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Homemaking education in the Catholic four-year college for women

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MANUSCRIPT THESIS
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NAME A ND ADDRESS
D ATE
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HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE
CATHOLIC POUR YEAR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
By
S i s t e r Mary Bernard. Dwyer, 0 . P . , N. A.
A THESIS
P re se n te d t o th e F a o u lty o f
The Graduate C ollege i n th e U n iv e rs ity o f N ebraska
i n P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f Requirem ents
f o r th e Degree o f D octor o f P h ilo so p h y
Department o f Secondary E d u catio n
L in co ln , N ebraska
Ju n e, 1940
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DEDICATED TO HOMEMAKERS THE WORID OVER
"F or n o th in g l o v l i e r oan be found
I n women
Than t o s tu d y h o u seh o ld g o o d s."
P a ra d is e L o s t, I»232
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ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The a u th o r w ishes t o ex p ress in d e b te d n e ss to a l l who in any way
gave a s s is ta n o e and encouragem ent i n th e p re p a ra tio n o f t h i s w ork.
The a u th o r i s e s p e o ia lly in d e b te d t o D r. G. W« R o se n lo f, who by
word and deed h a s f u r th e r e d i n no sm all degree th e work o f t h i s i n v e s t i ­
g a tio n .
G ra titu d e i s a ls o due th e o th e r members o f th e a u th o r ’s G raduate
C om m ittee, who b y t h e i r su g g e stio n s and i n t e r e s t have a id e d i n b r in g in g
t h i s work t o c o m p le tio n .
The a u th o rs and in v e s t ig a to r s whose works have b e e n drawn upon in
t h e p r e p a r a tio n o f t h i s stu d y a re g r a t e f u l l y remembered, a s a re th o s e
c o lle g e o f f i c i a l s who so k in d ly to o k g e n e ro u sly o f t h e i r tim e t o answer
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s a d d re sse d t o them .
The a u th o r a ls o w ish es t o e x p re ss g r a titu d e t o th e members o f h e r
own community who have g iven s p e c ia l a id and encouragem ent i n t h i s u n d e r­
ta k in g .
S . M. B.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
Page
FART I —NEED FOR HOMEMAKING EDUCATION
I.
INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
. .
Homaraaking Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S tatem ent o f Problem • • • . * • • • • • . . • • • . • *
Need f o r S o lu tio n o f Suoh a Problem . .
. . . .
N ature o f th e R esearch That Has Boon Done. . . . . . . .
R esearch Needed. . ................................... . . . . . . . . . .
R esearch i n th e F ie ld o f C a th o lic E d u c a tio n . . . . . . .
Purpose o f This S tu d y .
....................................................
Methods o f I n v e s tig a tio n
P la n o f A rrangem ent.
.............................................
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PART I I —HOMEMAKING EDUCATION AS IT NOW IS IN THE
CATHOLIC FOUR TEAR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
II.
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGES FOR
WOMEN AS REVEALED BT A STUDY OF THEIR CATALOGS.........................
Meaning o f Homemaking E d u c a tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S e le c tio n o f C o lle g e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Purpose o f C atalog A n a ly s is . •
. . . . . . . .
Method o f c a ta lo g A n a ly sis
F acta R evealed by a P re lim in a ry Survey o f C o lleg e
C a ta lo g s . . . . . . . . . . .
...................... . . . . . .
G eographical D is tr ib u tio n o f C o lle g es and T h e ir Course
............................................................
O ffe rin g s
Two Groups o f C o lle g es * .................................................................
C ollege C atalo g s . . . • • • * ............................... • • • • •
F a c u lty Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rank o f I n s t r u c t o r s . . . . ...................... . . . . . . . . .
E d u c a tio n a l T ra in in g o f I n s t r u c t o r s .
Types o f Degrees H eld by I n s tr u c to r s . . . . . . . . . .
I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Whioh D egrees Were Earned* . . . . . . .
Number o f Home Economics C ourses « . . . .....................
Aims and O b je c tiv e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods of A nalyzing C o n ten t o f C o u rses......................... . •
D isc u ssio n o f F in d in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D is tr ib u tio n o f C ourses* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A reas o f I n s tr u c tio n • • • . • • • « . * . » » • • • < •
C lo th in g and T e x t i l e s . . . . . . . . . .
...................... • •
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
.....................
Home Management* . « . . » • » • • • ......................... * • • •
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Chapter
Page
R e la te d A rts • . .....................
Fam ily R e la tio n s and C h ild Development • • . . . • » .
C h ild H e alth and Home N u rsin g . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods f o r T eaching Home Econom ies. . . . . . . . . .
G eneral Summary o f Course O f f e r in g s . . . . . ..................
Method o f D eterm ining R e p re s e n ta tiv e Courses . . . . .
B asic T i t l e s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C la s s if y in g Course M a te ria l Under B asic T i t l e s • • • *
R e p re s e n ta tiv e Courses . . . . . ............................................
C h a r a o te r is tio s o f R e p re s e n ta tiv e C o u rse s. . . . . . .
C ontent o f R e p re s e n ta tiv e C o u rses. • • • • • . . • • •
Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III.
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGE
FOR WOMEN AS REVEALED BY A STUDY OF QUESTIONNAIRES. . . .
Use o f t h e Q u e s tio n n a ire s . . . . . . . .
•
Number and Purpose o f th e Q u e stio n n a ire s • • • • • * #
Q u e stio n n a ire R e tu rn s.
Home Economics i n N an-O fferin g Group C o lle g e s . » • • •
Comments
F u r th e r A n a ly sis o f th e Q u e stio n n a ire R e tu rn s. • • • •
. A n a ly sis o f P la n o f T a b le .
A n a ly sis o f
th e Responses t o th e F i r s t Q u e stio n . . . .
A n a ly s is o f
th e Responses t o th e Seoond Q u e stio n . • •
A n a ly sis o f th e Responses t o th e T hird Q u e stio n . . . .
A '.ialyeis o f
th e Responses to t h e F o u rth Q u e stio n . . .
Home Economics i n t h e C o lle g e s t h a t O ffe r I t , As
R evealed b y th e Remaining Answers t o Q u estio n s o f
th e Seoond Q u e s tio n n a iro . .
. . . . . . .
A n a ly s is o f H is to r ic a l and S t a t i s t i c a l D a ta . • , . . •
Number o f C ourses and A reas o f I n s t r u c t i o n . . . . . .
A n a ly sis o f th e L ast Phase o f th e Seoond Q u e stio n n a ire
Summary
IV .
DEVELOPING A PHILOSOPHY OF HOMEMAKING EDUCATION FOR THE
CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN.
.
Source o f P h ilo s o p h ic a l D ata • • • , . • • • • • • • •
P o s s ib le Methods f o r D eveloping a P h ilo so p h y o f
Homemaking E d u c a tio n .....................
Purpose o f C hapter XV. • » ..................
Homemaking E d u catio n a s a S u b je o t i n th e C o lleg e
C u rricu lu m . » • « • • • * • • • • • • • • • • » • •
Homemaking E du catio n a s a C u ltu r a l S u b je c t . • • • * .
F u n c tio n o f th e L ib e ra l A rts C o lle g e • • • . • • . . .
Aims and O b je c tiv e s o f Home Eoonom ios. . . . . . . . .
Home Economics a s a R equired S u b je c t • • • • . . . « •
E d u c a tio n f o r Home L iv in g a P a r t o f th e Yfliole Program
o f E d u c a tio n .
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V
Chapter
Page
C u rrio u la r R ev isio n and Homemaking E d u o atio n . . . . . .
Means by VJhich Homemaking E du o atio n May Become a p a rt
o f t h e Whole Program o f E d u o atio n . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of th e P h ilo so p h y o f Homemflklng E d u c a tio n . . . .
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PART I I I — PLAB FOR A PROGRAM OF HOMEIft-KIRG EDUCATION
V.
V I.
V II.
INTEGRATION AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF HOMEMAKB1G EDUCATION IN THE CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN 91
P la n f o r P a r t I I I .
..............................
The Proposed P la n .
I n te g r a tio n a s a B a sis f o r an E d u o a tio n a l Program . . . .
Causes o f D is in te g r a tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Need f o r U n if ic a tio n
Meaning o f I n te g r a tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I n te g r a tio n and t h e C a th o lic S o c ia l Theory
P s y c h o lo g ic a l B asis o f I n t e g r a tio n
S p e c ific Meaning o f I n te g r a tio n . . . . . . . . . . . . .
F h ilo so p h y a s a B a sis f o r an I n te g r a te d program o f
S tu d ie s
. . . . . .
S e le c tio n o f M a te ria l f o r an I n te g r a te d Program o f
S tu d ie s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...................................
Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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102
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION AND “AN INTEGRATED COLLEGE CURRICULUM .
104
An I n te g r a te d C o lleg e C urriculum . . . . . .................. • *
Purpose o f C hapter VI# . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
P la n o f I n t e g r a t i o n .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
P la n f o r an I n te g r a te d C o lleg e C u rricu lu m . . . . . . . .
Homemaking E ducation i n t h e I n te g r a te d C o lleg e C u rric u ­
lum
.....................................................................
C o n c lu sio n s. . . . . . . . . . . .
........................... . . . •
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FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
106
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109
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112
....................................................................... 114
APPENDIX A . ...............................................
APPENDIX
100
....................... 109
F in d in g s . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
• « . . . . . «
C o n c lu sio n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recommendations.
BIBLIOGRAHY.
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LIST OF TABLES
Tablo
I.
Pago
G eographical D is trib u tio n , of C ollogos and Humber o f
Home Economics C ourses O ffered
25
II.
C ourses Ranked A coording t o F o r Cent of T o tal O ffe rin g s .
30
III.
A reas o f Home Economics I n s t r u c t i o n , Humber o f T i t l e s ,
T h e ir P e r Cent o f th e T o ta l O ffe rin g s , and th e Rank o f
Each A rea. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
C ourses O ffered by a s Hany a s Five C o lleg es i n Rank O rder
A ccording t o th e Number o f C o lleg es O ffe rin g Suixh Courses
43
R e p re s e n ta tiv e Courses . . . . . . .
................... . . . . .
45
V I.
Humber of Q u e stio n n a ire s —Por Cent o f R eturned . . . . .
50
V II.
Stannary o f Answers t o F i r s t Five Q u estio n s o f F i r s t
Q u e s tio n n a ire . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
50
Summary o f Answers t o Q uestions Common t o Both Q u estio n ­
n a ir e s
...................................................
55
EC.
H i s t o r i c a l and S t a t i s t i c a l Data f o r Forty-tw o C o lle g es .
65
X.
Summary o f Responses P e rta in in g t o C u rric u la r Problem s .
67
C u r r ic u la r R e v isio n , .
70
IV.
V.
V III.
X I,
....................................
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PART I —NEED FOR HOMEMAJtING EDUCATION
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OP PROBLEM
Hons, a dom estic s a n o tu a ry , w rought ou t
o f d e s i r e , b u i l t i n t o memory, where
k in d re d bonds u n ite th e fa m ily i n s h a r in g
la b o r s , l e i s u r e , jo y and sorrow s*
Homemaking E duo atio n
Homemaking e d u o a tio n , i n i t s b ro a d e s t im p lic a tio n , c o v e rs a w ide
f i e l d o f i n s t r u c t i o n and may be d e fin e d a s t h a t phase o f e d u o a tio n which
i s in te n d e d ”t o p re p a re men and women f o r a c u ltu r e d l i f e in th e home,
th e fa m ily and th e com m unity."^
raoe*
Such e d u c a tio n i s a s o ld as th e human
Mon and women have b e en concerned w ith i t sin c e t h e b e g in n in g o f
tim e , b u t n o t u n t i l v o ry re c e n t tim e s h as a body o f o rg a n is e d knowledge
on th e s u b je c t come t o o x is t*
Only s in c e th e c lo s in g y e a r s o f th e n in e ­
te e n t h c e n tu ry has th e s c ie n c e o f homemaking been lo o k ed upon a s a s u b je c t
t h a t c o u ld be ta u g h t o r le a rn e d i n sch o o l s i t u a t i o n s , and o n ly s in c e th e
World War h as an a tte m p t boon made t o d is s e m in a te a knowledge o f i t
th ro u g h school a c t i v i t i e s *
S in ce th e n , a o co rd in g t o W in o h ell,
p
r a p id changes have o o o u rred .
The lim ite d c o u rse o f f o r ln g s o f d om estic so ie n c e o r d o m estic economy,
s t r e s s i n g s k i l l s and te c h n iq u e s i n 3ewing and c o o k in g , have giv en way t o
a b ro a d e r ty p e o f t r a i n i n g no lo n g e r a s u b je c t b u t a f ie l d *
The work o f
home economics a co o rd in g t o th e same a u th o r it y i s co n o eraed w ith*
F rances Z u l l l , "F acin g a New Era i n Home E conom ics,B J o u rn a l o f Homo
Economics, 30j526-531, (O cto b er, 1938), p* 626*
p
C la ra M* W in o h ell, Home Economics. New York* Bureau o f P u b lic a tio n s ,
T eachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1931. P . 47*
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5
• •••p ro b lem s o f fe e d in g , o lo th in g and h o u sin g , “w ith problem s
o f b u d g e tin g and b u y in g j w ith th e management o f th e home,
tim e , en erg y and money j w ith c h il d a o re and tr a i n i n g ! w ith
th e r e la tio n s h ip s i n th e home and w ith th e i n t e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s i n t h e community} and f i n a l l y vrLth th e •vocational
and a v o o a tio n a l needs a s th e y a f f e o t in d iv id u a ls in t h e i r
homes and i n t h e i r p e r s o n a lity developm ent*
T his e x p an sio n o f s u b je c t m a tte r h as b e en accompanied by a v e ry
d e f i n i t e change i n th e v a lu e s so u g h t.
Home eoonomios o f to d a y i s q u ite d i f f e r e n t from t h a t
o f t e n o r tw e n ty y e a rs ag o . Then th e work c e n te re d around
th e te c h n iq u e s o f cooking and sew ing. Today t h e scope h as
broadened t o in c lu d e ev ery phase o f home l i f e w ith empha­
s i s on a t t i t u d e s , a p p r e c ia tio n s and s p i r i t u a l v a lu e s .
Homemaking e d u o a tio n to d a y means more th a n mere t r a i n i n g i n
p ro p e r s e l e c t i o n o f fo o d ccid c lo th in g .
I t means " tr a in in g i n th e
s p i r i t u a l a s p e c ts o f homemaking • • • w ith em phasis upon th e m en tal and
g
s o c i a l developm ent and fa m ily r e l a t i o n s . ”
Homo l i v i n g and homemaking i s c o n sid e re d a p ro c e ss ,
demanding th e b u ild in g o f a t t i t u d e s o f mind and appre­
c i a t i o n s o f r e l a t i v e v a lu e s in e v e ry member o f th e
fa m ily j and one o f th e most e s s e n t i a l outcomes o f t h i s
phase o f e d u c a tio n i s t h e developm ent o f p e r s o n a li t i e s
whioh w i l l i n t e l l i g e n t l y shape th e new home in t o a form
w hioh w i l l stan d th e s t r a i n o f th e changing order,®
I t means tu r n in g ”th e a t t e n t i o n t o th e s p i r i t o f fa m ily l i f e , t o
th e c h ild as th e c e n tr a l i n t e r e s t i n th e fa m ily , and t h e t r a i n i n g o f
c h ild r e n • . • th e most v i t a l fu n c tio n o f th e home."
7
In c o n t r a s t , th e n ,
2I b i d . , p . 69.
% r s . Thomas C o z a rt, "What Home Eoonomios Has Done f o r Aroerioan Boys and
G i r l s , ” J o u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios, 2 4 jl0 6 3 -1 0 5 9 , (Deoember, 1 9 3 2 ), p . 1054.
®Clara M. W in o h ell, "R ev a lu a tio n o f Home Economics E d u o atio n ," J o u rn a l
Home Eoonomios, 2 4 a413-430, (May, 1 9 3 2 ), p . 419.
® Ib id ., p . 426.
^ C o z a rt, o p . c i t . , p . 1047*
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of
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”t o th e r a t h e r vague sta te m e n ts o f dom estic s c ie n c e of 1914., th e r e iB
now one o u ts ta n d in g o b je c tiv e . » , th e enrichm ent of homes, home l i f e ,
and more abundant liv i n g • « *”^
A ccording t o S h ie ld s ,
The home o f th e p a s t was i n d u s t r i a l j th e home o f th e
f u tu r e must be c u ltu r a l* The new o rg a n iz a tio n o f in d u s try
has r e s u l t e d i n len g th e n ed h o u rs o f l e i s u r e th a t sh o u ld
be sp e n t a t home i n th e p u r s u it o f th e th in g s o f th e mind.
The oompanionship in th e work o f t h e i r h ands, t h a t husband
and w ife have l o s t , th e y must f in d a g ain i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n
o f t h e i r minds and h e a rts* In t h e p a s t c h ild re n grew up
b e n e a th th e s h e lte r in g ro o f o f th o home; t h e i r conduct was
governed th ro u g h o u t l i f e by lo o o l customs and fa m ily t r a ­
d itio n *
The heme o f th e f u tu r e must develop high i d e a l s i n
th e minds o f th e c h ild re n j i t nni3t form s tro n g c h a r a c te rs
i n them* The homo o f th e f u tu r e must be th e so n o tu ary of
l i f e and t h e d w ellin g p lao e o f io v o j th e mind must f i n d in
i t room t o grow in a l l th e realm s o f t r u t h and b e a u ty j i t s
atm osphere must be th a t o f re fin e m e n t and c u l t u r e . 9
I
F in a lly , home economics i s a fundam ental in th e c u rric u lu m .
"The
in tr o d u c tio n of new m a te r ia ls from th e departm ent w i l l ten d t o r e s to r e
tits b alanoe t o a school program whioh now overem phasizes th e th in g s o f
th o mind and tends t o n e g le c t th e s o u l* ”^®
Y et, w ith t h i s g r e a tly e n la rg e d m eaning, t h i s s tr e s s in g of t h e
v i t a l a f f a i r s o f hum anity, and t h i s a t a tim e when s p e c ia liz a tio n i s
sought in a l l p ro f e s s io n s , t r a i n i n g f o r homemaking is l e f t more or l e s s
t o chance*
■fi-— — ....
E f f ie I* R a i t t , "The N ature and F u n ctio n o f Home Eoonom ios,” J o u rn a l o f
Home Boonomioa, 27*268-277, (May, 1935), p , 270*
^Thomas Edward S h ie ld s , The E du o atio n o f Our g i r l s * Chicago*
B ro th e rs , 1907* Pp* 281-282*
B enziger
^Thom as G o slin g , "A Fundam ental in t h e C u rric u lu m ,” J o u rn a l o f Home
Eoonomios, 27*351-354, (J u n e -J u ly , 1935), p« 351*
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
A ll a v a ila b le f ig u r e s in d ic a te t h a t a f a i r l y la r g e
p e rc e n ta g e o f p u b lic and p r iv a te sch o o ls s t i l l o f f e r no
home econom ics; t h a t a la rg e p ro p o rtio n o f s tu d e n ts do
n o t e n r o l l fo r home economics c o u rs e s ; and t h a t a la rg e
number leav e sohool b e fo re i t i s o f f e r e d . l l
Home economios i s th o u g h t o f as a s u b je c t t o be ta k e n by a lim ite d
number o f g i r l s *
I t is g e n e ra lly lo o k ed upon a s a s u b je o t to o effe m in a te
f o r men and b o y s, a lth o u g h a knowledge o f " i t s p r i n c i p l e s would g r e a tly
in o re a a e t h e i r h ap p in ess and e f f i c i e n c y , "
12
On t h i s p o in t C hanoellor
C arm ichael o f V a n d e rb ilt U n iv e rs ity would even change th e name, i f by
doing so th e s u b je o t would make a g r e a te r nc o n tr ib u tio n to t h e t r a i n i n g
o f young men*" IS
But even i n sch o o ls and c o lle g e s f o r women, a s u f f i c i e n t number o f
s tu d e n ts a re n o t re a c h e d v /ith th e p re s e n t s e t- u p of s e p a ra te courses*
C ourses a re in te n d e d , p r im a r ily , f o r p r o f e s s io n a l m ajo rs o r f o r th o s e who
a re i n t e r e s t e d enough to e l e c t a few i n o rd e r t o s a t i s f y a f e l t n eed o r
t o com plete e l e c t i v e re q u ire m e n ts * T his s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s even though
s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t homemaking becomes t h e p ro f e s s io n of " s e v e n ty -fiv e
p e r o en t o f c o lle g e women, w h ile th o rem ain in g tw e n ty -fiv e p e r cen t have
home r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a g r e a te r o r l e s s d e g re e ,
Because o f i t s b r e a d th , homemaking e d u o a tio n to u c h es upon many
f i e l d s o f s u b je c t jx a te r ia ls , c o n tr ib u tin g t o them and draw ing from them ,
and th e " c h a lle n g e t o home econom ists i s , th e n , t o d ev elo p a more
T T "
' ' '
^F ran ces Z u i l l , op, o l t , , p* 526*
120 , C* C arm ichael, "Home Economics i n H igher E d u c a tio n ," J o u rn a l o f Home
Econom ics, 2 4 i 851-856, (O cto b er, 1932), p , 853*
I S j b l d . , p , 855.
X4I b i d . , p . 856,
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
com prehensive p h ilo so p h y era. v?hiah t o b ase a program o f homemaking e d u o a tio n ,
t o s e l e c t a s u b je o t m a tte r b e t t e r a d a p te d t o th o needs o f a l l s tu d e n t s ,
and to seo u re a more d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n w ith o th e r s u b je c ts i n t h e
l e
c u rric u lu m ,”
For one o f th e d e f i n i t e c o n tr ib u tio n s t h a t home eoonomios
w i l l make i n th o f u tu r e t o c o lle g e e d u c a tio n , i n th e o p in io n o f Wine he 11,
w i l l be to a id th o s e te a c h in g s c ie n c e , a r t , so cio lo g y * eoonomios and
e d u o a tio n to humanize and v i t a l i z e th e work o f t h e i r c o u rses a s th e y
a p p ly more d e f i n i t e l y t o th e a c t u a l needs o f homo l i v i n g .
I n h i s a d d re s s b e f o r e th e A m erican Home Economics A s s o c ia tio n ,
D r, C arm ichael spoke o f ev en a g r e a te r f u tu r e f o r homemaking e d u c a tio n .
A f te r s t a t i n g t h a t such e d u o a tio n sh o u ld be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e h ig h
school and c o lle g e c u rric u lu m , he s t a t e s t h a t "homemaking e d u c a tio n may
y e t be th e means o f r e o r i e n t i n g much o f th o o o lle g e ou rrio u lu m f o r women
and a f f e c t i n g fu n d a m e n ta lly th e e n t i r e l i b e r a l a r t s program#
17
In o rd e r to o r ie n t th e s u b je c t o f homemaking in to th e o o lle g e p ro ­
gram, i t i s n e c e s s a ry t o " in c o r p o r a te i n t o th e c u rric u lu m a l i s t o f b a s ic
and c o n s ta n t hcanemaking s u b je c ts f o r o o lle g e woman,"
18
In th o same
a d d re ss C h a n c e llo r C arm ichael s t a t e s , " I th in k o f no b e t t e r p r o j e c t t h a t
could be a tte m p ted by t h i s A s s o c ia tio n th a n t o u n d e rta k e t o map out su ch
o o u rs e s ,"
19
J u s t what th e c o n te n t o f th e s e c o u rse s should bo i s n o t d i s ­
cu ssed by D r, C arm ichael, b u t Dr* L i t t l e , fo rm er p re s id e n t o f th e
^ I b ld ., p .lti? .
■^C lara M, W in o h ell, op, o i t « , p , 4 26,
17
0 , C. C arm ichael, op# o i t «, p» 853,
18I b i d >, p , 855,
*9I b i d . , p , 854#
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
18
7
U n iv e r s ity o f M ichigan, emphasized one phase o f i t when h e s a id , ”To
d e v ise a c u rric u lu m which would f a m i l i a r i s e women s tu d e n ts w ith a knowledge
o f c h ild h o o d and i t s developm ent • * « would do more t o s t a b i l i s e c i v i l i z a tio n th a n any o th e r e d u c a tio n a l re fo rm .”
20
The o h a lle n g e , th e n , t o th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e i s t o a n aly se
i t s p h ilo so p h y end i t s c u rric u lu m and t o see w h erein i t i s making i t s
optimum, c o n tr ib u tio n t o e d u c a tio n .
"So g re a t i s t h e n e ed f o r su ch a n a l y s i s , ”
t h a t th o C o lleg e and U n iv e rs ity s e c tio n o f th e American Homo Eoonomios
A s s o c ia tio n i n 1933 s e t up as i t s most im p o rtan t problem , "an in q u ir y
i n t o j u s t what i s th e c o n tr ib u tio n o f home econom ics t o s tu d e n ts o th e r
th a n th o s e m a jo rin g i n th o s u b je c t? ”
21
A ccording t o B lu n t,
The l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e whioh f a i l s t o g iv e i t s s tu ­
d e n ts some d e s ir e f o r p r o f e s s io n a l com petency i n t h e
management o f t h e i r f u tu r e homes i s s c a r c e ly f u l f i l l i n g
i t s purpose o f tu rn in g ou t w e ll rounded, th o ro u g h ly
c u ltu r e d young women. S u re ly i n homemaking, t h e f i e l d
t o whioh t h e m a jo rity o f them w i l l t u r n , th e g ra d u a te o f
t h e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lla g e sh o u ld have th e same s c i e n t i f i c
a t t i t u d e , t h e same knowledge o f b a s ic t r u t h s , and th e
same com prehension o f th e r e la t io n s h ip s o f h e r jo b t o th o
w orld about h e r , t h a t she i s ex p ected to have in suoh
f i e l d s a s s o c i a l sc ie n c e te a c h in g , b u s in e s s o r p u b lic
l i f e , 22
S tatem en t o f Problem
There is a c h a lle n g e i n a l l t h i s t o th e C a th o lic C o lleg e f o r
women, a c h a lle n g e , n o t so much t o a n aly z e i t s p h ilo so p h y a s t o a p p ly
it.
The p h ilo so p h y o f th e new home eoonomios i s not unknown i n C a th o lic
20I b i d . , p . 864.
2 1 lv o l S p a ffo rd , L e t t e r , U n iv e r s ity o f M innesota, Septem ber 30, 1938.
^ K a th e r in e B lu n t, ”How Can Home Eoonomios F u n c tio n H ost E f f e c tiv e ly i n
a L ib e r a l A rts C o lle g e ," J o u rn a l o f Horns Eoonomios, 26*505-506,
(O cto b er, 1934), p» 506,
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ed u o atio n #
The s p i r i t u a l v a lu e s o f l i f e , th e sao red n ess o f th e home and
t h e m arriag e t i e , th e r e a r in g o f o h ild re n and th e p ro p e r t r a i n i n g o f
them , have e v er been s tr e s s e d b y C a th o lic e d u c a to rs , b u t t h e o h a lle n g e i s
t o what e x te n t a re C a th o lio c o lle g e s f o r women th ro u g h t h e i r e d u o a tio n a l
program making p o s s ib le th e r e a l i z a t i o n o f th o s e p r in o ip le s ?
The C a th o lio o o lle g e f o r women can make a d e f i n i t e c o n tr ib u tio n
t o ed u o atio n by d eveloping a c u rric u lu m whereby i t s s tu d e n ts may be
t r a i n e d a d e q u a te ly f o r homo l i f e and home l iv in g , and a t t h e same tim e
r e c e iv e th e c u l t u r a l e d u o atio n which i s t h e i r h e rita g e *
The p h ilo so p h y
on whioh C ath o lio e d u o a tio n a l system s r e s t i s a p h ilo so p h y devoted t o
t h e home, th e b a s is o f a l l s o o le ty , th e o e n te r from which r a d i a t e s a l l
a o t i v i t i e a o f t h e community, s t a t e , o r n a tio n #
Hoss s t a t e s ,
From th o b eg in n in g we f in d C h r i s t i a n i t y r e s t o r i n g
th e fa m ily u n ity and i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y , g iv in g p re c e p ts
conducing t o l a s t i n g and harm onious r e la t io n s h i p s betw een
a l l members • • • p a re n ts and o h ild r e n l i v i n g i n m utual
harmony and c h a r ity i n t h e home w hich i s t h e in n e r
s a n c tu a ry o f a l l s o c ia l l i f e « . • p a re n ts c a rin g f o r
t h e i r c h ild r e n • • • d ev elo p in g a l l th o f a c u l t i e s o f th e
c h ild , m e n ta l, p h y s ic a l, and s p i r i t u a l #23
In m edieval tim e s , a c c o rd in g t o S ohm eideler,
24
t h e p h ilo so p h y o f
C h r i s t i a n i t y dom inated th e id e a s and p r in c ip l e s in fa m ily l i f e .
These
id e a l s and p r in o ip le s gave a d eterm in ed d ir e c ti o n t o t h e in d iv id u a l and
t o th e community, d ev elo p in g a s im ila r a t t i t u d e i n th e group#
"T his
a s s u re d an i n t e g r a t i n g fa m ily complex# « • M ental and i n t e l l e c t u a l
*
R osa, A Survey o f Soolology*
1932# P# 69#
C hioagoj
Bruce P u b lish in g Company,
^^Edgar S ohm eideler, An In tr o d u c to r y S tu d y o f th e F am ily,
C en tu ry Company, 1930# F# 23#
New York»
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
s o l i d a r i t y was add«d t o th e c u l t u r a l u n ity and to th o em otional harmony
o f th o m edieval fa m ily .”
25
In o a r ly American l i f e th e C h r is tia n p h ilo so p h y p lay ed an Im p o rtan t
p a r t in t h e l i f e o f th o fa m ily .
F a m ilie s wore looked upon a s ’’n u r s e r ie s
pe
o f th e Churoh and Commonwealth."
The s p i r i t o f a u n i f i e d fa m ily con­
tin u e d th ro u g h th o y e a rs u n t i l th o d i s i n t e g r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f th o
i n d u s t r i a l r e v o lu tio n d is r u p te d fa m ily l i f e and l e f t in i t s wa3:e a
problem to be s o lv e d , th o answer to whioh seems t o in d ic a te a g ro a tly
m o d ified e d u c a tio n a l system .
Tho t r a d i t i o n o f C a th o lic c o lle g e s f o r woman p la c e s thorn in a
f a v o ra b le p o s itio n t o b u ild s u c c e s s f u lly c u r r ic u la t h a t w i l l be s u ite d to
p re s e n t day n e e d s.
"Convent sch o o ls f o r g i r l s , " say s S h ie ld s , "have
alw ays aimed a t f i t t i n g t h e i r s tu d e n ts f o r homo l i f e • « , and th e a n n a ls
o f th e m edieval convents show w e ll developed c o u rse s in d o m estic
s c ie n c e . . .
27
needlew ork, co o k in g , and h o u sek eep in g ." ‘
"C o n d itio n s have changed r a d i c a l l y s in c e t h a t tim e ," o o n tin u e s
th e some a u th o r ity , "but th o ro i s re a so n t o hope t h a t th e i n s t i t u t i o n s
t h a t w ere a b le t o a d ju s t t h e i r c o u rses o f i n s t r u c t i o n t o th e needs o f th e
p a s t w i l l be a b le t o meet th e new c o n d itio n s w ith s u c c e s s ." 28
One of t h e re a so n s why th e C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women in A a srio a
h a s n o t fo llo w e d more c lo s e ly i t s t r a d i t i o n a l mold a r i s e s , p e rh a p s, from
th e c o n d itio n s under whioh i t was e s t a b li s h e d .
The l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s
25I b l d . , p . 24.
26I b i d . , p . 55.
^ S h i e l d s , op. o lt» , p . 5 6 .
2 ® Ib id ., p . 255.
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
10
f o r -women i n A m erica, C a th o lic a s w e ll a s n o n -C a th o lic , camo in to e x i s t ­
ence d u rin g t h e l a s t h a l f o f th e n in e te e n th c e n tu ry and were modeled on
th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s f o r men,
"Such c o lle g e s began in c o lo n ia l
tim e s a s p r o f e s s io n a l o r v o c a tio n a l so h o o ls in te n d e d t o t r a i n young men
f o r t h e m in is te r y • • * i n h e r i t i n g a o u rric u lu m o f th e o lo g y , m oral
p h ilo so p h y , L a tin , and Greek*"
29
The p e rio d i n which th e l i b e r a l a r t s
c o lle g e f o r women began was a ls o n a rk e d by t h e s o - c a llo d movement f o r
woman’ s freedom*
Women w ere p e rm itte d t o e n te r th e p ro f e s s io n s f o r men,
and t h e c u r r i o u l a r b u ild e r s seem t o have shaped th e c u r r i c u l a t o meet
th e s e needs*
They no doubt hoped to p la c e "woman b e s id e mun in h i s in ­
t e l l e c t u a l developm ent . • • f o r g e t t i n g t h a t th o li n e s a lo n g which h e r
e d u c a tio n should be conducted must bo d eterm in ed by h e r n a tu r e and th e
work w hich a w a its h e r ,"
SO
"New s o c i a l c o n d itio n s have b ro u g h t about new e d u c a tio n a l ob je c tiv e s ,"
31
" L e is u re and e d u c a tio n f o r a r i o h e r l i f o a re novr s t r e s s e d , , ,
ana a g r e a t c a l l
h a s been is s u e d
t o a l l e d u c a tio n a l
in th e v a s t u n d e rta k in g o f e d u c a tin g
le is u r e * "
32
th e
in s titu tio n s to e n lis t
p eo p le f o r th e u se of in c re a s e d
Muoh o f th e l e i s u r e r e f e r r e d to w i l l be sp e n t i n th e home*
The o h a lle n g e , th e n , o f t h i s c a l l i s t o e d u c a te men and women f o r a n
e n ric h e d l i f o i n th e home and c o n se q u e n tly i n th e community and t h e n a tio n .
The purpose o f t h i s c a l l i s i n acco rd w ith th e p h ilo so p h y o f
29 I b id *, p* 256.
gQI b i d « , p . 286.
^H oiaer P* R ainey, "What i s th e M a tte r w ith t h e C o lle g e ? ," Jo u rn a l o f
H igher E d u c a tio n , 2 j 343-543, (O cto b er, 1 9 3 2 ), p . 243*
® % arvey A* W ooster, "To U nify t h e L ib e ra l A r ts C u rric u lu m ," Jo u rn a l
H igher E d u o a tio n , 2 j3 7 3 -3 8 0 , (O cto b er, 1 9 3 2 ), p* 373*
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
of
11
C a th o lio educatio n #
Suoh p h ilo so p h y , aoo o rd in g t o M ero ier,
ss
has e v e r
s t r e s s e d th e ’'harm onious developm ent o f a l l th e f a c u l t i e s o f man, th e
c a r e f u l t r a i n i n g o f th e mind, t h e fo rm atio n o f c h a r a c te r and the p ro p e r
34
uso o f tim e # 1*
The purpose o f e d u o a tio n , a c c o rd in g t o t h e same a u th o r ity ,
i s t o t r a i n in d iv id u a ls to see l i f e i n i t s f u l l e s t and d e e p e st m eaning,
w ith th e v a rio u s grad es o f l i f e , p h y s ic a l, m e n ta l, and s p i r i t u a l , r i g h t l y
•j
developed and c o o rd in a te d i n p ro p o rtio n t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a lu e s .
■"G
jl -
To a ch ie v e t h i s , th e C a th o lio school system b e lie v e s t h a t a
d e f i n i t e and w ell o rg a n iz ed program o f s tu d ie s i s n e c e s s a ry , and th o
id e a l o f th e e d u ca te d man o r woman i s t o claim a s h i s o r h e r own th o g re a t
t r u t h s o f n a tu r e , h i s t o r y , and a r t , and i s one who can judge th e p re s e n t
by th e p a st*
T his does n o t mean t h a t th e work o f th e C a th o lic c o lle g e
need be c o n fin e d to th e mere te a c h in g o f th e o la s s ic s *
m ore.
I t means t h i s and
I t s ta n d s f o r e v e ry th in g t h a t te n d s t o e s t a b l i s h a p e r f e c t l y d i s ­
c ip lin e d man o r woman.
" I t i s th e developm ent o f l i b e r a l c u ltu r o upon
b ro a d l i n e s —t h e f i t t i n g f o r l e i s u r e and f o r b u s in e s s , th e f i t t i n g f o r th e
home, a s w e ll as f o r th e p r o f e s s io n s ."
The C a th o lio c o lle g e f o r women h a s, th e n , a r i c h h e r ita g e upon
whioh to b u ild a c u rric u lu m t h a t w i l l bo f u n c tio n a l and a t th e same tim e
c u ltu r a l#
" I t i s n o t in c o m p a tib le w ith C a th o lic p h ilo so p h y n o r w ith th e
t r a d i t i o n s o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e to t r a i n s tu d e n ts a c c o rd in g to
l i f e ’ s needs and o c c u p a tio n s •
t
3SLouis M e ro ie r, " C a th o lic H igher E d u c a tio n ," C a th o lio E d u c a tio n a l Pro­
c e e d in g s , 5 -7 , 1508, p . 176,
^L oo. o lt.
35I b l d . , p . 179.
3 ® S iste r o f St* Jo se p h , "Homemaking," C a th o lic E d u o atio n al p ro c e e d in g s,
10*389-393, 1911.
Os i O’4. .L- *
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
12
B eside a r i o h h e r ita g e i n su p p o rt o f a o u rricu lu m p a r t i c u l a r l y
s u ite d t o t r a i n women i n a c c o rd w ith h e r n a tu re and f o r th e work which
a w a its h e r,
57
th e C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women i s in a fa v o ra b le p o s itio n
to develop an in te g r a te d program o f stu d ie s*
The most i n t e r e s t i n g th in g
ab out th e a p p lic a tio n of c u rric u lu m , w r ite s O 'H ara,
38
i s th e f a c t t h a t i t
a d a p ts i t s e l f so b e a u t i f u l l y to th e C a th o lic p h ilo so p h y o f l i f e .
To i n t e g r a t e , c o n tin u e s th e same a u th o r ity , should mean muoh more
th a n t o m erely u n ite or j o i n to g e th e r .
I t im p lie s an o rg a n iz e d whole
w ith a c e n tr a l theme b in d in g a l l i t s p a r ts in to a com posite group w ith
a l l t h e p a r ts a rra n g ed aooording t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a lu e s or c a p a c itie s *
The h ig h e s t ty p e o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s t h a t which p r e v a ils when among th e
p a r t s in te g r a te d th e r e e x i s t s a dom inant p a rt o r elem ent n a t u r a l l y s u ite d
t o ta k e th e p o s itio n o f a n u o leu s and ab o u t w hich th e o th e r elem ent can
be o rg a n iz e d .
The i n t e g r a t i o n o f homemaking e d u c a tio n in to th e C a th o lic c o lle g e
f o r women sh o u ld , th e n , o f f e r no g ro a t d iff ic u lty ®
Tlio n u o leu s i s th e
C a th o lic p h ilo so p h y o f l i f e about whioh th e C a th o lic e d u c a tio n a l system
has b e en developed and i n t o which th e p h ilo so p h y o f home n a t u r a l l y f i t s .
To vrhat e x te n t a re th e C a th o lic fo u r y ear c o lle g e s s t r e s s i n g th e
p o s itio n of homemaking e d u c a tio n in t h e i r program of stu d ieB i s , th e n ,
t h e problem in v o lv e d in t h i s stu d y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n in t h e C a th o lic
f o u r y e a r o o lle g e fa r women*
w
................ .........
“ 'ThomftB J . C onaly, "The M issio n o f th e C a th o lic C o lle g e ,” A s s o c ia tio n o f
C a th o lic C o lle g es B u l l e t i n , W ashington, D. C. C a th o lic U n iv e r s ity P r e s s ,
18&9,' p . 2TI
~
^ C h a r le s M. O 'H ara, S . J®, "A P lan o f C u r r ic u la r I n te g r a tio n f o r th e
C a th o lio C o lle g e s ,” The N a tio n a l C a th o lio E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n
B u lle tin , 35t218-225," (A ugust, 1 9 38), p . 2^0*
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
IS
Heed f o r t h e S o lu tio n o f Such a Problem
There i s to d a y much u n r e s t in th e e d u c a tio n a l w o rld .
E d u c a tio n a l
i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a l l k in d s a re b e in g q u e stio n e d about t h e i r p h ilo so p h y ,
t h e i r a im s, and t h e i r o b je c tiv e s *
c a ll e d upon t o j u s t i f y i t s e l f .
Each s u b je c t i n th e c u rric u lu m i s b e in g
What does i t c o n trib u te f o r b e t t e r l i v i n g ,
b o th i n t h e p re s e n t and f o r th e f u t u r e ?
The q u e s tio n w hether e d u c a tio n
should be fu n c tio n a l or academic i s b e in g d lso u sse d i n a l l e d u c a tio n a l
c irc le s *
The l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e i n p a r t i c u l a r i s t h e s u b je c t o f much
c o n tro v e rs y , and 3ome go so f a r as t o q u e s tio n t h e need f o r i t s c o n tin ­
u a n ce .
’.That doe3 i t have to c o n tr ib u te to e d u c a tio n t h a t w i l l mark i t as
a unique and n e o e ssa ry f e a tu r e o f t h e e d u c a tio n a l system o f w hich i t has
long been a p a rt?
The answer t o t h i s q u e s tio n m ight be one o f t h e reaso n s
f o r c o n s id e rin g such a problem as i s u n d e rta k en in t h i s s tu d y .
I n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r le a r n in g , and e s p e c i a l l y th e l i b e r a l a r t s
c o lle g e , i s i n a fa v o ra b le p o s iti o n t o stu d y more c r i t i c a l l y th e needs
o f in d iv id u a ls and g ro u p s, e s p e c i a l l y fa m ily groups in modem s o c ie ty ,
and t o mako a d ju stm en ts in t h e i r e d u c a tio n a l program t h a t w i l l en ab le them
t o a s s i s t more e f f e c t i v e l y i n m eeting p re s e n t day needs o f t r a i n i n g f o r
home l i f e and home l i v i n g .
T his can be accom plished i f a program o f s t u d i e s i s developed t h a t
w i l l c o o rd in a te th o work o f th o school w ith t h a t o f t h e home.
The
C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women, a s w e ll as o th e r p r iv a te i n s t i t u t i o n s , c a n ,
beoause of t h e i r more o r l e s s in d ep en d en t n a tu r e , ta k e th e i n i t i a t i v e in
t h e work o f d ev elo p in g such program s.
To what e x te n t a re t h e C a th o lic
fo u r y e a r c o lle g e s fo r women doing t h i s , o r t o w hat e x te n t can a program
o f s tu d ie s be o rg a n iz ed to do s o , i s , th e n , th e case f o r such a s tu d y as
th is .
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u
N atu re o f t h e R esearch That Has Been Done
A su rv e y o f th o ro s o a rc h work, w r ite s Coon, t h a t has been done in
t h e f io ld o f home econom ios, doos n o t p re s e n t a v e ry en co u rag in g p i c t u r e .
Much t h a t has b e en o a r r ie d on i s o f th e p iecem eal ty p e .
employed a r e m o stly o f th e su rv e y and h i s t o r i c a l ty p e .
39
The methods
Among t h e s u b je c ts
s tu d ie d , s p e c i f i c m ethods, home p r o j e c t s , and i l l u s t r a t i v e m a te r ia ls have
re c e iv e d some a t t e n t i o n .
comes have been d e v elo p e d .
Techniques f o r m easu rin g c e r t a i n ty p e s o f o u t­
A lim ite d number o f s tu d ie s d e a lin g w ith
s tu d e n t i n t e r e s t s have b e en made and some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n le a r n in g
have been in v e s t ig a te d , b u t much o f t h e in v e s tig a tio n c a r r i e d on h a s
d e a l t w ith i s o l a t e d p a r t s o f t h e s u b je c t w ith o u t re c o g n iz in g th a t o th e r
p re v io u s s tu d ie s have been made co n cern in g t h e same problem s, and t h a t
cheoklng i s needed t o e s t a b l i s h a s u i t a b l e b a s is f o r subsequent w ork.
ReBearoh Needed
A ccording t o S p a ffo rd ,
40
a number o f d e f i n i t e problem s must be
th o u g h t th ro u g h by i n t e r e s t e d p ersons w ith in t h e f i e l d .
One i s , w hat i s
th e unique c o n tr ib u tio n o f home eoonomios t o e d u o a tio n ?
O thers have t o
do w ith t h e p e r s i s t e n t v a lu e s o f homes, home l i f e , and home liv in g w ith
th e s o c i a l tr e n d s which have im p o rta n t im p lic a tio n f o r e d u c a tio n an d f o r
home eoonomios te a c h in g to d a y .
A ccording t o t h e same a u t h o r i t y , th e r e
i s need f o r more e x p e rim e n ta tio n i n a tte m p ts t o p u t th e o r y in to p r a c tic e *
Too much r e s e a r o h i n home eoonomios e d u c a tio n i s oonoernad w ith w hat has
®^Beulah I . Coon, ( C o n tr ib u to r ) , Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R esearch , N a tio n a l
E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n , Y o l. X I I I , p."""?6«
^®Ivol S p a ffo rd , "Home Eoonomios i n G eneral E d u c a tio n ," J o u rn a l o f Home
Eoonom ios, 2 9 |6 7 1 -6 7 6 , (Deoember, 19S7), p . 672.
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15
been don© o r w ith what i s b e in g don®.
s id e r e d ,
The f u tu r e sh o u ld a ls o be con­
Tho need f o r e v a lu a tio n and f o r th e developm ent o f t o o ls o f
a p p r a is a l i s most p r e s s in g .
R esearch in th e F ie ld o f C a th o lio ed u o atio n
In t h e f i e l d o f C a th o lic e d u o a tio n a l re s e a ro h t h e r e a r e b u t few
s tu d ie s d e a lin g w ith t h e s u b je c t o f home econom ics, an d none known t o th e
w r i t e r t h a t d e a ls w ith th e s u b je c t o f homemaking e d u c a tio n in. th e C ath o lio
f o u r y e a r c o lle g e f o r women.
No s tu d y r e v e a ls t o w hat e x te n t th e C a th o lic c o lle g e s a r e ta k in g
p a r t i n s o lv in g t h e problem s o f home l i f e and home l i v i n g a s th e y con­
f r o n t s o c ie ty to d a y .
N e ith e r does re s e a rc h r e v e a l t o what e x te n t an
in te g r a te d program o f s tu d ie s could be molded around t h e C a th o lio p h ilo s ­
ophy of l i f e a s a c o re or n u c le u s .
No re s e a rc h re v e a ls t o w hat e x te n t
homemaking e d u o a tlo n i s a p a r t o f th e c u rric u lu m o f t h e C a th o lio c o lle g e ,
n or does any r e s e a r c h t e l l t o what e x te n t homemaking e d u c a tio n i s a p a r t
o f th e t r a i n i n g o f eac h s tu d e n t i n such c o lle g e s .
I t i s , th e n , w ith
th e s e p o in ts i n mind t h a t t h i s stu d y i s begun,
A stu d y e n t i t l e d A P h ilo so p h y o f Homemaking E duoation i n C a th o lio
C o lle g e s was begun a t Columbia U n iv e rs ity i n 1936 b u t was n o t co m p leted .
41
The re s e a ro h w orker who proposed t h i s s u b je c t f o r in v e s t ig a ti o n tu rn e d
h e r a t t e n t i o n to a c u r r i c u l a r problem f o r th e C a th o lic e le m e n ta ry so h o o l.
The f i e l d i s , th e n , an undeveloped one, and i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s stu d y
may la y t h e fo u n d a tio n on w hich t o b u ild u s e f u l and c o o rd in a te d r e s e a r c h
i n t h e f i e l d o f homemaking e d u o a tio n i n t h e C a th o lic fo u r y e a r c o lle g e f o r
women,
^ L e t t e r o f S i s t e r De P a u l, 0 , P«, S ie n a H e ig h ts C o lle g e , A d rian , M ichigan,
March 19, 1959,
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16
Purpose o f This S tudy The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o d eterm in e i f p o s s ib le th e s ta t u s o f
homemaking e d u o a tio n i n th e C a th o lic fo u r-y o n r c o lle g e f o r women.
Two assum ptions a re made a t th e b eg in n in g o f t h i s s tu d y .
Those are*
(1 ) th o ro i s need f o r homemaking e d u c a tio n fo r a l l s tu d e n ts i n th o
l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e , e s p e c ia ll y th o se devoted e x c lu s iv e ly to th e educa­
t i o n o f women, said (2 ) i t i s p o s s ib le t o modify th e e x i s t in g l i b e r a l a r t s
c u rric u lu m so a s t o in c lu d e t h i s n e c e s s a ry ty p e o f e d u c a tio n ,
Y:ith th e s e assum ptions i n mind i t i s hoped t h a t th e s o lu tio n o f th e
problem w i l l r e v e a l answ ers t o th e fo llo w in g q u estio n s#
1,
I s th e r e a b a s ic p h ilo so p h y o f hcanemaking e d u c a tio n in th e
C a th o lio fo u r - y e a r c o lle g e f o r women?
2.
Y.'hat i s th e n a tu re of th e p re s e n t co u rse o ff e rin g ?
5.
Y.hat c o u rs e , i f any m ight be c o n sid e re d b a s ic i n d ev elo p in g a
program o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n th e C ath o lic f o u r - y e a r c o lle g e ?
4.
Y;hat would bo th e nature of a plan Thereby homemaking education
might became an in teg r a l p a r t o f th e c o lle g e curriculum?
Methods o f I n v e s tig a tio n
Four methods of i n v e s t ig a ti o n w i l l be fo llo w ed i n s o lv in g t h i s
problem .
The f i r s t w i l l be a su rv ey of th e l i t e r a t u r e o f th e day fo r
c u r r e n t tre n d s i n re g a rd to homemaking e d u c a tio n .
This l i t e r a t u r e w i l l
be b r i e f l y review ed f o r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s re g a rd in g th e t r a i n i n g o f women
in th e a r t o f homemaking.
The p h ilo so p h y upon v h io h C a th o lic e d u c a tio n
i s based w i l l be review ed and th e s o c i a l changes w hich have a f f e c te d home
l i f e w i l l be n o te d .
The second method used in t h i s i n v e s t i g a ti o n w i l l be t h a t of survey
o f o o lle g e c a ta lo g s o f c e r t a i n C a th o lic f o u r -y e a r c o lle g e s f o r vomen.
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17
T his p a r t o f t h e i n v e s t ig a ti o n w i l l be concerned w ith d is c o v e rin g w hat i s
t h e p re s e n t s t a t u s o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n t h e C a th o lio f o u r year
o o lle g e f o r women and what i a th e u n d e rly in g p h ilo so p h y o f t h e s u b je c t
a s i t i s now ta u g h t.
The t h i r d method o f i n v e s t i g a ti o n i s th o use o f t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
Even th o u $ i t h i s method o f in v e s t ig a ti o n i s n o t th e most d e s ir a b le , i t
i s hoped, how ever, i n t h i s c ase t h a t euoh a method w i l l prove s a t i s f a c t o r y .
The in v e s t i g a t o r i s c o n fid e n t enough t o b e lie v e t h a t t h e in fo rm a tio n
o b ta in e d from an a n a ly s is o f th e c a ta lo g s can be g r e a t l y supplem ented by
t h e use o f a q u e s tio n n a ir e d ir e c te d t o th e o o lle g e a u t h o r i t i e s whose
c a ta lo g s a re s u rv e y e d .
Through t h e com bining o f t h e second and th s t h i r d
m ethods, i t i s hoped t h a t a more a c c u ra te p ic tu r e o f home eoonomios can
be o b ta in e d .
The f o u r th s te p in t h e i n v e s t i g a ti o n i s t h e sum m arising o f th e
p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n th e C a th o lic c o lle g e s f o r women as
re v e a le d by t h e a n a ly s is o f c a ta lo g s and q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
The f i n a l s te p in t h i s stu d y w i l l be t o p ro p o se an a o o e p ta b le p ro ­
gram o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n th e l i g h t o f f in d in g s o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e
s te p s o f t h i s in v e s t i g a t i o n .
P la n o f Arrangement
T his s tu d y , Homemaking E duoation i n th e C a th o lio Four Year C ollege
f o r Woman, w i l l be d iv id e d i n t o f iv e p a r ts t
P a r t I — In tr o d u c tio n and S tatem en t o f Problem
P a rt I I —Home Eoonomios Work a s I t I s Now B eing O ffe re d i n a Group
o f C a th o lio C o lle g e s f o r Women
P a rt I I I —A Proposed P la n f o r D eveloping a Program o f Homemaking
E d u o atio n i n th e C a th o lio C ollege f o r Women
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18
P a r t I ? —B ib lio g ra p h ie s
P a r t V—A ppendices
P a r t I w i l l c o n s is t o f one c h a p te r d ev o ted t o (1) a d is c u s s io n o f
homsmeking e d u o a tio n and th o need f o r such t r a i n i n g and (2 ) a s ta te m e n t
o f t h e problem o f t h i s s tu d y .
P a rt I I w i l l o o n s is t o f t h r e e c h a p te r s , t h e f i r s t o f whioh w i l l be
d e v o ted t o an a n a ly s is o f th e c a ta lo g s o f a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e number o f
C a th o lic c o lle g e s f o r women.
The second c h a p te r w i l l bo devoted to an
a n a ly s is of two s e ts o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s a d d re sse d t o th e c o lle g e o f f i c i a l s
whose c a ta lo g s a re a n a ly z e d .
The t h i r d c h a p te r w i l l be devoted t o d ev elo p ­
in g a p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u o a tio n i n acco rd w ith th e f in d in g s o f
C h ap ters I I and I I I .
P a r t I I I w i l l c o n s is t o f two o h a p te r s , th e f i r s t o f whioh w i l l d e a l
w ith i n t e g r a t i o n as a means o f u n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e C a th o lic sch o o l system
i n g e n e ra l and i n th e C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women i n p a r t i c u l a r .
The
aeoond c h a p te r w i l l be devoted t o a d is c u s s io n o f a proposed method f o r
a p p ly in g th e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n t o a program o f homemaking ed u ca­
t i o n i n t h e C a th o lio c o lle g e f o r women.
P a rt IV w i l l o o n s is t o f two b ib lio g r a p h ie s .
The f i r s t w i l l c o n ta in
a l i s t o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n t h e body o f th e d i s s e r t a t i o n , w h ile th e
second w i l l c o n ta in a l i s t o f t h e work re a d o r rev iew ed i n c o n n e c tio n
w ith th e developm ent o f t h i s s tu d y .
P a r t V w i l l o o n s is t o f two ap p en d ices and w i l l c o n ta in such m a te r ia l
a s p la n s and t a b l e s t h a t were u sed i n d e v elo p in g th e d i s s e r t a t i o n , y e t
were b e t t e r p la c e d i n th e c lo s in g pages th a n in th e body o f th e s tu d y .
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PART I I —HOMEMAKING EDUCATION AS IT NOW IS IN
THE CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
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CHAPTER IX
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE CATHOLIC POUR YEAR COLIEGES FOR WOMEN
AS REVEALED BY A STUDY OP THEIR CATALOGS
Meaning o f Homemaking E ducation
B efo re b e g in n in g th e a n a ly s is o f th e so u rce m a te r ia l f o r t h i s
s tu d y , Homemaking E d u o a tio n i n th o C a th o lic Four Year C ollege f o r TVoman,
i t would seem n e c e s s a ry to d e fin e o r e x p la in t h e te rm "homemaking educa­
tio n " i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o th e more g e n e r a lly used te rm o f "home econom ics."
The aims and o b je c tiv e s o f both may be e x p re ssed i n th e te r n s o f a t t i t u d e s ,
i d e a l s , and a p p r e c ia tio n s .
Home eoonom ics, lik e any o th e r s u b je c t i n th e
c u rric u lu m , m ust be molded t o c o n d itio n s under w hich s tu d e n ts a re liv in g .
S tu d e n ts m ust be t r a i n e d t o do b e t t e r th e th in g s th e y a re now d o in g , t o
th in k on a h ig h e r p la n e th a n th e y a re now th in k in g , and t o l i v e a f i n e r
mode o f l i v i n g th a n th e y a re now e x p e rie n c in g .
T h is, in th e t e r n s o f
homemaking, in o lu d e th e econom ic, th e u t i l i t a r i a n , and t h e s k i l l aopectB
o f homo l i f e and homemaking which i n t e r p r e t s home eoonomios a s i n t e g r a t ­
in g f o r c e s i n d e v e lo p in g f i n e r human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .
To what e x te n t a r e th e C a th o lic fo u r y e a r o o lle g e s f o r women making
use o f t h e i r home aconomioo departm ents i n d e v elo p in g th e s e f i n e r r e l a ­
t i o n s h i p s , i s th e n t h e purpose o f t h l 6 s tu d y .
The means u sed to determ ine th e s e f a c t s a re (1) th e c o lle g e c a ta lo g s
o f a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e group o f C a th o lic o o lle g e s f o r women, and (2 ) ques­
ti o n n a i r e s a d d re ss e d t o t h e o f f i o i a l s o f th e c o lle g e s s e le o te d .
S e le c tio n o f C o lle g es
The c o lle g e s s e le c te d f o r t h i s s tu d y a r e l i s t e d i n t h e 1939
E d u c a tio n a l D ire o to ry .
There i s in th e U nited S ta te s a g r e a te r number o f
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
21
C a th o lic f o u r y e a r o o lle g e s f o r women th a n a re l i s t e d t h e r e i n , b u t th o s e
a p p e a rin g i n th o E d u c a tio n a l D lre o to ry w ere a r b i t r a r i l y ohosen f o r t h i s
study#
The names o f sev en ty -o n e o o lle g o s a re l i s t e d in t h e D ire c to ry ,
o u t t h e c a ta lo g s were o b ta in e d from o n ly sev e n ty o f th e s e #
The names and
a d d re ss e s o f th e sev e n ty -o n e c o lle g e s a re given i n T able I o f Appendix B,
Purpose o f C a ta lo g A n a ly sis
The purpose o f a n a ly s in g th e c a ta lo g s is t o d e te rm in e , i f p o s s ib le ,
th e p re s e n t s t a t u s o f homemaking e d u o a tio n in t h e o o lle g e s s e le c t e d f o r
t h i s s tu d y in s o f a r a s t h i s i s re v e a le d by a su rv e y o f t h e i r c a ta lo g s #
I t i s hoped t h a t th e t h r e e q u e s tio n s proposed a s i t s p u rp o se f o r t h i s
stu d y may be answ ered, i n p a r t a t l e a s t , b y t h e a n a ly s is *
1*
I s th e r e a b a s ic p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u o a tio n ooxnmon to
th e C a th o lic c o lle g e s o f t h i s stu d y ?
2#
What i s th e n a tu r e o f th e c o u rse o f f e r i n g t h a t t h i s p h ilo so p h y
may be r e a liz e d ?
3#
What c o u rs e s might be c o n sid e re d b a s ic i n d e v e lo p in g a more
e f f e c t i v e homemaking e d u o a tio n i n t h e C a th o lic f o u r y e ar c o lle g e s f o r
women?
The p o in ts t o be c o n sid e re d i n t h e a n a ly s is are*
1#
The number, ra n k , and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f i n s t r u c t o r s o f home
eoonomios a s compared w ith o th e r in s tr u c to r s #
2#
The aim s and o b je c tiv e s o f th e home econom ics d ep artm en ts as
s e t f o r t h i n t h e c a ta lo g s #
3#
The number o f home econom ics ooursos a s compared w ith t h e num­
b e r o f o th e r c o u rse s o f t h e c o lle g e c u rric u la #
4#
The number and c o n te n t o f c o u rs e s , t h e i r p r e r e q u i s i t e s and
o r e d it hours#
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
..
22
5,
Tho d e te rm in in g o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rs e s .
6.
Tho academio r a t i n g o f homo eoonomios d ep artm en ts in te rm s o f
d e g re es g ra n te d and m ajor c r e d i t s g iv e n .
Method o f C atalo g A n a ly sis
The most re o e n t c a ta lo g s o f th e se v e n ty c o lle g e s s e le c te d f o r t h i s
s tu d y w ere o b ta in e d .
These were a n a ly z e d f o r th e p o in ts m entioned in th e
p reo e d in g p arag rap h end a cc o rd in g t o th e p la n in d io a t ed i n Appendix B,
E x h ib it A,
Because o f th e r a t h e r vague and g e n e ra l manner i n w hich des­
c r i p t i o n s were o f te n made, becau se o f th e te rm s u sed , and b ecau se o f t h e
la c k o f com plete d a ta , i t was d i f f i c u l t a t tim e s t o c l a s s i f y t h e m a to ria l
a cc o rd in g to th e proposed p la n .
To chock th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f judgm ent
in th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m a to r ia l, a re c h e o k in g was c a r r i e d on th r e e
months a f t e r th e f i r s t , and w ith few e x c e p tio n s , no changes were made i n
th e f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,
Frcaa th e p re lim in a ry c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w ere made,
and th e s o have become th e b a s ic f o r th e d is c u s s io n s i n th o rem ain d er o f
C hapter I I .
F a o ts R evealed by a. P re lim in a ry Survey o f C ollege C atalo g s
A p re lim in a ry s u rv e y o f th e c a ta lo g s re v e a ls th e fo llo w in g f a o t s j
1,
The g e o g ra p h ic a l lo c a tio n o f th e o o lle g e s o f t h i s stucfy*
2,
The number o f o o lle g e s t h a t o f f e r work in home econom ics,
3,
The number o f c o u rse s o ff e re d i n th e s e o o lle g e s .
T able I p re s e n ts a summary o f t h i s in fo rm a tio n .
The f i r s t h a l f o f
t h i s t a b l e c o n ta in s th e names o f th e s t a t e s ranked ao o o rd in g t o t h e num­
b e r o f c o lle g e s i n e a c h .
The second h a l f g iv e s th e number o f o o lle g e s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
25
TABLE I
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLLEGES AND NUMBER
OF HOME ECONOMICS COURSES OFFERED
S ta te
No, o f
C olleges
Rank
Order
No. O ffe rin g
Home Eoonomios
T o ta l No.
o f Courses
New York
P en n sy lv an ia
Ohio
C a lif o r n ia
Illin o is
10
9
5
5
4
1
2
3 .5
3 .5
5 .5
1
8
4
4
4
7
263
76
36
56
M innesota
Kp.nsas
M assa c h u se tts
M ichigan
C o n n ec tic u t
4
3
3
3
2
5 .5
8
8
8
13
4
3
1
2
1
78
60
24
38
25
In d ia n a
Louis ia n a
M aryland
M isso u ri
Texas
2
2
2
2
2
13
13
13
13
13
2
0
1
1
2
57
0
18
39
22
New Je rse y *
C olorado
W ashington, D. C.
Iowa
Maine
1
1
1
1
1
13
22
22
22
22
1
1
0
1
0
17
16
0
24
0
Kentucky
N ebraska
Oklahoma
Oregon
Utah
1
1
1
1
1
22
22
22
22
22
1
0
1
1
0
16
0
24
8
0
W isconsin
Vermont
1
1
22
22
1
1
27
11
46
944
T o ta l
70
’ C a ta lo g n o t o b ta in e d from one o o lle g e i n t h i s s t a t e .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
24
i n each s t a t e t h a t o f f e r s work i n home eoonomios and th e number o f
c o u rse s o ff e re d by each*
G eo g rap h ical D is tr ib u tio n s o f C o lleg es and T h eir Course O ffe rin g s
The sev e n ty o o lle g e s whose o a talo g o were o b ta in a b le a re lo c a te d
i n tw e n ty -s ix s t a t e s and th e D i s t r i c t o f Colum bia,
F if te e n o f th e s e
s t a t e s a r e i n th e c e n t r a l p a r t o f th e U nited S t a t e s ,
N ine, in c lu d in g th e
D i s t r i c t o f Columbia, a re among th e New England and Middle A tla n tia
s ta te s .
One s t a t e i s lo c a te d i n th e Rocky M ountain r e g io n , and two a re
lo c a te d on th e P a c if io C o a st,
New York ra n k s f i r s t in th e number o f c o lle g e s , but among th e
low est i n th e number o f f e r in g work i n home eoonom ios,
P en n sy lv an ia ranks
second i n th e number o f c o lle g e s , and f i r s t in t h e number o f o o lle g e s
o f f e r in g home eoonomios and a ls o i n th e number o f c o u rses o f f e r e d .
The
number o f c o u rses o ff e re d b y th e o o lle g e s o f P en n sy lv an ia i s 263, o r 28
p er c e n t o f th e t o t a l number o f c o u rse s o f f e r e d b y a l l th e c o lle g e s o f
t h i s s tu d y .
The o o lle g e s lo c a te d i n th e c e n tr a l s e c tio n o f t h e U n ited S ta te s
number t h i r t y - t h r e e , tw e n ty -fiv e o f w hich o f f e r work in home eoonom ios.
The t o t a l number o f co u rses o f f e r e d b y t h i s group o f c o lle g e s i s 535, o r
_ 57 p e r o e n t o f th e t o t a l co u rse o f f e r in g s o f th e f o r t y - s i x o o lle g e s whose
c a ta lo g s form th e b a s is o f source m a te r ia l f o r t h i s c h a p te r .
The o o lle g e s o f th e e a s te r n group, n o t in o lu d in g Hew York and
P e n n sy lv a n ia , number e i g h t .
T his number does n o t in c lu d e t h e one c o lle g e
lo c a te d i n t h i s s e c tio n from whioh a c a ta lo g was n o t o b ta in e d .
The mimber
o f c o lle g e s i n t h i s group o f f e r in g home economios i s f o u r , and th e number
o f o o u rse s o f f e re d i s s ix ty -se v e n *
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25
The o o lle g e s of th o Rooky M ountain and p a o if io r e g io n number e ig h t,
f i v e o f w hich o f f o r work i n home eoonomios#
The number o f o o u rse s o ffe re d
is fo rty -fo u r.
Two Groups o f C o lle g es
The a n a ly s is of th e c a ta lo g s a t t h i s p o in t showB t h a t th e o o lle g e s
s e le c te d f o r t h i s s tu d y as f a r as th e work o f homo eoonomios i s oonoerned,
a re d iv id e d in t o two groups*
fo u r do n o t .
F o r ty - s ix c o lle g e s o f f e r suoh w orkj tw e n ty -
S ince th e c a ta lo g s o f t h e l a t t e r group c o n ta in no m a te ria l
t h a t w ould be of use i n d e v elo p in g t h i s s tu d y o f Homemaking E d u o atio n in
th e C a th o lio Four Year C o lleg e f o r Women, th e y w i l l n o t b e g iv e n f u r th e r
c o n s id e r a tio n , and th e rem ainder o f C h ap ter I I w i l l be d ev o ted t o th e
a n a ly s is o f th o s e c a ta lo g s t h a t show by t h e i r c o n te n t t h a t work i n homemaking e d u c a tio n i s a p a r t o f th e c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s o f th e c o lle g e s
th e y re p re s e n t*
C o lleg e C atalo g s
I n tu r n in g th e pages o f a so h o o l o a ta lo g , one n o tic e s t h a t th e
in tr o d u c to r y m a te r ia l o f suoh p u b lic a tio n s i s t r e a t e d i n a more o r le s s
c o n v e n tio n a l m anner.
F i r s t th e r e i s t h e l e g a l t i t l e , fo llo w e d b y th e
lo o a tio n o f t h e c o lle g e a cc o rd in g to o i t y and s ta te *
T h is i n t u r n i s
fo llo w e d by a t a b l e o f c o n te n ts and a c o lle g e o alen d ar*
a c c r e d itin g a g e n c ie s may o r may n o t be given*
The l i s t o f
The b o ard o f d i r e c t o r s or
th e a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c e r s a re g e n e r a lly m en tio n ed , and u s u a lly , b u t
n o t a lw ay s, th e members o f t h e f a o u lty a re l i s t e d .
aoadamio t r a i n i n g may a ls o be s ta te d *
T h e ir ra n k and
To t h e c a s u a l r e a d e r th e s e a r e b u t
so many f o r m a l i t i e s t o be c a r r ie d o u t i n th e p u b lis h in g o f a o a ta lo g , b u t
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
26
t o th e one who see k s t o e v a lu a te th o work o f a o o lle g e deportm ent th e s e
f a o ts have m eaning.
Suoh f a o t s may be u sed i n d e v e lo p in g a background fo r
a more d e t a i l e d p io tu r e o f th e work o f a p a r t i c u l a r d e p artm en t.
In t h i s
sonse t h e in tr o d u c to r y m a te r ia l o f th e c a ta lo g s an aly sed w i l l be u sed
in s o f a r a s i t p e r ta in s t o f a c u lt y members.
F a c u lty Members
Of th e f o r t y - s i x c a ta lo g s analyzed# tw e lv e make no m ention of
f a o u lty Esm bers,
T h ir ty - f o u r g iv e th e names of c o lle g e i n s t r u c t o r s as
w e ll as i h a i r te a c h in g p o s itio n o r ra n k and th o d e g re e o r d eg rees h e ld by
each.
N in e tee n o f th e t h i r t y - f o u r c a ta lo g s give i n a d d iti o n t o t h e above
m entioned in fo rm a tio n th e names o f th e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n w h ich i n s t r u c t o r s
were t r a i n e d o r from w hioh th e y re c e iv e d t h e i r d e g re e s .
From t i l l s in fo rm a tio n i t is p o s s ib le t o draw c e r t a i n c o n c lu sio n s
a s t o t h e fo u n d a tio n on w hich homemaking e d u c a tio n i n th e C a th o lio o o lle g e
f o r women r e B ts ,
Rank of I n s tr u c to r s
The f i r s t p o in t to be c o n sid e re d I s t h a t o f t h e ra n k o f i n s t r u c t o r s .
These i n s t r u c t o r s , f o r th e sake o f com parison, a re d iv id e d in to two
g ro u p s, (1) th e horns eoonomios i n s t r u c t o r s and (2 ) a l l o th e rs #
A ccording t o T able I I I o f Appendix B, and in agreem ent w ith th e
c a ta lo g s a n a ly s e d , th e i n s t r u c t o r s a re c l a s s i f i e d as d e a n s, p r o f e s s o r s ,
a s s o c ia te p r o f e s s o r s , a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r s , i n s t r u c t o r s , and g ra d u a te
a s s is ta n ts *
The t o t a l number o f i n s t r u c t o r s t o be so c l a s s i f i e d i s s e v e n ty -
t h r e e f o r th e home eoonomios departm ent and 1 ,1 6 9 f o r a l l o th e rs*
Of th e s e v e n ty - th r e e i n s t r u c t o r s o f home econom ics, none i s
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27
aooorded th o rank o f doan, w hllo t h i r t y - t h r e o o f a l l o th e rs a re
ra n k e d ,
bo
n in e te e n , or 26 p e r o e n t, o f th e homo eoonomios in s t r u c t o r s ra n k
a s p r o f e s s o r s , w h ile 456, o r 39 p e r o e n t, o f a l l o th e rs a r e aocordod
t h i s ra tin g *
There is a c lo s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een th e two groups i n
th e number o f th o s e ranked as a s s o c ia te and a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r s .
The
p e r o e n ts a r e 15 and 19 f o r th e f i r s t group and 15 and 17 f o r t h e seoond
gro u p .
The p e r oent o f home eoonomios te a c h e r s who a re r a t e d a s i n s t r u c ­
t o r s i s a t r i f l e more th a n tw ic e th e number o f th o s e so r a t e d i n th e
group o f a l l o th e r i n s t r u c t o r s .
The p e r c e n ts a r e 41 and 20 re s p e c tiv e ly *
The number o f g ra d u a te a s s i s t a n t s f o r b o th groups is sm all and th e d i f f e r ­
ence i n th e p e r oent i s b u t o n e .
Three o f th e home economics in s t r u c t o r s
a re ranked as grad u ate a s s i s t a n t s , w h ile 2 per c e n t o f a l l o th e rs a re so
ranked*
E d u c a tio n a l T ra in in g o f I n s tr u c to r s
The e d u c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g o f i n s t r u c t o r s d is o u ss e d i n t h i s and th e
fo llo w in g s e c tio n i s based on l a s t degree e a rn e d b y each i n s t r u c t o r and
th e ty p e of i n s t i t u t i o n i n whioh th o d eg ree was earned*
The in fo rm a tio n
on whioh th e com parison i s made i s found i n t h e t h i r t y - f o u r c a ta lo g s t h a t
l i s t f a c u lty HBmbers and t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .
T his in fo rm a tio n i s
summarized i n Table IV o f Appendix B*
Type o f D egrees Held by I n s tr u c to r s
The number o f in s t r u c t o r s f o r b o th groups rem ain th e same as i n
th e p reo ed ln g s e o tio n , s e v e n ty -th ro e and 1 ,1 6 9 .
d i f f e r e n t in s t r u c t o r s a r e t
The d eg rees h o ld by th e
D octor o f P h ilo so p h y , M aster o f A r ts , M aster
o f S oienoe, B aohelor o f A r ts , and B achelor o f S cien o e.
B esides th e s e
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20
g e n e r a lly re co g n ized degreeG , a number o f d e g re es were l i s t e d t h a t co u ld
n o t w e ll be c l a s s i f i e d u n d er th e s e head in g s so a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f " o th e r
deg rees" vias g iv e n them.
Of th e two groups o f i n s t r u c t o r s , 4 p e r o e n t o f th e home economics
in s t r u c t o r s h o ld th e degree o f D octor o f P h ilo so p h y , w h ile 261, o r 22 p e r
o e n t, o f th o o th e r group hold such d o g re e s.
The number o f th o s e h o ld in g
th e lias t e r o f A rts degree i s 31, p e r c e n t, and t h i s i s th e same f o r both
g ro u p s.
The p e r c e n t hold in g th e ii a s te r o f S c ie n ce and th e B ach elo r o f
d eg rees i s c o n s id e ra b ly g r e a te r f o r th o hone economics group of in s t r u c ­
to rs .
The number h o ld in g th o f a s t e r o f S cien ce in t h i s group i s 18 as
compared w ith 7 f o r th e o th e r group*
The p e r c e n t o f hone economics
in s t r u c t o r s h o ld in g th e B achelor o f S cience degroe i s 36, and th e p a r c e n t
f o r a l l o th e r in s t r u c t o r s i s 6 .
Tho number o f home economics i n s t r u c t o r s
h old in g B achelor o f A rts degrees i s i n re v e rso o rd e r.
Four p e r c e n t o f
th o home economics group hold th e B ach elo r o f A rts d e g re e , w h ile 13 p e r
c e n t o f a l l o th e rs hold th is same degree*
In th e group o f th o se who h o ld
o th e r do g ro o s, 6 p o r c e n t of th e home economics i n s t r u c t o r s hold su ch ,
w hile 12 p e r c e n t o f a l l o th e rs h o ld d eg rees a s c l a s s i f i e d .
Of th e non­
degreed i n s t r u c t o r s , th e home economics group has 1 p e r c a n t, w h ile th o s e
o f th e o th e r group have 9 p o r cent*
I n s t i t u t i o n s in Which Degrees Here Earned
A lthough o n ly n in e te e n o f th e c a ta lo g s l i s t i n g f a c u lt y members
givo th o names o f I n s t i t u t i o n s in w hich d eg rees were e a rn e d , y e t t h i s in ­
fo rm a tio n may bo u sed i n com pleting th e p ic tu r e o f th e tr a in in g o f c o llo g a
in s tru c to rs .
Table V o f Appendix B l i s t s th e i n s t i t u t i o n in w hich d e g re es were
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
e a rn e d .
These i n s t i t u t i o n s a re s
s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s , Columbia U n iv e rs ity ,
Chicago U n iv e r s ity , Fordham U n iv e r s ity , S t . Louis U n iv e r s ity , and th o
C a th o lic U n iv e rs ity ,
B esid es th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , d e g re e s were earned i n
a number o f o th e r c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , many o f which a re lo c a te d in
E urope.
Those a r e c la s s e d a s " o th e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . "
Tire number o f i n s t r u c t o r s compared i s f o r ty -o n e f o r th o home
economics i n s t r u c t o r s and 642 f o r a l l o th e r s .
In th e home economics
group, 34 p e r c e n t w ere t r a i n e d i n s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s , 39 p e r c e n t i n
Columbia U n iv e rs ity , 5 p e r c e n t i n th o U n iv e rs ity o f C hicago, 20 p e r c e n t
i n o th o r i n s t i t u t i o n s , and 2 p e r c e n t a ro l i s t e d kb n o n -d e g re ed .
Almost
th o re v e rs e p ic tu r e i s p re s e n te d i n rcB p ect t o th e o th e r group o f i n s t r u c ­
to rs ,
Twenty p e r c e n t w ere t r a i n e d i n s t a t e u n i v e r s i t i e s , 7 p e r c e n t i n
Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 11 p e r c e n t i n t h e C a th o lic U n iv e r s ity , 4 p e r c e n t
i n Chicago U n iv e rs ity , 13 p o r c e n t i n th e U n iv e r s itie s o f S t . L o u is, llo tre
Dame, and Fordham, w h ile 4 p e r c e n t w ere t r a i n e d i n o th e r u n i v e r s i t i e s
and 1 p e r c e n t a re l i s t e d a s n o n -d e g re ed .
From th o com parisons t h a t have boer. made in th o th r e e p ro co d in g
s e c tio n s , i t can bo se e n , t h a t a lth o u g h th e extrem e p o s itio n s on th e ra n k in g
s c a le i s n o t h e ld by th e i n s t r u c t o r s o f heme cconomicc and th e p e r c e n t
o f th o s e h o ld in g th e h ig h e s t ty p e o f degree i s c o n sid e ra b le lovrer th e n
t h a t o f th e o th e r group, y e t i t can bo s a f e ly s a id t h a t th e moro secu re
p o s itio n o f th o c e n te r i s t h e i r s .
In th e n a t t e r o f d e g re e s , f o r ty - e ig h t
p e r c e n t o f th e homo economic te a c h e r s h o ld e i t h e r a b la s te r o f A rts o r
S cien ce d e g ro e , w h ile 38 p e r c e n t o f a l l o th e r s h o ld th o m a s te r’ s d e g re e.
(See Appendix B, T ables I I I and IV .)
Since i t i s b u t n a t u r a l f o r a s tu d e n t t o im bibe th o p h ilo so p h y o f
th e sch o o l i n w hich ho o r she i s t r a i n e d , i t i s s a f e t o say t h a t w hatever
th e p h ilo so p h y o f th e homo econom ics d ep artm en t o f s e c u la r u n i v e r s i t i e s
nay b e , i t h as become a f a c t o r i n m olding th e p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking
d ep artm en ts o f th o C a th o lic fo u r y e a r c o lle g e f o r women.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
so
Number o f Horns Economics C ourses
Comparisons may be o d io u s, b u t in a stu d y o f t h i s kind i t seems
d e s ir a b le and e v en n e c e s s a ry to make them*
This i s t r u e e s p e c i a l l y o f
numbers s in c e a com parison o f them i s one means o f d e te rm in in g r e l a t i v e
im portance*
Table IV o f A ppendix B p re s e n ts t h e number o f c o u rses i n each o f
th e a re a s in t o -which th e o u r r io u la r o f f e r in g s o f each o f th e f o r t y - s i x
c o lle g e s a re d iv id e d .
The p o r c e n t t h a t th e number of co u rso s in eaoh
a r e a i s t o th e t o t a l course o f f e r in g s o f e a c h o o lle g e i s a ls o given*
T able I I i s a b r i e f d ig e s t o f th e le n g th y T able V III o f Appendix
B and p re s e n ts th e number o f c o u rse s i n each a re a o f in s t r u c t i o n , th e
t o t a l number o f c o u rs e s , and th e p e r o en t t h a t t h e number of c o u rses a r e
o f t h e t o t a l number*
TABLE I I
COURSES RANKED ACCORDING TO PER CENT OP TOTAL OFFERINGS
am>nui.i'»ajBa. wa.jririffi»rai -is uzitrxa. t ■n.Mztumas:
A reas
Languages
Music and A rt
N a tu ra l S olenoes
E n g lish
S o c ia l S cien ces
E d u c a tio n
Home Eoonomios
P h ilo so p h y and R e lig io n
Mathemat io s
Commercial S u b je c ts
L ib ra ry S cience
T o ta l
No* o f
Courses
P e r Cent
2,442
2,018
1,904
1,799
1 ,7 0 3
1,1 7 0
944
902
710
511
183
17
14
13
13
12
8
6
6
5
4
1
14,286
99*
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31
From Table 11, page 30, i t may be seen t h a t la n g u a g e s , w hich in c lu d e
a l l th o s e l i s t e d a s a n c ie n t and m odem , ran k h ig h e st*
second*
Music and a r t ra n k
The n a t u r a l s c ie n c e s i n number o f c o u rs e s ran k h ig h e r th a n E n g lish ,
whioh in c lu d e s a l l oourses i n E n g lish c o m p o sitio n , r h e t o r i c , E n g lish
l i t e r a t u r e , d ra m a tic s , speech c o u rs e s , and jo u rn alism *
'fhe s o c ia l s c ie n c e s ,
in c lu d in g a l l phases o f h i s t o r y and econom ics, ran k n e x t in o r d e r .
Edu-
c a tio n w ith 1,170 o o u rses r e p r e s e n ts b o th th e average and th e m edian of
th e e le v e n a r e a s .
In t h i s p o s itio n i t ran k s b elo w th o s o c i a l s c ie n c e
a re a b u t above t h e p h ilo so p h y and r e l i g i o n g roup a s w e ll a s th e home
economics a r e a .
Home eoonomios and th o p h ilo so p h y and r e l i g i o n a re a are r e p r e ­
s e n te d by th e same p er c en t o f th e t o t a l c o u rse o f f e r i n g s , a lth o u g h th o
number o f c o u rses in th e l a t t e r a re a outnumber t h e fo rm e r.
Combining th e
p er c e n ts of b o th th e s e a r e a s , i t may be s a id t h a t such s u b je c t s , th o \ig h
v i t a l l y a f f e c t i n g th e liv e s of e v e ry i n d iv id u a l, re c e iv e b u t a l i t t l e
more th a n o n e -e ig h th o f th e t o t a l c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e c o lle g e c u r r i c u l a r
o ff e rin g s *
Three a re a s ra n k in g low er th a n th e s e a ro m a th e iaa tic s, th e
com m ercial a r t s , and th e v e ry r e c e n t l y added s u b je c t o f l i b r a r y scien ce*
Aims and O b je c tiv e s
S ince th e aims and o b je c tiv e s w ould seem to be more a p p r o p r ia te ly
d is c u s s e d in c o n n ec tio n w ith th e p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n , a
resume o f th e s e w i l l be d is c u s s e d i n C h ap ter IV*
S u ffic e i t t o say t h a t
s t a t i n g aims and o b je c tiv e s o f t h e c o lle g e departm ents seems t o be a
m a tte r o f co n v en tio n on th e p a r t o f th o s e com piling t h e o a ta lo g s .
Twenty-
two o f th e f o r t y - s i x c o lle g e c a ta lo g s d id n o t s t a t e th e aim s o r o b je c tiv e s
‘ o f th e o o lle g e departm ents*
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Methods o f A nalyzing C ontent o f Courses
Some d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e rie n c e d i n d e v isin g a s a t i s f a c t o r y method
o f a n a ly s in g t h e c o n te n t o f o o u rs o s.
I t was c o m p a ra tiv e ly an e a sy t a s k
t o o l a s s i f y and rank c o lle g e i n s t r u c t o r s and t o count and t o compare th e
number of o o u rso s i n each o o lle g e departm ent*
I t was a sim p le , though
p e rp le x in g , mat t o r t o l i s t t h e number o f t i t l e s under w hich th e 944 home
eoonomios c o u rs e s a re re c o rd e d , b u t t o red u ce t h e 242 d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s
w ith t h e i r co u rse c o n te n t t o a few b a s ic t i t l e s and o ourses was a d i f f i ­
c u l t ta sk *
The f i r s t sto p i n th o p ro c e ss o f a n a ly z in g t h e c o u rse o f f e r in g s
was to group th o co u rse m a te r ia l in t o d i f f e r e n t a r e a s .
T h is was dona
a cc o rd in g t o a method used by HacLary* i n h e r stu d y o f t h e c u rric u lu m i n
th ir ty - tw o r e p r e s e n ta tiv e i n s t i t u t i o n s .
(See Appendix B, E x h ib it E .)
I n making use of t h i s method th e c o n te n t o f e a c h co u rse was n o te d
and i f s u b je o t m a tte r conformod to th e t o p ic s l i s t e d i n th e code, t h e
oo\irse was a s s ig n e d t o th e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a w ith w hich i t co rresp o n d ed .
For exam ple, a l l c o u rse s d e a lin g w ith problem s of t h e horn®, suoh as
s a n i t a t i o n , equipm ent, or d e o o ra tin g , were a s s ig n e d t o th e home manage­
ment a r e a .
This procedure was fo llo w e d i n a s s ig n in g t h e 944 c o u rs e s t o
t h e i r r e s p e c tiv e a r e a s .
T able I I I p re s e n ts t h e r e s u l t s o f such g ro u p in g i n ta b u la r
form ,
D orothy M, MaoLary, ( S c h n e ll) , W
A Study o f C urrioulum in T h irty -tw o
R e p re s e n ta tiv e I n s t i t u t i o n s t o D eterm ine T y p ica l Courses* C urriculum ,
and Methods o f T eaching i n th e E d u catio n o f th e Home Eoonomios T e a ch e rs,
(U npublished MAster*8 t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f M in n eso ta, M in n eap o lis,
1 9 35),
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
TABLE I I I
AREAS OF HOKE ECONOMICS INSTRUCTION, NUMBER OF TITLES,
THEIR PER CENT OF THE TOTAL OFFERINGS, AND THE RAM OF EACH AREA
No, o f
C ourse T i t l e s
A reas
Par Cent o f T o ta l
Rank
No* o f C ourses
Foods and N u t r i t i o n
73
30
1
C lo th in g and T e x tile s
68
28
2
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
25
10
3
Home Management
24
10
4
R e la te d A rts
20
8
5
Home Eoonomios E duoation
15
6
6
C h ild H e a lth and Home N ursing
10
4
7
7
3
8
F am ily R e la tio n s and C h ild
Development
T o ta l
242
99*
Tho f i r s t h a l f o f T able I I I g iv o s th o names o f th e a re a s to whioh
th e ooursos a re a s s ig n e d to g e th e r w ith th o number o f t i t l e s under w hich
th o ooursos are l i s t e d *
Tho seco n d h a l f o f Table I I I g ivos t h e p e r c e n t
t h a t th e number o f t i t l e s i n each a re a i s t o t h e t o t a l number, and th e
ran k o f e a c h a r e a a cc o rd in g t o th e number o f t i t l e s *
F or exam ple, th e
s e v e n ty -th r e e t i t l e s under whioh th e fo o d and n u t r i t i o n c o u rses a re l i s t e d
i s 30 p er o en t o f t h e t o t a l number o f t i t l e s , and t h i s a r e a ra n k s f i r s t
i n t h e v a r i e t y o f t i t l e s u sed t o d e s ig n a te t h e v a rio u s o o u rse s o ff e re d
w ith in th e area*
The ra n k in g o f a re a s a c c o rd in g t o t i t l e s may seem t o have no s ig ­
n i f i c a n t b e a rin g on th e a n a ly s is o f co u rse c o n te n t, b u t a s w i l l b e
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
34
m entioned l a t e r , t h i s ra n k in g i s one o f th o c r i t e r i a to be used i n d e t e r ­
m ining r e p r e s e n ta tiv e oourses*
The n e s t s te p i n th e p ro c e ss o f a n a ly s in g th e course o f f e r in g s was
t o l i s t th e fo llo w in g f a c t s j
1.
The t i t l e s
o f th o v a rio u s c o u rse s i n each a r e a .
2.
The number o f c o lle g e s
o f f e r in g work u n d er each p a r t i c u l a r
title ,
3.
The r e q u ir e d c o u rs e s .
4.
The number o f o o lle g e s re q u irin g such c o u rs e s ,
5.
The number o f sem e ster
c r e d i t hours allow ed f o r eac h c o u rs e .
T his was done i n accord v a th th e p la n used by Koore^ i n h e r stu d y
o f homo eoonomios i n th e so u th e rn ju n io r c o lle g e s , and th e fin d in g s a re
summarized in ta b u la r form i n T ables IX-XVI o f Appendix B,
D is c u s sio n o f F in d in g s
B efore ta k in g up th e work o f d eterm in in g th e re p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rses
and t h e i r c h a r a o t o r i s t i e s , i t would seem d e s ir a b le t o d is c u s s th e d i s t r i ­
b u tio n o f c o u rse s and a ro a s o f i n s t r u c t o r s p re s e n te d i n T ables IX-XVI of
Appendix B.
D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Courses
The c o u rse s o ffe re d i n foods and c lo th in g f a r exceed th e number
o ff e re d i n o th e r a r e a s .
The p e r c e n t column o f Table I I I , page 33, shows
^Cora Moore, "A S tudy o f Homo Economics i n th e S o u th ern J u n io r C o lle g e s ,”
M a s te r's T h o sis, Peabody C o lle g e, 1932.
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
35
t h a t th e s e two a re a s com prise n e a r ly 60 p e r c e n t o f th e e n t i r e f i e l d of
th o home economics work i n th e f o r t y - s i x c o lle g e s re p re se n te d i n t h i s
study*
The em phasis p la c e d on foods and c lo th in g c o u rse s m y he due to
th e f a c t t h a t th o se two a re a s w ere th e f i r s t t o be o ffe re d i n th o f i e l d
o f home econom ics.
W ith th e number o f o o u rse s in th e s e two f i e l d s being
63 and 68 r e s p e c tiv e ly , th e r e i s a ra p id drop i n th o number of c o u rses
t o 25 i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l management and 24 i n home management.
From th e s e
two numbers th e r e i s a more g ra d u a l d e c lin e i n th e number o f c o u rses
f o r each o f th e rem aining a r e a s .
In r e la te d a r t s th e r e a re 20 c o u rs e s ;
home econom ics th e r e a r e 15; c h ild h e a lt h and heme n u rs in g 10 j and in
fa m ily r e l a t i o n s and c h ild developm ent th e r e a re sev en .
A reas o f I n s t r u c t i o n
Of th e food and n u t r i t i o n c o u rs e s , s e v e n ty -th re e i n numberCsee
Appendix B, Table IX ), only two in d ic a te by t h e i r t i t l e s , "Foods and Food
P r e p a ra tio n i n th e Home” and "Home C ookezy," t h a t th e y a re p a r t i c u l a r l y
devotod t o homemaking i n t e r e s t s .
C ourses u n d er th e t i t l e o f co okery,
t a b l e s e r v ic e , and meal p la n n in g , a r e l i s t e d , b u t th e co u rse c o n te n t shows
th e n t o be a s a p p lic a b le t o i n s t i t u t i o n s a s t o th e home.
Tho g r e a te r
number o f c o u rse s l i s t e d have more o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s io n a l
c o n n o ta tio n th a n t h a t of homemaking.
The word " n u tr iti o n " w ith i t s more
o r l e s s p r o f e s s io n a l meaning forms th e whole o r a p a r t o f f i f t y - tw o co u rse
c a p tio n s .
The t e r n s " d i e t e t i c s " and " d ie to th e ra p h y " a re used by t h i r t y -
two c o lle g e s to d e s ig n a te phases o f n u t r i t i o n , and th e s o two connote
p u b lio r a t h e r th a n home n u t r i t i o n .
a re o th e r p r o f e s s io n a l onom atopoeia.
"E ndoorines" o f fo o d s and "m etabolism "
C h ild n u t r i t i o n , norm al n u t r i t i o n ,
human n u t r i t i o n , n u t r i t i o n a l p h y sio lo g y , and re a d in g problem s i n n u t r i t i o n
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
36
a re a fox? of th o t i t l e s used, i n c a ta lo g p h ra se o lo g y o f th e s e co u rses#
The ward ’’food” e i t h e r by i t s e l f or in com bination w ith o th e r q u a lif y in g
words i s used s i x t y - f i v e tim e s t o d e s ig n a te course o f f e r i n g s in th e a re a
o f foods#
Cookery, e x p e rim e n ta l, q u a n t i t a t i v e , advanced, and in te rm e d ia te ,
i s used tw enty-tw o tim e s and r e f e r s i n g e n e ra l t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l needs#
The h i s t o r y o f cookery and h i s t o r i c a l survey co u rse o f cookery a re o ffe re d
by two c o lle g e s *
The economic u se o f food i s s tr e s s e d by two o o lle g e s ,
w h ile food and consumer b u y in g , food m a rk e tin g , and ib o d p ro d u c tio n are
phases o f consumer e d u c a tio n s tr e s s e d in s i x c o lle g e s .
most f r e q u e n tly in th e a r e a o f foods i s " d i e t e t i c s # ”
The t i t l e U3ed
The c r e d i t h o u rs
allow ed f o r t h e s e v e n ty -th r e e co u rses v a ry from two t o s i x sem e ster h o u rs,
w ith th r e e b e in g th e mode#
C lo th in g and T e x tile s
The c lo th in g and t e x t i l e s c o u rse s a re l i s t e d u nder s i x t y - e i g h t
title s *
(See Appendix B» T able I # )
f iv e a re a s o r d iv is io n s j
Those c o u rses m ight be grouped in to
c lo th in g c o n s tr u c tio n , a r t i n o lo th in g , costume
d e s ig n , eoonomios o f o lo th in g , and t e x t i l e s #
The o a ta lo g s o f th e f o r t y -
s i x c o lle g e s show t h a t a l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r work i n o lo th in g ,
a lth o u g h th e number o f o o u rse s v a rie d from one t o f i f t e e n *
The number o f
t e x t i l e c o u rse s ra n k h ig h e s t i n t h e o lo th in g a r e a , b e in g o f f e r e d by tw e n ty s ix c o lle g e s#
A c o u rse e n t i t l e d " c lo th in g " ranks second, b e in g o f f e re d
b y tw enty-one c o lle g e s #
The word " o lo th in g " i n co m b in atio n w ith q u a lif y ­
in g w ords, such as e le m e n ta ry , advanood, c h ild r e n ’ s , m i s s e s ', t a i l o r e d ,
in tr o d u c to r y , and fu n d am en tal, i s used by tw en ty -tw o i n s t i t u t i o n s t o
denote work i n sewing and c lo th in g s e le c tio n #
Changing t h e gram m atical
c o n s tr u c tio n of t h e word " o lo th in g ," making i t th e q u a lif y in g w ord, th e
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
37
o ourse c a p tio n , c lo th in g s e l e c t i o n , and c lo th in g m a n u factu re, i s u sed
by e ig h te e n o o lle g e s*
The words "g a rm e n t,” "costu m e," and " d ro ss" a re a ls o used e i t h e r
as com plete t i t l e s o r i n c o n n ec tio n w ith some q u a lify in g word to in d ic a te
work i n t h e u n d e rly in g p r in c ip le s o f sewing#
The te rm "dressm aking" is
a ls o used by s i x o a ta lo g s t o d e s ig n a te c o u rse work i n sowing,
" T a ilo r in g ,"
" p a t t e r n m aking," " p a tte r n s tu d y ," " p a t te r n c o n s tr u c tio n ," " d r a f t i n g ,"
and " m illin e r y s e l e c t i o n ," a rc a ls o c a rry -o v e r t i t l e s from t h e days o f
dcrriostic economy and dom estic soienoe#
W ith th e more re m in is c e n t term s
a r e m inglod th o s e t h a t b esp eak th e p re s e n t and f u t u r e tr e n d s o f homemaking
ed u c a tio n #
Such a re " f a s h io n ," " o l i n i c s , " "psychology of d r e s s ," " s ty lo
d e s ig n in g ," " c o n s tr u c tio n te c h n iq u e s ," " c lo th in g in f a s h io n ," and " d o i lie s
b u y in g ."
The p r a c t i c a l s id e o f th e c lo th in g problem i s re p re s e n te d by
such oo u rse t i t l e s a s "m ake-over p ro b lem s," " p r a o tio a l sew ing," and
" r e c o n s tr u c tio n o f c lo th in g # "
The p o s s i b i l i t y o f com bining th e work of
c lo th in g and t e x t i l e s i n one course seems n o t t o be d e sira b le * s in c e o n ly
fo u r c o lle g e s o f f e r & c o u rse e n t i t l e d " c lo th in g and t e x t i l e s , "
The
s e p a r a tio n o f th e s o two c o u rs e s i s f u r t h e r shown by th e f a c t t h a t
tw e n ty -s ix c a ta lo g s l i s t c o u rse s u n d er t h e t i t l e
of " te x tile s # "
The a e s t h e t i c v a lu e o f c lo th in g i s s t r e s s e d i n suoh o o u rse s a3
c lo th in g and d r e s s d e s ig n , costume a r t , d r e s s a p p r e c ia tio n , oostume
d e s ig n , and d ra p e ry o f costume#
Though c o u rse s i n t h e making o f c h i l d r e n s
c lo th in g a re g iven i n f iv e o o lle g e s , y e t t h i s phase o f garm ent d e s ig iin g
and making seems n o t t o re c e iv e due c o n s id e ra tio n #
The h i s t o r y o f
costume o r h i s t o r i c costume i s a p a r t o f t h e home eoonomios e u r r io u lu a i n
f i f t e e n o o lle g e s#
The o r e d i t h o u rs f o r t h e work i n a l l th e s e o o u rse s i s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
38
s im ila r t o t h a t given in th e food and n u t r i t i o n c o u rs e .
Three o o lle g e s
a llo w as much a s n in e c r e d i t hours in c lo th in g , w h ile o th e rs allow ed as
many a s s i x ,
A few o o lle g e s allow ed f iv e hours o f c r e d i t , h u t th e th r e e
and f o u r hour c o u rse s a re th e mode.
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
The i n s t i t u t i o n a l management o o u rses a re l i s t e d under tw e n ty -fiv e
d iffe re n t t i t l e s ,
(See Appendix B, T able X I ,)
T here i s , how ever,
g r e a t e r u n ifo r m ity in th e nom enclature o f th e s e o o u rses th a n was exem pli­
f i e d in e i t h e r th e foods or t h e c lo th in g w ork.
T h is u n ifo rm ity may, i n
a m easu re, aooount f o r th e few er number o f c o u rses o f f e r e d .
There a r e a
few b a s ic ones w hich a r e re q u ire d by a l l th e o o lle g e s o f f e r in g such w ork.
Q u a n tity cookery ranks f i r s t w ith a t o t a l o f e ig h te e n o o lle g e s o f f e r in g
i t and s ix te e n of th e s e c o lle g e s r e q u ir in g i t f o r s tu d e n ts e x p e c tin g t o
do i n s t i t u t i o n a l -work*
I n s t i t u t i o n a l management ra n k s second w ith a
t o t a l o f s ix te e n o o lle g e s o f f e r in g i t and r e q u ir in g i t f o r p ro f e s s io n a l
i n s t i t u t i o n a l work*
I n s t i t u t i o n a l a d m in is tr a tio n i s a n o th e r t i t l e used
f r e q u e n tly t o denote work in th e exeoutiv© f i e l d o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n s t r u c ­
tio n ,
A cco u n tin g , e i t h e r d e sig n a te d a s such o r i n com b in atio n w ith some
q u a lify in g w ord, i s one o f th e b a s i c o o u rses re q u ire d o f a l l th o s e m ajor­
in g i n t h e f i e l d o f p u b lio food s e r v i c e .
The th re e -h o u r o r e d i t oourse
i s th e modei how ever, th e r e a re seven c o lle g e s t h a t a llo w a s many as fo u r
h o u rs , and one t h a t a llo w s s ix h o u rs ,
Home Management
The home management c o u rses a re l i s t e d under tw e n ty -fo u r d if f e r e n t
title s #
(See Appendix B, Table X I I ,)
In t h i s a re a th e r e a r e few er
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
c o u rse t i t l e s w ith g r e a te r u n ifo r m ity o f o o u rse c o n te n t th a n i s shown i n
th e food and c lo th in g a r e a .
However, th e number o f o o lle g e s o f f e r in g
t h i s ty p e of work a re le s s th a n th o s e o f f e r in g work in fo o d s and c lo th in g .
Home management, household management, and p r a o tio e h o u se , a r e among th e
t i t l e s most f r e q u e n tly u se d .
The two hour c o u rse i s th e mode i n t h i s a r e a .
R e la te d A rts
In th e a re a o f a r t th e o o u rses a re l i s t e d under tw e n ty d i f f e r e n t
title s .
(See Appendix B, T able X I I I .)
i s t h a t o f " i n t e r i o r d e c o r a tio n ."
The t i t l e most f r e q u e n tly used
T his i s u sed by f i f t e e n c o lle g e s to
d e s ig n a te t r a i n i n g i n th e p r in c ip le s o f a r t , th e f u r n is h in g o f th e home,
d e t a i l e d room d e c o ra tio n , and th e r e q u i s i t e s o f good f u r n i t u r e and i t s
pro p o r s e le c tio n and a rran g em en t.
The p r i n c i p l e s o f good a r c h i t e c t u r a l
re q u ire m e n ts a re i n some in s ta n c e s in c lu d e d i n t h i s c o u r s e .
The t i t l e
u sed th e n e x t g r e a te s t number o f t i n o s i s " a r t and d e s ig n ."
T his i s
used by f i v e o o llo g e s t o in d ic a te t r a i n i n g i n th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e a r t
p r i n c i p l e s t o c lo th e s , t o th o homo, and a ls o t o o th e r'm in o r a r t problem s,
" P r in c ip le s o f a r t " i s a t i t l e u sed by fo u r o o lle g e s t o d e s ig n a te a stu d y
o f g e n e ra l a r t p r i n c i p l e s .
The v a r i a t i o n o f c r e d i t i s n o t so g r e a t a s e i t h e r th e t i t l e s or
th o s u b je c t m a tte r co v ered .
a llo w a n c e .
The tw o-hour co u rse i s a g a in th e mode i n o r e d it
Nine o f th e f o r t y - s i x o o lle g e s o f t h i s s tu d y do n o t o f f e r
any a r t co u rses in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e home econom ics d e p a rtm e n t.
Twenty-
two o f th e o o lle g e s o f f e r in g a r t work in c o n n e c tio n w ith th e home economics
departm ent o f f e r b u t one o o u rs e .
Some o o lle g e s o f f e r a s many a s s i x , b u t
th e m a jo rity o f f e r b u t two c o u rs e s .
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40
Fam ily R e la tio n s and C h ild Development
Tho oourses in fa m ily r e l a t i o n s and c h il d developm ent form b u t a
sm all p e r c en t of th e t o t a l number o f oourses o f f e r e d , and in th e se th e r e
seems t o be c o n s id e ra b le o v e rla p p in g o f s u b je o t m a tte r .
Table X IV .)
(S®8 Appendix D,
Tho number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r i n g such work a re rauoh few er
th a n th o se o f f e r in g work i n o th e r a r o a s .
In th e fa m ily r e l a t i o n s a re a ,
co u rse s a r e few er i n number th a n th o s e in th e c h i l d developm ent a r e a , b u t
th e c r e d it allow ance i s u s u a lly th e same.
The tw o-hour c o u rse ag ain i s
th e mode.
C h ild H e a lth and Home H u rsln g
The t i t l e o f home n u rs in g ra n k s f i r s t among th e t i t l e s o f home
h e a lth c o u rs e s .
second*
(See Appendix B, T able XV.)
’’C h ild h e a lt h ” ranks
The t i t l e s i n b o th th e s e are&3 i n d i c a t e q u ite w e ll th e s u b je c t
m a tte r ooverod.
The tw o-hour c o u rse i s th e mode, w ith a few th re e -h o u r
oourses in cobo o f home n u rs in g o o u rs e s .
Methods f o r Teaohing Home Economics
The o o u rses i n how t o te a c h home economios a r e f o r t h e most p a r t
l i s t e d i n c o n n ec tio n w ith th e d ep artm en t o f e d u c a tio n .
These a re l i s t e d
under f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s and d e a l more p a r t i c u l a r l y w ith t h e s u b je c t
o f te a o h in g foods and c lo th in g th a n th e y do w ith o th e r s u b je c t m a t e r i a l s .
(See Appendix B, T ab le XVI.)
A few o f th e t i t l e s u sed a r e i
" te a c h in g
d i e t e t i c s and n u t r i t i o n , " " th e te a c h in g o f home econom ics— s tr e s s in g
c lo th in g and fo o d s ," and " s p e o ia l methods f o r te a o h in g o lo th in g and fo o d s ."
In th e m a tte r o f o r e d i t , th e r e a r e a few th r e e - h o u r c o u rs e s , b u t th e mode
i s th e tw o-hour c o u rs e .
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41
G eneral Summary o f Course O ffe rin g s
The c o u rses i n homo ooonomics d e s c rib e d i n th o c a ta lo g s and d i s ­
c u sse d i n th e p re c e d in g pages shovr g re a t v a r i a t i o n i n re g a rd t o j
1,
The
nunibor o f
o o u rses o ff e re d b y th e d i f f e r e n t c o lle g e s ,
2*
The d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s im der which th o work i s l i s t e d ,
5,
The n a tu re o f c o n te n t o f o o u rs e s,
4*
The
5,
The amount o f o r e d it allo w ed f o r each c o u rs e ,
6,
The ty p e o f d eg ree tow ard w hich c r e d i t s i n home eoonomios
ty p e of c o u rs e s t h a t a re r e q u ir e d ,
work may be ap p lie d #
Some o f th e c o u rses a re w e ll s u ite d f o r a program o f homemaking
e d u c a tio n in te n d e d f o r a l l s tu d e n ts , w h ile o th e r s oould o n ly be u sed by
th o s e s tu d e n ts who e x p ect t o e n te r th e p ro f e s s io n s open t o home economics
m a jo rs .
Yet amid t h i s v a r i e t y th e r e i s t h i s elem en t o f u n i ty , t h a t a
m a jo r ity o f th e c o lle g e s s e le c te d f o r t h i s s tu d y o f f e r some c o u rs e s t h a t
oould be c o n sid e re d b a s ic i n d ev elo p in g a program o f homemaking e d u c a tio n .
To d eterm in e th e s e b a s ic o r r e p r e s e n ta ti v e c o u rses i s , t h e n , th e
l a s t phase o f th o c a ta lo g a n a l y s i s .
Method o f D eterm ining R e p re s e n ta tiv e Courses
The method o f d e te rm in in g r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o o u rse s and t h e i r c h a ra c ­
t e r i s t i c s was chosen more o r l e s s a r b i t r a r i l y #
manner o f MaoLary,
5
Three o r i t e r i a , a f t e r th e
were d ecid ed upon f o r ju d g in g th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e n e s s
o f th e v a rio u s course m a t e r i a l s .
These are*
^D orothy M. MaoLary, (S o h n e ll), op, o i t », p , 2 2 ,
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
42
1*
A reas ranked, a cc o rd in g to t o t a l number o f o o u rses o ff e re d in
eao h area*
2*
(See T able I I I , page S 3 .)
Courses ranked a c c o rd in g t o th o numbor o f c o lle g e s r e q u ir in g
such courses*
3*
(See Appendix B, T ab les IX-XVT*)
C ourses ranked a c c o rd in g t o th e t o t a l number o f c o lle g e s
o f f e r i n g suoh o o u rs e s ,
(See Table V, page 45*)
A f te r th e work o f ra n k in g was com pleted, i t was f u r t h e r d ecid ed in
agreem ent w ith MacLary t o use th e l a s t o r i t e r i o n ub t h e b e s t c r i t e r i o n i n
d e te rm in in g r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rs e s .
Table XIX o f Appendix B p re s e n ts th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o o u rses
a o co rd in g to each c r ite r io n *
Since co u rses ran k ed acc o rd in g t o th e number of o o lle g e s o f f e r in g
c e r t a i n ones was to be th e c r i t e r i o n f o r ju d g in g r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o n es, i t
was n e c e s s a ry to d eterm in e th e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r in g such o ourses
or t h e i r e q u iv a le n t*
To do t h i s i t was n e c e ssa ry t o s e le o t t h e course
t i t l e s t h a t would be r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f b a s ic m a te r ia l, th e n t o c l a s s i f y
th o o o n te n t o f th e 944 c o u rses a o co rd in g t o th o r e p r e s e n ta tiv e t i t l e s ,
and th u s d eterm in e th e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r in g such m a te r ia l even
though t h i s m a te r ia l m ight be l i s t e d under d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s *
B asic T i t l e s
I n s e le c tin g t i t l e s t h a t m ight be c o n sid e re d b a s ic , i t was d ecid ed
t o ta k e o n ly th o s e t i t l e s th a t a r e used by a s many as fiv e c o lle g es*
A ppendix B, T a b le s IX-XIV*)
(See
A ccording t o t h i s method, tw en ty -sev e n were
found to s a t i s f y th e requirem ents*
These t i t l e s to g e th e r w ith t h e num­
b e r o f o o lle g e s u sin g suoh in rank o rd e r a re g iv en in T able IV, page 43*
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43
TABLE IV
COURSES OFFERED BY AS MARY AS FIVE COLLEGES IN RANK ORDER
ACCORDING TO THE HUMBER OF COLLEGES OFFERING SUCH COURSES
T i t l e o f Course
C o lleg es O ffe rin g
Number
Rank
T e x tile s
Foods
C lo th in g
D le te tio s
Q u a n tity Cookery
26
26
21
19
18
C h ild Development
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
Advanoed C lo th in g
H is to ry o f Costume and D esign
I n t e r i o r D eco ra tio n
1?
16
16
16
15
6
8
8
8
11
Home Management
Home N ursing
Fam ily R e la tio n s h ip s
E x p erim en tal Cookery
D ie to th e ra p h y
15
15
14
13
13
11
11
13
14,5
14.5
D ie t i n D isease
N u tr it io n
lie a l P lan n in g and T able S e rv ic e
Home Care o f th o S ick
N u tr itio n and D ie te tic s
10
10
8
8
8
16,5
16,5
19
19
19
7
7
6
5
5
5
5
2 1 .5
21.5
23
2 5 .5
2 5 ,5
2 5 .5
25 .5
Household Management
P r a c tic e House
C h ild Care
C lo th in g Eoonomios
M illin e r y and M illin e ry S e le c tio n
Food and Cookery
A rt and D esign
1*5
1 .5
3
4
5
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44
C la s s if y in g Course M a te ria l under B asio T i t l e s
In. th o grouping o f course m a te r ia l under b a slo t i t l e s , i t i s t o
he remembered t h a t even though th e o o u rse t i t l e s v a r ie d g r e a t l y , th e
m a te r ia l, i n many in s ta n c e s , was s im ila r enough t o h e grouped u n d er even
few er h e ad in g s th a n th o s e m entioned i n T able IV, page 4 3 ,
For exam ple,
th e work i n t h e a re a s o f c lo th in g i s l i s t e d under B ix ty -e ig h t d i f f e r e n t
h e a d in g s , y e t many t i t l e s suoh a s d r e s s , fu n d am en tals o f sew in g , c lo th in g
a p p r e c ia tio n , and even th e psychology o f d r e s s , in o lu d e i n s t r u c t i o n in
th e fu n d am en tals o f sew ing and c lo th in g s e le c t io n and oo u ld b e l i s t e d
under a s in g le b a s ic t i t l e suoh a s " c lo th in g c o n s tr u c tio n " o r " c lo th in g
c o n s tr u c tio n and a p p r e c ia tio n ,"
However, th e g ro u p in g of a l l m a te r ia l was no t a s sim ple as t h i s ,
and i t was n e c e s s a ry t o d e v ise a method f o r grouping m a te r ia l o f th e
more c o m p lic ate d t y p e . The method used was s im ila r t o th e one u sed b y
A
.
Moore,-- and c o n s is te d o f (1) l i s t i n g th e fundam ental p r i n c i p l e s o f th e
c o u rses whose t i t l e s wore s e lo c to d as b a s i o , and (2) checking th e u n d er­
ly in g p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l o th e r c o u rse s w ith t h e b a s io o n o s.
When th e r e
was s u f f i c i e n t agreem ent betw een th o m a te r ia l and t i t l e , th e o o u rse was
a ss ig n e d to th e t i t l e under which i t a g re e d .
There was much o v e rla p p in g , and many tim e s o ourse o o n te n t was
a r b i t r a r i l y a s s ig n e d t o a c e r t a i n sp h e re o r o m itte d e n t i r e l y a o co rd in g
t o t h e judgm ent o f th e in v e s tig a to r *
T h is i s p erh ap s t h e w eak est sp o t
i n t h e a n a ly s is o f th e c o u rs e s , b u t w ith 944 c o u rses and 242 t i t l e s t o
be re d u c ed t o a few b a s io o n es, s u b j e c t i v i t y had t o be a f a c to r *
^Oora Moore, o p , c l t , , p , 7 6 ,
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45
R ep rese x itati ve C ourses
A ccording to th e method o f s o le o tin g b a s ic t i t l e s and grouping
oourse m a te r ia l, c e r t a i n co u rses suoh a s q u a n tity co o k ery , i n s t i t u t i o n a l
management, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c c o u n tin g w are e n t i t l e d t o a p la o e among
t h e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rs e s , b u t s in c e th e y do n o t touoh d i r e c t l y on work
o f homemaking e d u o a tio n , th e y were e lim in a te d from th e f i n a l l i s t o f
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e cou rses*
T able V p re s e n ts a l i s t o f th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rses to g e th e r
w ith th e number o f c o lle g e s t h a t o f f e r work in them*
TABLE V
REPRESENTATIVE COURSES
No* of C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g These
Rank
C lo th in g C o n stru c tio n
46
1.5
Food and n u t r i t i o n
46
1 .5
C h ild Care and C h ild Development
58
3
R e la te d A rts
36
4
T e x tile s
26
5
Home Management
25
6
Home C are o f t h e S ick
20
7
Fam ily R e la tio n s
18
8*5
P lan n in g and S e rv in g o f Meals
18
8 .5
Co3tum9 H is to ry and D esigh
12
9
C ourses
C h a r a c te r is tic s o f R e p re s e n ta tiv e C ourses
In g e n e r a l, th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o o u rses have few p r e r e q u is ite s *
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
46
(See Appendix B, T able VI«)
T his i3 p ro b a b ly e x p la in e d by th e f a c t t h a t
ex ce p t f o r o e r ta in advanced w ork, th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rse s a re th e
f i r s t o o u rses in th e m ajor sequence*
Tho m a jo rity of th o r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rses c a r r ie d th r e e sem ester
hours o f o r e d i t .
(See Appendix B, T able V I I .)
C ontent o f R epre be n ta tiv e Courses
The o o n to n t o f th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rses vms re o o rd e d w ith some
d iffic u lty ,
^hree c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were made b e fo re a s a t i s f a c t o r y method
oould be d e v is e d .
A ccording t o th e m ethod, th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e c o u rses
w ere l i s t e d and t h e i r o o n te n t n o te d .
Then a l l o th e r c o u rs e s were checked
f o r s im ila r oo u rse c o n te n t.
Table XVIII o f Appendix B p re s e n ts a l i s t o f th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
c o u rses to g e th e r v /ith t h e i r o o n ten t item s and th e number o f tim e s th e se
item s were m entioned.
Summary
The main p o in t- re v e a le d by th e a n a ly s is o f th e o a ta lo g s o f s e v e n ty
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e C a th o lio fo u r y e a r c o lle g e s f o r women a r e t
1.
Less th a n tw o -th ird s o f th e c o lle g e s re p re s e n te d by t h e
o a ta lo g s o f f e r
2.
Tho
work in homo
eoonom ios.
work i s l i s t e d u n d er 242d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s o r c a p tio n s and
in c lu d e s m a te r ia l d e sc rib e d i n 944 d i f f e r e n t o o u rs e s .
3.
Th e re i s no d e f i n i t e p h ilo so p h y e x e m p lifie d i n re g a rd t o home-
making e d u c a tio n ,
4.
The
work o ff e re d
t o p re p a re s tu d e n ts
f o r th e
seems to be o f a p ro f e s s io n a l n a tu re in te n d e d
work open t o home eoonomios m a jo rs .
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47
5,
There i s g re a t d i v e r s i t y in nom enclature o f c o u rs e s , and tho
work o f f e r e d i n suoh c o u rses d i f f e r s from c o lle g e t o c o lle g e .
There i s ,
however, some u n ity o f oourso c o n te n t in c o lle g e s lo c a te d i n the same
g e o g ra p h ic a l region*
G«
But even though th e r e i s a d i v e r s i t y o f c o u rse s and oourso
c o n te n t, i t i s p o s s ib le t o reduce th e mass o f m a te ria l t o a few b a s io
c o u rses whioh oould be used as th e n u c le u s f o r a homeroaking program .
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CHAPTER I I I
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE CATHOLIC POUR YEAR COLLEGES FOR WOMEN
AS RBV.:1ALED BY A STUDY OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Use o f th e Q u e stio n n a ire
A lthough t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e method o f o b ta in in g in fo rm a tio n i s n o t
alw ays th e m ost d e s ir a b le , y e t f o r t h i s s tu d y i t seemed th e o n ly method
t h a t c o u ld b e used t o seo u re c e r t a i n f a c t s o f a m ore d i r e c t and in tim a te
n a tu r e t h a t w ere n e o e s s a ry to com plete t h e p ic tu r e o f home eoonomios
e d u c a tio n a s now o f f e r e d in th e C a th o lic fo u r y e a r c o lle g e f o r women
w hich c o u ld n o t be o b ta in e d th ro u g h on a n a ly s is o f th e c a t a lo g s .
This
in fo rm a tio n was n o t o n ly n e c e s s a ry to com plete th o p ic t u r e , b u t i t was
e s s e n t i a l f o r d e v elo p in g a p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u o a tio n .
Number and Purpose o f th e Q u e s tio n n a ire s
An i n i t i a l su rv e y o f t h e c o lle g e c a ta lo g s showed t h a t tw e n ty -fo u r
c o lle g e s , o r about o n e - th ir d th o number o f o o lle g e s s e le c te d f o r t h i s
s tu d y , do n o t o f f e r home economics o o u rs e s .
I t became a p p a re n t from th o
f i r s t , th e n , t h a t two q u e s tio n n a ir e s w ould be n e o e s s a ry —one t o b e s e n t
t o t h e c o lle g e s n o t o f f e r i n g t h i s ty p e o f w ork, and one t o b e s e a t t o
th e c o lle g e s t h a t do o f f e r suoh w ork.
The p u rpose o f t h e f i r s t q u e s tio n ­
n a ir e (se e Appendix B, E x h ib it B) was t o d e te rm in e , i f p o s s ib le , t h e
a t t i t u d e o f th e c o lle g e o f f i c i a l s to w ard t h i s f i e l d of s tu d y .
The p u r­
pose o f t h e second q u e s tio n n a ir e (see Appendix B, E x h ib it C) was t o
determ in e t h e p la c e o f home econom ics i n th e c o lle g e s t h a t do o f f e r i t .
Both q u e s tio n n a ir e s had th e fo llo w in g q u e s tio n s i n common %
1,
Should home econom ics be r e q u ir e d o f a l l s tu d e n ts ?
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49
2*
Should homemsking e d u o a tio n i n th o C a th o lic c o lle g e s f o r
women he c o n sid e re d as e s s e n t i a l a s p h ilo so p h y and r e li g i o n ?
3*
Would i t be p o s s ib le , in th e o p in io n o f th e p e rso n answ ering
th e q u e s tio n n a ir e , to i n te g r a te homemaking e d u c a tio n to g e th e r
w ith r e l i g i o n and p h ilo so p h y in to a n in te g r a te d cu rricu lu m ?
4,
Ytfould t h e p e rso n answ ering t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e b e w ill in g t o
c o o p e ra te in w orking out suoh a p la n ?
Q u e s tio n n a ir e R e tu rn s
The re sp o n se from th e n o n -o ffe rin g group o f o o lle g e s was more
prompt and more com plete on th e f i r s t re q u e s t th a n was th e re sp o n se from
t h e group o f f e r in g home economics*
The d e la y o f t h e l a t t e r group may be
a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e le n g th o f tim e i t to o k t o c o l l e c t th e n e o e s s a ry m a te ria l
t o answ er th e r a t h e r te o h n io a l q u e s tio n s o f th e in tr o d u c to r y p a r t o f t h e
q u e s tio n n a ire *
One p e rso n commenting on t h i s p o in t rem arked t h a t i t was
n e c e s s a ry t o c o n s u lt th e d ean , th e r e g i s t r a r , and th e o f f i c e r s of th e
alumnae to se c u re t h e d a ta r e q u ir e d i n th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
However,
n e i t h e r t h e d e la y n o r t h e number o f re q u e s ts can in v a lid a te t h e inform a­
t i o n th u s o b ta in e d (se e T ab le V i), and th e f i n a l h ig h p e r c e n t o f th o
r e tu r n s by b o th groups o f o o lle g e s sh o u ld be e v id en c e enough t h a t th o
q u e s tio n n a ir e s were w e ll re c e iv e d and' answered i n a s p i r i t o f c o o p e ra tio n .
M oreover, t h e fra n k n e ss o f many o f th e answ ers and th e comments o ff e re d
in d ic a te t h a t th e re sp o n se s were t h e r e s u l t o f d e l i b e r a t e th o u ^ it and
judgm ent on th e p a r t o f th o s e answ ering th e q u e stio n s*
T able VI re c o rd s t h e number o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s s e n t t o each ty p e o f
c o lle g e , th e number o f r e q u e s ts t h a t w ere s e n t a s fo llo w -u p s to th e f i r s t
r e q u e s t, and t h e p e rc e n ta g e r e tu r n o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
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60
TABLE VI
NUMBER OF QUESTIONNAIRES— PER CENT OF RETURNED
Group
To
Whom
Sent
No*
Sent
"Per Cent
R eturned
F irs t
R equest
N on-O ffering
Dean
24
75
46
54
O ffe rin g
Head o f
D ept,
P er Cent
R eturned
Seoond
R equest
Per Cent
R eturned
T h ird
R equest
T o ta l
Per Gent
R eturned
8
IS
96
24
2
91
Home Eoonomios in N on-O ffering Group C o lleg es
The fo llo w in g t a b l e p re s e n ts a summary o f th e answ ers t o th e f i r s t
phase o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e .
TABLE V II
SUMMARY OF ANSWERS TO FIRST FIVE QUESTIONS OF FIRST QUESTIONNAIRE
Q uestio n s
Answers
Q u a lifie d
No
Yes
Laok o f m a te r ia l re s o u rc e s ?
0
8
1
IS
Laok o f s tu d e n t i n t e r e s t ?
0
1
0
21
U nnecessary f o r p a r t i c u l a r
ty p e o f stu d e n t?
0
2
2
18
Should home p ro v id e suoh
tr a in in g ?
0
1
1
20
10
10
2
10
0
9
0
13
Does home eoonomios belo n g i n
th e l i b e r a l a r t e c o lle g e s ?
Should l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s
s t r e s s o n ly th e t r a d i t i o n a l
academ ic s u b je c ts ?
No Response
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61
A survey o f t h e
o f o o lle g e s shows t h a t
q u e s tio n n a ire r e tu r n s from th e n o n -o f fe r in g group
t h i s group i s
d iv id e d i n to two
th e re a so n f o r n o t o f f e r in g home econom ics i s concerned#
p a r t s so f a r a s
E ig h t o f th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e s re tu rn e d in d ic a te la c k o f m a te r ia l re s o u rc e s as th e re a so n
f o r n o t o f f e r in g home economics work*
Ten o f t h e rem ain in g q u e stio n ­
n a ir e s in d io a te t h a t suoh work does n o t f i t in to th e l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e
o u r r io u la .
One was oheoked t o show la o k o f s tu d e n t i n t e r e s t i n th e sub­
j e c t a s th e re a s o n f o r n o t in o lu d in g
i t i n th e c o lle g e o u rrio u la * Two
o th e r s were cheoked t o
such work i s n o t
in d io a te t h a t
n e c e s s a ry f o r
t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r group o f s tu d e n ts , and one was ohecked t o in d io a te t h a t
th e homo should p ro v id e such t r a i n i n g .
Comments
A number o f th o s e answ ering th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s o f f e r e d v a lu a b le
comments t o s u b s ta n tia te t h e i r o p in io n s , and s e v e r a l w rote l e t t e r s t o
o l a r i f y t h e i r opin io n s*
One comment re a d , " I have no doubt b u t t h a t
g i r l s in o o lle g e s should be ta u g h t t h e p r a c t i c a l a r ts *
I f e e l , to o , t h a t
home economics m ight w e ll be e x tre m e ly p r a c t i c a l , b u t I am co n v in ced t h a t
suoh o o u rses c o n tro v e rt th e id e a o f l i b e r a l a r t s , and u n t i l we re w rite
our e n t i r e c u rric u lu m , I am opposed to in o lu d in g such work in th e l i b e r a l
a r t s c o lle g e s * "
One l e t t e r s ta t e d t h a t th o u g h la c k o f m a te r ia l re s o u rc e s
i s one o f th e re a so n s why home econom ics i s n o t o f f e r e d , y e t s t a t e
a u t h o r i t i e s "d isap p ro v e beoause th e y w ish t h e o o lle g e s o f t h e s t a t e t o
do a good l i b e r a l a r t s jo b and n o t t o become t e c h n i c a l sch o o ls* "
One comment s t a t e d , "Ours i s a l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e , i n t e r e s t e d
p u re ly i n th e c u l t u r a l aoademio s u b je c ts *
in a home eoonomios d ep artm en t•"
T h e re fo re , we a r e not i n t e r e s t e d
A s im ila r s ta te m e n t was made in a l e t t e r
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52
from one o f th e c o lle g e s whose c a ta lo g showed t h a t tw o c o u rses a re
o f f e r e d i n home econom ics.
The comment read*
"Ours i s a l i b e r a l a r t s
o o lle g e i n th e s t r i o t sense o f th e te rm , and th e o n ly ty p e o f work whioh
i s a t a l l p r o f e s s io n a l i s th a t g iv e n i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e in te g r a te d
o o u rse i n L ib e ra l A rts and N u rsin g ."
A nother comment s im ila r to th e p re ­
ced in g one s t a t e s , "Ours i s a s t r i c t l y L ib e r a l A rts C o lle g e , and th e
home eoonomios program was added c h i e f ly t o ta k e o a re of th o s e s tu d e n ts
who w ished t o u se i t a s a te a c h in g m a jo r."
S t i l l a n o th e r oomment re a d s ,
" P e r s o n a lly , I f e e l t h a t th e o o lle g e s to d a y a re ta k in g e v e ry th in g away
from t h e home.
Soon t h e r e w i l l n o t bo any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l e f t i n fa m ily
lif e ."
Though t h e p re c e d in g comments a re b o th fa v o ra b le and u n fa v o ra b le
t o t h e s t a t u s o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n t h e C a th o lic c o lle g e fo r women,
y e t th e one t o bo q uoted i n t h i s p a ra g rap h m ight bo ta k e n as th e c r i t e r i o n
f o r th e ju d g in g o f t h e p la c e o f t h i s work i n such c o l le g e s .
T his i s
p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e s in c e i t i s made by one who lo n g opposed th e in tr o d u c ­
t i o n o f home econom ics in to th e l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e of vihioh she is now
p re s id e n t.
A f te r s t a t i n g t h a t a homo eoonomios program p ro v id in g fo r a
m ajor i n t h i s f i e l d was added t o t h e c o lle g e o u r r ic u la i n th e y e ar 1938,
th e oomment i s com pleted w ith th e s ta te m e n t, "Though we have alw ays
s tr e s s e d th e l i b e r a l a r t s , y e t I b e lie v e t h a t o o lle g e s fo r women sh o u ld
p ro v id e o p p o r tu n itie s f o r e d u c a tio n i n homemaking,"
F u r th e r A n a ly sis o f t h e Q u e stio n n a ire R etu rn s
The q u e s tio n , "Should th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s s t r e s s th e t r a d i ­
t i o n a l aoademio s u b je o ts ? " m ight seem t o be b u t a d u p lic a tio n o f th e one
t h a t asked w h eth er o r n o t home econom ics work f i t t e d in to th e l i b e r a l a r t s
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53
o o lle g e , b u t suoh m s n o t th e in te n tio n o f th e i n v e s t i g a t o r .
t i o n s -were asked w ith & p u rp o se .
Both ques­
A fte r a g e n e ra l su rv ey o f seventy-
c o lle g e o a ta lo g s and t h e c a r e f u l a n a ly s is o f f o r t y - s i x , th e in v e s t ig a to r
m s re a d y to ask th e q u e s tio n , "What i s th e fu n c tio n o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s
o o lle g e ? ”
T able I I , page 30, Bhows some r a th e r p e rp le x in g f a o t s i f
s u b je c ts t h a t may be r e a d ily c la s s e d a s fu n c tio n a l and v o c a tio n a l have no
p la c e i n t h e l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e .
A ccording to t h i s t a b l e , th e number
o f o o u rses i n e d u c a tio n w hich can s c a r c e ly be c la s s e d a s a n y th in g e ls e
b u t f u n c tio n a l and v o c a tio n a l, r e p r e s e n t 't h e av erag e o f a t o t a l o f 14,286
o o u rse s and t h e m edian o f e le v e n a reas*
Commercial s u b je o ts , and no one
can doubt b u t t h a t th e y a re f u n c tio n a l and c e r t a i n l y v o c a tio n a l, though
th e y do n o t occupy th o o e n te r of th e s ta g e a s do th e e d u o a tio n a l o o u rse s,
y e t th e number o f f e r e d c o n s t i t u t e s 4 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l o o u rse o f f e r ­
in g s o f f o r t y - s i x c o lle g e s .
The answ ers to th e o lo s e ly r e l a t e d q u e s tio n s , ”Does home economics
work f i t i n w ith th e l i b e r a l a r t s c u r r ic u la ? ” and ’’Should th e l i b e r a l
a r t s o o lle g e s s t r e s s o n ly th e t r a d i t i o n a l academ ic s u b je c ts ? " , ware in
o lo so c o n fo rm ity t o t h e re a so n s why home eoonomios i s n o t a p a r t o f t h e
c u r r i c u l a o f tw enty-tw o C a th o lic c o lle g e s f o r women.
Nine o f th e t e n
q u e s tio n n a ir e s t h a t w ere checked n e g a tiv e ly f o r tho f i r s t q u e s tio n were
checked a f f ir m a ti v e ly f o r th e second, w h ile t h e e ig h t q u e s tio n n a ir e s t h a t
in d ic a te d la c k o f m a te r ia l re s o u rc e s as th e re a so n f o r n o t in c lu d in g
such work i n th e c u r r i c u l a made no re fe re n c e t o th e s e two q u e stio n s#
There i s , th e n , a more o r le s s d eg ree of c o n s is te n c y o f o p in io n
why home economics i s n o t in c lu d e d i n th e o u rr io u la o f th e tw e n ty -th ro e
c o lle g e s o o n s u lte d , y e t w hat may be th e fu n c tio n o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s
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64
o o lle g e i s s t i l l a confused is s u e so f a r a s th e q u e s tio n n a ir e r e tu r n s a r e
conoerned.
The second phase o f t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e se n t t o th e n o n -o ffe rin g
group o f c o lle g e s c o n ta in e d fo u r q u e stio n s i n common w ith th o s e s e n t t o
t h e o o lle g e s o f f e r in g home eoonomios*
These q u e s tio n s , a s h as b een
s t a t e d b e f o r e , d e a lt w ith home eoonomios a s an e l e c t i v e and a s a r e q u ir e d
s u b je c t, i t s p la c e i n th e c o lle g e o u r r io u la i n com parison w ith r e l i g i o n
»
and p h ilo so p h y , th o p o s s i b i l i t y o f in te g r a ti n g th e s e two s u b je c ts to g e th e r
w ith homemaking e d u c a tio n in to a co re c u rrio u lu m , and f i n a l l y , th e w i l l ­
in g n e ss on th e p a r t o f th o s e answ ering th e q u e s tio n n a ire t o ta k e p a r t
i n w orking o u t such a program .
T able V I I I , page 55, p re s e n ts a summary o f th e re sp o n se s t o s i x t y fo u r q u e s tio n n a ir e s on th e s e fo u r p o in ts *
A n a ly s is o f P la n o f Table
T able V I I I , page 55, which summarizes th e answ ers to t h e fo u r
q u e s tio n s d e a lin g w ith th e p lao e o f home eoonomios i n th e C a th o lic o o lle g e
f o r woman, m ight seem a t f i r s t g lan o e c o n fu s in g , and th e th o u g h t may
a r i s e t h a t i t would have been more s a t i s f a c t o r y t o have a rra n g e d th e
answ ers i n two s e p a ra te t a b l e s , b u t a f t e r some c o n s id e r a tio n i t was
deoidod t o use b u t th e one t a b l e and b r in g re sp o n se s from a l l t h e ques­
t i o n n a i r e s i n t o one ta b le and in to one d is c u s s io n .
T here a r e fo u r p o s s ib le answ ers to eaoh q u e s tio n .
"Y es," " Q u a lifie d Answ er," and "Uo A nsw er,"
These a r e , ’’No,"
A summary o f th e number o f
eaoh ty p e o f answ er ta k e n from th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s re tu rn e d b y th e non­
o f f e r in g group o f c o lle g e s i s p la c e d f i r s t .
arrangem ent f o r th e o f f e r in g gro u p .
T his i s fo llo w ed b y a s im ila r
The t h i r d p a r t o f th e t a b l e re c o rd s
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced
with permission
of the copyright owner.
TABLE V I I I
SUMMARY OF ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS COMMON TO BOTH QUESTIONNAIRES
Further reproduction
prohibited without permission.
Non*"■offering group
Q u al- No
No Yea i f l e d Arts*
Answers
O ffe rin g group
Q u a l- No
No Yes i f i e d A ns.
No
S hould home econom ics b e r e q u ir e d ?
10
0
5
9
10
16
10
6
31
25
20
24
S hould homemaking e d u c a tio n be con­
s id e r e d a s e s s e n t i a l a s r e l i g i o n
and p h ilo so p h y ?
8
3
2
9
6
6
18
12
22
14
31
33
Do you f o o l t h a t i t would bo p o s s ib le
t o i n t e g r a t e r e l i g i o n , p h ilo s o p h y ,
and homemaking e d u o a tio n i n t o a c o re
c u rric u lu m ?
5
4
4
9
4
23
12
3
14
42
25
19
Would you be w i l l i n g t o c o o p e ra te in
such an u n d e rta k in g ?
2
2
4
14
0
19
1?
6
3
33
33
31
Q u e stio n s
Per C ent
Q u a l- Ho
Yes i f i e d Ans«
cn
cn
56
th e por c e n t eaoh ty p o o f answer i s t o th e t o t a l number o f an sw ers.
Thus th o 31 p e r oont o f "Ho” re sp o n se s t o th e f i r s t q u e s tio n i s o b ta in e d
b y d iv id in g th e sum o f 10 "Ho*s” o f th e f i r s t p a r t p lu s th e 10 "Ho’ s"
o f th e second p a r t , and d iv id in g t h i s by 65, t h e t o t a l number o f ques­
t i o n n a i r e s re tu rn e d *
A n a ly s is o f t h e R esp o n ses t o t h e F i r s t Q u e s tio n — T a b le V I I I
The answ ers t o th e f i r s t q u e s tio n v a r ie d from an u n d e rlin e d "Ho"
t o a n u n d e rlin e d "Yes* w ith answ ers m issin g from more th a n 20 por c e n t o f
th e t o t a l number o f q u e s tio n n a ir e s r e tu r n e d .
The "No Response” answ ers
oame i n g r e a te r numbers from th e o o lle g e s t h a t do n o t o f f e r home eoonomios
work th a n from th o s e t h a t do o f f e r i t , and t h e re a s o n f o r t h i s i s n o t
h a rd t o f i n d .
I t i s o n ly n a tu r a l t h a t th o s e who t h i n k o r m a in ta in t h a t
home eoonomios has no p laoe i n th e l i b e r a l a r t s o u r r io u la would make no
re sp o n se t o t h i s q u e s tio n .
But a s a r e s u l t o f a l l oheoking, a m a jo r ity
o f th o s e answ ering th e q u e s tio n f e l t t h a t c o u rse s In t h i s f i e l d should
n o t bo r e q u ir e d .
Many an sw ers w ere q u a l i f i e d w ith comments w h io h a r e b o th i n t e r e s t ­
in g an d e l u c i d a t i n g i n r e g a r d t o a p h ilo s o p h y o f homemaking e d u o a tio n .
One comment s t a t e s , ” 1 th in k i t w ould be w e ll t o r e q u ir e i t , p ro v id e d no
o th e r means o f t r a i n i n g oould b e p ro v id e d ,”
s t a t e s , ”i t w ould be i d e a l —U topian 1”
” I f r e q u ir e d ,” a n o th e r
A ttach ed to a "Yes” answ er was th e
comment, "Yes—i f th e p o lio y o f th e c o lle g e i s t o r e q u ir e o o u rso sj we do
n o t r e q u ir e c o u r s e s ,”
A nother s t a t e d , "E v e ry th in g would depend on th e
o o n te n t o f th e homemaking o o u rs e s ,"
One s t a t e s t h a t "C ourses in foods
and home management would be b e n e f io ia l " i f r e q u i r e d .
F i n a l l y , one who
had e v id e n tly g iv e n th o u g h t t o t h e q u e s tio n b e fo re re c e iv in g th e
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
67
q u e s tio n n a ir e w ro te , " I should lik e to sac an a t t i t u d e developed in th e
minds o f th e f a c u l t y and th o p u b lic , t h a t "would p laoe g i r l s in th e homo­
making oourses a s th o th in g t o be e x p e c te d .
But i n my o p in io n , th o g i r l s
a rc n o t y e t re a d y t o be regim ented in to re q u ire d courses*
Those who
e l s o t suoh c o u rse s seem t o add to th e m oralo o f th e d e p a rtm e n t,”
A n a ly sis o f th e Responses t o th e Second Q uestion—Table V III
A ll fo u r p o s s ib le re sp o n se s w ere used i n answ ering th o q u e s tio n ,
"Should homemaking e d u o a tio n i n th e C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women be con­
s id e r e d a s e s s e n t i a l as philo so p h y and r e l i g i o n ? ," and an a n a ly s is o f th e
t o t a l re sp o n se s oould b e i n te r p r e te d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways.
t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e s o ffe re d no resp o n se to t h i s q u e s tio n .
o f t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e s re c o rd e d q u a lif ie d re s p o n s e s ,
O n e -th ird o f
A nother t h i r d
A l i t t l e more th a n
o n e -e ig h th o f th e number b o re m arks, th e i n v e s t i g a t o r f e a r s , o f a fe e b le
"Y os," w hile n e a r ly a f o u r th showed s ig n s o f a s tro n g "No,"
At th e tim e
t h e q u e s tio n n a ire "was fo rm u lated th e r e wore no m isg iv in g s in th o mind o f
th o one fo rm u la tin g th e q u e stio n s as t o i t s v/ordlng and m eaning, and i t
was n o t -u n til some o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s vrora re tu rn e d t h a t any m is­
a p p reh en sio n s aro se*
3ome o f th e comments p o in te d a t once to th e v e ry
p h ilo s o p h ic a l n a tu r e of th e q u a s tio n , end t h i s may a c c o u n t, i n a m easure,
f o r th e la rg e p e r c en t o f th e "No” answ ers as w e ll as fo r th e la rg o number
o f " Q u a lifie d A nsw ers,"
Some in answ ering th e q u e stio n may have f e l t
t h a t a N ih il Q b stat o r a n Im prim atur was n e c e s s a ry , b u t tho fo rm u la to r
o f th e q u e s tio n n a ire had no th o u g h t t h a t suoh would be r e q u ir e d .
The
word " e s s e n t i a l ” may have been m isle a d in g , b u t t h e q u e stio n was asked
w ith th e c o n v io tio n t h a t i f p h ilo so p h y and r e l i g i o n a re t o fu n c tio n
p ro p e rly and e f f e c t i v e l y , th e y must f u n c tio n th ro u g h th e horn® and home
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
58
life «
In t h i s sen se , th a n , oould " e s s e n t i a l " bo in tro d u c e d in to th e
q u e s tio n and be u sed p ro p e rly t o d en o te th e im portance o f homemaking
oduo& tion i n a C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women*
A n a ly sis o f th e R esponses t o th e T hird Q u e stio n —1'ablo V III
The answ ers t o t h e t h i r d q u e s tio n o f Table V I I I , page 55, a re
p a r t i c u l a r l y e n co u rag in g , so f a r a s th o p e rs o n a l o p in io n o f tho i n v e s t i ­
g a to r i s concerned*
F o rty -o n e p o r c e n t o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s re tu rn e d
i n d i c a t e a p o s itiv e answer t o th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e g r a t i n g homemaking
e d u o a tio n , p h ilo so p h y , and r e l i g i o n in to a oore curriculum *
T w en ty -sig h t
p e r c e n t gave more o r lo s s fa v o ra b le " Q u a lifie d Answers" which i f added
t o t h e 41 p o r oent o f p o s itiv e answ ers w ould mean t h a t a t o t a l o f 68 p e r
o e n t o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s r e tu r n e d viewed w ith fa v o r th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
such an u n d e rta k in g *
Twelve por o e n t o f t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e s re c o rd ed a
"No" answ er, w h ile 19 p e r c e n t made no response*
Here a g a in th o comments were v a r ie d and show t h a t suoh a th o u g h t
was n o t e n t i r e l y new t o th e minds o f th o s e answ ering th e q u estio n *
The
f i r s t oomment, though n o t so h o p e fu l, i s n e v e r th e le s s s ig n if ic a n t*
"As
I se e i t , " th e comment s t a t e s , " o n ly th e f a c u l t y i n th e homemaking d e p a r t­
ment could u n d e rsta n d th e i n t e g r a t i o n o r c o r r e l a ti o n o f th e m ajor f ie ld s *
The A m erican D ie te t ic s A s s o c ia tio n does i t f o r t h e i r d i e t i t i a n s , b u t
w ould th e a d m in is tr a tio n and f a c u l t y o f any o o lle g e f o r women a ccep t or
p r e s c r ib e a oore ourrioulum ?"
A nother oommento t h a t " i n a C a th o lic
o o lle g e f o r women, r e l i g i o n and p h ilo so p h y , which a l l must ta k e , c o n s ti ­
t u t e s th e one and o n ly c o re o f our o o lle g e c u r r i c u l a ,"
TVhile th e above
comment would seem to exolude a l l b u t th e s e two s u b je c ts i n a oore c u r r ic u ­
lum , a n o th e r would " in c lu d e s o c io lo g y and eoonomios to g e th e r w ith r e l i g i o n ,
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
59
p h ilo so p h y , and homemaking e d u c a tio n as t h e b a s is o f a oore c u rric u lu m ."
S ta te r e g u la tio n s and a c c r e d itin g a g e n c ie s were c i t e d s e v e r a l
tim e s a s h in d ra n c e s t o th o r e a l i s a t i o n o f an i n te g r a te d progra® o f s t u d i e s .
One oomment r e a d s i
re q u ire m e n ts »"
"Noj n o t when we have to meet s t a t e and a s s o c i a ti o n
A nother re a d s t
" P e rh a p s,
we a re so b u sy t r y i n g t o s a t i s f y
s t a t e re q u ire m e n ts , Amerioan D ie t e t ic re q u ire m e n ts , I wonder how \:o
oould d e a l w ith a n o th e r curriculu m *
However, I th in k i t would b e i n t e r e s t ­
in g t o work o u t suoh a oore a s you s u g g e s t.
i s v e r y muoh n e g le o te d i n our c o ll e g e s ,"
I f ir m ly b e lie v e homemaking
The fo llo w in g comment in c lu d e s
an e x p re s s io n o f q u a l i f i e d w illin g n e s s t o h e lp c a r ry o u t suoh a program
a s w e ll a s re a s o n s why i t m ight n o t be p o s s ib le t o change th e e x i s t i n g
c u rric u lu m o f c o lle g e s .
" I n our s t a t e we have t h e problem o f t r a i n i n g
f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f home eoonomios te a c h e r s and must th e r e f o r e fo llo w a
r a t h e r m easured o u t r o u t i n e .
I f th e ‘ oore* program would n o t mean
s a c r i f i c i n g t h e te a c h e r t r a i n i n g o r t r a i n i n g f o r d i e t i t i a n s , I would be
•w illin g t o o o o p e ra te , as I f e e l e v ery C a th o lic o o lle g e g ra d u a te sh o u ld
bo g iv e n s u f f i o i e n t h e lp so t h a t she oan a d e q u a te ly c a r r y on a C h r is tia n
home«"
The fo llo w in g comments, th o u g h b r i e f , seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y encourag­
in g t o one who se e s t h e g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t y o f d ev elo p in g th o th r e e v i t a l
l i f e s u b je o ts in to a n in te g r a te d program o f s t u d ie s i n th e C a th o lio
o o lle g e f o r women.
Two oomments a r e a s fo llo w s*
" I would l i k e t o se e i t
done*" and " I sh o u ld l i k e t o see som ething o f t h i s k in d a tte m p te d ."
A nother s t a t e s , " I f any o o lle g e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n suoh a program , I know
o f n o th in g t h a t sh o u ld re n d e r t h e p la n d i f f i c u l t o r o b je c tio n a b le •"
F in a lly , one b e lie v e s t h a t a "marked improvement i n e f f i c i e n t c o lle g e
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
60
t r a i n i n g w ould fo llo w a s a r e s u l t o f such a program*"
One comment
i n d ic a te s t h a t i t would n o t be p o s s ib le t o ohange th e l i b e r a l a r t s
o o lle g e o r th e l i b e r a l a r t s and p r o f e s s io n a l c o lle g e * “A ty p o o f C a th o lic
C o lleg e f o r Women m ight be o rg a n iz e d a b o u t th e su g g ested c o re , and I
t h in k i t would f i l l a r e a l need i n C a th o lic o d u o a tio n ."
A n a ly sis o f th e R esponses t o t h e F o u rth Q u e stio n —T able V U I
The re s p o n se s t o t h i s q u e s tio n , th o u g h many o f them w ere q u a li f ie d
n e g a tiv e ly , y e t none of th e comments in d io a te an u n fa v o ra b le a t t i t u d e
tow ard a s s i s t i n g i n w orking out suoh a program*
There was a d ecid e d " y e s”
re sp o n se from th e c o lle g e s t h a t had in d io a to d la o k of m a te r ia l re s o u rc e s
a s th e re a so n f o r n o t o f f e r i n g home eoonomios work*
The number o f ques­
t i o n n a i r e s in d ic a tin g a "no" re sp o n se came l a r g e ly from t h e same c o lle g e s
t h a t had p re v io u s ly in d ic a te d t h a t a program o f i n t e g r a t i o n was n e i t h e r
p o s s ib le o r f e a s ib le *
A m u l t i p l i c i t y o f d u tie s was th e re a s o n most
f r e q u e n tly g iv e n f o r n o t b e in g a b le to a s s i s t w ith th e work o f d e v e lo p in g
suoh a program a s i s proposed i n t h e l a s t of t h e fo u r q u e s tio n s oommon
t o b o th q u e s tio n n a ire s *
The i n a b i l i t y of th o s e t o a s s i s t w ith th e work
b ecause of p re v e n tin g d u tie s was o f f s e t by comments o f w illin g n e s s , suoh
a s , " I sh o u ld be happy t o h e lp i n prom oting and im proving a program o f
homemaking e d u c a tio n * "
" I c e r t a i n l y would be more th a n w illin g * "
The
"yeBM re sp o n se s and " q u a lif ie d " re sp o n se s were e a c h 33 p e r c e n t o f th e
t o t a l re s p o n s e s .
The sum o f th e s e tw o, o r 66 p e r oent o f th o s e o o n s u lte d ,
were e i t h e r a c t i v e l y o r t a c i t l y w i l l i n g to c o o p e ra te i n su ch a program o f
o u rricu lu m re v is io n *
The "no" answ ers r e p r e s e n t 3 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l
re s p o n s e s , w h ile t h e p e r oent o f "no re sp o n se s" i s 31*
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
61
Home Economics in th e C olleges That O ffe r I t , a s Revealed by th e Remaining
Answers to Q uestions o f Second Q u e stio n n a ire
The rem aining answers to th e q u e stio n s o f th e q u e s tio n n a ire s e n t
to the c o lle g e s t h a t do o f f e r home economics w ork, group them selves in to
phases o f in q u ir y .
The f i r s t group o r phase d e a ls w ith c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l
and s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta .
The second d e a ls w ith c u r r i c u l a r problems and
c u r r i c u l a r r e v is io n .
A n aly sis o f H is to r ic a l and S t a t i s t i c a l Data
The f i r s t two columns o f Table EC, page 65, p re s e n t c e r t a i n f a c ts
p e r ta in in g to th e growth and th e developm ent o f C a th o lic fo u r y e ar
c o lle g e s f o r women i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , as w e ll ac th e grow th and th o
developm ent o f home economics in th e se c o lle g e s*
In e x p la in in g t h i s p a r t o f Table EC, page 65, th e y ears may be
grouped in to f iv e p e rio d s o r deoades.
These a r e :
1.
The y e ars p r i o r to 1900
2.
The y e ars from 1900 to 1910
3.
The y e a rs from 1910 to 1920
4.
The y e ars from 1920 to 1930
5.
Tho y ears from 1930 to th e p re s e n t tim e
P r i o r to 1900, s ix C ath o lio c o lle g e s f o r women had been e s ta b lis h e d ,
b u t none o f them o ff e re d work i n home economics a s th e term now im p lie s .
From 1900 to 1910, th re e more c o lle g e s were e s t a b l is h e d , b u t no work in
home eoonomios was o f f e r e d .
From 1910 to 1920, se v e n te en c o lle g e s were
e s ta b lis h e d , and f iv e o f th e t o t a l number o f c o lle g e s so f a r e s ta b lis h e d
o ff e re d some work in home econom ics.
Tho a re a s o f i n s t r u c t i o n were th o se
o f foods and c lo th in g , and th e number o f c o u rs e s , a s re v e a le d by Table EC,
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
63
page 65, wore from two t o f o u r I n number.
Prom 1920 t o 1930, fo u r te e n c o lle g e s were e s ta b lis h e d and tw e n ty e ig h t o o lle g e s , in c lu d in g many o f th o s e t h a t had b een e s ta b lis h e d d u rin g
th e t h r e e p re v io u s p e rio d s , in tro d u c e d work i n home eoonomios in to th e
c o lle g e cu rrio u lu m .
D uring t h e p e rio d from 1930 t o 1940, th e r e was a marked d e o lin e
i n number o f o o lle g e s opened, b u t th e number of th o s e ad d in g home econom ics
co u rses t o t h e i r c u rric u lu m was in c re a s e d by nine*
Humber of C ourses and Areas o f I n s tr u o ti o n
The a re a s o f i n s tr u o tio n show a g ra d u a l in c re a s e from two i n 1914
t o n in e a t th e p re s e n t tim e i n th e m a jo rity o f c o lle g e s .
The number o f
c o u rses i n each a re a in c re a s e d from two i n 1914 t o f o r t y - e i g h t a t th e
p re s e n t tim e .
Only i n one in s ta n c e was th e r e a d e o lin e in th e number o f
a re a s and none in t h e number o f c o u rs e s ,
A l e t t e r from t h e dean o f th e o o llo g e i n w hich th e number o f a r e a s
had b een reduced s t a t e d , "At p re s e n t we do n o t o f f e r home economics c o u rs e s .
The few co u rses o f f e r e d y e a rs ago vraro n e v e r g iv e n on a c r e d it b a s i s .
However, we do o f f e r a m ajor in n u t r i t i o n f o r s tu d e n ts who w ish t o become
d ie titia n s ,”
T able IX, page 65, i s an a tte m p t to summarize a l l t h e p e r tin e n t
f a c t s p e r ta in in g to th e grow th and developm ent o f home econom ics a s
re v e a le d by th e answ ers t o fo rty -tw o q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
The f i r s t column o f t h i s t a b l e l i s t s th e y e a r s i n w hich th e c o lle g e s
wore e s ta b lis h e d .
The second column g iv e s t h e y e a rs i n which home
eoonomios was in tro d u c e d in t o suoh o o lle g e s .
The t h i r d column p r e s e n ts in fo rm a tio n w hich may n o t a p p ea r c l e a r
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
64
a t f i r s t g la n c e , b u t w hich i s in te n d e d t o show th e number o f a re a s and
t h e number o f c o u rs e s o f f e r e d i n eaoh a r e a a t th e tim e t h e home eoonomios
departm ent i n eaoh o o llo g e was opened a s compared w ith t h e number o f
a re a s and o o u rse s t h a t a r e now b e in g o f f e re d by t h e same c o lle g e *
S t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h i s oolumn shows t h a t th e m edian o f a re a s a t t h e tim e th e
home econom ics d ep artm en ts w ere in tro d u c e d i n t o th e c o lle g e s was 3 , and
tho u g h t h e e x a c t y e a r a t w hioh t h i s was reach ed can n o t b e e x a c tly d e te r ­
m ined, i t soems t o be betw een th e y e a rs 1922 and 1926*
A ccording t o
Table IX, page 65, th e y e a r 1932 would be more a c c u r a te , b u t i n t h i s th e
t a b l e i s m islead in g *
The av erag e number o f a re a s a t th e tim e home eoonomios was i n t r o ­
duced in to th e c o lle g e s i s 4*3, w h ile a t t h e p re s e n t tim e i t i s 7*7,
The a v erag e number o f o o u rses a t e ac h o f th e s e p e rio d s i s 7 .1 as compared
t o 20*3*
I t i s r a t h e r t o d e term in e th e ran g e o f eaoh p e r io d , s in c e th e
o o lle g e s t h a t in tro d u c e d such work a f t e r 1926 o f f e r th e same number o f
a re a s and o o u rse s now a s w ere th e n b e in g o f f e r e d .
But a f t e r th e manner
o f d e te rm in in g th e ra n g e , i t was from 1 t o 8 a t the tim e work in home
eoonomios was in tr o d u c e d , and by d ro p p in g o u t t h e s p r in k lin g o f th e 2 's
and 3*s o f th e second p a r t o f column 3 o f T ab le K , th e ra n g e a t th e
p re s e n t tim e i s 7 t o 9*
^he ran g e i n number o f c o u rses a t th e t i n e home
eoonomios was in tro d u o e d i n t o th e v a rio u s c o lle g e s was 2 t o 24, w h ile a t
th e p re s e n t tim e i t i s 2 t o 48*
The f o u r th column o f T ab le IX, page 66, p re s e n ts t h e p e r o e n t o f
in c re a s e in number o f a re a s and c o u rses from t h e tim e homo economics b e ­
come a p a r t o f th e c u rric u lu m o f eaoh o o lle g e u n t i l th e p r e s e n t tim e*
The p e r o e n t o f in c r e a s e v a r ie s from 0 to 78*
The p e r c e n t i n th e number
o f c o u rse s v a r ie s from 8 to 92, w ith 66 p e r o e n t b e in g t h e mode o f
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
TABLE I X
85
HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL DATA FOR FORTY-TWO COLLEGES
CoYlege ' Horns Ec "' A reas and
1' '"po'r Cent'
^ r 'c 'e n t o f ' '' ' ' F or C art o f
E s ta b In tro C ourses
In o re a se
Home Ec S tu d e n ts
Homemakers
duoed
Now
Lished
Then
o f Eaoh I s t S Y rs. l a s t 5 Yrs. L a s t 5
1840
1872
1880
1881
1891
1896
1914
1923
1914
1924
1930
1926
2
9
2
2
6
2
4
18
8
4
12
2
9
9
9
9
9
8
27
27
48
24
18
18
78
0
78
78
33
75
85
33
83
83
33
88
13
15
16
6
5
15
14
16
14
11
5
27
9
63
26
13
5
45
1901
1905
1905
1906
1910
1910
1920
1927
1920
1930
1920
1924
2
6
2
9
a
2
4
11
12
8
a
4
8
9
9
9
1
9
24
12
30
IS
15
26
75
33
66
0
a
78
83
8
60
46
a
85
14
a
a
11
a
8
28
a
7
11
a
15
29
a
a
47
a
40
1911
1911
1911
1912
1913
1915
1928
1937
1926
1925
1922
1926
2
3
7
4
2
2
6
6
a
8
5
4
9
6
9
9
6
2
18
8
27
18
18
a
78
50
78
50
66
a
66
25
a
55
72
a
15
b
a
a
7
a
21
b
a
a
17
a
11
b
35
30
79
a
1915
1915
1918
1918
1919
1919
1919
1919
1932
1930
1919
1922
1
5
5
2
2
2
2
8
5
4
2
6
5
9
7
3
9
7
10
39
24
7
26
22
80
44
29
33
71
71
80
77
79
43
92
73
20
a
8
5
10
30
11
22
21
20
20
24
a
a
60
a
40
37
1919
1919
1919
1920
1922
1923
1924
1919
1925
1926
1922
1923
3
2
9
2
2
4
3
4
14
3
3
4
9
9
9
9
9
8
17
16
26
43
20
18
66
78
0
78
78
50
82
75
45
93
77
77
8
4
20
3
7
27
10
5
25
5
8
28
19
20
30
19
a
36
1923
1923
1923
1925
1925
1925
1930
1924
1925
1938
1929
1930
6
2
5
5
7
4
10
6
10
8
14
8
7
7
9
6
7
5
14
39
30
9
27
11
16
17
44
16
0
20
38
84
66
11
48
27
25
a
a
0
20
19
27
a
a
0
29
22
32
27
100
c
a
16
30
18
65
27
8
7
30
28
28
39
36
IS
1926
1928
7 12
66
9 30
25
22
1927
1928
2
8
9 24
66
78
24
1930
2
1929
5
86
7 22
71
57
1929
3
1929
3
8 29
86
SO
63
1930
1930
6 25
25
25
8 25
7
1932
1932
3 11
66
57
7
9 25
&D ata m is s in g .
^ I n s u f f i c i e n t d a ta
d e p a r tm e n t o f home eoonomios to o r e c e n tly e s ta b li s h e d
t o f u r n is h suoh d a ta .
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66
p e r c e n ta l growth*
The f i f t h column o f Table IX p re s e n ts m a te r ia l by whioh th o s tu d e n t
e n ro llm e n t i n home eoonomios oourses o f th e f i r s t f i v e y e a rs may be com­
p a re d w ith th e e n ro llm e n t f o r th e p a s t f i v e y e a r s .
A com parison o f th e
two p a r ts o f t h i s column w i l l show t h a t t h e r e has been an in c re a s e in
t h e :number o f s tu d e n ts e n ro lle d i n th e departm ent o f homo econom ics d u rin g
th e p a s t f iv e y e a r s .
To determ ine i f t h i s in c re a s e was r e a l l y s i g n i f i ­
c a n t, th e c r i t i c a l r a t i o was computed and was found to b e o n ly a t r i f l e
over 1.4,.
T his shows t h a t th e in c re a s e oan i n no way be c o n sid e re d
s ig n ific a n t.
The h ead in g o f th e l a s t column o f T able IX i s n o t a c le a r in d ic a ­
t i o n o f j u s t what t h i s oolumn i s in te n d e d t o r e v e a l .
However, i t i s
hoped t h a t th e fo o tn o te s to t h i s ta b l e w i l l h e lp t o e x p la in th e t a b l e and
t h a t th e e x p la n a tio n which fo llo w s w i l l make th e purpose o f t h i s column
s u f f i c i e n t l y c le a r t o be u n d e rsto o d .
The d a ta f o r th e column was c o lle c te d to show what p e r oent o f
c o lle g e s tu d e n ts who had beoome homemakers d u rin g th e l a s t f iv e y e a rs
i n th e sense of m a rry in g , had had any fo rm al t r a i n i n g f o r such re s p o n s i­
b i l i t i e s d u rin g t h e i r o o lle g e c a r e e r .
Two p o s s ib le i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s m ight
be g iv e n th e p e r c e n ts l i s t e d i n th e l a s t column o f Table IX .
F irs t,
th e s e p e r c e n ts m ight be ta k e n a s i n d ic a ti v e o f th e f a c t t h a t th e m a jo rity
o f th o s e who saw f i t t o beoome homemakers a re th o s e who have had such
tr a in in g *
A second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m ight b e , j u s t ju d g in g from th e numbers
re p re s e n te d , t h a t th e m a jo r ity o f o o lle g e s tu d e n ts do re c e iv e t r a i n i n g
f o r th e work o f homemaking.
The in v e s t ig a to r i s n o t p re p a re d t o say
w hioh i n t e r p r e t a t i o n she p r e f e r s b u t f e e l s t h a t n e i th e r i s e n t i r e l y s a t i s ­
fa c to ry .
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67
TABLE X
SUMMARY OF RESPONSES PERTAINING TO CURRICULAR PROBLEMS
Answers
^68
No
Q u estio n s
1.
Do you g iv e any t r a i n i n g , g e n e ra l o r s p o o if io , w ith in
o r w ith o u t th e home eoonomios d e p artm en t, in te n d e d t o
p re p a re s tu d e n ts fo r th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f homemaking and home liv in g ?
I f s o , w hat?
42
( T h ir ty q u e s tio n n a ir e s l i s t e d s u b je c ts .)
2*
I s home eoonomios re q u ire d i n your c o lle g e ?
5.
Why do n o t more s tu d e n ts e l e o t home econom ics?
42
Reasons checkedt
Not o f i n t e r e s t to them
Home p ro v id e s such t r a i n i n g
Crowded sohodule o f re q u ire d s u b je c ts p re v e n t
8
4
26
Added re a s o n s :
P r e r e q u is ite s cannot be met
Lack o f u n d e rsta n d in g o f what home economics
work i s
Some p re ju d ic e
C ourses to o heavy f o r many
P r e r e q u is ite s o f o h em istry p re v e n t
2
4
3
2
1
A n a ly s is o f t h e L a s t p h ase o f t h e S econd Q u e s tio n n a ir e
The l a s t p h ase o f t h e q u e s ti o n n a ir e s e n t t o th e c o l le g e s o f f e r i n g
home econom ica work d e a l s w ith c u r r io u l& r p ro b lem s and c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n .
T here a r e i n t h i s p h ase e le v e n q u e s tio n s w hich d iv id e th e m s e lv e s i n t o two
g ro u p s .
The f i r s t g ro u p makes i n q u i r y i n t o f i r s t , w h at i s t h e n a t u r e o f
t h e c o u rs e s t h a t m ig h t b e c la s s e d a s p r e p a r a t o r y o o u rs e s f o r homemaking
and home l i v i n g ] se a o n d , t o w hat e x t e n t a r e such c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d ; an d
t h i r d , why do n o t m ore s tu d e n ts e l e o t su c h c o u r s e s ?
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68
T ab le X, page 67, p r e s e n ts a t a b u la r summary o f th e re sp o n se s to
th e s e q u e s tio n s .
Answers t o th e f i r s t q u e s tio n show t h a t th e fo rty -tw o ©Lieges
r e tu r n in g q u e s tio n n a ir e s o f f e r some work, e i t h e r g e n e ra l or s p e o if io ,
t h a t m ight be c la s s e d as homemaking ed u o atlo n *
The c o u rse s m entioned
most f r e q u e n tly a r e r e l i g i o n , p h ilo s o p h y , home management, c h i l d care
and c h ild developm ent, fa m ily r e l a t i o n s , e t h i c s , economy, and s o c io lo g y .
nSome coin*sea,” s t a t e s one oomment, E s p e c i a l l y i d e a l s and problem s o f
C h r is tia n l i f e , and th e fa m ily i n s o c io lo g y , a s w e ll a s some o o u rse s in
p h ilo so p h y p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 'o f homemaking t o a
c e r ta in e x te n t.”
A nother oomment o f a s im ila r n a tu r e s t a t e s t h a t , "O ut­
s id e th e f i e l d o f home eoonom ios, c o u rs e s o re g iv e n in s o c io lo g y , p h ilo s ­
ophy, and r e l i g i o n w hich we f o o l do much t o p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f homemaking."
"The fo llo w in g c o u rs e s in th e home
econom ics d e p a rtm e n t," s t a t e s a n o th e r oomment, " d e f i n i t e l y h e lp t o p re ­
p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e jo b o f homemakingj
fo o d s , t e x t i l e s , h o u sin g ,
human r e l a t i o n s , n u t r i t i o n , m eals and o h ild developm ent, and home manage­
ment ."
The number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r i n g such work to g e th e r w ith th e
d e s ir a b le oou rses m entioned m ight le a d one t o b e lie v e t h a t t r a i n i n g f o r
homemaking i s a d e q u a te ly
f o r women.
oared f o r i n th e C a th o lic fo u r y e a r o o lle g e s
This c o n c lu sio n m ight be even j u s t i f i e d i f th e same q u e s tio n ­
n a ir e s d id n o t r e v e a l th e f a c t t h a t home econom ics work i s n o t r e q u ire d
even i n one o f t h e fo rty -tw o c o lle g e s t h a t r e tu r n e d t h e s e q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
That home econom ics work sh o u ld n o t be a r e q u ir e d o ourse i s perhaps
a s i t sh o u ld b e , b u t s in c e c o lle g e c o u rs e s seem t c b e on t h e r e q u ir e d
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
59
b a s i s , th e n n o t r e q u ir in g a s u b je c t moans t h a t an u n f a ir co m p etitio n i s
s e t up f o r th o s e s u b je o ts t h a t a re n o t re q u ire d #
I f th e m ajor re a so n why
more s tu d e n ts do n o t e le o t home eoonomios i s jo in e d t o t h a t o f th e nonre q u ire m e n t s i t u a t i o n , t h e s t a t u s o f homemaking e d u c a tio n in th e C ath o lio
o o lle g e f o r women i s n o t fa v o ra b le #
The seoond group of q u e s tio n s i n th e l a s t phase of th e q u e s tio n ­
n a ir e under d is c u s s io n d e a ls w ith c u r r i c u l a r re v is io n #
T able XI p re s e n ts
a summary o f th e re sp o n se s t o t h e e ig h t q u e s tio n s o f t h i s group*
A s u rv e y of T able XI r e v e a ls t h a t a m ajor c u r r i c u l a r r e v is io n has
ta k e n p la c e r e c e n t l y i n tw enty-tw o o f th e c o lle g e s resp o n d in g t o th e
q u e s tio n n a ir e .
The r e v i s i o n , how ever, h as been o f th e n a tu re o f adding
c o u rse s t o t h e e x i s t i n g c u rric u lu m t o c a re f o r th e needs o f th o s e s tu d e n ts
who w ish to p re p a re f o r th e p ro fe s s io n s r a t h e r th a n an a tte m p t to p ro v id e
an o p p o rtu n ity f o r a l l s tu d e n ts t o re c e iv e some t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a re a o f
ed u ca tio n #
F ive q u e s tio n n a ir e s d id , however, i n d i c a te by comments t h a t
an e f f o r t had b een made in p ro v id in g such t r a i n i n g f o r a l l stu d e n ts#
One comment on c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n , th o u g h n o t so en co u rag in g so f a r as
r e s u l t s a re concerned, s t a t e s t h a t , "Three yearB ago a g e n e ra l home
econom ics s u b je o t c a ll e d "homemaking" was o f f e r e d to th o s e n o t e n ro lle d
i n home economics*
la c k o f tim e * "
No one e le c te d t h i s s u b je c t, presum ably because o f
C o n tinuing t h i s q u o ta tio n , "L ast y e a r wo o f f e r e d a
t h i r d c o u rse o f s tu d y f o r th o s e w ish in g t o o b ta in t h e B achelor o f Soience
d eg ree i n home econom ics bu t vho do n o t w ish t o beoome e i t h e r te a c h e rs o r
d ie titia n s ."
The la r g e "no" resp o n se t o th e q u e s tio n , "Do you f e e l t h a t th e r e
I s a need f o r c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n ? ," seems i n d ic a tiv e of a f e e lin g t h a t
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
70
TABLE XI
CURRICULAR REVISION
Responses
Q uestio n s
Yes
1.
2*
Do you f e e l t h a t home eoonomios o o u rses as
now o rg a n iz e d a r e s u ite d t o s tu d e n ts n o t
i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r e e rs ?
16
Has th e r e been any m ajor o u r r io u la r r e v is io n
i n y o u r home eoonomios departm en t?
12
No
No Response
21
10
20
3*
I f s o , has t h i s r e v is io n b e en o f th e n a tu re
t o p ro v id e an o p p o rtu n ity f o r a l l s tu d e n ts t o
r e c e iv e some t r a i n i n g i n home eoonomios?
4,
I f t h e r e has been r e v is io n , has i t b een o f th e
n a tu re o f in c re a s in g th e c o u rse o f f e r in g s so
a s t o c a re f o r th e needs o f s tu d e n ts p re p a rin g
f o r th e p ro f e s s io n s open to home economics
m ajors?
10
I f th e r e v is io n were o f th o n a tu re o f p ro v id ­
in g a n o p p o rtu n ity f o r a l l s tu d e n ts t o le a r n
som ething o f homemaking r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,
ohedk th e means by whioh you hope t o accomp­
lis h th is j
Core C urriculum ; I n te g r a tio n ; C o rre la tio n
No resp o n se ex cep t
oomments
5*
6,
I f no r e v i s i o n has ta k e n p la c e do you f e e l
th e r e i s need f o r one?
18
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22
71
a l l I s w a ll i n t h e home econom ics d ep artm en ts so f a r as e x is t i n g c u r r i c u l a r
o f f e r in g s a re oonoom ed.
There seems a ls o t o be a s a t i s f i e d f e e l in g
re g a rd in g t h e adequacy o f p re s e n t home eoonomios o o u rse s t o o ara f o r -the
two groups o f s tu d e n ts who o le o t suoh c o u rs e s , th e p r o f e s s i o n a lly in c lin e d
and th o s e who a r e n o t so d is p o s e d .
The comments t o t h e f i f t h q u e s tio n i n
T able XI show t h a t some c o n fu sio n e x is t e d re g a rd in g j u s t w hat was meant
by " p r o f e s s io n a l homemaking."
One ooranent s t a t e s , "Yes, i f by p r o f e s s io n a l
homemaking you mean p re p a ra tio n f o r th e te a c h in g p r o f e s s io n , home demon­
s t r a t i o n , or e x te n s io n w ork,"
O ther comments on th o q u e s tio n , how ever,
in d ic a te t h a t i t s im port was u n d e rs to o d .
One such comment s t a t e s , "The
o o u rses as now o ff e re d a re s u ite d t o th e needs o f b o th groups o f g i r l s ,
b u t th e g i r l s who e l e c t such work u s u a lly go in f o r c a r e e r s ."
Or, "Many
o f th e o o u rse s a re s u ita b le f o r b o th groups of s tu d e n ts ; some are g e n e ra l
homemaking; o th e rs a r e more t e c h n i c a l t o m eet th e needs o f th e p r o f e s s io n a l
a s s o c ia ti o n s ."
Or a g a in , “We have a g e n e ra l oourao o f s tu d y f o r j u s t
th o 3 e p eo p le who a re n o t e s p e c ia ll y i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r e e r s ."
F in a l l y , th o
l a s t oomment t o be quoted s t a t e s t h a t "They (th o o o u rs e s ) a re s u ite d t o
meet th e needs o f th o s e who ta k e them— some ta k e b ecau se th e y a re i n ­
t e r e s t e d and have tim e , o th e rs to meet t h e re q u ire m e n ts o f e d u c a tio n a l
a g e n c ie s , o th e r s t o p re p a re f o r a o tu a l homemaking, and s t i l l o th e rs ta k e
c o u rses t o f i l l o u t th e r e q u ir e d number o f u n i t s . "
To th e q u e s tio n , "Should e d u c a tio n f o r home l i v i n g become a p a r t
o f th e whole program o f e d u c a tio n ? ," th e comments w ere n o t so num erous,
bub th o s e t h a t were g iv e n seem t o in d ic a te a s tro n g f e e l in g in fa v o r o f
making th e sch o o ls re s p o n s ib le f o r such t r a i n i n g .
However, th o s e comment­
in g f e l t t h a t th e home eoonomios departm ent should n o t be e x p ec te d t o
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72
assum© th o e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r such ed u catio n *
One comment s t a t e s
t h a t , "Eash d e p artm en t has boon s tu d y in g i t s c u rric u lu m t o see how i t i s
t r a i n i n g i t s m ajors f o r l i f e a c c o rd in g to t h e g e n e ra l aims o f our o o lle g e *"
S ince th e c u r r i c u l a r r e v is io n has been a s i t h a s, th e r e i s l i t t l e
t h a t can b© s a id about i n t e g r a t i o n , co re o u r r i c u l a , or c o r r e l a t i o n .
The
l i t t l e t h a t can be s a i d i s t h a t o n ly se v e n te e n re sp o n se s out o f 126 w ere
made t o q u e s tio n 5 o f Table X I.
A ooording t o t h e sev e n te en re s p o n s e s ,
’'c o r r e l a t i o n ” was t h e most p o p u la r.
In re fe re n c e t o th e q u e s tio n s on c u r r i c u la r r e v is io n , th e fo llo w in g
comments would seem t o summarise th e n a tu re and purpose o f e d u o a tio n a l
a o tiv ity .
"There i s , " s t a t e s one oomment, "a g ra d u a l r e v is io n from y e a r
t o y e a r t o keep pace w ith t h e re q u ire m e n ts o f a g e n o ie s w ith whioh we a re
a f f ilia te d .”
A nother comment s t a t e s , "For t h i r t e e n y e a rs we have k e p t
paoe w ith th o American D ie te t ic s A s s o c ia tio n and have added o o u rses
su g g e ste d by th em ."
Or, "Our r e v is io n h as c o n s is te d o f adding more
academ ic c o u rs e s t o m eet th e re q u ire m e n ts o f th e s ta n d a r d is in g a g e n c ie s ,"
F in a lly , i n c o n n e c tio n w ith c u r r i o u l a r r e v i s io n in g e n e ra l and in r e l a t i o n
to a co re o u rrio u lu m , th e fo llo w in g oomment y / i l l be g iv en , and th e o h a p te r
on th e q u e s tio n n a ir e a n a ly s is w i l l be b ro u g h t t o a c lo se ex o o p t f o r th e
summary o f f i n d i n g s .
The comment i s , "The f i e l d s o f n u t r i t i o n , h e a lt h ,
c lo th in g d e s ig n , e t o . , a re so v a s t i t w ould be d i f f i c u l t t o d e c id e what
oould be in tro d u c e d i n t o t h e g e n e ra l o u rrio u lu m o u ts id e t h e d ep artm en t.
As i t i s , some o f o u r s tu d e n ts g e t o o u rse s i n p h ilo so p h y and r e l i g i o n , and
th o s e who come t o t h e home econom ics departm ent f in d an a p p lic a tio n o f
p r in c ip le s p a r t l y e q u iv a le n t t o a co re c u rric u lu m .
Those -who do not ta k e
any home eoonomios o o u rse s w i l l know l i t t l e t h a t i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e about
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of th e copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
75
n u t r i t i o n , fa m ily r e l a t i o n s h i p s , ch ild , oare and developm ent, and a h o s t
o f o th e r in fo rm a tio n s o b ta in e d th ro u g h a stu d y o f t h i s f i e l d o f •work,"
Summary
1.
The q u e s tio n n a ir e s re tu rn e d from t h e group o f o o lle g e s t h a t
do n o t o f f e r work i n home econom ics show t h e r e a r e two re a s o n s why such
work i s n o t o f f e r e d .
The re a so n s a r e i
(1) la c k o f m a te r ia l re s o u rc e s
and (2 ) th e b e l i e f t h a t home eoonomios o o u rses have no p la c e i n th e
l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e o u rrio u lu m .
2.
The q u e s tio n n a ir e s re tu rn e d from t h e o o lle g e s t h a t do o f f e r
work i n home economics show t h a t th e r e h as been a s te a d y in c re a s e in th e
number o f o o u rse s o ff e re d and th e a re a s of i n s tr u o t io n sin o e 1914.
3.
There has been a d e f i n i t e in o re a s e i n th e number o f s tu d e n ts
r e g i s t e r i n g f o r such w ork, b u t th e p ro f e s s io n a l o p p o r tu n itie s o u ts id e th e
home a r e t o be c r e d ite d w ith th e re a so n s f o r t h i s in c r e a s e .
4.
A g e n e ra l f e e lin g seems m a n ife st t h a t c o lle g e s d ev o ted t o th e
t r a i n i n g o f women should o f f e r t r a i n i n g t h a t would p re p a re them f o r th e
p r o f e s s io n o f homemaking.
5.
But a s d e f i n i t e a s t h i s f e e l i n g seems t o b e , l i t t l e h as b e e n
a c c o m p lish e d i n a r r a n g in g a c o lle g e c u rric u lu m w hich w i l l a f f o r d a l l
s tu d e n t s an o p p o r tu n ity t o r e c e iv e some t r a i n i n g i n th e a r t o f homemaking
a n d home l i v i n g .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER 1 7
DEVELOPING A PHILOSOPHY OF HOMEMAKING EDUCATION FOR
THE CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGE FOR Y/QMEN
Source o f P h ilo s o p h ic a l D ata
Tha p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n t o he d is o u ss e d i n th iB
c h a p te r i s based on th e r e s u l t s o b ta in e d from th e a n a ly s is o f sev en ty
c a ta lo g s and t h e answ ers t o s i x t y - f i v e q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
These fin d in g s
w i l l be supplem ented by h i s t o r i o a l d a ta and th e o p in io n o f contem porary
w orkers whenever suoh a re p e r tin e n t t o th e developm ent o f t h e to p ic u nder
c o n s id e r a tio n .
P o s s ib le Methods f o r D eveloping a P h ilo so p h y o f Homemaking E d u catio n
There a r e two p o s s ib le m ethods by w hioh a p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking
e d u c a tio n m ight be d e v e lo p e d .• One method i s r e f e r r e d t o i n th e p re c e d in g
s e c tio n and c o n s is ts o f exam ining th e c a ta lo g s o f a number o f c o lle g e s
in o rd e r t o determ ine th e p o lio ie s and th e p ra o tio e s fo llo w e d by such
o o lle g e s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n i s th e n supplem ented by in fo rm a tio n of a more
in tim a te n a tu re o b ta in e d by means o f a q u e s tio n n a ir e a d d re sse d t o c o lle g e
o ffic ia ls .
The second method would be to c o n s u lt s tu d e n ts who have gone f o r th
from suoh o o lle g e s and who have e n co u n te re d th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f homemaking
and a sk them t o propose a p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n t h a t w ould
be i n harmony w ith t h e needs o f homemakers.
The q u e s tio n a r i s e s , w hich method i s th e more d e s ir a b le ?
The
answ er, no d o u b t, would be t h a t a com bination o f th e two would produoe
t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s .
To oombine t h e two m ethods i n one stu d y ,
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75
how ever, would be t o go beyond th e soope o f a s in g le problem*
Two problem s a re in v o lv e d i f t h e
1*
The p h ilo so p h y
two methods a re
oombinedj
o f homemaking e d u o atio n
a s i t i s in
th e o o lle g e s
The p h ilo so p h y
o f homemaking e d u o a tio n
a s th o s e no
lo n g e r a
p a r t o f suoh i n s t i t u t i o n s
conoeive t h a t i t sh o u ld
s e le o te d f o r t h i s s tu d y ,
2,
be*
I t w ould seem d e s ir a b le and even n e o e s s a ry t o s o lv e t h e f i r s t
problem b e fo re a tte m p tin g to s o lv e th e second.
This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e
s in c e no r e s e a r c h , a s was m entioned i n th e in tr o d u c to r y c h a p te r o f t h i s
d i s s e r t a t i o n , r e v e a ls th e n a tu re and e x te n t o f homemaking e d u o atio n in
t h e C a th o lic fo u r y e a r o o lle g e f o r women.
I t i s th e i n t e n t i o n o f th e i n ­
v e s t i g a t o r t o so lv e b u t t h e f i r s t problem and th u s la y th e fo u n d a tio n f o r
f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h work i n th e f i e l d o f homemaking e d u c a tio n .
Purpose o f C hapter IV
I
The purpose o f C hapter IV i s t o summarise t h e m ain p o in t i n th e
p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u o a tio n a3 i t i s re v e a le d by t h e a n a ly s is o f
o a ta lo g s and q u e s tio n n a ire s *
In t h i s summation w i l l be found t h e g e n e ra l answ er to t h e problem
a s proposed a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , and on i t w i l l be
b a se d t h e f i n a l c h a p te rs o f t h e work*
Homemaking E d u c a tio n a s a S u b je c t i n t h e C o lle g e C u rric u lu m
I t would be a happy c o n c lu s io n t o t h i s stu d y t o show t h a t th e
p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n th e C a th o lic f o u r y e a r o o lle g e s f o r
women i s a w e ll developed o n e r - a p h ilo so p h y whioh i s so in te g r a te d in to
th e c o lle g e o u rrio u lu m t h a t t h i s s u b je c t has a s i g n i f i c a n t p la c e in th e
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Furth er reproduction prohibited without permission.
76
c o lla g e s e s p e c ia ll y dev o ted t o th o e d u o a tio n o f women*
Suoh, how ever, i s n o t th e case*
I n th e f i r s t p la o e , th e r e seems
t o be no d e f i n i t e agreem ent as t o w hether o r not home eoonom ios, t h e
b a s is o f a homemaking e d u c a tio n a l program , even b elo n g s i n t h e l i b e r a l
a r t s c o lle g e *
Some o f th e o o lle g e o f f i o i a l s i n an sw erin g t h e q u e s tio n n a ire
on t h i s p o in t w ere q u ite p o s itiv e t h a t suoh work " c o n tr o v e r ts th e id e a
o f th o l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e ,” and a lth o u g h e ig h t o f th e tw e n ty -fo u r
o o llo g o s n o t o f f e r i n g home eoonomios in d ic a te d t h a t la c k o f m a te r ia l
re s o u rc e s was t h e re a s o n f o r n o t o f f e r i n g i t , y e t t h e f a c t rem ains t h a t
th e y h e lp t o mako up th e number t h a t do n o t o f f o r suoh t r a i n i n g t o t h e i r
stu d o n ts*
Pour o f th e c o lle g e s o f f e r in g suoh work were more o r le s s a p o lo g e tic
about i t .
F ive o th e r s s t a t e d t h a t home eoonomios wa3 a p a r t o f th e
o o lle g e c u rric u lu m b ecau se “ such work i s r e q u ir e d by t h e s t a t e f o r is s u in g
c e r t a i n ty p e s o f c e r t i f i c a t e s . ”
S ix o o lle g e s d id n o t o f f e r work i n home
econondoa b ecau se s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s disapproved*
”Home econom ics i s n o t
o f f e r e d i n t h e c o lle g e s o f t h i s s t a t e , ” one comment r e a d s , " s in c e t h e
departm ent o f e d u o a tio n does n o t w ish suoh o o lle g e s t o beoome te c h n i c a l
s c h o o ls , p r e f e r r in g t h a t th e y do a good jo b o f te a c h in g th e c u l t u r a l su c j e o t s ."
T h is l a s t s ta te m e n t g iv e s r i s e t o two q u e s tio n s c lo s e ly a s s o c ia te d
w ith th e s t a t u s o f homemaking e d u o atio n i n th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e .
These q u e s tio n s are*
(1) What o re th e c u l t u r a l s u b je c ts ?
(E) What a r e
th o fu n o tio n s o f t h e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s ?
The answer t o th e s e mifdit be a moans o f c le a r in g up some d o u b ts
i n re g a rd t o w hether o r n o t homemaking e d u o a tio n may c la im a p la o e i n th e
l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e .
R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
77
Homomaking E ducation as a C u ltu ra l S u b je c t
A ccording to S p a ffo rd ,^ who 1ms made an e x te n s iv e stu d y o f th o
e d u c a tio n a l needs o f stu d e n ts a t th o U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota, " g e n e ra l
e d u c a tio n i s being u sed as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r c u l t u r a l e d u c a tio n vdiich lias
re c e n tly come to be a s s o c ia te d w ith c e r ta i n s u b je c ts and w ith lu x u ry edu­
c a tio n a s opposed to p r a c t i c a l ed u catio n * "
A ccording to th e same
a u t h o r i t y , "Tho e d u c a tio n from w hich modem c u l t u r a l e d u c a tio n d e riv e d
i t s p a tte rn , m s q u ite d i f f e r e n t in i t s b a s ic p h ilo s p h y ." ^
Looking c a re ­
f u l l y a t tho e a r ly Greek id e a o f e d u c a tio n , one fin d s t h a t i t s i n te n tio n
m s to f i t th e in d iv id u a l f o r l i f e a s i t m s th e n liv ed *
True i t is t h a t
only a few were educated by form al e d u c a tio n , y e t th e purpose o f t h i s
e d u c a tio n m s to p re p a re the Greek c i t i z e n f o r a l i f e o f p o l i t i c s and
le is u re *
L ife in a modem democracy is n o t so much d i f f e r e n t ex cep t t h a t th e
number to bo educated is much g r e a t e r th a n in tho days o f G rooian democ­
ra c y .
L ife to d a y demands e d u c a tio n f o r a l l in th e term s o f th e s o c ie ty i n
w hich we a re li v i n g .
E ducation must make p ro v is io n s f o r tho wide range
o f n eed s, i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t in d iv id u a ls i n a l l th e b a s ic
r e la tio n s h ip s o f liv in g *
Bode3 i n h is Modem E d u c a tio n a l Tendencies s t a t e s t h a t , ”We a re
le a r n in g to th in k o f c u ltu r e n o t a s a p o s s e s s io n , b u t a s a way o f l i f e —
an e x p re s s io n o f th e whole p e r s o n a lity i n everyday o c c u p a tio n s ."
The
Commission on Secondary School C urriculum in i t s r e p o r t on "S cien ce i n
* Iv o l S p a ffo rd , "Home Economics in G eneral E d u o atio n ," Jo u rn a l o f Home
Eoonomios, 29$671-676, (December, 1937), p . 673.
2
Loo. C i t .
^Boyd H« Bode, Modem E d u c a tio n a l T endencies, Chicago? M acmillan Coarany,
1927, p . 156.
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
78
G eneral Eduoation*' s o ts th o purpose o f g e n e ra l e d u c a tio n , " to p ro v id e
r i c h and m eaningful e x p e rie n c e s in th e b a s ic a s p e c ts o f l i v i n g , so
d ire o to d a s to promote th e f u l l e s t p o s s ib le r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e rs o n a l
p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , and th o meat e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d em o cratic
s o o ie ty ."
I t Y/as t h e R en aissan ce t h a t b ro u g h t a b o u t th e r e v iv a l o f th e Greek
and Roman c l a s s i c s and caused e d u c a tio n t o become n o n -f u n c tio n a l.
McCormack s t a t e s t h a t d u rin g t h i s p e rio d "G reek and L a tin were s tr e s s e d
b ecau se th e y h e ld t h e key t o t h e c l a s s i c s , and th e l i t e r a r y a sp e o t o f
th e sohool vras in te n s if ie d * "
5
And i n th e w ords o f C onnole, "S chooling in
t h i s p e rio d became more a b s t r a c t and u n r e la te d t o th e im mediate problem s
of lif e ."
6
„
S p a ffo rd e x p re ss e d t h e same th o u g h t wheiwhe s ta te d t h a t " fo r
many y e a rs s t r e s s has been on aoademio e d u c a tio n , o r t h e a o q u irin g o f
<7
knowledge w ith o u t r e l a t i o n o f i t s use in l i f e * "
A gain th e manner o f l i v i n g among th e a n c ie n ts j th e problem s t h a t
c o n fro n te d them seem t o re c e iv e undue emphasis*
The number o f oourses
devoted t o th o s tu d y o f t h e i r h i s t o r y , t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e i r i n s t i ­
t u t i o n s , m ight le a d one t o conolude t h a t i t m s more im p o rtan t to le a r n
how t o l i v e i n a n c ie n t tim e s th a n i t i s t o le a r n how t o liv e i n th e
tw e n tie th oentury*
In t h i s m a tte r t h e in v e s t i g a to r does n o t w ish to be
^"S c ie n ce in G eneral E d u o a tio n ," Commission on Secondary E d u o atio n , 1936.
P. 8 .
C
P a tr ic k J* MoConaaok, H is to ry o f E d u c a tio n , W ashington, D. C .i The
C a th o lio E duoation P r e s s , 1915* P* 25l*
®Roger Jo sep h C onnole, A S tu d y o f th e Concept o f I n te g r a tio n i n P re s e n t
Day C urriculum Making*"” W ashington, D* C*i CaEholio UniversTEy, lfiS1/*
P . IT ,
7
I v o l S p a ffo rd , op* o l t « , p , 672,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
79
m isu n d e rsto o d .
There a ro many s u b je c ts o f th e n o n -fu n c tio n a l ty p e t h a t
d e se rv e a p la o e i n o o lle g e c u r r i o u l a , b u t to occlude a s u b je c t a s nonc u l t u r a l beoause i t s prim ary co n cern i s w ith th e p r a c t i c a l s id e o f l i f e
i s to c o n tr o v e r t th e id e a l s of C a th o lic e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y .
F u n c tio n o f th e L ib e r a l A rts C ollege
Tho f u n c tio n of th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e i s t o f o s t e r a c u ltu r e s u ite d
to th o changing c o n d itio n s o f s o c ia l l i f o .
A ccording t o Harrixnan^ th e
purpose o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e i s t o c o n tr ib u te t o th e en rich m en t of
u n d e rs ta n d in g i n th e f i e l d o f human l i v i n g —home l i v i n g and s o c ia l a c t i v i ­
tie s .
"'The l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e fu n c tio n in g i s n o th in g more th a n a s e r ie s
o f dynamic achievem ents i n m ooting th e f o l t needs of a s o c ia l o r d e r .” ®
That i s , when th e m ost e v id e n t needs l i e i n th e f i e l d o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,
th e c o lle g e should fu n c tio n t o develop a s u r e r knowledge i n t h a t departm ent
o f le a r n in g .
The purpose o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e does n o t obscure th e em phasis
upon v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g , n e i t h e r sh o u ld i t s purpose: d e t r a c t from s u b jo c ts
t h a t may th ro u g h t r a d i t i o n a l claim s bo c la s s e d a s c u l t u r a l .
Any s u b je c t
h a s l i f e v a lu e s , when i t e n a b le s th e s tu d e n t t o m eet w ith su ccess in th e
c a r ry in g on th e n eed s of everyd ay l i v i n g .
In th e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f s o c ia l
r e l a t i o n s h i p s , th e g r e a t e s t noed i s t o c o n tr o l a l l changes f o r th e b e n e f it
o f in d iv id u a ls and of th e s o c i a l o r d e r .
In a word t o conserve th e b e s t
v a lu e s from th e p a s t and t o c r e a te w orthy neods i n th e p r e s e n t, and sc p re ­
p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e f u tu r e , a ro th e fu n c tio n s o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s
o f to d a y .
^ P h ilip L. H arrim sn, 11A n teced en ts o f th e L ib e r a l A rts C o lle g e ," J o u rn a l of
H ig h er E d u c a tio n , 6 :6 5 -7 1 , (J a n u a ry 1935), p , 7 0 .
9 L oc. c i t .
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
79ft
I f th e s e aims e re t o be s u c c e s s f u lly c a r r ie d out* th e r e can be no
doubt b u t t h a t hamomoking e d u c a tio n sh o u ld have a p la o e i n th o l i b e r a l
a r t s c o lle g e .
That th o re i s a d e f i n i t e ten d en cy t o re g a rd such e d u c a tio n as belong­
in g i n t h e C a th o lic l i b e r a l a r t e c o lle g e f o r woman i s shown by th e ste a d y
growth of th e horn eoonomios d ep artm en ts i n th e s e c o lle g e s s in c e 1920.
Y et w ith th e 'p re se n t program o f s tu d io s i n th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e th e
approach i s i n d i r e o t r a t h e r th a n d i r e c t .
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80
Aims and O b je c tiv e s o f Home Economics
I t i s t o be fe a re d t h a t th e p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n t o
be o u tlin e d in t h i s c h a p te r w i l l b e one o f d isag reem en ts *
One m ight
ex p e c t t o f in d t h a t th e r e would be agreem ent among th e c o l logos t h a t o f f e r
work in home eoonomios as t o why i t i s o ffe re d *
case*
Again* t h i s i s n o t th e
Tho re a s o n s , however, f o r o f f e r i n g suoh work may be red u ced to
two m ain ones*
1*
To p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e p ro f e s s io n s open t o home econom ics
2*
To p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e work o f homemaking, a lth o u g h th e
m ajors*
second i s b u t th e e x p re ss io n o f a t r e n d .
The fo llo w in g e x o e rp ts ta k e n from c a ta lo g s s e le o te d a t random show
som ething of t h e p h ilo so p h y o f home eoonomios work a s i t i s now o f f e r e d
i n th e C a th o lio fo u r y e a r c o lle g e f o r women*
One c a ta lo g s t a t e s t h a t
th e "aims o f th e home economics departm ent I s t o p re p a re young women f o r
th e p r o f e s s io n a l o p p o rtu n itie s t h a t e x i s t in th e f i e l d , "
A second one
s t a t e s t h a t th e "co u rse s a re planned t o meet th e needs o f s tu d e n ts who
w ish t o te a o h home econom ics i n th e seco n d ary so h o o ls o r who w ish t o
e n te r th e f i e l d o f d i e t e t i c s , "
These two q u o ta tio n s a re t y p i c a l o f th e
m a jo rity o f sta te m e n ts a s t o why home economics i s being o f f e r e d in th e
c o lle g e s o f t h i s study*
There I s , however, a n o th e r phase o f th e p h ilo so p h y o f home economics
t h a t shows t h a t c o lle g e a d m in is tr a to r s a r e b e g in n in g t o th in k o f t h i s
s u b je c t a s one t h a t w i l l make Im p o rtan t c o n tr ib u tio n s t o home liv in g *
One c a ta lo g s t a t e s t h a t th e c o u rses i n home eoonomios should be
e le c te d by t h r e e c la s s e s o f s tu d e n ts s
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81
1,
Thoso who w ish t o to a c h homo econom ics,
2,
Thoso ^vho wish. to become d i e t i t i a n s ,
3*
Thoao who wish, t o meet th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f homemakers i n t e l l i ­
g e n tly and o f f i o i e n t l y .
A nother c a ta lo g , a f t e r s t a t i n g t h a t th e work o f th e home economics
d epartm ent i s " to p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r te a c h in g home eoonom ios," adds
t h a t " th e work i s a ls o in te n d e d t o s a t i s f y a grow ing demand f o r p r a c t i c a l
t r a i n i n g in th e h ousehold s o ie n o e s ,"
In th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n , th e
needs o f homemaking a r e s tr e s s e d f i r s t *
"The o o u rse s in home economics
have been d esig n ed to g iv e t h e s tu d e n ts t r a i n i n g and g e n e r a l e x p e rie n c e
i n t h e a r t o f homemaking a s w e ll a s t o p ro v id e th em w it h s u f f i c i e n t
te c h n i o a l knowledge t o se rv e a s a background should th e y w ish to u s e t h i 3
in fo rm a tio n p r o f e s s i o n a lly ,"
A nother q u o ta tio n s t a t e s t h a t "th o aim o f th o home eoonomios d e p a r t­
ment i s t o t r a i n f o r homemaking a s a p a r t o f a c o lle g e e d u c a tio n ."
A nother summarizes th e o b je c tiv e s o f th e home economics d ep artm en t a s
" p ro v id in g an u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e p r in c ip le s o f r i g h t l i v i n g and th o
a p p r e c ia tio n o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e homo t o s o c ie ty ,"
A ooording t o a n o th e r
q u o ta tio n , " th e home econom ics c u rric u lu m i s in te n d e d f o r s tu d e n ts who
d e s ir e a knowledge o f th e s u b je c t m a tte r r e l a t i n g t o th e problem s o f th e
home as a p a r t o f a l i b e r a l e d u o a tio n ,"
The fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n e p i t o ­
m izes th e id e a ie g y o f homemaking ed ucation*
"Tho aim o f th e home econom ics
d epartm ent i s t o p re p a re young women f o f t h e v e ry im p o rtan t p ro f e s s io n o f
homemaking) t o g iv e them a sen se o f th e d ig n ity o f home management) and
t o e n a b le them w hether t h e i r r e s o u rc e s be la r g e o r s m a ll, t o meke t h e i r
own home,"
Then a s i f by way o f a seoond th o u g h t, th e q u o ta tio n i s ooo*
p le te d by sa y in g t h a t " th e departm ent a ls o p re p a re s f o r 1he p r o f e s s io n s ,"
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82
To ir-ake homo eoonomios f u n c tio n a l in th o l i v e s o f o o lle g e s tu d e n ts
and t o p re p a re them f o r home o b lig a tio n s i s n o t a tr e n d t o b e fo u n d only
in th e C a th o lic c o lle g e f o r women,
A su rv ey o f home economics in th e
p u b lic s o h o o l s ^ conducted tinder t h e a u sp io e a o f t h e M assach u setts d e p a rt­
ment o f e d u o a tio n shows t h a t t h i s i s more th a n j u s t a tr e n d in some o f
t h e lo a d in g c o lle g e s f o r women i n t h e E a s t ,
A ooording t o t h i s survey* V a ssar "h as done th e m ost i n e s ta b lis h in g
th e d epartm ent o f e u t h e n t i c s ,"
I n t h i s d epartm ent c o u rses from th e
v a rio u s o th e r d e p artm en ts o f th e c o lle g e a r e grouped w ith homomaking a s
th e o b j e c t i v e .
C ourses may bo s e le c te d from th e departm ents o f b o to n y ,
economics* p h y s io lo g y , so c io lo g y , o r zoology*
These fo u n d a tio n co u rses
may be made to a f f o r d t r a i n i n g f o r f u r t h e r work in th o p r o f e s s io n a l
so hools o r f o r th o g e n e r a l e x p e rie n c e o f homemaking,
R a d c lif f f e o ls t h a t " a l l c o lle g e s sh o u ld em phasise t h e Im portance
o f home l i f e and t h e p ro p e r management o f th o h o m a ," ^
Sm ith C o lle g e
m a jo r.
12 i s w orking on a p la n f o r an in te r - d e p a r tm e n ta l
One o f th o c o lle g e s o f t h i s stu d y , In o a rn a te Word C ollege o f San
A n to n io , T exas, h a s d e v ise d a p la n s im ila r t o th e one proposed by Sm ith,
W h ea to n
r e q u ir e s a c e r t a i n amount o f home econom ics f o r a l l s tu d e n ts .
T his c o lle g e " d e f i n i t e l y aims to e d u c a te women f o r a woman’ s l i f e , keeping
i n view h e r e f f i c i e n c y in. t h e home a s a c e n te r and u s e f u ln e s s i n th e
■ ^"S uggestions f o r th e O rg a n iz a tio n and A d m in is tra tio n o f Home Eoonomios
i n th e P u b lic S o h o o l," The Commonwealth o f M assa c h u se tts B u lle tin o f
th e D epartm ent o f E d u c a tio n , Ho, 244, 1931, p p , 2 2 -2 3 ,
^ Loo, o i t ,
^L oo, o it.
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83
13
oominunity," "
Tho C o n n ec tic u t C ollage f o r Women o f f e r s a c o o rd in a tin g co u rse in
th e a r t o f l i v i n g .
The u n d e rly in g p h ilo so p h y o f t h i s course is th a t " th e
c o lle g e i s n o t a p la c e where one s to r e s up in fo rm a tio n and r u l e s on how
t o l i v e , h u t i t i s a p a r t o f l i f e , whero s tu d e n ts le a r n how t o liv o under
fa v o ra b le c o n d itio n s ."
14
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t th o a d m in is tr a to r s o f c o lla g e s f o r woman a re
lo o k in g f o r som ething t h a t -w ill supplem ent t h e academic program sin co so
many c o lle g e s tu d e n ts m arry and assume th o r o l e o f homemakers.
The comments on s e v e r a l o f th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s may be summarized as
a p le a f o r " c o lle g e s f o r women," "home e co n o m ists," and "homemakers t o
work to g e th e r i n a stu d y o f th e v i t a l problem s o f c o lle g e t r a i n e d women
t o p re p a re them f o r t h e v o c a tio n o f homemaking."
Home Economics a s
R equired S u b je o t
In t h e m a tte r o f r e q u ir in g home eoonomios, t h e r e iB p e r f e c t a g re e ­
ment among t h e ones answ ering t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e s .
n o t bo r e q u ir e d .
1.
Home economics should
Among th e re a so n s g iv en a r e j
The m orale o f th e d ep artm en t i s b e t t e r i f t h e work i s n o t
r e q u ir e d .
.2.
The p r a c tic e o f r e q u ir in g s u b je c ts i s n o t i n k eep in g w ith th e
b e t t e r methods o f c u r r i c u l a r a d m in is tra tio n *
3.
The p r a c tic e o f r e q u ir in g a s u b je c t hampers r a t h e r th a n develops
a s tu d e n t,
^L oo. c lt.
‘
^L oc. o it.
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84
4*
So lo n g a s t h e r e a re s tu d e n ts who d e s ir e l i b e r a l a r t s c o u rs e s ,
th e y should have no o th e r requirem en ts*
Tho g e n e ra l p r a c tic e in re g a rd t o r e q u ir in g o o u rses in home eoonomios
seems to be t h a t o e r ta in ones sh o u ld be re q u ire d o f s tu d e n ts who a re p re ­
p a rin g f o r c a r e e r w ork, b u t o th e r th a n t h i s no s tu d e n t sh o u ld b e re q u ire d
t o ta k e any work in th e departm ent*
C o n tra st t h i s w ith th e number o f
c o u rse s t h a t a r e re q u ire d i n E n g lish , h is t o r y , s o ie n o e , and th o la n g u a g e s,
because th e s e a re th o u g h t n e o e s s a ry f o r t r a i n i n g t h e in d iv id u a l i n
th in g s w o rth w h ile , and th o g e n e ra l o o n o lu sio n to bo reach ed i s t h a t such
c o u rse s as a r t a p p r e c ia tio n , home management, o h ild developm ent, and
fa m ily r e l a t i o n s a re n o n - e s s e n tia l i n th e developm ent o f an in d iv i d u a l,
Ihe p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n s eosus t o b e t h a t th e s tu d e n t w i l l
a c q u ire t h i s in fo rm a tio n b y ohanoe, and th e r e f o r e i t i s n o t n e o e ssa ry t o
in c lu d e such s tu d ie s in t h e c u rric u lu m .
The p h ilo so p h y o f th e r e q u ir e d s u b je c ts goes b a ck t o t h a t p e rio d
o f c u r r ic u la r developm ent when i t was th o u g h t t h a t c e r ta in s u b je c ts wore
e s s e n t i a l f o r d ev elo p in g th e i n t e l l e c t u a l pow ers.
A ccording to th e
th e o r y o f fo rm al d i s o i p l i n e , th e r e a r e g r e a t d iv is io n s o f human le a r n in g
t h a t must be re p re s e n te d i n th e o u rrio u lu m f o r com plete i n t e l l e c t u a l
developm ent, and an o p p o rtu n ity must bo p ro v id e d f o r s tu d e n ts to u se t h i s
m a te r ia l a s a s o r t o f gym nastio e x e r c is e i n t h e harm onious developm ent o f
th e f a c u l t i e s *
"The harmonious developm ent o f th e f a c u l t i e s , ” s t a t e s th e
r e p o r t o f th e Sub-Committee i n 1895, "depends upon th e p ro p e r s e l e c tio n
and arrangem ent I n a n o r d e r ly sequence o f such s u b je c ts o f s tu d y a s s h a l l
give th o s tu d e n t i n s ig h t in to th e w orld i n which he l iv e s and a command
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85
over i t b r e s o u r c e s ."
IS
I t m s l o f t t o th o sch o o l a u t h o r i t i e s t o make
th e p ro p e r s e l e c t i o n , t o a rra n g e th e s u b je c t m a tte r i n p ro p e r sequence,
and th e n t o r e q u ir e t h a t a l l s tu d e n ts fo llo w th e p la n l a i d down f o r th e
developm ent o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t s .
In a d m in is te rin g c u r r i c u l a r problem s t h i s p la n i s fo llo w e d to d a y ,
even though th e psychology whioh gave r i s e t o i t has b e e n d e o la re d u n te n ­
a b le and w h o lly in a d e q u a te to e x p la in th e le a r n in g p ro o e s s .
I f a l l s u b je c ts o f th e o u r r io u la w ere on a n o n -req u irem en t b a s i s ,
th e r e would be f a i r c o m p e titio n f o r th e s u b je c t o f homemaking e d u o a tio n .
But a worowded s c h e d u le ” o f r e q u ir e d s u b je c ts p re v e n ts many s tu d e n ts who
fo r e s e e th e need f o r such t r a i n i n g from ta k in g ad v an tag e o f t h e o o u rses
t h a t a re now o f f e r e d .
E d u c a tio n f o r Home L iving & P a r t o f t h e VJhole Program o f E d u catio n
The q u e s tio n "Should e d u o a tio n f o r home liv in g be a p a r t o f th e
whole program o f e d u c a tio n ? " was answ ered i n th e a f f ir m a ti v e .
Many o f
th e comments in d ic a te d t h a t suoh had alw ays been an u n d e rly in g p r in c ip le
o f th e p h ilo so p h y o f C a th o lio e d u o a tio n .
One comment s t a t e d t h a t "Though
e d u c a tio n f o r home l i v in g and homemaking sh o u ld be a p a r t of th e whole
program o f e d u c a tio n , i t d id n o t n e c e s s a r i l y fo llo w t h a t th e home econom­
i c s d epartm ent sh o u ld b e w h o lly re s p o n s ib le f o r suoh a program .
The answ er t o a q u e s tio n c lo s e ly a s s o c ia te d w ith t h e fo re g o in g
q u e s tio n shows t h a t th e ones answ ering t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e s f e l t t h a t some
work o u ts id e th e d epartm ent o f home eoonomios co u ld be u sed i n t r a i n i n g
r f " " 1'"
— ““
•^ R e p o rt of t h e Sub-Committee o f F if te e n on t h e C o r r e la tio n o f S tu d ie s ,
’(Bloo’iL n g to n , llT in o iV j PubTTc’^ c h o o l P u b lis h in g Company ,”T8lil5),
p. 6.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
36
s tu d e n ts f o r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f home liv in g *
Soma o f th e o o u rse s
l i s t e d w ere th o s e o f r e l i g i o n , p h ilo so p h y , s o c io lo g y , id e a l s and problem s
o f a C h r is tia n l i f e , m a rria g e forum , end s p o o ia l homemaking c l a s s e s , and
b a s ic problem s i n homemaking i n th o departm ent suoh a s hono management,
fa m ily r e l a t i o n s , c h i l d developm ent, and food and o lo th in g oourses*
Some
o f th e s e a r e among t h e re q u ir e d ooutsob, and a l l s tu d e n ts may p r o f i t by
them*
O th ers a r e n o t , and some o f th o s o v /ith t i t l e s o u t o f th e o rd in a ry
o a rry no c r e d i t and a r e l o f t t o t h e c h o ice o f th e s tu d e n t t o ta k e them
o r not*
"P e rh a p s th e o n ly j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r home eoonomios in th e o o lle g e
c u r r i c u l a ," say s R o b e rts ,
*1r
" i s t h a t i t i s d o in g a word n o t b e in g done
a d e q u a te ly by t h e o th e r d e p a rtm e n ts."
f ie ld *
W ith th em such work i s a ohance
I n th e home eoonomios departm ent i t i s th e s o le f i e ld *
o th e r f i e l d s such work i s a o n e -sid e d a f f a i r *
W ith
W ith th e home eoonomios
d epartm ent whose f u n c tio n i t i s t o know th e needs o f homo making, i t
sh ould bo u n i f i e d , com prehensive, and a s i g n i f i c a n t a tta c k on th e la r g e r
problem s o f home end fa m ily l i f e *
A ccording t o S p a ff o rd ,
18
17
c e r t a i n a s p e c ts o f hoxi©making can no
doubt be ta u g h t b y o th e r departm ents*
The l a r g e r s o o la l problem s in v o lv ed
may b e s t be ta u g h t w ith in t h e p ro v in c e o f s o o ia l s t u d i e s .
may h e lp i n a s tu d y o f b u ild in g a home*
onej a r t , i n f u r n i s h i n g one*
I n d u s t r ia l a r t s
Eoonomios may a i d in f in a n c in g
But suoh s tu d ie s do n o t p o in t t o an
a J* R o b e rts , " I s Home Eoonomios R esearch M eeting I t s C hallenge,'*
J o u rn a l o f Home Econom ics, 29i 667-682, (Deoember, 1937), p , 678*
17
Loo* o it*
^®Ivol S p a ffo rd , op* o i t , , p , 674*
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87
u n d e rs ta n d in g o f w hat a d w ellin g p lao e may mean t o th e members o f th e
fa m ily or w hat v a lu e s th e same members may ex p ect to fin d th e re #
The p o in t o f p h ilo so p h y in a l l t h i s i s t h a t homemaking ed u ca tio n
ta u g h t i n i t s g r e a te s t b re a d th can. oompass a l l th e se # b u t i t s work must
be c o o rd in a te d w ith t h e o th e r departm ents#
C u r r ic u la r R ev isio n and Homaroaking E d u catio n
The need f o r c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n so a s t o in te g r a te homemaking
e d u c a tio n in t o t h e c o lle g e c u r r i c u l a h as n o t made i t s e l f f e l t t o any
g r e a t e x te n t i n th e c o lle g e s o f t h i s study#
The q u e s tio n "Was t h e r e a
need o f c u r r i c u l a r r e v is io n ? ” was answ ered i n th e n e g a tiv e .
"Whether
t h e r e was a s h ie ld in g in flu e n c e i n answ ering th e q u e s tio n i t i s d i f f i o u l t
t o say#
An a tte m p t a t what m ight seem th e im p o ssib le may have caused
some t o answ er a s th e y did#
One oomment s t a t e s t h a t " I n t h e fa c e o f so
many s t a t e and a s s o c ia tio n re q u ire m e n ts our hands a r e tie d # and any
c u r r i c u l a r r e v is io n w ould n e c e s s a r ily be i n a cc o rd v /ith th e w ishes of
th e s e a c c r e d itin g a g en c ie s# "
"At th e tim e#" s t a t e s one comment, " i t i s
n e c e s s a ry to s t r e s s th e work t h a t q u a l i f i e s f o r th e p r o f e s s io n s , and our
c u rric u lu m needs no r e v is io n i n t h i s re s p e c t# "
In t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s o u r r io u la r r e v is io n was in p ro g r e s s , b u t th e
n a tu r e o f th e r e v is io n was n o t in d ic a te d #
S e v e ra l q u e s tio n n a ire s in d i ­
c a te d t h a t th e r e had been some r e v i s i o n , b u t I t was i n th e n a tu re o f
in c r e a s in g th e c o u rses i n o rd e r to meet th e needs o f th e p r o f e s s io n a l
m ajors#
Pour q u e s tio n n a ir e s in d io a te d t h a t an a tte m p t had b e en made t o
make t h e work o f th e home economics d epartm ent fu n c tio n a l fo r a l l stu d e n ts#
I n g e n e ra l, th e p h ilosop h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n h as re c e iv e d
l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n th e c o lle g e s o f t h i s study#
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88
Means by Vihloh Homemaking E duoatio n May Beoorao a P a rt o f th e vihole Program
o f E d u c a tio n
“
S inoe so l i t t l e h a s been done to w ard r e a l i s a t i o n o f a p h ilo so p h y
o f homemaking e d u o a tio n f o r a l l s tu d e n ts , one method o f d oing so may be
a s e f f e c t i v e a s a n o th er*
The answ ers t o th e q u e s tio n p e r ta in in g to i n t e ­
g r a tio n as a p o s s ib le method b ro u g h t a fa v o ra b le re sp o n se from a m a jo rity
o f th o s e answ ering t h e q u estio n *
T his would seem to lan d s t r e n g t h t o ft
method t h a t i s b e in g much d is c u s s e d a t th o p re s e n t tim e —a method b y whioh
th e d is u n ite d and d is c o n n e c te d f e a t u r e s o f d a i l y l i f e may be brought t o ­
g e th e r in t o some s o r t o f a com posite whole*
There i s a n o th e r re a so n why
i n t e g r a t i o n oould be s u c c e s s f u lly used i n t h e C a th o lic c o lle g e sin o e
r e l i g i o n i s th e c e n t r a l theme around w hich an in te g r a te d c u rric u lu m oould
be developed*
I t w i l l th e n be t h i s m sthod t h a t th e in v e s t ig a to r s h a l l propose as
an a c c e p ta b le one i n th e p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u o a tio n in t h e C a th o lic
fo u r y e a r c o lle g e s f o r women*
T his method w i l l be d is c u s s e d i n t h s fo llo w in g ch ap ter*
Summary o f t h e P h ilo so p h y o f Homemaking E d u o atio n
In g e n e r a l, homemaking e d u o a tio n has no s i g n i f i c a n t p la o e i n th e
c o lle g e s o f t h i s s tu d y .
E du o atio n f o r home li v in g has n o t been a cc e p ted
a s t h e p rim ary o b je c tiv e o f th e home econom ics departm ent*
The s tu d e n ts who seem t o have i n t e r e s t e d c o lle g e a d m in is tr a to r s
moat a re th e m ajors who ex p eo t t o go in to th e p ro fe s s io n s *
A few o f th e
c o lle g e s show co n cern about th e l i f e needs o f t h e i r s tu d e n ts and have
begun to o rg a n ise t h e i r c u rric u lu m t o m eet th e s e needs*
Some o f th o se an sw erin g t h e q u e s tio n n a ir e s f e l t t h a t ad eq u ate
t r a i n i n g f o r personal, and home l i v i n g c o u ld be g iv e n in th e c o u rse s
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89
o rg a n iz e d f o r p r o f e s s io n a l p u rp o s e s.
T his s i t u a t i o n m y be th o re a so n
f o r n o t th in k in g t h a t c u r r i c u l a r r e v is io n i s n e c e s s a ry .
A v e ry few o o lle g o s a re a o o ep tin g th e c h a lle n g e t o make t r a i n i n g
f o r p e rs o n a l and home l i v in g t h o i r most im p o rta n t o b je c t iv e .
These few
a s in d ic a te d by comments ctn th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s r e tu r n e d a re making an
e f f o r t t o f in d o u t t h e needs o f t h e i r s tu d e n ts and th e n propose t o re v is e
th e c u rric u lu m t o meet th e s e n e e d s .
Many o f th o s e answ ering th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s f e l t t h a t homemaking
e d u c a tio n was a v e ry n e c e s s a ry p a r t o f th e t r a i n i n g o f e v e ry woman, y e t
th e y w ere n o t w i l l i n g t o aocord i t t h e same ran k a s t h e s u b je c ts o f
p h ilo so p h y and r e l i g i o n .
F i n a l l y , i n t e g r a t i o n was c o n sid e re d th e most p o s s ib le and f e a s i b l e
method o f r e a l i z i n g a program o f homemaking e d u c a tio n i n th e C a th o lio
c o lle g e f o r women.
The s u b je c t o f i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be d is c u s s e d i n th e fo llo w in g
c h a p te r .
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PART I I I — PLAN FOR A PROGRAM OF HOMEMAKUTG EDUCATION
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
CHAPTER V
INTEGRATION AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPING A PROGRAM OF
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION IN THE CATHOLIC FOUR YEAR COLLEGE FOR V?OMEN
P a rt I I I
P o rts I end I I o f t h i s t r e a t i s e have b een devoted t o a c o n s id e ra ­
t i o n o f th e n e e d f o r and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d ev elo p in g a program of
homemaking e d u o a tio n i n t h e C a th o lic c o lle g e fo r women*
P a r t I I I w i l l be devoted t o a c o n s id e r a tio n o f i n te g r a tio n as a
means o f d e v e lo p in g suoh a program*
C hapter I o f t h i s p a r t w i l l be de­
v o te d to a c r i t i c a l ex am in atio n o f i n t e g r a t i o n , (1) i n i t s a p p lic a tio n i n
C a th o lic e d u c a tio n I n g e n e r a l, and (2) a s a p o s s ib le means o f d ev elo p in g
a program o f homemaking e d u o a tio n i n th e C a th o lic c o lle g e fo r women.
The p o in ts t o be covered are*
1*
The need f o r in te g r a tin g th e sch o o l program*
2*
The g e n e ra l and s p e c ia l meaning a tta c h e d t o th e te rm " i n t e g r a t i o n .
3.
The s o o ia l and p s y c h o lo g ic a l im p lic a tio n s o f i n t e g r a t i o n ,
4*
I n te g r a tio n a s a m ethod, e s p e c ia lly s u i t e d t o th e C a th o lic
l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e*
5*
Homemaking e d u c a tio n a s a p a r t o f a n in te g r a te d program o f
s tu d ie s in t h e C a th o lic o o lle g e f o r women*
C hapter I I o f P a r t I I I w i l l be d ev o ted t o o u tlin in g a p la n f o r
i n t e g r a t i n g homemaking e d u o a tio n in to th e C a th o lio o o lle g e f o r wo men*
The l a s t c h a p te r o f P a rt I I I w i l l be d ev o ted t o a b r i e f resume o f
th e m a te r ia l t r e a t e d th ro u g h o u t th e d i s s e r t a t i o n and th e recommendation
o f p e r tin e n t s u b je c ts f o r f u r t h e r study*
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92
Tho Proposed P la n
The a r a l y s i s o f t h e so u ro e m a te r ia l o f t h i s stu d y shows c e r ta in
fa v o ra b le c o n d itio n s in re g a rd t o d e v e lo p in g a program o f homemaking
e d u o a tio n i n th e C a th o lio fo u r y o a r o o lle g e f o r woman*
1*
These a r a j
C e r ta in c o u rses a r e now b e in g o f f e re d i n th e m a jo r ity o f
c o lle g e s s o le o te d f o r t h i s s tu d y t h a t o o u ld be u sed a s b a s ic
ones i n d e v e lo p in g suoh a program ,
2,
A g e n eral f e e l i n g t h a t o o lle g e s f o r women sh o u ld s t r e s s t h a t
e d u o atio n which w i l l p re p a re v/omon f o r th e w ork t h a t i s p a r ­
tic u la rly th o irs ,
3,
Thoro i s ro aso n t o b e lie v o t h a t a program o f homemaking educa­
t i o n i s n o t in c o m p a tib le w ith th e id o a o f th o l i b e r a l a rt's
c o lle g e o r i t s c u rric u lu m .
There i s , however, q u ite a d e f i n i t e f e e lin g t h a t i t would b e under­
t a k in g th o im p o ssib le to a tte m p t to change th e e x i s t i n g e d u c a tio n a l program
o r t o b ro a k w ith t r a d i t i o n on th e p o in t o f p la n n in g a c u rric u lu m whereby
a l l s tu d e n ts m ight re c e iv e t r a i n i n g f o r homemaking a s a p o rt o f t h e i r
o o lle g e e d u c a tio n .
Changing th e p re s e n t system and b re a k in g w ith t r a d i t i o n on th e
p o in t o f a u n if i e d program i n w hich s tu d e n ts may b e t r a i n e d i n t h e s u b je o ts
c la s s e d a s f u n c tio n a l and p r a c t i c a l may seem r a d i c a l , b u t th e s e ohanges
a r e b e in g e f f e c t e d , and t h e g r e a t c o n c e rn o f e d u o a to rs seems t o be how
th e s e ohanges may b e more q u ic k ly and c o m p letely r e a l i z e d ,
Many p la n s have b een proposed f o r th e accom plishm ents o f th o s e
ohanges, b u t th e one t h a t " a d a p ts i t s e l f most b e a u t i f u l l y t o th e C a th o lic
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
93
p h ilo so p h y o f l i f e and e d u c a tio n i s t h a t o f in te g r a tio n # ”
I n te g r a tio n a s a B a s is f o r an E d u c a tio n a l Program
B efore ta k i n g up th e -work o f a p p ly in g i n t e g r a t i o n t o th e c u rric u lu m
o f th e C a th o lic o o lle g e f o r women, i t w ould seem a d v is a b le t o subm it th e
te rm t o a somewhat o r i t i o a l exam ination#
A th o ro u g h a n a ly s is o f th e mean­
in g o f th e te rm w i l l e n a b le t h e C a th o lic a d m in is tr a to r s to a p p r a is e th o
v a lu e of i n t e g r a t i o n as a means o f d e v elo p in g d e s ir a b le o o lle g e c u r r ic u la
and e n a b le them t o b a se t h e i r judgm ent on th e e s s e n t i a l n o te s e f th e con­
c ep t o f i n t e g r a t i o n a s a whole r a t h e r th a n on son© vague o r p a r t i a l
c o n cep t o f t h e te rm .
I n te g r a tio n i s n o th in g new i n l i f e nor i n e d u o a tio n , and th o move­
ment t h a t i s making i t s e l f f e l t i n th e Amerioan sch o o l sy ste m i s b u t th e
r e a c tio n t o t h e d is o r g a n iz a tio n t h a t e x i s t s n o t o n ly in t h e sch o o l system
b u t i n s o c ie ty as w e ll#
and t h e s p l i t n a tio n # ”
2
nT here i s th e s p l i t p e r s o n a l it y , t h e s p l i t home,
There i s a r e a c t i o n a g a in s t suoh c o n d itio n s #
Men and women a r e so c o n s t i t u t e d t h a t u n ity i s n e c e s s a ry f o r adequate
liv in g #
I t may be p o s s ib le t o l i v e f o r a tim e amid d i s t r a o t i o n and d i s ­
o r d e r , b u t t h e human mind w i l l r e v o l t a g a in s t suoh c o n d itio n s and see k to
r e s t o r e o rd e r where d is o r d e r e x i s t s and t o i n t e g r a t e w here d i s i n t e g r a t i o n
p re v a ils •
C h a r l e s M# O’H ara, S . J # , ”A P la n o f C u r r ic u la r I n t e g r a ti o n f o r C a th o lic
C o lle g e s ," The N a tio n a l C a th o lic E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n B u lle tin ,
3 5 |2 1 8 -2 2 5 ,““{ T 9 ^ ) , p* Z W ,
~
“
h h B. F e a th e r s to n e , " I n te g r a te d C urriculum i n th e Seoondary S c h o o ls,"
C a lifo rn ia n s Q u a rte rly o f Secondary E d u o a tjg i, 9>236-246, (March, 19 3 4 ),
p T T S in
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
94
Pauses o f D is in te g r a tio n
Fop mora th a n a h a l f c e n tu r y , a cc o rd in g t o Connole,® d i s i n t e g r a t i o n has b e e n ta lc in g plaoe*
The r a p id developm ent o f o u r n a tio n w ith t h e
in d u c tio n o f a la r g e f o r e ig n p o p u la tio n h as been th e cause o f muoh o f i t .
The f o r e ig n p o p u la tio n to g e th e r w ith t h e n a tiv e - b o r n had t o be t r a i n e d
i n t h e dem ooratio way.
More th a n t h i s , th e Amerioan id e a l o f democracy
o a lla f o r a cu m ulative system o f e d u c a tio n open t o a l l , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f
n a tiv e t a l e n t or a b i l i t y .
This c o m p lic a te d curriculum -m aking and the i n ­
vo lv ed s i t u a t i o n was f u r th e r added t o by t h e d is o r g a n iz a tio n te n a n t upon
th e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o lu tio n and t h e u r b a n is a tio n o f th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e
p o p u la tio n .
life .
These movements had t h e i r e f f e c t s upon home and community
As a r e s u l t , new burdens w ere th ro w n upon th e s c h o o l.
In an
a tte m p t t o a d ju s t t h e c u rric u lu m t o meet t h e new demands, c u r r ic u l a r
ohanges fo llo w ed e a c h o th e r in r a p id s u c c e s s io n j d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and
"c u rric u lu m chaos"
fo llo w ed a s a r e s u l t .
Hood f o r U n if ic a tio n
Now t h a t th e c au se s w hich b ro u g h t about th e s e c o n d itio n s have some­
what s u b sid e d , i t i s p o s s ib le f o r © duoators t o v iew c u r r ic u la r o r g a n iz a tio n
and needs w ith g r e a te r calm and more c e r t a i n p e r s p e c tiv e .
As a r e s u l t o f
t h i s oalm v ie w in g , th e need f o r g r e a t e r u n i f i c a t i o n i s p la i n l y s e e n .
"That t h i s i s t r u e one h as b u t t o r e a d t h e c u r r e n t e d u c a tio n a l l i t e r a t u r e
t o be convinced t h a t more and more space i s b e in g g iv en t o t h e t o p i c o f
vr 1 " "
1
uRoger Jo sep h C onnole, oj>, o i t , , p , v i i ,
^W illiam C* B agley, E duoation and Em ergent Man,
and Sons, 1934, P . 149.
New York*
Thomas N elson
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
95
in te g r a tio n ."
g
Or ono has b u t t o re v ie w th e newer o oursoa o f stu d y t o
see t h a t "a tte m p ts a t u n ity i n c u r r i c u l a r c o n s tr u c tio n c o n s t i t u t e s one o f
t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t tr e n d s in th o development o f r e c e n t c o u rs e s o f
s t u d i e s ."
Meaning of I n te g r a tio n
I n te g r a tio n , a c c o rd in g t o O 'H ara,
i n a s p e o ia l manner*
7
may be d e fin e d i n a g e n e ra l and
I t i s i n t h e g e n e ra l sense t h a t th e te rm "will f i r s t
be describ ed *
The te rm " in te g r a tio n " a t t h e p re o o n t tim e i s u se d in a v a r i e t y o f
w ays.
For some i t i s l i k e th e "em otive term s ‘ e q u a l i t y , ’ ‘ l i b e r t y , ’ and
• f r a t e r n i t y * re v e a lin g b u t so many a m b ig u itie s ."
I t i s used synonymously w ith suoh t e r m o r e x p re s s io n s as " f u s io n ,"
" c o r r e l a t i o n ," " c o o r d in a tio n ," "su rv ey c o u rs e ," "c o re o o u ro e ," "fram e of
r e f e r e n c e ," " a c t i v i t y program ," and " o r ie n t a tio n ."
One a u th o r i ty on t h e
s u b je c t has s a id t h a t " In ed u o atio n th e te rm ’ in te g ra tio n * has coraa t o
mean alm ost a n y th in g a c c o rd in g t o th e t r a i n i n g , e x p e rie n c e , a t t i t u d e , and
Q
purpose o f th o s e who use i t . "
^Roger Joseph C onaole, og* s i t . , p , v i i i .
®Henry H arap, "A Survey o f Courses o f S tudy P u b lish e d in th e L a st Two
Y e a rs ," J o u rn a l o f g d u o a tio n a l R essaro h , 28i641-646, (A ugust, 1 9 35),
p . 642.
~~
7
C h a rle s M. O’H ara, s. J*, "A P la n o f C u rric u la r I n t e g r a ti o n f o r th e
C a th o lic C o lle g e ," (u n p u b lish e d D o c to r’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , M ilwaukee, Wiscon­
s i n » M arquette U n iv e r s ity , 1938.)
a
H ard in W. Hughes, " S tr a ig h t and Crooked T hinking About I n t e g r a ti o n ,"
N a tio n s S c h o o ls, 1 6 j2 7 -2 8 , (Ja n u a ry , 1 9 3 5 ), p . 2 7 .
9I b id « , p . 2 8 ,
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96
C onnolo,"^ i n h is s tu d y o f t h e co n cep t o f i n te g r a tio n in p re s e n t
day c u rric u lu m m aking, a f t e r a n a ly z in g th e many d e f i n i t i o n s advanced f o r
th e te rm ooncludes t h a t th e r e a re t h r e e id e a s common t o a l l o f them .
These ere*
1,
That i n t e g r a t i o n i n th e e d u o a tiv e p ro c e ss aims a t making a l l
le a r n in g f u n c tio n a l by a p p ly in g i t in some w orthw hile experience*
2,
That i n t e g r a t i o n a tte m p ts t o g iv e u n d e rsta n d in g t o our complex
and chan g in g s o c i a l o rd e r by in tr o d u c in g t h e p u p il t o t h e
fu n c tio n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i e t y ,
3,
That in t e g r a t i o n hopes t o p re s e rv e demooraoy by f o s t e r i n g
common a t t i t u d e s and i d e a l s and t o p re p a re f o r f u tu r e change
by a s o r t o f g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g i n a d a p tin g and m o d ify in g one’ s
environm ent,
These id e a s have b e en f u r t h e r an aly z e d by Connole
11
t o show t h e i r
m e rits i n r e l a t i o n t o C a th o lic s o c ia l p h ilo so p h y and t h e i r p sy c h o lo g ic a l
so u n d n ess.
The C a th o lic e d u c a to r and a d m in is tr a to r i s w ary o f id e a s t h a t
m ight c o n tr o v e r t t h e p r in o i p le s o f C a th o lio p h ilo so p h y or m ight seem t o
be a f a d i n e d u c a tio n ,
Henoe, i t seems a d v is a b le , s in c e t h i s p ie c e o f
re s e a rc h i s in te n d e d t o be a p p lic a b le t o C a th o lic i n s t i t u t i o n s , to p o in t
o u t in agreem ent w ith Connole
12
t h a t w ith a few ohanges th e m eaning o f
i n t e g r a t i o n as g e n e r a lly u n d ersto o d b y th o s e h o ld in g t o C a th o lic p h ilo s o p h ­
i c a l th o u g h t may be ao o ep ted by th o s e who d o ,
AWRoger Joseph C onnole, op, o l t , , p , 1 2 ,
11I b i d . , c h a p te rs IV-V.
*2Loo, o l t .
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97
I n te g r a tio n and th o C a th o llo S o c ia l Theory
The purpose o f t h i s s e c tio n i s to show w h erein th e n aan in g o f th e
te rm in te g r a tio n and th e m i n f e a t u r e s o f th e i n t e g r a t i o n movement ag ree
o r d is a g re e v d th C a th o lic s o c ia l th e o ry .
This i s done in o r d e r to h a r­
monize as f a r a s p o s s ib le th e o b je c tiv e s and p r in c i p l e s o f th e i n t e g r a t i o n
movement v d th C a th o lic e d u c a tio n a l p h ilo so p h y and to show w h erein i t is
a p p lic a b le to th e C a th o lic c o lle g e .
In doing t h i s i t i s hoped t h a t th e
c a se f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i n th e C a th o lic l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e w i l l be s tr e n g th ­
ened and t h a t C a th o lic c o lle g e o f f i c i a l s can p r o f i t by com parison o f the
te c h n iq u e s and methods o f th e movement.
C a th o lic s o c ia l th e o ry a g re e s i n p a r t v d th th e id e a t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n
sh ould a tte m p t to f i t e d u o a tio n to p re s e n t day n e e d s , b u t i n d e te rm in in g
w hat v a lu es sh o u ld be sought th e r e i s a d if f e r e n c e o f o p in io n .
" P e rso n a l
s a t i s f a c t i o n i s th e c r i t e r i o n u se d f o r ju d g in g v a lu e s by th e ad v o cates
o f i n te g r a tio n i n i t s g e n e r a l m eaning.
C a th o lic s o c ia l th o u g h t would
s u b s t i t u t e p e r f e c t io n f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n and make th e c r i t e r i o n f o r judging
v a lu e s o b je o tiv e r a t h e r th a n
s u b je c tiv e ." ^
A gain, a c c o rd in g to th o s e fa v o rin g i n t e g r a t i o n , a l l te a c h in g m ust
be g iv en a s o c ia l o r i e n t a t i o n , and m ust be p re s e n te d in a way t h a t w hat
i s le a rn e d w i l l fu n c tio n i n s o c i a l a o t i v i t y , beoause t r u e p e rs o n a l develop­
ment comes th ro u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c ia l l i f e .
75'ith t h i s C a th o lic
s o c i a l p h ilo so p h y can a g re e i f th e s o c ia l o rg a n iz a tio n in c lu d e s th e e s ta b ­
lis h e d s o c ie ty o f th e C hurch.
A ccording to th e g e n e ra l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n r e q u ir e s a
IS
I b i d . , p . 72.
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93
tre a d , e d u o a tio n and u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th o o rg an ic n a tu r e o f s o c ie ty *
C a th o lic te a c h in g demands a l i k e u n d e rs ta n d in g and a p p r e c ia tio n o f human
s o c ie ty , b u t i t a ls o demands t h a t i t be d ir e c te d t o an u l t i n a t e end said
n o t lim ite d t o s e l f - s a t i s f a o t i o n *
Tho u ltim a te end i s th e C re a to r of t h e
U n iv e rse .
F i n a l l y , th e i n t e g r a t i o n movement as i t i s g e n e ra lly u n d e rsto o d
seeks a common e d u c a tio n in t h e fundam ental s o c ia l a t t i t u d e s , i d e a l s ,
and s k i l l s .
This re q u ire m e n t i s made more s p e o if io i n C a th o lio te a c h in g
b ecau se a c c o rd in g t o C a th o lic p h ilo so p h y th e purpose o f s o o ia l i n s t i t u ­
t i o n s is more permanent and unch an g in g .
I t can th u s be s e e n t h a t i n th e m ain p o in ts i n t e g r a t i o n o f th e
g e n e ra l ty p e can be harm onized w ith t h e more speoi& l ty p e which w i l l be
d is c u s s e d under i n te g r a tio n i n C a th o lio e d u c a tio n .
P s y c h o lo g ic a l B a s is o f I n t e g r a t i o n
The only r e a l d if f e r e n c e betw een th e e x p e r im e n ta lis t and t h e
C a th o lio p h ilo s o p h e r where t h e r e i s a q u e s tio n o f p sy ch o lo g y , a c c o rd in g
t o Connole,
14
i s t h e n a tu r e and fu n c tio n o f in te llig e n c e *
"The e x p e r i­
m e n ta lis t h o ld s t h a t t h e o n ly knowledge o th e r th a n sense im p re ssio n s and
memory im ages man can have i s an aw areness o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een
a n a c t and I t s c o n s e q u e n c e T h e r e f o r e , th e o n ly way one oon le a r n i s
by e x p e rie n c e .
The C a th o lio p h ilo so p h y on t h i s p o in t te a o h e s t h a t th e mind can
apprehend r e a l i t y and judge o f i t s v a lu e .
Men c a n , t h e r e f o r e , apprehend
& I b i d . , p*~9l7
*®Boyd H* Bode, C o n f lic tin g P sy c h o lo g ie s o f L e a rn in g .
H eath and Company, 19^9. P . z 5 £ .
New York*
D. C.
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99
r e a l i t y w ith o u t p u rp o siv e e x p e rie n c e s , b u t h e cannot be t r a i n e d eo t h a t
t h i s s u b je o tiv e judgment o f v a lu e s co rresp o n d s to o b je c tiv e v a lu e s o f
r e a l i t y ex cep t th ro u g h a s e r ie s o f p u rp o siv e a c t s .
The r e c o g n itio n o f
t h i s d if f e r e n c e betw een t h e two t h e o r ie s i s n e c e s s a ry in o rd o r t o a v o id
th e extrem es o f a c o m p letely s u b je c tiv e and r e l a t i v e philo so p h y #
O ther­
w is e , t h e p s y c h o lo g ic a l b a s is o f t h e I n t e g r a tio n movement i s a sound one,
and th e u n ity o f th e human p e r s o n a lity so s tr o n g ly em phasized i n i n t e g r a ­
t i o n psychology has alw ays been re c o g n ize d i n C a th o lio thought#
S p e o ifio Meaning o f I n te g r a tio n
As has b een s t a t e d , in te g r a t io n may b e u sed i n a g e n e ra l o r i n a
s p e c ia l w ay.
The p re c e d in g s e c tio n s have b een d ev o ted t o a c o n s id e ra tio n
o f th e g e n e ra l meaning o f t h e te r m .
The rem ain in g s e c tio n s o f t h i s chap­
t e r w i l l be devoted t o d is c u s s io n o f th e s p e c ia l m eening o f th e word,
f o r i t i s w ith t h i s meaning t h a t t h i s stu d y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y co n cern ed .
I t i s i n i t s s p e c ia l meaning t h a t in t e g r a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i ­
c a b le t o th e C a th o lio c o lle g e , even though i t was p o in te d out t h a t th e
g e n e ra l meaning o f i n t e g r a t i o n o o u ld be harm onized w ith C a th o lio s o c i a l
th o u g h t and t h a t t h e p r in c ip le s o f in te g r a ti o n r e s t on a sound p sy c h o lo g i­
c a l b a s i s , y e t th o meaning o f th e te rm a s u n d e rsto o d i n i t s s p e c ia l s e n s e
i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u ite d to th e C a th o lio e d u c a tio n a l sy stem .
To i n t e g r a t e , a c c o rd in g t o 0*H ara,
IS
im p lie s o r g a n iz a tio n o r to
g a th e r to g e th e r in t o a n o rg a n iz ed w h o le, o r " i t i s t o o rg a n iz e th e many
p a r ts o f a grou p in g t h a t th e y f a l l i n t o n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n one to a n o th e r
a cc o rd in g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a lu e s •"
— I-I . ir n . . i
A C h arles M* 0 *Hara, s . J . , op. o i t . , p . 39.
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100
The h ig h e s t ty p e o f in t e g r a t i o n may be s a id t o e x i s t when among a
hetero g en eo u s grouping th e r e i s a dominant elem en t n a t u r a l l y s u i t e d t o be
th e n u o leu s about w hich th e o th e r e lem en ts n a y bo org an ized *
In t h i s
ty p e o f i n t e g r a t i o n a n a tu r a l u n ity e x i s t s b eo au se o f th e adherence of
th o v a rio u s p a r ts e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e nucleus*
In re g a rd t o s e le o tin g a n u c le u s , th e C a th o lio e d u c a tio n a l system
i s i n a most fa v o ra b le p o s itio n .
O ther e d u c a tio n a l system s can only
p a r t i a l l y make us© o f t h e p r in c ip le o f in t e g r a tio n beoause th e y must
s e le o t f o r a n u o leu s a f a c t o r t h a t i s n o t a u n iv e r s a l concept*
For
in s ta n o e , th e te rm " e v o lu tio n ” h a s a w id esp read u s e , b u t even such a te rm
does n o t e x te n d to a l l phases o f knowledge and h a s l i t t l e a p p lic a tio n t o
e d u c a tio n a l o b je c tiv e s *
On t h e o th e r hand, C a th o lic p h ilo so p h y , a o c e p tin g r e a l i s t i c a l l y
t h e w hole o f th e u n iv e rs e w ith b o th i t s s p i r i t u a l and m a te r ia l e le m e n ts,
i s i n a p o s itio n t o make use o f a n u o leu s w hich i s a u n iv e r s a l concept
and w hich w i l l se rv e th o th r e e e d u c a tio n a l o b je c tiv e s a l i k e .
T h is n u o le a r ooncept i s , o f c o u rs e , th e C re a to r o f t h e U n iv e rse,
th e fundament in a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o ral, and c u l t u r a l ed u o atio n *
P h ilo so p h y a s a B asis f o r an I n te g r a te d Program o f S tu d ie s
In a n atte m p t t o ap p ly th e id e a o f in t e g r a t i o n , e d u c a to rs have
t r i e d v a rio u s p la n s o f c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n iz a tio n .
There i s in t e g r a t i o n
ao o o rd in g t o th e p r in o ip le o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w hich p ro g re s s iv e e d u o a tio n
f in d s e x p re s s io n .
T here i s i n t e g r a t i o n b y p a r a l l e l co u rses*
A ooording
t o t h i s p la n a s o r t o f h u m an istic p h ilo so p h y o f e d u c a tio n dom inates and
a n a tte m p t i s made t o g iv e s tu d e n ts a r a t h e r com plete background o f what
i s c o n sid e re d g e n o ra l l i b e r a l know ledge.
I n t e g r a tio n b y core s u b je c ts
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101
h a s been a tte m p te d i n th e f i e l d o f s o c i a l s c ie n c e s , th e h u m a n itie s, and
th e n a t u r a l s o ie n o e s ,
A ll th e s e sy ste m s, a o o o rd in g t o O’H ara,
17
a re d e f i c i e n t i n one way
o r a n o th e r sin o e th e y do n o t perform a l l th e work t h a t should be oxpeotod
o f in te g ra tio n .
A ooording t o th e C a th o lio p o in t o f v ie w , t h e r e i s o n ly
one b ra n c h o f knowledge w hich i s fundam ental in e v ery sen se o f th e word,
and t h i s i s p h ilo s o p h y .
Hence, in an in te g r a te d program t h i s s u b je c t i s
th e o n ly lo g io a l elem en t o r f a c t o r ab o u t w hich a l l s u b je o t m a tte r may be
g rouped,
S e le c tio n o f M a te ria l f o r a n I n te g r a te d Program o f S tu d io s
The e x p la n a tio n o f b o th th e g e n e ra l and s p e c ia l m eaning o f in t e g r a ­
t i o n has b e e n more o r le s s s k e tc h y , b u t what has been w r i t t e n seems
s u f f i c i e n t i n th e mind o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o show t h a t in t e g r a t i o n
i n t e r p r e t e d i n e i t h e r way i s w e ll s u ite d t o beoome th e b a s i s f o r c u r r ic u ­
l a r o r g a n iz a tio n i n th e C a th o lic o o lle g e f o r women.
The n u c le a r c e n te r i s th e C re a to r o f t h e U n iv e rse , tow ard w hich
a l l e d u c a tio n sh o u ld te n d .
The most u n iv e r s a l oonoept on w hich t o b u i l d
a curriculum , i s t h a t o f p h ilo so p h y , and t h i s s u b je o t h o ld s prim acy i n th e
C a th o lio e d u c a tio n a l system .
W ith p h ilo so p h y a s t h e o e n te r i n an in te g r a te d program o f s t u d ie s ,
i t i s n e c e s s a ry t o s e l e c t suoh o th e r m a te r ia l a s w i l l p ro p e rly r e in f o r c e
th e c e n tr a l theme so a s t o r e a l i z e th e t h r e e o b je c tiv e s in e d u c a tio n ,
nam ely, i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o ra l, and c u l t u r a l developm ent o f in d i v id u a l s .
B efo re ta k in g up th e work o f o u tli n in g a program of homemaking
•p?—
-----------C h arles H, O’H ara, S , J , , op, c i t », p , 150,
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102
e d u o a tio n i n th e l i b e r a l a r t s o o lle g e f o r women, a b r i e f summary w i l l be
made o f th e ty p o o f m a te r ia l t h a t sh o u ld be em phasized in th e c u rric u lu m .
In s e l e c t i n g m a te r ia l fo r a n in te g r a te d program o f s tu d ie s , two
ty p e s may be o hosen.
One i s term ed th o " e x te n s iv e co v erag e” ty p e , and
th e o th e r i s known a s th e ”in te n s iv e tre a tm e n t” ty p e .
The form er i s
t h e ty p e used a t Stephens C o lle g e , M iss o u ri, a t th e p re s e n t tim e , and
th e " o r i e n t a t i o n co u rse" once used a t M innesota S ta te and th e " g e n e ra l
overview " co u rse once u sed a t S ta n fo rd U n iv e rs ity
ty p e .
18
a re o f th e e x te n s iv e
But such e x te n s iv e coverage can have b u t l i t t l e v a lu e i n a t t a i n ­
in g c o lle g e o b je c t iv e s .
T here i s , f o r in s ta n o e , l i t t l e in c e n tiv e f o r
th o ro u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l work in. so g e n e ra l a ty p e o f s u b je c t m atter*
The in te n s iv e tr e a tm e n t ty p e , a s t h e name s u g g e s ts , t r e a t s few er
t o p i c s , and beoause o f t h i s , g r e a te r th o u g h t w i l l go in to t h e i r o rg a n iz a ­
t i o n , and th e r e w i l l be th e o r y b e h in d th e o r g a n iz a tio n .
For t h i s re a s o n ,
t h i s w ould be th e ty p e o f coverage t h a t th e i n v e s t i g a t o r recommends i n
s e l e c t i n g m a te r ia l f o r t h e o o lle g e c u rric u lu m and i n t h e p la n n in g o f th e
homemaking e d u c a tio n program o f s t u d i e s .
Summary
The purpose o f th e p r e s e n t c h a p te r has b e en to a n aly z e th e Eieaning
o f t h e te rm " in te g r a tio n " and to show w herein i t s p r in c ip l e s a re a p p l i ­
c a b le (1) t o e d u o a tio n i n g e n e r a l, and (2) t o C a th o lic e d u o a tio n i n
p a rtic u la r.
The prooeduro has b e e n t o c r i t i c i z e th e methods o f in te g r a tio n in
th e l i g h t o f sound p h ilo so p h y and t o p o in t o u t why t h i s method o f
18I b l d . , p . 18S.
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xos
o u r r io u la r o rg a n iz a tio n i s so w e ll s u ite d to th e C a th o lio l i b e r a l a r t s
c o lle g e , w hether i t be devoted t o t h e e d u o a tio n o f men o r women*
B r ie f as has b e en th e d is c u s s io n , enough h as b een s a i d t o show th e
soundness o f th e i n t e g r a t i o n movement i n e d u o a tio n , and t o show t h a t only
u n iv e r s a ll y com prehensive p r in c ip l e s w i l l o f f e r a fram e work f o r a s a t i s ­
f a c to r y in te g r a te d program o f s tu d ie s *
The o n ly u n iv e r s a lly com prehensive
p r i n c i p l e i s th e one on w hich th e C a th o lio e d u c a tio n a l system r e s ts *
T his i s th e C h r is tia n p h ilo so p h y o f l i f e *
T h is p re s e n t c h a p te r , as w e ll as th o one t h a t w i l l fo llo w , i s b u t
th e com plem entary o lo s e t o th e f i r s t and second p a r t s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n
and t h e f u l f i l l i n g o f t h e sta te m e n t made a t t h e b e g in n in g o f t h i s
t r e a t i s e (page 16) t h a t on a c c e p ta b le program f o r homemaking e d u o a tio n
would be proposed as one o f th e p u rp o ses o f t h i s s tu d y .
T h is p ro p o sa l
w i l l bo th e b r i e f e s t p o s s ib le , and no a tte m p t w i l l be mode t o do more
th a n propose a s a t i s f a c t o r y method whereby i t may be re a liz e d *
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
CHAPTER VI
HOMEMAKING EDUCATION AND AN INTEGRATED COLLEGE CURRICULUM
An I n te g r a te d C ollege C urrioulum
Tho r e s u l t s o f t h i s in v e s t i g a t i o n show t h a t t h e r e a r e o e r t a i n con­
d itio n s fa v o ra b le t o t h e developm ent o f a homemaking program o f s tu d ie s
i n th o C a th o lic o o lle g e f o r women w hereby a l l s tu d e n ts i n suoh c o lle g e s
m y be g iven an o p p o rtu n ity t o re o e iv e t r a i n i n g i n th e a r t and in th e
s c ie n c e o f homomaking a s d e fin e d a t th e b e g in n in g o f C hapter I I I , page 4 8 ,
The reaso n s why suoh a program i s b o th p o s s ib le and f e a s i b l e a r e s
1,
A program o f homemaking e d u c a tio n may be r e a l i s e d th ro u g h an
in te g r a te d c u rric u lu m , and t h i s form o f c u r r i c u l a r o rg a n iz a ­
t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y w e ll s u ite d t o th e C a th o lic l i b e r a l a r t s
c o lle g e ,
2,
A d e f i n i t e p h ilo so p h y o f l i f e and hence o f e d u c a tio n i s n e c e s ­
s a r y f o r a n in te g r a te d program o f s t u d i e s , and t h i s th e
C ath o lio o o lle g e has in i t s a g e -o ld system o f C h r is tia n
p h ilo so p h y ,
3,
By making use o f an in te g r a te d program of s tu d ie s w ith p h ilo s ­
ophy as th e n u c le a r c e n te r , th e i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o ra l, and
o u ltu r a l o b je c tiv e s can bo more a d e q u a te ly cared f o r ,
4,
Homemaking e d u o a tio n i s n o t in c o m p a tib le w ith e ith e r t h e id e a
o f th e l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e o r i t s c u rric u lu m ,
5,
The m a jo rity o f c o lle g e o f f l o i a l s c o n s u lte d i n t h i s stu d y
f e l t t h a t such e d u c a tio n sh o u ld have a p la c e i n th e c o lle g e
devoted t o th e t r a i n i n g o f women*
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ICC
Parpoeo o f C a n t o r VI
The
o f t i d e c h a p te r la to b r i e f l y o u t l i n e a
fo r a a
I n te g r a te d o o !l« o a aurricuK -r.; In *&4oU taxu'ifcSdac e d u c a tio n K i l l lav©
a
p i "xul *
l'y p la n i s no&rit a svorraiy. o f s tu d ie s in trh icli fcoK»2aafci»d edv.cattc
v d l! !iavo v. d o f ln i to placet end w i l l to© a v a il a b le f o r a l l stu d e n ts*
fu c h oxncrlviO'atfttio.n r i l l to© r.oe©8sory b e fo re euch c u rric u lu m can bo
f u l l y roalisv.HU
flj© in v e s tig a to r fo o ls t h a t th e b lu e p r i n t , as i t vroro*
of (1) a r e n e r a l p la n f o r an ia to s y a td d c o lle g e c u r r ic u lu m nag© 107 a
ar.& t h i s p la n : ;o d lf i«*i to in c lu d e )iosi©ucusIni‘; e d u c a tio n w i l l carv e m
a bc.ee o f vloyartwrc f o r U&o en;.©ri:;onto&bioxi*
r im ; o f i n t e g r a t i o n
In auro<jr-.eat w ith 0*Slajti,l who lias vasrfcod o a t a p la n ©f in t o f r a t i o n
f o r th o C a th o lic l i b e r a l a r t e c o lle g e f o r e\er.# th o p lan f o r art in te g ra te d
"ollrv-e currioviixxr, f o r vnzjtan '.s ill ho dttveXopsu*
A ccording to t i d e p la n , th e soojedx n a t t e r o f th e eolloj;© c u rric o *
I-:::. K i l l bo d iv id e d in to th r o e p a r te o r phasess
1#
Shore w ill by a four year central ©cure© sonuonc© ia which the
in te lle c tu a l, acra l, end cultural dovolopnent of tho student
r d ll bo ©treeaecU
xC barlee r . C*Uura. c > u i t . , e ra n ta ro V I-V lI.
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106
2.
There w ill be a group o f req u ired courses i a which s k i l l producing courseB as w ell as c o n trib u to ry courses w ill have
a place*
Examples o f such courses would be the h is to r i c a l
background c o u rse s, th e m athem atical background c o u rses, o r th e
thought and i t s ex p ression co u rses.
3*
(See P lan , page 107.)
There would be courses in s p e c ia lis a tio n .
The p lan f o r such an in te g ra te d curriculum is presented in c h a rt
form on page 107.
According to t h i s p la n , a c e n tr a l course would extend throughout
th e e n tir e fo u r y e a rs , and the su b je o t m a tte r covered would be devoted to
the i n t e l l e c t u a l , m oral, and c u ltu r a l development of th e stu d e n t.
The
f i r s t two years* '.fork of th e c e n tr a l course i s to be devoted to i n t e l l e c ­
tu a l in te g r a tio n , w hile th e laG t two are to be devoted to moral and c u ltu r a l
in te g ra tio n *
Tho l a s t h a l f o f th e s e n io r y ear is to bo devoted to a f in a l
u n if ic a tio n of the fo u r-y ears* work.
Homomakinp Eduoation in th e In te g ra te d College Curriculum
In making use o f t h i s plan of in te g ra tio n , the c e n tra l course w ith
i t s tim e allo tm e n t o f t h i r t y hours would include such homemaking courses
as would s tr e s s th e i n t e l l e c t u a l , m oral, and c u ltu r a l development of the
stu d e n t in h e r p re s e n t needs and in p re p a ra tio n f o r fu tu re needs.
The
courses s e le c te d would be those found to be b asic according to th is study.
(See pages 45 and 4 6 .)
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107
PLAN FOR AN INTEGRATED COLLEGE CURRICULUM3
S e n io r Year
S p e c ia l iz a tio n
F in a l u n i f i c a t i o n
S p e c ia liz a tio n
P h ilo so p h y
C u ltu r a l I n t e g r a tio n
S 8» h«
6 s« ha
12 s* h«
J u n io r Y ear
C e n tra l Course
P h ilo so p h y
S p e c ia liz a tio n
Moral I n te g r a tio n
P h ilo so p h y
12
6 Sa
Sa ha
ha
S
Sa ha
9 8a
ha
Sophomore Y ear
C e n tra l Course
L i t e r a t u r e Course
10 S a ha
In te lle c tu a l
I n te g r a tio n
P re p a ra tio n f o r
S p e c ia liz a tio n
10 8a ha
10 t o 14 Ba ha
Freshman Year
-
1
C e n tra l Course
Thought
and I t s
E x p re ssio n
Language
Course
6 So ha
6 Sa ho
In te lle c tu a l
I n te g r a tio n
8 Ba ha
...........
Background
C o u rse H is to ric a l
Background
Course
6 Sa ha
6 8a ha
T iken from O’ H ara, o p , o l t , , p , 299,
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100
C ourses o f & hosso:ml:inc n a tu re saight ftleo bo in clu d ed anong th e
o k lll-p r o d u o ia c o r c o n tr ib u to r y couraoe*
For in sta n c e * i a th o
h i s t o r i c a l background oouroo th e h is t o r y o f th o hono n ig h t w e ll bo
s t r e s s e d and the tlMttt&d o f c i v i l i s a t i o n bo c a r r ie d a lo n g through
th o suoQOoeivo fcfoo by t i d e sccnne a e v e i l ao th rou gh th o t r a c in g o f
p o l i t i c a l and m ilit a r y endeavors*
2rs th e f i e l d o f p h ilosop h y* there* sh o u ld bo a n p le o p p o r tu n ity
to s t r e s s th o p h ilo so p h y o f th e h om and hone l i f e *
Fam ily r e la t io n s
so u rces* c h ild dovolop:.onte and c h ild p sy ch o lo g y c o u r s e s n ig h t w e ll
f in d a pSaoo in tho p h ilo s o p h ic a l a r e a o f th e l i b e r a l a r t e c o lle g e *
Tithics m ight a ls o ho a c o n tr ib u to r y oourso t o th o hononaJcinr ed u c a tio n
nrogm r.*
In th o a r e a o f s p e c i a l i s a t i o n , c r e a to r a t t e n t io n co u ld be g iv e n
t o th e c a r e e r s u b j e c t s , b u t th oro would a ls o bo o p p o r tu n ity fo r a l l
s tu d e n ts to lo a n s soaoth l& f o f th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f honoraaking o d u o a tio n
boy end th e c o n fin e s o f th o hones*
C onclusions
Iao
a ttc c .p t beta boon ca d e t o work o u t i n o -.rapleto d e t a i l th o pro*
posed plan*
r-robloi.:.*
To do so would bo t o go boyoad th e sco p e o f a s i n g l e
ilrojewer, tho p la c in g o f th o b a sic c o u r s e s a s d is c o v e r e d i a
b«*c atudy* (Coo pages 4 0 * 4 0 ), has boon b r i e f l y d is c u s s e d in tJie pro­
codin.;: yager, o f t h i s chapter*
The gone m l p la n f o r rai In te g r a te d
c o l le g e o u r r ie a la n , page 1 0 7 , has boon m o d ifie d , ( f e e page 100 a ) , to
in d ic a te how t h i s g o n o m l T:la n co u ld bo used in th e C a th o lic fo u r y e a r
c o l le g e f o r won on , so a s to in c lu d e hoaocAklng eduoation#
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108a
l i ' f i ' I n .<* uo
J o d ie
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u/:‘ r.r* Vr.rn
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CHAPTER V II
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
F in d in g s
The r e s u l t s o f t h i s in v e s t ig a ti o n summarized i n a g e n e ra l manner
show a g r e a t d if f e r e n c e o f o p in io n and o f c o n d itio n s i n re g a rd t o th e
p lao e o f homemaking e d u o a tio n i n th e C a th o lio fo u r y e a r o o lle g e f o r ■women.
1.
Only tw o -th ird s o f th e c o lle g e s s e le c te d f o r t h i s s tu d y o f f e r
work i n home econom ics, and o f th o s e t h a t do o f f e r i t more a r e
oonoerned w ith p re p a rin g s tu d e n ts f o r c a r e e r s o u ts id e t h e home
th a n w ith t r a i n i n g a l l s tu d e n ts f o r th e work o f homamakimg
e i t h e r b e fo re o r a f t e r th e c a re e rs a r e over*
2,
As a r e s u l t o f th e a b o v e-d escrib ed o o n d itio n , t h e r e i s no
d e f i n i t e p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u o atio n i n suoh o o lle g e s
exoept to s a t i s f y a l l th e re q u irem en ts o f t h e a c c r e d itin g
ag en c ie s and th u s p re p a re s tu d e n ts t o aooept suoh p o s itio n s as
a re open t o te a c h e rs and d i e t i t i a n s .
3*
There seems t o be l i t t l e co n fo rm ity i n re g a rd t o
p a t t e r n o f c o u rse o f f e r i n g s .
th e g e n e ra l
In most in s ta n o e s one m ight
im agine t h a t th e departm ent o f home econom ics was b u i l t as
a le a n - to house i s b u i l t j t h a t i s , as th e need f o r new c o u rses
a r o s e , th e y were j u s t added t o th e e x i s t i n g o n e s, le a n in g on
them i n scaae f a s h io n ,
4,
The n a tu r e and c o n te n t o f c o u rse s v a ry g r e a t l y .
For in s ta n c e ,
th e work i n home economics i n th e f o r t y - s i x o o lle g e s w hich
o f f e r i t i s l i s t e d under 944 d i f f e r e n t o o u rses and 242 d i f f e r e n t
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
110
title s *
The work in foods alo n e i s l i s t e d u n d e r se v e n ty -
th r e e d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s and t h a t o f o lo th in g i s l i s t e d u n d er
n e a r ly as many.
5.
I t i s p o s s ib le , how ever, to reduoe the c o n te n t o f c o u rses to
a few b a s ic ones and th u s la y th e fo u n d a tio n f o r a more u n if i e d
program o f s tu d io s i n th e s u b je c t o f homemakiRg e d u c a tio n .
6.
The re q u irin g o f homemaking s u b je c ts e x c e p t f o r p r o f e s s io n a l
purposes i s o b je c te d t o , and even though t h i s m y be as i t
should b e , y e t th o f a c t rem ains t h a t some s u b je c ts a r e re q u ire d ,
and t h i s le a v e s th o c o u rses in homemaking e d u c a tio n i n an un­
f a i r p o s itio n .
S tu d e n ts who sea th e ad v an tag es o f such t r a i n ­
in g a re p re v e n te d from a v a il in g th em selv es o f such o p p o r tu n itie s
a s a re o f f e re d because o f th e heavy sch ed u le o f re q u ire d work.
7.
A c c re d itin g a g e n c ie s seem to s ta n d in th e way o f c u r r i c u l a r
ro v is ion*
0.
There i s , however, a fo o lin g in d ic a te d t h a t c o lle g e s devoted
e s p e c ia ll y to th e e d u c a tio n o f women sh o u ld be in t e r e s t e d in
tr a i n i n g s tu d e n ts f o r th e p ro f e s s io n which th e g r e a t m a jo rity
o f them w i l l e n te r .
9.
The p r in c ip le s o f i n te g r a tio n seen a d m irab le s u ite d t o be th e
- fo u n d a tio n on which a s a t i s f a c t o r y program of homemaking educa­
t i o n m y be d ev elo p ed .
C onclusions
The fin d in g s o f t h i s stu d y a re such a s w i l l w a rra n t th e fo llo w in g
c o n c lu s io n s t
1.
A t th e p r e s e n t tim e , o n ly a b o u t tw o -th ird s o f th e c o lle g e s
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
I ll
re p re s e n te d i n t h i s s tu d y o f f e r hone economics work, y e t i t
i s s a f e to c o n c lu d e , t h a t th o rem aining c o lle g e w i l l soon
in tro d u c e such w ork.
T h is c o n c lu s io n i s based on th o ra p id
in tr o d u c tio n o f suoh d ep artm en ts in to th e C a th o lic -c o lle g e s
f o r women, s in c e 1920.
2*
Even th ough th e r e h as been a s te a d y in c re a s e i n th e number o f
home economics D epartm ents and a ls o an in c r e a s e in th o number
o f a re a s and o f c o u rses d u rin g th e p a s t 20 y e a rs th e re i s as
y e t no d e f i n i t e p h ilo so p h y o f homemaking e d u c a tio n , i n th e c o l­
le g e s o f t h i s s tu d y .
The c h ie f re a so n f o r o ff o rin g home
economics i s to s a t i s f y s t a t e o r a c c r e d itin g re q u ire m e n ts, and
to p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e p ro fe s s io n s open to th e home
econom ics m ajo r.
3.
D e sp ite th o f a c t t h a t homo economios work i s n o t d e f i n i t e l y
a s s o c ia te d w ith th e need f o r homemaking e d u c a tio n , th e r e i s
a f o o lin g t h a t th e r e sh o u ld be and t h a t th e C a th o lic c o lle g e
f o r women sh ould t r a i n a l l t h e i r s tu d e n ts i n th e a r t and i n
th o s c ie n c e o f home l i v i n g and konemaking.
4*
That a lth o u g h , homemaking e d u c a tio n should become a p a r t o f
th e c o lle g e c u rric u lu m th e r e was evidence some confused th in k in g
on th e p a r t o f th o s e a n sw e rin g th e q u e s tio n n a ir e as to how i t
m ight bo acco m p lish ed , y e t th e r e was t h i s encouragem ent, t h a t
m ost o f th o se g iv in g th o u g h t to th e q u e s tio n approved th e
p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e g r a t i o n a s b ein g th e b o s t b a s is o f c o lle g e
c u rric u lu m r e o r g a n is a tio n .
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112
5*
As a r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l c o n s id e ra tio n o f th e p r in c ip le o f
i n t e g r a t i o n a s i t a p p lie s to th e C ath o lic e d u c a tio n a l system
and a f t e r s tu d y th e p la n s t h a t have been developed o f in te g r a te d
c o lle g e c u rric u lu m , t h i s ty p e o f o rg a n iz a tio n is recommended.
Such a o u r r i c u l a r p la n i s in c lu d e d i n tho s tu d y and a d a i l y
sohedule f o r th e work in th e C a th o lic fo u r - y e a r c o lle g e f o r
women i s su b m itted i n tho c lo s in g pages o f t h i s s tu d y .
Hoc ommendations
The fin d in g s o f t h i s s tu d y a re su ch a s to le n d encouragem ent to th o
p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d eveloping an in te g r a te d c o lle g e c u rric u lu m in which
honemaking e d u c a tio n w i l l have a d e f i n i t e p la c e .
Tho rocommendations w i l l
bo o f th o n a tu ro o f a p le a to C a th o lic e d u c a to rs to r e a l i s e t h e i r oppor­
t u n i t y to do som ething d i s t i n c t i v e i n c u r r i o u l a r r e b u ild in g .
So long have
c o lle g e a u t h o r i t i e s been bound down by r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t
f o r them to r e a l i s e th e o p p o r tu n itie s t h a t a re t h e i r s .
changed.
C o n d itio n s have
In n o v a tio n and e x p e rim e n ta tio n in th o o rd e r of th e d a y .
Schools
and c o lle g e s a r e doing d a rin g th in g s , th e more d a rin g th e u n d e rta k in g , th e
more o r i g i n a l th e id e a .
TIShy sh o u ld n o t th o o f f i c i a l s o f th e C a th o lic
c o lle g e f o r women ta k e advantage o f th e o p p o rtu n ity which i s t h o i r s to
shape th e c u rric u lu m o f t h e i r c o lle g e in acco rd w ith th e p h ilo so p h y of
C a th o lic education, and th e needs o f t h e i r s tu d e n ts ?
A p la n f o r 6ttch c u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n i s eurcaarized i n th e c lo s in g
pages o f t h i s s tu d y .
This p la n , would seem to have a l l tho r e q u i s i t e s
n e c e s sa ry to reoonaaend i t to th e o f f i c i a l s o f th e C a th o lic fo u r y e ar
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
113
o o llo g o s f o r women who a re in te r e s t e d in r e c o n s tr u c tin g tho c u rric u lu m
o f t h o i r c o lle g e s in a th o ro u g h ly in te g r a te d manner and i n acco rd w ith
C a th o lic p h ilo so p h y and tho needs o f tho tim e s .
To do t h i s experim enta­
t i o n v& ll he necessary} b u t such o o llo g e s a re in a fa v o ra b le p o s itio n to
do t h i s .
They have f a r more l i b e r t y i n t h i s re s p e c t th a n a re th e ta x
su p p o rted i n s t i t u t i o n s and th o more h ig h ly endowed p r iv a te c o lle g e s f o r
b o th ty p es o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a re borne down w ith monied r e g u la tio n s from
w hich th o C a th o lic c o lle g e is f r e e .
S ince such c o lle g e s a rc more o r le s s
f r e e from hampering re g u la tio n s and th e \my f o r s u c c e s s fu l c u r r i c u l a r
r e v is io n lias boon p o in te d o u t, i t i s noro s tr o n g ly recommended t h a t such
r e v is io n be u n d e rta k e n .
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PART IV—BIBLIOGRAPHIES
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
WORKS CITED IN THIS STUDY
P rim ary Source M a te ria l
S eventy C o llege C a ta lo g s
S ix t y - f iv e Q u e stio n n a ire s
Twenty L e tte r s
Secondary Source M a te ria l
Books
B agly, W illiam C ., E d u c a tio n and Em ergent Man,
& S ons, 1934•
Bode, Boyd H ., Modern E d u o a tio n a l T e n d e n c ie s.
pany, 1927.
New York*
C hicagot
Thomas N elson
M acmillan Com­
Connole, Roger J o se p h , (R e v .), A Study o f t h e Concept o f I n te g r a tio n i n
P re s e n t Day C u rricu lu m Making. WasTSngton, D. C .i C a th o lic
U n iv e r s ity , 195? •
McCormack, P a tr io k J » , H is to ry o f E d u o atlo n .
C a th o lio E d u catio n P r e s s , 1915.
Ross, J . , A Survey o f S o c io lo g y .
C hioago:
W ashington, D. C .i
The
Bruoe P u b lish in g Company, 1932.
S o h m eid eler, E d g ar, An I n tr o d u c to r y Study o f t h e F am ily .
C entury Company, 1936,
S h ie ld s , Thomas Edward, The E d u c a tio n o f Our G i r l s .
B ro th e rs , 1907.
New Yorki
C hioagoj
B ensinger
W in c h e ll, C la ra M ., Home Eoonoxaios, New York* Bureau o f P u b lic a tio n s ,
T eachers C o lle g e , Columbia“10 h i v a r s i t y , 1931.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
115
P e r io d ic a ls
B lu n t, K a th e rin e , "Hovr Can Horn© Economies F u n c tio n E f f e c ti v e l y in a
L ib e r a l A rts C o lle g e ,M J o u rn a l o f Home Economics, 2615050506,
O cto b er, 1934 •
C arm ich ael, 0 . C ., "Home Eoonomios in H igher E d u c a tio n ," Jo u rn a l o f Home
Econom ics, 24:851-856, O cto b er, 1932,
C o z a rt, T h o m s, (M rs .), "What Home Economics Has Done f o r American Boys
and G i r l s , " Jo u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios, 24:1053-1059, D eoenber, 1932.
F e a th e r s to n e , ?/. B#, " I n te g r a te d C urriculum i n th e Secondary S o h o o ls,"
C a l i f o r n i a ’ s Q u a rte rly o f Secondary E d u c a tio n , 9$235-246, March,
T9T4",
G o slin g , Thomas, "A Fundam ental i n th e C u rrio u lu m ," Jo u rn a l o f Home
Econom ics, 27:351-354, J u n e -J u ly , 1935.
H adley, L aura B ., "O pinions o f M o th ers," J o u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios,
2 4 i 125-126, F e b ru a ry , 1932.
H arap, H enry, "A Survey o f Courses o f Study P u b lish e d i n th e L a s t Two Y e a rs,"
J o u rn a l o f E d u o a tio n a l R ese arch , 2 8 j 641-656, A ugust, 1935.
H arrim an, P h il ip L ., "Tho B ach elo r D egree," J o u rn a l o f H igher E d u c a tio n ,
6 i 301-307, Ju n e, 1936.
H uddeston, Mabel P ., "Home Econom ics," P ed ag o g ical Sem inary, 16:492-493,
December, 1909,
Hughes, H ardin J . , " S tr a ig h t and Crooked T h in k in g About I n te g r a tio n ,"
N a tio n ’s S ohools, 1 6 :2 7 -2 8 , Jan u a ry , 1935*
J e n k in s , E liz a b e th C ., "The C o lleg e Course i n Home Economics C ourses in
C o lle g e s ," Jo u rn a l o f Home EoonomioB, 1 2 :249-252, Ju n e, 1920,
K ruger, J e a n , "A Com parative Study o f Home Eoonomios Courses i n C o lle g e s ,"
J o u rn a l o f Home Soonomioa, 12 :2 4 9 -2 5 2 , Juno, 1920*
R ainy, Homor P „ , "What I s t h e M atter w ith th e C o lle g e ," J o u rn a l o f H igher
E d u c a tio n , 2 :343-348, O cto b er, 1932.
R a i t t , E f f le I . , "The N ature and Funotion o f Home Eoonom ios," Jo u rn a l o f
Home Eoonomios, 27:268-2 7 7 , May, 1935.
R o b e rts, I y d ia J . , " I s Home Eoonomios R eseoroh M eeting I t s C h a lle n g e ,"
J o u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios, 29 :6 6 7 -6 8 2 , December, 1937.
S herbon, F lo re n c e Brown, "The P u b lic School and P a r e n ta l E d u o a tio n ,"
J o u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios, 23 :8 6 9 -8 6 0 , Septem ber, 1931.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
116
S p a ffo rd , I v o l, "Home Eoonomios i n G eneral E d u c a tio n ,” J o u rn a l o f Home
Eoonomios. 29*671-676, December, 1937,
"A Survey o f Methods Used i n P r o fe s s io n a l C ourses i n Horns Eoonom ios,”
Teaohers C ollege H eoord, 2 4 tl3 2 -1 4 6 , March, 1923,
W in o h ell, C la ra M., "R ev a lu a tio n o f Home Eoonomios E d u c a tio n ,” J o u rn a l o f
Home Eoonomios, 24*418-430, Mary, 1935,
W ooster, Horvoy A ., "To U nify th e L ib e r a l A rts C u rricu lu m ," Jo u rn a l o f
H igher E du o atio n , 2*373-380, O cto b er, 1932,
Z u i l l , P ra n c e s, "Faoing a New E ra in Home Econom ics," J o u rn a l o f Home
Boonoiaios, 30*526-531, O cto b er, 1938,
B u lle tin s
C onaly, Thomas J . , "M ission o f t h e C a th o lic C o lle g e ," A s s o c ia tio n o f
C a th o lio C o lleg es B u lle tin , 1899,
Coon, B eulah I « , (C o n tr ib u to r ) , Review o f E d u c a tio n a l R esearoh, N a tio n a l
E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n , V ol. X III*
M aro ier, L o u is, "C ath o lio H igher E d u c a tio n ," C a th o lic E d u o a tio n a l Pro­
c e e d in g s , 5-7*172-180, 1908.
”
0*H ara, C h arles M.» S , J , , "A P la n o f C u r r ic u la r I n te g r a tio n f o r C a th o lic
C o lle g e s ," The N a tio n a l C a th o lio E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n B u lle tin ,
35 *218-225,'"19387“
"
R eport o f th o Sub-Committee o f F if te e n on th e C o r r e la tio n o f S tu d ie s ,
' ' "XBlooraingbon,' I l l i n o i s j P u b lio School P u b lish in g Company, 1 8 9 6 .)
S t , Jo sep h , S i s t e r o f , "Homom aking,” C a th o lic E d u c a tio n a l P ro ce e d in g s,
10*389-393, 1911.
‘
"S cien ce on G eneral E d u o a tio n ," Consnission on Secondary E d u o atio n , 1938.
"S u g g e stio n s f o r t h e O rg a n is a tio n and A d n in is tr a tio n of Home Economics i n
th e P u b lic S c h o o l," The Commonwealth o f M assa c h u se tts B u lle tin
o f th e Department o f E d u o atio n , !rfo« 2%<T, 1931,
L e tte r s
Do P a u l, 0 , P», S i s t e r , Siona H eig h ts C o lle g e , A d ria n , M iohigan, March 19,
1939.
S p a ffo rd , I v o l, U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota, Septem ber 3 0 , 1938,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
117
U npublished M a te ria ls
Banks, M arie, "A S ug g ested Home Eoonomios C u rricu lu m f o r t h e Worth E ast
Oklahoma J u n io r C o lle g e s .” M a ste r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f Oklahoma,
1933,
B la iz e r, F lo ren c e E ., "Home Eoonomios E duoation C ourses i n Seventy-tw o
I n s t i t u t i o n s Approved f o r Teacher T ra in in g by F e d e ra l Board o f
V o c a tio n a l E d u c a tio n ," D o o to r's d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n iv e rs ity o f
M innesota, 1932.
D av is, Sophia E*, "Home Eoonomios i n Some o f th e C o lle g es o f th e U n ited
S t a t e s ." M a ste r’ s t h e s i s , B oston U n iv e r s ity , 1934.
MacLary, D orothy M ., (S c h n e ll), "A Study o f C urriculum in T h irty -tw o
R e p re s e n ta tiv e I n s t i t u t i o n s t o D eterm ine Typioal C o u rses, C u rric u ­
lum, and Methods o f T eaching i n th e E d u o atio n of Home Economics
T e a c h e rs ." M a s te r's t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota, 1933.
M atsohass, C h a r lo tte , "C ontent and Sohedules o f Home Economics C u rric u la
o f F i f t y C o lle g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ." M a s te r's t h e s i s . U n iv e r s ity
o f Iow a, 1929,
Moore, C ora, "A Study o f Home Economics in th e S o u th ern J u n io r C o lle g e s ."
M a s te r's t h e s i s , Peabody U n iv e rs ity , N a s h v ille , T ennessee, 1932.
O 'H ara, C h a rle s M«, S . J . , "A P la n o f C u r r ic u la r I n t e g r a t i o n f o r th e
C a th o lic C o lle g e ." D o c to r's d i s s e r t a t i o n , M arquette U n iv e rs ity ,
M ilwaukee, W isconsin, 1933.
WORKS CONSULTED BUT NOT CUED
P e r io d ic a ls
A lb r ig h t, N. A ., "Home Eoonomios i n a n I n te g r a te d School Program ," Jo u rn a l
o f Home Eoonomios, 25*861-866, December, 1933.
Backus, M argaret P . , " I n te g r a te d Program and Home Eoonam ics," Jo u rn a l o f
Horns Economics, 23*538-540, Ju n e, 1931.
B ane, J . L«, "P h ilo so p h y o f Soma Eoonom ios," J o u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios,
26j 377-381, May, 1933.
Coon, B eulah I . , "Same Q uestions f o r Home Eoonom ios," P r a c t i c a l Home
Eoonomios, 16*407, O cto b er, 1938.
D av ies, L . S . , "From Domestic Econom ists t o C h a ra c te r E d u c a to rs ,"
WLsoonsin J o u rn a l o f E d u o a tio n , 66*273-275, F e b ru a ry , 1933.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
118
D yer, E lis a b e th , "Howe Eoonomios a s an I n te g r a ti n g Force i n E d u o a tio n ,"
J o u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios, 21 :4 8 2 -4 8 7 , J u ly , 1929*
F e a th o rs to n e , \T. B ., "P la c e o f S u b je c ts i n an I n te g r a te d C u rric u lu m ,”
C a lif o r n ia Q u a rte rly o f Secondary E d u o atio n , 9 t 235-246, A p r i l , 1934,
G odfrey, G«, "Home Eoonomios i n th o U n ited S ta te s in C o lle g e s and TJnivera i t l e a , ” J o u rn a l o f Homo Eoonomios, 31:455-457, Septem ber, 1939.
G re e r, C h a r lo tte C ., "Home Eoonomios a n E s s e n tia l i n E d u o a tio n ,"
Secondary E d u o atio n , 8:2 9 1 -2 9 6 , A ugust, 1933.
H orap, H», "Next S te p s i n C urrioulum Making f o r Homo E conom ics,” Jo u rn a l
o f Home Eoonomios, 21:57 0 -5 7 6 , A ugust, 1929.
H e rrin g to n , E . M*, " I n te g r a tin g Home Econom ics," P r a c t i c a l Home Econom ics,
16*193-194, May, 1938.
"Home Eoonomios i n an I n te g r a te d Program ," E d u o a tio n a l M ethods, 15:205-208,
Ja n u a ry , 1936,
"Homemaking E d u o a tio n ," J o u rn a l o f E d u o atio n al S o c io lo g y , 7 :4 3 9 -4 4 2 ,
Maroh, 1934.
Hood, G, G ., "Why Women Do o r Do Not E le c t Home Econom ics," Jo u rn a l o f
Home Eoonomios, 2 5 :5 59-5 6 2 , November, 1933.
Merwin, Bruce V/., "Changing O rd e r," Jo u rn a l o f H igher E d u c a tio n , 3*147-150.
March, 1932.
'
M in tle , V era L ., "Homo Economics i n t h e L ib e r a l A rts C o lle g e s ," P r a c tio a l
Home Eoonomios, 1 0 j 115-116, A p r i l , 1932.
M urohie, M. I . , "Homemaking E d u c a tio n i n th e Core C u rric u lu m ," C a lif o r n ia
J o u rn a l o f Secondary E d u c a tio n , 11:368-370, O cto b er, 1936*
N o fs fe r, J u l i a F ran k , "Home Economics O b je c tiv e s as Shown i n a Survey o f
E d u o a tio n a l L ib e r a tio n ," J o u rn a l o f Home Economics, 2 4 :353-364,
A p r i l , 1932.
R a l t t , E. I . , "N atu re and F u n o tio n o f Home Econom ics," Jo u rn a l o f Homo
Economics, 2 7 :2 65-273, May, 1935.
R ow ntree, J* I . , "Home Economics a s an I n t e r p r e t o r
Home Econom ics, 2 6 :1 4 -1 9 , J a n u a ry , 1934.
o f L i f e ," J o u rn a l
of
S m ith, Yf. A ., " I n te g r a tio n : P o t e n t i a l l y th e Most S i g n i f ic a n t Forward
S tep i n th e H is to ry o f American Secondary E d u o a tio n ," 10*269-272,
A p r il, 1935.
S p a ffo rd , I v o l 0 . , "Meaning o f I n te g r a ti o n f o r Home Eoonom ios," J o u rn a l
o f Home Econom ics, May, 1936.
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f th e copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout perm ission.
119
Todd, E«, ''Homemaking E duoation and th e Hew C u rric u lu m ,” Sohool and
C o lle g e , 2 5 i 71-72, March, 1937,
W arren, C ., "C o lleg e T rain in g f o r Women o f Tomorrow," C hild Study,
1 2 tlS 9 -1 4 0 , F eb ru ary , 1935,
W etz e l, E, E ,, "Homo Economics i n an In te g r a te d Program ," J o u rn a l o f Home
Eoonomios, 20 j 549-560, O cto b er, 1937,
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
PART V—APPENDICES
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120
TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPENDIX A
Pag©
3p a c i f i c Examplea o f R esearch
122
APPENDIX B
EXHIBITS
...........................
A
Form Used f o r C atalo g A n a ly s is . . . • • • • •
B
Code C l a s s if ic a tio n •
C
Q u e stio n n a ire S ent t o C o lleg es Not O ffe rin g Horae
Eoonomios . . . .................. •
D
127
128
«
ISO
Q u e stio n n a ire S ent to C o lle g es O ffe rin g Work in Home
Eoonomios
131
C a th o lio Four Year C o lle g es f o r Women, S e le c te d fo r
T h is S tu d y ............................................................................ .....................
133
C o lleg es O ffe rin g Homo Eoonomios Ranked A ocording t o t h e
Number o f C ourses O ffered
136
TABIES
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VH
D is tr ib u tio n o f I n s tr u c to r s by P r o f e s s io n a l Ranks • • • •
138
D egrees Held by C o lleg e I n s t r u c t o r s • « • • • • • • • ■ *
139
I n s t i t u t i o n s from Which C o lleg e I n s t r u c t o r s R eceived
L a st Degree
140
Number of P r e r e q u is ite s f o r R e p re s e n ta tiv e C o u rse s. . . .
141
Amount o f C re d it Given t o R e p re s e n ta tiv e C o u rses. • • • •
142
V III R e la tio n o f t h e Number o f Home Eoonomios C ourses t o th e
Number o f O ther C ourses • ■ • • • • • • • « • • • » * • •
IX
Food and N u t r i t i o n . * * • • • • • * • • • • • • • • • • •
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143
144
121
TABLES
Pago
X
C lo th in g and T e x tile s * « • • • • « . • « • « • . • • • *
147
XX
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management* . . * » • * • • • • * . • • • •
150
X II
X III
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
X V III
XIX
..................... •• • • * • • • ..........................
151
...................................................................
•
152
F am ily R e la tio n s and C h ild Development * * * * » * • • * •
153
C h ild H ealth and Home N ursing
154
Methods o f Teaching Home Eoonomios* • * • • • « « » • * •
155
C ourses O ffered by a s Many aa F iv e C o lle g es i n Rank Order
A ccording t o th e Number O ffe rin g Such C ourses ......................
156
M ajor T opics o f th e R e p re s e n ta tiv e C ourses Tflhioh A re
M entioned Mors Than Onoe* • * « • » • • * • • « • • • • •
157
The R e p re s e n ta tiv e C ourses A ccording t o Each C rite rio n * •
160
Home Management
R e la te d A rts* . , .
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APPENDIX A
S p e o lfio Examples o f R esearch
As e a r l y a s 1909 a c u rric u lu m in v e s t i g a t i o n « 3 c a r r ie d on by th e
New York Branch A s s o c ia tio n o f C o llo g ia te Alumnae
the o b je c t o f t h i s
s tu d y was t o j u s t i f y th o o r itic is m s o f th e c u rric u lu m of c o lle g e s f o r
women and t o determ ine w hat changes m ight bo n e c e s s a ry t o f i t th e c o lle g e
o u r r ic u la t o th e needs o f women*
The r e s u l t s in d ic a te d t h a t home eoonomios
work sh o u ld beoome a p a r t of th e o u r r io u la o f tho woman’ s o o lleg e*
A survey conducted by mean3 o f a q u e s tio n n a ire was made b y Jen k in s
2
t o t r y t o d eterm in e what sh o u ld be th e o o n te n t of th e o o lle g e o u r r ic u la
w hich t r a i n s women f o r homemaking*
The answ ers re v e a le d t h a t women in
home l i f e f e l t a need f o r s u b je c ts d e a lin g w ith h e a lth , human r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s , s k i l l i n handiw ork, and a p p lic a tio n s o f s c ie n c e t o house w ork.
A stu d y
3
made a t t h e U n iv e rs ity o f W isoonsin i n an endeavor t o d i s ­
co v er what mi gbit be t h e u n ifo rm ity o f c o lle g e c u r r ic u la i n v a rio u s d e p a rt­
m ents o f ao o ep ted o o lle g e s , found t h a t no u n ifo rm ity e x is te d *
Each
sch o o l seemed t o b e in t h i s m a tte r a law unto i t s e l f .
The Bureau o f C hild R esearch o f t h e U n iv e rs ity o f Kansas
a
by means
o f a q u e s tio n n a ire s e n t t o eaoh m a rrie d woman g ra d u a te o f th e u n iv e r s i ty
ljSabel P , H uddeston, "Home Econom ics," P edagogical Sem inary, 16*492-493,
(December, 1909)*
^ E lis a b e th C* J e n k in s , "The C olleg e Course i n Home Econom ics," J o u rn a l o f
Home Eoonomios, 9 t 301-314, ( J u ly , 1917)*
3
J e a n K ruger, "A Com parative S tudy o f Home Economics C ourses i n C o lle g e s ,"
J o u rn a l o f Home Economics, 12*249-262, (J u n e , 1920)*
4
F lo re n c e Brown Sherbon, "The P u b lic School and P a re n ta l E d u c a tio n ,"
J o u rn a l o f Home Economics, 23*859-860, (S eptem ber, 1 9 3 1 ),
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123
sought t o le a r n from each how muoh h e lp sho f e l t she had re c e iv e d from
u n i v e r s i t y l i f e w ith re fe re n c e t o h e r homo o a r e e r , t o o b ta in h e r o p in io n
a s t o th o p ro s e n t problem s o f th o American home, and t o o b ta in h e r sugges­
t i o n s a s t o what th e u n iv e r s ity sh o u ld do t o f u r t h e r t h a t home.
The
women answ ered overw helm ingly in fa v o r o f p r e - p a r e n ta l t r a i n i n g in
o o lle g o s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .
Hadley,® i n stu d y in g what a s p e c ts o f c h i l d developm ent m others
th o u g h t should be th e common knowledge o f p o t e n t ia l homemakers, found them
t o f e o l t h e i r g r e a t e s t neod t o b e in fo rm a tio n on m en tal and em o tio n a l
developm ent, e d u o a tio n and t r a i n i n g o f th o c h ild , and s u c c e s s fu l fa m ily
life .
Hone o f th o s e was concerned w ith th o t r a i n i n g o f home eoonomios
t e a c h e r s , b u t g ra d u a lly a body o f knowledge was b e in g b u i l t up around
t h i s phase o f home eoonomios e d u c a tio n .
A ttem pts were a ls o made to
a n a ly s e th e c o n te n t o f home eoonomios c o u rse s and methods o f te a c h in g
C
them i n to a o h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . W in ch e ll, i n t h i s m a tte r , p re ­
s e n te d a now a tta o k i n h e r a n a ly s is o f method o oursos i n home eoonomios
i n th o New York c o lle g e s .
Her r e s u l t s showed t h a t the ainm o f method
o o u rses v a r ie d from t r a i n i n g f o r f u tu r e homemaking to t h e a p p l ic a tio n o f
modem e d u o a tio n a l t h e o r i e s t o home eoonomios te a c h in g ,
MaoLary, M atschass, D av is, Banks, and Moore i n v e ry r e c e n t s tu d ie s
have oovered a ty p e o f work t h a t i s p erh ap s more o f th e n a tu r e o f t h i s
5Laur& B. H adley, "O pinions o f M o th ers," Jo u rn a l o f Home Eoonomios,
2 4 1125-126, (F e b ru a ry , 1 9 3 2 ),
— —
®Cora M* W in ch e ll, "A Survey o f Methods Used i n P r o fe s s io n a l Courses i n
Home Econom ice," T eaohers C olleg e R eoord, 24»132-146, (M arch, 1 9 2 3 ),
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
124
s tu d y th e n a r c any o f th o pro co d in g o n e s,
U acL ary,^ o f th o lTniv 0re .it y o f
M innesota, mad© a s tu d y o f th ir ty - tv r o r e p r e s e n ta tiv e u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
c o lle g e s , and j u n io r c o lle g e s t o d eterm in e th e t y p i c a l o o u rse s o f home
economics t r a i n i n g s o h o o ls, th e ty p e o f t r a i n i n g w hich was g iv e n , and th e
p r e v a ilin g p o lio ie s and p r a o tio e s o f th e te a c h in g p ro c e d u re s ,
M&tschass,®
i n a M a ste r’s t h e s i s , s u td ie d t h e c o n te n t and sch e d u le s o f home economics
work in f i f t y o f th e lo a d in g c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f th e c o u n try ,
D a v is,
9
i n a s i m i l a r w ork, c o n sid e re d th e home eoonomios c u r r ic u la i n
some o f th e lo a d in g u n i v e r s i t i e s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
Banks
10
i n h e r s tu d y o f t h e N orth E a s t Oklahoma J u n io r C o lleg es o f
Oklahoma has su g g este d a home econom ics c u rric u lu m f o r th e ju n io r c o lle g e s
of th a t s ta t e ,
M o o r e , a s a r e s u l t o f h e r s tu d y o f th e S o u th e rn J u n io r C o lle g e s ,
r e p o r ts a g re a t la c k o f u n ifo r m ity in t i t l e c o n te n t and c r e d i t h o u rs i n
th e s i x t y c o lle g e s s tu d ie d ,
'D o ro th y M« Ha'cLary, ( S o h n e ll) , "A S tudy o f C u rric u la i n T h irty -tw o
R e p re s e n ta tiv e I n s t i t u t i o n s t o D eterm ine T y p ic a l C o u rses, C u r r ic u la r
P r a o tio e s , and Methods o f T eaching in th e E duoation o f Home Economics
T e a o h e rs,” (M aster*s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f M innesota, 1 9 3 3 ,)
^ C h a rlo tte M atso h ass, "C ontent and Sohedules o f Home Eoonomios C u rric u la
o f F i f t y L eading C o lle g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ," (M a ste r’ s t h e s i s , Iowa S ta te
C o lle g e , 1 9 2 9 ,)
®Sophia E, D a v is, "Home Economics C u rrio u la i n Some o f th e C o lle g es o f
t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , " (M a ste r’ s t h e s i s , Boston U n iv e r s ity , 1 9 3 4 ,)
^ M a r ie Banks, "A S u g g ested Home Eoonomios C urrioulum f o r N o rth E ast
Oklahoma J u n io r C o lle g e s ," (M a ste r’ s t h e s i s , U n iv e rs ity o f Oklahoma,
1933.)
11
Cora Moore, "A S tudy o f Home Economics i n t h e S o u th e rn J u n io r C o lle g e ,"
(M aster’ s t h e s i s , Peabody C o lle g e , 1 9 3 2 ,)
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
125
B la iz o r
12
p o in ts out i n h e r s tu d y o f home economic)s e d u c a tio n t h a t
r e s e a r c h i n hot® eoonomios e d u o a tio n i s f a r behind t h e s ta n d a rd s s e t in
o th e r f i e l d s *
She q u o te s from t h e Lend-G rant Survey*
"P ro b ab ly th e
g r e a te s t w eakness in home eoonomios e d u o a tio n a t th e p re s e n t tim e i s lao k
o f s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a lid a te d f in d in g s i n re s p o o t t o o b je c tiv e p ra o tio e s
and a c t u a l achievem ents i n t h i s f ie ld #
n
13
T
F lo ren c e E» B la is e r , "Home Eoonomios E d u o atio n C ourses i n Seventy-tw o
I n s t i t u t i o n s Approved f o r Teacher T ra in in g b y F e d e ra l Board f o r Voca­
t i o n a l E d u c a tio n ," (U npublished D o cto r’ s d i s s e r t a t i o n , U h iv o rs ity o f
M innesota, 1932*)
15I b i d . , p . 28,
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APPENDIX B
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
Reproduced
iI
i
with permission
EXHIBIT A
of the copyright owner.
FORM USED FOR CATALOG ANALYSIS
Name an& A ddress
S t a t e s i n Rank O rder
No, O ffe rin g
o f I n s t i t u t i o n A ooording to No* o f Colleges Horae B o o n c a n l c a
Further reproduction
A reas
No, o f C ourses
i n A reas
prohibited without permission.
Com parison w ith
O ther C ourses
i n Numbers
Course
T itle s
Rank and. Q u a lifio a tio n o f
In s tru c to rs
C ourse
C o n ten t
No* Not O ffe rin g
Home Economics
No* of* C o lle g e s
O f f e r in g These
M ajor C r e d it
and D egrees
Alms and
O b je c tiv e s
R ep ress rrt ecbiv e
C oursea
R eq u ired
C re d it H ours
A llow ed
C h a ra c te ris tic s o f
R e p r e s e n ta tiv e C ourses
-4
128
EXHIBIT B
CODE CLASSIFICATION
A*
R e la te d A rts
1.
Bf
C lo th in g and T e x tile s ,, when c o u rs e s a r e combined
1*
2,
3*
4*
5.
6*
7*
8*
9,
10*
11*
C*
Food and C ooking, G eneral
Foods, P la n n in g and S erv in g
D em onstration and E x p erim en tal Cooking
Food M arketing and Food Economics
N u tr it io n
N u tr itio n and D ie te t i c s
N u tr it io n , S p e c ia liz e d
a* Normal
b« In d is e a s e
e» C h ild (in c lu d in g School Lunch)
Home Management
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
5*
E*
C lo th in g C o n stru o tio n —Drosam&king
P a tte r n Making and D esign
R em odelling
C h i l d r e n s C lo th in g
M illin e r y
Costume, in o lu d in g h is t o r y and d e s ig n
T e x tile s
D e c o ra tiv e N eedlework
S e le c tio n and Car® o f C lo th in g
D ress A p p re c ia tio n
Economics o f C lo th in g
Food and N u tr itio n
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
6.
7.
D*
A rt and D esign
Housing Problem s
House P lan n in g and D esig n in g
I n t e r i o r D e c o ra tio n (H ousehold F u rn ish in g )
H ousehold Equipment
Household S a n ita tio n
The House a s a Home
a* Home Management House
Fam ily R e la tio n s and C h ild Development
1*
2*
3*
4,
P a r e n ta l E d u o atio n and C h ild Yfelfare
The Budget and Consumer E d u c a tio n
S o c ia l Customs and Manners
S o c ia l Problem s
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139
F«
C h ild Caro and Home N u rsin g
1,
2*
G*
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
1.
2,
H*
Caro o f th e S ic k i n t h e Home
C hild D is e a s e s , P re v e n tio n and Cure
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Cooking, Management, M arketing
S p e c ia liz e d Courses
a . H o stess T ra in in g
b* C a te rin g and Cookery
c , Tea-room Management
Methods o f Teaching Home Eoonomios
1#
2.
S,
Home Eoonomios E d u o atio n , G eneral
S p e c ia l Methods and S tu d e n t T eaching
V o c a tio n a l E duoatio n
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission of the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission .
ISO
EXHIBIT C
QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO COLLEGES NOT OFFERING HOME ECONOMICS
ADDRESSED TO DEAN OF COLLEGE
!•
In
2.
Do you have a home eoonomios departm ent?
3*
I f n o t, p le a s e check t h e re a s o n o r re a so n s why*
w hat
a,
b,
o,
d.
e.
y e a r was your o o lle g e e s ta b lis h e d ?
Lack o f room
equipment
q u a lif ie d i n s t r u c t o r s
fin a n c e s
s tu d e n t i n t e r e s t
Not e s s e n t i a l f o r our ty p e o f s tu d e n ts
Homes sh o u ld p ro v id e suoh t r a i n i n g
Home eoonomios work does n o t f i t in w ith l i b e r a l a r t s
o u rr io u lu m
L ib e ra l a r t s c o lle g e s sh o u ld s t r e s s the t r a d i t i o n a l
academic s u b je c ts
4*
Should courses i n homemaking e d u c a tio n be p u re ly e le c tiv e ?
5.
Would you fa v o r making c e r t a i n b a s ic c o u rses i n homemaking e d u c a tio n
as e s s e n t i a l a s r e l i g i o n and p h ilo so p h y i n t h e C ath o lio c o lle g e fo r
women?
6,
Do you th in k i t would be p o s s ib le t o b u ild an in te g r a t e d program o f
s tu d io s f o r t h e C a th o lic o o lle g e f o r women w ith r e l i g i o n , p h ilo so p h y ,
and homemaking e d u o a tio n a s a c o re s u b je c t ?
7.
I f so , would you be w i l l i n g t o o o o p erate i n w orking o u t such a
program ?
___________ ______ ___________ ____________ ________
Comments w i l l be a p p re c ia te d .
S ig n a tu re
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
131
EXHIBIT D
QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO COLLEGES OFFERING WORK IN HOME ECONOMICS
ADDRESSED TO HEAD OF HOME ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
1.
I n w hat y e ar was your c o lle g e e s ta b lis h e d ?
2.
I n what y ear was home eoonomios in tro d u c e d ?
3*
How many c o u rse s w ere th e n o f f e r e d ?
P le a se oheok t h e a r e a i n
w hich th e s e were g iv e n j fo o d s
c l o t h in g
fa m ily r e l a t i o n s
and c h i l d development
rel'aW d a r t s
home management
______
i n s t i t u t i o n a l management
c h ild care’ anS home n u r s in g
methods o f te a c h in g home eoonomios
P le a se u n d e rlin e th e a re a s i n w hich you now o f f e r work, and i f p o s s ib le
i n s e r t t h e d a te (a p p ro x im a te ly ) when th e s e were in tro d u c e d .
4.
Vihat was th e approxim ate e n ro llm e n t f o r home eoonomios d u rin g th e
f i r s t f i v e y e a rs ?
th o approxim ate e n ro llm e n t f o r th e e n t i r e
o o lle g e f o r th e same p e rio d ?
5*
7/hat h a s been t h e home eoonomios e n ro llm e n t d u rin g th e p a s t f i v e
y ears?
th e e n ro llm e n t f o r t h e e n t i r e c o lle g e f o r th o same
p e rio d ^
""
6.
How many o f your g ra d u a tes have become homemakers, in th e sen se o f
m a rry in g , d u rin g th e p a s t f i v e y e a r s ?
How many o f th e s e w ere
a t one tim e o r a n o th e r e n r o lle d i n t h e home eoonomios departm ent ?___
7«
Do you g iv e any t r a i n i n g , g e n e ra l or s p e o if io , w ith in o r w ith o u t th e
home economics d e p artm en t, in te n d e d t o p re p a re s tu d e n ts f o r th e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f homemaking?
I f s o , why?
8®
I s horns economics a r e q u ir e d s u b je o t in your c o lle g e ? _______
9.
Why do n o t more s tu d e n ts e l e c t home economics c o u rs e s ? Check
re a s o n s i Not o f i n t e r e s t to t h e m
Home c a r e s f o r such
tra in in g
C ourses n o t s u ite d t o t h e i r n e ed s
Crowded
sch ed u le o f re q u ire d work p re v e n ts
O ther re a so n s you may have i n m ind.
10.
Should c e r t a i n b a s io c o u rses i n homemaking be re q u ire d o f a l l
s tu d e n ts ?
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
132
11*
Do you f o o l t h a t your home eoonon&cs c o u rse s a s th e y o re now
organized, a re s u i t e d t o th e n eed s o f t h a t group o f s tu d e n ts who a re
n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n o a r e e r s , b u t who a re i n t e r e s t e d i n p ro f e s s io n a l
homemaking?___________
12*
Can t r a i n i n g f o r p e r s m a l and home l i v i n g be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y g iv e n i n
c u r r i c u l a o rg a n iz ed f o r p r o f e s s io n a l home eoonomios?
________
13*
Should e d u o a tio n f o r home l i v i n g become a p a r t o f th e w hole program
o f e d u o a tio n ?
14*
I s th e p r o p o r tio n o f tim e d e v o ted t o t h e homemaking program c o n s is ­
t e n t w ith th e n e e d s o f t h e d a y ?
15*
Has t h e r e been any m ajor c u rric u lu m r e v i s i o n r e c e n tly i n your homo
eoonomios d e p a rtm e n t? __________
16*
I f so , has t h i s r e v i s i o n b e e n alo n g th e l i n e s o f p ro v id in g an
o p p o rtu n ity f o r a l l s tu d e n ts t o re c e iv e t r a i n i n g i n homemaking
e d u c a tio n ?
Or has i t been i n t h e n a tu r e o f a n in c re a s e in
th e number o f c o u rs e s to c a r e f o r th e needs o f th o s e who a re p u r­
su in g t h e work f o r p r o f e s s io n a l p u rp o ses r a t h e r th a n th o s e o f
homemaking ?_________
17*
I f th e r e v i s i o n wore o f th e n a tu re o f p ro v id in g an o p p o rtu n ity f o r
a l l s tu d e n ts t o l o a m som ething o f homemaking r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,
check t h e means by w hich you hope t o acco m p lish o b je c tiv e j by
means o f a c o re c u rrio u lu m ?
by means o f i n t e g r a t i o n ?
by means o f c o r r e l a t i o n w itii ik e m ajor f i e l d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n ?
18*
I f no r e v is io n has ta k e n p la c e , do you f e e l t h a t th e r e i s need f o r
one?
19*
Doyou f e e l t h a t r e l i g i o n , p h ilo s o p h y , and homemaking e d u c a tio n
could be made in to a co re group o f s u b je c ts f o r a program o f s tu d io s
i n th e C a th o lic o o lle g e f o r woman?
20*
I f s o , v.t>uld you be v /illin g t o c o o p erate in w orking out su ch
program ?
a
Comments x v ill be a p p re c ia te d .
S ig n a tu re
R ep ro d u ced with p erm ission o f the copyright ow ner. Further reproduction prohibited w ithout p erm ission.
133
TABLE 1
CATHOLIC POUR YEAR COLLEGES FOR WOMEN, SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY
Name
L o o atio n
S ta te
C ollege o f th e Holy Names
Dominican. C o lleg e
Im m aculate H e art C o lleg e
Mount St* Mary C o lleg e
San F ra n o iso o C o lleg e f o r Women
Oakland
San R a fa e l
Los A ngeles
Los A ngeles
San F ran o iso o
C a lif o r n ia
C a lif o r n ia
C a lif o r n ia
C a lif o r n ia
C a lif o r n ia
L o r e tta H eig h ts C ollege
A lb e rtu s Magnus C o lleg e
St» Jo sep h C ollege
T r i n i t y C o lleg e
M underlein C o lleg e
Denver
New Haven
West H a rtfo rd
W ashington
Chioago
Colorado
C o n n ecticu t
C o n n ecticu t
D. C.
Illin o is
C o lle g e o f S t . F ra n c is
R oaary C o lleg e
S t . X a v ier C ollege
S t . Mary C o lleg e
St* M ary-of-the-W oods C ollege
J o lie t
Chioago
Chicago
Holy C ross
S t . Mar y-of-the-W oods
Illin o i s
Illin o is
Illin o i s
In d ian a
In d ia n a
C larke C o lleg e
Marymount C ollege
Mount S o h o la a tio a C o lle g e
The S t , Mary C ollege
N a z a re th C ollege
Dubuqe
S a lin a
A to h iso n
Leavenworth
L o u is v ille
Iowa
Kansas
Kansas
Kansas
Kentuoky
Dominican C ollege
U rs u lin e C o lle g e
S t . Joseph C ollege f o r Women
C o lleg e o f N otre Dame o f M aryland
S t . Jo sep h C ollege
New O rlean s
New O rleans
P o rtla n d
B altim o re
Emmitsburg
L o u isia n a
L o u isia n a
Maine
M aryland
M aryland
C o lleg e o f Our Lady o f th o P in e s
E m a n u e l C o lleg e
R egis C o lleg e
Mary Grove C o lleg e
N a z a re th C o lleg e
Chiooppe
B oston
B oston
D e tro it
N a za re th
M assach u setts
M assach u setts
M assach u setts
M ichigan
M iohigan
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134
TABLE I (Continued)
Name
L o catio n
S ta te
S ien a H eights C ollege
C o lleg e o f St« C a th e rin e
C ollege o f S t . B enedict
C ollege o f S t . S c h o la s tic a
C o lleg e o f S t . T eresa
A drian
S t , P au l
S t . Joseph
D uluth
7/inona
M ichigan
M innesota
M innesota
M innesota
M innesota
Fontbonne C ollege
W ebster C ollege
Dusohense C ollege
C ollege o f S t . E lis a b e th
G eorgian C ourt C ollege*
S t . Louis
W ebster Grove
Omaha
Convent S ta tio n
Lakewood
M isso u ri
M isso u ri
N ebraska
New J e r s e y
New J e rs e y
C ollege o f Mb. S t . V in cen t
C ollege o f S t . Hose
C o lleg e o f New R oohelle
D’Y o u v ille C ollege
Good Counsel C o lleg e
New York C ity
A lbany
New R o o h elle
B u ffalo
W hite p l a i n
New
New
New
New
New
New York C ity
Tarrytow n
R o o h ester
New York
New York
New York
S ta te n Is la n d
New York
St* Joseph C ollege f o r Women
C o lleg e o f S t. Joseph
Mary Manse C ollege
N otro Dame C ollege
S t . Mary o f th e S p rin g s C ollege
Brooklyn
S t. Joseph
Toledo
South E u o lid
Columbus
New York
Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
Ohio
T Jrsuline C ollege
C a th o lic C ollege f o r Women
M arylhurst C ollege
C ollege o f M ise rc o rd ia
Im naculata C ollege
C leveland
G u th rie
Oswego
D a lla s
Irrsm oulata
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
P en n sy lv an ia
P en n sy lv an ia
M a n h a tta n v ille C ollege o f th e
Saored H eart
Marymount C ollege
N a za re th C ollege
N otre Dame C ollege o f S ta te n
Is la n d
York
York
York
York
York
^C atalog m o n o t o b ta in e d from t h i s c o lle g e *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
135
TABLE 1 (Continued)
Name
L o c a tio n
S ta te
Marywood C o lleg e
U eroyhurot C o lleg e
Mount Mercy C o lleg e
Mount S t . Joseph C ollege
Rosemont C ollege
S o ran to n
E rie
P it ts b u r g
C h estn u t H ill
Rosemont
P en n sy lv an ia
P en n sy lv an ia
P en n sy lv an ia
P en n sy lv an ia
P en n sy lv an ia
S e to n H i l l C ollege
V i l l a M aria C ollege
In o a rn a te Word C ollege
Our Lady o f t h e Lake C ollege
C ollege o f S t. M a ry o f-th e -W a sa to h
G roensburg
E rie
San A ntonio
San A ntonio
S a lt Lake C ity
P en n sy lv an ia
P en n sy lv an ia
Texas
Texas
Utah
Mount Mary C o lleg e
T r i n i t y C ollege
Milwaukee
B u rlin g to n
W isconsin
Vermont
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136
TABLE I I
COLLEGES OFFERING HOME ECONOMICS
RANKED ACCORDING TO THE NTJM3ER OF COURSES OFFERED
Number oF
Courses
Rank
P a,
P a.
Pa,
Mo*
Pa.
48
43
39
39
30
1
2
3 .5
3 .5
5 .6
St* Mary C o lleg e
Mount Mercy C ollege
St* M ary-of-the-W oods C o lleg e
C o lle g e o f S t . C a th e rin e
V i l l a M aria C o lleg e
In d .
Pa.
In d ,
Minn*
Pa.
30
29
27
27
27
5 .5
7
9 ,5
9 .5
9 .5
Mount Mary C ollege
S io n a H eights C ollego
C o lleg e o f St* Joseph
Mount St* Jo sep h C o lleg e
S t . Joseph C o lleg e
Wis»
Mi oh*
Ohio
P a.
Conn*
27
26
27
26
25
9 .5
13
13
13
1 5 ,5
M underlein C o lleg e
C la rk e C ollege
R egis C ollege
C a th o lic C o lle g e f o r Women
Marymount C o lleg e
111.
Iowa
Mass*
O kla.
Kan.
25
24
24
24
22
15 .5
18
18
18
2 0 .5
Mount S c h o la s tio a C o lle g e
C o lleg e o f M ise rc o rd ia
R osary C o llege
L o r e tta H eig h ts C o lleg e
St* Jo sep h C o lleg e
Kan.
Pa,
111,
C olo,
Md.
22
21
20
18
18
2 0 ,5
22
23
2 6 .5
2 6 .5
St* Mary o f th e S p rin g s C o llege
N otre Dame C o lleg e
St* B enedict C o llege
St* S c h o la s tio a C o lleg e
S t* E lis a b e th C ollege
Ohio
Ohio
Minn*
Minn.
N. J .
18
18
18
18
17
2 6 .5
2 6 .5
2 6 ,5
2 6 .5
3 0.5
Name o f C ollago
S ta te
S eion H i l l C ollego
Iim naculatn College)
Marywood C ollogo
Fontbonne C ollego
M ercyhurst C o lleg e
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137
TABLE I I (C o n tin u ed )
Name o f C o lle g e
S ta ta
Number o f
C ourses
Rank
Our Lady o f th e Lake C ollege
The S t . Mary C ollege
N a z a re th C ollege
C o lleg e o f S t , T e re sa
U rs u lin e C ollege
Texas
Kan.
Ky.
Minn.
Ohio
17
16
16
15
14
30.5
32 .5
32 .5
34
35
Im m aculate H eart C ollege
Mary Grove C o lleg e
T r i n i t y C ollege
Mount S t . Mary C ollege
C ollege o f Holy Harass
C a lif.
Mich.
F t.
C a lif.
C a lif.
IS
12
11
10
9
36
37
38
39
4 0 .5
C ollege o f S t . F ra n c is
M ary lh u rst C o llege
Mary Mount C ollege
In c a rn a te Vford C ollege
Dominioan C o lleg e
S t . X avier C ollege
111.
Oregon
H. Y.
Texas
C a lif.
111.
9
8
7
5
4
2
40.5
42
43
44
45
46
T o ta l— 46 c o lle g e s
25 s t a t e s
944 c o u rses
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of the copyright owner.
TABLE I I I
DISTRIBUTION OP INSTRUCTORS BY PROFESSIONAL RANKS*
Further reproduction
S u b je c t
M a tte r
F ie ld
Home
Economics
prohibited without permission.
O th ers
Ho* o f
In s tru c ­
to rs
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P er
No* C ent
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P r o fe s s o r
P er
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Per
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Ho* Cent
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73
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11
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C4
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Reproduced
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TA B LE 1 7
DEGREES HELD BT COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS*
T
1
Further reproduction
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M a tte r
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Home
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prohibited
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D egrees
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TABLE VI
HUMBER OP PREREQUISITES FOR REPRESENTATIVE COURSES
Further reproduction
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P er
No. C ent
C ourses Whioh R e q u ire a Given
Number o f P r e r e q u i s i t e s
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TAB LE V I I
AMOUUT OP C R E D IT G I7 E H T O R E P R E S E N T A T IV E COURSES
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R e p ro d u c e d with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without perm ission.
R eproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
144
TABLE IX
POOD AND NUTRITION
Nun© o f C ourse
No. o f C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g t h i s
C ourse
Rank
No. o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
C ourse
C re d it*
3 -2 , 1 4 -3 , 2-4
4—2 , 9-3
9 -2 , 6—3 , 1-4
4 -2 , 7 -3
2- 2, 8-3
D ie te tic s
E x p e rim en ta l Cookery
Foods
D ie to th e ra p y
D ie t i n D isea se
19
13
16
11
10
1
3
2
4
5 .6
11
4
11
6
4
N u tritio n
N u t r i t i o n and D i e t e t i c s
S e a l p la n n in g and
T able S e rv ic e
Food and Cookery
10
8
5 .S
7 .5
3
0
2 -3 ,
2 -3 ,
3 -4 , 3 -6
4 -3 , 2-4
8
5
7 .5
9
4
0
2 —3 ,
1- 2 ,
6 -3
2—3, 1 -4
1 -3
1 -4 , 1-6
3 -3
Advanced N u tr it io n
E lem entary Food S tudy
Food C hem istry
Fundam ental Cookery
P ro c e sse s
4
4
4
13
13
13
3
3
0
3 -2 ,
2—3,
1- 2,
4
13
2
4 -3
T able S e rv ic e
S e le c tio n and P r e p a ra tio n
o f Foods
Advanced Cookery and
T able S e rv ic e
Advanced Foods
E lem ents of N u tr i t i o n
4
13
1
2- 1 ,
1 -3 , 1 -3
4
13
2
3 —3 ,
1-5
3
3
3
21
21
21
1
0
0
2—3,
5 -3
1—
2,
1 -3
E lem en tary Cookery
Food Economics
Food P r e p a r a tio n
Food M arketing
H is to r y o f Cooking
Meal P la n n in g
3
3
3
3
3
3
21
21
21
21
21
21
3
0
2
0
0
1
1- 2,
2 -3 ,
3-3
3-2
3-2
1- 2 ,
2 -4
1-4
D em o n stratio n Cookery
C h ild N u tr i t i o n
Economics o f Food
E lem en tary N u tr it io n
end D i e t e t i c s
Food and Boonccy
2
2
2
35
35
35
1
0
0
2-2
2-2
2 -3
2
2
35
35
2
0
2 -3
1 - 1,
2—3
2-3
1-2
•The number b e fo re t h e d a sh r e p r e s e n ts t h e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r i n g
th e c o u r s e . The n u a b er fo llo w in g t h e d a sh r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f
c r e d i t h o u rs a llo w e d .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
146
TABLE IX (Continued)
Haras o f C ourse
Ho« o f C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g t h i s
C ourse
Hank
Ho. o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
C re d it*
Pood end n u t r i t i o n
L a b o ra to ry
Pood D em o n stratio n
Pood Study
Pood C om position
Pood Sem inar
2
2
2
2
2
35
35
55
35
35
0
0
1
0
0
1- 2,
2 -3
1- 2,
2-3
2-2
Pood P ro d u c tio n and
M arketing
Horae C ookery
llo a l S e rv ic e
M ark etin g and Buying
H u t r i t i o n o f C h ild re n
2
2
2
2
2
35
35
35
35
35
0
0
0
0
0
2-1
2-3
1- 1,
2—
1
1- 2 ,
I n tr o d u c tio n t o n u t r i t i o n
S p e c ia l T opics o f
n u tritio n
Survey o f n u t r i t i o n
P r in c i p le s o f Cookery
H eading Problem s i n
H u tr it io n
2
55
1
2 -3
2
2
2
35
35
35
0
0
0
2—3
2-2
1 -3 ,
2
36
0
A p p lied D i e t e t i c s
A pp lied H u t r i t i o n
Advanced P r in c i p le s o f
Cookery
Development o f Cookery
E lem ents o f D i e t e t i c s
1
1
5 9 .5
59.5
0
0
1-1
1-2
1
1
1
5 9 .6
59 ,5
5 9.5
0
1
1
1-2
1—3
1-2
1
5 9 .5
0
1-2
1
1
5 9.5
5 9,5
0
0
1 -3
1-2
1
59.5
1
1 -4
1
59.5
0
1 -3
1
1
59.5
59.6
0
0
1-2
1 -4
1
59.5
0
1 -3
E x p erim en tal and
D em o n stratio n Cookery
E nd o o rin es o f Food and
M etabolism
Pood P r e s e r v a tio n
Foods and E lem en tary
H u tritio n
Foods and Food P r e p a r a tio n
f o r Homemaking
Food Survey
Pood and Consumer B uying
Pood P r e p a r a tio n and
Management
1 -3
1 -4
1-2
1 -3
1 -4
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
146
TABIE IX (C ontinued)
Rank
Ho. o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
C re d it*
1
59.5
0
1-8
1
59.5
0
1-2
Human n u t r i t i o n
M eals
Meal P r e p a ra tio n and
T able S e rv ic e
M arketing
H oroal H u tr it io a
1
1
59.5
59.5
0
0
1—3
1-2
1
1
59.5
59,5
59.5
0
0
0
1 -3
1 -3
1 -3
H u tr it io n Seminar
E fu tritd o n o f Growth
H u tr it io n Work ’w ith
C h ild re n
S c i e n t i f i c Problem s o f
Cookery
1
1
59.5
59.5
0
0
1-1
1 -5
1
59.5
0
1 -5
1
59*5
0
1 —5
P r in c i p le s o f n u t r i t i o n
IT u tritio n a l P h y s io l o y
S p e c ia l Food Problem s
Survey o f Homo Economics
S tr e s s in g Food
1
1
1
59.5
59,5
59.5
0
0
0
1 -4
1-2
1-2
1
59.5
0
1-2
Name of Course
Ho. o f C o lle g es
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
Pood Bconandos and
Elem ents o f D ie te tio s
H i s t o r i c a l Survey o f
Cookery
•to
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
147
TABLE X
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES
No* o f C o lle g es
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
Rank
N o. o f C o lle g e s
R eq u irin g t h i s
C ourse
86
21
12
8
1
2
5
4 .5
10
16
5
0
8
4 .5
0
2- 2,
4—5, 5—6
C lo th in g Economics
C lo th in g C o n s tru c tio n
Advanced Dressm aking
and D esign
D ross D esign
I n tr o d u c to r y Course i n
C lo th in g
5
4
6
8
1
3
1- 1 ,
1 - 2 , 3-3
4 -3
4
4
8
8
0
0
2 -3 , 1 -4
5 -2 , 1—3
5
1 2 .5
2
5-3
C hildren* s C lo th in g
H is to r ic Costume
M illin e ry
T e x tile s end C lo th in g
Advanced Costume D esign
S
3
3
3
3
1 2 .5
1 2.5
1 2 .5
1 2 ,5
12 .5
0
0
0
2
0
C lo th in g Problem s
C lo th in g S e le c tio n
E lem entary C lo th in g and
T e x tile s
C h ild re n ’ s and l a s s e s
C lo th in g
2
8
2 1 .5
2 1 .5
0
1
1—2 , 1—4
1 -2 , 1—3
2
2 1 .5
0
2-5
2
2 1,5
0
2 -5
Costume A rt
D ress A p p re c ia tio n
M illin e ry and M illin e ry
S e le c tio n
Garment C o n s tru c tio n
2
2
2 1 .5
21 r 5
0
0
2—
2
2-2
2
2
2 1 .5
2 1 .5
0
1
1—2 , 1—3
2 -3
Name o f C ourse
T e x tile s
C lo th in g
H is to ry o f Costume
Advanced C lo th in g
Advanced C lo th in g
C o n stru c tio n
C re d it*
1 2 -2 ,
1 4 -2 ,
9 -2 , 1 -3 ,
1- 2 , 4 - 3 ,
1- 1,
1- 2 ,
2 -3 ,
2 -2 ,
1 -3 ,
2 -2 ,
1—3 ,
14-3
7 -4
1-1
1-4
1—4
1 -3
1 -4
1-3
1—4
*Tha number b e fo re th e d ash r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f o o llo g e s o f f e r i n g th e
o o u rs e . The number fo llo w in g th e dash r e p r e s e n ts th o number o f c r e d i t
h o u rs a llo w e d .
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
148
TABLE X (Continued)
Hank
Ho. o f C o lla g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
C ourse
2
2
21.6
2 1 .5
0
0
1-1 , 1-2
2-2
1
4-8
0
1 -3
1
48
1
1-3
1
1
1
48
48
48
0
0
0
1-8
1-2
1
48
0
1-8
1
48
0
1-1
Problem s i n A p p lie d D esign
Problem s and R eadings l a
T e x tile s and C lo th in g
P r in c i p le s o f C lo th in g
C o n s tru c tio n and
T echniques
P r a c t i c a l Sewing
1
48
0
1-3
1
48
0
1 -4
1
1
48
48
0
0
1—3
1-6
Pay ethology o f D ress
S ty le D re ssin g
Survey C ourse i n D re ss­
making
Advanced T e x tile s
T e x tile Economics
1
1
48
48
0
0
1 -3
1
1
1
48
48
48
0
0
0
1-2
1-2
1-3
T e x tile C hem istry
T e x tile B ty in g
T a ilo r e d Problem s i n
C lo th in g
T a ilo r in g
T a ilo r e d Costumes
C lo th in g A p p reciatio n .
1
1
48
48
0
0
1 -3
1
1
1
1
48
48
48
48
0
0
0
1
1 -4
Kamo o f Course
Ho. o f C o lleg e#
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
R e c o n s tru c tio n o f
C lo th in g
S ta g e Costume
H is to ry o f Costume and
Advanced D ross D esign
Homemakers C ourse
C lo th in g S e le o tio n
C lo th in g C o n s tru c tio n
Hake Over Problem s
P a t t e r n S tudy and D ra ftin g
F a t te rn . M odeling
P a t t e r n C o n s tru c tio n
and D esign
P a tte r n linking and
D osigning
C re d it
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1 -3
1-2
1-2
1-6
1-2
1-2
149
TABLE X (Continued)
Herne o f C ourse
Ho* o f C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g t h i s
Cour bo
Rank
Ho. o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
C ourse
C re d it*
C lo th in g i n F a sh io n
P la n n in g o f C lo th in g
C lo th in g A p p re c ia tio n
and S e le c tio n
1
1
48
48
0
0
1-2
1-5
1
48
0
1-5
C lo th in g M anufacture
C lo th in g S e le c tio n
and C o n s tru c tio n
Advanced Garment
C o n s tru c tio n
E lem entary Costume
Costume D esign and
D rap ery
1
48
0
1-3
1
48
0
1-3
1
1
48
48
0
0
1-6
1-3
1
48
0
1-6
1
48
0
1-3
1
1
1
48
48
48
0
0
1
1-3
1-3
1-3
1
48
0
1-2
1
48
0
1-2
1
1
48
48
0
0
1-3
1-2
1
48
0
1-3
1
48
0
1-2
Advanced T a ilo r in g in
D ressm aking
Advanced Problem s i n
C lo th in g
Advanced D ressm aking
D ress
E lem entary Garment
Making
E lem entary Garment
C o n s tru c tio n
P l a t P a t t e r n Making
F a sh io n C lin ic
Fundam ental Problem s i n
C lo th in g C o n s tru c tio n
P i t t i n g and P a t t e r n
Study
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
160
TABLE XI
INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT
Nam© of Course
No. o f C o lle g es
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
Q u a n tity Cookery
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
I n s t i t u t i o n a l A ccounting
and Buying
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Buying
I n s t i t u t i o n a l A ccounting
C a te rin g and Tea Room
Management
I n s t i t u t i o n a l M arketing
M arketing
I n s t i t u t i o n a l A d m in istra ­
tio n
I n s t i t u t i o n a l A d m in istra ­
t i o n and A ccounting
M arketing and Q u a n tity
Cookery
IS
16
Rank
1
2
4
4
S
5.5
S
6.5
3
6 .5
6.6
s
S .5
6*5
No* o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
»
C r e d it 1
16
9
4
4 -2 ,
1- 2 , 17-3
7 -3 , 5—4
1
3
3 -3 , 1-6
2- 2 , 2 -3
3-2
0
0
0
3-2
3-2
2- 2, 1-3
2
10
1
2—3
2
10
2
1- 2 , 1-2
2
10
2
2—
2
A ccounting o f Food C o n tro l
A ccounting
P r in c ip le s o f A ccounting
A d m in is tra tio n o f a
D ie ta ry D epartm ent
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
Buying end A ccounting
1
18.5
18.5
18.5
1
1
1
1
1
1 -3
1-2
1 -3
1
18.6
0
1 -3
1
1 8 .5
1
1-6
I n s t i t u t i o n a l P u rch asin g
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Foods
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Economics
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Sem inar
O rg a n is a tio n and Manage­
ment
P e rs o n a l Management
Q u a n tity Cookery and
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Equipment
L arge Q u a n tity Cookery
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Cookery and
Management
1
1
1
1
18.5
18.5
1 8 .5
18.5
0
1-2
1-2
1 -3
1 -4
1
1
18 .5
1 8 .5
1
0
1-2
1-2
1
0
1
1 8 .5
1 8 .5
1-4
1
18.5
1
1
0
0
1
*Tho number b e fo re th e d a sh re p r e s e n ts th e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r in g
th e c o u rs e . The number fo llo w in g th e d a sh r e p r e s e n ts t h e number o f
c r e d i t h o u rs allow ed*
R e p ro d u c e d with perm ission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 -3
1 -3
151
TABLE X I I
m m
Same o f Course
w c s k tm s s n t
No, o f C o lle g es
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
Bank
H o. o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
1
9
C re d it*
H ousehold Management
P r a o tio e House
Houaohold A d m in is tra tio n
Home D e c o ra tio n
7
7
6
6
2 ,5
2 .5
4 .5
4 ,5
4
3
2
0
3 -2 , 7 -3
5-4
1 -1 , 5 -2 , 3-3
4 -2 , 2 -5
1 -2 , 4 -3 , 3-4
6—
2
Home A d m in is tra tio n
H ousehold Economics
Home P r o je c ts
P r a c t i c a l Home Management
4
4
S
s
6 .5
6 ,5
8 .5
8 .5
1
0
0
0
2 -2 , 2—3
2- 2, 2-3
5 -2
3 -5
Economics o f th e H ousehold
Homo P r a c tic e
H ousehold P r a c tic e
Home Management House
2
2
2
2
1 1 .5
1 1 .5
1 1 .5
1 1 .5
0
1
0
1
2-4
2-2
2—
2
2 -5
Economics o f th e Home
E v o lu tio n o f th e Home
Home F u rn is h in g and
S a n ita tio n
H ousing and S a n ita tio n
House P la n n in g
1
£
19
19
0
0
1-2
1-S
i
i
i
19
19
19
0
0
0
1-3
1 -3
1-2
i
i
i
i
19
IS
19
19
0
0
1
0
1-3
1-3
1-2
1-2
i
19
0
1 -3
Home Management
Horn® F u rn ish in g
Home Problem s
P r a o tio e Housekeeping
Income Management
S o c ia l end Economic Phase
o f Home L ife
IS
*Tho a m b e r b e fo re th e d a sh r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f o o lle g e s o f f e r in g
th o ccrurse* The number fo llo w in g t h e d ash r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f
c r e d i t h o u rs a llo w e d .
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152
TABLE X III
RELATED MTS
Ham©' o f C ourse
Ho* o f C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
I n t e r i o r D e c o ra tio n
15
Rank
Ho. o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
1
9
C re d it*
2 -4 ,
9-2
4 -2 ,
4 -2
2 -3 ,
1 -4 , 1 -2 ,
5-3
A rt and Design.
A rt A p p re c ia tio n
P r in c i p le s o f A rt
A rt S tr u c tu r e s
5
3
A
3
2
3 .5
3 .5
5 .5
8
3
3
0
A p p lie d D esign
C o lo r and D esign
E lem entary D e s lg i
Advanced D esign
3
2
2
z
5.5
7 .5
7 .5
7 ,5
0
0
0
0
1—2 , 2—5
1 -4 , 1—5
2-2
1 -2 , 1 -4
A rt
A rt E s s e n t i a l s
A d v e rtis in g D esign
A rt Heedlework
1
1
1
1
1 5 .5
15.5
1 5 .5
1 5 .5
0
1
0
0
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2
A r c h ite c tu r a l and
I n t e r i o r D esign
A rt i n th e Home
1
1
15.5
1 5 .5
0
0
1-2
1 -4
A rt i n Home Economics
In tr o d u c tio n t o
R e la te d A r ts
I n tr o d u c tio n t o D esign
1
1 5 .5
1
1—
4
1
1
lc .5
1 5 .5
1
1
1 -3
1-2
Form and C om position
Theory and C olor
1
1
1 5 .5
15 .5
0
0
1—
2
1-2
j|l
1-3
2-4
1—3
The number b e fo re th e dash r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r i n g
t h e c o u rs e . The m asher fo llo w in g th e d ash r e p r e s e n ts t h e number o f
c r e d i t h o u rs a llo w e d .
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163
TABLE XIV
FAMILY RELATIONS MW CHILD DEVELOPMENT
llano o f Course
Rank
Ho* o f C o lle g es
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
2
1
S
6
4
1
1
5*5
0
1-2
1
5*5
0
1 -3
1
1
5*5
5*5
0
0
1-2
1-2
Ho* o f C o lle g es
O ffe rin g t h i s
C ourse
Fam ily R e la tio n s h ip s
C h ild Development
The Fam ily
The F am ily and I t s
R e la tio n s h ip s
The Fam ily and I t s
S o c ia l A sp ects
P e r s o n a lity Development
and Conduct
Home and Fam ily
15
17
2
C re d it*
10 -2 , 5-5
1 2 -2 , 5—3
1—2 , 1—3
*The number b e fo re th e daeh r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r in g
t h e course* The number fo llo w in g th e d a sh r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f
o r e d i t h o u rs allow ed*
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154
TABLE XV
CHILD HEALTH AHD HOME NURSING
Name o f C ourse
Rank
No* o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
Course
14
1
5
1 0 -2 , 3 -3 , 1 -4
8
6
4
2
5
4
4
3
2
1—1 , 4—2 , 3—
4
1—2 , 3—S , 2-4
4 -2
2
6 .5
0
1 -2 , 1 -3
2
1
1
5*5
8*5
6*5
0
0
0
2 -3
1-2
1-2
1
8 .5
0
1-2
1
8,6
0
1-2
No* o f C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g t h i s
C ourse
Home N u rsin g
Home N u rsin g and C h ild
Care
C h ild Caro
C h ild and C h ild T ra in in g
C h ild Care end Home Care
o f t h e S ic k
Home N u rsin g and H e a lth
C h ild W elfare
Home Hygiene
Home N ursing and
F i r s t A id
P e rso n a l H e a lth and
C h ild W elfare
C re d it*
^The number b e fo re th e d a sh r e p r e s e n ts th e number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r in g
th e c o u rs e . The number fo llo w in g t h e d ash r e p r e s e n ts t h e number o f
c r e d i t h o u rs allow ed*
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155
TABUS XVI
METHODS OF TEACHING HOME ECONOMICS
Ho* o f C o lle g e s
O ffe rin g t h i s
Course
O rg a n iz a tio n and
Teaching o f Home
Econamios
S tu d e n t T eaching o f
Home Economics
Teaching o f Home Econom­
i c s S tr e s s in g C lo th in g
E d u c a tio n a l M easurements
i n Homo Economics
G eneral Home Economics
E d u catio n
Methods of Teaching Foods
Methods of Teaching
C lo th in g
S p e c ia l Methods i n
Hosts Economics
C lo th in g Cour 8e s f o r
Teachers
Home Economics C u rric u la
A d m in is tra tio n o f
V o catio n E d u c a tio n
T each in g D i e t e t i c s and
N u tr it io n
Methods of Teaching
Home Economics
S u p erv ised Teaching
o f Home Economics
H e a lth E d u c a tio n
Rank
No* o f C o lle g e s
R e q u irin g t h i s
C ourse
4
1*5
2
4-2
4
1 .5
1
1- 2 , 3 -5
3
3
2
2 - 2 , 1-5
2
6
1
2-2
2
2
6
6
0
1
1- 2 , 1-3
1- 2, 1 -3
2
6
1
cv
iH
Name o f C ourse
2
6
0
2-3
1
1
12
12
0
0
1-2
1-2
1
12
0
1-2
1
12
0
1-2
1
12
0
1-3
1
1
12
12
0
0
1-3
1-2
C re d it*
1—3
*The num ber b e f o r e t h e d a s h r e p r e s e n t s th e num ber o f c o l le g e s o f f e r i n g
t h e c o u rse * The num ber f o llo w in g t h e d a s h r e p r e s e n t s t h e num ber o f
c r e d i t h o u rs a llo tte d *
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156
TABLE m
i
COURSES OFFERED BY AS MAEY AS FITE COLLEGES IK RAM
ORDER ACCORDING TO TEE HtMBER OFFERING SUCH COURSES
T i t l e a o f C ourse
C o lle g e s
Iisdbor
O ffe rin g
Rank
T e x tile s
C lo th in g
D ie te tio a
Q u a n tity Cookery
C h ild Development
26
21
19
18
17
1
2
3
4
5
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
Advanced C lo th in g
Foods
H is to ry o f Costume and D esign
I n t e r i o r D ecoration.
16
16
16
15
15
7
7
7
10
10
F am ily R e la tio n s h ip s
Home H ursin g
Home Management
E x p e rim en ta l Cookery
D io to th o rap b jr
IS
14
13
IS
11
10
12
13*5
1 3.5
15
D ie t i n D ise a se
n u tritio n
P la n n in g and T ab le S e rv ic e
Horns H ursin g and C h ild Care
H u tr it io n and D i e t e t i c s
H ousehold Management
10
10
8
8
8
7
1 6 .5
1 6 .5
19
19
19
2 1 .5
7
6
5
5
5
5
2 1 .5
23
25*5
25*5
25 .5
2 5 .5
P r a o tic e House
C h ild C are
C lo th in g Economics
M illin e r y and M illin e r y S e le c tio n
Food and Cookery
A r t and D esign
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167
TABLE XVIII
MAJOR TOPICS C? THE REPRESENTATIVE COURSES WHICH
WERE MENTIONED MORE THAN ONCE
Course
C lo th in g
C o n s tru c tio n
G eneral
Poods and
Cooking
Topic
No* o f T ines
Meet ioned
C o n s tru c tio n o f sim ple garm ents
S e le c tio n o f s u ita b le c o lo r s , d e s ig n s , and
f a b r ic s f o r garment and in d iv id u a l
Care and u se o f sewing machine
S e le c tio n o f te c h n iq u e s u ita b le f o r th e
f a b r i o , p la o e on garm ent, and ty p o o f g a r­
ment
22
D raping
Judg in g garm ents
Making and u s in g fo u n d a tio n p a tte r n
D esigning and making yjooI and s i l k garments
12
10
9
8
V eg etab les
F ru its
m ik
C e re a ls
30
30
28
28
M eal, p o u ltr y , f i s h
Eggs
Cheese
Food p r e s e r v a tio n
26
26
26
24
B everages
Candy
Fat
S a la d s and d re s s in g s
20
20
20
19
B a tte r s and doughs
F ro sen d e s s e r ts
Legumes
S ta rc h
Food c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
14
14
14
12
11
19
14
14
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168
TABLE m i l (Continued)
W ;'o T Y i5 S T s
Course
P lan n in g
and S e rv in g
Pood
Topic
Good n u t r i t i o n
T able s e rv io e
P r in c ip le s u n d e rly in g cookery
Menu m aking
C ost o f fo o d
Pood buying
Pood p ro d u c tio n
Meal p re p a ra tio n
K itch en s a n i t a t i o n
S p e c ia l d i e t s
M entioned
16
16
16
15
12
7
6
6
4
4
Home
Management
O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e h o u seh o ld
H ousehold equipm ent
Home s a n i t a t i o n
H eatin g and lig h tin g
B udgeting i n t h e home
Costume
H is to ry
and
D esign
P e r s o n a lity s tu d y
Costume o f t h e a n c ie n ts
A rt p r in c ip le s
Costume d e sig n in g
C re a tiv e d e sig n in g
T e x tile s
T e x tile f i b e r s
F ib e rs and t h e i r p r o p e r tie s
F a b ric s and t h e i r p r o p e r tie s
Chemioal a n a ly s is o f t e x t i l e s
L aundering, d ry c le a n in g , and dying
T e x tile buying
12
10
10
10
4
3
C h ild
Care
C h ild grow th
The c h ild i n fa m ily l i f e
H ab it fo rm a tio n i n t h e c h ild
C h ild b e h a v io r
H e re d ity and a d ju stm e n t
11
10
9
9
7
C h ild n u t r i t i o n
Em otions
L earn in g o f ch ild h o o d
Books and re a d in g f o r c h ild r e n
P la y
10
10
8
6
4
9
8
8
6
4
8
"
^
5
4
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169
TABLE m i l (Continued)
Course
N u tr itio n
and
D ie to tio s
T opic
Food a n a ly s is
Food re q u ire m e n ts
V itam in re q u ire m e n ts
S p e o ia l re q u ire m e n ts i n d i e t s
C a lo ric d e te rm in a tio n s o f fo o d s
M etabolism
Food s t u f f s
A dequate d i e t a t v a rio u s income le v e l s
N u tr itio n and h e a l t h program
Normal d i e t s
Energy re q u ire m e n ts
H e la te d
A rt
Fam ily
R e la tio n ­
s h ip s
No. o f tim e s
M entioned
16
16
14
10
9
3
8
6
4
3
3
D esign and a r t p r in c ip le s
How t o know and u se c o lo r harmony
House p la n s
A r c h ite c tu r e and la n d sc a p in g
C olor th e o r ie s
15
14
12
11
10
C re a tiv e and o r i g i n a l d e s ig n in g
A p p lic a tio n o f d e s ig n t o t h e home
W all c o v e rin g s and d r a p e r ie s
House f u r n is h in g s
C ra fts
9
7
6
5
4
F lo o r c o v erin g s
A rt i n d r e s s
Flow er arrangem ent
In d iv id u a l problem s i n i n t e r i o r d e sig n
Kinds and use o f f a b r i c s
4
3
3
2
2
The fa m ily a s t h e b a s i s o f s o c ie ty
I n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v io r an d home l i f e
A n a ly sis o f tim e , e n e rg y , and money
P re s e n t day fa m ily l i f e
Group r e l a t i o n s h i p s
8
S
4
S
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160
TABLE XEC
REPRESENTATIVE COURSES ACCORDING
TO EACH CRITERION
C o u rses
I
C r ite r ia *
n
h i
C lo th in g C o n s tru c tio n
X
X
X
F o o d s;
X
x
x
R e la te d A r ts
X
X
Costume H is to r y and Desiga.
X
Cooking and S e rv in g
I n s t i t u t i o n a l Management
X
X
T e x tile s
X
X
X
N u tr it io n and D i e t e t i c s
X
X
X
Q u a n tity Cookery
X
X
X
Earn© Management
X
C h ild 7 /o lfa re
X
X
Foods;
X
X
P la n n in g and S e rv in g
X
Fam ily R e la tio n s h ip s
X
Herne N ursing
X
X
Methods o f T eaching Horns Economics
X
X
^ C r ite r io n I j Rank a c c o rd in g t o t o t a l mosiber o f t i n e a t h i s t i t l e m s
used*
C r i t e r i o n l i t Rank a c c o rd in g t o th e t o t a l number o f c o lle g e s o f f e r in g
t h i s course*
C r i t e r i o n I I I * Rank a c c o rd in g t o t o t a l number o f o o lle g o s r e q u ir in g
i t s c o u rs e .
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