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THE BACKGROUND OF SPENSER'S 'PROTHALAMION'

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THE BACKGROUND OF SPENSER* S PRO IRALAMION
A DISSERTATION
P re se n te d
to
tlie
F a c u lty o f P rin c e to n : U n iv e r s ity
i n C an d id acy f o r th e D eg ree
o f D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y
By
Dan S . N o r t o n
1940
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
,-p':;3 d by
bhe
department
i-.*2,y i o ,
of
English
19^:0
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CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................
1
CHAPTER I — The P r o t h a l a m i o n a s a n " O c c a s i o n a l "
Poem ...................................................................................
4
I I — The P r o t h a l a m i o n a s
a B e tro th a l
1.
E liz a b e th a n S p o u sa ls
2.
The S p o u s a l s a t E s s e x H o u s e ..
Poem .
................................
I I I — The T r a d i t i o n o f P r o t h a l a m i e s
8
10
40
..................
94
th e P ro th a la m io n .
112
NOTES .........................................................................................................................
147
BIBLIOGRAPHY .....................................................................................................
234
IV — O t h e r T r a d i t i o n s o f
A * &•
-J?'
AL
& 4
/
■.QO;
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INTRODUCTION
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INTRODUCTION
The Prothalam ion is the l a s t poem that Spenser
Un­
published .
It is the fin a l affirm ation o f h is mature
ta le n ts.
Within i t s b r ie f beauties he sounds again the
strain s, emotional and in t e lle c tu a l, that have marked and
ordered his poems since the beginning o f his career*
i t also he masters a new verse f o r m ,
the Epithalamion*
In
f i r s t attempted In
His in terest in the technique o f verse
is as fresh and strong in his la 3t work as i t had been in
the experiments o f the Shepheardes Calender, and t h is o f
course is why he makes such ex cellen t music*
A fter the
Prothalamion, what poetry the man might have w rittent
He
did not write i t or a t le a s t we do not have i t , but i t
is
s t i l l our privilege to find the signs o f his maturity in
th is la s t song*
In sp ite o f the range and excellence o f Spenserian
scholarship, a study o f the Prothalamion i s apt to reveal new
things.
Pew c r i t i c s have concerned themselves with the nature
-ofL-ths—
poem i t s e l f *
Many have dismissed It with b r ie f general
praise that admits l i t t l e
except the beauty o f Its verse*
Some have taken as the b asis o f th e ir c r itic ism an easy and
inexact comparison to the Epithalamion, using the Prothalamion
^Superior figures refer to notes which follow the t e x t .
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» 2 as a fo i l •
However, the purpose o f th is essay is not to quar­
r el with other c r i t i c s or to attack th e ir Judgments of* value.
Its aim is toward an understanding o f the Prothalamion as a
& Judgment o f fin a l
poetic and s o c ia l product o f i t s times*
value i s always arbitrary in the sense that i t
open to analysis*
unbought grace*
It is the end o f c r itic ism but i t
is an
That grace is not here, but the following
pages may be an a id in a tta in in g it*
What is
is not fu lly
Fo
t
"the question,
i t worth? presupposes the question, What is
it?
and
th is question can be answered only w ithin an h is to r ic a l frame
„2
o f reference*
The f i r s t e d itio n o f the Prothalamion presents no
textual problems.
Using photostatic reproductions,
I have
collated the copy in the Wrenn Library at the U niversity o f
Texas with that in the Huntington Library*
In tex t
I ts e lf,
these representatives o f the so -ca lled f i r s t and second issues
d iffe r in only one particular, and th is has not been noted by
v
bibliographers.
In the Wrenn copy the fourth lin e on B1 readss
"Though from another I place take my name,"
a transposition which Is corrected in the Huntington copy.
I wish to thank these lib r a r ie s , those o f Princeton
U niversity, Brown U niversity, and the U niversity o f Chicago,
the New York Public Library, and Mr* P* H* Waddell Smith o f
Princeton for the use o f books d if f i c u lt to obtain*
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*“ 3 *•
In th is essay I a t indebted to many books and men **I can only in fer that
I have been f i l l e d through the ears,
lik e a pitcher® - but I wish to make a few particular acknowl­
edgments.
I am grateful to Professor Hoyt H. Hudson and
Professor Henry I». Savage for ex cellen t advice and c r itic ism ,
and to Dr. Torsten Petersson for aid in bibliographical matters.
Professor Charles G. Osgood, as ed ito r o f the variorum ed ition
o f Spenser*s works, permitted me to use criticism s o f the
Prothalamion collected for the forthcoming volume o f the minor
poems.
This saved me long e f f o r t , but i t
gation to Professor Osgood.
is my smallest o b li­
He f i r s t proposed the interpreta­
tion o f the Prothalamion which is the kernel o f th is essay,
and it has been my p rivilege to carry on my work under his
direction .
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CHAPTER I
THE PROTHALAMI OH AS AIT »OCCASIONAL" POEM
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TH3ES gROTH&iAMIQN A S AN "OCCASIOH&L49 POEM
" M etricallythispoem i s , .perhaps* as beautiHil as
his own marriage ode,® said M. d© Selineourfc, "but i t lias not
a lik e concentration upon i t s avowed theme, nor does i t
the same ecstasy o f passion."
voice
Somewhat e a r lie r Saintshury
had offered a sim ilar criticism s
t h is
song “for Lady E liz a ­
beth and Lady Katherine Somerset is a d e lig h tfu l poemj but
i t naturally lacks the personal passion o f the Amoretti and
It is scarcely necessary to show that these scholars
abandoned judgnent in favor o f a romantic prejudice, a prejudice
particularly foreign to Spenser and h is contemporaries.
It
is
more important to observe that they neglected the poem I t s e l f
in order to suggest the doubtful-* principle that a work o f th is
sort, honoring two so c ie ty g ir ls and th e ir intended husbands,
praising the Queen and her current fa v o r ite , cannot be a very
sign ifican t poetic expression.
To t e s t that notion,
it
is necessary to discover
how Spenser him self regarded th is kind o f poetry.
Discussing
the minor works published between 1590 and 1596, Mr. W. D.
Henwick writes?
and they may
a ll
"With the exception o f the Powre Hymnes -
be only a p artial exception - these poems are
’occasional* poems.
That does not make them any the
b etter or any the worse, but i t
»
4
prescribes a mode o f approach.
-
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.
- 5 -
W
e jmasfc riofe ©xpee'fc & m ystical revelation out o f death and
»
.....
sorrow i n DaphnaIda, nor is Astro pbel the lament o f a David
.
o v e r a Jonathan®
These a r e ,
rather, monuments, s o lid ly b u ilt
o f f a ir marble, decorated with t a s t e , 3'lad^nent, and learning,
endued with the native charm o f t h e ir maker.
a lig h t Spenser would regard ^thenTJ .
criticism
.
.
.
*
In such
. , for though romantic
is apt to regard poetry e x clu siv ely as a ra r ifie d
sp ir itu a l ecsta sy , the great ages o f poetry gave It i t s
place
with the other a rts as a m inister to the whole o f l i f e , and
employed the poet, lik e any other a r t i s t , to decorate or to
commemorate occasions o f fea st and mourning® • .
"is th is a low way to regard poetry?
is another question - are these bad poems?
5
way when he wrote them®**
•
The answer
Fbr i t was Spenser*
The Elizabethans themselves put high value on the
occasional poem®
George Futtenham, among the c r i t i c s ,
says
o f The subject or matter o f f b e s ie , "the c h ie f and principall
iss
the laud honour & glory o f the Immortall gods (I speak©
now in phrase o f the G en tlies•)
o f noble Princess
6
fortunes® . ® .
Secondly the worthy gests
the memoriall and reg istry o f a l l great
First o f a l l worldly concerns he names the
two subjects that are the theme o f the Prothalamion.
Spenser was always concerned with th is
poetry.
function o f
In the October eclogue Piers asks:
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-
6 -
pterless© Poesy©, where I s tiien tby p la cet
I f nor in fr in c e s pallace thou doe s i t t s
(And. yet; i s Princes pallaoe th© most f i t t )
N© brest o f baser birth doth tb.ee embrace
7
To tb© young poet Cuddie, Piers gives advic© that Spenser
ponders for him self t
“Whither thou l i s t
in fay re E lisa r e s t,
O f i f thee please in bigger notes to sin g,
_8
Adnaunce the worthy whom© shoe loueth best®1
*
Years did not a lt e r Spenser’s opinion, for in the
Raines o f Time he promises a l l true patrons immortality in words
worthy to bestow i t s
“Provide there fore
(ye Princes) w hilst ye 1ive ,
That o f the Muses ye may friended bee,
Which unto men eterhiti© do give;
# • • • •
Pbr deeds doe d ie , how ever noblie donne,
And thoughts o f men do as themselves decay,
But wise word©s taught in numbers for to runne,
_9
Recorded by the Muses, liv e for ay®*9
These statements are not made in J u stific a tio n or defense*
Spenser accepted the encomium*as one o f the tra d ition al duties
o f the poet, worthy o f the best e ffo r t he could bring to it*
The close connection between his c h ie f work and h is
occasional poems i s
seldom Pally realized*
The Eaerie Qneene
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is lik e the magic mirror that Merlin had devised.
o f Faerie, Spenser says,
is
The land
in fact the realm o t England,
and his fables o ffe r ^antique praises vnto present persons
11
fit.**
Enough o f the p o lit ic a l and so c ia l allegory has
been deciphered to show that th is and the moral allegory are
usually intended to fuse s
Art he g a l l , for instance, when he
rescues Irena from the tyrant Grantorto,
is the representa­
tion o f virtue in action and o f Lord Grey In Ireland.
England centers in the court because i t s heart is
there, prompting glorious deeds and gentle liv in g .
Eliza
i3 England?
nSo from the Ocean a l l riuers spring,
And tribute backe repay as to th e ir King?
Right so from you a l l goodly vertues w ell
Into the r e s t, which round about you ring,
Fa Ire Lords and Ladies, which about you dwell,
12
And doe a dome your Court, where courtesies e x c e ll.
It Is easy and natural for Spenser to turn from the
Faerie Queene to the Frotha lamion.
The poet,
fabler, p atriot,
and antiquarian is as free in the encomium as he is
To leave the allegory o f Faerie land for
in the e p ic .
the allegory o f the
swans is only to step from a large tapestry In order to con­
centrate on a d e ta il In a sim ilar design.
a minor poem, an occasional poem.
The Prothalamion is
But the minor occasion gave
Spenser the sort o f material with which he delighted to work.
In
th is poem we may expect to find free and characteristic utterance
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CHAPTER I I
THE PEOTHALAMIOH AS A BETROTHAL POEM
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THE PRQTHAZAMION A3 A BETROTHAL POEM
It was said e a r lie r that some estimates o f the
Prothalamion have taken the form o f an easy and inexact comparison to Spenser®s own marriage song*
The c h ie f d if f ic u lt y
with th is method is that despite the common concern with the
Prothalamion
as an occasional poem, l i t t l e #as known u n t il
recently o f the nature o f the occasion that i t celebrates*
The Bpithaiamion is a song o f marriage*
The Froth-
alamion honors the preliminary though equally solemn ceremony
o f betrothal*
E arlier scholars got some Inkling o f th is when
they considered the difference between the names o f the poems
Epithalamion
&&Aa.|jov ) , the tr a d itio n a l name, means ”at
the couch.1* Apparently Spenser invented the other t i t l e *
He
changed the prefix errt- to Tfp©, which means before in time or
place *
As early as 1847 J* S. Hart proposed that "Prothalamium means a song in honour o f a marriage yet to be, as
Bpithalamium means one in honour o f a marriage that i s
Some forty years la t e r J* W; Hales saids
p a st.”
53The word for a
marriage-song is Epithalam ium - that which is sung at the
bridal-chamber door*
But th is
is no such song, but rather
one In honour o f a meeting o f the happy pair - pairs in th is
case - before the bridal day has f h lly come* • • •
The ®Pro®
may have a temporal force; and the whole word mean ®the song
that preceded the nuptials*®
-
He him self c a lls
it
*a Spousal!
8 -
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Bales was very close to the solution*
th is difference in t i t l e s
But before
could have more than etymological
significance i t was necessary to relate the poem to the so c ia l
customs o f Elizabethan tim es.
This was done la te r by Mr. G*
G« Osgood and f i r s t presented in 1916 by Jo M
* Manlyo'*"5 Manly,
however, merely indicated that there was an important d is tin c ­
tion between fbzmal betrothal and marriage*
A b r ie f examina­
tio n o f marriage customs in sixteenth-century England, showing
the nature o f th is d istin c tio n , w ill open the way to a b etter
understanding o f the Prothalamion and pro vide a new means o f
comparison between i t and the Epithalam ion«
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“ 10 Xo
Elizabethan Spousals
Herissa coaforts Fort ia with a pro verbs
raTh© ancient saying is ho heresy,
Banging and wiving goes by destiny®n
Another English gnomic utterance on the same subject i s more
susceptible o f proofs
bare legs in a bed»n
®There longs more to wedding than four
In Elizabethan England there were customs
and laws concerning marriage which scan©times puzzled Elizabethans and have been more confusing to modem commentators® Ex16
planatiohs given here
are intended to r e la te c h ie fly t© the
Prothalamion®
Another essay now in progress w i l l attempt a
more general interpretation o f spousal customs in the l i t e r a ­
ture o f the sixteenth century®
In Webster*s Duchess o f Malfi occurs one o f the
simplest weddings in lit e r a t u r e .
The Duchess summons her
steward, Antonio Bologna, proposes marriage to him, and c a lls
her maid as a witness®
The Duchess explaIns 2
**I have heard lawyers say, a contract in a chamber
Per verba present! i s absolute marriage®®
Kneeling with Antonio, she says,
**Bless, Heaven, th is
sacred gordian, which l e t violence
He ver untwine I®
®And may our sweet a ffe c tio n s , lik e
Be s t i l l
says Antonio •
the spheres*
in mot ion i®
After Other speeches to the same ©f f e c t , the
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®H©w can the church-build- faster?---’
l e now ai>e man and- wif® ^ and 91 i s the chareh
3J7
That mast bat echo this**5
On a Jan© day in 1561 I*opd loberfc Dudley, between
je s t and earnest, asked Queen Elisabeth to marry him in the
same way®
Bishop Alyaro de la Quadra, the Spanish ambassa­
dor, reported the pleasantry to his king*
nIn the afternoon
we went on board a vessel from which we were to see the re­
jo ic in g s, and she, Robert* and I being alone on the ga llery ,
they hegan joking, which she lik e s to do much b e tte r than
talking about b u s i n e s s T h e y went so far with t h e ir jokes
that Lord Robert t o ld heri th a t,
i f she lik e d ,
I could be the
m inister to perform the act o f marriage, and she, nothing lo th
to hear i t , said she was ’not sure whether I knew enough English
Dudley seems to hawe proposed that Elizabeth and lie exchange
vows o f present matrimony*
The joke was partly on the ambassa­
dor because the best witness o f a betrothal was a clergyman,
but - for the Queen o f England - not one o f Quadra®s persuasion
The ceremony'in The Duchess o f Majfj is a valid mar­
riage*
It represents the firm survival o f the Anglo-Saxon
handfasting*
This union by mutual consent was a la y service
rather than a c i v i l one*
It was simply a private agreement
and required the sanction-' o f neither sta te nor church*
the Catholic church extended i t s authority,
it
As
slowly worked
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12
to change th© old marriage p ractices.
By the thirteenth,
eentury' i t s power ' se@m©d'!absolute ® R)ms w@re prescribed,
for th© eelebm tion o f canonical 'marriage and lay marriage
was pronounced ille g a l*
"
A ctually, however, the ^ehureh distinguished between
le g a lit y and valid ity*
A man and woman who made a private,
even a secret marriage contract were subject to certa ih ec­
c le s i a s t i c a l and le g a l penalties - in particular, the c i v i l
courts might deny rights o f dower and inheritance to th e ir
children - but the church i t s e l f upheld the v a lid ity o f th eir
union*
In the middle o f the tw elfth century Peter Iicmbard
expressed the growing b e l i e f that marriage should be regarded
as a sacrament , but I t was not u n t i l the Council o f Florence
in 1459 that th is was made a part o f Catholic dogna.
then there was no determined e ffo r t t o
o f the e c c le s ia s t ic a l form o f marriage*
Even
enforce the observance
This came
In 1563,
when the Council o f Trent declared that marriage not contract­
ed in the presence o f a p riest and two or three witnesses
1.9
should be void*
The English people o f course were not a f ­
fected by th is decree because England had freed i t s e l f from
papal rule in 1554*
The Anglican church retained authority over marriage
agreements, and the judg&ents o f I ts courts s t i l l depended on
the p rinciples o f canon law*
through trad ition only,
However, Its righ t to power was
for the sacramental nature o f marriage
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-
15 -
20
was denied in the Thirty-nihe A rticles of* 1552v
Thiis the
church continued to support the v a lid ity o f private contracts,
and at the same time renounced it s
in matrimonial a ffa ir s -
real claim to ju risd iction
Soon came the attacks o f the Raritan
reformers, who f i r s t questioned the church's authority and then
21
denied it s place in the celebration o f marriageThe way was
prepared for Cromwell' s act Of 1653, based on the general opinion
expressed by John Seldens
"Marriage i s nothing but a C iv ill con­
tract , Tis true, t i s an Ordinance o f God, soe is every other
contract, God commands me to keep i t , when I have made
{it}™22
In order to search the perplexed ways o f matrimonial
law and custom in sixteenth-century England, a wise guide is
needed and fortunately one can be found-
In the la s t years o f
Elizabeth's reign Henry Swinburne, Judge o f the Prerogative Court
23
o f York, wrote A Treatise o f Spousals, or Matrimonial Contracts The ceremony in Webster's play i s , as the Duchess says, a contract
per verba praesenti-
Swinburne explains i t s
sign ifican ce-
The
canon lawyers, he sa^rs, are "diligent indeed in the Observation
o f Tems;
for they do not only distinguish between Matrimony and
Spousals, but descending further, they do also discern betwixt
one kind o f Spousals and another, being the f ir s t
Inventors o f
the several Names o f Spousals de futuro, and Spousals de praesenti,
and ys ii n8 vertheless oftentimes they make ho difference, or very
little ,
betwixt the Natures and Effects o f Spousals de praesenti,
and o f Matrimony solemnized and consummate
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This is because only spousals de fhturo are r e a lly o f
-the nature o f betrothal®
**Spousals de praesenti a re impunper-
ly ©ailed Spousals® being, in nature and substance,
Matrimony than Spousals•**
rather
A couple betrothed in words o f
th© present tense are man and w ife , although the church c e le ­
bration is deferred to another time®
®The reason i s , because
here i s no Promise o f any future Act, but a present and perfect
Consent, th© which alone maketh Matrimony, without e ith e r JPubliek
Solemnization or Carnal Copulations for n either is the one,
nor the other o f the Essence o f Matrimony but Consent onlyc
25
The difference between an Elizabethan spousal and a
modern engagement i s
in the interpretation o f consents
the
Elizabethans take i t as absolute; the modems regard i t as a
kind o f provisional in c lin a tio n .
The sixteenth century is
most concerned with a woman's a b il it y to make up her mind;
the twentieth century, with her right to change it®
With Swinburne as our interpreter, we w il l consider
the kinds o f spousals and th e ir degrees o f authority. ”Spousals
de futuro are a mutual Promise or Covenant o f Marriage to be
had afterwards*
As when the Man sa ith to the Woman, Q cjfflll
take thee to my Wife! and she then answereth, F I w i l l take thee
n
26
to my Husband I. 1
*
form o f contract.
Children as w ell as adults can make th is
According to c i v i l and canon law, human beings
are infants u n til they are seven years old®
After that time
they are free to make spousals de futuro» but they cannot enter
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15into spousals de praesenti or mat rimony u n t il they hare
achieved ®rip© ages'® fourteen years : for t h e 'man and:twelve
27
years for the woman®
■■
Children who promise to marry in the fhtur© must
r a tify the contract when they com© o f age by plain words,
sexual intercourse, liv in g together o f th e ir own free w i l l ,
or ®other more feeble Conjectures o f H issin gs, Smbracings„
glvlngr and ^receiving o f Tokens
or c a llin g one another
28
husband and wife ®~ I f , on the contrary, they wish to d is ­
solve th e ir contract, they must make th e ir dissent before the
Bishop o f the Diocese orchis officers®
In 1503, Henry VIII was betrothed to Catherine o f
Arragon, widow o f his elder brother Arthur®
At that time,
he was s t i l l a child; but on June 27, 1505, one day before
he reached ripe age, he protested that the contract was against
his mind®
He was e n tir e ly within his
was correct, although i t
trick prompted by his
29
Catherine®s dowry®
rights and the procedure
seems that h is protest was simply a
father to spaed the f u l l payment o f
S a lte r , Earl o f Essex wrote to Burghley on Hovember
1, 1573, pro posing the spousal o f h is son Robert to Burghley*s
daughter Elizabeth®
my good w i l l ,
He o ffe r s ®the most s u ffic ie n t pledge o f
namely o f the d irection , educacion, and mariage
o f myne eld e st sonne whom© i f you can lik e to match with your
doughtor I w i ll presently assuer hym two thousand mark©s by ye re
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**
16
T*
in England©, besides My houses, demalnes, and parkes,. I w ill
give to your lordship one hundpsth potmdes or two hundreth
markes by yers for h is educaeion, . I w ill ...assuer., to your
.
daughter fiv e hundreth poundes by ye re in jointure, and,
uppon the mariage, depa rt with a convenient port ion for the ir
maintenaunce during my l i e f j y f at yeres o f discretion the
match shall© not goe forward, I w i l l give to the gentelwoman
to her mariage two thousand poundes
not quite s ix years o ld , and Elisabeth Cecil had reached the
age o f nine*
The tejms suggested by Essex indicate several common
practices.
A lliances were frequently arranged between infants
or children.
Sometimes th is was done because a prudent father
feared 1 t his sudden death might leave h is h e ir a ward o f
31
the crown.
But property settlements were always made be­
fore the betrothal, and noblemen were often accused o f s e llin g
th eir children into marriage.
%ee see dayly by exp®rye nee, ”
says Thomas Becon, **that they for the most© parte marrye theyr
ehyldren at theyr pleasure whan they are verye yonge, euen
to suche as w yll geue them most mony for them, as men use to
32
s e l theyr horses, oxen, sheepe, or any other e a tte l.*
The family trad ition was so strong that parents regarded i t as th e ir right and duty to arrange matches for th eir
children.
Soger Aseham laments the present lack o f *the great
obedience, that was vsed in old tyme to
fathers and
-goue rnours .
I
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Ho ssonne, .were he neuer so old o f yeapesy netier so great o f
birth? though, be were a kyages ■sohn©? might not mary? but by
»5S
bis f a t h e r and mothers also eonsent ©
*
*
But youth was not so
rebellious as Aseham supposed*
^Sinc© I went to Cambridge?1
*
wrote young John Harington to Edward Dyer? wS ir John Byrons s
sonne and he ire whose doing©s I d e te ste , drawn© by de 3ir e ? ledd
by lust©? wone by wantonnes? undutifully? undiscreetly? unhonest
X y , without consent® or counsell of* Ifether op freind,
» • ©
marrye d or rather marred himself*© to a gentlewoman? unable
eyther for
wealth to maintains him? or for freindes to defend
him? or for bewtie to content him*
Frequently when a couple
were betrothed or married as children or ^ust as they reached
-ripe age? the fam ilies made some such arrangement as Essex
proposed to Burghley.
The g ir l remained a t home while the
boy continued his education*
Scan©times a young husband and
wife did not liv e , together u n t il several years a fte r th e ir
35
marriage*
So far the youthful principals in the contract seem
to play only passive roles? and often no doubt they merely
obeyed th e ir parents* orders*
on th e ir consent*
But th© allia n ce depended wholly
Essex foresaw the p o s s ib ility t h a t .nat ye res
of discretion** the match he suggested might not go foiward•
Some tokens o f consent were expected when a couple were be­
trothed or married as infants or children* and when they reached
Mp©
*hsy were free - as free as a boy o f fourteen and a g ir l
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o f twelve years were apt to be ft?sm the
influence of* older
persons - to a f f i m os* deny fchsl? contmct*
Becon spoke o f the e v i l s o f ch ild marriages* and
I^atImer* in a sermon preached befor© Edward ¥1, deplored th e ir
results*
”411 th e ir deuorcementes and other lyke condiciones
to the great© displeasure o f a l l myghty© God* * * • is much
vsed at these dales in the mariage o f noble mens children,
for io ^ fn in g landes to landes* possessions* to possessions,
neither the vertuous educacion* nor liu in ge being regarded*
but in the infancy such mariages be made, to the displeasuer
3 ©
o f god and breach o f espousals *®
Contracts between infants or children frequently
took the foam o f the regular marriage se r v ice , which the church
w illin g ly perforated a t the parents* request*
But Swinburne
explains that these marriages had no more force than spousals
de futuro *
They constituted a promise to marry at some future
time, and had to be r a tifie d when the participants reached the
age o f consent •
Scan© o f the ®d©udrcementes” and ”breach, o f
espousals® which Latimer mentions were probably refusals
to r a tify presumptive marriage contracts*
Although Beeon and Latimer denounce e h ild marriages
in rich and noble families* they were made Just as frequently
by humble fam ilies and for about the same reasons*
Proof o f
th is was found by E* J • Phrnivall in the documents o f the
38
Bishop*s court o f Chester*
John Bridge and Elizabeth Earns-
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19
botham w©r© married whenJohn was s t i l l a child. bscaus©
"whsn 'tbs said Jolm?BrIdg© was but two' ye re s ©Id, tils grauhdfather and th© rather o f the said E lisabeth Romisbotham made
a bargain© o f mariage; and the monie was paid t i e
the rather
or the said E lizabeth', to bi© a pec© o f lands and therfore
the said John?was marled vnder age, a f t e r the death© or his
■
•
39
graundfather, bie the Esecutburs ®
" • • , to saw the monie®®
Another ease o f dissent' from contract concerned a
couple who had been married when the boy was three and th©
4f>■
g ir l two years old®
Elizabeth T ils ton, aged e ig h t, married
eleven-year-old William Foie; ”they were both© so ignorauht,®
she said, ”they knew© not what the matter meanid®”
To prove
th e ir right to freedom ,the rather o r the boy t e s t i f led ”that
they neuer dwell id together, lye together, nor neuer had
carnal! dole-; and that
• ® ® they neuer consent id together In
k issin g e, gevinge tokens, or in any other-thing©, to h is
41
knoledge ®
®
A fbrward wench named Anne, ®a bigge damsell &
mariageable,® procured a husband for h e r se lf in James Ballard
when he was going on eleven years old®
But 19in the mo row©
aftei* the said James declarld vnto his said Vnckle, that the ’-said Anne
had in tise d hya w_ith two Apples, to go with her to Colne, and
to marry her®”
Hhen th© apples were eaten, James repented
42
h is promise, "and euer slthence hath dissent id from the same®”
The spousals de futuro so far discussed have been
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20
■between children, and: thus are no t open to mis interpretat ion«
lo matter what fona t be ceremony takes , whether.■•it be betrothal
in words o f the present or future tense or matrimony celebrated
in the chureh, i t constitutes nothing but a promise to marry
in the f u t u r e B u t
s pousals de fa.tmro made between persons
old enough to marry are the subject ofmuch controversy®
Swinburne spends many pages in an attempt to c la r if y the d is°
tin c tio n between de fhturo and de praesenti spousals and to answer
the arguments o f those ®Divines and Professors o f .e it h e r law
which do condemn the difference©®
The d i f f i c u l t i e s are c h ie fly verbal.
Betrothals
made in words o f future tim e, says Swinburne, and in words
that ®do sound or harp o f the entrance or beginning o f
Marriages,® are nothing but spousals de iUturo© His opponents*
many arguments Include one according to gransnar (in Ego volo
accipere te
in uxorem. both verbs are o f the present tense)
and one according to so cio lo gy (the common people are too
ignorant to understand the differences in foisas o f express ion ),
but Swinburne stands f i m .
He w i ll admit only thias ‘ when two
persons ®intend to Contract Matrimony, then although the words
import no more but Spousals de future, the Contract i s no le s s
than Matrimony©®
The difference is a very important one®
A couple
betrothed de faturo. though bound to perform the contract,
%ay by mutual agreement dissolve those Spousals • ©. * %
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- 21
or i f but throne o f them alone sh a ll renounce, and there­
upon adventure Indeed to marry otherwise, or to contract
Spousals de praesehtl with some other Person, in these Cases,
by the Laws C iv il and E c c le s ia s tic a l, t h is Marriage or Con­
tract de praesentl sh a ll stand firm and law ful, notwithstand45
ing that Precontract o f Spousals
there is one exceptions
by carnal Copulation*
m
de futuro*w
To th is rule
“Spousals de futuro. become Matrimony
46
It i s th is which gives point to the bed-trick played
on Angelo
in Measure for Measure •
honorable proposal to
When Angelo makes h is d is ­
Isab ella, the Duke persuades that in­
dignant virgin to pretend to y ie ld in order to save the l i f e
o f her brother, but at the appointed time to send Mariana to
Angelo* s bed*
The Duke explains;
• • you may most upright-
eously do a poor wronged lady a merited ben efit
• • • •
She
j^Mariana~J should th is Angelo have married; was affianced to
h©r by oath, and the nuptial appointed; between which time o f
the contract and lim it o f the solemnity, her brother Frederick
was wreck’d at sea, having in that perished vessel .the dowry
o f his sister*"
Perfidious Angelo then “swallowed h is vows
whole, pretending in her discoveries o f dishonour*
«47
Inthe same way the Duke reassures Mariana;
“He
Is
your husband on a pre-contract;
To bring you thus together,
*tIs no s in ,
Sith that the ju stice o f your t i t l e
to him
48
Doth flou rish the d e c e it•“
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- 22 The mor&l Ind.ignat:ion which the c r i t i c s of* "the
nineteenth century lavished upon th is situ a tio n was i l l
spent®
The success o f the trick was a triumph for moral i t y»
I s a b e l l a *s honor was 3aved, and Mariana <s right as the wife
o f Angelo was established®
A ll th is has been explained by-
Mr* W
*W
* Lawrence in his ex cellen t study o f Shakespeare *s
49
Problem Comedies *
But Mr* Lawrence did not perceive what
is at once the c h ie f ju s t if ic a t io n for the trick and the cream
o f the je sts
Mariana *s contract with Angelo was de futuro»
and sexual intercourse was the only way to make i t matrimony*
In As You Like It Rosalind* disguised as the boy
Ganymede, arranges three conditional betrothals de futuro♦
The next day she makes the lovers repeat t h e ir promises*
Ros*
"Patience once more, whiles our compact
You say, i f
Is urg’d*
I bring in your Rosalind,
You w i l l bestow her on Orlando here?**
Duke So "That would I , had I kingdoms to give with her*"
Ros *
w
And you say, you w i l l have her when I bring her?”
Orlando "That would I ,
were I o f a l l kingdoms king*”
Ros *
"You say, that
you’l l marry me, i f
Phebe
"That w ill
Ros *«
"But i f you do
You’l l
Phebe
I,
I be willing?"
should I die the hour after*"
refuse to marry me,
give yourself to th is most fa ith fu l shepherd?f
"So i s the bargain."
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- 23 Koa»
“You say, that you* 11 have Pheb©,
If* she w ill? ”
5<
S ilv .
Though, to have her and death were both on© thingo
F^salind exhorts them a l l to keep t h e ir vows, and then
leaves them to remove her boy’s d isg u ise.
betrothals are foimally celebrated.
Phebe shows why the f o r m s o f
When she returns the
Her riddling promise to
expression used in contracting
spousals were so ca refu lly scrutinized, not only by Jurists
lik e Swinburne but also by the contractors themselves.
Tricky
people who wished to indulge th e ir fancies without incurring
resp o n sib ility added dishonest or impossible conditions.
a lin d ’s is dishonest.
Ros­
But the s ly fellow who imposed a per­
petually Impossible condition, who promised a g i r l , perhaps, .
that he would marry her nI f thou sh alt touch the Skies with
thy
gin go r , 9 found that the Joke was on him®
Swinburne 3ays
that such provisions are "utterly rejected and void, or as i f
they were not at a l l mentioned, and so the Contract q u alified
_51
therewith is nevertheless reputed pure and simple•
Spousals de futuro, as we have seen, could be d is ­
solved by mutual consent and were void i f the man or the woman
contracted present betrothal or matrimony with another person.
Yet the promise o f future marriage was a solemn o b lig a tio n .
The young lord Percy, son o f the Earl o f Northumberland and
attendant to Cardinal Wolsey, saw much o f Mistress Anne
one of the Queen’s Maids o f Honour.
Boleynr
"There grew such a secret
love between them th a t, at length, they were insured together,
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2 4
intending to marry.”
-
When King Henry learned o f t h is ,
"he could hide no longer h is secret a ffe c tio n , hut revealed
h is secret intendment unto my Lord Cardinal in that behalff
and consulted with him to infringe thar
precontract between
them •”
Wolsey called ”the said Lord. Percy unto h is pre­
sence, and before us his servants o f his chamber” showed
the young man how grave was his mistake*
He had not match­
ed himself according to h is honor, and he had not asked per­
mission o f his father or his King*
Both would be deeply o f ­
fended, for the King had planned another match for the lady.
”*Sir, 1 (quoth the Lord Percy, a l l weeping),
knew nothing o f the king*s pleasure therein.*”
*1
But he argued
that he was old enough to marry and that Anne was nobly des­
cended, and he begged the Cardinal*a and the King*s benevo­
lence "in th is matter, the which I cannot deny or forsake.”
Wolsey was amazed that he would not submit him self to the
w ill o f his Majesty*
Percy,
”*Sir, so X would, * quoth the Lord
*but in th is matter I have gone so far, before many
so worthy w itnesses, that I know not how to avoid my s e l f nor
to discharge my conscience**
the cardinal,
*Why, thinkest thou,* quoth
*that the king and I know not what we have to
do in as weighty a matter as t h i 3 ?
Yes (quoth he),
I warrant
th ee.*”
The Cardinal and the King were, a fte r all'', the spiritu
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-
25
-
a l and temporal au thorities o f the land, and young Percy
agreed to accept th e ir j udgnent, "my conscience being d is 52
charged o f the weighty burthen o f my precontract ®15
The
Earl o f Northumberland was sent fo r, and he threatened his
son with disinheritance unless he kept h is word to break
his word*
the
"Then a fte r long debating and consultation upon
• • • assurance, i t was devised that the same should be
infringed and dissolved, and that the Lord Percy should
marry with one o f the Earl o f Shrewsbury’ s daughters;
(as
he did a fte r ); by means whereof the fonner contract was
*53
clearly undone*"
I f th is betrothal had been made de praeaenti, not
even the King and Wolsey could have found an honest way to
break it*
In 1538 Archbishop Cranmer wrote to Thomas Cromwell,
"I and my doctors that are now with me are o f th is opinion,
that th is matrimony contracted,
*per verba de praesenti,*
54
is perfect matrimony before Cod*"
Canon law provided
that i f a man or woman espoused one person in words o f the
present tense and yet la t e r married another in a church cere­
mony, "consummating the same by Carnal Copulation, and Pro­
creation o f Childrens
This Matrimony Is to be dissolved as
unlawful, the Parties marrying to be punished as Adulterers,
55
and th e ir Issue in danger o f Bastardy*"
The church declared that a couple betrothed de
praesenti must celebrate th e ir union before a priest and re -
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ceive his b le ssin g , but I f they neglected to do so the only
serious penalty was impose& by c i v i l law®
^Other e f f e c t s
the v® be o f Spousals *K says Swinburne, ^whereof some re­
spect the Issue or Children begotten befbre Celebration o f
the Marriage, betwixt those which have contracted Spousals;
and some have relation to th e ir Lands and Qoods •
Concern­
ing th e ir Issue, true It i 3 , that by the Canon Law, the same
is law ful 5
But by the Laws o f th is Realm th e ir Issue is not
Lawful® ® • •
Likewise concerning Lands by the Canon Law,
the fore said Issue may Inherit the same • • • t
„56
otherwise by the Laws o f th is Realm®
But i t
is
The ceremony before the p riest was Important®
church asked i t ,
it®
friends expected i t ,
The
and c i v i l law required
But It was not e s s e n tia l to the act o f union itself®
In the gaerie Queene Fhedon expresses the common opinion o f
betrothal and marriages
w
At la s t such grace I found, and meanes I wrought,
That I that Ladle to my spouse had wonne;
Accord o f frien d s, consent o f pa rents sought,
Affianee made, my happinesse begonne,
There wanted nought but few r ite s to be donne,
57
Which mariage make *
It Is not surprising that bride and groom sometimes
took th e ir pleasure before the wedding night®
Coverdale warned against th iss
In 1541 Miles
**After the hand fa stin g &
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-
27
-
makyng o f the eontracte, the church goyng & weddyng shulde
not be deffered to long, le s t the wicked sowe hys vngracious
sede in the mene season*
Likewise the wedding
cohabitaeio
o f the parties) ought to be begone with god, & with the em est
prayer of the whole church or congregacio
• • • «
In to th is
dishe hath the d e v ill put h is foote, & myngled i t with many
wicked vses & customes •
For in some places ther is such a
maner, wel worthy to be rebuked that at the hand fastynge
there is made a great feast & superfluous bancket, & even the
same night are the two had fasted persones brought & layed
,,58
together, yea certayne wekes afore they go to t the church*”
In The Taming o f the Shrew Biondello observes5
"I
knew a wench married in an afternoon as she went to the garden
for parsley to s t u f f a rabbit; and so may you, s ir * ”5^
F im iv a li thought th is an id le je st
F* J*
u n t il he discovered the
case o f John Cotgreve, c le r lc u s , and A lice Gidlowe*
On one
midsummer evening, Cotgreve t e s t i f i e d , as he and some friends
were seeing Alice home a fte r a day o f merriment, "this deponegt
spied forth a vacant howse or a berne,*
• • & beyng a tt that
tyme in fam iliar acquentains w_ith the said A lls before named,
desired that the ye IJ * soole £a3-on©| together to goe Into the
said howse, for the Intente that he, th is deponent,
(as he
sa ls) wold haue hade h is pleasure o f f hyr; the wich thlnge
the said A lls wold not grante, excepte he wold a tt that tyme
promesse to marie hyr*n
John agreed and took the whole company
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-
into the vacant house*
28
-
There he and Alice contracted
spousals de praesenti in the presence o f witnesses*
Then
John asked the others "to goe a l i t i l l before toward©
Saltney, and he, th is deponent, w_ith the said A lis wold
60
shortlie come after**
Claudio and J u liet in Measure for Measure are
gu ilty o f nothing but a fam iliar weakness, excused by custom*
The puritan Angelo, however, has suddenly enforced a longdisused law which forbids sexual intercourse before marriage*
Claudio explains to Lucio:
"Thus stands i t with me:
upon a true contract
I got possession o f J u lie t t a ’s bed*
You know the lady;
she is fa st my w ife,
3ave that we do the denunciation lack
Of outward order*
This we came not to ,
Only for propagation o f a dower
Remaining in the c o ffe r o f her friends,
Prom whom we thought i t meet to hide our love
61
T ill time had made them for us*
'
Probably Imogen and Posthumus Leonatus in Cymbeline
are united only by spousals de praesenti, yet without doubt
62
they have slep t together*
It is also lik e ly that the right
o f contract caused Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway to anticipate
the wedding night*®®
In The Tempest Prospero’s insistence
that Ferdinand restrain his ardor for Miranda u n til
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29
-
"All sanctimonious ceremonies may
With f u ll and holy r ite be minister*dpw
is negative proof that what Prospero feared often occurred.
Q4:
When 3 pousals in words o f the present tense some­
times gave a l l the p rivileges o f marriage,
that there be witnesses to the contract*
i t was important
"The ghostly enemy,"
warned Richard Whitforde in 1531, "doth deeeyue many psones
by ye pretence & colour o f matrymony in pryuate & secrete
contractes.
For many men whan they can not obteyn theyr
vnclene desyre o f the woman wyl promyse marryage, & thervpon
make a contracts promyse, & gyue fayth & trouth ache vnto
other sayenge*
Here I take the Margery vnto my wyfe,
therto plyght the my trouth.
lyke maner*
And she agayne,
I
vnto hym in
And a fte r that done, they suppose they maye
lawfully vse theyr vnclene behauyour, and somtyme the. acte
and dede doth folow,
owne so u les.
vnto the great offence o f god & theyr
It is a great ieopardy therfore to make ony
suche contractes, specyally amonge them s e lfe secretely
alone, without recordes, whiche mu3t be two at the le a st* ”
Certainly maids were deceived In th is way*
But a l l
men knew In their hearts the sacredness o f spousals de prae­
s e n t i*
"I do admonish thee," Swinburne says, "that hast
in truth contracted secret Matrimony, that thou do not marry
any other Person; for doubtless th is thy pretended Marriage
• • • is nothing, but meer Adultery In the in f a llib le
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sight
-
o f God8s just Judgment*
30
-
f#66
Richard Low© o f Chester broke his promise to Jane
Walkden, a fte r having a ch ild by her, and went through the
marriage service with E llin Stones«
But he said at the ex­
amination that **he thinkes In his Conscience, he can neuer
marie any other but
E llin Stones,
• • •
f Jane
Walkdeni , and she hym.”
rea lizin g that her marriage with him is unlaw­
f u l, ttIs partid from hym, and refusethe to take hym as her
husband* • • • and forth© r he sa ith , he 13 hart e l le sorie
that he hath disceyvid them bo the; and w ill do any thing©
„67
for the health o f his soulle*
In the Faerie Qneene the spousals o f Britomart and
Arte ga ll are private; and the wedding - nbut known© to few** o f Bellamour and C la r ib e ll, parents o f P astorella, probably
68
was no more than a tr o th -p lig h t•
The Duchess o f Malfl
and Antonio Bologna had one witness to th e ir betrothal, but
69
Romeo and J u lie t had none*
Apparently the spousal o f Fenton
and Anne in The Merry Wive3 o f Windsor was secret;
and Dame
Quickly, to her sorrow, had no witness to her contract with
Sir John F alstaff*70
In 1604 a private contract was variously received
by the noble fam ilies concerned*
delighted*
The Earl o f Pembroke was
He wrote to Shrewsbury:
nThe matter In b r ie f
Is th a t, a fte r long lo ve, and many changes, my brother
Philip Herbert, la t e r Earl o f Montgomery and Pembroke^ on
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-
31
-
Friday la s t was privately contracted to my Lady Susan jfVere,
daughter o f the Earl o f Oxford"|, without the knowledge o f any
o f his or her friends.
with i t , and he me.
On Saturday she acquainted her uncle
My Lord o f Granborne |her uncle, Robert
CecilJ seemed to be much troubled at i t at f i r s t , but y ester­
day the King, taking the whole matter on him self, made peace
„71
on a l l sides •
Doubtless Robert Cecil was disturbed by the secrecy
o f the arrangement.
A private contract was romantic, but
parents, guardians, and other r e a lis t s preferred the dignity
and safety o f public betrothal.
The customary place for th is
ceremony was the church porch or the home o f the lady.
Some­
times the Queen favored a noble couple by permitting them to
make th eir vows in her presence.
Chamberlain reported:
In February, 1600, John
"The Lord Cobham is contracted to the
Countess o f Kildare before the Quene, but 13 thought w ill
72
not marry t i l l he be a Counsaillor."
The c h ie f witness was a p r ie s t.
I f the spousals
were de futuro, the early part o f the marriage r itu a l was
used, ending with the woman*s promise, ®*I w ill."
If the
betrothal was made In words o f the present ten se, the man and
woman repeated the next part o f the serv ice, which is the mar­
riage I t s e l f .
or
The priest did not pronounce them man and wife
complete the ceremony with the prayers, benediction, and
sermon which belong to the wedding serv ice, but In other re-
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32
spec 1 3 the fonn o f spousals de praesenti was the same as
73
that o f marriage*
The ring might b© given in eith er kind
o f betrothal because i t s
sig n ifica n ce, Swinburne says* de­
pends on the words spoken when i t
is bestowed;
" if the words
did Import Matrimony, the Ring eonfixmeth Matrimony, and i f
the word3 did Import Spousals only, the Ring betokeneth no
„74
more o'
In Twelfth Night the p riest describes the contract
that he has just witnessed between Olivia and Sebastians
"A contract o f eternal bond o f lo v e,
Confirm’d by mutual joinder o f your hands,
Attested by the holy close o f l i p s ,
Strengthen'd by interchangement o f your rings;
And a l l the ceremony o f t h is compact
Seal'd In my function, by my testimony*"
Only two customary r ite s are omitted here*
75
Sometimes, besides
or instead o f exchanging rings, the couple broke a piece o f
money between them; and they usually drank to one another to
seal the bargain.
76
The greatest aignif.Icance attached to the
ring*
77
So important was It that, according to Camden, Queen Elizabeth
once caused a minor c r is is
to
one o f her suitors:
in world p o litic s by giving a ring
"the .Force o f modest Love in the midst
o f amorous Discourse carried her so far, that she drew o f f a
Ring from her Finger,
and put It upon the Duke o f Anjou*s,
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-
33
-
upon certain Conditions betwixt them two •
The Standers by
took i t a that the Marriage was now contracted by Promises
amongst whom Aldegond, Qovernour o f the City o f Antwerp,
dispatched Betters presently away into the Netherlands to s i g ­
n ify as much; and Antwerp t e s t i f i e d her publick Joy thereat
by Bonefires and Peals o f Ordnance*
At Home the Courtiers
minds were diversly a ffe c te d .
L e ic este r , who had
. . .
la t e ly plotted and contrived to cross the Marriage, Hatton
Vic®-chamberlain, and W
aIs Ingham, stozmed at i t .
Queen* 3
• • •
The
Gentlewoman, with whom she U3ed to be fam iliar,
lamented and bewailed,
and did so t e r r if y and vex her Mind,
that she spent the Night in Doubts and Cares without Sleep
amongst those weeping and wa ilin g Females.
The next day she
sent for the Duke o f An.jou, and they two, a l l By-standers
being removed, had a long Discourse together.
He at length
withdrew himself to h is Chamber, and throwing the Ring from
him, a while a fte r took i t again, taxing the Lightness o f
7Q
Women, and the Inconstancy o f Islanders•”
Apparently no one overheard the "certain Conditions
betwixt them two;" but i t seems lik e ly that i f Elizabeth had
been w illin g to espouse any man, she would have done so at a
fozmal public ceremony.
Such a ceremony was perfozmed on
January 25th, 1502, at the King*s royal manor o f Richmond,when
twelve-year-old Margaret Tudor was betrothed de praesenti
to
James IV o f Scotland, with the Earl o f Bothwell acting as h is
King’s proxy.
The lords sp ir itu a l and temporal were gathered
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34
for "the solemn occasion*
by a notable sermon®
First; there was high mass followed
Then in the Queen’s great chamber the
cause o f the assembly was declared and the Pope’s b u lls o f
dispensation read*
The Archbishop o f Glasgow asked the King,
Queen, and Princess whether they knew o f any Impediment to
these spousals*
The King put the same question to the repre­
sentatives o f James IV and in particular asked ’’Whither i t
was the very Will and Mind o f the King o f Scotts, and f u ll
Entent, That the sayd Earle Bothwel should in his Name, assure
the said Princesse4
? •
• •
Then the Archbushop o f Glasco de­
manded and sperred the sayd Princesse, Whither shee were con­
tent without Compulsion, and o f her free W ill4
?
Then she ans­
wered, I f It please my Lord and Father the King, and my Lady
my Mother the Queene • • • •
Then the Archbusl^op o f Glasco
red the Wordes o f the Fyancells,
furst to the Earle o f Both­
wel, after to the said Princesse*n
The public rejoicings
79
continued for three days a fte r the ceremony*
It seems to have been a prudent custom among princes
that th e ir daughters be ©spoused always in words o f the present
tense*
In 1600 Ambassador Ralph Winwood wrote o f the French
King’s approaching betrothals
’’Monsieur le Grand upon Tuesday
next doth se t forward towards Florence, by whom the King© doth
send-a procuration addressed to the Great Duke, authorizing
him thereby to espouse the Princess hi3 Heice. in the King’s
Name%
For i t
is not held honorable, nor perhaps safe
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-
35
-
iTor her to s t i r from her home to seek her Husband, before she
be assured that she i3 a Wife*
So the Duke o f Alva espoused
Elizabeth Daughter to Henry I I » at Paris,
King o f Spaines
in the Name o f the
And the now Queen o f Spaine was likewise
married at Fe rra ra by Proxie, before she arrived into Spa ine <
>
8°
Thi3 precaution was not required at the betrothal
o f Princess Elizabeth Stuart to Frederic, Elector Palatine,
for both spousal and marriage were under the personal super­
vision o f James I .
verba de praesenti.
Nevertheless,
the contract was made per
On December 2 7 ,
1 6 1 2 , the stage was brave­
ly set in the great banqueting chamber at Whitehall.
Chamberlain reports that the ceremony was not so
as it
should have been.
But John
’Impressive
"Sir Thomas Lake *s Friends made ac­
count he had won ground and outstept his Competitors,
in
performing the Part o f a .principall Secretary, when he did
praeire conceptis verbis, and repeate the Words o f the Contract;
which were so badly translated ^Lnto French~J and worse pronounced,
that i t moved an unseasonable Laughter as w ell in the Contractors
as the A ssistants: t i l l
the Archbishop of Canterbury very gravely
interposing him self, used these very Words, The God o f Abraham,
Isaac and Jacob bless these Nuptlall3, and make them prosperous
81
t o t h e s e Kingdoms a n d t o hi3 Church. 1
1
Another royal spousal, more b r illia n t and better con­
ducted,
is
found in the f ir s t book o f the Faerie Queene, when
Princess Una is betrothed to the Rederosse Knight.
The marriage
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- 36
I t s e l f must be deferred u n t il Rederosse baa completed the
six-years® service that he vowed to the Eaerie Queen*
Before
he performs the public betrothal eeremxiy, Una®s father reminds
the knight o f the sanctity o f the contract which he and Una
have already made informally;
.
. since that band ye cannot now relea se,
Hor doen vndo;
(for vowes may not be vaine)
Soone as the texme o f those s ix yeares sh a ll cease,
Ye then sh a ll hither backe retume againe,
' 82
The marriage to accomplish vowd betwixt you twain.
The ceremony i s dramatically Interrupted.
A mes­
senger rushes in (he is old Archimago In a new disguise) with
le tte r s from the fa ls e Duessa a lle g in g a precontract to the
knight.
The King is very serio u sly disturbed.
But Redcrosse
asserts his innocence, and Una recognizes Archlmago in sp ite
o f his d isgu ise.
The old deceiver is thrown in prison, and
fin a lly the spousal can be made.
**Thus when that Princes wrath was p acifid e,
He gan renew the la te forbidden banes,
And to the knight h is daughter deare he tyde,
With sacred r it e s and vowes for euer to abyde.
His owne two hands the holy knots did k n it.
That none but death for euer can deulde;
His owne two hands, for such a turne most f i t ,
The housling fir e did kindle and prouide,
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37
And holy water thereon sprinckled wide;
At which the bushy Teade a groome did lig h t 9
And sacred lampe in secret chamber hide,
Where i t
should not be quenched day nor night,
83
Fbr feare o f e u i l l fa t e s , but bumen euer brigjht*”
According to i t s t i t l e
page, the Prothalamion was
written in honor o f the double marriage o f the Ladies Somerset
to Henry Guldeford and William Petre; yet the ceranony i t
describes Is not the marriage but the formal betrothal.
significance o f the t i t l e
has already been discussed.
The
Prob­
ably the s u b tit le , *A Spouaall Verse, n and the reference to
the ladies as “espoused* to these worthy gentlemen are Intend­
ed to show the nature o f the event.
This interpretation,
84
however, would be doubtful In want o f other evidence*
Differences In form between the Prothalamion and
the Epithalamion, which w i l l be considered la t e r in th is
essay,
indicate that the poems describe d ifferen t ceremonies*
But there Is p ositive proof that the Prothalamion Is a betrothal
song.
The ceremony i s performed
°Against the Brydale day, which is not lo n g ,”
The procession up the Thames was to a service preliminary to
the wedding, and the n^maph’s marriage song was
"Prepar’d against that Day,
85
Against th eir Brydale day, which was not long,”
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When the betrothal party approached Essex House *
the two young men*
m o o o forth pacing to the Riuers side*
Receiued those two fa ire Brides* th e ir Loues delight*
Which at th*appointed tyde*
Each one did make h is Bryde*
Against th e ir Brydale day, which is not long*
„86
These lin e s show that the two couples were about to be for­
mally contracted in the presence o f the goodly company gathered
at Essex House*
In anticipation o f the marriage day, Guldeford
and Petre made the ladies th e ir brides in the same way that
Britomart yielded her consent to
nTo
be h is loue* and take
Arte g a ll
him for her
Ziord*
T ill they with mariage meet might fin is h that accord,”
and that Phedon won his lady, as he says* wto my spouse” at
87 •
the betrothal ceremony*
“Every man lykewyse," says Miles Coverdale, "must
esteme the parson to whom he is hand-fasted, none otheiwyse
than for h is owne spouse, though as yet i t be not done in
88
the church nor in the streate*"
Thus the Ladies Somerset
become brides by betrothal*
For the same reason Bnily is
spoken o f as Arcite*s wife in the K nights Tale; Olivia
in
Twelfth Eight c a lls the disguised Viola her husband, mistaking
her for Sebastian; and in Ralph Roister Doister Christian
Custance c r ie s ,
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w
Wbatl Gawyn Goodluck, the only hop© o f my l i f e I
Welcome heme9 and k iss me, your true espoused wife©
89
Swinburne proposes B ib lica l authority for th is
custom*
nSuch a Wife*” he says, "v/a3 the blessed Virgin Mary*
that is to say, betroathed to Joseph, but neither solemnly
married with him, nor secretly known by him, at the Conception
o f Christ; and yet nevertheless termed Wife in the Holy Scripture
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2.
The Spousals At S3 sex House
Th© P r o t h a l a m i o n i t s e l f
is a t
proof that at Essex House in the f a i l
p r e s e n t th© only
o f 1596 ^the la.die
Elizabeth and the lad le Katherine Somerset*
• • jpwer e f
es­
poused to the two worthie Gentlemen M. Henry Gilford, and
M. William Peter Esquyers.1
*
A search o f the printed docu­
ments available - contemporary h is t o r ie s ,
d ia r ie s,
le t t e r s ,
and o f f i c i a l papers - has fa ile d to reveal any other mention
of the ceremony.
It is lik e ly that an account o f i t
perhaps only in manuscript.
blindly scattereth
e x is t s ,
though
But the iniqu ity o f oblivion
her poppy; and through the irony o f time
that Sir Thomas loved to dwell on, not only th is but many
other events In the liv e s o f these once-prominent people
have passed unmarked.
amion,
Of the c h ie f personages o f the Prothal­
Including Spenser him self, only the Queen and Essex
le f t adequate memorials o f th eir l i v e s .
of Spenser's th e sis
The poem Is good proof
In the Rulnes o f Time, that he who would
be remembered must be patron to a poet.
The facts o f the ceremony, as reflected In the JProthalamion, have been variously interpreted.
What follows
Is s t i l l
another interpretation, one which attempts to Infer the circum­
stances from the poem and to t e s t the inferences by reference
to other ceremonies, accounts o f which have been preserved. But
f ir s t the actors must be Introduced.
- 40 -
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41
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Edward Somerset, fourth Earl o f Worcester and
father o f the Ladies Somerset, is w ell known as a court
functionary but not as a person*
Through what has been
called ”a double
ille g itim a cy too splendid to r e fle c t
91
disgrace,”
the Somersets were descended from John o f
92
Gaunt and related to the house o f Tudor*
Royal favor,
rich marriages, and prudent management brought them a for93
tune large enough to maintain th e ir d ig n it ie s .
As the young Lord Herbert, Edward Somerset was a
familiar figure at court*
”He was a very fine gentleman,
and the best horseman and t l i t e r o f the tim es.
For h is
wife he chose Elizabeth Hastings, daughter to the Earl o f
Huntingdon and Maid o f Honour to Elizabeth*
They were
95
married in her presence on December 23, 1571*
Somerset
was about thirty-seven years old in 1589, the year o f h is
father’s death;®6 and by that time he and h is wife had done
much toward the achievement o f the pleasant d istin c tio n that
Camden gives thems
”At th is time also W
i l l jam Somerse t ,
Earl o f Worcester, rendred his Soul to God in h is old Age
* * • s
whom Edward h is onely Son succeeded, so f r u it f u ll
o f Issue, that he had la t e ly more Children o f both Sexes
97
then a l l the Earls In England
besides*”
There were eight
qa
98
sons and 3 even daughters.
Duties and honors came to the new Earl o f Worcester.
99
It was time, a ls o , to provide for the future o f some o f his
fs%
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-
children*
42
-
In 1592 his servant William S te r re ll w rites to
Thomas Pkelippes that his lord comes toward London slowly,
like a f&mily man, bringing four marriageable daughters
with him.
S te r r e ll wishes that Phelippes could find some
husbands for them.
And he adds«
wHIs Lordship thinks most
friendly o f the Earl o f Essex, and o f the Lord Treasurer,
»100
as he should*
This was possible in 1592; but when the
rivalry grew between Essex and the younger C ecil, Worcester
chose to support Essex.
Essex was fond o f h is Welsh e s t a t e s ,
101
and in 1583
he had liv e d in na kind o f resolved privateness at his house
Llanfey in Pembrokeshire 2. tt
It
102
took a l l o f L eicester's influence to draw him from retirement.
Sinee Worcester was also a lord in south Wales, i t
that his friendship with Essex started ea rly .
is probable
Bssex was re­
lated to Worcester's wife* and her brother Henry, third Earl
103
of Huntingdon, was one o f his guardians.
Whatever th eir
early associations were, the two lords became firm friends
when both were established at court.
Worcester's eldest son fought beside Essex in the
action at Cadiz and was one o f the many lords and gentlemen
104
knighted a fte r the c i t y f e l l .
On August 9 when the Earl,
returning from h is b r illia n t victory, was daily expected at
Plymouth, Anthony Bacon wrote urging his Immediate presence at
Court, and assuring him that wfour o f his lordship’s principal
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-
and most devoted friends,
43
-
the earl o f Worcester, the lord
Henry Howard, s i r Edward Dyer, and mr. G revill • • • could
not express, how the e a r l3s coming now should be just in the
105
nick*”
Soon a fte r Essex offered his house for the betrothal
and marriage ceremonies o f his
friend*s two e ld e st daughters,
and took a prominent part in the f e s t iv it ie s *
Early in the
next year he planned a journey to Wales ^to see his Fronds" 106
esp ecia lly, i t seems, the Earl o f Worcester;
and i t was
probably at his request that the Queen appointed Worcester
107
his deputy Master o f the Horse in December, 1597 •
But the
surest sign o f h is esteem came in a l e t t e r apparently w ritten
a month or two before his departure for Ireland*
lady
r
f
he wrote to the Queen
and think o f a l l
30
wMost dear
- Now I am leaving the shore,
I leave behind me next yourself, none are
dear as they that with most care and zeal do serve you,
o f which number I beseech your Majesty give me leave to re­
member that
Majesty is
him •
tru ly honest Earl that waits in my place*
in debt to him, and to yourself t i l l
Your
you do for
Him only of hi3 coat yourself thinks yourself behind­
hand with.
Therefore, dear lady, for your ju stice sake, for
your service sake, and for your poor absent servant’ s sake take
some time to show your favour to him*
You sh a ll never repose
*1 0 8
trust in a safer place•”
U ntil the Irish expedition any lord had much to gain
•mm
M
gi?
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and l i t t l e
to lo ss by friendship with the Queen's fa v o r ite .
But in 1599 Essex suddenly deserted his post in Ireland
and on September 28 appeared unannounced at court , staying
renot t i l l he came to the Queens Bed Chamber* where he found
w109
the Queen newly up* the Hare about her Face.”
Tongues
clattered gossip and glances were sharp with anger and sus­
picion.
The long opposition bwtween Cecil and Essex had
reached i t s climax.
Every man had to choose his side* and
H O
C ecil's looked the stronger•
portant dinner p a rties.
Mr.
m
That day there were two im­
Secretary dined ”wlth the Earls
of Shrewsbury* and Nottingham* the Lordes Tho .
Howard and
Cobham; the Lord Gray* and S ir Walter Raleigh, and Sir George
Carew.
And these accompany the Earle; the Earl o f Worcester*
Rutland* Montloy, Rich* Lord Harry; . . .
,*111
Mr. Controller, with many Knights.”
P ier* Lord Lumley*
At Essex's t r i a l for misconduct In Ireland, Worces­
ter was a member o f the court and his censure was the shortest
112
reported.
But though he was friend to the Earl, his f i r s t
loyalty was to the Queen.
Treason he could not pardon.
On
February 8 , 1601 he was commanded to go to Essex House with
the Lord Keeper, Chief Justice Fopham, and S ir William
Knollys, to learn the reason for the great assembly th ere.
Essex locked them up while he led his
113
incompetent revolution,
and Worcester's account o f th is was one o f the Indictments at
114
the t r i a l .
It must have been a hard moment for both the
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Earls when Essex* a fte r he had been condemned* ’’craved
Pardon o f the Earl o f Worcester and the ILord Chief Just leer
of England* for h is keeping them Prisoners*™
But i f Worcester found i t
painful to condemn his
friend, he may have f e lt even more deeply the c o n flic t between
his religiou s and his national d u ties.
It is
of the man that he always put England f i r s t .
characteristic
"His m istress ex­
cused h is fa ith , which was popish; but honoured his faith fu ln ess
which was Roman; i t being her usual speech, that my lord o f
Worcester had recone lied what she thought in con sisten t, a 3 t i f f
116
papist, to a good subject *n
James I did more than forgive him his Catholicism;
117
he set him the task o f prosecuting others o f h is own fa ith .
One o f Worcester’s le tte r s to Salisbury, describing the method
recoirmended by the King for dealing with a p r ie s t, may r e fle c t
his own attitude toward his unpleasant jobs
the prisoner was
to be"proceeded with not su b stan tially, mentioning h is p r ie st­
hood, or j e s u it ic a l profession, but finding by his confession
main points o f treason to be h is declared opinion.
»118
Soon a fte r Essex was put to death, Edward Somerset
succeeded to three o f his
friend’s o ffic e s •
He was made Master
o f the Horse, member o f the Privy Council, and joint consnlssion119
er for the o ffic e o f Earl Marshal.
Before th is there had been
120
numerous signs o f the Queen’s favor,
and that Is not surpris­
ing.
His wife came of a powerful house which had a claim to
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-
46
-
the throne? she had been one o f Elizabeth’ s Maids and at times
121
she s t i l l attended her©
As for Worcester him self, S ir Robert
Haunton said , he was ®of her grandfather’s lin e , by the mother,
which the queene could never forget? e sp e c ia lly where there
was a concurrence o f old blood with f id e l it y , a mixture which
wl22
ever sorted with the queene*s nature.
When Elizabeth died he was appointed Earl Marshal
for the coronation o f James, and with honor he served, and
123
outlived, h is new sovereign.
As a public o f f i c i a l he was
124
constant to duty and prudent not to exceed authority.
Yet
his prudence was not fear.
With some o f the Earl’ s own wry-
ness, Dr. Godfrey Goodman remarks that he was tta man o f that
125
courage, who in my knowledge did sometimes oppose a fa v o u rite.”
One of the court wits made th is anagrams
!
Edwardus Somerset.
Moderatus, sed Verus.
126
He must have laughed ®
- great deal in private, often
at him self.
Of James* passion for hunting he says, wln the
morning we are on horseback by eig h t, and so continue in f u ll
career from the death o f one hare to another, u n t il four at
.127
night.
When the aged earl o f Nottingham married, Wor­
cester wrote to a friend?
*And now, my good Lord, you sh a ll
not think but we have gallants o f 70 years, that in one night
could dance himself into a fa ir lady’s favour; for my lord
Admiral i 3 married, and greatly boasteth o f his acts the f ir s t
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-
47
-
night; but the next day he was sick o f the,ague; but now
holds out very w e ll,
saving that my Lady singeth the great­
est fart o f the night, whether to bring him asleep or to
keep him awake I leave to your Lordship's Judgment, that
„128
are more cunning than I in those matters.
His relations
129
with Robert Cecil were easy and f a ir ly intimate;
but i f
the story is true about the tree
in the garden o f Worcester
House, he once played an elaborate practical joke on Essex’ s
old enemy, strik in g at his tenderest
130
cunning.
spot, his love o f his own
This is Edward Somerset, nobleman, cou rtier, public
131
o ffic e r , and patron (like h is father) to a company o f a cto rs.
Much le ss is known o f his w ife .
facts o f her l i f e ,
Besides the meager,
there is Dr. Goodman’s conjectures
formal
"for
the placing o f h is ^Worcester*sj daughters, I ascribe i t much
132
to the countess;*
but t h is ,
i f true, does not distinguish
her from other mothers.
It is only from the indications o f
character that the Earl did not choose to conceal that one
may gue3 3
concerning the characters o f hi3 daughters E liza ­
beth and Katherine.
Doubtless th is kind o f a c t iv it y would
amuse him more than King James’ hunting did.
Late In 1592 the Earl brought Elizabeth and Katherine
to court with two o f th eir younger s i s t e r s .
Katherine was
aged seventeen at the time and Elizabeth was from one to three
133
years older.
They may have served the Queen, lik e th e ir
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-
48
-
mother before them, or they may have attended the court mere134
ly as members o f th e ir father®3 household.
Late in 1595
Rowland Whyte, describing one o f Lady Sidney® s v i s i t s to the
court, remarks that as she "passed through the Garden, she
mett by Chaunce with the two S is te r s , my Lady E lizabeth, and
Katharine Somersett, and they were very glad to 3 alute her
and see her.**
Their unci© Henry Hastings died on December 15,
and Whyte reports that they ®take my Lord Huntingdons death
135
most grievously•**
There is no other mention o f them u n til
September 22 o f the next year.
Sidneys
Then Whyte t e l l s
Sir Robert
**The 2 ladies o f Somerset sfealbe shortly married.n
Ebur days la te r he is able to give more d e t a ils .
**®Tis sayd
the 2 ladies o f Somersett sh a ll speedily be married to your
„136
cosen Gilford and Sir John Peters son."
Henry Guide ford,'*’3'* who married Elizabeth, was de—
138
scended from an old and famous family o f Kent.
Its pedigree
is traced to a Richard Guldeford o f the la te tw elfth century.
Sir William Guldeford, Knight o f the Shire in 1380 and Sh eriff
o f Kent in 1388, obtained by marriage the manor o f Halden in
Rolvenden and by grant from the crown the manor o f Hemsted
139
In Benenden.
These became the c h ie f seats o f the family.
The grandson o f William, S ir John, was Comptroller
o f the Household to Edward IV? and when Richard III usurped the
throne, Sir John and hi3 son Richard supported the Duke o f
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49
Richmond*
-
In Shakespeare*s Richard III the Second Messenger
announces s
w
My l i e g e ,
140
In Kent, the GuIXdfords are in anas*59
Richard Guldeford was knighted at Milford Haven, and a fte r
the victory at Bosworth he never lacked royal favor*
Henry
VII employed him as a Chamberlain o f the Exchequer, Master
of the Ordnance and o f the Klng*s Aimoury, member o f Privy
Council, and Comptroller o f the Household*
In 1496 he was
made knight banneret for serviee against the Cornish rebels,
and he was chosen K* G. In 1500*
Six years la te r he embarked
on a pilgrimage to the Holy land, where he died.
Edward, his eld est son, established him self at Halden*
In 1513, a fte r the taking o f Toumai, he was knighted by Henry
VIII*
As Marshal o f Calais, Constable o f Dover C astle, Warden
o f the Cinque Ports, Master o f the Ordnance, and Admiral o f
the Narrow Seas, he served his king with d istin ction *
one son died unmarried*
His
Jane, his only daughter, married
John Dudley, Duke o f Northumberland, and produced children
who helped make history in sixteenth-century England*
More famous than Edward was Henry, son o f Sir Richard
by his second marriage with Joan, the s is t e r o f Nicholas Dord
141
Vaux*
S ir Henry, K* G*, Master o f the Horse, and Comptroller
of the Household to Henry VIII, has one greater distinction*
His father,
It Is tru e, was part o f the act ion-off-stage
Richard III, but Henry appears in person In Henry VIII*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
In
He
and the Lord Chamberlain (who according to Shakespeare *s
dating of* the scene in 1521, would be Charles, Earl o f
Worcester), serve as ^comptrollers*® at Wolsey’s famous entertainment at York House, to which Henry VIII comes masked and
there meets Anne Boleyn.
Perhaps the la te r Sir Henry heard
his famous namesake chide his wife*s great-great-grandfathers
n0 , my lord, you’ re tardy5
The very thought o f th is f a ir company
Clapp’d wings to me."
The Earl answereds
142
”You are young, S ir Harry Guildford.”
This knight is also notable for having won an aug­
mentation to the family coat-of-aims which was assumed by a l l
la ter Guldefords.
According to Camden, ”Ferdinand, King o f
Spain, honoured Sir Henry Guilford with a Canton o f Granado
Sir Richard and his sons S ir Edward and S ir Henry
were the glory o f the Guldefords.
George, second son o f Sir
Richard, Esquire for the King’s Body and once S h eriff o f Kent,
lived at Hemsted and was not famous.
However, he did one
duty In which his famous brothers failed s
lin e .
he perpetuated the
Hi3 son S ir John, also a Sh eriff o f Kent, was succeeded
in 1566 by Sir Thomas, who married Elizabeth, daughter of John
Shelley o f Michelgrove in Sussex.
From th is union came three
daughters and one son, Henry.
On August 10, 1575, Thomas had the honor o f enter­
taining Queen Elizabeth, who was on one o f her progresses.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
B u rg h le y w r i t e s
th e C o u rt,
on t h a t
day to
t h e E a r l o f S h r e w s b u r y "From
14:4
a t M r. G u i l d f o r d * s h o u s e i n Kent.**
To g r a c e t h e
o c c a s i o n Thomas gave E l i z a b e t h a " b o l l e
o f s i l v e r and g u i l t ,
with a cover;
in the top therof the Queen* s armes crowned, sup145
p o rte d by h e r g ra ces b e a s t s • "
He m u 3 t h a v e p l e a s e d h e r b e c a u s e
146
two d a y s l a t e r , a t R ye, sh e k n i g h t e d h im .
He d i e d w i t h i n two
3 47
y e a r s , w hen h e was a b o u t
The b i r t h - d a t e
f o r t y y e a r s o ld .* 1-’
o f h is
s o n H e n ry i s
n o t known.
If,
as
has been
L e n t,
s u g g e s t e d , H e n r y e n t e r e d T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , C a m b rid g e
148
1581,
he was a t t h a t t i m e n o t m o re t h a n f i f t e e n a n d
p ro b a b ly n o t le s s
th a n t e n y e a rs o l d .
becam e a member o f t h e
I n n e r Tesnple.
*i 4 Q
On F e b r u a r y 9 ,
A fte r t h i s
h is
in
1584 he
d e e d s go u n ­
r e c o r d e d u n t i l w i t h i n a few m o n th s o f h i s m a r r i a g e . On A u g u s t 1 9 ,
1596 t h e
to
P r i v y C o u n c i l o r d e r e d t h e k e e p e r o f W e s t m i n s t e r G a te h o u s e
d e l i v e r W illy am S h e l l e y ,
th e n a p r is o n e r ,
g erfo rd e, k n ig h t,
o r H e n ry G u i l d e f o r d e ,
bownds f o r him t o
r e m a in e
"u n to
e sq u ire ,
In th e c u s t o d i e o f
. . .
S i r J o h n H un-
. . .
who© s t a n d e
S i r John G a rreH ."
The p r i s o n e r seem s t o h a v e b e e n H e n r y ' s u n c l e ,
W illia m
S h e l l e y o f M I c h e lg r o v e who h a d b e e n c o m m i tt e d
th e
fo r r e ­
cusancy in 1592.
as a r e l a t i v e
C a th o lic .
H e n ry h i m s e l f w as n o t a c c u s e d o f
much la te r ,
a p a p ist;
G u l d e f o r d , H u n g e r f o r d e , a n d C a r r e l l a i d e d him
151
and f r i e n d ,
b u t p ro b a b ly a ls o a s a fe llo w
In 1641-1642.
one o f h i s u n c l e s
recu san cy u n t i l
Yet h is mother appears to have been
fle d
th e c o u n try
r a t h e r th a n ta k e
t h e o a t h o f s u p re m a c y ; a n d two o t h e r u n c l e s w e re l i s t e d
152
r e c u s a n ts . In 1592.
M o r e o v e r , H e n ry c h o s e a C a t h o l i c
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as
w ife
and was accepted by her family*
I f he was not a member o f
the Catholic Church in 1596, he was most tolerant o f It*
For a daughter o f the Earl o f Worcester, he was
an acceptable though not a b r illia n t match*
may have thought*
The Somersets
His fortune is small but his family con­
nections are e x c e lle n t, and In relig io n he Is w ell Inclined*
Both he and h is bride were marrying late*
He was from twenty-
five to th ir ty years o ld , and Elizabeth was between twentytwo and twenty-four.
How they met depends largely upon what Henry did
before th e ir marriage, and o f th is there is no certainty
a fter 1588*
Henry was second cousin once removed to Robert,
Earl o f Leicester; Ambrose, Earl o f Warwick; Catherine,
C ou n t6 3 3 o f Huntingdon; and Lady Mary Sidney, wife o f Sir
153
Henry and mother o f Thomas, P hilip , and Robert*
Being w ell
aware o f the advantage o f these relation sh ip s, Henry*s father
in h is w i l l asked w
My good Lord, the Earl o f L eicester, to
have some care for the advancement o f my son Henry, who Is
his poor kinsman, and the only offspring o f his Lordship's
mother's lin e and name*
Two circumstances possibly added force to th is la s t
request*
F ir st, Guldeford's c h ief executor was h is cousin
Sir Thomas Sherley, and S h e r le y accompanied L eicester to the
Low Countries in 1585* ^
Before that he may have been in a
position to urge the Earl to patronize young Guldeford.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 53
Second, an uncle o f Henry*3, also named Henry, was w ell
known to L eicester, having come to him from Ireland with
the reputation o f a man who had served h is country b r il156
lia n tly and without pay*
The Earl certain ly became sponsor to his young
kinsman, for when Henry entered the Inner Temple he was ad­
mitted without payment, a t the request o f "my Lord o f Leices157
ter*
Later he probably was one o f the many gentlemen in
158
the Earl’s household*
Of t h is , however, and o f his career
a fte r L eicester’s death in 1588, there seem
to be no records*
It is quite possible that he entered the service o f the Earl
o f Essex*
Leicester had been patron to both o f them, and
159
Guldeford was related by marriage to Essex’s wife*
At
h is betrothal and marriage Henry was sponsored by the young
Earl, and th is connection may have been o f long standing*
Favor could have come to Henry also from the Earl
o f Waxwick or the Sidneys, whose estate at Penshurst was
close to h i s .
He was certain ly known to the Sidneys because
Whyte, writing to Sir Robert, Identified him only as •your
cosen Gilford*®
The Countess o f Huntingdon, sister-in -law
o f the Countess o f Worcester, may have
with Elizabeth Somerset.
encouraged his match
Apparently she liked her cousins in
Kent, for In 1564 a •Mrs * Guildforde* was one o f her gentle160
women*
But what’s his history?
Almost a blank, my lord*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Edward Somerset and Henry Guldeford, each in his
degree, represent "an house o f aunclent fame*”
But the
Earl*s second son-in-law could trace his family®s greatness
for only two generations*
William Petre, lik e S ir John
Spencer o f Althorpe with whom Spenser claims kinship, came o f
the new gentry*They were upstarts,
the Tudors*
it
is true, but so were
They learried that shrewdness and industry were
more than a match for gentle b irth ,
and they acquired wealth,
power, and fin a lly t i t l e s o f honor*
Sir William, who founded the house o f Petre, was a
younger son o f John Petre o f Devonshire, who seems to have
1 gn
been a rich tanner*
At Exeter College, Oxford, William
studied law, and before he obtained his doctor®s degree he
was tutor to George Boleyn, brother o f Anne*
Sir Henry
Guldeford retired from court because he objected to Anne
Boleyn.
William Petre owed his preferment to her, though i t
was his own talent
fbr law and diplomacy that brought him
power.
Tn 1536 Cromwell made him one o f the ^Visitors whose
job was to p illage the monastic orders.
This wa3 unsavory
business without a doubt, but i t was the business o f King and
country.
In a proclamation o f that same year made to the
rebels o f Lincolnshire, Henry VIIX saids
w
As to the suppression
of religious houses and Monasteries, we wyll that ye and a l l
our subiectes should w ell knowe that th is
Is graunted vs by a l l
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the nobles
s p ir it u a ll and temporally o f th is our realme,
and by a! the comnons in the same by act o f Parliament,
and
not set foorth by any counsaylor or eounsaylors vppon the re
meere w i l l and phantasie, as ye f u ll f a ls e ly would parswade
162
our realme to beleue."
The nation gave the V isitors i t s
formal approval, and the great gladly accepted a share o f
the spoils*
Petre seems to have been le s s greedy than others,
but he got huge grants e sp e c ia lly in Devon and Essex.
163
He was knighted in 1543 and made Secretary o f State,
and two years la te r he became a member o f the ^rivy Council*
A proof o f his new dignity is the sp ecial licen se
granted in
1546, allowing him to keep twenty retainers besides h is menial
servants and to o u tfit them with " liv e r ie s , badges or cogni„164
zances*
When Henry VIII died, Petre served Edward VI* He
drew the minutes o f the young king’s w i l l , and stood for Lady
Jane u n til i t became apparent that the country would not have
her.
Mary*
Then, lik e most o f the other counsellors, he spoke for
His nimbleness is never better shown than under th is
new sovereign.
"Discerning, that the Restauration o f the
Romish-Religion, might endanger his enjoyment o f those AbbyLands, which he had formerly acquired, he got a special Dis­
pensation from Pope Paul the fourth, for the reteining o f them
affirming That he was ready to
Besides his other a c t i v i t i e s ,
Imploy them to Spiritual Uses."
S ir William was seven times am­
bassador abroad, and proved him self as apt In foreign diplo-
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56 167
macy as in domestic •
When E l i z a b e t h cam© t o
th e th ro n e ,
sh© r e t a i n e d
him as counsellor; but his authority was diminished and he was
growing old*
In 1566 he retired to
He may have become a Catholic
Ingatestone Hall in Essex*
In his la s t years*
Camden
believed him one, but that would have been a natural Inference
from his position on Mary*s council and from the Gatholicism
168
o f his descendants*
Whatever his fa ith , It appears that at some
time in h is career he offended against i t .
Once he wrote to
Burghley, **W
e which talk much o f Christ and his holy word have,
I fear me, used a much contrary way; for we leave fish in g for
men, and fish again In the tempestuous seas o f th is world for
„169
gain and wicked mammon*
He and Burghley came at a time
when the fish in g was good*
JjVfe many a modern c a p it a lis t , Sir William at length
turned to philanthropy*
He b u ilt alms houses and gave generously
to Exeter College, Oxford.
On January 13, 1572 he died rich
and respected, having been nfor his
ludgement and pregnant wi t ,
. . .
secretarie and o f the priuie councell to foure kings and
3170
queenes•
His eld est son John, who was twenty-two years old at
the time, had already performed the most notable act o f his
l i f e ; he had married for love*
His wife was Mary, daughter
o f Sir Edward Waldegrave, member o f Privy Council and Master
o f the Great Wardrobe to Queen Mary*
Shortly before the event,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
a contemporary wrote that his *parent a gave him free cho Ice
o f his wife* and now they joy much in his choice* for as
they care not for his wealthy match* so they are glad t h a t
he made choice in a family o f such estim ation.
Her mother
gives with her hut what sue p leases, for to nothing at a l l
171
is she bound or strained by his fr ien d s.**
This love
match between members o f prominent fam ilies, with no marriage
settlement required, was very lik e ly unique.
John was Sheriff of Essex in 1575.
172
In the follow­
ing year he was knighted, and he sat In Parliament in 1585-1586,
as Knight o f the Shire •
But Sir John did not Inherit his
father’ s love for p o lit ic s .
He chose the more comfortable
life
o f great landowner, builder, and occasional public o f173
fic ia l.
Already he had two great mansions in Essex, at
Ingatestone and B r it t l e , but at Thomdon he b u ilt another
174
wgoodly faire house*n
He entertained Elizabeth on progress,
175
as his father and mother had done.
Although apparently his lo y a lty was not questioned.
It was w ell known that both his mother and his wife were recusants and that he himself was sympathetic with the papists.
This did not prevent his elevation to the peerage.
176
On July
21, 1603, at Hampton Court, James created him Lord Petre o f
Writtle at the same time that Sir Robert Spencer o f Althcrrpe
177
- wbeing a moneyed man” also
- was made Lord Spencer of
178
Wormleyton.
It is interesting to find these two men o f
179
property acquiring honor at the same time.
In the Apology
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-
58
for hi3 Metamorphosis o f A.-fax, printed in the same year as
the Prot halamion „ Sir John Harington ca lled as the second and
third jurors to judge his pretty piece o f plumbing, ’*Sir John
Peter, o f Stondon in the county
o f Essex, knight, a good house­
keeper, and a builder both,” and wSir John Spenser, knight
£ father o f Sir RobertJ, a good substantial freeholder in North­
amptonshire, and a good housekeeper,
h W 180
and so was the father afore
.
The Petres.had five
sons and five daughters, but
only four 3 0 ns lived to maturity*
William, the e ld e s t, was
born June 24, 1575, and had for hi3 godparents ^W
3
31 lorde
Burleigh L* Treasurer o f England, Thomas Erie o f Sussex lorde
chamberlayne o f the Quenea ma^es howsholde, and the countesse
of Northumberland.'*^'®^ This was an auspicious beginning for
any young man. L ittle
is known o f his early years except that
in 1581 he had a tutor named Watham who ’'learned him amongst
182
other things such prayers as Papists u se.
On July 15, 1588
he matriculated at Oxford, entering Exeter, the college enriched
by his grandfather and la te r by his father*
He toolf his bachelor's
degree on February 4, 1591.■*-®
^
Two years la te r he became a student at the Middle
Temple;^®^ the allu sion to the ’’studious Lawyers” in the
Protha lamion had for both him and Guldeford a personal and per­
haps ironic significance*
The Temple harbored scholars and also
many gentlemen o f lite r a r y and so cia l tastes*
One o f these
gentlemen, a Catholic and son and heir o f the rich Sir
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
John Petre, could have found moans - might even have been in­
duced - to meet Katherine Somerset, Worcester*s second daughter.
It m a y b e t h a t
H e n ry G u l d e f o r d
i n t r o d u c e d them® The
Guide ford and Petre fam ilies seem to have been friends since
the days o f the young men’s grandfathers, and the marriage o f
one o f Henry's s is t e r s established a remote connection between
185
him and William Petre*
But th is introduction surely would
not be necessary*
Guldeford*
Petre was a much more important person than
His name and the influence o f his godparents would
open most doors to him*
Through the friendship o f h is family
with the Blounts barons Mount joy, he may have been preferred
186
to Essex and Worcester*
He and Katherine Somerset were
both twenty-one years old when they married*
I f S ir John
Petre s t i l l approved o f marrying for lo v e, a fte r personal
experience, he may have granted his son the same p rivilege
that he enjoyed*
The events o f the spousal day w i l l be passed over un­
t i l the history o f the two young couples i s completed*
the dramatist, the c r i t i c
Unlike
cannot plead the a r t is t ic n ecessity
o f suspense; so the excuse for th is omission must be that la te r
happenings in the liv e s o f the Guldefords and Petres may help
to illuminate the circumstances o f th e ir betrothal*
The double
18*7
marriage was made a t Essex House on November 8, 1596*
Spenser in the Prothalamlon describes Petre and Guide
ford a s,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
**Two gentle Knights o f louely face and feature
Beseeming w ell the bower o f anie Queen© ,
With g if t s o f wit and ornaments o f nature,
w188
Fit for so goodly statu re.
Knights they were not, as the t i t l e
page o f the poem shows.
Even in Faerieland Spenser bestowed t i t l e s with care,
England they were not within his giving.
and in
Why, in a poem
addressed d irectly to a small courtly audience, sharply .
aware o f differences
in rank, should Spenser presume to
kniggat two young esquires?
The answer seems to be that he
was suggesting to Elizabeth that th is was what they deserved.
He was also proposing that they be given jobs at court, per­
haps as Gentlemen o f the Privy Chamber.
His pleasant lln e 3
probably had le s s e f fe c t than
the request o f Essex or Worcester, but in 1596, sometime
189
after the marriage, Guldeford was made a knight.
Petre
was not so fortunate.
He was one o f King James' knights,
though he did receive the honor while i t
s t i l l seemed to be
one and before James urged a l l men o f £40 a year in land to
come and get i t
But in 1597-1598, d ir e c tly a fte r his
brother-in-law became Sir Henry, he served as Knight o f the
191
Shire for Essex.
There is no evidence that Guldeford was given court
employment, but his wife Elizabeth was one o f the Queen’s
attendants.
Perhaps Katherine Petre served with her.
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When
K a t h e r i n e 13 f i r 3 t
c h i l d was h o r n a t London on S e p t e m b e r 2 7 ,
192
1597, Queen E l i z a b e t h was one of* t h e g o d m o t h e r s .
However,
it
is l i k e l y
th at
t h i s was a n h o n o r c o n f e r r e d on a f a v o r i t e
ra th e r than a la d y -in -w a itin g .
In t h e
rest
of E lizab eth ’s
r e i g n K a t h e r i n e b o r e a c h i l d on e v e r y y e a r b u t o n e ; t h e number
193
o f c h ild re n and th e p laces o f t h e i r b i r t h
suggest
t h a t she
s p e n t much o f h e r t i m e
w ill appear th a t
s h e was n o t
The f i r s t
court
in retirem en t
from t h e
Monday,
evidence
th a t E lizab eth
G uldeford
from i t ,
is a t
f o r the
”My Lad y G u i l f o r d [ " w r i t e s ’Whyte on S hro ve
from C o u r t t o
194
ke a p e h e r own Chamber, a n d a t t e n d a good How r e . n
In O c to b e r
o f the
1598J
is
though i t
fo rg o tten th e re .
i s m en tio n o f h e r tem porary w ith d ra w a l
same good r e a s o n .
co u rt,
g reat w ith C h ild ,
and
same y e a r Lady E l i z a b e t h w r o t e
is
gone
from c o u r t c o n c e r n i n g a
'w a rd sh ip g r a n t e d h e r b y t h e Q ueen , who f r e q u e n t l y made t h i s
195
kind o f g i f t to h e r a t t e n d a n t s .
But t h e fim n p r o o f t h a t
E l i z a b e t h was a l a d y - i n - w a i t i n g
Browne o b s e r v e d ,
horse,
i s m ore c u r i o u s .
nTime h a t h s p a r e d t h e
confounded t h a t
o f h im se lf.”
G u l d e f o r d ’ s h o r s e was I n t h e
S i r Thomas
e p ita p h o f A d ria n 's
In O c t o b e r ,
royal s ta b le s ,
1598 Lady
alo n g w ith the
Q u e e n ’ s an d t h o s e o f h e r L a d i e s a n d Maids o f H o n o u r.
Most o f t h e
in Shakespeare,
tim e
played th e
S i r H e n ry ,
lik e
his
196
noted a n c e s to rs
part o f a c tio n -o f f-s ta g e .
But t h e
197
Queen c o n f l i m e d g r a n t s o f l a n d t o him i n 1598 a n d 1 6 0 1 .
On
1 98
March 2 0 , 1600 h i s s e c o n d s on R o b e rt was b a p t i s e d . A lthough
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
he was p r o b a b l y a
cated in t h e
62
-
fo llo w e r o f Essex,
re b ellio n ;
for
i n May,
£>ir H e n r y was n o t
1601 he was em ployed t o
r e p o r t on la n d s
i n H e re fo rd b e lo n g in g to
199
others a t t a i n t e d o f h ig h tre a s o n *
The
seems t o
h av e
reig n .
E arly
u nable to
the
been
in th e l a s t
y e a r and a
and
the
Qu ee n a t T h e o b a l d s , a s
Lady
she d e s i r e d .
G uideford*
sh o u ld give o c c a s io n to
f ro m h e n c e , w h e r e we hav e
court
was a p p a r e n t l y
l e t h e r M a j e s t y u n d e r s t a n d how s o r r y we a r e
h er face
E arl
h a lf of E liz a b e th ’s
i n 1602 t h e s e c o n d L o r d
receive
out as
la te
tim e o f h i s w i f e ’s g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e a t
A p r i l 8 he w r o t e e a r n e s t l y t o
so f e l l
im pli­
*1 p r a y you
th at
o u r m ishap
h e r M ajesty to
so o f t e n
On
tu rn
re c e iv e d com fort
o f h e r com ing.
I p r a y y o u know w h e t h e r h e r M a j e s t y w i l l
200
come h i t h e r t o - m o r r o w o r o f S a t u r d a y . n
W h i l e on p r o g r e s s
that year,
dining a t
i n B uckingham shire
t h e Queen b r o k e a n u np lea sa nt week a t
S i r H enry’s p la c e
at
c e s t e r g iv es a c h a im in g though'
o f the
here
in August o f
life
h is
Taplow on t h e
not
very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
d au g hter shared t h a t
i n C o u r t ; much d a n c i n g i n t h e
a u tu m n .
202
is
are
fro lic
e x cee d in g ly p leased
L e s s t h a n a m on th b e f o r e Queen E l i z a b e t h d i e d ,
one P a r k e r b e g g e d a f a v o r o f S i r R o b e r t C e c i l .
l a s t , n he w r o t e ,
Lady E l i z a b e t h
”We
glim pse
H r i v y Cham ber o f c o u n t r y
d a n c e s b e f o r e t h e Q u e e n ’ s M a j e s t y , who
th e re w ith .”
H itch am b y
201
T ha m es.
Wor­
nUpon F r i d a y
nt h e r e was a m a t t e r o f f e r e d me w h ic h by my
G u i l f o r d ’ s m eans h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
t h e Queen,
and, a s
I un d erstan d ,
is
63
-
d eliv ered
Lady G u l d e f o r d l o s t
w ith th e
a c c e s s i o n o f James,
had d is tin g u is h e d
s till
her
hut
says
S to w ,
” . . .
came t o
unto
her H ig h n esse.”
your hands.
in flu en ce
, .2 0 3
in such m a tte r s
sh e a n d h e r s i s t e r K a t h e r i n e
place a t
c e i v e d on J u l y 2 a t W in d s o r .
into
co u rt.
Queen Anne f i r s t
Then ’’t h e
C ourt,
to
great
re­
L adies o f E n g la n d ,”
perfom e
t h e i r homage
He names a b o u t t w e n t y o f t h e s e whom he
’’t h e n knewe a n d now r eme mber W
a n d among them a r e t h e L a d i e s
P e t r e a n d G u l d e f o r d . 204
D o u b t l e s s t h e y owed much o f t h e i r
ru ler,
as th e y had under th e
W o rcester gained in
o ld ,
to
im portance as
c o u n t e s s w as one o f t h e
six
Shrewsbury*
of favour;
E arly
c ha m b e r ,
some f o r t h e
certain ,
and o f t h i s
p riv ate
P rivy C ouncil
205
E ngland,
and she
lad ies
cham ber,
bed-cham ber,
H is
i n 1 6 04 W o r c e s t e r w r o t e
”y o u m u s t know we h a v e
some f o r t h e
Jam es.
sent by th e
t o a t t e n d t h e new Queen o n h e r j o u r n e y t o
to
new
t h e i r m o th e r and f a t h e r .
c o u n s e llo r to
lad ies
soon becam e a l a d y - i n - w a i t i n g .
favor under th e
o f div ers
some f o r t h e
a n d some
degrees
draw ing
for n e ith e r
n umb er i s o n l y my L a d y A r a b e l l a £ S t u a r t ^
a n d my w i f e . ”^ ^
The P e t r e s , a s
t h e i r new K i n g .
baron.
has been s e e n , were
soon h o n o r e d b y
W i l l i a m was k n i g h t e d a n d h i s
The G u l d e f o r d s
g o t m ore
S i r H en r y a s K e e p e r o f Bags h o t
L5 a y e a r i n E l i z a b e t h * s t i m e .
incom e.
Park
207
f a t h e r became a
I n 16 04 James c o n f i r m e d
in S u rre y ,
W ithin th e
a jo b w h i c h p a i d
next
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
six
years S ir
Henry l e a s e d two p r o p e r t i e s
m anors, as w e l l as
King’ s
a n d was made
stew ard o f fo u r o f th e
Governor o f B ro y le
o f a l l t h e woods i n t h e m a n o r o f R i n g n e r .
these
f a v o r s James ga ve h im a
At t h e
o f Som erset.
sisters
m asques,
dressed
same t i m e t h e
graced by th e
in th e
210
l a v i s h costum es
1608 L a dy P e t r e
daughters
and K a t h e r i n e , w i t h t h r e e
danced i n th e Queen’s
lin es
o f J o n a o n and D a n i e l a n d
designed by
Inigo J o n e s .
On
a n d Lady G u l d e f o r d a p p e a r e d i n
The s c e n e was a s p a r k l i n g
f o r w a r d on calm w a t e r ,
rev olvin g a t
Above was t h e moon i n a s i l v e r c h a r i o t
expense o f t h i s
As a c l i m a x t o
209
o f £68.
c o u r t was g ay f o r t h e
pleasan t
J o n s o n ’ s Masque o f B e a u t y .
flo ated
g ift
The L a d i e s E l i z a b e t h
a n d one s i s t e r - i n - l a w ,
January 10,
th at
free
P a r k and R a n g e r
208
the
islan d
same t i m e .
drawn b y v i r g i n s .
The
nw o r l d o f l i t t l e
was t h e d e s p a i r o f t h e
Loves a n d c h a s t e d e s i r e a ”
211
P riv y C o u n cil.
In J o n s o n 's
Masque o f Q u e e n s , p e r f o r m e d
February 2 ,
1 6 0 9 , L ad y E l i z a b e t h
212
was A r t e m i s i a , Queen o f C a r i a *
_ Yyhen H e n r y S t u a r t was c r e a t e d
W orcester h e lp e d perform
in honorable a tte n d a n c e .
i n 1610
t h e c e re m o n y and J o h n L o r d P e t r e was
The d a y b e f o r e ,
s ons h a d b e e n made K n i g h t s o f t h e
the
P r i n c e o f W ales
f o l l o w i n g day f o u r o f h i s
P e t r e , W indsor, and W in te r ,
B ath;
daughters,
two o f W o r c e s t e r ’ s
a n d on t h e
evening o f
th e L adies
d a n c e d a s nymphs o f t h e
M on m o uth shir e i n T e t h y s ’ F e s t i v a l .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
G uldeford,
riv ers of
-
65 -
”Was ever* h o u r e b r o u g h t m o r e
To m o r t a l
Then t h i s ,
delig h t
sig h t
w h e re in fa i r e
Tethys
d aig n s to
shew
H er a n d h e r Nytfhs a row
In g l o r y b r i g h t
Yy'hen D a n i e l ' s
go t o B ed,
se ttin g ,
d a i n t y d e v i c e was o v e r n i t waa h i g h t i m e t o
for
but
i t was w i t h i n h a l f a n Hour o f t h e
Sun’ s ,
not
risin g .
A f t e r 1610 b o t h P e t r e s a n d G u l d e f o r d s
t o h a v e w i t h d r a w n from t h e
life
o f the
co u rt.
seem g r a d u a l l y
S i r W illiam
s u c c e e d e d t o t h e t i t l e o n O c t o b e r 1 1 , 1 6 1 3 , when h i s f a t h e r
214
died;
b u t t h i s i n s p i r e d him w i t h no d e s i r e t o c u t a b r a v e
f i g u r e among h i s
man.
peers.
W illiam as l o r d
T h e r e was no o u t w a r d r e a s o n
rem ained a s e r i o u s
for retirem en t.
It
not have b e e n J a m e s ’ h o s t i l i t y to w a r d t h e C a t h o l i c
can­
relig io n ,
fo r the
G a ia e fo rd s and Pet r e s had w e a th e r e d t h e w o rs t y e a r s
215
a f t e r t h e Gunpowder P l o t a n d h a d r e t a i n e d r o y a l f a v o r .
But t h e
P e t r e s now h a d t e n c h i l d r e n
(two o t h e r s h a d d i e d
i n f a n c y ) , 216 a n d t h e y h a d r e a c h e d what was
age.
It
Is n o t
s u r p r is in g to
q u ie t o f Essex to
the
i n t h e i r day m id d le
f i n d p e o p l e who p r e f e r r e d t h e
c o u r t o f James
I.
The G u l d e f o r d s , who h a d s e v e n c h i l d r e n ,
somewhat o l d e r t h a n t h e
P e tre s and t h e r e f o r e
217
rip er
we re
for
retirem en t.
of h is
in
A l t h o u g h b y 1612 S i r H en ry h a d s u r r e n d e r e d two
r o y a l g r a n t s , 218 he wa3 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n o u g h p r o p e r t y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
66 -
o f t h e 'K in g * s a n d h i 3 own t o k e e p him b u s y . both a l a m s a n d e x c u r s i o n s ^
In 1616 t h e
to
la te r
t h e g r o u n d ? a n d two y e a r s
have s p e n t t h e
season
219
W o rc este r House.
Lord P e t r e
the
There were
house a t
G uldefords
Taplow b u r n e d
seem t o
in tow n, h a v in g ta k e n lo d g in g s
o f course
serv ed as
Ju stice
still
next to
o f the
Peace
a nd i n 1519 h e was a d e p u t y l i e u t e n a n t
fo r Essex, a p o sitio n
long h e l d by h i s
i n t e r e s t s w holly con­
fath er.
fined to h i s c o u n ty .
Mor w ere h i s
I n 1620 he a n d S i r Thomas S o m e r s e t w e r e
two o f t h e n o b l e m e n a n d g e n t l e m e n o f London who s u r r e n d e r e d
t h e i r c h a r te r as
A mazo ns. "
220
"A dventurers
Thi3 p l e a s a n t
On O c t o b e r 3 0 ,
K atherine
221
d ied .
f o r Lord W i llia m .
in
life
1624,
and a b o u t e
and l a n d . "
r i v e r o f the
ended a b r u p t l y .
p re s e n tly a f t e r m idnight,
H e r l o s s was t h e
first
A year l a t e r th e
new K in g C h a r l e s
e x p e d itio n a g a i n s t Cadiz w hich w as,
"perhaps th e
the
says
o f many s o r r o w s
C h a r l e s commanded t h a t
th e
an
on s e a
o p p o s itio n to war w ith Spain,
pow erful re c u sa n t
L ord P e t r e , h i s b r o t h e r s - i n - l a w
o f 'wardour, a n d h i s
sent
G. M. T r e v e l y a n ,
lo w e st p o i n t e v e r re a c h e d by o u r w a r f a r e
F earing C ath o lic
Lady
son-in-law
l o r d s be d is a rm e d .
L o r d s H e r b e r t , Wi n d s o r , and Arundell
L o r d Teynham w e r e among t h o s e
222
who s u b m i t t e d t o
th is
expedition a g a in s t
order.
C adiz
If
P etre tho ught o f th e
i n 1 5 9 6 , he d i d
so
in
iro n y .
ea rlier
Between
t h e two he c o u l d m a r k t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d o f h a p p i n e s s .
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
67 -
P o r a number- o f y e a r s
fo rd had t r a v e l e d
on t h e
be t r a i n e d
by C a t h o l i c s .
seem t o
have b e e n a b r o a d
H e nry was w i t h t h e m f o r
to
o f both
co n tin en t,
them t o
Re c o r d s o f t h e
sons
very l i k e l y
least
P e tre s1 tra v e ls
to
enable
Edward a n d H o b e r t G u l d e f o r d
from 1612 t o
at
P e t r e a n d G uld e­
1621,
and t h e
p a rt o f the
la st
next
six
son
years.
223
are
i n c o m p l e t e , b u t from 1618
224
162 4 J o h n a n d Thomas w e r e o n t h e c o n t i n e n t
a n d Thomas
a n d a n o t h e r b r o t h e r Edward a p p e a r t o
P erm ission to
from t h e
t r a v e l had to
be o b ta in e d a t
P etre,
a y o u n g e r s o n o f L o rd P e t r e ,
to C a l a i s w ith c o u n t e r f e i t e d
o f Stam ford,
a
Edward P e t r e ,
D o v er f o r
Je su it.”
but t h e i r
At a l m o s t
re fu sin g th e
is
th e
T h i s was e m p h a s i z e d
cro ssin g
governance
from a b r o a d , w e r e a r r e s t e d ,
oath o f a lle g ia n c e .
is
clear;
the
in the
The r e c o r d
g o v e rn m e n t w o u ld no
relativ es.
n e x t y e a r when t h e w a r d s h i p o f
h i s m o t h e r Lady Mary,
a n d H en ry ,
th e K ing,
E a rl o f W orcester.
Being
Opfi
t h e y w ere i n c a p a b l e .
The o l d
E a rl o f W o r c e s te r m ight have s o f t e n e d
died e a rly
a
t h e same t i m e Thomas a n d
recusancy o f P e tre and h is
h e r f a t h e r Lord P e t r e ,
said
sea,
and u n d er th e
y ou ng L o r d Teynham was d e n i e d t o
recu san ts,
Som erset,
f r a g m e n t a r y a n d somewhat c o n f u s i n g 25
sig n ifican ce
longer t o l e r a t e
a n d Mr.
’’s t a y e d a t
passes,
probably r e tu r n in g
of th ese cases
the
in terv als
1627 when E n g l a n d was a t w a r w i t h P r a n c e ,
yo u n g er son o f Lord H e r b e r t , w ere
at
th ree-year
in 1627.
P rivy C o u n cil.
In J u l y ,
Mr .
have been t h e r e
th eir
d isg race,
in 1628.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
b u t he
- 68
-
K in g C h a r l e s 1 d i s t r u s t was j u s t i f i e d .
death o f h i s
a y e a r to
fath er
the
i n 1 6 1 3 , L o r d W i l l i a m h a d g i v e n L250
Jesu its,
C ollege o f th e
Since th e
a n d i n 1633 he
founded th e E n g l i s h
Holy A p o s t l e s w i t h a g i f t
o f L4000 a n d a y e a r l y
endowment o f L 2 5 0 .
T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was o f c o u r s e m a i n t a i n e d
227
sec retly .
In g r a t i t u d e t h a t h i s g i f t h a d b e e n a c c e p t e d ,
he w r o t e t o
th e
m y self happy,
my l o t t o
G eneral o f the
a n d s h a l l ' a l w a y s do s o ,
fin d
re lig io n
order:
” I p ro n o u n c e
th a t
has
it
f a l l e n to
i n y o u r P a t e r n i t y so k i n d an i n t e r p r e t e r o f
my d e s i r e s , a n d t r u l y
lic
Jesu it
poor endeavours,
i n my a f f l i c t e d
f o r e x te n d in g th e C atho­
country
He d i e d o n May 5 ,
1 6 3 7 , a n d d e a t h seems t o
have been
a jo y fu l re le a s e .
n I am now g o i n g t h i t h e r , ’* he s a i d ,
229
I s h a l l n e v e r m o r e o f f e n d G o d .”
"where
S i r Henry G u ld e f o rd l i v e d t h r o u g h w orse y e a r s
a C atholic
seems t o
re flec t
L itig atio n
first
and a r o y a l i s t .
case,
grim j o y ,
record o f h is
in 1599,
in th e
a nd h i s
opponent
w a r.^ ^
Eor a t
in the
is
rig h t .
also
t h e o n l y one
least
two y e a r s ,
C ourt o f W ards.
town o f W i n c h e l 3 e a ,
in v o lv ed .
Hi3
r e s t r a i n him
out o f co u rt w ith a p riv a te
from 1598 t o
1 60 0, he
fought
G u l d e f o r d a n d Pack v e r s u s
i n 1626 a n d 1 6 2 7 , b r o u g h t t r o u b l e
P r i v y C o u n c i l a nd o t h e r s .
illu so ry .
i n w h ic h h e was
The P r i v y C o u n c i l ha d t o
from s e t t l i n g
law suits
a n d t h a t may be
I s a m u s i n g t o t h o s e who a r e n o t
cle a rly
a case
a certain
O n ly t h e
for
The a p p e l l a n t s
the
to th e
refused defeat u n til
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
69
th ey had l o s t
court,
h is
the
-
case tw ic e .
When S i r H enry v i s i t e d
231
s t a y was n e v e r b r i e f .
The c l o s i n g y e a r s o f h i s
The p e n a l t i e s
a nd f r i e n d s ,
fo r recusancy,
life
lo n g v i s i t e d on h i s
f e l l o n him b y 1 6 4 1 - 1 6 4 2 ,
In 1642 E n g l a n d w e n t t o
p a rt o f the
to th e
S cots.
It
pieces .
S i r H en ry l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e
c i v i l waij u n t i l a f t e r C h a r l e s
in
surrendered
I s u n l i k e l y t h a t he d i d a n y a c t i v e
was f o r h i m a n d h i s
s o n s a n d a l l men l i k e
g l o r y o f England had lo n g s in c e
b e fo re he d ied
relativ es
p e r h a p s much e a r l i e r .
b e c a u s e he was mo r e t h a n s e v e n t y y e a r s o l d .
the
law
w e re b a d f o r him a n d
232
Sometime b e t w e e n 1627 a n d 1 6 4 4 h i s w i f e d i e d .
E ngland.
first
the
them .
faded.
i n th e autumn o f 1646.
my C h a n c e l I n Be n e n d e n C h u r c h ,
But t h e
fig h tin g
defeat
In h i s
I t was a l l
eyes
gone
He a s k e d **to be b u r i e d
. . .
n e a r my l a t e
w ife,
Lady E l i z a b e t h G u l d e f o r d . " 2^ 5
F if ty years b e fo re ,
but c lo se
to
d e a th , w alked b e s id e
and made m u s i c
o f these
Edmund S p e n s e r ,
two c a v a l i e r s .
He was a t
s a d n e s s was n o t l e s s
a b e lie f
that
f o im e d h i s
of se re n ity ,
In t h e
sp irit
the
the
dying ones
peak o f h i s a c h i e v e m e n t ,
T h e ir sorrow s,
d i s c o v e r them , were b r e d o u t o f
lo st:
s i l v e r s t r e a m i n g Thames
out o f thoughts not u n lik e
w e a r y from i t and u n r e w a r d e d .
o f h is
the
o n ly m iddle-aged
so f a r a s we c a n
n a tio n a l tragedy;
d ig n ifie d .
a n d l e t him f i l l
h is
root
Yet he owned w h a t t h e y
good d e s t i n y o f E n g l a n d .
gave t o h i s
the
personal
This and a l l
f r u s t r a t i o n a kind
em ptiness w ith th e w a m th o f
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 70
o th ers'
-
hopes.
On t h a t
c&y i n 1596 s o r r o w seem ed i m p o s s i b l e
E enry Guide f o r d a n d W i l l i a m
^etre .
K a t h e r i n e came t o
swans
them l i k e
drew a c h a r m a g a i n s t m o r t a l i t y .
day i n t h e
calen d ar,
r e la tio n to
it
the bare
The L a d i e s E l i z a b e t h a n d
from t h e
riv er,
and b e t r o t h a l
The u n e x c i t i n g p l a c e
facts
o f tfeat
o f th e cerem ony, and t h e
o f Edmund S p e n s e r and R o b e r t D e v e r e u x a r e
next co n cern o f t h i s
the
essay.
What was S p e n s e r ' s
Guide f o r d ,
Pet r e ,
a “p r i v a t e
reason fo r the
was h i s
to
and th e
connection w ith
the
Som ersets,
E a rl o f Essex?
G rosart a v e rs
P o e t's
i n E n g l a n d ” i n 1596
presence
f r i e n d s h i p f o r •E l i z a b e t h a n d K a t h e r i n e
th at
S om erset.
"And
th e ir p o et-frien d
h a v in g been e v i d e n t l y i n v i t e d t o th e double
234
w e d d i n g , h a d p r e p a r e d a Pro t h a lam i o n . ”
G rosart n e g le c ts
to
add t h a t
th is
t o show t h a t
Mr.
is m erely a g e n ia l
S p e n s e r knew t h e
la d ies
I f t h i s w e re t r u e ,
to ta k e a s p e c i a l
in terest
B ut a s Mr. Long s a y s ,
certain ty
the b e s t
is
out o f th e
so f a r ,
There I s
u n til
s h o rtly before
the
q u e s t i o n . ”^ ^
the
evidence
R o s a l i n d was
th at
L adies
is
A lthough h is
”a p r i v a t e
b etro th a l,
nothin g
S p e n s e r m i g h t be
"Where t h e
no i n d i c a t i o n
is
th e ir b etro th al.
S p e n s e r's
in h e r c o u sin s,
R o s a lin d rem ains
There
before
P . W. Long s u p p o s e s t h a t
E liz a b e th N orth.
set.
fancy.
expected
Somer­
so e l u s i v e ,
guess
seems
Personage unknow ne.”
Spenser met W illiam
P etre
b u t w i t h Henry Guide f o r d
he c o u l d h a v e h a d l o n g e r a c q u a i n t a n c e .
”He may ha ve h a d t o
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
do w i t h
G uildford
the
s ays Mr. R e n w i c k .
suggestion,
in
in
early
Guide f o r d s
A y o u th fu l com radeship
days
is
probably k e p t
not
at
th is
The C a t h o l i c
them from th e
s e c r e ta r y to
c ir­
B i s h o p J o h n Young*
to be c o n s i d e r e d ,
for
i n 1578 Spen
in h i s m iddle
more t h a n t h i r t e e n
t w e n t i e s a n d Guide f o r d was a b o y n o t
237
years o ld .
I f t h e r e was
f r i e n d s h i p betw een t h e s e
a b l y came t h r o u g h G u i d e f o r d ’ s k i n s h i p o r s e r v i c e
p atrons.
In poems a n d d e d i c a t i o n s
P h ilip Sidney,
o f W ar w ick ,
w ife
R och ester,"
no I m p o r t a n c e t o
f a c t m ost u n l i k e l y *
i n w h i c h S p e n s e r move d a s
s e r was
h is
Yet h e a t t a c h e s
w hich i s
leanings o f the
cles
236
fam ily
first
the
tw o,
it
to
Spenser’ s
Spenser c e le b ra te d
C o u n t e s s o f Pem broke,
prob­
S ir
th e E a r l and C ountess
S i r Thomas W a l s i n g h a m , a n d W a l s i n g h a m ’ s d a u g h t e r ,
to
P h ilip
Sidney and l a t e r to
A ll th ese
except
co u sin s.
But h i s m o s t
the
t h e C o u n t e s s o f Warwick w e r e
E arl o f Essex.
Guide f o r d ’s
p o w erfu l kinsm an an d h i s
was my L o r d o f L e i c e s t e r , who was a l s o
the
known p a t r o n
g reatest
patron o f
the p o e t.
Because o f t h e
d ifferen ce
S p e n s e r a n d Guide f o r d d i d n o t m e e t
When he d i e d ,
however,
gave employment t o h i s
also
t u r n e d to
E ng lan d l a t e
household*
the
It
is
lik ely
in t h e i r a g e s,
doubtless
in L e i c e s t e r ’s s e r v i c e .
th a t h is
hum bler p ro te g e
protege
G uldeford.
Essex
Spenser
you ng E a r l , a n d when he came b a c k t o
i n 1595 he may w e l l h a v e m et
But S p e n s e r was n o t
in the
G uldeford in E s s e x 's
h ab it o f
com posin g
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 72
b etro th al
th e
less
aon g a e v e n f o r h i s
Pro t ha lam i o n a p o s s i b l e
im portant
ninth stanza
than
h is
one
p r o o f t h a t he w r o t e t h e
poem a t
the
in the
I t h a s b e e n a ss u m e d t h a t he
bridegroom s.
239
im portance.
T his
is
su rely
Pro t ha lam i o n a n d p r o b a b l y h i s
p a t r o n o f H e n ry G u l d e f o r d .
reason f o r the
The
i n t h e s e c e r e m o n i e s h a s b e e n more
o f Spenser.
f r ie n d o f the
form al p la c e
p lain h is
f r i e n d s h i p w i t h G u l d e f o r d i s much
p o sitio n
th an th a t
as the
To h i s w r i t i n g o f
238
E s s e x 's
appeared a s
in tim ates.
a s s u re d patronage o f E sse x .
i s adequate
Eai»l1s r e q u e s t .
puzz ling
the
-
In p a r t i c u l a r ,
But t h i s
it
is
sp o u sa l and w edding s e r v i c e s
n atu ral
does n o t e x ­
not
su fficien t
t o be p e r f o r m e d
a t h i s house .
I t was c u s t o m a r y ,
c erem on y t o t a k e
place a t
a s we have
seen,
f o r the b e t r o t h a l
t h e b r i d e * 3 home o r a t
the church.
E x c e p t i o n was made o n l y when t h e Queen was p l e a s e d t o
the c o n t r a c t .
The S o m e r s e t s w e r e w i l l i n g t o
c u st o m n o t b e c a u s e E s s e x was s p o n s o r f o r
b u t b e c a u s e h e was k i n s m a n o f t h e
firm f r i e n d .
depart
two E a r l s h a s
d e s ire to
do h o n o r t o t h e
readiness
to
perm it th e
from
the b rid e g ro o m s,
Countess and W o r c e s t e r ’ s
The c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n w h i c h h a s b e e n
e x i s t betw een th e
w itness
shown
to
no b e t t e r p r o o f t h a n E s s e x ’s
two young c o u p l e s a n d W o r c e s t e r ’ s
cerem onies to be
perform ed a t Essex
House •
I t has a lr e a d y been e s ta b lis h e d t h a t
the
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Prothalam ion
73
i3 a p o e t i c
re c o rd o f the
-
sp o u sal day.
The w e d d i n g t o o k
p l a c e on November 8 b u t n o d a t e h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d
b etro th al.
I f t h e b a n n s we re p u b l i s h e d a t
on t h r e e
u sual way,
su ccessive
must h a v e e l a p s e d b e t w e e n t h e
f o r p u b l i c a t i o n was
But
t h e tim e
s o m e t i m es c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e n e d .
Count
P alatin e
February 2, and February 7 .
t h a n two w e e k s
in the
S u n d a y s , m ore t h a n two we eks
two s e r v i c e s .
fo r P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h and t h e
January 31,
church
f o r the
se p a ra te d the
were a s k e d o n
I t happens
t h a t m ore
s p o u s a l on Decem ber 27 a n d t h e
m a rria g e on F e b ru a ry 14, b u t
th is
was n o t b e c a u s e o f t h e b a n n s .
F or R o b e r t C a r r , E a r l o f S o m e r s e t ,
divorced w ife o f th e
The b a n n s
a n d Lady F r a n c i s Howard,
t h i r d E a r l o f E s s e x , b a n n s w e re
pu b lish ed
on December 1 9 , 2 1 , a n d 2 5 , a n d t h e w e d d i n g t o o k p l a c e on t h e
follow ing day.
The q u i c k e s t
j o b was done
f o r S i r Johh V i l l i e r s
a nd F r a n c e s Co o k e .
days a n d o n t h e
of th is
T h e i r b a n n s w e re a s k e d on t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e
2 40
t h i r d d a y t h e y were m a r r i e d .
On t h e b a s i s
custom a l o n e ,
ad quern f o r t h e
it
is
d ifficu lt
spousal o f the
some d ay s o r weeks b e f o r e
The o n l y way t o
term ine th e m ain f a c t s
L adies
lik ely th a t
the
e s t a b l i s h a term inus
S om erset.
fix
o f the
its
approxim ate
date
p a la c e s on th e
to
de­
exam ine
o f the
c h i e f a c t o r s . The
241
co u rt;
so i t i s
p r o c e s s i o n t o E s s e x House s t a r t e d
o f t h e s e : W indsor,
is
s w a n s ’: j o u r n e y a n d t o
and K a t h e r i n e w e re a t
th e Queen’ s f a v o r i t e
I t occurred
th e w edding.
the m eager r e c o r d o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s
Ladies E l i z a b e t h
to
riv er.
from one o f
There were
five
Richmond, Hampton C o u r t , W h i t e h a l l , a n d
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 74
G re e n w i ch ; h u t a l l e x c e p t
House e
Probably th e
-
G re e n w ic h a r e u p s t r e a m
lad ies
started
pass t h e b r i e k y to w e r s o f t h e
from E s s e x
fr o m G r e e n w i c h ,
T em p le,
next to
fo r they
E s s e x House
242
on t h e
d o w ns t r e a m s i d e ,
It
th ey a r r iv e
has been suggested t h a t
j o u r n e y c a n n o t be
d r awn f rom t h e
would n o t h e s i t a t e
th at
before
su ited h is
to
the
plan*
purpose t h i s w ould s e r v e .
him .
lite ra l
facts
P rothalam ion, t h a t
243
But
it
is
No one d e n i e s
p r o m p t e d b y a n a c t u a l p r o c e s s i o n on t h e
h is u tte ra n c e .
t h e i r d estin atio n *
o f the
Spenser
p u t E s s e x House e a s t o f t h e Temple
p oetic
t h a t he m u s t h a v e
at
taken th e
in cid en t
He h a d s e e n i t
i t would be d i f f i c u l t
way; n o t o n l y d i f f i c u l t ,
hard to
th at
i t s e l f as
happen o r had
f o r him t o
te ll
but p o i n t l e s s .
make p o e t r y o u t o f t h e e v e n t ,
and t h a t
it
it
H is
see what
h is
Tham es.
if
s o n g was
It
the
follow s
fram e
for
d e sc rib e d to
in any o th e r
j o b was t o
s u r e l y was w h a t h i s
p a t r o n a n d h i s a u d i e n c e w a n te d *
An a t t e m p t m u s t now "be made t o
m onial p ro g re s s up th e
est
riv er.
a n d p l e a s a n t e s t way t o
by w a t e r .
On t h e
As e v e r y o n e k n o w s,
trav el
Thames a r e
o f such p erso n s as
t h e samei
b esid e
q u ick ­
I n E l i z a b e t h a n London i s
nw h e r b y t h r e e
through th e
passe o r re passe
cariag e
from t i m e
t h e s e huge t i d e b o a t s ,
which e i t h e r c a r r i e
the
cere­
n two t h o u s a n d w h e r r i e s a n d s m a l l
b o a t s , ” says W illiam H a r r is o n ,
w a t er m en a r e m a i n t e i n e d ,
re c o n stru c t th e
t h o u s a n d p o o re
and r e c a r i a g e
to
tim e
tiltb o te s,
passengers, o r b rin g n ecessarie
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
vpon
and b a rg e s ,
prouision
- 75
from a l l
citie
q u arters
.
.
.
o f London.*'2 4 *
s c e n e was m o re
across
th is
jjjfrom O x f o r d s h i r e
To Thomas P l a t t e r ,
v iv id ;
stream ,
-
"While a
it
very
t o Kentj>
v n to t h e
a fo reig n er,
fine
the
long b rid g e
i s more c u s t o m a r y t o
cross
is b u i l t
the w a te r
o r t r a v e l u p a n d down t h e tow n a s a t Lyons a n d e l s e w h e r e
by a t t r a c t i v e
pleasure
t o t h e Thames
from b o t h ends o f t h e
there
in great
cra ft,
crow ds,
f o r a number o f t i n y s t r e e t s
to w n ;
lead
t h e b o a tm e n w a i t
e a c h one e a g e r t o be t h e
first
to
catch
one • t>245
The
and a t h e a t e r
Thames was a b u s i n e s s
f o r pageants
E liz a b e th lo ved
it.
stre e t,
grotesque
and
a lane o f p le a s u re ,
s t a t e l y . Queen
" A f t e r s u p p e r sh e t o o k a b o a t ,
and wa3
rowed u p a n d down i n t h e
r i v e r Thames; h u n d r e d s o f b o a t s a n d
barges
and th o u sa n d s o f people
at
r o w in g a b o u t h e r ;
the w ater s i d e ,
s ee h e r ,
f o r the
to lo o k upon h e r M a je s ty ;
r e j o i c i n g to
a n d p a r t a k i n g o f t h e mus i c k a n d s i g h t s
t r u m p e t s b l e w , drums b e a t ,
discharged,
squibs h u rle d up in to
from p l a c e t o
at n ig h t•
p lace.
And t h i s
flu tes
the a i r ,
thronging
on t h e Thames;
played,
guns w e re
a s t h e Queen moved
continued t i l l
t e n o f th e clock
w2 46
I n s u c h t r i u m p h s on t h e Thames E l i z a b e t h was
t h e c u s to m o f e a r l i e r T u d o r s .
ties
As p a r t o f t h e m a r r i a g e
f o r P rince A rth u r and C ath erin e
his m in is te rs
planned a
C astle to W estm in ster.
form al t r i p
o f A rragon,
by r i v e r
follow ing
fe stiv i­
H e nr y V II a n d
from B a y n a r d ’ s
" F o r t h e more r o i a l t i e
o f the
goin g"
■
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
t h e K i n g , t h e Qu e e n , a n d t h e
barges
"w eale and pompously r i g g e d . ”
boote s o f t h e
them,
P r i n c e w e re t o
lo rdes
take
A ll the
sep arate
" b a rg e s and
s p i r i t u e l and te m p o r a ll" w ere to a t t e n d
rowing "b y t h e k i n g and a b o u t t h e k i n g a s t h e
o f the
r i v e r w i t h thebbe o r
f l o d e , a n d good o r d r e
space
sh all
bede t h e i m . " ^ ^
H e n ry V I I I a n d h i s
o f the
riv er;
and th e
c h i l d r e n made s p e c t a c u l a r u s e
S tu arts,
on t h e
s p e n t more money t h a n t h e T u d o r s .
v ariable
.
.
E l i z a b e t h a n d t h e .Count
. was p e r f o r m e d many p l e a s a n t ,
f i e r - w o r k e s upon th e
Rocks,
Bo w e r s ,
F o rrests,
I n n came t o
w edding, t h e
the
c h ie f acto rs
"made so r a r e
rowed i n
H en ry S t u a r t ’ s c r e a t i o n a s
couered w ith B o a te s,
W ith t h i s
jG u m ey s on t h e
I n n e r Temple
th e K in g ’3 and P r i n c e ’s
a ll
a b o u t th e m ,
an d b r a u e a show u p o n y
l i k e was n e u e r s e e n e u p on t h e T ha m i3.
triu m p h s and p a s t i m e s ,
flo tin g
p e r f o r m a m asqu e i n h o n o r o f t h i s
b a r g e s , w ith o t h e r b a rg e s and g a l l e y s
to rch lig h ts
and
o r enchanted
and o t h e r d e u is e s
upon y e w a t e r . n^48 vvke n -the g e n t l e m e n o f t h e
a nd G r a y ’ s
3 trange,
Thamis o u e r a g a i n s t W h i t e - h a l l s
these e n te rta in m e n ts c o n s is te d o f f a n ta s tiq u e
C astles,
elsew here,
"Upon t h e T h u r s d a y n i g h t
b e fo re th e wedding day f o f P r i n c e s s
P alatineJ ,
Thames a s
049
'
and t h e
w ater,
as
To c e l e b r a t e
P r i n c e o f W ales t h e r e w e r e n a v a l
" t h e Thamis b e i n g
a n d B a rg e s
in a manner c lo s e
-2 5 0
f u l l o f people.
t r a d i t i o n o f pageants and cerem o n ial
riv e r,
it
is not
su rp risin g th a t
th e Ladies
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
S omerset
chose
Greenwich t o
as
a
prelude
London.
Boley n made t h e
77
251
-
to
th eir
Coming t o
ep ou sals
a
h e r c o r o n a t i o n , Anne
same j o u r n e y e s c o r t e d b y a l l
the
c o m p a n ie s
o f the c i t y .
The c o m p a n i e s h a d b e e n ”commaunded t o
B a rg es a n d t o
garnishe
accustom ed,
o f the
but also
B arges,
and
d e ck them w i t h T a r g e t s b y t h e
. . .
p r o c e s s i o n down t h e
i n w h i c h F o y s t was a
moouyng, a n d c a s t i n g w i l d e
fyres
Foyst s to o d t e r r i b l e m o n sters
fire,
and making h id e o u s
noyses. ”
company w a i t e d u p o n t h e ' i u e e n .
c o m p a n i ed w i t h d i u e r s
set
.
At
G reenw ich.
. . . .
rowed t o w a r d t h e
great
She b o a r d e d h e r b a r g e
’’a c ­
and i n c o n t i n e n t
t h e i r M usicians
A bout t h e Q,ueenes Ba rge w ere
to b e h o ld e .
252
T ow er.”
The b e t r o t h a l
the
G ree nw ich t h i s
in t h e i r o r d e r ,
was a g o o d l y s i g h t
a nd i t s
,
a n d w i l d e men c a s t i n g
. many B i s h o p p e s a n d n ob le m e n e u e r y one
and K a t h e r i n e
.
g r e a t Dragon c o n t y n u a l l y
L a d i e s a n d g e n tl e w o m e n ,
forw ardes
c o n tin u a lly plaiyng
.
.
fifty
r i v e r to
and round about
3
the C i t i z e n s
More t h a n
.
t h e Maio'rs B a rge was a P b y s t o r W a f t e r f u l l
o f ordynaunce,
a yd e
sides
seem ely Banners and B an n o rets
and e u e r y e B a r g e t o h a u e m y n s t r e l s i e . ”
”F i r s t before
prepare
them n o t a l o n e l y w i t h t h e i r B a n n e r s
to
c r a f t moved i n s t a t e l y
from
trip
in h is
Shee t h u s b e i n g
p ro cession
f o r the
Ba rge w h i c h
a c co m p an i e d
L adies E liz a b e th
S o m e r s e t was n a t u r a l l y much s m a l l e r t h a n t h i s ,
pageantry,
u n lik e
th at
o f the
London c o m p a n ie s ,wa s
d e s i g n e d f o r b e a u t y r a t h e r t h a n a m a z e m e n t.
No d r a g o n s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
spouted
fire
nor
device
(as on th e o c c a s io n o f th e
f o r P rin c e Henry S t u a r t )
a dolphin o r a
lik ely th a t
c o m p a n ie s*
was t h e r e
w a t e r g o d d e s3 on a w h a l e .
the
ladies*
N eptune
253
of th e ir
r i d i n g on
In stead
b a r g e s w ere d e c k e d t o
and so p e r h a p s w e r e t h e b a r g e s
riv er
it
seems
resem ble
e sco rt.
T his
swans,
disguise
m u l d h a v e b e e n e a s y t o a s su m e i f t h e i r c r a f t w e r e o f t h e
kind w ith lo n g c u r v i n g
But t h a t b o a t s
then as
p oet.
it
is
look
prows
lik e
resem bling th e
s w an s was a
now a n d h a d b e e n
D r a y t o n made t h e
’’H is B o a t - l i k e
And O r e - l i k e
p leasan t
in the
swa n.
254
p latitu d e
tim e o f t h e Beowulf
com parison e x a c t ;
b reast,
fe e t.”
h i s w in g s
r a i s ’d f o r h i 3
3ayle,
255
Spenser f i r s t
’’Come s o f t l y
neck o f a
sees t h e
swans a s t h e y
swimming downe a l o n g t h e
L a t e r , w hen t h e nynph.3 h a v e
t h e waves a b o u t t h e m w i t h
L ee.”
256
g a rla n d ed t h e i r heads, strew ed
flow ers,
a n d s u n g them a n a n t i c i ­
p a t o r y w edding song,
” So f o r t h ,
those
Adowne t h e
Lee . ”^57
In t h e s e
lin e s
io y o u s B i r d e s d i d p a s s e a l o n g ,
t h e m e a n i n g o f Lee h a s
b e e n l o n g in
d isp u te.
H a l e s p r o p o s e d , w i t h o u t j u s t l f i c a t i o n , t h a t i t i s a n o l d common
253
noun f o r r i v e r .
A ccording to th e f a v o r i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,
it
refers
to
the
r i v e r Lea w h i c h r i s e s
in B edford shire,
the b o undary betw een E ssex and M id d le se x , and
t h e Thames n e a r B l a c k w a l l a n d b e lo w G r e e n w i c h .
em pties
259
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
forms
into
In r e c e n t
years t h i s
vie w h a a b e e n c h a l l e n g e d b y Mr* Renwick, a n d f u r t h e r
2 Q
O
in q u iry supports h is e x p la n a tio n .
Elsew here
in h is
p o e t r y S p e n s e r u s e s Lee
(L e a, L a y )
t w e l v e t i m e s w i t h two d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s .
Once he i s s u r e l y
261
speaking o f th e E n g li s h r i v e r Lea;
once and perhaps tw ic e
262
he r e f e r s t o t h e Lee R i v e r i n I r e l a n d .
But i n t h e n i n e o t h e r
instances
the
word me a n s meadow o r p l a i n ,
uncommon t h e n o r s i n c e . 263 T h re e t i m e s
Lee"
is used
th at
the
In t h e
F a e r i e Q.ueene
(IV . x i .
" T h e r e was t h e
a nd i n R u ln e s o f Time
"And w h e r e t h e
the
"W hllest
came f l o a t i n g .
the
T his
downe t h e
lea;"
slid e
downe a l o n g t h e L e e . "
603) when t h e
reference
is
still
Thames,
thus
I looked,
lin es
riv er,
and th e
fish erm an on a C a l i f o r n i a
down a l o n g t h e
ro llin g
In t h e s e
th e banks o f th e
show
S p e n se r's c o n te m p o ra rie s.
c h r i s t a l l Thamis wont t o
same poem ( 1 .
unquestionably to
seems t o
134-135),
In s i l v e r c h a n n e l l ,
L ater in th e
This
41. 1 ),
L iffy
(11.
not
"down £ o r J a l o n g t h e
in connection w ith r i v e r s .
p h r a s e was n o t a mbiguous t o
a sig n ifican ce
l o e adowne t h e
Lee means t h e
phrase
tid a l
is
Lee" a h a rp
lan d th a t
s im ila r to
forms
th at
of
r i v e r who s a y s t h a t he
rowed
tu les •
is
t h e m e a n in g p r o p e r t o Lee
as e x a m in a tio n w i l l
show.
i n th e P r o t h a l a m i o n ,
E ach s t a n z a h a s f o r
"S w e e t e Themmes runne
3 o ftly ,
till
its
refrain s
I e n d my S o n g ."
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Yet i f Lee
is
the
u n til the e ig h th
r i v e r Lea,
stanza*
The poem o p e n s w i t h
the
This
swans do n o t
is not the
r e a c h t h e Thames
only d i f f i c u l t y *
S penser w alking b esid e
the
shore o f th e
Thames .
264
"There,
i n a meadow, b y t h e
(and t h i s m u s t b e t h e
be e n m e n t i o n e d ) ,
appear,
receiv e
R iuers
Th a m es’ s i d e
sid e"
b e c a u s e Lee h a s n o t y e t
a f l o c k o f nymphs g a t h e r f l o w e r s .
the
nymphs* o f f e r i n g s ,
The swans
a n d go on "Adowne t h e
Lee . ”
Now S p e n s e r m i g h t be w a l k i n g o n t h e
e r n b a n k , a n d t h e meadow o f t h e
joins
the
T ha mes.
But
T ham es’ n o r t h ­
nymphs m i g h t be w h ere t h e Lea
i f t h i s w e re
s o , when t h e
swans pas3
o n b e y o n d t h e meadow t h e y c o u l d no l o n g e r be on t h e
f o r t h e y m et t h e nymphs a t
journey l i e s
on th e
The one
i t s m o u th and t h e
rest of th e ir
Thame 3 •
good a r g u m e n t
by Mr. O sg o od , who b e l i e v e s
its
r i v e r Lea
second ap p earan ce
in
the
fo r the
th at
r i v e r Lea
the a c tio n s
poem,
are
is advanced
o f t h e L e e , upon
proper only to a
riv er
But r i v e r b a n k s may b e s u p p o s e d t o murmur low an d make t h e i r
stream run slo w , w hereas
c o n t i n u e o n t h e Lea a f t e r
dence o f a n e g a t i v e
sort
Lee a s t h e Lea R i v e r .
I f th e
t o draw s t r i c t
it
is
Im possible
f o r the
swan3 t o
t h e y ha v e e n t e r e d t h e Tha m es. Evi­
su pports th e
p o s itiv e o b je c tio n s to
p
reader re je c ts
lo g ical
th is
in feren ces
co n clu sio n as an e f f o r t
from a s t a t e m e n t o f p o e t i c
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
tru th ,
he m u s t n o t
the
swans h a v e
reached
west s id e
th e m elody o f th e
P rothalam ion*
I t w o u ld he
s o n g i s mor e t h a n t w o - t h i r d s
its
o f the
c e re m o n y o f
much l i k e
o r the
and th e
a meadow, b u t
D oubtless
from G r e e n w i c h .
fa m ilia r ro les
Queen n e v e r t i r e d .
nliii i t h
up the
nymphs may h a v e
in fro n t o f the
it
w o u ld d o .
o f the
c o u ld ;,
t h e y d r e s s e d a s nym phs.
T h i s was one
In t h e
o f w h ic h t h e
p asto ral
som ething l i k e
w i c h whose p e r f o i m a n c e , h o w e v e r ,
th w arted by n a tu re
d isg u ise
itse lf.
sh iv erin g
loose
the
as
v n t y d e , ”^ ^
t w e l v e nymphs o f Nor­
sp irits
o f n a t u r e was
On a n u n l u c k y d a y I n 1578 t h e s e
i n a c a v e made o f c a n v a s .
E l i z a b e t h was t o
h a v e come i n h e r c o a c h a n d t h e y w e r e
greeted h e r w ith
speeches and d a n c e s .
silk e
F o r costum e
o r fine
a nd
They came
and d r e s s e d p e rh a p s
lay
p a l a c e . The
r i v e r was r a t h e r n a r r o w a n d n o t
goodly g re e n is h lo c k s a l l
lo v ely la d ie s
r i v e r beyond th e
perfom ed th e ir
t h e nymphs w ere l a d i e s
not u n lik e ly th a t
thunder.
d is­
p r o b a b l y e m b a r k e d a t t h e l a n d i n g on t h e
267
palace.
The meadow w h e re t h e y m e t t h e
song a n d g a r l a n d s
space betw een i t
of th e ir
to
Somerset
town o f G r e e n w i c h ,
is
stran g e
done b e f o r e t h e
p ro cessio n s t a r t e d
nymphs may h a v e b e e n a s h o r t d i s t a n c e
it
Thames I s
source.
A p p aren tly the
The L a d i e s
-
forget th a t
t h e movement o f t h e
cover t h a t
81
linnen,
segges,
to h a ve
I n s t e a d came r a i n a n d
’’e a c h e o f them h a d ,
greene
Queen
e y t h e r upon w h ite
stitc h ed
c u n n i n g l y on a
■ A i& r -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 82
long g a m e n t ,
30
w e ll w rought, and
m ig ht be p e r c e i v e d *
a garland o f i v i e ,
th at
se t on,
And e v e r y Nimph • .
u n d e r th e w hiche
a n d u n d e r t h e m o s s e was h e r e
tre sse s,
scarce any w hit
. had on h i r h e a d
i v i e w as a c o y f e o f m o s s e ,
lo n g goodly h e a re
covered h i r sh o u ld e rs .
the b e a u t i e o f th e
as
. . .
lik e
golden
And t o u c h i n g
NSmphes, t h e y seem ed t o b e t h e c h o s e n
c h i l d r e n o f a w o r l d . ”^ ^
I n 1 59 1 t h e
G r ac es a n d t h r e e
w ith flo w e rs,
was welcom ed t o
Hours who h a d " f l o w r i e
heads, and b a sk e ts
t h e i r aim es.”
Q ueen
Elvetham by t h r e e
g a rla n d s on t h e i r
f u l l o f sw eet h e a rb s and flo w e rs uppon
They w a l k e d b e f o r e h e r ,
’’s t r e w i n g t h e way
-2 70
and s in g in g a sw eete song o f s i x p a r t s . "
B e s i d e t h e Thames t h e nymphs p e r f o r m e d a s i m i l a r s e r v i c e
th e L a d ie s E l i z a b e t h and K a th e rin e
Somerset*
for
Some c o v e r e d t h e
waves w i t h f l o w e r s .
"Two o f t h o s e
Of f r e s h e s t
Hymphes, m eane w h i l e ,
Flow r e s w h i c h i n t h a t Mead t h e y f o u n d ,
The w h i c h p r e s e n t i n g a l l
T h e i r snow i e
Tb r e h e a d s
W h i l ’ s t one d i d
And when t h e
" . . .
in trim A rray,
t h e r e w i t h a 11 t h e y c r o w n d ,
sing t h i s
P r e p a r ’d a g a i n s t
A gainst
two G a r l a n d s b o u n d ,
Lay,
t h a t Day,
t h e i r B rydale
d a y , w h i c h was n o t l o n g . "
s in g e r had ended,
a ll
the
r e s t around
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
To h e r r e d o u b le d t h a t h e r v n d erso n g ,
Which s a i d ,
Spenser d id n o t
th e ir b rid ale
271
day© s h o u l d n o t be l o n g * 1*
invent th e nynphs, th e
No c e r em o n y o f t h i s
flow ers,
an d t h e
song*
k i n d w o u ld h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t the m
The swans f l o a t on u p t h e Thames,
nAnd a l l
the
f o u le w hich i n h i s
Gan f l o c k a b o u t t h e s e
The r e s t ,
so f a r ,
tw aine,
flo o d d id dw ell
th at
did e x c e l l
a s C y n t h i a d o t h sh e n d
The l e s s e r s t a r r e s .
So t h e y e n r a n g e d w e l l ,
Did o n t h o s e two a t t e n d ,
And t h e i r b e s t
K e e p in g 11good a rd re
pageant,
seruice
lik e
le n d .”
272
the a tt e n d a n t c r a f t
in every r iv e r
th e o t h e r b a rg e s o f the b e t r o t h a l p a r t y
jo in
l a d i e s , a n d w i t h c u s t o m a r y m u s i c a n d so n g t h e y a r e
the
rowed t o ­
ward London.
The Thames ” f l o w e t h an d f i l l e t h a l l
tw ise
h is
chanels
d a ie and n i g h t , t h a t i s , in e u e r i e tw elue
yl7^
houres o n c e ;”
and th e l a d i e s d o u b tle s s to o k t h e t i d e
the
in th e
flood, a s b e f i t t e d
t h e i r purpose.
f i v e and a h a l f m ile s u p th e
riv er.
t i d e , w h i c h wa s t h e n o r m a l t h i n g t o
spent
E s s e x House was a b o u t
I f t h e y rowed w i t h t h e
27 4
do,
th e y probably
from a n h o u r t o a n h o u r a n d a h a l f o n t h e w a t e r .
j o u r n e y was a b o u t a m i l e
lo n g e r th an t h a t o f the
c om p an ies when t h e y we nt down t o
at
The
London
Greenwich t o a t t e n d Anne
-31
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
B o ley n .
T h ey embarked, a t one o * c l o c k a n d ,
a p o i n t beyond G reenw ich,
order,
ut h e y t u r n e d b a c k w a r d i n a n o t h e r
® « • rowed d o w n e - w ard t o
G r e e n e w ie h t o w n e , a n d t h e r e
c a s t a n c h o r , m akin g g r e a t m e lo d ie *
t h e Q ueene
that
• .
• en tred
t h e y came
tune
in h e r
many b a r g e s
into
a g a in st th e
t h e Tower Anne
At
275
t i d e , so t h a t
in s t r i c t
order,
much s m a l l e r b e t r o t h a l
its
tid e
delay
p arty
"At l e n g t h t h e y a l l
so ciatio n s
th ere.
trip
as w e ll as
journey,
to
for-
w ith
-
its
f o r r e fo m a t i o n ,
and
f o r the
w ith a sin g le
lin e;
t o m e r y London c a m e ; ”2^ 0
he m e n t i o n s a r e
The p r o c e s s i o n
purpose.
lik ely
going w i t h th e t i d e .
the
Temple a n d
p a s s e d many p l a c e s w h i c h h e ,
a n t i q u a r i a n , m ig ht have paused to
to h i s
clocke,
s h o u l d be s h o r t e n e d b y h a l f
Spenser d ism isses th e t r i p
a nd t h e o n l y b u i l d i n g s
is
for th is
The two h o u r s o f t h i s
i t s w a i t f o r th e Queen,
House.
th ree o f the
her B a r g e I t
B oleyn m ig h t have th e
favor.
p ro c e ed in g to
d escrib e,
Essex
a s an
b u t t h e y were n o t
The Temple m u s t h a v e h a d many p l e a s a n t
f o r G u l d e f o r d a n d P e t r e , who o n c e w e r e
The p r a i s e o f L e i c e s t e r
E s s e x House was a s s i g n i f i c a n t
as t h e
as­
stu d en ts
e a r l i e r owner o f
to E s s e x a n d G u l d e f o r d as t o
Spenser h im s e lf .
As t h e b a r g e s drew n e a r ,
men l e f t t h e
house an d ,
"Descended t o
the
E s s e x a n d t h e tw o young
e n te r in g the
great
garden,
R i u e r s o p e n v e w in g ,
W i th a g r e a t t r a i n s
e n s u i n g . 1*2 ^
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 85 At t h e
fo o t o f the
riv er
sta irs
t h e i r l a d i e s , who a p p e a r e d
left
the
house
sw an-barges.
Pet re an d G uldeford re c e iv e d
in t h e i r
Then t h e
p ro p e r shapes as
n o b l e company r e t u r n e d
to
the
f o r th e cerem ony o f s p o u s a l s .
The P r o t h a l a m i o n c o n t a i n s
of th is
o f the
ev en t.
But
its
few i n d i c a t i o n s
su g g estio n s,
concerned a r e
to
th e approxim ate
e stab lish
larg ely
The o p e n i n g l i n e s
autu m n.
and from t h a t
are
o f the
poem s u g g e s t
h i s Qu een d i s p l e a s e d .
In h i s
and t h e
le a d e r s h i p and a t t r i b u t e d the
"co n tin u ally
rem oving t o
from one p o r t t o
retu rn ed
another,
lay a t
to
278
279
p erio d .
in c o n fu s io n and
she h a d b e e n p e r s u a d e d
s a t i s f i e d w ith h e r
share
E a r l ’s enem ies b e l i t t l e d
v i c t o r y to
and f ro
from t h e
R alegh.
E s s e x was
c o u r t to
the
so t h a t h e h a d n o t . l e i s u r e
B arn-elm es,
co u rt,
G reenw i ch*
t o h i s own h o u s e . " 280 However, he m a n a ge d t o
sf co r t v i s i t
from
i n s t e a d o f Thomas Bodlery, who
She w as n o t
fro m C a d i z ,
th is
affairs
absence
secretary
was E s s e x ’ s c a n d i d a t e .
plunder
summer o r
On A u g u s t 11 t h e E a r l a r r i v e d a t
tim e u n t i l O ctober 1 th e c o u r t
t o make R o b e r t C e c i l
su fficien t
ti m e •
My L o r d o f E s s e x f o u n d h i s
a sta rt
th o s e o f the
fo rg o tten ),
The b e t r o t h a l o c c u r r e d s o m etim e w i t h i n
o f th e
(since
The n i n t h s t a n z a shows t h a t E s s e x h a s
h i 3 v ic to ry a t C adiz.
o f the d ate
l i m i t e d b y t h e movements
co u rt and by E sse x ’s a c t i v i t i e s
o t h e r people
one
they
from A u g u s t 17 t o
19.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
h is
sh ip s,
t o make
pa y
On
and
86
th e 2 0 t h he appeared,
i n London a n d l e f t
G re e n w ich , w h e r e t h e n e x t
281
h i s f i r s t au di e n c e ®
B o u illo n had
n eg o tiate
-
an a l l i a n c e
at
once,
prob ab ly fo r
d ay t h e Due de B o u i l l o n was t o
come a s t h e e m i s s a r y o f P r a n c e
w i t h England a g a i n s t t h e
have
to
pow er o f S p a i n *
As a p r i n c i p a l a d v i s e r , E s s e x was ^ d e e p l y e n g a g e d i n t h a t a n d
ggg
o t h e r b u s i n e s s * 1*
The 0,ueen swore t o t h e a r t i c l e s o f t h e
t r e a t y o n A u g u s t 29 a n d f e a s t e d B o u i l l o n a t
da ys l a t e r t h e E a r l
gave him a n d h i s
b a n q u e t a t E s s e x House
G reenw ich.
Two
t r a i n a m agnificent
The Due t o o k l e a v e o f t h e <=£ueen
on S e p t e m b e r 4 , a n d w i t h i n a few d a y s t h e E a r l o f S h r e w s b u r y
a n d S i r A n t h o n y Mildmay w e r e a l s o
to ta k e
th e
the K in g ’ s o a t h to
G a r t e r #^ 8 4
the t r e a t y and to
sa il
f o r France
i n v e s t him w i t h
he was t h u s a b s o r b e d i n p u b l i c
p riv a te bu sin ess
at
p repared to
and s t i l l
a tte m p tin g to
and
j u s t i f y the a c t i o n
C a d i z , E s s e x p r o b a b l y f o u n d no t i m e t o
p lay host
at th e
b e tr o th a l o f W o rcester’s d au g h ters.
H o we v er ,
th at
the
in th e
S p a n i s h West
first
week o f S e p te m b e r news came
Indian f l e e t had a r r i v e d
tr e a s u r e w orth 20,000,000 d u c a t s .
'w a i t f o r t h i s
Nov/ h i s
to
Tie
s a f e ly w ith
E a r l h a d d e s i r e d to
f l e e t b u t h a d b e e n o v e r r u l e d b y o t h e r c ommanders .
c o n d u c t was
e n tire ly
ju stifie d ,
a n d R a l e g h was c l o s e
d i s g r a c e . 2 8 5 Qn S e p t e m b e r 6 E s s e x f e a s t e d
S ecretary C e c il,
and o t h e r s
the Lord A dm iral,
a t E sse x House, and b e f o r e
was o v e r h e was summoned b y t h e Oueen ”who,
* • .for
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
d in n er
th e most
- 87
-
236
o u t o f h e r s e l f , u s ' d him m o s t g r a c i o u s l y . ’*
p art,
A l t h o u g h he h a d e n t e r t a i n e d C e c i l ,
h is
tro u b les
w i t h him w e r e n o t o v e r ; a n d a l t h o u g h B o u i l l o n h a d d e p a r t e d ,
287
t h e r e was m uc h a t c o u r t t o occupy h i s t i m e .
But he h a d
re g a in ed t h e Q u een 's
fhvor.
H is f r i e n d L o r d N o r th a n d h i s
uncle
S i r W i l l i a m K n o l l y s h a d b e e n made members o f t h e P r i v y
288
C ouncil,
a n d h i s own power was so f i i m l y r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t
h e r M a j e s t y was
in a d is p u te
jealo u s o f i t
o v e r the
ag ain .
For ta k in g Essex*s sid e
ransom o f p r i s o n e r s ,
B u r g h l e y so s o u n d l y t h a t he
retire d
t h e Queen r a t e d
from c o u r t and o n S e p t ­
ember 22 w r o t e h i s
famous l e t t e r o f s u b m i s s i o n t o
289
e x u lt but h is follow ers d id .
Essex d id n o t
His triu m p h ,
h is
frien d s.
long d e fe rre d ,
he m i g h t now s h a r e w i t h
He h a d b e e n a t home a m on th -
le a rn
from W o r c e s t e r o f t h e
range
for th e ir
the E a rl.
l o n g en ough t o
a p p r o a c h i n g s p o u s a l s a nd t o a r ­
c e le b ra tio n a t his
house.
The b e t r o t h a l
p r o b a b l y t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n S e p te m b e r 7 a n d 2 9 , w h i l e
court
rem ained a t
29 b e c a u s e t h e
Greenw ich.
290
I t was n o t
next day Essex e n t e r t a i n e d
the
l a t e r t h a n Septem ber
the
en vo ys
from t h e
Low C o u n t r i e s
- ’*t h e I-re were v n m e a s u r a b l e H e a l t h s d r a n c k e
*291
a mong est them
- and on O c to b e r 1 t h e ^ u e e n w ent to w a rd
Nonsuch a n d Richmond,
292
o f No vembe r •
It
\^uu
X-aotiSr
is
stay in g a t
l i k e l y t h a t the
U
iiC
U 'Z *
J-liil Xlig
\J X
Richmond u n t i l t h e m i d d l e
s p o u s a l s w ere made
0
^
7
U
C
5
IIIL
/*
3£
*•
J.L
1
C
tow ard t h e
uw
U
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
«
=
»
.X^
-
88
-
c ontracted
M
A g a in s t t h e i r B rydale
In t h e n i n t h
much m o r e
stanza th is
sig n ifican t
to
d a y , w h ich
refrain
the
seems t o
is
not l o n g / 5
r e f e r to a day
people o f E n g la n d .
p ra ise s Essex f o r the a c t i o n a t
ip en ser
Cadiz and g lim p se s
fu tu re
vieto r i e s s
nT h a t t h r o u g h t h y p r o w e s s e a n d v i c t o r i o u s
Thy c o u n t r y may be
And g r e a t E l i s a e s
Through a l
freed
from f o r r a i n e
g lo rio u s
the w o rld ,
arm es,
haim es:
name may r i n g
f i l ’ d w ith t h y w ide A larm es,
Which some b r a u e muse may s i n g
To a g e s
follo w in g ,
Vpon t h e
T his b r i d a l
K atherine
m i g h t be
B ry d ale d a y , w hich i s
day i s
Spenser s c a r c e ly expected t h a t
f ro m f o r e i g n harm s b y November 8 ,
t r i u m p h s he h o p e s
he t r a p p e d ,
„293
n o t l i k e l y to be t h a t o f E l i z a b e t h and
Som erset*
freed
n o t long*
fo r are
not o f the
t h e n , 1m e r e l y b y s t a n z a
im m e d i a t e
stru c tu re,
This
is
alam ion.
sio n to
im probable
Above a l l
h is
p raise
The
fu tu re.
Was
e l s e he w o u ld t r y t o
repeating
gone b e f o r e ?
I n a poem so w e l l p l a n n e d a s
avoid a
the
P ro th -
lame c o n c l u ­
o f th e Queen.
The a l t e r n a t i v e
sig n ifican ce.
1596*
in to
a r e f r a i n t h a t h a s no c o n n e c t i o n v / i t h w ha t h a s
England
Is
th a t th e
lin e
has anagogical
S u r e l y t h i s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d
d re s s e d to a c o u r t l y audience*
I n a poem a d ­
The so n g f o r t h i s b r i d a l
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 89
day i s
t o be
is o f a
s u n g nTo a g e s
sp ecial
- A c c e s s i o n Day,
The
a day not
p e r s o n s who s h a r e d
F or E l i z a b e t h t h e r e was one
others
f o l l o w i n g . I!
an n iv ersary ,
the d e a th o f th e
suggestion
to be
in the
fo rg o tte n w ith
o r i g i n a l events
such day d i s t i n g u i s h e d above a l l
November 1 7 .
A f t e r 1570 i t was c e l e 29 4
b r a t e d e v e r y y e a r t h r o u g h o u t t h e k in g d o m .
E ssex had p r e ­
pared and a c te d i n a d ev ice
295
an n iversary.
i n th e Queen’s h o n o r a t
The n o v e l t y o f S p e n s e r ’ s r e f e r e n c e
it
a b r id a l day.
the
Now A c c e s s i o n Day was
d ay o f E l i z a b e t h ’ s
was n o t cr o w n e d u n t i l
u rg e d h e r to m a rry ,
co ro n atio n ,
January 15.
296
g o tten ,)
th e
K ingdome.
And i n 1559 when P a r l i a m e n t
” l have a l r e a d y
( s a i d s h e , w h ic h
(And t h e r e w i t h s h e
t h e Kingdome o f
I m a r v e l l ye h a v e
drew t h e
d o m e . ) ” Not t h i s ,
however, b u t th e
in M arriage
t h e m a i n theme f o r t h e i r p r a i s e s
3 h a l l be a
fu ll
b reath ,
E lizab eth ,
satisfactio n
it
be
. . .
to
set
h e r K ing—
c o n c lu s io n o f h e r speech
gave p o e t s
lie th
for­
Ring from h e r l i n g e r ,
w h e r e w i t h a t h e r C o r o n a t i o n she h a d i n : a
o f words s o l e m n l y g iv e n h e r s e l f
my l a s t
;Joyned
P l e d g e o f t h i s my 'Wedlock a n d M a r r i a g e w i t h my
a n d sh ew ed i t ,
fom
he c a l l s
a lth o u g h a c t u a l l y she
E l i z a b e t h answ ered:
And b e h o l d
th at
la st
r e g a r d e d b y many a s
m y s e l f i n M a rria g e t o an Husband, nam ely,
E ngland.
is
its
if,
wAnd t o me i t
when I s h a l l
i n g r a v e n up on my Ma rble Tombe,
let
H er e
w h i c h R e ig n e d a V i r g i n , a n d d i e d a V i r g i n . *
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
,297
90
Yet
from t h e
I d e a o f s p i r i t u a l m a r r i a g e was n e v e r f a r
tho u g h ts o f
sa c rile ^ ,
compared t o
and t o
the
the
f o r the
the
p o ets and people
g en erally .
r e s e m b l a n c e was n o t
pressed,
W ithout
she was
r e l i g i o u s who becomes t h e b r i d e o f t h e Lamb
V i r g i n Mary h e r s e l f .
In t h e
e p i t a p h o f an a n ­
onymous p o e t ,
11She w a s , a n d i s , w h a t c a n t h e r e more be s a i d ,
In e a r t h t h e
first,
in heaven the
second m a id .
,,298
!,0n t h e 2 4 . o f M a r c h , " s a y s C a m d e n ," b e i n g t h e Eve o f t h e
A nnunciation o f th e B lessed V irg in ,
t h e Eve o f t h e N a t i v i t y o f t h e
out o f the
sh e
same
(who was b o r n on
B lessed
P r i s o n o f h e r e a r t h l y Body t o
V irgin)
was c a l l e d
en jo y an e v e r l a s t i n g
C ountry in Heaven.
I f Spenser intended h i s
s p i r i t u a l m arriage
tv/o f a v o r i t e
to E n gland, h i s
su b jects o f h is
lin es
to
r e f e r to E liz a b e th ’s
c o m p lim e n t co m b ine s t h e
p raise;
her
g r e a tn e s s as a queen
a n d h e r p u r i t y a s a woman.
H o we v er , t h o u g h " n o t
to
November 8 a n d November 1 7 ,
W hyte’s l e t t e r s
to
S i r Robert
l o n g " may l o o k
the
phrase
Is
forw ard b o th
very vague.
S i d n e y , w h i c h ha v e b e e n a l ­
r e a d y q u o t e d , may s u p p l y m ore d e f i n i t e e v i d e n c e .
Septem ber 2 2 ,
"The 2 l a d i e s
r i e d ; ” and on t h e 2 6 t h ,
sh all
o f Somerset s h a lb e
" ’T is
s p e e d i l y be m a r r i e d t o
He s a y s on
s h o r t l y m ar­
sayd th e 2 la d ie s
your cosen*G ilford,
o f Som ersett
and S i r J o h n
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-
Peters
s o n . ”^
second l e t t e r ,
sayd."
91
-
He h a s h e a r d much more when he w r i t e s
but
Rumor h a s
it
it
be p r e f i x e d ,
the
is
only g o s s ip ,
to
" ’T i s
th at
th e m arriage
s h a l l be " s h o r t l y , t?
"sp ee d ily " accom plished.
These,
ag ain ,
are
vague
term s.
is
an u n ­
common way o f s p e a k i n g
to
i n h a s t e when i t s
i s a lm o s t a month and a h a l f away.
It
date
say t h a t
But i t
a m a r r i a g e w i l l be made
seems more, l i k e l y t h a t W h y t e ’ s i n f o r m a n t h a d h e a r d a
rumo r a b o u t t h e a p p r o a c h i n g b e t r o t h a l .
Now o n S e p t e m b e r 27
Whyte w en t t o
u n t i l the
P e n s h u r s t a n d a p p a r e n t l y was n o t a g a i n a t c o u r t
301
3 0th.
The s p o u s a l s may h a v e t a k e n p l a c e b e f o r e
he r e t u r n e d .
T his o f course
g o s s i p he r e p o r t e d
is
only a p o s s i b i l i t y .
e a r l i e r may ha ve
t h a l was a l r e a d y m a d e , a n d t h e
s t a r t e d because
ru m o re d d a t e
ag ain st t h i s .
ha ve
event
One c o n s i d e r a t i o n
I f Whyte h a d h e a r d t h a t
b e t r o t h e d , he p r o b a b l y w o u l d have
said so .
the b e t r o ­
f o r th e w edding
may h ave b e e n much e a r l i e r t h a n November 8 .
weighs
The
the
l a d i e s were
Spousal
( a s we
s e e n ) was n o t m e r e l y a p r e l i m i n a r y t o m a r r i a g e b u t a n
im portant
in i t s e l f .
Sometime
near i t s
clo se,
it
in Septem ber,
appears
from G r een wi c h u p t h e
th at
a t any r a t e , and probably
the b e t r o t h a l
Thames t o E s s e x House .
da y o f t h a t m o n t h Edmund S p e n s e r d e d i c a t e d h i s
from G r e e n w i c h .
p a r t y rowed
On t h e
first
Fowre Hymnes
One c a n o n l y gu es s a t what h a p p e n e d a f t e r w a r d s *
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for f a c t s
a r e wa n t in g ®
92
-
When
Essex had a rra n g e d t h a t
and w e d d i n g
s h o u l d "be s o l e m n i z e d a t
suggested to
S p e n s e r t h a t he w r i t e
occasion*
q u isite
An ode b y t h e
com plim ent t o
the
S p e n s e r was
u n l i k e l y t h a t on th e
an d r od e
first
i t was n o t e n t e r e d
on t h e
do a s
w rite
E s s e x 's
in th e
day o f t h e m a r r ia g e
prob ab ly
Som ersets*
the
E a rl w ished.
d a y o f t h e b e t r o t h a l he
at
he
i n E n g l a n d w o u ld b e a n e x ­
i n one o f t h e b a r g e s o f t h e
p riv ately ,
house,
spousal
a song in honor o f th e
poet
g la d to
f or e November 8 f o r him t o
p rin ted
h is
the
jo in e d the
convoy.
h is
It
is
procession
T h e r e was t i m e b e ­
Pro t h a lam i o n a n d t o
expense.
not
have
T h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n why
S tatio n ers'
R eg ister.
he p r e s e n t e d
it
to
302
P robably
the E a rl o f
W o rcester and th e
two you ng c o u p l e s .
Thus t h e
became a
the w edding,
com pletely a p p r o p r ia te ,
for i t
it
g ift
for
a
g ift
honored th e m arriag e and th e
p raised th e ir
f r i e n d and h o s t ,
--
E ngland.
p rin ted
tie s,
for
"A nthologies o f
p riv ate
a n d more o r l e s 3
vogue £ i n
Italy^j
S nail e d itio n s
sented to
eve o f t h e
song o f b e t r o t h a l
fam ily o f th e b r id e s
and
the E a rl o f E ssex .
T h i s was n o t a new i d e a ,
new t o
it
t h o u g h i t may ha ve b e e n
verse
—
' p e r nozze
ra c co lte 1
c ircu latio n a t
the m a rria g e s o f n o t a b i l i ­
ap p ro p riate
the o c c asio n ,
during the
o f from f i f t y
th e bridegroom ,
to
l a t e r years
to
o f the
came
six teen th
into
cen tu ry .
one h u n d r e d c o p i e s w e re p r e ­
the b r i d e ,
or h e r p aren ts,
w e d d in g ." 50^
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
on t h e
93 P robably th e s e
to
Spenser t h a t
- if
th is,
in th e
h is
indeed,
ep ith aiam ic
su b ject,
Italian
raeco lte
suggested
poem s h o u l d be o f f e r e d a s a w e d d i n g g i f t
i s ' w h a t he d id *
trad itio n
The
r a e c o l t e , h o w e v e r , w e re
a n d m a r r i a g e was t h e i r
no m a t t e r how t h e y w a n d e r e d from I t .
is a song o f b e t r o t h a l .
Yet h e r e a l s o
The n e x t p u r p o s e o f t h i s
essay is
t r a d i t i o n o f prothalam ies
to
intend ed
The P r o t h a l a m i o n
S p e n s e r was no i n n o v a t o r .
trace
the
somewhat m e a g e r
in E ngland.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
CHAPTER I I I
THE TRADITION OF PRQTKALAMIES
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
THE TRADITION OP PH3THAIAMIES
The © p i t h a l s m i o n
is a c l a s s i c a l
lite ra ry
genre®
It
flowered in Greek and Latin poetry and bloomed again in the
literatu re o f the Renaissance.
The history o f th is tradition
and the relation to i t o f Spenser*s own marriage song has been
304
carefully presented by Cortlandt Van Winkle.
Sidney, Bar­
tholomew Young, and Spenser brought the c la s s ic a l fom into
English poetry, and Spenser with his special s k ill made the
tradition i t s e l f English by mixing native lore with pagan
and blending formal beauties with the gusto o f the simple
English marriage song.
The best English epithalamies were
written under his Influence In the th ir ty or forty years a f 305
ter his Ep ithalamlon appeared.
All th is is well known, but u n t il now i t has not
been recognized that social custom produced in England a
parallel though leas vigorous tradition o f the betrothal
306
poem* Spenser gave a t i t l e to the genre
and wrote Its
most beautiful song.
few in number.
The prothalamles discussed here are
There can be no doubt, however, that among
noble families formal betrothal was frequently celebrated with
pageant, masque, and m instrelsy, and that a special song was
often composed in honor o f the contracted lo v ers.
After Una and the Redcrosse Knight have been be­
trothed,
- 94 -
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-
95
-
wThen gan they' sprinckle a l l the posts with wine.
And made- great feast to solemnize that day;
They a l l perfumd© with frankeneense filulne.
And precious odours fetch t from far away,
That a l l the house did sweat with great a rays
And a l l the while aweete Musicke did apply
Her curious s k i l l , the warbling notes to play,
To driue away the dull Melancholy;
The whiles one sung a song o f loue and i o l l i t y .
During the which there was an heauenly noise
Heard sound through a l l the Pallace pleasantly,
Like as i t had bene many an Angels voice,
Singing before t h ’e t e m a ll maiesty,
In th e ir t r in a ll t r i p l i c i t i e s on hye;
Yet wist no creature, whence that heauenly sweet
Proceeded, yet eachone f e l t se c r e tly
Himselfe thereby reft o f his sences meet,
And rauished with rare Impression in his s p r ite .
Great ioy was made that day o f young and old ,
And solemne feast proclaimed throughout the land,
That th e ir exceeding merth may not be tolds
Suffice i t heare by signes to vnderstand
The vsuall ioyes at k nitting o f loues band.
» 307
with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
This prcthalsmion can he Imagined only through i t s e ffect*
However, in the la s t scene o f As You hike It Hymen sings
the words o f the spousal hymn; and a fte r the contracting
of Ferdinand and Miranda in The Tempest* Prospero by his
magic creates a betrothal masque*
The fic tio n a l f e s t i v i t i e s
for Princess Una and
Redcrosse are paralleled, with the usual d eficien cies o f
fact, by the celebration for the spousals o f Princess Margaret
Tudor and James IV o f Scotland*
The contract, i t w ill be re­
membered, was made at Richmond on January 25, 1502, with the
Earl of Bothwell serving as proxy for h is King*
lowed by three days o f rejoicin g.
This was f o l ­
Each night there were
great banquets, and every day, "there were the right notable
Justs in Hosting Barneys along the Tylt*"
On the second day
"incontinent a fte r the Pryse3 were given, there was In the
Hall a goodly Pageant, curiously wrought with F e n e stra llis,
having many Lights brenning in the
same,
In Manner o f a
Lantron, out o f wich sorted divers Sortes o f Morisks*
Also
a very goodly Disguising o f Six Gentlemen and Six Gentle­
women, which danced divers Dances*"^®
When the betrothal
was declared In London at Paul’s Cross, "In reioycing whereof
Te Deum was sung, and bone fie rs made through the C ity, and
at 12* o f the bone fie rs wer s e t ,
12* ^^aheada o f Gascoigne
wine, to be drunke o f a l l men f r e e l i e •"
There was a ls o , as
we sh a ll see, a prothalamion, although i t was written some
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
— 9 6a
tim e a f t e r t h e
ev ent.
The e a r l i e s t
found i s
—
E n glish b e tr o th a l
song w hich has b een
J o h n L y d g a t e ’ s (!c o m e n d a b le b a l a d e
•
.
. a t de r e u e r * 7 “1
s nc e o f my La dy o f Ho l a n d a n d o f my L o r d o f G l o u c e s t r e . !f
I t was w r i t t e n
i n 1 4 2 2 , when L y d g a t e ’ s p a t r o n t h e
Humphrey e s p o u s e d a n d m a r r i e d
Jacq u elin e,
Z e a l a n d , and H a i n a u l t .
i s no d o u b t t h a t
the b e tr o th a l
There
Countess o f H o lla n d ,
r a th e r th a n the m arriag e.
be d e f i n i t e l y d a t e d ,
but the
g r e a t Duke
the
poem h o n o r s
N e i t h e r c e re m o n y c a n
poem s p e a k s o f H enry V a s
a nd he d i e d on A u g u s t 31 b e f o r e t h e w e d d in g t o o k p l a c e .
o v e r , L y d g a t e makes
it
c l e a r t h a t th e noble
liv in g
3 1 *L
More­
p a ir are b etro th ed
only:
’*-Dis M a r t y s s o n e a n d s o o ^ e f a s t l y h i s
So w o l d e God o f h i s
e t e r n a l m ight
He i o y n e d we re w i t h h i r & i t
•De f r e s s h e d u c h e s s e ,
S i t h he i n h e r t
heyre,
is
so f e y r e ,
o f whome I s p e e k
now r i g h t ,
i s h i r truw e k n y g h t,
For whome h e w r y t e ^ e i n goode a v e n t u r e
Sanz p l u 3
T hi s o f c o u r s e
vous b e l l e
p erp etu elly te n d u re .”
is e x c e lle n t,
b u t soon th e
p o e t hopes
”S a t “S e r s h a l beo a p e r p e t u e l l e b a n d e ,
P a r f o u r m y n g vp b y k n o t t o f m aryage
W it h h e l p e o f Go d .n312
L i k e many o f L y d g a t e ’ s w o r k s ,
t h a n a poem.
th is
is a duty r a t h e r
One o f h i s m o d e ls may h a v e b e e n t h e
iro n ic
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ep ith -
-
97
alamion in the Merchants Tale*
Chaucer*s humorous admonitions
wHoold thou thy pees,, thou poete Mercian,
That w ritest us that ilk© weddyng murie
Of hir© Philogie and hym Mercurie,
And o f the
songes that the Muses songet”
is treated quite seriously by Lydgate, who beg3 Hymen and
Juno to make the knot as ttfeythfal and entiere" aa that which
313
joined th is celebrated couple*
Whether or not Lydgate turned to Latin o rig in a ls,
his technique is that o f one section o f the epic epithal&mion
314
in which the bride and groom are formally praised*
After
an introduction showing that matches are made in heaven and
that marriage is an excellent way to a l ly kingdoms, he writes
eight stanzas on the beauty and virtue o f Countess Jacqueline,
who is made to share various actairable q u a litie s with famous
ladies o f sacred and profane literature*
Only six stanzas ex­
t o l Duke Humphrey, but within th e ir narrow compass he is com­
pared favorably to the Nine Worthies and others among the d is ­
tinguished dead*
The poem closes with a prayer to God that
the wedding may soon be performed, and a marriage song made
in anticipation, asking the Roman d e itie s to bless the union.
Because i t names the pagan gods, probably th is song is
imitated
from the epic epithalamion*
Three-quarters o f a century la te r William Dunbar
wrote The T h rissil and the Rois in honor o f Margaret Tudor
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31J
-
98
and his patron King James o f Scotland*
Margaret did not set
out to meet James u n til June*, 1503*, a year and a h a lf a fte r
the betrothal*
King Henry himself accompanied her part o f the
way and arranged that she ”bee conveyed vary nobely out o f his
sayd Realme,** attended by the Earl o f Surrey and many noblemen
and ladie3 •
One o f her gentlewomen was the wife o f Sir Rich­
ard Guldeford.
A ll along the way 3he was entertained by the
great lords o f England, and i t was not u n til August 1 that
she entered Scotland*
Two day3 la te r she met James for the
316
f ir s t time, and on August 8 the marriage was celebrated.
Dunbar wrote his poem
317
"Off lu sty May vpone the nynt morrow,**
when the young queen had not yet begun her journey. Yet i t
is a betrothal poem in the sense that i t anticipates the f i r s t
meeting o f the espoused couple*
It 13 written in May when
the la rk s in gs ,
318
"Awalk, luvaris, out o f your slomering.**
The T hris3il and the R0 I 3 shows no influence from
the c la s s ic a l epithalamion.
Dunbar chose a form that had
done service in everything from elegy to ep ici
vision*
Aurora wakes him*
"'Slugird,*
the dream
Fresh May chides his heaviness.
scho said ,
*awalk annone for schame,
»319
And In my honour sum thing thow go wryt*
He p rotests, but she says that he must come to praise **the
Ross o f most plesanee*n
Following her, he enters the lovely
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fomal garden o f the dream vision*
There Dame Nature summons
a ll beasts , birds, and Flowers to receive her commands®
The a lle g o r ic a l devices are from heraldry®
The
lion comes to be crowned king o f beasts,
and Dunbar in de320
scribing him blazons the royal coat o f arms.
But uhe
chief symbols for James and Margaret are the badges of
their housess
the t h is t le o f Scotland and the Tudor rose,
uniting the red rose o f Lancaster and the white rose of
York.
Crowning King T histle, Dame Nature warns hiins
nNor haId non vdir flour in s ic denty
As the fresche Ross, o f cullour re id and quhyt;
For gife thow dois, hurt is thyne honesty,
Conciddering that no flour is so perfyt,
So f u ll of vertew, plesans and d elyt,
So f u ll of b lis f u ll angeilik bewty,
321
linperiall birth, honour and dignite . w
Then she crowns the Rose, who sh a ll be
Lily o f France.
honored above the
The flowers themselves, the sweetest singers
among the birds, and fin a lly ’’the commoun voce .
small” h a il th is queen o f flowers.
he finds that a l l
® * o f birdis
The song wakes Dunbar and
has been a dream.
Evidently he is indebted to many dream-vis ion poems
322
and particularly to Chaucer’s Parliament o f Fowls.
I f the
Parliament were a betrothal song, as some c r it ic s have supposed
there would be a special reason for Dunbar’ s Imitation o f it*
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-
100 -
But proof for th is hypothesis is wanting*
533
Dunbar rather
s k ilf u lly turned the devices o f the tradition to h is
purpose9
and that i s the te st o f the dream-vis ion poet®
On the day o f the wedding the c a stle o f Holyrood
was not unlike a scene in many a dream vision*
The hangings
of the chambers re presented the story o f Hercules and ”the
Ystory o f T ro y Towns, and in the Glassys Wyndowes war the
324
Aimes o f Scotland and o f Inglaund byperted*
After
dinner the minstrels played and probably they sang Dunbar* s
second 3 ong for Margaret and James, h is charming l i t t l e
**25
epithalamion
The next betrothal poem was written in Latin.
is included here f i r s t , because i t
It
shows that the fora was
recognized by practiced panegyrists early in Elizabeth*s
reign, and second, because the object o f it s
praise was Lady
Anne Russell, who married the Earl o f Warwick and became the
friend and patron o f Edmund Spenser®
The author was Peter
Bizzari, an accomplished Ita lia n , who l e f t his native country
a fte r adopting the protestant r e lig io n .
In England he gained
the patronage o f Francis Russell, second Earl o f Bedford, and
was admitted fellow o f St. John*s College, Cambridge.
poems are almost a l l occasional*
His
He mourns and he rejoices
for the deaths and noble doings o f his well-born friends.
Seven o f his compositions are addressed to members o f the
Russell family, one o f them being his prothalamion for Lady
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Anne •
101 -
326
The date o f the spousal of* Lady Anne and the Earl
o f Warwick i s
n o t known-, b u t
t h e poem was w r i t t e n a t l e a s t
327
f i v e months before the wedding
and i t would not be
praise i f the lady were not betrothed*
It opens thusc
"0 , quam felicem poterit se dicere natum
Qui t i b i vir fuerit*
Rara, pudiciti&e lau s, in te maxima flo r e t ,
Virgineum^
decus•
Foma Helenas s im ilis , quam semper grata uenustas,
i> 32S
Quam eomitatur amor*
As a Latin poet, Bizzari naturally drew on the trad ition o f
the epic epithalamion*
His poem Is much lik e Lydgate’s
in foim except that hi3 praise
is almost a l l for the lady -
her betrothed 13 c h ie fly distinguished by his luck at having
won her*
He describes her chaitns, her noble ancestry, and
the radiant virtues o f her mother and father*
Then he
329
c lo se s, a 3 doe3 Lydgate, with an anticipatory wedding song*
The marriage was made at Westminster in the presence
of the Queen on Hcvember 11, 1665.
For three days i t was
330
celebrated with noble jousts and banquets*
On the wedding
night “Bobert Thomas, maister gunner o f England, desirous also
to honour the feast and mariage dale (In consideration the
said earle o f Waiwike was gene r a il o f the ordinance * .
. )
made three great trainee o f chambers, which t e r r ib lie yeelded
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-
102
-
foorth the nature o f th e ir voice,
* • • who at the firin g
of the second was vnhappili© slaine by a psece o f on© o f
331
the chambers, to the great so row and lamentation o f manie
Like Thomas, the epIthalamies which doubtless were composed
have perished®
The ceremony in the la s t scene o f As You Dike It
is the public spousal o f Orlando and Rosalind, Oliver and
Celia,
S ilviu s and Fhebe, and Touchstone and Audrey*
play ends with preparations for the wedding.
The
Duke Senior
says:
B© • «
we w i l l begin these
r it e s ,
332
As we do trust they* 11 end, in true delights *n
The pro t halamion, however, is sung by Hymen, and he c a lls i t
333
*h wedlock hymn*n
In f o r m i t resembles the f ir s t part o f
the trad ition al epithalamion, the song o f Hymen*s triumph
and the fescennine contention o f the youths and maidens with
334
which the bride was escorted from her home®
The fescennine
elements in the Shakespearean song are Hymen’s comments on the
making o f the s pousals *
In the betrothal masque In The Tempest,
Iris sum­
mons Ceres, goddess o f earthly plenty, to a s s is t Juno, god­
dess o f marriage,
ttA contract o f true love to celebrate,
And some donat ion freely to estate
335
On the bless*d lovers*n
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103
-
Now Ceres* blessing always would be acceptable to engaged
couples and i t belongs to Ferdinand and Miranda , who w ill
inherit richly*
It is
f it t in g also that Juno should be
ch ief patron, for she Is goddess o f spousals as w ell as mar336
riage*
But the songs they sing are made against the wed­
ding days
Juno s
”Honour, riches, marriage-bless ing,
long continuance and increasing,
Hourly Joys be s t i l l upon you I
Juno sings her blessings on you*”
Geress
nEarth*s increase,
foison plenty*
Barns and garners never emptys
Vines, with clu 3 t*ring bunches growing;
Plants with goodly burden bowing;
Spring come to you at the farthest
In the very end o f harvest I
Scarcity and want sh a ll shun you;
33V
Ceres* blessing so is on you*”
For the spousal and marriage o f the Princess Eliza­
beth and the Palsgrave many epithalamies were written, but
there is record o f only one prot halamion.
This was ”a bal­
lad called Bnglande3 comfort or A .joyfull newe sbnge o f the
Ladye ELIZABETH and the Count Palatine*
which *3* princes
were betrothed together in his majesties Chappell at Whitehall
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-
yppon Saint Johns
104
Day Last, before h l 3 males t ie and diuerse
of the Mob11i t ie *w The t e s t
Is not avaliable , but the t i t l e
and the approximate time o f composition seem to indicate that
th is was a song of betrothal.
It was entered in Stationers*
Hall on January 14, a l i t t l e more than two weeks a fte r the
338
spousal and a month before the marriage*
The texts o f s ix spousal songs, two written for
fictio n a l betrothals and the others for betrothals in l i f e ,
would be in su ffic ie n t to estab lish the form o f the protha lamion
i f i t had an established fomn.
But these poems seem to show
that i t never became an Independent lite ra r y type.
protha lamies are d if f ic u lt to recognize.
This Is why
Even for the poems
that contain within themselves proof that they celebrate
betrothals, an attempt has been made to support the I d e n tifi­
cation with external evidence; and such evidence is
required
to demonstrate that The Thrlasil and the Rols and the song In
As You Like It are betrothal poems.
Further search doubtless
w ill discover other protha lamie s , but It is
lik e ly that they
w ill show the same dependence on other lite ra r y types as do
those considered here.
It Is not surprising to find these poets using e s ­
tablished fozms, and particularly the eplthalsmlon.
The
event they celebrate Is o f great so cia l sig n ifica n ce, but i t
is in i t s nature te n ta tiv e .
attached to the "few r ite s
However
. . .
little
importance was
Which mariage make," under
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-
105
-
so c ia l, th eo lo g ica l, and le g a l compulsion these r ite s usually
were perfoimed®
Betrothal anticipated marriage, and the poet
i n h i s betrothal song anticipated the ©pithalamion»
alone escaped i t s
Dunbar
influence, and he did so by se ttin g his
work within poetry*s most capacious tra d itio n .
Lydgate,
Bizzari, and Shakespeare imitated certain parts o f the ©pic
marriage song*
Both typ © 3
influenced Spenser*
The Protha lamion opens lik e a dream visions
“Calm© was the day, and through the trembling ayre,
Sweets breathing Zephyrus did s o f t ly play
A gentle s p i r i t , that lig h t ly did delay
Hot Titans beames, which then did g ly ster fayres
When I whom su lle in care,
Through discontent o f my long fruitless© stay
In Princes Court,
and expectation vayne
Of idle hopes, which s t i l l doe f ly away,
Like empty shaddowes, did a f l i c t my brayne,
Walkt forth to ease my payne
Along the s hoare o f s ilu e r streaming Themmes *n
Without d e fin ite ly eonsnitting himself to the form, Spenser
describes hitnself as the familiar figure o f the v isio n , the
weary discontented man who wanders thus or l i e s
then suddenly dreams.
sleep less
and
Compare with these lin e s the opening
of the Buines o f Time and DapbnaIda, o f the Pearl, Piers
Plowman» the Parliament o f Fowls, the House o f game, the
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Book o f the Duehe aa .
Iiike the dreamer1 in Ohau.ee r 8s version o f the
Rsman. de la Rose. Spenser walks beside a stream be loves
“
339
and comes upon a garden*
Tbe nymphs* meadow has the
bright and unreal beauty o f the garden o f the dream.
The
vision expands; the swans appear and the nymphs pay homage
to them.
Every d e ta il heightens the a r t i f i c i a l lo v elin ess
o f the scene.
However, the dream-vision technique has never
been fu lly assumed, and Spenser chooses to abandon i t at the
beginning o f the eighth stanza.
DaphnaIda was modelled on the Boolr o f the Duchess.
In the Prothalamlon Spenser makes more s k ilf u l use o f the
method he learned in that experiment and in a life lo n g appren­
ticesh ip to Chaucer*
The ways o f courtly poetry remained much
the same from Chaucer*s time through the Renaissance.
The
court writers o f the sixteenth century were more Influenced
by c la s s ic a l tra d itio n s, e sp e c ia lly by the pastoral.
Medieval
»
and c la s s ic a l elements are easy to observe in DaphnaIda because
there they join but do not fu se.
the encomiums
But the usual devices o f
allegory, rhetorical elaboration, veiled refer­
ence through pun and anagram and heraldic allusion - these were
as familiar to Spenser as to Chaucer.
Spenser introduces his ladies in th e ir a lleg o rica l
swan-d is guise by means o f a figure o f words c a lle d condupll340
cat io o
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107
-
*Two fa irer Birds I yet did neuer sees
The snow which doth the top o f PIndus strew.
Did neuer whiter shew9
Nor Joue himselfe when he a Swan would he
For loue o f Leda, whiter did appear©*
Yet Leda was they say as white as he,
Yet not so white as these, nor nothing near©;
So purely white they were,
That euen the gentle stream©, the which them bare,
Seem’d foule to them, and bad his billowes spare
» 341
To wet th e ir silken feathers* • • •
Several Elizabethans played with the word white and the idea
342
o f whiteness «
And of course a l l w ell-trained poets used the
figure, which consists in the artfu l repetition o f one word*
But in English poetry i t was never more s k ilf u lly used
than
in these lin e s , unless perhaps by Chaucer in the Man o f Law’s
3 43
Tale «
The c ondupi lea t lo is the most notable color, or
figure o f words, in the Protha lamion, but the whole poem is
as highly rhetorical as the dream visions o f Chaucer*3 4 4
In the Book of the Duchess Chaucer onploys the
devices o f courtly disguise*
Ee represents the death o f
Blanche o f Lancaster in the allegory o f the chess game with
Fortune •
When he names her, he does so not d irectly but
in a puns
w
And goode fair© White she het*
_ 345
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Finally he refera to her and John o f Gaunt in two punning
lin e s .
As the dreamer rides home from the hunt, he sees
long c a ste l with walles white*
346
Be seynt Johant on a ryehe h il* w
Spenser’s ways are equally devious*
The queen is
f ir s t Cynthia, then E lisa , and even the second is a kind of
disgu ise.
nHe c a lle th her Elysa,*
E.K* explained, *as
347
through rudenesse tripping in her name***
Leicester
348 „
is id en tified by the house he liv ed in*
Of Somers-heat
they say* were bred the Ladles Elizabeth and Katherine*
Spenser puns on the family name o f the Earl o f Essex by
turning French to English, as Chaucer did with Blanche.
He wishes the Earl
** * .
. endlesse happines se o f thine owne name
That prcan iseth the same *n
It is an interesting coincidence that Chaucer’s
elegy was written for the wife o f John o f Gaunt, ancestor
o f the Ladies Elizabeth and Katherine Somerset.
The Prothalamion, however, owes le s s to Chaucer
and the dream vision than to the epic epithalamion.
Lydgate
and Bizzari appear to have been influenced by the epithalamion’s foxmal praise o f the bride and groom*
t h i 3 obligation a d e lig h t.
Spenser makes
His description o f the ladies as
swans is properly f u ll of c la s s ic a l comparisons and he retains
the swan motive for praise o f the young men, whom he compares
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109
551
to the twin sons o f Jove and Leda•
352
type Is more general*
But h is debt to the
Van Winkle describes th© fomns
®Th© poet f ir s t
paints a background before which h is characters are Intro­
duced - often mythological characters, as Feleus and Thetis
in Catullus or Venus and Cupid in Claudian; scenes and
events of the marriage are described 3
and a commentary,
often in subjective mood, is made o f the whole proceeding***
The mythological Introductions to these poems may
have influenced Spenser*
The meadow where his nymphs pluck
flowers Is lik e the garden In a dream vision but i t
Is also
lik e the demesne o f Venus In the epithalamion for Honorius
and Marlas
Hunc neque candentes audent vestire pruinae,
hunc vent1 pulsa re tlment, hunc laedere nimbi*
luxuriae Venerique vacat •
pars acrior anni
exulat; aeterai patet indulgentia v e r is •
•
•
•
•
intus rura micant, manibus quae subdita n u llis
perpetuum flo r e n t, Zephyro contents colono,
umbrosumque nemus, quo non admittitur a le s ,
354
n i probet ante suo3 diva 3ub iudice cantus •
The allegory o f the swans is o f the nature o f myth, and prob­
ably i t owes something to the decorative procession o f Venus
attended by lo v e s, nymphs, and other servitors coming to pre-
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I
-
110 -
355
pare the bride for the wedding.
The Prothalamion seems
to combine the mythological introduction o f the epic epithalamion with the description o f the ceremony that follow s.
In his discussion of the Bpithalamion, Van Winkle’s
proper interest in the ly r ic quality o f the poem causes him
to s lig h t , In some degree, i t s likeness to the epic marriage
356
song. .
It has, in fa c t, the same structure as the Prothalam­
ion, and differences arise from the ceremonies that they
celebrate.
The Prothalamion deals with approximately the
same material as is presented,
in greater d e ta il,
357
twelve stanzas o f the Bpithalamion»
There i s one great d ifferen ce.
In the f ir s t
The seventh stanza
o f the Bpithalam ion describes the chant o f Hymen’s triumph
with which the bride is led toward the church, the typical
song that Shakespeare adapted in As You Like I t .
The nymph
in the Pro tha lamion sings the epithalamion i t s e l f , the song
at the couch?
nYe gentle Birdes, the worlds fa ire ornament,
And heauens g lo r ie , whom th is happie hower
Doth leade vnto your louers b lia f u l l bower,
Ioy may you haue and gentle hearts content
Of your loue 3 couplement:
And le t
fair© Venus, that is Queene o f loue,
With her he art-quelling Sonne vpon you smile,
Whose smile they say, hath vertue to remoue
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A ll Loues d is lik e , and friendships fa u ltie guile
For euer to a s s o lle .
Let endlesse Peace your steadfast hearts accord,
And blessed Plentie wait vpon you [i| bord,
And l e t your bed with pleasures chast abound,
That f r u it f h ll issue may to you afford,
Which may your foe3 confound,
And make your ioyes redound,
Vpon your Brydale day, which is not long
The counterpart is
.n
in stanzas 21 to 23 o f the Epi t halamIon«
The same song, invoking or giving blessings for the marriage,
is offered in anticipation by Lydgate and Bizzari and by
358
Shakespeare in The Tempest*
Spenser ends h is betrothal poem when the ceremony
i t s e l f is about to begin, and for this there
i3 good reason*
The formal betrothal service, as we have seen, simply uses
the marriage r itu a l.
To have described, in the manner o f
the epithalamion, the ceremony and the celebration that f o l­
lowed, would have given an a ir of completion which mas neither
f e lt nor desired.
In As You Like It Shakespeare tr ied to evoke
th is sense o f a prelude by modelling his spousal hymn on an
epithalsmic song preliminary to the marriage.
Spenser created
the same e ffe c t by making his whole poem an introduction to
the betrothal.
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CHAPTER IV
OTHER TRADITIONS OF THE PROTHALAMION
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OTHER T R A D IT IO N S O F THE FRO THA LAM ION
The e p i c
the o n ly l i t e r a r y
a s he co m p os e d t h e
the
e p i t h a l a m i o n and. t h e
p a t t e r n s w hich S p e n se r t u r n e d to h i s
P rothalam ion.
to p o g rap h ical a n tiq u a ria n
a lr e a d y tw ice c o n t r i b u t e d .
n i z e d b y M r . C.
lo st
He 'was a l s o
poem, a t y p e
t o w h i c h he h a d
first
recog­
G. O s g o o d . The P r o t h a l a m i o n .h e
says,
the
x i o f the
sent the
A fresh
g e n r e and e s t a b l i s h
com parison o f t h e s e
shows t h a t
is
F o u r t h Book
iso late d
s p e c i m e n s o f a t y p e n o t uncommon i n t h e i r t i m e .
I n p r o o f he d e s c r i b e s
which
in f lu e n c e d by
F a e r i e Queene ’’s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d n o t a s
w orks, b u t as
purpose
T h is t r a d i t i o n was
E p i t h a l a m i o n Thames i s , a n d c a n t o
o f the
dream v i s i o n w ere n o t
th ree
its
part
the
repre­
general c h a r a c te r is tic s .
poems w i t h t h e
l i t t l e may be a d d e d t o ^ r .
in la rg e
o t h e r poems t h a t
,.359
P rothalam ion
Osgood’ s a c c o u n t ,
substance o f th e
fo llow ing p a ra ­
graphs .
In
John L e la n d p u b l i s h e d C y g n e a G a n t i o , a L a t i n
3fiO
w ork o f 699 h e n d e c a s y l l a b i c l i n e s .
I t was w r i t t e n , L e l a n d
says
m us e s
in h is
1545
d e d ic a tio n to
H enry V I I I ,
a s a swan s o n g t o
from whose d e l i g h t s he m u s t t u r n t o
an tiq u arian
search.
B ut L e l a n d l o v e d t h e m uses b e c a u s e
in t h e i r
e t e r n a l youth;
and h i s
p a g e s o f l e a r n e d c o m m e n t a ry ,
Itin e ra ry .
The o p e n i n g
poem,
t h e y we re
the
re­
ancient
equipped w ith e i g h t y
is
a s a n t i q u a r i a n a work a s h i s
recalls
S p e n s e r ’ s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the
-
112
-
i f”5£*
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
w h i t e n e s s o f swa nss
wGygnus me g e n u i t p a t e r ,
Ip sis
can d id io r,
lig u stris
colunt A p r i l i
A l b a e quum Venerem suam v o l u c r e s ;
Et s p i r a t
Zephyrus,
Ver f u n d i t
vario
no vuumque p i c t o s
colo re
Cygnus me p e p e r i t ,
flo re s•
nive & c o l o s t r o
M a t e r c a n d i d i o r . ”^®**A p p r o p r i a t e l y enough,
song l i v e s
a great
a t O x f o r d on a n i s l a n d
longing to
stream , p a st
sea.
he
is
flo at
in the
W i th t w e l v e
Isis*
d irectio n
splendor;
r i v e r and to w a tc h
he
Richmond, Kew , a d m i r ­
procession
in the
- the
T e mple ,
P a u l ’ s - b u t n o t o f t h e m a n s i o n o f L o rd P a g e t ,
w h i c h l a t e r became L e i c e s t e r a n d t h e n E s s e x House*
s c r i p t i o n o f Gre e nwic h makes
meadow i n t h e
Prothalam ion
a n d a s he a n d h i s a t t e n d a n t s
t h r o u g h t h e c i t y he s p e a k s o f v a r i o u s p l a c e s
B aynard’3 C a s t l e ,
swims down
A p p r o a c h i n g London i n t h e
from t h a t o f t h e
s t r u c k by i t s
learned
He i s moved w i t h
com panions,
R e a d i n g , ’W in d s o r , E t o n ,
i n g them a n d t h e i r a n t i q u i t i e s .
o p p o site
swan who s ing s t h i s
s e e t h e wonders o f t h e
i t s w a te r s meet th e
the
th e
it
a proper s e t t i n g
362
fo r the
Pro t h a l a m i o n .
’*Ecce u t
jam n i t e a t
Tanquam s i d e r e a e
locus
H is d e ­
p etitu s,
dLomus c a t h e d r a e !
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
nynphs1
-
114
-
”Quae f & s t i g i a p i e t a i
Quae t u r r e s
Quae p o r r o
qu ae
vel ad a s t r a
v irid aria,
Fo n t © s i F l o r a
fen estrael
se e f f e r e n te s l
ac p e r e n n e s
sinum o c c u p a t
Fundens d e l i c l a s
n iten tis
venustra
h o rti.
Rsrum commodus a e s t l r a a t o r i l l e ,
Ri p ae q u i
v a r i i s m o d ls amoenae
Nomen c o n t u l i t
D eptford s t i r s
at
sea,
V III.
and a f t e r
A b rie f
The
th is
e l e g a n t e r aptum .”
the
he
swan t o
sings a
fa re w e ll to h i s
hexam eters,
to
show t h a t
arranged
r e v i e w E ng land * s t r i u m p h s
v e r y l o n g encomium f o r H e n ry
co m pa n io n s e n d s t h e
s e c o n d poem o f t h i s
m e n t s q u o t e d b y Camden i n h i s
sort e x ists
B ritan n ia.
the o r i g i n a l
beneath t h i s
the
m eeting
i n one s t r e a m e become h a n d - f a s t
towne
in w a te rs,
I o r an d Dan i n t h e h o l y L a n d ,
come
Io rd a n and Dordan.
a compound wo rd i
Now a s
3
[D orchester)
(as
so In name,
it
c alled ,
152 L a t i n
su fficien t
gives th e
a n d jo y n e d
coupled,
Dor a n d Dan i n F r a n c e , w hence
Tamis i s , t h a t
you may r e a d o r l e a y e u n r e a d a t
preface
frag­
Tame and Is i s
were)
is
th e
r i v e r by
Tami 3 . . . .
I s i s w i t h »Tame h a u e h e e r e
v e r s e s t a k e n o u t o f a Poem b e a r i n g t h a t
be a r u d e way t o
are
they are
For e v e r a f t e r th is:,
touching t h i s m arriage o f
certain e
36 4
second f r a g n e n t
nA l i t t l e
as
only in
song.
poem was s i m i l a r i n p u r p o s e t o Cygnea
them e:
and as
swan
But t h e s e
in t h e i r probable o r d e r ,
C a n tio . A b r i e f in tro d u c tio n to
i n W e d l o c k e:
3 63
T itle,
y o u r p l e a s u r e .'*365
a n o t h e r m a n ' s poem.
T h is would
P robably,
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
w hic h
a s Mr.
-
Osgood, s u g g e s t s ,
in th e
first
tim e o f
fragm ent
R ichard
e scap e by th e
nHic
vest i t
the
3 66
R a dc ot B r i d g e
E a r l o f Oxford,
fought a l o s i n g
is a rray ed
Zephyrus
flo ren tes
gram ine
redim it caput
fig h t
known
a n d made
f o r th e w edding:
rip as,
IS ID I3 h e r b i s ,
pulcherrim a
GRA.TIA. f l o r e s ,
367
g e mi n as CONCORDIA, l a . e t a c o r o l l a s . ' ’
H ere,g r e a t l y c o m p re sse d ,
fiv e
passes
Then I s i s
B e l i g i t am brosios
first
au th o r.
riv e r.
FLORAQ.UE n e c t a r e i s
^o n tex it
Isis
II,
by h i s b a d g e o f t h e w i l d b o a r ,
h is
-
Camden h i m s e l f was t h e
In t h e
where,
115
i s much o f t h e
ceremony o f th e
s t a n z a s o f th e Prothalam i o n .
Hytnen l i f t s
c ha m b er w i t h
a ll
h is
te a d w hile
th e
t h e r i c h e s won b y t h e
The Tame, k i n d l e d w i t h l o v e ,
h u rries
Naiades deck a b r i d e
islan d ers
past
the
since B ru t.
to w n s o f Tame
and D o r c h e s t e r w i t h h e r h a i r l o o s e a n d k n i t t e d w i t h e a r s o f
corn,
as a
rural
bride
should
appears and th e m arriag e
rejo ice;
te lls
Echo
i s made.
sounds a g a i n t h e
how s h e became a n
cu les, U lysses,
h e r w edding.
Nynphs,
son g o f t h e
i s l a n d and r e c a l l s
R adiant
saty rs,
b ird s;
th e
Isis
and c u p id s
and B rito n a
v isits
o f Her­
B ru tu s, and C aesar.
U n i t e d now,
r i v e r speaks to
go t o
the w aters
the c a s t l e
make 3 an o b e i s a n c e t h a t
o f the
m ight
flo w b y W i n d s o r .
T h e re t h e
glory o f E liz a b e th ,
and
suggest the a c tio n o f th e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Thames
-
and i t s
"banks i n t h e
116
Pro t h a lam i o n ;
5tOmnia c o n c e d u n t u n i ,
Q .u i cq u id h a b e s ;
Tam isis
ripae
(sim ulc^
en p l a c i d e
E lizabetha
su is
ebos and flow s
the
tid e
A th ird
is
In h i s
stirred
and Hampton C o u r t ,
th a t
At Richmond
no s t r e a m o f Europe
his
o f the
genre
i s W. V a l l a n s 1
T h i s E n g l i s h poem i n 266 l i n e s
p r o s e c o m m en tary , wa 3 f i r 3t
i n t r o d u c t i o n V a l l a n s makes
by th e
broth ers
E lbe.
A T a l e o f Two Swanne 3 .
1 5 9 0 . 369
profatur)
of th e ir h isto ry .
rep resen tativ e
verse, w ith a
flexo
B r i t a n n i s , !,368
b y Runnimede
and b o a s t s
su rg it,
vobis
suo q u a s i p o p l i t e
so r e g u l a r l y e x c e p t p e r h a p s
S cheldt and th e
blank
& incola
Diva & Dea s o l a
rich es
T am isis m eets th e
sit,
s u b s i d e t , & in d e
The r i v e r r o l l s
re m e m b e r in g t h e
s u p s r a t u r i n uno
t i b i m aior honos, & g lo r ia
A c c o l a qu o d n o s t r a e
E lizab eth a.
-
it
verse;
published
enthusiasm
a n d p r o b a b l y he
i m i t a t i n g t h e i r L a t i n poems a s w e l l a s
in
c l e a r t h a t he
same a n t i q u a r i a n a n d p a t r i o t i c
t h a t moved L e l a n d a n d Camden t o
of
is
S p e n s e r’ s E pithalam ion
Thames i s .
He p u b l i s h e d h i s
w hat
I was a b l e )
illu stra te ,
world-, my c o u n t r i e
w a s,
th at a lb e it
soever,
be a b l e
poem ’’ F i r s t ,
o r place
I m ight
(in
o r make b e t t e r known t o
the
o f b y rth .
n e i t h e r my w r i t i n g ,
to
th at
.
.
.
A nother reason
nor o th er
indevour w h at­
perfouim any t h i n g t h a t m ig h t e i t h e r b e a u t i
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
f i e o r a do m e t h e
117
-
places
I s p eake o f i - Yet h e r e b y I w o u ld
n
a n i m a t e , o r e n c o u r a g e t h o s e w o r t h y P o e t s , who have w r i t t e n
B p i t h a l a m i o n Thames i s , t o
verae
in h a t i n e
know n o t
w ritten
it
( i n my j u d g m e n t) w e l
f o r what
reason,
my c o u n t r y ,
l| a s L e l a n d
Poets
since
T hirdly,
I have
s a y 3^ ^ J :
sin g , as
3
een i t
done, b u t t h e - a u t h o r ,
i t .
being
not u nlike
I
T h a t w h ic h i s
i t was p r o m i s e d ,
fu lly
I h e l d b e s t b e f o r e my d e p a r t u r e
t h e i r d e a t h do
the
. . .
sam e.
doth su p p resse
in E n g l i s h , though long
not perfo u m ed .
ca ns r e
p u b lish the
yet
reso lv ed to
is
leave
Cigneum a l i q u i d
the
Swans, who b e f o r e
V i r g i l , O vid, H o race, M a r tia l w ith a l l
do c o n s t a n t l y a f f y m e . "
^ 1
The poem o p e n s w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f
sprin g .
Venus, p l e a s e d w i t h H e r t f o r d s h i r e
r i v e r Lea,
its
sends Mercury to
s w a n s , two c i g n e t s
in th e
r i v e r a n d wins
king
an d q u e e n o f
fetch
and t h e c r y s t a l
from C a y s t e r ,
o f su rp assin g beau ty .
from Jove a p r o m i s e
its
be r e p l e n i s h e d b y t h e i r
w a te rs and t h a t
race.
fabled
These
th at
The r o y a l b i r d s
liv e
H er I v o r y C h a r i o t t h r o u g h t h e l o f t i e
ayre •
G-raunted t o
Sim ilar lin e s
such,
(as th e
Poets
a 3 she h o l d e s
o c c u r in the
f a m ilia r w ith th e c l a s s i c a l
be
t h e Thames i t s e l f s h a l l
to
favour
she p u t s
theys h a ll
wT h r ee t i m e s h a d Venus u s 1d them f o r
A sp eciall
for
i n h o n o rs
draw
sa y )
in accom pt.”
Prothalam ion, but
sources o f the
3*72
S p e n s e r was s u r e l y
idea.
3*73
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
118
In t h e i r o l d age
progress
through t h e i r
in a t t e n d a n c e ,
houses
in
t h e swan r u l e r s
realm .
its
its
trib u tarie s
course.
decide
to
go on
fo rty -m ilk -w h ite
swans
so u rc e o f th e Lea t o
and o b s e rv in g a l l
They i n s p e c t t h e
(among them Hu n sdon,
E n field ),
T
« Ith
t h e y swim from t h e
mouth, e x p l o r i n g
of in terest
-
T heobalds,
its
places
tow ns a n d n o b l e
a n d Queen E l i z a b e t h ’ s
a n d t h e y show a b e c o m in g r o y a l
in te re st
in both an ­
t i q u i t y and p r o g r e s s ;
n Downs a l l
a l o n g t h r o u g h Via I t ham s t r e e t
And w o n d e r a t
L ate
th e
su p p rest,
And e v e r i e
ruines
Among them a l l
o f t h e A bbay,
the w a lle s ,
th in g th a t
the w alk ss,
there
a rare
is
devise
T h r o u gh w h i c h t h e b o a t e s
at
last
arriv e
by a g r e a t
at
swim,
3
t o be s e e n e •
the
locke
o f Via r e doe p a s s e w i t h m a l t . ”
p a s t H ac kne y,
Leyton,
S tratfo rd ,
t h e mo u t h o f t h e Lea ’where t h e y
company o f s w a n s .
w a t e r n o r s h o r e c a n be s e e n ,
as
t h e m o n u m e n tes ,
they see,
But newly m ade, a w a te r w o rk e ;
On t h e y
they passe,
.
•
A f t e r a noyse
.
the
Prom Vioolwich t o B l a c k w a l l
b ird es
in v ites
Upon a d a y p r e f i x t ,
to
o f lo v ely lo v e.
joy,
t h e K in g an d Queene
see and c e l e b r a t e
The m a r r i a g e o f two R i v e r s
.
n eith er
b u t o n l : / swans a s d a z z l i n g w h i t e
in signe o f p a s s in g
A Swanne o f Thames
and
aregreeted
now,
f’
37 4
w h ich g r a n t e d , e v e r x e one
o f g r e a t nam e.
d epartes
h i s way.
n375
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
I n 1897
119
-
i n t h e c o l um ns o f t h e Athenaeum a c o n t r o ­
versy raged c o n c e rn in g th e
Two Swannes o n t h e
L ost,
it
p o s s ib le in f lu e n c e o f A T ale o f
37 6
P rothalam ion«
L ik e h e l l i n P a r a d i s e
g e n e r a t e d much h e a t b u t
Mr. Wickham F l o w e r ,
V allans*
was g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d .
little
He p r o p o s e d t h a t
Then l o o k e how C y n t h i a w i t h h e r
Exceedes th e b r i g h t n e s s e o f th e
a r e e c h o e d b y S p e n s e r when he s a y s
re st,
The l e s s e r
Mr.
far,
Flow er d i d n o t n o t i c e
th at
two l i n e s
in V allans
lesser starres” -
doth
th ere
th at
s i l v e r rayes
th a t h is
as Cynthia
377
3t a r r e s . "
30
However,
c h a m p i o n , made one p o i n t
1
1
"The
lig h t.
swans e x c e l
shend
are
sim ilar lin es
in
Cygnea C a n t i o s
”At quum jam t e n e r o s a d u l t u s
V ieisset,
v e l u t H esperus m inora
In te r s idera
But t h i s
is
annos
o f no g r e a t
to tu a
e n i t e b a t • •378
im portance.
c om m o n place, a n d S p e n s e r h a d p h r a s e d
The
it
i d e a was a p o e t i c
i n v a r i o u s ways
in
37 9
o t h e r poems «
The t r u e
po e n 3 i s
th at
r e l a t i o n betw een S p e n s e r’ s and V a l l a n s ’
o f ty p e.
works d i s c u s s e d h e r e
S p e n s e r knew t h e
and o t h e r s o f t h e
m o t i v e s o r t he m e s a r e
”a , t h e
D oubtless
jo u rn e y o f the
th ree
same g e n r e .
"Three
d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e , ” s a y 3 Mr. O sg o o d .
sw ans;
t ha lam i o n o r e p i t h a l a m i o n ,
B, t h e m a r r i a g e ,
o f the
riv ers;
eith er
a n d C, t h e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in protopo-
-
graphic an d a n t i q u a r i a n
r e v i e w of* t h e i r
shores.
cases, A o r B is
vehicle
In th e o l d e s t
a me r e
poem - A s u p p o r t s
A supoorts
C;
i n Camden, B s u p p o r t s
C, w i t h a c l e a r
the case o f
f o r C«
the
clo se.
from r i v e r s
w ith a p a s s in g
v iii,
.
.
in tim a tio n o f C in s ta n z a
.
In c a n to x i B i s
i.3 8 1
subordinate
and i n c i d e n t a l . *
t o a d d t h a t o ne m o t i v e
in a l l
In
e x q u i s i t e l y blended
w i t h B b y t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e w e d d in g theme
132-6^^.
- L eland’s
G; an d i n V a l l a n s ,
in tim atio n o f B a t
S p e n s e r ’ s B r o t h a la m i o n A i s
Inm ost
to
sw a n s ,
e sp ecially lin es
co m bined w i t h C, t h o u g h C i s
It
these
Is
perhaps u n n e c e s sa ry
poems e x c e p t c a n t o x i
is
p r a is e o f E ngland’s r u l e r .
The m y t h i c a l q u a l i t y o f t h e
i t also
to
Prothalam ion r e l a t e s
S p e n s e r ’ s charm ing t a l e s
Irish riv ers
o f t h e m a r r i a g e s made b y
382
i n C o lin C lout and th e M u t a b i l i t i e C a n to s.
A f o r g o t t e n r i v e r poem o f 1600 - E. Vf. H i s T ha m ese ido s
p r i m a r i l y m y t h i c a l a n d much i n d e b t e d t o S p e n s e r , h a s r e c e n t l 7r
3R3
b e e n r e v i e w e d b y Mr. F . M. P a d e l f o r d .
In t h e o p i n i o n o f
Miss H i l d a T a y l o r ,
t h i s work ’’com bines w i t h p a s t o r a l c o n v e n t i o n s
so many o f t h o s e o f t o p o g r a p h i c a l p o e t r y t h a t
summary o f t h e
com bination is
To p a s t o r a l p o e t r y ,
n e c e s s a r y a s meadows a n d c l e a n
her d elig h t
on t h e
in
serves as a
s u b j e c t . ”384
Now t h i s
considered.
It
the
apparent
of course,
sheep*
p a sto ra l disguise
But
in the
riv ers
poems a l r e a d y
a re as
i n E l i z a b e t h ’ s tim e
and h e r love o f s p o r t s
r i v e r meant t h a t c o u r t l y po ets m ust o f t e n w r i t e ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
as
Spenser d i d ,
o f c r y s t a l stream s
nAbou t whose f l o w r i e b a n k e s on e i t h e r
A thousand
Nymphes, w i t h m i r t h f u l l
Were w o n t t o
play,
In t h e s e
poems t h e
and p e r h a p s e x c l u d e
then,
to
i n 1593 i n
song
Idea,
free
p a s t o r a l n o t e w o u ld d o m in a te
It
is not
elem ents o f th e
in p r a is e o f the
su rp risin g ,
-P r o th a la m io n
fh irest
B eta,
published
The S h e p h e a r d s G a r l a n d a n d w r i t t e n
c e l e b r a t e A c c e s s i o n Day*
n0 t h o u f a y r e
B e ta a l o n e
jo llite e ,
annoyance
the a n tiq u a r ia n .
f i n d most o f th e
in D r a y to n 's
to
from a l l
side
386
I t m u s t be q u o t e d a t
s i l u e r Thames:
the
Fhenix i s ,
0 cleerest
of a ll
probably
length:
ch ry stall
flood,
th y w atery brood,
The Queene o f V i r g i n s o n e l y s h e :
And t h o u t h e Queene o f f l o o d s
Let a l l
t h y Nymphes b e
Thy B e t a new a l o n e
W ith d a i n t i e
and d elig h tso m e
And l e t
vs s i n g
Our B e t a s
T h at l i t t l e
i o y f u l l th e n to
shalbe th e
Gome l o u e l y s h e p h e a r d s
B irds
s h a lt be:
see t h i s
happy day,
s u b i e c t o f my l a y .
train es
3
o f sw eetest
v irelay es:
s i t we down an d c h a n t o u r B e t a s p r a y s e
so r a r e a
prayses t o
verse,
rehearse,
sh a ll s ile n t be,
to h e a re
p o o re s h e p h e a r d s
sing,
And r i u e r s
backward bend t h e i r c o u r s e ,
and flow
vnto t h e
sprin g .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 122
swannes
-
Range a l l
th y
And p l a c e
them d u e l y o n e b y o n e ,
Then s e t
to g eth er a l l
R ecording to
And c r a u e t h e
fa i r e
the
tune f a l l
The O s e l a n d t h e
Thames t o g e t h e r on a r a n c k e ,
vpon t h y s t a t e l y b a n c k ,
agood,
silu e r
floo d ,
N ig h tin g ale
t o h e l p e you w i t h h e r l a y
T h r o s t l e c o c k e , . c h i e f e m u s i c k e o f o u r maye .
01 s e e w h a t t r o u p s o f Nimphs b e e n s p o r t i n g on t h e
And t h e y b e e n b l e s s e d
stran d s,
Nimphs o f p e a c e , w i t h O l i u e s
in t h e i r
hands «
How m e r y l y t h e
That a l l
And B e t a
sits
the
Muses
sin g ,
f l o w r y Medowes r i n g ,
vpon t h e b a n c k ,
And sh e t h e Queene o f Muses
in purple
is,
and in p a l l ,
and w eares the
C o rin a ll.n
L e t t h e nymphs t r i m h e r t r e s s e s w i t h l a u r e l a n d crown h e r w i t h
a g arland o f flo w e rs .
grow dim when
3
Sun, moon,
W ater t h e
the
th y
o liv e,
ful cypress
and b r i g h t e s t
dawn
he a p p e a r s .
” Goe p a s s e o n Thames a n d h i e
And l e t
stars,
d ie.
b illo w es
the
th ere
lau rel,
thee
f a 3t
v n to t h e Ocean s e a ,
pro claim e t h y B etas h o ly - d a y .”
and th e m y r t l e ,
Where B e ta w a l k s ,
but
perfum e t h e
let
t h e mourn-
a i r and
trew
3
sh o r e w i t h p e a r l .
’’Sound o u t y o u r t r u m p e t s
then,
from L o n d o n 1s s t a t e l y
tow r e s , ”
a nd p r o c l a i m h e r t r i u m p h w i t h m u s i c ,
f o r sh e h a s b r o u g h t
peace,
mm.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
honour,
and the
123
g lo ry o f h e r presen ce to
H er e a r e
a ll
the
o b lig atio n ,
Yet
p asto ral p raise
is
im itatin g
from D r a y t o n t o h im .
p a tte r n e d a f t e r the
song D r a y to n i s
o f E lizab eth
u r g i n g Rowland t o
P roth alam io n ex­
Spenser is not
in f a c t ,
The S h e p h e a r d s G a r l a n d i s
C alen d ar, and in t h i s
E n g l a n d . 587
th e elem ents o f th e
cep t th e b e t r o t h a l them e.
D rayton;
-
Shepheardes
im ita tin g Spenser’s
in th e A p ril eclogue.
sin g o f B eta,
s p e a k s o f him a s
P erkin,
Spenser’s
subst i t u t e nAboue t h e
rest
For le a r n e d
And i s
to
so h a p p y m a i s t
Col i n l a y e s h i s
fay rie
thou b e ,
pipes
to
gage,
gon a p i l g r i m a g e
t h e more o u r n i o a n e . ” ^
In 1 6 0 6 , when D r a y t o n r e v i s e d h i s
h is m a s te r by changing th e
the
first
e c l o g u e s , he c o m p lim e n te d
lin e o f th is
poem t o
echo
P r o t h a l a m i o n *s r e f r a i n s
n 3t a y ,
Thames t o
But
eclogue,
h is
in s p ite
p raise
a s p e c i a l way t o
Pro t h a lam i o n .
h e a r e my s o n g , t h o u g r e a t e Sc famous
,,389
flood •
o f D r a y to n ’s borrow ings
o f B eta
combine
from t h e A p r i l
i s a n o r i g i n a l poem.
f a m i l i a r them es,
The d e b t o f b o t h p o e t s
appears a g a in and a g a in t h a t th e
is
elem ents
as
to
He
found
Spenser did in the
trad itio n .
o f the
It
Prothalam ion
a r e o f t h e common f u n d o f p o e t r y , a n d a p a r t o f t h e
390
r i c h n e s s comes s i m p l y from t h i s .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
poem’ s
- 1 2
4
Spenser fused th e se
oth er
foim .
foim al elem ents w i t h i n y et a n ­
But b e f o r e we c o n s i d e r t h e m a in p a t t e r n o f t h e
Prothalam i o n ,
i t may be
illu m in a tin g to
exam ine
its
symbols
a nd some o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s
f o r S p en ser’s co n tem p o raries.
A lite ra ry trad itio n
its
o f changes.
in c r i t i c a l
Its
preserves
f lu id expressiven ess
tern s,
and
by d i f f e r e n t a g e s .
circum stance,
i t s ways a r e
A tra d itio n
and is
ju stificatio n
the m a s te r o f d ig r e s s io n
fess,
a stran g er;
H e nr y V I I i ,
d i v e r s e l y apprehended
in
a d d warm th t o
said ,
c a n be l e s s
is a proof
new o n e s ,
” l am b u t a s m a t t e r e r ,
swan o f Cygnea C a n t i o b i d s
As
I con­
f a re w e ll to
he b e g s ,
I t w o u ld h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t
Few men s p o k e o f t h e
391
f o r a n E n g lis h m a n t o
do o t h e r ­
s t r e a m s o f E n g la n d a n d e s p e c i a l l y
o f t h e Thames ” ( b e i n g t h e b e a u t i e a n d o rna m e nt o f a l l
i n ye w o r l d ) ”^ ^
w ith o u t m entioning the
Temms,** N i c h o l a s
Grimauld c a l l s
’’c o u l d i n t r e a t o f t h e
seene
and
I p u l l a f l o w e r . 1*
**At CygnI i n t e r e a t u i m e m e n to . ”
w ise .
fragm ents,
f o r a d i g r e s s i o n on sw a n s .
h ere and th e r e
When t h e
n o t t o be s t a t e d
R e i n t e r p r e t a t ion o f course
But o l d a s s o c i a t i o n s
t h i s m u s t be t h e
is
o f l i f e , w h ic h c h a n g e s w i t h
recorded o n ly
c e r ta in o f continuance.
o f p o etry .
i d e n t i t y through a s e r i e s
vpon t h i s
riu er.
in fin it
it;
sw a n s.
riu ers
nSwanfeeder
and w illia m H a r r is o n
number o f swans d a i l i e
,,393
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
t o he
It
i s one t h i n g when a p o e t
"Our f l o o d s - Q u e e n e , Thame3 ,
but q u i t e
a n o t h e r when a c a u t i o u s
and r e c o v e r s
it
ju st
in the n ic k .
t h e T h am es, " s a y s J o h n M a j o r ,
s w an s;
f o r shyps a n d Swans
Scot alm ost
"There a r e
t o be
T he re was a l e g e n d t h a t
royal b ird s.
It
is
crowned,
caution
f o u n d on
" t h r e e o r f o u r t h o u s a n d tame
I h a v e s e e n many swans t h e r e ,
394
I m e r e l y r e p o r t what I h e a r d . ”
swans t o E n g l a n d from C y p r u s ,
is
lo ses h is
b u t though
c o u n t th e m ;
as
sin g s,
R ichard
I d id not
I brought
the
first
a n d t h e y w e re a l w a y s
regarded
t h i s w h i c h g iv e 3 d i g n i t y t o
Umogen’ s
m etaphors
"I*
Our B r i t a i n
t h e w o r l d ’ s volume
seems a s o f
but not
,,395
In a g r e a t p o o l a sw an’ s n e s t . '
The O r d e r f o r Sw a n n e s ,
royal
in ju n ctio n s
pu blish ed
in about
1550,
set
Swans," h ad j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a l l
o n ly .
In r e t u r n
e a c h swan o wn e r was
fo rth
s u p p o r t e d b y " t h e K in g s M a i e s t i e s
t h e k i n g d o m . He g r a n t e d t h e
freeho lders
i n ’t ;
the
396
a n d t h e common law c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e b i r d s .
The R oy al S w a n - h e r d ,
o f Sessions o f
it,
r i g h t o f o w nership to
fo r six
Ju stices
t h e swans o f
su b stan tial
sh illin g s e ig h t
pence,
g i v e n a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g m ark w h i c h was
c u t on t h e b e a k s o f h i s
b ird s a t
t h e a n n u a l c e re m o n y o f
"upping."
On t h e
first
Monday a f t e r S t .
t h e K i n g ’s Swan-herd and h i s
P e t e r ’ s Day,
June 2 9 ,
d e p u t i e s b e g a n t o m ark t h e
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
swans
o f each. ” g a m e , M o r f l o c k ;
owner 15s h a l l
pence t o
pay e u e r y y e a re
th e M aster o f ' t h e
and s u p p e ?
a n d i t was o r d a i n e d t h a t
free
yearly
every
f o r e u e r y Sw an -m ark e,
Game f o r h i s
on t h e U p p i n g d a i e s . n
Pee,
and h is
d inner
In E l i z a b e t h ’ s t i m e
a b o u t n i n e h u n d r e d c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s w e re
swan
owners a n d e a c h h a d a s p e c i a l m ar k e x c e p t ,
the
Queens
a ll
unmarked b i r d s w ere h e r s .
foure
it
se e m s ,
L a t e r s o v e r e ig n s t o o k
a l e s s k i n g l y view .
I n 1566 t h e r e was a n o u t b r e a k o f l a w l e s s n e s s
B uckingham shire and f o u r t e e n
”to e n q u i r e
again st
in
c o m m i s s i o n e r s w ere a p p o i n t e d
o f s u e he o f f e n c e s a s
have ben and a r e
t h a - u n c i e n t Lawes a n d O r d r e s made
fo r the
com m itted
preserva­
t i o n o f t h e ^.u e en e s Mat : ^e3 game an d h e r d o f Swannes” a n d t o
397
i n f l i c t due p u n i s h n e n t o n t h e o f f e n d e r s *
The t h i e f o f
sw a n’ s e g g s m u s t p a y t h i r t e e n
egg, and th e
s h i l l i n g s f o u r pence
f o r each
same f i n e was l e v i e d a g a i n s t a n y u n a u t h o r i z e d
p e r s o n who w a s c a u g h t c a r r y i n g a s w a n - h o o k .
f e i t i n g a sw an -ma r k b r o u g h t t h e
severest
But c o u n t e r ­
penaltys
a
fine
of
more t h a n B5 a n d one y e a r i n p r i s o n .
Swans,
i n s h o r t , w e re a t o n c e r e m a r k a b l e a n d common.
They w e r e t h e Qlueen’ s b i r d s a n d y e t t h e y b e l o n g e d t o
so many
men t h a t
i n F iu e
Thomas T u s s e r I n c l u d e d a d v i c e o n t h e i r c a r e
Hundred P o i n t e s o f Good H u s b a n d r i e .
P latter,
bidden to
398
Someone t o l d
t h e y o u n g German v i s i t o r t o E n g l a n d ,
c a t c h swan s b e c a u s e
t h e y w e re a l l
th at
Thomas
I t was f o r ­
plucked a n n u a lly
-.'.•ppCf??.-.;:?
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
to s t u f f t h e Q u e e n ' s
127
p illow s*
-
39 9
S w a n 's down was
prized ,
b u t t h e b i r d s h a d o t h e r use s®
L ik e C h a u c e r ' s monk, E l i z a b e t h
400
e n j o y e d a f a t r o a s t e d swan®
And m os t o f a l l , s h e an d h e r
subjects
th at
is
lik e d to
s e e a swan on t h e
such a b e a u ty to
the
In th e s t o r i e s
trad itio n ,
g reatest
Thomas Browne was
Some qpeak o f
can r e f u t e
o f swans w h i c h w e r e a p a r t o f common
fam iliar sto ry
song a t
it,
it;
its
d eath.
said ,
. . .
Harmony o f t h e
But t h i s
learn ed
deceit
s to ry o f the
the
severe w ith
Swans., on t h e
swan i s
the
con­
r i v e r o f Thames n e a r
same h o p e s
s h a ll never
we
expectto
S p h e r e s #»*402
in t r u th a
vulgar e r r o r .
t o l d m ore
to
it, w ritin g
is
a l l m en.
a
This
f o r t h e common man i n h i s
an d t h e
d e c e i v e r Jame s
’^ e x c e p t t h a t
I once t o l d
It
f r e q u e n tly th a n any o th er*
Seven Champions o f C h r i s t e n d o m ; ^ ^
o f be h e l p e d
swan s o n g .
d eliv ered ,
somehow became a d e l i g h t
R ichard Johnson m entions
swan s i n g s
i s b i t by a T a r a n t u l a ,
and w ith th e
is not
th at
Not t h e
u i n p l a c e s w here e v e r y e x p e r i e n c e
S u r e l y he t h a t
be c u r e d b y t h i s M u s i c k ;
hear the
th at
as A ldrovandus upon r e l a t i o n
c e r n i n g t h e Mu s ic k o f t h e
London*
is
legend.
In t h e n e x t c e n t u r y S i r
i n c l i n e d t o be
he
- !?t h e w h i t e b i r d
Thames
f o lk lo r e blended w ith c l a s s i c a l
o l d e s t b u t th e most
its
riv e r
C ecil:
learn ed s e l f ­
th in g
I w rite
I c a n s i n g no o t h e r song b u t a d vada M a e a n d r i
concinitr a lb u s o l o r and sw an -lik e
sh all
I liv e
an d d i e b o t h
i n p u r i t y a n d i n n o c e n c e *rt404
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
128
The q u a l i t i e s
a r e conceded, a t
least
th at
to
swans.
o f c h a s t i t y and s i n c e r i t y ;
J ohn G - u il lim,
tan ic a l,
suggests
in t h a t
"the
the
Swan«s P u r i t y i s
a b ir d o f lo v e.
Venus d r o v e a te am o f d o v e s ,
so m etim es
swans drew h e r c h a r i o t .
and V a l l a n s u s e
They a r e w h i t e ,
h im self
co lo r
too p u r i ­
F e a t h e r s a n d o u t w a r d A p p e a r a n c e he
The swan i s a l s o
w hite
to
t h o u g h one a u t h o r i t y on h e r a l d r y ,
th at
in h i s
t h e King a t t r i b u t e s
th is n o tio n ,
in c l a s s i c a l
As we have
and
it
A lthough u s u a l l y
is
seen,
both
3tory
Spenser
f a m ilia r in th e
Ren-
a i s s a n c e . ^ ^ When G u i l l i m d o u b t e d t h e b i r d ’ s p u r i t y ,
have b e e n t h i n k i n g o f t h e
E lizabethan l i t e r a t u r e
s t o r y o f Leda a n d t h e
th is
tale
Prothalam io n and t h e l u x u r i o u s
S i r John F a l s t a f f ’s quips
for the
to t h e
to ld a l l
stanza
t h e way from t h e
in the
"You were a l s o ,
F a e r i e Queene t o
Ju p iter,
0 o m n i p o t e n t L ov ei how n e a r t h e
.,408
c o m p l e x i o n o f a g o o se I
g i v e n t h e bad_name t h a t
the
ch aracter,
He n e v e r f i g h t s
the
swan i s u s u a l l y f o r -
p u re
h i s own k i n d ,
love
says
one e n c r o a c h e s on h i s h a u n t o r " a n y o t h e r be a
o r o f f e r to
D ea th
Q uarrels
c o u r t h i s M a t e;
. . . .
am o ng st t h e
th a t h is
S p irits
co lo r
G uillim , u n le ss
R ival
in h i s
i n w h ic h Q u a r r e l he w i l l be
And t h e s e two P o i n t s a r e
noblest
god drew
god gave him ; a n d a s a b i r d o f Venus,
commonly a s s o c i a t e d o n l y w i t h t h e
sym bolizes.
to t h e
a swan
love o f L ed a.
B ut b e c a u s e o f h i s
he i s
is
he may
407
swan.
In
Love ,
reve ng e d
C a u se s o f m os t
The b i r d s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
are
fierce
-
129
protectors
the
o f t h e i r young and t h e y a r e f a i t h f u l l o v e r s , a s
410
law s o f t h e k in g d o m t e s t i f y .
A cco rd in g t o G erard Legh,
’’The Swan p u r s u e t h t h e
not le a u e
the
c o c k o l d - m a k e r e u e n v n to d e a t h ,
spouse b r e a k e r ,
till
he k i l l
and w i l l
o r bee k i l l e d
S p e n s e r ’ s c o u r t l y a u d i e n c e , w e l l aw a re t h a t h i s
"lik e,
f o r d e e p c o n c e i t , was n e v e r s e e n , ” p o n d e r e d t h e s e
d i t i o n s when t h e y t r i e d t o
swans.
in te rp re t h is
th o ritie s
ag ain st
the
on h e r a l d r y ;
r e a d e r s "of t h e
A ll
h erald ic
slan d er o f c l a s s i c a l
and i t
is
lik e ly th at
P ro th a lam ion tu r n e d
w ork s o f Legh a n d o t h e r s
p e r s o n s o f b r e e d i n g w e re
art.
It
g re a t consequence .
resp ect,
sto ry ,
swan
are a u ­
some p u z z l e d
fo r illu m in atio n
- G u i l l i m ’ s was n o t
yet
co t h e
published.
f a m ilia r w ith th e
” i s n o t o f m e e re o r n a m e n t , a s t h e m o s t
s u p p o s e , ’' s a y s H e n r y Peachum,
value,
a l l e g o r y o f the
The men who p r e s e n t t h e E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r o f t h e
and d e f e n d i t
tra ­
. . .
’’b u t
d i v e r s l y n e c e s s a r y and o f
How s h o u l d we g i v e
and t i t l e ,
N ob ility h er tru e
w ith o u t n o tic e o f h e r M erit?
how may we g u e s s e h e r m e r i t ,
w ithout th e se
a nd
outw ard en sig n es
a nd b a d g e s o f V e r t u e , w h i c h a n c i e n t l y h a v e b e e n e a c c o u n t e d
412
s a c r e d an d p r e c i o u s . . • ? ”
I n c o u r t poems a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t s ,
o f arms w e r e a
fav o rite
source
When t h e L ondon c o m p a n i e s
to
the
Tower,
badges and c o a t s
o f d e c o r a tio n and sy n bo lism .
e s c o r t e d Anne B o le y n from G reenw i c h
t h e b a c h e l o r s ’ b a r g e was hung w i t h b a n n e r s a n d
m e t a l s c u t c h e o n s o f h e r a r m s and t h o s e o f t h e K i n g , a n d ’’t h e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
130
s i d e s o f t h e b a r g e was s e t
deuiees o f th e
tu re rs
w ith w h ite
f u l l o f f l a g s an d b a n n e r s o f t h e
c o m p a n i e s o f H a b e r d a s h e r s a n d M a r c h a n t Auen-
On one o f t h e
stoode a w h ite
-
f o y s t s nwas a m o u n t , a n d on t h e mount
E a u l c o n c r o w ne d u p o n a r o o t e o f g o l d e ,
r o s e s a n d r e d , w h i c h was t h e Queenes
which mount s a t e
h erald ry .
about
413
s i n g i n g a n d p l a y i n g m e l o d i o u s l y •**
V irgins
Court makers
In h i s
and t h e
deuiceJ
a n d a n t i q u a r i a n s w ere e q u a l l y a d e p t
p r o th a la m io n Lydgate u s e s
J a c q u e l i n e a n d Humphrey, a n d t h e
T h rissil
enuironed
in
th e m ottoes o f
c e n t r a l a l l e g o r y o f the
Rois c o n c e r n s t h e
T u d o r an d S t u a r t b a d g e s *
414
The E a r l o f O x f o r d i n Camden’ s r i v e r poem i s known b y h i s
badge o f t h e w i l d b o a r .
In c o m p lim e n t t o H e n r y V I I I , who
regarded h im s e lf a s h a l f - L a n c a s t r i a n ,
C antio
is
described as
the h e r a ld ic
the
b i r d o f M andeville
Bohun w h i c h t h e L a n c a s t r i a n H e n r y V u s e d
Ians
praises
th ree
fam ilies
t h a t bore
Now S p e n s e r h a d o f t e n
It
Is
p o ssib le
th at
h is w itty
th e o t h e r m eanings o f th e
plim ent
to
Som erset.
used t h e
je c tu res.
that
the
It
is
I t w o u l d be
fashioned
in the
swan.
th at a t
These,
do u b tless
o f the
V al-
415
im ages
from h e r a l d r y . 4'1'6
discov ered ,
among
P r o t h a l a m i o n , a com­
some t i m e
however,
the
lad ies
a r e m ere c o n ­
i d l e to m ention h e r a l d r y
S p en ser’ s audience
sem i-h erald ic a r t
the
badge.
and
fa m ily co n n e ctio n o f th e L adies
even p o s s i b l e
swan a s a b a d g e
for h is
in terp reters
swans
a somewhat r e m o te
swan o f Cygnea
asso ciated h is
if
i t w ere n o t
swans w i t h .
i m p r e s a ,,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
’*An I m p r e s s , ” Camden s a y s ,
is a d e v ic e
in P i c t u r e w i t h h i s M otto,
and L e a r n e d P a r s o n a g e s ,
t h e i r owns a s Emblems
to not i f ie
a g e n t l e m a n wore h i s
to h is
the
Italian s
call
o r Word, h o r n b y Noble
some p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e i t o f
i n s t r u c t i o n t o a l l . ’*4-1-®
im presa as a bad g e,
co at o f arm s.
some s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n ,
and
its
it
A lthough
s e ld o m h a d a n y
U s u a l l y he c o n c e i v e d i t
for
s i g n i f i c a n c e was t e m p o r a r y .
,sThe l a t e
E a r l o f E s s e x t o o k a Diamond o n l y a m i d s t h i s
w ith t h i s
about
it,
DUM FORMAS MIMT I S .
upon some A s t r o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
M a j e s t i e s Honour,
culm inant
it)
( t h a t we may o m it o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s )
do p r o p o u n d some g e n e r a l
relatio n
"(as
t h e whole
.
.
S hield,
. S i r Henry Lea
used to h e r l a t e
c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f A r i a d n e s Crown
i n h e r N a t i v i t y , w i t h t h i 3 words .
CQELUMQUB
SOLUMQ.UE BEAVIT . ,%419
A lo n g w i t h t h e
appeared,
each a s e r i e s
emblem b o o k s , boo ks o f
of
im p r e s e
im ag in ary badges w hich th e
b elieved ap p ro p riate
to
the
no ble m en t h e y h o n o r e d .
M irrovr o f M a i e s t i e ,
p rin ted
i n 1618,
l o r d ’ s arm s and t h e n a n emblem o f h i s
presen ts
e a r l i e r H en ry Feachum c o m p i l e d M in e rv a B r i t a n n a ,
o f H e ro ic a l D euice3,
. . .
The
first
ch aracter.
authors
the
Six years
o r a Garden
a d o r n e d w i t h Pknblemes a n d
Im pr e s a *3
o f s u n d r y n a t u r e s , i n w h i c h t h e b a d g e s a r e p a r t h e r a l d i c and
420
4fcl
p a rt im aginary.
S p e n s e r h a d u s e d b o t h s o r t s o f emblem;
and a c c o r d i n g t o
are
im p r e s e
the
fashio n,
f o r th e L adies
the
swans o f t h e
Som erset, w ith th e
Prothalam ion
poem a s t h e i r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
132
-
mot t o .
The s u d d e n m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f
end o f t h e
swans t o
poem h a s t r o u b l e d some r e a d e r s .
Spenser r e c a l l e d
form ations,
lad ies
It
is
a t the
lik e ly th at
s e v e r a l w e l l - k n o w n f o l k t a l e s o f swan t r a n s ­
and e s p e c i a l l y th e
T hi s was t o l d a t
l e a s t tw ice
c e n tu ry England;
first
s to r y o f the
in the
swan c h i l d r e n .
literatu re
of six teen th -
i n 1512 b y R o b e r t C op land i n The H i s t o r y
o f H e ly a s K n i g h t o f The Swan, an d a g a i n b y R i c h a r d J o h n s o n 5n
h i s Seven Champions o f C h r i s t e n d o m , w h i c h a p p e a r e d e a r l y
lo96 «
In
422
The H i s t o r y o f H e l y a s , w h i c h C o p lan d t r a n s l a t e d
from a F r e n c h v e r s i o n o f t h e
d istin g u ish ed
ta le ,
a n c e s t r y o f G odfrey o f B o u il lo n and o t h e r
d e s c e n d a n ts o f th e Knight o f t h e
ancient
part o f th is
ch ild ren ;
o rig in all;/
n arrativ e
it
second p a r t , which d e a l 3
not t r a c e
say t h a t
the
I s a c o m p lim e n t t o t h e
Swan.
is
the
The f i r s t a n d more
s t o r y o f the
swan
seems t o
ha ve b e e n i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e
42-3
with, t h e Swan K n i g h t .
&e n e e d
h is to r y o f th e
fo lk tale .
It
is
s u f f i c i e n t to
t h e r e was a n o l d an d w i d e s p r e a d s t o r y o f c h i l d r e n
transform ed to
swans a n d t h e n r e l e a s e d
A rg um en ts f o r I t s
C eltic
i t was c e r t a i n l y t o l d
o rig in are not
In Ire la n d ,
from t h e
enchantm ent.
very c o n v in c in g ,
E ngland,
but
and on t h e c o n ­
t i n e n t .42 4
In C o p l a n d ' s v e r s i o n , t h e w i f e o f King O r y a n t b e a r s
s i x so n s a n d a d a u g h t e r ,
m other s t e a l s
all
at
them aw a 77- a nd p u t s
one t i m e .
s e v e n dogs
H er w i c k e d s t e p ­
In t h e Q u e e n ' s b e d .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
The c h i l d r e n
th at
she
she exposes
In t h e
fo rest;
a n d when she d i s c o v e r s
t h e y h a v e b e e n r e s c u e d b y a k i n d h e r m i t named H e l y a s ,
s e n d 3 some r u f f i a n s
su fficien tly
to k i l l
v illain o u s,
them .
from t h e i r n e c k s t h e
c h a i n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y we re b o r n .
c h a y n es w e r e o f t h e y w e r e a l
diuyne
’’And a s
trasm ued
grace
silv e r
so n e a s t h e y r
i n a n Instaunt
/ 5c b e g a n t o
in
fie
One s o n , named H e l y a s a f t e r h i s b e n e f a c t o r ,
w i t h t h e h e r m i t when t h e
to
court
I
'
gang comes .
defend h is m o th er,
cover fiv e
to
o f the
come t o
six
the
/ a nd came w i t h
s ilv e r ch ain s.
riv er.
g rete
riv er,
a n d when t h e
shewed them
knyghtes
i3
the
/ & gentylm en
went to
the
theym
fo r to
bank o f t h e
them t h e y came l y g h t l y
/ & he p l a y n e d
chaynes o f
i n good o r d r e b e f o r e hym.
before
reto urne
in th e y r propre
fayre
humayne
/ 5c b e f o r e a l m y r a c u l o u s l y t h e y
,.426
.iiii.
he
r e m ysed y e c h a y n e s a b o u t t h e y r n e c k e s
/ & sodeynly th e y began to
1
/
A f t e r he shewed them t h e
s-fluer / wherby t h e y s e t t e
away
and r e ­
Then he a s k s a l l
a b o u t hym makynge hym c h e r e
l o u y n g l y t h e y r feder-3 .
t h e y were
step -m o th er,
swans "sawe hym n e r e
f y u e o f t he m he
grows u p ,
d y l y g e n c e u p o n t h e w a t e r sy de /
abouesayd s w a n n e s H e l y a s
fav/n7/nge & f l y k e r y n g e
is
’’And i n c o n t y n e n t t h e k y n g e ' a n d
se t h e
forme a s
When he
expose h i s
ve q u en e d e s c e n d e d w i t h many l o r d e s
And t o
f a 7/ r e
in y ayre
,»a2 b
f o r e s t makynge a p y t e o u s a n d l a m e n t a b l e c r y e .
through the
able
in ­
a n d when t h e y f i n d s i x o f t h e
c h i l d r e n t h e y m e r e l y remove
whyte sw an n es b y t h e
The g a n g s t e r s a r e
s o n e s 5c a d o u g h t e r .
E s s e n t i a l l y the
I r e l a n d w h o se c h i l d r e n
- two s e t s
p a i r s by s i l v e r c h a i n s .
redaction
in th e
transform ation
a s we know,
them t o
says.
w itt
same s t o r y
Here,
t o l d o f K ing L i r o f
o f1 tw ins
- are
joined
In
however, and in J o h n s o n ’ s
Se ven C h a m pio n s, t h e m ag ic m o t i v e o f
r e p l a c e d b y a C h r i s t i a n m o t i v e * 4-2*7 S p e n s e r ,
is
loved
Irish
tales
- n I h a ue c a u s e d d i u e r s
be t r a n s l a t e d u n t o me t h a t
Iren iu s
is
of
I m ight u n d e r s ta n d e th e m ,”
in the
V e u e , !*and s u r e l y e t h e y s a v o r e d o f sv/e ete
4-2ft
a n d good i n v e n c o n ”
- and t h i s and o t h e r s t o r i e s o f
wan m e t a m o r p h o s i s ,
to ld
3
in
I r e l a n d a n d e l s e w h e r e , may ha v e
in f lu e n c e d him .
Three themes a r e
are
tran sfo rm atio n s;
and t h e b i r d s
th e
sig n ific a n t.
chains
are u su a lly
i n symbol o f t h e b e t r o t h a l
on t h e i r
great
fin g ers.
tra in at
the c o u rt
in co u p le s.
released
rings
o f King O ry a n t .
t r a n s f o m a t i o n was a p a r t o f t h e
'were a d o r n e d t o
resem ble
swans,
d is e m b a r k e d , assumed t h e i r
th at
t h e change
fa m ilia r to
the
it
s o o n be p l a c e d
I s o b s e r v e d by
I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t
pageantry;
and the
proper
Spenser’s
is w itn e s s e d by th e
i n H elyas
E arlier
429
from e n c h a n t m e n t
th at w ill
The m e t a m o r p h o s i s
E ssex House, a s
swan s t o r i e s
seem t o be t h e m a g ic m e a n s ;
joined
two swans may b e t h o u g h t o f a s
A ll the
th at
the b a rg e s
l a d i e s , when t h e y
shapes.
Now i t
the
appears
r e e n a c t e d a f o l k t a l e w h ic h p r o b a b l y was
audience.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
But Hughes
fable
o f the
In t h i s
sailin g
th e
two b r i d e s
down t h e
read er is
are
c o n s is te n t w ith
that
f i g u r e d b y two b e a u t i f u l
it;
effected .
swans
The A l l e g o r y b r e a k s , b e f o r e
a n d we s e e
If th is
it
the
itse lf.
them , a t t h e i r
s h a p e s , w i t h o u t k n ow ing how t h i s
poet m ig h t have dropped
alleg o ry ,
j u s t i f i e d when he s a y s
is not
prepared fo r
is
-
r i v e r Thames.
in t h e i r tr u e
den c h a n g e
still
Fro t h a lam i o n
the
lan ding,
Is
135
had been o n ly a
a t pleasu re;
he o u g h t t o h a v e made i t
but,
as
o f a p iece,
i n v e n t e d some p r o b a b l e me a ns o f coming o u t o f
sud­
sim ile,
it
is
the
an
o r t o have
it
The e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y p r o ­
posed a r e
outside
the
poem.
and s p e c i a l e f f o r t o n t h e
treatm ent o f th e
change
in th e a l l e g o r y ,
as
o f the
is
They r e q u i r e
p a rt o f the
is
reader.
p e rfe c tly casu al.
Hughes s a y s ,
u n less
F r o t h a l a m i o n makes m e t a m o r p h o s i s
such a
for m;
it
th at
Spenser u se s;
pose
- th at
is,
F . E.
said t h a t
the
But
the
Yet S p e n s e r * s
T his
is a defect
e m b r a c in g form
in ev itab le.
Th ere
d ra ws o n a l l t h e o t h e r l i t e r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s
and
it
is
p articu larly
s u ite d to h is
pur­
th e m asque.
S c h e llin g observed th e
Bp i t ha lam io n a n d t h e
J o n 3o n a n d t h e w r i t e r s
•vork.1*^^-
s p e c i a l know ledge
if
i n f l u e n c e d by i t .
r e s e m b l a n c e when he
Fro t h a lam io n ’^ o f f e r e d
o f m a sq u e s m o d e l s f o r t h e i r
subsequent
S p e n s e r i n f l u e n c e d t h e m a sq u e , he was a l s o
As t h e m oa t c o n v i n c i n g a rg u m e n t
o b lig a tio n to th e pu b lic
f o r Spenser’s
shows and s p e c t a c l e s o f h i s
t i m e , War-
M
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
to n l o n g a g o
s u g g e s t e d t h a t he
nost e x q u is ite
•
Cup i d »
136
-
’’e x p r e s s l y d e n o m i n a t e s h i s
groupe o f a l l e g o r i c a l
— ■*
-
fig u res,
r e c e n t l y Mr. S » B» F b w l e r ,
t h i s m asque,
has
shown t h e
t h e Maske o f
in a d is c u s s i o n o f
p o e t’s in tim a te acquaintance
on l y w i t h t h e
form b u t a l s o w i t h t h e
433
ins p e r f o r m a n c e .
c u s to m s t h a t
B r i t o m a r t s e e s t h e Maske o f Cu pid a t
th e e n c h a n t e r B u s i r a n e ,
but
it
was
first
not
surrounded
t h e house o f
presented a t
the
m a r r i a g e o f S cu da mo ur a n d A m or et:
’’The v e r y s e l f e
same d a y t h a t
A m id st t h e b r i d a l e
fe a st,
she was 'wedded,
w h i l e s t e u e r y man
S u r c h a r g ’ d w i t h w i n e , w ere h e e d l e s s e a n d i l l
A ll bent
Brought
to m ir th b e fo re
t h e b r i d e was b e d d e d ,
i n t h a t mask o f l o u e w h ic h l a t e was s h o w e n .”
The S t u a r t m a s q u e s o f c o u r s e
but t h i s
hedded,
e c l i p s e d a l l t h a t w e nt b e f o r e ,
kind, o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t
r i a g e s p r o v i d e d one o f t h e
flo u rish ed
fav o rite
In t h e E p i t h a l a m i o n
434
from 1512 a n d m a r ­
occasions
f o r m asquing.
Spenser b id s t h a t
his b rid e
be
wakened,
”
•
And l o n g s i n c e
There w e r e a t l e a s t
.
f o r Hymen i s a w a k e,
r e a d y f o r t h h i 3 m aske t o m o u e .
u 43 5
t e n m a r r i a g e m a sq u e s b e t w e e n 1563 an d 1600;
and i n 1608 Ben J o n s o n o b s e r v e d -with t r u t h ,
’’The w o r t h y c u s ­
tom o f h o n o u r i n g w o r t h y m a r r i a g e s w i t h t h e s e n o b l e
bath o f l a t e
years advanced i t s e l f
so lem n ities,
n 436
fre q u e n tly w ith u s .
-S fc S S fe
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
B etroth als
th e
a lso
spousais
must
h av e
o f James
137
been
-
w ith
celebrated
IV a n d M a r g a r e t
Tudor,
At
m asques.
a s we h a v e
seen,
t h e r e was ” a v e r y g o o d l y D i s g u i s i n g o f
S i x G e n tlem e n a n d S i x
437
G entlewomen, w h i c h d a n c e d d i v e r s D a n c e s
A cen tu ry l a t e r
S h a k e s p e a r e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n o t h a v e w r i t t e n a b e t r o t h a l m asque
u n less
such e n t e r t a i n m e n t s were
When t h e
a ll
Its
P ro th alam ion
p o sitio n
is
Regarded a s
ju stifie d
technique o f th e
is
th e
d ream -vision.
4-38
it
and i n t e r p r e t
It
is
the
h is
recon dite
vo ices.
poem f o l l o w s t h e
is
necessary th a t
abandoned,
he do s o ,
Like
introduce
th e m asquers
i t 3 p resen ters
as
f a r b a c k as Lyd­
"Even i n a l e a r n e d
c o u r t, the
f o rm s o f a l l e g o r y o r m y t h o l o g y s o m e tim e s
req u ire
The m a s k e r s p r o p e r seem t o h a v e b e e n t r a d i t i o n a l l y
ex p lain
them selves.
th e y were n o t p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s ,
men a n d women o f good b i r t h
t h e i r lim bs
is
visio n ,
a ctio n .
mum a n d t h e r e f o r e u n a b l e t o
member t h a t
dreamer o f th e
Yet when t h a t
f u n c tio n to
g a t e , ’* s a y s Mr. B. K . C h a m b e rs .
explan atio n .
th e
in th e
o f C u p i d , o r Hjmen a n d R e a so n i n J e n s o n ’ s
’’The mask h a d h a d
more
S p en ser’s place
p r e s e n t e r o r "truchm an” o f the m asque.
E a s e i n t h e Maske
H yme n a ei ,
c o n s id e r e d a s a masque,
so l o n g a s t h e
he r e m a i n s a s a c h a r a c t e r .
f o r he
is
e l e m e n t s seem i n t e g r a t e d .
poem becomes c l e a r .
his
custom ary.
and b r e e d i n g ,
c o u l d more e a s i l y b e t r a i n e d
I f e x p l a n a t i o n ’was r e q u i r e d ,
Let us
re­
b u t E nglish­
and t h a t
th erefo re
than t h e i r w its
i t m u s t be
given
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and
In an
In tro d u c to ry speech by a
d itio n to
b is
138
-
su b sid iary p e rfo m e r.
function o f e lu c id a tio n ,
v e h i c l e o f w h a t e v e r c o m p l i m e n t was t o
Lords and l a d i e s
is t h e o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l
act
in the
. . .
In a d ­
he became t h e n a t u r a l
be
in the
P rothalam ion.
c a st.
4 5 g
p a id by th e mask.
He e x p l a i n s
Spenser
t h e m ove­
m e nt s o f t h e
dance and - l i k e T r i t o n i n T e th y s * F e s t i v a l ,
440
i n Oberon
- he p r a i s e s t h e p e r s o n s h o n o r e d b y t h e
S ilenus
en tertain m en t.
”•
.
.
M a s qu e s?
S trato
says
t h e y m u s t commend t h e i r k i n g , a n d s p e a k
Of t h e
assem bly, b l e s s
I n p e r s o n o f some g od ;
the b rid e
t h e y ’ re
The p u r p o s e o f t h e m asq ue
i s dance
cannot
an d s o n g .
supply th e
and e a r .
dance.
Prothalam ion
once
. a ll
the
so
of fla tte r y .”
an d
its
life
is
p leasu res o f eye
lo st
such a d e s c r i p t i o n ;
o f the
verses,
f i t ; ” and t h e
stream
song i s
these tw a in e , th a t
hymn o f t h e nymph
is a
form al
flo o d d id dw ell
did e x c e l l
as C y n th ia d o th shend
The l e s s e r s t a r r e s .
In
The nymphs h o n o r them w i t h
f o u l e w h ic h i n h i s
far,
It
”to the
Then
Gan f l o c k a b o u t
The r e s t ,
ru les
sp ectacle,
The p r o c e s s i o n o n t h e
The swans a p p e a r a l o n e .
.
to
fo rm ally p resen ted as th e
s ong a n d g a r l a n d s .
”.
is
i3 n o t
The m u s i c
f a l l tu n in g t h e i r accents
and h e r c h o r u s .
tie d
The u s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c o u r t m asque
itse lf.
every s ta n z a ,
in p ra ise
and b r i d e g r o o m
Im agination w ith th e
B ut t h e
i3 t h e m asq u e
vraters
i n The M a i d *s T r a s e d y ,
So t h e y e n r a n g e d w e l l ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
441
-
Did. o n t h o s e
The
s u b j e c t ma t te r * o f t h e m asque I s
l i t e r a r y and p o p u l a r ,
The a l l e g o r y o f t h e
of ^ u p id .
-
two a t t e n d . ”
every t r a d i t i o n ,
joyed.
139
th at
c o u rt o f love
drawn from
the
courb e n ­
I n f o r m s t h e Maske
The P r o t h a l a m i o n draws on t h e e p i c
epithalam ion ,
th e dream “■■vision, t h e a n t i q u a r i a n r i v e r poem, a n d t h e
s i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l o f the
th e
set
f o r t h e Masque o f Q u e e n s,
o f Fame,
Inigo
Jones
’’p r o f e s t
t i o n made b y C h a u c e r o f t h a t
to
D esigning
C e l e b r a t e d from t h e House
follow t h a t noble
p lace.
J o n s o n i n t h e masque
p asto ral.
clas­
„
d escrip -
443
f o r L or d H a d i n g t o n ' s ' m a r r i a g e made
e f f e c t i v e u s e o f t h e k i n d o f A l e x a n d r i n e m yth w i t h w h ic h
the L a t i n e p i t h a l a m i s t s
"On a s u d d e n , w i t h a
fo rth ,
lad ies
trium ph.
to
earth ,
two d o v e s ;
th in k in g th a t
eyes o r betw een th e
in the a u d ie n c e .
not e x p l a i n h i s
sky b r e a k in g
c r o wn e d w i t h h e r s t a r . ”
a n d now d e s c e n d s
him h i d d e n i n t h e
first,
t h e n two
lo s t her
she may f i n d
of
When she m e a t s him , he w i l l
flig h t or t e l l
form al p r a i s e
She h a s
sw ellin g b r e a s ts
o f hi3 l a t e s t and s w e e te s t
B u t Hymen a p p e a r s a n d a n n o u n c e s t h e
w edding, w i t h
songs.
gee r s , d r a w in g f o r t h a t r i u m p h a n t c h a r i o t ;
i n w h i c h Venus s a t ,
the
s o le mn m u s i c , a b r i g h t
t h e r e were d i s c o v e r e d ,
swans w i t h s i l v e r
so n,
in tro d u ced t h e i r m arriage
approaching
o f t h e King and t h e b r i d e
and
ylfppl
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
140
-
The l e s s e r c h a r a c t e r s o f
i n th e masque.
sisters
The L a d i e s Guide f o r d an d P e t r e
d a n c e d a s nymphs i n
of B eauty.
In the
first,
s e c o nd w er e Winds,
h is urn
a. b l u e
t h e P r o t h a l ami o n a r e
Echo,
T ethys1 F e s tiv a l
t h a t f l o w ’d w ith w a te r ,
c l o t h —o f —s i l v e r
thalam ion ta k e s
riv er
of the
n o t do i n
i n Te th y s*
o r emblem.
th eir
silv er
and e ls e w h e re
of
clares:
out b efo re
to u s e
i n masques,
t h e i r d ev ice.
b i r d s were
Inigo J o n e s 's
fa n tastic
say t h a t
t h e masque
emblem—book
a kind of
em blems.
o f S o m e rse t's m a rria g e ,
i n a l o n g blew t a f f a t a
the
in
w hich s t e p p e d
s e t t i n g s was i n c o r p o r a t e d —
The m a s q u e r s were l i v i n g
the E a rl
swans and a s
In the f ig u r e s
t h e p h r a s e o f S c i p i o n e Ammirato -
masque f o r
the
H r . A l l a r d y c e I T i c o l l de­
t h e c o u r t l y i m p r e s a and. f o r
com pletest e x p re s s io n .
p n i l o s o p h y 44^
in
th e y a p p e a re d a s ornam ent
" I t w e r e b y no means to o much t o
reached i t s
t h e y would
446
swans f o r
the f a s h io n f o r
sta te lin e ss,
the d e c o r a tiv e background
The l a d . i e s d o u b t l e s s w ere t h o u g h t o f a s
dancers w ith
the Pro—
They drew V e n u s ' s c h a r i o t
But a s m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s
alw ays gro t e s q u e s .
T itan in
w ith
custom ary t o r c h b e a r e r s .
t h e y were a p a r t
F estiv al;
the
" l e a n i n g upon
f o r a masque i n a poem, b u t
a banqueting h a l l .
H a d i n g t o n masque;
an d i n
and. crowned w i t h f l o w e r s ;
The swans t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h
are m a g n ific ie n t f ig u r e s
th eir
and t h e Masque
Tham esis,
r o b e a b o u t h i m . " 44®
the p l a c e
and two o f
also^ Z e p h y r u s a p p e a r e d ;
and t h e
fam iliar
robe, p a in te d w ith
rc a v a l ie r 's
I n Cam pion's
"ETERNITY a p p e a r e d
starre s,
and on h e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
head a c r o w n e ;
of w hite
141
n e x t come t h e
ta ffa ta ,
lik e
-
TEHEE DESTINIES,
a g e d women, w i t h
garlands
flow ers on t h e i r h e a d s ,
and
in t h e i r
iista ffe s,
the
d escrip tio n s
a c c o rd in g to
Every couple
two f a n s
in the
03
sy m b o l was a
h a n d s t h e 77 c a r r i e d
o f P lato
in scrib ed
o f the
au d ien ce.
dancers
laden w ith
fru it.
The s c e n e
in
into
the
been,
Hadc1 i f f
H is
i n J o n s o n ’ s masque
“was a h i g h ,
clouds,
not
3
took
lad ies are
steep ,
red
p lace,
inform ed)
th eir
in t h e
Prothalam ion are
" b r e d o f Scsrers^ hea t ."
f o r L o r d H a d i n g t o n an d Lady E l i z a ­
f ig u r in g the
fabulously/,
first
the
c liff,
advancing
from whence
honourable
nam e, a c l i v o
as
C a m d en . " 450
i n Hymenaei were
Borne o f t h e
dances
very/ s i g n i f y i n g t o
the
same c o m p l i m e n t was p a i d t o
(a s
itse lf
I have
fa m ily o f the
r u b r o , and is
w r i t t e n w ith t h a t orthography/;
le tte rs,
f o r t h e C ount­
449
the m asque.
beth R a d c lif f e
the
F requently,
p r e s e n t e d t h e i r emblems t o members
S p e n s e r ’s punning a l l u s i o n s
p aralleled
in
C ountess o f Bedford)
i n t h i s m a sq ue a n d i n M a r s t o n ’ s e n t e r t a i n m e n t
ess o f D e r b y , t h e
carried
t h e i r m i x t na m es ,
( t h e Queen a n d t h e
golden t r e e
a n d C a t u l l u s . " 448
e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r n i x e d q u a l i t i e s . ft
th e o t h e r a m u t e h i e r o g l y p h i c ,
th is
le ft
o f n a r c i s su3
Masque o f B l a c k n e s s
" i n one o f w h i c h w e re
For E u p h o r i a a n d A g l a i a
in . l o n g r o b e s
to
be
I have o b s e r v e d o u t o f M aster
name o f t h e
P rince
" fo r m e d i n f o
Bridegroom ;" and
C harles
in th e
Masque
o f~ Q, u e e n s . 451
B ut t h e
ch ief c h a ra c te ristic s
o f t h e m a sq u e , b e s i d e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
142
-
ms dance and song an d d a z z l i n g s p e c t a c l e ,
f'Ons i d s r e d «
The
first
ha ve
not y e t been
o f t h e s e .is t h e m in g lin g o f th e mas-
■rcers w i t h t h e
s p e c t a t o r s when the ;/- da nc e t o g e t h e r t o w a r d s
".he e n d o f t h e
perform ance.
v,
asking,
o r disenchantm ent,
The 2na3qu.e i s
j a n i e l ’s V ision o f the
summons h e r
F l ow er s
is
son to
th at
till
th is
tim e,
'men, a n d p r e s e n t
o f the
Twelve
acto rs.
G od de sses
it.
"of an cien t
A p \0
is
ti m e
certain e
Flow ers,
and h a d so c o n t i n u e d
i n Maske a t
the
.h p o l l o a r e
from e n c h a n t e d g o l d e n
released
L o r d ' s Masque t h e r e
is
changes
into
i. r o. o
youths
now t h e y s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d a g a i n e
them selves
stars
a series
. . .
the
~ ^
knights o f
and I n h i 3
o f tran sfo rm atio n s:
eight
into
M arriage.
trees;
e i g h t men m a s q u e r s ; a
in v o c a tio n disen ch an t
Night
Masque o f
beaut i f u l l
f o r Lord H ay's w edding,
th ird
r e a l o r im agined,
a dream v i s i o n ;
I n C a m p io n ' s m a s q u e
eig h t
i n e v i t a b l e un-
The m y th o f t h e
from Men t o
th at
the
alw ays a t h i n g o f m a g ic ,
create
hod b i n t r a n s f o r m e d
The s e c o n d i s
a sp ell
s e c o n d an d
l a d i e s who h a d oeen t u r n e d
s t. a t u e s . 4 5 5
V.hen t h e
s p e c t a c l e ■i3
r e a l m agic,
Cupid o r The T e m p e s t , t h e m a s q u e r s
member v/hat P r o s p e r o
says to
”
As
now a r e
I fo reto ld
Are m e l t e d
ended.
a ir,
sim ply v a n i s h .
a l l men r e ­
into
3 ir:
These o u r a c t o r s ,
y o u , 'were a l l
Into
I n t h e Maske o f
F erdinand:
be c h e e r f u l ,
O ur r e v e l s
as
sp irits
and
t h i n a i r . ,,4co
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
143
-
When t h e ma s qu e i s
the a c t o r s
Jo in w ith
t a s y and th e n
dances,
women)
in th e ir
the m asquers
to
dance
At t h e masque
R u ssell,
'*Mrs . F i t t o n
first
as
proper c h a r a c te r s .
’* a l l t o o k
leade,
fo rth
she
th ese
d a wn ce;
said .
form al
(men a n d
and c o r a n to s
t h e y h a d donne a l l
8 Ladys Maskers c h o o s e 8 L a d i e s
M rs .
F i t t o n w ent t o t h e Queen,
h e r M ajestie
a s k e d what
goddesses w ith p o r t l y
d a n c e o f fee m a s q u e r s .
th e y vanished l i k e
the
v ariatio n of th is
M ajestie
trad itio n al
nymphs r e t u r n e d t o
solve
o f th ese
Then
phantoms o f
The t w e l v e
in
the
same
i n many m as qu es t h e a c i o r 3
to
In T e t h y s ' 1 F e s t i v a l D a n i e l
nt o
is
v i s a r d s a n d h e l m e t s , made a low h o n o u r t o
th e K ing, and a t t e n d e d h is
T he n,
real
pace " a s c e n d e d t h e m o u n ta in e
o r d e r a s t h e y came d o vme .* ^^ But
"off th e ir
she w a s ;
r o s e an d d a w n c e d . ” ^ ®
The T e m p e s t , t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s 30 s w i f t l y .
the
A f te r the
g alliard s,
follow ed a l a s t
some p e r f o r m a n c e s
dance,
of fan­
A f f e c t i o n I s a i d t h e Q ueen, A f f e c t i o n
Yet h e r M a j e s t i e
There
put
im agined,
figures
o t h e r persons
and a f t e r
dawnce t h e M e a s u r e s .
e f f e c t io n ,
in
audience,
is
f o r t h e w e d d i n g o f L o r d H e r b e r t a n d Lady Anne
a nd woed h e r t o
false.
r e a l and. t h e m agic
o th e r m easures,
t h e i r own C e r e m o n i e s ,
more t o
the
-
banquetting p lace.
in troduced a p le a sa n t
ending.
th e ir
the
A fter th e ir
retirin g
caves and d is a p p e a re d .
a v o id th e c o n f u s io n w hich u s u a l l y a t t e n d e t h
shew es,"
T r ito n begged th e audience to
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
the
de-
stay;
tt 460
'*Be p l e a s e d t o
aw hile,
a n d you s h a l l
A tran sfo rm atio n o f
ferre
more d e l i g h t ,
And a p t e r d rawne t o
N ature,
D iscribed
sit
in an
the
lad ies,
t h e n c a n be
im aginary sig h t.'*
The Duke o f York
no l o n g e r Z e p h y r u s )
(who h a d p u t o f f h i s mask a n d was
a n d s i x o t h e r n o ble m en w ere
who t h e n a p p e a r e d
in t h e i r
The L a d i e s E l i z a b e t h
who w ere among t h e s e m a s q u e r s ,
lad ies
poem i s
the speeches
masquers w i t h
the
'*take out'* t h e i r
unless
it
is
proper shapes.
had been r e l e a s e d
day.
no l o n g e r p u z z l i n g .
audience.
lo v ers.
The l a s t
precede
In t h e
But t h e r e
r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e
from a s i m i ­
tow ard th e
three
o f E s s e x House t h e
ten th
stanza
is
fin al
L adies
tra d itio n al
f a s h io n th e y drop t h e i r
stanzas
the m in g lin g o f the
no
the
lad ies
f o r m a l dan c e
b e t r o t h a l cerem ony.
riv e r step s
of
from swans t o
The c h a n g e o f t o n e
o r songs t h a t
to f i n d
461
The c o n v e n t i o n s
sudden m etam orphosis
i n 1;he P r o t h a l a m i o n .
end o f t h e
are
th e ir
sent
G u l d e f o r d and K a t h e r i n e P e t r e ,
l a r e n c h a n t m e n t on t h e i r b e t r o t h a l
t h e masque e x p l a i n
see
At t h e
S o m e r s e t unm ask;
d isg u ises
in th e
ag swan m a id e n s
a nd a ssu m e t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r s .
I n form a n d s p i r i t
ma s que o f
in the
S p e n s e r 1s - t h e
S i x t h Book o f t h e
again Spenser h im s e lf.
da nc e
Is
the
Prothalam io n r e c a l l s
an o th er
dance o f P a s t o r e l l a and t h e
F a e rie Queene.
The s e t t i n g
f o r m a lly d e s ig n e d ; and a t
is
the
G ra c e s
The p r e s e n t e r
p asto ral;
the
end - because
i3
lovely
t h i s mas
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
is m a g ic a l
- the
d ifferen ce.
but the
dancers
o f the
Too o f t e n t o
sig n ifican ce
that
o f h is
is
m eaning.
to
and K a th e r in e
Som erset
and t h i s
-P ro th a la m io n
e s s a y does no t
be
fo rg o tten
image o f S p e n s e r ’ s
he o p p o s e s
in th e
v i s i o n and
h i s m iddle-aged
Temple t o
the
enchanted
o f L e i c e s t e r ’ s d e a th as a
deeds o f E ssex.
Ee s e e s E l i z a b e t h
b r ig h t haze o f P la to n ic
P e r h a p s he h a d n e v e r b e l i e v e d t h a t
g e t h e r u n t i l he
Spenser explained the
sad a n t i q u i t y o f the
glorious
th em selv es.
As t h e d r e a m e r o f t h e
swans ; a n d he w r i t e s
the
in terp reted ,
fully
I t w i l l not
th e most b e a u t i f u l
m elan ch o ly and th e
is a co n sid erab le
The m asque o f t h e
tran slate,
foe, m u ta b ility .
youth o f th e
is
some m e n ’ s t a s t e
i n t e r p r e t e r o f th e m asque,
prelude
But t h e r e
£r o t h a l a m i o n m ust e x p l a i n
a lleg o ry .
expound i t s
th e -riv e r
g reatest
the
v an ish .
f o r each re a d e r to
presume t o
-
The d a n c e o f P a s t o r e l l a
sy m b o ls
he l e f t
145
id e a s and l i f e
l o v e d E l i z a b e t h Boyle a n d w r o t e
im agery.
ex isted to ­
fo r her the
E pithalam i o n .
But
if,
in t h i s
t h i n g beyond t h e
fit
in ten tio n
p riv ate
is
th e
perhaps a d i f f e r e n t
purpose o f t h i s
la st
poem,
p atrio t,
fin al
poem,
Spenser in tended any­
celeb ratio n o f a so ciety b e tro th a l,
rew ard o f a l l
rew ard
e s s a y to
to mark t h e
good S p e n s e r i a n s ,
fo r every one.
trace
the
p attern s
w ith the
and
I t has been th e
o f Spenser’s
lo v i n g c a r e w ith w hich th e
and a n t i q u a r i a n d e a lt
th at
poet,
trad itio n s
at
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
fab ler,
h is
-
command,' a n d t o o b s e r v e
them i n t h e
a fte r
th is
V.-ith t h e
the
146
-
sp ecial
^ r o t h a l a m i o n . L i ke
g r a c e w i t h w h ic h he
fused
t h e o t h e r m a g i c i a n i n The T e m p e s t ,
a c h i e v e m e n t he b r o k e h i s
s t a f f a n d drowned h i s
P r o t h a l a m i o n he made a s w a n - l i k e
end,
book.
b u t to u n fad in g
mu s i c .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
See d i s c u s s i o n
poem c e l e b r a t e s ,
concerning th e
pp.
d a t e of* t h e e v e n t t h a t
th e
85-91.
Z* T . M0 G r e e n e , The A r t s a n d t h e A r t o f C r i t i c ism 9 P r i n c e t o n ,
19 40 , p • 3*71 •
3*
The P o e t i c a l Works o f Edmund S p e n s e r ,
4e
A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , p . 2 68 •
g iv e s more p r a i s e
(V ol.
I,
to
P ro th o
p« 3 6 2 ) , b u t h e
m a s t e r e d b u t n o t ta me d
in h is
p. x x x v ii.
Sa i n t s b u r y
H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Prosody
again observes th a t
it
’’may l a c k t h a t
f u r y o f p e r s o n a l p a s s i o n w hich th e
E pithalam io n p o s s e s s e s . ”
_5.
D a p h n a ld a a n d O t h e r Po e m s, p p .
171-172.
S^o The A r t e o f E n g l i s h P o e s i e , e d . b y G ladys D. W i l l c o c k a n d
A lice W alker,
C am brid ge,
1936,
l_o
LI* 7 9 - 8 2 .
See a l s o
8.
LI ©
As t h e n e x t
4 5 -4 7
L eicester.
9.
•
p. 24.
E. E . ’ s n o t e s .
lin e
shows,
th is
is
p raise
of
See 1 1 . 1 3 7 —
140 o f f r o t h *
LI* 365-367,
400-403.
10.
See F* 0.. II* Pr. 4.
11*
F. Q.
Ill*
Pr. 3 .
See the whole passage, 11*344-455.
9.
- 147 -
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
F« Q,o
12.
between th is
148
-
VI* Pr. 7 • 4-9*
There is no real contradiction
view o f the court and the other, almost equally
frequent In Spenser’s poems, with which he opens Froth*
are true hut the f ir s t
15.
Is the e sse n tia l truth for Spenser.
An Essay on the Life o f Edmund Spenser, p. 110.
was a valuable observation but i t
it was disregarded,
Both
This
is not surprising that
for Hart’s next sentence r e fle c ts absurdity
on a l l h is comments.
14.
Longer English Poem3 , p. 204.
15.
English Prose and Poetry (1137-1892), p. 703.
16.
Various auth orities w ill be noted as they are used, but
three works deserve more general acknowledgment:
freson, Brides
and B ridals;
J . C. Jeaf-
G. E. Howard, A History o f Matri­
monial Inst itu t ions; and G. L. Powell, English Domestic Rela­
tions 1487-1653.
Introductory matter for th is chapter l a
drawn c h ie fly from Howard and the authorities to whom he re­
fe r s .
His work summarizes a great body o f material and con­
tains an ex cellen t bibliography.
Powell is
indebted to Howard,
Jeaffreson, and others, but he offers new and valuable infor­
mat ion.
1 7
.
18 *
j.
I.
This play was produced about 1613.
Calendar o f Letters and State Papers relating to English
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
149
-
A ffairs, preserved principally In the Archives o f Slmancas,
(hereafter c ite d as C .S.P.g Slmancas) „1558-I567o p. 208©
19 c
w
Even the Council o f Trent
.
. © declined to go farther
and give an equal sanction to banns,
registration, or the bene­
diction, though these were enjoined in it s decree.
After the
council as w ell as before children barely arrived at the age
of puberty might contract a valid marriage without the consent,
or even against the w i l l , o f th eir parents
. . . .
It is a
noteworthy fact that the dogma o f marriage as a sacrament
came near being a fa ta l obstacle in the way o f the action.
against
secret marriages.
* .
Ebr how could the church le g isla te
concerning a holy mystery • .
. ?* ( G . E. Howard, op. c i t .,
Vol. I, p. 339.)
20.
Churchmen maintained, ho7/ever, that marriage was something
more than a c i v i l contract.
See ib id ., Vol.
21.
408-435;
See lb id . ,
Vol. I, pp.
I, pp. 393-394.
C* L. Powell, op. c i t .
pp . 37—
49, 54—
60•
22*
Table Talk, ed. for Selden Society by Sir Frederick Pollock,
London, 1927, p. 75.
23.
London, printed by 3. Hoycroft for Robert Clavell at the
Peacock in S t. Paul’s Church-yard, 168624«
Op. c it • , pp• 2-3 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
150
-
25 •
Ibid. , pp. 9,
14.
25 o
It)id ayp. 3®
27»
Ibid«, pp. 18—
54; and CaptainJohn Logan,
of Honour,® p . , 148, In . John, Guilllm,
,?A Treatise
A Display o f Heraldry.
23> Henry Swinburne, op. c i t ®, pp. 40-41*
29»
For the betrothal, see John Stow, The Annales, or
Generali Chronicle o f England,
.
* . continued and augnented
. . « unto the ende of th is present yeere 1614.
by Edmond
Howes, gentleman, p. 485. ' For the protest, see Jeremy C o llier,
An E c c lesia stica l History o f Great B ritain, 2 vols*, London,
1708—
1714; Vol.
II,
p. 2.
C ollier misses the legal point,
denies to the prince the maturity which the law allowed,him,
and apparently overestimates the scruples of Henry VII.
See
James Gairdner, a r tic le on Henry VIII In Dictionary o f National
Biography .
30.
Henry E l l i s , e d ., Original Letters,
Histcry, 2nd Series, Vol.
did not accept the o ffe r .
I ll,
PP® 31—
52.
Illu stra tiv e o f English
Burghley o f course
His daughter Elizabeth married
William Wentworth on Feb. 26, 1582 (E. K. Chambers, The E liza­
bethan Stage {^hereafter cited as Eliz * StageJ, Vol.
31.
IV, p. 99).
A propertied orphan was the ward o f the crown u n til he
came o f ao-e.
The crown or Its
grantee enjoyed a l l the Income
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
151
-
from his holdings except the sum required, for his maintenance,
and was privileged to s e l l him in marriage*
See P. J. Fur—
n i va 1 1 , ed . , Child-Marriages , Divorces, and Rat ific a tio n s » &c *
in the Diocese o f Cheater, A.P« 1561-6, pp. x x x ix -x li and notes;
and R. T. Davies, t r . & e d ., Documents Illu stra tin g the History
o f C iv iliza tio n
pp. 40-41,
in Medieval England (1066-1500). New York, 1926,
for the provisions o f the Magna Charta concerning
-.varash ip .
52,
Worckes, London, 1564, P t. I,
C. Le Powell, op. c i t », p. 15.
f . c c c c c lx ilii;
quoted from
For a suggested and a completed
marriage settlem ent, see H istorical Manuscripts Commission,
Calendar o f the Manuscripts o f the
. . .
Marquis o f Salisbury,
« « . Preserved at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire
as Salisbury MSS. ) ,
(hereafter cited
Pt • VII, p. 267; and James Gairdner, e d .,
The Paston L etters, 3 v o ls ., Westminster, 1895; Vol. I,
pp.
235—
286.
55.
p.
54.
The Scholemaster, 1570,
In English Works o f Roger Ascham,
203.
Letter o f 1580 In The Letters and Epigrams of £ir John
Har-ington, ed. by N. E. McClure, p. 62.
See also ”A Letter
from the celebrated Mr. Cheeke, 1549, to Mrs* Penelope P ie ,n
in Harington*s Nugae Antiquae, ed. by Thomas Park, Vol.
1,
pp. 35-38; and Burghley*s advice to his son Robert- ("Marry
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
thy
daughters in time,
le s t they marry themselves”) in
John Strype, Annals o f the Reformat ion, Vol.
55 o
See,
IV, p. 477 „
for example, Lady itfewdigate-Newdegate, ed.,
Goss ip
from a Muniment-Boom, p. 5; and Sidney Lee *s a r tic le on Henry
Howard, Sari o f Surrey,
56.
in D. H. B.
Seven Sermons Before Edward VI (Lent, 1549) , ed. by
Mward Arher, English Reprints, Vol. VI, p. 35.
57.
See 2enry Swinburne, op. c i t . ,
are treated at length.
pp. 18-44, where exceptions
A marriage o f infants was onl?/ a pre­
sumptive spousal de futuro;
It had to be assured when the in­
fants reached childhood and again when they attained the age
o f consent.
nBy what means Spousais contracted during infaney,
are afterwards confirmed, when the Parties cease to be Infants;
by the same means is the Marriage confirmed v/hich was con­
tracted during Minority, a fter
the Parties come to years o f
discretion” (p. 40).
38.
Op. c i t . ,
in note 31.
See the excellent introduction as
well as the records.
39.
Ib id .,
pp. 6-7.
Pbr a father’s sale of h is son in order
to get money to pay debts, see the case o f Thomas Fletchar and
Anne W hitfield, pp. 22-24.
40.
Ibid.,
pp. 25-28.
41.
Ibid. , pp. 1-2.
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-
42 e
Ibid*, pp* 45-47.
45«
Op* c 15 ©9 p. 57 ©
153
-
See pp* 55—
73©
On©of the
divines
who condemned the d istin ctio n was Martin Lvther; see G» S©
Howard,
44*
op.
c i t *. Vol. I, p p . 340-341*
Op* c i t •» p. 6 4* The words themselves have no significance
i f they are contrary to the evident intention.
*Albelt the
words o f the Contract, neither o f their own natural sig n i­
fication, neither yet by common use and acceptation conclude
Matrimony; Yet whereas the Parties do thereby Intend to
Contract Matrimony, they are Inseparable Man and Wife, not
only before God, but also before Man; in case their meaning
may lawfully appear* (p. 87)*
Romeo and Ju liet sa^r no more
than that they love each other, yet each know3 the other1s
intention,
for J u liet says
(II* ii*
117-118);
nI have no joy of th is contract to-night;
It i3 too
rash, too unadvis’d, too3udden."
45 »
Henry Swinburne, op» c i t *, pp* 12-13*
46 .
Ibid *, p* 22.6.
47.
II I .
43.
IV0 I. 72-75.
49.
See pp. 94-102 where Lawrence also discusses the relations
i.
205-207,
221-225, 235-237.
of Claudio and J u lie t in the 3 ame play and
those of Posthumus
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-
sorafcus a n d
tatsaients
Go
• J Z ':
-
Enogen i n Gymbe 1 i n e .
He e r r s
i n H is
g e n e ra :
c o n c e rn in g sp o u sa l custom s.
V® I v .
5—17 .
Op. c it . ,
C
154
pp. 117, 118o
Alice
ton of some trickery with words:
Ince suspected John Brother-
nthe said John} toke the said
Alice ble the right hand, and said,
*1 take the, ^ lic e , to
be my w ief, and non other woman, so God me helpe,
and the
Cor.tentes o f th is hoke1 / then the said Alice said those
wordes were not w ell and s u f f ic ie n t .
said,
’Here I take the, Alice
Then the 3 aid John>
Inc e , to my we i f , before a l l
obher women: so God me helps, & holidamei
and bie th is boke,’
and kissed the boke, holdinge her hand s t i l l
In h is; and the
said A lice” was s a t is f ie d with th is fonn of the contract
•J. Furnivall, op. c it . ,
52.
5 3
.
(F.
p. 59).
George Gavendish, The Life o f Cardinal Wol3 e y , pp. 121—
125.
Ibid. ,
pp. 126-12S.
This shows that Anne Boleyn and
Lord Percy were betrothed de futuro, for that kind o f contract
could be dissolved by the marriage of one o f the contractors
to another person.
Cavendish’s editor has found reason to doubt th is
story.
He c it e s a l e t t e r written by Percy, then Earl of
Northumberland, in 1536, a short time before Queen Anne was
executed.
”1 perceive by Sir Haynold Carnaby [ he t e l l s Crom-
Wm
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-
155
-
well3 » that there is supposed a precontract between the queen
and me| wherupon I was not only heretofore examined upon my
oath before the Archbishopps o f Canterbury and York, but also
received the blessed sacrament upon the same before the Duke
of Norfolk, and other the king’s highnes1 council learned in
the s p ir itu a l law [when Percy's wife made the same allegation
in 1532J ;
assuring you Mr. Secretary, by the said oath, and
blessed body which affore
I received, and hereafter intend
to receive, that the same may be to my damnation,
i f ever
there were any contracte or promise o f marriage between her
and me” ( ib id . ,
pp. 121,
464-465)•
There is no reason to
doubt the word o f e ith e r Percy or Cavendish.
"olsey convinced Percy th a t,
his sp ir itu a l advisor,
It may be that
for reasons be 3 t understood by
the contract was void and as i f
it
had never ex iste d .
There are other notable instances of a ruler's in­
terference with a marriage contract.
In 1599 the rich Sir
John Spencer o f London, once Lord Mayor, preferred to go to
ja il rather than permit h is daughter to break her spousal. On
March 15 John Chamberlain reports that Sir John nwas the
last weeke committed to the Fleet for a contempt, and hiding
away his daughter, who, they say,
is contracted to the Lord
Compton; but now he is out again, and by a l l meanes 3 eeks to
hinder the match, alledging a precontract to Sir Arthur Henninghsms sonne.” (Sarah Yfilliams, ed ., Letters Written by
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
John Chamberlain during the Reign o f
Queen Elizabeth [here-
after c ited as Chamberlain, LettersJ, p. 50; see also pp. 4 3 *
109).
However* Queen Elizabeth favored the marriage with Lord
Compton, and Sir John was unable to prevent i t .
Tale (IV. i i i )
King Polixenes o f Bohemia
forbids
In Winters
the public
spousals o f Perdita and his son P lo rizel, who are already
privately assured.
Tragedy (I-I I)
The breaking of a betrothal in The Maid’s
- again upon the order o f a king - is made
the source o f the tragic
54.
action.
Miscellaneous Writings and Letters o f Thomas Crainner,
ed. by J. E. Cox, p. 360.
55#
Henry Swinburne, op. c i t . ,
56 .
lb id . , p. 233*
57.
II.
58.
Tr. o f Henry Bullinger*s The Christen state o f Matrimonye
iv . 21. 1-8.
London, 1541, x l v i i i ,
c it .,
p. 13.
Vol.
I,
x lv illi;
p. 349.
59.
TV.-iv. 100-103.
60.
P .-J . Furnlcvall, op. c i t . ,
61.
I.
62.
See e sp ecia lly I.
ii.
quoted from G. E. Howard, ojo.
p. 11.
149-157.
i and II.
iv .
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-
63.
157
-
E. K. Chambers (William Shakespeare. 2 v o ls ., Oxford,
1930? Vol.
II,
pp. 51-52) regards the relations of Anne and
Shakespeare before marriage as more irregular and less re­
spectable than Douce, H alliw ell-P h illip p s, J . Q.. Adams, and
others w ill admit.
But Chambers is mistaken when he says
that contemporary moral sentiment does not "appear to have
approved the anticipation o f the fu lle r ceremony."
The f a ir ­
ly humble folk o f Stratford probably were not more s tr ic t
than those o f Chester.
34.
See IV* I . 13—
31, 51—
55, 91—
101.
65.
A Werke for housholders. 2nd ed ., London, 1537, f . E.
i i i r"v; quoted from G. E. Howard, op. c i t .,
66
.
67.
Op. b i t . ,
Vol.
I, p. 350.
p. 196.
P. J . Rarnlvall, op. c i t . ,
p. 56.
58.
See IV. v i.
40-43, and VI. x i i .
69.
See II . i i ;
and note 44 above.
4-6.
Ebr two curiousspousals,
secret and conditional, see Thomas Heywoodfs The English
Traveler.
70.
II.
I; and Dryden*s Marriage £ la Mode, V. i .
Fenton o ffers the best possible
excuse for having
Anne against her parents * wishes (V. v. 244—
251);
”The truth i s ,
she and I, long 3 lnce contracted,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
married
158
Are now so sure that nothing can dissolve u s.
The offense is holy that she hath committed;
And th is deceit loses the name o f crafty
Of disobedience, or unduteous t i t l e ;
Since therein she doth ev ita te and shun
A thousand irrelig io u s cursed hours.
Which forced marriage would have brought upon her.”
Ebr Dame 0 u ic k ly * 3
story o f her spousal with honest Jack
and h is denial o f i t ,
see Henry IV, Ft.
II,
II.
1. 91-116*
Later she was betrothed to Nyn and then married P isto l a dangerous business which might have caused a duel i f Nym
and P isto l had net
71.
been r e a li s t s .
Edmund Lodge, ed .,
See Henry V,
H.
i.
Illu stration s o f B ritish History,
Biography, and Manners, Vol.
I ll,
pp. 100-101.
was made on Oct. 12 and the marriage w a s
The contract
performed with great
splendor on Dec. 27.
Early in 1620 Buckingham ran away with Katharine
Manners, and excused himself to her father, the Earl o f
Rutland, by declaring that they were secretly betrothed.
Rutland, replied;
"And for c a llin g our honors In question,
pardon me, my lord, that cannot be any fault o f mine; for
you would have me think that a contract, which i f you w ill
make It so, be It as secret as you w i l l , th is matter Is
at an end; therefore the fault 13 only your lordship^
the world talk o f us both.
The issue
if
I require, which your
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
lordship desires to know,
i s , that
I may by some course be
assured she is yours, and then you sh a ll find me tractable
to deal lik e a loving father- - ,3 (Godfrey Goodman, The Court
of King James the F irst l|hereafter c ited as Goodman, James I,
ed., with illu s t r a t iv e l e t t e r s , by J. S. Brewer, Vol. II,
190).
p.
Buckingham blustered, protested himself insulted,
offered to return the g ir l, but married her on May 16.
72.
L etters, p. 65.
See also pp. 79, 109.
73.
See J. C. Jeaffreson, op? c i t '.. Vol.
I, p. 6 8 ; and the
f u ll description in his p o lite ly excited prose o f the wedding
ceremony, pp. 88-91.
The publisher’s preface to Swinburne's
work describes the relation between the betrothal and marriage
serv ices.
nIn our Publick Office o f Marriage, Spousals , and
Matrimony are united, and performed in one continued Act;
When the Minister demands, Wilt thou have th is Woman to thy
wedded Wife, &c .
And the Man answers,
I w i l l , and so the
Woman vice versa, there's a Specimen o f Spousals de futuro.
When the Man repeats the Words, J . N. take thee N. to my
wedded Wife , &c. and 30 the Woman vice versa there * 3 the
form
o f Spousals de praesentl, which in Substance are perfect
Matrimony,
. . .
though not as to a l l Legal E ffects.
When
the Minister adds his Benediction, and pronounces them to
be Man and Wife, then »tis a perfect Marriage to a l l con­
structions and purposes in Lawtt ( f . A3^).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
74.
Ibid. , p. 209.
75 o
Vo io 163-168.
76.
In The Wldow (I I .
160
-
But see pp. 209-212 and 71.
i)
Ricardo tricks the rich widow
Valeria into a promise de futuro.
Miserably, 3 he resolves
to figh t the contract, even I f i t
takes "the whole power o f
my estate.**
But another suitor comforts her:
**Stay, stay, stay;
You broke no gold between you?”
Valeria
**W
e broke nothing, s i r . ”
First Suitor **Nor drunk to one another?"
Valeria
"Not a drop, s ir ."
First Suitor "Be o f good comfort, wench.
I ’l l undertake, then
At mine own charge to overthrow him for thee."
77.
Since Anglo-Saxon times the ring had been the v isib le
pledge o f espousal.
one Prometheus;
• • • :
It3
fir s t
inventor,
Swinburne saysi, "was
The Workman which made i t was Tubal-Cain
And Tubal-Cain by the Counsel o f our f ir s t
Parent
Adam (as my Author t e lle t h me), gave i t unto his Son to th is
end, that therewith he should espouse a Wife
f ir s t
. . . .
But the
Ring was not of Gold, but of Iron, adorned with an
Adamant, the Metal hard and durable, signifying the continu­
ance and perpetuity o f the Contract; the vertuous Adamant
drawing the
Iron unto i t ,
signifying the perfect unity and
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
161
-
India soluble Conjunction of th eir minds,
Xovej Howbeit,
in true and faith fh l
it s k ille th not at th is day, what Metal the
Ring be| The foxm o f the &ing being circular,
and without end,
that i s ,
round,
importsth thus much, that th eir mutual love
and hearty a ffectio n should roundly flow from the one to the
other, as in a C ircle, and that continually, and for ever” (op.
c it* , pp. 207-208).
78.
William Camden, The History o f the moat Renowned and
Victorious Princess Elizabeth, Late Queen of England'(hereafter
cited as Camden, Bllzabethj, p. 268.
79.
John Younge, ’’The Fyancells o f Margaret, eldest Daughter
of King Henry Vllth to James King o f Scotland," in John Leland,
De Rebvs Britannici 3 Collectanea
Collectanea^, Vol.
80.
(hereafter cited as Leland,
IV, pp. 258-262.
Edmund Sawyer, ed ., Memorials o f Affairs o f State in the
Reigns o f Queen Elizabeth and King James I.
Collected (chiefly)
from the Original Papers o f the Right Honourable Sir Ralph
Winwood (hereafter cited as Winwood's Meanorialsj » Vol. I,
pp. 240-241.
81.
Ibid. ,
Vol.
I ll,
p. 421.
See also Leland, Collectanea,
Vol. V, pp. 329-330.
82.
I. X ii. 19. 5-9.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
162
-
83•
I. x i i • 36—
37•
84®
In F. Q. the verb spouse is threetimes
sense
(X* x . 4. 7; V. i i .
2* 9;
used in th is
i i i . 2 . 4 ), but Spenser’s
seven uses o f spousal a l l seem to refer to marriage (F.
I* i i .
23. 6 ; II. x. 75. 9;
Arg.; VII. v i i . 12. 7;
85.
8 6
.
lines
Q.
IV. x i . 8 . 3; V. i i . 3 . 9; i i i .
V irgils Gnat. 395).
LI. 88-89.
LI. 175-179.
J. M. Manly (op. c i t . ,
p. 703)cites these
and observes that they nbecome p erfectly clear i f
th* appointed tide*
’at
refers to the spousal ceremony while ’th eir
bridal day’ in the refrain refers forward to the wedding.”
But why they become clear he does not say.
87.
8 8
.
P. Q..
IV- VI.
Op. c i t . ,
Vol.
I, p. 349.
89.
K. T ..
II. 5 -6 .
41, 8-9, and II.
x l v i i i ; quoted from G.
I (A) 3062; 12th N. ,
iv . 21. 2.
E.Howard,
op. c i t »,
V. I . 150-152; R. R. P. ,
V.
?or the third example I am indebted to Mr. Osgood.
See also Eger and Grine In Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript,
ed. by J. W. Hales and F. J. Ehrnivall, 3 v o ls ., London, 18671868; Vol.
I, pp. 381, 391; and The Taming o f the Shrew,
297, 328.
90.
Qp. c i t . ,
p. 14.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
II.
1.
-
91.
163
-
Edmund Lodge, Portraits o f Illu striou s Personages o f
Great B rita in , Vol. V, p. 1®
92 *
In 1396 John of Gaunt married his mistress Catherine
Swynford, and th e ir children were legitim ized by act of
Parliament*
Somerset.
The e ld e s t,
John Beaufort, was created Earl of
His descendant Henry Beaufort, third Duke o f Som­
erset, beheaded in 1463 for supporting the house o f Lancaster,
l e f t an only natural son, Charles Somerset, who was created
Earl o f Worcester in 1514.
Charles was second cousin
Henry VII through his relation to Margaret Beaufort,
to
the
king’s mother*
93.
In sp ite o f the dissenting comment o f Lady Elizabeth
Rus­
s e ll and o f thefourth Earl o f Worcester himself (Salisbury
MSS., P t• VII, p. 267; P t. XIV, p* 270), the family fortune
seems to have been large.
Charles the f ir s t earl married
the h eiress o f William Herbert, Earl o f Pembroke and Hunting­
don, and thus obtained most o f the older Herbert Inheritance,
including fte-glan Castle and Chepstow in Monmouthshire and
Gower in Glamorganshire.
(See
J. L. Sanford and Meredith
Townsend, The Great Governing Families of England, Vol.
p. 191.)
II,
Inquisitions taken a fte r the deaths o f Henry and
William, the second and third e a r ls,
show the extent o f the
family property In' Gloucestershire and Glamorganshire.
Arthur C ollins,
The Peerage o f England,
- :
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
(See
-
Vol. 1, p. 201;
-
Sanford .and Townsend, op« c i t .«
Vol. IX, PP* 192 , 193.)
Goodman says,
164
, _ .
Of Edward, the fourth earl Dr® Godfrey
”he was a wonderful great husband, and did
very much improve his own e sta te , and was a most provident
man; but that he should gain much by his g if t s
from the King
in a begging way,
it was far from his d isp o sitio n . 11
Vol.
Parliamentary sequestrations in the seven­
I, p. 201) •
(James,
teenth century show that besides Worcester House on the
Strand, the Somersets owned various properties in and near
London.
(See Henry Dircks, The Life
Marquis o f Worcester, p. 193.)
.
. . o f the Second
Some idea o f the
femily
fortune may be got from the second Marquis's nStatement o f
. . .
expenses for his King apd country,1
* which he apparently
submitted in 1663 to Charles II as a draft o f an Intended d is­
course to the House o f Lords.
fend lo st? )
( lb i d .,
nI have spen t,” he 3 ays, ’’len t,
for my king and country, revera
p. 334).
. . .
However, It must be remembered,
L918,000n
as J. H.
Round has amply proved ( Studies in Peerage and Family History,
p. 367 f f . ) ,
that the Marquis invented many things besides what
may have been the prototype o f the steam engine.
94.
Sir Robert Haunton, Fra gnenta Regal i a » p. 150.
95.
See C. S. P.. Simaneas, 1568-1579. p. 358; and Correspond­
ence Diplomatique de Bertrand de Salignac de la Mothe Fenelon,
ed. by C. P. Cooper, 7 v o ls .,
Vol. IV, pp. 319, 321-322.
Paris and London, 1838-1875;
Both cita tio n s are given In E liz .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
S ta ge ,
96 o
Vo 1 • IV,
165
-
p • 87 .
A ccording to
Lodge , t h e
statem ent o f h is
age
in the
in q u is itio n taken a f t e r h is
f a t h e r ’s d e a t h d i s a g r e e s w i t h
th e sta te m e n t on h i s
” I f we a r e
tomb.
o f those a u t h o r i t i e s ,
to
r e l y on t h e
he was b o r n i n 1553 ;
I f on t h e l a t t e r ,
In 1544” ( P o r t r a i t s , p . 1 ) .
The f i r s t
A. P . P o l l a r d
on Edward S o m e r se t
in h is
artic le
date
first
i s a c c e p t e d by
i n D. N. B .
97.
E lizab eth ,
p . 438.
98.
See F r a n c 13 S a n d f o r d , A G e n e a l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f t h e
Kings o f E n g la n d ,
p.
pp. 202—
203; Lodge,
99.
338;
C o llin s,
S cotland
James o n h i s m a r r i a g e a n d i n v e s t
I n De cemb er o f t h a t
o f W ales.
I,
P o r t r a i t s , p. 7 .
E l i z a b e t h s e n t him t o
G arter.
P e e r a g e , Vol
i n 1590 t o
co n g ratu late
him w i t h t h e O r d e r o f t h e
y e a r he was made a c o u n s e l l o r
He was a d m i t t e d a s a member o f t h e
M iddle Temple
i n 1 5 9 1 , a n d i n t h e n e x t y e a r O x f o r d gave him a n M. A. d e g r e e .
He was e l e c t e d K. G. A p r i l 2 3 ,
100
. C alendar o f
c i t e d as C . S.
101.
Papers,
E arls
(A. F .
Dom estic
P o llard ,
S eries
D. N. B . )
'{ h e re a fte r
P JJ , 1 5 9 1 —1 5 9 4 , p . 287 •
C oncerning E s s e x ’s p r o p e r t i e s ,
f a th e r ’s w ill,
ereux,
S tate
1593.
see a b s t r a c t o f h i s
W. B. D e v e r e u x , L i v e s a n d L e t t e r s
o f Essex,
Vol.
II,
o f t h e Dev-
pp* 483—4 8 6 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
102
.
S i r # e n r y Wot t o n ,
Earl of E ssex;
Essex*s
Dorothy,
don.
The C h a r a c t e r s o f R o b e r t D e v e r e u x .
(1641),
p.
104o
th ird
p.
171;
V ol.
II,
g r e a t m a n ie k n i g h t s ,
105.
V ol.
106.
it,
II,
II,
Sidney,
seat
V ol.
II,
an d M e m o r i a l s o f
pp. 16,
25;
The G e n e r a l s ’’made a
alm ost t h a t
it
and soe to
In th e t h i r d
pp. 289-290;
d id deserve
(as
It,
or
some d i d ) . "
and A rth u r C o l l i n s ,
S ta te ( h e r e a f te r c i t e d as
le tte rs
P e b . 1 4 , Mar ch 4 ,
Lord C h a m b e rla in ,
sent
p p . 7 7 3 , 77 4 .
Memoirs o f The R e ig n o f Queen E l i z a b e t h .
o f Rowland Whyte t o
March 6 ,
159 6-1 5 9 7*
Essex in ten d s
R aglan."
In M onm outhshire,
because
486.
even a l l
l e t t e r Whyte s a y s t h a t
C astell,
p.
101.
See i b i d . ,
L etters
V ol.
p.
E a r l o f H unting­
a n d W. B. D e v e r e u x , o p . c i t . .
o r n o t n e g l e c t and r e f u s e
Thomas B i r c h ,
first
e a r l ’s p o s itio n as E ssex ’s guardian,
V, p . 2 6 7 ;
See Stow, A n n a l e s ,
affect
S i r R ich ard Devereux, m a r r ie d
d a u g h t e r o f George H a s t i n g s ,
C oncerning th e
I,
4.
g ran d fath er,
se e S a l i 3 h u r y MSS. „ P t .
V ol.
-
a n d Ge or ge V i l l i e r s 9 Duke o f B uc k in g ha m . Compared
and C o n t r a s t e d
105e
166
to
Sidney P a p e r s ^
S i r Robert
In the
go " t o w a r d s Wlgmor
R a g l a n was W o r c e s t e r ’ s p r i n c i p a l
a n d a p p a r e n t l y he was t h e r e a t
l e t t e r W hyte,
observes,
second
"yt
is
t h e tim e
re p o rtin g th e d e a th o f the
sayd t h a t a M essinger is
i n H a s t f o r my L o r d W o r c e s t e r t o
come v p . n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 07.
It
is
lik e ly
h i s own d e p u t y .
t h a t E l i z a b e t h p e r m i t t e d E s s e x t o name
Whyte i m p l i e s
a s much when he s a y s ,
"My
Lord o f E s s e x , l e a u e s my L o r d o f W o r c e s t e r , h i s
D e pu ty M a s t e r
o f the
p. 7 9 ).
H orse,
10 8.
till
h is
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
undated and u n s ig n e d ,
o f W o rcester to
volume o f t h e
by t h e
R eturn”
is
endorsed:
h e r Ma*5^® . ”
tern s
th is
"My L .
supposes
o r F eb .,
to
106.
in h is
ed ito r of th is
th at
it
p lace" as
in your M a je s ty ^
109.
S idney P a p e r s , V o l.
110.
0?he E a r l was o r d e r e d t o k e e p h i 3
d ay he was
in terro g ated
II,
by t h e
p.
fit
th e circum ­
is "leav in g
d eputy M aster
in such c o n fid e n t
t h e Que en - t h o u g h t h e l e t t e r c l o s e s :
freedom o f s p i r i t
was w r i t t e n
This a ssu m p tio n
Essex
a n d o n l y E s s e x w ou ld w r i t e
T his l e t t e r ,
I n f a v o r o f my L .
1599.
so w e l l a s E s s e x a n d W o r c e s t e r .
Horse;
II,
T h e r e a r e no two p e r s o i s w h o
the s h o re ;" W orcester "w aits
of th e
p.
E. S a lisb u ry ,
S alisb u ry papers,
seems j u s t i f i e d .
V ol.
P t . XIV, A d d e n d a ,
E a rl o f Essex in Ja n .
stances
(ib id .,
"Pardon
hum blest
v a ssa l.”
127.
c h a m b e r, a n d t h e n e x t
lo r d s a f t e r C e c il had " d e l i u e r
ed t h e O f f e n c e s h e r M a j e s t i e c o n e e a u e d h e h a d donne a g a i n s t
her"
( i b i d .,
V ol.
111.
Ib id .
112.
See B i r c h ,
II,
p-
129).
M emoirs, V o l.
H,
p.
454.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1 13.
Camden,
114e
See C.
574, 5 8 2 ,
E l i z a b e t h , pp.
S.
584,
P .,
608-609.
1 5 9 8 - 1 6 0 1 ,, p p . 5 4 8 ,
585—
587.
W o rc e ste r's
552,
555-554,
5 56 ,
5 73,
statem ent
is
sum marized
(16fe5), Vol.
I,
p.
b r i e f l y on p.
587.
115 .
Camden,
E l i z a b e t h , p . 620.
116.
David L l o y d ,
117.
I n 1 6 0 4 h e was member o f a c o m m is s io n f o r t h e e x p u l s i o n
of th e J e s u i t s ;
S tate-W orthies
i n 1605-1606,
an exam iner o f s u sp e c ts
Gunpowder P l o t .
E arlie r
sim ila r b u sin ess
(See S a l l s b u r y MSS. ,
30 4 - 3 0 6 ,
314;
118.
Ib id .,
119.
B esides
and Lodge,
V ol.
Ill,
120.
P t . XV II,
I l l u a t r a t i o n 3 , V ol.
pp. 216, 269,
Ill,
p. 207.
p. 265.
t h e s e o f f i c e s h e was a p p o i n t e d L o rd L i e u t e n a n t
y e a r h e was n o m i n a t e d C u s t o s
P o llard ,
in the
i n 1605 he was s e n t t o Wales on
o f M o n m o u th sh i r e a n d G l a m o r g a n s h i r e
P.
469.
i n 1602 and I n t h e n e x t
R otulorum o f Monm outhshire
(A.
D. N. B . ) •
Pbr exam ple,
see
S i d n e y Pa p e r s , V o l .
II,
p p . 113,
1 52 ,
161.
121.
P b r ex a m p l e , when S i r Thomas E g e r t o n e n t e r t a i n e d
b e t h i n p r o g r e s s , J u l y 21 — A u g u st 2 ,
W o r c e s t e r w as o n e o f t h e Q u e e n ' s
1602,
E liza­
t h e C o u n te s s o f
p a r t y . See E li z .:S t a g e , V o l. 17,
s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
169
also
S a l i s b u r y MSS«, P t » X I I ,
122 c
F r a gmenta Re g a l l a 9 p .
125.
In 1612, a f t e r
m is s io n e r f o r the
o f t h e Horse
-
pp.
43, 2 7 9 .
149.
S alisbu ry *s
T reasury.
d eath ,
He r e s i g n e d h i s
i n 1615, and i n Ja n u a ry o f t h e
made L o r d ^ r i v y S e a l w i t h a g r a n t
the
examine R a l e i g h ;
a p p o i n t e d Ju d g e o f R e q u e s t s ;
t h e c o r o n a t i o n cf f C h a r l e s
(A. F .
124.
P o llard ,
p o s t o f M aster
n e x t y e a r he was
soon a f t e r w a r d s t h a t
s t i p e n d o f t h a t o f f i c e to ilSO O .
c o m m i s si o n t o
he was a p p o i n t e d Com­
th ree
in creased
I n 1618 h e s e r v e d on t h e
years
l a t e r h e was
a n d h e was G r e a t C h a m b e r l a i n a t
I in 1625.
He d i e d March 3 ,
1628-•
D. N. B . )
’’W o r c e s t e r , m a s t e r o f t h e h o r- s e , a n d t h e o l d A d m i r a l ,
t h e s e d i d o n l y manage t h e i r g r e a t
o ffices
th er”
(Goodman,
51).
125.
Ib id .,
126.
W i l l i a m Camden,
127.
Lodge,
I l l u s t r a t i o n s , Vol.
128.
Ib id .,
V ol.
129.
See
261,
265,
Jam es,
V ol.
ib id .,
267;
I,
Iy p .
no
far­
p. 71.
Ill,
V ol.
V ol.
andlooked
Remains C o n c e r n i n g B r i t a i n ,
p.
Illy
Ill,
p.
p. 225.
110.
40.
pp.
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
130,
13 4 ,
P t. X II,
137, 140,
pp.
154,
43 , 2 7 9 ;
pp. 304-306.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
199 ,
P t . XVII,
-
130 •
I n A gas ’
on t h e
17 0
map o f a b o u t 1591 W o r c e s t e r H o u s e ,
Thames b e t w e e n Durham P l a c e a n d t h e
shown w i t h a l a r g e
view o f London made
eo u rt,
tree
th e
Stow.
prospect o f
to
the
E a rl o f W o rc e s te r's
c u t down t h e
to
o ccupies a la rg e
th e
take th e
change
“There b e in g a
S a l i s b u r y House,
th at
said t r e e ,
is
In a
b ig g er
p a rt o f the
offered
in a s to r y
very la rg e w a ln u t- tr e e
near ad jo in in g ,
gardener,
eastern
i t was p r o p o s e d
by the E a rl o f
S alis­
i f he c o u ld p r e v a i l w i th h i s
he s h o u l d h a v e KL00.
E a rl o f W orcester,
who o r d e r e d him t o
s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the E a rl o f S a lisb u ry ,
do
the
E a r l o f W o r c e s t e r soon c a u s e d t o be b u i l t
in th e
h is
T h i s am usin g y a r n i s
Edward W a l f o r d
T bornburyJ,
C hancellor
house o f b r i c k ,
1873-1878;
( The P r i v a t e
a nd A l g e r n o n S i d n e y
S a l i s b u r y , London,
Vol.
a s c r ib e d to
Ill,
place o f
Stow b y
' [ l - I J by W alter
p ilO l),
E. B eresford
P a l a c e s o f L o n d o n . London,
(A L i f e o f R o b e r t C e c i l .
1915,
p.
the
w h ic h t o o k away a l l
(O l d a n d New L o n d o n , 6 v o l s .
London,
and
a s he t h o u g h t ; b u t ,
two e a r l s ,
a larg e
it
great
t h e r e b e i n g no g r e a t k i n d n e s s b e t w e e n t h e
the w a ln u t- tr e e
lo rd to
The o f f e r was
KL00; b o t h w h i c h w e r e p e r f o r m e d t o
p rospect*n
is
i n 1658 b y E a i t h o r n e a n d New-
g a r d e n , w h i c h much o b s t r u c t e d t h e
bury o r h i s a g e n t,
to ld to
itse lf,
An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s
growing i n t h e
tree.
h a s d i s a p p e a r e d a n d a new b u i l d i n g ,
t h a n W o r c e s t e r House
c re d ite d to
situ ated
Savoy P a l a c e ,
g a r d e n c o n t a i n i n g one t a n
b ird* s - e y e
garden.
-
1908,
p. 36),
F ir s t E arl o f
1 6 7 ) , b u t t h e y g i v e no r e f e r e n c e .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
I ha v e l o o k e d f o r
and i n t h e
the s t o r y w ith o u t
co n tin u atio n s
is a c c u r a t e ,
su c ce ss.in
o f h i3 A nnales.
I f the q u o ta tio n
Stow c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n i t s
author;
buried A p r i l 8 ,
1 6 0 5 , a l m o s t a m o n th b e f o r e
created E arl o f
S alisb u ry *
brick b u ild in g b u i l t ,
about C e c il
p.
the
in a l e t t e r
But t h e t r e e
s t o r y to ld*
t o him
S to w »a w o rk s
f o r he was
R o b e r t C e c i l was
was
c u t down,
the
See W o r c e s t e r ’ s j o k e
(Lo dg e,
I l l u s t r a t i o n s , V ol.
Ill,
14 1 ) *
151 *
V ol.
Bbr a n
II,
laudable
account o f th e
pp. 220-240.
p arts o f
E a r l ’s p la y e r s ,
Camden s a i d t h a t
v e rtu e and n o b i l i t y ,
s t u d i e s o f g ood l i t e r a t u r e ’* (B r i t a i n ,
1610,
p.
132.
Jam es,
155.
A ccording to
see E l i z .
t h e E a r l ’’among o t h e r
h ig h ly
tr.
fauoreth th e
b y P h i le m o n H o l l a n d ,
579).
In g a S asto n e,
V ol.
I,
p. 201.
the
s h e was
when sh e d i e d
i n s c r i p t i o n on K a t h e r i n e ’ s tomb a t
fo rty -n in e
(See J .
J.
G e n e a ~ 7 l o g i ca l C o l l e c t i o n s
years
o l d on O c t . 30,
Howard, H. P . B u r k e ,
.
.
. R e la tin g to
A u th o rities
agree
E liz a b eth ,th e
th an th re e
th at
first.
years,
1624,
a n d H. S . H ughe s ,
th e
Roman C a t h o l i c
F a m ilie s o f E ngland ’j h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s C a th o lic
134.
S tag e,
F am lliesj ,p .6 1)
s h e wa3 t h e E a r l ’ s s e c o n d d a u g h t e r ;
E l i z a b e t h was t h e
e l d e r b y no more
f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s m a r r i e d o n Dec. 2 3 ,
Q u een E l i z a b e t h ’ s h o u s e h o l d was v e r y l a r g e .
1571.
About 1500
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
persons,
noble and m e n ia l,
accounts,
F o r good m odern
s e e E . P . C h e y n e y , A H i s t o r y o f E n g la n d from t h e
D e fe a t o f t h e Armada t o
14 f f . ;
atten d ed h e r.
E liz.
the
S t a g e , V ol.
"The S o c i a l B a c k g r o u n d , "
D eath o f E l i z a b e t h , V ol.
I,
p.
27 f f . ;
i n A Companion t o
cerem onies o f a
H e n tz n e r's d e s c r i p t i o n
P rocessions,
Sunday a t
Shakespeare S t u d i e s ,
o f Q-ueen E l i z a b e t h ,
o f E l i z a b e t h ^ , V ol.
p.
59.
are
fem ale p o s t s
Lansdowne MS. l i x ,
two a t
f.
p r i v e y Chamber," a t
these,
43,
Peck,
and P u b lic
Progresse3
D e s i d e r a t a C u r i o s a , Vol.
a r e n o t found i n t h e
notes th re e
S ta g e,
V ol.
lad ies
B20;
50 m a r k s e a c h ;
(E l i z .
fiv e
fee l i s t s ,
I,
but
o f "The Bed c h a m b e r , ”
" Gentlewomen o f ye
a n d f o u r " C h a m b er e rs "
I,
p.
44,
n o te).
B esides
t h e r e w e r e s i x Maids o f Honour an d s a n e L a d i e s o f t h e
P r e s e n c e C h a mb e r .
e n tre d the
fa i r e
The P r o g r e s s e s ,
jh e re a fte r c ite d as
50 m a r k s a p i e c e a n d o n e a t
a t B20 a p i e c e
see
o f t h e P r i v y Chamber, a n d t h e i r
g iv en by F ra n c is
The
1934.
II).
The m a l e o f f i c e r s
fees,
New Yo rk,
Greenwich i n 1 5 9 8 ,
(John N ic h o l3 ,
p.
a n d M. S t . G l a r e B y r n e ,
e d . H. G r a n v i l l e B a r k e r a n d G. B. H a r r i s o n ,
For t h e
I,
When V e r i k e n b a d a u d i e n c e
P r e s e n c e Chamber,
M aides,
attire d a ll
Soe he p a s s e d t o
the
fu ll of
in W hite,
i n 1500,
great L adies,
"h e
and t h e
e x c e lle n tly braue.
.
.
.
P r i v y Chamber, w h e re t h e L a d i e s o f t h a t
P la c e w ere w e l l accom panied"
( S i d n e y P a p e r s , V o l.
II,
PP» 1 7 0 -
171) .
I f E lizab eth
and K a t h e r i n e
S o m e r se t were n o t among
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
these a t t e n d a n t s ,
173
t h e y w ould n e v e r t h e l e s s
the c o u r t w i t h th e
rest
of th eir
Cheyney,
V ol.
I,
135.
I,
op. c i t ..
L etters
pp. 356,
-
la te
A.3hby-de- l a - Zouche
p.
Rawdon H a s t i n g s ,
part
in th e
fu n eral,
R eport on th e M a n u s c rip ts
E sq .,
o f The Manor H o u s e ,
( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s H a s t i n g s MSS. ) .
V ol.
II,
45.
156.
H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t 3 C o m m issio n ,
scrip ts
Place
222
Sidney P a p e r s , V ol.
C oncerning W o r c e s t e r 's
R eginald
(see
pp. 54-59).
s e e H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s C om m issio n.
o f the
or near
fa th e r* s household
o f Nov. 25 a n d D ec . 1 9 ,
381.
lodge a t
o f L o r d de L * l 3 l e
R e p o r t o n t h e Manu­
a n d D u d le y P r e s e r v e d a t
(h e re a fte r c ite d as
P e n s h u r 3 t MSS. ) ,
V ol.
Penshurst
II,
pp. 218,
.
157 .
The name was s p e l l e d
docum ents.
in
v a r i o u s ways
in contem porary
I t was p r o n o u n c e d G i l f o r d o r G i l d f o r d b u t w r i t t e n ,
b y members o f t h e
fam ily,
G uldeford.
The P e t r e
fa m ily had
sim ilar d i f f i c u l t i e s .
T h e i r name was p r o p e r l y w r i t t e n
but
The G u l d e f o r d s w e r e ” d e n o m in a t e d
pronounced P e t e r .
P etre
from
t h e L o r d s h i p a n d Mannor o f G u i l f o r d , n e a r Rye i n ^ u s s e x , w h i c h
was t h e i r a n t i e n t P o s s e s s i o n s ”
138.
See
S i r Henry E l l i s ,
G uylforde, a f t e r p . x v i;
G u ld efo rd ,”
e d .,
(Sidney P a p e r s . V o l.
I,
p. 31).
The P y lg ry m a g e o f S i r R i c h a r d
a n d R. C.
Jenkins,
” The F a m il y o f
A r c h a e o l o g i a C a n t i a n a XVI ( 1 8 8 2 ) ,
a f t e r p.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4.
E llis*
account o f
b rief
h i s t o r y o f th e
S i r R i c h a r d i3
in accu rate.
The m o s t
is C a th o lic
F am ilies,
pended t o
th e
fam ily is
I,
o f the
37,
60,
110.
116,
352.
o f E ngland,
V ol.
403,
pp. 95,
2 29 ,
247, 256,
and Henry V I I •,
404-417;
V ol.
II,
1530,
pp. 88,
The An­
W illia m Lambarde, A P e r a m b u la tio n o f
i n t h e Y e e re 1570
5 3 2 . Camden,
Thomas E h l l e r ,
II,
109,
pp.
pp. 215, 220,
pp.
173,
481,
"K nights o f th e
161,
.
.
R e m a in s ,
.
, London,
p. 283;
1826,
and
The H i s t o r y o f t h e W o r t h i e s
168,
19,
541;
S hire
221,
22;
177, 178,
170,
172,
173.
Edward
1936;
V ol.
378,
485,
491;
V o l.
182,
185,
194,
198,
208, 211,
p.
386.
J.
Cave-Brown,
f o r K e n t , " A r c h . C a n t . XXI ( 1 8 9 5 ) ,
225-22 6 .
V ol.
I,
349,
V o l . X I,
II,
Wedgwood a n d Anne D. H o l t ,
L on do n ,
III,
an d P a p e r s
L o rd Howard de W a ld e n , B a n n e r s ,
V o l . V, p p . 1 8 0 , 2 6 2 , 2 6 8 ,
I,
L etters
The H i s t o r y a n d T o p o g r a p h i c a l S u r v e y o f t h e C o u n ty o f
VII,
V ol.
e d .,
from a T u d o r M a n u s c r i p t i n t h e C o l l e g e
W ritten
p.
K ent,
393,
p . 183.
106,
. . . .
H asted,
G uldeford papers a r e a p ­
Reigns o f R ic h a rd
a n d Ba dg e s
o f A im s, p p .
B rita in ,
f a m i l y d o c u m e n ts
i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t H en ry G u ld e f o r d * s
Ja me s G a i r d n e r ,
(1904),
S tandards,
pp. 36,
and o c c a s i o n a l l y
292 . "Thomas W a l l * s Book o f C r e s t s , "
c e s t o r XI
Kent
su p erficial
i n w hich th e
pp. 129-134, 281,
125 f f . ,
Jenkins*
B etre p a p e r s .
a n c e s to r s see?
V ol .
ex cellen t.
im portant source o f
Ebr v a r i o u s
Illu stra tiv e
17 4 -
W. A. Shaw,
The K n l g h t 3 o f E n g l a n d ,
pp. 22,
36,
28,
39,
53.
J.
C.
H i3tory o f P a rlia m e n t, 2 v o ls .,
PP« 402—4 0 4 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
139.
H em st e d was t h e home o f t h e H e n ry G u l d e f o r d w i t h
whom t h i s
account
parish is
i n R olv end en H u n d red , h u t t h e
ted is
lo cated
3
m entions
is ch iefly
is
in th e
concerned.
Much o f Benenden
part
i n w h i c h Hem-
H u ndred o f C r a n b r o o k e .
L eland
uH ein ps te de B r i d g e y n K en t d e v i d i n g t h e H un d re d e s o f
Czaneburne a n d R o l v i n d e n * a n d t h e
le c t a n e a , ^fol.XyP^^p• 452) .
G uldeford p la c e a t
H asted d e s c r ib e s
Hemsted (Gol
t h e m anor h o u s e .
I t "was b u i l t o f b r i c k a n d h a d two handsome o c t a g o n t o w e r s
. . . .
At a place
gr ou nd i s
(Kent,
140.
in the
park,
c alled
r e p u t e d t o be t h e h i g h e s t
V ol.
V II,
pp.
t h e M erry T r e e , t h e
in a l l
t h e Weald o f K e n t n
173-174) .
I V• i v ♦ 5 0 5 •
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
176
-
T h ia m a r r i a g e was p e r f o r m e d , i n t h e
141 .
H e nr y V I I a n d Queen E l i z a b e t h .
p r e s e n c e of* King
In 1514 when P r i n c e s s
Mary
became t h e w i f e o f L o u i s X I I , Lady J o a n G u l d e f o r d was m i s t r e s s
o f h e r Maids o f H o n o u r .
tie s,
a n d sh e
liv ed a t
H e nry V I I I g r a n t e d Lady J o a n two a n n u i ­
le a st t i l l
1531
(E llis,
G uylforde, p.
x iii) .
142.
the
I.
i v . 7-10*
first
I f the
y o u n g e r H e n ry h a p p e n e d t o a t t e n d
perform ance o f t h i s
Globe T h e a t e r ,
few s p e e c h e s
p l a y on J u n e 2 9 ,
he saw t h e a c t i o n come t o a
la te r.
"some o f t h e p a p e r , a n d o t h e r
w h e r e w i t h one o f them was
stopped,
The t h e a t e r bvcmed t o
ground.
lo g ical
etcies
1844)
W ith t h i s
betw een fo u r m a r t l e t s
pomegranate
th is
the
Rema i n s » p . 2 9 5 .
a sa ltire
and H e r a l d i c
say t h a t
the
Irelan d ,
e n t l y he
the
th a tc h ."
arms a r e o r ,
on a c a n t o n a r g e n t a
Jo h n a n d J .
B. Burke
(A Genea­
and S c o t l a n d , 2nd e d . ,
London,
S p a n i s h K ing k n i g h t e d H enr y a n d gave him
r e d u c t i o n o f G ranada.
G airdner observes
ad d itio n ,
on t h e
stu ff,
H i s t o r y o f t h e E x t i n c t a n d Dormant B a r o n ­
a u g n e n t a t i o n o f h i s a rm s
in t h e
did l i g h t
sab le;
p ro p er seeded g u le s .
o f E ngland,
v i o l e n t en d a
'’C e r t a i n c a n n o n s b e i n g s h o t o f f ’* t o
m a r k t h e K i n g Ts e n t r y ,
145 ♦
1613, a t t h e
In h i s
life
fo r service a g a in st
Thi3
is
t h e Moor-s
i m p o s s i b l e , a s James
o f S i r H en ry (D. W. B . ) .
r e c e iv e d b o th honors a t Burgos,
G a ird n er_ and Sidney P a p e r s , Vol.
I,
p.
S e p t . 15,
1511
31).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Appar­
(see
_
177
-
144 .
Lodge,
I l l u s t r a t i o n s , V ol.
II,
145.
P r o g r e s s e s o f E l i z a b e t h . V ol.
p.
23.
II,
\u een
E l i z a b e t h 3s
P la te and J e w e l s , ” p . 8 .
146.
W. A . Shaw, o p . c i t . ,
147.
He d i e d J u n e 1 5 ,
on J u l y
a fte r
p.
( ib i d . ,
4,
p.
C ath o lic
a n d he h a d b e e n 30 y e a r s o l d
f a t h e r died
L en t,
149.
Guyl fo r d e ,
See h i s w i l l
1577
U , p . 148).
1580-1.
H enry.
Perhaps
H e m s te d , K e n t 1* ( J o h n a n d J . A.
Cam bridge,
(E llis,
F a m i l i e s , p . 8 2 ) '.
"G ylford o r G uldeford,
T rin ity ,
I I , p. 75.
86) a n d t h e Q u e e n 1s w a r r a n t o f M arc h,
( S a l i s b u r y MSS. , P t .
148.
157 5 ,
1 5 6 5 , when h i s
xv i;
V ol.
M atric . F ell.-C o m .
from
s . a d - h . o f 5 i r Thomas, o f
Venn, Alum ni
. C antabrigienses,
1922).
He was n o t more t h a n 15 y e a r s o l d b e c a u s e he was n o t
born on J u ly 4,
1 5 6 5 , when h i 3
F am ilies, p. 8 2 ).
fa th e r’s w ill;
before
Nov. 1 ,
1574,
a n d p r o b a b l y he was b o m t h r e e
e a r l i e r than t h i s
college
He was a l i v e
g ra n d fath e r died
because
I t was u n u s u a l
he was 10 y e a r s
he e n t e r e d T r i n i t y .
But
o ld .
(see C a th o lic
the
or
date o f h is
four years
f o r a boy t o
en ter
E s s e x was a g e d 9 when
S p e n s e r was p r o b a b l y 16 o r 17 y e a r s
o l d when: h e m a t r i c u l a t e d a t C a m b ri d g e ; H e n r y ’ s u n c l e H enry i s
s a id to
h a v e e n t e r e d O x f o r d a t t h e a g e o f 12
(Joseph P o s te r ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
Alumni O x o n i e n s e s , O x f o r d ,
y e a r s o l d when he w e n t t o
150«
A cts o f th e
as A .P . C . ) ,
151.
1 8 9 1 ) ; a n d W i l l i a m P e t r e was 13
Oxford
P r i v y C o u n c il o f E ngland
1596-1597. p .
See l i s t
of
( s e e note 183) .
(h ereafter c ite d
122.
recu san ts
in Sussex com m itted to
p riso n ,
/
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
P t.
IV,
p.
i n H e r e f o r d was
im prisoned a t
the
p. 265), but
u n cle.
The r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
is
is
A W illiam
(ib id .,
o f M ichelgrove
it
264.
same ti m e
probable t h a t
s e c o n d w i f e Mary wa s t h e
S h elley ”
and the
widow o f J o h n S h e l l e y ;
(C a t h o li c
same o f f e n s e
S helleys
S i r J o h n G u l d e f o r d 1s
G u l d e f o r d w ede d h i s mo t h e r - i n - l a v / e s
E lizab eth e
f o r the
H e n r y was a i d i n g h i s
Guide f o r d s
r a t h e r com plex.
S h e lle y o f S utton
so nThomas
' [ s t e p m o t h e r ’ s]
F am ilies, p. 8 2 ).
doughter
Lady M a r y ’ s
w i l l m e n t i o n s h e r s o n s J o h n a n d W i l l i a m S h e l l e y a n d ”my s o n
H ungreford”
frien d s
to
(ib id .,
the
T hom as’ w i l l
152.
pp.
86-87).
Guide f o r d s ;
(i b i d .,
p.
A f a m i l y o f C a r i l l s w e re
one Edward was a w i t n e s s
to
S ir
86).
P b r t h e a c c u s a t i o n o f r e c u s a n c y a g a i n s t H e n ry a n d h i s
e ld est
son,
s e e L . B. L a r k i n g ,
in th e
C ounty o f K e n t ,
E lizab eth ,
p.
P roceedings, P r in c ip a lly
65.
H e n r y ’ s m o t h e ij seems t o h a v e b e e n t h e
o n l y Lady G u ld e fo rd l i v i n g
Gowre was
e d .,
inform ed t h a t
in about
c ertain
1590.
le tte rs
At t h a t
have
ti m e one
come from C o p l e y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
and o t h e r s b e y o n d t h e
179 -
seas and have been d e l i v e r e d to
maid a t Lady G u i l d f o r d ' s house
urged t o
get hold o f th e s e
p. 7 1 3 ).
in T r i n i t y Lane.
le tte rs
(G. 3 .
The m o s t p r o m i n e n t C a t h o l i c
the
Gowre i s
P . 9 1581-1590.
ex ile
named C o p l e y was
Thomas C o p l e y , k n i g h t e d a n d c r e a t e d b a r o n b y t h e K in g o f
France
(Camden, E l i z a b e t h , p p . 2 2 0 - 2 2 1 ) .
Foley,
Records o f th e E n g l i s h
M a nresa P r e s s ,
an d t h e
1875,
C ath o lic
V ol.
II,
^or others
Province o f th e
p.
221;
s e e H e n ry
S ociety o f J e s u s ,
a n d A. 0 . Meyer, E n g l a n d
C h u r c h u n d e r Queen E l i z a b e t h , London,
1916, p .
499 .
H e n ry ’s u n c le
Ma r y,
le ft
R ichard,
E ngland f o r th e
sake o f h i s
w ife and son were a t t a i n t e d
V II,
p.
247;
C.
recu san ts
fo r treaso n
George
o f Kent
( S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
1629-1651, p p . 295-296.
T h e re
f o r d e was a p a p i s t e x c e p t
155.
fa ith .
T h ese a r e
by h is w ife
first
But s e e
th at
1595-1597, p.
P t.
see C. S . P . ,
show t h a t H u n g e r-
a s s o c i a t e d w ith people
S a l i s b u r y M3S«, P t .
d aughter o f
498).
IV, p . 2 6 4 ) .
Is n o th in g to
he m s
Vol.
a r e named among
C a r r e l l s ’ recusancy,
c h i l d r e n o f Jo h n D u d l e y ,
Jane,
He and h i s
(H asted , K ent,
a nd a n o t h e r R i c h a r d ,
For ev id en ce o f the
of th at
relig io n .
3. P . , 1581-1590, p . 266;
Two o t h e r u n c l e s ,
the
o n l y so n o f ^ i r Jo h n b y Lady
Ill,
p.
130.
Duke o f N o r t h u m b e r l a n d ,
S i r Edward G u l d e f o r d .
c o u s i n t o H e n r y G u l d e f o r d 1s g r a n d f a t h e r .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
J a n e was
-
154.
C atholic
F am ilies, p.
a summary o f t h e
quoted in th e
180
o rig in al.
-
8 6 . The q u o t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s
The l a s t
s o u r c e , and i t s
a g r e e w i t h what
phrase o n ly is
sp ellin g
Sto w, A n n a l e s ,
156.
Henry G u ld e f o r d , u n c l e o f Henry,
P o ster
i n 157 4 , h u t
at
G r ay * s
Irelan d .
o ften
Two y e a r s
F a m i l i e s , p . 86) a n d i n 1567 he was i n
na t h i s
On J u l y 1 2 ,
own e x p e n s e
S ir
N i c h o l a s M a lb ie
r e la tin g to
pp. 173,
182,
to E ngland
1575—
1 5 8 8 , p p . 2 62—
263,
458).
1509-1575, pp. 355,
C a l e n d a r o f t h e Carew
264, 2 7 0 .)
I n a b o u t 1572
o f C aptain o f the
a t A r t c l i f f a n d t h e B l a c k B ulwark on t h e
r e v e r s io n a f t e r the
recommends him
f o l l o w e r . * 1 (C a l e n d a r
Irelan d ,
189.
he h a d b e e n g r a n t e d t h e o f f i c e
1547-1580, p.
in sundry
1580 he was s e n t
’’y o u r k i n s m a n a n d t r u e
Papers
157 4 - 1 5 8 5 ,
M anuscripts,
( s e e n o t e 159) .
S i r H e n r y a n d S i r N i c h o l a s M a l b i e he was
o f h im self.
S tate
Irish
f o r W a ls in g ham a n d L e i c e s t e r w hic h c o n t a i n e d
to L e i c e s t e r a s
o f the
i n 1565 he was a s t u d e n t
l a t e r he was c o r r e s p o n d i n g a b o u t
se rv ic e s.w
high p ra is e
g u e s s e s t h a t he m a t r i c u l a t e d
in c o rre c t because
commended f o r a c t i n g
w ith d isp a tc h e s
a t t e n d e d C h r i s t Church,
c o u s i n S i r F r a n c i s W alsingham
rep o rts o f
dangerous
37 4;
is
(C a th o lic
a f f a i r s w ith h is
In t h e
to
pp. 709-710.
(Al u mn i Ox on. )
th is
In n
is m odernized h ere
precedes.
155«
O xford.
d irectly
Green Bulw a rk
p i e r a t Dover,
d e a t h o r s u r r e n d e r o f Jo h n B a r l e y
One r e a s o n
for h is
r e tu r n to
in
(C. 3 . P .
E n g la n d i n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
181
-
1580 may h a v e "been t o
a ssume t h e s e
he was e s t a b l i s h e d a t
Dover.
151,
189,
1 9 0;
H e nr y
(G a t h o l i e
1595.
3 5 8 .)
ho ld in g s
is
l e s s o r f ro m t h e K i n g o f t h e
Irelan d .
157 .
p.
have
in h erited
lands o f th e
(C. S .
late
P .5 Ire la n d ,
66).
N o tes o f p a r l i a m e n t h e l d
o f the
pp. 129,
I n 1606-1607 H e n r y G u y l d f o r d
m o n a s t e r y o f Al bo T r a c t u a n d T r a c t o n in- Cork
1S06-1608,
le a st,
One o f t h e w i t n e s s e s was h i s nephew
F a m i l i e s , p . 8 7 ) , who seem s t o
in
at
H is w i l l was d a t e d May 8
p a rt o f his
named a s
By 1 5 8 3 ,
(G . S . P . , 1 5 8 1 - 1 5 9 0 .
1591-1594, p.
an d p r o v e d Ju n e 1 6 ,
d u ties.
Feb. 9,
1583-1584, A C a le n d a r
I n n e r Temple R e c o r d s , e d . b y F . A. . I n d e r w i c k ,
V ol.
I,
p. 328.
158.
A nob le man * s p o s i t i o n was m e a s u r e d p a r t l y b y t h e number
and b r e e d in g o f h i s
th e
atten d an ts.
Duke o f A l e n c o n t o
the c o n tin e n t
tra in e ,
an hundreth
natu re"
( S t o w, A n n a l e s ,
greatn ess,
sought to
gentlem en,
"most o f t h e
preferre
gentlem en o f h i s
a peece
. . . .
D esid erata,
V ol.
p.
i n 1 5 8 2 , he h a d " i n h i s
and 3 0 0 . o t h e r s ,
689).
p rin cip all
th eire
I h a v e nombred i n h i s
When L e i c e s t e r a c c o m p a n ie d
At
in fe rio r
the tim e o f B u r g h le y 's
gentlem en i n England
so n s & h e i r e s
house,
of
to h is
a t t e n d i n g 6n t h e
serv ice.
. . .
t a b l e , tw enty
r e t a y n e r s o f a t h o u s a n d pounds p e r annum
And o f h i s
I,
p. 2 4 ).
o r d i n a r y men a s m a n i e "
Some y e a r s
(Peck,
l a t e r K in g James
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
fo u n d t h a t h i s
Scots
182
-
wh a d n o t s u c h number o f t e n a n t s a n d a t ­
t e n d a n t s a s m i g h t a n y wa y e q u a l t h e
and l e s t
t h i s m i g h t b e o b s e r v e d a n d so make them t h e
resp ected ,
it
p l e a s e d t h e K in g t h a t no k n i g h t
t h e number o f f i f t y
200 )
num ber o f t h e E n g l i s h ;
se rv a n ts'*
(Goodman,
D orothy G u ld e fo rd ,
Ja m e s, V ol.
H enry’s a u n t, m arried
W a l s in g h a m o f S e a d b u r y i n G h i s l e h u r s t ,
Y
u’a 1 3 in g h a m , c o u s i n t o
fords
as h is
cousins
S i r Thomas,
K ent.
I,
p.
(see no te 1 5 6 ).
160.
H a 3 t i n g 3 MSS. .
p. 354.
151.
The o c c u p a t i o n o f ' W i l l i a m ’ s f a t h e r
(See A .
F.
P o llard ,
sou rce o f Pet re
life
I,
o f W illiam
f a m i l y d o c um en ts
f i r s t W illiam ’s a d t i v i t i e s
below i
is
g i v e n on h e a r s a y
i n D. N. B . ) .
is C atholic
see,
1570.
besid es
. . .
B u r g h l e y , London,
123,
17 4 0 ,
pp.
2,
4,
15,
66,
68-72, 74,
19,
24,
123,
25, 32-34,
154,
160,
F am ilies.
For
t h e works c i t e d
Papers
. . .
From
L e f t By W i l l i a m C e c i l l l o r d
124,
149,
150, 319, 320, 323,
32 4 , 326 , 3 2 9 - 3 3 2 , 33 4 , 342 , 349 , 353 , 3 5 7 .
pp.
The c h i e f
f r o m O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s a nd
T ranscribed
o t h e r A u th e n tic k M em orials,
G u ld e -
m arried th e E a rl o f Essex.
Samue l H a y n e s , A C o l l e c t i o n o f S t a t e
Y e a r 1542 t o
S ir F rancis
S ir F ran cis’ d au ^ iter
Sidney,
V ol.
S i r Thomas
th e n regarded the
F r a n c e s , widow o f S i r P h i l i p
the
sh o u ld exceed
.
]L59o
the
less
37,
168,
38,
173,
C .-S .
49, 51,
212,
P
54,
1547-1580,
56-60,
65,
225, 230, 254, 306,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
-
457;
89,
1581-1590, p . 110•
94,
120,
183
-
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
121, 212, 232, 2 3 3 , 238, 239;
P t . X I I I , Addenda, p p .
4 9 - 5 2 , 62 , 6 4 ,
163.
It
o f E ngland
appears
in h is w i l l
seven i n D evonshire,
th ree
an d one e a c h i n D o r s e t ,
V ol. V II,
p. 3 2 ).
and Meere H i s t o r y
p.
two
and Kent
(A. F . P o l l a r d ,
Pet re h o ld in g s
458.
op.
(1594);
in th a t
(C o llin s,
is
c i t .).
See map a n d
Pars;
see
Peerage,
s a i d t o have
f o r 'd e ta ile d
county,
in Essex,
in G lo u c e ste r,
Speculi B rita n n la e
The H i s t o r y a n d A n t i q u i t i e s
. . .
D escrip
in fo im atio n
P h i l i p Mo r a n t ,
o f t h e C o u n ty o f E s s e x , V o l s • I -
p assim .
164.
P a t e n t o f 37 H e n r y V I I I
o f E n g lan d , V ol.
I n 7 Edward V I ,
V ol.
II,
p. 335ff.
t h a t he h a d n i n e m an ors
S uffolk,
i n J o h n Nor den *s
about the
Vol.
in S om erset,
t i o n o f th e County o f E ssex
II,
(1876),
" i n D e v o n s h i r e a l o n e he
s e c u r e d 36,000 a c r e s "
indexes
(1569),
p . 12 9 ;
For th e fa m ily
R ich a rd G ra fto n , A 'C h ro n ic le a t L arg e,
o f the A ffayre3
pp. 65, 86,
P t. II,
142.
antis s e e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l J o u r n a l XXXIII
162 .
P t. I,
I,
165.
Ill,
p.
415).
The Baronage
Such g r a n t s w e r e n o t uncommon.
S i r H e n r y S i d n e y o b t a i n e d one
( Sidney P a p e r s ,
p . 84) .
L ad y P e t r e
jo in ed
t h e Queen* s p a r t y on i t s way t o London.
A p p a r e n t l y Mary p a u s e d a t
Essex;
(W illiam D ugdale,
f o r Roger A l f o r d ,
the
P e tr e manor o f
r e c a l l i n g the
Ingatestone
events o f t h a t
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in
tim e t o
S i r John P u c k e rin g , w r i t e s :
P e te r* s house a t
man”
166.
th is
” you k i s s e d h e r h a n d a t
s i r W ill
In g e rs to n e , b e fo re any o t h e r o f the
co u n cil­
(John S t r y p e , Annals o f t h e
D ugdale, o p .
b u ll
c i t .,
in C atholic
V ol.
R e fo rm a tio n , V ol.
Ill,
p.
415.
F am ilies, a f t e r p.
47.
Ee was ” v e r y d e x t e r o u s a b r o a d , ” s a y s L l o y d ;
la rly
a t B u llo in .
gained th e
l a s t 2 0 0 0 0 0 Crowns w i t h o u t H o s t a g e s , h a d i t
sa id n o th in g ,
( S t a t e - W o r t h ie s , V ol.
I,
V II,
p . 31
p. 310).
170.
Raphael H o iin sh e d ,
and I r e l a n d , V ol.
C h ro n ic le s o f E ngland.
IV, p . 2 6 4 .
See a l s o
a n d Camden, E l i z a b e t h , p p . 1 8 8 - 1 8 9 ;
172.
an d A .
P.
op. c i t .
Ib id .
C. S .
made a t
P e e ra g e , V ol.
C^t a p p e a r s t h a t he d i e d a p r o t e s t a n t ” ) ;
169.
171 .
not
(m e a n ing s e c r e t a r y P e t e r ) ”
See Camden, E l i z a b e t h , p p . 1 2 - 1 3 ; C o l l i n s ,
P o llard ,
p a rtic u ­
Ah, ( s a i d M o n s i e u r C h a t i l l o n ) we h a d
b e e n f o r t h e man t h a t
168.
489) *
See f a c s i m i l e o f
167.
. . .
IV, p ,
P . . Addenda.
P u l l e r , W orthies,
Stow, A n n a l e s , p .
Vol.
I,
6 70;
B r i t a i n , p . 445-446.
1566-1579, p . 279.
I n g a t e 3t o n e on A p r i l 1 7 ,
S co tlan d ,
1570
The m a r r i a g e was
(C a t h o l i c
Fam ilie_s,
p- 5 3 9 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p . 50
-
173.
Fox* i l l s a c t i v i t i e s
L ieutenant o f Essex,
s e e C.
185
-
as J u s tic e
1591-1594, pp. 200,
465;
p . 559;
577,
656,
662,
1595-1597.p p .
110,
112,
1 1 5 ,.1 2 4 .
374;
1598-1599, pp.
701;
1599-1600, p p . 52,
174.
William Camden, Britain, p.
17 5 .
On J u l y 1 9 - 2 1 ,
at
In g atesto n e.
1591, pp. 66,
156,
461,
262-263, 364;
484-485,
1601-1604, pp.
665;
114,
588-589,
138, 169.
442.
S i r W i l l i a m was h o s t
to
t h e Queen
S i r J o h n e n t e r t a i n e d h e r on A u g u s t 7 ,
Septem ber 1 1 -1 4 ,
His w i f e
110;
1561,
She v i s i t e d L ad y A n n e ,
176.
o f c o u n t y a nd s t a t e ,
573,
1590-1591. p p . 186,
1597-1598,
Peace a n d D ep uty
a n d i n other* m a t t e r s
S. P . , 1581-1590. pp. 184,
A. P. 0 . ,
o f the
S ir J o h n 's m o th er,
1579.
came
(E l i z .
S tag e,
at
V ol.
from a s t r o n g C a t h o l i c
1576.
I n g a t e s t o n e on
IV,
pp. 79,
fam ily .
93,
9 6 .)
H er f a t h e r ,
s h o r t l y a f t e r E l i z a b e t h * s a c c e s s i o n , was d i s c o v e r e d h e a r i n g
mass
the
in h i s
p riest,
h o u s e , a n d was s e n t t o
and th e
C.
S.
r e p o r t on t h e
P e t r e s w a s made o n Aug. 1 0 ,
"servant
to th e
P .,
F o ley,
E llio tt
p ap ists,
o l d Ladye P e t r e . ”
1591-1594,
op.
c i t .,
V ol.
d eclares th a t
and g ives
Tower w i t h h i s w i f e ,
con g reg atio n .
The m o s t c o m p l e t e
o f th e
the
p.
15.
II,
pp.
It
is
C atholic
a c tiv itie s
1581 b y George E l l i o t ,
Part o f t h i s
given
586-589,
appears
in f a l l
in
i n H en ry
from w h i c h
I quote.
S i r J o h n 's m o th e r and w ife a r e
r e a s o n s why S i r J o h n h i m s e l f
onc e
is
both
supposed
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
” t o b e a r good w i l l t h a t w a y . ’*
’*Do you t h i n k
as
there
good a m in d
i f occasion
not
to
go t o
the
th e
th a t
refuse,
.
.
goeth to
S t a t e - W o r t h i e s , V ol.
In h i s
C.
S t a t e o f England
k n i g h t s who ” a r e
fo r liv in g e
tw ix t
.
.
the
II,
3.
P .,
(1600),
And I v e r i l y
church,
p.
.
; th ese
o f t h e s e h e names
p.
2 3 .)
J . H. R ound,
1605-1610, p . 2 3 .
Thomas W i l s o n s p e a k s
i n d u c e them t o
f o r th e most
liv e
f o r the C r e d itt
i n a more h o n o r a b l e
p a r t a r e men f o r l i v i n g b e ­
a n d many o f them e q u a l l t h e
is
^ ir
John P e t r e .
• •
C oncerning th e w e a lth o f th e
P eerage and Fam ily H i s t o r y ,
p. 2 8 .
th e E a r l o f W orcester,
In t h e
The f i r s t
(Camden M i s c e l l a n y ,
Spencers,
see
p. 28 1ff.
The M e ta m o r p h o s i s o f A.jax, e d . b y 3 .
Ap o l o gy .
doth
131.
b e s t B a r o n s a n d come n o t much b e h i n d many E r l e s o ”
180.
than
t h o u g h m any o f them knowe s c a r s l y
1 , 0 0 0 a n d 2 ,000 _1 y e a r l y ,
V o l . XVI,
an d
c h e e f e men i n t h e i r G o u n t r y e s b o t h
and r e p u t a c i o n s ,
o f t h e i r C o n t r y and t o
.
yes,
service
.
t h a t K n i g h t h o o d m e a n e s , b u t a r e made K n i g h t s
manner
t o him ,
church t h a t b e a r
do b e t t e r
church
said
t h e Communion.”
S to w , A n n a l e s , p . 8 2 6 ;
o f th e
to
S i r J o h n , a l t h o u g h he
177. L loyd,
179.
go t o
Godwards a s t h o s e
s e r v e , w i l l be a b l e
receive
178.
are not th a t
to
t h e y which r e f u s e
th in k th a t
Once t h e k n i g h t
W.
S in g er,
’An
same work H a r i n g t o n m e n t i o n s
t h o u g h n o t b y nam e.
”A t R a g la n d i n
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
M onm outhshire,
sh ire affirm ,
• .
187
-
• I h a v e heard, a good kn ig h t: o f G l o u c e s t e r ­
t h e m o s t h o n o u r a b l e ho us e o f t h a t
r e a lm was k e p t 18
(p. 2 5 ) e
181.
C ath o lic
F a m ilie s , p.
182.
Henry F b l e y ,
183.
F o s t e r , A l u mn i Oxon.
50.
op. c i t .,
p.
587.
F o ster e r r s
in supposing t h a t
W i l l i a m was 15 y e a r s o l d when he e n t e r e d O x f o r d .
184.
by-
He w as a d m i t t e d May 1 8 ,
C. H. Hopwood,
185.
L ad y A nn e ,
o f J o h n , was
she had a
I,
p. 333).
S i r W i l l i a m P e t r e 1s s e c o n d w i f e a n d m o t h e r
f i r s t m a r r ie d to
K ent.
Thomas T y r r e l l .
nmy l a d y e
| j i e n r y , s g r a n d m o t h e r ] u (C a t h o l i c
son o f th e
siste r.
By T y r r e l l
The B a k e r s 1 d a u g h t e r A nne , b o r n J a n u a r y 1 1 ,
h a d f o r h e r godmothers
B aker,
(M id d le Temple R e c o r d s , e d .
d a u g h t e r C a t h e r i n e who m a r r i e d S i r R i c h a r d B a k e r o f
C ranbrooke,
1556,
V ol.
1593
P etre,
F a m ilie s , p.
ye l a d y e G u y l f o r d
50).
John
same u n i o n , m a r r i e d Mary G u l d e f o r d , H e n r y 1s
H e r f a t h e r S i r Thomas m e n t i o n e d t h e m a r r i a g e c o n ­
tra c t
in h i3 w i l l
(ib id . , p. 8 6 ).
186.
W illiam B lo u n t,
L o r d Mount j o y ,
gave Lady Anne P e t r e
Book o f H ours o f t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n , t h e e n t r i e s
th e c h i e f source o f v i t a l
F o r Mount j o y 1s r e l a t i o n
sta tistic s
t o Lady Anne,
about the
the
in w hich a re
P etre
fam ily.
s e e h i s own v e r s e s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
in
-
C atholic
187 .
F a m i l i e s , p.
188
50.
The ” f a m i l y B i b l e 55 o f t h e
m ediately above,
-
records
th at
P etre
f a m ily , m entioned
im­
” 3r W i l l ’m P e t r e was m a ry e d
-L. T -
vnto t h e Lady K a t h e r i n S o m e r s e t t a t E s s e x howse w° xowt Temple
b a r r vppon Monday t h e
p.
51).
T his
ing th e
en try ,
v iij
4* V j
d a y o f Nouember 1596” ( i b i d . ,
however,
a p p a r e n t l y f o l l o w s one c o n c e r n ­
d e a t h o f Lady K a t h e r i n e w h i c h s e t s
e v e n t one m o n th t o o
ed u n t i l
source
la te .
some t i m e a f t e r
appears to
Perhaps
it
1596 A n th o n y Bacon w r o t e
tim e o f t h a t
t h e m a r r i a g e was n o t
occurred.
corroborate
th e
But e v i d e n c e
t h e d a t e o f Nov. 8 .
from E s s e x House ” t o m r .
record­
from a n o t h e r
On Nov. 1 0 ,
R e yn o ld e s
c o n c e r n i n g some p a r t i c u l a r s , w i t h w h i c h he was u n w i l l i n g t o
tro u b le
the
e a r l o f Essex,
on a c c o u n t o f h i s
l o r d s h i p 1s i n ­
d is p o s itio n , and the s o l e m n i t i e s o f th e m a r r i a g e ”
Vol.
II,
p.
197).
Nov. 10 v;ould be t h e
last
( B i r c h , Memoirs
day o f th e u s u a l
three-da-y c e l e b r a t i o n .
188.
L I.
189 o
Vi. A .
G uildford,
ford”
169-172.
Shaw r e c o r d s t h e k n i g h t i n g
o f Be n n e n d e n , K e n t , ” and i n 1596 o f ” ------------ G u i l ­
(o p . c i t . ,
V ol.
II,
pp. 88,
93).
m i s t a k e b e c a u s e t h e e n t r y i n A » P » C.
title
the
i n 1591 o f ”H enry
page o f P r o t h . show t h a t
tim e o f h i s m a r r i a g e .
The f i r s t m u s t be a
( s e e n o t e 150)
an d t h e
G u l d e f o r d was an e s q u i r e a t
However,
by J u n e ,
1598 he was a
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
knight
(3ee
189
S a l i s b u r y MSS»,
-
P t.
V III,
p . 24 4) .
Since
found o n l y t h e s e m e n t i o n s o f G u l d e f o r d a n d s i n c e
-e m b e r o f H e n r y ’ s f a m i l y was k n i g h t e d
most l i k e l y
t h a t H e n r y was d u bb ed l a t e
necessary to
a fte r
seek an
listin g
h is
co n trad ictio n s
Ill,
issued th e
203,
192.
C atholic
193.
I b i d . , pp.
It
I,
p.
May 7 ,
ix) *
1603.
On
production o f k n ig h ts .
. . .
o f K ing Jame3 t h e
P r o g r e s s e s o f Jam es) ,
F am ilies, p.
38,
1599,
51.
51.
V ol.
I,
pp.
T h i s d a u g h t e r was named E l i z a b e t h .
John,
born O ct. 23,
at
Ingatestone.
a p p a r e n t l y by proxy; he
P t.
In g atesto n e.
IX,
precede
p. 361).
W illiam ,
Sidney P a p e r s ,
sh o u ld
c o n f u s i o n and
1598,
The C o u n t e s s o f E s s e x was a g o d m o t h e r .
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
194.
as
is not
A l u m n i Oxon.
born S e p t. 2 2 ,
go dfath er,
chaos,
Theobalds
The ■ Pro gr esses
is
205-220.
F o ster,
Horndon.
at
It
it
'*No w ords o f m i n e c a n
summons f o r mass
(h ereafter cited
191«
at
P etre
period-
e n tr y o f 1591.
o f t h e s e m a n u s c r i p t s 11 ( V o l .
3ee J o h n N i c h o l s ,
F irst
f o r the
Shaw s a y s ,
no o t h e r
i n 1596.
idea o f th e w e l t e r ,
Jam es k n i g h t e d
J u l y 17 h e
ex p lan ation
sources,
co n v e y a n a d e q u a t e
190.
in th is
Shaw
on e
of
II,
Ash
p.
R obert,
S i r R o b e r t C e c i l was a
sent a r ic h
present
Mary, b o r n D ec . 2 3 ,
born J u ly 28,
Vol.
a t West
48.
W ednesday,
1602,
at
(see
1600,
Ingatestone.
The l e t t e r
1597-1598,
is m isplaced.
pp. 92-93.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
This
Ge S .
196.
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
P . 1598-1601, p.
ch risten ed
Edward..
105«
P t . V III,
p.
417.
Lady B la n c h e
Somer­
y o u n g e r s i s t e r o f E l i z a b e t h a n d K a t h e r i n e , may h av e b e e n
a Maid o f H o n o u r i n 1 6 0 0 .
of th e
e i g h t m asquers a t
H erbert
3
-
f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d was a so n ,
195.
set,
190
I n June o f t h a t
t h e w ed d in g o f h e r b r o t h e r L or d
( S id n ey P a p e r s , V ol.
pe a ks o f t h i s
y e a r she was one
II,
pp.
201,
203).
C ham berlain
"maske o f e i g h t xnaides o f h o n o u r a n d o t h e r
g e nt l e w o m e n 1* (L e t t e r s , p . 8 3 ) .
197.
C.
S.
198.
P arish
P ..
1598-1601, p p . I l l ,
r e g i s t e r o f B arking,
E nvirons
o f London, V ol.
199.
C.
S.
2QQ.
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
201.
G.
lease
from t h e crow n.
202.
Lodge,
205.
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
204.
A nnales, p.
S.
537.
P ..
P ..
IV,
p.
1601-1605, p.
P t . X II,
1601-1605,
Essex,
The
101.
38.
pp . 99-100.
p. 232.
I l l u s t r a t i o n s , V o l.
P t • X II,
in D aniel Lysons,
S i r H en ry h e l d Taplow on
I I 5 p.
578.
P* 6 5 6 .
82 6 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
191
-
205.
Ibid. ,
p. 823.
206.
Lodge,
I l l u s t r a t i o n s , Vol.
207 .
Go S . P . ,
Pec k,
D e s i d e r a t a , V ol.
208.
G.
209.
Progresses
3.
P .,
Addenda,
fairly
to m eet d e b ts
XVI, p .
210.
5,
I,
p.
larg e
126,
II,
135,
531,
p . 247.
S i r H enry seems t o
sums.
1605-1610, p .
623.
Even a t
the
have h a d o r b e e n a b l e
In 1604 he a d v a n c e d L500 a n d more
o f th e Queen’ s s e c r e t a r y
( S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
T h eir s i s t e r
W indsor,
B l a n c h e d a n c e d i n J o n s o n ’ a H ym enaei, J a n .
Two o t h e r s i s t e r s ,
appeared
Lady Anne W i n t e r an d Lady K a t h e r i n e
I n t h r e e m a s q u e s , o n c e w i t h E l i z a b e t h an d
tw ice w i t h b o th t h e i r e l d e r
La dy Anne S o m e r s e t was
siste rs.
T heir s is te r - in - la v j
i n J o n s o n ' s Masque o f B l a c k n e s s , J a n .
6,
1605.
to
f i n d many o f W o r c e s t e r ’ s s o n s an d d a u g h t e r s among t h e
E . K. Chambers o b s e r v e s t h a t
masquers because h e ,
been j o i n t
211.
P t.
434).
1606.
(B l i z .
65;
69.
o f Jam es, V ol.
reig n
p 0 88.
1 5 8 0 - 1 6 2 5 , p . .423;
1605-1610, pp. 7 ,
beginning o f t h i s
to borrow
Ill,
i t is n o t
as M aster o f th e H orse,
a p p e a r s t o have
s u p e r v i s o r o f a l l m asques p r o d u c e d a t
S t a g e , V ol.
I,
su rp risin g
ro y a l expense
pp. 200, 2 0 9 ).
P r o g r e s s e s o f J a m e s , V o l.
II,
PP* 1 6 4 —
174; n«liz. 8t<^ge,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V o l.
I ll,
192
-
3 7 9 -2 8 1 .
2 1 2 . Pro g r e a s e s o f J a m e s , V o l .
Vol.
Ill,
213.
V ol.
358, 360;
E l l z . S t a g e , V ol.
V ol .
pp.
214. "See
215.
the
tie s
p p . 2 1 5 - 2 45;
E liz . S tag e,
p. 382-384.
P r o g r e s s e s o f James,
Ill,
II,
II,
pp.
328, 331, 335, 342, 3 46-
I l l , p p .281—
2 8 3 ; ^'inv/occL, s
179-181.
C atholic
F am ilies, p.
51, and f o r h i s w i l l ,
C a t h o l i c s we r e p r o s e c u t e d u n t i l
216.
them d i d n o t
192,
193.
The o t h e r s , i n
217 .
above,
John,
the
Edward a n d R o b e r t ,
p.
64, n o t e s
the
first
son,
George was b o m
an d Anna d i e d
two c h i l d r e n ,
E lizab eth ,
a n d M ary .
recorded.
One o f them was c h r i s t e n e d
T h eir b ir th - d a te s
E a r l o r C ountess o f R utland a c t i n g as
J u l y 1 9,
gossip
in fan ts.
a r e m entioned
The o t h e r s w e r e H e n ry ,
K atherine,
o f R u t l a n d , K. G . ,
five c h ild re n
o r d e r , w e re E dw ard , J o h n ,
first-b o rn
194,198.
M a n u s c rip ts Commission,
But a c t i v i ­
o f thef i r s t
Thomas, K a t h e r i n e , Ann a, H e n r y , a n d G e o r g e .
A ug. 1 5 , - 1 6 1 3 .
for
in c r e a s e a f t e r 1610.
F o r t h e names a n d b i r t h - d a t e s
see n o t e s
p. 71.
1 6 1 9 , when d e s i r e
S p a n i s h m a t c h made James a b r u p t l y t o l e r a n t .
ag ain st
M em orials,
John,
are not
1606, w i t h th e
(H i s t o r i c a l
The M a n u s c r i p t s o f Hi3 Grace t h e Duke
Preserved a t
B elvoir C a s tle ,
V ol.
IV, p .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
459).
-
218 «
C.
219.
I b i d . , p.
220.
A.
221.
193
-
S. P . , 1611-1618. pp.
400;
158,
R u t l a n d MSS. .
F. G ., 1 6 1 7 -1 6 1 9 , p . 374;
See t i e r e p i t a p h .
I n g a te s to n e Church,
159.
V o l.
IV, p . 5 1 4 .
1619-1621,
On t h e monument
are
effig ies
pp. 202-203,
in Pet re C hapel,
o f Lord John and h i s
Lady a n d
L o r d V iiin iam and L ady K a t h e r i n e w i t h
t h e i r tw elve c h i l d r e n ,
kneeling
(C a t h o l i c
55, a f t e r
222.
P. C . , 1 6 2 5 - 1 6 2 6 , p p . 2 2 8 - 2 2 9 ;
pp.
A.
151,
176,
F am ilies, pp.
179,
51,
G.
3.
p.
60,
198; 1617-1619, p .
181.
224.
A. P . C . , 1 6 1 7 - 1 6 1 9 , p .
167; 1 6 1 9 -1 6 2 1 , p .
388.
225.
C. 3 . P . , 1 6 2 7 - 1 6 2 8 , p p . 2 4 9 ,
4 50,
284;
61).
181.
A. P . C . . 1 6 1 5 —1 6 1 6 a p .
270,
a ll
P ., 1625-1626,
225.
266, 269,
204.
253,
258-259, 262,
1 6 2 8 - 1 6 2 9 , p . 3 4 0 ; A.
P. C . ,
263,
1627, pp.
439,
510.
226.
C. 5 .
P ..
227 .
Henry F o l e y ,
A llan
F e a , S e c r e t Chambers a n d H i d i n g - P l a c e s , 3 r d e d . ,
1908,
pp.
228.
Henry E b le y , o p .
84-88,
1628-1629, pp.
op.
c i t .,
f o r the
p p . 393,
p riest
c i t .,
419-420.
394, 396-398.
hole, a t
See
Lond on,
Ingatestone H a ll.
pp. 398-399.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
229 o
For d eath -d ate
71-72.
194
a nd w i l l
Hi3 l a s t w o r d s a r e
may h a v e b e e n h i s
quoted
The P e t r e s
in H i s t .
op.
still
R obert,
S. J . ,
c i t .,
a d v is o r to
the
d o tes,
Peer in
O bservations,
Thus t h e
f a m i l y ma k e s
lite ra tu re.
b rie f
r6le
II.
F ather
from t h e h e a d o f
cu rl.
intim ate
is
The o t h e r i s
Spence
says,
f r i e n d o f Mr . P o p e ’ s ,
Rape o f t h e Lock was L o rd P e t r e n (A n ec ­
and C h a r a c t e r s ,
its
o f Book3 an d Men, p .
second c e l e b r a t e d a p p earan ce
i n G^ueen M a r y , c a l l i n g him L o rd P e t r e .
rem ained,
point
out
250.
A. P.
p.
James
One
1S5) .
in
L a t e r Te n n y s o n gave t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e ho u se a
fords
the
Two i n t h e c e n t u r y a f t e r
Feim or h e r f a v o r i t e
the
467,
421.
s p e c ia l m ention.
” l have b een a s s u r e d by a most
th at
p.
s e v e n t h L o r d P e t r e , who c l i p p e d
M istress A rab ella
F a m i l i e s , pp * 51 ,
Prov. A n g lia e . p.
flo u rish .
L o r d 'i/VIlliam’ s d e a t h d e s e r v e
Edward P e t r e ,
see C a th o lic
r e p o r t e d b y F a t h e r Henry More, who
ch ap lain ,
fr o m H e n r y F o l e y ,
-
th at
draw c o m p a r i s o n s ,
Shakespeare as w e l l a s
C .,
proof th a t
and w ished to
1598-1599, pp.
j u s t i c e v/as
Spenser
669 , 7 0 7 .
For
G u l d e f o r d ’ s s e e C.
I f G u ld e th e y m ight
ha d w r i t t e n
o f them
t h e c a u s e and
S. P . ,
1598 t 16Q1»
111.
251.
S a l i s b u r y MSS., P t * V I I I ,
A . P.
C.,
C. S . P . ,
1626, pp. 254-255,
1625-1626,
pp.
p. 244;
275-276;
425-424,
P t . X, p .
1627, pp.
451-432,
455;
107.
60-61,
219-220.
1 6 2 7 - 1 6 2 8 , p p . 52
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
132;
1635-1636, pp.
195
396-397;
-
1638-1639. p .
375;
1639-1640.
p . 19 3 .
232.
Sue
w ill.
a s a l i v e liay 3 0 ,
By F e b .
was d e a d .
233.
1627,
17
8,
1644 when G u l d e f o r d w r o t e h i s w i l l ,
S ee C a t h o l i c F a m i l i e s , p p .
Ib id .,
o rig in a l.
p.
87.
The q u o t a t i o n i s
The w i l l was p r o v e d O c t .
had m a r r i e d I b a th e rin e P e t r e ,
Lord 7 / i l l i a m .
I n 1685
bu t he d i e d w ith o u t
206.
G ro sart also
the
says
.
.
th at
11S p e n s e r ’ s R o s a l i n d , "
Taonas, th e
23,
quoted,
p.
104.
tran slato r.
t h e l a d i e s were m a r r i e c
of C h r i s t i a n N orth
the t h i r d
po ssib le
the m a rria g e of th e
.
pp.
p.
in the
is
im possible.
74-1 04;
.
E a r l o f Wor­
sig n ifican ce
o b s e r v e d oy V/. H . vselply.
.
th is
I,
E l i z a b e t h N o r th was d a u g h t e r o f
a nd i t s
"for
to
Thomas was son o f Edward Lord N o r th
The r e l a t i o n s h i p
w ritten
th at
A n g l i a XXXI ( 1 9 0 8 ) ,
cester.
w er e f i r s t
H i s h e i r Edward
. o f Edmund S o e n s e r , V o l .
who m a r r i e d
said,
1646.
d a u g h t e r o f Thomas, b r o t h e r
and b r o t h e r o f C h r i s t i a n ,
P roth.
from a. summary o f t h e
The r e a d e r o f t h e poem d i s c o v e r s
sentence
87.
issu e.
The C o m p le t e Y/orlcs
235.
78,
she
t h e i r ' g r a n d s o n R o b e r t was made a b a r o n e t ,
234.
sp rin g .
t h e d a t e o f h e r f a t h e r 8s
to
T h i s poem, ne
two g r e n d —d a u g h t e r s
, may h a v e b e e n p ro m p te d by
S p e n s e r ’ s a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t n t h e N o r th f a m i l y ,
pernaps
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 196
b 'V
gratitu d e
» .
f o r some h e l p
-
in h i s
. Some R e c e n t R e s e a r c h e s
[l9 32j 9 p p .
CLXII
V ol. V I I ,
comment o n P r o t h . )
sentim ental
25 6 ♦
131—
132).
in terest
it
D aphnaida,
would b e
257.
in
into
His L i f e
Miss
D o ro thy Mason
notes
He a d d s ,
to
258.
This
edges t h e
See n o t e
is
the
th is
V,
see
ELH I I I
o f Essex.
Ray H e f f n e r ,
E n g l i s ch e
However,
pp.
see
f o r England a
Irish a ffa irs
in a
d e d ic a to ry sonnet
"more famous memory / O f t h i n e
has been w e ll argued th a t
i n Book V a n d n o t a b l y
C o n c e r n i n g VI,
i f he went t h e r e
156.
P a r t s , ” and i t
[l9 36j ,
However,
o n l y poem i n w h i c h S p e n s e r c l e a r l y a c k n o w l ­
patronage
prom ise
i n 1 5 7 7 , he may ha ve
i s n o t m entioned i n
t o F . &. he p r o m i s e d t h e E a r l
H eroicke
p o s s i b i l i t y o f Sp en se r* s
Henry G u ld e f o r d had s a i l e d
few w e e k s e a r l i e r a n d he
th ereafter*
(V ariorum ,
Tb u t a c o u r t a c q u a i n t a n c e
Irelan d
met H e n r y G u l d e f o r d * s u n c l e H e n r y .
in 1580, t h i s
the
and L i n e a g e ,” J N Q .
in c e n tiv e .”
I f Spenser tra v e le d
first
("Edmund S p e n s e r ;
R osalin d ’s co u sin s.
p . 22 4 .
su ffic ie n t
career"
i n Book V I .
" E s s e x a n d Book Fiv e o f t h e
67-82;
V a r i o r u m , V o l.
P. W. Lo ng,
S t u d i e n XLII
" S p e n s e r's
V,
pp.
he k e p t
(Concerning
F a e r i e Q.uee ne,”
324-335.
S ir C alid o re,”
[l91(3 * PP* 5 3 - 6 0 ; H e f f n e r ,
"Essex,
the
I d e a l C o u r t i e r , ” ELH I X1 9 5 4l » p p * 7 - 5 6 * . The Q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r
E s s e x was one o f t h e m o d e l s f o r C a l i d o r e
i s much d e b a t e d ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
but
it
w ould
d iffic u lt
be
to
197
deny
-
the
fo rc e o f H effner*
3
argum ents •
For a summary o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s e e V a r i o r u m s, V o l . VI,
349-364.)
E v id e n tly Essex c o n s id e re d h im s e lf S p e n se r’s
p a t r o n b e c a u s e he
to
pp.
Jonson,
paid h is
f u n e r a l expenses and,
s e n t him s h o r t l y b e f o r e
returned w ith a
famous a n s w e r .
239.
F le tc h e r 's a r t i c l e
See J .
B.
h is
according
d e a t h L20 w h i c h he
on S p e n s e r , E n c y c l o p a e d i a
A rnericana.
240.
See The O l d Ch eque -Boo k
by E.
F.
made
R im bault,
in 1613,
241.
th e
pp.
only because
P o s s i b l y t h e y w e re a t
f o r b o t h o f them a f t e r
court
245.
Mr.
11.
(S o m e rse t House)
ju s t w est o f the
in 1595-1596.
th at
th is
i s w ha t o c c u r r e d .
i n f a c t m ore l i k e l y t o
ju st
Te m p l e ,
No o n e ,
t h e i r m arriages
127-180.
Renwick i m p l i e s
b r i d a l p r o c e s s i o n was
But
G u l d e f o r d aa a l a d y - i n - w a i t i n g
they a tte n d e d h e r
See P r o t h . ,
stre e t.
two m a r r i a g e s w er e
t h e y w e r e members o f W o r c e s t e r ’ s h o u s e h o l d .
2 42 .
d irty
th e Chapel R oyal, e d .
in 1617.
and h e r c h o i c e o f E l i z a b e t h
House
.o f
The f i r s t
and n o t e s .
th e Queen’ s fondness
suggest th a t
.
161-163.
th ird
See p p . 4-7 - 4 - 8
.
e a s t o f the
’’The
go from W o r c e s t e r
Savoy,
t o E s s e x House
b y w a t e r t h a n b y t he c r o w d e d , n a r r o w , a n d
probably,
thought o f
g o in g any o t h e r way.
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Tha t
is
s u r e l y e n o u g h f o r o u r p o e t ’* (D a p h n a i d a , p .
225) .
B esides
the
of pass­
ing th e
Temple b e f o r e
i m p o s s i b i l i t y , when ro w in g d o w n s tr e a m ,
arriv in g at
m ajor d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith t h i s
p rocession.
th o u g h t h e
E s s e x H ouse , t h e r e
co n jectu re
- W o r c e s t e r House was n o t
E a rl o f W o rc e s te r's
W o r c e s t e r House
M oreover,
it
as
it
Savo y, b e tw e e n
appears th a t
it.
the
e a r l o f B edford,
R u s s e l l s ’ new h o u s e
t o w h ic h t h e y moved, as
" la te ly b u ild ed ."
b y Vtf. J .
Thoms,
pp. 166,
the b e t r o t h a l p a rt:/ d id not
167.)
start
244.
D e s c rip tio n o f E ngland, ed.
1577,
1587,
by p. J .
Stow r e e c h o e s
245.
In 1598 Stow d e ­
and is
o r B edford H o u s e T h e
th is
F u rn iv all,
in his
is
called
in
w hich
R ussell
.C o v e n t Garde n,
(A S u r v e y o f London
safe
t o assume t h a t
from W o r c e s t e r H o u se .
from Hoi i n s h e d ’ s C h r o n i c l e ,
P t.
Survey,
Thomas P l a t t e r ’ s T r a v e l s
It
it
i n 1596 t h e
’'s o m e t i m e t h e b i s h o p o f C a r l i s l e ’ s i n n ,
now b e l o n g e t h t o
ed.
even
f a m i l y name was S o m e r s e t .
E a rl o f W orcester d id not yet possess
scrib ed
about the a c tu a l
S o m e r se t H ouse,
s to o d j u s t w est o f the
a nd Durham P l a c e .
a r e two
I,
p.
pp. x x x v i i - x x x v i i i .
6.
in E ngland,
1599. t r *
hy G lare
Wi l l iams , p . 154 .
2 46.
p. 59.
p.
41;
P r o g r e s s e s o f E l i z a b e t h , V ol.
See a l s o
"T o w e r ,
"To T o w e r , " 1 5 8 8 ,
1561,"
I,
pp.
"Baynard’s C a s tle ,
42-43;
1559
"On Thames, 1559
p* 6 1 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
2 47 .
Vole
2 48 c
James
Is
G airdner,
p p » 416-417,
Howes,
199
L etters
Stow *s A n n a l e s , p .
Ibid . , p.
918.
250.
Xb I d », p .
907 • See a l s o
G ra v e s e n d t o
251.
Greenwich,
885,
.
.
« o f H enry V I I ,
916.
p . 89 9j
and f o r t r a v e l
fro m Greenwich t o London,
A p p a r e n t l y no one t h o u g h t o f g o i n g b y r o a d .
e tc .,
pp.
l!Now,
[ s a i d C l o t h - B r e e c h e s j , you w i l l s a y t h e r e
no s u b t l e t y
in you,
your 'f a r e s ,
an d wh a t
(Robert
from
915, 918.
m a s t e r w aterm an
for th ere
is
is
G rafto n,
pageant by th e
London,
due b e tw e e n G ree nw ich a n d London”
1871,
C h r o n i c l e , V ol.
companies
is
none so s i m p l e b u t t h a t knows
G r e e n e , A Qu i p f o r a n U p s t a r t C o u r t i e r £15923,
C harles H indley,
252.
and Papers
405.
2 49 .
719, 883,
-
p.
e d . by
62).
II,
p.
448.
For a n o th e r w a te r
in honor o f the approaching m arriage
o f H e n r y a n d Anne o f C l e v e s ,
S t o w 13 A n n a l e s ,
see p.
255.
Howes,
254.
Large c e re m o n ia l b a r g e s w ith
4 71 .
p . 899.
c u rv e d prows a r e p i c t u r e d
i n ^ n t h o n y Van den Wy n ga er de *s panorama o f London, V iiestm inste r
and S o u t h w a r k ,
1543
(in
o f th e Tudors,
a f t e r pp.
S i r W alter B esant,
218, 234,
London i n t h e
3 5 0 ) . The p a s s e n g e r s
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Time
rod e
In th e
s t e r n u n d e r a c a n o p y a n d e i g h t oa-rsmen, e a c h p u l l i n g
one o a r ,
sat
tow ard the
nap o f London,
piece)
draw n.
is
1595
prow.
The l a r g e b a r g e
(in H a r r is o n ’s D e s c r ip tio n , F t.
somewhat d i f f e r e n t b u t a l s o much l e s s
The Q u e e n ’ s b a r g e ,
as
who v i s i t e d
the
two c r a f t
I,
fro n t is
carefu lly
shown I n R a lp h A g a s ’ map o f
a b o u t 1 5 9 1 , was t o w e d b y a n o a r s m e n ’ s b o a t .
these
i n J o h n Worden*
ro y a l bargehouse o f f
P aris
Thomas P l a t t e r ,
G a rd e n ,
described
and s a i d t h a t no one was a l l o w e d t o
Queen’ s b a rg e
(T r a v e ls , pp.
a lw a y s t r u e .
One d a y i n 1579 when E l i z a b e t h was on t h e
n e a r G reenwich,
a youth
154-155).
row i n t h e
the
foote
S55.
The Mvses E l i z i v m ,
256.
L . 38 .
257.
L I.
258.
L o n g e r E n g l i s h Poems,
1 89 7,
p.
o f h e r h i g h n e s s ) 1* (S tow , A n n a l e a , p .
ut h e
second
Noahs F l o v d ,
p.
685).
107 .
114-115.
416o
w ithdraw h i s
259.
ro y a l oarsm en,
b a l e s o f ye s a i d b a r g e w h i c h s a t e w i t h i n
s ix e
Lea
Thames
in a bo at c lo se by c a r e l e s s l y s hot o f f
h i 3 a r q u e b u s a n d wo u n de d o ne o f t h e
man n e x t u n t o
T h is, h o w e v e r , was n o t
p. 207;
a n d A th e n a e u m , March 2 7 ,
The s e c o n d s t a t e m e n t
c a u s e d Wickham F l o w e r t o
suggestion th a t
(A t h e n a e u m , March 2 0 ,
See F . E .
S ch ellin g ,
the
1897,
reference
is
p. 379; A p r il
to
10,
the
riv er
p.
481).
A Book o f E l i z a b e t h a n L y r i c s ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
p . 2 45;
E.
G. H a m a n ,
1914,
D aphnalda, p . 225;
261.
F . Q.»
I V. x i .
29. 7.
262 .
F . Q..
I V. x i .
44. 3 -4 ;
265 .
See
F . Q..
173.
C om plaInt3 , p. 2 0 2 .
V.
i i . 19.
1 ( c o n c e r n in g w hich
III.
v iii.
1 5 . 4; x .
tran sferen ce
2 3 . 9 ; IV.
o f desert
i i . 16.
to ocean see
3
R. R.
The V o y a g e r s a n d E l i z a b e t h a n Drama, M. L . A . Mono­
graph S e r . ,
158;
V, p .
c l t . , p.
lo c . c i t .) .
( f o r the o p p o site
C ar/ley,
Im personations
p . 9 8 ; M an ly, o p .
Va r io r u m , V o l .
260 .
s e e M. M. G r a y ,
-
Edmund. S p e n s e r and, t h e
o f F r a n c i s B a c o n , London,
70-3; M. M. G r a y ,
201
V lrg ils
V III,
1938, p . 83, n o t e ) ;
G nat,
110; Ruines
x i.
41.
o f ^ i m e ,1 3 5 ,
1;
S. C. ,
603 ; C o l i n
F eb .,
C lo u t,
283 .
For t h e
ground,
I.
the
Tem pest,
^ tran sferen ce);
IV.
M ilto n ,
i.
60;
xxxiv;
L ongfellow ,
Memorjam, CXV; K i n g s l e y ,
264.
L.
of
”a t r a c t o f o p e n
in T o t t e l ^
D rayton,
Gomus, 9 6 5;
B u rn s, E leg y f o r C ap tain H enderson,
III.
se n se
o r a r a b l e l a n d , n 0 .E»D. n o t e s
Ma gn y f yc e nc e , 2 0 9 3 ; W y a t t ,
Shakespeare,
23
in
e i t h e r neadov/, p a s t u r e ,
S kelton,
90;
use o f le a
V;
M isc.
(A rb .),
P oly-olbian
G ra y ,
Coleridge,
E l e g y , 1;
T h re e G r a v e s ,
B i r d 3 o f P a s s a g e , V; T e n n y s o n , _In
Poems» B&d S q u i r e , 1 2 .
19.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
265.
N o te
366.
If
to 1 1 .
115—118 i n V a r i o r u m . V o l . V I I .
the l a d i e s
been s ta y in g
at
starte d
on t h e L e a ,
t h e y m ust h a v e
some c o u n t r y h o u s e on o r n e a r i t s
banks.
T h i s h o u s e w o uld h a v e b e l o n g e d t o t h e i r f a t h e r o r some
close f r ie n d .
a house.
I have
searched w ithout
In p a r t i c u l a r ,
It
is
f o u r m iles
ness.
(as
and i t
s.s t h e c row f l i e s
M oreover,
why t h e l a d i e s
to have b e e n ,
least
a nd s t a r t
is
too l a !
3/VTcLy•
two m i l e s from t h e
is
s o m e th in g more t h a n
t h e Le a,
h a s none o f t h e c r o w ' s d i r e c t ­
t h e mouth o f
should le a v e
o r G uldeford.
from t h e mouth o f
Spenser t e s t i f i e s )
d o w n s tr e a m f r o m t h e p a l a c e
th e Lea i s
a t G r e e n w ic h .
the p a la c e ,
a l m o s t two- m i l e s
It
is
hard to
where t h e y seem
t h e i r b e tr o th a l procession a t a
p lace
at
th eir
d estin atio n .
267.
See s k e t c h o f p a l a c e ,
two m i l e s f a r t h e r
1558,
H a s t e d * s H i s t o r y o f K e n t , London,
66
seats,
Ro din g R i v e r a t l e a s t
n e a r e s t p o i n t o n t h e Lea;
w hi c h
Essex, P e t r e ,
o n e o f Es s ex * s c o u n t r y
on t h e
such
I c a n f i n d no manor on t h e Lea
R i v e r owned b y W o r c e s t e r ,
7/anstead,
success f o r
a.way from E s s e x House,
i n H. H. D r a k e ,
1886,
P t. I,
e d .,
a fte r p.
.
268.
L. 2 2 .
R e p ro du ced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
se e
203
269.
Progresses
7 4-75.
o f E l i z a b e t h , V ol.
II,
5 b r some o t h e r nymphs who e n t e r t a i n e d h e r M a j e s t y
see V o l.
I,
"At K e n e l w o r t h C a s t l e , "
pp. 7 ,
For t h e L a d i e s E l i z a b e t h a n d K a t h e r i n e
P ro g re s s e s o f Jam es, V ol.
270.
See a l s o
Spenser* s p a s t o r a l
am ple, E n g la n d s H e l i c o n ,
pp.
II,
pp.
133;
15-17,
an d F r a n c i s
r i v e r nymphs s e e
II,
”At E l v e t h a m , n p . 1 0 .
p r a i s e o f t h e <4ueen and ,
p p . 2 4, 2 9 - 3 0 ,
31-33,
for ex­
102-103,
L I.
83-89,
272.
L I.
1 1 9 -1 2 4 .
273.
H arriso n ,
274.
Progress
Greenwich a t
D a v iso n ’ s A P o e t i c a l Rhapsody, V ol.
I,
109-111.
D escrip tio n ,
ag ain st
for
"Must
it
stro n g a g a in s t us"
D ic tio n a r y to
the
p. x x x v i.
t i d e was d i f f i c u l t .
W oolwic h, a c h a r a c t e r
145) asksS
go b y w a t e r ,
I go t o
ebbs;
i n A W a rn in g f o r F a i r Viomen
G r e e n w ic h ,
S ir?
The w i n d ’ s a t w e s t ,
(quoted
B e in g below
. . .
I cannot
and b o t h a r e
from E . H. Sugden, A T o p o g r a p h i c a l
t h e 'Works o f S h a k e s p e a r e , M a n c h e s t e r , E n g l a n d ,
1 925) .
27 5 .
111-
236.
271.
( I X ,
as
60-61, 7 0 -8 0 .
346-358.
P r o g r e s s e s o f E l i z a b e t h , V ol.
112,
"At Norw i c h , " p p .
Stow, A n n a le s ,
pp.
562, 563.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
276.
L. 127.
277.
L I.
273.
279.
(E l i z .
-
204
-
M em oirs, V o l.
II,
p.
1S6-167 .
B irch,
Except
for a v is it
S ta g e , V ol.
IV,
to
p.
103.
E ltham , a p p a r e n tly ,
110,
in August
c i t i n g MS. s o u r c e ) .
See n o t e
290.
280.
B irch,
Memo i r s , V o l .
281.
Ib id . ,
pp.
282 .
Ib id . , p.
119.
285.
Ib id . ,
121;
284.
C.
S. P .,
b e t h , V ol.
120-122,
p.
II,
137,
105,
I I , p.
103.
112.
Camden, E l i z a b e t h , p .
D. S . ,
1595-1597,
" 1 5 9 6 , ’* p . 2 5 ;
p . 27 6;
B irch,
525.
Progresses o f E liz a ­
M e m o ir s , V o l .
II,
pp.
A n th o n y Bacon d e s c r i b e s
the
in cident
145.
285.
I b i d . , p p . 121-122.
286.
Ib id . , p.
287 .
I b i d . , pp. 131,
288 .
Ib id . , p.
289.
Ib id .,
pp.
122.
137.
121.
146-148.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
205
w ith happy m a lic e s
a nd w h i n e , a n d t o
o .o
sub scrib ed
a t commandment"
290.
Ib id .,
387,
390;
G. S .
P .,
it
" h a t h made t h e o l d
fox to
crouch
i n s i n u a t e h i m s e l f b y a v e r y s u b m is s
in th ese
term s,
Your l o r d s h i p * s ,
le tte r,
i f you w i l l ,
(p. 153).
p p . 131,
137;
P e n s h u r s t MSS. ,
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
V ol.
II,
P t . VI,
pp. 376,
p p . 2 1 9 , , 2 2 1 - 2 2 2 , 223;
1595-1597, p . 288.
291.
S id n e y P a p e r s , V ol.
292.
Ib i d . ,
pp.
G.
S.
5,
182,
187;
293.
L I.
29 4 .
"The t w e l f t h
6;
P .,
II,
p.
B irch,
5.
Memo i r s ,
1595-1597, 295-298,
Vol.
II,
301,
p p . 1 63 , 1 7 2 ,
302, 305-307.
155-161.
Ye a r o f t h e
now h a p p i l y e x p i r e d ,
. . .
a ll
R e ign o f Queen E l i z a b e t h b e i n g
good men t h r o u g h
j o y f u l l y trium phed,
and w i t h T h a n k s g i v i n g s ,
m u ltip lied
jo y fu ll
P rayers,
and F e s t i v a l M i r t h ,
Sermons
R inging o f B e l l s ,
began t o
celeb rate
the
E ngland
in C hurches,
running a t
T ilt,
S e v e n t e e n t h day o f
Nove m ber, b e i n g t h e - a n n i v e r s a r y d a y o f t h e B e g i n n i n g o f h e r
Reign; w h ic h ,
her,
th ey never ceased to
E lizab eth , p.
o rig in ated
I,
p.
I n t e s t i m o n y o f t h e i r a f f e c t i o n a t e Love t o w a r d s
152).
observe as
l o n g a s s h e l i v e d ’* (Camden,
This c e l e b r a t i o n ,
" w h ich a p p e a r s
s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n o r n e a r Oxford"
1 8 ) , was E n g l a n d * s m o s t
(E l i z .
personal t r i b u t e
to
t o ha ve
S t a g e , Vol.
t h e Quee n.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
In 1592 E s s e x c o n c e i v e d , a
graceful
fla tte ry ;
on t h e m o r n in g
o f t h e a n n i v e r s a r y h e came ” t o h e r m a j e s t y ’ s p r e s e n c e ,
h is
in
c o l l a r o f SS» a t h i n g u n w o n te d a n a so u n l o o k e d f o r ,
y et hereupon
suddenly ta k e n u p ,
a nd c o n t e n t m e n t o f h e r m a j e s t y ”
and u s e d w i t h
great
lik in g
( B i r c h , Memo i r s , V o l.
I,
p . 92)
See S t o w , A n n a l e s , p . 7 8 9 ;
C ham berlain, L e t t e r s ,
pp. 162-163;
John S t r y p e , A nnals o f t h e
Re f o r m a t i o n , V o l.
p . 161;
Progresses
p.
64;
386*
o f E l i z a b e t h , Vol.
"A m b a ss a d o r s
E liz .
Stage
II,
” public
from B a r b a r y ,
gives
T hanksgivings,
16 0 0 ,” p.
some o f t h e s e
IV,
9.
1588,”
See a l s o n o t e
an d a number o f o t h e r
c i t a t ions •
295*
See P r o g r e s s e s o f E l i z a b e t h ,
296.
See S i d n e y P a p e r s , V o l.
p.
164; C h am b erlain ,
V ol.
I,
p.
I,
L e tte rs, p.
V o l.
p.
II.
3 7 ? ; Goodman, James,- V o l .
178 and n o t e
d;
E liz.
S tage,
IB.
297.
Camden, E l i z a b e t h , p . 2 7 .
298*
P r o g r e s s e s o f E l i z a b e t h ,V o l .
299.
E liz a b e th , p.
500.
P e n s h u r s t MSS.. ,
501.
I b i d . , pp. 222-224.
II,
”Q.ueen’ s D e a t h , ” p . 36
661.
V ol.
I I , p p . 218,
222.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
I
-
502.
"As
G rosart
(o p .
same o p i n i o n
c i t . , V ol.
(E l i z a b e t h a n
for
For exam ple,
th ere
public
A31 r o p h e 1 , o r t h e
is
s a l e w ere n o t
im probably
S chelling
is o f the
However,
a ll
e n te re d in the
R eg ister.
f o r Paphna*£da, C o l i n C l o u t an d
The f i r s t m i g h t have b e e n
is u n lik ely th a t
" I t a l i a n Ep i t ha l a m i a , "
the
last
two w e r e .
Ed inbu r g h Re view
p . 107.
E p i t h a l a m i o n b y Edmund S p e n s e r .
McPeek,
See a l s o
James A . s .
"The M a j o r S o u r c e s o f S p e n s e r ’ s E p i t h a l a m i o n , " J .
XXXV ( 1 9 3 6 ) ,
pp.
See
R o b e r t H. C a s e , , e d . ,
506.
D rayton u sed th e
m eaning d i f f e r e n t
from S p e n s e r ’ s .
8;
song,
If x i i .
307.
F . Q.. ,
508.
Jo h n Younge,
K i ng o f S c o t l a n d ?
E nglish E p ith a la m ie s.
name p r o t h a l a m i o n , b u t he
Mvses E l i z i v m , p .
o lb io n , A rg ., 1.
E . G. P .
183-213.
505.
in th e
fa m ilie s."
L y ric s, p. 244).
it
Hall,** s a y s
p . 206 ) , " f i t I was n o t
no e n t r y
but
C. H. W r i g h t ,
(1915),
S tatio n ers*
Fowre Hymne3 .
p riv a te ly p rin ted ,
50 4 .
I,
f o r th e noble
works o f f e r e d
CCXXI
-
i t was n o t e n t e r e d a t
sim ply p r i n t e d
505 o
207
79;
I.
38 - 4 0 .
See The e i g h t
and th e
fifteen th
gave
it
a
Niraphall
son g i n P o l y -
114.
Italics
o f course a re m ine.
"The F y a n c e l l s o f M a r g a r e t
Together w ith h e r
.
.
. . .
to
. Journey Into
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
James
S cotland,
2 08
-
h e r R e c e p t i o n and. M a r r i a g e
on t h a t A c c o u n t , ’*
5.09»
15 9 6 ,
II,
484.
o f S co tlan d , t r .
into
it
II,
pp. 262-264.
Jh o n e L e s l i e ,
E d i n b u r g h & London,
The
1895,
V ol.
pp.
The M in o r Poem3 o f Jo h n L y d g a t e ,
6 0 1 - 6 0 8 ; a n d E . P . Hammond, E n g l i s h V ers e b e t w e e n
poem was w r i t t e n b e f o r e
Is a b e t r o t h a l
511.
F easts h e ld
S c o t t i s h b y James D a l r y n p l e ,
Chaucer and S u r r e y , p p . 1 4 2 -1 4 8 .
the
IV,
great
119-120.
See H. N« M a c C r a c k e n ,
V ol.
the
See a l s o
S c o t t i s h Text S o c ie ty ,
pp.
510.
th e r e , ana
C o l l e c t a n e a , Vol.
S to w , A n n a l e s , p .
H isto rie
-
See 1 1 .
song
48-49.
B o th e d i t o r s
the m a rria g e ,
(V ol.
nThat
I,
statem ent to
1 42 7n
(K* H.
512.
L I.
515.
C haucer,
Her© a l s o
Lydgate
th is
the m a r r ia g e
1752-1755;
Jacq u elin e,
11. 876-877.
G lo u cester,
is
taken
11.
place
p.
in
127?) .
is
of
of d e scrip tio n
from t h e
Mi ss Hammond r e f e r s
176-182.
3even l a d i e s
th o u g h t h i s
The one l i v e l y b i t
poem ( 1 1 . 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 )
take
1422 we know from a
L ydgate,
C h a u c e r names two o f t h e
n ific an ce.
did not
119-121.
IV (E)
compares
a n d MacCracken b e l i e v e s
e f f e c t by Ja c q u e lin e h e r s e l f
V i c k e r s , Humphrey Luke o f
155-161,
th at
p. xiv) .
b e f o r e H e n r y V .* s d e a t h o n 5 1 s t A u g u s t
d efin ite
in d icate
to
t o ’whom
sm all
sig ­
i n L ydgate*s
Book o f t h e D u c h e s s ,
these
lin es
and t h o s e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
-
quoted
209
-
f r o m t h e M e r c h a n t *3 T a l e .
514o
See n o t e 3 5 1 .
515 «
uAnd
Ymeneus , So w f o r t u n e S i s m at e r e ;
Thoroughe h e l p e o f
Maake a k n o t t e
Iuno, nexst o f Syn e a lly e ,
f e y t h f u l and e n t i e r e ,
As whylome was b e t w e e n e
And M e r c u r y e , e e k e
Phv logon ye
so h y e g h a - b o v e S e
skye,
Mher S a t Clyo a n d e e k e Calyo pye
Sange w i t h h i r s u s t r e n
and. a l l e
yee
i n noumbre t h r y e s
g o d d e s beoSe o f oon a c o r d e
© a t h a u e y o u r e d w e l l i n g ab o u e Se
And y e e
th ree.
goddesses,
devoyde o f a l
BeoSe w e e 1 - w i l l y a n d a l s o
And S o w e , F o r t u n e ,
firm am ent,
descoorde,
d ily g en t,
bee a l s o
of assent
•Dis n e o d f u l t h i n g t e x e c u y t ye.rne,
Tborugh y o u r e
power w h i c h Sat i s
The poem e n d s w i t h 1 * e n v o i t o
516.
J o h n Y ou ng e,
317.
L.
189.
S ociety,
V ol.
318.
13.
L.
the
in C o l l e c t a n e a , V ol.
pp.
( 1 1 . 176-1 89
p rin cess.
The Poems o f W i l l i a m
II,
eterne"
IV,
pp. 2 65-300.
D u n b a r , S c o t t i s h T ex t
183-189.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
53.9.
L I. 22-23.
520 c
See1 1 .
521.
L I * 1 4 1 —147 .
makes t h e
92-98
21C
and n o te ,
-
i b i d .,
f a m i l i a r p l a y on t h e
ib i d .,
Vol.
525 o
F b r a b r i e f summary o f t h e
c h i e f docum ents,
see
p. 274.
In 1 . 180 Dunbar
name o f M a r g a r e t ,
See n o t e s ,
its
Ill,
See a l s o 1 1 . 17 1 —
172.
522.
to
V o l.
Ill,
the p e a r l .
p. 269-276.
c o n t ro ver-s 7f a n d r e f e r e n c e
P . N. R o b in s o n ,
The Com plete
Works o f G e o f f r e y C h a u c e r , p p . 3 6 1 - 3 6 2 , 9 0 0 - 9 0 1 .
524.
J o h n Y ou ng e ,
325.
n Now f a y r e , f a y r e s t o f f e v e r y f a y r e .
op.
c i t .,
Vol.
II,
cv ii,
clx .
526.
For th e se
i n C p l l e c t a n e a , V o l.
p.
2 7 9 ; a n d com m ent,
and o t h e r
facts
IV, p p . 2 9 5 , 2 9 6 .
.
V o l.
.
I,
about B iz z a r i's
.n
See t e x t ,
pp. xxxv,
life
and w r i t i n g s ,
s e e C. B. an d T . C o o p e r , A t h e n a e G a n t a b r i g i e n s e s , 1 5 0 0 -1 6 0 9 ,
V ol.
I I , pp. 8 -9 ; and J .
House o f
R u s s e l l , Vol.
panegyrics
short
V ol.
poems
I,
pp.
to
I,
the E a r l s
in R anutio
436-441.
few p ag es o f t h e
H. 7*i f f e n ,
pp.
H i s t o r i c a l Memoirs o f t h e
399 -400 , 423 - 4 2 5 .
See a l s o
the
o f B e d f o r d and L e i c e s t e r and o t h e r
Ghero,
D elitiae
GG . I t a l o r v m
I ha ve s e e n o n l y t h e s e
V a r i a Q p v s c v la
Poetarun,
s e l e c t i o n s and a
(see note 3 2 7 ) .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
21 1
3 2 7 e The poem Annae R o s s e l l a e
O pvscvia
p r i n t e d b y ivldus
Queen E l i z a b e t h
is
-
appears
in 1565.
in
P e t r i B i z z a r i V aria
B i z z a r i 1s d e d i c a t i o n t o
d a t e d nV e n e t i i s ,
K alendis
iu n ij
M D LXV.”
The p r o t h a l a m i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n composed some t i m e b e f o r e
B izzari,
h a v i n g gone t o
Venice and a r r a n g e d
o f h i s w o r k , was p r e p a r e d
The l a t e s t
o f 1565.
d ate
to w r i t e
f o r the b e tr o th a l
th is
f o r the
p u b licatio n
dedicatory e p i s t l e .
3eems t o be t h e
e a rly spring
The w e d d i n g o c c u r r e d Nov. 1 1 .
There a r e
c o p ie s o f V aria Opvscvla
o f Duke U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e
P rovidence.
in th e l i b r a r y
J o h n C a r t e r Brown L i b r a r y a t
The Brown L i b r a r y h a s k i n d l y s u p p l i e d me w i t h
a p h o to static
copy o f th e t i t l e
page, th e
d ed icatio n ,
and th e
p r o t h a l a m i o n f o r Lady ^ n n e .
528•
F. 9 6 r .
529.
0 Hymen hymenaee u e n i h u e ,
Hue C y t h e r e a
hue omine d e x t r o ,
fauens.
0 , hymen hymenaee u e n i ,
nec d i f f e r a m o r e s ,
Tuc^ D i a n a s i m u l .
jam m a t u r a
Ergo
Iu ngite
v iro ,
v en ite
iam p l e n i s
precor.
^irgineos a r t u s ,
C andidiora
Iungite t o t
n u b ilis an n is.
& b r a c h ia quauis
n iu e.
dotes anim i,
turn c o r p o r i s ,
& quae
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- 212
S ola,
-
virum i n u e n i a t
C on for teir , t h a l a m i , v i t a e < ^ , ac
S it
( rogo ) v t e r q u e s p a r e n s
550.
See C o l l e c t a n e a , V o l .
551.
H oiinshed,
552 .
V.
555 .
L. 144.
55 4 .
’’T h i s
Iv.
be t h e
o p . c i t .,
555.
IV .
55 6 o
In B p 1 t h .
i.
pp.
666-669.
p. 229.
note
o f w edding song”
22).
P arecbasis
S e e . C atu llu 's
LXI,
117
ff.;
a f t e r 100.
r e l i g i o n o f the
rite s
th is
Spenser a d d re sse s h e r;
Iuno, w h ich w i t h a w fu l m ig h t
hast
IV.
558.
See Edwa r d A r b e r ,
dost
faith
p atro n ize,
first
ta u g h t to
reference
557.
p lig h t
solem nize.
.
.
.
”
to b e t r o t h a l .
106-117.
e d .,
Company o f S t a t i o n e r s
512. T i t l e
65,
o f wedlock s t i l l
Van W in k l e n o t e s
i.
o ld est-ty p e
(11. 590-593)
W ith sa c re d
p.
97r ) .
84-86.
law es
And t h e
p.
N uptial i s ,
"And t h o u g r e a t
the
IV,
secunda
204-205.
A u s o n i u s , C en t o
the
(f.
P t- II,
C h ro n ic le s , V ol.
see ms t o
(Van W i n k l e ,
I,
pro le
A T ra n sc rip t o f the
R egisters
o f London, .15 54 -16 40 A . p . ,
and d a te o f e n t r y a r e n o te d
V ol.
of
Ill,
in P ro g resses o f James,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
V o l.
II,
p.
213
-
624.
339.
F r a g m e n t A,
11.
110-136.
3_40.
See " P l o c e ,
G onduplicatio"
i n a p e n s e r 1s P o e t r y , p . 3 8 .
i n H. D. R i x ,
R hetoric
T h i s e x a m p le , h o w e v e r ,
is not
c it ed .
341.
L I. 39-49.
542.
See D r a y t o n ,
Idea,
E clo g u e, 1 1 . 28-30;
H. H u d so n ,
p. 227);
the
Robert T o f t e ,
IV,
343.
II
544.
For th e
(B)
In S p e n s e r 's
42-43);
( j . W. H e be i a n d H.
place
o f rh eto ric
p oetry,
H esperides,
To E l e c t r a .
to
c i t .,
P r o t h . on p p .
86,
103-104. A r h e t o r i c a l
In ten d ed to
given in n o te s
in troduce.
a n d some o f
P o e t i Q u e s du X l l e
S. B ald w in,
R e n a i s s a n c e and e s p e c i a l l y
op.
o f P r o t h . w i l l be
m edieval r h e t o r i c
in the
s e e H. D. R ix ,
an aly sis
Is
(R. H. C a s e , E n g l i s h
645-651.
He r e f e r s
essay
193 8,
J o n s o n , U nd erw oo ds, A C e l e b r a t i o n
11. 21-30; H e rric k ,
graphy.
a n d C.
L a u ra
Thomas Heywood, M a r r i a g e Eymne
o f C h aris,
Les A r t s
G arland, E ig h th
P o e t r y o f t h e E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e , New Y ork,
E p ith a la m ies, pp.
th is
S h e p h e rd * a
et
its
For a
tex ts,
du X H I e
to
t e x t and b i b l i o ­
the
e d i t i o n which
g e n e r a l view o f
see Edmond F a r a l ,
S ie c le , P aris,
1924;
M e d i e v a l R h e t o r i c a n d P o e t i c , New York,
•ta a a :»
7-’-
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
'
- 214
1928.
F o r C h a u c e r ’ s u s e of* r h e t o r i c
K i t t r e d g e , '’C h a u c e r i a n a , ' '
482;
-
M. P . VII
J . M. M anl y , C h a u c e r a n d t h e
1 926;
Mary A . H i l l ,
X LII
403-407;
F l o r e n c e A. T e a g e r ,
cal C o lo rs,” ib id .,
valuab le,
c a l devices
L.
546.
L I.
P.M»L.A. XLVII
M a n ly ’ s work i s
is
not
’’Notes
(1932),
’’C h a u c e r ’ s E a g l e a n d t h e
410-418.
481-
in Chaucer’ s P o e tr y ,”
M arie P . H a m i l t o n ,
b u t h i s m e t h o d of* a n a l y s i s
however e x p l a i n e d ,
545.
pp.
pp.
R h e t o r i c i a n s , B r i t i s h Academy,
pp. 845-861;
R h e to ricia n s,"
G-. L .
(1909-1910),
’’ R h e t o r i c a l B a l a n c e
(1 9 2V) ,
on C h a u c e r a n d t h e
s e e B a ld w in ;
pp.
R h eto ri­
t h e m ost
explained and,
w o u l d be a d e c e p t i v e m e a s u r e of* t h e r h e t o r i ­
In C h a u c e r ’ s p o e t r y .
948.
1318-1319.
and John and t o
R eferences
in th ese
lin es
t o B lan ch e
J o h n a s E a r l o f Richmond and Cuke o f L a n c a s t e r
h a v e b e e n p o i n t e d o u t b y W. W. S k e a t , Academy XLV ( 1 8 9 4 ) ,
19 1 ;
p.
F . T u p p e r , M. L . N.XXXI ( 1 9 1 6 ) ,
5 4 ; H* J»
5 47 .
p p . 2 5 0 - 2 5 2 ; XXXII ( 1 9 1 7 ) ,
S a v a g e , M» L . N« XXXI, p .
P r o t h . , 11. 121,
442 —443.
15 7; an d E . K . ’ s g l o s s
to
the A p r il
eclo g u e•
548.
L I.
3 49 .
L . 67 .
p.
137-140.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
215
5_50 •
j j l • 1 5 3 —154 •
them selves
-
Comments t o r s h a v e am used t h e m s e l v e s b y
b y w o n d e r i n g w h e t h e r D e v e r e u z was m e a n t t o e q u a l
heureux o r d e v (e n ir)
heureux.
The form o f t h e name u s e d
in a c o n te m p o r a r y anagram s u g g e s t s t h a t
was
in ten d ed .
” In s i n g l e
surname
is
s i m p l e r pun
Surnames , ” s a y s Camden ( Rema i n s ,
p . 2 2 6 ) , ’* t h e r e h a v e b e e n f o u n d o u t
whose
th e
f o r the
late
E arl o f Essex,
D’ e u r e u x ,
VERB DUX.
” T h i s a l s o was c a s t
v a lo r o u s ly took
saw i t ,
h a ve
in to t h i s
Gades now c a l l e d
G ales
D istich
i n Spa i n , a s
when i t was a c c o u n t e d so h o n o u r a b l e
seen
it
to
Nam s e m e l h i e
See t h e
o f the
S ilvae
v id it,
I.
11.
168-174.
i i . 107-136;
3 0 0 - 3 4 1 ; XXX,jXXXI • 5 6 - 9 8 ,
33-56.
In Bpi-th.
but the
form al p o r t r a i t
552 .
op.
555 .
vie i t
d e s c r ip tio n o f the
y o u ng m e n ,
S tatiu s
so o n a s he
H ercules to
o n ce .
” VERB DUX D ' e u r e u x , & v e r i o r H e r c u l e ;
351.
s i n c e he so
swans,
note
is
ille
sim ul •
1 1 . 3 7 -7 2 a n d p a s s i m ;
For c l a s s i c a l exam ple,
see
C l a u d i a n X I . 1 - 4 0 ; . X. 2 2 9 - 2 8 1 ,
124-127; A u so n iu s,
Spenser never ceases
wThe P r o t h a l a m i o n
c i t • , p . 68,
at
Gades
to
Cento N u p t i a l i s ,
describ e h is
b rid e,
i n 1 1 . 14 8-2 0 3 .
is o f th e
epic
ty p e”
(Van W i n k l e ,
47 ) .
Op . c i t . , pp ♦ 6 - 7 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
_
213 _
354.
O l a u d i a n X. 5 2 - 5 5 ,
30-65.
555.
See H o l d . , 47—223;
XXX, XXXI.
115 i s
ii.
som ething l i k e
th at
9—135
o f P r o t h . );
(the
S ta tiu s,
scene
i n 105-
S ilv ae,
I.
51-131.
556.
Op. c i t . , p p .
7,
12—1 3 .
The s t a t e m e n t s do n o t -wholly
agree.
35 7 .
The o p e n i n g s t a n z a s
o n t h e drearn v i s i o n
of
the b r id e ,
d i f f e r b e c a u s e P r o th.{s i s
rath er
E p ith . ,
sts.
than th e
epithalam ion.
2,
om itted
t h e nymphs a p p e a r i n P r o t h . ,
The l a d i e s
10,
are
d escribed in
an d 11 o f E p i t h .
is
in P ro th .
s t . 2,. and E p i t h . ,
sts.
They a r e
The waking
sts.
adorned i n E p i t h . ,
In
9 - 1 2 o f E p i t h . and 3 - 1 0 o f P ro t h . t h e l a d i e s
55 8 .
of
the
A ttendants appear in
st.
st.
th e place
exam ple,
130-153;
C ento I T u p t i a l i s ,
4.
6,
9,
and
s t . 7 o f b o t h poem s.
Compare S h a k e s p e a r e ’ s ,
p .. 103,
see C a tu llu s
XXX, XXXI.
3,
go to
ceremony.
P ro t h . , 9 1 - 1 0 7 .
B i z z a r i 1s s o n g s ,
B ut
3 a n d 4 o f P r o t h . and s t s .
P ro t h . ,
sts.
5.
5,
m odelled
n o te s 315,
LXIV.
S tatiu s,
67—7 9 ,
329.
333—331;
and
For c l a s s i c a l
L X I.
S ilv ae, I .
L y d g a te 's
198—223;
i i . 263-277;
83.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
C laudian
A usonius,
-
559.
217
-
"Spenser*s E n g lish R iv e rs,"
T r a n s a c tio n s o f th e Connect­
i c u t Academy o f A r t s a n d S c i e n c e s , X X III
101.
C oncerning th e
Osgood shows t h a t
p o rtio n o f
from t h e
its
th at
and,
it
so f a r
poem may b e s o u g h t
o n ly "a sm all
• , an d w h a t e v e r h a s been r e t a i n e d
c o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d o n l y
in shreds here
as a n y s u r v i v i n g s e m b la n c e o f t h e o l d
in th e
F aery Queen,
it
is
lo st
indeed."
The I t i n e r a r y o f J o h n L e l a n d , e d . b y Thomas H e a r n e ,
pp.
361.
is
.
it
e a r l i e r poem h a s b e e n so u n r a v e l e d a n d rewoven i n
and t h e r e ,
IX,
•
pp. 100-
Thames i s , s e e p p . 1 0 5 - 1 0 7 , where
c a n t o x i p r o b a b l y owes t o
m aterial
t h e new f a b r i c
560.
E pith.
(1919-1920),
1-108.
L I.
1-7.
pro bab le,
d escrip tio n ,
See F r o t h . , 1 1 . 3 7 - 5 4 .
a s Mr. W a r t o n a l s o
had h i s
H.
thinks, th a t
J.
Todd s a y s ,
Spenser,
the
e y e s o m e tim e s on L e l a n d fs Cygnea C a n t i o "
See 1 .
565.
L I.
564.
I n P h il e m o n H o l l a n d ' s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e
p.
Compare
opening o f P r o th .
362.
published
"it
in t h i s
( The ^ ' o r k s o f Edmund S p e n s e r , V o l . V I I I , p . 1 0 1 , n o t e ) .
also
Vol.
181 f f .
310-319.
In 1610, th e
373, a V 2 1 1 .;
fragm ents a re a s
pp. 384-386,
61 1 1 . ;
B ritan n ia,
follow s:
B erk sh ire,
O xfordshire,
p p . 289-290,,:
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
54- 1 1 * ; M i d d l e s e x ,
9
- 1 /2
11
.;
p
p.
Op. c i t . , p .
566 ♦
S ee O sgo o d ,
90,
op. c i t . , p.
) ,,
102;
5*11*;
9
11
.*
S u r r e y , -p., 296,
7he o r d e r i s
but here
some l i n e s
384.
See a l s o p p .
71—72,
c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Camden's poem and c a n t o
o f F .0,. Camden made Tame t h e b r i d e
Op . c i t . ,
pp.
368.
Ib id .,
289.
569.
No cop y o f t h e f i r s t
p.
t h e groom;
384—3 8 5 .
See P r o t h . , 1 1 . 4 7 - 5 1 , 1 1 5 - 1 1 8 .
e d i t i o n has been found.
p r i n t e d by Hearne i n L e la n d ,
570.
and I s i s
the o rd e r.
367.
a
298
420,
o p . c i t . , p p . 102—1 0 3 .
Spenser reversed
is
7 ll.;',p .
added.
065.
xi
419,
( f ollovring* p .
. ,2 8 7
■that g i v e n b y Osgood,
are
218 -
See o p . c i t . , p . 4 ,
r e su m e o f a u t h o r i t i e s
p.
I t i n e r a r y , V o l . V, p p . v - x x .
a nd t h e w ho le d e d i c a t i o n ,
for
The poem
which i s
t h e swan s o n g .
571.
Op. c i t . ,
v i.
372.
LI.
373.
See P r o t h . ,
sical
an d R e n a i s s a n c e p o e t r y , s e e
574.
L i.
56-59.
52-63.
For th e u se o f t h i s
notion in c la s ­
n o te 406.
227-235.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
- 219
575.
L I.
57 6 .
V ol. o f J a n .
480-482*
258-263.
510,
544,
to
June,
pp. 378-380,
577-578.
J . W. H a l e s ,
o th ers.
as u s u a l , has
H ales,
one c o n t r i b u t i o n
(pp.
argument had i t s
value,
q u estio n o f
H. H. C a s e ,
481-482)
it
to
say.
in te re stin g .
and
Case’ s
The
drew O s g o o d ’ s a t t e n t i o n t o
r i v e r poems b;y a n t i q u a r i a n s .
V allan s,
378.
LI-
409-411.
379.
See
F . M. P a d e l f o r d ’ s n o t e t o
I t may b e
James Rowley,
i s t h e m o st
because
446-447*
include
some good t h i n g s
577.
V ariorum , V ol.
415-416*
The c o r r e s p o n d e n t s
Wickham F l o w e r ,
the
-
11. 7 5-76;
VI,
p.
added t h a t
F ro th .,
237;
11.
121-122.
F . Qj . V I .
ix .
and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s
R ichard B a r n f ie ld used th e
9 .5 ;
given t h e r e .
image
i n 1595
( s e e E n g l a n d s H e l i c o n , p . 81 and n o t e ,
p . 2 3 4 ) , and l a t e r
occurred
h e r H i g h n e s s e o n Male
i n a n Ode o f C y n t h i a
day l a s t "
(see
sung " to
F ra n c is D avison’s A P o e tic a l
it
Rhapsody, V o l .
I,
p. 2 3 6 ).
380.
c ritic
This
in tim atio n
is
so c o m p e l l i n g t h a t
in to m a n ife st e r r o r .
Joh n E r s k i n e
" m i n u t e a c c o u n t o f t h e London w a t e r - f r o n t "
L y ric , p.
196)•
381.
c i t .,
Qp.
it
l e a d 3 one good
speaks o f ^roth.’s
( The E l i z a b e t h a n
pp. 103-104.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
585 o
S hakespeare A s so c ia tio n
58 4 .
T opographical
p.
496.
M iss
B u lle tin , X II
(1937)
P o e t r y i n E n g la n d During; t h e
T aylor d e a ls w ith th e
th is
and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s which a r e
form, a n d
fifteen th ,
six ­
not m entioned
in
essay.
385.
R uines
586.
T his
It
69-76*
R enaissance,
g e n e sis o f the
c o n s i d e r s E n g l i s h t o p o g r a p h i c a l poems o f t h e
teen th ,
pp.
o f Time, 1 1 . 1 3 6 - 1 3 8 .
is
proclaim s
the
s o n g s u n g b y Rowland i n E c l o g u e
’’B e t a s h o l y - d a y ; n t h a t
sary o f E liz a b e th ’s accessio n .
587.
C y ril B re tt,
e d .,
is,
Nov. 1 7 ,
III.
the a n n iv e r­
See n o t e 2 9 4 .
M i n or Poems o f M i c h a e l D r a y t o n , p p .
232-234.
588.
P o em es. L y r i c k a n d P a s t o r a l l
S o ciety,
B rett
p.
p rin ts
45.
The c h a n g e
th e
(1606),
in c i t a t i o n
1593 v e r s i o n o f t h e
is
p rin ted
n ecessary because
so n g b u t o m i t s t h e
d u c t o r y s p e e c h e s o f F e r k i n a n d Rowland, a n d t h e
g ives
th e
1 606
v e rsio n o f the
Spenser,
p a rtic u larly
D rayton.
A C ritic a l
589.
in t h i s
song.
f o r Spenser
present
in tro ­
volume
For D ra y to n ’ s d ebt to
poem s e e O l i v e r E l t o n , M i c h a e l
S t u d y , London,
1905,
P o am es , L y r i c k a n d P a s t o r a l l , p .
pp. 29-37.
47.
This
im itatio n
is
|® SSI
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
n o t e d b y H. E . Go r y ,
to
Many o f t h e
-
**The Golden Age o f t h e
P . M. L . A . XXV ( 1 9 1 0 ) ,
390.
221
p. 247.
same t h e m e s a r e u s e d by R. 8 .
Spenser p re fix e d to
P . Q. a n d b y H e r r i c k
m ix tu re o f m a t t e r o f f a c t and H e rric k ,
in w hich 11.
591.
592.
595.
L.
15-18 a r e
in h is t r i b u t e
i n h i s charm ing
H is T e a r e s t o
rem iniscent o f P ro th .
S to w , A n n a l e s , p .
A fu n erall
D escript io n ,
song,
p.
937.
in T p t t e l ^
M iscellany
C a m b r i d g e, M a s s . ,
1928,
(1557-1587),
p . 1 1 2 ; an d
xxx v ii.
Amour 2 4 i n M in o r Poems o f M ic h a e l D r a y t o n , p .
a n d A H i s t o r y o f G r e a t e r B r i t a i n a s w e l l E n g la n d a s
(1521),
tr.
& e d . by A r c h ib a ld C o n s ta b le ,
S co ttish H isto ric a l
S ociety,
C y m b elin e
III.
iv .
596.
The H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y h a s a copy
in A S h o r t- T itle
a n d G. R.
R edgrave,
co ls.
958-962,
S cotland
1892,
p. 22.
141-143.
C atalogue
.
Lo nd on , 1 9 2 6 ,
from w h i c h
o f t h i s work (No.
» « 1 4 7 5 - 1 6 4 0 , A. W. P o l l a r d
p . 209).
b y W i l l i a m Hone i n The E v e r y -D a y Book,
II,
13;
P u blications o f
V o l . X, E d i n b u r g h ,
595.
9343
Tham asis,
693.
e d . by H. E. ^ o l l i n a ,
394.
S penserian P a s to r a l,
I quote.
I t was
rep rin ted
and T a b le Book, V ol.
See a l s o
ib id .,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
co ls.
913-915,
955—
957,
963-968; a r t i c l e s
on swan i n E n c y c l o p a e d i a
B r i t a n n i p a a n d C h a m b e r ^ E n c y c l o p a e d i a ; an d 3 . G. H a l l ,
Book o f t h e
Thames- 2 n d e d . ,
597.
J.
C o llier,
398 •
S d - b y W i l l i a m Payne a nd S. J .
S ociety,
P.
ed .,
London, f IS -
V o l . XXI ( 1 8 7 8 ) ,
pp. 86,
H errtage,
400.
See P r o g r e s s e s o f E l i z a b e t h , V o l .
401.
E n glish D ia le c t
pp. 153-154.
I,
'’E xpence o f Q u e e n ’ s
, 5.
S i r Jo h n H a r i n g t o n ,
o f A jax,
402.
2
49-50.
89.
T ravels,
pp.
193-197.
The E g e r t o n P a p e r s , p p .
399.
T ab le,"
pp.
The
An A p o lo g y
.
.
. ,
i n The M etam or p ho s i s
p . 43 .
Pseudoxia E p id em ica, Bk. I l l ,
e d . by G eo ffrey Keynes,
6 vo I s . ,
G h p t . 27,
London,
i n The W o rk s,
1 9 ^ —1931;
V o l.
II,
p p . 291-292•
405.
D a v id A.
R obertson,
R i c h a r d J o h n s o n and nThe Seven
Champions o f C h r i s t e n d o m , "
404
.
L e t t e r o f O ct.
18,
Vol.
1605,
II,
pp.
67 - 6 9 .
S a l i s b u r y MSS. ,
P t . XVII,
p • 457 .
405.
A D isplay o f H erald ry ,
p. 205.
See a l s o
"Arms o f La cy a l i a s
Kontanus h i s
H edges,”
M a d r i g a l l , in Englands H e li c o n ,
p . 117 .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
406 .
i.
O vid
(M e t . X- 7 0 8 - 7 0 9 ,
10) w r i t e
of the
717-718)
swans of* Venus*
L o tspeich,
p. 114.)
(Odes
IV.
(See J . W. H a l e s ,
L o n g e r B n g l i s h Poe ms , p« 2 0 8 ; A l i c e
Spenser’s C la s s ic a l
a n d H o ra c e
3.
S aw telle,
M y t h o l o g y , Hew York,
1896,
The Sources o f
p.
121; E . G.
C l a s s i c a l M y t h o l o g y i n t h e , ^ o e t r y o f Edmund S p e n s e r ,
I n M a r l o w e ’ s Hero a n d L e a n d e r ,
Hero
says
(I.
351-
352);
”
.
.
.
I p lay
W i th V e n u s ’ swans a n d s p a r r o w s a l l t h e
Thomas Heywood 3 i n g s o f t h e
w h i c h seem t d
pp.
42-43)*
Im itate
ch ario t
(ib id .,
L ike
(I.
It
p. 57);
iii.
swans and d o v e s o f Venus
P ro th .
H e n r y Peaehum,
(R. H. C a s e ,
however,
and th e y a re
78-79).
Venus a n d A p o l l o
H edges,” o p .
407.
y et,
c i t .,
yoke3
in lin e s
S n g ll3h E pithalam ies
swans t o C y n t h i a ’ s
J u n o ’s b i r d s
But Jo h n G u i l l i m
a 3 a w r i t e r on h e r a l d r y s h o u l d b e :
to
d ay .”
Is t r u e
i n As You
to
trad itio n
he m akes t h e swan s a c r e d
( ”Az*ns o f L e i g h a m , ” "Arms o f L ac y a l i a s
p. 205).
A lthough th e
swan’ s ' V h i t e C o lo u r d e n o t e t h S i n c e r i t y ;
Led a was b y J u p i t e r d e c e i v e d , when i n t h a t
Shape h e f l e d
i n t o h e r l a p " . ( " A n n s o f A e i g h a m ,” i b i d . ) .
408.
See P r o t h . ,
wind3 o r V.
409*
v.
11.
42-45;
P .Q .
Ill,
x i.
32;
M erry Wives o f
6-10.
11Arms o f M o o r e , ” o p . c i t . ,
p. 205.
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
- 224
410.
See He n r y VI,
i n The O r d e r
P t.
I . V.
iii.
f o r Swannes, o p ,
c i t .,
411.
The A c c e d e n c e o f A r m o r i e ,
412.
The C o m p l e a t G e n t l e m a n , p .
413.
Stow, A n n a l e a , p .
c i t ♦,
fro n tisp iece.
m usic.
56-57;
563.
f.
co l.
962 „
160.
See L o rd Howard de W alden, o p .
A r iv e r * p a g e a n t was n o t c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t
p ro cessio n
f o r th e L adies
company rowed i n t h e
Som erset,
i t m u st ha ve
b een ornam ented w i t h ”t h e i r b a n n e rs accustom ed”
c i t .,
p . 562)
ch an tin g ”
27
60 v .
I f a barge o f th e m usicians*
b etro th al
and a r t i c l e
(Stow, o p .
o n w h i c h a p p e a r e d na Swan w i t h ^ i n g s
(G uillim ,
op. c i t .,
expanded,
” The Second P a r t o f Honour C i v i l , ”
p .1 7 ).
414.
See L y d g a t e ,
Hammond, o p .
see above,
415.
op. c i t .,
c i t .,
p.
p.
99
i l l u s t r a t e d on t h e
55', w i t h t h e
W alden,
op.
112,
161;
and notes
I n E.
P.
For D unbar’s use o f h e r a l d r y ,
and n o t e s
See Camden, B r i t a i n ,
C an tio ,
p.
320,
373.
title
321.
Compare t h e
swan o f Cygnea
page and d e s c r i b e d
in 11. 51-
swan o n t h e b a n n e r o f H e n ry V i n L or d Howard de
c i t .,
p.
M i s c e l l a n e a , London,
S w a n n e s, 1 1 . 1 9 9 - 2 0 6 ;
o f th e
436.
11.
C areys,
69.
1818,
See a l s o
Samuel P e g g e , C u r l a l i a
pp. 104-105.
a n d c o m m en tary ,
s e e Pegge, op . c i t . ,
See A T a l e o f Two
p. x v i i i .
For th e
swan
pp. 201-202.
' " &
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
- V - ■>
M o t h e r Hubbe r d s
seem t o
T a l e , 11® 6 19-630 , w here Queen a n d n o b l e s
be r e p r e s e n t e d
o f T i m e, 1 1 . 5 6 1 - 5 7 4 ;
417.
There
is
each by h i s h e r a l d i c
»'
D a p h n a i d a . 1 . 106 f f .
no swan i n t h e
o f E l i z a b e t h and K a th e rin e
S taffords,
th at
a n im a l*
S o m e rs e t a i m s .
R u in e s
However, t h e mothe
S o m e rs e t was d e s c e n d e d from t h e
Dukes o f Buc ki ng ham , o n e o f t h e
proudest
fam ilies
b o r e t h e w h i t e s,wan o f M a n d e v i l l e and Bohun ( s e e L o rd
Howard de W al d e n ,
o p . c i t .» p . 1 0 1 ) .
Her m a t e r n a l
grandm other
was s i s t e r t o Ed w a r d , t h i r d
Duke o f Buckingham; a n d i n 1512
R o b e r t C o p la n d d e d i c a t e d t o
th is
noblem an a t r a n s l a t i o n o f
The H i s t o r y o f H e l y a s K n i g h t o f t h e
land,
o f the
the
“ly n y a lly is
Swan from whom, s a y s Cop­
d y s c e n d e d my s a y d l o r d e . 1*
(F or t h e claim
S ta f f o r d s and o t h e r E n g lish fa m ilie s to
Swan K n i g h t ,
see
J.
F. D. B l 8 t e ,
descent
from
**Der TJrsprung d e r Schwan-
r i t t e r t r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s c h e n A d e l s f a m i l i e n , ** E n g l i 3 c h e S t u d i e n
XXIX ( 1 9 0 1 ) ,
pp.
337-368,
a l s o L a u r a A. H i b b a r d ,
244-247,
A rchiv
250;
f£tr
F . Liebexm ann,
das
See
nC h e v a l i e r a u Cygne i n E n g la n d ,
Stu diu m d e r Neuren S p r a c h e n und L i t t e r a t u r e n
Exchequer,
7 5 2 -7 5 5 .)
346-352.
M e d i a e v a l Romance i n E n g l a n d , p . 2 3 9 ,
p p • 106-107;
o f th e
e s p e c i a l l y 337-344,
I f the
R oll3
and Hubert H a l l ,
S eries,
ed .,
No. 9 9 , 3 p t s . ;
The Red Book
F t.
II,
C ountess o f W o r c e s te r p a r t i c u l a r l y
h e r co nnectio n w ith th e
S taffo rd s o r i f
i t was
pp.
valued
r e c a lle d to h e r
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
226
a n d h e r f a m i l y b y some t e l l i n g o f t h e
t h i s may h a v e s u g g e s t e d t o
th at
th ey use th e
t h e L adies E l i z a b e t h and K a th e rin e
swan a s a t e m p o r a r y b a d g e o r a s a d e v i c e
f o r some e n t e r t a i n m e n t w h e r e
418 »
Remain3 ,
419.
Ib id . , p.
p.
im prese
w e re e x p e c t e d .
447.
470.
See t h e w h o le c h a p t e r ,
v ersio n o f the o r i g i n
420.
Swan K n i g h t ’ s s t o r y ,
A facsim ile
o f the
im presa,
p.
e s p e c i a l l y Camden’ s
449.
r e p r i n t o f The M i r r o v r h a s b e e n e d i t e d b y
H e n r y G r e e n a nd James C r o 3 t o n f o r t h e H o l b e i n S o c i e t y .
in clu d es
selectio n s
from M inerv a B r i t a n n a a n d o t h e r emblem
b o o k s, w ith a review o f
1618.
s u c h w o rk s p r i n t e d
i n E n g la n d b e f o r e
C o n c e r n i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f M irr o v r and M i n e r v a , s e e
Nos. 1 4 a n d 15 o f t h e
421.
first,
p late
10 o f t h e
second.
I n R a i n e s o f Time S p e n s e r f a s h i o n s an i m p r e s a
L e i c e s t e r a n d Warwick i n w h ic h he u s e s t h e h e r a l d i c
t h e Ihidley fa m ily ,
Sidney
This
a n d t h e n he o f f e r s
(11. 5 6 1 -6 7 2 ).
w e l l known.
His u s e o f t h e
I n S . C . he g i v e s t h e
six
for
bear of
im ag in ary im prese f o r
e m b le m a tic t e c h n i q u e
shepherds t h e m ottoes
is
for
t h e i r emblems,
a n d h e p r e s e n t s s e r i e s o f emblems I n V i s i o n s .
J.
( nThe P a i n t e r o f t h e
B. F l e t c h e r
pp. 153-166)
first
is
probably r i g h t
in ten d ed to
c o m p l e t e emblems;
equip V isions
in A p r il,
P o e ts,n S .P .
in su g g estin g th a t
w ith p ic tu re s
XIV [ i 9 r 3 >
Spenser a t
t o make them
1580 S p e n s e r w r o t e t o H a r v e y ,
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without p e r m is s i^
nI
t a k e b e s t my Dreame 3 s h o u l d e come f o r t h , a l o n e ,
by meanes o f t h e
G lo sse
Paraphrase)
as
Vol.
IX,
am ple,
cal
p. 275).
X, x .
pen ter,
217,
fu ll
great
as my C a l e n d a r ”
13-14.
(G rosart,
For f u r th e r re f e r e n c e s ,
39,
A M id d le E n g l i s h
73,
s e e F.
110,
op. c i t .,
pp. 239,
2 43-244.
red actio n
i n Se v e n C h a m p i o n s .
e i t .,
f o r ex­
I.
C ar­
197,
Edmund S p e n s e r , A B i b l i o g r a p h i ­
117, 153.
versio n is
See G a s t o n P a r i s ,
see
op.
Edmund S p e n s e r , p p . 1 9 6 ,
D orothy F. A tk in s o n ,
Supplem ent, pp.
425.
in maner o f a
F . Q;. c o n t a i n s many emblems;
A R e f e r e n c e Guide t o
225;
422.
(running c o n tin u a lly
"being growen
su m m ariz ed by L . A. H i b b a r d ,
Miss H i b b a r d doe s n o t m e n t i o n t h e
r e v i e w o f H. A. T o d d ’ s
e d . o f La
N a i s s a n c e d u C h e v a l i e r a u C y g n e , Romania XIX (1890) , p p .
314-340.
"T outefo is le
n ’a e n r e a l i t y
il
a
c ’e s t
et
ex iste
r i e n a fa i r e
fait
I ’o b j e t
il
ceux qui ont
que d a n s t o u s
pour o b je t
E n f a n t 3- o y g n e s .
recits
il
est
frangais
v r a i d ’a i l l e u r s
ce
l e g e n d e du C h e v a l i e r au
c y g n e 11 ( p . >315).
See a l s o
F o lk -T ale,"
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , XXV ( 1 9 2 8 ) , 7 4 ;
F .F .
S tith
II est
E n fa n ts changes
du moyen a g e q u i o n t
rattach e a la
et
i n t i t u l e r ce poeme
l e mane c o n t e p o u r s u j e t l e s
les
poeme
s o u d e a l ’a u t r e ,
v a u d r a i t m ie u x p e u t - ^ t r e
en c y g n e s o u mgme l e s
de n o t r e
a v e c c e l u i du C h e v a l i e r a u c y g n e ;
in de pe nd ammen t a v a n t d ’S t r e
pourquoi
conte
conte q u i
Thompson,
"The Types o f t h e
Type 45 1,
p . 72 .
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
228
424.
G. P a r i s ,
o p . e i t »,
th e s t o r y and c l a s s i f i e s
review s t h e l i t e r a r y
them i n t o
four ty p e s.
versions o f
G. P o i s s o n
( ?,L fO r i g i n e C e l t i q u e de l a L egende de L o h e n g r i n , n Revue
pp. 182-202)
f o r th e a s s e r t i o n contained
Irish
are
versio ns o f th e
in the
pp.
Le C y c l e M y t h o l o g i q u e
satio n
o f h is
article.
62 - 6 7 ;
’*Le Mythe des E n f a n t s-Cygne s ,
and H. d ’A r b o i s de J u b a i n v i l l e ,
I r l a n d a i s , pp. 288-289,
des C e l t e s , pp.
sto ries
title
194-195.
321; La C i v i l i ­
F o r t h e w ide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
o f swan t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,
see
S tith
Thompson, M o t i f -
I n d e x o f F o l k - L i t e r a t u r e , Nos. D161 an d D 3 6 1 .1 .
pp.
c i t .,
248-249;
review s th e
d iscusses
s to ry o f the
its
o rig in s,
c e l l e n t b ib lio g ra p h y o f the
425.
Qp. c i t . ,
426.
Ib id .,
427.
See F . L o t ,
ci t •,
V ol.
428.
G rosart,
429.
nCes o i s e a u x
sont
L . A. H i b b a r d ,
swan c h i l d r e n ,
pp. 248-249;
su b ject,
pp. 240-243,
and o f f e r s an ex­
pp. 251-252.
D iiv .
f.G iiiiv.
II,
’*se p r e s e n t e n t
te te s
f.
reasons
3wan c h i l d r e n a n d o f swan t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s
s u m m ar i ze d b y F e r d i n a n d L o t ,
Romania XXI ( 1 8 9 2 ) ,
proposes various
op.
c i t .,
pp.
6 3 -6 5 ;
D. A. R o b e r t s o n , o p .
PP* 7 1 —
73, 86—
89.
op. c i t .,
d iv in s,"
en e f f e t
reuines
V ol.
IX, p . 1 1 9 .
s a y s G. P o i s s o n
(o p . c i t . ,
groupes p ar couples dont l e s
p . 186),
deux
p a r u n j o u g ou u n e c h a t n e de m e t a l p r e c i e u x .
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
Bor p r o o f ,
L ike
It
see
( I«
Irish ta le s
iii.
78—
79)
229
-
cited
C elia
in n o te 424.
says?
nAnd w h e r e s o e ’ e r we w e n t , l i k e
S t i l l we we nt c o u p l e d a n d
450.
V ol.
E s s a y on A l l e g o r i c a l
II,
P oetry,
i n H. J . Todd, o p . c i t . ,
p. xv.
The E n g l i s h L y r i c , p p . 8 5 - 8 6 .
452.
O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e
455.
J u n o ’s swans,
i n s e p a r a b l e . 5t
451«
p. 78,
In As You
F a i r y Queen o f S p e n s e r , V o l.
II,
See p p . 7 4 - 8 2 .
See F . Q .
Love, pp.
Ill,
x i i . 1-27;
an d S p e n s e r a n d t h e C o u r t s o f
118-151.
454.
P .Q .
455.
L I.
IV.
I.
5. 2-6.
2 5 - 2 6 . E* B.
F o w l e r (o p .
c i t .,
p . 120)
notes
th is
re f e renc e .
436.
See B l i z .
stan tly
1 69;
S t a g e , t o w h ic h t h e
Indebted,
I,
and H a d in g to n masque,
457.
L eland,
438.
See F . 0..
II,
Vol.
pp.
1-23.
pp» ISO,
x ii.
See a l s o
161-162,
165-164,
P r o g re s s e s o f Jam es, V ol.
C o l l e c t a n e a , V ol. IV,
III.
f o l l o w i n g p a ge s a r e c o n ­
167-lo8,
II,
p . 17 6 .
p. 263.
3 - 4 ; a n d P r o g r e s s e s o f J a m e s , V ol.
t h e masque o f The T e m p e st , w here
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Iris
- 230
is
the p re s e n te r.
a ch ild a c to r.
-
The E l i z a b e t h a n t r u c h m a n was v e r y o f t e n
George G a s c o i g n e s a y s t h a t t h e
t h e M o u n t a c u t e m a s q u e , a f t e r t h e y h ad a t t i r e d
V enetians,
’’ e n t r e a t e d t h e A u c t h o u r t o d e v i s e
dancers
in
them selv es as
some v e r s e s
t o be e u t t e r e d b y a n A c t o r w h e r e i n m i g h t b e some d i s c o u r s e
convenient to
render a
So G a s c o i g n e w r o t e a
good c a u s e o f t h e V e n e t i a n s p r e s e n c e . ”
rhymed e x p l a n a t i o n t o be r e c i t e d b y na
Boye o f t h e a g e o f t w e l v e o r .
linorks, V o l .
I,
p. 75.
x iiii.
y e e r e s ” ( The Com plete
See p p . 7 5 - 8 6
fo r the
speeches and a
m e a g e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s m a r r i a g e m asque) .
J o n s o n made o f t h e
o f Ja m e s, V ol.
II,
S tag e,
pp. 397-398.
E liz.
440.
See P r o g r e s s e s o f J a me 3, V o l . I I ,
441.
I.
8-10.
p resen ters,
442.
L I.
is
as
119-123.
ranged o r d e r l y ”
443
.
444.
I,
p. 190.
The m a s q u e , w i t h
S trato
p red icts.
The b i r d s
( F.Q..
V ol.
sto ry o f tru a n t
Vol.
Vol.
III.
are
x ii.
P ro g re 3 se 3 o f James, V ol.
Ib id .,
Ill,
fun
b o y t r u c h m a n i n Love R e s t o r e d , Pro g r e s 3 e s
459.
i.
See t h e
II,
C upid,
P ^.
3 46 —
353;
37 6-387 .
Night and C y n t h i a a s t h e
See
I.
ii.
’’ i n m a n n e r o f a m a s k e ,
5.
en-
9).
II,
PP. 1 7 7 - 1 8 3 .
see
pp.
III.
P* 2 42*
For S p e n se r’s use o f th e
vi,
and n o t e s ,
V a rio ru m ,
pp. 251-252.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
-
445.
231
-
See P r o g r e s s e s o f J a m e s . V o l .
T h a m e sis
is
d e s c r i b e d on p . 171.
S o m e r s e t *s m a r r i a g e ,
fic ia lly
II,
pp.
346-358,
164-174.
In Campion* s m asque . f o r
"Lo nd on with, t h e Thames
is
very a r t e -
presented** and f o u r b a r g e s a p p e a r o n t h e
riv er
(ib id .,
pp. 712-713) .
446.
Gods a n d o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n a p p e a r e d
draw n b y a n i m a l s
and b i r d s .
in c h a rio ts
Th ree m asques w e re d e v i s e d when
E l i z a b e t h a n d Mary o f S c o t l a n d w e re e x p e c t e d t o m e e t a t
N otting­
ham c a s t l e
plans
i n 1562.
The m e e t i n g d i d n o t o c c u r , b u t t h e
f o r t h e e n t e r ta in m e n t have b e e n p r e s e r v e d .
n i g h t P a l l a s was t o
en ter,
w o u l d come P r u d e n t i a o n a
on a r e d o n e .
elephant
in th e
On t h e
r i d i n g on a u n i c o r n .
second n i g h t 's
in a c h a r i o t
n
( P.O..
.
III.
.
x ii.
.
drawn b y a n
p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d on t h e t h i r d
n i g h t D i s d a i n was t o be mo u nted o n a w i l d b o a r
o f Cupid
A fter her
go ld en l i o n and Tem perantia
Peace would a p p e a r
E v a n s , E n g l i s h Masques,
first
pp. x x i i i - x x v i ) .
( s e e H. A.
I n S p e n s e r ’ s Maske
22. 1 -2 ),
t h e w ing e d God h i m s e l f e
Came r i d i n g o n a L i o n r a u e n o u s . "
P lans
f o r c o u r t masques
an d a w oo d en h o r s e
cars
i n 1581 c a l l e d
f o r a dragon,
( E l i z . St a g e , p . 167) .
The t h r e e t r i u m p h a l
i n t h e Masque o f Que ens w er e drawn b y e a g l e s ,
and l i o n s
( P r o g r e s s e s o f J a m e s , V o l.
In T e t h y s ’ F e s t i v a l th e
II,
a lio n ,
g riffo n s,
p . 243) •
deco ratio n s
in c l u d e d "maske-
Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
heads,
great
s p o u t i n g water*,
sh els,
and
swannes,
such lik e'*
(ib id .,
Hym.enaei Ju no was d i s c o v e r e d ,
b y two b e a u t i f u l p e a c o c k s '-
Peace
V o l.
'’s i t t i n g
ran g u lar fig u re ,
and
p.
354);
In a c h a i r ,
II,
p.
9).
and
in
supported
A rtificial
b u t masquers d i s g u i s e d as
in th e anti-m asque.
” rode a Magpie,
II,
( l b i d .« V o l .
b i r d s made p l e a s i n g o r n a m e n t s ,
b i r d s belonged
f e s t o n s of* m a r i t i m e weed.es,
In S h i r l e y ’ s Triumph o f
a Crow, a J a y ,
and a K i t e ,
in a quad­
i n t h e m i d s t a n Owl1* (H. A. E v a n s , o p .
cit . ,
p . 206) .
447.
S t u a r t Masques a n d t h e
R enaissance
S ta g e , p . 154.
See t h e w h o l e c h a p t e r o n '’c o u r t h i e r o g l y p h i c k s •"
448.
P r o g r e s s e s o f Jam es,
d escrip tio n o f
V ol.
P r o g r e s s e s o f Jam es, V ol.
151.
See a l s o
450.
P r o g r e s s e s o f Jame3,
B liz.
Ib id .,
452.
See E l i z . S t a g e ,
455
.
454*
V ol.
I,
S t a g e , V ol.
451.
4,
p. 710.
I r i s i n The Tempest ’ s m a sq u e ,
449.
note
II,
II,
pp.
V ol.
12,
Vol.
I,
pp.
pp.
See a l s o C e r e s ’
IV.
i . 7 6-81.
486y488> V o l.
II,
196-197.
U , p p . 17 6—
177 •
244.
I,
pp. 149-155,
189,
196
and
198.
P ro g r e s s e s o f Jam es,
Ib id .,
V ol.
II,
V o l.
p. 736.
I , PP-
See t h i s
305-310.
perform ed in th e
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
p.
m asque,
45v3c
-
p p . 7 3 7 -7 4 5 .
lb Id. a , V o l .
711-712;
1,
233
and E l i z .
IX,
pp . 1 1 3 —
11 6,
S t a g e . Vol.
I,
558—
561.
See a l s o
pp. 182-184,
pp 0
186 and n o t e
193 a n d n o t e 1 .
456.
IV.
457.
P r o g r e s s e s o f J a m e s , V o l.
458.
Sidney P a p e r s ,
459.
i.
147-150.
II,
S t a g e , V ol.
I,
II,
p.
120.
p. 13.
p. 203.
P r o g r e s s e s o f Jam es, Vol. I ,
4 6 0 . I b i d . , V o l.
461.
V ol.
II,
See
p . 310.
also
p. 7 45;
and E l l z .
p p . 196 and n o t e 4 , 1 9 8 .
P r o g r e s s e s o f J a m e s , V o l. I I ,
pp.
35 6 - 3 5 7 .
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B IB L IO G R A P H Y
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
BIB LI OG-HAPPY
(This i s
a, s e l e c t e d l i s t .
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title
Other1 works are f u l l y described,
A work c i t e d in the Notes by an abbreviated
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Sidney Papers -
is
placed under t h a t t i t l e
f o r example,
here.)
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