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A study of teaching conditions in the White rural schools of Bedford County, Virginia

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A STUDY OF TEACHING
CONDITIONS IN THE WHITE RURAL SCHOOIS
OF BEDFORD COUNTY, VIRGINIA
b y
Samuei Jo sep h C offey
A T h e sis P re s e n te d
to th e
Academic F a c u lty o f th e U n iv e r s ity o f V ir g in ia
i n Candidacy f o r th e Degree o f
M aster o f A rts
Ju n e, 1940
.
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UMI Num ber: E P 1 7 8 6 9
.
I
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UMI M icroform EP 17869
C opyright 2007 by P roQ uest Inform ation and Learning Com pany.
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unauthorized copying under T itle 17, United States Code.
P roQ uest Inform ation and Learning C om pany
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P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346
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'ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The a u th o r w ish es to acknow ledge h is In d e b te d ­
n e s s t o D r. A. M. Jarman f o r h i s v a lu a b le a s s is ta n c e
t h a t made p o s s i b le th e s u c c e s s f u l co m p letio n o f t h i s
s tu d y , to th e 130 te a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s o f B edford
County who c o o p e ra te d g e n e ro u s ly i n f i l l i n g o u t ques­
t i o n n a i r e s , and to th e S u p e rin te n d e n t’ s o f f i c e o f
B edford County S ch o o ls f o r v a lu a b le in fo rm a tio n . For
a l l t h i s k in d a s s is ta n c e th e a u th o r i s d ee p ly g r a t e ­
fu l.
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TABLE OF CONTESTS
I
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S
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION........................... . .................................
The P r o b l e m .................. ...........................................
V alue o f Study ..........................................................
S o u rces o f D a t a .................. . ..............................
Scope o f Study .........................................................
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II.
FACTS ABOUT BEDFORD COUNTY . ' ...............................
H is to r y
. . . . . .
............................................
G e o g r a p h y .................. ...............................................
I n d u s tr y ........................... . . . . . . . . . .
C hurches . .................. . . . . . . . . . . .
;
S ch o o ls
. . . . . . . . . . . .
...................
Towns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
'
Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I
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Roads
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i
The P eo p le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P la c e s o f I n t e r e s t . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary
1i
XU.
............................. ..................... ....
THE TEACHING PERSONNEL.......................................
The Im p o rtan ce o f th e T each er
. . . . . .
A d m in is tra tiv e Duty Toward T eachers
!
S o c ia l Background . . . . . .
.
. . .
.........................
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ill
CHAPTER
Page
Acudemlo q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
37
T eaching .Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
T enure . . . . . . . . .
.
..................................
39
S a la ry f o r VJhifcts T each ers . . . . . . . . . . .
41
P e rs o n n e l weakness ..................
4£
. . . . . . . . .
Summary
XV.
42
SCHOOL FACTORS ‘.1UAT AFFECT TEACHING . . . . . . .
The S chool P la n t . . . . . . . .
....................
G en eral A ppearance . . . . . . . . . . .
H e a lth and S a f e ty f o r O ccupants
48
. .
48
. .
49
. . . . .
•
51
Adequacy f o r , and A d a p ta b ility to th e School
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B edford County*s S chool P la n ts
. . . .
& ontvale P la n t . ...................... . .
S t e w a r t s ? ! l i e P la n t
. . . . . . .
Monsta P la n t
. . . .
60
. . . . . .
60
. . . . .
65
.............................
H u d d lesto n P la n t . . . . . . . .
Hew London P la n t
55
69
. . . . . .
71
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
Boonsboro P l a n t ............................................
7
M arcuse P la n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
L ib e r ty Acadeiay P la n t . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
F o re s t P la n t . . . . . . .
82
B ro o k h ill P la n t
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
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82
CHAPTER
Page
Thaxton P la n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
A ll O ther P la n ts
84
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
P o in ts Common to th e P l a n t s ...........................
85
O ther School C o n d itio n s i n B edford County . .
S chool L ib r a r ie s . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
86
T eaching M a te r ia ls and J a c i l i t i e s . . . . . .
90
C u rricu lu m
98
.........................................
S u p e rv is io n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T eaching Load . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Coaching Problem
100
..................................................104
M isplacem ent o f T each ers
................................ 106
A tte n d a n c e , p a l l u r e , and R e ta r d a tio n
P u p il Records
99
.....................................102
C ost o f I n s t r u c t i o n
. . .
106
............................................................... I l l
D is c ip lin e . . . .
H in d ran ces and H elps to T eaching
V.
86
112
. . . . .
114
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
120
THE LIVING CONDITIONS 0? THE TEACHERS*. . . . .
125
Hoy/ T each ers L ive and Vhab They Pay . . . . .
127
C o n g e n ia lity a t B oarding P la c e s . . . . . . .
129
Bedrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
129.
. . .
129
. .................. . . . . . . . . . .
132
B aths . . . . . . . . .
L iv in g Rooms
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V
CHAPTER
Page
Pood . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C onvenience o f L o c a tio n
R e c re a tio n
.................. . .
135
. . . . . . . . . . .
135
........................................................
The Problem o f G e ttin g Board
Summary
V I.
138
..........................
140
.............................................................................. 140
C0L3'.UNITY RELATIONSHIPS „ .
P a re n t-T e a c h e r C o n ta c ts . . . . .
.
142
.......................
146
T eacher chu rch A tten d an ce . » ...............................
V II.
•
School-Community G ossip . . ....................................
152
P re s s u re Brought on T each ers
.................... . . .
153
Community Use o f School P la n t
. . . . . . . .
156
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
156
PROVISIONAL RELATIONSHIPS..........................................
159
164
Sum m ary.............................................................
Y EII. . A SCORE CARD FOR SCORING TEACHING CONDITIONS
IX .
149
.
165
I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r U sin g .C ard . . . . . . . . .
166
S core Card
166
.....................................
RiXlGIMLNaAYIOLS
BIBIX0GRiiPHY
APPj^NDIX
........................................ ....
......................
LIST OF TABLES
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173
177vi
VI
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
I.
•
R e sid e n t D is tr ib u ti o n o f T each ers in
B edford County . . . . . . . .
II*
Page
...........................
34
S o c ia l A sp ects C oncerning T each ers in
B edford County
I I I t (a )
36
Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la ry o f T ea ch ers i n th e M ontvale S ch o o l
177
I I I - (b) ' Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la ry o f T each ers i n th e S te w a r ta v ille
S chool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I I - (c)
Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p erien c e, T en u re, and
S u la ry o f T ea ch ers i n th e Moneta School
I I I - (d)
178
179
Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p erien c e, T’e n u re , and
S a la ry o f T each ers i n th e H uddleston
S chool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I I - (e)
180
Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la r y o f T each ers i n th e New London
School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I I - (f)
- 161
Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la ry o f T each ers i n th e Boonsboro
School . . . . .
.; .................................................182
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VI1
TABUS
Page
I llr - (g) Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la ry o f T each ers i n th e M arcuse School
183
I I I - (h) Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la r y o f T each ers i n th e L ib e r ty School
I I I - (i)
184
U ) (k)
Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la ry o f T each ers i n th e F o r e s t, Brookh i i l , and T haxton S ch o o ls • •
185
I l l - (1) Q u a li f ic a ti o n s , E x p e rie n c e , T en u re, and
S a la ry o f T each ers i n A ll O th er S chools
186
IV,
Summary o f T ab le s I I I (a) to I I I (1) ..................
38
V.
B edford C ounty’ s S a la ry S chedule . . . . . . .
43
VI.
Reasons f o r T eacher I n e f f ic ie n c y . . . . . . .
44
V II.
D e s c rip tio n o f P la y Grounds Made by F a c u lty
o f Each School .
V III.
....................................................
A r c h ite c tu r a l V alue and B eauty o f School
P la n ts a s R ated by T each ers
12.
2.
X I.
H e a lth and S a f e ty . . . . .
. . .
..................
.................... . . . .
E x te n t to vjhich B u ild in g s Are C leaned
. . . .
X III.
63
64
66
Adequacy o f C lassroom s o f th e V arious S chools
Based on T each er E stim a te s . . . . . . . . .
X II.
62
Adequacy o f P la y Area . . . . .
. . . . . . .
67
72
The S ta tu s o f th e Books o f th e V arious S chool
L ib r a r ie s i n B edford County ...................... . . .
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v i i i
TABLE
XIY.
Page
The E x te n t to Which T ea ch ers o f th e V arious
S chools Have T each in g M a te r ia ls .................. .
!
XV.
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How T each ers S ecure S u p p lie s and M a te r ia ls f tr
Use i n T eaching •
|
XVI.
93
The Humber o f T each ers Who Have A ccess to
C e rta in F a c i l i t i e s f o r T eaching Music . . .
X V II.
92
96
The T eaching Load and Time S p en t f o r School
Work O u tsid e o f C o n tra c te d Sevan Hour S chool
D a y .......................................
I
!
!
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X V III.
101
P e r C a p ita Cost o f I n s t r u c t i o n f o r th e Various
S chools
.......................
103
XIX. P e rc e n ta g e o f A tte n d an ce , F a i l u r e , and R etard ­
a t i o n i n th e V ario u s S c h o o l s .....................
XX.
.
107
d ran ce to T eaching i n th e V ario u s S chools .
.113
The E x te n t t o Which D is c ip lin e was a B in -
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XXI. G re a te s t H in d ran ces to B e tte r T eaching a s
L is te d by T each ers
XXII.
.
Second G re a te s t H in d ran ce s t o B e tte r Teach­
in g a s L is te d by T ea ch ers
X X III.
. . . . . . . . .
116
G re a te s t H elps to B e tte r T eaching a s L i s t ­
ed by T each ers . . . . . . .
XXIV.
115
1. . . . . . .
118
Second G re a te s t H elps t o B e tte r T eaching a s
L is te d by T each ers
. . . . . . . . . . . .
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119
TABLE
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XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
Page
How T each ers L ive and What They Pay . . , . ,
C o n g e n ia lity Pound a t T eacher B oarding Place a
........................................
13L
S ta tu s o f T e a c h e rs 1 B oarding House and T eache ra g e 3 a th s . . . . . .
XXIX.
130
D e s c rip tio n o f T eachers* B oarding House and
T eacherage Bedrooms . .
2XVTII.
128
....................... . . . .
133
D e s c rip tio n o f T eachers* B oarding House and
T eacherage L iv in g Rooms . . . .
.......................
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XXX. D e s c rip tio n o f T eachers* B oarding House Pood
136
XXXI. C onvenience o f T eacher - L o ca tio n . . . . . .
137
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XXXII. Community O p p o rtu n ity f o r T eacher R e c re a tio n
139
I
XXXIII. The E x tan t o f T e a c h e r-P a re n t C o n ta c ts Made i n
th e V ario u s S chools . . . . . . . . . . . .
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XXHV. T eachers* Church A tten d an ce and I n School
••
Communities
. . . . . .
................................ . .
.
XXXV.
XXXVI.
School-Community G ossip . . . . .
.......................
. 150
154
155
How th e Community O rg a n iz a tio n s Make Us© o f
th e S chool B u ild in g s .....................................
XXXVIII.
148
E x ten t to Which Communities B ring P re s s u r e on
T each ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
XXXVII.
134
157
P r o f e s s io n a l R e la tio n s h ip s o f th e V ario u s
F a c u l tie s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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161
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5
CHAPTER I
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I
I
INTRODUCTION
In th e p a s t , th e fu n c tio n in g o f th e p u b lic sc h o o ls
h as been i s o l a t e d from th e com m unities th e y s e rv e d .
The
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p u rp o se o f th e sc h o o l b e in g c h i e f ly academ ic, th e r e h a rd ly
e x i s te d a n a t u r a l b le n d betxveen them and th e com m unities In
I
w hich th e y were lo c a te d .
Y/ith th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u b je c t
{
I
m a tte r t h e i r o n ly re c o g n iz e d o b je c ti v e , th e r e was l i t t l e
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more n e c e s s a ry th a n a room, a te x tb o o k ,, a te a c h e r , and a
i
p u p il.
The a d m in is tr a tio n o f e d u c a tio n was a co m p a ra tiv e ly
i
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sim p le m a tte r .
I n th e c o u rse o f an e v o lv in g c o n c e p tio n o f
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p u b lic e d u c a tio n which h as re a c h e d th e p o in t o f u n d e rs ta n d -
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in g t h a t l i v i n g and knowing, d o ing and le a r n in g , and s o c ie ty
and sc h o o l a r e p r a c t i c a l l y in s e p a r a b le , th e s e t t i n g f o r te a c h ­
in g becomes much more com plex.
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!
The modern sc h o o l r o o ts i t s o b je c tiv e s in to such d e l i c a te and I n t r i c a t e problem s a s p e r s o n a lity a d ju s tm e n t, c h a r­
a c t e r , c i t i z e n s h i p , h e a lth , and v o c a tio n a l and a v o c a tio n a l
' tra in in g .
C o n sid erin g i t s numerous o b je c tiv e s one must adopt
th e p o in t o f view t h a t th e sc h o o l i s a s m a ll community o f
l i v i n g p e rso n s w hich i s w ith in , anu a v i t a l p a r t o f , a lo c a l
American community.
The n a tu r e and purp o se o f a p u b lic sc h o o l i s d e fin e d
in th e program o f c u rric u lu m developm ent i n V ir g in ia a s
f o llo w s :
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1 . The American system o f f r e e p u b lic sc h o o ls
has been developed to a s s i s t i n p e r p e tu a tin g , improv­
in g , and r e a l i z i n g d em o cratic i d e a l s . The e n t i r e
sc h o o l program sh o u ld be p r o je c te d to t h i s end. The
sc h o o l sh o u ld be d e m o c ra tic , n o t o n ly in i t s i n s t r u c ­
t i o n a l program but a ls o i n i t s o r g a n iz a tio n and m ethod.
2 . D em ocratic i d e a l s can be r e a l i z e d o n ly os
democracy i s 3een to be a way o f l i v i n g . C onsequently,
th e sc h o o l must g u id e p u p ils in th e developm ent o f ty p e s
o f b e h a v io r co m p atib le w ith d em o cratic i d e a l s . 1
T h is saiae c o n c e p tio n i s e x p re sse d more to th e p o in t in
a s ta te m e n t made by D r. E.D. G r i z z e l l .
He has t h i s to sa y :
am erican democracy depends upon i t s seco n d ary
sc h o o ls a s a means o f p e r p e tu u tin g and ex te n d in g i t s
fu n d am en tal i n s t i t u t i o n . But dem ocracy cannot be le a r n ­
ed where i t i s n o t l i v e d . The American d em o cratic
i d e a l s can n o t long s u rv iv e u n le s s th e i d e a ls and p r a c ­
t i c e s o f seco n d ary e d u c a tio n a r e d em o cratic and u n le s s
th e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r e d u c a tio n o f y o u th , th e seco n d ary
s c h o o l, i s perm eated w ith th e s p i r i t o f a t r u l y demo­
c r a t i c community.
The p ic tu r e g iv en h e re i s t h a t o f th e 3chool as th e
n u c le u s o f a community, p a r t i c u l a r l y a r u r a l community, a round which community i n t e r e s t s c e n te r and d ev e lo p .
I t is
th e e d u c a tio n a l d i r e c t i n g f o r c e o f th e community u n i t .
Teach­
e r s sh o u ld be a t th e s e r v ic e o f c i v i c o r g a n iz a tio n s and th e
p e o p le , so long a s te a c h in g d u tie s a r e n o t n e g le c te d , and th e
•^Point o f View o f E d u ca tio n , ’’I n tr o d u c tio n ” . B u lle tin
S ta te Board f o r V irg in ia E lem entary S c h o o ls, Richmond:
D iv is io n o f P u rch ase and P r in t in g , 1934, P . 1 .
G r i z z e ll: ’’The Modern Concept o f Secondary Edu­
c a tio n ” , U n iv e r s ity o f V irg in ia Record E x ten sio n S e r ie s ,
Secondary E d u catio n in V ir g in ia , .Humber 25, ? . 72.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission of the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
p e o p le i n tu r n sh o u ld he a t th e s e r v ic e o f th e sc h o o l and th e
te a c h e rs .
to a l l .
The r e l a t i o n s h i p sh o u ld be p le a s a n t and p r o f i t a b l e
P eo p le o f th e community sh o u ld have th e o p p o rtu n ity
to b r in g t h e i r farm p ro b lem s, h o u sek eep in g p ro b lem s, and so ­
c i a l problem s to th e sc h o o l f o r a id tow ard t h e i r s o l u t i o n .
The sc h o o l sh o u ld be a f o u n ta in o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e , h o n e st
p o l i t i c s , and p u re d em o cratic i d e a l s .
T here was a tim e in
American l i f e when new spapers w ere l o c a l l y owned and w ere r e ­
sp o n siv e to j.o c a l i d e a ls and n e e d s .
Today th e g r e a t c h a in s
o f absen tee-o w n ed new spapers do n o t se rv e t h i s p u rp o se a s
w e ll , b u t may sp re a d propaganda which i s c o n fu sin g to th e f o r ­
m atio n o f sound judgem ent and i d e a l s .
The l o c a l s c h o o ls can
do much to s e rv e eoiajaunlties i n th e ab sen ce o f t h i s e a r l i e r
a g e n t.
Thus, th e p o s it io n o f th e p u b lic sc h o o l i3 fa v o ra b le
f o r th e g r e a t e s t m u tu a lly h e l p f u l and p r o g r e s s iv e e n t e r p r i s e
i n American l i f e .
In so much d is c u s s io n we must n o t lo s e s ig h t o f th e
c h ild .
The sc h o o l i s p r im a r ily f o r th e c h i l d .
I t p la c e s th e
h ig h e s t v alu e upon th e i n d i v i d u a l .
I t i s i n th e l i g h t o f t h i s c o n c e p tio n o f th e p u b lic
sc h o o l t h a t any s tu d i e s o f an e d u c a tio n a l system sh o u ld be
made.
The P roblem .
T h is stu d y u n d e rta k e s to b rin g to l i g h t
and to a n a ly z e c o n d itio n s which I n c re a s e o r d e c re a s e th e
e f f i c i e n c y o f te a c h in g i n th e r u r a l w h ite s c h o o ls o f B edford
County, V ir g in ia .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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Y alue o f S tu d y ,
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The m a te r ia l o f t h i s m a n u scrip t should
be h e l p f u l a s in d ic a te d below*
1.
I t makes a v a ila b le d a ta w hich w i l l be v a lu a b le to
th e l o c a l sc h o o l board in e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s program .
23.
I t makes a v a ila b le to th e la y p eo p le m a te r ia l
w hich w i l l h e lp them u n d e rsta n d more f u l l y th e problem s o f
th e te a o h e r .
3.
I t makes a v a ila b le m a te r ia l t h a t may g u id e th e
te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l in making c o n d itio n s b e t t e r f o r th e m se lv e s.
4.
I t may g u id e s u p e rv is o ry a g e n c ie s d i r e c t l y to
te a c h e r h a n d ic a p s .
5.
The s c o re ca rd Which h as been d ev elo p ed w i l l a id
in e v a lu a tin g te a c h in g c o n d itio n s .
6.
I t h e lp s to lo c a te th e m ost d e s ir a b le te a c h in g
p o s itio n s .
7.
I t s e rv e s a s a b a s is f o r making recom m endations
f o r th e improvement in te a c h in g c o n d itio n s .
S ources o f D ata.
The p r i n c i p a l s o u rc e s o f d a ta f o r
t h i s stu d y a r e :
1.
A q u e s tio n n a ire answ ered by p r i n c i p a l s and te a c id ­
e r s o f B edford County.
2.
P e rs o n a l in te rv ie w s w ith th e p r in c ip a ls , and te a c h - '
e r s o f B edford County.
3.
P e rs o n a l v i s i t s to th e s c h o o ls .
4.
C lerk o f 3ch o o l b o ard .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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5.
A tten d an ce o f f ic e r *
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6.
P r o f e s s io n a l l i t e r a t u r e .
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Scope o f S tu d y .
Thi3 s tu d y -w ill be p re s e n te d under th e
fo llo w in g c h a p te r h ead in g s in th e o rd e r i n which th e y a r e l i s t j
ed h e re :
(a) I n tr o d u c tio n (b) tfao ts ab o u t Bedford County (o) The
T each in g P e rs o n n e ll (d) S chool f a c t o r s t h a t A ffe c t T eaching
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(e) L iv in g C o n d itio n s ( f ) Community R e la tio n s (g) P r o f e s s io n a l
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R e la tio n s (h) Score Card ( i ) Recommendations*
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th e h i s t o r y and geography o f th e co unty to se rv e a s
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ground to th e stu d y o f th e p u b lic s c h o o ls .
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C hapter I I m erely a tte m p ts to g iv e a b r i e f s k e tc h o f
a buck-
C hapter I I I g iv e s th e academ ic p r e p a r a tio n , e x p e rie n c e ,
s o c i a l background, s a l a r y , te n u r e , and e stim a te d e f f ic ie n c y
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o f te a c h e r s .
C h ap ter IY g iv e s a s tu d y o f f a c t o r s which e n t e r in t o
th e classro o m te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n .
The p l a n t , l i b r a r y , e q u ip -
[
m ent, s u p p lie s , te a c h in g lo a d , c u r r i c u l a , and s u p e rv is io n
a r e d is c u s s e d .
C h ap ter Y d e a ls w ith th e l i v i n g c o n d itio n s o f th e
te a c h e r s .
C hapter VI d is c u s s e s to some e x te n t coram unity-school
re la tio n s h ip s .
C hapter Y II d is c u s s e s p r o f e s s io n a l r e l a t i o n s .
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C h ap ter V III p r e s e n ts a proposed s c o re card f o r e v a lu a t-
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
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In g te a c h in g c o n d itio n s .
Buramarias and recom m endations have been drawn from
th e m a te r ia ls p r e s e n te d .
T his stu d y i s made p r im a r ily from q u e s tio n n a ire s
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f i l l e d in by th e te a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s .
I t r e p r e s e n ts r e -
sp o u ses from 130 te a c h e r s o f tiio 140 employed In th e County
d u rin g th e sc h o o l y e a r , 1938 - 1939.
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The w r i t e r was n o t
s u c c e s s fu l in o b ta in in g in fo rm a tio n from s ix o n e -te a c h e r
sc h o o ls (W heatland, 3phesu3, IIow oll, Patm os, Shady Grove,
and Sunny K n o ll) , two te a c h e rs a t S t e w a r t s v i l l e , one a t
New London, and one a t F o r e s t. .However, i t I s b e lie v e d
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t h a t th e f a c t s g a th e re d from th e 130 q u e s tio n n a ir e s r e t u r n -
;
©d w i l l g iv e a f a i r l y tr u e p ic tu r e o f th e seven h ig h sc h o o ls
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w ith tw elve o r more te a c h e r s , and one te n - te a c h e r , two f i v e te a c h e r , one th r e e - te a c h e r , fo u r tw o -te a c h e r, and f i f t e e n
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o n e -te a c h e r sc h o o ls o f B edford County i n th e sc h o o l s e s s io n
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o f 1938 - 39.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
CILYPTER XI
FACTS ABOUT BEDFORD COUNTY
H is to r y ;
I n 1637, t h i r t y y e a rs a f t e r th e f i r s t p e r ­
m anent E n g lish ^Settlem ent, V ir g in ia was d iv id e d in to e ig h t
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s e c tio n s s im ila r to th e S h ir e s o f E ngland,
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(now I s l e o f Wight) was th e name g iv e n t o one o f th e s e c ­
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W arresquyoke
tio n s .
I n 1720 Brunsw ick County was carv ed from I s l e o f
W ight.
I n 1749 Lunenberg, in tu r n , was ca rv e d from B ru n s-
j
w ic k .
J u s t seven y e a rs l a t e r , i n 1753, B edford was c u t o f f
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from Lunenberg by a c t o f th e House o f B u rg e sse s.
T h is new
County was named B ed fo rd , in ho n o r o f R u s s e l, F o u rth Duke o f
B ed fo rd , who was s e rv in g England a s s e c r e ta r y o f s t a t e d u r­
in g th e fo rm a tio n o f th e new C ounty.
I n th e s p r in g o f 1754 th e f i r s t c o u r t e v e r h o ld i n
B edford County assem bled a t th e home o f Matthew T a lb o t.
John P an e, V/i H a m C allow ay, John S m ith, Z aehery I she 11,
R o b ert P ag e, Thomas P u l l i n , and Edward M arion w ere th e f i r s t
j u s t i c e s sworn i n t o o f f i c e .
Benjam in Howard was th e f i r s t
c l e r k o f C o u rt.
C ourt was h e ld in th e T a lb o t home u n t i l November 1754
when i t was moved i n t o a ru d e b u ild in g p ro v id e d by C allow ay.
I n 1766 a new b u ild in g was o rd e re d by C o u rt.
T h is
b u ild in g was e r e c te d a t New London and was o ccu p ied by Bed­
f o r d County C ourt u n t i l 1783.
At. t h i s tim e Campbell County
was form ed, and New London was in c lu d e d i n i t s b o u n d a rie s ,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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th u s making i t n e c e s s a ry f o r B edford t o form a new county
s e a t*
At once W illiam Callow ay was a p p o in te d by th e c o u rt
t o su rv e y and f in d a lo c a ti o n n e a r th e c e n te r o f th e County
s u i t a b l e f o r b u ild in g a c o u r t house and o th e r p u b lic b u ild ­
in g s*
I n th e mean tim e i t seems t h a t W illiam Downey and
Jo se p h IPuqua had o f .e r e d t o deed 100 a c r e s o f la n d f o r a
co u n ty s e a t*
The co m m itties a p p o in te d t o lo o k th e la n d o v er
and r e p o r t on i t gave fa v o ra b le r e p o r t s and work on a c o u rt
h o u se , s to c k s , p r is o n and o th e r p u b lic h o u ses was s t a r t e d .
I n A ugust C o u rt was h e ld f o r th e f i r s t tim e a t th e new coun­
ty s e a t.
L ib e r ty was th e name g iv en th e new co u n ty s e a t by th e
V ir g in ia A ssem bly.
J u s t why t h i s name was chosen i s n o t
known, b u t someone h a s o f f e r e d th e s u g g e s tio n t h a t P a tr ic k
H enry ’s famous sp e e c h , raGive me l i b e r t y o r g iv e me d eath s*
I n s p ir e d th e name.
I n 1789 a b r ic k c o u rt house was b u i l t a t L ib e r ty .
T h is one s e rv e d th e f a s t grow ing County f o r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s .
I t , how ever, gave way i n 1854 to a new c o u r t b u ild in g which
s e rv e d th e p e o p le f o r alm o st a c e n tu r y .
T h is o ld b u ild in g
n o t o n ly s e rv e d th e p eo p le a s a tem p le o f j u s t i c e , b u t o f te n
i t s d o o rs w ere throw n open f o r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , and i t was
from tim e t o tim e u sed by d i f f e r e n t d en o m in atio n s w h ile th e y
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
wore b u ild in g t h e i r c h u rc h e s .
I n 1930 th e p e o p le o f th e County a g a in b u i l t a c o u rt
h o u se ,
T h is f i n e b u ild in g c o s t $818,000.
G eography.
B edford County a s i t s ta n d s to d a y con­
t a i n s 791 sq u a re m ile s .
I t i s bound on th e e a s t by Campbell
A m herst, and P i t t s y l v a n i a C o u n tie s ;
R ockbridge and B o te to u r t;
on th e n o r th by Amherst
on th e w est by R o ck b rid g e, Bote­
t o u r t , Roanoke, and on th e s o u th by F r a n k lin , P i t t s y l v a n i a
and Campbell*
B edford County i s lo c a te d on th e w est s id e o f th e
Piedm ont P l a i n .
The u p la n d e le v a tio n s ex ten d t o th e Blue
Ridge i n some p l a c e s .
The main e le v a tio n I s ab o u t 800 f e e t ,
b u t i n th e n o r th w e ste rn s e c tio n th e Peaks o f O tte r exceed
4 ,0 0 0 f e e t .
The l a r g e s t stre a m s have c u t down ab o u t 800 f e a t be­
low th e u p la n d s and su p p ly s te e p s lo p e s , b u t th e u p la n d s a r e
f o r th e m ost p a r t s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .
I n th e north'
and n o r th w e s te rn p a r t o f th e County th e r e a r e m ountains
c a u s in g th e u s u a l w a s te , b u t th e r e s t o f th e County i s n e a r­
l y f r e e o f m ountainous w a s te .
Because o f th e narrow low­
la n d s and b ro ad u p la n d s , th e highw ays and r e s id e n c e s a r e lo ­
c a te d m ain ly on th e u p la n d s .
I n d u s tr y .
A few y e a rs ag o an I n d u s t r i a l su rv e y o f
B edford County showed t h a t i t p o sse sse d m in e ra l r e s o u rc e s in
i r o n o r e , f e l d s p a r , b a r i t e s , s o a p s to n e , b u ild in g s to n e , and
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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c ru s h s t o a s .
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Thus f a r th e r e h as been v e ry l i t t l e e f f o r t to
develo p th e s e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .
T h ere i s a bedded d e p o s it o f h e m a tite o re on th e w est­
e r n s id e o f th e County which i s c o n tin u o u s f o r s e v e r a l m ile s ,
w ith an a v e ra g e th ic k n e s s o f sev en f e e t , an d i s u n ifo rm i n
th ic k n e s s and q u a l i t y .
West o f V illem o n t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e p o s it o f lim e­
s to n e , and s i m i l a r sto n e h a s been u sed f o r b u ild in g i n v a r­
io u s p a rtB o f th e C ounty.
A lso , i n th e w e ste rn p a r t o f th e
C ounty, t h e r e i s Cambrian sa n d sto n e which c o u ld be u sed f o r
b u ild in g s to n e .
G ra n ite s and g r a a i te - g n e is s e s a r e a l s o q u ite g e n e ra l­
l y found i n th e n o rth w e ste rn s e c tio n .
The P eaks o f O tte r
o f f e r s th e b e s t p la c e f o r com m ercial developm ent o f g r a n i t e .
C rushed s to n e h as been developed c o n s id e r a b ly in th e w est­
e r n end o f th e C ounty.
S o ap sto n e i s known to e x i s t in two s e c t i o n s , one w est
o f New London, th e o th e r on Goose C reek . .
F e ld s p a r w hich h as been produced n e a r F o r e s t, O tte r
K i l l , B e lle v u e , and Moaeta h as p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r de­
velo p m en t.
The N a tu ra l B rid g e N a tio n a l F o re s t e x te n d s i n t o Bed­
f o r d County c o v e rin g a t o t a l a r e a o f 19,326 a c r e s .
Of t h i s
o n ly 167 a c r e s a r e n o n -p ro d u c tiv e .
I n t h i s a r e a th e tim b e r c o n s is ts o f w h ite p in e , pop-
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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I c r , hem lock, and v /h ite oak m o stly i n th e f e r t i l e s o i l s o f
th e low er s i t e s .
On th e d r i e r h i l l s id e s a r e e x te n s iv e
grow ths o f v h ite and y ello w p in e , b la c k o ak, and l o c u s t .
T h is p o r tio n o f B edford County h as s u f fe re d v e ry l i t t l e from
f i r e s o r lum bering and now c o n ta in s th o u san d s o f a c r e s o f
h a rd wood f o r com m ercial u s e .
T here a r e no f ig u r e s a v a ila b le a s to th e amount of
tim b e r o u ts id e o f th e n a t i o n a l F o re s t a r e a .
T here a r e , how­
e v e r, 3 t i l l m illio n s o f f e e t o f c h e s tn u t tim b e r i n th e Coun­
ty .
A g r e a te r p e rc e n ta g e o f w h ite p in e i s found i n th e
s o u th e rn s e c tio n s o f th e C ounty.
These f o r e s t s have been
c u t o v er s e v e r a l tim e s b u t th e r e a r e some sm a ll com m unities
w hich have lum bering a s t h e i r c h ie f in d u s tr y .
The B edford P ulp and P ap er Company, lo c e te d a t Big
I s l a n d , i s by f a r th e County*s l a r g e s t and most im p o rta n t
m a n u fa c tu rin g e n t e r p r i s e .
Hampton Looms {The B edford Woolen M ills ) i s th e la r g ­
e s t m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t i n th e town of B edford.
The t i n can f a c t o r y , ru b b e r p l a n t , l a b e l p l a n t , s i l k
m i l l , f l o u r m i l l s , and c a n n e r ie s have i n th e r e c e n t y e a rs
become Im p o rtan t i n d u s t r i e s em ploying many o f th e l o c a l
p e o p le .
The c h ie f o c c u p a tio n o f th e County i s f a m i n g .
farm in g ran k s f i r s t i n c a s h Incom e.
Tobacco i s se co n d ,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
D airy
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fo llo w e d c l o s e ly by f r u i t grow ing.
C h u rch es.
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The P r e s b y te r ia n s were e a r l y p io n e e rs i n
nr
church work i n B edford C ounty.
I n th e e a r l y se v e n te e n f i f -
t i e s a ch u rch was b u i l t a t hew London.
The f i r s t ch u rch o f
t h i s f a i t h i n B edford was b u i l t i n 1843.
The E p isc o p a l Church s t a r t e d i n t h i s County when Bedf o r d County was s e p a r a te d from Lunenburg in 1753.
o f R u sse l was e s t a b l i s h e d .
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The p a r is h
A ch u rch was b u i l t i n L ib e r ty i n
1826.
The B a p tis t Church was e s ta b li s h e d i n th e County I n
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1771. Morgan’ s Church was th e o ld e s t B a p tis t o r g a n iz a tio n in
th e C ounty.
T h e ir f i r s t ch u rch was b u i l t I n L ib e r ty i n 1800.
By 1784 enough p eo p le o f th e M e th o d ist f a i t h were in
th e County to make a c i r c u i t o f th e e n t i r e C ounty.
They es­
ta b l i s h e d t h e i r ch u rch i n L ib e r ty i n 1794.
The C h r is t ia n den o m in atio n came in to th e County ab o u t
1900.
I t v/as b ro u g h t i n fro m F ra n k lin County by Mr. and M rs.
W illia m R o b ert o a u n d e rs .
The f i r s t ch u rch was b u i l t i n Bed­
f o r d ab o u t 1902.
The U n ite d B r e th re n , H o lin e ss C hurch, P r im itiv e Bap­
t i s t , C a th o lic s , and S ev en th -d a y A d v e n tis ts a r e among th e
o th e r denoxainations s c a t t e r e d th ro u g h o u t th e C ounty.
S c h o o ls. S ch o o ls I n B edford have shown much g ro w th .
I n t h e days p re c e d in g th e war betw een th e s t a t e s th e s c h o o l'
sy stem o f B edford County was a neighborhood a f f a i r .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
I t was
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u s u a lly d eveloped by some few broad m inded, w e a lth y c i t i z e n s
who would b u ild a house and h i r e a te a c h e r .
B esid es th e s e so c a lle d f i e l d s c h o o ls , th e r e were
s e v e r a l e x c e ll e n t p r i v a t e sc h o o ls i n th e County*
One was
e r e c te d a t L ib e r ty i n 1799.
The f i r s t te a c h e r o f prom inence
i n L ib e rty was Jo n as I r v i n e .
A sc h o o l f o r boys e s ta b lis h e d
by him co n tin u ed w e ll i n t o th e n in e te e n th c e n tu r y .
I n 1805
o r 1806 th e f i r s t b o a rd in g sc h o o l f o r g i r l s was opened by
M rs. E liz a b e th L e ftw ic h .
I n 1812 M iss Haney Thomas opened
a p r i v a t e s c h o o l I n h e r home, com bining some o f th e f e a t u r e s
o f th e ”01d Dame’ s S ch o o l” o f England w ith th o se o f th e
modern k in d e r g a r te n .
New London Academy was c h a r te r e d by th e G en eral Assem­
b ly i n 1795.
Piedm ont Male Academy was founded i n 1850.
Sunny S id e High S ch o o l was o rg a n iz e d i n 1868 by Rev. A lex­
an d e r Eubank.
Mt, P le a s a n t Academy was b e in g o p e ra te d i n
1860= The Randolph Macon Academy was bogus i s 1890 and con­
tin u e d u n t i l 1933, when i t was c o n s o lid a te d w ith Randolph
Macon Academy a t Ifcoht R o y al.
As p u b lic s c h o o ls d ev elo p ed th e s e p r i v a t e s c h o o ls
went o u t o f e x is te n c e , one by o n e, and to d a y th e o n ly on©
l e f t i n o p e r a tio n i s New London Academy w hich became a pub­
l i c sc h o o l i n 1884 and i s o p e ra te d j o i n t l y by B edford and
Campbell C o u n tie s.
When th e V ir g in ia L e g is la tu r e p a sse d an a c t in 1670
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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14
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r e q u ir in g th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a uniform , sy stem o f P u b lic
F re e S c h o o ls, th e County was d iv id e d i n t o sev en sc h o o l d i s -
i
i
tric ts ?
L ib e r ty , L isb o n , C h ain b lissb u rg , S ta u n to n , O tte r ,
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:
C harlem ont and F o r e s t.
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S idney Dunton, se rv e d from th e b e g in n in g o f th e system u n t i l
i
The f i r s t County S u p e rin te n d e n t, Hon.
Ja n u a ry 1 , 1875.
The sc h o o l system grew r a p id ly betw een th e y e a rs o f
1870 and 1913.
I n 1913 th e r e were a p p ro x im a te ly 190 sc h o o l
b u ild in g s w ith ab o u t 225 te a c h e r s .
T h ere w ere two f o u r - y e a r
h ig h s c h o o ls , New London and B ed fo rd ;
two t h r e e - y e a r h ig h
s c h o o ls , M ontvale and U o n eta;
two tw o -y ear h ig h s c h o o ls ,
S te w a r ts v i lie and H erm itag e.
Some two-room sc h o o ls ta u g h t
h ig h 3 chool s u b je c ts .
In th e s e days th e r e was no d e f i n i t e b u dget o f sc h o o l
fu n d s .
The sc h o o l te rm m erely e x is te d u n t i l th e money ex­
p ir e d and m ost o f th e tim e t h i s was w ith in f i v e o r s i x m onths.
New London Acedemy s t a r t e d a s a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n ,
c h a r te r e d by th e Assembly o f IT irg in ia , i n 1795*
E ig h ty - n in e
y e a rs l a t e r i t changed from a , p r i v a t e sc h o o l t o a p u b lic
f r e e sc h o o l su p p o rted by Bedford and Campbell C o u n tie s .
It
i s o p e ra te d by a l e g i s l a t i v e a c t w ith a b o ard o f m anagers
c o n s is tin g of th e s u p e rin te n d e n ts o f B edford and Campbell
C o u n ties and one p a tro n member from each County and one o th e r
member which i s a p p o in te d a l t e r n a t e l y from each County f o r aterm o f th r e e y e a r s .
The c o s t o f o p e r a tin g th e sc h o o l I s
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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sh a re d e q u a lly ,
i
U n til 1989 New London was a b o a rd in g s c h o o l.
A fte r
t h a t d a te c h ild r e n were b ro u g h t i n on b u ses from a r a d iu s
j
o f t h i r t y sq u a re m ile s o r more*
i
When th e new f r e e sc h o o l system f i r s t made i t s a p p e a r-
j
i
an ce i n B ed fo rd , a la r g e p e rc e n ta g e o f p eo p le w ere p r e ju d ic e d
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a g a in s t i t .
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i n th e L ib e r ty grad ed s c h o o l.
p rin c ip a l.
However, i n 1872 th e p eo p le gave i t a t r y - o u t
James R. Guy was th e f i r s t
I n 1901 a h ig h s c h o o l c o u rse was ad d ed , and f i v e
y e a r s l a t e r , I n 1906, f i v e g ra d u a te s re c e iv e d d ip lo m a s.
I n 1913 a new b u ild in g (now used by th e g ra d e s ) was
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i
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i
e r e c te d .
T he' e n ro llm e n t in c re a s e d to such an e x te n t t h a t a l l
rooms were soon f i l l e d , and th e town p u rch ased th e o ld B el-
i
mont b u ild in g w hich viaa u sed u n t i l 1928, when a modern h ig h
sc h o o l b u ild in g was e r e c te d .
The l i t t l e one-room s c h o o l once s i t u a t e d w here Beth­
lehem Church s ta n d s m arks th e b eg in n in g o f th e Moneta S ch o o l,
W illiam Hunt was th e f i r s t te a c h e r .
f o u r months o f th e y e a r .
T h is sc h o o l l a s t e d o n ly
I n 1883 a few o f th e p ro m in en t
f a m ilie s d e c id ed t o b u ild a sc h o o l w hich would ru n n in e mon­
th s .
T h is s c h o o l was p la c e d on th e l o t a c r o s s from th e p r e ­
s e n t b u ild in g .
l a r g e r b u ild in g .
The r a p id grow th o f th e sc h o o l c a lle d f o r a
The community and co u n ty sh a re d e q u a lly i n
th e c o s t o f t h i s b u ild in g on th e p r e s e n t l o t .
The b u ild in g , '
when com pleted i n 1909, c o n s is te d o f two rooms and an a u d i-
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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to riu m .
16
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ttev. H orace '7. ■y'/ilkiason, p r i n c i p a l , w ith h is a s -
j
1
i
!
iI
s i 3 t a n t , M rs. W.P. H ucker, raade up th e f a c u l t y .
The f i r s t
gradu atin g ; c l a s s o f Monets c o n ta in e d th r e e members.
I n 1925
i t became an a c c r e d ite d h ig h s c h o o l, and in 1935 th e p re s e n t
i
b u ild in g was o c c u p ie d .
I t i s s i t u a t e d a few hundred f e e t
from th e highway w ith a b e a u t i f u l f r o n t law n.
The e x a c t d a te o f th e f i r s t s c h o o l a t M ontvale i s n o t
knovm.
However, th e f i r s t b u ild in g u sed f o r a school., con-
I
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ta in e d th r e e rooms and was l a t e r used a s a d w e llin g u n t i l
;
burned i n 1930.
it
The n e x t s c h o o l, a la r g e tw o -s to ry b u ild in g ,
was e r e c te d in 1911 and used u n t i l 1930.
At t h a t tim e , th e
modern b r ic k b u ild in g i n u se tit th e p r e s e n t tim e was comj
p le te d .
I n 1900 th e o ld sc h o o l s i t e o f S te w a r ts v ille was
s i t u a t e d o n e - h a lf m ile so u th o f th e v i l l a g e .
T h is b u ild in g
was a two-room s t r u c t u r e an d , u n t i l 1911, employed o n ly two
te a c h e rs .
I n 1904 a new two-room b u ild in g was e r e c te d on th e
p rese n t a th le tic f ie ld .
I n 191B a tv o - s to r y b u ild in g o f fo u r
room s, and an a u d ito riu m was c o n s tr u c te d . • T h is was th e be­
g in n in g o f O te w a rtsv ill© High S c h o o l, which was o p e ra te d
u n t i l 1933 a s a . grad ed s c h o o l.
I n 1933 S to w a r ta v iilo was
p la c e d on th e l i s t o f a c c r e d it e d h ig h s c h o o ls .
H u d d lesto n High S chool b u ild in g was e r e c te d In 1925.
Mr. C.M. A bbott was th e f i r s t p r i n c i p a l .
T u rn e r was th e lo n e g r a d u a te .
In 1927 P a u lin e
I n th e same y e a r th e sc h o o l
became an a c c r e d ite d s o h o o l.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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T here was no p r o v is io n c a d e f o r a sc h o o l i n Big I s la n d
u n t i l 1890. I n 1889 John B u rfo rd l e f t a t r a c t o f la n d f o r
j
j ch urch and sc h o o l p u rp o s e s . I n 1890 R.G. T u rp in , W.B. W a tts,
j and D r. H.A. Jo rd a n gave coney to b u ild a two-room h o u se .
| T h is was u se d u n t i l th e e n ro llm e n t cad e i t n e c e s s a ry to e n i
i
| la r g e th e s c h o o l. I n 1910 th e sc h o o l was moved in t o e t h r e e room b u ild in g on th e h i l l to w hich two more rooms were added
.
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and a tw o -y ear h ig h s c h o o l c o u rse was o f f e r e d .
T h is in c re a s e d
! th e r o l l u n t i l i t was n e c e s s a ry t o u se th e Odd F ello w s H a ll
|
f o r th e h ig h s c h o o l.
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i t was n e c e s s a ry t o b u ild a new b u ild in g .
Boonsboro S ch o o l s t a r t e d when M rs. J .C . Cobbs d o n ated
j
j
I n 1929 th e sc h o o l had in c re a s e d u n t i l
a p ie c e o f la n d f o r a s c h o o l.
L a te r a new b u ild in g was o ccu -
p ie d and s e rv e d th e community f o r tw enty y e a r s .
rooms were ad d ed .
|
b u rn e d .
In 1920 new
The fo llo w in g y e a r th e e n t i r e sc h o o l was
T h is seemed t o sp u r th e p e o p le to g r e a t e r e f f o r t s
and th ro u g h p r i v a t e s u b s c r ip tio n s a th re e -ro o m b u ild in g was
r a is e d .
I
I n 1931, t h i r d y e a r h ig h sc h o o l work was added, b u t
a g a in th e b u ild in g was b u rn e d , and th e s e s s io n was f i n i s h e d
i n a v a c a n t b u ild in g back o f th e V ir g in ia B a p tis t H o s p ita l in
Lynchburg.
I n 1932 a new b r ic k b u ild in g was e r e c te d and a
f u l l f o u r - y e a r c o u rse was ad d ed .
The sc h o o l became a c c r e d i t ­
ed d u rin g th e 1933-34 te rm .
Towns.
T here a r e sev en towns i n B edford County.
th e s e o n ly one i s in c o r p o r a te d , B edford, th e County s e a t ,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
Of
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1 8
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t
2
t
| w ith an app ro x im ate p o p u la tio n o f 4 ,0 0 0 . The town o f Bed1
j f o r d h as changed names th r e e tim e s s in c e 1782. I t was known
| a s L ib e r ty u n t i l th e boom d ays o f 1890.
I t was th e n known
| a s B edford C ity . Y ears l a t e r th e " c i t y " was dropped and th e
i
| town became known sim p ly a s B ed fo rd . B edford d i f f e r s from
i
any o th e r town in th e U n ite d S t a t e s i n t h a t i t d o e s n 't a s s e s s
ta x e s on p r o p e r ty to s u p p o rt C ity o r F e d e ra l Government.
|
The w a te r an d l i g h t p l a n t s owned by th e town pay th e ta x e s .
|
B edford has I n d u s tr ie s w hich c a l l f o r b o th s k i l l e d and un-
! s k ille d la b o r.
The c i t y i s b e a u t i f u l l y s i t u a t e d , I s w e ll
| equipped f o r l i g h t s and w a te r , and h a s good r o a d s .
i
I
The 1930 Census showed t h a t H u d d lesto n had a popuj
j l a t i o n o f 275. H u d d lesto n i s on th e S outh s i d e , lo c a te d
n e a r th e V ir g in ia n r a i l r o a d .
a f a m in g s e c t i o n .
!
I t i s lo c a te d I n th e c e n te r o f
Canning o f v e g e ta b le s and f r u i t s , and
lum bering b u s in e s s e s o f in c r e a s in g im p o rtan ce have e x is te d
i
i
th ro u g h t h i s s e c tio n f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s .
Big I s la n d h as a p o p u la tio n o f 256.
c e iv e d i t s name b ecau se i t
The p la c e r e ­
i s n e a r an i s l a n d ab o u t one and
o n e - f o u rth m ile s lo n g , s a id t o be th e l a r g e s t i n th e e n t i r e
le n g th o f th e James r i v e r .
paper m ill.
B ig I s la n d i s th e home o f a la r g e
B esid es th e p a p e r m i l l , th e r e a r e s e v e r a l s t o r e s ,
a bank, a h o t e l , a t h e a t e r , a g arag e and an u n d e r ta k e r 's
e s ta b lis h m e n t.
M ontvale, a town o f a b o u t 300 p e o p le , i s lo c a te d tw elv e
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
I
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19 -
i
{
i
j
! m ile s w est o f B edford on th e N o rfo lk and W estern r a ilw a y , and
i
| on th e highway known a s th e " C o lo n ia l T r a i l " .
M o n tv ale, to o ,
]
| h a s changed i t s name.
j
At one tim e i t was known a s B u fo rd s-
v i l l e , ta k in g i t s name from th e B uford fa m ily who w ere la r g e
la n d ow ners.
D uring th e boom days o f 1890, th e name was
changed t o M o n tv ale.
The town h a s th r e e c h u rc h e s , a h o t e l ,
s e v e r a l s t o r e s , and th e l a r g e s t g ra d e sc h o o l i n th e C ounty,
j
j
Moneta s t a r t e d I n 1858 when a ta n y a rd was s t a r t e d by
J o rd a n Lipscom b.
I n 1858 John Bond d o n ated la n d f o r a s c h o o l.
j
I n 1850 T.N . T haxton b u i l t th e f i r s t s to r e I n M oneta.
The
i
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I
!
j
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p o s t o f f i c e was e s ta b li s h e d i n 1883 and i n 1903 a r u r a l r o u te
'
was s t a r t e d . The f i r s t ch u rch was b u i l t i n 1860. By 1908
th e V irg in ia n R a ilro a d w ent th ro u g h M oneta.
The town now h as
a p o p u la tio n o f BOO, h as a f o u r - y e a r , a c c r e d ite d h ig h s c h o o l,
s t o r e s , s e v e r a l can n in g f a c t o r i e s , a n u n d e r ta k e r ’ s e s t a b l i s h I
I
!
m en t, and a c h u rc h .
F o r e s t i s on t h e N o rfo lk and W estern r a i l r o a d ab o u t
te n m ile s from Iy n c h b u rg .
I t h as an ap p ro x im ate p o p u la tio n
o f 150 p e rs o n s , and i s a s h o r t d is ta n c e from P o p la r F o r e s t,
one o f th e homes o f Thomas J e f f e r s o n .
T h is home was occu­
p ie d by him when fo rc e d t o f l e e from M o n tic e llo I n 1781.
F o r e s t i s p r im a r ily a n a g r i c u l t u r a l community.
I t i s th e
home o f s e v e r a l l o c a l l y owned c a n n in g f a c t o r i e s and s e v e r a l
s t o r e s , and i s a p o in t f o r s h ip p in g wood.
Lowry, a b o u t f i v e m ile s from B ed fo rd , i s s i t u a t e d on
with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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j
j
th e N o rfo lk and W estern r a ilw a y .
The town to o k i t s name from
a fa m ily w hich once owned a t l e a s t o n e - th ir d o f B edford Coun|
ty .
The p e o p le c h i e f ly c a r r y on a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u its *
V llla m o n t, in th e gap o f th e Blue Ridge m o u n ta in s, was
j
f i r s t known a s B urfordb Gap,
L a te r i t was c a l l e d I r o v i l l e .
j
S S in c e i t h as become a f a v o r i t e p la c e f o r summer homes, i t i s
!
j known a s V illa m o n t. The p o p u la tio n i s o f a co sm o p o litan n a '
t u r e , m o stly s e a s o n a l.
j
i s used by s e v e r a l d e n o m in atio n s.
j
A community ohurch h as been b u i l t and
T haxton a l s o i s lo c a te d on th e N o rfo lk and W estern
ra ilro a d .
I t has s e v e r a l s t o r e s , a la r g e g a ra g e , and a la r g e
an
e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l, and I s im p o rta n t sh ip p in g p o in t f o r lum ber.
Banks.
1872.
The f i r s t Bank was o rg a n iz e d i n L ib e r ty In
I t was known a s th e L ib e r ty S av in g s Bank.
The ex a ct
d a te o f i t s f a i l u r e i s n o t known b u t i t m s d u rin g th e boom
days o f 1890 when th e e n t i r e c o u n try went w ild I n s p e c u la tio n .
T h ir ty y e a r s l a t e r th e Lynchburg T ru s t and Caving Bank p u r­
ch ased th e e n t e r p r i s e .
T h ere was a F i r s t N a tio n a l Bank o rg a n iz e d ab o u t 1090.
I t f a i l e d s h o r t l y a f t e r i t was founded*
Sm all banks a t Mo­
n e t a , M o n tv ale, H u d d lesto n , and F o re s t were fo u n d ed , b u t
f a i l e d to w e a th e r th e sto rm o f f i n a n c i a l c r a s h i n 1928-29.
The two N a tio n a l banks o f th e tow n, P eo p les* and
C itiz e n s * , w ere I n some way a b le to w ea th er th e sto rm , and
have c o n tin u e d t o make p r o g r e s s .
The o n ly o th e r bank in
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
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21
-
j
| b u s in e s s in th e C ounty, lo c a te d a t Big I s la n d , h as been s e r v i
| In g th e p e o p le o f t h a t s e c tio n s in c e 1913*
i
i
I
Roads*
B edford County ro a d s have n e v e r been d e v e lo p -
; ed a s w e ll a s th o s e o f some c o u n tie s because th e la c k o f ro ad
m a te r ia l s and m ach in ery , a s w e ll a s u n fa v o ra b le s o i l co n d i­
t i o n s made i t alm o st im p o s s ib le .
The H ig h w a y D epartm ent m s
fa c e d w ith m o u n ta in s, r o c k s , o r i s i n g l a s s d i r t i n n e a rly
! e v e ry s e c tio n .
j
The f i r s t s y s te m a tic ro a d work was u n d e rta k e n i n th e
J
! County i n th e e a r l y n i n e t i e s by P a tte r s o n , who was a p p o in te d
| by Judge Brown.
A t t h a t tim e th e Iynchburg-oalem T u rn p ik e
| was th e o n ly s u rfa c e d ro a d i n th e County, th e r e s t b e in g In
| v a r io u s 3 ta g e s o f unim provem ent.
I t was ab o u t t h i s tim e
t h a t th e f i r s t c o n v ic t f o r c e was p u t on th e r o a d s .
I n 1910
S t a t e a id was a v a i l a b l e and s h o r t s e c tio n s w ere h a rd s tirfa c e d
;
from B edford tow ard Bunker K i l l and K elso .
From t i n e t o tim e
|
th e ro a d equipm ent im proved a s e a ch s e c tio n bought th e iaachini
|
e r y w hich I t n eeded.
I n tim e th e e n t i r e s e tu p o f th e County
! ro a d d ep artm en t was g r e a t l y im proved.
Today th e ro a d s
th ro u g h o u t th e County have im proved g r e a t l y , w ith h a rd s u r ­
f a c e on m ost main highw ays and g r a v e l on th e b ran ch o n e s .
The P e o p le .
The p eo p le o f B edford County have alw ays
been p a t r i o t i c , and w henever th e c o u n try was i n danger th e y
w ere alw ays on hand re a d y t o resp o n d t o h e r c a l l .
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R e v o lu tio n a ry War, B edford County d id h e r p a r t ,
I n th e
fihe h a s a
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| long l i s t o f men who se rv e d i n th e s tr u g g le f o r freedom ,
I
Again in th e C iv il War B edford County responded n o b ly .
j
i When V ir g in ia had to secede t o p r e s e rv e h e r r i g h t s and h o n o rs,
I th e c i t i z e n s o f th e County applauded th e a c t i o n .
j
The f i r s t
I t h r e e com panies to o f f e r t h e i r s u p p o rt to Governor L e tc h e r
w ere from B edford County, and. by th e c lo s e o f th e War th e
County was r e p r e s e n te d by n in e com panies.
I
TTot o n ly men, b u t a l s o s u p p lie s w ere g iv e n , th e r e b e -
! in g a re c o rd o f $50,000 b ein g a p p r o p r ia te d by th e c o u r t o f
I B edford f o r arm ing and eq u ip p in g th e m i l i t i a .
I
J
The women o f B edford d id t h e i r b i t I n c a rin g f o r th e
j
s ic k and d is a b le d .
Piedmont S chool and s e v e r a l f a c t o r i e s
I wore used a s h o s p i t a l s .
Soon a f t e r th e War th e L ad ies South­
e rn M emorial A s s o c ia tio n was form ed.
B efore 1866 M rs. Sue
London had in a u g u ra te d a C o n fe d e ra te M a n o ria l Pay.
I n 1875
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a monument xvas p la c e d in th e cem etery on Piedm ont K i l l , where
(
th e s o l d i e r s who d ie d i n th e h o s p i t a l w ere b u r ie d .
The Monu­
ment and th e d u s t o f th o s e b u rie d t h e r e hav.e s in c e been moved
to Longwood C em etery.
On Sunday m orning, O ctober 12, 1884,
a f t e r a d e v a s ta tin g f i r e , o n ly two s t o r e s I n L ib e rty w ere
found s ta n d in g .
The scen e was one o f u t t e r d e s o la ti o n .
The
c i t i z e n s p u t t h e i r sh o u ld e rs t o th e w h eel, and by th e boom
days o f 1890 a g a in Bedford was a f l o u r i s h i n g town.
The f i r s t VToman's Club In V ir g in ia was o rg a n iz e d in
B edford i n 1890 by M iss S u sie Campbell and M rs. A lan Brown.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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2 3
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I As i t c o n s is te d o f f i f t e e n p ro m in en t women, i t was c a lle d th e
!
F i f t e e n C lu b .
A nother a c t i v e o r g a n iz a tio n o f Women i s known
j a s th e D.A.R. I t was o rg a n iz e d May 29, 1930. I t s pu rp o se
1
i s to p re s e rv e th e memory o f th o s e who fo u g h t d u rin g th e
j American R e v o lu tio n . The D aughters o f th e C o n fed eracy , w hich
I
was o rg a n is e d a s "The L ad ies M em orial A s s o c ia tio n ” in 1886,
p r e s e rv e s th e memory o f th e C o n fe d e ra te s o l d i e r s .
The Bed-
| f o rd County C hapter o f th e American Red C ross was o rg a n iz e d
I
.
j in 1917 to g iv e a id d u rin g th e World War. A fte r th e War i t
!
s t i l l rem ained a c t i v e and i s to d a y a n o te -w o rth y c h a r i t a b l e
a s s o c ia tio n .
i
i
i
P la c e s o f I n t e r e s t .
T here a r e many p la c e s i n th e
County o f i n t e r e s t t o t r a v e l e r s .
The b e a u t i f u l sc e n e ry o f
th e P eaks o f O tte r can n o t be su rp assed *
T o u r is ts o f te n s to p
t o v i s i t P o p la r F o r e s t, th e summer home o f Thomas J e f f e r s o n ,
i
lo c a te d th r e e m ile s from New London.
The Elks* N a tio n a l Home
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i n B edford i s o f i n t e r e s t t o many.
Grand Lodge in 1901.
I t was founded by th e
The h o u se i n which Mark Twain’ s grand­
m o th e r, Pamela G oggin, m s b o r n ,s ta n d s n e a r Body Camp.
The
home o f C olonel Thomas B uford n e a r M ontvale was th e house
w here G en eral Andrew L ew is, h e ro o f P o in t P le a s a n t, s p e n t h i s
l a s t d a y s.
Upon th e s id e o f T a y lo r ’ s M ountain, some sev en o r e ig h t
m ile s from Bedford n e a r th e o ld H igginbotham p la c e , i s a
n a t u r a l phenomenon known a s "The D e v il’ s Den".
I t I s a su b -
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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te r r a n e a n vent from which Is a i.e s warm a i r , so t h a t in th e
c o ld e s t o f w eather flo w e rs and g r a s s a r e se en growing and
bloom ing around i t s edge.
Y ears ago p eo p le would v i s i t th e
p la c e and drop fe n c e r a i l s and lo g s i n i t .
They would go
down so f a r t h a t th e y were n o t h e a rd when th e y h i t th e bottom*
L a te r th e v en t caved i n b u t s m a lle r v e n ts opened th ro u g h
w hich h o t a i r e s c a p e s , and flo w e rs bloom th e r e th e e n t i r e
year*
On th e s o u th s id e o f f l a t Top th e r e i s a r o c k , o r i t
m ight be s a id two r o c k s , one s ta n d in g v e r t i c a l l y and th e o th ­
e r i n a h o r iz o n ta l p o s i t i o n , th e .two form ing a n a t u r a l c r o s s .
Over a h a l f c e n tu ry ago t h i s phenomenon was v i s i t e d by l a t h e r
McUuirk who was th e n th e p r i e s t i n ch arg e o f b t . M ary 's Catho­
l i c Church i n B ed fo rd , and i n ac co rd an c e w ith th e C a th o lic
r i t u a l pronounced a b le s s in g upon th e
ro se .
"The- C a v il's P o t'', a ro c k fo rm a tio n found i n th e v i c i n ­
i t y o f a c re e k known as Buck kun c o n s is ts o f th r e e round
h o le s i n a s o l i d ro c k re a c h in g th e d ep th o f s e v e r a l f e e t .
The
l a r g e r o f th e h e le s i s ab o u t tw elv e in c h e s i n d ia m e te r, and
i s s i t u a t e d betw een th e two s m a lle r ones*
They a r e alm o st
c i r c u l a r i n shape h av in g th e ap p e aran c e o f h av in g been c u t o r
d r i l l e d o u t o f s o l i d ro c k , b u t by whom o r whan i s n o t known.
T r a d itio n say s i t was done by th e Xndluns b e fo re th e coming
o f th e w h ite man and an o ld le g en d in d ic a t e s t h a t th e y wore
u sed by th e In d ia n M edicine Men f o r th e m ixing o f t h e i r co n -
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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c o c tio n s used to h erd th e n ic k .
About a m ile w est o f '’The D e v il’ s Den” th e r e in a la rg e
i
ro c k which shows th e complete, im p rin t o f an In d ia n M occasin
j
in s o lid g r a n ite .
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I t lias been d e s ig n a te d by o ld tim e rs a s
"The lla id c n ’s hdioC'.
about th e rock*
There a r e no o th e r s ig n s o f d e p re s s io n s
I t lo o k s a s i f one s in g le tr a c k was made
h undred s o f y e a rs ago by an .Inul&u, or someone w earin g a
m occasin shoe*
im o ld le g en d t h a t h as been Jianded dovn s in c e
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I
th e f i r s t d is c o v e ry of th e m y ste rio u s t r a c k w h ile In d ia n s
s t i l l roamed th e m ountains o f B ed fo rd , in d ic a t e s t h a t an
In d ia n m aiden ’was f l e e i n g from h e r i r a t e f a t h e r to meet I s r
f
4
S
In d ia n lo v e r when she sto p p ed on th e s o f t rock ana was h e ld
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f ir m ly by th e f o o t u n t i l she co u ld be e x t r i c a t e d .
Summary.
Xn i t s IB7 y e a rs o f e x is te n c e we m ight say
t h a t B edford County has p ro g re s se d slo w ly b u t 3 u r e ly .
Its
j
!
i
grow th h as been more o r l e s s norm al and n o t marked by any
*
*
p a r t i c u l a r p r o g re s s io n s o r r e t r o g r e s s i o n s . The p eo p le have
alw ays been in c lin e d to l i v e w ith in t h e i r means.
As a conse­
quence, th e m ost r a p id s t r i d e s in p r o g re s s m ight be found in
th e more r e c e n t y e a r s .
In r e c e n t yeai*s th e County has been
c o n s ta n tly g e t t i n g more in d u s tr y , more th o u g h t has been given
to s o i l c o n s e r v a tio n , and more i n t e r e s t has been shown i n th e
b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f th e County and in th e r e c r e a tio n o f i t s
people*
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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The c h ie f o c c u p a tio n o f th e peew it 1 b farm ing,, V,'e
m ight say t h a t th e a v e ra g e c i t i z e n o f th e County i s a f a i r l y
in d ep en d en t fa rm e r.
He i s i n t e r e s t e d in m a in ta in in g h is
farm , p ro v id in g n e c e s s i t i e s and some lu x u r ie s f o r h i s fa m ily ,
and g iv in g h i s c h ild r e n a t l e a s t a h ig h sc h o o l e d u c a tio n .
A ll sc h o o l com m unities, how ever, have among t h e i r membership
th o se who do n o t have th e s e i n t e r e s t s .
B edford County i s w e ll lo c a te d and s e rv e d by th r e e
ra ilro a d s .
p e o p le .
I t s sc e n e ry sh o u ld be an i n s p i r a t i o n to i t s
B edford County h as th e re s o u rc e s to m a in ta in p ro ­
g r e s s o f i t s p eo p le in ev e ry r e s p e c t .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
CEApf„:.R I I I
T!l£ TLhClIJNG FIRIOKITIL
The 'Im portance of th e T e a c h e r.
In th e b eg in n in g o f a
ctudy on tlio te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l i t may be w e ll t o g iv e none
th o u g h t to th e im portance o f th e p o s it io n th e te a c h e r b o ld s ,
n rev ie w o f e d u c a tio n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a ls much d is c u s s io n
on th e r e l a t i v e ' im p o rtan ce o f th e te a c h e r among o th e r edu­
c a tio n a l f a c to r s .
A le a d e r i n e d u c a tio n w rote a s fo llo w s :
The te a c h e r is * by a l l o d d s, th e m ost i n f l u e n t i a l
f a c t o r i n h ig h sc h o o l e d u c a tio n . C u rricu lu m , o rg a n i­
z a t i o n , equipm ent, im p o rta n t a s th e y a r e , co u n t f o r
l i t t l e o r n o th in g ex c ep t us th e y a r e v i t a l i z e d by th e
l i v i n g p e r s o n a lity o f th e t e a c h e r .1
n more sw eeping s ta te m e n t, p e rh a p s , i s nude by a n o th e r
w rite r:
The fo rw ard movements i n human w e lfa re become .
p o s s ib le only from c o r r e c t te a c h in g . C i v i l i s a t i o n ad ­
v an ces i n ac co rd an c e w ith th e q u a l i t y o f te a c h in g s e r ­
v ic e , The in f lu e n c e o f th o g r e a t te a c h e r ex ten d s
th ro u g h many g e n e r a tio n s , d o in g h ig h s e r v ic e beyond th e
l i m i t s o f h i s n a t u r a l l i f e . I t tra n s c e n d s g e o g ra p h ic a l
and n a t i o n a l b o u n d a rie s , w itn e s s S o c r a te s and J e s u s .2
^Brown, J . F . The .American High S chool (New York:
M acm illan Company, 1909'/ P ." ”193
The
^B ru b ack er, n .H . " P la in T alk s to T e a c h e rs" , i n Holmes,
H.W ., and F o w ler, B .P . The P a th o f L earn in g (B oston: L i t t l e ’,
Brown and Company, 19Bfc>) P . 451
-7
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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2 8
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-jnpiiaFiairi.j, th e t e a c h e r ’ s im portance a s i t a f r e e t s th e
in d iv i d u a l, B ossing has t h i s to say:
' As y e t no s u b s t i t u t e has Been found f o r th e 1mp a c t o f mind upon mind* p e r s o n a lity upon p e r s o n a l i t y .
A ttitu d e s tow ard sc h o o l work a r e more im p o rta n t th a n
a c t u a l a c h iev e m en t• fixe p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n of th e s t u ­
d e n t tow ard th e te a c h e r w i l l have v e ry much t o do w ith
tiio conui u io m n ^ oX tu o so attiu iicx ca. h o s t cX us can*
f i g u r a t i v e l y sp e a k in g , p la c e our f in g e r s upon th e p a r ­
t i c u l a r te a c h o ra whose in f lu e n c e c o n d itio n e d our p r e ­
s e n t l i k e s and d i s l i k e s f o r c e r t a i n sc h o o l s u b j e c t s ,
f u rth e rm o re , moat o f us con p o in t o u t th o p a r t i c u l a r
te a c h e r who in flu e n c e d us m ost i n c e r t a i n nodes o f
th o u g h t. G e n e ra lly «vo d is c o v e r upon a n a l y s i s , t h a t th e
in f lu e n c e o f such a te a c h e r ex ten d ed f a r beyond th e
s u b je c t m a tte r s tu d ie d undor h im .’5
j
I
j
Numerous o th e r s ta te m e n ts co u ld be added t o th e above
showing th e im p o rtan ce o f th e te a c h e r , b u t one which w i l l
le a v e w ith u s th e m ost com plete p ic tu r e i s t h a t o f Ja c o b se n :
j
I
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i
I
The f i n e s t S tr a d iv a r lu s v i o l i n i s n o t m u sic . In
lay h an d , i t would be in c a p a b le o f p ro d u c in g m u sic.
A
K r e l s l e r o r a jbenkin, on th e o th e r h an d , c o u ld mhke a
v ery c r e d i t a b l e showing w ith a f i f t y d o l l a r in s tru m e n t,
F in e b u ild in g s , modern equipm ent, and a p r o g re s s iv e
c o u rse of stu d y a r e b u t in s tru m e n ts of e d u c a tio n . Tlie
te a c h e r , who i s th e p la y e r , i s th e most im p o rta n t f a c t o r .
A good te a c h e r w ith poor f a c i l i t i e s i s i n f i n i t e l y more
e f f e c t i v e th a n a p o o r te a c h e r w ith f a c i l i t i e s o f
h t r a d i v a r i a a p e r f e c t i o n .^
^ B o ssin g , H .C ., P r o g r e s s iv e , Methods o f T eaching i n
Secondary S chools (B o sto n : Houghton M if f lin Company, 193f>)
p .;) . 40-41
^ Ja c o b se n , JS.W., "The T eacnor comes F i r s t " , The P h i
D elta Kaunun. Ho. 8 , 8S;53
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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Adequate p lssn t, e-iuipramit, and e d u c a tio n a l progp.c'M
ape h ig h ly d e s i r a b l e , b u t consensus o f o p in io n p la c e s th e
b u ild in g up o f an e f f e c t i v e te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l anoitg th e Im­
p o r ta n t e d ifs in is tra tiv o f u n c tio n s f o r any sc h o o l system .
Only in d iv id u a ls ’.vlth f in e p e r s o n a lity , so;aid c h a ra c te r,
a deep se n se o f s e r v ic e , broad c u l t u r a l background, a tr u e
p h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n , and en th u siasm f o r t h e i r work w i l l be
h ig h ly e f f e c t i v e te a c h e r s .
A te a c h e r whose p e r s o n a lity und
c h a r a c te r i s n o t adm ired, con do l i t t l e in h e lp in g c h ild r e n
develop wholesome a t t i t u d e s .
The c h ild has a way o f f in d in g
o u t t h a t th e te a c h e r i s f a i r , h o n e s t, n o n - p a r tis a n , nons e c t a r i a n , and r e a l l y w orth b ein g im ita te d .
A q fiilo so p h y o f
l i f e m ust be g u id in g th e te a c h e r i n o rd e r th a t she may know
how to g u id e th e l i v i n g o f th e p u p i l s ,
a
p h ilo so p h y o f edu­
c a tio n m ust be g u id in g th e to u c h e r i f she i s to ro a c h any .
■worth w h ile o b j e c t i v e s ,
m erely to te a c h a c h ild to ro a d or
s o lv e A lg eb ra p ro o ie n s may be of m inor im p o rtan ce.
le a r n in g to be. a c r im in a l a t th e same t i n e .
He may be
U n less th e te a c h ­
e r f e e l s th e u rg e to be o f g r e a t s e r v ic e to a i l c h ild r e n a l i k e
( th e good, th e bad, th e c le a n , th e d i r t y ) she i s n o t w orthy
o f a p o s i t i o n i n our d em o cratic i n s t i t u t i o n c a lle d th e p u b lio
s c h o o l.
The s u c c e s s f u l te a c h e r m ust be e n t h u s ia s tic i n h e r
w ork.
A te a c h in g s t a f f t a a t has become s t a t i c i s i n e f f e c t i v e .
C ontinuous grow th i s n e c e s s a r y .
H eading th e c u l t u r a l and p r o -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , w r i t i n g f o r p u b lic a t io n , and a tte n d in g
sc h o o l a r e in d ic e s t o a t e a c h e r ’ s e f f o r t s t o s e rv e t o h e r
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f u l l e s t c a p a c ity .
T here a r e many o th e r th in g s t h a t can be
i
s a id i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e im p o rtan ce and q u a l i t i e s o f a
i
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good te a c h e r , b u t t h i s d is c u s s io n w i l l p ro b a b ly s e rv e a s a
background i n making e s s e n t i a l o b s e rv a tio n s o f th e f a c t s to
be p r e s e n te d l a t e r .
A d m in is tra tiv e Duty tow ard T e a c h e rs.
I t i s to be
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n o te d f i r s t , how ever, t h a t b u ild in g up a good te a c h in g p e rs o n -
I
n e l does n o t r e s t a l t o g e t h e r on th e te a c h e r s .
I t i s a mu­
t u a l u n d e rta k in g betw een te a c h e r s and sc h o o l b o a rd s .
I
The
o b lig a tio n r o s t s upon th e s c h o o l a d m in is tr a tio n to assume
i
i
!
a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s v/hich in d ic a t e a deep i n t e r e s t i n
th e sc h o o ls and th e te a c h e r s .
Some common p r a c t i c e s o f school
a d m in is tr a tio n s ta k e th e l i f e from th e p r o f e s s io n .
One o f
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th e s e m ight e a s i l y be t h a t o f g iv in g jo b s to th o s e who need
*
'
them r a t h e r th a n em ploying th e te a c h e r s n ee d ed ; and a n o th e r
m ight be t h a t o f f e e l i n g t h a t th e y have done a te a c h e r a f a ­
v o r i n g iv in g h e r a jo b .
I n th e f i r s t s i t u a t i o n th e system
w i l l m ost l i k e l y have no e f f e c t i v e p e rso n n e l t o b e g in w ith ,
and i n th e second s i t u a t i o n , i f good te a c h e r s a r e em ployed,
th e y w i l l m ost l i k e l y become d em o ra lise d and s t a t i c .
Good
sc h o o l system s w i l l se e t h a t s u i t a b l e s tim u lu s t o c o n tin u a l
grow th i s g iv en by a p p r o p r i a t e . re m u n e ra tio n , wholesome work­
in g c o n d itio n s , a s s u re d te n u r e , and a p p r e c ia t io n .
Du Shane
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s ta te s :
The e f f i c i e n c y and q u a l i t y o f s sc h o o l system i s
d eterm in ed n o t so su c h by th e s i z e and c o s t l i n e s s o f
i t s b u ild in g s and equipm ent a s by th e e f f i c i e n c y , m o rale
and freedom o f i t s classro o m te a c h e r s . The c h i e f fu n c ­
t i o n o f s c h o o l b o ard s sh o u ld be to c r e a te f a v o ra b le
te a c h in g c o n d itio n s i n th e c lassro o m by p ro v id in g l i v in g s a l a r i e s , by p r o te c tin g te a c h e r s from i n j u s t i c e
and u n n e c e ssa ry r e s t r i c t i o n s and an n o y an ces, and by
f r e e in g them from f e a r and in tim id a tio n to th e end t h a t
tfaa te a c h e r s may d ev o te th e m se lv e s f u l l y to th e ta s k
o f u n d e rsta n d in g ^ t r a i n i n g , an d i n s p i r i n g th e c h ild r e n
i n t h e i r c h a r g e .0
i
!
j
I
;
|
j A sy stem t h a t d oes n o t have th e
w e lf a r e o f i t s te a c h e r s a t
| h e a r t sh o u ld r e s t c o n te n t w ith a p o o r te a c h in g s t a f f .
j
I
A stu d y o f B edford C ounty’ s te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l i s
g iv e n h e r e i n ,aix p h a s e s :
S o c ia l background, academ ic p rep ­
a r a t i o n , e x p e rie n c e , te n u r e , s a l a r y , and e s tim a te d w eak n ess.
i
I
S o c ia l Background.
The q u e s tio n o f em ploying l o c a l
t e a c h e r s i s alw ays a problem t o
j
i
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i s much w r i t t e n on th e s u b je c t,
lo c a l ta le n t*
e v e ry s c h o o l b o a rd .
T here
b o th f o r and a g a in s t u s in g
Board members a r e u rg ed to employ l o c a l te a c h -
e r a u s u a lly f o r one o r more o f t h e fo llo w in g re a s o n s :
1 . L o ca l te a c h e r s o f te n can be o b ta in e d more
ch e a p ly th a n te a c h e r s from o u ts i d e .
2 . C ity l o y a l t y o r p r id e demands t h a t l o c a l
r e s i d e n t s who a r e unemployed be th e f i r s t t o r e c e iv e
economic a s s i s t a n c e th ro u g h em ployment.
^ N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch D iv is io n ,
Handbook on T eacher T en u re, R esearch B u l l e t i n . 15: 168
No. 4 , Septem ber 1936.
a
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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3 2
-
j
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I
|
j
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!
|
3 . F am ily , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l in f lu e n c e i s
used t o o b ta in t u t o r s t o r r e l a t i v e s o r c lo s e f r ie n d s
in th e community.*5
These re a s o n s can n o t be j u s t i f i e d -when th e e f f ic ie n c y
o f th e sc h o o l and th e w e lfa re o f th e c h ild a r e to be con-
\
s id e r e d im p o rta n t.
i
j
Arguments a g a in s t t h i s p o lic y a r e a s fo llo w s :
j
i
!
i
j
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|
|
j
I
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!
1 . The w e lfa re o f th e s c h o o ls , and n o t th e l o c a tio n o f th e te a c h e r* s home, sh o u ld govern a p p o in t­
m en ts.
2 . L ocal te a c h e r s a r e g e n e r a lly more d i f f i c u l t
to d ism iss in c a se th e y p ro v e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .
3 . S chool sy stem s need th e s tim u lu s t h a t comes
from te a c h e r s w ith a v a r i e t y o f community backgrounds
and e x p e r ie n c e s .7
The t h i r d argum ent l i s t e d above seems n o t to have hud
th e r e c o g n itio n t h a t i t s h o u ld .
The p r a c t i c e o f em ploying
l o c a l te a c h e r s would r e s u l t in e d u c a tio n a l in b re e d in g , p a r :
t i c u l a r l y where th e te a c h e r s employed have n o t a c q u ire d a
|
broad c u l t u r a l background th ro u g h sc h o o l and t r a v e l .
Cook
makes t h i s v ery s tr o n g s ta te m e n t;
The p r a c t i c e o f L ocalism in e d u c a tio n h as r e ­
ta rd e d e d u c a tio n a l e f f i c i e n c y a t l e a s t f i f t y y e a rs o r
m ore, e s p e c i a lly i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . e
6i.h jtio n al E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch B u l le t in ,
A d m in is tra tiv e P r a c tic e s A ff e c tin g Calssroom T e a c h e rs, P a r t
I , The S e le c tio n and A ppointm ent o f T each ers V ol. X, No. 1,
Ja n u a ry 1932, P . 22.
7H a tio n a l .Education A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch B u l le t in ,
lo c . C i t . , P . 22.
8Cook, D.H. "L o calism , An E d u c a tio n a l t'/eakness",
A m erican School Board J o u r n a l, P . 26, O ctober ’32.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
3 3
-
Of th e 130 te a c h e rs covered in t h i s s tu d y , T able I
shows t h a t s e v e n ty - f iv e o r 5 0 .6 p e r c e n t were r e s i d e n t s o f
Bedford County, and f i f t y - f i v e o r 4 1 .2 p e r c e n t were employ­
ed from o u ts id e th e c o u n ty .
T h is co rresp o n d s c lo s e ly to
th e f in d in g s o f a study** made o f th e p r a c t i c e i n a c i t y
system i n 1930-31 which showed 5 7 .7 p e r co n t p re fe re n c e to
l o c a l te a c h e r s and 4 2 .5 p e r c e n t no p r e f e r e n c e .
I t i s to be
n o te d , how ever, t h a t many o f th o se system s g iv in g p re fe re n c e
to l o c a l te a c h e r s r e q u ir e d t h a t th e y h a v e .q u a li f ic a t io n s
e q u a l to th o s e o f a p p lic a n ts from o u ts id e .
Ellwood C ity f 0 P e n n sy lv a n ia , used th e p o in t system in
th e s e l e c t i o n o f te a c h e r s b r i e f l y d e s c rib e d below :
iSducation
'(M aster’ s d eg ree)
15
E xperien ce
(2 y r s . 5 p o in ts each)
10
25 (Approxima te l y )
C o lleg e c r e d i t s
R esidence
(Bonus to l o c a l a p p lic a n ts )
10
S u b to ta l
T e st S co res
fiO p o in ts
50
R eferen ce
15
In te rv ie w
T o ta l p o s s ib le p o in ts
15
140
^ N a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch D iv is io n ,
A d m in is tra tiv e P r a c tic e s A f f e c tin g C lassroom T e a c h e rs, P a r t
1 '-The S e le c tio n and Appointm ent of. T e a c h e rs. 10: 32;, No. 1,
Ja n u ary 1932.
l°D elo n g , 7 . R . , ’’P lan n ed T eacher S e le c tio n ” , American
School Board J o u r n a l, p . 31 -3 2 , March ’32.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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34
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i[
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TABUS I
RESIDENT DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS
IN BEDFORD COUNTY
R esidence o f Touchers
A lta v is ta
Amherst
Appomattox
B a ltim o re
B edford County
B racy
B ris to l
C h a rlo tte s v ille
Concord Depot
Cumberland ,
iidlnburg
F a rm v ille
F o r t M il l, S .C .
G ladys
Green S p rin g s Depot
H a rriso n b u rg
K ills v ille
Long I s la n d , Va.
Lynchburg
New Glasgow
N o rfo lk
P am plia
P u la s k i
R adford
Roanoke
R ustb u rg
S andidges
South H i l l
T o ta ls
Number T ea ch ers
L ocal
O u tsid e
2
1
1
1
75
75
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
14
1
1
1
2
1
10
1
1
1
55
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
In
a specific instance tins plan selected nine of
!
I f i f t e e n , o r 86^/3 p a r c e n t, l o c a l te a c h e r s ,
i
Ilov; do th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f th e two g roups i n t h i s
stu d y compare?
|
Of th o f i f t y - s e v e n h o ld in g C o lle g ia te P ro -
f e s s i o n a l C e r t i f i c a t e s , t h i r t y - e i g h t were o u ts i d e r s and n in e ­
te e n B edford County c i t i z e n s , t h a t i n , 66 ^/3 p e r c e n t were
o u ts id e r s and 33'V 3 Pe r c e n t were l o c a l r e s i d e n t s .
Of th e
j s i x h o ld in g C o lle g ia te C e r t i f i c a t e s , f i v e were o u t s i d e r s .
i
! Of th e s i x t y - t h r e e h o ld in g Normal P r o f e s s io n a l C e r t i f i c a t e s ,
i
|
tw elv e were o u ts i d e r s and f i f t y - o n e were l o c a l s .
The fo u r
I h o ld in g E lem entary C e r t i f i c a t e s were a l l l o c a l t e a c h e r s .
!
! These f ig u r e s d e f i n i t e l y in d ic a t e t h a t l o c a l te a c h e r s were
i
!
!
la g g in g behind in academ ic p r e p a r a t io n .
However, th e r e a r e
o th e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to c o n s id e r .
The County sy stem has no d e f i n i t e p la n f o r s e l e c t i n g
|
i t s te a c h in g p e r s o n n e l.
S e le c tio n s w ere made on th e b a s is
!
o f in te r v ie w , recom m endations, and academ ic p r e p a r a tio n .
I
j
I n T ab le I I , ag e ra n g e s show t h a t a p p ro x im a te ly 16
p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s employed In c o n s o lid a te d sc h o o ls
w ere above t h i r t y - f i v e y e a rs o ld .
F or one-room and two-room
sc h o o ls th e r e v#as a f a i r l y r e g u la r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f te a c h e r s
from tw enty y e a rs th ro u g h f i f t y y e a rs o ld , th e o ld e s t b ein g
s ix ty - s ix y e a rs.
M arried te a c h e r s were w e ll r e p r e s e n te d .
The t o t a l
number was t h i r t y - t h r e e , In c lu d in g n in e m a rrie d men, th r e e
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE II
SOCIAL ASPECTS CONCERNING TEACHERS
IN BEDFORD COUNTY
prohibited without perm ission.
Name o f S chool
20
to
25
25
to
30
Age
30
t o
35
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta
H udd lesto n
New London
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re s t
B ro o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
T o ta l
1
2
5
5
4
3
4
6
0
1
0
4
35 •
8
3
5
4
2
5
3
2
0
4
2
3
41
4
1
2
2
2
0
1
2
2
0
0
3
19
Ranf e
35 40
to to
40 45
1
2
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
8
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
7
45
to
50
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
4
M a r ita l S ta tu s Place Reared Church
SeX
Member
50
or Male Female M arried 3 in g le R u ra l Urban
kJore
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
16
14
9
10
11
10
9
9
9
3
5
5
20
114
8
3
1
4
4
2
0
2
2
2
1
4
33
8
8
11
9
9
9
11
8
1
3
4
16
97
10
7
9
9
9
6
7
6
2
3
3
15
86
6
4
3
4
4
5
4
4
1
2
2
5
44
16
11
12
13
13
11
11
10
3
5
5
20
130
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s t o be re a d a c r o s s a s f o llo w s ; At M ontvale one te a c h e r was
betw een th e a g e s 20 ~ 25 y e a rs i n c l u s i v e , e i g h t betw een 25 - 30 y e a rs i n c l u s i v e , f o u r
betw een a g e s 30 - 35 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e , one betw een 35 - 40 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e , two betw een
40 - 45 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e , none betw een 45 - 50 y e a r s , none above 50 y e a r s ; two w ere
m a le; f o u r te e n fe m a le ; e i g h t w ere m a rrie d and e ig h t s i n g l e ; t e n w ere r e a r e d i n r u r a l
community; and s i x w ere r e a r e d i n u rb a n community; s i x t e e n w ere ch u rch members.
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37
-
| widows, and tweaty-on© women w ith h u sb an d s.
Of th e s e tw en ty-
i
j o n e, fo u r have C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l C e r t i f i c a t e s , s ix te e n
| have Normal P r o f e s s io n a l C e r t i f i c a t e s , and one has an
f
I Elem entary*
The;/ have an av erag e te a c h in g e x p e rie n c e o f
j ap p ro x im a te ly e le v e n and one h a l f y e a r s .
(
The av erag e number
| o f y e a rs s in c e th e y a tte n d e d sc h o o l i s f o u r and one s e v e n th .
i
i
| The same t a b le shows s ix t e e n , o r 1 2 .3 p e r c e n t, o f th e 130
I te a c h e r s were male*
T h is i s a v ery sm a ll p e rc e n ta g e .
Most
I o f th e te a c h e rs were r e a r e d in sm a ll towns o r r u r a l s e c tio n s ,
!'
I
th e r e b e in g f o r t y - f o u r from th e form er and e i g h ty - s ix from
th e l a t t e r ,
A ll o f th e te a c h e rs were members o f some c h u rc h .
T ab le s I I I (a) to I I I ( e ) 11 g iv e d a ta com paring th e
! u u a li f l o a t io n , expox’ie n c e , te n u r e , and s a la r y o f th e s e v e r a l
f a c u l ty g ro u p s.
Academic Q u a li f ic a ti o n s .
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c e r t i -
| f i c a t e s a s in d ic a te d i n T able IV, showed 3 .0 5 p e r c e n t
!
E lem en tary , 4 6 .5 p e r c e n t Normal P r o f e s s io n a l, 4*6 p e r c e n t
•
:
:
C o lle g ia te , and 4 3 .6 5 p e r c e n t C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l.
Data ta k e n from th e r e p o r t o f th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f
P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n o f V ir g in ia on County te a c h e rs h o ld in g
th e fo u r above m entioned c e r t i f i c a t e s showed th e fo llo w in g
d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r 1937-36:
^ S e e in d o x , P .
6 .5 2 p e r c e n t E lem entary, 4 9 .9 1
177 - 186.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE IV
SUMMARY. OF TABLES I I I (a) t o I I I (1)
S ch o o ls
a
prohibited without perm ission.
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal
7
C o lle g ia te
1
Collegiate P ro fessio n al
0
Number y e a rs s in c e
a t te n d i n g s c h o o l
75
E x p erien c e
138
E x p erien c e in Bedford
Number schools taught
i n B edford
32
P r e s e n t T enure
63
S a la r y :
E lem en tary
H igh s c h o o l
b
c
d
e
f
S
h
I
i
k
1
3
2
8
4
0
5
1
2
1
0
0
1
4
0
1
4
0
1
3
T6
0
1
32
59
19 36
62 107
59 82
29
87
26
36
23
26
30 25
5ty 36
5
0
6
25
13
6
1
6
1
5
0
1
46
30
1
1
11
22
76
60
19
56"
37
4
30
18
11
13
sF™ 28
46
28
19
15
20
7
6
14
20
16
9#
' ?otal A verage
4
60
6
M
63 348
28
.140
2 2 S 863k
62
m
315
4l"2
11
2 .6 8
8 .8
0 .6 4
2 .4 2
... ’'3'.1V
$625.63
f c i l . 58
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be r e a d a s f o llo w s : I n v e r t i c a l column (a) i s shown t h a t a t
M ontvale sev en te a c h e r s h e ld norm al p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t e , one a c o l l e g i a t e , e ig h t c o l­
l e g i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t e s , th e t o t a l number y e a rs s in c e th e te a c h e r s had a tte n d e d
sc h o o l was s e v e n t y - f i v e , t o t a l y e a rs e x p e rie n c e 138, e x p e rie n c e In B edford County 112^
y e a r s , t o t a l number o f d i f f e r e n t so h o o ls ta u g h t i n B edford County was t h i r t y - t w o , and t o t a l
p r e s e n t te n u re was s i x t y - t h r e e y e a r s . L ik e w is e , column (b) i s t o re a d f o r S t e w a r t s v i l l e ;
(c ) f o r M oneta; (d ) f o r H u d d le s to n ; (e ) f o r New London; ( f ) f o r B oonsboro; (g) f o r M arcuse;
(h) f o r L ib e r ty Academy; ( ! ) f o r F o r e s t ; ( j ) f o r B r o o k h ill; (k) f o r T h ax to n ; (1) f o r a l l
o th e r s c h o o ls .
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39
-
p e r c e n t Normal P r o f e s s io n a l, 7 .2 7 p e r c e n t C o llo g ia te , and
3 6 .3 p e r c e n t C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l.
d e l u d i n g e le v e n te a c h e r s j u s t o u t o f c o lle g e and
te a c h in g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r, th e r e w ere f o rty - tw o who had a t ­
te n d ed sc h o o l w ith in th e l a s t y e a r , and tw e lv e , e x c lu d in g
f o u r te e n in t h e i r second y e a r o f te a c h in g , who had a tte n d e d
sc h o o l w ith in th e l a s t two y e a r s .
A pproxim ately CO p e r c e n t
o f th e te a c h e r s had a tte n d e d sc h o o l w ith in th e l a s t two
y e a rs and o n ly n in e o r 7 p e r c e n t had n o t a tte n d e d sc h o o l
w ith in th e l a s t s i x y e a r s .
The a v e ra g e number o f y e a rs s in c e
th e 130 te a c h e r s had a tte n d e d sc h o o l was tvfo and s i x t y - e i g h t
h u n d re d th s .
T eaching E x p e rie n c e .
T here were e le v e n te a c h in g
t h e i r f i r s t y e a r, f o u r te e n t h e i r seco n d , and t h i r t e e n t h e i r
th ird .
F o rty te a c h e r s had o v er te n y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e .
The
h ig h e s t number o f y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e f o r any te a c h e r was
th irty .
The 130 a v e ra g e 5 .8 y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e w ith 6 .6 4
y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e in B edford County.
T en u re.
The fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t I s by ‘Donald DuShane,
C hairm an, Committee on T enure o f th e N a tio n a l E d u catio n
A s s o c ia tio n :
Tenure se e k s to keep th e s c h o o ls f r e e from
p o l i t i c a l , p e r s o n a l, o r com m ercial d o m in a tio n . Tenure
p r o t e c t s com petent te a c h e r s from u n ju s t d is c h a rg e and
p e rm its them to d ev o te th e m selv es w h o le -h e a rte d ly to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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t h e i r p ro fe s sio n * Tenure d is c o u ra g e s sc h o o l manageinent based on f e a r , and en co u rag es sc h o o l le a d e r s h ip
based on c o n fid e n c e and u n d e rs ta n d in g . T enure p ro v id e s
u re a s o n a b le p u rs o n a l and academ ic freedom f o r te a c h e r s .
Tenure en co u rag es com petent p u b lic s p i r i t e d te a c h e rs
to s ta y in th e s c h o o ls .
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One hundred and t h i r t y te a c h e r s in B edford County had
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315 d i f f e r e n t p o s it io n s in B63^ y e a rs e x p e rie n c e .
T hat i s
an a v e ra g e o f two and seven te n th s y e a rs a t one p la c e .
T able
IV g iv e s 3 .1 7 y e a rs f o r a v e ra g e le n g th o f p r e s e n t te n u r e .
I f t h i s in d ic a t e s a r e c e n t s l i g h t .in c re a s e in te n u r e , i t i s
la g g in g f a r b eh in d t h a t which tn e r a p id c o n s o lid a tio n o f
sc h o o ls in r e c e n t y e a rs m ight have b ro u g h t a b o u t.
F ig u re s
i n d i c a t e a tu rn o v e r o f 9 p e r c e n t i n 1938-39, 11 p e r c e n t in
1937-36, and 10 p e r c e n t in 1936-37.
/ i l l te a c h e r s , in c lu d in g p r i n c i p a l s , w ere employed f o r
a term o f n in e m onths, and were r e q u ir e d to f i l e fo rm al
a p p l ic a tio n f o r a p o s it io n th e en su in g y e a r .
Some o f th e
te a c h e r s in te rv ie w e d had a f e e l i n g t h a t th e y were "b e g g a rs”
and must wor* to h o ld t h e i r p o s it io n s r a t h e r th a n to
v elo p them.
de­
P ro b ab ly t h i s would have hau l i t t l e s ig n if ic a n c e
coming from p oor te a c h e r s , b u t o n ly th o se re c o g n is e d a s good
te a c h e r s were approached a s to t h e i r fe e lin g -to w a rd te n u r e .
i2 n a tio n u l S a u c a tio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch D iv is io n ,
fL Handbook on T eacher T en u re, R esearch B u l l e t i n , V ol. XIV,
No. 4 , Septem ber 1936, back p ag e.
with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
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4 1
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The Co:anlt-toe on Tenure o f th e n a t io n a l E d u catio n
A a a o c ia tio n lS found th a t 54 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e rs of th e
| U n ite d S ta te s were employed in system s
’w ith o u t any l e g i a -
i
| l a t i o n o r an n u al e l e c t io n p la n .
Those w orking under a p la n
| o f te n u re a f t e r a p ro b a tio n a ry p e r io d were 23 p e r c e n t, th o s e
t
| u n d er c o n tin u in g c o n tr a c t law s, 6 p e r c e n t, and th o s e u nder
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a l l o th e r p la n s , 17 p e r cent*
The av erag e te n u re f o r B edford County i s o n ly s l i g h t -
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iy more th a n th e p ro b a tio n a ry p e rio d in. system s t h a t have a
j
plan n ed te n u r e .
S a la ry f o r White T e a c h e rs.
A lthough Bedford County
sto o d above av erag e in te a c h e r p r e p a r a tio n , i t p ays le s s '
th a n a v e ra g e f o r s e r v i c e s .
The av erag e elem en tary te a c h e r* s
s a la r y ’was $625 f o r th e county compared to th e av erag e $645
f o r th e c o u n tie s o f th e S ta te in 1937-38.
T his a v e ra g e ra n k s
s i x t y - f i f t h w ith th e o th e r c o u n tie s o f th e S ta te .
The av erag e h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r* s s a la r y was $781 f o r
B edford County compared to th e a v e ra g e o f . 0886 f o r th e
c o u n tie s o f th e S ta te i n 1937-38.
T his av&rage ra n k s e ig h ty -
f o u r th w ith th e c o u n tie s o f th e S t a t e .
The maximum s a la r y p a id elem e n tary p r in c ip a ls in Bed­
f o rd County a ls o s ta n d s a s th e maximum f o r th e c o u n tie s o f
th e S ta te in 1937-30.
13N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch B u l l e t i n ,
Op. C i t . , P,age 177.
with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission
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The laaxlimua s a l a r y f o r h ig h sc h o o l p r i n c i p a l s ran k s
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s i x t y - t h i r d w ith th e av e ra g e s a l a r i e s f o r th e c o u n tie s o f th e
I
S ta te in 1937-38.
i
T ab le V g iv e s a s n e a r a s p o s s ib le th e p ro c e d u re fo llo w | ed i n d e te rm in in g th e s a l a r i e s o f th e te a c h e r s . No a llo w I
ance was made f o r m e r it o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T here w ere no p ro ­
!
v is io n s f o r s ic k le a v e o r le a v e f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g .
The
s a l a r y sc h ed u le amounted t o a way o f d eterm in in g o n ly th e p a y .
P e rso n n e l W eakness.
Seven p r i n c i p a l s were ask ed th e
q u e s tio n s , MWhat p e r c e n t o f y o u r te a c h e r s make a good job o f
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acco m p lish in g o u r aim s (a s u n d e rsto o d i n th e system ) o f edu-
j
c a tio n ? ” and "What i s th e c h ie f cau se o f y o u r te a c h e r s f a i l -
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in g t o do t h i s ? ”
T ab le VI g iv e s th e answ ers to th e s e q u e s tio n s .
An
e s tim a te d a v e ra g e o f 37 p e r c e n t i n e f f i c i e n c y , due c h i e f l y to
|
la c k o f p e r s o n a lity and p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t , i s shown.
The
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m a jo r ity o f p r i n c i p a l s in d ic a te d t h a t p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t
was la c k in g among young te a c h e r s .
A need f o r a p la n by which to s e l e c t b e t t e r p e rso n ­
a l i t i e s and a need f o r more e f f e c t i v e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t o
develo p i n t e r e s t i n p r o f e s s io n a r e in d ic a te d .
Summary,
from t h i s s tu d y i t was found t h a t o v e r 66
p e r c e n t o f th e 130 te a c h e r s came from r u r a l a r e a s and o v er
33 p e r c e n t from u rb a n .
I t was found t h a t 5 8 .8 p e r c e n t were
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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TABLE T
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BEDFORD COUNTY'S SALARY SCHEDULE
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C o n d itio n s
] Minimum Maximum
Y e a rly
Y ea rly
S a la ry
S a la ry
C o n s o lid a te d S ch o o ls
High sc h o o l p r in c ip a l*
#1350
High sc h o o l te a c h e r s w ith
C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i ­
c a te
Over two y e a rs e x p e rie n c e
F i r s t two y e a rs e x p e rie n c e
$ 765
E lem entary p r in c ip a l*
#675
E lem entary te a c h e r s w ith C o lle g ­
i a t e P r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e s
Over two y e a rs e x p e rie n c e
F i r s t two y e a rs e x p e rie n c e
# 675
E lem entary te a c h e r s w ith Normal
c e rtific a te s
$ 585
#1500
$ 810
One and two room sc h o o l te a c h e r s w ith
a v e ra g e d a i l y a tte n d a n c e
Below 20
20 - 30
31 - 40
Above 40
#1500
$ 720
$ 585
$ 540
# 585
§ 630
$ 675
*NOTE: T here was no d e f i n i t e sc h e d u le by w hich s a l a r i e s
o f p r i n c i p a l s w ere d eterm in ed i n B edford County.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
table y i
REASONS FOR TEACHER INEFFICIENCY
P rin c ip a l
P e rc e n t in e ff ic ie n c y
R easons f o r f a i l u r e :
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T o ta l
50 40 65 40 15 35 25
37
Lack P e r s o n a l i t y f o r d e a lin g w ith c h i ld r e n
1
Lack o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
3
prohibited without perm ission.
Lack o f s o c i a l c o n s c io u s n e s s
1
1
Lack o f se n se o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
1
1
Do n o t s tu d y th e in d iv i d u a l c h i ld
1
My la c k o f tim e f o r s u p e r v is in g
L ive o u ts id e o f sc h o o l community
1
1
1
1
1
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be ro a d a s f o llo w s : I n v e r t i c a l column (1) a p r i n c i p a l gave
" la c k o f p e r s o n a l i t y f o r d e a lin g w ith c h ild r e n " and " la c k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t "
a s r e a s o n s f o r te a c h e r s u n d er him f a i l i n g .
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r e s i d e n t s o f B edford County and 4 1 .2 p e r c e n t cams from o u t-
(
s id e th e C ounty.
As a group th o s e coming from th e o u ts id e
w ere b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d , a c c o rd in g to grad® o f c e r t i f i c a t e s ,
!
th a n th e l o c a l te a c h e r s .
Of th 8 130 te a c h e r s o n ly a b o u t 10
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p e r c e n t w ere o v er t h i r t y - f i v e y e a rs o ld .
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e r a had husbands l i v i n g .
I
Twenty-one te a c h -
A ccording t o c e r t i f i c a t e s h e ld , te a c h e r s i n B edford
|
County w ere b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d th a n th e a v e ra g e f o r s im ila r
!
s c h o o ls o v er th e S t a t e .
I n B edford County 4 3 .8 5 p e r c e n t o f
i
th e te a c h e r s h e ld C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e s com­
p a re d to 3 6 .3 p e r c e n t f o r th e S ta te a t l a r g e .
Over 50 p e r
c e n t h e ld C o lle g ia te o r C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e s ,
j
I
t h a t i s , o v er h a l f o f th e te a c h e r s had fo u r o r more y e a rs o f
c o lle g e work.
E leven te a c h e r s were te a c h in g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r .
!
Among
th e 130 te a c h e r s , th e r e was an a v e ra g e o f 8 .8 y e a rs te a c h in g
e x p e rie n c e o f which 6 .6 4 y e a rs had been i n B edford C ounty.
The av e ra g e te n u re a t a sc h o o l was found to be 2 .7
y e a rs.
The a v e ra g e te n u re f o r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s , t h a t i s th e
av e ra g e number o f y e a rs th e te a c h e r s had been a t th e p o s it io n s
th e y h e ld a t th e tim e o f t h i s s tu d y , was 3 .1 7 y e a r s .
The l a s t
th r e e o r f o u r y e a rs showed a tu rn o v e r i n te a c h e r s o f .a p p r o x i­
m a te ly 10 p e r c e n t y e a r l y .
The method o f em ploying te a c h e rs
p ro b a b ly p a r t l y ac co u n te d f o r p o o r te n u r e .
The a v e ra g e s a l a r y f o r e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s was $625
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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w hich ran k ed s i x t y - f i f t h w ith r u r a l t e a c h e r s 1 s a l a r i e s o f th e
S ta te th e p re v io u s y e a r .
The av e ra g e s a l a r y f o r h ig h sc h o o l
te a c h e r s was §781 w hich ran k ed e ig h ty - f o u r th w ith r u r a l
te a c h e r s o f th e S t a t e ,
High sc h o o l p r in c ip a ls * s a l a r i e s
i
{
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j
ran k ed s i x t y - t h i r d w ith r u r a l p r i n c i p a l s o f th e S t a t e ,
The
s
s a l a r y sc h e d u le was such t h a t i t would g iv e l i t t l e in c e n tiv e
to te n u re and improvem ent i n s e r v i c e .
|
j
I t made no p r o v is io n s
f o r s i c k le a v e o r le a v e f o r te a c h e r t r a i n i n g ,
A ccording to e s tim a te s by p r i n c i p a l s , te a c h e r I n e f f i ­
c ie n c y was due to a la c k o f p e r s o n a l i t y and p r o f e s s io n a l
i n t e r e s t on th e p a r t o f th e te a c h e r s .
1
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R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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CHAPTER IV
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SCHOOL FACTORS THAT AFFSCT TEACHING
T h is s e c tio n o f th e stu d y a tte m p ts t o show, com pare,
t
:
and a n a ly z e c o n d itio n s a t th e v a r io u s sc h o o ls i n B edford Coun-
i
{
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ty w hich m ight a f f e c t te a c h in g i n some way.
An a tte m p t i s
made t o g iv e a b r i e f d e s c r ip tio n o f p l a n t s , l i b r a r i e s , te a c h ­
i
in g m a t e r i a l s , c u rric u lu m , s u p e r v is io n , te a c h in g lo a d s , p e r
|
c a p ita c o s t o f i n s t r u c t i o n , co ach in g p ro b lem s, te a c h e r p la c e -
;
m e n ts, a tte n d a n c e , f a i l u r e , r e t a r d a t i o n , d i s c i p l i n e , and p u -
i
i
j p il
re c o r d s as th e y were found i n th e C ounty.
In summing up
! t h i s p h ase o f .th e s tu d y , th e te a c h e r s were g iv e n an o p p o rtu n iI
t y t o l i s t th e h e lp s and h in d r a n c e s t o t h e i r te a c h in g . Those
i
l i s t s a r e re c o rd e d i n t h i s c h a p te r .
The S chool P la n t
Only a few y e a rs bach a b ox-shaped b u ild in g w ith a s u f ­
f i c i e n t number o f c lassro o m s was a good sc h o o l b u ild in g .
If
more classro o m s became n e c e s s a ry th e y c o u ld be ta c k e d on to
i
th e
s id e o f th e o r i g i n a l b u ild in g w ith o u t h av in g been a rra n g e d
fo r
In th e o r i g i n a l p la n o f th e b u ild i n g .
Today o u r concep­
t i o n o f a good sc h o o l p la n t I s d i f f e r e n t .
We b e lie v e t h a t I t
i s more th a n a p la c e to p ro v id e c la s s ro o m s .
The sc h o o l p la n t
i n modern th in k in g sh o u ld p ro v id e o p p o r tu n ity , n o t o n ly f o r
c la ssro o m le a r n in g , b u t a l s o f o r le a r n in g i n a p p r e c ia tio n o f
b e a u ty , c l e a n l i n e s s , a r t , h e a l t h , s a f e t y , group a c t i v i t y , f a i r
p la y , and a l l th e f i n e r th in g s in l i f e .
A few y e a rs ago a
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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4 8
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j f a i r l y prom inent c i t i z e n o f th e cou n ty ab o u t which t h i s manuj
s c r i p t i s w r i t t e n made t h i s s ta te m e n t;
" I went to sc h o o l i n
| a lo g c a b in w ith an open f i r e p la c e and c ra c k s in th e w a ll
|
t h a t a dog co u ld jump th ro u g h .
hewn from lo g s .
I s a t on benches t h a t had bean
I f t h a t was good enough f o r me, i t I s good
|
enough f o r k id s to d a y .”
E v id e n tly t h i s g e n tle m a n s e d u c a tio n
was lim ite d 3 0 le ly to r e a d in g , w r i t i n g , and a r i t h m e t i c .
He
; I n d ic a te d c l e a r l y t h a t b ea u ty was i n s i g n i f i c a n t to him .
!
The C o o p e ra tiv e S tudy o f Secondary S chool S tan d a rd s In
i
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!
'
a most r e c e n t and m ost c r i t i c a l s tu d y o f modern p u b lic ecu c a t i o n , makes th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:
The b u ild in g sh o u ld be a t t r a c t i v e and a p p r o p r ia te
In d e sig n so t h a t b e a u ty may be e v id e n t b o th w ith in and
w ith o u t; i t sh o u ld a s s u r e th e s a f e t y o f I t s o c c u p a n ts ,
even in e m e rg e n c ie s, and th e grounds ab o u t th e b u ild in g
sh o u ld have w e ll k e p t law ns and sh ru b b e ry . itfhile p ro ­
v is io n s such a s th o s e m entioned v ery p ro b a b ly w i l l r e ­
s u l t in a p la n t t h a t i s econom ical t o m a in ta in and easy
to keep s a n i t a r y , th o s e r e s p o n s ib le f o r p la n n in g must
r e g a r d su ch c o n d itio n s a s h ig h ly im p o rta n t. The s i t e a s
w e ll a s th e b u ild in g sh o u ld a s s u r e h e a l t h f u l c o n d itio n s .
The e n t i r e p la n t s h o u ld , w henever p o s s i b le , be an i n t e ­
g r a l p a r t o f a community p la n n in g p ro g ra m ." i
T h is s tu d y u n d e rta k e s t o g iv e th e f u l l e s t p o s s ib le s i g ­
n if ic a n c e to th e p la c e o f th e s c h o o l p la n t I n a f f o r d in g le a r n ­
in g o p p o r tu n itie s to th e boys and g i r l s o f th e American p u b lic
s c h o o ls .
The stu d y o f th e s c h o o l p la n t seems to d iv id e i t s e l f
I n to th r e e b a s ic c o n s id e r a tio n s .
They a r e (1} th e a p p e a ra n c e ,
^ C o o p erativ e S tu d y o f S econdary School S ta n d a rd s , How
to E v a lu a te a S econdary S c h o o l. W ashington, D .C ., 1938. P . 24
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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and a d a p t a b i l i t y to th e sc h o o l program .
I
d is c u s s io n o f th e s e c o n s id e r a tio n s a stu d y o f B edford C ounty’s
(2) h e a lth and s a f e ty f o r o c c u p a n ts , and (3) adequacy f o r ,
A fte r a g e n e ra l
i
!
sc h o o l p la n ts w i l l be p re s e n te d i n th e l i g h t o f each b a s ic
|
c o n s id e r a tio n m entioned ab o v e.
P e n o ra l A ppearance.
P re s e n t day c u rric u lu m s , e s p e c ia l­
l y e le m e n ta ry c u rric u lu m s , have in c lu d e d many p r o v is io n s f o r
th e te a c h in g o f a r t .
The T e n ta tiv e Course o f Study f o r V ir­
g in ia Secondary S c h o o ls, p u b lis h e d i n 1934 in c lu d e d in i t s
aim s o f e d u c a tio n , " th e a p p r e c ia tio n o f th e b e a u t i f u l , " " th e
a p p r e c ia tio n o f good w orkm anship," and " th e a p p r e c ia tio n o f
j
n a t u r e ."
Much s t r e s s i s l a i d upon th e a p p r e c ia tio n o f b e a u ty .
t
j
T his o b je c tiv e o f sc h o o l work te n d s t o b rin g o u r a t t e n t i o n
to
th e b u ild in g i n which th e c h i ld i s to le a r n a r t and th e a p p re ­
c ia tio n of a r t .
I t I s h a rd t o be d is p u te d t h a t th e c f til d ’s
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su rro u n d in g s form a s e r i e s o f o b je c t le s s o n s and t h a t he sh o u ld
■
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be exposed to a maximum o f wholesome in f lu e n c e s d u rin g h i s
grow ing and h a b i t form ing y e a r s .
T re e s , law n s, and b e a u t i f u l b u ild in g s in f lu e n c e th e
i d e a l s and th o u g h ts o f ev e ry I n t e l l i g e n t p e rs o n .
i s an In v estm en t o f th e p e o p le .
The sc h o o l
Yftiy sh o u ld n ’ t i t be an ex­
ample o f a v e ry d e s ir a b le and w e ll k ep t home?
I t sh o u ld be
an in c e n tiv e t o th e improvement o f homes and s u rro u n d in g s .
it
goes s t i l l f u r t h e r i n in flu e n c in g , th e s ta n d a rd s t h a t one s e t s
f o r h im s e lf .
S ta n d a rd s o f l i v i n g a r e n o t read and le a r n e d
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from th e pages o f a book a l t o g e t h e r .
W. R. McCormack h as v ery a p p r o p r ia te ly s a id :
I would have th e sc h o o l b u ild in g b e a u t i f u l a r c h i ­
t e c t u r a l l y and p la c e d i n a charm ing la n d sc a p e s e t t i n g
w ith ample g ard en sp a c e s f o r th e re a s o n t h a t one o f th e
f u n c tio n s o f e d u c a tio n i s t o te a c h th e lo v e o f th e a e s ­
t h e t i c . I ivould have th e b u ild in g a s n e a r p e r f e c t i n
workmanship and i n th e c h o ic e o f m a te r ia ls a s p o s s i b le ,
b ecau se th e c h ild r e n o f th e p u b lic s c h o o ls a r e th e a r t ­
i s t s and a r t i s a n s o f th e f u t u r e , and th e s c h o o l b u ild ­
in g s i n w hich th e y work day a f t e r day w i l l be t h e i r
s ta n d a rd s and i t m ust be a h ig h s ta n d a rd i f o u r c r a f t s ­
men a r e t o be m a s te r s ."2
Someone h as made th e s ta te m e n t t h a t th e b ed ro ck o f con­
s i s t e n t and c o n tin u o u s c i v i c grow th and developm ent i s b e a u ty .
I t i s an obvious t r u t h t h a t p e rso n s who a r e n o t a c q u a in te d
w ith and who do n o t a p p r e c ia te b e a u ty , show l i t t l e o r no p ro ­
g re ss In c iv ic ,
s o c i a l , and economic a f f a i r s .
We have f o r c o n s id e r a tio n , th e r e f o r e , th e in f lu e n c e o f
b e a u ty upon th e a r t i s t i c , th e a e s t h e t i c , th e l i v i n g s ta n d a r d s ,
and th e c i v ic grow th.
I n co n c lu d in g t h i s d is c u s s io n we may p r o f i t a b l y fo c u s
o u r a t t e n t i o n on th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s co n cern in g th e sc h o o l
p la n t:
1.
Does i t s environm ent have elem e n ts o f b e a u ty and
freedom from u g lin e s s ?
McCormack, W. R ., "S chool B u ild in g s a s They a r e and
a s They Should B e," N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n A ddress
and P ro c e e d in g s . 1919, P . 368.
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Are t r e e s , s h ru b s , f lo w e r s , and lawns p la c e d to p ro ­
mote b e a u ty o f th e b u ild in g and to c u l t i v a t e a p p r e c ia tio n o f
b ea u ty ?
3.
I s th e ap p e aran c e o f th e ground such a s to encour­
ag e p u p ils to work f o r p ro p e r m ain ten an ce?
4.
Does th e ty p e of a r c h i t e c t u r e harm onize w ith en­
v iro n m e n ta l f a c t o r s ?
5.
Are th e m a te r ia ls and workmanship o f th e b u ild in g
a e s t h e t i c a l l y s a tis f y in g ?
6.
Are a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s su ch a s c o lo r , windows,
doorw ays, d e c o r a tio n s , e t c . o f a e s t h e t i c v a lu e and prom otive
o f b ea u ty a p p r e c ia tio n ?
7.
Do c o lo r s o f w a lls , c e i l i n g , and tr im harm onize?
Are th ey a p p ro p ria te ?
8.
Does th e g e n e ra l ap p e a ra n c e encourage p u p ils in
c o o p e ra tin g f o r p ro p e r m ain ten an ce?
9.
I s t h e r e p ro p e r equipm ent f o r c le a n in g windows,
d o o rs , w a lls , e t c . ?
10.
I s t h i s equipm ent u sed e f f e c t i v e l y ?
H e a lth and S a fe ty f o r O ccu p an ts.
E s p e c ia lly s in c e th e
tra g e d y a t th e Mew London S ch o o l I n T ex as, h a s th e s a f e t y o f
sc h o o l b u ild in g s been a much d is c u s s e d s u b j e c t .
S in ce th e
m entioned tra g e d y D r. James F r e d e r ic k R ogers p re p a re d th e
fo llo w in g l i s t o f q u e s tio n s t o be p o in ts o f in v e s t i g a t i o n f o r
s c h o o l men:
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1 , I s y o u r s c h o o l b u ild in g c o n s id e re d f i r e r e s i s t i v e
by y o u r in s u ra n c e company?
8 . I f n o t f i r e r e s i s t i v e , I s your sc h o o l c o n s id e re d
s a fe ?
3 . Do a l l sc h o o l d o o rs open outw ard?
4 , Are o i l , g a s o lin e , c e l l u l o s e f i l m s , o r o th e r such
m a te r ia l s k e p t o u t o f th e b u ild in g o r i n f i r e p r o o f c l o s e ts ?
5 . I s th e room h o u sin g th e h e a tin g p l a n t and b a s e ment mad® f i r e r e s i s t i v e on a l l s id e s and c e ilin g *
6 . I s th e r e a d e q u a te f i r e alarm p r o v is io n s ?
7 . Are th e r e f i r e escap es?
8 . Are f i r e e s c a p e s ad e q u ate t o empty a f l o o r in two
m in u tes w ith o u t crow ding?
9 . I s f i r e d r i l l conducted a t l e a s t once a month?
10* Are th e r e ad e q u ate e x i t s , w ith s a f e t y lo c k s , in
good c o n d itio n ?
11. Are s c h o o l b u ild in g s f r e e from f l i e s ?
1 2 . I s th e p lay g ro u n d d ra in e d and s u rfa c e d so t h a t
t h e r e i s a minimum o f mud and maximum o f u se?
13. Are cement w alks p ro v id ed from th e s t r e e t t o th e
sc h o o l and from th e sc h o o l to o u ts id e t o i l e t s , i f th e y e x i s t?
1 4 . Are d e sk s and s e a ts washed b e fo re th e opening, o f
sc h o o l term w ith soap and w ate r?
15.
Are p u p ils who a r e o b lig e d to . s i t n e a r th e s to v e
p r o te c te d by a s c re e n from d i r e c t h e a t?
10.
Can a minimum te m p e ra tu re o f 70 d e g re e s be main­
ta in e d in c o ld w ea th er?
17.
Are th e sc h o o l windows
k e p t c le a n ?
18.
Are th e a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t s so shaded t h a t t h e r e i s
no g la r e ?
19. I s th e w a te r su p p ly s a f e a t i t s so u rc e ?
20. Are d rin k in g f o u n ta in s s a n ita r y ?
2 1 . I s warm w a te r f o r hand w ashing a v a ila b le ?
22.
Are o u ts id e t o i l e t s o f s a n i t a r y c o n s tr u c tio n ?
23.
Are t o i l e t s th o ro u g h ly
clean e d w ith so a p , h o t
w a te r, o r o th e r c le a n s in g a g e n ts a t l e a s t once a week?
24.
Doyou c o n s id e r your sc h o o l t o i l e t s a good o b je c t
le s s o n I n f i x t u r e and c a re ?
25.
I s th e r e am ple apace f o r s c h o o l c h ild r e n to p la y ?
26.
I s th e s c h o o l p lay g ro u n d so p la c e d o r fen ced t h a t
c h ild r e n can n o t ru n in t o th e s t r e e t o r o th e r dangerous p la c e s ?
27. I s a l l a p p a ra tu s r e l a t i v e l y s a f e and i n such con­
d i t i o n t h a t a c c id e n ts can n o t o cc u r from f a u l t s i n th e ap p a ra­
tu s i t s e l f ?
28.
Are th e p lay g ro u n d s made a v a i l a b l e f o r u se a f t e r
sc h o o l and on S a tu rd a y s?
2 9 . Are t h e rem ain s o f, food d isp o se d o f i n a s a n ita r y
way and th e lu n c h q u a r te r s k e p t i n c le a n c o n d itio n ?
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5 0 . /ire th e h e a lth e x a m in a tio n s o f sc h o o l c h ild r e n
condu cted w ith o u t h u rry ?
3 1 . Are a l l p u p ils showing s ig n s o f p o s s ib le communi~
c a b le d is e a s e p ro m p tly i s o l a t e d and s e n t home u nder s a f e e s ­
c o r t?
3 2 . I s th e sc h o o l n u rse t r a i n e d i n f i r s t a id work?
3 3 . I s th e r e f i r s t a i d o u t f i t c o n ta in in g th e u s u a l
m a te r ia l s i n y our sch o o l?
3 4 . Do you f e e l t h a t you a r e p la c in g p r e s e n t and fu~
t u r e h e a lth and s a f e ty f i r s t i n th e c a se o f ev e ry c h ild i n
y our sc h o o l and to th e b e s t o f y o u r r e s o u r c e s ? 3
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We may add th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s to th e above l i s t
j
w hich w i l l , a l l to g e th e r , le a d t o a more th o ro u g h stu d y o f
{
th e s a f e t y o f th e sc h o o l p l a n t :
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1.
I s th e s i t e f r e e from en v iro n m e n tal n o is e s ,
o d o rs ,
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smoke,w and d u st?
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2.
I s d ra in a g e f o r grounds and sewer d is p o s a l adequate?
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3.
Are th e r e o b s tr u c tio n s to l i g h t and a i r ?
4.
Are a l l p a r t s of b u ild in g p ro p e rly v e n t i l a t e d w ith
J
c le a n o u ts id e a i r ?
5.
Are e l e c t r i c c o n d u its p r o p e r ly in s u la te d and i n ­
s p e c te d ?
6.
Are s ta ir w a y s , c o r r i d o r s , and e x i t s s u f f i c i e n t to
p re v e n t c o n g e s tio n a t a l l tim es?
7.
Are p u p ils o b lig e d t o fa c e d i r e c t l i g h t ?
8.
I s th e r e p ro p e r a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t t o supplem ent na­
t u r a l l i g h t when n e c e ss a ry ?
9.
Do w a lls and b la c k b o a rd s have a g la r e ?
3" S a fe ty f o r S chool C h ild r e n ,” American School Board
J o u r n a l, 94 j 52, May 1937.
—— —
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10.
Are a l l p a r t s o f b u ild in g p r o p a r ly lig h te d ?
11.
I s th e p la y a r e a f r e e from h azard o u s o b s tr u c -
12.
I s th e s i t e f r e e from t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d an g ers?
tio n a ?
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13. I s th e r e s u f f i c i e n t p a rk in g sp ace?
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14. I s th e lo a d in g and u n lo a d in g o f b uses f r e e from
danger?
i
15, Are f i x t u r e s and f u r n i t u r e i n s t a l l e d f o r s a fe ty ?
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16. Are th e r e s c r e e n s , g u a rd s , and paddings over
j
s a f e ty h a z a rd s?
17.
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Are ch em icals p r o p e r ly s to re d ?
18. Are fumes from la b o r a to r y , e t c . , p r o p e r ly vented?
19. Are th e r e p ro p e r tr e a d s and hand r a i l s f o r s t a i r ­
ways?
20.
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I s th e r e e f f i c i e n t j a n i t o r i a l s e rv ic e ?
2 1 . Are th e r e a n t i s e p t i c b a s in s i n shower and gymnasium lo c k e r rooms?
22.
Are f l o o r s , w a ll s , f u r n i t u r e , e t c . , e a s i l y
23.
Are so a p , to w e ls , and t o i l e t p a p e r p ro v id ed ?
24.
Are th e r e d is p e n s e r s f o r th e p ro p e r d is p o s a l o f
c lean e d ?
a l l tr a s h ?
25.
Are th e r e f a c i l i t i e s f o r i s o l a t i n g and e a rin g
f o r th e s ic k ?
26.
I s m e d ic a l a t t e n t i o n r e a d i l y a v a ila b le ?
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Adequacy f o r , and A d a p ta b ility to th e S chool Program .
A box shape s h e l l f o r a b u ild in g no lo n g e r s a t i s f i e s th e needs
| o f modern e d u c a tio n a l p ro g ram s.
The e f f ic ie n c y w ith w hich a
| program o f e d u c a tio n i s c a r r i e d o u t depends to a g r e a t e x te n t
| upon th e h o u sin g and eq u ip m en t. With th e a d d i tio n o f now
i
c o u rs e s i n d o m estic s c ie n c e , a g r i c u l t u r e , shop w ork, and th e
a c t i v i t y and la b o r a to r y p ro ced u re i n v a r io u s s u b j e c t s , th e
i
l
i s c h o o l p la n t must be viewed w ith s p e c i a l c o n s id e r a tio n a s to
i
j i t s f i t n e s s t o f a c i l i t a t e th e s c h o o l program .
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The C o o p e ra tiv e Study o f Secondary S ch o o ls s a y s :
I
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The sc h o o l program may be s e r io u s ly r e s t r i c t e d
j
and Impeded o r i t may be c o n s id e ra b ly f a c i l i t a t e d and
;
e n ric h e d w ith l i t t l e o r no d if f e r e n c e i n th e c o s t o f th e
I
p la n t* The b u ild in g a s p la n n ed and Equipped i s n o t m ere!
l y a p la o e o f i n s t r u c t i o n :
i t i s a l s o a f u n c tio n in g
p a r t o f th e e d u c a tio n a l program i t s e l f . 4
C ubberley e x p re s s e s t h e im p o rtan ce o f th e p l a n t i n th e
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fo llo w in g s ta te m e n ts :
W ith th e r a p id changes i n th e c h a r a c te r o f p u b lic
e d u c a tio n , th e new ty p e o f c u rric u lu m now p ro v id e d , th e
need f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n sc h o o l w ork, and th e te n ­
dency o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n to u n d e rta k e new e d u c a tio n a l
and community s e r v i c e s , t h e r e i s need to d a y f o r th e con­
s t r u c t i o n i n o u r towns and c i t i e s o f a new ty p e o f
s c h o o l b u ild in g .®
^ C o o p e ra tiv e Study o f Secondary S chool S ta n d a rd s , How
t o E v a lu a te a Secondary S ch o o l, (W ashington, B .C ., 1938) P . 2 4 .
5E .P . C u b b erley , P u b lic S chool A d m in is tra tio n , B oston:
Houghton M if f lin Company, 1929, P . 561 - 2 .
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A modern sc h o o l b u ild in g sh o u ld be c a p a b le o f be­
in g tra n sfo rm e d i n t o a co m m unity-center i n s t i t u t i o n ,
m in is te r in g t o th e need3 o f b o th th e c h ild r e n and th e
a d u l t s o f th e community, b o th i n th e day tim e and i n th e
ev en in g and f o r a lm o st th e e n t i r e y e a r . The b ran ch
l i b r a r y sh o u ld be open th e y e a r ro u n d , and sh o u ld be so
p la c e d a s to be c a p a b le o f b e in g e n te r e d from th e o u t­
s id e and a t tim e s when o th e r p a r t s o f th e b u ild in g a r e
c lo s e d . The assem bly h a l l , a l s o sh o u ld be c a p a b le o f
u se a t any tim e w ith o u t o p en in g more th a n th e e n tra n c e
h a l l o f th e b u ild i n g . Both o f th e s e rooms n a t u r a l l y
sh o u ld be on th e ground f l o o r . The pln y -ro o m s and th e
p la y -y a rd a l s o sh o u ld be c a p a b le o f us® a t tim e s when
th e sc h o o l b u ild in g p ro p e r i s c lo s e d . The same sh o u ld
be t r u e o f th e shower b a th s and swimming p o o l, and th e
gymnasium.6
The in c r e a s e d u se o f th e p l a n t and th e in c re a s e d
community s e r v ic e re n d e re d much more th a n com pensate f o r
th e e x tr a expense in v o lv e d i n e x te n d in g th e u s e fu ln e s s
o f th e s c h o o l.7
I t i s im p o rta n t t h a t p r e s e n t day b u ild in g s be con-1
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s t r u c t e d so th e y may be a l t e r e d o r e n la rg e d e c o n o m ic a lly , and
w ith o u t harm to th e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f th e b u ild in g .
The V ir­
g in ia S ta te D epartm ent o f E d u catio n h as t h i s i n mind In recom |
mending t h a t lo n g tim e p la n n in g a s to e d u c a tio n a l n e c e s s ity
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and economic ex p ed ien cy sh o u ld be engaged In b e f o r e u n d e rta k -
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in g a b u ild in g .
I t , a l s o , r e q u ir e s t h a t e v e ry sq u a re f o o t o f
f l o o r space be u t i l i z e d .
No sc h o o l b u ild in g oan be c o n tra c te d
f o r and e r e c te d w ith o u t th e a p p ro v a l o f th e S ta te D epartm ent
o f E d u c a tio n .
6C u b b erley , I b i d . P . 567.
7C u b b erley , Loc. G it. P . 567.
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Q u estio n s to be c o n s id e re d i n s tu d y in g th e adequacy o f
th e p la n t a r e :
1.
Are th e r e c lo c k s where needed?
2.
I s th e r e a s ig n a l sy stem , c o n v e n ie n tly c o n tro lle d ?
3 . I s th e r e a p u b lic a d d re s s system ?
4.
I s th e a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e w e ll p lan n ed and
e a s i l y a c c e s s ib le to th e iju b lie ?
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5 . Are th e r e few classro o m s l a r g e r and few
sm a lle r
th a n th e norm al s iz e ?
6 . Are some rooms so p la n n ed t h a t th e y can
be e a s i l y
changed f o r d i f f e r e n t p u rp o ses?
7 . Are rooms d e sig n e d p r im a r ily f o r th e v a rio u s c l a s s
p u rp o ses?
8.
Are f l o o r s made o f e a s i l y c le a n e d m a te r ia l?
9.
Are th e r e a d e q u a te c l o s e t s , w e ll p la c e d f o r c o a t s ,
h a t s , and o v ersh o e s?
10* Are th e r e
f a c i l i t i e s f o r lo c k in g c e r t a i n c a b in e ts ,
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d ra w e rs, e tc * ?
11* I s th e r e a d e q u a te b u l l e t i n and m ounting board space?
12* Are th e r e good b la c k b o a rd s?
13.
Are th e r e o th e r co n v e n ien t ways o f d is p la y in g
p ro ­
d u c ts and m a te r ia ls ?
14* Are th e r e w a ll and f l o o r p lu g s w herever needed?
15,
Are th e r e
ru n n in g w a te r and b a s in s w herever needed?
16* Are rooms a rra n g e d t o g iv e e a sy a c c e s s to e x i t s ?
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
5 8
-
j
17. .Are rooms p r o te c te d from n o is e p ro d u cin g a c t i v i t i e s
j
| o f th e community?
|
18.
19.
.Are rooms p ro v id e d f o r a d u lt e d u c a tio n ?
A re rooms p ro v id ed f o r c lu b s and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s
I
i
o f th e community?
|
l i b r a r y and l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s ?
20.
21.
Do th e c i t i z e n s o f th e community have a c c e s s t o
I s th e l i b r a r y c e n t r a l l y lo c a te d ?
j
I
'
22.
I s th e r e a d e q u a te s h e lv in g sp ace?
23.
Does th e roam have d e c o r a tiv e f e a t u r e s t o harm onize
i
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I
I
w ith th e s p i r i t and p u rp o se o f th e lib r a r y ?
2 4 . I s th e r e a d e q u a te and p ro p e r f u r n i t u r e and f i x t u r e s f o r l i b r a r y U3e?
25.
I s th e . a u d ito riu m o f ad eq u ate s iz e ?
26.
I s i t a r t i s t i c a l l y d esig n ed and d e c o ra te d ?
27.
j\re t h e r e good c u r ta in s f o r sta g e ?
28.
Are t h e r e good a c o u s tic p r o p e r tie s ?
£9.
I s th e a u d ito riu m a v a i l a b l e f o r c i v ic m e etin g s?
30.
I s i t a v a ila b le f o r community p la y s and program s?
31.
I s th e gymnasium a d e q u a te ly marked and p a in te d to
be used f o r games?
32.
I s th e f l o o r i n good c o n d itio n ?
33.
Does i t p ro v id e ad eq u ate 3pace f o r needs?
34.
I s i t used f o r a community r e c r e a t i o n c e n te r ?
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
:
j
59
-
35.
I s th e r e easy aeeeo s to lu n ch rooms?
36.
I s th e lu n ch room sp ace ad e q u ate ?
37.
I s th e lu n ch room housed so u s to prom ote and en­
courag e s a n i t a t i o n , h e a lth , and c h e e r fu ln e s s ?
i
38.
Are th e r e e a s i l y a c c e s s ib le and a d e q u a te s to r a g e
39.
a r e th e r e p ro p e rly eq uipped rooms f o r s p e c ia l
j
S
i
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rooms?
classes 3uch as shop-work, domestic science, etc.?
40.
.Are a l l s e a ts and d esk s su ch a s to prom ote good
j
!
i
i
!
p o s tu r e and co m fo rt?
I
f o r c l a s s work?
41.
48*
Are t a b l e s p ro v id e d where u s e f u l and d e s ir a b le
I s th e r e ad eq u ate p r o v is io n f o r m usic and th e
te a c h in g o f m usic?
43*
I
A ccording to s t a t e s u g g e s te d d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e
t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t l i b r a r y books f o r u se ?
i
!
44.
13 th e r e o th e r equipm ent w hich in c lu d e s t o o l s ,
b ru s h e s , p a i n t s , p a p e r, mimeograph, e t c . ?
45.
Does th e arrangem ent o f th e b u ild in g u t i l i z e th e
e n t i r e f l o o r sp ace?
46*
Are room s, such a s a u d ito riu m s , lu n ch rooms, and
l i b r a r i e s p la c e d so a s to m inim ize th e amount o f tim e used
and c o n fu sio n made in re a c h in g them?
47.
I s th e a r c h i t e c t u r e su ch t h a t i t w i l l n o t e a s i l y
ca u se d e t e r i o r a t i o n ?
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission of th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
-
60
-
I
iI
i
j
48.
Does th e b u ild in g p ro v id e ad e q u ate room?
|
49.
Does th e b u ild in g p ro v id e f o r f l e x i b i l i t y in t h a t
\
i
i
i
i t can be e a s i l y changed o r e n la rg e d to meet needs?
;
i
!
50.
I s i t s environm ent s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y w hole-
51.
Does I t s lo c a tio n o b lig e p u p ils to p a s s th ro u g h
some?
i
u n d e s ir a b le s e c tio n s i n g o in g to and from sc h o o l?
!
52.
I s th o p lay g ro u n d a v a ila b le a f t e r s c h o o l and on
S a tu rd a y s?
53.
Are th e c i t i z e n s of th e community allo w ed to u se
th e grounds f o r r e c r e a tio n ?
54.
Are f a c i l i t i e s p ro v id e d f o r s p e c ta to r s ?
55.
I s th e p la y a r e a la r g e enough to accom odate a l l
i
!
groups o f p u p ils ? .
II
56.
n.re f a c i l i t i e s p ro v id e d f o r a la r g e v a r i e t y o f
57.
I s i t so a rra n g e d a s to make tise o f a l l space?
5 8.
I s i t so a rra n g e d a s to p re v e n t p lay g ro u n d n o is e
games?
from i n t e r f e r i n g w ith c la s 3 work?
B edford C ounty1s School P la n ts
I n l i g h t o f th e d is c u s s io n s above, an a tte m p t w i l l
be
wade to a p p r a is e th e s c h o o l p la n ts o f B edford County.
M ontvale P l a n t .
M ontvale i s lo c a te d f i f t e e n m ile s w est
o f B edford on th e Lynehburg-Roanok© highw ay.
I t, h as a b e a u ti-
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
61
-
i
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I f u l s e t t i n g in a g ra s s y p la in in th e m id st o f f o o t h i l l s s lo p i
Ing from surrounding mountains*
|
|
Tlio sc h o o l p la n t c o n s is te d o f th r e e b u ild in g s , s ix
a c r e s o f p la y a r e a , and accom panying f a c i l i t i e s .
Two were
I wood w e a th e r-b o a rd b u ild in g s w e ll p a in te d and w e ll k e p t. One
o f th e s e c o n ta in e d two classro o m s and th e o th e r c o n ta in e d two
f
i
|
c la ssro o m s, th e home economics la b o r a to r y , and a basement
lu n c h room.
The main b u ild in g , a b r ic k s t r u c t u r e , c o n ta in e d
|
e ig h t c la s sro o m s , s c ie n c e la b o r a to r y , s a n i t a r y t o i l e t s , and
|
auditorium -gym nasium co m b in atio n , p r i n c i p a l 's o f f i c e , and
j
j
I
I
lib ra ry .
The SGhool grounds were smooth, ea sy to a r r a n g e , and
had l i t t l e mud.
T h is d e s c r ip tio n was g iv e n , a s shown i n T able
I
V II, by th e te a c h e r s in answ er t o a q u e s tio n n a ir e .
Driveways
and w alks were w e ll p lan n ed and s u r f a c e d .
I
The f a v o r a b le im p re ssio n t h a t th e p l a n t made upon th e
!
te a c h e r s a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y , i s shown i n T able V I I I .
I n answ er
to th e q u e s tio n , "Do you f e e l t h a t th e b u ild in g and grounds
a r e such a s t o i n s p i r e p u p ils t o a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c t u r a l
v a lu e and b e a u ty ? ” te n te a c h e r s answ ered " y e s ” and s i x "no” .
I n th e same q u e s tio n n a ir e th e te a c h e r s e x p re s se d th e b e l i e f
t h a t th e a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e and b e a u ty o f th e p la n t made a
fa v o ra b le im p re s sio n on th e te a c h e r s th e m se lv e s.
The h e a lth and s a f e ty c o n d itio n s a t M ontvale w ere good.
T able IX g iv e s a com parison o f lio n tv a le w ith t h e o th e r sch o o ls
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE V II
DESCRIPTION OS’ PLAY GROUNDS MADE BY FACULTY
OF EACH SCHOOL
Rough
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a ris v ille
Moneta
liu d d le sto n
NewLondon Acadamyl
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
ll
IS
13
3
ll
9
Smooth
16
4
11
IS
13
5
L i t t l e mud
16
•
-
7
4
10
3
,ii
H ard to
a rra n g e
11
12
4
2
6
6
Easy to
a rra n g e
16
2
s
1
9
Much mud
4
l
15
3
1
2
8
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s : I n a q u e s tio n n a ir e th e te a c h e r s were
ask ed to u n d e r lin e term s t h a t w ould d e s c r ib e t h e i r s c h o o l p la y a r e a . At M ontvale sixteen
u n d e r lin e d "sm ooth” , s ix t e e n ” l i t t l e mud” , and s ix t e e n " e a sy to a r r a n g e " .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE V III
ARCHITECTURAL VALUE AND BEAUTY OF SCHOOL PLANTS
AS RATED BY TEACHERS
Does i t I n s p i r e
C h ild re n ?
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta
Hudd l e s't on
New London Acadamy
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
•
. Does i t I n s p ir e T eacher?
Yes
Ho
None
Some
10
1
12
12
10
6
lo
1
5
0
3
2
7
5
0
1
1
1
ll
37
13
3
5
10
6
3
1’ •
5
70
0
1
3
8
8
0
3
2
4
15
60
6
■ 0
■v
?
4
5
T1
2
3
4
8
60
Very much
2
0
12
3
4
0
1
9
0
1
0
1
33
P e rc e n ta g e o f
C lassroom s A t t r a c t i v e
as
Jnder te a c h in g
B u i lt
c o n d itio n s
90
5o
100
40
30
20
50
0
0
60
25
30
41
85
50
90
50
5b
65
65
lo o
0
80
50
30
59
NOTE: T h is t a b l e may be re a d a s f o llo w s ; i n r e p ly to a q u e s tio n n a ir e s e n t
to th e t e a c h e r s , th e s c h o o l p l a n t a t M ontyale sh o u ld i n s p i r e th e p u p ils a c c o rd in g
to th e o p in io n o f 10 te a c h e r s b u t would n o t i n s p i r e them a c c o rd in g to th e o p in io n
o f s i x o t h e r s . I n th e same way i t was a sk e d I f th e s c h o o l p l a n t i n s p i r e d th e te a c h ­
e r . At M ontvale one was i n s p i r e d ’’n one” , t h i r t e e n ’’some” , and two ”v e ry much” . Of
th e M ontvale f a c u l t y 90 p e r c e n t s a id c la ssro o m s w ere b u i l t a t t r a c t i v e , and 85 p e r
cent, s a id th e y w ere a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e te a c h in g ”s e t - u p s ” .
S a n ita r y T o i l e t s
Number o f p u p ils a f f e c t e d by
im p ro p er c la ssro o m l i g h t
0 110
0 169. 88
0
0
O th ers
All
F o re s t
. .
.........
1
B ro o k h ill
[
Thaxton
i
i
<0
t—
4
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
L ib e rty
Marcuse
E}
O
'd
do
Boonsboro
H uddleston
...
....
•
Moneta
C o n d itio n s
S te w a r ts v ille
..
HEALTH AND SAFETY
M ontvale
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE IX
Yes
No
No
No
0
12
17
60
No
68
164
sgring
prohibited without perm ission.
S ource o f w a te r
well
Number' m onths s in c e w a te r
was t e s t e d
Q
Number te a c h e r s w ith o u t a d e ­
q u a te F i r s t Aid Equipment
3
Number m ile s s c h o o l i s from
' 15
a d o c to r
Rooms w ith o u t p ro p e r e x i t s
0
Seconds r e q u ir e d f o r f i r e
d rill
50
M iles from te le p h o n e
0 .5
well well well w l l well weELl torn
w e ll w e ll w e ll
w ell
7
8 ind. ind.
7
1
0 .5
7
7
8
1
12
9
1
0
0
0
2
11
50
18
1 10 0.1 0 .5 02 5
0
0
i
0
0
2
No
55 180
90 drii: . 150 110 150
10 6 .5 0.5 0 .5 o .6 ‘
0 0 .5
8
0
6
2
6-15
7
15
60
0 .5
180
O” 5
15 0 .1
5
0
105
0 .5
3
in d . in d .
25-120
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s : At M ontvale t h e r e w ere s a n i t a r y
t o i l e t s , no p u p ils w ere a f f e c t e d by im p ro p er l i g h t , a w e ll was a s s o u rc e o f w a te r , s i x
months had e la p s e d s in c e w a te r was t e s t e d f o r p u r i t y , th r e e te a c h e r s were w ith o u t f i r s t
a i d eq u ip m en t, th e s c h o o l was f i f t e e n m ile s from a d o c to r , no room was w ith o u t p ro p e r
e x i t s , f i f t y seco n d s were r e q u ir e d f o r f i r e d r i l l , and th e sc h o o l was one h a l f m ile
from te lep h o n e *
-
65
-
!
I
i
; on th e h e a lth and -safety ite m s . such a s l i g h t i n g , w a te r supj
; p ly , e x i t s , f i r e d r i l l , f i r s t a id equipm ent, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f
| d o c to r, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f te le p h o n e , and s a n i t a t i o n ,
j
M ontvale has good j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e .
T able X p ic tu r e s
j th e judgem ent o f th e f a c u l ty a s to th e q u a l ity o f th e janitor*®
I
w ork. In answ er to th e q u e s tio n n a ir e , a l l went as f a r a s to
say t h a t a l l p a r t s o f th e b u ild in g w ere c le a n e d ’’s a t i s f a c t o r ­
i l y " and one h a l f went f u r t h e r to say "v e ry s a t i s f a c t o r i l y " ,
j
The p r i n c i p a l ’ s r e p ly to th e q u e s tio n , "What would add
| most t o th e e f f ic ie n c y o f your s c h o o l? " , was "a l i b r a r y room
J and a l i b r a r i a n " .
t
With t h a t a d d itio n he f e l t t h a t h i s p la n t
j
[ would be v ery ad e q u ate f o r th e s c h o o l’ s program .
A ccording to te a c h e r
room c o n g e s tio n .
e s tim a te s th e r e was some c l a s s ­
As shown In T ab le XI th e r e w are t h i r t e e n
classro o m s w ith a c a p a c ity f o r 474 p u p i l s , a sc h o o l e n r o l l j juent o f 5d3, f o u r crow ded rooms w ith ex c ess c a p a c ity over
e n ro llm e n t o f se v e n te e n p u p i l s .
The p la n t allo w ed f o r e x tr a
; classro o m a c t i v i t i e s , home econom ics, and academ ic c l a s s
1
w ork. P la y a r e a was am ple. S ix a c re s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p ro v id e
■ f o r 960 p u p i l s .
The e n ro llm e n t in t h i s c a se was 5 0 3 .8
The
p la n t had c e n t r a l c o n tr o l th ro u g h a p u b lic a d d re s s sy stem .
o te w a rts v ille P la n t.
S te w a r ts v i lle I s lo c a te d a p p ro x i­
m a tely tw en ty m ile s so u th w est o f B edford.
8See f a b l e X II,
p . 7.2
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
prohibited w itho ut
^
|
$
TABLJ3 X
EXTENT TO WHICH BUILDINGS ERE CLEANED
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta
H u d d lesto n
New London Aoadamy
Boonsboro
M arcuse •
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
Very poor
Poor
8
3
1
' ll
3
10
8
3
2
S a tis fa c to ry
8
Very s a t i s f a c t o r y
8
6
2
8
1
5
8
2
5
3
5
20-
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s t o be re a d a s f o llo w s : I n a q u e s tio n n a ir e th e te a c h e r s
were r e q u e s te d to u n d e r lin e term s t h a t d e s c r ib e d th e s c h o o l p la n t c le a n in g s e r v i c e .
F or M ontvale e i g h t u n d e r lin e d " s a t i s f a c t o r y ” and e i g h t "v e ry s a t i s f a c t o r y ” .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XI
ADEQUACY OF CLASSROOMS OF THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS
BASED ON TEACHER ESTIMATES
E xcess enrollment E xcess c a p a c ity
Number
o f crowd­ o v e r c a p a c ity in o v e r e n ro llm e n t
Classroom
S chool
Number
classro o m s c a p a c ity en ro llm en t ed rooms crowded rooms
in o th e r rooms
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
MoixetH
... .
h u d d le S tb h 1
New London
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
13
10
13
y
13
9
11
12
4
5
5
2C
474
425
...... 465
..... T5T53" '
400
£§0
' 37C
318
. l2 o
129
182
665
4140
503
460
433
^y
368
317
372
3 id
119
137
213
345
4235
4
5
3
6
49~~
3
17
3
4
£
Be
0
6
4
1 1
35
46
53
6
17
18
..........45 ............ .
lb
26
32
14
0
II
23
13
1
3
33
3
2
155
276
272
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s : M ontvale had t h i r t e e n c la s s ro o m s ,
a t o t a l c a p a c ity f o r 474 p u p i l s , a t o t a l e n ro llm e n t o f 503, a t o t a l o f f o u r crowded
c la s s ro o m s , f o u r rooms crowded to th e e x te n t o f f o r t y - s i x p u p i l s , and a l l o th e r rooms
had c a p a c ity fo.r s e v e n te e n p u p ils more th a n E n r o lle d .
-
I
j
6 8
-
Tli© sc h o o l p la n t c o n s is te d o f th r e e b u ild in g s , two and
I one h a l f a c r e s o f la n d , and o th e r f a c i l i t i e s . Two were wood
i
! w e a th er-b o a rd e d b u ild in g s , one o f which was a new home aoonomj i c s c o tta g e and th e o th e r a p o o rly k e p t boa; shaped b u ild in g
!
J
f o r classro o m s*
The m ain b u ild in g , a b r ic k s t r u c t u r e , con­
ta in e d th e p r i n c i p a l ’ s o f f i c e and book room ( l i b r a r y ) com­
b in e d , g y tm asiu ia-au d ito riu m co m b in atio n , f iv e c la ssro o m s, and
s a n ita ry to ile ts *
The sc h o o l grounds w ere a d e q u a te ly d e s c rib e d by th e
te a c h e rs *
T ab le I I shows t h a t a l l te a c h e r s s a id th e grounds
w ere rough, hud much mud, and were h ard t o arran g e*
|
i
There
w ere no sh ru b b e ry , d riv ew ay s, w n lk s, and g ra n s law ns.
! a r e a was b a r e .
The
The a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e o f th e p la n t m is r a te d
low by th e f a c u l t y 'o f th e s c h o o l.9
One te a c h e r was o f th e
J o p in io n t h a t th e b u ild in g would in s p i r e th e c h ild r e n to a> p re!
c i a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l . v a l u e and b e a u ty and te n te a c h e r s w e re .n o t
i
j
o f t h a t o p in io n .
I n re g a rd to th e te a c h e r s 'th e m s e lv e s , f i v e
!
s a id t h a t th e p la n t i n s p i r e d them "none” , s i x s a id "som e",
and n o t any s a id "v ary much” .
The o p in io n o f th e f a c u l t y was
t h a t 50 p e r c e n t o f th e classro o m s had been a t t r a c t i v e l y b u i l t
and t h a t 50 p e r c e n t :vere a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e c u r r e n t te a c h ­
in g " s e t- u p ” .
!
9oee T able T i l l , p . 63.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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69
-
C o n d itio n s f o r h e a lth wad s a f e ty were only f a i r *
o f th e s e c o n d itio n s a r e shown i n T ab le II-.
t e a pupil® were a f f e c t e d by im proper iigiit.
Some
One hundred and
'’la c k o f ad eq u ate
\ playground* and “rough p lay g ro u n d " w ere g iv en by te a c h e r s a s
i
I th e c h i e f ca u ses o f a c c id e n ts among p u p i l s . iSighfc te a c h e rs
i
! w ere w ith o u t a d e q u a te f i r s t - a i d equipm ent. The n e a r e s t d o c to r
j
j
. j
|
|
was f i f t e e n m ile s away and a te le p h o n e was w ith in one h a l f
m ile o f th e s c h o o l.
Three rooms w ere w ith o u t p ro p er e x i t s ,
and f i r e d r i l l r e q u ir e d 105 se c o n d s.
f i r e jproof.
The b u ild in g s were mb
As 3hown In F ig u re I , th e te a c h e rs o f Bfcewarts-
I v i l l a r a te d th e j a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e a s p o o re s t in th e co u n ty .
|
j
£l.;d it s a id th e t th e c le a n in g f o r a l l par*ts o f th e b u ild in g
!
1 was "v a ry poor" w h ile th r e e s a id “p o o r" .
The g r e a t e s t needs a s su g g e ste d by th e p r i n c i p a l were
■ "more p la y a r e a and a d e q u a te c lassro o m s* .
I
I
T ab le XI shows th e r e were ben classro o m s w ith a c a p a c ity
I
‘
| f o r 425 p u p i l s , a sc h o o l e n ro llm e n t o f 460 p u p i l s , f i v e crowded
i
-
I
classro o m s w ith an e x c e ss o f f i f t y - t h r e e p u p i l s , and th e r e ­
m aining rooms w ith an e x c e ss c a p a c ity over e n ro llm e n t o f e ig h ­
te e n p u p ils .
The p la n t a s d e s c rib e d above does n o t f a c i l i t a t e a com­
p l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l program i n e x t r a - c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , academ ic
c o u rs e s , and homo econom ics.
Moneta P la n t.
S o n ata I s lo d a te d s ix t e e n m ile s so u th o f
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
}
i
ii
i
70
-
i
B edford on th e B edford-Bcoky Mount highw ay.
The sc h o o l i s
i
\
lo c a te d i n such a way a s to make p o s s ib le an a t t r a c t i v e
i
I
f r o n tin g .
i
j
The sc h o o l p la n t c o n s is te d o f one b r ic k s t r u c t u r e and
i
one u n fin is h e d fram e c o tta g e once in te n d e d f o r a home eco­
nomies c o tta g e .
The main b u ild in g was b e in g used i t s f i f t h
y e a r and had been w e ll k e p t.
I t c o n ta in e d t h i r t e e n c l a e s -
j
rooms, s c ie n c e la b o r a to r y , audltoriura-gym nasium co m b in atio n ,
!
la r g e l i b r a r y , p r i n c i p a l 's o f f i c e ,
cavo
t o i l e t s f o r boys and
two f o r g i r l s , and show ers f o r boys and g i r l s .
I t was a
tw o -s to ry b u ild in g .veil f u r n is h e d ,
j
The f r o n t s id e o f th e sc h o o l grounds were under th e
j
!
'p r o c e s s of b e a u t i f i c a t i o n .
Shrubbery had been p la n te d a c r o s s
th e f r o n t and s id e s o f th e b u ild in g , a drivew ay had been
s u rfa c e d w ith g r a v e l, and a lawn of alm o st an a c re had been
S
j
I
|
|
sown in g r a s s .
T h is p a r t of th e grounds gave a p le a s in g
.
e ffe c t.
■
The back s id e and th e l a r g e s t p a r t o f th e a r e a was
on a h i l l s i d e in Vc:ry poor c o n d itio n f o r p la y p u rp o s e s .
T h is
m ain a re a f o r p la y was d e s c rib e d by th e te a c h e r s aa rou g h ,
and h ard to a r r a n g e .10
The a r c h i t e c t u r a l v alu e made a v e ry f a v o ra b le im p re ss­
io n upon th e te a c h e r s .
They ware unanim ously o f th e o p in io n
t h a t th e p la n t would i n s p i r e c h ild r e n to a p p r e c ia te a r c h i ­
t e c t u r a l v a lu e , and t h a t i t in s p ir e d th e te a c h e rs th e m s e lv e s,
"v a ry much".
■■ i ■■
i — ■
t
■. ■■■►
10See T able V II, P. 62.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
71
-
i
ii
j
One hundred, p e r c e n t o f th e rooms w ere a t t r a c t i v e l y b u i l t and
i
!
90 p e r c e n t w are a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g " s e t -
|
up".
The h e a l t h and s a f e t y c o n d itio n s , a s d e s c rib e d in a
|
q u e s tio n n a ir e by th e te a c h e r s , w ere good.
be se e n i n T ab le I I .
The d e t a i l s may
J a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e was f a i r l y s a t i s ­
fa c to ry .
I
S
The p la n t d id n o t p ro v id e f o r home econom ics and a g r i c u l t u r e , b o th o f w hich were much n eed ed .
The p la y a r e a , a l -
j
|
though s u f f i c i e n t In s i z e , a s shown on T ab le X II, d id n o t
a llo w f o r m ajo r s p o r ts f o r h ig h s c h o o l b o y s, b ecau se o f i t s
c o n d itio n .
B a s e b a ll was p la y ed on a borrow ed diamond.
C lass-
rooms were ad e q u ate i n ev e ry way e x c e p t t h a t th e y wore n o t
equipped w ith s u f f i c i e n t " ta c k b o ard ” , ru n n in g w a te r, and
e l e c t r i c a l p lu g s .
H ud d lesto n P l a n t .
|
s o u th e a s t o f B ed fo rd .
c a tio n .
H u d d lesto n i s lo c a te d e ig h te e n m ile s
The sc h o o l was in an a p p r o p r ia te lo -
The s e t t i n g , w ith work and some e x p e n d itu r e , could
be iaade a t t r a c t i v e .
Some p ro g re s s had been made I n th e l a s t
few y e a rs tow ard b e a u t i f i c a t i o n .
b u ild in g s .
The p la n t c o n s is te d o f two
One was a poor wood w e a th e r-b o a rd e d b u ild in g con­
t a i n i n g two c l a s s room s, and th e o th e r was a b r ic k s t r u c t u r e
c o n ta in in g seven c la ssro o m s, auditorium -gym nasium co m b in ation,
p r in c ip a l* s o f f i c e and book room ( l i b r a r y ) com bined, and
rooms f o r two s a n ita r y t o i l e t s .
The sc h o o l grounds c o n ta in e d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE X II
ADEQUACY OF PLAY AREA
M ontvale
S te w a r ts v i lle
Moneta
jrIud(IXest.on
New London
Boonsboro
lia rc u se
L ib e rty
F o re s t
B ro o k iiill
Thaxton
A ll 0tlie r s
A cres
6
21
5
IS
'T
J
- 2ArN
T
3
- 1$
'
P u p il c a p a c ity a c c o rd in g
to S ta te Board Minimum
School
E nrollm ent
960
400
800
4Sd
28S0
460
503
460
433
44$
36e
317
372
319
119
400
4320
24o
420
137
220
213
3o40
r
543
.
NOTE: T his t a b l e sh o u ld be re a d as fo llo w s : The p la n t a t
M ontvale has s ix a c r e s o f p la y a r e a , w hich, based on th e S t a t e ’ s
Minimum req u irem e n t o f 272 sq u a re f e e t p e r c h i l d , would accomo­
d a te 960 p u p ils . The a c t u a l e n ro llm e n t was 503.
j
I
)
l
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
73
-
th r e e a o re a o f f a i r l y l e v e l la n d ,
a l l te a c h e r s in d ic a te d
t h a t th e grounds were rough and o f te n muddy,
As shown in T able V III tw elv e te a c h e r s th o u g h t t h a t
th e a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e o f th e p l a n t would in s p i r e c h ild r e n
and one th o u g h t t h a t I t would n o t*
As to th e e x te n t t h a t i t
in s p ir e d t e a c h e r s , th r e e s a id "n o n e", seven s a id " 30100" , and
th r e e s a id " v e ry much".
The te a c h e r s were o f th e o p in io n
t h a t 40 p e r c e n t o f th e rooms were a t t r a c t i v e l y b u i l t and
t h a t 50 p e r c e n t were a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g
" s e t- u p " .
H e a lth and s a f e ty c o n d itio n s were p o o r.
O u tsid e t o i ­
l e t s , a lth o u g h b u i l t a s s a n i t a r y , were i n bad c o n d itio n and
co u ld n o t be c a lle d s a n i t a r y .
One hundred and s ix ty - n in e
p u p ils were a f f e c t e d by im proper l i g h t i n g .
W ater was sup­
p lie d by a v*ell which had n o t been t e s t e d f o r p u r ity w ith ­
i n th e memory o f any te a c h e r .
T here were tw elve -te a c h e rs
w ith o u t f i r s t - a i d equipm ent.
One room had im proper e x i t s
and th e r e had been no f i r e d r i l l s w ith in th e h i s t o r y o f th e
s c h o o l.
The n e a r e s t d o c to r was e ig h te e n m ile s away and
th e r e was a te le p h o n e w ith in on© h a l f m ile o f th e s c h o o l.
J a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e was p o o r.
T e a c h e rs ’ answ ers to th e ques­
t i o n , "To what e x te n t a r e a l l p a r t s o f th e b u ild in g w e ll
c le a n e d ? " a r e shown i n T able X.
E leven s a id "poor" and two
s a id " s a t i s f a c t o r y " .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
74
-
The p la n t was d e f i n i t e l y n o t a d e q u a te .
The p la n t had
n in e classro o m s w ith a c a p a c ity f o r 322 p u p ils and th e sc h o o l
e n ro llm e n t was 449 p u p i l s .
T hree c la s s e s were in s e s s io n in
th e a u d ito riu m , h av in g b u rla p c u r ta in s f o r p a r t i t i o n s .
T able
12 shows s i x classro o m s crowded to th e e x c e ss o f f o r ty - n in e
p u p ils and th e o th e r classro o m s w ith e x c e ss c a p a c ity o f f i f ­
te e n p u p i l s .
The p la y a r e a , a lth o u g h s m a ll, allo w s f o r a
b a s e b a ll diamond f o r la r g e b o y s.
As shown in T able XIT i t
was t h e o r e t i c a l l y s u f f i c i e n t , b u t more sp ace would f a c i l i ­
t a t e a b e t t e r p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n program .
H uddleston and
ilo n eta a l i k e , lo c a te d in a s t r i c t l y farm in g and backward, a r e a ,
needed home econom ics and a g r i c u l t u r e c o u rse s f a r more th a n
any o th e r s e c tio n in B edford County and y e t th e y a r e n o t e quipped f o r them. . The p l a n t was n o t ad e q u ate and th e p ro ­
gram was lim ite d .
Hew Londbn P l a n t .
New London Academy i s f i f t e e n m ile s
e a s t o f B ed fo rd .
The s e t t i n g i s i n a b e a u t i f u l s e c tio n o f
B edford County.
Many la r g e farm s and p r e t t y homos a r e n e a r
by.
Hew London i s j o i n t l y owned by B edford and Campbell
C o u n tie s.
I t h as a s p e c ia l b o a rd .
The p la n t c o n s is te d o f f i v e b u ild in g s , e ig h te e n a c r e s
o f la n d , and o th e r f a c i l i t i e s .
One new s t r u c t u r e , wood w eath­
e r-b o a rd e d , c o n ta in e d th e a g r i c u l t u r a l classro o m and workshop-*
Of th e two o th e r wood b u ild in g s , one was o ccu p ied by th e
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
75
-
j a n i t o r ’ s fa m ily and th e o th e r c o n ta in e d olasnroom s and th e
home econom ics l a b o r a to r y ,
A nother v ery o ld b u ild in g was
p a r t b r ic k and p a r t wood w eath er boarded*
T h is b u ild in g con­
ta in e d f i v e c la ss ro o m s , p r i n c i p a l 's home, and a te a c h e ra g e
la r g e enough t o accom odate a l l th e t e a c h e r s .
The main b u ild ­
in g had two p a r t s , a new auditorium -gym nasium co m b in atio n
b u i l t o f b r ic k , and an o ld p a r t b u i l t o f c o n c re te c o n ta in e d
s i x c la ss ro o m s, p r i n c i p a l 's o f f i c e , a la r g e l i b r a r y room,
and s a n i t a r y t o i l e t s .
A ll o f th e s e ex c e p t th e a g r i c u l t u r e
b u ild in g a r e two s to r y b u ild in g s , o ld and i n need o f much
re p a ir.
Much r e p a i r had been done r e c e n t l y b u t much more
was n eed ed .
The p la n t had a h i s t o r i c s e t t i n g .
A lo n g f r o n t lawn
d o tte d w ith b ig oaks and sh ru b b ery gave a p le a s in g e f f e c t .
The w r i t e r 's c h ie f o b je c tio n was t h a t th e p l a n t a s a w hole
seemed to fo llo w no d e f i n i t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p a t t e r n o r la n d ­
scap e p la n n in g .
The i n s i d e o f th e classro o m s showed deep
s ig n s o f u s e .
I n answ er to a q u e s tio n n a ir e , te n te a c h e r s f e l t t h a t
th e p la n t would i n s p i r e c h ild r e n to a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c t u r a l
v a lu e and b e a u ty and th r e e f e l t t h a t i t would n o t.
Two s a id
t h a t i t I n s p ir e d th e te a c h e r s th e m selv es "nan©", seven s a id
"som e", and f o u r " v e ry much".
T h e ir judgm ent o f c la s s ro o m s ,
was t h a t 30 p e r c e n t w ere a t t r a c t i v e l y b u i l t and 55 p e r c e n t
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
-
76
-
w ere a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g ’'s e t - u p ” .
In a l ­
m ost eq u a l numbers th e te a c h e r s s a id t h a t th e p la y a re a was
ro u g h , sm ooth, muddy, h a rd to a r r a n g e , and easy to a r r a n g e .
The s u p p o s itio n was t h a t th e te a c h e rs k e p t t h e i r groups t o ­
g e th e r and some g ro u p s had good p la y a r e a s and some had b ad .
The grounds were In so many d i f f e r e n t p a r t s t h a t t h i s co u ld
e a s i l y have been th e c a s e .
H e a lth and s a f e t y c o n d itio n s were f a i r l y good.
Buses
w ere lo ad ed and u nloaded on th e highway o r .o n th e o p p o s ite
s id e o f th e highway from th e b u ild in g s .
The c h i e f p la y a r e a
was on th e o p p o s ite s id e o f th e ro a d from th e sc h o o l b u ild ­
in g s .
T his was n o t a mo3fc d e s ir a b le a rra n g e m e n t.
e ig h t c h ild r e n ^vere a f f e c t e d by im proper l i g h t .
TwentyRunning
w a te r was fu rn is h e d by a w e ll which had n o t been t e s t e d f o r
p u r i t y d u rin g th e y e a r .
f i r s t - a i d eq u ip m en t.
fire p ro o f.
T hree ta a c h e r3 w ere w ith o u t ad eq u ate
The b u ild in g s w ere two s t o r y and n o t
J i l l rooms had p ro p e r e x i t s and th e tim e re q u ire d
f o r f i r e d r i l l was 150 se co n d s.
ii
T here was a d o c to r o n ly one
m ile away and a te le p h o n e w ith in one h a l f m ile .
had good j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e .
Now London
.Although th e b u ild in g s d id n o t
le n d th em selv es to c le a n in g v e ry w e ll, th e s e r v ic e was r a te d
f a r in to th e " v e ry s a t i s f a c t o r y ” column by th e te a c h e r s .
The p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d t h a t th e classro o m s w ere a poor
1:L3ee T ab le X
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
-
environm ent f o r te a c h in g .
77
-
C lassroom spaoe ;vas a d e q u a te . T able
XI shows th e r e w ere t h i r t e e n classro o m s w ith a c a p a c ity o f
400.
The sc h o o l e n ro llm e n t was 368.
T here w ere th r e e crowd­
ed classro o m s w ith an ex c ess o f se v e n te e n p u p ils and th e
o th e r rooms w ith e x c e ss o a p a e ity f o r tv y en ty -eig h t p u p ils .
T here was no d e s ir a b le c e n t r a l c o n tr o l o f th e p l a n t .
In
s p it o o f i t s h in d ra n c e s , New London was p ro b a b ly i n p o s itio n
to g iv e th e r i c h e s t sc h o o l e x p e rie n c e s o f any sc h o o l i n th e
c o u n ty .
I t s program was much b ro a d e r and room more abundant*
Boonsboro P l a n t .
th e su b u rb s o f Lynchburg.
s ira b le s e ttin g .
Boonsboro I s lo c a te d j u s t o u ts id e
The la n d sc a p e a f f o r d s a v ery de­
The p la n t c o n s is te d o f two b u ild in g s , th r e e
a c r e s o f la n d and accompanying f a c i l i t i e s .
One b u ild in g was
a wood w eath er b o ard in g b u ild in g c o n ta in in g two classro o m s
and home econom ics la b o r a to r y .
The main b u ild in g , a b r ic k
s t r u c t u r e , c o n ta in e d seven c la ssro o m s, p r i n c i p a l ^ o f f i c e ,
l i b r a r y , auditorium -gym nasium co m b in atio n ,, and t o i l e t s f o r
boys and g i r l s .
The grounds wore f a i r l y a t t r a c t i v e .
and sh ru b s were b ein g p la n te d .
T rees
D riveways and w alks were
p lan n ed and g ru v e le d .
T hree te a c h e r s , in answ er to a q u e s tio n n a ir e , s a id
th e p l a n t would i n s p i r e th e p u p ils t o a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c ­
t u r a l v a lu e and b e a u ty and e ig h t s a id t h a t i t would n o t.
i
Seven te a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t i t in s p i r e d th e te a c h e r s them -
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
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7 8
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s e lv e s "none", fo u r "som e", and n o t any ’’v e ry much” .
Accord­
in g t o te a c h e r s , 20 p e r c e n t o f th e classro o m s were a t t r a c ­
t i v e l y b u i l t and 65 p e r c e n t were a t t r a c t i v e u n d er th e c u r­
r e n t te a c h in g " s e t- u p " .
There was ad eq u ate p r o v is io n f o r lo a d in g and u n lo a d ­
in g buses s a f e l y .
Running w a te r was fu rn is h e d by a w e ll
w hich had been t e s t e d f o r p u r i t y d u rin g th e sc h o o l y e a r .
p u p ils were under p ro p e r l i g h t i n g c o n d itio n s .
T here were
n in e te a c h e rs w ith o u t a d e q u a te f i r s t - a i d equipm ent.
b u ild in g s were n o t f i r e p r o o f .
The
A ll rcoias had p ro p e r e x i t s
and th e tim e r e q u ir e d f o r f i r e d r i l l was 110 se c o n d s.
t o r i a l s e r v ic e was p o o r.
A ll
J a n i­
One te a c h e r o u t o f e le v e n s a id
th e j a n i t o r ’ s s e r v ic e v/as ‘‘s a t i s f a c t o r y " and th e o th e r s s a id
" p o o r" .
Boonsboro had a classro o m c a p a c ity o f 290 p u p ils w ith
a sc h o o l e n ro llm en t o f 317.
c la ssro o m .
There was a sh o rta g e o f one
The p la y a r e a , a s d e s c rib e d in .F ig u r e I I , was f o r
th e m a jo rity o f th e te a c h e r s "ro u g h ", "muddy", and "h ard to
arran g e".
There was an e x c e p tio n a lly poor b a s e b a ll diamond
f o r la r g e b o y s.
The p r i n c i p a l f e l t t h a t more room in s id e and
o u ts id e would add m ost to th e e f f ic ie n c y o f th e s c h o o l.
M arcuse P l a n t .
Big I s la n d i s on th e James R iv e r ab o u t
e ig h te e n m ile s above Lynchburg.
h i l l s i d e fa c in g th e r i v e r .
I t I s a sm a ll v i l l a g e on a
The s c h o o l, M arcuse, i s lo c a te d
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
j u s t below th e L ynchburg-L exington highway which c r o s s e s th e
h ills id e .
I t I s a poor lo c a tio n f o r a 3chool«
The sc h o o l b u ild in g c o n s is te d o f one b u ild in g , two and
one h a l f a c r e s o f p la y g ro u n d , and f a c i l i t i e s .
The b u ild in g
c o n ta in e d e le v e n c la ssro o m s, a sm a ll p r i n c i p a l ’s o f f i c e , a
sm a ll l i b r a r y , s a n i t a r y t o i l e t s f o r boys and g i r l s , and a u d itorium -gyranasium co m b in atio n .
One a c r e o f th e p la y a r e a was
s te e p and ro u g h , and ab o u t one a c re had been g rad ed by a r e ­
l i e f p ro je c t.
I n d e s c r ib in g th e a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e and b e a u ty o f
th e p l a n t , th ? e e te a c h e r s s a id t h a t I t would i n s p i r e p u p ils
t o a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e and b e a u ty and e ig h t s a id
t h a t I t would n o t .
F iv e te a c h e r s s a id t h a t i t in s p ir e d th e
te a c h e r s th em selv es ’’none” , f iv e "some” , and one " v ery much*•
I n t h e i r judgm ent, 50 p e r c e n t o f th e classro o m s w ere a t t r a c ­
t i v e l y b u i l t and 65 p er c e n t were a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e c u r r e n t
te a c h in g 1Ts e t - u p " .
H e a lth and s a f e ty c o n d itio n s were o n ly f a i r .
co u ld lo ad and u n lo ad w ith s a f e ty f o r th e c h i ld r e n .
p i l s w ere a f f e c t e d by Im proper l i g h t i n g .
Buses
No pu­
Sunning w a te r was
f u r n is h e d by a w e ll which had been t e s t e d f o r p u r i t y d u rin g
th e sc h o o l y e a r .
m ent.
One te a c h e r was .w ithout f i r 3 t - a i d eq u ip ­
A ll rooms had p ro p e r e x i t s and th e tim e r e q u ir e d f o r ■
f i r e d r i l l was 150 se c o n d s.
The n e a r e s t d o c to r was o n e -te n th
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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o f a m ile away.
8 0
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The j a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e was r a t e d ’’p o o r” by
e ig h t te a c h e rs and ’’v e ry p o o r” by t h r e e .
Two rooms u sed f o r
classro o m s had f lo o r s a p p ro x im a te ly f i v e f e e t under th e s u r ­
f a c e o f th e g ro u n d .
S te p s le a d in g to th e basement rooms were
narrow and d ark w ith no hand r a i l s .
The p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d t h a t h is p la n t ’ms d e f i n i t e l y i n ­
a d e q u a te .
H allw ays were d a rk , having no l i g h t ex c ep t t h a t
a d m itte d th ro u g h door w ays.
The l i b r a r y was rauch too sm all*
Bleven classroom s gave a c a p a c ity f o r 370 p u p i l s .
were 372 e n r o lle d in s c h o o l.
Thor©
Four classro o m s wore crowded to
th e e x te n t o f ,tw e n ty -e ig h t and th e rem ain in g rooms had an ex­
c e ss c a p a c ity o f tw e n ty - s ix .
The p lay g ro u n d was r a te d "ro u gh” *
’’muddy” , and ’’hard to a r r a n g e ” by th e te a c h e r s .
B a se b a ll f o r
la r g e boys had to 'be p la y e d on a borrowed diamond.
P ro v is io n
was made f o r o n ly academ ic c o u rse s and e x tr a classro o m a c ­
tiv itie s .
L ib e rty Academy P l a n t .
Tho L ib e r ty -Academy p l a n t was
o r i g i n a l l y th e Randolph Uaeon Academy lo c a te d in th e town o f
B ed fo rd .
The p la n t c o n ta in e d s i x new c la ssro o m s, s i x c l a s s -
j
rooms made from re n o v a tin g and com bining o ld d o rm ito ry room s,
a la r g e shop room, a la r g e a u d ito riu m , a la r g e d in in g room,
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an a r t room, a m usic room, l i b r a r y , gymnasium, swimming p o o l,
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in f ir m a r y , p r i n c i p a l ’ s o f f i c e , t o i l e t s , s e v e r a l rooms u sed
j
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j
■
_
f o r work rooms by v a rio u s g r a d e s , ap a rtm en ts f o r a l l te a c h -
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I
I
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
e r s , a p a rtm e n t for- th e p r i n c i p a l , and many v a c a n t usused
d o rm ito ry room s.
The p la n t a l s o c o n ta in e d tw en ty -sev en
a c r e s o f la n d on which th e r e were two la r g e a t h l e t i c f i e l d s
and te n n is c o u r ts .
A ll o f th e te a c h e rs were o f th e o p in io n t h a t th e p la n t
would i n s p i r e p u p ils to a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c t u r a l v alu e and
b e a u ty .
One 3 a id t h a t i t in s p ir e d h e r "some", and n in e s a id
t h a t I t in s p i r e d them "v ery much1** A ccording t o th e te a c h ­
e r s no classro o m s were b u i l t a t t r a c t i v e and 100 p e r c e n t
were a t t r a c t i v e under th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g " s e t- u p " .
T here was am ple sp ace fo r' lo a d in g and u n lo a d in g b u se s
s a fe ly .
No p u p ils w ere a f f e c t e d by im proper l i g h t .
te a c h e rs had ad e q u ate f i r s t - a i d equipm ent.
p lie d by th e to w n .
A ll
W ater was sup­
A ll rooms had p ro p e r e x i t s and th e tim e
r e q u ir e d f o r f i r e d r i l l was f i f t y - f i v e se c o n d s.
The b u ild ­
in g was n o t f i r e p r o o f and d id n o t have an ad e q u ate alarm
sy stem .
The n e a r e s t d o c to r was one h a l f m ile away.
t o r i a l s e r v ic e was good.
The j a n i ­
S ix te a c h e rs r e p o r te d t h a t th e
c le a n in g o f a l l p a r ts o f th e b u ild in g was " s a t i s f a c t o r y " ,
end f o u r r e p o r te d "v e ry s a t i s f a c t o r y " .
, Twelve classro o m s had a c a p a c ity o f 318 w ith an e n r o l l ­
ment o f 319.
There were two crowded rooms w ith an e x c e ss o f
f o u rte e n p u p ils and th e rem ain in g rooms had an ex c ess ca p ac ity
of th irte e n .
P la y a r e a was ab u n d an t.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
F o re s t P l a n t .
8 2
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F o re s t i s lo c a te d on th e highway be­
tween Lynchburg and B ed fo rd .
The sc h o o l p la n t was a wood
s h in g le b u ild in g c o n ta in in g f o u r classro o m s and one and o n eh a l f a c r e s o f p la y a r e a .
The b u ild in g was h e a te d by s to v e s .
The t e a c h e r s ’ o p in io n o f th e a r c h i t e c t u r a l v alu e was
v e ry low .
They r e p o r te d no classro o m s were b u i l t a t t r a c t i v e
and no classro o m s were a t t r a c t i v e u n d er th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g
’’s e t- u p ” .
At F o re s t th e o u ts id e t o i l e t s were in p o o r c o n d itio n .
Twelve p u p ils were a f f e c t e d by im proper l i g h t .
A w e ll , which
had been t e s t e d f o r p u r i t y d u rin g th e sc h o o l y e a r , was th e
so u rc e o f w a te r.
m ent.
A ll te a c h e r s had a d e q u a te f i r s t - a i d eq u ip ­
T here w ere two rooms w ith o u t p ro p e r e x i t s and f i r e
d r i l l r e q u ir e d 180 3©cond3.
The n e a r e s t d o c to r was o n e-
f o u r th o f a m ile away.
There was s u f f i c i e n t c lassro o m s p a c e .
A sm a ll a u d i­
to riu m could be made by open in g fo ld in g d o o rs betw een room s.
The b u ild in g was in po o r c o n d itio n .
B ro o k h ill P l a n t .
B ro o k h ill i s e ig h t m ile s from Bed­
f o r d , lo c a te d oh th e highway betw een L ynchburg-and B ed fo rd .
I t had a very d e s ir a b le s e t t i n g .
The p la n t c o n s is te d o f one
b u ild in g which had r e c e n tly been ven eered w ith b r ic k , and
th r e e a c re s o f p la y g ro u n d .
The b u ild in g c o n ta in e d f iv e
classro o m s and an a u d ito riu m w hich'w as a new a d d i tio n .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
The
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b u ild in g was h e a te d by sto v e s*
Three o f th e te a c lie ra s a id t h a t th e p la n t would i n ­
s p i r e c h ild r e n to a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e and b ea u ty
and two s a id t h a t i t in s p ir e d th e te a c h e r s th e m selv es "none” ,
th r e e s a id "som e", and one s a i d " v e ry m uch".
They re p o rte d
60 p e r c e n t o f rooms were a t t r a c t i v e l y b u i l t and 80 p e r c e n t
a t t r a c t i v e w ith th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g " s e t - u p " .
The c o n d itio n o f o u ts id e t o i l e t s th e r e was b e t t e r th a n
any in s p e c te d .
In f a c t , th e y were th e o n ly ones found in
d e c e n t c o n d itio n .
s a fe ly .
Buses c o u ld lo ad
and u n lo ad
c h ild r e n
S ev en teen c h ild r e n w ere a f f e c t e d by im p ro p er l i g h t .
The w e ll t h a t f u rn is h e d w a te r hud been t e s t e d f o r p u r i t y
d u rin g th e sc h o o l y e a r .
equ ip m en t.
A ll te a c h e r s had ad eq u ate f i r s t - a i d
The n e a r e s t d o c to r was e ig h t m ile s away.
B r o o h h ili’s p la y a re a was v ery ad e q u ate a s shown on
T a b le s '711 and X II.
p u p ils .
i?ive classro o m s had a c a p a c ity f o r 129
Two classro o m s were overcrow ded
e le v e n p u p i l s .
to th e e x te n t o f
T h is p la n t was more a d e q u a te f o r i t s program
th a n any o f th e th r e e sc h o o ls i n t h i s c l a s s .
Thaxton P l a n t .
Thaxton i s lo c a te d s i x m ile s from Bed­
f o r d on th e Bedford-Hoonoke highw ay.
The p la n t c o n s is te d .
o f one b u ild in g c o n ta in in g f i v e classro o m s and one and one
h a l f a c r ©3 o f p la y a r e a .
low by th e t e a c h e r s .
The a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a lu e was r a te d
The b u ild in g ''w a s wood w ea th er boarded
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
.
-
and
84
-
i n bad c o n d itio n .
O u tsid e t o i l e t s were i n bad c o n d itio n .
be lo a d ed and u n lo ad ed i n s a f e t y .
ed by im proper l i g h t .
S ix ty p u p ils w ere a f f e c t ­
The w e ll t h a t fu rn is h e d w a te r had n o t
been t e s t e d f o r p u r i t y .
f i r s t - a i d equipm ent.
Buses co b id
Two te a c h e r s d id n o t have ad e q u ate
The n e a r e s t d o c to r was s i r m ile s away,
and a te le p h o n e was w ith in o n e - h a lf m ile .
Two rooms had p ro ­
p e r e x i t s and f i r e d r i l l r e q u ir e d 180 se c o n d s.
The b u ild in g
was s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c le a n e d .
As shown in T ab le XI th e b u ild in g had f i v e rooms w ith
a c a p a c ity o f 182 and an e n ro llm e n t o f 213.
F our rooms were
overcrow ded to an e x te n t o f t h i r t y - t h r e e p u p i l s .
The p la n t
was d e c id e d ly in a d e q u a te f o r a good sc h o o l program .
A ll O ther P l a n t s .
L ocated o v er Bedford County were
t\v e n ty -3 ix one, tw o, and th r e e te a c h e r s c h o o ls .
These b u ild ­
in g s w ere wood w ea th er b o ard ed b u ild in g s m o stly in bad con­
d itio n .
The b ea u ty o f th e s e a s judged by th e te a c h e r s I s shown
i n T ab le 7 I H .
F ive s a id t h a t t h e i r s c h o o ls would i n s p i r e
c h ild r e n to a p p r e c ia te b e a u ty ;
f i f t e e n s a id th e y would n o t .
S lev en s a id t h a t th e y I n s p ir e d th e te a c h e r s th e m selv es "none",
e i g h t s a id "som e", and one s a id "v e ry much".
T h ir ty p e r
c e n t o f th e classro o m s w ere a t t r a c t i v e l y b u i l t and 30 p e r
c e n t were a t t r a c t i v e u n d er th e c u r r e n t te a c h in g " s e t- u p " .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
i
i
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85
-
I
A il o f th e p l a n t s have o u ts id e t o i l e t s , m ost o f which
a r e i n bad c o n d itio n .
im proper l i g h t .
a id equipm ent.
a d o c to r .
S ix ty - e ig h t p u p ils were a f f e c t e d by
.Eleven te a c h e r s were w ith o u t ad eq u ate f i r s t No sc h o o l was more th a n f i f t e e n m ile s from
Seven rooms w ere w ith o u t p ro p e r e x i t s .
A la r g e
number o f th e s e sc h o o ls g o t t h e i r w a te r from n e i g h b o r s w e lls
and s p r in g s .
A ll c le a n in g , done by th e te a c h e r s , wa3 s a t i s ­
fa c to ry .
Space i n s i d e and o u ts id e was ad e q u ate i n a l l th e s e
s c h o o ls .
Most p la y a r e a s were ro u g h .
P o in ts Common to th e P l a n t s .
so ap , and to w e ls f u r n is h e d .
No p la n t had warm w a te r
No p la n t ex cep t L ib e r ty Academy
had w ate r b a s in s and e l e c t r i c a l p lu g s in c la ssro o m s.
v e n t i l a t i o n was i^ o s s ib le i n a l l p l a n t s .
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P ro p e r
A ll p la n ts o f th e
seven h ig h s c h o o ls and L ib e rty Academy had been u n d er a p r o -
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'!
c e ss o f improvement d u rin g r e c e n t y e a r s .
I
a u d ito riu m co m b in atio n s had been b u i l t w ith in th e l a s t th r e e
J
i
F ive new gymnasium-
,
•
j
j
y e a rs.
L a b o ra to ry f a c i l i t i e s f o r s c ie n c e stu d y were p o o r
i n a l l sc h o o ls e x c e p t
equipped room s.
M ontvale and M oneta, w hich had
Home econom ics was p ro v id ed f o r in M ontvale,
S t e w a r t s v i l l e , New London, and B oonsboro.
Only New London
had a g r i c u l t u r e and o n ly L ib e rty Academy had shop w ork.
The
seven h ig h sc h o o ls and L ib e r ty Academy w ere th e o n ly b u ild in g s
i
h e a te d by f u r n a c e s .
had no j a c k e t s .
Many s to v e s used in th e o th e r sc h o o ls
Most s c h o o ls had a d e q u a te b la c k b o a rd s, b u t
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
no sc h o o l e x c e p t L ib e rty Academy had ad e q u ate b u l l e t i n b o ard
o r "tack * b o ard i n th e c l a s s room s.
r e q u ir e d much o f such s p a c e .
The program u n d e rta k e n
T e a c h e rs i n moat sc h o o ls had
c h ild re n * s a r t w ork, maps, c h a r t s , e t c . ta c k e d on th e w a lls
w herever th e y co u ld b e .
T h is s i t u a t i o n d e fe a te d e f f o r t s to
have and develop an a r t i s t i c b a la n c e o f th in g s in th e c l a s s ­
room s.
Many c lassro o m s w ere n o t a t t r a c t i v e f o r t h i s r e a s o n .
The p e r c e n t o f a t t r a c t i v e rooms as shown on T ab le T i l l , was
v ery low•
O ther S chool C o n d itio n s i n B edford County
S chool L i b r a r i e s .
A modern program o f e d u c a tio n co u ld
n o t f u n c tio n w ith o u t a n a d e q u a te l i b r a r y .
In o u r e f f o r t s to
te a c h p u p ils to r e a d , t o u se r e f e r e n c e s , to u se l e i s u r e tim e
w is e ly , t o th in k , to ta k e th e i n i t i a t i v e t o u se many books
a s r e f e r e n c e s in s te a d o f one te x tb o o k , and to p a r t i c i p a t e
h e l p f u l l y In a g e n e ra l a c t i v i t y program f o r grow th, a good
l i b r a r y d e te rm in e s to a g ro u t e x te n t w h eth er we su cceed o r
n o t.
A good l i b r a r y sh o u ld have a good re a d in g room, s u f ­
f i c i e n t s h e lv e s f o r b o o k s, p r o v is io n f o r f i l i n g m a t e r i a l s ,
m agazine and new spaper r a c k s , an e f f i c i e n t l i b r a r i a n , a good
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f books o v er v a r io u s
s u b je c t f i e l d a r e a s and
human I n t e r e s t s , m a g azin es, n ew sp ap ers, and an a t t r a c t i v e
a p p e a ra n c e .
The C o o p e ra tiv e S tudy makes t h i s s ta te m e n t:
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
-
8 7
-
The l i b r a r y sh o u ld be a c e n te r o f th e e d u c a tio n a l
l i f e o f th e s c h o o l, n o t m erely a c o l l e c t i o n o f books.
I t sh o u ld p ro v id e th e r e a d in g and r e f e r e n c e f a c i l i t i e s
n e c e s s a ry to make th e e d u c a tio n a l program e f f e c t i v e .
I t s books and o th e r r e s o u rc e s sh o u ld th e r e f o r e be chosen
in th e l i g h t o f th e s p e c i f i c aim s and p u rp o se s o f th e
s c h o o l. Many p u p ils do n o t have a c c e s s t o good books
and p e r i o d i c a l s i n t h e i r homes and th e r e f o r e la c k th e
background w hich a c q u a in ta n c e w ith such m a te r ia l s would
s u p p ly . By te a c h in g p u p ils how and where to f in d l i ­
b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , how fee s e l e c t them and how to u se them
a f f e c t i v e l y , th e l i b r a r y sh o u ld p ro v id e p u p ils w ith
v a lu a b le means n o t o n ly o f e x te n d in g t h e i r knowledge
and u n d e rs ta n d in g b u t a ls o o f d e v e lo p in g d e s ir a b le
l e i s u r e h a b i t s . The l i b r a r y and i t s f a c i l i t i e s n o t
o n ly sh o u ld bo so a t t r a c t i v e l y eq uipped t h a t a e s t h e t i c
t a s t e s w i l l be d e v e lo p e d .12
B edford County sc h o o l l i b r a r i e s were l i t t l e more th a n
c o l l e c t i o n s o f books.
Hoorn, a s shown b e f o r e , was n o t a d e q u a te
t
i n s c h o o ls ex c ep t New London, M oneta, and L ib e r ty Academy.
The h ig h sc h o o ls had W.P.A. l i b r a r i a n s .
w ere in e x p e rie n c e d i n l i b r a r y w ork.
I n moat c a s e s th e s e
O th er sc h o o ls had no
lib ra ria n s .
T ab le X III g iv e s th e s t a t u s o f l i b r a r y books i n th e
v a r io u s sc h o o ls o f B edford C ounty.
I t may be se en th e r e t h a t
M ontvale, Boonsboro, and M arcuse had a p p ro x im a te ly tw ic e a s
many books a s S t e w a r t s v i l l e , M oneta, and H u d d lesto n . ''T his
may be n o te d a s one o f th e i n e q u a l i t i e s among .th e se s c h o o ls ’.'
12C o o p eratIv e Study o f S econdary S chool S ta n d a rd s , How
to iiv a lu a te a Secondary School . W ashington, D.C. 1938, P ages
20- 21 .
Reproduced with p erm ission
o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE X III
THE STATUS OF THE BOOKS OF THE VARIOUS
SCHOOL LIBRARIES IN BEDFORD COUNTY
prohibited without perm ission.
Total num­ Humber S e ts of New Books
E n cy clo p ed ias added within
b er of
Volumes
l a s t year
475
M ontvale
2727
8
225
S te w a rts v ille
1394
5
Moneta *
598
1586
7
239
H udd lesto n
1200
4
158
1626
5
New London
5
215
3185
Boonsboro
M arcuse
2*700
7
400
75
L ib e r ty
4
1200
3
fo re st
60
300
.3
50
B r o o k h ili
1140
T haxton
200
I
'
' r "33
A ll o th e r s
303
2312
6
T o ta ls
19JS70
58
2828
Number o f D i s t r i b u t i o n o f books f o r seven
Books o u t g ra d e s and h ig h s c h o o l c l a s s e s
o f d a te
I n s u f f i c i e n t S u f f i c i e n t Abundant
6
10
0
273
14
10
1
0
159
0
12
0
8
5
0
0
T
6
0
193
736
4
7
6
135
0
0
11
6
240
10
6
O
1
6
15
3
285
2
0
06
2
3
6
8
12
0
... "10155"......
55
75
3225
0
NOTE: T h is ta b l e i s to be re a d as f o llo w s : M ontvale had 2727 volumes in th e lib r a i y
e ig h t s e t s o f e n c y c lo p e d ia s , 475 new books added w ith in l a s t y e a r , and 273 books w ere o ld
and o u t o f d a t e . S ix te a c h e r s had i n s u f f i c i e n t su p p ly o f books f o r t h e i r g ra d e s o r c l a s s e s
te n had s u f f i c i e n t , and none had ab u n d an t s u p p ly .
!
-
89
-
Bedford County sc h o o ls a s shown in T able X III had
19,070 volumes and f i f t y - e i g h t s e t a o f e n c y clo p e d ias i n i t s
s c h o o ls , o f w hich 2828 w ere added d u rin g th e l a s t y ear and
3228 were o ld and o u t o f d a te .
F i f t y - f i v e te a c h e rs had in ­
s u f f i c i e n t books, and no te a c h e r had an abundance o f books.
T h is s tu d y showed an in c r e a s e o f ap p ro x im a te ly 17 p e r c e n t
in th e l i b r a r i e s o f th e sc h o o ls d u rin g t h a t y e a r .
I t gave
some in d i c a t i o n o f th e re c e n c y o f th e books o f th e v a rio u s
lib ra rie s .
Most sc h o o ls had been ad d in g to t h e i r l i b r a r i e s
c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r th e l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s .
The number o f
te a c h e r s t h a t re p o rte d n o t h av in g s u f f i c i e n t books f o r t h e i r
g ra d e s i n d i c a t e t h a t books w ere bought w ith o u t p ro p e r th o u g h t
o f d i s t r i b u t i o n an d , a l s o , t h a t te a c h e r s were n o t g iv e n a
|
hand i n th e s e l e c t i o n o f b o o k s.
I f a l i b r a r y o f 1200 volumes
c o u ld s u f f i c i e n t l y su p p ly te n te a c h e r s w ith books f o r t h e i r
g ra d e s , i t seems t h a t a l i b r a r y o f 3185 volumes should have
s u p p lie d e le v e n te a c h e r s w ith t h e i r l i b r a r y n e e d s.
!
I t seemed
re a s o n a b le t o b e lie v e t h a t th e l i b r a r i e s a f f o rd in g s u f f i c i e n t
j
!
book m a te r ia l to th e l a r g e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f t h e i r c la s s e s were
i
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th e b e s t, r a t h e r th a n th o s e w ith th e g r e a t e s t number o f v o l-
i
uraes.
However, th e r e w ere o th e r f a c t o r s t h a t m ight have
e n te r e d i n , such a s , " s u f f i c i e n t " w ith a l l te a c h e rs m ight
n o t have meant th e same, and some te a c h e r s m ight n o t have
ta k e n th e tr o u b le to f in d o u t. w hat was in th e l i b r a r i e s .
|
new spapers and p e r i o d i c a l s w ere n o t s u f f i c i e n t in any
j
!
s c h o o l.
!
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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90 -
"reachinf; M a te r ia ls and F a c i l i t i e s .
T eaching m a te r­
i a l s t h a t had to be bought by th e sc h o o ls i f u sed a t a l l
w ere:
c o n s tr u c tio n p a p e r, p a i n t s , b ru s h e s , c ra y o n s, s p e c ia l
p e n c ils , p o s te r b o ard , p a s te , s c i s s o r s , thumb ta c k s , p ap er
f a s t e n e r s , mimeograph in k , m ineograph p a p e r, s t e n c i l s ,
s t a t i o n e r y , l e t t e r i n g p e n s , p r i n t e r ’ s in k , c o lo re d c h a lk ,
maps, I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , sa n d p a p e r, p l i e r s , screw d r i v e r s ,
hammers, saws, n a i l s , b o a rd s, so ap , p ap er to w e ls , in d o o r
games, jump r o p e s , p lay g ro u n d b a l l s , b a t s , b a l l g lo v e s ,
costum e m a te r ia l s , m usic m a te r ia l s , v i c t r o l a s , v i c t r o l a r e ­
c o rd s ,. r a d io s , and p ia n o s .
The fo llo w in g m a te r ia ls -vere l i s t e d by te a c h e r s a s
f r e e en v iro n m en tal m a te r ia l s ;
ro c k s , s o i l s , c la y , m in e ra ls ,
le a v e s , p l a n t s , f lo w e rs , t r e e s , s h ru b s , moss, b u lb s , b a rk ,
wood, b u ild in g m a t e r i a l s , fo o d s, b ea n s, s e e d s , p o ta to e s ,
i n s e c t s , b e e s, a n t s , b u t t e r f l i e s , m oths, b i r d s , o n e - c e lle d
a n im a ls , ta d p o le s , f r o g s , c r a y f is h , f i s h , s n a k e s, t u r t l e s ,
s n a i l s , b ir d n e s t s , cocoons, wasp n e s t s , su n , w e a th e r, moon,
ponds, w a te r, an im al p r o d u c ts , m a te r ia ls from p ap e r m i l l ,
and m a te r ia ls from f a c t o r i e s in B ed fo rd .
The two l i s t s above were n o t co m p lete, b u t gave some
id e a o f th e volume o f m a te r ia ls and f a c i l i t i e s needed f o r
te a c h in g .
The v e ry s h o r t l i s t s of f r e e en v iro n m e n ta l ma­
t e r i a l s re p o rte d by a la r g e m a jo r ity o f te a c h e r s in d ic a te d
t h a t B edford County te a c h e rs were n o t draw ing from th e s e
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
J
I
-
91
m a te r ia l s a s much a s p o s s i b le .
-
Dr. A.M. Jarm an, in sp eak in g
o f th e sm a ll r u r a l s c h o o l, gave o w arning in re g a rd t o t h i s
in th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:
The whole community sh o u ld be c o n s id e re d i t s
la b o r a to r y . C e rta in ly i n th e way o f n a t u r a l th in g s ,
th e r u r a l sc h o o l has an i d e a l te a c h in g s i t u a t i o n a s
compured w ith th e c i ty s c h o o l. I t would, c o s t a c i t y
s c h o o l an enormous amount o f money to p ro v id e a la b o r a ­
to r y o f n a t u r a l th in g s t h a t e v e ry r u r a l sc h o o l has a l l
a b o u t i t . Too o f te n , how ever, th e r u r a l sc h o o l f a i l s
to make use o f th e n a t u r a l m a te r ia ls and p r e f e r s to
com plain th a t money can n o t be had to buy th e same th in g s
in a can.-*-15
An e f f o r t was made to d e te rm in e how a d e q u a te ly te a c h ­
in g m a t e r i a l s and f a c i l i t i e s were hud by a l l te a c h e r s .
Many
te a c h e r s f a i l e d to f i l l in th e answ ers to th e Question i n
r e g a rd to te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s .
T able XIV and T ab le XV re s p e c ­
t i v e l y , show th e adequacy o f s u p p lie s and how th e y were ob­
ta in e d .
a t M ontvale fo u r te a c h e r s had o n e - f o u rth o f th e n e c e s­
s a ry m a te r ia l s needed f o r th e y e a r , n in e hud o n e - h a lf , and
two iuid s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s .
These m a te r ia l s were o b ta in e d
th ro u g h th e sc h o o l fund by t h i r t e e n t e a c h e r s , th ro u g h th e
te a c h e rs * own s a l a r i e s b y 't h i r t e e n , and through p u p il dona^
t i o n s by tw e lv e .
T h is means, o f c o u rs e , t h a t one te a c h e r
m ight have drawn from a l l th r e e s o u rc e s , s in c e th e r e were
o n ly s ix te e n te a c h e r s in th e s c h o o l.
T each ers a t S te w a r ts v i ile who had o n e - f o u rth o f th e
n e c e s s a ry m a te r ia ls needed f o r th e y e a r were 6, th o s e who
had o n e - h a lf wore 2, and o n ly one was s u f f i c i e n t l y su p p lie d *
^ Ja rm a n ,
''Im proving th e S m all High S ch o o l” , U ni­
v e r s i t y o f V irg in ia Record E x ten sio n S e r ie s , Secondary M u c a -t i o n i n V ir g in ia . Humber 25, P . 16'*
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XIV
THE EXTENT TO WHICH TEACHERS OF THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS
HAVE TEACHING MATERIALS
Number T each­
e r s w ith o u t
m a te r ia l s
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v iile
Moneta
H u d d lesto n
New London
feoon'3boro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
fo re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
6
fT
o
0
0
0
Number T each ers
h a v in g o n ly £
o f n e c e s s a ry
te a c h in g m a te r­
ia l
Number T eache r s h av in g on­
ly ^ o f n e c e s­
s a ry te a c h in g
m a te ria l
Number T each­
e r s h av in g
s u ffic ie n t
m a te r ia l s
9
£
if
3
0
3
3
0
6
2
1
4
6
&
3
*1
0
0
£
t)
3
1
4
.
6
1
3
i
0
0
2
.........
6
0
0
0
6
------ ---
The number e q u iv a le n t to
th e number o f
te a c h e r s w ith
a d e q u a te sup­
p l i e s f o r one
year
*7.5
3 .5
3 .0
£ .5
1 .^ 5
3 .5
4 .5
£ .2 5
0
"0.75
0 .7 5
8 .5
NOTE: .T his t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s : At M ontvale th e number o f te a c h e r s with*
o u t te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s w ere n o n e, f o u r te a c h e r s had o n ly o n e - f o u r th o f n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s ,
n in e had o n e - h a lf o f n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s , two had s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l s . The e q u iv a le n t o f
7 .5 te a c h e r s had a d e q u a te s u p p lie s f o r one y ear*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XV
HOW TEACHERS SECURE SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS
FOR USE IN TEACHING
prohibited without perm ission.
From S chool From T e a c h e r’ s From P u p il From P a tro n From R e h a b il ita ­
Fund
own S a la ry
D o n atio n s O rganizations t i o n Fund
0
13
M ontvale
13
12
0
S te w a r t's v ilie
2
7
0
0
0
Moneta
Is
2
0
0
0
H u d d lesto n
3
0
0
■ 3
0
itfew London
5
0
3
1
0
tioonsboro
2
1
Cl
0
0
M arcuse'
1
" 9
1
.
0
o.
L ib e r ty
2
0
'
£
a
3
F o re st
0
1
0
6
6
B ro o k h ill
4
0
2
0
0
2
T haxton
2
0
0
0
ST
A ll O th ers
4
6
1
0
38
56
28
1
3
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s : At M ontvale t h i r t e e n te a c h e r s
o b ta in e d p a r t o f te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s th ro u g h sc h o o l fu n d s , t h i r t e e n from own s a l a r y ,
and tw e lv e th ro u g h p u p il d o n a tio n s , and none from p a tr o n o r g a n iz a tio n s .
-
94
-
These m a te r ia ls were o b ta in e d th ro u g h th e sc h o o l fund by two
te a c h e rs and th ro u g h th e t e a c h e r s ’ own s a l a r i e s by sev eh .
T eachers a t Moneta h av in g o n e -fo u rth o f n e c e s s a ry
m a te r ia ls nc?eded f o r th e y e a r were 2 , th o se hav in g o n e - h a lf
were 3, and th o se b ein g s u f f i c i e n t l y s u p p lie d were 7 .
These
m a te r ia ls were o b ta in e d th ro u g h th e sc h o o l fund by tw elv e and
th ro u g h th e t e a c h e r s ’ own s a l a r i e s by two.
T each ers a t H uddleston who hud none o f th e n e c e s s a ry
m a te r ia ls needed f o r th e y e a r was 1 , th o s e who had o n e -fo u rth
were 3 , and th o s e who had o n e - h a lf were 3 .
These m a te r ia ls
were o b ta in e d th ro u g h th e sc h o o l .fund by th r e e te a c h e r s and
th ro u g h p u p il d o n a tio n s by th r e e .
T each ers a t New London who had o n e - f o u rth o f n e c e s s a ry
!
m a te r ia ls needed f o r th e sc h o o l y e a r were v .
|
were o b ta in e d th ro u g h
These m a te r ia ls
th e s c h o o l fund by f i v e , th ro u g h p u p il
d o n a tio n by th r o e , and th ro u g h p a tr o n ’ s o r g a n iz a tio n by one.
T each ers a t M arcuse who had o n e - h a lf o f n e c e s s a ry ma­
t e r i a l s f o r th e sc h o o l y e a r w ere 3 and th o se who had s u f f i c i e n t
j
|
m a te r ia ls were t h r e e .
M a te r ia ls w ere o b ta in e d th ro u g h th e
sc h o o l fund by n in e , th ro u g h th e te a c h e r ’ s s a l a r y by one, and
th ro u g h p u p il d o n a tio n s by o n e.
T eachers a t L ib e r ty Academy who had o n e - f o u rth o f
n e c e ss a ry m a te r ia ls needed f o r th e y e a r were 9 .
|
t e r i a l s were o b ta in e d
These rna-
th ro u g h th e sc h o o l fund by tw o, th ro u g h
th e te a c h e r ’ s own s a la r y by tw o, and through p u p il d o n a tio n s
|
by e i g h t.
!
i
I
i
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
95
-
!
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T each ers a t F o re s t who had none o f th e n e c e s s a ry o a -
|
t o r i e l s f o r th e y e a r were th r o e .
!
i
!
T each ers a t B rooJchill who had o n e - f o u rth o f n e c e ss a ry
io a te r iu ls f o r t h e y e a r v/ere 3 .
These s u p p lie s were o b ta in e d
i
|
l
|
th ro u g h th e sc h o o l fund by
two rand th ro u g h te a c h e rs * own
s a l a r i e s by f o u r .
T each ers a t Thaxton h av in g o n e - f o u rth o f n e c e ssa ry
m a te r ia l s f o r th e y e a r was 1 and th o s e who had o n e - h a lf was
|
i
1.
M a te r ia ls were o b ta in e d th ro u g h th e sc h o o l fund by two
and th ro u g h p u p il d o n a tio n s by tw o.
T each ers in a l l o th e r sc h o o ls who hud o n e -fo u rth o f
n e c e s s a ry m a te ria la f o r th e s c h o o l y e a r v/ere 4 , th o s e who had
t
o n e - h a lf were 3 , and th o se who had s u f f i c i e n t m a te r ia ls were
0.
These m a te r ia l s were o b ta in e d th ro u g h sc h o o l funds by
fo u r and th ro u g h th e te a c h e r s * . ovm s a l a r i e s by sev en .
|
t
The te a c h in g o f m usic h as been em phasized i n th e c u r-
j
ric u lu m o f B edford C ounty.
T h is stu d y i n v e s tig a te d th e ex-
!
t e n t to which th e r e w ere a d e q u a te m a te r ia ls , and f a c i l i t i e s
j
f o r te a c h in g m u sic.
!
t h a t H u d d lesto n , l i b e r t y .Academy, T hax to n , and tw enty sm a ll
I t was fo u n d , a3 shown i n T able Z 7 I,
sc h o o ls u id n o t have a r a d io .
i
i
F o re s t had no song books.
jSigiiteen o f th e sm a ll sc h o o ls had no p ia n o , and. f i f t e e n had'
j
no v i c t r o l a .
M ontvale and.M oneta w ere th e o n ly sc h o o ls in
|
w hich 100 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s had u se o f r a d io , p ia n o ,
I
v i c t r o l a , and words and m usic o f so n g s.
.A lto g e th e r, s e v e n ty -
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XVI
THE NUMBER OF TEACHERS WHO HAVE ACCESS TO
CERTAIN FACILITIES FOR TEACHING MUSIC
V ic tr o la
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta
H u d d lesto n
New London
16
16
16
11
12
prohibited without perm ission.
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re s t
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
Bong Books
S h eet Music
16
12
IT
76
10
10
110
102
80
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to bo re a d a s f o llo w s : At M ontvale s ix t e e n te a c h e r s
had a c c e s s t o th e u se o f a r a d i o , s ix t e e n t o th e u se o f a p ia n o , s ix t e e n t o th e
u se o f a v i c t r o l a , and s ix t e e n to th e u se o f song books and s h e e t m u sic.
-
97
-
s i x te a c h e r s had th e u s 9 o f r a d io s , 110 had th e use o f p ia n o s ,
102 had th e u se o f v i e t r o l a s , and e ig h ty had th e use o f song
books•
Buiam arising, i t was found th a t fo u r te a c h e rs r e p o r te d
h av in g no te a c h in g s u p p lie s , 39 had o n e -fo u rth th e amount
n e c e s s a ry f o r th e y e a r, 27 had o n o -h a lf o f th e n e c e ss a ry
am ount, ana Uventy-one had s u f f i c i e n t m a te r ia l s .
I f a l l ma­
t e r i a l s hud been com bined, t h a t i s , i f t h i r t y - n i n e had been
d iv id e d by 4 , tw en ty -sev en by 2, and th e q u o tie n ts added to
tw en ty -o n e , th e r e s u l t s would hove been f o r ty - f o u r te a c h e r s
w ith s u f f i c i e n t te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s .
T eaching m a te r ia l s , a s
r e p o r te d by n in e ty -o n e te a c h e r s , were s u f f i c i e n t to th e ex­
t e n t o f 49 p e r c e n t i n B edford County s c h o o ls .
These m a te r­
i a l s w ere p ro v id ed th ro u g h sc h o o l funds f o r f i f t y - s i x te a c h e r s ,
th ro u g h te a c h e r s ’ own s a l a r i e s f o r t h i r t y - e i g h t te a c h e r s ,
th ro u g h p u p il d o n a tio n s f o r tw e n ty -e ig h t te a c h e r s , and th ro u g h
p a t r o n 's o r g a n iz a tio n f o r one te a c h e r .
Bchool funds were
aoom aulated by f e e s charged f o r e n te r ta in m e n ts , a t h l e t i c games,
and sc h o o l s to r e s o p e ra te d by most s c h o o ls .
These sc h o o l
s to r e s s o ld p e n c ils , p a p e r, in k , ic e -c re a m , candy, e t c .
A ll
p r i n c i p a l s in answer to th e q u e s tio n , " I s i t h ard to g e t money
neeued f o r buying th e n e c e s s a ry m a te r ia ls ? " , s a id "Very h a rd " .
,;11 \xore of th e o p in io n th a t th e sc h o o ls were becoming h ig h ly
com m ercialized and th a t a la r g e p a r t of. t h e i r tim e t h a t could
be used f o r s u p e rv is io n and a d m in is tr a tio n was being used to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
j
-
98
-
make a few p e n n ie s h e re and t h e r e .
N othing t h a t th e s c h o o ls
co u ld do would pay even a f a i r d iv id e n d compared to th e tim e
and work in v o lv e d .
A ll p r i n c i p a l s ex c ep t one b e lie v e d t h a t
th e d o o rs sh o u ld be opened f r e e to a l l p e rso n s f o r sc h o o l
program s o f c u l t u r a l v a lu e .
T h is one e x c e p tio n s a id t h a t he
would alw ays have an u n c o n tr o lla b le au d ien ce i f ad m issio n
w ere f r e e .
However, one co u ld ta k e th e p o in t o f view t h a t
an u n c o n tr o lla b le a u d ie n c e would be an e d u c a tio n a l o p p o rtu n ­
ity .
'
I t seemed t h a t n o t o n ly w ere m a te r ia ls s a d ly la c k in g
b u t th e moans o f g e t t i n g th o s e t h a t w ere had w ere u n s a t i s ­
fa c to ry .
I n sm a ll com m unities th e sc h o o l rev en u e g e n e r a lly
r e p r e s e n ts an im p o s itio n on a c e r t a i n g ro u p .
Some p eo p le f e e l
i t t h e i r d u ty t o s u p p o rt a l l program s o f th e school*
O th ers
|
a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d o r do n o t have th e money.
i n t h i s s tu d y .
The sc h o o l s t o r e s had caused c o n f l i c t s b e­
tween sc h o o ls and p e rs o n s i n th e com m unities.
j
T hat was t r u e
They had more
d isa d v a n ta g e s th a n a d v a n ta g e s.
j
!
!
C u rricu lu m .
in
-
nr
i
D uring th e l a s t seven y e a rs th e B edford
County s c h o o ls had a tte m p te d t o fo llo w th e su g g e ste d R evised
i
Course o f S tudy f o r V ir g in ia .
E lem entary and h ig h sc h o o l
|
te a c h e r s had been u rg ed to u se th e e n t i r e program f o r elem en-
!
t a r y g ra d e s and c o re c u rric u lu m , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A ll h ig h
sc h o o ls o f f e r e d f o u r u n i t s o f E n g lis h , fo u r u n i t s o f S o c ia l
S tu d ie s , two u n i t s o f L a ti n , P la n e and S o lid Geometry,
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
I
- 99 -
B u sin e ss A rith m e tic , G en eral M ath em atics, o r A lg eb ra, th r e e
u n i t s o f S c ie n c e , (A pplied S c ie n c e , B io lo g y , and C hem istry)*
In a d d itio n to th e s e M ontvale had P h y sic s and Home Econom ics,
S te w a r ts v I I le had Home Econom ics, New London had A g r ic u ltu r e
and Home Econom ics, and Boonsboro had Home Economics*
T h is
program o f s tu d ie s was o f f e r e d t o s tu d e n ts o f which l e s s th a n
10 p e r c e n t would e n te r c o lle g e .
A p a r t o f th e o th e r s s ta y
on farm s and th e r e s t f in d jo b s w herever th e y can .
S u p e rv is io n .
s u p e r v is o r .
B edford County employed one e le m e n ta ry
She was sc h ed u le d t o v i s i t each c o n s o lid a te d
sc h o o l one day ev ery two weeks and a rra n g e f o r and conduct one
c o n fe re n c e o f te a c h e rs d u rin g th e y e a r .
T h is c o n fe re n c e tvas
p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by e v e ry member o f th e p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l.
I
The s u p e rv is o r a ls o g iv e s d i r e c t i o n to th e la b o r a to r y s c h o o l,
|
L ib e r ty Academy.
T h is sc h o o l was p la n n ed t o se rv e a s a t r a i n ­
in g c e n te r f o r county te a c h e r s ,
E f f e c tiv e arran g em en ts had
n o t been worked o u t t o a llo w co u n ty te a c h e r s t o o b se rv e and
g e t f u l l b e n e f it o f th e program t h e r e .
I
i
The c h ie f tr o u b le
was In th e f a c t t h a t no p r o v is io n was made f o r th e t e a c h e r ’ s
work w h ile she was o b s e rv in g .
The c h i e f o b je c tiv e o f s u p e r-
|
v is i o n in th e co u n ty was to e s t a b l i s h th e R evised C ourse o f
|
I
|
S tudy f o r V ir g in ia .
I
c h a p te r th e t e a c h e r s ’ a n a ly s is o f d i f f i c u l t i e s and h e lp s and
No e f f o r t was made i n t h i s s tu d y to
d e te rm in e th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f s u p e r v is io n .
L a te r In t h i s
j
i
!
i!
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
100
-
th e e f f e c t iv e n e s s o f s u p e rv is io n w i l l bo in d ic a te d t o some
e x te n t.
T eaching Load,
a
s tu d y o f th e te a c h in g lo a d was made
by f i r s t d iv id in g th e te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l o f Bedford County
i n t o th r e e g ro u p s, th e p r i n c i p a l s , th e h ig h sc h o o l te a c h e r s ,
and th e elem e n tary t e a c h e r s .
te a c h in g lo a d was made;
A two-wuy com parison o f th e
a com parison among th e groups l i s t ­
ed above and a com parison among th e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o ls . A
com posite p i c t u r e o f th e s e com parisons i s g iv e n in T ab le XVII.
Bedford co u n ty te a c h e rs * c o n t r a c ts s t a t e d t h a t th e
te a c h e r s must be on d u ty a t th e s c h o o l one h a l f hour b e fo re
th e opening o f sc h o o l and one h a l f h o u r a f t e r c lo s in g .
The
sc h o o l day i s s i x h o u r s , th e r e f o r e , th e c o n tr a c te d sc h o o l
day f o r th e
te a c h e rs was seven h o u r s .
The r e f e r e n c e made in
t h i s stu d y to "o u t o f s c h o o l h o u rs ” means tim e o u ts id e th e
sev en hour c o n tr a c te d sc h o o l d ay.
A ll te a c h e rs i n a l l s c h o o ls had d u tie s common t o a l l ,
such a s p lay g ro u n d s u p e r v is io n , lu n c h s u p e r v is io n , s u p e rv is io n
o f lo a d in g and u n lo a d in g b u se s, e t c .
sc h o o l day o f seven h o u r s .
T h is was In o lu d ed i n th e
O th er s p e c i a l d u t i e s , such a s
co ach in g a t h l e t i c s , s p o n so rin g th e y e a r book o r sc h o o l p a p e r,
and d i r e c t i n g d r a m a tic s , th rew much more th a n th e av e ra g e
burden on some te a c h e r s .
I t must be remembered i n re a d in g
th e s e f ig u r e s on tim e s p e n t on sc h o o l work p e r day o u ts id e
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
THE TEACHING LOAD AND TIME SPENT FOR SCHOOL WORK
OUTSIDE OF CONTRACTED BiSVJiN HOUR SCHOOL DAY
prohibited without perm ission.
PRINCIPA]j
HIGH .SCHOOL TEACHER
ELEMENTARY TEACH®
Number A verage A verage Number A verage A verage P u p ilA verage
c la s s e s p u p i1h o u rs c l a s s e s p u p il- h o u rs
te a c h e r
h o u rs
h o u rs
spent
h o u rs
spent
R a tio
spent
o u ts id e
o u ts id e
o u ts id e
sc h o o l
sc h o o l
sc h o o l
day
day
day
97
3
1
35
3 -5
37
1 .5
1 .4
3 -5
1
23
3
46
"
“
3
1
5
2
60
119
3 .1
5
46
2 .3
Om<Z) '
li6
o
46
2
45
4
1 .8
g -4 -5 -6
7
29
i
31
116
$
2 .6
90
36
2
25
10
3^3
1 .5
I .i
2
5
125
47
3
1 .3
46
.3
-32
4
1 .8
36
2 .1
1 .3 '
26
4
3
3
43
1 .6
“ ”25'------- ~~T7t—
.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta
H u d d lesto n
New London
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re s t
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s ; At M ontvale th e p r i n c i p a l had
one c la s s ,, t h i r t y - f i v e on r o l l , and sp e n t th r e e h o u rs o u ts id e o f s c h o o l on sc h o o l
w ork. The h ig h s c h o o l te a c h e r s had from th r e e to f i v e c l a s s e s , an a v e ra g e o f n in e ty seven p u p il h o u rs , and s p e n t an a v e ra g e o f one and one h a l f h o u rs on sc h o o l work o u t­
s id e o f s c h o o l. The e le m e n ta ry te a c h e r s had an a v e ra g e p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o o f
t h i r t y - s e v e n and s p e n t an a v e ra g e o f one and f o u r t e n t h s h o u rs on sc h o o l work o u t­
s id e , o f s c h o o l.
-TOT
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XVII
-
1 0 2
-
sc h o o l h o u rs t h a t th e work o f a few t e a c h e r s , ap p ro x im a tely
two in each s c h o o l, a c c o u n ts f o r a la r g e p a r t o f th e av e ra g e
tim e s p e n t.
E leven te a c h e r s o f th e 130 in d ic a te d no tim e
sp e n t o u ts id e o f s c h o o l.
A ll s c h o o ls had f i v e h o u rs i n s t r u c t i o n p e r d ay.
In
a l l sc h o o ls e x c e p t New London, which had s i x , th e r e were
f iv e c l a s s p e r io d s .
Each te a c h e r had f i v e c l a s s e s ex cep t th e
v o c a tio n a l t e a c h e r s , who u s u a lly had t h r e e .
At New London
th e A g r ic u ltu r e te a c h e r had two c la s s e s and th e Home Economics
te a c h e r had f o u r .
The a v e ra g e tim e s p e n t on sc h o o l work o u ts id e sch o o l
h o u rs by a l l p r i n c i p a l s was 4 .3 h o u rs , by a l l h ig h sc h o o l
te a c h e r s was 2 .0 5 h o u rs , and by a l l elem e n tary te a c h e r s was
1 .9 h o u r s .
The a v e ra g e tim e s p e n t on s c h o o l work o u ts id e
sc h o o l h o u rs f o r th e t o t a l te a c h in g p e rs o n n e l was 2 .1 9 h o u rs .
T h is , added to th e seven h o u r c o n tra c te d d a y , made 9.1 9 hours
s p e n t p e r day on s c h o o l w ork.
C ost o f I n s t r u c t i o n .
F u rth e r s ig n i f ic a n c e In re g a rd
to th e te a c h in g lo a d o f th e v a rio u s sc h o o ls was found In th e
p e r c a p ita c o s t o f i n s t r u c t i o n .
The p e r c a p ita c o s t , as
shown in T ab le X V III, f o r h ig h sc h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n l i s t e d in
o rd e r from lo w est to h ig h e s t was:
Moneta $ 2 5 .1 7 , H uddleston
$ 3 3 .4 0 , M ontvale $.34.60, M arcuse $ 3 5 .7 8 , New London $ 3 7 .9 8 ,
S te w a r ts v i lle $ 4 2 .6 3 , and Boonsboro $ 5 1 .7 3 .
The p e r c a p ita
c o s t o f e le m e n ta ry i n s t r u c t i o n l i s t e d i n o r d e r from lo w est to
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
TABLE XVIII
PER CAPITA COST OP INSTRUCTION
FOR THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS
M ontvale
S te w a r ts v i lle
Moneta
H uddlesto n
New London
Boohsb'oro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
Por'est'
B rookhi 1"1
T haxton
A ll O thers
High School
834.60
4 2 .6 3
25.17 .
35.40
37.98
' 51.73
55'. 78
• E lem entary
#19.58
15.00
1 7 .0 4
18.91
3 0 . 8d
34.07
19 . 36
B4.17
S I. 7b
1 5 .0 4
21.60
NOTE; T h is ta b le i s to be read as fo llo w s : At Mont­
v a le th e p e r c a p ita c o s t o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r h ig h sc h o o l was
#34.60 and f o r elem e n tary sc h o o l # 1 9 .5 8 .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
-
h ig h e s t was:
104
-
S te w a r ts v i lle $ 1 5 .0 0 , T haxton $ 1 5 .9 4 , Moneta
$ 1 7 .0 4 , H u d d lesto n 1 1 8 .9 1 , Marcuse $ 1 9 .3 6 , M ontvale $19*58,
a l l o th e r s c h o o ls $ 3 1 ,6 0 , J o r e s t 4 2 1 .7 5 , B ro o k h lll $ 2 2 .7 7 ,
L ib e r ty $24*17, New London $ 3 0 .8 9 , and Baonsboro $ 3 4 .0 7 ,
The p e r c a p ita c o a t o f elem e n tary i n s t r u c t i o n a t Boonsboro
i
was o v er tw ic e t h a t o f S t e w a r t s v i l l e , T hax to n , o r M oneta.
Coaching P ro b lem s.
The problem su rro u n d in g a t h l e t i c s
was a n o th e r c o n s id e r a tio n to be made i n c o n n e c tio n w ith te a c h ­
in g lo a d .
Lack o f p ro p e r p e rs o n n e l f o r co ach in g and s u p e rv is ­
in g a t h l e t i c s was v o iced i n most a l l o f th e s c h o o ls .
One
p r i n c i p a l s t a t e d , "Bvery sc h o o l sh o u ld have good coaches f o r
b o th boys and g i r l s .
The p u p ils who a r e n o t ta u g h t how to
p la y and th o r u l e s o f th e game have no b a s is on which to
j
b u ild good sp o rtcin h n sh ip . ,r
The id e a was n o t to employ p r o f e s s io n a l coaches w ith
h ig h e r p a y , b u t to s e l e c t in d iv id u a ls e s p e c i a l l y s u it e d f o r
t h i s p h ase o f th e sc h o o l program .
|
I t was h a rd t o f in d p e rso n s
who would ta k e th e s p e c ia l i n t e r e s t needed i n s p o r ts when th e y
w ere employed a s te a c h e r s and g iv e n a f u l l day o f te a c h in g b e-
|
s id e s th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f co a c h in g , g e t t i n g o f f i c i a l s f o r
|
gam es, p r o v id in g tr a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r team s, b ein g o ccupied
w ith games two days a week- r e q u ir in g a t l e a s t f i v e hours ea ch ,
and In some c a s e s h av in g to r a i s e th e money to fin a n c e th e
j
s p o rts .
The te a c h e r s in charge o f a t h l e t i c s w ere p u t to an
;
|
Ii
e x tr a ex p en se’ i n h av in g t o pay f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to games
!
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-
away from home.
105
-
I n two sc h o o ls o f th e co u n ty , Moneta and
New London, th e p r i n c i p a l s were r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e d u tie s
o f p r i n c i p a l , ta u g h t two c l a s s e s , and assumed th e a t h l e t i c
d u tie s m entioned ab o v e.
The p o s it io n o f coach d e s e rv e s th e c o n s id e r a tio n o f
b e in g g iv e n a re a s o n a b le te a c h in g lo a d .
The c h ild r e n In h i s
c l a s s e s need c o n s id e r a tio n to t h a t e x te n t, s in c e i t i3 im­
p o s s ib le f o r them to have a te a c h e r f u l l y p re p a re d f o r c l a s s
work each d ay .
The p o s i t i o n o f s p o r t a c t i v i t y i n th e sc h o o l
j u s t i f i e s a s much c o n s id e r a tio n i n s e le c tin g th e coach a s i n
s e l e c t i n g a language te a c h e r .
A th le tic s o f f e r a broad and
r i c h f i e l d o f o p p o r tu n itie s f o r good te a c h in g .
C u b b erley ,
to some d e g re e , em phasises th e p o in t in th e fo llo w in g s t a t e ­
m ent:
Whether o r n o t th e r e a r e t o be in te r - s c h o o l con­
t e s t s i s to be d e c id ed alm o st w holly on th e ground o f
r e s u l t s th e y g iv e . I n American sc h o o ls th e s e c o n te s ts
do n o t have to be s tim u la te d . They a r e th e most h ig h ly
m o tiv a te d a c t i v i t i e s we h a v e . What i s needed i s g u id ­
ance and r e s t r a i n t , anu th e d i r e c t i o n ol* th e s p o r t im­
p u ls e in to good c h a n n e ls . L ike alm o st any o th e r h ig h ly
u s e f u l In stru m e n t f o r s e r v ic e , i f n o t looked a f t e r
c a r e f u l l y I t g iv e s v e ry u n d e s ira b le r e s u l t s . I f th e
r i g h t k in d o f s u p e rv is io n and c o n tr o l i s g iv e n to th e
i n t e r - c l a s s and i n t e r - s c h o o l c o n te s ts th e y form e x c e lle n t
t o o l s . f o r th e developm ent o f f in e manly q u a l i t i e s i n
th e p u p i l s . No p e o p le have se cu red b e t t o r r e s u l t s w ith
s p o r ts in t h i s r e s p e c t th a n have th e E n g lish . W ithout
th e r i g h t ty p e o f s u p e rv is io n and c o n tr o l th e s e con­
t e s t s a r e alm o st c e r t a i n to b r in g harm to th e p u p ils and
to th e s c h o o l.14
14C u b b erley , E .P . The P r i n c i p a l and H is S chool (B o ston:
Houghton M if f lin C o., 1923T ~P . 544
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
M isplacem ent o f T e a c h e rs.
3peola 1 p r e p a r a tio n f o r
te a c h in g s p e c if ic g rad es and s p e c ia l p r e p a r a tio n f o r te a c h -
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la g ono-room sc h o o ls w ith seven g ra d e s lias been lo n g recom­
mended by e d u c a to r s .
The a d v i s a b i l i t y o f t h i s seems re a s o n ­
a b le .
Among th e 130 te a c h e rs In B edford County i t was found
t h a t f i f t e e n who p re p a re d to te n c h h ig h sc h o o l s u b je c ts wore
te a c h in g in th e g r a d e s , sev en who p re p a re d f o r p rim ary work
w ere te a c h in g i n th e uxjpor elem en tary g ra d e s , and th r e e
o th e r s w ere te a c h in g g ra d e s f o r w hich th e y d id n o t p r e p a r e .
A lto g e th e r , th e r e were t h i r t y g rad e m isp lacem en ts o f te a c h ­
e r s o r a p p ro x im a te ly 23 p e r c e n t o f a l l th e te a c h e r s .
Only
e i g h t o f th e s e m isp lacem en ts w ere found i n th e one and two
room s c h o o ls .
A tte n d an ce , F a i l u r e , and R e ta r d a tio n .
A tte n d a n c e , f a i l - j
u r s and r e t a r d a t i o n a r c im p o rta n t f a c t o r s In d e te rm in in g te a c h ­
in g c o n d itio n s .
T able ;CI;C g iv e s a stu d y o f th e s e f a c t o r s f o r
B edford County s c h o o ls .
The p e rc e n ta g e o f a tte n d a n c e and f a i l u r e f o r h ig h
sc h o o l s tu d e n ts
and p e rc e n ta g e o f a tte n d a n c e , p e rc e n ta g e o f
r e t a r d a t i o n , and av erag e y e a rs r e ta r d e d f o r g ra d e p u p ils were
s tu d ie d .
The a tte n d a n c e f o r h ig h s c h o o l d ep artm en ta l i s t e d
In o r d e r from lo w est to h ig h e s t-w a s : {1} g t e w a r t s v i i l s , 87 p e r
c e n t, (2) H u d d lesto n , 9 0 .3 p e r c e n t, (3) Hew London, 9 2 .3 p e r
c e n t, (4} M ontvale, 93 p e r c e n t, (5) M oneta, 9 4 .5 p e r c e n t,
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.
R eproduced w ith perm ission o f the copyright owner. F urther reproduction prohibited w itho ut perm ission.
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PERCENTAGE OF ATTENDANCE, FAILURE,
AND RETARDATION IN THE VARIOUS SCH )OLS
HIGH SCHOOL
P e r c e n ta g e
of
A tten d a n ce
M ontvale
S t e w a r t s v i ll e
Moneta
H u d d lesto n
New London
B oonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r t y
F o rest
B r o o ic h ill
T haxton
A i l O th ers
-
93
87
94.5
90.3
9 2.3"'
95
9 u .5
ELEM1NTARY
.............
Ret ara ed
P e r c e n ta g e P e r c e n ta g e ‘?er~ A verage
of
of
oentyears
fa ilu r e
A tten d a n ce age
2
90 .6
44
2 .2
3
17.6'
0 .8
9 .7
8 .4
9
91.2
91.6
' 8 b .3 “ '
89.3'
9 0 .7
94
6 5 .3
91 .1
90 .6
92
V 1■“ ----
35
294
3(1
49
44
41
39
“37
38
48
42
2 .0 4
2 .6 2
1 .3 6
1 .8 6
1 .3 3
2 .4 2
1 .7 2
2 .1 4
1 .6 3
1 .5 4
2 .3 8
^ In fo rm a tio n n o t a v a i l a b l e .
NOTE: T h is t a b le i s to be re a d a s fo llo w s : At M ontvale
th e r e was a 93 p e r c e n t a tte n d a n c e and a 2 p e r c e n t f a i l u r e in
h ig h s c h o o l, and in e lem e n tary sc h o o l th e r e was a 90 .6 p e r c e n t
a tte n d a n c e , a 44 p e r c e n t r e t a r d a t i o n w ith an a v e ra g e o f two
and two te n th s y e a rs r e t a r d a t i o n .
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108
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(6) Boonsboro, 95 p e r c e n t, and (7) M arcuse, 9 5 .5 p e r c e n t.
The p e rc e n ta g e o f f a i l u r e s f o r th e h ig h sc h o o l d ep artm en ts
ran k ed in o r d e r from lo w est to h ig h e s t w ere: (1) H ud d lesto n
I
.8 p e r c e n t, (2) M ontvale 2 p e r c e n t, (3) S te w a r ts v i lle 3
p e r c e n t, {4} Buonsboro 6 .4 p e r c e n t, (5) Marcuse 9 p e r c e n t,
(5) Mew London 9 .7 p e r c e n t, and (7) llo n eta 1 7 .6 p a r c e n t.
T here was a d e c id e d b reak between th e lo w e s t u h ree and th e
h ig h e s t f o u r .
T h is in d ic a te d a wide d if f e r e n c e i n ad m in is­
t r a t i v e and s u p e rv is o ry p o l i c i e s .
t
Based on ag e s a t th e opening o f sc h o o l th e r e w ere two
p o s s ib le norxaal a g e s f o r each g ra d e .
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The sc h o o l board r u lin g
was t h a t a c h ild co u ld e n te r s c h o o l i n Septem ber f o r th e f i r s t
i
tim e i f he were seven y e a rs o ld by th e f i r s t o f F eb ru ary ,
t h e r e f o r e , a c h i ld s i x o r seven y e a rs o ld a t th e f i r s t o f th e
sc h o o l y e a r co u ld be a mexaber o f th e f i r s t g ra d e , a c h ild
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seven o r e i g h t y e a rs o ld co u ld be a member o f th e second g rad e,
!
,
;
e tc .
I n t h i s 3tudy a l l p u p ils above th e two norm al ag es were
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c o n s id e re d r e ta r d e d .
The p e rc e n ta g e o f r e ta r d e d p u p ils and
th e a v e ra g e y e a rs o f r e t a r d a t i o n f o r th e s c h o o ls w ere: tt6 n tv a le 44 p e r c e n t r e ta r d e d a t a n a v e ra g e o f 2 .2 y e a r s , S te w a rts ­
v i l l e 35 p e r c e n t a t a n av e ra g e o f 2 .0 4 y e a r s , Moneta 2 9 .4
p e r c e n t a t a n a v e ra g e o f 2 .6 2 y e a r s , H ud d lesto n 30 p e r c e n t
a t an a v e ra g e o f 1 .6 6 y e a r s , Hew London 49 p e r c e n t a t an
a v e ra g e o f 1 .8 8 y e a r3 , Boonsboro 44 p e r c e n t a t an av e ra g e o f
1 .5 6 y e a r s , M arcuse 41 p e r c e n t a t an av e ra g e o f 2 .4 3 y e a r s ,
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L ib e rty 39 p e r c e n t* u t an a v e ra g e o f 1.72 y e a r s , F o re s t 3 .7
p e r c e n t a t an av e ra g e o f 2 .1 4 y e a r s , B ro o k h ill 38 p e r c e n t
a t an av e ra g e o f 1 .0 6 y e a r s , T haxton 48 p e r c e n t a t a n a v e r]
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ag e o f 1 .8 4 y e a r s , and a l l o th e r sc h o o ls 42 p e r c e n t a t an
a v e ra g e o f 2 .3 8 y e a r s .
The i r r e g u l a r i t y in th e s e f ig u r e s
was n o t a s g r e a t a s t h a t f o r th e h ig h s c h o o ls .
Compared to
th e f a c t t h a t 50 p e r c e n t r e ta r d e d a t an av e ra g e o f two y e a rs
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would mean t h a t th e r e would be one y e a r r e t a r d a t i o n f o r each
i
child enrolled, most schools would 3©em to have high percent-
ii
ag e o f o v e r-a g e p u p i l s .
F o r exam ple, M ontvale w ith 44 p e r
c e n t r e ta r d e d a t a n a v e ra g e age o f 2 .2 y e a rs would have one
y e a r r e t a r d a t i o n f o r 9 6 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e e n r o lle d p u p i l s .
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t/ith t h i s im p ro v ised method th e sc h o o ls ranJsed a c c o rd in g to
r e t a r d a t i o n from lo w e st to h ig h e s t w ere:
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(1) H u d d lesto n 4 9 .8
p e r c e n t, (2) B ro o k h ill 6 3 .0 8 p e r c e n t, (3) L ib e rty 67 .0 8 p e r
i
c e n t, (4) Boonsboro 68 .6 4 p e r c e n t, (5) S te w a r ts v i lle 7 1 .4
i
p e r c e n t, (6) Moneta 7 7 .0 3 p e r c a n t, (7) Thaxton 78 .3 2 p e r
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c e n t, (8) F o re s t 7 9 .1 8 p e r c e n t, (9) Hew London 8 9 .4 1 p e r
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c e n t, (10} M ontvale 9 6 .8 p e r c e n t , (11) M arcuse 99 .2 2 p e r
c e n t, (12) .All o th e r s c h o o ls 99.9 6 p e r c e n t.
The amount o f
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r e t a r d a t i o n , a s shown h e r e , f o r a l l sm a ll sc h o o ls and M arcuse
'
was ap p ro x im a tely tw ic e a s g r e a t a s th a t f o r H u d d lesto n .
L is te d in o rd e r from lo w est to th e h ig h e s t th e p e r c e n t­
ag e s o f a tte n d a n c e f o r th e elem e n tary d ep artm en ts w ere: (1)
i
H udd lesto n 8 7 .3 p e r c e n t, (2) L ib e r ty 8 8 .3 p e r c e n t, (3) Hew |
,{
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110
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London 8 9 .3 p e r c e n t, (4) B ro o k h ill 90 .6 p e r c e n t, (5) Montv a le 9 0 .6 p e r e e n t (6) Boonsboro 90 .7 p o r c e n t, (7) F o re s t
9 1 .1 p e r c e n t (8) S te w a r ts v i lle 9 1 .2 p e r c e n t, (9) Moneta
9 1 .6 p e r c e n t, (10) Thaxton 92 p e r c e n t,
(11) M arcuse 94 p e r
cent.-*-^
T hese f ig u r e s show l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p between
a tte n d a n c e and f n i l u r e , o r between equipm ent and te a c h in g ma­
t e r i a l s and f a i l u r e , e x c e p t i n th e sm a ll s c h o o ls .
H u d d lesto n ,
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a s shown i n th e stu d y o f p la n t and te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s , one o f
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sc h o o l i n th e cpu n ty ran k ed f a r le a s i n f a i l u r e and r e t a r d a t i o n
I1
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th a n even th e s c h o o l n ex t lo w est In r e t a r d a t i o n .
th e p o o r e s t equipped i f n o t th e p o o r e s t eq u ip p ed c o n s o lid a te d
Two th in g s were c l e a r l y in d ic a t e d .
F i r s t , a thorough
program o f s u p e rv is io n was needed t o b r in g ab o u t a thorough
u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e sc h o o l program on th e p a r t o f p r i n c i p a l s
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and t e a c h e r s , and second, a b ro a d e r c u rric u lu m o f f e r in g more.
1
i
o p p o r tu n iti e s , such as shop work and a g r i c u l t u r e , was needed
■
t o h o ld r e ta r d e d p u p ils in s c h o o l. For exam ple, Moneta had
2 9 .4 p e r c e n t r e t a r d a t i o n a t an. a v e ra g e o f 2 .6 2 y e a r s , w hich
meant t h a t , compared w ith f ig u r e s from o th e r s c h o o ls , few er
j
p u p ils w ere r e t a r d e d . These p u p ils
lio were f a r beh in d
i
th e ones who drop o ut o f sc h o o l b e fo re g e t t i n g a n y th in g w o rth
w hile..
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]
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.
,
rr -
^ I n f o r m a t io n n o t a v a ilu b lo f o r sm a ll s c h o o ls .
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R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
are -
P u p il R ecords.
f i r s t be known.
I f th e p u p il i s to be ta u g h t he must
Knowledge o f h i s n e e d s, i n t e r e s t s , and s u r ­
ro u n d in g s sh o u ld be th e s t a r t i n g p o in t f o r ev ery te a c h e r .
I n d iv id u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s im p o s sib le w ith o u t f u l l d a ta con­
c e rn in g th e in d iv i d u a l.
G r i z z e ll h as s a i d :
I t i s o n ly th ro u g h c a r e f u l l y p la n n ed I n d iv id u a l
program s c o n s ta n tly ad a p ted t o th e n eed s and i n t e r e s t s
o f th e le a r n e r i n h i s p ro g re s s th ro u g h sc h o o l fc|p t one
can hope to develop an in te g r a te d p e r s o n a l i t y . 1®
In a d d itio n he s a id :
The sc h o o l sh o u ld be l a r g e l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e
g a th e r in g o f d a ta co n c ern in g i n t e r e s t s and n eed s o f a l l
th e young p e o p le in th e com m unity.17
Cox and L a u g f itt em phasize th e t a s k b e fo re u s w ith
t h i s s ta te m e n t:
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The ta s k o f th e seco n d ary s c h o o l i s to be d i s cov ered f i r s t o f a l l in a c a r e f u l stu d y o f th e q u e s tio n :
Who a r e h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s ? 18
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Many s ta te m e n ts from le a d in g e d u c a to rs co u ld be g iv e n
em phasizin g th 8 im p o rtan ce o f com plete in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g
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p u p i l s and community.
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The te a c h e r s o f B edford County w ere ask ed i f th e y had
s u f f i c i e n t p u p il re c o rd s to a i d them i n t h e i r te a c h in g .
Only
16< * riz z e ll, JE.D.: Am erican Secondary E d u c a tio n , Hew
Y ork: Thomas N elson and Sons, IS S ?,
75.
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17I b i d , P . 133
18Cox, P . W. L . and L a u g f i t t , R. C. Hi^h S chool ^d raln iat r a t l o n and S u p e rv is io n : New Y ork: American Book Company, 1934
P . 301.
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R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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1 1 2
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in th e l a s t few y e a rs had any sc h o o l begun keep in g any p u p il
r e c o rd s ex c ep t s c h o la s t ic r e c o r d s .
The n e c e s s a ry p u p il r e ­
c o rd s were n o t com plete i n any s c h o o l.
The answ ers from th e
te a c h e r s were h ig h ly i n d ic a t iv e o f th e f a c t t h a t th e y d id n o t
r e a l i z e th e f u l l v a lu e o f p u p il r e c o r d s .
Guidance depends on th e s e r e c o r d s .
Guidance in th e
co unty was v ery lim ite d and p u re ly i n c i d e n t a l — in c id e n t a l
i n th e se n se t h a t i t went seco n d ary to i n s t r u c t i o n o r m erely
i n th e form o f o c c a s io n a l a d v ic e from te a c h e r s o r p r i n c i p a l s .
T here was no g u id an ce o r g a n iz a tio n i n any s c h o o l.
D is c ip lin e .
D is c ip lin e i s ah a r c h a ic term to u s e , b u t
i t was th o u g h t t h a t i t would have a more common meaning to
th e te a c h e r s q u e s tio n e d .
In th e o ld meaning d i s c i p l i n e i s a
d i s r u p tio n o f o r d e r ly p ro c e d u re s by in d iv id u a l o r in d iv i d u a ls .
I n th e modern m eaning conduct I s a c c e p te d a s a v i t a l p a r t o f
t h a t which I s to be ta u g h t and I s ap proached from a c o n s tru e -,
t i v e a n g le a s a r ith m e tic o r o th e r c la a sw o rk .
Methods o f c o r­
r e c t i o n o f con d u ct r e q u ir e more u n d e rsta n d in g and a re l e s s
m e ch an ical and a b s t r a c t .
D is c ip lin e i n t h i s stu d y was u n d ersto o d t o be more o r
l e s s th e o ld c o n c e p tio n o f d i s c i p l i n e .
T ab le X3SI g iv e s a com­
p a r is o n o f t h i s problem among th e s c h o o ls .
D is c ip lin e was a
p roblem to e ig h ty -tw o o f th e 130 te a c h e r s .
T here were o n ly
s i x w ith whom i t was v e ry much o f a problem .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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TABLE XX
THE EXTENT TO WHICH DISCIPLINE WAS A HINDRANCE TO TEACHING
IN THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS
None
M ontvale
S te w a r ts v iile
Moneta
H u d d leston
New London
Boonsbbro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
E o r e st
B ro o k b iiii
Thaxton
i i l l O thers
---------------T ~t a l ............. ........- ■
4
o
6
B .
6
b ■
6
9
1
2
' 1
a
48
oome •
Very Much
12
5
6
0
7
6lJ
1
' ’uiT
*"’ 1
0
b
0
'0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
"2
6
“1
2
4
*
nr ■
76
”
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NOTE: Thin t a b le i s t o be read a s follo>v3: At lio n t v a le ,
a c c o r d in g t o te a c h e r an sw ers to q u e s t io n n a ir e s , d i s c i p l i n e p r o blem s h in d e re d fo u r te a c h e r s ’’n o n e” , tw e lv e te a c h e r s ’'some” , and
none ”v e r y much” .
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H in d ran ce s and H elps to T each in g .
The te a c h e r s were
g iv e n an o p p o r tu n ity to p ic k th e h ig h s p o ts o f te a c h in g con­
d i t i o n s i n B edford C ounty.
T h is was done by h av in g them l i s t
th e g r e a t e s t and n e x t g r e a t e s t h in d ra n c e s to t h e i r te a c h in g
!
and th e g r e a t e s t and n e x t g r e a t e s t h e lp s t o t h e i r te a c h in g .
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T a b le s XXL and XXII c o n ta in th e l i s t s o f th e s e h in d r a n e e s , an d th e fre q u e n c y o f ea ch , a s th e y were g iv e n by th e
te a c h e r s .
The f i v e h in d ra n c e s w ith th e g r e a t e s t fre q u en cy
'
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w ere s e le c te d from b o th l i s t s com bined, and ran k ed i n o rd e r o f
i
t h e i r f re q u e n c ie s f o r b o th l i s t s from h ig h e s t t o lo w e s t.
They
[
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w ere:
(1) Lack o f m a t e r i a l s , 4 8;
(8) Too many p u p i l s , 38;
(3) Lack o f equipm ent, 10; (4) M u ltip le g r a d e s , 7 ; (5) Low
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s a l a r y , 6 ; {6) Too many d u t i e s , 6 ; (7) Lack o f r e f e r e n c e ma­
t e r i a l s , 5 ; (8) P u p ils la c k p r e p a r a tio n , 4 .
I
!
In m ost in s ta n c e s
th e s e r e s u l t s s u b s t a n tia te d p re v io u s f in d in g s and d is c u s s io n s
i
o f t h i s p a p e r.
A ll sc h o o ls c o n trib u te d h e a v ily to th e ite m ,
|
" la c k o f m o t e r i a l s " , ex c ep t M ontvale and M oneta.
These two
I
sc h o o ls showed a c o m p a ra tiv e ly good su p p ly o f m a te ria ls} -9
M ontvale, S t e w a r t s v i i l e , M oneta, and T h ax to n , c o n tr ib u te d
h e a v ily t o " to o many p u p i l s " .
A ll th e s e s c h o o ls e x c e p t Mont­
v a le 20 show a p u p il- te a c h e r r a t i o o v er f o r t y .
H ud d lesto n ,
M arcuse, and a l l sm a ll sc h o o ls c o n tr ib u te d h e a v ily to " la c k o f
eq u ip m en t".
I
|
I
j
j
T h is compared f a v o ra b ly w ith th e above stu d y o f
th e sc h o o l p l a n t s .
- -
-
—
—
-
The sm a ll s c h o o ls c o n tr ib u te d most to
-— —
19See T able XIV
20See T ab le XVII
I
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
GREATEST HINDRANCES TO BETTER TEACHING AS LISTED BY TEACHERS
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TABLE XXI
T ea ch ers:
prohibited without perm ission.
Lack p r e p a r a tio n
Lack c o r r e c t n e s s o f sp eech
Lack s e lf - c o n f id e n c e
Lack e x p e rie n c e
Lack a b i l i t y t o o rg a n iz e
Lack a b i l i t y to u n d e rs ta n d ’ c h ild r e n
: Lack modern m ethods
Lack good h e a l t h
P e rso n a l lim ita tio n s
P u p ils :
Lack i n t e r e s t
O verage
Slow
Lack fu n d a m e n ta ls
Lack home t r a i n i n g
M is c e lla n e o u s :
Lack la b o r a to r y equipm ent
Too many p u p ils
Lack m a te r ia l s
Lack books
L iv in g c o n d itio n s
io o many d u tie s
Lack equipm ent
S chool p la n t
1
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29
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
prohibited without perm ission.
Lack e x p e rie n c e
Lack a b i l i t y to o rg a n iz e
Lack a b i l i t y to understand! c h ild r e n
_ Lack modern m ethods
Lack good h e a l t h
P e rso n a l lim ita tio n s
P u p ils :
Lack i n t e r e s t
O verage
Slow
Lack fu n d am e n tals
Lack kome t r a i n i n g
M is c e lla n e o u s :
Lack la b o r a to r y equipm ent
To!o many p u p ils
Lack m a te r ia l s
Lack books
L iv in g c o n d itio n s
fo o many d u tie s
la c k equipm ent
Sc&ool p la n t
N oisy r a d i a t o r
" O rg a n iz a tio n
M u ltip le g ra d e s
Low s a l a r y
A rrangem ent o f rooms
Lack r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s
Lack tim e
Lack money f o r h ig h e r e d u c a tio n
F o ld in g d o o rs
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NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s ; T e a c h e rs w ere ask ed i n a q u e s tio n n a ir e
t o l i s t th e g r e a t e s t h in d ra n c e to b e t t e r te a c h in g . At M ontvale one t e a c h e r 1s g r e a t e s t h in ­
d ran ce was " la c k c o r r e c t n e s s o f s p e e c h " , one " la c k 3 e l f - c o n f id e n c e " , two " p u p il la c k i n t e r ­
e s t " , e t c . f o r th e o th e r ite m s l i s t e d .
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’’m u ltip le g r a d e s " .
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T h is s u b s t a n t i a t e s th e d is c u s s io n on pages
co n cern in g s p e c ia l t r a i n i n g f o r o n e -te a c h e r sc h o o ls and
|
!
te a c h e r m isp lac em e n ts.
Boonsboro c o n tr ib u te d to "low s a l a r i e s ”
and Moneta and M arcuse to "to o many d u t i e s " .
c a se were a p p ro x im a te ly lo w est in p e r c a p ita c o s t o f i n s t r u e -
(
tio n .
|
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Moneta and Mar-
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tw en ty te a c h e r s i n sm a ll s c h o o ls ? 1
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There ware o n ly s i x s e t s o f e n c y c lo p e d ia s among th e
No d e f i n i t e s ig n if ic a n c e
can be a tta c h e d to ’’p u p il lu c k o f p r e p a r a tio n ” .
T ab les XXIII and XXIV r e s p e c t i v e l y , g iv e th e g r e a t e s t
and n e x t g r e a t e s t h e lp s l i s t e d by te a c h e r s .
The f i v e Item s
|
w ith th e h ig h e s t f re q u e n c ie s were th e same in b o th l i s t s .
!
These two l i s t s combined and ranked from g r e a t e s t t o lo w est
;
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h e lp w ere:
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(1) C o o p e ra tio n o f te a c h e r s , 57;
(2) M upervision,
2o; (3) A ttitu d e o f p u p i l s , C4; (4) C ooperation, o f p a tr o n s , 21;
and (5) L ib r a r y , 9 . .
Many o f th e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s and
h e lp s a s l i s t e d by th e
te a c h e r s seemed t o be more o r l e s s on th e s u r f a c e .
th in g s t h a t m ight be e lim in a te d w ith
e f f o r t were l i s t e d .
"Lack o f te a c h e r
T riv ia l
some I n i t i a t i v e and
p r e p a r a tio n ” , la c k o f
c o r r e c tn e s s o f sp e e c h ” , ’’p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s ” , e t c . , m ight have been overcome by i n i t i a t i v e and w ork.
I
|
.
Many te a c h e r s a l s o ,
m ight have d is c o v e re d t h a t i n i t i a t i v e would have g o t more
2 l See T able X I I I , P . 88.
I
|
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prohibited without perm ission.
T each er c o n fe re n c e s
— ^ n tr s r re s tr ln w rfc '— .................... ...........
— T e a c b ln g - a a s e r ia l s —.....
..... .....—
— V erggt±le~~pragr5ia
------------ ---------— fixperterruer” -------- -- ---- — ..... "" ■
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— R e v ise d ~cours-g“rrf ~ stu d y------ ■ ---------— F u p tl—i n t e r e s t ----------------------— u cn o o l p l a n t — ---------One g ra d e p e r te a c h e r
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O o se rv a tio n
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L iv in g c o n d itio n s
P a tie n c e w ith c h i ld r e n
T o le ra n c e
Home v i s i t a t i o n
M eeting n eed s o f c h ild r e n
• P r o f e s s io n a l r e a d in g
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TABLJS XXIII
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Love f o r c h i ld r e n
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S u p e rv is io n
P u p il r e c o r d s
T each er c o n fe re n c e s
D ir e c t te a c h in g
C o o p e ra tio n o f te a c h e r s
T eachin g m a t e r i a l s
T each er p r e p a r a t io n
L ib r a r y f a c i l i t i e s
S chool o r g a n iz a tio n
B u ild in g and equipm ent
I n t e r e s t o f p a tro n s
I n t e r e s t o f p u p ils i n l i b r a r y
S chool a d m in is t r a tio n
V is ito rs
in fo rm a l program
C o n ta c ts w ith f a c u l t y
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TABLE XXIV
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r e a l l y good te a c h in g m a te r ia l s th a n money co u ld have b o u g h t.
I n c r e a t i n g , th e re would have been grow th f o r th e te a c h e r
and th e p u p ils .
Such l i s t e d h in d ra n c e s a3 " p u p ils * la c k o f
home tx*ainlng n seemed to be more an o p p o rtu n ity f o r te a c h ­
in g th a n a h in d ra n c e to te a c h in g .
I t in d ic a te d t h a t te a c h ­
e r s were e x p e c tin g a "sm ooth s a i l i n g " m ech an ical s i t u a t i o n
f o r te a c h in g .
C r e a tiv e n e s s , i n i t i a t i v e , and in d iv id u a l le a r n ­
in g would n o t ru n m e c h a n ic a lly .
They f a i l e d to l i s t many o f
th e o b s ta c le s met in g u id in g th e p u p il e d u c a tio n a lly and
m o r a lly , such a s th o s e in v o lv e d i n f u n c tio n a l p sy c h o lo g y ,
p e r s o n a l i t y , and s p e c i a l tr a in in g *
t
I
One te a c h e r l i s t e d ”p h l-
lo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n ." However, th o s e ite m s l i s t e d were th e
te a c h e r s * , and th e y were th e ones t h a t counted so f a r a s g e t­
t i n g r e s u l t s from t h e i r te a c h in g .
Summary.
The M ontvale, New London, L ib e rty Academy,
and B ro o k h lll p l a n t s seem t o f a c i l i t a t e th e b ro a d e s t sc h o o l
program s o f th e p la n ts in B edford Couhty.
M ontvale co u ld
have used more l i b r a r y sp ace to an a d v a n ta g e .
However, t h a t
may encourage th e u se o f a d e c e n tr a liz e d l i b r a r y a s recommend­
ed by some le a d in g e d u c a to r s .
M ontvale had a good p l a n t .
New
London*s p la n t was th e o n ly one in th e County t h a t p ro v id e d
f o r a c o u rs e in A g r ic u ltu r e ,
isany o f th e classro o m s were w e ll
worn and n o t a t t r a c t i v e b u t th e t r a d i t i o n and s e t t i n g o f th e
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ex c e p t L ib e r ty Academy had w a te r b a s in s and c o n v e n ie n t
f o r wash b o s in s .
j
equipm ent.
tric e . 1 w irin g i n th e c la ssro o m s.
a le c -
No s c h o o ls had warm w ater
In no s c h o o ls e x c ep t Moneta was i t p o s s ib le
f o r boys and g i r l s to ta k e shower b a th 3 .
No s p e c ia l em phasis
i
!
seemed
t o have been g iv e n to la b o r a t o r i e s and la b o r a to r y
Data c o l le c te d on th e l i b r a r i e s o f th e v a rio u s sc h o o ls
!
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i n d i c a t e t h a t some l i b r a r i e s have been p o o rly s e le c te d o r
some te a c h e r s do n o t know how to make u se o f b o o k s.
I n some
s c h o o ls w ith 1200 t o 1500 volum es, from t e n to tw elv e te a c h ­
e r s r e p o r te d t h a t th e y had s u f f i c i e n t books f o r t h e i r g ra d e s .
j
I
!
In o th e r s c h o o ls w ith ap p ro x im a tely th e same number o f te a c h i t was
e r a r e p o r te d t h a t th e y had s u f f i c i e n t books f o r t h e i r g ra d e s .
I n o th e r s c h o o ls w ith a p p ro x im a te ly th e same number o f te a c h -
:
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!
ii
e r s and tw ic e a s many books many te a c h e r s r e p o r te d t h a t th e y
had i n s u f f i c i e n t books f o r t h e i r w ork. Old and o u t o f d a te
■
•
books w ere ta k e n i n c o n s id e r a tio n in making t h i s o b s e rv a tio n .
i
j
*
T here were 19,870 volum es and f i f t y - e i g h t s e t s o f en c y clo ­
p e d ia s I n th e l i b r a r i e s o f th e County to be used by a t o t a l
o f 4235 p u p i l s , a n av e ra g e o f a p p ro x im a te ly f iv e l i b r a r y books
per p u p il,
o v er 42 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s s a id th e y had
i n s u f f i c i e n t books f o r t h e i r g ra d e s .
T eaching m a te r ia l s w ere o n ly a l i t t l e o v er one t h i r d
s u f f i c i e n t i n th e C ounty.
On a q u e s tio n n a ire th e te a c h e rs
were asked t o l i s t a v a ila b le e n v iro n m e n ta l te a c h in g m a te r-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
la I s .
123 -
in o n ly one q u e s tio n n a ir e wns g iv en what m ight have
been an e x h a u s tiv e l i s t .
f o u r o r f i v e ite m s .
Pew te a c h e r s l i s t e d more th a n
T h is , w ith th e r e p o r te d sh o rta g e o f
s u p p lie s , in d ic a te d t h a t te a c h e r s d id n o t r e a l i z e how to
u se such s u p p li e s .
C o isae rc lal s u p p lie s seemed t o be v ary
d i f f i c u l t to g e t.
The c u rric u lu m f o r B edford County’ s h ig h sc h o o l boys
and g i r l s was to o l im ite d .
work wag o f f e r e d .
Very l i t t l e more th a n academ ic
The s i z e o f th e seven hl;jh s c h o o ls , w ith
th e l a r g e s t e n ro llm e n t around 150 p u p ils , made any v ery la r g e
improvement i n c o u rse s o f f e r e d im p o s s ib le .
T here was no
s p e c i a l h in d ra n c e to t h e r e b e in g an e x c e lle n t elem en tary
program .
S u p erv isio n -v /as in a d e q u a te .
/\s in d ic a te d above
o rg a n iz e d s u p e rv is io n was needed f o r s e le c tin g l i b r a r y
books and d i r e c t i n g te a c h e r s In th e u se o f te a c h in g m a te r-,
ia ls .
L a te r In t h i s c h a p te r u n d er th e s tu d y o f f a i l u r e and
r e t a r d a t i o n a s e rio u s la c k o f s u p e rv is io n w i l l be I n d ic a te d .
Mora classro o m s u p e rv is io n was n eed ed .
The s p e c ia l problem s
o f te a c h e rs were n o t b ein g s o lv e d .
A com parison o f th e p e r c a p ita c o s t o f i n s t r u c t i o n
i n th e v a rio u s sc h o o ls showed a w ide d if f e r e n c e f o r b o th
h ig h and elem en tary d e p a rtm e n ts .
At Boonsboro th e p e r c a p l- .
t a c o s t was a p p ro x im a te ly tw ic e t h a t f o r Moneta i n b o th
hl£jh sc h o o l and g ra d e s .
The c o s ts a t o th e r sc h o o ls ranged
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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124
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betw een th e s e tw o.
As f a r a s c o u ld be d e te c te d t h e r e seemed t o be no r e ­
l a t i o n betw een r e t a r d a t i o n and p l a n t , equ ip m en t, m a t e r i a l s ,
p e r c a p ita c o s t , and a tte n d a n c e .
A ll in d ic a t io n s p o in te d
tow ard th e p o lic y o f th e v a r io u s s c h o o ls f o r th e e x p la n a tio n
o f th e w ide d if f e r e n c e i n r e t a r d a t i o n s .
P u p il r e c o r d s s u i t a b l e f o r g u id an ce p u rp o se s w ere to o
m eager.
G uidance was i n c i d e n t a l i n e l l s c h o o ls o f th e Coun­
ty .
T each ers l i s t e d t h e i r g r e a t e s t h in d ra n c e s
e s t h e lp s to te a c h in g i n a q u e s tio n n a ir e .
and g r e a t ­
"Lacle o f m a te r ia l s ”
and "Too many p u p i l s ” w ere l i s t e d a s c h i e f h in d ra n c e s , and
"C o o p eratio n o f te a c h e r s " and " s u p e rv is io n " w ere l i s t e d a s
c h i e f h e lp s .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
c h
a
p t e r
v
T il'i LXVIKQ C O IiD IrlO liS OF T IB T3ACH2HS
The im portance of l i v i n g c o n d itio n s in c o n s id e rin g
te a c h in g problem s seems to be o b v io u s,
i t seeras much more
l i k e l y c h a t a te a c h e r w ith p le a s a n t and c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g
a rra n g e m e n ts would g o to sc h o o l in th e m ornings w ith b e t t e r
s p i r i t s and store en th u siasm th a n one whose l i v i n g c o n d itio n s
w ere th e o p p o s ite .
h e a lth and com fort a r e Im p o rta n t f a c t o r s .
“I Am B to -
b o r '^ i s th e t i t l e of an a r t i c l e sa y in g many s i g n i f i c a n t
th in g s ab o u t te a c h e r h e a l t h .
S to b e r was an a m b itio u s s t u ­
d e n t who s a c r i f i c e d r e c r e a tio n and b o d ily c o re f o r know ledge.
A f te r g a in in g knowledge he co u ld n o t use i t in a most c h e r­
is h e d p o s it io n because he was p h y s ic a lly u n a b le .
He w r ite s
h i s e x p e rie n c e aa u w arning to te a c h e r s t o c a re f o r t h e i r
h e a lth .
B ossing sa y s:
Many ca u ses a r e a s s ig n e d to e x p la in te a c h e r i l l ­
n e s s . D isreg a rd f o r p ro p e r e x e r c is e c o n t r ib u t e s n o t a
l i t t l e , a r e c e n t s tu d y o f te a c h e r liln c - s s r e v e a le d
t h a t (55 p e r c e n t o f th o se a f f e c t e d to o k no d a i ly e x e r ­
c i s e . Im proper d i o t and i r r e g u l a r and h u r r ie d e a tin g
a f f e c t p ro p e r d i g e s t i o n . A nother s e r io u s d r a in on t h e .
te a c h e r *a h e a lth i s th e ex p o su re to which he i s sub­
m itte d in th e c la s s ro a m .
------ — — a s e rio u 3 co m p lain t
o f to u c h e rs in s m a lle r comaunifcios i s t h e i r I n a b i l i t y
to f in d s u i t a b l e lo d g in g accom odations c h a t p ro v id e
•l-Brooks, J.D . nl Am 8 to b e r rf J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n . 7ol«
uiao 110, PJ» 351 - 5 2 , O c to b e r, 1920.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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126
-
p ro p e r p riv a c y and l i g h t and h e a t c o n d itio n s n e c e s s a ry
f o r c h e e r f u l and co m fo rtab le work* To overcome such
d i f f i c u l t y , many s m a lle r r u r a l com m unities a r e p ro v id ­
in g te a c h e ra g e s to accom odate th e te a c h e r s and en ab le
them to l i v e n e a r th e s c h o o l.2
Among f i v e h an d icap s to sm a ll community te a c h e rs l i s t ­
ed by Broody a r e ’’la c k o f th e co n v en ien ces of modern l i v i n g ”
and ’’l e s s p le a s a n t p e rs o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s th a n one would
hope f o r ’.’3
These c i t a t i o n s in d ic a t e t h a t th e i t e n s c o n s id e r­
ed in t h i s c h a p te r a r e w id ely re c o g n is e d problem s o f th e
te a c h e r i n r u r a l a r e a s .
The d a ta co n c ern in g th e l i v i n g c o n d itio n s o f th e te a c h ­
e r s o f B edford County t h a t a r e g iv e n below were g a th e re d from
answ ers to q u e s tio n n a ir e s f i l l e d o u t by th e te a c h e rs them­
s e lv e s .
T each ers who -had been t r a n s f e r r e d from one sc h o o l to
a n o th e r were asked w hich sch o o l i n th e county th e y p r e f e r r e d
and th e re a s o n f o r th e p r e f e r e n c e .
The m a jo r ity o f re a s o n s .
g iv e n f e l l under th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l i v i n g c o n d itio n s .
T each ers p r e f e r r e d one sc h o o l more th a n a n o th e r f o r such r e a ­
so n s a s ’'s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ” , ’"more c o n v e n ie n t” , " b e t t e r
l i v i n g c o n d itio n s ” , "co n v en ie n t t o home", " c lo s e to tow n",
^ B o ssin g , N. L ., Op. C i t . , P . 55
33roody, Xnute 0 . , "S chool S t a f f in th e Sm all Community,".
P h i D e lta gap pan, Volume XIX, Number 8 , P.. 201.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
;
- 127 -
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" c o o p e ra tio n o f p e o p le " , " p le a s a n t su rro u n d in g s " , "good, board­
in g p la c e s " , " n ic e p e o p le " , and " b e t t e r homes".
A nother ques­
t i o n asked th e te a c h e r s wa3, "Which o f th e t h r e e , s c h o o l,
c la ssro o m , o r l i v i n g c o n d itio n s , i s th e most d is c o n c e r tin g
in f lu e n c e on your te a c h in g ? "
" l i v i n g c o n d itio n s " ,
T w enty-seven te a c h e rs s a id
f o u r te e n te a c h e r s r e p o rte d h av in g s u f ­
f e r e d i l l n e s s from l i v i n g c o n d itio n s .
The cau ses f o r th e s e
i l l n e s s e s v/ere, i n m ost c a s e s , "im proper h e a t" and "poor d i e t " .
I n g e n e ra l c o n v e rs a tio n one te a c h e r made th e rem ark t h a t she
had become "sto o p sh o u ld e re d " from tr y in g to keep h e r head
from bumping th e a t t i e c e i l i n g . . T h is was an e x c e p tio n a l c a s e ,
how ever.
How th e T each ers L ive and What They P ay.
T able XX7
g iv e s th e d e t a i l s o f how th e te a c h e r s liv e d and what th e y p a id
f o r b o ard .
S e v e n ty -fo u r te a c h e r s b o ard ed , tw enty liv e d i n
te a c h e ra g e a , th ir ty - o n e liv e d a t home, and f iv e d id " l i g h t "
;
house k e e p in g .
The c o a t o f b o ard ran g ed from f i f t e e n d o l l a r s
I
p e r month a t B ro o k h ill t o an a v e ra g e o f 426-43 p0r month a t
i
M ontvale.
Those te a c h e r s g e t t i n g board f o r l e s s th a n tw en ty
d o l l a r s u s u a lly w ere f o r tu n a te enough to g e t d is c o u n ts f o r
b e in g away on w ock-onds.
I t i s to be n o te d on page 150 t h a t
th e B ro o k h ill te a c h e r s s p e n t no weekr-ends in th e sc h o o l com­
m u n ity .
In th o se sc h o o ls h a v in g te a e h e ra g e s , L ib e rty and New .
London, th e c o s t was f i f t e e n d o l l a r s p e r m onth.
The c o s t to
th o s e doing " l i g h t " house k e e p in g was f i f t e e n d o l l a r s p e r
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
HOW TEACHERS LIVE AND WHAT THEY PAY
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v iile
Moneta
H u d d lesto n
New London
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
fo re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
T o ta ls
Number T each Number Teach­ Number Teach­ Number Teach­ A verage Cost A verage Cbst
e ra t h a t
e r s t h a t Live e r s t h a t Live e r s t h a t
p e r month
i n T e a c h e rb o ard i n Teacher ages a t Home
nL ig h t” House t o Board
^iges
Keep
9
0
7
0
126 .4 3
7
0
3
1
22.00
11
0
1
0
2 0 .00
7
0
4
2
2 0 .00
0
11
2
b
$ 1 5 .ob
8
0
3
0
2 2 .00
9
0
2
0
2 3 .9 4
0
9
I
0
1 5.0b
2
0
1
0
2 2 .6 6
5
0
0
0
1 6 .00
2
0
6
b
25.06
0
6
14
0
16.00
74
20
5
3i
921
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXV
-
m onth.
129
-
The lo w est c o s t f o r th e te a c h e r s o f c o n s o lid a te d
s c h o o ls was tw enty d o l l a r s p e r month a t Moneta and H uddles­
to n .
C o n g e n ia lity a t B oarding P la o e s .
The te a c h e r s were
asked i f th e y boarded i n home3 w ith p le a s a n t fa m ily l i f e , and
i f th e la n d la d y t r i e d t o make th in g s p le a s a n t f o r them .
T ab le XT/I g iv e s th e r e p l i e s o f th e te a c h e r s .
S eventy o f th e
s e v e n ty - fo u r s a id th e y liv e d i n homes o f p le a s a n t fa m ily l i f e
and s ix ty - s e v e n o f th e s e v e n ty - fo u r s e i d th e la n d la d y t r i e d
to make th in g s p le a s a n t.
Bedrooms;
T each ers o f th e b o ard in g p la c e s and te a c h e r -
a g e s w ere ask ed to d e s c rib e t h e i r bedrooms a c c o rd in g to f iv e
th in g s , l i g h t , h e a t , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , c l o s e t .space, and f u r n i ­
tu re .
From g e n e ra l o b s e rv a tio n o f T ab le XXVII i t i s e a s i l y
n o tic e a b le t h a t te a c h e r s i n th e s m a lle r sc h o o ls had p o o re r
bedrooms th a n th e o t h e r s , o th e rw ise c o n d itio n s seemed t o be
v e ry much th e same.
A pproxim ately 82 p e r ceiit had p ro p e r
l i g h t i n t h e i r bedrooms, 75 p e r c e n t had p ro p e r h e a t, 72 p e r
c e n t h ad a t t r a c t i v e bedroom s, 60 p e r c e n t had p ro p e r c l o s e t
sp a c e , and 72 p e r c e n t had c o m fo rta b le f u r n i t u r e .
These f i g ­
u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t o v er 25 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s d id n o t
have d e s ir a b le bedrooms i n r e s p e c t to th e f i v e e s s e n t i a l s
l i s t e d above.
B a th s.
I n th e same manner a s f o r bedroom s, th e teach*-
e r s w ere ask ed ' to d e s c r ib e t h e i r b a th s a s to co n v e n ien c e,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
CONGENIALITY FOUND AT TEACHER BOARDING PLACES
Number o f T ea ch ers
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v iile
Moneta H u d d lesto n
Boonsboro
M arcuse
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th e rs
T o ta ls
9
7
11
7
8
9
2
5
2
14 .
74
Number o f te a c h e r s who
Humber o f te a c h e r s whose
b o ard i n homes w ith p l e a ­ la n d la d y t r i e s to make
s a n t fa m ily l i f e
th in g s p le a s a n t f o r them 1
8
6
«
8
8
8
8
1
8
8
*7
7
10
10
3
2
4
4
2
£
12
12
67
130
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXVI
DESCRIPTION OF TEACHERS* BOARDING HOUSE AND TEACHERAGE BEDROOMS
prohibited without perm ission.
Number o f
T ea ch ers
M ontvale
9
S te w a r ts v iile
7
Moneta
11
H u d d lesto n
7
fTew London
lo
S'
Boonsboro
9
M arcuse
lo
L ib e r ty
F o re st
2
B r o o k h ill.
5
2
T haxton
A ll O th ers
14
T o ta ls
1
95
P ro p e r Heat
6
4
io
6
6
4
7
«
2
5
2
9
71
A ttra c tiv e
7
6
7
7
9
7
7
6
2
0
1 •
7
68
C lo s e t Space P ro p e r L ig h t iJo m fo rtab le
F u r n itu r e
4
7
8
5
7
5
ll
io
D
6
7
'&
3
6
V
7
6
4
5
7
6
9
6
2
2
2
5
2
1
2
2
2
7
9
10
56
1
78
67
131
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXVII
-
132
-
h e a t, equipm ent, and w a te r s u p p ly .
T ab le IQC7III g iv e s th e
d a ta accu m u lated from th e te a c h e rs * answ ers to th e q u e s tio n .
I t shows th e r e t h a t te a c h e r s i n th e sm a ll s c h o o ls , a t Brook­
h i l l , and a t H u d d lesto n had no b a th s a t a l l .
Of th e n in e ty -
fo u r te a c h e r s , s ix ty -tw o o r a p p ro x im a te ly 66 p e r c e n t had
a c c e s s to bathroom s.
Of th o s e h av in g b a th s a p p ro x im a te ly 70
p e r c e n t were c o n v e n ie n t, 69 p e r c e n t w ere p r o p e r ly h e a te d ,
68 p e r c e n t p r o p e r ly eq u ip p ed , and 69 p e r c e n t had p ro p e r
w ate r su p p ly .
These f ig u r e s in d ic a t e t h a t a p p ro x im a te ly 55
p e r c e n t o f a l l te a c h e r s were w ith o u t p ro p e r b a th f a c i l i t i e s .
L iv in g Rooms.
T ab le XXIX g iv e s a d e s c r ip tio n o f th e
l i v i n g rooms o f th e n in e ty - f o u r t e a c h e r s .
The te a c h e r s were
asked t o d e s c r ib e t h e i r l i v i n g rooms a c c o rd in g t o seven
ite m s , l i g h t , h e a t , books, m ag azin es, p ia n o , r a d io , and com­
fo rta b le fu rn itu re .
A pproxim ately 80 p e r c e n t r e p o r te d hav­
in g p ro p e r l i g h t , 70 p e r c e n t p ro p e r h e a t , 64 p e r c e n t books,
70 p e r c e n t m ag azin es, 64 p e r c e n t p ia n o s , 80 p e r c e n t r a d io s ,
and 82 p e r c e n t c o m fo rta b le f u r n i t u r e .
c a se seemed to be w ith th e te a c h e r a g e s .
The ex trem es i n t h i s
T each ers a t New Lon­
don had th e p o o r e s t l i v i n g room w hereas th e te a c h e r s a t L ib e r­
t y had th e most s a t i s f a c t o r y .
On th e w hole ap p ro x im a te ly 25
p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s h ad u n d e s ir a b le l i v i n g room f a c i l i ­
tie s .
I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o te t h a t two te a c h e r s w rote on
th e m argin o f tlie q u e s tio n n a ir e s t h a t th e l i v i n g room i n
t h e i r b o a rd in g house were ’’n o t f o r use*’.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission of th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
STATUS OF TEACHERS* BOARDING HOUSE AND TXACHERAGE BATHS
prohibited without perm ission.
Number o f
T ea ch ers
M ontvale
9
S te w a rts v iile
7
Moneta
r
11
H u d d lesto n
7
Hew London
10
Boonsboro
-----------M arcuse
L ib e r tv
10
F o re st
2
B r o o k h ill
5
T haxton
2
A ll O th ers
14
T o ta ls
94
C onvenient
P ro p e r H eat
5
1
9
0
b
5
IT9
2
0
1
0
44
2
1
9
0
b
9
2
0
1
0
41
P ro p e r
P ro p e r
No B ath
Equipment
W ater Supply
2
6
0
U
0
7
6
0
—
u-----0
~
“
T
..........
~ ¥
.
_
" “ 1'
"7J....
----- *5.............. ---------o---------tr
1
■
o
6
u
9
9
0
2
1
0
0
b
0
1
1
\
0
0
14
42
43
32
133
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXVIII
DESCRIPTION OF TEACHERS BOARDING HOUSE AND TEACHERAGE LIVING ROOMS
prohibited w itho ut
Number o f
T each ers
9
M ontvale
StewartsvilLe
7
Moneta
. 11
H u d d lesto n
7
New London
"10
Boonsboro
8
M arcuse
9
L ib e r ty
10
F o re st
“■ 2
B r o o k h ill
5
T haxton
2
A ll O th ers
14
T o ta ls
94
P ro p e r
L ig h t
8
7
8
6
2
7
7
9
2
3
2.
IS
75
P ro p e r
H eat
4
5
6
6
-......... 6
7
7
9
2
1— 5" 2
10
65
Books
8
5
6
b
2
8 ■
8
9
1
1
X
0
60
M agazines
7
6
7
P ian o
Radio
ComferhabLe
F u r n itu r e
, 8
7
------ 6
------ ig.----- -------106 ■
IT ...
. - Y - ■■
"7'...... - ---------7' ■
---- 2 ....... ----- ---2 '
8
2
i
5
7
...... a .
1
8
9
7
9
........... 9 ......
8
9
3 ... _. —
3......
... ... 1
.... ^0 . .
...
„„ 5
—■"
4
T
- ........ 2 ...... .............2
'~2 '
— I I ’""
-------"
8
"" " '5.......
'■ TO ......
64
60
76
77
.
_
134
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■CDo
-5
3
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(J
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TABLE XXIX
good.
I
The te a c h e r s were ask ed to d e s c rib e th e food
j
th e y g o t a t t h e i r b o ard in g p la c e s a c c o rd in g to b a la n c e o f
I
d i e t , how cooked, and how s e rv e d .
T able XXX g iv e s th e answ­
e r s f o r th e te a c h e rs a t th e v a rio u s s c h o o ls .
The only
n o tic e a b le d if f e r e n c e in c o n d itio n s i n t h i s r e s p e c t was t h a t
th e te a c h e rs in te a c h e ra g e s seemed to be w e ll p le a s e d w ith
th e food th e y a rra n g e d f o r th e io se lv e s.
seemed to be about th e aame.
C o n d itio n s elsew h ere
In a l l o f th e s e p h ases of
i
|
l i v i n g c o n d itio n s , th e w o rst c o n d itio n s ran a h ig h e r p e r c e n t-
|
I
|
|
|
ago w ith th e group o f sm a ll s c h o o ls .
However, ta k in g in con-
s i d e r a t i o n t h a t among th e groups o f sm a ll sc h o o ls a s many
b o a rd in g p la c e s were b ein g r e p r e s e n te d as th e number o f schools
and among th e o th e r sc h o o ls th e r e w ere seldom more th a n two
b o a rd in g p la c e s p e r s c h o o l, th e c o n d itio n s f o r th e one room
|
sc h o o l te a c h e r s , co m p a ra tiv e ly s p e a k in g , was n o t a s bad a s
|
m ight have been e x p e c te d .
In answ er to th e q u e s tio n s s e n t
o u t, 73 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s had a w e ll b alan ced d i e t ,
89 p e r c e n t w e ll cooked fo o d , and 80 p e r c e n t s a id food was
w e ll s e rv e d .
What th e s e f ig u r e s show was v ery l i k e l y t r u e ;
t h a t , in th e m a tte rs o f b o ard in g p e o p le , th e r u r a l people
w ere b e t t e r cooks th a n a n y th in g e l s e .
C o n sid erin g th e w hole,
th e in d ic a t io n s were t h a t n o t more th a n 20 p e r c e n t o f th e
te a c h e r s g o t poor fo o d .
Convenience o f L o c a tio n .
T ab le XXXI g iv e s d e s c r ip tio n
o f th e convenience te a c h e r s have i n re a c h in g t h e i r s c h o o ls .
i
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
DESCRIPTION OF TEACHERS* BOARDING HOUSE FOOD
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v illa
MSdSta
H u d d lesto n
New London
Boonsboro
k arcu se,
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
T o ta ls
Number o f
T ea ch ers
9
7
11
7
10
8
9
10
B
5
B
14 .
95
w e ll B alan ced
7
5
8 '
4
10
7
7
9
I
0
1
jlO
69
W ell cooked
9
7
9
7
10
6
9
y
B
<5
H
11
84
...........
W ell S erved
9
5
9
6
9
7
8
9
I
b
l
10
76
136
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXX
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-
|
1 3 8
-
A ll s c h o o ls , e x c e p t H u d d lesto n and th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e
I sm a ll s c h o o ls ,
were lo c a te d on a m ain highw ay.
Being l o -
!
e a te d on a m ain highw ay, o f c o u rs e , added c o n s id e ra b le to
th o conv en ien ce o f th e lo c a ti o n f o r th e te a c h e r .
j
j
ere w ere asked
had to go o v er
two 'who had to
The te a c h -
i f th e y w alked o r ro d e to s c h o o l, and i f th e y
d i r t o r h a rd s u r fa c e r o a d .
T here vjere t h i r t y -
go o v er d i r t ro a d s to s c h o o l.
S eventeen o f
th e th ir ty - tw o woro te a c h e r s i n sm a ll s c h o o ls .
ly VO |»er c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s w alked to s c h o o l.
Approxim ate­
The a v e r­
age d is ta n c e to w alk was in no case over o n e - h a lf o f a m ile .
The a v e ra g e number o f milG3 to go f o r th o s e who rode ran g ed
from l e s s th a n one m ile to e i g h t .
f a r a s f i f t e e n m ile s .
Borne te a c h e r s drove as
In th e case o f Boonsboro, a l l te a c h ­
e r s liv e d o u t o f th e -s c h o o l community.
R e c r e a tio n .
The te a c h e r s were asked i f th e re were de
s i r a b l e companions and i f th e r e were d e s ir a b le means f o r r e ­
c r e a tio n i n t h e i r sc h o o l com m unities,
as
T ab le XXXII shows,
of th e 130 te a c h e r s n in e ty -3 e v e n s a id th e r e -were d e s ir a b le
com panions, s ix t e e n s a id th e r e w ere no d e s ir a b le com panions,
and s e v e n te e n d id n o t suy w hether th e r e were o r n o t.
There
were t h i r t y - e i g h t who r e p o r te d h av in g s a t i s f a c t o r y means f o r .
r e c r e a t i o n , and s e v e n ty - s ix .r e p o r te d .n o t h av in g s a t i s f a c t o r y
means.
H ik in g , r e a d in g , m otion p i c t u r e s , r a d io , and te n n is
were g iv e n a s c h ie f means o f r e c r e a t i o n .
L ib e r ty te a c h e rs
r e p o r te d com plete s a t i s f a c t i o n in p r o v is io n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
COMMUNITY OPPORTUNITY FOR TEACHER RECREATION
Number o f
T each ers
prohibited w itho ut
M ontvole
Stevvarteville
Moneta •
H uddle3to n
New London
Hoonsbobo
M arcuse
L ib e rty
F o re st
b ro o k n iii.
T haxtbn
A ll O th ers
T o ta ls
!
10
11
12
13
13
11
11
10
3
b
5
20
130
Number t h a t
fin d d e s ir ­
a b le compan­
io n s
Number t h a t
f in d no de­
s i r a b l e com­
p a n io n s
10
10
9
10
8
5
11
10
1
3
0
0
2
3
1
0
0
1
2
1
3
16
3
• 4
16
.97
Number t h a t
have s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y neans
o f R e crea­
ti o n
6
4
•1
0
3
3 :h
10
l
0
ro
1
2
38
Number t h a t
have u n s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y means
o f R e c re a ­
tio n
4
7
10
12
9
3
3
G
2
b
5
. 16
76
C h ie f Type
of
R e c re a tio n
H ik in g
R adio
H ik in g
Movies
H ik in g
R eading
Movies
T en n is
Yard Games
H ik in g
R eading
H ik in g
139
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
(/)'
(J)
o'
TABLE XXXII
-
I
I
!
ii
140
-
The Problem o f G e ttin g B oard.
I n th e q u e s tio n n a ire
s e n t o u t, th e te a c h e r s w ere asked to make a sta te m e n t a s to
th e problem of g e t t i n g b o a rd .
Most a l l o f th e te a c h e r s s a id
i t wus h ard to g e t board i n t h e i r com m unities.
The Boons-
i
I
S
boro te a c h e r s found i t n e c e s s a ry to go in to Lynchburg f o r
i
b o a rd .
|
j
There was o n ly one b o ard in g p la c e a t H u d d lesto n .
Pour te a c h e r s th e r e had to r e s o r t to " l i g h t ” housekeeping
w hich was an e x tr a burden on them .
No community seemed to
! have more th an two p la c e s t h a t would board te a o h e r s .
j
S e v e ra l
I te a c h e r s made th e s ta te m e n t t h a t i f you d id g e t board i n
!
j
t h e i r com m unities th e p eo p le w ith whom you boarded would
I
; g o ssip ab o u t you.
j
i
Summary.
The c o s t to
te a c h e r s f o r board ran g ed from
f i f t e e n d o l l a r s p e r month in
te a c h e ro g e s to o v er tw e n ty -s ix
d o l l a r s a t M ontvale.
A pproxim ately 10 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h ­
e r s liv e d in homes where th e r e was no c o n g e n ia lity .
m a tely £5 p e r c e n t la c k e d d e s ir a b le bedroom s.'
A pproxi­
I t was e s t i ­
mated t h a t ab o u t 55 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s were w ith o u t con­
v e n ie n t b a th f a c i l i t i e s , and ab o u t 25 p e r c e n t had no b a th ­
rooms.
P ro v is io n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n was p o o r.
P e v e n ty -s ix
te a o h e rs s a i d . t h a t t h e i r o p p o rtu n ity f o r r e c r e a tio n was un­
s a tis fa c to ry .
In p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c a s e s b o ard in g houses were
co n v e n ien t to s c h o o ls .
About ? 0 .p e r .c e n t of th e te a c h e rs
w alked to sc h o o l h av in g n o t over on a v e ra g e o f o n e - h a lf m ile
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited without p erm ission .
-
to g o .
141
-
The o th e r s who ro d e had n o t o ver an av e ra g e o f e ig h t
m ile s to t r a v e l .
h a rd to g e t .
I n a l l com m unities b o ard in g p la c e s were
In one a c h o o l community th e r e was no p la c e
t h a t board ed te a c h e r s .
In a n o th e r community th e r e was o n ly
one and i n o th e r s , o n ly tw o.
S e v e ra l te a c h e r s made th e s t a t e ­
ment t h a t th e p e o p le who boarded te a c h e r s g o ssip e d ab o u t
them .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
CHAPTER VI
|
i
COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS
One o f th e m ost t r a g i c th in g s ab o u t r u r a l e d u c a tio n a l l
j
a lo n g seems t o have been th e d is r e s p e c t th e p eo p le have had
|
i
i
f o r th e t e a c h e r 1s i n t e g r i t y and c h a r a c te r .
t h a t t h i s h a s been t r u e can n o t be d e te rm in e d .
I
i s due m o stly to th e human w eakness o f t a l k i n g ab o u t o th e r
|
The r e a l re a s o n
P ro b a b ly , i t
p e o p le , e s p e c i a l l y among th o s e o f l i t t l e u n d e rs ta n d in g .
The
program o f e d u c a tio n can n o t work e f f e c t i v e l y among th o s e most
|
needed to be re a c h e d so lo n g a s we have g o s s ip mongers c i r c u -
j
l a t i n g w ith a s to r y to t e l l on th e te a c h e r s o f th e p u b lic
t
I
j
s c h o o l.
These g o s 3 ip e rs a r e o f te n p e rso n s who have in f lu e n c e
o v er th e backward groups i n a community.
stroyed"", sa y s th e Talmud,
j
'"Jerusalem was de­
"b ecau se h e r te a c h e r s w ere n o t r e -
s p e c te d " .
I
;
Many a r t i c l e s have been w r i tte n on th e sad p l i g h t o f
th e r u r a l sc h o o l te a c h e r .
Such t i t l e s a s , Blue Laws f o r Teach­
e r s .^ and H am strin g in g Our T ea ch ers2 g iv e u s an id e a o f th e
n a tu r e o f th e s e a r t i c l e s .
P ro b a b ly such a r t i c l e s have p u b li-
1C iv in g , S tep h e n , "B lue Laws f o r T e a c h e rs" , H a rp e r’ s
M onthly 156: 329-338, F eb ru ary ’ 38.
2A nderson, E.W ., "H am strin g in g Our T e a c h e rs" . A tla n tic
M onthly 145: 390-397, June ’3 0 .
with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
-
!
143 -
c a tio n t h e i r o b je c tiv e r a t h e r th a n th e o b je c tiv e o f b e t t e r ­
in g te a c h in g c o n d itio n s .
I f used f o r th e l a t t e r p u rp o se ,
i
t
’
no doubt i t would be th e wrong a p p ro a c h .
The "m a rty r” a t t a c k
i s n o t th e p o s i t i v e , u g r e s s iv e p ro ced u re n eeded.
j
I t I s tr u e
t h a t very o f te n "g o s sip r in g s " a r e v ery v ic io u s in t h e i r
i
|
If
;
a t t a c k and v e ry e f f e c t i v e i n k i l l i n g th e s p i r i t o f te a e h e r s .
U n fo rtu n a te ly th e s e a t t a c k s o f te n s t r i k e th e v ery b e s t te a c h -
;
I e r s , th o se who have p e r s o n a l i t y , e n e rg y , and en th u siasm .
>
j As a r e s u l t th e p r o f e s s io n h as l o s t a c tiv e members who so u g h t
|
p le a s a n te r p a s tu r e s in which to w ork.
R e ce n tly th e fo llo w -
(
f
| in g s ta te m e n t was made by a r u r a l te a c h e r :
I1
|
A te a c h e r ’s m o rals a r e c o n s ta n tly hung on th e pub!
l i e w ashing l i n e and u s u a lly h e r norm al d e s ir e f o r
m a rriag e and m otherhood I s th w a rte d by r e s t r i c t i o n s p la c e d
a g a in s t m a rrie d t e a c h e r s .3
A more d ig n if ie d s ta te m e n t i s t h a t o f Huggens and Her-j
|
;
!
b o ld :
D riv es a g a in s t an I n d iv id u a l te a c h e r p ro cee d by
th e spoken word an d , h en c e, by h e a rs a y . .I n d iv id u a ls
th r e e o r fo u r tim es removed from th e re p u te d so u rc e o f
a s to r y o r a s i t u a t i o n w i l l r e p o r t th e rumor i n a l l i t s
d e t a i l and a s though th e n a r r a t o r had a p e rs o n a l and ab­
s o lu te knov/ledge o f th e f a c t s . Members o f th e community
who have n ev e r xaet th e te a c h e r and c e r t a i n l y n e v e r v i s i t ­
ed ills classro o m w i l l r e p e a t s t o r i e s a s to h i 3 te a c h in g
a b i l i t y and c i t e them to be o f t h e i r own know ledge.
3
T u g g le, M.A. "A C ountry S c h o o lte a c h e r Speaks” , V ir g in ia
J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n , 3 2 :4 1 9 , Number 9 .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
- 144 -
|
!
|
N a tu r a lly , no a tte m p t I s made to s u b s t a n t i a t e th e t r u t h
o r f a l s i t y o f th e rem arks b ein g b an d ied a b o u t; human
n a tu r e I s such t h a t n e a r ly a l l o f u s d e l i g h t in t e a r in g
down.
T each ers and m in i s te r s a r e a l i k e I n t h e i r need
f o r i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o g o s s ip . I t fo llo w s t h a t th e
te a c h e r a s w e ll a s th e clergym an m ust be g uarded i n h i s
e v e ry p u b lic ap p e aran c e and rem ark i f he i s s a f e l y to
w e a th e r th e sto rm s t h a t a r e so e a s i l y aro u se d i n th e
sh a llo w w a te rs o f th e sm a ll tow n.4
i
:
The
v a rio u s r e s t r i c t i n g in f lu e n c e s p la c e d on te a c h e r s
a r e num erous.
As th e y a r e r e p o r te d by v a r io u s w r i t e r s th e y
j
come i n th e g u is e o f sc h o o l board r e g u l a t i o n s , community fca-
i
b o o s, p r e s s u r e g ro u p s, economic i n t e r e s t s , j e a l o u s i e s , p a t t y
p o l i t i c i a n s , and many o t h e r s .
B o ssin g 5 makes th e s ta te m e n t t h a t i n te n y e a rs o f i n t i -
|
i
m ate c o n ta c t a s d i r e c t o r o f c o lle g e and u n i v e r s i t y placem ent
b u re a u s ,
t h a t i t was no e x a g g e ra tio n to sa y t h a t o v er f i f t y
p e r c e n t o f te a c h e rh f a i l u r e s f in d t h e i r d i r e c t
I
cau se i n s o c ia l
m a lad ju stm e n t i n th e community.
|
As in d ic a te d above th e problem m ust be so lv e d by p o s if
tiv e a tta c k .
The sc h o o l and community r e l a t i o n s h i p must be
such a s t o f o s t e r good w i l l among a l l c o n c e rn e d .
Such r e ­
l a t i o n s h i p c a l l s f o r e d u c a tin g th e p e o p le t o b e lie v e i n and
su p p o rt th e s c h o o l and c a l l s f o r t r a i n i n g th e te a c h e r s in
p r o p e r ly a d j u s tin g th e m selv es to th e community.
The te a c h e r
i n a se n s e must le a r n to ta k e p r id e i n th e demands t h a t th e
^H uggens, J .T . and H erb o ld , P a u l, " T r ib u la tio n s o f Sm all
Town T e a c h in g ", The N a tio n ’ s S c h o o ls, 8 5 :2 7 , Number 5 , May »39.
S
B o ssin g , N .L . Op. C i t . , P . 65.
I
|
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
-1 4 5 -
j
p u b lic makes of him*
The p u b lic , to a la r g e e x t e n t, assumes
i
j
th e p o s i t i o n o f th e te a c h e r t o be one o f le a d e r s h ip in th e
; fo rm a tio n o f good, c h a r a c te r and f i n e i d e a l s .
i
One w r i t e r has
| gone so f a r a s to say t h a t th e te a c h e r sh o u ld c o n s id e r i t an
| honor t o have so much ex p e cte d o f him .
ii
j
The te a c h e r may f in d a h e l p f u l s u g g e s tio n i n th e fo llo w -
j
[ In g s ta te m e n t by Knute 0 . B roady:
i
j
;
T h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a in ta in in g th e h ig h e s t
s ta n d a r d s in b o th p r o f e s s io n a l and p r i v a t e l i f e t h a t
comes o n ly to th e te a c h e r end a d m in is tr a to r who l i v e
i n th e s m a lle r community sh o u ld n o t be lo o k ed upon a s
a b u rd en , b u t r a t h e r a s one o f th e rew ard s o f le a d e r ­
s h ip , a compliment i n th e t r u e s t 3 e n 3 e .6
One in bedoisung a te a c h e r a c c e p ts th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
j
o f e d u c a tin g .
I f he i s a r e a l e d u c a to r he lo o k s f o r e v e ry
p o s s i b i l i t y to make h i s l i f e s e rv e th e cau se o f e d u c a tio n .
He w an ts e d u c a tio n and i t s in f lu e n c e to re a c h a l l p e o p le g iv j
|
in g them a h ig h e r p r e c e p t o f l i f e .
He w ants th e p u b lic sc h o o l
to demand a u n iv e r s a l r e s p e c t and s u p p o r t.
To a c h ie v e t h i s
th e te a c h e r must be d ip lo m a tic and c a u tio u s i n h i s s e r v ic e in
a community.
I t i s n e c e s s a ry t h a t he s t a r t on th e l e v e l w ith
th e p e o p le he I s to
ed u c ate
to th e a c c e p ta b le ways o f
d o in g th in g s in l i f e .
He cannot s e p u r a te h im s e lf from th e
p e o p le by p ro fe s s e d b e l i e f and open a c t i v i t y c o n tra ry to th e
6
—Broady, Knute 0 . , "S chool S t a f f in th e Sm all Community
The P h i D elta Kappan, 1 9 :2 0 2 , Humber S .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
b e l i e f s and a c t i v i t i e s o f th e p eo p le he s e r v e s ,
Every te a c h ­
e r m ust c e n te r h i s a t t e n t i o n on th e d e s ir e d outcom es o f edu­
c a tio n and s t e e r c a u tio u s ly in t h a t d i r e c t i o n .
|
In sp e ak in g
o f th e te a c h e r and p u b lic e d u c a tio n Moehlman has summed up
b e a u t i f u l l y in th e fo llo w in g w ords th e p o in t th e w r i te r has
a tte m p te d to make i n t h i s d is c u s s io n .
He s a y s :
The te a c h e r , as th e o p e r a tin g
a s a s o c i a l ag en cy , m ust r e f l e c t th e
i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . He i s more th an
coming f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u rp o se s i t s
a g e n t o f th e sc h o o l
c h a r a c te r o f th e
an in d iv i d u a l, be­
o p e r a tin g a g e n t, 7
To th e e x te n t th e te a c h e r su c c e e d s, th e sc h o o l s u c c e e d s.
The sc h o o l can n o t succeed in c a rr y in g o u t I t s program w ith
|
j
i
th e p eo p le i n a community u n t i l th e te a c h e r s have been s u c c e s s -
i
j
fu l f ir s t.
|
The sim p le f a c t s brought o u t In t h i s p a p e r, i f review ed
j
by la y p eo p le and te a c h e r s , would do much i n b e t t e r i n g r e l a t i o n - !
|
}
I
I
s h ip s .
|
H is s u c c e s s o r may n o t p ro v e to be h a l f so good a s h e .
;
People sh o u ld know t h a t i t i s to t h e i r ad v an tag e to
■
i
.
make i t p le a s a n t f o r a good te a c h e r i n t h e i r c o a ia u n itie s .
P a re n t-T e a c h e r C o n ta c ts :
T h is stu d y was made from
answ ers to q u e s tio n n a ir e s s e n t o u t to a l l te a c h e r s .
Some o f
th e s e q u e s tio n s w ere answ ered w ith f a c t s , o th e r s w ith o p in io n s .
i
A com plete p i c t u r e o f th e community r e l a t i o n s h i p was
im p o s sib le t o g e t .
Dependence was p u t on d a ta showing th e
|
q u a n tity o f c o n ta c t made between, s c h o o ls and com m tm liies and
i
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t
!
!
" .........
I
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t
7I4oehlman, A. B. Op, C l t. P . 8 5 .
i
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’
t e a c h e r s ’ o p in io n a s to th e f e e l i n g th a t e x is te d between
th em selv es and th e p e o p le .
T ab le XXXI2I shows th e e x te n t o f
p o s s i b le p a r e n t- te a c h e r c o n ta c t.
F ig u re s show th e number o f
te a c h e r s t h a t observ ed n a t i o n a l E ducation Week, th e number
o f p a tr o n s ’ m e e tin g s , a v e ra g e number of p a tro n s v i s i t i n g each
cla ssro o m , and th e a v e ra g e v i s i t s to homes p e r te a c h e r f o r
th e v a rio u s s c h o o ls .
One hundred and tw elve o f th e 130 te a c h ­
e r s o b serv ed N a tio n a l E d u catio n Y/eek.
Most sc h o o ls gave n in e
a s th e number o f p a tr o n s ’ m e etin g s h e ld y e a r ly .
The excep­
ti o n s were F o re s t h av in g n o n e, L ib e r ty one, and Moneta tw o.
The a v e ra g e number o f p a tro n s t h a t v i s i t e d each classro o m f o r
th e y e a r ran g ed from th r e e f o r M ontvale, Boonsboro, and Mar­
cu se to tw enty-tw o f o r L ib e r ty and tw e n ty -fiv e f o r M oneta.
S ch o o ls h av in g Home Economics and A g r ic u ltu r e , and th e sm a ll
s c h o o ls had in most c a se s a d ec id ed m argin over th e o th e r s
in home v i s i t a t i o n .
The A g ric u ltu r e te a c h e r a t New London
had made 150 v i s i t s to homes.
T each ers a t Cool S p rin g , a
th r e e - te a c h e r m ountain sc h o o l r e p o r te d h av in g made 150 v i s i t s
to homes.
The lov^est in v i s i t s to homes was L ib e r ty w ith an
av e ra g e o f f i v e p e r te a c h e r and th e h ig h e s t was th e sm a ll
s c h o o ls w ith an av erag e o f t h ir ty - tw o v i s i t s p e r te a c h e r .
To g e t some id e a o f th e su c c e s s i n re a c h in g th e p a re n ts
th e y were a s k e d , "Do th e p e o p le a s a whole a p p r e c ia te th e
s in c e r e e f f o r t s made by th e te a c h e r o r sc h o o l?"
One hundred
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149 -
and n in e , o r a p p ro x im a tely 85 p e r c e n t, s a id t h a t th e p eo p le
d id a p p r e c ia te th e e f f o r t s .
T eacher Church a tte n d a n c e .
The r u r a l ch u rch es need
a l l th e le a d e r s h ip and h e lp t h a t anyone can g iv e .
They g iv e
o p p o r tu n iti e s f o r te a c h e r s to e s t a b l i s h th em selv es and th e
p u b lic s c h o o l in th e m inds and h e a r t s o f th e p e o p le .
B ossing
says:
f r e q u e n tly th e m ost e f f e c t i v e s e r v ic e th e te a c h e r
can re n d e r th e community i s th ro u g h some form o f church
a c tiv ity .8
T eaching in th e Sunday sc h o o ls i s p ro b a b ly th e g r e a t ­
e s t o p p o rtu n ity ^ f o r a d u lt e d u c a tio n t h a t can be found o r s e t
up in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e r u r a l s c h o o ls .
I t i s an o p p o r tu n ity
b ein g p r a c t i c a l l y n e g le c te d .
T ab le IXHV shows how th e te a c h e r s of B edford County
s tb o d in re g a rd to ch u rch a tte n d a n c e f o r th e y e a r of 1938-39.
I n a q u e s tio n n a ire th e te a c h e r s were asked to g iv e th e a v e r­
age number o f w eek-ends s p e n t in th e sc h o o l community p er
m onth.
They w ere, th a n , ask ed t o g iv e th a a v e ra g e number o f
tira e s th ey a tte n d e d church in th e s c h o o l community p e r m onth.
From th e s e answ ers th e t o t a l s w ere g o t f o r th e sc h o o l y e a r .
Yfith 130 te a c h e rs and a n in e months sc h o o l term th e r e
would be a p p ro x im a te ly 4680 p o s s ib le w eek-ends t h a t a l l te a c h -
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B o ssin g , H.L. Op. C i t .
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e r a could spend in sc h o o l com m unities,
.A lto g eth er te a c h e rs
s p e n t a p p ro x im a te ly 1855 o r 39 p e r c e n t o f th e s e p o s s ib le
w eek-ends i n sc h o o l com m unities.
Out o f th e 1855 w eek-ends
th e t o t a l ch u rch a tte n d a n c e was 1454 o r ap p ro x im ately 79 p e r
c e n t o f th e number o f w eek-ends s p e n t i n th e com m unities o r
approxlraabely 31 p e r c e n t o f th e 4680 p o s s ib le w eek-ends.
Some o f th e f ig u r e s show t h a t c e r t a i n te a c h e rs a tte n d e d church
|
more th an once p e r week o r came back to th e community to
a tte n d c h u rc h .
Some te a c h e r s made n o te on t h e i r q u e s tio n n a ir e s
t h a t th e y went back to a tte n d ch u rch o c c a s io n a lly .
T his
s i t u a t i o n was tr u e in th e case o f S te w a r ts v i lle , Boonsboro.,
B r o o k h ili, and T haxton,
j
For 130 te a c h e rs w ith a t o t a l church
j
a tte n d a n c e o f 1454 th e r e was an ap p ro x im ate av erag e o f e le v e n
I
p e r te a c h e r .
Upon t h i s b a s i s , Thaxton
had th e b e s t re c o rd
w ith an ap p ro x im ate av e ra g e o f th ir ty - tw o tim es a tte n d e d
I
i
church p e r te a c h o r . . Talcing i n c o n s id e r a tio n th e number o f
j
!
w eek-ends s p e n t i n th e community, L ib e r ty had th e p o o re s t r e !
cord w ith e ig h ty f o r a tte n d a n c e o u t o f
300 f o r w eek-ends
sp e n t in th e community, an a v e ra g e o f e ig h t church a tte n d a n c e s
I
p e r te a c h e r .
F o re s t had a re c o rd o f no a tte n d a n c e and Brook-
I
h i l l had a r e c o rd o f an av erag e o f two p e r te a c h e r .
I n b o th
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th e w eek-end.
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I n a d d itio n to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase o f th e stu d y
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'
.
1:
-
152
th e te a c h e rs were asked, in th e same q u e s tio n n a ire i f th e
p eople in th e community ex p e cte d them to a tte n d church*
From
th o se answ ering t h i s q u e s tio n s i x t y - f i v e s a id t h a t th ey were
ex p e cte d by th e p eo p le to a tte n d chu rch and f o r t y s a id th e y
were n o t.
N a tu r a lly , many o f th e f o r t y were th o s e who d id
n o t and could n o t v e ry c o n v e n ie n tly spend th e w eek-ends in
th e sc h o o l com m unities*
Then, to o , in some s e c tio n s th e
ch u rch es were v ery in a c ti v e o f f a r from th e s c h o o ls .
School-Community G o ssip *
Those f a m i l i a r w ith r u r a l
e d u c a tio n w i l l p ro b a b ly a g re e t h a t g o ss ip i s one o f th e most
d is c o n c e rtin g in f lu e n c e s and d i s t a s t e f u l e x p e rie n c e s o f th e
r u r a l te a c h e r .
The te a c h e rs o f B edford County w ere ask ed to what ex­
t e n t th e p eo p le g o ssip e d ab o u t th e te a c h e r s , and i f th e te a c h ­
e r s g o ssip e d ab o u t th e community.
s id e s o f th e p i c t u r e .
The answ ers r e v e a le d b o th
Tw enty-seven te a c h e rs s a id th e com­
m unity d id n o t g o s s ip ab o u t th e te a c h e r s , e ig h ty -tw o s a id to
"some* e x te n t, th r e e s a id Mv ery much” , and tw e n ty -n in e s a id
th e te a c h e rs g o ss ip e d ab o u t th e community.
a ffe c te d
to '’some” e x te n t w ith g o s s ip .
A ll s c h o o ls were
F o r e s t’ seemed to be
th e w o rst and New London th e n e x t w o rst i n t h i s r e s p e c t .
. ,
L ib e r ty and M ontvale, from, th e answ ers g iv e n , seemed to have A
l e s s g o ss ip th a n any o th e r s c h o o ls .
The f a c t t h a t L ib e rty * s
sc h o o l community was taore d e c e n tr a liz e d due to th e s c h o o l’ s
lo c a tio n made' some d if f e r e n c e i n th e g o s s ip s i t u a t i o n .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The
-
153
-
d e t a i l f ig u r e s e x p la in in g th e s i t u a t i o n f o r a l l th e sc h o o l
a r e g iv e n i n T ab le XXXV.
P re s s u re Drought on T e a c h e rs*
I n th e q u e s tio n n a ire
s e n t o u t to te a c h e r s th e y w ere asked to say i f th e y f e l t
th e y w ere u n d er th e p r e s s u r e o f any p e rs o n i n th e community,
i f l o c a l m erch an ts u rg ed them to buy from them , i f p e o p le ob­
je c te d t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and m oral b e l i e f s , and to say w hich
o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w ere o b je c te d to by p e o p le i n th e communi­
ty .
The answ ers to th e s e q u e s tio n s a r e ta b u la te d i n T ab le
XXXVI.
Twelve te a c h e r s s a id t h a t th e y w ere under th e p r e s s u r e
o f some p e rso n i n th e community.
I n some c a se s th e ones
b r in g in g th e p r e s s u r e were sm a ll o f f i c e h o ld e rs o r r e l a t i v e s
o f o f f i c e h o ld e r s .
.In one c a se i t was r e p o r te d t h a t an un­
re a s o n a b le p re a c h e r t r i e d to b r in g p r e s s u r e and make tr o u b le
f o r th e s c h o o l.
The number o f te a c h e r s r e p o r tin g t h i s ty p e
o f t h in g was s m a ll b u t I n some o f th e s e c a s e s , th e w r i t e r
le a r n e d from p e r s o n a l in te r v ie w , th e problem was q u ite d i s ­
t r e s s i n g and th e te a c h e r s were v e ry much h in d e re d i n t h e i r
w ork.
A nother problem more volum inous b u t l e s s s e r io u s th a n
th e one ab o v e, p e rh a p s , was t h a t o f th e p r e s s u r e e x e rte d by
l o c a l m e rc h a n ts.
A t o t a l o f t h i r t y - e i g h t te a c h e r s s a id th e y
w ere u rg ed t o buy from l o c a l m e rc h a n ts.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
SCHOOL - COMMUNITY GOSSIP
EXTENT COMMUtIITY GOSSIPS ABO-LTT TEACHERS
Number
of
T each ers
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S b e w a r ts v ille
Moneta .
H u d d lesto n
Hew London
Soohs'boro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
fo re st
B r o o k h ili
T haxton
A ll O th ers
_
16
11
12
13
13
11
ll
10
3
b
5
20
.
..
None
Some
6
3
1
1
2
0
1
6
0
2
1
5
6
7
11
10
10
3
10
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
b
4
12
0
T
0
0
1
A.
Much
Number T each­
e r s t h a t say
T ea ch ers g o s­
s ip a b o u t Com­
m unity
6
......... ...... —
1
7
1
5
5
1
6
0
..................
0
"""......T ~....... '
0
154
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXXV
EXTENT TO WHICH COMMUNITIES BRING PRESSURE ON TEACHERS
Number
of
T ea ch ers
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta H u d d le sto n
New London
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th e rs
16
11
12
13
13
11
11
10
3
5
5
20
...
Number o f Teadh •Number of Teach­
e r s u n d er press­ e r s u rg ed to
u r e by p e rs o n s buy from lo c a l
i n community
m e rc h an ts
0
3
2
4
2
3
0
0
9
1
0
5
2
0
7
0
0
1
5
1
0
0
0
5
T each er a c t i v i ­
t i e s o b je c te d
to by communi­
ty
0
Late houis,rfinodng
0
D ancing
0
0
Smoking
0
0
Smoking
0
Danoing
Number t h a t say
p e o p le o b je c t
to R e lig io u s
o r M oral beliefs
................ 1 .............
0
0
0
3
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
155
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXXVI
-
156
-
!
i
K eeping l a t e lio u rs , d a n c in g , smoking, and p la y in g
c a rd s were th e o n ly te a c h e r a c t i v i t i e s t o w hich th e r e seem­
ed to be community o b je c tio n .
I
I
Smoking and d an c in g w ere th e
c h i e f a c t i v i t i e s o b je c te d t o I n m ost c a s e s .
I n answ er to a q u e s tio n a s k in g w hether o r n o t th e peo­
p l e o b je c te d to any o f t h e i r r e l i g i o u s o r m oral b e l i e f s , eig h t
te a c h e rs s a id " y e s " .
London.
T hree o f th e s e answ ers can© from Hew
The o th e r f iv e answ ers were s c a t t e r e d by ones to
M ontvale, M arcuse, F o r e s t, B r o o k h ill, and th e group o f sm a ll
s c h o o ls .
C onnuaity Use o f S chool P l a n t .
The l a s t phase o f th e
stu d y on community r e l a t i o n s h i p s was t h a t o f f in d in g o u t how
much th e sc h o o l p la n ts w ere used by th e p eo p le o f th e com­
m u n ity .
T here w e re .o n ly f i v e groups in g e n e ra l who made u se
|
II
!
Home-Makers C lub, F arm ers, G range, and 4 H C lu b .
j
g iv e s th e number o f m e e tin g s p e r month f o r th e so v a rio u s
(
|
o f th e b u ild in g s .
g ro u p s.
These were th e P a re n t-T e a c h e rs A s s o c ia tio n ,
T ab le XXX7II
T here was a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - o n e m e e tin g s p e r month
f o r a l l groups i n a l l s c h o o ls .
T h is amounted t o a p p ro x im a te ly
one m e etin g p e r sc h o o l p e r m onth.
’
Summary.
The number o f v i s i t s t o homes p e r te a c h e r
j
ran g ed from f i v e a t one s c h o o l t o 150 a t a n o th e r .
I t was
found t h a t 05 p e r c e n t o f th e te a c h e r s w ere o f th e o p in io n
t h a t p a r e n ts a p p r e c ia te d th e e f f o r t s t h a t th e te a c h e r s made
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
HOW THE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS MAKE USE OF THE SCHOOL BUILDINGS
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S te w a rts v ille
Moneta B uddies to n
tfew London
Boonsboro
M arcuse
L ib e r ty
F o re st
B r b o k h ili
T haxton
A ll O th ers
Number P . T, A* Number meetings Number o f Farm­ Number o f Cfcange dumber o f 4H
m e e tin g s p e r
o f Home Maker’s e r ’s m e e tin g s m e etin g s p e r
Jlub m e etin g s
month
Club per month p e r month
month
aer month
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
' ■—
r ---------1
C
1
0
i
1
1
1
6
i
0
0
1
C
6
0
1
6
0
0
---------1 — ....
------ u ------------ „
0
0
0
0
0
1
l
1
0
1
l
l
1
0
1
0
l
1
0
1
0
0
9
9
3
8
2
157
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXXVII
In te a c h in g t h e i r c h ild re n #
The te a c h e r s a tte n d e d church i n t h e i r sch o o l communi­
t i e s on th e av erag e o f e le v e n tim es p e r te a c h e r f o r th e y e a r.
Church a tte n d a n c e ran g ed from two p e r te a c h e r a t one sc h o o l
to th ir ty - tw o a t a n o th e r .
A ll sc h o o ls were a f f e c t e d to some e x te n t w ith g o ssip
betw een sc h o o l and community.
Some com m unities seemed to he
w orse th a n o th e r s .
T h ir ty - e ig h t te a c h e r s s t a t e d t h a t m erchants b ro u g h t
p r e s s u r e on them t o buy in sc h o o l com m unities.
Twelve te a c h ­
e r s s a id t h a t some p e rso n in th e community, suoh as p e t ty
o f f i c i a l s o r r e l a t i v e s o f o f f i c i a l s , t r i e d to b rin g p re s s u re
on them .
The com m unities make U3e o f t h e i r p lu n ts f o r a m eeting
o f some o r g a n iz a tio n to th e e x te n t o f an a v e ra g e o f once p e r
month p e r s c h o o l.
A ccording to t h i 3 th e a d u lt p eo p le in th e
County make a p p r e c ia b ly no u se o f t h e i r sc h o o l p l a n t s .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
|
CHAPTER V II
i
|
PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
i
t
I
j
|
A f a c t o r o f v ery much Im p o rtan ce in d e te rm in in g th e
te a c h in g c o n d itio n s o f a sc h o o l o r co u n ty i s t h a t o f p ro ­
f e s s io n a lis m In th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among th e te a c h in g p e r ­
s o n n e l.
T h is has much to do w ith th e p le a s a n tn e s s and oppor­
tu n ity f o r success in a p o s itio n .
A ccording to Moehlman1 th e p r o f e s s io n a l group o f te a c h |
e r a h as th r e e Im p o rtan t f u n c tio n s .
f o llo w s :
They a r e summarized a s
(1) The p rim ary f u n c tio n o f th e te a c h e rs a s a p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l groups i s to s e rv e th e p eo p le by making th e im provei
j
m ent o f p u b lic sc h o o ls t h e i r p rim ary o b je c tiv e ;
|
v id e p r o te c tio n to and t o f o s t e r th e w e lfa re o f i t s members;
|
I
(3) p e r s o n a l im provem ent.
{2 ) to p ro -
These f u n c tio n s a r e a p p lic a b le to
th e p r o f e s s io n a s a whole o r to sm a ll u n i t s o f i t .
The te a c h e r s i n B edford County were ask ed i f th e te a c h ­
e r s i n t h e i r sc h o o ls a b s ta in e d from making uncom plim entary r e ­
m arks ab o u t fe llo w w o rk ers and i f th e y worked a g a in s t th e
p o l i c i e s o f t h e i r s c h o o ls .
They were a ls o asked i f t h e i r
f a c u l t y m eetin g s were h e l p f u l t o them an d , in t h e i r f a c u l t y
m e e tin g , i f th e y worked on s u p e rv is o ry p r o j e c t s , such a s com-
^Moehlman, A. B ., S o c ia l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n New Tfork:
D. A ppleton - C entury Company 1938, P . 8 ^ ,8 4 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
raualty s u rv e y s , sc h o o l e v a lu a tio n s , and o th e r c u rric u lu m p r o !
!i
|
|
|
i
1
j
blem s.
I t was th e o p in io n o f th e w r i t e r t h a t th e answ ers
a s re c o rd e d I n T ab le XXX7III g iv e a more fa v o ra b le p i c t u r e
th a n t h a t w hich r e a l l y e x i s t e d .
To what e x te n t t h i s m ight
have been t r u e c o u ld n o t be s a i d .
I t was t r u e , how ever, t h a t
i
in B edford County te a c h e r s had n o t le a r n e d t o r e f r a i n from
ta l k i n g ab o u t fe llo w te a c h e r s In no h e l p f u l term s and many
I
were read y to say ( i n th e p re se n c e o f moat anybody) th in g s
t h a t would be h a rm fu l t o th e s c h o o ls .
T h is , how ever, was by
no means tr u e w ith th e m a jo r ity .
T here was a t o t a l o f n i n e ty - t h r e e te a c h e r s , a p p ro x iI
i
!
m a te ly 72 p e r c e n t, who s a id t h a t te a c h e r s a b s ta in e d from
making uncom plim entary rem arks ab o u t f e llo w - te a c h e r a .
T here
w ere 111, a p p ro x im a te ly 86 p e r c e n t, who s a id th e te a c h e r s
!
i
I
su p p o rte d th e p o l i c i e s o f th e s c h o o ls .
T hree s c h o o ls , New London, M arcuse, and T hax to n , had
j
j
‘
•
no d e f i n i t e sc h e d u le s f o r f a c u l t y m e e tin g s.
j
had one f a c u l t y m eetin g p e r m onth.
S te w a r ta v ille
M ontvale, M oneta, and
F o r e s t had tw o, and H u d d lesto n , Boonsboro, L ib e r ty , and Brookh i l l had f o u r .
T here w ere 102 te a c h e r s , o r a p p ro x im a te ly 93
p e r c e n t o f th o se h a v in g f a c u l t y m e e tin g , who s a id t h e i r
f a c u l t y m e etin g s w ere h e l p f u l .
N in e ty -f o u r, a p p ro x im a te ly 72
p e r c e n t, s a id th e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s u p e rv is o ry p r o j e c t s In
t h e i r s c h o o ls .
On th e s e p r o f e s s io n a l p o in ts s tu d ie d i n th e
I
i
j
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE VARIOUS FACULTIES
T o ta l
Number
T ea ch ers
prohibited without perm ission.
M ontvale
S t e w a r ts v i lle
Moneta
H u d d lesto n .
New London
Boonsboro
Marcuse.
L ib e r ty
F o re s t
B r o o k h ill
T haxton
A ll O th ers
T o ta ls
16
11
12
13
13
11
11
10
3
5
5
20
130
Number t h a t
say th e y a b ­
s t a i n from
m aking un­
complimentary
rem arks
16
2
9
9
3
10
9
10
1
5
5
14
93
Number t h a t
say th e y
s u p p o rt th e
sc h o o l
Number A cui­ Number t h a t
t y m e e tin g s sa y F a c u lty
m e e tin g s a r e
p e r month
h e lp fu l
16
8
12
12
6
11
11
......... .10
1
2
1
2
4
In d e fin ite
4
In d e fin ite
.4
2
4
In d e fin ite
0
5
5
14
111
r
^
16
9
12
9
13
10
10
10
3
2
s
0
102
P a rt th a t
p a rtic ip a te
in S u p er­
v is o r y p ro ­
je c ts
16
6
12
4
9
10
10
10
2
5
4
9
94-
161
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE XXXVIII
-
162
-
v a rio u s s c h o o ls , M ontvale aad L ib e r ty f a c u l t i e s in d ic a te d
t h a t th e y w ere p e r f e c t , and S te w a r ts v i lle and Hew London
r a t e d th em selv es lo w e s t.
Membership in th e V ir g in ia iS au catio n al A s s o c ia tio n
was com pulsory f o r te a c h e r s o f B edford County.
io n was w r i t t e n in to th e t e a c h e r 's c o n t r a c t .
T h is p r o v is ­
Many te a c h e r s ,
how ever, f e l t t h a t th e y sh o u ld have th e freedom t o jo in t h i s
o r g a n is a tio n on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e .
The l o c a l te a c h e r s h ad , more o r l e s s , a b u r e a u c r a tic
o r g a n iz a tio n i n w hich l i t t l e a c t i v e i n t e r e s t was shovm.
The
o u tg o in g p r e s id e n t u s u a lly a p p o in te d a n o m in atin g com mittee
who nom inated o f f i c e r s f o r th e e n su in g
th e y be unanim ously e l e c t e d .
by t h i s r o u t e .
y e a r and moved t h a t
O ff ic e r s w ere u s u a lly e le c te d
A ll w orking com m ittees were a p p o in te d by th e
p r e s id e n t, u s u a lly n o t u s in g o v er s i x o r e ig h t d i f f e r e n t p e r ­
so n s on a l l com m ittees to g e th e r .
A com m ittee a p p o in te d by
th e p r e s id e n t s e le c te d d e le g a te s t o a tte n d th e V ir g in ia M u c a tio n A s s o c ia ti o n 's a n n u a l m e e tin g .
T h is problem was th e
same i n th e y e a r o f t h i s s tu d y a s i t had been a p r a c t i c e
p r e v io u s ly .
A ll d e le g a te s , o r a p a r t , a p p o in te d ,d e c id e d n o t
to go to th e S ta te m e e tin g , n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h a t th e p r e s id e n t
a p p o in t a l t e r n a t e s , th e n more a l t e r n a t e s .
Twelve o r f i f t e e n
ap p o in tm e n ts were som etim es n e c e s s a ry t o g e t to g e th e r s i x o r
e ig h t d e l e g a t e s .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
163
-
In 1938-39 one te a c h e r in each sc h o o l was a p p o in te d
to s e rv e a s chairm an o f th e v a rio u s sch o o l f a c u l t i e s i n work­
in g on a p r o j e c t f o r th e y e a r .
The to p ic of t h i s p r o j e c t was
a l s o a s s ig n e d a r b i t r a r i l y a t th e same tim e .
None o f th e te a c h ­
e r s had had a p a r t i n making p la n s f o r th e s e p r o j e c t s .
The
te a c h e r s a s a vihole had no o p p o rtu n ity to e x p re s s t h e i r i n t e r ­
e s ts or needs.
I t was n o t a p la n c o o p e ra tiv e ly worked o u t.
As a r e s u l t some te a c h e r s who were a p p o in te d a s chairm en want
away from th e g e n e ra l m eetin g n o t remembering th e to p ic s t h a t
had been a s s ig n e d t h e i r g ro u p s .
These p r o je c ts were n e v e r
h e a rd o f a g a in .
The an n u a l t e a c h e r s ’ ban q u et h e ld a t L ib e rty Academy
was a n o th e r o p p o r tu n ity f o r b ic k e r in g .
Some com plained o f
th e p r i c e , some th e fo o d , and Bome found o th e r f a u l t s .
T h is
c o n d itio n d id n o t e x i s t a l to g e t h e r because o f th e d i s p o s i t i o n
o f th e te a c h e r s , b u t becau se o f th e la c k of o p p o rtu n ity f o r
c o o p e ra tiv e p ro c e d u re i n p la n n in g th e p r o f e s s io n a l program .
T h is o r g a n iz a tio n co u ld p r o f i t by heed in g th e fo llo w ­
in g s ta te m e n t:
P r o f e s s io n a l s u c c e s s w i l l u ltim a te ly - be co n d i­
tio n e d by th e d e g re e o f co m p leten ess w ith which e v e ry
member does h is p a r t i n th e g e n e ra l p la n . S in ce accep ­
ta n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I s no rm ally c o n d itio n e d by
a c tiv e I n t e r e s t , p r o f e s s io n a l o r g a n iz a tio n must be de­
sig n e d t o se c u re th e g r e a t e s t p o s s ib le c o n tin u in g i n t e r ­
e s t . One o f th e o n ly s a t i s f a c t o r y means o f acco m p lish ­
ment I s th ro u g h th e p r o g r e s s iv e d e m o c ra tiz a tio n o f p ro ­
f e s s i o n a l o r g a n iz a tio n so t h a t th e r e i s much g r e a t e r
p o s s i b i l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by ev ery member. A p rim ary
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
164
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need I s th e b u ild in g o f s tr o n g l o c a l groups w hich in
tu r n w i l l p roduce a w e ll - in t e g r a te d s t a t e f e d e r a t io n .
T here m ust be o p p o r tu n ity f o r f u l l and f r e e d is c u s s io n
o f a l l problem s and th e developm ent o f p r o f e s s io n a l
p o lic y a s a r e s u l t o f r e c o g n itio n and a c c e p ta n c e by a l l
o f th e members. O ther p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t s in s p e c ia l
s e r v ic e s t h a t may be o f f e r e d members w ith r e s p e c t to
s e c u rin g em ployment, p r o te c tio n from p o l i t i c a l and
economic p r e s s u r e g ro u p s, and c o n s i s t e n t l y d e v e lo p in g
means f o r th e norm al advancem ent o f te a c h in g a s a p ro ­
fe s s io n . 2
Summary.
T h ir ty -s e v e n te a c h e r s s a id t h a t te a c h e r s d id
n o t a b s ta in from t a l k i n g i n an uncom plim entary manner ab o u t
fe llo w -w o rk e rs , n in e te e n s a i d t h a t te a c h e r s d id n o t su p p o rt
th e p o l i c i e s o f th e s c h o o l, and tw e n ty -e ig h t I n d ic a te d t h a t
f a c u l t y m e etin g s i n th e sc h o o ls were n o t h e l p f u l .
The County o r g a n iz a tio n o f te a c h e r s seemed t o be In ­
e f f e c t i v e I n d e v e lo p in g a p r o f e s s io n a l s p i r i t and g ro w th .
The o rg a n iz a tio n was such a s n o t to a llo w te a c h e r p la n n in g .
2M o e h lm n ,'A . B ., S o c ia l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
D. A ppleton - C entury Company, 1938, P . 285'.
New York;
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER T i l l
A SCORE CARD FOR SCORING TEACHING CONDITIONS
A sc o re c a rd f o r s c o rin g te a c h in g c o n d itio n s was de­
velo p ed a lo n g w ith th e s tu d y o f te a c h in g c o n d itio n s I n Bed­
fo rd C ounty.
The f i r s t s te p i n th e stu d y was th e d ev e lo p ­
m ent o f a t e n t a t i v e sc o re c a rd w ith th e h e lp o f l i t e r a t u r e
and o th e r s im ila r s t u d i e s .
T h is t e n t a t i v e sc o re c a rd was
su b m itte d to a group o f te a c h e r s and sc h o o l p r i n c i p a l s f o r
c ritic s © .
h e lp fu l.
The s u g g e s tio n s g iv e n by th e s e p e rs o n s were v ery
The t e n t a t i v e s c o re c a rd was th e n r e v i s e d .
From
th e h e lp o f t h i s s c o re c a rd a q u e s tio n n a ir e was made to be
f i l l e d i n by th e te a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s o f B edford County.
A t e v e ry p o s s ib le o p p o r tu n ity th e q u e s tio n n a ir e allo w ed f o r
th e te a c h e r to e x p re s s p o in ts o f im p o rta n ce I n r e g a rd to
te a c h in g c o n d itio n s .
The f i n a l ite m s to be In c lu d e d i n th e
s c o re c a rd were d ec id ed upon a f t e r th e e n t i r e stu d y was made.
I t was th e n su b m itte d t o s i x p e rs o n s f o r w e ig h tin g .
F iv e o f
th e s e p e rso n s were p r i n c i p a l s f a m i l i a r w ith r u r a l sc h o o ls
and one was a te a c h e r i n a r u r a l s c h o o l.
None o f th e w e ig h ts
w ere so f a r d i f f e r e n t from th e o th e r s t h a t i t was n e c e s s a ry
to cou n t them o u t.
A ll s i x w e ig h ts c o in c id e d f a i r l y c l o s e ly .
The sc o re c a rd t h a t fo llo w s i s a r e s u l t o f a th o ro u g h
stu d y o f what c o n s t i t u t e f a v o r a b le te a c h in g c o n d itio n s and
th e r e l a t i v e im p o rtan ce o f v a r io u s ite m s o f c o n d itio n s .
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
~ 166 —
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I n s t r u c t i o n f o r U sing Card*
i
(1) B a sis f o r s c o r in g ,
j
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1000 p o i n t s .
(2) Three columns a r e allo w ed f o r s c o r in g .
Each o f th e f i f t e e n main, h ead in g s a r e to be sc o re d In columns
on th e extrem e r i g h t .
1
rig h t.
Sub-heads a r e sc o re d i n t u r n from th e
(3) A ll s c o re s sh o u ld be re c o rd e d in th e l i g h t o f
th e d is c u s s io n s o f t h i s m a n u sc rip t found in C h a p te rs I I I , IV,
V, V I, and V II.
SCORE CARD FOR SCORING TEACHING CONDITIONS
_
A.
B.
G.
A.
B.
C.
D.
a
•
B.
I . TENURE
S e le c tio n o f te a c h e r s
S ta b ility
D ism issa l
I I . SALARY schedule
Type
Adequacy o f s a la r y
S ic k le a v e
E d u c a tio n a l le a v e
I I I . HIE SCHOOL PLANT
G en eral A ppearance
a . L o c a tio n
b . D rain ag e
c . B u ild in g
d . C lean in g System
H e a lth and S a f e ty f o r O ccupants
a . S ite
b . H e a tin g and V e n tila tin g
c . F ir e P r o te c tio n
d . L ig h t
e . A ccid en t P re v e n tio n
f . S a n ita tio n
1 . J a n i t o r S e rv ic e
2 . F lo o rs
3 . T o ile ts
4 . H a te r Supply
g . E ledfcai P ro v is io n s
f
___1
..........
2
........
.
3
64 1
29
sl
14
76
12
38
14
12
87
18
4
3
5
6
42
3
*7
S'
5
5
14
4
2
5
3
3
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SCORE CARD FOR SCORING TEACHING CONDITIONS (CONTINUED)
____________ ________________________
C.
A.
B.
A.
B.
C.
A.
B.
C.
A.
3.
C.
A.
1 -
Adequacy f o r , and A d a p ta b ility
to th e School Program
a . S chool C o n tro l
b . C la ss Rooms
c . S p e c ia l Rooms
d . Equipment
e . U tiliz a tio n
if. Environment
g . P la y Area
1 7 . TEACHING MATERIALS( supplies)
E nvironm ental
Commercial
7 . CURRICULUM
Type (co n cep t)
A dequate f o r needs
E x tra c la s s a c t i v i t i e s
7 1 . SUP2R7ISI0N
Types (D em ocratic, sym pathetlc,et'c.)
Adequacy
M ethods(C lass v i s i t a t i o n , e t c . )
711. TEACHING LOAD
C lassroom work
S p e c ia l d u tie s
Time r e q u ir e d o u ts id e sch o o l
T i l l . TEACHER GRADE PLACEMENTS
IX. P UPIL ATTENDANCE
X. FAILURE AND RETARDATION
X I. PUPIL OCNTBCL (Discipline)
X II. PUPIL RECORDS
X I I I . LI7ING CONDITIONS OF
TEACHERS IN LOCAL
COMMUNITIES
B oarding P la c e
a . Convenience to School
b . Environment
c . Landlady
d . Bedroom
e . Food
f . Bath
g . P ro v is io n s f o r L e is u re
h . Cost
1
2
3
27
3
5
3
6
2
3
5
74
37
37
74
16
39
19
55
£1
22
12
102
bi
29
22
37
68
55
74
42
•
5
3
3
4
6
5
3
4
63
33
i
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- 168 -
SCORE CARD FOR SCORING TEACHING CONDITIONS (CONTINUED)
1
B. Community D e s i r a b i l i t y
a . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f T ra n s p o r ta tio n
b. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Communication
c . P ro v is io n s f o r R e c re a tio n
d. D e s ira b le Companions o th e rs
th a n T each ers
3X7. COMMUNITY RELATI0N5KE5
A. O p p o rtu n ity f o r A dult E d u catio n
a . P a tro n s* u se o f p la n t
b . O rganized d is c u s s io n s
c . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f in fo rm a tio n
B. I n t e r e s t
a . T eacher in community
b . Community i n sc h o o l
C. C o o p e ra tio n i n S chool Program
D. A p p re c ia tio n
a . On p a r t o f te a c h e r
b . On p a r t o f p a tro n s
XV* PEDFESSIClsAL RELATIONSHIPS
A. F ello w sh ip o f T each ers
a . L o y alty to sc h o o l
b . C o o p eratio n in work
c . E th ic s
B. F a c u lty M eetings
a - Type
. _ ......................
b. E ffe c t
C. L ocal O rg a n iz a tio n
.. . a • Type
.................
b . Work
c . Accom plishm ents
3
2
30
V
6
9
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—
“
66
15
5
6
4
23
13
11
18
lo
5
5
63
-
28
lo
10
8
20
10
10
4
5
15
6
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER IX
REC0L5MMDATI0NS
1.
S ince te n u re i n B edford County was p o o r, y e a r ly
tu rn o v e r exceeded 10 p e r c e n t, and s in c e th e r e was no d e f i ­
n i t e p la n f o r s e le c tin g and em ploying t e a c h e r s , i t i s recom­
mended t h a t th e s u p e rin te n d e n t work o u t a d e f i n i t e p la n f o r
s e l e c t i n g and em ploying te a c h e r s i n th e l i g h t of t h i s stu d y
and w ith th e a id o f te a c h e r s and o th e r members o f h i s s t a f f .
|
I t i s recommended t h a t p ro b a tio n a ry p e rio d s and lo n g term
c o n t r a c ts be ta k e n i n to c o n s id e r a tio n in w orking o u t t h i s
p la n .
I
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2.
Bedford County te a c h e r s on th e av e ra g e h o ld h ig h -
e r c e r t i f i c a t e s th a n th e av e ra g e f o r th e r u r a l te a c h e r s o f
th e S t a t e , and t h e i r s a l a r i e s ran k low er th a n th o s e f o r th e
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m a jo r ity o f c o u n tie s .
A lso , B edford C o u n ty 's s a la r y s c h e -
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d u le d id n o t encourage m e r it, p r o f e s s io n a l grow th, and te n - .
u re.
Under th e s a la r y sc h e d u le a te a c h e r re a c h e d h e r m axi-
i
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mum l i m i t a f t e r two y e a rs te a c h in g , had no s ic k le a v e , and
had no c o n s id e r a tio n f o r m e r i t .
I t i s recommended t h a t a
new s a l a r y sc h ed u le be p lan n ed f o r th e county te a c h e r s g iv ­
in g due c o n s id e r a tio n to q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , m e r it, s ic k le a v e ,
!
and p r o f e s s io n a l grow th.
I t i s recommended t h a t th e minimum
y e a r ly s a l a r y be a t l e a s t $720 w ith a minimum p o s s ib le i n i
c r e a s e o f $400, making a maximum o f $1120.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 170 -
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3.
I t i s recommended t h a t th e e x a c t b u ild in g needs
a t S te v /a r t s v ill e , H u d d lesto n , Boonsboro, and Marcuse-1- be
j
d eterm in ed and t h a t e s s e n t i a l en larg m en ts be made a s soon
a s p o s s ib le .
4.
S in ce la r g e l i b r a r i e s were found in a d e q u a te and
sm a ll l i b r a r i e s a d e q u a te 2 i t i s recommended t h a t a s p e c ia l
s u p e rv is o ry p r o je c t be s e t up to d i r e c t b e t t e r s e le c tio n
and b e t t o r u se o f books.
5.
S in ce th e r e was a g r e a t sh o rta g e i n te a c h in g ma­
t e r i a l s and sc h o o l a c t i v i t i e s were becoming h ig h ly commer­
c i a l i z e d , i t i s recommended t h a t th e s u p e rin te n d e n t a p p o in t
!
a com m ittee to d e te rm in e th e y e a rly need f o r m a te r ia ls p e r
I
p u p il and t h a t th e sc h o o l b o ard , in t u r n , a l l o t to each
sc h o o l s u f f i c i e n t fu n d s f o r buying
te ria ls .
n e c e s s a ry te a c h in g ma­
I f such a p la n sh o u ld prove im p r a c tic a l i t i s
recommended t h a t a g i t a t i o n be made to p u t te a c h in g m a te r ia ls
j
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!
on th e same b a s is f o r p u rch ase a s sc h o o l l i b r a r y books, t h a t
i s one t h i r d o f c o s t p a id by th e s c h o o l, one t h i r d by th e
j
co u n ty and one t h i r d by th e S ta te .
I
6.
3 in c e th e r e was i n d ic a t io n o f i n e f f ic i e n c y 3 in use
o f te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s , i t i s recommended t h a t a s p e c ia l s u p e r..........
-
}
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^See p a g e 121
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2See page 122
3See jjage -1-22
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v is o r y p ro je c t; be s e t up f o r d i r e c t i n g a b e t t e r u t i l i s a t i o n
o f te a c h in g m a t e r i a l s .
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7.
S in ce s t a t i s t i c s I n d ic a te a -.side d if f e r e n c e in
]
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p o lic y ajcong sc h o o ls on c h i ld prom otion and r e t a r d a t i o n ^ , i t
i s recommended th a t more s u p e rv is io n and stu d y be g iv e n to
t h i s phase o f th e sc h o o l work w ith th e aim o f e s ta b li s h in g
s a t i s f a c t o r y p u p il e v a lu a tio n .
8.
f in e o th e c u rric u lu m was in a d e q u a te 5 , I t i s recom­
mended t h a t c o u rse s in A g r ic u ltu r e and Home 'Scouotiics be p u t
i n t o ev e ry h ig h sc h o o l i n th e co u n ty .
9.
7 /ith th e d i f f i c u l t y o f o f f e r in g a r ic h c u rric u lu m
I n many sm a ll h ig h sc h o o ls i n raind, i t i s recommended t h a t
th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f sc h o o ls in B edford County .s e le c t a
i
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Committee to stu d y th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s o lid a tin g h ig h
s c h o o ls i n th e C ounty.
I t i s recommended h e re t h a t c o n s o li­
d a tio n o f H u d d lesto n , }<;oneta, end 3 te v * a r ts v llle , and th e
e lim in a tio n of Boonsboro be ta k e n I n to c o n s id e r a tio n .
10.
I t i s recommended t h a t more classroom s u p e rv is io n
be p ro v id ed f o r th e te a c h e r s .
11.
S ince j a n i t o r i a l s e r v ic e v/as p o o r6, i t i s recom­
mended t h a t th e County a d m in is tr a tio n o f sc h o o ls g iv e more
a t t e n t i o n to th e s e r v ic e and ta k e w hatever s te p s n e c e s s a ry
to make i t s a t i s f a c t o r y .
I t i s recommended th a t th e a d m in is-
■$See page 109
5See page 123
6See page 65
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I
- 172
t r a t i o n p re v e n t j a n i t o r s from becom ing "perm anent f i x t u r e s "
u n le s s bhey a r e good o n es.
12.
S in ce te a c h e ra g e s seemed to be more econom ical
and s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r th e te a c h e rs and s in c e b o ard in g p la c e s
i
were h a rd to g e t by th e te a c h e r s , i t i s recommended t h a t th e
County School Board fin a n c e th e b u ild in g o f te a c h e ra g e s in
th o s e com m unities where board i s h a r d e s t to g e t .
I t i s recom­
mended t h a t a p la n be worked o ut w hereby th e County w i l l be
iI
'
reim b u rsed f o r t h i s o u tla y th ro u g h r e n t c o l le c te d from a l l
te a c h e r a p a rtm e n ts owned by th e County.
13,
I t i s recommended t h a t th e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f th e
p r e s e n t l o c a l te a c h e r s a s s o c ia tio n be changed to make th e
I
a s s o c ia tio n more f u n c tio n a l.
I t i s recommended t h a t th e
e x e c u tiv e com m ittee be made up by th e e l e c t i o n o f one mernj
b e r from each o f th e e ig h t m a g i s t e r i a l d i s t r i c t s
by th e te a c h ­
e r s o f th e r e s p e c tiv e d i s t r i c t s , and t h a t th e s e e ig h t groups
o f te a c h e r s be allo w ed to o p e ra te in d e p e n d e n tly of each o th e r
i
;
on c e r t a i n m a tte r s .
I t i s recommended, a l s o , t h a t a code o f
j
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e t h ic s be^developed by th e te a c h e r s o f B edford County.
j
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14,
I t i s recommended t h a t a d u l ts o f th e s e v e r a l com­
m u n itie s be g iv en th e o p p o rtu n ity and encouraged to use
!
sc h o o l f a c i l i t i e s more.
15.
|
I t i s recommended t h a t th e sc o re card^ in c lu d e d
i n t h i s stu d y be u sed by th e s c h o o l.a d m in is tr a tio n f o r s c o r­
in g a l l sc h o o ls in th e co u n ty .
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^ S ee p a g e
165
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B I B L I O G R A P H Y
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
A nderson, E. W.,
"H am strin g in g Our T e a c h e rs ,"
A tla n tic
M onthly, 145:390 - 397, June *30.
B a rr, A. S . , B u rto n , W. H ., B reu ck n er, Leo J . , SUPERVISION.
New Y ork: D. A p pleton - C entury Company, 1938. 738 pp.
B o ssin g , N. L ., PROGRESSIVE METHODS OF TEACHING IN SECON­
DARY SCHOOLS, B oston:
Houghton M if f lin Company, 1935.
704 p p .
B rin k , W. G ., D ir e c tin g S tudy A c t i v i t i e s , New York: Double­
day, Doran & Company, 1937. 738 pp.
B roady, K nute 0 . , "S chool S t a f f in th e Sm all Community."
The P h i D e lta Kappan. 19:201 - 202, Number 8 .
B rooks, J . D ., " I am S to b e r" , J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n . 110:
351 - 352, O ctober 1929.
Brown, E. J . , SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, D a lla s :
Houghton M if f lin Company, 1938. 351 pp.
Brown, J . F . , THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL, New York: The
M acM illian Company, 1909. 193 pp .
B ru b ack er, A. R ., " P la in T a lk s to T e a c h e rs ," i n Holmes, H. W.
and F o w ler, B. P . , THE PATH OF LEARNING, B oston: L ittle ,
B row n,,and Company, 1926. 451 pp .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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C iv in g , S tep h en , "B lue Laws f o r T e a c h e rs .”
H a rp e r1s M onthly.
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156:329 - 388, F eb ru ary '3 8 .
C o llin g s , iS., SUPERVISORY GUIDANCE OF TEACHING IN SECONDARY
SCHOOLS, New York:
The MacM illan Company, 1934. 613 pp.
Cook, D. H ., "L o calism , An E d u c a tio n a l W eakness," American
School Board J o u r n a l, 8 5: 26, O ctober *32.
C o o p erativ e Study o f S econdary School S ta n d a rd s , How to
E v u la tu a te a Secondary S ch o o l, W ashington, D. C .,
1938. p p . 2 0 , 2 1 , and 24.
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Cox, P . W. L. and I a n g f i t t , R. C.HIGH SCHOOL SDMINI8TRATION AND SUPERVISION, New York: American Book
j
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Company,
1934. 689 pp‘.
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C u bberley , 2 . P . , PUBLIC SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, B oston:
Houghton M if f lin Company, 1929.
710 pp.
C u bberley , E. P . , THE PRINCIPAL AND HIS SCHOOL, B oston:
Houghton M if f lin Company, 1923.
571 p p .
D elong, V. R ., "P lan n ed T eacher S e le c tio n ," American School
J o u r n a l. 90: 31 - 2 , March '3 5 .
[
D o u g lass, A. A ., MODERN SECONDARY
EDUCATION, D a lla s : Houghton . j
j
M if f lin Company, 1938. 782 pp.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
G r i z z e l l , S. D ., "The Modern Concept o f S econdary E d u c a tio n ,”
U n iv e r s ity o f V ir g in ia Record E x ten sio n S e r ie s ,
j
S econdary E d u catio n i n V ir g in ia , Number 25, 71-73 p p .
Huggens, J . T. and H erb o ld , P a u l, " T r ib u la tio n o f Sm all Town
T e a c h in g .”
The N atio n * s S c h o o ls, 25:26 - 27, Number
May *39,
Ja c o b se n , E. W., "The T eacher Comes P i r s t . ”
The P h i D e lta
Kappan, 20: 52, Number 2.
McCormack, W. R ., "S chool B u ild in g s as They a r e and a s They
Should Be, N. E. A. , M d re 33 and P ro c e e d in g s . 1919.
j
361-364 p p .
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Moehlman, A. B ., SOCIAL INTERPRETATION, New York: D. A p p leto n
I
'
C en tu ry Company, 1938. 485 pp.
N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch D iv is io n , "A dm inist r a t i v e P r a c tic e s A ff e c tin g C lassroom T e a c h e rs” P a r t I ,
"The S e le c tio n and A ppointm ent o f T e a c h e r s ,” R esearch
j
I
i
i
j
B u l l e t i n . 1 0 :3 2 , Number 1 , Ja n u ary 1932.
N a tio n a l E d u catio n A s s o c ia tio n , R esearch D iv is io n , "A Hand-.
book on T eacher T e n u re ," R esearch B u l l e t i n , 14: 167-194,
j
Number 4 , Septem ber 1936.
j
lj
ii
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 176 -
P o in t o f View o f E d u ca tio n , ’'I n t r o d u c t i o n .”
B u l l e t i n S ta te
Board f o r V ir g in ia E lem entary S c h o o ls, Richmond; Di­
v is io n o f P u rch ase and P r i n t i n g , 1934. P . 1 .
S a f e ty f o r School C h ild r e n ,” American School Board J o u r n a l,
94: 52, May 1937.
The B edford D em ocrat, 8 0 th A n n iv ersa ry H i s t o r i c a l and Indus
t r i a l E d itio n , 1857-1937, 56 pp.
T u g g le, M. A ., "A C ountry School T eacher S p e a k s .”
J o u rn a l o f E d u c a tio n ,
V ir g in ia
3 2 :4 1 9 , Number 9 .
W rin k le , W. L ., THE NEW HIGH SCHOOL IN THE .MAKING, D a lla s ;
American Book Company, 1938. 318 p p .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
.A P P E N D I X
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
QUALIFICATIONS, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF TEACHERS IN THE MONTVALK SCHOOL
prohibited without perm ission.
T ea ch ers
1 £ 3 4 5
Age .
£6 37 £6 £5 44
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normai
L X.
,X
— C o n s u l a t e ............ ”
- co lleg ia t/tr “a iafeBSlGnsr
Nranbe-r-y e a r s - ■■since----a t te n d i n g sc h o o l
7 ft .a. s
“5~
7“-ro­
■Experience
7
E x p erien c e in Bedford
ll 3 5 w
Number s c h o o ls taught
i n B edford County
4 1 £ 2 3
P r e s e n t Tenure
i 11 T H i 1
585 isob Bid 72d 5ES
S a la ry i n D o lla rs
P o s itio n *
E p HIE E
X
X
6 7 8
54 34 41
X
X
9
20
X
10
3£
11
27
12
26
13
14
32
15
25
16 T o ta l Average
25
X
X
X
X
X
1
JL
cr* _r_ JZ TLl 1 14 ' 1
£
l
i
%
3
14
X
X
6
1
4
2
1
3
1 1 8
2
£5
pab 335 585 i 510
E
E
E 1E E
H
X
X
7
1
1 8
4
4
g
g
E> ib Id
4
5“ lo
8
4
j
3
1 i £
2
1
3 ! 9
3
4
3
3l0“ BlO {585 feld m o
H
H1 E1 HI D1
e>
4 5 /3 8 /8
7
2
4
*E - E le m e n ta ry , H - H igh s c h o o l, P - P r i n c i p a l , D - Home Econom ics, A - A g r i c u ltu r e .
NOTE: T h is t a b l e i s to be re a d a s f o llo w s : The te a c h e r i n th e f i r s t v e r t i c a l colunn
was frfirenty-slx y e a rs o ld , h e ld a norm al P r o f e s s io n a l c e r t i f i c a t e , had n o t a tte n d e d so h o o l
d u rin g th e l a s t se v en y e a r s , had sev en y e a rs e x p e rie n c e , had seven y e a rs e x p e rie n c e in
B edford County, had ta u g h t i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t s o h o o ls , had been one y e a r a t M o n tv ale, drew
$585 y e a r l y s a l a r y , and was an e le m e n ta ry t e a c h e r .
T ab le I I I g iv e s a s i m i l i a r stu d y o f th e rem a in in g B edford County t e a c h e r s .
177
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - (a)
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF TEACHERS IN THE STEWARTS7ILLE SCHOOL
prohibited without perm ission.
T ea ch ers
Age
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal'
C o lle g ia te
Collegiate Bxfesslcbal
&umWr y e a rs s in c e
a t te n d i n g sc h o o l
E x p erien c e ■
E x p e rie n c e in B edford
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
i n B edford
P r e s e n t T enure
S a la r y in D o lla rs
P o s itio n ^
1
£ j 9
2
36
3
4
zi
5
36
-
X
X
X
2
8
8
1
To
To
3
2
4
9
S85 1500
E
P
.
X
5
5
5
3
2
810
H
1
r
S
21
'
........
i
i
675
E
3
1
1*7 r 7
7
7
1
758b
E
5
2
58b
E
9
X
X
1
14
i
i
10
22
11 ro tal A verage
"28
X
X
1
^
7
32
X
'
" 1
6
-
1
1
1
5
1
3
1
585 1000
E
D
X
X
5
0
6
178
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - (b)
3
'3
3
4
4
4
3
3
2
2 .2
6 .6
5 .3
1
3
3
2
585
E
1
2
675
2 .3
3 .2
was
E
t
*E - Elementary, H - High school, P - Principal, D - Home Economics, A - Agriculture.
-
179
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I I I
-
(ct)
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF TEACHERS IN HUDDLESTON SCHOOL
prohibited without perm ission.
T eao h ers
3
6
7
9 10 11 12 13 T o ta l
1
4
5
8
33 34 42 22 26 29 40 26 30 23 22 22
A«e...
_ ______________
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
X
1
-\r
Normal
X
X
5
X
C o lle g ia te
C o lle g ia tie P ro f essio n al
X
7
X
X
Number y e a rs s in c e
3
9
1
1
6
a t te n d i n g so h o o l
1
4
1
4
1
1 2
9 11 18
7
2
E x p e rie n c e
8 10 24
2
9 11 14
E x p erien c e in B edford
9
2
1
1 23
2
7
2
2
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
i n B edford
1 17
1
1
3
4
4
1
1
7
4
1 1
P re s e n t T enure
1
3
2
1
9
2
3
9
2
4
2
1
76b 585 13B0 560 765 585 58b 720 585 585 765 76b 1f»65
S a la r y i n D o lla rs
E
P o s itio n *
P
II
E
E
E
E
H
iS E
H
H H
2
2
A verage
2
A
X
X
X
X
X
2
2
180
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE
1
1
1
2
1
1
*E - E le m e n ta ry , H - Higli scb o o l, P - P r i n c ip a l , D - Home Eoonomic s , A - Agr i o u l t u r 8 .
2 .8
8 .2 5
6.2 5
3 .5
3
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF THE TEACHERS IN NEW.LONDON SCHOOL
prohibited without perm ission.
T ea ch ers
1
2- 3
4
5
23
25
24
46
Age i
.............. .......... ....
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal
C o lle g ia te
C o lle g ia te P ro fessio n al
Number y e a rs s in c e
4
a t te n d i n g sc h o o l
7
1
1
3
E x p e rie n c e •
24
lo
2
3
E x p erien c e in B edford
10
3
2
3
4
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
in B edford
5
i
1
2
1
5
3
3
P r e s e n t Tenure
765 Wo 720 765 720
S a la r y i n D o lla rs
H
E
P o s itio n *
D
H rE
-
6
7
So 34
8
46
9
21
10
35
11
4l
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
J l
12
24
13 T o tal
23
X
X
X
X
1
20
11
I
13
7
2l
2
io
2
3
l
•8 10
1
765 2400 iaoo
A
p
H
X
2
1
2 16
: 2 1 16
A verage
3
2
e
181
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - (e)
1
5
s
2 .5
lo .ii
5
2
4
3
4
1
5
1
9
2
3
585 530 630 763 720
E
E
E
E
H
2 .3 3
4
1
18
13
2
2
2
*E - Elementary, H - High school, P - Principal, D - Home Economics, A - Agriculture.
QjUALIFIGiiTIOW, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF THE TEACHERS IN BOQNSBORO SCHOOL
prohibited without perm ission.
T each ers
^ee
......................... .
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal
C o lle g ia te
C o lle g ia te Rafessiaoal
Humber y e a rs s in c e
a t te n d i n g sc h o o l
E x p e rie n c e •
E x p e rie n c e i n B edford
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
i n B edford
P r e s e n t T enure
S a la r y i n D o lla rs
P o s itio n *
1
-
2
24
3
26
4
25
5
21
6
20
8
85
X
X
«*r
X
10
8
7
27
3
3
2
2
4
3
585 675
E
E
1
2
2
V
-sv
X
X
2
5
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
765
H
1
1
r/eb
H
1
1
2
2
- LCJOO
D
H
9
-
X
10
28
5
4
X
5
2
28
23
3
3
5•
H
385 • 720
E
E
3
6
obb
E
o
T o ta l Average
-
X
X
8
9
9
11
182
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - ( f )
7
4
14
9
2 .6
7 .9
6 .4
2
4
4
7
Sab ].500
E
P
2 .2
3 .2
2
S
9
*E - E le m e n ta ry , H - High sch o o l, P - P r iii c i p a l , D - Home Econo m ics, A - A g ric u l t u r e .
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF THE TEACHERS IN MARCUSE SCHOOL
T each ers
1
26
2
-
3
24
prohibited without perm ission.
Age
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
X
Normal
C o l le g i a te
C o lle g ia te P ro fe ssio n a l
X
X
Number y e a rs s in c e
6
a t te n d i n g sc h o o l
3
3
8 15
3
E x p erien c e
E x p erien c e i n B edford
8
8
2
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
1
i n B edford
4
1
8
P re s e n t T enure
3
2
S a la 'ry i n D o lla rs
585 l£O0 310
E
P
H
P o s itio n *
4
28
5
22
X
6
20
7
23
X
X
8
-
9
-
10
3l
11
21
X
X
X
1
9
9
1
9
585
E
1
1
1
i
i
2
3
1
•5
2
3
b
l
1
675
E
2
3
3
1
1
Xa
d
85
'
720
540
E
E
E
2
19
19
1
X9
58b
E
X
X
2
1
io
2
1
1
2
bI o
H
I
1
i
765
H
P o ta l A verage
5
1
5
183
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - (g)
2
. 6 .9
.5 .4
..1 .7
4 •4
*
*E - Elementary, H - High School, P - Principal, D - Home Economics, A - Agriculture.
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF THE TEACHERS IN LIBERTY SCHOOL
prohibited without perm ission.
T ea ch ers
2
1
Age
34
22
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal
C o lle g ia te
C o lle g ia te P r o f e s s io n a l
X
X
Number y e a r s s in c e a t t e n d !
in g s c h o o l
1
2
E x p erien c e
9
1
E x p e rie n c e i n B edford
9
1
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
In B edford
3
1
P r e s e n t Tenure!
1
2
S a la r y i n D o lla r s
J 1606. 675'
P o s itio n *
E
P
3
24
4
23
5
29
6
33
7
24
8
24“
X
9
26
10
24
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
12
1
1
5
765
£
1
3
765
E
5
720
E
5
X
1
6
1
3
3
T o ta l .Average
184
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - (h)
X
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1 V S'585 726 675
E
E
E
1
3
1 .9
5
5
3
5.6
2
5
1
5
1 .5
2 .3
n
-
izo
E
*E - Elementary, H ~ High school, P - Principal, D - Home Eeonoaioa, A - Agriculture.
3 .7
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF THE TEACHERS IN FOREST, BROOKHILL, AND THAXTON SCHOOLS
T ea ch ers
Age
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal
C o lle g ia te
Collegiate ProtessiaaaL
1
-
FOREST
3 ' total
2
35 3 3
1
55
BROOKHILL .
2
3
5 r btal.
4
22 25 3o 28
t
2
3
4 i
-
-
X
X
?0N
4
26
5 r ! o ta l
28 I
i
X
2
X
X
1
X
X
X
X
prohibited without perm ission.
1
13
10
8
1
3
3
*7
X
X
X
1 .3
tx
2
2
6
2
1
2 .3
2 .6
3
3
3
! 6
! 6
6
iveragp
1
1
2 .2
3
9
9
8 ;. 3 . 4
8 8
I 1
5
2
2
6
1
2
1
i
Smo. 6
75 !585 i
>40
E
E TXsSBBSb d
E
2 .8
4
4
1
average
2
12
i
4
3
1
585 (>30 I ilO
E
p
te
4
1"
X
h ea sg e
Number y e a rs s in o e
a tte n d in g sch o o l
E x p erien c e
E x p erien c e i n B edford
Number s c h o o ls ta u g h t
i n B edford
P r e s e n t T enure
S a la r y i n D o lla rs
P o s itio n *
r ?h a :ui
:0
2
16
14
1
1
15
7
7
i
4
8
8
2 .6
5 .6
5 .6
3
4
3
3 .2
1
16
1
6
2
1
f85 1375 010 $75 650
%
E I
ME P
E
E
3
3
*E - E lem en ta ry , H - H igh s c h o o l, P - P r i n c i p a l , D - Home Econom ics, A - A g r i c u ltu r e .
185
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - ( i ) - ( j ) - (k)
QUALIFICATION, EXPERIENCE, TENURE, AND SALARY
OF THE TEACHERS IN ALL OTHER SCHOOLS
9 10 H 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 L9 20 Ittal Average
20 66 88 33 34 b9 48 d! 38 2b i t
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1 6 4 5
29 22 29 22
29 5 12 12
3
16
1
X
2
2
1
4 1
4 15
4 ll
1 2 1 3 7
3 5 10 12 1 1
UJ d
fr­ 8
CO £N
ee c>- <o W LO
E E E E E E
63C
S a la ry i n D o lla rs
P o s itio n *
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
51 50 49 42 22 25 33 29
5
1 6
7 .7
7 .7
2' 5
3 3l
1 31
7 1 4
3 1 1
o "UJ
P
in C
mO n
E E E S
2 3 10 1
9 L4£- 14 10
9 4 f 14 19
1
4
4
3
3 .1
b
T O ”
4
4
1
A.
33
1
1
b
i
5
2
7
b
CO
in
Cl}
H
to in in w
E E E E E
E
1
7
2
2
2
3 2 1
- 30 22
7 26 6
329
prohibited without perm ission.
T ea ch ers
Age
....................
C e rtific a te :
E lem en tary
Normal
C o lle g ia te
CdLLegiate BxfessiaBl
Number y e a rs s in c e
a t te n d i n g s c h o o l
E x p e rie n c e ■
E x p e rie n c e i n Bedlhrd
IShmber schociLs taught
in B edford
P r e s e n t T enure
186
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction
TABLE I I I - (1)
3
t
It
E
»
E
3
in
E E
*E - Elementary, H - High school, P - Principal, D - Home Economics, A - Agriculture.
ll
3
” 3
- 187 -
Moneta High School
lio n e t a , V ir g in ia
T each ers o f B edford County
Dear F ello w -w o rk er:
In f i l l i n g o u t th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n n a ir e you w i l l
h e lp make i t p o s s ib le f o r me t o subm it a m a s te r 's t h e s i s
to th e U n iv e r s ity o f V ir g in ia .
T h is th e s e s I s t o be a s tu d y o f th e te a c h in g con­
d i t i o n s in t h i s c o u n ty . N e a rly a l l o f th e s e q u e s tio n s
a p p ly to your s i t u a t i o n . The ones t h a t do n o t, p le a s e i g ­
n o r e . Make y o u r answ ers a s n e a r c o r r e c t a s p o s s i b l e , s in c e
o th e rw is e th e y w i l l h in d e r my s tu d y r a t h e r th a n h e lp . The
f i n a l body o f m a te r ia l g iv e n by a l l te a c h e r s sh o u ld g iv e a
p i c t u r e o f c o n d itio n s a s th e y r e a l l y a r e .
T his stu d y i s made w ith th e f u l l a p p ro v a l o f Mr.
Cummings. He s t a t e s t h a t i t i s h i s w ish t h a t e v e ry te a c h e r
c o o p e ra te to th e f u l l e s t e x t e n t . He i s o f th e o p in io n
t h a t th e r e v a l a tio n s o f t h i s s tu d y sh o u ld b rin g some bene­
f i t to th e te a c h e r s o f th e c o u n ty .
T h is p a p e r a f t e r b ein g f i l l e d o u t by you w i l l be
used by no one ex c ep t me. A ll in fo rm a tio n w i l l be k e p t
s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . N othing w i l l be g iv e n o u t p e r s o n a l­
l y c r e d ite d t o anyone.
I s h a l l d ee p ly a p p r e c ia te your h e lp .
S in c e re ly y o u rs ,
Samuel J . C offey
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- xas .School
T eaching C o n d itio n s o f B edford County’ s White S chools
(When p o s s ib le answ er i s l i s t e d , u n d e r lin e )
I
The T eacher
1.
Give age
y e a rs:
Sex______ :
M arried ___________
2*
Where were you r a i s e d , i n c o u n ty , v i l l a g e , o r town?
3.
'Where i s your p r e s e n t hoae?_
4.
Give y e a r ly s a la r y
5.
What c e r t i f i c a t e do you h o ld ?
6.
When d id you l a s t a t te n d sch o o l?
7.
How lo n g have you ta u g h t?
________________ y rs .
8.
Hoy;
9.
How lo n g have you ta u g h t in your p re s e n t p o s itio n ?
lo n g have you ta u g h t i n B edford County?_______ y rs .
y^s.
10.
Name th e sc h o o ls i n B edford County in w hich you have
t a u g h t._____
11.
.
Which p la c e do you l i k e best?^
Why?_________________________ _
12.
What i s (1) th e g r e a t e s t (2) th e n e x t g r e a t e s t h in ­
d ra n c e to b e t t e r te a c h in g by you? (1)
( 2 ) _ _ _
13.
■
How co u ld th e s e h in d ra n c e s be e lim in a te d ( 1)
'
(2 )
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- 189 -
14.
YJhat I s (1) th e g r e a t e s t (2) th e n ex t g r e a t e s t h e lp
to you i n your work? (1 )_________________ ____________
(2)
15.
.
:
.......................................................
U n d e rlin e two o f th e th r e e in f lu e n c e s t h a t a r e most
d is e o n c e rn in g to your w ork.
(1) sc h o o l (2) classro o m
(3) l i v i n g c o n d itio n s .
16.
Has s c h o o l o r l i v i n g c o n d itio n s o f sc h o o l caused you
any i l l n e s s o r p h y s ic a l d e f ic ie n c ie s ?
M/hat cau se?________ _
17.
How much tim e p e r day o u ts id e o f sc h o o l h o u rs do you
spend on sc h o o l work?
hr a .
18.
v/hat g ra d e o r s u b je c ts do you te ach ?
19.
What g rad e o r s u b je c ts d id you p re p a re to te a c h ?
20 .
How many p u p i l s » homos have you v i s i t e d d u rin g th e
l a s t y e a r i n your p r e s e n t community?
21.
(a) A re you a ch u rch member?________________________
(b) What denom ination?
_________ ______________
I I . The S chool
(Where p o s s ib le answ ers a r e g iv e n , u n d e r lin e your
answ er)
1.
Do th e te a c h e r s o f your sc h o o l a b s ta in from c a s tin g
uncom plim entary r e f l e c t i o n s on fe llo w w orkers? No, Yes.
2.
Hoy? o f te n a r e f a c u l t y m eetin g s h e ld ? ________p e r month.
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- 190 «
3.
Are th e s e m e etin g s h e lp f u l? Wo, Y es.
4.
Are group and f a c u l ty p r o j e c t s , such a s c o u rs e o f stu d y
c o n s tr u c tio n , check l i s t s , p la n s f o r s a f e ty i n s t r u c t i o n ,
e t c , o f te n u n d e rta k e n i n y o u r sc h o o l?
5.
Y es, Ho.
Does each member o f th e f a c u l t y d efen d th e p o l i c i e s o f
th e sc h o o l r a t h e r th a n t a l k a d v e rs e ly to them o u ts id e ?
Ho, Yea.
6.
Does your sc h o o l o b serv e th e n a t i o n a l M u c a tio n Week?
Ho, Y es.
7.
A pproxim ately how many p a tr o n s have v i s i t e d your room
d u rin g th e l a s t y e a r ’ s tim e?_____________
8.
A pproxim ately how many p a t r o n s ’ m eetin g s a r e h e ld
y e a r ly ?
9.
(a) How many e le m e n ta ry p u p ils do you have in your
room?__________
room do you have?
10 .
-
(b)_Yvhut d u t i e s o u ts id e c l a s s ­
______________
(a) Give th e number o f h ig h sc h o o l c la s s e s you te a c h
______ and your t o t a l c l a s s e n ro llm e n t
11.
Are th e r e s u f f i c i e n t p u p il re c o rd s (in fo rm atio n , ab o u t
p u p ils ) on sc h o o l f i l e s to h e lp you in te a c h in g y o u r
p u p ils ? No, Y es.
12.
A pproxim ately what p e r c e n t o f th e p u p ils i n your c l a s s ­
e s r e a l l y c o o p e ra te i n p ro d u c in g th e p ro p e r le a r n in g
s i t u a t i o n ? ___________________ '
13.
To what e x te n t do d i s c i p l i n e problem i n t e r f e r e w ith
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 191 -
sc h o o l work? none, s o n s , v e ry much.
14.
At F eb ru ary 1 s t i f 1 s t g rad e p u p il i s 7 y e a rs o f a g e ,
2nd 8 y e a r s , 3 rd S y e a r s , e t c . , how many o v er age and
u n d er age p u p ils do you have i n your room?
ove r
15.
und e r ___________
In what way have community o r g a n iz a tio n s h elp ed th e
3ohool w ith i n th e l a s t y e a r ?
_______
Any a d d i t i o n a l s ta te m e n ts u n d er any o f th e s e
h ead in g s w i l l be o f much h e lp .
I I I .T h e S chool P la n t
1.
Do you f e e l t h a t th e b u ild in g and grounds a re such
us to i n s p i r e p u p ils to a p p r e c ia te a r c h i t e c t u r a l
v a lu e and b eau ty ? No, Y es.
2.
To what e x te n t do th e y I n s p ir e you i n t h i s manner?
none, some, v ery
3.
4.
much.
VJhat
p e r c e n t o f th© rooms a r e r e a l l y a t t r a c t i v e
w ith
th e p r e s e n t te a c h in g s e t-u p ? ____________ ______ ;
Ydiat
p e r c e n t o f th e rooms i n your sc h o o l
tr a c tiv e ly b u ilt?
5.
were a t ­
%
How w e ll a r e a l l p a r t s o f th e b u ild in g c lean e d ?
Very p o o rly , p o o r ly , s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , v ery s a t i s ­
fa c to rily .
6.
Are th e r e s a n i t a r y t o i l e t s ? Y es, Ho.
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p
-
7.
192 -
I s your room so c o n s tru c te d as to a llo w p ro p e r l i g h t s
over l e f t sh o u ld e r o f p u p i l s . Y es, Mo.
many p u p ils a r e a f f e c te d ?
8.
I f n o t, how
_______________ _
/>re th e r e s u f f i c i e n t u n o b s tru c te d e x i t s to your
sch o o l? Yes, No.
How lo n g does i t ta k e to e n t i r e l y v a c a te sc h o o l in
f i r e d r i l l ? _______ '______ p i n . __________________ s e c .
10,
I n acco rd an ce w ith Jrour o b s e rv a tio n , i n o rd e r o f im­
p o r ta n c e , l i s t th e c h ie f cau ses o f a c c id e n ts a t
s c h o o l._______________________________ ________ ______
11 .
I s th e r e ad eq u ate f i r s t - a i d equipm ent i n th e sch o o l?
Y es, Ho.
12 .
How f a r away I s th e n e a r e s t doctor?_
13.
I s a te le p h o n e a v a ila b le (1) w ith in th e sch o o l (2)
w ith in
14.
m ile o f s c h o o l ( I )
m i.
(2 )________ _
When was sx h o o l w a te r l a s t t e s t e d f o r p u r ity ?
____________F onths
15.
What i s th e so u rce of w a te r?
__,
___
16.
Your room has a c a p a c ity f o r how many p upils?_
17.
How many books a r e in th e sc h o o l lib r a r y ? ____
18.
How many new books f o r your sc h o o l have been added
d u rin g th e l a s t y e a r? __________________
19.
Do you f in d books f o r your p a r t i c u l a r g rad e o r c l a s s
v e ry i n s u f f i c i e n t , s u f f i c i e n t , abundant?
20
.
How many s e t s of e n c y c lo p e d ia s a r e i n th e sc h o o l l i ­
b ra ry ?
_
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-
193
-
It
21 .
A pproxim ately xvhat- p e r c e n t o f th e l i b r a r y books
a r e o ld and o u t o f d a te ? ______
j
22.
ch
I f used eco n o m ically b a t s u f f i c i e n t l y , o v er what
p a r t o f th e sc h o o l y e a r would te a c h in g s u p p lie s ,
j
a v a ila b le f o r your w ork, l a s t ? _______________ 5 y r .
i
k y ? - , ___________________________i
yr°
23.
How a r e th e s e s u p p lie s o b ta in e d ? __________________
24 .
How much p la y space does th e sc h o o l have?
25.
3y u n d e r lin in g , d e s c rib e p la y a r e a .
a c re s.
Hough, o f te n
muddy, sm ooth, l i t t l e mud, hard to a rra n g e , ea sy
to a r r a n g e .
2d.
ivhat community o r g a n iz a tio n s meet in your sch o o l?
How o f te n ? _________________________
27.
l a th e r e (1) a r a d io , (2) p ia n o , (3) v i c t r o l a in
your sc h o o l (4) m usic m a te r ia ls ? (U n d erlin e)
28.
For s c i e n c e 'i n s t r u c t i o n , l i s t f r e e s u p p lie s g o tte n
from y o u r surro u n d in g s_ ________ ,
IV .
.
„__________
L iv in g C o n d itio n s o f T eachers
1.
I s th e fa m ily l i f e in th e home i n which you board
p le a s a n t? Ho, Yc3.
2.
Does y o u r la n d la d y tr y to make th in g s p le a s a n t f o r
you? i?o, Y es.
3.
Does sh e succeed? No, Yes.
Your bedroom h as p ro p e r l i g h t , h e a t, a t t r a c t i v e n e s s ,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
c l o s e t space and co m fo rtab le f u r n i t u r e . (U n d erlin e
d e s c r ip tiv e p a r ts )
4.
Bathroom i3 c o n v e n ie n t, has p ro p e r h e a t, equipm ent,
and w ater s u p p ly .
5.
(U n d erlin e d e s c r ip tiv e p a r ts )
The l i v i n g room i s p ro v id e d w ith p ro p e r l i g h t , p ro ­
p e r h e a t , books, m ag azin es, p ia n o , r a d io and com­
fo rta b le fu rn itu re .
6.
(U n d erlin e d e s c r i p t i v e p a r ts )
Meal i s w e ll b a la n c e d , w e ll cooked and w e ll s e rv e d .
(U n d e rlin e d e s c r ip tiv e p a r t s )
?.
How much p e r month do you pay f o r board?___________
8.
How o f te n do you a tte n d ch u rch i n your sc h o o l com­
munity?^_____________________ mo n th ly
9.
10.
Do th e p eo p le ex p ect you to a t te n d church? No, Y es.
What p a r t o f th e w eek-ends do you spend i n th e sc h o o l
community?
11.
_____
Are th e p eo p le t o l e r a n t tow ard y o u r r e l i g i o u s and
m oral b e l i e f s ? Ho, Y es.
12.
To what o f your a c t i v i t i e s do th e y o b je c t?
13.
(a) Does any in d iv id u a l o r group t r y to in f lu e n c e
your sc h o o l a c t i v i t i e s unduly? Ho, Y es.
14.
Do l o c a l m erch ants a s a whole u rg e you to buy from
them? No, Y es.
15.
Do you have p r o v is io n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n your com­
m unity?
No, Y ea.
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5
-
195
-
j
I
;
I
i
16. L is t th e ty p e and amount of r e c r e a t i o n you g e t in
th e f iv e t y p i c a l sc h o o l days o f a week.
17.
_
Are th e r e a g re e a b le companions i n your community?
No, Y es.
|
f
j
10. (a) Does your community g o s s ip a b o u t te a c h e rs ?
None, some, much.
j
19.
(b) M ake.a s h o r t s ta te m e n t a s t o th e s iz e and n a tu re
o f t h i s g o ssip '’r in g " ________________________________
19.
Do te a c h e r s g o ss ip ab o u t th e community? Ho, Y es.
20.
Do th e p eo p le a s a whole a p p r e c ia te th e s in c e r e e f ­
f o r t s nade by th e te a c h e r o r sch o o l? Ho, Y es.
21.
Do te a c h e rs a p p r e c ia te h e lp g iv en by th e p eo p le?
Ho, Y es.
22.
How f a r i s your b o ard in g p la c e from th e sch o o l?
_______________
m ile s .
23.
I s th e r e h a rd s u r fa c e or d i r t o v e r w hich t o go?
24.
Do you v/alk o r r i d e to and from sch o o l?
25.
Make a s ta te m e n t a s to th e problem o f b o ard in g o r
g e t tin g board in your com munity._________ _____
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
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