, dominates the ooatent of the
eeureee a t th ie lead.* L iterature ia Mentioned 171 tinea* composition
79 tinea* graaatar 42 times* and rhetoric £1 tinea* Not a l l eohoola
r e tr ie d on a ll phases of the study f time i t ia impossible to any sh at
per oant emphasises literatu re* eonpoaition* grasatar* and rhetorie*
I t ia significant to note that lite ra tu re was Mentioned aore often than
e ll ethers oenbiaed* for a to ta l of 90*1 per went of a ll the descriptions
of the eourae oontents*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
48
I1BLE Z
KITURE OF COKTBH? IS TSKLFfH OSADB BHCLISH
iB B s n s s u n s s B is ^ ^ r
"’^ T g y i m
a r o w r and English L ite ra tim
Caspoaitlan, English L iteratu re and Bsespaper
{Jeepesition and L ite ra tim
Survey of Bnglish L iteratu re
Orueear, L iteratu re, Composition, Spelling
Journal le a , Speeeh
Literatim
L itsratu ro , Kbetorlo
jte d M n L ite ra tim , >«* o n l
Business English, L iteratu re
L ite ra tim , Constructive
te x t aad referenda reading
ir a
n
47
84
Journallsn and L ite ra tim
Q m nar
Composition
Composition
Business English, Speeeh
Onunar, Composition, L iterature
L iteratu re, Ccaspositien, Spoiling
Language, L iteratu re, Grower
Cram er, Composition, L ite ra tim , C o te rie
Composition, L iteratu re, College Preparatory
Journal tea
L ite ra tim , O re a ir Beviesr, and Classio
Grower, L ite ra tim Review
Qrwwar
L iteratu re, Speeeh
Composition, L lte ra to ra , Dreneties
L iteratu re, Composition, Technical English
L lte ra te re , Dramatics
F ifty par eent of the sohools reporting English IT as a p a rt of
tee oore ourrleulun o ffer tee subje s t fo rty minutes a day, fo r fle e
days sash seek* nineteen sahools reported te a t tee course mas nee dar­
ing the la s t fiv e pears and six ty reported te a t revisions have been
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m
aado during tha.t tiaa*
Tradition Mans entrenched in too many of tho
high schools, as i t toon by tho f a s t th a t seventy-three par oant report
noithar now courses nor revisions a t th is level#
The plant of organisation found to bo n o tt ocosaon say bo toon
by an exa&lnation of Tabla XI* Although tho textbook ia o til l a p illa r
fo r sta y teaahars, i t doat not appear a t necessary Kara as a t testa
levels*
Plant oat* th ree, tin* nine, and eleven so rt again nantionad
soro oftan than a ll ethers# Tha textbook plan s a t nantionad 67 tla e e ,
or 28 par oant of tho to tal*
fiitJ t x i
_
fUS8 OP OJbGUUTKATIOK OBEB IK TSACHISa BKXISE IV
flan s of oriwtii t i t l e
s
f la ts Mentioned
1* Prim arily organised around uaito of work* (If
thin plan la indioatad a t being oaod in a partiou—
la r course, same other plan ehould a lto bo ia d leatad ahioh v ill rareal tho foout o f tha unite*
tuoh a t children*# in to ro o tta or aroat o f experi­
ence, or others*}
26
2* Prim arily organised around aroat or aopooto of tha
to o ial or natural onviroanost (weather, phate of
business, a to o ial in stitu tio n * apoeh in history*
or phase of eeonomio life * )
4
S* Prim arily organised around
otto* purposes, or needs#
pupil expsrienoes, in te r- 88
4* Prim arily organised aroundte n te rs of in te re st o r
{hates of the group su ito rs w ithin vhioh tho stu­
dents * in to rasts are centered, tush as "oaamwnity
lif t* or "our
in d u strial o iv ll isation# *
(fills plan eosbiaos 2 and S above*)
8* Pria a rily organised around a statement of alas
or objectives of tha educational program of tho
eeheel*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
16
SO
SABLE XI (easttm w d)
HASS OF OBOANIZASXOS USED IK TEACEIHQ SKGLISE IT
$ 0
Primarily orgonitod around a atotanant of aims or
objootiraa fo r tho individual oourao*
22
?• P rinarily orgaaiaod around control thoaoa o r goz»mli«»
cations such as "Tho Intordopoadonoo Sh«a»"*
I
8# A rlaariljr organised around aooial funotiona whioh or*
ooMttMt to noat aooiotioa auoh a« (l)th o protection o f
l i f t tad property, (2)tho production of goods and acrvi«i»i (8)transportation and ooMnadoation, oto,
d
8* P rin arily organised around tho usual subject n a tte r or
content of oourooa % th is t i t l e or w ith modification*
a«do by tho looaX staff*
ST
10* Prim arily organised aroundproblem of present-day lifo *
8
U * Prim arily organised aroundtho plan of a textbook*
12* Prim arily organised around tho oordiaal principles of
aduMtlos*
8T
8
(•) Other Engl i sh Courses
Sogular English oouraoo in Rebaroeka aro apparently aorrlag tho
dual purpose of preparing fo r college and to r buolnaoa* This la re»
reeled by tho w a ll nunbor of sohools requiring buainoaa English aa
a port of tho ooro ourrieulua* Only four aohoola roportod i t aa *
requirement ooaoBon to o il pupil a* Two of thoao toaoh i t aa a tawotbtr
oourao and two oa a yoor subjeet*
Sramatios ia required in twelve aohoola* In tho aohoola whoro
i t is a common experience of o il pupils, i t oonaiata larg ely of public
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51
s p e a k in g , re a d in g s , c h a r a c te r p o r t r a y a l , a ta g e te ch n iq u e sa d p ro d u c tio n
o f abort playa*
I t l a u s u a lly re q u ire d l a th e e le v e n th o r tw e lf th
g ra d e s f o r e a e a t l r e year*
80 to 309 minut®6 a week*
The tim e d ev o ted t o d r s a a t i e s v a r ie s from
K early a l l aohoola r e p o r tin g t h i s a u b jo o t
aa a req u irem en t g iv e ev id en ce th a t th e co u rse i s e i t h e r new o r
r e c e n tly revised,
th e v e ry n a tu re o f th e co u rse p re v e n ts a wide use
o f te x tb o o k s , so th e s e e o o rse s a r e u s u a lly planned around i n t e r e s t s
and needs o f p u p ils e n ro lle d *
I t h as h-jen noted i n o ur d is o u s s lo n o f E n g lish t h a t a t t e n t i o n
l a giv en i n th e r e g u la r E n g lish so u rc es t o r h e to r ic *
I n a d d itio n t o
th e se r e g u la r c o u rse s i n E n g lis h , sev e n te en o f th e c o o p e ra tin g sch o o ls
r e q u ir e r e g u la r c o u rses i a sp ee e h .
The le n g th o f th e s e c o u rse s i a
weeks i s e i t h e r e ig h te e n o r t h i r t y - s i r w eeks, sc h o o ls b ein g ab o u t
e v en ly d ivided*
Where spesoh i s ta u g h t a s a d i s t i n c t s u b j e c t, i t i s
u s u a lly found i n tho two u p p er g rad es o f th e h ig h school*
These c o u rs e s
e re u s u a lly c h a r a c te r iz e d a s p u b lic s p e a k in g , e x p re s s io n , d e b a te , de­
d a n s t o r y , o r o r a l E n g lish c la s s e s *
A ll sch o o ls re p o rte d changes in
th e s e c o u rse s d u rin g th o l e s t f i v e y e a r e .
So aobool re p o rte d th a t
th o tex tb o o k was o f prim ary Im p o rtan ce, b u t th e m a jo rity s i g n i f i e d a
d e s ir e t o a d ju s t th e co u rse to o are f o r th e in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s o f
th a p u p ils*
Jo u rn a lism i s th e r u l e r a t h e r th a n th e e x o e p tio n i n j u s t seven
h ig h so h o o ls in c lu d e d i n t h i s study*
Although i t i s f r e q u e n tly p e r ­
m itte d t o be s u b s tit u te d f o r o th e r E n g lish c o u rs e s , i t i s re q u ire d i n
th e s e seven*
L ike most te c h n ic a l e x p e rie n c e s , i t i s o ff e re d i n th o l a s t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ss
bar© y e a rs o f th e secondary sc h o o l,
J o u rn a lists i s u s u a lly ta u g h t f i v e
p e rio d s a weak f o r n or* th a n 200 ra i» u te s --b u t l a one sch o o l o s s a a y
a s to n p e rio d s* o o a s is tin g o f 480 m inutes* a r e g iv e n t o i t *
le n g th o f th o se ooursaa i s t h i r t y ~ e i x weeks*
b ased
u & qjx
te x tb o o k s ;
m vs
The u s u a l
Jowroalisrr, i s seldom
XV-o^uoniiy i t i s bask*! upon p u rp o s e s , m o d s ,
s a d i n t e r e s t s o f th e p u p ils *
&m&BX
X* E n g lis h 1 I s re q u ire d i a 96*6 p e r s e n t o f th e 470 c o o p e ra tin g
school* i n Kebraakft,
The lum ber o f m in u tes p e r week d ev o ted t o t h i e
e e u r s s v a r ie s from 105 t o $50*
O f th e 440 sc h o o ls r e q u ir in g B s £ 1 8 h Xf
322 r e q u ir e 200 m in u te s , 54 r e q u ir e 825* ta d 86 r e q u ir e 500 m in u te s p e r
week*
a © em phasis a t th e n in th -g ra d e l e v e l i e in d ic a te d b y t h e rnwiber
o f t i n e s eooh phase o f E n g lish mas m en tio n ed , e i t h e r a lo n e o r i r eon*
b i a a t i a a w ith seme o th e r phase*
A eosnputfttion o f th e s e d a ta shoe t h a t
© o a p a s itlo a , l i t e r a t u r e * grassaar, and r h e to r ic wer* m entioned 2 6 7 , 8X6*
140* and 26 tin e s * re s p e c tiv e ly *
F in a lly * th e te x tb o o k , a p p a re n tly * i s
p lo y in g a m ajor r o l e i n l&e o r g a n is a tio n o f t h i s c o u rs e ,
2* E n g lis h I I i s a p a r t o f th e o e re c u rrlo u lu m i n 4 0 4 , o r 85*0
p e r e e a i o f th e c o o p e ra tin g s c h o o ls ,
The ra n g e 1& m inutes p e r week i s
th e earns a s i n th e e a se o f E n g lish I —192 r e q u ir e 200 m inutes* 88 r e q u ir e
225 m in u te s , and 74 r e q u ir e 300 m inutes*
a g a in upon com position#
The en p h aela a t t h i s l e w * i s
I t was r e n tio a e d 80S t i n e s , l i t e r a t u r e 87$
tts e s * grammar 99 tin e s * s a d r h e t o r i c $6 tin e s *
The p la n s o f o rg a n is a ­
t i o n shoe th e in flu e n c e o f th e te x tb o o k a g a in a t t h i s le v e l*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
3* English I I I is required by 74 per seat of tho 470 cooperating
school** I t io required in 328 sohools a t tho eleventh-grade level*
and some schools offor i t in olthor grade eleven or grade twelve*
L iterature replaces composition a t th ie level*
I t was mentioned 270
times* composition 120 times* greaaar 45 times* and rhetoric 28 times*
Although there Is a trend toward changing the emphasis in English XU
from composition to lite ra tu re , the role of the textbook is l i t t l e
changed*
4* Xt is sig n ifican t to note East 48 per sent of the cooperating
schools require four years of English* English IV continues to emphasise
lite ra tu re *
th is fa c t is evidenced by the frequency with which lite rs *
ta re was mentioned by the sohools requiring four years of English*
L iterature was mentioned 173 times* composition 78 times* grsaemr 41
times* and rhetoric 21 times* A greater deviation from textbook plan
of organisation is noted a t th is level*
5* Other a llie d courses a n ««netimes required* These courses
include speech* dramatics* journalism* and business English* Their
inclusion in the core eurrioulums of Nebraska high schools were report­
ed 17* 12* 7* and 4 times* respectively*
B. TBS SOCIAL STUDIES AMD THE CORE CUHEICULUK
(a) American H istory
Nebraska laws require the teaching of American history and c iv il
government in a ll public* p riv ate, denominational and parochial sohools
in the proper grades in the elementary sohools and high schools,*
11 '1 Isbraska Bohool Laws Chapter 78* A rticle 19* Section 11* p* XHKS9*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
54
The s t a t u t e s do a o t r e q u ir e s tu d e n ts t o ta k e th e s e s u b je c ts , and con­
se q u e n tly i-a e rle a n h is to r y i s a p a r t o f th e oore c u rric u lu m i n o n ly
297, o r 65 p e r o e a t o f th e 470 h ig h so h o o ls c o o p e ra tin g l a t h i s s tu d y .
The c o n te n t I s l a r g e ly t r a d i t i o n a l .
Host sc h o o ls f o i l e d to
re p o r t on t h i s phase o f t h e i r oore o u r r io u lu a .
T ab le XIX r e v e a ls th e
n a tu re o f th e c o u rs e s o f f e r e d by th e 25 p e r c e n t who v e n tu re d a
d e s c r ip tio n o f th e c o n te n ts l a t h e i r s o h o o ls .
f i f t y o f th e d e s c r ip ti o n s ,
which i s 6 8 .5 p e r o e a t o f th * t o t a l , in d ic a te t r a d i t i o n a l c o u rs e s In
userlean h i s t o r y .
T/JLS XII
ttvTUaS Of C0HTS8T IK AlKSXOAH HISTORY OO0BS2S
S u b je c t M a tte r Emphasized
Tinaa Mentioned
C u rre n t H is to ry
S a rly t o P re s e n t
S o c ia l S cience
P e s t end C u rren t
Sum y
American L ife s in c e Columbus
D aily happenings
Caeppreheaeivo
U nited s t a t e s C o n s titu tio n
H a lted S ta te s H is to ry
T a o to rs
G eneral
American A f f a ir s
T e x t, C u rre n t L i te r a tu r e Maps
C u rren t e v e n ts , S urrey
P o l i t i c a l S ociology
T r a d itio n a l
B asie Problem*
Economic and P o l i t i c a l
D iscus*ion
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
16
3
3
1
3
1
1
2
10
1
6
1
1
3
2
1
1
4
£
The range in ainutes par week in tha 29? sohools requiring
American histo ry i t fro© 106 to 360, with t i l hut 2 sohools devoting
3 periods par week to th is subject,
I t ia in teresting to not* that*
of those requiring American h isto ry , 130 devote 200 minutes par wash
to th is sub^eot, while 3? o ffer i t fo r 223 minutes, tad 63 aohoola
u tilita 300 minutes in th e ir teaching of th is subject, Suoh variations
ara d iffic u lt to explain on the basis of local needs,
A wide difference ex ists in the plana of organization fo r tha
teaching of Aaeriean h isto ry . Only th irty per oant of the aohoola re­
quiring American histo ry sta te th a t the course ia organised prim arily
around a textbook. Table XXII shears the plans of organisation fo r
American h isto ry . The reader*a atten tio n is sailed to plan ntsabsr
nine, i t w ill be noted th at only three of the sohools reporting
indieeted th a t th is plan was used in whole or ia p a rt,
eSJMJt TTtT
UAHS OF 0ROABIZATIOH
0SSD £8 TSACBIRG AMERICAN BISTORT
wmBmsKmasBmssssa^faaBtssassaamamamammmmnamK*masnaaaaBxsmBpuapmmf
p u m of O ran 1c a t i o n T i n s a
Mentioned
1 , Pria a rily organised around u n its of work, ( I f
th is plan is Indies ted as being used in a particu­
la r course, sons other plan should also be indicated
which e i l l reveal the foous of the u n its, suoh as
ch ild ren 's in te re sts, or areas of experience, or
eth ers,)
61
2 , Pria a rily organised around areas or aspects of the
social or natural environaent (weather, phase of
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto ry ,
or phase of eoononie lif e ,)
42
3 , Prim arily organised around p ^ l l experienees, in te rs e ts , purposes, o r needs.
16
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
66
TAHLB XIII {wmtinued)
PLAS8 OF OaOAEIUTIQB
mm » tsaghiho akerxcar h is to rt
wmtmmmmMmmmmKmaammmauaatammmmmmmmmmmmKmwmmKmmMmgammmammamtmm
Ptnfif o f organ! l i m a
l i m Mentioned
4* PrIa a rily organised around centers of in te re st or
phases of the group oulture w ithin ihi©h the stu­
dent!i* in te re sts are centered, sueh ae "eesauaiby
lif e " o r "our changing in d u strial civilisation**
(fid e plan oonbinet 8 and 8 of th is table*)
17
6* Prim arily organised around a statement of aim
or objectives of tho educational program of the
Mhool.
11
6* Prim arily organlaed around a abatement of aiaa or
objectives fo r the individual course*
21
7* Prim arily organlaed around oentral thanes or general 1•atleaw euoh as "The Interdependence Thane"*
IS
6* Prim arily organlaed erouad aoolal Amotions uhioh are
semen to most eooletlea sueh ae (l)th e protection o f
lif e and property* (8) the production of gooda and aervioea, (3)transportation and ooMBunioation, eto*
86
9* Prim arily organised around the usual subject m atter o r
content of courses by th is t i t l e or with m odifications
made by the looal staff*
S
10* Prim arily
organised around probiens of present-day life * 81
11* PrlaarU y organised around the plan of a textbook*
66
18* Prim arily organised around the cardinal principles of
education*
IS
(b) World History
World histo ry is the stoat soamen social-studies course offered
a t the tenth-grade level*
Tee hundred seventy-four sohools, or 68
per sent of the cooperating schools, reported i t as a requirement fo r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
frodm tloiu
f h it oour## is o*ll#d ty rariou* m m st •«$*, aaoioat.
It* «oat#nt d ifftr#
grwatly, a* i# *hown la 3*14# KT« 3b# wtyh»##» iadi#At# * ottroao*
logical tr#*tH «it la th# gr#*t##t maab#r of 4mumm*
34m,is XIV
£&f0!£ OF c o m m X® WML2 iO870aj COUBSSS
mmmmmm
1y j^ S B T I ^ ^
1
1
Anel«nt# Kodiovsl, SSodora
Sarwigr of tsh# Dovolopwont of c iv il i**t ion
a##l*l
B u t #ad Currant
2w?*lopa*nt of cltU oaahip
3#n*r*l
M m t M la n l
la tid A ffair#
28
8
2
8
3L
I
7
8
Id
*Wv «H» IroPMWBM
5
A&oioat, English
I
P IlQ Itt# IffTT
I
P o litical sad Soolol
S##®<a*l®i4# FOllfet##!
iw m jr
1
X
S
Social
8o# t# th# altern atio n plans, s is ii^ M d a pupil# ar# pc*»m #d
to tafe# world history la 87 o f th* aobw ii laolttdad la th is study*
T#«ttty»aix schools r#jp#rt#d i t as » r#tuir*a*at is grid# #l«viut #ad
10 sohools report#* i t a# * t#wlftb«*pr*d# st*d##t* Itt# rawbor o f i t a itN
ru ri# s fro a 188 to 280* Oa# hundred f i f ty*#igt)t (or 87 pwr ##at of th#
••hoel# which r#quir# world history) dovot* 200 alaxit## per w##k to
th is subject* Only eleven #oho#l# reported aa* oovirs## la world h istory
dariae lb# l* # t fir# ywars, tu t flfty -a la # iadi«at#d revisions*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
flmi plan of organisation, as with American h isto ry , Is shewn to
b« dependent upon tho textbook ia 87 of the 274 cooperating sohools
whioh require th is course. Table XT indioetes die plans of organisation
nost cannon in Bebrasha*
TABLE XT
ELABS OP 0R0ARI1ATI0B
USED II? TIACHIBG WORLD BISTORT
-1
^ • '^ jg g g g g g g ;1’XJ’iajirT-1-111J
''ysBC^a«M»5t'
1* P riaarily organised around u nits of work* ( If
tills plan is indicated as being used in a partioula r course, sons other plan should also bo in­
dicated whioh w ill reveal the feeus of the u n its,
sueh a t ch ild ren 's in te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or others*)
44
2* P riaarily organised around a n a s or aspeote of the
social or natural environaent (weather, phase of
business, a social in s titu tio n , epoch in h isto ry ,
or phase of econeala life * )
59
5* P riaarily organised around pupil experiences, inter*
s e ts , purposes, or needs*
Id
4* P riaarily organised around centers of in te re st or
phases of the group culture w ithin whioh the stu­
dents' in te re sts arc centered, sueh as "ooaaunity
lif e ” o r "our changing in d u strial civ ilisatio n * ”
(This plan oeabinee 2 and 5 above*)
19
d* Prim arily organlaed around a statenent of aiae
or objectives of the educational program of the
school*
d
d« P riaarily organised around a statenent of aias or
objectives fo r the individual course*
10
7* P riaarily organised around central thanes or general!*
tatien s cosh as *She Interdependence Thane"*
12
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
T*wrg xv (continued)
H J® OF OHOAEI2XTIOS
OBSD IH TEACHING fflOSLD HISTORT
r.
r
|
r A ilii OT U?|!W » | i »l<«i
|
T3JMMI mKOTaOIIWI
8* P riaarily organised around social functions whioh are
w a a to ao st so cieties sueh as (l)th e protection of
Xifo ami property, (2) tho production of goods and sert1m «i (8; transportation and ooiaannl cation, e ta .
If
9* P riaarily organised around the usual subject n a tte r or
content of oourooi by th is titX o or w ith m odifications
aade ty tho loeoX staff*
8?
IQ* F riaarily organis ed around problems of present-day Xifo*
IS
XX* Prim arily organised around tho plan of a textbook.
87
X8« P riaarily organised around tho oardinal principles of
eduoatien*
XO
(e) Cemnmity Civics
Several oooiaX studios other than Aasrioan h isto ry and world
h isto ry aro considered worthy of Inelusion ia amorous oore eurrieulueo*
Those isoXudo oanauaity civ ics, deeoorsey, oitisenship* Aseriean
o itisen sh ip , sooial science, civ ics, Amerioan government, sooiaX
problems, politioaX so lease* economies, sociology, intoraatioaaX re*
latiom ship, and geography*
Thlrt y t eo sohools require community civics of everyone in
e ith e r tho ninth or tenth grades* Sons sohools osphaslse o itisen shipj
sad la others oasmwnity en terp rises, tho sta te of Nebraska, ru ra l lif e ,
eeeaeale and politioaX o itisen sh ip , and national and loeal goverosonbs
are considered nost important. K i£ity-four per sent of tho aehsols
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
th a t require eownunlty civics Arret* f ire 40-minute periods par week
to it#
Seventy-eight par oant o ffa r th is course fo r oaa semester*
Table m
ahomi tha pw »ti*» M *• plans of organisation. I t ia
s ignif ican t to note th a t tha textbook doaa not play a dominant role
ia th* teaching of th is subject* However, tha am ber of descriptions
o f tho pleas of organisation was so snail th a t th is indication in re*
gex* to the role of tha textbook nay not be significant*
sm s zn
HASS op o so ism n o s
DBS) 19 1BACBXX9 CQMUUSm CIVICS
maaaairasm
i I'lrirwuernTTTagaeaaaapaaegcxaaaattsssxi r aw;sas!»jM,Bai,ii.'nfaialilayivavmit
Pleas of Organisation
Time* Mentioned
1* P riaarily organised around
u n its of work* ( if
th is plan is indicated as being need in a particu­
la r course, atm* other plan should also be in d isated which w ill rereal the focus of th* u n its,
such as children** in te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or others*)
8
8* P riaarily organised arouad areas or aspects of the
social or natural environment (weather, phase e f
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto ry ,
or phase of eoommio life * )
1
8* P riaarily organised around
s e ts , purposes, or needs*
pupil experiences, in te r- 1
4* P ria arily organised around
centers o f in te re st or
rfumtfff of the group
culture w ithin which the stu­
dents* in te re sts are centered, sueh as "eesmwiiiy
life * o r "our changing in d u strial c iv il lection*”
(Shis plan combines 8 and 9 Shews*}
9
8* P ria arily organised around
a statenent o f alas or
objectives of the educational program of the school*
1
d* P ria arily organised around
a statem ent of aimsor
objectives fo r the Individual course*
1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE XVI (continued)
FLABS OF ORGABXIATION
osed
~T"
:r ....~'
is num m coMktram
civics
Jim * of Organisation ~~ ' ........ ~~ 11" Tiimsifc&loaadi
7# P riaarily organised arouad oentral thenes or general1te tia n s such as “Th* Interdependence Theme**
0
8* Prim arily organised around social functions whioh Mm
ia—on to noat oooiotioo aooh mi (l)ih * prom otion of
llf o and property, (2)the production of good* and s#r»
t1«M| (3)transportation aa& oomswaioation, ate*
9
9. Prim arily organiaad around tha uaual subject n a tte r or
content of oouraoa by th ia t i t l e or with modifications
aada by th* looal staff*
1
3D* Prim arily organised around problans of present-day llfo *
6
11* Prim arily organised around th* plan of a textbook*
8
(A) Denooraoy
Only seven sohools rsportad a ooursa in democracy as a p art of
th a ir ooro enrrleuluna* Thasa war* characterised as civ ics and economies,
government and aooial seisms*, Mad modem problem** A slig h t trand
toward tha grad* plaoamont of th is course aasaui revealed*
I f any
evidence appears, i t la toward gradas sloven and twelve. Two schools
reported 200 minutes par week, sad th* other five reported 210, 228,
£78, £88, and 800* Four reported th a t tha ooursa was taught for 88
weeks, and 8 reported tho length of th* course as being 18 weeks* Each
of tha f i r s t eleven plana of or& m isatioa except six and eight are
suggested aa plans used*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(•} C itisenship
C itisenship i t required in tu t schools* O rientation i t enffeft*
site d in one of these* Both ere taught a t the ninth-grade lev el fo r
a t weeks* One of the oourtet i t new and the other e a t revised during
the past fiv e peart*
(f) Aswrloan C ititenahip
Sloven tohoolt require a oourte ta ile d Aaerican citise n sh ip .
I t e o n titta of so o ial, eeoacmle and e iv il govwraaent problems* These
oourtet are usually taught in the ninth-grade with fee exceptions.
About SO per oent of the tins* i t i t taught fo r 18 weeksj otherwise*
fo r 98 weeks. Table XVII sheet hoe fa r to o ial studies teachers are
apart on shooting plant of organisation*
TABLE XVII
PLAS3 OF QB<USI2ATI0B
OSSD IB T8ACHIB3 smmetAg CITIZBB5HIP
wm' •1
T
......... "Alans'oil1 Organisation " '' ~' 11"' 1
^ ae t" Wentland
1* PriaarU y organised around u n its of work* ( If
th is plan is iadieated a t being used in a portion*
la r oourte. tone other plan should also be iad i­
eated ehioh w ill reveal the foous of the units*
tuah a t children* s interests* o r areas of experieaee* or others*)
1
8* PriaarU y organised around areas or aspeets of the
to oial o r natural envlroaaeat (weather* phase of
business* a soeial in stitu tio n * epoeh in history*
or phase of eooaflKie life * )
1
8* P rlaarily organised around pupil experiences* in te rMbs* purposes* o r needs*
0
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88
IABL2 m i Continued)
PLANS OF ORGANIZATION
USSO IN WACHISG AM8RICAN CITIZBBBHIP
mmmmmM
mrrxsrTTxagpmsmas&xMmpuaa&mMXMmmsxaaBBSsvnj.%m.auau
flan s o f Org*w<M tlon
Times ify**
4* Prim arily organised around centers of in te re st or
photos of the group oulturo w ithin which tho stu­
dents* in te re sts ere centered, ouoh as ■eossaunity
life * or "our changing induotrial civilisation**
(This plan combines 2 and 8 of th is table*)
1
8« Primarily organised arounda statement of alas o r
objectives of th s educational program of tho school*
8
6* Prim arily organised around
a statswsnt of alas or
objectives fo r tho individual oourse*
1
7. P riaarily organised around
oontral themes or generali- 2
eatlons suoh as "The Infcerdependenoe Theme"*
8* P ria arily organised aroundsooial functions which aro
ootoaon to ao st sooiotios suoh as (l)th o protection of
l i f t «md property, (2) tho produstlen of goods and so*—
vises* (S) transportation sad oow saleatioa, etc*
8
9* P riaarily organised around
tho usual subject a a tto r or1
eontont of ooursos by th is t i t l e or with m odifications
node by tho lo cal staff*
10* P riaarily organised around problems of pro sent ■"day life *
8
11* P riaarily organised aroundth s plan of a textbook*
1
12* P riaarily organised around tho cardinal principles o f
education*
1
(g) Social Seienae
Another oourso th a t appears to include many other a llie d sub*
je e ts is one oalled sooial science* TOenty-eight schools lis te d th is
course as a p art of th e ir eore ourrloulusss* Problems of the United
S tates government and sooial probleas claim the major portion of the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
64
tin e devoted to suoh courses* These courses are sometimes Integrated
ooureea la oitiseaeh ip , histoiy* o ivlos, eoonooles, aooiology, eto*
Suoh oouraaa ora found usually a t the beginning of the la a t four years
or during the eenior year* the tin e devoted to the ooureea oalled
social aoienoe varies fro® 46 minutes per veek in one aehool to 800
mlnotae la another, the moat common procedure ie to o ffe r suoh olasses
fle e days a week fo r fo rty minutes a day* Usually aueh courses ere
fo r too semesters* Sooial atudlea teaohsra are eaare of the neeeealty
of oowetant revision, aa la indloated by the number of nee ooureea
during the peat fle e yeara* Suoh ooureea are usually organised around
problems of present-day life *
Textbooks play a minor ro le in theee
ooureea*
(h) Civloa
Approxiaastely 86 per oent of the 470 oooperating aohoola require
a oouree eallod civics of a l l pupils before graduation* Table XVXIX
illu a tra te a the oontent of auoh ooureea* Very l i t t l e dlffereaee in the
ssfejeet m atter ia indloated by the b rie f deeeriptiona in Table XVXXX*
Xt la tiie opinion of the w riter th a t p raetlo ally the aame attitu d e s
and Information are sou$\t in eaoh ease*
TAKLB XVXIX
X4XGH8 OF COHTBHT XS CIVICS COUBSBS
mamaaaumammam
f j§ ll liiglvaOIIIW
American Qoveraasnt
C ivil government
Eleeentary Sooial Problesia
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
80
11
6
ss
TABLE XVIII (continued)
IATURK OF COOTEHT IIT CIVICS COUKSIS
,„ „ ,
..
IlMBMd Civics
Coraaunity d r i e s
C onstitution, Ctovsrawent , In stitu tio n s
Oovsrnawnt, Soenaaiss
Bsslo Easts
C ltlisaship training
S tatm u d Wational
Oocwral Giviss
Sociology and Economic*
Preiwat-day Problena
Social and P o litic a l ProhUtB*
Bndliig Workbook
J te ta a r t.
9
14
1
1
*
9
1
4
1
1
1
X
Civios oourses are offered about as often a t the ninth-grads
level as a t tbs senior le v e l, and approxiaately taro-thirds as often
la grades ton and eleven* Ons hundred sixty-nine of ths 470 eoopsratlag school* require oivies fo r graduation* Of th is um ber, 81 require
i t la grads twelve, 79 la grads alas* 44 la grads eleven, and 40 la
grads tea* Ths to ta l fo r thsas four gradsa sxeeeds the uunber of
sp o o ls ifcleh require elvies* This iadioatss th a t ssuay sohools o ffsr
civics a t were than ons level* Ths range la alnutea per week is from
108 to 860, w ith ths g reatest frequency bslag over 200« Kinatysevan
sohools dsvots 800 minutes a wssk to the study of oivios, and only six
schools reported loss than 40 minutes par day* la 88 sohools, 800
minutes are devoted to th is suhjeet*
I t is usually a seawater subject.
Sixty-two par sent of ths sohools requiring olvlss require i t fo r ons
ssweater*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The textbook remain* the »»*t ooanon aid around which civ ics
courses are planned, 26*2 per oeat of the sohoola Shioh described
the plane of organisation characterised th e ir ooureea aa being
organised around textbooks*
esw-g XIX
PLABS OF OROAHIZATION USED IK TEACHING CIVICS
r i' >1 r
'l'1’1 IJL' “
nr '"
1,11
"jjmpit&MfSjR
1* P riaarily organised around unit* of work* (If
th is plan is indloated aa being used in a p artieu la r course, sob * other plan should also b e indioated which w ill reveal the foeus of the units*
suoh aa children’s in te re sts, or areas of experim­
ent** or others*)
10
2* Prim arily organised around
areas or aspeota of the
sooial or
phase of
business, a sooial in stitu tio n , epoeh in h isto ry ,
or phase of eoonomio life * )
11
3* P riaarily organised around
sets* purposes, or needs*
pt^U esperienees, in te r- IS
4* P riaarily organised aroundeastern of in te re st o r
phases of the group
culture w ithin whioh the stu­
dents* in te re sts are eentsred, suoh as "cornualty
life * or "our ©hanging in d u strial civ ilisatio n * "
(This plan ooabines 2 and S above*)
18
8* Prim arily organised around a statem ent of aims or
objectives of the educational program of the school*
8
8* Prim arily organised around
a statement of aim* or
objectives fo r the individual course*
8
7* Prim arily organised around central themes or general i sations suoh as "The Interdependence Thome"*
2
8* P riaarily organised aroundsocial functions ehleh are
ansawon to most so cieties such as (l)th e protection o f
lif e and property, (2) the production of goods and se r­
10
vices, (S)transportation and coasunioation, etc*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8?
TABLE XIX (continued)
PLANS o r ORGANIZATION USED IB TEACHING CIVICS
» ' ''iy if f lS
"
1111 ~I
9* Primarily organised around the usual subjest sm tter
or content of oourse* by th is t i t l e or w ith aodlfioatiOttS made by the looel Staff*
18
10# Prim arily organised around problem* of present-day life *
28
11* Prim arily organised aroundtho plan of a textbook*
82
12* Prim arily organised around tho cardinal principles of
eduoation*
8
(1) Amerioan Government
Mesh sim ila rity 1* detected in tho oontont of social studio*
oourses* even though thooo courses are called by various neses* This
foot i* strik in g ly illu stra te d in on analysis of tho oour*o sailed
Amorloan government. I t i* a p art of the ooro currioulua to las* than
fifte e n per oent (14*9) of the 470 sohool* included to th is study*
The oontont doaoribod to fable XX leads the w riter to believe th a t
th is oourse d iffe rs very l i t t l e from the sooial studies previously
discussed.
xx
NATURE OF CONTENT IN AMBHICAN OGVBJO&tSNT COURSES
.:... l
^i^tter^atA m slse^ '
1 : 1 :..... ' flams iitenilaiSSf
United S tates C onstitution
Teatt
Batlonal Government
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
8
1
t
m
yAfg.g XX (oontinuod)
SXTUHS OF COHTEHT XI AMKKICAI OOVSEHiSHf C0UESB8
Mssnsstffitii
Looal* s ta to , National
Aaorionn PnKLwi
Cirioa
r i t t —itfiip
Currant laws and to o ia l Problona
Fundans&tals
F o litio al Foma
I t io found m arly always in tho alawonth and tw alfth gradas#
only two sohools roporting i t la gradas a im o r ta n . Sixty-four aohoola
roportad 200 nisubss par waok dawotsd to tha study of Xaarioan goaaraa a a t, dlridad always among fiwo day*, i t U taught aa a aanaatar tub*
3aot in six ty par asn t of tha aohoola* tttara is nothing to indioata
th a t i t is g rsatly d iffa ra n t
trm govarmant
oouraaa of tha past*
Elawaa sohools indioatad th a t tha aouraa was now during tha past fiwa
yaars, and tan othara aald th a ira had haan ravisad*
Tablo XXI ohms th a t tha tsxtfeook la tha tiaaia fo r many of thaaa
oouraaa In Amrioaa coronxsonb*
TABLE XXI
FLANS OF OaOAXXZAfZOX
osBD x i m m im anskxgak mmawsti
Plana o r organ»sasion
ia a > m naiaaas
1* P ria arily orgaaiaad around units of work* ( if
th is plan ia Indioatad aa bslag uaad in a partiou-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
g
03
TABLE XXI (continued)
PLABS or OEGMJI2ATIQH
U8SD IB TSACHIBa AMERICAS OQTORBMEHT
)piaa» of O r g ^ ^ i l c n ''..... ' 1r ~
.....
la r course, sotse other plan should Also be Indi­
antod which w ill n t m I the focus of the m ite*
such e* children* s In te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or others*)
2* P risstrlly organised around atom o r Aspeota of the
cooIa! or aatural esvtronaent (weather, phase of busi­
ness, A sooial in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto ry , or
phase of eaonoaio life* )
8* PriBssrily organised Around
sets* purposes, or seeds#
1
pupil experiences, in te r- 4
4# rriw erily organised around centers of in te re st o r
phases of the groupedito rs w ithin whieh the stu­
dents' in te re sts are centered, suoh as "ooswmity
lif e " or "our changing in d u strial civ ilisation#*
(th is plan carabines 2 and 8 above#)
S
8# P rinarily organised around
a statement of ains or
objectives of the educational pragraa of the school#
1
8# P rinarily organised around a statenent of alas or
objective# fo r the individual eouree*
2
7# P rinarily organised around central thanes or general1cations such as "The Interdependence thane"#
1
8# Prim arily organised around social functions which are
sem en to noa t so cieties suoh as (l)th e protection of
l if e and property, (2) the production o f goods and ser­
v ices, (8) transportation and oom unieatien, etc#
1
9# P ria arily organised around
the visual svfcjeot n a tte r or 9
content of ooureea by th is t i t l e or with Modifications
aade by the lo cal staff#
10# P riaarily organised around problems of present-day life #
U# P riaarily organised around the plan of a textbook.
21# P ria arily organised arouad the cardinal principles of
education*
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9
18
8
70
(j) Sooial Problems
A eourse in sooial problems is required in only three sohools
whieh reported. This course Is offered usually la the tw elfth grade
fo r one semester. I t is organised around problems of present-day lif e .
I t might well hare been tabulated with sociology, which is discussed
below.
(k) Sociology
Sociology is taught la approximately eight per seat of the
schools whioh reported la th is investigation, Tha nature of the sub­
je c t m atter is ra th sr sim ilar la a l l eases. Bmphasis is on ru ra l
sociology# so cial liv in g , and a l l social problems. I t was always
found ia the two upper grades of the senior high school, in th s tw elfth
about one-third more often than ia the eleventh.
Sociology is usually a one-semester subject in Nebraska, sad
is taught fo r fo rty minutes a day fo r fiv e days a week. Slight
ehaages have been made during the past fiv e years ia the sociology
courses of study used ia th is state# according to the testimony of
the schools reporting. Table XXII pictures the plans of organisation
followed.
TASS£ XXII
PLANS O f OiKttRIZATIOS USED IN TStfteXNO SOCIOLOGY
,
1. Prim arily organised around u n its of work. ( I f
th is plan is indicated as being used ia a partiou-
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4
n.
IABLS XXII (continued)
FUSS OF QHCUSIUriOH S8BS IE mCBXHG SOCIGLOO?
ii'fffti'fliff-H'I'lV-
r jif
''^^^HSSSfiSSiEliSTO
tili|'tr"1IU
i'i;i'':'1°|,r::-'JI'VM1<afiiBn»^ia95BcSSSSSy
U r course, eosa other plan should slso ho Indi­
cated which w ill reveal the focus of tho unito ,
suoh os ch ild ren 's in te re sts, or areas of experi•aoo, o r o thers,)
8* P riaarily o r p tia id trouod areas o r aspects of tho
social or natural environaaent (weather, phasa of
business, a sooial in stitu tio n , apooh in h isto ry ,
or phase of eeeaoaio lif e ,)
2
8* Prim arily organised around pupil experiences, inter**
e a ts, purposes, o r aeada,
1
4 , P riaarily organised around oeaters o f in te re st o r
phases of the groupculture w ithin vhioh the stu­
dents* in te re sts are centered, suoh as "oowaunity
lif a " or "our changing in d u strial civ ilisatio n * "
(This plan combines 2 and 8 above*)
6
6 , P riaarily organised arounda statanant of ais* or
objectives fo r the individual eourse*
1
8, P riaarily organised arouadsooial functions vfaioh are
oQssaoa to west sooieties suoh as (l)th a protection of
lif e and property, (2)the production of goods and ser­
v ices, (3)transportation and oossmmlo st ion, ets«
6
8* P riaarily organised arouad
the usual subject a a tte r or 1
content of courses by th is t i t l e or w ith Modifications
aade by the local s ta ff ,
10* P riaarily organised around problems of present-day l i f e ,
11, P ria arily organised around the plan of a textbook,
12* P riaarily organised arouad the cardinal principles of
education.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
T
19
1
73
(I) P o litical Solanos
Follticm l seienoe m s reported as a required course in only
two schools in Bebraska. This would indicate th a t preparation for
citisen ship was Wing taken oare of in more functional courses* Both
o f these pol itioal-solenoe oourses were reported *9 semester courses*
and are offered to eleventh or tw elfth grade pupils.
(a) International Halations
Only on* school reported into m otional relatio n s as a p a rt o f
tho ooro experiences.
Information and a ttitu d e s on international
problems are acquired* no dodbt* in other aoeial studies courses,
through the newspapers* and from the radio,
fa) Boonaeiioe
Siacty»five sohools, or 18*3 per oont of tho 470 oooporating
schools, require eeo&m&les fo r graduation in Bebraeka. These oouraaa
emphasise the e n tire fie ld of economies* ae well aa eoolal liv in g e a t
guidance* Taxes and the prinoiplae of inauranoe mere reported as the
content in some oaeea. Consumption and produotion of goods were alee
emphasised* Sooeomios la usually taught in the eleventh or tw elfth
grades* Zn one eehool* i t is taught in the ninth grade* The tin e
devoted to eoo&MBlee varies from 100 minutes to 800 per week* JLp*
proxiaately 96 per cent of the sohools shore i t is taught spend 800
minutes or more in the study of eeomnles*
ease** i t is a semester s u re st*
Zn 75 per sen t of the
Saw ooureea are about h alf as fro*
quest as are revised courses* the la tte r being true of about 16 par
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
cent o f tho courses*
As i t tru e with many courses, tho textbook plays an important
part* Table XXIII shows tha plana of organisation followed In tha
teaching of aoononloe*
TABLE XXIII
IU M OF OHGAMZATIQH USED 18 TEACHIBO ECONOMICS
Aassi» erf O rganisation
'
1
Timas Mentions?
1* Prim arily organised around u n its of work* ( if
th is plan Is indicated as being usod in a partioula r course, some other plan should also bo indi­
cated which w ill reveal th s foous of tho w its*
suah as c h ild re n s ln ts rs s ts , or areas of experi­
ence, or others*)
4
£• Prim arily organIsod arouad areas or aspects of tho
sooial or natural environment (weather, phase of
business, a sooial in stitu tio n , epoeh In h isto ry ,
or phase of economic life * )
7
9* P riaarily organised arouad pupil experiences, in te rs e ts , purposes, or needs*
8
4* P riaarily organised a round centers of In terest or
phases of the group culture w ithin which the stu ­
dents* in te re sts are centered, suoh as "otiaanmity
Ilfs * or "our changing Industrial civilisation**
(This plea combines 2 and 8 shove*)
7
P riaarily organised around a sbateaeztt of alas or
objectives of tee educational program of the school*
1
7* P riaarily organised around central theses or generall-
%
$0
satio&s suoh aa "The Interdependence Theme**
6* P riaarily organised around social funstions which are
emmaon to n est so cieties such as (l)th e protection of
l i f e and property, (8)tee production of goods and ser­
v ices, (9) transportation and ooaaunication, etc*
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10
t&SU x x m (continued)
turn
o f oasARxzasxos m i> i s se& cezes s o o k b u c s
H a n s o f bresn'isaiA on
Times ^^V lw oed
8* P r i a a r i l y o rg a n is e d around th e u s u a l s u b je c t n a t t e r o r
c o n te n t o f o o u rse s by t h i s t i t l e o r w ith m o d ific a tio n s
made by th e l o e a l s t a f f .
4
10* P rim a rily o rg a n is e d around problem* o f p re s e n t-d a y l i f e *
11
11* P r i m r i l y o rg a n ise d around th e p la n o f a textbook*
80
I t * P r i a a r i l y o rg a n is e d around th e e a r d in a l p r in c i p le s o f
e duoatlon*
3
(e) ^wgrsphy
See&us© of the contents em phasised in tho sc h o o ls r e q u ir in g
geography, i t i s grouped w ith th o s o c ia l s tu d ie s r a th o r th a n w ith th o
n a tu r a l sc ie n c e s*
T h irty -s e v e n o f th o fo u r huahred sev e n ty sc h o o ls
re p o rte d geography a s a c o n s ta n t t« bo ta k e n by evaryone*
The a a»
p h a s is in c lu d e s p h y s ic a l geography, i n d u s t r i a l geography, p ro d u c ts ,
w orld r e l a t i o n s , e t c .
I t i s store o f te n found i n th e f i r s t t e e y e a r s
th a n d u rin g th o l a s t t e e y e a r s f how ever, th e d if f e r e n c e i s s l i g h t *
I n a b o u t 73 p a r s e n t o f th e e e h e e ls r e q u ir in g geography, i t i s t s u g i t
f o r 800 m in u tes p a r week*
I n o n ly two so h o o ls a r e s o r e th a n f i r e
p e rio d s devoted to geo g rap h y .
T w enty-eiidit p*r w i t o f th e c o u rs e s
a r e f o r t h i r t y - s i x weeks***the r e s t b e in g sesM ister o o u rs e s .
ta b le
XXIY i a d ie a te s th e p la n s o f o r g a n is a tio n .
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TABUS XXIV
HJilB OF OHOASIZAtlOE UBSD IS mCHIHO OSOOAHST
— -i rt.ig --» n -irT ~ -t, - -‘ ' ' p l a n s '
o f
o y a B n lt a t lo n
" " " " ' ............................................................
Q ia o s '
1* P rim a rily o rg a n is e d arouad u n i t s o f work* ( I f
t i l l s p la n i s in d ic a te d a s bsia.fi used i» a p a r ti c u ­
l a r eourse* soao o th e r p la n should a l s o b« in d i s a te d tfeio h w i l l re v e a l th e fo c u s o f th e u n its *
suoh a s o h i l d r e n 's i n t e r e s t s * o r a r e a s o f e x p e r ish o o , o r o th e rs* }
1
2* P r im a rily o rg a n ise d aro u ad a r e a s o r a s p e c ts o f th e
s o e l a l o r n a tu r a l environm ent (w eather* phase o f
b u sin e ss* a s o o ia l i n s t i t u t i o n * epooh i a hiato iy,
o r phase o f economic lif e * }
4
3* P r i a a r i l y o rg a n is e d aro u ad p u p il e x p erien c e s* i n t e r *
e a ts * purposes* o r needs*
1
4* P r i a a r i l y o rg a n is e d around c e n te r* o f i n t e r e s t o r
phases o f th e group c u ltu r e w ith in whloh th e s t u ­
dents* i n t e r e s t s a r e c e n te re d * suoh a a "community
l i f e * o r "o u r changing i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i s a t i o n * *
( t h i s p la n combines 2 and 3 above*}
1
3* P r im a rily o rg a n ise d around a s ta te m e n t o f a ists o r
o b je c tiv e s o f th o eduo ab io n al program o f th e school*
1
@* P r i a a r i l y o rg a n is e d around a sta te m e n t o f aims o r
o b je c tiv e s f o r th e in d iv id u a l co u rse*
1
3* P rim a rily o rg a n is e d around s o o ia l fu n c tio n s v h lo h a r e
common to s o s t s o o i e t i e s sttoh a s ( l ) t h e p r o te e tio n o f
l i f e and p ro p e rty * (2} th e p ro d u c tio n o f goods and s e r *
v ic e s* (2) tr a n s p o r ta ti o n and o esaw nioation* e te *
3
f * P r im a rily o rg a n is e d around th e u s u a l s u b je c t m a tte r o r
c o n te n t o f o o u rse s by t h i s t i t l e o r w ith m o d ific a tio n s
made by th e l o c a l s t a f f *
1
10* P r i a a r i l y
o rg a n is e d around problem s o f p re s e n t-d a y l i f e *
11* P rim a rily
o rg a n ise d around th o p la n o f a textbook*
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
4
12
76
smmsz
I n e u sn a rln in g th e fin d in g * on s o o ia l s t u d i e s , i t sh o u ld be n o ted
t h a t 464 soho o ls re q u ire some s o o ia l s tu d ie s o th e r th a n .m ar icon. o r
w orld h i s t o r y .
School s e n e re in d eed ewar* o f tho n e c e s s ity o f p re p a rin g
boys end g i r l s f o r c itiz e n s h ip and o f th e o p p o r tu n itie s which th e f i e l d
o f s o c ia l s tu d ie s a f f o r d s .
The re q u ire d s o o ia l s tu d ie s s r e l i s t e d below
i n descending o rd e r o f freq u e n o y , to g e th e r w ith th e nu ab er o f sch o o ls
end th e p e rc e n ta g e o f th e c o o p e ra tin g sd h o o ls which r e q u ir e e a c h .
Tha*,
we see th e e f f o r t t h a t i s b ein g made to p re p a re Nebraska hoys and g i r l *
fo r I n te llig e n t c itiz e n s h ip .
I f we c o n s id e r each s e c tio n o f a s o c ia l
s tu d ie s co u rse aa a s e p a ra te u n i t , i t w ill be n o ted t h a t 1050 s e p a ra te
s o c ia l s tu d ie s c la s s e s c o n s ti tu te th e N ebraska h ig h school s o o ia l s tu d ie s
core c u rric u lu m .
T his i s an a rc ra g e o f 2 .1 9 o o u rses f o r each o f th e
c o o p e ra tin g s o h o o ls.
a
m a jo rity o f th e s e c o u rses s r e f u l l - y e a r s u b j e c ts .
Thus, we see th e im p o rtan t p la c e t h a t i s h e ld by th e s o c i a l s tu d ie s i n
th a co re c u rric u lu m o f Nebraska h ig h s o h o o ls .
TABLE XXV
mmm and
s o c ia l
pss
s t u d ie s
c o o s s s s , AND
sc h o o ls mmoim eagb
mm or coofsiw cim o
SU bJacts ' l n e l t t d ! ^ ^ i c h o o l *
/ a s r ic e n h i s t o r y
World h is to r y
C iv ic s
r.n erio an governiaeat
Economies
Geography
Sociology
" " " ‘" " 'F e r c e n t o f t o t a l
297
274
169
70
66
37
36
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
63
58
36
14.9
1 3 .8
7 .8 7
7 .6
ff
m
i XXV (oontlnuad)
SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES, AHD
HUMBER AJD PER CEKT OF COGPSRATIIG SCHOOLS gg^UISIBO SUM
■WMiiiJ
iL’irawgw'W'i'i'
""'hi■1|rijBM
^ yf il^
S ffijtO w U
lfllW W
tB tW
O f 1MI!gr.T/n
W M O ll "l"'r' ' "
Cowunity oiH oa
Sooial aaionoo
Aaarleen oitiaonahip
DtMMoraay
Sooial problena
P o litic a l aoienoo
Citieenahlp
International relatione
r > f 8 W it O f tO W L
SS
18
U
?
S
1
1
1
6,8
S*SS
lo t
1*48
*SS
•41
•41
•11
C. 3BB CORE CURRICULUM ARB MATHEMATICS
(a) Algebra.
80 $tllrad eouraes in aatheaiatiea include f i r s t and eeooad-yoar
•IfriNNti plant geoaatry, general saatbenatio*, aatiiaaatloa, and btaaineaa
erittaiotie* Seventy-aix per aa st of tbo tohoolt r tq a in a ll paplla to
taka algebra*
I t ia taught in gradee nine, ton, and eleven, Sea*
aohool* reported th a t i t v at taught in both tho ninth and tonth gradaa.
I t la found in SSI aahoola ia tha nin th, in 68 aohoola in tho tonth,
and la oaa aohool ia tha eleventh* thue i t la evident th a t 41 aahoola
reported th ia oourao fo r both gradea,
31m natura of tho oontont of beginning algebra la ehown by tha
following deeeriptiona.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
fS
SABLE x m
comm Of BSQISKIHG AL8EBBA COOBSES
tSr» o f t*K ooat+nt
ffumbr ryportiag;
Elm antary al£*tra
0#n*nd *le*br»
Fund*m*ntal praaasaa*
A lflta* through quadrntioi
D rift* , formula#, equation*
Ml 1^anaftui
SB
SI
20
IS
8
In t w r y «***, a lg * b ra * na re p o rte d a* a d a i l y eaqw riaitse*
88 p a r a a n t of th a aa* * * , i t i * a f u l l - y o a r * i* b > o t.
Ia
Tkt&e x x m
i l l u s t r a t e * th * lo o k o f u n ifo rm ity th ro u g h o u t th o s t a t * i n th o m o u n t
of tin* davotod p a r v a a k t o t h i s *atp*ri»no*«
SABLE J im
TIME DSV0T8D TO ALtBEBHA X
par ta sk '
198
180
178
198
800
80S
£18
888
'
'
'
KuaW of i» W [»
.......................... * . • ............. . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... m o
............
..........
1
t
8
1
MM. £11
t oo
............
1
.........
7
88
880
848 MM.....................
£80 . . . . . . . . . . . ...........
£80 M M ............
MMMMMM............
£88
£76 M O M ............M M M M M .O....................
£80 . .................
. ............... M M ...........
..
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
1
1
9
8
1
14
1
n
TABLE XXni (continued)
THS DEVOTED TO ALOBBBA I
m ............
..*. t1
800
m .................
»
St6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................
........
i
m
360
1
.......................................
Most algebra ooursss are tra d itio n a l. Only 83 per seat are
e ith e r mm or revised during Mu$ post five years. undoubtedly Urn
p ro o fin g statem ent, although based upon Mbs testimony of more than
three-hmadred and f if ty sohool o ffic ia ls , cannot bo en tire ly tru e ,
inasmuch as those o ffio lsls farth e r te s tify th s t Mae oourses are
p ria a rily based upon textbooks and i t Is a safe assumption th a t a s s t
textbooks o r ite rs have revised th e ir oourses during the past five years*
Table XXVXIX illu s tra te s the vide diffsrenee of opinion in
organisation plans fo r th is widely-required experience.
SABLE XXVIII
FLAS8 OP OBQiKIXATIOR DEED IS TBACHIISG ALSBSBA I
mmmmmmmmmmxmxmmmmmmmmmmmmmtmmmmMmmmmmmmmmgacmmsgmmmmm
___________
P tm i of OffliBflimtion
jflwfrit. jf e n w if l
Is P riaarily organised arouad w its of work* (If
th is plan is indloated as being used in a particu­
la r course, sone other plan should also be in d ieated ehioh w ill revesl the foeus of the u n its,
suoh as children*s in te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or o thers.)
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
87
1
TABLE u m n
(ooatiiaiad)
PLAJffi Of OfiOMdMTXOX USED IS TBACHWO AL088BA I
j4uuns ol* Organisation
Times tteniionsA
8* P riaarily organised arouad pupil experiences, inter**
e s ts , purposes, o r needs*
1
4* P riaarily organised around centers of in te re st or
phasos of tho group oulturs w ithin which tho stu­
dents* in te re sts ar> ssntsMMl. suoh u *aooBt&ibr
lif t* or "our ehaagi&g in d u strial civilisation**
(Ib is plan cosshlnss 8 sad 8 of th is table*)
S
&* P ria arily organised around a statement of alas or
objectives of ths sdueational program of th s sahool*
SI
8* P riaarily orgaaissd around a statement of aim or
objectives fo r th s individual oourss*
88
8* P ria arily organised around sooial functions ohioh a rs
ooncson to a s s t so o lstiss suoh as (l)tb s protsotlon of
I lf s and property, (8)ths produstloa o f goods and ssr»*
vioes, ^ tra n s p o rta tio n and ecasnnlsatioa, sto*
8
8* Prim arily orgaaissd arouad th s usual subject a a tts r or
content of ooursss by th is t i t l e or with m odifications
made by th s lo cal staff*
68
10* P riaarily organised around problems of present-day life*
m
11* P riaarily organised arouad ths plan of a textbook*
18* P riaarily orgaaissd around th s cardinal principles of
tdfflmtiwi*
196
11
(b) Advanced Algebra
Advanced algebra la loss frequently required of a ll pupils*
Tabulations show only 80 sohools requiring i t of a ll pupils, as sob*
pared with 889 in tho m m of slaasntavy algebra* The surprising
ele&e&t is th a t there should bs any sahool so lim ited ia i t s offerings
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
81
to to formed to require such a course of a i l pupils* Whan offered as
a required eourse, advanced algebra ia a semester oourso ia three
oasss to eaeh oao th a t is fo r a fu ll-y e a r.
i t is more tra d itio n a l in
i t s soatoat sad plaa of organisation than is tha elementary eourse and
is based p ria a rily upon ths textbook fo r organisation and eoatant.
(a) Geometry
Approximately 61 par oaat of our high sohools ara forosd to re­
quire geometry of a ll boys sad g ir ls , or also trad itio n has prevented
a oonaldaratlon of individual aptitudes and needs, L ittle is known
about tha ooatanta of tha eoursas la these sohools oxsapt th at la 104
of tha 88b sohools, tha eoataat is desoribed as plane geometry. Tha
ooataat la many others is oharaotarisad as general, mathematical,
p rao tleal, flguraa and theorems, fuadaaantal, alaeantary sad advanced,
eto*
la 98 par oaat of tha sohools reported, geometry is offered la the
ten th grade. Thirty sohools reported that i t is taught ia ths ninth
grade. A slig h t tendency is revealed by tha fourteen sohools which re­
quire i t in the eleventh grade and the one whieh requires i t in the
senior year of the high aohool*
Aa unusual requirement is th at ia oae aohool, only six ty minutes
per seek are required fo r geometry. The usual preotlee is five fo rty minute periods, although fifty-tw o of the two hundred eighty-five
sohools devote 300 minutes or more to the subject, geometry
is d efin itely a fu ll-y ear subjeet, as is shown by the fa s t th at only
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
32
savsa schools raportad l t M i half-yaar raquirm ant, ilors sohools
rsly p ria a rily upon th s tsxtboek fo r th a ir plan of organisation than
upon a l l othsxsooabiaad, tha ra tio balng 8 to 4*
(d) Oaosral Matfcasaatios
A d efin ite trend la i&dloatod ia th s oaaa of general aathex&atlas
ia the core ourriculuns of tha stats* Seventeen par oaat of tha
schools ara requiring general aathanatioe* F ifty par oent of those
courses ara new during tha past fiv e years*
the oonfcent of stash
oouraaa is shorn below ia Table XXIX*
TAin.g r t r y
* 4*0® o f o oh tsit i s general u k tm m xm courses
iub iaol M aiW iadhasi.sal
times
Algebra, geometry and arltfaaatia
Aritfcaetio, algebra, praotioal application
Algebra, a rith a etio
AritisMrtio, stap le geometry
Business and everyday arithm etic
Oanaral
Praotioal
Coneuner goods
Advanced
Single operation
Algebra* geometry
Businas* nethode*~o«amteroial praotioo
12
t
4
1
£
4
9
1
2
1
1
I
Seldom ara these oouraaa found ia gradas above tha tenth*
la
SO par oaat of tha sohools reporting* they ara taught ia tha ninth
grade* Nearly ons hundred par oaat of thasa courses ara fo r th irty *
six m i l ) meeting not la ss than fiv e day aaah week* In about f if ty
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
par oant of th s schools* psriods ara fo rty ainutoa ia length*
Dm plans of organisation ara shorn in Tabls XXX bslow* I t
should ha aotsd th a t tha textbook plays aa important p art ia th is phass
of tha ourrioulUR* Tha textbook is probably mors in flu en tial than m
in itia l glaaoa would load oca to bailors*
I t is tha w ritar*a opinion
th a t sshsols indicating plans master ©no* f i n , iix f nine* and d sv sa
probably roly a groat dsal upon tha aid of a textbook* Tha tabula*
tio n s show ninety plans uaad by tha 71 sohools bhioh require th is
experience of everyone* Tha assumption is th a t soma sohools uaa
several plans* whila assy usa but ons*
TAWT-S XIX
HJUSS OF QRQAKIZATIOX
USED XX nSiOKIXO flgsxas?- 16XTHBMATIC8
1« Prim arily organised arouad u n its of work* ( if
th is plan i s indi oatad as balng uaad in a partieu*
la r course, some othar plan ihould also ba indioatad
which w ill rsssa l tha foous of tha units* auoh as
ch ild ren 's in te re sts, or araaa of experiaaoe* or
others*)
i* Prim arily orgaaissd around araaa or aspects of
sooial or natural snwinemsnt (vaathsr* phase of
business, a sooial in stitu tio n , apsoh in h isto ry ,
or phase of eoonomio Ufa*}
tha
3* Prim arily orgaaissd around pupil experiences, ia to roat* purposss* o r naads*
11
1
13
S« P riaarily orgaaissd around a statement of a la s
or
objectives o f tha sduoatloaal program of tha sahool*
8
8# Prim arily organ 1sod around a atatamsnt of aims
objectives fo r tha individual eourso*
8
or
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8ft
■ lM tt JBHk
yyy \00awUM
/ - —^j .1 tN/\
XftwLS
HJLKS OF OROAKIZATIOH
iffiso is mcEiso oEsssAL mmmzim
— —
tt— n i ' i n ii imi i mp i»■
Wmi iii##e^w^!pMsma#M#meae##Mwmww#gego#j^aoeBpmm#y
8* Prim arily organised around sooial functions shioh aura
ooHmon to most so cieties suoh m (l)th e protection of
l i f t and property* (8) tho preduotion o f goods and ser­
vices, ^ tra n s p o rta tio n and oommunioatlon* eto*
8
9* Prim arily organised aroundthe usual subject n a tte r or
oontent of oouraaa ^ th ia t i t l e or w ith m odifications
nade by tha local staff*
8
10. Prim arily organised around problems of present-day life *
11* P riaarily organised around
the
9
plan of a textbook* 50
12* Primarily organised arouad the cardinal principles of
education*
8
(a) Arithmetic
Ihe fundamentals of mathsmatiee are largely le f t to the ele»
aentary aohool# of the atate* or to oholoo on the p a rt of the secondaryschool enrolleea* Leas than nine per sent (40) of the cooperating
aehoola require any kind of aritfcswtio of a ll pupils* Called by
several names* oourses of th is kind emphasise buaineaa arithm etic
and advanced arithm etic. She course ia usually offered in the
eleventh grade* but more frequently found in the tw elfth than in
the ninth or te n th . Some sohools require th is subjeot* but permit
pupils to choose the time ah on i t w ill be taken. Arithmetic is offer*
ed by 5 sohools a t the ninth-grade level* by 8 a t the tenth* by 8?
a t the eleventh, and by 18 a t the teelftb -grsde level*
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J
m
Arltfcnetio classes are usually fo rty minutes la length, five
day* par week fo r one M w«t»r* The la tte r le the oas# seventy per
sent of the tin e .
F ifty per se a t of the seurses eere e ith e r new or
revised during the peat fiv e year*, the new oourses about equaling the
revised oourses ia masher* Forty fo r se at of the arith e e tio oourses
are dependent p ria a rily upon textbook* to r th e ir plea of orgimisatlea*
smSSSARY
1* In sianary, i t should be noted th a t beginning algebra is
required ia 969 sohools, advaneed algebra ia 26, geoaetry in 286,
gsnsral aatfcuasaties ia 71, and arltim stio in 40 of the 470 cooperating
eohool* inoluded in th is surrey* Fomal nathosaties aeons well on*
treaehed* The praotloes revealed suggest the need fo r auoh study to
detem lne the ad v isab ility of remaining traditio nal*
2* Only 28 per sen t of the algebra oourses were said to be new
or revised during the p a st fiv e years* Traditional algebra d efin itely
has a plaoe ia the ourrioulisss of Sebraskai but only when i t serves
th e needs of everyone should i t be a p art of the oore ourrioulusu The
t extbook was mentioned as the basis fo r these oourses in 47 per east
of the eehoole*
8* I t has been noted th a t advaneed algebra is a p art of the eare
eurrleuluA in 26 Behraaka high eehoole* Conaunities and schools would
find i t d lffie u lt to ju stify suoh a requirement* Pressure and trad i*
tio n are probably the wajor faster* in maintaining th is practise*
4* Tradition aeons equally entresohed ia the ease of geoastry*
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Kora uniform ity e x ists, however, in tha teaching of th is subject. Thia
ia indicated by tha doaoriptlons of tha aubjaot matter rhieh ia empha­
sized.
5. A d efin ite trend is aaen in the eaee of general matheaatloa.
I t appears that algebra and geometry may be postponed u n til a la te r
time in tha eurrieulua i f th ia exploratory eourse brings re su lts
sim ilar to those which followed tha development of other general
oourses.
6. Arithmetic is a semester course in 27 of the 40 sohools whieh
require i t aa a part of the core curriculum.
i t is supposed th at the
fundamentsis of mathematics have been mastered prior to admission into
the high school. This is not the opinion of the Jury of pupils, teach­
e rs, and laymen eited in the fin a l chapter of th is study.
D. 3GUSH0E IS THE CORE CGERI0ULOM
(a) General Science
Zn th is age of science, i t is f e lt that an elementary under­
standing of the fundamentals of th is broad fie ld of knowledge is
necessary to happiness. Approaches to the sc ie n tific fie ld are made
through various avenues; namely, general science, biology, botany,
chemistry, physics, physical and natural science, advanced physical
science, and physiology, gash of these is deemed or su fficien t im­
portance to form a part of the core in one or more high schools in
Nebraska.
T ifty -riv e per cent of the 470 cooperating Nebraska high schools
require a l l pupils to take general science,
fable XXXI shews a wide
difference of subject m atter in the schools requiring th is subject.
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m
VkVB.1t n t T
U m & OF COSIEST IS OBSHEHAL SCIENCE COUE8BS
ottojtm natoor flHffoMuon
..—
fE
garner of ooionoo in osnriroanont
Chotaiotry, biology, phyoie©
fbyaiaal nod googmphioml onvironoont
S olontifle
Enoirowaont
Oonoml knowlodgo
Slooodsto of ooionoo
Batura!
fo n t, laboratory, and fio ld
Plonto, oninolo, botany
Batura! phyoioal ooionoo
Saionao, biology, physiology
Hoalth oonowption
Laboratory dioeuoaion
FaadaiBontal ooioaoo
Qlrl© gonoral ooionoo
Boyt gonoral ooionoo
tta it OBporiroeni
Slonontary ond laboratory
Bwyday probl©**
Looturoa
on
MP^P^p W1W
OW ooionoo
^ fwMVMWO1
Lifo oondltion
18
8
1
7
8
18
10
1
9
8
1
1
1
8
8
1
8
8
1
1
1
Tho study of gsnoral ooionoo, whon a p art of tho ao ro ourrionlun
in Stbraoka oohoola, lc offorod in th« f i r s t or ooooad yoar o f tho
four-yoar high oohool, Minoty-ooo por ©ont of tho oohoola offor i t
in tho ninth grado* This oouroo i t n full*y©nr oxporlonao in 198 of tho
WO safeoolo importing i t u * roquiroHont* Tho tin * apont por nook
oario© fron 100 ninutoo in ono oohool to 880 in aaothor—>tho nodo bolng
100 ndUnxtoo with 804 oohoolo* Tho aont«©»ot froquont mafeor of ninwtoo
por wook io 800, with 85 oohoolo ooaforalng* Thoro io quit© goaovnl
agroonont that flow poriodo tfiould ho dovotod to goaoral ooionoo, hnt
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
88
son* schools schedule i t only three tin e s a week and ethers as aaay ns
8, w ith 7 periods not tmoonwon*
Although naagr phases of tho subject woro reported u reeelvlng
najor eaphasis, o oareful analysis of each indicates th a t moot la stru sto rs aro trying to toaoh about the a n » in f enaction* I t w ill bo
notod th a t its a s one* six* and oovon could no doubt bo Xiatod together*
Thlo l« truo of nany othoro shown la Tablo XJXX* In terestin g , theugt
perhaps not sig n ifican t, la tho fa s t th at two oohools H o t a ooionoo
fo r g iiio only* and oat doos likew ise fo r boys*
fweirty-one oohools reported fe a t tho course was now during the
past flo e years* whUe fifty-seven stated th a t tho oourees bad boon
revised* b u y plasm o f organisation arefeund in operation throughout
the state*
tab le XXXIX shows th a t several plans are found to bars a -
bout an equal nunber of adherents*
¥416,18 xjqcix
FLAJtt 0? G80ABI2ATX0M
tatup i f TMCHIKO a&m-au. SdESCB
I* P rlaarily organised around u n its of work* ( if
th is plan is ladioated as being used in a p articu­
la r course, seme other plan should also be ln d iaeted which w ill reveal the focus of the units*
susb as ohildren*s in terests* o r areas of experienee* o r others*)
48
8* Prim arily organised around areas or aspects of the
social o r natural estviroaaeab (weather* phase of
basinets* a social in stitu tio n , epoch In
or phase of eeonoaio life * )
80
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
tamjs
XXXII (oontinued)
HJLHS OF OESAEIZATIOH
USED IS fS&CHZSa CB8BBAL 8CZS9CS
flM I
Oi
OflMI>ii»>WI
itm
uentioned
&• Fri®»rily ersaaisod around pupil experience*, in te r•S ts, purpose#, o r needs*
43
i* P rlaarily organised around centers of in te re st or
phases of the group culture w ithin which the stu ­
dents* in te re sts a r t eenterwd, such as "oenitmlby
life * o r "our changing in d u strial oiT ilisation*"
(th is plan oambines 2 and 3 of th is table*)
16
$* p y b triiy organised around a stsbcnsnb o f
or
objectives o f tho eduoatioaai program o f tho oohool*
f
t« P rlaarily organised around a stataacsit of alas o r
o h jo o tlw i fo r the individual course*
13
?• ly in a rily orgenisod around oonhral thanes or generalications such as "tho Interdependence Xhsne*#
m
6* P rla arily organised around sooial functions uhieh aro
cornea to nost eooicties suoh as (i)th o protection o f
l i f t sad property, (2) tho production of shads and e c rvioos, (3)transportation sad enrammioation, oto*
$
3* P rla arily organised around tho usual subject n a tte r or
eesbe&t of ooursos by th is t i t l o or with M difieatleae
aado ty tho looal staff*
u
10* P rla arily orssnisod around probloas of present-day lifo *
21
11• ffiw arily organised around tho plan of a textbook*
34
12* P rla arily organisod around tho cardinal principles of
education*
6
Qenoral soisnoo, by I ts w ry nature, loads its e lf to other plans
of organisation thaa the toxtbook plan* That general soisQse teachers
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m
ara availing thanaalwaa of th la opportuniky la awn in Tabla XXXIX*
Bara, aa la othap oouraaa, tho to ta l plana turn! fa r outnuabar tha
aohoola ahloh rogoirad tha aubjaot o f a ll puplla. Tha toxtbook plan
In th la aaaa aooountod fo r only 20.67 par aaat of tfca to ta l plana wantionad* two hnadrtd aixty-ona aohoola ro fa ira gonoral aoianaa, but 311
plana w i t nantloaad* Thla would indloata th a t m a t ganaral aelanao
oouraaa ara orgnlaod around raora than ona plan (1*19) •
(b) Biology
Tha wldaapraad fooling fo r tha n o rita of biology la mvaalad by
a oos^arlaoa of tho Busbar of aohoo lt ra<gttlriag th la t ^iw oa axparioMMi
with thoao raqulrlng botany, toology and physiology, tho aoionaaw whioh
I t haa raplaoad. Too huadrad fo rty too aakoola nafca biology a wwwi
oxparlanaaj while physiology, botany, and analogy ora rofulrad In 17,
l i and 0 aohoola, roapoctivaly#
Bony boya and g lrla ara aataring lif o with vary l l t t l a orgasltod
ksoolodga of I l f a , tinoa only fit par oant ara ra<{ulrad to taka biology,
and such a small naabar of aohoola require a ln ila r subjeots. More than
13 par aaat of tho Habraska aahoola ara without botany, aoology,
phyalology or biology.*
Biology d lffa ra only In dagrao of aagfeaala on tho various phaaaa
of tha subjeot* Thla la ovidont fre e Tablo XXXIII* i t rtiould ba aotad
th at ikons ona and four ara
g
BwOh 22, I W ,
T o ry
jsKtanoloa
sim ilar* 8<xae aohoola anphaalaa plant
Smm. Llcooln,
liabraaka. Vol. 10, BO. f ,
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
sa
asA snlraal li f e , sh ile others devote Bors tin* to physiology, Unless
th is phase of ths subject Is eaphaaiaed in tho sp o o ls statin g th a t
th e ir eaphasis is os general biology, w ry l i t t l e is being done tosard
te aching physiology in nost biology courses* Only seventeen. of tho
cooperating sohools require a ooaree is physiologyj consequently, nsgi
of tho toohnioal kaesledge of th s hmaa body acquired is th s high school
is the re s u lt of biology courses*
TART-g
XKXIII
XiXQBE OP C01TOT IB BI0L03T COORSSS
SI
Project laboratory
H esitation and laboratory
H eats
—»<n»^«
Practical problsns
Unite e£ l i f t
Coaparison sad needs of liv in g things
Botany sad Zoology
Cos|iuratlTs aaateay sad physiology
18
Lecture sad laboratory
3ot*ay
biology
Biology is found in the tenth-grade ourrioulua stars often than
i s say other grads* but i t is taught frequently is th s eleventh,
tw elfth, sad ninth « lso . Seas schools permit students to enroll a t
any of the grads levels*
A vride differenos o f opinion e x ists as to th s mount o f tts s
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
th a t should be devoted to biology* The mag* In minutes is tr m 103
to 500 minutes por seek—the mods being $>0 with 75 sohools* There
are oightT-nin* oohool* devoting 100 minutes or more por meek to th is
subject* Tho number of periods vary fra* 5 to 11* tho moat frequent
practices being 5 sad 7 . Tho la tte r mould indicate fiv e regular period*
and tee period* devoted to laboratory*
Poor and sia-teath a per eont of the courses are semester offer*
logs* One oohool offer* biology fo r twelve meek*, leaving about 93
per eent of the eoheol* on the fu ll-y sa r basis* Thirty-two per eeat
of the courses are as* o r revised w ithin the la s t fiv e years f the re*
vised eoorsos being in the m ajority with the ra tio 3 he 1*
The plans of organisation sen beet be understood by an investiga­
tio n of Table XXXZV*
TABLE XSSTf
BJM OP GKG&8XMTX0I OSEB 15 TEACHING BI0L00T
- r m.y.T,
^
" Cin''n'T11 *"“ Tlf'f~ " j j o a t l W ^
1* Prim arily organised around malts of work* (If
th is plan 1* lndieated as being used in a particu­
la r course* some other plan should also be indicated
ehieh m ill reveal the fooue of ths u n its, suoh as
children** in te re sts, or areas of experience, or
others*)
36
t* Prim arily organised around areas or aspeot* of the
social or
of
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto ry ,
or phase of eoonoalo life * )
13
3* P rla arily organised around pupil experiences, inter*
s e ts , purposes, o r needs*
S3
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
98
TABLE XXXIV (oontinued)
FLAM OF 0RGAKI2ATI0N USED IK TEACHIB3 BIOLOGY
I W l MCnTIOnCO
4* Prim arily organised around centers of intoroat or
phases of th* group outturn w ithin whioh tha stu­
dents* intoroota ora cantered* such a s "oomsaiaity
lif t* or *our
in d u strial o iv U in tio a« *
(Thi* plan combines 2 and 2 of th la table*)
8
S* Friaaurity organised around a atataaont of aima or
objectives of the educational program of tho school*
8
6* Prim arily organisod around a statement of aims o r
objectives fo r tha individual course*
30
?« Prim arily organised around eontraX themes or geosralisstions auoh aa "Ths Intordopondonoo Theme0*
IS
8* Prim arily organised around aooiat functions which ara
aamatwi to moat aooiatiaa auoh aa (l)th a protection of
U fa and property, (2) tha production of goods and sorvioM , (^ tran sp o rtatio n and communication, eto*
8
9* Prim arily organised around tha usual subject m attar or
content of courses hy th is t i t l a or with m odifications
aada by tha looal staff*
M
10* Prim arily organisod around
problems of present-day lif t* 11
11* Prim arily organisod around
tha plan of a textbook*
12* Prim arily organisod around
education*
ths cardinal principles of 2
88
the textbook plan co nstitu tes twenty-eight and six-tenths of
a ll the plana mentioned in the teaching of biology* The plans used do
net d iffe r m aterially from those used in the teaching of many other
high school courses* A ttention is directed to the nunber of times th a t
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
94
plan number HTtn «m indicated, Some of th© schools neglected to
describe th e ir plane of orgftnleation* The to ta l number of plana sen*
tinned In th le ease dees not equal th* masher of schools whioh require
biology of a ll pupil®• Th® picture of th® plans of organisation i t
nevertheless apparent.
(o) Physics
Regardless of aptitud® o r desire of the pupils* in 26 per oost
(or US) o f the cooperating schools* physios is required fo r graduation*
I t is th® writer*® opinion th a t th is is due in most instances to fee
U nited ooarse offerings end the pressure o f tra d itio n to provide eollegs*
preparatory students with a physical solance* S light differences
characterise the content of the courses* Uuoh uniformity e x ists, to e,
in the grade level a t -Shiah i t is taught* About the sans number of
schools teach physios in grade eleven aa these which o ffe r i t in grade
twelve* Seldom is i t taught in grades nine or ten* In the schools
requiring physios, 1 teaches i t in grad® ninet 6 in grade tani 102
offers i t in grade eleven) and th® seme nunber teaoh i t in grade twelve*
I t w ill be noted th a t some schools west permit th is requirement to be
a c t a t sore than one grade level*
Th* m atter of minutes par week varies from 120 to 800—th e most*
season number of minutes being 290 and 800 with 87 and 86 schools*
respectively* S laty per cent of the schools use 280 minutes per week
or le ss fo r the study of physics* th is time is usually divided into
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
OS
fiv e period# during the week, Five aohoola, however, roport#d three
porioda a nook, while on# reported eig h t, & reported seven periods,
one reported four, another aix , end the others reported flee*
In e ll
eases aaceept fiv e , th la oourae is S3 weeks in length*
In only eight sohoos is the oourae new, and in only 21 per sent
of tho aohoola 1a i t new or revised*
This would indieate th a t trad i*
tio nal physios la the ousteaary experience share i t la required of
everyone* The textbook la used aa a basis of organisation heioe aa
often aa any other plan* Other popular plana of organisation include
these around unite of work and around the usual subject n a tte r or eo**»
te n t of eouraes by th is title *
(d) Chemistry
Only thlrtgMnvo of the four hundred seventy cooperating schools
require eheniatry of a ll students*
I t is offered about aa often in
grade eleven aa in grade twelve* The textbook is the Boat vldely»osed
plan of organisation, and the oontent d iffe rs but slig h tly from aohool
to school* L ittle e ffo rt haa been nade toward revision of the eoursea,
and not raany new courses have been added during the past five years
aa requirenenta*
In nearly every ease, ehaadstry is a fu ll year
eouraei only ob* aohool reporting i t aa a seawater requirement* The
am ber of minutes per week varies fron 200 to 420—th e twat-oowaen
being 900 minutes par week, divided into fiv e periods* One aohool re*
ported four periods per week, m other six , fiv e reported seven periods,
and a ll ethers reported five*
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C lo se ly a l l i e d w ith a h se iie try and p h y sio s e r e o o u rse s o a lls d
p h y s ic a l a a 6 n a tu r a l s c ie n c e , end adm noed p h y s ic a l scien ce*
S in ce
on ly two so h o o is re p o rte d th e fo rm er and one th e l a t t e r th e y w i l l h e
co n sid e re d to g e th e r .
Both a re f u l l - y e u r a u b jo o ts , ta u g h t u s u a lly i n
th e e le v e n th anti tw e lf th g ra d e s .
F iv e p e rio d s each week a r e devoted
to th e s e o o u rs o s, th e nunber o f m in u tes v a ry in g fro st 196 t o 990*
The
‘•Vm
c o n te n ts o f tlu» o o u rse s s h i t * r e e e lv a e a p h a s is ln o lu d e c h e m is try ,
p h y s io s , and b io lo g y *
I f one m ig h t v e n tu re a c o n je c tu re , i t would b e
t h a t th e s e a r e in te g r a te d o r fu s e d s o le s o e s o o u rs e s .
(e ) fh y s to lo g y
th e l a s t o f th e so ien o e o o u rse s m ig h t w e ll b e e o n sid e re d w ith
th e h e a lt h e x p e rie n c e s , b u t s in e s i t i s so c lo s e ly r e l a t e d to s e e s
o f th e so ien o e o o u rse s t h a t we s h a l l c o n s id e r i t a t t h i s p o in t*
Busing
th e p a s t tw enty y e a r s , th e number o f sc h o o ls o f f e r i n g p h y sio lo g y h a s
dropped froan 133 i n 1918-13 to TO i n 1S 36-38.3
The number o f s c h o o ls
r e q u ir in g p h y sio lo g y o f a l l p u p ils com prises l e s s th a n 4 p e r c e n t o f
t h e c o o p e ra tin g sc h o o ls i n t h i s s tu d y , o r a t o t a l o f se v e n te e n sch o o ls*
The c o n te n t o f th e s e o o u rse s i s g e n eral in n a tu r e , and l a r g e l y
b ased upon a textbook*
I t i s j u s t a s eonmon to f in d th e e o u rs e b e in g
ta u g h t i n one grade a s i n a n o th er*
The o o u rse s a r e u s u a lly f o r one
se m e s te r, o n ly o n e - th ir d o f th e n b e in g f o r a f u l l - y e a r .
F o rty H s im te
and s ix ty -m in u te p e rio d s a r e e q u a lly c a n o n f o r t h i s s u b je c t*
a r e laore th a n f i v e p e rio d s a week d e w te d t o physiology*
Seldom
A lthough
te x tb o o k s a r e used p r im a r i ly i n o rg a n is in g th e s e o o u rs e s , a n e f f o r t
i s nade t o f i t th e c o u rse t o th e p u p i l »s e x p e rie n c e s , i n t e r e s t s ,
# "feivers'i'^y E x ten sio n Sews. L in c o ln , Nebraska Tel* 1 9 , So* T .
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
97
purposes, or needs, Much of the content formerly found in courses of
th is kind la now a part of general aoianoa and biology oourses.
sxm rni
1* Remarkable la the fact that many boys and g irl a ara not
getting tha treining in tha experimental and lnduotive approach to
ths tru th , which is a major resu lt of laboratory oourses in science.
U ntil general oourses In soienoe becomes a part of tha core curriculum
for high sohool boys and g ir ls , th is phase of th e ir train in g w ill
continue to be neglected. This study shows th at f if ty - f ir e per cent
of the cooperating sohoois consider general science of enough value
to require i t of everyone. I t is a fu ll-y ear subject in 192 of ths
£60 sohoois where I t le required. Thirty per eent of these courses
>
are eith er new or revised w ithin tha la s t five years. The subject
siatter d iffe rs but slig h tly fro® sohool to school.
2.
Two hundred forty-tw o sohoois make biology a part of th e ir
core curriculum*. I t is taught a t the ninth-grade level la 46 schoolsj
a t tiie tenth-grade level in 148 school*; at th s eleventh-grade level in
99 sohooisj end a t the twelfth-grade lev el la 61 sohoois. Sons sohoois,
obviously, o ffe r i t a t several grade le v els. The nunber of periods de­
voted to biology varies fro* 5 to 11, end the minutes per we?k vary
from 103 to 500, The major part of pupils* Information about tha human
anatomy Is acquired la the biology classes, i f acquired a t a ll In the
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
o u r r lc u iu s .
These c la s s e s re a c h o n ly 5 1 .4 p e r c e n t o f th e p u p ils in
th e c o o p e ra tin g s o h o o is .
3 . i t i s th e o p in io n o f th e w r it e r th a t l e s s th a n one p e rso n
o u t o f f o u r w i l l p r o f i t s u f f i c i e n t l y t o w a rra n t spending t h i r t y - s i x
weeks s tu d y in g p h y s ic s .
N e v e rth e le s s , 28 p e r s e n t o f th e c o o p e ra tin g
sc h o o ls r e q u ir e t h i s e x p e rie n c e o f everyone b e fo re g ra d u a tio n .
Only
S I p e r o e n t o f th e sc h o o ls r e p o rte d t h a t t h i s c o u rse was e i t h e r new e r
re v is e d d u rin g th s p a s t f i v e y e a r s .
4 . T h irty -tw o sc h o o ls r e q u ir e c h e m istry o f a l l p u p i l s .
T h is i s
p ro b a b ly due to th e i n a b i l i t y to o f f e r a v a r ie t y o f s u b je c ts , and th u s
everyone i e re q u ire d to ta k e c h e m istry .
'The nunber o f n l a u t e s v a r ie s
fro® 200 to 420 m in u tes p e r w eek, th e so st-e e o sw a b e in g 300 m in u te s.
0.
The o th e r c o u rs e s whieh a r e sometimes re q u ire d a r e p h y s ic a l
and n a tu r a l s o la n c e , advaneed p h y s ic a l so ien o e and p h y sio lo g y .
Tho
form er i s re q u ire d in o n ly two s c h o o ls , and th e l a t t e r l a se v e n te e n .
The
e o n te n t o f p h y sio lo g y o o u rse s i s u s u a lly g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e , and la r g e ly
based upon a te x tb o o k .
l e v e l a s a t a n o th e r .
The oourae i s found j u s t a s o f te n a t one g rad e
T h is c o u rs e h a s been l a r g e l y re p la c e d by b io lo g y
and g e n e ra l s o ie n o e ,
s . footioh umm ms
and t b s
coax coaaicraxni
(a) Latin
T h irte e n p e r c e n t ( o r 43) o f th e c o o p e ra tin g so h o o is r e q u ir e
a l l p u p ils to ta k e a c o u rse i n l a t i n .
devoted t o grammar aad t r a n s l a t i o n .
Such c o u rse s a r e alm o st e n t i r e l y
I n th e m a jo rity o f th e sc h o o ls
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
w
whara L atin is raquirsd, i t is a t tha ninth-grada laval* Howavar,
th is a a jo rity is a lig h t, aa 46 par e a st of tha sohoois whioh raquira
tha study o ffar i t in tha tanth grads*
I t is oustonary in Babraska to davota 200 minutas par waak to
L atinj 66 par oant of thosa requiring i t follow th is praetios* Om
hundrod par oant of tha sohoois with th is raquirsasnt o ffar i t fiv a
tins* a weak) and in a ll but two mums, i t is a fu il-y aar ooursa* In
tha othar two oasas, ona ssnastar stoats tha rsqulraasnt*
fan now ooursas and six raviaad onas wars raportad* fhasa
nuabsrs would indioata wary l i t t l a dsviation frost tha trad itio n al
prssantation of th is subjaot. fha ooursas ara usually orcsaisod
around th s plan of a textbook, with an oooasional a ffo rt to swat tha
alas or objsotlvss fo r tha individual ooursa*
(b) L atin II
L atin I I is la ss frequently required, as would ba aspeoted*
Thara ara , however, 26 schools in ths sta ta so organised th a t th is
ooursa is oonaon to a ll boys and g irls* Although th is is la ss than
six par want of tha oooperating sohoois, i t is d iffic u lt fo r tha
w ritar to b ailo rs th at thara ara twenty-six ooamunitiss so homogeneous
th a t aeeiyoae could p ro fit by suoh an axparlanoa*
Translation eesupies tha n ajer portion of tha tin s devoted to
th la ooursa* I t is found in grads tan in approxiaately 77 par oant
of tha sohoois* As in tha aasa of nost aoadaaio subjects, 200 ninutas
ara davotad to i t aaoh waak* In every sohool thass olassas naat fiv a
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
100
tim e during th* week, and in *11 except th ree, advanced L atin i* a
fu ll-y ear court*• S light changes have b**n made in th* courses, only
six school* reported new oour*** and on* statin g th a t th o ir ooura*
had been revised during th* past fiv e years, Th* textbook is th*
basis of nearly every oours* of th is kind.
(e) Other Foreign Languages
Spanish, French, Pennon, and Cseoh are so scldoa required of a l l
pupils th a t th e ir consideration nay eoonoaioally be dlsoussed collective*
ly . Spanish is required of a ll pupils in three sehoolsi on* sohool
requires *11 to take Frenchi two sohoois require a ll to take Penan}
and one requires Cseeh or L atin of everyone a t son* time during th*
four years of high sohool.
I t appears th a t there is l i t t l e agreeaent in regard to the grade
level m a t suited to th* teaching of these Modern languages* There is
a great degree of uniform ity, however, in th* length of ten s, minutes
and periods per week, and th* use of the textbook*
In every oase,
a fu ll year is needed to sa tisfy th is requirement.
In most eases, th*
200 nirm tes are divided between fiv e periods. Again ths textbook
doainates th* teaohing.
F* THE COMMERCIAL ARTS IS THE CORS CURRICULUM
(a) Junior Business Training
The »ost widely required subjeot in the ooiwaeroial a rts group
is junior business train in g . TMenbgr*six per oent of th* 470 oooperating
schools sake th is oours* a ooMnon experience to a ll pupils enrolled.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
101
Th* emphasis varies fron ©oasaunity to oossaunity as I s shown la Table
XXXV*
tm& xmr
HATUBS OF CQSTSHT IB JUHIOR BUSIH18S THAIBIBO COURSES
Subject le tte r Assbasised
Ittif IM
llM
lO
Study of personal and business transactions
Cossssrsial
C lerical vocation
General
Means of transporting s a il and oosBsunloation
Business prinoipl*
Bookkeeping, economics, general
Bookkeeping and business methods
Work books
Elementary
Arithmetic
Problems
Vocations
Casmunioation, buying and sellin g
latroduetlon to business
Fundamentals of Business
5
2
1
9
1
14
4
8
1
2
1
1
1
1
8
1
In a ll but fiv e sohoois which require Junior buainass training*
i t is offered a t ths ninth or tenth-grade le v el, th s former being se ct
frequent by a ra tio of two to one. forty-minute periods are scheduled
la 6i per oent of th* oases where I t Is required*
Th* rang* fo r ths
others is from 105 to 900 minutes per week* Fifty-on* par swat of th*
sohoois require th* oours* fo r a fu ll year, and in a ll others i t is a
semester experience* Junior business training is a near oours* in about
one-third of th* sohoois ifcloh reported, and has been revised in twenty*
one of the others*
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
108
T able U X TI below r e v e a ls th e e f f o r t to m o tiv a te th e Course to
oaro f o r th e in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s in p u p ils end l o c a l i t i e s *
The
n a tu re o f t h i s s u b je c t males e i t p o e sib l# fo r te a c h e rs to u t i l i s e
methods n o t ocnwonly employed i n o th e r s u b je e te .
A tte n tio n i s
d ir e c te d to th e com parative fre q u e n c y o f m ention made o f p la n s number
e ig h t and t e n .
A lthough th e te x tb o o k p la n i s m entioned more o f te n
th a n any s in g le p la n , s e v e ra l co m b in atio n s o f p la n e w hich would o u t­
number th e te x tb o o k -p la n n e d c o u rs e s can e a s i l y b« c o n ce iv e d .
TABLE ZXXTZ
PUNS OF 0BOASI2ATI0B
USED IK TEACHINGS' JTINiOH BOSINKSO TRAINING
"
.
Plans of Organisation
. “ 'I" '
TlnosMaatlonsd
1. Prim arily organised around u n its of work. ( If
th is plan is indicated as being used in a particu­
la r oouree, some other plan should also be indi­
cated which w ill reveal the focus of the u n its,
such as ch ild ren 's In te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or others.)
81
8 . Primarily organised around areas or aspects of the
social or natural environment (weather, phase of
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto ry ,
or phase of economic lif e .)
6
3. Prim arily organised around pupil experiences, in te rs e ts , purposes, or needs.
85
4. Prim arily organised around centers of In terest or
phases of the group
culture w ithin which the stu­
dents' in te re sts are centered, such as "community
life " or "our changing in d u strial c iv ilisa tio n ."
(This plan combines 8 and 3 above.)
S
5. Prim arily organised around a statement of aims or
objectives of the educational program of the school.
3
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
105
TABLE XXXVI (continued)
HJUBS OF OHGAfflZATIOH
USED IH TEACHIHG JUHIOE BUSISESS TRAIHIJTO
: !i,"°llrI;!|L~Tg
¥lw * of O raanisailoa
'
TT
6 * Prim arily
organised around * statement of aims or
objectives fo r tho individual oours**
7
7* Prim arily organised around oentrel themesor generalisueh i t *Jhi Xnterdependeoe* Theme**
5
8 * P rlaarily
organised around social function* sfeich are
season to aoot oooiotioo ouoh on (l)th o protection of
propa
lif e oad proparty,
(2 )tho production of goods and services, (5) transportation and communication, *te«
10
9* P rlaarily organisod around tho usual subjeot a a tto r or
eontont of ooursos by th is tit lo or with modifications
made by th* looal staff*
8
10* P rlaarily organisod around problsas of present-day lifo *
16
11* Primarily organisod around tho plan of a textbook*
54
12* Prim arily organisod around th* cardinal prinoiplos of
education*
8
(b) Typewriting
In nearly 16 por oent of the 470 Nebraska high sohoois which
oooporated in th is study, a ll pupils take a t le a s t one year of typo*
writing* Sixty-eight per eont of th* required oourses ate taken in
the eleventh, and thirty-one per oent in th* tw elfth , leaving five
sohoois whioh require typing in th* ninth or tenth grades* These
oourses d iffe r only slig h tly in th e ir eontont, but greatly in the time
devoted to them—th* range being from 200 minutes per week to 600
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ld«
aimfces* the d istrib u tio n Is bi-eadsl s t 800 sad 400 minutes. Seventyeight par osnt of the olsssss meet f ir s periods per wsekf s few a s s t
seven periods per weekj snd 18 per osnt n sst ton periods eaoh seek*
More than 88 psr osnt of ths oourses are for ths en tire sohool poor*
Between 18 snd 18 per osnt of ths oourses are new during the past
fire pears, and another ten psr sent hare boon revised* Table JOLXVXX
shoes tho plans of organisation followed in those oourses*
I t is
in terestin g to note th a t sees a oourss #iioh emphasises the develop*
neat of a s k ill sueh as typewriting is dependent upon the use of the
textbook for i ts plan of organisation.
TABLE m m
FUSS OF GBQAK1UII0H
USED IS TSACH1XG M0XSXXS0 TIFEWBITIKO
I* P rlaarily organised around u n its of work* (If
th is plan is indicated as being used in a particu­
la r oourss, sows other plan should also be indi­
cated whioh w ill reveal the focus of the u n its,
sueh as ch ild ren 's in te re sts, or areas of experi­
ence, or others*)
7
8 * P rlaarily organised around areas or aspects of the
0
3* P rlaarily organised around pupil experienees, la te re s ts , purposes, or needs*
8
6 * P rlaarily organised around a statement of aims or
1
8 * P rlaarily organised around a statement of alas or
6
soeial or natural envlronawnt (weather, phase of
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto ry ,
or phase of eoonoado life* )
objectives of the educational pragm a of ths school*
objectives fo r the individual course*
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
10*
TABLE X X m i (oontinued)
rum OF 0R0ASI2ATIG*
osbd IX m c H ix a Bsoisusa ttp k w ix tix o
9* Prim arily organised around tie usual subject a t l t i r or
content o f oourses by th is t i t l e or w ith m odifications
wade by tho loeal s ta f f *
10* F rim rily
organised *round problem* of present-day lif e .
11 * P riaarlly
orgwaisedoround tho plan of e textbook*
IS* P riaarlly organised around the cardinal principles of
education.
S
2
28
t
(t) Advanced typewriting
So le t* then four per oent of the cooperating high sohoole re­
quire tho second year of typew riting of e ll pupile* The course in
theee 19 schools ie devoted to speed end d r ill in the w riting of
earners ia l documents, Three hundred or more minutes ere usuelly
devoted to th is course, with ooae sohoois requiring es many as 400,
while others require es few es 800 sdnutes eaoh week, Bighty-four
per oent of the oourses ere offered in the tw elfth grade fo r a fu ll
year* The textbook, es in the ease of beginning typew riting, is used
p rla a rily as a b asis of organisation* F ifty per oent of th* oours**
in advanced typewriting are organised around th is plan*
(d) Bookkeeping
Various nethods and content oharaeterise th* bookkeeping oourses
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
vhleh eo astitu t* a p art of th* oore eurriouiueui of approxiaately ban
por eeat o f
oooperating n M I i«
Elementary sots and business
f o n t reoeive tb# | m t « t Attention* The subjeot Is taught 4u*t a*
fw ju en tly in on* grade a* in another* Tfe® tie® denoted to it*
itta^r varies from ITS minutes por week to 400* 7b* two most ea n e a
to ta ls at* 290 sad $30 minutes—-the** being equally frequent end a#*
eouating fo r SI per oent of *U eases* Likewise* the flo e period*
nor week w m il*
In About two*thinds of the schools whioh require th le expert*
one* o f a ll pupils* one seeoster e a tlsfie a tho requireaent* S light
changes are being made in th le pbaae of the oore eurrleulun*! only
Id per oent of the ooureee reported Are e ith e r aeer or revised during
the paet fiv e years* Son* attesapt baa been made to o rg a n is e these
ooureee around pupil eaperienees* interests* purposes* or needs*
but the groateet single eontributer 1* s t i l l tin textbook*
(e) Other Oosneroial Arte
&* eth er ooweeroiAl art* vhioh are deemed worthy of th* tin *
o f a l l boy* and g irls la eoae high schools include oam eroial leer la
two and one-half per oent o f th* cooperating sofcoolei ehorthaad la
nearly tee per oent of the sehe& sf and ealeawBSShip la lees than one*
h a lf of on* per M at o f th* 470 oeeperatlag sohoois*
Shorthand is tho only ease o f these subjects repaired fo r a f u ll
year* A ll three are generally required la grade* eleven o r twelve*
Two hundred aiuutes per week is the aoet m om s amount of bias apeat#
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
The anall nuaber of aohoola requiring these ooursoa enables ue to pass
over a e ritlo a l analysis of how they ara conducted* Thay serve only
to illu s tra te fu rth er tha look of agreement on the question, "tihot
shoUld ha tha common experiences of a ll boya and g irl a in Nebraska?”
StBfiftST
1* The moat widely required subject In the ooasteroial a rts
group ta junior business training*
Twenty-six par oant of tha 470
cooperating aohoola wake th la oouraa ooanon to a ll students* Thla la
a mm oouraa during tha paat fiv e yaara In one-third o f tha Mhaola
which require It*
Tha wnphasis la on general bualnaaa principles*
2 * In aohoola which raqulra typew riting, sixty-eight par cent
of tha oouraaa ara taught In tha eleventh grada* Tha noat eonson
amount of time davotad to typewriting a t th la level is ju st aa fre ­
quently found to ba 900 minutes aa 400 minutes par week*
S« Four par oant of the cooperating schools raqulra tha second
yaar of a ll pupils* Ilk a In tha oaaa of beginning typewriting* ad*
vanoed typewriting la organised around a textbook la f if ty per oent
of tha Mhaola or wore*
4* Bookkeeping la taught ju s t as frequently a t on® grade level*
in the high oohool* aa a t another.
Tha time devoted to the teaehing
of bookkeeping is ju s t as often 100 minutes aa 800 minutes por week*
These amounts aooount fo r Si par oant of a ll the aohoola reporting I t
aa a requirement* one semester s a tis fie s the requirement in tw o-thirds
o f tha eehools*
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
Mo other ocmsaeroial a rts subject is required of a ll pupils In
as secy as three par osnt of tbs cooperating schools*
0 . ORIIWTATI0S AJID VOGAflOBS III TBS COSE COSMCOLUK
Eight per osnt of ths ooopsrating sp o o ls require a oourss oiU *
ed vocations for graduation* Th* content of these oourses is very
sim ilar to th a t of oourses oalled o rien tatio n , guidance, occupations,
9 to ,
lin e per osnt of these sohoois offer oourses called orientation
and guidance. Because of the sim ilarity of these oourses, they vAH
he considered collectively*
The orien tation and guidance courses oontain auoh about vee*»
lio n s, the histo ry and purpose of education, o ititen sh ip and oooupatio a s, vocational guidance and o itissn sh lp , etiq u ette and hew to stn fy ,
occupation* and vocational civice*
The courses in vocations emphasis*
guidance and oooup ationa*
Eighty-eight per cent of the orientation courses reported are
offered in the ninth grade, sad none above the ten th . Sixty-two per
cant of the vocations oourses are found a t the ninth-grade level—th s
remaining courses being offered in grades te n , eleven, and twelve, the
nunber decreasing as the grades increase* There is considerable
difference in the number of niaotee devoted to these subjects per week*
The range is from 90 to 200 minutes, with 200 minutes aoet season*
This tin e is nearly always divided into fiv e periods per week* The
vocations course is eighteen weeks in length 70 per cent of the tin s ,
and the o rientation courses a rt yearly in M per cant of the oases
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
103
reported.*
Both oourses or* store often new than reviled—the ra tio being
•bout tee to one in each oase* More uniformity ex ists in tee plans
of organisation in the orientation oourses than in tee ease of tee
vooation&l oourses*
This w ill be seen by observing Tables XXXVII1 and
m ix *
iabls
m ra i
PUSS OF ORGdHIZAXIOH
m m ik mcHiKG oeiebiatiok
'- ■'I- f ' i ^ - W t - f - r r
■■L 1 ■ • 1
~ ^
^
1^
^ * » a l*
l l t e j n lf fln H A
1* Prim arily organised around unite of work* ( If
th is plan is indicated as being used in a particu­
la r course* sons other plan should also be iadi*
sated whioh w ill reveal tee foous of the unite*
sueh as ehildren’ s In te re sts, or areas of saperi*
enoe, or others*)
t
2* Prim arily organised around areas or aspeote of te e
soeial or natural environment (weather, phase of
holiness* a social in stitu tio n * epoch in history*
or phase of economic life*}
1
S* Prim arily organised around pupil experiences, in ter*
site* purposes* or needs*
8
4* Prim arily organised around centers of in te re st or
phases of tee group culture w ithin whioh the stu ­
dents * in te re sts are centered* such as "oonsunity
life * or "our changing in d u strial c iv ilis a tio n .”
(Tills plan oomblnee & and $ above*}
4
b* P riaarlly organised around a statement of aims or
objectives of tee educational program of tee sohool*
1
8* Prim arily organised around a statement of aims o r
objectives fo r tho individual oourae*
1
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
TABUS XXXVIII (continued)
PLAMOf 0E0AKI2ATI0H
used i s
nyh::ix lmji.:. 'i
m m sQ
g ru sh k o *
p la n s p i O r g a n is a tio n
‘
' 1' 1 ¥ W s K S
7* P riaw ily organised around oentral thoaes or general!*
aatiens suah as "The Interdependence thane”.
1
8« P rin w ily organised wound social functions uhloh wo
eesnea to most sooletles «uoh es (l)th o proteotioa o f
lif e wad property, (8)ths production of good* and •«—
y iw i, (8) transportation tad ocwnunloation, e to .
£
8* Prim arily organised wound tho usual subjeot m atter or
content of courses by th is t i t l e or with m odifications
and# by tho looal s ta ff .
2
10* P riaarlly organised
around problem* of preaent-day l i f e .
4
IX. P riaarlly organised
around tho plan of a textbook.
4
*t»*w.ie rrm r
rumOf
0R0AHIZATI0B
USED IB mCEXES VOCATIONS
i*-!?!:->114--ii
^ioa<oi»*oo— owio—w—
i—m
“ ’lr'
‘ '''" '" f e w S S S S
X* Prim arily
organised around unite of eojrfc* (If
th is plan i s iadioatod aa being used in a partlouXar oourae. son* other plan should also be in d ieated whioh w ill reveal the fooua of the u n its,
sueh as eh ild ren 's in te re sts, or areas of experi*
anse. or o thers.)
6
I . P riaarlly
organised wound areas or aspeots of the
sooial or natural en-rironaent (weather, phase of
business, a sooial in stitu tio n , epooh in h isto ry ,
or phase of eooaoaio lif e .)
4
3* P rlaw lly
organised around pupil experiences, in ter*
e s ts , purposes, or needs.
9
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
XU
2ASU2 UXDL (continued)
fUUSS or OKOmmiGH
USED IK mCiilHG VOCATIONS
Plana o£ brW nlsatlon '" " ......'
" ' fines femtloaed
4« Fri»nriXy organised around oeuters of in te re st or
phases of th® groupculture w ithin whioh
eiudeBte* in te re sts are centered, sueh aa "ooMsuaity
life * o r "our ©hanging in d u strial civ ilisatio n # "
(iM a plan co*abin*s £ and 5 of th la tabl*#}
4
&• Prim arily organisod around a statement of aims or
ebjeetlves of tho oduontioaal program of the sohool*
2
4* Prim arily organised around a statement of aims or
ebjeetiwes fo r tho individual oourae*
$
6* P ria arlly organisod around eeelai functions whioh are
oonaoa to nost soolottos sueh aa (X)tho protootion of
lif e and property, (2)tho production of goods and s«r»
vioee, (S)traneportation and oomunioation, etc#
4
2* Prim arily organisod around the usual subject n a tte r or
oontont of ooursas by th is t i t l e or with modification#
node by the looal s ta ff .
S
10* Prim arily organised around problems of present-day life *
4
11* P rla arily organised around the plan of a textbook*
4
12* P riaarlly organised around tho eardinal principles of
education*
1
fkfct.K XL
m m sx of
COihi CUmCULUh 15 K£dkAh£A HI0H SCJtibaLS
su&jboxs
English I
English II
"^ '"lualwr 'oSf;t L| :""l!ir M
1 ppy
Sohoola Requiring Cooperating S obers
440
404
93.6
86*9
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
XU
IABLE XL (continued)
SiaOttKT0?
OOBS CURRICIILUM W MBSASKA HIGH SCHOOLS
JJwabor of
3F«r oant «f
Sohool* Soauirina Coopaiutltt* 84
* m js m
BngUch XXX
Ooanviwf
History
Gtiduval fHrtiMfH1#
Blolfiffy
Bn&Li*h 17
Civ ies
mgrfli.ot
iA
fjkoa
«BRam
HV^V JiSatM
PWWM
Mm
iM
M* *T
X ftpwrttlag I
0*noral Hath
A nttietn nniTini—nl
TIiiniMiiiriflt
L atin X
In d u strial Apt*
wotId
5
$stis
StwiAlwgy
O rientation
Beyii* ftayalonl Hdueatien
ConamliQr Civie«
M M H&NVy
o
f ify sie a l
BdiMatlon
SoiewM
Alg*bra XX
L atin XX
fflpswyltlag XX
fttmiBHWV1Goods
Uanoattios
GOHMMOtoX L*r
JnMrlooB O ittiM diijp
<8?
388
SOT
885
874
m
m
m
m
m
78.8
74*90
33*90
31*00
38*00
38*00
51*4
AM..an
33*74
88*09
17*00
16*00
15*1
14*9
18*8
13*41
18*97
10*90
9*00
8*00
n
7S
n
70
38
m
61
47
44
40
40
40
40
37
38
33
38
89
8*00
88
83
83
83
19
17
17
14
U
18
U
10
,
8*00
8*00
7*87
7*4*
8*8
8*8
3*09
5*98
8*88
6*83
5*38
4*00
8*31
5*31
8*94
8*88
8*56
8*8
8*1
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
118
TABLE XL (ooKtinuwi)
smauiBT o?
COBS CtHffilCULtM IB BSBRA8SA HI® SCHOOLS
80MBCT8
tfoffUptMfmA
Jourmlim
r>waior»n/
Bonad Training
ButinMS KagUab
Sm i l l F n tlM
Sah«ol« aw w lrlai CMMMtln* SahooX*
9
t
T
8
4
8
g.00
1*49
1*49
1*88
*88
*88
8 p « n i« h
8
*«8
CitlMiwhip
P o litlo al 8ol*no*
IfcgrsSMl Solm m
Canaan
SftlMNMMfoip
I& M nuitioaa Relation*
Frmtk
Ethias iad A rt
Saftrty
8
8
8
8
8
1
1
1
1
*48
*48
*48
*48
*48
*81
*81
*81
*81
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
OTHBt fS&SBS OF TBK HXB&A3KA BXOH SCBDOL OOBX CURHXOOXJOl
Baay tq ir lM M i, o tte r tte a tte aoadamie eourms dieeuased
ia Oteptar I I I , i n v ita l part* of tte oore curricula* la m ay te to o ls.
Such eourses aa In d u strial a r t a, tens eooaomiea, ag ricu ltu re, oonauaer
•te d s, au sle, physical education, and safaty ara aaalysad below, An­
other pteaa of tte oore eurrieulu* praaaatad la tte following pagas
includes tte aoa-eeadteie featu res, e .g ., assembly parioda, extra­
cu rricu lar a o tir itia s , length of tte aoteol day, aad guidance.
amtx-yocuTiom ahq
tot goes curricuiim
(a) In d u strial Arts
Thirteen par sent of tte seteols cooperating la th is study
require beginning manual train in g of a l l tte boys. Tte aontaat of
tte sa courses is usually woodwork, oars of to o ls, washanloal drawing,
tens mechanise, a lo o trio lty , and n atal work. Tte m ajority of tte soteols
o ffer only elementary woodwork. seventy-nlna par te a t of tte required
ooarsss ara a t tte a ia tte fn d o le v e l.
fifty-on# par oaat of tte soteols require 300 miaatos par wsak
la aaaaal train in g a la ste s, aad 80 par oaat of than meet fiv e parioda
per waak. nearly a l l seteo ls require a f a ll year o f manual train in g ,
A wtelasoaa sosditloa seems to ex ist la th at mors than h alf of tte
eosreas ara a itte r aew or revised daring tte post fiv e years. This
type of aeteol experience is usually organised around u n its of work
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
based prinarily on pupil M p r k w n , interests* purpoMS* or aseds#
The advanced course d iffers lit t le D m the beginning course*
exoept in enphasis aad grade level* Woodoarving, eeohanioal dreeing*
woodwork* and eachins work characterise th is ooutm# I t io usually
offered a t the tenth-grade lev el fo r a fu ll yaar# An attempt to nade
to plan th* ooutm to oaro for tho Individual difforonooa of thoM in
tho c la ss,
fit)
Bana
^ a # M aB
i a pitin
a p 4 n a won iiu
a o a a a!
^ m
o b m
w
w
a a n a a v o
Approxim te ly 17 par oaat of tho 470 cooperating oohoola require
hone oeoaoaios o f a ll the girls*
Them
ooutm i
are larg ely cooking aad
•owing ooureee, Sons of the other a c tiv itie s whioh reso lve caqphasia
are hoae staking* everyday liv in g , hone naaagenent* ate*
There io very l i t t l e unlfom ity la the enount of tin e spent la
th is phaM of the oore currlouluM* the rang*
minutes per week io
fro* 200 to BOO adnstes* T hirty-six of 79 sohoole neat flu e tin ea a
week fo r an average of 60 aiautos per day.
In nearly a ll oases th is
oourse is a fu ll-y ear experience* Perhaps the o ffse t of oentrallsed
planning is revealed by the fa e t th a t 48 per sent of the
ooutm s
are
wither new or revised during tho past fiv e years* Tatlo JLZ shows
the plans of organisation fo r theM
o o u tm s.
I t should he noted plans
one aad threw co nstitu te 90«2 per sent of the plans of organisation
described*
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116
fAKt.E XLI
FUm OF ORGANIZATION
USED nr TEACHING 10KB BCOBOMICS
........................................................'
1....
" ~iim» vmbivpaA
1« Prim arily organised around u n its of work* ( If
th is plan is indicated u being used la a partioula r course* some other plan should also bo indi­
cated Chioh w ill reweal tho fooua of tho units*
•uoh as children*s intoroots* or aroaa of experi­
ence* or oth ers.)
SO
2 . Prim arily organised around aroaa or aapooto of tho
aooial or natural environment (weather* phase of
business* a aooial Institu tio n* epoch in history*
or phase of eeenomlo lif e ) .
4
3* Prim arily organised around pupil experiences* in te roats* purposes* o r needs*
87
4* Prim arily organised around seniors of in te re st or
phases of the group su ito rs w ithin tfaioh the stu­
d en ts' in te re sts are oentered* sueh as "oowsunity
life * or "our changing in d u strial c iv ilis a tio n ."
(th is plan oombines 2 and 3 above*)
6
S* Prim arily organised around a statement of aims or
objectives of the eduoatlonal program of the school*
I
6* Prim arily organised around a statement of aims or
objectless fo r tbe individual course*
1
G* Prim arily organised around aooial funotions which are
oossnon to most so cieties suoh as (l)th e proteotion of
lif e aad property* (8)the production of goods sad a#r*
wises* (S) transportation and communication* etso*
1
9* Prim arily organised around the usual aubjeot m atter or
content of oonrses by th is t i t l e o r modification* made
by the looal s ta ff .
4
ID* Prim arily
organised around
problems of present-day l i f e . 6
11* Prim arily
organised around
the plan of a textbook*
IX* Prim arily organised around
education.
4
the oardinal principles of X
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
Only te a sohool# reported the second |« i r of home •oonomlot as
a port of th o ir ooro ourrimiluB** The sane description* were made
of those e w m a os of the beginning oouraesi thus tho w riter is led
to believe thot the new expear ieaoes odd l i t t l e variety to those of
the elementary course* Every sohool reporting the second yeor os o
requirement* offer® SOO minutes per week fo r th irty » six weeks. See
Table XL! fo r plons o f organisation fo r eleoeatosy end odvoneed courses,
os there oppeors to be very l i t t l e difference*
(e) A griculture
She eustom pertoining to the teeehing of ag riculture in Kebraska
is of unusual interest*
Hegulor slosses in ag ricu ltu re, suoh os those
given fo r normal trainin g pupils* os well os voootionol agriculture am
found* however, in le ss then 10 per eent of the sshools is th is subject
eoasidered o port of the oore oarrieuluau
The differene* In the
devoted to agriculture is not ea sily understood*
and the time
In one sohool,
agrioultur* is taught for 100 minutes per weeki while in another, i t
is taught fo r 876 minutes* Four sohools indicated th a t ogrloultuxw
took 390 ainutes of the school week* and four other reported th o t 000
minutes were utilised*
Here sohodls require agriculture a t the ninth-grade level than
a t any other* The seoondNaost frequent grade level in whioh i t is re*
quired is grade ten* I t is usually taught for five periods per meek
when i t is a p art of the oore ourrioulum* There were two schools*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
us
aoteng the 44, which required fifte e n periods per week) seven which re­
quired ten j one whioh required seven) one whioh required three) aad St
whioh required f ir e .
She number of schools requiring * semester end those requiring
e year ere about evenly divided. There were eight sohools whioh re*
ported new eouraee end four whioh reported revisions. Table XLII
shoes the plan of organisation fo r agriculture oourses. Zt is evident
th a t th is subject is e a sily ada pt ed to the in te re sts o f the individual
pupil. I t I s , therefore, not surprising th a t plan nusfcer three was
most frequently mentioned* The p a rt th a t the textbook plays should
be noted* Hie evidence presented here, as w ell as throw -out th is
study, serves to strengthen the assertio n th a t America is a textbook
nation.
VApLg X L II
PU.3S OF OROAHIZATIOH
USED IS mC&XHO aoricultueb
*lil111111^ ^
iA sS T o y jS r^
1* Prim arily
organised around u n its of work. ( I f
th is plan is indicated as being used in a particu­
la r course, some other plan should also be indi­
cated whioh w ill reveal the foous of the u n its,
such as children*s in te re sts, o r areas of experi­
ence, or others.)
8
8* Prim arily
organised around areas or aspects of the
social o r natural environment (weather, phase of
business, a social in stitu tio n , epoch in h isto iy ,
or phase of economic life )*
Z
8* Prim arily
organised around pupil
e a ts, purposes, or needs*
experiences, inter* 18
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
table x l ii
fu m
(oont!au»d)
O F O a O A S IZ A IIO E
used m m caiB o aqsicoltore
W7f t f 1-1
1] 1-LJ^+'L'JL
4* Prim arily organised around centers of in te re st o r
phases of tho group culturo w ithin whioh tho stu­
dents* in te re sts or* centered* suefa as "eoBssuuihy
life * or "our ohanglng in d u strial c iv ilisa tio n * .
(th is plan combines 2 aad 8 of th is table*}
8
S* Prim arily organised around a statement of alas or
objectives of the edueatioaal program of the sohool*
4
8* Prim arily organised around a statement of aims o r
objectives fo r tho individual course*
1
8* Prim arily organised around aooial fonotions shioh are
common to moat aooiotioa suoh as (l)th e protootion of
lif o and property* (2) the production of goods and se r­
vices* (^ tra n sp o rtatio n and eeanuiiieetioa* oto*
8
2* Prim arily organised around the usual subject n a tte r or
content of oouraes by th is t i t l e or m odifications made
by the loeal s ta f f .
4
19* Prim arily
organized around
problems of present-day li f e . 8
11* Prim arily
organised around
the plan of a textbook.
8
the oardlnai principles of
8
12* Prim arily organised around
education.
(d) Consumer Goods
Consuawr goods is a new eourse during the la s t fiv e years in ten
of the fa ir teen schools now requiring i t of a ll students before graduation* The emphasis in th is course is on how to use and bay goods
wisely* I t is being offered as a semester eourse in nearly every in*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
120
Itliw it
I ts newness nay account fo r the laok of u aifo raity la grad*
gl aoorasnt* To date i t Is found about as often in on* grade a t in
another* Thara is a a lig h t tendency fo r i t to be offered more frs*
qaeatly in the la s t two years than during the f i r s t two years*
Five sohools reported 200 minutes par wsek and six reported
devoting 200 slan ts* to th is subject*
In p ractica lly every school
lis tin g consumer goods as a regainm ent, i t is lis te d as a semester
eosparieno*.
She plan of organisation takes a d iffe re n t direction fre e th a t
o f aaay eoursea previously dlaoasscd* I t should be noted th a t th is
eourse is organised prim arily around social functions whioh ara cowman
to nest seo ieties aad around prabless a t praeeab-day life*
(*} Huai*
The required oouraaa i s aueie ara vastly d iffe re n t from eeanunlty
to oomauaity* Less than eight per se a t (85 sohools} of the oooperating
sehse&e te s tifie d ih a t a ll hoys and g in * were required to have regular
training in sons fora of sarnie* However, there is a laok of uniforaitgr
in the nature of the required experiences in th is phase of seheel life *
Hare sehoola require p articip atio n in chorus work than those whlsh re­
quire participation in say other sntsie a c tiv ity , hut the number re*
quiring chorus la so sn ail th a t i t is almost aegLlglhle* The tsadsaoy
is to require music in the ninth grade, rath er than in the three upper
grades* The number of minutes per week varies from fo rty to 800, with
taost sohools sohedulisg i t fo r 89, UK), o r 800 minutes* Frequently*
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
music classes jaeet twice & week, but aom schedules o all fo r fiv e , e a t,
three or few meetings per week. Meat sohools which require music o f
o il pupil# do so fo r cm en tire year ra th e r than fo r a single semester*
An e ffo rt apparently ha# been Bade fcy those person# responsible fo r
th is p ert of tho educational planning, to sake the nusio oowse# f i t
the needs and in te re sts of the pupils* Tabulations of th is survey
shoe th a t the ausio department* are constantly revising the courses
to remain abreast with current practises*
(f) Bonsai Training
Some oonum ltles are so anxious to acquire additional revenue
th a t they are w illing to subject a l l of th e ir secondary sohool boys
and g irls to the requirements of the oonaal train in g course* Bo le ss
than five schools, reported th is practice* One of the fiv e requires
two years of nortaal train in g work of everyone. Another school requires
a year of reviews! and another sxpeot# everyone to have a semester o f
rw » l sociology* la two of the high schools, every student must talas
pedagogy, even though he does not intend to beooae a teacher*
Hm
other sohools are requiring professional trainin g of a ll boys and g irls*
(s) Safety
One of the cooperating sohools reported a class in safety educa­
tio n which was eighteen weeks in length aad required of evetyems*
There i s l i t t l e doubt but what a ll sohools are doing something about
the teaching of safety to e ll pupils* This pines of school work nay
be In conjunction with other classes, such as hoe* safety in the boas
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1£2
eoonomice classes, stre e t tra ffic la the social science classes, eto .
(h) Physical Xdueation
Physical education is required of a l l boys la only eight per
seat of the cooperating high schools. Where i t is a part of the health
program, the content or the courses Is strik in g ly sim ilar. Oases,
calisth en ics, hygiene, and a th le tic s receive major emphasis. Boys'
physical education is usually a part of the oore ourriculun in the
f i r s t two grades of the high school where i t is required, hut in
eighteen of the forty-two schools reporting i t as a common experience,
no grade was spoolfled.
A gross lack of uniform ity e x ists la the number of alnutes per
week spent in th is a c tiv ity . The range in minutes is fro* 80 to 300.
The node is one hundred twenty. Some sehoole require one period per
week, aad others require fiv e—the most eosnion practice being two,
with nearly f if ty per cent finding i t advantageous to follow th is
p ractice.
One year of physical education is usually required, i f
any. I t is in terestin g to note th at In one instance, a eeaester seaas
to f u lf i ll the need, whereas in fiv e
su m s
i t takes two years; and la
th irty -fo u r schools two semesters meets the requirements. The lack of
uniformity exhibited In the granting of cred it toward graduation indi­
cates a need fo r some constructive recommendations which might lead
those who finance the public schools to believe that th e ir fa ith in
the judgment of schoolmen is w ell founded.
The number of new courses during the past five years might be
interpreted to mean th at there is a tendency toward resto ratio n of
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us
jfeysieal edueatioa* L ittle ohange has taken plaee la the types o f
enperlsaoes enjoyed by the boy* la thee* oI u m * due to a revision of
the courses. The courses are prim arily organised around pupil soperi*
eases* interests* purposes, o r needs*
la only one sohool share
physical education le a requirement was i t reported th a t m ilitary
d r ill mould be substituted*
la th is ease the elass meets three periods
per reek fo r a to ta l of 180 minutes* la too other oases shore physical
edueetioa Is a requirement, a th le tlo s of an inter-eohelastie astu te
may be substituted*
The statu s of physloal edueatioa fo r g irls is a t a loner ebb
than la the ease of the boys* Most sefceols la Msbraeka have neither
organised physloal edueatloa fo r g irls nor girls* a th le tlo s, mod only
twenty-nine of the 470 cooperating sohools require th is eKperleaee of
a ll g irls*
As la the ease of the boys* physloal eduoatlon fo r g irls is re*
quired la the ninth or tenth grades* but in eleven eases I t may be
taken a t any grade level* In too sohools i t is required fo r only a
semester* while in two others the requirement is two years* A ll s*&»r
sohools require one year* She amount of time spent p er week and th e
d istrib u tio n o f th is time is very sim ilar to th a t required of tb s beys*
Usually- the olasees meet twice saeh week for a to ta l not axeeeding
180 minutes* The range of minutes and olasees per week is 00 to 800*
aad 8 to 8, respectively*
These olasees are planned prim arily around
pupil experiences. Interests* purposes* or needs, as in the ease of
the boys*
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is*
Froa the above surrey i t ota easily be
m ss
th a t very l i t t l e
uaifom ity e x ists la the nature o f physical education end health
experiences which ere oaeaon to *11 boys end g irls in the Sebraska
secondary schools* This oondition raises the question, "Is physloal
edueatioa as v ita l as seas would have the public believeT"
stashABT
1* th irte e n per oent of the 470 cooperating sohools require
aasual train in g of a ll boys fo r one year*
t* Seventeen per oent require hone economies of a ll girls*
Centralised control nay aoootnt fo r the fa s t th a t 46 per oent o f these
courses are eith er nee or revised during the past fiv e years* I t is
apparent fra a the plans of organisation used in teaching in d u strial
a rts and hone economics th a t an e ffo rt is being made to ears fo r the
Individual differences of the pupils*
&« Less than ten per oent of the high sohools require agriculture
of a ll pupils*
4* Consunsr goods is a new course in ten of the fourteen schools
requiring i t of a ll pupils*
6* Less than eight per cent of the schools require ausie of
everyone*
§* Five schools were found to require e ll pupils to take the
normal train in g course* The reason fo r th is peculiar requirement s e c t
lik e ly can be explained by the subsidy ©ranted to high schools which
o ffer nernal training*
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125
7* Only os* sohool reported a required oourse in safety eduea*
ttiya,
5* Physloal education fo r boy* Is required in only sig h t pw
oeat of the ftebraska sohools« The nvs&ber of sohools requiring i* of
•11 g irls is even loss} only 29 of the 470 cooperating schools asks
sueh sa experience ecoaon to s l l girls*
B* HOH-ACADE&IC BXPSBIKBCE8
Ita y norHwadielo experlenoos «rs included in the eurrioulutt
of tho stodern sohool* Among those th a t o ffse t tho hoys sad g irls
a s s t are the assembly periods* extra-ourriouler a c tiv itie s* group
guidance* physical examinations, the hone room, S&nunisations* sad
the length of the sohool dny*
(a) fisgu&ar Sohool Assembly Periods
Ifce use of outside speakers is the most ooaaon praetiee In the
general assembly period in Kebraska high sohools* Faoulty-plamed
programs are le ss frequent than student«f>lan»ed programs* according to
the testiaony of sohool non* The placing o f respo nsib ility on youth
is a eentiiniatioa of the tread to p em it youth to learn by doing* Like
the a c tiv itie s of the hem room* the assembly programs are often in
the hands of the pupilsi but usually under the supervision of a faculty
eonaittee or a faculty sponsor*
General assssh lies should eontinue to play a aajor p art in the
presentation of ecmaoa experiences to the boys and g irls of the high
sohools* Large xnafeere sen be reached w ithin a short parted of tia e i
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thus, these periods eonserve the tin e of both pupils aad au th o rities
who address thaa, With proper planning, enrichment of tho children*s
experiences through th is nedlua oan beooae increasingly effe c tiv e .
Suoh prograas as tho os dsaling with hsalth, safety, patriotism , guidanoo,
s to ., are especially wall adapted to suoh gatherings. Tho type of
a o tiritie s whleh aro typioally found in tho asseably parioda are l i s t ­
ed below.
TABU Tt.yn
im m o t .T PXBI0B8
J ^ y S fg
Outsido speakers
AaamaecsMate
Progress plannod by students aad faeu lty
Student-planned progress
faculty-planned programs
Others
149
ttl
H4
198
138
166
The tis e devoted to regular sohool asseably periods, whleh are
attended hr a l l regular students, i t as uaaaifora as the use node of
these ocrsods. The following short Illu stra te s the irre g u la rity of
tin e devoted to th is experience.
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m
2ABLS 2LIV
TIKE DSVDTSD ID ASS&3LY HSIOCB
klnuiee 1(Su EnS S S S
Per
Eveaber of Schools
I
.....................
*................
6
I
...................
. . . . . . . . . ...............
17
........................... . . .
86 I . . . . . .........................
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49
*.......
8
1 ........ . . . .
• « ,..• • • • • • ..
86
.........
1 . . . . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .........
18
...
5
10
18
18
80
88
80
88
89
40
48
46
8
88
1
86
1
88
87 ........
@0
1 . . . . . . . ...............
70
3
...........
78
7
80
6
80
14
...........................................................
10
More tfcao 100
(8) E x tracu rricu la r A ctiv ities
So-called extra~ola»» (extra-ourrioular) or student-organis*.
tio n a c tiv itie s have found th e ir say into tho schedule of wore than
h alf (68 per oont) of tho cooperating high oohool® in tho state*
Pupil* la a l l four grades of th# high school arc being given tis e
la the schedules of theee cehoele to p articip ate in a o tiv itie e which
formerly acre looked upon ae being incidental to an education* these
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m
a c tiv itie s Are now oonsidered v ita l to the davelopoaivt of youth*
Sot a ll boys and g irl* ara taking advantage of th e ir op?ortuni»
M at to p articip ate in oluto o r ertra-o u rrieu lar a o tiv itie s .
S hirty
par east of tha aahooia reported th a t a ll of th a ir pupils a t ninth
and tenth grade lev els participated In th is phasa of school expert**
ease* A lo aar percentage (84 par oast) reported p articip atio n by a ll
eleventh and tw elfth grada pupils.
(a) length of Sohool Pay
Sha irida variation in th e length o f tha aohool day in Sibraika
offers an iataraatin g study. The probls® of equalising sduoatlonal
opportunities is apparent hero* A glanoa a t the irre g u la rity in tha
masher of adnutes frcai tha opening o f tha aohool day u n til the dose*
asolosive of tha noon period* is s ta rtlin g . She variation is so groat
th at the w riter is o f the opinion th a t the tin e indieated a t the lower
part o f the tab le refers to tha teeoher*s day rath er than tha pupil*a
day.
TAffiLR XL7
USSOfB OF SCHOOL PAX
i m r o i w ii^r
Snolueive of Sben
8ohoola Beportlng
...
160
* 160
180
..
..............
*.........
810
810
870
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m
TABLE XLY (eontlm»d)
LEHS5S Of SCHOOL LAI
SohooLt Im p o rtin g
BkoI usI t* of Saao
280
SSL
294
800
308
510
315
380
384
388
388
380
338
834
339
340
348
344
848
ie
**«
a
L
388
368
888
360
361
888
888
389
370
871
878
380
388
390
388
400
408
410
480
480
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ISO
TABLE XL7 (continued)
LSSOTS OF SCHOOL MJ
Per
Exclusive of Hoqn
S ob ols .Reporting
i
1
S
1
X
X
X
...............
.....................
. . . . . .............
m
44$
480
............
..............
............
.........
.
-
470
480
(4) O*oup (AtjUnM
Guidance in Ssbraska has taken a variety of fonas* Group guidance
aad individual guidance being attempted with -varying degrees of etateaas*
fflve lack of uniform ity might be interpreted to suggest a need fo r gold*
ansa in ho* to inaugurate aad perpetuate th is phase of education* Moat
©tidanse in Ssbraska high eehoola la incidental, aad ia oarriad on in
conjunction w ith regular aXaas aad extre-currioular a c tiv itie s*
Sight*
earn par aant of the aehooXe p artieip atin g In th la study reported oat
or more d efin ite ways in whioh they ware endeavoring to guide pupils
Into ntklng wise eheleea fo r the future and In iaproviag th e ir person*
a l c h a ra cte ristic s. This phase of edueatioa emphasises the acquiring
of a b e tte r understanding of one*e se lf rath er than the esquiring of
additional inform ation. Seldon do too sahoeXa approach the problem
of goldanoe in exactly tha aaae way* Sean so, the future say not be
as dark aa I t appears, fo r out of these smny approaches should some a
solution to the problem of guidanoe*
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U1
Sow* of tho methods and organisations used to adjust personalitie s auad to guide youth la Nebraska seeondaiy oohoolo are lis te d be­
low#
If*
16*
19*
20*
&*
22*
22*
24*
22*
26*
2f .
Conforonoeo to plan oouroeo
General guidance program* in a ll olaoeoo
Guidance la tho hone rooms
Ninth aad tonth English olaoooo stre ss guidance
4-8 Club work
Regular guidanoe olaoooo
O rientation oouroeo
Student Connell helps In the planning
Aooowbly programs
Guidance programo in eltfe meetings
Principals conduct group meetings
Personal interview*
Supervised play
Uee of vocational guidanoe workbooks
S xtra-ourrleular a o tlrltle a
Cat of aohool poper
Claoo meetings
vocation* and eeoupetloaa olaooe*
Spoolal counselors
A necdotal
*^ww* vaoorda
• mammae* wmew
Tooational In te re st Club
Interseholaotie ath letleo
Sohool ooolal functions
I h r if t eanpaign—sofcool bank
D ooartm ental nnnforaTW*
Junior Civlo League
?IT
S
i
!
1*
2*
3*
4*
S.
6.
T.
8*
9*
10*
U*
12*
13*
14*
18*
16*
the tin* allotm ent end grade placement of guidance programs io
•o hetsrogsmeous th at * ohart would look ralu e.
Zt should bo notod
th a t, where sim ilarity exlsto In two or more oohoolo in regard to tho
method of attaok* there lo usually a difference In the tin e allotm ent
or pwde placement* So two oohoolo were found to hare la operation
identical program* fo r th le phaoo of sohool experience, eaceept la the
oaoo o f thoee w ithout an organised guidance program* With oo away
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lit
piem en* e m y w ill be found ehioh w ill leed eeeondary aohool teaeh«
ere end edalnietrator* out of the wilderne** i s ehioh they find thm »
m in e *
She tin * a llo tte d to th ie p art of the eehool program -wuriee
g reatly , ee ie indicated in table XLVX,
TABhB XLVI
nm
DSTOTED SO GROUP GU10ASCE
BttRBSNMT OtT
Minutea Per mode
Stafeer o f Sohoola
S
..............
1?
z
.......... . . . . . . .. . . . . . .
x i .... .......................................
1 .......... . . . .. . . . . . . . ..
a t . . . . . . . . . ......................
i .............................. ..
u
a . . . .. ...................
%
.............. ..................
1 .....................................................
i .. . . . ...................
a ? * ..................................... ..
1(..M .I.M I.M .M M .t.M
1 ........... . .. . . . . . . . .. .
a ..................................
i . . . . . . . . . . . . ................. ............
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5
138
(•) Mleeellsneous Xxperleases
Many other n a tiv itie s aad experiences or* eosnon w ithin iadivldu*
h i sohools, fh* nost oonnon froa sohool to *ohool 1* th * t of wto~
minting to physical examination* Her* than one-half (88 p*r sent) of
the Sebraska high schools oonduot physical ewaainations* th is experi­
ence i* nost oosaaon in grades nine end ten*
Sloven per oent of the eehool* reported isauniaation against
ssallpox as * requirement of o il pupils* le s s frequently nantieneA
were the following experienoeei
TABLE XLVtl
OTHER COMBDB EXPBRIBHCB8
fyj.: i-f 'f-'i ■
■ w 1rT:rggig fr
y n ^ l^ a iN i''1LE7 ' ' 1111' ' ' ' ' :";J fW e M entiong
C iptherla 1inm1 sstiHni a t oost
Tuberoulosis surrey
Physical edueatioa
School paper
Pep club fo r g irls
Pep r a llie s
Music
Special progress
A rt periods
AsnsiiiTily singing
Class organisations
X ittenball and baseball
Visual edueatioa
Psychological assniratlona
School p arties
Ansietioe parade
Clubs
Oane ro w
Basketball fo r boys
d e e club fo r g ir ls
Student a c tiv ity organisation
Health pragma
F ire d r ills
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18
7
7
4
4
8
8
$
8
$
S
3
S
8
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
194
TABLE XLVII (eontlmaed)
other oom m expsriehces
I k ^ r e o i W erien ee
'fiaee Wr^i4?*wi
S carlet fever iasMmisatian
Character edueatioa
Chorua
Intra-tm irsl a
Conversation olub
Dranatios
Journalise
Ei-T
Safety program
Student oounoil
Qirl Beeerve*
A thletics
Christmas play
Supervised play
Beading te ste
Aehieveaent te sta
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
(f) The Boa* Boob
Bone rooiui aro playing an important p ert in tho preparation of
boy* and g irl* fo r th e ir plaoes in lif t*
Although tho heme reae io
used aero often fo r aohool routine than fo r aay other single activity*
th is ie not to be interpreted *• being the najor b en efit derived fro a
th ie housing ammgonent*
Individual counseling la an a c tiv ity whioh la oonaoa in the hone
roan* The seed for more in tia a te eontaot betooen teaeher and p«$ll la
greater today in aohool* ohero depar taental 1sat ion ha* not baas broken
down than in those where oore course* have replaced apeoiallaed aubjeota a tte r sources* This tsaeher-pupil relationship is being oared for
through individual counseling and group guidance a c tiv itie s in the bam
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I ts
room.
Student government a c tiv itie s in many instances ere centered
around the hose team* Ihla increasingly popular a c tiv ity la believed
to help prepare youth fo r particip atio n in a government such &a e x ists
In tho United states*
Kao studm t-govsraaent a c tiv itie s of tha boas
roan includes tho olootloa of representatives to aohool organisations*
hone rooa o ffic e rs, and forum on portinont subjects* ¥00 faotora
whioh make tho homo room one of tho school's boot train in g grounds for
demeenaey aro tho also o f tho omit and a dogroo of s im ila rly in tho
personnel* In addition to grouping homo room pupils according to
grade placement, aem sohools go a atop fu rth er by providing fo r
homogeneous a b ility grouping* th is •m a g a o m t encourages p artio ip atIon by a greater percentage of the pupils* A ctiv ities found in tho
hem rooms of Sebraaka high schools aro lis te d below 1
TABUS XLTIII
ISP HOME aOOM
A ciiv iiies
f t a t t Im ^ o n a i
School routine
Programs planned jo in tly by students and faculty
Individual counseling
Student-planned progrscw
Q rap guidance a c tiv itie s
Studeat-geverasent a c tiv itie s
Centrally or teacher-planned program
Others
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IAS
111
Uf
89
88
89
8?
46
136
The amount of time spent in the home roc® varies even mere than
the nature of the n a tiv itie s fcuad therein* The amount of time spent
in the hen* roe® i« indioative of the use th at is made of th is period*
Seheel* th at report mueh time spent in the hams room ere usually the
ones th at nee these rooms fo r study halls*
The home rooms are fre»
quently used for adm inistrative purposes where the time is reported
as being of short duration* The following table shows the differenee
in the number of minutes spent in the heme room and the number of
sohools reporting*
fAffi-E TI.VTT
MIWUTES PER WEEK Ilf HOME H06M OS ADVISOR! (SOOT
mummmmimmmm
Times Reported
4
6
10
16
60
66
11
30
39
40
46
60
60
66
1$
70
76
30
90
100
116
160
166
189
140
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fART.B a x i s (oontinaod)
mWJTSB PER n
I I EOMS BOOMOB ADVISORY <®OUP
Ti»»» jsagortifl
7
.............
5 .........
itinut«» F»r g»5E
.* .* .* .......... . .......... ............... ...
•* ..* . 160
6
800
1
.....................
1
.
1 ............
8 ..............
1
...........
840
800
840
848
400
8i88ilSr
Student planning o f, and particip atio n In, assembly program
is widespread in ths Nebraska high sohools. However, the tiiaa devoted
to th is part of ths oors curriculum v aries from a f ir e minute period
in two schools, to one hundred minutes per week in ten sohools* Forty*
nine of the 470 cooperating high sohools reported th irty minutes per week
fo r O tis activity*
8* A greater per oent of the pupils a t the ninth sad tenth
grade lev els p articip ate in some extre*ourrioular a c tiv ity than the
pupils in grades eleven and twelve*
9 . Six hour school days are mors prevalent than any other single
length* T hirty-eight and three hundredths per sent of the 448 eehoole
reported 860 minute days* Forty-three and eighty-one hundredths per
east have a shorter school day*
4* Most guidance in Bebraska high sohools is incidental* lie two
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ISO
ahhoola aara found to hara la operation idaatioal guidaaoa programs*
Thirty minutes par weak was swat frequently mentioned as the amount of
time apaat la group guidance, A careful aaalyale of Table XLYX r v m l i
th a t 64*53 per o»at apead more thaa th irty minutes ia th ia activ ity *
6* Flfty**lx par oaat of the aahoola g irt tha atudanta physical
cauKimatioae,
3* Tha home row oaatinuae to play aa important role la tha
eohoollife of tha pupils* A ctiv ities aueh aa guldaaee and atudaat
government p ro fit swat from th ia adm inistrative arrangement.
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CHAPTER T
CURRICULUM BBOROA5Z2ATIOV lH NEBRASKA
Fifty*one par oent of tho ad ain latrato ra (188 of the 888 who
reeponded to th is inquiry) ad a it th a t thoy hat* glean no apaoifie
ooaaideratlon to a oor* of experiences fro« which s la ila r learning*
would re s u lt fo r t i l student#. The tin* a m i to be a t hand when
••heel nan and tho publlo ahould daeida upon thoaa alniau* eeaentiale
to uhieh tha finished product ahould oonfom. There ara certain
apaolflaationa which ahould ba eeanea to » n ry w all-eonatrueted e itia a n ,
Thaw ara dlaauaaad In tha la a t chapter of to la tre a tis e .
howetwr, la away Area unifom iby rath er than toward it*
Tha trend,
Thia fa c t la
revealed by tha tendency to daavaaae the jw epertlan of a pupil»# re*
quired pregraa* F ifty-nine eehoola reported an lnaraaaa in the amount
of required coureea. One hundred tw antyfeur reported a daaraaaa
daring the la a t flea year# in the extant of th a ir required source#*
tha extent of the iaaraaaaa and decree###, together w ith the m aker
o f aohool# requiring aore and le a e , reapeotieely, ara thorn in Table t*
fAW.«
l
TREND IS ELECTIVES VERSUS C088TAXT8
Doorcaelnc ComrUnta ^ S j^ a i n g C e a * ^
^
e .......................
4 * * * ......................
40 *........................
It
........ .................*............ 4
48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U
..........................
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l
4
3
8
140
TaBL1£ L (c o n tin u e d )
TREND IS ELECTIVES VERSOS CONSTANTS
Number o f S ohools
/oaount o f Change
M tonL.sL& W k I.s„
a
«...
12
0
................
4 ......................................
%
...............
£
1
..........
s
6
?
1
7
0 ......................
2
0
0
3
10
12
IS
Someone l u s w ise ly s a i l , "Not a l l change i s p i-o g resa."
Vow w i l l
tu e s tio n th a wiadorn o f such e s e lf - e v id e n t t r u t h , hu t nona w i l l deny
t h a t p ro g ro ss r e q u ir e s changes to be a u d e .
The r i v e r max marks th e
r i s e and f a l l o f th e w ater l e v e l to determ ine th e p ro g re s s o f th e
flo o d —h u t Nebraska e d u c a to rs have been la x i n re c o rd in g changes w ith in
th e p u b lic sc h o o ls in th e s t a t e .
"We have v e ry l i t t l e down on p a p e r,
b u t I b e lie v e t h a t we do more th a n most sc h o o ls to sake th e work
f u n c tio n a l," re p o rte d one o f N e b ra sk a 's le a d in g e d u c a to rs .
3uoh eon*
f© salons su g g e st th e s o lu tio n to th e problem s o f th o se who r e p o r t t h a t
th e y a re unable to g iv e a d e a r p ic tu r e o f o u r r ic u iu s developm ent i n
t h e i r sch o o l because t h i s i s t h e i r f i r s t o r second y e a r i n th e sy stem .
P ro g re ss in c u rric u lu m developm ent i s c u r ta i le d by b r i e f te n u re
and th e p r a c tic e o f u sin g much o f th e tim e , in s u c c e ss iv e com m unities,
fo r o rie n ta tio n .
D e ta ile d re c o rd s o f th a a c t i v i t i e s o f each y e a r would
e lim in a te much o f t h i s l o s t m otio n .
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141
Growth In curriculua development aunt bo continuous, and not
stationary while each new taaohar bananas orientated to tha oonwninlty,
"Tho ISSTJK3 AKD ffENCTIONS Off SECONDARY EDUCATION present an avenue of
departure in aome Nebraska oonnaunltiea," w rites another Nebraska
school nan. Such studies are followed by an evaluation of the sohools
by the aid of the Evaluative C riteria of the North Central A ssociation.
Curriculum revision follows tha findings, i f aurrent praetiees are
found wanting.
A. PROBLEMS Of UKO&UNIZATIGH
(a) Tha P raetieal Subjests
A d efin ite in te re st is being revealed in the nore p rao tleal sub*
je e ts and less in te re st in the elassio al curriculum. Not a ll sohools,
though, have broken away fron the tra d itio n a l past. Many profess to be
governed by tra d itio n and the *1989 Manual.* These sohools express a
desire to reeain stable in th is rapidly-aoving world. Kith the a rriv a l
of a new superintendent or p rin cip al, there is a tendency to adult th at
reorganisation has ju st began.
Trying to teaeh subjeets th at are p ractical is an often-expressed
desire of school nan.
I t is frequently inplled that sueh M bjeets should
replace soilage preparatory subjects. The lnferenoe is th a t tha la tte r
are not p rao tle al. The so-called p rao tleal courses, because of the
laboratory equipnent, e tc ., are often nore expensive} and boards of
education are often inclined to lean favorably toward the basio sub*
je sts and to nornal train in g .
In scow instances, h alf of the gradu­
ating olass are nornal train in g pupils.
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14&
(b) The Small Sohools
One of the real problems in the sta te of Nobraaka is presented
by the sa a ll aohool. Children who attend th is type of sohool certain ly are not given an equal opportunity with those who attend a sohool
whieh has sore f a c ilitie s for teahnieal subjeets, ex tra-cu rricu lar,
and group a c tiv itie s .
The ease of the sohool described below is
illu s tra tiv e of th is problem
Z have attempted to introduce music appreciation here but find
th at with only two room a t ay disposal i t is a rath er d iffic u lt
task* I t seems rath er cynical to ta lk about equal opportunity
here. 1 iaaglne there are many eehools in Nebraska with the very
satse problems. Of course, I reclin e th at many times the school
board can be blened but the people here don't sees to take very
much in te re st in th e ir sohool system. They take no pride in
th e ir town or th e ir school* The reason that there has been no
revision of the curriculum is th a t i t would be expensive* The
few people who are concerned w ill send th e ir children to college
and the re st ju st don't care.
I t is true th at i t is easier to reorganise the curriculum by
making additions in large school u n its; but some of the most effectiv e
work has been dons in sn ail schools* Zt is not oommon practice to
make en tire un its over in a few days. Zt is nore customary to try
out innovations on a sa all scale, and la te r introduce the successful
ones throughout the system* Teachers and adm inistrators must realise
that much can be done in th e ir schools regardless of the site*
fortunate
are tha boys ami g irls whose superintendent reported th at his school
was not p articu larly unique, but th at he believed i t was the best
possible with the finnnoial aid and faculty available*
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(«) Boorgaalta tlo n A otlvity Za Ssbraska
Although m ay schools appear to be sialU r* nearly every one U
la sons respeets* unique* sven though those assool ated with Shoe a&alt
th a t th e ir sohools "are so t unique** fhe approach to the problsn of
eurrioulurs reorganisation has boon discussed elseehere, but a sand Id
picture of tho a c tiv ity i& one Nebraska high sohool w ill shew the
eJap lio ity of the proceduret
Aa eatensivs surrey has boss node by faculty eoanittees to
detsrniae tho p arts of our eurrieuluci vhiofc noodod stra&gl&ening
and where additions should bo nede# These oensittsos gati&ered
tho neoeaeary infonaation, sad w ith suggestions as to how our program
could bo lnproved* certain changes wars wads* Sens of thoso own*
a ltto o reports led to ohaagios dealing w ith eoaeuasr education,
a r t education, ssf sty education, and problem of bom and s d m l
relations*
She above does not neoessarlly nsan th a t new courses, with th e ir
eoowpanying additional finanalal burden* wore installed* Thor* was
aerely now emphasis on tho phases o f l i f e ahleh had bean neglected*
an e ffo rt to change th e ir eurrteulwa
(l)to neat tho needs of th e ir eoananilgrt (S)to m e t the needs of th e ir
boys end g irls i (3) to prepare th e ir students for p articip atio n sad
leadership in civic* economic* and p o litlo a l lif e i (4) to develop th e ir
voeatioaal in te re sts (and above all* to give the* rig h t attitudes*
ideals* purposes* and in terests)*
Often suoh changes require dsolded
changes in the ourriculisa and are planned fa r a four or five-year
period* I t sees* easy to l i s t desirable objectives and aJnei b a t to
obtain n aterials* asperlenees* and growth is d iffie u lt*
She need fo r
revision is readily reeognlsed* but action Is usually slow in taking
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144
piece.
I t le not new to hare pupils volunteer suggestions fo r iaproveneat of the sohool* I t la* however, not commonplace to seek pupil
particip ation la determining whleh electives are to he offered and which
subjects should he required of everyone* "Rather strangely, we have
more requests for lib e ra l a rt subjects than fo r vocational courses•*
Such Is the experience of one community in sp ite of the opinion of
those in another eooaunlty share the b e lie f is th a t, "Growth in the
curriculum w ill be (1) largely along such lin es as w ill improve our
social consciousness and; (2) d efin ite attempts to give fundamental
s h ills in the use of tools*, hand c ra ft, etc* are in the offing."
So bs
schools are attempting to prepare boys and g irls for th e ir places in
a democracy by giving then as much responsibility as possible while
in sohool*
School sum in general are d issa tisfie d with the statu s aao. but
in many places a rsaedy is not applied. Slsewhere In th is stp ty , the
ao tlv ity in th is direotlon has been noted. I t is a common b e lie f
that new courses must be added end old ones dropped in order to have
curriculum revision. However, most revision coatee as a re su lt of
getting rid of the "dead wood* from our coureaa and the addition of
new s k ills end knowledge* Some schools are trying to do a better-thenaverage job of seating the needs of th e ir students.
(d) Controlling Factors
College entrance requirements , or the fear th at someone might
have deficiencies to make up, has caused many schools to re ta in the
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liO
attitu d e expressed la tha following quotation!
Our required courses ara tha v estig ia l remains of the entrance
requirements of the University of Nebraska and of the Nebraska
colleges th at we dare not risk forsaking. Vhenever i t appears
th at as 4ara. we w ill abandon e ll requirements of p articu lar
courses for purpose of graduation*
College entrance, tra d itio n , and st&te leg islatio n have played
major ro les in determining secondary sohool curriculum*.
"The average ooliega prescribeB saves s a lts and reoc&unends six
«»».*'*■ the small sohool feels th a t i t asut include these in the pro­
gram of stu tlss*
The average high school Is dependent for the approval
or accrediting of i t s work upon the quality of i ts preparatory work
and the success of i t s graduates in college. The patron* of the
school w ill not permit i t s graduates to be refused admission to high­
e r in stitu tio n s because of the sohool*s failu re to o ffer certain
prescribed subject*.8
Although entrance requirements to colleges in Nebraska have been
lib e ra lised during the pest decade, trad itio n imposes I ts weight upon
the local curriculum makers. Parent* sometimes feci that tha trad itio n al
curriculum* which served them should not be disturbed* Such challenges
are too often net by school adm inistrators who are w illing to remain
complacent, ra th 3r than in s till doubt into the minds of the paying
public by attacking the problem of curriculum reorganisation*
Long, P. S ., The Organisation of secondary M aeatlon with
te s la s
i a M sl
BM
**•»*». *•» *«**
School of Sducatlon, New fork U niversity, 19SM3.
S P erris, I* II*, Catamite, $• a . , and Bramaell, V* H. j Smaller
Secondary Schools S ctio m l su m s, of to o o m iat MumtlQA. Nonograph
No* i , United sta te s Office of Education, B ulletin 193h, No. 17.
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146
O ther sohool man ex p re ssed i t In th o fo llo w in g fa s h io n :
I n re o rg a n iz in g th e c u rric u lu m , b eg in n in g t h i s y e a r , I planned
and In tro d u ce d c o u rses f o r t h e i r own v a lu e and n o t f o r t h e i r c o lle g e
p re p a ra to ry v a lu e . Few from t h i s community a tte n d in s titu tio n a l o f
h ig h e r le a r n in g ; th u s , 1 chose c o u rses t h a t would be o f d i r e c t
v a lu e t o a g r e a t e r a m b e r o f s tu d e n ts and could he used by th e n
im m ediately fo llo w in g g ra d u a tio n .
Our s tu d e n ts v e ry seldom go to c o lle g e , sad we a re tr y i n g to
h e lp them i n jo b s by g iv in g them commercial work and g e n e ra l
shop work*
A nother c o n tr o llin g f a c t o r In e u r r ie u lu c r e v is io n has been th e
in flu e n c e o f s p e c ia l s u b s id is e d co u rse re q u ire m e n ts; e . g . , normal
t r a i n i n g , Bmith-Bughes a g r i c u l t u r e , and horn® eoonom ics.
The s p e c ia l c o n d itio n s o f th e community determ ine th e alm s o f
many schools*
Where i t i s r a t h e r d e f i n i t e t h a t th e p u p ils w i l l r e ­
tu r n to o r s ta y on Idle farm , th e em phasis w i l l co n tin u e t o be a g r ic u l­
tu r a l*
O th -r sc h o o ls a tte m p t t o be more v e r s a t i l e by o f f e r in g s e v e r a l
c u r r ic u lu m .
W hether th e em phasis i s on th e p r a c t i c a l s id e o r on th e c o lle g e
p re p a ra to ry w ork, ev ery -d ay l i v i n g sh o u ld govern much o f th e co u rse
c o n te n t.
Bach s u b je c t, to be e f f e c t i v e , m ust be a d ju s te d to c are f o r
in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s , a llo w in g p u p ils to go a s f a s t , b o th v e r t i c a l l y
and h o r iz o n ta lly , a s p o s sib le *
A stu d y o f th e g ra d u a te s o v er a p e rio d
o f y e a rs i s used i n some com munities to determines how to meet th e needs
f o r t h a t com m unity.
emphasized*
C lose c o n ta c t w ith th e p a tro n s cannot be o v er­
P u p il p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n l o c a l P a re n t-T e a c h a r A s s o c ia tio n
programs cements th e p a re n t end th e school*
Some sc h o o ls f in d i t ad­
v is a b le to encourage p u p ils to a tte n d l o c a l community m e e tin g s, such
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
u?
a s c o u rt s e s s io n s , l e c t u r e s , e t c .
A p p re n tic e work l a l o c a l b u s in e s s
houses and p r o f e s s io n a l o f f i c e s adds to t h i s u n ify in g p ro c e s s .
O lo sely a s s o c ia te d b u t o f te n l e s s a g re e a b le i s th e n a t t e r o f
keeping th e p a re n ts w e ll inform ad o f th e p ro g re ss o f th e boys and
g irls ,
th e su ccess o r f a i l u r e o f sohool ex p erien c e i s o f te n due to
a m isu n d erstan d in g o r a la c k o f a n u n d e rsta n d in g o f what i s b e in g a t ­
tem p ted .
T h is p a re n t-te a o h e r u n d e rs ta n d in g I s v i t a l .
(e ) C aring For I n d iv id u a l D iffe re n c e s
Some sc h o o ls a r e unique in th e em phasis p la ce d upon e a r in g f o r
in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s w ith in th e c l a s s e s ,
a r e made o f p e c u li a r problem c a s e s .
c a r e f u l ly - w r itt e n h i s t o r i e s
S p e c ia l h e lp p e rio d s a r e h e ld ,
u s u a lly a f t e r d is m is sa l*
These a r e found to be more e f f e c t i v e when
h e ld e a r l i e r i n th e day*
To c o u n te ra c t th e stigm a a tta c h e d t o b e in g
k e p t I n , f r e e - r e a d in g p e rio d s a r e g iv e n to th e s tu d e n ts who do n o t
need s p e c ia l h e lp .
I n th e se sc h o o ls slo w er p u p ils do n o t f e e l t h a t
th e y a re b e in g p e n a lis e d by b e in g k e p t a f t e r r e g u la r d is m is sa l*
f l e x i b i l i t y I s th e watchword I n sc h o o ls which a r e ta k in g c a r e o f th e
In d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s found w ith in t h e i r s tu d e n t b o d ie s .
T here i s an aw areness th ro u g h o u t th e s t a t e o f th e sm alln ess o f
th e number who go to c o lle g e a f t e r g ra d u a tio n .
T h is c o n d itio n i s b e­
in g met w ith added em phasis on hom eaaklng, c i t i z e n s h i p , OQeassrclal
w ork, tra d e s * and a g r i c u l t u r e .
S p e c ia l i n t e r e s t c lu b s a r e g iv e n an
o p p o rtu n ity to meet u n d er th e s u p e rv is io n o f f a c u lty sp o n so rs , d u rin g
th e r e g u la r sc h o o l d a y .
To be e f f e c tiv e * such c lu b s should b e th e
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148
outgrowth of la ta ra sta and now!* on tha p a rt of th a pupils* Curricula#
ahaagss ara frequently tha outgrowth o f studsnt dissuasions a t alub
tasatiaga* Stash a a tlv ltla a m a t of n ssssslty to plasmad la tha ragular
aahesl day* aspaelolly ahsra ianay of tha pupils lir a outs ids o f tha
h i # aahaol d istrio t*
Xa naay tnatanaaa* as aany aa 10 par oaat of
tha pupils ara brought to aehool la sohool buaass*
th a suoossa o f a aahool l a l a r g s l y d a ts m in a d by th a a a a n a r l a
wfeioh p u p ils spaad t h a i r t l m j th u s th a p la n n in g o f t h a s tu d y p a rlo d s
l a a b ash t h a t ahould r a o a l r a a s m th a n p a s s in g a tte n tio n *
s t o u t s p a rlo d h a s b aan found r a r y a f f a s t l r a *
th a s i x t y
th a s p l i t p a rlo d aafcas i t
p a M lh la f o r p u p ils to s tu d y I n tot p ra a sn s a o f a a a a p s r t l a t h a n t j N t
b s ia g prap arad *
I t s a a n o t b a u ssd l a aohoola w ith l l a l t a d t s a a l t o g
peraoxffi*!, whioh r a q u ir a ta a e h s r s t o ta a e h a lx o r a a ra n d i f f a r a n t sub*
J a o ta aaah day«
I t la * h o s a r a r , found a d ra n ta g so u s l a soo» S t o o l s t o
a a a th a lo n g a r p a rlo d s o n ly p a r t o f th a t i n s *
Saab p r a e tl e a s an y h a lp
t o m te* th a e u r r io u lu a d y saato *
(f) Quidaaaa
Mora sad mora t l a a l a b a lu g d a ra ta d to a stu d y o f th a p u p ils *
s r a n a t th a axpaaaa of lo s in g aoaa a u b jo o t-u ia tto r s o s ts n t*
pro-grans f r a g r a n tly o r ig l n a ta i n th a hone room*
G utdaaas
l a s e n s a a a a a th a a tu -
daaat* w ith th a a s s la ta n a s o f th a h aaa ra o a ta a a h a r* a a la a ta a f b a u l t y
a d v is o r (mad* o r ) a la y a d v is o r vhoaa l a t a r a a t a a r a s im ila r and ifco l a
a a a stp a rt I n th a f i s l d whora th a ta e h a ra ao asb h lag i n sanaaa*
F raab aan
S n g lla h ao u raaa h a ra baan a o n ra rta d in to e o u ra a s fo r group g u td a a ss and
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us
orientation*
In tone Instances the principal se ts as odwisor to t i l
beys and tha a ssista n t principal i « m t the g irls in a s ia ila r
Close observation sad personal guidance stake i t easier to gain the
confidence of tho pupil, without which tru ly g re a t tosohlng suffers*
Full teaching schedules nood not hinder a guidance progrs* front exist*
lag in iUMt tho a n tilo st school* Which is n o n lsp 9ftait* uR ibjN i
a a tte r or guidance? Hit person was rig h t who M id, *»• arc properlog
boys and g irls fo r l i f t , not fo r college*" I f they sro prepared fo r
l i f t , they w ill ho sblo to succeed in eellegs*
(g) TooffiMut Methods end fit?ppntTfturtle s
Apparently acre ohsagos In tho ourrloulun sro tho re su lts o f
in the nofrftnrti of presenting material to pupils thaw |y usually
recognised* The following snowor «m frequently received in response
to tho inquiry re la tiv e to tho nature of tho curriculum reorganisation*
"Stash of tho progroso in tho jrtscwrg^Mlssiiti^ws
the cispjpl^mliwi&Im^s Issss^
la the fie ld of methods." A lack of tosohoro sad of equipment say
lim it tho progress, hut such 1 S altations ought net ho permitted to
c u rta il i t ontlroly#
Sow aothods eon ho adopted mad progress w ill
re su lt i f the Individual is given * wore iaportant relo than th a t of
a peruser of a mwbor of pages la tho text*
The now aothod say oon-
ta in m m inform ality, nor* pupil-directed olasswork, aoro P«pil~
in itia te d tiaw m art, ote*
fho ingenuity of Bebraska sohool non is illu stra te d belowi
la our p artic u lar ease, wo wort faood with tho ta a t o f broadeniM 0U r o u f f i o u l t t i t o a n t d m ta d tt o f M r t i l A stMdhKofes ^
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t e n d f ta
160
t a i n th e re q u ire d c o u rse s a s w a ll. We bad t o in tro d u c e com mercial
s u b j e c t s , m a in ta in th e normal t r a i n i n g d ep artm en t, and th a g e n e ra l
e o u r e w ith I t s fo u r y e a rs o f n o ie n ce , m athem atics and E n g lis h ,
w ith no in o re a e e i n th e te a c h in g s t a f f * V ocations* i n o rd e r t o ba
o f f e r e d , fltuet be in o lu d sd o r ootdhlnod w ith a n o th e r s u b je c t .
E n g lish seemed to u s to ba th a most a d a p ta b le f o r co m b in atio n ,
o f any o f the a u b je o ts t h a t wo o f f e r e d . Wo had p re v io u s ly o f f e r ­
ed a f u l l - y e a r o f »m erie*n l i t e r a t u r e and a f u l l y e a r o f E n g lish
l i t e r a t u r e . We d iso u sse d th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o f f e r in g one sem ester
o f p u b lic sp e a k in g , and one se m e ste r o f th e nsw s u b je c t which would
ba c a ll e d V o catio n al E n g lish * we ag reed t h a t tb s above E n g lish
s e t- u p would give th e s tu d e n ts a w ell-ro u n d ed course based on e v ery
day u t i l i t y *
The s u b je o t n a t t e r f o r o u r new course i s p r iw a r ily E n g lish w ith
M a te ria l based on v o c a tio n s and p ro fe s sio n s* be te a c h E n g lish f o r
p r a c t i c a l d a ily u s e . In c lu d e d i n o u r co u rse were v i s i t s to o u r
newspaper o f f i c e and bank, a t r i p to o ur n e ig h b o rin g c i t y o f York
t o v i s i t v a rio u s b u s in e s s e n te r p r is e s * Speakers re p re s e n tin g
many p ro f e s s io n s and v o c a tio n s were secu red to speak a t th e h ig h
sch o o l c o n v o c a tio n s , fo llo w in g tb s c o n v o c a tio n s , th e sp e a k e r a c t
w ith th e V o c a tio n a l E n g lish c l a s s f o r an h o u r 's p a n el d is c u s s io n
concerning h i s p ro fe ssio n * The s tu d e n ts had s tu d ie d t h a t p ro fe s s io n
t o some e x te n t* and were read y to q u e stio n th e s p e a k e r. A ll o f
th e sp ea k e rs w ire v e ry c o o p e ra tiv e i n answ ering q u e stio n s and p re ­
s e n tin g b o th tb s advan tag es and d isa d v a n ta g e s o f t h e i r w ork. They
were e x p l i c i t a s t o t r a i n i n g re q u ire m e n ts, expense involved* and
e o s p a ra tlv e re m u n e ra tio n .
No r e g u la r te x tb o o k was a v a ila b le f o r th o c o u rs e , so a good
E n g lish te x tb o o k was used a s th e 'backbone* f o r t h i s c o u rs e , and
w ith supplem entary m a te ria l pro v id ed from wide and v a rie d so u rc es
th e co u rse was in c lu d e d i n th e c u rric u lu m .
(h) Tenure
A v a s tl y d i f f e r e n t o p p o rtu n ity a w a its th e boys and g i r i a i n th e
sch o o ls where th e s u p e rin te n d e n t s a i d , " I have been at
o o ly th re e y e a rs and t o my knowledge th e r e h a s been no cu rric u lu m change
i n t h a t time e x ce p t i n th e minor d e t a i l s o f some c o u rs e s ."
th e l a t t e r one a re anxiou s to
Schools l ik e
a d v ic e co n cern in g c u rric u lu m problem s and
a p p a re n tly a re unaware th a t th e U n iv e rs ity o f Nebraska welcomes o p p o rtu n i­
t i e s to be o f s e r v ic e .
T h is C o n d itio n l a th e r e s u l t o f fre q u e n t changes
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
151
i n th e p erso n aeI o f th e f a c u l t y , and o f th e f a i l u r e to r e a l i s e th e
seed f o r keeping d e ta ile d re c o rd s and re p o rt® .
( ! ) O ther F a c to rs
Only by s e a rc h in g o u t th a custom s, problem s, in n o v a tio n s , and
p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f th e Nebraska sc h o o ls a re we a b le to v i s u a l i s e th e
h e te r o g e n e ity o f a s t a t e ' s e d u c a tio n a l p r a c t i c e s .
T h is community
d is c o n tin u e s i t s h ig h sch o o l and o th e r s r e p o r t "one p u p il e n r o lle d ."
One so hool b o a s ts o f v is u a l a i d s , w hile a n o th e r must be c o n te n t w ith
no e le c tiv e s and w ith o p e ra tin g cm th e p la n o f com bining c la s s e s and
a l t e r n a t i n g s u b je c ts —in a n o th e r oomaunity th e p a ro c h ia l sch o o l ta k e s
care o f th e elem en ta ry g rad es and th e h ig h sch o o l c o n s is ts o f g ra d e s
n ine and t e a .
O ther sch o o ls com plain o f b ein g dom inated by th e s t a t e
departm ent} b u t o th e r s f e e l t h a t they a re n o t g iv e s enough co u n sel
and s u p e r v is io n .
I n s p i t e o f economic c o n d itio n s and a la c k o f a u n if ie d program ,
p ro g ress has been made i n a lim ite d p e rc e n ta g e o f th e h ig h sc h o o ls w ith ­
i n th e s t a t e .
The m ajo r tr e n d s i n N ebraska c u rricu lu m developm ent d u rin g
th e p e rio d o f 1934-40 a r e d is c u s s e d i n th e fo llo w in g p a g e s .
I t w i l l be
noted t h a t N e b rask a 's cu rric u lu m developm ent is l a r g e l y a m a tte r o f
d e term in in g which s u b je c t- m a tte r f i e l d s sh o u ld be in c lu d e d i n th e program
o f s t u d i e s ; a t which g r a d e - le v e l; and how much t o r e q u ir e o f e v ery o n e.
b . curriculum m m to m m T d u rin g the m a o o 1* 34-40
lle v e n p er c e n t o f th e cu rricu lu m * o f N ebraska h ig h sc h o o ls have
been e n t i r e l y re o rg a n is e d d u rin g th e period 1934-40.
The lim ite d amount
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
o f rpbrgpnijmtixig any b# duo nore to
uwrillingaooo on tho p o rt of
tho potion* than to tho oonoem otto* of oohool o ffic ia l* .
Indivtdonl
eourooo nad individual phoaoo of tho «urriov0.qn in Mvanby>»tNO per
oont of tho oohool* inolndod in thio invootlgotion ham boon n o r f u ia id t
fho su fto r o f oouroo* of footed %jr tho la tte r ohongeo varleo fwaa ono
oouroe in f ©rtyMaao
• to eighteen ooureeo in * oingle tnttaunee*
tho following d U trib u tio n mm noted*
2ASL1 LI
ctsaicoLim wmumnsion is n m
1W flonroo* kooreealaod w rmm” "T'' MunSbor 'Sf feoihnole fio w iiW
1 ..........................................
tf
£
........... . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . . . . . . . . . 72
8
10
11
12
16
18
12
7
••«»««•. . . . . . . a
. 10
........................................ 4
7
•*•*••**#«•**»••*•••#*•#••»#•••••*«••*•• 6
2
12
1
14
2
16
17
18
0
0
1
...............................
(n) Genre** Added mad Couroe* Propped
Musqt
aubjeoto hev* boon jntrodnoed# Zhro* hundred forty*
aino oohoolo roportod th ia to bo true o f th e ir policy daring tho period
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
1M4M0* In emelgNRiMr tho** hovo boon no ohontoo in tho offorlago*
fho oubjoeto oddod nnd dtroppod, togothor nith tho axafeor importing tb»
ohongM, mw liotod bolcw. Tho froquont roooourroaoo of tho fino orto
oubjootn sight bo Ir tw p iiiii no ovidonoo to support Hi* oo&to&tlx>&
aoaounltioo i n twnnnlnir wnsDOroua •«■*«-
i aaauid inrt~1iii1i1t
tmad it tho popularity of tho oowBoroial orto and tho otfcor oo*e«Alo4
prnotloal irtijootn i Squally noblooahlo io tho lislbod Tnwhnr of
l « iiM ii euoeoouM
eofe tsojlf^if
sm h m I v
noooftia.taO w ltii j^no
w—w —t <«« i*oj*
*r~ii
fi fio
^^F^^F*llifA
i^oio»^^o®s^F
I t o ill to notod th o t in Tablo LII tho aub^ooto found loaot ofton or*
tho ohm aoot ofton found in fit&o LUX. Although tho nusbora wro
not lftv$i in individual oub>oto# tho troad i« ovidont whon tho en tire
piiti innt^f n^^uvvoopw
tto r f iold io oosaldnvodL
^f^bsw^fumfbubu*
n&Mtxi
a n r c o u ssss aspth!?
CaooMH ooofQ
A it
Agrioultur* 4th poor
A otlvity period
Aotlvi% p n g rm
(fo il poor)
jm tim a hlatory
(fo il poor)
Anorlonn literatu re
Agrleulture
A
A thletioe in oafeeddie
BoolaoM tvalnini
Bops* food* olaoo
o f tohnofri Couraoo Added
1
«
i
s
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
U
1
•
'■■«f qaespM
<w
f iiB
ihrhw
iim
\M
ffinoXrAliBi
Am AAsmhiJL&k
COMBMTOiAX
Ooonotolocjr
CNbqummmk^
COMBOTOial t fff
Creative writing
ConwUL'tQr n lH im iM r
GmmmIaI floufii f t mftfcm)
C w oroiol orltfeiaotlo
Clw*I*try
Cheiseter odoootion
fifOHOtlOO
Debate
Dwaatio olub
loonooioo
Bngliah literatu re
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
m
TABLE LII (*oxttoam&)
COOKSES AOXSSO
ana
f'■uiJiiM
0 W w j1
of Btim&M Courooo Mdod
CwWJgiJiggJJft
B
ftoaJkofeMmA*W«WV
%4LAunaoanONkonoafe
Wwlfft
Somol train ing
fg aim ao a w in mottio
ao&lot xi and 12
Ftwmfa
Control —
flyf ■fllitl(ll)
**y
tioMtiOD
fta rtlw fl iwno oooroo
fo r g irl*
Btroonol hygiono
fiw H «
Staorol tolonfto fo r toy*
Ooaorol oeionoo fo r fu ll
yoor Xnotood of ono-holf
fo r g lrla
fiiyolool oitwt tio a
Prootiool
BnRodiol non&Lng
Soft driving
Ooocvnstnr
th ird yoor
oooood yoor
anobn&loo
orto
B tolth lduettin>
Stniont Council
Sociology
Spoooh
Solenoos
olhb
Spanish IX
Senior oolenoe
3siltk'*$fughoo dopartaeat
XX
Xnduotriol orto
pawl rolotlotto
Xnduotriol fdim tloB
(onto noobonloo)
Journalloa
<$tsslor buolnooo train in g
fu ll yoar Inotood of
L lt& o Hwatpo
iloal 4m in i,
in sohedulo
train in g
a f i*i>i»««i *
m m Uh m K
10
Oeorotarial tr aining
Typewriting
Typewriting XX
YOoottoral agrloulture
Vocational appmrtrttfSh 1y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
188
TAM.g L in
QOTBSBS D80PFBD
wail'a„;lltia iB3l,8"iiiaa^t war ss« « S B g p »
of aahoola Couroo* Bratsad
Coartta Sveppad
Algrinra I
Alfi^va XI
AgriouXtura
Aaorioa& iltnrmrttijy
Botany
s s r 1**
Coauorolal loo
^raaatioa
Baaaoniaa
fjpwafe
FOtoiga iasgoaga
f la t arta
Oooaotry
8
1
1
*•»
4
I
1
1
1
1
I
8
I
I
wmmr
o f Saheoit
fltograjihjr
1
UM& I
Labia (th ird yoar)
denial training doparfeMBb
J ^ i< 4 a < r
9
1
1
«
Spoooh
Selaaoa nlaaaao
Syaniah
Typewriting (aaaoad yaar)
World literatu re
1
1
1
X
1
c* anise aM w m m m
(8) U m gm m
A laaa f**ftwato praotiaa of roorganiaation la th a t o f ah ifV
lag aaaraoa fw * grado to grata* L atin ia porhapa tho moat f*»fia««h»
I f d iifta d aufc>ot a t tha aaaoadary iaval*
I t ia f oUaapd tjr biology
•ad «&$&«** M aaaters ara a t a loaa apparently ia rogart to tha
pmqp^y gyado jilaaaaaat of away aub^aota* Uma aa fin d tha aaaa •db*
ja a t f l actuating from a felghar grad* iawol to a lowar la a a l i s oat
niMwiwHy fHHji vioo a o rta ia anathar*
brand fra a tha Iowa? Xaaol
to a higm r grada ltv a l ia oaaily datootod ia tho aaaa o f Latin*
fa) intaiwa
Ihor# ia a a lig h t tondoooy fo r phyalo* to nova from tho d w r i h
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
grade to the tw elfth grata* Only toe « m were reported la regard to
ohe&letry. one la eeeh aisae'ftl'frTt« Use same wee tre e w ith am oral
selenee#
Biology was the sesond aoot fre<r*>ntly O ilfM subject, only
Latin being swntioned
the trend le to o ffe r th is subject a t a lower grade lev el than tv rm e 17* This* I t w ill to noted* le la the opposite d irectio n
fflaomwnt o f L atin, algebra, sad geometry .
trm the
Tho la tte r throe ere
d efin itely moving from the lower to the higher pad* levels*
(a) ttatbsw atlss
there le a growing b e lie f th a t teobaioal aethewatlos ahet&d to
M t nop^^lp u n til
su c h
tia a th at there 4le
oo ef a
whsp evidewae
v
» weed fo r
s^^rueswep^wepur J^eru^e ^e *^oe
these ownerlenees. end whan. euro m aturity le recalled* o»<« le mum.
tgr Hie fhot th at not one Instance wm reported of algebra being taagifc
a t a lower lev el then la tho feet#
P arallel to tho aovewewt o f algebra froa the lower level* to
Hi* upper grades Is th a t of geowotry* th is is due in p art to the to*
li e f th a t th e algebra experience should precede the eaperleases la the
eta^r of geawstry*
Business arltfanetio apparently has found i t s lev el aad la a s t
shifted ftrw pad* to grade* I t Is usually fowad In the curriculum
fo r grad* te a , while general mathaeatios is fbtmd about as often a t
ess level as a t another*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
(4) Social Studloo
Watlag tha PM t fIva yoaro, tfcaro hao boan * continuation of
tho toaAoaey to o h lft M ariana hiotory from grad# two!to to doom *
SSxtnoa Ifohoolf rtportod th io il i n f i j
«*>p inoyortiodl h •ialloar tra n t
ty p o raittin g I t In ttw olovonth and tw elfth ihora I t « u fononrly
offered in tho tw elfth* S ana aohoolo lndiootnd tho oppoolto trend*
Oun m M w o t th» U n it la o h iftin s tr m tha ninth to tho tw elfth.
M i aaottoor from tha tooth to tho dawonth and tw elfth . ThU la*
o^wjpiaha p iataro io hazily ouff icloaat to indicate aoro than tho foot
M at M ariana hiotcoy la a a ttlia g down aa aa daeaiitip^gjpedn aaparlanae
The Monty **^“*£*0 lia ta d below ham a beadaaoy to OBtolil I ill
tho taatM frade aa tha tla a fo r oorld hiotory* mao aafeoa&a ham ra»
ttn tlT womd th ia axDarienoe wfrota
nino
fron
fzp a^o^o aradn o
os^bw^^^p to
omw tan*
o^^oweap too
t^^wwp othara
or *op^nwar *w zaao
woooo
d a m n to to n , another fro* tw dm to ton , another fro® olaron to
nino oad to o , and too oohoolo hata ooaoed offering i t ia tho M ath
only la order to of fa r i t la tha ninth aaS tenth* Oaa aohool whioh
( ilim
only a iomoator of world hietoi-y haa M iffed tho ro^uiraaoat
from Ma f ir o t oomaotor of grade nine to tho aeeoad aoaaafer* Sttraa
front U to 9 and fztat H
and 1£ to 9 | w hile one eth er oohool ohiftod fron 9 and 19 to i l and 11*
Sociology and oooncoiloa ohifto aro frequently fro* tho lo aar to
tha tw elfth grado* Only throa geography ohifto w r» Mentioned* Tha
l a tt er ia not o i^ iiflean t*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
(•) COHMMPOlal ftrtt
7«ry lib tl* sh iftin g ia taking place la the
*h» aSB K M ltl fib iM tlk
T n w r it t w a r i hnnlrtnairrilTir i n
i t i 1 — irfi
jsefHnaantly looatod «f those sd b jests. The former is being l i f t e d ia
on* diraotion about a« often as in tho other*
(So* Table tVI% X» the
oaso oi' bookkeeping the trend seems to ba toward an e a rlie r introduction
of the eubjeot* Xhere oes not enough differenoe in the m atter of cimsi
reported fo r ecuMaroiOt la*r# shorthand* or bmlnesc train in g to Indl*
oat* the tread in grade placement fo r these subjects#
TABLE LIV
fgRgn XS *$**$¥ JLACSBSBf
nr teatoolS
l« M I
From Grade
as
u
9
1
S
&
t
1
1
L atin
L atin
L atin
L atin
L atin
L atin
L atin
L atin
L atin
9 to 18
9 to 10 o r 11
9 to U
9 to U o r IS
9 to 18. U or IS
10 to i t
18 to U
10 to 10, 11* or IS
SI
L atin 1 and XX
Looor to h l# e r
18 to 9
i
L atin X
L atin X
L atin XX
4
L atin X and XX
Higher to looor
Si
i
i
i
Biology
Biology
Biology
Biology
U
U
U
U
S4
ft
Biology
H itter to loner
a
i
M i
M i
I
Z
Z
Z
Z
XI
II
XX
XX
11 te la
U te 10
12 to U
and IS to 10
te 6 and 18
and IS to IO and 11
and IS to 9 and 10
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
iH
ADff f JiJlY
f fV
Tmm*a
\f iW w H 9 A /
m 3® i s tm m n M m m
Won t a i l
<
i
4
I
&
4
8S»l«gy
Biology
ttfl+ B f
Biology
Biology
Biology
8 to 10, 11# «r 18
U and 12 to 12
10 to l l tad 18
10 to 18
8 and 10 to 11 and 18
10 to U
Biology
Looor to hlghor
4lvMMnuiMi X
08
Algobro I
m
M
&
bm
I
o*mfffNmHrn m
M
<L
8 to 10
8 to 11 and 18
8 to 10 and 11
8 to U
10 to U
Mkg0mtm *
Looor to feigior
1
Aleo&ra
8 and 10 to 8
1
AlfOfem
H l^tor to looor
8
Algatm U
U to 18
6
Aigntra n
Looor to k l# o r
1
AlgObm IX
U to 10 and U
1
Algo&a* XI
Highor to looor
ffoanetiy
Total IS
18
4
S
1
1
fo to l 87
to ta l
Total
Sotal
iOL^jfc^t
im
10
8
4
8
8
8
8
0000044?
Ooowrtspy
Oowotry
OooMtvy
Boaantty
10 to 11
10 to 11 and 18
10 to 10 and 11
10 to 18
8 to U
8 and 10 to 10 and 11
8 to 10
88
Ooaaotry
Looor to i # r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
U 3LE h t f
Tfrgyrp m
TmbM w o f fMiti>X§
fotoX
f o til
TotoX
le ta l
jotox
.. - ..m a m ............... . . FW» OHM
i
1
HMnVwJJr
Goonotoy
M
f
XX to xo
ia to xx
XO to » «&* XO
4
Oaaootoo'
Higtor to looor
ft
X
I
1
cM m
Clvto*
Cirloo
AMnHUMA plTObXOMI
Xft to
XX to
XX to
X* to
ft
Clvlao* o tc.
m ^O f
X
X
ft
X
X
ft
Clvioo
8 to 10
XX to Xft
Ootoitoioftt
Clvle* oadOBWiOitet XX to Xft
Civiot
XS to Xft
ClviM
9 to U
Citrloo
XX to Xft
8
CivtM i iH *
Looor to blgtor
X
X
X
X
£nMMrlti&£
tyjom rittag
^ p c r lU m
typoorltla$
U to Xft
XO to XX
9* XO* XX* Xft to XX moA XS
X0# XX* o&& Xft to XX oaft Xft
4
Typowrlilufi
Looor to bX^tor
ft
X
X
ft
ft
lypw ri^ ng
Typowrltiac
Typoirritlag
Tyyoorittn*
Ijfponritiug
XX to XO
XX m& Xft to 9
Xft to XX
XO to 9
XX to XO
8
5ypowpXtio§[
8l£aor to Xooor
X
X
X
X
X
Bookkowpin*
BookkoopS&ft
Bookkoopiac
XX to 9
Xft to XO
XX to XO
XX «&d Xft to 9 oaft XO
XX oni Xft to XO
ft
!»W
HJUZESBST
i
BoaldtoopXigg
up
XX
9
XO
XX
Xooor
Hishor to Xowr
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
181
ta b le
tvr (oaatlanat}
tBMBi IH ®4DS HJkCBKBSf
10
u
I
1
Total
t
Tftnrtrtntafrlnt
u
It
ItOMKf %0
(f) OtbMT 8«b>«ta
fa—»» aoro not
>>u>"g** In tho gnMis jsftaaanasb of sash
nninrtaM «* voattloiii. n idu iM . «hm & . ft— itiM . tMnflh. SnudjAi
MMOWl trslAia$ft *mfuf oooaoalos* yjyi)iflf |y | and sagUah to ah«ar that
Mtuv m i anoh AifUiuc f i n « a l i to arado far thoso p*o»^*pt#* This
wiat to lntorprotod to aaaa that sash aubjoata haws boon found seat a ffaotlav a t various lavola, and ara thoroforo so t to la s ohiftad. Boro
I t o 3©b for tho roootroh aayfear* flading tho * o » t o ff actios tlaa far
tho shavo anssttUd st&Jsats*
d , w am m o f m m m s i s cbshicslw saosoA jrm nai
O ffrtad w reorganisation sork la Sehraoka haa boon oarrlod far*
na*d largely by Individual toaohors working aa tbolr own ooureeo* Thors
Is U ttlo la tho v if o f w ltto n
tho soarso contact* sad therefore tho taat lmoiy of tho individual suot
bo roliod upon* Tho aosbHsaa t aeraaoa sothcd o f oamgrlaf fomard thia
tank io by tho odalalataratlve (and, or) auperrlaoiy officers# Oaaoral
faoulty aootlnga *m< dissuasions do upffti to presets th ia doTfioymontt
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
m
Iaoulty asetisg s folloeed by ecn alttse sort: proves affectiv e, wad
usually reeu lte in worthwhile ohaagss in the ourriet&un* la our higfa1 »n— 1ena rtinantal t
flu T
^^U^PeO
| M m ^ « p u anhfiali. «ni find th* n*>4— t
B^^P^paiPVrBB^Uft^^e^B «V
B B ^B ft'e^^PrerSO
S£
^^PBT
BP*
B^S^HVer^A^^^^BP BP
• t i l l playing as iaportant ro le In ©urrioulu^reGrgftniftetiott w rk« fh*
work o f expert* and ourrioultsa sp e c ia lists free outside of the system
has not played ft Mft^or p a rt in th is aoveasst, y et I t has bees mere
general than most people realise* the study oesb«rs uader th e galdanee
of tho i& iversity of M m k a , whieb have boon using the gvaluatlvs
C rite ria of the Cooperative study of Secondary Sehoola. have frequently
boon aostioned &s ooatributiag to the currtoulua reorganisation ssow
a s s t i s Bebraska* O tter nethode and oontributing fhetore are lis te d
Is Table LY*
TABLE LV
mwmmmm ts
CfSmiCWMk HBQIQUUIl&AflOB IV moiAKifA
. r .
.
.
_
^
j
^
.
,
^
nl1
r
t _ ...............n .| V ............. ,
r .........
Responsible Per Keorsa&tafttion
Tinas Mentioned
By individual teaehera working a s th e ir w o courses
Bar ad alaistrativ e (and* or) supervisory officer*
By i i i M i fiboulty n i t l i k n iad iH anriiaatirtM
By ooanittees o f teaohere and other a ta ff numbers
By subjeot departments
By assistance froo sp e c ia lists
By superintendent and individual heather
By aid of sta te department
By pupil p articip atio n i s w ait aethed
By
fctrf *1 (■4w»<k>f BTfhlaeta
Onaperat ive survey
Advise from a d v e rs ity
Y iiitin c eth er schema
M vlee fre e county superintendent
|C€^HP^MWP
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
888
88?
iflj
€8
48
88
us
TABLE LV (oo&tlzuMd)
COSTKIBUTOBS XI
CtffiHlCtlLOM BBQHOAIIiATIGH XB uibihaska
awwioaa ana OFMfi
Responsible For hesnaalsntlaa
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CHAPTKR 71
m a m t w m u m xm - a proposid
0081 OOXSlOUUBf FOB HTOA3KA KXOB SCHOOLS
H it obJaotiTta of adoration wbioh h art boon adroaatad by
individual* and groupa d iffa r but allg b tly . HewaTor, thaaa adrooataa
do not alwaya a i m on tba natbod to bo uaad In aablarlag tte a t obja o tlra a .
I t la ganarally abroad tb at tba f ir a t fnnation of tba
eobool la to parpatuata a daaoavatla aooiaty, and to proaota lta
in ta ra ata . To do tb ia , tba aabool m at davalop la boya aad g lrla
tba a b ility and tba w ill to faalp organise and Maintain a ayataa of
b n an ralatlo aah ip , dataralnad by dauoaratlo proaaaaaa, which plaeaa
tba goneral welfare of aooloty abova everything alee, aad therefore
lmpoaaa upon aaeb individual tba aaaaaalty of regulating bla paraanal
conduct accordingly.
I t should alao ba tba areola* function to
taaob youth boa to uae tba natural resources of our ooatlnest to lay
a f ir s eooaoulo baaia fo r tba gaaaral aalfara of a l l , aad banaa fo r
tba individual aalfara of aaab. These two primary fuaottna of tba
aaboola ladlaata tba purposes wbiob tba aabool ourrlaulm should servo,
/
At to tba baat way to organise tba eurrlouluu, l l t t l a a g ra ia a t
ax lata. Soaa aduaatora believe th at tba trad itio n al curricula* wbiab
braaka up knowledge in to aaparata aoapartaanta, inataad of drawing at
any tio a from any aroa to aaat tba pupil*a needs, la la aooord naltbar
.tin of tba Dspcrtmnt of Secondary ached
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m
with to* law* of learning nor th# function# of tha school,* Wa road
te a t "Wo xwad a saw o\arrloulm -«oa* oonaoioualy daalgsad and organisad
to aw m to# purpoaas o f to* aabool to to# b rat way,**
I t to generally agroad th a t tear* nuat bo two kinds of loam tag
a o tlv itte s to kaaptog with too doubl# function of toa aohool—to t n i a
bop* aad g irl* fo r ooopormtir* ao tio s to a war* equitable oootol order,
•ad to ask* toon produetto* mambar* of society* toa s k ills or field #
of em patease ifeioh should ba niwwia to a ll aittoona w ill ba proridad
by toa constants e r roquirad aocparianoas, to t alaottooa abated provide
vocational train in g aad toa sp ecialisatio n e f a b ilitie s aa tba in taraata
of aoolety deeanda and toa range of individual differences .Justify,
Courses
in te rewarnsts
aanaat^ r ba
inaartad t^awea^sw
o te
sww ^w^w^w d H im d to ^owu^ ltlm
^ s ^ w ta
w
^wsGs-^^emi
eww w^^^^wee^ww
o^^a ems^^w^rai
to* ourrioulm without overcrowding • p u p il'a sehedtea unless toa
bardaa of trad itio n al subject n a tte r la lightened, i t la , there*
fo ra , auggeated th a t electiv e oouraaa ba raatrlatad to tea periods
d aily and th at to la ra a trlo tio n ba governed by
whioh to* established oouraaa natee to a development of a pupil*#
to to ro at. i t la highly probabla to a t to auoh alrounatanaaa a
groat expansion w ill taka plaaa to aauraaa to toa a rt* , and to toa
natural aoionoaai and to a t toa tto a devoted to toa fom al.atudy of
aatoanattoa, foreign languages, and Knglish w ill deeltoa**
I t to so t toa purpaaa of to la diaaouraa to a ttm p t to ju s tify
tea teaman typo of organisation, in which toa subject* of toa ourrlaulm
a r t grouped to te dapartnaanta, auoh aa history or eeienee, I t to , bam
T ra T p T U s.
* ib id .
d Baport of to* Coanittaa on toa O rientation of Sooondaiy Bduea*
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1ST
ever, the desire of the w riter to present a statenent of what appears
to bo a lo gical core of experiences fo r Bebraaka youth, la th* lig h t
of canon problems.
K m t i n to t i n various phllooophora, educators, and edueatloaa l organizations have studied hums needs by a t to u tin g to present a
eawprehenaive view of lif e through convenient categories of a c tiv itie s ,
a ttrib u te s , or id e a ls. Plato wished h is Ideal citiz en to be •philo­
sophical, h igh -spirited, ew ift-foeted, and strong*”8 Herbert Spaaeer
classified hnaan a c tiv itie s as "self-preservation, the earning of a
liv in g , the duties of parenthood, the a c tiv itie s of citizenship, and
occupations fo r leisure*”8 Bobbitt7 would have the currlculun Include
language a c tiv itie s , health a c tiv itie s , citizenship a c tiv itie s , general
social a c tiv itie s , spare tin e a c tiv itie s , keeping oneself Mentally f i t ,
religiou s a c tiv itie s , parental a c tiv itie s , and unspeclaHned or nonvocatlcnal a c tiv ities*
The Coas&ssioa on Reorganization of Secondary Education which re­
ported in 1918 advocated ea^hasla on the cardinal principles}8 health,
eocaasd of fundamental processes, vocation, worthy hone nenhershlp,
citizen ship , worthy use of le isu re , aad eth ical character.
8 Ib id . V. 88.
* ***** *>• 88.
7 B obbitt, yranklin, Mew to mke a Curriculum. Bostons Houghton,
K lfflln and Ooapany, l«Sd*
8 Commission on Beemganiaatlom of Secondary Education, "Car dinal
P rinciples of secondary Education.” B ulletin o£ the hatloaal Idueatlon
Association* Ho. K , 1818.
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168
Th* Horth Central Association Conmlsslon ob Unit Courses aad
Curricula would spread i t s emphasis on health, ccwsuaity liv in g , tom*
tio a , aad use of leisu re.*
Tba Committee of th* Hetional Education Association on Social
Zeoaonlo Ooala of America included the following fo r emphasis:^*
h»r«ditary strength, physical security, p artleip atlo a la aa evolving
cu ltu re, aa active personality, suitable occupation, economic **curlty,
mental security, • quality of opportunity, fr*edaa, and f a ir play.
BIOS SCHOOL 00881001® HEEDS XH KBB8ASKA
A program of ourrloulua revision la becoming a common praotica
throughout th* TJhitod s ta te s . Such programs are based upon the aasumptio a th a t edueatioa should com* to grips with lif e and i t s everyday
acedsi that i t should seek to discover those prehlens which are the
continuous ooneera of every individual aad th at i t should help hln,
through proper solution of these problems* to develop to the best of
h is a b ility . Extended study and eareful e la ssifie a tie a ean define
these problems which are cannon to a l l and which p e rsist through lif e .
The two ehief faotors la determining any curriculum are the
heeds of the learner and the dominant ln tercata of the oosKunlty. I t
is th* wide v ariation la these facto rs which makes aeeessary a d ifferen t
approach* a d ifferen t emphasis, and even a d ifferen t content in many
high school subjects,
* im'port of th* oommltt** on the orientation of Secondary xdueatim , Department of secondary School P rincipals of the Rational Educa­
tio n A ssociation. B ulletin Ho. 64, Vol. 61, Jan. 1937, p. 59.
10 Ib id . p. 69.
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169
Society w ill best be served by a group of people with enough
sim ilar eh araeteristio s to enable them to understand tba eeemoa problem*
of tb a lr nation. These ebaraotarlatioa should re su lt froai common experienaaa and understandings—th* oore curriculum. Not a l l w ill bars the
same sohool experience* 5 i . e . , urban boys and g irls w ill become f s e l l e r
with the problems of those living in urban oonrunitiee, and sural
problems w ill beoooM fam iliar to the ru ra l boys and g ir ls .
I t should
not be necessary fo r these two groups to be subjected to exactly the
sane experiences to get the desired end product.
I t is a mistake to assume th at the outcomes desired of educa­
tio n , including these which should he cornea to a l l pupils, are a t
a ll tin e s best served by offering in the same way an id en tical
progran of studies to cash pupil. D iversity should characterise
the school program i f fo r no other reason than to prepare effective­
ly fo r the general a c tiv itie s which a l l are expected to take part
in . The contradiction which th is principle seems to present may
he explained on the basic of individual differences. Shlle a l l
pupils are alik e in some respects, they d iffe r in eth ers. Their
differences become in ten sified during the age of adolescence, aad
the secondary school finds I ts e lf dealing with a m ultitude of
pupils who must be educated in a m ultitude of ways even i f sim ilar
educational outcomes are envisioned of all.**I t is easy to ju stify diversified programs in our secondary
schools. On the other hand, there are some experiences which should be
canon to a ll pupils.
9hat the end product should be has boon most ably stated by the
M weatioaal Polieiea Commission in i ts recent publication, "Th* Fur' ^ l Import of The committee on the O rientation of secondary Sduoa-
**»,
& mssSssiasmi sz&B&sal!L
tlo n Acaoolatloa. B ulletin no. 64, fo l. 91, Jan.
19ST, p . 166.
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wm-
170
p o m s o f E duoation i n A s*rloan tim o c ra c y ."* *
In t h i s p u b lic a tio n ,
th e re la s a t f o r t h a r a th e r e la b o r a te statem e n t in te n d e d to do two
t h in g s .
F i r s t , i t h a s sought to s t a t e what th e commission th in k s th e
so h o o ls o f th e U nited s t a t e s ought to t r y to acco m p lish .
Second, i t
d e s c rib e s sane o f th e th in g s w hich need to be done i f th e s e p u rp o ses
a r e to be r e a l i s e d .
Four g e n e ra l o b j e c t i r e s a r e s e t f o r t h , aad each o f th e s e I s
r a t h e r c a r e f u l ly a n a ly z e d .
These a r e ;
th e o b je c tiv e s o f s e l f -
r e a l i z a t i o n ; th e o b je c tiv e s o f human r e la t i o n s h i p ; th e o b je c tiv e s
o f eeonoaio e f f ic ie n c y ; and th e o b je c tiv e s o f o iv lo r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
A ccording to th e E d u c a tio n a l i'o llo ic o Commission, th e ed u cated
p erso n h a s a a a p p e ti te f o r le a r n in g ; speaks th e m other tongue c l e a r l y ;
re a d s and w r ite s th e m other tongue e f f i c i e n t l y ; s o lv e s h i s problem s o f
c o u n tin g and c a l c u l a t i n g ; i s s k i l l e d in l i s t e n i n g and o b s e rv in g ;
u n d e rsta n d s th e b a s ic f a c t s c o n cern in g h e a lth and d is e a s e ; p r o te c ts
h i s own h e a lth and t h a t o f h is d ep en d en ts; works to Improve th e h e a lth
o f th e c o n a u n lty ; i s a p a r tic ip a n t and a s p e c ta to r in many s p o r ts and
p a stim e s ; h a s m en tal re s o u rc e s f o r th e u se o f l e i s u r e ; a p p r e c ia te s
b e a u ty ; aad g iv e s re s p o n s ib le d i r e c t i o n t o h i s own l i f e .
These ob­
je c t i v e s o f s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n a re l a r g e ly a re s ta te m e n t o f th e ob­
j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a tio n p re v io u s ly c i t e d i n t h i s c h a p te r .
A tte n tio n i s
c a lle d t o th e E d u c a tio n a l P o li c ie s d e m is s io n 1s p u b lic a tio n because
m as*
sL
M
Education Association and American Association of School Admialstratore,
Educational P olicies dem ission, Vashington, P. 0 .: 1938.
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171
o f I t s re c e n c y and s o t because I t r e v e a ls a n y th in g p a r t i c u l a r l y new.
The ed u cated p e rso n p u ts human re la tio n s h ip * ! f i r s t ) e n jo y s a
r l o h , s in c e r e , and r a r i e d s o c i a l l i f e j works and p la y s w ith o th e r s ;
o b se rv e s th e a m e n itie s o f s o c ia l b e h a v io u r; a p p re c ia te s th e fa m ily a s
a s o c ia l I n s t i t u t i o n ; c o n se rv e s fa m ily i d e a l s ; I s s k i lle d I n hossem aking; and m a in ta in s dem ocratic fa m ily r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
The ed u cated p ro d u cer knows th e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f good workmanship;
u n d e rsta n d s th e re q u ire m e n ts and o p p o rtu n ities f o r v a rio u s J o b s; h a s
e e le o te d h is o c c u p a tio n ; su cceed s i n h i s chosen v o c a tio n ; m a in ta in s
and im proves h i s e f f ic ie n c y ; a p p r e c ia te s th e s o c ia l v a lu e o f h i s w ork.
The ed u cated consumer p la n s th e economics o f h i s own l i f e ; d ev elo p s
s ta n d a rd s f o r g u id in g h i s e x p e n d itu re s ; I s an inform ed and s k i l l f u l
b u y e r; and ta k e s a p p ro p ria te m easures t o safeg u a rd h i s i n t e r e s t .
The educated o i t l s e a i s s e n s it iv e to th e d i s p a r i t i e s o f human
c irc u m sta n c e ; a c t s t o c o r r e c t u n s a ti s f a c t o r y c o n d itio n s ; seek s to
u n d e rsta n d s o c ia l s tr u c t u r e s and s o c ia l p ro c e s s e s ; h a s d e fe n se s a g a in s t
propaganda; r e s p e c ts h o n est d if f e r e n c e s o f o p in io n ; h a s a re g a rd f o r
th e n a tio n * s re s o u r c e s ; m easures th e s c i e n t i f i c advance by I t s con­
t r i b u t i o n t o th e g e n e ra l w e lf a r e ; i s a c o o p e ra tin g member o f t h e w o rld
community; r e s p e c ts th e law ; I s eco n o m ically l i t e r a t e ; a c c e p ts h is
e i v l e d u t i e s ; and a e t s upon an unsw erving l o y a l ty to dem ocratic i d e a l s .
H80BOA8IZATIO8 OF XBOHLEDOEB
A succ e s s f u l program , in v o lv in g th e r e o r g a n is a tio n a ad r e -
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in
d ir e c tio n o f th e c u rricu lu m and in s t r u c t i o n , should ta k e in to acco u n t
th o s e movemento which a re ta k in g p la c e on a n atio n -w id e s c a l e .
tr e n d s e re n o t n e c e s s a r ily in d ic a tiv e o f p ro g r e s s .
A ll
Rowaver, i t i s
a p p aren t th a t natty o f th e changes a re th e r e s u l t s o f s e r io u s s tu d y .
School men have endeavored to re o rg a n is e new program s around b o th
in d iv id u a l and s o c i a l n eed s.
There a r e now a number o f ourrioulum e n t e r p r i s e s d e v elo p in g
schemes o f s y n th c s is a tio n o f two o r more o f th e s ta n d a rd is e d seco n d ary s ch o o l s u b je c ts .
These a tte m p ts a r e more g e n e r a lly found in th e f i e l d s
o f a r t , m u sic, s o c ia l s t u d i e s , and E n g lis h .
The P ro g re s s iv e E ducation
A s s o c ia tio n , u n d er a s p e c ia l C arnegie F oundation g r a n t , I s u n d er­
ta k in g some d e f i n i t e e x p e rim e n ta tio n o f t h i s kind among member s c h o o ls .
I l l u s t r a t i o n s a re a ls o a ffo rd e d by p u b lic secondary schools*
An u n u su al o rg a n is a tio n o f t h i s k in d , f o r exam ple, h as b een adopted
by th e H oSinley High School o f H onolulu.
Some ex p erim en ts a r e u n d e rta k in g to re a rra n g e th e h ig h ly s p e c ia l­
is e d seeondary-aohool s u b je c ts in to f o u r o r f iv e b ro ad f i e l d s o f knowl­
edge such a s f in e a r t s , l i t e r tu r e and la n g u ag e s, th e s o c ia l s tu d ie s ,
and th e s c ie n c e s .
These p la n s c a l l f o r th e o rg a n iz a tio n o f th e s e f i e l d s
w ith d e f i n i t e sequence and sy ste m a tiz ed c o n tin u ity from y e a r t o y e a r .
A nother m ajor a tte m p t t o s e le c t broad f i e l d s o f knowledge a s
c o re f i e l d s f o r fo u r y e a rs o f secondary sch o o l I s found i n V ir g in ia ,
where a s t a t e c u rric u lu m h a s been b u i l t on t h i s p la n .* 8
As g u id e s
f o r th e s e l e c t i o n and o r g a n is a tio n o f knowledge and o f th e p u p il* s
e x p e rie n c e s , th e m ajor fu n c tio n s o f le a r n in g and s o c ia l l i f e were
IS P ro ced u res f o r The V irg in ia s t a t e O urrioulum Program , B u lle tin
XV, Bo. 9 , a ic te o n d i S ta te Board o f X d u eatio n , 1998,
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173
predetermined. Theso were then set up as centers of in te re st with
oereful planning hy executives and teaohers tc make them an in tegral
part of the regular work of the school.
The d iffic u lty of determining the desirable experiences for
boys end g i r l s i s w ell expressed in the follow ing quotation:
The basic lim itation of a l l science la that of Incompleteness.
Science has as i t s object the discovery of tru th , but—the un­
known w ill always ex ist beyond the lim its of the known—
Con­
sequently, insofar aa uen uuet deal with the to ta l o f re a lity ,
they w ill always have to be guided at certain points by some­
thing lees than exact knowledge. Call then guesses, hypotheses,
or what you w ill, the guidance Tvhioh they ean furnish is fa r from
trustw orthy aad in te llig e n t nan w ill exhibit honest disagree­
ments. In the field of currioulum-msk1ng, because of the i» aature statue of the foundation selenees of psychology aad
sociology, we are forced today, even in dealing with many of
the more elementary problems, to reso rt to the most crude
speculation. This situ atio n can be improved only as the science
of human society is developed. But th is fact does not ju stify
an a ttitu d e of indifference toward the complete u tiliz a tio n of
the available knowledge. Whatever may be the current statu s
of the science of education and i t s au x ilia rie s, they must
always be employed to the utmost In eurr1eulum-meking.
Disagreements are lik e ly to p e rsist because the science of
education is a n applied science. Fvery science th a t touche? human
w elfare, aad th is mesas a ll applied asieases, is eireumeerlbed
by some conception of w elfare. Within th is area and under the
given assumptions, individuals w ill be forced to agree accord­
ing to the measure of exact knowledge available. But even the
engineer is unable to determine how many bridges should be con­
structed unless certain lim iting conditions and unqualifying
purposes sore given him. Science is an instrument aad may be
used in achieving the most diverse ends. Chemistry may be em­
ployed in produolag foods or poisons, in conserving or destroy­
ing human lif e , Knowledge of the learning prooess may be de­
voted to purposes equally a t v a ria n c e .^
" ' M 14 bonnts, C. S . : "Sons Rotes on the foundations of CurriculumMaking." Twentv-slxth IbaTbook. Fart ZZ, pp. 88-89. Rational society
fo r the study of Education, Bloomington: Public School Publishing Com­
pany, 198ft.
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174
Slaoo common understandings, appreciations, aad attitudes
ara deeasd desirables la a daftoeraoy, the secondary aabool ourriaulua should iaalada a minima aaoont aad type of education whleh
*111 make ua a reasonably homogeneous paopla. Sara It la aoolaty'a
IB
demand, aot tba individual's, which la paramount.
Thea* sla lla rlzlng experiences constitute tba oora ourrioulum.
Certain ecanon understandings aad axparlaaaaa ara necessary
la a commonwealth such aa labraska. Bo* tbaaa understandings aa*
to ba acquired, whether tba result of traditional subject matter
organisation or sow fora of integration, la of secondary importance.
FROBUQiB TOR HBBRASKa HXOH 9<jhools
Tba followiag problems, suggeatad subjaata, aad minimal
ata&dards la aaeb problem araa ara basad upon tba philosophy already
stated. £t Is evident that tba ooataat of Individual oouraaa w ill
vary fro* community to community, dapaadlag upon tba aaods and
lataraata of tba pupils, aa wall aa tba axparlaaaaa of tba teachara. It should ba notad that th is program of stadias la aot offerad as a eora curriculum. it la indicative of tba parslatant problams of livin g that youth must prapera to meet, togatbar with suggest­
ed subjaats aad tba minimum standards for Mating tbaaa problems*
Upon tba basis of tba recommendations and findings already
Vooten, Ifleud 0 ., C alifornia Journal of Saoondary JSducatlon,
18i10-12, March 1937.
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in
«lt«d, i t appears to the w riter that secondary Softool eurrioulttus
of Rebraska should provide for tko sueeessful solution of tfto fellow-,
lag problem :
I . The problem of personal and poblie health—pbysloal, m n ta l
and aautional
8. Tbs problewof eaxaiag a liv iag
3. flw parablesof being a good eitia en
4 . The problem of u tilis in g and eontroU lng tfto natural
nvU m nat
5. The problem of tfto soswwaieatioa of ideas and tfto tran s­
portation of persons aad tftings
8. The probles of expressing aesth etie aadsp iritu a l impulses
7. Tfto problemof estaftlistin g aad maintaining a ftoao
3 . Tfto problem of getting along with people
Taftlo Iffl suggests subjests wftisft should bo taken to prepare
boys aad g irls to m et tfte p ersisteat problem of Nebraskans.
It
should be noted th at a ll experlenees w ill not be senates to all*
TABLS VO.
mmwD m m m o? zsw m
■fiyyyBSL^&i
m
£
Preble* Z
Health
1. Hygiene or J&yaiology
S. Physical Education
One u n it during
four years.
Problem I I
Tooatlon
1.
S.
3*
4.
5.
6*
7.
Two u n its during
four years. One
u n it should be in
nathesatios
Comoro le i subjests
D istributive ooeupations
in d u strial Arts
Mathaaatiee
occupational Ouldaaea
Trades and Industries
Vocational A grieulture
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176
7AB1C m
(continued)
m m sm P80QBAM Of STODIIS
froblana
JscesSsiJg&Us&fi.
Problem XXX
Oltlsenshlp
X* nariM A h la to r
8* OlTles
3. Economics
4 . qorcrn u nt aad P o litic a l
Soleaee
5 . Home Xeoacales
a . Art la tba hone
b . (HtUA aara
a* Clothing
d, Family relatio n s
a . foods
f . Horn equipment
g. Bona management
h. Housing
i . In terio r daaoratioa
j . Pursing
6. Hodam world history
7. Problems of democracy
8 . Sociology
9. Social Scienoe
f)a — n aita daring
the four yeara.
One u n it should ba
in Arneriosn history
and goTSTnna wt
Problem 17
Communication
1. leonomic geography
2. English
3. Latin
Three u n its in
English In the
four years.
4, Handwriting
9* liodarn languages
6. Beading
7. Spelling
Problem V
1. Applied Science
Controlling nature
8. Biology
One u n it In the
fo u r years*
3 . chem istry
4* General science
5 . Physics
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if?
TABU L7I (oontiaoad)
PKOPOSID PftOOtUK 07 STODIIS
Problosa
Froblaa n
gxprs M int
asath stla aad
sp iritu a l lapalasa
I . ABOrloaB U tw ttan
S. Art
3 . English llta ra tu rs
4 . Koala
8. World U tarato ra
Oas n a lt la XagUrt
aad A ssrlsaa
Tbaaa problsas tooah tba dally aaada of a ll, aad arary axperiaaoa
ahlah baa to do with th e ir solution co n stitu tes education.
la loans through experiences.
Experiences, to ha daalrahla,
aast seat sons f a it aaad, answer toat question, so lte acne problsa,
add laportaat knowledge, la ltla ta or iaaraaaa a s t i l l , enlarge a
polat of rlaw , aoftoa a prejudice, sodlfy aa a ttltu d a , o r la aoaa
othar wort-whlle aay sake a change la tha ona who undergoes tha
experience.
Tha prograa of study la a aohool la thavafora a aarlaa of
experiences ahloh ara daalrahla fo r tha laaraar haoaaaa thay bring
about thoaa ahaagaa la tha laaraar ahloh toad to sales h is a happier
aad aora uaafal aeaber of soolaty.
i f th la la a tw o rlaw of eduoa-
tlo a , than tha school, la providing thaaa sxpsrlaaost, m a t have la
aiad tha wide variation la Individuals aad tha aids variations la tha
aaada of tha soslsty la ahleh thaaa individuals m at lir a .
Za othar
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178
words, the ssbool » u t , as fa r as possible, f i t aaeh individual to be
as useful a meMer as possible of tbs group to whlsh ba m at beloag—
aad at as high a ls r a l, la th at group whlsh ba is oapabls of a tta in lag . Sobools oaaaot do th is ualass, in shaping students* programs
of study, provision is mads to mast tba aaada of individuals, ant
oonsldaration la glvan to tba kind of ooonnalty in whish thay w ill
probably lira *
la tba lig h t of tbaaa prinoiplas, a program of study mast ba
fle x ib le , aad no othar kind of program of study aan ba mads to
apply ovar a larga araa suab as tba e n tirs a ta ta . indssd, ao two
sobools aaad bars exastly tba aama program of study aad no sonool
nssassarlly should follow tba same program of study in suaaassiva
years. Tba Mads of tba laaraar aad tba aasds of tba oemmauity w ill
dstsrm ias tba aoataat of tba oouraaa from aabool to sohool aad from
ysar to yaar. no two sonmuaitios ara alik a and aaon eom anity has
i t s own dominant in te re st. Tha sobools must taka aooount of thaaa
diffaraaoas, i f they ara to prapars tb a ir pupils to undarstand,
ln ta rp ra t, and adjust tbamsslvas to tba aavironmaat la wbloh thay
11vs.
Tba abovs program of studios w ill adequately provida tba
aaada of aoolaty fo r tha train in g of boys aad g irls to qualify aa
sduoatsd o itlsa a s aeeording to tba o rite rl
sat fo rth by tba sduea-
tlo a a l fo lio la s Commission, (gas pags 170.) Tba suggastaa subjests
fo r problem oaa abova. w ill provida experienoea for itarns savaa, eig h t,
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17*
nine, aad te a of th* objectives of se lf-re a liz a tio n ; item fiv e w ill
bo eared fo r bjr the subjeets of problem two; two, six . eleven. twelve.
aad th irte en by tba subjects fo r problem a lz | it*ma tbraa aad four
w ill ba tba re su lts of tha subjects of problem four. Th* objectives
of human relationship w ill ba tha re su lts of tha subjects liste d
fo r problem tbraa. as w ill a l l of tba objectives of oivio responslb illty except items si* aad ecvsa. Tba la tte r two items w ill ba tba
p a rtia l re su lts of tba subjests under problem fiv e .
Items oaa to
si* , inclusive, of tba objectives of economic efficiency w ill ba
sa tisfie d by tba subjeets lis te d to meat problem two, and items
seven to tan , by tba subjeets fo r problem tbraa.
A COBS OtmXCULTBI FOB S2BBASXA 8 m SCH)OLS
from tba above, i t appears th at a oore ourrioulum should in­
clude a subject *fclch would emphasize health. Boys and g irls ara
often slow in deciding upon th e ir lif e work, therefore, mathematics
to f i t tha individual should ba provided. The azaat nature of
th is experience should be determined by the degree to which the minimam essen tials have been mastered. I t is a truism that desirable
eltisenahlp is the basic principle underlying society* s eagerness
to maintain the public school system, since eltisenahlp is so Im­
portant and is the objective of the social studies, i t is suggested
that our educated citizen s be informed of our nation*s heritage,
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100
• a ll I t what you w ill. To ba abla to aoqalre inferaatioa fro* tha
printed peg* or to aonsanlsat* in te llig e n tly In w riting w ill require
a knowledge of tha fondaaantals of tha English language and othar
oonatenta for our aore of experiences. As a naans of basoning b a tta r
acquainted with aatura*s work, i t is suggested that aoaa basla general
salanoa eouraa ba a p art of tha experience of ovary saoondary-achool
boy and g ir l. Tha extent and nature of thaaa experiences ara d isouasad in tha following pagan.
(a) Sngllah
Thara appaara to ba su fficien t avldanaa to support tha eon*
taatlo a that four years of high sahool Xnglish ara aaaassary aad
daalrahla fo r a l l boys aad g irls who graduate fro* our saaoadary
sahoola. Educators, layosn, and Sebraska high sahool aanlors ara
ganarally agroad that suah should ba a requirement.
This is
tha opinion of $7.1 par aaat of tha group which raspondad to th is
survey. Tha survey included 980 boys aad g irls la th* 1940 gradu­
ating alassas of twenty Nebraska high sehools, 979 Nebraska sahool
teachers, aad 89 layoan. Thara was a variatio n In th e ir opinions
as to th* nature of th* experiences which tha four-yaar Xnglish
re quires* nt should laoluda. With referenaa to tha English o ffer­
ings a t th* ninth-grad* le v e l, 40.9 par sent believe that tha
eapfaasis should ba on granoar} 13.1 par aaat favor oonposition; and
10.3 par aaat fa a l th at lite ra tu re should ba anphatlsad. Th* emphasis
a t other grad* lev els Is indlaatad in Table m i .
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181
TABLE L T II
DKSIHABLE DISTHIBOTIOK OF XKFB&SIS IK » U S R G00H3ES
Types of Xaniieh' Xxncrieaoe
Oraaaar
Oonposltlon
L iterature
Oral XagUsb
(brads 9 fireda 10 grade 11 Orade la
40.9
13.1
10.8
7.17
18
18.3
83
8.91
13.3
9.4
13.3
8*33
13.9
7.8
15.8
18
Binety-four aad four-tenths par aaat of tba parsons cooperating
la tb is study b aliars that la g.ll sh should ba takaa by a l l high aabool
pupils a t tba aiatb-grade level} 93.7 par aaat faro r grade tea; 84.8
par aaat faro r grade eleven} 73.3 par aaat favor tba English retjoireneat la tba tw elfth grads.
Tba low astaaa fo r foroal o ral Eaglish was indicated Jrv the fav
who soggastad i t s caphasis. Thara appaarad l i t t l a iad iaatio a of a
dasirs fo r th is tra d itio n a l pbaaa of Sagllsh taaohiag. C ertainly
thara Is l i t t l a ju stific a tio n fo r tha lack of ap h asia given to oral
Xnglish. This phase of tha currieulwa should reeeirs mob enphasis
baoaasa speaking a a tiv ltia s eo astltu ta a major portion of tbs aaa
of tba nothar tongas.
H g b ty flra aad two-tenths par aaat of tha jury who weald re­
quire English In grade nine, would require i t fiv e days aash week.
Aa area higher persaataga (09.3) favors I t as a part of tha d ally
schedule whan offered in grada tan . Tbs percentages fo r gradas
eleven aad twelve ara 91.5 aad 88.8. respectively. Opinions approach
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188
unanimity with regard to the adv isab ility of having tha English oouraaa
run fo r th irty -six weeks rath er than fo r a seaaater. Students, teaehera, and layaen ara alike in th e ir oonvietioa regarding tha length
of claaa periods—a m ajority of each group favoring periods of sixty
winutes or wore,
(h) Matbenaties
few people fe e l th a t w atham tlea should con stitute a p art of
the core eurriettlua fo r four years.
Only 18,8 per sent see the
adv isab ility of sash an arrangeaent. However, 88 per seat of the
Jury favor aathaaaties fo r everyone in the ninth grade aad TO.6 per
sent are ee rtaia th at i t should he eosaum to a ll again in the tenth
grade. The popularity of algebra, as a d iet for a ll pupils in
grade nine, is d efin itely ehallesged by the findings in th is sur­
vey, Twenty-one aad nine-tenths per sent o f these advoeatlag natha■ aties in grade nine fe e l th at the M thwaatles should he a ritk a stie |
while 3Q.8 per sent would require algebra, Oeeawtry is the oholee
of 88.T per sent of those who would require oathsoatles of every­
one in grade ten ,
Zn grades nine and ten, nany types of aatbenatieal
experieaees were suggested, in addition to those mentioned above,
Zt is the opinion of the w riter th at arith e e tio should be re­
quired of everyone ia grade nine, unless profioiaaey has been aehleved
in the nialnam e sse n tia ls. This opinion Is tha resu lt of the aaay
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185
stateaeats by pupils, teacherst and layman of th* need fo r various
phasss of arithm etic} i . e . , consumer mathematics, business arithm etic,
advanced arithm etic, accounting, general mathematics, and simple
arithm etic. Profioiency could be determined by p re-reg istratio n
to st* in oonjuootion with the school's gnldano* program.
There is sons evidence of a felt-need fo r nathematio* through
grad* te n . Evidence doss not warrant th* adding of geometry to
th* schedule of a l l boys and g ir ls .
Likewise, th* laok of uniform ity
in th* typos of mathematical *xp*rian**s which are dssirsd a t the
eleventh and tw elfth grads lev els ia d isatss th at mathematics probably should not bs a p art of ths sors in these grades* The needs
of individuals at these levels should be considered* Thus, i t ap­
pears th at the only mathmnaties needed by a l l pupils oould re su lt
fron experieaees ia grade nine* This oourse should be p raetlea l ia
nature—i t should be designed to neet the requirements of pupils
who eonplete th e ir fornel education in the secondary schools. Ad­
vanced mathematics, fo r those who seed i t fo r specialized train in g ,
should b* electiv e—aot required of everyone.
(c) foreign Languages
foreign language has many friends who believe th a t high school
pupils should devote a year o r nor* to the study of son* l anguage
other than English. Only 44.3 per cent of the jury would not re­
quire foreign language of a l l pupils. A few persons would require
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184
one year of everyone, but nor* than twice as many would require two
years. Tbs feeling s t i l l e x ists th a t, where only one year of a
foreign language Is to be required, I t should be L atin. This is
tru e In 55,8 per oent of the rep lies to th is inquiry. Where two
years are required, modern languages hare as many advocates as has
Latin; and among those who would require three or four years, the
modern languages are thought to be sore desirable.
S ufficient evidence does not ex ist to warrant requiring a
foreign language as a part of the core curriculum in Nebraska. I t
is apparent th at sons lo c a litie s say feel the need fo r acne language
other than English, but such oases are becoming less frequent with
the passing of each generation. Since there is no uniform f e lt
need, th is phase of the ourrioulum w ill f a ll effectiv ely into the
category of electiv es,
(d) Social studies
Social studies are deemed worthy of a place la the core
curriculum at the ninth-grade level by 55.3 per cent of those co­
operating in th is investigation. The percentage is a l i t t l e high­
e r for grades ten, eleven, aad twelve, where i t is 65,98, 65,8, aad
59.1, respectively, A course which stresses community lif e , orienta­
tio n , guidance, social problems, citizen sh ip , local government, and
sociology la auggested by the Jury as most desirable for grade nine.
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105
World H is to r y ! s s • b ao k g ro u ad f o r a b a t t a r u a d s r s ta a d l a g o f a a d s r a
p r o b l a a s , i s to a s o a i a l s tu d y s o u s ld a r o d a s s a s s a iry i a g ra d a t a a .
th a n s i x t y p a r a a a t
Mora
(66.4) o f tfeo ss who w ould r a y u l r a o r a r y o a s t o
ta k a s q m s o o i a l s tu d io s i a g ra d a a l a r a a f a a l t h a t t h i s s x p a r ia a o a
sh o u ld Ha p r o r ld a d i a th a s tu d y o f iu a s r is a a H is to r y .
O th a rs w ars
d l r i d a d r a l a t l r a to th a a a t u r a o f th a s o a i a l s t a d i a s a x p a r is u o a a t
th is la v s l,
S o a i a l , a o o a a a ie , a a d o i T i l p ro b law s would r a a a i r a M ajor
a u p h a s is d u r in g t h a f o u r t h y a e r , i f a M a jo r ity d a a id a d th a a o a t a a t
o f th a a o u r s a s .
T h is i s th a t a a t i a o a y o f
67.4 p a r a a a t o f tk o s a
sfco would Haas s o a i a l s t u d i o s a s a p a r t o f th a e a r s o u r r i o a l u a i a
g ra d a tw alw a.
P ro a t h a f o r a g o ia g d a t a , t h a r a a p p a a r s t o h a a a s a d f o r f c u r
y a a rs o f s o a ia l s ta d ia s ,
a o rd
s t u d a a t s , t a a a k a r s , aad l a y a a a a r a i a a o -
aa t h i s s u b J a o t. T b a ir ju d g a a a t i a d i a a t a s t h a t th a s o o i a l s t a d i a s
a x p a r ia a a a a t th a a i a t h - g r a d a l a r a l s h o u ld a a p h a s is # th a o o a o u a ity j
t h a t s u t h g r a d a , th a w o rld b a s k g ro u a d ; t h a s l s a a a t h g r a d a , o u r n a t i o n 's
d e r e le p s w a ti aad t h a t w a l f t h g ra d a s h o u ld s a p h a s ia a s o a i a l , a s o a o ttis ,
and e i r i s p r o b la a s l u a d s a o a r a a y .
(a) Musis
Sosa typo of aitsis would ha axpariauaad by srsxyoas ia Habraska
high sobools i f 65.7 par aaat of tha studaats, taaohars, aad layaaa
Had th a lr way, fh lrtsa a aad four-taaths par aaat would raquira oaa
ywar; 10.9 par aaat, two yaars{ 7,6 par a a a t, tbraa yaars; aad 14.3
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m
per cent would require four years* others would require fractio n al
enounts* i t 1c to be noted th a t saisio groups would not se c t daily
i f pupil*, teachers, and layaen were to aoko the d ally schedules* Them
ia l i t t l e difforoneo in tho nusibor preferring two meeting* per week
and tha nucher favoring three meetings* There la a decided difference
of opinion aa to the ideal length of a ancle period* The am ber who
favor six ty Minutes or sore is alao ct the sens# aa these who facer
periods of fo rty to forty-nine Minutes*
The suggested a c tiv itie s are again so d iv ersified th a t one doee
n et fe e l ju stifie d in suggesting aueic aa a eranon experience fo r every**
(f) Physical Bdueatlea
Teaehsrs aad laymen are acre ansre of the necessity fa r physical
education than are high school sealers* Seventy-nine aad eigbt-besrths
par m et of the h i # school taaebers aad sixty-oao aad sia-beathe per
se at of th* laymen would r a p i r t sens physical education of a ll h i #
•shoal pupils* F ifty -fiv e par sent of the students* tcaeherw, aad
layman would require i t of a ll beys and g irls la the ninth gradet 41*87
per se a t, ia grade te a j 88 per cen t, la grade eleven} and 80 per e a st
in grad* twelve* The daaand on the p art c f the jury fo r one, two,
throe, aad four year* of physical education fa r everyone is 18* 18*87,
8.1, aad 18*6 par m a t, respectively* A fee individuals suggested
fractio nal years, such as a yam aad a h a lf, ete«
were suggested about h a lf as often as fu ll-y ear
courses* As in th# case of an sie, i t was suggested nest frefaeo tly th a t
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m
two o r
p e rio d s p e r nook would bo d s e ira b lo *
The lo n g p e rio d i s
considered z o e t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r th is phase o f the ourrioulum by store
th a n h a lf o f th o s e who e x p re sse d th em selv es on t h i s p o in t*
She e x p erien c e i n p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n should a t t e s t to c a r e f o r
in d iv id u a l needs*
Qroup gemes i s th e a c t i v i t y proposed by th e g r e a t e s t
nuxber a t s i l g rad e l e n d s *
I f th e above c r i t e r i a m y b e u s e d , th e w r i t e r would su g g e s t one
y e a r o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n f o r everyone a t th e n in th -g ra d e le v e l*
She
c o u rse would be & f u l l y e a r i n l e n g th , w ith th re e p e r io d s , o f s i x t y
n in u te s o r n o re i n le n g th , p e r week*
(&) Art
She dewand f o r a r t e x p e rie n c e s does n o t a p p e a r t o b e v e ry w ide­
spread*
About th r e e - f o u r th s (74*6 p e r o e n t) o f o u r ju r y would s e t r e ­
q u ir e azy a r t o f a l l p u p ils *
The few who f e e l t h a t i t should be a p a r t
o f eveiyone** e x p erien c e a r e a b o u t e v en ly d iv id e d upon th e q u e s tio n s
o f w hether i t tftoUld be f o r a s e a e s te r o r f o r a y e a r , and w h e th e r i t
should b e o n e , tw o, t h r e e , f o u r , o r f i v e days eaoh week*
i t a p p e a rs
to th e w r i t e r t h a t t h i s phase o f th e e u r r lo u lu a ooULd and should b e
c o r r e la te d w ith n e a r ly e v e ry o th e r phase o f th e o u rrieu lu B *
(k) Cawwereial
fo r ty -o n e and f o u r - te n th s p e r e e n t o f th e J u ry would r e q u ir e
a n p u p ils to ta k e sons e o sm ero ial work i n g rad e elevw nj and 59*S p e r
c e n t would r e q u ir e sqoo i n g rad e tw elve*
A f e l t need f o r ty p e w ritin g
appear* a o s t p r e v a le n t a t b o th g ra d e le v e ls *
th e d an aad , however, i s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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te* flftIB ouprifltulup te a. B tllf ilte l — *»■ te BMUPi.1t MMMwt^p—Aiim*.. |*
^p ^ p i ^ b
^p
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Up ^O
A* t t e aniaiottoaf tho v r lte r te a t i a la il r t i l art* would te w tem . msbombb
»Mtaft fo r *11 tey* *at ten* m m m I** fo r a l l g iii* ty * l*rgo pur»wTOgB m wil jw '/i tmu m^r OWb pVVH W» ^ |w filB * y w fQ^^WV U n T
if&Mtt Ml
SlnM Ih i
U M te
*UiBM
i inni te# tejUlAtt ^tetetetegte liM M teftk
At *®p**r* tfttfft <fyp> ym*r a t pwjuuMtin*. for ^>1* Anportea t —pff%i«*f»
UiuAi t e te# MKMriunou o f * ti M il aafaool
te fte n smduntlaxu
a*
telusfiu ^pp
i n uuM
f obp^m
m
muaulMd
ope#f uv«rvoxM
lw *7A«4
*■#
^rbbipbi#
^p ^u
pi^m Bmald 1
uf
^m *p
^nun b
# ^w*^y
# * # # *^*
m*f
«*at o f te* Jury fo r te l# *tely» fM tetytela* « a l terv teteatea p*r ount
wowM r* f^ r* ca* ynari U«1S p*r «*at# teo y*«ra« 14 por Mat# te r te
y a r n 50#S3 par e te t, four y te ra j a te o tte rs would rw p lr* son* fteotte#*
*1 te« K t* m m m m f if ty jwr te a t (W *«) o f
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
*09
mpiuiro soionoo III grate ninof
to bo of
a
rant 1%
goaorai nature, sva»i «« gonorftl ftoionoo*
Biology, gonoral ooioiao,
Boatload
por oint of teaso
as
A nd
physiology or* aore froquontly
doslrablo subjoota for grate ton* Him* sarits ft plooo la
tea oora ourrioulisa, if tea asods oxprossod by tea .jury or# ssooptod
ft» rrldoaoo, Tho inquiring of a soiotas io grates 41mm rad tm lm #
Aft la grate ton, teo« not soon odTisftblo to a oignifi«*nt porooat*go
of tho*o who roportod.
I t ftpposrs to tea writer that a yoor of soionoo should ho tftbaa
by i l l h i# sohool pupils bsforo gradation, but thoi tho oxpaionos
nood not bo tea
mm
for srauyoas* To untersboad «*a*s on'rlronosnt,
to Sfpraolftte asters, oad to soouro faoslth Intonation «ro dsoiiftbl*
outeoasa of
a
ooutm vhieb should bo tho oxporienoo of susryoas botora
toning lifo with its assy prahloan*
(k) Library
flf torawnwa sad si#b-tenths por ooat of tea Jay fool teat rogte
lo r ooooftft to tea library i« ra o ra iw yi 13,1 por M at would prorid*
oao yoftr in tea libraryj d*M por ooat, too yours* &«S p r ooat, teirao
yworaf «al ld*6i, tour poors, Fraotloaol mounts would bo roqulmd by
ofchsrs. Tho nood for rwgular porlote la tho library
ooom o
to bo About
oooaly dirldod, rslatirs to grate lorol* with u s li# tly gro»tor
nood
ladlofttod for grate nlno, Fro# raodlng, study, sad raforatao work
Should bo tea aojor ootiYitio* during tho tl»» Assignsd to tea library*
Busy «oooft« to tea tools of looming should bo prooidod for i l l
boys sad girls throughout teair h i# sohool oursor. Siaoo A ll sohools
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
m
sro aet equipped with * central library* olassroon reading shelves herald
b e w a it
available as the need arises* This phase of
th e
ourrleulum
should constitute a definite part of the oore o f sxparienooB a t the high
school level*
the lu lrlsa b ility of separate study periods Is a saoot question*
A wide difference of opinion Is revealed by the 88*3 per seat wise feel
that separate study periods should not be a part of the sore etvrlse*
leaf vhils 89*97 per seat feel that aush Should be the regular evtperb*
ease ef every pupil far four years* the distribution saesg these sag*
getting one* two* or three years Is about equal. There Is little dif*
feronoo of optnlon regarding the advisability of having this saporlsoee
dally* She desire ter a dally library ported Is almost uaeaiaous aewng
these idie feel that such a parted Is eessntiaCU
(1) Ckasrooatioas
In atten p tiag to datam lno hew te ose the tin * spent by pupils
^ ashed*. these neon shoe the raarwmiillin Itn r i s*tin era o ftaa easkhMBtd
w ith rwouests fo r »»*»*»»»<*»><Sm to rnrsisnt **—♦><<»» to tb s student tot*
as a grasp* tested in te re sts, presssre groups* aabltleaa politician s*
**m>, . ftn*m
h>»i4ii» seek v*»*a
w*^»ewwv^w»
ee* * eeBavbiaeibiea*
^wee^evns e w e w*e*wW
b^pww^h**b
Mmvoeatloma be a
*^^*ee»^e*e*^*wafepe* v^ww *mi
p a rt o f the ears ewrrieulwa? Should only those be provided whloh era
of In te re st to a ll?
How often sad how auwh ties should be derated to
th is p a rt of the vm rim A m l The 4wy fa r th is study is divided spaa
set eon*
eider eonvoeations a p art of the sere enrriouluai while 86*7 would re*
qui n* abteedaaee e f everyone for four year*. The new thing 88*2 par
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
If!
sen t i s oboist evenly divided between these whs would reijuire one, two*
ST 1h res peers* stbeBdsaoe#
Gas period per week i t s e s t oeoeptable to th e jury os a whole,
especially w ith the faculty woafcors* A slig h tly sn o ller percentage
would fever two period* sash week. Short eeavoeotlaas ore desired ty
west aorsoas «**»*«o^*’iiei1« Periods In ****** a t
t& ir ta M a ln e n iB S b e a
ore
unpopular with o il groups#
These pragm as w ill be verisd i f they ore to sseb w ith the op*
arevel o f f f lf ili. toothers* osd Iovmmu lb s wost freeuently ausztianed
oenreso tlo a presentation woo tho odueotlwnoi«tyye e f program* Ow jury
w d l lone the sere ourriovlun i&elude eao period, s e t to exoeed fo rty
minutes# The propose would be w r i s l , but would usually hove sens
educational value#
fM |\ itkwiaeOMlSKJatt d IBtM
W wOTnttl lag
Sevontyethres oad one-tenth per sen t o f the students# tssohsre#
sad leywen responding te th is inquiry do aet see Mgr need fo r oouneoltng
os o port o f tin sere eurrleUliaoe th irty -fo u r «»d sia-ten th s pour M b
o f the t opohsre, oad th irty -e ig h t per soot
4Rx^^3i^iZ^ZEtaia^^ ai
b e lie f th o t sounseilag M o ld be o po rt of the ourriouiun fo r four peers#
Student# ore apparently unaware of the need fo r euoh service#
Perhaps
M s phase e f the ourrioulm has s e t been so offeetive oe sons eth er
{hoses#
I t Is the opinion ef the writer th o t o il eowseeli&g i s o p e rt of
teoehisg# oad i t ased set be s e t apart fro# the re s t of tbs eeheol day#
Special atten tio n should be gives to the probiens o f iadividuols ifcon
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
192
they a ris e . Thus, counseling w ill constitute a d efinite pert of the
core curriculum of every school, regardloss of Its s ite ,
(a) Health
The resp o n sib ility of the sohool fo r the health of the student
body apparently does not extend to the point of iaoataixiag pupils against contagious diseases. Hinety-one per cent of the jury opposed
iwranination as a part of the sohool experienoe of a l l boys and g ir ls .
About twenty-five {24.4} per sent would approve of vaccination as a
part of every p u p il's experienoe under the supervision of the sohool.
The apparent feeling th at the health of the boys and g irls is
one thing and th e ir education is another is evideneed by the fa st th at
&> per east of the jury in th is study does not feel that the school
should include physical examinations as a part of the core curriculum.
In co n trast, id .5 per cent fe e l th a t th is should be an annual experience
fo r four years.
I t appears to the w riter th at the schools need to show more
clearly than heretofore the close relationship between school success
and healthy Then and only then w ill these phases of youth's lif e be
considered a part of the core curriculum.
SfBSKAHY
In attempting to determine a desirable core curriculum fo r Hebraska high schools, the opinions of 1880 high school seniors, high
sohool teachers, and laymen were so lic ite d . Table L7III presents the
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
itf tg tf tt w& «xptrUoo*« thought worthy, by to to $wy# o f a g£*e»
A m MUNI iwaw lin il a u
to
ttt AfctaBSt i t MUtt 1& A it« <t1 » * fjlitllfflffi t t W it *
to t •w arn* o f *tudy fo r Mob o f to ttt ttptrttaotA * H at I t lo f t to lilt
•atotot* tffo rto of currioulu» trptrto and toAttretn totth trt*
1%hot
htt& to t to tto t of to t writor to tt« t whAt i t totog dont to Stbrtskt to
projmro youth to r l i f t to t tonsrM yi tota to too* « to t t Jury* rito U y
tftootod by to t prooont pi»otlM «, would htro «• t tor* ttrrtotom to
toto ttato*
TABLE m ix
A l®QH>«© COKE S W l U i
FOB »w»o*«y* ttaytputff a^navif ^
Svtobi
tk^L,ApjmAi
9
9
•
9
9
9
f
9
1
19
10
19
U
Bngfltoh
Stotoflntbitof
fiffto l BtoAtot
ItototK l
Ltortry poriod
Xndottr ia l Arto*
Son* Stonmitot**
to y tto tl ta ta t
ftaitrn aatlornt
Bnglito
to tto ! s to ils t
Q m tm totnt
11
11
S tftto l s t o iit t
to
to
to U A
S tod lti
9lWIWHii%liltiftt
# For tU toys
<Mt tor A ll g lr lt
to
*tor
*ipp 9ttk
^^wnrw» tor tor
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
9
9
i
9
9
9
8
99
99
99
99
99
99
89
mmmtfm &* WBWFMBwWr
9 hnmaf
^toiiiy>ti'%tiiMi
Arithavtio
OowMoltgr TtitWwt
Btoiy
tW83?ife
to S w S b to lS « A p
99
99
90
99
99
99
99
99
99
1
8
8
8
8
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
1
99
1
6
8
1
hltorAtort fM towewr
Brtvwttlontl
\jSTW9Hmm* iw Jb&wPpwwtonp
£NmXaema& o f to t TJ*8•
AtttAbittAl
09tn ttr **i4 LltnPAtort
Sooltlp tootwtkitf tn i
• to il prtotoM
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
m
COBaUBlOlffi
I# S liU iif ftootonto eatp»rtonoft» o f ywtto ^ra i!Mwtfytoi f yi%%9
Iftrpetooto ft bottogft&nouft jMNfftostoZ fthloh to oootod to ft.
nation* t o s s than 7 5 .0 0 yor ooot ftfeto o l too ooeangftffy « * M to o f t o Zhoir o m o s oftodNBto w^wpSsbwni too Xtoltodj only to to#
m m of to#to*> Z, Bnglieh ZZ* oat togtoatog toftovm, to am w ty*€±m
tmmp mh | a#
tfu> ftftflMttfttilfte oaliAftto Mintlnfe ft»* aaaui MaiMia Os 1m
f • toft fta^pftriftOMc whioii ore eoawen to m m mm vauttZy different
to ftKtoftft* toto to fftfwftZftA toy toft Trcfrfitlf
«m toft oonftaefe of
tfaft ftp
voanirftd flMMMi
tiufaujjicftt
tlto
rj aift
ftftftw
ft^ftAft ftftPOflpft^ftftPfttftP toto
APAAIftftft ^
pPO*ft^ftft^
9* toft tto o devoted to to» ftotw «pftri*noftft d iffe rs too auoh to
ato» fo r \m iforaity* to* ftduoftttoaftl propm m of toes* toot* pftxoBte
are fortftd to aii& oto dartog toft fttooOl yoor to ooaeaeftiftriXy taaperod
toy oato oftrtofetoaft*
*
4* toft plan* of fflMjttitttiift Uftftd to nmnnntlTir too afttortoto
for ftftto eubjoot m rtoo fftan oaM nalty to mmmmiApa to* t u t o t o to
too gwfttoftt otogZft guide to too ptonxtiag of ftlooet «U oomrft** of *tudy«
S» fhft Iftftsto oBKW
f toft Afttoftel
dftsr
to O
mPAft eWe^Mrft le
d toftti
ooual
mfitftftlil ntim
ftMWHPft A
B^P^p eftftft
ftftBft
fftlft ftp ft^
^ftftftftOftt IMiftftllRpftftftPlft^
oZ opportunitifto would to topoftelbl* w ito too Mtodtdftft « • ttoy a n to*
toy* wen, i f ton m m maw/it e f aaaey per popU wereftpontto oZZ ea»»
6 , Store to oa
mmnmm of
hieh ftfthoolft of tto itoto*
to* seed fo r pftioonaftlwork to to*
Store to* towrmr* bo eetototifte of on eypn*
toed otototo oa toft pvetoXoR*
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
m
T* Thsro is littl® n t t e M tb n t «*• M # Mbooa. i t ohsrgsd w ith
ti» resp o n sib ility of promoting tb s feoslbb of i t s boys.sai g irls*
3* lb s bams ro w is oonsidsrsd sa sgenoy fo r th s promotion of
dnssMrsbio prsobioss*
9* Jtors bliss m f of tbs sdninisihrsbors Of SsbTMkS h^ ti Qf frflHtff
h t n giiMB no sosoifio
ts i a a n of smasrisnmss from «st<0
• ia iia r looming* would ro su lt fo r *11 stodsntsp
10 # Thor* is s dofinlt* trsm l tM u d ( tin tm tn i tho riT^wrr o f son*
sto ats n>wrm
fo r ggs*
graduation*
Q nnvr*gt i t smn^sonnos
dtotdd bo
noted th
is osn»
is sp^no
fo r
^^^n^^^a^soironpOr
s^^n oi^srp^opso
s s ^o
n ot th
asPMOfcos
o
p
from s matnlmous pmobioop
U p aso rp n isstio n of tb s o v r i n l m in mbsnsks to r progrssssd
ia spit s of tradition* tho infliwnoo of
tnbrasoo rs grit isnsiito*
tSAohar tu ru o ra r, seoaomio nntnii11i1sss i sod tb s IsSk o f s ssnfem llssd
program* Ib is bos bona ths rssu lt# o f soars* raorgsaisstion by iB U v itn l
t sssihsr s * sod by tb s siding to o r sabtrsotiag from tb s ourrlouiwa* M s
sonrf sro boiag sddsd than dropped* ib is woiid in dio sts th o t tb s oar*
i i o l n i s r t booosiag nor* iito rslfisA to ssomnwdsto H ist graqp o f
boys w«ti g irls wfao s rs M g if tln i th s ir forms! sduosbion*
fhora is s toadonoy to pot o ff «uoh sssdsml* snpsrlsaoss so
slgsfera* 1 s t in* sad geometry u n til tb srs is s nors io f ln its asoi fo r
thorn* o r u n til tho pupil is aor* nsbsro* A slig h t t m i is mi4mm&
bar t t i aoosnsnt of biology from felghsr to lo ss r grad* lo ra l* .
U p VOry llaitoA cwrlotdta* rsor p n isst loa in mbmsbn is dtts to
tho s o tlv itlo s of owrrio\d.t» spoa 1*1lets*
lb s ohlsf ooatrllm ter* sro
tb s individual tssobsrs working on tb s ir own oourso** fit* asxt n est
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
m
ia flo e n tia l oontrihwtera are the etainietnetare*
14* Profieioney in
the um of the Etaglieh language ahet&d
te an
objective ta rin g eaah of tho four years apaat In tho high aoheel*
16* A oooial otudioo ooureo ahould ho woman to a il toy# and g irl*
aeeh ro
t thasr a t a i *in
these
ihowld
jflp ar th a ^P
^p^^p Htifc
PPPInWP eehoel*
^PPF^^^PIPIPPP eoureea
Pf™w PPPPW
PMPWI
fHnfIf
on*
tho oiwimi ty iq grata nines tha world in grata' ten* tho **^ nn«
devalepaent in grata elevens tho petalem of a doaooraoy in grata twelve*
mmmmsmm m msomtsmAnom
This otady h at aata i t apparent th a t there la need fo r aoae wnlfy*
lug ageney to aee th a t oortain aohool experienoeo heeme eoaaen to a il
high aohool hoye and g irla before graduation* wo a r t no longer a nation
of individualiota* h at instead, wo aro a nation of oewfomlate* Oar
eohoolo aro attempting to edweate individual io to , dlarogardioi; the fa ta
th a t teiay w ill nood oortain eownea understanding* whoa oat of aohool*
ffcaae young people heocoas oitiaena ef the s ta te , net merely of the eon*
am ity where they aro sehooled* She aara ovorrioultia lo •ocioty** shara
of tho future aittaaaa* aohool tim e, givaa in return fo r sooiety** eon*
trib u tio n ta the educating of tho Individual*
Courses of study fo r aara eeursea Should ha w ritten te l&aare a
tagrao of uniformity* Claoirooa teaohera have been neat aotlva In
earrioulua reorganisation In tho poet and Bhouid ho u tilise d la eon~
juaoticna w ith lay g rap e and m aritalw a sp e c ia lists in tho fataro*
data elem ate aa the tln o devoted to th e sore experiej3000* and the
plena of organisation iiaed in presenting
^ n ii «< he deterT*****1* ty
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
Iff
th e dan* group*
Grade placem ent h as boon determ ined l a r g e ly by t r a d i t i o n .
Stops
should bo ta k a a to determ ine th o most s a t i s f a c t o r y grade l e v e l fox* th o
oore e x p e rie n c e s •
U n til auoh i s d eterm in ed , th e o p in io n s o f th o se most
v i t a l l y concerned should ho g iv e n c o n s id e r a tio n .
C urriculum re o rg a n iz a tio n m ust he th e work o f sohool man and
sohool women, r a t h e r th e n th e handiwork o f laymen o r p o l i t i c i a n s .
It
i s roeommended t h a t c u rric u lu m r e o r g a n iz a tio n should b e g in w ith th e
advooaoy o f a common core o f e x p e r ie n c e s .
A tte n tio n sh o u ld be g iv e n to
an enrichm ent program w herever th e re i s a demand and th e community i s
a b le to s a t i s f y th e r e q u e s ts .
f i n a l l y , and above a l l , th e t e n e t s o f democracy unset be in c u lc a te d
in to th e minds and h e a r ts o f th e high so h o o l p o p u la tio n , w ith such
em phasis and enthusiasm t h a t i t s m e rit s a y be un d ersto o d by a ll *
Than,
and o n ly th e n , w i l l th e re be « w illin g n e s s t o p re p a re young p eo p le to
defamd t h i s democracy a g a in s t a l l enem ies.
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 . Boggs, Walter Keaton, * iro n tier Idaoatlea la Bebreskn." Bhpttbllohe4
Ph.D. d isse rta tio n , Nebraska S tate U niversity, 1999.
S. B reternlts, L. A* "The Ocnrw Offerings of 9»leeted Three, fear,
and 3lx-Tbar High Schools la M tetika." An Abstract of Mold study
Be* t | Colorado State college o f sdnaatloa, 1999* p. 9*
9 . Bobbitt, yannklia, Boo to Make A aarrlsalan. Boston: Houghton,
m m la and 0««paay7T994.
4 . m io tla of California State Pcaartasat o f Kduoatloa. Bo. 3, 1999*
°* BaU stin of the Departncnt of secondary Sohool Prlnolpala. B atloaal
MnZkTtmW
iaanaU«<«M Wiliil n § m | 1tft
%M
WlwilaOA AMOv4«iAvfli|
Wo SST
1IOa M
Pff IMA
X9wP«
4* Oaaooll, H ollis L. aaft Oaapbell, Soak S. (ftarrlcalaB Dsyalopacnt.
Aaarlean Book Ceapeay* IMS*
9 . Saaalealoa on SearganlsatIon of Secondary Education, 'O rdinal
Principles o f aeeoadary ld a sa tlo e.” B ulletin of tba Batloaal
|M » da.aoglaUoR, Wo. SB, 1919.
9 , Counts, 9. s*i "Sons Notes on tbo foundations of Churrlottlua-Xakins."
Twoatr-alnth Yearbook. p art IX, National Society fo r the Study of
Xdneatioa, Bloenlngtoa t Pablio Sabool Publishing Oospany, 199S.
9* Departnent of soeoadary Sabool fxiaalpala of tbo National Education
Asaoelatlon, B allot In Bo, dd, 901* 91, 1999*
10, Idnoatlonal P olicies Oomlsalon, B atloaal Sdnaatlon Assoolatlon and
Aaarlean Aasoalatloa of Sabool A dalalstrators, Tbo Purposes oa
tlo n l p Aaarlean Democracy. Washington, S. C.i 1M8,
11. farrla* S. B*, Qaanalta, f . A ., aad B raaaall, P. B* B aallor^
aeeoadary 8ohools B atloaal 8arroy of soeoadary Education. Iton
grapk Bo. 4 ,rm ite d S ta te s W e e e f Xduoatlon, B ulletin 1999, BO* I f .
18. m m , Ira 8 . *A Review of State le g isla tio n Pertaining to tbo
Sooondary sohool Curricula** In tbo S tates Comprising tbo Southern
Association of Colleges aad 9eeoadary Seboels and an Analysis and
Comparison with Sim ilar Bata of the S tates Comprising the Berth
Central Association.* Unpublished ih.D. dissertati<m , Nebraska
S tate U niversity, 1999.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
13, In g lls, Alexander Principles e f 3coondarr Mdnsatlcn (1918),
pp. 947*848.
14. 1m s . F* *• The Organisation of 3wondarr Education with Special
lif w iM i to the 3 8 ^ H lM 3 M o « l.^ . P . T h e s is .H f Yorki Soh<
e f Sdneatlon, Me* York M w n % l n 8 .
15, M asters, Joseph 0 . " tru in g the Develojaasat of M n u d ta 'a F irst
Bigh School Glace,* Nebraska Mdecatioaal Jen ri» l. XV (March, 1988),
p . 98.
16, M erits, 8 . 8 , "Changes is the Bebraska High school Ourrieulun",
S r tm k t Idncatloaal Journal. XT (Kerch, 1988), p. 94,
17, Nebraska School Iowa, Chapter 79, A rticle 19, section 11, p. 11*889.
18, Procedures fo r tho V irginia sta te Curriculum Program, B d lo tis IS ,
Mo, 3, Richmondt S tate Board of Sdneatlon, 1988.
1#* Paivaralty intension Bows. Lincoln, Bebraska, Vol. 19, Mo, 7, March
22, 1937.
80. Baited sta te s Department of In te rio r, A Bcvlow o f V ocational
le g isla tio n 1937 and 1988, B ulletin UoT 16, 1939, pp. 1 7 ,1 8 . 19,
81, United sta te s Department of In te rio r, Office of Sdnaatloa, M aaalal
of idncatlon, 1890*86.
88. Ghited S tates Departnent of In te rio r, Office of Xdneatioa. Offer*
lag. a |
*»
,§»,»»&. ga.^tet.n,* Buiietm mo.TT”
88. United sta te s Departnent of in te rio r, Office of Sdneation, Offer*
lose and R egistrations in High Sohool Soblcota 1983*84, B ulletin
MO. 671988. Tabic 3, p. 46.
84, Doited sta te s Dapartnsnt of In te rio r, Offlee of Education, s ta tis tic s
of Fublio High Schools. B ulletin Ho. 8, 1938, Chapter 5.
88. Van Den Brink, John Joe, "A Barlow of sta te L egislation Pertaining
to Secondary Curriculum* in the S tates Comprising the Morth Central
Association of Colleges aad Secondary Schools.» Unpublished Ph.D.
d issertatio n , Nebraska sta te U niversity, 1939.
86. Voetea, fiend 0 ., C alifornia Journal of Secondary hdueation, 18(10*18,
March 1937.
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A19MDXX
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX A
D E P A R T M E N T O F S E C O N D A R Y EDUCATION
LINCOLN
November 18, 1939
To th e A d m in istra tiv e O ffic e r o r O ffic e rs o f Nebraska S chools:
A s c i e n t i f i c stu d y o f th e c u rricu lu m o f secondary sc h o o ls in
N ebraska i s b e in g made.
T his stu d y i s u n d er th e s u p e rv is io n o f th e
Department o f Secondary E ducation o f th e U n iv e rs ity o f N ebraska and
has been o f f i c i a l l y approved by th e Scope Committee on Improvement in
th e High School Program o f N ebraska, which met on O ctober 18, 1939,
under th e a u th o r ity o f th e S ta te S u p e rin ten d e n t o f P u b lic I n s tr u c tio n
f o r N ebraska.
T his in v e s tig a tio n seek s to d is c o v e r j u s t what i s th e core
cu rricu lu m in any given h ig h sch o o l and j u s t what today i s th e gen­
e r a l l y reco g n ized core cu rricu lu m o f a l l o f th e secondary sch o o ls o f
th e s t a t e . L a te r i t i s hoped t h a t through c a r e f u l s tu d ie s o f c u r r i ­
culum developm ents o f in d iv id u a l sc h o o ls a pro ced u re may be d e v el­
oped whereby any h igh school a d m in is tra to r can an aly ze h is own c u r r i ­
culum in term s o f v a rio u s re c e n t p ro p o sa ls f o r th e re o rg a n iz a tio n o f
th e cu rricu lu m in th e secondary s c h o o ls . I t sh o u ld be added t h a t t h i s
stu d y p a r a l l e l s one j u s t re c e n tly com pleted in th e s t a t e o f C a li­
f o r n ia and w i l l , th e r e f o r e , a f f o r d many v a lu a b le o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
com parisons.
Be a ssu re d t h a t any in fo rm a tio n fu rn ish e d w i ll be c o n f id e n tia lly
reg ard ed and t h a t th e d a ta com piled w ill in no w ise re v e a l th e id e n ­
t i t y o f any in d iv id u a l sc h o o l. What i s wanted i s a p ic tu r e o f th e
s t a t e and n o t a p ic tu r e o f in d iv id u a l sc h o o ls t h a t m ight be h e ld up to
c r itic is m .
The Committee in charge o f t h i s in v e s tig a tio n a s s u re s you o f i t s
a p p re c ia tio n o f your w illin g n e s s to c o o p erate in fu rn is h in g th e
s t a t e m a te ria l re q u e ste d . A com plete re p o rt o f th e stu d y w ill be made
a v a ila b le to each person who c o o p e ra te s in th e in v e s t ig a tio n .
Very s in c e r e ly y o u rs,
D ire c to r o f Secondary E ducation
and Teacher T ra in in g
S ta te Department o f E ducation
Department o f Secondary E ducation
U n iv e rs ity o f Nebraska
Chairman o f Scope Committee
S ta te Department o f E du catio n
P r in c ip a l F a irb u ry High School
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Inquiry on Core Curricula in Nebraska Schools
______________________________________ ■:
School
City
Grades Included
Date
____ Boys----------- Girls-------------Total.
Enrollment
Name of person furnishing information
Please examine the entire blank before attempts
mg' to fill in any part of it.
As defined for this investigation, the core curri­
culum in a given school includes that body of exper­
iences (subject matter, activities, and the like) in
which all students participate. Thus, it would in­
clude all required courses and required experiences
such as home room or advisory sections, assemblies,
et cetera. This definition does not: imply that all
students will have identical experiences., Students
and teachers may select experiences from- “that
body of experiences in which all students participate” '
in accord with individual needs.
In filling in the inquiry blank, base all answers
on the program in.. operation during , th e present
school year (1939-40).' If the nature of a course or
activity is such that there is no outline or plan,
which has been made in advance, base answers on
the 1938-39 school year and date the statements
“1938-39”’ to indicate that this has been done.
' ■
Only one;part of this blank requires explanation.
The information below on pages 2 and 3 should
be read carefully before furnishing the names of
courses requested in Column 1 on page 4.
Interpretation of “Required Courses”
List the titles of all courses th at are required of
all regular students who are planning to complete the
work of the institution. The term, “Course,” as used
here, refers to a subject of a sequence of experiences
organized for teaching and learning purposes. Thus
there might be courses in American history, physical
education, citizenship, consumer , education, social
living, et cetera. Notice that only courses required of :
all students should be included. Thus courses re­
quired only in a specific curriculum such as a college
preparatory or a commercial curriculum would
not be included. The following explanatory notes
may help interpret this request.
Title
Example: A school might have eight class sections in
ninth-grade general science (required of all students).
Because these classes are handled by three teachers,
or because an experimental program is being tried, or
because the work has been planned so as to meet the
needs of particular ability groups, there may be dif­
ferent methods used in organizing the work. Thus
two sections fo-r: low-ability groups may have their
work confined to a particular textbook. (Textbook
plan, see number 11, page 5.) Five other sections may
have the subject matter laid out or defined but may
use a great amount of reference material in addition
to the textbook. (Subject-matter plan, see number
9, page 5). The one remaining section may be an ex­
perimental section for which the plan of the work is
in terms of units organized around the purposes of
students. (Unit-of-work plan, see number 1, page 5,
and see experiences, interests, purposes, or needs of
students, No. 3, page 5.) Also this section may meet
only four days per week, whereas the others meet five
days per waek. Thus in the field of general science
in this school there would be three different bases for
organizing sections within this course. To prevent
Confusion in recording’a kltuation of this type where
there is more th a n 1one basis for organizing class
sections in the. general science work, the three dif­
ferent methods of organizing this course should be
indicated by listing general science three times in
Columun, 1 and then filling in the information re­
quested for each of the three listings. If all sections
in a course are organized on the same plan or plans
(in terms of the information requested-oh this blank
and described on page 5), the course name should be
listed only once in Column 1. If the plan or plans
for organizing a course differ from section to section
within the course, the course name should be listed
as many; times as there a r e 1differently organized
sections. Link such course titles together with a
bracket so that it. will be obvious that they belong
together.
1. List courses required of all pupils, even if no credit
is given toward graduation.
3. If all students are required to take one or more of
a certain specified number or group of courses, list all
such courses from which the student may select, and
specify plainly the individual courses from which
selection may be made, and also the number of
courses which must be selected.
2. List all courses as many times as there are dis­
tinctly different plans or bases for organizing the
course. (Procedures or plans for organizing courses
are listed on page 5.) This request is made because it
is possible that all the class sections in a particular
subject field will not be operating on the same basis
and therefore should be described separately. .
Example: Students are required'to select one of the
following: biology, physics, or chemistry. If such a
situation exists you should list all three courses in
Column 1. Example: Students are required to
select one of the following: music, art, dramatics,
or creative writing. In such a situation, list
all four of these courses in Column L Example:
R eproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
or other differences. If such courses differ in name,
list all of such courses by name and indicate the
group for which each is intended. Example:
Students
are
required
to
take
physical
education or military training. Both courses should
be listed in Column 1 in such a case. Do not include
situations which are obviously intended to develop
specialization or concentration such as the followng
example: All students must select three courses in
each of two of the following fields: history, science,
foreign languages, and mathematics. When two
or more courses are listed from which a student must
choose, be sure to indicate the group from which the
choice must be made and the number of courses that
must be selected. The number to be selected
from a group of courses can be indicated as follows:
“Technical English” for Industrial
Curriculum students
“Commercial English” for Commercial
Curriculum students
“English”
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
!
for students in
all other curricula
6. Include all corrective or remedial courses in read­
ing or other skills, or corrective or orthopedic courses
in physical education if such courses are required of
all students who are not up to a certain standard,
level, or condition.
4. If different courses are required for each of the
two sexes, include the titles of these courses and
indicate which course is required for all boys and
which is required for all girls.
7. List any courses which are taken by all (100%)
of the students even though they are not specifically
required. Occasionally, courses which are not re­
quired are taken by all students because of the
popularity of the course, limitations in the total of­
fering, or for other reasons.
5. Include courses required of all students even
though the content and methods may be varied be­
cause of differing ability levels, ocupational interests,
3
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Read the directions on pages 2 and 3 and examine the whole blank carefully before attempting to fill in any
portion of it.
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Key List titles of required State nature of content Grade Minutes Number Length
Units Check if new
per
or
num­ courses as: Eng. I, as:
of
of
of
composition and
or revised
ber
Social Living, etc. List literature, chorus sing­ grades week periods course credit. within five
in
in
class
in
If
years
only one title to a line ing, etiquette, etc.
which
class
meets weeks credits
required
per
are
week
not
Re­
used
vis­
mark
New ed
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Twelve plans frequently utilized as a basis for curriculum development have been listed below. You are
asked to indicate below the plan or plans which formed the basis for each course which you have listed in
Column I on the preceding page (p. 4). You are asked to do this by writing the key number of each course
listed on page 4 after the plan or plans given below which were definitely instrumental in shaping the develop­
ment of the course in question. Some of the plans listed below are only used occasionally. If a plan as stated is
hot meaningful to you, you undoubtedly have not used it and hence can disregard the item in question. Indi­
cate only those plans which actually were consciously employed in planning each course. Notice that more
than one plan may be used as a basis for a given course.
Key Numbers
of Courses
Plans of Organization41
1.
Primarily organized around units of work. (If this plan is indicated as being used
in a particular course, some other plan should also be indicated which will reveal
the focus of the units, such as children’s interests, or areas of experience, or
others.)
2. Primarily organized around areas or aspects of the social or natural environ­
ment (weather, phase of business, a social institution, epoch in history, or phase
of economic life).
3.
Primarily organized around pupil experiences, interests, purposes, or needs.
4.
Primarily organized around centers of interest or phases of the group culture
within which the students’ interests are centered, such as “community life’’ or
“our changing industrial civilization.” (This plan combines 2 and 3 above).
5.
Primarily organized around a statement of aims or objectives of the educational
program of the school.
6.
Primarily organized around a statement of aims or objectives for the individual
course.
Primarily organized around central themes or generalizations such as “The
Interdependence Theme,” or “The Man’s Increasing Control over Nature Theme.”
7.
8.
Primarily organized around social functions which are common to most societies
such as (1) the protection of life and property, (2) the production of goods and
services, (3) transportation and communication, etc.
9.
Primarily organized around the usual subject matter or content of courses by
this title or modifications made by the local staff. (If modified state briefly the
nature of this modification.)
10.
Primarily organized around problems of present-day life.
11.
Primarily organized around the plan of a textbook.
12.
Primarily organized around the cardinal principles of education.
13.
State briefly any other central idea or plan which has been definitely instru­
mental in shaping the development of courses listed in Column 1 on page 4, and
indicate to the right the key number of the courses to which this applies.
*Do you have readily available illustrative materials bearing upon each plan which you indicate for which we
may solicit you later?
No,——______
5
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Check or fill in the blanks following the statements below which indicate the form that curriculum develop­
ment activites in your institution have taken within the past five years.
1. Has the whole curriculum been reorganized?
Yes---------- No_
2. Have individual courses or individual phases of the curriculum been
reorganized?
Yes---------- No_
If answered “yes,” how many courses have been reorganized?
--------------------
3.
Have new courses been organized and introduced?------------------------------ Yes----- ---- No_
4.
Have courses been shifted from one year to another? (Example: Shiftin algebra from the 9th to the 11th grade.) If answered “yes,” please-Yes------------No_
give the following information:
Titles of Courses Shifted
5.
From Grade
To Grade
List any other forms which your curriculum development activities may
have taken during the past five years.
Check the following statements which indicate the manner in which curriculum reorganization work has
been carried forward in your institution during the past five years.
1. By individual teachers working on their own courses________________________________________
2.
By committees of teachers and other staff members
.
3. By administrative and/or supervisory officers
4. By general faculty meetings and discussions
___________________ _
■
.
5.
By subject departmensts
.
6.
By assistance from specialists from outside of the system
.
7.
List other methods of proceedure followed
Has there been an increase or a decrease, during the'past five years, in the proportion of a student’s
program which is required rather than elective?
Proportion required has increased by_______ credits, has decreased by——--.-credits.
Have you and the members of your faculty given specific consideration in planning your instructional
program to a core of experiences from which it was hoped that similar learnings would result for all students?
Yes__________N’o _________
6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Please respond to each of the items listed on the left, by checking or writing in the information requested
in each of the columns which denotes a grade included in the institution on which you are reporting.
Grades
7 , 8
9 i 10 1 11 i 12
1. . If a credit plan of counting credits is used, how many credits per year consti­
tute a normal load for a student?
2. How many periods per week does the average student spend in organized
class, advisory or1home room, and extra class (extra-curricular) activities in
each grade?
3. What is the length of the class period in minutes, excluding the time between
class periods?
4. What is the number of minutes from the opening of the first period to the
end of the last regularly scheduled period, excluding the noon period.
5. If students are assigned to a home room or advisory group in addition to the
requred work listed on page 4, indicate the number of minutes per week inr
volved in this activity.
6. Check. the types of activities which are typically carried on in such home
room or advisory groups:
•
i
;
j
’
.
.
.
.
Student government activities
'
■
■■
— -
School routine
Group guidance activities
Individual counseling
-i
Centrally- or teacher-planned programs
Student-planned programs
.
i
’
Programs planned jointly by students and faculty
-
........... Others
:
1
;
i
'
1
-
7. If there are regular school assembly periods which all regular students at­
tend, indicate the average number of minutes per week involved in this
activity.
3. Check the types of activities which are typically found in these assembly
programs:
Announcements
Outside speakers
—
Faculty-planned programs
Student-planned programs
Programs planned by students and faculty
—
.
Others
—
7.'
Reproduced with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
_
Please respond to each of the Items listed on the le ft, by checking or writing in the information requested
in each of the columns which denotes a grade included in the institution on which you are reporting.
:
.
*
......................................................................................................
7
8
Grades
9
10
11
12
9. If there are other group guidance activities not already recorded, indicate
the kinds of activities and average number of minutes per week required in
each grade for these activities.
-------
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
10. Check the grades in which provision is made for extra-class (extra-curricu­
lar) or student organization activities during the regular school day.
11. If all of the regular students in a particular grade participate in club or
extra-curricular activities, check the grade or grades in which this occurs.
12. List any other activities or experiences in which all of the regular students
in any one or more grades participate or engage and check the grade or
grades to vMiich the activity applies. Examples.
Physical examinations
Immunizations against smallpox
Library
Others
Are there any other comments you would like to make which will further describe the unique features o f your
curriculum program or the core curriculum of your school? Several outstanding schools will be investigated
somewhat intensively. State in what way your curriculum growth is unique.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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