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LOWELL MASON, MUSIC EDUCATOR

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hich, A r t h u r Lowndes.
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Lcwe.ll Yason, u u s i c educator...
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Thesis u'h.D. ) - H e w Yorl: u niversity,
School cf education, 1940.
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HAS B EE N M IC R O F IL M E D
E X A C T L Y AS R E C E IV E D .
Th- sis accented.
e,
I0WELL MASON, MUSIC EDUCATOR
Arthur I* Rich
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in the School of Sducation of
New York University
FEB 20 ;?-Q
PLEASE NOTE:
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TA3LE O F CONTENTS
Chapter
I.
INTRODUCE ION........................................
I
•
*t9-
Purpose of the Study..............................
The Scope....................
Materials Available..................................
Method of Research...................................
Importance of the Study..............................
II.
m s TU1ES OF LOWELL MAS OK..............................
Economic Factors.....................................
The Common School Revival...........................
Liusic Education in America.
..................
Music Education in Europe...........................
Church Liusic in iunerica..............................
Secular Liusic in America.
....................
III.
17.
THE LIFE OF LAS ON......................................
1
3
3
4
5
7
7
7
6
11
14
16
20
Ancestry.............
3oyhood..............................................
Savannah Period...................
Marriage...............
The Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church
Music................
Early Tears in Boston.........
The Boston Academy of Liusic................
Liusic in the Boston Schools.........................
Musical Conventions..................................
Teachers Institutes..........
Musical Normal Institutes............................
Later Life...........................................
Personality and Character...........................
'Writings.............................................
20
21
24
26
THE THOUGHT OF MASON....................................
56
Music and Life...............
Liusic and Marts Moral Nature....................
Liusic and the Whole Man..............
Ultimate A i m ....................................
The Aim of Education.........
Liusic and Education................
56
56
58
58
59
60
ii
25
30
35
40
44
46
47
48
51
33
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.)
Chapter
V.
The Function of Music in Education................
Music in the School Curriculum....................
Principles and Methods of Instruction..................
Course of Study.........................................
60
64
66
78
THE INTERREIATIQNSHIPS OF MASON AND HIS PRECURSORS
AND CONTEMPORARIES.......................................
83
Rousseau.................................................
Pestalozzi...............................................
Pfeiffer and Nageli and the Gesengbildungslehre
n»ch Pestslozzischen Grundsatzen.....................
Authorship.........................................
The Gesanbgildungslehre nach Pestalozzisclien
Grundsatzen......................................
The Manual of the Boston Academyof Music..........
Comparison of the Gesengbildungslehre and the
Manual...........................................
Other Disciples of Pestalozzi..........................
Fellenberg.........................................
Kubler..............................................
Buss............................
Neef................................................
Mason’s Educational Contemporaries.....................
Woodbridge.........................................
Mann................................................
Bernard.............................................
Other American Pestslozzians......................
Other European Music Educators....................
Mason’s Contemporary Musicians and writers.............
Summary..................................................
VI.
83
84
90
90
93
97
100
106
106
108
109
110
112
112
114
115
116
117
118
119
LOWELL MASON AND 'THE BOSTON ACADEMT OF MUSIC
Ob jectives......................... ,..................... 122Founders .........
123
General Program...........................................124
.Teaching Staff.......................................... lp6
Euuipment................................................ 128
The Work of the Boston Academy of Music.................. 129
Classes in Vocal Music............................. 129
Individual Lessons................................. 131
Choir............................................... 132
Instrumental Music................................. 133
Publi ca t io n s........................................ 134
Teacher Training................................... 137
l&isic Instruction in thePublic Schools............ 149
iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Gont.)
Chapter
Page
The Closing of the Academy.........................
Summary of the Achievements of the Boston Academy
of Music..........................................
Lowell Meson, the Dominant Power of the Academy....
VII.
LOY.ELL MAS Oil AND RUSIC FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN..........
The Introduction of Music into the Boston City
Schools...........................................
First Efforts in Children's Music ................
Mason's Conversion to Pestalozzianism............
Classes Using the Pestalozzian Method............
The Academy and Music in the Public Schools
The Snelling Report of 1831-1332 .................
Early Music Teaching in Private Schools.........
The Memorial of 1 8 3 d ........................
The T. Kemper Davis Report, August 24, 1337 .....
The Eawes School Experiment......................
Boston School Board Action, August 28, 1838......
Lowell Mason, liisic Teacher in Boston Schools ....
Importance of Early Teaching in 3 oston ..........
Mason's Function in the Achievement
.......
JUtsic in the Boston Schools after Mason's Retire­
ment ...............
Appointment of Standing Committee on Music......
Work of the Standing Committee on Music..........
The Beginnings of Music Teaching in Other Cities
to 1865................
General Scope of the First Music Teaching.......
Mason's Importance in the First Decades.........
5\irtl . ? Developments in American Music Education
to 1900...........................................
General Adoption of Music as a School Subject....
The Teaching Itself...............................
Mason's Part in the Music Education of the Period
Summary of Twentieth Century Music Education......
Reasons for Twentieth Century Development.......
Present-day Objectives............................
Today's Musical Instruction......................
Lowell Mason and Twentieth Century Music Educa­
tion............................................
VIII.
THE PERMANENT IN LOWELL MASON.........
Introductory Statement..............................
iv
153
153
155
159
159
159
161
165
167
168
169
170
171
175
177
178
181
183
187
187
187
189
194
196
200
200
201
203
204
205
206
208
212
214
214
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.)
Chapter
Page
Mason's Influence upon American Music Education.......... 215
The Singing Child....................................... 215
Music Officially Added to the School Curriculum........216
Introduction of Music into the Curriculum of other
Cities................................................. 218
Pioneer Teacher Training................................ 220
The Dissemination of Music Teaching Principles and
Procedures............................................ 222
The Creation of Music Teaching Material................ 224
Meson's Important Influence upon Pioneer Music Edu­
cation in the United States...........
225
Similarities Between Mason's Practice and That of
Twentieth Century Music Educators.................... 226
Phases of Music Education Apparently Anticipated by
Mason................................................. 230
IX.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.....................................
233
Purpose of the Dissertation......................
233
The Life of Mason............
233
Lowell Mason and Music for School Children............... 234
Lowell Mason's Philosophy of Music Education............. 236
The Precursors of Ma son
............
237
Mason's Influence...............
238
Mason's Contribution to kusic Education.................. 238
v
1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Study
Iowell Mason (1792-1972) on one occassion said that he might "humbly
claim to be, in a sense, the father of singing among the children in this
1
country*"
His name, and the bald fact that Mason was the first American
teacher to give musical instruction in public schools as part of the regu­
lar curriculum, are well known to workers in the field of music education,
but are probably less well known to the members of the teaching profession
not directly concerned with music education and to members of the musical,
profession as distinct from the music education group#
Mason’s contribution is ignored by such standard histories of educa2
tion as those written by Cubberly
3
and P. Monroe, but is mentioned by
4
Graves
and by some of the more specialized texts dealing with American
education, as for example, those of W. Monroe
5
6
and Cubberly, and is given
l#Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851,p #14*
2,3. P. Cubberly, The History of Education,
3,Paul Monroe, A Text Book in the History of Education,
4,Frank P« Graves, A Student’s History of Educationtp#293»
5,Will S* Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United States.
pp. 159-162*
6*E.P.Cubberly, Public Education in the United States,p,272.
2
considerable attention by Birge^ in what appears to be at the time of this
writing the only general history of American public school music*
Before
o
1900 short essays on Lowell Mason had been published by Barnard,
Seward,
4
and Tilden:
panegyrical.
5
3
Thayer,
all of these with the exception of Barnard's were
In more recent years Hobson6 and Baldwin^ have done research
on special phases of Mason's life in connection with the requirements for
their Master of Arts degree?, but neither of their theses has
been published.
No comprehensive study of Mason's work based upon (1) his writings and
closely related primaxy source materials, (2) the writings of Pestalozzi,
"
/ »
Pfeiffer and Nageli and (3; the writings of later music educators, has yet,
to the knowledge of this writer, been made.
The researcher, aware of the
value of such a study, has accordingly undertaken to present a systematic
description and analysis of Lowell Mason's contribution to music education.
The objectives of the study may therefore be stated thus:
1. To present in a systematic manner Mason's contribution
to music education, including his own teaching in the
Boston public schools and in other schools, and his work
in teacher training.
1.
Edward B. Birge, History of Public School Masic in the United States.
p* 18 at. seq.
2.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, American Journal
of Education. IV (1857), pp. 141-148.
3.
A. V. Thayer, Lowell Mason.
4.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason*
5.
William S. Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Dr*
Lowell Mason. January 8, 1892.
6.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, unpublished M. A. Thesis,
University of Southern California, 1933.
7.
Sister Mary F. X. Baldwin, Lowell Mason's Philosophy of Masic Eduoation.
unpublished M* A. Thesis, Catholic University of America, 1937.
3
2* To make clear the significant relationships between
Mason, his precursors, his contemporaries, and his
successors in music education*
3* To summarize his major contributions to music
education*
4* To assemble a bibliography of his writings and
important compilations of music*
The Scope*
This dissertation includes a brief description of .American musical and
educational conditions during the second quarter of the nineteenth century
because this is necessary for an understanding of Mason's work*
The life of Mason, the influence of other educators upon him, his edu­
cational work in detail, his educational ideas and his influence upon later
music educators will all be treated as completely as necessary for an ade­
quate analysis of his contribution to music education.
However, the dissertation will not include a treatment of Mason, the
musician, except insofar as this is necessary for an understanding of Mason,
the music educator*
Materials Available*
The investigator has had at his disposal practically all of the published
works of Lowell Mason*
These include the didactic writings, the compilations
of music for educational, religious and secular purposes, the hymnals and
psalteries, the three lectures on church music, the collection of letters and
portions of Mason's journal written on his European sojourn, the very impor­
tant letter to his son in which he outlined his philosophy of music education,
a few articles in the magazine which he edited for a year, and several of the
musical collections of which he was partly the author or compiler*
The writer has also had access to most of the annual reports of the Bos­
ton Academy of Music, many of the city documents of the period which relate
4
to music in the public schools of Boston, Cincinnati, St. louis, and Chicago;
to the annual reports of the secretary of the Board of Education of Mass**
achusetts during Horace Mann’s tenure; to the original editions of Pfeiffer
ff
ff
and Nagelifa Gesangbildungslehre nach Pest alo zzi schen Grundaat zen, and of
Neef's Sketch of a Plan and Method of Education, and to the works of Pestal­
ozzi in both the original German and in English translation.
Important secondary sources included most of the issues of the American
Annals of Education during the period of Woodbridge's editorship, many mis­
cellaneous musical periodicals of the period 1830-1850, an almost complete
file of Barnard’s American Journal of Education, several Issues of the Pro­
ceedings of the American Institute of Instruction for the 1830-1840 period.
Of the more recent secondary sources, the Investigator found Blrge’s History
of Public School Music in the United States especially helpful.
Mr. Henry
Iowell Mason of Boston, Massachusetts, grandson of the subject of the dis­
sertation, provided the writer with material which in several cases was of
great confirmatory value.
Method of Research.
The historical method was employed, and included these steps:
1.
the delimitation of the research field
2.
the utilization of the sources
3. the statement of the facts
4. the establishment of the validity of the
facts
5.
the arrangement and organization of the facts
6.
the formulation of the conclusions.
It may be pertinent to remark that original
possible, that the original sources were checked
sources were usedwherever
against each other for con­
sistency, that the secondary sources were repeatedly compared with the
5
original sources.
Unless otherwise noted in the text, statements regard­
ing influences upon Mason were based upon proof that Mason was acquainted
with the writings or the practice of the author of that influence, and
likewise, statements concerning Mason's influence upon others, unless other­
wise indicated, were founded upon proof that these men were aware of the
work of Mason.
The author sincerely tried to base his interpretations and
conclusions upon unimpeachable evidence.
Importance of the Study.
The value of a dissertation on a nineteenth century American educator
in a highly specialized field may be questioned by some..
It is maintained,
however, that the study of the past is useful in understanding the present.
In order to have a reasonably clear perspective of music education in this
country today, it is necessary to know something of its beginnings a century
ago, and of the ideals and ideas which were responsible for those beginnings.
It seems to the writer that one practical way by which this under­
standing may be achieved is to study the accomplishment of the great American
pioneer in the field of music education.
It is true that music in the public
schools has expanded enormously since Mason's first efforts, and that in
some respects, in this field, by the third decade of the twentieth century
"the United States had gone ahead of all nations of the world"."*- In order
to understand fully today's efflorescence "in public school music" one must
be acquainted with its beginnings.
Since "there is no adequate biography as yet",2 and since there is no
1.
Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 283.
2.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 286*
6
inclusive study of Mason's truly significant work in music education, it
would seem that a dissertation on Lowell Mason, Music Bducator would not
be unimportant.
\
7
CHAPTER II
THE TIMES OP LOWELL MASON
Economic Eactors.
At the close of the eighteenth century and throughout the first half
of the nineteenth, the United States was an agrarian nation with most of
its population living in the seaboard states.
Steady migration successive
ly settled the western sections of New York state, the Ohio valley, and
1
the Mississippi valley.
There were but few cities, and these were supported by commerce and
local industry.
Boston, one of the largest, in 1830, had a population of
61,000, and from it radiated one hundred and ten of the country’s eight
2
hundred and forty-one miles of railroad track.
A contemporary description:
The finest hotel in the United States, called the
Tremont House, contains nearly 200 apartments....
The periodicals of the city are more than 60, in^cluding 31 newspapers, 7 of which are daily. The
public schools are not equaled in any other city
of the world....There are more stage coaches run­
ning to and from this city than any other in
America, the number of daily arrivals and depar­
tures is about 250.
The Common School Revival.
In the country as a whole, "during the second quarter of the nineteenth
1.
Roscoe L. Ashley, American History, pp. 281-282.
2.
Charles T. Rice, Boston, The Cradle of Public School M u b Ic in America,
National Education Association Proceedings 1910, p. 799.
3.
Ibid., quoting "A gazeteer of this period published in Philadelphia."
8
century there took place a remarkably rapid advance in public education,
1
which haa been generally known aa the common achool revival."
"It was
thi8 generation which aettled, by strenuous agitation, the principle of
2
free, non-sectarian, tax-supported and Btate-controlled schools."
The
framework of the .American school system, its division into primary,
intermediate, grammar and high schools emerged, but the prevailing type
of secondary school throughout the period was the academy*
In the lower
schools the children studied "reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and
grammar;"4 in the high schools and academies, either the college-prepara­
tory curriculum or a curriculum including "subjects of a modern nature,
useful in preparing youths for the changed conditions of society and
5
government and business.
Music Education in America.
lixsic education as we now know it did not exist at the beginning of
this period.
There was very little music of any kind in the
United States a hundred years ago, and none at
all in the schools. The popular conception was
that a few persons were born with a peculiar and
mysterious talent which enabled them to learn to
play or sing, and that for other people, music
was of little consequence and certainly not of
sufficient importance to be taught in school.
1.
F. P. Graves, A History of Education in Modern Times. Chapter VI.
2.
E. B. Birge, Histoiy of Public School Music in the United States, p. 62.
3.
Elwood P. Cubberly, A Brief History of Education, pp. 384-385.
4.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 62.
5.
Elwood P. Cubberly, A Brief History of Education, p. 385.
6.
Earl ff. Gehrkens, Public School Music, T h e .International Cyclopedia of
Music and Musicians, p. 1458.
-?
g
This is remarkable, for the British colonies in America were founded at a
period when musical culture in England was at one of the highest levels it
has ever attained; the cavalier families of the South were not unmusical,
and even the Puritans, who settled New England, "were as a class, in no
way antagonistic to or unappreciative of m u s i c . f t o b a b l y the urgency of
practical problems in the new country together with the traditional meagre­
ness of music in common education in Europe, brought about the almost complete absence of it in the schools of the new world.
2
Effort was made from time to time in the eighteenth century to train
children to sing, but not the mass of children, and only in connection with
adult musical ventures.
For example in 1720 Thomas Symes in connection
with his plea for better music in churches mentioned that it might be desir­
able for children to be taught to sing;
in 1753 William Tuckey began
classes for ’singing-scholars’ in the rooms of Trinity Church in New York,
and somewhat later similar classes were held in Philadelphia and other
3
cities.
But until "one hundred years ago the simple song school con­
ducted by an itinerant teacher was almost the sole means of musical edu­
cation^
"they appealed to boys and girls quite as much as to their elders—
g
though they did not often include little children."
Futhermore, "only
a small and select minority of people actually attended the singing school."
1.
Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 283.
2.
George Hood, History of Music in New England, p. 65.
3*
Grove’s Dictionary of Misic and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 333.
.
4
M. F. 2. Baldwin, Lowell Mason’s Philosophy of Misic Education, p. 1
5.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 333.
6.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 36.
10
At the beginning of the period, "there was no appreciation of the
educational values of music among the general run of educational leaders
and authorities."^"
In 1839 the Boston Academy of Music reported that "it
is not easy to convey to others an idea of the apathy which formerly ex­
isted" in relation to the subject of education in music.
When Lowell
Mason first
proposed to give a public exhibition of the pro­
ficiency in music made by a class of about two
hundred children who had received gratuitous in­
struction under his care, we well remember the
coldness, not to say contempt, with which the
proposition was received by individuals of in­
telligence, whose opinions upon subjects connec­
ted with education had weight with the public.
Apparently it was regarded by them as scarcely within the range of possi­
bility that the voices of children could be so trained as to produce any­
thing which deserved the name of music; and that, to bestow pains in teach­
ing such, or an hour in listening to them, was "but time and labor thrown
away."
"Nor is it at all probable that the sentiments of the public at
large, so far as any were entertained by them, were widely different."
After Mason had demonstrated repeatedly that singing by groups of children
was possible, the idea was prevalent that such singing was of no education­
al value, for "although children might sing songs by ear....they could not
4
acquire a systematic knowledge of music as of other arts and sciences."
Public exhibitions of children reading music at sight, and actual music
1. Ralph L. Baldwin, The Evolution of PublicSchool Music
in the United
from the Civil War to 1900, MusicTeachers NationalAssociation,
Papers and Proceedings. 1922, p. 171.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, pp. 3-4.
3. Ibid., p. 4.
4. Ibid., p. 5.
11
teaching in schools were used by Mason to overcome this attitude.
Music Education in Europe.
In Europe, music instruction had been given in medieval schools whose
function was to train liturgical singers: the schola cantorum, beginning in
the third century, the German choir schools of the Reformation period, and
the schools connected with cathedrals and certain national courts (Chapel
Royal.)
Por religious reasons, the musical instruction given in the pro-
testant German schools of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries had been
confined largely to the congregational chorales.
However, this musical
instruction and the secular music teaching of the Meistersingers and town
musicians from 1300 to 1500 were only indirectly related to modern music
education.^The second phase of music teaching was strongly influenced by the
humanitarian spirit that pervaded the democratic movement in the latter
part of the eighteenth century.
The school, instead of being for the church, was
developing more and more for the people. Hence
reforms in the methods of teaching were many and
radical. The desire to give everyone attending
school the rudiments of a musical education led
to the simplifying of notation....The influence
of such a reformer as Pestalozzi was felt.
One of
the first cities to take up music education in the modern sense
was Paris,
where Guillaume Louis Wilhelm (Bocquillon) becamedirector
general ofmusic in
into thecause
the municipal schools in 1819.
"He threwhimself
with an enthusiasm which soon produced striking results.
1.
Paul Monroe, A Cyclopsdia of Education. IV, pp. 349-350.
2.
Ibid.s p. 350.
3.
Ibid.
IB
The journals and reports of American educators who visited Europe
in the second quarter of the nineteenth century contain references to the
music teaching which they observed.
It is reasonable to assume that these
men visited the superior rather than the average or the below-average
schools, and that therefore their reports do not give a picture of the
average school music teaching in Europe but rather of that which was ex­
ceptionally fine or perhaps "progressive."
These reports were useful as
an inspiration end guide for American educators.^John Griscom, who visited Fellenberg's institution at Hofwyl in his
1818-1819 Journey described the musical instruction there thus:
After supper they went upstairs to the schoolroom,
to take a lesson in music. Their teacher (Vehrly)
is a young man of very extraordinary qualifications.
....The boys always take a lesson of one hour, be­
tween supper and bed. This lesson is frequently
confined to music. They are taught by principles,
but they use no instrument but their vocal organs.
Fellenberg lays great
stress on music as a means
of bringing the mind and heart into harmony with
truth, and of inspiring the mild and benevolent
affections.2
Griscom also noted that at Robert
Owen's school at New Lanark,"before the
evening school closes, the pupils
all collect into one room, and sing a
hymn."3
William C. Woodbridge, who had been associated with Fellenberg at Hofjryl,
observed that the music teaching there was conducted "agreeably to the views
of Pestalozzi."4
He perhaps over-estimated the influence of the music instruc-
1.
Edgar W. Knight, Reports on European Education, p. 2.
2.
John Griscom, Selections from A Year In Europe, Knight, Edgar W., Reports
on European Education, p. 41. Material in parenthesis in original.
3.
Ibid., p. 93.
4.
William C. Woodbridge, Sketches of Hofwyl, American Annals of Education.
1832, p. 14.
13
ticn then being given in all the German and Swiss schools on the basis of
what he saw at Hofwyl, but he did see that in these countries, music was
the property of the people, cheering their hours of
labor, elevating their hearts above the objects of
sense....and filling the periods of rest and amuse­
ment with social and moral songs, in place of noise,
riot, and gambling.1
The realization of the social importance of music led Woodbridge to
crusade for music education in America.
In 1838, Alexander Dallas Bache, president of Girard College, reported
of a school at The Hague:
l&ich more attention than with us, but not more then
is due, is given to natural history, singing and
drawing in the continental institutions, but with­
out neglecting the claims of ancient and modern
languages, geography ang the usual branches of a
full elementary course.
Calvin E. Stowe, in his report to the Governor and Assembly of Ohio in
1837, thus described the music teaching in one of Diesterweg's Berlin
schools which he visited in September, 1836:
The method of teaching music has already been suc­
cessfully introduced into our own state (Ohio) and
whoever visits the schools of Messrs. Mason* or
Solomon in Cincinnati will have a much better idea
of what it is than any description can give.
Horace Mann in 1843 reported that "all Prussian teachers are masters
not only of vocal, but of instrumental music....music was not only taught
1. Boston Acadeny of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 4.
2. Alexander Dalis Bache, Report on Education in Europe, Princeton Review
April 1, 1840, p. 257.
*
T. B. Mason, Lowell Mason’s brother.
3. Calvin E. Stowe, Report on Elementary Public Instruction to his Excel­
lency the Governor and the Honorable General Assembly of the State of
Ohio, December 18, 1837, Edgar W. Knight, Reports on European Education.
p. 271, p. 290.
14
in school as an accomplishment, hut used as a recreation."
Church Music in America.
The psalmody, or psalms for congregational singing which the Puritans
brought with them from England, were contained in Henry Ainsworth’s Psalter.
published 1612, in Amsterdam.
This continued to be used by the congrega­
tion at Plymouth for seventy years, and that of Salem for forty years, but
in most of the churches it was superseded in 1640 by the Bay Psalm Book.
which had been prepared by a group of New England divines under the leadership of Welde, Eliot of Roxbury, and Mather of Dorchester.
For more than
a century this book was almost the only one used in the New England churches.
4
But in the struggle for mere existence, "the children grew up without
even learning to sing the simplest melody by note.
Many of the psalm tunes
supgby the Pilgrim fathers sank into oblivion, and....for eighty or ninety
years nomore than ten different tunes, if so many, were used in public worg
ship."
The knowledge and use of notes had so long been neglected, that the
0
few melodies sung became corrupted, until no two individuals sang them alike.
At the beginning of the eighteenth century the sing­
ing in the churches had so much depreciated that this
part of worship could only be sustained with diffi­
culty, and about 1720, when the evil had become too
great to be borne any longer, several clergymen and
1.
Horace Mann, Annua1 Report of the Secretary of the Board of Education of
Massachusetts for 1543, p. 345.
2.
Lowell Mason and George J. Webb, The National Psalmist, p. 2.
3.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America, p. 6.
4.
George Hood, A History of Music in New England, p. 50.
5.
Frederic Iouis Ritter, Music j,£ America, p. 9.
6.
George Hood, A History of Music in New England, p. 84.
15
others set themselves seriously about the work of re­
form.
These efforts over a period of many years, which were carried on despite op­
position, centered around (1) the publication of such manuals as Walter’s*
and Tuft's** A Very Plain and Easy Introduction to the Art of Singing Psalm
p
Tunes. 1712;
(2) voluntary singing societies in which note-reading was
taught;3
(3) the seating of the best singers together as a choir "to pre­
side over the hymn tunes during worship;4
(4) the publication of new psalm
and anthem books based upon such English collections as Playford’s The Whole
Book of Psalms. 1677, and Tansur's Royal Melody Complete. 1754.
Lowell Mason considered both of these last to be "inferior English com­
posers. .. .preparing the way for the still lower character of tunes which came
up about the time of the American Revolution, and which even now (1849) are
d
heard in some parts of the country."
The "still lower character of tunes"
to which Mason referred were the fuguing tunes,
....lively melodies in the imitative form, the parts
corresponding to each other like a "catch* or madrigal.
The contrast with the heavy, lifeless style that then
prevailed proved very attractive. Persons with some
musical genius but no knowledge of harmony took up the
fhshion, nnd the country was flooded with their chaotic
compositions. The last state of the churches was but
1.
Lowell Mason and George J. Webb, The National Psalmist, p. 2.
*
Rev. Thomas Walter of Roxbury, Mass.
**
Rev. John Tufts, pastor of the Second Church in
2.
George Hood, A History of Music in New England, p. 65, p. 75.
3.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America, p. 27
4.
Ibid., p. 48.
5.
Ibid., p. 39, p. 46.
B.
Iowell Mason and George J. Webb, The National Psalmist, p. 2.
Newbury.
16
little better than the first.1
Aa the composition and ubs of the fugue-tunes went to ludicrous extremes,
"the singing of the several church choirs" of Boston became "a deplorable
noise, but was the nearest approach to music that was to be heard inmost
of the congregational churches, one or two only of which possessed an organ«..."
2
A reaction set in about 1810; it was in this year that the choir
of the Park Street Church in Boston "set its face and example against the socalled fuguing tunes,"
and opposition to this style of church music became
sufficiently strong that "compilers of psalm tune collections went so far as
to exclude....all tunes written by American composers."
4
But these isolated
steps by a few choirs and compilers of church music could not have produced
a wide-spread and lasting effect:
for as Thayer says,
a man of skill, knowledge, and judgment was needed,
one who should take up the work as a vocation, a
mission. Young Mason was to be the man, than whom
no person living could have less foreseen the fact.
Secular Music in America.
"Until the latter part of the eighteenth century there was practically no
choral singing except in the church,"
at which time singing schools and
choral societies began to come into being.
The singing schools were first "intended for the exclusive purpose of
1.
T. S’. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Iowell Mason, p. 6.
2.
Samuel A. Eliot, Music in America, North American Review, III (April,
1841) p. 329.
9.
A. W. Thayer, Iowell Mason, p. 25.
4.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Misic in America, p. 98.
5.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 26.
6.
Henry C. Lahee, A Century of Choral Singing in New England, New England
Magazine, new series XXVI, (March, 1902), p. 102.
17
improvement in church song" but soon became "schools for learning music
1
merely."
They were private enterprises conducted by an itinerant teacher
of varying ability ,“ who was responsible only to the members of his class,
and who collected from each student a small fee for his services.
Most
of the students were mature people, and for that reason the classes usually
met in the evening after the day's work was finished.
The singing school
was both a social and musical gathering and was the focal point of the
winter's recreational activities in most rural sections; it "coordinated
American community life to a degree possibly unequaled by any other single
3
force."
The movement lasted until well into the nineteenth century and
was nation-wide in scope.
The instruction consisted of some elementary rules
for singing and for the rudiments of rau^ic....The
singers were taught to beat time for themselves, to
sing simple melodic progressions in hymn tunes and
other easy choral music, and to follow their own
voice parts.
They were usually very much in earnest,
the majority of them learning to read music with
some degree of skill.4
Societies for singing music, as distinguished from the singing-schools
for music
reading, began to be organised somewhat later. Typical
more successful of these
of the
was the Boston Handel and Haydn Society, of which
Mason was president from 1827-1832.
This had been organized in 1815, and
"its influence upon musical taste was immediately and extensively felt.
The Messiah of Handel and The Creation of Haydn were now heard for the
first time in Boston, and....oratorios or concerts of excellent music were
1.
Ldwell Mason, The People's Tune Book, p. ii.
2.
Lowell Mason, .address on Church
3.
2. N. C. Barnes, Should Lowell Mason Come to Town, p. 5.
4.
W. J. Baltzell, Old Time Community Music, Music Teachers National Asso­
ciation Papers and Proceedings. 1922, p. 72.
Uisic. 1851, p. 29.
18
p e r f o r m e d . A l t h o u g h the society included almost all the chorus singers
in the town who could read nusic, and certainly some who could not read
music, yet the number of voices seldom exceeded a hundred.
In the early
years,the tetal balance must have been curious:
the alto of women's voices, now universal, was then
unknown....No woman sung the alto; such a thing had
not been heard of. The alto, where there was any,
was sung by men's voices; but as there were only two
or three men who attempted to sing this part, its
effect was almost lost to the chorus.2
The treble....in the Handel and Haydn Society was
sung in whole or in part by men's voices, and the
tenor was often sung by women's voices....3
Occasional public concerts were held in the larger cities toward the
middle of the eighteenth century.
held in Boston in 1731.
"The first recorded public concert was
Report places ballad-opera performances in New York
in 1732, and concerts in 1 7 6 2 . These became more frequent by the middle
of the nineteenth century with the establishment of instrumental and choral
ensembles.
At the beginning of this period there was little musical culture as we
know it today.
The musical resources of the ordinary town con­
sisted of the church chorus choir, an occasional
singing society or town brass band, here and there
a private teacher of piano and the singing-school.
People had to travel to the cities to hear good
concerts, and they were not plentiful. Except
for th‘) concert advantage, and a greater number
of private teacher, the cities were no better off
1.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 7.
2.
Ibid., p. 11.
3.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 12.
4.
E. N. C. Barnes, Should Lowell Mason Come to Town, p. 3.
19
than the towns.^
The times were ripe for a musical advance.
"Lowell Mason, at thirty-seven
years of age....became for twenty-five years the central figure of a period
of musical progress which was unique because of its notional scope."
2
1.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United Statep, p. 58.
2.
Ibid., p. 19.
20
CHAPTER III
THE LIEE OP MASON
Ancestry
Lowell Mason was born at the scattered hamlet of Medfield, Massa­
chusetts, some eighteen miles to the southwest of Boston, January 6,
1
1792, and died at Orange, New Jersey, August 11,1872.
He was the son of Johnson Mason and Catherine Eartshome,
2
and of
the sixth generation of Thomas Mason and Margery Partridge who had settied in Medfield in 1653.
3
His grandfather, Barachias Mason, who had
graduated from Harvard in 1742, was a schoolmaster, teacher of singingschools, and selectman of the town of Medfield for several years.
His
father, Colonel Johnson Mason, one of the most prominent and influential
men in the town, held the office of town clerk for nineteen years, was
town treasurer, a member of the legislature, and was commissioned a
captain in 1800 and lieutenant-colonel in 1803#
He was a merchant, and
also manufactured straw goods, for which last business he had invented
some useful machinery.
He also kept a school for many years.
The musi­
cal ability which Johnson Mason inherited from Barachias Mason and which
he transmitted to his son Lowell Mason, manifested itself in his ability
to perform on several musical instruments, particularly the violoncello,
in his singing in the parish choir for more than twenty years, and, at
1. A.W.Thayer, Lowell Mason,p.24#
2# Prank J.Metcalf, American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Music,
p.211.
3# William S.Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Dr.
Lowell Mason, p.276.
21
the age of seventy, his appearing in a civic musical celebration, lead­
ing the bass section of the chorus.^
Boyhood
The first twenty years of Mason's life were spent at the family
home in Medfield; he was surrounded by people who, for that day, were
well educated, and of high moral and religious character.
His parents
were in fairly comfortable circumstances and permitted him considerable
freedom in following the promptings of his natural genius, which early
showed itself.
2
Although at that period schools were open for only a few months
3
each winter,
nevertheless the schools at Medfield, one of which, the
North School, Mason attended, were under the supervision of a Dr. Prentiss, and "they were doubtless fairly good schools" for that period.
4
One of Mason's schoolmates said that he was one of the best scholars
in the school, and another that he was-"the most popular, talented and
handsomest young man in town."
While an adolescent, Mason assisted his father in the manufacturing of straw bonnets,
a
as a clerk in the store,
7
and in various other
1.
William S. Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Dr.
Lowell Mason, pp. 279-280.
2.
Ibid., p. 278.
3.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 24.
4.
Tilden, op. cit., p. 281.
5.
Inc. cit.
6.
W. S. B. Mathews, The lowell Mason Centennial, Music I (February
1892), p. 400.
7.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 3.
22
1
capacities.
From early childhood Mason had an intense love for music and gave
much time to its study;
2
almost instinctively he played every kind of
musical instrument available,
3
and his small means were devoted to the
purchase of instruments and of the instruction books then in vogue.
4
Although largely self-taught, he was particularly fortunate in that
several of his Medfield neighbors were musical and willing to help him
to learn music.
Among these may be mentioned George Whitefield Adams,
who built organs at his homestead (next door to the Mason's), who led
5
the Medfield band, and with whom Mason went to Savannah in 1812.
An­
other neighbor, Amos Albee, a schoolmaster, singing teacher, and com­
piler of The Norfolk Collection of Sacred Harmony, whose singing school
Ms son attended at the age of thirteen,
assisted Mason in his musical
studies; as did Lebbeus Smith, a relative, who was a singing master of
the early nineteenth century.
A fine violinist, James Clark, also lived
in Medfield during Mason’s boyhood.
7
A little later, Mason studied for
a limited time with Oliver Shaw of the nearby town of Dedham, who be­
1.
Daniel Gregory Mason, How Young Lowell Mason Travelled to Savannah,
New England Magazine, n.s. X X V I .(April>1902), pp. 236-240.
2.
M. F. X. Baldwin, Lowell Mason's Philosophy of Music Education, p. 3.
3.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American
Journal of Education IV (1857), p. 141.
4.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 24.
5.
Williams. Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Dr.
Lowell Mason, p. 281.
6.
M. B. Scanlon, Pioneer Music Masters, Music Educators Journal.XXV,
1. (September 1938), p. 19.
7.
Tilden, op. cit., p. 281.
23
sides being a composer and compiler of church music books, was a teacher
of music.^
Mason's musical efforts were not unappreciated.
Tilden says
p
that
"it was his common practice....to play from the meeting-house steps,
summer evenings, upon the flute or clarinet, to the young people who
would congregate around the locality."
Thayer tells of Mason's visit­
ing e singing school in a neighboring town and "enchanting the young
2
people by his beauty and the tone of his violoncello."
At the age of sixteen Mason became leader of the local parish choir,
and at twenty he conducted the music at the ordination service for a Dr.
Ranger of Dover, writing an anthem for the occasion, probably aided by
Amos Albee.
4
During these years he also conducted singing schools in
villages near Medfield,
and Thayer
7
5
and organized instrumental groups.
Seward
6
both mention one band rehearsal at which Mason encountered
several instruments which were new to him:
on the pretext of putting
them in order and in tune, he retained them in hand; by the next weekly
meeting he had mastered them sufficiently to meet the demands upon him
as conductor.8
1.
Henry Lowell Mason in a letter to the author.
2.
William S. Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of theBirth
Iowell Mason, p. 283.
3.
A. W. Thayer, Iowell Mason, p. 24.
4.
Tilden, op. cit., p. 283.
5.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, p. 4.
6.
T, F. Seward, The Educational .York of Dr. Lowell Mason,
7.
8.
of Dr.
p. 4.
W, Thayer, Iowell Mason, p. 24.
Tilden, op. cit., p. 284, mentions this incident as happening in
Savannah.
24
During this period neither Mason nor his family intended that he
should take up a musical career as a life work,^ but "the twenty years
of his life [which he spent") in doing nothing save playing upon all manO
ner of musical instruments that came within his reach"
turned out in
later years to heve been a most valuable practical experience.
Savannah Period
In 1812 at the a, e of twenty, Mason, intent on finding a position
3
which might offer a favorable means of livelihood,
arrived at Savannah,
4
Georgia, and shortly became a clerk in one of the banks there.
He was
not long in making his musical abilities known.
Rumors of the wonderful talent of the young New
Englander had reached the eers of the citizens
end he was invited to favor them with some speci­
mens of his powers. On the appointed evening he
appeared before a large audience in the lecture
room of one of the churches. They....(as he took
much pleasure in describing fifty years later),
were quite over-whelmed when he stood up with his
"base-viol" resting on a chair in front of him
and played and sang two different parts at the
same time; an exhibition of skill for which they
were not prepared.
He became an active worker in the Independent Presbyterian Church
of Savannah,
6
led its choir and was organist for seven years.
7
He
1.
William M b son, Memories of a Musical Life, p. 5.
2.
George B. Bacon, Sermon Commemorative of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 12.
3.
W, S. B. Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Father in American Music, The Musi­
cian, XVI, 11, (November, 1911), p. 721.
4.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, III, p. 341.
5.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Iowell Mason, p. 5.
in parenthesis, Seward’s.
6.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 285.
7,
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason, Educator, p. 5.
Material
25
helped organize and for many years was superintendent of what was at that
time the only Sunday School in Savannah, and which is said to be the
second one in this country.'*'
It was a large school, and in it
all of the different Christian denominations uni­
ted.* It was while engaged in this school, that
he formed those habits of intercourse with chil­
dren, which afterward proved so valuable, when
teaching became a daily occupation of his life.^
In Savannah, too, he studied harmony and musical composition with
3
hi3 first thoroughly-instructed teacher, F. L. Abel,
many who had just then come to Savannah.
"a native of Ger­
He was a thoroughly trained
musician, and Mason benefited from contact with such a one."4
Mason
made such rapid progress that in the course of this part-time instruc­
tion he composed hymns and anthems^ of quality good enough to warrant
their publication at the height.of his career many years later.
1.
T. F. Seward, The .Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 5.
*.
Seward, op. cit., p. 5, states that "It was in connection with the
First Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member." The First
Presbyterian Church of Savannah was not organized until 1827 accor­
ding to Grove's Dictionary of Music and Liusiclans, American Supple­
ment, p. 285; The First -annual Report of the Boston Academy of
Music, 1.333, p. 3, says that it was in July, 1827, that Mason
arrived in Boston with his family to take up his work there. More­
over, a-bbie Hobson in Lowell Mason,^ Educator, p. 5, mentions that
"just before he left Savannah, he (Mason) was one of four who asked
to be dismissed from the Independent Presbyterian Church, in order
that they might organize the First Presbyterian Church of Savannah.
2.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Dr. Lowell Mason, American
Journal of Education. IV, 1857, p. 141.
3.
John S. Dwight, Liisic in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston.
IV, p. 42(1.
4.
Henry Lowell Mason, in a letter to the author.
5.
William I.5ason, Memories of a Musical life, p. 5.
o.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, p. 5.
26
Marriage
In 1817 Lowell Mason married Abigail Gregory of Westborough,Mass­
achusetts, who like himself, was of Puritan stock.^
Their four sons,
Daniel Gregory, Lowell, William and Henry, were leaders in American musi­
cal affairs during the second half of the nineteenth century:
Daniel
Gregory and Lowell were music publishers, Lowell and Henry, piano and
2
organ manufacturers, and William, a noted concert pianist and teacher.
The Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Music
While studying with Abel, Mason compiled a collection of psalm and
*
hymn tunes using as model William Gardiner's Sacred Melodies.^ Gardner's
six-volume compendium of tunes from the great masters, to which he had
affixed religious verses in English, had been assembled in the hope that
the quality of its music would lead to its adoption by English churches
with the consequent abandonment of the hymnals then in use, which were
4
full of "clumsy verses of Sternhold and Hopkins, and Tate and Brady...."
If anything, American psalmody was more illiterate and inexpressive
than the British, and Mason was motivated in making his collection by
the desire to improve musical standards and taste in American churches.
The compilation contained examples of the better psalm tunes then in use
in England, melodies from Handel, Mozart, Beethoven and other great com­
posers, which Mason had harmonized "for three and four voices with a
1. Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason,Educator, pp.4-5.
2. T.F.Seward, The Educational Work of D r .Lowell Mason,p.50.
3. Grove'a Dictionary of Music and Musicians,III,p.341.
4. Grove *s Dictionary of Music and Musicians,II,p.349.
5. W.S.B.Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Ihther in American Music, The lAisician.
XVI, 11,(November, 1911),p.721.
27
figured base^sic/for the organ or pianoforte,"* end a few of Mason’s own
compositions.
It was completed between 1818 and 1821.
Since none of the printing offices in the Southern states had adecuate equipment for publishing such 8 musical collection,
2
Mason attempted
to find a publisher in Philadelphia, Boston, or some other large Northern
3
city.
Unable to induce any publishing house to risk issuing the work in
4
spite of the fact that he asked no royalty,
the project
Mason was about to abandon
when he happened to meet Dr. G. K. Jackson,* the organist
of the then six-year old Boston Handel and Haydn Society, who saw the
merits of the collection and who urged the society to sponsor its publication.
6
This the society did on the strength of his recommendation.
After a careful study of the manuscript, Jackson suggested that a few
1.
The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Music, title
page.
2.
A. Yvr. Thayer,
'
3.
Abbie Hobson,
'
4.
T. F. Sew8rd, r.
5.
Abbie Hobson, !
*
Louis C. Elson
says that Jackson was then the most prominent musician in Boston;
Frederic L. Hitter in Music in America, p. 119 says:
Dr. G. K. Jackson was a schoolmate of R. Taylor and
Dr. Arnold. He came to America in 1796. He at first
lived in Norfolk, Va.; then at Alexandria, Baltimore,
Philadelphia, and New York.
In 1812 he removed to
Boston, and became organist of the Brattle Street
Church....and was successively organist at King's
Chapel, Trinity Church, and St. Paul's Church. The
Bostonians looked upon him as a great musician, and
he was engaged as music-teacher to the first families
of Boston.
6.
John Tasker Howard, Our American Music, Three Hundred Years of It, p. 139.
28
details be modified, and that a few pieces of his own be included/
be
then wrote a glowing endorsement which concluded with, "It is much the
best book of the kind I have seen published in this country, and I do
not hesitate to give it my most decided approbation."
O
This statement
was printed as an advertisement in the book.
The collection was titled The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Col­
lection of Church Music and issued late in 1821, with the date 1822.3
4
Mason was not named as author or compiler, for as Metcalf quotes him,
"I was then a bank officer in Savannah and did not wish to be known us
a musical man, and I had not thought of making music ray profession."
The preface did, however, state that
....the society have for some time been engaged....
in collecting materials for the present work....
They consider themselves peculiarly fortunate in
having had, for the accomplishment of their pur­
pose, the assistance of Mr. Lowell Mason, one of
their members, now resident in Savannah, whose
taste and science have well fitted him for the em­
ployment, and whose zeal for the improvement of
church music had led him to undertake an important
part in selecting, arranging, ana harmonizing the
several compositions.^
and the second edition:
In the general selection of the music and revision
of the harmonies of this edition, the Society are
happy in acknowledging their obligations to Mr.
Iowell Mason, one of their members, "a gentleman
whose musical science is highly honorable to
1.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 27.
2.
Iowell Mason, The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church
Music, p . i.
3.
A. 7»r. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 27,
4.
iTank H. Metcalf, .American Writ era and Compilers of Sacred Music, p. 212.
5.
The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of
edition.
Church Music, first
29
American talent."^At a later period, when Mason definitely thought of himself as a pro­
fessional musician, his name appeared as the author in the subsequent
editions of the collection:
for example, the title page of the eight­
eenth edition, 1838, reads, "The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Col­
lection of Church Music,.,.by Iowell Mason.,.."
An immediate success, the first edition sold out before the end of
the year
2
twenty-two
and "successive editions followed each other to the number of
3
in the next thirty-five years.
copies were sold between 1822 and 1858.
5
4
In all, moro than 50,000
The exact profit of the book
to Mason and to the Handel and Haydn Society is not known, but Seward
gives §10,000, Grove’s Dictionary
7
6
8 ,
§12,000, and Hobson §30,000 as the
share each received.
Handsome as were the financial returns of The Boston Handel and
Haydn Society Collection of Church Music, other results were more im­
portant.
1.
The Handel and Haydn Society was made financially secure
The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Music,
second edition, p. vi.
2.
A. V/. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 28.
3.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Iowell Mason, p.
7.
4.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, p. 8, gives seventeen as
the number of editions, end A. W. Thayer, Iowell Meson, p. 28,
gives "ten or eleven" as the number.
5.
S. A. Allibona, A Critical Dictionary of English Literature and
British and -americsn Authors. II, p. 1237.
6.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Iowell Mason, p. 8.
7.
ttrote's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 285.
8.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, p. 8.
30
during its early years and its permanency assured.^- The success of the
book turned public attention upon its author, and caused him to decide
to make music a profession.
2
Widely circulated throughout the country,
the collection had an enormous affect for the better on musical taste,
and marked the beginning of a new period in American church music.
Early Years In Boston
The details of publication of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society
Collection of Church Music having been settled, I.teson returned to his
bank position and other duties in Savannah.
4
His choir at the Independ­
ent Presbyterian Church, Dr. Kallock, pastor, became famous for its excellence and for the devotional character which it gave the services;
5
and visitors such as Deacon Julius Palmer of Dr. Iyman Beecher's church
g
of Boston, who attended a service there in 1825
were so impressed that
7
they made efforts to have Mason take up similar work in Boston.
This,
along with Mason’s Address on Church Music, Delivered By Request On The
Evening of Saturday, October 7, 1826 In The Vestry of Hanover Church
and On The Evening of the Monday Hollowing, In the Third Baptist Church,
1.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 28.
2.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, p. 8.
3.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. IowellMason, p.
4.
W. S. B. Mathews, The Lowell Mason Centennial,Misic,I, (February,
1892), p. 403.
5.
Ibid.
6.
Henry
C.Lahee, A
Century of Choral Singingin NewEngland,
England Magazine, n.s. XXVI, (March, 1902), p. 108.
7.
W. S. B.
Mathews, Iowell Mason, A Ihther inAmerican
Musician XVI, 11,(November, 1911), p. 721.
3.
Music, The
New
31
Boston,* "which was heard with great interest, and which was published
soon after, and passed to a second edition,"
2
the growing prestige of
3
his collection of church music,
and the efforts of an influential group
of gentlemen "who were convinced that special efforts were due the cause
of psalmody,"
4
led to Mason's removal to 3oston in July, 182?
5
in order
to fulfill a contract, the terms of which follow.
A committee of gentlemen from the three churches— the Essex Street,
the Hanover Street, and the Park Street Churches, then under the pestoral care of Rev. S. Green, Rev. Dr. Iyman Beecher, and Rev. Dr. Edward Beecher — guaranteed a salary of $2,000* a year for two years,
Mason to be in charge of the music in all three churches, and to serve
each in succession for six-month periods.
r>
However, Mason did not fulfill his part of the contract,8 for the
plan of managing three church choirs turned out to be impracticable; he
Q
restricted his attention to the choir of Dr. Iyraan Beecher's church.
1.
Title page, edition of 1827.
2.
Boston Academy of i&isic, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 3.
3.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 285.
4.
Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851. p
5.
Ibid., p. 9.
6.
Ibid.
*
W. S. 3. Mathews in The Iowell Mason Centennial
p. 402, gives "$1500 a year for three years."
7.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 3.
8.
Frank J. Metcalf,
9.
Henry C. Iahee, A Century of Choral Singing in New England, New .Eng­
land Magazine n.s. XXVI,(March 1902), p. 108.
. 7.
Music I, (February 1892),
American V/riters and Compilers of Sacred Music, p.
203.
32
To substitute an income for the salary which had been guaranteed by the
committee of the three churches, he took a position as a teller in the
American Bank; this left his efternoons available for music teaching.^
He continued in Dr. lyraan Beecher’s church for more than fourteen years,
and his work geve its choir a national reputation.
O
Seward says that
Pilgrimages were made from all parts of the land to
hear the wonderful singing.
Clergymen who attended
ministerial gatheri’igs in Boston carried home with
them oftimes quite as much musical as spiritual in­
spiration. The descriptions they gave of the beau­
tiful singing they had heard stimulated their choir
leaders....in behalf of church music, and also served
as an ideal toward which they should strive.3
In 1827, the year that he settled in Boston, Mason was elected
president of the Handel and Haydn Society, in which position he continued until 1832.
4
The duties of the president included conducting
the chorus rehearsals and concerts, and Meson advanced the standard
5
of performance very greatly,
but did not make any radical changes in
0
repertory or general policy.
In order that he might give more time to the teaching of vocal
music in classes to the children, Mason retired from the Handel and
Haydn Society presidency in 1832.
7
He had hoped for its backing in
1.
Abbie Hobson, Iowell Mason. Educator, p. 9.
2.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 9,
3.
T. F. Seward, The Educational IVork of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 9.
4.
Grove *s Dictionary of I.'usic and Musicians, III, p. 341.
5.
>7. S. B. Mathews, John S. Dwight, Editor, Critic and Man, Music .XT,
(Marchj 1889 ), p. 529.
6.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 285.
7.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 160.
33
organizing Juvenile classes in note-reading, but a conservative board
of managers declined to take any action on the matter, holding that
the purpose of the society was to cultivate classical and not elementary music.
1
Mathews indicates
2
that a contributing factor in Mason’s
withdrawal was that the standards for admission to the chorus were
then so low that few of the members could read music, nor were they
willing to take definite steps to overcome their deficiency; consequently
Mason considered the chorus incompetent.
Almost as soon as he arrived in Boston, and in connection with his
church choir, Mason began teaching classes of children vocal music, in
3
which work he had had some experience in Savannah.
As early as 1826,
he had publicly proclaimed in Boston that "a capacity for music is much
4
more conmon than is generally supposed",
that”some degree of cultivat-
?
ion is also necessary to enable us to enter into the spirit of singing",
6
that "children must be taught music as they are taught to read",
and
that "if music be not taught in childhood, much progress must not be
expected afterwards",
7
and he implied that it should be made a part of
the curriculum of common schools:
1« T.E.Seward, The Educational Work of Dr.Iowell M b b on.p p .15-14.
2* W.S.B.Mathews, John S.Dwight, Editor,Critic and Man, Music.XV.
(March,1889),p.529, and Lowell Mason, a Ehther in American Music,
The Musiclan.XVI. (November,1911),p.721.
3. Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American
Journal of Education,17.(1857),p.141.
4* Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music.1826.p.25.
5. Ibid.,p.24.
6. Ibid.,p.28.
7* Ibid.,p.29.
5
34
the practice of music might be pursued in such a
manner as to afford relief from other studies and
be a pleasant and agreeable employment.
It was in conformity with these convictions that Mason established his
gratuitous class and so maintained it "for six or eight years, or until
it was taken up by the Boston Acadeny of Music.''
2
This phase of Mason's work was flourishing when
the Rev. William C.Woodbridge....the warm friend
of education and of music in schools, arrived in
this country after several years' residence in
Germany
and Switzerland, where he had studied the work of Fellenberg at Hofwyl.
4
In 1830 Woodbridge addressed the American Institute of Instruction
at the State House in Boston on Vocal Music as
Branch of Common Edu-
5
cation, and in the course of the evening, a group of Mason's Juvenile
6
students sang.
In the address, Woodbridge said that he had become
"convinced of the importance and practicability of making it jmusicj a.
part of our common education",
7
which view was quite in hamnony with
0
those which Mason had pronounced four years earlier.
1. Lowell Mason, Address on Church 151810,1826,p.30.
2. Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851,p.14.
3. Ibid.
4. Will S.Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States,p.143.
5. William C.Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction, Papers and Proceedings,1830,pp.255-355.
6. Ibid.
7. Ibid.,p.233.
8. Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music,1836,p.23;pp.28-29;p.50»
35
Although Mason anticipated Woodbridge in the matter of the value
of music in the curriculum of the common schools, he apparently was not
familiar with the Pestalozzian educational principles until after meet­
ing Woodbridge.^
The latter being an ardent advocate of these theories,
convinced Mason of their validity and persuaded him to apply them to his
9
music teaching*
Curiously
enough, Woodbridge although a "warm friend
of singing among children", had "never learned music himself"
but had
become interested in its educational possibilities after observing Pest4
alozzi's followers in Germany and Switzerland teach music to children*
The Boston Academy of Music
Mason, Woodbridge and a small group of associates made definite
efforts to arouse public interest in the inauguration of vocal music as
a subject of instruction in the common schools, both public end private.
To this end, it was resolved:
to establish an association which should endeavor
to obtain for our country the advantages derived
from vocal music in Switzerland and Germany, and
should secure the services of competent persons,
devoted to this object* After some informal con­
sultations, a meeting was held on the eighth of
January 1833, and an institution organizgd under
the name of the Boston Academy of Music.
The members of the Academy were professional and business men, many
1* Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, or Hints to Teachers,p.1*
S. Ibid.
3* Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music,1851,p.14.
4. William C.Woodbridge,Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction,1850,p.245*
5* Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report,1835,p.7*
36
of whom had but a slight knowledge of music, but all had "a full per­
ception of its importance as a means of education."'*'
They were not
interested, except incidentally, in improving their own musical abilities,
2
but they hoped "to promote musical and general musical education."
.z
Iowell Mason was the real leader of the Academy:
his broad conception of the musical need of the
country and his ability to win others to his point
of view, together with his rare skill as a teacher
and organizer combined to make the Boston Academy
the dominant influence in music education during
this period.
He was
for
very careful, however, to do his work in the name of the Academy,
he felt that a "society of citizens" would have greater influence
than he himself aa an individual.
Mason's more important associates
in the Academy were George J. Webb, who had been engaged to assist him
0
with the teaching in 1833,
and Samuel A. Eliot, who became an active
7
worker in and president of the Academy in 1835
after it was firmly es­
tablished and beginning to achieve its objectives.
Eliot's principal
contribution was that as mayor he was able to exert pressure upon the
school committee of Boston, thus causing it to authorize music teach-
0
ing in the city schools.
1.
Samuel A. Eliot, Music in America, North American Review. H I ,
1841), p. 331.
2.
Boston
3.
Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 15.
4.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 60.
5.
T. F. Seward, The Educational 'Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 14.
6.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report, 1833,
p. 9.
7.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report, 1835,
p. 2.
8.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 16.
Academy of Music,
(April,
Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 3.
37
In order to accomplish its goal of "bringing music to the masses,"1
the Academy maintained classes in vocal music
free to all children, no other condition being re­
quired of the pupils than that they be over seven
years of age, and engage to continue in the school
one year.
Note-reading, song-singing and the elements of musical theory comprised
the subject matter taught in the classes.
3
The methods of teaching em-
4
ployed were generally spoken of as being "on the system of Pestalozzi,"
adapted to music teaching by Pfeiffer, Nageli and Kubler.^
Similar
classes were organized for adults in Boston and in nearby cities.
6
For those who planned to enter the music profession as teachers,
church musicians, or in other capacities,
7
the Academy provided indi­
vidual lessons in figured bass, singing, organ, piano, and various inQ
struments.
Important in the musical life of Boston for many years was the large
g
choir of the Academy and its orchestra.
The frequency and high calibre
of the concerts by both of these groups had never before been known in
Boston.
From a comparison of the accounts of performances of such con­
1.
Louis C. Slson, The History of American Music, p. 80.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 9.
3.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 27-29.
4.
Ibid., title page.
5.
Ibid., p. 15,
6.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Heport, 1834, p. 14.
7.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report. 1835, p. 13.
8.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1639, p. 8.
9.
John S. Dwight, Music in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston,IY,
p. 427.
38
temporary choruses as the Handel and Haydn Society,1 the Academy’s choir
of two hundred voices with, for the period, an excellent repertory,
seems
to have been conspicuously progressive; and the orchestra, which gave a
series of concerts each year from 1840 to 1847,
was perhaps "the best
4
orchestra ever assembled in Boston for an entire season"
time.
up to that
For many years "the concerts of the Academy afforded the only
5
opportunity in the city of listening to the music for the orchestra."
The Academy published "circulars end essays, either in newspapers
a
and periodicals, or in the form of tracts and books for instruction."
The Manual and collections of music issued in the name of the Academy
7
were the work of Mason
or the work of Mason in collaboration with George
J. Webb; many of the tracts and circulars were by Samuel A. Eliot,
Woodbridge,
9
Mason, and others.
8
The valuable Annual Reports of the
Boston Academy of Music usually bore the signature of its secretary,
1.
John S. Dwight, Music in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston.
p. 419; Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, pp. 10-11.
XV,
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report, 1854, p. 16; Grove’s
Dictionary of Music and lAisicians. American Supplement. p. 109.
3.
John S. Dwight, Music in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston. IV,
p. 425.
4.
Boston
Academy
of
Music, Ninth Annual Report. 1841, p.3.
5.
Boston
Academy
of
Music, Eleventh Annual Report. 1843,p.6.
6.
Boston
Academy
of
Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p.8.
7.
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music....by Iowell Mason.... title
page; The Boston Academy’s Collection of Choruses....edited by
Iowell Mason.... title page;
etc.
8. Samuel A. Eliot, Music in xonerica, North American Review.
1841), pp. 320-337, etc.
9.
LII,(April,
William C. Woodbridge, Boston Academy of Music, American Annals of
Education. 1834, pp. 322-331.
39
but their phraseology and content seem to indicate that Mason and Eliot
actually wrote than.
An activity of national importance was the Academy’s summer classes
for
persons already acquainted with music, who wish to
teach singing to juvenile classes, with a knowledge
of the admirable methods of instruction devised by
Pfeiffer and Niegeli.
2
Beginning with twelve students in 1834,
1839.
3
the class expanded to 265 in
"Teachers, coming from various parts of the country" who at­
tended these classes, carried with them, wherever they went, "the influence of the Academy, their publications and methods of instruction."
4
In connection with its teacher-training effort, the Academy’s professors
frequently visited other cities "for the purpose of lecturing on the
subject of music"
5
and
as early as 1835 calls began to come for Mason to
go out for a four-day "convention" of singers.
largely as the result of the Academy's teacher-training program the
young men and young women trained by Iowell Mason
went to their homes and carried with them both
Mason's ideas and his enthusiasm for musical work
7
among the people.
1.
William C. Woodbridge, Lectures on the Pestelozzian System of Music,
American Annals of Education. 1834, p. 383.
2.
American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boston.August i6f 1838. p. 5.
3.
Frederic louis Ritter, Mu3lc in America, p. 267.
4.
Boston Academy of
Music, Fifth Annuel Report. 1837, p. 8.
5.
Boston Academy of
Music, Tenth Annual Report. 1842, p. 12.
6.
W. S. B. Mathews,
Lowell Mason, A Father in American Music,
Musician.. XVI, 11, (November, 1911), p. 722.
'7.
The
W. J. B&ltzell, Old Time Community Music, Music Teachers National
Association, Papers and Proceedings, 1922, p. 70.
40
The Academy continued its work for fourteen years, or until 1847,
when its functions were taken over by other agencies.^
Music in the Boston Schools.
Since one of the original motives for the founding of the Boston
Academy of Music had been to further the study of music in the common
schools, both public and private,
2
it immediately embarked upon a pro­
gram which should accomplish this end.
There were many problems con­
fronting Mason and his associates which had to be solved before this
objective could be fully attained.
(1)
Although Mason’s juvenile classes had been singularly success­
ful for "six or eight years" before they were "taken up by the Boston
Academy of Music,"
3
and although groups of his students had made sev­
eral successful public appearances, as in 1830 in connection with Vfoodbridge's lecture before the American Institute of Instruction,
4
and in
1832-1833 when sentiment for the organization of the Boston Academy of
5
Music was crystalizing,
it was still
commonly supposed that children could not learn or
be taught successfully, and that labor or expense
for this purpose would be nearly thrown away.®
Repeated demonstrations were necessary to change this popular miscon­
ception.
1.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 109.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 18.
3.
Iowell Mason, Address on
4.
Boston Academy of Music, First -annual Report, 1833, pp. 3-4.
Church Lfosic. 1851, p. 14.
5.
Samuel A. Eliot, Music in America, North American Review, LI I, (April,
1841), p. 330.
6.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report, 1834, p. S.
41
(2) Mason and his associates held that the cultivation of music,
1
"if it is to be carried to a high degree, must be begun early in life."
The young ear is more susceptible of pleasure from
music than that which has remained uncultivated till
adult years; and....that fondness for it, which is
requisite to secure a continued and successful at­
tention to the subject, is not often contracted after
the period of youth is past.-*The then current practices were not in conformity with this belief, for
Teaching has been commenced too late. Instead of
beginning in early childhood, as is the case in most
other branches of knowledge, it has been deferred
generally till late in youth or to adult years.^
(3) To demonstrate that music would be a worth-while addition to
the curriculum, Mason teught in several private schools on an experimental basis.
tlemen
"The result of the experiment, instituted by these gen­
the principals]
in their respective schools, and continued by
them for some years, is highly favorable."4
Iowell Mason, in 1837-1838,
taught music experimentally, or "on trial" in one of the city schools
under the supervision of the school committee.
Regarding this, a sub­
committee reported to the school committee that
the success of the experiment thus far has more
then filled the sanguine expectations which at
first were entertained in regard to it.5
(4) The Academy and its professors continually refuted the preva­
lent impression that "attention to this study would seriously interfere
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 10.
2.
Ibid., p. 8.
3.
Boston Aoademy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 9.
4.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report. 1835, p. 7.
5.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, p. 12.
42
with, or divert the attention of children and youth from other and more
important branches of education.1,1
They made a practice of publishing
accounts of music teaching in private schools, in the one city school
in which experimental teaching was being conducted, 1837-1838, and also
testimonials from responsible persons who had seen the teaching and its
results:
It is the testimony of the principals of these
schools that it does not interfere with the regu­
lar studies of the pupils; that it is an agreeable
relaxation to their minds; and that it exercises a
happy moral influence upon their conduct.
(5)
The matter of the allocation of time for music study was a se­
rious one; in 1834 the Academy reported that
Daily study, for a long period of years, is deemed
requisite for acquiring the common branches of edu­
cation, and is patiently devoted to the purpose....
But not even one hour or two a week, during the com­
mon period of education, is supposed to be necessary
for the attaining of a competent knowledge of music.
It is nearly excluded from....the ordinary course of
school instruction, and is left to a few nooks and
corners of time.3
This problem was never solved to the complete satisfaction of either
Mason or of the Academy, for in 1842, four years after music was intro­
duced into the curriculum of the Boston public schools, the annual re­
port of the Academy stated that:
The amount of time given to it ("music' is very small,
being only two half hou^s a week, for the two upper
classes in each school.
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 19.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report. 1835, p. 7.
3.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 10.
4.
Boston Academy of Music, Tenth Annual Report. 1842, p. 6.
43
(6) The organization of public opinion so that the school commit­
tee would be justified in authorizing the expenditure of public money
for music education: Mason and the Academy achieved this by demonstrat­
ing the feasibility of music in the schools, by making the public ac­
quainted with what it had accomplished in this regard, and by indicating
what additional results might be expected if increased financial support
were granted.
(7) The matter of what music should be taught and how it should be
taught was developed through experience with the Academy juvenile classes
and other similar classes which Mason had conducted prior to the organ­
ization of the Academy*
O n August 28,1638 the school committee authorized the teaching of
music in the public schools of Boston, Iowell Mason being placed in
1
charge of this new department.
He held the position of superintendent
of music in the Boston Schools until 1645, when he was dismissed as the
result of the activities of a political pressure group organized by two
musicians who wanted the situation*
2
Mason continued, however, to teach
3
music in the Winthrop School, one of the city schools, until 1851*
The action by which the school conmiittee of Boston introduced music
teaching into the schools of that city was of "the greatest importance
to the musical development of America, and Lowell Mason's merit in
helping to further this great result with such conviction and tenacity
4
will be long recognized*"
This contribution was important to both
1* Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report,1859,p*15*
2* Samuel C.Slueckiger, Why Lowell Mason Left the Boston Schools,
Music Educators Journal. XXII,(February,1936),p*20*
3* City of Boston, Records of the School Committee,1842-1852.
4* Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America,p.252*
44
the music education and general educational development of America.
Musical Institutes and Conventions.
The Academy of Music teachers' class which Lowell Mason had organ­
ized with George J. Webb’s assistance in the summer of 1834,^ provided
its students in 1836 with
a convention for the discussion of questions relat­
ing to the general subject of musical education,
church music, and musical performance, during such
hours as were not occupied by the lectures.2
2
Except in the summer of 1837, when Mason was in Europe,
this convention
4
gathered annually during the remainder of the Academy's life.
These annual meetings were neither the first gatherings of musicians in this country to be called musical conventions,
5
nor were they
the first to give "considerable time to singing exercises,"
but they
were the first such assemblages organized for the express purpose of
training music teachers.
It is not supposed by the Academy that persons who
are not already to some considerable extent ac­
quainted with music, will derive any immediate or
considerable advantage from an attendance upon a
single course of lessons. It should be understood
that the class is not designed to give regular and
systematic instruction either in the elements of
music or in singing;— but is rather designed for
teachers, or for those who, already having a good
knowledge of music, desire to become teachers.7
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report, 1835, p. 8.
2.
American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boston. 1838, pp. 7-8.
3.
Boston Acadeny of Music,Seventh Annual Report. 1339, p. 9.
4.
Boston Academy of Misic, Eleventh Annual Report.
5.
1843, p. 8.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 176.
6.
Boston Academy of Music, Eleventh Annual Report.
1843, p. 8.
7.
Boston AcadSmy of Music, Eleventh Annual Report.
1843, p. 8.
45
"After it had been established a few years, calls were made for
similar meetings at other important points, which were accordinglyheld."^
Some of these attained a measure of success and importance
"almost vying with the parent convention itself."
Rochester, N« Y. and Cleveland, Ohio, are points
at which very successful conventions are now an­
nually held, under the direction of Messrs. Mason
and Webb* There are also numerous other points at
which similar conventions are held, under the di­
rection of these, and other distinguished musicians.
The teacher-training stress which was characteristic of the Boston
convention was not as important in the provincial conventions, especially
those under the management of men other than the Mason group.
Many con­
ventions of this class were merely
a gathering of musical or musically interested people,
generally singers. They met for individual and mu­
tual improvement, to study choral music or part music
from the simple anthem and part-song up to the ora­
torio and opera choruses.®
At first the concert possibilities of the convention received lit­
tle attention, except, perhaps, the "closing exhibition," but after 1850
this element became the dominant one of many conventions, and provided
"part of the impulse to the holding of annual festivals, or groups of
concerts,"
4
some of which still function.
5
Other outgrowths of the con­
vention movement were musical institutes, normal music schools, and music
1.
The American Musical Almanac for 1852. p. 34*
2.
Ibid.
3.
H, S, Perkins, The Musical Convention, Music Teachers National Asso­
ciation, Papers end Proceedings. 1887, p. 211.
4.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 176,
5.
William Mason, Memories of a. Musical Life, p. 10.
46
teachers associations.
The musical convention was important in both nineteenth century
musical life and nineteenth century music education.
It all stemmed back to Lowell Mason. Not that he
was the only one; others tried the same. But no­
body had the momentum he had and nobody kept the
studies on so high and so serious a plane.
Teachers Institutes
Beginning in 1845 end for a decade thereafter, Lowell Mason wes as­
sociated with the Massachusetts State Board of Education as staff member
of its Teachers’ Institutes.
Horace Mann made the original appointment.
Mason gave instruction in vocal music, methods for teaching music, and
also general education.
Nor is his success limited to a single deportment,
which in the sessions of the institutes, falls nom­
inally under his special care. His wide and compre­
hensive views embrace the whole field of education,
and all its prominent subjects.
His teaching at the institute at Lexington, Massachusetts, probably in
1853, was thus described:
He was associated with Horace Mann, Arnold Guyot
and one or two other men of like eminence, and it
1b not too mdch to say thet Lowell Mason was their
equal, if not their superior,
in commanding
personality, dignity and simplicity of address
1.
H. S. Perkins, The Musical Convention, Music Teachers National Asso­
ciation, Papers and Proceedings. 1887, p. 211.
2.
W, S. B. Mathews, Lowell Mason, a Father in American Music, The
Musician. XVI, 11, (November, 1911), p. 722.
3.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 162.
4.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Jtoson, The American
Journal of Education. IV, (1857), p. 146.
47
and attractiveness to the public.^-
Musical Normal Institutes.
Mason’s interest in the training of music teachers led to the crea­
tion of the normal institute.
This was an effort to provide more inten­
sive preparation for music teaching than was possible in the comparatively
short conventions and teachers classes.
In the summer of 1851, for three months, in New York City, Lowell
Mason and George F. Root held the first normal institute.
In addition
to pedagogy, which was one of Mason's favorite subjects, the offerings
included "lessons in harmony, voice culture, composition, vocal prac2
tice, etc."
For some years this was not only "the only Normal Institute
held," but was the only organized effort for the training of music edu­
cators with any degree of thoroughness.
Later normal institutes were organized by Mason and Root, as for
example that of North Reading, Massachusetts,
and by other musicians.
For the next fifty years musical Normal Institutes and Summer Schools,
usually following Meson's framework, were the most important agency for
training school musicians.
4
1.
W. S. B. Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Father in American Mxsic, The
Musician. XVI, 11, (November, 1911), p. 721.
2.
F. 0. Jones, A Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p.
3.
Henry
C. Lahee, A Century of Choral Ringing in New England,New
England Magazine, n.s., XXVI,
4.
78.
(March, 1902), p. 109.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States.
pp. 129-131.
48
Later Life
Lowell Mason visited Europe twice.
In order"that he might observe
the methods of Instruction In Festalozzian schools In Switzerland and
1
Germany",
he spent the sunnier of 1837 "in Wurtemberg and the northern
parts of Switzerland" where he "became acquainted with Khbler, Gersbach,
•
Eellenberg and others."
S
These men pursued the inductive method to a
greater or less extent;
and from the observation of their modes of teaching,
and from personal communications with them, he be—3
came more familiar with its practical application.
Although Mason displayed keen interest in these practical appli­
cations by Gersbach and others, his appraisal of the work was a criti­
cal one, for in his Journal for 1837 he reports:
Carlsruhe,Monday, 24th. July. This morning at 8 I
visited the school under Frof.Stem and Frof.Gersbach.
This is a public school for boys....Music
is taught in each class.
The first class learns
by rote — the other classes all learn theory....
Music is more of a study and less of a play or
amusement in this school than it has been where I
have taught.
1. Will S.Monroe, History of the Festalozzian Movement in the United
StateB.p.l62>
2. Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American
Journal of Education. 17, (1857),p.145.
Grove *a Dictionary of
Music and Musicians, American Supplement.p.286. states that in
connection with the first European tour in 1837 "At Zurich he
visited Festalozzi,l®geli and others."
According to Adolph E.
Meyer in his Education in Modern Times.p.62. Festalozzi died in
1B27; according to the article "Mgeli" in the MacMillan Encyclo­
pedia of Music and Musicians, Hageli died in 1836.
3. Ibid.
4. Daniel Gregory Mason, Some unpublished Journals of Dr.Lowell Mason,
The Hew Music Hevlew,X.2,p.65.
49
Stuttgart, July 26th....I walked out and went past
a girls' school where a class was practicing sing­
ing. The singing I heard satisfied me that there
is no native capacity in the children superior to
that which we have in America.
It is by constant
practice— and by learning from childhood upwards
that they acquire such proficiency in music.
In
2
December 1851
Ifoson sailed for Europe where he spentthe fol­
lowing fifteen months; much of this
period he stayed in England where
he had become "recognized as an authority and lectured frequently on
congregational singing and music-education."
A contemporary account
of Mason in England:
Dr. Lowell Mason of Boston, U. S., came to London
and g8ve some lectures in the Weigh-House. The
charm of his manner and the wonderful faculty for
teaching, which he possessed, are remembered by all
who were privileged to hear and have intercourse
with him....he rendered valuable help in the new
tune book, which appealing to a wider circle than
before, was issued in 1853, as "Congregational Church
1.
Daniel Gregory Mason, Some Unpublished Journals of Dr. Lowell Mason,
The New Music Review. X, 2, (January, 1911), p. 66.
2.
Letter by Henry Lowell Mason to the author. That there is much dis­
agreement as to the dates of the second European voyage may be seen
in that T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 20,
states that the second voyage was "in 1850;" John Tasker Howard, Our
■American Mus i c : Three Hundred Years of It. p. 147, relates that "in
1850 Mason went to Europe for two years,...In 1853 he returned...."
The date 1850 would be contrary to the generally accepted fact that
Mason organized and taught at the first normal musical institute for
three months in the summer of 1851 in New York City. Cf. F. 0. Jones,
A Handbook of -American Music and Musicians, p. 78. On the other hand,
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 286,
states that "On his second European Trip, in 1853-54, he remained about
eighteen months." It is difficult to reconcile this date with the
fact that the Musical Letters From Abroad were, according to the title
page of the first edition, published in Boston by 0, Ditson and Co.,
1853, and that the content of the Musical Letters indicates that the
work wss published after his return from Europe and not while he was
still there.
Cf. Grove'a Dictionary of Music and Mislciens III,
p. 341: "he embodied the results in s volume entitled Musical Let­
ters from Abroad."
3.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 286.
50
MUsic."1
Upon returning from Europe in April, 1853,
2
Mason made New York his
2
business headquarters, and Orange, N. J. his home.
He now devoted his
attention to the preparation of his Pestalozzian Music Teacher, various
volumes of songs intended for the public schools, and collections of rausic for chorus.
4
He assembled a library which was "one of the largest End most valg
uable of its kind in America."
In addition to seven hundred volumes
on hymnology, eight hundred and thirty manuscripts, and treatises on
various aspects of music, it contained several sixteenth century Italian
and German books and other rarities.
After his death, Mason’s family
g
presented this library to Yale University,
from which institution Wil­
liam Mason, his son, had received the honorary degree of doctor of mu­
sic in 1872.7
New York University granted Lowell Mason the degree of doctor of
music, honoris causa in 1855.
This w e b the second instance of this
1.
J. S. Curwen, Studies in T/orship Music, p. 445.
2.
Letter by Henry Lowell Mason to the author.
3.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Iowell Mason, p. 20.
4.
W. S. E. Mathews, The Lowell Mason Centennial, Music. I (February,
1892), p. 406.
5.
Frank J. Metcalf, American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Misic,
p. 215.
6.
Ibid.
7.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, III, p. 341.
51
degree being conferred by en American institution.1
Ljwell Mason died at Orange, N. J. August 11, 1372, at the age of
eighty years.2
Personality and Character.
Those who came in contact with Lowell Mason the youth saw "a very
handsome man," and those who came in contact with him later in life saw
"a finely dignified old man.”
magnetism,"
4
and popular."
"He had a remarkable degree of personal
"was a manager of men, an organizer of movements educational
5
"He was
singularly kind to young musicians."
a certain simplicity and sincerity in his manner
7
6
There was
and that plainness so
Q
often characteristic of self-made men.
1.
2.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 185.
The first known case in this country was that of Georgetown University,
which granted the same degree to a Henry Dielman in 1849.
However,
Volume III of Grove's Dictionary, p. 341 says, "His degree, of Doctor
in Music, the first of its kind conferred by an American college, was
granted by New York University in 1835." Henry Barnard's Educational
Labors of Lowell Mason in the American Journal of Education, IV,(1857),
p. 146, and Abbie Hobson, in her Lowell Mason. Educator, likewise in­
accurately mention this as the first such instance.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason, Educator, p. 51.
3.
W. S. B. Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Father in American Music,
Musician. XVI, 11, (November, 1911), p. 721.
The
4.
7/illiam S, Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Dr.
Lowell Mason, p. 286.
5.
John S. Dwight, Misie in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston, IV,
p. 420.
6.
W. S, B. Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Father in American Music, The
Nfrisician. XVI, 11, (November 1911), p. 722.
7.
Ibid., p. 721.
8.
Charles C, Perkins and J. S . Dwight, Ajstory of the Handel and Haydn
Society. I, p. 95.
52
Hi8 own writings show that he was deeply religious, as do the com­
ments of men and women who knew him personally,
and the other great
"passion of his youth, ahd of all his life, was music."2
These were
3
the two motifs of his life and of his work.
Extremely intellectual,
he had a "huge industry," "great ability, penetrating foresight, splendid ideas."
4r
5-
He was shrewd, and a decided business success.
Lowell Mason had a natural eptitude for teaching.
He bad a remarkable degree of personal magnetism
which gave him that wonderful control which he
possessed over classes and conventions.
When he
taught or lectured, all eyes were upon him, all g
ears were attentive, all wills were moved by his.
He was "a natural teacher, full of tact, logical, handy with the blackboard, and delightfully simple with his phraseology."
7
Barnard makes it clear that he considered Mason much more than just
a music teacher.
"It was as an enlightened educator, who distinctly per­
ceives and eloquently pleads for the value and the power of music, as an
influence on human culture, that he stends prominently before his country
as one of its noble benefactors."
Q
1.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 19.
2.
John S. Dwight, Music in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston, IV,
p. 420.
3.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and l&iBicians, American S upplement, p. 286.
4.
Editorial, "1836-1956." The Etude. U V ,
5.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason. Educator, p. 51.
(April, 1936), p. 263.
6 . William S. Tilden, The Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Dr.
Lowell Mason, p. 286.
7. Henry C. Lahee, A Century of Choral Singing in Hew England, New
England Magazine, n.s. XXVI, (March, 1902), p. 109.
8 . Henry Barnard, Educational Labors of Lowell Mason, The •"merican Journal
of Education, IV, (1857), p. 146.
53
Mason’s Writings
Lowell Mason produced many volumes on musical and educational topics,
and compiled scores of song books, anthem books, hymn books, and the like.
Beginning with the Boston Handel and Heydn Society Collection of Church
Music in 1822 scarcely one of the next fifty years passed without at
least one new volume or new edition of an earlier publication coming
from the press.
Many of Mason's publications achieved extraordinary popularity.
Allibone
1
says that of the Carmina Sacra
mine.Sacra"
2
and its revision The New Car-
.500,000 copies were sold between 1841 and 1858; that 150,000
copies of The HallelujahSrere sold between 1854 and 1858; and that seven
other collections, The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of
Church Music,
lection.
7
5
The Choir or Union Collection,
The Modern Psalmist.
and Csntica Iaudis
11
Q
The Psaltery.
6
9
The Boston Academy ColThe National Psalmist.
10
had each sold more than 50,000 copies between their
1.
S. A. Allibone, A Critical Dictionary of English Literature and British
and American authors, II, p. 1237.
2.
Lowell Mason, Carmina Sacra, or Boston Collection of Church Music.
3.
Ibid.
4.
Lowell Mason, The Halleluiah: A Book for the Service of Song.
5.
Lowell Mason, The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church
Music.
6. Lowell Mason, The Choir, or Union Collection of Church Music.
7.
Lowell
Mason, The Boston Academy of Music's Collection of Church Music.
8 . Lowell Mason, The Modern Psalmist.
9.
Lowell Mason and George J. Webb, The Psaltery, A New Collection of
Church Music.
10.
Lowell Mason and George J. Webb, The National Psalmist.
11.
Lowell
Mason and George J. Webb, Cantica Laudls, or the •‘^nerlcan Book
of Church Music.
54
first publication and 1858.
Although similar extraordinary numbers of public school music
collections were not sold, yet their relative importance was equally
great, since they were the first works of their kind and were well ad­
vertised by being used in Lowell Mason's teachers' classes.
One of the several educational treatises, The Manual of the Boston
Academy of M u b I o ^ was especially Important and ran into many editions.
2
The Pestalozzian Misic Teacher was a compendium of Mason's theories and
3
methods of teaching based upon a life-time's experience.
The most complete statement of Mason's philosophy of music education
written by himself yet available,
4
is in a letter to his son William,
5
which has been recently published; the Musical Letters from Abroad
are
valuable for their accounts of music teaching and musical activities of
mid-nineteenth century Europe.
Of the three Addresses on Church tfaslc, that of 1826
6
is of use in
understanding the motives which led Mason into the field of music edu7
cation, that of 1851
contains an autobiographical sketch of Lowell
Mason; that entitled Song and Worship
8
contains a succinct statement of
1.Lowell Mason, The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music.
2.Lowell Mason and T.P.Seward, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher.
3.This was written with the aid of a young disciple, T.F.Seward, and
has as an appendix, lessons in grammar, language and arithmetic based
upon the Pestalozzian system, by John W.Dickinson, Principal of the
State Normal School at Westfield,Massachusetts.
4.Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason Prom an Old Bundle of
Letters, New Music Review. XXVI,302,(January,1927),pp.49-52.
5.Lowell Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad.
S.Lowell Mason, AddresB on Church Music. 1826.
7.Lowe11 Mason, Address on Church Music,1851.
8 .Lowell Mason, Song and Worship, an Address.
55
his philosophy of life.
Of the several lists of Mason’s publications, none is fully com-
1
plete.
2
Barnard's list jwhich was reprinted by Allibone^
was compiled
g
in 1856 or 1857, fourteen years before Mason's death.
Seward's list
omits many important items.
The list given in the American Supplement
4
of Grove *s Dictionary of Music and Musiciana oontains only the public
school music song books, but neither the very important didactic writings
such as the Pestalozzian Music Teacher and How Shall _I Teach? nor the
compilations of religious music.
To the writer's knowledge the list appended to this dissertation
is the most complete yet assembled; it is given as a complete list with
the reservation that it is entirely possible that future research may
uncover other of Mason’s writings.
The present list is based upon an
exhaustive survey of the material owned by several of the more important
American libraries which are noted for their collections of material by
and about Lowell Mason.
1. Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American
Journal of Education,IV.(1B57),p.148*
S. S.A.Allibone, A Critical Dictionary of English Literature and
British and American Authors,II,p.1237.
3. T.F.Seward, The Educational Work of Dr.Lowell Mason.
4. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians,American Supplement.p.286.
56
CHAPTER IV
THE THOUGHT OF MASON
Music and Life.
Muaic and M a n ’s Moral Nature
Mason held that music Is not an end in itself, but that its true
function is that of benefiting m a n ’s moral nature.
It' is not mere knowledge which is desired, but
it is the expansion of human powers which is
the result of the acquisition of knowledge....
So in music, it is not musical art or science,
but through these, m an’s moral nature should
be benefited.
^usic, however, is not always cultivated with this motive,
branch of knowledge,
view.”
For
example,
it
like any
"may be cultivated with low or inferior ends in
it "may be cultivated to the
which is its immediate result;"*2
mere sensuous delight
frequently "it is pursued....for its
direct pleasure, mostly so."
Yet there are others who pursue it with higher
ends, or for intellectual pleasure, which its
study affords. Such are especially the great
theorists— whether their theory be the most
approved or not.3
Still another group pursue music "for artistic ends— excellence in art—
1.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason From an Old Bundle of
letters, The New Music Review. 3QCVI, 302, (January, 1927), p. 50.
2.
Ibid.
3.
Ibid., p. 51.
57
they labor for the discovery of new forms of beauty and truth in....the
combinations of tones and for the mental and physical power necessary to
communicate these forms to the conception of others."
Their constant aim
is "to press forward into the region of beauty;" exponents of this class
were the great composers Mozart and Beethoven, end perhaps Schumann, Wagner
and Liszt.*
In very few individuals does any one of the three viewpoints,
sensuous, intellectual or artistic, occur to the complete exclusion of the
others, but
usually one of the three is dominant.
Butthe last and most important viewpoint of
music and the one from
which "few are ever able to look upon our subject" is the moral,
this may include the religious, and here then we
have the last step or that which unites man to
his Maker, or the human to the divine. This is
the highest, ultimate end of all that can be drawn
out of the kingdom of tones, in man's moral develop­
ment— or man's moral education.^In this connection, Daniel Gregory Mason points out that when Mason speaks
of the "moral" aspect of music, he means what we should nowadays call its
"spiritual" aspect.
The word "moral" did not have in his day the disa­
greeable connotation, tinged at best with formality
and unreality, at worst with sanctimoniousness and
hypocrisy, that it has acquired for most moderns.^
Unlike the sensualist who "is satisfied with his present outside pleasure,"
the intellectuali8t who "looks only to his logical and scientific arrange­
ments of the facts," and the artist who "aims at the discovery and at the
communication of new forms of beauty," he who views music from the highest
point, "sees in it a most powerful instrument for the perfecting of man's
1.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason I'rom an Old Bundle of
Letters, The New Music Review. XXVI, 302, (January, 1927), p. 51.
2*
Ibid., p. 50.
58
emotional and moral nature."'*'
Music and the Whole Man
Mason holds that if this be true, along with the other arts
the study of music assumes an Importance of which
few seem to be aware— it becomes an educational
element or means of human development of a great
power.8
Since "music's highest and best influence is its moral influence," it reveals the beautiful and when unperverted,
it leads to the true and good.
Music should be....not merely an entertainment, a
pastime, or a means of support....It should be
cultivated and taught, not as a means of sensual
gratification, but as a sure means of improving
the affections, end of enriching, purifying and
elevating the whole man.
Ultimate Aim
Since Mason was convinced that music could be "a means of improving the afg
fections and of enriching, purifying and elevating the whole man,"
and that
the study of music might assume much "importance as a means of human develop0
ment," his "ultimate aim became to extend music to the masses in order to
7
elevate the moral life of the American people."
He endeavored to accomplish
1.
Ibid., p. 51.
2.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason From an Old Bundle of
Letters, The New Music Review. XXVI, 302, (January, 1927), p. 51.
3.
Mason's Normal Singer, p. 2.
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 35.
5.
Ibid.
6.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell iiason From an Old Bundle of
Letters, The New Music Review. XXVI, 302, (January, 1927), p. 50.
7.
M. F. X. Baldwin, lowell Mason's Philosophy of Misic Education, p. 30.
59
this aim in three specific ways:
(1 ) by improving church music;
(2 ) by in­
fusing into the youth of the land a taste for musical culture; and (3) by
introducing vocal music into the common school curriculum."*"
The Aim of Education
The aim of all education, according to Lowell Mason, is "to lead to
the highest human development" by placing upon the student "a right physical, intellectual, and morel influence."
2
Education embraces the total personality, or as Mason expressed it,
"the whole man."
He conceived of education as "nothing else than the
harmonious development of all the faculties"
another, and to actual life."
"in their relation one to
4
The mere acquisition of facts is not in itself a worthy aim of edu­
cation, for the development of the power to acquire knowledge is more im­
portant.
It is not mere knowledge which is desired, but
it is the expansion of human powers which is
the result of the acquisition of knowledge.'*
The two objectives,
i.e. the development of the power to acquire knowledge,
and factual knowledge itself, are not necessarily opposed to each other
A
but should compliment each other, and truly effective teaching will so
consider them.
The superior object of the right method of in-
1.
Ibid., pp. 8-11.
2.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1 .
3.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academyof Music,
4.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
5.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of LowellMason
From an Old Bundle of
Letters, The New Music Review. XJCfI, 302, (January, 1927), p. 50
Mason's Italics.
p. 18.
60
struction is to secure to the pupil the power
to acquire knowledge; the inferior object....
being to Impart knowledge....The right method
of instruction secures best the inferior as
well as the superior object.^
Music and Education.
The TUnctlon of Music in Education
Since education is "the harmonious development of all the faculties,"
Mason believed that "the musical talent as well as others ought to be incited, developed, cultivated, and rendered strong."
p
However, the musical
talent should not only be cultivated merely because it was one of a large
number of "faculties," but also because the development of the musical fac­
ulty has been found to contribute to the development of the "whole man"
through assisting in the development of certain elements or aspects of the
"whole man."
Specifically, Mason held that the development of the musical
possibilities of the individual was beneficial in developing these elements
of the complete personality:
the physical, the intellectual, the emotional,
the aesthetic, the social, the character and personality, and the integrated
individual.
(1) The physical.
Vocal training is conducive to health: it is "a
means of preserving health" of young ladies whom customs of society debar
from many kinds of healthy exercise; "singing tends to expand the chest,
and this increases the activity and power of the vital organs;" the exercise
of the lungs in singing has been found beneficial by physicians for persons
2
"disposed to consumption."
The speaking voice is improved by studying
2
singing, for it thereby acquires smoothness, volume and variety of tone;
correct intonation may only be learned by a process of scientific guidance
1.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 7.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 18.
3.
Ibid., pp. 18-20.
61
and attention to the psychological laws of habit.1
Relative to the inter­
relationships of the body and mind, Mason believed that music may induce a
tranquility and a relaxation which in some cases results in a definite
2
physical improvement#
(2 ) The intellectual.
Scientific training is necessary for the dis-
criminating use of tone qualities;
3
a knowledge of musical form requires
that the musician build upon a logical and scientific arrangement of facts,
a process depending upon intellect and an insight into musical relation­
ships;4 in its very nature music "cultivates habits of order and union."5
In common with many educators of his day, Mason believed in the transfer
of training and in mental discipline: when properly taught, music "is favor­
able to the growth and Judgment or to the general intellectual improvement."5
If the principles of Pes^alozzi are applied in the music lesson, music teaches
the students to reason, to find out things for themselves; in short, "the
course of instruction pursued in the Manual is intellectual and disciplinary#11^
(3) The Emotional.
Mason observed that the prevalent "systems of edu­
cation generally proceed too much on the principle that we are merely intel­
lectual beings."
But he contended that the emotions and the feelings should
1.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1826, p. 15.
2#
Lowell Mason, The Juvenile lyre, iv; Lowell Mason, Mason’s Normal Singer, ii.
3#
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1826, p. 15.
4.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason from an Old Bundle of Letters
The Hew Music Review. X2CV1, 302, (January, 1927), p. 50.
5.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p.
6#
Lowell Mason, Mason’s Normal Singer, p. ii.
7.
LowellMason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p.
23.
23.
62
also be taken into account in every scheme of education and that music
is almost the only branch of education....
whose direct tendency is to cultivate the
feelings. The feelings are as much the ob­
ject of training us the mind; and our happi­
ness depends more on the cultivation of the
former than of the latter.^
(4)
Character Formation.
Since in its elevated form music "tends to
improve the heart," and since "its effects in softening and elevating the
2
feelings are too evident to need illustration,"
important in the formation of character.
Mason felt that music was
He cited as confirmation of this
belief (l) that the ancient Greeks gave an important place to music in
their system of education because of its restraining influence on human
passion, and (2) that St. Augustine in his Confessions testified that his
conversion came about through hearing the strains of a hymn and that because
of this, truth and repentance penetrated his soul.
In character formation,
childhood associations are of great importance.
The youthful mind should be well stored with
useful associations, to pre-occupy the ground
otherwise seized upon by the adversary to nou­
rish evil passions.^
The nursery may and often does become a school of piety through the mother's
use of sacred songs to win the child to the "simplest and at the same time
the richest truths.’" Only those "who have had the advantage of such an
artless mode of instruction in their childhood can estimate its value.
1.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 23-24.
2.
Ibid., p. 241; p. 20.
3.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1826, pp. 6-7.
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 21.
5.
Ibid., p. 23.
63
If childhood associations in music are to really serve in character
development,
only the most choice songs and melodies must
be admitted into our families and schools.
(5) The Aesthetic.
Mason maintained that to be of real value, aesthe­
tic education should go beyond a mere appreciation of beauty.
The object
of vocal music is not
the mere pleasure to be derived from the suc­
cession and combination of musical sounds, heard
or performed, but its aim should always be to
inspire the heart and thus be instrumental in
promoting the cause of human happiness, virtue
and religion.
(6 ) The Social.
"The chief value of music....in school or families,
will be social and moral;"3 the socializing value of music is associated
with almost every activity of human life.4
"We need more of music's in­
fluence in the family, in the school, in the social circle,
church."5
and inthe
"Vocal music tends to produce social order andhappiness
in a
family;"6 in recreational activity "music is in itself a source of enjoy­
ment," provides opportunities for the development of cultural interest,
n
and group singing may be substituted for less desirable amusements.
Mason
is aware, however, that if music is to be a successful leisure time acti-
1.
Ibid.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston
3.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. I, p. iv.
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
of t&xsic.pp. 20-21.
5.
Lowell Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad,
p. 142.
6.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
of Music,p. 22.
7.
Lowell Mason, The Juvenile lyre, p. iv.
Academy of Music, p. 241.
64
vity, the age interests
of children and adolescents
must be considered.
Cooperation and intelligent leadership are essential factors in the musi­
cal performance:
"all must follow a precise rule and act together in obedi­
ence to a leader."^
In the larger scope of national life, Mason points out
that the spirit and morale of a people are influenced by its songs.
Through
the inspiration of appropriate song a beneficial influence is exerted upon
the moral and ethical attitudes of the rising generation on whose character
n.
the future destiny of the country depends.
In religious worship, music
"seems intended....to enable the assembled people to offer their worship as
one."
The song element when brought into proper form
is peculiarly adapted to a simultaneous utterance
of a multitude of people.
Its regular rhythmic
movements and the fixed pitches of its tones en­
able many persons to join in the utterance of the
words of praise as the voice of one man.^
IAisic in the School Curriculum.
Because the study of music had so many advantages and was so com­
pletely in harmony with his conception of the function of education, Mason
actively championed "the introduction of vecal music into schools and aca­
demies."^
The expediency of this program depended upon an adequate musical
talent among students in general, in order that they might be responsive
1.
Ibid.
2.
Ibid.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Juvenile lyre, p. v.
4.
Lowell Mason, Song in Worship, p. 8 .
5.
Editorial, Music in the Schools, The Musical Library.
p. 15.
(October, 1835),
65
to the instruction.
Mason believed, after having worked with large num­
bers of children over a period of years that "a good natural capacity for
music is much more common than is generally supposed,
and that "musical
2
talent is wanting....in only a few."
Since this fact makes it practicable to cultivate music in the schools,
few will doubt that it ought to be cultivated.
Whoever acknowledges the high rank, which music
demands, and deserves to hold in Christian education,
will not consider its cultivation of little moment.3
In addition to the several reasons Mason advanced in support of the intro­
duction of music into the schools were two other important ones.
To pro­
cure the potentially beneficial effects upon the possessor’s life, the
talent must be directed and trained.
Mason tells us that "no talent, how­
ever vigorous, springs spontaneously into action.
Some labor is necessary
to unfold its latent energies, as well as to improve it."4
the very best natural voice may be vastly im­
proved by cultivation; and there are few persons
so destitute of natural qualifications as to be
unable to sing agreeably by perseverance in a
judicious course of practice.5
Some degree of cultivation is also necessary to
enable us to enter into the spirit of singing,
and to derive benefit to ourselves from the per­
formance of others.6
lastly, if the talent is to be developed, this must be done in childhood;
if the training is not begun "until the age of eighteen or twenty years,
1.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1826, p. 23.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual
of the Boston Academy of
Misic. p. 16.
3.
Lowell Mason, Manual
of the Boston Academy of
Music, p. 17.
4.
Ibid.
5.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1826, p. 14.
6 . Ibid., p. 24.
66
it is probable it will always be neglected....if music be not taught in
dhildhood, much progress must not be expected afterwards."^
To sum up the foregoing:
Mason believed it desirable and eaqjedient
that musical instruction be given children.
Since this is so, the in­
struction should be furnished by the agency created by society for the
2
education of children, namely the school.
Not only should private schools
provide, at their expense, such instruction; but the public schools should
also provide musical instruction, and at public expense, in the same manner
as instruction in the other subjects of the public school curriculum is
3
provided.
Brincinles and Methods of Instruction.
Mason had very definite principles and methods which he followed in
his teaching and which he recommended that others follow.
He frequently
referred to his system of instruction as "the inductive or Pestalozzian
method of teaching":^
its various characteristics and details as he
explained them from time to time ere given below.
(1) A Natural Method.
"The principles" of the system, wrote Mason, "are
nothing more or less than the principles of nature."^
"This is nature's
own method of teaching, applicable alike to all departments of school
study, and to none more than to music."®
1.
Ibid., p. 29.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 8 .
3.
Boston Academy of
Music, Seventh
Annual Report.1839, p. 11.
4.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
5.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p.
6.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
12.
67
Not only was the system a natural one, but in pursuance of this
method,
The teacher....is guided by nature; he looks on
the one hand, to the intuitions, instincts, and
opening faculties or active powers of his pupils,
and on the other to the qualities, properties, or
conditions of the object or subject, a knowledge
of which he desires to communicate.
(2 ) The Home.
educational
Especially in early childhood, the home is animportant
agency.
It must be regarded thus by parents, who should
exercise discretion in order that it may become a truly valuable one.
In the home are established those childhood "associations" which
have a marked bearing upon later character and moral life:
the very nursery may and often does become a
school of piety; the mother winning the child’s
attention to the simplest and at the same time
the richest truths.3
In regard to the music used in the home, it is important that parents
see to it that "only the most choice songs and melodies be admitted into
our families and schools, if after being learned in youth, they are to
live and be sung in a later age."4
(a)
Motivation.
The path of knowledge should be "pleasant," and the pro-
cess of learning "agreeable.
»*5
That the student find joy in the educative
process depends upon the skill of the teachers and the extent to which he is
1.
Lowell
Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher,
2.
Lowell
Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music,
p. 21.
3.
Lowell
Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music,
p. 22.
4.
Ibid.
5.
Lowell
Mason, The Festalozzian Music Teacher,
p. 10.
p. 11.
68
really "Interested in his p u p i l s . A
skillful teacher motivates the stu­
dent’s work by keeping him "on the track of research and discovery" and
causes "his gratification to be derived from the pursuit and attainment
of knowledge."
2
The teacher should study his own teaching from its action upon the
student:
and in particular he should guard against boring the pupil.
Nor should the song-lesson, nor any other lesson,
be prolonged so long as to become wearisome and
unpleasant.®
(4)
The Learning Processes:
Sense Perception.
Mason once wrote that
there were "three grand avenues of human knowledge, the immediate per4
ception of the senses, the reasoning power, and faith."
To these might
be added a fourth which he recognized, learning by doing, or by self
g
activity.
In learning by sense perception, the phenomena to be studied are
brought "under the actual observation of the pupil;"
he will learn its
characteristics and properties "because he sees it or hears it
some other of the senses.
Tf7
or uses
For this reason, Mason held that
the thing itself is always....vastly more imr
portant than its mere sign or name, and 1b
1.
Ibid.
2 . Lowell Mason, How
Shall 1^ Teach, p. 1.
3.
Iowell Mason, The
Song Garden. I, p. 18.
4.
Lowell Mason, A Brief Presentation of the Elementary Principles of
Misic in Perceptive or Didactic Form, p. 186.
5.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason From an Old Bundle of
Letters, New Music Review. XXVI, 320 {January, 1927), p. 52.
6.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 7.
7. Ibid., p. 10.
69
1
always presented first in order.
A n acceptable method "would not commence with book rules, nor at­
tempt to lead from general laws to particular fact3, but rather from
particular facts to general laws; not from theory to practice, but from
practice to theory."
2
The motto of the teacher should be "Things before
signs; principles before rules; practice before theory."3
The pupil should have a practical knowledge of realities before
4
names and symbols are given, or definitions required.
Thus, for example,
in teaching reading, the oral should be taught
before the written word; so also a tone, which
in music is analogous to a word in reading, should
be taught before its representation by any charac­
ter....each lesson should be taught to the pupils
by pattern, or by example, or by rote, before
their attention is called tg the written characters
by which it is represented.
(5)
The Learning Processes;
reasoning,
Reasoning.
When the pupil is learning by
it is the duty of the teacher to leave the pupil’s mind "un­
fettered by dogmas, free to pursue its own way of investigation, free to
observe, judge and decide."®
Students should be encouraged to "reach con­
clusions by a course of reasoning which is their own."^
Q
Wherever possible, the pupil is "to depend upon his own powers;"
and
the teacher should plan his work with this in mind. That the pupilsthink
1.
Ibid., p. 11.
2.
Lowell Mason, Sow Shall I Teach, p. 1.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 11
4.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I_ Teach, p. 1.
5.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. I, p. v.
6.
Lowell Mason, The Manual of the Boston Academy of Misic.
7.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 11.
8.
Lowell Mason, How Shall _I Teach, p. 1.
Mason's italics.
p. 14.
70
is far more important than that they merely repeat in class "what they
have reed in a book, or what they have been told by himself, or by any
1
other person."
Aside from mere definitions, knowledge is to be
acquired by the pupils themselves, rather from
the dictation of the teacher. He should seldom
tell them anything, which by a series of questions,
he can lead them to find out by themselves. His
object is to lead them to the desired information,
as to excite curiosity, and fix their attention.
Knowledge acquired in this manner, is deeply
impressed on the mind, and therefore durable.
The scholars, too, are highly gratified....It
always pleases scholars to find out things
themselves:9 and what is thus learned
is not
p
only remembered but understood.
As a practical procedure, Mason recommended the conversational ap­
proach.
"The good teacher must proceed in his work much in a conversational
way, or by question and answer."3
The question and answer procedure is,
however, "far....from conmon catechetical instruction:"
The questions of the teacher are not addressed
to the mere memory, but.to the knowledge of his
pupils, being such as naturally arise out of the
instructions already given....his questions are
so framed, or adapted to the condition of his
pupils, as always to require thought on their
part.4
Mason used this type of lesson in teaching the elements of musical nota­
tion and musical theory, if we may Judge from the contents of his Manual
of the Boston Academy of Music and The Pestalozzian Music Teacher.
(6) The Learning Process:
Testimony and Faith.
Mason believed that cer­
1.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, pp. 11-12.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston -academy of Music,
italics.
3.
Lowell Mason, How Shall
Teach, p. 2.
4.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Mislc Teacher,
p. 11.
p. 14.
Mason's
71
tain phases of knowledge cannot be acquired by immediate perception of
the senses, by reasoning, or by positive action.
These include "mere defi­
nitions"^ certain conventional or universal usages,2 and certain moral and
religious principles.
Those things "beyond the power of perception or
reason" or experience must be received on testimony® or upon faith,^
(7) The Learning Process:
Activity.
Although not one of the "three grand
avenues to human knowledge," learning through doing or through self-acti­
vity was a principle of which Mason was keenly aware.
To those who could teach according to his method of instruction he
says that it "cannot be understood from any description that can be given
in words" but that "living action" is a prerequisite to a real knowledge
and understanding of it,5
Indeed, it (the method] consists so little
in telling, end so essentially in doing, that it
is only by doing that a complete idea of the
reality may be conveyed,6
In the case of the pupil, the method constantly exercises his powers.
Pupils are "to acquire a real knowledge of things through their own obser­
vation and experience, or action,"
The teacher is Dot to teach by "mere
7
explanation, description, assertion, or declaration."
1.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 14.
2.
Lowell Mason, The
Pestalozzian Masic Teacher,
p. 10.
3.
Ibid.
4.
Lowell Mason, A Brief Presentation of the Elementary Principles of
Music in Perceptive or Didactic Form, p. 186.
5.
Lowell Mason, How
Shall I Teach, p. 2.
Mason's italics.
6.
Iowell Mason, The
Pestalozzian Music Teacher,
7.
Ibid., p. 10.
p. 9.Mason's italics.
72
The way of exercise or of positive action is
the only way to growth, strength and perfec­
tion. ...even genius itself is subject to this
law.
(3) The organization of material.
In presenting material to be learned,
the teacher must commence with something "practically known, proceeding
Q
from this to the unknown."
For example, the teacher should so plan his
work that such questions as he asks in the course of the lesson
naturally arise out of the instructions al­
ready given. He never asks a question, there­
fore, to which he has not good reason to suppose
his pupils will be able to give a satisfactory
answer.3
IShen new material is presented to the pupil, "the thing to be con­
sidered is to be first examined, then taken to pieces, then put together
again,— the whole being done with interest, thought, understanding^ ^
The
pupil is thus
guided to the attainment of general knowledge,
first; then by analysis, of particular know­
ledge. ...whole things are first observed and
considered, and then the parts, which can be
understood and comprehended only by their re­
lation to the whole.5
In this way, by reducing the elements of knowledge to their "simplest
aomponent parts,"® it is brought about that "One thing is taken up at a
1.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Ifeson From an Old Bundle of
Letters, New Music Review. XXVI, 302, (January, 1927), p. 52.
2.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I_ Teach, p. 1.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Mislc Teacher, p. 11.
4.
Ibid., p. 8.
5.
Ibid.
6.
Lowell Mason, How Shall _I Teach, p. 1.
73
time, and thoroughly examined and practiced before another Is commenced."1
These steps which are taken up one at a time "are carefully graduated, and
by frequent reviews are linked closely together as the work advances."2
The teacher assists the pupil to combine the particulars which he has
rz
learned,
in the whole from which they are taken.
The true teacher is content with "gradual growth" in his pupils, and
does not force "immediate striking results."
(9) Importance of the Principles.
The general principles above discussed
were the basis upon which Mason's teaching was based, and he advocated
that others use them.
That Mason regarded these as foundational and of
an importance surpassing any outline, course of study, or any specialized
method is shown by his statement that a teacher "may use any book success­
fully which contains a clear statement of the facts''^ provided his teach­
ing was based upon these principles.
He advised the teacher using the outlines of musical theory in the
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music and in The Pestalozzian Music Teacher
to adapt the material to the "various circumstances end capacities of
classes,"® to the "different ages and different acquirements"7 of groups
1.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 14, Mason's
italics.
2.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 8.
4.
Ibid., p. 10.
5.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Mhsic Teacher, pp. 9-10.
6.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 31.
?•
Ibid., p. 25.
74
of students, and to the amount of time at his disposal for teaching a given
class.i
But the principles, according to Mason,
"may be regarded as the ground­
work, or as embracing the philosophy of the true method of instruction."2
llO) Song Material.
It is of considerably importance that the songs used
have "such words and melodies as will interest the feelings of scholars."
The musical material must be within the students’ reading capacity and
within their power as vocalists:
the vocal organs must not be injured
4
through strain.
Furthermore, the meaning of the words and the meaning
of the music must be well within the students’ comprehension and be ap­
propriate to their "maturity of culture;" material sung should be such that
the students can "appreciate and bring out the real meaning of the composi­
tion."5
Not only shall the songs "always be such as will interest"6 the stu­
dent, and not only must they be appropriate to his musical, physical and
emotional development, but they "should ever be of an elevated character,
tending not to debase or degrade, but rather to exalt, ennoble, and purify
the thought, feelings and associations of the young."
n
The words shall be
Q
"often of a joyful or cheerful character,"
but words and melodies which
1*
Ibid., p. 31.
2.
Lowell
3.
Iowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music,
4.
Iowell Mason, The Song Garden. II, p. 4.
5.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. II, p. 4.
6.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 30f
7.
Lowell Mason and George J. Webb, The Song Book of the School
8.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 30,
Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 10.
p. 241.
Mason’s italics*
Room, p. ii.
Mason’s italics.
75
"tend to vulgarity, coarseness, rudeness, or to mere trifling or frivolity"1
must not be used.
Mason especially resents the "low doggerel verse"
characteristic of some of the children’s songs with which he is familiar.
O
In short,"only the most choice songs and melodies must be admitted into
our families and schools."
(11) Self-expression.
Mason had the germinal idea of modern "creative
teaching."
The scholars should be required themselves to
compose measures or phrases corresponding to
lines in poetry, or parts of lines than can be
rhythmically divided.4
When the scholars hove once arrived at a know­
ledge of phrases and sections, a new field opens
for their own rhythmical invention. The teacher
now exactly defines the sets of two, sets of
three, phrases and sections. He says, for in­
stance, compose a rhythmical example of two sets
of two and a set of four in 2/4 measure; or an
example, which, with two measures, forms a phrase.
and with four measures a section; connect this
with another section of four megsures, which with
the former shall make a_ period.
When the student is given this sort of musical training, he has the op­
portunity for both imitative activity and for creative self-expression.6
Mason cautions, however, that "the teacher who gives out such exer­
cises, should not only have the requisite ability and perseverance him-
1.
Lowell Mason and George J. Webb, The Song Book of the School Room, p. ii.
2.
Iowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 30.
3.
Iowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 22.
4.
Ibid., p. 93.
5.
Iowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 96, Mason’s
italics.
6.
Iowell Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad, p. 50.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY^
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
»
LIBRARY
o
76
self, but Bhould encourage the scholars by not neglecting their perfor­
mances, but giving them due directions,
(12) Correlation and Integration,
The values which music study make a-
vailable to students are enhanced if in addition to considering music as
an independent subject it is made "correlative to all school pursuits and
occupations.
Unless the pupils are made more cheerful, happy, kind, and
studious by the music lessons, it is not properly given."
2
More speci­
fically, Mason mentions the educational value of the wise correlation of
poetry and music, but he makes the reservation that both must be of the
same high quality.
Regarding the courses of instruction in theoretical music outlined
in the Manual of the Boston Academy of Music and his similar writing,
Mason states that the division of the musical material into its three
elements, rhythm, melody end dynamics, is not to be followed in the actual
teaching, but that they are to be combined and integrated from the outset.
4
Although this may seem to be not strictly in eccordance with the
inductive method of teaching, yet. "the teacher is not to go through with
rhythmics before introducing melodics, but on the contrary', melodics
should be introduced....at the very first lesson, and the different depart5
ments be thus brought into connection,"
1.
And likewise, the introduction of
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p, 93,
2.
LowellMason, quoted by Henry Barnard, Educational Labors of Lowell
Mason, The American Journal of Education. IV, 1857, p. 148,
3.
Lowell Idason, Mason's Normal Singer, pp. ii-iii.
4.
LowellMason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 27,
5.
LowellMeson and George J. Webb, The Song Book of the School Room,
p. ii.
77
dynamics "should certainly not long be delayed" for the cultivation of
taste should receive careful attention from the beginning, and its culti­
vation is essentially dependent upon this department, or upon vocal delivery.^
(13)
The Teacher.
In the final analysis, according to Mason, the teacher
determines the extent to which the lesson is a success or a failure.
All the elements of instruction in singing, all
expense of time and apparatus, will produce no
favorable result, if the teacher is wanting in
the necessary ability or disposition.2
"No book of rules, definitions, or descriptions, can make a thorough
teacher. V I n
order to instruct his scholars with success, the teacher
must be a master of his subject matter,^ he should have a knowledge of
musical composition,
5
he must have an adequate philosophy of music edu­
cation, 6 and should have unwearied patience and perseverance.^
He must
exert himself to acquire the scientific knowledge and the skills necessary
8
to teach to the maximum of his potential ability.
He should have respect
g
for his work as a profession and as a means of improving mankind.
Although in Mason's day musical instruction was always given by a
special instructor, prophetically he realized that in the future, if music
1.
Iowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
3.
Iowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher,
4.
Iowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
of Music, p. 35.
5.
Iowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
of Music, p. 86.
6.
Ibid., p. 35.
7.
Ibid., p. 39.
B.
Ibid., p. 35.
9.
Ibid.
of Music, p. 35.
p. 10.
was to fulfill its great mission, "the teacher of the school must also be
the music teacher.
And surely it is better so; the full benefit of music
in schools can not be realized under other circumstances,
Course of Study
Since Mason was convinced that music could became a valuable factor
in the life of the average man and the average woman, his teaching cen­
tered around singing by children, particularly in the common schools.
He
stressed vocal rather than instrumental or theoretical music for the prac­
tical reason that
all have organs adapted to produce and distinguish
musical sounds. Every child can vary the tones of
his voice, and if he receives early instruction, it
will be easy for him to learn to sing as to learn
to talk or to read.**
He was not indifferent to instrumental music, musical theory, history and
appreciation, for all of these phases received much attention at the Boston
Academy o f Music of which he was the leading spirit,*
But the expediency of
vocal music teaching rather than some other phase of the art led Mason to
concentrate his efforts upon teaching children to sing.
The course of study for teaching singing had four main steps or divi­
sions:
rote singing, the song approach to note reading, note reading, part
singing and choral singing.
(1) Rote singing:
According to Mason,
At first, the songs should be taught by rote,
or ear, the teacher giving the model example
and the pupils catching by imitation, not only
1,
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden, p. iv.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 15.
*
see pages 156-158
79
the mere technical accuracies of time and tune,
but also the appropriate emotional and tasteful
expression* This is the natural process of learn­
ing to sing, just as it is natural for children
to learn to talk before they learn spelling, read­
ing or grammar. ^
For this purpose the teacher must select the easiest and most interesting
songs, and "singing them over and over, a line at a time....teach the chil-
2
dren to imitate them."
The use of rote singing is particularly appropriate
"at a very early age, in the family, or in infant schools;"
able with singers of any age:
but it is
valu­
in classes for adult beginners "a part of
each lesson should be occupied in singing tunes which are generally familiar
4
by rote,"
for this is "absolutely necessary to bring forward the ear and
the voice" to develop taste, manner and style of performance.
5
Rote singing is to be used "before attempting to give children regular in6
struction in the elements of music,"
for it.
but must not be substituted entirely
After the ability to read music has been well established, rote
singing is to be used only for the sake of variety or for additional practice of the voice.
7
(2) The transition to note reading:
Following the principle of beginning
Q
with something "practically known, proceeding from this to the unknown,
1*
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. I, pp. iii-iv.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
3.
Ibid., p. 25.
4.
Ibid., p. 30
5.
Ibid.
6.
of Music,
p. 26.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
of MuBic.
p. 25.
7.
Lowell Mason, The Boston School Song Book,
p. 2.
8.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
80
note-reading is introduced through rote songs which the students already
know*
Let the teacher first sing a single phrase,
teaching it by pattern or by rote; when the
phrase has been learned by the pupils, it may
be written upon the blackboard, and be sung
from the notes; thus proceed with each suc­
ceeding phrase or section, until the whole
is known. The teadher will soon be able to
give out a section, or even more, at once.l
Similarly, the scale is taught first as a song with words, followed by singing
it with the sol-fa syllables.®
(3) Sight-Singing:
The degree of success which will attend the teaching of
sight-singing or reading by note obviously depends upon the student becoming
familiar with the conventional signs of musical notation and applying them to
singing.
To this end it is desirable that a systematic outline or elementary
treatise dealing with notation be followed, and any "clear statement of the
facts" may be successfully employed.®
Mason himself published several such
treatises, of which the two most elaborate were in the Manual of the Boston
Academy of Music and in the Pestalozzian Music Teacher.
These outlines first
take up the more frequently employed items of notation such as the letter names
of notes upon the staff, the simplest melodic progressions and the simplest
time values such as the quarter and half note.
Proceeding through the next
most common matters such as easy and slightly difficult intervals, melodic
patterns, and rhythmic values and groupings, the outlines continue their
treatment to the less common and more difficult levels of the same topics.
Mason stresses that in learning to read music the student should sing musical-
1.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden, I, p. 8 .
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Misic Teacher, pp. 9-10.
25.
81
ly, that is with good tone quality, intonation, phrasing, and tonal color­
ing,
These treatises are not concerned with harmony or other phases of
theoretical music except as they are related to note-reading.^
Among the many suggestions and devices for the teaching of note reading
givaiby Mason are:
beating,
5
solmization,® numbral drill,3 aural dictation,^ time
the musical ladder,
6
the cycle of keys,
7
the blackboard,
Q
and the
g
inculcation of a rudimentary form of absolute pitch,
(4) Part-reading: Mason does not specify methods for the teaching of partsinging other than those to be used in the teaching of note-reading.
collections of music intended for school use, however,
His
indicate that rounds,
two-part, three-part and four-part music were to be used extensively once the
student had acquired the ability to read fluently’.
For example, the Juvenile
Singing School is largely arranged for soprano and alto; two soprano parts;
or soprano, alto and baritone.
The Boston School Song Book is almost entire­
ly arranged for soprano, alto and baritone; the Song Book of the School Room,
unison; two soprano parts; soprano end alto; and soprano, alto and baritone;
the Mason's Normal Singer contains music in four parts: soprano, alto, tenor
1.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Mislc Teacher, pp. 20-182; Lowell Mason,
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 40-231.
2.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. 42, pp. 165-167; Manual, pp. 109-110.
3.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. ii et seq; Manual, p. 109.
4.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. 38, p. 116; Manual, pp. 104-105.
5.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. 41; Manual, pp. 42-43.
6.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. 118.
7.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. 183; Manual, pp. 205-209.
8.
Pestalozzian Music
Teacher,p. 9; Manual, p. 40.
9.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Mislc Teacher, p. 52.
63
end bass.
Mason cautions that this work is not to be undertaken until the
students are equipped for it:
The scales and exercises should first be sung
by all the pupils in unison and in solmization,
and not until familiar, should parts be attempted.
During adolescence, the student, both male and female, is to sing, but
in moderation.
About the time of this change....the voice must
be sparingly used; yet it is not desirable that
it should remain entirely at rest. Hence during
the period of the development of the voice, the
teacher in the exercises always limits it and
never allows the scholars to sing higher than
they can without straining....The boy who sings
treble, takes the alto on the first sign of
change, which is the continual depression of the
higher tones. As his voice gradually sinks be­
low the alto, he takes the tenor, and if his
voice sinks still lower, the base.2
1.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 26.
2.
Ibid., p. 244.
Mason's italics and spelling.
83
CHAPTER V
THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF MASON AND HIS PRECURSORS
AID CONTEMPORARIES
Aa is the case with most men, Lowell Mason's work had its roots in
that of his immediate and of his more remote predecessors.
His educa­
tional philosophy, his methods of teaching and his teaching material all
had their beginnings in earlier educators, musicians
or music educators.
"Mason willingly received suggestions from such sources as he thought re­
liable, in order to further his aims as a musical educator of the people,
p
and he repeatedly acknowledged his indebtedness to these sources.
Rousseau.
Mason had both philisophical and musical ideas from Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
"The sweeping and lasting influence of anile"
was felt in America
as well as in Europe, and there is no reason to suppose that Mason es­
caped this general influence.
3ut Rousseau did have a far more direct
and strong relationship to Mason through Pestalozzi.
In his own teaching
Pestalozzi said that he had attempted to "make use of what is wise in
his
Rousseau's
principles;"^
Mason's work was based upon "the inductive,
1.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America, p. 173.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Acadeny of Music, pp. 14-15; Lowell
Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad, p. 137; Lowell Mason, A Brief Presentation of theElementary Principles of tfiisic in Perceptive or Didactic
Form, pT~2Q5 ; Lowell Mason, Carmlna Sacra, p. 3., etc.
3.
Adolph E. Meyer, Education in Modern Times, p. 25.
4
.
Ibid., p. 50.
84
1
or Pestalozzian Method of Teaching."
For these reasons, there was a
residue derived from Rousseau in Mason’s thinking.
The musical inter-relationship of Mason and Rousseau is interesting.
Rousseau
in youth earned his living for a time as a very in­
efficient teacher of music in France and Switzer­
land. .. .attempted a reformed notation, compiled a
dictionary of music, and all his life took an in­
terest in the art.
Mason contended that the "movable do" or Guidonian system was superior
to the "fixed do," a French and Italian system, as had Rousseau before
him.
In support of
that
the "fixed do"
his own position Mason quoted
Rousseau, who said
was
"entirely out of (contrary to) nature," while "every
one must feel the contrary, that nothing is more
natural than to solfa by transposition when the mode
(key) is transposed.” And again, says the same
writer, "We always call UT the tonic of the Major
modes (keys) and the mediant of the Minor modes."
(J. J. Rousseau.)
Pestalozzi
Pestalozzi believed music to be one of the most effective aids of
moral education:
It is the marked and most beneficial influence of
music on the feelings, which I have always observed
to be most efficient in preparing, or as it were,
attuning the mind for the best impressions....I need
not remind you of the importance of music in engen­
dering and assi|ting the highest feeling of which
man is capable.
1.
Lowell Mason, The Song Book of the School Room, title page.
2.
Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 281.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 166.
and material in parenthesis, Mason’s.
4.
J. H. Pestalozzi, The Letter to Greaves, Lewis Flint Anderson,
Pestalozzi. pp. 175-176.
Capitalization
85
The Prospectus of Munchenhuchsee contained this as one of its closing
paragraphs:
We do not neglect the aesthetic training given by
song. We think it is as important for the content­
edness, cheerfulness and higher life of the soul as
it is for forms of worship. The rhythmic movements,
the choice of songs and poems, the common effort,
everything tends to mould the plastic minds of the
hoys in wise and virtuous directness. Choral music
strengthens the social bond....-*Lowell Mason’s viewpoint was very similar to that of Pestalozzi,
for he considered "the highest, ultimate end of all that can be drawn
out of the kingdom of tones" to be "the perfecting of man's emotional
and moral nature."
2
Much of the music teaching at Pestalozzi’s institutions was infor­
mal and recreational.
At Burgdorf,
the thirty or forty children of both sexes, in
Pestalozzi's old school came from the town to the
castle to take part in the singing. Buss made
his pupils sing as they walked, two by two, hold­
ing each other's hand, up and down the big cor­
ridors of the castle. This was our greatest pleas­
ure. .. .Indeed, singing was one of our chifef sources
of enjoyment at the Institute. We sang everywhere—
out of doors, during our walks, and, in the evening,
in the court of the castle; and this collective
singing contributed in no small degree to the har­
mony and good feeling which prevailed among us.
During the early years at Tverdon, musical activity seems to have been
similar to that at Burgdorf, for "singing played an important part:
the students;
they
sang all day and everywhere., in the intervals between les­
1.
J. H. Pestalozzi, The Prospectus of Munchenbuchsee. quoted by J. A.
Green Life and Works of Pestalozzi, pp. 318-319.
2.
Daniel Gregory Mason, A Glimpse of Lowell Mason From an Old Bundle of
Letters, The New Music Review XX7I, 302, (January, 1927), pp. 50-51.
3.
H. Holman, Pestalozzi, an Account of His Life and W o r k , p. 238, quoting
Ramsauer's account of life at Burgdorf.
86
sons, at play, and out walking...."
The later Yverdon period marked the beginning of stress upon formal
music instruction:
All the boys learn singing except those who are
naturally tuneless. At present, instruction in the
subject is divided into exercises in time and tune,
lessons in harmony, in musical notation and in com­
position. Spontaneous musical activity is encouraged.^
Perhaps the students at the Yverdon Institute did not enjoy the formal
musical instruction as much as Ramsauer had enjoyed the informal instruc­
tion at Burgdorf:
....Another twitch of the bell announced that the
hour for playing at triangles (the geometry lesson)
had expired. In five minutes the slate was covered
with bars of minims and crochets, and the music les­
son begun. This....bore a striking resemblance to
the geographical one of two hours before, the only
difference being that "ut, re, mi" had succeeded to
the names of certain cities, and "fa, so, la" to
the number of their inhabitants.®
"Generally, Pestalozzi’s personal influence on the methods of teach­
ing particular subjects was small but on the other hand he compelled the
4
scholastic world to revise
the whole of their task";
his influence
on
specific methods for music
teaching as distinct from general educational
methods, was comparatively
slight.
Since Lowell Mason was a practical musician which Pestalozzi was not,
1.
G. Compayre, J. H. Pestalozzi. p. 46.
2.
J. H. Pestalozzi, The Report to Parents, translated by J. A. Green,
Life and Works of Pestalozzi. p. 345.
3.
Pestalozziana:
Student Life at Yverdon under Pestalozzi, Blackwood*s
Magazine. July 1849, reprinted in Henry Barnard’s Pestalozzi and His
Educational System, p. 142. Material in parenthesis in original.
4.
Carl von Raumer, Life and Educational System of Pestalozzi, American
Journal of Education.IV. (1857) , p. 125.
87
his music teaching was based upon Pestalozzi*s theories rather than upon
Pestalozzi’s practice.
And for that reason in his own teaching he did
not always apply Pestalozzi*s theories literally.
For example, in a pres­
entation of his first lesson in musical notation, Mason has this to say:
In following out strictly the inductive or Pesta­
lozzian method of teaching, this lesson would not
come first in order, hut rather as a result of fu­
ture investigation. It has been found, however,
very convenient....to present this general view at
the beginning. The pupils are thereby prepared
for a more careful analysis and classification, and
for a clearer insight into the various relations of
tones, and are also presented with a more extensive
view of the whole subject, from the very beginning
of their course of study.
But on the whole, Mason was in agreement with the Swiss refoimer,
and he frequently and proudly mentioned this fact.
2
The following tabu­
lation of the views of both men indicates the degree to which they were
in accord; Mason's are quoted from several of his writings, Pestalozzi’s
from Cubberly’s summary of the "Contributions of Pestalozzi" in his The
History of Education.
Pestalozzi
Taking Rousseau’s idea of a re­
turn to nature, he tried to ap­
ply it to the education of
children. This led to his re­
jection of what he called the
"empty chattering of mere words"
and "outward show" in the in­
struction of reading and the
catechism, and the introduc­
tion in their place of real
studies based on observation,
Mason
The teacher in pursuance of the
right method is guided by na­
ture, he looks to the intuitions,
instincts and opening faculties
of his pupils....
The pupil
must knovi a thing through his
perceptive powers or because he
sees it, or hears it; because it
is self evident, or is a logical
deduction from well ascertained
facts; or if beyond the power of
1.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 2., Mason's italics.
2.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 8 .
3.
Ibid., p. 10.
88
Pestalozzi
Mason
experimentation, and reasoning.
"Sense Impression" now became
his watchword.^-
perception or reason, it is re­
ceived on testimony, or as being
conventional or of universal
usage.2 ....in the very first
lesson, use has been m a d e ‘of
the three grand avenues of hu­
man knowledge, the immediate
perception of the senses, the
reasoning power, and faith.
As he expressed it, he "tried
to organize and psychologize
the educational process" by
harmonizing it with the natu-^
ral development of the child.
The business of the common school
instruction generally, is nothing
else than the harmonious develop­
ment and cultivation of a^l the
faculties of children....
It
(the method} is always so directed
that teaching....is made subser­
vient to education, or to the
awakening, and bringing into ef­
ficient action, the various human
powers in their relation one to
another, and to actual life.®
To this end he carefully studied
children, and developed his meth­
ods experimentally as a result
of his observation. To this end,
both at Burgdorf and Tverdon, all
results of preceding teachers and
writers on education were reject­
ed, for fear that error might
creep in. Read nothing, discover
everything, and prove all things,
came to be the working guides of
himself and his teachers.
In his attempts to communicate
knowledge he (the teacher] de­
pends not up6n previously pre­
pared books, rules, canons, or
formulas as guides....He never
allows either himself or the book­
maker to attempt to teach by mere
explanation, description, asser­
tion, or declaration. That the
book says so, or that the teacher
himself says so, is not sufficient;
present proof, the result of care­
ful investigation and comparison,
making its appeal to the capacities
1.Elwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education,
p. 541.
2.Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher,
p. 10.
3.
Lowell M a s o n , A Brief Presentation of the Elementary Principles of
Music in Perceptive or Didactic Form, p. 186. Mason’s italics.
4.Elwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education,
pp. 541-542.
5.
Lowell Mason. Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 18.
6.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 11.
7.
Elwood P . Cubberly, The Hi story of Education,p . 542.
89
Pestalozzi
Mason
of the pupil, is positively required.
The development of man he be­
lieved to be organic, and to
proceed according to law. It
was the work of the teacher to
discover these laws of develop­
ment and to assist nature in
securing "a natural, symmetri­
cal, and harmonious development”
of all the "faculties" of the
child. Real education must de­
velop the child as a whole—
mentally, physically, morally—
and called for the training of
the head and the hand and the
heart.2
He (the teacher]is not satisfied
with the mere communication of
knowledge, but looking to the
educational influence of his
work, he constantly aims to call
forth, develop, or enlarge the
natural powers of his pupils.3
It gnusicj should be cultivated
and taught....as ji sure means
of Improving the affections, and
of enriching, purifying and ele­
vating the whole man.^
The only proper means for de­
veloping the powers of the child
was use, and hence education
must guide and stimulate self­
activity, be based on intuition
and exercise, and the sense im­
pressions must be organized and
directed.5
[The Teacher looks]to the in­
tuitive powers of his pupils,
or to their ability to acquire
a real knowledge of things through
their own observation and experi­
ence, or action....0 His {the
teacher's]motto is: things be­
fore signs; principles before
rules; practice before theory.?
Education, too, if it is to follow
the organic development of the
child, must observe the proper
progress of child development and
be graded, so that each step of the
process shall grow out of the
preceding and grow into the fol­
lowing stage.8
It {the method]simplifies the ele­
ments of knowledge, and would re­
duce everything to its primitive
component parts. It always com­
mences with something practically
known, proceeding from this to
the unknown.
Its steps are care­
fully graduated, and by frequent
1.
Lowell Mason. The Pestalozzian Misic Teacher, P. 10.
2.
Xlwood
3.
Lowell Mason. The Pestalozzian Music Teacher. P- 11.
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Jdisic, p. 35.
5.
Elwood P. Cubberly. The History of Education. P» 542.
6.
Lowell Mason. The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, P* 10.
7.
Ibid., p. 11.
8.
Elwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education, P. 542.
P. Cubberly. The History of Education, P . 542.
Mason's italics.
Mason's italics.
Mason's italics.
90
Mason
Pestalozzi
reviews are linked closely to­
gether as the work advances.
One thing is taken up at a time,
and thoroughly examined and prac­
ticed, before another is commenced.*2
....the chief value of music....
in school or families, will be
social and moral.*
Pestalozzi possessed a deep
and abiding faith....in the
power of education as a means
of regenerating society.^
Pestalozzi also resented the
brutal discipline which for
ages had characterized all school
instruction....and tried to sub­
stitute for this a strict but
loving discipline— "a thinking
love," he called it.
As an indispensable requisite in
all right teaching it (Fhe methoa\
makes everything pleasant and agreeable to the pupil; and it does
this legitimately, by keeping him
on the track of research and dis­
covery, thus causing his gratifi­
cation to be derived from the pur­
suit and attainment of knowledge.6
Pfeiffer and H&geli. and the Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzischen
Grunds&tzen.
Authorship
"Nor was Pestalozzi sufficiently acquainted with music to apply his
method to it.
This was, however, done by his friend NSgeli, a Swiss com­
poser of note, who reduced it to its simplest tone elements and then comr
bined and developed these progressively into more complex and connected
wholes."^
Aside from the ignoring of the very essential part of Michael
1.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 14. Mason's italics.
3.
Elwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education. p. 542.
4.
Mason's italics.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. I, p. iv.
5.
Elwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education, p. 543.
6.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I_ Teach, p. 1.
7.
F. P. Graves, A History of Education In Modern Times, p. 135.
91
Traugott Pfeiffer, Hane Georg Nageli's collaborator, in this application
of the Pestalozzian method of music teaching,— the full title of their
treatise is
Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzischen
GrundsMtzen.
Fad&gogisch begrttndet von
Michael Traugott Pfeiffer, methodisch
bearbeitet von Hans Georg NHgeli.
— Graves is essentially correct in his statement.*
William C. Woodbridge
mentions "Pfeiffer, the
author of the Pestalozzian system of instruction
in m u s i c . B i b e r says
of the Gesangbildungslehre that
....an eminent artist by the name of Pfeiffer,
who passed some time in the establishment at
Yverdon, traced out an appropriate course of
exercises, which was subsequently published by
him, in conjunction with his friend, the cele­
brated congjoser NHgeli of Zuric [sic3 who added
to it several collections of simple tunes, ex­
pressly composed with a view of their use in
education.
Henry Barnard,3 likewise: says that NHgeli
in 1010, published in connection with M. T.
Pfeiffer, "The Theory of Instruction in Sing­
ing, on Pestalozzian Principles" (Di"e
Gesanab1ldungslehre nach Pestalozzischen
Grundsfltzen.3 )
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 14, makes the same curious ommission, implying that NHgeli
alone was responsible.
"Hans George NHgeli (1773-1836) developed
the Pestalozzian method of instruction in music....His Theory of In­
struction in Singing Based on Pestalozzian Principles, and published
in 1810, was the first successful attempt to place the study of music
on a distinctly pedagogical basis." Iowell Mason, however, was aware
of Pfeiffer's contribution, for he wrote in his Manual of the Boston
Academy of Misic, p. 15, that "....Pfeiffer and NHgeli....drew up a
very extensive work on elementary instruction in vocal music."
1.
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction. 1830, p. 246.
2.
B. Biber, Henry Pestalozzi and His Plan of Bducation. p. 70.
3.
Henry Barnard, Pestalozzi and His Bducational System, p. 304.
92
Pfeiffer and Nageli's reputation as music educators rests largely
on their Gesangbildungslehre by which "a new epoch in this department of
education, music education, was introduced.
The treatise was the best
realization of the method of Pestalozzi, and soon made singing a regular
study in the .popular schools of Europe, particularly those of Switzer­
land and Germany."^
It was through William C. Woodbridge that Mason became acquainted
with the monumental Gesangbildungslehre. for on returning from Europe,
ft
"this gentleman brought with him the works of Nageli and Pfeiffer and
Eubler on elementary instruction" and also their "juvenile m u s i c . I n
the preface of the fifth edition of The Manual of the Boston Academy of
Music. Mason embraced the "opportunity to express his obligations to Win.
C. Woodbridge....for the loan of the very valuable German treatises which
have been made the basis of this work.?3 Since Mason's knowledge of Ger­
man was limited, Woodbridge also provided him with an "oral translation"
of these vTorks.^
It is probable that Mason's knowledge of Pfeiffer and
Nageli and of their use of the Pestalozzian ideas in music teaching came
almost entirely from these materials and from Woodbridge's accounts of
ft
them; Woodbridge had "visited Nageli, and spent some time in the
family of Pfeiffer.”5
ted Europe in 1837.
Both Pfeiffer and Nageli were dead when Mason visi-
6
1.
Ibid.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 6 .
3.
Iowell LSason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, Fifth Edition,
1847, p. iv.
4.
William C. Woodbridge, Boston Academy of Music, American Annals of Educa­
tion, 1834, p. 322.
5.
Boston Academy of Music,
6.
Iowell Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad, p. 137.
First Annual Report, 1833, p. 5.
93
Pfeiffer and Nageli*s Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen
Grundsatzen probably had more influence upon Lowell Mason's teaching
methods than any other single work.
He said of i t :
The work of Nageli and Pfeiffer was excellent,
and its influence has been felt far and wide.
Other manuals, based on this have been since
published, better adapted, perhaps, to the com­
mon purposes of teaching, but the work of Nageli
and Pfeiffer is a text book which every teacher
should study until he makes the principle his
own. The Boston Academy's Manual of Instruction
in Vocal Music is the only work of the kind in
English, so far as we kjow,
in which these prin­
ciples are carried out.
This "treatise of Pfeiffer and Nageli" and a revision of it by Kubler of
Stuttgart were "the basis of the manual "2 of the Boston Academy of Music.
ir
The Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen Grundsatzen
The elaborate Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen Grundsatzen.
Padagogisch begrundet von Michael Traugott Pfeiffer methodisch bearbeitet
von Hans George Nageli was issued at Zurich in 1810.3
rons and subscribers is
Institute, 120 Cr."
A long list of pat­
given, among them "Yverdon— Das Pestalozzische
The book itself is a beautiful example of the prin­
ter's art, having large clear type, well-arranged pages, fine quality paper
and handsome binding.
Apparently it was intended as a teacher's manual and
not for student use.
The content of the volume is grouped in four sections, each of which
has several subdivisions.
The first section deals with the conducting of
classes, the second with the elements of music and the teaching of them,
the third with such specialized musical matters os vocal registers, tone
1.
Lowell Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad, p. 137.
2.
Lowell Mason,
3.
Title page.
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 15.
94
and the like, and the fourth, an appendix of supplementary material including
songs in unison, two-parts, and three-parts.
More than two-thirds of the
book is devoted to the second section, the "Allgemeine Tonlehre" which is sub­
divided into "Elementarlehre der Rhytmik," "Elementarlehre der Melodik,"
"Elementarlehre der Dynamik,H "Methodische Verbindung der Tonelemente" and
"Die Notirungskunst."
In the chapter on the teaching of rhythm, this element is disassociated
from pitch and dynamics; the rhythmic patterns are to be practiced with time
beating and other bodily movements, or by intoning, but not by singing
melodies.
Drills for each variety of note and rest, first alone and then in
combination with each other and in measures, are provided.^
The question and answer method, together with frequent repetition for
drilling material already covered are used continually in this exposition.
Typical of the procedure is the following lesson:
"Was seht ihr nebst den Noten?"
— "Striche."
"Wie viele Zeiten sind durch die Striche eingeschlossen?"
— "Zwei."
tt
If
"Indem wir dies uben, musst ihr immer die erste Zeit mit
Niederschlagen, die zweite mit Aufheben der Hand bezeichnenj
jene Bewegung heisst Niederschlag, diese Aufschlag."
Er schreibt diese Worte unter die Noten so hin:
Ij
j I
Neider- Aufschlag schlag
j
N
nI
I j
A
N
A
j
N
Ihr bedient such zu dieser Uebung der rechten
Hand; ihr hebt dazu den vordern Theil des Arms
so auf, dass derselbe von dem Ellebogen bis zur
Hand horizontal (eben) liegt; ihr fuhrt den Arm
ziemlich nah an den Leib; ihr durft ihn mitunter
am Leib ruhen lessen; das Aufheben der Hand soil
eigentlich bios darin bestehen dass ihr die
1.
Gesangbildungslehre, pp. 9-40.
r
A
95
Finger gerade ausstreckt.
Der Niederschlag besteht
darinf( dass ihr die vier Finger, ausser dera Daura,
ungefahr senkrecht {gerade abwSrts) stellt; wobei
das mittlere Gelehk ein wenig gebogen bleiben darf.
Das allererste Aufheben der Hand, als Vorbereitung
zu dieser Uebung, darf etwas langsam geschehn;
sonst aber muss jeder Neiderschlag und jeder
Aufschlag schnell, se schnell als moglich, so
su sagen, zuckend geschehen. Er heisst die
Kinder in der Mitte des Uebungstflcks, nach dem
zweiten Aufschlag, schnellen Athem, am Ende auf
die langsame Pause vollen Athem ziehen.
Er macht
sie auftaerksam, dass sie hier ein Uebungstttck haben,
wobei sie abwechselnd den schnellen und den vollen
Athemzug ziehen konnen.
In the chapter on the teaching of "melodics", the tert discusses
purely vocal matters such as the head-voice and chest-voice end says
that the teacher should subject each student to a vocal try-out or
"Stimmprufung" in order that correct vocal habits may be established at
the very
ting
stsrt.
The pupil is
to get his conception
the teacher's singing of short tone groups like
of pitch by imita­
"g.a.h.",and"g.h.a.c.".
The teacher
producirt (singt oder spielt) die Tone und beobachtet
zwischen jedem eine kurze Pause, dabei heisst er die
Kinder ein fur alle Male, bis er ihnen etwa eine
andre Hegel gebe, auf den Selbstlauter a singen.
"itfir haben nun drei T 8ne nacheinander hervorgebracht."
— "".Er war hiJher.''"
— "Recht so. War der dritte hfther als der zweite?"
--""Hoher"".
--"Recht so, er war wieder hoher. Wenn mehrere fUne,
wenigstens drei, nacheinander so hervorgebracht werden,
dass immer der eine wieder h8her ist als der andre
vorhergegangene, so heisst eine solche Tonreihe eine
aufsteigende Tonreihe".
The tetrachord of four consecutive scale steps is repeatedly employed; and
in connection with it a great quantity of numeral drills are used to firmly
1.
Gesangbildungslehre. p. 18.
2.
Ibid., p. 43.
96
fix the pitch i m a g e d
The chromatic scale is to be taught using syl-
O
lablesand the written notes on the staff.^ Only in a few cases
indications that the quantity of tone is to be varied in
are there
singing the
exercises, and this indication is limited to the placing of the piano
rr
or forte abbreviation under a few of the diatonic scale groups.
In the third chapter on teaching dynamics, exercises are given by
which loud tone, soft tone and gradation of tone may be compared.
Relative­
ly more attention is given in this chapter to theoretical discussion than
in previous chapters.
Only a few teaching devices are mentioned, and these
infrequently.
Typical are:
pp
0
p
0
m
f
0
0
ff4
0
la la la la la
pp
0
p
0
m
0
f
0
la la la la
ff5
f m
pp
p6
>
0
la
Methods and suggestions for combining the three elements, rhythm,
melody and dynamics are treated in the following chapter.
this is not to be done until each of the elements has
studied separately.
7
Presumably
been thoroughly
Etudes progressing from very simple to extremely dif­
ficult are given for combination rhythm and pitch groups, and for combina­
1.
Ibid., pp. 43-64.
2 . Ibid., pp. 63-70.
3.
Gesangbildungslehre. p. 57.
4.
Ibid., p. 75.
5.
Ibid., p. 77.
6 . Ibid., pp. 83-119.
7. Ibid., p. 100.
97
tion rhythm, pitch and dynamic groups.
The choice of material in this
section would seem to have been made from a theoretical rather than a
practical basis, for the execution of much of it is inordinately diffi­
cult, if not impossible, for students.
A typical exercise combining all
three elements:
ni.SiTniM
£7 C.
77 7 77 7 7? n 7>r /*) pp r pp 7 pp 9 77 pp 77 7 pp r
Lessons of a type similar to those quoted above are given in the
Gesangbildungslehre for note-writing and aural dictation,^ musical
ornamentation,2 and the production of vowels, consonants end diphthongs.®
The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music
Lowell Mason’s The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music for Instruc­
ting in the Elements of Vocal Music on the System of Pestalozzi was pub­
lished by J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter of Boston in the summer of 1834.^
Its preface, signed by the secretary of the Academy, states that the vol­
ume conformed with the Academy’s objective of "furnishing facilities for
teachers," that "the method of teaching music here proposed" had been"applied to various classes of learners with great success under the auspices
of the Academy" and that "the treatise is essentially different from any
other on the same branch of education which has been published in this
country."®
1.
Gesangbildungslehre. pp. 120-160.
2.
Ibid., pp. 209-224.
3.
Ibid., pp. 161-208.
4.
Title Page.
5.
Lowell Mason, The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. iii.
98
The introductory portion discusses the "reasons why vocal music
should be generally cultivated,"1 "advantages of the early and cong
tinued cultivation of vocal music,"
by the Manual,
the method of teaching advocated
and the qualifications and duties of the music teachers.
The second section [about four-fifths of the bookj, is a treatment of
how to teach the elements of music, namely, rhythm, melody and dynamics.
The third section is an exposition of "the expression of words in con-
5
nection with sounds;"
the appendix discusses the different types of
voice and their handling, and also contains "miscellaneous exercises,"
and fifteen rounds and songs.
6
In the second section the elements of rhythm, melody and dynamics
are treated as "divisions," and the teaching of the first two is pres­
ented in highly organized "courses", progressing in difficulty.
The
material on the teaching of rhythm begins with the "divisions of time
into measures," and immediately takes up the beating of time with arm
movements.
"Value and names of notes" — the quarter, whole, half, six­
teenth and their corresponding rests, the combination of notes of sev­
eral time values, and the divided beat—
follow.
The lesson procedure
is a combination of question and answer, exposition and actual singing
1.
Lowell Mason, The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 14-17.
2.
Ibid., pp.
3.
Ibid., 25 et seq.
4.
Ibid., pp.
35-36.
5.
Ibid., pp.
283-241.
6.
Ibid., pp.
242-248.
18-23.
99
or time-beating, although for the spoken part of the lesson the question
and answer type seems to predominate.^The melody "division" discusses the human voice, the most effective
manner of producing good tone> and follows this with such technical mat­
ters as pitch, tones, semi-tones, tetrachords, the application of letters
to the steles and solmization.
Drilling devices for the intervals of a
third, fourth, fifth and sixth, by numerals, syllables and by letter names
are provided, as are others for the reading of music in all the major and
minor keys, and for the chromatic scale.
Methods which experience had
proved to be helpful in teaching melodic problems, and devices for maintaining interest are suggested.
2
The dynamic "division" gives drills for training of students to
sing in many degrees of tone, and stresses particularly the swell— the
even crescendo and decrescendo— rather than isolated forte or piano
notes or passages.
3
The second "part” of the Manual treats the problems arising from
the linking of words to musical sound— articulation, emphasis, connection
of syllables, directions for artistic phrasing, and the variety of senti4
ment appropriate to certain styles of singing.
The appendix describes
the types of child voice and mature voice, and gives the teacher detailed
1.
Lowell Mason, The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 40-96.
2.
Ibid., pp. 97-221.
3.
Ibid., pp. 222-233.
4.
Ibid., pp. 233-241.
100
directions for working with the adolescent or changing voice.^
Mason clearly indicated that the phases of music teaching described
in the Manual are to be integrated, and not to be taught separately, nor
necessarily in the order given.
libr the sake of regular arrangement, Rhythm, Melody
and Dynamics are here treated separately, and the
whole subject of rhythm is disposed of before that
of melody is introduced. It i3 not intended, how­
ever, that this course shall be followed in teach­
ing; but the different departments should be pursued
together, a part of each lesson being devoted to
each.2
In the Pestalozzian Music Teacher, a manual which Mason published nearly
forty years after the Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, he actually
rearranged the rhythmic, melodic and dynamic material in this way.
The
later work may be regarded as an elaborated version of the Manual of the
Boston Academy of Music, an exhaustive treatment of the subject based
upon a lifetime of music teaching; the essential principles are identical
in both treatises.
Comparison of the Gesangbildungslehre and the Manual
The descriptions of these two works indicete the degree of simi­
larity which the Manual bears to its predecessor.
But because the two
books are similar in many respects, it must not be inferred that Mason
blindly accepted the dicta of Pfeiffer and Nageli, or that his Manual
is merely a revised edition, in English, of the Gesangblldungslehre.
1.
Lowell Mason, The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 242-248.
2.
Ibid., p. 27.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Mislc Teacher, pp. 20-182.
101
On the contrary, although he did admittedly appropriate the ideas, meth­
ods and materials which he believed to be valuable, he did not use those
which to him seemed to be of little worth or to be impractical*
The
material which he did borrow he modified in many cases in the light of
his own teaching experience.
Jlirthermore much of the essential subject
matter contained in the Manual had already been published by Mason in
1823 in his Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Music—
at least six years before he became acquainted with the Gesangbildungslehre.
Several illustrations of points on which Mason differed from Pfeiffer
tf
and Nageli:
1.
The matter of the integration of rhythm, melody and dynamics as a
teaching procedure.
music.
Mason stressed this from the outset in learning
Pfeiffer and Nageli stressed the almost complete separation of
the three elements; only incidentally do they unite the teaching of
rhythm and pitch, or pitch and dynamics until after the teacher has
presented practically all of the prescribed rhythmic,melodic and dy­
namic material; at which time they then treat the elements in combi­
nation.
2.
Mason
used congs as a groundwork for teaching technical problems;
Pfeiffer and Nageli
used rhythmic groups and tone groups*
Mason held
that students
may be taught the scale, applying the appropriate
syllables, or some such line as the following:
"Now we will sing the upward scale
^
Now we will sing the downward scale."
1.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 25,
102
3.
The degree of stress upon rote singing as a teaching practice.
Iteison
advocated rote singing not only for the creation of a background before
note-reading was commenced:
Before attempting to give children regular instruc­
tion in the elements of music, they must be taught
to sing easy songs or tunes by rote, or by imita­
tion.1
but during the first stages of the note-reading process:
As in juvenile, so in adult classes, a part of each
lesson should be occupied in singing tunes which
are generally familiar by rote. This affords va­
riety, gives an opportunity for the practice of
the voice, and serves to keep up interest.
and continued it for more than half of the course in melody as he out­
lined it.
At the
18th chapter in Melody*....Singing by rote (except
it is occasionally, for the mere purpose of afford­
ing variety to the exercise of the school) may now
be laid aside, and singing from a knowledge of ele­
mentary principles be substituted for it....If a
school be brought safely thus far, it will be com­
paratively easy to proceed gradually through the
whole course laid down in this work.3
Pfeiffer and Nageli practically ignore the matter of rote singing
in their Gesangbildungslehre; and although several contemporary accounts
mention that informal student singing "played an important part" in
3
Pestalozzi's schools at Burgdorf and Yverdon,
yet apparently rote sing­
ing was not seriously considered as a teaching procedure by the authors
of the Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen Grundsat zen.
1.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music.-pP. 25*26.
2.
Ibid., p. 30.
*
In all there are thirty-one chapters in the "Melody" division of the
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music.
3.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 31.
in parenthesis Mason's.
Material
103
4.
With Mason the pleasure element of music instruction received rela­
tively great stress.
"The true teacher....always interests his pupils
and makes the path of knowledge pleasant.'*
1
The successful teacher brings
about that "gratification" which is "defived from the pursuit and attain2
ment of knowledge."
5.
This writer ventures to suggest, as an opinion based upon his own
music teaching experience^that Mason's song material and much of the il­
lustrative material for technical drill is considerably more appropriate
for use with children than is the corresponding material of the
Gesangbildungslehre.
The execution of many of the examples in the latter
work is difficult to the point of impracticability at the stages of musi­
cal development for which they are recommended.
It is reasonable to sup­
pose that Mason's teaching experience with children in Savannah and in
Boston in the years prior to the writing of the Manual made him alert to
the technical musical limitations of the learner.
On the other hand, the Gesangbildungs1ehre and the Manual show many
parallel! sins:
1.
Confidence in the validity of the Pestalozzian theories and the ap-
plication of those theories to music teaching.
2.
An orderly course of instruction in elementary note-reading as applied
to vocal music.
4
3.
Prequent use of the question and answer procedure.
1.
Iowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 10.
2.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
3.
Gesangbildungslehre. p. 7; Manual, p. 31.
Gesangbildungslehre, pp. 9-160;
Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 118,
104
4.
The teacher should not try to cover the ground too quickly; instruc­
tion should be gradual and thorough.^"
5.
The stress on repetition and review in the teaching of rhythmic and
2
melodic material.
6.
Discipline should be maintained; the students should answer questions
3
promptly, cheerfully and aloud.
4
7.
Musical instruction should be begun in childhood.
Q.
A recognition and a consideration of the limatations of the child voice.
9.
The pupil is to get a conception of musical or vocal tone by hearing
the teacher sing.
6
10.
7
Aural dictation and ear-training.
11.
The idea of the movable " do , ”
12.
9
The use of numeral drills to master problems of pitch.
13.
The use of the tetrachord in connection with pitch drills.^
14.
Time beating as a device for inculcating a feeling for r h y t h m . ^
8
1.
Gesangbildungslehre. P» xiv; Manual, p. 24. p. 27.
2.
Gesangbildungslehre. P. xi. p. 15; Manual, p. 29. p. 37.
3.
Gesangbildungslehre. P* xi; Manual, p. 41.
4.
Gesangbildungslehre. P* 9; Manual, p. 29.
5.
Gesa ngb ildu ngslehre. PP . 41-43; Manual, p. 26, p. 244.
6.
Gesangbildungslehre. PP . 42-43; Manual, pi 25.
7.
Gesangb ildungslehre, P. 43; Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 43.
8.
Gesangb ildungslehre. PP . 52-55; Manual, pp. 173-199.
9.
Gesangbildungslehre. PP . 52-55; Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 88
10.
Gesangbildungslehre. P« 52; Manual, p. 167.
11.
Gesangbildungslehre. P. 18; Manual, p. 42-43.
105
An example of Mason's lessons before and after his learning of the
Geaangbildungslehre is given here.
These two versions of the same lesson
were published fifteen years apart, the one on the left in 1823, six or
seven years before he became acquainted with the Gesangbildungslehre and
the one on the right in 1838, eight or nine years after he became acquainted
with it.
The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music was published in 1834,
four years before the lesson on the right*
1838
18231
Introduction to the art of Singing
Introduction to the art of Singing
Music is written upon five parallel
lines, with their intermediate
spaces. These lines and spaces are
called a STAFF, and are counted up­
wards, from the lowest.
1.
What is a staff?
A staff is five lines with their
intermediate spaces.
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
SLMS 3.
SpflCfS
z-
z
/-
2
Every line or space is called a degree;
thus the staff includes nine degrees,
viz, five lines and four spaces. When
more than nine degrees are wanted, the
spaces below and above are used; and if
a still greater compass is required,
LEGER LINES are added either below or
above the staff*
.
3.
What is the use of a staff?
Most musical characters are
written upon it.
In what order are the lines and
spaces of the staff counted?
From the lowest, upward*
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE
6£ G£X L//1£S
3-
-&ny/C/*£
3-
—
Z-
~ S s c t m is/a
7/hna l / m
&BOV£
4.
-e3
Z
S scomu S m a
/
K m r Sstocs
TSo t m
.ihat is each line end space of
the staff called?
A degree*
1.
Boston Handel and Haydn Society C ollectlon of Church i&tsic, edition of 1823*
2*
Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Misic, edition of 1838*
106
The distance between any two degrees
of the staff is called an interval: as
from the first line to the first space,
or from the first to the second, &C.
How many degrees does the staff
contain?
Nine; there being five lines
and four spaces.
What are used when more than nine
degrees are wanted?
'flie spaces below or above the
staff; also additional lines
called added, or leger lines*
EXAMPLE
Lecsx
As m s
/?3o*£
S'SJcf/teor£
. Lscex
&/>9a£ S u ot ) ■
SfiOKl
Other Disciples of Peatalozzl
Fellenberg
Mason was acquainted with the work of several other immediate dis­
ciples of Pestalozzi, but their influence upon him was indirect ana less
powerful than that of Pfeiffer and Nageli*
In the course of his long and close association with William C. Woodbridge Mason undoubtedly received fairly comprehensive information regard­
ing Fel^enberg's Institution at Hofwyl, of which Woodbridge had first-hand
knowledge having spent rather much time there on his second
journey,*
European
It will be recalled that a group of juvenile students sang
under Mason's direction in connection with Woodbridge*s lecture on Vocal
r
Music as «i Branch of Common Education at the State House in Boston in 1830*
In this lecture, Woodbridge described the music teaching of
1,
Will S* Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 159.
2.
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a 3ranch of Common Education,
.American Institute of Instruction 1830, pp. 233—255.
107
Vehrli, the remarkable teacher of the agricultural
school in the institution of Fellenberg*
Mason probably was acquainted with the articles regarding Fellenberg
and his institution published in the American Annals of Education, a
periodical edited by Woodbridge for several years.
It would seem im­
probable that Mason would fail to read accounts of music teaching in
Europe when the subject was one of absorbing interest to him during
those years; he mentions the Annals in his Address on Church Music of
2
1851;
1833,
as does the First Annual Report of the Boston Academy of Music,
3
It therefore seems reasonable to suppose that he had at least
some knowledge of Fellenberg's comments on "design and music" which
4
Woodbridge published in the 1832 Annals as part of Letter II
ter V
5
of the Sketches of Hofwyl,
and let-
These letters contained this descrip­
tion of the music teaching there:
Agreeably to the views of Pestalozzi, the fundamen­
tal principles of music, the rhythm and melody, are
carefully distinguished. On this system, the pupil
first learns in marching and moving his hands, and
at the same time counting with his voice, to dis­
tinguish intervals of time, and to observe the var­
iation he can make in sounds, simply by means of
more or less rapidity of repetition. He is next
led to distinguish sounds in reference to their
musical tone, and to observe and imitate the inter­
vals,
It is only after a great familiarity in the
combination of these elements that his attention
1,
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Cannon Edueatlon,
American Institute of Instruction 1830, p •.246,-
2.
P. 14,
3.
P. 4.
4,
William C, Woodbridge, editor, Sketches of Hofwyl, American Annals of
Education. 1832, p, 14,
5.
Ibid., p. 496.
108
is directed to e x p r e s s i o n and h a r m o n y . ^
Mason’s music teaching was dissimilar to that at Hofwyl, for he inte­
grated rhythm, melody and dynamics (expression) from the veiy beginning
of the students' musical experience;
but he did use devices similar to
those mentioned for developing rhythmic consciousness.
These devices,
however, were described by Pfeiffer and Nageli in the Gesangbildungslehre
4
in 1810,
5
and some of them were used even earlier by Buss at Burgdorf.
For-these reasons they cannot be considered as original either with
Fellenberg or with his singing instructor, Vehrli.
Rubier
At least three times Mason mentions the revision of the Gesangbildungslehre
tt
which was "afterwards published by Rubier"
G
of Stuttgart.
7
This was one
of the "other w o r k s o n tho same g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . . . . by distinguished
German teachers," w h i c h w i t h the Gesangbildungslehre was "made the basis
8
of the Manual."
1.
**
Rubier's revisions concerned the "classification" of
William C. Woodbridge, editor, Sketches of Hofwyl, American Annals of
Education. 1832, p. 14.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 27*
3.
Ibid., pp. 42-43.
4.
M. T. Pfeiffer and H. G. NSgeli, Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen
Grundsatzen. p. 18.
5.
H. Holman, Pestalozzi, an Account of His Life and Work, p. 238.
6.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 15.
7.
Lowell
8.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 15.
Mason, Pestalozzian Uisic Teacher, pp. 73-74.
109
the rhythmic divisions of the measure* and these changes were "mostly
2
followed" by Mason in his Manual of the Boston Academy of Misic*
nard
3
Bar-
»
mentions that Mason "became acquainted with Kubler" and other
German teachers in the summer of 1837, but no account of this meeting
is available.
Since Mason wrote only infrequently and incidentally of Kubler, it
would seem that the letter's influence upon the American music educator
was rather slight.
Buss
Experiments on music teaching "were, at an early period, made by
Buss, the only one of Pestalozzi*s first assistants who had any pretensions to musical proficiency."
4
Although neither a skillful musi­
cian nor pedagog when he arrived at the institution at Burgdorf, Buss
managed to grasp the essential ideas of Pestalozzi*s method; he worked
out an application of them for teaching drawing, but his music teachg
ing was informal or recreational.
He did, however, use at least one
1.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Misic Teacher, pp. 73-74. This detail
by which the different possible divisions of rhythmic patterns within
tjje measure are pigeon-holed may or may not have been original with
Kubler, but Mason beligved that it was "introduced originally into the
teaching of music by Kubler of Stuttgart."
2.
Lowell Mason, Carmina Sacra, p. 3.
3.
Henry Barnard, Educational Labors of Iowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education. IV, {1B57), p. 145.
4.
E. Biber, Henry Pestalozzi and His Plan of Education, p. 70.
5.
Henry Barnard, Johannes Buss, The American Journal of Education, VII,
1859, p. 293.
110
device which later Pestalozzian music teachers employed, namely, the use
of bodily movement as the basis for teaching rhythm:
Ramsauer said that
"Buss made his pupils sing as they walked, two by two, holding each other's
hand, up and down
the big corridors of the castle.
If Mason was aware of Buss's music teaching, hedid not regard
it as a
distinct contribution to Pestalozzian musical instruction, for in his
Musical Letters from Abroad, in writing of the "first efforts to apply
the principles of inductive teaching to music, "he commented that "the
ff
work of Nageli and Pfeiffer was excellent."
2^
In the Manual of the Boston
Academy of ?4tsic. Mason makes it clear that he regards Pfeiffer and Nageli
as the creators of "elementary instruction in vocal music" according to the
Pestalozzian system.^
Neef
Another of the 3urgdorf group who was interested in music teaching
to a certain extent was Joseph Neef.
He was engaged by the philanthropist,
William Maclure, to establish a school at Philadelphia in which the instruc­
tion was to be given in accordance with the Pestalozzian principles, which
he did in 1809.4
As a prospectus, in 1808, Neef published his
Sketch of a_ Plan and Method of Education Pounded
on an Analysis of the Human faculties and Natural
Heason. Suitable for the Offspring of a Free People
and for All Rational Beings.
1.
H. Holman, Pestalozzi. an Account of His Life and Work,p. 238.
2.
Lowell Mason, Musical Letters from Abroad, p. 137.
3.
Lowell Ma8on, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music,
4.
5.
p. 15.
7/ill S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United States.
p. 77.
Title Page.
Ill
As one of several subjects he proposed to teach music, and wrote regarding
it:
The complete knowledge of the musical language
may be considered as composed of three distinct
parts, speaking, writing, reading. To acquire
a knowledge of each of these distinct parts, we
shall want three distinct operations, which will
sucessively engage our attention.
We shall begin by fixing our attention upon the
tones of the human voice, and by carefully examining
their nature. That one tone may be higher than
another....will soon be found out....'We shall like­
wise become aware, that any tone may have a longer
or shorter duration, and that this duration of a
tone is a measurable quantity....By and by, we shall
become desirous to imitate these different tones, and
there is no doubt but that in a short time we shall
be able to speak the musical language, or to make
use of the vulgar expression, to sing.l
"In his first American school....Neef put
Pestalozzian system.
into practice the best of the
The chief subjects, languages, mathematics, and the
natural sciences, were taught orally; the idea was to make the boys under­
stand the subject and the application of oil they learned,"2 but Neef's
imperfect acquaintance "with English and with American character, and his
frequent migrations, prevented his influence from being greatly felt, and
the two excellent works that he published upon applications of the Pesta­
lozzian methods were given scant attention."3
Although Neef’s school was the first
the Pestalozzian principles,4 since there
in .America to be conducted upon
is as yet no evidence that
Lowell
1.
Joseph Neef, Sketch of a Plan and Method of Education, pp. 136-137.
2.
Will S. Monroe, History
States, p. 103.
3.
P. P. Graves, A
4.
Will 3. Monroe, History
States, p. 97.
of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
History ofEducation in Modern Times, p. 150.
of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
112
Mason knew of it or of the "Sketch of ti Plan and Method of Education",
Neef's influence upon him must be considered to have been slight and in­
direct.
As one of several elements in the early stages of Pestalozzianism
in America, along with such other elements as William Maclure's article
on Pestalozzianism in the Washington National Intelligencer of June 6,1806,^
and the Pestalozzian School of the Infant School Society in New York in
1827-1828,2 it is possible that Neef's work may have had a slight or in­
direct influence upon Mason.
Mason's Educational Contemporaries
Woodbridge
Iowell Mason gave William C. Woodbridge full credit for teaching him
the Pestalozzian principles, particularly in regard to their application
3
to music education,
and for describing to him music education as he had
seen it practiced in the Pestalozzian schools of Europe.^
This appears
to have been the extent of Woodbridge's influence upon Mason.
Woodbridge was an ardent believer in the Pestalozzian ideas and was
imbued with a missionary spirit for them;®
their validity
after convincing Mason of
he supported him whole-heartedly in his effort to mould
1.
Henry Barnard, American Journal of Education, XXX, 1880, pp. 551-572.
2.
Thomas Boese, Public Education in the City of New York,
3.
Lowell Mason, How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
4.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p* 14.
5.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 140.
6.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American
Journal of Education. IV, 1857, p. 143.
p. 51.
113
a public opinion, which would favor the inclusion of vocal music in the
curriculum of common Schools.
For a period of several years almost every
issue of Woodbridge’s American Annals of Education contained some article
or reference regarding the progress of the movement in Boston1 or else2
where.
Several times in the -annals for 1B35, 1836, and 1837, he published
songs,by Mason or adapted by Mason for children’s classes.
But Woodbridge did not give lowell Mason these ideas:
(1)
teaching vocal music to children:
Mason had been doing this very
successfully for several years before meeting Woodbridge.3
(2)
teaching music in the public schools:
Mason had expressed this idea
in germinal form as early as 1826.^
(3)
writing music especially for children's classes:
Mason's Juvenile
Psalmist was published in 1829.
(4 )
a philosophical or education system of his own;
Woodbridge merely
transmitted to Mason the Pestalozzian system as he understood it and as
5
he had seen it practiced.
1.
William C. Woodbridge, Music in Common Schools, American Annsis of
Education. 1837, p. 521; William C, Yfoodbridge, Lectures on the
Pestalozzian Siystem of Music, American -annals of Education. 1834,
p. 383; these are typical of many other examples which might be cited.
2.
William C. Woodbridge, Eclectic Academy of Music in Cincinnati,
American Annals of Education. 1834, p. 289; William C. 'Woodbridge,
Vocal Music in Ceylon, American Annals of Education. 1834, p. 337;
William C. Woodbridge, Pestalozzian System of Music in Kentucky,
American Annals of Education, 1835, p. 188; other examples are numerous.
3.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 14, p. 30; Boston
Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 3.
4*
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1826, pp. 29-30*
5.
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Masic as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction. 1830, pp. 251**252; pp* 245-246;
pp. 248-249.
114
Mann
Horace Mann, the first secretary of the Board of Education of Massa­
chusetts, who in his twelve years of office converted the school system
of that state into "a magnificent , secular and public system that was a
live and going c o n c e r n , w a s so convinced of the educational value of
music
2
that he actively urged its use in all of the schools under his
jurisdiction.
He noted that "the universal practice of music in most of the schools
of the German states, for a long series of years, is an experiement suffi­
cient of itself to settle the question of its utility^"^ that the "giving,
at public expense, stated and regular instruction in vocal music, in all
the Grammar and Writing schools of the city"^ of Boston had proved so
successful that "provision for the instruction....may therefore be re­
garded as a part of the general policy of the city towards them, for
an indefinite future period."5
Although it "promotes health" and is a "means of intellectual exer­
cise,'*® "the social and moral influence of music far transcend in value
all its physical or intellectual utilities,
7
and therefore it was fit­
1.
A. E. Meyer, Education in Modern Times, p. S23.
2.
Horace Mann, Singing in Common Schools, The Common School Journal. Ill,
13 (July 1, 1841), pp. 205-206; H I , 12 Jjune 15, 1841), pp. 189-190.
3.
Horace Mann, Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board of Education
of Massachusetts. 1844, p. 452.
4.
Horace Mann, Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board of Education
of Massachusetts. 1844, p. 453.
5.
Ibid., p. 454.
6.
Ibid,, p. 454.
7.
Ibid., p. 459.
115
ting that It be taught In all the schools of the state.
Mann was aware
of the difficult problems to be overcome before this could be completely
accomplished— such problems as the inadequate number of persons "compe­
tent to teach the art of vocal m u s i c , a n d in the majority of towns in
the Commonwealth, the expense.""
One means Mann suggested for solving
these problems was that "it would be better were all our teachers comnr
petent»...to give instruction in the art,"
and os a definite step to­
ward this end he reported that "many persons are now acquiring the art
as a part of their preparation for becoming teachers."
Vocal music is regularly taught at each of
the Normal Schools; and most of the pupils
who go from these institutions, will not
fail to spread a knowledge of the art among
their pupils.4
These ideas are remarkably similar to those of Mason; Mann was a
practical educator, "not an educational philosopher, but an educational
missionary;"^
be said of him.
and in view of Mason's achievements, the same might well
Here, perhaps, was the bond of understanding which lay
at the root of the great admiration which each man had for the other.
Barnard
Henry Barnard, at one time secretary of the Connecticut Board of
Education and later editor of the encyclopedic American Journal of Edu-
1.
Ibid., p..459
2.
Ibid., p. 459, p. 461.
3.
Ibid., p. 459.
4.
Horace Mann, Bnmiai Report of theSecretary
of Massachusetts. 1844, p. 461.
5.
F. p # Graves, A History of Education inModern
of theBoard of
Times. Ch. VI.
Education
116
cation,^" wrote in his Connecticut Common School Journal of December, 1838:
The teachers who are able to sing, should
begin, without delay, to teach their pupils
a few hymns and moral songs, to be sung daily
in the school; and those who know anything of
the science of music, will find still greater
account in adding brief instructions in the
elements, with the aid of the blackboard....
We can assure our readers, from many actual
observations, as well os from experiements we
have made in numerous instances, that one hour
a week is sufficient to teach a large school
much important knowledge and skill in the
elements and practice of singing.2
in
As Barnard was unusually well-informed on educationalmatters, it
is conceivable that these recommendations were inspired byMason's work
in Boston at the time.
But in connection with the possibility of Mason
having exerted this indirect influence upon Barnard, it is to be remem­
bered that the latter spent some time in Europe with Fellenberg and
Vehrli,
and that while with them he may have seen and discussed music
teaching.
Barnard's sketch, The Educational Labors of Lowell Mason ^ is a
valuable source document in the history of American music education, the
essay having been published during the subject's life-time.
Other American Pestalozaians
Mason, a prominent Pestalozzian, has a certain kinship with such other
1.
A* E. Meyer, Education in Modern Times, pp. 224-225.
2.
Henry Barnard, quoted from the Connecticut Common School Journal.
(December, 1838), p. 39, by John S. Brubacher, Henry Barnard on
Education, p. 164.
3.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States^ p. 165.
4.
The American Journal of Education. XV, 1857, pp* 141-148*
I,
117
leaders as William Russel, James G. Carter and Charles Brooks, all of
whom were active in the early teacher-training and normal school phase
1
of the movement,
Oswego group.
2
and with such later leaders as the members of the
But the interrelationship was more general than specific.
Other European Mi sic Educators
Having visited European schools, especially in Switzerland and Ger­
many in 1837, Mason had firsthand knowledge of their musical instruction
2
programs.
Observing and comparing the work of many different teachers
gave him a background by which his own teaching might be evaluated; it pro­
vided a verification of the validity of the Pestalozzian theories,^ and
some "useful hints."
Descriptions of European music education published in Boston and for
that reason available to Mason, possibly were of some use to him.
Among
these may be mentioned Horace Mann's description of music in the Prussian
r
schools,
articles in the Boston Musical Visitor on "Mainzer's preparatory
ft
7
course,”0 on Wilhelm's "teaching singing" in Prance,
and on Hullah’s adapQ
tation of Wilhelm's method of teaching singing.
1.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 128.
2.
Ibid., p. 179.
3.
Ibid., p. 162.
4.
Daniel Gregory Mason, Some Unpublished Journals of Dr. Lowell
The New Music Review. X (January, 1911), pp. 65-66.
5.
Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Board of Education of Massachusetts,
1843, pp. 345-346; 1844, p. 425.
6.
Boston Musical Visitor. Ill, 6 (January 23, 1843), pp. 81-83.
7.
Ibid.
8.
Boston Musical Visitor. Ill, 1, pp. 1-2; 17-19; 33-34.
Mason,
118
Contemporary Musicians and Writers
■although this study is concerned primarily with Lowell Mason's edu­
cational activities,
it is not inappropriate that several important musi­
cal interrelationships be pointed out briefly:
The great masters:
The great composers Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, Handel
and others were a great inspiration to Mason; he adapted many of their
instrumental and vocal melodies for his own collections of sacred and
secular music.-*-
This use of the music of great composers, although not
in its original form, was, at least, one factor in the improvement of
general musical taste in this country, which, after the degeneration of
the "fuguing-tunes" at the end of the eighteenth century had fallen to a
rather low level.
2
Contemporary hymnists : Mason was
the center and chief of a group of hymnists and
composers consisting of Thomas Hastings (17841872), Oliver Holden (1765-1848), Henry K. Oliver
(1800-1885), George J. Webb (1803-1887), William
B. Bradbury (1816-1868), George F. Hoot (18201895), I. B. Woodbury (1819-1858), Leonerd Mar­
shall (1809-1888), William F. Sherwin (1826-1888).
Some of these were Lowell Mason’s associates,
others were his pupils.*^
Vocal Teachers:
The theories of vocal tone production advocated by "Garcia,
4
Panseron and Panofka"
were known to Mason; he especially respected Garcia's
ideas on "the shock of the glottis,"^ on posture and on diction.
In his
1.
Frederic Louis Hitter, Music in .America, pp. 159-160.
2.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, pp. 84-85.
3.
James H. Ross, Lowell Mason, American Masician, Education. XTV. 7
(March, 1894), p. 412.
4.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. Ill, p. iv.
5.
Iowell Mason, The Song Garden, II, p. 17.
119
later works he quoted at length from Garcia’s Singing School.^
Literary Collaborator:
Godey’s lady's Book
Mrs. Sarah Josephs Hale, for forty years editor of
"provided the verses of many of Dr. Mason’s most success2
ful school music books"#
"It was Mason who inspired her to write Po^ma
for Our Children; and among the first poems he set to music was Mary Had a
Little Iamb.
They were unique, an innovation."
Summary
In general educational theory, Lowell Mason was markedly influenced
by the Swiss educational reformer Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi.
Although
the two men never met, Mason was thoroughly familiar with his theories
and the practical application of his theories through certain of his dis­
ciples, notably Pfeiffer and Nageli.
Additional proof of Pestalozzi's
influence upon Mason was not felt to be necessary beyond pointing out
(1) that indisputable evidence is available that Mason knew of Pestalozzi
and his work,
(2) that Mason frequently claimed his own teaching was "Pestalozzian" and
that "the system must be traced to Pestalozzi,"^
(3) that a comparison of the theory of the two men would seem to lend ade­
quate support to the claim.
It was, however, pointed out that Pestalozzi's influence upon Mason did
1.
Lowell Mason, A Brief Presentation of the Elementary Principles of Music
in Perceptive or Didactic Form, p. 205. The book by Garcia mentioned was
probably an English translation of his Traite Complet de l'art du Chant,
published originally in Paris in 1847.
2#
Editorial, America's Momentous Contribution to Public School Music, The
Etude. I7 (April, 1932), p. 237.
3.
Ibid., p. 238.
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Ifasic. p. 15#
120
not lead to a passive imitation or a blind acceptance of all the details
of his practice:
Mason said that "it was hard for him at first to receive"
the Pestalozzian theories^- and he was convinced of their validity only
after he had verified them to his own satisfaction in actual teaching situ­
ations.
Mason did not feel obliged to adhere rigidly to all the details
of Pestalozzi's practice, nor did he expect others to follow rigidly his
own application of them:
he said that the teacher should adapt the prac­
tice "to the capacity of the scholars and the circumstances of the class".2
The greatest single influence upon Mason in the theory and practice of
music education as distinct from general education was the Gesanblldungslehre nach Pestalozzischen Grundsatzen of Pfeiffer and Nageli.
Here, too,
Mason had acknowledged his debt, so that additional proof of his acquain­
tance with their work was unnecessary,
A detailed study of the Oesanbildungs-
lehre. the Manual of the Boston Academy of Music (which from the standpoint
of wide usage was the most important of Mason's didactic writings) and
other of Mason's writings was undertaken to determine the extent of the
influence.
While Mason concurred with much of the contents of the
Gesanbildungslehre. his own teaching experience led him to differ from it
in some respects.
Of the more important points of variance, mention was
made that
(1) Mason insisted that all the musical elements be integrated from the
very beginning of the learning experience.
(2) Mason's use of the song as a ground work for teaching technical matters.
(3) Mason's stress upon the rote-song as a legitimate teaching medium.
1,
Lowell Mason, How Shall 1^ Teach, p. 1*
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 27.
121
(4) Mason's stress upon the aesthetic and pleasure elements of music learning,
(5) This writer offered the supposition that Mason's relatively extensive
teaching experience caused him to employ song materials and technical il­
lustrative material more appropriate to the various development levels of
music learning than had his illustrious predecessors.
In spite of these very important differences, a great many points of agree­
ment were found; but it was pointed out that these were not necessarily
original with Pfeiffer, Nageli or Mason, but that some of them, at least,
belonged to the general storehouse of musical information and music educa­
tion which has been accumulated over a period of several centuries.
Other Pestalozzian disciples whose influence upon Mason was much
T»
paler, were Fellenberg, Kubler, Buss, and Neef,
Of his .American educational contenporaries, the most effective as­
sistance came from William C. ¥/oodbridge, who transmitted the Pestalozzian
ideas to Mason.
The general development of the Pestalozzian movement in this
country and its leaders, Horace Mann and Henry Barnard, were not without
their effect upon Lowell Mason, himself a Pestalozzian.
Another similar
general influence was that of European music education during Mason's life­
time.
Of the movement in Europe, Mason was not unaware-for it stemmed
from the same Swiss fountain-head from which he drew iaueh.
122
CHAPTER VI
LOWELL MASON AND THE BOSTON ACADEMY" OF MtJSIC
Objectives
After informal consultation, a meeting was held on the eighth of
January,183S, in which the Boston Academy of Music was organized*^"The general object of this society was to promote music and universal music education",
2
"to endeavor to obtain for our country the ed-
vantages derived from vocal music in Switzerland and Germany",
3
"and
to contribute to the diffusion of knowledge and correct taste In music,
especially saored music, among all classes of the community"*
4
The members of the Academy were not professional musicians, "none
of them were professors of the art, nor had most of the founders of the
society a knowledge of even its elementary principles; but they loved
it, and saw what effects might be produced by it, and had a full per5
ception of its importance, as a means of education"*
"Gentlemen, mer­
cantile, professional, and literary, who though not themselves musicians,
and having no pecuniary Interest in the object whatever, enlisted voluntarily in the cause of musical education".
6
They were not aiming espec7
d a i l y at the improvement of their own musical abilities,
but were
1* The Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report*1833,p»7*
2* Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music,3B51,p*15*
3* The Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report*lB33,p*7.
4* The Boston Aoademy of Music, Second Annual Report,1834,p.3*
5* Samuel A.Eliot, Music in America, North American Review, H I ,
(April, XB4l),p.331«
6* Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851,p, 15.
7* The Boston Academy of Music.Second Annual Report*1854,p.3*
123
decidedly interested in bringing music to the masses.^*
Founders
The first government consisted of Jacob Abbot};, president*; David
Green, vice-president; George Win.Gordon, recording secretary; William
C.Woodbridge, corresponding secretary; Julius A.Palmer, treasurer,
and ten counsellors.
2
In 1035 Samuel A.Eliot, who later became mayor
of Boston, was elected president of the Academy.
3
Lowell Mason was, however, the "leading spirit" of the Boston Acaderay of Music*
4
His broad conception of the musical need of the
country, and his ability to win others to his
point of view, together with his rare skill as
a teacher and organizer, combined to make the
Boston Academy the dominant influence in popu­
lar music education during this period,®
Mason surrendered his Identity, allowing it to be absorbed by the Acad­
emy, for he felt that a society of well-known citizens would have greater
prestige than any one individual, and could bring, therefore, more exped-
6
itiously to fruition his objectives.
"The Boston Academy was the living
1* Louis C.Elson, History of American Music.p.80*
*
A.W.Thayer,Lowell Mason.p.29. states that the Boston Academy of Music
was organized "with Samuel A.Eliot....at its head” ; Grove's Dictionary
of Music and Musicians,American Supplement.p.385. states that the
Academy was "organized under the chairmanship of Samuel A.Eliot*..."
Likewise, Charles T.Rice in Boston, the Cradle of Public School Music
in .America, National Education Association Proceedings,1910. p.800,
says "Mr.Semuel A.Eliot ....was president cf the Boston Academy of Music
during its entire career from 1833-1847."
2* Lowell Mason.Address on Church Iftislc,1851.p.15.
3* Ibid.,p.IS.
4. A.W.Thayer,Lowell Mason.p.29,
5* E.B.Birge, History of Public Sohool Ifcisic in the United States.p.60.
6. T.F.Seward, The Educational Work of Dr.Lowell Mason,p.14.
124
embodiment of his ideas and his labors."^- Without him it
would never have had en existence, and what the
Academy did, musically, is what Dr. Mason did, ex­
cept as other musicians were afterward associated
with him to whom due credit was given.
It is nec­
essary to make this point especially clear, as the
reports of the Academy are studiously worded....in
such a way as to convey the impression that the
organization was first, and Dr. Msson second.
Mason's domination of the .academy's activities is shown in thatduring
periods of his absence, its activities lapsed,
reduced scale.
or else took place
on a
In the summer of 1837,
Mr. Mason being on a tour in .Europe, for the pur­
pose of witnessing the most approved methods
of
teaching, and obtaining music, general musical in­
formation %c., no /teacher's^ class assembled.®
4
Even Ritter,
who was unsympathetic toward much of Mason's work, grants
that the Academy's achievements were largely Mason's:
"In August 1837,
the master-mind, Lowell Mason....being in Europe, no gathering took
place."
General Program
To fulfill its functions of diffusing musical knowledge and tnste
among all classes of the community,® and promoting universal music education,
the Academy undertook
1.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. L owell Mason, p. 14.
2.
Ibid.
3.
American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boston. August 16. 1858, p. 11.
4.
Frederic Louis Ritter, I&islc in America, p. 255.
5.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 3»
6.
Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 15.
125
a broad, t h o r o u g h a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n of m u s i ­
cal e d u c a t i o n . . w h i c h was d e s t i n e d t o p r o d u c e mo s t
b e n e f i c i a l re s u l t s not only in Boston, but t h r o u g h ­
out the l ength a n d b r e a d t h of this c o n t i n e n t . 1
T h e es s e n t i a l features of this p l a n were:
1.
2.
5.
4.
5.
G.
7.
3.
9.
T o e s t a b l i s h schools of vocal m u s i c for J u v e n i l e classes.
T o e s t a b l i s h sim i l a r schools for adult c l a s s e s .
T o f o r m a class for i n s t r u c t i o n in the m e t h o d s o f t e a c h ­
ing m u s i c , w h i c h may be composed of teachers, parents,
and all o t h e r p e r s o n s desi r o u s to qualify t h e m s e l v e s for
t e a c h i n g v o c c l music.
T o fo r m an a s s o c i a t i o n of c h o r i s t e r s , and l e a d i n g m e m b e r s
o f choirs, for t h e p u r p o s e of i m p r o v e m e n t in c o n d u c t i n g
a nd p e r f o r m i n g s a c r e d music in churches.
T o e s t a b l i s h a c ourse o f p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s o n the n a ture
and subjects of church music, and style of c o m p o s i t i o n
a p p r o p r i a t e to it, w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s by
t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a select choir....
T o e s t a b l i s h a c o u r s e of s c i e n t i f i c lectures, for teachers,
choristers, and others desirous of u n d e r s t a n d i n g the
s cience of music.
T o e s t a b l i s h exhi b i t i o n s or concerts :
1.
Of j u v e n i l e end edult classes, to show the results
o f instruction.
2.
Of select performers, as s p e c i m e n s of the best
s t yle in the p e r f o r m a n c e o f o r d i n a r y church music.
5.
Of l a r g e n umbers c o l l e c t e d s e m i - a n n u o l or annually,
for the p e r f o r m a n c e of social, moral, and sacred
m u s i c of a s i m p l e kind.
To
i n t r o d u c e vocal m u s i c into schools, by the aid of such
t e a c h e r s as the A c a d e m y may be abl e to employ....
T o p u b l i s h c i r c u l a r s and essays, either in new s p a n e r s and
oeriodicals, or in the form of t racts and books for instruct ion, a d a p t e d to the p u r p o s e of the a c a d e m y . "
"The pla n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Academy,
were " e s s e n t i a l l y different
as wel l as its object"
f r o m those of any o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h
is k n o w n t o have been e s t a b l i s h e d in this country"^ up t o th3t time.
It was
"not. . . . t h e e x p e c t a t i o n or a i m of t h e a c a d e m y to m a k e u l l p e r ­
1.
P r a n k Damrosch, M u s i c in the P u b l i c Schools,
e n c y c l o p e d i a of M u s i c . I, p. 20.
Ameri c a n History and
2.
B o s t o n Academy o f Music,
It a l i c s in original.
First -annual R e p o r t , 1833,
3.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y o f Music,
S e c o n d Annual Report,
1834,
pp.
7-8,
p. 3.
126
sons practical musicians,
nor was it "a conservatory in the usual
.,2
sense."
Teaching Steff
In order that its program be put into operation, the governing
board of the Academy decided that
....it was indispensable to employ a professor,
who shall occupy himself exclusively in devising
and executing plans for promoting the views of
the Academy; who shall act as their general agent,
and who shall be assisted by the members of the
Academy, and by other agents acting under his di­
rection 8s circumstances require.®
Its first step was "to engage Mr. Mason to relinquish a lucrative situation for the purpose of devoting his whole time to the instruction."
4
It seems that Mason, particularly during the first years of the Academy,
specialized in "giving lessons in vocal music to juvenile and adult
classes."
These groups were large; he also conducted classes at sev­
eral private schools , in Boston,
in several neighboring towns, and in
such larger cities as Providence.
In .1836 his classes at the Academy
and at Providence were of "Gbout two hundred persons each,"
and in the
juvenile classes taught by Mr. Mason and his pupils, there were alto7
gether between 800 and 1000 children.
1.
Boston Academy
2.
V/. S. B. Mathews, Iowell Mason, A Fether in American Music, The
Musician. XVI, 11, (Uovember, 1911), p. 721.
3.
Boston Academy
4.
Ibid, p. 9.
5.
Boston Academy
6. Boston Acadeny
7. Ibid.
of Music, Second Annual Report, 1834, p. 13.
of Music, First Annual Report, 1833, p. 8.
of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, p. O.
of Music, Fourth Annual Report, 1836, p. 5.
127
In the first year of the Academy, the rapidly increasing demand
for Mason's labors obliged the board to elect an associate professor.
George J. Webb, then organist at St. Paul's Church*was accordingly ap­
pointed to this office.^
Although Webb taught vocal music to a few
classes, his time was "almost wholly occupied in giving private les­
sons to pupils"^ "on the piano-forte and in singing, and the princi­
ples of thorough-base."^
Joseph A. Keller was appointed a professor in 1836, "to preside
over the orchestra, and to give instnimentel instruction in that de-
4
portment."
In addition to his work at the Academy, Keller was for
many years teacher at the Asylum of the Blind, where he gave lessons
5
in both vocal and instrumental music.
Jonathan C. Woodman, while apparently not considered a member of
the staff, since he was not listed with the other "professors" in the
annual reports, organized in 1338 a juvenile choir of about 200 children, who gave several public exhibitions of their proficiency;
he
was succeeded by A, B. Johnson, under whose direction the juvenile
7
choir gave "singularly interesting" performances in 1841.
1
A fourth professor was appointed in 1839— Henry Schmidt, who had
1.
Boston Academy of Music, First
Annual Report. 1833,
p. 9.
2.
Boston Acndeny of Misic, Fifth
Annual Report, 1837,
p. 6.
3.
Boston Academy of Misic, Seventh Annual Report, 1837, p. 8.
4.
Boston Academy of hiisic, Fourth Annual Report, 1836, p. 3.
5.
Boston Academy of "“usic, Sixth
Annuel Report, 1838,
p. 6.
6.
Boston Academy of Music, Sixth
Annual Report. 1839, p. 7.
Annual Report, 1838,
p. 5; Seventh
7.
BostonAcademy of Misic, Ninth
Annual Report, 1841,
p. 5.
128
previously conducted the Adacemy’s orchestra from timeto time,
after being formally engaged to teach, devoted moat of
his
but who
time
"tothe
instruction of private pupils in vocal and instrumental music....partic­
ularly on the pianoforte."^
The salaries paid by the Academy were not liberal, for the Second
Annual Report,1834,said:
During the past year it [the Acadenjy} has expended in
the instruction of free classes, #660...•
At that time both Mason and 7/ebb were professors, and §660 was probably
their joint remuneration for this work.
However, both
men
had additional
income from church positions and private teaching.
Equipment
Shortly after its organization, the Academy’s committee on juvenile
and adult classes
procured convenient rooms, under the Bowdoin Street
Church, for the exclusive use of the Academy, and a
juvenile class was formed there under the direction
of Mr.Mason, of 400 pupils. They have also engaged
the chapel of the Old South Church for two afternoons
in the week, for a class of 100 pupils, under Mr.
Webb....3
On August 5,1835, the Acadeny moved its activities to the Odeon, a
theatre which hsd been extensively reconstructed for it. The seating cap­
acity of the auditorium was 1500; the building contained several other
4
rooms for teaching, and a large organ.
"Concerts were given in the
succeeding winter at the Odeon, and have been kept up every year since,
1.Boaton Acadeny of Music, Seventh Annual Report,1839,p.8.
2«Boston Acadeny of Music, Second Annual Report,1834,p.18.
3 .Boaton Acadeny of Music, First Annual Report,1853,p.9.
4.Lowell Mason and George J.Webb, editors, The Odeon
The Musical Library. I, (July, 1835),p.4*
Music Theatre,
129
with great variety In the kinds of music performed, and with a manifest
improvement«... in the style of performance."^- The cost of the organ and
of renovating the Odeon in 1835 was about twenty thousand dollars, and
was contributed by the members of the Academy*
for five-year periods, first in 1835
3
The building was leased
4
and again in 1840*
The Work of the Academy
Classes in Vocal Music
"One of the first objects of attention with the Academy was the mak­
ing the study and practice of vocal music a part of the early education
5
of children*"
Mason and Webb had been doing gratuitous teaching of this
subject several years before the Academy was established, which classes
the Academy continued, and to the ertent that "it occupied a considerable
6
portion of the time of the professors*"
"These classes were free to all children, no other condition being
required of the pupils than that they be over seven years of age, and en7
gage to continue in the school one year."
The Report of 1834, however,
stated that "the Academy propose to establish in the city, private juvenile
1* Samuel A.Eliot, Music in America, North American Review,III. (April,
1841),p.331.
2. Ibid*
3* Samuel A.Eliot, Address Before the Boston Academy of Music on the
Opening of the Odeon, The Mislcal library, (August,1835),p.7,
4* Boston Academy of Music, Eighth Annual Report,1840,p.7*
5* Boston Academy of Misic, Seoond Annual Report, 1834,p* 14*
6* Ibid.
7, Boston Academy of l&xslc, Eirst Annual Report,1833,p.9*
130
classes" w i t h a t u i t i o n f ee,^ but
gratuitousl y .
in tha m a i n t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e taught
In 1835,
t he school for g r a t u i t o u s i n s t r u c t i o n to c h i l d r e n
is s t i l l continued, and is o p e n to p u p i l s fr o m all
p a rts o f the city, and o f e v e r y r e l i g i o u s d enomi­
nation.
It is a p l e a s i n g sight t o b e h o l d them, on
a W e d n e s d a y or S a t u r d a y afternoon, f l o c k i n g to the
s c h o o l - r o o m t o pass a n h o u r in l e a r n i n g to s i n g . . . . ~
In te a c h i n g t h e s e classes,
the most simple a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l m e t h o d has b e e n
adopted.
Ve r y little use h a s b e e n m o d e o f b o o k s
in t h e mor e elementary p a r t s of instruction.
The
m e t h o d h a s b e e n strictly a n a l y t i c a l and p r o g r e s ­
sive, and most of the les s o n s h a v e b e e n g i v e n o r a l l y
or o n the b l a c k b o a r d . 3
Co n c e r t s or p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f this w o r k wer e p r e s e n t e d each sea­
son "u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f the p r o f e s s o r s " w i t h the idea o f s h o w i n g the
improvement
"both in the capa c i t y of t h e c h i l d r e n to r e a d m u s i c and to
4
ex e cute it."
F r o m the outset,
t h e r e w e r e 400 p u p i l s
the juvenile cl a s s e s w e r e very large:
in 1833
in M ason's and 100 in '.Yebb's B o s t o n class; La son's
5
S a l e m and lyn n c l a s s e s
each c o n t a i n e d about 150 children;
in 18o5 t h e
A c a d e m y es t i m at e d that
" i n s t r u c t i o n in the p r i n c i p l e s o f v o c a l m u s i c
6
has b e e n g i v e n by the pr o f e s s o r s to b e t w e e n 8 0 0 and 100 0 children."
Si m ila r c l a s s e s in n o t e - r e e d i n g and in v o c a l m u sic w e r e o r g a n i z e d
for adults b y t h e A c a d e m y in B o s t o n a n d in o t h e r cities.
1.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y of Music,
S e c o n d A n n u a l Report,
2.
Bos t o n A c a d e m y of Music,
T h i r d A n n u a l Report,
In 1834 the
1834, p. 18.
1855,
pp.
p.
6-7.
3.
BostonAcademy of
Music, S e cond A n n u a l Report,
1034,
14.
4.
BostonAcademy of
Music, T h i r d A n n u a l
Report,
1835, p. 9.
5.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y of
Music, First A n n u a l
Report,
1833, p. 9.
6.
BostonAcademy of
Music, T h i r d .Annual
Report,
1835, p. 6.
131
adult classes in Boston, "in Salem, and in Harvard University" embraced
1
"together about 500 pupils";
in 1837 a very large class "gathered at
the Andover Theological Seminary, comprising all, or nearly all the
students attached to the institution"2 and
numbered "about ninety."
"a class at Harvard University"
3
Individual Lessons
The Academy gave individual lessons as veil as class lessons.
The
Armiinl Report of 1836 stated that
The demand for teachers of vocal music, and for
gentlemen qualified to play on the organ, snd con­
duct church music, and for young ladies who are
able to give instruction in vocal and instrumental
music, is very great and is increasing in all parts
of the country. Scarcely a week passes in which
applications of this kind are not received.
To meet this need, Webb, and later Schmidt, were "almost wholly occupied
in giving private lessons to pupils"
the principles of thorough-bass.
6
5
on the pianoforte, in singing, and
Webb seems to have specialized some­
what in teaching voice; Schmidt gave lessons "more particularly on the
7
pianoforte."
Mason seems not to have given individual lessons but to
have been busy with other phases of the Academy’s work.
The 1839 Report
said: "Mr.Mason’s time has been wholly occupied in giving lessons in
1. Boston
Academy of Music, Third Annual Report,1835.p.7.
S. Boston
Academy of Music, Fifth Annual Report,1837,p.6.
3. Ibid.,p.7.
4. Boston
Academy of Music, Fourth Annual Report,1836,p.6.
5. Boston
Academy of Music, Fifth Annual Report,1837,p.6.
6. Boston
Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report,1839,p.8«
7. Ibid.,p.8.
133
vocal music to juvenile and adult classes."*
Choir
The Academy in 1834 formed a choir as an "auxiliary
in accomplish­
ing its objects" which performed "the higher departments of sacred music"
2
under the direction of Mason and Webb.
At its zenith it had about 200
members and gave several concerts each season; the repertory included
excerpts from oratorios and liturgical musicf cantatas, and an occasional
3
complete oratorio.
In its most spectacular year, 1838, the chorus gave
"Romberg's Song of the Bell. Neukomm's David, and Zeiner's Feast of the
Tabernacles, the latter perhaps the first American oratorio*"4
The choir
declined in importance and was disbanded in 1839 because of "the in­
creased attention paid to instrumental music", the greater number of
concerts by the Juvenile choir,
(not to be confused with the public dem­
onstrations by groups of children), and the abandonment of the 1839 series
of choir concerts because of a disagreement between Mason and Webb.
6
A
smaller choir was collected in the autumn of 1841, which rehearsed for
the greater part of the winter, but did not achieve the importance which
7
the original choir had had.
1.Boston Academy of B&isic, Seventh Annual Report.1839,p.8.
2.Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report, 1854,p.16.
3.Lowell Mason and George Webb, editors, The Odeon —
Musical Library, (July,1835),p.4.
Music Theatre, The
4.Grove's Dictionary of Music and Mislcians,American Supplement.p .109.
5*Boston Academy of Music, Ninth Annual Report,1841,p.5.
6»Boston Acadeny of Music.Eighth Annual Report,1840,p.3.
7.Boston Academy of Music, Tenth Annual Report,1842,p.5.
133
I n s t r u m e n t a l T&isic
Jo s e p h K e l l e r "f o r m e d a class o f boys to r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n o n the
vi o li n" and "taught a feu on o t h e r o r c h e s t r a l i n s t r u m e n t s " ^ in 1835-1836.
T h e following y e a r this g r o u p was i n c r e a s e d b y g e n t l e m e n who pave " their
v a l u a b l e aid to the A c a d e m y " and Mr.
tra/
Schmidt b e c a m e l ender o f t h e o r c h e s ­
I n 1 8 4 0 - 1S41
it w a s d e t e r m i n e d . ...that m o r e a t t e n t i o n should be
g i v e n t h e n h e r e t o f o r e to i n s t r u m e n t a l music, and
that as e f f i cient an o r ch e s t r a as c o u l d he p r o c u r e d
sh o u l d be engored. "’o t w e e n t w e n t y - f i v e and thirty
inst r u m e n t s were a c c o r d i n g l y secured, and were p l a y e d
by p e r s o n s w h ose p r o f e s s i o n a l talent is wel l k n o w n
in t h i s city.
T h e Academy had the o p i n i o n that
"this w- s t h e best o r c h e s t r a ev e r a s s e m ­
bled in B o s t o n f o r a n entire season," a l t h o u g h attendance at
its concerts
4
" w s not ver y s a t i s f a c t o r y . "
In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r the o r c h e s t r a p e r ­
formed some o f the
sy m p h o n i e s of Beethoven, as well as some p ieces o f
Mopart, Weber, C h e r u b i n i and others.
T h ere w a s a
g r e a t e r n umber o f rehearsal:', and a s maller n u m b e r
of n e w pieces, t h a n the p r e v i o u s year; and the g o o d
effect o f this course u p o n the c o n c e r t s w a s ver y
ma n i f e s t in the g r e a t e r degree o f p e r f e c t i o n . ...ex­
pression, a c c u r a c y of time, a n d . . . , e l l the essen t i a l
q u a l i t i e s o f the p e r f o r m a n c e of i n s t r u m e n t a l music.
I n 1842-1843
A n o p p o r t u n i t y o c c u r e d . . . .to appoint a conductor,
who s h o u l d not h i m s e l f take a part in t h e p e r f o r ­
ma n c e .
T h i s had long b e e n thought desirable, and
the e ffect was eve n b e t t e r tha n w a s a n t i c i pated....
1.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y of
Iviisic, F o u r t h A n n u a l Report.
1636, p. 5.
2.
Boston Academy o f
Music, F ifth A n n u e l R e p o r t ,
1037, p. 4.
3.
3oston Acadeny of
Music, N i n t h A n n u a l Report.
1841, p. 3.
4.
5.
Ibid., p. 4.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y o f Music, T e n t h A n n u a l Report,
1842, p. 4.
134
By the aid of Mr.Webb as conductor, and Mr.Keyzer
as leader, the unity of action, and consequently the
singleness, strength, and effect of the orchestra
were greatly increased.
Although "the concerts of the Academy"efforded"the only opportunity"
in the city "of listening to music for the orchestra"2 and although the
attendance had increased somewhat, yet even with the effort made
...,to attract as great a number as possible by
putting admission on the lowest possible terms
....so far as regarded the audiencg, the effect
was less desirable than was hoped.
"For seven winters these symphonic feats were continued regularly at
the rate of six or eight a season, for the most part at the Odeon...
until the public patronage fell off, and they came to an end....in the
spring of 1S47.
The programmes from an educational point of view were
4
most judicious; always a noble symphony."
Publications
One of the points of the general program set up by the Academy in
its first year was
To publish circulars and essays, either in news­
papers and periodicals, or in the form of tracts
and books for instruction, adapted to the purposes
of the Academy*
At the end of its first full year of operation the Academy noted that
"the preparation of elementary books" required "immediate attention"
1. Boston Acadeny of Music, Eleventh Annual Report,1845.p.6.
2. Ibid.,p.5.
3. Ibid.,p.6.
4. John S.Dwight, Music in Boston, The Memorial History of Boston,IV,p.425.
5. Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report,1833,p.8.
135
if its efforts were to be most effective.^
(1)
Particularly needed were
books which "furnish facilities for the learner" and thereby "lead
to the general cultivation of music," and (2) collections of "examples
of chaste musical composition for the practitioner."
2
The Manual of the Boston Academy of Music by Lowell Mason was issued
in 1834 "to assist teachers in communicating instruction in the elements of
music.Its
sources
were various, but always derived from personal ex­
perience, or the written experience of others, never
from mere theory. The system must be traced to
Pestalozzi
through Pfeiffer and Nageli*s Gesangbildungslehre nach Pestalozzischen
tf
R
Grundsatzen and through Kubler's revision of that work.
The demand
for copies of the Manual was "very great, its circulation extensive,
and the principles there developed" were "adopted and practiced" by a
a
considerable number of teachers.
New editions were printed in 1837,
1839, 1844, and 1847.
After releasing the Manual.
the professors of the Academy....prepared in rapid
succession a number of musical works adapted to the
wants of the growing number of those pursuing the
art.7
By 1838, there were published
1.
Boston Academy of Music,
Second Annual Keport.
1834, p. 17.
2.
Boston Academy of Music,
Third Annual Report. 1835, p. 11.
3.
Boston Academy of Music,
Third Annual Report. 1835, p. 11.
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 5.
5.
Ibid., p. 15.
6.
Boston Academy of Music,
7.
Samuel A. Eliot, Music in America, North American Review, III, (April,
1841), p. 333.
Third Annual Report. 1835, p. 11.
136
since the organization of the Academy, the following works, viz.
Manual of Instruction, for Teachers,
Juvenile Singing-School.
Boston Academy's Collection of Church Music,
Occasional Psalm and Hymn Tunes, in Numbers,
The Odeon, a Collection of Secular Melodies, Harmonized.
A Volume of Vocal Duets.
The Boston Academy's Collection of Choruses, end
A number of detached pieces, by some of the most dis­
tinguished composers.^
In some respects, this list of publications announced by the Academy in
1838 is incomplete for it omits at least one volume, The Juvenile lyre
by Lowell Mason, which the Academy had previously indicated as having
been prepared under its auspices;
2
and includes at least one other, The
Odeon. the published title of which contain no note of Academy sponsor­
ship.
The Odeon; A Collection of Secular Melodies Ar­
ranged and harmonized for four voices, designed
for adult Singing Schools, and for Social Music
Parties, by George James Webb and Lowell Mason.
Boston, J. IT. Wilkins and R. 3. Carter, 1837.
This would seem to indicate that the Acadeny recognized the importance
of the works published by both Mason and Webb during this period, but
that it did not assume financial or practical responsibility for them.
On the other hand, the Academy seems to have taken full responsibility
for the publication of certain treatises such as the Fetis
Music Explained to the World, or How to Understand
and Enjoy its Performance. Translated for the Bos­
ton Academy of Music.4
Each season the Academy compiled a detailed report of its achieve-
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Sixth Annual Report. 1838,
p. 7.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833,
p. 10.
3.
G, J. Webb and Lowell Mason, The Odeon. title page.
4.
F. J. Fetis, Music Explained to the World, title page.
137
ments for the year, and Its plans for the future, which reports were read
at the annual meeting, and subsequently printed.
These Annual Reports
are now of great value to the musicologist and to the student of Ameri­
can education.
Teacher Training
Teacher’s Classes and Conventions.
From the outset, the Academy was aware of its responsibility for
the training of teachers.
In endeavoring to diffuse a knowledge of the simple
and admirable method of instruction received from
the school of Pestalozzi, the Academy are anxious....
that it should ultimately be made known to every
teacher in our land....They design to establish
this O T course of instruction for teachers;) as soon
as there is reason to expect a sufficient number
of teachers to render it useful.^The 1834 report stated that "the training of properly qualified teachers"
claimed "the immediate attention of the Academy."
With the inadequate
number of competent teachers
it is impossible that any considerable portion of
the c o m m m i t y should be well instructed in music,
or that a correct standard of taste relative to it
should prevail.
Classes must be formed to which
instruction shall be given adapted to qualify teach­
ers for their work; promising persons must be sought
out and brought into them.^
In the August of that year, 1834, the Academy inaugurated "a course of
lectures" by its professors, "on the Pestalozzisn System of Instruction."
These lectures were
designed to furnish persons already acquainted with
music, who wish to teach singing to Juvenile classes
or in common schools, with a knowledge of the simple
1.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 10.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 17.
138
and admirable method of instruction devised by Pfeif­
fer and NSgeli.
It will, therefore, require but a
short course of lectures.
They will commence on the
19th August.
Two lectures will be given a day, at
such periods as may be convenient to those who attend
the lectures at the Institute, and the whole will be
completed in ten or fifteen days.
Twelve persons, "most of whom had already been accustomed to teach", ato
tended this course of lectures in 1834.
The Academy thought it "very
desirable that this class should be sustained", for there is a want of
teachers properly qualified"®, and in August,1835
a similar course, including additional lectures and
exercises designed to illustrate different styles
of church music, was repeated with still greater suc­
cess.
This class was attended by eighteen persons,
besides several of the class of 1834.*
The class in 1836 "increased to twenty-eight, besides members of
previous classes.
The gentlemen present on this occasion organized them-,
selves into a Convention, for the discussion of questions relating to the
general subject of musical education, church music, and musical performance
during such hours as were not occupied by the lectures."
5
At the close of
the tern the following resolutions were passed:
Besolved: That the introduction and application of
the Pestalozzian system in teaching music, form a
new era in the science of musical education in this
country; and, that in pursuing our labors as teachers,
we will conform ourselves as far as circumstances
1. William C.Woodbridge, Lectures on the Pestalozzian System of Music*
American Annals of Education.1834,p.383.
2. American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boston.August 16,1838,p.5.
3. Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report.1835.p.8.
4. American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boston.August 16,1858,p.6.
3. Ibid.,p.7.
139
will admit, to that system, as published In the
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music.
Resolved: That, in order to diffuse a knowledge of
music throughout the community, it is necessary to
teach our youth; and that it is desirable, and prac­
ticable, to introduce it into all our schools, as a
branch of elementary education....^
The Academy considered these meetings to be especially important, for
"these teachers, coming from various parts of the country....carry with
them wherever they go, the influence of the Academy, their publications,
and methods of instruction."
2
Ihe next meeting of the teachers* class was in the summer of 1838,
for in 1837 "the master-mind, Lowell Mason, of these conventions, being
3
in Europe, no gathering took place."
But the 1838 meeting attracted
"ninety-six gentlemen and forty-two ladies", of whom fifty-nine were new
4
members*
These came from ell the New England states, New York, Ohio,
5
Kentucky and the District of Columbia.
The ten days were occupied as
follows:
Morning
8 to 10 o ’clock, Meeting of the musical convention.
10 o ’clock to 12,lecture on elementary principles, and
manner of teaching, by Mr.Mason; including also the
singing of psalmody and chants, with remarks by the
lecturer on general taste, style, and manner of
performance.
12 to 1, Lecture on thorough-base, by Mr.Webb.
1.American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boaton.August 16,1858,p.8.
2.Boston Academy of Music, Fifth Annual Report. 1837.p.8.
3.Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America,p.255.
4.Boston Academy of Music.Seventh Annual Report, 1839,p.9.
5.Ibid.
140
Afternoon
3 to 4, Lectures on elementary principles, or on thoroughbase, or of both, continued.
4 to 6, Singing of glees, Mr.Webb at the pianoforte, Mr.
Mason, conductor.
Evening
8 to 9, Singing the choruses of Handel, Haydn and others,
with organ accompaniment, Mr.Webb at the organ, Mr.
Mason, conductor.
Several sittings of the discussion or convention meetings were occupied
with the question "ought vocel music to be made a branch of education in
our common schools?
Ttoe arguments in favor and the objections against it
were carefully weighed, and in the end it was decided in the affirmative."
2
Two hundred gentlemen and sixty-five ladies met in August 1839. There
was some discussion among the members as to the advisability of forming a
new convention, independent of the Acadeny teachers’ class, but a tentative
constitution was rejected.
The following year the group organized itself
as the National Music Convention, managing its own business affairs, dis­
cussions and certain lectures, although continuing to meet at the Odeon
3
for the Acadeny teachers’ classes.
The class of teachers which assembled in August last
was unusually largo....The Musical Convention, which
assembled at the same time with the class of teachers
held its sessions in the Odeon, and discussed with
great spirit and effect, a variety of topics connected
with the theory and practice of the art of rausic.^
The session seems to have been tolerably harmonious and interesting.
Mr.
Eliot gave a lecture on the sources of gratification in music, the Rev.
1.American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled In Boston. August 16.1838.p.13.
2.Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report, lB39,p«10.
3.Erederic Louis Ritter, Music in America,pp.256-257.
4.Boston Academy of Music, Ninth Annual Report,1841,p.6.
141
Mr, Albro one on sacred music.
Great interest was also taken in the new
translation, by Mr.Warner, of G. Weber’s work on the theory of music,'1’
Friction arose between Maeon and Webb, the two most important pro­
fessors of the Academy, serious enough to lead to Webb’s resignation in
2
the 1839-1840 season.
And for a time thereafter the National Music Con-
vention "was split between the adherents of Mason and Webb respectively";
3
in 1841 each faction assembled at the time of the annual meeting of the
4
National Musical Convention.
On August 25, after lengthy discussions which
were "productive of little but unpleasant feelings, consuming the time of
this Convention with quarrels," the members of the National Misical Conven­
tion voted to dissolve that body permanently, and to reorganize as The
5
American Musical Convention.
Mason and Webb having settled their differ-
6
ences, with Webb returning to the Academy staff and to the summer classes,
The American Musical Convention met at the Odeon in 1842 and several
7
succeeding years
under the direction of "Geo.J.Webb; Lowell Mason, eonr
8
mittee."
At the 1842 meeting "upwards of two hundred persons were present
9
most of the time during the ten days’ session of the class."
1.Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America.p.258.
2.Boston Academy of Misic, Eighth Annual Report.1840.p.3.
5.Grove's Dictionary of Music and Mislcians.American Supplement,p.176.
4.Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America.p.260,
5 .Boston Musical Visitor.II,1 , (October 12,1841),pp.1-6.
6.Boston Academy of Music, Tenth Annual Report,1842.p.12.
7.Boston Musical Visitor.Ill,1 , (October 6,1842),pp.35-36,
8.Boston Misical Visitor.111,10,(July 27,1843),p.152,
9.Boston Academy of Music, Eleventh Annual Report,1845,p.7.
142
Apparently the Academy found that the convention tended to obscure
the real purpose of its summer classes, for the 1043 Annual Report empha­
sized that the class was "designed for teachers, or for those who, already
having a good knowledge of music, desire to become teachers.
The manner
of teaching is therefore the principal thing dwelt upon in the lectures
of its professors."^
At this period, Mason and Webb’s teachers’ course
lasted fourteen days and included:
1.Lectures on teaching; in which the method contained
in The manual of Instruction, together with such im­
provements as later experience has suggested, will be
fully explained and illustrated.
2.Exercises in singing church music; as chants, metrical
psalmody and anthems.
3.Lessons in harmony, designed to aid those who desire to
become acquainted with the elementary principles of musi­
cal composition.
4.The practice of glee singing.
5.Chorus singing.2
The American Musical Convention of 1843 began three days later than the
Academy’s teachers’ classes, but both met in the Odeon and had essentially
the same membership.
Later in the decade, the convention meetings became
more clearly distinguished from the Academy's teachers' classes; shorter
in duration, and of a very much larger attendance.
The 1844 convention
4
was a five-day affair, opening August 26th;
a thousand members attended
5
the 1849 meeting,
6
and fifteen hundred the 1850 sessions.
1.Boston Academy of Music, Eleventh Annual Report,1843,p.7.
2 .Boaton Musical Visitor.Ill,10,(July 27,1843),p.l52.
3.Ibid.
4.Boston Musical Visitor.111,22, (July 16,1844),p.339«
5.Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason.Educator.p.37.
6.The American Musical Almanac for 1852.p.34.
143
"Similar classes for teachers’11 were soon established in various
places."As
early as 1035 calls began to come for Mason to go out for
2
a four-day ’convention’ of 3ingers";
in 1037 Mason lectured on music ped­
agogy at Newton, New Bedford and Bradford,Massachusetts, "at Portsmouth
and Sxeter in New Hampshire; and at New Haven,Connecticut....Applications
from several other places were, owing to the press of engagements on the
3
part of the professor, necessarily declined."
The 1041 Annual Report
of the Academy notes that
Mr.Mason has visited the following places, during the
past winter and spring, principally for the purpose
of lecturing on the subject of music, viz:- New York
City, to lecture before the lyoeum and the Rutger’s
Institute; Schnectady, and Troy,N.Y.; Groton, West**
field, and Chester,Ms.; Keene,N.H.; and Woodstock,Vt.*
In the late 1040’s and the 1050’s many of Mason's field conventions had
*
The Boston Academy of Music regarded musical conventions primarily as
teacher-training media, (cf. Boston Academy of Music, Eleventh Annual
Report.1043,p.0.) but earlier musical conventions were really gather­
ings of several choirs for the puipose of singing together,
(cf.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America,p.854.
These were a natural
development of the slnging-school, but less narrowly local and capable
of more varied expansion.
(Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians
American Supplement.p.176.) Undoubtedly these affairs were not unknown
during the singing-school period, but the first to be called a Musical
Convention and to meet for more than one day, was that of the New
Hampshire Musical Society, which gathered at Concord in 1029.
(H.S.
Perkins, The Musical Convention — Its Utility and Abuse, Music Teachers
National Association Papers and Proceedings. 1007.p.200.)
This convenr*
tlon and its successors devoted their meetings to the practice of "chorus
music, both secular and sacred, but....mostly the latter."(Ibid.)
1. Henry Barnard, Educational Labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education,IV,(1057),p.144.
2. W.S.B.Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Father in American Music, The Musician.
XVI,11,(November,1911),p.722.
3. Boston Academy of Music, Fifth Annual Report.1037,p.7.
4. Boston Academy of Music, Tenth Annual Report,1042.p.12.
144
both a pedagogical and concert stress, those at Rochester, N.Y., Harris­
burg,Penna., and Cleveland, Ohio, which recurred each year, being parti­
cularly notable for their splendid chorus work.*
The young men and young women trained by Mason in the Boston Academy
teachers' classes
went to their own homes and carried with them both
Mason's ideas and his enthusiasm for musical work
among the people....The natural result....was there­
fore that classes for short periods of intensive
study were organized in various towns and cities."
The convention as developed by Mason, by his immediate associates Root,
Webb and Hastings, by his pupils, and by others who followed the pattern
worked out in Boston, spread rapidly,
3
and for three decades after 1345
it was a power in .American musical life.
4
"All through the east, west
and south, musical conventions, after the model of the Boston meetings,
were organized."
5
In spite of their brief and casual character, and
though often dominated by commercial interests, the
many conventions held from about 1845 for twenty"
five years or more undoubtedly exerted a beneficial
influence.
Their effort to provide some rudiment­
ary training for adults probably contributed to the
later recognition of such work for public school
children.
Their encouragement of voluntary combi­
nation or affiliation led directly to the formation
(from 1876) of the Music Teachers* Associations in
many states, and of the National Association — most
of these bodies still retaining the name 'convention'
for their annual meetings.6
1. The American Musical Almanac for 1852,p.34.
2. W.J.Baltzell, Old Time Community Music, Music Teachers National
Association Papers and Proceedings,1922,p.70.
3. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians,American Supplement,p.176.
4. E.N.C.Barnes, Should Lowell Mason Come to Town,p.5.
5. Prederic Louis Ritter.Muslc in Amerlca,p.261.
6. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians,American Supplement,p .176.
Material in parentheses in original.
145
The music convention became our first national school of music pedagogy,
harmony, conducting and voice culture, and thousands of young people in
all parts of the country received training in these fundamentals.1
They
were important "in arousing and developing an interest in singing and the
ability to read music,"
they were held."
2
and "were directly suited to the period in which
3
"In the last third of the century the influence of the convention
waned,"
4
for
the large musical conventions had now dwindled down
to a casual gathering of some music-teachers, under
the management of some old remnant or successor of
the convention music-teacher.^
Among the dauses of this decline were (1) "incompetent teachers....imposed upon the public by assuming the title of convention teachers,"
(2)
6
some of the conductors "failed to present as high a grade of mtisic
before the convention for study" as the members should have had in order
7
to profit from it,
(3) the organization of conventions "for the purpose
of exploiting the sale of a new singing book" rather than for any clearly
musical purposes,
(4) the expansion of the pedagogical work of the con­
1.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 33.
2.
Frances M. Dickey, The Early History of Public School Music in the
United States. Music Teachers National Association Papers and Pro­
ceedings. 1913, p. 204.
3.
W. J. Baltzell, Old Time Community Music. Music Teachers National
Association, Papers and Proceedings. 1922, p. 74.
4.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 222.
5.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America, p. 261.
6.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, p. 17.
7.
H. S. Perkins, The Musical Convention:
Its Utility and Abuse.
Music
Teachers National Association, Papers and Proceedings. 1887, p. 211.
8.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 31.
146
vention into the normal institute, beginning in 1851, (5) the establish­
ment of conservatories and music schools giving pedagogical training, (6)
the expansion of the choral concert phase of the convention program into
festivals, or series of concerts, "either occasionally (as the Beace Ju­
bilees of 1869 and 1872) or regularly (as at Worcester and elsewhere).n^
Teachers’ Institutes
In 1845 Horace Mann engaged Mason to lecture on music at the first
Teachers’ Institute under the auspices of the Massachusetts State Board
of Education,
2
He was reengaged annually through 1857, at least, and
under the successive secretaries of the state board of education,
3
not more for the musical instruction which he im­
parted than for the benefit of the example he set
the members in the very best methods of teaching.
Regarding Mason's influence at the Massachusetts Teachers' Institutes,
Henry Barnard stated that:
(
In this form of teaching, Dr, Mason peculiarly ex­
cels, His long continued experience as a practical
teacher, his rare tact in developing the vital prin­
ciples of instruction in the simplest and happiest
manner, his indefatigable perseverance in tracking
down errors in thought or in theory,...give him an
indescribable power over his audience....His wide
and comprehensive views embrace the whole field of
education, and of all its prominent subjects.5
Horace Mann gave practical evidence of his evaluation of Mason’s peda-
1.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 176.
Material in parenthesis in the original.
2.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 162.
3.
Henry Barnard, Educational Labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education. IV, (1857), pp. 145-146.
4.
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 31.
5.
Henry Barnard, Educational Labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education, IV, (1847), p. 146.
147
goglcal ability by having him teach at the five institutes which were
held under his direction; he summed up this estimate in the often-quoted
remark that:
it was well worth any young teacher’s while to walk
ten miles to hear a lecture of Dr. Mason; for in it
he would hear a most instructive exposition of the
true principles of all teaching as well as that of
instruction in music.
Musical Normal Institutes
Although this phase of teacher training did not become important
until after the Academy of Music had wound up its affairs, yet it was a
direct outgrowth of the teachers’ classes and conventions developed by
the Academy.
Just as Mason was the dominating personality of the Acad­
emy, its teachers* classes and conventions, and of the musical conven­
tion as it spread to other cities, so was he the dominating force in
the creation of the musical normal institute.
Like the Boston Academy teachers' classes, the aim of the normal
institute was
the preparation of person desiring to teach music
for that profession, and the improvement of teachers
already in the work, and secondarily the advancement
of musical students in general in the science of mu­
sic and the cultivation of musical taste and judg­
ment.
The institutes were held in the summer for periods varying from one to
three months, and with a faculty of three to five teachers, each a spe­
cialist in his own department,
A typical institute program included "lessons in harmony, voice
1.
Horace Mann, quoted by Henry Barnard in The American Journal of Education
IV, 1857, p. 146.
2*
F. 0. Jones, A Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p. 78.
148
cultivation, voice teaching, performance of choir music, etc."
Four
hours a day were spent in "class exercises, and one evening in each week
1
in oratorio practice."
The better institutes charged a tuition fee of
$20 for the three months; institutes lasting a month usually charged a
membership fee of $10.
2
The first noimal musical institute was that under the leadership
of Lowell Mason and George F. Root in New York City in 1851; it lasted
3
three months, and drew students from all over the United States.
Its
faculty consisted of Dr. Lowell Mason, Thomas Hastings, William B. Brad­
bury, and Dr. George F. Root.
For some years this was the only musical
4
normal institute held.
5
After 1856
an annual music institute was held
by Mason and Root at North Reading, Massachusetts
6
of three months.
7
For several decades the musical normal institute was the only agency
training music teachers for the public schools:
there was no such thing as courses in music methods
i,n
constituted educational institutions
of the country
1.
Boston Musical Journal I. 15, (April 18, 1854), p. Ill; I, 18, (June 1,
1854), pp. 128-129.
2.
F. 0. Jones,
3.
E. B. Birge,History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 31.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 312
says, "The first example is said to have been that held by Root, Hastings,
and Bradbury in 1852 in New York." Mason was in Europe in the summer of
1852, but had organized the Institute with Root the previous year.
4.
F. 0. Jones,
5.
Daniel Gregory Mason, editor, The Art of Music, IV, p. 245.
6.
Henry G. Lahee, A Century of Choral Singing, New England Magazine, n.s.
A Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p. 78.
A Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p. 78.
XXVI, (March 1902), p. 109.
7.
V/. S. B. Mathews, A Hundred Years of Music in America, p. 43. In The
Art of Music, IV, p. 245 the length of North Reading Institute is given
as "a fortnight’s duration."
8.
Osbourne McConathy.
Latter-Day Tendencies in Public School Music.
Musician, XXXIV, 3, (March, 1929), p. 29.
The
149
After 1885, the more importent publishers of school music materials
organized summer schools and institutes, employing the leading music su­
pervisors of the country to exemplify the methods advocated by each school.
Not only were the methods thoroughly explained in
detail, but valuable instruction was given in the
handling of classes, in the art of song leading,
and the treatment of children’s voices....Though
these schools were each devoted to teaching the
pedagogy of a particular method, their general at­
mosphere was by no means commercial. Their general
educational level was high.^
This type of normal institute lasted through the first quarter cf the
2
twentieth century,
as did certain "institutes of music pedagogy" under
the auspices of outstanding music educators.
3
The work of these insti­
tutes was gradually taken over by year-round musical normal institutes
and the newly created music departments in normal schools and teachers
colleges; and they were finally superceded by them and by the largescale summer schools of the higher educetional institutions.
Music Instruction in Public Schools
The introduction of music as a class exercise in the public schools
of Boston early claimed the attention of the Academy, and formed an importent feature of its plans.
4
The Academy has ever regarded the introduction of
vocal music, as an ordinery study, into common
schools— not only those under private patronage,
but public schools generally— as an important ob-
1.
3. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United .States, p. 129.
2.
Ibid., p. 130.
3.
Osbourno McConathy, Latter-Day Tendencies in Public School Music, The
Musician.XXXIV, 3, (March, 1929), p. 89.
4.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report, 1839, p. 5.
150
1
ject to be aimed at in its labors.
One of the original motives for its interest in this ''cherished object"
2
was that children should be taiight vocal music
not merely as an agreeable accomplishment— much less
as a means of attracting attention; but....as a pre­
paration for the making the praise of God glorious
in families end churches.^
"While the original design....extended to church music only,” it later
came "to embrace a more extensive field than the one department."
4
The Academy's president considered this "as the most important work
done by the Academy, or which can be done to promote the progress of
music among us."^
By giving elementary instruction to all the child­
ren of the city....the whole musical talent of the
place will be discovered, and those who have the
best powers for the study, and the strongest in­
clination for it, will have means to cultivate the
talents, which....would have continued xmknown to
themselves.
Among the obstacles to be overcome were "the want of money" and
"that public sentiment is not prepared to go the full length which the
system extends."
7
But prophetically, the Academy looked for the time
when
1.
Boston
Academy of Iviisic, Second Annuel Report. 1834, p. 18.
2.
Boston
Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, p. 11,
3.
Boston
Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, pp. 9-10.
4.
Iowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, pp. 15-16.
5.
Samuel A, Eliot, Music in America, North American Review. Ill,
(April, 1841), p. 332.
6.
Ibid.
7.
Boston Academy of Music, Fifth Annual Report. 1837, p. 10.
151
in the course of a few years there shall be such a
revolution in public opinion inrelation to music,
that we shall then find it quite as much a taskto
supply the demands of
the community originating in
this source, as we now find it to awaken interest
in the subject.
Since official backing was
as needed for the project as animproved
public opinion, the Academy saw
porters.
to it that it secured influential sup­
By 1835, its third season, Jacob Abbott, the principal of the
2
Mount Vernon School, had been replaced as president by Samuel A. Kliot,
who was a person prominent in city affairs and who in 1837 became chairg
man
of the school board and in 1838 mayor
of music
of the city*
In 1837 the friends
in the schools hailed it
as a star of good omen to this cause, that the
President of the Boston Academy of Idisic is...*
the Chairman ^f this Board [the city school committeej also.
The Academy labored to gain "advocates among the intelligent patrons
of education" and tried to make music education’s "adversaries....its
friends."
5
By providing music instruction in several schools it demonstrated
that such instruction was practicable and desirable.
....the plan was first adopted in the Mount Vernon
• School, Jacob Abbott’s, and the.Monitorial School
of Mr. Fowle, both of females, Mr. Thsyer's school
for boys, in Chauncey Place, in each of which ere
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Fifth Annual Report. 1837, p. 10.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 2.
3.
Lowell Mason, Address on
4.
5.
Church Music, 1851, p. 16.
City of Boston, School Committee Report. August 24, 1837, p. 18.
Material in parenthesis not in original.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1359, p. 14.
152
100 pupils, who receive instruction twice a week
in vocal music.
Instruction is also Given by the
professors of the Academy in the Asylum for the
Blind, in the schools of Mr. Hayward and Miss Ray­
mond, Chestnut Street, in Miss Spooner’s school in
Montgomery Place, and in the academy at Cambridgeport.
During the seoond year,
1835-1834, the professors of the Academy
gave
instruction in music to the pupils in nine schools, "includingseveral
of the largest and best conducted private schools in the city, together
with one in Cembridgeport and one in Charlestown; embracing in all about
Si
530 pupils."
In the 1834-1335 season this instruction was continued
"with greet success.”
It is the testimony of the principals of these schools,
that it does not interfere with the regular studies
of the pupils; that it is an agreeable relaxation to
their minds; and that it exercises a happy moral in­
fluence on their conduct.3
4
"Public attention" wes "aroused to the subject"
and constantly
maintained through articles in the press, testimonials, lectures, re­
ports and petitions to the school board.
In addition, the Academy
carried on an extensive correspondence with educators in many states
in the interest of music in the schools, end became known throughout
5
tho United States as the national sponsor for music education.
Largely because of the persistent agitation by the Academy, and
1.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 9.
2.
Boston Acadeny of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 15.
3.
3oston Acadeity of Music, Third Annual Report, 1835, p. 7.
4.
Samuel A. Eliot, Music in America, North American Review, H I ,
(April, 1841), p. 332.
5.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States,
p. 40.
153
especially that of its professor, Lowell Mason, and its president, Sam­
uel A, Eliot,
music was established as a school subject in the Boston
2
public schools by action of the school committee August 28, 1838.
This
very important achievement, together with its pioneer work in the train­
ing of music teachers, laid the foundation upon which the music education program of the American public school has been erected.
The Closing of the Academy
As the objects for which it was founded became accomplished, the
Academy of lAisic "gradually retired from its active labors,"
4
and "after
5
1847 its functions were taken over by other agencies."
years of existence,
In its fourteen
it had accomplished much of permanent value, both
for the city of 3oston and for the country as a whole.
Summary of the Achievements of the Boston Academy of Music.
From the outset, the Boston Academy of Music was a decided success,
if we may use as criteria student enrollment and a widespread use of pub­
lications.
In its first year "the whole number of pupils under the care
of the Academy" exceeded "1500";
6
in the second year, 1700;
7
in the third
1.
Osbourne KeConnthy, Evolution of Public School Music in the United
States, Music Teachers National Association, Papers and Proceedings,
1922, p. 159.
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report, 1838, p. 12.
3.
Louis C. Elson, A History of American Music, p. 80.
4.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 17.
5.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music end I-uslciana, American
Supplement, p. 109.
6.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report, 1833,
p. 9.
7.
Boston academy of liisic, Second Annual Report, 1834, p. 14.
154
year, "between 900 and 1000 children" and "400 to 500 adults."1
Its
publications "met with a ready sale," and its reports v'ere "much sought
2
after, and read with avidity."
At the time of issue, its Manual of
Instruct ion was the only American text of the kind, and was so extensively
used that a fifth printing of it was issued in 1Q47.
Boston’s educational facilities received three major contributions
from the Academy:
1.
The introduction of music into the public school program as a
regular subject by authority of the school committee; also its intro­
duction into private schools and academies, which at that time were im­
portant educational institutions.
2.
A supply of teachers who had at least some training in the teach­
ing of music.
3.
A program of adult education in music for a sizable portion of
the population.
Boston’s music&l lifs was enriched by the Academy in a number of
ways.
Among these are:
1.
The bringing of music and music's potentialities to the attention
of the masses,
and the extention of the means of hearing a better quality
music throughout the conmunity.
2.
The improvement of church music resulting from (a) the training
of many people to read music for the express purpose of singing in church
choirs and congregations;
(b) the Academy’s stress upon the use of music
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report, 1835,pp. 6-7.
2.
Ibid., p. 12.
155
appropriate to and of acceptable quality for religious services.
3.
The improvement in musical taste of the community through lec­
tures on aesthetics, musical history and the like.
4.
impetus to orchestral music during a period in which instru­
mental music was neglected in Boston.
5.
Its numerous concerts embracing many phases of music reised the
level of public performance in Boston end also provided a background and
a tradition in the community which later drew great artists from abroad
to perform there.
6.
Its creation of a higher kind of interept in music prompted a
number of young men to seek an artistic education in the schools of Europe.
Lowell Mason included among the "legitimate offspring" of the Academy
"The Jlusical Education Society,
The Musical Fund Society, Music in the
Schools, Musical Conventions, and Teachers* desses.""*"
The Boston Academy of Music was more than merely a Boston institu­
tion:
it was national in its influence.
and educational development of this
Its contributions to musical
country asa whole included:
1.
The ideal of music for the masses.
2.
The missionary spirit for music which the Academy’s pupils and
associates carried with them throughout the country.
3.
The acceptance of the ideaof music as a school
subject by pub­
lic authority, and the earliest application of this idea through its
direct effort in Boston, and applications in other cities through its
example and the efforts of its pupils.
4.
1.
The training of music teachers by means of it3 classes, its
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 17.
166
conventions, and the normal institutes which developed from the Acad­
emy conventions.
5.
The creation of material for music teaching, methods of teach­
ing, and the dissemination of on educational philosophy which, on the
whole, was appropriate to American conditions at the time.
6.
A general stimulation of greater interest in higher quality
music, both sacred and secular.
Lowell Mason, the dominant power of the Academy.
In connection with the achievements of the Boston Academy of I.iisic,
it is to be remembered that the phrases "work of the Academy" and "work
of its professors" are practically synomyous, which point the Second
Annual Report of the Academy indicates cleerly:
A brief survey will now be made of the progress
which has been made during the year. This will,
of course, have reference principally to the la­
bors of the professors....
Rirtherraore, it will be recalled that Mason was the first member of
the Academy's staff to be appointed, and that Webb, the only other pro­
fessor during the first few years, was originally engaged as an associate
or assistant to Meson.
The first step taken by the Academy was to engage
Mr. Mason....The rapidly increasing demand for his
labors soon obliged them to elect an associate pro­
fessor. Mr. Webb....was accordingly appointed to
this office.2
When Keller was added to the staff, the appointment was specifically "to
give instruction in that
^The orchestra‘s department."
Schmidt did not
1.
Boston Academy
of Music, Second Annual Report, 1834, p. 14.
2.
Boston Academy of I&isic, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 9.
3.
Boston Academy
of Music, Fourth Annual Report, 1836, p. 3.
157
1
become a regular member of the staff until the 1838-1839 season
by which
time the Academy’s policies had been well established, and much of its more
important work completed.
1837-1838 season,
season,
3
2
Woodman, who organized a juvenile choir in the
and Johnson, who took over this work in the 1840-1841
were apparently not considered to be regular staff members, for
they were not listed with the "professors" in the annual reports. • It would
seem therefore, that Mason was not only the first, but also the most im­
portant member of the staff, and the leader.
Another consideration in this matter is that the more important pub­
lications of the Academy such as the Manual of Instruction were written
either by Mason, alone, or, in the case of those written in collaboration
with 7/ebb, so largely by Mason, that they were issued with Mason’s name
as first author, i . e . Lowell Mason and Geo. J. Webb.
4
McConathy
seems to give Mason, Webb and Samuel A. Eliot equal credit
for the achievements of the Academy.
The First Annual Report of the Acad­
emy quoted above, and the matter of authoriship of publications, indicates
the relative importance of Mason and of 7/ebb.
Important was Eliot’s po­
litical influence, and intense as was his interest in the Academy, he did
not become actively associated with it until the 1834-1835 season, by
which time the Academy was firmly entrenched in Boston, and in a flourish-
1.
Boston Academy
of Music, Seventh Annual Report, 1839, p. 6.
2.
Boston Academy
of Music, Sixth Annual Report, 1838, p. 5.
3.
Boston Academy
of Music, Ninth Annual Report, 1841, p. 5.
4.
Osbourne McConathy, Evolution of Public School Music in the United
States, Music Teachers National Association, Papers and Proceedingsr
1922, p. 159.
158
ing condition, according to its annual reports.
It would seem, therefore, that Mason gathered about him, under the
name of the Boston Academy of Music, associates who were capable and will­
ing to assist him in bringing about the musical growth of Boston, and later
of the whole country, but that the Boston Academy was
a living embodiment of his ideas and his labors....
He surrendered his indentity, or allowed it, for the
public good, to be absorbed in a society of citizens....
Without Dr. Lowell Mason, the Bostgn Academy of Music
would never have had an existence.
His labors were performed in the name of that organization.
For all these reasons, there seems to be justification-in giving
Lowell Mason the major credit fcr Via achievements of the Boston Academy
of Music.
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report, 1835, p. 2. Eliot is
not listed as an offical of the Academy in either the first or second
annual reportB. In the third annual report his name appears for the
first time, and he is then listed as president.
2.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of D r . Lowell Mas o n , p. 14.
159
CHAPTER VII
LOWELL MASON AND MUSIC FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN
The Introduction of Music Into the Boston City Schools
First Efforts In Children’s Music
Mason's Idea of vocal classes for children was a radical one for
that period*
He says:
....singing among children, as a common thing, was unknown
in the country.
There were a few who, with remarkable
ear and voice, had given some attention to the subject,or
rather, who, without having given attention to it, were
singers....but children did not generally sing, nor was it
supposed to be possible to teach them, or that they had the
ability to sing. 1
Shortly after arriving in Boston, Mason "commenced the extensive teaching
of vocal music in classes, introducing, at once, that feature in musical
teaching which had been but little known before, but which he had success­
fully pursued in Savannah, the instruction of children...."2 Mason him­
self says that he taught music to children in Savannah, for in discussing
his early Boston experiences, he said, "knowing bjr experience the value
of an alto of children's voices in a church choir...."
It appears that Mason first became interested in the teaching of
music to children because of the needs of his church choir:
1.Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music,1851,p.13.
2.Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, Hie Journal of
Education, TV,(1857),p.141.
3*Lowell Mason, Address on Church tfasic. 1651,p.14.
160
Snowing by experience the value of an alto of children*a
voices in a church choir, and finding that this part was
not usually sung or even attempted in the Boston choirs,
it became an immediate object to train a class of boys
and girls for it.
Hence the first children's singing**
school.
With the exception of a few precocious children who from time to time
found their way into the adult singing-schools, and a few others who
were taught the elements of music incidentally in connection with
learning to write at the private writing academies,
....these were the first efforts in children's music. The
class did not at first consist of more than six or eight,
but these acted at once voluntarily as missionaries; and the
Increase was rapid, until the whole room was filled.
This
class, which afterwards, in a large place Increased to five
or six hundred, was continued gratuitously for six or eight
years, or until it was taken up by the Boston Academy of
Music, by which society it was sustained until music was
introduced into the grammar schools of the city.2
For his children's classes, Mason wrote The Juvenile Psalmist, or
Child's Introduction to Sacred Music.
It was"prepared at the request
of the Boston Sabbath School Union" and published by Richardson, lord
and Holbrook of Boston in 1829.
Mason believed that this was "the
4
first book with music for Sunday-Schools".
It was probably the first
American song book written especially for children: the most recent corapetitor for that title, the anonymous The Child's Song Book, attributed
to Augustus Peabody, was issued by Richardson, Lord and Holbrook one
1.Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music.1851,p.14. Mason's italics.
2.1bld., Mason's italics.
3.Lowell Mason, The Juvenile Psalmist, title page.
4.Grove's Dictionary of Mrsic and Musiclans.American Supplement.p.286.
161
year later, in 1830.^
Incidentally, Grove,2 Allibone,® Seward,4 and
R
Barnard
all give 1330 as the date of Mason’s second musical book for
children, The Juvenile lyre, but Lowell Mason
dates it 1831.
The Juvenile Psalmist* is small in size; its first thirteen pages
contain a catechistic treatment of the rudiments of music, such matters
as the clefs, names of the lines and spaces, and time values; scale
exercises are given on the fourteenth page; the remaining fourteen pages
are of hymns, some in three-part and others in four-part style.
MaBon’s Conversion to Pestalozzianism
Soon after these beginnings of music among the children had been
made, "the Rev.William C.Woodbridge....arrived in this country after
n
several years' residence in Germany"
and "Switzerland, where he had
resided....with a view of becoming acquainted with the best methods of
instruction".
s
He had spent considerable time in the schools conducted
1.Martha R.McCabe, Early American School Music Books. School Life.XXIV.
10,(July,1939),p.291.
2.Grove*b Dictionary of Music and Musicians,American Supplement.p .286.
3.S.A.Allibone,A Critical Dictionary of English literature and British
and American Authors. II. p. 1257.
4.T.F.Seward,The Educational Work of Dr.Lowell Mason.p.22.
5.Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education.IY,(1B57).p.148.
6.Lowell Mason.Address on Church Music. 1851.p. 15.
of The Juvenile lyre is 1831.
The copyright date
* The copy examined is not in perfect condition;it probably originally
had more than twenty-eight pages.
7.Lowell Mason.Address on Church Music.1851.p.14.
8 .Henry Barnard,Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education.IV.(1857)p.142.
163
by followers of Pestalozzi, especially that of Fellenberg at Hofwyl.*
He had become Interested in the application of the Festalozzian
2
principles to music teaching,
and "although he had never learned music
himself, was the warm friend of singing among children, and immediately
commenced efforts for extending it here".
3
At Hartford,Connecticut in
the summer of 1830, Woodbrldge and Elam Ives trained a juvenile choir
using the Festalozzian "system" and musical materials developed by Hfigeli,
Pfeiffer and Khbler.
4
This experiment was not particularly conclusive
g
because it was transitory; as Birge
says, "no records are available"
of its results.
Very shortly after this experience at Hartford, Ives moved to
Philadelphia to teach music,
6
and Woodbrldge went to Boston to deliver
his lecture on Vocal Music as a^ Branch of Common Education to the .American
Institute of Instruction at its 1830 meeting in the Statehouse at Boston.
In this lecture, ffoodbridge strongly "advocated the introduction of music
8
into the common-schools", because he had become "convinced of the impor-
1.W111S.Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States.p.159.
2.T.F.Seward.The Educational Work of Dr.Lowell Mason, p . 12 .
3.Lowell Mason,Address on Church Music.1851.p.14.
4.William C.Woodbrldge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction.Papers and Proceedings.1830.p.251.
5.E.B.Birge, History of Public School Iflislc in the United States.p.58.
6.William C.Woodbrldge, Vocal Ifiisic as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction.Papers and Proceedings. 1830.p.251.
7.Henry Barnard,Educational labors of Lowell Mason.The American Journal
of Education, IV,(1857),p.l4S.
/
8 . Lowell Mason,Address on Church Music. 1851,p.15.
7
163
tanoe and practicability of making it a part of our cannon education"*’*’ He
described musical instruction as be bad observed it in European schools,
particularly tbose in which Pestalozzian principles prevailed, and gave an
2
outline of the Pestalozzian theories.
A group of children from Mason's
juvenile singing class sang several songs during the evening, and the com­
bination of their performance and Woodbrldge*s arguments "opened to those
interested in this subject, a wider and more important field of operation
than they had before contemplated"*
Mason, whose success in teaching had been almost phenomenal for six4
teen or eighteen years,
now became convinced that the Pestalozzian princi­
ples of instruction as expounded by Woodbrldge were valid; he adopted them
5
as a basis for his own teaching.
This he did not do, however, until certain
that they were superior to the methods which he had been using successfully*
But the efforts of Mr.Woodbridge were untiring;
they were persevered in with such constancy, zeal,
and good humor, that at last Dr.Mason consented to
a proposed experiment of teaching a class, after
the Pestalozzian manner,^provided one could be found
for the special purpose.
Woodbrldge, assisted by others who were interested in the Pestalozzian
theories, organized a class
of about two hundred ladies and gentlemen, with the
express view of bringing the new method to a test
l.William C.Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Conmon Education,
American Institute of Instruction,Papers and Proceedings.1B50.p.233.
2.Ibid.,p.845-255.
3.Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report,1833.p.4.
4,T.F.Seward, The Educational Work of Dr*Lowell Mason,p.12.
5«W.S.B.Mathews, Lowell Mason, A Father in American Music, The Musician.
xvi, (November, 1911),p.722.
6*Henry Barnard, The Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American
Journal- of Education,IV*(1B57),p.143*
164
of experience.
The lessons were carefully prepared,
at first with the assistance of Mr.Woodbrldge,
and
were given by Dr.Mason, with a success vastly greater
than had ever before attended any of his efforts. He
was fully convinced of the practicability and the fit­
ness of the new method....The same method of teaching
he soon began to apply to juvenile classes....
The few German and Swiss treatises then available on music pedagogy
2
Woodbrldge loaned to Mason;
since the latter could not read German
3
fluently, Woodbrldge gave oral translations of their contents.
Most
important of these works was the Gesangblldungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen
GrUnds&tzen. Pfldagoglsch Begrundet von Michael Traugott Pfeiffer.
Methodlsch Bearbeltet von Hans Georg M g e l i .
and published at Zurich in
4
1810.
Mason had a high regard for the Gesangblldungslehre:
The work of Ntgeli and Pfeiffer was excellent and
its influence has been felt far and wide*
Other
manuals, based on this have since been published
*.**but the work of Nggeli and Pfeiffer is a text
book which every teacher should study until he
makes the principle his own.®
Woodbrldge also furnished Mason with "such explanations and directions
as he had received personally from Pfeiffer, Hfigell, Krusi, Fellenberg,
6
KAbler, Gersbaeh and others", regarding music instruction.
l.Ibid.
2.Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report,1833,p.6.
3*William C.Woodbridge, Boston Academy of Music, American Annals of
Education, 1854,p.322*
4*M.T.Pfeiffer and H.G.NBgeli, Gesangblldungslehre nach Pestalozzlschen
Grundsfttzen, title page.
Barnard, in the Educational Labors of Lowell
Mason, (Tha American Journal of Education, IV,p« 142.), says this was
published at Leipsig, which inaccuracy Abbie Hobson repeats on page 14
of her Lowell Ma s on,Educa tor.
5.Lowell Mason, Musical letters from Abroad.p.137*
6*Will S.Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States,p.160*
165
Classes Using Pestalozzian Method
"Having obtained a knowledge of the Pestalozzian method, Mason com­
menced giving instruction upon the new method"1 to the large classes of
£
children
which met in one of the rooms of the Bowdoin Street Church on
Wednesday and Saturday afternoons; two or three classes, numbering alto­
gether from one to five hundred children, were accustomed to meet at
successive hours on the same day.®
"The children were taught free, the
only condition being that they would promise to attend for the entire
„ 4
year".
The classes were typical examples of the singing-schools
with the exception that the members were the young pupils
of the public schools. The instruction consisted of some
elementary rules for singing and for the rudiments of
music as relating to reading from notes, according to the
Sol-Ra syllables.
The singers were taught to beat time
and follow their own voice parts. It had one purpose,—
to improve singing.5
In this work, Mason was assisted by George James Webb* who became his
life-long associate.
With the large classes trained in accordance with the new methods,
l.S.S.Greene, Remarks upon the late Dr.Lowell Mason, .American Institute
of Instruction.Papers and Proceedings.1873.p.26.
2 .Boaton Academy of Music, First Annual Report.1835,p.6.
3 .Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education.IV.(1857),p.144.
4.F,J.Metcalf, American Writers and Compilers of Sacred Music,p.213.
5.Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason,Educator.p.16.
* George James Webb (1803-1887) had come to Boston from England in 1830.
The First Annual Report of the Boston Academy of Music,183S,p.8, says
that Webb was in that year organist of St.Paul's Church, and "a gentle­
man whose superior musical talents and education, and his cordial
adoption of the new system of instruction, as well as his elevated views,
in regard to the objects and style of vocal music" made him a highly
valued addition to the Academy's staff.
166
Mbboii in 1832-1833 gave a series of public concerts'*’ intended to dem­
onstrate that children could be taught to sing in classes and to arouse
2
public interest in the introduction of vocal music into the public schools.
These concerts were enormously successful; "they were given by choirs of
children so numerous as to fill the galleries of the Bowdoin Street
3
Church...In
the years 1832-1833,
the public was surprised and delighted by the exhibition
of the musical attainments of a class of very juvenile
performers, who had acquired their skill under the direct­
ion of Messrs.L.Mason and G.J.Webb. Never shall we forget
the mingled emotions of wonder, delight, vanquished incred­
ulity, and pleased hopes,with which these juvenile concerts
were attended.
Mason not only succeeded in exploding the old idea of "only here and
5
there a musical ear", but
a deep and lasting impression had been made on the public
mind and the public heart....An association of gentlemen
was immediately formed, and assumed the name "The
Boston Academy of Music",the object of which was to pro­
mote musical education in the community in every way which
was within the reach of their efforts.®
1.Will S.Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States,p.160.
2.M.F.X.Baldwin, Lowell Mason’s Philosophy of Music Eduoation,p.l6.
3.Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education,IV,(1857),p .144.
4.Samuel A.Eliot, Music in America, North American Review,III,(April,1841),
p.330.
5.A.W.Brayley, The Inception of Public School Music in America, The Musician,
X, (November,1905),p.485.
6.Saiouel A.Eliot, Music in America, North American Review. H I , (April, 1841).
p.330.
167
The Academy and Music In the Public Schools.
In the "plan of operation" given in its First Annual Report, the
Boston Academy of Music gave as one of its objects:
To introduce vocal music into schools, by the
aid of such teachers as the Academy may be able
to employ....
A year later it clarified its position by stating that
....the introduction of vocal music, as an or­
dinary branch of study into common schools— not
only those under private patronage, but public
schools generally....2
The officials of the Academy understood that if they were to accomplish
their objective, they would need the active cooperation of the school
authorities, and that the ultimate success of such a project depended
upon the extent to which the school board supported it.
They were sat­
isfied
....that it would give essential aid to the
cause, if it could receive the countenance of
the school committee of the metropolis.
At the same time the Academy held the view that musical instruction in
the public schools should not only be by authority of the school board,
but should be paid for at public expense.
When the recommendations of
the T. Kemper Davis report were adopted by the school committee in 1837,
the Academy commented:
But failing to obtain the necessary appropria­
tion from the city council to enable them to
make the experiment, ....the measure was frus­
trated.^
1.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report, 1833,
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Second Annual Report, 1834,
3.
Boston Academy of Misic, Seventh Annual Report. 1839,
4.
Ibid., pp. 11.
p. 8.
p. 18.
p. 5.
158
In the light of the fundamental purpose of the Academy, its pres­
ident believed that the steps token toward "the introduction of vocal
music as a branch of elementary education into the public schools" were
the most important work done by the Academy,
or which can be done to promote the progress
of music among us.^
Furthermore, the efforts of the Academy were an important factor
in bringing about the beginnings of musical instruction in the curriculum
of Boston schools; through its officers and teachers, it
was the agency which united all the tributary
musical interests in one grand reservoir, and
losing their combined power upon the school
committee in the shape of memorials and peti­
tions, secured early action.^
The Snelling Report of 1851-1832.
"In December, 1831, Mr. George H. Snelling, in behalf of a special
committee appointed at his suggestion, presented to the primary school
board of the city of Boston an elaborate report strongly urging the
adoption of music as a regular study in our primary schools."3
After
much discussion end strong opposition, the following resolution was adopted by the School Committee of Boston on January 17, 1832:
Resolved: That one school from each district
be selected for the introduction of systematic
instruction in vocal music, under the direction
of a committee to consist of one from each dis­
trict and two from the standing committee.
1.
Samuel A. Eliot, Music in America, North American Review. Ill (April,
1841), pp. 332.
2.
Charles T. Rice, Boston, the Cradle of Public School Music in America,
National Education Association Proceedings, 1910, pp. 799.
3.
J. Baxter Upham, Vocal Music as a Branch of Education in our Common
Schools, American Institute of Instruction Proceedings, 1873, pp. 162.
4.
Prank Damrosch, Music in the Public Schools, American History and
Encyclopedia of Music. I, pp. 21.
169
Although this plan was not put into effect, the work of Snelling*s
committee was "the first practical effort towards recognizing the
claims of music as a branch of elementary instruction in the common
schools of this country.
Early Music Teaching in Private Schools.
At first the principals of certain private schools were more re­
ceptive to the idea of musical instruction for children than were the
public school authorities.
In the 1832-1833 season
instruction in singing was introduced, almost
simultaneously, into the Mount Vernon School,
(female) under the Rev. Jacob Abbott, the
Chauncy-Hall School, (male) under Mr. G. F.
Thayer, and the Monitorial School, (female)
under Mr. George W. Fowls.®
Similar instruction was also given "in th9 schools of Mr. Hayward and
Miss Raymond, Chestnut St., in Miss Spooner's school in Montgomery Place,
and in the Academy at Cambridge,"
and at "the Perkins Institute and
the Massachusetts School for the Blind."4
It is possible that certain
other private schools provided musical instruction, although no infor­
mation is yet available concerning the work.
)
For several years music was taught in these schools twice a week
under the auspices of the Boston Academy of Music, the actual teaching
1.
J, Baxter Upham, Vocal Music as a Branch of Education in our Common
Schools, American Institute of Instruction Proceedings. 1873, pp. 163.
2.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of Lowell Mason, The American Jour­
nal of Education, IV (1857), pp. 144. Material in parentheses in
original.
3.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report, 1833, pp. 9.
4.
Christine M. Ayars, Contributions to the Art of Music in America by
the Music Industries of Boston, pp. 110.
170
being done by Iowell Mason with the assistance of George J. Webb*
The
Academy reported in 1833 that
in all these classes and schools, deep inter­
est is felt in the subject and in the mode of
instruction; and surprise is often expressed,
even by those who are familiar with ordinary
musical instruction, at the simple illustra­
tions of subjects, which they have never at­
tempted to understand, and at the exhibition
of important principles to which they were
entire strangers.
The Academy looked with ’’peculiar pleasure at these results, as an in­
dication that in this part of the community, the value of this acquisi­
tion will soon be fully realized, and every parent will soon be soliciO
tous to have his children taught vocal music...*"
The masters of the schools indicated their approval by submitting
written testimonials to the Academy
clearly showing that children may be taught
music, in connection with their ordinary
studies, without injury to their progress
in them, and with manifest advantage*
The Memorial of 1856
Although in 1831 the primary school board had voted to initiate music
instruction into certain schools as a result of the Snelling report, nothing
4
had, in fact, come of it.
A second and stronger effort was made in a memorial by the officers
1.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report, 1833, pp. 9.
3.
Ibid.
3.
Boston Academy of Misic, Second Annual Report, 1834, pp. 15.
4.
Frank Damrosch, Music in the Public Schools, American History and
Encyclopedia of Music, I, pp. 31.
171
of the Boston Aoadamy of Musie to the School Committee, August 10, 1836,^
"praying that instruction in vocal music be introduced into the public
schools of this city"*2
This memorial was supported by "two petitions
signed by sundry respectable citizens*"®
The Academy apparently was impelled to present the memorial of
1336 because it was aware that several new members of the school ccm-
4
mittee were interested in mnsio education*
pointed a special subcommittee of three:
The school committee ap­
T* Kemper Davis, Samuel K*
Lothrop, and Justin Field to study the memorial*
This subcommittee
submitted a detailed report of its findings to the school committee
August 24th., 1837.5
The T* Kemper Davis Report of August 24. 1837*
"After mature deliberation and a careful scrutiny of the arguments
and evidence," the committee was unanimously of the opinion that it would
be "expedient to comply with the request of the petitioners*"
Since the^ question "when viewed in all its bearings" was one "of
great public interest," the conmittee submitted with its recommendation
a lengthy supporting statement*
This pointed out that when judged
1*
T. F* Seward, The Educational Work of Dr* Lowell Mason* pp* 16*
2*
City of Boston Sehool Conmittee, Report of the Committee on Music,
August 24, 1837, pp* 1,
3*
Ibid*
4*
Charles T* Rioe, Boston, the Cradle of Public School Music in America,
Rational Education Association Proceedings, 1910, pp* 801*
5*
Ibid*
6*
City of Boston School Committee, Report of the Committee on Music,
August 24, 1837, pp* 1-2*
172
intellectually, morally, and physically, vocal
music seems to hare a natural place in every
system of instruction which aspires*•••to de­
velop man's whole nature*^In addition, musical lessons when taught in an appropriate manner have
specific value in connection with the study of apeeoh, with the daily
devotional exercises of the school, and with its recreational program*
To the five most common objections which had been urged against the
study of music in the schools, the committee had definite answers:
(1)
That such instruction was impracticable because it depended upon the
comparatively rare "natural ear for music," the committee held was untrue,
for only in exceedingly uncommon cases had a pupil been found "who could
not be taught to sing,"
(2) It acknowledged that "the labor of a life
is needed to form a musician," but stated that those who use this argument
against musical instruction in the schools mistake the end proposed*
The
purpose of musical instruction in schools "is not to form the musician"
but to give all students "the power of understanding and appreciating
musio" which understanding may be acquired by those who "have not the
power of excelling" in music*4
(3) The objection that the introduction
of musical instruction into the public schools would lead to the intro­
duction of "other accomplishments", the conmittee brushed aside with
"there is no good reason for excluding the art of linear drawing from any
K
liberal scheme of popular instruction*”
(4) To the argument that the
1*
City of Boston School Committee, Report of the Committee on Music.
August 24, 1337, pp* 4*
2*
Ibid*, pp* 5—6*
3*
Ibid*, pp* 7*
4*
Ibid., pp* 8*
5*
Ibid*, pp* 8*
173
introduction of music would "impair discipline" the conmittee replied
that when taught according to the Pestalozzian system of instruction aa
by the professors of the Academy of Iftisic,
it is of Itself a discipline of the highest
order, a subordination of mind, eye and ear,
unitedly tending to one object; while any de­
viation from that object la at once made known*
....If any want of discipline follow the intro­
duction of vocal music into a school, the fault
must be with the master of that school,— it is
not in the system*
(S) To the extremely conservative the conmittee pointed out that although
some might consider vocal muslo in the schools as "a newly fashioned no­
tion," it really was "an innovation upon old.usages" and could be traced
o
back to Aristotle*
In arriving at their decision, the conmittee also availed themselves
of the testimony of heads of "some of the most respectable private schools
in this city," where music instruction had been tried "on a limited scale,
for different periods of two to four years*"
was "of the most favorable eharacter*"
This testimony on the whole
Although
differing in seme unessential details, all con­
cur in the main point, the utility of the exeroise, and determined to continue it in their
schools*
The committee then disoussed the place of music in the public schools.
According to it, "the great object of our system of popular instruction" is
"a preparation and a training of the young spirit for usefulness and
happiness in coming life*"
1*
City of Boston School Committee, Report of the Committee on Music.
August 24, 1BS7, pp. 10.
2.
Ibid., pp. 10-11.
3*
Ibid., pp* 11.
174
New the defect of our present system.••*18
this, that it aims to develop the intellec­
tual part of man's nature solely, when for
all the true purposes of life, it is of more
importance, a hundred fold, to feel rightly
than to think profoundly*...So far as human
life is ooneerned, properly to direct the
feelings and amusements, belong to every sys­
tem which aspires to the name and character
of a wise system of public education. An in­
itiation into the elements of vocal musie at
sehool*.••seems best fitted to supply that
direction*
The report closed with a set of resolutions,
2
whieh it asked the Board
to adopt*
Resolved, That in the opinion of the School Committee, it is expedient
to try the experiment of introducing vooal music, by public
authority, as part of the system of public instruction, into
the public schools of this city*
Resolved, That the experiment be tried in the four following schools,
the Hancock school, for girls, in Hanover Street; the Eliot
school, for bpys, in North Bennet Street; the Johnson school,
for girls, in Washington Street; and the Hawes school, for
boys and girls, at South Boston*
Resolved, That this experiment be given in charge to the Boston Academy
of Music, under the direction of this Board, and that a com­
mittee of five be appointed from this Board to confer with the
Academy, arrange all necessary details of the plan, oversee
its operation, and make quarterly reports thereof to this
Board.
Resolved, That this experiment be canmenced as soon as practicable after
the passing of these resolutions, and be continued and extended
as the Board hereafter may determine*
Resolved, That these resolutions be transmitted to the City Council, and
that they be respectfully requested to make such appropriation
as may be necessary to carry this plan into effect.
1*
City of Boston Sohool Comnittee, Report of the Conmittee on Music*
August 24, 1037, pp. 12-13*
2*
Ibid., pp* 1C*
175
The Hawes School Experiment,
After printed copies of the T. Kemper Davis Report had been dietributed to its members for study,^ on September 19, 1637 the school
adopted the series of resolutions recommending that the experiment be
tried in four schools of the city*
2
"But failing to obtain the necessary appropriation from the city
council to enable them to make the experiment on the extended scale
contemplated in the resolution, the measure was frustrated."®
At this juncture, one ofjfche professors of
the Academy Lowell Mason stepped forward
and offered to give instruction gratuitously
in one of the schools*4
The offer was accepted by the school board, which in November, 1837
Resolved, That in the opinion of the school committee it is expedient
that the experiment be tried in Introducing vocal music, by
public authority into the public schools of the city*
Resolved, That the experiment be tried in the Hawes sohool in South
Boston under the direction of the subcommittee of that school
and the Committee of Music already appointed by this board,*
Not only did Lowell Mason teach in this sohool free of charge, but
he furnished the necessary music books and materials at his own expense.
The piano used in the Hawes school experiment was contributed by Jonas
1,
City of Boston School Conmittee, Report of the Conmittee on Music.
August 34, 1637, pp. 30,
3.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, pp, 16.
3,
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1639, pp. 11.
4,
Ibid,
5,
E, B, Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States,
pp, 49-50.
6,
W i U S, Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, pp, 163,
176
Chickering,^ the piano manufacturer.
©
Uaaon
beganteaching in November or December, 1837,
of witnesses his work was immediately successful.
andfrom
In reply to
accounts
the mayor's
request for information, the principals of the school, May 25, 1838, wrote
that in spite of the short time which had elapsed since the first lesson,
enough had already been accomplished to warrant a belief "in the great
utility of
vocalmusic as a branch of public instruction."
One thing has been made evident, that the musi­
cal ear is more common than has been generally
supposed. There are but few in the school who
make palpable discords when all are singing.
Many who at the outset of the experiment be­
lieved they had neither ear nor voice, now sing
with confidence and considerable accuracy; and
others who could hardly tell one sound from an­
other, now sing the scale with ease;--suffieiently proving that the musical susceptibility is in
a good degree improvable. The alacrity with which
it is reoelved, are among its great recommenda­
tions...3
In regard to the teaching itself, they were "equally delighted with the
beautiful simplicity of the system upon which Mr. Mason instructs, and
with his own personal skill in teaching."4
1.
Christine M. Ayars, Contributions to the Art of Misic in America by
the Music Industries of Boston, pp. 120. Frances M. Dickey, in The
Early History of Public Sohool Music in the United States, Music
Teachers National Association, Papers and Proceedings, 1913, pp. 194,
states that Mr. I. Harrington, headmaster of the Hawes school, "took
such interest in the success of the scheme that he bought a piano for
the school."
2.
Boston Academy of Misic, Sixth Annual Report, dated May, 1838, says:
"Mr. Mason has given instruction in the school for the term of six
months." The testimonial letter accompanying the report is dated
May 25, 1838. However, the American Supplement of Grove's Diction­
ary of Music and Mislclans, pp. 334, says that Mason, "in October,
1837, began his work in the Hawes School in South Boston."
3.
Boston Academy of Music, Sixth Annual Report. 1838, pp. 9.
4.
Ibid.
177
On August 7, 1838, the subcommittee of the school board, under
whose supervision the experiment was being conducted, reported to the
Board that
The committee on the introduction of music re­
spectfully report, that they visited the Hawes
school at South Boston on the sixth day of Au­
gust inst, and heard the musical exercises of
the scholars with great satisfaction. The suc­
cess of the experiment thus far has more than
filled the sanguine expectations which at first
were entertained in regard to it.^A public exhibition of the season’s work at the Hawes School was
held at the South Baptist Church, on the forenoon of August 14, 1838,
and drew a large audience, made up not only of the parents and the
g
scholars, but of men and women interested in the new study*
"The ex­
hibition was a triumphant demonstration of the suitability of music as
2
a study for children."
Boston School Board Actions of August 28, 1838.
"The Sohool Conmittee were apparently not dissatisfied with the re­
sult of the exhibition of the Hawes Sohool," and on August 28, 1338 au­
thorized the introduction of nuBlo as a branch of popular education, into
4
the schools of the city,
under these resolutions:
Besolved, That the Conmittee on Music be instructed to contract with a
teacher of vocal music in the several public sohools of the city.
Resolved, That the instruction in vocal music shall commence in the sev­
eral public schools whenever the subcommittees of the several schools
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, pp. 12.
2.
A. V. Braylejr , The Inception of Public School Music in America,
The Musician. X (November, 1905), pp. 485.
3.
S. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States.
pp. 54.
4.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report, 1839, pp. 12-13.
178
respectively aha11 determine, and shall be oarried into effect under
the following regulations
1* Wot more than two hours in the week shall be devoted to
this exercise.
2. The instruction shall be given at stated and fixed times
throughout the city, and until otherwise ordered.
3. During the time the school is under the instruction of the
teacher of vocal muBic, the discipline of the school shall
continue under the charge of the master or masters of the
sohool, who shall be present while the instruction is given,
and shall organize the scholars for that purpose, in such
arrangements as the teacher in musie may desire.^
The Academy of Music reported that "the charge of giving instruction
••••has been oonmitted to Mr. Mason" and that it regarded
the vote of the school ccmaittee of Boston,
passed August 28, 1838,.• «as the magna char­
ts of Esusical education...•We look upon the
measure not as a temporary expedient but a
permanent arrangement*s
Lowell Mason. Superlntendent of Music in the Boston Schools.
Mason took upon himself the teaching of as many schools as were con­
venient.
His assistants for the city proper were A. N« Johnson and George
7. Root, for the South End School, Alfred J. Drake, and for the Maverick
school at East Boston, James A« Johnson.3
Mason, of course, had received no salary for teaching at the Hawes
sohool in 1837-1838.
After the formal authorization of Music instruction
in 1838, his compensation was "#130 a year for each school."
He also
provided the pianos, "for which the board paid...«a rental of #30 a year.
They were to be kept in tune by the teacher."
The supervisor employed as
many assistants as were needed and "paid them #80 per annum for each
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, pp. 12-13.
2.
Ibid., pp. 13.
3.
Trances M. Dickey, The Early History of Public School Music in the
United States, Music Teachers National Association, Papers and Pro­
ceedings. 1913, pp. 196.
179
aohool."1
During the late 1840's, Messrs. Baker and Mason were requested to in­
struct the publio sohool teaohers in singing and methods, an hour eaeh week,
or a two hour one every two weeks, for which they received $3.00 a lesson*2
"Two half hours a week for the two upper classes in each school" was
the time allotment for music instruction during Mason's years as superintendent of music*
Not all of the children received musical training.
Horace
Mann wrote in 1841 that
Vooal music is taught now, under the direction
of Mr* Lowell Mason, in all the grammar schools
of the city. Two lessons, of half-hour each,
are given in each school, evexy week. And about three thousand pupils, that is, about one
half the whole number are instructed.•**
The instruction was limited to the upper grades of the gramnar, or inter­
mediate schools; not until 1864 was special musical instruction provided
for the primary grades,
5
1868 for the lower grammar grades
the high schools, and 1872 the remaining high schools*
7
6
and some of
It is believed
that vocal music, mostly of a devotional character, was used to a certain
1.
H. S. Perkins, Reminiscences of Early Days in School Music, School
Music, IX, 40 (May, 1908), pp. 7. The Semi-Annual Report of the
Standing Committee on Music of the Public Schools of Boston, 1861,
pp* 11 gives the fees in effect that year: "A compensation of one
hundred and twenty-five dollars per annum, for each grammar school
is allowed...*Each teacher is required, at his own expense, to fur­
nish and keep in tune a piano in every school under his charge."
2.
Ibid., pp. 0.
3.
Boston Acadeny of Music, Tenth Annual Report, 1842, pp. 6.
4.
Horace Mann, Singing in Common Schools, The Common School Journal,
III, 12 (June 15, 1841), pp. 190.
5.
City of Boston, Report of the Committee on Music. September 10, 1868,pp*5.
6.
Ibid., pp* 9.
7.
E. B. Blrge, History of Public School Music in the United StateB, pp* 56.
180
extent in many of these schools before definite provision was made for
systematic instruction in it.
The classroom procedure followed those developed earlier in the classes
of the Academy of Music, but somewhat modified to fit the public school
situation.
In 1842, the Committee on Music of the School Committee reported
that they had visited "the Mayhew, Wells, Eliot, Bowdoln, Hancock, Franklin
and Adams" schools and that the system of teaching was
eminently an inductive method, exercising ac­
tively the reasoning powers of the mind....In
some of the schools the scholars exhibited a
very remarkable degree of knowledge of the
principles of music. Examinations were made
by Mr. Mason on the questions contained in
some of the tables of a book prepared by him,
and used in the schools, jThe Boston School
Song Book}, especially those in relating to
the nature of the scale, and the transposi­
tion of it into all the major keys. Many of
the scholars seemed to understand perfectly
the rules applicable, particularly those in
the upper classes.
Sight-singing from the blackboard, interval drills, and similar devices
were used to produce the "almost invariably good, and in some of the
schools....very beautiful" exercises in singing, which the committee reported.
2
Mason continued as superintendent of music
for seven years, until his removal from his
office in 1845 by the music committee with­
out warning and without recourse.
••••••••••
He was the victim of an unscientific system
of administration in the Boston schools....
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Eleventh Annual Report, 1843, pp. 9-10.
2.
Ibid.
3.
Samuel L. Hueckiger, Why Iowell Mason Left the Boston Schools,
Music Educators Journal. XXII (February, 1936), pp. 20.
181
and of jealous opponents who wished to take over his work.^
Although
no longer superintendent of music, Mason continued to teach in one of the
g
city schools, the Winthrop school, until 1851.
Importance of the Early Misic Teaching in
the Boston Schools.
The significance of the Boston School Committee action of August 28,
1838 and of Mason's appointment as music teacher for the schools of that
city, lay in that through them, for the first time, music was included in
the grammar school curriculum upon a basis comparable to that of other
1.
Samuel L. Flueckiger, Why Iowell Mason left the Boston Schools, Music
Educators Journal, XXII (February, 1936), pp. 23, Grove's Dictionary
of Music and touslcians, American Supplement, pp. 286, says, "He remained
in full charge till 1841", and pp. 334, "In 1841, Mason resigned to de­
vote himself to conventions." S. N. C. Barnes, in Should Iowell Mason
Come to Town, pp. 7, Frances M. Dickey, in The Early History of Public
School~T<iusic in the United States, Music Teachers National Association
Papers and Proceedings, 1913, pp. 196, Abbie Hobson, in Lowell Mason.
Educator, pp. 33, and E. B. Birge, in History of Public School Music in
the United States, pp. 54, all give 1841 as the year in which Mason re­
signed or was dropped from the Boston City Schools. W. S. B. Mathews,
in John S. Dwight, Editor, Critic and Man, Music, XV (March, 1889), pp,
530, gives 1850 as the date of Mason's dismissal; as does E. B. Birge in
the 1937 edition of History of Public School Music in the United States,
pp. 55. Henry C. Iahee, in A Century of Choral Singing in New England,
New England Magazine, XXVI (March, 1902), pp. 109, says: "Mason was superceded in 1853 by a former pupil, causing him some mortification." ELueckiger's date of Mason's dismissal from the office of superintendent of
music, 1845, is undoubtedly correct, for he supports it with newspaper
accounts published at that time. Incidentally, stronger support than
that employed by Flueckiger is given in the Records of the School Com­
mittee. Boston. 1842-1845, which in the records for 1845 list the schools
remaining under Mason's jurisdiction and those placed under the control
of Benjamin F. Baker at that time. By his choice of title, "Why Lowell
Mason Left the Boston Schools" and by the content of his article, Flue­
ckiger indicates that Mason completely severed his connection with the
Boston school system in 1845; this is not so, however, for Mason is list­
ed in the Records of the School Conmittee. Boston. 1845-1852, as being
music teacher in the Winthrop school, Boston, through 1851. It was in
that year that Mason retired from the Winthrop school. For the years
between 1845 and 1851 Benjamin Baker is listed as head of the music in­
struction in the other schools of the city in which such instruction was
given.
2.
City of Boston, Records of the School Committee. 1842-1852.
182
sohool subjects such as granmar, arithmetic and reading*1
The fact that
this was done by public authority was an important precedent and many of
the later introductions were based upon it*
Prior to the authorization
of music teaching in Boston, the subject had not been forbidden by school
authorities, and instances are not unknown in which music was taught un­
officially, on a limited scale, upon the initiative of an individual teach­
er or principal*^
Undoubtedly Boston was the first city to establish music on a firm
basis in its school program*
Agitation for musical instruction in the
schools of several other cities was successful in some instances and in
othersunsuccessful*
Boston was, however, the first city to establish
music in its schools on a permanent basis, and the most important city to
do so for at least a decade after 1840*
As Lowell Mason himself noted in 1851, thirteen years after music
teaching had been inaugurated in the Boston schools,
The result already is, that a multitude of young
persons have been raised up who*.**are much better
able to appreciate and perform music than were their
fathers; and experience proves that large classes of
young persons, capable of reading music with much
accuracy, may be easily gathered in almost any part
of New England, or indeed of the United States*
He also noted that during that short period, leadership had been
1*
£* N* C. Barnes, Should Lowell Mason Come to Town, p* 7*
2*
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p* 16,
3*
E* B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the UnitedStates,
4*
5*
p. 54*
Frances M* Dickey, The Early History of Public School Music in the
United States, Mhsie Teachers National Association Papers and Pro­
ceedings, 1913, p. 186*
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 16*
183
created to carry the movement forward in the next generation.
Choral
conductors, church musicians and organists who had received their first
instruction in music in the schools during Mason's regime were in 1851
"devoting themselves to the profession of music"*'*'
When music was first Introduced into the schools,
there was but one who could be found who would
attempt to teach****but now there are many young
men**..prepared and willing to teach.2
Mason's function in the Achievement*
Lowell Mason had reason to "humbly claim to be*.•.the father of singlng among the children in this country"*
3
He was "the first supervisor of
4
public sohool music in the world"*
The firm leadership and successful demonstration that music instructlon for school children was possible and desirable,
5
his "indomitable
fl
energy and perseverance to overcome the prejudices of the day",
and other
"strenuous efforts"7 were responsible for the authorization of music teach­
ing in the Boston granmar schools*
0
The "distinot and well-defined goal"
with which Mason came into the
1*
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p, 16.
2.
Ibid., p. 17.
3*
Ibid., p* 14.
4*
Karl W. Gehrkens, Public School Misic, The International Cyclopedia
of Music and Musicians, p. 1458. However, cf. p. 11.
5.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School
6.
T. F* Seward, TheEducational Work
7.
William Mason, Memories of a Musical life, p. 7.
8.
M. F. X. Baldwin, Lowell Mason's Philosophy of Music Education, p. 2.
Music intheUnited States, p. 37.
of Dr.IowellMason, p. 11.
184
field of education, together with his "genius for teaching" and "special
faculty with children"^ made it inevitable that Mason systematize the
instruction of music in the schools*
2
lowell Mason
did a vast amount of preparatory work, by be­
ginning a graded classification of musical
topics, and clearer statements of definitions
and principles than before his time had ever
been known in educational music*
In this re­
spect he was far in advance of rauBical educa­
tors in other oountriesi^&nd his work in many
respects still survives.
reason never tired of acknowledging the assistance given him by other
men, but he had a tendency to over-value and to magnify the importance of
such assistance*
It is for this reason that until recent times, Mason’s
all-important contributions to the movement have tended to be underestimated,
and the assistance which he did receive from Samuel A, Eliot, William C.
Woodbridge, George A. Webb and other associates to be stressed greatly be^
yond its true importance*
4
Eliot's most valuable contribution came as a result of his political
position in Boston.
Regarding this, Mason wrote:
it is not surprising that in 1838, Mr. Eliot,
being Mayor of the city and chairman of the
school committee, music was introduced as one
of regular studies into the grammar schools of
Boston*
1.
T* F* Seward, The Educational Work of Or* lowell Mason* p* 11.
2.
Frank Damrosch, Music in the Public Schools, -American History and Ency­
clopedia of Music, I, p. 26*
3*
W. S. B» Mathews, Luther W. Mason and School Music, Music, II,
ember, 1892), p. 475.
4.
T. F. Seward, The Educational fork of Dr* lowell Mason, p. 14; Abbie
Hobson, lowell Mason, Educator, p. 25.
5*
lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 16*
(Sept­
185
Woodbridge's Importance lay in his bringing to Mason the ideas of Pestalozzi, and in hie support of the movement by a steady stream of propa­
ganda, both in the American Annals of Education, of which he was editor
for a number of years, and in other publications.
His knowledge of music
was scanty:
Mr. Woodbridge, although he hed never learned
music himself, was the warm friend of singing
among children.
However, because of his enthusiastic descriptions of the music teaching
he had seen at Fellenberg's institution at Eofwyl, and because of his
lending and translating the musical treatises which he had brought from
abroad, he convinced Mason of the value of Pestalozzi's ideas, especially
as they had been applied to the teaching of music to classes of children
2
by Pfeiffer and Nageli,
Unfortunately, the biographical sketch of Woodbridge by 7/illiam A*
4
Alcott^ was taken at face value by Henry Barnard,* by Will S. Monroe,
and by many other writers using these works as sources.
Typical of Al-
cott's exaggeration of Woodbridge's importance is his statement that
Woodbridge
....drew from behind the counter of a country
store, and introduced into the higher sphere
1,
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 14,
2,
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, fifth edition, p, iv;
second edition, p. 15; Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 14; Boston
Acadeny of Music, First Annual Report, 1833, p. 6.
3,
Williem A, Alcott, William Channing Woodbridge, The American Journal of
Education, V (1858), pp, 51-64,
*
as editor of The American Journal of Education
4,
History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United States, p. 143,
186
in which he has done so greet and useful a
work, the celebrated Lowell Mason; a service
which alone would have made him a public bene­
factor. ...
So obvious is the variance of this statement from the known facts of
both Woodbridge*s and Mason's lives, that it is difficult to understand
its having been generally accepted.
Mason went to Sevannah in 1812,
the year after Woodbridge graduated from Yale at the age of seventeen;
when Mason moved to Boston in 1826, Woodbridge was in Europe and did not
return to America until the autumn of 1829.
2
Woodbridge appears to have
become interested in educational matters during his second visit to
Europe, for Alcott mentions that he spent three months with Fellenberg in
1825 and that he was with him again from July 1828 to May 1829; but he
does not mention similar events oecuring in the 1820 travels.
Mason lived
in Savannah until 1826; published his Boston Handel and Haydn
Society
Collection in 1822, and by 1826 was sufficiently well known to be called
to Boston to take charge of the music in three large churches.
In connec­
tion with this work, Mason had been teaching children's singing classes
for several years before Woodbridge gave his Address on Tocal Music in
1830.
Furthermore, Mason had publicly announced in 1826 that
It is a mistake....to suppose that singing
cannot be taught in childhood.
In this re­
spect it is analogous to the art of read­
ing.3
A very small proportion of their time for
1.
K. A. Alcott, William Charming Woodbridge, The American Journal of
Education, V (1858) p. 63.
2*
W. A. alcott, William Clianning Woodbridge, The American Journal of
Education. V (1858) p. 63.
3.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1826, p. 29.
187
two or three years, at the age of from ten
to fifteen, would be sufficient, and the
practice of music might be pursued in such
a manner as to afford relief from other
studies....-*In view of these facts, it would seem that Mason had already begun his
work several years before meeting Woodbridge and that Woodbridge merely
transmitted to Mason the ideas of Pestalozzi.
The relative importance of George J. Webb and Mason's other as­
sociates in the Boston Academy of Music has already been treated in
connection with it.
Music in the Boston
Schools after Mason's Retirement.
Appointment of Standing Committee on Music
After Mason's dismissal as superintendent of music in the schools of
Boston, with most of his work being taken over by his former "assistants
2
and opponents,”
nothing further seems to have been done in the matter
until February. 1857, when the school committee appointed a special commit­
tee to consider anew the subject of music in the public schools, and
report what action, if any, would be expedient.
In September of the same year this committee presented a report which
led the school conmittee to order that "two half-hours each week in the
Grammar Schools and such time in the Primary Schools as shall be suffi­
cient shall be devoted" to the study of music, "that the pupils shall re­
ceive the 3ame credits for proficiency and undergo the same examinations
1,
Ibid., p. 50.
2,
A. W. Thayer, Lowell Mason, p. 30.
3,
J. Baxter Upham, Vocal Misic as a Branch of Education in Our Conanon
Schools, American Institute of Instruction, Papers and Proceedings.
1873, p. 166.
188
in this as in other studies pursued in the schools," "that singing con­
stitute a part of the opening and closing exercises in each session of
the Primary Schools....," end that it should be the "duty of the music
teacher....at the Girls’ High and Normal School to give instruction to
the pupils of that institution as may qualify them to teach vocal music
in our Public Schools."^-
The board also ordered a survey of the musical
conditions in the schools, and "during the latter part of the school year
which ended January 1858" appointed "a standing committee on music."
2
Work of the Standing Committee on Music
Under the more extended supervision of the standing committee on
music, considerable progress was made.
It was evident that the requirements of the
rules in regard to musical teaching in the
lower classes of the Grammar School were, for
the most pert, a dead letter.
It was equally
evident that in the Primary Schools the sing­
ing exercises at the opening and closing of
the session were oftimes a meaningless and rou­
tine performance, and that the time devoted to
musical instruction £n that grade of schools
was next to nothing.
The four incumbent teachers "used such text books as they preferred....
4
There was a want of unity and uniformity in the method of teaching...."
To remedy these conditions the committee "in their first report sub­
mitted a program for the regulation of the branch of education under their
5
care."
1.
City of Boston, School Committee, Report of the Committee on Music,
City Document No. 54, 1858, pp. 3-4.
2.
Ibid.
3.
City of Boston, School Committee, Report of the Committee on Music,
September 10, 1868, pp. 4-5.
4.
Ibid, p. 4.
189
" T h e first change was t h e a p p o i n t m e n t
of a s e p a r a t e t e a c h e r i n t h e
Girls* F i g h and N o r m a l School,
a n d the requirement,
on his part,
in ad­
d i t i o n to his ordinary duties,
to g i v e s u c h inst r u c t i o n t o the p u pils o f
t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n as s h o u l d qua l i f y t h e m in t h e i r t u r n to b e c o m e t e a c h e r s
of v o c a l m u s i c "
in t h e B o s t o n s c h o o l s . ^
In June 1654 a s p e c i a l instruc-
2
t o r o f m u s i c w a s a p p o i n t e d for the p r i m a r y schools,
and by 1872 a s u per­
v i s o r y s y s t e m i n a ugurated:
T h e g e n e r a l c o n t r o l a n d s u p e r v i s i o n o f the
w h o l e p l a n o f m u s i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n r ests u p o n
one r e s p o n s i b l e h e a d
w h o s e duty is t o ex­
ercise. .. . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r the w h o l e m u s i ­
cal d e p a r t m e n t o f our e d u c a t i o n a l system.
T h e same document r e p o r t s that "a s y s t e m a t i c a n d p r o g r e s s i v e course o f
m u s i c a l instru c t i o n "
is " g i v e n t o a l l t h e p u p i l s o f t h e p u b l i c schools
i n the city of Boston,
except t h e b o y s o f the I a t i n a n d E n g l i s h H i g h
4
Schools,
w h e r e t h e p l a n is not yet f ully i n operation."
The B e g i n n i n g s o f M i s i c T e a c h i n g in O t h e r Cities,
1838-1865.
I n th e cities w h e r e m u s i c w a s a d d e d to the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m in the
de c e d e a f t e r 1838,
t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t eps w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h ose w h i c h h a d
5
b e e n m a d e in Boston#
M i s i c in the schools was experimental,
for there
w a s only one A m e r i c a n p r e c e d e n t . ®
1.
Ibid, p. 4.
2.
Ibid, p. 5.
3.
City o f Boston, S c h o o l Committee,
D e c e m b e r 12, 1872, p. 4.
4.
Ibid,
5.
Abbie
6.
E# B. Birge, H i s t o r y
R eport o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on Misic,
p. 5.
Hobson, l o w e l l
Mason, Educator,
ofPublic
p. 32.
S c h o o l M i s i c in the U n i t e d States,
p. 57.
190
T h e r e had,
however,
always b e e n a c e r t a i n amount o f s i n g i n g in t h e
schools before this period, as for example, in Cincinnati:
....music has b e e n t a u g h t a n d p r a c t i c e d in
s e v e r a l o f the s c h o o l s — not by a n y r e q u i s i ­
t i o n o f the B o a r d o f Trustees, but as a m e a n s
o f r a t i o n a l amusement.
A n d a g a i n in 1843;
....music, a s heretofore, has b e e n a v o l u n t a r y ^
study, p u r s u e d c h i e f l y out of s c h o o l h o u r s . . . . ^
I n N e w York,
1827-1828,
the l a d i e s o f t h e Infant
School Society
h a d o r g a n i z e d a s c h o o l o f about 170 p u p i l s in
C a n a l S treet and u p o n t h e P e s t a l o z z i a n s y s t e m
as th e y u n d e r s t o o d it.
T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of
singing, esp e c i a l l y o f lively, pleasant, and
a p p r o p r i a t e songs f o r l i t t l e children....
a r o u s e d t h e war m e s t s y m pathies.
Not
i n f r e q u e n t l y m u s i c i a n s t a ught
a y e a r or m o r e
in t h e sc h o o l s w i t h o u t
c harge for
i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e the v a l u e o f an o r g a n i z e d m u sic
p r o g r a m to the p a t r o n s end trustees.
L owell M a s o n h i m s e l f t a u g h t gra-
4
t u i t o u s l y in 1837-1838;
in Bangor,
Maine,
1842-1843,
in t h e Hi g h S c h o o l for y o u n g ladies, the p u pils
at t h e i r expense, h a v e p r o v i d e d a piano, and
Mr,
has v o l u n t e e r e d h i s s e r v i c e s to give
i n s t r u c t i o n in v o c a l a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c . . . . ®
T h e C i n c in n a t i City C o u n c i l r e p o r t e d in 184 4 that
d u r i n g the past y e a r Mr. W, F. Coburn, a n e f ­
ficient instructor i n music, has g i ven g r a t u ­
itous lessons t o a l a r g e n u m b e r of the p upils
1.
City C o u n c i l of Cincinnati,
V i s i t o r s o f C o m m o n Schools,
N i n t h A n n u a l R eport of t h e T r u s t e e s a n d
1838, p. 4.
2.
City C o u n c i l o f Cincinnati, F o u r t e e n t h A n n u a l R e port of t h e T r u s t e e s
and V i s i t o r s o f C o m m o n Schools, 1843, p. 6,
3.
T h o m a s Boese,
4.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y o f Music,
5.
B o s t o n M u s i c a l Visitor,
P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n the Ci t y o f N e w York,
S e v e n t h A n n u a l Report,
III,
5
(December 13,
1839,
p. 5 1
p. 11.
1842), p. 73.
191
i n m o a t o f t h e p u b l i c schools.
T h e result heB
been, in every respect, s a t i s f a c t o r y . ...1
M a n y s i m i l a r examp l e s m i g h t be cited.
A p a u c i t y o f r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n e xists in r e g a r d t o the exact
n u m b e r o f c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h a d d e d m u sic t o the c u r r i c u l u m of t h e i r
schools d u r i n g thi s period.
In 18 4 4 H o r a c e M a n n e s t i m a t e d that
t h e r e a r e n o w about five h u n d r e d s c h o o l s in the
s t a t e (Massachusetts) w h ere v o c a l m u s i c is n o w
practiced.
H a l f a dozen years ago the number
w a s p r o b u b l y less t h a n one hundred.**
Bi r g e ° m e n t i o n s "th e t o t a l n umber"
of c i t i e s a n d towns i n t r o d u c i n g m u s i c
into t h e i r schools by "the close o f the C i v i l W a r b o i n g about
150."
The
apparent d i s c r e p a n c y is probably' due t o B i r g e ’s r e c o g n i z i n g on l y those
introduct i o n s w h i c h h a d a c h i o v e d some d e g r e e o f permanency.
B e c a u s e o f the s c a r c i t y a n d u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f m u c h o f the a v a i l a b l e
information,
it is f u tile t o a ttempt to a r r a n g e in o r d e r o f p r e c e d e n c e
the cities b e g i n n i n g m u s i c
i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e i r schools d u r i n g thi s
period.
i n t r o d uctions l a s t e d for but b r i e f periods,
Man y
o f the first
a n d in m a n y coses m u s i c w a s not p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d u ntil m a n y y e ars
a f t e r the i n i t i a l e x p eriments.
be a n e x h a u s t i v e one,
T h e list g i v e n h e r e is not
i n t e n d e d to
it is m e r e l y a t a b u l a t i o n o f such int r o d u c t i o n s as
h a v e b 9 e n a uthenticated,
and is g i v e n m e r e l y as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the
s p r e a d of t h e m o v e m e n t .
W h ere m o r e t h a n one d a t e is given,
the first
r e p r e s e n t s a t e m p o r a r y b e g i n n i n g w h i c h is k n o w n t o ha v e t a k e n place;
1.
2.
City C o u n c i l o f Cincinnati, F i f t e e n t h A n n u a l
a n d V i s i t o r s o f C o m m o n Schools. 1844, p. 10.
H o r a c e Mann, Annus 1 R e p o r t o f the S e c r e t a r y of the
of Massachusetts,
3.
Report o f the T r u s t e e s
Board of Education
1844, p. 445.
E. B. Birge, P u b l i c S o h o o l Music,
XXIV, 4 , (February 1938) p. 13.
1838-1938,
Music
Educators Journal
192
the second,
or last dat e is t h e o n e at w h i c h m u s i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n w a s
m o r e defin i t e l y established.
Boston, Mass.,
Buffalo,
1 8 3 7 ; 1 1 8 38.2
N. Y.,
1837; ^
1843.4
5
Portland,
Chicago,
frhine,
111.,
1S39,
temporary.
1 8 4 0 , 5 1 8 4 5 , 6 1 8 4 7 , 7 1 8 48.8
9
Pittsburgh,
Bangor,
Pa.,
Maine,
Chelmsford,
1840.
1842.
Mass.,
10
1842.^
12
N e w Orleans,
la.,
1844.
1.
CF. pa g e 175
2.
CF. pa ges 1 77-178
3.
S. 3. Birge, H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c
edition, p. 85.
4.
B o s t o n M u s i c a l V i s i t o r . III. ( N o v ember 22,
5.
B o s t o n A c a d e m y o f Music, S e v e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t 1839, p. 13; H o r a c e
Mann, S i n g i n g in C o m m o n Schools, T h e C o m m o n S c h o o l J o u r n a l ,III, 13
(July 1, 1841), pp. 205-206.
5.
E. L. Baker,
Music. XIII,
in the U n i t e d States,
1843),
p.
199.
A T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y V i e w o f P u b l i c S c h o o l Music,
63 (January 1913), P. 15.
O u r A m e r i c a n Music,
1937
School
7.
Jo h n T a s k e r Howard,
pp. 231-282.
T h r e e H u n d r e d Y e a r s o f It.
8.
France s M. Dickey, H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c i n the U n i t e d States,
M u s i c T e a c h e r s N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n P a p e r s and Proceedings, 1913, p. 197.
9.
N a t h a n i e l Gould, C h u r c h M i s i c in America, p. 142; D a n i e l G r e g o r y Mason,
Music E d u c a t i o n in .America, T h e A r t of Music. IV, p. 241.
10.
B o s t o n M u s i c a l Visitor.
Ill
(December 13,
11.
B o s t o n M u s i c a l Visi t o r ,
III
(October 6,
12.
H o r e c e Mann, Annual R e p o r t of the S e c r e t a r y o f the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n
of Mas s a c h u s e t t s . 1844, p. 454.
1842), p. 73.
1842),
p. 44.
193
Louisville,
Kentucky,
Cincinnati,
1845.2
Cleveland,
Ohio,
1846,3 1864,3 1869.3
Providence,
R,
California,
1851.5
St.
1 8 4 4 , ^ 1846,'*' 1852.^"
I.,
1848,4
Louis, ie52.5
Rot a l l o f the early m u sic t e a c h i n g was confined to cities e n d large
towns.
In O h i o
t o some extent
in t h e y e a r e n d i n g A ugust 31,
1859,
v o c a l m u s i c w a s taught
in at least f i f t y-one o f the e i g h t y - e i g h t counties; a
t o t a l o f 4 3 , 7 7 9 students wer e t a u g h t m u s i c in t h e stste,
ship,
and 116 , 7 1 4 g e o g raphy.
281,866 penman-
I f p r a c t i c a l l y e l l o f t h e students
w e r e taught p e n m a n s h i p in that year,
it w o u l d a p p e a r that
ore student
out of s e v e n in that state i n 1 8 5 8 - 1 8 5 9 w a s g i v e n some f ormal m u s i c a l
instruction.
music,
I n Cin c i n n a t i
in 1847,
4305 in a r i t h m e t i c a n d 40 8 7
398 p u p i l s we r e i n s t r u c t e d in v o c a l
in spelling;
or about one in e l e v e n had
1.
Carol i n e B. Bourgard, E a rly M u s i c in the L o u i s v i l l e P u b l i c Schools,
S c h o o l Music, XV, 72 (November 1914), pp. 32-34.
2.
City C o u n c i l o f Cincinnati, S i x t e e n t h A n n u a l R eport o f t h e T r u s t e e s
and V i s i t o r s of C o m m o n Schools. 1845, p. 7.
3.
R a l p h L. Baldwin, T h e E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d
States f r o m t h e C i v i l W a r to 1900, M u s i c T e a c h e r s N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n
Paper s and P r oceedings. 1922, p. 174.
4.
E l w o o d P.
5.
E a r l L. Baker, A T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Vi e w o f P u b l i c S c h o o l Music,
Sc h o o l Music, XIII, 65 (January 1913), p. 15, s t a t e s that " i n 185 1
m u s i c was i n c l u d e d in the r e q u i r e d studies for the h i g h s chools in
Calif o r n i a . "
6.
St. Louis P u b l i c Schools, First A n n u a l Report o f t h e General S u p e r i n ­
tendent for the Y e a r E n d i n g Jul y 1, 1854, p. 14.
7.
O h i o S t ate C o m m i s s i o n e r o f C o m m o n Schools,
pp. 33-26.
Cubberly,
P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n in the U n i t e d States,
p. 227.
F i f t h A n n u e l Report,
1859,
194
music.^
Th i s p e r h e p s g i ves a n in d i c a t i o n o f t h e rate of g r o w t h of
the m o v e m e n t
in that t w e l v e - y e a r period.
G e n e r a l S cope of the First r.Iusic T e a c h i n g
Almo s t
community,
i n v a r i a b l y w h e n m u s i c t e a c h i n g b e g a n in the schools o f a
it was,
as in N e w York,
on c o n d i t i o n that
t h e les s o n s in m u s i c should not i n t e r f e r e g
w i t h t h e r e g u l a r c o u r s e of s chool studies.
I n 1858,
a f t e r a large a m ount of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s
t h r oughou t the country,
t h e B o s t o n C o m m i t t e e o n M u s i c r e p o r t e d that
one s t r i k i n g fact appears to be p r o m i n e n t :
w h e r e v e r m u s i c as a b r a n c h of c o m m o n s c h o o l
e d u c a t i o n has b e e n f airly tried, p o p u l a r sen­
t i m e n t . . . . i s enti r e l y in f a vor o f it.^
T h e same report s t a t e s that i n t h e p l a c e s w h e r e its i n t r o d u c t i o n w a s not
successful,
the f a i l u r e was larg e l y d u e to "want o f s y m p a t h y in the s c h o o l
4
c o m m i t t e e and t e a c h e r s . "
As
in Boston, m u s i c was first t a ught in the u p p e r g r a m m a r grades.
E v e n in 1858,
i n t h e schools o f St. Louis,
the i n t e r m e d i a t e and p r i m a r y schools r e c b i v e
no s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m the m u s i c teacher,
but a l l s chools p r a c t i c e si n g i n g d aily u n d e r
the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t e a c hers.
1.
City Cou n c i l o f Cincinnati, E i g h t e e n t h A n n u a l R eport o f t h e T r u s t e e s
and V i s i t o r s o f C o m m o n Schools. 1R47, p. 7.
2.
W i l l i a m 0. Bourne,
3.
City o f B o s t o n S c h o o l Committee,
City D o c u m e n t N o . 34, 1858.
4.
Ibid.
5.
St. Louis P u b l i c Schools, F i f t h A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the G e n e r a l S u p e r i n ­
tendent, for the Y e a r E n d i n g July 1. 1858, p. 48.
H i s t o r y o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l Society in N e w York,
Report o f t h e Committee on Muaic,
p. 167.
j.yo
A t this time in St.
Louis,
one l e s s o n a w e e k was g i v e n " i n the H i g h
and No r m a l Schools,
and in each d e p a r t m e n t o f the G r a m m a r schools.""*"
It was c u s t o m a r y t o e mploy a s p e c i a l t e a c h e r for m u s i c in these
communities,
a n d not u n t i l a f t e r 1 8 6 0 w e r e the g r a d e t e n c h e r s e x p e c t e d
t o t e a c h music.
. ...The G i r l s ’ H i g h S c h o o l and N o r m a l S c h o o l
is the p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e f r o m w h e n c e t h e t e a ­
chers t o supply the v a c a n c i e s w h i c h f r o m time
to t i m e o c cur in the G r a m m a r a n d P r i m a r y S c h o o l s
s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d . . . .The pupils o f thi s in­
s t i t u t i o n s hould not only be instructed in the
sc i e n c e o f music, but they s h o u l d be thoroughly
t r a i n e d in the art o f t e a c h i n g it.^
Group singing,
e i t h e r by rote or by note-reading,
and some e l e m e n ­
t a r y m u s i c a l t h e o r y c o n s t i t u t e d t h e sole o f f e r i n g for m o r e t h a n h a l f a
century'.
It vns v o c a l m u s i c only a n d t h e r e was no thought
o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o play, listen, and c r e a t e
as w e l l as to s i n g . 3
4
The methods
of i n s t r u c t i o n w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m the s i n g i n g - s c h o o l methods,
a n d if they d i d not
in every case f o l l o w e xactly .the p r o c e d u r e s d e v e l o p e d
by M a s o n th e y w e r e s i m i l a r to them.
In Chicago,
1858,
T h e s y s t e m a d o p t e d b y t h e t e a c h e r o f m u s i c is
substantially' t h e sa m e es th a t o f L o w e l l Mason,
w h i c h h as b e e n r e c e i v e d w i t h g e n e r a l f a vor in
the schools o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s and o t her E a s t e r n
states.
1.
Ibid.
2.
City of Boston, S c h o o l Committee, S e m i - A n n u a l Report o f t h e S t a n d i n g C o m ­
m i t t e e on M u s i c of the P o b l i c S c h o o l n of Boston, S e p t e m b e r 10, 1861,
p.
3.
14.
K a r l W. Gehrkens,
P u b l i c S c h o o l Music,
M u s i c and Musicians,
4.
p.
T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cy c l o p e d i a of
1458.
S. 3. Birge, P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c 1838-1938,
XXXV, 4 (February, 1938), p. 13.
Tuisic E d u c a t o r s Journal.
196
T h e first lessons, e s p e c i a l l y in t h e Pr i m a r y
schools, co n s i s t chi e f l y o f p r a c t i c i n g songs
end hymns by rote, but the pupils e r e early
i n t r o d u c e d to scale exercises, first by rote
e n d a f t e r w a r d b y d i c t a t i o n . . ..As e a r l y as
practicable, t h e classes are a d v a n c e d fr o m
the w r i t t e n forms of tunes p r e v i o u s l y learned
by rote, to t h e r e a d i n g of t h ose w h i c h are en­
t i r e l y new.
The t e r m i n o l o g y u s e d b y M u s o n in his didactic w r i t i n g s a p p e a r s p e r s i s t e n t l y
in reports su c h as t h e above,
e.g. "the P e stalozzian,
"the t e a c h i n g o f sounds b e f o r e signs",
or i n d u c t i v e method",
"th e t e a c h i n g o f one t h i n g at a time"
end "the g i v i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f theory a f t e r p r a c t i c e and as' an i n d u ction
f r o m it."2
Singing-8cliool books and h y m n b o o k s were somet i m e s u s e d for the
3
children's s i n g i n g classes
in schools,
but w e r e "f o r c e d out of t h e picture"
4
by such c o l l e c t i o n s as M a s o n ' s N o r m a l Singer,
and The Boston School Song
B o o k , S and o t h e r works p a t t e r n e d after them.
Mason's
I m p o rtance i n the First D e c a d e s
of Music Teaching
L o w e l l M a s o n exe r t e d a tremendous i n f l uence u p o n p u b l i c sfihool m u sic
as the m o v e m e n t
s pread b e y o n d Boston.
I n at least six d i f f erent w e y s did
he f u r t h e r it.
1.
City o f Chicago, Fifth A n n u a l Report of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of P u blic
Schools, 1859, pp. 46-47.
2.
J. B a x t e r Upham, V o c a l M u s i c as a B r a n c h of E d u c a t i o n in O u r C o m m o n
Schools, A m e r i c e n I n s t i t u t e o f Instruction, Papers and Proceedings,
1873, p. 175.
3.
M a r t h a R. McCabe, E a r l y -American S c h o o l M u s i c Books,
XJdV, 10 (July 1939), p. 291.
4.
City o f Boston, S c h o o l Committee, City D o c u m e n t N o . 34. 1858, p. 13
indicates that this w a s b e ing use d in Chicago, e n d p. 6 that it was
b e i n g u s e d in Providence.
5.
T h e B o s t o n A c a d e m y o f Music, Eleventh. A n n u a l Report,
m e n t i o n s its u s e in t h e p u b l i c schools o f Boston.
S c h o o l Life,
I
1843, p. 10,
197
(1)
His example.
" A f t e r Dr. M a s o n h a d s u c c e e d e d in i n t r o d u c i n g m u sic
into t h e schools o f Boston,
other c ities soo n a d o p t e d the p r a c t i c e . " ^
"The exa m p l e o f B o s t o n was soon
foll o w e d by suc h cities as Cincinnati
2
and New O r l eans...."
(2)
H i s p upils and d i s ciples.
G ould° completes a d e s c r i n t i o n o f the
m u s i c t e a c h i n g in the Cin c i n n a t i p u b l i c schools,
s p e c i f i c a l l y the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f T. 3. Mason,
Locke,
S o l o n Nourse,
a n d Charles A i k e n there,
L i n c o l n and B i n g h a m at Pittsburgh,
in w h i c h he ment i o n s
W i l l i a m Coburn,
Elisha
and t h e w o r k o f Messrs.
with
T h e f o r e g o i n g teachers, m e n t i o n e d as h a v i n g
i n t r o d u c e d a n d c a r r i e d o n t h e w o r k of r e f o r ­
m a t i o n in the West, w e r e all nat i v e s of e ither
M a s s a c h u s e t t s o r New Hamnshire.
He m i g h t ha v e a d d e d that they w e r e a l l p u p i l s o f lowell M a s o n or h a d o t h e r ­
w i s e b e e n cl o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i m long e n o u g h to g rasp his ideas.
Mason,
Lo v e l l M a s o n ' s brother,
T. B.
h a d c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h h i m in w r i t i n g the
4.
S a c r e d H a r p ;~ W i l l i a m C o b u r n was "one o f t h e earliest s i n g e r s in Boston,"
who,
w h e n he a r r i v e d at C i n c i n n a t i via
Louisville,
commi t t e e t h e p r o p r i e t y o f s i n g i n g b e i n g t a u g h t
" s u g g e s t e d to the s c h o o l
in the p u b l i c
schools";
®
Char l e s A i k e n a t t e n d e d at least one of t h e B o s t o n A c a d e m y o f M u s i c T e a c h ­
ers'
Classes,
that of 18,38,
for he is l i s t e d in its P r o c e e d i n g s as a mem -
1.
S. 3. Greene, R e m a r k s U p o n the late Dr. L owell Mason, A m e r i c a n I n s t i ­
tute o f Instruction, Papers a n d Proceedings, 1873, p. 27.
2*
P a u l Monroe,
3.
N a t h a n i e l Gould,
4«
T h e S a c r e d H a r p : o r B e a u t i e s o f C h ur c h M u s i e .. . .by L o w e l l M a s o n a n d .
T i m o t h y B, Mason, t i t l e page.
5,
Nathaniel Go-old, Church Music in America, p. 141.
editor,
A C y c l opedia o f Education,
Church Music
in America,
IV, p. 351.
p. 143.
198
ber."^
Other pupils o f Lowell M ason who were
W i l l i a m Hodgdon,
W h i t i n g Mason,
Cincinnati,
t h e leader o f t h e m o v e m e n t
important p i o n e e r s were
in St.
Louis;2 Luther
w h o a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l l y t e a c h i n g in L o u i s v i l l e e n d in
i n i t i a t e d m u s i c t e a c h i n g i n t h e p r i m a r y s chools o f B o s t o n
and also t o w a r d the end of the c e n t u r y b e c a m e famous for his s eries of
school m u s i c texts;
a n d G e o r g e B. Loomis,
w h o in 1865 was r e c o m m e n d e d
by Mason to the school authorities of Indianapolis.4
machinery
of the
Boston Academy
of Music,
T h r o u g h the
its conv e n t i o n s
and insti­
tutes M a s o n
p r e p a r e d t e a c h e r s w h o quickly s p r e a d into the
v a r i o u s p a rts of N e w England, and w e s t w a r d in­
t o New York, Pennsyl v a n i a , Ohi o and eve n fur­
ther.
T h e s e y o u n g and e n t h u s i a s t i c l e a ders....
we n t o v e r the c o u n t r y . . ..they n r e s c h e d the
c a us e o f p ublic s c h o o l m usic.
The times were
just ripe for t h ese a r d e n t y o u n g d i s c i p l e s of
L o w e l l M a s o n a n d for the c a use t h e y r e o r e s e n
5
(5)
Ilis m e t h o d s a n d p r i n c i p l e s
of teach i n g .
C h i c a g o w a s not the only
city in w h i c h t h e s y s t e m was
su b s t a n t i a l l y the same as that of L o w e l l Mason,
w h i c h has b e e n r e c e i v e d w i t h g e n e r a l f a vor in
t h e schools o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s a n d o t h e r E a s t e r n
states.6
"The P e s t o l o z z i a n p r i n c i p l e s p r o m u l g a t e d by L o w e l l liason.. . .were g e n e rally
1.
A m e r i c a n M u s i c a l Convention, P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e M usical
■ti33enbled in B o s t o n A u g u s t 16, 1836, p. 10.
2.
E. B. Birge,
3.
T h o m a s 3. Lawler,
4.
E. B. Birge,
Convention
H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d States,
S e v e n t y Y e a r s o f T e x t - B o o k P u b lishing, p.
p. 76.
53.
H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d States,
5.
O s b o u r n e McConetby, E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u sic in the U n i t e d
States f r o m L o w e l l M a s o n t o t h e C i v i l War, M u s i c T e a c h e r s N a t i o n a l
A s s o c i a t i o n P a p e r s a n d P r o c e e d i n g s 1922, p. 160.
6.
City o f Chicago, f i f t h A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t
Schools, 1859, pp. 46-47.
p. 95.
of Public
199
in p r a c t i c e . W h e r e v e r they taught, Mason’s pupils carried with them
hi3 methods and principles of teaching.
(4)
His m a n u a l s and song-books.
s a c r e d m u s i c hev e an
Not only d i d M a s o n ’s collections o f
e n o r m o u s circulation,
but his t r ea tises such as The
M a n u a l of the B o s t o n A c a d e m y of M u s i c a n d h i s c o l l e c t i o n s o f m u s i c f o r
p u b l i c schools suc h a s M a s o n ’s N o r m a l Ginger.
T h e B o s t o n S c h o o l S o n g Book,
The S o n g B o o k of the S c h o o l R o o m and T h e S o n g G a r d e n all r a n into s e v e r a l
edi t i o n s and wer e w i d e l y u s e d . *
(5)
His leadership.
degree,
7/hen L owell M a s o n was r e c o m m e n d e d for an h o n o r a r y
D o c t o r of Music,
at New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y in 1855,
as " A m eric a ' s grea t e s t m u s i c a l e d u c a t o r . " 2
s u m e d in the m o v e m e n t
3
he was c i ted
T h e l e a d e r s h i p which he as-
m a d e h i m its "ce n t r e and c h i e f , "
4-
and this l e a d e r ­
ship was founded u p o n u n i n t e r r u p t e d a c t i v i t y in b e h a l f o f music in t h e
p u b l i c schools.
H e wen t t h r o u g h New E n g l a n d a n d t h e M i d d l e
States, h o l d i n g l a rge m u s i c a l conventions.
H e gav e les s o n s in the elementary' p r i n c i p l e s
o f music.
He fou n
d e d academies,• in s t i t u t e s
c
and s o cieties....
1.
R a l p h L. Baldwin, E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in t h e U n i t e d S tates
f r o m the C i vil W a r t o 1900, Music T e a c h e r s National A s s o c i a t i o n Papers
a n d P r o c e e d i n g s 1922. p. 169.
*
A p a r t i a l list o f t h e n u m e r o u s e d i t i o n s
bib l i o g r a p h y a p p e n d e d t o this study.
2.
James H. Ross, L owell Mason,
(March 1894), p. 412.
5.
El w o o d P. Cubberly,
4.
James H. Ross, L o w e l l Mason,
(March 1394), p. 412.
A m e r i c a n Musician,
E d u c a t i o n . XIV,
7
5.
James H. Ross, L o w e l l Mason,
(March 1894), p. 415.
A m e r i c a n Musician,
.Education. XIV,
7
of t h ese w o r k s
A m e r i c a n Musician,
is g i v e n in the
.Education.
P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n in the U n i t e d States,
XIV,
7
p . 355.
200
(6)
Ilis stress o n teacher training.
t i o n a l writings,
teachers'
classes,
The im p o r t a n c e o f M a s o n ’s e d u c a ­
c o n v e n t i o n s ’ and i n s t itutes has be e n
d i s c u s s e d in c o n n e c t i o n with the B o s t o n A c u d e m y
of Music.
Further Developments in american Music Education 1 8 6 5 - 1 9 0 0 .
Genera 1 A d o p t i o n o f M u s i c as
I n t h e f ield of m u sic education,
S chool S ubject
the y e a r s
1 8 6 5 -1900 wer e notable
for the " t r emendous expansion" w h i c h t o o k place.
B y 1900, m u s i c hod b e c o m e a r e g u l a r subject of
the e l e m entary and s e c o n d a r y school c u r r i c u l u m
in nearly all the towns and cities in the h e w
England, N o r t h .Atlantic, M i d d l e West, and Coast
States, w h i l e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s had b e e n
made in the S o u t h e r n states.
At t h e b e g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d t h e s i n g i n g - s c h o o l v:os s t i l l a n important
m u sic t e a c h i n g agency,
but
"it g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d . . . .with the r e s i s t ­
less s p r e a d of music t e a c h i n g in the p u b l i c
T h e re s u l t s
concerning the
of 1,209,677,
schools.
of a s u r v e y b y the B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n ^
in 1834-1835
school m u s i c of 543 cities w i t h a t o tal s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n
r e v e a l e d that
of the 3 2 4 cities repl y i n g
....96 report no instruction, 132 r eport that
i n s t r u c t i o n is g i v e n by the o r d i n a r y t e a c h i n g
force, e n d 9 6 r e p o r t the e m p l oyment o f both
1.
R a l p h L. Baldwin, E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l I/U3ic in the U n i t e d S t a t e s
from t h e C i v i l W a r t o 1900, M u s i c T e a c h e r s N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n P a pers
e nd Proceedings. 1922, p. 166.
2.
E. B. Birge, P ublic S c h o o l M u sic 1038-1938,
XXIY, 4 (February, 1933), p. 15.
5.
J o h n Eaton, E d u c a t i o n in M u s i c at H o m e and .abroad, Washington,
Government P r i n t i n g Office, U n i t e d States B u r e a u of Education,
c u lar of I n f o r m a t i o n No. JL, 1886, p. 52.
M u s i c E d u c ators Journel,
D. C . :
Cir­
201
o r d i n a r y a n d special t e a c h e r s of m u s i c . *
A s i m i l a r s urvey i n 1389 e m b r a c i n g 621 c ities end towns o f over
4 , 000 p o p u l a t i o n s h o w e d that
in the pu b l i c s c h o o l s . " ^
in " 3 3 8 . . . .music was s y s t e m a t i c a l J y taught
’’D uring t h e d e c a d e
fro m 1890 to 1900 music
spread ve r y r aoidly and it is p r o b c b l e that by 1900 t h e n u m b e r of
towns and cities h a v i n g m u sic in the schools was w e l l ove r 1,000."
In this p e r i o d m u s i c
2
i n s t ru c t i o n s p r e a d w i t h i n s c h o o l sys t e m s to
include t h e p r i m a r y grades,
the l o w e r g r a m m a r g r a d e s a n d t h e h i g h
s c hool.^
The Teaching Itself.
F o l l o w i n g the p r e v a l e n t
t e a c h i n g in
e d u c a t i o n a l thought
of the times,
music
t h e early par t of the p e r i o d was b a s e d u p o n the P e s t a l o z -
rian p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h L o w e l l M a s o n h a d c h a m p i o n e d in the 1 3 3 0 ’s.
l a ter a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e pr i n c i p l e s was,
rnd was m a r k e d by "formal,
mechanical,
however,
lifeless,
The
in a n e x t r e m e form,
and l a r g e l y i n effective"
B e n j a m i n J e n s o n in "The S c i e n c e o f M u s i c v b Note P r a c t i c e in P ublic
Schools", M u sic T e a c h e r s n a t i o n a l A s sociation, P a p e r s and Proceedings.
1887, p. 174, e n p e r e n t l y f ai l e d to ta k e in t o acc o u n t t h e n i n e t e e n u n ­
r e tur n e d questions.ires end s u b t r a c t e d the 95 w h i c h r e p o r t e d ^no in­
struction" f r o m the total n u m b e r o f questions ires sent out, 343, g iving
h i m 247 as the n u m b e r o f cities w h i c h at that time h a d some f o r m of
m u s i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n in t h eir schools.
Thi s e r ror has b e e n r e p e a t e d
in se v e r a l l a ter w o rks of c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e such as G r o v e ’s
D ic t i o n a r y o f M u s i c and i&isicisns, A m e r i c a n Supplement, p. 334, and
.Ralph L. B a l d w i n ’s E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
f r o m the C i v i l war to 1900, M u s i c Teachers N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n P a p e r s
and P r o c e e d i n g s 1922, p. 166.
1.
E d g a r 0. Silver, T h e G rowth of M u s i c A m o n g the People,
t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s 1891, p. 815.
2.
R a l p h L. Baldwin, E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d States
from the C i v i l 7/ar to 1900, M u s i c Teac h e r s N a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n P apers
and P r o c e e d i n g s 1922, p. 168.
3.
City o f Boston, S c h o o l Committee,
'December 12, 1872, p. 5.
Report
National Educa­
o f the C o m m i t t e e on Music,
202
m u s i c te a c h i n g w i t h " m uch d r i l l . . . . o n tone studies,
notes,
but w i t h o u t m u c h r e a l s i n g i n g . " 1
and r e e d i n g
In spite o f the d e t a i l e d a n a l y ­
sis o f t h e subject into its smallest parts a n d
in t h e s e elements,
scales,
the e m p h a s i s u p o n d r i l l
t h e students s h o w e d a lack o f a b i l i t y to r e a d m u s i c
2
w r i t t e n in the ordi n a r y way.
T h e extreme t o w h i c h m u s i c t e a c h e r s c a r ­
r i e d the P e s t a l o z z i a n ideas in the 1880's is i l l u s t r a t e d by t h ese s t a t e ­
m e n t s o f B e n j a m i n Jepson,
m u s i c su p e r v i s o r o f N e w Haven,
and a n i m p o rtant
l e a d e r o f the d a y :
I w o u l d e m p h asize t h e o p i n i o n that t h e object
o f p u b l i c school m u s i c i3 to ma k e r e a d e r s o f
music, not singers.*^
In the long run, it w i l l not pay the special
t e a c h e r to d a b b l e m u c h w i t h rote singing.
Song s i n g i n g is l e g i t i m a t e in its p r o p e r place....
i f n o t h i n g but a s o n g w i l l satisfy, let it not
be a c c o u n t e d as so m u c h tim e g i v e n to the study
o f music.
T h e Iierbartian p e d a g o g y and t h e c h ild study m o v e m e n t at the end o f
the centu r y came as a reaction,
and w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e for stress u p o n "the
i n s t r u c t i o n a l side of the t e e c h i n g " end the " p e r f e c t i n g o f a t e a c h i n g
t echnique , " a l o n g w i t h "a d e m a n d for m o r e r e a l music,
be a u t y and charm,
m o r e songs h a v i n g
i n the m u sic lesson."
T h e s o n g idea s o o n b e c a m e f o r m u l a t e d as a m e t h ­
od o f t e a c h i n g m u s i c reading, w i t h the song as
a basis, a n d c o m m o n l y k n o w n as t h e *3ong m e t h ­
od*.
E x e r c i s e s v/ere still use d in this method,
but they wer e d e v e l o p e d fr o m the songs.
1.
E l w o o d P. Cubberly,
2.
E. 3. Birge,
pp. 123-124.
3.
B e n j a m i n Jepson, 'The S c i e n c e o f Iv'usic v b Hote P r a c t i c e in Public
Schools, W u sic T e a c h e r s N a t i o n a l Association, P a p e r s and P r o c e e d ­
ings.
4.
1887,
P u blic E d u c a t i o n in the U n i t e d States,
pp. 306-307.
H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l Iviusic in the U n i t e d S tates.
p.
Ibid., p. 177.
175.
203
S o m e o f th e m o r e important m a t t e r s a c c o m p l i s h e d in this p e r i o d were:
(1)
The f o r m u l a t i o n o f defi n i t e
courses o f study for t h e e l e m e n t a r y
grades a n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f n u m e r o u s series of song b o o k s
inten d e d
to be u s e d in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t he s e c ourses of study;'*'
(2)
T h e r e c o g n i t i o n of the c h i l d voice,
’’That c h i l d r e n c o u l d not
only
sing
and re a d m u sic but c ould al s o p r o d u c e a b e a u t i f u l q u a l i t y of v o i c e , ”
and the st r e s s on i n d i v i d u a l s i n g i n g as a n important c l a s s r o o m procedure;
(3)
The p r i n c i p l e that
"the g r ad e t e a c h e r could do m u s i c t e a c h i n g "
in
h e r o w n c l a s s r o o m " i f s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m p l e p r o c e d u r e were e s t a b l i s h e d ; ”®
(4)
T h e b e g i nnings
o f mo r e d e f i n i t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m u s i c teachers;*^
(5)
The b e g i n n i n g s o f m u s i c teachers' p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s .
Mason's Part
in the M u s i c E d u c a t i o n of t h e P e r i o d .
M e s o n d i e d in 1872,
h e n c e his i n f l u e n c e u p o n the m u s i c e d u c a t i o n of
the end o f t h e nin e t e e n t h ce n t u r y w a s a n indirect
one.
T h e important
ach i e v e m e n t s o f the p e r i o d w e r e a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f his p i o n e e r work.
1.
Clara S. Lawrence, E a r l y S c h o o l M u s i c Methods, M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r ­
nal, XXV, 3 (December, 1938), pp. 21-22; City o f Boston, S c h o o l C o m ­
mittee, Report o f the C o m m i tt e e o n Music. D e c e m b e r 12, 1872, pp. 4-S;
B e n j a m i n Jepson, T h e S c i e n c e of M u s i c vs Rote P r a c t i c e in P ublic
Schools, Music T e a c h e r s N a t i o n a l Assoc i a t i o n , P a p e r s and Proceedings.
1887, p. 181; O s b o u r n e McConothy, A H a l f C entury o f P u b l i c S c h o o l
Music, T h e IMsician. XXXIV, 2 (February, 1929), pp. 15-16.
2.
R a l p h L. Baldwin, The E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d
States f r o m t h e Civil '/far to 1900, M u sic Teac h e r s N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n
P a p e r s a n d Proceedings. 1922, p. 177; E. B. Birge, H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c
S c h o o l M u s i c in t h e U n i t e d States, p. 126.
3.
O s b o u r n e McConathy, A H a l f Cen t u r y o f P ublic S c h o o l Music,
XXIV, 2 (February, 1929), p. 15.
4.
E. B. Birge,
5.
R a l p h L. Baldwin, The E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d
States f r o m the C i v i l War to 1900, M u s i c Teachers N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ,
P apers a n d Proc e e d i n g s 1922, p. 167.
His t o r y o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c
T h e Musician,
in the U n i t e d States,
p.
110.
204
Specifically,
try,
t h e g e n e r a l s p r e a d i n g of m u sic
t e a c h i n g all ove r the cou n ­
the P e s t e l o z z i a n ideas a n d ideals wi t h w h i c h the p e r i o d began,
the
v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p l e th at all c h i l d r e n ble s s e d w i t h a s e nse of
h e a ring and c o m m o n i n t e l l i g e n c e c a n be t a u g h t t o sing a n d to r e a d music,
the tr a i n i n g of m u s i c teachers,
m u s i c teac h e r s a s s o c i a t i o n s , — a l l o f these
m a y be trac e d to L o w e l l Mason.
With t h e publication of the more elaborate
series o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l by m usic supervisors,
his b o oks p a s s e d fr o m
ge n e r a l use,
h i s important b a sic
a n d t o w a r d the c lose o f t h e century,
c o n t ributio n s w e r e lost sight o f in the i m m e d i a t e issues of t h e day.
S u m mary o f T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y M u s i c E d u c a t i o n .
'The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has s e e n continued g r o w t h o f m u s i c as a s c hool
subject.
" E v e r y city g i ves its pu b l i c s c h o o l c h i l d r e n some k n o w l e d g e of
p o r t - s i n g i n g a n d at least the a b i l i t y t o r e a d n o t a t i o n . " ^
The m u s i c e d u ­
c a t i o n p r o g r a m is not only a v a i l a b l e in l a r g e cities and towns,
but has
2
ext e n d e d to r u r a l and spar s e l y p o p u l a t e d d i s t ricts.
In the h i g h schools,
w h ile at
first g l an c e t h e n u m b e r of stud e n t s
receiving music instruction might appear to be small, yet according to
3
the Biennial Survey of Question.
1926-1958
26.04 percent of the stu­
dents in high schools reporting were registered in one or more forms of
music instruction— more than in drawing and art, home economics, Latin,
Erench, German, Spanish, geometry, physics, chemistry, short-hand, or
type-writing.
of time
And this notwithstanding the comparatively small amount
given to music instruction in ordinary high schools, and "the
1.
Louis C. Elson, A History of A m e r i c a n Music, p. 339.
2.
Percy
3.
Curl A. Jensen, Secondary Education, Biennial Survey of Education
1926-1928, Washington, D. C . : Government Printing Office, United
Stetes Office of Education, Bulletin 1950 No. 16, pp. 147-167.
a
.
Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 283.
205
phenomenal development in the character and extent of its offerings since
the early years of the century."'- Persistent agitation is being carried
on that music "be granted as liberal a time allotment as any major sub­
ject taught in the school."^
Reasons
for T w e n t i e t h C entury D e v e l o p m e n t .
A c o m b i n a t i o n o f factors h a v e p r o d u c e d m u s i c e d u c a t i o n a3 w e now
ha v e
it.
(1)
The cu m ulative e f fect
of a century o f p u b l i c s c h o o l music, end of the
c o u n t r y ’s m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h e x t e n d b e c k
for a c o n s i d e r a b l y p e r i o d l o n g e r t h a n its m u sic education.
T h e music s u p e r v i s o r o f today, like the e d u c a ­
t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h he deals, is a pro­
duct o f evolution.
In t h e b e g i n n i n g he w a s a
t e a c h e r o f s i n g i n g a n d t h e n a t e a c h e r of r u d i ­
m e n t s end sigh t - r e a d i n g .
T o t h e s e he has a d d e d
s u c c e s s i v e l y that o f chorus conductor, ba n d a n d
orchestra director, en d t e a c h e r o f harmony, t h e ­
ory, h i s t o r y a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m u s i c . ®
(2)
Professional consciousness
of m u s i c t e a c h e r s as r e f l e c t e d in the
gr o w t h o f suc h o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the M u s i c Teachers National A s s o c i s -
4
tion,
The Music Supervisors
(later,
Educators)
N a t i o n a l Conference,
and
t h e e f f o r t s mad e by m u s i c t e a c h e r s
a n d supe r v i s o r s as a group
"to
i m p r o v e b o t h t h e m a t t e r a n d m e t h o d o f t h e i r p h a s e o f m u s i c e duca­
1.
A n n e E. P i e r c e a n d R o b e r t S. Hilpert, N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f Secondary
Education, I n s t r u c t i o n in M u s i c and Art, Y/ashington, D. C. : G o v e r n ­
m e n t P r i n t i n g Office, U n i t e d S t a t e s Office of Education, B u l l e t i n
No. 17, M o n o g r a p h 25, 1932. p . 2.
2.
J a mes L. Mirsell, A. B a l a n c e d C u r r i c u l u m in M u s i c Education,
LVI, 9 (1/ay, 1936), p. 524.
3.
E. B. Birge, E v o l u t i o n o f P u b l i c S c h o o l M u s i c in the U n i t e d States,
M u s i c A p p r e c i a t i o n — T h e E d u c a t i o n of t h e listener.
M u s i c Teachers
N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n P a p e r s and P r o c e e d i n g s . 1922, p. 193.
4.
P e r c y A. Scholes,
The O x f o r d C o m p a n i o n to Music,
p. £83.
Education,
206
tion."1
(3)
The more complete educational and musical training available to
music teachers.
Important was the
organization of the first four-year school mu­
sic training course at Oberlin in 1922.
Other
institutions quickly followed suit, end at the
present time practically all conservatories and
college music departments offer well planned
four year courses.^
Closely correlated with, this was the fact that "states began to regulate
the amount of preparation for supervising music.
(4)
Research in music education by individual workers, by such organi­
zations as the Bureau of Education, The Netional Bureau for the Advance­
ment of Music, the National Education Association, the Music teachers
National Association,
and the Research Council of the Music Educators
National Conference,4
(5)
The new artistic consciousness of the country and the recognition
of the "culture value of music."5
Present-Day Objectives.
The cultivation of music in its foundational aspects and as a part
0
of the life of the people is being given intelligent consideration.
1.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p. 334.
2.
Karl V/. Gehrkens, Public School Music, The International Cyclopedia
of tiu3ic and Musicians, p. 1459.
3*
E, B. 3irge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 215.
4.
Karl ff. Gehrkens, Public School Music, The International Cyclopedia
of Music and Musicians, p. 1459.
5.
Commissioner Claxton, quoted in Grove *s Dictionary of Music and Musi­
cians, American Supplement, p . 334.
6.
Grove's Dictionary of Music end Musicians, American Supplement, p. 334.
207
Music in tha schools has become a vital in­
fluence in the life not only of the pupils
directly concerned, but in the life of the
community.J
"Throughout the whole of the musical activities in school or college the
students' future life should be kept in view:..,.the teacher of litera­
ture or music whose pupils' progress stops‘dead on the day they leave
n
his classroom has failed."*'
In 1913, Frances K. Dickey wrote that teachers
must come nearer to the interest of the chil­
dren. ...in order to bridge the gap between schoolmusic and the music of the social life outside.*^
" The specific or musical aim is to develop apprecietion of the beau4
ty that is in music."
This reaction from the "disciplinary value" by
which music instruction was justified at the beginning of the century,
came because of a realization by educators that the formal courses of
study in public school music
all started out with the assumption that the
pupil was to be a singer, whereas a very slight
proportion of the graduates are ever active in
music after leaving school;....if classes in
musical appreciation were to be established,
a much greater g e n e r a l result might be brought
1.
Anne E, Pierce and Robert S. Hilpert, National Survey of Secondary
Education, Instruction in Music and Art, Washington, D. C . : Govern­
ment Printing Office, United States Office of Education, 3ul.letln
No. 17. Monograph 25. 1932, p. 4.
2.
Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p . .283.
3«
Prances M. Dickey, Early History of Public School Music in the United
States, Music Teachers National Association Papers and Proceedings,
1913, p. 206.
4.
Fourth Yeurbook of the Department of Superintendence of the National
Education association, quoted by E. B. Birge, History of Public School
Music in the United States, p. 160.
5.
Anne E. Pierce and Robert S. Hilpert, National Survey of Secondary Educa­
tion, Instruction in Music and Art, Washington, D. C . : Government Print­
ing Office, United States Office of Education, Bulletir. No. 17, Mono­
graph 35. 1932. p. 1
206
/
about.^
"Appreciation of the beauty that is in music" involves more than the
mere listening to music; it Includes both "the cultivation of the ability
to do and the cultivation of the ability to enjoy."
2
Today's Musical Instruction
To the "doing" and the "enjoying" experiences just mentioned, a
third, "creating" might be sdded.
Our music curriculum must find a place for
three types of musical projects— listening
projects, performance, and creative pro­
jects.
It is neither possible nor desirable to separate completely these types
of eaperience in the music lesson and the truly effective music course
will contain elements of all three experiences, although the emphasis
may be more on one than on the others.
(1)
Music teaching based upon the listening experience.
The earliest
example to be extensively used was music (appreciation lessons which the
perfection of reproducing machines made possible.
The central idea
of music appreciation teaching was that "children should be given an
opportunity of learning to appreciate music beyond their own ability to
perform."
4
One outgrowth of music appreciation courses has been the general
1.
LouisC. Elson, A
2.
Percy
3.
James
L.
Mursell,A Balanced Curriculum in Music Education,
LVI, 9 (May, 1936), p. 521.
4«
E. B.Birge, Evolution of Public School Music in the United States,
Misic Appreciation— The Education of the listener, Mislc Teachers
National Association Proceedings 1922, p. 189.
A.
History of American Music, pp; 348-349.
Scholes,The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 283.
Education
209
music class, which is a combination of listening lessons, group sing­
ing
and other musical activities, used particularly at the junior high
1
school level.
Somewhat related to the general music class, but more widely used
because of its greater elasticity in application is the
integration of music with other subjects, the
underlying idea of which is, that the music of
a race or nation gives additional insight into
its inner life....In forward-looking schools,
where the unit plan of presentation is the basic
method of instruction, we therefore hear much
about the integration of music with other sub­
jects. Such procedure is practical and enrich­
ing.2
(2)
Teaching based upon the doing experience.
"The level of musician­
ship among the pupils has been greatly elevated, making possible the per­
formance of music of much greater technical difficulty and artistic content."
Proficiency for its own sake is "looked upon as insufficient....
unless the wider aim of musicianship is also present."
4
It is agreed
5
that "the power to read at sight is essential to the true musician,"
but the acquiring of this power is delayed until "a need for it is felt"
6
by the student.
This has brought about a notable simplification of
1.
1111a Belle Pitts, Music Integration in the Junior High School, p. 10.
2.
Ernest G. Hesser, The Place of Music in the Changing Social Order,
Pennsylvania School Journal. HQOCVII, 107 (June, 1959), p. 331.
3.
Will Earhart, The Evolution of High School Music of Public School Music
in the United States, Music Teachers National Association Papers and
Proceedings, 1922, p. 187.
4.
Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 283.
5.
JJaniel Gregory Mason, Our Public School Music, The Outlook, I2QCV1
(March 19, 1904), p. 702.
6.
Frances M. Dickey, The Early History of Public School Music in the
United States, Ifcisic Teachers National Association, Papers and
Proceedings 1913, p. 206.
210
procedure in the elementary grades.
The song method
has been generally accepted in principle, and
today is the basis of most of the teaching of
music reading. Much of the time formerly spent
in drilling on the scale and various details of
notation now goes into more music reading, on
the principle of learning to do by doing. Dif­
ficulties which once were anticipated by pre­
liminary drill are now dealt with as they occur
in the song context.
"The new methods are far less logical than the earlier plans, but we have
long since learned from a study of psychology of the learning process that
2
children do not think along the same logical lines as adults."
A n increasingly high standard of quality of music for school purposes
has come into being in recent y e a r s :
We are coming more and more to emphasize the
music that is being read, rather than the read­
ing of the music, and....children in our
American public schools....are coming to love
and appreciate the beauty of music as a result of
aesthetic satisfaction offered them by the songs
they are singing in school.3
There is a definite trend to eliminate the "inferior and worthless music....
material entirely destitute of interest and appeal",4 and a backing away
from the late nineteenth century overemphasis on note-reading which had
become about "largely because it is definite and tangible and yields mea­
surable results."4
The present concept of music reading is that it is
merely "a tool skill."4
1,
S. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 170.
2.
Elwood P. Cubberly, Public Education in the United States, p. 307.
3,
Karl W. Gehrkens, Evolution of Public School Music in the United States,
The Twentieth Century— A Singing Revival, Ifiisic Teachers National Associ­
ation, Proceedings 1922, p. 184.
4.
James L. MUrsell, A Balanced Curriculum in Music Education, Education,
LVI, 9 (May, 1936), p. 524.
211
The Instrumental movement began in a small way at the beginning of
the century,* usually as an extra-curricular activity; today "practically
every school system large and small has an instrumental department,"
and
there are literally thousands of fine orchestras and
bands, with full instrumentation, performing the
world’s greatest music with astonishing virtuosity
and artistry. There are string quartets and other
small ensembles.
In many cities, "class instruction in violin, trumpet, drum, piano,
for
beginners only" is offered from "the fourth grade on, including the high
school."4
Although chorus singing was the first music to be added to the high
school curriculum, in many Instances prior to the 1920's it was somewhat
ineffectual.
But since that time, it has moved toward higher attainments*
there has not been such an efflorescence as has
marked the other branches, because singing is
older and its possibilities have long been
more fully exploited. The strength and beauty
of the music sung....as well as its adaptation
to youthful voices, has increased amazingly.5
Many high schools have a capella choirs, voice classes and vocal ensembles
of various kinds;
6
_
and a distinguished European authority
7
speaks of the
1.
Will Earhart, The Evolution of Public School l&isic in the United States,
The Evolution of Bigh School Misic, Music Teachers National Association,
Papers and Proceedings. 1922, p. 186.
2,
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 202.
3,
Earl W. Gehrkens, Public School Misic, The International Cyclopedia of
Mislc and Musicians, p. 1459.
4.
I m e e t G. Hesser, The Place of Music in the Changing Social Order,
Pennsylvania School Journal. LXXX7II, 10, p. 332.
5*
Will Sarhart, The Evolution of School Music, Music Teachers National
Association Papers and Proceedings 1922. p. 188.
6*
Karl W. Gehrkens, Public School Music, The International Cyclopedia of
Music and Misicians. p. 1459.
7.
Percy A. Scholes, The Oxford Companion to Music, p. 282.
212
"very high standard in a capella choral singing" prevalent among the high
schools of the United States.
(3)
Teaching based
upon creative experience.
Opportunity for creative
work in music is provided in many public school systems, and at all levels
of the school.
In the lower grades this may involve the creation of short
melodies, adapting words to a given tune, completing melodies,^ the construction of drums and other musical instruments;
2
in the secondary school,
courses in "elementary theory, harmony, counterpoint, and even composition
and orchestration."
In 1930 the quinquennial report of secondary schools approved by the
North Central Association showed that of the 1,005,637 boys and girls en­
rolled in the 2,226 schools represented, the distribution of boys and girls
in their secondary training was:
Glee Clubs, 15.2 percent; chorus, 14 per­
cent; orchestra, 4.4 percent; band, 4.2 percent; history, theory, etc., 0.5
percent.
4
Lowell Mason and Twentieth Century Music Education.
Mason's influence upon the music teaching in the public schools to­
day, while indirect,
is perhaps stronger than at any time since his death.
The fundamental saneness of his educational ideas made them survive the
personal opponents of his lifetime and the excesses of the late nineteenth
1.
Hughes M e a m s , Creative Power: Lillian Mohr Pox and L. Thomas Hopkins,
Creative School Music.
2.
Satis L. Coleman,
3.
Karl W. Gehrkens, Public School Music, The International Cyclopedia
of M ib Ic and Musicians, p. 1459.
4.
Quinquennial Report of Secondary Schools Approved by the North Central
Association, North Central Association Quarterly, V / (June, 1930), p. 105.
The Drum Book.
213
century music educators.
....the principles end ideals promulgated
by Lowell Mason in Boston a century ago are
being fostered and the work he began con­
stantly extended. For music educators to­
day....are pledged to the credo that the
schools should discover, encourage,
and
develop every child's interest in music;
that each child should have opportunities
for training and experience in music accor­
ding to his natural capacities; that educa­
tion should contribute to the development of
a universal spirit of true musical amateurism
which shall carry over from school and col­
lege days into the life of each citizen, and
that each music teacher should constantly strive
to increase the effectiveness of his service
to school and community by utilizing every
available means to widen his vision, add to
his knowledge and keep keen and up-to-date
the kit of tools essential in the equipment
of his profession.1
1.
Editor's Foreword, Music Educators National Conference Yearbook 1935
p. v.
214
CHAPTER VIII
THE PERMANENT IN LOWELL MASON
Introductory Statement.
In claiming that any individual has influenced other individuals,
evidence supporting the claim must be offered;
it is necessary to prove
that the individual in question had a direct bearing upon the later
workers and that they knew of his theory or practice through personal
contact, through an intermediary, through his writings, or through some
other means.
tal;
Similarity of thought or method may be purely co-inciden­
two men may arrive at the same conclusion independently, or
through dependence upon common sources.
Mere resemblance may or may not
be the result of influence.
Eor these reasons, the writer is limiting his claim of Mason's in­
fluence to specific instances for which there is factual support; but he
is, in addition, pointing out (1) many similarities between Mason's
thought and practice and that of later -american music educators and (2)
several cases in which Mason apparently anticipated, but did not put into
extensive practice, the work of later music educators.
The writer also calls attention to the fact that a statement regard­
ing Mason's contribution to church music and to musical composition is
intentionally omitted, for these phases of his work are not within the
scope of this dissertation.
215
Mason*s Influence upon American Music Education,
1, The singing child.
The probable origination in America of the idea that it is possible for
the average child to sing, and that the average child may be trained to
3ing.
Mason himself said that at the time he began his musical work, singing
among children, as a common thing, was unknown in the country.^- Because
g
Mason had been training children to sing for severel
years before Wood-
bridge returned to America and subsequently made his unsuccessful attempt
in the summer 'of 1820, with Ives, to teach music in Hartford
3
same year made his address in Boston ,
and later the
it would seem that Mason arrived
at the theory of the singing child independently.
Additional corroboration
is offered in that the Juvenile Psalmist. Mason’s first song book for
children, was published in
1320.
c
It is to be understood, however, that selected children had been
trained in music for many centuries in the European choir schools , and
that in certain instances in America® talented children had likewise re­
ceived some musical instruction.
It
must also be understood that some
musical instruction had been given in certain European schools, notably
those of Pestalozzi
7
Q
and Fellenberg , before Mason began his work.
While
1.
lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 13.
2.
Henry Barnard, Educational labors of lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education. IV, 1857, p. 141; lowell Mason, Address on Church Music.
1851, p. 14,
3.
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction. 1830, p. 251.
4.
lowell Mason, The Juvenile Psalmist, title page.
5.
Paul Monroe, A Cyclopedia of Education. IV, pp. 349-350.
6.
Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 333.
7.
J. a . Green, Life and Works of Pestalozzi. p. 345.
8.
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
American Institute of Instruction. 1830, p. 245.
216
it is possible that Mason knew of these Pestalozzian institutions in
Europe and that he knew of Pestalozzi's educational theories during the
early years of his work with children, this seems improbable in view of
his repeated statements that Woodbridge first made him acquainted with
them. ^
For all of these reasons, there seems to be ground for believing
that Mason arrived independently at the theory that children could sing
and could be trained to sing
2
and that in America, at least, he was the
3
first person to attempt to train the average child to sing.
2* Music Officially added M
thfi. snhnol curriculum.
The establishing of music in the curriculum of the public schools of an
important city, Boston, and the establishment of the principle that such
instruction should be provided at public expense.
The idea that music should be included in the school curriculum Mason
4
had in embryonic form as early as 1826,
but the formulated idea was public­
ly stated by William C. Woodbridge in his address to the American Institute
5
of Instruction in 1830.
Mason’s associates in the Boston Academy of
a
Music, notably Samuel A. Eliot
n
and George J. Webb,
rendered important
assistance in the practical phases of the movement; but for several years
Mason provided firm leadership including several protracted demonstrations
1.
lowell Mason, How Shall I_ Teach, p. 1.
2.
Lowell Mason, Address
on
Church Misic.1826,p.15, p. 23, p. 28, p. 29.
3.
Lowell Mason, Address
on
Church Music.1851,p.14.
4.
Lowell Mason, Address
on
Church Music.1826,p.30.
5*
William C. Woodbridge, Vocal Music as a Branch of Common Education,
Am<vrican Institute of Instruction. 1830, pp. 235-255.
6.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, p. 16.
7.
Boston Academy of Music, First Annual Report. 1833, p. 9.
217
that music instruction in the schools was practical
and desirable*^
The success of his year's gratuitous experimental instruction in the Hawes
p
school, under the auspice's of the city school committee , finally led to
3
the inclusion of music in the curriculum of the public schools of Boston,
From 1838 to 1845 Mason was employed by the city of Boston to be
superintendent of music in its public schools:
4
this was the first instance
in which an American city added the subject to its school curriculum on
a basis comparable to that of other school subjects, and maintained it
permanently.
5
This is not to be construed to mean that there had been
no music instruction whatsoever in American schools prior to this instance.
On- the contrary, there had been music instruction on a limited scale in
several cities, including Boston, but it was of transitory, unofficial
(thet is, voluntary, not paid for by the school authorities) nature;
and the school authorities took no responsibility for it beyond, in some
instances, granting permission to an individual to teach at his own
expense and on condition that he did not interfere with the regular school
,
work.
6
The official nature of Mason's appointment, the fact that his music
teaching was done by public authority and at public expense,
is the im-
1.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 37,
2.
Boston Academy of Music, Seventh xoinual Report. 1839, p. 11.
3.
Ibid., p. 12,
4.
Samuel L. Flueckiger, Why Iawell Mason Left the Boston Schools, Music
Educator's Journal. XXII (Februery, 1936), p. 23.
5.
Stances L. Dickey, The Early History of Public School Music in the
United States, Music Teachers National Association, Papers and Proceedings, 1913, p. 186,
6.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 54.
213
portant point in the Boston introduction; and it was upon this as a pre-
•
cedent that music was introduced into the schools of other cities and that
its spread throughout the educational structure of the country was made
possible.^-
3.
Introduction of music into the
curriculum of other cities.
The most definite indication of Mason's influence u p o n the inclusion
of music into the curriculum of the schools of the country as a whole is
that in certain specific cases Mason's disciples succeeded in introducing
the subject into the schools of other cities, end that in t u r n these intro­
ductions eventually led to others.
Additional evidence, perhaps of less
value, is found in the correspondence between Mason and persons either
in authority or particularly in t e r e s t e d in the schools o f o t her cities
regarding the inclusion of music in their school curriculum.
Authentic
examples of both types of evidence are available.
p
T. B. Mason,
William Coburn,
^
4
and Charles Aiken contributed to the
introduction and establishment of music in the schools of Cincinnati.
5
That these men were associates or disciples of Lowell Mason and that
they were well aware of his work in Boston is verifiable.
1.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music, 1851, p. 16.
2.
Lowell Mason and
3.
Nathaniel Gould, Church Music in America, p. 141.
Similar
Timothy B. Mason, The Sacred Harp,titlepage.
4.
American Musical
Convention, Proceedings of the MusicalConvention
Assembled in Boston. August 16, 1838, p. 10.
5.
Nathaniel Gould, Church Music in America,
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Trustees
1848, p. 69. City Council of Cincinnati,
Trustees and Visitors of Common Schools.
pp. 139-141. City Council,
and Visitors of Common Schools,
Fifteenth Annual Report to
1844, p. 10.
319
work was done in St. Louis by William A. Hodgdon
who had studied with
Lowell Mason; in Louisville (later Cincinnati and Boston) by Luther
2
Whiting Mason,
another pupil of Lowell Mason; and in Indianapolis by
George B. Loomis, whom Lowell Mason had recommended to the school offi3
cials.
It would seem not unlikely that these instances are indicative
of others.
Evidence of the second type, while not as specific, is available.
The Third Annual Report of the Boston Academy of Music states that
Letters have been received from persons in
Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, Illinois,
Missouri, Tennessee, Ohio, Maryland, New York,
Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine,
besides many from individuals and societies in
Massachusetts, asking for infoimation relative
to measures they ought to adopt, in order to
introduce music as a branch of education into
the community where they live.^
In view of the fact that Mason was the real leader and dominant power
5
of the Academy,
he must have had at least a slight knowledge of this
correspondence and of the replies made by the Academy.
One specific
authentic instance in which Mason did communicate with the school
authorities of a city other than Boston regarding the introduction of
music instruction in its schools is that which resulted in the appoint­
ment of George B. Loomis to teach music in the schools of Indianapolis.®
1.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United
2.
Thomas B. Lawler, Seventy Years of Text-Book Publishing, p. 53.
3.
E. 3. Birge, History of Public School I,lisle in the United States, p. 95.
4.
Boston Academy of Music, Third Annual Report. 1335, pp. 12-13.
5.
Cf. pages 156-158.
6.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Misic in the United States, p. 95.
States,
p. ’r0.
220
'While the writer is not inclined to accept unsupported statements
to the effect that "the example of Boston was soon followed"-1- in other
cities as conclusive, yet it is probable that Mason's work and example
in Boston were not unheeded,
4,
Pioneer Teacher-Training
Teachers' classes, musical conventior.3, musical normal institutes, teachers'
institutes.
When Mason began his work there were no adequate facilities for the
preparation of music teachers for the public schools, and this condition
led the Boston Academy of Music to organize its teachers' class in the
P
summer of 1834 , and to continue the work in the summers of 1855
1836.
a
3
and
Mason conducted these classes with the assistance of George J.
'Webb and others, but significantly, the classes were not held when Mason
was not present to organize and manage them.
The teachers' classes of the Academy developed into the large
musical conventions of Boston,
6
which had both a teacher-training phase
7
and a music festival phase.
.After the initial success of the convention
1.
Paul Monroe, A Cyclopedia of Education. IV, p. 351.
2.
3oston Acadeny of Music, Second Annual Report. 1834, p. 17; Third
Annual Report, 1835, p. 8.
3.
Boston Academy of tiusic, Fourth Annual Report. 1836, p. 6.
4.
Boston academy of Misic, Fifth Annual Report. 1837, p. 8.
5.
Boston-acadeny of I>iisic, Sixth Annual Report. 1838, p. 6; Fifth Annual
Report. 1837, p. 8; Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America, p, 255,
6.
American Musical Convention, Proceedings of the Musical Convention
Assembled in Boston. August 16. 1858. p. 7,
7.
Boston Musical Visitor. Ill, 10 (July 27, 1843), p» 152,
221
under the auspices of the Boston Academy of Music, musical conventions
were organized in other cities following the same general plan of
operation.*
Mason became much sought for as convention leader through­
out the northern states; some of his conventions assembled annually,
O
for example, those at Rochester, Harrisburg end Cleveland.
For
more than three decades after 1845 the convention was a power in Ameri­
can musical life,3 and it was the first national American school of
music pedagogy.
4
Another of Mason's important pioneer efforts in teacher training
was the creation of the musical normal institute designed to prepare
5
persons "desiring to teach music for that profession"
on a more
thorough scale than had been possible in the relatively short teachers’
classes.
Mason was one of the two men who organized the first musical
normal institute, that in New York City in 1851,
6
of which the sessions
lasted some three months and drew students from all over the United States*’'’
Q
For some years this- was the only such normal institute,
but others
follow-
g
ed, and the movement lasted well into the twentieth ceDtury.
1.
Grove *s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, American Supplement, p . 176.
o
—•
American Musical ^-lamanac for 1852, p. 54.
3.
E. N. C. Barnes, Should Lowell Mason Come to Town, p. 5.
4.
E. B. 3irge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 33
5.
F. 0. Jones, a. Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p. 78.
6.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School l&isic in the United States, p. 31
7.
F. 0. Jones, •u. Handbook of itmerican Music and Musicians, p. 78.
8.
F. 0. Jones, a Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p* 78.
9.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p* 131
A third pioneer teacher training effort with which Mason was con­
cerned was the annual Massachusetts Teachers’ Institute,^ first organized
by Horace Mann in 1845 for the improvement of the teaching profession of
that state.
decade,
Mason was associated with these institutes for more than a
and was valued for both his musical and general education con2
tributions.
5.
The Dissemination of Music Teaching
Principles and Procedures.
Of the many reasons why "the Pestelozzian principles promulgated by
Lowell Mason....were generally in practice"4 throughout his lifetime and
even longer, three seem particularly important:
(1) his continuous
teacher-training activities over a period of years,
(2) his lectures on
pedagogy and (3) his educational publications.
Cl
The teachers’ classes of the Boston Academy of Music
musical normal institutes
and the later
were both organized for the specific purpose
of training those who had a knowledge of music how to teach it, i.e. the
dissemination of methods and procedures.
The musical conventions, though
not always organized specifically for this purpose, were usually not
1.
Will S. Monroe, History of the Pestalozzian Movement in the United
States, p. 162.
2*
Henry Barnard, Education labors of Lowell Mason, The American Journal
of Education, IV, 1857, pp. 145-146.
3.
Ibid., p. 146.
4.
Ralph L. Baldwin, Evolution of Public School Music in the United States
from the Civil War to 1900, Music Teachers National Association,
Papers and Proceedings, 1922, p. 159.
5.
William C. Woodbridge, Lectures on the Pestalozzian System of Music,
American Annals of Education, 1834, p. 383.
6.
F. 0. Jones, a Handbook of American Music and Musicians, p. 78.
223
without a teacher-training phase.^
While no lata are available regarding
even the approximate number of persona who at tended the three teachertraining media, yet it must have been sizeable, for Mason engaged in this
word for more than twenty years.*
3y 1338 the academy teachers class
numbered 96 gentlemen and 42 ladies,2 the following year 265 attended;®
4
the musicel convention of Boston in 1849 had one thousand members
1850 it had 1500.
5
and in
Even if many of the same persons attended the teachers'
classes and conventions for several years, yet the total number of different
individuals attending
must have been very large.
Another factor leading to the widespread use of Mason's methods and
teaching procedures was his own lectures on music pedagogy throughout Hew
England and New York state.0
Mason was particularly active in this work
during the decade 1835-1845.^
Firtherraore, Meson's educational publications had a good circulation.
The Mc-nual of the Boston Academy of Music, for example, was, according to
its author for nary years the only work of its kind in the English langu-
1.
Boston Academy of
Music, Seventh annual Report, 1839, p.
2.
Boston A c a d e m y of
I&i3ic, Seventh Annual Report. 1839, p.
3.
Frederic Louis Ritter, Music in America, pp. 256-257.
4.
Abbie Hobson, Lowell Mason, Educator. p. 37.
10.
9.
5 . American Musical Almanac for 1852. p. 34.
6.
Boston Academy of Music. Fifth Annual Report.
Report. 1842, p. 12.
7.
W. S. B. Mathews, Lowell Mason, n. Father in American Music, The
Musician, XYI, 11 (November, 1911), p. 722.
*
1337, p. 7; Tenth Annual
The first academy teachers'class assembled in 1834; hetaught at the
normal institute at North Reading, Massachusetts in 1856, and the
Massachusetts Teachers' Institute the following year.
224
age;
1
lt8 sale was large enough to warrant a fifth edition in .1847.
2
Thus, because of his teacher training activities, lectures and educa­
tional publications, Mason's "system" of music instruction "wes received
with general favor in the schools of Massachusetts and other Eastern
states"
3
and in many other states as well,
6,
4.
The Creation of Music Teaching Material
Mason's pioneer
work in the creating and developing of a body of
musical literature designed especially for children in the public schools
was of great significance in the development of American music education.
Mason's Juvenile Psalmist, published in 1829, was his first contri­
bution to the musical literature designed especially for the needs of the
child learning to sing; he believed this to be the first
for Sunday schools.
book with music
In the field of children's secular music his first
a
publication was the Juvenile lyre,
"conceded by most authorities to be
n
the first school music book printed in this country."
1.
Lowell Mason, Musicel, Letters from Abroad, p. 137.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston
1847, title page.
3.
City of Chicago, Fifth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public
Schools, 1859, pp. 46-47.
4.
Ralph L. Baldwin, Evolution of P u b l i c .Jchool --usic in tie United States
from the Civil War to 1900, Music Teachers iiational .-issociation, Papers
and Proceedings. 1922, p. 169.
5.
Gtove's Dictionary of Music and KMsicians, American Supplement, p. 286,
6.
Lowell Mason, The Juvenile lyre.
puted; cf. p. 161.
7.
Martha R, McCabe,' Early American School Music Books.
School Life,
XXXV, 10 (July, 1939), p. 291. McC abe cites a possible earlier ex­
ample, the anotQrraous Child's Song Book of 1830, but with the caution
that its authenticity is doubtful.
Academy of Music. Fifth Edition,
Date of publication 1830 or 1831 dis­
225
In all, between 1829 and 1065, Mason was responsible for fifteen song
books,
1
several of which had more than one edition.
B
Among these was the
three-volume The Song Garden of 1864-1865, one of the earliest graded
music series.
Other important volumes in addition to those mentioned
above were Mason's Normal Singer. 1856, The Song Book of the School Room.
1845, and the Boston School Song Book, 1840.*
Aside from their number and the growth in value of content which
each succeeding one of these song books exhibits, an indication that
some of them, at least, were for a time rather universally used is given
by City Document N o . 54. 1858, of Boston, which tabulates the song books
used in various cities throughout the country; the tabulation gives
Mason's Normal Singer as the text for Chieego and Providence.'^
7.
Mason's Important Influence upon Pioneer Music
Education in the United States.
It appears that Meson exerted an important influence upon music
education in the United States beceuse of six significant contributions to
it:
1.
The idea of the singing child.
2.
Music officially added to the school curriculum of Boston.
3.
lAisic officially introduced into the curriculum of other
cities through his disciples, his communications with school
authorities, and probably through his example.
1.
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. American Supplement, p. 286.
2.
For example, the Song Book of the School Room and The Boston School
Song Book.
3.
City of Boston, School Committee, City Document No. 54, 1858, p. o; p. 13.
*
Dates taken from copies of the books mentioned.
226
4.
Pioneer teacher training in the field of music education.
5.
The dissemination of music teaching principles and procedures.
6.
The creation of music teaching material for the use of children's
classes in the public schools.
Because of the value of these contributions individually and collectively
there seems to be justification for edmitting Mason's own estimate of his
work:
I think I may humbly claim to be, in some sense,
the father of singing among the children in this
country...
• • • •
Similarities between Mason*s practice and that of twentieth century music
educators.
It seems to the writer that it may be of some value to point out
several instances in Mason's teaching procedure for which parallel pro­
cedures exist in the work of today's music educators.
In the cases given below, no proof is offered that these procedures
of today are the result, direct or indirect, of Mason's influence; nor is
proof offered that any or all of these are universal practices today ex­
cept that which may be inferred from quotations taken from several wellknown text books.
It is felt, however, that such a comparison is not
beyond the scope of this dissertation.
Today's Practice
Mason's Practice
1.
"^uite up until the beginning of
the twentieth century, chorus
practice....constituted
the sole
• • • •
1.
The suitability of vocal music
rather than other phases of the
art, for public school use.2
1.
Lowell Mason, Address on Church Music. 1851, pp. 13-14.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Misic, p. 15.
Mason’s Practice
Today’s' Practice
musical activity in the great ma­
jority of our high schools.
"The primary musical experience
should be the experience of song,
and this first and foremost, for
its emotional values."
Importance of song material which
"will interest^fche feelings of
the scholars."
2.
"The primary test applied to the
material chosen fifor the cited
song collection] Tras: *Will young
people enjoy singing this song?’."^
Care of the child voice.1
3.
"It is generally admitted that
children ought to sing softly, but
soft singing alone does not neces­
sarily produce beautiful vocal
music* Hand in hand with soft
singing must go another important
thing, smooth singing."
Care of the adolescent voice.'
4.
"Because of the vital changes which
occur in the singing voice during the
years of adolescense....special atten­
tion must be given to the compass
and character of the music. Unless
there is a decided ’break’ in the
speaking voice, boys may safely sing
through this period, provided always
that the character and compass of
the music are suitable....The voice
of the adolescent girl also requires
1*
Will Earhart, The Evolution of Public School Music in the United States,
The Evolution of High School Music, Music Teachers National Association,
Papers and Proceedings, 1922, p. 184.
2.
James L. Mursell, Human Values in Luslc Education, p. 38.
3.
Lowell Mason, Song Book of the School Room, p. iii| The Song Garden, H ,
p. 4; Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 241.
4.
Ernest G. Hesser and Bessie S. Dustman, Treasure Chest of Songs, p. iii.
Material in parenthesis not in originel.
5.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 241.
6.
T, P. Giddings, Will Earhart, R. L. Baldwin end E. W. Newton, Music Edu­
cation Series. The Teachers * Book, p . 10.
7.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 244.
228
Mason's Practice
Today's Practice
careful treatment at this period...."^-
5.
6
.
7.
Orderly course of instruction
progressing from simple to
difficult0rhythmic and melodic
problems.^
5.
"....songs in this book are arranged
in the order of their difficulty....
The problems of time are introduced
according to a. definite plan of gra­
dation; the single and multiple
beat tones coming first, then two tones
to a beat, the unequally divided beat,
etc. The problems of pitch are intro­
duced in their natural order, begin­
ning with scale and chord progres­
sions and gradually introducing the
different interval relations."
Bodily movements such as time
beating to inculcate feeling
for rhythm.4
6.
"Rhythm must be taught through mus­
cular response. Unless this is
done,, it can never be taught proper-
Mason gave rote singing an im­
portant place in his proce­
dure.6
7.
Since the child when he first comes
to school "knows little or nothing
about music, he must first learn a
good many songs by rote and thus ac­
quire what might be called a musical
vocabulary....before he is ready to
begin to learn to read music.
"At the beginning of the first-grade
work, the rote song is presented to
the whole class.... t?8
1.
Hollis Denn, Hollis Dann Song Series. Ill,
foreword.
2.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
Music Teacher.
3.
Robert Poresman, Songs and Pictures. Piftii
4.
Lowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy
lozzian Music Teacher, p. 88.
5.
James L. Mursell and Mabelle Glenn, The Psychology of School Music
Teaching, p. 188. Italics in original.
6.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden, I, pp. iii-iv; Manual of the Boston-Aca­
demy of Music, pp. 25-26, p. 30.
7.
T. P. Giddings, Grade School Music Teaching, p. 24.
8.
George P. Hubbard, Music Teaching in the Elementary Grades, p. 64.
of Music;The Pestalozzian
Book, p. 4.
of Music,pp. 42-43;Pesta­
229
Today'6
Mason's Practice
Practice
8.
Note-reading introduced through
rote songs already known by the
pupil.^
8.
"The teacher presents by rote a simple
song containing some repeated phrases
and some that are unlike....In the
second lesson....pupils discover
phrases which sound alike and unalike
....In the third lesson the pupils are
taught the syllables of the song by
rote as "another verse"....The song is
now written on the blackboard exactly
as it is written in the book....The
song is then sung with a neutral syllable
and with the regular syllables belong­
ing to the notes....the song is now
located in the books and the work is
repeated. The pupils sing the entire
song end find motives as sung by the
teacher or a pupil...."2
9*
Stress upon ability to read music
at sight*
9.
"....the ability to sing from notation
at first sight is so valuable that
we are justified in devoting the
other half of the music period in the
this grade, [one half having been de­
voted to "actual music experience"}
entirely to sight-singing and its re­
lated activities."^
10. Use of numeral drill.v
10# Present-day examples of numeral drill
may be found in George A. Wedge, £*arTraining and Sight-Singing, pp. 35-36,
p. 47, p. 77«&
1.
Lowell Mason, The Song Garden. I, p. 8; How Shall I Teach, p. 1.
2.
Alma N. Norton, Teaching School Music* condensed from pages 66-68. A
detailed treatment of "Teaching the Observation Song" is given on pages
38-43 of the Music Hour Elementary Teacher's Book by 0. McConathy, W. 0.
Miessner, S. 3. Birge and M. E. Bray.
3.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, pp.
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 40-231.
4.
Walter Damrosch, George H. Gartlan and Karl W. Gehrkens,The Universal School
Music Series Teachers' Book, p. 31. Material in parenthesis not in original.
5.
Iowell Mason, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 109; Pestalozzian
Music Teacher, p. 88 et seq.
6.
George A. Wedge, Ear-Training and Sight-Singing.
9-10, pp. 20-182;
230
Mason's Practice
Today's Practice
11. Solmization."
11. "Where the voice is the medium
for tone production, as in the
public schools, the syllables
are generally regarded as indis­
pensable in learning to read
music.
"....automatic use of syllable
names. The importance of this
step can hardly be overestimat­
ed."3
Phases of Music Education Apparently Anticipated by Mason.
Several phases of music education which Mason mentioned in his writings
but did not himself use extensively, have become widely adopted in the twen­
tieth century.
No claim is made that he influenced the present day develop­
ment of these phases:
these parallel quotations are included here merely
for comparison.
Lowell Mason
1.
Twentieth Century
Correlation and integration. The
values of music study are enhanced
if it is made "correlative to sll
school pursuits and occupations."
1.
"Music has human, scientific or
aesthetic associations with almost
every subject in the prescribed
course of study for junior high
schools. Associations are often
valuable and significant....As­
sociations which definitely en­
large the scope of musical appreci"
ation are worth while."
1.
Lowell Mason, The Pestalozzian Music Teacher, p. 42, pp. 165-167; Manual
of the Boston Academy of Music, pp. 109-110.
2.
H. M, Cundiff and P. ’.V. Dykema, School Music Handbook, p. 16.
3.
Hollis Dann, H 0III3 Dann Music Course. Manual for Teachers.
Dann’a italics.
4.
Lowell Mason, quoted by
The American Journal of
5.
Lilia Belle Pitts, Misic Integration in the Junior High School, p. 33.
I, p. 4.
Henry Barnard, Education Labors ofLowell
Education. IV, 1857, p. 148.
Mason,
231
Lowell Mason
2*
Twentieth Century
Creative music teaching.
"The scholars should be required
themselves to compose measures or
phrases corresponding to lines in
poetry, or parts of lines that can
be rhythmically divided.
2.
"The public schools owe these talen­
ted young musicians another obligation,
that of stimulating and developing
creative ability."*
"There is a wholesome joy that comes
from the successful manipulation of
tools and materials. This joy is
doubled when....these materials are
moulded into a desired object."3
"There are three general types of
songs that children.... can make:
(1) that which results when words
are made to fit a melody.
(2) that which results 7/hen music
is written for a poem.
(3) that which results when words
and music are created simul­
taneously."4
3.
Instrumental music and class in­
3.
struction in instruments. Al­
though Mason himself did little
teaching of instrumental music
after entering the music profes­
sion, as an adolescent and young
man he had conducted instrumental
groups.5 In addition, the Boston
Academy of Music, under his leader­
ship had had during the year 18351836 "formed a class of boys to
receive instruction on the violin"
"The apparently spontaneous impulse
in various communities, especially in
the middle west, to organize orches­
tras in high schools began about the
yesr 1900."6 "....practically every
school system large and small had an
instrumental department or provided for
such instruction in some form. n7
"Class instruction in violin, trumpet,
drum, piano....should be offered from
perhaps the fourth grade on, including
1.
Lowell Mason,
Manual of the Boston Academy of Music, p. 93
2*
Ernest G. Hesser, The Place of Ifcisic in the Changing Social
Pennsylvania School Journal. LXXXVII, 10, p. 333.
3.
Alonzo Ityera and others, Cooperative Supervision in the Public Schools, p. 228.
4.
Ibid., p. 229.
5.
A. W. Thayer,
6.
E. B. Birge, History of Public School Music in the United States, p. 174,
7.
Ibid., p. 202.
Order.
Lowell Mason, p. 24.
232
Lowell Mason
and on "a few other orchestral ins t r u m e n t s , a n d this was continued
along with its orchestra for many
years.
Twentieth Century
the high school."3
1.
Boston Academy of Music, Fourth Annual Report. 1836, p. 5,
2.
Cf, pages 133*'134.
3.
Ernest G. Eesser, The Place of Music in the Changing Social Order,
Pennsylvania School Journal, LJQQCVTI, 10, p. 332.
233
CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Purpose of the Dissertation
The dissertation has attempted to give a systematic exposition of
Lowell Mason's theory and practice in music education, to show the sources
of his ideas and his contribution to American music education.
As far as
possible, Mason's own writings and closely related documents hare been used
as sources of information.
The Life of Mason
Lowell Mason was born in the village of Medfield, Massachusetts, Jan­
uary 6, 1792, of a prosperous middle-class family.
His musical talent was
apparent in childhood, but because facilities for systematic musical train­
ing were not available, he was largely self-taught.
Mason did not Intend to become a professional musician, and it was
only after the publication of his surprisingly successful Boston Handel and
Haydn Society Collection of Church Music that, at the age of thirty-five, he
engaged in music as a life career.
His first full-time musical position was
that of musical director for three churches in Boston; in connection with it
he undertook to teach vocal music to classes of children, a field in which
he had had some previous experience.
In 1830 he became cognizant of the theories of Pestalozzi and the music
teaching of Pfeiffer and Nagell through William C. Woodbridge, who had spent
some time observing Fellenberg's institution at Hofwyl.
About the same time
234
Woodbridge formulated an idea which Mason had expressed previously in an
embryonic form, namely, that vocal instruction should be given in the conr*
mon schools*
To further the development of music among the general population, a
society of business and professional men was organized and named the Bos­
ton Academy of Music*
The real leader of this society was one of its
"professors", Lowell Mason; because of the soundness of his ideas and his
effective planning, the Academy contributed much toward the dissemination
of a knowledge of music in Boston.
Its most far-reaching achievement was
in connection with the movement to introduce music into the schools* both
public and private, of that city.
In 1838, after a persistent campaign extending over a period of sev­
eral years on the part of Mason and his associates, the school committee
finally authorized the study of music as part of the curriculum in the
public schools of Boston.
Lowell Mason was appointed superintendent of
music, which position he held until 1845; from that date until 1851 he taught
music in certain schools only, without being in charge of the music instruc­
tion for the entire school system*
After retiring from active work in the Boston public schools, Mason
devoted his time to various teacher training activities such as musical con­
ventions, teachers' institutes and musical normal institutes, and to the
preparation of collections of music for school and church use.
His Pestal-
ozzian Music Teacher* a treatise on the teaching of vocal music to classes
of children, Intended as the climax of a long and notable line of writings
and musical compilations, was published in the year of his death, 1872.
Lowell Mason and Music for School Children.
In this country, Lowell Mason was the first teacher appointed by the
255
authorities of a city to give musical instruction as part of the regular
school curriculum.
This was the first official recognition of the impor­
tance and value of music in public education.
Although when judged by today's standards, Mason’s work may have been
primitive, yet in the light of the general educational practice and the
music education practice of his day it was extremely advanced, and provided
a most auspicious beginning for American music education.
It wes pioneer
work without an American precedent; Mason was guided largely by his own common-aense, his previous experience in teaching classes of children and
adults, and by reports of music teaching in certain private schools of Eu­
rope.
The time allotment for music instruction was meagre; only the two
upper classes of the grammar schools were included in the initial program;
and the teaching itself was limited to the vocal aspects of music.
But on
the whole, the general motives and ideas behind Mason's effort were sound,
and for that reason it provided a foundation upon which the subsequent struc­
ture of American music education might be erected.
The principles upon which Mason's teaching was based:
1.
The recognition of four learning processes:
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
The student:
a.
b.
c.
3.
sense perception.
reasoning.
faith.
self-activity.
must find the educative process "agreeable".
be motivated through his own interests.
be motivated by successful mastery of specific goals.
The logical arrangement of material so that the student proceeds from
known to unknown:
a.
b.
c.
reduce elements to simplest component parts.
gradation of parts according to difficulty.
learn one thing at a time.
236
d.
e.
4.
frequent review of parts already learned.
the part in relation to the whole.
Material must be worthy as music and as literature, and must be appro­
priate to the student's:
a.
b.
c.
d.
5.
Stress upon vocal music for:
a.
b.
c.
6.
interests.
general maturity.
musical level of development.
vocal capacity.
the average student has an adequate vocal instrument.
carry-over to daily life.
other practical reasons.
Stress upon note-reading as a tool skill, to be acquired through these
steps:
a.
b.
c.
d.
7.
The voice must not be abused:
a.
b.
8.
care of child voice.
care of adolescent voice.
Procedures indicated but-not used extensively:
a.
b.
c.
9.
rote singing.
note reading introduced through songs already familiar to the pupil.
much practice in note reading and sight reading.
use of such devices as solmizaticn, numeral drill, bodily movements.
self-expression.
correlation and integration.
instrumental music.
Success of music education program depends upon the teacher, who must be:
a.
b.
c.
d.
adequately prepared musically, educationally, morally and in other
ways.
truly Interested in his pupils.
ever attentive to his own growth.
resourceful.
Lowell Mason's Philosophy of Music Education.
1. Music and life:
Music is not an end in itself, but its true function
is to benefit man's moral nature and to assist in the developing of the
total personality, or the "whole man".
Mason was so convinced of these
2,37
ideas that he devoted his life to extending music to the masses of the
people#
2.
The aim of education:
The aim of education is to lead to the highest
human development by placing upon the student a right physical, intel­
lectual and moral influence.
Education embraces the total personality,
"the whole man", and is the harmonious development of all the faculties
in their relation to each other and to actual life.
Mere acquisition
of knowledge is not a legitimate aim of education, but the development
of the power to acquire knowledge is.
3.
Function of music in education:
The raison d'etre for music study is
that it is helpful in the development of the various aspects of the
"whole man"*
Mason held that the study of this art is beneficial in
developing these elements: the physical, the intellectual, the emo­
tional, the aesthetic, the social, the character, the personality and
the integrated individual.
4.
Music in the school curriculum:
Because music study is harmonious with
the aims of education and with the function of music in education, it
should be added to the school curriculum.
This is possible because the
average child has sufficient native musical ability to benefit by the
instruction, and is necessary because talent must be cultivated if it
is to unfold its latent possibilities, and if the talent is to be
cultivated it must be done in early life.
The agency designated by
society for the training of youth is the school, and therefore music
should be added to the school curriculum.
The Precursors of Mason.
Ifeson did not claim originality for his theory and practice.
He was
238
inspired by the Pestalozzian ideas and by the application of those ideas
to music teaching by two of Pestalozzi's disciples, Pfeiffer and Hagell.
Through these men he was indirectly influenced by the teachings of edu­
cational philosophers such as Rousseau.
Other disciples of PestSlozzi
were of much less importance to him, for example, Fellenberg, Kubler, Buss
and Neef.
On the other hand, his contacts with great American educators
such as Horace Mann and Henry Barnard were stimulating.
Musically, Mason derived ideas and material from the great composers
Beethoven, Handel and Mozart; from vocal experts such as Garcia; and from
the other members of the group of American hymn writers of which he was the
most important.
Sarah Josepha Hale was of help in the creation of ciildren’s
songs.
Mason*a Influence.
Lowell Mason exerted an important Influence upon music education in
the United States because of six significant contributions he made to it:
1.
the idea of the singing child.
2.
music officially introduced into the curriculum of other cities
through his disciples, his comaunications with school authorities,
and probably through his example.
3.
music officially added to the school curriculum of Boston.
4.
pioneer teacher training in the field of music education.
5.
the dissemination of music teaching principles and procedures.
6.
the creation of music teaching material for the use of children’s
classes in the public schools.
Mason*8 Contribution to Music B&ucation.
1.
A successful demonstration that the average child has the power to
sing.
239
2.
A successful demonstration that the average child may be trained
in singing.
3*
A successful demonstration that instruction in music is possible
in the public schools*
4.
A successful demonstration that instruction in music is desirable
as part of the school curriculum.
5.
The establishment of the principle that musical instruction in
the public schools should be provided at public expense*
6*
The creation of a workable and definite course of study for teach­
ing music in the public schools to classes of children.
7.
The creation of a workable and definite.set of teaching proce­
dures for music teaching in the public schools.
8.
The creation of a body of musical material especially designed for
teaching music to classes of children in the public schools.
9*
The creation of many successful specialized teaching procedures
for music teaching.
10*
The dissemination of educational principles and teaching procedures
for music instruction.
11,
The demonstration of the necessity for teacher training in the
field of music education.
12*
The creation of several successful media for the training of work­
ers in the field of music education.
13*
The providing of the nation with a large proportion of its trained
public school music teachers for a generation*
14,
The creation of leadership to carry forward the music education
movement in the United States after his retirement from active
work in the Boston public schools*
240
15*
The bringing about of conditions making music education attractive
as a profession, with the result that many young man prepared them­
selves for the profession*
16*
Bis important influence upon music education in the country as a
whole through his leadership, his example, his disciples, his
writings and other publications and through his correspondence with
school authorities.
17.
His important part in the introduction of music into the schools
of Boston, and of many other cities.
It is to be noted that these contributions of Mason's are not neces­
sarily original nor were they accomplished single-handed.
Many of the pure­
ly educational ideas came from theories and practices of earlier periods in
the history of education; and this is likewise true of the principles and
practices more specifically applied to music teaching.
In the final analysis, Mason's greatest contributions were those of a
practical nature, and it is upon his practical work that his fame as the
"father of singing among the children in this country" largely rests.
241
I. Mason*a Writings*
The probable date of the first edition of each work here listed
is given in parentheses; where this date differs from that of the
editions examined by the writer, its source i3 indicated as a foot­
note* In cases where several editions of the same work are given,
these are the ones which have been used in preparation of this dis­
sertation; there were, however, subsequent editions of many of the
publications, and since these were not used, they are not listed.
The list includes several works "in the preparation of which he
Mason was assisted by other parties, but none which were not mainly
his composition."^ Other works in which Mason collaborated are listed
• separately.
(1822J1
Mason, Lowell, compiler, The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection
of Church Music; being a selection of the most approved psalm and
hymn tunes; together with many beautiful extracts from the works of
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and other eminent modern composers. Harmo­
nized for three or four voices, with a figured bass for the organ or
pianoforte.
Second Edition, with additions and improvements, Boston: Richardson
and Lord, 1823*
Fifth Edition,
Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1827.
Sixth Edition,
Boston: Richardson and lord, 1828*
Seventh Edition, Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1829.
Ninth Edition,
Boston: Lord and Holbrook, 1830.
Tenth Edition,
Boston: Lord and Holbrook, 1831.
Thirteenth Edition, Buffalo: 0. G. Steele, 1833.
Fourteenth Edition, Boston: Carter, Hendee and Company, 1834.
Eighteenth Edition, Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1838.
(1826)
Mason, Lowell, Address on Church Music, delivered by request on the
evening of Saturday, October 1, 1826, in the vestry of Hanover
Church, and on the evening of Monday following, in the Third
Baptist Church, Boston.
Boston: Hilliard, Gray and Company, 1826.
Boston: Hilliard, Gray and Company, 1827.
(1829)
Mason, Lowell, The Juvenile Psalmist, or Child’s Introduction to Sacred
Music. Prepared at the request of the Boston Sabbath School Union.
Boston: Richardson, Lord and Holbrook, 1829.
(1830J1
Mason, Lowell, The Choral Harmony.*
242
(1831)4
Mason, Lowell, The Juvenile lyre; or hymns and songs, rellgiouB, moral
and cheerful, set to appropriate music, for the use of primary and
common schools*
Boston: RichardBon, lord and Holbrook, 1832.
(1832)
Mason, Iowell, and Greene, David, Church Psalmody.
Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1832.
Boston: Perkins and Marvin, 1843.
Boston: T. R. Marvin, 1844.
(1832)
Mason, lowell, The Choir; or Union Collection of Church Music, consist­
ing of a great variety of psalm and hymn tunes, anthems, etc. Original
and selected, including many beautiful subjects from the works of
Haydn, Mozart, Cherubini, Nauman, Marcello, Mehul, Himmel, Winter,
Weber, Rossini, and other eminent composers, harmonized and arranged
expressly for this work.
Boston: Carter, Hendee and Company, 1832.
Boston: Carter, Hendee and Company, 1833.
Boston: Carter, Hendee and Company, 1835.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1837.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1839.
(1832)5
Mason, Lowell, Iyra Sacra.*
(1833)1
Mason, Lowell, Sacred Melodies.* with solos, duets, trios, etc., with
piano accompaniment.
(1833)6
Mason, Iowell, Sabbath School Songs; or Hymns and Music Suitable for
Sabbath Schools. Prepared for the Massachusetts Sabbath School
Society, and revised by the committee for publication.
Boston: Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, 1836.
(1834)
Mason, Iowell, Manual of the Boston Academy of Music for Instruction
in the Elements of Yocal Music on the System of Pestalozzi.
Boston: Carter, Hendee and Company, 1834.
Bostoh: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1837.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1839.
Boston: J. E. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1844.
Boston: Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1847.
(1834)1
Mason, Lowell, Sentences and Short Anthems.*
(1834J1
Mason, Lowell, Music for Reception of Iafayette at Faneuil Hall. Boston
September 5, 1854.^
248
1835)
Mason, Lowell, compiler, The Boston Academy’s Collection of Church Music;
consisting of the most popular psalm and hymn tunes, anthems, sentences,
chants, etc., old and new. Together with many beautiful pieces, tunes,
anthems, selected from the masses and other works of Haydn, Mozart,
Beethoven, Pergolesi, Righini, Romberg, Winter, Weber, Nageli, Kubler,
and other distinguished composers, arranged and adapted to English
words expressly for this work; Including, also, original compositions
by German, English and American authors. Published under the direction
of the Boston A.cademy of Music.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1835.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1836.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1838.
Boston: Rice and Kendall, 1853.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1863.
I1835J1
Mason, Iowell and Mason, Timothy B., The Sacred Harpj or Beauties of Church
M u b Ic ; a new collection of psalm and hymn tunes, anthems, sentences and
chants, derived from the compositions of about one hundred eminent Ger­
man, Swiss, Italian, French, English, and other European musicians;
also, original tunes by German, English and American authors, many of
them having been arranged or composed expressly for this work.
Boston: Shepley and Wright, 1841.
(1835)2
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., The Juvenile Singing School.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1844.
(1836)
Mason, Lowell, editor, The Boston Academy’s Collection of Choruses; being
a selection from the works of the most eminent composers as Handel,
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and others, together with several new and
beautiful pieces by German authors, adapted to English words expressly
for this work, the whole arranged with an accompaniment for the piano­
forte or organ.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1836,
(1835-1836)
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., editor, The Musical Library.
July, 1835; June 1336.
Boston: Broaders and Company, 1836.
One Volume,
(1836)7
Mason, Lowell, Occassional Psalm and Hymn Tunes.
(1837)
Webb, George J. and Mason, Lowell,The Odeon;
arranged and harmonized for four voices,
schools, and for social music parties.
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R.
B. Carter,
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R.
B. Carter,
(1837)8
Mason, Lowell, The Seraph.*
a collection of secular melodies
designed for adult singing
1837.
1839.
244
(1837)
Mason, Lowell, Journal of European Travels. Published by Daniel Gregory
Mason in The New Music Review. IX, 108 (November, 1910), pp. 577-581;
X, 1 (December, 1910), pp. 16-18; X, 2 (January, 1911), pp. 62-69.
(1837)2
Mason, Lowell, The Sabbath School Harp.*
(JL837)9
Mason, Lowell, The Juvenile Songster.*
(1838)
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., The lyrist, consisting of a selection
of new songs, duets and trios, from recent works of various authors.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1838.
(1838)
Mason, Lowell, Musical Exercises for Singing Schools; to be used in
connection with the Manual of the Boston Academy of Music for
Instruction in the Elements of Vocal Music.
Boston: G. W. Palmer and Company, and J. H. Vftlkins and R. B. Carter,
1838.
(1838)
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., The Boston Glee Book; consisting of
an extensive collection of glees, madrigals and rounds, selected from
the works of the most admired composers, together with many new pieces
from the German, arranged expressly for this work.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1838.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1841.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, and Jenks and
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1846.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1847.
(1839)1’2
Mason, Lowell, Juvenile Music for Sunday Schools.*
(1839)3
Mason, Lowell, The Modern Psalmist; a collection of church music,
comprising the most popular psalm and hymn tunes and occassional
pieces in general use; together with a great variety of new tunes,
anthems, motetts, sentences, chants, etc., by distinguished European
authors; many of which have been composed or arranged expressly for
this work; including, also, compositions by the author, never before
published. The whole constituting a body of church music probably
as extensive and complete as was ever issued.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1840.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1841.
245
(1839)
Mason, Lowell, The Boston Anthem Book; being a selection of anthems,
collects, motetts, and other set pieces.
Boston: Wilkins,.Carter and Company, 1839.
(1840)1*2,
Meson, Lowell, The Boston School Song Book; published under the sanction
of the Boston Acadeny of Music.
Original and selected.
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1841.
(1840J1
Mason, Lowell, Little Songs for Little Singers.*
(1840)3
Mason, Lowell, Carmina Sacra, or Boston Collection of Church Music;
consisting of the most popular psalm and hymn tunes in general use,
together with a great variety of new times, chants, sentences, motetts,
and anthems, principally by distinguished composers; the whole
constituting one of the most complete collections of music for choirs,
congregations, singing schools and societies, extant.
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1841.
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1844.
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1846.
(1841)1*2 *
Mason, Lowell, The Gentlemen's Glee Book; consisting of a selection of
glees for men's voices by the most admired German composers.
Boston:
J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1842.
(1842)3
Mason, Lowell, Book of Chants; consisting mostly of selections from the
sacred scriptures adapted to appropriate music and arranged for
chanting. Designed for congregational use in public or social worship.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1864.
(1842)
Mason, Lowell, Vocal Exercises and Solfeggios, with an accompaniment for
the pianoforte. Adapted to the wants of private pupils or classes
in vocal music.
Selected from Italian, irench and German composers.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1842.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1844.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1845.
(1843J1
Mason, Lowell, Service for the Episcopal Church.*
(1843)10
Mason, Lowell, Songs of Asaph.*
246
(1843)
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., Twenty-One Madrigals, Glees and
Part Songs; designed for choir practice or chorus singing, selected
mostly from old and distinguished composers.
Boston: J, H. Wilkins and R. E. Carter, 1843.
(1843J1*2
Mason, Lowell, The American Sabbath School Singing-Book.*
(1844)
Mason, Lowell
and easy
and bass
Boston:
and Webb, George J., The Vocalist; consisting of short
glees or songs in parts. Arranged for soprano, alto, tenor
voices.
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1844.
(1845)
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., The Psaltery; a new collection of
church music, consisting of psalm and hymn tunes, chants and anthems;
being one of the most complete music books for church choirs, congrega­
tions, singing schools and societies ever published. Published under
the sanction, and with the approbation of, the Boston Academy of Music,
and the Boston Handel and Haydn Society.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1845.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1847.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1848.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1851.
(1845)1,2
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., The Songbook of the School Room;
consisting of a great variety of songs, hymns and scriptural selections
with appropriate music, arranged to be sung in one, two or three parts;
containing also The Elementary Principles of Vocal Music. Prepared with
Reference to the Inductive or Pestalozzian Method of Teaching; designed
as a complete music manual for common or grarm;-ar schools.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1847.
Boston:
Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1848.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1856.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1858.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1860.
(1846)1 ’2
Mason, Lowell, The Primary School Song Book.*
(1846)
Mason, Lowell and Webb, George J., The Boston Chorus Book; consisting of
a selection of the most popular choruses from the works of Handel,
Haydn and other eminent composers, arranged in full vocal score, with
an accompaniment for the piano or organ.
Boston: Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1846.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1855(7).
247
(1848)
Mason, Lowell, The Chorallst.*
(1848)
Mason, Lowell end Webb, George J., The National P salmist; a collection
of the moat popular and useful psalm and hymn tunes; together with
a great variety of new tunes, anthems, sentences, and chants; the
whole forming a most complete manual of church music for choirs,
congregations, singing schools, and musical associations.
Boston: Tappan, 7/hittemore, and Mason, 1848.
Boston: Tappan, vThittemore, and Mason, 1849.
(1849)
Mason, Lowell, editor, Fifty-Nine Select Psalm and Hymn Tunes, for pub­
lic or private worship, issued by the publishers of Carmlna Sacra.
or Boston Collection, for gratuitous distribution to all who may
purchase that work, copy for copy.
Boston: Wilkins, Carter and Company, 1849.
(1850)
Meson, Lowell and Webb, George J., Cantlca Laudls, or The .American Book
of Church Music; being chiefly a selection of chaste and elegant
melodies, from the most classic authors, ancient and modern, with
harmony parts; together with chants, anthems, and other set pieces
for choirs and singing schools, to which are added tunes for con­
gregational singing.
New York: Mason and law, 1850.
(1850)
Mason, Lowell, The New Carmina Sacra, or Boston Collection of Church
Music; comprising the most popular psalm andhymn tunes
in general
use, together with a great variety of newtunes, chants,sentences,
motetts, and anthems; principally by distinguished European composers:
the whole being one of the most complete collections of music for
choirs, congregations, singing schools and societies extant.
Boston: Rice and Kendall, 1850.
Boston: Rice and Kendall, 1853.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1855.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1860.
(1850)
Mason, Lowell, The ffymnist.*
(1851)
MaBon, Lowell, The Glee Hive.
New York: Mason and law, 1851.
(1851)
Mason, Lowell, Address on Church Music, delivered July 8, 1851 in Boston.
New York: Mason and Law, 1851.
(1852)
Mason, Lowell, Mason’s Handbook of Psalmody.*
248
(1853)
Mason, Lowell, Musical Letters from Abroad, including detailed accounts
of the Birmingham, Norwich and Dusseldorf music festivals of 1853.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1854.
Boston: 0. Ditson and Company, 1853.
(1853)
Mason, Iowell, The Hallelujah; a book for the service of song in the
house of the lord; containing tunes, chants, and anthems, both for
the choir and the congregation; to which is prefized The Singing
School: A Manual for Classes in Vocal Music, with ezercises, rounds,
and part-songs, for choir practice; also Musical Notation in a Nut­
shell: A Brief Course for Singing Schools; intended for skillful
teachers and apt pupils.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1853.
(1855)
Mason, Lowell, Letter to His Son William Mason, April 12, 1855. Pub­
lished by Daniel Gregory ftfeson in A Glimpse of Lowell Mason from
an Old Bundle of Letters, The New Music Review, XXVI, 302 (January,
1927), pp. 49-52.
(1856)
Mason, Lowell, Mason’s Normal Singer; a collection of vocal music for
singing classes, schools, and social circles; arranged in four parts.
To which are prefized The Elements of Vocal Music with Practical
Ezercises.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1856.
(1859)
Mason, Lowell, Edwards, A., and Phelps, Austin, The Sabbath Hymn and
Time Book for the Service of Song in the House of the Lord.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1859.
Hartford: Hanersley and Company, 1873.
(1860)
Mason, Lowell, The People’s Tune Book; a class book of church music for
congregations and singing schools.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1860.
(1861)
Mason, Lowell and Mason, William, Asaph, or The Choir Book; a selection
of vocal music, 3acred and secular, for choirs, singing schools, musi­
cal societies, and conventions, and social and religious assemblies.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1861.
(1364-1865)
Mason, Lowell, The Song Garden; a series of school music books, pro­
gressively arranged, each book complete in itself.
Book I: New York: Mason Brothers, 1864.
Boston: 0. Ditson and Company, 1864.
Book II: New York: Mason Brothers, 1864.
Boston:
0. Ditson and Company, 1866.
Book III: Boston: 0. Ditoon and Company, 1866.
249
(1869)
Mason, Lowell, .American Tune Book; a complete collection of the tunes
which are the most popular In America, with the most popular anthems
and set pieces, preceded by a new course of instruction for singing
schools.
Boston: Oliver Ditson and Company, 1869*
(1869)
Mason, Lowell, The Elements of Misic and Its Notation, After the Interrog­
atory Manner.
Boston: Oliver Ditson and Company, 1875.
(1870 ?)
Mason, Lowell, How Shall I_ Teach? or Hints to Teachers as to the Use of
Music and Its Notation.
Boston : Oliver Ditson and Company, 1875.
(1871 ?)
Mason, Lowell, A Brief Presentation of the Elementery Principles of Music
in Perceptive or Didactic Form.
New York: C. H. Ditson, 1871.
(1871)
Mason, Lowell and Seward, T. F., The Pestalozzlan Music Teacher or Class
Instructor in Elementary Music in Accordance with the Analytic Method.
To which is added illustrative lessons on form, number and arithmetic,
language and grammar, psychology and other school topics by John ff.
Dickinson.
New York: C. H. Ditson, 1871.
Ifeson, Lowell, Song in Worship, an Address.
Boston: Marvin and Son, 1878.
Orange, N. J . : privately printed, 1888.
Mason, Lowell, Mislc and Its Notation.
Boston: Oliver Ditson and Company, 1875.
Publications to which Mason Contributed.
Hastings, Thomas and Mason, Lowell, Spiritual Songs for Social Worship.
Utica, N. Y . : Hastings and Tracy and W. Williams, 1832.
Utica, N. Y . : G. Tracy, 1837.
Catel, Charles Simon, A Treatise on Harmony; from the English copy, with
additional notes by Lowell Mason.
Boston: J. Loring, 1832.
Mason, Lowell, editor, The Harmony of the Spheres, a hymn by L. T.
Kosegarten, music by A. Romberg, adapted to English words by Lowell
Mason.
Boston: J. H. Wilkins and R. B. Carter, 1838.
Boston: G. W. Palmer and Company, 1839.
250
Russel, William, Elements of Musical Articulation, with illustrations
in vocal music by L. Mason.
Boston: 1845.
Root, G. F., The Academy Vocalist, or vocal music arranged for the use
of seminaries, high schools, singing classes, etc., including a com­
plete course of elementary instruction, vocal exercises and solfeggios
by Lowell Mason.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1852.
Seward, T. F., assisted by Mason, L. and Bradbury, W. B«, The Temple Choir.
a collection of sacred and secular music, comprising a great variety
of tunes, glees, elementary exercises and social songs, suitable for
use in the choir, the singing school end the social circle.
New York: Mason Brothers, 1867.
Seward, T. F. and Allen C. G., assisted by Mason, L., The Coronation, a
new collection of music for choirs and singing schools.
New York and Chicago: Bigelow and Main, 1872.
*
Works not examined by this author.
1.
T. F. Seward, The Educational Work of Dr. Lowell Mason, pp. 22.
2.
Grove’s Dictionary of M u b I c and Musicians, American Supplement, pp. 286.
3.
Copyright date.
4.
Copyright date of Juvenile lyre 1831; Grove, Seward and Allibone
give 1830 as date of first issuance.
5.
Seward dates Iyra Sacra 1832; Allibone, 1837.
6 . Copyright dote of Sabbath School Songs 1833;
Seward, Grove and
date it 1836.
7.
Seward dates Oocasslonal Psalm and Hymn
8 . Seward dates The Seraph 1837; Allibone,
9.
Tunes 1836; Allibone, 1837.
1838.
Grove's Dictionary dates The Juvenile Songster 1837; Seward and
Allibone, 1838.
10.
Seward dates Songs of Jbsaph. 1843; Allibone, 1838.
11.
Seward and Grove both date Book III of ±he Song Garden. 1865.
251
II.
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