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THE NATURE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND CAREERS OF NEGROES LIVING IN MANHATTAN, COVERING THE YEARS 1929-1937

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L o o p , Anne S
The n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
e d u c a t i o n an d c a r e e r s o f n e g r o e s l i v i n g
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29cn.
T h e s i s ( P h . D . ) - New Y ork u n i v e r s i t y ,
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' ' S e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y ’1: p . 1 8 9 - 2 0 9 .
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THIS DISSERTATION HAS BEEN MICROFILMED EX A C TL Y AS RECEIVED.
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4 -J94Q
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T H E N A T U R E OE T H E R E L A T I O N S H I P SET' A' EE N E D U C A T I O N AND C A R E E R S
OF NEGROES L I V I N G
COVERI NG
THE
I N VANHATTAN
TEARS
1929-1937
by
Anne
Submitted
in p a r t i a l
f o r the i e i r e e
in t h e School of
S.
L oop
fulfillment
of the requi rement s
of Doctor of Philosophy
E d u c a t i o n o f New Yor k U n i v e r s i t y
1940
PLEASE NOTE:
Some pages may have
indistinct
p rin t.
F i l me d as r e c e i v e d .
U niversity M icrofilm s,
A Xer ox E d uc a t i o n Company
A C K N 0 WLED3 EMENTS
Vy warmest thanks are due t o t h e members o f t h e F a c u l t y o f
th e School o f E duc ati on o f New York U n i v e r s i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o
Dean I . Oeorge Payne and Dr. F r n e s t P. Food, f o r t h e i r guidance
and i n s p i r a t i o n in th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s tu d y .
Yost h e l c f u l
a l s o has been t h e kind c o b p e r a t i o n o f Yr. James Fubert, c f the
New York Urban League,
in making a v a i l a b l e t o me the r e c o r d s o f
t h e Employment O f f i c e ,
and th e w i l l i n g a s s i s t a n c e c f t h e vo c a ­
t i o n a l c o u n s e l o r s c f t h e New York Urban League.
A. S. L.
A T, 0 5 7 1
Table of Contents
CHAPTER
I.
pAG1
Introduction
.
.
.
.
.
P r e v i o u s Research in t h e F i e l d
Summary
.
.
.
.
II.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 1 1
The M ies o f This Study and t h e Procedure Followed
IIT . P e r s o n a l Background o f t h e Cases
IV. A n a l y s i s o f F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
. 1 ?
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
I n i t i a l O cc u p a ti o n s o f Men and Women
I n f l u e n c e o f Age on I n i t i a l Employment
.
£1
.
.
.
.
FP
F7
F9
PF
.
Study o f th e Wage S c a l e While Employed cn F i r s t
O c cu pa ti ons
.
.
.
.
.
Reasons f o r X e avin g F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
P7
7?
Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s
.
7P
.
.
.
.
A n a l y s i s o f Occu pa ti on al H i s t o r i e s .
.
.
. P I
I n f l u e n c e o f Education cn P a s t Occupations c f Males .
PI
I n f l u e n c e o f Education on P a s t Occupations o f Females
I n f l u e n c e o f Education on P a s t Occupations c f Males
and Females
.
.
.
.
.
.
I n f l u e n c e c f Age on Da s t Oc cupat io nal H i s t o r i e s
.
Weekly Wages on ^ a s t O cc u p a ti o n s Excluding F i r s t
P ositions
.
.
.
.
.
.
Reasons f o r Leaving P o s i t i o n s Held from 19?P Through
I 9 f 7 , E xc lu di n g M r s t Jobs
.
.
.
D uration o f P o s i t i o n s Held from 1PPP Through 1 9 f7 ,
E x c l u s i v e o f F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s
VI.
If
,
I n i t i a l O c cu pa ti ons o f Men
.
I n i t i a l O c cu pa ti ons o f Women
V.
1
1
.
.
.
.
.
PF
PP
PO
101
10F
10P
. 1 1 ?
A n a l y s i s o f Job R e f e r r a l s
.
.
.
.
.
I n f l u e n c e c f Education on F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s o f
HP
Males
.
.
.
•
•
•
I n f l u e n c e o f Education cn F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s o f
. 1 1 7
Females .
.
.
.
•
•
I n f l u e n c e o f Education on F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s o f
Males and Females
.
.
.
.
.
.
-i-
!?<:
1?^
-iiOHAPTER
VT.
PACE
(continued)
I n f l u e n c e o f Age on F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s .
1?7
Number o f Job R e f e r r a l s B ef or e Permanent Placement
R e s u l t s o f All Job R e f e r r a l s
Reasons f o r Not Being Hired .
.
.
.
Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s
. . .
IBP
VTT. O b s t a c l e s C o n fr on t in g t h e Negro in Seeking Employment
14?
IF?
The D e p r e s s i o n and Attendant Unemployment Problems
Union Membership
1F?
1F4
E d u c a ti o n a l T r a i n in g
1F9
V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n in g
V o c a t i o n a l Ouidance
1. PI
.
IP?
1P4
1P7
C on c e pt io n s of E f f i c i e n c y o f Negro Labor
R a c i a l p r e, iu di c e
.
# Summary
.
VIII.
144
14F
170
A n a l y s i s o f Em plo ye rs T Reauirements o f A p p l i c a n t s
O c cu pa ti on al D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Employers’ R e a u e st s
D ur at io n o f P o s i t i o n s .
Age P r e f e r e n c e
.
Color P r e f e r e n c e
Weekly S a l a r i e s .
Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s
IX. Summary o f F i n d i n g s and C o n c lu s io n s
I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l Background on I n i t i a l
Employment, P a s t Oc cu pa ti ons , and Fi n al
R eferrals
.
.
.
.
.
I n f l u e n c e o f Age on I n i t i a l Employment, P a s t Occupa­
171
171
171
17?
174
174
174
17P
17P
178
t i o n s and F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s
I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l Background on Wage Level
179
Reasons f o r Leavi ng F i r s t Jobs and P o s i t i o n s Held
from 19?8 Through 19?7
Dur ati on o f P o s i t i o n s Held from 19?8 Through 19?7
Number o f Job R e f e r r a l s Be fo re Permanent Placement
R e s u l t s o f Job R e f e r r a l s
.
.
.
.
Reasons f o r Not Bei ng Hired When Refer red t o P o s i ­
tions
•
•
•
•
•
Employers' Requirements of A p p li c a n ts
•
180
180
181
181
181
18?
CHAPTER
PAGE
X. The Future Outlook
.
.
.
.
.
N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f Colored
People .
.
.
.
.
.
The N a t i o n a l Urban League
.
.
.
.
Commission on Pace P e l a t i c n s o f th e Fe de r al Council
o f Churches o f C h r i s t i n America
Commission on I n t e r r a c i a l Cooperation
Selected Bibliography
.
.
.
.
.
D e p r e s si o n and Attendant Unemployment Problems
Edu cation c f th e Negro
.
.
.
.
F f f i c i e n c y o f Negro Labor
Harlem
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Vigration .
.
.
Negroes in I n d u s t r y
.
O c cu p at io n al P r e f e r e n c e s
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
P r o g r e s s o f th e Negro and Future Outlook
Facial Prejudice
.
.
.
V o c a t i o n a l Cuidance and Fducation .
.
.
Viscellaneous
.
.
.
Appendices
I . T a b l e s UP-7P .
IT. T ab le s 7P-74 .
.
.
.
IP?
L ist
of
T ables
tabla
PAGE!
1. P e r s o n a l Data o f A ll Vales o f V ar io u s E d u c a ti o n a l L e v e l s
5. P e r s o n a l Data o f All Fensales o f Var iou s E d u c a ti o n a l
1 7-? ?
levels
•
.
.
.
.
.
.
P e r s o n a l Data o f All Va le s and Females o f Va rious Educa­
tio n a l Levels
.
.
.
.
.
.
17-??
F i r s t Oc cu pa ti ons o f All V al e s o f V ar io us F d u c a t i c n a l
Levels
.
.
.
.
.
.
F4-FF
.
17 -??
F i r s t O c cu pa ti ons o f All Females o f Vari ous E d u c at io n al
L evels
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
F i r s t O ccu pat io ns o f All Va le s and Females o f Va rious
E d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s
.•
.
.
.
F4-5F
.
F4-FF
.
P1-P2
.
61-P2
7. F i r s t Oc cu pa ti ons o f V al e s and Females 17-24 Years o f
Age o f
V ar io us E du c atio n al L e v e l s
.
.
F i r s t O c cu pa ti ons o f Vale s and Females 2F-29 Years o f
Age o f
V ar io us Edu ca tio n al L e v e l s
.
.
F i r s t Oc cu pa ti on s o f Males and Females ?0-?9 Years of
Age o f Va ri ous Edu ca tio n al L e v e l s
.
.
F i r s t O c cu pa ti on s o f Va le s and Females 4 0 - 4 9 Years o f
Age o f Var io us Edu ca tio n al L e v e l s
.
.
.
P1-P2
.
PF-P4
1 1 . F i r s t O c cu pa ti ons o f Vale s and Females F0-F9 Years of
Age o f Var iou s Fd u c a ti o n a l L e v e l s
.
.
.
PP-P4
10 .
12 . F i r s t Oc cu pat io ns o f V al e s and Females PO Years o f Age
or Over o f Va rious F d u c a ti o n a l L e v e l s
.
.
1 ?. Weekly Wages o f All V al e s o f Va rious E d u c a ti o n a l L e v e l s
While Employed on F i r s t Occu pat ion s .
.
.
14. Weekly Wages o f A ll Females o f Various F d u c a t io n a l
L e v e l s While Employed on F i r s t O cc u p a ti o n s
.
I f . Weekly Wages o f All V al e s and Females o f Various Fduca­
t i o n a l L e v e l s While Employed on F i r s t Oc cupat io ns
IP. Pe as ons Given by All Va le s o f V ar io u s E d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s
f o r Leav ing F i r s t O ccu pat io ns .
.
.
.
17. P ea so ns Given by All Females c f Various F d u c a t i o n a l
L e v e l s f o r Leaving F i r s t Oc cupations
.
•
1P. P e a s o n s Given by All Va les and Females o f Va ri ous Educa­
t i o n a l L e v e l s f o r Leaving F i r s t Oc cup ati ons
.
P?-P4
PP-71.
pP-71
PP-71
74-7F
74-7F
74-7F
19. O ccu pat io ns from 192? Through 19?7 o f All V ale s c f
V ar io u s E d u c at io n al L e v e l s , E x c l u s i v e c f Their
F i r s t -Jobs
E9-?t-iv-
-VTABL®
FA3E
20. Oc cu pa ti on s from 15?? Through 1927 o f All Females o f
Va ri ous F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f
Their F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
21. O cc u p a ti o n s from 1922 Through 1927 o f A ll V a l e s and
Females o f Va rious F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s ,
F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
22. Oc cu pa ti ons from 192? Through 192Vc f V a l e s and
22.
24.
82-82
Females 17-24 Years o f Age o f V ari ou s Fdu­
c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f The ir FirstJobs
.
.
.
.
.
.
Oc cu pa ti ons from 19?? Through 192V "of V a l e s and
Females 26-29 Years o f Age o f Var io us Fdu­
.
91-92
c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t
Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
.
O c cu p ati on s from 192? Through 1927 o f V a l e s and
.
91-9?
.
9 1- 9?
Females 20-29 Years o f Age o f V a r io u s Fdu­
c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f The ir F i r s t
26.
Jobs
.
O c cu pa ti on s from 19??
.
.
.
.
.
Through 1927 o f V a l e s and
Females 4 0-4 9 Years o f Age o f V a r io u s Fdu­
c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t
26.
J ob s
.
O cc u p a ti o n s from 1928
cc.od
.
.
.
.
.
Through 1927 o f V a le s and
Females 60 -69 Years o f Age o f V ar io u s Fdu­
c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t
.
92-94
.
92-94
28.
F i r s t Jobs
.
Weekly Wages from 1928 Through 1927 o f A ll V a l e s o f
V ari ous F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f
. 97-100
29.
The ir F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
Weekly Wages from 1928 Through 1987 o f All Females
o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f
Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
.
27. O c cu pa ti on s from 1928 Through 1927 o f V a l e s and
Females 60 Years o f Age or Over o f Var iou s
F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s i v e o f Their
Their F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
20. Weekly Wages from 1928 Through 1987 o f A ll V a l e s and
Females o f Va rious E d u c ati on al L e v e l s ,
E x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
. 97-10 0
. 27-1 00
-viABL1
PA SS
rii
PI. Reasons Given by All V a le s o f V a r io u s F d u c a t i o n a l
L e v e l s f o r Leaving O c cu pa ti o ns Held fr o *
1998 Through 1987, F x c l u s i v e o f Their
F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
.
9. Reasons Given by A ll Females c f V ar io u s F d u c a t i o n a l
10?-104
L e v e l s f o r Leaving Oc cu pa ti ons Held from
1998 Through 19??, F x c l u s i v e o f Their
F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
.
OF. Reasons Given by A ll V al e s and Females c f Va ri ous
F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s f o r Leaving O ccu pat io ns
Held from 1998 Through 1907, F x c l u s i v e o f
Their F i r s t Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
04. Duration c f P o s i t i o n s Held from 1998 Through 1907
by All ‘V a le s o f Va rious F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s ,
F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
.
.
100-104
100-104
.
109-111
.
109-111
t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs .
F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f All V a le s o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l
109-111
OF. Dur ation o f Do s i t i o n s Feld from 1998 Through 1907
by All Females o f Var iou s F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s ,
F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
.
.
O'*. Duration o f P o s i t i o n s Held from 199c Through 1907
by All V a l e s and Females c f V ar io us Fduca«.
'•
Levels
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
08. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f All Females o f Va ri ous F d u c a t i o n a l
Levels
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
09. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s c f All V al e s and Females c f Various
F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s
.
40. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a l e s and Females 17-94 Years o f
Age o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
41. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a le s and Females PF-PP Years o f
Age c f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
49. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a l e s and Females 00-09 Years o f
Age o f Va rious F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
48. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V al e s and Females 40-4 9 Years o f
Age o f Various E d u c ati on al L e v e l s
44. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a le s 'and Females F0-F9 Years o f
Age o f Var iou s F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
4F. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f Males and Females 80 Years o f Age
or Over o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
118-190
118-190
118-190
198-100
198-100
198-100
101-100
101-1 00
101-100
-v iiTABLJ!
PAGR!
4 6 . - Number
o f Job R e f e r r a l s P e f o r e Permanent Placement
47. Number
o f All Males o f Vari ous F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
o f Job R e f e r r a l s P e f o r e Permanent Placement
.
127' •129
o f All Females c f V ar io u s F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
127- •129
48. Number o f Job R e f e r r a l s P e f o r e Permanent Placement
o f All Males and Females o f Va rious Fducatic n a l Levels .
.
.
.
.
.
127- •129
49. R e s u l t s o f All Job R e f e r r a l s o f All Males o f Various
F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s and Reasons For Not Being
Fi red
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 1 4 1 - 142
50. R e s u l t s o f A ll Job R e f e r r a l s o f All Females o f
Various F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s and Reasons For
Not Pe in g F i r e d
.
.
.
.
.
141- 142
51. R e s u l t s o f All Job R e f e r r a l s o f A ll Males and
Females o f V a r io u s F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s and
Reasons For Not P e in g Hired
.
.
52. Employers’ Requirements o f A p p l i c a n t s f o r Va rious
O c c u p a ti o n s,
and Weekly S a l a r i e s O ff er e d
.
141- 142
.
172- 172
In A p p e n d i x T
210
5c . N a t i o n a l i t i e s o f Cases Other than American and E n g li s h
54. Degrees Held by P o s t - G r a d u a t e s Supplementary t o Their
P.A. or P .P . Degree .
.
.
.
.
55. F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s o f V o c a t i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l or F u s i n e s s
School Oases i n Add iti on t o Their S p e c i a l
.
211
Vocational Training .
.
.
.
.
55. Weekly Wages o f Males and Females 17-24 Years o f Age
o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s While Fmployed
on Their
F i r s t Oc cu pa ti ons
.
.
210
.
<11- ■215
.
PH- 215
•'
PH- 215
•
PH-
57. Weekly Wages o f V a l e s and Females 25-22 Years o f Age
o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s While Fmployed
on Their
F i r s t O c cu pa ti ons
.
.
58. Weekly Wages o f V a l e s and Females 20-29 Years o f Age
o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s While Fmployed
on Their
F i r s t Oc cup ati ons
.
.
59.- Weekly Wages o f Males and Females 4 0 -4 9 Years o f Age
o f V ar io us F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s While Employed
on Their
F i r s t Oc cup ati ons
.
.
■219
-v iiiTABLE
PASK
80. Weekly Wages o f V a l e s and Females FO-FP Years o f Age
61.
o f V a r io u s F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s While Fmployed
on Their F i r s t Oc cu pa ti on s
.
.
.
Weekly Wages o f V a l e s and Females 60 Years o f Age or
Over o f V ar io u s F d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s While
Fmployed on T h e ir F i r s t Oc cup ati ons .
PS. Weekly Wages from 1928 Through 1927 o f V a l e s and
.
216-219
216-219
Females 17-24 Years o f Age o f Var iou s Fduca­
62.
t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
Weekly Wages from 192? Through 1927 o f V a le s and
220-222
Females 2F-29 Years c f Age o f Va ri ous Fduca­
64.
t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e c f Their F i r s t Jobs
Weekly Wages from 122? Through 19?? o f V a l e s and
220-22?
Females 2 0-2 9 Years o f Age o f Va rious Fduca­
t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e c f Their F i r s t Jobs
6F.
220-2 22
Weekly Wages from 192? Through 1927 o f V al e s and
Females 4 0 - 4 9 Years o f Age o f Va rious Fduca­
t i o n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
Weekly Wages from 192? Through 1927 c f Va le s and
Females FO-Fg Yea rs of Age o f Va ri ous Fduca­
t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t Jobs
67. Weekly Wages from 192? Through 1927 o f V a le s and
Females 60 Years o f Age or Over o f Various
F d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , F x c l u s i v e o f Their F i r s t
Jobs
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
224-2 27
66.
224-22 7
224-227
6?. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a l e s and Females o f Varying Ages
with P a r t i a l or Complete Grammar School
69.
T r ai ni ng
.
.
.
.
.
.
F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a l e s and Females o f Varying Ages
with P a r t i a l or Complete High School
T ra in in g
.
.
.
•
•
228-220
•
228-220
70. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s c f V a l e s and Females o f Varying Ages
with P a r t i a l or Complete C o l l e g e T r ai ni ng .
228-220
71. Fi n al R e f e r r a l s o f V a l e s and Females o f Varying Ages
with P o s t - G r a d u a t e T r a i n in g
.
•
•
72. F i n a l R e f e r r a l s o f V a l e s and Females o f Varying Ages
w ith V o c a t i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l or B u s i n e s s
School T r a i n i n g
.
221-222
2 21 -2 c c
-ixTABLE
PAI3E
In Appeni i x I I
7 2.
74.
T e s t s f o r t h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e s c f th e
P e r c e n t a g e s Obtained .
.
.
.
.
Chances i n 1000 o f a True D i f f e r e n c e Greater Than Zero
When th e D i f f . / P . P . i i f f t V a r i e s fro® 0 . 0 0 t o
t. •
U
•
•
•
•
•
•
«
« c
CHAPTER I
I NTRODltCT I ON
There ilB a w idespread b e l i e f t h a t , >whatever g en eral o r c i v i c
v a lu e s a re i n h e r e n t in Negro e d u c a tio n ,' t h e amount and c h a r a c t e r o f
t h e t r a i h i h g b e ar s l i g h t r e l a t i b h to v o c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n ity .- Many
e d u c a to r s 1 have d is c u s s e d t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f s ti m u l a ti n g t h e Negro
t o h ig h e r e d u c a tio n a l go als.] Some o f them m ain tain t h a t advanced
e d u c a tio n w ill h e lp th e Negro l i t t l e , ' i f any,. in matting h i s v o c a tio n a l
and s o c i a l a d ju stm en ts.] O th e rs f e e l t h a t only by a d d it i b n a l education
and v o c a tio n a l equipment w ill i t be p o s s i b l e to break down r a c i a l
p r e j u d i c e and se c u re f o r t h e Negro e q u a l it y o f o p p o r t u n it y ,' which ife
so e s s e n tila l in a democracy.] T h e re fo re ,' v o c a tio n a l c o u n s e lo rs a re
c o n fro n te d with th e p e rp le x in g problem o f a d v is in g t h e Negro s tu d e n t
t o choose between a t r a d e c o u rs e which might prove v a lu a b le in se c u rin g
employment o r a h ig h e r academic c o u rse with i t s dubious employment
value.]
The purpose o f t h i s study i s to d eterm ine th e e d u c a tio n ’ and c a r e e r s
o f Negroes l i v i n g in M anhattan,' during th e y e a r s 1929-1937,< in o r d e r to
d is c o v e r th e n a tu r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween' t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n ­
ing and t h e i r su b s e q u e n t o c c u p a tib n s.; The f a c t o r s te n d in g t o i n h i b i t
o r s t i m u l a te v o c a tib n a l placem ent and p ro g r e s s o f t h e Negro w i l l be
co n sid ere d .]
Previou s Research In th e F ie ld
P a s t s t u d i e s having a b e a rin g upon t h i s r e s e a r c h a re o f v a rib u s
ty p e s and cover a wide geographic a re a.] P ilrst, <t h e r e a re th o se which
d eal with th e o c c u p a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s o f Negro s tu d e n ts .] These sig n ify ,
th e dreams o f f u t u r e employment o f Negro youth.* Hyte, f o f th e Wash­
in g to n School a t T erre H aute,' I n d ia n a ,' i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e o c c u p a tio n a l
c h o ic e s o f Negro p u p i l s ih e ig h t high s c h o o l s i h In d ia n a and fo u r in
1 . The Journal o f N e g r o m e a t ion, Vol. V (J a ly , 1986). oontalaod * a a a to r of
Aoallag » lth » » r i« u • « !« * « of thooo prohloa*. Tho a rtlo io o , • th p lr »*tho»*, aa d th *
■if* n f m u n . to t t i i ouk*r of th* ugowW* w ’»• fo llo tli
'l o o ,
faplioatloao of th* f if th !*ubook of tk* ^00*14 of lo p o U M o tin , f f .
. Soortfo P i n * , (ho l o o r f u l o i t i e o l i t B o ilio o tlo a o f.fo g ro l t o o i t l o i : liO jltio o l
Aaoljroio. f | . *687*881. S . 0 . W. lo lao o , Booo Xogro^ lAttyotiea
t o l i n o t i o i f O f .>814*884. H. J . Boioho, U u o tto o t> B ltok I I I t k l t o , t* ? i* B1t?5?S
W. A. lo ry , ,Io» «Bfhoooo la tho B iaoatlea of.Vogrooo, p y .j401-407. W .S . JB ow flolg^
BoAiaoetloa o f tho M aoatloa of Vogrooa.la Vorao of Booial
O loaoat, R o d ln o tlo a a a i B oorgaalaatioa of th * C o ll* g o f o r _ f f i i h S ' a t
I . M llloa, Tho B oorgaaltatloa of tk* Hlghor BAaoatlea of tho Vogro l a Who S ig h t of
1
^ o ^ i o o B f i { l * B U T s t o n i t i of Vogro Hlgh-Bohool Boy*, School Review, XMV
(Jaaaary , 1986), pp. 84-40.
-2
Kentucky,* and found t h a t te a c h ih g ranked f i r s t (2 8.0 p e r c e n t) and
a e d ic t he second ( 20.J5 per: cen t)',; Of th e group choosing p r o f e s s io n a l
c a re e rs,* 72 p e r c en t decided to e n t e r t h e f t U A t o f m edicine, te a c h in g ,
law, th e m i n i s t r y , a r c h i t e c t u r e , a r t , s c ie n c e , and music. Soae cho ices,
such as chemical o r s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h work, d i e t e t i c s , and s o c ia l
s e r v i c e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t new f i e l d s were b e ing s e le o te d by th e p u p i l s .
C s l i v e r 1 d isc o v ere d t h a t th e o c c u p a tio n a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f Negro
s tu d e n ts e n te r in g Columbia U n iv e rs ity were predom inantly p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
78 p e r c e n t o f th e s tu d e n ts choosing work along t h e s e l i n e s .
Reeves, 8 in studying th e o c c u p a tio n a l c h o ic e s o f 212 boys and 593
g i r l s , a l l members o f th e s e n io r h ig h school c l a s s o f a s e l e c te d group
o f s c h o o ls in a l l b a s i c re g io n s o f Alabama, found t h a t th e boys chose
a wider range o f o c cu p a tio n s than t h e g i r l s , b u t t h a t many o f th e s t u ­
d e n ts were i n t e r e s t e d ih o c c u p a tio n s in which t h e r e was l i t t l e chance
f o r f u t u r e employment,! w hile ig n o r in g th o s e which o f f e r e d more prom ising
o p p o r t u n i t i e s .; According to Reeves,' a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e s k i l l e d tr a d e s
must r e p la c e th e " w h i t e - c o l l a r " j o b s chosen by th e Negro s tu d e n ts , and
c e r t a i n o c c u p a tio n s ,' such as th e mining i n d u s tr y , t r a d e o c c u p a tio n s and
g e n e ra l b u s ih e s s work, • need g r e a t e r development by th e Negro.
H i l l 8 o b ta in e d a d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t from h i s s tu d y o f th e v o c a tio n a l
c h o ic e s o f a group o f Negro high school s t u d e n t s ih New J e r s e y . The
ra n g e o f s e l e c t i o n v a rie d from auto mechanic to weather f o r e c a s t e r .
Only a few e x p re ssed a d e s i r e to be law y ers and p h y s ic ia n s . (Out o f
f o r t y stu d e n t a, only th r e e chose a e d i c i n e a s t h e i r d e s i r e d f i e l d , while
two s e l e c te d la w ,) There was a decided s h i f t i n g away from th e p r o f e s ­
s io n s as th e only prom ising v o c atio n s,! soae o f th e p o p u la r s e l e c t i o n s
b e in g c o n tr a c t i n g and b u ild in g ,'h o m e economics, c l e r i c a l and b u s in e s s
work,- s o c i a l work,* and a g r i c u l t u r e . ’ An i n t e r e s t i n g p o in t o f view i s
m entioned by H i l l with r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a t t i t u d e o f soae b o ard s o f
education,'w ho! re g a rd i t a s expensive t o t r a i n p u p i l s f o r o c cu p a tio n s
t h a t they a re n o t l i k e l y to follow .- He s t a t e s t h a t , i f c o lo re d p u p ils
a r e n o t t r a i n e d in f i e l d s u s u a l ly c lo s e d to th e a , "we may' n e v er hope
td r a i s e them above th e p r e s e n t l e v e l which i s ad m itte d ly too low f o r
t h e t a l e n t s and a s p i r a t i o n s they p o s s e s s ,4,4 I t i s h i s o p in io n t h a t
1. 4. C»liT*r, A P ersonnelStudy o f Megro College Students, Vh.t.
O ivortaaltU i
C*lu*bi»
!•* » « •••
o f s i s k i n * * , 198*. A bstracts o f'D isserta tio n s- and Theses-in Education, iQ<v-iQqa, 8 eh o * l
•f
‘“ . " M l * -
HUk
O pportunity, III (3oum, I M l) . » .
-3 -
sc h o b ls i n s i s t i n g upon t r a i n i n g c o lo re d youth f o r domestic and p e rso n al
f i e l d s only,* because t h e s e a re th e a v a i l a b l e openings f o r th e Negro,
a r e working under th e assumption t h a t th e Negro w ill never e n te r any
o t h e r o c cu p a tio n s b e s id e s dom estic and p e rso n a l -serv ice work. "But
more than t h i s , ' th ey a re removing th e i n c e n t i v e f o r t r a i h i h g in de­
p r i v i n g am bitious youth o f th e advantages o f Observing th o se o f t h e i r
own group ih p o s i t i b n e high enough to i n s p i r e and a t t r a c t them.; The
f a c t t h a t ih New York and Chicago Negroes a re .ih a l l p r i n c i p a l occupa­
t i o n s l i s t e d by th e U nited S t a t e s Census s a v e o n e and t h a t th e y are
working i h t h i s one in o t h e r c i t i e s , ' i s p ro o f o f th e f a c t t h a t some
p l a c e ih th e country t h e r e i s room f o r t h e i r d i v e r s i f i e d t a l e n t s . wl
Secondly,' so m e-stud ies o f t h e o c c u p a tio n a l background o f employed
Negroes have been made. Honey8 showed t h a t th e m a jo rity o f workers in
h i s group (353 o u t o f 404) r e c e iv e d t h e i r t r a i h i h g on th e jo b ,'-w h ile
th e small rem ainder were t r a i h e d through aoademib s t n d i e s o r v o c a tio n a l
sc h o o ls.] Those who had been given a d d itio n a l t r a i h i h g had no advantage.]
Some o f th e s u b j e c t s (30 p e r c e n t ) had been t r a i h e d f o r a n o th e r job
b u t e n te re d th e p r e s e n t employment because c f i n s u f f i c i e n t wages,'
f a i l u r e o r la c k o f o p p o r tu n ity on th e o t h e r job.] Even though th e
c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d Negro was found t o have d e f i n i t e p la n s f o r th e f u t u r e
which th e o t h e r s la c k e d ,' Honey concluded t h a t " th e Negroes with th e
g r e a t e s t amount o f e d u ca tio n may have had more than was n e ce ssa ry .;
There was no! g r e a t advantage in a d d it i o n a l education as evidenced by
s a l a r y , ' advancement o r r a t i n g . f 8
S t i f l f o l e 's 4 survey o f th e o c c u p a tib n s o f Negroes in Red Bank,'
New J e r s e y ,' in d ic a t e d t h a t t h e maih causes o f c o lo re d s tu d e n ts le a v in g
h ig h school b e fo re g ra d u a tio n were economic p r e s s u r e and th e f e e l i n g
t h a t Negroes,< even though well ’e d u c a te d ,'h a v e l i t t l e chance o f d e s i r ­
a b le placement*; The men were found to engage i h a v a r i e t y o f occupa­
t i o n s such as commercial-,<i n d u s t r i a l , ' dom estic and p e rso n a l s e r v i c e
work.] Most o f t h e women were employed ih t h e dom estic and p e rso n al
s e r v i c e f i e l d s . The d o c to r s ,' d e n t i s t s and m i n i s t e r s were th e only
i n d i v i d u a l s engaging i h ty p e s o f work f o r which th e y had been tr a ih e d .]
Sducatibh served as-an economic advantage f o r th e men, <b u t i h th e
si JUS* Boa*», itaoitlon oal Oeoufitlon if logroo*.
Mloklgoa, 1988 . 'A o ttra cts o fd i s s e r ta t to n s and T h o so stn Eiuoattok,
ef lioaitioi, UaiToriity of Vlehigoa.
Sohool
•I l h! A S w w y
o f tho Occupations gngagod In by Negro Mon and 'to***
o f Rod Bank, S. J* W. A. th io l* , »#« Tork U m lw o itj, 1988.
4c a s e o f th e women t h e r e was no: i n c r e a s e in wage co rre sp o n d in g with
t h e amount o f sohool ih g .;
J o r d a n 1 c o n ta c te d 1095 high school g rad u a tes in Worth C a ro lin a , *
and d isc o v e re d t h a t n e a r l y 27 p e r o en t o f t h e g ra d u a te s e n t e r c o lle g e
o r n o ra a l s c h o o l ,< 10 p e r c e n t do dom estic work,«8 p e r c e n t a r e em­
p lo yed as common la b o r e rs ,* from 8 to 5 p e r c e n t engage i h f a c to r y
work,*h o t e l work and t e a c h i n g , < and fro m .l to 8 p e r c e n t become barbers,*
f i l l i n g s t a t i o n a tt e n d a n t s ,! n u r s e s and bookkeepers.] The r e s t ^are
s c a t t e r e d o v e r a l a r g e number o f occupation®.] "Aside from te a c h in g
and n u rs in g very few o c c u p a tio n s a r e entered? by n e g ro e s which u t i l i s e
t h e typ e o f t r a i h i h g r e c e iv e d by them i n hi:gh scho ol.; Domestic service,*
t h e fac to ry ,* h o t e l work,* t h e b a rb e r shop,< th e f i l l i n g s t a t i o n , ! t h e
drug store** absorb many! o f t h e g ra d u a te s . The v a s t m a jo r ity o f th e
g ra d u a te s o f negro high sc h o o ls go in to the u n s k i l l e d and s e m i- s k ille d
v o c a tio n s . What becomes o f th o se who go on to c o ll e g e and normal
school i s a q u e stio n which needs i n v e s t i g a t i n g . " 8 Jordan t h i n k s t h a t
t h e r e i s no need to "bew ail t h e ty p e s o f occupation open to negroes
b u t to see to i t t h a t n e g ro e s a re p rep a red f o r th e work open to them
i n such a way as to d ig n ify and improve t h a t w o rk."8
IQugh4 i n v e s t i g a t e d th e employment c a r e e r s o f 118 c o lo re d g i r l s
working in B oston,' apd found t h a t 31 p er c e n t o f th e g i r l s who had
a tte n d e d high school or c o ll e g e f o r one y e ar o r more became e l e v a t o r
o p e r a t o r s . Of t h i s group, 50 p er oent were high school g ra d u a te s .
The c l e r k s , s te n o g ra p h e rs and t y p i s t s , r e p r e s e n ti n g o n e -f o u rth o f th e
whole, and o f which 80 p e r c e n t were high school g ra d u a te s , composed
t h e n e x t l a r g e s t o c c u p a tio n a l group. Most o f th e c l e r i c a l workers
were c i v i l s e r v i c e a p p o in te e s . "According to i l t o r i e s o f th e g i r l s ,
w h ite a p p li c a n t s a re given p r e f e r e n c e wherever p o s s i b l e , r e g a r d l e s s o f
exam ination r a tin g s .* . . .■ The a s s e r t i o n g a in s s i g n i f i c a n c e , however,
i n t h a t i t i s very g e n e ra lly made."® Taken as a group, t h e w a itr e s s e s ,
h a i r d r e s s e r s and lau n d ry o p e r a t i v e s were n o t i n t e r e s t e d in c o n tin u in g
t h e i r sc h o o lin g . Most o f t h e s e g i r l s did n o t go any f a r t h e r than th e
second y e a r o f h ig h scho ol. Some o f th e laun dry workers were a l i t t l e
more am bitio us i n c o n tin u in g t h e i r ed u ca tio n . O n e -h alf o f them had
a tte n d e d evening o r b u s i n e s s school. Only 6 o f t h e 115 c a s e s in clu d ed
1 . km M. J o rla a , Oooupatloao of Xogro High Sohool Gradeatoo l a fo rth C arolina, Bigh
School J o u rn a l, XVIII (January, 1986), pp. 84-27.
8 . B i d j , a. 87.
4 ! l?^C .eiln g h , C olorol G lrlo a t Work In Booton, Opportunity, VI (Ootobor, 1988),
9. 899.
5-
i n t h e study were c o ll e g e g ra d u a te s . One became a w e lfa re worker and
two went i n t o th e s e c r e t a r i a l f i e l d . One o f th e s e c r e t a r i e s subse­
qu en tly l e f t Easton f o r a p o s i t i o n ih th e South. "T his i s , beyond
q u e stio n , what most c o lo re d g i r l s who g ra d u a te from Hew England c o lle g e s
a re foro ed to do in o r d e r to secu re employment. The m a jo rity o f them
become t e a c h e r s in t h e Southern sc h ools o f t h e i r own r a c e . * 1 Host o f
t h e g i r l s s tu d ie d (92) were d i s s a t i s f i e d w ith t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and de­
s i r e d to change th e n . T his f e e l in g was to a l a r g e e x te n t due t o th e
f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no chance f o r advancement i n most o f th e p o s i t i o n s .
The only group s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r work was t h a t o f t h e c l e r i c a l
w orkers.; Klugh su g g e s ts t h a t s p e c ia l a g en c ie s a re needed to make known
t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f c o lo re d g i r l s and t h e s e r v i c e s which they are
p r e p a re d to o f f e r . ; "Bat t h i s i s b u t h a l f th e s o l u t i o n . The r e s t r e ­
m ains with w hite em ployers.*
Holden8 i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a f t e r - s c h o o l c a r e e r s o f Negro h ig h school
g ra d u a te s in Texas, and found t h a t they covered 30 d i f f e r e n t ty p e s o f
p o s i t i o n s whi'ch were n o t in accord with t h e s t u d e n t s 1 v o c a tio n a l ambi­
t i o n s n or r e l a t e d to t h e ty p e o f p r e p a r a tio n they had had ih school.;
Two o f t h e p o p u la r choifces were th e p o s i t i o n o f maid f o r th e g i r l s
( 2 1 .£ p e r c e n t) and p o r t e r .jobs f o r th e boys (1 5 .3 p e r c e n t ) . The
d i s t r i b u t i o n ih o t h e r o c c u p a tio n s v a rie d between 0 .0 and 3.7 p e r c e n t.;
Tod many o f th e g r a d u a te s chose te a c h in g , <m edicine, < and n u r s in g as
t h e i b p r e f e r r e d c a r e e r s .; Hardly any o f them s e l e c t e d p o s i t i o n s ih
t h e m an ufacturih g and mechanibal i n d u s t r i e s which a re th e le a d in g
p u r s u i t s o f t h e c i t y . ] furtherm ore,* t r a i h i h g c o u rs e s f o r t h e s e jo b s
a re n o t beihg o f f e r e d to any g re a t e x te n t in Negro h igh sch o o ls o r
c o l l e g e s .; " I t seems r e g r e t t a b l e to n o te t h a t t h e r e a re no p r o s p e c tiv e
authors,* m achinists,* a r t i s t s , ' bankers,* plum bers, b u i ld i n g c o n tra c to rs ,*
c a r p e n te rs ,* p r i n t e r s , *'salesm en ,« grocerymen 'among t h e 357 g r a d u a t e s .* 8
Wide d ib c re p a n c le s between th e v o c a tio n a l a m b itio n s o f th e g ra d u a te s
and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ih th e community were r e v e a le d by th e
stu d y .] f o r example,* only 4 .2 p e r c e n t o f t h e g ra d u a te s wanted t o e n te r
v o c a tio n s ih t h e m anufacturihg and mechanical f i e l d s , ' y e t t h e voca­
t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s were i n d ic a t e d by 23.5 p e r c e n t.] There i s a de­
c id e d la c k o f vob a t i b h a l t r a i h i h g at Houston High School,* the i n v e s t i ­
g a to r c o n c lu d e s. There appears to be tod much c o l l e g e p r e p a ra tib n and
n o t enough p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e c a r e e r s .;
Hoiiool* Aftor-oohool Oooooro of Hoftvo High Sohool Oroiostoo of Toaoo,
Journal o f Negro'm ueat ion, VII (Joauor?, 10X8), pp. 48-84.
■8. Ib id . > p. '68.
-8 JOhaaon’ B1 study o f 10,873 o o lle g e g ra d u a te s re v e a le d t h a t th e
g r e a t m a jo r ity o f the# e n te r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l f ie ld ,* p a r t i c u l a r l y th e
f i b l d o f te a e h ih g ( 40.9 p e r c e n t ) .] "The Negro c o ll e g e gradu ate with
an A.; B.] d eg ree n o t looks to th e high school,* r a t h e r than to th e c o l­
lege,* f o r an opportunity! to t e a c h . f Wore th a n 75 p e r c e n t o f th e
g ra d u a te s o f p r i v a t e and s t a t e c o l l e g e s were found to be engaged in
p r o f e s s i o n a l work: 20.7 p e r c e n t became d o c t o r s , * 8 p e r c e n t mihi'sters,*
8 .^ p e r c e n t lawyers,* 2 .7 p a r o en t s o c i a l workers,* l.i3 p e r cent music i ’n ns o r musib t e a c h e r s , * and 0.]4 p e r c e n t s c i b n t i s t s and e n g ih e ers.;
G raduates o f v o c atio n a l sc h o o ls e n te r e d t h e p r o f e s s io n s , *predom­
i n a n t l y te a c h in g .] Mechanical and m an ufactu ring work a t t r a c t e d almost
o n e - t h i r d more,* while a g r i c u l t u r e was very unpopular.] Only a few
c o l l e g e g ra d u a te s became dom estic workers o r c l e r k s . '
Male g ra d u a te s evinced a growing i n t e r e s t in b u s in e s s occupations,*
and t h e employment o f c o lle g e t r a i h e d men by Negro in s u ra n c e companies
h o ld s g r e a t promibe fo r f u t u r e development.;
With r e g a r d to choibe o f v o c a tio n s , Jo hnsonTs c o n c lu sio n s agree
with th o s e o f H yte^jfteli'ver, amd>a*e»l»»,< s t a t e d above.; The h igh sohool
boys and g iV ls were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d in p r o f e s s i o n s , ' th e boys
s e l e c t i n g te a c h in g and medicine,* th e g i r l s te a c h in g a lo n e . The c o lle g e
s t u d e n ts l i k e w i s e showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l work,* b u t
widened t h e i b choibe s l i g h t l y by supplementing te a c h in g and medicine
w ith law and d e n t i s t r y . An i n c r e a s in g number o f c o lle g e g rad u a tes are
becoming i n t e r e s t e d in s o c ia l work. The f i e l d s o f dom estic s e rv ic e
and a g r i c u l t u r e were n o t chosen by th e g i r l s and boys r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Trends in a g r i c u l t u r e i n d i c a t e the f u t u r e need f o r t r a i h e d s p e c i a l i s t s
because o f changes ih t h a t f i e l d . - "From th e c o n siste n c y o f th e choices
o f both high school s tu d e n ts and c o ll e g e g ra d u a te s , i t i s e v id e n t t h a t
th e y have been g r e a tly in flu e n c e d by th e small number o f o c cu p a tio n s
b e lie v e d t o be open to Negroes. The f a c t o r o f r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e and
t h e l i m i t a t i o n s imposed seem to be an im p o rta n t f a c t o r i n th e v o c atio n a l
c h o ic e s o f th e Negro s t u d e n t s . 1,8
T h i r d l y ,* s t u d i e s have been made which dem onstrate th e need fo r
o c c u p a tio n a l c o u rs e s f o r Negro s t u d e n ts . W ebb's8 r e s e a r c h d e a lin g with
t h e p u p i l s o f J e f f e r s o n High School, L a f a y e tte , In d ia n a , showed t h a t
1. Chorloo 8. Johnson, The Negro College Graduate, pp. 184-181, 108-198, 84S-84V.
I*. c£*S*/woM5*flInflnono» of Conrooo in Ooonpntiono upon th* Veootienol Choicoii of
tho Pupils o f Jofforson High Sohool, U fo jro tto , I n f l U n s . l ^ s t o r 's . t h s . i s ^ n a u n *
U nisoroity, 1981* Abstracts o f Theses and D isse rta tio n s »*» Education, 195a, School
o f Education, Indiana u n iv e rsity , p. 89.
-7 l e s s than 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e s tu d e n ts had a course i n occupations*
Those having t h i s t r a i n i n g were found t o have b e n e f ite d by i t .
F o u rth ly , s e v e r a l su rv ey s have been made o f p r e v a i li n g occupa­
t i o n a l c o n d itio n s in Sew York C ity and Erooklyn. Fairclough* s 1 study
showed t h a t Negro women in New York C ity were engaged in many d i f f e r e n t
o c c u p a tio n al f i e l d s , such as p r o f e s s i o n a l , commercial, i n d u s t r i a l ,
dom estic and p e rso n al s e r v i c e . In t h e p ro fe s s io n s , th e o p p o r t u n i t i e s
f o r Negro .women were d e c r e a s in g ,' b u t o p e nin gs were being evidenced
f o r competent commercial workers. There was a tr e n d away from domes­
t i c work to i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s . Most o f th e women r e c e iv e d t h e i r
v o c a tio n a l t r a i h i h g on th e job r a t h e r than a t school. The Negro women
workers seoured t h e i r jo b s, - in many c a s e s , through th e aid o f f r i e n d s
sad r e l a t i v e s . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with a given jo b was l a r g e l y due to
la c k o f advancement and o p p o r t u n i t i e s .
Regarding t h e e d u c a tio n a l background o f th e s e c ase s, F a irclo u g h
o b ta in e d in fo rm a tio n by in te r v ie w in g 334 women engaged in th e v a r io u s
o c cu p a tio n a l f i e l d s . Only 3 o f th e 37 in th e p r o f e s s io n a l group had
n o t a tten d e d c o lle g e , normal school, o r g rad uate school. Most o f th e
commercial workers (41 o u t o f 30) were h igh school g ra d u a te s . Eleven
c a s e s had c o n tin u ed t h e i r t r a i h i h g a f t e r t h e i r g rad u a tio n . The g r e a t
m a jo r ity o f i n d u s t r i a l workers (164 o u t o f 307) had some sc h o o lin g
p a s t th e elem entary school l e v e l . Those who re c e iv e d th e elem entary
school t r a i n i n g alone found t h i s to be no handicap in being p la c e d .
Trade co u rses were n o t v a lu a b le , because o f th e la g in th e sc ho ols in
t r y i n g to keep pace with r a p i d l y changing tr a d e methods.; The dom estic
and perso n al s e r v ic e workers re c e iv e d l e s s s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g . Seven­
te e n o f th e t h i r t y women in thifc group had rec eiv e d p a r t i a l elem entary
school t r a i n i n g . : The o t h e r s p r e s e n te d a v a rie d e d u c a tio n a l background,ra n g ih g from a g ra d u a te n u r s e t o th e j u n i o r high school g ra d u a te .
The c i v i l s e r v i c e employees r e p o r te d t h i s to be the f a i r e s t and
most i m p a r tia l method o f employment,- and s t a t e d t h a t i f t h i s procedure
were ap p lied on a l a r g e r s c a le , - Negroes would have a much b e t t e r chance
o f employment.} Negro g i H s who h a d re c e iv e d i n d u s t r i a l o r commercial
t r a i h i h g were s u c c e s s fu l ih f in d in g jo b s f o r them selves a f t e r th e school
placem ent o f f i c e s had f a i l e d to se c u re them.; There was some o p p o s itio n
exp ressed by a placem ent d i r e c t o r toward p e rm ittin g Negro g i r l s to ta k e
coamerci'al w o rk ,-s ih c e i t was " im p o ssib le " to p la c e them.; A t r a d e
i . A. B. Vftiroloagh, A Study o f Occupational O pportunities fo r Negro Nomen in te n
York City* Ph.D. th a a la , Ha* York tJ n l* a ra ltj, 1069.
-8 -
schobl r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t y ih p la c in g i t s dressmaking,* m i l l i n e r y and
tea-room g i b ls .] "One reason f o r i t s f a i l u r e ite t h e f a l s e prem ise t h a t
i 't i s unwise and iln p r a c tib a b le to p la c e Negro g i b l s where t h e r e a re
any more than' 2 o r 8 w hite g i b l s . ; The Negro g ra d u a te s a re working
s i d e by s i d e with w hite g i r l s with no fritetibn ,* o f t e n th e o n ly Negro
on t h e j o b . f 1 Only 14 o u t o f 47 women were engaged ih work r e l a t e d
to t h e i b p re v io u s s c h o l a s t i c t r a i h i h g .] The ty p e o f work was based
more on' p e r s o n a l i t y and i n i t i a t i v e than oh th e amount and kind o f
tra ih ih g ,]
Penn, P ih stu d y in g t h e v o c a tib h a l adjustm ent problem s o f Negro
women ih New fo rk C ity , < s t a t e s t h a t th e Negress i s a m arginal worker
j u s t b e g in ning to e n t e r i n d u s t r i a l l i f e ih th e U nited S t a te s .; Some
very unusual p r o p o r t ib h a te g a in s have been made in c e r t a i n o c cu p a tio n a l
fifelds,* alth o u g h th e r e l a t i v e numbers are s t i l l n o t very l a r g e .; Although
t h e m a jo r ity a re employed ih s e rv ib e o c c u p a ti o n s ,<t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t
p r o p o rtib n ih a v a r i e ty o f o t h e r g a ih fu l employments.; The N egresses
r e p r e s e n t a p io n e e r group whibh must be t r a i h e d f o r a l l work,* so t h a t
th ey w ill be p re p a re d and ready to accep t when o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r i s e . ;
In su rv e y in g t h e p lacem en ts o f N egresses by th e Y.N.C.A. Harlem
Eranoh d u rin g 1927-1931,' Penn found t h a t 3 p e r c e n t o f th e jo b s were
c l e r i b a l , * I S .yi p e r c e n t ih d u s tr i'a l,* while 83 p e r c e n t were o f th e domes­
t i b type.] There were some d i f f e r e n c e s ih t h e c h a r a c t e r o f th e placem ents
ih' t h e s e y e a r s .] During 1928,* t h e r e were th e l a r g e s t number o f i h d u s t r i'a l
and c l e r i b a l placem ents and th e s m a lle s t number o f dom estic jo b s .; The
w orkers s h i f t e d away from domestib p o s i t i b h s because o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y
o f o t h e r j o b s during t h a t y e a r.; The follow ing year,* 1929, showed th e
g r e a t e s t number o f dom estic c a l l s and placem ents.; During 1939, th e
s m a lle s t number o f em ployers^ c a l l s were received,* w hile i n th e f o l ­
lowing y e a r t h e g r e a t e s t r e g i ’s t r a t i b n f o r a p p li c a n t s seeking j o b s
o c c u rr e d .; During 1931 most o f th e placem ents were o f t h e domestib
type,* and t h e r e o c c u rre d th e l e a s t ih d u s t r i'a l c a l l s and placements,*
w h ile th e number o f c l e r i c a l jo b s in c re a s e d ih demand and placem ents.
A wide range o f p u r s u i t s h a s been follow ed by N egresses, although t h e i r
c e n t e r o f o p p o r tu n ity l i e s in th e f i e l d o f domestic and p e rso n al s e r ­
v ic e .
The g en eral background o f many workers, c oncludes Penn, should
make p o s s i b l e t h e i r employment a t h ig h e r l e v e l s . "The general background
j* i?*sVpeBn*^oca<io«eZ Adjustment Problems o f Negro Komen in Sen York C ity. H.A.
th csia ,
fork tJnlvaralty, lflBS.
-9 -
and s p e c i a l t r a i h i h g o f workers on c o ll a g e and p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l s
shows th e la c k o f o p p o r tu n ity f o r workers on upper l e v e l jo b s commen­
s u r a t e with t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and t h e i r consequent entrenchment
ih t h e s e c u r i t y o f h o u se w o rk ."1 T r a d itio n l i m i t s t h e s e women, even
though they have re c e iv e d th e b e n e f i t s o f a h i g h e r ed u ca tio n , to c e r ­
t a i n f i e l d s o f work. There o c cu rred a decided s u b s t i t u t i o n o f employ­
ment among workers between jo b s f o r which they r e g i s t e r e d and .jobs
th ey se c u re d . The m a jo rity o f workers lac k ed t r a i n i n g f o r o c cu p a tio n s
f o r which they r e g i s t e r e d , A preponderance o f general education with
a la c k o f v o c a tio n a l t r a i h i h g fo r s k i l l e d women’ s t r a d e s c o n d itio n s
t h e Negro worker in such a way t h a t she w ill a c c e p t any p o s i t i o n t h a t
i s open r a t h e r than s t r i v e f o r one which i s a p p ro p r ia te . There i s a
need f o r b e t t e r t r a i n i n g f o r a v a i l a b l e .jobs, c o in c id e n t with t h e e f f o r t
to open new ones f o r workers with h ig h e r t r a i n i n g and s k i l l . Negro
women on upper l e v e l s did n o t f in d v o c a tio n a l adjustm ent any e a s i e r
than d id t h e i r l e s s h ig h ly educated s i s t e r s . "The crux o f th e Negroes'
problem ih t h e i r work l i f e i s t h a t th ey a re n o t s k i l l e d and t r a i n e d ih
many o f th e jo b s they can get to do and very o f te n cannot g e t th e jo b s
to perform f o r which they a re t r a i h e d and s k i l l e d . This c ro s s in g over
and a c c id e n ta l, jo b g e t t i n g a f f e c t s t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y and f o r t i f i c a t i o n
on th e l e v e l s o f work which have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e i r s . " 8 Voca­
t i o n a l guidance o f Negro youth and in fo rm a tio n d issem inated to t h e i r
p a r e n t s would a id ih e s t a b l i s h i n g a b e t t e r e q u ilib riu m o f work ch o ices
o f young N egroes.’ There i s a d i r e need f o r e f f e c t i v e v o c a tio n a l guid­
ance s e r v i c e in New York C ity . A d ults have a b e t t e r o p p o rtu n ity be­
c au se o f t h e evening t r a d e c o u rs e s ,' b u t t h i s t r a i n i n g does n o t u s u a lly
meet th e re q u ire m e n ts o f modern i n d u s t r y , and t h e r e f o r e t h e s tu d e n ts
le a v e b e fo r e they have f i n is h e d th e work.
Barry, <* ih stud ying th e Negro g i r l in commercial l i f e i n New York
C i t y ,' showed t h a t t h e Negro g i r l , i n s o f a r as n a t i v e a b i l i t y and success
in t r a i h i h g a re concerned, i s well q u a l i f i e d to be th e co m p e tito r o f
t h e w hite g i r l in th e f i e l d o f c l e r i c a l work. Negro women in th e c l e r ­
i c a l f i e l d a re s t e a d i l y and r a p i d l y i n c r e a s in g in number. A thorough
t r a i h i h g i s an im p o rtan t r e q u i s i t e f o r th o s e who choose t h i s occupa­
t i o n a l f i e l d . ; "Not l e s s than high school, p r e f e r a b l y some o r completed
c o ll e g e work,' with s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in commercial s u b j e c t s i s n e c e ssa ry
to compete with s i m i l a r l y prep ared w hite g i r l s . " 4
1. Ib id i, p . VS.
I'
B*rry^"ffce He?ro G irl in Commercial L i f e in h’eit York C ity, V .i.
Her York.0*1rmrtA&t, i»81.
4. Ib id * , p . 48.
-1 0 -
The placem ent o f t h e c o lo re d g ib l in s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s i s
g r e a t e r than i b u s u a l ly assumed. In a d d itio n to th e c i v i l s e r v i c e
f i e l d , * which absorbs many Negro: w orkers, t h e r e a re b u s in e s s firm s ,< a s
well as p h i l a n t h r o p i c and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n is a tio n s ,* which now employ
Negro c l e r i c a l h e lp .; Some o f th e p ib n e e r c o r p o r a tio n s adopting t h i s
p o lib y a re th e Western Unibn Telegraph Company, New fo rk Telephone
Company,* th e C helsea Bank,* and th e F e d e ra l Council o f Churches.; T heir
branch o f f i c e s in Harlem a re s t a f f e d with c o lo re d workers.; A prom ising
o c c u p a tio n a l f i e l d f o r th e Negro g i r l i n t e r e s t e d ih c l e r i c a l work,*
Barry found,* was th e p o s i t io n o f d o c to r ’ s o r d e n t i s t ' s a tte n d a n t.
G unner's s tu d y 1 o f t h e employment problem s o f Negro women in Brook­
ly n i h d ib a te d some o f th e ways ih' which t h e s e women a re handicapped in
seeking employment.} Newspaper a d v e rtis e m e n ts f o r help g e n e ra lly exclude
Negroes.; Agencies f o r b u s in e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l peop le do n o t ta k e c are
o f c o lo re d o l i b n t s . Most o f t h e employment ag en cies deal with c o lo re d
household workers.; P re ju d ic e ,* tr a d i tj .b n and in e x p e rie n c e h in d e r t h e
o e c u p a tib h a l p r o g r e s s o f th e Negro.; Many o f th e v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g
sc h o o ls r e f u s e to accep t c o lo re d s t u d e n ts .; Employers a re n o t w i l li n g
to giVe N egresses an o p p o rtu n ity * ; Much more v o c a tio n a l guidance work
i s needed f o r th e c o lo re d group.] I t i s ne ce ssa ry to m aintain th e
h i g h e s t sta n d a rd s ih t r a i h i h g Negroes,* s ih c e they have to prove more
e f f i c i e n t than w hite people ih o r d e r t o h o ld t h e i r p o s i t i o n s .;
F if th ly ,* a number o f s t u d i e s o f v a rio u s ty p e s have been made which
have a g en eral b e a rin g on t h e t o p i c o f t h i s t h e s i s . ; Some o f th e more
im p o rta n t ones a re mentioned h e r e . Du.tcher* s t a t e s t h a t th e d is c rim ih a t i b n a g a ih s t t h e Negro h a s in c r e a s e d r a t h e r than decreased s s he h as
e n te r e d th e s e m i s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d o c c u p a tio n s .; In New York G ity
most p o s i t i o n s h e ld a re o f . t h e m enial ty p e , * such as th o se o f p o r t e r s
and dom estibs.; N e v e rth e le s s t h e decade 1910-1920 was epoch-making in
t h e i h d u s t r i ’a l h i s t o r y ' o f th e Negro pe o p le .; The changes o f Negro
workers ih t h i s p e rio d o f t i k e were from a g r i c u l t u r a l to i n d u s t r i a l
p u r s u its ,* o ut o f la b o r and s e r v i c e o c c u p a tio n s i h t o th e p r o fe s s io n a l,*
s k i l l e d and p a r t i c u l a r l y th e s e m i - s k i l l e d o c c u p a tio n s.;
Haynes8 c on clud es t h a t Negroes a re crowded i h t o t h e lower s a l a r i e d
p o s i t i o n s because o f c o lo r p r e j u d i c e and a lso because o f i n e f f i c i e n c y .
T h e ir preponderance a s dom estic workers i s due p a r t l y to th e h i s t o r i c a l
1.
f . Sonnet, A Study o f Employment Problems o f Negro Nomen in Brooklyn. H.A. tfcosit,
C o i« b U <£}»” •
^ ' r0 in MoUrtl In d u stria l S ociety. Ph.D.
Columbia U n l*.r, U J : S 8i l Hwyno, The Negro at fork in New York C ity. Ph.D. th w lw , ColiufrU D a t^ r .ltjr ,
1912.
-1 1 -
back ground o f s e r v i t u d e , ' as well as to th e o b s t a c l e p r e s e n te d by c o lo r
and la c k o f th e t r a i h i h g which i h ne ce ssa ry to compete f o r p o s i t i o n s
r e q u i r i n g a h ig h e r o r d e r o f t r a i h i h g and s k i l l . :
Simmons1 made a study, o f th e p r i v a t e non-commercial employment
a g e n c ie s o p e ra tin g in Harlem,* and d e scrib e d th e work o f th e New York
Urban League as being i n s tr u m e n ta l, in 1929, in o r g a n is in g t h e Harlem
Housewives League and th e Colored Merchants A s s o c ia tio n . The aim of
t h e League was to i n i t i a t e th e p r a c t i c e o f employing c o lo re d h e lp in
t h e b u s in e s s e s ta b lis h m e n ts o f Harlem. T h eir slo gan, "D on't spend
your money where you c a n ' t work," proved e f f e c t i v e in t h e c ase o f many
o f t h e s t o r e s , such as B lu m s te in 's Department S to re , Grant and Company,
A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c Tea Company, United Cigar S t o r e s , and t h e f e s t e r n
Union T elegraph Company. An i n t e r e s t was aroused in p u b l ic u t i l i t y
p o sitio n s.
Summary
The main c o n c lu s io n s reached by th e v a rio u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s in th e
s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d to above may be summarized as fo llo w s!
(1) P r o f e s s io n a l work,* e s p e c i a l l y te a c h in g , m edicine and n u rs in g ,
i s t h e predom inant o c c u p a tio n a l c hoice o f Negro h ig h school and c o lle g e
s t u d e n ts .
(2 ) Some o c c u p a tio n a l f i e l d s , such as b u s in e s s , mining and t r a d e
work, have n o t been adeq uately developed by th e Negro.
(3) More Negroes a re now e n te r in g th e f i e l d s o f in s u r a n c e and
s o c i a l work.
(4) The p o s i t i o n s o f d o c t o r 's and d e n t i s t ' s a s s i s t a n t a re prom ising
f o r th e Negro g i r l .
(5) According to some re s e a r c h workers, a more i n t e n s i v e e d u c a tio n a l
background did n o t prove fa v o r a b le to t h e Negro, in so f a r as s a la r y ,
r a t i n g o r advancement a re concerned, except ih th e f i e l d s o f te a c h in g
and n u r s in g . R eg ard less o f t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l , N eg resses g r a v i­
t a t e d to dom estic and p e rs o n a l s e r v ic e work.
(§) O th ers found t h a t th e l a r g e m a jo rity o f c o ll e g e g ra d u a te s made
u se o f t h e i r h ig h e r t r a i n i n g and were s u c c e s s f u ll y p la c e d i n t h e pro­
fessio n s.
(7)
Many o f th e Negro g ra d u a te s from N orthern c o l l e g e s go to th e
South to f i l l te a c h in g p o s i t i o n s .
i . B . l . S lm so n a, A B r ie f Study o f th e P riva te Noncommercial Employment Agencies
O perating in Harlem, M.A. t h a a i a , C olum bia P n l w a l t f , 1080.
12-
(8) The Negro c o ll e g e g rad u a te p r e f e r s t o teach i n t h e high school
r a t h e r than in th e elem entary sch o o l.
(9) The M a jo rity o f Negro high school g ra d u a te s e n t e r th e u n s k ille d
and s e m i - s k i l l e d v o c a tio n s.
(10) Many o f th e c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s h e ld by Negro g i r l s s e r e ob­
t a i n e d through c i v i l s e r v i c e ex am in atio n s.
(11) There i s a divergence o f view point re g a rd in g th e f a i r n e s s o f
c i v i l s e r v i c e placem ent f o r th e Negro. Some s t u d i e s claim t h i s to be
t h e f a i r e s t o f a l l methods o f s e l e c t i o n and advocate i t s wider adoption,
w hile o t h e r s b e li e v e p r e ju d ic e o p e r a te s a g a i n s t t h e c o lo re d a p p l i c a n t 's
c e rtific a tio n .
(12) The g r e a t need fo r v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g and guidance f o r the
Negro h a s been emphasized.
(IS ) Some o f th e v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g scho ols r e f u s e to accept
c o lo re d s tu d e n ts .
(14) Even when t r a d e c o u rs e s were o f f e r e d , t h e i r v a lu e was exceed­
i n g l y dubious because o f th e la g between t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l methods and
t h e te c h n iq u e s used in in d u s tr y .
(15) In New York C ity, some o b s e r v e r s showed t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s
o p p o r tu n ity f o r th e Negro in p r o f e s s i o n a l work, whereas h i s chances
f o r commercial work a re in c r e a s in g .
(18) E a s in e s s firm s in New York C ity a re g ra d u a lly b e in g induced
to employ c o lo re d h e lp ,' p u b lic se n tim en t h a ving been aro u sed to demand
p o s i t i b n s f o r c o lo re d workers in e s ta b lis h m e n ts s e rv in g Negroes.
(1Y) I n e x p e r ie n c e ,< a s well as p r e j u d i c e and t r a d i t i o n , h in d e r the
o c c u p a tib n a l p ro g r e s s o f th e Negro.;
(18) D isc rim in a tio n has in c r e a s e d a s th e Negro h a s e n te re d semi­
s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d p o s i t i o n s .
CHAPTER 11
T he A i m s
of
Th is
St u d y
an d
the
P rocedure
F ollowed
This study d i f f e r s from t h e aforementi'oned re s e a r c h e s in t h a t
i t aims to d isc o v e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e l e v e l o f e d u c a tio n a l
t r a i n i n g o f Negroes l i v i n g i n Hew York C ity and t h e i r subsequent occu­
p a ti o n s .; As mentioned ih t h e summary a t th e end o f Chapter I', conf l i b t i h g evidence has been p r e s e n te d concerning th e in f lu e n c e o f edu­
c a tio n on o c cu p a tio n a l placem ent o f th e Negro.; O b je c tiv e d a ta w i l l
be p re se n te d which w ill i n d i c a t e t h e p a r t played by education in de­
te rm in in g th e ty pe o f work i n whibh th e Hegro i s employed in Hew York
C ity .;
All the c a s e s in c lu d e d in t h i s study a re Negroes l i v i n g i n Man­
h a tt a n who have sought v o c a tio n a l guidance and jo b placement a t t h e
New York Urban League Placem ent Eureau o r th e WPA Adult Guidance Ser­
v i c e between 1933 and January,* 1933.;
The so u rces o f t h e d a ta a r e t h e employment re c o rd s o f t h e Hew York
Urban League,* and case h i s t o r i e s o f t h e Harlem Branch o f th e WPA Adult
Guidance S e rv ice .: The Hew York Urban League re c o rd s cover 5553 cases,*
t h e i r a p p li c a t io n s d a ti n g from January,* 1933;* through December,* 1937,
w hile t h e r e c o rd s o f t h e WPA a v a i l a b l e a t th e time o f t h i s study deal
w ith 1248 i n d i v i d u a l s from January,* 1935,' through August,* 1937.; There
a r e 3799 c ase s a l t o g e t h e r .;
The program c a r r i e d on by t h e WPA o f f i c e emphasized v o c a tio n a l
guidance and c o u n se lin g .; Complete case h i s t o r i e s a re recorded,* comp r i s i h g d a ta on p e rs o n a l h i s t o r y , * e d u c a tio n a l tr a i n in g ,* o c c u p a t io n a l
career,* v o c a tio n a l a m b itio n s and a v o c a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s . ; The s o c i a l
and economi’c problems c o n fr o n tin g th e c l i e n t are d isc u sse d .; His h e a l th
s t a t u s i b checked and he i s given a s e r i e s o f psychom etric t e s t s to
determ ine hite i n t e l l i g e n c e le v e l,* v o c a tio n a l a p ti t u d e s , achievem ents,
and p e r s o n a l i ty .: Oh t h e b a s i s o f theBe r e p o r t s , t h e c o u n selo r enumerates
t h e a v a i la b l e a s s e t s o f each a p p lic a n t,* c o n s id e rs h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s ,* and
summarises h i s e s s e n t i a l problem s.; A p e rso n al conference i s h e ld and
a d eci’s io n as to th e b e s t p ro ce d u re i s reached.; Wherever p o s s i b l e , job
placem ents a re made.]
The employment o f f i c e o f t h e Hew York Urban League r e c o r d s d a ta
.on personal background,* e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l , 1p rev io u s work h i s t o r y and
p e r s o n a l i ty c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Hew York Urban League aims to make
-1 3 -
-1 4 aB many s u i t a b l e jo b r e f e r r a l s as p o s s i b l e , ' a c c u r a te n o t a t i o n s t h e r e o f
beihg made on each a p p l i c a n t 's c a r d . 1
I t was found necessary: in making t h i s study t o s e l e c t only e sse n ­
t i a l d a ta from th e g r e a t mass o f a v a i l a b l e sou rce m a te r ia l s u p p lie d by
t h e s e two o r g a n i s a t i o n s .:
In th e pritoary ta b u j.a tib n s ,i th e c a s e s were grouped according to
e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l ( p a r t i a l grammar sc h o o l, grammar school g rad u a tio n ,
p a r t i a l high sc h o o l, high school g ra d u a tio n , p a r t i a l c o ll e g e , c o lle g e
g ra d u a tio n , p o s t- g r a d u a te study, and v o c a tio n a l, t e c h n ic a l o r b u sin e ss
school t r a i n i n g ) , and th e s e groupB were su b d iv id ed i n t o s i x age c la s s e s :
17-24 y e a r s , 25-29 y e a r s , 30-59 y e a r s , 40-49 y e a r s , 50-59 y e a r s , and
60 y e a r s and o v e r. Vale and female c a s e s were s tu d ie d s e p a r a t e l y .
A ll th e a v a i l a b l e re c o rd c a rd s (6799) o f th e WPA Guidance S e rv ic e and
t h e New York Urban League Employment O f f ic e were c a r e f u l l y examined,
and d a ta r e l a t i n g t o p e rs o n a l background, e d u c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g , occu­
p a t i o n a l h i s t o r y and em p lo yers' re q u ire m e n ts were c l a s s i f i e d , enumer­
a te d and t a b u l a t e d . The WPA and New York Urban League d a ta were n o t
combined a t t h i s p o in t.
Follow ing t h i s p r e lim in a ry g a th e rin g of m a t e r i a l , a second s e t of
t a b l e s was c o n s tr u c te d which org an ized t h e d a ta i n t o f i v e main d iv is io n s :
1. P e rs o n a l Bnokground— n a t i o n a l i t y , c i t i z e n s h i p , l e n g t h of tim e
i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d i n New York C i t y , m a r i t a l s t a t u s ,
number o f o h i l d r e n o r d e p e n d e n t s , e o on om io o o n d i t i o n , and
. l i v i n g arrangem ents.
2 . P r e v i o u s Work H i s t o r y .
A. F i r s t j o b — k i n d o f work, w e e k l y e a r n i n g , r e a s o n f o r l e a v ­
i n g . ( T h e s e d a t a were a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e WPA r e o o r d s
o n ly .)
B. J o b e h e l d d u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o a p p l i o a t i o n a t
e i t h e r t h e WPA of- t h e New York U r b a n L e a g u e o f f i o e —
t y p e of work, weekly e a r n i n g , r e a s o n f o r l e a v i n g ,
d u r a t i o n o f e m p lo y m en t .
8. f i n a l R e f e r r a l — j o b s t o w hi o h a p p l i c a n t was s e n t , k i n d o f j o b ,
numbe r o f r e f e r r a l s b e f o r e p e r m a n e n t p l a o e m e n t , r e a s o n s f o r
rejeo tio n .
4 . E m p l o y e r s * R e q u i r e m e n t s o f A p p l i o a n t s f o r J o b s — ajge and o o l o r
p r e f e r r e d , w e e k l y wage o f f e r e d . ( T h e s e d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e
f r o m t h e New York U r b an L e a g u e r e o o r d s o n l y . )
Only in c a s e s o f i d e n t i c a l item s was a t o t a l made o f th e WPA and New
Tork Urban League d a ta . In some i n s t a n c e s t h e f i g u r e s could n o t be
combined, s in c e some o f th e d a ta su p p lie d by one o r g a n iz a tio n were
l a c k in g in th e r e c o r d s o f th e o th er.Prom t h i s Becond s e t o f w o rk -sh ee ts th e t a b l e s in clu d ed i n t h i s
t h e s i s were c o n s t r u c t e d . T his l a s t s e t embodies t h e t o t a l s o f t h e
-1 5 -
o t h e r t a b l e s and p r e s e n t s i n a u s a b le form th e v a s t amount of m a te ria l
given in th e p re lim in a r y t a b u l a t i o n s .
The t a b l e s follow t h e same sequence t h a t was o r i g i n a l l y devised
a t t h e beginning o f th e s tu d y . The f i r s t group d e a ls with th e personal
background o f th e c a s e s , th e second with t h e f i r s t j o b s o f th e c a se s,
t h e t h i r d with t h e i r p a s t j o b s , h e ld w ith in th e f i v e - y e a r p e rio d p r i o r
to t h e a p p li c a t io n d a te a t e i t h e r employment o f f i c e , and th e l a s t group
summarizes th e em p lo y ers' s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f employee req uirem ents.
Symbols on th e t a b l e s d e s ig n a te th o s e d a ta which were o b ta in a b le from
only one source. In a l l o t h e r c a s e s , th e t o t a l s a r e in d ic a t e d . P e r­
c e n ta g e s have been computed f o r a l l th e d a ta , and f o r th e wage d a ta
th e median, lower and upper q u a r t i l e s (Q1 and G3 ) were a ls o computed
and supplement th e p e rc e n ta g e f i g u r e s . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f th e impor­
t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s was determ ined by computing t h e p ro b ab le e r r o r o f th e
d i f f e r e n c e s and determ in in g t h e c r i t i c a l r a t i b .
A c r i t i c a l analysiis o f each t a b l e h a s been made. Wherever e t h e r
s i m i l a r s t u d i ’es a re known t o e x i s t , i r e f e r e n c e s a re in c lu d e d to th e s e .
P o s s i b l e e x p la n a tio n s o f th e r e s u l t s a re s t a t e d by c o n s id e rin g th e
v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t i n f lu e n c e t h e o c c u p a tio n a l c a r e e r s o f th e Negroes
in New York C ity .; The t h e s i s i n d i c a t e s f a c t o r s i n h i b i t i n g v o c a tio n a l
advancement o f th e Negro, < and d i s p l a y s t h e e x te n t of d is c r im in a tio n
a g a i h s t th e c o lo re d r a c e in e d u ca tio n and i n d u s t r y in New York C ity
to d ay .; I t shows whether o r n o t Negro education i s e f f e c t i v e , and
d e te rm ih e s whether t h e r e i s a need o f v o c a tio n a l guidance programs
and employment a c t i v i t i e s in s o h o o ls, s o c i a l a g e n c ie s and in i n d u s t r i e s , '
in so f a r as th e Negro i s c o n c e rn e d .-
CHAPTER I 11
P ersonal Background of the Cas e s
Before c o n s id e r in g th e o c c u p a tio n a l h i s t o r i e s o f th e c a s e s with
r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g , i t would be v a lu a b le to get
a background p i c t u r e o f th e p e rso n al c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e group.
The fo llo w ih g t a b l e s a re s e l f - e x p l a n a to r y to a l a r g e e x te n t, b u t sev­
e r a l term s r e q u i r e b r i e f comment.; Some o f t h e d a ta were a v a i l a b l e
from only one o f th e s o u rc e s ,' as i n d i c a t e d on th e t a b l e s and in th e
f o o t n o te s .; The re c o rd c a r d s o f th e two ag en cies a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l . '
In some c a se s th e WPA and th e New York Urban League i n q u ir e d about th e
same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , ' b u t from s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s , ' so t h a t
fundam entally t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between th e two s e t s o f d a ta .;
However,' s in c e t h e s e d a ta a r e not i d e n t i b a l ,- they have n o t been combihed.; In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , ' where th e item s were th e same,1 a t o t a l
was made.
The "Number o f Dependents" from th e New York Urban League re c o rd s
i n c l u d e s th e sp o u se,' c h i l d r e n , ' and any r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s who must
be f i n a n c i a l l y su p p o rte d ,' whereas th e WPA in q u ir e d only a s t o th e
"Number o f C h ild re n " in th e a p p l i b a n t ?s fam ily.;
Even though t h e same r a t i n g 3 c a le was employed f o r th e p e r s o n a l i ty
t a b l e s , ' th e d a ta from t h e two so u rc e s have been k ept s e p a r a t e because
o f a d i f f e r e n c e in determihi'ng th e r a t i n g . ; A complete e x p la n a tio n f o l ­
lows th e t a b l e s . ;
Tor some o f t h e ite m s in th e t a b l e s , th e a p p li c a n t s f a i l e d to
su pp ly th e desilred in fo r m a tio n . T h is accounts f o r t h e columns d e s ig ­
n a te d a s "So Data.T
T able I (p.; 17 f f .;) shows th e p e rso n al background o f a l l t h e men
ih th e stu d y ,' c l a s s i f i e d acco rd in g to e d u ca tio n al l e v e l . I t may be
observed from th e t o t a l s t h a t th e g r e a t m a jo rity o f t h e men (88 .4 per
c e n t) a r e Americans,' while only 9 .7 par c e n t a r e E n g lis h , and l.;4 p e r
c e n t a r e s c a t t e r e d among many n a t i o n a l i t i e s . The l a s t group in c lu d e s
one C e n tra l American, two Panamanians, fo u r Dutchmen,* t h r e e Santo
Domingans,' fo u r H a i t i a n s ,' s i* Cubans,' s ix A fric a n s, - fo u r Portuguese,t h r e e Prenchmen,<one Mexican,- and t h r e e South Americans.; (See Appen­
dix,- Table 53.')
S ih ce th e group was predom inantly American,' i t fo llo w s t h a t most
o f th e c a s e s a r e c i t i ’zens (95.8 p e r c e n t ) , ' a s compared w ith only 8 .3
per c e n t t h a t a re a li e n s .]
-1 6 -
17-
TABLE 1
P ersonal Data of All Ma l e s of Va r i o u s E du cat i onal L evels
NATIONALITY1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
Col. 1
p a r t i a l graamar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
vooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
AMERICAN
ENSLISH
OTHERS
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Col. 8 Col. 9 Col. 10
707
805
85.5
92
13.0
8
1.1
2
0.3
810
723
89.2
76
9.4
9
1.1
2
0 .2
892
80
750
75
90.1
93.8
85
5
7.8
8 .2
14
1.7
3
0.4
182
180
87.9
15
e .2
3.3
1
0.5
2811
2313
88.4
253
9 .7
6
37
1.4
8
0.3
TABLE 2
P ersonal Data of All F emales of VARI0U8 EDUCATI0NAL Le v e l s
NATIONALITY1
cnii^ATIAHII 1PVPt RUMOCm
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
AMERICAN
ENSLISH
OTHERS
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1345
1185
88.6
161
12.0
10
0 .7
9
0 .7
1513
1415
93*4
83
5 .7
7
0.5
5
0 .3
1000
40
972
40
97.2
100.0
28
2.3
8
0 .8
2
0 .2
200
287
92.1
18
6 .2
2
0 .7
3
1.0
4188
3859
91. e
288
6 .8
22
0 .5
19
0.4
TABLE 3
P ersonal Data of All Mal e s and F emales of Va r i o u s Educati onal Le ve ls
NATIONALITY1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL NUMBER
p a r t i a l gramaar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vocational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
». »
»’ •
NO OATA
OTHERS
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
AMERICAN
ENSLISH
2052
1770
88.2
253
12.3
18
0.9
11
0.5
2323
2138
91.9
162
7.0
18
0.7
7
0.3
1832
120
1722
115
93.8
95.8
88
5
4.e
17
0.9
5
0.3
4.2
472
427
90.4
33
7.0
8
1.7
4
0 .8
6799
8172
90.7
541
8.0
59
0.9
27
0.4
i . Combined d a te f r o a VPA and S ea York U rban League r e o o r d s .
-1 8 . TABLE 1 (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersona l Data of Al l Ma l e s of Va r i o u s E du cat i onal L e v e ls
citizenship 1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
001.? 11
p a r t i a l gramaar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V o catio n al,teohnioal o r
business sohool
TOTAL
.
. ' .
Cl tizen
ON RELIEF2
NON-CITIZEN
NO DATA
YES
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
C o l.12 Col. 18 Col. 14 C o l.15 COl.10 COl.17 C O l.is COl. 19 COl. 20
657
92.9
47
0.0
3
0.4
104
36
34.6
790
97.5
15
1.8
5
0.0
232
61
26.3
908
79
97.0
98.8
18
1
2.2
1.2
6
0 .7
185
3
58
43.0
175
90.1
5
2.0
2
1.1
25
10
40.0
2509
95.8
80
3.3
16
0 .0
499
105
8 8 .1
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n u e d )
P erson al Data OF ALL F emales of Va ri o u s E du cat i onal Le v e l s
citizenship 1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l gramaar
and graamar'
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V o o atlo n al,<
teo h n io al or
business sohool
.*
total
CITIZEN
ON RELIEF2
non- citizen
NO DATA
yes
HUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
1238
92.0
80
6 .4
21
1 .0
118
04
64.2
1470
97.0
32
2 .1
11
0 .7
403
168
38. 0
990
99.0
100.0
5
0 .5
5
0.5
198
3
78
40
89.4
08.7
284
97.9
4
1.4
2
0 .7
25
15
4022
95.7
127
8 .0
39
0 .9
747
812
60.0
41.7
2
TABLE 3 (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All Ma l e s ano F emales of Va r i o u s Eou cat i onal Le vels
ON RELIEF2
CITIZENSHIP1
YES
NO DATA
NON-CITIZEN’
CITIZEN
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUNBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l gramaar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high ,
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
.TOTAL
.'
•' •
•
1895
92.3
133
0 .5
24
1 .2
222
100
45.0
2250
97.2
47
2 .0
16
0 .?
035
214
33.7
1798
119
98.0
99.2
28
1
1 .2
0 .8
U
0 .0
333
136
0
2
40.8
33.3
469
97.2
9
1.9
4
0 .8
. 50
25
50.0
0531
90.0
213
3.1
55
0 .8
1246
477
8 8 .2
1, O esbisei d a t a from WPA and New T ork U rban League r e o o r d a .
S . D a ta f r o a WPA r e o o r d a .
-1 9 TABLE 1 ( C o n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data OF ALL MALE8 of Va r i o u s Edu ca t i o n a l L e ve ls
on RELIEF1 ( continued)
POSSIBLE SUPPORT^
NO
NO DATA
YES
NO
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUNSER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. ; SI
COl. 22 COl. 83 COl.84 COl.25 COl. 28 COl.27 COl. 88 001.29
p a r t i a l gramaar
and grammar
sohool graduates
64
18
4
61-5
3 .8
17.3
78
75.0
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates 165
172
74.1
71.1
6
52
22.4
2.8
p a r t i a l o ollsg e
and oollege
graduates
125
5.9
77
8
92.6
57.0
post-graduate
3
100.0
3
100.0
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
businass sohool
20
4
18.0
80.0
15
60.0
TOTAL
• ' «' • ‘ «
324
64.0
10
2-0
82
18.4
398
•
79.8
TABLE 2 (Cont i nued )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of V a r i o u s EDUCATIONAL L evels
on
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
p o st-graduate
vooational,
teo h n io al or
b usiness sohool
RELIEF1 (continued)
possible
SUPPORT1
NO
YES
no data
NO
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
50
42.4
4
3.4
19
18.1
93
78. e
238
59.0
12
3.0
101
25.0
277
68.7
us
l
59.8
33.3
2
1.0
27
13.8
168
3
-e4.8
100.0
72.0
18
24.0
6
74.8
20.5
559
2.5 : 153
19
55.7
TOTAL . . . . 416
TAB LE 9 (Conti nued )
P erson al Data of All Males and F emales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Leve ls
possible SUPPORT1
ON RELIEF1 (continued)
NO
YES
NO DATA
NO
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l gramaar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
po st-g rad u ate
V ooational,
te o h n io al or
b usiness sohool
9
36.0
1
4.0
114
51-3
8
3.6
37
18.7
171
77.0
403
63.4
18
2 .8
153
24.1
449
70.7
195
4
58.8
66*7
2
0 .6
35
10.5
293
6
88.0
100.0
24
48.0
1
29
2.0
10
20.0
38
76.0
2.3
235
18.8
957
78.8
59.3
740
1« D ata from IIPI raoor l a .
TOTAL
•
-2 0 TABLE 1 ( C o n t i n u e d )
P ersons \ l D a t a o f All Mal e s of Va r i o u s E duoati onal L ev e ls
POSSIBLE SUP—
NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS^
»0RT1 (CONT1NUED)
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
COl. 30
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar',
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL .• .
.
.
NO OATA
0
2
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl. 31 Col. 32 COl.33 C&1.34 Col. 35 C o l.38 Col. 37 C ol.33 COl.39
8
7.7
803
184
30.5
198
32.5
115
19.1
g
3.4
578
224
38. S
165
28.5
99
17.1
2
1.5
897
77
275
31
39.4
40.2
198
23
28.4
29.9
112
11
16.1
14.3
1
4.0
157
85
41.4
48
30.8
18
11.5
19
3.9
2112
779
38.8
030
29.8
355
18.8
TABLE 2 ( C o n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s Educati onal L evels
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
P0SSI8LE SUP>0RTl(continued)
NO DATA
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
NUMBER OF 0EPEN0ENTS2
■
2
PER CENT
N
U
M
B
E
R
PER
CEN
T
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER
0
0
5.1
1227
333
51.5
340
27.7
124
10.1
25
6.2
1110
592
53.3
302
27.2
103
9.3
3
1.5
eo 2
37
449
19
55.9
51.4
199
8
24.8
21.0
81
4
10.1
10.8
1
4.0
285
137
51.7
80
30.2
25
9.4
9 .8
337
929
26.9
53.1
1830
TABLE 3 (Co n t i n u e o )
P ersonal Data of All Males and F emales of Va r i o u s Educati onal L e v e ls
TOTAL .
.
•
•
4.7
35
3441
possible sup- n
porthcontinued)
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and granmar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS«
2
1
D
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
no
DATA
14
0.3
1830
917
44.0
536
29.3
239
13.0
38
5.2
1088
ei8
48.3
467
27.8
202
12.0
5
1.5
1499
114
724
50
48.3
43.8
397
31
20.5
27.2
193
15
12.9
13.2
2
4.0
422
202
47.8
i2 e
30.3
43
10.2
54
4.3
5553
2009
47.0
1569
28.1
692
12.4
1. Data fro a FPA reoor da.
Urban Leagne raeor&s.
-2 1 -
TABLE 1 (Con ti nued )
P er son al Data of All Ma l e s of Va r i o u s Edu cat i onal Le v e l s
NUMBER OP DEPENDENTS1 (CONTINUED)
C o l.40
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
aohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooational,>
teohnioal or
business sohool
TuTAL
.
#
..
•
3
4
5
6 AND OVER
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUM3EF PER CEN1r NUMBEF PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 41 C o l.42 Col. 45 Col. 44 Col. 4! Col. 40 Col. 41 C o l.48 Col. 4? Col. 50
53
8.8
21
8.5
9
1.5
9
1.5
18
fe e
44
7.0
19
3.3
4
0 .7
7
1.2
18
2.8
39
0
5.0
7.8
15
2
2 .2
2 .0
2
1
0.3
1.3
e
1.1
48
3
8.9
3.9
8
5.1
2
1.3
7
4.4
i
0 .8
8
5.1
150
7.1
59
2 .8
28
1.1
25
1.2
91
4.8
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n ue d )
P er son al Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s E du cat i onal Le ve l s
NUM3ER OF DEPENDENTS1 (CONTINUED)
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l u g h
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollegs
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooational,teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL .? .
.
NO DATA
6 ANO OVER
4
5
3
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM3ER PER CENT
52
4.2
19
1.5
9
0 .7
3
0 .2
47
3.3
29
2.0
12
1.1
3
0.3
8
0 .7
01
5.5
29
3
3.0
8.1
11
1.4
8
0*7
5
0 .0
22
3
2.7
8.1
6
2.3
1.1
3.4
0 .4
18
0.5
1.2
TABLE 3 (Co n ti n u e d )
3
119
1
43
19
0 .5
13
148
4*9
4.2
P ersonal Data of All Va l e s and F emales of Va r i o u s Edu c at i ona l Le ve ls
number of dependents1 (continued)
NO DATA
6 ANO OVER
5
4
3
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
number PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Pbst-graduate
V ooational,•
teohnioal or
business sohool
105
5.7
40
2.2
18
1.0
12
0 .0
83
3.4
78
4.3
31
1 .8
7
0.4
15
0 .9
77
4.6
08
9
4.5
7.9
28
2
1 .7
1 .8
8
1
0.5
0.9
13
0.9
70
8
5 .9
14
3.3
3
0-7
7
1 .0
4
0 .9
i.e
102
4 .8
1. p a ts fro* He* York Urb aa League record*.
41
0 .7
44
0*8
21
237
TOTAL
' •: •
209
4.7
6.0
4.3
-2 2 TABLE i (Co n t i n u e d )
P e r s o n * l Data of All Wales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Leve ls
MARITAL STATUS1
educational level
co l. 51
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
i . .. . s i N3LE
MARRIED
WIDOWED
SEPARATED
NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl. 52 C ol.53 Col. 54 COl.55 Col. 56 COl.57 COl. 58 COl. 59 C ol.50
707
198
28.0
372
52.6
70
9.9
61
8.6
e io
413
51.0
311
38.4
33
4.1
49
6.0
832
SO
484
40
58.1
50.0
281
30
33.7
37.5
21
1
2.5
1.2
43
8
5.2
10.0
182
91
50.0
72
39.6
4
2.2
13
7.1
2611
1226
46.8
1066
40.7
129
4.9
174
8.6
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal L evelj
MARITAL STATUS1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l graamar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
*' »
»' •
SI NGLE
MARRIED
WIDOWED
SEPARATED
NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1345
326
24.2
412
30.8
327
24.4
270
20.1
1513
742
49.0
388
25.0
163
10.8
215
14.2
1000
40
631
29
83.1
72.5
199
8
19.9
20.0
65
1
0. 5
2.5
103
2
10.3
5.0
290
4188
152
52.4
63
21.7
SO
10.3
41
14.1
1880
44.7
1070
25.5
588
13.9
631
15.0
TABLE 3 (Co n t i n u e d )
P er son al Data of All Wal e s and F emales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal L e v e ls
MARITAL STATUS1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
- graduates
po st-g rad u ate
V ooational,
te o h n io al or
business sohool
SIN0LE
MARRIED
WIDOWEO
SEPARATED
NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
2052
524
25.5
784
38.2
897
19.3
331
10.1
2323
1155
49.7
699
30.0
198
8.4
264
11.4
1832
120
1115
69
00.8
57.5
480
38
26.2
31.7
86
2
4 .7
1.7
146
10
8.0
8.3
472
243
51.5
135
28.8
34
7.2
10.5
54
11.4
805
11.8
715
31.4
2136
45.6
6799 3106
1. combined datik fro* UFA and Now York Urbaa League reoorda.
-2 3 TABLE 1 (C o n t i n u e d )
P ersona l Data of All Mal e s of Va r i o u s E d u cat i onal Levels
MARITAL
HOME LIFE
, STATUS1 n
LIVIN32
(continued)
WITH PARENTS WITH RELATIVES WITH SPOUSE
NO DATA
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl.61
COl. 62 Col. 63 Col. 64 COl. 65 Col. 06 COl.67 C ol.68 Col. 69 Col. 70
p a r t i a l grammar
and graamar
sohool graduates
104
23
20
19.2
22.1
6
e
7 .7
o .e
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
35
15.1
28
11.2
4
0 .5
232
79
34.0
p a r t i a l oollage
and oollege
graduates
17
17
135
12.6
21
3
0 .4
15.6
12.6
post-graduate
3
1
1.2
V ooational, ■
teo h n io al or
business sohool
25
2
11
44.0
2
8.0
1.1
53
79
127
25.4
10.6
499
15.8
0.2
TOTAli • •" • ' » 16
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of VARIOUS Eou cat i onal L evels
HOME LIFE
VARITAL
, STATUS1
(CONTINUEO)
NO DATA
eoucational level
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
v o o a tio n a l,>
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
•
*‘ •
LIVIN82
WITH PARENTS
WITH RELATIVES
WITH SPOUSE
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
10
0 .7
118
28
22.0
6
5.1
9
7.6
5
0.3
403
127
81.5
59
14.6
37
9.2
2
0 .2
198
3
23
11.6
ie
9.1
83.3
20
1.0
i
4
1.4
25
12
48.0
3
12.0
2
8.0
21
0 .5
747
188
25.2
87
11*6
68
9.1
TABLE 3 (Co n t i n u e d )
P er son al Data og All Mal e s and F emales of Va r i o u s Educati onal L e vels
HOME LIFE
MARITAL
, STATUS1 .
LIVIN92
(CONTINUED)
WITH RELATIVES WITH SPOUSE
with PARENTS
NO DATA
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and.high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V o o atio n al,.
teo h n io al or
b usiness sohool
16
0 .8
222
46
20.7
14
6.3
32
14.4
9
0 .4
635
206
32.4
85
13.4
72
11.8
5
1
0 .3
0 .8
333
6
40
12.0
35
1
10.5
16.7
41
12.8
10.0
2
4 .0
11.2
147
11.8
5
46*0
23
50
1.3
140
25.3
1246 315
5.0
to ta l *~ • ' »r •'
Combined d a ti i from ' IPA and Fe» York urban L eague r e c o r d s ,
g . Data f r o * FPjL reo o rd l e .
6
37
-2 4 TABLE i (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersona l Data of Al l Mal e s of Va r i o u s E oucati onal Le v e ls
Home life
LIVING1
LIVING2
A
LO
N
E
NO DATA
AT HOME
cntifiAT t amai icifei
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
COl. 71
COl. 72 COl.73 COl. 74 Col. 75 COl.76 COl.77 Col. 78 COl. 79 COl.00
p a r t i a l gramhar
and grammar
aohool graduates
12
18.3
22
11.5
19
21.2
247
603
41.0
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
24
47
10.3
20.2
21
9.0
578
302
52.2
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
14.1
37. e
10
19
51
7.4
697
308
44.2
Post-graduate
66*7
1
33.3
37
2
77
4e.o
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
7
2
3
12.0
2 e.o
81
51.6
e.o 1 157
11.2 | 2112 8 975
46.1
TOTAL .
.
25.2
58
126
56
11.8
WITH FRIENDS
TABLE 2 (C o n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s Educati onal L evel 3
HOME LIFE
LIVING1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
•' •
•
•
LIVING2
AT HOME
NO DATA
WITH FRIENDS
ALONE
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
14
11.9
46
39.0
17
14.4
1227
450
36.6
45
11.2
86
21.3
49
12.2
1110
497
44.7
38
19.2
77
2
38.9
66-7
22
1 1 .1
802
37
359
22
44.7
59.4
3
100
12.0
13.4
4
215
16.0
28.8
1
89
4.0
11.9
265
3441
132
1460
49.8
42.3
TABLE S (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data OF Al . l Males i and F emales of Va r i o u s E du cat i onal Le v e l s
HOME LIFE
LIVING2
LIVING1
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh ,
sohooltand high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and ooliage
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
AT HOME
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
ALONE
WITH FRIENDS
25
11.7
65
29.3
39
17.6
1830
697
38.0
69
10.9
133
20.9
70
11.0
le e s
799
47.3
57
17.1
128
4
38.1
86.7
32
1
9.6
16.7
1499
114
667
59
44.6
61.7
6
12.0
11
3
6*0
422
213
50.4
12.7
TOTAL • ‘ » ' * ‘ • 158
1 . D a ta fro a WPA raoor d a .
341
42*0
27.3
145
1 1 .6
5553
2435
43.8
-3 5 TABLE i (Co n ti n u e d )
PER80N, al Data of All Ma l e s of Va r i o u s Eou cat i onal L e v e l s
HOME LIFE
NUMBER OF CHILDREN'6
LIVINQ1
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
COl.81
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAt) • ] » • . :
R<JOMINS
1
BOARDINS £
NO OATA
0
NUMBEf PER CEN'rf NUMBEF PER CEN'T NUMBER PER 0ENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
co i.es Col. 83 Col. 84 Col.e5 Col. 8? C ol.87 C0I . 8S Col. 8?
257
42.6
89
14.8
10
1.6
50
19
38.0
203
35.6
60
10.4
10
1.7
75
20
26.7
312
36
44.7
46.8
82
4
8.9
5.2
15
2.2
48
2
9
1
ie .7
50.0
S3
e?4
40.1
41.3
11
.226 I
7 .0
10.7
2
37
1.8
1.8
3
178
49
27.5
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of Vari ous E ducati onal Le v e l s
HOME LIFE
s
NUMBER OF CHILDREN"
LIVIN31
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool ana high
school graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . : . .
ROOMINS
BOARDINS
NO data
D
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER number PER CENT
524
42.6
231
18.8
22
1.8
88
17
19.8
453
40.8
148
13.3
12
1.1
165
34
30*6
362
12
45.1
S*4
75
3
9.3
io . e
6
*4
72
0
21
29.1
20
477
7.5
13.8
4
44
1.5
1.3
7
330
1
73
14.3
22.1
109
1460
41.1
42.3 |
TABLE 3 (Conti nued )
P erson al Oata of All Mal e s and F emales of Va ri o u s E du c at i ona l L e v e ls
HOME LIFE
___
NUMBcn u r uniLAmen
LIV INS1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
ROOMINS
BOARDINS
no
J
DATA
0
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT
781
42. S
320
17.5
32
1.7
138
36
26.5
659
39.0
208
12.4
22
1.3
240
54
22.6
674
48
45.0
42.1
137
7
9.1
6.1
21
1.4
120
2
30
1
50.0
172
40.7
81
7.3
6
1.4
1.4
10
1
10.0
28.9
508 122
81
703
12.6
42.0
TOTAL .?
. 2334
1. Data from Has York t irbaa League reo<wds.
g. Kuaber. of marr ie d , «ildowed and sepex ated oaeee (uumerried oeeee ere exoluded from
ooasi& eration of x
P erso nal Data of
EDUOATIONAL LEVEL
061.91
p a r t i a l graasar
and grawaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a rtia le o lle g e
and oollege
- graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL .
.
.
.
-2 6 TABLE l (C o n t i n u e d )
All Males of Va r i o u s E d u c a t io na l Le ve ls
number of children1
.2
4
3
5
NUMBER per cent NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
c o l .92 C ol.93 COl.94 C ol.95 COl.96 COl.97 301.98 C o l.99 ColdQO COl. 101
1
9
18.0
8
16.0
4
8.0
18
24.0
8
10.7
4
5 .3
16
1
38.8
50.0
6
12.5
1
2.1
2
66.7
44
24.7
18.5
9
24
5 .0
TABLE 2 (C o n t i n u e d )
2
2
1
2.0
3
6 .2
4
2.2
2 .7
1.1
P erson al Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s E du c at i o na l L e v e ls
NUMBER OF CHILDREN1
■
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l gramaar
and graamar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al o r _
business sohool
4
5
2
3
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER »ER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
22
25.6
14
16.3
e
9.3
2
57
34.5
24
#5
1
0 .6
1
17
28.6
7
9 .7
2
2 .8
8
42.8
1
14.3
99
30.0
46
13.9
11
3.3
8
2.3
0 .9
Table 3 ( c o n t i n u e d )
P erson al Da TA OF All Ma l e s and F emales of Va r i o u s E ou c at i ona l L e v e ls
NUMBER OF CHILDREN1
F
I
3
2
. 1
EDUOATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER 0ENT
p a r t i a l graamar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
• graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al o r .
31
2 2 .8
22
16.2
12
8 .8
2
1 .5
75
81.2
32
13.3
5
2 .1
3
1 .2
38
27.5
50.0
18
10.8
8
2.5
1
3
1
0.7
3
2.6
30.0
0*8
4
1 .0
5
8 .9
20
13.7
2 .8
70
148
t« la ah er e f s i lesed , s e r r ie d :aisd separated esses >( a tta r r ie d eases are eaeladed fre e eeaside* eh i
3
30.0
-2 7 -
TA B L E 1 (CO NT 1NUEO)
P ersonal Oata of Al l Ma l e s of Va r i o u s E duoati onal Levels
NUMSER OF CHILOREN1 (CONT1NUEO)
TIME IN UNITED STATES2
NO OATA
6 AND OVER
LIFE
0-4 YR8. i l l MOS.i
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMSER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl.102
c o ia o s COl.104 COl 405 C o l.106 001.107 Col.10E Col. 109 001.110 C61.1U
p a r t i a l graamar
and grammar
sohool graduates
2.0
1
707
8
16.0
569
80.4
4
0 .6
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
23
810
695
4
30.7
85.8
0 .5
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
88.9
4.2
2
22.9
882
740
11
1
0 .1
P ost-graduate
98.8
80
75
V ooational, ■
teo h n io al or
b usiness sohool
182
83*3
153
1
84.0
24.2
0 .3
2282
9
TOTAti . . 1 . ' .
43
2611
85.3
3
1.7
TABL E 2 (CONTINUEO)
P erson al Data of Al l F emales of Va r i o u s E du cat i onal Levels
TIME IN UNITED states2
NUMBER OF CH1LOREN1 (CONT1NUED)
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
-sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohoOl
TOTAL »? • * •! • !
0 -4 YRS. 1 1 MOS.«
LIFE
NO DATA
6 AND OVER
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER »ER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
2
2.3
21
24.4
1846
1111
82.5
8
0* 6
t
0 .6
47
2 8 .5
1513
1394
92.0
6
0 .4
I
i
25.
84.7
1000
40
964
40
96.4
100.0
1
0 .1
2
28.6
290
264
91.0
3773
4188
28.8
TABL E 3 (Co n t i n u e d )
89.8
15
0*4
8
0.9
95
P e rsonal Data of Al l Ma l e s and F emales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Leve ls
TIME in united states2
NUMBER OF CHILDREN1 (CONTINUED)
0 - 4 YRS, 11 MOS.
LIFE
NO OATA
6 AND OVER
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar ^
*sohool graduates
P a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
te o h n io al or .
b usiness sohool
8
2.2
29
21.3
2052
1680
81.8
12
0.6
1
0 .4
70
29.1
2323
2089
89.8
10
0 .4
2
1.7
38
30.0
1832
120
1704
115
92.9
95.8
2
0.1
3
30.0
472
417
83.3
0*4
24
88.3
6005
6799
27.0
138
1.2
8
TOflPAL • • ’ • ' •
1. Vaster of wi l o n l , ita rrie d a nd sep arates eases (unssrrleA eases are eselndeft fre e eon­
elA eretlen o f .sariie r of <th ild ren ) es fo rk Urban League reee rd s.
IP A saA V
------------------C u n ) nal Data of
-2 8 TABLE 1 (Co n t i n u e d )
Al l Ma l e s of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Le vp l s
TIME IN UNITED 3TATES1 (CONTINUED)
FQUfiiTIOMAL LEVEL
Col. 112
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
eotaool graduate*
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
IPOTAL • ' • ' • ' •
5 - 9 YRIS. 11 MOS.
1 0 -1 4 YRS.i l l MOS. 1 5 -1 9 YRS.i l l MOS. 1 20 YRS. AND OVER
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
COl. m
0O1.U4
COl. U£
COl.110
14
2.0
31
4 .4
15
1.6
34
4 .2
81
2.5
18
3
2 .2
3 .8
5
2 .7
14
53
2.0
100
NUMBER PER CENT
COl. i n c m . u e
31
NUMBER PER OENT
G01.11S COl. 180
4*4
87
5.2
8.6
22
2.7
24
2.9
20
2
2.4
2.5
7 .7
4
2.2
4
2.2
3 .8
88
3.4
85
3.8
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal L eve ls
TIME IN UNITED STATES1 (CONTINUED)
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r tia l gramaar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TCflNj .
•
•
•
5 - 9 YR8. 11 MOS.
NUMBER PER CENT
1 0 -1 4 YRS. 11 MOS. 1 5 -1 9 YRS. u MOS. 20 YRS. AND OVER
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
86
1.9
77
5 .7
45
3.8
52
3.9
10
0 .7
46
3.0
24
1.0
24
1.6
4
0 .4
11
1.1
9
0.9
7
0 .7
3
1 .0
7
2.4
6
2.1
7
2.4
43
1.0
141
3 .4
84
2.0
90
2.1
TABLE 3 (C o n t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All Ma l e s and F emales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Le v e l s
TIME IN UNITED STATES1 (CONTINUED)
5 - 9 YRS. 1 1 MOS. 1 0 -1 4 YRS. 11 MOS. 1 5 -1 9 YRS1. 11 MOS. 20 YRS. AND OVER
EDUOATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CE|Jt
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l graamar
and gramaar
-sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
a n l oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal o r .
business sohool
40
1.9
108
5 .2
76
8.7
89
4.8
28
1.0
80
3 .4
53
2.3
46
2.0
25
1.4
29
3
1 .6
2 .5
33
1.8
27
2
1.5
1.7
8
1.7
21
4 .4
10
2.1
2.5
11
2.8
175
2.6
172
3.5
241
1.4
96
a from SPA and la s York Urban league reoords.
-2 9 TABLE 1 (Con t i n u e o )
P ersc nal Data op Aill Ma l e s of Va r i o u s E du c at i ona l Le v e l s
TIME IN UNITED
TIME IN NEW YORK CITY1
STATE8^ (CONT.)
19-14 YRS.
NO OATA
LIFE
0-4 YRS. 11 MOS. 5-9 YRS. i i MOS. l l MOS.
EOUOATIGNAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER
COl.12J Col. 123 C o l.124 Col. IK c d .is e Col. 121 C01.12E C o l.129 COl.180
C ol.121
P a r ti a l grammar
0
and grammar
sohool graduates
3.0
21
51
7.2
159
18.2
129
22.5
141
p a r t i a l Sigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
13
144
166
1.3
17.8
147
20.5
166
19.2
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
- graduates
e
174
301
36.2
105
113
18.6
1.0
20.9
P oet-graduate
28
12
6
7.5
20
25.0
35.0
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
14-. 8
86
47
2
25. e
27
40
2 .2
1.1
354
441
44
701
19.3
TOTAL
.
506
1.7
18.5
26.8
TABLE 2 (Co n t i n u e d )
P erson al Dat a of All F emales of Va r i o u s e d u c a ti o n a l L eve ls
TIME IN NEW YORK CITY1
TIME IN UNITED
STATES1 (CONT*)
NO DATA
10-14 YR8.;
0-4 YRS. 11 MOS. 5-9 YRS. 11 MOS. 11 M08.
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER
P a r ti a l grammar
and grasser
■sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
-sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,teohnioal o r
business sohool
LIFE
23
1.9
98
7 .3
260
19.3
279
20.7
280
9
0 .6
242
16.0
408
26.6
341
22.5
227
4
0 .4
97
3
9 .7
7.5
439
14
43.9
35.0
211
9
21.1
22.5
127
4
3
1.0
51
17.1
70
24.1
69
23*8
51
689
28.2
909
21.6
11.7 1186
TABLE 3 (CONT 1 nued)
P e rson al Dat A OF Al. l Males and F emales of Va r i o u s Edu c at i ona l L e v e l s
TIME IN NEW YORK CITY1
TIME IN UNITED
STATES1 (CONTi)
0-4 YRS. l i MOS. 5-9 YRS.'11 MOS. ’ S f l b P - '
LIFE
NO DATA
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER
TOTAL «? »'
»
p a r ti a l grammar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high .
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,*
teohnioal or
TOTAL
.3.
42
1.0
491
m
2.3
149
7.2
419
20.4
408
19.9
421
22
0 .9
386
16.6
569
24.5
497
21.4
374
12
0 .6
210
9
11.4
7.5
740
42
40.3
35.0
885
29
21.0
24.2
232
16
5
1.0
117
1897
96
20.3
87
1.3
19.3
12.4
24.8
86
91
845
27.7
1415
20.8
1130
1. coablaed i a t a fro a l
irfeaa League re e e rle .
TABLE 1 (C o n t i n u e d )
P ersc inal Data of All Mal e s of Va r i o u s E d u c a t io na l Le v e l s
EDUCATIONAL LEVE1
T»H€ IN NEW VORK CITV1 (CONTINUED)
t
.
-v
1 0 -1 4 vrs.
11 M08. 15-19 vR8.11 MOS. !5 0 -2 9 VRS.il MOS. 3 0 YRS.'AND OVER
PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PSR CENT
c o l . t a I COl. IS! COl.184 COl. IS! COl. 136 001.131 COl.138 COl. 131 COl.140
CO1.191
p a r t i a l grammar'
and grammar
-aohool graduatei
p a r t i a l high
aohool and high
aohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
aid oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
husinass aohool
TOTAL •
.
•
NO DATA
•
19.9
99
14.0
74
10.6
36
6 .1
18
2.5
18.1
93
11.5
57
7.0
19
2.3
28
3.4
12.8
15.0
85
4
7 .8
5.0
37
8
44.0
10.0
18
1
2.2
1.2
19
1
2.3
1.2
19.8
18
9.9
5
2.7
6
8.3
8
16.8
279
10.6
le i
6.9
80
3.0
69
1.6
2.6 ’
TABLE 2 (C on t i n u e d )
P ersonal Data of All F emales of Va r i o u s Edu ca t i o n a l Le v e l s
I
time in
Mew vork citv1 (continued)
10“ 1 4 YRS.
EDUCATIONAL LEVEt
p a r t i a l grammar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
aohool and high
-sohool graduate!
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
NO DATA
1 5 - 1 9 v R s .i i MOS. 20-29v R S .ii m os. 30 YRS. AND OVER
PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM3ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1 1 MOS.
20.8
160
11.9
159
11.8
77
5.7
32
2.4
15.0
128
8.4
94
8.2
20
1.3
58
8.8
12.7
10.0
45
4.5
15.0
48
4 .8
5.0
5
0 .5
28
8
2
2.8
5.0
17.1
23
7.9
4.5
4
1 .4
9
8.1
16.4
362
13
316
106
2.5
129
3.1
2
7.5
8 .6
TABLE 3 (Co n t i n u e d )
P er son al Dat A OF Al l Ma l e ;S AND F e. males of Va r i o u s E du c at i onal Le v e l s
TIME IN NEW VORK CITV1 (CONTINUED)
10-14YRS.
NO DATA
11 MOS. i 5 - l 9 v R s . i l MOS. 2 0 - 2 9 v R s .i i mos. 30 YRS. AND OVER
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
PER OENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh ^^
aohool a id high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
te o h n io al or
TOTAL .
20.5
259
12.6
283
11.3
113
5 .5
50
2.4
18.1
221
9.5
161
8.5
39
1 .7
86
3.7
12.6
13.3
no
6.0
8.3
85
10
4 .6
8 .3
23
1
1.2
0 .8
47
3
III
8.7
9.4
18
3.8
10
2.1
2 .7
12
2.5
198
2 .9
18.4
10
41
189
7 .3
497
.a fro a UPA and Ham fork Orbaa teagaa rsao rd s.
641
P ersona l D a t a o f
-3 1 TABLl: i ( C ON T I N U E O)
A l l Ma l e s o f V a r i o u s E o u o a t i o n a l L e v e l s
PERSONALITY RATINSS
*
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL SOURCE. OF OATA
:
lCpl.141
COl.142
IUM8ER
c301.148 COl. 144
WPA reoords
104
pen York urban
League reoordi 608
WPA reoords
288
pew York urban
Leegusrdoords
578
WPA reoords
185
New York urban
Leagueieoords
697
WPA reoords
3
New York urban
Leaguereeords
77
WPA reoords
V ooational,
25
New York urban
teo h n io al or
Leaguezeoords
business sohool
157
499
TOTAL • :
. 1 • WPA reoords
New York urban
Leaguereoorda 2112
p a r t i a l grammar
and gramaar
aohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
I
1
1
»
1
1
NUMSER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl.148 C o l.146 C o l.147 COl. 146
11
10*6
86
COl.149
7
11
1 .2
4*7
121
45
2 0 .1
19.4
298
68
34*6
48.6
29.3
12
11
2 .1
e .i
148
44
25*6
32.6
217
21
87.6
15.6
27
1
8.9
33.3
178
25.5
189
1
19.9
88.3
9
1
11.7
4.0
24
6
81.2
24.0
9
6
11.7
24.0
8
24
5 .7
4*fc
49
106
81.2
2 1 .2
39
132
68
3.0
520
24.6
697
24.8
.. SK'C"..
88.0
TABLE 2 ( C o n t i n u e o )
P e r s o n a l Da t a o f Al l F e m a l e s o f Va r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
|
PERSONALITY RATINSS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
SOURCE OF DATA
t
*
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER
NUMBER
WPA reoords
lie
New York urban
League reoords 1227
WPA reoords
408
New York urban
League reoords 111 0
WPA reoords
198
New York urban
League reoords
892
WPA reoords
»
New York urban
League reoords
87
WPA reoords
25
V o o atio n al,■
teohnioal o r _ New York urban
League reoords
265
747
TOTAL »? • ' •! • WPA reoorda
New York urban
League reoorda 8441
p a r t i a l gramaar
and gramaar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l n ig h sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
.
1
0
1
PER CENT NUMBER PBI CENT
1
0 .8
8
2.5
66
14
15
1 .1
8.7
223
95
23
15
2 .1
7.6
827
81
18.2
28.6
29.4
40.9
694
180
409
31
25
3.1
21 1
2
26.3
66.7
169
1
2
1
15
12
82
5.4
4.0
4.5
4.3
84
189
76
2 .2
860
e
m
31.7
25.2
24.9
55.9
48.4
32.2
36.8
15.6
zbh
2 1 .0
38*3
2.7
28.0
26.8
31.4
1224
36.1
1
7
71
TABLE 3 (COl i t i n u e d )
P e r s o n a l D a i ’a of Al l Mal e s and F emali ■s o f V a r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
I
PERSONALITY RATINSS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL SOURCE OF DATA
p a r t i a l gramaar
and grammar
-sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
sad oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
business school
TOTAL . . • •
NUMBER
WPA reoords
222
New York urban
League reoords 1889
WPA reoords
685
New York urban
League reoords 1688
WPA reoords
833
New York urban
League reoords 1499
WPA reoords
6
New York urban
League reoords
114
WPA reoords
50
New York UTban
League reoords
WPA reoords
1246
New York urban
league reoords 5553
i
J
‘
“
1
0 .4
14
6.3
102
45.9
21
26
1 .1
4.1
844
140
is. e
22.0
887
198
48.4
31.2
85
26
2 .1
7 .8
475
125
28.1
37.5
626
52
52
1
8.5
16.7
25.9
88.8
308
2
11
2
9 .6
4.0
889
S
89
14
87.0
16.6
20.5
38.8
34*6
28.0
10
13
8.8
26.0
20
56
4 .7
138
295
81.5
23*&
110
26*0
as
lean
24*8
4041
84*9
139
““
1
-J5 3 S -
T a 6 l £ i ( t O N T 1NUEO)
PERSONA l D a t a o f A l l Ma l e s o f V a r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
CDUUAT (URAL LcVel
SOURvc Or DATA
Col. 151
WPA reoords
New York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
men York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
Vooational,
WPA reoords
teo h n io al or
Wen York urban
y bnaineaa sohool League reoords
TOTAL • ■ • ' • . WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
3cA.il®
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
aohool graduates
p a r t i a l Sigh
aohool and high
aohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
1
I
PERSONALITV RAT 1NQS (CONT 1NUED)
1
NO OATA
i
F
PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl. 155 C o l.153 Col. 154 COl.155 Col. 15C Col. 157
11
10.6
1
1.0
43.8
45
IS
2.2
0 .2
1
168
27.8
4
1 .7
2
102
44.0
0 .9
|
D
NUMSER
5
6
0 .9
3 .7
4
0 .6
1
0 .7
196
53
33.9
39.2
349
1
50.0
83.3
35
12
45.4
48.0
38.8
61
4
2±§
0 .8
4.0
38.3
1.0
1
809
22
0 .0
TABLE 2 ( G o n t i n u e o )
P e r s o n a l D a t a o f Al l F e m a l e s o f V a r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
PERSONALITY RATINSS (C0N1 1nued )
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL SOURCE OF DATA
WPA reoords
wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
Vooational,
wen York urban
teohnioal or
business sohool League reoords
TOTAL • ‘ • ' •" • WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
- sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
aohool and high
■aohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
20
D
NUMBER
1
NO OATA
F
PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT
6
5 .1
1
0 .8
41
22
16
1 .6
4.0
2
0.5
874
145
9
4
0 .6
2.0
1
0 .1
841
37
10
1.2
1
0.1
see
1
4.0
27
3 .6
0 .4
19
8
90
261
3
84.7
80.4
36.0
80.7
33.8
48.1
51.4
82.0
37.0
34.9
35.3
1218
2
0 .0
1.2
TABLE 3 ( C o n t i n u e d )
P e r s o n a l D a t a o f A l l Ma l e s a n o F e m a l e s o f V a r i o u s E o u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
PERSONALITY RATINSS (CONTINUED)
NO DATA
F'
9
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL SOURCE OF DATA
NUMBER | PER CENt|nUMBER I PER CENTInUMBER IpER OENT
WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
wen York urban
League-reoords
WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League -reoords
WPA reoords
Wen York urban
League reoords
WPA reoords
V ooational, •
Wen York urban
te o h n io al or
business sohool League reoords
TOTAL
. WPA reoords
•
wen York urban
League reoords
p a r t i a l graamar
and grammar
■sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sshool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
1
41
17
7 .6
2
0 .9
•86
s e .7
35
20
1.9
3.1
1
4
0 .0
0» Q
642
247
29.6
38.9
n
M
1
1
0 .0
0 .3
537
120
31.8
86.0
14
0 .9
1
0 .1
785
1
1
2.0
54
20
49.0
16.7
47.4
40.0
159
87.7
47
3*6
7
0 .6
474
38.0
68
1 .1
3
0 .0
2027
86.5
I
1
1
I
1
-S 3 -
TABLE l (C oncluded )
P e rs on a l Data of All Ma l e s of Va r i o u s Educati onal Le v e l s
00
s•
8
PHYSICAL HEALTH REC5RD1
PHYSICALLY NO EXAMINATION
PIT FOR ANY t SEMl'HtCTIVE OR SPECIF10 PHYS­
BIVEN
UNQUALIFIED
ICAL HANDICAP
EMPLOYMENT |
SEDENTARY
EOUCATIONAL LEVEl
NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER PER OENT •NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
001159 001,16G COU01 COl. 10J C0146S 001.104 OOlf.06 COl. 100 O®£|07 001.108
p a r ti a l gramaar
and graamar
aohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool am high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
- graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal o r
business sohool
40
38.5
4
3 .8
15
14.4
46
48.8
108
44.4
9
3.9
14
6.0
106
45.7
55
40.7
4
3.0
76
8
50.3
100.0
12
48.0
1
4.0
12
48.0
210
42.1
ie
3.0
242
48.5
29
5.8
0
0 .0
TABL E 2 (Concluded )
P erson al Dai rA OF At .L FEM ales of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Le v e l s
PHYSICAL HEALTH RECORD1
PHYSICALLY NO EXAft11NATION
FIT FOR ANY SEMI-ACTIVE OR SPECIFIC PHYS­
SIV EN
UNCIUALIFIED
ICAL HANDICAP
SEDENTARY
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate •
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
30
30.5
15
12.7
15
12.7
1
0 .8
51
48.2
165
40.9
32
7 .9
12
8.0
4
1 .0
190
47.1
90
3
45.4
100.0
10
5 .0
3
1.5
1
0 .5
94
47.5
5
20.0
1
4 .0
19
78.0
854
47.4
0 .8
6
4.0
30
7 .8
TABLE 3 ( C o n c l u d e d )
d Fem ales of V arious E d u c a tio n a l
P ersonal DatTA OF All Ma LES AN
PHYSICAL HEALTH RECCiRD1
PHIrSICALLY
FIT FOR ANY SEMI-ACTIVE OR SPECIFIC PHY8UNCUALIFIEO
SEOENTARY
EDUOATIONAL LEVEL
PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
PER CENT
TOIili •
•
•" •
P a r tia l gramaar
and graamar
-sohool graduates
P a r tia l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates .
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
299
40.0
58
L evels
NO EXA*IINATtON
e i\ fEN
NUMBER PER CENT
70
34.2
19
8.0
30
13.5
1
0 .4
96
48.2
208
42.2
41
0 .4
28
4.1
4
0 .0
296
46.6
145
3
43.5
50.0
14
4*2
3
0 .9 .
1
0 .3
170
8
51.0
50.0
17
34.0
2
81
596
62.0
47.8
Is.
4 .0
O*A
KQ
09
4 .7
0
0 .5
-3 4 -
I t i e i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t , ' even though t h e s e re c o r d s s e r e
c o l l e c t e d d u rin g an e r a o f d e p re s s io n ,'o n ly 38.1 p e r c e n t o f th e male
a p p l i c a n t s t o th e WPA o f f i c e were on r e l i e f , - alth o u g h 7 9 .8 p e r c eh t
o f t h e c a s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had no means o f p o s s i b l e s u p p o rt.
Many o f t h e men a r e un attach ed ,- with no fam ily r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,
a s evidenced by t h e f a c t t h a t 86.8 p e r c e n t o f t h e Mew York Urban
League c a s e s s t a t e d they had no dependents. The newt l a r g e s t group
(8 9 .3 p e r c e n t) was made up of th ose who had only one person dependent
upon them. As t h e number o f dependents in c r e a s e s ,- t h e r e i s a de crea se
i n t h e number o f c a s e s , - except fo r a very s l i g h t g a in i n th e l a s t group .’
Regarding m a r i ta l s t a t u s , t h e l a r g e s t male group, com prising 48.8
p e r c e n t , was s in g le , as compared with 40.7 p e r c e n t t h a t were m arried.
The widowers numbered 4 .9 p e r cent o f the group,- w h ile th o se t h a t were
s e p a r a t e d t o t a l l e d 6 ,6 p e r c e n t.
Of t h e WPA c a s e s , - approxim ately the same number liV e alone (25.3
p e r c e n t ) as r e s i d e with t h e i b p a re n ts (25.4 p e r c e n t ) . - Only 10.6 p e r
c e n t l i v e with t h e i r r e l a t i v e s , - while the rem aining 15.8 p e r c e n t l i v e
w ith t h e i r wiVes.; There was another group, - i n c l u d i n g 11 .2 per c e n t o f
t h e c a s e s , - n o t accounted f o r , due to the la c k o f d a ta .;
The New York Urban League, ih ih v e s ti'g a tih g home l i f e , - in q u ir e d
about h o using arrangements*; The s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t th e l a r g e s t group
( 4 8 .1 p e r c e n t o f a l l th e m ales) l i v e at home, w hile a group almost as
numerous ( 4 1 .3 p e r c e n t) r e n t their rooms, - and 1 0 .7 p e r c e n t l i v e i h
b o a rd in g -h o n s e e .;
The enumeration o f t h e number o f c h ild r e n , - as re c o rd e d from th e
WPA c a s e s , - shows t h a t 33.8 p e r cent o f the men had no c h il d r e n a t a l l , w h ile 29.8 p e r c e n t have one c h ild .! The number o f c a s e s i s in in v e r s e
p r o p o r t io n to th e number o f c h ild re n , - as
may be o b se rv ed i h
th e ta b le s .;
C orresponding to t h e high percentage o f t h e c a s e s i h th e American
n a t i o n a l i t y g r o u p ,-th e g r e a t m ajo rity of the c a s e s , - 3 5 .8 p e r c e n t ,- h a v e
r e s i d e d in th e U nited S t a t e s throughout t h e i r l i k e s , - as c o n tr a s t e d with
o n ly 9 . 8 p e r c e n t l i v i n g h e r e f o r l e s s than f i v e y e a r s , - and 2 p e r c en t
betw een filve and te n y e a r s . Ih the o th e r time p e r i o d s , - ran g in g fro a
t e n to twenty y e a rs o r more, - in f iv e -y e a r i n t e r v a l s , t h e number o f
c a s e s rem ains ap proxim ately 3 p er c e n t o f th e t o t a l group.;
In c o n t r a s t with t h e l a r g e number who' have l i v e d in th e United
S t a t e s f o r l i f e , - i t i s e v id e n t th a t most o f th e male s u b j e c t s have
r e c e n t l y m igrated to New York C ity, sih c e only 13.5 p e r c e n t have r e ­
s i d e d in New York C ity s i h c e t h e i r b i r t h , - and only 8 p e r c e n t have
l i v e d h e r e f o r t h i r t y y e a r s o r more.! The modal group (2 3 .8 p e r c e n t)
-3 5 hav e r e s i d e d i n New York City leBS than f i > e y e a r s , - th ere b y r e v e a lin g
t h e r e c e n t d a te o f t h e i r m ig ratio n ,- whereas 1 9 .8 p e r c e n t,- th e n ex t
l a r g e s t groiip,- have l i v e d in t h e c i t y f i> e y e a r s l o n g e r . As may be
o b se rv ed in th e t a b l e s , - approxim ately o n e - t h i r d o f th e e n t i r e groiip
(3 4 .8 p e r c e n t) have l i v e d ih New York City between te n and t h ir t y
y e a r s .;
Ab b r i e f l y s t a t e d above, th e b a se s f o r p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s vary,th e r e b y n e c e s s i t a t i n g s e p a r a te t a b u l a t i o n s f o r th e WPA and th e New
York Urbam League groups.- For th e WPA c a se s,- an a r b i t r a r y s c a l e was
c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e w r i t e r , - a f t e r e v a lu a tin g t h e v a rio u s com binations
o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e sig n a te d by t h e WPA a d v is e r s .- The
l i s t fo llo w s:
3rade A p e rs o n a lity o h a r a o te r ls tio s :
Very p o s i t i v e , ' n e s t , p r o g r e s s i v e . '
V er y o o n s o l e n t l o u s , - c o o p e r a t i v e , ■o s s e d e s e r v i n g a t t e n t i o n .
U nusually f i n e type of p erso n ,'
Very o h a r a i n g , . p l e a s i n g . '
V e r y n e a t , <d i r e o t i n s t a t e m e n t s , • s u r e o f s e l f , - s i n o e r e . •
E a r n e s t a b o u t r e o e i v i n g em ployment a n d b e i n g t a k e n o f f
re lie f ro lls.;
P i n e e x e o u t i v e a b i l i t y , <c o o p e r a t i v e , <w e l l - t r a i n e d , . e x p e r i e n o e d . E xoellent ty p e .;
P i n e t y p e — c o n g e n i a l , - i n t e l l i g e n t , <h o n e s t , ' s i n o e r e . '
Marked i n i t i a t i v e ' a n d s e l f - a s s u r a n o e . ;
Very i n t e l l i g e n t i n h e r f i e l d s p a r t i c u l a r l y . ;
W i l l i n g t o do a n y w o rk and h a v i n g l o t s o f a b i l i t y b e s i d e s . ;
Grade B p e r s o n a l i t y o h a r a o t e r i s t i o s :
C a p a b l e , <p r o g r e s s i v e , - e n e r g e t i o .
P l e a s i n g , o o o p e r a t i v e , n e a t , open-minded.
Neat of ap p e a ra n o e , p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y .
P l e a s a n t d i s p o s i t i o n , g o o d - n a t u r e d , good a p p e a r a n o e .
V er y a m b i t . l o a s , an d m ark ed d e t e r m i n a t i o n an d i n i t i a t i v e , y e t
a g a i n s t p r e v io u s advioS' ta k e s o o u r s e s n o t s u i t a b l e .
Insight in to future.
R e a lis e s handioapB— p re p a re s .
A n x io u s t o a d j u s t .
C o n soientious about thanking oounselor fo r h e lp — e i t h e r w r itt e n
th an k s, or in person.
Grade C p e r s o n a l i t y o h a r a o t e r i s t i o s :
A pparently s in o e r e , o o o p e ra tiv e .
P a i r a p p e a r a n o e and p e r s o n a l i t y .
U n p r e te n t io u s .
P le a sa n t, average p e rs o n a lity .
Average p e r s o n .
I n t e r e s t i n g , b u t d em onstrates laok of i n i t i a t i v e , disoouraged
quiokly.
Grade D p e r s o n a l i t y o h a r a o t e r i s t i o s :
Inolined to deception.
V ag u e, o o n t r a d i o t o r y .
P e rs o n a lity negative.
S h i f t l e s s , la o k in g self-oonfide-nos-.
. t
_
. .
R a d i o a l t e n d e n o i e s a b o u t l a b o r and t r a d e — l e t s e m o tio n s g e i
b e t t e r o f m in d , I n d i g n a n t a b o u t n o t g e t t i n g j o b f o r wh io h
not f i t t e d .
-3 8 Grade D p e r s o n a l i t y o h a r a o t e r i s t i o s f o o n t i n u e d ) :
Wishes ambiguous, u s i n g s e r v i c e t o a v o id d o a e s t i o e a p l o y a e n t .
R e f u s e s j o b — s e r v l o e a a d e g r e a t e f f o r t t o g e t i t — r e a s o n : em­
p loyer too ig n o ra n t— " p e o u lia r ” type.
L is tle s s , Irresp o n sib le.
L i t t l e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , l a o k i n g i n s k i l l , n o t up t o t h e m i n u t e
i n a p p e a ra n o e — slow m e n t a l i t y .
Bad s o o i a l o o n t a o t s — m al e a n d f e m a l e — o f f e r a no i n s p i r a t i o n o r
i n o e n t i v e tow ard a m b itio n — le a d s w o r th le s s l i f e .
D i f f i o u l t to get to in te r v ie w s — n o n -o o o p erativ e, l i e s about
reasons for sto p p in g sohool.
G r ad e 7 p e r s o n a l i t y o h a r a o t e r i s t i o s :
Most u n a p p r e o i a t i v e — r e f u s e s t o o o o p e r a t e — i n t o x i c a t e d — o a n ' t
aooept a job, drunk.
L i e s a b o u t f a m i l y o o n d l t i o n s — l i v i n g w i t h a n o t h e r man— g i v e s
im pression of being m arried.
P l e a s u r e a l w a y s on t h e mi nd— good t i m e s , p a r t l o u l a r l y men,
danoe h a l l s .
V o o a t i o n a l a m b i t i o n — a n y t h i n g t h a t d o e s n ' t r e q u i r e h a r d work.
Confined to S ta t e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r m ental o a s e s — not i n t e r e s t e d
i n a n y t h i n g , n o n - o o o p e r a t i v e , o a n ' t o a r r y on an i n t e l l i g e n t
oonversation.
V er y s t u b b o r n — d o e s n ' t o a r r y o u t d i r e e t i o n s o f s o o i a l i n v e s t i ­
g a to r . D eoeptive as t o a d d r e s s — l i e s — n o n -o o o p e ra tiv e — b reak s
appointm ents.
The p e r s o n a l i t y grades o f th e New York Urban League c a s e s were
decid ed by th e League i n te r v ie w e r s a f t e r they had c o n sid e re d a d e s ig ­
n a te d number o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . Following
i s th e l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were used in judg in g :
Clean Untidy
S ullen A lert
D irty
In d iffe re n t
Neat
A ttrac tiv e
Refined
D iffid en t
Irresp o n sib le S illy .
Congenial Important Mature
S en sitiv e
Serious
Rough
Immature
Shy
Arrogant Dependable Nervous
Sense o f humor
The New York Urban League r a t i n g s a re s i m i l a r to th o se o f th e
IPA c a se s.; Some i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e i r grading scheme fo llo w :
3rad e A p e r s o n a l i t y (4)
Clean, n e a t, a l e r t , a t t r a c t i v e , r e f i n e d , c o n g e n ia l,
C lean, n e a t ,' a l e r t , dependable, r e f i n e d , ' o o n g e n ia l,
G r ad e B p e r s o n a l i t y ( 3 )
C le a n ,'n e a t,' a l e r t, a t tr a c t iv e , refin e d .
Very o a p a b l e , h o n e s t , r e l i a b l e . ;
Clean, a l e r t , r e f i n e d , ' o o n g e n ia l.
C le a n ,' s e r i o u s , m ature.C l e a n , <n e a t , a l e r t , r e f i n e d . ;
Grade 0 p e r s o n a l i t y (2)
C lean, n e at.
Clean, a l e r t , s e r i o u s . ;
S erio u s, m ature.Honest, r e l i a b l e , n e a t . ;
C lean, n e a t, a t t r a o t i v e .
Clean, n e a t, d ep en d a b le.'
Clean, n e a t, r e f i n e d .
serious.
serious.
-3 7 Grade D p e r s o n a l i t y ( l )
Arrogant, olean, ourt.D ull.;
U n tidy, o o n g e n i a l, im m ature.
In d ifferen t.
M entally i n f e r i o r . S a lle n , rough.
S u llen , untidy, ir r e s p o n s ib le .
3rade F p e rs o n a lity .
Mot q u a l i f i e d f o r p o s i t i o n .
U ntidy, a r r o g a n t , im p o r ta n t.
The mode f o r t h e p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s o f th e e n t i r e male group
o f WPA oases and New York Urban League c a s e s i s nCw grade (28.4 per
c e n t and 33.D p e r c e n t r e s p e c t iv e ly ) ,* with only 3 p e r c e n t and 4.8
p e r c e n t o f th e c a se s f a l l i n g i n th e h ig h e s t b ra c k e t and 0.8 p e r c en t
and 0 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e c a s e s in t h e low est g ro u p in g .- The "Pw c ase s
approxim ate th e *Cn group in n u m erical d i s t r i b u t i o n (21.2 per c e n t and
2 4 .8 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . ; I t may be n oted t h a t a l a r g e p ro p o rtio n
o f th e e s s e s (42.7 p e r c e n t and 3 8 .3 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) lacked
r a t i n g s on t h e i r r e c o r d s .
The h e a lth exam ihatibn- r e c o r d s show t h a t 42.1 p e r c e n t o f th e males
a re p h y s ib a lly q u a l i f i e d f o r any ty p e of work,< 3.3 p e r c e n t are adapted
f o r sem i-actiV e employment and 5 .8 per c e n t are s u f f e r in g from s p e c i f i c
p h y s ic a l h a n d ic a p s .- Since alm ost h a l f (43.5 p e r c e n t ) o f th e men were
n o t exami'ned, th e s e d a ta s i g n i f y a much l a r g e r group o f h e a lth y males
th an might be i n f e r r e d from t h e above p e rc e n ta g e s ( th e 42.1 p e r cen t
of th e t o t a l number o f c a s e s a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n tin g 8 1 .7 per c e n t o f
th o s e who were examihed).; The p h y s ic a l exam ination was mentioned as
p a r t o f th e p r e lim in a ry t e s t i n g by th e WPA s e r v i c e , b u t s in c e the
r e c o r d s used ih t h i s study d a te from th e in c e p tio n o f t h e i r program,'
when th e exam inations were f i r s t being o rg an iz ed and f a c i l i t i e s were
very l i m i t e d , ' th e p h y s ic a l h e a l t h r a t i n g s were m issing in many c ase s.;
Table I I ' d e a ls with th e p e rs o n a l background o f a l l th e women i n ­
cluded i n th e study,* and iTs very s i m i l a r t o Table I in i t s f in d in g s .
The predominant n a t i b n a l i t y i ‘s American (91.8 p e r cent),* while 8.3
p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s a re E nglilsh,* and 0 .5 p er c e n t belong to v a rio u s
n a t i o n a l i t i e s , in c lu d in g C e n tra l American ( 4 ) , - Panamanian (l),< Dutch
(2),* Santo Domingan (2),< Cuban (5 ),- Danish (1),* A frican (2 ), French
(2),< Mexican ( l ) and South American (2 ).; (See Appendix,<Table 53. )
As with the men,* p r a c t i c a l l y a l l (9 5 .7 p e r c e n t) o f th e women are
c i t i ’z ens.; A g r e a t e r p e rc e n ta g e o f the women are oh r e l i e f (41.7 p er
c e n t) than th e men,* bu.t a l a r g e r p r o p o rtio n o f th e women (20.5 p e r cen t)
than t h e men have some means o f p o s s i b l e su p p o rt.
-3 3 -
The women do n o t have ae many dependents as th e men. S l i g h t l y
more than h a l f (53.1 p e r c e n t) o f th e group have no dependents a t a l l ,
w h ile 28.9 p e r cent have only one dependent; 9 .8 p e r c e n t have two de­
p e n d en ts, and only 3.4 p e r c e n t have t h r e e dependents. The f i g u r e s
f o r th e l a r g e r dependent groups become i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a lle r, as may be
observed in th e t a b l e .
The s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g t o m a r i ta l s t a t u s i n d i c a t e t h a t although
approxim ately th e same p r o p o r tio n o f women as o f men a re s i n g l e , th e
women’ s group d i f f e r s from th e m en 's in s e v e ra l r e s p e c t s : fewer o f th e
women a re m arried (25.5 p e r c e n t as compared with 40.7 p e r c en t f o r th e
men); t h r e e tim es as many women a re widowed (13.9 p e r c e n t i n c o n tr a s t
to 4 .2 p e r c e n t fo r th e men); a l i t t l e more than tw ice as many o f the
women a re se p a ra te d (15 p e r c e n t o f th e woman as compared to 6 .6 per
c e n t o f th e men).
With reg a rd to home l i f e , th e women d i f f e r very l i t t l e from th e
men, with th e ex cep tion o f t h e s m a lle r p ro p o rtio n t h a t l i v e with t h e i r
spouses (9.1 p e r c e n t in c o n t r a s t t o 15.3 per c e n t ) , and a s l i g h t l y
h i g h e r p ercen tage l i v e alone (23.8 p e r c e n t f o r th e women as compared
with 25.2 p e r cen t f o r th e men). These d i f f e r e n c e s a re to be expected,
s in c e fewer o f th e women than o f t h e men a re m arried .
The s t a t i s t i c s c o n ce rn in g l i v i n g arrangem ents o f th e women c lo s e ly
p a r a l l e l th o se f o r th e men, th e only groups showing an a p p re c ia b le
d i f f e r e n c e being th o s e who l i v e a t home (42.3 p e r c e n t o f th e women and
48.1 p e r cen t o f th e men) and th o s e who board o u t (13.3 p e r c e n t o f the
women and 10.7 p e r c e n t o f th e men).
Fewer o f th e women th an o f t h e men (22.1 p e r c e n t in c o n t r a s t to
27 .5 p e r c e n t) had no c h i l d r e n , w hile a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r p ro p o rtio n
(39 per cent as compared w ith 2 4 .7 p e r c e n t o f th e men) had one c h i l d .
Those who had two c h ild r e n numbered 13.9 p e r c e n t o f th e group, s im ila r
to th e p ro p o rtio n o f 13.5 p e r c e n t of th e men's group, w hile 3 .3 per
c e n t had t h r e e c h ild r e n , in c o n t r a s t with 5 p e r c e n t o f th e men.
A very l a r g e m a jo r ity o f th e women (39.9 p er c e n t) have l i v e d in
t h e United S t a te s from th e tim e o f t h e i r b i r t h , as im p lied by t h e la r g e
p r o p o rtio n o f Americans. The small rem ainder o f th e c a s e s are s c a t t e r e d
th roug hou t a l l th e o t h e r tim e groups, as may be observed in th e t a b l e .
The women, as well £3 th e men, a re r e c e n t i n h a b i t a n t s o f New York
C ity,- sin c e approxim ately o nly o n e -te n th o f th e group (11.7 p er c en t)
have r e s id e d in New York C ity s in c e b i r t h , and only a very few c ase s
( 2 ,5 p e r c e n t) have l i v e d in th e c i t y f o r t h i r t y y e a r s o r more. A
-3 9 -
l i t t l e over o n e -fo u rth o f th e c a s e s (29 .2 p er c e n t) have l i v e d h e re
l e s s than f i v e y e a r s , whereas about o n e - f i f t h o f th e group have r e ­
sid e d h e re lo n g e r than f i v e b u t l e s s than te n y e a r s . The p r o p o r tio n s
f o r th e o t h e r tim e groups d e c re a s e as th e tim e i n t e r v a l i n c r e a s e s .
The p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s o f th e WPA cases p a r a l l e l th o se o f th e
men, th e mode being "C" (3 1 .4 p e r cent),< while 4 .3 per c e n t and 3.8
p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s f a l l in t h e "A" and Ht>° groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1
About o n e -fo u rth o f th e women (2 5 .3 p e r c e n t) re c e iv e d a "E" s c o r e ,'
end only 9.;4 p e r c e n t f e l l w ith in th e low est group,' "E.* More than
one-thii*d (34.9 p e r c e n t) la c k e d p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . ; The r a t i n g o f
”0" was also th e mode f o r t h e New York Urban League c a s e s (38.1 p e r
c e n t ) , while th e p r o p o r t io n s in th e o t h e r grades approximated th o s e
o f th e WPA c l i 'e n t s . ' Only 2 .2 p e r c e n t and 1,2 per c e n t r a t e d nAn and
"D" r e s p e c t i v e l y , ' while o n e -f o u r th o f th e group r e c e iv e d a p e r s o n a l i t y
grade o f "B.f* A l i t t l e more than o n e - t h i r d o f th e c a se s (3 5 .3 p e r
c e n t ) had no r a t i n g s . ; These f i n d i n g s a re very s i m il a r to th o se o f
th e men (see Table IT').;
As e x p la in e d above,' many o f th e WPA c a s e s were n ot given p h y s ic a l
h e a l t h ex am inations, about o n e - h a l f o f th e women (47.4 p e r c e n t ) f a l l ­
in g i n t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The m a jo r ity o f the women a re f i t f o r
any ty p e of employment (40 p e r c e n t, r e p r e s e n tin g 73.1 p e r c e n t o f
th o s e examined),' w hile 7 .8 p e r c e n t o f the e n t i r e group a r e p e rm itte d
to engage in s e m i- a c tiv e work o n ly ,' 4 p e r c e n t a re p h y s i c a l ly h a n d i­
capped,! and 0 .8 p e r c e n t a re u n q u a li f ie d f o r any type o f work. The
h e a l th s t a t u s o f t h e women i s s l i g h t l y i n f e r i b r t o t h a t o f th e men,
th e most pronounced d i f f e r e n c e o c c u rrin g in th e s e m i-a c tiv e group,'
in whi’c h t h e ’ p ro p o r tio n o f women i s more than tw ice t h a t o f ' t h e men.'
Table I I I i s a com posite o f T ables I and I I . I t d e a ls with th e
c h a r a c t e r i ’s t i e s o f the whole group which ils being s tu d ie d .; The group,
i s predo m ih an tly Amerilcan (9 0 .7 p e r cen t),* with some Englishmen (9
p e r c e n t) and a very small number b e lon ging to o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s
(0 .9 p e r c e n t ) . (See Appendix,' Table 53. j The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f th e
c a s e s are c i t i z e n s (96.0 p e r c e n t ) , with only 3.1 p e r c e n t a l i e n s , '
and 8 p e r c e n t have no d a ta f o r t h i s item .; Taking th e WPA group as
a whole, about t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e group (59.3 p e r c e n t) e re n o t on
r e l i e f , ' w hile 38.J2 p e r c e n t a re on r e l i b f , 1 and th e rem ainder unknown.;
N e v e rth e le ss,! a l i t t l e more th an t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e c a s e s (78.8
p e r c e n t) have no means o f p o s s i b l e s u p p o r t,' as compared with 18.8
p e r c e n t who s p e c i f i e d t h a t they could se cu re f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e
-4 0 -
i f n e c e s s a r y .; Of a l l th e New York Urban League c a s e s , a l i t t l e l e s s
th an o n e - h a l f have no dependents (47 p e r c e n t) ,, about o n e -fo u r th have
one dependent (2 8 .4 p e r c e n t ) , and t h e remaining q u a rte r a re s c a t t e r e d
th ro ugh out th e o t h e r groups,* t h e l a r g e s t being th o se c a se s having two
dependents (1 2 .4 p e r c e n t ) .
Concerning m a r i ta l s t a t u s , alm ost o n e -h a lf o f a l l th e c a s e s a re
s i n g l e (45.8 p e r c e n t ) , , approxim ately o n e -th ir d a re m arried (3 1 .4 p e r
cent),< and about o n e -te n th a re widowed (10.5 per c e n t) or s e p a r a te d
(1 1 .3 per cent)',;
L iving arrangem ents o f t h e WPA c a se s show t h a t about o n e -fo u r th
(2 5 .8 p e r c e n t ) l i v e with t h e i r p a r e n t s , ' while a n o th e r f o u r th (2 7 ,3
p e r c e n t) liN e a lon e.; Approximately o n e -te n th o f th e c a s e s l i v e with
t h e i r r e l a t i v e s (1 1 .2 p er c e n t ) , , with t h e i r spouses (1 1 .8 p e r c e n t ) , ,
o r w ith f r i e n d s (1 2 .7 p e r c e n t) r e s p e c t i v e l y . The rem aining 11.8
p e r c a n t s u p p lie d no d a ta .
The New York Urban League r e c o rd s show t h a t roughly o n e - h a l f
(43.3 p er c e n t) o f t h e i r c l i e n t s l i v e a t home, 42 p e r c e n t r e n t a room,
w hile only 12.8 p e r c e n t board a t t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s .
Pegardihg th e number o f c h il d r e n , about o n e -h a lf o f t h e WPA c a se s
have e i t h e r no c h ild r e n (2 3 .9 p e r c e n t) o r one c h il d (28 p e r c e n t ) .
The n e x t l a r g e s t group (1 3 .7 p a r c e n t ) have two c h il d r e n , w hile th o se
groups with i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f c h ild r e n show a g r e a t d e c re a s e , as
th e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s .
Most o f th e c a s e s (9 8 .3 p e r c e n t) have l iv e d in th e U nited P t a t e s
s in c e they were born, in c o n t r a s t t o 0 .4 per cen t o f th e c a s e s r e s i d i n g
h e re l e s s than f i v e y e a r s . The sm all remainder o f th e group i s s c a t ­
t e r e d th rou gho ut th e o t h e r tim e p e rio d s , as may be seen in th e t a b l e ,
t h e modal group b e in g th e ten to f i f t e e n year i n t e r v a l .
As m entioned in th e e x p la n a tio n s o f Tables I and I I , t h e m a jo r ity
o f c a s e s in th e group s tu d ie d have r e c e n tly m igrated to New York C ity
from o t h e r p a r t s o f th e U nited S t a t e s . This i s o l e a r l y shown by t h e
f a c t t h a t only 13.4 p e r c e n t have l i v e d in New York C ity f o r t h e i r
l i f e t i m e . A l i t t l e more than o n e -fo u rth (27.7 p e r c e n t) have l i v e d
h e r e l e s s than f i v e y e a r s , w h ile o n e - f i f t h have re s id e d i n th e c i t y
more than f i v e y e a r s b u t l e s s th an te n y e a rs . As th e rem aining tim e
i n t e r v a l s f o r c i t y re s id e n c e i n c r e a s e , th e p ercen tag e d i s t r i b u t i o n
d e c r e a s e s , as th e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s .
There, a r e very s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s between th e p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s
o f t h e e n t i r e WPA group and t h e New York Urban League c a s e s , t h e modal
-4 1 r a t i n g in e i t h e r e a se being »C» (29, 4 p e r c e n t o f th e WPA group and
34.9 p er c e n t o f t h e New York Urban League c l i e n t s ) . Approximately
o n e - f o u r th o f each group re c e iv e d a »B» score (83.3 per c e n t o f th e
WPA group and 24.3 p e r c e n t f o r th e Urban League). The WPA group were
more h e a v i ly w eighted on th e extrem es o f th e scale,* 4,5 p e r c e n t o f
t h e c a s e s b e in g r a t e d
"A” as compared with 2 .5 p e r c e n t o f t h e League
c l i e n t s rec eiv in g th e
same sc o re , and 3.3 p er c e n t being scored "D" as
compared with 1.1 p e r c e n t f o r t h e League. Very few o f th e c a s e s o f
each group r e c e iv e d th e low est sc o re o f "P" (only seven WPA c a se s and
t h r e e New York Urban League c a s e s ) .
The p h y s ic a l h e a l th re c o r d s f o r a l l th e WPA o ases a re a v a i l a b l e
f o r only o n e - h a l f o f th e group,* as exp lain ed above, 47.8 p e r c en t o f
t h e c a s e s n o t h aving been examined. The l a r g e m a jo rity (40.3 p e r cen t
o f th e e n t i r e group or 7 3 .3 p e r c e n t o f th e examinees) were found to
be f i t f o r any ty p e o f work, w hile a t th e o t h e r extreme only 0.5 p e r
c e n t o f t h e t o t a l group were d isc o v ere d to be p h y s i c a l ly u n q u a l i f i e d .
The d o c t o r ’ s r a t i n g s c l a s s i f i e d only a few o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n th e
s e m i- a c t i v e and s p e c i f i c a l l y handicapped groups (3.1 p e r c e n t and 4.7
per cent resp e c tiv e ly ).
Summarizing t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e group on which
t h i s study i s based, i t may be s t a t e d t h a t they are predom inantly
n a t i v e c i t i z e n s , t h e m a jo rity have been l i v i n g in New York City l e s s
than f i f t e e n y e a r s , they l i v e e i t h e r with t h e i r p a r e n t s o r r e n t a
room, about o n e - h a l f a re s i n g l e and o n e - t h i r d m arried . Theib f a m i li e s
a re l i m i t e d to no c h ild r e n o r to one c h il d , they are n o t on r e l i e f but
have p r a c t i c a l l y no means o f p o s s i b l e supp ort, theii* p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r­
a c t e r i s t i c s a re o f th e average o r s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than average ty p e,
and they a re p h y s ib a lly f i t f o r any type o f employment.;
I t would be h e lp f u l in u n d e rsta n d in g th e gen eral background o f
t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h i ’s study to c o n s id e r th e way in which Harlem was
s e t t l e d , i t s s u b s e q u e n t‘growth and i t s s o c io lo g ic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . '
Harlem r e p r e s e n t s one o f th e main c e n t e r s o f g r a v i t a t i o n f o r th e Negro
ih New York C ity snd i's th e environment from whibh t h e s e c a s e s a re
drawn., "There a re more than 230,000 Negroes ih th e Harlem d i s t r i c t
alo ne between 110th S t r e e t and 155th S t r e e t . ; .;
n l T h is i s q u ite
a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e from t h a t o f th e Negro p o p u latio n in Old New
Y o rk .f When New Amsterdam was e s t a b l i s h e d by P e t e r M inuit in 1329,*
1. I . G lllig e n , l& leness, Barl e a ’a Chief Threat, Nen York Sun, Hereh £S, 1085, p. 88.
. Jeaee W. Johnson, Black Manhattan, pp. 4-8.
2
-4 2 -
t h e r e were eleven Negroes in th e colony,, r e p r e s e n ti n g a l i t t l e over
5 p e r cent of th e t o t a l non-Ihdi'an p o p u la tio n .; The naval s t r e n g th o f
t h e Dutch ih th e s e v e n te e n th c en tu ry p o i n ts to t h e assumption t h a t
t h e s e c o lo re d i n h a b i t a n t s were seamen.; They became bo ndserv an ts at
f i t s t , . being f r e e d l a t e r on.; A few y e a rs l a t e r , , s e v e r a l Negro women
a r r i v e d a t {few Amsterdam,, and a slow in c r e a s e ih Negro p o p u la tio n
o c c u rre d under th e system o f patroonshi'p.; I t was n o t u n t i l sla v e ry
had been d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t th e Negroes i h c r e a s e d r a p id ly
in number.; The system o f s la v e ry never p r o f i t e d th e Dutch,, and n o t
u n t i l th e f h g l i s h v i c t o r y o f 1334 was sla v e ry made a permanent i n s t i ­
t u t i o n by t h e I h g l i s h , . a f t e r t h e i r experim ent in V i r g i n i a . By 1394
t h e Negroes r e p r e s e n te d 13 p e r c e n t of th e whole c o lo n i a l p o p u latio n
o f New York.; P l a n t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d ih W estc h este r,. Long I s l a n d ,
and S ta te n I s l a n d , . and s e t tl e m e n ts o f whites and b la c k s s t a r t e d . ; 1 I t
ife i h t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t in 1709 a s la v e market was e s t a b l i s h e d at
t h e f o o t of Wall S t r e e t . ;
By 1790,( t h e r e were 25,978 Negroes in New York S t a t e , . 21,324 o f
whom were s l a v e s , . t h e rem aihder freemen.i8 Due to c o n s ta n t a g i t a t i o n
f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s la v e r y ,, an a c t was passed on J u ly 4,. 1827,. by
which a l l s l a v e s were emancipated in New York S t a t e . The census f i g ­
u r e s f o r 1330,i t h e r e f o r e , , show a tremendous i n c r e a s e ih th e number o f
f r e e Negroes.* There were 44,870 f r e e Negroes ih New York S t a t e a t
t h a t tim e,. 14,033 o f them r e s i d i h g in New York C i t y . -8 "At t h e c lo s e
o f t h e C iv il War t h e r e were more than f i f t y ' thousand Negroes i n New
York S t a t e ,, about f i f t e e n thousand o f them l i v i n g ih New York C i'ty ." 4
The non-C aueasisn p o p u la tio n in New York C ity h as grown r a p i d l y
s i n c e 1900.; The fo llo w ih g e s tim a te s have been made: Negroes and
o t h e r non-whi'te r a c e s : 1900,. 37,304; 1910,. 97,721; 1920,. 130,585;
1930,. 343,221 (327,703 Negroes,. 15,515 o th e r r a c e s ) .; 6
Manhattan- f a r s u r p a s s e s th e o th e r boroughs in Negro p o p u la tio n .
The 1930 F e d e ra l census figures® show th e fo llo w ih g : Color or ra c e
f o r c i t i e s o f 100,000 o r more: Bronx,. 12,930; Brooklyn, 33,921; Man­
h a t t a n , 224,370; Queens, 13,509; Fichmond, 2,573.
1. f . Beroovioi, The Black Blooke of Manhattan, Harper’s Magazine, 149 (Ootoher,
1984). PP* 618-888.
S. Johnson, op. ext., p. 11.
8.
V* *§•
5* W . P o p u l a t i o n
of the City of Hew fork, 1890-1980, C itie s Census, In c ,,
sJ eCenenebBareau, *Abstract o f the i*th Census o f the United S ta tes, tQaO,
Tahle 84, p. 89.
-4 5 -
In c o lo n ia l days,' th e Negroes l i v e d around th e t i p o f Manhattan
I s l a n d .; 1 L a te r on, in 1350,* they s e t t l e d mainly around Eroome, S p rin g ,'
and L ispen ard S tre e ts,* and th e s t r e e t s a d jo in ih g Washington Square.
The a re a s occupied w ith in th e next t h i r t y y e a r s s e r e mainly S u l l i v a n ,'
Eleecker,* Thompson,* Carmihe and Grove S tre e ts,* W inette Lane and th e
a d ja c e n t s t r e e t s . ) Ey 1390,* t h e r e was a s h i f t in th e c e n t e r o f Negro
p o p u la tio n to th e tw e n tie s and t h i r t i e s west o f S ix th Avenue. Curing
th e fo llo w ih g decade,* a n o th e r m ig ra tio n took p la c e northw ard to West
55rd S t r e e t and West 8 1 s t , <02nd and 05rd S tre e tE (San Juan H i l l ) . In
t h e meantime,* many members o f th e Negro upper c l a s s and w e ll-to -d o
bought t h e i r own homes i h Erooklyn and s e t t l e d th e r e .;
When th e 59th S t r e e t d i s t r i c t n e a r Seventh and Eighth Avenues
became so crowded t h a t i t could accommodate no more N egroes,<they moved
up to Harlem, <* which was then in th e m idst o f a r e a l e s t a t e slump.
Former occupantg were movihg to b e t t e r homes and l e a v ih g th e dark r a i l ­
ro ad f l a t s . ; The gateway f o r th e e n tr a n c e o f c o lo re d people to Harlem
was o f f e r e d by one l a n d l o r d who r e n te d an apartm ent to a m ulatto fam ily.;
A r a p i d exodus o f th e w h ites followed,* and t h e Negroes h u r r i e d l y moved
in .] E o l l i n 8 p r e s e n t s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t e x p la n a tio n o f th e i n f l u x o f
Negroes to Harlem:
Now i t i s n o t t o be s u p p o s e d t h a t H ar le m t u r n e d f r o m w h i t e t o b l a o k
w i t h o u t s o m e t h i n g o f a p a n g , a nd i t w o u ld b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o f i n d
o u t j u s t how t h e p r :o o e s s b e g a n . A o o o r d i n g t o one l e g e n d , - a l a n d l o r d
p u t i n n e g r o e s from s p i t e . Aooording t o a n o t h e r , t h e n e g r o e s to o k
t h e i n i t i a t i v e a nd g o t i n by e m p l o y i n g a s e t o f a g e n t s , ■s u b a g e n t s
a n d p r o x y s u b - a g e n t s , who t r i o k e d t h e w h i t e s . - I t l i t t l e m a t t e r s .
The n e g r o e s a r e t h e r e . They own t h e d i s t r i o t — f i g u r a t i v e l y a nd t o
a su rp risin g extent l i t e r a l l y . '
Since th e Negroes could n ot pay much r e n t , ' t h e houses were sold
and passed to Negro o w n e rs.4 There i s now h a rd ly a house between 120th
and 140th S t r e e t s and Lenox and Amsterdam Avenues t h a t i s not in h a b ite d
by c o lo re d people.;
The v a st numbers o f Negroes t h a t have m igrated and are s t i l l coming
to New York Ci'ty have c r e a t e d a se v e re housing sh o rta g e i n Harlem and
in o t h e r Negro l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . " A fte r t h e s e houses had passed i n t o
c o lo r e d hands, r e n t s were r a i s e d u n t i l they a re to -d a y , r e l a t i v e l y
s p e a k i n g , ' pro bably th e h i g h e s t in th e c i t y . ' Apartments f o r which white
1. J i u i W. Johnson, Black Manhattan, pp. 58-60.
.
S. X. Borooviei, fhs Blaok Blocks of Manhattan, Harper's, 149 (Ootobor, 1984), pp.
618-688. ^
ii a ilk # To 8how Ion Horlom, Independent, tOS (April 8, l9 8l ) , PP.
884-885.
4 . Beroovioi, IOC. c tt.
—4 4 —
p e o p le had p a id f o r t y d o l l a r s a month a few y e a r s ego a re now r e n te d
f o r a hundred d o l l a r s o r more, f a m i l i e s have doubled up, and t r i p l e d
up, to pay th e e x o r b i t a n t r e n t s from th e wages o b ta in e d in such occu­
p a t i o n s as a re open to th e n eg ro es. . . . "* Judge D avies8 o f Munici­
pal Court say s,' " I t i s common fo r c o lo re d t e n a n t s in Harlem to pay
tw ic e 88 much as white t e n a n t s fo r th e same a p a rtm e n t."
The N ation al Urban League8 made a study o f th e r e n t s p a id by whites
and Negroes in 1924, and found, t h a t Negroes p a id 40 to 60 p e r c e n t more
than th e white group f o r th e same ty pe o f apartm en t. The Negroes are
a t th e mercy o f t h e i r la n d lo r d s . Whereas th e w hite person can move when
r e n t s a re n o t s u i t a b l e , the c o lo re d te n a n t i s fo rc e d to pay what i s de­
manded, sin c e t h e a re a allowed to him i s so l i m i t e d . The e x c e s s iv e ly
high r e n t s a re n o t charged by white l a n d lo r d s a lo n e . I t i s most d i s ­
c ou raging to f in d t h a t some Negro owners e x p l o i t t h e i r own b r e th r e n as
r u t h l e s s l y as do th e w hites.
The Negro m eets t h i s high r e n t b i l l by c u t t i n g down on o th e r th in g s ,
sometimes th e n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e , such as food and c lo th in g . 8 No wonder
t h e t u b e r c u l o s i s and pneumonia r a t e s a re so h ig h f o r th e Negro! Some
h o ld r e n t p a r t i e s where the g u e s ts each c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r small sh a re to
th e l a n d l o r d ’ s b i l l . Many f a m i l i e s ta k e in l o d g e r s . The S t a te Housing
Commission r e p o r te d one apartm ent l a r g e enough to accommodate te n people
that^ was being occupied by f o r t y - f o u r . C o nditio ns such as th e s e a re
i n c r e d i b l e , y e t e x i s t i n g a t th e p r e s e n t tim e in th e h e a r t o f New York
C ity . As so v i v id l y p o rtra y e d in th e s ta g e p ro d u ctio n , "One-Third o f
a N a tio n ," many roomers sh a re t h e i r l i v i n g Q u arters with p a r t n e r s
having d i f f e r e n t working sc h ed u le s, so t h a t th e room i s used in double
s h i f t s —one person in th e day, th e o th e r a t n i g h t .
The housing problem i s at th e r o o t o f many i l l s which a re some­
tim e s a t t r i b u t e d to th e r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e Negro. Health
problem s, j u v e n i l e delinquency, s o - c s l l e d "im m o rality" may be t r a c e d
to th e severe overcrowding in Negro q u a r t e r s , G i l l i g a n 8 s t a t e s t h a t
" th e t u b e r c u l o s i s r a t e in Harlem i s f i v e tim e s t h e normal c i t y r a t e . ;
That f a c t alone t e l l s th e grim s to ry o f poor h o u sin g ,'o v e rcro w d in g ,
m a l n u t r i t i o n and ihadequ.ate medibal c a r e .; J u v e n ile delinquency i s
fo u r tilnes th e normal c ity ' r a t e and a l l ty p e s o f crim es are committed
more o f te n ih Harlem than e ls e w h e re .”
s i i f . ' t . ’ Lana^JLsbuihea i a the City: The Sri* Bile of Barlea, Survey, 58 (March l,
*^*8.
p. 88 *
*Gilll£aft, I l l e n a a a , Harlem*a Chief Threat, Sen York Sun, March 2 2 , 1885,
-4 5 -
C o rtih end Starves,*1 in commenting on th e e f f e c t o f overcrowding
on th e h e a l th o f th e Negro,* s t a t e t h a t th e im p a r ti a l stu d e n t does not
wonder a t th e N e g ro 's h e a lth r a t e being lo ite r than t h a t o f o th e r
groups, but wonders why i t i s n o t even low er s t i l l .
Although housing
c o n d it i o n s in Harlem are so b a d ,* N earing8 s t a t e s t h a t "Herlem o f f e r s
hou sing accommodations which a re s u p e r i o r to th o se in some o f th e
s i m i l a r Negro communities ih i n d u s t r i a l cen ters,* although congestion
i:s more sev ere in New York than in any o t h e r Negro c e n t e r o f th e United
St a te s .^
Harlem c o n s i s t s o f Negroes o f a l l d i f f e r e n t ty p es and d e s c r ip tio n s :
"All shades and s iz e s .] Wool ly -h a i're d , <immense, h a lf-lu m b e rin g A fricans
as black as p i t c h . - Erown-colored bronzed men and women,<mahogany
blondes,* down through a l l nuances to th e alm ost white negro,* whom
nobody suspects.?*8 Because o f t h e v a s t amount o f in te r m in g lin g o f th e
Negro with many n a t i o n a l i t y groups,* one f i n d s an, i n t e r e s t i n g m ixture
o f p e rs o n a lity : c h a ra c te rils tifc s ih Harlem,* such as th e b lac k Negroes
with Spanish faces,* th e r e d - h a i r e d Negroes with w is tf u l I r i s h smiles,*
th e New O rleans Sfegroes who have many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e French,*
as well as th o s e with Jewish,* I t a l i a n , <Slavish,* English,* Mexican or
I n d ia n t r a i t s . - "Four hundred thousand Negroes in New York! There has
n e v e r been such a number o f n eg ro es ih any one p la c e , n o t only on t h i s
c o n t i n e n t but on any o th e r c o n tin e n t b e fo re o r now. Every tw e lfth
person ih G re a te r New York i s a negro o r h as negro blood.; Four o u t
o f f i v e negroes have w hite blood. .;
.; " 8
Harlem has an i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r problem o f a s s i m il a ti o n than i s
commonly supposed./
H e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t gr:onps o f d a r k e r p e o p l e s w i t h d i f f e r ­
e n t e x p e r ie n c e s in t h e i r p rim a ry group a f f i l i a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n t
g o v e r n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s , a l l o l a s s e d a s N e g r o e s by p u b l i o o p i n i o n
i f n o t b y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e la w . Among t h e s e g r o u p s a r e
t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i a n , t h e D a n i s h West I n d i a n , t h e P o r t o R i c a n ,
t h e A f r i o a n , * t h e S o u t h Ame rio an a n d t h e A me rio an N eg ro o f t h e
N o rth and S o u th . These g ro u p s a r e e x p e o t e d t o a d j u s t th e m s e lv e s
t o one p a r t i o u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n when s u o h i s p o s s i b l e . ; T h i r t y
t h o u s a n d s o f H a r l e m ’ s o o l o r t e d p o p u l a t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d by t h e
N ederal oensus as having been born i n f o r e i g n o o u n t r i e s , c h i e f l y
t h e West I n d i e s . 4
1. Idward H. L. Corwin and Gortrod# Sturgos, O pportunities fo r . the Medical -Education
o f negroes. Me* York: Oharlsw 8 oribnwr’s Sons, 1086, Foreword, p. v.
2 . Eoott Wwaring, Black America, p. 122 .
l ! rI ! TRoiS,0 MirrorVo?*Harlwa--Invwwti«ationB and Probleew of America** largewt
Colored Cowannitv, Journal o f Foetal Forces, V (June, 102V), p. 820.
-4 3 -
These v a rio u s n a t i o n a l i t y groups form d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l u n i t s in
Harlem. The l a r g e s t number o f Negroes coming from th e t r o p i c s were
born in th e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s and came to New York p rim a rily fo r
economic re a so n s .
The n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p o o n s i s t e o f S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g N e g r o e s
fr o m L a t i n A me rio a. D i s t i n c t b e o a u s e o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e , and
s u f f i c i e n t l y numerous t o m a i n t a i n th e m s e l v e s a s a c u l t u r a l u n i t ,
th e Spanish elem ent has b u t l i t t l e o o n ta o t w ith th e E n g lish s p e a k i n g m a j o r i t y . T o r t h e most p a r t t h e y kee p t o t h e m s e l v e s
a n d f o l l o w i n t h e m a in c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e o c c u p a t i o n a l l i n e s . A
s m a l l e r g r o u p , P r e n o h - s p e a k l n g , h a v e e m i g r a t e d fr om H a i t i and
t h e Wrench West I n d i e s . T h e r e a r e a l s o a few A f r i o a n s , a b a t o h
of v o lu n ta ry p ilg rim s over th e old tra o k of th e s l a v e - t r a d e r s . 1
The n a t i v e s o f t h e V irg in I s l e s were fo rce d to m ig ra te h e re be­
c ause o f th e o p e ra tio n o f th e V olstead Act, which d e stro y ed th e rum
i n d u s t r y . These p e o p le a re c u l t u r a l l y and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y E n glish, in
s p i t e o f t h e i r long Danish c o n n e c tio n s.
The West In d ia n Negro h o ld s a d i f f e r e n t philosophy from th e Amer­
ic a n Negro.;8 The West I n d ia n s f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to adapt them selves
t o t a s k s t h a t a re r e s e r v e d f o r th e Negro in th e North, sin c e they have
em igrated from c o u n t r i e s where t h e r e a re no s o c ia l and o c c u p a tio n al
l i m i t a t i o n s . They d e s p is e m enial work, and, because o f t h e i r educa­
t i o n a l background,- apply f o r s k i l l e d p o s i t i o n s . Many o f th e West I n ­
d ia n s e n te r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y m edicine and d e n t i s t r y ,
o r become b u s in e s s men. The American Negro i s apt to s e l e c t such
b u s in e s s e s as running b a rb e r- s h o p s , pool-rooms, e t c . , in which t h e r e
i s l i t t l e white c o m p e titio n , whereas t h e West In d ia n p r e f e r s g r o c e r ie s ,
t a i l o r shops, and .jewelry s t o r e s , where c o m p etitio n i s se v e re . Many
e n t e r th e r e a l e s t a t e and in s u ra n c e f i e l d s .
The p e r s i s t e n c y o f t h e West I n d ia n s i s o u ts ta n d in g , and in many
i n s t a n c e s they a re th e p i o n e e r s to open new o c c u p a tio n a l f i e l d s f o r
th e c o lo re d r a c e . T his t r a i t o f non-conform ity i r r i t a t e s th e American
Negro, who i s d e f i n i t e l y p r e j u d i c e d a g a in s t th e West I n d ia n . The Negro
born in th e U nited S t a t e s f e e l s t h a t th e West Indian i s f a r too s e l f s u f f i c i e n t , proud and a r r o g a n t . Even th e n a t u r a l i z e d West In d ia n f in d s
th e c o lo re d group r e l u c t a n t to concede him th e r i g h t to p o l i t i c a l le a d ­
ersh ip ,- even when he i s well q u a l i f i e d fo r i t . The b lack West In d ia n ,
t h e r e f o r e , h a s to make a g r e a t adjustm ent n o t only to th e dominating
white group ih New York C ity , bu t a ls o to th e more populous American
1 . W. A. Eoaingo, The Trepioe la Hew York, Survey,»Ba (Maroh 1, 192E), p. 648 .
8 . Ib id., pp. 848-851.
-4 7 -
Negro, with whom he comes ih more i n t i m a t e contact* P re ju d ic e a g a in s t
t h e ’West I n d ia n s i s i n d i r e c t l y p ro p o r tio n a l to t h e i r number, and i s
t h e r e f o r e s t r o n g e s t in New York C ity , T his h o s t i l i t y does n o t extend
to th e second g e n e r a tio n , th e members o f which a re a l l s u b je c te d to
th e same environm ent, ■and develop a more balanced type of p sy c h o lo g y ,I n te rm a r r ia g e between th e West In d ia n and th e American Negro i s very
coinmon,il e sp ec ially ^ between th e fo r e ig n males and the n a ti v e fem ales.
Another f a c t o r te n d in g to break down t h e h a rd f e e l in g between th e s e
two groups, and b r i n g in g them i n t o very c lo s e c o n ta c t,! i s th e n e c e ssa ry
custom e x i s t i h g ih Harlem o f a c c e p tin g lo d g e rs more o r l e s s in d is c r i m i h a t e l y . ; Doinihgo d e s c r i b e s ih d e t a i l t h e fo re ig n -b o rn Negro groups in
New York City,* and comments a t g r e a t le n g th upon th e West I n d i a n 1:
The o u t s t a n d i n g o o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e West I n d i a n s t o Ameriloan
Negro l i f e i s t h e i n s i s t e n t a s s e r t i o n o f t h e i r manhood i n an
e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t de m and s t o o muoh s e r v i l i t y and u n p r o t e s t i n g
a o q u i e s o e n o e f r o m men o f A f r i o a n b l o o d . T h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o
oo n fo r m a nd h e s t a n d a r d i z e d , t o a o o e p t t a m e l y a n i n f e r i o r s t a t u s
and a b d i o a t e t h e i r h u m a n i t y , f i n d s a n open e x p r e s s i o n I n t h e
n a t i v i t i e s o f t h e f o r e i g n - b o r n N eg ro i n Amerioa .
The famous Negro a u t h o r , <James Weldon Johnson,<h a s v iv id ly de­
s c r ib e d Harlem8:
I n t h e h i s t o r y o f New York t h e name Harlem h a s o h a n g e d f r o m
Du to h t o I r i s h t o J e w i s h t o N e g r o : b u t i t i s t h r o u g h t h i s l a s t
oh an g e t h a t i t h a s g a i n e d i t s m o s t w i d e s p r e a d fame . T h r o u g h o u t
o o l o r e d Amerioa H a r l e m i s t h e r s o o g n i s e d o a p i t a l . I n d e e d , i t
i s t h e Meooa f o r t h e s i g h t s e e r , t h e e n t e r p r i s i n g , t h e a m b i t i o u s ,
and t h e t a l e n t e d o f t h e e n t i r e N eg r o w o r l d ; f o r t h e l u r e o f i t
h a s r e a o h e d down t o e v e r y i s l a n d o f t h e C a r i b b e a n Sea a n d p e n e ­
t r a t e d e v e n i n t o A f r i o a . ; I t i e a l m o s t a s w e l l known t o t h e w h i t e
w o r l d , f o r i t h a s b e e n muoh t a l k e d a n d w r i t t e n a b o u t .
Harlem h a s i t s own ch urch es, b a n k s ,< s t o r e s , ' t h e a t r e s , ' e tc .; There
a re innum erable c h u rc h es ih t h e d i s t r i c t . B esides th e imposihg church
b u i ld i n g s which a re s c a t t e r e d th ro ugh out Harlem,! t h e r e a re many sm a lle r
churches.;
B e rc o v ic i1 s a y s 8:
R e a l l y , t h e s e p e o p l e h a v e r e l i g i o n . ; They go t o o h u r o h n o t a s
an o b l i g a t o r y o a l l , a d u t y , <a f o r m a l i t y . " I t i s p a r t o f t h e m . ; . ' • »
There a r e a h u n d red l i t t l e o h u ro h es i n ap artm en t ground f l o o r s ,
w i t h l i t t l e w i n d o w - p a n e p i o t u r e s o f s a i n t s and g o l d - l e t t e r e d
wooden s i g n s on t h e w a l l s . Some o f th e m h a v e t h e mo st f a n t a s t i o
names: l u r e k a O h u r o h , t h e O a s i s O h u r o h , a nd s i m i l a r t i t l e s . And
s e r v io e s a r e announoed in th e q u a i n t e s t p o s s ib le language, in
r e m o v a b l e e n a m e l e d l e t t e r s . ' . . .:
1. I b i d . t p. «50.
u ,
I.* K” B : « i v i S r ? h i B U o k K k J * ^ l & h f t t e » , B ar{*r%
e ie - e iv .
( O f b e r , I S M ) , »> .
-4 9 R o llih ,< l'n d e s c r ib in g Harlem,' sa y s 1: "But Harlem i s n o t amusing
in t h e main.; Ih t h e maih,< i t i s im p re ssiv e .; E s p e c ia lly th e c h u rc h e s ."
There a re about 190 c h u rc h es ih Harlem.; Approximately 100 o f th e s e
are "ephemeral,* u n c l a s s i 'f i ’a b le .? * The founders o f t h e s e r e l i g i o u s
o r g a n i s a t i o n s a re o f vary in g c h a r a c t e r , some being s i n c e r e although
n o t very i h t e l l i ’g e n t , < w hile o t h e r s a re sc o u n d rels.; This accounts fo r
th e numerous c u l t s i h Harlem,; Johnson d e s c r ib e s th e im p o rta n t so c io ­
l o g i c a l r d l e p lay e d by t h e Negro c h u rc h ,<ih h i s book,< Black Manhattan*:
The m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c h u r c h e s i n Har lem , an d i n e v e r y o t h e r
N eg ro c o m m u n it y , i s oommonly a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e i n n a t e a n d
deep r e l i g i o u s e m o tio n o f t h e r a o e . Conceding t h e s t r e n g t h and
depth of t h i s em otion, th e r e i s a ls o the v i t a l f a c t t h a t c o l ­
o u r e d o h u r o h e s p r o v i d e members w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f e n j o y m e n t ,
a s i d e f r o m t h e j o y s o f r e l i g i o n . I n d e e d , a Negro c h u r c h i s f o r
i t s members muoh more b e s i d e s a p l a o e o f w o r s h i p . I t i s a s o o i a l c e n t r e , i t i s a c l u b , i t i s an a r e n a f o r t h e e x e r o i s e o f
o n e ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d p o w e r s , a w o r l d i n wh io h one may a o h i e v e
s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n a n d p r e f e r m e n t . Of c o u r s e , a o h u r o h means some­
t h i n g o f t h e same s o r t t o a l l g r o u p s ; b u t w i t h t h e N eg ro a l l
th e se a t t r i b u t e s are m agnified beoause of th e f a o t t h a t they
a r e s o o u r t a i l e d f o r him i n t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e . Most o f t h e
l a r g e H a r le m o h u r o h e s o p e n e a r l y on Sunday m o r n i n g and tremain
o p e n u n t i l t e n or e l e v e n o ' o l o o k a t n i g h t ; an d t h e r e i s n o t an
h o u r d u r i n g t h a t t i m e when a n y one o f them i s e m p ty . A good
many p e o p l e s t a y i n o h u r a h a l l d a y ; t h e r e t h e y t a k e t h e i r d i n n e r ,
c o o k e d and s e r v e d h o t b y a s p e o i a l c o m m i t t e e . A s i d e fr o m any
s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d , g o i n g t o o h u r o h means b e i n g d r e s s e d
i n o n e ' s b e s t o l o t h e s , f o r g e t t i n g fo r t h e tim e a b o u t work, h a v in g
th e ohanoe t o a o q u i t o n e s e l f w ith o r e d i t b e f o r e o n e 's f e l l o w s ,
a n d h a v i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f m e e t i n g , a nd t a l k i n g a nd l a u g h i n g
w i t h f r i e n d s , a n d o f c a s t i n g a n a p p r a i s i n g and a p p r o v i n g e y e upon
t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . G oi n g t o o h u r o h i s an o u t l e t f o r t h e N e g r o ' b
r e l i g i o u s e m o t i o n s ; b u t n o t t h e l e a s t r e a s o n why he i s w i l l i n g
t o s u p p o r t s o many o h u r o h e s i s t h a t t h e y f u r n i B h s o many a g r e e ­
a b l e a c t i v i t i e s a n d s o muoh r e a l e n j o y m e n t . He i s w i l l i n g t o
s u p p o r t th e m b e o a u s e h e h a s n o t y e t , and w i l l n o t h a v e u n t i l
t h e r e i s a f a r g r e a t e r e o o no m io and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t and
s o o i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , a n y o t h e r a g e n o i e s t h a t o an f i l l t h e i r
plaoe.
The church, one o f H a rle m 's o u ts ta n d in g i n s t i t u t i o n s , i s a s t a b i l i z i n g ,
i n t e g r a t i n g f o r c e in t h e community.
The b o u n d a rie s o f Harlem a re c o n sta n tly changing4:
R o u g h l y d r a w n , t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f Har lem a r e : One h u n d r e d t e n t h
S t r e e t on t h e s o u t h ; on t h e e a s t , Lenox Avenue t o One H u n d r ed
T w e n t y - s i x t h S t r e e t , t h e n L e x i n g t o n Avenue t o t h e H a r le m R i v e r ,
and t h e Harlem R iv e r on t h e e a s t and n o r t h t o a p o i n t where i t
i . L. H.
t , Jm i i
8 . ibidu,
4. I b iii,
R ollin, op. e i t i , , p. 884.
W. Johnson, op. etc.', p. 16c*
pp. 166-iae.
pp. 1 4 6 -1 4 7 . ,
-4 9 p a a a e a t h a P o l o G r o u n d s , j u s t a b o v e One H un dr ed F i f t y - f i f t h
S t r e e t ; on t b e w a s t , E i g h t h Avenue t o One H u n d r ed S i x t e e n t h
S t r e e t , t h e n S t . N tlo ho la s Avenue up t o a j u n o t u r e w i t h t h e
H a r le m R i v e r a t t h e P o l o G r o u n d s . To t h e e a a t o f t h e Lenox
Avenue b o u n d a r y t h e r e a r e a a o o r e o f b l o o k s o f mixed o o l o u r e d
and w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n ; and t o t h e w e s t o f t h e E i g h t h Avenue
b o u n d a r y t h e r e i a a s o l i d Neg ro b o r d e r , two b l o o k s w i d e , from
One H un d r ed S i x t e e n t h S t r e e t t o One H un d re d T w e n t y - f i f t h
S t r e e t . The h e i g h t s n o r t h fr o m One H und red F o r t y - f i f t h S t r e e t ,
known a s C o o g a n ' s B l u f f , a r e s o l i d l y b l a o k . W i t h i n t h i s a r e a
of l e s s t h a n tw o s q u a r e m i l e s l i v e more t h a n tw o h u n d r e d
t h o u s a n d N e g r o e s , more t o t h e s q u a r e a o r e t h a n i n any o t h e r
p l a o e on e a r t h . -
Harlem h as expanded so r a p i d l y t h a t today i t e x te n d s down Seventh
Avenue to 110th S t r e e t , has spread northward from 145th to 155th
S t r e e t , and westward to Coogan's E lu ff where t h e r e i s a mixed popu1 a ti o n . }
The p re se n c e o f Negroes ih Harlem lowered th e p ro p e rty value,
and th e w hites f l e d "as from a medieval p l a g u e . " 1 T his lowered th e
p r i c e s o f th e houses in t h a t nei?ghborhood, and some Negroes bought
up th e p ro p e r ty .; P ri'c e s continued to drop u n t i l th e o u tb rea k o f th e
World War.; The war brought about a c e s s a tio n o f im m igration, coupled
with th e em igration o f thousands o f a l i e n s back to t h e i r n a tiv e la n d s.;
The U nited S t a t e s had become a m anufacturing c e n t e r , < and th e r e s u l t
was a sh o rta g e and demand f o r la b o r ,; Labor a g e n ts were se n t to th e
S ou th,' and mi'gratibn took p la c e on a larger* sc a le .] New York was f o r ­
t u n a t e in i 't s Negro supply, o b ta in ih g th o s e who m ig rated from c i t i e s
o f th e A t l a n t i c seaboard and t h e r e f o r e were more e a s i l y a d ap tab le to
New York l i f e . ; The c i t i e s ih th e mid-West got most o f th e r u r a l
Negroes.; Many o f th e m ig ran ts came from th e West I n d i e s .; The t o t a l
West In d ia n p o p u la tio n o f Harlem i s approxim ately 50,000.; With t h i s
g r e a t i n c r e a s e in Negro p o p u la tio n , t h e r e was a tremendous demand f o r
rooms.] The Negroes had a f i n e o p p o rtu n ity to o b ta in p le n ty o f work
and high wages,' and some bought r e a l e s t a t e in t h i s r e g io n .; The
p ro p e r ty i h Harlem now owned by th e Negroes i s worth between B50,000,000
and B30,000,000.; Pace f r i c t i o n in Harlem i s g ra d u a lly dying o u t, th e
new-comers becoming New Yorkers very q u i c k l y ,<p a r t i c u l a r l y on account
o f t h e i r d a ily c o n ta c t s with o t h e r c i t y d w e lle rs while engaged in t h e i r
o c c u p a tio n s a l l over th e c i t y . ;
Harlem h a s a very l a r g e number o f s o c i e t i e s and f r a t e r n a l o rg a n iz a ­
t i o n s , ' t h e i r main o b j e c t i v e s beihg t o ta k e c are o f th e siCk and bury
t h e dead,; The c r i t i c i s m i s sometimes made t h a t more money i s spent on
b u ry in g t h e dead than in c a rin g f o r th e l i v i n g . ;
1. Ibi&H 9P> 1B0-1B9.
-5 0 -
In Harlem we f in d t h e c o u n te r p a r t s o f th e v a rio u s c l a s s e s ih
an/ average Ameritean community.- There a r e t h e s o c i a l i t e s , t h e under­
world c h a r a c t e r s , - th e mass o f hard-w orking p e o p le ,' e tc .] The people
l i ’ving ih Harlem c a rry on t h e i r e x is te n c e in j u s t about th e same way
as o t h e r hard-w orking p e rso n s.; "The g r e a t bulk o f them a r e c o nfron ted
with th e s t e r n n e c e s s i t y of making a l i v i n g , o f making both ends meet,
o f f in d in g money to pay th e r e n t and keeping th e c h ild r e n fed and
c lo th e d n e a t l y enough to a tte n d sch ool.; .; .; , r 1,1 "Yet as a whole com­
munity i t p o s s e s s e s a sense of humour and a lo v e o f g a ie ty t h a t are
d istih c tly c h a ra c te ristic .* 8
Black a r t and so rcery f l o u r i s h ih Harlem, f x p e r t s in w itc h c r a f t,
f o r t u n e - t e l l i n g and o th e r magical f e a t s c o n s ta n tly prey upon th e mem­
b e r s o f th e community, e x to r t in g from them th e sm all, p re c io u s sums
whi’ch they f i n d i t so hard to earn .; The m ig ra n ts are most e a s i l y
e x p lo i t e d by th e l a r g e numbers o f gambling prom oters, fake d r u g g is ts ,
quack d o c to r s ,' e tc .;8
Hew York C ity has become th e c e n t e r o f th e c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c ­
t u a l l i f e o f t h e Negro in America.4 Most Negroes b e lie v e t h a t New
York o f f e r s a b e t t e r chance f o r advancement,■more r i g h t s as c i t i z e n s ,
and b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s than any o t h e r s t a t e .
No mention has been made a t t h i s tim e o f th e h o s t o f problems
which c e n t e r around th e o c c u p a tio n a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f th e Negro. This
s u b j e c t i s b eing re s e rv e d f o r l a t e r c h a p te r s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
when d a ta r e g a r d in g o c c u p a tio n s w ill be p re s e n te d .
1. I b i d . ,
2. I b i d . ,
8. X. D.
4 . X. X.
pp. V—11.
p. l e i .
p. IBS.
Lane, op. e x t., p. e82.
. ,
. ..
_
Jones, Wegro Migration In Hew Tork State, Opportunity, TV (January, 1028),
CHAPTER IV
An a l y s i s of F i r s t J o s s
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e o c c u p a tio n a l h i s t o r y o f th e c a se s ih
t h i s study in c lu d e s a c o n s id e ra tio n o f t h e i r f i r s t p o s i t i o n s and an
a n a l y s i s o f t h e jo b s whibh t h e s u b j e c t s h e ld d a rin g th e f i v e y e ars
p r i o r to a p p lic a tio n a t th e WPA Guidance S e rv ic e o r th e New York Urban
League O ffic e .] The i n i t i a l o c c u p a tio n a l placem ents w arranted s e p a ra te
tr e a tm e n t,i even though t h e s e d a ta were a v a i l a b l e from th e WPA source
o nly,] I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare t h e s e f i r s t p o s i t i o n s with those
f i l l e d l a t e r on in l i f e . ; The prim ary o b j e c t i v e in a l l th e o c cu p a tio n al
a n a ly s e s in t h i s t h e s i s , <however,« i s to study th e in f lu e n c e o f education
on job placem ent, - whether th e p o s i t i o n be th e f i r s t o r among th e l a s t
to be h e ld by th e a p p li c a n t .;
Since th e ages o f t h e s e c a s e s range from seventeen to s i x t y o r more
years,* t h e d a t e s o f t h e i r i n i t i a l employment a re spread over a long
p e rio d o f tim e.; Many o f th e o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l s s t a r t e d working f o r t y - f i v e
y e a r s p r i o r to th e time t h i s study was made,' w hile some o f th e younger
c a s e s began t h e i r o c c u p a tio n a l c a r e e r s only s e v e ra l months o r one y ear
p r i o r to t h a t tim e,;
The c a s e s have been c l a s s i f i e d from th e s ta n d p o in t o f edu catio n al
background as well as a g e ,■i t w ill be observed in th e t a b l e s .; Those
i n d i v i d u a l s who a tte n d e d grammar school w ithou t g r a d u a t in g ,• and tho se
who had completed t h e i r grammar school t r a i n i n g , were placed in one edu­
c a t i o n a l group. The same procedure was follow ed with re g a rd to th e
high school and c o lle g e t r a i n e d c a s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .; Normal school
t r a i n i n g was c o n sid ere d on a p a r with p a r t i a l c o lle g e t r a i n i n g . ; The
p o s t - g r a d u a t e group i s composed o f i n d i v i d u a l s who co ntin u ed t h e i r edu­
c a t io n a f t e r having re c e iv e d t h e b a c h e l o r 's degree ( B e e Appendix,' Table
54).; The l a s t e d u c a tio n a l group, p e rs o n s who have had a v o c a tio n a l,'
t e c h n i c a l or b u s in e s s school t r a i n i n g , <embraces th o s e c a se s with one
o f th e fo llo w ih g e d u c a tio n a l backgrounds: two y e a r s o f an i n d u s t r i a l
c o u r s e ,<one y e a r o f n u rsin g e d u ca tio n ,- a nine-month b u s in e s s course
i f com pleted ,- o r a o n e -y e ar b u s in e s s cou rse i f n o t completed.; Most o f
t h e s e c a s e s have had a high school e d u ca tio n b e s id e s t h e i r v o c atio n a l
sc h o o lin g (see Appendix, - Table 55).]
The age groups according to which t h e c a s e s in t h i s study were
c l a s s i f i e d are: 17-94 y e a r s , - 25-99 years,* 20-39 y e a r s , - 40-49 y e a r s , 50-59 years,* and 50 o r more y e a rs ,;
-5 1 -
-5 2 -
The oecup& tihas o f th e s e c a se s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o seven
asaih groups, - thife arrangem ent beihg based on th e United S t a te s Census
B u re a u 's r e p o r t s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , c o n s id e rin g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f th e d a ta o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s tu d y . Some o f th e F ederal o ccu p a tio n al
c a t e g o r i e s , such as mining and lum bering, were o m itted from t h i s c l a s s i ­
f i c a t i o n because none o f th e s u b j e c t s were ever engaged in t h e s e ty p es
o f work. The o c c u p a tio n a l c a t e g o r i e s are:
T. P r o f e s s i o n s and R e l a t e d P o s i t i o n s .
A. P r o f e s s i o n s .
1. A o t o r s .
2. A r o h i t e o t s .
3. A r t i s t s ( i n o l u d i n g Co m m er ci a l A r t i s t s ) .
4. C l e r g y m e n .
5. D e n t i s t s a n d D o o t o r s .
3. E n g i n e e r s ( t e o h n i o a l ) .
7. I n t e r i o r D e o o r a t o r s .
8. - J o u r n a l i s t s .
9. L a w y e r s .
10. L i b r a r i a n s .
11. M u s i o i a n s .
12. N u r s e s ( t r a i n e d ) .
13. P h a r m a o i s t s .
14. P h o t o g r a p h e r s .
15. S o o i a i an d W e l f a r e W o r k e r s .
19. T e a o h e r s .
B. S e m i - P r o f e s s i o n s .
1. B o x e r s .
2. D e t e o t i v e s .
3. E m ba lm ers and U n d e r t a k e r s .
4. E n t e r t a i n e r s .
5. L a b o r a t o r y T e o h n i p i a n s .
6. M e o h a n i o a l D e n t i s t s .
0. P r o f e s s i o n a l S e r v i o e A t t e n d a n t s .
1. A r o h i t e o t s ' A s s i s t a n t s .
2. D e n t i s t s ' a n d D o o t o r s ' A s s i s t a n t s .
3. I n t e r i o r D e o o r a t o r s ' A s s i s t a n t s .
4. M o d e l s .
5. P h o t o g r a p h e r s ' A s s i s t a n t s .
6. U s h e r s , o h e o k - r o o m a t t e n d a n t s , w a r d r o b e m i s t r e s s e s .
II.
III.
Co mm ero ial P o s i t i o n s .
1. A g e n t s — a d v e r t i s i n g , i n s u r a n o e , r e a l e s t a t e , o an v aB sers.
2. B o o k k e e p e r s , a o o o u n t a n t s , s e o r e t a r i e s , a n d s t a t i s t i o i a n s .
3. P i l i n g , s h i p p i n g , m a i l , a n d g e n e r a l o l e r k s .
4. R e o e p t i o n i s t s , m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i o e b o y s a n a g i r l s , d e l i v ­
e r y b o y s a nd g i r l s .
5. R e t a i l d e a l e r s .
8. S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , and t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s .
7. S t o r e o l e r k s , s a l e s p e o p l e , and o a s h i e r s .
8. M i s c e l l a n e o u s .
Domestio S e r v i o e .
1. B u t l e r s , c h a u f f e u r s ( p r i v a t e ) , and g a r d e n e r s .
2. C h i l d N u r s e s a n d P r a o t i o a l N u r s e s .
8. C l e a n e r s , C ha m b e r m a i d s a n d M a t r o n s ( p u b l i o m a i d s ) .
t'. C o u p l e Work ( w i f e — d o m e s t i o a n d / o r Cook; h u s b a n d — e h a u f feu r and/or gardener).
6. D om estio w o rk e rs and h o u s e k e e p e rs .
-5 3 7. Handymen a n d Window—w s s h s r s .
8. Laundresses (private).
9.
10.
11.
12.
18 .
Maid s ( p e r s o n a l ) and V a l e t s .
M others' H elpers.
P a r t - t i m e - D o m e s t i o Workers.
W aiters ( P r i v a t e ) .
M isoellaneous.
IV.
In d u stria l P o sitions.
A. A p p a r e l T r a d e s .
1. C l e a n e r s , p r e s s e r s and d y e r s .
2. D r e s s m a k e r s .
3. M i l l i n e r s .
4. T a i l o r s .
B. B a r b e r s a n d B e a u t i o i a n B .
C. B o o t b l a o k s a n d Newsboys.
D. B u i l d i n g S e r v i o e .
1. B e l l m e n , do o r m en , watohmen, a n d g u a r d s .
2. E l e v a t o r O p e r a t o r s .
3. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and f i r e m e n .
E. B u i l d i n g T r a d e s .
1. B o i l e r m a k e r s .
2. B u i l d e r s .
3. C a r p e n t e r s .
4. Ma son s.
5. P a i n t e r s .
6. P l a s t e r e r s .
7. P l u m b e r s .
8. T i n s m i t h s .
». a h . « f r . „ . ( p .b l i o ) , t r . s k . . . . . d d e l i v e r , . . . .
G. E l e o t r i o i a n s , r a d i o and a u t o m o b i l e m e o h a n i o s .
H. P a o t o r y w o r k e r s ,
I . Pood t r a d e s .
1. B u t o h e r s .
2. Cooks ( p u b l i o ) .
3. C o u n t e r w o r k e r s .
4. K i t o h e n - m e n , b u s - m e n , and d i s h w a s h e r s .
5. W a i t e r s ( p u b l i o ) .
6. S a l a d a n d s a n d w i o h w o r k e r s .
7. P a n t r y w o r k e r s .
«J. L a u n d r e s s e s ( p u b l i o ) .
K. Movers a n d l o n g s h o r e m e n .
L. P o r t e r s and l a b o r e r s ( g e n e r a l ) .
M. P r i n t e r s .
N. M i s o e l l a n e o u s .
V. G o ve rn m en t P r o . j e o t s .
WPA, CCC, EBB w o r k e r s .
VI. A p p l i o a n t s who h a v e n e v e r w o r k e d . V I I . No d a t a s u p p l i e d .
T ables 4,* 5 and 5 (pp. 54 f f . ) show the i n f lu e n c e o f edu cation
on th e f i i r s t o c cu p a tio n s engaged in by th e WPA c a s e s in c lu d e d i n t h i s
study .; Table 4 d e a ls with th e men>* Table 5 with t h e women, and Table
8 g iv e s a t o t a l p i c t u r e o f th e e n t i r e WPA group.; As mentioned p r e v i ­
ously,* t h e New York Urban League cases a re excluded from t h i s study o f
i n i t i a l employment,' s ih c e t h e i r re c o rd c ard s d id n o t supply t h i s i n ­
form a tio n ,;
In d is c u s s ih g t h e t a b u l a t i o n s , th o se numbers which r e p r e s e n t
very: few c a s e s a re d isreg ard ed ,* because o f t h e i r i n s i g n i f i c a n c e . When
c a s e s a re few,* th e d a ta a re included merely t o p r e s e r v e th e o rd e r o f
t h e t a b l e s f o r com parison.'
-5 4 -
----- r'AffEFT"
F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s of All Males of Va r i o u s Educati onal L evels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED P0SITI0N8
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
Col. 1
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
eohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l o ollsge
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
bu sin ess sohool
TOTAL
•'
•'
•
•'
PROFESSIONAL SER­
SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
COMMERCIAL
OF CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT number PER CENT
Col. 2 Col. ’ 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6
Col. 7 C o l.; 8 col. 9 Col. 10
NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
99
1
1.0
1
1.0
12
12.1
211
4
1.9
1
0 .5
1
0.5
58
26.5
132
3
17
1
12.9
33.3
2
1.5
1
o .e
40
30.3
8
34.8
116
24.8
23
468
22
4
4.7
0 .8
3
0*8
TABLE 5
F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s of All F emales of Va r i o u s Edu cat i onal L e VELS
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
•
•
•
•
NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
OF CASES NUMBER PER CEN1
SEMI—PROFESSIONS
NUMBER PER CENT
PROFESSIONAL SER­
VICE ATTENDANTS
COMMERCIAL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
114
1
0.9
3
2.6
1
0.9
3
2.6
351
17
4.8
9
2.8
5
1.4
78
20.8
188
3
78
3
41.5
100.0
5
2.6
3
1.8
33
17.6
22
2
9.1
4
18.2
678
101
14.9
113
18.6
17
2.5
9
1.3
TABLE 6
F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s of All Males and F emales of Va r i o u s Educati onal L evels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
COMM!■RCIAL
NUMBER
PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
OF CASES NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
■sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
213
1
0.5
4
1-9.
2
0.9
15
7.0
562
21
3.7
10
1 .8
6
1.7
129
22.9
320
8
95
4
29.7
88.7
7
2.2
4
1.2
73
22.8
45
1146
£
128
4.4
10*7
1.8
1.0
12
229
28.7
12
V O O & tlO Q & lf
teo h n io al or
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
21
20.0
TABLE 4 ( C o n c l u d e d )
F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s op Al l Ma l e s of Va r i o u s E ducati onal Le ve ls
DOMESTIC
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
APPLICANTS
NO DATA
NEVER WORKED
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. IS
O O l.ll
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
eohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ocational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •
•
»
»
c o l . 13 C o l.14 C o l.15 C o l.10 C ol.17 c o i . i e
Col. 19 Col. 20 Col. 21
4
4 .0
50
50.0
3
3.0
4
4.0
18
18.2
5
2.4
106
50.2
9
3
5
2.4
24
11.4
5
3 .8
54
1
40.9
33.3
2
1
1.5
33.3
1
0 .8
10
7.0
1
4.3
7
30.4
2
8.7
1
4.3
4
17.4
15
3.2
224
47.8
17
3.0
11
2.4
56
12.0
TABLE 5 (Concluded )
F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s of All F e males of Va r i o u s Educati onal L e ve ls
NO DATA
APPLICANTS
NEVER WORKED
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
DOMESTIC
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ocational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL •
•
•
•
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNNENT
PROJECTS
8
7.0
17
14.9
0 .8
30
8.5
02
17.7
4
2.1
3
1.6
19
10.1
27.3
1
4.5
3
13.0
19.3
8
1.2
101
14.9
50
43.8
31
27.2
74
21.1
78
22.2
3
27
14.4
16
8.5
6
27.3
6
157
23.1
131
41
6.0
TABLE 6 ( C o n c l u d e d )
F i b s T OftCUP AT IONS OF ALL MALES AND FEMALES OF Variou 3 Eoucati onal Le v e ls
NO DATA
APPLI CANTS
GOVERNMENT
INDUSTRIAL
DOMESTIC
NEVER WORKED
PROJECTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high ^
sohool and,high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
total
•' •
•
•
54
25.3
87
40.9
3
1.4
12
5 .6
35
10.4
79
14.0
184
32.7
12
2.1
35
6.2
86
15.3
32
10.0
70
1
21.9
10.7
6
1
1.9
10.7
4
1.02
29
9.1
7
16.6
28.9
3
0.7
1
2.2
7
15.0
172
15.0
13
355
31.0
25
2.2
52
4.5
167
13.7
-5 6 -
INITIAl OCCUPATIONS OP IfSN
Professions
C onsid erihg th e men f i r s t (Table 4), i t i s found t h a t th e p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f c a s e s employed i h p r o f e s s io n a l f i e l d s o f work i n c r e a s e s in
d i r e c t p r o p o r tio n to t h e amount o f p re v io u s scho o lin g which th e i'ndi"^
v i d u a l s have r e c e i v e d . ; None o f th e grammar school c a s e s ,- o n l y 1.9
p e r c en t o f t h e high school c a s e s , and 12.9 p er c e n t o f th e c o lle g e t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s engaged in p r o f e s s i b n a l work when s t a r t i n g t h e i r
o c c u p a tio n a l c a r e e r s .;
S e i l - P r o f e s s i ons
The c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d group a ls o shows th e h i g h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f
s e m i- p r o f e s s ib n a l p o s i t i o n s (1.5 p e r c e n t ) , ' although in t h i's c ase th e
p lacem ents do n o t vary as d i r e c t l y with e d u ca tio n al background. This
may be seen by th e f a c t t h a t more o f th e grammar school c a s e s (1 p e r
c e n t ) were so engaged, whereas only 0 .5 p e r c e n t o f th o s e with high
school t r a i n i n g worked along th e s e l i n e s . ;
P r o f e s s i o n a l S e r vi c e A t t e n d a n t s
The p e rc e n ta g e o f s i t u a t i o n s as p ro f e s s io n a l s e r v i c e a tt e n d a n t s
i s alm ost th e same f o r th e grammar school group ( 1 .0 p e r c e n t) as i t
i s f o r t h e c o ll e g e group (0 .8 p e r c e n t ) , with a s l i g h t le a d f o r t h e
form er. The p r o p o r tio n o f hi'gh school case6 i s lower (0 .5 p e r c e n t)
than e i t h e r t h e grammar school o r c o lle g e groups.; None o f th e voca­
t i o n a l l y o r t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s were employed i n e i t h e r
t h e sem i;-pro fessibn s o r p r o f e s s i b n a l s e r v ic e a tte n d a n c e .;
Commerpial P o s i t i o n s
The v o c a t io n a l ,' t e c h n ic a l and b u s in e s s group shows th e h ig h e s t
p e rc e n ta g e o f p lacem en ts (8 4 .9 P©r c e n t) i n th e commercial p o s i t i o n s , ■
as might be e x p ec te d ,' with th e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d c a s e s fo llo w in g very
c lo s e l y (8 0 .8 p e r c e n t ) .; Even th o se with high school t r a i n i n g did
very well in commercial p u r s u i t s (26.5 per c e n t) , th e only group having
few placem ents by comparison being th e grammar school c a s e s (12.1
p e r c e n t) .;
Domestic Servi ce
Since t h e s e a re male c a s e s ,' th e domestic placem ents a re few, and
show only a l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n in r e l a t i o n to e d u c a tio n a l background.;
The grammar school c a s e s , c o ll e g e c a se s, and v o c a tio n a lly t r a i n e d
i h d i v i d u a l s a l l have approxim ately th e same r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .; The
s m a lle s t number o f p o s i t i o n s f i l l e d ih t h i s f i e l d o c c u rs i n t h e high
-5 7 -
school group, b u t th e d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and th e o t h e r educa­
t i o n a l groups i s only s l i g h t (Table 4).
In d u s tr ia l Positions
The grammar school c a s e s show th e h i g h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f i n d u s t r i a l
placem ents (56.8 p e r c e n t ) , with almost as many high school c a se s in
th e same f i e l d (50.2 p e r c e n t ) . Fewer o f the c o ll e g e people (40.9 per
c e n t ) and only 30.4 p e r c e n t o f th e v o c a tio n a lly t r a i n e d i n d iv i d u a ls
secured p o s i t i o n s in t h i s c a p e c ity when they s t a r t e d to work.
Government P r o j e c t s
D isre g a rd in g th e one p o s t- g r a d u a te case, th e v o c a t io n a l ly t r a i n e d
i n d i v i d u a l s show th e h i g h e s t p e rc en ta g e o f placem ents on government
p r o j e c t s (9 .7 p e r c e n t ) , while th e high school group and th e grammar
sohool c a se s have alm ost equal r e p r e s e n ta t io n ( 4 .3 p e r c e n t and 8.0
p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Only 1.5 p e r c e n t o f th e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d men
were p lac ed in t h i s kind o f work.
Summary
The in f lu e n c e o f e d u c a tio n a l le v e l on i n i t i a l jo b placem ent i s
most e v id e n t in th e p r o f e s s i b n a l f i e l d , where th e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d c ase s
f a r e b e s t o f a l l th e e d u c a tio n a l groups. The h i g h e s t p e rc e n ta g e o f
placem ents o f th e grammar school c a se s o c c u rs ih th e i n d u s t r i a l jo b s ,
as i s th e case with th e high school t r a i n e d i h d i v i d u a l s . However, th e
h igh school c a se s have more than tw ice as high a p e rc e n ta g e o f p la c e ­
ments in th e commercial f i e l d as t h e grammar school group. The voca­
t i o n a l , t e c h n ic a l o r b u s in e s s school i n d i v i d u a l s show g r e a t e s t r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n in th e commercial f i e l d s and on government p r o j e c t s .
Taking th e male group as a whol6, i t i s e v id e n t from Table 4
t h a t alm ost o n e - h a l f o f th e c a se s, when s t a r t i n g t h e i r o c c u p a tio n al
c a r e e r s , were employed in i n d u s t r i e s , while about o n e -fo u r th found
commercial jo b s . The rem ainder o f th e men a re s c a t t e r e d throughout
t h e o t h e r o c c u p a tio n a l groups, with only 4.7 p e r c e n t in th e p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l f i e l d . I t i s found t h a t 2 .4 p e r c en t o f a l l th e male c ase s
have never been employed.
INITIAL OCCUPATIONS OF NOMEN
Table 5 in c lu d e s a l l th e female cases i n th e WPA group, c l a s s i ­
f i e d according to e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l .
P r o f e s s i o ns
The p r o f e s s i b n a l placem ents in c r e a s e in number as th e e d u c a tio n a l
l e v e l i s r a i s e d . While only 0 .9 p e r c e n t o f th e women with a grammar
-5 3 -
sehool background f i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s when s t a r t i n g t h e i r work,
4.3 p e r c e n t o f th e high school i n d i v i d u a l s o b ta in e d such employment.
Of th e c o lle g e group, 41.5 p e r cent e n te r e d th e p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s .
(The 100 n e r c e n t o f th e p o s t - g r a d u a t e group, r e p r e s e n tin g only th r e e
c a s e s , i s n ot s i g n i f i c a n t enough to w arrant com parison.) The fem ales
with v o c a tio n a l, t e c h n ic a l o r b u s in e s s school t r a i n i n g show 9.1 per
c e n t placem ents in t h i s f i e l d .
Semi-Professions
E ducational background does n o t seem to be an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r
in se m i-p ro fe ssio n a l placem ents, as shown by the f a c t t h a t th e same
p ro p o rtio n o f th e grammar school, high school and c o lle g e c a se s r e ­
s p e c t i v e l y (2 .5 p e r c e n t) were so p la c e d .
Professional Servioe Attendants
The c o lle g e group f a r e d s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than th e high school c a se s
in p r o f e s s io n a l s e r v ic e a tt e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s ( l . S per cent as compared
with 1.4 per c e n t).- The p e rc e n ta g e o f th o s e with a grammar school
background i s low est (0.]9 p e r c e n t) .;
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
The h i g h e s t p r o p o rtib n o f commercial placem ents o o c u rs in th e
high school group (29.3 p e r c e n t),! with th e v o c a tio n a l group follo w in g
very c lo s e ly (13.2 p e r c e n t ) .] There were almost as many placem ents in
t h i s f i e l d o f th e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s (17.6 p e r c en t) as o f
t h e v o c a tio n a lly t r a i n e d group. Fewest p lacem ents o c cu rred a t th e
grammar school l e v e l (2 .6 p e r c e n t ) .
Domestio S e r v i oe
Of a l l th e placem ents ih th e dom estic f i e l d , t h e h i g h e s t propor­
t i o n occu rs in th e grammar school group (43.3 p er c e n t) .; The high
school c a se s have only about o n e - h a l f t h a t r e p r e s e n ta t io n (21.1 per
c e n t ) .] The v o c a tio n a l group approxim ates th e high school c a s e s
(2 7 .2 p e r cent),< w hile th e c o ll e g e group have th e lo w e st p e rc e n ta g e
employed in th i's f i e l d (14.;4 p e r c e n t ) .;
I n d u str ia l Positions
About th e same p r o p o rtio n o f th o se with grammar, high school, o r
v o c a tib n a l school t r a i n i n g (2 7 .2 p e r c e n t ,' 22.2 p er cent,* and 2 7,2
p e r cen t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) 1 f i l l e d i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s when s t a r t i n g t h e i r
o c c u p a tib n a l c a r e e r s .; The c o l l e g e - t r a i h e d c a se s have th e low est p e r­
cen tag e in t h i t typ e o f work (8 .5 p e r c e n t ) .;
-5 9 Government P r o j e c t s
Only a few o f t h e women re c e iv e d t h e i r i n i t i a l employment on
government p r o j e c t s . ; None o f th e grammar school c a s e s , o r o f th e
p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a se s, < were so employed, and only 0 .8 per cen t o f th e
high school group and 2,1 p e r c e n t o f - t h e c o lle g e c a s e s were p lac ed
in t h i s typ e o f work.; The h i g h e s t p ro p o rtio n (4 .5 p e r c e n t) o c cu rs
a t t h e v o c a tib n a l l e v e l . ;
Summary
Only in t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d did an i n c r e a s e in ed u ca tio n al
t r a i n i n g o f th e fem ales r e s u l t in a p r o p o rtio n a l i n c r e a s e i h p la c e ­
ments.] The women,- as compared with th e men, show a much g r e a t e r
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in th e p r o f e s s i b n s and r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s , - as well as
in th e dom estic ty p e s o f work.; This s tr e n g th i n th e dom estic f i e l d s
may be e x p la in e d on t h e b a s i s o f t r a d i t i o n and custom .In i n d u s t r i e s , - th e women have n o tic e a b ly fewer placem ents than
t h e men (19.2 p e r c e n t as compared with 47.8 p e r c e n t ) , - and i n th e
commercial p o s i t i o n s t h e i r r e p r e s e n ta t io n i s also lower than t h a t o f
t h e men (13.6 p e r cent as c o n tr a s t e d with 24.8 p e r c e n t ) . The p e r ­
c e n ta g e o f men employed on government p r o j e c t s i s about t h r e e tim es
t h a t o f the women.; Many: more o f th e women than o f th e men had n ev er
worked (3 ,p p e r c e n t as compared with 2.4 p er c e n t ) .
INITIAL OCCUPATIONS OF MEN AND MOMEN
Table 3 i s a com posite t a b l e r e p r e s e n tin g th e e n t i r e group o f
men and women.; As mentioned p r e v io u s ly , - t h i s i s th e e n t i r e group of
t h e WPA c a s e s only,< s in c e th e New York Urban League employment re c o r d s
do n o t in c lu d e the d a ta which a re under c o n s id e ra tio n h ere.Professions
When th e group i s taken as a whole, - th e only o c c u p a tio n a l f i e l d
in which e d u c a tio n a l background has had an in f lu e n c e on i n i t i a l occu­
p a t i o n a l placem ent i s found to be th e p r o f e s s i o n a l .; T his i s evidenced
by an i n c r e a s in g p e rc e n ta g e o f p r o f e s s io n a l placem ents as th e educa­
t i o n a l le v e l i s r a i s e d (0 .5 p e r c e n t, grammar school; 3. 7 p e r cen t,
high school; 4.4 p e r c e n t, v o c a tio n a l school; 29.7 p er c e n t, c o ll e g e ) ,
( S in c e th e 3 3 .7 p e r c e n t o f the p o s t-g r a d u a te c a s e s r e p r e s e n t s only
fo u r c a se s, th e s e f i g u r e s are i n s i g n i f i c a n t . )
S e m l - P r p f e s s l o n s and P r o f e s s i o n a l S e r v i c e A t t e n d a n t s
In th e s e m i- p r o f e s s io n s t h e r e i s o r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e bec8U86
o f e d u c a tio n . Even though th e high school group shows a h ig h e r p ro p o rtio n
-6 0 -
o f p lacem en ts (1 .7 p e r c e n t) in t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v ic e f i e l d s than
e i t h e r th e grammar sohool o r c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d c a se s (0.9 p e r cent and
1 ,2 p e r cen t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a re no t s i g n i f ic a n t .
(See Appendix I I , T ables 72 and 7 4 .)
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
The only group having a r e l a t i v e l y l a * placem ent in the commercial
p o s i t i o n s c o n s i s t s o f th o se c a s e s with grammar school t r a i n i n g (7 per
c e n t ) , while th e p ro p o rtio n o f commercial p o s i t i o n s f i l l e d remains about
t h e same f o r th e high school, c o ll e g e and v o c a tio n a lly t r a i n e d i n d iv i d u a ls
(22.9 p e r c en t, 22,3 o e r c e n t, and 2 6 .7 p a r c e n t, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
Domestic S e r v i c e
In dom estic placem ents, th e grammar school c a se s rank f i r s t (25.2
p e r c e n t ) , while th e high school and v o c a tio n a l groups have about equal
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (14.0 p er c e n t and 15.8 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The
c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d c a se s have the lo w e st p ro p o rtio n (10 per c e n t) in t h i s
type o f work.
In d u stria l Positions
I n d u s t r i a l placem ents d e c re a s e a s th e e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l i s r a is e d .
Whereas 40.9 p e r cent o f th e c a s e s w ith grammar school t r a i n i n g and
22.7 p e r c e n t o f th o se with a h igh school background were p laced in
i n d u s t r i e s , only 21.9 p e r c e n t o f th e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d in d iv id u a ls were
employed in t h i s o c c u p a tio n a l f i e l d .
The p ro p o rtio n o f th e vocatio n al
c a s e s so employed approxim ates t h a t o f the high school group (28.9
p e r cent and 22.7 p er c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
Government P r o j e c t s
Excluding th e few placem ents i n t h e p o s t- g r a d u a te and vocatibnal
groups, t h e p ro p o rtio n o f c a s e s employed on government p r o j e c ts i s
alm ost th e same, r e g a r d l e s s o f e d u c a tio n a l background (1.4 p e r cent
o f th e grammar school group, 2 .1 p e r c e n t o f th e h igh school cases,
and 1.9 p e r cen t o f the c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s ) .
Summary
Summarizing t h e r e s u l t s o f Table 3, on i n i t i a l employment o f men
and women, i t may be n oted t h a t about o n e - t h i r d o f th e cases were em­
ployed in i n d u s t r i e s (21.9 p e r c e n t ) , o n e - f i f t h were p la c e d in commer­
c i a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts (20.9 p e r c e n t ) , 15 p e r cent f i l l e d domestic p o s i­
t i o n s , and o n e -te n th e n te re d t h e p r o f e s s i o n s (19 .7 p e r c e n t) . Only a
very few (2 .2 p e r c e n t) worked on government p r o j e c t s as t h e i r f i r s t
jo b s , and only 4.5 p e r c en t o f th e c a s e s had n ever been employed p r i o r
to t h e i r a p p lic a tio n a t th e WPA o f f i c e .
-6 1 TABLE 7
F irst Occupati ONS OF Mai es and Females 17-24 Years of Ase of Various Educational Levels
professions and relateo positions
PROFESSIONAL SER­
PROFE.SSI ONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
OF CASES1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
C o l.; 1
C o l . ;2
C o l.; 3 Col. 4 C o l.; 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Col. e
C o l.; 9 C o l.; i o
P a rtia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
78
1
1.3
1
1.3
5
6.4
p a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
381
10
5
3.0
1.5
1
0 .3
21.1
70
p a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
115
' 24
2
27
1
0.9
1.7
20.9
23.5
Post-graduate
0
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
80
9
30.0
TOTAL .
.
554
34
1.3
4
0 .7
111
20.0
6-1
*
TABLE 9
NUMBER
F irst Occupatioias of Males and Females 25-29 Years of Ase of Various Educational Levels
professions and related positions
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a rtia l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational.
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL .; .
.
.
NUMBER
PROFESSIONAL SER­
SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
professions
COMMERCIAL
OF CASES1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
30
2
8 .7
4
13.3
110
4
3.8
2
1.8
2
i.e
28
25.4
101
3
31
2
30.7
88.7
4
4.0
2
2.0
25
24.8
5
1
2
40.0
249
38
20.0
15.3
59
23.7
F irst Occupatioias of Male S AND
Ffemales
8
3.2
4
1.8
TABLE 9
90-39 Years of Ase of Various Educatii3nal Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
-sohool graduates
P a rtia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
1. Data from
NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
GOMMtERCIAL
OF CASES1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
59
es
4
4.9
2
2.4
84
31
1
38.9
50.0
2
2.4
2
9
1
11.1
238
A rmoor&s.
37
15.7
4
1.7
1
1^7
5
e.5
3
3.8
25
SO. 5
17
20.2
47
19.9
4
1 .7
-8 2 -
TABLE 7 ( C o n c l u d e d )
F i r s t Occupations of Males and Females 17-24 Years of Ase of Various Educational Levels
DOM!•STIC
GOVERNMENT
NO DATA
applicants
PROJECTS
NEVER WORKED
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 18 C ol.18 C ol.14 C o l.15 C o l.16 C o l.17 C ol.18 C o l.19 Col. 20 C ol.21
Col. 11
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
Bohool graduates
12
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates . 42
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
13
post-graduate
V ooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
4
TOTAti . . . .
71
industrial
15.4
30
38.5
1
1.8
9
11.5
19
24.4
12.7
io e
32.6
10
3.0
34
10.3
51
15.4
11.8
26
22-6
6
5 .2
4
3.5
12
10.4
13.3
7
23.3
2
6 .7
3.3
7
23.3
12.8
171
30.9
19
8.4
1
48
8.7
89
16.1
TABI-E 8 ( C o n c l u d e d )
F irst Occupati ONS OF Males and Female s 25-29 Years of A3e of Various Education al Levels
no DATA
APPLICANTS
GOVERNMENT
industrial
DOMESTIC
NEVER WORKED
PROJECTS
........
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER per cent IUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PHR CENT
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
10
33.3
10
33.3
,:;1
3.8
2
8 .7
1
3.3
17
15.4
35
31.8
l
0.9
1
0-9
20
18.2
12
11.9
19
18.8
e
7.9
l
33.3
2
40.0
66
26.5
3
1.2
29
11.6
39
15.7
3
1.2
TABI-E 9 (CcINCLUD ED)
F irst Occupat ONS OF Males anc F emaleis 30-39 >(EARS OF* Age of Various Eoucational Levels
I DOMEST 1C
j INDUSTRIAL I W jgjgE «T
NO DATA
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
1
18
30.5
26
44.1
13
15.8
22
26. e
8
7.1
20
1
23.8
50.0
3
33.3
4
44.4
1
1 1 .1
40
16.9
73
30.9
2
0.8
1
1.7
1.2
1
0.4
8
18.6
12
14.6
8
9.5
28
11.9
I
I
^
......................
F irst Occupati ONS OP Males and Females 40-49 Years of Abe of Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
SEMI-PROFESS IONS VICE ATTENDANTS
COMMERCIAL
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
OP CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 1
C o l.; 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Col. 8 Col. 9 C ol.10
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
aohool graduates
30
3.3
1
3.3
1
partialhigh
sobool and high
aohool graduates
27
7.4
2
5
18.5
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
3
50.0
16
e
is. e
P ost-graduate
1
i
100.0
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
1
100.0
1
12.0
U
S
75
12
TOTAL • ' »! • »
10.0
1
9
NUMBER
F irst
TABLE 11
Occupati ONS OF V/tLES ANC Females 59-59 Years
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l bigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
NUMBER
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
-sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooatlonal,
teohnioal or
.
of
Abe of Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
.....................
PROFESSIONAL SER­
PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
COMMERCIAL
OF CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
15
8
1
12.5
4
0
1
25.0
2
7.4
0
27
F irst Occupations op Males
TOOAL
PROFESSIONS
NUMBER
1
12.5
1
TA3LE 15
AND FEfiflALES 60 Years of Ase
3.7
or
1
6.7
1
12.5
1
25.0
3
11.1
Over of Various Eou<national Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
COMMiRCIAL
OP CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1
4
0
0
0
5
r
TABLE 1 0 ^CONTINUEO)
F irst Occupat ions of Vales and Females 4 0 - 4 9 Years of Age of Various Educational Levels
oomeSTIC
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
APPLICANTS
NEVER WORKEO
NO DATA
NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER »ER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PGR CENT
C ol.12 C o l.13 Col. 14 Col. 15 c o L ie C o l.17 301.18 Col. 19 C o l.20 COl. 21
c o l. u
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •. »' • ' • ’
e
S3.7
15
50.0
5
' 16.7
6
s s .s
12
44.4
2
7.4
4
25.0
1
6.2
31
41.3
8
10.7
14
18.7
TABLE 11
(C o n t i n u e d )
F i r s t Occupations of Vales and Females 50-59 Years of Age of Various Educatio nal Levels
NO DATA
1NDUSTRIAL
GOVEFINMENT
APPLICANTS
DOMESTIC
NEVER WORKED
PROiIECTS
e d u c a t i o n a l le vel
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
aohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
p o st-g r adoate
Vooatlonal, •
teohnioal or
business sohool
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
5
33.3
3
40 .0
1
12.5
4
50.0 1
1
25.0
1
25.0
7
25.9
11
40.7
TABLE 12
1
3.7
2
13.3
1
3.7
2
7.4
(Cc NT INUEO)
F irst Occupations of Vales and Females 90 Years of Age or Over of Various Educatkjnal Levels
no DATA
APPLICANTS
GOVERNMENT
INDUSTRIAL
DOMESTIC
NEVER WORKED
PROJECTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
TOTAL •
•
•
•
1
100.0
1
25.0
3
75.0
2
40.0
8
60.0
-8 5 i s n o s s c s o f a cs os i s i t t a l s s p l o y m s s t
T ables 7 through IS (pp. 51-94) show th e in f lu e n c e o f th e age
f a c t o r on i n i t i a l employment.
Professions
The p r o p o r tio n o f in d iv id u a lE se cu rin g employment in p r o f e s s io n a l
f i e l d s i n c r e a s e s in d i r e c t p r o p o rtio n to age, with th e exception o f the
50-59 y e a r group, in which a d e c re a se may be n oted (Tables 7 to 11 i n ­
c l u s i v e ) . The o u ts ta n d in g i n c r e a s e o c c u rs in th e 95-29 y e a r group
(Table 9), with 15.3 p e r c en t p r o f e s s io n a l placem ents as compared with
8.1 p e r c e n t (Table 7) f o r th e youngest age group, 17-24 y e a rs . The
d i f f e r e n c e between th e s e two groups may have been due to th e d e p re ssio n ,
in which very few jo b s o f any ty p e were a v a ila b le . The 25-29 y e a r group
may have escaped by o b t a i n i n g t h e i r f i r s t jo b s p r i o r to t h i s unemployment'
e ra , whereas th e 17-24 y e a r o ld s were seeking t h e i r f i r s t jo b s du ring
t h i s p e rio d .; The p e rc e n ta g e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l placem ents rem ains about
t h e same f o r th e 39-39 y e a r o ld i n d i v i d u a l s (Table 9) as i t i s f o r those
25-29 y e a r s o f age. Since th e t o t a l number o f c a s e s in th e 40*49 y e ar
group (T able 10) i s only 75, th e 18 p e r cent o f th e s e c a se s i n th e pro­
f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s , r e p r e s e n ti n g only 12 i n d i v i d u a l s , i s n o t as s i g n i f i c a n t
as th e p e rc e n ta g e s r e p r e s e n te d in th e p rec ed in g t a b l e s , where th e minimum
number o f c a s e s i s 235, The o l d e r groups (T ables 11 and 12) a re very
sm a ll, but a re in c lu d e d because th e age c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h a s been uniform ly
follow ed th ro u g h o u t th e study.
Semi-Professtons
The o c c u p a tio n a l placem ents in th e se m i-p ro fe ssio n s lik e w is e i n ­
c r e a s e in t h e 25-29 y e a r group over th o se 17-24 y e a r s o ld , with a f a l l ­
in g o f f in t h e h ig h e r age groups. (The 3,7 p e r cen t in Table 11, r e p r e ­
s e n tin g one c a se , i s d is r e g a r d e d .)
Profess iona l Service Attendants
The p e rc e n ta g e f o r th e p r o f e s s io n a l s e r v ic e a tt e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s
i n c r e a s e s i n Table 9 (25-29 y e a rs) as compared with Table 7 (17-24 y e a r s ) ,
b a t in t h i s c a se , as with th e p r o f e s s io n a l p o s i t i o n s , t h e 20- 39 y ear group
h a s approxim ately th e same p e rc e n ta g e as th e 25-29 y e ar o ld s . None o f
t h e f i r s t jo b s o f c a se s 40 y e a rs or o ld e r were in t h i s f i e l d .
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
The p e rc e n ta g e s o f c a se s in th e f i r s t th re e age groups (ran g in g from
17-39 y e a r s ) a re very s i m i l a r when th e commercial p o s i t i o n s a re c o n sid ere d .
The 25-29 y e ar u n i t shows a le a d over th e 17-24 and th e 80-29 y e a r groups,
-8 6 b a t i t i s a much s l i g h t e r d i f f e r e n c e than t h a t observed in th e p o s i­
t i o n s a lre a d y d isc u sse d .] There i s a g r e a t d e crea se in the number o f
c a s e s engaging in commercial work in th e o l d e r age groaps (Tables
10 and 11).;
Domest i c S e r v i c e
D iscounting Tables 11 and 12, where the c ase s a re few,' the per­
c e n ta g e s o f cases r e p r e s e n ti n g th o se who engaged in dom estic work show
very l i t t l e f l u c t u a t i o n due t o th e age f a c t o r , ' as may be seen in Tables
7 to 11 i n c l u s i v e . This i l l u s t r a t e s th e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f domestic work
as i n i t i a l employment,, r e g a r d l e s s o f whether th e s e f i r s t p o s i t io n s were
h e ld many y e a rs ago o r a re being f i l l e d at th e p r e s e n t tim e.
T n iu str ia l Positions
The youngest age group shows a h ig h e r p ro p o r tio n o f i n d u s t r i a l
placem ents (£0.9 per c e n t) than t h e 25-29 y ear group (28.5 per c e n t).]
The same p e rc en ta g e o f S0-S9 y e a r o l d s a s th e youngest group (17-24
y e a r s ) f i l l e d i n d u s t r i a l j o b s when they s t a r t e d to work. Of th e o ld e r
age groups (40-49 y e a rs and 50-59 y e a r s ) , , a l a r g e p ro p o rtio n (41.;£
p e r c en t and 40.17 p e r c en t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were engaged in in d u s try when
f i r s t employed.;
Government P r o j e c t s
The two youngest age groups show th e g r e a t e s t p ro p o rtio n o f c a se s
i n i t i a l l y employed on government p r o j e c t s . ' T his i s due to th e r e c e n t
growth o f governmental employment.; The d i f f e r e n c e between th e propor­
t i o n s of th e 17-24 and 25-29 y e a r groups (S.;4 p er c e n t and 1 .2 per cen t
r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i s due to chance.
(See Appendix I I , < T ables 72 and 74.;)
F i g h t - t e n t h s p e r c e n t o f th o s e £0 to £9 y e a r s o ld (Table 9) are
f in d in g employment in t h i s f i e l d . ; None o f th e 40 to 49 y ear group were
p la c e d on government p r o j e c t s , , but one in d iv id u a l in th e f i f t y - y e a r u n i t
f i l l e d a p o s itio n o f t h i s ty p e.;
A p p l i c a n t s Hho Wever f o r k e d
The p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t y o f o b ta ih ih g employment i s again evidenced
by th e d a ta in Tables 7,. 9 and 9,< showing t h a t th e l a r g e s t p e rc en ta g e
o f c a s e s who never worked (8.17 p e r c e n t) o c c u rs in th e youngest age
group (Table 7 ).' Soine o f th e s e ih d ilv id u a ls have n ever worked because
th ey a r e s t i l l a tte n d in g scho ol, , b u t most o f th e c a se s applying a t th e
Guidance O ff ic e o f th e WPA a re coining t h e r e p r im a r ily to seek employment.;
The p r o p o r tio n - o f cases who have n e v e r been employed d e crea se s 86 th e
age i n c r e a s e s (Tables 3 and 9 ) .;
-87-
Vo data
Some o f t h e WPA r e c o r d s d id n o t supply d a ta r e l a t i n g to i n i t i a l
employment,' and such c a se s were t h e r e f o r e r e l e g a t e d to t h i s c ateg o ry .
Summary
In th e 25-99 y e ar group t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e over th e 17-24 y e a r
o l d s in a l l ty p e s o f p o s i t i o n s h e ld , except ih i n d u s t r i a l j o b s . There
i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between th e placement o f th e 25-29 y ear
o ld s and th o s e 17-24 y e a r s o f age i h government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s . '
Those c a s e s £0-29 y e a r s o f age show a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e over th e
25-29 y e a r group in a l l ty p es o f work except th e s e m i- p r o f e s s io n a l,
comm ercial,' and government p r o j e c t s . ' (The p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t ­
te n d a n t placem ents a re approxim ately th e same.)
A general d e c re a se in th e p e rc e n ta g e o f job placem ents ih th e
v a rio u s o c c u p a tib n a l f i e l d s i s n o ted in th e 40-49 y e ar group, as com­
p ared wifh th e 30-29 y e a r o ld s .; A s l i g h t i n c r e a s e , <how ever,<o c c u rs
in th e p r o f e s s i o n a l and dom estic f i e l d s , while a marked r i s e i s e v i ­
dent in i n d u s t r i a l ty p e s o f work.STDDY OF TUE MACE SCALE JfVTLE EMPLOYED CV FIEST OCCUPATIONS
In o r d e r to study the i n f l u e n c e o f education on th e weekly wages
o f c a se s when employed on t h e i r f i r s t jobs, the wage d a ta on th e em­
ployment r e c o r d s o f th e WPA concerning i n i t i a l employment were c o ll e c t e d
and c l a s s i f i e d in to v a rio u s groups, from 0-550 or more, in i n t e r v a l s o f
f i v e d o l l a r s . ' T ables 12 to 15 i n c l u s i v e (pp.; 33 f f . ) a re concerned with
t h i s p a r t o f th e study . Then th e G1, M4 snd Cs o f th e wsges were de­
term ined, e x clu d in g c a s e s r e c e iv in g no wages, I . e . , v o lu n ta r y workers
and th o se working in exchange f o r room and board; th o se g e t t i n g an
i n d e f i n i t e wage, ' i . e . , t i p s alone, and th o se c a se s com prising th e "No
Data" group." The "No Data" group c o n s i s t s o f c a se s who la c k e d wage
d a ta e n t i r e l y , o r s t a t e d t h e i r wages in vague terms, i . e . , p e r hour,
p e r day,' o r p e r jo b .
Meekly Nat es o f Male Cases Vhen F i r s t Employed
E d ucatio nal t r a i n i n g had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on th e weekly remunera­
t io n o f th e men when working a t t h e i r f i r s t o c c u p a tio n s. T his i s shown
c l e a r l y in Table 12, by stu d y in g th e Md, G1 and ft3 o f t h e weekly wages
o f th e v a rio u s e d u c a tio n a l groups. Those with grammar school t r a i n i n g
earned alm ost as much a s t h e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s . ' The high
school group di'd n o t 6arn as much a s th e grammar school c a s e s . The
range o f t h e m iddle 59 p e r c en t o f th e wages i s w idest in t h e grammar
-6 3 ........— T O ICFTT""
Weekly Waqes of All Males of Various Eoucational Levels While Employed on F irst Occupations
NUMBER1
0-154.99
$ 5 - $ 9 . 99
1510-114
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
OF CASES NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
C ol. 1
Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. a
Col. 7 C o l.;8 Col. 9 C ol.10
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
95
2
2.1
9
16
9 .5
14
16.8
14.7
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
SOS
6
2.9
18.9
39
32
36
15.5
17.5
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
131
4
12
3.0
20
18.3
9.2
15.3
24
post-graduate
3
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
22
9.1
4
2
18.2
3
3
13.8
18V6
TOTAL . . . .
457
14
64
3. 1
71
14.0
15.5
77
16.8
TABLE 14
Weekly Wases of All Females of Various Educational Levels While Employed on F irst Occupations
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l o o lleg e
and oollege
graduates
po st-g rad u ate
V ooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL .
»' .
.
NUMBER1
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
$ 1 0 -$ 1 4
0 - $ 4 . 99
$ 5 - $ 9 . 99
OF CASES NUMBER »ER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
106
2
1.9
20
18.9
19
17.9
16
15.1
321
10
3.1
52
16.2
75
28.4
53
16.5
ie5
3
3
1.6
17
9.2
33
1
17.8
33.3
46
1
24.9
33.3
4
18.8
3
13.6
3
18.6
14.6
131
20.6
119
18.7
122
637
15
93
2 .4
TAB LE 15
Weekly Wases of All Males ano Females of Various Educational Levels While EMPLOYED ON FIRST
Occup ations
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
$ 1 0 -$ 1 4
$ 5 - $ 9 . 99
number1
0 - $ 4 . 99
educational level
OF CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM3ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oolleg e
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
201
4
2.0
29
14.4
35
17.4
30
14.9
527
16
3 .0
91
17.3
107
20.3
89
16.9
318
6
7
2.2
29
9.2
53
1
16.8
16.7
70
1
22.1
18.7
44
2
4.5
18.2
6
13.6
6
13.6
TOTAL . ’ • ’ • ‘ • 1094
29
2.6
8
157
. 14.4
202
19.5
196
17.9
«
±, The nuaber oxoln&ee t hoee oe ■ee who have never been employed.
-3 9 TABLE 1 3
1
........... .
■ M M M S
(C o n t in u e d )
w e e k ly W ages o f A ll M a le s o f V a r io u s E o u c a t i o n a l L e v e ls W h ile E m ployeo o n F i r s t O c c u p a tio n s
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
$ 2 0 - ■ $24
I
num8 e r | p e r
P a r tia l grammar
aid grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
«
c e n t I n u m ser I per
I
$30 -$ 3 4
I
$35 -$ 3 9
•
*
9.4
8
8.4
3
3.2
3
3 .2
25
12.1
7
3.4
4
1.9
3
1 .4
21
16.0
11
8.4
33.3
1
o .e
5
3.8
2
9.1
1
4.5 '
1
4.5
56
12.2
9
2.0
12
2.6
27
$40 -$ 4 4
Col. 19 Col. 20 Col. 21
8
1
j
ce nt I number I per cent I number I pe r c e n t I number I per c e n t
Col. 12' Col. 13 C o l.14 C o l.15 Col. 10 Col. 17 c o i .i e
Col. U
TOTAL •
$ 2 5 -- $ 2 9
1
5.9
1
1.0
1
0 .2
TABLE 14 (Con ti nued )
I
Weekly Wages of All Females of Various Educational Levels V.Hile Employed on F irst Occupations
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduateE
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . »
$40 - $ 4 4
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
$20
-$ 2 4
$ 2 5 -$ 2 9
1
0.9
1.2
4
1.2
e
4.3
4
2.2
2
9.1
14
2.2
3
2.8
9
2.9
4
19
10.3
31
4. 9
$ 3 0 -$ 3 4
9
1. 4
$35 -$ 3 9
3
0 .9
1
33.3
1
4.5
5
0 .8
1
0.9
1
0 .3
2
1.1
0.6
TABLE 15 (C o n t i n ue d )
Weekly Wages of All Males and Females of Various Educational Levels While Em»loyed on F irst
Occupations
$40 -$ 4 4
$35 -$ 3 9
$30 -$ 3 4
$ 2 5 -$ 2 9
-$ 2 4
NUMBER PER CENT number PER CENT number PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
$20
educational level
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
|
4.0
4
2.0
3
1.5
2
1.0
n
2.1
8
1.5
6
1.1
1
0.2
12.6
19
1
6.0
16.7
5
1.6
5
1
1 .6
16.7
2
0 .6
2
4.5
2
4.5
2.3
2
4.5
67
8.0
41
3. 7
1
ie
1.6
17
1 .6
5
0. 4
11
5.5
34
3.4
40
e
I
1
-7 0
TABLE 13 ( C o n t i n u e d )
Weekly Wages of All Males of Various Educational Levels While Employed on
$45 - $ 4 9
$50 ON
VOLUNTEER1
EU U w A I I U N A L
LCVg L
co l. 22
NUM8ER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
C o l.23
C o l. 2 4
C o l.25
Col. 26
C o l.27
C o l.28
C o l. 29
C o l . SO
1
0 .5
3
1 .4
1
0.8
2
1 .5
2
0 .4
5
1.1
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-gradu ate
Vooatlonal.
teohnioal or
business sohool
2
1
1.5
33.8
1
4.5
TOTAL
6
1.3
.
.
.
T IP S ONLY2
2
.
2» 1
TABLE 14 (CO NT 1 N U EO )
Weekly Wages of All Females of Various Educational Levels While Employed on F irst Occupations
$45--$49
CUUvAlIUNAL
NUMBER
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooatlonal.
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
•!
$50 ON
VOLIi NTEER1
T IP S ONLY2
UCVCU
• ’ •' •
PER CENT
1
0-9
1
0.3
NUMBER
0.5
1
0*2
1
2
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
9
2.8
2
1 .1
1
4.5
12
1 .9
NUMBER
PER CENT
TABLE 15 ( C o n t i n u e d )
Weekly Wages of All Males ano Females of Various Educational Levels While Employed on F irst
Occupations
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-grad u ate
Vooatlonal.
teo h n io al or
$50 on
145--$49
number
PER CENT
l
0.5
l
0.2
NUMBER
2
0.2
T IP S ONLY2
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
10
1.9
3
0.0
2
0.8
5
0 .4
1 .0
0 .9
0 .9
10.7
3
1
1
2.3
1
2.3
7
0.6
14
1.3
3
2
PER CENT
VOLUNTEER1
1 . vorksr donated Berrloss gratia.
....
,
g. Remuneration oomiitod solely of tips earned ehile aoralag.
-7 1 TABLE 1 3 (C o n c lu d e d )
Weekly Wages of All Vales of Various Educational Levels ’While Employed on F irst Occupations
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
C ol.31
ROOM ANO BOARD1
NO DATA
H TOTAL NUMBER
1 CnKN1NS ncaULAn
NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CEN1
WEEKLY WAQES”
C ol.32 Col. 38 COl.84 C ol.35
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
aohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal*
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAll .
.
.
Col. 36
Q1
V°*
o3
C o l.37 c o i . s e Col. 39
29
30.5
66
11.72
17.14
25.31
50
24.3
152
9.10
14.84
20.20
28
1
21.4
33.3
100
2
12.25
27.50
17.92
3 0 .-
23.57
50. A
5
22.7
17
7.81
14.17
21.88
337
24.7
(C onci . uded )
10.44
10.27
22.39
113
TABLE 1 4
Weekly Waqes of All Females of Various Educational Levels While Employed on F irst Occupations
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
TOTAL NUMBER
EARNING REGULAR
NUMBER >ER CENT NUMBER ?ER CENT
WEEKLY WAQES*
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . ' .
NO DATA
ROOM AND BOARD1
.‘ .
Q1
vo.
Q8
43
40.6
63
e .4 4
12.50
16.95
100
31.2
212
9.13
13.33
17.08
50
27.0
133
3
12.01
13.75
16.47
17.50
20.20
36.25
e
36.4
9.06
14.17
19. se
201
31.5
13
424
9.89
13.97
18.32
T ABLE L5 (C oncluded )
Weekly Waqes of Ai. l Vales AND FeMIkLES OF Various Educational Levels While Employed on F irst
Occiipations
E0UCATI0NAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
TOTAL NUMBER
EARN1N3 REGULAR
NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT WEEKLY WAGES2
NO D A T A
ROOM ANO 80ARD1
Q1
MO.
Q3
72
35. e
129
9.87
14.50
19.79
150
28.4
364
9.12
12.50
18.31
78
1
24.7
16.7
233
5
12.10 16.98
16.25 27.50
21.97
38.75
13
29.5
30
14.17
21.25
8.44
10.11 14.81 19.06
28.7 |
781
and board for the worker.
1 . Reanneratlon ooneia' .ad so le lj of roc>b
eaaea working for tip e only, and ca.eew ork2 . Caaea aervla i aa vol Lunteara nithout 1pay,
lag for rooa and jo a rl oi1I 7 , are ixolade in doternining the noBber for oaloulatlen of 81,
314
-7 5 -
school group. (The p o s t - g r a d u a t e group and the v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d
case s are too few to be s i g n i f i c a n t . )
f e e k l y f a t e s o f female Cases fhen f i r s t Employed
In comparing t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d when stu d yin g t h e wages o f th e
fem ales in the d i f f e r e n t e d u c a tio n a l groups, i t i s e v id e n t from Table
14 t h a t education b e n e f i t e d t h e females in o b t a i n i n g h i g h e r wages when
they s t a r t e d t h e i r o c c u p a ti o n a l c a r e e r s . The median o f th e wages o f
t h e grammar school, high school and c o l l e g e c a s e s i n c r e a s e s i n d i r e c t
p r o p o r t i o n to t h e amount o f schoolin g o f t h e fem ales (se e Table 14).
Furthermore, t h e span between G1 and G3 i s co rre sp o n d in g ly h i g h e r as
th e e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l i s r a i s e d .
Taken as a whole, t h e wages o f t h e women a re lower than th o se o f
t h e men. The middle 50 o e r cent range i s lower i n a l l e d u c a tio n a l groupE,
ex cept f o r t h e G1 o f t h e high school and c o l l e g e c a s e s , where t h i s f i g u r e
i s about t h e same f o r t h e men and the women. Even in t h e high school and
c o l l e g e groups, however, the medians o f the wages o f t h e women are lower
than t h o s e o f t h e men.
The d i f f e r e n c e between the medians o f t h e wages o f a l l t h e men and
t h e women i s #2. SO in fav o r o f the men, t h e i r G1 s t a r t i n g 1.55 h i g h e r than
t h e women’ s and t h e i r Q3 extending 14.07 p a s t t h a t o f the e n t i r e female
group.
The weekly wages o f t h e males and fem ales c l a s s i f i e d according to
age groups w i l l be found l i s t e d in th e Appendix (Tables 53 through 81).
f e e k l y f a t e s o f A l l Cases f hen V i r s t Employed: Summary
T o ta li n g t h e weekly wages o f a l l t h e men and t h e women (Table 15),
one f i n d s i t apparent t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e in wages in p r o p o r t i o n to educa­
t i o n a l l e v e l , mentioned above ih t h e female group, was n o t g r e a t enough
to b a la n c e t h e v a r i a t i o n s in t h e wages o f t h e males (where t h e high
school group r e c e i v e d l e s s than t h e grammar school group). The r e s u l t
shows t h a t th e c o l l e g e p eople r e c e i v e d a h i g h e r weekly wage (B13.93 Vd.)
than e i t h e r t h e grammar school group o r t h e high school group (Md. E l 4.50
and B12.50 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , but th o se with high school t r a i n i n g did not
earn as much as th e grammar school c a s e s . Those with a grammar school
background earned E2.00 more p e r week than the high school i n d i v i d u a l s .
Furthermore, t h e range o f the middle 50 p e r cent o f t h e wages i s higher
in t h e grammar school group than in t h e high school c a s e s (Table 15).
This i n d i c a t e s t h a t even though more o f t h e h i ’gh school c a se s than the
grammar school c a s e s were plac ed i h p r o f e s s i o n a l , 1 commercial and govern­
mental p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s (Table 3),i t h e wages o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s were
-7 3 -
n o t any h ig h er than t h o s e o f t h e domestilc and i'ndustri'al f i e l d s ih which
t h e placements of grammar school c a s e s predominated.;
There are too few p o s t - g r a d u a t e c ase s to maie i t p o s s i b l e t o in ­
c lu d e a state ment c o ncern ihg them.; Of t h e t h i r t y v o catio nal c a s e s , ' a ls o
few in number as compared with the o t h e r groups, t h e median wage approx­
im a t e s t h a t o f t h e grammar school group, although t h e span o f t h e middle
50 p e r cent of the wages iTs a l i t t l e wider than t h a t o f the grammar school
tra ih e d individuals.;
JiEASONS FOR LEAVING FIEST JOES
Tables 13, 17 aid 13 (pp.; 74 f f . ) deal with t h e rea son s o f t h e i n d i ­
v i d u a l s comprising t h e WPA group f o r l e a v in g t h e i r f i r s t p o s i t i o n s .
These rea son s a re c l a s s i f i e d ih t h e fo llo w in g way:
Reason
B e t t e r Job
B u s i n e s s D e p r e s s io n
E m ployee C hanged P l a n s
E m p lo y e r C hanged P la n s
I n o o n v e n ie n t L iv in g
and W orking
C o n d it io n s
T J n s a t i s f a o t o r y L i v in g
and W orking
C o n d it io n s
B a o la l D is o rim in a tio n
U n io n D i f f i c u l t i e s
S t i l l on t h e Same Jo b
No D a ta
Explanation
A b e t t e r jo b was a s s u r e d .
T h e r e w as no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t.The b u s i n e s s o l o s e d .
The b u s i n e s s w en t b a n k r u p t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e em­
p l o y e r f a i l e d t o p ay t h e s a l a r y e a r n e d .
B u s i n e s s o o n d i t i o n s w e re s l a c k .
The e m p lo y e e moved an d t h e r e f o r e d i s o o n t i n u e d
w o rk . The e m p lo y e e m a r r ie d an d l e f t b u s i n e s s .
The e m p lo y e e beoam e i l l and t h e r e f o r e h i s w ork
w as d i s o o n t i n u e d .
T h e r e was a c h a n g e i n m an ag em en t, r e s u l t i n g i n
d is m is s a l. The e m p lo y e r c h a n g e d h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n s .
The e m p lo y e r moved h i s p l a c e o f b u s i n e s s .
E m p lo y e e 's s o h o o l d u t i e s i n t e r f e r e d w ith h i s
w o rk .
E m ployee d id n o t w an t t o t r a v e l i n ords«r t o
r e a o h h i s jo b .
E m p lo y ee was s u p p o s e d t o " s l e e p i n " on t h e jo b
and d id n o t c a r e t o do s o , o r v i c e v e r s a .
E m p lo y ee h ad a p a r t - t i m e jo b and d e s i r e d f u l l ­
ti m e e m p lo y m e n t, o r v i c e v e r s a .
The w ork w as te m p o r a r y , s e a s o n a l o r i r r e g u l a r .
F r e q u e n t a r g u m e n ts w i t h e m p lo y e r .
H o u rs w ere t o o lo n g an d p ay was i n s u f f i c i e n t .
(S e lf-e x p la n a to ry .)
E m p lo y ee w as f o r c e d t o l e a v e jo b b e c a u s e u n io n
d i d n o t g r a n t a d m is s i o n t o N e g ro e s w heni-the
w ork beoam e u n i o n i z e d .The e m p lo y e e was f i l l i n g a p o s i t i o n t e m p o r a r i l y
a s a " s o a b ," and when t h e s t r i k e was o v e r ,
t h e r e g u l a r u n io n e m p lo y e e s w ere r e - h i r e d .
E m p lo y ee i s s t i l l w o rk in g a t t h e same j o b .
R e c o rd s do n o t s u p p ly in fo rm a td io n r e l a t i n g t o
r e a s o n s f o r a p p l i c a n t l e a v i n g h i s jo b .
-7 4 TABLE 16
R e a s o n s G iv e n
by
Al l Ma l e s
of
V a r io u s E d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s
for
L e a v in g F i r s t Oc c u p a t io n s
PARTIAL GRAMMAR
PARTIAL HIGH
AND GRAMMAR
SCHOOL ANO HIGH
SCHOOL GRADUATES SCHOOL GRADUATES
95
NUMBER OF CASES
REASONS
f o r l e a v in g
f ir s t
jo b
Col. l
B etter Job
Business depression
Employee ohanged plans
Employer changed plans
Inconvenient liv in g and working
conditions
U nsatisfaotory liv in g and working
conditions
R aoial discrim in atio n
Union d if f i c u lti e s
S t i l l on same .job
No data
PARTIAL COLLEGE
/ •'AND COLLEGE
' GRAOUATES
208
131
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
Col. 2 Col. S
Col. 4
Col. 5
8.3
28.3
10.5
6.8
ie
10
8.7
33.5
6 .8
4.8
12
29
9
10
9.2
22.1
6.9
7.6
9.5
8*4
0 .0
1.0
0 .0
31.8
28
13.8
37
2e.2
24
0
0
0
43
11.6
0 .0
0.0
0.0
20.9
13
1
1
9 .9
0 .8
0 .8
0 .0
14.5
8
25
10
8
9
8
0
1
0
30
89
NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 6 Col. 7
TABL E 17
R e a s o n s G iv e n
by
Al l F e m a l e s
of
Va r io u s Ed u c a t io n a l L e v e l s
for
L e a v in g F i r s t O c c u p a t io n s
p a r t i a l h ig h
PARTIAL GRAMMAR
SCHOOL AND HIGH
AND GRAMMAR
SCHOOL GRADUATES SCHOOL GRADUATES
r e a s o n s f o r l e a v in g
f i r s t jo b
B etter job
Business depression
Employee changed plans
Employer ohanged plans
Inconvenient liv in g and working
conditions
U nsatisfaoto ry liv in g and working
conditions
R aoial discrim in atio n
Union d if f i c u lti e s
S t i l l on same job
No d ata
NUMBER PER CENT
8
by
Al l Ma l e s
and
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
4 .7
24.3
11.2
7.8
24
27
23
11
13.0
14.6
12.4
5.9
20
7
14
13.2
6.8
15
78
37
25
9
8.5
37
11.2
43
23.2
ie
17.0
0.9
1.9
0.9
26.4
26
1
1
4
97
8.1
0 .3
0.3
1.2
30.2
11
0
0
0
46
o .o
o .o
5.6
18.9
1
2
1
28
TABL!=
R e a s o n s G iv e n
ie5
321
106
num ber o f c a s e s
PARTIAL OOLLEGE
ANO COLLEGE
GRADUATES
5.9
0*0
24.9
18
F e m a l e s o f V a r io u s E d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s f o r L e a v in g F i r s t
Oc c u p a t io n s
p a r t ia l c o l l e g e
PARTIAL HIGH
PARTIAL GRAMMAR
AND COLLEGE
SCHOOL AND HIGH
AND GRAMMAR
GRAOUATES
SCHOOL GRAOUATES SCHOOL GRADUATES
REASONS FOR LEAVING F IR S T JOB
B e tte r job
Business depression
Employee ohanged plans
Employer ohanged plans
Inoonvenient liv in g and working
conditions
U nsatisfaotory liv in g and working
oonditionB
Raoial discrim in atio n
Union d if f i c u lti e s
S t i l l on same job
No data
;316
527
201
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
12
45
17
20
8.0
22.4
8.4
9.9
33
147
51
35
8.3
27.9
9.7
8.6
36
58
32
21
11.4
17.7
10.1
6.6
18
9.0
65
12.3
80
25.3
26
1
3
1
12.9
0.5
1.5
0.5
50
1
1
4
140
9.5
0.2
0 .2
0 .8
28*6
24
1
1
0
65
7.6
0.3
0.3
0.0
20.6
se
2e.8
-7 5 TABLE 16 (C o n c lu d e d )
Reasons Given by All Males of Various Educational Levels for Leavins F irst Occupations
POSTGRADUATE
VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL OR
BUSINESS SCHOOL
TOTAL
3
22
457
NUMBER OF CASES
REASONS FOR LEAVINS F IR S T J 0 8
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
NUM8ER PER CENT
Col* 8
Col. 9 C o l.10 C o l.11 C o l.12
Col, 13 Col. 14
B etter job
Busineae depression
Employee changed plana
Employer changed plans
Inoonvenient liv in g and working
conditions
U nsatisfaotory liv in g and working
conditions
R aoial discrim ination
Union d if f io u ltie s
S t i l l on same job
No data
1
33.3
2
6
3
1
9.1
27.3
13.6
4.5
38
130
S3
27
2
88*7
2
9.1
78
e.3
26.4
7.9
5.9
17.1
1
1
0
0
8
4.5
4.5
0 .0
0.0
27.3
48
2
2
0
9e
10.1
0.4
0.4
0.0
21.4
TABLE 17 (C oncluded )
R easons Given by All Females of Various Educational Levels for Leavins F irst Occupations
POSTGRADUATE
VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL OR
BUSINESS SCHOOL
REASONS FOR LEAVINS FIR ST JOB
B e tte r job
Business depression
Employee changed plans
Employer ohanged plans
inconvenient liv in g and working
conditions
U nsatisfaotory liv in g and working
conditions
R aoial discrim ination
Union d if f ic u ltie s
S t i l l on same job
No data
387
22
3
NUMBER OF CASES
TOTAL
NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER »ER CENT
1
0
1
0
33.3
0 .0
33.8
0*0
0
4
3
1
0*0
18.2
13.8
4.5
48
129
71
51
7.2
20.2
11.1
8.0
1
33.3
4
18.2
94
14.7
0
0
0
0
0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
0 .0
2
0
0
0
e
9.1
0*0
0.0
0.0
38.4
57
2
S
5
179
8.9
0.3
0.5
o .e
27.9
*
TABLE 19 (C oncluded )
Reasons Given by All Vales and Females of Various Educational Levels for Leavins F irst
Occupations
POSTGRADUATE
VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL OR
BUSINESS SCHOOL
g
44
NUMBER OF CASES
REASONS FOR LEAVINS F IR ST JOB
B etter job
Business depression
Employee changed plans
Employer changed plans
Inconvenient liv in g and working
conditions
U nsatisfaotory liv in g and working
conditions
Raoial discrim ination
Union d if f io u ltie s
S t i l l on same job
No data
TOTAL
L094
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
1
1
1
0
16.7
18.7
18.7
0*0
2
10
8
2
4.5
22.7
13.8
4.5
84
259
107
78
7.7
23.7
9.8
7.1
3
50.0
8
13.6
172
15.7
0
0
0
0
0
0*0
0.0
0*0
0*0
0*0
3
1
0
0
14
6 .8
2.3
0 .0
0*0
31.8
103
4
9.4
4.0
0*4
0*4
25.3
N€W YORK UNIVERSITY
.SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
•
LIBRARY
•
5
5
277
-7 3 -
Weasons o f Males f o r Leaving F i r s t Jobs
Table 18 (pp. 74-75) shows why the males included among t h e WPA
c ase s l e f t t h e i r f i r s t p o s i t i o n s . : A l i t t l e more than o n e - f o u r t h of
t h e grammar school c a s e s give t h e b u s i n e s s depression as t h e i r rea so n.
This reason ils o u t s t a n d i n g ih a l l t h e o t h e r e du ca tio nal groups, as w e l l.'
The o t h e r major c a u s e s advanced by t h o s e with grammar school t r a i n i n g
f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g work ih t h e i r f i r s t p o s i t i o n s are a change of t h e
employee’ s plans,* and ih c o n v e n ie n t or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working
c o n d it i b n s .; (The r e a s o n s have been explained above, p.; 73. )
The r e a s o n s o f t h e high school cases f o r l e a v in g t h e i r f i r s t p o s i ­
t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e o f t h e aforementioned group. Besides the
main reason,* t h e b u s i n e s s depression,* many l e f t because o f i n c o n v e n ie n t
or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l iV i h g and workihg c o n d it i b n s .
With t h e col l e g e - t r a i n e d men, more than o n e -f o u r th l e f t because o f
t h e inconvenience o f t h e workihg conditions,* although t h e b u s i n e s s de­
p r e s s i o n f o llo w s c l o s e l y ih importance among the r e a s o n s given.; With
t h e c o l l e g e p e o p le p a r t i c u l a r l y , <t h e inconvenience was due t o t h e i n t e r ­
f e r e n c e o f t h e i r school programs with jo b s which they were h o l d in g a t
t h e same time.]
Those i n d i v i d u a l s who were t r a i n e d i h vocational,* t e c h n i c a l or
b u s i n e s s schools,* b e s i d e s s t a t i n g t h e depression as t h e i r main reason
f o r di'sconti'nuing t h e i r work,* a ls o gave as an o u t s t a n d i n g cause a change
in the employee’ s p l a n s .]
Takihg t h e male group as a whole, t h e b u sin e ss d e pre ssio n was t h e
predominant rea so n (29.;4 p e r c e n t ) given f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r f i r s t
oc cu p a tio n s.; Ihcohveni'ent l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i b n s ranked second
in importance (17.1 p e r c e n t ) , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working
c o n d i t i b n s were s t a t e d by more than o n e -te n th o f t h e group (10.1 per
c e n t ) as t h e i r r ea so n f o r l e a v i n g . ;
Reasons o f Females f o r Leaving F i r s t Jobs
Table 17 (pp.; 74-75),* d e a l ih g with the female cases,* shows r e s u l t s
very s i m i l a r to t h o s e o b t a i n e d in Table IS. P r i h a r y r e a s o n s advanced
by. the grammar school c a s e s f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r f i r s t j o b s a r e t h e b u sin e ss
depression,* u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i h g and working c o n d i t i b n s , and a change
o f p la n s by t h e employer.;
With t h e high school group,* t h e b u s i n e s s depre ss io n i s the predom­
i n a n t reason,* follo w ed by i n c o n v e n ie n t l i v i h g and workihg c o n d i t i b n s and
a change of p l a n s by t h e employee,* the l a s t two cause s b e ing r e p r e s e n t e d
as of equal im p ortance.;
-7 7 Ihcoavenifent workihg c o n d i t i b n s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e predominant reason
giVea by t h e c o l l e g e - t r a i h e d women f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l employment.;
The c a a s e s which follo w i n importance a r e t h e b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n , ' t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b e t t e r .job,< and a change o f t h e p l a n s o f t h e employee.;
The women with v o c a t i o n a l , - t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g s t a t e d
as t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g t h e i b f i r s t j o b s t h e b u s i h e s s depress ion,and inco nvenie nce o f l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i b n s . A change o f t h e
p l a n e o f t h e employee was a ls o mentioned as a reason by many c a se s i n ­
c lu de d in t h i b group.;
The female cases,- when taken as a whole, advanced t h e same predom­
i n a n t cause o f l e a v i n g t h e i r f i r s t o c c u p a ti o n s as th e males: t h e bu sihe ss
d e p re ss io n (20,2 p e r c e n t ) . - The o t h e r o u t s t a n d i n g r e a s o n s are inconven­
i e n t l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i o n s (14.7 p e r c e n t ) and a change o f plan s
o f t h e employee ( l l . J p e r c e n t ) .
Reasons o f Males and Females f o r Leaving F i r s t Jobs
Table 13 (pp. 74-75),- i n c lu d in g th e c a s e s o f both t h e men and t h e
women, shows a t a glance t h a t t h e predominant c a u se s assig n ed by th e
i n d i v i d u a l s f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s are the b u s i n e s s de­
p r e s s i o n , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y or i n co n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and working c o n d it i o n s ,
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b e t t e r job, and a change o f t h e p l a n s of t h e em­
p l o y e r or employee. -
Summary
The oredominant r e a so n s s t a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s comprising t h e various
e d u c a t i o n a l grouos f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r f i r s t j o b s are l i s t e d below
i n t h e o r d e r o f t h e i r importance:
Grammar S c h o o l Group
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
U n s a t i s f a o t o r y l i v i n g an d w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s
E m p lo y er o h a n g e d p l a n s
Hi gh S c h o o l C a s e s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g an d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
E m ployee o h a n g e d p l a n s
C o l l e g e T r a i n e d Ca s e s
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g an d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
B e t t e r lo b
P o s t - G r a d u a t e Ca s e s
(Too few t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t )
V o c a t i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l o r B u s i n e s s S c h o o l Ca s e s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
E m ployee o h a n g e d p l a n s
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
22. 4 p er o en t
1 2 .9 p e r o e n t
9 .9 p e r o e n t
2 7 .9 p e r o e n t
1 2 .3 p e r o e n t
9. 7 p er oent
25. 8 p e r o e n t
1 7 .7 p e r o e n t
1 1 .4 p e r o e n t
8 2 .7
1 3 .6
1 3 .6
per oent
per oent
per oent
-7 8 -
Taking t h e t o t a l o f t h e 1094 male and female c ase s t o g e t h e r , i t
i s found t h a t t h e predominant re a s o n , th e b u s i n e s s depre ss io n, e x p l a i n s
why n e a r l y o n e - f o u r t h (23.7 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e e n t i r e group disc o n tin u ed
t h e i r f i r s t j o b s . The n e x t causes, in o r d e r o f importance, were: i n ­
conven ien t l i ving and working c o n d i t i o n s (15. 7 p e r c e n t ) , a change o f
p l a n s by th e employee (9.9 p e r c e n t ) , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and
working c o n d i t i b n s (9.4 o e r c e n t ) .
sunn ART A n
CONCLUSIONS
I n i t i a l Occupat i ons o f Nales
(1) In t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s , t h e most d i r e c t
p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d by education was e v id e n t i n th e p r o f e s s i o n s ,
t h e number o f placem ents i n c r e a s i n g in d i r e c t p r o p o r t io n t o t h e educa­
t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e c a s e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l background did no t play as
i m p o r t a n t a p a r t in t h e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l or in th e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e
attendant f ie ld s .
(2) Vocational, t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g proved most h e lp f u l
i n commercial work.
(2) Domestic placements o f males were n a t u r a l l y few and showed
l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n in r e l a t i o n to e d u c a t i o n a l background.
(4) The grammar school c a s e s f i l l e d more than h a l f o f the i n d u s t r i a l
p o s i t i o n s . Many o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s with high school t r a i n i n g were placed
ih t h e s e p o s i t i o n s a ls o .
(5) Not many o f t h e males s t a r t e d t h e i r o c cu p a tio n al c a r e e r s by
working on government p r o j e c t s , b u t o f th o se who did, t h e g r e a t e s t num­
b e r were v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d .
I n i t i a l Occupat i ons o f Females
(1) As with the men, the educational background was an important
determining factor ih professional job placements.: This was not found
to be the caEe with the semi-professional or professional service a t­
tendant positions.:
(2) The women who f i l l e d most o f th e commercial p o s i t i o n s had a
high school t r a i n i n g , ! although t h o s e with a v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l or
b u s i h e s s school background f a r e d almost as well.;
(8) The domestic p o s i t i o n s were f i l l e d mainly by t h e grammar school
c a s e s , ' although an a p p r e c i a b l e number o f t h o s e with high school o r voca­
t i o n a l school t r a i n i n g were t h u s i n i t i a l l y employed.;
(4)
Educational background seemed to play very l i t t l e p a r t in de­
t er m in in g i n d u s t r i a l placem ents.
-7 9 -
(5)
Very few o f t h e women were employed oh government p r o j e c t s
when f i r s t s t a r t i n g to work.’ Of tho se so employed, t h e v o c a t i o n a l l y ,
t e c h n i c a l l y o r b u s i n e s s school t r a i n e d women r e c e i v e d most o f t h e s e
p o s i ’t i b n s .
(This r e s u l t corresponds with t h a t o f t h e male group.)
I n i t i a l Occupat i ons o f Va l e s and Females
(1) Pla cements i h p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s v a r i e d i n d i r e c t p r o p o r tio n
to e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l . ;
(2) The e f f e c t o f ed ucation oh s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b B and p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s was n o t e v i d e n t .
(2) The number of p ositibns f i l l e d ih commercial f i e l d s was about
the S8me for the high school,' college and vocationally trained indivitiu al s. ]
(4) The grammar school c a se s f i l l e d most o f t h e domestic j o b s .
(5) I n d u s t r i a l plac em en ts decreased as t h e e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l was
raised.]
(6) Educatibnal background did n o t prove a p o t e n t f a c t o r i n de­
t e r m in i n g i n i b i a l placem ents on government p r o j e c t s .
I n f l u e n c e o f Age on I n i t i a l Employment
(1) As t h e age l e v e l i n c r e a s e d from 17-24 y e a r s to 25-29 y e a r s ,
t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p l a c e m e n t s , « in a l l f i e l d s except i n d u s t r i a l , rose .;
There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two age groups ih
p lacem ents i n government p r o j e c t p o s i t i b n s .
(2) The n e x t h i g h e r age group,' 20-29 y e a r s , e x h i b i t e d a s i m i l a r
i n c r e a s e ih p o s i t i o n s in t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a tt e n d ­
a n t , ' domestic and i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d s .
(2) As t h e n e x t h i g h e r age l e v e l was reached (40-49 y e a r s ) , a gen­
e r a l d e c r e a s e in p o s i t i b n s was noted, although a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e oc curr ed
in t h e domestic and p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s , while t h e i n d u s t r i a l jo b s i n ­
c r e a s e d markedly.;
V e e k l y Wages o f Val es and Femalecs Vhen F i r s t Employed
(1) Educational background e x e r t e d l i b t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e weekly
wages o f males.;
(2) A h i g h e r e d u c a ti b n a l background aided t h e fem ale s ih o b t a i n i n g
g r e a t e r weekly rem uneration.]
(2) The women's wages were lower than t h e men's.
Reasons f o r Val es and Females Leaving T h e i r F i r s t Jobs
(l)
All o f t h e c a s e s a t the v a rio u s e d u c a t i b n a l l e v e l s s t r e s s e d the
b u s i n e s s d e p re s s io n afe t h e o u t s t a n d i n g cause o f t h e i r d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r
f i r s t jo b s.]
-8 0 -
(2)
Other p op u lar r e a s o n s were in c o n v e n ie n t and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
worki'n g con d i t i b n s . ;
(2)
Some o f t h e minor r e a s o n s were t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b e t t e r
job,i and a change of th e p l a n s o f t h e employer or t h e employee.'
CHAPTER V
A n a l y s i s o f O c c u p a t io n a l H i s t o r i e s
This p a r t o f t h e study i s concerned with t h e p a s t o c c u p a ti o n a l
h i s t o r i e s o f t h e c a s e s , and p r e s e n t s da ta r e l a t i n g t o p o s i t i o n s h e ld
from 1929 through 1937. Both t h e New York Urban League and t h e WPA
r e c o r d s s u p p l i e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . Data r e l a t i n g to i n i t i a l employment
have been o m it t e d from t h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s .
Tables 19, 20 and 21 (pp. 92 f f , ) show t h e i n f l u e n c e o f ed u ca tio n al
l e v e l upon t h e t y p e s o f p o s i t i o n s h e ld by the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study
from 1928 through 1937.
I n f l u e n c e o f Edu c a t i o n on Past Occupat i ons o f Val es
Table 19 i n c l u d e s a l l t h e male c a s e s (2372). The t o t a l number o f
j o b s, 4074, d i f f e r s from the number o f case s, 2272, because many o f th e
caBes l i s t e d s e v e r a l p o s i t i b n s .
Professions
Educational background e x e r t e d a decided i n f l u e n c e upon j o b p l a c e ­
ments in t h i s f i e l d .
The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t io n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l placements
o c c u r s i n the p o s t - g r a d u a t e group (55.2 per c e n t ) , t h e n e x t h i g h e r p e r ­
c entage i n th e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d group (29.0 p e r c e n t ) , while t h e voca­
t i o n a l , high school and grammar school groups show few placem ents (8.3
p e r c e n t, 2. 2 p e r c e n t , and 1 .2 p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Placements
i n c r e a s e in d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to educatibnal l e v e l (see Table 19).
Semi-Professions
There i s an i n c r e a s e in placements ih the s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d
as t h e e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l i s r a i s e d , but the r i s e from t h e high school
l e v e l (2 .2 p e r c e n t ) to the c o l l e g e group (2.8 per c e n t ) i s very s l i g h t .
The v o c a t io n a l c a s e s f a r e d b e t t e r than th ose with h ig h school t r a i n i n g
(4.1 p e r cent as compared with 2 .2 p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
Professional Service Attendants
The i n f l u e n c e o f e du ca tio n on t h e s e p o s i t i b n s i s n e g l i g i b l e ,
since
t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of p lac em en ts a r e approximately t h e same f o r a l l groups
except t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e . The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s have t h e g r e a t e s t propor­
t i o n o f placem ents (1.4 p e r c e n t ) .
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
In t h e commercial f i e l d , t h e r e i ’s an i n c r e a s e i n placem ents in th e
high school group o v e r t h e grammar school c ase s (19,4 p e r cent as
-ei-
-3 2 m
TABLE 19
V
Occupations from 1928 Throubh 1937 of AtL Males of Various Educational Levels, Exclusive of Their
F irst J obs
PR0FE8S ONS ANO RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
COVMi•RCIAL
NUMBER NUMBER PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER (pER CENT
Col. 1
Col. 2 Col. 3 C o l.;4 C o l.; 5 C o l.;6
Col. 7 Col. e Col. 9 Col. 10 Col. 11
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
aohool graduates
494
12
3
1.2
992
6
0.6
0.3
64
6.4
p a r t i a l nigh
aohool ana high
sohool graduates
1135
5
220
789
26
2.3
25
2.2
0 .4
19.4
p a r t i a l oollsg e
and oollege
- graduates
5
1488 297
2.e
423
829
41
0.3
4e*4
20.0
po st-g rad u ate
145
2
1.4
28
80
55.2
80
17.9
V ooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
0 .3
85
27.1
8.3
1
180
314
26
4 .1
13
818
20.1
16
4074 441
TOTAL . . . .; 2372
85
2.1
0 .4
10.8
TABLE 20
Occupations from 1928 Throuqh 1987 of All Females of Various Educational Levels, Exclusive of Their
F irst J obs
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
COMUERCIAL
PROFESSIONAL SER­
SEMI—PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
IUMBER NUMBER PROFESSIONS
OF
OF
educational level
}ASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT 1UMBER PER CENT NUMBER >ER CENT NUMBER »ER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
po st-graduate
V ooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
1341
1847
3
0.2
4
0.2
2
0.1
10
0.5
•a .
1461
1974
61
3.1
18
0*9
30
1.5
295
14.9
990
40
172e
590
61
34.1
71.g
32
1.8
14
0.8
85
398
9
28.0
10.6
287
497
92
18.5
5
1.0
15
3.0
144
29.0
TOTAL *' • ' •" • ' 4119
6131
807
13.2
59
1.0
61
1.0
858
14.0
TABLE 2 l
Occupations from 1928 Th30UQH 1937 OF All Males ano Females of Various Educational Levels ExcluSIVE OF Thi■ir F irst J obs
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED •OSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER- C0M4IERCIAL
SEMI-PROFESSIONS
VICE A'ITENDANTS
PROFESSIONS
N
U
M
B
E
R
NUMBER
OF
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
15
2839
■sohool graduates less
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool ana high
87
sohool graduates 2250 3109
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
1819 3216 887
- graduates
p o st-graduate
120
230 141
V ooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
467 -811 118
business sohool
total
. . : . 6491 10205 1248;
0.5
10
0.4
5
0 .2
74
2.6
2.8
43
1.4
35
1.1
515
16.6
27.8
61.3
73
2.2
19
2
0 .6
0 .9
821
35
25.5
15.2
14.5
18
144 .
2.2
1 .4
16
2 .0
229
28.2
0.8
1674
12.2
•88-
Occupations from 1928 Through
___________
TABLE 19 (CONCLUDED)
1937 of All Vales of Various Educational Levels, Exclusive
DOMESTIC
educational level
001.12
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
- aohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •
» * •
of
Their
F irst J obs
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
APPLICANTS
NO DATA
NEVER WORKED
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER^ER CENT
Col. IS Col. 14 Col. 15 Col. 16 C ol.17 Col. 18 Col. IS Col. 20 Col. 21 C ol.22
140
14.7
695
70.0
35
3.5
8
0 .8
23
2.3
123
10.8
039
56.3
01
5.4
13
1.1
23
2.0
74
3
5.0
2.1
449
15
30.2
10.3
129
9
8.7
6.2
24
2
1.0
1.4
46
e
3.1
5.5
18
5.7
139
44.2
18
5.7
8
1.9
8
2.5
364
8.9
1937
47.5
252
6.2
53
1.3
108
2.6
|
TABLE 20 (Concluded )
Occupations from 1928 Through 1937 of All Females of Various EoucaTIONAL Levels, EXCLUSIVe of Their
F irst J obs
i GOVERNMENT
NO DATA
INDUSTRIAL
APPLICANTS
DOMESTIC
1
PROJECTS
NEVER WORKEO
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT HUMBER PER CENT numberIper cent NUMBER PER CENT HUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
snd grammar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
1535
83.1
236
12.8
8
0.4
14
o.e
35
1.9
1071
54.2
304
18.4
29
1.5
58
2.8
50
2.5
334
2
19.3
2.4
173
1
10.0
1.2
125
10
ii. e
7.2
32
1.8
30
2
1.7
2.4
117
23.5
86
17.3
18
3.6
2.4
49.9
880
14.0
190
3.1
1.6
1.8
12
3059
8
110
129
2.1
•
TABLE 21 (Concluded )
Occupations from 1928 Th(IOUQH 193"7 OF Ali. Vales and Females of Vatnous Educational Levels, ExcluSIVE if Their F irst J obs
no DATA
GOVERNMENT
appl 1CANTS
INDUSTRIAL
DOMESTIC
NEVER WORKEO
PROJECTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT number PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l Sigh . _
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooatlonal,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL •
•
•
•
1081
59.2
931
32.8
43
1.5
22
0 .8
58
2.0
1194
38.4
1003
32.2
90
2.9
69
2.2
73
2.3
408
5
12.7
2.2
822
16
19*3
7.0
254
19
7.9
8.2
56
2
1.7
0.9
76
10
2.4
4.3
135
10.6 .
225
27.7
27.4
38
442
4.4
14
1.7
20
2.5
4.3
103
1.8
237
2.8
3423
33.5
2797
-9 4 -
comp &red with 6 .4 p e r c e n t ) , snd in the c o l l e g e group ov er th o se with
high school t r a i h i h g (49.4 p e r cent as compared with 19 .4 p e r c e n t ) .
The p e rc e n t a g e o f placem ents f o r th e v o c a t i o n a l , <t e c h n i c a l o r b u sin e ss
school group i s h i g h e r than t h a t o f t h e high school c a s e s (27.1 p e r cent
as compared with 1 9 .;4 p e r c e n t ) , , but f a r lower than t h a t o f t h e c o l l e g e
t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s (27.1 p e r cent as compared with 48.4 p e r c e n t ) . ;
Those a t t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e l e v e l f a r e s l i g h t l y worse (17.9 per c en t)
than t h e hi'gh school c a s e s (19.]4 per c e n t ) , , and f a r worse than t h e
c o l l e g e group.;
domes t i c S e r v i c e
The p r o p o r t i o n o f p lacem ents ih the domestic f i e l d v a r i e d i n d i r e c t l y
with e d u c a tib n a l t r a i h i h g . ; The g r e a t e s t number o f placements (14.7 p e r
c e n t ) oc cur ih- t h e grammar school group,, and t h e p e r c e n t a g e then d e crea se s
froin t h i s peak to ID.8 p e r c e n t , 5 .7 p e r c e n t ,. 5.p p e r c ent,, and 2.1 per
cent f o r t h e high sch o ol,, v o c a t i o n a l , c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u 8 t e groups
r e s p e c t i v e l y . ; The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s are n o t due to
chance ( se e AppendiV I T , < Tables 7c and 74).;
Industrial Positions
I n d u s t r i a l placem ents show t h e same tendency as th o se in t h e domes­
t i c f i e l d . ; As t h e e d u c a t i b n a l l e v e l i s r a i s e d , t h e placements decrease
from 7 9 .D p e r c e n t f o r t h e grammar school c a s e s t o 58.8 p e r c e n t f o r the
hi'gh school i n d i v i d u a l s , 44.2 p e r c e n t f o r t h o s e with v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g , '
80.2 p e r c e n t f o r t h e c o l l e g e group and 1 0 .8 p e r cent f o r th e p o s t ­
g r a d u a te s .;
Government P r o j e c t s
The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d o a se s show t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n (8.7 p e r c e n t )
o f placem ents in t h i ’s f i ’e l d . The p o s t - g r a d u a t e group r a n k s second, with
6.2 per c e n t o f t h e p lacem en ts,' and th e v o c a t i o n a l and high school groups
a re n o t very f a r behind ( 5 , 7 p e r c e n t and 5.;4 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . ;
The lo w e s t p r o p o r t i b n o f placem ents (8.5 p e r c e n t ) o c c u r s in t h e grammar
school group.;
A p p l i c a n t s Who Wever Worked
In each o f t h e e d u c a ti b n a l groups t h e r e were some who had never
been employed.; The p r o p o r t i b n o f t h e s e a p p l i b a n t s to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e
e d u c a ti o n a l groups was about th e same in a l l c a s e s , ' although t h e r e
were s l i g h t l y fewer o f t h e grammar school group in t h i s c a t e g o r y .
-8 5 Summary
Taking t h e male group as a t h o l e , < i t vas found t h a t about o n e -h a l f
o f them (47.5 p e r c e n t ) were employed in i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i b n s , ■o n e - f i f t h
(20.1 p e r c e n t ) found placement ih commercial l i n e s , o n e -t e n th (10.0 per
c e n t ) e n te r e d t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , < and o n e -e l e v e n th (8.9 p e r c en t) were em­
ployed in domestic j o b s . ; The r e s t o f the placem ents were s c a t t e r e d
throughout t h e o t h e r typ es o f o c c u p a t i o n s . :
Educational t r a i h i h g i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f placements i n the
p r o f e s s i o n a l , , commercial and government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s . ' Ih t h e domes­
t i c and i n d u s t r i a l lihes,< as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was r a i s e d , the
placem ents decreased.I n f l u e n c e o f Educat i on on Past Occupat i ons o f Females
Table 20 (pp.; 82-32) d e a l s e x c l u s i v e l y with th e fem ales included in
t h i s study (4119 c a s e s ) . - Here,, as ih Table 19, s e v e r a l j o b s are r e p o r t e d
by each a p p l i c a n t , , th u s making a t o t a l o f 3121 p o s i t i o n s .
Professions
Educatibnal t r a i h i h g e x e r te d a decided p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p r o f e s s i b n a l plac em ents. Whereas only a small p r o p o r t i b n o f th e grammar school
c a s e s were engaged i n t h i s ty pe o f work (0.2 p e r c e n t ) , - i n c r e a s i n g per­
c e n t a g e s o f t h e high school, - v o c a t i o n a l , c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e groups
were so employed (8.1 per cen t, 18 .5 o e r c e n t, 84.1 p e r cen t, and 71.8
p e r cen t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between these
percentages,
(See Appendix IT, Tables 78 and 74.)
Semi-Professions
These olacem ents vary in d i r e c t p r o p o r t io n to e d u ca tio n al background.
The p e r c e n t a g e s engaged in t h i s work d e crea se from 1.8 p e r cent f o r the
c o l l e g e group to 1.0 p e r c e n t f o r th e v o c a t io n a l c ase s, 0 . 9 p e r cent for
t h e high school t r a i n e d females, and only 0 . 2 p e r c e n t f o r tho se with
grammar school p r e p a r a t i o n .
There i s a stro n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t th ese
d i f f e r e n c e s a re n o t due to chance. Colle ge t r a i n e d women have 987 chances
o u t o f 1000 o f being p r e f e r r e d t o an a p p l i c a n t with high school t r a i n i n g
(See Appendix I I , Tables 72 and 74.)
Pro fess ional Service Attendants
Educatibnal t r a i h i h g was n o t a determ ining f a c t o r i n o b t a i n i n g jo bs
i n t h i s f i e l d . The group with t h e g r e a t e s t number o f placem ents (2.0
p e r c en t) i s t h e v o c a t io n a l , t h e n e x t h i g h e s t i s t h e high school (1.5
p e r cent),- then fo llo w s t h e c o l l e g e (0.3 p e r c e n t ) , and l a s t l y the
grammar school group (0.1 p e r c e n t ) .
-9 8 Comercial Positions
Vocational, t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g proved most v a lu a b le
in o b t a i n i n g commercial p o s i t i o n s . I t was found t h a t 29 p e r c e n t o f
t h e s e c ase s were so employed. Co llege t r a i n i n g was almost a s v a lu a b le
( 2 8 .0 p e r c e n t ) , while t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e group was poorly r e p r e s e n t e d
(10.8 p e r o e n t ) . More o f t h e high school c a se s (14.9 p e r c en t) than o f
t h e grammar school c a s e s ( 0 .5 p e r c e n t ) e n te r e d t h i s f i e l d .
domest i c S e r v i c e
As with t h e males, so with t h e females, an i n c r e a s e in e d u c a ti o n a l
t r a i n i n g l e s s e n e d o n e ’ s chances o f domestic employment. Whereas 88.1
p e r cent o f t h e grammar school c a se s o b t a i n e d domestic p o s i t i o n s , only
54.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e high school i n d i v i d u a l s , 28.5 p e r cent o f t h e voca­
t i o n a l case s, 1 9,8 p e r c ent o f t h e c o l l e g e women and 2.4 p e r c e n t o f th e
p o s t - g r a d u a t e s engaged in t h i s work. This preponderance o f grammar school
t r a i n e d domestic workers was a ls o found by Haynes.1 Of 7975 female do­
m estic a p p l i c a n t s in Washington, Haynes found t h a t 55.5 p e r c e n t had
a tte n d e d s i x grades in sc hool, or fewer, and 29.9 per cent had continued
to t h e seventh o r e ig h t h grade.
Haynes conclud es t h a t domestic s e r v i c e as a r e g u l a r occu pation does
n o t a t t r a c t and h o l d Negro workers o f t h e h i g h e r grades o f e d u ca tio n al
t r a i h i h g and i n t e l l i g e n c e . The d a ta in t h e foregoing t a b l e s o f t h i s
study would support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . Kyrk s t a t e s 2: " I t i s known t h a t
by and l a r g e domestic s e r v i c e i s an u n d e sir e d occupa tion. P a r e n t s are
u n w i l li n g t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n be t r a i n e d f o r i t o r guided toward i t by
t h e school a u t h o r i t i e s . Young pe rs o n s with ’ American’ i d e a s a re r e l u c ­
t a n t to e n t e r i t and eager t o l e a v e i t . "
Industrial Positions
Up to th e high school l e v e l , a d d i t i o n a l s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g proved
v a l u a b l e ih se c u r i n g i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s , - t u t beyond t h i s p o i n t f u r t h e r
study did n o t i n c r e a s e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f such employment.; Whereas
1 8 .;4 p e r cent o f t h e high school group secured t h e s e p o s i t i o n s , as com­
p are d with 12.9 p e r cen t o f t h e grammar school c a se s, only 10.9 p e r cent
o f th e c o l l e g e group found employment along t h e s e l i n e s (see Table 20).;
The v o c a t i o n a l l y ’ t r a i n e d c a s e s f a r e d almost as well as the high school
group (17.]8 p e r c e n t ) , - while the p o s t - g r a d u a t e s o b t a i n e d fewest indus­
t r i a l placements (1.2 per c e n t ) . ;
1. l l i e e b e t h R. K nynee, N etfro ei I n D o a e itio S e r r i o e i n th e U n ite d E t e t e e , Journal o f
S U ffe r™
n U ^ t ' - i r S i e S i r e f j o b , L i f e and Labor. B u lle tin ( H e tio n n l W o.enU
T r n ie U nion L t t j u o f A n e r io a ) , IX (P e o e n b e r, 1 9 8 1 ), p . 1*
-8 7 -
Government P r o j e c t s
There i ’s a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e in employment on government p r o j e c t s
as t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s c a l e i s ascended.; The p e r c e n t a g e s o f placements
v a r i e d from 0.]4 p e r cen t f o r the grammar school g r o up ,- 1 . 5 p e r c en t
f o r t h e high school group,' 8.6 p e r cent for t h e v o c a t io n a l c a s e s , to
7 .8 p e r c e n t f o r t h e c o l l e g e group and 11,9 p e r c e n t f o r t h e p o s t ­
g r a d u a t e s .;
A p p l i c a n t s Kho IVever Horkei
The high school c a s e s had the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n ( S . 8 p e r c e n t )
who: had n e v er been employed, while t h e c o l l e g e and v o c a t i o n a l groups
had almost equal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (1.8 p e r cent and 1.8 p e r cen t r e s p e c t ­
i v e l y ) . ; Of t h e grammar school c a s e s , only 0 .8 p e r c e n t had never worked.
Sumary
Considering a l l t h e females in th i's s t u d y , <i t i s seen t h a t educa­
t i o n a l t r a i n i n g had a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e upon p r o f e s s i o n a l , * semi-pro­
f e s s i o n a l and governmental p r o j e c t placements.] I n c r e a s e d e d u ca tio n al
t r a i n i n g proved somewhat v a lu a b le i n t h e commercial f i e l d . In domestic
and to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t in i n d u s t r i a l l in e s , * an i n c r e a s e i n education
was a d e t e r r e n t f a c t o r i h o b t a i n i n g placements.
O ne -half (49.8 per c e n t ) o f t h e women were employed in domestic
se rv ice ,* approximately one-seventh (14. P per c en t) e n t e r e d the commer­
c i a l and i n d u s t r i ' a l f i e l d s r e s p e c t iv e ly ,* while almost as many (18.2
p e r c e n t ) were employed in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . The rem ainder o f t h e female
c a s e s a re s c a t t e r e d throughout the o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s . Comparing t h e p a s t o c c u p a ti o n s o f t h e women with t h o s e o f t h e men,
i t i s found t h a t most o f t h e women (49.9 per c en t) followed domestic
l i h e s , whereas only 9 . 9 p e r cen t o f th e men were so employed.; The men,'
however,* have 47.5 p e r cent placements in t h e i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d , whereas
t h e women have only 14.0 p e r cent o f t h e i r group in t h i b l i n e . ; In th e
p r o f e s s i o n s , * t h e women have a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r showing than t h e men
(18.8 p e r c e n t as compared with 10.8 per c e n t ) , ’ as i s also t h e case in
t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a tt e n d a n c e p o s i t i o n s (1.0 p e r c e n t as compared
wi:th 0.]4 p e r cent f o r t h e men).; These d i f f e r e n c e s a re s i g n i f i c a n t (see
Appendix I I , ' Tables 78 and 74).;
The men,* however,' show a g r e a t e r number o f placem ents in t h e com­
m e r c ia l l i h e s (2P»]1 p e r c e n t as compared with 14.0 p e r c ent f o r th e
fem ates),* i n government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s ( 8 . 2 p e r c e n t as compared with
S.]t p e r c e n t f o r t h e women),* and ih s e m i- p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s (2.1 p e r cent
as compared with l . p p e r cen t f o r t h e women).] These d i f f e r e n c e s are
-8 8 -
s i g n i f i c a n t , 1 as shown by t h e C r i t i c a l P a t io ( s e e Appendix I I , Tables
73 and 74). A s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number o f th e women than o f the men had
n e v e r worked (1.8 p e r c ent as compared with 1. 3 p e r c e n t f o r t h e men).
I n f l m n o e o f Educati on on Past Occ upat i ons o f Hales and f emal es
Table 51 (pp. 82-83) combines t h e d a ta r e l a t i n g to t h e p a s t occu­
p a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s o f t h e males and t h e fem ales included in t h i s study.
This t a b l e d e a l s with 10,205 j o b s h e ld by t h e 6491 case s.
Professions
Prom Table 21 i t i s e v id e n t t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s an impor­
t a n t f a c t o r in se cu rin g p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . The p ro p o r t io n o f i n d i ­
v i d u a l s engaging in p r o f e s s i o n a l work i n c r e a s e s s t e a d i l y with t h e r i s e
in e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l . Prom th e l o w e s t p e rc e n t a g e , 0 .5 p e r cent o f the
grammar school c ase s, t h e p e r c e n t a g e s climb t o 2.9 per cent fo r th e high
school t r a i n e d case s, 14.5 p e r c e n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with v o c a t io n a l ,
t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s school background, 27,5 p e r cent f o r the c o l l e g e
group, and 6 1 ,5 p e r cent f o r t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s . In J o h n s o n 's compre­
h e n s i v e study of 10,673 Negro c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s , the same r e s u l t was
o b ta in e d .; "Whatever t h e demand f o r g r ad u a tes ofr t h e i r a ctu al v oc atio n a l
p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e g r e a t bulk o f them have gone i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
field ."1
Semi-Professlons
Job placements in t h i s f i e l d v a r i e d i n d i r e c t pro p o rtio n to educa­
t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , 1 as shown by t h e f a c t t h a t , whereas only 0. 4 p e r cen t
o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s with grammar school t r a i n i n g were engaged in semip r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , l.;4 p e r c e n t o f th e high school e s s e s and 2.2
p e r c e n t o f tho se with a c o l l e g e background were so employed. These
a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , s i n c e t h e C r i t i c a l Ratio of t h e d i f f e r e n c e
between 0. 4 p e r c e n t and 1 .4 p e r c e n t i s 7.4 (se e Appendix I I , Tables
72 and 74).; The v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l or b u s i n e s s school case s f a r e d
as well (2.2 per c e n t ) as t h o s e with c o l l e g e background. None o f th e
p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were engaged in work o f t h i s ty p e .
Profes sio nal Service Attendants
The amount o f p r e v i o u s sc h o o lin g did n o t play an important rfile
i n determining placements i n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . Even though more o f the
high school c a se s than o f t h e grammar school c a s e s (1.1 p e r cent as
compared with 0.2 p e r c e n t ) found p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s type, fewer o f t h e
1 . Oharl«» 8. Johnaoa,
The Negro College Graduate, p. 1C6.
-3 9 -
c o l l e g e t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s were so plac ed (9.5 p e r
g r a d u a te s were more s u c c e s s f u l ( 0 .9 p e r cent) along
t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d p e op le , although t h e e d u ca tio n al
h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f placem ents was t h e v oc atio n a l
cent).
The p o s t ­
t h e s e l i n e s than
group having t h e
(2 .0 p e r c e n t ) .
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
To some e x t e n t , e d u ca tio n aided in o b t a i n i n g commercial p o s i t i o n s .
This i s shown by t h e f a c t t h a t more of t h e high school t r a i n e d e s s e s
(16.3 p e r c e n t ) than o f t h o s e with grammar school background (2.6 p e r
c e n t ) worked along t h e s e l i n e s . As might be expected, t h e v o c a t i o n a l ,
t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s school group has t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f p l a c e ­
ments (28 .2 p e r c e n t ) , ; The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s did n o t have as many p l a c e ­
ments (15.2 p e r c e n t ) as t h o s e with c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g (2 5,5 p e r c e n t ) . ;
do me s t i c S e r v i c e
Table 21 shows an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g
and domestic employment. The p e rc en ta g e o f c a s e s f i l l i n g domestic
p o s i t i o n s d e c r e a s e s from i t s peak (59.2 per cent) in t h e grammar school
group to 38.;4 p e r c e n t , ' 13.3 p e r c ent, - 12.2 p e r cent and 2 .2 p e r c ent
f o r t h e high sc ho o l ,1 v o c a t i o n a l , ' c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s r e ­
spectively.;
Industrial Positions
There iV no obvibu s r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l background and
i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s . ; The high school t r a i n e d c a se s show almost t h e same
p e r c e n t a g e o f placem ents (32.2 Per c e n t ) as t h e grammar school c ase s
(32.3 p e r c e n t ) . ; The v o c a t i o n a l group have only 2 7 , 2 p e r c e n t ih t h i s
f i e l d and t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d group have s t i l l fewer ( 1 9 . 3 p e r c e n t ) . ;
Of a l l t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , th e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s have t h e sm a ll e s t
p r o p o r t i o n p l a c e d i n d u s t r i a l l y (7.0 per c e n t ) . ;
Government P r o j e c t s
P lacem ents on government p r o j e c t s i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t io n to
scholastic traih ih g .
The p e r c e n t a g e s are l.;5 p e r cent f o r t h e grammar
school c a s e s , <2.9 p e r c e n t f o r t h e high school group, 4.4 p e r cen t f o r
t h e v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s , 7.9 per c e n t f o r t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l
and 3 .2 p e r c e n t f o r t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s . Summary
Ih t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and on government p r o j e c t s , < an i n c r e a s e ih edu­
c a t i o n a l t r a i h i h g r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t e r number o f placem ents.; In do­
m estic work,< t h o s e with grammar school t r a i h i h g f a r e d b e s t . ; The p o s i t i v e
-9 0 -
i n f l u e n c e o f education on s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial placements
was not a s pronounced as oh p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . ’
ThiTs study o f t h e o c c u p a ti o n a l h i ' s t o r i e s o f a l l t h e case s revealB
t h a t approximately o n e - t h i r d found employment along domestic l i n e s , a
l i t t l e more than o n e - f o u r t h were p l a c e d ih i n d u s t r i e s , and approximately
o n e - e i g h th were engaged ih t h e p r o f e s s i b n s . ; The remainder were s c a t ­
t e r e d thro ughout the o t h e r o c c u p a ti o n a l f i e l d s . ;
These r e s u l t s are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o b t a i n e d ih Table 6,
d e a l i n g with t h e i n i t i a l employment o f the WPA case s.; With the f i r s t
jobs,< t h e h i g h e s t p e rc e n t a g e o f pl acements (31.0 p e r c e n t ) occurs ih t h e
i n d u s t r i a l f i b l d , whereas th e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t io n f o r subseouent p o s i t i o n s
i s in domestic work ( 3 c . 5 p e r c e n t ) . ; Only 15.0 p e r c e n t o f th e i n i t i a l
p lacem en ts were o f t h e domestic ty p e, proving t h a t , ' as time elapse d,
more o f t h e c ase s changed from o t h e r f i e l d s o f endeavor to t h e domestic.;
Furthe rmore,' a s l i g h t s h i f t away from commercial p o s i t i o n s i s shown
by t h e f a c t t h a t , ' whereas 20.0 p e r c e n t o f th e i n i t i a l j o b s were i h t h i s
f i e l d , ' o n l y 13.]4 p e r c ent o f t h e p o s i t i o n s t h a t followed were o f the
commercial ty pe.; Because o f t h e r e c e n t i n s t i t u t i o n o f governmental
p r o j e c t j o b s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s i s almost tw ice as g r e a t
(4.J3 p e r c en t) f o r subsequent employment as i t was f o r i n i t i a l job
placement (2.2 p e r c e n t ) . ; This d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t due to chance f l u c ­
t u a t i o n s . ] (See Appendix I I ' , <Tables 73 and 74.;)
An encouraging n o t e i s t h a t more o f t h e c ase s e n t e r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
l i n e s as they developed t h e i r employment c a r e e r s (12.2 p e r c ent as com­
p a re d with 10 .7 per cent f o r i n i t i a l placem ent).; The o t h e r occupational
f i e l d s show l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n between i n i t i a l employment and subsequent
careers.
INFLUENCE OF AGE ON PAST OCCUPATIONAL NISTOUTFS
T ables 22 through 27 (pp. 91 f f . j show th e i n f l u e n c e o f age on p o s i ­
t i o n s h e l d from 1928 through 1937, excluding t h e f i r s t p o s i t i o n s . The
same age groupings have been followed h e r e as in Chapter 4.‘ The number
o f j o b s in each t a b l S i s h i g h e r than t h e number o f c a s e s , because each
i n d i v i d u a l has su p p lie d d a ta f o r a number o f jo bs.
Professions
P r o f e s s i o n a l placem ents i n c r e a s e d from 9 . 2 p e r c e n t f o r t h e youngest
age group, 17 to 24 y e a r s , to 17.2 p e r cen t f o r th ose 25 t o 29 y e a r s o ld,
t h e l a t t e r having t h e h i g h e s t p r o o o r t io n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l placements o f
a l l t h e age groups. In t h e 30 to 39 year grohp t h e placements in t h i s
-9 JTABLE 22
'
Occupations from 1928 Th
0F AaE
j
EDUCATIONAL LEVEl
Col. 1
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
school graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
school and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
v« " » s
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
NUMBER number!! PROFESSIONS
SEMI-PIIOFESSION!
OF
OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7
PROFESS IQNAL SERVICE ATT6NDANTS COMMERCIAL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 6 Col. 9 Col. 10 Col. 11
325
416
3
0 .7
3
0.7
1
0.2
27
6.5
968
1233
22
1.8
9
0 .7
11
0 .9
256
20.8
805
21
988
34
187
14
19.3
41.2
14
1.4
6
0*6
262
10
27.1
29.4
169
244
13
5.3
6
2.4
6
2.4
89
38.5
2108
2895
239
8.2
32
1*1
24
0.8
644
22.2
TABLE 23
Occupations from 1928 Through 1937 of Males and Females 25-29 Ye IRS OF AGie of Vario us EducSATIONAL
Levels, Exclusive of Their F ir s t Jobs
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
CONMIiRCIAL
NUMBER NUMBER PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
OF
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
■sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
-sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vocational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
334
489
2
0.4
2
0.4
2
0*4
9
1.9
530
780
14
1*9
18
2.2
6
0*9
125
16.2
619
39
1112
72
358
44
32.2
81.1
16
1.4
10
0.9
259
o
23.3
11.1
131
254
44
17.3
7
2.e
1
0.4
1853
2887
482
17.2
41
1.5
19
0 .7
72 ! 28.3
473 |
17.6
TABLE 24
Occupations from 1929 Thr0U9H 1937 OF V(ales and Females 30-39 Years of Ase of Vario us Educational
Levels, Exclus IVE OF Their F ir ST JOBS
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESS1ONAL SERCOMAE.RCIAL
SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
NUMBER NUMBER PROFESSIONS
OF
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER,[per cent NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL »' •
•
1.8
1.8
99
13.1
2
2
0.2
1.8
237
16
27.8
14.7
2.3
8
3.6
53
24.1
1.8
26
0 .9
424
14.3
0.1
4 .8
13
1.7
14
29.7
33
3.9
17.3
1 3 .,
5
52
1033
500
754
38
437
52
e52
109
253
72
66.0
113
. 1838
220
33
399
2988
19
1
731
-9 2 TABLE 22 (C o n c lu d e d )
Occupations prow 1928 Through 1937 of Males and Females 17-24 Years of Age o f Various Eoucational
Levels Exclusive o f Their F ir s t Jobs
DOMESTIC
indu STRIAL
GOVERNMENT
APPLICANTS
NO DATA
PROJEOTS
NEVER WORKED
tOUGAIfuNAL LcVcL
NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER[per CENT
C ol.13 Col. 14 C o l.15 C ol.18 Col. 17 Col. 18 Col. 19 C o l.20 Col. 21
Col. 12
.
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool a n l high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
221
53.1
132
31.7
6
1.4
12
2.9
11
2.8
406
32*9
379
30.7
41
3.3
64
5.2
45
3.6
IS7
1
14.2
2.9
214
3
22.1
8.8
70
5
7.2
14.7
4S
5.0
30
1
3.1
2.9
39
16.0
84
26.2
20
8.2
7
2.»
804
27.8
792
27.4
142
4.9
124
im .& t
4.3
94
3.2
TABLE 23 (C o n c lu d e d )
Occupations from 1928 Throuqh 193 7 of Males ano Females 25-29 Years of Age o f Various Eoucational
Levels Exclusive of Their F ir s t Jobs
domestic
INOU!STRIAL
GOVERNMENT
APPLICANTS
NO OATA
PROJECTS
NEVER WORKED
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V o o atio n al,<
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
»
*\ . ' •
312
66.5
127
27.1
5
1.1
5
1.1
5
1.1
330
42.4
256
32.9
20
0 .4
4
0.6
9
1.8
137
1
12.3
1.4
213
7
19.2
9 .7
86
6
7 .7
e .3
6
0 .5
27
6
2.4
8.3
se
15.4
66
26.0
17
8*7
1
0.4
e
3.1
818
30.4
669
24.9
134
5*0
IS
0 .8
55
2.0
;
TABLE 24 (C oncluded )
Occupations from 1928 Through 1937 of Males and Females 30-39 Years of Aqe of Various Educational
Levels. Exclusive of Their F irst J obs
NO DATA
APPLICANTS
NEVER WORKEO
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL5
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
DOMESTIC
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
-graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
•
.
»
•
industrial
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
17
1.6
13
1.7
0 .2
1* 8
14
3
1.6
2. e
1
0 .4
2
0>9
9
0 .3
49
1.6
4
635
61.5
338
31. e
19
1.8
308
40.8
252
33.4
19
2.5
95
3
11.1
2.8
146
5
17.1
4.8
70
6
2.0
5.5
2
2
42
19.1
64
29*1
7
3.2
1083
36.5
805
27.1
121
4.1
0 .4
-9 3 -
TABLE 25
Oc c u p a t i o n s
1929
from
1937
T hrough
Levels,
of
Va l e s
E x c l u s iv e
and
40-49
Fem ales
T h e ir
of
F ir s t
Yea r s
of
As e
V a r io u s
of
Eo u c a t io n a l
J obs
PROFESSIONS ANO RELATEO POSITIONS
educational level
Col. 1
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
aobool graduates
p a r t i a l high
aobool and blgb
aobool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
b usiness sohool
TOTAL . . . .
PROFESS IONAL 8ERNUMBER NUMBER PROFESSIONS SEMI-PIIOFESSIONS VICE ATTENOANTS
COMMERCIAL
OF
OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBED PER CENT
Col. 2 Col. 3 Col. 4 •Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Col. g Col. 9 Col. 1C Col. 11
85
843
7
1.1
2
0 .3
2
0.3
11
1.7
189
253
11
4.3
3
1.2
4
1.6
26
10.3
112
8
234
15
83
11
35.5
73.3
e
3.4
1
0 .4
53
1
22.6
6*7
41
ee
12
17.6
9
13.2
1213
124
10.2
100
8* 2
415
13
7
1.1
0 .6
TABLE 26
Oc c u p a t i o n s
from
1928
T hroush
1937
L evels,
of
Ma l e s
E x c l u s iv e
ano
of
Fem ales
T h e ir
50-59
F ir s t
Years of
As e
of
V a r io u s
E o u c a t io n a l
J obs
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED PCISIT 10NS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
COMMERCIAL
Snumber NUMBER PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE ATTENDANTS
fcUUO'Al 1UNAL LCVCLI ur
OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
partial grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates 179
partial nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
52
partial oollege
and oollege
graduates
27
Post-graduate
0
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
12
270
TOTAL . . . .
249
3
1.2
2
o .e
8
3.2
77
4
5.2
2
2.8
e
10.4
45
0
5
11.1
2
4.4
e
17.8
24
11
45.8
395
23
5 .e
1.5
6
1
4.2
6
2&Q
1
0.2
30
7.8
*
TABLE 27
O c c u p a tio n s
fro m
1928
T h ro u g h
1937
o f M a le s
ano
F e m a le s
60
Y e a rs
o f
Age
or
O ver
o f
V a r io u s
E duca-
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESS1ONAL SERCOMMERCIAL
NUMBER NUMBER PROFESSIONS SEMI-PROFESSIONS VICE A1rTENDANTS
OF
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
CASES JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Partial grammar
and grammar
school graduates
Partial high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
Partial oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL • ’ . ' . ' .
19
29
11
12
2
0
5
0
1
33
1
47
1
8.8
1
20.0
2
40.0
1
2.1
3
6*4
-9 4 TABLE
Oc c u p a t io n s
25
(C o n c lu d e d )
1 9 2 8 T hrough ig s r p of Ma l e s and F em a les 4 0 - 4 9 Ye a r s
L e v e l s . Ex c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F ir s t J o b s
from
DOMESTIC
INDUSTRIAL
EOUCATIONAL LEVELj
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
of
Aqe
of
Va r io u s Edu c a tio n a l
APPLICANTS
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT
COI.12
Col. 13 Col. 14 Col. 15 Col. 16 COl.17 c o i .i e
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL .
.
.
.
354
56.6
233
36.4
7
1.1
112
44*3
86
34.0
8
2.4
32
13.7
31
1
13.2
6 .7
23
2
14
20.0
27
39.7
522
43.0
378
31.2
TA8LE 2 8
O c c u p a ti o n s fro m
1928
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooational,
te o h n io al or
business sohool
Oc c u p a t io n s
from
2.6
4
1.6
9 .8
13.3
3
1.3
3
4.4
3
4 .4
41
3.4
2.7
2.2
1
.
0.1
(C o n c lu d e d )
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
132
53.0
92
36.9
5
2.0
30
39.0
28
35.4
3
3.9
7
15.6
16
35.6
5
1 1 .1
2
8.3
3
11.5
1
4.2
171
43.3
APPLICANTS
NEVER WORKED
NO DATA
-
3.5
35.2
14
139
TA BLE 2 7 (C o n c lu d e d )
; .928 Throuqh 1 9 3 7 of Ma l e s and F em a les 8 0 Ye a r s
t io n a l L e v e l s . E x c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F i r s t
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
0.4
1
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
d o m e st ic
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
17
T h ro u q h 1 9 8 7 o f V a le s an o F e m a le s 5 0 - 5 9 Y e a r s o f Age o f V a r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l
Le v e l s , Ex c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F ir s t J o b s
OOMESTIC
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
C ol.19 Col. 20 Col. 21 COl.22
INDUSTRIAL
QOVISRNMENT
PR(JJECTS
c>f
Aqe
or
Over
oi=
7
2. e
2
2.6
2
4.4
11
2 .8
Va r io u s Educa -
Jobs
no DATA
APPLICANTS
NEVER WORKED
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
17
58.6
9
31.0
1
3.4
e
75.0
2
18.7
1
8.3
2
40.0
1
1 0 0 .0
14
29.8
2
4.2
25
53.2
1
3.4.
1
3.4
1
2 .1
1
2 .1
-9 5 -
f i e l d decrease to 13.4 p e r c e n t , and c o n tin u e to drop to 10.? p e r c en t
f o r those 40 to 49 y e a r s o f age and 5 .3 p e r cent fo r th e 50-59 year
group, (The 2.1 p e r cen t ih Table 27 i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t , since i t r e p r e ­
s e n t s only one c a s e . )
Semi-P rofessions
Placements in t h i s f i e l d are few f o r a l l age groups. 4 gradual
r i s e , very l i k e l y not due t o chance f l u c t u a t i o n s ( se e Appendix I I ,
Tables 72 and 74), i s e v i d e n t in the f i r s t t h r e e age groups (1.1 per
c ent, - 1.5 per c e n t and 1.3 o e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , but in the 40-49 y e ar
group a s l i g h t d e c r e a s e i s noted (1.1 per c e n t ) . In the n e x t h i g h e r age
group,- 50-59 y e a r s , t h e placem ents i n c r e a s e to 1 .5 p e r c e n t. None of
t h e i n d i v i d u a l s 30 y e a r s o f age o r over mere employed along t h e s e l i n e s .
Pro f es s i onal Se r vi c e A t t e n i a n t s
There i s p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e pe rc en ta g es o f the
v a ri o u s age groups employed i n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . The 50-59 year group
had t h e fewest pl acem ents ( 0 . ? p e r c e n t ) and the 20-39 year o l d s have
0 . 9 o e r cent,- while t h e o t h e r age groups f a l l in between t h e two. None
o f t h e c a s e s 30 y e a r s o f age or over worked as p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e
attendants.
Commercial P o s i t i ons
Employment in commercial p o s i t i o n s d e c r e a s e s as the age i n c r e a s e s .
The p e rc e n t a g e s o f plac em ents g r a d u a l ly d e c l i n e from ? ? . ? per c en t fo r
t h e 17-94 y e ar u n i t to 17.3 p e r c e n t f o r th o se in t h e 95-29 year group,
14.3 per cent f o r t h e 30- 39 y e a r o l d s , 9 , ? p e r cen t f o r those 40-49
y e a r s of age, 7.3 p e r c e n t f o r t h e 50-59 year group, to 6 . 4 per c e n t
f o r the 30-year u n i t .
Domestic Service
Domestic placem ents i n c r e a s e in d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to age. The few­
e s t placements occur i n t h e youngest age group (27.3 per c e n t ) . I n t h e
25-29 y e ar group t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s 30.4 per c e n t, end f o r those 30-29
y e a r s of age t h e p r o p o r t i o n r i s e s to 23.15 per c e n t . S t i l l h ig h er p e r ­
c e n ta g e s are reached i n t h e o l d e r age groups. The 40-49 and 50-59 year
groups have almost ecu al r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in t h i s f i e l d (43.0 p e r c e n t and
43.3 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , whereas t h e o l d e s t age group has the h i g h e s t
p e rc e n t a g e o f placem ents (5 3 .2 p e r c e n t ) .
-9 3 -
Indu strial Positions
There were i r r e g u l a r f l u c t u a t i o n s in i n d u s t r i a l placements a t the
v a r i o u s age l e v e l s . The p e r c e n t a g e d e c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y and then s t e a d i l y
r i s e s u n t i l t h e l a s t age group i s reached, at which p o i n t the pe rc en ta ge
f a l l s again. The p e r c e n t a g e s a re 27.4 p e r cent f o r t h e 17-24 y e ar group,
24,9 p e r c en t f o r t h e n e x t h i g h e r age group, 27.1 p e r c e n t f o r th e 20-39
year u n i t , 31.2 p e r c e n t f o r the 40-49 y e a r o l d s , 25.2 per cent f o r those
50-59 y e a r s o f age, and 99.9 per cen t f o r t h e o l d e s t age group.
Covsmment P r o j e c t s
Only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s occur in placem ents in t h i s f i e l d throughout
t h e v ariou s age groups. There are about an equsl perc entage o f t h e 25-29
y e a r group (5 .0 p e r c e n t ) and o f t h e 17-24 y e a r o l d s (4.9 per c e n t ) em­
ployed in government p r o j e c t p o si't i b n s , Of th o se 20-39 y e ars o f age,
4.1 per cent were engaged ih t h i s work,< whereas t h e p r o p o r t io n s f o r t h e
40-49 and 50-59 y e a r uni'td are 3,4 p e r c e n t and 2,5 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y .
I t was seen t h a t 4.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e 30-y ea r group found such employment,t h i s being a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e over t h e pr e c e d in g age u n i t s .
Appl i cant s Who Never Worked
,4s might be expected, the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t io n o f such a p p l i c a n t s
oc cu rs ih the youngest age group (4.3 p e r c e n t ) . There i s a steep de­
c l i n e between t h i s p e r c e n t a g e and t h a t of 0.3 per c e n t f o r the 25-29
y e ar group. The p e r c e n t a g e c o n ti h u e s t o f a l l f o r th ose 39-29 y e a r s of
age ( 0 . 3 p e r c e n t ) and t h o s e c ase s 40-49 y e a r s o l d (0.1 p e r c e n t ) .
411
the i n d i v i d u a l s ih t h e 50 -59 y e ar age group had worked a t some time.
(The 2,1 p e r c e n t , - r e p r e s e n t i n g one case , in t h e 30-yea r group i s i'nsid n i'fican t.)
Summary
The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e age f a c t o r i s most pronounced in th e domestic
f i e l d , - in which plac em ents i h c r e a s e in d i r e c t p r o p o r tio n to age, and ih
commercial work, - in whi’ch t h e p ro p o r t io n o f job placements d e c r e a s e s as
t h e age i n c r e a s e s . ; Oh government p r o j e c t s , with i n c r e a s i n g age t h e r e i s
a gradual d e c r e a se ih placem ents except in th e l a s t age group. In the
p r o f e s s i o n s , - a f t e r t h e peak i s reached in t h e 25-29 y e ar group, - t h e r e i s
a d e c l i n e in placem ents in p ro p o r t io n to age i n c r e a s e . ; I n d u s t r i a l p l a c e ­
ments do n o t f l u c t u a t e very g r e a t l y due to t h e age f a c t o r . I n t h e semi­
p r o f e s s i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s , - t h e d i f f e r e n c e s
in placement i n r e l a t i o n to t h e age l e v e l are very E lig h t.;
I
-9 7 TABLE
Week ly Wa q es
from
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
Col. 1
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
school graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and college
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
28
...""
'
........
1928 T hRoush 1 9 3 7 of Al l Ma l e s o f Va r io u s Ed u c a tio n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s iv e
T h e ir F i r s t J obs
of
NUM9EI
0 - $ 4 . 99
t 5 - $ 9 . 99
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
Ur
.'JOSS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CBNT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. s COl. 3 Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. S Col. 7 Col. e
Col. 9 C o l.10
984
18
1.8
91
9.2
118
12.0
201
20-4
1122
12
1*1
105
9.4
165
14.7
242
21.6
1484
143
21
1.4
es
5 .e
3.5
144
11
9.8
7.7
••240
9
16.4
3.8
308
2
0*3
13
4.2
33
10.7
21.4
4021-
51
1*3
299
7.4-
471
11.7
36
758
5
1 8 .5
TABLE 2 9
We e k l y
Wa s e s
from
1929 Thr oush 1937
of
of
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
- business sohool
total
.
» •' »
Al l F em ales of Va r io u s Ed u c a tio n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s iv e
T h e ir F ir s t J obs
NUMBER , 0 - $ 4 . 9 9
$ 5 - t 9 . 99
$ io - $ i4
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
OF
JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
390
21.3
500
27.3
2-11
11.5
1.8
418
21.8
489
25.5
307
16.0
30
1.8
181
4
9.5
4.7
309
3
18.2
3.5
337
10
19.9
11.8
489
5
1.0
57
11.3
95
19.4
81
16.6
8021
100
1.7
1030
17.1
1396
23.2
946
15.7
1833
30
i9 ie
35
1896
85
T ABLE
'We e k l y
V/a q e s
fro m
1 9 2 8 T hR0U3H 1 9 3 7
of
30
Al . Ma l e s
and
F em ales
of
Va r io u s E 5UCATI0NAL
LEVELS,
E x c l u s iv e
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL .
•
•
•
t i c > -$ 1 4
$ 5 - $ 9 .99
$1 5 -$ 19
NUMBER
0 - $ 4 . 99
OF
JOBS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENl NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
2817
46
1.3
4ei
17.1
e ie
21.9
412
14.6
3040
47
1.5
523
17.2
654
21.5
549
ie .o
3180
228
51
1.6
246
9
7.8
3-9
453
14
14.3
8.1
577
19
ie .2
8.3
797
7
0.9
70
s*e
128
/« ../
147
ie .4
10042
151
1.5
1329
13.2
1837
18.6
1704
17.0
-9 8 T A 8 L E 2 8 (Continued)
1
Weekly Wages from 1 9 2 8 Through 1 9 ' 37 of All Wales o f Various Educational Levels, Exclusive of
I
T heir F ir s t Jobs
|
$ 20 -$ 24
125 -$ 2 9
$30434
1
$ 3 5 -$ 3 9
$ 40 -$ 44
1
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. IS Col. 13 Col. 14 C o l.15 c o i . i e Col.IV COl. 16 Col. 19 COl. 20 C ol.21
wOl»ll
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
aid oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
busfhess sohool
118
12.0
148
12.6
65
6.6
45
4.8
88
7.7
33
46
13
28
2 .8
10
1.0
2.9
46
4.1
7
0 .6
3.1
9.1
47
10
3.2
7 .0
30
3
2.0
2.1
1.9
18
5.2
4
1.8
3.5
147
3.6
54
1.3
a
i
TOTAL • ' • ‘ • ‘ •
178
14
11.7
9 .e
128
6
8.7
4.2
34
11.0
83
7.5
490
11.9
3oe
7.8
143
,
TA B L E 2 9 (Continued)
|
I Weekly Wages from 1 9 ? 8 Through 1 9 3 7 of A ll Pemales oP Various Educational Levels, Exclusive of
1
Their F ir s t Joss
$40 -$ 4 4
$ 3 5 -$ 3 9
$ 2 5 -$ 2 9
$ 30-4 3 4
$ 2 0 -$ 2 4
1
educational level
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT number PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
o .o
1
0.3
5
0.3
87
1.5
s
sohool graduates
3.4
53
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool and high
0.1
2
0 .5
10
0.6
24
1.2
11
sohool graduates
4.7
90
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
0 .8
13
32
3.3
1.9
56
5.4
graduates
9 .e
91
167
3.5
3
10.6
9
15
17.6
post-graduate
6
7.0
10.6
9
V ooational,
te o h n io al or
0.4
2
1 .8
9
2.2
4.5
11
22
business sohool
37
7.6
21
0.3
65
1.1
1.5
99
2.8
170
6.1
366
TOTAL • • • •
TA BLE 3 0 (Continued)
I Weekly Wages from 1 9 2 0 Through 1 9 3 7 of All Vales and Females of Various Educational Levels, Ex-
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •
•
•
•
1
$ 2 0 -$ 2 4
1 $25-4 2 9
$30 4 3 4
[
$ 3 5 -$ 3 9
$ 4 0 -$ 4 4
ie i
6.4
92
3.3
51
i.e
33
1.2
11
0>4
232
7.6
110
3*6
44
1.4
56
1 .8
9
0.3
339
23
10.7
10.1
219
12
6.9
5.3
102
2e
3.2
12*3
79
19
2.5
e.3
43
6
1.4
2.6
71
8.9
45
17
3.1
8
0 .8
8.4
478
2-1
2.4
25
846
5.6
4.8
212
2.1
75
0.7
242
1
1
-9 9 TA8LE 28
(C o n t in u e o )
1
We e k l y Wag es from ] 928 T hrough 1 9 3 7 o f Al l V a l e s of Va r io u s E d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s iv e o f I
T h e i r F ir s t J obs
|
*4 5 -*4 9
CUuuAIlUNAU LcVcL
NUMBER
C o l.82
C o l. 2 3
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n a h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
PER
*!
*5 0
CENT
C O l.2 4
ON
V O LU N T E E R 1
I
T IP S
O N Ly S
number
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l. 2 5
C o l. 23
C o l. 2 7
C o l.28
C o l.29
C o l.30
5
0 .5
8
0 .8
3
0 .3
2
0 .2
3
0 .3
7
0 .0
6
0 .5
1
0 .1
12
1
0 .8
0 .7
27
13
1 .8
9 .1
47
2
3 .2
1 .4
13
0 .9
1
0 -3
8
2 .6
2
0 .0
3
1 .0
22
0-5
S3
1.6
60
1.5
19
0.5
TABLE
29
|
(C o n t i n u e d )
I We e k l y Wag es from 1993 T hrough 193 7 of Al l F em a les of V a r io u s Ed u c a t io n a l L e v e l s , Ex c l u s iv e
1
- of T h e ir f i r s t J o ss
..........................
*50
*4 5 -* 4 9
e o u c a t io n a l
NUMBER
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
»
»
i
on
V O LU N T E E R 1
T IP S
O N LY2
|
level
•
PER CENT
NUMBER
1
0 .0
2
0 .1
1
0 .0
5
0 .3
35
4
4
0 .2
4 .7
8
4
0 .5
4 .7
105
7
0 .4
17
0 .3
1S4
21
0 .2
10
•
NUMBER
PER C E N T
TA3L E
PER CENT
.
PER C E N T
NUMBER
1
0 .0
1 .8
3
0 .2
6 .2
8 *2
2
0 .1
3 .5
2
0 .4
2 .7
8
0 .1
((3 o n t i n u e d )
30
I W eekly Wages from 1998 Through 193 7 o f A l l V a le s and Fem ales o f V a r io u s E d u c a tio n a l L e v e ls , I
1
E x c lu s iv e o f T h e ir F i r s t J o b s --------------------
„,J
I
e d u c a t io n a l l e v e l
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
•
I
*4 5 -* 4 9
*5 0
V O LU N T E E R 1
on
I number! PER c e n t! N U M B E R | PER C E N T | NUMBER
I
PER C E N T !
T IP S
O N LY2
1
NUMBER[
PER C E N T
|
0 .1
6
0 .2
10
0 .3
3
0 .1
3
4
0 .1
12
0 .4
41
1 .3
4
IS
5
0 .5
2 .2
35
17
1 .1
7 .4
152
9
1
0 .1
32
0 .3
...
>
84
0 .1
1
4 .e
15
0 *5
3 .9
1 .2
19
2 .4
5
0 .6
0 .8
224
2.2
27
0 .3
1 . worker donate & servioes gratia.
2. Reanneration ooneisted solely of tips earned while working.
I
]
-1 0 0 -
We e k l y
Wa g e s
from
TAB)- E
1928 T h r o u g h 1937
28
(C o n c l u d e d )
A l l Wa l e s o f V a r i o u s
F ir s t J o b s
of
Th e ir
EDUCATIQNAu LcVcL
C O l.31
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n a h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
t e o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
.
.
T O T A ti
.
.
ROOM AND
BOARD1 I
NO d a t a
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
C O l.3 2
C o l.33
C o l. 3 4
C o l.35
Wa g e s
from
1 3 .9 3
1 8 .6 * 3
2 4 .3 5
2
0 .2
285
2 3 .6
848
1 2 .8 8
1 7 . 9S
2 8 .9 4
3
2
0 .2
1 .4
449
54
3 0 .7
3 7 .8
952
1 4 .5 8
1 7 .9 2
1 9 .7 1
2 7 .9 2
2 7 .0 3
3 7 .8 8
1
0 .3
98
3 1 .2
206
1 5 .2 6
1 9 .1 7
2 8 .4 1
10
0 .2
1136
2 e .2
2798
1 3 .7 0
1 9 *8 1
2 5 .8 2
1928
T hrough
and
number
.
.
.
1937
board1
( C o n c lu d e d )
Al l
of
T h e ir
Fem ales
F ir s t
PER CENT
l
1 .2
l
0. 0
NUMBER
Wa g e s f r o m
»ER CENT
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
la g
fo r
C3
VD.
0 .5 8
1 1 .9 2
1 5 .1 6
488
2 5 .4
1392
8 .7 4
1 2 .4 8
1 6 .8 8
3ei
10
2 2 .5
1 1 .8
1208
57
1 1 .8 0
1 9 .8 8
1 6 .5 4
3 0 .5 0
2 0 .5 7
3 8 .8 3
149
3 0 .4
321
1 0 .9 3
1 5 .2 2
2 0 .3 7
1824
2 7 .0
4224
9 .6 4
1 3 .5 2
1 8 .8 9
All
( C O N C l. u d e d )
Ma l e s
OF T h e i r
F em ales
a nd
F i rst
NO D A TA
NUMBER
PER CENT
of
V a r io u s
E d u c A T IO N A L L e v e l s ,
Jobs
T O T A L NUMBER
r eg ular
Q1
08-;
W O.
W EE K LY WAGES2
.7 7
0 .1
088
3 0 .8
1941
9 .5 7
1 3 .5 9
ie
2
0 .1
753
2 4 .8
2240
9 .9 0
1 4 .2 0
1 9 .1 5
3
0 .1
1 .3
830
84
2 8 *3
2 8 .1
2180
152
i2 .s e
1 8 .9 5
17 .e8
3
2 4 .3 2
3 7 .3 7
1
0 .1
245
3 0 .7
527
1 2 .1 4
1 6 .9 9
0. 1
2780
2 7 .5
7020
1 1 0 .7 4
11
2 9 .5 e
2 3 .0 4
M .S s
•
a o l e l j f of ro<)■ and boiirl for the sorter.
w o r k i n g for tip e oaly, and oaaea workI aa to!Loateera 1»ith out pay, oastta
and >oard eiily , are <aaolalelI ia latei m i n i n g t h o n u n b t r f o r © a l e u l o t l e n o f O i>
s e r r la l
ro o a
1
Ml. aad 88*
01
2
1 . Remuneration ooaalsi
2. Cases
T O T A L NUMBER
E A R N IN G REG U LAR
W E E K LY WAGES®
earning
PER CENT
EX C L U S IV E
1238
i 9 - 37 OF
Excn J S IV E
NUMBER
E d u c a t IO N A L L E V E L S ,
3 2 .5
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
V a r io u s
598
1928 JyIROUGH
h o O M AND BOARD1
of
J obs
NO D A T A
TA BLE 3()
We e k l y
C o l. 3 8 C o l. 3 9
705
85
of
Q3
2 7 .8
room
.
C o l. 3 7
WD.
272
E O U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
TO TAL
C o l. 3 8
Q1
E x c l u s iv e
0 .2
of
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
T O T A L NUMBER
E A R N IN G R EG U LA R
W E E K LY WAGES2
L evels,
2
TABLE 29
We e k l y
I
E d u c a t io n a l
te l
j
I
1
-101-
wggnr
mages
on
past occupations excluding p i p s t p o s i t i o n s
Tables S3 through 30 i n c l u s i v e t r e a t o f weekly wages rec e iv e d by
a l l c a s e s ih t h i s study while engaged on o c c u p a ti o n s during 1928 through
1937,' e x c l u s i v e o f f i r s t p o s i t i o n s . ’ The same wage c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has
been followed h e re as in t h e p r ec edin g c h a p t e r , and th e same s t a t i s t i c a l
measures have been computed ( s e e Chapter IV).Meekly Mates of Males Nhile Entated on Past Occupations
By comparing t h e G1,. Md. and G3 o f t h e wages o f t h e v a r i o u s educa­
t i o n a l groups o f males, i $ i s e v i d e n t t h a t th e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s rec eiv e d
t h e h i g h e s t weekly rem une ration (Md. $27.92).; Furthermore, t h e span
between Q1 and G3 ($17.92 to $37.83) i s widest f o r t h i s e du ca tio nal
group.
The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males were paid only s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than th ose
wi'th v o c a t io n a l school background, t h e medians o f t h e weekly wages being
$19.71 and $19.17 r e s p e c t i v e l y . ; The Q1 o f t h e v o c a t io n a l group i s
s l i g h t l y hi!gher than t h a t o f t h e c o l l e g e c a se s ($15.26 i n c o n t r a s t to
$ 1 4 . 5 9 ) ,' bu t t h e G3 o f t h e v o c a t io n a l group ($26. 41) i s s l i g h t l y lower
than t h a t o f t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males ($27.03).
The hi'gh school c a s e s did n o t earn b e much as t h e grammar school
i n d i v i d u a l s (Md.; $17.93 as compared with $19.67). Moreover, the G1 o f
t h e high school t r a i n e d men ($12.89) i s lower than t h a t of the grammar
school group (F1S.92),' and t h e G3 o f t h o s e with high school t r a i n i n g i s
o nly E23.94 as compared with $24.35 f o r t h e grammar school males.
The weekly wages of t h e males and females c l a s s i f i e d according to
age groups may be found in t h e Appendix (Tables 62 through 67).
Su m a r y
Taken as a whole, e d u ca tion did not seem to e x e r t an important
e f f e c t on weekly remun eration o f t h e males, sin c e t h o s e with grammar
school t r a i n i n g earned more than t h e high school t r a i n e d cases, and
t h e c o l l e g e i n d i v i d u a l s earned p r a c t i c a l l y the same .as the v o c a tio n a l,
t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s school men.
The median o f t h e weekly wages o f a l l t h e males was $ 18. 81 , with
t h e range o f t h e middle f i f t y p e r cent o f t h e wages s t a r t i n g a t $13.70
and extending to $25.62.
Meekly Mates of Moves Mhtle Entated on Past Occupations
There i s a r e g u l a r i n c r e a s e i n t h e weekly s a l a r i e s o f the females
i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e amount o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s sc h o o l in g . From $11.92
(median) f o r t h e grammar school c a s e s , t h e s a l a r i e s r i s e to $12.48 f o r
-1 0 2 -
t h e high school t r a i n e d females, $15.22 f o r the v ocatio nal c a s e s , $18.54
f o r t h e c o l l e g e women and $30.50 f o r the p o s t - g r a d u a t e s . In a s i m i l a r
way, th e 9 1 and G3 r i s e with each i n c r e a s e i n e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l , t h e
s h o r t e s t span b e in g $8.58 t o $15.18 f o r those with grammar school back­
ground, while t h e w id e st span i s $19,88 to $36.80 f o r th e p o s t - g r a d u a t e
c ase s.
The weekly wages o f t h e males and females c l a s s i f i e d according to
age groups may be found in t h e Appendix (Tables 82 through 67),
Sumary
E d u ca tio n a l background proved t o be a determining f a c t o r in t h e
weekly' rem uneration o f th e females i n t h i s study. As th e e d u c a ti o n a l
s c a l e was ascended, t h e weekly wage i n c r e a s e d .
The median o f t h e weekly wages o f a l l the females was $18.52, with
t h e range o f t h e middle f i f t y p e r c e n t o f th e wages s t a r t i n g a t 19,64
and extending t o $13.89.
The women, with t h e e xcep tio n o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s , r e c e i v e d
lower wages than t h e men. The median o f t h e women’s wages was $5.29
lower than t h a t o f the males, and t h e 3 1 s t a r t e d $4.06 lower than t h a t
o f t h e males, F u rt herm ore , the G3 o f the women’ s wages was $7.23 lower
than t h a t o f t h e males.
Meekly Mates o f Men and Momen Mhile Entated on Past Occupations
Table SO, combining t h e wage d a t a for the females and t h e males,
shows t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l background h a s a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e upon weekly
remuneration.
The medians of t h e weekly wages o f the c a s e s , taken a s a
whole, g r a d u a l l y r i s e from $13.59 f o r t h e grammar school group to $14.20
f o r th o se with high school background, $16.99 f o r t h e v o c a t i o n a l l y
t r a i n e d c a s e s , $17.38 fo r t h e c o l l e g e men and women, and $29.58 f o r
th e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s .
S i m i l a r l y , t h e Q1 and Q3 o f t h e weekly wages i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t
p r o p o r t io n to t h e amount o f s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g . The median o f t h e
weekly wages o f a l l t h e c a se s i s $15.48, and t h e span o f t h e middle
f i f t y per c e n t o f t h e wages s t a r t s a t $10.74 and extends t o $21.28,
When t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e compared with the weekly wages earned on
f i r s t j o b s (Table 15), i t may be noted t h a t only a very s l i g h t i n c r e a s e
($0.87) in weekly s a l a r y o c c u r s subsecuent to i n i t i a l employment. The
G1 and G3 of t h e wages earned in t h e p o s i t i o n s followin g f i r s t .iobs a re
$ 0.88 and $1.80 r e s p e c t i v e l y h i g h e r than those earned when f i r s t
s t a r t i n g to work.
-1 0 ? -
'
- '
TABLE
31
--------- -------
■
Re a so n s G iv e n b y Al l Ma l e s o f V a r io u s E d u c a t io n a l L e v e l s for L e a v in g Oc c u p a t io n s He l d from
1958
T hroush
1937,
Ex c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F ir s t J obs
PARTIAL GRAMMAR
PARTIAL HIGH
SCHOOL ANO HIGH
SCHOOL GRADUATES
ano grammar
SCHOOL GRADUATES
NUMBER OF JOBS
984
REASONS FOR LEAVING JOBS
C o l.
1
B e t t e r jo b
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y e e c h a n g e d p l a n s
E m p lo y e r c h a n g e d p la n a
I n c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
U n s a t is f a c t o r y l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
R a o ia l d is c r im in a t io n
U n io n d i f f i c u l t i e s
S t i l l o n sam e jo b
N o d a ta
PARTIAL COLLEGE
ANO COLLEGE
GRADUATES
1464
1122
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
3 0 l.
C O l.
C o l.
2
C o l.
3
4
C o l.
5
6
C o l.
33
301
92
105
3 .3
3 0 .3
9 .3
1 0 .7
75
386
93
89
6 .7
3 4 .4
' 8 .8
7 .9
133
343
78
81
9 .1
2 3 .8
5 .8
4 .2
151
1 5 .3
131
1 4 .3
428
2 9 .1
133
7
15
33
111
1 3 .5
0 .7
1 -5
3 .4
1 1 .3
140
5
14
37
122
1 2 .5
0 .4
1 .2
3 .8
1 0 .9
111
12
7
88
222
7
7 .8
o .e
0 .5
4 .8
1 5 .2
TAB LE 32
Re a so n s G iv e n by Al l F e m a l e s o f V a r io u s Edu <RATIONAL LEVELS FO 3 L e a v in g Oc c u p a t io n s Helo
from 1929 T hrough 1937. Ex c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F i r s t J o b s
PARTIAL COLLEGE
PARTIAL HIGH
PARTIAL GRAIWIAR
AND COLLEGE
ANO GRAMMAR
SCHOOL ANO HIGH
GRAOUATES
SCHOOL GRADUATES SCHOOL GRADUATES
NUMBER OF JOBS
REASONS FOR LEAVING JOBS
B e t t e r jo b
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y e e o h a n g e d p l a n s
E m p lo y e r o h a n g e d p la n s
In c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
U n s a t is f a c t o r y l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
R a c ia l d is c r im in a t io n
U n io n .d iffic u ltie s
S t i l l o n sam e jo b
N o d a ta
1<5 9 6
1918
1833
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
2. e
NUMBER PER CENT
52
283
302
415
1 5 .3
1 3 .5
2 2 .6
61
379
324
317
3 .2
1 9 .8
1 8 .9
1 8 .5
122
815
257
110
7 .2
1 8 .8
1 5 .2
Q. 5
174
9 .5
241
1 2 .8
451
2 6 .6
295
8
4
128
139
1 6 .1
0 .4
0 .2
7 .0
273
1 9 .4
0 .4
0 .4
4 .9
1 1 .1
126
1
1
95
218
7 .4
0 .1
0 .1
5 .6
1 2 .8
9-2
TABLE 33
e
.
_
7
94
214
R e a so n s G iv e n by Al l Ma l e s and F emale:s of Va r io u s Eo u c a t io n a l L e v e l s for L e a v in g Oc c u p a t io n s
He l d from 1928 T hroijgh 1937. Ex c l u s iv e of T h e ir F ir s t J OSS-------------------------------PARTIAL COLLEGE
PARTIAL HIGH
partial grammar
AND COLLEGE
SCHOOL AND HIGH
AND GRAMMAR
GRAOUATES
SCHOOL GRADUATES SCHOOL GRADUATES
reasons
for l e a v in g
jo b s
B e t t e r jo b
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y e e o h a n g e d p l a n s
E m p lo y e r c h a n g e d p la n s
in c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
U n s a t is f a c t o r y l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
R a o ia l d is c r im in a t io n
U n io n d i f f i c u l t i e s
S t i l l o n sam e J o b
N o d a ta
S11 60
3040
2817
number o f jo b s
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
88
587
394
520
3 .1
2 0 .8
1 4 .0
1 8 .4
133
735
417
403
4 .5
2 5 .2
1 3 .7
1 3 .4
255
861
171
8 .1
2 0 .9
1 0 .6
5 .4
325
1 1 .5
402
1 3 .2
877
2 7 .7
428
15
19
181
280
1 5 .2
0 .5
0 .7
5 .7
9 .9
413
13
21
131
338
1 3 .6
0 .4
0 .7
4 .3
1 1 .0
237
13
7 .5
0 .4
0 .2
5 .2
1 3 .9
335
e
133
440
-1 0 4 tab LE 3 1
^C o n c l u d e d )
Reaso ns G iv e n by d u . Ma l e s of Va r io us Ed u c a t io n a l L e v e l s for L e a v in g Oc c u p a t io n s He l d from
192 8 T hrouqh : 9 3 7 , E x c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F ir s t J obs
NUMBER OF JOBS
REASONS FOR LEAVINQ JOBS
C o l.
p o st - graduate
VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL OR
BUSINESS SCHOOL
TOTAL
143
308
4021
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
8
C O l.
B e t t e r jo b
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y e e o h a n g e d p l a n s
E m p lo y e r o h a n g e d p la n s
In c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
U n s a t is f a c t o r y l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
R a c ia l d is c r im in a t io n
U n io n d i f f i c u l t i e s
S t i l l o n sam e jo b
N o d a ta
9
C o l. 1 0
11
C o l. 12
C o l.13
C o l. 1 4
13
26
4
3
9 *1
1 8 .2
2 .8
2 .1
27
S3
30
13
8 .8
2 7 .9
9 .7
4 .2
284
1145
297
271
42
2 9 .4
51
1 6 .6
831
2 0 .6
14
9 .e
Q
5 .6
2 3 .1
33
2
1
10
55
1 0 .7
0 .6
0 .3
3 .2
1 7 .8
431
26
37
156
543
1 0 .7
1 .1
0 .9
3 .9
1 3 .5
33
TABLE
C o l.
NUMBER PER CENT
32
7 .1
2e.5
7 .4
6 .7
(C o n c l u d e d )
Reaso ns G iv e n by Al l F em ales o f V a r io u s Ed u c a t io n a l L e v e l s for Le a v in g Oc c u p a t io n s Held
from 1928 T hrouqh 1 9 3 7 , E x c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F ir s t J obs
POST-GRADUATE
NUMBER OF JOBS
REASONS FOR LEAVINQ JOBS
VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL OR
BUSINESS SCHOOL
6021
489
85
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
B e t t e r jo b
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y e e c h a n g e d p la n s
E m p lo y e r c h a n g e d p la n s
in o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
U n s a t is f a c t o r y l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
R a o ia l d is c r im in a t io n
U n io n d i f f i c u l t i e s
S t i l l o n sam e jo b
7
8
10
2
36
8
4
10
TABLE 33
TOTAL
e. 2
NUMBER PER CENT
2 .4
29
110
63
44
5 *9
2 2 .5
1 2 .9
9 .0
271
1098
956
’8 8 8
4 .5
1 8 .2
1 5 .9
1 4 .7
4 2 .4
ei
1 6 .6
983
1 6 .3
9 .4
59
1 1 .8
4 .7
1 1 .8
1
33
70
0 .2
0 .7
1 4 .3
760
17
13
354
881
1 2 .6
0 .3
0 .2
5 .9
1 1 .3
9 .4
ii. e
'
(C o n c l u d e d)
Reasons G iven by A l l M a le s and Fem ales o f \ Va r io u s Eouc a t io n a l L e v e l s f or L e a v in g Oc c u p a t io n s
H eld from 1928 Throuqh 19:37, E x c l u s iv e o f T h e ir F ir s t J oes
POST-GRADUATE
VOCATIONAL,
TECHNICAL OR
BUSINESS SCHOOL
22e
REASONS FOR LEAVINQ JOBS
B e t t e r jo b
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y e e o h a n g e d p l a n s
E m p lo y e r c h a n g e d p la n s
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g a n d w o r k in g
c o n d itio n s
U n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g - a n d wear k i n g
c o n d itio n s
R a o ia l d is c r im in a t io n
U n io n d i f f i c u l t i e s
S t i l l o n sam e jo b
N o d a ta
to tal
10042
797
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
20
34
14
5
8 .8
1 4 .9
6 .1
2 .2
56
196
93
57
7 .0
2 4 .6
1 1 .7
7 .1
555
2243
1253
1159
5 .5
2 2 .3
1 2 .5
1 1 .5
78
3 4 .2
132
1 6 .6
1814
1 8 .1
22
9 .6
91
2
12
43
5 .3
1 8 .8
43
125
1 1 .4
0 .2
0 .2
5 . .4
1 5 .7
1191
43
50
510
1224
1 1 .8
0 .4
0 .5
5 .1
1 2 .2
2
-1 0 3 -
PEASOMS FOP LEAFING POSITIONS MELD MOM 1928 TUPOUGN 1937, EXCLUDING
FIPST J08S
Tables 31 through 3? (pp. 103-104) deal with rea son s s t a t e d by the
c a s e s f o r le a v in g j o b s h e l d during t h e i n t e r v a l from 1938 through 1937,
The rea so n s have been c l a s s i f i e d ih the same manner as f o r i n i t i a l occu­
p a t i o n s (se e Chapter IV f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e a so n s ) ,
Peasons o f Males f o r Leavi ng P o s i t i o n s Meli During 1928 Through 1937
As may be noted ih Table 31, approximately o n e - t h i r d (30.3 p e r c e n t )
o f th e male c a se s with grammar school t r a i n i n g gave as t h e i r reason the
b u s i n e s s depressio n .; Following t h i s , in o r d e r of importance as r e a s o n s , '
a re i n c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s (13.3 p e r c e n t ) , u n s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s (13.5 per c e n t ) , employer changed
p l a n s (10 .7 per c e n t ) ,- and employee changed p l a n s ( 9 .3 p e r c e n t ) . The
o t h e r rea so n s are n o t o u t s t a n d i h g .
The high school c a s e s , s i "mil a r l y , < gave t h e b u s i n e s s depress ion as
t h e i r o u t s t a n d i h g reason (34.4 p e r c e n t ) . ; Corresponding with t h e rea so n s
given by t h e grammar school c a s e s , - i n c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and working condi­
t i o n s came second ih importance ( 14 .3 p e r c e n t ) ,- and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g
and working c o n d i t i o n s came t h i r d (12.5 per c e n t ) . Some of t h e c ase s
s t a t e d a change o f employee’ s p l a n s ( 8 . 3 p e r c e n t ) as t h e i r cause f o r
d i s c o n t i n u i n g work, while o t h e r s mentioned a change of t h e employer’ s
p l a n s (7 .9 per c e n t ) .
The predomihant reason given by t h e c o l l e g e c a s e s i s inconv enient
l i n i n g and workihg c o n d i t i o n s (29,1 per c e n t ) , and the b u sin e ss depre ss io n
f o l lo w s c l o s e l y in importan ce (23.6 per c e n t ) . Almost o n e -te n th (9.1
p e r c e n t ) of t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d msles l e f t t h e i r p o s i t i o n s because of
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a b e t t e r ,iob.‘
The re asons f o r the p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s d isc o n ti n u i n g work a re si m i­
l a r to t h o s e advanced by t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d men, inconvenient l i v i n g and
workihg c o n d i t i o n s being t h e most f r e c u e n t cause (29.4 per c e n t ) . Second
i h importance i s t h e b u s i n e s s de p re ssion (18.2 per c e n t ) , and almost o f
eaua l weight with each o t h e r are u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and workihg condi­
t i o n s (9 ,9 per c e n t ) and p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b e t t e r job (9.1 per c e n t ) .
The b u s i n e s s d e p re s s io n predom inates with the v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d
men (27.9 per c e n t ) 86 t h e i r reason f o r job d i s m i s s a l . The o t h e r o u t ­
sta n d in g r e a so n s are i n c o n v e n i e n t l i v i n g and working c o n d it i o n s (16,8
p e r c e n t ) , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s (10.7 p e r c e n t ) ,
and t h e f a c t t h a t the employee changed p l a n s ( 8 .7 per c e n t ) .
-1 0 8 -
Summary
Taking t h e male group as a whole, th e o u t s t a n d i n g rea so n s f o r the
men l e a v i n g o c c u p a t i o n s h e l d from 1928 through 1937 are t h e same as
t h o s e given f o r th e men d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r f i r s t occu p a tio n s. The
b u s i n e s s de pre ssio n was mentioned by more than o n e - f o u r t h (28.5 per c e n t )
o f the men, in c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s were given by aporo x im a te ly o n e - f i f t h (20.8 per c e n t ) , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and
working c o n d i t i o n s were s t a t e d by a l i t t l e more than o n e -te n th o f the
male group (10 .7 per c e n t ) ,
Peasons o f Females f o r Leavi ng P o s i t i o n s Held During 1928 Through 19S7
Table 32 t r e a t s o f t h e r e a s o n s given by th e females f o r l e a v in g
t h e i r j o b s. There are s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r reaso ns and th ose
o f the male c a s e s (s e e Table 31). Almost o n e - f o u r t h (22.8 p e r c e n t ) o f
t h e females with grammar school background mentioned as t h e i r reason a
change o f t h e e m p lo y e r 's p l a n s . The o t h e r predominant r e a s o n s advanced
by t h e females ih t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l group are o f almost equal importance:
employee changed p l a n s (18.5 p e r c e n t ) , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working
c o n d i t i o n s (13.1 p e r c e n t ) , and the b u s i n e s s dep ressio n (15.8 p e r c e n t ) .
A l i t t l e l e s s than o n e - t e n t h (9.5 p e r c e n t ) gave as t h e i r cause incon­
v e n ie n t l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i o n s .
The high school group advanced t h e same r e a so n s as t h e grammar school
c a s e s , b u t t h e o r d e r o f importanc e i s s l i g h t l y changed. The b u s i n e s s
d e p re ssion and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d it i o n s are o f almost
equal importance (19.8 p e r c e n t and 19.4 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , as are a
change o f employee's p l a n s (16.9 per c e n t ) and a change o f e m ployer's
p l a n s (18.5 p e r c e n t ) . I n c o n v e n i e n t l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i o n s ac­
counted f o r the l e a v i n g o f more than o n e - t e n t h o f th e high school females
(12.8 p e r c e n t ) .
The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d women mentioned t h e same predominant reason,
in c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i o n s (28.3 per c e n t ) , as did th e
c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males. As with t h e male c o l l e g e group, t h e b u s i n e s s
d e p re ssion r a n k s second i n importance among the causes (18.6 p e r c e n t ) .
For th e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d women a change o f the employee's p la n s was an
o u t s t a n d i h g reason (15.2 p e r c e n t ) .
The female p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s gave in co nv e nie n t l i v i n g and workihg
c o n d i t i o n s as a very i m p o r ta n t reason (42.4 per c e n t ) f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g
t h e i r o c c u p a ti o n s . This co rrespo n ds with t h e r e s u l t found i n Table 31
f o r t h e male p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s . Other p opular reason s a re : change of
employee's p la n s (11.3 p e r c e n t ) , b u s i n e s s depress ion ( 9 .4 per c e n t ) ,
and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s (9.4 p e r c e n t ) .
-1 0 7 -
With t h e v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s school t r a i n e d women,
t h e b u s i n e s s d e p re ss io n head s t h e l i s t o f rea so n s (22.5 p e r c e n t ) .
I n c o n v e n i e n t l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s rank second in importance
( 1 6.? p e r c e n t ) , a change o f employee’ s p l a n s ranks t h i r d (12.9 per
c e n t ) , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s rank f o u r t h
(11.9 p e r cent).^
Summary
Considering th e e n t i r e female group, i t i s found t h a t s e v e r a l
r e a s o n s sre o f almost equal weight: th e b u s i n e s s d e p re s s io n (18.2 per
cent),< i n c o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s (13.2 p e r c e n t ) , a
change of th e employee’ s p l a n s ( 15 .9 p e r c e n t ) , a change o f t h e em­
p l o y e r ' s p l a n s (14.7 p e r c e n t ) , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working
c o n d i t i o n s (12.6 p e r c e n t ) .
Reasons o f Males and Females for, Leavi ng P o s i t i o n s Meld During 1928
Through 193?
Table 23 p r e s e n t s th e r e a so n s advanced by a l l t h e c a s e s ih t h i s
study f o r l e a v i h g p o s i t i o n s h e ld from 1928 through 1927. The followin g
t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e predominant r e a s o n s shows t h a t t h e r e are only s l i g h t
d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s e d u c a ti o n a l groups:
Grammar S c h o o l C a s e s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s io n
E m p lo y ee o h a n g e d p l a n s
U n s a t i s f a o t o r y l i v i n g and w o rk in g c o n d i t i o n s
E m p lo y er o h a n g e d p l a n s
Sigh School Cases
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
E m p lo y ee o h a n g e d p l a n s
U n s a t i s f a o t o r y l i v i n g an d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
E m p lo y er o h a n g e d p l a n s
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g an d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
25 . 2
13. 7
1 3 .6
1 3 .4
1 3 .2
C o l l e g e Cases
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
E m ployee o h a n g e d p l a n s
2 7 .7 p e r c e n t
20. 9 p e r o e n t
1 0 .6 p e r o e n t
P o s t - G r a d u a t e Cases
I n o o n v e n ie n t l i v i n g and w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
U n s a t i s f a o t o r y l i v i n g an d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
3 4 .2 p e r o e n t
1 4 .9 p e r o e n t
9. 6 per oent
V o c a t i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l or B u s i n e s s S c h o o l C a s e s
B u s in e s s d e p r e s s i o n
I n o o n v e n i e n t l i v i n g an d w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
E m ployee o h a n g e d p l a n s
U n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and w o rk in g o o n d i t i o n s
24. 6
1 6 .6
11. 7
11. 4
20. 8 p e r o e n t
i e . 4 per o en t
15. 2 p e r o e n t
1 4 .0 p e r o e n t
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
per
oent
oent
oent
oent
oent
oent
oent
oent
oent
-109-
Summary
When t h e t o t a l 10,042 male and female cases a re c o n s i d e r e d , i t
i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e four h i g h e s t ranking r e a s o n s f o r l e a v in g
p o s i t i o n s h e ld from 1928 through 1927 a r e th e same,' and rank in t h e same
o r d e r , as t h o s e advanced by t h e WPA group f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r f i r s t jobs.;
These major r e a s o n s f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g work (1928-1927) are: th e b u sin e ss
d e p r e s s io n (2 2 .2 p e r c e n t ) , ' i n c o n v e n i e n t l i v i n g and workihg c o n d i t i o n s
(15,1 p e r c e n t ) , 'e m p l o y e e changed p l a n s (12.5 p e r c e n t ) , - a n d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
l i V i h g and working c o n d i t i o n s (11.8 per c e n t ) . In i n i t i a l employment,
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b e t t e r jo b r e c e i v e d f i f t h p l a c e and a change o f t h e
e m p l o y e r 's p l a n s ranked s i x t h , whereas ih t h e s e l a t e r p o s i t i o n s (1928-1927)
a change o f e m p loy er's p l a n s ranks f i f t h and a b e t t e r j o b t a k e s s i x t h
pi ace.
DURATION OF POSITIONS NFZD FROM ~192S TNR0U9N 193? EXCLUSIVE OF FIRST JOBS
In making t h i s study, d a ta were gathered to d i s c o v e r whether t h e r e
a re any d i f f e r e n c e s between th e variouB e du ca tio nal groups as to th e
l e n g t h o f time t h a t p o s i t i o n s have been he ld . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s p a r t
o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n are shown ih Tables 24-26 (pp. 109 f f . j .
For the purpose s o f t h i s survey, time was d iv id e d i n t o t h e follo w in g
c a t e g o r i e s : 0 to 5 months, 6 months to 11 months, 1 y e a r to 1 year 11
months, 2 y e a r s to 2 y e a r s 11 months, 2 ye ars to 4 y e a r s 11 months,
5 y e a r s to 9 y e a r s 11 months, 10 y e a r s to 15 y e a r s 11 months, 15 y e a r s
to 24 y e a r s 11 months, and 25 y e a r s and over. There a r e some c a s e s who
have never worked. There are some whose r ec ord s f a i l e d t o supply the
n e c e s s a r y da ta , and some who were s t i l l employed on t h e i r f i r s t j o b s .
These l a s t t h r e e groups were excluded in th e computation of th e Md.:,
G1 and G3 o f t h e d u r a t i o n .
Dur at i on o f P o s i t i o n s Held by Males from 1928 Through 193?
Of a l l t h e e d u c a ti o n a l groups, t h e grammar school c a s e s remained
in t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e l o n g e s t time (Vd. 2 y e a r s , 2 months and 4
d a y s ) . The p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s stayed almost as long (Md. 2 y e a r s ,
2 months and 15 days), and the v o c a tio n a l case s ranked t h i r d (Md. 2
y e a r s ) . The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males h e ld p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e s h o r t e s t
l e n g t h o f time (Md. 1 y e a r and 8 months), although t h e high school
t r a i n e d c a s e s did not r e t a i n t h e i r j o b s much l o n g e r (Vd. 1 y e ar, 1C
months and 21 days).
The median o f t h e d u r a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s h e ld by s l l t h e males i s
1 y e a r , 10 months and 24 days.
The 91 was found to be 8 months and
18 days, and t h e G3, 2 y e a r s , 5 months and 15 days.
-1 0 9 I H y U t
TABLE
34
Duration of Positions Helo from 1928 Throuqh 1937 by All Vales of Various Eoucational Levels,
__________
^ Exclusive of Their F irst J obs
P f tH f tA T If tN A I
I eupi
Col. 1
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
po st-graduate
V ooational,
te o h n io al or
b usiness sohool
TOTAL . . . .
0-5 MOS.
6 MOS.--11 MOS.
1 1 YEAR1 YEAR 11 VOS.
2 YEARS2 TEARS 11 MOS.
CASES NUMBER IPER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 2 Col. 3 | Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 8 Col. 7 Col. 8 Col. g C ol.10
NUMBER
ftP
893
135
15.1
924
147
15.9
1356
142
261
10
291
3606
122
13.6
115
12.9
115
12.4
161
17.4
19.2
7.0
148
12
10.9
8.4
233
30
40
13.7
31
10.3
593
16.4
428
11.9
•
1
HI
12.4
130
14.1
17.2
21.1
184
22
13.6
15.5
55
ie .9
37
12.7
594
16.5
484
13.4
.
TABL E 35
Duration of Positions Helo from 1928 Throuqh 1937 er All Females of Various Educational Levels,
Exclusive of Their F irst J obs
2 YEARS1 YEAR0-5 mos.
6 MOS.--11 MOS.
2 YEARS 11 MOS.
NUMBER
1 YEAR 11 MOS.
OF
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
school graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and o o lleg e
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
total
•
•
•
•
1733
379
21.9
275
15.9
308
17.8
213
12.3
1623
390
24.0
264
16.3
278
17.1
196
12.1
1540
82
321
15
20.8
18.3
183
5
12.1
8.1
2 ee
19
18.6
23.2
214
ie
13.9
22.0
475
96
20.2
62
13.0
85
17.9
56
ii. e
5453
1201
22.0
792
14.5
976
17.9
897
12 . e
TABLE 36
Duration of Positions Held from 1928 Throuqh 1937 by All Vai. es and Females oi: Various Educational Levels. Exclusive of Their F irst J obs
2 Yi:ARS—
1 YEAR6 MOS. -11 MOS.
0-5 mos.
2 YEAR!3 11 MOS.
1 YEAR 11 MOS.
NUMBER
OF
educational level
CASES NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and o ollege
graduates
p o st-g rad u ate
V ooational,
te o h n io al or
businaBS sohool
total
.
2628
514
19.6
397
15.1
423
16.1
324
12.3
2547
537
21.1
379
14.9
439
17.2
326
12.8
2896
224
582
25
20.1
11.2
334
17
11.5
7.6
519
49
17.9
21.9
898
40
13.7
17.8
766
136
93
12.1
140
18.3
93
12.1
9059
1794
17.7
19.8
1220
13.4
1570
17.3
1181
13.0
-1 1 0 TABLE 34 (ComriNUEO)
Duration of Positions Helo from 1929 Throuqh 1937 by All Males of Various Educational Levels,
Exclusive of Their first J obs
5 YEARS3 YEARS- ID YEARSM 16 YEARSr 25 YEARS
4 YEARS 11 MOS, 9 YEARS 11 VOS. 15 YEARS 11 MOS 24 years 11 MOS
AND. OVER
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CEN1 NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 1J Col. 13 C ol.14 C ol.15 COl. 16 Col. 17 coi.ie C o l.19 COl.20 COl.21
C o l.11
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
-graduates
Post-graduate
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL . . .
«
151
18*9
115
12.9
87
4.1
14
1 .6
3
0.3
129
14.0
98
10 .8
27
2.9
2
0 .2
2
0.2
158
ie
11.3
103
12
7 .e
e.4
34
9
2 .6
6.3
2
0 .1
1 2 .7
3
0.2
46
15. e
26
9 .0
10
3.4
5
1.7
2
0.7
502
13.9
357
9 .9
117
3 .2
23
0 .6
10
0*3
'ABLE 35 (Com r 1 n u e d )
Du ra tio n
of
P o s i t i o n s Hel D FROM 1?)?8 T hrouqh 1937 by Al l F e m a l e s
Exct . u s i v e o f T h e i r F i r s t J o b s
of
V a r i o u s E o u c a t i o n a l Levels,
|
25 yEARS
AND OVER
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT tiUMBER »ER CENT
3 YEARS-
5 YEARS-
• 10 YEARS-
16 YEARS-
4 YEARS 11 MOS. 9 YEARS 11 MOS. 15 y e a r s 11 MOS. 24 YEARS 1.1 MOS.
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
school graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and ooll9ge
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
business school
TOTAL . . . .
195
11.3
183
10 .8
52
3 .0
12
0 .7
1
0.0
160
9.8
124
7.3
28
1-8
4
0 .2
1
0 .1
181
1 1 .8
1 2 .2
125
1.9
8
0.4
8
e .i
7 .3
29
10
84
13.5
44
9.3
12
2.5
2
0.4
1
0*2
611
1 1 .2
482
e-.e
119
2. 2
24
0. 4
3
0. 0
rABLE 3 6 ( C o n tin u e d )
Duration of Posit
I
o n s H el.D FROM IS328 Through 1937 by A ll Wales and Females o f Various Educational 1
1
Levels Exclusive of Their F ir s t Jobs
0 YEARS— f 6 YEARS— 1 * 10 YEARS— I 16 YEARS— 1 25 YEARS
1
^ W0S*1 ^ YEA)js T1 MOS124 ^ E A R ^ J L ] ^ M 0 s J _ ^ A N D OVER
1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teo h n io al or
b usiness sohool
TOTAL •
•
•
•
347
13.2
298
11.3
89
3.4
28
1.0
4
0.2
289
11.3
222
8.7
53
2*1
6
0 .2
3
0.1
389
28
11.7
12.5
231
18
8.0
83
9
2.2
4*0
8
0.3
3
0.1
8 .0
no
14.4
70
9.1
22
2.9
7
0.9
3
0.4
1113
12.3
839
9.2
236
2 .8
47
0 .5
13
0.1
-Ill-
TABLE 34 (C o n c lu d e d )
Duration of P o sitio n s Held from 1928 Through 1937 by All Wiles of Various Educational Levei•s,
Exclusive of Their F irst J obs
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
1 NEVER WORKED 1
I
I
NO DATA
f
_________ 1
STILL ON
SAME JOB
TOTAL
OF
PREVIOUS
c o l h m
3ol. 2S COl.24 C o l.25 Col. 28 Col. 27 Col. 28 C o l.29
C o l.22
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
4
9.3
3
0.3
0.4
e3
eo3
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
8
0.9
105
11.4
0
0.0
e ii
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
0.1
23
15.0
1129
203
1
1.7
P ost-graduate
0.7
113
2
26
19.3
1
1.4
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
0 .3
252
5
1.7
11.3
1
33
3108
TOTAL
•
42
12-5
6
450
1.2
°*2
•
•
•
...
Q1
Wo.
CP
s s
Col. 30 Col. 81 C ol.32
*v
0*9* 6
2.3.4
0.8*27
3* 9* 15
1.10.21 3 .5 .3
0.6.27 1 .8.0
1 .2 .15 2.2.15
3.1.18
3 .7 .6
0.10.15 2 .0 .0
3*6.24
0 .8 .1 8 1.10.24 3-5.15
T A B L E 35 (Conc5LUDED)
Duration of P o sitio n s Held from 1 9 2 8 Through 1 9 3 7 by All Females of Various Educational LevELS,
Exclusive of Their ■irst J obs
still on
TOTAL
NO DATA
NEVER WORKED
V o.
OF
SAME JOB
Q1
c3
PREVIOUS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
PER
C
E
N
T
C
O
LU
M
N
S
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
7
0.4
103
5 .9
4
0.2
1619
0.6*18
1 .6 .1
3.2.12
26
1.3
153
9 .4
1
0-1
1443
o .5 .ie
1.1.12
2 .9 .6
29
1*9
161
9
10.4
11.0
2
0 .1
I34e
73
0.6*15
0 .9 .2 4
3.0.9
1 .7 .0
1.10.13 2.10.15
8
1.7
42
8.8
3
0.6
422
0 .6 .2 7
1.7.15
3 .3 .9
i . 5 . i e 3 .0 .8
4905
0 .6 .6
0 .2
10
8.6
T A B L E 36 (Cof iclu d ed )
Duration of Positi ons Hel.0 FROM 153?9 Thro ush 1937 by All Wales ani3 Females of Vario us Educa-rIONAL
Levels, Exclus ive of Th eir F irst J obs
TOTAL
stil .L ON
NO DATA
NEVER WORKED
Wd.
OF
Q3
Q1
SAME JOB
PREVIOUS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT COLUMNS
TOTAL
•
•
»
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
*' •
•
70
1.3
488
11
0.4
186
7.1
7
0*3
2422
0.7.12 1 .8 .5
3.5.15
34
1*4
25e
10.1
1
0.0
2254
0.8*12 1.5.24
3.0.12
52
2
1.8
0.9
334
35
12.6
3
1
0.1
0.4
2477
183
0 .8 .2 1 1.7.12
1 .0 .8 2.0*18
3.0.27
3.3* 18
13
1.7
75
9 .e
4
0.5
371
o .e .o
1*9. 3
3.4*15
112
1.2
918
10.1
16
0.2
8013
0 .7 .0
1.7.18
s . 2« ie
♦
•
■a
£ 5 » 8
-1 1 2 -
Duratlon o f P o s i t i o n s field by Females from 1929 Throuih 195?
The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s held t h e i r p o s i t i o n s l o n g e s t (1 y e a r , 10 months,'
13 da y s).
The v o c a tio n a l and c o l l e g e c a s e s have almost t h e same median
o f d u r a tio n o f p o s i t i o n s (1 y e a r , ' 7 months, 15 days, and l y e a r , 7 months
r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . ; The females with grammar school background held t h e i r
p o s i t i o n s almost aB long (1 year, - « months, 1 day) as t h e foregoing
groups, while the high school c ase s l e f t t h e i r j o b s 5 months sooner
(Md.-of d u r a t i o n ,'1 y e a r , l month, 12 d a y s ) . ’
The median o f d u r a t io n o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d by f e m a l e s ( l y e a r , 5 months,
18 days) i s app rox im ate ly 5 months l e s s t h sn t h a t o f t h e m al e s .
The Q1
f o r t h e f e m a l e s i's 3 m on th s ,• 6 days, and t h e Qs , 3 y e a r s , 8 days.
D u r a t i o n o f P o s i t i o n s Held by Males and Femal es f r o m 1928 T hr o ui h 195?
When th e males and f e m a le s ar e c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r ,
background seems to p la y very l i t t l e
p o s i t i o n s h e ld by t h e c a s e s .
l o n g e s t (2 y e a r s ,
educational
p a r t in d e te r m in in g th e d u r a t io n o f
The p o s t - g r a d u a t e group h o l d s p o s i t i o n s
13 d a y s ) , but t h e members o f t h e o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l
groups f o l l o w very c l o s e l y ( t h e d u r a t i o n r a ng in g from 1 y e a r , 5 months,
24 days t o 1 y e a r , 9 months, 3 d a y s ) .
The median o f du ra t io n f o r t h e e n t i r e group i s 1 y e a r , 7 months,
18 days.
The a1 i s 7 months and t h e 83, 3 y e a r s , 2 months, 18 days.
S VMMAPT AMD COMCLUSTOVS
I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n on P a s t O c c u p a t i o n s o f Males
( 1 ) The p a s t o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e male c a s e s were d i s t r i b u t e d as
f o l l o w s : 4 7 ,5 per c e n t i n i n d u s t r i a l , 2 0 . 1 per c e n t in commercial,
1 0 . 3 per c e n t in p r o f e s s i o n a l and 3 . 9 per c e n t in d om est ic p o s i t i o n s .
( 2 ) I d u c a t i o n a l background e x e r t e d a d e c id e d p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e
on j o b p la c e m e n t s in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s .
( 3 ) In t h e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n s , t h e v a l u e o f a c o l l e g e e d u c a ti o n in
s e c u r i n g p o s i t i o n s was n o t very marked.
( 4 ) High s ch oo l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g proved more h e l p f u l than
a grammar s c h o o l background in o b t a i n i n g s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s .
( 5 ) The i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t io n on p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t
p o s i t i o n s was n e g l i g i b l e ,
(3 )
Pl a c e m e n ts i n commercial p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e d i n d i r e c t propor­
t i o n to e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g up t o t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e l e v e l .
( 7 ) An i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was found t o e x i s t between
e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and d o m e s t i c j o b s .
(3) With an i n c r e a s e i n e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , i n d u s t r i a l p la c e m e nt s
decreased.
( 9 ) C o l l e g e t r a i n i n g g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e c u r i n g
work on government p r o j e c t s .
I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n on Pa s t O c c u p a t i o n s o f Females
( 1 ) The p a s t o c c u p a t i o n s o f th e fe m a le c a s e s were d i s t r i b u t e d as
f o l l o w s : 4 9 .9 per c e n t i n do m e s ti c , 1 4 , 0 per c e n t i n commercial, 1 4 . 0
p e r cdnt i n i n d u s t r i a l and 1 3 . 2 per c e n t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s .
( 2 ) The i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n was most pronounced in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s
s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n s and government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s ,
( 3 ) P r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t j o b s di d n o t vary i n accordance
with e d u c a t i o n a l background,
(4) Vocational,
t e c h n i c a l or b u s i n e s s s ch oo l t r a i n i n g proved most
v a l u a b l e in s e c u r i n g commercial p o s i t i o n s ,
o f almost eaual worth.
alt ho ugh c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g was
(5 ) Higher e d u c a t i o n l e s s e n e d t h e c ha nc e s o f s e c u r i n g work in domes­
t i c as we ll as i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d s ,
(8 ) A much l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
t h e women than o f t h e men had been
employed in t h e do m e s ti c f i e l d ,
(7 ) I n d u s t r i a l p l a c e m e n t s o f t h e men f a r out weighed t h o s e o f th e
women.
(8) In t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l
and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a tt e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s ,
t h e women had a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r showing than t h a t o f t h e men,
(9) The men f a r e d b e t t e r than t h e women i n commercial, government
project,
and s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l l i n e s
o f work.
I n f l u e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n on Pa s t O c c u p a t i o n s o f V a l e s and Females
( 1 ) Approximately o n e - t h i r d o f th e p a s t o c c u p a t i o n s o f a l l t h e
c a s e s were o f t h e d om est ic t y p e , o n e - f o u r t h i n d u s t r i a l , and o n e - e i g h t h
p r o f e s s i o n a l in c h a r a c t e r .
( 2 ) Fducation e x e r t e d a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p r o f e s s i o n a l and semi­
p r o f e s s i b n a l job p l a c e m e n t s .
(3 ) The amount o f p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g did n o t p la y an impo rta nt r d l e
i n s e c u r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a tt e n d a n t j o b s .
( 4 ) V o c a t i o n a l , ' t e c h n i c a l or b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g proved o f g r e a t e s t
v a l u e in o b t a i n i n g commercial p o s i t i o n s .
(5) I n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g proved to be a d e t e r r e n t f a c t o r
i n s e c u r i n g d o m es ti c work,( 8 ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l p la c e m e nt s
was n o t marked,
( 7 ) Higher e d u c a t i o n was v a l u a b l e i n o b t a i n i n g government p r o j e c t
position s.
-1 1 4 (9)
Many c a s e s g r a v i t a t e d t o d om es ti c f i e l d s o f work a f t e r s t a r t i n g
out in i n d u s t r i a l l i n e s . ;
(9 )
P r o f e s s io n a l placements increased s l i g h t l y ,
subseouent t o i n i ­
t i a l employment,' and a s l i g h t s h i ' f t away from commercial p o s i t i o n s was
noted.
I n f l u e n c e o f Ai e on Pas t O c c u p a t i o n s o f Va l e s and Females
( l ) P r o f e s s i o n a l job p la c e m e n ts i n c r e a s e d with advancing age up to
t h e 30-39 y e a r l e v e l , at which a d e c l i n e was n o t ed .
( ? ) In t h e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l
s e r v i c e a tt e n d a n t
f i e l d s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n place me nt at t h e v a r i o u s age l e v e l s was s l i g h t ,
( 3 ) Employment in commercial p o s i t i o n s dec re ase d as age i n c r e a s e d .
( 4 ) Domestic s e r v i c e p la c e m e n ts i n c r e a s e d i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o age.;
( 5 ) I n d u s t r i a l p la c e m e n ts d id n o t f l u c t u a t e very g r e a t l y due t o t h e
age f a c t o r . ;
( 3 ) Only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s in p la c e m e nt s on government p r o j e c t s
o c c u r r e d at t h e v a r i o u s age l e v e l s . Meekl y Wafes o f V a l e s Whi l e E n i a i e d on Pa s t O c c u p a t i o n s
( 1 ) Education did n o t e x e r t a pronounced i n f l u e n c e on t h e weekly
remuneration o f t h e m al e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s st udy.
( 2 ) The h ig h s c h o o l c a s e s did n o t earn as much as t h o s e with
a
grammar s c h o o l ba c k g r o u n d .(3 ) The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males were p a id only s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than
t h o s e with v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l or b u s i n e s s s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n .
( 4 ) The p o s t - g r a d u a t e group r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t weekly r em un er ati on .
( 5 ) The median o f t h e weekly wages o f a l l the
males was $ 1 8 . 8 1 .
Meekly Waies o f Femal es V h i l e E n i a i e d on Pas t Oc c u p a t i o n s
( 1 ) The weekly s a l a r i e s o f t h e f e m a l e s became p r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r
a s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l was r a i s e d . ( 2 ) A ll t h e women e x c e p t t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s earned l e e s than t h e men.
( 3 ) The median o f t h e weekly wages o f a l l t h e
Weekly Waies
o f V a l e s and Females Wh i l e E n i a i e d on
fe ma les was 1 1 3 . 5 2 .
Pa s t O c c u p a t i o n s
( 1 ) Weekly remuneration v a r i e d i n d i r e c t p r o p o r ti o n t o t h e amount o f
s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g of. t h e mal es and f e m a l e s i n t h i s s tu d y.
( 2 ) The median o f t h e weekly wages o f a l l t h e c a s e s was F l 5 . 4 8 .
( 3 ) Only a very s l i g h t i n c r e a s e in weekly e a r n i n g s o c cu rr e d s u b s e ­
quent to i n i t i a l employment.-
-1 1 5 Reas ons o f Males f o r l e a v i n i P o s i t i o n s field f rom 1958 T h r ou i h 195?
( 1 ) The m a le s c o m p r is in g t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l groups advanced
t h e same r e a s o n s f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g work, th e most o u t s t a n d i n g c a u s e s
b e i n g t h e b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n , - and i n c o n v e n i e n t and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s . ( 2 ) The r e a s o n s o f t h e men f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r f i r s t j o b s were t h e
same as t h o s e advanced f o r t e r m i n a t i n g subseouent employment.
Re as ons o f Femal es f o r l e a v i n i P o s i t i o n s field from ~1958 Th r o u i h 195?
( 1 ) The most o u t s t a n d i n g c a u s e s give n by the f e m a l e s f o r l e a v i n g
t h e i r p o s i t i o n s were t h e b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n , i n c o n v e n i e n t and u n s a t i s ­
factory liv i n g
and working c o n d i t i o n s ,
and changes o f p l a n s on t h e p a r t
o f employer and employee.
( 2 ) The r e a s o n s advanced by th e women co mp ri si ng t h e v a r i o u s educa­
tional
groups c o r r e sp o n d ,
to a g r e a t e x t e n t ,
R e a s o n s o f M a l e s and F e m a l e s f o r
Throuih
leavini
to t h o s e gi ve n by t h e ma les.
Positions
f i el d f r o m 1928
195?
( 1 ) Dr a c t i c a l l y the same r e a s o n s were give n by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s
the
at
various educational l e v e l s for lea vin g th eir jobs.
( 2 ) The most im p o rt a n t c a u s e s f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g work were: th e
b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n , i n c o n v e n i e n t and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working
c o n d i t i o n s , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e employee changed h i s p l a n s .
(3) The f o u r h i g h e s t ra nki ng r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g p o s i t i o n s during
1928 through 1937 were th e same, and ranked in th e same o r d e r , as t h o s e
advanced f o r t e r m i n a t i n g i n i t i a l
Duration o f P o s i t i o n s
employment.
f i e l d b y Ma l e s f r o m 1928 T h r o u i h
195?
( 1 ) The men with grammar s c h o o l t r a i n i n g remained on t h e i r p o s i t i o n s
l o n g e r than any o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l group,
(2) The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s ranked second in duration o f p o s i t i o n s , and
t h e v o c a t i o n a l c a s e s ranked t h i r d .
( 3 ) The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males h e l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e s h o r t e s t
le n g th o f time.
(4) The median of t h e d u r a t i o n of . p o s i t i o n s h e ld by a l l t h e males
i n t h i s study was 1 ye ar, 10 months and 24 days.
Duration o f P o s i t i o n s
f i e l d b y F e m a l e s f r o m 1928 T h r o u i h 1 9 5 ?
( 1 ) The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s had th e s l o w e s t jo b t u r n o v e r ,
(2) Women with c o l l e g e , grammar or v o c a tio n a l school t r a i n i n g held
t h e i r p o s i t i o n s almost as long as the p o s t - g r a d u a t e s .
-1 1 3 ( 3 ) Temales with hig h s ch oo l background changed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s
more o f t e n than any o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l group,
( 4 ) The median o f d u r a t io n o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d by a l l f e m a l e s wss
1 y e a r , 5 months and 18 days,
( 5 ) The f e m a l e s l e f t t h e i r p o s i t i o n s 5 months soo ner than th e
males.
D u r a t i o n o f P o s i t i o n s Held by Hal es and f e m a l e s f r o m 1928 T h r o u i h 19'ST
(l)
E d u c a ti o n a l background pl a y e d l i t t l e p a r t i n d e te r m in in g dura­
tion of p o sitio n s.
(3)
The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s h e l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s l o n g e s t (Vd. 2 y e a r s
and 18 d a y s ) .
(3 ) The d u r a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d by c a s e s i n t h e o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l
groups d i d n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h a t o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s .
( 4 ) The median o f d u r a t io n o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d by a l l t h e c a s e s in
t h i s study was 1 y e a r ,
9
7 months and 18 days.
CHAPTER VI
A n a l y s i s o f Jo b R e f e r r a l s
Thus f a r t h i s study h a s d e a l t with t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s o f
i n d i v i d u a l s ap p ly in g t o t h e WPA Adult Guidance S e r v i c e and New York Drban
League o f f i c e . - F o l l o w i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n a t t h e s e employment o f f i c e s , ' e f ­
f o r t s were made t o se c u r e p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e a p p l i c a n t s .
These e f f o r t s
are c a l l e d " f i n a l jo b r e f e r r a l s " i n t h i s st udy.
This c ha pt er p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e r e f e r r a l s , - with th e pur­
p o s e o f d e te r m in in g whether e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l p l a y s a p a r t i n i n f l u e n c i n g
t h e ty p e o f j o b s se c u r e d .; The i n f l u e n c e o f age on f i n a l job r e f e r r a l s
has also received a t t e n t io n ,
A f u r t h e r study was made t o determine t h e
number o f jo b r e f e r r a l s needed u n t i l permanent employment was se c ur e d.
Outcomes o f t h e jo b r e f e r r a l s were t a b u l a t e d , ' as were th e r e a s o n s fo r
r e j e c t i o n o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who were not h i r e d . ;
Gome o f th e a p p l i c a n t s a t t h e employment o f f i c e s were a d v is e d to
supplement t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g r a t h e r than seek employment.
r e f e r r a l s have been d e s i g n a t e d as " c l a s s s t u d y . "
Such
In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s ,
t h e employment c o u n s e l o r s deemed i t a d v i s a b l e t o r e f e r i n d i v i d u a l s to
o t h e r employment a g e n c i e s .
These c a s e s have been c l a s s i f i e d as " t r a n s ­
fe r r e d .^ 1 The " c ha r it y" c a s e s are t h o s e who were r e f e r r e d to c h a r i t a b l e
in stitu tion s,
such as t h e A.; I . C.; P« v r a t h e r than t o employment p o s s i ­
b ilities.;
I t may be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e c a s e s l a c k i n g data are very numerous in
t h i s p a r t o f th e study.; The c a u s e o f t h i s i s t h a t some a p p l i c a n t s came
to t h e employment o f f i c e s with the e x p r e s s purpose o f th ere by e s t a b l i s h ­
i n g t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r home r e l i e f a s s i s t a n c e .
In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e
c a s e s , however, t h e r e were some i n d i v i d u a l s who r e c e i v e d employment
through o t h e r c h a n n el s , th u s making t h e i r r e c o r d s in c o m p l e t e at the
NPA or New York Urban League o f f i c e .
Table s 37, 38 and
39 (pp. 138 f f . )
show t h e i n f l u e n c e o f educa­
t i o n a l l e v e l on f i n a l job r e f e r r a l s .
Gince most o f th e c a s e s were
r e f e r r e d t o s e v e r a l j o b s b e f o r e s e c u r i n g permanent pla cement, t h e number
o f r e f e r r a l s tabulated
i s g r e a t e r than t h e number o f c a s e s .
I n f l u e n c e o f Ed u c a t i o n
on F i n a l Job D e f e r r a l s o f Va l e s
Table 37 d e a l s with 3099 r e f e r r a l s o f t h e 3301 male c a s e s .
Professions
The p r o p o r t i o n s o f male r e f e r r a l s to p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s a t the
v a r i o u s e d u ca tio n al l e v e l s do n o t show any s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e (see
-1 1 7 -
-1 1 9 TABLE 37
Fi NAL REFEI*rals of All Males of Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONS
SEMI­
PROFESSIONAL SER­
NUMBER NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
VICE ATTENDANTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
OF
OF
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUV8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
dOlt 1
Col. 2 Col. 3
Col. 4 Col. 5
Col.
Col. 7
Col.
Col. 9
P a rtia l grammar
and grammar
school graduates
702
843
3
0.4
2
0.2
2
0.2
p a r t i a l high
school and high
sohool graduates
810
959
7
0.7
4
0.4
9
0.9
p a r t i a l college
and oollege
graduates
829
990
31
8.1
4
0.4
11
1.1
post-graduate
80
89
10
11.2
1
1.1
Vocational,
teohnioal or
business school
4
218
180
1.8
3
1.4
6
2. e
TOTAL . . . .
3099
55
2601
1.8
14
0.4
28
0.9
TABLE 38
F inal Refer rals of All Females of Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONS
SEMI­
PROFESSIONAL SER­
NUMBER NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
VICE ATTENDANTS
bDUwAItONAL LcVcL
Or
OF
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
2802
1341
1
0.0
p a r ti a l high
sohool.ana high
sohool graduates
0.1
7
0.3
0.4
10
2362
1461
2
P a r tia l oollege
and college
0.2
graduates
0.2
3
24
2
2.0
1199
990
2.2
1
Post-graduate
8-7
4
46
40
Vocational,
teohnioal or
0.8
3
0.3
business school
4
1.1
1
369
2ev
TOTAL
.
.
.
4119
.
6777
42
0.6
TABLE 39
0
0.1
14
0.2
F inal Referrals of All Vales and Females of Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONAL SER­
SEMI­
PROFESSIONS
VICE ATTENDANTS
PROFESSIONS
NUMBER NUMBER
OF
OF
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL
.'
•
•
•
2043
3645
3
0.1
3
0.1
2
0.0
2271
3321
17
0.5
8
0.2
18
0.5
1819
2188
135
55
14
2.5
10.4
6
1
0*3
0 .7
14
1
0.7
467
587
8
1.4
4
0.7
9
1.5
6720
9876
97
1.0
20
0.2
42
0.4
120 a
0.6
-1 1 9 T A8LE 3 7 ( C o n tin u e d )
Fl nal Referrals of All Males of Various Educational Levels
commERCIAL
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
Col. 10
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL .
.
.
oomestic
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
c o l . 11 Col. 12
C ol.13 Col. 14 Col. 15 Col. 16 Col. 17 Col. 18
19
2 .2
98
10.4
241
28.6
11
1.3
48
5.0
89
9.3
295
30.7
37
8 .8
59
5
5.0
5.5
26
1
1.1
2 .6
182
3
18.4
3.4
195
27
19.7
30.3
11
5.0
18
e. 2
52
23. e
20
9.2
142
4.5
232
7.5
773
24.9
290
9.3
rABLE 38
(C o n t 1nued )
F in al Referrals of al l Females of Var ious EdlCAT10NAL Levels
C0MME:rci al
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL »' •
•
•
dome■STIC
1NDUSTR1AL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
5
0*2
1954
39.6
98
3.5
57
2.4
105
4.4
1200
50.8
153
6.5
87
3.7
115
9.5
6.5
196
13.3
52
3
2
4.3
4.3
189
15
15.8
32.6
57
15.4
59
18.7
24
6.5
22
0 .0
255
4.2
3419
50.3
329
4.8
380
5.7
1rABLE 39
( C o n tin u e d )
F inal ^EFERRAt.s of All Vales and Females of Various Eoucational Levels
30VERNMENT
INDUSTRIAL
domestic
COMMERCIAL
PROJ ECTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l college
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •
•
•
•
24
0.3
2052
55.2
339
9.3
78
2 .1
153
4.3
1289
38.8
448
13.5
124
3.7
174
8 .0
e
5.9
222
1
10.1
0 .7
234
5
10.7
3.7
384
42
17.5
31.1
ee
1 1 .6
87
14. e
70
12.9
42
7.2
427
4.3
3351
33.9
1102
11.2
570
6.8
-ISCTABLE 37 (C oncluded )
F inal Referrals of All Vales of Various Educational Levels
CLASS STUDY
TRANS3FERRED
CHARITY
NO DATA
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMSER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 19
Col. 20 Col. 21 C ol.22 Col. 28 C ol.24 Col. 25 Col. 26 C ol.27
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
school graduates
e
17
2.0
0.9
10
1.2
432
51.2
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
school graduates
7
0 .7
17
25
2.8
43.9
1.8
421
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
17
0.4
4
45e
43.2
3
1.7
0.3
post-graduate
46.1
41
1.1
1
Vooational,
teohnioal or
43. e
business school
0.4
102
0.4
1
1
TOTAL
.
.
.
30
.
1.2
51
1.3
22
0.7
1454
48. e
TABLE 38 (Concluded )
F inal Referrals of All Females of Various Educational Leve LS
CHARITY
transferred
CLASS STUDY
educational level
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
school graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
22
0.8
5
0.2
14
0.5
636
22.8
33
1*4
40
1.7
18
0 .8
707
29.9
17
1.4
29
2.4
9
0 .8
562
21
43.9
45.6
2
0.5
4
1.1
183
49.8
74
1.1
78
1.1
2109
31.0
41
0.6
TA3L E 39 ( CONCLUDI:. d)
F inal Refer rals of All Males and FendALES OF Various Education/\l Levels
NO DATA
cha RITY
TRANSFERRED
CLASS STUDY
educational level
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
•
•
•
•
39
1.1
13
0.4
24
0.3
1068
29.3
50
1.5
35
2.0
25
0.8
1128
34.0
SO
0.9
0.7
46
2.1
13
0 .6
1
1020
82
48.6
45.9
2
0.3
5
0.9
1
0.2
285
48.5
112
1.1
129
1.3
63
0 .6
3563
36.1
-1 2 1 -
T a b l e s 72 and 74) u n t i l t h e c o l l e g e group i s re a c he d ( 3 . 1 pe r c e n t
referrals).
Of t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s , - 1 1 . 2 per c e n t were r e f e r r e d to
p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d ( s e e Table 3 7 ) ,
Even though t h e p e r c e n t a g e s
o f r e f e r r a l s o f t h e grammar, h ig h and v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l c a s e s show a
s l i g h t upward tr end ( 0 . 4 per c e n t ,
0 , 7 per c e n t ,
and 1 . 8 per c e n t
r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , ' t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s are due t o chance f a c t o r s t o a g r e a t
extent.
(S ee Appendix IT,. T abl es 73 and 74. j There are 844 chances
o u t o f one thousand t h a t t h e h ig h s c h o o l t r a i n e d mal es w i l l be r e f e r r e d
to p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s in p r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e with grammar s ch ool back­
ground.
The v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d mal es have even a g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t y
o f r e f e r r a l s o f t h i s ty p e (940 c h a n c e s o u t o f 1 0 0 0 ) .
The i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l background on p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s
h e l d from 1923 through 1937 was more o u t s t a n d i n g .
Semi-Professions
The e f f e c t o f ed u c a ti o n on s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l .job r e f e r r a l s i s not
marked.
The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d men did n o t f a r e any b e t t e r than t h o s e
wilth h ig h s c h o o l background, each group ha v in g 0 . 4 per c e n t r e f e r r a l s
in t h i s f i e l d .
The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s have a h i g h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( 1 .1
per c e n t ) and t h o s e with v o c a t i o n a l background t h e h i g h e s t ( 1 . 4 per
c e n t) .^ The m al e s at t h e grammar s c h o o l l e v e l have t h e f e w e s t s em ip r o f e s s i o n a l j o b r e f e r r a l s ( 0 , 2 per c e n t ) .
Professional
Service
Attendants
I n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g di'd n o t prove t o be o f much v a l u e
i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d . - As i n t h e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n s , t h e v o c a t i o n a l l y
t r a i n e d group f a r e d b e s t ( 2 . 3 p e r c e n t ) . ; None o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s
were r e f e r r e d t o j o b s o f t h i s t y p e . - In th e remaining e d u c a t i o n a l groups,
t h e r e i s a s l i g h t s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e n o t e d from t h e grammar s c h o o l
c a s e s ( 0 . 2 per c e n t ) t o t h e h ig h s c h o o l l e v e l ( 0 . 9 per c e n t ) to th e
c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males ( l . l per c e n t ) . : (Fee Appendix I I , ' T a b le s 73
and 74.;)
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
E du c atio n al background did i n f l u e n c e commercial r e f e r r a l s , but not
t o a very g r e a t d e gr ee .; More o f t h e c a s e s with h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g
than o f t h o s e wibh grammar s c h o o l background- were r e f e r r e d t o t h i s t y p e
o f work ( 5 . 0 pe r c e n t as compared with 2 . 2 pe r c e n t ) .
Males with vo ca ­
t i o n a l , * t e c h n i ’c a l or b u s i n e s s s c h o o l t r a i n i n g were no t any more s u c c e s s ­
ful
( 5 . 0 per c e n t ) in o b t a i n i n g commercial job r e f e r r a l s than t h e high
s c h o o l men.]
C o l l e g e t r a i n e d m al e s hav e t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f
-1 2 2 -
commerei'al jo b r e f e r r a l s ( 3 . 0 p e r c e n t ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between the
p o s t - g r a d u a t e s and t h e c o l l e g e group in t h i s f i e l d (5.3 p e r cent and
3 . 0 p e r c e n t r e f e r r a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i s due to chance.
(Fee Tables
73 and 74,< Appendix I T . )
Domestic Service
There are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between th e p r o p o r t i o n s o f
d o m e s t i c job r e f e r r a l s o f t h o s e with grammar, high or v o c a t i o n a l s ch ool
background ( 1 0 . ;4 per cent,* 9 , 2 pe r c e n t and 9 . 2 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
At t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l , < th e r e f e r r a l s d e c l i n e c o n s i d e r a b l y ( 2 . 5 per c e n t ) ,
and they c o n t i n u e at a low l e v e l through t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e group ( l . l
per c e n t).
Industrial
(Fee Appendix II,< T a b l e s 72 and 74,' f o r the C r i t i c a l R a t i o s . )
Positions
In i h du st r i a l jo b r e f e r r a l s ,
p e r c e n t a g e ( 3 0 . 7 per c e n t ) .
th e h i g h s ch oo l group have th e h i g h e s t
The mal es with grammar s c h o o l background
ha ve almost as hig h a p r o p o r t i o n ( 2 9 , 3 per c e n t ) , ' and th e v o c a t i o n a l
c a B e s rank t h i r d ( 2 2 . 9 p e r c e n t ) .
The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d c a s e s do n o t have
as many i n d u s t r i a l r e f e r r a l s ( 1 9 . 4 per c e n t ) as the v o c a t i o n a l c a s e s .
The p 0 3 t - g r a d u a t e s have a very low showing in t h i s f i e l d ( 3 .4 per c e n t ) .
Government P r o j e c t s
Only small p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e grammar s c h o o l and high school groups
were s e n t t o government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s ( 1 . 3 pe r c en t and 3 . 8 per c e n t
respectively).
The v o c a t i o n a l group f a r e d b e t t e r ( 9 . 2 per c e n t ) than
t h e hig h s c h o o l group i n t h i s t y p e o f work. As might be e x p e ct ed , t h e
p o s t - g r a d u a t e s ( 3 0 . 3 pe r c e n t ) as w e l l as t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d m s l e s
( 1 9 . 7 per c e n t ) were i n demand.
Summary
When t h e male group i s taken as a whole, Table 27 shows t h a t ap­
p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f t h e c a s e s ( 4 3 . 3 per c e n t ) l a c k e d d s t a c o n c e r n in g
jo b r e f e r r a l s , o n e - f o u r t h ( 2 4 . 9 pe r c e n t ) were r e f e r r e d t o i n d u s t r i a l
position s,
projects.
and c l o s e t o o n e - t e n t h ( 9 , 2 per c e n t ) were s e n t to government
Fmall p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e remaining number were r e f e r r e d to t h e
other types o f occupations.
The p r o f e s s i o n a l and government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s were th e o n l y
o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s i n which t h e m a le s with h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g
( c o l l e g e o r p o s t - g r a d u a t e ) showed a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f r e f e r r a l s than
d id th e c a s e s at t h e l ow e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s .
In d o m est ic s e r v i c e work,
an i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to e x i s t between h i g h e r
e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ( c o l l e g e or p o s t - g r a d u a t e ) snd job r e f e r r a l .
In
-1 2 3 t h e remaihi'ng t y p e s o f work, t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e du c at io n wee p r e s e n t to
some d e g r e e , b u t was n o t marked.
Influence
of
E d u c a t i o n on F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s o f F e m a l e s
Table S3 d e a l s with 3777 j o b r e f e r r a l s taken from t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l
h i s t o r i e s o f t h e 4119 fem ale c a s e s .
Professions
As with t h e men, so a l s o with th e women, no a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t o f
e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l on r e f e r r a l s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s was found t o
e x i s t u n t i l t h e c o l l e g e group ( 9 . 0 pe r c e n t r e f e r r a l s ) was r e a c h e d .
It
i s p r a c t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t a c o l l e g e t r a i n e d g i r l has a b e t t e r chsnce
o f b e i n g r e f e r r e d to a p r o f e s s i o n a l job than does an a p p l i c a n t with a
high s ch oo l background.
(See Appendix IT, Tables 73 and 7 4 . ) Vone o f
t h e f e m a l e s with grammar s c h o o l t r a i n i n g were r e f e r r e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l
position s.
The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o r o p o r ti o n o f r e f e r r a l s o f t h e
high s ch o ol c a s e s ( 0 . 4 per c e n t ) and the v o c a t i o n a l group ( 1 . 1 per c e n t )
i s due to c h an c e .
( S e e Appendix I I , Tables 73 and 7 4 . ) There are 929
c h a n c e s o u t o f 1000 t h a t a g i r l with v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l background w i l l
ha ve an advan tage o v e r one with h ig h sch ool t r a i n i n g i n s e c u r i n g a
r e f e r r a l to a p r o fe s sio n a l p o s it io n .
The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l showing
th e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f r e f e r r a l s i s t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e ( 3 . 7 per c e n t ) ,
Semi-Professions
Job r e f e r r a l s o f f e m a l e s i n t h e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d were n e g l i ­
gible.
Only 0 . 1 per c e n t o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l e s s e s ,
c o l l e g e group,
C.2 per c e n t o f t h e
and 0 . 3 per c e n t o f t h o s e with v o c a t i o n a l background
were s e n t to j o b s o f t h i s t y p e .
Professional
Service
Attendants
Very few o f t h e f e m a l e s were r e f e r r e d to j o b s as p r o f e s s i o n a l
v i c e a t t e n d a n t s ( s e e Table 3 3 ), -
ser­
Only 0 . 2 o e r c e n t o f t h o s e with c o l l e g e
backg ro un d,<0 . 3 per c e n t o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l group,
0 .3 per c e n t o f the
v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d f e m a l e s and 2 . 2 per c e n t o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s r e ­
c e i v e d such r e f e r r a l s .
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
The v a l u e o f a v o c a t i o n a l , - t e c h n i c a l or b u s i n e s s s c h o o l background
i s e v i d e n t from t h e f a c t t h a t f e m a l e s with t h i s t y p e o f t r a i n i n g were
r e f e r r e d more o f t e n ( 1 5 , ;4 per c e n t ) than any o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l group to
p o s i t i o n s i n t h e commercial f i e l d .
C o l l e g e c a s e s ranked second i n
commercial r e f e r r a l s ( 9 . 3 per c e n t ) , and t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s ranked t h i r d
-1 5 4 ( 3 . 5 per c e n t ) .
There i s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s
i n r e f e r r a l s ar e n o t due t o chance f a c t o r s ( s e e Appendix II', T ab le s
7? and 7 4 ). ;
Only s m a ll p r o p o r t i o n s o f th e high s c h o o l and grammar s c h o o l
groupB ( 4 , 4 per c e n t and 0 . 2 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were recommended to
work o f t h i s t y p e .
domestic
Service
The p r o p o r t i o n s o f r e f e r r a l s in th e d om est ic f i e l d vary i n d i r e c t l y
wi!th e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .
The peak o f r e f e r r a l s o c c u r s i n t h e grammar
s c h o o l group ( 3 S . 3 pe r c e n t ) .
For th e f e m a l e s with hig h s ch oo l background
t h e p r o p o r t i o n d e c l i n e s to 5 0 . 3 per c e n t , < and d e c r e a s e s s t i l l f u r t h e r in
t h e v o c a t i o n a l and c o l l e g e groups ( 1 3 . 7 per c e n t and 1 3 . 2 per c e n t r e ­
s p e c t i v e l y ) . ; None o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were s e n t t o d o m e s t ic p o s i t i o n s .
The male c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s s i m i l a r l y showed a sm all propor­
t i o n o f d o m e s t ic job r e f e r r a l s .
Industrial
Positions
The hi'gh s c h o o l c a s e s f a r e d b e t t e r than t h o s e with grammar s c h o o l
background ( 3 . 5 per c e n t r e f e r r a l s as compared with 5 . 5 pe r c e n t ) i n t h i s
t y p e o f work.] The f e m a l e s with v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l t r a i n i n g have t h e same
p e r c e n t a g e o f i n d u s t r i a l r e f e r r a l s as th e h ig h s c h o o l group ( 3 . 5 per c e n t ) .
A d e c l i n e i n r e f e r r a l s to i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s o c c u r s in both t h e c o l l e g e
and p o s t - g r a d u a t e groups ( 4 . 5 per c e n t in e a c h ) .
Government
Projects
F e f e r r a l s to government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s were d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d
by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l background o f t h e female c a s e s . ; The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s
f a r e d b e s t ( 5 5 . 3 per c e n t ) , and about o n e - h a l f t h a t p e r c e n t a g e ( 1 5 . 8
p e r c e n t ) o f t h e c o l l e g e group were r e f e r r e d t o p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e .
The c h a n c e s o f a n o s t - g r a d u a t e b e in g p r e f e r r e d t o a c o l l e g e c a s e f o r
t h i s t y p e o f jo b r e f e r r a l are 992 o u t o f 1000 ( s e e Appendix I I ,
73 and 7 4 ) .
Tabl es
Only s m a ll p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l , <h i g h s c h o o l and
grammar s c h o o l t r a i n e d c a s e s were r e f e r r e d t o government p r o j e c t p o s i ­
t i o n s ( 3 . 0 per c e n t ,- 3 . 7 pe r c en t and 2 . 4 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
Summary
A l i t t l e more than o n e - h a l f ( 5 0 . 3 per c e n t ) o f t h e e n t i r e fem a le
group were r e f e r r e d t o d o m e s ti c p o s i t i o n s , and t h e remainder are s c a t ­
t e r e d th ro u gh ou t t h e o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s . ; T hi s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s
d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e male c a s e s ( s e e Table 5 7 ) . - Only 7 . 5 per c e n t
o f t h e men were r e f e r r e d t o d om es ti c s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s , as compared with
-1 2 5 -
50.3 per cent o f t h e females. The predominant type o f r e f e r r a l f o r the
male c a s e s was to i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s .
Edu cational background e x e r t e d a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on th e jo b r e f e r ­
r a l s o f both t h e female and the male c a s e s . The g r e a t e s t number o f as­
signm ents to p r o f e s s i o n a l and government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s occu rred at
t h e c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e l e v e l s . These same e d u c a tio n a l groups
showed th e lowest p r o p o r t i o n s o f r e f e r r a l s to domestic s e r v i c e jo b s.
I n t h e female c ase s, an i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was found
to e x i s t between e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l and domestic r e f e r r a l s , whereas in
t h e male group no v a r i a t i o n due to e d u c a ti o n a l background oc curred
u n t i l th e c o l l e g e l e v e l was reached, at which p o i n t the r e f e r r a l s
d e crea se d c o n s i d e r a b l y . In t h e remaining o c cu pa tio ns, th e l e v e l of
s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g was n o t a p o t e n t f a c t o r in i n f l u e n c i n g r e f e r r a l s .
In commercial work, however, females with v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l or
b u s i n e s s school background were b e s t adapted f o r t h e s e p o s i t i o n s and
t h e r e f o r e had the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t io n o f r e f e r r a l s . The advantage of
v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r the males was not very marked.
Influence of
E d u c a t i o n on F i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s o f Ma l e s and F e m a l e s
Table 59 p r e s e n t s a composite p i c t u r e o f a l l t h e c a s e s in t h i s
stu d y .
Professions
There a re s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s in t h e s e jo b r e f e r r a l s a t t e n d i n g
each r i s e in e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l . From t h e lo w e st p o i n t, 0,1 per cen t
f o r the grammar school group, th e pe rc e n ta g e s o f r e f e r r a l s climb to
0 . 5 p e r c e n t f o r the high school c ase s, 1.4 p e r c e n t f o r th o se with
v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , - 2.5 p e r c en t for t h e c o l l e g e i n d i v i d u a l s and
10.4 p e r cent f o r the p o s t - g r a d u a t e s . High school and v o c a tio n a l
c a s e s have 999 and 996,5 chances, r e s p e c t i v e l y , out o f 100C of being
p r e f e r r e d to t h o s e with grammar school t r a i n i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l jo b
r e f e r r a l s (see Appendix IT, Tables 73 and 74). The r e f e r r a l s o f th o se
with p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g f a r outweigh th o se o f any o t h e r edu ca tion al
group.
Semi-Professions
For t h e s e r e f e r r a l s , e d u c a tio n a l l e v e l seemed r e l a t i v e l y unimpor­
t a n t . The v o c a t io n a l c a se s have the same p r o p o r t i o n of r e f e r r a l s as
t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s (9 .7 p e r c e n t ) . Not as many (0,3 p e r c e n t ) o f th e
i n d i v i d u a l s with c o l l e g e background, and even fewer o f th o se with high
school o r grammar school t r a i n i n g ( 0 ,2 per c e n t and 0,1 per c e n t r e ­
s p e c t i v e l y ) were s e n t to s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s .
-1 2 3 Professlonal
Service Attendants
Only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between the p r o p o r t i o n s o f jo b
r e f e r r a l s at t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . The i n d i v i d u a l s with
v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g have t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t io n o f r e f e r r a l s (1.5
p e r c e n t ) , but t h i s p e rc e n ta g e i s n o t very much g r e a t e r than th ose
o f the high school, c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e groups (0 .5 p e r c en t,
0 . 3 p e r cen t, and 0 . 7 p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . None of the grammar
school c a s e s were r e f e r r e d to p o s i t i o n s in t h i s f i e l d .
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
Vocational, t e c h n i c a l o r b u s i n e s s school t r a i n i n g proved very
v a l u a b l e (11.3 per c e n t ) in o b t a i n i n g r e f e r r a l s to commercial p o s i ­
t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s with c o l l e g e background a ls o f a r e d well (3 .0
p e r c e n t ) . Fewer o f the p o s t - g r a d u a t e s ( 5 , 9 per c e n t ) and s t i l l fewer
o f th e high school and grammar school c a se s (4,3 per cen t and 0,3 per
c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were sent to t h e s e jo b s .
\
Domestic Service
There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n domestic job r e f e r r a l s as the
e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l i s r a i s e d . More than o n e - h a l f
(56,2 per c e n t ) o f
t h e i n d i v i d u a l s with a grammar school background,
28.3 p e r cent o f th e
high school c ase s, 14,3 per c e n t o f th o se with v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g ,
approximately o n e - t e n th o f t h e c o l l e g e group (1C.1 p e r c e n t ) and 0 ,7
p e r c e n t o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were r e f e r r e d to p o s i t i o n s o f t h i s type.
(See Appendix I I , Tables 72 and 7 4 .)
Industrial
Positions
Fducationsl background did n o t play a very im p o r tan t p a r t i n de­
te r m in in g job r e f e r r a l s in t h i s f i e l d . Fewer o f the c o l l e g e c a s e s
(10.7 p e r c e n t ) than of the high school t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s (12.5 per
c e n t ) were r e f e r r e d to i n d u s t r i a l j o b s . There i s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y
t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e in t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e i r r e f e r r a l s i s no t due
to chance f a c t o r s (s e e Appendix I I , Tables 72 and 74). Only i n s i g n i f ­
i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found to e x i s t between the p r o p o r t i o n s of r e ­
f e r r a l s of the grammar school and c o l l e g e groups ( 9 .8 p e r c e n t and
10.7 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and th e v o c a tio n a l school and c o ll e g e
t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s (12.9 p e r c e n t and 10.7 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
These s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s a re probably due to chance v a r i a t i o n (see
Appendix II', <Tables 72 and 74). Only a very small p e rc e n t a g e (2.7
p e r c e n t ) o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were d i r e c t e d to i n d u s t r i a l occupa­
tions.'
-1 2 7 -
Government. P r oj e c t s
As in t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , t h e g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n s o f r e f e r r a l s to
government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s o c c u r r e d a t t h e h i g h e r e d ucational l e v e l s .
Almost o n e - t h i f d (21.1 per c e n t ) o f t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were s e n t to
t h i s type o f work, whereas only 2.1 p e r cent o f t h o s e with grammar
school background and 2 .7 p e r c e n t o f t h e high school group r eceived
s i m i l a r assignments. The c o l l e g e c a s e s ranked second (17.5 p e r cent
r e f e r r a l s ) , ' and the v o c a t i o n a l group ranked t h i r d (7.2 per c e n t ) . ;
Summary
I't i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , , o f t h e 9873 jo b r e f e r r a l s o f t h e s e
3720 c a s e s , ' a l i t t l e l e s s than t w o - f i f t h s (23 .9 p e r c e n t ) were se nt to
f i l l domestic p o s i t i o n s , approximately o n e - t e n t h ( 11.2 per c e n t ) were
r e f e r r e d to i n d u s t r i a l j o b s and 3.S p e r cent were recommended f o r gov­
ernment p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s . The employment r e c o r d s o f more than onet h i r d o f t h e e n t i r e group l a c k e d d a t a r e l a t i n g t o job r e f e r r a l s . Ae
mentioned at t h e begin ning o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h i s d e fi c ie n c y i s p r i m a r i l y
due t o t h e f a c t t h a t many i n d i v i d u a l s r e g i s t e r e d f o r employment in o r d e r
to become e l i g i b l e f o r Home R e l i e f . The remainder o f t h e c a s e s were
s c a t t e r e d throughout t h e o t h e r o c c u p a ti o n a l groups in i n s i g n i f i c a n t
proportions.;
When t h e r e s u l t s o f Table 29 a re compared with tho se o f Table 21,
which d e a l s with t h e p a s t o c c u p a ti o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s included in
t h i k study,, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a s h i f t toward t h e domestic and govern­
ment p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s h a s taken p l a c e . Whereas 23.5 per c e n t o f t h e
c a s e s occupied domestic p o s i t i o n s in t h e p a s t , < 26.9 p e r c en t were se n t
t o f i l l such j o b s a t t h e tim e thils study was made. I t was found t h a t
3 . 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s a re now being r e f e r r e d to government p r o j e c t s , ,
as compared with 4.3 p e r c e n t who f i l l e d t h e s e p o s i t i o n s p r i o r to em­
ployment r e g i s t r a t i o n .
Pronounced d e c r e a s e s o c cu rred in t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f th ose e n te r in g
p r o f e s s i o n a l l i n e s o f endeavor ( 12.2 p e r c en t diminished to 1.0 p e r c e n t ) ,
i n d u s t r i a l o c c u p a tib n s (27 .4 p e r c e n t diminished to 11.2 p e r c en t) and
commercial p o s i t i o n s (16.4 p e r c e n t diminished to 4 . 2 p e r c e n t ) . - In th e
s e m i- p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t f i e l d s , d ecreases
were also evid ent (1 .4 p e r c e n t d ecrease d t o 0.2 p e r c en t,, and 0 .8 per
c e n t decreased to 0 . 4 p e r cen t,- r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . ;
INFLUENCE OF AGE ON FINAL JOB BEFEBBALS
Tables 40 through 45 (pp. 128 f f . j show t h e e f f e c t o f t h e age f a c t o r
on f i n a l job r e f e r r a l s . ; The same age groupings have been followed h e re as
-1 2 8 TABLE 40
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
Col. 1
Wa l e s
/■n d
Fem ales
NUMBER NUMBER
OF
OF
CASES REFERRALS
Col. 2 Col. 3
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
1 7 -2 4
Years
Re f e r r a l s
of
595
989
1368
9
0 .6
2
622
21
725
26
10
2
1.4
7 .7
189
217
4
2125
2929
25
Wa l e s
level
and
Fem ales
NUM8ER •
TOTAL . . . .
2 5 -5 9
o f
1
0.2
0.1
11
0.8
4
0.6
8
1
1.1
3.8
1 .8
1
0.5
6
2.8
0 .8
7
0*2
27
0.9
Ag e
of
of
V a r io u s
Ed u c a t io n a l
334
622
1
0 .2
3
0.5
530
925
2
0 .2
2
0.2
619
39
757
42
27
2
3.6
4.e
131
155
1
0 .6
1
1953
2401
33
1.4
6
a n d F e m a le s
L
EVELS
PROFESSSIONS AND RELATED POS ITIONS
PROFESSIONS
SEMI —
PROFESSIONAL SER­
PROFESSIONS
VICE ATTENDANTS
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
UP
W a le s
L evels
41
Ye a r s
TABLE
F in a l R e fe r r a ls
E o u g a t io n a l
OF
CASES REFERRALS
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
V a r io u s
325
NUMBER
e d u c a t io n a l
of
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONS
SEMI­
PROFESSIONAL SER­
PROFESSIONS
VICE ATTENDANTS
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Col. 8 Col. 9
TABLE
F in a l
As e
of
30-39
3
0*3
3
0.4
0.8
1
0.6
0 .2
7
0.3
42
Y e a rs
o f
Age
o f
V a r io u s
E d u c a tio n a l L e v e ls
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
k
NUMBER NUMBER
OF
OF
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
CASES REFERRALS
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
SEMI­
PROFESS ONAL SERVICE AlrTENDANTS
PROFESSIONS
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
PROFESSIONS
731
1302
500
724
4
437
52
531
58
16
8
113
145
1
1833
2790
29
0.6
2
0.3
2
0*3
3.0
1
1
0.2
1.7
2
0 .4
0 .7
2
1.4
2
1.4
1.0
8
0.2
6
0 .2
13.
e
TABLE 40 ( C o n tin u e d )
F inal Referrals of Males and Females 17-24 Years of Ase of Various EOUCATIONAL LEVELS
commERCIAL
00MESTIC
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
EDUCATIONAL. LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT NUMBER PHR CENT NUMBER PER CENT
C ol.11 Col. 12 Col. 13 C ol.14 Col. 15 Col. 16 Col. 17 C o l.18
Col. 10
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
7
307
84
1.2
14.1
51.6
11
1.8
p a r t i a l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
8.3
417
30.5
113
67
203
14. e
4.9
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
58
8.0
14.3
84
104
S3
8.7
11.6
post-grad u ate
5
19.2
5
19.2
1
3.8
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
29
13.4
9
4.1
40
18.4
26
12.0
TOTAL .
. . .
238
7.3
811
27.6
418
14.2
176
6.0
TAB LE 41 (C o n tin i JED)
F inal Referrals of Wales and Femal es 25-29 Years of Age of Various EDUCATIONAL LEVELS
30VERNMENT
INDUSTRIAL
domestic
commercial
PROJECTS
EOUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT number PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
p o st-d r aduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL .; •' •' •
7
1.1
359
57.7
62
10.0
5
0 .8
23
2.8
363
44.0
101
12.2
24
2.9
64
2
8.4
4.8
79
10.4
70
2
9.2
4.8
151
18
19.9
42.8
21
13.5
16
10.3
24
15.5
13
8.4
117
4.9
817
34.0
259
10.8
211
8 .8
TABLE 42 ( C o n tin u e d )
F inal R eferrals cf Males and Females 30-39 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
QOVEfINMENT
INDUSTRIAL
DOMESTIC
commercial
PROiJECTS
EDUCATIONAL.LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and college
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . ‘ •! •
•
4
0.3
755
58.0
95
7.3
22
1.7
15
2.1
299
41.8
90
12.4
22
3.0
43
1
8.1
1.7
52
10.0
39
1
7.3
1.7
119
19
22.4
32. e
8
4.1
28
19.3
15
10.3
15
10.3
89
2.5
1134
41.0
240
e.7
197
7.1
F inal Referrals
-ISOTABLE 40 ( C o n c lu d e d )
df Wales and Females 17-24 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
clas S
TRANSFERRED |
CHARITY
NO DATA
NUMBER PER 0ENT NUMBER PER CENT i NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
C o l.20 Col. 21 Col. 22 Col. 23 Col. 24 Col. 25 Col. 26 Col. 27
Col.19
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
Bohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ocational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL .• .
STUDY
.
17
2.8
3
0 .6
4
0 .7
161
27.0
39
2.8
38
2 .8
12
0.9
455
33.3
3
0.4
17
2 .3
3
0.4
371
12
51.2
46.2
2
0.9
4
1.8
1
0 .5
95
43. e
SI
2.1
32
2.1
20
0 .7
1094
37.3
TABLE 41 (C oncluded )
F inal Referrals of Wales and Females 25-29 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege.
and college
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL • » • •
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
class
7 '
STUDY
CHARITY
TRANSFERRED
1.1
5
o.e
178
27.8
12
1.4
13
1.6
4
0.5
278
38.7
7
0.9
16
2.1
5
0 .7
335
18
44.2
42.8
78
50.3 •
26
1.1
29
1.2
14
0 .6
882
36.7
TABLE 42 (C ONCLUDEO)
£ |n a l R e fe rra ls of Wales and Females 30-39 Years of Aqe of Various EDUCATIONAL LEVELS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
PoBt-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL •
. . .
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
CLASS STUDY
TRANSFERRED
CHARITY
5
0.4
5
0.4
9
0 .7
407
31.2
8
1.1
10
1.4
3
0.4
269
37.1
5
0.9
1m7
10
1.9
5
0 .9
239
27
45.0
46.6
1
26
0 .7
75
1017
51.7
1
19
0.7
0*9
17
0.6
36.8
-1 5 1 -
TABLE 43
F inal Referrals of Males and Females 40-49 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESSIONS
SEMI­
PROFESSIONAL SER­
NUMBER NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
VICE ATTENDANTS
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
OF
OF
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 1
Col. 2 Col. 3
Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7
Col. 8 Col. 9
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
aohool graduates
455
853
2
0 .2
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
297
193
2
0 .7
p a r ti a l co lleg e
and oollege
graduates
11?
142
2
1
0 .7
1.4
1
0 .7
Post-graduate
8
9
2
22.2
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
41
52
1
1.9
TOTAl/ . . . .
808
9
1350
0.1
0 .7
1
1
0.1
F inal Referrals
TABLE 44
o f Males and Females 50-59 Years
of
Age of / arious Ei>ucational Levels
PROFESSIONS ANO RELATED POSITIONS
SEMI­
PROFESS IONAL SERPROFESSIONS
VICE AlITENDANTS
NUM8ER NUMBER
PROFESSIONS
OF
OF
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
254
179
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
52
98
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
27
31
Post-graduate
0
0
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
17
5.9
12
1
270
TOTAL . . . .
398
F inal Referrals of Vales ano Females
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
TOTAL •
;
•
NUMBER
OF
CASES
number
OF
referrals
19
22
11
13
2
0
2
3
1
1
33
se
1
0. 2
TABLE 45
60 Years of Age o r Over
of
Various Educational Levels
PROFESSIONS AND RELATED POSITIONS
PROFESS1ONAL SERsemi—
PROFESSIONS
VICE Al TENOANTS
PROFESSIONS
NUMBER PER CENT number PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
1
4.5
1
2.8
-1 S S TABLE 43 ( C o n tin u e d )
F inal Referrals jf Males-and Females 4 0 4 9 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
C ol.10
p a r t i a l grammar
an i grammar
aohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •
• ’ •' * ’
DOMESTIC
INDUSTRIAL
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
NUM9ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 11 C ol.12 Col. 13 Col. 14 C01.15 Col. 18 Col. 17 c o i .ie
commercial
5
0.3
506
59.5
69
2
0 .7
148
49.8
38
4
2.8
2e
i
19.7
11.1
13
696
ii
j
o. e
33
3.9
12.8
11
3.7
15
1
10.6
11.1
27
19.0
25.0
5
9.6
3
5.8
51.6
i2 e
9.5
74
5.5
I
^
TABLE 44 ( C o n tin u e d )
P in al R eferrals of Vales and Females 50-59 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
GOVERNMENT
PROJECTS
NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER »ER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COMMERCIAL
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL »
•' • ' • ’
1
1
0.4
0.2
DOMESTIC
INDUSTRIAL
7
2.8
19.4
3
9.7
6
35.3
2
11.8
53
13.3
12
3.0
117
46.1
27
10.6
46
47.9
14
14.6
5
13.1
6
1
5.9
169
42.4
TABLE 45 (CcINTINUED )
F inal Referrals of Males ind Female s 60 Yemirs of Aqe or Over of Vario us Educational Levels
GOVE•RNVENT
INDUSTRIAL
DOMESTIC
COMMERCIAL
PRCJECTS
educational level
NUMBER PER CENT NUM3ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
o a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and .oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL •
l
100.0
l
2.6
8
36.4
2
9*1
6
48.2
2
15.4
14
36.8
4
10.5
-1 3 3 TABL E 43 (C oncluded )
F inal Referrals of Wales and Femai.es 40-49 Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
clas 5 STUDY
TRANSFERRED
CHARITY
NO DATA
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
COl. 19
Col. 20 COl.21 COl.22 Col. 23 C o l.24 Col. 25 C ol.26 COl.27
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
e
0.9
3
0 .4
3
0.4
221
26.0
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
0.3
1.0
l
3
4
ee
1.3
29.6
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
3.5
2.1
5
3
39.4
56
post-graduate
5
55.6
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
30
57.7
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
14
1.0
9
0 .7
7
0.5
400
29.6
TABLE 44 (C o n c lu d e d )
F in al R eferrals of Wales and Females
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
CLASS STUDY
5 0 -5 9
Years of Aqe of Various Educational Levels
CHARITY
TRANSFERRED
NO DATA
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
2
2
o.e
0.5
1
0.4
1
1.0
2
0.5
3
3
1.2
0.8
98
37.8
35
36.4
17
54.8
7
41.2
155
38.9
TABLE 45 (C o n c lu d e d )
F inal Referrals of Males aiid Females 60 Years of Aqe or Over of Variou s Educational Levels
oharity
NO DATA
TRANSFERRED
CLASS STUDY
educational level
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
1
4.5
2
1
2.6
2
15.4
5.3
10
45.4
3
23.1
2
100.0
15
39.5
-1 3 4 -
in Chapter IV. The number o f r e f e r r a l s in each t a b l e i s h i g h e r than
t h e number o f c a se s, because some o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d f o r sev­
eral p o sitio n s.
Professions
R e f e r r a l s to p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e s l i g h t l y from th e
17-94 y e a r group (0,3 p e r c e n t ) to t h e 95-99 ye ar l e v e l (1.4 p e r c e n t ) .
From t h i s p o i n t on, t h e r e i s a gradual d e crease. One p e r c e n t o f th ose
30-39 y e a r s o f age, 0 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e 40-49 year group and C.9 p e r cen t
o f th o se 50-59 y e a r s o ld were r e f e r r e d t o p o s i t i o n s in t h i s f i e l d . None
o f t h e c a s e s 60 y e a r s o r o v e r were s e n t to p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s .
Semi-Professions
There i s p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e in r e f e r r a l s to s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l
p o s i t i o n s due t o t h e age f a c t o r . The p e rc e n t a g e s f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e
age groups remain c o n s t a n t (0.9 p e r c e n t ) . For the ne xt h i g h e r age group,
40-49 y e a r s , 0.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s were r e f e r r e d , and f o r t h e l a s t
two age groups t h e r e were no assignments o f t h i s ty pe.
Professional
Service
Attendants
Excluding t h e s i n g l e case in t h e 30 y e ar group, job r e f e r r a l s in t h i s
f i e l d d e c r e a s e as t h e age l e v e l i n c r e a s e s . From 0.9 per c e n t r e f e r r a l s
f o r t h e 17-94 y e a r group, th e p r o p o r t i o n s decrease to C .3 p e r c e n t f o r
t h o s e 95-99 y e a r s o f age, 0 . 9 p e r cent f o r th e 3C-39 y e ar l e v e l and 0.1
p e r c e n t f o r t h e 40-49 y e a r o l d s .
None o f the c a se s 50-59 y e a r s o f age
were r e f e r r e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s .
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
Job r e f e r r a l s to commercial p o s i t i o n s decreased r e g u l a r l y with age
p r o g r e s s i o n . The peak o f jo b r e f e r r a l s (7.8 per c e n t ) to commercial
p o s i t i o n s o c c u r s in the youngest age group (17-94 y e a r s ) . For t h e ne xt
h i g h e r age group, t h e p r o p o r t i o n drops to 4.9 per c e n t , and c o n ti n u e s
t o d e c r e a s e to 9 . 5 p e r cen t f o r th e 30-39 year o l d s , 0 .8 p e r c e n t f o r
t h o s e 40-49 y e a r s o f age, and 0 .9 p e r cent f o r th ose a t t h e 50-59 year
l e v e l . : (The i n c r e a s e to 9.3 p e r c e n t at the 30 year l e v e l i s i n s i g n i f ­
i c a n t ^ s i n c e i t r e p r e s e n t s only one r e f e r r a l out of 38).
Domestic S e r v i c e
Up to t h e 50-59 y e a r group t h e r e i s a gradual i n c r e a s e in the pro­
p o r t i o n o f c a s e s se n t t o domestic p o s i t i ’o ns, but from t h a t p o i n t on a
d e c r e a se i s n o t e d . The p e r c e n t a g e s climb from 97.6 p e r cent f o r the
17-94 y e a r o l d s to 34.0 p e r cent For those 95-99 y e a r s o f age, 41.0
p e r c e n t f o r t h e next h i g h e r age group (30-39 y e a r s ) , and 51.6 p e r cen t
-1 3 5 -
f o r t h e 40-49 y e a r l e v e l . For t h o s e 50-59 y e a r s o f age a d ecrease to
4 2 .;4 p e r c e n t o c c u r s , and in t h e o l d e s t age group t h e p r o p o r t io n f a l l s
t o 36.8 p e r cent.;,
Industrial
Positions
As t h e age s c a l e i s ascended, t h e r e are two peaks in p e rc e n t a g e s
o f job r e f e r r a l s in t h i s f i ’eld .; The f i r s t peak o c c u rs a t t h e 17-24
y e a r l e v e l (14.2 per c e n t ) and t h e second when t h e 50-59 y e ar group i s
reached (13.9 per c e n t ) . In between t h e s e two high p o i n t s , t h e propor­
t i o n s drop to 10.8 p e r cent f o r t h e 25-29 y e s r u n i t , 9 . 7 p e r c e n t f o r
t h o s e 30-39 y e a r s of age, and 9.5 p e r c e n t a t t h e 40-49 y e a r l e v e l .
A f t e r t h e second peak i s rea ched, a d e c l i n e in r e f e r r a l s o c cu rs in t h e
l a s t age group (10.5 per c e n t ) , '
Government P r o j e c t s
The age l e v e l showing t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f job r e f e r r a l s in
t h i ' s f i e l d i s t h e 25-29 year group ( 8.8 per c e n t ) . This p e rc e n t a g e i s
2.8 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r than t h a t o f th o se 17-24 y e a r s o f age.
For t h e age
groups beyond t h e 25-29 year l e v e l t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f r e f e r r a l s dim inish.
Seven and o n e - t e n t h s p e r cent o f the c ase s 30-39 y e a r s o ld, 5 . 5 p e r cent
o f t h o s e 40-49 y e a r s o f age and 3.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f t h e
50-59 y e a r group were s e n t to government p r o j e c t s . ' None o f t h e c a s e s
60 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r were r e f e r r e d to t h e s e p o s i t i o n s .
Summaru
R e f e r r a l s to p r o f e s s i o n a l and government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s showed
t h e same i n f l u e n c e o f t h e age f a c t o r . The 25-29 year group have h i g h e r
p r o p o r t i o n s of r e f e r r a l s in t h e s e two f i e l d s than t h o s e 17-24 y e a r s of
a g e , <b u t beyond t h e 25-29 year l e v e l t h e r e f e r r a l s d e c r e a se .
In t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t and commercial f i e l d s , r e f e r ­
r a l s decreased as the age i n c r e a s e d . I n d u s t r i a l r e f e r r a l s showed a
s i m i l a r i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to age up to t h e 40-49 year
l e v e l , ' a t which an i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d .' This was followed by a s t i l l
g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e in t h e 50-59 year group snd a d e c l in e f o r t h e o l d e s t
age group.;
As age became p r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r , <r e f e r r a l s to domestic s e r v i c e
j o b s i n c r e a s e d . ' This r i s e oc curred g r a d u a lly up to t h e 50-59 y e ar l e v e l ,
a t whi’ch p o i n t a d e c l i n e s t a r t e d , ' and continued through t h e 80 y e a r group.
Semi’- p r o f e s s i o n a l r e f e r r a l s were of t h e same p r o p o r t i o n s f o r t h e
f i r s t ' t h r e e age groups (from 17 through 39 y e a r s o f age). A very s l i g h t
d e c r e a s e o c c u r r e d a t th e 40-49 y e ar l e v e l and none o f t h e c a se s in e i t h e r
-1 3 3 -
t h e 50-59 o r 50 y e ar groups were r e f e r r e d to p o s i t i o n s in t h i s f i e l d . Tables 33 through 72 o f t h e Appendix p r e s e n t f u r t h e r da ta concern­
in g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f age on f i n a l job r e f e r r a l s .
These t a b l e s are ar­
ranged with t h e e d u c a ti o n a l background c o n s t a n t and t h e age groups
variable.;
NUMBER OF JOB REFERRALS BEFORE PERMANENT PLACEMENT
In a d d i t i o n to c o n s i d e r i n g t h e type o f job r e f e r r a l f o r t h e i n d i ­
v i d u a l s a t t h e v a rio u s e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l s , t h e number o f r e f e r r a l s before
permanent olacement was also s t u d i e d . These, da ta are p r e s e n t e d in
T ables 43 through 48 (pp. 137 f f . ) ,
Fy "oermanent placement" i s meant
a o o s i t i o n which the a o p l i c a n t h e ld fo r a t l e a s t s i x months. Jobs
l a s t i n g l e s s than six months are n o t c o n sid e r e d permanent, f o r t h e pur­
p o s e s o f t h i s study. The Md., G1 and £3 o f t h e r e f e r r a l s were computed
a f t e r th e followin g had been
excluded:
(a) Cases
t h a t were not
r e f e r r e d to any p o s i t i o n .
(b) Cases
t h a t o b ta in e d
j o b s which l a s t e d l e s s than six months.
(c) Cases
t h a t were d i r e c t e d to c l a s s study r a t h e r than to p o s i t i o n s .
(d) Cases t h a t were recommended to government agencie s f o r p o s s i b l e
employment. Some o f th e i n d i v i d u a l s who were se n t t o government p r o j e c t s
were r e j e c t e d , ' and t h e r e f o r e i t would n o t be a c c u r a t e to c o n s i d e r a l l
r e f e r r a l s to government a g encie s as permanent job plac em ents. In response
t o r e q u e s t s f o r c a n d i d a t e s f o r government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s , t h e employ­
ment a g en cie s recommended many a p p l i c a n t s , o f whom only a few were plac ed.
fl umber o f Job R e f e r r a l s B e f o r e
Permanent
Placement
o f Hales
Table 43 shows t h a t t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number
o f jo b r e f e r r a l s b e fo r e permanent placement o f t h e males a t t h e va rio u s
e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . The Md. o f r e f e r r a l s i s 0 , 7 f o r t h o s e with grammar
school t r a i n i n g and 0.3 f o r each o f t h e o t h e r e d u c a tio n a l groups. The
Q1 l i k e w i s e remains c o n s t a n t th rou g ho u t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l groups (0.3),
and t h e Q3 i s 0.9 a t a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s except th e grammar school,
a t which i t i s 1. 1.
The Md. o f a l l t h e jo b r e f e r r a l s o f the males was 0 . 8 , and t h e G1
and G3 were 0 .3 and 1.0 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Number o f Job R e f e r r a l s B e f o r e P e r m a n e n t P l a c e m e n t o f
Fe ma l e s
On c o n s u l t i n g Table 47, i t w i l l be found t h a t no r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n ­
ship e x i s t s between e d u ca tio n al l e v e l and number o f f i n a l job r e f e r r a l s .
The fem ales with a grammar school background have th e g r e a t e s t job t u r n ­
o v e r, s i n c e t h e Md, o f t h e i r r e f e r r a l s p r ec ed in g permanent placement
-1 3 7 -
TABLE 4 6
Number of J ob Refierrals Before Permanent Placement1 of All Vales of Various Educational Levels
NUMBER OF
t3
NUMBER REFERRALS
2
4
BEFORE
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
CASES PERMANENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER P1R CENT NUMBER PER CENT
PLACEMENT
Col. 2 Col. 3
Col. 1
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
school graduates
228
702
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
school graduates
eio
305.
p a r ti a l colleg e
and college
graduates
285
823
oost-graduate
80
25
V ocational,
teohnioal or
84
business sohool
180
TOTAL
•
»
• ’ •
2801
907
Col. 4 Col. 5
COl. 6 Col. 7 Col. e
Col. 9 Col. 10 Col. 11
79
34.8
18
7.0
0
2.8
3
1.3
132
53.1
18
5.9
e
2.3
4
1.3
138
13
47.7
52.0
21
1
7.4
4.0
7
1
2.4
4.0
2
0*7
33
51.6
4
3.2
2
3.1
423
46.8
80
6.3
24
2.0
9
1.0
TABLE 47
Number of J ob Refe rrals Before Permanent Placement1 of All Females of Various Educational Levels
NUMBER OF
o
t
2
NUMBER REFERRALS
1
BEFORE
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF
CASES PERMANENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER »ER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
PLACEMENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
school graduates
p a r t i a l college
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
V ocational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
•'
•
•
•
45 '
s.e
29
4.4
8.2
38
5.3
13
2.0
23
1
"8 .3
3.7
3
1
1.0
6.7
3
1.9
35.5
10
10.8
5
5.4
2
2.2
39.8
IS O
9.2
90
5.2
50
2.9
1341
866
207
31.1
70
10.5
1431
842
288
44.8
53
990
40
314
15
151
10
4e.i
38.7
287
93
33
4119
1730
389
TABLE 4 9
‘LACEM
ENT1 of All Vales anid Females of Vafnous EducaNumber of Joe Refe RRALS Before Pern1ANENT r
1rioNAL Leviels
DUMBER OF
r
t1
2
NUMBER REFERRALS
1
BEFORE
OF
educational level
CASES PERMANENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER OENT
PLACEMENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ocational,
teo h n io al or
2043
894
280
32.0
88
9.8
51
5.7
32
3.8
2271
947
450
47.5
71
7.5
44
4.8
17
1.8
1819
120
599
40
287
23
47.9
57.5
47
2
7.8
5.0
10
2
1.7
5.0
8
1.3
467
157
83
42.0
14
e.9
7
4.4
2
1.3
114
as
220
42.1
2837
1112
idered permanent.
1. position* la ■ting a la BOntha or more are oone
4.8
59
2.2
TOTAL
•
«
•
•
8720
■138
TABLE 4 6
( C o n tin u e d )
Number of J ob Ri:FERRals Before Permanent Placement, of All Vales of Various Educational Levels
EDUCATIONAL. LEVEL
Col. 12
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL • • • •
5
3
7
8
9
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 13 Col. 14 Col. 15 Col. 16 Col. 17 c o i . i e Col. 19 Col. 20 Col. 21 Col. 22
2
U«9
5
1.5
1
2
0 .7
1
1.6
10
1.1
1
0.4
0.3
1
0 .3
3
1.0
1
0.4
4
0.4
3
0.3
TABLE 47
1
1
0.3
0.1
1
0.4
1
0.1
( C o n tin u e d )
Number of J ob Referrals Before Permanent Placement of All Females of Various Educational Levels
5
8
9
7
e
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
P a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . »
20
3.0
10
1.5
9
1.4
7
1.0
5
0.8
7
1.1
11
1.7
1
0*2
4
0.5 »
2
0.3
3
1.0
1
0.3
1'
0.3
4
4.3
1
1.1
34
2.0
8
0.5
1.3
22
T ABLE
0.8
11
0.5
11
t(8 ( C o n tin u e d )
Number of J ob Ref ERRALS Before Pe RMANENT Placement of All Males a *d Females of Va*ious EducaTI0 nal Levels
9
8
7
6
5
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL • • • •
22
2.4
10
1 .1
10
1.1
7
0.8
5 .
0.6
12
1.3
12
1.3
2
0.2
5
0.5
2
0.2
5
0.7
4
0.5
2
0.3
1
0.2
5
3*2
1
0.6
44
1.7
26
1.0
14
0*5
12
0.4
9
|
0.3
-1 5 9 -
TABLE 46 ^Concluded )
Number of J ob Referrals Before Permanent Placement of All Males
10 AND OVER
NO PERMANENT
NO DATA
PLACEM
ENT1
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. 23
Col. 24 Col. 25 C ol.23 Col. 27 C o l.28 Col. 29
p a r ti a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
0.4
1
110
48*2
10
4.4
p a r ti a l nigh
sohool ana high
sohool graduates
1
0.3
88
28.8
13
5.2
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
35
22.8
47
13.5
post-graduate
9
33.0
1
4.0
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
29.7
19
5
7.8
TOTAL . . . .
2
0.2
291
32.1
79
8.7
of
Various Educational Levels
TOTAL
OF
PREVIOUS
COLUMNS
o d S rJf
C1
VD.
Q3
C ol.31 C ol.32 Col. 33
108
0.3
0 .7
1.1
201
0.3
0.6
0.9
173
15
0.3
0.3
0*8
0.8
0.9
0.9
40
0 .3
0.8
0*9
537
0.3
0.5
1.0
TAB LE 47 (C oncluded )
Number of J ob Ref:ERRALS Before Pe•RMANENT PLACEMENT OF ALL FEMALES of Various Educational Levels
1 0 AND OVER
NO PERMANENT
NO DATA
total
OF
PLACEM
ENT1
PDflftAT1ONA1 1PVPI
previous
NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT COLUMNS
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
22
224
33.6
3.3
420
18
2.7
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
P
school graduates
23
4.0
423
193
1.2
30.0
p a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
PP
graduates
35
11*1
91
29.0
Post-graduate
13.3
12
3.7
2
1
Vocational,
teohnioal or
5.4
55
5
business school
35.5
33
TOTAL . . . .
23
1.5
540
31.2
89
5.1
1101
c1
MO.
C3
0.5
1.0
2.8
0.4
0 .7
1.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.9
0.4
0 .8
1.8
0.4
o .e
1.8
TABLE 49 (C oncluded )
Number of J ob Refe rrals Before Permanent Placement of All Vales and Females of Various Educa­
tional Levels
TOTAL
NO DATA
NO PERMANENT
OF
PLACEMENTl
.prcu tm/s
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL'
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT COLUMNS
10 AND OVER
P a r tia l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
C1
Md.
QS
19
2.1
334
37.3
32
3.6
528
0.5
0.9
2.5
9
0*9
281
29.3
42
4.4
624
0.3
0*7
1.2
153
11
25-5
27.5
82
2
13.7
5.0
364
27
0.3
0 .3
0 .6
0.8
0.9
0.9
52
33.1
10
8.4
95
0.4
0.7
1.4
0 .7
1.5
i83e
0.4
6 .4
188
831
31.5
28
1.1
1. Inolodes: (a' Cases not refat red to jobs) fbl oases reporting to jobs la stin g lees than
• i i months} (o) oabtes rei’erred to olass ■tudy; (d oases reooaaen&ed to government agenoies
for possible enplclyaent.
TOTAL .' • • ‘ »
-1 4 0 -
i s 1.0 as compared with 0.7 f o r th e high school l e v e l , ' 0,8 f o r t h e
v o c a t i o n a l c a s e s , - 0 ,:? f o r t h e c o l l e g e women and 0.3 f o r the p o s t ­
g r a d u a t e s , ; No a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e r e f e r r a l s
f o r t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a ti o n a l groups.The Q1 l i k e w i s e shows l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n . The h i g h e s t G1 i s 0 .5
f o r t h e grammar school group, and t h e lowest i s 0.7 f o r th e c o l l e g e
t r a i n e d fem ales, with t h e G1 v a lu e s o f th e remaining e d u c a t i o n a l groups
v a ry i n g between t h e s e two p o i n t s . The G3 v a r i e s a l i t t l e more, th e
upper l i m i t o f the middle 50 p e r cent of the grammar school r e f e r r a l s
b e in g 2.9 as compared with 0 , 5 f o r the c o l l e g e t r a i n e d women, 0 . 9 f o r
t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s , ' 1,8 f o r t h o s e with v o catio n al background and 1,6
f o r t h o s e a t t h e high school l e v e l . The g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n f i n a l job r e f e r r a l s o c c u r s i n t h e grammar
school group,' where t h e range o f the middle 50 per c e n t o f t h e r e f e r r a l s
( t h a t i s , t h e d i s t a n c e between G1 and Q3 ) i s 2.9.; The o t h e r extreme i s
t h e small span (0 .9 ) between 91 and G8 in the c o l l e g e group. This shows
t h a t t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d fem ales experience much l e s s job t u r n o v e r b e fo r e
b eing permanently plac ed than do th ose with a grammar school background.The Md.-of job r e f e r r a l s o f a l l t h e women included in t h i s study i s 0.8,
which i s 0 ,2 h i g h e r than t h a t o f th e males, and t h e G1 and G3 o f th e
females a re 0.1 and 0.9 r e s p e c t i v e l y h i g h e r than t h o s e o f t h e men.
Humber o f Job
Referrals
b e f o r e P e r ma n e n t P l a c e m e n t o f Ma l e s and F e ma l e s
Table 49 p r e s e n t s d a ta r e l a t i n g to t h e f i n a l jo b r e f e r r a l s o f a l l
t h e c a s e s in c l u d e d in t h i s study. The i n d i v i d u a l s with grammar school
t r a i n i n g have the g r e a t e s t number o f job r e f e r r a l s p reced in g permanent
placement (Md. 0 .9 ),- Cases with high school o r v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g
have almost as many r e f e r r a l s (Md. 0 . 7 each), and t h o s e at t h e c o l l e g e
and p o s t - g r a d u a t e l e v e l s fol low c l o s e l y (Md. 0.3 each).
The e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l showing widest v a r i a t i o n in jo b r e f e r r a l s i s
t h e grammar school group, in which the range of the middle 50 p e r c en t
o f t h e r e f e r r a l s i s 2. As c o n t r a s t e d with t h i s , t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d
fem a le s and t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e s have only 0.8 d i f f e r e n c e between G1 and
Q3 o f r e f e r r a l s .
This p ro ves t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s with grammar school
background e x p erien c e more d i f f i c u l t y in fi n d in g permanent j o b s than
t h o s e with c o l l e g e o r p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g .
When a l l t h e c a se s are take n as a whole, th e Md. o f r e f e r r a l s i s
0 . 7 , t h e G1 0 . 4 , and t h e G3 1 . 5 .
-141TABLE 4 9
Results of All J ob Referrals of All Males of Various Educational Levels
ano Reasons for Not Beinq Hired
P
n UWA
iir 'A T1lH
MAI 1
FV
FL
CU
1 UIVAU
LC
f CU
Col. 1
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL . . . .
RESULTS OF JOB REFERRALS
NUMBER number
,HIRED
NOT HIREO
NO DATA
ac ,mn
HP
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
Col. g Col. 3
Col. 4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Col. 8 Col. 9
702
361
172
47.3
174
48. 2
15
4.2
eio
413
232
56.2
167
40.4
14
3.4
829
83
335
32
195
17
58.2
53.1
123
14
36.7
43.8
17
1
5.1
3.1
190
87
51
58.3
32
33.8
4
4.6
2301
i 22e
667
54.3
TABLE 50
510
41.5
51
4.2
Results os All J ob Referrals of All Females of Various Educational Levels
and Reasons for Not Be ins Hired
results of job referrals
C U U w A llO N A L
LCVt L
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL • » • •
NO DATA
NUMBER NUMBER
HIRED
NOT HIRED
OF
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1341
2109
1257
60.0
914
39.6
27
1.3
•
1491
1431
798
55.7
304
42.2
29
2.0
990
40
442
18
230
12
58.8
33.7
172
5
3 e .9 ,
27.8
10
1
2.3
5.6
287
185
se
53.3
74
44. e
3
1.8
4119
4164
2425
58.2
1689
40.0
70
1.7
TAB LE 5 1
Results of All J ob Referrals of All Males and Females of Various Educational
Levels and Reasons for Not Beinq Hired
results of job referrals
educational level
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r tia l high
sohool. and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oolleg e
and o o lleg e'
graduates
p o st—gr aduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL •! • •
NO DATA
NOT HIRED
HIRED
NUMBER NUMBER
OF JOB
OF
CASES REFERRALS NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
2043
2439
1439
58.3
988
40.0
42
1.7
2271
1844
1030
55.8
771
41.8
43
2.3
1819
120
777
50
455
29
53.6
58.0
295
19
38.0
se .o
27
2
3.5
4.0
487
252
139
55.2
108
42.1
7
2.8
• 6720
5392
3092
57.2
2179
40.3
121
2.2
-1 4 3 TABLE 4 9
(Co n t i n u e d )
Results )F All J ob Referrals of All Males of Various Educational Levels
and Reasons for Not Betnq Hired
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL NUMBER NOT HIREC
Cola 10
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
- sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
po st-g rad u ate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
a
a
a '
• ]
REASONS FOR NOT BEINQ HIRED
EMPLOYER CHANQED PLANS FAILED TO REPORT TO JOB
COla11
NUMBER
Col. 12
PER CENT
O ol.13
NUMBER
Col. 14
PER CENT
C o l.15
174
57
32.8
19
10.9
167
49
29.3
19
11.4
183
14
2e
6
22. 8
42. e
8
6.5
32
16
50.0
3
9.4
510
156
30.8
49
9.8
TABLE 50
( C o n tin u e d )
R esults of All Job R eferrals of AllFeMales, of Various Educational Levels
and Reasons fo r Not Beinq Hired
REASONS FOR 13T BEINQ HIRED
EMPLOYER CHANQED PLANS FAILED TO REPORT TO JOB
educational level DUMBER NOT HIRED
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r tia l oollege
and oollege
graduates
po st-gradu ate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
a
a
a
a
614
201
24.7
72
8.8
604
157
2 6 .0 '
62
10.3
172
5
44
25.6
40.0
10
5.8
2
74
16
21.6
3
4.0
1369
420
25.2
147
8.8
TABLE 51
( CONTINUEO)
Results of All J ob Referrals of All Males5 and Females of Various Educational
Levels ano Reasons fos* Not Bein 3 Hired
REASONS FOR NOT. BEING HIRED
EMPLOYER CHANQED PLANS FAILED TO REPORT TO JOB
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL NUMBER NOT HIRED
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
V ooational,
teohnioal or
TOTAL
a
a
a
a
98e
258
26.1
91
9.2
771
206
26.7
81
10.5
295
19
72
24.4
42.1
ie
6.1
8
106
32
30.2
6
5.6
2179
576
28.4
198
9.0
-1 4 ? -
TABLE 4 9
(C o n c lu d e d )
R esults of All Joe R eferrals of A ll Vales o f Various Educational Levels
and Reasons for Not Beinq Hired
REASONS FOR NOT BEINQ HIRED
EDUCATIONAL
LEVEL
Col. 16
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
post-grad u ate
Vooational,
teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
UNSATISFACTORY livinq
AND WORKING CONDITIONS
UNSUITABLE TO EMPLOYER
NO DATA
NUMBER
PER CENT
number
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
Col. 17
C o l.18
C o l.19
Col. 20
C o l.21
Col. 22
24
13.8
38
20.7
38
21.8
23
13.8
29
17.4
47
28.1
25
1
20.3
7.1
14
2
11.4
14.3
48
5
89.0
35.7
3
73
9.4
14.9
6
87
18.8
17.0
4
142
12.5
27.8
TABLE 50 (C oncluded )
Results of All J ob Referrals of All Females of Various Educational Levels
and Reasons for Not Beinq Hireo
REASONS FOR NOT BEING HIREO
unsatisfactory living
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
p a r t i a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
P ost-graduate
Vooational,
teo h n io al or
business sohool
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
AND WORKING CONDITIONS
NUMBER
NO DATA
UNSUITABLE TO EMPLOYER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
182
19.9
237
29.1
142
17.4
113
ie .7
130
21.5
142
23.5
20
11.6
42
3
24.4
60.0
56
32.8
14
309
18.9
18.5
18
430
24.3
25.8
23
383
31.1
21.7
TABLE 51
(CONCL UDEO)
Results of All J ob Referrals of All Males and Females of Various Educational
Levels and Reasons for Not Beinq Hired
REASONS FOR NOT BEING HIRED
NO DATA
UNSUITABLE TO EMPLOYE!
UNSATISFACTORY LIVINQ
AND WORKING CONDITIONS
educational level
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
PER CENT
NUMBER
p a r t i a l grammar
and grammar
• school graduates
p a r ti a l high
sohool and high
sohool graduates
P a r ti a l oollege
and oollege
graduates
Post-graduate
V ooational,
-teohnioal or
business sohool
TOTAL
• ‘ •'
•'
•
188
17.8
273
27.9
180
13.2
139
17.6
159
20.6
189
24.5
45
1
15.2
5.3
56
5
19.0
23.3
104B
t/
35.2
28.3
17
385
16.0
24
22.9
27
25.5
17.6
517
23.7
505
29.1
-1 4 4 -
RESULTS OF ALL JOB REFERRALS
The outcomes o f the f i n s i job r e f e r r a l s were a l s o st u d ie d i n
o r d e r to determine which e d u c a t i o n a l group had most o f i t s members
hired.;
R e s u l t s of Job Ref er r al s o f Hales
The d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f h i r e d c a s e s at t h e h ig h
s c h o o l ( 5 3 .? per c e n t ) , v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l ( 5 8 . 3 per c e n t ) , c o l l e g e
( 5 8 . £ per c e n t ) and p o s t - g r a d u a t e l e v e l s (5?.;1 per c e n t ) were found
t o be i h s i g n i f i c a n t and due p r o b a b ly to chance f l u c t u a t i o n s in sam­
p l i n g . ; The grammar s c h o o l c a s e s , however, were l e s s t s u c c e s s f u l i n
j o b placement (4 7 ,3 per c e n t ) , * and t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y t h a t
t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t due t o chance ( s e e Appendix I I ,
and 74).•
Tables 78
C o n v e r s e l y , ' t h e grammar s c h o o l group shows t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e
n o t h i r e d ( 4 3 . ? per c e n t ) ,
fchereas t h e c o l l e g e and v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d
men have th e f e w e s t c a s e s n o t h i r e d (?8»? per c e n t and 86.8 per c e n t
respectively),;
The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s f a r e d worse ( 4 8 .8 per c e n t n o t h i r e d )
than t h o s e with h ig h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g
( 4 0 . 4 per c e n t n o t h i r e d ) .
Taking t h e mal es as a ' w h o l e , i t i s found t h a t a l i t t l e more than
o n e - h a l f (54.;? per c e n t ) were h i r e d and 4 1 , 5 p e r c en t were n o t h i r e d . Four and t w o - t e n t h s per c e n t o f the c a s e s l a c k e d data.
R e s u l t s of Job Ref er r al s o f Females
Table 50 t r e a t s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f j o b r e f e r r a l s o f the fe m a le c a s e s .
Of th e women,i the p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were most s u c c e s s f u l i n b e in g h i r e d
( 3 6 . 7 per c e n t ) , ' whereas t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h o s e at the v o o a t i o n a l ,
h i g h s ch o ol and c o l l e g e l e v e l s ( 5 3 . 8 per c e n t , 5 5 . 7 per c e n t and 5 8 . 8
p e r c e n t ) who were s u c c e s s f u l i n b e i n g h i r e d showed no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a ­
t i o n s ( s e e Appendix IT, T a b l e s 7? and 7 4 ) .
Over o n e - h a l f ( 5 8 . 3 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e f e m a l e s were h ir e d on r e p o r t i n g
t o t h e i r a s si g n ed j o b s , and t w o - f i f t h s ( 4 0 . 0 pe r c e n t ) were not h i r e d .
Of th e male c a s e s , < 5 4 . 3 p e r c e n t were h i r e d .
There i s a stro ng p o s s i ­
b i l i t y t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f male and f e m a le
c a s e s h i r e d was no t due t o c h a n c e v a r i a t i o n .
Females have 394 c ha nc e s
o u t o f 1000 o f b e in g more s u c c e s s f u l than the males i n being h i r e d
( s e e Appendix I I , 1 Tabl es 7 ? and 7 4 ) .
The p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a l e and fe m al e c a s e s n o t h i r e d are very s i m i l a r
( 4 1 . 5 pe r c e n t and 4 0 . 0 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
More o f t h e male c a s e s
( 4 . 9 per c e n t ) than o f t h e f e m a l e s ( 1 . 7 p e r c e n t ) f a i l e d t o supply data
c o n c e r n in g r e s u l t s o f job r e f e r r a l s .
-1 4 5 -
R e s u l t s o f Job R e f e r r a l s of Hales and Females
When d a t a c o n c e r n i n g outcomes o f job r e f e r r a l s f o r t h e males and
t h e f e m a l e s are combined ( a s i n Table E l ) ,
th e c o l l e g e ,
grammar s ch ool
and p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s are found t o have p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same p e r c e n t ­
ag es o f t h o s e h i r e d ( 5 8 . 8 p e r c e n t ,
resp ectively).
58, ? per c e n t and 5 8 . 0 pe r c e n t
The r e m a in in g e d u c a t i o n a l groups, t h o s e with h ig h s ch oo l
o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , had s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f h i r e d c a s e s ( 5 5 . 8
p e r c e n t and 5 5 . 9 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between
th e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ar e s l i g h t .
On comparing t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f caEes not h i r e d , i t i's found (Table
51 ) t h a t t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e snd c o l l e g e groups have t h e same p e r c e n t a g e s
( 3 3 , 0 per c e n t n o t h i r e d f o r e a c h ) .
The i n d i v i d u a l s with grammar s ch ool
and h ig h s c h o o l background ( 4 0 . 0 per c e n t and 4 1 . 8 per c e n t n o t h i r e d ,
r e s p e c t i v e l y ) f o l l o w very c l o s e l y .
V o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d c a s e s were
l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l in o b t a i n i n g j o b s (4 8, 1 per c e n t n o t h i r e d ) ,
there i s l i t t l e
alt hough
v a r i a t i o n between t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l groups.
When p l l t h e c a s e s are c o n s i d e r e d , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e who were
h i r e d i s 5 7 . 8 pe r c e n t ,
w h il e t h o s e who f a i l e d to be h i r e d co mprise
4 0 . 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e e n t i r e group.
REASONS FOR HOF RFIHO HTRFD
T a b le s 49, 50 and 51 a l s o c o n t a i n data showing why some c a s e s f a i l e d
t o be employed on t h e j o b s t o which they had been r e f e r r e d .
The r e a s o n s
f o r n o t h i r i n g a p p l i c a n t s have been c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s :
Emp l o y e r Changed P l a n s
Employer aeoured he lp from another source .
A former employee r e t u r n e d .
Employer deoid ed t o h i r e a member o f hia f a m i l y .
Employer’ s f a m i l y broke up.
F a i l e d To R e p o r t t o Job
Appl ioa nt had i n s u f f i c i e n t time to r e p o r t t o jo b .
A p p lic an t di d not do t o t h e job.
U n s a t i s f a e t o r y L i v i n g and F o r k i n g C o n d i t i o n s
Hours were t o o l o n g .
Pay was i n s u f f i o i e n t .
Employer was d i s a g r e e a b l e .
Employee d e s i r e d t o work i n t h e o i t y r a t h e r th a n t h e o ou n tr y,
or v i o e v e r s a .
Employee d e a i r e d t o "Bleep out" r a t h e r than "s ta y in" on a Job,
or v i o e v e r s a .
U n s u i t a b l e t o Empl oy e r
Appl ioa nt waa d i s h o n e s t .
A pp li o a n t l i e d .
A pp lio an t smoked e x o e a s i v e l y .
App lio ant used i n t o x i o a t i n g dr in k s.
Appl ioa nt d i d not poasesB the q u a l i f i o a t i o n a r e q u i r e d by the
employer.
^ ° Heoords do not
supp ly in f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o r e a s o n f o r the
a p p l i o a n t now b e i n g h i r e d .
-1 4 3 -
Reasons f o r Hales Hot Betni Hired
Table 49 shows t h a t a change o f t h e e m p l o y e e s p l a n s i s t h e p r e ­
dominant rea so n f o r mal es o f a l l t h e e d u c a t i o n a l groups no t b e i n g h i r e d .
T hi s i s ,
in part,
due to the p r a c t i c e o f some employers o f i n t e r v i e w i n g
a p p l i c a n t s from s e v e r a l employment a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o making a s e l e c t i o n .
As a r e s u l t of t h i s procedure, a p p l i c a n t s are se n t back and f o r t h to
many jo b r e f e r r a l s b e fo r e they se cure placement.
In a l l e d u c a t i o n a l groups e x c e p t t h a t o f t h e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d , th e
re as on ra nk in g second f o r n o t b e in g h i r e d i s u n s u i t a b i l i t y to employer.
The w r i t e r has been informed by employment c o u n s e l o r s t h a t employers
sometimes engage h e lp f o r a t r i a l p e r i o d w it h o u t pay,
and at t h e termina­
t i o n o f t h i s tim e d i s m i s s th e employee w it h o u t j u s t c a u s e .
Such c a s e s
would te nd t o i n c r e a s e t h e pr o p o r ti o n o f t h o s e d e s i g n a t e d as u n s u i t a b l e .
The c o l l e g e t r a i n e d males have as t h e i r second ranking reason f o r not
b e i n g h i r e d , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s .
U n s at i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ranked as t h e t h i r d
most imp ort ant reason o f a l l e d u c a t i o n a l groups, e x c e p t t h e c o l l e g e trained,
for not being h ired .
employer ranks t h i b d .
At the c o l l e g e l e v e l ,
u n s u i t a b i l i t y to
Only a small p r o p o r t i o n ( a p pr ox im at e ly o n e - t e n t h
t o o n e - t w e n t i e t h ) o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s at each e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l f a i l e d
t o r e p o r t to t h e i r j o b s ( s e e Table 4 9 ) .
The reason f o r about o n e - t h i r d ( 3 0 . 8 pe r c e n t ) o f s l l t h e males
n o t b e i n g h i r e d i s a change o f e m p l o y e e s p l a n s .
U n s u i t a b i l i t y to
employer,' and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s , each ac­
c o u n t ed f o r l e s s than o n e - f i ' f t h o f t h e m a le s n o t b e i n g h i r e d ( 1 7 . 0
p e r c e n t and 1 4 . 9 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
Only o n e - t e n t h ( 9 . 6 per c e n t )
o f t h e males f a i l e d to r e p o r t to t h e i r j o b s .
Reasons f o r Females Hot Beini Hired
There are two main r e a s o n s f o r th e f e m a l e s n o t b e i n g h i r e d .
At a l l
e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , ' u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer, and a change o f p l a n s on
t h e p a r t o f t h e employer, ranked e i t h e r f i r s t or second i n imp ort anc e,
f o r t h o s e with grammar s c h o o l , v o c a t i o n a l o r p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g ,
u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer ranks f i r s t ,
f o r th e o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ,
t h i s i s t h e second ranking reason f o r n o t b e i n g h i r e d .
At th e h i g h school
and c o l l e g e l e v e l s , ' a change o f e m p l o y e r ' s p l a n s ranks as t h e f i r s t re as on ,
whereas t h i s becomes t h e second ra nking rea so n f o r t h e remaining educa­
t i o n a l groups.:
U n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e t h e t h i r d
ran kih g reason f o r the members of a l l e d u c a ti o n a l groups not being h i r e d ,
and f a i l u r e to r e p o r t to job r e f e r r a l s comes l a s t in importance.
-1 4 7 The o u t s t a n d i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h e fe m a le group as a t h o l e n o t b e in g
h i r e d are u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer ( 9 5 . 8 per c e n t ) and a change o f
e m p l o y e r ' s p l a n s ( 9 5 , 9 pe r c e n t ) . ; L e s s than o n e - f i f t h ( 1 8 . 5 pe r c e n t )
were n o t h i r e d be c aus e o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s , '
and o n l y a small p r o p o r t i o n ( 8 . 8 p e r c e n t ) f a i l e d t o r e p o r t to t h e i r
jo b s.:
The main d i f f e r e n c e between t h e maleE* and t h e f e m a l e s ' r e a s o n s
f o r n o t b e in g h i r e d i s t h a t in t h e fe m a le group u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o em­
p l o y e r and a change o f e m p l o y e r ' s p l a n s are o f t h e same weight ( 9 5 , 8
pe r c e n t and 9 5 , 9 pe r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , ' whereas, with t h e men, a change
o f e m p l o y e r ' s p l a n s i s much more im p ort an t than u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer
( 3 0 . 8 per c e n t as compared with 1 7 . 0 pe r c e n t ) , - In both t h e male and
f e m a l e groups, u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s are ranked
t h i r d in impo rtanc e,
and f a i l u r e t o r e p o r t to t h e jo b r a t e s f o u r t h , -
Reasons f o r Hales and Females Hot Bei ni Hired
At a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s e x c e p t t h e grammar s c h o o l ,
t h e main reason
f o r a p p l i c a n t s n o t b e i n g h i r e d i s a change o f e m p l o y e r ' s p l a n s .
For the
grammar school group, t h i s reas on r ank s s e c o n d . - U n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer
i s n e x t i n o rd er o f i m p o r t a n c e . - I t rankE second i n a l l e d u c a t i o n a l groups
e x c e p t t h e grammar s c h o o l , ' i n which i t heads t h e l i s t o f r e a s o n s .
At a l l
t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s are
p l a c e d t h i r d , - and f a i l u r e t o r e p o r t t o jo b r e f e r r a l ranks l a s t ,
A change o f e m p l o y e r ' s p l e n s ,
and u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer, each
ac co u nt f o r appro xim ate ly o n e - f o u r t h o f a l l t h e c a s e s no t be ing h i r e d
( 9 3 , 4 per c e n t and 9 3 . 7 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
L e s s than o n e - f i f t h o f
t h e c a s e s ( 1 7 . 8 pe r c e n t ) were n o t p l a c e d b e c a u s e o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y
l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s , and about o n e - t e n t h ( 9 . 0 per c e n t ) f a i l e d
t o r e p o r t t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . I n t h e remainder o f t h e c a s e s , 9 3 . 1 per
c e n t , data are l a c k i n g as t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r n o t b e in g h i r e d ,
SDHMART AHV COHOLUSTOHS
I n f l u e n c e of Education on Final Job R e f e r r a l s o f Hales
(l)
Job r e f e r r a l s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t
v a r i a t i o n u n t i l th e c o l l e g e l e v e l was reached,
at which p o i n t th e pro­
p o r t i o n i n c r e a s e d , and c o n t i n u e d to r i s e through t h e p o s t - g r a d u a t e l e v e l .
(9 ) The e f f e c t o f e d u c a t i o n on s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l job r e f e r r a l s was
n o t marked.
(3)
I n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g did n o t prove o f much v a lu e in
r e f e r r a l s to p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s .
-1 4 3 -
(4 ) E du c at io n al background i n f l u e n c e d commercial r e f e r r a l s to a
s l i g h t degree.
( 5 ) The c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s had th e f e w e s t d om es ti c
job r e f e r r a l s .
There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e o t h e r
e d u c a t i o n a l groups.
( 6 ) The hi gh s c h o o l t r a i n e d m a le s o b t a i n e d more i n d u s t r i a l job
r e f e r r a l s than any o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l group.
( 7 ) Males with c o l l e g e or p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g were p r e f e r r e d
f o r government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s .
(9) On e-fourth o f t h e male c a s e s were r e f e r r e d t o i n d u s t r i a l p o s i ­
t i o n s and app roximately o n e - t e n t h t o government p r o j e c t s .
I n f l u e n c e o f Education on f i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s o f females
( 1 ) The p e r c e n t a g e o f r e f e r r a l s t o p r o f e s s i o n s d id n o t show any
s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n at t h e lo w e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s .
The c o l l e g e and
p o s t - g r a d u a t e groups had t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e s e r e f e r r a l s .
( ? ) Job r e f e r r a l s t o s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e
a t t e n d a n t p o s i t i o n s were n e g l i g i b l e .
( 3 ) Females with v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l or b u s i n e s s sch ool background
were r e f e r r e d more o f t e n than any o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l group t o p o s i t i o n s
i n t h e commercial f i e l d .
( 4 ) The p r o p o r t i o n o f r e f e r r a l s t o do m e s ti c p o s i t i o n s v a r i e d i n d i ­
r e c t l y with e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ,
( 5 ) The h ig h s c h o o l and v o c a t i o n a l l y t r a i n e d f e m a l e s had t h e h i g h e s t
proportion s o f r e f e r r a l s to i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s .
( 6 ) The c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t p e r ­
c e n t a g e o f r e f e r r a l s to government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s .
(7 ) E du c atio n al background e x e r t e d a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on t h e job
r e f e r r a l s o f both t h e male and f e m a l e c a s e s .
(3 ) S l i g h t l y more than o n e - h a l f o f t h e e n t i r e fema le group were
r e f e r r e d to do m e s ti c p o s i t i o n s .
I n f l u e n c e of Education on Final Job R e f e r r a l s of Hales and Females
( l ) An i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l job r e f e r r a l s a t t e n d i n g
each r i s e in e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l .
(?) R e ferra ls to s e m i- p r o fe s s io n a l,
p r o fe ssio n a l s e r v ic e attendant,
and i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s were n o t i n f l u e n c e d by e d u c a t i o n a l background.
( 3 ) V o c a t i o n a l or b u s i n e s s s c h o o l t r a i n i n g proved very v a l u a b l e in
o b t a i n i n g r e f e r r a l s t o commercial p o s i t i o n s .
( 4 ) Domestic j o b r e f e r r a l s v a r i e d i n v e r s e l y with t h e amount o f
s c h o la stic traihihg.
-1 4 9 (5)
R e f e r r a l s t o government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e d as t h e
e d u c a t i o n a l s c a l e was ascended.;
( 3 ) A l i t t l e l e s s than t w o - f i f t h s o f a l l t h e caEes were s e n t to
d o m e s t i c p o s i t i o n s , a p p ro xim at e ly o n e - t e n t h were r e f e r r e d to i n d u s t r i a l
j o b s , and 6 , 3 pe r c e n t were recommended f o r government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s . -
I n f l u e n c e o f Age on f i n a l Job R e f e r r a l s
( l ) R e f e r r a l s to p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y from
t h e 17 -94 y e a r group t o t h e 9 5 - 9 9 y e a r l e t e l , < from which p o i n t a d e c r e a s e
»
started.;
( ? ) The age f a c t o r did n o t i h f l u e n c e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b - r e f e r r a l E .
( ? ) Job r e f e r r a l s to p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t and commercial
p o s i t i o n s d e c r e a s e d as t h e age l e v e l i n c r e a s e d .
( 4 ) Domestic jo b r e f e r r a l s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y up t o t h e 5 0 - 5 9 ye ar
group,' but from t h a t p o i n t on a d e c r e a s e was n o t e d .
(5) The g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l job r e f e r r a l s o c c u r r e d
at t h e 17-94 and 50r59 y e a r l e v e l s . ;
( 8 ) The peak o f r e f e r r a l s t o government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s o c cu rr e d
i n t h e 9 5 - 9 9 y e a r group.;
Humber o f Job R e f e r r a l s Before Permanent Placement 1 of Males
( 1 ) There was p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e number o f jo b
r e f e r r a l s b e f o r e permanent placement o f t h e males a t the v a r i o u s educa­
tional le v e ls ,
(9 ) The Md.; o f a l l t h e job r e f e r r a l s o f t h e males was 0 . 3 ,
and th e
Q1 and G3 were 0 . 3 and 1 . 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Humber of Job R e f e r r a l s Before Permanent Placement 1 o f Females
( l ) No a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s were found to e x i s t between t h e
number o f r e f e r r a l s f o r t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p s , ( ? ) The f e m a l e s with grammar s c h o o l t r a i n i n g showed t h e w i d e s t
r an ge i n t h e number o f job r e f e r r a l s ,
as compared wifh t h e c o l l e g e
women,' who showed t h e l e a s t v a r i a t i o n .
( ? ) The Md.- o f a l l t h e jo b r e f e r r a l s o f t h e f e m a l e s was 9 . 8 ,
and
t h e G1 and G3 were 0 . -4 and 1 , 9 r e s p e c t i v e l y /
Humber o f Job R e f e r r a l s Before Permanent Placement1 of Males and Females
(l)
The grammar s c h o o l c a s e s had t h e g r e a t e s t number o f jo b r e f e r ­
r a l s p r e c e d i n g permanent plac ement.;
1. Positions held for at least ait montha are considered permanent.
-1 5 0 -
( 9 ) The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l showing th e w id e s t v a r i a t i o n i n number
o f j o b r e f e r r a l s was t h e grammar s c h o o l , ' w hi le t h e c o l l e g e and p o s t ­
g r a d u a t e c a s e s had th e s h o r t e s t span between t h e G1 and Q3 o f t h e i r
referrals.'
( ? ) The Md,; o f a l l j o b r e f e r r a l s was 0 . 7 .
0 3 was 1 . 5 . ;
The Q1 was 0.-4 and t h e
R e s u l t s o f Job R e f e r r a l s o f Males
( l ) The grammar s c h o o l c a s e s were l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l i n jo b p la c e m e n t s .
(? ) The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h o s e who were h i r e d
at t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s were found t o be due t o chance v a r i a ­
tion . ;
( 3 ) S l i g h t l y more than o n e - h a l f o f th e males were h i r e d on r e p o r t i n g
t o t h e i r jo b a s s i g n m e n t s . ;
R e s u l t s o f Job R e f e r r a l s o f Females
( 1 ) The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s were most s u c c e s s f u l i n b e i n g h i r e d .
( 9 ) The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h o s e who were h i r e d at
t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s were found t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t .
(? ) Over o n e - h a l f o f t h e fe m ale s were s u c c e s s f u l i n b e i n g h i r e d on
r e p o r t i n g to t h e i r jo b r e f e r r a l s .
R e s u l t s o f Job R e f e r r a l s of Males and Females
( l ) The c o l l e g e ,
grammar s ch ool and p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s had p r a c ­
t i c a l l y t h e same p e r c e n t a g e s o f c a s e s h i r e d ,
( ? ) The p r o p o r t i o n o f c a s e s h i r e d was 5 7 , 2 per c e n t ,
and t h o s e who
f a i l e d t o be h i r e d comprised t w o - f i f t h s o f the e n t i r e group.
Reasons f o r Males Mot Bei ni Mired
( 1 ) The predominant re aso n fo r th e males at a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s
n o t b e i n g h i r e d was a change o f t h e e m p lo y e r 's p l a n s .
( 2 ) U n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer ranked second i n im p o r t a n c e i n a l l
e d u c a t i o n a l groups but t h a t o f t h e c o l l e g e - t r a i n e d .
( ? ) The t h i r d most im p o rt a n t reason f o r a l l t h e m a l e s , e x c e p t . t h o s e
at t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l ,
was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s .
( 4 ) Only a sm al l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s at each e d u c a t i o n a l
l e v e l f a i l e d to report to t h e i r jo b s.
Reasons f o r Females Hot Bei ni Hired
( l ) The two main r e a s o n s f o r th e fe ma les n o t b e i n g h i r e d were
u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer,
and a change i n the e m p l o y e r ' s p l a n s .
-1 5 1 ( 9 ) U n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ranked t h i r d
f o r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l groups, and f a i l u r e to r e p o r t to .lob r e f e r r a l s
was t h e l e a s t im p or t ant rea so n f o r n o t b e in g h i r e d .
Reasons for, Males and Females Hot Bei ni Hired
( 1 ) The main reason why t h e mal es and fe ma le s o f a l l e d u c a t i o n a l
gr oup s, e x c e p t the grammar s c h o o l , were n o t h i r e d was a change o f
emoloyer’ s plans,
(9)
U n s u i t a b i l i t y to employer ranked second; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g
and working c o n d i t i o n s ,
third;
and f a i l u r e t o r e p o r t to jo b r e f e r r a l ,
f o u r t h among t h e r e a s o n s .
( 3 ) The two h i g h e s t ra nking r e a s o n s each accounted f o r approximately
o n e - f o u r t h o f a l l t h e c a s e s no t b e i n g h i r e d .
( 4 ) L e s s than o n e - f i f t h o f the c a s e s were n o t p l a c e d b e c a u s e o f
u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ,
( 5 ) About o n e - t e n t h o f t h e c a s e s f a i l e d t o r e p o r t t o t h e i r a s s i g n e d
po s i t i o n s , '
CHAPTER VII
Ob s t a c l e s Conf ronti ng the Negro in S e e k i ng Employment
In t h i s s tu d y ,
a t t e n t i o n ha s t h u s f a r been c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e
r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and i n i t i a l employment, p a s t o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s and job r e f e r r a l s .
There are, however, numerous
f a c t o r s o t h e r than t h e ty p e o f s c h o l a s t i c background which e x e r t a
po w e r fu l e f f e c t on t h e employment o f t h e Negro and t h e r e f o r e d e s e r v e
consideration.
The Depression and Att endant Unemployment Problems
The data c o l l e c t e d in t h i s study c o ve r t h e p e r i o d from 1929 through
l ‘9?7,
during which time a major b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n o c c u r r e d ,
sp rea d s o c i a l
and economic problems coming i n i t s wake.
d e p r e s s i o n was by no means a Negro problem e x c l u s i v e l y ,
with wide­
Although t h e
i t s e f f e c t s were
much more s e v e r e among members o f the c o l o r e d r a c e than among t h o s e o f
t h e Caucasian group.
"When i n d u s t r i a l p a r a l y s i s becomes widespread, t h e
workers in t h e f r i n g e o f i n d u s t r y ,
i t s effects.;
th e u n s k i l l e d ,
are t h e f i r s t to f e e l
Unemployment u s u a l l y beginE with t h e d i s c h a r g e or l a y - o f f
o f t h e marginal w o r k e r . " 1
T h e r e fo r e Negro workers, b e i n g l a r g e l y un­
s k i l l e d , ' are a f f e c t e d by p e r i o d s o f unemployment so on e r and more s e r i o u s l y
than workers o f any o t h e r r a c i a l group.
J o h n s o n , 2 in d i s c u s s i n g unemployment,' s t a t e s t h a t as e a r l y as 1927
(not 1929),( t h e unemployment s i t u a t i o n f o r Negroes had become a c u t e .
Fy 1929 no l e s s than 3 0 9 ,0 0 0 Negro i n d u s t r i a l workers were unemployed,'
and employment o f f i c e s were a b le t o p l a c e l e s s than o n e - t h i r d o f t h e i r
a p p l i c a n t s . - "With a few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f Negroes
unemployed are from 30 per c e n t to 30 per c e n t g r e a t e r than f o r white
workers,"2
The N a t i o n a l Urban League, in March,' 1931,' p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f
t a b l e E 8 showing t h a t , ' i n every i n s t a n c e where f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e , '
t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f Negroes unemployed was h i g h e r than t h e i r p r o p o r ti o n
o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n warranted. In some c a s e s th e unemployment r a t i o was
f i v e and s i x t i m e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount. P a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t
was t h e f a c t t h a t the h i g h e s t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e f i g u r e s o c cu rr e d in
Northern i n d u s t r i a l co m m u ni tie s. Here t h e Negroes are l i m i t e d to
u n s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s and are marginal workers.
Commenting on t h e
1. Editorial by Editor VImar Cartor, Unemployment, Opportunity, VIII (April, 1680 ),
|? SCharlee 8 . Johnson, Tnoidenoe upon the Negroes, American Journal o f Sociology,
^ 8 . How Un.employo.aat Affeots Negroes, Rational Urban League, Varoh, 1081, p. 8 .
-15 2 -
-1 5 ? s i ' t u a t i o n i n New York C i t y , t h e N a t i o n a l Urban League s t a t e s : "Here
a gr ave s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s with appro xim ately 2 5 , 0 0 0 unemployed Negroes
i n Harlem.- An i n c r e a s e o f ?00 pe r c e n t o f a p p e a l s f o r r e l i e f by c o l ­
o r e d f a m i l i e s i s r e p o r t e d by s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . " 1 Fy December o f th e
same y e a r , t h e N a t i o n a l Urban League e s t i m a t e d 8 t h a t t h e number o f
c o l o r e d workers unemployed i n Harlem had i n c r e a s e d t o between 3 5 , 0 0 0
and 4 0 ,0 0 0 .In d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e co un tr y as a whole i n 1 9 ? 5 , ■
t h e N a t i o n a l Urban League s t a t e s 8 t h a t the b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n and t h e
growth o f machine i n d u s t r y , ' with i t s demand f o r new t y p e s o f l a b o r i n ­
c r e a s i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y per worker,'made 1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 workers unemployed,'
o f whom 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 were N e g r o e s . Migration to urban c e n t e r s aggra vate d t h e unemployment s i t u a t i o n
by c r e a t i n g f i e r c e N e g r o - w h i t e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e l i m i t e d number o f
.jobs which were a v a i l a b l e . ;
I n t h e p r e s e n t i n d u s t r i a l c r i s i s t h e Negr o w o r k e r f i n d s h i m s e l f i n
a o r i t i o a l p o s i t i o n . The movement o f b o t h b l a o k s and w h i t e s f r o m
the r u r a l d i s t r i o t s to the o i t i e s for the past deeade, following
t h e a g r i s u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n i n t h e S o u t h p l u s t e c h n o l o g i c a l unem­
p l o y m e n t , f o r c e d hi m t o c o m p e t e w i t h w h i t e w o r k e r s f o r t h e .lobs
whi oh s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n a l l o t t e d t o him f o r a h a l f o e n t u r y , i n t e n ­
s i f i e d r a o i a l f e e l i n g a nd i n v i t e d a g g r e s s i v e a t t e m p t s t o r e s t r i c t
h i s i n d u s t r i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s by l e g i s l a t i v e e n a o t m e n t and i n t i m ­
i d a t i o n e v e n b e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t unemp l oyment had r e a c h e d i t s p e a k . 4
T h e r e i s a b u n d a n t p r o o f i n r e p o r t s f r om a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e
c o u n t r y t h a t many j o b s N e g r o e s o n c e f i l l e d a r e b e i n g h e l d by w h i t e s
. . . a s i t u a t i o n which has a l l o w e d w h i t e s t o p r o f i t a t t h e expense
o f N e g r o e s . T h e r e s e e ms t o be no l e t - u p i n d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f t h i s
o h a r a o t e r , e i t h e r i n t h e S o u t h o r t h e N o r t h . I n f a c t , what s eeme d
t o b e a t e n d e n o y t wo y e a r s a go a p p e a r s now t o be a n a o o e p t e d p o l i c y
- i t o r e d u o e u n e mp l o y me n t among w h i t e s . Not o n l y h a v e w h i t e s b e e n
a d v a n t a g e d i n t h i s way, b u t F i l i p i n o s a nd M e x i c a n s h a v e a l s o b e e n
p l a o e d i n J o b s f r o m whi oh e n t i r e c r e w s o f N e g r o e s h a v e b e e n d i s ­
missed.
Thi s s u b s t i t u t i o n of workers of o t h e r r a o e s i n jo b s c u s t o m a r i l y
h e l d by N e g r o e s h a s b e e n o h i e f l y i n p e r s o n a l s e r v i o e o o o u p a t i o n s ;
t h e p r i n c i p a l o o o u p a t i o n s b e i n g h o u s e h o l d employment, e l e v a t o r
o p e r a t i n g , a n d h o t e l s e r v i c e . I n a number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a s i n
th e case of h o t e l s , white g i r l s are oeoupied i n p la o e s form erly
h e l d by o o l o r e d m e n . 8
H i l l ® m e nt io ns two ways i n which t e c h n o l o g i c a l ch an g e s i n t e n s i f y
unemployment o f t h e Negro. F i r s t , a s h i f t t o machine p r o d u c t i o n l e a v e s
\ \ Unemployment*Status of Negroea, National Urban League, December, 1981, p. 88 .
8. The fo rg o tten Tenth, National Urban league Color Line S eries, No. l (May, 1988),
t u t o r i a l . Unemployment, Opportunity, .VIII (April, 1980), p. 108. ^
£• How Unoapioynenx Affooto Bogroes, National urban League, March,
pj?^
6 . T. Arnold H ill, Plight of the Negro In iu etrial Worker, Journal o f Negro Education,
V (January, 1986), pp. 40-41.
P*
-1 5 4 t h e s e m i - s k i l l e d and t h e u n s k i l l e d workmen with no o u t l e t s f o r t h e i r
services.
However, some o f t h o s e employed i n t h e s k i l l e d t r a d e s are
a b le t o e n t e r new o c c u p a t i o n s ,
Secondly,
such as a v i a t i o n and r a d i o e n g i n e e r i n g .
a displacement o f s k i l l e d lsb o r in the higher brackets occurs.
Some o f t h e s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s are w i l l i n g t o ac c e p t s e m i - s k i l l e d or even
u n s k i l l e d job s r a t h e r than be unemployed. Government f i g u r e s showed
t h a t 82 pe r c e n t o f employed workers r e c e i v i n g r e l i e f in 1924 were
engaged i n t a s k s below t h e i r us ua l o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s .
Union Membership
Another i n d u s t r i a l o b s t a c l e f a c i n g t h e Negro iE t h e a t t i t u d e o f
u n i o n s toward Negro membership. At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n
p e r i o d t h e r e were o n ly 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 Negroes in la b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 1 and
t h e i n c r e a s e during t h i s p e r i o d , r e g a r d l e s s o f e f f o r t s t o o r g a n i z e c o l ­
o r e d workmen, was probab ly n o t g r e a t e r than 15C, CCC.
This i s o n ly a
s m a ll p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e f i v e and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n Negroes g a i n f u l l y
employed.
Unions o f s e m i - s k i l l e d and o f u n s k i l l e d workmen have n o t d i s c r i m ­
i n a t e d a g a i n s t t h e Negro as much as the o t h e r s , 8 and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n
t h e s e f i e l d s have f o s t e r e d Negro advancement and have sown t h e s e e d s
o f improved r a c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g .
The s k i l l e d f i e l d i s coming i n c r e a s ­
i n g l y under t h e c o n t r o l o f l a b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s which e i t h e r d i s c o u r a g e
o r r e s t r i c t Negro me mb ership.8 New i n d u s t r i e s t h a t are b e in g de v e lo p e d ,
e . g . , a i r p l a n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and ra di o work, l i m i t Negro employment to
c e r t a i n gra des o f work and make a o p r e n t r c e s h ip e x t r e m e ly d i f f i c u l t .
As f a r back as J39C t h e American F e d e r a t io n o f Labor urged t h e
u n i o n s under i t s c o n t r o l t o welcome N e g r o e s , ■l e s t t h e s e workers turn
t o r a d i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e ag er t o se c u r e t h e i r mem ber sh ip. 4 Many i n d i ­
v i d u a l s b e l i e v e t h a t th e condemnation o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by t h e American
F e d e r a t i o n o f Labor h a s always t e e n a "m e a ni ng le ss g e s t u r e . " 5 Whether
t h e American F e d e r a t i o n o f Labor,' through i t s c o n v e n t i o n s and F x e c u t i v e
C o u n c i l , ' h a s t h e power and moral f o r c e t o compel i t s n a t i o n a l and
i h t e r n a t i b n a l un ibn s t o admi't a l l i s s t i l l a q u e s t i o n .
"In t h e e x i s t i n g
s t r u c t u r e o f t h e A. F. o f L . , in th eo r y and f a c t ,
t h e n a t i o n a l and i n ­
t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s are th e head and f r o n t o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n . .; . end
1. Monroe N. Work, Negro Year. Book, 1987- 1988 , p. e i. .
8 . Secrge 8 . Mitobell, The Negro In Induatry, The M ertcan Scholar, TV (May, 1985),
If^W illia Weatherford and Charlea Johnson, Race Relations, p . .816.
4 . Unions filaorlmlnate Agalnat Negroea, In terra cia l News Service, Ootober, 1985,
P* 6**A. P h illip Randolph, Trade Union Movement and the Negro, Journal o f Negro Educa­
tio n , V (January, 1986), p. 55.
-1 5 5 t h e o f f i c i a l s o f some o f t h e powerful n a t i o n a l
and i n t e r n a t i o n a l un io ns
are n o t e s s e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r membership, e i t h e r
among Negro or w h i t e w o r k e r s , <i f such i n c r e a s e in membership may menace
o l d p o l i f c i e s t h a t are e n c r u s t e d with a g e - o l d t r a d e union and r a c i a l
dogmas.;"1
Thi’s o p i h i b n i s co nfirmed by t h e N ati on al Urban League:
W hat,
th e n
o f
L a b
num ber
p r o t e s
a t
o r g
t a i n
o
o r
o f
t
h
a n i
c c u
p le a s
f o r
ie
to w
r e
e re
z a t
p a t
th e
o f f i c i a l
p o s i t i o n
a rd
th e
o r g a n iz in g
s o l u t i o n s
u r g in g
o r
and
v a c u o u s
d e o re e
io n ;
s e g re g a te d
o r g
io n s
th r o u g h
l o c a l
o r g a n iz a t io n ;
th e
o f
th e
A m e rio a n
o f
N e g ro
w o rk e rs ?
g a n iz a t io n
o f
N e g r
s
t h e r e
a g a in s t
e f
a n iz a t io n
o f
N e g ro
and
f e d e r a l
la b o r
e m p lo y m e n t
a t
f e d e r a t io n
I t
o o m p ri
o
w o rk e rs
f o r t s
o f
w o rk e rs
u n io n s ;
a
v a r io u s
tim e s
o f
s e s
a
;
a
r a d io a ls
in
o e r fe w
a
fe w
N e g ro
o r g a n iz e r s ;
and
a t o t a l
i n a b i l i t y ,
i f
n o t
u n w illin g n e s s
to
co m p e l
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
U n io n s
t o
re m o ve
fro m
t h e i r
c o n s t i t u t i o n s
N e g ro
e x c lu s io n
c la u s e s ,
o r
s u f f e r
e x p u ls io n
fro m
th e
f e d e r a t io n .
The
f e d e r a t i o n
e s s a y s
o e r t a in
p o l i o i e s ,
r e a l i z i n g
i t
o a n n o t
c a r r y
the m
o u t.
I t
h a s
to
i t s
p h ilo s o p h y
n e o e s s a ry
t o
make
h a ve
b e e n
i t s
e f f o r t s
on
t h a t
i t
w o rk e rs
c o n c lu s io n
t h a t
th a n
lo o a l
has
and
le s s
o th e r
b e h a lf
has
and
th e
o f
th e
f e d e r a l
p o w e r
tim e
in
and
i t s
N e g ro
w o r k e r s ,
d e s p ite
f e d e r a t i o n
o f
L a b o r
i t s
o p in io n
o f
an y
o th e r
" s ta n d s
f o r "
rs
d e s p ite
t h e i r
r a c e ,
c re e d
o r
c o lo r ,
- s a t i s f a c t i o n
" s i t s
d o w n ,"
h a v in g
a c tu ­
t ,
among
N e g ro
w o rk e rs
th e
A m e ric a n
u s e
o f
i t s
"h a n d s
o f f "
p o li c y
d u r in g
e c a u s e
o f
i t s
f a i l u r e
t o
m a in ta in
th e
th o u s a n d s
la b o r
o f
f a i l e d
t o
c r y s t a l l i z e
th e
th e
i n t e l l i g e n t
p u b lic
t o
A m e rio a n
z a t io n
o f
w o rk e
c o m p la o e S t
s e l f
n o th in g .
In
f a c
o f
L a b o r,
b e c a
n i n e t i e s ,
and
b
o r g a n iz a t io n
th e m ,
l i v e
up
o f
l i b e r a l i s m
w it h o u t
p e r fo r m in g
th e
m e o h a n io s
t h a t
l i b e r a l i s m
a r e a l i t y .
So v a o u o u s
and
fe w
p ro n o u n c e m e n ts ,
N e g ro
and
w h ite
th e
o r g a n i
th e n
w it h
a l l y
done
f e d e r a t i o n
th e
e a r l y
" s ta n d s
f o r "
a tte m p te d
t o
o f
u n io n s
in f lu e n c e
N e g ro
in
w o rk e rs
1 9 1 9 ,
among
th e
1 9 2 0 ,
N e g ro
o r g a n iz e d
1 9 2 1 ,
g ro u p
and
th a n
u n d e r
1 9 2 2 ,
a t
an y
h i s t o r y . 2
F r a n c i s 8 c o n t e n d s t h a t Negroes have the r i g h t to show a r e s l i n ­
t e r e s t i n t h e up hea vel in t h e American F e d e r a t i o n o f Labor, s i n c e t h i s
o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s been th e v o i c e o f l a b o r in t h e Un it ed S t a t e s s i n c e
1880, but a c t u a l l y h a s n e v e r done a n yt hi ng which h a s been o f d i r e c t
b e n e f i t t o t h e Negro,
Much i n t e r e s t and hope i s now b e i n g c e n t e r e d
around John L, L e w i s 1 program o f i n d u s t r i a l un ion is m.
N e g ro
a n d
th e
t i o n
th e
th e
la b o r
o th e r
a re
th e
A m e rio a n
move
f o r
a b o l i t i o n
o f
le a d e r s
m em bers
b e s t
a re
o f
now
th e
f r i e n d s
p o in t in g
C o m m itte e
t h a t
th e
t o
f o r
b la c k
th e
f a c t
w o rk e rs
m e n 's
i n
i n
h a ve
L e w is
O rg a n iz a ­
ha d
in
f e d e r a t i o n .
These
le a d e r s
f e e l
o e r t a i n
t h a t ,
s h o u ld
i n d u s t r i a l
u n io n is m
be
a s u c c e s s ,
i t
w i l l
mean th e
"J im
C ro w is m "
w i t h i n
th e
f e d e r a t io n .
t i a t e
t h i s
p o in t
i t
is
w o r th y
o f
n o te
t h a t
th o s e
u n io n s
in
w h io h
N e g ro e s
ha ve
p la y e d
an
im p o r ta n t
d u s t r i a l
i z a t i o n s
t h a t
I n d u s t r i a l
fo rm ,
and
in c lu d e
th r e e
th e
f e d e r a t i o n :
n a m e ly ,
A s s o c ia t io n ,
th e
U n ite d
W in e
To
s u b s ta n ­
A.
f .
o f
p a r t
a re
L .
i n ­
o f
th e
o u ts ta n d in g
o rg a n ­
th e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l L o n g s h o re ­
W o rk e rs ,
and
th e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
e l N e g r o CW e m b e r a h ip i n A m e r io a n l a b o r U n i o n s , N a tio n a l Urban lea gu e, 1080, p * 8 2 .
8 . R o b e r t C . W r a n o i s , N e g r o a n i I n d u s t r i a l U n i o n i s m , fournal o f S o c ia l Forces, X V
( U e o e m b e r , 1086 } , p . 2 7 8 .
-1 5 8 L a d ie s '
G a rm e n t
W o rk e rs .
Pp ° jfp e a 8 iv e
w i t h i n
i t s
ra n k s
w h it e
w o rk e rs
i n
g ro e s
i n
th e
T.
The
l a s t
i a
fro m
a l l
a n g le s
* n
o o u n tr y
and
i t e
a c t i o n
i s
id e a l.
The
o o lo r e d
w o r k e r s
a l l
a f f a i r s
p e r t a i n i n g
t o
th e
L .
S.
W.
U.
h o ld
p o s it io n s
o f
one
o f
th e
to w a rd
th e
N e g ro e s
s h a re
e q u a lly
w ith
O n io n .
Many N e­
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1
The n a ti o n - w i d e i n t e r e s t in i n d u s t r i a l unionism did no t cause much
m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e American f e d e r a t i o n of L s t o r ,
T h is
f r i e n d l y
a t t i t u d e
on th e
p a r t
o f
th e
C o m m itte e
f o r
In d u s ­
t r i a l
O r g a n is a t io n
a p p a r e n tly
h a s
c h a n g e d
b u t
l i t t l e
th e
o r th o d o x
p o li o y
o f
e x o lu s io n
w h io h
th e
e s t a b lis h e d
u n it s
F e d e r a tio n
o f
t a b o r
ha ve
lo n g
p r a o t io e d .
.
la r g e
o r
im p o r ta n t
n a t io n a l
la b o r
o r g a n iz a
m e m b e rs h ip .
The
f r i e n d l y
a t t i t u d e
o f
th e
C
O r g a n iz a t io n
to w a ird
N e g ro e s
has
o o o a s io n e d
q u a r t e r s ,
b u t,
b y
and
la r g e ,
th e
A m e ric a n
u n i t s
a re
as
ad am an t
and
s u b v e r s iv e
as
h e r
o f
th e
A m e rio a n
.
.
T h e re
a re
s t i l l
t io n s
w h io h
deny
N e g ro e s
o m m itte e
f o r
I n d u s t r i a l
some
o o n o e rn
i n
a
fe w
F e d e r a tio n
o f L a b o r
e t o f o r e . 8
Union d i s c r i m i n a t i o n againEt t h e Negro t a k e s 8 v a r i e t y o f f o r m s , 8
o f which t h e f o l l o w i n g may be men tioned.
(l)
E x c l u s i o n o f Negro workers by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n . —
"To-day no l e s s than 24 n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i o n s , 10 o f which
a r e a f f i l i a t e d with th e A. f . o f L ,, e x c l u d e Negroes from t h e i r member­
s h ip through p r o v i s i o n in t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n or r i t u a l s . " 4
A complete
l i s t o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s c o n t a i n e d in th e 1930 r e p o r t o f the'
N a t i o n a l Urban League. 5 Some o f t h e u n i o n s p r a c t i s i n g t h i s method o f
discrim ination
are in th e f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s :
metal and machinery, t e l e ­
graphy and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . - "Because o f t h e American Fe d e r a ti o n o f
L a b o r ' s p o l i c y t h a t a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s may n o t r e t a i n i n t h e i r
c o n s t i t u t i o n s any d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c l a u s e or c l a u s e s a g a i n s t N e g r o e s,
t h e B o il e r m a k e r s and the M a c h i n i s t s ac co m pl is h t h i s e x c l u s i o n by a
p l e d g e which forms a pa rt o f the r i t u a l
and. b i n d s each member t o
p r op os e o n l y w hi t e workmen f o r membership."6
Other l e s s c a u t i o u s A. F.; o f L.; u n i o n s have r e t a i n e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l
clauses.;7
The Union o f Bailway Carmen l i m i t s i t s membership "to any
w h i t e pe rso n between t h e ages o f 15 end 25 y e a r s . "
S in c e 1921, however,
t h i ’s union h a s made s p e c i a l r u l i h g f o r some Negro workers.;
The gene ral
s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r r e p o r t s t h a t t h a t union g r a n t s r e s t r i c t e d membership
t o 500 Negroes working on t h e Southern B a i l r o a d .
These members are o r ­
g a n i z e d i n t o s e p a r a t e a u x i l i a r y b o d i e s f u n c t i o n i n g under t h e n e a r e s t
white l o c a l . ;
?!
T ** A rn o lc l* H i l l J ^ S o o i a l S i g n l f i o a n o e t o M i n o r i t y S r o u p a o f R e o e n t L a b o r D e v e l o p m e n t s ,
1987, p . 400.
n -f
V r iu m tio n
A . P h i l l i p R a n d o l p h , T r a d a U n io n M o v e m e n t a n d t h e N e g r o , Journal o f negro haucation,
Hational Conference o f Social Kork,
8.
7 ^ 4 * n j j e g r o M e m b e r s h ip i n
5.
, ,P .
8 . Loc. cH .
rj. I b l d . i
pp.
84.
8 4 -8 5 .
A m e r io a n L a b o r U n i o n s ,
National Urban League,
1 9 SO , p .
88 .
-1 5 7 The Railway and Steamship C l e r k s admit " a l l w h it e p e r s o n s . " The
D in in g Car Conductors r e q u i r e members t o be o f t h e "Caucasian r a c e . "
The S l e e p i n g Car Conductors must be w hi t e m a le s , s obe r and i n d u s t r i o u s .
The R a i l r o a d S t a t i o n Employees and C l e r k s are v e ry c a u t i o u s and r e q u ir e
t h a t members "be born o f white p a r e n t s . 1" Through t h i s method c f e x c l u ­
s i o n 2 2 5 ,0 0 0 Negro workers are d e n i e d t r a d e u n io n a f f i l i a t i o n .
( 2 ) Negro workers are l i m i t e d to c e r t a i n t y p e s o f work and t o c e r ­
t a i n l o c a l s . 1 The B la c ks m it hs and H e l p e r s Union, alt hough i t pe r m its
a u x i l i a r y l o c a l s o f Negro h e l p e r s , i n s i s t s t h a t t h e y s h a l l not t r a n s f e r
e x c e p t t o ano th er Negro h e l p e r s ' a u x i l i a r y , and th ey s h a l l not be ad­
m i t t e d t o sh op s 'in which whi te h e l p e r s a r e employed.
The I n t e r n a t i o n a l
A s s o c i a t i o n c f Sheet Metal Workers9 p r o v i d e s i n i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n tha t
where t h e r e are a s u f f i c i e n t number o f Negro s h e e t metal workers they
may be o r g a n i z e d under t h e r e g u l a r c h a r t e r o f t h e body, but t h a t s e p a r a t e
c h a r t e r s f o r Negroes w i l l be gr a n te d o n l y wit h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e white
l o c a l o f t h e community.
held,
Should t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e w h it e l o c a l be with­
a u x i l i a r y l o c a l s may be o r g a n i z e d , b u t t h e y s h a l l be under the
j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e white l o c a l i n t h a t d i s t r i c t .
( 3 ) Negroes ar e admitted as union members, but are barred from
r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s in c o n v e n t i o n s or h o l d i n g o f f i c e . 8 T hi s holds
t r u e f o r t h e Brotherhood o f Maintenance o f Way Employees and th e Na tional
Rural L e t t e r C a r r i e r s A s s o c i a t i o n .
( 4 ) Negro workers, alt hough no t e x c l u d e d by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i ­
s i o n , ar e si m p ly not taken in as members.4 The E l e c t r i c a l Workers, Sheet
Metal Workers, Plumbers and S t e a m f i t t e r s f o l l o w t h i s p l a n .
The National
Urban League5 s t a t e s t h a t i t i s no t t o be assumed t h a t t h e absence of
d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c l a u s e s in the c o n s t i t u t i o n i m p l i e s ad m iss ioh f o r Negroes.
T a c i t agreement, e x am in at io ns and l o c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f e l i g i b i l i t y
f o r membership s e r v e as b a r r i e r s t o Negroes i n many u n i o n s .
Persistent
e f f o r t s o f Negro plumbers in P h i l a d e l p h i a , New York and Chicago have been
t o no a v a i l , y e t a non-union Negro master plumber in New York may h i r e
w h i t e union plumbers to work f o r him on a union j o b .
( 5 ) Admission o f Negro workers i s f u l l y g r a n t e d ,
but on ly t o s e p a r a t e
l o c a l s . ® T h i s i s the p o l i c y o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H o t e l and Restaurant
Employees A l l i a n c e , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a r t e n d e r s League, t h e Journeymen
Ba rtiers, t h e Laundry Wo’r k e r s and t h e U ni t ed T e x t i l e Workers.
op. cit.m, p . 5 4 .
op. tc i t . , p. 88.
8.
op. c i t . , p . 5 4 .
4 . Loc. Cit.
5 . N a t i o n a l U r b a n L e a g u a , op. c it., p . 8 8 .
6 . A . P h i l l i p R a n d o l p h , Op. Cit., p ; 5 4 .
1.
S.
A. P h i l l i p R a n d o lp h ,
N a tio n a l U rhan Leagua,
A. P h i l l i p R a n d o lp h ,
-1 5 8 -
Some c o l o r e d workers employed as longshoremen, h c d - c a r r i e r s or
common b u i l d i n g l a b o r e r s b e l o n g t o mixed or s e p a r a t e l o c a l un io n s .
"The o n l y un io n s t h a t r e q u i r e Negro workers t o j o i n mixed l o c a l s are
t h e United Wine Workers and t h e Garment Workers' O r g a n i z a t i o n . " 1
"The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e U ni t ed Garment Workers o f America p r o v i d e s ,
'You a l s o promise . . . never t o d i s c r i m i n a t e . . . on account o f
c r e e d , c o l o r or n a t i o n a l i t y . ' rS The Un it ed Wine Workers d i s c o u r a g e
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n with a t h r e a t o f f i n e . 8
"These e x i s t e n t forms o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Negro workers
a r e no t d e n i e d , but sometimes e xc u se d by t r a d e union o f f i c i a l s on the
t e n u o u s grounds t h a t N eg roe s ar e o n l y happy when th e y are t o t h e m s e l v e s ,
or t h a t Negroes and w h it e p e o p l e d o n ' t g e t alon g so w e l l t o g e t h e r . . . "4
Negroes have o r g a n i z e d t h e i r own ind epende nt u n io n s as a p r o t e s t
a g a i n s t th e a t t i t u d e o f w h i t e o r g a n i z e d l a b o r . 5 In many c a s e s t h e s e
u n i o n s are o n l y l o c a l s ,
e.g .,
t h e l a t h e r s and e l e c t r i c i a n s in Chicago
and t h e a s p h a l t workers in Milwaukee.
Some o f the groups, however, have
been o r g a n i z e d throughout th e n a t i o n and have e v o l v e d immense b a r g a i n i n g
power.
Some o f the fo r e m o st ind ep en d e n t groups ar e the A s s o c i a t i o n o f
T rai n P o r t e r s , Brakemen and Switchmen, th e Brotherhood c f Dining Car
Employees, the N a t io n a l A l l i a n c e o f P o s t a l Employees and th e Pai lwa y
Wen's I n t e r n a t i o n a l B e n e v o l e n t I n d u s t r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .
Union d i s c r i m i n a t i o n has as d e l e t e r i o u s an e f f e c t on t h e l a b o r move­
ment from th e economic v i e w p o i n t as i t ha s upon c o l o r e d workers.
When a
Negro i s e x c lu d e d from a un ion he u s u a l l y s e e k s work i n an open shop and
t h r e a t e n s union s ta n d a rd s and s t a b i l i t y . 5
H i l l 7 s t a t e s t h a t p o s s i b l y a l a r g e r Negro union membership might
have a wholesome s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t upon t h e whole r e l a t i o n s h i p between
c a p i t a l and l a b o r .
The N e g r o ' s i n h e r e n t p a t i e n c e and c o n c i l i a t i o n
might p r o v id e t h e s p i r i t c f g i v e and ta k e n e c e s s a r y to both employer
and worker.
As Randolph vie ws t h e union s i t u a t i o n ,
" . . .
The on ly remedy f o r
t h e problem, which ha s grown ou t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e Negro workers
t o t h e tr a d e union movement, i s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Negro workers
i n t o t h e t r a d e u n io n s t h a t w i l l a c c e p t them and i n t o independent uni ons
1. Loc. c i t .
5.
N a t i o n a l u r b a n L e a g u e , op. c » c . , p p .
8 . A bram L . H a r r i s , A W h i t e a n d B l a c k W
S o c i a l Forces, IV ( D e o e m b e r , 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 8V9
7.
T . A rn o ld H i l l , T h e N e g ro i n I n d u e t r
p.
920.
-1 5 9 -
o f Negro workers t o f i g h t f o r a d m is s io n i n t o u n io n s t h a t e x c lu d e them,
a s w e l l as t o de v e lo p economic s t r e n g t h t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y with
t h e employers f o r whom t h e y work.'"1
" D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Negro workers by t h e tr a d e union movement
i s d o u b t l e s s t h e g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e t o i t s p r o f e s s i o n o f democracy and
i t s c la im o f r e p r e s e n t i n g a p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e in American s o c i e t y . " 8
Educational T r a i n i n i
In g e n e r a l , t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r Negroes i s i n f e r i o r to
t h a t provided f o r t h o s e wiith whom t h e c o l o r e d worker must compete f o r
j o b s , and t h e r e f o r e t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s another o b s t a c l e t o s u c c e s s f u l
employment.'
The
th e
s ta t u s
o f
th a
e d u o a tio n
o f
w h ite s
(1 )
T erm ,
(2 )
C h ild r e n
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by
1
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o f
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m ore
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in
may
S ta te s ,
20
h ig h
p e r
p e r
be
as
com p a re d
w ith
f o llo w s :
y e a r;
c e n t
s o h o o l
le s s ;
g ra d e s ,
11
p e r
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le s s ;
(4 )
C h ild r e n
o f
(5 )
C h ild r e n
l i v i n g
h ig h
s o h o o l
C h ild r e n
t r a n s p o r t e d
3
age
m ile s
o r
in
s o h o o l,
m ore
fro m
25
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o e n t
13
le s s ;
p e r
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(6 )
o e n t
(7 )
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4
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1 );
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a t
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
o f
p u b lio
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17
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a n n u a l
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S I
f o r
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N e g ro e s ;
(1 0 )
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p u p il,
f o r
e v e r y
‘o f
N e g ro
p u p i l ,
f o r
N e g ro
N e g ro e s
p la n t
p u p il,
p u p ils ,
( r a t i o
r u r a l
$ 4 4 .3 1
and
a p p r o x im a te ly
o f
p o p u la tio n ,
te a o h e r s ,
f o r
w h ite s
e q u ip m e n t
f o r
$4 78
and
le s s ;
$ 1 2 .5 7
eaoh
w h ite
$ 3 7 . 9
Adequate e d u c a t i o n i m p l i e s a s u f f i c i e n t number o f e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e ,
well-equipped school b u ild in g s ;
a f u l l s c h o o l term; good c l a s s a tt en da nc e
and f u l l y t r a i n e d , w e l l - p a i d t e a c h e r s .
In normal t i m e s , a m i l l i o n , or n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d , o f the Negro c h i l ­
dren i n t h i s c o u n t r y are o u t o f s c h o o l , due p a r t l y t o the f a c t t h a t the
s c h o o l s are i n a d e q u a te and i n a c c e s s i b l e . 4 © n e - s i x t h , or 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 , o f a l l
Negro p u p i l s o f h ig h s c h o o l a ge , r e s i d i n g i n s t a t e s m a in ta in i n g s e p a r a t e
s c h o o l s f o r whi te and c o l o r e d c h i l d r e n , have no high s c h o o l s at a l l i n
t h e 2 3 0 c o u n t i e s i n which t h e y l i v e .
According t o t h e 1 9 3 0 c e n s u s , f o u r f i f t h s o f the 1 1 , 8 9 1 , 1 4 2 N e gro e s in t h e Un it ed D t s t e s l i v e i n 1 6 s t a t e s
and Washington, D. C . , where s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s yste m s are e s t a b l i s h e d . 5
1. £ . . P h i l l i p
R a n d o lp h ,
Op. c i t . ,
p.
56.
p'. A m b ro « e PC a l l v e r , O u t l o o k f o r N e g r o I d u o a t i o n , S c h o o l £ i / e , p ( O c t o b e r , J - 9 8 4 ) . p . 4 0 .
4 . H a r o ld L . I o k e s , T he F d u o a t io n o f t h e N e g ro i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Journa l o f Negro
N d tte a f to n ,^ I 1 I ^ ( J a n u a r y ,
p.
v ii
o f F o re w o rd .
ghited States Government Education B ulletin ,
10
(1 9 8 8 ),
-1 6 0 In
had
1 9 3 0 -3 1
n o t
f o u r t h s
y e a rs
a rd .
m ore
th a n
p r o g re s s e d
had
o f
n o t
gone
o o lle g e
O n ly
5 .7
4
o e n t
an d
o f
th e
44
A lth o u g h
th e
te a o h e ra
e le m e n ta ry
s ta n d a r d
o f
w h ite ,
4
w h ite
as
g r e a t
n o t
as
some
y e a rs
o f
N e g ro ,
1 0 .3 .
w it h
N e g ro
as
re a o h e d
p e r
w h ite
th r e e
o f
t h a t
te a o h e ra
b e tw e e n
N e g ro
w e re
had
s ta n d a rd
2 2 .5
and
th o s e
o f
w o rk
who
n o t
te a o h e ra
e d u o a tio n ;
m in im u m
r e s p e c t iv e
had
f a i l e d
o o lle g e
te a c h e r s
e le m e n ta ry
e le m e n ta ry
u p g ra d in g
The
who
N e g ro
had
o o m p a re d
b e tw e e n
h ig h - s o h o o l
2 5 .3 ;
o e n t
d iv e r g e n o e s
te a o h e r a ,
o f
h ig h - s o h o o l
w e re
o n d a ry
l e v e l
i s
d e s ir a b le .
w h ite
h ig h - s o h o o l
te a o h e r a
a g e s
th e
o f
a o o e p te d
p e r
th e
a d va n o e
b e y o n d
h ig h
s o h o o l,
N e g ro
e le m e n ta r y
te a c h e r s .
s o h o o l
o f
y e a rs
b e y o n d
w o rk ,
p e r
o n e - f i f t h
b e y o n d
2
s ta n d ­
f a i l e d
o e n t
o f
t o
th e
s e c o n d a ry
N e g ro
te a o h e ra
on
and
w h ite
th e
s e c ­
p e rc e n ta g e s
o f
N e g ro and
t o
re a o h
th e
a o o e p te d
2 7 .5
p u rs u e d
and
21.
g ra d u a te
The
p e r c e n t­
w o rk
w e re ,
1
While Negro t e a c h e r s p o s s e s s , on pap er, c r e d i t s equal with t h o s e c f
w hi t e i n s t r u c t o r s ,
t h e c o l o r e d t e a c h e r s are in r e a l i t y t h e p r o d u c t s o f
an i n f e r i o r system s t a r t i n g with t h e primary gra de s and e x te n d in g through
the c o lle g e .
Low s t a n d a r d s are ma intained throughout t h e e d u c a t i o n a l
s ys tem , and p r a c t i c a l l y no e l i m i n a t i o n o f u n f i t s t u d e n t s ta k e s p l a c e .
The hig h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s e n t e r t h e normal s c h o o l s and become t e a c h e r s ,
t h u s c o m p le ti n g t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e .
"These p o o r ly t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s ,
a lt h o u g h th e y may bear di p lo m a s shewing standard p r e p a r a t i o n , w i l l i n ­
f l i c t t h e accumulated d e f i c i e n c i e s o f th e system in which they have been
t r a i n e d upon t h e i r p u p i l s , and s c p e r p e t u a t e i t .
The s a l a r i e s o f Negro i n s t r u c t o r s are t o e lew f o r them t o m ain ta in
t h e standard o f l i v i n g e x p e c t e d o f t e a c h e r s and engage i n graduate s t u d y .
The
T h ey
m e d ia n
ra n g e d
e d u o a tio n
m ore
o f
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o r
le s s
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o f
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$304
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e le m e n ta ry
a
s a la r y
m e d ia n
t o
a
w o rk .
f o r
N e g ro
le s s
o f
o f
.
.
G e o rg ia
o f
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th e
te a o h e ra
f o r
A o o o rd in g
t o
e le m e n ta r y
th a n
e le m e n ta ry
f o r
m e d ia n
.
N e g ro
$338
$1 7 2 9
t o
f o r
te a c h e r s
lo w e s t
th o s e
S ta te s ,
who
and
s a la r y
1
$5 4 8 .
y e a r
m e d ia n
The
women)
o f
was
h ig h - s o h o o l
had
th e
M is s o u r i.
(m en
m e d ia n
te a c h e r s
h a v in g
o r
s a la r y
m e d ia n
w as,
w h ite
on
th e
women
te a c h e r s .S
The re a so n f o r a high t u r n - o v e r among Negro t e a c h e r s i s e v i d e n t .
"Nearly o n e - f i f t h o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s had worked i n t h r e e or
more s c h o o l s y s t e m s .
The t y p i c a l t e a c h e r i n t h e Negro c o l l e g e remained
through o n l y one c o l l e g e g e n e r a t i o n .
p e r i o d o f 1 or 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
Wore than o n e - t h i r d l e f t a f t e r a
A l a r g e number o f Negro t e a c h e r s
changed p o s i t i o n s each y e a r . " 4
In s t u d y i n g t h e problem o f s e c u r i n g adequate e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s
f o r Negro c h i l d r e n i n a l l s e c t i o n s o f th e c ou n t ry , i t must be tak en i n t o
|* C h a rle s* * ? * . - J o h n s o n ', The N e g r o i n A m e r i c a n C i v i l i s a t i o n , p . 2 4 8 .
8 . U n i t e d S t a t e e G o v e r n m e n t E d u o a t i o n B u l L c t i n , op* c t t * , p . 1 1 2 .
4 . ibid** p p . 1 1 1 -1 1 2 .
- l e i-
c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t h e l a r g e s t number o f Negro c h i l d r e n t o be educated
ar e i n t h e s t a t e s w ith t h e s m a l l e s t w e a lt h per c a p i t a .
Fither s ta te
a c t i o n must r a i s e t h e t a x r a t e s u f f i c i e n t l y t o g i v e Negroes equal oppor­
t u n i t y wit h w h i t e s , or F e d e r a l a i d or p h i l a n t h r o p y must supplement l o c a l
provision.
I t i s q u e s t i o n e d whether l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s would r e l i e v e th e
situ ation ,
e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e r e i s i n a d e q u a te p r o v i s i o n f o r w h i t e s ,
to o .1
"The l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s l e v y t h e t a x e s on w h it e and Negro
a l i k e , but d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t Negroes i n t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f t h e funds
raised.
Local a u t h o r i t i e s even d i v e r t money a p p r o p r ia t e d by t h e s t a t e
f o r Negro s c h o o l s t o w h i t e e d u c a t i o n . " 8
"Out o f TIP, 846, 27F r e c e i v e d by w h i t e and Negro l a n d - g r a n t c o l l e g e s
i n s e v e n t e e n s t a t e s i n 193F-S6, alt h oug h Negroes c o n s t i t u t e d 2c per c e n t
o f th e p o p u l a t i o n ,
n e v e r t h e l e s s th e y r e c e i v e d o n ly F.F pe r c e n t d i r e c t l y ,
and i n d i r e c t l y — o n l y 4 2 . f pe r c e n t o f t h e i r f a i r sh ar e o f t h e s e f u n d s . " 8
The U n it e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c at io n 4 recommends t h a t any F e d e r a l funds
made a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n in t h e South ehould be so g i v e n as
t o g u a r a n t e e a g a i n s t u n f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n among the r a c e s .
"The immediate need i s more e d u c a t i o n , b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n , and h i g h e r
education.
. . .
"5
Vocational Training
In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f academic e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g
o f N e gro es d i s c u s s e d above, t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s s u b - st a n d a r d
i n many r e s p e c t s .
I t
i s
c le a r
c o lle g e s ,
i n t o
th e
e v e n
w hose
l i f e
o f
s t r u m e n t a l i t i e s
t o
th e
p ro b le m
h a p p e n in g
p e o p le
w h ic h
in
f o r
o f
th e
v o c a t io n a l
o c c u p a tio n s
o b s o le t e ;
in
th e
and
T h is
some
i s
use
t r u e
1. J o h n s o n , O p t
S . ■E d u c a t i o n i n
th e
f o r
u s e d ;
h o m e m a k in g
o f
and
o c c u p a tio n a l
lo n g e r
and
o th e r
o f
o b s e rv e r
i t
t o
i s
t r a i n
n o t
o n ly
a re
w o r ld .
w h io h
in
t h a t
h e lp
i n
n o t
a d d re s s in g
in
i s
m a t e r ia ls
th e
no
p r o fe s s io n s
as
.
o f
in
a o h o o la
th e
o f
dem and;
th e
i n ­
th e m s e lv e s
o f
i n
m a c h in e s
ha ve
and
c h i l d
w h a t
c o n tin u e d
w h io h
a ls o
use
l i g h t
have
s k i l l e d ,
b u t
th s
th e
o p e r a t io n
in
o u r
" in d u o t
h im
T h ey
th e r e
th s
o c c u p a tio n s ,
pp. 487-489.
,
D e m o o r a o y , N ational
t o
e d u o a tio n
c e r t a i n
c it. ,
a
c a s u a l
c i v i l i z a t i o n , "
no
p la c e d .
th e
s o o ie t y
o f
a re
t u r a l
t o
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
t r a i n
s k i l l s
w h io h
b e e n
o l e r i o a l ,
is
t o
a re
d i s ­
a g r i c u l ­
t e a c h e r - t r a in i n g
w e l l . 6
i
.
j
A s s o c i a t i o n f o r th e Advancement o f Colored
P e o p le ^ X 9 2 9 , p .^ 2 .
4 *. f u n d a m e n t a l s i n
*^5*
th e
E d u o a tio n o f N e g ro e s ,
S u rv e y o f N e g ro C o lle g e s
and U n iv e r s itie s ,
A m b r o s e ^ a liv e r , N ex t S te p s
86 M u n e , 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 1 6 7 .
Workman,
in
United S ta tes Of f i ce of Education,
United States Government Education
t h e V o o a tio n a l E d u o a tio n o f N e g ro e s ,
Southern
-ie ? -
I,n t h e new economic o r d e r , t h e r e i s a need f o r knowledge which
i s not t o o l i m i t e d , narrow or d e t a i l e d .
The f u t u r e worker must know
t h e r e l a t i o n o f h i s job t o o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s , h i s r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r
workers, h i s c i v i c and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s o c i a l and economic
f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g him and h i s work, and how t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y and
h a p p i l y i n t h e d i f f e r e n t economic o r d e r . 1
Much o f t h e N e g ro ’ s l o s s of
"Negro jo b s " i s undoubtedly due t o a l a c k o f im a g i n a t i o n in making
n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s as o c c u p a t i o n a l demands i n c r e a s and become more
complex.
Negro i n s t i t u t i o n s must a l s o promote p e r s o n a l i t y development.
P e r s o n a l i t y i s more impo rtan t t o v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s than s k i l l and
knowledge.2
T hi s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the Negro, who i s u s u a l l y
handicapped by r a c e p r e j u d i c e .
The c o l o r e d bey or g i r l ,
h i s l e s s f a v o r a b l e s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s ,
be c a u s e o f
i s more dependent upon
t h e s c h o o l f o r i n c u l c a t i n g s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s than i s t h e white
student.
The Negro s c h o o l sh oul d t r a i n Negroes t o f i l l r e s p o n s i b l e p l a c e s
i n commerce and i n d u s t r y , th u s c ha ng in g t h e economic s t a t u s o f th e
N eg roe s from t h a t o f a no n -pr odu cin g r a c e t o t h a t o f a w e a lt h - p r o d u c in g
o n e . 8 "The f a i l u r e o f t h e Negro t e a c h e r s , o f s c h o o l . o f f i c i a l s , and
p a r e n t s t o impute s u f f i c i e n t d i g n i t y t o t h i s ty p e o f e d u c a t i o n i s b e in g
r e c o g n i z e d as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a v a s t s o c i a l and economic w a s t e . " 4
The improvement o f community l i f e , i n c l u d i n g b e t t e r r a c e r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p s , as w e l l as v a s t s o c i a l r e t u r n s t o e d u c a t i o n , have been t h e reward
o f the program f o l l o w e d by Famptcn I n s t i t u t e o f i n t e g r a t i n g a l i b e r a l
a r t s e d u c a t i o n with modern v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . 5 r e s p i t e t h e p r e s e n t
economic d e p r e s s i o n ,
few o f i t s c o l l e g i a t e g r a d u a t e s are unemployed.
Vocat t o n a l G u i i a n c s
"The d i f f i c u l t i e s encount ere d by Negroes in employment make vo ca ­
t i o n a l g u id a n c e more n e c e s s a r y f o r them than f o r w h it e s t u d e n t s beca use
o f t h e e x c e p t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s th ey f a c e . V o c a t i o n a l
gu i d a n c e , w h i l e a c c e p t e d as v a l u a b l e in t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l adjustment of
s t u d e n t s , has found l i t t l e p l a c e in e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r Negroes.
1. Ibid.,
p p . '1 6 8 - 1 6 9 .
l l G ? * v i o t o r C o o l s , - N e g r o S d u o a t i o n a n d L ow L lW L ag S t a n d a r d s ,
( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 2 6 ) , p ... 1 0 7 .
4 * W i l l i a m ’ A^ A e r y f * C o l l e g e
P * e ^ F u n d a m e a ta ls
p.
26 .
In
th e
I d u o a tlo n
F d u o a tlo n
f o r N e g ro es,
o f N e g ro es,
Educational Review,
Southern Vorkman, 6 8
( A u g u s t,
United S t a t e s Of f i c e o f Education,
72
1 9 8 4 ),
1986,
Jo h n so n 's s t u d y 1 c o n t a i n s e v i d e n c e o f t h i s d e f i c i e n c y o f voca­
t i o n a l counseling:
(1 )
t i o n
T h e re
to
(2 )
eeeme
a tte n d
S tu d y
o f
f i e l d s
r e v e a ls
p a t io n .
(S )
Many
e x p la in e d
e n ts
t o
s o h o o l.
(4 )
a n y
g r o s s
H ig h
e o h o o l
a
v o o a tio n ,
a r a t i o n
f o r
ty p e
o f
and a
th e m .
i s
th e
a
show
a
in
dem and
th e
o f
t o
be
f o r
o f
in
v a r io u s
f i n a l
o c c u ­
v o o a tio n s
a tte n d e d
la o k
o f
may
and
a f t e r
be
p a r­
h ig h
in f o r m a t io n
th e y
m ig h t
o f
i n t e l l i g e n t
and
m o tiv a ­
v o o a tio n .
s tu d e n ts
k n o w le d g e
m ore
s o h o o l
a
th e
and
w h io h
o f
o f
b o th
s e r io u s
fro m
la o k
h ig h
o r i g i n a l
g ra d u a te s
o h o io e
c o lle g e
s c h o o l
o o m p le te
g r e a t
g u id a n o e
in
o o o u p a tio n s
v e r y
o f
th e
i n a b i l i t y
o f
s e n io r s
ra n g e
T h e re
v o c a t io n a l
th e
f o r
th e
a e le o t io n
h i s t o r i e s
m i s f i t s
o f
b e tw e e n
f i n a l
m o tiv e s
r e s u l t
d e te rm in e
th e
p e r s o n a l
th e
a
d e t a ile d
(5 )
th e
r e l a t i o n
an d
ra ndom
o f
as
l i t t l e
c o lle g e
c o lle g e
th e
p re p ­
m e th o d s
f o r
o f
c h o o s x
o f
N e g ro
s tu d e n ts .
I f h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g were f o l l o w i n g a w e l l - p l a n n e d
program o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , many more Negro s t u d e n t s would e n t e r
t h e f i e l d s o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h , p u b l i c h e a lt h ,, d e li n q u e n c y , v o c a t i o n a l
gu id ance,, mental h y g ie n e and c h i l d g u i d a n c e . 8
The Unit ed S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n 8 recommends: (1) t h e e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l bure au which w i l l combine t h e e s s e n ­
t i a l f e a t u r e s o f pl a c e m e n t, g u i d a n c e and o c c u p a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h ; (?) th e
i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a co m pr e he ns iv e, v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l program i n the.
s c h o o l s ; and ( 2 ) the e x t e n s i o n o f t h e N e g r o ' s employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s
i n a l l f i e l d s commensurate w it h h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s .
V o c a t i o n a l gui d anc e and e d u c a t i o n r a i s e q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g deeps e a t e d s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s which modify our e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l program.
The
q u e ry
ie
r e a l i s t i c a l l y ,
th e m
i s
t o
th a t
n e e d s
b e
be
we
p h ilo s o p h y
no
and
m e a n tim e
m in d
w o u ld
q u a r te r
o p p o r t u n it y
w o rkm en
be
o u g h t
i n
n o t
m eet
th e m .
o n ly
i f
we
a re
t h i s
I
o f
t h i s
t o
be
b u t
r e o o n s t r u o t io n
in v o lv e s
a o c e p t
th e
o u r
w h o le
p h ilo s o p h y
f e t a l .
My
o o n v i c t i o n
f i g h t
a t
e v e r y
and
and
no
o f
p o in t
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .
Si F u n d a m e n ta ls
( 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 86 .
in th e
S d u o a tio n
of
N e g ro es,
th e
t h a t
f o r th e
No
d is c o v e r in g
a o c e p t
r e d i r e c t i o n
o f
a t t it u d e s
p ro g ra m .
s t a t u s quo
wes h a l l
may
th e
r e d -b lo o d e d ,
s o c ia l
have
p r i n c i p l e
J im -C ro w is m
1 . C h a r l e s S . J o h n s o n , The Veigro College Graduate; p .
2. C h a r l e s 8. J o h n s o n , T he N e ^ ro C o l l e g e G r a d u a te :
Journal o f Negro Education, IV ( J a n u a r y , 1985 ) , o . .£>•
VI
o u r
t r a i n
i m p l i c a t i o n
p ro c e d u re
no
e d u c a tio n a l
o f
i s
b y
t o
i t
s i t u a t i o n
and
The
T h is
w i l l i n g
ta k e
th e
e n te r
s c i e n t i f i c a l l y
t o
and
fa o e
oan
v o o a tio n s .
y o u th
quo,
t o
th e y
th o s e
p r o c e e d in g
N e g ro
status
th e
we
v o o a tio n e
v i r i l e
A m e rio a n
i s
w i l l i n g
t o
do.
o u r
p ro b le m
h e re
i s
n o t
one
o f
th e
e d u o a tio n
p r a c t ic e s ,
w h a t
s a t i s f a c t o r y
o f
i n t e l l i g e n t ,
O b v io u h ly
th e
w i l l
e q u ip p in g
c o n s id e re d
N e g ro
w h e th e r
o u t
e x o e p tio n a l
the,n
and
r a is e d
f i n d
oan
284.
«
How a n d f h e r e
o f
be
t o
t o
and
Tn
my
g iv e
e q u a l
t o le r a t e d
He I s E m p l o y e d ,
n te s* . « 4
untied States Of f i ce of Education,
-1 P 4 i n
A m e rio a n
an
I n t e n s e ly
ie m o o rs o y .
T h is
p r a c t i c a l
1 b
n o t
f a o in g
o f
a
a
t h e o r e t i o a l
p ro b le m
o f
id e a lis m ,
A m e rio a n
b u t
d e m o c r a c y .1
Co nceptions o f E f f i c i e n c y o f Negro la bo r
Another h in d r a n c e t o t h e employment o f t h e Negro i s th e g e n e r a l
b e l i e f o f employers i n t h e r e l a t i v e i n e f f i c i e n c y of t h e c o l o r e d workman
as compared with t h e w h i t e .
The danger o f sw ee pi n g g e n e r a l i z a t i c ' n s r eg a r d in g th e e f f i c i e n c y o f
any group i s brought out by Feldman8 :
In
an y
nu m e ro u s
e v e n t,
i t
i s
l i k e l y
a n
e s tim a te
t o
o f
th e
N e g ro
be
o f
t o o
th e
ra c e
M o re o v e r,
N e g ro e s
mon h e r e d i t y .
The
r a c i a l
o f
th e
i s
d i f f i c u l t
q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .
Any
g e n e r a l.
to o
make
d i f f i c u l t
S re a t
is
o f
as
w h ite
t o
oommon
th e
la b o r .
p e rm it
a
t r a i t
i s
N e g ro ’ s
t o
The
make
e f f i c i e n c y
as
is
v a r i a b i l i t y
s w e e p in g
s in g le
c o v e rs
Many s t a n d a r d s f o r j u d g i n g th e q u a l i t y
but,
s ta te m e n ts w ith o u t
I t
a r e
n o t
a l l
o f
one
lo o s e
te rm
"N e g ro "
s to c k s
w hose
c h i e f
a v e ra g e
w h ite .
a n y
o f
e f f i c i e n c y
is
to
e s tim a te
J u d g m e n t.
3 to c k
h a v in g
a com ­
m em bers o f
d i s t i n o t
c o lo r
d a rk e r
th a n
t h a t
o f workmanship are u s e d ,
a c co r di n g t o S t o t t , 8 t h e b e s t c r i t e r i a f o r
appraisingv o c a tio n a l
s u c c e s s are e m p lo y e r s ' r e p o r t s on t h e i r workers.
Jo h n s o n 's v i e w s 4 are d i r e c t l y opposed t o t h o s e o f S t o t t .
Si n c e
d a t a on Negro e f f i c i e n c y a r e b a s e d upon e m p lo y e r s ’ own s t a t e m e n t s o f
o p i n i o n , Johnson h o l d s t h a t th e y are not worth very much. The c o n t r a ­
d i c t i o n s in e m p l o y e r s ’ o p i n i o n s show t h a t t h e s e data are i n th e reslm
o f b e l i e f and o p i n i o n , r a t h e r than based upon a s c e r t a i n e d f a c t .
Fur­
thermore, s i n c e Negro workers do not e n j o y equal working c o n d i t i o n s
i n American i n d u s t r y , 5 t h e r e i s no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e to r e f u t e or prove
an a s s e r t i o n o f r e l a t i v e i n e f f i c i e n c y .
at l e a s t ,
N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r the p r e s e n t
e m p l o y e r s ’ o p i n i o n s o f f i t n e s s are most important in d e t e r ­
mining p l a n t p o l i c y . 6
The m a j o r i t y o f e m p lo y e r s , Johnson f o u n d , 7 s t a t e d t h a t t h e Negro
was as good as t h e w h i t e worker, and soice s a i d he was b e t t e r .
In a
p r i v a t e manuscript r e p o r t , t h e D e t r o i t Bureau o f Governmental Nesearch
s t a t e s t h a t 78 o u t o f 10B c o n c e r n s which were i n v e s t i g a t e d r a t e d t h e
Negro as o f equal or h i g h e r e f f i c i e n c y than th e average white worker.
1. E . G e o r g e P a y n e , R e o r g a n i s a t i o n a n d R e d i r e c t i o n o f N e g r o E d u o a t i o n : A C r i t i o a l
A n a l y s i s , Journal o f Negro E d u c a t i o n , V ( J u l y , 1 9 8 6 ) , p p . 5 8 9 - 5 8 0 .
2 . H e rm a n F e l d m a n , Racial Factors in American Industry, p . 5 9 .
8 . M a ry B . S t o t t , C r i t e r i a U s e d i n E n g l a n d , Occupations, XTV ( J u n e , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 0 5 7 .
4 . C h a r l e s S . J o h n s o n . The Negro i n A m e r i c a n C i v i l i s a t i o n , p p . 3 9 9 - 3 9 9 .
.
5 . R o b e r t C . W e a v e r , T h e E f f i c i e n c y o f N e g r o L a b o r , The A m e r i c a n F e a e r a t t o n i s t ,
XLI (D e c e m b e r, 1 9 8 4 )* p . 1 8 2 7 .
6 . J o h n s o n , of. c tt. > p . 7 1 .
7 . J o h n s o n , Op. c i t . , p . 8 5 9 .
"This i n d i c a t e s t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f the empl oyer s, h i r i n g pg per c en t
o f t h e men, b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r c o l o r e d workmen were as e f f i c i e n t as
w h i t e workers on t h e same t y p e o f work or were even more s o . " 1 In an
a n a l y s i s o f Negro l a b o r ,
Beaver2 p o i n t e d c u t t h a t th e N e g r o ' s e f f i c i e n c y
v a r i e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e f a v o r a b l e n e s s o f h i s working c o n d i t i o n s , and
t h a t t h e Negro was as e f f i c i e n t as the w hi t e worker.
Any assumption o f
l e s s e r e f f i c i e n c y f o r Negro es has net been pr oved, and a l l e v i d e n c e
c o n c e r n i n g r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y seems t o r e f u t e t h e a s s e r t i o n .
In r e f e r e n c e t o Negro e f f i c i e n c y , the N a t i o n a l Urban Lea gu e8 r e ­
p o r t e d at t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e r - r a c i a l Conference t h a t :
So
a re
f a r
as
g ro e s ,
b u t
th e
ta s k s ,
in
th e
e o n o e rn e d
no
as
th e
same
The
q u a l i t y
e v id e n c e
a re
o f
i n
a re
N e g ro
la b o r
many
th e m ,
n a t e ly
e r r o n e o u s ly
N e g ro
w o rk e rs
t o
i t
p la o e s
i s
w e ll
has
th e
n o t
w h e re
e n t i r e
u n s k il l e d ,
th e m .
th e
i s
.
a n d
Ne­
.
.
th e r e
is
e n t e r t a in e d
o p in io n
i n e f f i o i e n t
N e g ro
s k i l l e d ,
o f
o f
p e r fo r m in g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts
u n if o r m ,
o p in io n
b u t
one
and
n o n -e m p lo y m e n t
p e r fo r m in g
b e e n
p o o r
d e s e rv e d ;
fro m
o f
a re
in o a p a b le
th a t
in
o th e r
a o t u a l l y
e x te n d s
d fn o lu d e
Jo b e ,
in s ta n c e s
N e g ro e s
a o n o e r n in g
and
i n d u s t r i a l
many
e v id e n c e
t h a t
N e g ro e s
in d io a t e d
b y
th e
fa o t
o i t y
t h a t
o r d in a r y
th e r e
u n f o r t u ­
g ro u p
o f
p o p u la t io n .
There i s t h e ten d en cy f o r employers t o f e e l t h a t t h e N e g r o ' s regu­
l a r i t y i s l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y than h i s e f f i c i e n c y .
Weaver4 e x p l a i n s t h i s
b e l i e f by two f a c t s .
F i r s t , t h e Negro i s u s u a l l y employed t o do work
which i s u n p l e a s a n t and o f t s n c a s u a l .
Se co nd ly, t h e Negro i s a marginal
l a b o r e r wit h l i t t l e job s e c u r i t y .
Furthermore, t h e t y p e o f l a b o r p e r ­
formed by t h e Negro i s u s u a l l y t h e kind having a high tu r n o v e r normally.
T h i s " i r r e g u l a r i t y " o f t h e Negro i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t h e r than a r a c i a l
ch aracteristic.
A r a c i a l f a c t o r , however, e n t e r s i n , s i n c e t h e Negro
worker f i n d s promotion on t h e b a s i s o f a b i l i t y d i f f i c u l t and^ t h u s r e ­
s o r t s t o new j o b s as a means o f improving h i s s t a t u s .
G e n e r a l l y th e
l a c k o f advancement f o s t e r s i n d i f f e r e n c e among Negro w o r k e r s . 5
The g r e a t e r d e g r ee o f i r r e g u l a r i t y seems t o have b e e n , i n p a r t ,
an a t t r i b u t e o f t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d .
A working p o p u l a t i o n which has
been r u r a l would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a d j u s t i t s e l f t o i n d u s t r y . 6
Feldman s a y s 7 : "In any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Negro,
a c c o u n t must be ta k en , as was mentioned in an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n , o f h i s
abrupt t r a n s i t i o n from a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y t o an
1.
Feldm an,
o f. c i t . ,
p.
59.
!* N e g r o ^ o r k e r s * YatYonaffirian league, A p r i l , 1980 , p .
4.
5.
6.
7.
op. c t t . , p . 1 8 8 0 .
J o h n s o n , op. a t . , p . S I .
W e a v a r , op. c i t , > p . 1880 .
F e l d m a n , OP. a t i > p . 5 0 .
W aaver,
18.
-i? e -
imper sci ia l and h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d i n d u s t r i a l e n v ir o n m e n t ."
This f a c t o r ,
a s w e l l as t h e sudden i n c r e a s e in wages 8nd th e i n f l u e n c e o f u n s a t i s ­
f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s , undoubtedly p l a y s i t s p a r t in
a f f e c t i n g th e adj ustme nt o f the workers who have mi gr at ed northward,
fortunately,
t h i s i s a c o n d i t i o n which w i l l be at l e a s t u a r t l y remedied
by t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e .
Indeed, t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t adjustment
i s gradually taking p la c e .
There are e v i d e n c e s t o th e e f f e c t t h a t th e N e g r o e s ,
more i n d u s t r i a l e x p e r i e n c e s ,
as t h e y g s i n
are red uc in g the d e g r ee o f t h e i r i r r e g u ­
larity.
When one c o n s i d e r s t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o l o r e d
wo r ke rs , i t seems t h a t t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f Negroes i s about on a par
with t h a t f o r w h i t e s . 1 Johnson5 a l s o found Negro l a b o r tur n over t o be
t h e same as w h i t e . Labor tu rn ov er depends l a r g e l y upon management.
O b j e c t i o n s t o Negro l a b o r , charg ing l a c k o f a m b it io n , n a t u r a l
l a z i n e s s and c r a v i n g f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , when examined, seemed t o apply
o n l y . t o th e i n e v i t a b l e s h i f t l e s s element in any g r o u p . 8
D i s t o r t e d e v a l u a t i o n s o f Negro e f f i c i e n c y by e m p lo y e r s , r an gin g
from one extreme t o t h e o t h e r , r e s u l t from th e u n s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e
o f r e f e r r i n g , t o Negro l a b o r as a gro uD,4 r a t h e r than as i n d i v i d u a l s
with var y in g a b i l i t i e s .
White workers are c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , and
an u n f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e with one does no t p r e c l u d e t h e h i r i n g o f oth er
w hites.
"A r e a s o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t s i n c e such w id e ly d i f f e r e n t
e x p e r i e n c e s are r e p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s with th e same r a c e o f
w or kers, t h e problem i s probab ly one o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among
Negro workers.
No s t u d i e s have been l o c a t e d which at temp t in any way
t o measure the d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i a l a b i l i t y . " 5
I f Negroes are t o g a i n and h old a p l a c e i n i n d u s t r y , t h e y must
measure up t o p r e v a i l i n g l a b o r s ta n d a r d s .
"Sentiment and i n e r t i a may
h e l p or hin de r th e r a p i d i t y o f t h e i r advance but in the end t h e i r suc­
c e s s w i l l depend upon t h e i r a b i l i t y t o meet c o m p e t i t i o n . " 6 Negroes
must remove t h e stigma o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y through c o n t i n u o u s , r e g u l a r
and e f f i c i e n t performance o f t h o s e t a s k s which th ey un d e r t a k e .
"Com­
p e t e n c e i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n upon which t o b u i l d p a t h s t o b e t t e r j o b s .
F r e q u e n t l y t h e one ’ f i r s t f i r e d and l a s t h i r e d ’ i s th e incompetent
i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than one o f a c e r t a i n r a c e . " 7
1 . W e a v e r , op. c i t . , p p .
2 . J o h n s o n , oi>. c i t . , p .
8 . t b i d . , p. 7 7 .
4.
5.
8.
7.
1 8 8 0 -1 8 9 1 .
899.
p.74.
I b id .,
p.98.
E d w a rd 8 . R e u t e r , The American
N e u r o W o r k e r s , N ationa l Urban
„
,
Race Problem,
League, A p r i l ,
p. 848.
1980, p .
10 .
-1 P 7 -
Pacial
Prejudice
Tn d i s c u s s i n g t h e a fo r e m en tio n ed o b s t a c l e s in the path o f the
employment o f t h e Negro, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e i s a
p o t e n t f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g many o f the N e g ro ’ s i n d u s t r i a l and educa ­
t i o n a l problems.
Fven though e d u c a t i o n i s the primary t o o l with which t h e Negro
may promote h i s p r o g r e s s , th e b e s t o f t o o l s may be b l u n t e d a g a i n s t
t o o f o r m id a b le o b s t a c l e s .
"The environment i n which t h e t r a i n e d negro
s t r i v e s f o r achie vem ent must be such as not t o make him wonder whether
h i s e d u c a t i o n i s n e t a mockery. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s - t o which he i s en­
t i t l e d in law and " j u s t i c e must not be r e s t r i c t e d . ' " 1
Tra de Feid b e l i e v e s t h a t we have been g u i l t y o f a h a l f - d o n e job
in our e f f o r t s f o r t h e Negro5*:
We
have
e d u o a tio n
s p e n t
b u t
h u n d re d s
have
p ro b le m
o f
h is
N e g r o 's
a d ju s tm e n t
p r e v a i l i n g
f i r m l y
a d ju s tm e n t
r a o i a l
r o o te d
o f
a p p lie d
i s
a f t e r
th e
d o ll a r s
and
r e c e iv in g
and
N e g ro
o f
th o u g h t
f r e q u e n t ly
a t t i t u d e s
t h a t
th o u s a n d s
l i t t l e
t h a t
i n h i b i t e d
o r
has
a
h is
e f f o r t
t r a i n i n g .
b y
p r e ju d ic e s
o h anoe
t o
c i v i c
th e
m a r g in a l
g ro u p
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
w o rk e r
s e c u re s
he
r e c e iv e s
in
o f
h is
own
o f
th e
b r a v e . "
in
g r e a t e r
h a l f
p ro b le m
a
T h ey
an
h a ve
o p p o r t u n it y
c e n tu r y .
when
we
fo r c e d
i n d u s t r i a l
in
W ere
s in g
th e
N e g ro
t o
s i t u a t i o n
w h e re
th e
th e
he
" la n d
c o u rs e
to
o f
o f
c o m p la in
th e
f r e e
th e
th e
so
d e m o n s tra te
t h e i r
i n v a l i d i t y .
As a r e s u l t ,
th e
h a n g o v e rs
fro m
th e
s la
c o n tin u e
t o
show
th e m s e lv e s
in
th e
a t t i t u d e s
o f
e m p lo y e rs
r e fu s e
t o
h i r e
th e m ,
o r
h i r e
the m
a t
lo w e r
w a g e s;
i n
th e
o n is m s
o f
w h ite
w o r k e r s ;
in
th e
h o s t i l i t y
o f
tr a d e
u n io n s
i n
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n
i n
w o rk in g
c o n d it io n s .
T h ese
u n ju s t
d i s
t i o n s
have
o o o a s io n e d
p ro b le m s
i n
h e a lt h ,
h o u s in g ,
f a m ily
and
fo r m a l
t o
The
f r u s t r a t e d
in d i s c r i m i n a t e
s e ld o m
fo r
le s s
a
v e
e ra
who
a n ta g ­
;
and
c r i m i n a ­
l i f e ,
re m a in
a l i e n
de ca d e
he
m ig h t
and
th e
th a n
t h in k
home
Negroes ar e r a r e l y employed in j o b s r e q u i r i n g a p p r e n t i c e s h i p .
This
s e r v e s t o l i m i t s k i l l e d workers and t h e number o f c o l o r e d workmen e l i ­
g i b l e fo r t r a d e union membership.
Fxcept in Negro b u s i n e s s , Negroes are
i n f r e q u e n t l y employed as s a l e s p e o p l e or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 8 "Probably th e
s e v e r e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s in s e c u r i n g p o s i t i o n s are f a c e d by t h e Negro woman,
b e c a u s e the o c c u p a t i o n s from which she i s barred are among t h o s e in which
w h i t e women most f r e q u e n t l y engage.
Negro g i r l s can r a r e l y o b t a i n p o s i ­
t i o n s as s t e n o g r a p h e r s or c l e r i c a l workers in o f f i c e s , and are not used
as t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s or as saleswomen in department s t o r e s .
There are
l a r g e numbers o f c o l o r e d women in d o m e s t ic work, y e t t h e r e are many w hi t e
p e o p l e who w i l l no t employ a c o l o r e d s e r v a n t . " 4 In r a r e i n s t a n c e s c o l o r e d
1.
2.
E d i t o r i a l f r o m " T i m e s , " Pducational Reviett, 7 1 ( A p r i l ,
T r a d e R e i a , B o o s t h e I d u o a t e d N e ffro G e t a B r e a k ? The
P*
7$7#
S . *C h a r l e s * S . J o h n s o n ,
4 . F e l d m a n , op. c i t . ,
B la o k W o rk e rs a n d t h e
91.
p.
8i t y ,
1 9 8 6 ),
pp.
1 9 j-1 9 9 . '
11? (Ju n e ,
C o n g r e g a tio n a lis t,
Survey,
58
(V a ro h ,
19?5>,
p.
648.
-leeworkmen succeed i n becoming foremen. Managerial p o s i t i o n s i n American
i n d u s t r y are c l o s e d t o N e g r o e s.
"Promotion, beyond t h e l o w e s t rungs
o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l l a d d e r , i s alm os t out o f t h e q u e s t i o n as f a r as
Negroes are co ncerned.
This h o l d s t r u e w ith ou t any r e f e r e n c e t o the
a b i l i t y or t r a i n i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l N e g r o . " 1
Negroes are g i v e n d i s a g r e e a b l e work and w h it e l a b o r e r s are gradu­
ate d t o more p l e a s a n t j o b s . 8 During th e summer, j o b s on s t e e l ovens
ar e g i v e n t o th e Negro, but in th e c o o l e r we ather, th e Negro i s d i s ­
m is s ed on the s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n in order t o r e l e a s e t h e s e j o b s f o r
the whites.
sk ill,
For work r e q u i r i n g s t r e n g t h and b o d i l y a g i l i t y but l i t t l e
such as l o n g s h o r e work, t h e c o l o r e d worker i s i n demand. 8
t y p e o f work i s very i r r e g u l a r .
This
Long p e r i o d s o f r e s t are f o l l o w e d by
sudden and s u s t a i n e d p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n .
Negro women are f r e e l y employed
a s l a u n d r e s s e s and s e r v a n t s with f i e r c e c o m p e t i t i o n from oth e r r a c e s .
There are many i n c o n s i s f e n c i e s in t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f Negro employ­
ment.4
Negroes may p r e p ar e fo od i n p r i v a t e homes and on r a i l r o a d d i n e r s ,
y e t th ey are e x clu de d from food manufac tur in g.
As brickmasons th ey are
p e r m i t t e d t o e r e c t o n l y t h r e e w a l l s o f a s t r u c t u r e , but never th e f r o h t
w all.
They may p l a n t c o t t o n , but not work in c o t t o n m i l l s .
A
o f
a
N e g ro
th e
t i c k e t
t i o n
w o rk e r
p o s s i b i l i t y
c h o p p e r.
b e c a u s e
may
n o t
o f
He
h o n e s ty
be
p u b lio
may
i s
n o t
a
s t r e e t
o r
o b je c t io n
be
a
r e q u ir e d —
m oney
y e t
sub w a y
t o
c h a n g e r
he
o o n d lu o to r
c o n t a c t — b u t
may
be
in
a
he
b e c a u s e
may
subw ay
e n tr u s te d ,
be
s t a ­
as
a
m e s s e n g e r,
w it h
th o u s a n d s
o f
d o ll a r s
d a il y .
He may n o t
s e l l
tfo ods
o v e r
a
c o u n te r — b u t
he
may
d e li v e r
th e
goods
a f t e r
th e y
ha ve
be en
s o ld .
He m a y b e
a
p o r t e r
in
c h a rg e
o f
a s le e p in g
o a r
w ith o u t
a
o o n d u o to r ,
a
fir e m a n ;
b u t
a
n e v e r
a
o o n d u o to r ;
l i n o t y p e r , b u t
he
may
n o t am o t i o n
be
a
p o lio e m a n
b u t
p io t u r e o p e r a t o r ;
g la s s
a n n e a le r ,
b u t
n o t
ag l a s s
b lo w e r ;a de ok
h a n d ,
s a i l o r .
The
l i s t
c o u ld
be
c o n tin u e d
i n d e f i n i t e l y . 5
b u t n o t
n o t
a
a
I f th e c o l o r e d worker were g i v e n a normal o p p o r t u n i t y f o r economic
e x p r e s s i o n in i n d u s t r y , h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s would change c o n s i d e r a b l y .
"In such a p i c t u r e t h e r e would be one h a l f as many Negro farme rs, one t h i r d
a s many do m e s ti c and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e workers, and t w i c e as many i n d u s t r i a l
em ployees."0
I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n s a l a r y accompanies
l i m i t a t i o n s in employment.
a pp a re nt ,
Among s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s most
and i t i s s i m p l e t o make c o m pa r is o ns , as was dene i n th e f i r s t
1 . S o o t t N e a r i n g , Sla ck America, p.
8 . F e l d m a n , op. c i t .. , p . 4 8 .
8 . J o h n s o n , oP. c i t . , p . 8 4 8 .
4 . I r a d e R e i d , Op. c i t . , p . 7 8 7 .
5 . J o h n s o n , op. c i t . , , p . 8 4 3 .
8 . I r a d e R e i d , Op. c i t . , p . 7 8 7 .
105.
part of t h i s chapter.
A Negro p o r t e r on a r a i l r o a d may do h i s work
as w e l l as t h a t o f t h e brakeman, flagman and a s s i s t a n t t o the con­
d u c t o r , but s t i l l h i s pay i s neve r h i g h e r than t h a t o f a p o r t e r . Pop­
u l a r s en ti m e n t i n s i s t s t h a t N e gro es r e c e i v e l e s s pay than w h i t e s . 1
In view o f t h i s e x i s t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in i n d u s t r y , Negro youths
are ad vis e d t o prepare f o r C i v i l S e r v i c e e x a m in a t io n s , s i n c e government
s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s o f f e r f a i r pay and l i f e l o n g s e c u r i t y .
Thether the
Negro r e c e i v e s f a i r e s t t r e a t m e n t in C i v i l S e r v i c e i s d e b a t a b l e .
Ac­
c o r d i n g t o Feld man ,2 C i v i l S e r v i c e ex a m in a t io n s a l l o w no p l a c e f o r
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and hence t h e Negro has e n t e r e d t h i s f i e l d and become
in t r e n c h e d i n some d i v i s i o n s o f t h e Fe deral s e r v i c e as w e ll as the
l o c a l and s t a t e governments.
The c o l o r e d worker may, however, be held
down a f t e r e n t r a n c e .
"It i s t r u e , a l s o , t h a t i n many c a s e s th e o f f i c e r
s e l e c t i n g a c a n d i d a t e f o r a p o s i t i o n has a c h o i c e which e n a b l e s him to
r e j e c t a colored a p p lic a n t.
This f a c t has n o t , however, kept Negroes
from g e t t i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l s ha r e o f th e o p e n in g s in c e r t a i n employments.
For example, t h e Un it ed S t a t e s P o s t a l S e r v i c e ,
c i a l estim ate,
ac c o r d in g to an u n o f f i ­
i s s a i d t o employ over £?,C00 N e g r o e s . "
A f o o t n o t e in
Feldman’ s b oc k 5 s t a t e s t h a t a Negro a u t h o r i t y who read t h i s a u t h o r ' s
manuscript d i f f e r e d with him c o n c e r n in g p u b l i c s e r v i c e .
This a u t h o r i t y
di d not f i n d f a i r t r e a t m e n t acco rd ed to Ne gro es.
I t was p o s s i b l e f o r
c o l o r e d c a n d i d a t e s t o o b t a i n C i v i l S e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s , but no advancement
was p o s s i b l e e x c e p t through p o l i t i c s .
In th e p o s t a l s e r v i c e t h e r e i s
an un w r it te n law' in some a r e a s r e s e r v i n g i n s i d e j o b s f o r w h i t e s , w h il e
o u t s i d e mail c a r r y i n g i s a s s i g n e d t o the Negro workers.
The N a t io n a l Urban Lea gu e4 b e l i e v e s t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n does e x i s t
i n C i v i l S e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s , and mentions as an a d d i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t y
o f e x c l u d i n g Negroes the- r u l e t o have a photograph accompany a p p l i c a t i o n s .
The N a t io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f Colored P e o p l e , a t i t s
annual c o n f e r e n c e i n 1988, t o o k t h e f o l l o w i n g stand r eg a r d in g C i v i l
S e r v ic e 5:
The
A s s o c ia tio n
oondem ns
th e
a
s e v e r a l
num ber
e n d o rs e s
u n r e s e r v e d ly
o f
th e
th e
d e p a rtm e n ts
i n
s t a t e s .
v io io u s
The
1,
p.
R o b e r t R . M o to n , )Shat th e
F e ld m a n ^ op. e i t . , p . 2 4 .
fl
O c c u p a tio n a l O p p o r tu n itie s
p r i n o i p l e
m anner
th e
in
f e d e r a l
s y s te m
Negro T h in k s,
fo r
w h io h
N e g ro es,
pp.
o f
o i v i l
i t
i s
g o v e rn m e n t
r e q u i r i n g
s e r v io e ,
b u t
a d m in is te r e d
as
w e ll
in
as
in
p h o to g ra p h s
to
9 0 9 -5 0 8 .
N a tion al Urban League,
N° * 5 ? R e s o l u U o n l T o f c l l t l ^ C o n f e r e n o e o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o o i a t i o n
C o l o r e d P e o p l e , a t C o l u m b u s , O h i o , J u l y 9 , 1 9 8 0 , p . 8.
C o lo r L in e
f o r th e
S e rie s ,
A dvancem ent o f
-1 7 0 be
s u b m itte d
be
s e le o te d
v io e
r o l l s
and
th e
o u t
th e
c a n s
a re
f o r
t o
s h o u ld
be
a o o o v d in g
in s te a d
P r e s id e n t
p u rp o s e s
ta k e
o f
d is c o n t in u e d ,
t o
t h e i r
as
now
re q u e s te d
o f
t h i s
c o m p e t it iv e
and
p r o v id e d
t o
use
h is
r e s o l u t i o n .
th e
a p p lio a n t s
s ta n d in g
b y
O i v i l
u rg e
f o r
num ber
R e g a r d l e s s o f th e e x i s t i n g p r e j u d i c e ,
t o
VTT,
o a r r y
A m e ri­
w h ic h
q u a l i f i e d
s e r ­
R u le
N e g ro
fo r
s h o u ld
c i v i l
po w e r
m ore
p o s ts
o f
on
S e r v ic e
e x e c u tiv e
We
e x a m in a tio n s
t r a in e d
so as
t o
in c r e a s e
su ch
a p p o in tm e n ts .
a l l
n u m e rio a l
th e y
p e rs o n s
a m b it io u s young Negroes
a r e coming t o r e a l i z e t h a t a w e l l - t r a i n e d , c a p a b l e worker, r e g a r d l e s s
o f h i s r a c e , has a good chance o f s e c u r i n g employment.
The
i n t e l l i g e n t
c r i m i n a t i o n
i n d i v i d u a l
an
o r
c o l l e c t i v e ;
n e it h e r
i n f l a t e d
o u r r e n t
s o c ia l
know n
th e
f o r
new
N e g ro
o f
e x te n u a t io n
by
s c i e n t i f i c
h3
h is
i s
s e n tim e n t a l
d is o o u n ts .
p r e c is e ly
to - d a y
f o r
w h a t
r a t h e r
F o r
he
th a n
r e s o lv e d
t r y i n g
t o
a llo w a n c e s
t h i s
i3 ,
is
s h o rtc o m in g s
and
th e
he
m ust
f o r
o ld
h o ld
n o r
know
t h a t
n o t
in
to
make
d i s ­
p e rfo rm a n c e ,
h im s e lf
a t
p a r,
d e p r e c ia te d
h im s e lf
re a s o n
s e n tim e n t a l
he
and
by
be
w e lo o m e s
i n t e r e s t . . . . 1
Summary
On c o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e s e o b s t a c l e s c o n f r o n t i n g th e Negro in i n ­
dustry,
i t i s found t o be e v i d e n t t h a t t h e employment problem o f c o l ­
ored workers i s f a r more complex than i t s u p e r f i c i a l l y appears to be.
In a d d i t i o n t o the problems o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l background o f Negroes
s e e k i n g employment, which r e c e i v e major a t t e n t i o n in t h i s s t u d y , the
b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n , t h e p o l i c y o f e x c l u d i n g Negroes from u n i o n s , th e
poor q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ,
t h e l a c k o f v o c a t i o n a l guidance
and modern i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , t h e g e n e r a l b e l i e f in t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y
o f t h e Negro worker, and t h e a l l - p e r v a d i n g r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e are a l l
o p e r a t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n d e t e r m i n i n g th e s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f
Negro employment.
1.
A l a in L o o k s,
The Nea. Negro, p . 9 .
CHAPTER V I M
An a l y s is
o f
Em p l o y e r s ’
Re q u ir e m e n t s
of
Ap p l ic a n t s
C o i n c i d e n t a l w it h t h e g a t h e r i n g o f da t a co nc er ni n g the i n f l u e n c e
o f e d u c a t i o n on employment, which i s t h e s u b j e c t of t h i s s t u d y , s u p p l e ­
mentary dat a were c o l l e c t e d c o n c e r n i n g a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t o f
employment o p p o r t u n i t y .
T hi s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h , r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t up
by employers when c o n t a c t i n g t h e New York Urban League o f f i c e f o r job
applicants.
As r e q u e s t s f o r h e lp are made t o t h e employment o f f i c e ,
t h e r eq u ir e m e n ts s t i p u l a t e d by t h e employer are t a b u l a t e d on ca rds
c a l l e d "Employers’ O r d e r s . "
These r e c o r d s are c o n s u l t e d in t h e s e l e c ­
t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s s u i t a b l e f o r each p o s i t i o n .
For t h i s s t u d y , a l l a v a i l a b l e data from t h e s e r e c o r d s were c o l ­
l e c t e d i n order t o show t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n e m p l o y e r s ’ r eq u ir e m e n ts f o r
the various occu pation s.
A. t o t a l o f 2272 e m p l o y e r s ’ r e q u e s t s were on
f i l e f o r t h e p e r i o d between 192? and 1{?c7.
The data are summarized in
Table ?2 (pp. 1 7 2 - 1 7 8 ) .
Occupational
Distribution
of
E mp l o y e r s ' 1 R e q u e s t s
As may be not ed i n Table F2, th e v a s t m a j o r it y of r e q u e s t s made
were f o r d o m e s t ic h e l p ( 8 0 . 4 per c e n t ) .
A l i t t l e more than c n e - t e n t h
( 1 2 . 2 per c e n t ) o f t h e o r d e r s were f o r i n d u s t r i a l workers, and about
o n e - h a l f t h a t number ( S . 2 per c e n t ) were f o r commercial empl oyee s.
Very few o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ’ o r d e r s c a l l e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l or p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t workers (O.P per c e n t and 0 . 2 per c e n t r e ­
sp ectively).
There were no c a l l s f o r a p p l i c a n t s to s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l
p osition s.
In comparing t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s ,
t h e r e q u e s t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t em­
p l o y e e s are to o few t o be c o n s i d e r e d .
This l e a v e s f o r comparison the
e m p l o y e r s ’ o r d e r s f o r co mm e rc ia l, d o m e s t i c and i n d u s t r i a l workers.
Duration of P o s i t i o n s
Approximately o n e - h a l f o f t h e commercial, dom est ic and i n d u s t r i a l
p o s i t i o n s f o r which t h e e mp loy er s r e q u e s t e d a p p l i c a n t s were o f a perma­
nent n a t u r e .
From IF t o 20 per c e n t o f t h e p o s i t i o n s were o f a temporary
c h a r a c t e r , and t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e remainder was not s p e c i f i e d .
C o n s id e r in g a l l t h e e m p l o y e r s ’ o r d e r s , i t i s found t h a t mere than
o n e - h a l f ( F7. P per c e n t ) were f o r permanent p o s i t i o n s and about o n e - s i x t h
( 1 P . 0 per c e n t ) c a l l e d f o r temporary h e l p .
-1 7 1 -
172 -
-
TABLE
Em p l o y e r s ’
Re q u ir e v e n t s
Ap p l ic a n t s
of
Various
for
..................
52
Oc c u p a t i o n s ,
DURATION
PERMANENT
TYPE
OF OC C U PA T I ON
C o l.
l
2
c o l.
o.«
0 .0
8
0 .2
6 .2
8 0 .4
1 2 .2
3278
.
3
0
TOTAL
.
C o l.
SI
204
2634
411
.
9 t,t
NUMBER
>ER CENT
C o l.
C o l.
4
Y0U N 3
NUM8ER
Of f e r e o
NO D A T A
PER C ENT
C o l. ; 6
5
Sa l a r ie s
OF P O S I T I O N
TEMPORARY
C o l.
NUMBER
7
e
C o l.
PER
CENT
C o l.
9
12
5 7 .1
1
4 .8
g
3 8 .1
2
107
1557
209
2 5 .0
5 2 .4
5 9 .0
5 0 .9
5
41
413
66
6 2 .5
2 0 .1
1 5 .6
1 6 .0
1
56
064
136
1 2 .5
2 7 .4
2 5 .2
3 3 -1
1887
5 7 .6
526
1 6 .0
865
2 6 .4
A 3E
TYPE
We e k l y
NUMBER1 PER
p r o fe s s io n a l
S e m i- p r o fe s s io n a l
P r o fe s s io n a l s e r ­
v ic e a tte n d a n ts
C o m m e r c ia l
D o m e s tic
In d u s tr ia l
.
and
PR EFERRED
.
.M ID D L E —ASED.
(2 1 - 3 4 YEARS)
(3 5 -4 9 y e a r s )
OLO ( 5 0 YEARS
AND O V ER)
NUMBER P ER C E N T
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l . 13
C o l. 1 5
C o l. 1 7
C o l.IS
16
7 6 .2
NO DA T A
OF O C C U P A T IO N
NUMBER
C o l. 1 0
C o l. U
p r o fe s s io n a l
S e m i- p r o fe s s io n a l
p r o fe s s io n a l s e r­
v ic e a tte n d a n ts
C o m m e r c ia l
D o m e s tic
In d u s tr ia l
TOTAL
.
.'
PER CENT
•:
.
C o l. 12
1
4 .8
5
38
495
45
3 2 .5
1 8 .6
584
j
C o l.16
4
1 9 .0
4 .4
2 0 .8
6 .8
1
16
0 .5
0 .6
1 0 .9
9
548
28
3
156
1575
338
3
7
5
8
1 7 .8
589
te.o
17
0 .5
2088
8 3 .7
ie.8
!
C o l. 1 4
7 .5
8 .4
9 .7
2 .2
COLOR PREFERRED
DARK
LI3HT
TYPE
NO D A TA
OF O C C U P A T IO N
C o l. 1 9
nuvser
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
P ER C ENT
C o l. 2 0
C o l. 21
C o l. 2 2
C o l. 23
C o l. 2 4
C o l. 2 5
21
p r o fe s s io n a l
S e m i- p r o fe s s io n a l
p r o fe s s io n a l s e r­
v ic e a tte n d a n ts
C o m m e r c ia l
D o m e s tic
In d u s tr ia l
TOTAL
.
.
.
e
.
4
96
4
2 .0
3 .3
1 .0
2
1 .0
198
2538
407
1 0 0 .0
9 7 .0
9 6 .2
9 9 .0
104
3 .2
2
0 .1
3172
9 6 .7
.............. .
W E E K LY
OF O C C U P A T IO N
NUM3ER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l. 2 6
C o l. 27
C o l.28
C o l. 2 9
p r o fe s s io n a l
S e m i- p r o fe s s io n a l
P r o fe s s io n a l s e r v io e a tte n d a n ts
C o m m e r c ia l
D o m e s tio
In d u s tr ia l
1
4 .8
7
24
368
111
1 1 .8
1 3 .9
2 7 .0
7
64
1572
139
8 7 .5
3 1 .4
5 9 .6
3 3 . S)
TOTAL
504
1 5 .4
1789
5 4 .6
•
•
•
1. D a ta fr o m
•
SALARIES
$ 2 0 -* 2 9
J l0 - $ 1 4
0 - *9
TYPE
1 0 0 .0
New Y o r k U r l > an L e a g u e r e c o r d 8 .
C o l.3 0
3 3 .3
NUMBER
PER
CENT
C o l. 31 C o l. 32
NUMBER PER C E NT
C o l. 3 3 C o l . 34
2
9 .5
7
3 3 .3
16
90
89
7 .8
3 .4
2 1 .6
7
43
2e
3 .4
1 .0
6 .8
197
8 .0
85
2 .6
-1 7 ?-
ABLE
T
Em plo yer s'
R e q u ir e m e n t s
of
Ap p l i c a n t s
52
for
(Co n c l u o e o )
V ario us
Oc c u p a t io n s ,
W EE K LY S A L A R I E S
TY P E
OF O C C U P A T IO N
$30-450
NUMBER
C o l. 3 5
C o l. 3 6
P r o fe s s io n a l
S a m i-p r o fe s s io n a l
p r o fe s s io n a l 3 e r v io e a tte n d a n ts
C o n m e r o ia l
D o m e s tic
I n d u s t r ia l
PER
PER
C ENT
C o l. 3 7
HOUR
3ol. 3e
CENT
C o l. 3 9
Sa u r i e s
Of f e r e d
(C O N T IN U E D )
.35-. 55
NUMBER PER
We e k l y
and
TIPS
ROOM AND
BOARD
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l.40
C o l. 4 1
C o l. 4 2
3 o l. 4 3
1 9 .0
12.5
0.1
1.2
505
5
11
0 .3
505
2
TO TAL
0 .0
1 9 .1
0.2
0.5
0.1
1 5 .4
0.1
W EE K LY S A L A R IE S
(CONC5 L U 0 E 0 )
TYPE
NUMBER
C o l. 4 5
C o l. 4 4
p r o fe s s io n a l
i- p r o fa s s io n a l
p r o fe s s io n a l s e r­
v ic e a tte n d a n ts
C o n m e r o ia l
D o m e s tic
In d u s tr ia l
T O T A L OF
PREVIOUS
COLUMNS
NO DA TA
OF O C C U P A T IO N
PER
CENT
C o l. 4 6
r\l
V
VD.
o3
%1- 31
C o l.48
C o l. 4 9
C o l. 5 0
21
1 3 .0 4
1 5 .3 6
2 4 .1 1
7
111
2075
372
1 0 .1 0
1 0 .4 8
9 .3 0
1 2 .5 0
1 2 .4 6
1 2 .1 3
1 2 .7 0
1 4 .0 4
1 3 .8 1
1 6 .6 3
2586
' 1 0 .4 0
1 2 .2 0
1 4 .0 1
C o l. 4 7
3e m
to tal
.
.
.
.
S3
KQ
36
45.5
2 .0
9 .5
152
5>?
At e P r e f e r e n c e
Sin c9 two s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t age c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were used on th e
"Employer?s Order” c a r d s ,
i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c l a s s i f y a g e s a r b i t r a r i l y
as f o l l o w s :
Y oung
2 1 -3 4
M id d le -a g e d
O ld
3 5 -4 9
y e a rs
50
y e a rs
o f
y e a rs
o f
age
o f
age
age
and o v e r
Vany employers d id not d e s i g n a t e any age p r e f e r e n c e , and t h e r e f o r e
t h e dat a are l a c k i n g t o a g r e a t e x t e n t .
Of t h e age p r e f e r e n c e s which were mentioned, th e r e q u e s t s f o r com­
m e r c ia l and i n d u s t r i a l employ ee s s p e c i f i e d young pe op le as f i r s t p r e f e r ­
ence and m id d le -a g e d i n d i v i d u a l s as second.
For dom est ic p o s i t i o n s
t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f r e q u e s t s
f o r m id d le -a g e d i n d i v i d u a l s and young a p p l i c a n t s ( 2 0 . £ per c e n t and
1 8 . 9 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
The c ha nces are
out o f 1000 t h a t a
m id d le -a g e d p e r s o n w i l l be p r e f e r r e d t o a young i n d i v i d u a l f o r d om es ti c
work ( s e e Appendix IT, T ab le s 7? and 7 4 ) .
S i x - t e n t h s per c e n t o f t h e
d o m e s ti c c a l l s r e q u e s t e d employ ee s 50 y e a r s o f age or o v e r .
-1 7 4 -
When a l l the employers' requests are taken into consideration,
i t is found tha t about the same proportion of requests came in for
middle-aged persons (18.0 per cent) as for young individuals (17.8
per cent).
Color Preference
There were very few cases in which the employers requested workers
of a c e r t a in skin color. Of the 8.8 per cent requests th a t were made,
8.2 per cent were for Negroes with a lig h t complexion.
For domestic
service, color preference was more frequently stated than for any other
occupation.
When a l l the requests are considered together, i t is found that
only 0.1 per cent called for dark-skinned employees, as compared with
8.2 per cent for light-c olored help. The preponderance of requests
(QP.7 per cent) did not include any color preference.
Weekly S a l a r i e s
The medians of the weekly wages offered for commercial, domestic
and in d u s tria l positions are very similar ($12.4?, $12.18 and $12.70
re sp e c tiv e ly ) . The widest range in the middle F0 per cent of the weekly
s a l a r i e s occurs in those offered to in d u stria l workers, where the C1
is $S.80 and the Q3 i s $1?.88. This 21 i s approximately $1.00 lower
and the C3 i s about $2.F0 higher than the corresponding measures in the
s a l a r i e s offered to commercial and domestic workers. The median of the
weekly s a l a r i e s offered in a l l the employers' orders is $12.20, the C1
being $10.40 and the 23 $14.01.
SUMMARY AND COWCLVSIOWS
Occupational D i s t r i b u t i o n of Pmplouers ' Requests
(1) The vast majority of requests were for domestic help.
(2) Very few of the employers' orders called for professional or
professional service attendant workers.
Duration of Posi t ions
(1) Approximately one-half of the commercial, domestic and indus­
t r i a l positions for which the employers requested applicants were of a
permanent nature, and s l i g h t l y l e s s than c n e - f if th were of a temporary
character.
(2) More than one-half of a l l the employers' offers were for perma­
nent po sitio n s, and about one-sixth called for temporary help.
-17F-
Ai@ Preference
(1) For commercial and in d u s tr ial p o s i t i o n s , employers preferred
young Deople to middle-aged in d ivid u a ls.
(2) In domestic service work, there was no sig n ific a n t difference
between the demands for middle-aged men and women and for the younger
group.
(■8) When, a l l the employers' orders were to ta le d , about the same
proportion of middle-aged as of young persons were found to, have been
requested.
Color Preference
(1) In only S .2 per cent of the employers’ requests
preference stated.
(2) Of the 2.2 per cent requests made, 2.2 per cent
Negroes with l i g h t complexion.
( c ) For domestic service jobs, color preference was
sta te d than for any other occupation.
(4)
Only 0.1 per cent of a l l the requests were
employees.
wss color
were for
more frequently
for dark-skinned
Weekly S a l a r i e s
(1) The weekly wages offered by employers for commercial, domestic
and in d u s t r ia l positions were about '$12.00 for each type of work.
(2) The widest range in the middle F0 per cent of the weekly s a l ­
a r i e s occurred in those offered to industria l workers. The G1 was
$9.20 and the G3 $16.62.
(2)
The Vd. of the weekly s a la r ie s offered in a l l the employers’
requests was $12.20, the Q* was $10.40, and the G3 was $14.01.
CHAPTER IX
Summary o f F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s
The sources of the data for t h i s study were the records of 6799
cases who had r e g is te r e d for employment at eith e r the New York Urban
League or the WPA o ffic e between 1922 and 1 9 2 8 . The great majority
of the individuals applied a t the New York Urban League Employment
Office ( 5U52 cases), while the remainder sought vocational guidance
and possible employment through the WPA organization (1 2 4 6 cases).
The cases are predominantly American and had resided in New York
City for le s s than f i f t e e n years at the time t h i s study was made.
Most of the individuals e i t h e r lived with t h e i r parents or rented
p r iv a te rooms. Approximately one-half of the group were unmarried,
while one-third were married. The group is of average or s l i g h t l y
b e t t e r than average persona lity, and th e ir physical health records
revealed them to be physically f i t for any type of employment.
inplunncn
ov fdhcattonal pacncponnd on i n i t i a l
OCCUPATIONS,1 AND PINAL mf E MA L S 9
pnplovnknt ,
fast
(1) The only two occupational f i e l d s in which a d i r e c t propor­
tio n a l r e la tio n s h ip was found between the amount of scholastic training
and job placement were the professional and the government project
p o sitio n s.
( 2 ) In the professions, t h i s positive influence of educational
tr a in i n g was evident in a l l three types of positions, i . e . , i n i t i a l
occupations, past employment and f in a l r e f e r r a l s , especially in the
college and post-graduate groups.
(2 )
In past occupations (1 9 2 8 through 19 27 ) and f i n a l r e f e r r a l s ,
higher education proved to be of advantage in securing government
p r o jec t po sitions.
( 4 ) An increase in educational training had no appreciable e ffect
on i n i t i a l occupations, past employment and f in a l r e f e r r a l s in the
semi-professional and professional service attendant f i e l d s .
(5) In i n i t i a l employment along in d u stria l lin e s , educational
tr a in i n g exerted a negative influence in determining job placement.
However, in the in d u s t ria l jobs held by the cases from 1928 through
1927, as well as the f i n a l r e f e r r a l s in t h i s f i e l d , educational back­
ground played l i t t l e part in determining job placements.
1; Positions haId from 1920 through 1987.
2.'Positions to whloh applio&nts wera sant.
-1 7 3 -
-1 7 7 -
(6) An inverse proportional relatio nship was found to e x is t
between the amount of scholastic training and domestic job placement.
This was evident for i n i t i a l occupations, past occupations and job
r e f e r r a l s in t h i s f i e l d . The cases with grammar school training
held most of the domestic positions.
(7) In commercial lin e s , vocational, technical or business t r a i n ­
ing proved more valuable than any other type of education. Most of
the jobs held in t h i s f i e l d from 1928 through 1987, as well as the
r e f e r r a l s to work of t h i s type, were f i l l e d by individuals with voca­
t i o n a l , te chnic al or business tr a in in g . However, in i n i t i a l employment
in commercial po sitio n s, the high school and college traine d cases
fared as well as those with vocational background.
(8) A s l i g h t increase in professional placements occurred subse­
quent to i n i t i a l employment. Whereas one-tenth of the cases held pro­
f e s s io n a l jobs when s t a r t i n g th e i r working careers, one-eighth of them
were engaged in occupations of t h i s type during 1928 through 1987.
(9) A s h i f t away from commercial work i s evident from the f a c t
t h a t o n e - f if t h of the cases s ta rt e d out in t h i s f i e l d , approximately
one-sixth held commercial positions during 1928 through 1987, and
only one tw enty-fifth were referre d to such positions.
(10) Many cases g ravitated to domestic work a f t e r s ta r t in g otit
in other f i e l d s . Only IF per cent held domestic jobs as th e ir i n i t i a l
employment, whereas one-third were engaged in domestic work during
1928 through 1987.
(11) Following i n i t i a l employment, there was a downward trend in
i n d u s t r i a l positions, and a further decrease was noted in job r e f e r r a l s
of t h i s type. Approximately one-third of the cases held in d u s tria l
p o sitio n s when f i r s t employed, one-fourth were engaged in i n d u s t r ia l
work during 1928 through 1987, and only one-tenth received r e f e r r a l s
to i n d u s t r ia l jobs.
(12) Negroes are gaining ground in the government project f i e l d . '
Whereas only 2.2 per cent of the cases held government project positions
when f i r s t employed, 4.8 per cent were so employed during 1928 through
1987, and 6.8 per cent were referred to work of t h i s type. The reason
why so few were engaged in government projects at the outset of t h e i r
employment careers i s th a t the government program i s of comparatively
recent inauguration.
(18) Only 1 per cent of a l l the job r e f e r r a l s were to professional
p o sitio n s.
-1 7 8 -
(14) Referrals to domestic positio ns were most numerous.
imately tw o -fifth s of the.cases were sent to these jobs.
Approx­
INFLUENCE OF AGE ON INITIAL ENPLOYNENT, PAST OCCUPATIONS AND PINAL JOB
REFE1JALS
Professions
(1) In the professional f ie ld , the 25-82 year group showed an in­
crease over the 17-24 year olds in i n i t i a l employment, occupations held
during 1928 through 1987, and final r e f e r r a l s .
(2) For f i r s t occupations, the proportions engaging in professional
work continued to r i s e in the 80-89 and 40-49 year groups, but decreased
when the 50-year mark was reached.
(8) In the past occupations (those held from 1988 through 1987) and
in the job r e f e r r a l s , a f te r the increase at the 25-89 year le v e l, the
proportions decreased.
Se mi - Pr of e s s i ons
(1) More of the cases 25-29 years of age than of those at the lowest
age level (17-24 years) entered semi-professional li n e s when s t a r t i n g to
work. At the next higher age level, 80-89 years, a decrease was noted.
(2) No differences due to age were found in the occupational h i s ­
t o r i e s of those engaging in semi-professional work from 1928 through 1987.
(8) In r e f e r r a l s to semi-professional p o sitio n s, the influence of
age was in s ig n ific a n t.
P r o f e s s i o n a l Se rvi ce Att endant s
(1) The number of cases entering t h i s f i e l d as i n i t i a l employment
increased in d ir e c t proportion to age up to the 40-year level. (The
increase, however, in the 80-89 year unit over the 25-29 year group was
very s l i g h t . )
(2) The age fa c to r was unimportant in influencing professional
service attendant positions held by the cases during 1928 through 1987.
(8) More of the 17-24 year group than of any other were referred
to jobs in t h i s f i e l d . As the age scale was ascended, the job r e f e r r a l s
decreased.
Commercial P o s i t i o n s
(1) The 25-29 year group was favored over the 17-24 year olds in
i n i t i a l employment in the commercial f i e l d . From the 80-year group on,
the proportions decreased as the age level was raised.
(2) Most of the commercial p o sitions held from 1928 through 1987
were f i l l e d by members of the youngest age group. The proportion in
the commercial f i e l d decreased with each age increase.
-1 7 9 -
( 8 ) The 17-24 y e a r o l d s were s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g most o f t h e
jo b r e f e r r a l s t o p o s i t i o n s in t h i s f i e l d .
Domestic Se rvi c e
( 1 ) The u n i v e r s a l i t y o f d o m e s t i c work as a c h o i c e f o r a f i r s t job
i s shown by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s engaging i n t h i s
f i e l d i n c r e a s e d i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o age.
This shews t h a t a number
o f i n d i v i d u a l s who s t a r t e d t h e i r working c a r e e r s many y e a r s ago, as
w e l l as young c a s e s who o n ly r e c e n t l y began t o work, have chosen t h i s
type o f occupation.
( 2 ) As the age s c a le was ascended, more o f the caseE turned to
domestic work, as shown by th e ir occupational h i s t o r i e s (1928 through
1987).
( 8 ) R e f e r r a l s t o d o m es ti c p o s i t i o n s i n c r e a s e d in d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n
t o age up t o t h e 5 0 -5 9 year l e v e l ,
at which p o i n t a d e c r e a s e began.
I n d u s t r i a l Pos i t i o n s
( 1 ) The p r o p o r t i o n s o f c a s e s e ng aging i n i n d u s t r i a l work as t h e i r
f i r s t j o b s i n c r e a s e d d i r e c t l y with age, e x c l u d i n g t h e 25-29 yea r group,
i n which a d e c r e a s e was no te d .
( 2 ) The d i f f e r e n c e s due t o age ar e s l i g h t i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l p o s i ­
t i o n s h e l d by t h e c a s e s from 1928 through 1987.
( 8 ) In r e f e r r a l s t o i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s , t h e 25-2 9 and 8 0-8 9 year
u n i t s had a
lower p r o p o r t i o n than t h e y o u n g e s t
age group
( 1 7 - 2 4 ) . At
t h e 4 0 - y e a r l e v e l , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e f e r r a l s i n c r e a s e d , and t h i s
upward t r e n d c o n t i n u e d through t h e ne xt age group ( 5 0 - 5 9 y e a r s ) .
Government Pr o j e c t s
( 1 ) Government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s ,
as f i r s t j o b s , were o b t a i n e d
ma in ly by t h e 17 -24 and 25-29 ye ar gr oup s.
Fewer o f t h e o l d e r c a s e s
were s o employed, b e c a u s e t h e development o f t h i s t y p e o f work has
b e e n so r e c e n t .
( 2 ) The age f a c t o r did not prove p o t e n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g government
p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s h e l d by t h e c a s e s durin g 1928 through 1987.
( 8 ) In
25-29 years
r e f e r r a l s to government p r o j e c t p o s i t i o n s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s
o f age f a r e d b e t t e r than t h e 1 7- 24 yea r o l d s , but from the
2 0 - y e a r group on, a d e c r e a s e was e v i d e n t .
INFLUENCE OP EDUCATIONAL BACKGPOUND ON WAGE LEVEL
(1)
E d u c a ti o n a l background e x e r t e d l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e weekly
r em un e r at io n o f t h e males when engaged on t h e i r f i r s t j o b s , as w e l l as
d u r in g su bs e qu e nt employment.
-1 8 0 -
( 2 ) For t h e f e m a l e o a s e s , an i n c r e a s e in e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g
pr ove d t o be f i n a n c i a l l y adv a n ta g e o u s .
This was t r u e f o r i n i t i a l
employment and f o r p o s i t i o n s h e l d du rin g 1928 through 1937.
( 3 ) The women earned 1 2 . 3 0 l e s s than t h e men on t h e i r f i r s t j o b s ,
and £ 5 . 2 9 l e s s during su bs e aue nt employment (1928 through 1987 ).
(4 ) When t h e i n i t i a l employment o f a l l t h e c a s e s i s c o n s i d e r e d ,
i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g proved v a l u a b l e in
s e c u r i n g a h i g h e r wage in some o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l gr oup s .
Whereas
t h e c o l l e g e t r a i n e d c a s e s ea rned more than e i t h e r t h e grammar s c h o o l
o r h ig h s c h o o l i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e e a r n i n g s o f t h e hi gh s c h o o l group did
not e xc e e d t h o s e o f t h e c a s e s at t h e grammar s c h o o l l e v e l .
( 5 ) The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s and c o l l e g e t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s earned more
w h i l e employed during 1928 through 1987 than t h o s e at t h e lower educa­
tion al lev els.
(fi) Only a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n weekly remuneration occurred s u b s e ­
quent t o i n i t i a l employment.
BEASONS FOB LEAVING PIBST JOBS AND POSITIONS NELD FBOM 1928 TBBOBGN 1931
( 1 ) The same r e a s o n s were advanced, and t h e r e a s o n s ranked in th e
same o r d e r , f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g i n i t i a l employment as f o r l e a v i n g p a s t
o c c u p a t i o n s (1928 through 1 9 87 ).
( 2 ) These fo u r major r e a s o n s ,
in t h e order o f t h e i r importance,
were: t h e b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n , i n c o n v e n i e n t l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ,
employee changed p l a n s , and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s .
( 3 ) The b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n was t h e predominant r e a s o n f o r t h e
c e s s a t i o n o f employment.
DUBATION OF POSITIONS BELD EBON 1918 TBBOVGB 1931
( 1 ) E d u c ati o n al background e x e r t e d l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on d u r a t io n o f
position s.
(2 ) The p o s t - g r a d u a t e s h e l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s l o n g e s t (2 y e a r s and
18 d a y s ) , alth o ug h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e medians o f d u r a t io n at th e
v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s were s l i g h t .
( 3 ) The median o f d u r a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d by a l l t h e c a s e s from
1928
through 1937 was one y e a r , s ev e n months and 18 days .
( 4 ) Of t h e male group, t h o s e w it h grammar-school t r a i n i n g remained
on t h e i r j o b s l o n g e s t ,
and t h o s e with c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g remained f o r the
s h o r t e s t p e r i o d o f ti m e.
( 5 ) The fe m a le p o s t - g r a d u a t e c a s e s h e l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s l o n g e s t ,
and t h o s e with high
o f tim e.
s c h o o l t r a i n i n g remained f o r t h e s h o r t e s t p e r io d
-1 8 1 -
(6)
m a le s .
The f e m a l e s l e f t t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f i v e months sooner than th e
NUMBER OF JOB REFERRALS BEFORE PERMANENT PLACEMENT1
( 1 ) The d i f f e r e n c e s i n number o f r e f e r r a l s at t h e v a r i o u s educa­
t i o n a l l e v e l s were v e ry s l i g h t .
( 2 ) The c a s e s with grammar s c h o o l t r a i n i n g had th e g r e a t e s t number
o f job r e f e r r a l s b e f o r e t h e y s e c u r e d p o s i t i o n s at which th e y co uld
remain f o r a t l e a s t s i x months.
( 8 ) The grammar s c h o o l group showed t h e g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n number
o f r e f e r r a l s , w h i l e t h o s e wit h c o l l e g e or p o s t - g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g had a
s h o r t span between t h e Q1 and Q3 o f t h e number o f t h e i r r e f e r r a l s .
(4 ) The median o f t h e number o f a l l job r e f e r r a l s was 0 . 7 .
RESULTS OF JOB REFERRALS
( 1) The amount o f s c h o l a s t i c t r a i n i n g di d not i n f l u e n c e t h e propor­
t i o n o f c a s e s who were s u c c e s s f u l i n b e i n g h i r e d .
( 2 ) The grammar s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and p o s t - g r a d u a t e groups had about
t h e same p e r c e n t a g e o f h i r e d c a s e s ( 5 8 . 8 per c e n t , 5 8 . 6 per c e n t and
5 8 . 0 per c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .
( 3 ) Of t h e e n t i r e group, over o n e - h a l f were h i r e d when s e n t out on
j o b s , and ap p r o x im a te ly t w o - f i f t h s f a i l e d t o be h i r e d .
REASONS FOR NOT BEING NTRED NUEN REFERRED TO POSITIONS
( 1 ) At a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s e x c e b t t h e grammar s c h o o l , a change
o f e m p lo y e r ’ s p l a n s was t h e predominant r e a s o n f o r t h e a p p l i c a n t ’ s not
being hired.
(At t h e grammar s c h o o l l e v e l ,
u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer
was f i r s t i n order o f imp ort anc e, and a change o f e m pl oy e r ’ s p l a n s
ranked s e c o n d . )
(2 ) The o t h e r r e a s o n s ,
in t h e order o f t h e i r importance, were:
u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer, u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ,
and f a i l u r e t o r e p o r t t o a s s i g n e d jo b .
( 8 ) The two h i g h e s t ra nk in g r e a s o n s , change o f e mp loy er ’ s p l a n s
and u n s u i t a b i l i t y t o employer, each accou nted f o r app rox im ate ly o n e fourth of the c a s e s .
S l i g h t l y l e s s than o n e - f i f t h o f t h e c a s e s f a i l e d
t o be h ir e d b e c a u s e o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s ,
and ap p rox im ate ly o n e - t e n t h d id not s e c u r e t h e i r j o b s be c a u s e t h e y
f a i l e d t o r e p o r t t o them.
1.
P o s itio n s h o ld f o r
at
le a s t
s ix
m o n th s a r e
o o n s iie re d
p e rm a n e n t.
-1 8 2 -
EMPLOY EPS1 PEOMPEMENTS OF APPLICANTS
The s ou rce o f t h e s e da t a was t h e New York Urban League r e c o r d s ,
which in c l u d e d 3278 r e q u e s t s f o r a p p l i c a n t s (1985 through 1937 ).
Sin ce
t h e r e q u e s t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t workers
were t o o few t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s are based on
e m p l o y e r s ’ o r d e r s f o r co mmercial, d o m e s ti c and i n d u s t r i a l workers.
Types of P o s i t i o n s
Offered
(1 ) The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f r e q u e s t s ( 8 0 . 4 per c e n t ) were f o r dom est ic
help.
(2 ) Approximately o n e - t e n t h ( 1 2 . 2 per c e n t ) o f t h e r e q u e s t s were in
t h e i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d , and about o n e - t w e n t i e t h ( 6 . 2 per c e n t ) were f o r
commercial p o s i t i o n s .
(? ) The p o s i t i o n s o f f e r e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r ­
v i c e a t t e n d a n t f i e l d s were v e ry few in number ( 0 . 6 per c e n t and 0 . 2 per
cent resp ectiv ely ).
(4) There were no c a l l s f o r a p p l i c a n t s t o s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s .
At e P r e f e r e n c e
(1 ) Taking a l l t h e e m p l o y e r s ’ o r d e r s t o g e t h e r ,
about t h e same pro­
p o r t i o n o f mid dl e-aged p e r s o n s ( 8 5 - 4 9 y e a r s ) as o f young a p p l i c a n t s
( 2 1 - 8 4 y e a r s ) was r e q u e s t e d .
(2 ) The employers p r e f e r r e d the young group t o t h e mid dle -ag ed f o r
commercial and i n d u s t r i a l p o s i t i o n s .
(8) For d o m e s t ic work, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between
t h e demand f o r m id d le -a g e d and f o r young workers.
Color Preference
(1 ) Only 8 . 3 per c e n t o f a l l t h e e m p l o y e r s ’ r e q u e s t s s p e c i f i e d a
d e s i r e d sk in c o l o r .
(2 ) Of t h e 3 . 8 per c e n t , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l
( 8 . 2 per c e n t ) were f o r
Negroes o f l i g h t co m p le x io n .
(8) Color p r e f e r e n c e was more f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d f o r d om es ti c s e r ­
v i c e p o s i t i o n s than f o r any o t h e r t y p e o f work.
(4 ) Only 0 . 1 per c e n t o f t h e r e q u e s t s were f o r d ar k- sk in ne d em ployees.
We ekl y S a l a r i e s O f f e r e d
(1 ) The median o f a l l t h e s a l a r i e s o f f e r e d was £ 1 2 . 2 0 .
( 2 ) A weekly wage o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y £ 1 2 . 0 0 was o f f e r e d fo r ^ do m e s tic
and i n d u s t r i a l work.
(8 ) The i n d u s t r i a l wage s c a l e p r e s e n t e d t h e w i d e s t v a r i a t i o n (G1 ,
£ 9 . 3 0 , ' Q3 , £ 1 6 . 6 3 ) .
CHAPTER X
The
F u tu re
O u tlo o k
When t h e p a s t a c co m pl is hm e nt s o f t h e Negro are c o n s i d e r e d , h i s
achievement t h u s f a r i s in d e e d rem arkable, and t h e r e i s e ver y r e a s o n
t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e f u t u r e h o l d s promise o f even g r e a t e r a t t a i n m e n t s .
To
be
o p t i m i s t i c
n e o e s s a ry
n o r
y e a rs
s e l f .
When
th e r e
e s t a b lis h e d
i s
an
w o r k e r s ,
w o r ld
is
le a s t
a s s u re d
s y s te m
a b o u t
f u t u r e
p r o g re s s
in
t h i s
r e s p e c t
i t
now
o v e r s u p p ly
as
i n
e x p e r ie n c in g ,
o f
beoom es
a
s ta b le ^
o f
p e r io d s
la b o r
o f
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n
p o s i t i o n
in s u r m o u n ta b le .
i n
O n ly
w i t h i n
d e p re s s io n
a g a in s t
th e
tim e
th e
as
t h a t
p r e v a i l i n g
s w in g s
ra n k s
s u c h
th e
th e
h e re
and
a
s h o re s
and
o f
th e r e ,
d e p r e s s in g
o p p o r t u n i t y
t h a t
as
s h o r t - s ig h t e d
a
th e
s u r v e y
o b s e r v e r
in
e a c h
o u t lo o k
t o
o f
f o r
p e r io d
th e
o f
g ro u p
e o o n o m io
b u s in e s s
t h i s
f u t p r e
p r e s e n t- d a y
is
o f
th e
o y o le
to w a rd
p r o s p e r i t y ,
w i t h
w id e
g e n e r a l e m p lo y m e n t
and
t u n i t y
f o r
th e s e
m a r g in a l w o rk e rs
t o
p ro v e
t h e i r w o rth .
A
ra n g e
v ie w
show s
th e
t i l e
o f
p ro g re s s
w a s h in g
up a
l i t t l e
on
is
t o
ta k e
a
lo n g - r a n g e
v ie w ,
f o r
i t
r e q u ir e s
n o t
d a ys
b u t
d e o a d e s
f o r
a n y
m a rg in a l
g ro u p
t o
e s t a b l i s h
i t ­
s o r t .
n o t
o o n d itE o n s
so
m ig h t
o p p o r­
lo n g h ig h e r
.
.
.
d ra b
le a d
b e l i e v e . 1
At t h e Washington C o n f e r e n c e 55 t h e economic p r o g r e s s o f t h e Negro
w i t h i n t h e l a s t f o r t y y e a r s r e c e i v e d emphasis.
In 1890, o n ly 18 per
c e n t of a l l Negroes g a i n f u l l y employed were engaged i n f i e l d s o t h e r
than a g r i c u l t u r e or d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e . Py 1980, Negroes
were found in p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o c c u p a t i o n s , and the p r o p o r t i o n engaged
in a g r i c u l t u r e and d o m e s t i c and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e had d e c r e a s e d from
87 per c e n t t o 6 5 . 8 per c e n t .
P r o f e s s i o n a l workers, p r o p r i e t o r s ,
managers, s k i l l e d workmen and foremen i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n r e l a ­
t i v e im portance, w h i l e t h e number o f c l e r k s and a l l i e d workers more
than dou bled, and the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e engaged i n s e m i - s k i l l e d
occupations nearly d o u b le d .5 •
To some d e g r e e , l a c k o f t h e r e a u i s i t e e d u c a t io n has barred the
Negro from i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s as w e ll as from th e s k i l l e d f i e l d s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , g r e a t s t r i d e s have
a l r e a d y been made through the
t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t c t h e Negro.
Whereas
81 per c e n t
educa­
of
t h e Negroes in t h e U n it e d P t a t e s in 1870 were i l l i t e r a t e , 4 t h e p e r ­
c e n t a g e d e c l i n e d t o 1 6 . 8 pe r c e n t by 1 9 8 0 . 5
(Ac o r r e s p o n d in g d e c r e a s e
1 . M a ry A n d e r s o n ,
T h e N e g r o Woman W o r k e r , AmericanFederationist,
198 S ? ! 'W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n o e o n t h e
^
3.
A lb a l i w a r d s ,* T h e
N e g ro
E c o n o m ic S t a t u s
as a f a c to r
American S t a t is tic a l Association Journal,
4. H a ro ld I o k e s , T he X d u o a tio n o f t h e
E d u ca tio n , I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 4 ), p . 5 .
5 . E d w a r d s , op. c i t . , p . 5 8 9 .
-
o f th e
N e g ro ,
XXXIX ( Q o t o b e r ,
Monthly Labor Revieit,
i n t h e N a t i o n ' s L a b o r f o r o e , Publications o f
31 ( S e p te m b e r , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 5 3 3 .
N e g r o i n t h e U n i t e d s t a t e s , J o u r n a l o f N eg ro
163-
-1 8 4 o c c u r r e d f o r t h e w h it e r a c e from 11 per c e n t in 18701 t o 2 . 7 per c e n t
i n 1 9 5 0 . s ) With i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and a s l a c k e n i n g o f
t h e b a r r i e r s , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f Negroes w i l l q u a l i f y f o r t h e
higher occupations.
I t
m ore
a b le ,
is
u rg a d
a b u n d a n t
and
t h a t ,
i n d u s t r i a l l y
o p p o r t u n i t i e s
t h a t
a lo n g
w i t h
f o r
th e s e
and
p r o f e s s i o n a l l y ,
e d u o a tio n
and
s h o u ld
o o n tin u o u s
go
b e t t e r
t r a i n i n g
a re
and
d e s i r ­
e f f o r t
t o
b r e a k
down
th e
u n w r it t e n
r e s t r i c t i o n s
w h io h
now
o p e r a te
t o
keep
N e g ro e s
o u t
o f
m any
o o c u p a tio h s
and
s a i l i n g s .
V o o a tio n a l
t r a i n i n g
s h o u ld
be
a d va n o e ct,
and
v o c a t io n a l
c o u n s e lo r s
s h o u ld
o o n s id e r
i t
a
fu n d a m e n ta l
p a r t
N e g ro
s tu d e n ts
a o h
p r e p a r in g
th e m s e lv e
w hen
p o s s ib le ,
b y
a
t i o n s ,
an d
b y
f o r
o th e r s .S
th e
o f
t h e i r
w o rk
t o
in d u c e
e m p lo y e rs
t o
g iv e
th e
a n o e
t o
e n te r
th e
o a ll i n g s
f o r
w h ic h
th e y
w ere
s .
N e g ro e s
s h o u ld
h e lp
th e
m ovem ent
a lo n g ,
n
i n t e l l i g e n t
o h o ic e
o f
u n o o n g e s te d
o c c u p a ­
use
o f
t h e i r
b u y in g
p o w e r
t o
s e o u re
o p e n in g s
Even though t h e r e are 15 6,0 00 Negro p r o f e s s i o n a l w or kers, t h e r e i s
a need f o r more o f them, pr o v id e d a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s made.
"The
problem i s not one o f o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n but one o f c o n g e s t i o n . ”4
When
t h e s i x l e a d i n g p r o f e s s i o n s among Negroes are compared wit h t h o s e f o r
t h e w h i t e s , t h e N a t i o n a l Urban League e s t i m a t e s t h a t : " . . . we f i n d
t h a t among Negroes t h e r e are t w i c e as many p e r s o n s pe r t e a c h e r , fo u r
t i m e s a s many per p h y s i c i a n , s i x t i m e s as many per n u r s e , f o u r and on e h a l f t i m e s as many per la w y e r , and o n e - h a l f as many pe r c l e r g y m a n . " 5
Job f i e l d s are c o n s t a n t l y changin g, and t h e i n t e l l i g e n t , e n e r g e t i c
Negro should be encourag ed t o be so e x c e p t i o n a l l y e f f i c i e n t i n t h e s e
new l i n e s o f work t h a t , through h i s s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y , a d d i t i o n a l open­
i n g s w i l l be c r e a t e d f o r o t h e r members o f t h e c o l o r e d r a c e .
Simul­
t a n e o u s l y , t h o s e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s a lr e a d y p e n e t r a t e d by t h e Negro
s h o u ld s t r i v e t o b u i l d up a r e p u t a t i o n f o r high q u a l i t y workmanship.
Some o f t h e new o c c u p a t i o n s have been d e s c r i b e d by t h e N a t i o n a l
Urban L e a g u e . 0 The s t e a d y growth o f p u b l i c healthy work has i n c r e a s e d
t h e demand f o r s p e c i a l i s t s o f t h i s t y p e .
Another p r o m is in g f i e l d i s
t h a t o f food manufa ctu rin g and p r e p a r a t i o n .
Trained b a c t e r i o l o g i s t s
and m e t a l l u r g i s t s are neede d.
New o f f i c e r o u t i n e has c r e a t e d op en in gs
f o r e x p e r t a c c o u n t a n t s , s t a t i s t i c i a n s and o p e r a t o r s o f boo kkeeping and
s t e n o t y p i n g mac hin es.
The growing us e o f e l e c t r i c a l equipment i n th e
home n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e s e r v i c e s o f i n s t a l l a t i o n t e c h n i c i a n s , repairmen,
1.
Io k e s,
loc.
c it.,
8 ^ W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n o e o n t h e E o o n o m io S t a t u s o f t h e N e g r o ,
XXXI ! I N a t i o n a l 1U r b a n E e a g u ^ s ’.OOO.OOO J o b s :
Color Line Series , I I (W ay , 1 9 3 8 ) , p .. IV .
IV
T h e N e g r o a t W o rk i n
Monthly Labor Revieu,
th e
8i N a t io n a l * U r b a n L e a g u e , O o o u p a t io n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r N e g r o e s ,
( A p r i l , 198V ), p . 5 3 .
U n ite a
S ta te s ,
Color Line Series,
-ieee n g i n e e r s and r e s e a r c h workers. S o c i a l workers are i n g r e a t demand,
as w e l l as p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n g r a du at es f o r o r g a n i z e d munic ipa l
recreation.
Johnson p r e d ic ts t h a t 1:
On
b e ,
th e
o v e r
b a s is
th e
in c r e a s e d
in
N e g ro
o f
n e x t
la b o r
p r e s e n t
d e o a d e ,
i n d u s t r i a l
a
demand
c o m p e t it io n ;
s k i l l e d
w o r k e r s ;
a
tr e n d s
f o r
o p p o s in g
f u r t h e r
t h e r e
o h e a p e r
t h i s
dem and
b r e a k in g
up
.jo b s
and
a d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f
u n s k ille d
la b o r e r s
b e r
o f
jo b s ;
a n
in c r e a s e
in
lu x u r y
jo b s ,
s u c h
e n t e r t a i n e r s ,
g ro e s
b e r
i n
i n t o
s e r v a n ts
th e
th o s e
and
a t t e n d a n t s ;
d i s t r i b u t i o n
p r o f e s s io n s
s o c i a l
p la n n in g .
im p o r ta n t
r e t u r n
r e o r g a n iz e d .
phase
w h io h
T h e re
is
no
t o
th e
fa rm
a re
o f
an
som e
o f
t o
p r o b a b ly
la b o r
and
in o re a s e s
m ass
N egro
o v e r
a
w id e r
num­
as
m u s ic ia n s ,
i n t r o d u c t i o n
i n d u s t r y ;
r e la t e d
w i l l
N e g ro
a n
o f
i n d u s t r i a l
i n d i c a t i o n
t h a t
t h e r e
u n le s s
a g rid c u ltu re
i s
Ne­
in c r e a s e d
num­
and
w i l l
be
any
r a d i c a l l y
Edwards2 adds t h a t t h e r e has occurred a g r a d u a l upward tr e n d i n
t h e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f th e Negro from 1910 t o 1980, and t h i s
f l u c t u a t i o n w i l l no doubt c o n t i n u e .
The change w i l l be r a t h e r slow,
and i t w i l l p r ob a b ly be a tt en d e d by much unemployment and r e l i e f .
The s o c i a l and economic advancement o f Negroes ha s r e s u l t e d , t o
a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , from t h e combined e f f o r t s o f t h e a g e n c i e s concerned
w it h Negro problem s.
0
Nat ional A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Colored Peopl e8
This o r g a n i z a t i o n s e e k s and e x p e c t s t o s e c u r e f o r t h e Negro a l l
t h e p r i v i l e g e s t o which he i s e n t i t l e d as a c i t i z e n .
I t opp oses a l l
forms o f s e g r e g a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n j u s t i c e and s u p p r e s s i o n .
The
A s s o c i a t i o n f i r m l y s u p p o r t s e q u a l i t y o f th e Negro i n l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n ,
economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,
c u l t u r a l p r i v i l e g e s and m a r i t a l r i g h t s .
Legal and p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r a c e q u e s t i o n r e c e i v e more
em ph asis by t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n than by any o t h e r , w it h t h e e x c e p t i o n
o f t h e American C i v i l L i b e r t i e s Union.
I t has a l r e a d y been s u c c e s s f u l
i n w inn ing s i x d e c i s i v e v i c t o r i e s a f f i r m i n g t h e fundamental c o n s t i t u ­
t i o n a l r i g h t s o f N e g r o e s.
I t has s ecu re d judgments a f f i r m i n g th e
r i g h t o f the Negro t o v o t e .
Anti-Negro l e g i s l a t i o n ha s been s t r o n g l y
op p ose d .
Many l y n c h l e a d e r s have been brought t o c o u r t through t h e
e f f o r t s of t h i s agency.
I t i s a c t i v e in r e s e a r c h work.
The Nat i on a l Urban League4 r
L e s s m i l i t a n t i n method and purpose than t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n
1 . C h a r I s a 8 . J o h n s o n , The
{?. l i b s J & w a r d s , T h e f r e g r o
Negro College Graduate,
p p . 2 5 6 -9 B 7 .
. ■ , nf
F a o t o r I n t h e N a t i o n ’ s L a b o r F o r o e , Pub H eat tons o f
American S t a t is tic a l Association Journal, XXXI ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . s k o .
8 . P a u l B a k e r , Negro-Nhite Adjustment, p . 4 6 .
4 . E l i s a b e t h ' f r e r g u a o n , R a o e C o n s c i o u s n e s s Among A m e r io a n N e g r o e s , Journal o f Negro
Education, V I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 .9 8 9 ) , p . 8 V.
sb
s
f o r t h e Advancement o f Colored P e o p l e i s t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , which con­
c e n t r a t e s on problems o f economic c o n d i t i o n s , h o u si n g and h e a l t h .
It
h a s been"’s u c c e s s f u l in e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e D i v i s i o n o f Negro Economics in
t h e U ni te d S t a t e s Denartment o f Labor, and i t s t r i v e s c o n s t a n t l y to
s e c u r e employment f o r Negroes.
Vany s o c i a l workers have been t r a i n e d
by t h e N a t i o n a l Urban League, and v a l u a b l e s t u d i e s on urban c o n d i t i o n s
among Negroes have been p u b l i s h e d by t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n .
In d e s c r i b i n g the ac hi ev em en ts o f th e New York Urban League, Hubert
s a y s 1:
I t
haa
b e a n
in s tr u m e n ta l
in
b r in g i n g
a b o u t
th e
a p p o in tm e n t
o f
N e g ro
io o t o r a
and
in t e r n e s
in
h o s p i t a l s ,
a s s is t a n t s
in
l i b r a r i e s ,
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s
on
lo o a l
s o h o o l
b o a rd s ,
e t o . ;
i t
has
a id e d
in
s e c u r in g
a
p u b lio
b a th ,
p la y g ro u n d
and
p la y
s t r e e t s ,
f r e s h - a i r
o u tin g s
f o r
bo ys
and
g i r l s
and
m o th e rs
and
b a b ie s ,
e m e rg e n cy
r e n t
la w s
f o r
th e
p r o t e c t io n
o f
te n a n t,
a n
a d e q u a te
s u p p ly
o f
v i s i t i n g
n u rs e s ,
f o r
p r e n a t a l
J u v e n ile
p e o p le
The
o f
and
H a rle m
p ro g ra m
e n jo y .
o f
th e
needs
o f
th e
and
se e ks
t o
m eet
a g e n o ie s .
g a in f u l
I t s
in
c o m m o n ly
h e ld
d i r e o t s
th e
.
.
b o ys
and
t o
s te e r
i s
The
o n ly
and
I t s
g i r l s
t o
as
f a c i l i t i e s
p r o t e c t io n s
fro m
has
i t s e l f
s k i l l e d
o f
b l i n d - a l l e y
a re
v a r ie s
is
a
n o t
p la c e d
c h i e f l y
f o r
c a r in g
w h ic h
th e
a c c o r d in g
p ro m o tin g
m et
b y
w it h
B u re a u
t o
in
c r e a t in g
a d v is e s
e m p lo y m e n t
to
a g e n cy
o th e r
th o u s a n d s
t r a d e s — p o sd rtct'o n s
V o c a t io n a l
f i e l d s
and
L e a g u e
w h ic h
B u re a u
o o n o e rn s
N e g ro e s .
the m
f l e x i b l e
.
needs
p r o fe s s io n s
b y
o th e r
.
E m p lo y m e n t
I t
in c r e a s e d
v a r io u s
League
th o s e
fr e e
th e
c l i n i c s ,
and
o o m m u n ity .
o o o u p a tio n s .
o p e n in g s
a tte m p ts
ba b y
o f f e n d e r s ,
n o t
and
e n te r
and
J o b s .
One o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s 2 between t h e N a t i o n a l Urban
League and t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f Colored
P e o p l e i s t h a t t h e former a c c e p t s many o f t h e s o c i a l adj us tm e nt s , such
a s s e g r e g a t i o n and some t y p e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n j u s t i c e , as i n ­
e v i t a b l e at t h e p r e s e n t tim e. By making t h e s e c o n c e s s i o n s , t h e mem­
b e r s o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n b e l i e v e t h a t improvement i n h e a l t h , hou sing
and employment c o n d i t i o n s are assu re d and w i l l r e c e i v e t h e support o f
th e white race.
In view o f t h e i r g o a l s , t h e s e compromises are j u s t i ­
fied .
The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f Colored P e o p l e 8
was o r g a n i z e d t o cope with t h e s i t u a t i o n o f p r e j u d i c e on t h e b a s i s o f
protest.
Their p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t r a c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s medicable
by l e g a l r e d r e s s , and t h e i r method i s m i l i t a n t .
The Urban League,
however, hopes t h a t smooth working r e l a t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t from mutual
fo r b e a r a n c e and good w i l l .
Their main a t t a c k i s l o c s l , urbap and
ind ustrial.
1.
fJan u
p.
8.
J a m e s H . H u b e r t , U r b a n L e a g u e M o v e m e n t i n New Y o r k C i t y , S o u t h e r n Workman, 5 5
a r y , 1 9 2 8 ), p p . 2 5 , 29.
P a u l B a k e r, N e g ro -V h tte A d ju stm en t, p . 2 2 .
aoo
K e l l y M i l l e r , H a r v e s t o f F a o e P r e j u d i o e , S u r v e y , 5 3 ( M a r o h 1, t 9 2 _ ) , p . 6 8 2 .
-1 8 7 -
"Perhaps th e b e s t judgment o f t h e two groups i s t o say t h a t
both are needed i f t h e Negro i s t o make any p r o g r e s s .
The N .A .A .C .P .,
through i t s l e g a l b a t t l e s , has won and w i l l win new r i g h t s fo r Ne­
groes.
On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e f r i e n d l y co'6'peration f o s t e r e d by th e
c o n s e r v a t i v e s c h o o l t e n d s t o ho ld t h e s e g a i n s and t o smooth over t h e
antagonisms caused by t h e m i l i t a n t a p p r o a c h . ”1
Commission on Race Re l a t i o n s of t he Vei eral Council of Churches of
Chri st in America*1
This o r g a n i z a t i o n encouraged l o c a l church f e d e r a t i o n s to ap po int
i n t e r r a c i a l c o m m it te e s .
I t p u b l i s h e s and d i s t r i b u t e s l i t e r a t u r e d e a l ­
ing with the r a c e problem.
I t p r a i s e s p e o p l e f o r th e achievement of
r i g h t a t t i t u d e s and awards medals t o Negroes f o r d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c h i e v e ­
ment.
The names o f l y n c h - f r e e s t a t e s are p u b l i s h e d .
In a l l i t s work
i t a p p e a ls t o th e C h r i s t i a n i d e a l as t h e motive t o i n s p i r e more s a t i s ­
fa c to r y race r e l a t i o n s . -
Commission on I n t e r r a c i a l CoBperationn
This o r g a n i z a t i o n i s spons or ed by a w h it e group o f t h e Couth, a s ­
s i s t e d by a group o f Southern Ne gro es, but i t r e c e i v e s most o f i t s
f i n a n c i a l support from t h e North.
I t s aim i s t o a d j u s t r a c e c o n f l i c t
between t h e Negro and w h i t e r a c e by oo fi p er a ti o n .
I t pr o c e e d s s l o w l y
b e c a u s e o f d e e p - r o o t e d Southern p r e j u d i c e . Local c omm it tee s, c o n ­
s i s t i n g o f members o f bo th r a c e s , are or g a n iz e d t o work out t h e b e s t
method o f a t t a c k i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .
This Commission has secured
j u s t i c e f o r t h e Negro i n a number o f c o u r t c a s e s .
I t s Southern l e a d ­
e r s are members o f t h e h i g h e r c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l
gr ou ps .
A c r i t i c i s m made of t h e i n t e r r a c i a l groups i s t h a t t h e y attempt
t o c o r r e c t r e s u l t s w h i l e i g n o r i n g the c a u s e s o f th e Negro problem.
”The whole gamut o f r a c e problems in t h e Unit ed S t a t e s are t i e d up
w i t h , i f not d e f i n i t e l y ca us ed by, t h e low economic c o n d i t i o n s o f
Negroes i n t h e c o u n t r y . " 4
Although t h i s i s a ve ry complex problem, e d u c a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d
a s a powerful means o f a f f e c t i n g a s o l u t i o n .
1,
p.
V.
f l i s a b e t h F e r g u s o n , o p. C i t . ,
P a u l B a k e r , o p . c i t . ; p . 86 .
pp.
8 9 -4 0 .
W a t i o r i a l P U r b a n 2 L e a g u e , 5 , 0 0 0 ,0 0 0 J o b s ;
I I (M a y , 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 2 6 .
C o lo r L in e S e r i e s ,
T h e W e g ro a t W o rk I n t h e
U n ite d
8t a t e e ,
-1 8 8 W h a te v e r
n o m io
and
may
h a ve
a o o ia l
t h in g
ia
i l i a
and
r e g a r d le s s
n a t iv e
th e
o f
b o rn ;
o f
th e
a e x ;
B u t
a
o f
a n o th e r
d a y
and
an
e d u c a tio n
w h io h
a d u lt
aa
w e ll
o f
th e
o f
th e
f o r m a liz e d
t h a t
and
i n
e d u c a tio n
e d u o a tio n
a o o ia l
c o n t r i b u t in g
oaueea
we
f i n d
t o
th e
N e g ro
a d a p te d
p o l i t i c a l
w i l l
t o
and
a
th e
o h il d ;
f o r e i g n
as
no
th a n
e d u o a tio n
g e n e r a tio n
i s
aa
le s a
n o t
s u f f i c e
e o o n o m io
one
p re a e n t
e d u c a ­
e d u c a tio n
w e ll
as
th e
e d u c a tio n
s u f f i c i e n t
c h a n g in g
e o o -
o u r s e lv e s ,
and
t h a t
is
t h a t
th a
re m e d y
f o r
o u r
p r e v e n t a t iv e
o f
t h e i r
re o u r r e n o e
ia
w h ite .
v is e d
th e
d i f f i o u l t i e a
c e r t a i n ,
th e
b e s t
t i o n —- e d u o a t i o n
b e e n
f o r
u s.
th e
We
s o c ie t y ,
o f
needs
r e q u ir e
t o
a
r e ­
o r d e r . -1
The immediate need, a c c o r d i n g t o Payne, i s one of equal r i g h t s
for, th e Negro in t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which are a v a i l a b l e at
the present time.
As t h i s e d u c a to r s e e s i t 2:
O ur
p ro b le m
th r o u g h
a l l
t u n i t y ,
w h io h
e q u ip m e n t,
th e
te rm
b e lie v e ,
f i g h t
as
o th e r
T
i t
i s
a t
o u r
m eans
t r a i n e d
im p lie s ,
m ost
f o r ,
see
m eans
and
e q u a l
w h ite
e d u c a to r s ,
w h io h
th r o u g h
b y
and
th e
N o r th
o u r
f o r
b u il d i n g s ,
s a l a r i e s
g u a ra n te e d
w it h o u t
f i g h t
d is p o s a l
s o h o o l
te a c h e r s ,
as
t o
th e
o o u rta
e q u a l i t y
th e
A m e ric a n
S o u th ,
and
r e s t
a re
d e m o o ra o y
and
o p p o r­
f a c i l i t i e s
a l l
c o n s t i t u t i o n .
and
o f
th a t
T h is ,
re a d y
i s
a
I
to
d e ­
lu s io n .
Granted e qua l e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and f a i r employment o c p o r t u n i t i e s , many o f t h e problems c o n c e r n in g t h e Negro w i l l d is a p p e a r .
T h i s r e q u i r e s an e a r n e s t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f th e Negro t o s e i z e and make
t h e f u l l e s t u s e o f e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e toward h i s
advancement.
1. H a r o l d I o k e a , E d u o a t i o n o f t h e N e g r o i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Journal
F d u ca tio n , I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 4 ) , p p . 6 - 7 .
'
2. I . S e o rg e P a y n e , R e o r g a n i z a t io n a n d R e d i r e o t i o n o f N e g ro E d u o a tio n :
A n a l y s i s , Jo u rn a l o f N egro F d u c a tio n , V ( J u l y , 1 9 8 6 ), p . 6 8 7 .
o f Negro
A C ritic a l
Se
lecte d
B
i b l i o q r a p h t
Repression and At t endant Unemployment Problems
C a r t e r , Elmer A., Unemployment.
Opport uni t y , VII I ( A p r i l , 1930),
P.
10c.
H i l l , T. Arnold ( e d i t o r ) , flow Unemployment A f f e c t s Metroes.
N a t i o n a l Urban League, March, 1931.
H i l l , T. Arnold ( e d i t o r ) , Unemployment S t a t u s of Metroes.
N a t i o n a l Urban League, December, 1931.
New York:
New York:
H i l l , T. A.., and Reid, I . de A. ( e d i t o r s ) , The F o r g o tt e n Tenth: Analy­
s i s o f Unemployment among Negroes in t h e Unit ed S t a t e s and I t s
Social C osts, 1933-33.
New York: N a t i o n a l Urban League, Color
Line S e r i e s , No. 1, May, 1933.
H i l l , T. A., and Re id, I . de A., Unemployment Amoni Metroes. New York:
N a t i o n a l Urban League, November, 1930.
Johnson, C h a r le s S . , I n c i d e n c e Upon t h e N e gr oe s.
Sociol ogy, 40 (May, 1 9 3 5 ) , pp. 7 3 7 - 7 4 5 .
American Journal of
Johnson, C. S . , Embree, E. R . , and Alex and er, W. 1 . , Collapse of Cotton
Tenancy.
Chapel H i l l , North C a r o l i n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f North Ca ro lin a
P r e s s , 1935.
Matthews, E l l e n ,
Unemployed Youth o f New York C i t y .
Monthly Labor
Review , XLIV (Feb rua ry, lOST1) , pp. 3 6 7 -3 8 4 .
U n it e d S t a t e s Labor S t a t i s t i c s Eureau, Negro i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l Depres­
sion.
Monthly Labor Review, XXXII (June, 1931), pp. 1336-1 338 .
Education of the Metro
Aery, William A., C o l l e g e F d uc at io n f o r Negroes: I n t e g r a t i o n o f L i b e r a l
and V o c a t i o n a l Aims at Hampton I n s t i t u t e .
Southern Morhman, 63
(August, 1 9 34 ), pp. 3 9 7 - 3 3 7 .
Aery, William A., New Emphases i n t h e Education o f Neg roe s.
Journal of
Metro Education, V ( J u l y , 1 9 36 ), pu. 4 0 1- 40 6.
Alexander,
Will W., The Negro as a Human Person: Are We Making P r o g r e s s
Mi s s i on ar y Review, 59 (June, 193 6),
i n E e t t e r Race R e l a t i o n s h i p s ?
pp. 3 9 3- 99 4.
Eond, Horace, Education of t he Metro in an American Social Order.
New
York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1934.
E o u s f i e l d , Maudelle B . , R e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Education o f Negroes i n
Terms o f S o c i a l Needs.
Journal o f Metro Education, V ( J u l y , 1936),
pp. 413 -4 1 9.
-
189-
-1 9 0 -
C aliver,
Ambrose, Educ atio n o f Negro Tea c he r s.
Washington, D. C.:
Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Unit ed S t a t e s O f f i c e o f Fd uca tio n,
B u l l e t i n Vo. 10, 1922.
C aliver,
Ambrose ( e d i t o r ) , Fundamentals in t h e Fduc ation o f Negroes.
Washington, D. C . : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , United S t a t e s
O f f i c e o f F d u c a t io n , B u l l e t i n Vo. 6, 1926.
C a l i v e r , Ambrose, Outlook f o r Negro Ed uc ati on .
(Octo ber , 1 9 2 4 ) , pp. 4 0 - 4 1 .
Caliver,
XX
Ambrose, Some Problems in th e Fd uc at io n and Placement o f
Negro T e a c h e r s .
on. 9 9 - 1 1 2 .
C aliver,
School L i f e ,
Journal
TV (January,
o f Metro E d u c a t i o n ,
1925),
Ambrose, Some T en d e n c ie s i n Higher Fduc ation and Their A p p li ­
c a t i o n t o t h e Negro C o l l e g e .
Opportunity,
VI (January, 1928 ),
pp. 6 - 9 .
C a l i v e r , Ambrose, Summary o f N a t i o n a l Survey o f Secondary E d u c at io n .
Washington, D. C . : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Un it ed S t a t e s
O f f i c e o f E d u c a ti on , B u l l e t i n Mo.
17,
Chen, H. S . , F a l l a c i e s on Negro F d u c a ti o n .
1922.
Educational
Review,
7?
(D ece mb er, - 1 9 26), pp. 2 7 8- 27 9.
Cla rk, F. G., A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Control o f P u b l i c Negro C o l l e g e s .
Journal
o t Me t r o, E d u c a t i o n , ITT ( A p r i l , 192 4) , pp. 245 -2 4 6.
Clement, Rufus F . , R e d i r e c t i o n and R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C o l l e g e f o r
N e g r o e s.
J o u r n a l o f M e t r o E d u c a t i o n , V ( J u l y , 192 6) , pp. 474 -4 78 .
C o o l s , G. V i c t o r , Why Negro Fd uca tio n Has F a i l e d .
68 (December, 192 4), pp. 254-2 59 .
D i l l a r d , James H . , The Negro Goes t o C o l l e g e .
(January 1, 1 9 28), pp. 227 -2 40.
Du B o i s , W. E. B . , Negroes i n C o l l e g e .
pp. 2 2 8 - 2 2 0 .
Du B o i s , W. E. P . ,
The C o l l e g e
Ration,
Br e d M e t r o .
Educational
M o r l d ' s Vo r k ,
Review,
55
122 (March 2, 192 6),
A t l a n t a , Georgia: A t l a n t a
U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s , No. 5, 1900.
Du E o i s , W. F. E . , The Study o f t h e Negro Problem.
American Academy
o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , P u b l i c a t i o n s , No. 219, February
22, 1898.
Du B o i s , W. E. E . , and D i l l , A. G. ( e d i t o r s ) , The C o l l e i e B r e d Me t r o
American.
A t l a n t a , Georgia: A t l a n t a U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s , No.
15, 1910.
. . .
Embree, Edwin, Review o f Two Tear Pe r i o d, 19RS-1938.
J u l i u s Rosenwald Fund, 1928.
. •
Chicago, I l l i n o i s :
-1 9 1 -
C r i s t s , 22 ( J u l y ,
Greene, Harry ff., Higher T r a in in g o f N eg ro es.
1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 105 -1 12 .
Greene, Harry W., P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f t h e Negro D o c t o r a t e s .
and S o c i e t y , XL (September 22, 1 9 2 4 ) , pp. 2 8 8-2 89.
H a r r i s , L a f a y e t t e , Problems B e f o r e t h e C o l l e g e Negro.
(August, 1 9 3 7 ), p p . 284-2 26* 252.
Hendrick, Burton J.
(editor),
School
C r i s i s , 44
Andrew Carnegie, Miscellaneous Wri t i ngs.
"Negro i n America," Volume 2, pp. 8 8 - 1 2 2 .
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New York: Doubleday,
I c k e s , Harold L . , The Education o f t h e Negro in t h e Unit ed S t a t e s .
Journal of Negro Education, ITT (Jan uar y, 1924), pp. 5 - 7 .
J e n k i n s , Martin D ., Enrollment in Negro C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ,
1927-2 8.
Journal of Negro Education, VII ( A p r i l , 1938 ), pp.
1 18 -1 22 .
Johnson, C h a r le s S . , The Negro College Graduate.
C a r ol in a :
U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s ,
Johnson, C h a r l e s S . ,
Employed.
Chapel H i l l ,
North
1928.
The Negro C o l l e g e Graduate: How and Where He I s
Journal of Negro Education, IV (January, 1 9 3 5 ), pp.
5-22.
Jo n e s , Thomas J . , Trends in Negro Education.
New York: P h e l p s - S t o k e s
Fund, Twenty Year Report o f 1 9 1 1 -1 9 2 2 , 1922.
K e l s e y , C ar l, The E v o l u t i o n o f Negro Labor.
American Academy o f
P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , Annals, XXI (January, 19C3), pp.
55-76.
K l e i n , A. S. ( e d i t o r ) , Survey o f Negro C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s .
Washington, E. C.: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Unit ed S t a t e s
O f f i c e o f E du c atio n , B u l l e t i n No. 7, 1928.
M cCuistion, Fred, The P r e s e n t S t a t u s o f Higher Education o f Negroes.
Journal of Negro Education, IT ( J u l y , 1 9 2 2 ), pp. 279- 296.
McKenzie, F a y e t t e A., P r a c t i c a l I d e a s f o r Negro E d u c ati on .
Missionary
Review, XLV (June, 1922), pp. 45 7- 4^ 4.
McKinney, T. E . , Higher Education Among Negroes.
C h a r l o t t e , North
C a r o li n a : Johnson C. Smith U n i v e r s i t y , 1922.
M i l l e r , K e l l y , N a t i o n a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Education o f t h e Colored
People.
N a t io n a l E du c atio n al A s s o c i a t i o n , Addresses and Proceed­
i ngs, 1918, pp. 555 -5 67 .
M i l l e r , K e l l y , Out of the House of Bondage.
New York: Nea le P u b l i s h i n g
Company, 1914.
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Inter­
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VI
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Vocational
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Append ic e s
AP PENDI X I
TABLE 5 3
Na t i o n a l i t i e s o f Ca s e s Other t h a n Am e r ic a n and E n g l is h
NATIONALITY
MALE FEMALE NUMBER
A f r ic a n
C e n t r a l A m e r ic a n
D a n is h
D u tc h
T rench
V le x io a n
P a n a m a n ia n ( e x c l u s i v e o f C a n a l Zon$
P o r tu g u e se
S o u t h A m erica n
W est I n d ia n : Cuban
H a itia n
S a n t o D om in gan
....................................................
TOTAL
n
5
g
4
6
1
0
4
3
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
0
2
4
3
1
3
5
2
3
4
5
3
4
3
0
2
5
11
37
22
59
4
5
TABLE 54
D e g re e s
age
group:
H e ld
Ye a r s
C o l.
i
.
P o s t-S ra d u a te s
NUMBER
OF
OA S ES
C o l.
1 7 -2 5
2 5 -3 0
3 0 -4 0
4 0 -5 0
5 0 -3 0
30 on
TO TAL
by
N M riBER
)F
DECiR E E S
21
21
39
52
44
56
e
10
0
0
.
.
3
2 C o l.
120
S u p p le m e n t a r y t o
NUMBER PER
133
4
group:
PER CENT
C o l. 1 1
C o l.12
.
.
group:
1 7 -2 5
2 5 -3 0
3 0 -4 0
4 0 -5 0
5 0 -3 0
SO o n
.
3
CENT
C o l.
7
C o l.
■2
4
2
3 .4
5
3 .9
2
1 .5
C o l. 1 3
C o l.14
10
M .S .
.
22
2
.
2
c o i. i e
1.5
4
3 .0
70
C o l.
C o l. 1 7
2
3 .0
21
PER C E N T
5 2 .3
4
C o l.
C o l.18
NUM3ER
1
2
20
CENT
5 0. 0
29
C o l.
7 .5
4 .8
4 .5
1 .7
10-0
NUM­
PER
CENT BER
2 .0
1
2
1
7 1 .4
5 4 .5
20.0
P A R T IA L
P H .D .
PHD.
9
9 .5
9 .1
3 .4
2 .3
1 .7
15
24
NUM­
BER
C o l. i s
PER
C o l.
1
4 .9
2 .3
1 .7
M .D .
NUMBER
8
2
2
M .S .A .
NUMBER PER CENT
PER C E NT
NUMBER
4 .5
3 .4
YEARS
C o l. 1 9
TO TAL
C o l.
D e g re e
L L .B .
4.9
1
1
1
1
D .D .S .
age
5
M. A .
NUMBER
1 7 -2 5
2 5 -3 0
3 0 -4 0
4 0 -5 0
5 0 -8 0
30 on
.
C o l.
B.S.
L L .B .
PER
NUMBER
or
years
C o l. 1 0
TO TAL
C ENT
8. A .
1
2
2
P A R T IA L M . A .
age
P A R T IA L
B .D .
C o l.
T h e ir
PH. 3 .
NO
)A T A
NUM­
PER
CENT BER
PER
CENT
NUM­
BER
>ER
(: e n t
NUM­
BER
PER
C E NT
NUM­
BER
PER
CENT
C o l.
23
C o l.
24
C o l.
25
C o l.
28
C3 o l .
27
C o l.
28
C o l.
29
C o l.
30
C o l.
31
4
1
1 .7
3
2 .3
5 .2
2
1
1
1
1
9. 1
3 .4
4 .8 ’
2 .3
5 .2
10.0
3
4 .5
4
9 .0
2
1.5
3
3
4 .5
1 0 .3
3 0 .0
5
4 .5
0 .3
11
0 .3
7
5 .3
-2 1 0 -
3
1
10.0
9
4 .5
- ? 1 1-
TABLE 5 5
Ed u c a t io n a l Le v e l s of Vo c a t io n a l , T e c h n ic a l or B u s i n e s s S chool C a s e s
Ad d i t i o n to T h e ir S p e c i a l Vo c a t io n a l T r a i n i n s
in
P A R T IA L
N U 'V otK
Or
GRAMMAR
NUMBER
1
s o l.
SCHOOL
GRAMMAR
SCHOOL GRADUATES
L
C o l.
C o l.
2
1 7 -2 5
169
2 5 -3 0
131
3 0 -4 0
PER
CENT
C o l.
3
NUMBER
4
C o l.
PER C E N T
6
C o l.
5
2 .4
35
2 0 .7
3
2 .3
21
1 8 .0
113
c
2 .6
15
1 3 .3
4 0 -5 0
41
6
1 4 .5
10
2 4 .4
5 0 -5 0
12
1
S. 3
2
1 6 .7
17
3 .5
93
17. e
50
1
on
TOTAL .
.
457
P A R T IA L
A3E.
H I3 H
SCHOOL
H IG H
SCHOOL G R AD UATES
P A R T IA L
C O LLEG E
YEARS
NUMBER
S o l.
c o i.
7
a
PER CENT
C o l.
9
NUMBER
C o l. 1 0
PER C E N T
C o l.
11
NUMBER
C o l. 1 2
PER
CENT
C o l. 13
1 7 -2 5
28
1 6 .6
99
5 2 .7
2
1 .2
2 5 -3 0
21
1 6 .0
76
5 9 .5
1
0 .9
3 0 -4 0
le
1 5 .9
69
6 1 *0
1
0 .9
1
8 .3
5
1 .1
4 0 -5 0
5
1 4 .6
15
3 5 .5
5 0 -6 0
2
1 6 .7
5
4 1 .7
1
100.0
257
5 5 .0
50
on
TOTAL
a se
:
•' •
tears
75
C 0LLE3E
1 8 .0
3R A D U A T E S
NUMBER PER C ENT
C o l . 15
c o l.14
1 7 -2 5
,
2 5 -3 0
3 0 -4 0
4 0 -5 0
5 0 -5 0
60
C O l. 1 8
NO D A T A
PO S T-< 3R A D U A T E S
NUMBER
PER C E N T
NUMBER
C o l. 1 7
C o l. 1 0
00 1 .1 9
PER
CENT
C o l. 20
11
6 .5
7
5 .3
7
6 .2
4
9 .8
1
9 .3
30
6 .4
on
TOTAL .
.
-? 1 2 -
TABLE 56
We e k l y
'Wa g e s
of
Ma l e s
a
no
17-24
F e m a le s
Wh i l e
E m p lo y e d
Y e a rs
0 - $ 4 . 99
level
•»-*
e d u c a t io n a l
a
o
O o l.
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle d e
a n d c o lle d ©
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u a in © 3 3 a o h o o l
TOTAL
NUMBER
OF
C A S E S 1 NUMBER
.
.
.
.
.
2
O o l.
3
o f
o n T h e ir
Age
F ir s t
o f
V a r io u s
$ 5 -$ 9 .9 9
PER C E N T
C o l.
4
NUMBER
C o l.
5
E d u c a t io n a l L e v e ls
O c c u p a tio n s
$ 1 0 -$ 1 4
PER CENT
C o l.
NUMBER PER
3
C o l.
7
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
CENT NUMBER
C o l.
8
C o l.
9
PER CENT
C o l. 10
69
2
2 .9
.1 6
2 3 .2
15
2 1 .7
6
8 .7
297
12
4 .0
73
2 4 .6
66
22.2
39
1 3 .1
111
0
6
5 .4
19
1 7 .1
22
1 8 .8
12
1 7 .1
29
2
6 .9
8
2 7 .6
4
1 3 .3
3
1 0 .3
506
2?
4 .3
116
2 2 .9
107
21.1
67
1 3 .2
1
TABLE 5 7
We e k l y
Wa g e s
of
Ma l e s
a nd
NUMBER
E D U C A T IO N A L
Em p lo y e d
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l d ra d u a t© 3
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h id h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te ©
p a r t i a l d o lle d ©
a n d o o lle d ©
g ra d u a ts a
P o 3t - d r a i u a t ©
V o c a tio n a l,
ta o h n io a l o r
b u a in a a a a o h o o l
.
.
on
Years
of
T h e ir
^ ir s t
0-154.99
Ag e
of
V a r io u s
E d u c a t io n a l
Levels
Oc c u p a t i o n s
$ 1 0 -$ 1 4
$5-459.99
$15-$19
LEVEL
C A S E S 1 NUMBER
TOTAL
25-59
F em ales
7 h il e
.
.
PER
NUMBER
C ENT
PER C ENT
num ber
PER C E NT
NUMBER
PER CENT
25
1
3 .6
4
1 4 .3
4
1 4 .3
4
1 4 .3
109
1
3 .7
11
10.1
21
19.3
23
2 5 .7
7
6. S
24
25
2 4 .8
3
1
33.3
1
2 3 .9
3 3 .3
K
1
20.0
2
4 0 .0
52
21.1
59
2 4 .0
101
22
2 .0
5
243
8 .9
TAf3LE 5S
7/E E K LY
7,'a g e s
OF
/A L E S
A l HD F e m a LES
30-39
Ye a r s
WlH IL E E m 3L 0 Y E D o n T
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n d h id h
a o h o o l g ra d u a ts a
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u s in e s s a o h o o l
NUMBER
OF
C A S E S 1 NUMBER
The
C E NT
NUMBER
Ed u c a t io n a l
L evels
OCC u p a t i o n s
tl0 -tl4
PER CENT
NUMBER
$ 1 5 -tl9
PER CENT NUMBER
PER C E NT
e
1 3 .8
10
1 7 .2
11
1 9 .0
52
4
4 .9
17
2 0 .7
16
22.0
54
2
2 .4
6
7 .1
24
28 .8
1
11.1
34
1 4 .5
56
1
1 .7
2
9
235
1.
PER
-IR S T
455-459. 99
0 -1 4 .9 9
E O U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
h e ir
OF V a r i o u s
DF A 3 E
n u m b e r e ic o lu ie e
1
oases
0 .4
«rh o h a v e
14
i te v e r b e e n
6.0
e m p lo y e d .
1
54
11.1
2 3 .0
_ r>-« c
wmmmm
TABLE
56
(Co n t i n u e d )
-$24
$25
1
*20
NO
CO
We e k l y Wa g e s of Va l e s and F e v a l e s 1 7 - 2 4 Ye a r s o f Age o f Va r i o u s Ed u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
Wh i l e E m p lo y e d on T h e i r F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
NUMBER
C o l.
11
C o l.is
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g r a d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u a in a a a a o h o o l
TOTAL
.
.
.
.
PER CENT
C o l. IS
$ 3 0 -$ 3 4
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
C o l. 1 4
C o l. 15
C o l. 1 8
C o l. 1 7
2
2 .9
10
3 .4
2
0 .7
10
9.
2
1 .8
1
0 .9
3
1 0 .3
25
4 .9
4
0 .8
2
0 .4
1
0
TABLE
57
$40 -$ 44
$3 5 -$ 3 9
NUMBER
PER CENT
C o l.ie
C o l.
19
NUMBER PER
C o l.20
CENT
C o l. 2 1
1 .4
1
0 .3
1
0 .2
(Co n t i n u e d )
We e k l y Wa g e s o f Va l e s and F e m a l e s 2 5 - 2 9 Ye a r s o f A3 e o f Va r i o u s Ed u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
Wh i l e Em p lo y e d on T h e i r c i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
2 0 -- $ 2 4
$
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s a o h o o l
.
.
.
2
7 .1
11
10.1
15
1 4 .8
28
.
PER CENT
1 1 .4
NUMBER
PER C ENT
1
3 .3
$40 -$ 4 4
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
1
3 .3
2
1.8
2
1 .8
2.0
3
3 .0
1
1.0
2.0
5
2 .0
1
0 .4
5 .9
3 3 .3
2
P
3 .2
5
1’ABLE
PER C ENT
NUMBER
1
6
o
o
z
NUM3ER
TOTAL
$ 3 5 -$ 3 9
$30 -$ 3 4
$25 -$ 2 9
lUNAL Lc Ve L
IJ1
no
c DUwA i
.
r 1 NUED )
TOTAL
•'
• '
•
•
CENT
number
PER CENT
PER CENT
NUMBER
4
3 .9
4
3 .9
9
11.0
5
5 *1
4
4 .9
12
1 4 .3
10
1 1 .9 '
1
1.2
1
11.1
1
23
11.1
5
NUMBER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s c h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s a o h o o l
PER
-$ 3 4
19
8 .1
$35-
1
ed u c a tio n a l level
o>
CO
o>
$25
1
2 0 -- $ 2 4
CM
$
^9CO
o
We e k l y 'Wa g e s o f Va l e s and F e m a l e s 3 0 - 9 9 Ye a r s o f Age o f V a r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
Wh i l e F m p l o ye o on T h e i r F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
NUMeER
PER CENT
2
3 .4
1
1 .2
1
5 0 .0
11.1
1
11.1
2 .3
5
2.1
$40--$ 4 4
NUMBER
PER C ENT
1
1.2
1
0 .4
214
-
TABLE 56
We e k l y Wa g e s
Wa l e s
of
and
F em ales
Wh i l e
1 7 -2 4
Em p l o y e d
145-- * 4 9
e d u c a t io n a l
on
( C o n tin u e d )
Ye a r s
of
T h e ir
F i r s t . Oc c u p a t i o n s
*5 0
Ag e
ON
V O LU N T E E R 1
num ber
PER C ENT
C o l. 2 3
C o l. 2 4
NUMBER lP ER
CENT
C o l. 2 5 L C o l . 2 0
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l. 2 7
C o l. 2 8
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l n ig h
s c h o o l a n d h ig h
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s c h o o l
. ’ .
.
TABLE 57
W e e k ly
W ages o f
W a le s
and
F e m a le s
Wh i l e
25-29
Em p l o y e d
*45-- *4 9
e d u c a t io n a l
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s c h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
•
•
•'
Wa g e s
on
Y e a rs
o f
T h e ir
F ir s t
*50
1
1
*
PER CENT
of
V / \L E S
NUMBER PER CENT
C o l. 2 9
C o l.3 0
8
2 .7
1
0 .3
3
2 .7
1
0 .9
1
3 .4
12
2 .4
2
0 .4
o f
V a r io u s
E d u c a t io n a l L e v e ls
Oc c u p a t i o n s
T IP S 2
V O LU N TE E R 1
CENT
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
3 .0
0.4
AND F e m a l e s 30-99
W H I l e E m p l o y ED ON
PER CENT
Ye a r s
The i r
*50
NUMBER
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s c h o o l a n d h ig h
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u s in e s s s c h o o l
W o rk e r d o n a te si a e r v i o e a g r a t i 3.
B em u n eratio n o o n a ia t ed a o le ly o f
1
0.9
1
0 .4
^C O N T 1 N U E D )
of
Ag e
F ir s t
1
V a r io u s
of
Ed u c a t i o n a l
V O LU N T E E R 1
P ER CENT
Levels
Oc c u p a t io n s
ON
level
NUMBER
1.
p.
Age
on
NUMBER PER
*45-*49
e d u c a t io n a l
T IP S 2
( C o n tin u e d )
TA8 L.E 58
We e k l y
Levels
level
NUMBER
TOTAL
Ed u c a t io n a l
level
C o l. 2 2
TOTAL
Va r io u s
of
T IP S 2
PER
C ENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
1
1 .2
1
1 .2
1
1 .2
2
0.8
1 .7
1
1 .2
1
1 1 .1
3
1 .3
tip s
earned
1
w h ile
0.4
w o rk in g .
-?1 5 -
TABL- E 56
We e k l y
'/,'a s e s
of
Wa l e s
ano
Fem ales
Wh i l e
17-24
Y e a rs
on T h e ir
Em p lo yed
ROOM AND 8 0 A R D 1
e d u c a t io n a l
o f A ge o f V a r io u s
F i r s t O c c u p a tio n s
NO OATA
C o l. 3 1
PER
CENT
C o l. 3 3
C o l. 32
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l. 3 4
C o l. 3 5
C o l. 3 6
C o l . S '/
27
3 9 .1
42
S5
29*6
29
. . . . j
AND F E M A LE S
1 1 .0 0
1 4 .5 0
203
7 .6 5
1 1 .2 5
1 5 .1 6
2 5 .2
79
8 .6 2
1 3 .3 0
1 8 .2 2
9
2 7 .6
20
6 .8 9
1 0 .0 0
1 6 .3 7
149
2 9 .2
7 .7 6
1 1 .5 9
1 5 .9 7
25-29
Em p l o y e d
on
344
( C o n c lu d e d " )
Y E A R S OF A 3E
T h e ir
F ir s t
NO D A TA
ROOM AND BOARD1
PER C ENT
NUMBER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s c h o o l a n i h ig h
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
TABLE
w e e k ly
W ages
o f
W a le s
and
F e m a le s
Wh i l e
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
1.
p.
w o rk
tio n
.
.
.
.
PER CENT
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
COLUMNS2
Q1
VD.
Q3
9 .3 8
1 5 .0 0
2 1 .2 5
29
2 6 .6
79
1 1 .1 3
1 5 .6 2
1 9 .1 5
18
1 7 .8
83
3
1 2 .7 5
1 3 .7 5
1 6 .9 8
1 7 .5 0
2 2 .0 8
2 6 .2 5
2
4 0 .0
3
1 3 .7 5
1 6 .2 5
1 8 .1 2
59
2 4 .0
183
1 1 .8 9
1 6 .0 2
2 0 .2 7
58
on
( C o n c lu d e d )
Y e a rs
o f
T h e ir
F ir s t
Age
NO D A TA
NUMBER
PER
CENT
o f
V a r io u s
E d u c a t io n a l L e v e ls
Oc c u p a t i o n s
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
COLUMNS2
Q1
VD.
Q3
17
2 9 .3
41
1 0 .6 2
15.
se
2 0 .9 4
23
2 8 .0
57
1 3 .0 1
1 7 .0 8
2 2 .0 8
25
1
2 9 .8
5 0 .0
58
1
1 6 .3 5
1 9 .3 9
4 0 .0 0
2 4 .7 9
3
3 3 .3
6
1 7 .5 0
2 5 .0 0
3 7 .5 0
69
2 9 .4
163
1 3 .7 9
1 8 .0 1
2 3 .7 0
'
B e m u n e r a t i o n o o n s i s t i sd s o l e l y o f r o o m a n d b o a r d f o r t h e w o r k e r .
in t e e r s w it h o u t p a y , o a s e s w o r k in g f o r t i p s o n ly ,
C a s e s w o r k in g a s v o l i
i o n ly a r e e x o lu d e d i n d e t e r m in i n g t h e n u m b e r f o r
in g f o r ro o m a n d b o a rc
o f Q l, M d. an
a os.
L evels
18
level
NUMBER
TO TAL
C ENT
E D UC / IT IO N A L
3 5 .7
ROOM AND BOARD1
e d u c a t io n a l
PER
OF V A R IO U S
Oc c u p a t io n s
10
90-39
Em p lo y e d
C3
7 .6 5
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
NUMBER
Wo.
C o l. 32
TABLE 57
Wh i l e
Q1
C o l. 3 8
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s c h o o l g r a d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s c h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u s in e s s s c h o o l
W EE K LY WAGES OF W ALES
E d u c a tio n a l L e v e ls
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
C 0LU M N S 2
level
NUMBER
TO TATj
( C o n c lu d e d )
apd osbss
o a lo u la -
-tieTABLE 59
W EE K LY WAGES 01: V a l e s
and
40-49
F e m a le s
W h ile
E m p lo y e d
-$ 4 .9 9
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
1
C o l.
C o l.
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
3 0 h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
.
.
NUMBER
0
OF .
C A S E S 1 NUMBER
.
C o l.
4
C o l.
Wa g e s
1
6 .2
2
2. 7
75
OF V A L E S
TABLE 00
5 0 - 5 9 YEAR S OF
AND F E M A LE S
Em p l o y e d
on
1.
The
NUMBER
6
C o l.
L e v e ls
7
$15-$1S
PER CENT NUMBER
C o l.
P
C o l.
9
•
1 6 .7
4
1 3 .3
2
7 .4
2
7 .4
3
is . e
9
1 2 .0
9. 3
OF V A R IO U S FD U C A T IO N A L L E V E L S
Oc c u p a t i o n s
$10-$14
$ 5-1:2. 99
0 - $ 4 . 99
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
num ber
NUMBER
PER CENT
6 .7
e
1
1 2 .5
2
7 .4
27
1
2 5 .0
1
3 .7
NUMBER
$15-$19
1
PER CENT
6 .7
1
3 .7
NUMBER
PER C E N T
4
2 6 .7
2
2 5 .0
6
2 2 .2
ABLE 61
3E o r O v e r o f V a r i o u s
M ALES AN 3 F e m a l ES 6 9 Y e a i 3S OF AC
Wh i l e Em p l o y e d DN T H E IF F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
LEVEL
• ’
C o l.10
0
•
of
PER C E N T .
5
7
A 3E
F ir s t
1
4
0
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
•"
T h e ir
15
NUMBER
• '
C o l.
16
1
T
TO TAL
E d u c a tio n a l
LE V EL
«
E D U C A T IO N A L
V a r io u s
1
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
t e o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
We e k l y
5
PER C ENT
3 .7
CASES1
•
C o l.
NUMBER
1
NUMBER
TO TAL
o f
O c c u p a tio n s
$ 1 0 -- $ 1 4
27
Wh i l e
E D U C A T IO N A L
Age
$5-$ 9 .9 9
PER C ENT
3
o f
F ir s t
30
.
/.'E E K L V W A3ES
•2
Y e a rs
on T h e ir
•
0F 1
CASES1
$ 5 -$ 9 .9 9
0 - $ 4 .9 9
NUMBER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
Ed u c a t io n a l
$ 15--$ 1 9
$ 1 0 —$ 1 4
NUMBER
PER
CENT
1
4
Levels
1
2 5 .0
1
2 5 .0
1
2 0 .0
1
2 0 .0
num ber
PER C ENT
l
1 0 0 .0
l
2 0 .0
0
0
0
5
e K o lu d e e
oases
w ho h a v e
never been
e m p lo y e d .
-£17-
TABLE
59
(Co n t i n u e d )
$25
•
AqCv
1
t
o
U
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
\3
CO
WEEKLY WAGES o f Va l e s and F e m a l e s 4 0 - 4 9 Ye a r s o f Age o f Va r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
Wh i l e Em p l o y e d on T h e i r F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
$ 3 0 -$ 3 4
$3 5 -$ 3 9
$ 4 0 -$ 4 4
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
C o l.
C o l.11
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
an d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u a in e a a a o h o o l
TO TAL
•
•
.
.
12
C o l. 1 3
C o l. 14
Vale s
C o l. 1 7
c o l. ie
C o l. 1 9
1 0 .0
2
9 .7
1
3 .3
3
1 1 .1
3
1 1 .1
1
3 .7
3
1 1 .1
3
IS. 9
1.
6 .2
1
3 .2
1
6 .2
1
1 0 0 .0
5
6 .7
9
o f
C o l. 1 6
S
1 2 .0
S
V a le s
a n d F e m a le s
W h ile
t? 0 -$ 2 4
60
4 .0
3
8 .0
TABLE
We e k l y
C o l. 1 5
C o l. 21
1
3 .3
1
1 .3
( C o n tin u e d )
5 0 -5 9 Y e a rs o f A se o f V a r io u s
E m p lo y e d
C o l. 2 0
on T h e ir
F ir s t
E d u c a tio n a l
$ ?0 -$ 34
$ 2 5 -$ 2 9
L e v e ls
O c c u p a tio n s
$4 0 -$ 4 4
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
number
P a r t i a l G ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l G ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a c h o o l G ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te a
P o e t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u a in e a a a c h o o l
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1
3 .7
1
3 .7
i
1 2 .5
1
1 2 .5
1
1 2 .5
t
3.7
2
7. 4
2
7 .4
TABLE
W e e k ly
W a3es
of
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o 3 t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
|
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
6 .7
1
3 .7
1
3.7
1
3.7
( C o n tin u e d )
ES AND *-£ MALES 60 Y e a r s o f A s e o r O v e r o f V a r i o u s F d u c a t i 0NAL
L EVELS WHI LE F mPL o y e d o n T h e i r F i r s t O c c u p a t i o n s
Val
$2 0 -$ 2 4
EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
61
1
$25 -$ 2 9
$30 -$ 3 4
$ 3 5 -$ 3 9
$40 -$ 4 4
NUMBER PER CENT NUM8ER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER PER CENT
1
2 5 .0
1
2 0 .0
-? 1 F -
TABLE
59
(Co n t i n u e d )
We e k l y Wa3 e s of Va l e s and F e m a l e s 4 0 - 4 9 Ye a r s o f As e o f Va r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
Wh i l e E m p lo y e d on T h e i r F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
1 4 ‘5 - 1 4 9
E D U C A T IO N A L
C o l.22
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL
.
.
150
on
V O LU N T E E R 1
LEVEL
.
.
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
C o l. 2 3
C o l. 2 4
C o l. 2 5
1
PER
CENT
C o l. 23
T IP S 2
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l. 2 7
C o l. 2 8
C o l. 2 9
C o l.30
3 .7
1 .3
1
TABLE
1
1
6 .2
100.0
2
2 .7
60
(Co n t i n u e d )
We e k l y Wa g e s of Wa l e s and F e m a l e s 5 0 - 5 9 Ye a r s o f Age o f Va r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s
Wh i l e E m p l o ye d on T h e i r F i r s t Oc c u p a t i o n s
P nl/v
i l ^C/A
A TI IlOy N
I
C
t l fAl U
! P V' PCIL
LC
$45-1549
NUMBER
PER
CENT
150
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a i d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s c h o o l
TOTAL
•
.
.
PER
NUMBER
1
T IP S 2
V O LU N T E E R 1
on
CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
6 .7
1
.
TABL E
PER C E N T
1
2 .5
2
7 .4
61
1
1 2 .5
3 .7
*
(Co n t i n u e d )
We e k l y Wa g e s of Va l e s ai <d F e m al es 6 0 Ye a r s o f Age or Ov e r o f Va r i o i s E d u c a t i o n a l
L ev ei „s Wh i l e EMPLOYED ON T H E IR F I R S T O C C U PATIO N S
$ 4 5 -1 4 9
150
V O LU N T E E R 1
on
ed u ca tio n a l le v el
NUMBER PER C E NT
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
NUMBER PER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
TOTAL
1.
g.
.
.
.
.
W o r k e r d o n a t e d s e r v i o 08 g r a t i a
R e m u n e r a tio n o o n e is t e d s o l e l y o f
tip s
e a rn e d
w h ile
w o r k in g .
CENT
T l PS2
NUMBER PER
C ENT
•
-? ie W e e k ly
W abes
o f
V a le s
TABLE 5 9
F e m a l e s A O -4 9
and
Wh i l e
ROOM AND
E D U C A T IO N A L
Em plo yed
on
BOARD1
.
We e k l y
o f
F ir s t
Abe
NO DATA
NUMBER
PER C ENT
C o l. 32
C o l.33
C o l . 34
C o l. 3 5
C o l.36
14
4 5 .7
15
1 4 .0 0
1 6 .7 5
2 5 .0 0
11
4 0 .7
16
1 7 .5 0
2 5 .0 0
3 5 .0 0
5
3 1 .2
11
1
1 7 .9 2
2 2 .5 0
5 0 .0 0
3 1 . 25
Vales
and
ROOM AND
NUMBER
TAB LE 6 0
F em ales 5 0 - 5 9
E m p l o v 'ED
•
Y e a rs
o f
Abe
F ir s t
NO DATA
PER C ENT
NUM8ER
•
TABLE
We e k l y
'Wa b e s
V a l e s and
Levels
of
ROOM AND
F em ales
Wh i l e
1.
p.
w o rk
tio n
•
'
C o l. 3 9
60
of
V a r io u s
2 5 .7
1
1 2 .5
2
5 0 .0
11
5
2
7
2 5 .9
19
61
3 1 .2 5
of
on
Ab e
T h e ir
NO DATA
NUMBER
E d u c a t i o n a l L-E V E L S
o1
Vd.
1 5 .9 4
1 9 .3 6
33. 25
1 0 .2 5
20.00
2 7 .5 0
2 .5 0
5 .0 0
1 5 .6 2
1 9 .5 6
Q3
5 0 .+
3 3 .1 2
( C o n c lu d e d ')
Years
Em p lo y e d
C ENT
2 2 .5 0
PER C E N T
or
Ov e r
F ir s t
of
V a r io u s
E D U C A T IO N A L
Oc c u p a t i o n s
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
COLUMNS2
O1
Vd.
Q3
•
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
•
C o l.36
O c c u p a tio n s
4
BOARD1
NUMBER PER
• ‘
C o l. 3 7
1 5 .2 5
T O T A L OF
P R E V 1 OUS
C O LU M N S *
PER C E N T
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
TOTAL
c3
( C o n c lu d e d )
on T h e ir
BOARD1
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
•'
Vd .
4 0 .0 0
45
4 0 .0
t -f t l l ft AT 1 f i NAL 1 PVPI
•
c1
1
Wh i l e
TOTAL
E d u c a tio n a l L e v e ls
PER C E N T
30
of
V a r io u s
NUMBER
. ~ .
Wa b e s
o f
Oc c u p a t i o n s
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
C O LU M N S *
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i G ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
.
Y e a rs
T h e ir
LEVEL
C o l.31
TOTAL
( C o n c lu d e d ')
20.00
1
•
1
2 5 .0
3
6. 75
1 2 .5 0
41 . 25
1
2 0 .0
4
1 0 .0 0
1 5 .0 0
2 0 .0 0
R e m u n e r a tio n o o n e i e t e 4 s o l e l y o f ro o m a n d b o a r d f o r t h e w o r k e r ,
a s ▼ o l u n t e e r s n: L t h o u t p a y , o a s e s w o r k i n g f o r t i p s o n l y ,
c a s e s w o r k in g
in d b o a r d o n l y a r < i e x o l u d 9 a i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n u m b e r f o r
in g f o r ro o m
93.
o f 9 1 , M i. a t
id
and oases
o a lo u la -
-820T ABLE
62
We e k l y Wa3 e s fr om 1 9 2 8 T RROUSH 1 9 3 7 OF Mi»l e s and F e m a l e s 1 7 -2 4 Ye a r s o f Age o f Va r i o u s
E du ca t i o n a l L e v e l s , Ex< j l u s i v e o f T h e i r F i r s t J o b s
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
O o l.
1
C o l.
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i G ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s a o h o o l
TOTAL
.
number
OF
JO BS
.
.
0 - $ 4 .9 9
NUMBER
? O o l.
PER
8
$ 5 -$ 9 .9 9
C ENT
C o l.
4
NUMBER PER
C o l.
g
$1 0 -$ 1 4
C ENT
C o l.
a
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
C o l.
C o l.
7
C o l.
p
<3
PER C E N T
C o l. 10
404
11
2 .7
130
3 2 .2
93
2 3 .8
46
1 1 .9
1169
24
2 .0
306
2 6 .2
295
2 5 .2
163
1 5 .6
920
34
31
3 .4
115
3
1 2 .5
6 .6
139
1
1 8 .4
2 .9
170
2
1 8 .5
5 .9
1 .7
39
1 6 .6
53
2 4 .1
50
2 1 .6
2. 5
593
2 1 .5
317
2 2 .4
453
1 3 .4
a
232
2759
70
TABLE 63
W e e k ly
W ases
fro m
192?
E D U C A T IO N A L
LEVEL
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r tia l h i|h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
3 0 h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g r a iu a te a
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL . . . .
1937
T h ro u g h
E d u c a tio n a l
NUMBER
OF
JO B S
o f
L e v e ls ,
V a le s
PER
2 5 -2 9
Y e a rs
F ir s t
Jobs
$ 5 - $ 9 . 99
0 - $ 4 .9 9
NUMBER
F e m a le s
o f T h e ir
and
E x c lu s iv e
CENT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
o f
$10-$14
NUMBER PER C ENT
Age
o f
V A R I0 U S
$15-$19
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
454
10
2 .2
109
2 3 .5
112
2 4 .1
66
1 4 .3
775
15
1 .9
122
1 5 .7
16?
2 1 .4
137
2 1 .5
110?
72
10
0 .9
92
3
8 .3
4 .2
187
6
1 6 .9
1 1 .1
235
13
2 1 .2
1 6 .0
253
3
1 .2
ie
7 .1
38
1 5 .0
51
2 0 .2
2371
36
1 .4
344
1 2 .9
511
1 9 .1
534
2 0 .0
TABLE 64
W EE K LY W A3ES FROM
1 9 2 8 T i i r o u 3 h 1 9 3 7 o f V a l e s and F e m a l e s 3 0 - 3 9 Ye a r s o f Ag e o f Va r i o u s
E d u ca t o n a l Le v e l s , E x c l u s i v e o f T h e i r F i r s t J o s s
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
NUMBER
OF
JO B S
NUMBER
1029
16
1 .3
139
1 3 .5
246
2 3 .9
131
1 5 .6
754
5
0 .7
59
7 .8
144
1 9 .1
154
2 0 .4
850
107
3
0 .7
33
3
3 .9
2 -8
77
5
9 .0
4 .7
133
3
1 5 .3
2 .8
5
2 .3
30
1 3 .7
38
1 7 .4
239
6 .1
502
1 7 .0
489
1 6 .5
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
. s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
0 - $ 4 .9 9
PER
CENT NUMBER PER
219
TOTAL • • • •
2959
27
$ 5 - $ 9 . 99
0 .9
CENT
$ 1 0 -$ 1 4
$ 1 5 -$ 1 9
NUMBER PER CENT NUMBER
PER C E N T
.
-2 2 1 -
TASLE
62
(Co n t i n u e d )
We e k l y Wa g e s fr om 1 9 2 8 T hr ough 1 9 3 7 o f Ma l e s and F e m a l e s 1 7 - 2 4 Ye a r s o f Ag e o f Va r i o u s
Eo u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , Ex c l u s i v e o f T h e i r F i r s t J o b s
* 2 0 -* 2 4
c m t r ' A T IHNAI
NUMBER
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i c o lle g e
g r a iu a te a
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s a o h o o l
.
12
C o l.
C o l. 1 1
TOTAL
.
.
.
PER C E N T
C o l. 1 3
NUMBER PER C ENT
NUMBER
C o l. 1 4
C o l.
*35 -* 3 9
W ases
C o l. 1 5
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l.1 7
C o l. I E
C o l.19
10
10
2 .5
2
0 -5
1
0 .2
1
0 .2
47
4 .0
12
1 .0
7
0 .0
3
0 .2
0 .5
0 .8
1 4 .7
1 .2
8^8
7
5
11
ii. e
25
3
2 .7
4
18
0 .9
7
3 .0
1
0 .4
. 3
1 .3
137
5 .0
49
1 .8
0 .8
18
0 .0
80
TA5LE
W e e k ly
*30 -* 3 4
*2 5 -* 2 9
fro m
1928 T h ro u g h
E d u c a tio n a l
* 2 0 -* 9 4
63
21
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o 3 t - g r a iu a t e
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u 3 in e a a a o h o o l
. '
• '
•
•
NUMBER
C o l.
20
PER C ENT
C o l.
21
1
0 .2
6
0 .6
7
0 .2
(C o n t in u e d )
1 9 3 7 o f V a le s a n d c e m a le s 2 5 - 2 9 Y e a r s o f A g e o f V a r i o u s
- e v e ls ,
E x c lu s iv e
. * 2 5 -* 2 9
o f
T h e ir
F ir s t
Jobs
*35 -* 3 9
*30 -* 3 4
ED U C A T 1O N A L L E V E L
TOTAL
* 4 0 -* 4 4
1 FVPl
*4C - * 4 4
NUMBER
PER GENT
num ber
PER CENT
NUMBER
1 .3
5
1 .1
1
0 .2
1
0 .2
3 .0
7
0 *9
10
1 .3
2
0 .2
7 .0
4 .2
33
i.e
0
0*5
12
3 .0
1 6 .7
20
3
1 0 .3
12
4 .7
p
3 .2
5
2 .0
3
1 .2
9 .8
128
4 .7
05
2 .4
41
1 .5
12
0 .4
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
S8
5 .5
6
81
7 .9
29
145
1 3 .1
5 .6
77
4
2S
202
TABLE
PER CENT
64
g
PER CENT
6 .9
(Co n t i n u e d )
We e k l y Wa g e s f r o m 1 9 2 8 T hrough 1 9 3 7 o f Ma l e s and F e m a l e s 3 0 - 3 9 Ye a r s o f Age o f Va r i o u s
E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s i v e of T h e i r F i r s t J o b s
* 2 0 -* 2 4
*25 -* 2 9
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
NUMBER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g r a iu a te a
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL
• .
• '
•
•
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
*30 -* 3 4
1
NUMBER PER CENT
*35 -* 3 9
NUMBER
PER CENT
* 4 0 --* 4 4
NUMBER
PER C ENT
72
7 .0
38
3 .7
20
1 .9
15
1 .4
2
0 .2
eo
1 0 .0
51
6 .8
23
3 .0
24
3 .2
4
0*5
109
14
1 2 .8
1 3 .1
92
4
1 0 .8
3 .7
45
10
5 .3
9 -3
36
14
4 .2
1 3 .1
24
6
5 .0
22
1 0 .0
20
9 .1
3
1 .4
10
4 .0
1 0 .0
205
6 .9
101
3*4
99
3 .3
36
1 .2
297
2 .8
-? ? ? -
W e e k ly W a g e s f r o m
FDUPATtftNAI
TABLE 62 ( C O N T 1 N U E D )
1929 T h r o u 3 h 1937 o f W a le s a n d F e m a l e s
1 7 -2 4
Y e a rs
Ed u c a t io n a l
F ir s t
J oss
O o l.22
O o l.
P a r t i a l G ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l n ig h
a o h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
P a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g r a iu a te a
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V O o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s a o h o o l
*
. ■ . •
W e e k l y 7 /a g e s
.;
.
fro m
.
.
.
.
T h e ir
ON
Age
V O LU N T E E R 1
NUMBER
PER C E N T
NUMBER
24
C o l. 25
C o l. 2 6
C O l. 2 7
col. 2e
C o l. 29
1
0.1
l
0 .1
1
0.1
2
0 .9
PER CENT
NUMBER
1
0.1
2
0.2
4
1 .4
A
0. 6
1
0.1
0 *5
3
1 .3
1
0 .4
3 .2
9
0 .3
T h e ir
F ir s t
o f
A3e
V O LU N T E E R 1
on
PER C ENT
1
2
5
Y e a rs
$50
C o l. 3 0
7 .0
1 4 .7
J obs
45—1?4 9
CENT
44
5
Ed u c a t io n a l
of
PER
1 .3
£7
0.1
3
0.1
TABLE 63 ( C O N T 1 N U E D )
1928 T h r o u g h 1937 o f V a l e s a n o F e m a l e s 25-29
E x c l u s iv e
V a r io u s
15
3
Levels,
o f
T IP S 2
PER C E N T
C o l.
1
o f
NUMBER
Lb Vt L
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
3 s h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n d h ig h
a o h o o l g r a iu a t9 3
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g r a iu a te a
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a t io n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u s in e s s e c h o o l
of
CENT
0.2
NUMBER
TO TAL
PER
21
$50
1
^
t D U C A 1 IO N A L
Ex c l u s iv e
$45-$49
LFVFI
NUMBER
TO TAL
Levels,
NUMBER
PER C ENT
o f
V a r io u s
T IP S 2
NUMBER
PER
CENT
2
0 -4
1
0.2
0.1
11
1 .4
2
0.2
0 .4
5 .4
52
4
0 .4
3
4 .7
4 .2
c
3 .8
2
0. £
2. 9
9
0. 3
77
9
0. 3
0.1
TA3LE 64 ( C O N T I N I )
1928 T h r o u g h 1937 o f V a l e s a n d F e m a l e s 39-39
Y e a rs
Ed u c a t i o n a l
J obs
4
ie d
'W e e k ly 7 /a 3 e s
fro m
$45e d u c a t io n a l
.
S.
4
.
.
-$49
E x c l u s iv e
$50
T h e ir
of
F ir s t
.
.
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
3
0. 3
4
0 .4
1
0.1
7
0 .9
10
4
l e
1.2
3 .7
0.8
w o rk er d o n a te 1 s e rv io es g r a t i s •
R em u n eratio n c o n s is te d s o le l y o f
o f
A ge
o f
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
7
0* 9
1
26
2.0
V a r io u s
T IP S 2
V O LU N T E E R 1
ON
level
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
a c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
ao hool a n i hngh
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
TO TAL
Levels,
PER
CENT
1
0» 7
1 0 .3
1
3* 0
0* 9
5
11
5
2 .7
7
3* 2
c
n
45
1.5
41
1.4
9
0.3
17
tip s
earned
w h ile
w o rK in g .
q
-2 ?e-
'/' e e k l v
Wa g e s
fro m
TABLE 62 ( C o n c l u d e d )
1929 T h r o u g h 1937 o f V a l e s a n d F e m a l e s 17-24
Y e a rs
E d u c a tio n a l L e v e ls ,
Jobs
E x c lu s iv e
ROOM AND BOARD1
o f
NO D A T A
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g r a iu a ta s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o 3 t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in s s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
.
.
.
.
W e e k ly W a g e s f r o m
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
C o l.32
C o l. 33
C o l.34
C o l. 3 5
C o l. 3 6
C o l. 3 7
Wa g e s
7 .4 7
1 0 .4 9
1 4 . 41
2
0 .2
273
2 3 .4
878
e.i9
1 2 .3 3
1 5 .9 2
3
1
0 .3
2 .9
252
10
2 7 .4
2 9 .4
595
18
1 0 .0 9
1 6 .2 5
1 4 .5 0
2 3 .7 5
1 7 .8 8
3 0 .5 0
1
0 .4
49
2 1 .1
178
1 0 .1 3
1 4 .1 1
1 8 .4 5
9
0.3
683
1971
8 .5 6
1 2 .3 1
1 7 .1 9
24. 8
TABLE 6 3 ( C
1928 T h r o u g h 1937 o f V a l e s
L e v e ls .
o n c lu d e d )
and
E x c lu s iv e
p e m a le s
o f
NO D A TA
PER CENT
NUMBER
•
fro m
PER
C ENT
T h e ir
1929 ThROUSH
ROOM AND
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
COLUMNS2
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
3 0 h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TO TAL
1.
p.
w o rk
tio n
•'
•
•
•
R e m u n e r a tio n
O aaea w o r k in
in g f o r ro o m
o f Q i, M d. a
2
2
1 .9
0 .1
o f
Age
o f
Vd.
C1
V a r io u s
c3
338
8 .4 2
1 2 .2 3
1 6 .3 5
183
2 3 .3
580
1 0 .2 4
1 1 .3 0
1 8 .9 5
239
15
2 1 .3
2 2 .2
811
53
12. 69
1 5 .8 6
1 6 .4e
2 3 .1 2
2 2 .9 0
3 3 .6 4
78
3 0 .8
154
12. 33
1 7 .2 5
2 2 .5 0
339
2 3 .9
1946
11. 02
1 5 .7 5
20 . 32
E x c l u s iv e
NUMBER
PER
)
F e m a le s
o f T h e ir
NO D A TA
BOARD1
PER CENT
Y e a rs
Jobs
2 5 .5
LE V EL
NUMBER
25-29
F ir s t
123
TABLE 64 ( C
193" OF V A L e s a n d
E d u c a ti o n a l L e v e l s .
E D U C A T IO N A L
w O l. 3 6 C o l . 3 9
301
o n c l u d e d
We e k l y
o3
2 4 .5
LEVEL
«’
Vd .
99
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te c h n ic a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
«
V a r io u s
0 .5
NUMBER
.
Q1
Age o f
2
ROOM AND BOARD1
TO TAL
o f
num ber
E d u c a tio n a l
E D U C A T IO N A L
F ir s t
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
COLUMNS2
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
C o l. 3 1
T h e ir
CENT
30-39
Y e a rs
F ir s t
Joss
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
COLUMNS2
o f
c1
Age
o f
Vd.
V a r io u s
Q3
313
3 0 .4
715
1 0 . 49
1 4 .1 3
1 8 . 22
194
2 5 .7
552
1 2 .5 7
1 7 . 21
2 3 .2 5
233
30
27. e
2 8 .0
582
74
1 6 .1 1
2 2 .6 8
2 1 .9 3
3 4 .-
2 9 .2 .7
73
3 4 .7
134
1 4 .7 5
1 9 .2 1
2 8 .3 8
849
2 8 .7
205e
12 . 4 e
1 7 .6 7
2 4 .6 2
o o n s i s t e d s o l e l y o f ro o m a n d b o a r d f o r t h e w o r k e r ,
3 a s v o l u n t e e r s w<L t h o u t p a y , o a s e s w o r k i n g f o r t i p a o n l y ,
a n d b o a r d o n ly a r s e z o lu d e d i n d e t e r m in i n g t h e n u m b e r f o r
nd 0 8 *
42 . oe
and oaaea
o a lo u la -
224-
-
TABLE 65
We e k l y
Wa g e s
from
1928 Tb r o u g h 1937 o f
E d u c a t io n a l L e v e ls .
0-1t 4 . 9 9
number
E D U C A T IO N A L
LE V EL
NUM8ER
1
O o l.
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s c h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
an d c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL
.
.
.•
.
2 C o l.
3
and
F e m a le s
o f T h e ir
40-49
Y e a rs
F ir s t
Jobs
$5-$9.99
OF
jo b s
C o l.
V a le s
E x c lu s iv e
PER C ENT
C o l. ' 4
NUMBER
C o l.
PER C E N T
5
C o l. ’ 6
o f
Age o f
$1 0 -Jl4
NUMBER
C o l.
PER
7
V a r io u s
$15-$19
C E NT
C o l.
8
NUMBER
PER CENT
C o l. • 9
C o l. 1 0
543
7
1 .1
72
1 1 .2
115
1 7 .9
9e
1 5 .2
25?
1
0 .4
20
0 .8
43
1 7 .1
»
31
1 2 .3
234
15
3
1 .3
4
1 .7
17
7 .3
31
1
1 3 .2
6 -7
5
7 .4
4
5 .9
5
8 .8
8 .3
179
1 4 .8
167
1 3 .8
F e m a le s
50-59
Y e a rs
F ir s t
Joss
08
1212
0 .9
11
101
TABLE
66
\
W e e k ly
W ages
fro m
1928 T h r o u g h 1937 o f
E d u c a tio n a l L e v e ls ,
V a le s
level
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL
. ‘
'
•
•
NUMBER
OF
NUMBER
JO B S
249
395
Wa g e s
from
level
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL
.
.
.
•
5 .2
13
1 0 .9
3
5 .7
7
1 5 .5
2
8 .3
55
1 4 .2
45
13
1 5 .9
2
4 .4
3
1 2 .5
45
1 1 .4
0 .5
PER
C ENT
1 3 .4
53
TABLE 67
1928 Tb r o u s h 1937 o f
NUMBER
OF.
JOBS
4
1 0 .8
2
E d u c a t io n a l
e d u c a t io n a l
1 3 .6
27
r
We e k l y
34
0 .4
24
tl5-tl9
1 8 .5
NUMBER
2.2
V a r io u s
PER C ENT
PER C E N T
1
Age o f
NUMBER
number
1
o f
t!0 -tl4
PER C ENT
77
45
0
o f T h e ir
155- 159.99
0-$4.99
e d u c a t io n a l
and
E x c lu s iv e
L e v e ls .
V a le s
0-$4.99
num ber
PER
and
E x c lu s iv e
C ENT
F e m a le s
o f T h e ir
$5-$9.99
NUMBER
PER C E N T
60
Y e a rs
F ir s t
o f
Age
or
Ov e r
of
V a r io u s
Jobs
t!0 -$ 1 4
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
28
1
3 .5
4
1 4 .3
3
1 0 .7
3
1 0 .7
12
2
1 5 .7
3
2 5 .0
2
1 5 .7
1
S. 3
1
2 0 .0
5
1 0 .9
5
0
1
45
3
5 .5
7
1 5 .2
5
1 0 .9
TABLE 6 5
’/.'E E K LV
WAGES F rom
1 9 2 8 T hrough 1 9 3 7 o f Va l e s and F e m a l e s 4 0 - 4 9 Ye a r s o f Ag e of V a r i o u s
E o u c a t i o n a l Le v e l s , E x c l u s i v e o f T h e i r F i r s t J o b s
$ 2 0 -$ 2 4
cDUuAM UNAL
C o l.
C o l.11
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
P a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g r a d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g r a iu a te a
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
h u a in e a a 3 o h o o l
.
.
$30 -$34
* 2 5 -4 2 9
$ 3 5 -$ 3 9
$40-$44
LfcVfcL
NUM9ER
TOTAL
( Co n t i n u e d )
.
.
12
PER
C ENT
C o l.13
8.2
53
NUMBER
C o l.
1*
PER CENT
C o l. 15
34
5 .3
12
4. »
NUMBER
C o l.
16
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
C o l. 1 7
C o l. IP
C o l.19
C o l . 2C
21
6
2.2
8
0 .9
2 .4
13
6 .3
1
0.4
10
4 .3
5
2 .1
2
2 .9
21
1
9 .0
5 .7
19
2
15
1
6 .4
1 3 .3
7
■ 1 0 .3
4
5 .9
5
7 .4
8
8 .6
4 .0
46
3. 8
9 .5
5 .8
71
TABLE 6 6
21
14
1 3 .5
115
C o l.
3 .3
34
8-1
P E R -C E N T
6 .7
48
14
1 .2
(Co n t i n u e d )
'//e e k l y Wa g e s fr o m 1 9 2 8 T hrou gh 1 9 3 7 o f Va l e s an d F e m a l e s 5 0 - 5 9 Ye a r s o f Age of V a r i o u s
E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s i v e o f T h e i r F i r s t J ob s
$ 2 0 -$ 2 4
E D U C A T IO N A L
NUMBER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g r a iu a te a
P a r t i a l h ig h
a o h o o l a n i h ig h
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL
«
•
$3 0 -$ 3 4
425--4 2 9
$35 -$ 3 9
$ 4 0 —$ 4 4
LEVEL
.
.
PER
CENT
PER
CENT
NUMBER
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER P ER C E N T
12
4 .8
3
1.2
2
0 .8
1
0*4
1 3 .0
7
9 .1
1
1 .3
3
3 .9
2
2.6
8 .9
4
8 .9
2
4 .4
2
4 .4
2
4.4
2
8 .3
1
4 .2
1
4 .2
8
2 .0
8
1 .5
18
7 .2
10
4
8 .1
32
number
PER C ENT
25
8
5 .3
TABLE 6 7
1 .5
(Co n t i n u e d )
'We e k l y Wa3 e s fr om 1 9 2 8 T hrough 1 9 3 7 o f Va l e s and F e m a l e s 6 0 Ve a r s o f Age or C)VER OF
Va r i o u s E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s , E x c l u s i v e of T h e i r F i r s t J ob s
$ 2 0 -4 2 4
ed uca tion al
NUMBER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l an d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i c o lle g e
g r a d u a te s
P o a t - g r a iu a t e
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
TOTAL
«
•
$25-- $ 2 9
level
•
•
PER C E N T
2
2
NUMBER
PER CENT
7 .1
'
4 .3
2
4 0 .0
2
4 .3
$30 -$34
NUMBER
PER
CENT
1
3 .3
1
2.2
$35 - $ 3 9
NUMBER
PER CENT
$4( ) - $ 4 4
NUMBER PER C E N T
-<r£C-
TABLE 65
We e k l y
Wa g e s
fro m
1929
1957
T hrough
E d u c a t io n a l
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
a o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
, b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOT A Ii
.
We e k l y
.
.
.
Wa g e s
fro m
NUMBER
PER C E NT
NUMBER
C o l.23
C o l. 2 4
C o l. 2 5
.•
We e k l y
’Wa g e s
1.
C o l.23
4
0 .3
C o l.29
C o l.28
4 .3
1 3 .3
9
3 .8
4
0.3
19
1.6
T hrough
Levels,
CENT
C o l.30
1. 2
( C o n t i n u e d ')
Vale s
and
E x c l u s iv e
$50
14
V a r io u s
T IP S 5
C o l.27
1.0
2
1929
of
NUMBER PER
1 .3
66
Ag e
NUMBER PER CENT
0
.
.-
fro m
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
2
0 .®
2
1
4 .2
c em ales
of
T h e ir
50-59
Years
F ir s t
J obs
of
A3e of
V O LU N T E E R 1
on
PER
C ENT
Va r io u s
T IP S ®
NUMBER PER CENT
3
3 .7
2
e .3
3
3 .9
1
2 .2
4
7
1 .8
o.e
TABLE 67 ( C o n t i n u e d )
1928 T hfIO U 3H 1937 o f V a l i e s a n d F e m a l e s 6 0
E d u c a t io n a l
NUMBER PER
CENT
o .e
3
L ev e _s .
$50
Ex c l u s iv e
of
1 .0
Years
T h e ir
of
V O LU N TE E R 1
ON
Ag e
or
Ov e r - o f
F ir st J o b s
T tP S S
level
PER C E N T
NUMBER
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l c o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g r a d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
•
C ENT
2 .0
NUMBER
.
PER
5
TABLE
1957 o f
of
V O LU N TE E R 1
on
1 .2
$ 45 -$ 49
TOTAL
J obs
3
V a r io u s
e d u c a t io n a l
Yea r s
F ir s t
level
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g r a d u a te s
P a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s 3 o h o o l
.
40-49
T h e ir
0 .4
$45-$ 49
TOTAL
Fem ales
of
1
Ed u c a t io n a l
e d u c a t io n a l
and
E x c l u s iv e
$50
E D U C A T IO N A L L E V E L
C o l. 2 ?
Vales
of
Levels,
$4?5-$49
(C o n t in u e d )
• ‘ •
W o rk e r d o n a te d s e r v ic e s g r a t i s
o o n s ia ts d s o le ly o f
PER C E N T
1
8 .3
1
2 .2
tip s
e a rn e d
NUMBER PER
w h ile
CENT
1
3 .6
1
2 .2
w o r k in g .
NUMBER
PER
CENT
227-
-
T a BL e
We e k l v
Wa g e s
fro m
35
(C O N C L U D E D )
1928 T h r o u g h 1937 o f M a le s a n d F e m a l e s 40-49 Y e a r s
E o u c a tio n a l L e v e ls . E x c lu s iv e o f T h e ir F i r s t J o b s
ROOM AND BO ARD1
NO D A TA
lavUwA 1 1vN A lK L c V c L
C o l.
31
NUMBER
PER C ENT
C o l. 3 2
C o l. 33
numberJper
C o l. 34
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n d h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t-g ra d u a te
V o o a t io n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s 3 o h o o l
TOTAL . • .
.
.
TABLE
W e e k lv
W ages
fro m
CENT
.
.
Wa g e s
frona
V af
1 9 2 3 T HROUSH
1937
nous Edij c a t i o n a l
79
3 1 .3
168
1 2 .4 4
1 8 -2 2
2 4 .5 6
67
8
3 7 .2
5 3 .3
135
7
1 7 .3 4
2 3 .7 5
2 3 .3 3
2 8 .7 5
3 2 .8 3
3 1 . 25
29
4 2 .3
39
1 5 .6 2
2 3 .2 1
3 3 .2 5
422
3 4 .8
775
1 2 .2 9
1 7 .9 0
2 5 .5 6
A se
V a r io u s
66
(C o n c l u d e d )
50-59
PE R
C EN T
F ir s t
T O T A L OF
PR EV IOU S
C OLUM NS2
P a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n i g ra m m a r
3 3 h o o l g r a d u a te s
P a r t i a l h ig h
3 c h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n d o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
P o 3 t-g ra d u a te
V o o a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
TOTAL . . .
»
PER
CENT
Y e a rs
Jobs
o f
c1
C3
Vd.
4 0 .3
146
10. 98
1 5 .-
2 0 . S3
21
2 7 .3
53
1 0 .3 1
1 6 .3 5
24. 88
14
3 1 .1
30
1 6 .0 7
2 2 .5 0
3 3 .7 5
12
5 0 .0
12
1 0 .-
2 7 .5 0
4 5 .-
148
3 7 .4
243
1 2 .2 4
16 . 92
2 4 .1 0
(C O N C L U C ) e d ")
Va . E S
OF
L e v e ls .
60
AND F e m a l e s
E x c lu s iv e
of
T h e ir
T O T A L OF
NO DATA
NUMBER
PER
C EN T
CO LUM NS2
Yea r s
of
F ir s t
age
or
Ov e r
of
J o8S
C1
VO.
Cs
13
4 3 .4
14
8 .1 2
1 3 . 33
1 9 .1 7
0
2 5 .0
9
5 . 42
9 .1 7
1 4 .3 8
2
4 0 .0
3
1 8 .7 5
2 6 .2 5
2 8 .1 2
1
100.0
0
19
4 1 .3
23
1 3 .-
1 9 .5 0
7 .5 0
R e m u n e r a tio n o o n s i s t e d s o l e l y o f ro o m a n d b o a rd f o r t h e w o r k e r ,
w o r k in g f o r t i p s o n ly ,
a . C a s e s w o r k i n g a s v o l u n t e e r s w: . t h o u t p a y , o a s e s
jr m in in g th e n u m b e r f o r
w o r k i n g f o r r o o m a n d b o a r 1 o n l y a r< 9 e x o l u d e d i n d e t <
1,
o f
101
LEVEL
NUMBER
C o l.39
2 2 .4 5
ROOM AND BO ARD 1
ED U C A TIO N A L
C o l . 31
1 5 .9 2
TABLE 67
’/ / e e k l v
37
6 .8 5
NUMBER
.
C3
Vd .
424
NO DATA
p a r t i a l g ra m m a r
a n d g ra m m a r
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l h ig h
s o h o o l a n i h ig h
s o h o o l g ra d u a te s
p a r t i a l o o lle g e
a n i o o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
p o s t- g r a iu a te
V o c a tio n a l,
te o h n io a l o r
b u s in e s s s o h o o l
C o l.
V a r io u s
3 4 .0
LEVEL
»ER
o1
C o l. 3 6
1 9 ? P T h r o u g h 1 9 6 7 o f V a le s a n d F e m a le s
E d u c a t io n a l L e v e ls , E x c lu s iv e o f T h e ir
NUMBER
TOTAL .
C o l. 35
A se o f
2 1 .9
ROOM AND B O A R D 1
ED U C A TIO N A L
CENT
T O T A L OF
P R E V IO U S
C O LU M N S *
o f
and oases
o a lo u la -
-? ? F -
TABLE 69
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Va l e s
Fem ales
and
Va r y i n s
of
Ag e s w it h
P a r t ia l
or
Co m plete
Gr a m m a r
Sc h o o l T r a i n i n s
P R O F E S S IO N S
A3E
3R 0U P.
YEARS
C o l.
1
NUMBER
OF
C A SE S
C o l.
NUMBER
OF
R E F E R R A LS
2
3
C o l.
1 7 -2 4
325
595
2 5 -2 9
334
522
3 0 -3 9
731
1302
4 0 -4 9
455
950
5 0 -5 9
179
254
19
22
2043
3645
60
on
TO TA D
.
.
.
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
C o l.
4
PER C E N T
C o l.
5
1
0 .2
2
0 .2
3
AND R E LA TE O
P O S IT IO N S
S E M 1—
P R O F E S S IO N S
P R O F E S S IO N A L SER­
V IC E A T T E N D A N T S
NUM8ER PER CENT
NUMBER PER C ENT
C o l. 6
3
C o l.
7
P
C o l.
1
0 .2
1
4 -5
2
0 -0
9
0 .5
3
0 .1
C o l.
0 .1
TABLE 69
Refer r a ls
c in a l
of
Vales
F em ales
and
of
V a r y in s
A3es
w it h
Pa r t ia l
or
Co m p l e t e
H is h
Sc h o o l T r a i n i n 3
ANO R ELA TE O
P R O F E S S IO N S
ASE
3R 0U P:
NUMBER
OF
C A SE S
YEARS
NUMBER
OF
R E F E R R A LS
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
PER
CENT
P R O F E S S 1O N A L S E R V IC E AT T E N D A N T S
S E M I­
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
P O S IT IO N S
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER C E N T
1 7 -2 4
998
1355
9
o .s
2
0 .1
11
0 .9
2 5 -2 9
530
925
2
0 .2
2
0 .2
3
0 .3
3 0 -3 9
500
724
4
0 .6
2
0 .3
2
0 .3
4 0 —4 9
190
297
2
0 .7
5 0 -5 9 '
52
93
60
11
13
2271
9321
17
0 .5
6
0 .2
16
0 .5
TO T A D
on
.
.
•
TABLF 70
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Vales
and
F em ales
of
V a r y in s
T r a in in s
ases
w it h
P R O F E S S IO N S
num ber
A3E
3R 0U P:
years
522
1 7 -2 4
NUMBER
725
10
PER
CENT
1 .4
2 5 -2 9
619
757
27
3 .6
3 0 -3 9
437
531
IS
3 .0
4 0 -4 9
112
142
5 0 -5 9
27
31
2
2
1919
2199
60
TO TAD
OF
C A SE S
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
OF
R E F E R R A LS
on
.
•
P a r t ia l
or
AND R E LA TE D
s e m i—
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
4
1
Co m p le t e
Co lle g e
P O S IT IO N S
P R O FE S S O N A L S E R V IC E A1T E N D A N T S
PER
CENT
PER CENT
NUMBER
0 .6
9
1 .1
3
0 .4
0 .2
2
0 .4
0 *7
0 .5
2
1 .4
1
0 .7
1
55
2 .5
6
0 .3
14
TABLE 69
F in a l
Re fe r r a ls
Ma l e s
of
F em ales
and
(C O N T 1N U ED )
V a r y in g
of
Ag e s
w it h
P a r t ia l
Co m plete
or
Gr a m m a r
Sc h o o l T r a i n i n g
C O M M ER C IA L
AvC
\S K U vr <
D O M E S T IC
GOVERNMENT
P R O JE C T S
IN D U S T R IA L
T tA n O
O o l. 1 0
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
O o l. 11
O o l. 1 2
C o l. 1 3
PER
C ENT
NUMBER
PER C E NT
NUMBER
PER CENT
O o l.14
O o l. 15
C o l. 1 6
O o l, 1 7
O o l.18
1 7 -2 4
7
1.2
307
5 1 .6
84
1 4 .1
11
1 .8
2 5 -2 9
7
1.1
359
5 7 .7
62
10.0
5
0 .8
3 0 -3 9
4
0 .3
755
5 8 .0
95
7 .3
22
1 .7
4 0 -4 8
5
0 .6
506
5 9 .5
69
8.1
33
3 .9
5 0 -5 9
1
0 .4
117
4 8 .1
27
10.8
7
2 .8
S
3 6 .4
2
9 .1
2052
5 6 .2
78
2 .1
60 on
TO TAL
.
.
.
0 .6
24
TABLE 69
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Vales
and
Fe m a l e s
of
339
9 .3
.
(C O N T 1N U E D )
A 3e s
V a r y in g
w it h
Pa r t ia l
or
Co m p le t e
H ig h
Sc h o o l T r a in in g
A9E
GROUP.
YEARS
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER
CENt
1 7 -2 4
113
S. 3
417
3 0 .5
203
1.4 .8
67
4 .9
2 5 -2 9
23
2 .S
333
4 4 .0
101
12.2
24
2 .9
3 0 -3 9
15
2.1
299
4 1 .3
90
1 2 .4
22
3 .0
4 0 —4 9
2
0 .7
148
4 9 .8
39
12.8
11
3 .7
43
4 7 .9
14
1 4 .6
3
4 6 .2
2
1 5 .4
1279
3 8 .5
448
1 3 .5
124
3 .7
5 0 -5 9
'
GOVERNMENT
P R O JE C T S
IN D U S T R IA L
D O M E S T IC
C O M M E R C IA L
60
TO TAL
on
.
.;
153
.•
4 .8
TABLE 70
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Ma l e s
and
Fem ales
of
(C O N T 1 N U E D )
V a r y in g
Ag e s w i t h
P a r t ia l
or
Co m plete
Co l l e g e
T r a in in g
C O M M ER C IA L
age
group:
years
NUMBER
PER C ENT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER C E NT
GOVE RNMENT
PRO JE C TS
NUMBER PER CENT
1 7 -2 4
63
S. 7
59
8 .0
104
1 4 .3
84
11.6
2 5 -2 9
64
8 .4
79
1 0 .4
70
9 .2
151
1 9 .9
43
S .1
52
10.0
39
7 .3
119
2 2 .4
3 0 -3 9
4
2 .S
28
1 9 .7
15
10.6
27
1 9 .0
1 9 .4
3
9 .7
1 0 .7
3 8 .4
1 7 .5
4 0 -4 9
.
5 0 -5 9
60
TO TAL
1N D U S T R 1A L
D O M E S T IC
5
1 6 .1
222
10.1
8
on
.
174
0.0
234
- 5 SOTABLE
F in a l
Re f e r r a ls
of
Va l e s
and
69
Fem ales
( C o n c lu d e d }
V a r y in g
of
Ag e s
P a r t ia l
w it h
or
Co m p l e t e
Gr a m m a r
Sc h o o l T r a i n i n g
class
ASP
A ft f ttJP "
NUMBER
C o l. 19
PER C E N T
C o l.
C o l. 2 0
21
1 7 -2 4
17
2 5 -2 8
7
3 0 -3 9
r
0 .4
4 0 -4 9
8
5 0 -5 9
2
30
TO TAL
TR A N S F E R R E D
study
NUMBER
.
.
of
NUMBER
C o l. 24
NO DATA
C ENT
C o l.25
C o l. 26
C o l. 2 7
2 7 .0
R
<.;
0.8
173
27. e
407
3 1 .2
221
2 3 .0
93
37. 9
10
4 5 .4
0 .4
9
0.9
3
0 .4
3
0 .4
0 .S
1
0 .4
3
1.2
1
4 .5
13
0 .4
F em ales
PER CENT
161
0 .7
and
NUMBER
0 .7
R
1 .1 .
Vales
PER
4
0 .5
1.1
39
Re f e r r a ls
CENT
C o l. 23
3
2 .9
TABLE 69
F in a l
PER
C o l. 2 2
on
.
C H A R IT Y
YPAPS
24
2 9 .3
1039
0 .5
''C O N C L U D E D )
of
V a r y in s
A3Es
w it h
P a r t ia l
or
Co m p le te
H is h
Sc h o o l T r a in in g
3R0UP.
NO DATA
YEAR S
NUMBER
PER
C E NT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
1 7 -2 4
39
2 .9
39
2 .9
12
0 .9
455
3 3 .3
2 5 -2 9
12
1 .4
13
1 .5
A
0 .5
279
3 3 .7
3 0 -3 9
6
1.1
10
1 .4
g
0 .4
269
3 7 .1
4 0 -4 8
1
0 .3
1.0
1.0
4
1 .3
89
2 9 .3
35
3 6 .4
ol_l
1
5 0 -5 9
!
C H A R IT Y
T R A N S FE R R E D
C L A S S STUDY
A3E
30
T O T A ti
on
.
•
1.8
30
•
TAB LE
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Vales
and
2 .0
35
F em ales
70
of
2
1 5 .4
3
2 3 .1
25
0 .9
1128
3 4 .0
'C o n c l u d e d )
V a r y in s
As e s w it h
P a r t ia l
or
Co m p l e t e
Co lle s e
T r a in in g
CLASS
A3E
group:
S TU D Y
NUMBER
PER
CENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NO D A TA
C H A R IT Y
T R A N S FE R R E D
years
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
NUMBER
PER C ENT
1 7 -2 4
3
0 .4
17
2 .3
3
0 .4
371
5 1 .2
2 5 -2 9
7
0 -9
16
2 .1
5
0 .7
335
4 4 .2
3 0 -3 9
5
0 .9
10
1 .9
5
0 .9
239
4 5 .0
4 0 -4 9
5
3 .5
3
2 .1
56
3 9 .4
17
5 4 .8
2
1 0 0 .0
1020
4 6 .6
5 0 -5 9
30
TO TAL
on
•
•
•
L_______________
20
0 .9
4* j
13
0 .3
j
- g f l-
TABLE 71
F in a l
Refer r a ls
Ma l e s
of
Fem ales
and
of
Va r y in g
Aq e s
w it h
P R O F E S S IO N S AND
AOp ^ D A i l D *
YPAQQ
NUM3ER
C A SE S
O o l.
l
O o l.
NUMBER
R E F E R R A LS
2
O o l.
3
C o l.
4
C ENT
O o l.
1 7 -2 4
21
23
2
7 .7
2 5 -2 9
39
42
2
4 .9
3 0 -3 9
52
58
9
1 3 .9
4 0 -4 9
Q
9
2
2 2 .2
5 0 -5 9
9
0
50 o n
0
0
120
135
14
1 0 .4
TO TAL
.
.
.
R E LA T E D
5
NUMBER
O o l.
3
PER
P R O F E S S IO N A L SER­
V IC E A T T E N D A N T S
CENT
O o l.
1.
1 .7
1
0 .7
T r a in in g
P O S IT IO N S
SEM I —
P R O F E S S IO N S
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER PER
Po st-G r a d u a t e
NUMBER P ER C E N T
7
O o l.
9
O o l.
1
3 .8
1
0 .7
9
TABLE 7?
F in a l
Re f e r r a ls
of
Vales
and
c evales
of
V a r y in s
B u s in e s s
Ag e s
P R O F E S S IO N S
ag e
group:
P R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
V o o a t io n a l ,
T e c h n ic a l
or
PER' CENT
AND
R E LA TE D
S E M IP R O F E S S IO N S
NUMBER
PER
CENT
P O S IT IO N S
P R O F E S S IO N A L SER­
V IC E A T T E N D A N T S
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
1 7 -2 4
139
217
4
1 .9
1
0 .5
a
2 .9
2 5 -2 9
131
1F3
1
0 .5
1
0 .5
1
0 .5
3 0 -3 9
113
145
1
0 .7
2
1 .4
2
1 .4
4 0 -4 9
41
52
1
1 .9
5 0 -5 9
12
17
1
5 .9
1
1
407
597
a
1 .4
4
0 .7
g
1 .5
30
TO TAL
years
NUMBER
NUMBER
OF
OF
R E F E R R A LS
C A SES
w it h
Sc h o o l T r a in in g
on
•
• '
.
T
F in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Vales
and
C O M M E R C IA L
A 3E
:
sroup
ABLE
71
( C o n tin u e d )
Fe m a l e s
V a r y in s
of
D O M E S TIC
As e s
Po st-S raduate
w it h
IN D U S T R IA L
years
c o l. 10
NUM8ER
PER C ENT
O o l. 11
0 0 1 .1 2
NUMBER PER CENT
NUMBER
O o l. 1 3
O o l.15
O o l. 14
PER
C ENT
O o l. 1 8
1 7 -2 4
5
1 9 .2
1
3. 9
2 5 -2 9
2
4 .9
2
5 0 -3 9
1
1 .7
4 0 -4 9
T r a in in s
S O V ER N M EN T
P R O JE C T S
NUMBER
O o l.1 7
PER
CENT
O o l.19
5
1 9 .2
4 .9
19
4 2 .9
1
1 .7
19
3 3 .9
42
3 1 .1
1
1 1 .1
1
1 1 .1
1
0 .7
e
3 .7
5 0 -5 9
80
TO TAD
on
.
.
a
.
-5 .9
TABLE
P in a l
Re f e r r a l s
of
Va l e s
and
72
Pe m a l e s
B u s in e s s
C O M M E R C IA L
ase
sroup
:
of
V a r y in s
As e s
V o c a t i o n a l ,- T e c h n i c a l
w it h
Sc h o o l T r a i n i n s
D O M ESTIC
IN D U S T R 1A L
SOVER N M EN T
P R O JE C T S
years
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
NUMBER
PER CENT
NUMBER
PER
C ENT
NUMBER PER
CENT
1 7 -2 4
40
1 9 .4
29
1 3 .4
28
1 2 .0
9
4 .1
2 5 -2 9
21
1 3 .5
18
1 0 .3
24
1 5 .5
13
9 .4
4 .1
29
1 9 .3
15
1 0 .3
15
1 0 .3
9 .8
3
5 .9
8
3 0 -3 9
c
4 0 -4 9
13
2 5 .0
5 0 -5 9
1
5 .9
a
3 5 .3
97
1 4 .9
78
1 2 .9
80
TO TAD
( C o n tin u e d )
on
• '
•
•
1
1 0 0 .0
se
1 1 .8
2
42
1 1 .9
7 .2
or
TABLE 71
F in a l . R e f e r r a l s
VIa l e s
of
c u s s
AQe 3 R 0 UP .
Fevales
and
of
(C o n c l u d e d )
V a r y in s
As e s
w it h
C H A R IT Y
TR AN S FE R R E D
study
Po st-G r a d u a t e T r a in in s
NO D A TA
YEARS
NU.V9ER
PER CENT
O o l. 2 0
O o l. 2 1
NUMBER
PER C E N T
NUMBER
PER CENT
O o l.24
O o l.25
C o l. 23
O o l.27
1 7 -2 4
12
43. 2
2 5 -2 9
13
4 2 .5
27
4 6 .3
5
5 5 .5
62
4 5 .9
C o l. 1 9
3 0 -3 9
NUMBER PER
O o l. 22
CENT
O o l.23
1 .7
1
4 0 -4 9
5 0 -5 9
60
TO TAL
on
. '
.
0.7
1
.
TABLE 72
F in a l
Refer r a ls
of
Vales
and
Fem ales
C L A S S STUDY
A3E
sroup:
V a r y in s
of
B u s in e s s
(C o n c l u d e d )
As e s
w it h
V o c a t io n a l ,
2
1 7 -2 4
C H A R IT Y
TR AN SFER RED
PER
CENT
0.9
NUMBER
4
PER CENT
1 .0
NUMBER
1
PER CENT
0 -5
2 5 -2 9
1
3 0 -3 9
0 .7
4 .0 - 4 9
5 0 -5 9
TO TAL
or
NO D A T A
years
NUMBER
30
T e c h n ic a l
Sc h o o l T r a in in g
NUMBER PER
C ENT
95
4 3 .0
73
5 0 .3
75
5 1 .7
30
5 7 .7
7
4 1 .2
2G 5
4 5 .5
on
.
.•
.•
2
0.9
5
0.P
1
0.2
APPENDIX I I
TABLE 73
T ests
for
the
S i s N IF IC A N C E
O r itio a l
OF TH E
R a tio
D IF F E R E N C E S
A
OF THE PER C E N TA G E S O B T A IN E D
O iff
p i- p 0
0 .6 7 4 5 ]^ p 1q 1
^
" " l”
p i
'
P2
D iff
p ^ -p g
pgq?
~
N1
Ng
0 .9 .
1 .7 #
0 . 3#
0 .9 #
532
213
1 .3
3. *#
1. 2#
2 .2 #
554
249
..3 1
14. 7 #
5 .0 #
9 .7 #
992
1498
12. 5
3 .1 #
0 . 2#
2. 3#
1974
1947
1 0 .7
1 .8 #
0 .3 #
0 . 9#
1729
1 .9 7 4
3 .3
1£2#
1 0 .9 #
2. 4 *
81&1
4074
4 .3
2 .1 #
1 .0 #
1 .1 #
4074
6131
6 .1
1 . 4#
0 . 4#
1 .0 #
3109
2939
7 .4
4. 3#
2. 2#
2 .1 #
10205
1146
5 .9
i. e#
1 .1 #
0 .7 #
293e
2895
3 .5
3 .1 #
0 .4 #
2. 7#
990
943
5 .8
0 .7 ?
0 . 4#
0 .3 #
959
843
1 .5
1 .9 #
0 .4 #
1 . 4#
218
843
2 .3
1 .1 # .
0 .2 #
0 .9 #
990
843
4 .5
9 .0 #
5 .3 #
0 .4 #
990
89
0 .2
1 0 . 4#
• 9 .2 #
2. 2#
943
219
1 .6
2 .6 #
1 .1 #
1 .5 #
990
89
1 .9
2 .0 #
0 . 4#
1 .3 #
1199
2362
6 .0
1 .1 #
0 .4 #
0 . 7#
369
2352
1 .8
1 5 . 4#
9 . 3#
5 . °#
369
1198
4 .3
3 2 .3 #
1 5 . 8#
13. 9#
45
ii9 e
3 .6
0 .5 #
' 0 .1 #
0 . 4#
3321
3645
0 .5
1. 4#
0 .1 #
1. 3#
587
3645
4 .0
5 3 .2 #
3 8 .8 #
1 7 .4 #
3645
3321
2 1 .0
13. 5#
1 0 .7 #
2 .8 #
3321
2189
4 .6
10. 7#
9 .3 #
1 . 4#
2ise
3545
2 .6
1 2 .9 #
10. 7#
2.2#
587
2198
2.2
5 8 .3 #
5 3 .2 #
2 .4 #
87
413
0 .8
5 3 .1 #
5 .5 #
87
32
0 .9
5 8 .6 #
4 7 .5 #
8 .3 #
413
361
4 .3
5 6 .2 # ,
5 8 .8 #
5 3 .3 #
5 .5 #
442
165
2.2
58.2#
20.8#
5 4 .3 #
3 .9 #
4184
1229
3 .7
1& 8#
2.0#
2634
2634
2 .7
TA3LE 74
Ch a n c e s
in
1 0 0 0 o f a T r u e D i f f e r e n c e Gr e a t e r
T han Ze r o When t h e D i f f . / P . E . i i f f >
fr o m
Va r i e s
0 . 0 0 TO 5 .5 0 1
,0 1 FF. / P . E . i i f f (Cr i t i c a l R a t i o '
Cha nces in 1 0 0 0
.0 .3 0
590
0 .5 0
532
0 .9 0
705
1 .0 0
750
1 .3 0
910
1 .5 0
944
1 .9 0
999
2 .0
911
2 .3
940
2. 5
954
2 .9
970
3 .0
979
3 .3
997
3 .5
991
3. 9
995
4 .0
9 9 3 .5
4 .3
9 9 9 .1
4 .5
9 9 9 -9
4. c
9 9 9 .4
5 .0
9 9 9 .3
5. 5
999. 9
t.
T a k e n in part from Herbert Sorenson,
S t a t i s t i c s fo r S tudents o f Psychology ani
F d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k ; M e 3 ra w —H i l l B o o k Com­
pany,
1936,
p. 3 6 9 .
N£W YORK U N I V E R S I T Y
•SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
I •
LIBRARY
o
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